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Historic, Archive Document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 

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October 1940 See 


Excerpts from Report of Farm Family Life 
Conference, January 22-23, .1940 

. J. L. Boatman, Chief, Division of Subject Matter, Extension 
Service, United States Department of Agriculture, said: "Our big job 
in extension work today is trying to figure out how we can present 
‘all these various subject-matter fields in a coordinated attack on 
the farmers’ problem." 

Cooperation and coordination such as have been developed in 
county’ planning committees are needed in the work of all specialists, 
‘agents, and community leaders. Land use planning committees offer 
oo to. find problems. ee Ee er 

MPaguing: has. been thought of as a profit. fesse of. andaaeor for 
' 60 percent of the farmers it is a way of life. . For 40 percent, the 
Profit: motive is. back of the’ endeavor. 

“The bales thon wasthen raised, "Ten! t it our puainess to teach 
rural people to get the most out of their income and to improve 
“their livelihood by better spending and use of what. they have?" It 
is necessary to recognize the importance not only of getting the 
most for our money, but of meeting individual needs. so that. each 
family member feels his needs are being met. - 



AMPOUM COONS 5s i5:0 aus Saeed a wad see oeatenk ie andor aoa eee ae par whe yanenousee 

MeGG INES. oy a ecole che whee ten tes eae eee, p eeam oh e ractoieoree ae Rae 
PIM BUPA Noa wu ie aa tin, ducts ie wn calia Sour aumento 6 a une ae 

The function of the specialist in family life. 
Excerpts from annual reports). 27. 56.6 a0 asnw seep areata awe 

Michigan «"Land Use planning... Ja.We ayes oc eee eee en pie ee) wie 

Kansas - Leader training for entomology project......-+. 

Illinois - Solving insect problems of stored grain....... 

Michigan - -Fumigation demonstrated for Federal loan 
bin iInepectors, pestvctes ones oe sn ekle cae =us Gree meee 
Michigan - Area grasshopper control demonstration...... 
New York — Fall spray conference........ Seer rere 
Kansas — Gardeners use better methods for control...... 
Kansas - Farm bureau women go after bugsS.........+.e08, 
New York - Work with florists...... disp ie Rage arcs eee eae 
Kansas - Educational work for horse bots.........s.se0s 


Washington - Division of time of extension entomologist.. 

Washington - Summary of time spent in office by 
extension (entomoLozist: Pewee. ae). ees = ae na ww ae 

Missouri — Extension entomology in wisactr i, 1915-1939)... 

Tinéely toples:. ...s< soe wow os om ol aladeare bpecea eeere w 4p wegen ot cues eae 

Scientists hit "wisecrackers"............. Pe ae ahs 
Life depends. onvegriculture. Wages vows: . cuneaey «See ie- <e 
“Hopper? birds? 0% cas. ee. eee 
“Natural control ‘of grasshoppers ii:226 0.0 22. Sees eee 
An evaluation of tillage as a means of controlling 
BYASSHOPPETS soo oss asics ceo awe hme eM as ey 4.06 ste meer ee 
Sgquash-vine borer treatments in New York..........- snes 
Derr is-pyrethrum-sulfur. dust mixture effective against. 
--bean leaf beetle and associated insects on beans.... 
Asparagus beetle parasite shipped from Neah ines to, 
CA litornia. 7 car... nea os eatrou sae bo pe tera SIE See eee © OS 
‘Science marches on, aiding agriculture. bases 
Various sprays control cyclamen mite on senapdne nemo 

Australian tick might menace United States..........0+:: 

Overwintering of Dermacentor variabilis pasar i Suntelng 
: Power: used for sheep dipping.............. pense ees 

» Painted flies reveal flight distances. s obese ety <eaiiaaeasieass 
‘Methyl bromide gassing pleases fruit. growers ee > 2 

Vacuum fumigation of sacked feed with methyl bromide... 
Wind interferes with mill fumigation..............++45 si 
Ants gather buffalo. grass seed in Texas a ejcenina 



2 e 

Wind breskd <bringubind @xenacnqerswieecnsiancneninces ‘sakes setuabulacae 

Silkworms to produce in’ Califorgla.. s.5.s5. 4s ones ae 

New poison ant -trapv... 052.4550 0ss oy «eee eu ee 
PublLIi¢atLone «oc ee a oes - se woe oe Us oe Ws Oe eink eee wie 





= Re = 
— Washington, D. C. 

Issued by the Extension Service and the Bureau of Entomology 
and Plant Quarantine cooperating with other Federal and State 
agencies in the furtherance of extension work in entomology. 

M. P. Jones 

Senior Extension Entomologist. 


- — 


November 14-15, 1940. Eastern Branch, American Association of Economic 
Entomologists. Atlantic City, N. Jd. 

November 22-23, 1940. Cumberland-Shenandoah Valley Fruit Conference. 
‘ Martinsburg, W. Va. Shenandoah Hotel. 

December 37-30, 1940. American Association of Economic Entomologists. 
‘Fhiladelphia, Fa. Benjamin Franklin Hotel. 

February 13-15, 1941. Cotton States Branch, American Association of 
‘’: Economic: Entomologists. Waco, Tex. This meeting will be 
held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Texas 
Entomological Society. 

Film Strips 

Prices for United States Department of Agriculture film strips for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, are the same as those in effect 
during the past year. Frices:'for single prints range from 50 cents to. 
70 cents a strip, although the great majority of the series are priced 
at 50 cents and 55 cents each. 

This year's contract was again awarded to Fhoto Lab, Inc., 3825 
Georgia Ave., NW., Washington, D. C. All orders for Department film 
strips should be forwarded direct to the above firm, accompanied by re- 
mittance, except in the case of large institutions which follow the prac- 
tice of issuing formal purchase orders. At the same time, send to the 
Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture a re- 
quest to authorize the sale of the films desired. A request form may be 
obtained from the Extension Service. Film strips and lecture notes to ac-— 
company the series desired will be supplied promptly. The new catalog of 
film strips will be available within the next few weeks. ie 8s 



S. FP. Lyle, In charge, Agricultural and Home Economics Section, 
Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture, suggested 
the following points for specialists to keep in mind: 

1. Be authentic in your field of subject matter. 

2, Adjust your subject matter to the situation, and Coordinate 
your plan of procedure with related work. 

3. Teach it effectively to accomplish measurable progress. 

4, Inspire children to a spiritual growth that will give them 
the better vision that parents can give only with your aid. 

Report of Farm Family Life Conference, 
January 22-23, 1940. 

Land Use Planning 

In response to a request that all specialists in Michigan correlate 
their subject matter with the land use planning activities, a set of recom- 
mendations was prepared, These were planned specifically for each of the 
five counties selected in the State for the demonstration work. They are 
given here as submitted to H. A. Berg, the land use planning project leader, 
the county agricultural agents in the five counties, and the Soil Conser- 
vation Service administrator in the State. These were originally prepared 
on separate sheets for each county and appear here without a repetition of 
the heading for each which was the same as the heading for the entire 
listing here. 

Recommendations to-County Land Use Planning Committees 

Primary Insect Control Problems 

These problems are considered of sufficient economic interest to 
agriculture to be basic material in considering long-time agricultural 

C. B. Dibble, 
Extension Specialist in Insect Control, 
Michigan 7 ake College 

All Grasshopper sey eee (Counties north of T. Line 16 plus Ottawa, 
yc BONE ee and those’ on the Upper Feninsula. a 

Grasshoppers ~” These pests pine have been the greatest single 
factor in soil erosion in the area considered. _ The enormous loss 



of ground cover, both natural and planted, each year has probably 
permitted more wind and water damage than:have the agricultural 
activities in this area. (Two grasshoppers per square foot eat 
as much on every acre every day as a cow and a calf on each acre 
will eat.) 

Recommendations - 

Frotect ground cover on all land, forest or agricultural, from 
infestations in excess of 1 grasshopper per square fans by use of 
poison bait. 

Cass County —- corn, wheat, truck. 

Insects - European corn borer, hessian fly, chinch bugs, white grubs, 

Recommendations — 


Avoid wheat after corn. Corn stubble must be plowed (corn 
borer and scab). To cover ground over winter, use oats seeded 
in last cultivation of corn. 

Seed wheat only after fly-free date. 
(Elevation of 700 ft. - September 22 - October 2; 
Elevation of 1000 ft. - September 19 - 29.) 

Chinch bugs - Avoid trashy ditch banks and fence rows on low 
level lands. 

. White grubs - Plow legume sods for corn, potatoes, strawberries, 

and root crops. Follow old timothy or June grass sods with 
buckwheat or small grains when plowed. 

Bait for cutworm control to insure full stands on reduced 
acreages of row and hill ae as 

—-Annual Report, Michigan Extension 
Entomologist, 1939. 

Leader Training for Entomology, Dee, 

The entomologists realized that in order to reach the large number 
of farmers with the correct information about insects and insect control, 

it would be necessary to teach a few individual farmers much about insects. 
These men soon were given the name of "project leaders." The project 
leaders in entomology have accomplished a great deal and have been very 
useful in teaching garden and orchard ‘insect-control lessons. The project 
leaders have been of much importance during the various outbreaks of de- 

- vastating insects such as grasshoppers, hess ian fly, chinch bugs, and 



The training of leaders — was important, and the records for the past 
20 years were as follows::. 

Number of Number Local Leaders Number Active 

Year Leaders Trained 
Counties Trained This Year . «in: Previous Years 
1919 oa tite de 
- 1920 © 4 ay 
Leek 6 44 
1922 10 52 
1923 le S15) 
1924 16 63 
1925 26 76 
1926 27 100 
1927 33 152 
1928 37 363 
1929 54 534 
1930 78 868 
1931 66 1086 
1932 "AS 721 
1933 la} Dols 
1935 69 744 690 
1936 96 1060 é 1992 
1937 104 732 1444 
1938 105 — 479 “819 

--Annual Report, Kansas Extension 
Entomologist, 1939 

Solving Thence Problems of Stored Grain 

Due to the fact that large Teen erene grain are held in the 
State, the control of insects in stored grain and the significance of 
the different varieties of insects found in this grain have been partic- 
ularly emphasized. Meetings have been held with elevator men, and many 
conferences have been held with individual elevator operators and with 
the officials of the Commodity Credit Corporation, Agricultural Adjust-— 
ment Administration, and Illinois Agricultural Conservation Committee; 
county chairman in charge of corn loans; Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine; and many other organizations interested in the ‘problem of the 
protection of stored grain from insects. 

Test fumigations have also been carried out in poy grain bins at 
a ge gs of points in the State. 

Two meetings with a total attendance. of 525 Bets were hela A 
connection with stored grain insect problems. 

--Annual Report, Illinois Extension 
1269-40 Entomologist, 1939. 



Grain stored under government loan was found by the Federal in- 
spectors to have an increasing grain-infesting pest population. They 
hed recommended fumigating to the owner and had suggested the materials 
and method of procedure and found when counts were made after fumigating 
that the count was increasing. This seemed to be another case of not 
having an airtight container in which to fumigate; and when the bin was 
carefully lined with building paper and a suitable cover for the grain 
constructed of paper and blankets, the fumigant when applied by the spe- 
Cialist gave an 85 percent decrease in the population of live pests, The 
temperature at the time this fumigation was made was just slightly above 
65 degrees. Considering this factor and the relatively high population 
of pests present, the 85 percent was considered a good kill and carried 
the grain into cold weather without any serious heating. This fumigation 
was conducted as a demonstration for the benefit of the Federal loan bin 
inspectors who were called in by the State supervisor. A few farmers, 
the county agricultural agent, and at least one member of the State Soil 
Conservation Committee were also present. 

--Annual Report, Michigan Extension 
Entomologist, 1939. 

Area Grasshopver Control Demonstration 

Five l-square-mile areas were set up with the idea of demonstrating 
the feasibility of area control and the lasting benefit of such cooperative 
effort. All farms in the designated area were signed up for treatment, and 
the farmers made the bait application with the supervision and assistance 
of the county agricultural agents and the grasshopper supervisors. The 
bait was mixed in the resular county mixing station and delivered to all 
the cooperators in the area for distribution on the same day. The baiting 
was preceded and followed by survey observations on the population, and re- 
baiting was recommended in a few instances where the kill did not reduce 
the grasshopper population to a normal level. 

Three news stories were furnished the county agents for use before, 
at the time of, and after the treatment, in the local papers. In addition, 
posters were tacked on the fences along all roads adjacent to the area, 
calling the attention of passers-by to the area as having been treated 
cooperatively. (See poster, Exhibit 1) 

--Annual Report, Michigan Extension 
Entomologist, 1939. 




De RY DO BEY Re eg eS Sesto Meet par, aeeee 

Peg! SR* MELE UG! Ee pin gh yy we caN RNS Shes 








=~ Qe 
Fall -‘Sprey Conference 

During the ices part of Naveuber a conference’ was held at the 
Geneva Experiment Station, attended by extension specialists and research 
workers, at which extension workers familiarized themselves with the more 
recently ascertained experimental data. This information was assembled 
and presented in summarized form to a conference of county agents in 
December by the research workers and the extension specialists. At this 
time the new developments of the 1938 season were analyzed and recommen- 
dations made for spray and dust schedules that were to be followed in the 
1939 séason. Such conferences are held annually in order to carry the 
research data directly to the fruit growers through the extension spe- 
cialists and county agents. A summary of the talks given at the annual 
conference was prepared and sent in mimeographed form to all county 
agents, extension specialists, and research workers. Approximately 75 
workers representing these 3 groups were present at the conference. 

—Annual Report, New York Extension 
Entomologist, 1939. 

Gardeners Use Better Methods for Control 
There will be garden and orchard insects so long as there are 

gardens and orchards. The control of codling moth, as wellas aphids, 
cutworms, and potato bugs, is an annual event in the garden. Farmers 
and commercial gardeners are using better materials and learning to mix 
many insecticides at home. They also use better methods of application 
which make the insecticides more effective. There were 50,754 gardeners 
in 71 counties practicing approved methods. 

-~Annual Report, Kansas Extension 
Entomologist, 1939. 

ee eee a ee 

When the women of the farm bureau units go after bugs, well, the 
bugs better go on the run. Just examine the report on household insects 
and insects affecting sanitation and health and you may see why the 
clothes moth, bedbugs, cockroaches, and mosquitoes took to flight. It 
must also be remembered that these women had to combat black crickets, 
spiders, and cutworm moths. Bugs seem to like to enter the house. 

--Annual Report, Kansas Extension 
Entomologist, 1939. 

Work With Florists 

According to the 1929 census data, the florist industry in New 
York represented an investment of $30,576,763 in land, buildings, and 
equipment. The receipts from sales of cut flowers and potted plants 
were estimated at $12,294,087, The annual losses in production and 
quality of crops due to insect damage amount to many thousands of dollars 


- 10 - 

in addition to the large outlay for insecticides and labor in control 
measures. The demand from florists for information on the control of 
‘injurious insects has steadily increased during recent years. The pres-— 
‘ent low prices for flowers have greatly emphasized the need for more ef- 
ficient and economical insect control. High production and high quality 
are increasingly necessary if the grower is to make a profit or even 
costs of production. Among the more important of the numerous. insect 
pests that cause heavy annual losses are the red spider mite, cyclamen 

' mite, mealy bugs, thrips, chrysanthemum midge, rose. rg goons leaf 
me Vere eae Sid Ere ies a 

~-Annual Report, New York Extension 
Entomologist, 1939.° 

‘Educational Work for Horse Bots 


‘Horse bots were controlled by 5,258 farmers through the cooper- 
ation of the extension veterinarian, local veterinarians, and the edu- 
cational work of the extension entomologist. This is a build-up of 
over a period of’more than 12 years. 

--Annual Report, Kansas Extension 
Entomologist, 1939.5" ~ ; 


ADE? is 

Month Se 
Novenber L 
- Decenber Z 
January 123 
February clans 
March yd 
April aR 
May 114 
June 9 
July 9 
August 9 
September 0 
October 10 






Division of Time of Extension Entomologist 

Days in Office, Field, and on Leave 
November 1, 1938, to October 31, 1939. 

lin Route Total [Total Total Leave Nonworking Days Total 
H field officel|work Annual | Sick | Total| Sundays} Tere 
1 Y 21 yy | Vv 5 
S : = i 7 14 
0 125] 114 5 t 7 
$ 163 1S y 0 yh 
1 lig} 154 y ) yy 
6) 65] 183 5 0 5 
0 t2nj\- 15 y @) 4 
1 135] 125 y 0 Ht 
i 14 10 5 2 7 
25 13 8 4 0 10 
BS 62) 14 3 0 12 
a on ae 5 0 7 
ap See | eeoreeeees Scecocsseses emeeeeeenees seers See 
| 1298 | Lhet | 282 26 1 wl 27 51 ep 83 

--Annual Report, Washington Extension 
Entomologist, 1939. 


Day-Hr. | Day. Day-Hr. 


Correspondence = 

Records, reports 

I ee (SRSKRE Women Ot 

Gen, office “ork 7 - 

Subj. matter confy 1 - 

ime Spent in 

Dale ia fey 


= \duio 

Day-Hr .Day-Hr .|Day-Hr |Day-Hr .\Day—Hr .Day-dr |Day—Hr .Day—Hr. 

= Wb oS. 60 oe 6 es See ee eee 

- O15 = 2 
BOP .4 
pO 5k 3 
FO. Ge 

--Annual Report, Washington Extension 
Entomologist, 1939. 


Extension Entomology LA in Missouri 1915 - aes 

“Briefly ental gods extension ie A from a project ‘basis, 
has been involved in the following changes in agricultural extension 
work during its first 25-year period. 

Period Teaching Methods - 1. Situation and Program 

Produce food. War emergency 
assistance. Project organi- 


Schools, lectures, de- 
monstrations. Reached 
individual farmers. 

Loto 201919 

Frice readjustment. Produce 
economically. Develop 
project type of progran. 

Method and result demon- 
strations. Meetings be- 
gan to reach more people 
through local leaders. 

1920 - 1924 

Low prices, low cash return. 

Demonstrations, meetings, 

L9comMert 1929 use of local leaders. Economical production on 
Ra: project basis. 

Demonstrations, used more | Depression crisis. 

1930 - 1934 leaders, reached more Government aid and A.A, A. 
people, surveys, train progran. 
agents in subject matter. a4 
Train local leaders and |} Gradual shift from project 
agents, conferences, basis to more coordinated 
training meetings of projects, emphasizing the 

1935... —.. 1939 
groups, surveys. Perhaps | problem approach. Cooper- 
fewer demonstrations. ate with A.A.A. and other 

governmental programs. 

~-Annual Report, Missouri Extension 
Entomologist, 1939.. 

Scientists Hit "Wisecrackers" 

"There is perhaps no greater danger to public welfare than complaints 
(wisecracks) of political newspapers and campaign speakers that the Govern- 
ment is spending money uselessly in the study of insect life," says the 
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association for June. "The 
columnist who thought it was quite humorous that the Federal Bureau of En- 
tomology and Plant Quarantine was studying the life of the termites is 
certainly a candidate for Fublic Enemy No. l.... 



"Scientists and practitioners engaged in the control of metazoan 
parasites of plant and animal life need.better press agents, or perhaps 
the country needs more of the altruistic type. of: statesmen: - Loose talk 
to receptive audiences on this.... strikes atthe. ‘very: root. of successful 
government." eceale ye heb aogehe girs 

“Life Depends on = Se 

"tthe vellone ie of a people is like a tree; agriculture is its 
root, manufacture and commerce are its branches and life; if the Eves is 
injured, the leaves fall, the ‘branches break awdy and the tree dies,' 
said Shonhung, Chinese Emperor and inventor of agricultural implements, 
2800 B.C." Canadian Forest and ‘Outdoors for May. 

‘Hopper Bait Not Harmful to Birds 

“The Wisconsin Experiment Station announces that it is- highly im- 
probable that arsenical grasshopper baits of the formulas commonly used 
.. by farmers are of any danger to pheasants, so the bait can be safely 
‘ spread in areas where those birds are fourd," says an item in Country 
Gentleman, July. "Some caged pheasants ate the bait when moderately 
hungry, but most of them avoided it when other food could be reached. 
_Likewise, the birds ate poisoned grasshoppers readily and apparently 

suffered no bad effects. One pair was fed a diet: of poisoned. grasshoppers 
for 8 days, consuming 2,855 insects during thet time; and though they 
lost weight, they commenced to disra as soon as grain was added to.. the 
grasshopper ration. : 

Natural Control of Grasshoppers us sce 

‘The very satisfactory results of the Federal-State grasshopper 
control operations in all States in which the work wa; conducted this 
season were aided materially in localized areas by combinations of nat~- 
ural conditioms. In some areas predators, consisting chiefly of bee 
fly and blister beetle larvae, sarcophagid flies, as well as birds and 
ues rodents, coe tnuyce many of the egg pods and later the grasshoppers. 

In Kansas and Neueetee’: a fungus was reported as aiding in the 
reduction of grasshopper populations in several localized areas. In 
Colorado and New Mexico, bird predatism, chiefly by the western horned 
lark, has been a major factor. Horned larks were observed devouring 
large numbers of D. longipennis, and in Utah huge flocks of sea gulls 
were observed consuming. large numbers of grasshopper nymphs in four 
counties early in May. Wind-blown sand in several counties in Wyoming 
_and Colorado buried many grasshopper egg pods under several inches of 
_ dust and retarded or prevented hatching, and in a few Be? aldose cee 
hydration of exposed egg pods was A bes ae 

gil ‘An Evaluation of Tillage as as 3 Means of posers Grasshoppers 
Gone ier iz the importance of the grasshopper oo program 

and the need for definite information on the relative efficiencies: of 
the different tillage methods on grasshopper control, the results on 



this project are the most significant accomplishments. in entomological 
research of: this station for the past year. 

The. experiment showed that the methods of tillage applied before 
the hatching of grasshopper eggs rated in efficiency in ppeyentzen of 
grasshopper emergence approximately as follows: 

Regular moldboard plowing, 98 percent 
One-way disk plowing, 64 —Co! 
Double disking, 64 =" 
Duckfooting, CY 

The two latter tillage methods were shallow in nature and corresponded 
closely to the tillage occasioned in "stubbling in" of crops, which 
suggests why "stubbling in" of grasshopper egg infested soil usually 
results in subsequent destruction of the crop by grasshoppers. 

--North Dakota Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Department of Entomology 

SuSE) Recess | feta Pat te 

Anyone planning to use insecticidal treatments for squash-vine 
borer control should make the first application between June 25 and July 1. 
It will be necessary to make three to four additional applications at 
approximately weekly intervals. A l-percent rotenone dust has worked 
very well. in experimental plats, and it seems to be about the easiest 
thing to apply. Nicotine sulfate at the rate of 2 quarts to 100 gallons 
of water is also effective but more expensive. A derris or cube suspen- 
sion consisting of 4 pounds of powdered derris or cube root (4 percent 
rotenone) to 100 gallons of water also works very well but is somewhat 
less effective than the rotenone dust or the nicotine spray. A suitable 
spreader should be used with the sprays. 

Derris—Pyrethrum-Sulfur Dust Mixture Effective Against 
Bean Leaf Beetle and Associated I: Insects on Beans 


L. W. Brannon, of the Norfolk, Va., laboratory, Bureau of Ento- 
mology and Plant Quarantine, reports that preliminary results of an ex- 
periment conducted for the control of the bean leaf beetle on snap beans 
showed that a derris-pyrethrum-sulfur dust mixture is highly toxic to 
this insect, one application of the dust mixture resulting in the death 
of approximately 91 percent of the insects at the expiration of a 24-hour 
period after the insecticide was applied. The results obtained with this 
insecticide are of considerable importance in view of its value as an all- 
purpose dust mixture for the combined control of several species of in- 
sects commonly attacking beans, including the Mexican bean beetle, the 
bean leaf beetle, the potato leafhopper, the common red spider (Tetrany- 
chus bimaculatus Harvey), and for the prevention of powdery-mildew dis- 
ease. Examinations 7 days after the insecticide was applied demonstrated 
a reduction of approximately 60 percent in the number of bean leaf beetle 
adults on plots treated with this material, as compared with the population 
of this insect on untreated plots grown under comparable conditions. 


=) Te - 
Asparagus Beetle Parasite Shipped from Washington to California © 

During the month of May, B, J. Landis and his associates at the 
Fuyallup, Wash., laboratory, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
sent to the ironies Citrus’ Experiment Station at Riverside, Calif., 
2,000 adults of Tetrastichus asparagi Orawf., a parasite of the aspara- 
gus beetle, for release in the mee fields of Orange County, Calif. 
where the eges of Crioceris asperegi were numerous. Additional ship- 
ments are to be made from Puyallup to Riverside later in the Season. 

Science Marches On, Aiding Agriculture 

"May and’ June will see a hundred big dusters fighting bugs in 
pea fields in thé Pacific Northwest," says the Farm Journal and Farmer's 

Wife for May. ."Because of the effectiveness of these dusters (with 
aprons behind): in: killing insects, a new canning plant will be built at 
Walla Walla, Wash. It will do an annual business of $750,000...... ‘ 

Thus. a branch of’ agriculture tapable of producing many millions of dol- 
lars is assured’ security and growth. For all this, scientific research 
in pest control Should get a big Rar of credit. . 

Various Sprays Control proies ye | Hite on Snapdragon 

Floyd F.°Smith, of the Beltsville, Md., ispoeevety! Bureau of En- 
tomology and Plant Quarantine, reports that, among 11 spray combinations 
applied to snapdragons for the control of the cyclamen mite (Tarsonemus 
pallidus Banks), lime-sulfur (1-200), a commercially prepared insecticide 
containing lauryl thiocyanate, white oil emulsion, and tartar emetic with 
glycerin were the most effective. Four applications of the spray combi- 
nations were made Ce eects a 1939 and January 19490 to snapdragon 
plants infested with T - pallidus. Their efficiency wa3 compared on the 
basis of (1) plant Pe by Sprays, (2) injury by mites, and (3) population 
of mites on infested parts. Preliminary observations indicated that 1 
application of most of the materials used was slow in action or ineffective. 
The final estimate of efficiency in control was based on the reduction of 
mite infestation on’slightly injured tips, it being assumed that the se- 
verely injured tips could be removed by hand. A commercially prepared 
material containing cyclohexylemine diluted at the rate of 1-600, without 
additional spreader, severely injured young growth and cannot be recom— 
mended for spraying snapdragons, even though achieving a control of 90.4 
percent of the mites. - Ammonium polysulfide and sodium polysulfide at 
dilutions of 1-200, with a spreader, gave low percentages of control of 
' 7.3 and 13.5 percent, respectively, and also were objectionable because 
‘of their odor. ; 

Australian Tick Might Menace United States 

Southwestern Sheep and Goat aereee for June, says: ne has ‘ 
been. reported that the Australian tick has been found in cattle of — 
northern: Mexico and that’ some 57 head’ of cattle carrying these ticks are 
reported to-have wandered over at least 7 pastures this side of the Rio 
Grande. They were supposedly smugrled across the' river. ‘The Australian 


-~ We - 

tick is much more dreaded than the Texas: fever tick. It can be distin- 
guished from the Texas tick by the fact that the male has a short, stubby 
"tail,"" declared Harry F, Hornby, United States Collector of Customs 

for the Laredo district. "Deer and hogs are known to be carriers of the 
Texas fever tick, but the insects cannot: complete their life cycle on 
them, whereas the life cycle of the Australian tick can be completed on 
these animals. It is almost certain that deer especially, would aid in 
spreading the Australian tick in the pastures of this country should the 
pest gain a foothold north of the Rio Grande. uit 

Overwintering of Marnecentor: variabilis Legs 

At the Martha's Vineyard laboratory,’ Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine, Carroll N. Smith, in the course of observations on the 
duration of the developmental stages of the Americen dog tick under out- 
door conditions, found one egg mass in which hatching had begun last. 
fell, had stopped because of winter weather, and had resumed again in 
May. In three groups ‘of larvae molting resumed after having been inter- 
rupted by winter, but no new lots of eggs or larvae were opseaves to 
start hatching or molting in May. 

Fower Used for Sheen DrpEate 

"Power. farming has become so much a part of the agricultural pic- 
ture that it now extends to dipping sheep," says A. J. Patch, agricul- 
tural editor at Chio State University, in the Country Gentleman for June. 
"Fortable dipping equipment operated on a custom basis has replaced 
nearly all other means of controlling external parasites of sheep in 
Ohio. Clinton County has 13 sheep-dipping rings made up of groups of 
farmers owning cage and sweep equipment for dipping their flocks, but 
almost every one of those flocks was dipped in a portable custom outfit 
in 1939. Twenty custom outfits were operating in the State last year, 
and at least 125,000 sheep were dipped. 

"L. K. Bear, animal husbandry. specialist, Ohio State, says the 
dipping outfits show every kind of engineering ingenuity, as many of 
them were built from plans furnished by their owners. One man, a small 
operator, designed a unit so compact that it was bought for commercial 
manufacture.... All operators are using an arsenical which ecrunons 
parasites with one oy Bray i 

Fainted Flies Reveal Flight Distances 

Guy McConnell, writing on Disease Has Wings in Scribner's for 
June, says: "Last fall, long after the first frosts had exterminated 
the last of the winged pests about our premises, our kitchen was: suddenly 
invaded by a cloud of houseflies that in an instant swarmed through every 
‘room. I investigated and saw buzzards dipping over woods a mile beyond 
village limits. ‘Using the buzzards as guides, I walked to the woods and 
found the decay ing carcass of a pig. Thousands of flies were feeding 
and breeding on the remains, and winging away in every direction to become 
public enemies of the air. I related that experience to Dr. John R. Mehler, 


- 18 - 

Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry....He told me the disease-carrying 
housefly roams far and wide, having crossed the Mediterranean and English 
Channel. They have flown down-wind from Cuba to the Florida Coast, 95 
miles. Mohler, in his position as head-of the largest sanitation and 
meat~inspection bureau in the world, long ago unmasked the migratory house- 
fly as the worst of” the insect public health enemies. His men caught and 
painted. flies red, and broadcast pleas that any red flies seen. be reported 
to him by phone. Some: of the painted flies covered 11 miles bucking head 
winds in less than 48 hours. They flew in bad as wellas good weather, 
but never returned to their SEY breeding places where they were trapped 
and penceres 

Near Miles City, Mont., 387,877 marked flies were released. At 
79 stations, city-wide, 1,056 were’ captured. Within 48°hours, from four 
* starting points, the whole city was infested. Here the dispersion beyond 
the city line was from 5 to 12 miles, in all directions. In the course 
of their lives, houseflies, living but from 3 days to 4 weeks, become 
ancestors of more than 9 generations, and the. male is a polygamist. In 
her lifetime, the female lays 4 batches of 120 ‘fertilized eggs and from 
these are hatched more than 5 trillion descendants, about half ee which © 
are males. ...!! 

Methyl Bromide Gassing Pleases Fruit Growers 

"California is going to have another big year in the use of methyl 
bromide, introduced by D. B. Mackie of the State Department of Agriculture. 
"Gassing fruits, vegetables, nursery stock, etc., with methyl bromide has 
proved to be an excellent method of fumigation, and pear growers who 
gassed some 3,200 cars of pears last year as a precaution against the in- 
visible worms, are so pleased with the improved ripening of the fruit that 
they will continue the method both as a precaution against possible worms 
and as an addition to the quality of fruit." (Facific Rural Press of 
June 29) spige : fl 

Vacuum Fumigation of Sacked Feed with Methyl Bromide 

RT. Cotton and J. C. Frankenfeld, of the Manhattan, Kans., lab- 
oratory, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, report that in the 
vacuum fumigation of oat feed with methyl. bromide, a dosage of 4 pounds 
of the fumigant per 1,000 cubic feet of space, with a full load, gave a 
100-percent kill. of flour beetle eggs and adults with a 3-hour exposure. 
With a 15-hour exposure a dosage of 3 pounds. per 1,000 cubic feet of 
Space gave a complete kill. The temperature of the feed in the first 
case was 67° F. and in the second 68° F. It is interesting to note that 
in both cases insects were actively crawling over the bags of feed when 
they were removed from the vacuum chamber at the end of the fumigation. 
They were all dead, however, within 24 hours. This delayed killing 
effect is characteristic of nethyl. ‘bromide and some other fumigants. The 
- fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide is not recommended by the 
. Public Health Service or by the Department of Mecioultine because of 
+. bromine residues: left during fumigation: . ef! 


= - 
Wina Interferes with Mill es CA 

Messrs. ‘pete, and Frankenfeld, of the Manhattan, Kans., laboratory, 
Bipaas of Entomolagy and Flant Quarantine,:also report that in the recent 
fumigation of, a brick flour mill and warehouse with’ methyl. bromide during 
a. period when the wind resched at times a velocity of 38 miles per hour, 
practically no “kill was obtained in the warehouse, which was on the wind- 
ward side of, the building. The gas was apparently all blown over into 
the mill, where the kill was satisfactory. The dosage of 1 pound of 
methyl bromide per a8 000 cubic feet had been found entirely adequate in 
the warehouse last year when there was no wind. The desirability of 
delaying a fumigation until the bee has died down is evident. 

Ants Gather Buffalo Grass Seed in Texas 
te “Buffalo ‘grass seed is hard to apeaiaa" says Capper's Farmer for 
May. "Technicians of the Soil Conservation Service had.noticed that red 

ants often piled good, viable seed around their mounds in Bell County, 

Tex. They suggested that Frank Mayborn, who wanted some, try gathering 

it around ant hills. In 2 days a man with a street sweeper's broom 

Swept 788 pounds of seed and foreign matevial into piles. This was shovel- 
ed into sacks and 201 pounds of pure seed were taken from it by recleaning. 
Samples were sent to a State branch expe: iment station where tests showed 

a germination of 40 percent. In a’similar test, 43.4 percent of the seed 

gathered from buffalo grass turf germinated. W. J. Neumann, of the Soil 
Conservation Service, says the grass gathered by Mayborn is sufficient 

to seed 25 acres if drilled in 3-foot rows and permitted to cover the 
ground by spreading." 

Windbreaks Bring Birds 

The number of birds and other wildlife on farms in North and South 
Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and the Texas Fanhandle has increased 
as a result of field windbreaks, the Forest Service reports. Since 1935, 
more than 11,000 miles of field windbreaks including some 125 million 
trees, have been planted under Forest Service supervision on farms in 
the six States. The increase of insect-eating birds in the tree wind- 
breaks was disclosed recently by a preliminary "bird census" carried out 
by the Forest Service. Done on a sampling basis for the most part, the 
check revealed such striking indication of bird increase on farms with 
windbreaks that a more thorough survey of windbreaks planted by the 

. Service is being sought. In two of the States, local officers sent 

- questionnaires to owners of farms in typical, widely scattered sections. 
In the others, Forest Service men made counts of birds in some places 
and of nests in others. 

Silkworms To Produce in California 

According to a UP dispatch from Fresno, June l2, farmers of the 
fertile San Joaquin Valley in California are considering the possibilities 
of producing silk and rubber on their ‘land. Production of silk in Tulare 


- 20 - 

County as a major industry is considered a. distinct possibility, while 
the rubber-producing plant gsuayule could be grown profitably in Kern 
County, provided the commercial price of rubber climbs to two. or three 
_ times its present level.-A. Kasanjian, of Yettem, and Philip Avedigian, 
‘of Dinuba, two Armenian immigrants, have announced that they intend to 
propagate 80,000 mulberry provide food for silkworms. They 
‘estimate they have about 1 million silkworms now hatching. Lewis A. 
Burtch, Kern County Agricultural Commissioner, said that guayule. was. 
grown. successfully in Kern County several years ago on a ranch near 
‘Wasco. He pointed out, however, that despite favorable climate and.water 
conditions, the costs of production in relation to the price were excessive. 

New Foison Ant Trap 

Prof. Dwight M. DeLong, of Ohio College of Agriculture, in the 
‘June National Seedsman, tells about a new poison ant trap, developed at 
the College; He says: -"Ants are frequently baited by attractive materi- 
als, but the greatest weakness of an ant bait is that it dries out rapid- 
ly when exposed, which causes it to become . . . noneffective as a kill- 
ing agent. This difficulty has been overcome ... by the use of a-humid- 
‘istat in the container which prevents ths »oisture in the bait from evap- 
orating because the humidistat automaticcily replaces this moisture as 
it becomes dissipated in the air. Therefore ... the bait remains effec- 
tive only a few hours .:. The sealed can may safely be used in homes 
' because children and pets cannot: reach the poison without destroying 
the metal container, and since the contents are held in absorbent mate- 
riais they do not leak or seep from the can ... " 

Control of. the major pests of the satsuma south Alabama. 
L. L, English and G. F. Turnipseed. Ala. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 248, 
48pp., illus. Auburn. 1940. 
Effect of Bathyplectes curculionis on the alfalfa-weevil population in 
lowland.middle California. A. E. Michelbacher. The apparent cli- 
matic limitations of the alfalfa weevil in California. A. E. Michel- 
bacher and J. leishly, .Hilgerdia Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta., vol. 13, 
No. 3, pp. 81-139, illus. Berkeley. 1940. 

: How to stop chinch bug. losses. W. P. Flint, G. 4H. Dungan, and J. H. Bigger. 
Ill. Agr. Expt. Sta. Cir, 505. +15 pp. y-dllus.. Urbana. 1940. 


an ae 
Kentucky white grubs.: F. 0. Ritcher. Ky. Agr. .Expt. Sta. Bul. 401, 
pp. 71-157, illus. dLexington....1940, 

Fleas. E. I, McDaniel. .Mich. State Col. Ext. Bul. 209. 3 pp. Hast 
Lansing. 1940. ; ' 

Human lice. HE. I. McDaniel. Mich. State Col. Ext. Bul. 210. 2 pp. 
East Lansing. 1940. eich, daa: 

Bedbugs. E. I. McDaniel. Mich. State Col. Ext. Bul. 211, 2 pp. 
East Lansing. 1940. " 

Household fumigation. E. I. McDaniel. Mich. State Col. Ext. Bul. 212, 
7? pp. East Lansing. 1940. 

Michigan’ termites. Mich. State Col. Ext. Bul. 193, 14 pp., illus. 

The spruce budworm in Minnesota. S.A. Graham and L. W. Orr. Minn. 
Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bul. 142, 27pp., illus. University Farm, 
St. Paul. 1940. 

Controlling stomach worms in sheep. W. HE. Morris. Minn. Univ. Agr. 
Ext. folder 42 rev. 5 pp., illus. University Farm, St. Faul. 1940. 

Livestock fly sprays. -H. H. Shepard. Minn. Univ. Agr. Ext. folder 
88, 4 pp. University Farm, St. Faul. 1940. 

Substitute spray materials II. C. G. Vinson and S. A McCrory. Missouri 
Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Bul. 316. 14 pp. Columbia. 1940. 

The walnut caterpillar: Lt. Haseman. Missouri Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 418, 
14 pp., illus. Columbia. 1940. 
The potato flea beetle and the potato psyllid in Nebraska. M. H. Swenk 

and H. D. Tate. Nebr. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 327, 19 pp., illus. 
Lincoln. 1940. 


wean — o 
New York 

The corn ear worm and its control. L. A. Carruth. Weeys Agr. Expt. 
Sta. Cir. 190, 14 pp., illus. Geneva. 1940. 

Honeybees for pollination. G. H. Rea. N. Y. Agr. Col. (Cornell) Ext. 
Bul. 4384. 4 pp. 1940 nae 

Spring management of the apiary. G. fH. Rea,” yey. Agr. Col. (Cornell) 
Ext. Bul. 436. 8 pp., illus. 1940. 
North Carolina 
Boll weevil control. J. 0. Rowell. WN. C. State Col. Ext. Folder. 45, 
6 pp., illus. Raleigh. 1940. 
South Dakota 
Blister beetles and their control. G. I. Gilbertson and W R. Horsfall. 
S. Dak. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 340, 23 pp., illus. Brookings. 1940. 
Elementary beekeeping. bei R: Reppert. Texas roar Me"Coly suxt. oir. 
86. Collese Station. 1940. 
Information on insecticides and fungicides. ‘S. B. Fenne. Va. Ext. 

Bul: 150, 12 pps, tidus, Blackebure, 10400" 

Food from the farm —— pest control. Le @, Smith. “Wash. State Col. Ext. 
Cir. G1=F,°6 pp.» 22208. “ruliman 194ac, 

‘Fea weevil control in Washington. i ees Hinman and L. G. Smith. Wash. 
State Col. Ext. Bul. 254. 20 pp., illus. Pullman. 1940. 

Fear psylla in Washington. L. G. Smith. Wash. State Col. Ext. Bul. 
255, 4 pp., illus. Pullman, 1940. Ee 


- 23 - 

The two-queen hive and commercial honey production. OC. H. Gilbert. 
Wyo. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 239, 15 pp., illus. Jaramie. 1940. 

Wintering bees in Wyoming. C. H. Gilbert. Wyo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 
238, 15 pp., illus. Laramie. 1940. 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Feeding habits of the adult Japanese beetle. I. M. Hawley and F. W. 
Metzger. U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 5470, G1 pp., illus, 1940. 

Factors influencing the use of some common insecticide-dispersing agents. 
Lynn H. Dawsey. U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 568C. 10 pp. 1940. 

Biology of the seed-corn maggot in the Coastal Flain of the South Atlantic 
States. W. J. Reid, Jr. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 723T, 44 p. 1940. 


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