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Historic, Archive Document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 

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nue 1 to cember 31, 193 

Spokane Branch 
Division of Blister Rust Control 

618 Realty Bldg, : 

Spokane, Weshington 

eee Se OO” ee 

Second growth white pine in north Idaho. 

.A nearly pure stand of second growth white pine 

40-60 years old, near Clarkia, Idaho. The stream 

type contains heavy concentrations of Ribes petiolare, 
R. inerme and R. lacustre. Pine infection is heavy 
along lower slopes. In the extreme right can be 

seen part of the stream type area cleared with the 
bulldozer. Photograph by 116th Photo Section, 
Washington National Guard, Lt. Eric Danielson, Price: 
H. M. Cowling, Photographer. 

oh Gt be ne s. ¥ ser ihe % Sa ree She EA ots 

pag rte a as 1 Oe eee seamen 

~ ee ‘Control Work in MOM tansecsoerecreverrnecseerennns 
rendua of Trig evet otitis 1, Sh. JAS cPLA. ceva 
ster gust Controd sctivities,’ Cavenec Wurrery, wontana.. 
ct after ‘Bibes Eradication on ‘bhe -Savenac - | 
Mursery Protection area, ‘Bevgen , Homtaneee. vee veseeeesees 

Searing tor” BILAter Bist tn Montanees. eevee nweee see snns 

Blister Eras Gea ts rol tore’ ia’ SR TPIT IEE Tee Hs 
dere landing, Lésho “State Band Department... .. 

ergtanding, ‘University of” "SPO Os ccc sivaeue: 

24 peg in andug of EPS 
Muss eaaten “of 

| Memor andum of Jaders tang! 

. Sleerwater {imber Protective 

whanpeaabions: ware resannsias i itscacaiGeigees iss iiicetec 



Memorandum of Understand ates Meeeecore (hoe pt NS s 

Ribes vEeology,.. in the. pire.....- 

Seed Storage ‘Stu - (elder papier ity Dies chee ke SY i iL 

Pliotestudys ofthe Bffects, of Cutting Methods on a her 

cy ounaaakehcabiaatieo. p00 “seedling” WAY VIVE. coe se ot Peek ee 
Soomtfegtecof Giesing in. of Yorest’ Cahdpy on” Sehent: | aden 
Ribes. Rredication, iplend Empires. cs eeceeccceeesneee sence 
PAWEMtPOdMethomic. occeeveescecacccrocsecccereesecsccscreeees : 

Chemicel Eradication Methees.. cc ceca oc caetcueee ces 

= pete a ittbes uradication with Bulldozer, 

cGTy Badetate on the Clearnater Timber 

ty Sd to 1G of ‘Rives yisddsissigin Growing. in Jesse 

“popet ng off Wie Live cten mt Ground, Level. , 

: sister & ge: A on ‘the Cledrester tational. Foresbes. 

bes, radicat’ On on tHe St! Joe Ma tional Porert...e...6 
Rides . ta ieétion sith Sul ldoxer; “Coeur. dtdlene. . 
fs dice fon survey, Coeor’ d'Alene: Netional: Forest... 

oe cont Fae a aadeett Control; Clearwater: Timber Protective... 

ee ay ABE bike Go Hb oc duke ba Oe eae + Uae SE CECA RRA CHR 0's OMe 

2@ pole tng SONY Gontrol oh: the: A pl bteMarice diver... 

“Koti Dasinegece Re cide ele Caw de saute e to che oti Cont oe CECUAC HERE. 
Cooperative Local Control, Priest Lske Timber Protective 

ADSSOCTL SLL ON. acdevecesnesrescesssas ss ceenteesaeoresraesip 

Be ES Oe EOE eee e - 

* Development of Rites kradicetion Lquipment.....ersscores 
2 CYark te,” TWédenow.. oe oes cede ees O06 oe ape sie rs oo °.0.7° ae soee : 

* ective Bia ddGe tern ng Decne tale Hoke Movie anriee, 
““freataient of ives Yetiolere Growing in Beaver Uems.. 

res epee cetenccsetsacnscestsseeeesssenseeeeg. 

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Checking after RibE s’ Bradication. .....; pee tng deadhz melee see 
Introduction. .°..0F....... Peds ae bi see Ce ree 
Checking after Ribe 3" ‘Braditation, | Clearwater Netionel 

WTOMERT eee eevee Tas © Shoe hr MEL UeEL A Satis WO 6k eRe eR ESS ’ 

Checking efter Ribe s ‘Pradteation, ‘St. "Toe flational Torest.... 
Chéeekingvafter Ribes Bradica tion, Clearwater Timber 

Protective Assocation. ........... Bein wde ues Seiwa. « oa aigge 
Checking after Ribes Bradication, Upper St: Uaries 
eS ere eee re Cre Oe CO Cee eee ee ieeeeed : 
» Checking after Ribes Eradication, Priest take Timer : 
‘Protective apr aotnagee hopes phonies Ere ay COUPE gy a aa a 

Scouting for Blister Rust in the Inland Bmpi rey... sceeeeseseeees 
Pine hafiectien | Bedi ere: ane ‘Meadow - pee Idaho #2264! 
Blistex. Raat cache mae aa pir ll ce galt ee yy 
Memorandum of. ck ciahend teenie Jake, RARDE roi eres. 
Blister Rust Control Activities, Mount Rainier National Park 
Pine Infection Studies, Newman Lake, Yashingtom....%% oes. 0% 


Blister. Bust. Control. Bork. in OP RROD. oc: a wwe senate w’ ibe ¥% %% oe 
Memorandum or TiC RMA Ooi 20:5:,.0 cidnin talenee aeunmaciely eiatiienisias 0 

Scouting for Blister BUStesceccvpenastens eevee eer ose tr eexseboseae 
‘odedeud vou Ribes CAT 66 6 ERE CRORES 6 Roa an ieee Be aS 

1A ante le ie RR RA IS RODD CPE 

Blister Rust Control Work in California... wsccccscccnsccccenvecd 
Memsreniun Of WahOr eta we sn nei ais gcse oink nic cinpsies on ns Ce easignsce 
Scouting, Educational York and Wursery Sanitation,....oceses» 
FAVES OCR OEY sin 6 opined edn di wip Ch cuss die tis Mae ee nee shee «ein 

Ribes Survey of the Logging Damage and Mill Plot. Studies., 
Ribes Reestablishment in Suger Pine»Ponderosa Pine and 
Suger PineeFir Types Following Logging, ...cecccccssencece 
Ribes Beestablishment in Stream Type after Logging......0. 
Ribes Seed Germination and Seedling Survival,......cssece. 
Rives Seed Germination and Seedling Survival on 
Dry AMS crasicsio.s dca Huse disse +26:6k aja uhiie waseaernen 49m slacae eees» ss © 
Ribes Seed Storage in the Duff end Soil,....cscccvecsecens 
Wisc@llaneous Studies, ......cccsccoccescevsves 
IN i oo. dnd os hay esa) MOM ROL as 68a k Coweuwer cas wencn 
ORS TOA PR OURUE), CORNERS 5. 5-ois 04's Haipniiins 0096 Bins ahs dk. nuewiar de oes 
Sugar Pine bene ss Kae leks 6 ns gma Nhe wan osc Bee 
Experimental Ribes Eradication, Dorrington Aree, Stanislaus 
RTO asi aid aid wishes bake vines RAMME NE OE Emme hn nee Cue osiols 





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Chemical investigative NOT Ks cc enecscverccececesceneserererreane 

Pert I, Investigative Work in “the Chemical tradication 
of RLIDCBe pvcacccacvadcncrrcesescos sess eecesseces 
‘Part 1, Investigations in Chemical wethode for the 
the Eradication of BEM DET Ye cescerervccereersere 
Part I11l, ‘he Status of Investigative Work in the 

= a 

. Chemical radication of Ribes and Barberry and 

Sesehuae Suet on Studies in Sifectiveness of Comtrol..ecsecce 
. INtPOdUCTLONe se eeveneseracereccecsrreancccaconececccescuscrs 
‘The Growth ond. Regeneration,of Kibes, in. Sireaa Type” 
Following Ribes AA Oi OWia ais 25 65 cininin-c yu0')s vier iain ee:cing's «2 
The Inflvence of Stream Sype &ives Lradication on Canker, 
eM TORU i lalla iG oh8 Ko eee LN inwiele dee w ete be waive e 
Pine Infection Studies, Newman Lake, Vathingtonearesersonnseece 

Pine Infection Studies, Long Meadow Creek, Ldmhderesessceces. | 

Wheekye Plot Studies, Cheekye, fritish. GUAM Bais osinn'e sisivie’s » 
Protogrephte and baucatione) MOREL o's bv'cenaeed mented daemeo nese 

Financial pO ee ee ee Tae eet eeearen 

General acelin ti Latinas «ia Siac -ideiuaia ale aad © is» die see 

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Jemery 2 we December Ay 1932. 

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Sheet tonto. EMRQBUDEIGR 

§ - The: antes +: seperthaty wecurrences. a the western blister roles 

srosttetol’ | program ae ae ger cael yo wale may be briefly vhogert ripe 
bed a ; 

( 1) Deerbave: in ha scope of cooperative control proeran with 
_. sens rae bg ag owners in — Idaho,’ 

~ (2) A metortal ‘tmerease in ar ean control operations on 
national Toreste.” te re ee eee 

9 €8) Stfong wetdonde thet ‘ee rite € dis pecaitie more way dissen- 
inated ae more firmly established in north: “Tdaho,” Sk, . 

(4) Material decrease tn the experimental Leoni control program 
-/ eld taenta in order to Sonatinas. the Idaho control program. with less 
funds available. ieee 

pan “(8 The euveronel gt the suger pine survey in cooperation with 
‘the Forest Service in California. — a 

Ok SEAR tied ef the economic baie and consequent Sonia 1 
pares of the lumber market, several private concerna in north Idaho with © 
whom this Division had been ‘cooperating in Blister rust control work ~~ 
Were forced to cither discontinue or materially decrease thelr cooperation. 
hus, thé Clearwater Timber Protective Association decreased its 
allotment for this-purpose from $20,000.00 to 910,000.00; the Potlatch 

Fs apigh Protective Association discontinued cooperative work entirely; md 

@ group of local owners in the vicinity of Clarkia, Idaho decreased 
their allotment from $6,000.00 to $1,200.00. On the other hand the 
allotment by the State of Idaho for cooperative control work in the Priest 

Lake SNE. was increased from 5,000, 00 to $8,000. 90. * 

str  Mtotments by the Forest Service for blister rust control work 
were diiawed from $195,000.00 @uring the fiscal year 1922 to $275,200.00 

for ‘the fiscal year 1933. The result. of this increase was thet to 

major operations were carried on during the field season of 1922, one on 
the Clearwater and one’ on the St. Joe Wational Forest. In accordance 

with the ‘cooperative program the Division ‘of Blister Bust Control furnished 

all technical supervision, including camp bosses and checkers for these 



a $i 
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ovetlable “QwelTeontrol’ @perations in north Taaho, the scheme of worl 
“For 19S2 was shifted from stream type Ribes eradication to complste 
initial eredication. This alteration was considered necessery in vicw 
‘6f (a) the rapid intensification of the rust and (b) uncertainty as to 
sod p nee ‘Tends fn future years. 

cone! the: énd ‘of I93Y, 61 eé@nters of pine infection were known to 
exist vy (othe Inlan@ Smpire: “Daring 1932, 16 additional pine infection 
centers were found, brinzin® tHe total mumber to 77. In addition, Ribes 
infeétidis wers'so general over the Inland “mpire white pine belt that 
no detailed records could G46 kept of them. ‘Specifically, new tibes - 
infections were found on the Kaniksu National Forest, the Palouse Division 
of) eles ower ens Aare apsegseorail cut: on | ota Seleny National Forest. 

sdheinat ton of total eahatuants to the western Whaler rust” 
Gontm 3 program, and the necessity for maintaining the going control 
operations.dn idaho necessitated a considerable decreage in the scope of 
experinantal #ibes eradication operations in Califormia. The work during 
1932 consisted primarily of. reeradication.on the northern mrt of the ~ 
Stanislang, odd amen Forest, in, addition. to which a srmll ecreace of . 
initiel eradication was completed. The. promimity of the rust to . 
northern California makes it. imperative. that. the California mafic pice 

program be. again, built, up as rapidly es possible. 

»& project. most important to the development of the California 
blister rust control program was undertaken in 1932 in the form of « sucar 
pine_survey or inventory. made. jointly by this. Division and the Forest 
Service... ie survey. is: designed to eeeurately locate all areas of sugar 
pine within the state, to determine their present and reproductive value, 
their omersbip, and go far as possible their order of priority in, the 
control program. Experimental Ribes eradication and control reconnaissance 
data will. be, epplied, to these.suger pine data as rapidly as possible, and 
from this basic information a control Seaernn 1 for the — will be 
Borst ePe ss & ROR « telntweeese of Ses 2 2 : id 
wapsuagt: the calendar year 1932 the Western Branch of the Division 
of re Bugt. _Gontrol Operated upon the basis of eonetes available from 
two cal years. as. follows: “a 

aehit Se period January As 1922 to dune Ds 1932, the applicable 
appropr rial were. MB2L35,14,. Salary and Expenses Bureanof Plant Industry, 
Blister bie esa 1932" 4n the amount of $239,015 "ier the entire 
fiscal rene "31 /2133.14, ‘Salary and Expenses, Blister Sust Boas ro ke 
19zi-19ser ah the amount of $50,000 (for the ee yg ‘April 1, 1981 to. 
June 2, ae Of this appropriation $5,167.68 was expended during jeu 
1931). Ina Hi He from. the available appropriation. "$2133. 25, 
1932" ws 2 ewe ff Plant Anadustry. Barberry Sradication,.. 
Wasa Nofted ie “fale 2D vision for the entire fiscal year 1932, for 

itew to ematos edt .odebhi dtiom at arottoreqo foudaoo (le gO 
eatelomon cd soliantoats esdih sevd meoise sree bedtide esv SSCL x0% 
masgnoea boxebinnes eaw woliatet ia edit -roPhtagibate Iealtial 
o} 2a ySatadrens (¢) Soe dais edt “to as 150 13tamedal biqat sit (#) Yo 

.pvaey etoset af ehast evyitvetseqocs 

6d Xtons ete ooltostat ente to eretaeo [6 , Cl to bao edd TA 
toi ‘Sox? onto Iemobdthbsa af .Seef apivat .woticm* beaint ong af te ice 

sedi ,xofitbhea al NS cd cedawa Letod add cgiuatrd ,baget otew sted aed 
fend éisd vate etidw etiqwi bualinl add trove faxncams, es-etew eno liceatal 
edits wom ,vilacftiesg2 .vedd te ¢qeal ed Disog eitese: bellated.on 
nofelwitdi seuvolad add ,taotel fanoisad uaxinad odd go baugot sie eaotioetat 

este fein kia wan ie? ant mo Sas .testo® ferofiad oth .d& add to 

gest watedid ssegacr t aeaomioite tases he ao hivebed 
forjaos sffoan off aalaias rot utiseooun eid boa ,matsotwq fottacs 
i oe ve odd gh aeseteah oldavebtaven 2 bedetingecen :ofakl gh excitarego 
setarbh sow 3n% aberott les ei snokieteqo aciteethbsirs eediS. lalaemhteqne 
8 coftestbatseas to yliremitg beselence So eL 
; 80rd thos a eiaetol Lanetiak ensleinet& 
ets .boiolemeg agw actigotbare Ialitat 
taome ovi¢svoomt $2 aodem simtotiiad wrediton 
a6 vibiges e& qu titgd atags ed MatQoTT 

Scie ich id of saad tog. gaom tsstérg. 4 

edairabras saw mexnorg [ots moo dent totet{d 
daonvot edd Son asteivid etdd ed elinict sham .viotaeva’ te yer. ent g 


Dee Bs fa atesatl vletetvecs of Senglash ef .yovige aid? sa tytad 
olay at ‘ Seagotg iicady animtodeb ag ,eteda anti xidtin enatq 

ao cue. ie ySht9 nest sidizeog a tet oe des ,gidetsawo theds 
hemetanrooet forlses bua scotteothaxe eadki Inigontreqe®. .metszovg fotéaco 
feo ,eidterod a8 Ulbkce: <a ecah orta twaem, enedi ef Dbelloge .sd Lii« ateh 

ed ifiw aofgex att «et martactg lovises e agtiametal glee effi. mex 
oye Lavah 

gokcotviG esti te new add SS?l steer takeelag etd pee Papsrts 
62% oldaites afead edj coq beteiage inwiaan saan tej al f& te 

sewollot ac etaay faa2tt ow’ 

wileos oft ,28e@!l ,f enn of SSOL .i vasoest bebweq eat te% 
diva joeelS.%o sees seagemd fos yrelal ,S1.SC RS" stow emo kiarigotggs 
guitas ef% 0%) $£0, 9888-26. danous y at "Snel ,foxtwo? demi tetealif 
 temtac® tau’ tel, fl ,asegsqxs Bas wat SEOSIB\ES* Gan , (reey lana? 
ot a0L ogi Ltxgd. Sols ey sdt.x07%) ae GY to saucy ects a} q ae el-lEeL 
saul satus bobacgee caw 88.901,6¢ so fiatigowges 2iss ty) eet ge oat 
a6 SS ISS" anita wames eldaltavs eg pct 00.59 gottibbs xi... eel 
 ~wliesthas’ cisediel .yriaskel deetS te sas tt ,asamegxe ban geltaie® 
‘ot .S501 ta@oy.faoetl orfias oad. tcf uc talviG eciadd of batiolia eaw "SSel 

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experimental work in the eradication of barberry by chemicals. The total 
amount of $238,347.32, together with $3,375.00 additional, which was mde 
available from funds ag spt allotted to SBETera wlaeser rast work, was 
eronite ‘es —. KPOMGeH 

n hotbed bo % iy Div! noe 4 Yor the Period 

cbs . Gi option of Sarberry by ¢ aft ans6] 20/22 

Re Delagine aehbat' of etibter Pa rey ah 
1. Field surveys in Northwestern States to die Vernitike 

location of dangerous centers of infection . nd to” 

. follow the natural advance and establishment of 

ng: noloyWaheter: rist’in the tiorthérn area...... 0... cee. eee ee $14,000. 00 
2. Field surveys in Oregons) ey). cod. Pee 1,260.00 
3. — A ourvéyes in bet theta RE Oke FH ha At ae 3, 350. 00 

. at3 es oe Mie ks 5h ese t : 

B. Devel jibe: of epohteabove @f Local control. 
Ll. Federal. aan in opr th bile can -— Her hwesters 
“, Méentene.: BOOM VOLE CPG creed chide pee ei rer P: P ee 3, 360.00 
2. Federal Ladi in Oras Ow MOL war ye aig yg & & eke ea 6,860. 00 
8s Local control on’state and private Lands in idaho 
. two-dollare for°one dollar cooperation between oer 

Federal Government and timber: owners. :..5..5..0,6-. “91,895.95 
4. Studtedoof Local eoatrol end its ‘éoste tn Galiforiia 16,000, 00 
5. Gontrol 'récounaissance and Rives survey, Oregon... . $9259.00 
6. Control ie gee gi and’ ‘Rives weryer i ‘Galtfornia iene 
“ pew — arene. : DUO OM. pa rece eee dete tese er acees "6,000.00 
G. Investandbt wi epery: “Dtvte ion of Vorest ae ap Cah, Pee ai 22,158.00 
D. Bxperinental work ‘on chemical eradfention of Ribes and 
vel tel om pleinrtgyed in ase seslogy. tte e eee eee e rca weee 36,598.00 
gE. Rirdeditinadidveidk © wht es . Aan. FP ME PRE OI Fe Epis oad Pate Be si 6 000. 00 
P.. Summarizatiion of ficld data... eececec ee eee deco btitele ees “2,000. 00 
G. Mela supervision, mminténance of diettions office, miscel- “ 
— va caper Pep ink abate t a opg no tayo nt 28,700. 00 
KR. sedate seiidietln tit. 
1. General control...... toes ae ess okey . 919,710.00 
[. Meodipeobogy. AVP ee 800. 00 
3.. Departuicht Pegerve.... 0. 006.0. teeta stete'a' en” EOD 
4, Bureau reserve. Te vee enevwoevreen eo eereerexnves 1,003. 37 
ag Special reserve - deficiency a aantent ins id 
Apo enone ; eh SL aa wate te eee se 6 e ae 27,6) 2. BY; 
- ene Wiarse™ « wes ‘ nen os i 4 i mes tata ene AGA eR osese - $296,722, 32 

From July ‘, 1922 to December a, 1932 the applicable aporo- 
priation was "BABE. 14y: Salaries and Exp “ape ‘Purcen of Plant industry, 
Blister Rust nage sigs ta hoa Bat % of $208 .000 (for the entire — 

Ot. biut. evar cd ie WHS 2 Ca EN 

i F " 
LIME. Se Hay 

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fiseal year). In addition, 91,500 from the available appropriation 
SBSN2R. 2B) SalarteeAna Expenses, Bureau of Plant Industry, Blister Rust 
Control, 1932", was allotted to this Division for the entire fiscal yoar 
tor expirinentAl work in the eradication of barberry by chemicals. 
The ye chan of peiteskore 3 00 yas Bet bel as follows: fone 

at mh Caer of. Fegse Bae oft, i 

Pathol oz? Yor the Period 

i. Batavie« aes nce AAP ea BOT BS 
élayine epredé@ of t blister rust. 

1. Field surveys in Northwestern States to determine 
©. Yoestion of denecrous centers of infection ana:to 
follow the naturel advariée “ahd €stablishment of 

blister ruet in the northern phan a eae tae $13,283, 52 
2, Pield girveys in Oregons... . 0! B. BE OOTS ad a... 79s. 9s © 2 B87. Sa 
3. Pield sarveys =, Californie. © 9 es = i es be ; é Pe. ; 6, B64, 10 
B. Development of application of iu py F 
gehen Vashington, | ‘Téeho and 1 northwestern” suet OF 

Movitens, 2. es PPE, FY. Pe, 4 ivy PRBPE BPRS. ? $e VPP FR need wr hat aah 
2. heekteontret an igvats ‘and private taney ae: “Ldahoi* eS y 

two dollars for one dollar eooperation between” 

Federal Government and timber owners........-..-.- ‘ 35,019. 78 
3 Stadies*sflocal control and ite odsts, California’ 5, 302/45 
4, Control reéonnatssancte and Rives survey, suger ‘ping: » aeels sed 

aArers of Californta. 2: e. Paes eRe oh ek odaa ween we ks 6,282. 37 
G. Tuva heporys: “i Division of Porest Patholervoo.s lis 9100500 
or Bi 
Dd. Bidlevinentit’ eet on chemical eradication of aibes and 
batberry «rid e¢01 6¢teal x anne ERs, HEPES. LFHBITOSE. VST. ZEATI AM: 
esgisted By Wilier ty % 
‘ Edneational work........ ce PD oa oe eager pean 2,918.14 
f&.: Strdiee on Seread of the rast ROE. jamace to Fine . #Oy, 
r, we rg ve ee: ot thet shah “eh, 2 DFS ho. CPR. Fo. Fe. BSRBS SEETEHQ.0O 

a. he HRA * nit 
G. Field ‘gperviston, watntenanse a8 Spokane office, mis-_ 
cellaneous eutnlics. use ae ire. : BER, vee "fester Bias “23,298.07 

art Ora, Ave gat 5 aay ot sé by 

H. MiseeVlaneods' poe payenrye whewha’ e 
k: endrel gant rake. ci0s- iv. wots esa 82, 102500: 
2. Wyeolegy... « PEOCARSs. BRE, Pies. & PEBURGS. BPA 00 
3. Biiwe@e Wewerve. .....-.0cc0eee> ew acne 2,080. 00 
4, Department reserve. ..-. esses ecveees 156.00 . 

5. Reserve for impounded balances... oe. HAG 9398" "86, BRS 
Petal nil ees hence GG. FOB AL. sie oe PRETEEN Olle whoniyh “gs ‘00 
\went during guuaeor ; ¥ ar curin Fe 
No major pe RY were ‘aie - re sneiutcnthon of the ‘ot or 
the grouping..of the personnel during 1932. Asin the past, the majority 
of, tae,» eas were permanently headquartered at Spokane. The fallow-.. 
ing, 4s, :the jpemmpnent. western personnel who were employed during the period 

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7 ~ “| ity gad os = r = te 
a = os es = e © 
~j s ad O 27 sae s 
i 4 * >| é 
4 3 ,* ¥ # ei 
o> en a . bd . 
- 3. . as x ‘ sod - 
ol is Fee - 
: oy 3 7 4 
; eit “e ‘ 
x 2 t 
° 2 
2 - x “ < > 

covered by this report: 

‘L._ Supervisory: | 
‘a. In charce of Veatern apap 8. Nv Wrekoff, Senior 
Lah main pl 
we eration . si aroone mop Asecciaks Patihng ox S,. pasiave nee 

&. Rives Bevlocics] Studies, 0. ¥.° Waters, ‘Agent ¢ fait vim sumer 
ponte, wie.e, during the i ee. i 
BE mats i. Hareia, &. POI : Lact, eae 

b. Devel opment of methods of Ribes" etittiecas teat eo, a. iron 

- Aseoetate Porest er, aestated’ — M.° Swanson, Agent, ¢. H. 
Pohhoon,: Asw0elate Pathologist, aw J. F. Breakey, Agent. 

+. “\@. Gooperitive Local Control, Idaho. *C. C. Strong, Associate 
Voreatcr, assisted by B. A. Anderson, W. G. Guernsey and H. J. 
'. Bertman, Junior’ Foresters; Hl %.- Swanson, Boos —ar ae 

arent “Me ke mite. 7? ig teengrtbe aries Pe Geils’: gent 

ASSt sto Oy Rees. 

<j Bo dprhitve? — Cente. ‘one! eritirok” sicliulaia nial wettioakt 
|) Parks, Waghtheton. "6. 0. Stron, Awbocin te” Forester) ageieted 
“OO by ML OL RiVey, Junior Forest : 

“gs® Sooperative Loeal Control, Oregon. iL. W. Goodding, Asaociate 

Serene ge 

Re 1%, Gevweablie, of ager 

a Gadindae Verdelay: ‘Miller, Agent (resigned Oet. 15, 1932), 

Ge  aseisted by Waller Cowline, agent. a 

& Stuites on Spread of the’ Rast snd Damice to Pine. 2H. b. eae 

he or Forester, agsisted: by %. Myers, ¥. F. Staat and ¢. 
. Saaghaal: eet ? ‘ 

;. te MOREPGRL sy 2 Gori 0: | 3 Sewer. 

hi Experinvental: -Chowteat Brkt cation of Ribes and Barberry. H. 2%. 

'. Offord, acent) assisted By ¢. R. mae, Junior Wicroanalyst, 
R. P. a@'Urbal, Assistant Chemist, ©. ER. Van Atta, G. EB. Draper, 
R. W. Vanee (resigned July 15, 1932), L. 3. Keyser and J. A. 
Vogtmann, Agents, and Miss Frances “reenfield, Jumior Slerk- 

i. Summarigation of Field Data. HE. P. Barss, Agent, during simmer 
and Collaborator during winter period, assisted by F. FP. Sipe, 
Agent during summer and Colleborator during winter period. 

*VYor the purpose of coordination and stendardization of the various eradi- 
cation projects (b, c,and d) in the Inlend Empire white pine belt, these 

were all placed under the supervision of ©. ©. Strong, Associate Forester. 






7 OF 





2. State Leaderat | 
Per Montana. e. We Jomnssiay Associate Pathologist. ra 

0: Be orlinde Be u. Mobdainn Adhectinve mathseaios. oshated at wise 

sarah tam 0 Bites ‘anderson, mane Senha August Bl. 1952). 

bp ed Galifornta. . te Root, Aesdéinte Pathologist asniated: by 

i project leader ¥. V. Benedict, Assistant Yorester, with his 
assistants, T. H. Harris, 8. Blomstrom and D. R. Miller, Junior 
Yoresters (reconmissaneé)s F.A. Patty, Asgistent athologist 
(Ribes Reology)% stenc#rashic work crane by Mies M. J. 
Preitkis, Agent. 9° owe. PLACE ade ee Ae 

pe Dherkead work: : 

R. ti. chi oS: Me eat .2 ‘aesubea. by. re a Waices, Agent, Wise M. L. 
MeWold, Senior Clerk and Pemporary Special Disbursing Agent, 
assisted by Mrs. I. M. Jump and Mrs. M. ©. Dowdy, Clerks; Mrs. 

Sohy Be Ratt; Clerk, assisted byolirs. i. XK. Anderson, Junior fypist. 
Miss.M. V. Lynch, Under Clerk-Typist, Miss €. Ryan, Junior Clerk- 
Stenographer, and Miss M, Stor&asli, Junior Stenographer. 


eo Hs: na Rave, Gapaeidien ab cisiiaks a) Grae 
*e'Drod. Poo Bennett, Berkeley, Californie: shen 
“Dr, Carl. G. Bpling, Los Angeles, Geliforaia. : 
a ®. Garrett, Salt. Lake City, Utah “.. ay 
nn & ODE Bow, Goodspeed, Berkeley, Calhifornia. 
a pay Re *Hoarland, Berkeley, California. -« to" 
gs ey . Rubert, Moscow, Idaho. 
Ptiendiide 7 Tt Collinge, Golerado. . . jana BW, 
wae Ss mittee Parker, Missouls, — rill « é ih 
— a Py: Stes Soreae tes bia rsh 


‘ f s “ Bx ee 
2 ” 
e . 
% ‘ © % 
. v 4 z 
L . ~ 
- v 
4 - ¥ 4 a Pe & inte? Lig? > 
ego, Dope 
#. SU ShRG Ss oc 
aed ad * j o a 2 : ¥ rae iJ 7 
. ts 
t 22 4 « 
fr Saeer 3 F 
. r - Sa RE ae «3 eties 
* y Z a 4 
| QO 
ft a 
* j é = (ex e 
> r ‘ } ¢ SA 
« ve x % Lai ’ * ™ ew 
at i F Pe 
p “4 7 
| a J + wer sgl = & e 
| ° winded 2. + w. * 
. 2 t J * a 
| © 
. ” s. 
yf . ad * - cu ¥ % iL? i 
' ; ae 
* ‘ ‘ A * 
} | x 

| | 




at any time by @ written statemapeggo the: .offect BD daye in advance 
the date of termination desired, 

Blister rust control activities in Montena were continued ag a 
cooperative project between thé. Busedd vef Plant Industry and the Montana 
Department of Agriculture, theiMentana ‘forestry Demrtient, the Sehool of . 
Forestry, University of Montana, the Northern Montane Forestry Association, 
Neamt ithe Bidekfoot ProtectivéMdedetationw: There is civen below. ihe 
amendment to the basic memofmadwna of whkierstanding which was dram up ‘to 
cover the cooperative work for the fiscal year 1933 beginning July 1, 
1983: 2S, 1923 ; a Ha. GOO BS La ae 

Act. Deon, Sehieo! of Fark atry : or: L¥ 

June 2, 1993, WiiWii ROS? CONTROL MORK Ie yawRaMlK® bo Cho Hxreement 

Marith2 Ce EP a greg 

Wetthern Montana Yoreatr 

Yeb...7. 1933 THE SCHOOL oF wast MONTANA. AND 

nada cLon. 
© idogpesaitaive Work in Cont#ieh] tmz ' Myton t Pine aa buat, in Montana. 
Chief, Bar ‘GSa4 OL «38 1s, yet! e 7% j S Le 
ie * * 

The undersigned mtunlly agree that the memorandum of understanding | 
betreen the United States Depertment of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 
the Moutana State Department of Agriculture, Montana State Forestry 
Department, the School of Forestry, University of Montana and the Northern 
Montena Yorestry Association effective July 1, 1927, to continue in effect 
until June 20, 1928, shall be continued in full force and effeet in all 
its provisions for the fistal year ending Jume 20, 193% with the egecention 
of paragraph ¥-6 which shall, ‘be-amended to read as follows: 

¥-6. That for the fiscal. year July 1, 1922 to June 30, 1933 
the Montana State Department of Agriculture will expend about $4,000.00; 
the Montana State Forestry Department about $1,700.00; the School of 
¥Yorestry, University of Montane about $300.00; the Northern Montana. 
Forestry Association about $1,000.00; the Blackfoot Protective Association, 
having been added to this agreement in the amendment for the fiseal year 
ending June 30, 1932, will expend about $1,000.00; amd the Federal 
Government in behalf of the United States Department of. Agricalture, 
Bureau of Plant Industry sbout $3,300.00 in connection with the work 
herein provided for. 

The undersigned algo mtually agree that this memorandum of 
understanding shall take effect July 1, 1932 and continue in effeet until 


rea eumee SHali to moorge ose 

O86 BA whe a + ke P6US Hate tue 


Sagi si tgivites [sutsoo terx todef IE 
is gevgted IselLoug evisexeqooo 
MoEetG najmov eat ,oued Lositaa to Inomdiaged 

by J 
etadle wrongtee end. oeuetenils to eilerevial...~itestol 

it erek aettsdnoes ay igoatotS: tee tieel& ait San 
vai de saw) wibhgetesem stead edt of toombronms 
BCi tmeey iponk +. eco 4ob attew, evidemeqe oo. arid. tevae 

GS eL 

eure, meee ve Cgilau. ee 
iO Be LM TBAS. rf sPare | SHAT HOR 

a "ah Cae BS 
~s ae r 
ig eam 

} Faaly seyrms > Y Lass sm bensiarehas eAlt 

tc ¢somiteerst! sedate baste sdi aeewited 

iivedega te Jdmmutoars 0 sdedt anaiaov edd 
rifewavin’ ,givestot to fooeded edd ~daemrace’ 
i. f viet avidpette metiatooess piieetc’ @enstaol 

“ay Ife? of Bewobdoows of. [fade .850L-.,.06 envy I[hinw 

eet GE a, 
Tew EX 
ax ' * 
‘ 3 rire yod: & 
; vias 
Li €x Whe & tehe a 
aks J SB. o Pe & ytd 
oe mc Ea ai Dood 
CRE Eee a 
{25 hece Nooo" 
~ Rie Ee Yor 
3 Lott ris 
= at 
Taaeser , 2 Mass 
“oS . 
Lis gf t « 
ire 4 i ¢ 
et P . é o 
s Ai 
Cat i : ny 
fows 2* ft cs 
Z0 dice / Le 
C F i ; 
: 7, 
3% rae 7 
gS Tits 3 
seg ; ‘ 
re BOSE TOMOm BL ie 
Fh 4a a , 
£fini Ioette a? auniia 

J orb aeibve teey Lepelt edd sot anokelvetq etf 
8 baat of Sebrowe wd aiamaieiate a-% dgerigetaq to 

ih. 2aey Lave ft odd -tot-sad?..2-T 

j aribtivetena Te tsoariaqed Stale anejaok adi 

CON"—els teade joeudasqed yrdpetgot eles enmatmoN odd 

#3 ; 00.0080 tueda snradaot be Yiierovial . YIieetot 
fs 200,000. f% toeda soltsisoreA yvriewto4 

where i taongeTRs uaa ot Bebha meed salvad 
1G, ! sods Busgxe fiw ,SkeL ,O& enct gotbae 
ail goes | of) Yo Raded ab tesmartevo® 
10% a4 Moly ae jaods yvrtecgbel gaat te veotsd 

te? Sobiverwy sfoeted 


- mI 
pO Sey 

od tas SECe .f ‘t Ess s a 2etts otiet [fade aatinetevebay 



June De 1933, provided thera vier rbot hy terminate the agreement 

at any time by a written statemeit ss Ynet effect 2 deys in advance of 
the date of termination desired,  scac 

are i a ROE Se eee 
[7] NEW GRASS AREA (Commissioner, Montena-Department of Agriculture) 

March 6 9 eae tledge Pi | ee SSS en 
habe a » Kot fans Forestry i als aaa 

we nee me oneal varanasi 







SR ER RT ES ACA TR I Ie Tht eae 


Se eR aa I ee 


uf a 
¢ *, 
” a 
-- . at 
- ’ ~ 
a 4 
; 7 ij 
& ’ 
rd “ 








<P 40.30 

2 40 CHAINS 


R 30 W 


“Ct. A. Johnson” 
Associate Pathologist 

~TerRopue ow 

x - Rtbes eradication by? meens of brush elimtmtion followed. by 
betanifinient of greps #08 to reduce regeneration of Riber which has been 
conducted et the Savenec Nursery from 1929-to 1931 wes continued in 1952, 
One Man wes @ngired in brush @feposal during the entire seeson and extra 
help. Pas ppeperes, for short pertots the Rites reeredication 
end clearing and burning -operetions; In ‘padi tion, another ii sms 
aestry Tee in ee boar of — pepors: wae ‘conducted. 

DR DANE lees 

the Forest Seritor ain thee funis for Shab tity ‘labor for brash 
disposal and BMoes reersdicetion and the Division of Blister Rust Control 
supervi sed ali BNA VANES he, 

this work was divided into two classes. Ribesg reeradication was 

conducted, from May 25 to June 11, by & crew of two men on the entire 

@rea with the exception of a small acreage where experiments in clearing, 

burning and draining by blasting beaver dams were aio In October 

the stream type was agein worked by. ont ‘men, 

~The work of eliminating. the Ribes through the removal of all. 
EY cover Was concentrated.on normally wet sites which occur primeri ly. 
|glong upper Savenee,’ Dry and Big Creeks, sfter these aresis: were dreined 
the brush was cut ahd efther piled or scattered, All brush cut during the 
period.of about. the middle of sugust was burned in September, 
AvgufficLent number of men with fire tools, power pump and hose and 
isnepseck tanky with pumpe were on the job during the burning operetion, 

PRS fre RD. F Ne SSS a : 
co ee 4 cere hen ae . Pian sete aeeten ate wine bcnend eelhiesaeeancs seni fs ap 
se See Pye a 4 on % 
:* f WR Me an Cag 


pus eeabrthrs 

+, 570 ad of live stem removeds: 

“Ohly Ribes pullea duribe the early spring are shown in the above 
table, Wo figures &re tepherune for Ribew removed in confinctt on with 
brush dain sied me to the fact 4 @ chee 

nai ture sb n bs 8 rife jes 
Special Experiment s| 
| Dretnsge and | 

ZCI BE TrSevor — OL 
RES ms x2 os 

Sr eA ac a RE apn Ren ene 

coon ny ‘pata from Forest Service aliohmat, <0 / 



c £ a 
: f AR 
Ben cobin 
S Sex 
2 oe: area yepate ~ om a 
7" “ . " a 

Ce RRO cat SE a0 [85 * eee 

pares a rs se . SRAM ITA 6 A en 8 RNR 
Sere (seit. Sows mmmarin apne pimyae- le Hine mealies 
} ’ 
—m eee ee e 
eosrtey Ens ame wo nmeleis 


PY» Ss SORES. Gigs, Ab 7% ee 2G: t 32 3 #2) ia otek ¥ 

BW TLE 2 -bayouty gedit sidaek lana ens aay ft) 

ah 4 
a henner 
cis : } Y 
es = 3a . be PA 
chi - jeter mB 
ce * . e by 
on ie } Pike 
feu @ pee Macla v ted hehe TS. F Le Ky 
. eo ibe in Sek tO PN a oN rte: ale AS ee 
orn ae oe EN FO DTT Des PD CON ferret: a Di aU i 5 ORS Hoe ONE? 

a % 

~ : ee cane Abe gi syle cleanin eat toe pO nasenteetpa 
3 “a ais ey 

Sy Bess 


apy a Oe ee ee ane 
bo weed goetual 32, | 

; ae. 00 68)..9.. ipeegolous. Ja eeee | 

CLS ED ae , 

oS a : Ren. Saadopi 
5 ; he #1 f ¢ | 
‘ i i ASTRA | 
mth abek. > eh ciaalleabaonnadiatomst Sd 
e , { 
6 cn atu-ormbnaememig@ebia Segue a 
“i iit Aoi. scacosetetinaitonnbiveaiatimelanennnonieeibol #28 Lee pdupe yoo | 
} bess 
eae ae nn ee Te a sane sesame 

} cade op eee 

Lia acorns css mest aa animus entire arena Patent 

r10" t blag 86 ,CO8S 

gue Prat yee atl My 
btu ait dh SOUR Pe ee: 
“i Cs ve a tere sre th 
Conclusion it Meld i Aine Naot ny SO A 

The last of the dangerous, brush patches has been removed, 
Scattered brush piles remain), bpbya, thorough search wes eonducted in 
these places andthe Ribes were removed, A heavy germination of seedlings 

is expectéd om a stmil-erea; along Dry Creek, where, L. petiolare wee . 
hende pulled: and: the: brush, wes, removed, . The, potential supply of. Ribes 
valong the:mpjor drainages, bes,Jargely been, destroyed as © resull of 

periodic burning, sowing of grass seed and the continuous removal of 
seedLingssy It: is-now possible, for the first. time to report that Ribes 
eradication: has. been conducted to. the gutside limits of the protection zone 
around Savenac Nursery. q 

4 é oe 4 »¥s 



; co & high, degree. of,, sapitetion has been achieved throwh brush 
removal which has been 

followed by seeding. This condition can be easily 
maintained. - During the past season jocel renchers cut ¢rese for winter 
feed from end. which, was. formerly occupied by brush élong Big Creek, 

upper Sevenac and the upper St. Hegis, Additional acreece for pasture was 
fenged along the St, Reta RICE. once ty gamvies: 207 

Whe ‘checking reports for upper Savenac and Dry Creeks ere 
not encouraging due to the fact thet the checks were mede in July while 
_ brush removal was not coi leted “until October 15." The ext icheck should 
Mungré nearly feprésént the true condition at present, “©” ) 
Distribution, ty. tvpee, af Mas eh tied x 

ae ¥; ipety we 
oa es Bora 
& vy, Sy ; 
bt baled: Oe + 

Purpose: ‘The elimination of brush and B. petiolare froma wet 
Bigeereuiion. TOR SS Ek ee ee PSN ee eee Mee 

Method: All brush was cut, piled and immediately burned, A 
s0gzy soil condition,.caused by..the creek running underground, was remedied 
by draining the water on the area into the creek where it appeared at the 
surface farther beloy. |\Following the burming of: the brush grace seed 

of the Reed canary and-redtop...species was sown in the ashes, ‘hen the 

Ee pushes ppt ry there was considerable “disturbance of the 
ground which provided better conditis 

Ren af Re Oe en ROE” en a 

The greater portion of the live, stem, Or 9,770 feet was 
eradicated vets re.dyne 5 although fibes eradicetion wag continued at 
intervals, In,§ eptember a good stand of Reed Cétaty Spa redtop grass was 

i ite ; , ay 
Pee & aE ee hae 4 at eS 
PL at nl RAD OER § Hae, monte ere) ely Vein Be AE eR 


ns for the e atebli shment of grass, 

ig .s ‘ ae " Ps = ~ 
5 isle iA MENTO IR: sins icin oy 

ke . 


on Fay 

“ “ 

; re 
ey gaat vane 
v 4 we 
4 ; ; 
ne ae 2 



2 ay 

Pr teey i 

a5 FS 
- a 

titre se 
; ¢ 

a5 .4 
et ne b 
wee fn 

E. Lb Lb o Sey: 
if Bier 3 Torester 


mil aie a piles sleet 4s the ninteune oa pe within the aetna tion 
area eround Savense- Nursery wes-inepected,- "A small amount of checking on 
hs three we vid arpinages: mhowed: Ri bes: in she: stream type as follows: 

a wv i eeveiee treek; apevene: to the nursery) a eeres in srinol es: 
Mis fier a feet of- sai i sten- acne aaa at Ok Ga ta 

aoe Be ‘Ste hezis Biwers, belens the nursery 1.04 ecres- in 1 nesyleni 
cemamumates 99.66 feewwot live eten per. secre. ~ basi ah si 
, otf si i IR A aE BI ye Ek ae es hg aa 
Ble creek, cn -end;- 1.0 ‘acre tin. sonvies: 255.6 feet vot : 
omega me so pees 4p tia laste rere tl lsinas a ots hi re ee soy ane Sete reso Te Fo 

4. ‘Big Sheek,” piper: awk 0.388 acres in samples; 207.4 feet of . 
live stem per acre, ets PN ee 

Dering the period June 29 to July. 5 the entire ecreage of the 
protection area wat checked, the uplend @ per cent and tie stream type 4 per 
ceat,. ihe atreae type had been reworked in —_ a this check, 

Distrdbution,. wy ‘ype, 0 of ne serene mitt ‘the protection | aetaars : 
is. a ee megan 5 a ee EGOS ea ee RS A, owe pes oP) Ft S. 

> > al 
» i! ” 
“s ¥3 ay 3s : 4 
. * > . Le 
‘ é * 
* > xh > ty . sia J 
ai << +3 F » n = e..) Sid 
# “ * « . ¥ “it “ | 
aay ty 28 - ~ ‘ 6 4 
te boa . } “ » & 
e a oS G at et oe ry H Yt ‘S 
. Bes ae <i . ; a | “; 
i - . ~~ = 5 BB . ‘ { 
} 2 5 ; = t a] ha 3 as 2 ‘ as i ‘ : 
. wm . Ps nf a poe , oy ‘ 
tow + a 4 H ‘ He Ak ‘ D : 
F = sy 4 * nn a a * 
; %- =] y me & Se ae : 
f Py ° + > ea g ‘ Ld - : FY 
: f= . we oh . ‘ 4 * ¥ . 
* at * + * - 
Ly “& o U : i 
, é ral od ¥ r 
oe ind s ae . = 4 i 
os » ~ . e + ‘ 
> & os 9 , ‘ ~* ‘ 
wh é im r fe z $ % ne a 4 : 
_ a OF ; | & 
c e : z 2 4 J A ; 
j ; ae — : ‘ ‘ ; 
x t Fs it, M : 
i ; _ 
‘ “ ‘ C ‘ Ts i 
& is + : t ; - a ees _ 
‘ ° t ust i ; 
- f J . ? ee | j 
é ‘ : ¢ 
. * “ , ; ~ . 
« Toke 4) * ’ 
“5 t 
ps cu i x7 
, 44 ee He « 
N ‘ 
“ A car ; F > ‘ é 


ma In Sablestia..2 ‘and Ho... é the suuaries of the. checking némlie 
‘are aa 

ee en ene Se a nme nme Ateneo aie 

ort ps4 bh Baa 
wep feernrrueerse TTnbras Hare eee ce ee 


oo a SS Abate Sd Bishes |7,1, 5. avenge |i, 1, 

oe '3 | ee 6 Bu: abe, 5. | 
gi ete «rua “Hert Petre 

a . 

Mehes Crpeky o Taek oF Sy E 

nec tame —elian eenaaneanns en hati aadaiatesnhiandanclinripianmciesttinlanias tion saan 

i ore tice Saas P Pet sere 
Sociale | tune "| actantive Lal ipecies | 
{River ret hile, 235. 26 . 
| bbeer StuRegiv}iscr fay: 

[River (1! mile) }103,5 

(ee a 

Lower Savensec | 
Ae | 428.0 

_|Dpper Sevenae | 






? so4% pat te so ilteumert? sdf... 08 bao w .pheeldeal « 
atiW*¥ons ets 

3 ae in me ag ritnesnera) Gioteraaioie sinensis ‘ h ay Se *4 

; = aide we $9508 | i 

48288: 6 ad a im se EJoCI Ol ery 9% i. 
ara mH a ion Seid — Sante 
HE ce Sasa cletnasecicn oe Wks 

ABS Ae en ts ee Bh ee a ae elle More ape rp dione 

OR. A Ee, COB a eae sa Aige2 4 Fh RK CaN ae we ins Riera ener |S te 
. Lb alee ah Bell Lok 1 O50l | GO Re | age 

at, : ~ atte ns iui KB ee Pon trie {ips dines wie de: id. Le a acai ae Be eine einen wd lt 4 Babee 
whee iS ed shih exces asus chi 5 inthe sasrmartacless: vere re ATS kiko ees vomamh | 
) \ SO lesant | Bet, 8) Bog yk ELA) 

ry ee URE iC OY OS EN 

Sas erik we wor pie ge vel 

4 | om dace | : ea 
‘ Abst sodav® | 68 lA goden 233 


| } j "oe peers 
nS be “OE Sod oi | 8.0. ince fia 1) sev is | 

i alged se ta¥O.| 

Prout vat on J nk Ie 9 “ i 2 Lniegimntntabiat ray ae hemceectihioneeds j nab DR Lalotaipae Rae vs 20 naw: tenn eee wei geben = oy 16 | 
' 4 
SS ee a) Oe eee ae <n ~1at Hoenn enn ad is oe. esi ES 
; i Qamarak Tewa.l 
A P a i Fa Sis : . : ee Ba) ie Ea aR eee teem is. a iS, tat. loge iatte. £) 20970! 
i ; j jaws, | Semewwe teqat)| 
BER LOGE 18S Be iduare io ne, $. chctk ce jolt 1) seord) 
A. sa scars RMP inion tBind.. nats Shia 1 Moe A eR ak ett a eae al 

KY Sua beat lou 

aS 0a do eee td Aood| 

aos es 

i } Bees ; 
: As, vb. sts oe Bk SUEY i Pir eer ee Saad, 
j i } H 
aS ary Es tl sr aise eee OEY at J 
i j aa fla} 


jEadS jth LEB 1 Be8 IB Ble)  oeet motte | 

= erent 

: a | Sinks 


to stream type. SCOUTING FoR 3i) ShK 

8, With, dee, feet,of Live atem,per pore end wee 01d Quehes, witha 11.7 

That there is a very infrequent occurrence of Ribes in the 
uplend except in the Brush and Meadow types is shown in Table No. z, 
In all cases the portions of these types coe aibes are contiguous 

ae a Aiacsvieie Waa 


Table No. & reveals thet of A @rees of stream type within 
the protection limits, 4, containimg«7é:pem ent of the totel acreage of 
this type, had been worked to less then 50 feet of live stem per acre. On 
ong of these nonMiver were found,:. Gne other. S showed an average of &, 7 

toanan m totelof J4.5 iti ves with dS.@ feet of Mve stew geramcres ° Zhis 

feet. Th . 

Seedling had. Of £Qot of live stem and the ies bush 4.2 

indicates thrt Ribes eredication on these areas has succeeded 

in reducing the athbem bopulation to few singed] dmsher>per: daitiines: Of 6 ei ‘2 

two regione 
two small unworked stream type sreas of which a part of each is 
within the border of the mide-wide pro tectiiom eres Were Bisco check dai” -* 
These. eres; denen ont McGee:Creeks, support Ribes on the lower portion 
as follows: 


Lie es 

Of westera Hontene,  Thase eases 

cosmia River and the Deer Greek, Gol 

vVGee F aon be 7G 

t; -Bangeni Gr eek, ' fdreti®trchains containing 0.6 of an acre; 12. «92 feat: 
of live stem per acre, hee 
Ho evidence of infection was found.on white pine, wud ligat ar 

soutGees Creek,cfirst S0rehbins* containdiay: 1. G:eches; 924,547 Peet! oF ayer” 

Stem ptreabte.Pecis iver near the Savenee Nureery, 

involved; > prébebly 12 t6°U5 Beres, “{s' #o"s 

Bechusecthese! border’ line concen iFetton® sre £5" neevy) ‘Tt? sens 
advisable to Pebove: then ee en Pad ed feet wee 

‘thie toter ‘acrénge™ 

: : 11 thes thé erdcication task” 
However the behneft t8 "derived weld be imueasurable 

if leaving these concentrations resulted in fpread of the rust to. the 

nursery which, #8 shown by our studies et Cheekye, B. C., looms as e strong 

possibility. Another adventage which is importent is that by removing all 

the Mibes from the entire length of these short Streams, the source of 
Ribes seed would be destroyed. 



Checking costs for the Savenac Nursery protection area were ae 

WRLOTL OM. ono s ciao side vee a $1206.78 
Transportation Zxpenses.. 6.44 
Camp Subsistence........ 2 0080 
Total (charged to pro- 

ject 4.2)........«$168,02 

Checking cost per ecre,$156.0z.... $036 




4i of weal to aaservepoo Jnernetiat yrev « @f areas Jacl 
Baldsl wf sw aauyt vobes Sas decrG ad? at $qeons boalgs 
stoi tiénag S¢a abdts walslegios esr7s ememt eo anot Stoq @Aj sekao [fe al 
org? maets B62 

oie eget mest eseta Sate Ya ded slgevet € ,oW afdal 
namanos Loscl eff te taeg tog OY gatatedooo .@ ,adimti acttestoxy oi2 
ite way wate opti Yo Geet Cl aad? sael or Dettow med bal ,egyd aids 
*,2 to @ sere ee bewodte GS ~sdie eff  .bawolt stew sed om esed? to emo 

* if wtte aacneod Ofe 8.6 Aew sto 4eq mete ert te vest aye détw egeisiges 

syct joven veg aet@ srif to Jeet -e.6h atte sedi: G.8f Yo Lato? « to est 
Ss can Afo odd Bow hate ovil ‘xo toot «te 3.0" ‘bat pal ldeee ope teva eas 

Agbeogace Bad Bakers osedt Ah nobbest how aed tesdame wed apibet - pret eest 
sores Ted we fend higae wet “sod gah “asseh ages ssid annie ed nt 

aD ra 

to tag 9 aot to Rg tD Sieh: “gets bestoene Fina pea beet 

ateads oale stow gots solieed ow obiw-ed ke eat tooreptod per rere 
WOkTL OY GI¥OL OAs fo eds sroqquR ‘pulgetisetol Dey Raauall ano bao ST 
ts ame Fok mune tewal Lok. a3 

feat 05,80 potas aac toS.. satakadnes rabatin ‘eee genty. Ligands pelea i 
sSTSe tog mess evif to 

,@s ~aetos &.f aatniasgace sateto GE Jexufi fast sevow 
: Poh ie. A Ai —eiIog Teg were 


sugea 31, Wath of 9%y ascléaay season oat mebrod séec3 eaygoeh 
saqo tag Letotieadi: weedeat wietes fobbs aa ss aps ov OM13'E ad ‘eldaatvbs 
deo) cobiguihets eat dant thane ee eis gebadsea Gf of SL yldadorq .bavfownt 
sidaweceseh. sd hivew, bevictely ed fteued. oc, (tevewDR  ataetg od) dom, blapw 
sad of dant odd to, baotge af bedivaes apolhiaténsonos: orga , grivasd af 
ENDER G Be BCOE ew A. ,otiea dd rape eeibusye wo. qd pega Ra, eB SEY. Yio atern 
th anivemet yd dadd 7f, Jandvogms at pote epeticevis Tedd Dit « yal Ligtesog 
4 eonses ane ,aanetds dour ‘emedd to dtgsel ethos ride nen: kod Beat 
ake coutHe S ad, bivew hana nods 


£8809 | 
Be et in sOrined og was rer 235 sievae © eas tot waco wtoeds “gu | 
: a be :anoLio® 

Ge Qed (Bis win a+ de anal ne a ; ov r 7 

HH 8 Re cr rs Go FSi togaaart Sear MRT een, 

03 05 ns .....e@nete lade? Guay | pose ieataahey 
pa Ge “Sagrsds } taror i ; LPs. AUR bebe fe BS 4 

ta) el G0 ARO » oes? Fae, 
Bees * Se 

OE) 8 2 cee MEE etsy 94 eis ga hioes | 
a £68; * a: ell 


mat 6 BH, Johnson 
Adtecinte sins esl, et 

Seduting tn northwestern hieat ath wes conducted at intervals from 
‘@arly spring until the close of the seasom, Several members of the 
Spokane. office assisted in the early scouting which wae concentreted in 
the region of the Savenac Nursery, 

In general, scouting on both vines and Ribes wae performed in 
two regions of western Montene. These were? 

1, the st, Regis River and re tributaries from St. Hegis, Montane 
west to the Idaho state boundary. 

2. The Missoula River and the Deer Creek, Gold Creek and Blackfoot 
tributeries of thet river, 

hs CibRSa DAME NE AF ad ag P5URE 08 We pine, but light and 
scattered infections were found on Ribes in the Dry and Big Creek tributaries 
of the St. Regis River near the Savenac Hureery, 

Infection found since 1929 on Ribes was light and seems to 
bear out that either spores are blowing in from the adjoining St. Joe 
Yorest, or a light focal point of infection may exist at higher elevations 
somewhere in the general region of Savenac Nursery, 


sels RE Senet 
anaii be wexfeormned vy “work Lure st “jae seh 

a RT e 4 

“Blister rust control activities in Idaho were continued as a 
cooperative, tie eg between the Bureau of Plant Industry end the Idaho 

State f PaeR 2 : ture. the Idaho State Land Board, ‘the Tdaho 
State. Bi of orestry, “the University of Idaho, the Clearwater Timber’ 

tive Association the Potlateh Timber Protective Agsoe3ation, the 
Protec Aes ee Protedtive Association, the Pend Oreille Mmber 

protective mmuceenes. © and the Priest Lake Timber Protettive Association. 

“ 2% 

MESORUOEROE ste) memorandum, effective guy r “7931 and to remain in 
effect indefinitely, is shown in the 1931 annus Feport. There are civen 
below the amendments to the memorandum of Wane svabting to cover the work 

in. Jdaho during the fiseal year 1933. 


Effective April 1, 194 


it yey 

= nae. § se ie 
IE) SAD ty 


Cooperative Work in Controlling White Pine Blister Rust in Idsho. 

ee © 

The undersigned mtually agree that the memorandum of understand~ 
ing between the United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant 
Industry, and the State Land Department, State of Idaho effective April 
1, 1931, to continue in effect until March G1, 1932, shall be continued 
fin full force and effect in all its provisions for the we riod April 1, 1932, 
to Mareh 21, 19233, with the exception of paragraphs B-5, Cel and D, 
which shall be amended to read &s follows: 

BeS. For the period April 1, 1932, to March 31, 1933, the Federal 
Government in behalf of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Plant Industry will expend about $14,200.00 in connection with 
the work herein provided for, 

C-1. Bxpend about $6,000.00 upon this cooperative project for 
the period April 1, 1932, to March Zl, 1933. This contribution to be paid 
into the Treasury of the United States, in such installments and at such 
times as the Bureeu of Plant Industry considers necessary for the proper 
proeecution of the work, and to be disbursed by the properly authorized 
officials of the Bureau of Plant Industry. 


eres apiece 

SB ex Senntines wre ofaSl af gatt fridge Lotinop tear setet ld 
onsil sce or2 eteusbeed justi to waete#t edd meewted toetoig ertteteqoos 
oes af? ,ctsod jogd eded? oaebt eff ,oum lwolagéA te tnomitaqed edatt 
tedmi? teyectseLD ee ,odebl te wietevial wd? eyettestel to brsol otaté 
ett 5 0 fiatookah avliseido (. todmt? davalios edt ,seoltiatoorsaA syites¢est 
seduts ellistO Sas eit ,settelooesA evizestetl wsdaf? em {Alb sve0d 
weiseiooneds evlt@etats tedakt oted tasttS edd bag exoktainosas. ayiiovies4 

al gtomer ef bag 1291 ,f yin aviseeTie .maghaetomem [arenes efT 

vin atm ated! .atecot levame J6tl edd gt oeode ef jsyletiaitehal dostte 

Stow elf teveo of sofoeadetssag To axboatemem odd of et asmbnems ed? woled 
O2!l racy laoelt ad? sateeh qfabI xf 

OF Pia i, 

Ok er nen emcee came Len ON 

“oN en MUGB AES bia St 
Bet Lf. poieg or peameaas 
avi od. 
PREGA Tals SO Vea | AgUEAUD La, ig, eau tAwiEs 

: aed. BBS 
CHAGE UO MBate. , PM PAMET Glad Mate 

e8eh2 sf gaxh tadafid ent’ et idW anbilotiaed. at alrow poa-rnp ahgede 

0.8 @ 

wiedereSsy to aubastomer ety jadd eoras yllestom benatsishaxr adT 
framed Yo sasiwh ,siotlooiané to dnomttaged estad2 bedial edi asewied gat 
Iiteds evitostts otehi to atas® ,seomdtaqesd baed eteI2 add bas .ytsewbal 
Reneld¢sos ad fists .<ESOLl {8 dexrsk titar tee tte al eontiaos of eer .f 
Ci ai Itee4s Bokt ay oft tO eaokatvour att [Ie m2 toette bas eoret [Int at 
2 Bee [ed ,3-+-d edostaetag to soticeoxe edd ditw fof 218 doran of 
ries Lio’ x bao of bobxomm sd [lade doidw 


farebeT odd SES! 1S dowel ot ,SSOL .t Lbrga bobtveo add rot ef 

so1GiowicaA ke grométaye= sedat® botia env to tieded al jesmarevod 
ithe sotioennos st 0 6 .0¢ S.SI4 good@ baocxre [Lio extewbel daelt to weet 
stot bebiva my ateted straw eda 

29% goo Le “eq eviieicgsoo stds goge 00,000,308 teode boege .[-9 
Bier od ef goftedmPranes 22ht Ber git pret ed ,@89f .f Iliad hotteg odds 
fore 3G bes etmomliocen! doee af «aotade betiet eff te vrereasvd odd otat 
teqoty wisy tet Yiseesosg rrehiacoo yxtadial deel te meewl edd ee aemtd 
Senivediaa yiteqote ais yd mased af of bee ,grow sdé to aobtusseotg 
ridesiel gael to caeted odd Te alabortto 


D. For the. period stated above, this cooperative control work 
shall be performed rer: aunt he 12 anf@ 11, in the vicinity of Priest 
soon ae Pan ts 

y eh: ot ae. Sak tt Stet Hg 
the andere lrnad kan aire heres “that” ‘this Siotanion ‘shall 
take effect April 1, 1932, ‘and Gontinue in effect util March 31, 1922, 
provided that either party may terminate the agreement at any time by « 
written «tatement. to, that effeet 30. days in advance of the date of 

termination desired. 

marine Netanns 22. WR | Re cm ce 
Then 4: ie: , Btete Land Departsens, State. 

Lome me bt 
ateand? ne babeess be BOSSRBE Seakhas ex - Of, iets i jackin: an 
PRast iwminctyy. acd. the ti : 

Bho Meee Fess ams Li pete ei 

oma for o¢ (GQhfef. Muresan of: Plant Tas =y. 
yi Bk Ral B Be S.. Re.’ Piers 26 

PBA CLT eet an Bok BES 


9 b ieee a ye 
a @ a 8 Cay p we Bove ‘i o 
=e De % ar \ I ae > aa 
S rs 
~ - tae ~ 
ea 2 
i ig 7 ra ‘: v2 
e 2. 4 
P : fk ns 
a mei Se “he ve 4 
Ox Rekhodse 7 ee , 
af foot $ 
ee ee % gp rtiriey WI? OS GA Bo ae As ee 
ie aot ra syn | “* 
CBO peri o@eApril. 1. ites ta. Ns 8 Bree he 
e3 ‘ Aes t ? 
ne Ge. Wawa: a a Sere h & de a 
basin a a 
Whe dian oy r ate Rey Pe t. per. ae 
5S >» We mgt wb op 
eave “ » 9 SO me ? * | 5 ~ 
meant io tha peehes & fe : 
@ eta 
SS. * aan ‘ 5 cae +. o 
4 " 5 A 
ft a¥ PPE ‘ i 
wy Pz . oe we ss) “ss 
itis gS 5 ) : 
Nahe tt 2 “ 6 

oy tk 19 escite bolted efs sot .o 
- my iff Bea SS eiiow antabrow af Secrretron ad [lade 
pe toe: 2 Sale al 
tay os vilextim oelea botateteiry off 
Pe « - 3 eee f at ‘edt tos bes sooeL ol "ae isotts extss 
iremeoyaa odd ad offense T vem yseteg tetts Jadi Bebiyo we 
te Soneyhe ot 2 aa Gf teetie tedt of Sragidt ad Heesixw 
ettzel nofs artured 
- - oa s (& % i Ss HO gia of in 1SkXS &, 
4 abel” teed 28 et 
a ; 1 ER 

ey uaIVad Tce tows 
Cooperative Workin, Controlling White Pine Blister Lust in Idaho. 

* e ® 

fhe undersigued mutually agree that the memorandum of under- 
standing between the United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of 
Plant Iudustry, and the University of Ideho effective April 1, ‘TSS, to 
Continue in-effect until March 31, 1932, shall be continued in full foree 
oud contest: in-all ite provistous. tor, the. period April 1, 1932 to Hareh. 
a swith the exception, af L mabe B38, G5 and D-3, which phall 

4 to: read as: follows. 

Re2, For the periga April 1, 1932 to March SL, 1983. the, Federal 
Governmeat in behalf of bag United States Dépariment of Agriculture, . 
Bureau of Plant industry will expend about 411,900.00 im the devel opment 

ofrmethods: of blister rust control suitable to forest eonditions in north 


Gaby: aol pene 44,000. 0g: upon. this, ace RTe TREES, Hare for e" 
the + porto doris; hai Aes. bead Merch He: 19386... : 

yes 2-3 ‘That: thie: mmorendun of. waderstanding pned 2. take 8 spe: 

apean: ‘aye 1932: and) continue in effect until Merch 31, 1933, provided that 

either marty may terminate the agreement at any time by a written state- 

ment to this effect ® Says in eavanee: of, the date of termination desired. 

J rk SOPTS, ot: .2a La. tex ee ity 

Ree. _2..19m2 a ies ih ik sadist ci wth dina hi natin) 
PS, Tipe fs 2 eens Tans esis gi 

: Ohiet a Saree: of Plant. Intuavan. Ge ee D A. 

vx ee ee eS tie & id 
Hts, AP Sigh, COTS Se EBB Sk ESA 

ce4 _ a a 
i! MO BUCBAR Mex " 
ee! .f Lingh evliaets? ie ad f 
YTS CRASS “et sat EGE Tue. a BBS wh JOULE a0 eA amrave “cag Tu aut 

Tyme sO Peel Me Ue ye 
St “iigawvay 

pees B® te mi tasatié sais et hae set Efordno® at x0 ovtgaragesd 

x * ay 

~tehen to mibaatomest oft add sete yilertum Derslersbar ed 
to sae ,etutluntredA To teemiseqed sedet& betieU edd seswied satbnrate 
of JOOL .f Ltacd avtgssY¥ta adabl to yletevicl edd bas ,yrdewbsal saalS 
swte% List of Bsuntitwes od Slade ,S8OL . IS dowel [fiaw tacTte wi oumilsnos 
deytee ot SSCL .,f fhagaé bo Eten aid ~ct esofatvorg et f Ife mit tootte Snes 
ifade dota ,-€ sax GQ. haf 2 AQuerSat Say to gnokdceoxe aff diiw ,deef ,& 
tewolfet ae Beot of Sebmema ad 

favebet edd GEOL te mowett of8 SECL of fig Dobteq eit 1091 Sof, 

nomiteem! seiad? beatin adi to Banded af geommerevo? 
pmo Soveab oe + gt 00,008,151 teods Baegeo [ite wriechal tasi to waste. 

dives of woolitoaco testo: of elfdatisze Lotines Jeox teteafid to abodtem te 


watery bP agey poy: Me, de $e 

X02 foetorg avitversgoos eid mogy 00.000,)) Juode Aregqzl GD 
Sael «ff dotaM ot SSCL ,f fiugd Sbotieg odd 

soatte oxatd Ifede ve bonadeteiae to aebeetemem gidt gad¥ .o-i 
$mxizg hebivotce 2290!) .f6 dota fting tostte af enniiaes bas SEC ,f Tits 
~$jate satvieon o yt eold yea 2a teomeevza oft otantorte? yam yay tentio 
eriesbh pottantervet ‘io eiah oft to seaevhbea af eyab C6 Inet te dat of tmem 

ron, cdsspeias cM RTI OSE Serl .2 sae 
wadias i te usiexevial 

sinennenitrsaponpa iinen sive sie cloenyinorenieidicssn:ti so al Sef .BS .9eG 
At tf .U ,eetaobal gerald 36 oéengs& . tetas 

ee “ 


Ne Aleta 

THR UWI Aras 1 

ACN a 
Bat A ahd oly oat 

Cooperative Work in Controlling White Pine Blister Sust in Idaho. 

* 2 

The undersigned mitually agree that the memorandum of under- 
standing between the United States Department of Agritultmre, Buresu of 
Plant Industry, andthe Clesrwater Tabor Protective Acee@ietion effertive 
April 1,:193L, to -contitue in effect until Mareh 21; 1932, shall be 
continued inefull foree and effect in all“ite provistons for the period © 
April 15°1932,°to March’ 3), °1933, with the: “Sxeeption of: paragraphs” B25, 

Gel atid: Ds wg ager par be enondot rye pane “ae” follows: 
WhiGAaA ai sencek So sd 

“BS. For the serial keel 1, 1932, to March G1, 1934, the Federal 
everenentt ‘dd. béhal fof “the United states Devartmont ‘of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Plant Industry will ee mens t #193800: in  pgerar P With the 

mes: sneeei aim avideds sors wali 
ren Seced eet “plo, 000.00 upon this cooperative project for 
the period Aprileds 2928,cto March Sh, 1932:° ‘this ‘eontribution to be paid 
into the freasgury of the United States, in such imetallments end at such 
times ag the Gureau of Plant Industry considers decessary for the proper 
prosecution of the work and to be disbursed: ‘by: ‘the es ma ther 2468 
HeeetaA af the ARAM of Plant capepechih 

D. Yor the sauney stated ahere this cooperative control work 
shall be carn et on wot maxi ae apna ite 4 ane. ate 


ee “ike. ‘enlavtiansa mies rosttandckde agree that nies saetiine tsulinst! shat 
tale. effect April 1, 1932,,.and Gontinue -in effect until Mereh HM, 1922, 
provided . (that, either party my terminate the agreement ut any tiie bya 
Ane cor ho Abnt.effect 3S. days in advance of the date of termina- 
on desire 

St , Ose 4 vedbilai Atanas ceaeakdentivatton os 
the Treneurr of the United Ghaepwmter a hagheth vies, 
£2 the Berce Mm FZaRs 2s : a Ke 5 
ApEL122 61983 ne ped ¢ No, Ae: Baylor, the. gx parent. 

«Ghief, Bursa “of risks Takastcr. | u. * B A. 

TRIS Peers OM 

ages? of s24% tetekLS oak o98AW peti forded? af stot av Hateqdeo” 

” * os 

wteba ‘to sebeatoagn oud tant onme semmy of Laird rte bengletohun ad® 
to ussist «: ecg Heth te ig seghie Badin sat ssewied anthaete 
svidaeite tofivsioouad ovisaedoxt ‘tedmtT ‘etaytaots odd bas ,yrtesinl deals 
i [fade ,fS0f {8 dovelt Ittmy iaette at suthtito’ ot (Teel Vi Tbrga 
gale and 10% eaclefrow ad? (Te af goete: bua eorot (int at basntdnon 
a= Tiqarsine to Ac ttge 2929 odd athe’ *ouer ae fore ot {S8Oh Tt five 
tewe lot as beet of Sebnens ad LTate dotdw ,@ Srv Led 

fersho’ sit .889f ib dora of SSO! 41. Lites Kotwe oti tot .6-8 
,oted Looiwes To. tus “syed asiade horted ant to }tedod wet tomaned 
ads tte aotdssancs ok 08. Bre iwods wos Tite qtevtnl Gnefi to wee 
| Veet bebiwo a — ies 

xe% doatoww evidategoce eldd moqs 00 000, 01% tecda Baegxrd .[-0 
bhag ed of Ho ttsdiatae 5 etd? e808 . fe dotelt of vr gi af pin sain ang 
gove va brs 2) 20 wl acest dose iret setadé ‘bed inll edt Yo yroanet? 6 ae ott 
racouy wid tot vreapsced etebLanos yttashal tealt te usetsk edd es eonld 
box ries d ps “iran od yd beemsde FR od 02 Bas dow alt Yo. so Linuosactg 

eke bipuertg ~ arcane ane: fone pg 
» forines seritaisqobo efad _ovede hutate eerie atts am 3 e ‘ 

Of fae & gf et bor antsliow mf ao sender of iad 

flede : gle vise aids tact sotge eikiicitars wal bow aiers baer oft 
ide ot a weet Idder ¢ostke ai opatioon fas SbCl ,f Ibagh goette salad 
aod ek: eae fa ¢rempetae ald obentuctos yom: ercaer ucsld to tad? bebivetg 
~mtneres “Le stab a0? % Sonewba nt oenh OS ssoYte gait ov Smemesade neddiaw 
bertesh aokt 
tides sina econ igobives _eeppmbi stg... Pa | Seek ef Liacé 

Mobimioewed “evitostors tedat? reserreld 

his ec ore ccna SOLES, ht aE S8ef,S8 Lirga 

wb 2 08 OY .pedaniel tealS Yo seen , 7 ido 



| defective Apri} 2.1281 | 

ei St Soy ee 

: eng Work in Controlling ‘White Pine Blister Rust in Idaho. 

ch 8 CR + 

_. he undersigned mitually agree that the memorandum of under- 
standing between the United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of 
Plant Industry, Potlatch Forests, Inc., Milwaukee Land Company and the 
State Land Department of the State of Idaho effective April 1, 1921, to 
continue in effect until] March 21,1932, shall be continued in full force 
and effect in all its provisions for the period April 1, 1932 to Mareh 
41, 1933, with the exception of paragraphs ass C-1, ets B-] and F, 
which shall be amended to read as follows; ... > 

B-S. For the period April 1, 1932, to March 31, 1933 the Federal 
Government, in behalf of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Plant Industry, will expend about $2,100.00 in connection with 
the work herein provided for. 

Gel. Expend about $500.00 on this cooperative project for the 
period April 1, 1932 to Mareh 31, 1933. This contribution to be mid into 
the Treasury of the United States, in such installments and at such 
times as the Bureau of Plant Industry considers necessary for the proper 
prosecution of the work, and to be disbursed by the properly authorized 
officials of the Bureau of Plant peenatne 

Del. Expend about $500.00 on this cooperative project for the 
period of April 1, 1932 to March %, 193%. This contribution to be paid 
into the Treasury of the United States, in such installments and at such 
times as the Bureau of Plant Industry considers necessary for the proper 
prosecution of the work, and to be disbursed by the properly authorized 
officials of the Bureau of Plant Industry. 

Hel. Expend about $200.00 on this cooperative projeet for the 
period April 1, 1932 to March 31, 1933. This contribution to be paid into 
the Treseury of the United States, in such installments and at such times 
as the Bureavu of Plant Industry considers necessary for the proper prose- 
cution of the work, and to be disbursed by the properly authorized 
officials of the Bureau of Plant Industry. 

i ie 
| at 
| | 
} | 
} p 

Hy Hi 
Hi |} 
hi ie 
i | 
‘ i 
\ hi 

omgh Bis wd 

ie AMS wh lt Reedley 
OUBE BOs Bow Us e ie 1 ; 

oieet of tagk weitekl® ontS et satilerwtaed af act — 

-~giwuy to asiwetosen eft ted sentae yliestom beagtetebew oat 
ho meouut ,ouvdigorsg’ te isemtaqes eetese hetiad edd neowiled grtboads 
att Sin Yooumo” bral sestuswill ..9el aadeeseh doteliet .yxtashel teal 
ot ABST «i. Liege s pitoetis CtRbL to eted i odd Yo trantecg et baal etete 
sores List at Desatines od iinde ,BBGL ,18 toreh (ens 25e%te a) enattnoo 
desea od SHOT ,f finah Sobven edd tot snofetvoueadt iis. ak ‘toolte baa 
me Res fant! ring paw’ sa aelguet ROT AY he: no lsgeara and adke. qseel ,2t 
iawolloy wh meet of bob boven og ifacis doidw 

factebe™, ade Sel... B dows of iss BL ok: tisk bortec alt aot! ans as 
,euoiigeivcaA te tromitaget redadg? Botta ods to tiaded at’ Senate’ 
Atbe nettooaten «cf 00.00C1,86 tuode basgxre Ifiw ,yrtevkal sosl4 te oxetet 
10% voageabaadin siered sirew el? 

alt toh -ageheta oy 2) wixdig@oos shat Ro “00% 00a mere bint! gan! a 

ad: oben ni beghiend with BOL fo sore os Feet yr Thick nner’ 

dow: i base mineulladert does at (wstase Betta’ ofa to yrsesos? ode 
soqeay edt 40% winesunan exebtemee yitevinl taald te” he tof ett e& shalt 
bssivodtas vluscorg odd yd bos tedgiD od od: bres. etew 644 Yo Boldwgssore 
ere inary be cyl oy to elatoltte 

ead ~ot septo ty avivetsyesd ehite . ao 000° ae on “Kerbepett® irae i Mei hs 
Stay ot of notsatibronos vig? S80t ,B seveti ot SERL I Lhege Yo belied 
dowe de bee eteomiletca! dove wk paeted@ betial ett Yo etvesetT ads odat 
THOR add tot YIsevsoen Stebiaaay wed were E tral to westu® edt as: ‘gémts 
how itedina. yles erty eS TE bastude tS ét of She’ Show sik? "e" ‘go Ldgees79 
wertaitiel tenkt to meet” aay ‘te ainkottto 

atid? uct doatotc evivetaaoes eta’ we GG .O08e daode buagnd [=i 
otei blag ad od. coldgdPeteoe what: Weer 1% dprall o2 SE9L »k Ebvo bokrsy 
semtt dows ¢a es eteicntfadve? fede ab ,eotede Sediall of? to yweeetT odd 
sno tegot¢ sid “ol YUeraessa etahiacep rd aebitd ineS4 te cpotem ets a8 
beg ttoutos tlrew 1 eft yd Setoteks oo of ban .alsow- ‘ed! Yo wok Fie 
ventemict daard to meta aft Yo alatet Tio 

The undersigned algo’ mmtually agree that this memorandum of 
understanding shall take effect April 1, 1932 and continue in effect 
until March 31, 1933, -provided thet: either party may terminate the 
agreement at any time oy & written statement to that effect & daye in 
beige of: ep om of tormitnat fon desired 

- Bo SRE OS OEM. by has GP Faweths Mresweres 
pane ; wa mg ith re “Se PotLateh ihgal et Tne.” 2.54 om 

Sittation guek plaan e e.: Bi. sonder'eon, Cenoral Venacer a AER a, 
Unitied ys Tog ree OF Milweukes ‘Lend ps ge of 
SPAN SSAeti aw «| BE OHA. « mE Tt 
AL 8 Bore's,2 speed: svGbe Forint Jo ltbovots 
J & State Sand: edema ae “Btate of idaho. Pers 

a Bae 

er nn 

Ten! 1By 193s) 9 06 cia, Were’ &0: cob iS ed pFalt that so: LaieL Se 

Me isin phe Chief, gdh ‘of Plant haaieey A ar cr ee 
wh 7 
arog é 
Phe vry¢ ; 
& & Wh Sh & bas 5 ‘ 

So gutwesionan itd dats aaekee yifaitom calle dengtetoban 91% 
“ew? geuconed Bra Shel , i Eivgs toekze ogad ffadae: got bee dertehes 
it odatisena ae thraen Beye en tost hobivete 29h, 18 dorel ftiaw 
serie gas od Preornseep cisd Pee & tig Suki. Yow fa TremoeeitT se 
erteas aciteatoiod to stad ond to eOsarbs 

tosueget? ,tieweb 4.2 Me a. ila 
on, ,stpotot astaliot . 

tose Tove te® | gem a bees Cy 
‘queue bora Sesion thi PORTS BRS 4 

tect? ieee ee ee eee 
Stadt Y seapiaet bea add sable toonBbgp sib Sacheg 

oo ote 2 oat Seek 8s ‘oat 
wU yideshak $oal% Yeo ae tnt! ste ff m2 isis 


hor her 

i eee “By “oe y Sale ae 
Charles. W. Waters 
Agent. nF wee 


During the past season the Ribes ecology studies. have been of 
necessity considerably narrowed in’ their scope and, unfortunately. little 
ortunity, has been iver to continue investigations along the 

“have seemed in the past to be very vital to a better and 
clearer hipeters ae of the control ‘procram. Due to this unfortunate 
situation. such plea ¢ as have been laid in the. past for an. intensive and 

robram of eeolbeical investigation have beén, it is hoped, only 
temporarily abandoned, and in their place have been substituted certain 
general field studies which seemed, after careful . deliberation, to, be..of 
the most. tanec lite. steer ‘The “gutting down of. “bhe. field’ personnel ‘has 
madé Such stud 8 oe ot x “Limi bed in their nature, bub. nevertheless 
from resalts “obtatned aPing’ Ulla ast: seagon it is felt. that some | 
important data have been secured which may have Some. teegane in dtrectine 
the ath J progress. Of the Conttol ‘progrim Oe ew x 

Eel aee he! ‘pertod “eine tna last “peport has seen the continuation of the 
Seed Storage Studies which were initiated in 1930 and carried on in the 
winter; rust ‘laboratory. at ‘the University. of Idaho by Mr. D. ie ‘Mil: ef. 

ny tong ‘methods and ‘Pesults oF. thfe haf as. “well a8 the | others will 
be Sart Paasteuetty; as follows: 5 oe 

pron. tp melon $6 Wee pease sidly.” ae so oe 
6 ESB. Steady Of Effects of Cutting Methods on Ribes Seed 
Germination and Seedling Survival. 
CG. Effects of Closing-in of the Forest Canopy on Upland 
4, Rives. 


Og ‘purpose “of bhi,’ tl has. Yeeeah ‘been outlined on 

Annual Report. ‘The results of Mr. Miller's work, 
a eetnpla, are herent th were 



SEIGBS CHAIN, GRE Ws Foeogooe exert 

eiels® .¥ eeluadé 

ry Be wa t cis 
Ae de 
to oved eved selbuge ypotess adil oat cl jst pet aie ssctegiegr bah 


MEL eyindan sick toy .See egos afect af Sewottan yldateitenco xd feaeosn 
wit ‘wols euoliepigaeral aeehieos of geyig peed sac yilasiaeqge on 10 
ban te igee “o ot tadiv wav od 02 Jaag odd wi bomoes ovad dolde seat I 

aid wees xeTew aia a azi .aevzetg Lotinon ef? to anlbuastarehay stetesio 

bos ovyfeeeda! ca tot é¢esq ott af Bial.meed avyad ee aaelg dove soliauvtte 
“Cin ogo $2 .veed eved sodtesiseevst Jeetgotooa to margote belt tin 
etattss Astutliadss need aved enafq thad’d al bam , benobasda yiitateques 

to at ef ,fettwtodiieh Ltetes aadte .beaeer dobsiw zeltbuia bielt Istencg 
PALE eee ke biskt ett te mvobh valiédeo ad... soometogul etatbemmk dzom edé 
s2etectesven gud .eteten siest at Botint!l <fnatheesxe aelinge dowa oham 
ance ted? 3f67 ef Jt sogaee Jeeq edd antaah Seatedda et [vex mort 

settoevth of eomesTtet ames svad yanuioidy aerocgs ssed eved aiab tnatsoom! 

.matgotg [ortece add to vain aah emiot odd 

edd to acktanmitues stv meee ead droqet deel ots canta botteq ost 
of? ck go fetexren See OF OL at botatébut eves doldw watiotd esetose bee? 
ereflfid © .C eM ed ofabi te yteteviel od? ga qiotatedal dest wotelld 

a J 

2a Llow aa <hote xidé to divest Sree ebhodien ed? 
tawolfet ae yfferbiythal gw meciad ed 

“third? esetot? S908 oA 

est aot ii noe aboitel amidgaO to adostts Yo ybute .f 
aviv apt ibest baa cobtanteres 

anelel ao ugowat feerol sat to af-anteaci> Yo stestta .o 

eed hh : 

ae Boxkiteo seed vheetia aad ybuta efdd te eeoqum Ieroneg off 

»Hvow aac IlfN wah to stineat ed? .dtoqell faumeA HCl edd to TS sgeq 
eteseetg Atiwoverl wea .ebodiew afd dttw teddegot 

sued -Qurminaton:ftny_of_ beh Sees: storeé s5 ane 
voris oa be Haws “as Bar Se ee ok 

She disp: to keep the fatee pears SRA epee tne Sd 

gi tei big Uaticoy @6 diemeter Sena ob Forester 

& sear wt 4s andere? ae | nie Bolts 4 se ee Pike | 

se SeRippes with a Fofnch 3 eTRERCDUCETON » 

stinignd evi Le ne Neered on Lee og a 

The purpose of this dtuay was to germinate all the seeds con- 

tained in esith ofthe duff samples which. were @ollected throuzhout the 
white pine: yelt of horthern Tésho @arine the summer of: 1951 {see the” » 
ecdlocical portion of the Bnnival Feports for 1930 end 1931). and tovidentity 
dach eodine a’ befne either » Bibs Or not & Rives. The identity of 
ch ake ‘eet wy area ama Mpc Bo viet rm results: could be 

a Ae UES ahs OE 

bs ge a Sas HCY ne tyits vie ey 4% 
iples hat been’ pees asi idee nee dntH WeRas OF f20m 
6 twenty-ftv autee Gentineters off perticles’ sinilar 4w ‘sive to 
§ seeds ‘were left from Sach “dricinal ‘samils. These were pldeed in 
“vials 46 ee ent ‘them from drying’ olt ‘a “few drdps of distilted 
wie u's sample. “As soon as these vials were received: 

tte | ity 6 * i : fe pladed A 5°" e “sor ktee ss aaite? ere ‘they 
_ aunt 2. samples were Winer Seieathdieher it ace 

gensh # ayers. were 948 durf dumples. “Tie penetra es re wou abt 
£ at -. ‘time; Fn svadeeyy two riie were necessary; 
ce scent were run in the first set and 376 in the second. In dividing 
iter the two runs the A, 3, and © samples which represent the 
pig e atlais end. lower la vt. of duff, respectively, were retained as 
. ef oF each area: This ‘procedure’ “kept the’ tWo” 

Hin eRe tetra 

eA “etme oF y PLAST Br 

& $x pie m 4 $ Po as 
hi] ne ae a7 Taz et kt Ree we eat 

ie Bie semlee,y were 2 atpped ie weak sulphuric ouaty solution to 
@ germin.titn. spec d was necessary to speed us 
Laat pa a8. hi Ln the. = time make ittjoeerbte to remove the dipped 

ro “without ‘using mote water for washine” adhertnc” 
sistiines’ Peat eis walle than that’ needed for’ moistening’ the sénd medium 
Bese alee semple was germinated. The dipp<r is made of sheet copper 

‘with a pure tin solder to avoid undesirable corrosive 

effects. it consists of a short section of a cylinder 1.25 inches deep 
es An tots ihe ‘walls turned in at the Tower end to 

mpport a. fe he ottom. Ba false bottom is & 40-meéh Gonper sereen disc 
lered. on sopoee ‘Ting Whose outer @iameter 1s slizhtly less than 
of thi stat? of the dipser. The sereen Gomee flush with the outer 

edge of the ring insuring as ticht fit and, in addition, giving a flat 

ait 2. Betegy aboot sud 20-bit wotdiatmnas 

“ate tite 8 i 
%o tass re 8 <0 beter 

“808 abeos sity if, edeniorcs of BRR had e ‘aids 6 se ogtig. ad? | 1k bettas 
ssuitt batgolign oyew dsitw eelqmas tet odd to does, ‘at Sanies 

Sie wal Bs 

et? so) ISG to tammos afd sabreh odabl gredixon Yo fled suta et tse 


viitasbh od frig, (IESE ben ObOL <o% edueget fauena oct AR, ¢ 
to eektaehi oat Gls © Joe se cadls 3 tert te gated BS. ae 
ad blues adtaees add tuls oa aeold te ae vi Aa ii ba 

res 3. ww a $ 

gern’ x sourley 2 Lites Aeasetoe bas. elie "ini bad ae on “ 

ot ake nt aufinta aefotite: te atatemtines ofdim ev 

nt Beastc otew sasdT. .algrsa_ Sagisivo dose io x% aise Bbse 
bolligetl to steth Wek a tae gat, aext, mad? ineve TAs hag alate Ifa 

_ Bovteost ovew elaty ceedt- ae oe BA. algme eg dae ; atew 2 
ved) svade todmeds etudatequed .0 @ et beealg stew ¢8 a yroterodal adi te 
_besnal etew lea aes shi Lisas boakemet 

tod Binow etedmeds nobis tars: & oat Be. Bhd, ant etow ore 
; Tee sed on atse anit ows eliteucessoo omte ‘eno fa tapoma re ide 
agPbiveh ot ljoome ols. ah aXe Sue dex dasit add gh ou ozew. eolguss svs 
wif JneRetget dotde zufeawe 0 bus .f .A edd east owt ons, apt a9 qmag, esis 
sa bentedet siow pares polation Poh to wregel *“ewol bas m , Leqqsr 
owt add daqesl strebesotc 2fil .a6 th dose 6% sidterog 8s sedawea ai seve 
SS, aolgmax to ates 

ii aelgnaa to satuats 

ot settotos Stee olisdoivn Aseow « al bene 2b 9 tte ; @a tomes aut’? 
on heege of eieasene a eaw weg gakgeth fatseqs 4 .néftsalerey etalumtis 
bec ki sft evommt of eldieeog 2 solam emit emma odd te Sua en ets 
Be aes uridsew tot tedaw oxvom eater dud te brat ast ert » Lene 
miriGen Base edt atinedetom to% beboos ted? nade 
neades Sends ‘is sine! ef tseclh ptt bad an teres ete 4 soar 
ovieervon ofijartgebar Rlove of tables at oe a ditw me Wits 

qeeb sesion? 3S Loca vobetivo « Yo metdooe dxore B to efakemon 31 .etpetto 
ot bus towel odd ta et bowsud aflaw dole  tedemeth gt sodomt @.5 bna 

ouib xeeres voceos daew-~Gh «2 at modded selst edi .nodiod extat s txeqque 

areasit seel yfdds*ie af cotemet) retan exodw aclt teqqoe talT 2 me hbevebLoe 
sede ott détv deslt saunon asetoe sd? .teeekt aff To ebtemt edd to taxl3 
felt m aeivin .wettfobe of , Sea t8t Jotehd a salovert gett edf Yo egbe 

Se ee 


adt mo%t eefotized 

Se ee ee ee Ee ee Ie 

reper ese 

BE ee 

anenese wenten’ ean ve studenpel éXeuk: with a epatila: A’sping wire ring, 
with one end bent up and “fm to faeil ttace its handling, is ueed inside 
‘¢ne dipper to*keep the false bottom in'place. The 14a is a copper dise 
@lightly ldrcer in diameter that the dipper and has a: ‘eirenlar band 
“adldered on ite ‘undersids which holds it in place by friction. The dipver 
4s equipped with @ F-inch straight handle while’ the 144 hae a weap 

‘shsiped Tinndlé ‘goldered”on1té top. me 

Bach sample wes placed in a dipper and then imaereed in & 
4 per cent solution of sulphori¢ acid for five mimtes. The seeds of the 
“speciéd of Rides witch were expected to be present in the samples preferred 
@ 2°H6 10 per cent solution of | sulphuri¢ acid ‘aa a germination stimulant. 
‘Ae ‘the @eéde my have Yemitned in the duff from one “to several years, 
‘the seed Goats would ve materially weaitened by decomposition, thus oat 
mikina ‘them more permeadlé to thé acid. The 4 per cent solution wag used 
‘because ft was thouzht that thi¢g concentration would be strong enough to 
stimilsate germination but would not be strong enough to injure the. 
‘eubryod of ‘the ‘less protected seeds. The dipper wig splashed about in the 
#obition to insure a thorough soaking of the entire sample, At the end 

of thé five minutes, the sample was drained for a few seconds and, after 

being washed with distilled water, was placed in a 0.2 per cent solution 
of potassium bicarbonate. It iremained there for ebdout a minute; then it 
Was washed again with distilled water. The potassium bicarbonate vath was 
used to neutralize any acid that micht have adhered to the seeds nea the 
ern ms et ae pr — —s — 

Rr By ones oilnattiie 5 ances went Seep were pike fri petrt: atenes on 
sterilized sand which had been saturated with distilled water. The dishes 
were thens tored in the 10° C. temperature chamber until all the samples 
were plented, A period of 43 hours was allowed to elapse from the time 

the | last sample was planted until the set was placed in the alternating 

ation. This delay allowed the seeds to become thorouchly 
ete, before germination % Was attempted. 

?ttne “25° OP Gay: obit 0 G. night ‘temperature diab et Was used 
Nitinde ‘the séeds of the Ribes species which were expected to be present 
preferred this combination. The samples rommined in incubation for 4 
months etvine them one month longer than is usumlly aYYowed for rermination. 


Ro SB Raney Sf « 

The seedlinss were transplanted to specially prepared dishes as 
soon as they Wee gcorminated, (It was not Wiways possible te transplant 
them ‘tumedietély ‘and ‘sometimes they were a week old before the transfer was” 
made.) Each sample in ‘the chambers had a corresponding transplant dish. 

ee Fis 
sa SE 


‘od 4 

so pioutarrss to": bewo fie « eciaaiaay amt posed, baad, canes - come peel ates 

sat etly cette A -aitege @ eitw aeekp Seen ae: 229 do hie epative 
obfent Beas ef «Bnd Chaat eff atai fies of of Bae oy taed bao eno di tw 
sath teceos 2 at ofS oT epee ak eodted sels? ade quest of toqqkb add 
bread veiuects @ pad bee seqe¢th edd merit vedemekb at tonal ylidghlea 
yermlb eft yes oixt vd onelo at 3? abled dotdw ebtevebesr aff mo botobloe 
.fteate & gad SEL edd olide ofitiad aegtette dont-T a dtiv Seqctope ef 

wot ett pe bexcbios eloeat beqade 

¢ gt Asevomut asd me soggkh @ ot Devinder eae viguse ‘Gal 

if? ‘to abeen off .ecterim er it sot Btes shomickie Yo cottwle ho me, iy 4 
berate ‘gq eolqmaa eat ot tagesta od ot baipagne oxawintsy aed! ‘as ieega 
fraternities wottantnres a as Sine siveteloe Se mekguloa troo tg | Of ot Ss 
wisest Latovex of anc novt Pioh emt ab bentemet avad yon ebewa. Pcs Bh 
avg ,xoftivonueash yé Semeigew ylfatteden ed bluow aison baey ocd 
psay gaw aot tufoe dn09 vee 2 af% .Blee odd of aideesrtog vtom medt sat 
et sQqunse urotée of Sinew wobtodaeemos efdd dadt sdywodd eqn tt eeuaned 
ods wastat of dyson sadxte od. tem, diuow tad. sold auturt 9 sialingiy 
ie nd trade bedeates ean togg?s o@% .ebeee bedostere, eeel odd to koyrds 
bee ods JR solowme othine add to natiisce dyuotods eoenk oF motdel : 
tests one ebdo0oR at & wt booted eer signet Be ,esiockm Gy? sf ay 
corston tneo 197 $C a ok bonele aaw yietew belitiere gt iv bedeor 
¢? wordy cedimio 8 Ixodes tot axesd bentaact 11 Buodtehig a Beal § x6 

gay dated etscodtcotd avleeator edt .tedew batitdath Paw aiwsa becdeew 267 
ots veits abese 981 of betodhe oved tdfeig tals. bios {ne estloigen od bees 
sae DG4G a pibesth ae bettas, allt ‘iene id ‘eee 

eo eedeth tudor ni bonsla exew ,bomgth. ated aha’ a din $e 9 
eadaih ofT .votaw belfktalh dtiw Setatotae need had’ dotdw bree "seabed 
asinwee ee Sis [sas xednais sytatscmed .0 °O! add nk Bored @ red? exew 
aonb’ sit wovt osgele of hewelle gow exuoa &2 to botseg A .bedaslg etew 
wabtarresin oft mi berate eax joe ad3 fktae betasig saw olqmae gaat odd 

qlisuotodd gnoaed of ebseg att bowollea yalob elit en idagd 

Lstesesia env an aaina sxcted Secmvle 

heyy nen cottantdaos suuteteceud diate 2 ce baa tab s Cae ost 
txusetg of of Setavars ote doldw antigen aadif aft Be aboos odd { es uanaii 
N not totdadwomd at bomkemo't aelomse ef? .cotdantdenos ya be txete te 

os eotehh dovnqexe yllatooge of smopatge aps o198 Pcie: oat 
inaigauesxs of ets lena eveslx tom eae 223 - pbetaclorre, | #% 

wer. ae henert add orcted Bia soow « ote" sedi. iM ‘ienon Sana , fois, ae 
igth donlqese:) guthaoesorvies a hed etosmmle edt af aliquam ae 

This was done to prevent the seedlings from losing their identity. The 
transplant dishes contained four creme of air-dried peat which had been 
neutralized with calcium carbonate. The seedlings were watered with 
distilled water and at intervals a few drops of 1/2 Hosgland nutrient 
solution were added. It was necessary to make a special transfer rack 
with trays to: facilitate the handling of so many dishes. The peak of 
Sermination was’ 2venched during the second week of incubation and gradually 
catgpen snd nn ie ent gare ea no. a tang cana non when the set was 

wt gy MAL ge sani’ Sty sehashninted ounanes the: ae@iiings Satkeedne cme 
dhasittingic: wfhis mortelity was probably due tosevere! factors. Many of 
the seedlings were of species which are very delicate and these would not 
stand the shock of: being transplanted. Some of the seedlings were injured 
when transferred: or during the care which followed. case too much 
nutrient solution was added thus ‘taking a heavy toll. Dampine-off caused 
most trouble: during the first: part of the run as‘there was: little, if any, 
sunlizht.: Leter some sunlicht was availeble nearly every day and just 
before the rum was ended this was augmented by a powerful electric lizht. 
Dampins-soff under those conditions still ae some eeoralecoment wut —T a 
amnea: ste of — — ae Se Agee 

2 Ket Sak 



ay ns iad hare tea meultined: were, rds rantil ‘they. were: laid std li 
ty: aun vats: @p Deine either Ribes or not Kibes. Thie could usually be 
done: after the first or-second peir of Leaves appeared. fhe srowth of 
the Ribes seedlings wes continued until they were larze enough to be 
identified by species. Some of these identified seedlings were pressed 

$0 as to have a permanent record or cheek, but they were too succulent and 
little remained after drying. . The balance were then put in # preservative 
solution and although this. decolorises meemes ~~ are hs Uae: nt gre 
bia en spt 

a LB 8% s we Tees eR ty emt Ayes ws 
‘ SALTO t 

ware wheres tote 

giivem, 9 She veg wig ~evenen ra the he sehah tices. ‘eed 
in ‘the first set appeared to be satisfactory, as germination cecurred in 
more then70 per cent of, the dishes. . This statement is justified in that 
the, contents, of several ofthe dishes, in which germination had ceased, or.- 
had never oecurred, were —, gi dg Ph shane: eae beset fam, 
if; mada ola sane amine 

iy aie yah Pe eEAey ae 

To: insure better results in the second get than were obtained. in 
the first, several: modifications: for the care of the seedlings efter germinsy 
tion were magic. They are as follows: 

PW Se 

fe \) 

off .ytitasbt tied? scfec! mogt sanhibess adi inereag of enob sav einT 
assed ga Sadfiw jowc doivh-acte te eeate. tect pemisinos. esdath snaiqenatd 
dale Seyotew cues egailvecp ef? aatenonsso anviolep.ddiv boadiaciven 
toeitigs Soatzset GL to aqo'th wot # elavresal dc See totew bolligath 
tins setencts Ioicega & tga ef YRareqoen gaw 2] .behbs etow mofivics 

te sesg 2G! seco te Re Oa te maki head sig - statilbost of eyed dot 
eliaeiwms Sos oe tieinoad to dese baopee any gaitad Sedoget, eaw sotieaianes 
saw gee o@? sete safettmone esw so téentueroy og vWieakeoetqg. Litas Soeasaged 
sbeonkinoos £b 

~aerd, piso Lie? ageck (heen edd LENORE. leweus. yet fag-rom. po Be: 
Yo yea .s2oduet Ioreves of ore yhdadaag van gi ifettom: ehat: . pulbbeie 
ton. Slow pence \ae atankic S ytev exe deiie coltosge. to sxew. eyst freee eat 
bouts iat atom existlape edd to omed Belaelqeuant gated to aecds. odd baage 
doris oct-pans eto al .Sewotled dokdw exe off satu so. betreisesext sonw 
beaven “tesantqand lied yweed « nelaied emit bebhe, sen aedtoloa: teebtiun 
yee Pie eset eer etait: ce net odd to Ine tack? of¢ aaiieb elduexd deo 
doxt fem yah yxevs yiteot sléziteve eam tdatiawe smog teteG  .ddatiove 
wJHgtl etitosts futreser a yd bedmenyes new eld Sebne- ede set old etoted 
8 ving tod yitiacrom smog baaso Lilte aaoltingss esadd: “tebaw Nos jatgqusd 
nr atric eho a! raped ial on vad 

i he ce 

| Sayowe oytel otew yet edie neers enee: cwguibtt oe actrees ott a 

og ~ifawer Bion #248 .9ed2h gos ae eed 2S todd io: gated es eehewesea 64 
%o Adwoxs. off .Sexeeqe8 eeveel Be ttag bnosee tooJeTIT edd adits enck 
ad of Uanoas egial ees wed? Ihinw Bepgtiace asw egniibesacwedts oat 
hecretg svew ema’ fSeee Seltiimeb? seedy to amoz .seltoeqs yd Hol tignebl 

hee grefysese cod exew vedd tut Moers to beast te come ee a & ered @2 an 08 
avtiavresesg 3 mi tag ned? erew seaalad eff § .at “getts Aentames elaeis 
yaeiostetses [Live #38 beads oe ane tan Fane aidt sarodtis bas mortulos 
ONE aoierds tn jal he 

oy f oo 208s ne 

Siecies)' cpa ree ae 
Gin. ie bes 
in ae tints «At 

hears eaciiiiacs getisnisrres off bas. yaoceTr metals exitaa ‘od 
gk Serteoes wotientariey. 8% notosteliae ed of Heseegge@ ee. ‘Setkt acd ak 
Jatt ot &sititast, st dacumotage: gist vaededh ea! to sn09) tot, OF nasid, avon 
to ,beaseo bat golisnienog doldw mt sudeib eds Xo Leverage te, stant 209 ads 
cwet bus anel ead 9 tednar, box imexs ylintesee stoe bet 

bwewot = heme Soul 42 

ak besiatéo exon somds tee dnosve esd ai gaiuegt nary, oaventt a2; i 
aiiotes 20st epehipere adi to ate aut it, axotsoal Rion Largnas: ett, sis 

_ taweLlok 2s oie yee. ome tow. wots 

1. A mixture of three parts (by weight) of peat which had been neu~ 
tralized with ealcium carbonate and two parts of fine sand, were used as 
a transplant medium. These were thoroughly mixed and then placed in the 
autoclave for 90 minutes at 15 pounds pressure. This was to kill any 
forsign seeds that might be present. After sterilization four ounces of 
Suigul.'s forwaldehyde dust wae added to each cubic foot ‘of medium, Forty- 
eight hours elapsed before the medium was used to allow 1t to become 
thoroughly saturated with the fumes from the dust. The fumes are toxic to 
damping~-off fungi and helped to prevent their spread and growth. Sand 
was added to the medium to make it more porous. Peat, when used alone, 
yueked down and prevented proper root aeration. — 

2. Twice as much medium was uged in the transplant dishes as was 
used in the first set. Enough distilled water was added to saturate the 
medium and then from 50 to 55 grams of the mixture were placed in # petri 
dish pressing it flat with the thumbs. ‘his greater amount of medium 
helped to prevent excessive ~~ aul at om same time ih sin pe so better 
anal aiadenanaiareh kn be : 

vee The. apebladieins were Pisano ced the Sig abet meatine cpus ott 
(Im the first: set they were sometimes allowed to remiin in the eerminetion 
dish a week before being transplanted.) It was found thet there was less 
danger of injury at this time ae they could be handled by the seed coat with 
e pair of tweezers. ~The seedlincs would become extremely succulent if 
allowed to remain in the germination dishes for wore than 2 or 3 days, and 
were Pssst 6 to. serious: aryine: oat: a aviary Sepa to fea “en — 

ory When hes first weodh tie were pincea’ an a en dish, one 
Prior centimeter: of 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution was added’ veeease:t the 
nedium doesnot ¢ontain any plant food,’° Then, in order to keep plant food 
availeble, the seedlings were watered st 2-week intervals with 1/40th 
Hoaglend solution containing four parts of ferric citrate per million 
parts of solution. This method prevented a contentration of salts fn the 
dishes, thereby eliminating mortality from this source, The teedlings 
were watered hein: — ane nw —— axeteiye water" to saturate the 
mai yee et 
Boo the: young pilthbece were is a fo hours of sunlight or its eqiva- 
lent each day. “hen the sun was shining, the rack containing the trays of 
seedlings was placed in the sunshine, A strong electric lamp of from 300 
to 500 watts furnished the necessary light on eloudy days. © Sah) i sht not 
only aids in the manufscture of epee — but a6 eg tg sed ‘srowth of 
—— aahis: on the: med ivanee a 

pre] pyres ‘4 feral: of. these: ahenbes} more than four sande ae many seed- 
lings survived until they were 3 to 4 months old than had lived in the 
previous set. 


en oped bed Anfcw gave Yo (ddfatee yd) eteay sends te easttieca der 
ae fig oxaw laces ax?h Ye aang owt be edemndtes metolas 6) he Set iont 
sid ef bsesle wade tee boxte yinteoted? erew eeedl  .sudhon daslguders « 
yous [itd of axe etd! .steeeeny ahewen Cl ae eetuaks OP tot evelseios 
to ayotwe vyot coftewifietsads setts .doesece s8 teigde: dads eboow sgionet 
a9 vat wubban te toot side dacs ¢¢ debhe ese gamh ebgdcb ion ol o!imems, 
social oe Gl = of Susy ecw acthbem edd siotad heaqgals awed tdgts 
od gixst sus equant of «teuh od movt geet edt ite Sed o1stag eidgeetedt 
baet .divets ets bes xg Lisdd daevete of Sugied baa ignvt Tro-gatquab 
suols Seas sede , 348% .ecotog ete@ 32 salen oF wertbon ond oF 50bb8 ear 
| neh enroute soot cst tigi ~~ nero. ames 
aan pa ee@dnt® taalegasds edt at doen: ‘gar. scdhenitenbcent: eoant: & 
mis etasudag ot shia pine tegaw beliteeibd Savont .dex datht edt at pov 
rater @ at Seasle over otetzie edt To enawgy 30 0d 06 moth sedd: badumibem 
nusthas to Janes setae: wid? .adeudd edt tiv teaft cb aatemerg dekb 
cogged Bedi feteq smti omen edt da. ane pypeciey sel ani aeeretg of beqfes 
ori nan Se ane 
; Fee Pree Pay 

-hetseges afohies ans % Te acti pine ah piety ere Hgienet ic ‘eh 
gottertwros oct sf ctacot ot Bewelle gentdempe oxew yods Foe Jewkt add nt) 
gesl wee arwnitt tad¢ begot eew-dl (.hetualguaged onted -reted:aleow = death 
@iw dex Sega ett ee belinsd sd Binca yadt ea smht etd ga yiaimi te seqaab 
*s teefesces vlowenee amoowd: Biyew eset ibeee edt seidiseses te se beer 
tra yeeeb é te S mesh atow so? eedelh meisentatey ott abvatanet of bewolle 
seth moge Be -oF a seul ‘ear =e eno hise ot — bigger 
any Hath tealgenet? & ot” rn eter Gant ene torte ‘eat ‘gee’ we 
ald Gapaged bobba uaw aoltstiod Iasitivn bawianell S\f Yo ‘isdentines | ous 
boot dualq cae% of tebtc at ,xad? .bect taal yam aiagnee tom geob mak Bee 
f2G5\i Atiw sfavrosa? deow-S te botesee otse ageiloses ang ,eldeiiava 
wmokiita tay etattte sbewst Yo adtey wet aatalsiwco solizles bastgaok 
sdé at atfee to nebtartaesaca a Bstcevere bodter eit? .wotsnloe Yo adrag 

price ff bisects vais eos elit movt wileties nctlenimiie eietad? ~ 

ast3 of a¢udes od cater Halistels SONS shone: anten uitae mee bototaw er8W 
ai  owragee 
~®VEioe ef? t¢ bésitoue te eae —G 8 pare gisew see pane, ‘ont: a. 
ts gueee ef Swinladned Yaer wed. Sebolte naw muse edd wedt .yeh does salt 
SOR peeee 6 nie’ sévtoats geoves A Vonkieoor odd mi beoaty aew wast ibeoe - 
fom ¢detineg? .eveb vbets mo toshl yaesessen oid fede tien® et¢ew G08 od 
to diéwots eft shustet cele drt boot tater ‘to outset edt of ehia ylac 
mythser adt oe ebiom ane keatet 

atean Yriteas etakt tt edt otom «eeRnede: ened? to tieeot oe eh 
ae ant See Ss beck: gay OTe schhare: * bis be ae. Lee aabin ineul ‘@paat 
tag sare bret 

- mage ~ Seeds. a: sve four: ‘equmen ‘pesos of. Rives found. in morthera 
Idaho, nanely 5. R. .wiscosissimum, 2. Laquatre,.&. inoyme and 3. petiolare _ 
were gerainated. aleng. with the duff.camples..... These seedlings were used in 
identifying .the unknown plants tron. the duff.samples as being Ribes. or 

uot being Rides. ..2his nethod of identification left Little doubt as to 
the identity of a Plant @alled a Ribes, 

Miss teas: “Rensbets. 4 the ‘Petuovalts ‘of: idaho papers ko make 

the. identisicatioas oe ine second get of vig gre 
oa aus wt 

ih “gabe Hon: > aisens he total. i oh saeaiinga, ey ic tas 
she lis mate by age class of thertimber stands and oy @uff layers, the 
number of samples collected from each duff layer were equal. There were, 
roaghiy, from five to ten times ag many seedlings germinated from the 2B 
layer as from therA layer. And, ln turn, thére were about five to ten 
times a6 many sé¢edlings germinated from the C leyer es from the B Layer. 
This micht be «sn indiestion ofthe ratio of distribution of seeds which 
would normally oceyr in each’duff layer. As would be expected, the number 

of seedlings germinated from each a mage cless decreases as the age 
of the stand increases. ag 

Ancahalysis of Zable Now 2 shows that: (1) .Ribes secede were 
weesent in wost of the timber age classes since seedlings were obtained 
from ihe 20-40 sgevelass to the 2004 ege class. There were two ace classes 
in which no Ribes germinated. (2) The ratio between the numbers of Ribes 
found in the differeit layers of duff is etatlat to an belweea:; the 
maabers ' owe alt preeery aetennaveny : 

An nlyete of Table No. 3 whows that: (1) about 90 per cent of 
all the seedlings <efminated were im the € layer sf duff... over 8 per cent 
were. in the B layersand only l.per cent was'imn the A layer. .(2) About 
81 percent of the Ribes came from the C layer of duff, 17 cr cent from 
the Bolayer, ani 2 per cent from the A layer. (3) Of all the seedlings, 
3. 42 al sont were Bi bes. 

aaril j table ea. ‘4 gives: the Toscana ib of all eocét ines aad ef Ribes 
nacklénas: that occurred im each age ¢lass of the tiuber-stands: represented. 
These cannot be compared directly as there were collections from more 
areas in’somé-ege elasses than in others and, atthe same time, the number 
of \Geineh blecks. varied for some of the areas, ‘here is, however, @ 
general trend for the ‘cones nave to therngieroct as the nerlestai increase in 
a we wae x 5 , = HE " ; % ‘ 

n eae, ene Wo. ag the the acres a potions acl pl in each ‘shuben age 


Seats sha 

cb ee Bi members 

_Arpdanos, wt Sect. 2eddh 3a aelooum nome ‘i ale in: ahoed. 
ehisg .2 bem erie .d pplased: A smopiealeonn ty fe .Vikeassiededi 
ra pie: anew maakt hase weed? Rel gue Vwt edt dt bw pao Im, b0daniortn yg: erew 
ie LER. phen as 2elqrms Stich odt movi aiaalg awomine. edd anictidmebd 
od t% dtrob. ols t2f-dtek nekacodeaebe \e Bosses eilf ..agdtd aeted tom 
sigh a bebo tae te - te: —— ty 
Ge apy Re eS 

stlat.of bealed odabi. te xo ioeeebell or 26 stademadsts: eet $ 

afi eM: Sei Yo én Lacnea edt te: vac Some SAgiedacinas 
i icinaiel SPA Sieg ee aca 
Pe sake ink ose 
et botenterieg ean ieee, Ba pian: vite yes palit eldest. iether 

od? wanoyet Virb uc ae ebesde vodmieo gd? to ekalo ops yd: alia tate 
| -sigw Stent .Lavpe-ctor veyel tieh tose aot betselies selqmaw to tedung 
Hi | & od? aoxt Sevacietes esst ibeas yaa 9s saat met of opel? mort peldguesy 
a te aod o¢ oy il dyods otaw ated? ,awed oi ,bed .ceyel A odd mort aa count 
-seyal € sd? moti es tayel © ocd aot? Hedasioces epatlidee gam es vemtt 
fipistw sioe2 te aolisdiateth te aites eat te sciveoton? ce ed ditabe ‘etl 
tedium wit ,betosgqre od Aivow @A  .tegel Tink goss «2 canoe gilainven élocw 
one ads ps. aogeeraed scien ORR: oaicsini mee aot Sadealorwes agetiiess to 

. fis oom scahanisineast etd: wen: “sp 

ng gig ato pakaiget ata Ms ae 

sree elese eadif a) tad cate & at ‘ele to abey lean mA ue 
benieduc etow agatibess esnia eevesin ege todmis edt to sro ae sane 

ase nei ane o#d oer ame! . meaty sge.-008 eff of exaie spe Ob.08 sah ort 
i | aGid. to stodmme sdz joeoibhundt often at? (S) Jtedantrss nedti-onm datdw uh 
we ait coomted tain oft. nanos ef tteb to ateyeld gretetiis odd at font 
1) ——— eiaanianie fie to seietnnee 

to Sao eg 08 ues {5}. jac swede & wok aida ‘te eerie ah eo REY 
iH fwoq say & teve , Tish to tegal ded? at esen Sotembeten enokiooer edz. Ske 
a toadA (8)  .toyel. 4 odd a2 eae do0eo taq J gine Soe sighs faa i aid sk snow 
| i mort taco tar TE , tee te eyes 0 ely mort amms asdiv odd ‘te tess seq f } 
,aeakltege edt Lis 36 @3 soyel & aiff mua pisis seq & Sas ,teyel & edd 
angi fi ener aca eet fhe 
eseka, to hea atari theas fia So. jeatiace oui ‘sis: 2» alt elas® aed Sasea 
htimvezqet gbonte tatinge ais to eaito ope. deme af beversoo..dadt panpresen 
. rom ment aselioelion svew avedd aw vifeoths Getaguc ad tonate opel? 
vedeun edd ,omly smse odd ¢s , Sou avoitto of sed eecgsals one: chow oe Bente 
a& ,tovewid .ef oeot? .es0oce etd Fo omom tet batwer exneld donk-5 to 
at Sgqegtost abosta ed? as cseoneeb og geagadaeeteg wiisot Sawsd LIetomeg 

jib eas i Nimaes rate 

eyes odalt Asee af belgnae ease To veda edd eovin G 10H oldat 

CY £2 
) ey 

class and the number of S~inech samples or blocks from these areas. The 
areas of the biddks “are converted sa Hite milaeres and then the total number 
6f seedlings end Ribés ‘ars computed ‘on an acreaze basis. ‘The number of 
Rives pér aéré varies from 33,429 in the 20-40-year-old stands down to 
2,176 in the 200-year-old stands. This indicates that for stands up to 
200 years old there are still viable Ribes seeds to be found in the duff. 
Ag the age of the timber stands increases. share is an almost uniform 
decrense in the number of seedlings per sere. 

All logged areas,-regardless of the ege class of the original 
stands, were computed together even thoueh the duff semples were collected 
from ‘Ribes-free portions and Amt hg age nee ae ae. 3 
‘"“@he separation of the logged lands or this age class. (as none o 
“areas had been logged, more than 20 years, they were grouped under logged) _ 
wes wade go that the results of the entire study could not be contested on 
~bhe ¢ri munds that the eut-over lands were not representative of tie original 
~ stands ‘end therefore the data were not comparable. Any vateran Ribes 
“bushes Das might be in @ stand usually fruit the first or secon@ year 
“following Togctng, hence there was a ‘posaibility of new sesds being 
‘disseminated befora the duff samples were @ollected, even thouch the area 
to-be free of Ribes. The cuteover lands represented sage Glasses 
‘of from 100 to 200 years old and, as only a few Ribes were ae it 
we that “Pet aad | slegely et the. Pr let praaee- 

ae. ~ 

one me rm | es as we | 7) v a F x3 
Ge Been OR Pe STR ak ee THE ce 

The laboratory portion of the germination study of Ribes stored 
in the duff, which was conducted at Moscow, Idaho during the winter of 
1931-1932, has provided the following information: 

1. The method of dipping and the 4 per cent solution of Wanaris 
acid which was used as a stimlating bath, were satisfactory as good 
germination was secured in most of the dishes containing seeds. 

2. The method of caring for the seed] ings following germination, as 
conducted for the second set, gave good results since about 1,200 out of 
1,623 seedlings, regardless of species, survived until they were three 
months old, 

& For the total number of seedlings, as well as the number of Ribes 
seedlings, from &1 to 90 per cent were in the C layer of duff, from & to 
16 per cent in the B layer and from 1 to 2 per cent were in the A layer. 

4. Viable Ribes seeds were present in the duff of timber stands as 
old as 200 years. 

S. The total number of viable seeds as well as the number of viable 
Ribes seed present in the duff decreased as the age of the timber stani 


af? .enete eeodt mos? mipeld wo galqupe ogek-t to teodame off bre cealo 
| indeta inted oft beads ow setoelia ofat hedeevads ers esloofd add to esets 
te tedum eff eh: wd S3ueToe oa no Sed, o1a eecit bus eantibeses to 
re st awebh eboade bib--cey-ObeOR ody wh SORES mott eerrey otha seq sodit 
| ot o@ thisds ze% ner setaotiat gtd? .obeiade’ bloinaey ~OUS eff ek whi 

“teh Bak ak boot sq er” thoes) epee bt oldatv: STite ote oe Ble ‘erase 008 
t eee tes eerie ma et etedt eoemeren?! ebrate cede ht ott teoems Sarees. 
Orne ie ‘spat Lbsoe’ te Dd ool wai’ at ar 


pH weer 

.iuada ecad? bedgesetger yleeeisee ben enotivoe 5e<t-sod?h mott 

adi to atom ea) aealo ona afd to ebesl Begnot edt to mole ee aff 
‘Sousel tehey Begvot, stew yond witeey OF wads stem besaol meod . Barre 
ao Setevgnes ed Jog Bivce ybata etivas etd to atluset edt saad 08 ebam aaw 
fealyren of¢ Yo eviiwicteatqer ton Stew ebasl s98we-teo edd tad eberorg odd. 
ols aaneter Yak cwalderaumen ton Tee ateb edt etototeds Bue ebuste 

near brogeg te Sevkt ald Glatt ellaveg Baste a ak od thot geds eorend 
gated avena wor to yeiibdizeory o saw etéid somed  setapol safwolict 

ote sid mds weve shetowlien exw esigeme Tih elt evolted botanimorg ts 
soesate ena Saduseenget abral sewoetep SaT. .esdia te sek ed od beteegae 

¢  botecinta: ater eedii we @ ylae es obne Bie assez 008.0%) 00L mort to 
ebnade iicrngies bro ota ldnierinlpaairi enn anh —* — oe 


a | setgafion orev selqnan Tih odd degodd nave tetiteued beteqmoe etew , ebaste 

: i i fantetue oft to saaim ape edt te seeibtanes 268% homies aie 

hevete esith te vhete mertaniones sir. to notre yotamdal eff 
“e tocr ae edd ortweb odehl ,wooee te bedoudnos wer Mo hew 4 hte oolh mk 
tno baw auikwo £Le" hdl bakeeeen aaai ramometere 

odsesiier fim %® asbibirine tobi aT > sit: See sxbeath te. Surton: suit 4 Boe 
foos an vrotoetetiae eter tad gattalutia a an Seen saw doidiv: poab 
beer Sethe TIED pole $f auld Ba) cave ial soni aw MOL tan hates 

Se ae eee —— 

ea ,aolvswtoteas ir bwo fL0% eesti thea eit £62 ophenty to: pert elt we 
i dH0 O18, Googe conte wt ieees Soo? sven fee Bwisoe eat to? sipmecel 
went svew vend fetes: Sovi Pewe eens tS: ect aent These 633, £ 
he — heer 

Sn nanan wenn Re 


sagi% to vod edt 26 flew oe .a2geblbeewa to. casleniee toe exis <0 & 
ay 6 nett .VWin® fe weyal 0 estont evew goee tay Of of 16 geet ,eunt [bear 
“eget A wig ab emer tase asi Soot f OE": scene hand aes - vind - a ~~ 


oe eboaie re tiakt ne ch Fave Bra we eesew ty ial ced aves staan? hee 
Be —_ - 6 Bio 

eldaty te <« in deiesh ead a5 ifaw as siniee ehtale “ie tesla Lébek: ott 2 
| beade xe dimbs att to win add ee Geeeero 9b bit nond wnt ok oo Ssoee ooaen 
| : coiniesianaens 


A aR a 


Pig Z As so many seed) inzp died before etles could ba tdentified, 
especially in the first. sebs the number of Kibes sormineted is. om the 
| bla i side. 

| TABLE NO, 1 

pe ae ae re en tt are oR Marne wr nt cnt es I ee en at ln een ntl 

i load serming tion by Duff Upyer 
a3 ce [fottlala | 
ear 38] 3|_ as 

_f total _| 

oak cs 

/befitinsht af hives yedg exo ted Both, Aged Lhosa. ; (nan. on. he oBe mr » 
es m0 2 besanini 5, sed hil 1%, Xo come, sete bisa fans? ed? sf iis 

Ege saeaen cai een oe 

‘ sae atthe 
te 3% 4 

dbase ia beehiictedri mentee. elas e. te ea 

iertunidlet arr reeled Bee uct amdarts 
 caamanaietemies matty wei Fs cst. Pm 
|_ Ad f tot Ok. 

= oe greta 
ara, 8 oa, F 


are W/W 


I ee Ee ep RE 

a ee 

gO ee Soe ee 

"simp Fo szeket doq ao x 2} UT peranozo UCTZBUTWIES ON, 

ST i el 
ae ae Ga Ga can EGE 
Toe. t 

Sse) poze | 

hte TT 
aes a ak ie 

aa Bg. , = = j ? 
‘ee: * Le oe ‘ : g ae -% 
m : . 4 q F 3 5 
oer : ; . ete TE Fe eo sen |: 
A Ta 
co) oe oe 3 i i 5 & oe 4s | sit HOI-1e 
: a a oe con Ty , *g 5x Oe ‘4 
; in ts Bad & - te ve 2 T 
> ee: : - = a 
ro » * 2 En . ald Py B 
2 Pe 

Cae aeseer ieee See of eee ee ll 

ON Teva 



Sit i 
i f i 
en ae ran np 
iE 5 : 

atc Bh ae a ies alate? 4 

ce f loa le teria et qe ee 
‘ wed Pee Bee Se ao FES Fee ee Ba oe ce mass meet ~~ 5%_O8e D> 
ies ete en ee eee Rea Bare Sai 

eH NN Se eee 4. eae ie ine Sie. L a 
. 4. wench ae a 

Eas ae Ribak Se ae 
; : } 

Be Rind eecce =e steeds +2. wd ere © so 4b -E a ad 
=e a1 a ue ce ue Jeaee eememmen oa Seieaans Saga tail avis See + 3 RE Te a ss a 

ee: 1 Gat Sevaieae Gees oe ee ee ae 
‘ied dies Gages pee oe ee j 0AM 5°) a 

a ee ae i 
ne a hess zen a ee b. AES, GOS TST 

it th ln he SEE SEES 
i 3 A Pe : H i BK r) Se ya es 

£ Ps ? ¢ Hi . iY ABU “ > 5. F 

| ; ee: ; a t LF gas ae ey p ¢ 
= sree cok AEE _ : 

. ree 
we 0 ge YS 


‘ he @ Class, of | ) oF ech Per Cent. or, Total: 
j er, Stands! $ | that were Ribes 

(ee A eS ase AV et 

Pte Rare: 2s 
pa ade bate de ey ee 
PN he eR twee 

Cacia hcp «ye yt ermine ep no ee Ltr Soh coe A 9 RR Nig ec RP, me coetramcmntet-* 
: aaeks. Ey Ses Oe 

| af 

his gpd: “s3er_ isds 1. _redif 

ree win Sed, BS Sah ee H 
eer plateiesancde patel ns SO A pe dt at ‘ 

f eee 
Seach oem Sipe spew rere ee GREER EN” RS see dn cic a 

s crigiecitset es Bsa iene Utes 

"aes aol 

wy Sierras 280% 

P35 ae 
[tin pie cs le. iD a be ee ae 
me son yor sins Operant is Digg age 

Co aS eae 

: Sas) 


TiheoabaeBitake MAideres aea’GeeAlanni by dea.Chaas! 
: pjeverytping unfor ID teeeae [Rides | 
Seed- | lings Germie | 

blings |Germi+ }Ribes | nated 
| Germi- nated a Sarel--| Ber = 

Age Glass of © 
sii.sla | 372.62 ail 53 | 33,420 

we i¢ . “3 3 ; 
é per Lge 
i bide 840). 120. 



Since it acaned inadvisable, under the present conditions, to 
attempt ‘to continue an intensive study of..the several factors which might 
be-operative in inhibiting or stimalating the cermination and growth of 
Rives plents under the several conditions, found when various disturbing 
faetors were made, operative such as clear-cutting, selective logging, 
fire, road, building, etc.,..4t was, decided to make a general field survey 
of those sreas included in the operations of theClearwater Unit of the 
Potlatch Forests, Inc. As.was explained on page 52 of the 1931 Anmal 
Report, these sreas -have been logged on a selective ‘basis by this company 
pn ‘the. idea.of supporting » sustained yield throuzh 9 35-year cutting 

This plan was inaugurated by the company in 1928 in their second 
growth white pins stands so that there are now represented in the areas 
cuttings for the years 1928, 1929, 1930 and 1931: ds the plan was 

 originelly worked out by the consulting foresterse: the region was divided 
sate, ‘the febloving types: vee i 

a true of 

good) ihe Pare: white. pine having 70-100 per cent white ‘pine. On such. types 
60 per cent of the white pine was te be removed, taking nothing under a 

JU ee prt erm © te enn! enka 7 lal RRR FRR Hee tne 9 AON Ra ie Ne deh ie ‘heya i nD ng diene A Seto 5 ee an 
F Si ellbieS bis aeon tbe ago ls ARO LE 
: bat ‘ 
z OS " 

eats eae ae 

Dates | | maepad BY 

“stay za uh SAL H 


{ sae 
' yee es 
barranichininey ci cle TALES, , viva 
Povtoten Stoo Sane ° 

mt | 

i Hy 1 

a? ,sxoid tines 4 cre tence acid Te hee ‘ateas ivieat ‘ak ae. esate. yt 
tipia totde evetoe) Lestaves edd to ybote evtanetal me est taaoo Od: dque? da 

to swots Ste at ttemteres ext onbtedamgtine to wabtidtdat xt ovitateado ed 
idwaelh anchtay, mere Baurot emotithneg farevee off ebay etastq & eadde 

2 Sfekt Lowenss s otiam oF Sehiges exw #2 . ote, uxkbidud baor .¢tkt 
edt io tinv tedaweesto amt te epeltexeqe art af bebwlont anete aeods to 
oa te SS aseg me Sentalexs saw aA .ool atestot dadaltet 

7d sleet’ ovyicoeles 2 a0 beage!l oped ovat saote seeds , drocek 

wet e800 “2O7-0% em demoted? bisiy bentatems » aeftroccus to epbt oft doiw 

meee Thad? sf Santen it yesomes odd yt hatsuesect saw salq abit 
enete SAS mi Seixezeuyet goa eta atedd Sadd ce sbnata eaig oe? ide ddwor's 
eee nalg. oy na 186L one CBOE ,8S0L ,S8OL etaey edd tot santeduo 
bobivib mew nofuers ast .exednero® anki Laenoo ot qd too bettow ¥lfantatro 
teeqy? asiwollot oct eink 

e Be 

osayt sory 80 .aahs stinw taeo seq OOL-OF aa tvad eal od-idie ete it 
2 Taber ankdjou xcisad .bavowsy ad od amy oak edlew edt ‘to dae9 teg 08 

uot oviinsIe® .Bnitdisotealy om fice ovidetees ham se siddag? 

ere 2. White ine mixed ‘types 40-68 per cent. white pine and 50 par cent 
of the volume to be removed, leaving everything under 14 inches |).2. 1. 

oe Be, Mixed white pine, type. 10-39 per cent, white pine, 40 per cent to 
be removed and leaving everything under 13 inches 0.3.H. 

4 fe Mixed, 0-10 per cent white pine. Not bein: cut. 

a sec Ek an originally planned at the beginning of the field season 

to make the surveys strictly accordins to the above-outlined types. By 
such a method, it was thought that perhaps somewhere would be struck a 
point in the logging processes whereby the surveys would show « definite 
correlation between ths volume of timber left on such areas and the 
mumbers of Ribes coming in. 

After. arriving on the ground, however, it was found that these 
various types were so indistinct and poorly defined that no attempt was 
made to differentiate between them. Instenad, the areas were worked 
indiscriminately, care being taken, however, to locate each area that 
Was worked accurately on the company map so that later an effort can 
be made to obtain a complete history of the stand, together with the 
company's data on the volume removed and the type assigned by thea to 

The results included below are only assumed to be tentative and 
will serve merely as an index as to what is actually taking place as far 
as the Ribes population is concerned followine such types of cutting. 

In addition to the Ribes counts, records were kept of all conifer 
reproduction following logsing and brush burning, On all of the opera- 
tions the brush was piled and burned. Mowewor, since on several areas 
brush burning had been deferred for varying pcriods of time, it has been 
difficult to designate the various areas according to cutting years only, 
since the burning of the brush constitutes as important a part of the 
process as the actual felling of the trees. There can be no doubt, 
however, as to the significance of the data obtained, although it is 
readily agreed that results from such a survey as this mst necessarily be 
only indicative in their nature. 


The method employed in making the Ribes and conifer counts was 
as follows: on each area to be studied, compass lines were run across the 
area usually three chains apart. On these lines, also at three-chain 
intervals were laid down milacre sample plots 12,2 feet to % 3 feet. 

This type of milacre was selected because of the éreater ease of counting 
seedlings than could be obtained with @ squpre milaere, On these milacres 


St Sy) Ogee ee 
i D 
4 ‘ 

ef twit fhe soxrt-Vf[ 


> tuq OG he siite gee tog Meth jeg exter exke oa hit 3S 
Yo asdect Sf toh antlddetove aatwael , Bevemex of oF omeloy edt to 

\ isee tee (2 sete ecitin demo cog BOL 4 eae: ante adidw bexIN & 
Ho. aopent SS sebey alse yteve ankyaol ban bevomet oe 
1 “abet Sek. ae ait, ia Tee, 04-0 gs = 
ge BOS i £% 34 

3 pit. Se saineieed ene dn Bourne te yliantaiyo aun, ‘i —s 
i snegy? bombivuo~ovods ott. od patiigbon yisoinds eyevang, oft sala 
| Hoeete ad bfuow syodereives agadieg Vass dae. Ons .gaw 37 Seaton 5 & dove 
affateb a wede Siuce eyersse add ‘Gieuc ze souseictg srtunnl edd Bf sntog 
at3 bee gasts dove ao Mel tedmds. ‘Te snglow at naswsad | metialertos 
ott Safwos souk ee etyonan 

ered tend Beoct sae Th 4) eevenost shotie ta ond Ke guivivis %S fta” . 
sau tqnestia of Iany conlteb ylscod tne doattelent ow stew ce er as ; 
gor soate ad? ,boodenl. .medd neowsed etakimeteTith 6¢ sham 
stanel eo ytoveved ,nedad sated-orao- stletantutsoa tbat 
sotat PRek C2 GEM YSsSgMOD edt fo vletersots belied eaw 
ae baste atid “to vrodeld- stelquce o aiatde 69 shan od 
Regus. att fre Seveuet omustev, edt, 50 stab a YeacIROS 

Miike ar, 

3 zinc sve woled bobmionk viinest eff 
foudee ef tare of ee xobel ne es Yfetam ewter Tite 
sre “etbwo Tie? prekay: Aco at aoltatuqog med ih et ee 
inom oyow ebiomet” gewed RENIN od¥ OF moi kbba af 
cpa bored neste hs ts gehen artes [ie ‘6 btouhornas 
Sayaka ,sowewol Seer Dae boliq tay dard ate enokt 
Ok ee a ofted gaiyist “Sot heres tab goog BAH naiered teartd 
Cad Bee Dae - esate avoteay add otnenhesh OF" SLi EELS 
eis wolrti¢gnon Memid ols to Sebatowd’ ens norte 
hae 5 eek oe ‘GAY %é gethfiet Cartas off em wbesc'te 
Bi tia ,beptaito agab sd to set f2 ieee sft ed ea yxsvowed 
fags Bad we yews & ieee now? si ivest dada beothe ¢ihhest 
tte edd ab ovttactint eno 

WD oy Wa 

ga thuos Shs gedit eak > are ek ingest Soits ian + wee LES 

pie Bees 

ate acorns gxoe gent! deans .betbrts sd oF -ee%e Rooe no meters ne 
beats do sefh .bowht oeadts a0 Scie Siete Gpety yiinwsn sks 
taet =.0 ad daeh © 22 etely atoms eqparin dweh BPA? egaa eleveetat 

antjunoD Te on Todsets oft Te sas aoe detosise eaw oroatin to aqydt aldt 
suite sada cO° .oteelin st.wpe: e Ae ker Reiccinicohedl oe iimoe! a Haynie tag 

were counted all Ribes seedlings by species and year of germination. 
Inaddition to the Ribes counts, separate counts were kept of white pine 
seedlings and other coniferous reproduction. It was not attempted in 
many cases to cover the entire area of each logging operation, but a 
large enough portion was sampled to be representative. During the season 
approximately 1,000 acres were covered by this method, representing 
samples.of all of the selective cuttings which have been made by this 
company in the second growth stands for the years 1923-194) inc usive. 

In addition, @bout.200 acres were saxexed on. clear cutting. besides nearly 
ge ok pps on railroad grades. 0094 

: 6. Data macékeps. on, ‘special field: form 467. @s appended and cach 
area ‘has been sanhaenbet by number. 


| The following table shows the distribution of the areas sampled, 
together with the mumber of acres counted Ain each case and the total 
mumber of acres eyadhed: 


exiese, to aaeg Sos eatsege yd epalibeer gedit [fa bedmwoo s1tew 
test srew etayos ateragse »Sinses ced? eft of motetbba al 
motte doc eaw ID wwelésstetgst avotetiacs tedio baa want Ibeck 
#2 ted ,sottereqs satagel dese to aote ert sce eit tevoo oF sone Ytram 
acesen sad abd ovisadtaesetqes od of be igus 2aw gotttog fagose agiel 
petiaereniett ,bodtss gle yd Beteven etee esrom OO0,5 ylodanbxoicqs 

“tie vd ham coed ova doidw agriviwo avitpslee edt to Ife Yo eelqmme 
wrisel ost Ge pareey, eteey ott a6? ehmate diwors, Becher ad¢ af Yeeamo 
elssen aehizad , ahd no vsein ao betevos etew geton OCR tercda@ .nolsibhe al 
enbern Seotilax mo eorel ter ef 


doso Eas febregas as T34 aot biokt fafooun m9 Jqvat etew stat 
| edna yd ee ome aad sete 



oye att to. nokiediuiels af gwode sldad gutwo flo? edt 
mt Bea asec al at Bodauce #9194 Te isda ed? dtin “edd ogod 
 betanda B9%82 “to tedaunt 

2 | 

WEBRO..f67 6/21/32 ZOOLOGY 

Data taken a _Name of Area. 
Location of Ae... 5... gl a 
Size of Ar 

© mw 

Date of disturbance 

ee RT em ae on ne Ne a nl 

a vee 

type of. Digturbance_......... Age of Original Stand 
(MARKS: au S 2g it i 

ibe of | eo ee: 4 | 
Gon if a: Special 

elLot ca 

ahs SH oh nnn Sn NeW Sh set eotitee... 

ee See Ser cen See SeenON 

{ A838: el is a meal chile Mh: ha | 

a eo 

eiiliesedeatti 8 ' 


S818 \a Tey-0AE iW 

one sce ner TSS: i OR 5 Bo ge a ee hd tianlian nae ORs Sead sadbanGl 
mighatetvnntritgttnde bagels. «item tinin aopiiinlon <ith a . dene cabin iepeicpsiadiiaicca-asiieaibce ot i ba ae gee te: aolénood 

aon twin hi to wey 


ne Re ee ne es 
pment here rpm pct Eines malian erat ta ain et | «+ Laan ese onan De 

sep tn elaine afi tm prema mat ete iy ea ier Zo armen ile Reap ie ie © neon. —veF bit = Amat llc til <i te poplilc lat fedaAS eaapa Sc. n 

rede Ms i carte a ll Raps “lacy «pene igre seine ieaiae Peat aten othe 2 

to event 

Ieee neanenan, eines din, Aa ated hrs ewes) eye cis a date ore ee Tet “ae8 
‘ ; i f ei : 
; ee TY ae eT a a ee ee ee ee eee i ae) uci ~4 
’ ; H 
i ‘ 3 Bs H 

Pane ter cm Ek ney Semem mee cme oka itt ec thon entra ree ins Aa nase 

I j ' ; { { Tees } i 
crear enw nna ning ntennnmtmnneh tte tna ee e or 

H +o 4 
bons raeennerin nahin ae awning abe tint a PORT te! RECON Sar 

Sener Ren nmaarheen 6 eRe ate elena noe Bae! ay haere 

room amines ate 

RR eR ee AE eth pen lg mae tetas Got at nn ones en eoussrpsthpe ale tah norma 

ede anise — 
}- A J 
ett tee Nite Y Ae mee AN mene tinh Wine aes eid te te Cae Rcert anne ab nee er nbeigatngatinence pig har reeemede 
‘ - 
aoeey da! 
we WR pate ee «nb mer Ne GAN RONRR Er ga N Sign se resent ohana et nn Site tence Lion scant tae ee cetera ace: [Oe Cone ~ 
; been r . 
i \, ‘ a : 
ee ee ee ; nt alar +o pa eatin pleees j es f 
th arene. ace <ccaei aamrmees wie senna is spo ore 4 stench] ete ts 1 AM Seton aes 
: i 
emit a cement A ne he NA Sa Ate ented pape Rig ae ls 
; i! 
2 i A mel i 2 
i ; ny Sua t 
rn eee wm bros nbarn mai ltne ao @. teint met ce cpeia Sih 4 
4 } ; ? 3 
$ 5 by i 
Fen vet ee ace eben BNA Ae ON ie oem sabi? suai Ua sets che nie mintmetyneiane Se 
peat rym ~ encase tn ayn ry aang tment 6 0 Fash te nik mya eniat (Nba -ntishicipnes Santa ais ptarecioa asi abated ae atest eine spy neaph pte 

See ee ae riod 

ict eSTTT 1 

ar! i 
oe - a . . fen +otes drerrapemn tamina wheactinnde nn: aia a “Ee j t 
4 t ‘ F 
‘ q week : 

4 seven cow tepals, lbrsemvapemte meine wjalenteng tae mate memset te AB ves thereat orm f ; 
LK i 

ithe ele shin diy others seers gee tl tbl ney Sipe Ra ts - * r 
¥ q f t f 

t i H 

shine een aD = ores enn h oy em pha s blag ard peanh ls eneiten Rant yeh atin saaitin SICK 5 

. $ A H 
; i { sak 
= . rcs pe in tle harass nth Aalders etd cg fsa cnab tg nbs aba iON Nai eA 3 nl me a 

~ RIN te omitne i matt sa Viigo eject my ett to 

- Belective 


ees Fram: the above. table Ae ‘ean = geen that tile acreage covered wes 
mak apportioned equally among the cuttings. for the various ssa This 
was due mainly to the fact that the Ribes eradication crews began their 
Work tn-the 1929 "geleeri ve cuttings an Age workee many "of ‘the die we Before 
a survey could be accomplished. The 1928 cuttings are limited in number, 
so that it was immoastbie to obtain a larger acreage representative of 

ba. ad © ame : 5 oF 

ne "ie cl eine-cat ‘ereas fepresented above were ais on the. => 
Clearwater Tiuber Comoany's tract and partly on an area known as the 
| Cardiff operation: Thig latter aren afforded an excellent demonstration 
of the. undepirable effeets followin destructive loseing. On parts of the 
ally every tree that had not been taken out for lumber was © 
later willed f:burning. Other sert@ of the ares where the fire had Hot. 
tense, still supported livin: trees. 1+ ig Ainteréatine to 
cea ese the fire had been less iutenge, there were many 
F on care such | BS. gases ig Sona deel 1127 on 

the ‘survey A very ; ips ‘end were so “broken. 
' , Hat ox 2 ae seteal ‘number of Biases: we ak 
sttemnt ‘ma eto bike actu > ee covered. Lae de 

ere 5 


acess Wag: Aust tae on aus wimmaiatigy nh 

pb hebaiy neha ree retain. TCE ere nt Ten vesne te aie es eercyr eile marron tihng 

evyideatet | ar ttoewta& eee vo svidost ‘in 
ne ee & 28 mobs t9 1 Oe £m 

OH ie foal ee | sea! 


x ’ 
5 SRA eat oe 
bal ‘ "a 
i a: n° a ‘Ba. 1 2B ‘ah 
i r ’ ; 2 } 7 

Be Sot Sead oe 

We DOIeSS AZacs 

ait gst oere an. ao ak = fdas ovodas as not. 

aka “ENE. susivay sii tot asyfgeuo off goog iE) beng htroqqas dan 
theif} sexed. we%Eo TIO fdeniSavw acd edt tadd Jost edd 2 ylatam eub eaw 

wing healtor dead Bes gaati tuo evisoefes MeL ot at araw 
eis sgrttige SSCi ed bedetiqmesos od bigoo yeviee « 
(et sQeetes xontal # nbsido of 2. cet gew ff dads of 
aes fedd 


vistas stor evods botimgenqget Beets tue- qaef> edt 
a agtwd Sots we ae yitvag baa Jontd 3 qaecme9 aod? veered 
somebh dnefisexe ae SeercTte seis todtal ela? \sottatege ttibt1sd 
“ ,“stouol owiinivdesd settee (fot edostte eldetigebay ed¢ to 
f et $s coXed Aged tom bad fall} sext yews Yllastioaty ote 
rr? off ettdy sete end to adtat tadgO ected qd Bolltxt revel 
oltestedak st t1  .asetd srivil bettegams: [Live eseneint oe reed 
ota! .S¢eegHrt veel awoed Sed oti? off ere vadt stavewod 2 OF on 
Gs acai ais si besovato as Stes exets BG .pioe tom gedit atom 
te tL SF ee ae ol aaivel és avatdy ener neteolfot od 
CSL dewnotode ye Beteityte ee tee gages ao ofkdw , bro 
tue OCC,S es srbeemew an howe’? eter aogte » heurtamet “ee 

aig of exh ,vota te erst nt Soickl gem ate szebaty haprt bax oat 
mecloxd os Gor che gaete Ese bcini x? ebam etoy ayprtwe odd tacit tout 
ons astosiha To aot fetes ahd ¢ine dans alll? bas eeghiad yd en 
hetaved eerhs peed ovis of Sham Gqnedea om bem aevig 


living trees 

logging have been 

. Sem pe — es ee x 
GB PT eam 

On areas such as this where 

ei So 


000 per acre, 

han pictured 

burn of less intensity t 
Rives are coming in at a great rate, as high as 5 



cut area followed b 

ort 193 


killed by burn, Very few Ribes coming in, 


W. Wa 

W. 1127, 




gig2i | ae | se5| 
 PABLE 10, 



Gf ad la AO TER aA OH 

Wine"l970 _| ting "sd2e | 

ue avi. | ae No. | ftv. Mo. | 

LOLA Pex Per VY Per j 

— Agre agree sete, Ss Acre _ kere _| 

wy | a 

i | OK imtar 
i! ewkdoefed (3.050) avitosiaz |-3n0 ovitoelee | ate tee raetd 
i 3% SOL aatsane | _- EOL t | ser | caly * 
| ae “ait | .elv oA atv A] | .akv AY |; wet | «LEM 

"iJoosaa tad len lean a aoIOA letoA te Tiassa, | S590, i BS TQ! 

pre iamnow 

i ie {aa 2h |b __+ ee es aa WUE ex Ale Bo ra 
U ; 


| Sat (8 J8 | Oa@ 4 eee et i a8 200 4 
/ °  ¢,90f 10.4) | @) | 3% | TE JO dh | Ove] OC |£1 SS 
OT is a dh... §2.f lo,.8a | 288.5 1 SS 
ef 0. ao | Sis | —a8__ [0.88 tt 

: i } : ; 
1a ORR ont eee are arene CR areetranN See (ni SONA OREDEON SOS eye —fee at 
D.GUS IS. JSS! saS.8 i O18] vst Ie 288 $2.01 aef | | 
= See tee 

ta | | peosSimn BRARESA SSR oh 

t | | —tevA 
| ! | 2838 
a | 124 
A 988 _ pears Je ige ee ee tet, sie i ——- Leases!  la.oss.or! 

2 “i TET A 
t 3 at Pe WLuate bs. 
Bosnnicrfeipetaan wnat, sah m eterno 


4 B89 Awee VOL BdeIs 

fiiselst! evitos les ‘amid ax0 tas £9 | 
a jOSes { mets uD | Sef = 

ao bom Oe emo anh ata 

} a BE ¥ wae { { ot Pa a Py | 

2*t.of =~ Ei 

bet x be | 

ish | if ga Y | 

| amok imersd| sta B9T9A | SIDA agtoA| OMe jnoted| 6 pn | B9TSS 
hl | saat iaaaiain Ramee >eominan paii<iptapeamahs Pomaets ee ee : "gn | 
| ATES 1.688. ig. tbat. 1O.B8 j0,8 2  i§.fe | O68 | Je | Oat ea. 

iq Valavanis 10.0aL.. 1.2L (0.8L 10.5% (Ae : 

Mie | osereonc aremancennonen 192d. A... cata ance pcre iO 9% i. 222 _ 16.2 | Seer ore Loe 

1048910. Seo. 510.025 osat a ‘a 

aS, eal [o.o% [0,28 aan 8.83. 1088 jos of NS eayractoes 

[ERE EER Care retcrain Aner reeere 5 aS —_—10s8L_ 1 
aidS 8 al! a8 an GSE iD. eat weld 


[- paige "TGleer Cut- Gut- | Selective Selective , Selective | 
Orades ting 1028 _| Gu | 263 

: White) 
Pine | 

Gro. _jAgr 

font thod they foro Bons 
178.4 2.0) 
: me PABi WO, 6 

Wall raed | Clear Gat | Sete Seleetive uy fF Selective | Salective 

tay Sasi ries | Other 
}: a | " Gonte +} i 
fore fers 

2 { 

Mil- Per. | Per iPer 


seers recat mpm gam in oral nS tn ta tle 

witoele: | sv Fits fob f 

eit nett SaSaand "<>" inesanene 
avit¢oole? | it oh gh 


ae see .cre 
eee Saree Sad ce 
ve a Gh 0 Nae ae 
BAP ig BY ie A ee 

SOS Oia tsi oe ae 10. 186, aa 

b 7 To ee ea re renin. wat . - es a Y v 
| acai =: wee oe Cera 
= teen -rrenate sit cipin =e oerhon meer nt arene oa oe inne: a nitude oe of See eee scaegag Bp Saget 

i o> > hy Baty red ¥5., i a ~ 2 : L ie Ts ; 

| a 
H i 


7 : 
i { { ‘ | a EE 
0 BGOnL PUN is! auee eet 1, AaTa I. ak $3.7 ae 


eer Lied ne tem e 

eis BES are “eerey we i HeEnTO Sea iMoo 

Fo ER OL RE Ta NE mn RO ES Ma PCI aE Lege nha mi tay CO RSL Re RCE RIN. NNN ALA NES 

av Boe Le: evitoe.fet J evidoe foi | | dad me 10 | beotite! | 

6 aubiee dL sat 43 CR BL. 5 4 85 ee eee 

4 ee o 
- ined | i 

go % 

Fancilaperp ein Gort nem 



We ey 
oY atte ha Se 


| Tables Nos. 2, 3, 4 ané 5 show the general results of the 

| Studies with the average number per aare of R. yisecosigsimum, ©. ‘Locusire 
|white pine, and other conifers on the areas surveyed, RB. » dolare wee 
|found in varying mumbers on the several sreas studied but since they wére 
| limited mainly to the stream nrens no appreciable effects on their - 
jmumbers could be detected by the various types of cuttings. 

Graph I gives a picture of what is occurring in these areas 
under the different methods of treatment. Gonsiderines the uw lang spacies | 
‘of Ribes, BR. yiseosissimum, {t can be seen that immediately following 

the logeing operations, that is, in the 1°20 cuttings, an eversge of 
1970.6 Pibes per acre was found. ‘Two years later, as indicated by the 
‘average for the 19°S euttings, the number hes dropped to 56. @. per, ache. 
‘This, when the area is logged according to the eclective me thee 

Compaping the average for the 1926 geleetive cuttings Pith the 
javerage for the “clear-cat and broadeast burned areas which were eut in: 
1928, there is 9, total of 2,274.3 in the latter an@d 56.5 in the forner.. 
‘While the mmber of acres represented in the two are not onite te Bere, 
\the average numbers of Ribes are so widely divergent thet they ard ‘bound 

lto be significant. ge co 
z ——— 
a: Thus 44 appears thet each year after the second, following log-~ | 

ging Recording t the selective method, the numbers of ZR. Viscosigsimun 
diminish rapidly; This is not true when the ares te clear out. Comparing 
the results in @ similar meaner for 2. lacustrs, we find no such @trikine 
evidence. While the mumber of BR. lacustre in the clear-cut ALORS. WRB s 
ereater than In @ny of the selectively logeed areas, this was du@ partly 
ito large concentfations of this species along the streams and is $n.8.5 
ery slight degree, if any, due to the type of logging process or Length 
of time followir@ such. For ¢xemple, the cenersl average for fede 1925 

cuttings was practically the same as for the 1920 arenas. 

| | Making’ s comparison between the mumbers of E. viscosiest mum 
found slong the railroad grades with those found in any of the types of 
Cuttings brings out in a striking mormner the effect of complete removal 

of the forest canopy coupled with ground disturbance.: When i. lacus tre is. 


compared in the same manner no such evidence 1s produced, 

Although granted thet the selective method of logcing a 
practiced by the Clearwater Timber Comoany appears to offer poseible 
meang of control for the upland Ribes, such as BR. yiscogissimum,’ #4 could 
Rot be recommended very strongly from a silvicultural eant of view if. tt 
proved detrimental to the inception of coniferous reproduetion, 
white pine. 
} _. Referring to Table Wo.. 4 and again -to Graph I, it is seen that 
the, average mumber of white pine seedlings occurring in the 18H cuttings 

Ses SUITES as oa i 
WES) SN eae sehr at 


Di TARAS Fe MAE pom aE SPO NC, Lk a 
HES See ae as stew Sain hoe nee ee 



etton, eapdcially | 

ait te ative: fexesea oct woe 6 boa? .£ ,8 .20f asldat 
if | ~-Suiesoas .2 smmminatgaoety .2 In. aoe. Beg a Sst agetove odd atiw ge thude 
| ae erate. tae 2 Doreen <ine neta ott go etetfeoe retite bes ,eukg etide 
| ston wads one tuq@ Sefthede eoata Letevee of! se exodaua gaiytev ak bawot 
il thei? ao ade a8 <t sidetoorqas Or exete. onetta ed? ot ylatem botdmil 
hy 18% aléisne ta, aoe am tisr sid wf batoetad sq era wen Coe 

f| eGtia enaly mt aes ayeoo a2 Gade te eruieig « nevis 1 qa” 
Te saqhecny baulew att vorbrabteae? Jesmienst %o shedtem taatettih ‘dds amhent 
ie spivoliot yfetathanet godt meee sd uso 42 vypptheatacoaty .2.20d£t to 
i to wgetewa me yaentdoes COOL edt at .4! dads semoktareqo gatgael ad? 
» tl ald yc patent ont ae etal areey owl cout ase s198 teq eodl® Bote 
i wetts «0 2.8003 Becqoth ead sademt: edd eegstddu GL at rot syetoves 
| i odd ea oetine. ioe. 8d we: panne anee. Seanol af avte est aie) ue lel? 
1 ol 

ane thin eukttaue eviiosine SROE dd. ao ayatore Pre, salsounsd - ae 
gh dim stew dnide gcota Satan Sasobaded Soc tee-teelo afd ot. agators 

| 1 i Jtanmet eft ah Ge keg geyiel ray 2h 8 OUS.8 to feted a wk oted?) 91 

i ,omme ot otiae fos sil ons rad 2 Sedwor sts t getpa So toduatr eita ‘efisw 
| feoed ata voli geid toontey lS clohtn 5% eta ead'@ to etodsme oarteva odd 

| aeotifaats.. cad 8 
| fet ,haooce adi tava Bes eae Tors ee $f guiT 6 

agiy 0 Yo gaodeeer act ,bodgam avitdostee edd of wrlhroeos miky 
‘ o wh xete otf code eord womml estat welbicat delaimth 
ampuliecte Seon ow Eats Bilal VI Upesk A tot “2p tbe Sets: selinin @ ak ptlivaet edd 

it oper gagnn tua~wielo af? af sxtegas, «A to “damm ett elit’ wauebive 
| pliusg eh eae 2 fa5 hopin boxne f a som ati ke weal aadd rodae% 

n | a ei gt bre aonetes oh) teole estooge efid to ero hias8 RSOROD. wgral of 
h | Ctage! qo. sgeoene wibaaer to atte ead 08 ous yee TE , osreb. dagife YVrov 
| BOOT ade cet eqetowa Ceeenes of3 aalquumre vol. .deme satwellot wmtd To 
naete WPL oli ach ea ouse add ylleotioany asm hits 4 

Pie bak 

fate ieah ee coe te Ab te orteitianane eed serwtad aoe fceggn 9 ee 

» ave odd Ye. Yan of Donot anode daly esata heot ter any ail ‘Sniao’ 
frveucn efeloeion to toekie 347 semia gatifety a ek tee agobed mambd dare 

me webcad ne? etghorin kh paoors” dake dekqaioy xeueo geored add ke 
hon seotg ee soak hye awa. ue Teena oe eid a painanpe 

ne aptpaot te bod@om evhtesivs ane tasks betrats eixgrosid EA geht 
idledea a ne to. of. cecal yisocmas veda? sedergecl0: ode yo boot tomsq 
adwwe #8 type Ee Steopely OF ae choo .endik Bewlqw ad? ack: fLotinaes ‘to. 
2 *? weby te apter fauwdtuotviin a mort qgaoties Yrev beiooamenes of tom 
yltsinsgee Kobsoerborgay einase Dian te Tote een tee hag istoomits 3 bayou 
| wanes od ete 

jets pose af 32°. % deed of slags tne } .o8 olde? of guivisted 
witsuiy MOL ot mf | SaneNROS & wsntibees sat edidw Yo tedmun eyerors edd 







8c6l Szé6l 
ind apeug 
13/9 WY 


‘aurd afly A 

6261 O€6l 826l 
ind no yn 
19S 8S 

4e9/) UU 












2e6l LYOd3y TWANNY 

8c6| 6261 Of6) 82él 

yn2 no nd jno 
eS) 9S 8S 

43) YY 


} Average 

| numbing 241.3, This includes only those white pine which were less than 

(P°" “Shree years of age and which for, the most part have come in following 

| =“Pdgeing. Comparing this with the cuttfuzs for 199°, we find the number 

| hag increased to 775.4 per acre in the latter. Referrinz to the average 

| for the 1928 cuttings, we find that the mumber has increased to 1,056.0 

| _,oge@@lings per acray: Assuming: shat; on the nversre the 19% cuttines . 

| *Rigresont the same PROTA CPMetians eayipr She.eustings made in 1929 L 
and 1930, it 4s evident that the conditions offered by selective Logeing iF 
were anything but inhibitory to the germination and warvival of white ; 
| oopidle reproduction. It appears then, that the above method of logging not 

| ““only insures a sufficient number of white pine seed trees remaining to 
} regtock the area, but that the conditions prodmed by such evtting methods | 
| ard satisfactory for the germination of such seeds. As to the ultimate 
| \,@amvival of such resulting seedlings beyond the fourth year, time alone 
j “tan tell. \Aside from the immediate point, it is interesting to note the : 
; large numbtys of white pine which were coming in of the railroad crades. 

i For example,\ the general average was 1,673. 6 pef acre for the total area 

| g@utveyed, \ a am . 

As might be anticipated, the othef coniferous reproduction in- 
cludins western red cedar, western larch, and whites fir followed about the 
4geme trend as the #hite pine. ~ f—- : 

in Grape? is shown the geaeral trend of &. viscosissinum, B. 

i lagustre, white pine reoroduction agé other conifer seedlings under the ; 

_  Yerlous conditions found during the’ pest season ané also a comparison between. 
their numbers in any\one type of euttine. ‘The averase numbers of each 
species on railroad crades are not shown in this chart. 

From the results as brought out in this prelimfnery report nf 
& survey of conditions ia the Clearwater region of Idaho, it apoears that: 
\ 1. Clear cutting followed by broadcast burning produces conditions 
|. favorable for the inception and continued survival of large wanbers of , 
eo Ssissimam and presents a serious Blister rust hazard. Other types 
‘Of @isturbances produced by the construction of ratlroad srades and i 
embenkments\are equally ag dangerous.’ . 
ors @, fa ‘ 
goo |-2. Certain’ 4ypes of select{ve cuttines such asgyacticed by the 
| Clearwater Timber Company ere Pollowéd sy moderate nuniers of #8.” viscos: 
the first or second \year following loging, bat @ach succseding year i 
shows 2 rapid decline \in-tKcir numbers: “Et thus appears that..conditions i 
produced ‘by such type of loezing is inhibitory to the long survival of such | 
| seedlings, | . 
| 3 Selective logging does not have a marked effect on either 2.” 4 
i dacugtre ork. @ tiolare- since these species tenicto be somewhat limited i. 
! to the stream areas, the gonditions of which ard chenged very little by 


aati? acel etaw solv enke stidw sect ylor aefaiont sldf £2.18 saw 
~wiwollot af auc svad teaq taom add tot dofkdw bus ens to arsey eoxdd 
vednum oft bobt ow ,%€°L ret e_utsdim ad ditw eidd antteqawd = .nalagel 
eggrevs edd of avivvete® .xetdel edt af ots teg $,35N of Bbeeaetont sad 
.230,f of boaneton? aad tedmam silt fat Salt ow ,egatiivo Stel edd tot 
aunttion SCeCL sj asereves edd ac éadt sebedreed .etes teq ennt Ibove 

MeL nt ebes 2eanitiue eds 10% ea eaolkiibnes Laxonag oma eit Inegotgst 
wtsaol evitio. foe yd bore tte emobifinos alt tad? soodive af tf ,O6eL bas 
atidw to favietssm Gs solientare, edi of ytoskdidant sod anidiyoaa otew 
om anlcseol to bottom ee eae gady sete sraeces $2. .wokioubotget sat¢ 

“3 urtekers t esetd beer entq eildw to tedmum Jacfotttoe a geavent yiao 
sbeoddea anfidwe doce “a ligrartoan anofeibnos adi tinds gud ,2e% eft deotest 
Sgn ts Le ail ot gt .abses dose to soltentersem add 10% qrodoataliag : ota 
sis amb? a“ dtuse%t off Saoyed eyalibesr: scliiuzer dove to Laviviwe 
oft stew od smivestetal «f ti .Intog o¢albonumf odj mort ebigh .f{fed nso 
29Dat? beotitax. at wo at amigos etsw doidy ontg ethdy to stedaya egtal 
xe Inteos aod “ot sane veg 3.2838,f sew euateva Ierenen odd ,oloqmmxe tol 

£ fa hse aucsa tines todo add ,B¢¢aciottas od tdatm 24, 
tisengea § oft ot? fe tan ,Seust oredesew .reabeo beat aretesw uotbelo 
.woig stidw edd as Bread omss 

ok ak fgiecea sid awerde ef © dgetd af 
end « odeo kas soktoubercet ante otide ,etisuoal 

ted soettacwoo 2 osla Se & a feo ems arrfard comic anotéeibaon ero iter 
gaea to stole eseteva ed satddsn to ooyd emo yas a2 srodaun tkeds 
trade atdd at swede tom ors sofas heor{lat no aslosca 

wi farrr ghdo ok dywo ditawotd ex atioest att aor 
i- Ye sodewiee! add mf anoliibnoa to ysvare B 





sy auteted gaspbeotd yo kewollot satitiso saal) .f 
RO sie vom Bbountisoe bua aotiqgeont adi «0 eidetovst 
af toes yadeild evolves @ gdxeaetg Sana opmfesfsoouty of 
o£ sotdavrtanon oft yd beowboty seonedusteld Yo 
wootognah as yilavoe ete atreninedme 


stodmen atara be wi xd Bewelfo% ete yanemed sedal? tsdawteeld 
sooue cose tod eumtaaot yalwollo® seey bacges vo deatt edd 
ra eunt $1 .oxodmen wledd at enkfove bigqat & awoda 
‘ad ywrodididet sf mrtasol Yo sqyt dove yd Desubowg 
agit [does 

add yd beoltarigq ea dove agaftter svitoelse to aeqys atevtast .S 


att E 

Yn, AM 

i toasts go gastte bealtane a swed gon apob sotunol eviseeled .& 
betkntl gedwenoo ed of Beret asetosqe oeedd sonts etsiotiea .f to antasoal 
ed afgdil vweev Segcads ote dokdw to emoltibano oft ,see%8 msottea ead oF 

per acre | 





Logging operattons,of any nature, 

4, Selective Jogging .of the types treated in this report. appears to. 
insure.the restocking of white pine and other coniferous reproduction; 
such. reproduction. Mppears to be. thriving and increasing at,.the end of. 
the, fourth year, following logging... -.... ) 

5. bones le caving might be accomplished inthe Ribes eradica- 
nied such areas ag are selectively logged can be safely left 
ba gg? third or fourth year following logging. If it could be 
joel aa that no yp song blister rust hazard exists during this 
interim of three or four years, the muuber of Ribes might be reduced 
from 1/Gth to 1/10th their original mumber. It is likely thet future 
studies siete ath & Saiamal Ve tina te ay Am number of aides, aac. seqcoahing 


whe wc hy one ub: 8. RENKCTS, or. CLOSING . ty or FORIS? 
wine @ to abt GARORY, om UELABD, PAIRS, « 
Bite Wat ee ‘gone ahha 4t is hi ek peel ‘fica gi onlle = at thet there 
comes a time in the history of s stand of timber when species of upland 
Ribes contained therein:such as 2. yiscosissimug,. and to « lesser degree 
perhaps A. lacustre sre crowded out, due to the ¢losing in of the canopy 
of the tree’ Grows. Seattered observations have been made from time to 
tims by the workers in the field and all have appeared to voint to this 
same conclusion. During the past seeson the attention of the writer was. 
ealled by Mr. °B. A, Andergon, in charge of the eradication cames on the 
Clearwater at Headquarters, Idaho, to an aren on the Alder Greak drainage 
which seemed to bear this out. After a coreliminery exaninetion, at ir. 
B. A. Andersen's sagzestion, 1t wag decided to establish a email whos ia. 
such on =e and attempt to make # careful “study cf the situation. » 

This area lies on a northwest exposure of Alder Creek drainage 
and is located in the southwest marter of ths southeast quarter of 
section °@, ‘township 83 north, range 6 east. At the tine thet attention 
was em iwa' to the area, Sredication had progress#d to a stege wheres only 
a” “stat ‘acreage was Left an@ for this reason the site wenneres for otany 

was, not adtertion the’ ‘best ‘for the purpose: 

“‘Thig area in cuestion was apparently burned over about thersy 
years ago. It now supports: & dense stand of thirty-year-old white nine 
site testes (1105) Semttered in thié reprodustion are bushes of ©. 
oF oie om rod end BR. Iseustre which’ appear to be in the last stages of 
suresston, he latter epperently’ in better state of vicor than the rho 

’ In the area where no Bibes’ ereatcation hod been performed, # 
plot'was lata ott .% of an acre in extent.” The plot faces northwest with 
epproximately a 35 degree slope. It was marked with permanent corner 
posts and s trail blazed around the border go that no difficulty will be 
experienced in tracing its limits in future years. Within the plot each 

Sten wes to enoftatge gatasel 

$B Bo« he Cale betazext sayt ast to gatmaclt evtiosie2 .& 
10 J osbocrs t iofto bas enio etidw to aatdootset edt ewent 
tc beo @ff3 fo writesetont fon nafwiadt ed of exseqqs noltinuhotqet dove 
-patssol antwollot taey déu0t odt 

~sotbeve goedih aft mf Bbedatiqnosee od tdsim yntvae el[dereblancd .3 
Sol ylelas od sme 32 O18 8 enoia dora Tf asteota aokd 
ad biuoo 32 Ifot xsey nah al ao Swids odt IlLsaer 
fads “sjeifd avoltes on gadt bontanetedh 
See £6 eid .@isey io0 tT “F soudé te mitetak 

{antgino rtedd d¢OI\l of déa\L mort 

oun ot jog! wid af seratoed tedtiast « come Ifiw esfsuta 

jod ccolveawtsadco 38 amis ome tot 
ato: eld of? af ants & gemoo 
TRE 24 f 2 efeted? Soutetnoo gedfik 
o me 2, 4 otdermal .f eqadteq 
(£3 aDeu -28OLS eaxd ect to 
3 ng a3 af wratitow edd yd smi? 
a By to aLR KE. pag fibers ame 

3: if) @ thee wmeteiae .A 2 oth vd belfan 
3 % 3 fo sete wae of ,cabl ,atotvesphest fe totewrss ID 
ak dea ,gelvanioaxe qranimiferq e tettA .tyo ekdt taed of bemwee dotdw 

ger £ F194 $ bebtoeh saw Tf ,nobaeyage alaostobadA .A 8 
80 £2 aera F ada Ivteteo & salam oF tamedia base sote ag dove 

nae BT 

BS. & 

& 86 sera efi? 

zewdigoe off at beotaool cl bre 
“t ,ltece 8 gkdenwed .f mofvoor 
‘topibere ,gete edd of bolias eaw 
1t Bea @tel caw ogeetos [lam a 
oft tok teod ont yilvageesen Jom ean 

zaw Solteas> af sets eiat 

aera 2 ride wor tf .o34 Btaey 
at Sexattse’ (a0ff) mostohewie’ 
$ saaqgqs olde exdaugel .f bao malealscaaty .f 
3g totsed ak yliastecqa wegdal add pps none 

,Semtoteg cosd Sad xolitdaotbere asl oa eteds aets edd al 
rosddreasx weoat tolg — tvotxe of otos az to V. dao Shalt aaw tole 
3 agiw bese eaw tT »auo Le sorneb Si « elotantrotenys 
os told om tebied edt barotea Sesald tiaxe « bare adaod 
‘ Be ateey otadet of ad tmhl aif «ntcecd ak Soeonslisqxo 

Ribes bush was merked with a cedar stake on which was tacked a metal teg 
with the serial mumber of the bush and species desicnation. 

Bach bush was examined carefully and the following data taken: 
bush mumber, species, feet of live stem, feet of dead stem, condition of 
bush, square inches of leaf surface, mmber of leaves, living branches 
coming from, ORO» ont brancises coming from Crows end height of bush. 

one. tnundred iiets-onn ‘pushes of R lncuntre and 63 of BR. 
were — end described. This is at the rate of 277. 

Ribes per aera, 

. ’ In addition on the tien bushes which were tegced and dsscrtbéa, 

umerous dead ‘bushes were p= gt which were undoubtedly Ribes bushes 
that had already ‘gueeumbed. » however, is only a supposition since. 
the dead stems could not be identities definitely as Ribes. it is } 
_ -plamnéd to examine the plot each year and oe, sack Ribes agen to the 

Sekaha mentioned above. From the results this study it is a that we 

May be able to obtain some definite information relative to the events which 

fo at what appears to be a very ier _ in 2 oe ite eer of 

" a : Ribes i sabia she 

Pray os rs 4 is ‘bowing the examination of the Hee this sunmer, sank sauiioue 

ane of stems wore cut from what appeared to be the eldest bushes of both 
BA end BR. Jacustre. These sections were brought to the 

niversity of Montana for microscopical study. The results of such 

zaminat io showed the ts to be approximately ten years of age ‘aad not 

26 or 3 as wes first estimated, based on previous observations: of like 

Ren Bees this mean then, that the seeds which propseated these bushes 

: Vezht inte the stand from. oatside sources 19 or 12 years ago, or 

oe pheiteg present bushes represent the second or third generation of Ribes, 
: or ores vot _—< ee 2 aes wr ened seek: Seitaae the fire of 0. : 

eS ‘Ne éadicy Sass, oes ‘4s evident” ‘that Me | pS ae denudation of 
ribes ‘are ‘tn a dee eadent eontition and from the ; general 3 aoptarance of. the 
bushes it-ie difficult to see how they can survive ¢ any more season@. If 
such predictions should be borne ont by actual fleure 23, if will raise the 
question of the inadvisability of the working of mch similar areas by the 
Ribes eradication forees. A glance at picture 1112 of B. viseosissimum and 
picture 1111 of &. viscosissimum and R. lecustre, #11 taken from the study 
plot, will show that the amount of leaf area supported by these plants 
would not present a very serious blister rust hazard oroviding 4¢ sould be 
shown thet such hazard would prozressively diminish each year. Many areas 
similar te this one must exist over the white pine areas of northern Idaho 
and if it could be proved beyond reasoneble doubt that nature could be 
depended upon to perform Ribes eradication on such areas by natural means, 
@ Gonsiderable saving could be nmde over man-power methods. 

-33 Iatem 2 bedses? enw sahee a tin besttem eaw dand eodih 
sto Pol.wer sare 283 Yo ce dear felroe ede de tw 
fx? afae rePwolfet off Bee “ffytesee boitoiexre’ eae” daid dhe" 
moittsnce ,avite bash te soot .opty eval to feet featsece” rodent “died 
ativil ,sevasl Yo veda, deattine tae! %o seifomt Stas  , deere 
idzfedk bas ,.amevs wovt weione Redoratd baad , o0ot moth Sehes 
te €6 bee axteored of Ye wbrleind omo-yettat beckweet end 
8S %G ada oft te 2? ald? bed Minget ite Deymee etow sie leetenuely 
; Oa Log nedth 
GRab wome dette cetend geivil off of sods 2oBW at 
priate BS ssiteatc! oes sr eey aOR tes Pant get are orey persed Saab" ‘aoistaah 
Fe ooPyrets aber bedionee Ybkotla hot dadd 
ai #1 igebk od tom rt somde beok oft 
ss tela aft enfome of benanale 
| om g mi) eet -.eveda Somokinem sdintog 
» Rela ‘inftes soos aketde of olde ed ye 

to vwiodeld ehil wily oF epadge geri wiov & od of exeeqqs Jade Ja tros0 
,eniseoe wedZk: bneler ens 

fit goly wit e celvarioumeeds yal’! eek 
» 482 e¢ of Deraerce dade govh Jeo. eter spade, te 
sitios ove este ol bow gueteelepoedy off 
ib Wbade Lan tqoowony ha. te: eomtmolh to Uo bsiovial 
ietanianiene ed of Sapwer: ote Deon dmotdan toane 
de wmpiverg xa Seat ahs, smbtes deakl bow 28 OS 8G) as 
tokdw. ebore alg Said fees agm gid 2901,» «etait am 
series ablaeue oo1% ooete odd etal tdagosd euew 
cit ue fetnee ong daeporget esiand ioene ty ggond ob 
ist bees Betode gor badembahto: & Soiziw De PR bsash: ond 
fous etary 

f Se) Hae Fe 
Ese * ID 

mil SF ae 



te Sierras, teoety ole oeke o iwihtwe ek #2 ,cean eoddhe af, . 

: tion. ceebened sf ote. sabe 
wth 288. GF. Sheoritis af tf eotend 
nexed of dipode, mmo kioloexg, dove 
1,thsimom... ate Teo tf idestvhent eas to naliease socats A .eeenot aoftantiete eadi, 
Ls web BEE Oa J ea emetuateoonty. ..g, Yo if if evatote 

binguvertie: oe am Raed %e Sevres, acl $. dads wogia Libs ae Oat 
massed. fewe maketh exne Pap. yoy @ srse 8M das bivow 
eas EE 30 EA) biges Giese dome tects svete 

Tee BIS 
pee Fy ee es 
Ee ix Ree aa 
fei + web? 
2 Ete yaks 2 me SE: FoR SOT 


ay te on 
ree HLe &; 

gtsi¢aen ke ancta emia edtin edd teve, dade, tam wa paels od, taltake 
terse gore dnb aldasoaset hooves bevowy ad Sfeoo 2F TF daa 

ane%e ance co solienthewe agile. msg 9g ott on beabersoe d 
wm “Kowa mem tewo aba od Bivem snivae aiderobteape & 


W.1105, View showing a stand of white pine reproduction following a 30 year old burn, Study plot located in this area, 

Annual Report 1932 

| C. W. Waters 

We iill, Bushes of B. yiscosissimum (left) and R. lscugtre (right) on study plot, 

Annual Report 1932 
Cc. W. Waters é ) 

Note density of vegetation on plot 

W.1lle, Bush of B. yiscosissimum from study plot, Note presence of only three leaves and many feet of dead stem, 

fu & 

It is hoped that study plots may be established in other areas 
of comparable nature scattered over the white pine reston so that 

Pie. 5 eo 3 

4 hy ~ 
ee ” a Shai 
‘ , ” ., : 
sesh GBD ey : 
4 % ; 
an » i , ‘ ' 
ie % tS 
¥ 7 ;> 

ee Sa 
£5 4 x : 
* at 
by ma 
ag es 
ry ss 
fated 5 

2 ¥ am tety ‘ 
A 9 sae 13 
+ silat tans aM vw 
ry if 
"y oe a eh fe m 

— i es Tan Wie v Mi ¥ « 

dias mS ty 33 




G. @. Strong, 
Agaociate Forester . 

Cooperative Ribes eradication on private lands in 1932 suffered 
apvroximately a 55 per eent decrease over 1941 while similar work on 
national forests. waa increased by approximately 40 per cent. the net resus . 
however, was an aggregate increase in yoluse of work of about 15 pa cent 
for Ribes eradication in north Idsho. 

The, following table shows the expenditures by pennies for the 
Various, Ripe, SEAALEARLAR isi 4n 1932; 

Bina of aaeiraaia arias ese s 

” ented of! 

ahs th thie oe enieg wiki ¥ ib | | 

ali al adopted. de BEES y arenil Karly are, | 42 State ant ' 
wt F2ASSE “i 23 38 : Propel. 

HA CRR eR EOE I at Fores 912. 60.76 §3212214,00 1 | SRS _ 1 $140,.794, 78) 
St, Joe Ustional For 9.622,67| 90,153.12 | = S| = 99,776, 79) 
Clearwater.i.P.J : 99) 39. 13). 5 cain ADO O64. SB I... a: 

ti a Aan: some or the: hipaa teams nrewehoes to* 1622,: henending upon the 
Shancnt ‘tektien development of the rust in the separate localities, Ribes 
have been destroyed in degrees varying from working stream type only to 

100 per cent coverage ofall areas, uoland and stream. Dae to the dis+ 
covery thst bdlister rust: was making rapid inroads it was felt that the 

time was ripe for makings complete clean-up of Hibes on future operations 

- and that, as rapidly as possible, upland areas in localities where stream 
type Ribes had been previously destreyed should be worked. Hence the policy 
in 1932 was to do 100 per cent Ribes eradication on both stream and upland 
and::to rework eny stream type within the boundaries of 1932 units which 

had been wore’, previcusly. 

Ai umnahenie tanh fons rsa A Ri vitiglat¢:daJA42 wan nails by 
lasetioten & pounds of sodium chlorate in 10 gallons of water. To this 
anletian was aaded, ben vaval, ekue sticker ane apreader. % 

operative. Ribes exadiention ‘on wr ivate. lands was, as in previous 
years, under the full direction of the Division of Blister Hust Gentrol. On 
national forests, however, the work was handled aceording to the terms of 


emamotte 6 OD 
tefeeie% atatooers 

berstiog S60i at shoal ‘adavtog. ue ng kiao tiers agdlt ovisercqoed. = 
no drow talimte olidw If0L cove segetosh $a tag 63 8 Mah + apsica be) © 
cere Jem edt tooo ‘teq Ob eledamieotegs vd Bevuastea? saw efaet6% Lamokian 
iso wag Gf ssots to adtow to souloy si semotont efsazetage as saw , tevewod 
oneki ddtes af sobtaoibets sedi tot 

nie ro% 2elsnone Yd setatibacuxe edt ewores elds? antwolfot adi 
SS8OL at efvetorq mebtaotbare pedi exolav 

£0 Sa 

S50 ,2WLkOwe YS eMAUTIONSIKY To aRcoud 

wr Po tl eet + ian. 2a Se aR Nt RaANetreNt “eninel are ph Vana Atanas ete Hy Sa VAY 

da apap , sala ey ery 2 een 
| ite sofety i. | 
sedel le 
oS tenet | 
mae Jap hy eee . deoret! _fotimee |. ee : 
Be 4 nh MA ARLE JON 088, OFS “lisa sta mada 

oe eeeer eens an? 4 aoiihe Ge 8a S8a.2 conve Oh Lea tte eo % 
(93 £08.05 ‘i & Tbao.ote epee orp enero APL OB La BL ene a TO 
OL OGe.SS 1 S$.800.8 i = __ BN SSE RL ttle, sled tas 

(ay BL Cae ceria tele Rat ss an ee Steterrtoneariaro 08 IES | ——— cites 3 ceed 
(Qe ALL, 908%! GV. TS. 04 | SL .Teea Ss eNeTe. dae | 

eX ase Je 

ess sogy aeibreadh ,S8el of aexchreta arobiatece eff to emoe a0 
i ie eefitianel estatages odd vi tasrs od to dnomeefeved agtioetta etodoat 
ot o<tas ogy? meaté@e neldrow sett aaigiay eootged at Seyotiael aced ovad 
woth adi of sol .mmerte bas boatoy .sests [fe to sgeusv0o taon taq OOL 
aid gadd ¢f{o% ear $E gbsount Sicet patalam eaw deot astel{d gadd yrevoo 
snokisisqe erudet ep asdil te qaetaels aielamoo a aafcleas tot egkt caw omkd 
atte etece avttifaget ai enote Sootost ,eldieeeq sa ylbiget es ted? bas. 

vollog edt eameH .beanew od bivode BSagort web glawohvetq soad bax pedih aqyt 
inelog besa BASSE “god Me mokhianibats sedil dnee teq OOL ob of aaw SECI ak 
tiniiw etiew SOL to ecbambestod odd abcdtiw ooyd meetde yaa atoms of dae 

Ylavolvetg bedtior ood Sod 

‘Ev aban eae SOL af saalolta .2 gattaets «ot boaw yerqe edt 
eid of .tadaw to exoffag OL at “atetolso wvkboe to abasg © gulvlogakb 
tobsexge Sas vedotte euly levey edi Sebba saw oo tiolos 

avn deer of a0 .eow hist edaviwy ae soblacibare esdif evitateqood 

lowed tau” tetekii te aolelvid edt to nekioetlh (ie edt vobaw ,ataey 
‘bo Rainy ofS of ABLotooga bolbaed saw show ef? ,tovewod ,ateortot lenotsan 


“the agreement of Tebruary 2, 1952 which states: 

“fhe Forest, through its. project chief, will supply the labor, 
purchase all ‘iuucaaal place the camps, handle all of the service of 


cathe: “The Blister Rust een through its Overholt; will’ be respon- 
genre for the actual’ work of Ribes eradication on the sround, {neluding 
“methods of eradication, crew efficiency and Thad ts of eradication necessary 
to protect the units selected. 

"In the above lines the Forest Service project chief will not 
be responsible for exeeution, but will be resvonsible for inspection of 
the work and will discuss any proposals he may have for modificeston of 
methods or standards with the Blister Aust personnel. If there is « 
aifferente of opinion the matter will be considered through the Regional 
| Office and the Blister Rust Control office. “The gencral idea is that while 
.the Blister Rust Control will direct the work, the Vorest Service will want. 
to maintain full information as to how the job is err handled, and the 
[ePege ap ae of the wae of ite aporovriation. | 

"The: Forest. Service projeet chief will be, résponsible for teeing 
“the: etehtapis! adopted by ‘the Forest Sérvice are in effect in such matters — 
_@s hours. of work, and the minimizing of noneffective time through careful 

; “The ‘elbtive order of at teak, by Localities ‘and control a toientie, 
wild be determined and agreed upon by conference between the two offices... 
After this decision the Blister Rust Gontrol will undertake the preeradica-) 
‘Alon survey, dneluding mapping and classifying the white pine sarees, 
determining the method of Eibes control and estimating the costs. After 
“the surveys are completed the two offices will in conference agree on a 
a. ‘of operation and determine the areas to be eradicated. 
sbi "Phe Blister Rust Control will continue its aractice of advance 
scouting to determine the location and distribution of blister rust intee~ 
cme on the national forests. » 

it’ 4) “fhe Blister Rust Control will take the responsibility for 
preparation of annual project and cost reports, using such Forest Service 
— as are yoo hagas 

"Al though the’ qvexeond.. from Camp bosses up, will be employed and 
" paid: by the Blister Rust Control, enw the labor (including crew forémen) 
by the Forest Service, the selection of personnel is a matter of concern 
to both organizatious. This will be handled by « conference of the Forest 
Service and Blister Rust Control representatives whe will be in charge for 
each Gurem. The overhead w rsonnel will be agreed on and the policy in 
“selection of labor. As e mtter of working convenience, the actual hiring 

ssefsde sofdw SOOT (6 yturcded Yo tnsmerge off 

<tecei sn¢ ulogse Uffy . tetsdo toehowe est dgvoids .saaxet af” 
To onfyree si3 to Lie ofbascd .eymeo sht enate ,aoblcqwe {f0 eaadousg 

-<arpaot at Lf}y desve ett dasotdy ,ieetied dene ‘esate aise’ ella : 

‘areP io Tore getiorss Hdd go cahtdothare ebGhT Ww aes Theos: add sot eter 
ebusoon colsieoibere Yo adintl baa qoroterrts werd , a0 htap tigre to’ abortion 
; ae Sotoulee aiine ens sastota et 


jon Yitwtetdo gaatote ecivers® sxetet odd watt eveds at WI" | - 
‘eo motteaqent «ot sidbeaouset od Pitw spd, gottepexs «ot eidtenceast ‘ad 
<0 mogahelTilom aot avec won at slaaocera que sauoe tb Ifdw bas duow ols 
ta ek exec¢ Ti .iexserteg’ Jeot “etellG edt dgiw airtabmave vo ehodtom 
isnofgexk oat cgucsil’ Setehtamo ad Iiiw tedian adt agtatgo te senate ¥t?s 
a Boke todd ak aobt Loris nary, af? eFYte foréned Jen® sePeklS odd bow ool tt6 
tasw ifiv sufiveeG daotet adi ,fvrow adit doethh Ifiw fortne) ten veaseh id edd 
edd bea , Gel omgd sucted af det ade wod ef aa sokteorrotat Lfet nietrtan of 
Me taertcas 222 4 @ew ad? Te aeorevitoe?te 

agiess «ct sidieseqeet ad Iitw tebio deetote enivre® geetol oft 
eregiam dove ai I6eTte ai om agives? deogot of? yd betqohs ghiahaade old 
itewao dysreents ames oe hago tenga te nant bm Biche aed Bra ostow te: exon e6 

,ageotore fordacs tis sabetlacol= yd -doatiea te- boca: ovitaken rT: hae 
aonittc ows Sif seewisd sonstsTnoe Ye Rog HeoTRR Seem hekturisbud. eG ifbw 
-ietberssig edi eiatiebas {fie LoxtaoG dec tetahle ed aoketosh afds “odta- 
steers eulr edide off setyttessls Sak potqaom ackoeloutygevise cold 
velit’ .edsos eft nalienites Sas seesaco eadit to boddem ect nrbatacatved 
* 1 ASTHe gonsieines wi Die eooki ko emt edd bejalemoo ere: eyortoe edt 
hat enb hats oe ed meetA add wank tamed ond a te: en 

enasyha Ke seides %. ad! mesh Seco . flew lexéneD: fast awtetié od THE 
oats geet tbéatid: te. soksudies hed aun aeddescel sald eriacreadeb of goktwooe 
; uebuwae® ieaotian efi me neemeee 

nat <i di dtendawx atid asiad haw Seni ngd out: aetahi@ edt’ - 
aoiysed geewel does gazes 4 etroqat wnat fe teeteng Taeenn to nadthebione 
: ; .) apache ose am meeeees 

beyoteme of [fiw .cr seeued gums sot »baastrere ‘ od dyirodt rar 
camer weep saiefaet) redel sat ome gdotine? geal qetehl@ Odd yd blag 
WAL ROS” te ‘‘edsen » ef Jeotoexag Yo aottoetes ont ,aobhwret. teers) ads a 
| éaavelt add “to sonete'tneo ly yd Be That od fiiw 220% javodtautatato dgod e@ 
wi egnaio ai od fifw omw gevitatnsest¢st Ionteod tend tegeili daa sotvre’ 
- wastoe G age fee wo Soeege od Iite fammeet ey beodieve of ieee tet spas 
achnis fauroe elt. ,soroinovars ashivee: to vatdew se af vaodal to agkdostes 

of men will be handled in the Forest Supervisor's office, though with full 
as enh palaaaal and cooperation by the Blister Rust representatives." 

nugraed'sn thie  aNaRT OF LIne Swe BRADICATION LaAd Daa 
i Phe ema of: Ribes dred teation are completely swanarized in 
the various reports. “However, # general summery of the results of work 
done on all the vrojeets wilt ate be oserul. The following table 
raion — ee rae 

a ago: se tiLy LeRet oe i & TABLE: NO a 2 . 


i Nosber ? = Tieiaiaal oo ae a Basis 

Ribes | Soray 

Hi led_lAppliodl Cost _ et De : 
94140,58 inser. Bae 223 alia 

| aerogs al _e2| 1.97] | 

wes 4a Sh, 81 + BR ALi A 2L | 
Se a oo a renee dere 

PEd.o)  Ba0 52d) an 

penery vil B 

7a ies 
Strean a 
Type _.Bs7931_2,068,0|___480,690| 3,996 | _ 
Grand Tot. | ai me a 

Initial | . | 
and Second/ 



$13,952, Bi... 551 
aS Ee 



ee ees. 

| | 

eat | | | 
L Types 1114,690/ 40,500, 911,122.66 92,875 |$296,)15 691 __ er 

*Second working was done on stream tyne only. 

| ai RRR ROD Rn ete nee 

In the 1921 annual reports for ‘the Ribes eradication projects there 
were incorporated analyses of the Ribes eradication data. These analyses are 


list bile cgodd ,aoitte e'stoeiveage®. teetel edt af bolbasd od (itw som to 
" eowitad cegetyet tauk cedabkld od? ed aolésmecooe bra no Magtelfraq 

ee a ary ze A al a 
sick "HOE vd 

st Soctverenvea qleselmeos sie soltealiets cadlf te at ince edT 
ayow to eilyser edd 2 yiamee forsneg « .tevewol .adtogen auciiay adt 
aidat asntwelioy eff ..ieteas od saahaceee fiie atoakore edt Life xo anoh 
Te whit pahailitii dl 

e ae ig LAT 

as ai Sea WY at acini lanl 

a ah a ating iar ee erie apa ase vere since a dex sicscaummaesil Leis poeple Jom athe o eee ere 

— ataai BOF. S25 of ants ita «2 tata ; 
. ways | pt wise ae 

oe 2 cae ey 

ae Be) | BES ad a. Jae Oe PAR 1 fo ii ets _ 386.8 9. 1a ace AG a 
| i “| ~9F repair 

‘Ne wal. sac Bac! SRG OUR GAL Sb cuca (Oi MOR we, Qaiek laa rerapie <g 

ree ABS. Tie are. ne me Bsc iakiae he ‘ 

eouna ee ee Se eet a ee gas 

-ie8 {ote 0A8. 10. AS nore. | sar 

fag a 

| 20.4_L oe PB E... alae i ae 4 

i ; i oa hha 8 i Bei a i hak ‘ SAH es ; 

is PS — teas. oh Sal. ae cera “a aie ae 

i deg Mace. [ec 

Vs sTecle phat Ms ce a Babs. Ploutleah ANSE ae 
{ i 4 : { 
t ' A f i Hy 3 
4 a pri lee Jere ganesh Bs 
egg! od L188, fos A SOS Pete | POC sen Q nc MnaQeh... 

“| 1 Zz i } |-te 
ig | Es i arbi 00. a4 tehatal 
2 eae | eae nae te ‘ aban, loa S: oe 
: | 7 sf « de Balsitel 
(Lo Si Lie eh eS e! STB. 80 nna Se L,af L18,0m.9% Ca R ELI. anayh.f 

edn weary s stnende ae saneiei nerd waive. aie" 
axe a ieBke IAA | 

eins? Hidekaove aoksegoiicxe andhs old at adtoqen fasttina: gers ‘ode ate: on ’ 
6A caeylens wot? . vedo eoteeo thers. oo @b. jak 2m sieaticiad batanoeraant ero" 

APA & M63 Aya 

C2 74 
hall iC: 

useful in the followin# ways, (1) in arrivinz ata standard by which to 
judge the volume of work which should be expected in the various tyses; 

(2) to men making a preeradication survey because sich information serves 
as & gauge by which costs of treating on » given area can be acebrately 
@atimated; (3) tn judging beforehand the type of equipment dnd nunbar of 
men needed to: work w ¢ivenisrem in a civen time. They are furthermore © 
useful, knowing -the Ribes and working conditions,in decidine whether or not 
it is seonomically foasivle to “attempt the Control of DI ARREr mist mm any 
given block 9 white pine biabor. 

secre. of. dncludine the. individual analyses as was dons dn: 19 Ske 
iMpowetvest’ 46 was denided to jthtow al} date together and construct one set to 
be included in othe: report. a Fobloming tables aban the results: 


yew D: 

ro Sushrase @ da eateries 2 (f) yaw untwollo® ed? at Ly'teas 
notney aft ef Betoeqee od bivede doidw stow to oewlov wit ogbrt 

7eysee aohicertatas soua Aaiieit yoriue aoliaciberseng 2 pater ime of (8) 
pings wtge od 689 Go%n BOVE @ mo geideot? to etgoo doldw ud oeacsga ae 
®. sedoa bore taemrivee te contd. odd bnadeited gatebot of ©) photomtiead 
“outaditst ets yok! .omtd serie a x} avis mvig «@ Aer ot Sebesa aon 

fon. wo vorlsede smth teak BE, oHoks thaoe naisivew Boe aedif edd yafwoot , ioters 
qe mo gent tedeil¢ to Lortmoa oA degedia of efdteset ¢ffaotmonnoe ek $2 
oh vin sein ot tdw to doold aay is, 

fant eh ‘BKOb Bee on veee feces feakivtict oh 3 aibatent ta baotant 
ot fox ame dssatence bee sodtego? ated Ife wouds of bebfoeb aan $f ,tsvewod 
20d Ieee elt worle ete tnd patmalio® ass dtogen SSOL ods bo Bevuloak ed 

&. Hand Pulling: TABLE NO, 32 


la 3 
: =0sbs RW les 


285, o| 
~-—243, 4} 


Annual Report, 1°22 
C. C. Strong 

T | 

| { 


| | _Per_A led ae Daye + 

Rites Per | Acres R. ics irriguum | 

} Acre Class | Worked es eal acerifo ae Total is 
ale = ee eee 

ain’ | 701 a aiace al slot 

See — 
| ! 
- Cent of Total | 
Fo Wis & 
Wa +f 4 

00,01 int 
9 cs 



pm ny a ny nn ee a a ee ee ee =e aoe ieee nee a a joe -_-——= 

| { | ‘oe Fm, ) 
| | jMan /Per Cent of Tote 
| | Poe eee Ribes, Per_Acre. gb Un 1s oer a ee ae Jes) Daye _.For_ Types .__ 
Rites Per |Acres Man R. R. R. R. Rs ir riguun ] Per | Man 
| Acre Class Worked| Days lacustre| viscosissinum, petiolare| inerme) R&R. acerifolium| Total |acre | Acres) Days Ribes| 
aoe ae ay [aaa Se ee ee ee iene re alae area wo neneeneermneteeerc re tects nle ners erneeteeeem 

Dense Pole 

0-25 [12] 4. aati 

1 32] 
al1 [20,745] 6,970.0] 438, 162 | 
: ee nT ___ Dense Mature : 2 

; 17, | eee 6°, 7| 36,5] 11.5) 
276 52.7 5,8 ; 9] 14,6] 16.4] 13,2 
| 143 38.6] —_—-62, 8 - 27,11. 27) 951128; 0! 14.6 
48 20,0 09,4, ’ : 6 8.8 
4 > bo.1| 46) sg’ | ,79| 4,4) 20,61 34,0 
2 21.41 457.4, { o2i_ 1.11 6 
600 a 5 Od eo ei 1,301, 311,67; _.21 1.6! 5.2 

9,4! 21,8] 20.5! 
14,2! 22,4 
00 22} 27} 3.0 
2. one ere 2] 6,685.2 1.8 | 28 a : ee 0 5 = 2| al 1.11 12-3] 
All 1,322] 1,295, 4] ae 205.0 8 249. 981100.01100,0 00,0 
0-25 [35,6331 4,728,8]| 5.61 2.6 13] 43.71 13,6. 2 
26~50 7,830] 2,301.7 24,7| 15,0 20] 9,6] 6.61. 2.7 
-100 111,990] 4,220,0 42,5, 38] 13.6! 12 0 
101-200 11,382] 6,174. 3! 75.9 67,5 .54| 14.0| 17,7) 14,0 
201-400 _ 8,952| 6,720.0] 124.8 9.1 2 11,0 20 
401-800 | 3,862 rere 223, 6 203.1 ¢ 1.231 4.71 13.6] 17.4 
801-1600 1,936 $405, 4| -__ 257.5 129 Bose, _15,: 1 1.78 2 4) _9 “3 17, 
=32200 | _ 1,707.8, _ 227,9 1,907.2 | 2 ee al z 
[3201 and up | _150] __e0i,2] 342.6] 4,714.) ae pant eR PO TAL: sl 04 Boner Gs 
[all [61.533] 24,816.01 54, GfeseotelA Se). j onli at 1.) 1]. 49 | 46,9], 431100. 0] 100, 0! 100, a 

Annual Report, 1932 
C. C. Strong 

: “SUPILOK [SEYPU IOZ Osoyy aQ pa 
erodes 04 sesnFyy eppacad 03 BFuypyzoaes se pyefpere 344 uy ‘wacys S$ 4} ‘19Asa0y “pePpe you sea sFeoro8 

eq} *asinod jo *yymmouyTe Wtoa TSEV TUT oe Azmums Sseztoad ayy GE UeCUsS Sf 4} Soueq °*FUyRAOaMeI peeU 
04 Steyoeyo £q UaoYys wore sf 4I 22ST *uosues. Pees oy. | peRtou. ALTSEI}UT severe wo Puyyzscaes S} StUL, 
[O°OOT TO*OOTTO*OOT TIT Bia: eae oe tie mathe ete ete cee Se 15 
= =a i = : 2 : po i na aie etal: PS Ht “6 tay a Oo . age TT ea 

ib SE ae fe ve ee on ae Sale 

~ | erat ae OF oT + 

sae ae “joer gor — a 

Me ran eo rs me ck ne scaceeeeetenieeemmniiad tometer tiie tein tears Soa ee 

pareanteare neantye 

Tex0; JO 4u29 Jeg; wey). 

Bb OH Zdaa? 

AGL eee ae 


ee Ne me ee Ne 

 aiaimesammaed H 

fagot to ined 19%) call! 

3 | UA ORS ama qa neW Seed | | | 
ai — “S| a | cons | se% aedia ; 
4 ! dzo¥jeasiS etoA | 

— eae a nara ae Pete — 

penne BETS 
aa nln setae aeLnenenn motion esha antics pease estos Spe << oe Nae pionat aterm alter NR 



21} os! 5 

—-- oe ae ae 

— Bad ~ tS, tf __t¥ o__+& ——— 5.2 = = Ps oe gaS.f | a eee ae 

2. i@.8 Isat ist » iOei2 | | Soe | 8, 8 8S. eRe (S59 | —-_a=aB | 
eid aN 6.81 a. 1.86 mage {Sr / [NE sea "reese" igsa eee ={31 
Is. 3 SS 86, i6.98f ——+ 8. 18.88 LOS 8.50 1f.9M i119 1 = f0L! 
Bea if eae At hs IS3 Ona E ere IS.a0L ie.58S ioe | ~ecb= 08 | 
Gf i950 | 4G ate HEL .E IP SES SPS WP RAES a aE a ORL el. 4 a COB = {08} 
gr (6.8 [3,.f i9es i8.00,.f | € |e NEL Scere HSL Sif lea pi bn 08 
ae a id $_. is. 193.8 18 OSS .5 5 Sain & 5A. A af OT i 10 GEG 334,110.85. 4. a -O065-L00 5 j 

iS, OO EO PRLS i 4.008 : b0.f) 10. SS. L198 af — af! bate a ICSE! 

L Se es macveabhl s Ped Ne AME Fe 

,00L 10.08 1 G.00L [SE Sonres 1B os hS tea § #, ak. Poe Ad ‘ ms a ia. BX. if. (28. L19S3.8- a 4 fa i 

ERE ae EE Det SN ES —*aokindiosia 2 ET RS rT | 

(7.38 e.ay [tae Itt. i RARE SA BF) 5 

[ea ——f2.0L ne = i aS Sag eal sine elcome = Be TS. ai ans eif jas 
on Sere kt JY eet We AY o.3i ig 


Prete poem rm tear a so 

1. sone 1£.94_ 18 b> 9. ahs. oy Bat Foon ss Bote. : 

oe i i of id OE |e (fe i189)! Gs0f 18 2 

Kan oe 

-* st. Ae he 
~~ 9 , «ie » > 
Sy BYsaRsanks BS aR 

att F 

S100 qliatsiet aaete HO 
; "ait ai mwode ef $f aoaek 
swons af Jf .tevewall 

es BUOS 

oe ngis ne 
eingmas of setust shfverq of 

pe eas Wa) Lae ER ES ys 0 Se eM ecco 
nT 24g Féat~ | 
Mall || ie ions | | | 

| Sradi¢ation ponte Spray) gee 
® | Class,Gals. .. [Per bere Basia) Per a Por Gent of Rota) || | 
. | Spray Per | Acres Ment {Men [Callons jMan | | Man | Gallons) 

nae Pay St DEE (Pe 


r Gye te fen 8 enn me oe 

FY oi ae | } 

aatyemnt 48 

4.928 dae 

aa eannna us eneoarene ct "eowea tere: Aettigk er eee 
! : i “= fal f ; T H 
. | 
emo £ | t ( 

hae a % \ a 

taal thas. wil tt A pe | ele, seald 
sail | —e isseat | tom | ebro) wee woxg? | 
: gi. Beals RY eval _ibegize® 

ne is. rar to ASB 

te aa ae ae 9 a 
Tviy a est ee eae) 
ACh. Sal. f 16 . {85 et a ew 


Mo cow Lea 
Tr te ee ae om - 1 

me |e S838 0ak— 
“a ren las 2 ia B.foi a a Ea 
' aT core a oo aceon ILS 

a I oe ARR pi pager aeape 

, 5 £88. SR ok 10.5: sat iNe8 —laesanl?. iA, 

oo Santee: eli Sern 

ine fe et BHOORG Sa Es ieee Seem. 
ai. 48 ay 18.8 OR ee Ba. oe ee me all. Tai ~ Rua 
Las wel. Sai. leant ae 7 163. 16 an 
[Ss loos fee lear) s.r srr eco A te 
eee eee ee Rae. 1680 ISIE poe ie al Oba S| 
|! ceva = jhe ee i$ 1 oe ae ee Se INO, % J ee | Se 

; 4  f 
eat aS sth pele — hat balan! Secon Ol een! Poot a 


if OA8 ave "to pe OAS | Lf Pct Oe | thine en a va Q: Ona. | pas. Teonmal? mer: 

TOOT ez" [teat] forat et rs [es 

16° ee ttlysecte | [Tey (6zety 

rece panties Nee sinless 


| eA |e at 


T8390] Jo QED zeg] UeR & 

“aqup OEP] wats pesudnog ALyUsSpUsAUCD Ysou eq Wed 3 

= oats a 



ett e's tO 


ee es 



E*Ote |S "Oe 

eroy J 

eq Seqyy 


an na le I Ire Pins et 


a ——s 

Ae Neem — 

isto? bo das} had 

ee no A NC IE RR IN ea aN i Rt Ti ann it ie em 

igs. tame A os9_ a a | tome Lust . 

Sinai tS oie : 
SSRIS i ——s wren 5 See 

SER LSE trceten on eae eS ee es me ee 

eS) ao RS 
angi a ES ee 
is my ie eee 

hers em ee ae are seeeee Sicnmainawsh ie ~ Sete 

is xa er eet. 
. nee Gf j6% + 18.08 aa 2 

pues Samm 

ean ie iain Stal aera (eens ik dale or roe attaerr ga ny eam mercea enna ammo e nt 
i ’ 

s__| 4 as eee 7 

ee eee iE: eo fae 10s :* =e a8) 
,£ see Pn Oia fa | 

: Hiaddd | Sal Mee 08-105) 
- Sak o. om se sipghia we 


3 i 
“SS A See es ee SBA. 

eit Pceatsteits spent 

£ wit tExSS.. Tee 2) Se ee 

Sar i.e I6.Si (fs (ay 

SS RG, iS &. £188 ah 2 Eset. 

1 Re. if 8o Bi SG. a ake _ig bias a, ra 5 ey ‘ion 
af 12.0 ib. ee Se .oSe | 

a #238... IB see BS = . O23 8a & Ps Repos De Sa 

6.00! i000! \0,90f its 8 = Lt... We las a ECR antibod. (J oS 

A gt me rer ont rane ene A Spc imma oF 5G DS He ra 

5.5 jaa fe: a eis Sd 
Sift is | 


: ee ogee ames Be sees san 
eS: a bee cS? ee 

, $ 3 in bye ; i= Pa * 
aul sane Mantua: poaieaianen Poutanen Scr Holihii. Sy str 



a oA) 



#5 eas 

Re cae EE aa Cemented tetiart i am sw mt se rin Pees ee FA 

A SOR eo nolo Lis of 

Tb manly are « 9 sea cs ee 
Soe Porm tepaee Pier 

| if 0 are ea. 8 mi 



ow Signs $53 “ ; oe ee =a 

>. an 


Tables showing analyses of initial hand pulling and sprayiue do 
not include all of the data for the St. Joe National Forest. Time 
permitted including resulte of work for only 6 of the 13 camps. However, 
the data for the ones included are representative of the data for the 
entiré group of camps. 


: *'Cheeltine of work Gone in 1922 for the purpose of insuring work 
of a hich standard was done by men trained for that work. They worked — 
under the direction of the supervisor of the damage studies mr oject. 
Roughly, one man wae assicned to ench two Ribes eradication came. 

. The adoption of a scientifically proven standard by which to 
jucge the pathological effectiveness of control measures for tie Inland 
Hmpire white pine belt ie impossible at this time. Menece an arbitrary 
Standard was adopted. Briefly the deoision was that areas having more 
then 60 feet of Ribes live stem per acre remaining after initial troat- 
ment should be reworked. ‘This was the plan followed in 1922. However, 
the aim on Ribes eradication work 4g not merely to reduce Bibes to the 
S-foot limit but rather to destroy positively all Ribes. It 4s « well 
known fact, of course, that the: removal of all Ribes, while theoretically 

possible, is seldom accomplished in aetval practice. 
tay fhe individual reports follow. 


“}) gekgesce Bar ankifin Sand Jabiiat to. seonylana pakwode no Sin? 
ent? .deerc% Lamoktel val .28 add tot sieh edt. te [fe ebtfent tou 
stewewoll .2cmep SI ed? to 8 ¢fne sek Brow to ad Turion ariiefork bedd leroy 
ad got we in bed to evh: Stee mn eqae aes bubwioa® @anc edt tot wteb ody 
/eqast To quota siltme 


wyoe zitecenk to eacoimg odd 19% sger nt vag sevow to gatloed? rs 
fastcas yodT Seow dat tot Bente sem yt oned euw brabaate teil @ to 
Je3,0% aelbertc opameb oft to soelvtecnwe aft to sokdowtib edi tehay 
~eowes molfastiors gedkh owe dons of hens ined Rar som Ono .eldasok - 

o& apadea a bs Tits we ReVeTS ellesititasiee & to solicohea est. 
fron dixd aid setneesn Lovsmoo to eeanreviteevte fsetsolodteaq salt eabut, 
yseutidne ao eoaali -emts eld Va elgiaqsogmk af tfee oak etieey ot fqnit. 
stom ative esers Jade Gaw notetozh ait 4fialtG .betcebsa saw frabaats 
«¢ee1t [atétiel asita anintemex eaten t90 mote evil eadit To deat 06 mpdd 
ewewesd  SEOL ah Roweliet -malg ad? emer cha .beottowes ad Blwode toom 
oct of path eeudet 6¢ plete tom ef attow aohdactbexe sadkh go mia. elt 
flew = of 81 uel fle elovitiaog yourseh of tediat aad slatl sockeOG 
wi Ys notteroait ativiw ,sadih [fe to fevesen ed? dads. ,setios te . thet avoal 
eolteeny Laetosn at adtet fqnoane mien at eutdheses 

wolle% edtodet faubly tbat ont - 


ey oh Dag: Toy we 
_ Suator forester ~~ 

i e ws mY i fe ¥ « ‘ [ie nopuertow 4 > Be hy hy Et ¥ é | 

The effectiveness of Ribes eradication in protecting white pines 
from blistér rust is measured ‘by the quentity of BRibes left, This amount, 
éven though ‘only “a frection of 4 percent of the ‘original quantity, may 
‘stall bé sufficient to cause serious damage to the adjacent white pines, 
Therefore, it is necessary to know the status of the. eee sng after 

- ae ine 

? eradication in'terms of quantities left, 

at mS: | PURPOSE on td 

é : 3 It v the Schnee of checking | te determine gas quantition of Ribes 
a on aréas after eradication, = ~~ | 

Only by an impartial system of samp ling can a fair estimate be 
| mede of the Rides qusitities on an area, The wethed employed in 1932: 
i: consisted of a percentage cruise by .2 chain (13,2 feet) wide strips run at 
regular intervals through the grens ‘éradiceted of Bites, “Hy spacing these 
stripe 20 cheins apart 1 per cent of the area was covered; 10 chains, 2 per 
cent; 5 chains, 4 per cent; end 2-1/2 chains 8 per cent, | 

cond running the stripe a box compass Wes used’ foe rine direction i 
oil pare for distance, “The strip data*which were récorded by one chain 
segments consisted of the type énd the number of Ribes: bushes aod feet of | 
live stem found eccording to species, 

Date were recorded by chain segments in order to delimit the part | 
or parts of a block on which Ribes were most abundant. From thie information 

it wes possible to confine the necessary reworking to only the high count 
areas, which in most cases are gmall, i 

The data collected on the several strips of a block were compiled IH 
ie and the number of Ribes bushes and feet of live stem per ecre by species were |i 
computed for each type, This information was available for the eradication {jj 
i superviecors’ use in determining whether the area or parts thereof needed \) 
% reworking, 

At the close of the field season the block data for each camp were | 
combined into a camp summary. These results also show the Ribes per acre } 
by type. i 

aote corel fefmsh © eo. 


eonty Stidw anitostorg al mottsothare aodii le exanevitostie sit 
~isyeoma eict etel sediS to ye i¢eayp edd ed bevsesemet darz weteild mort 
yam vgiliseup lamigitc odd Yo gneve 2 % ngidosrt a. vise davods neve 
wente atide tmesaths edd oF eysmab ewolvee. cameo of tmetoliue,.od ALite 
sadie xoltelsqog edi edd Io exdade edd woos oF qraseeoen ef tf 2210 teyedT 
oe ages —— te aared wt noljastbera 

vod if 0 pats ftmews rit satersies ot ge bios 4 mercial: ath a" pinks es 
hee _smttenthers meyer. earn xe 


ei’ adatitet ee & Bie: ai shiuecs te oatsine: du tienh na aes “labs eet REM 
SECi at heoyelaue borden edi sete ce a0 weit itnany 2eogii: fects te: ats 

da mirr agitde ebf (teat €,8f) niatio S. yd eelero sastdmeoteg « to betaienco 
syadt arioaqge ya wedhl Io Sedzothars easte edd dgronds elavretal ralege 
<q S ,enteado Of ~boreves san sets edt to tuso req I drags eatads OS eqinte 
afmeo tsq 8 ented E\l-$ bas :3neo toq & .aatsdo & ytaos 

mottoetih enti +02 beas 2asw arsqres xod a wgqitix odd antuass al 

itado eno yd bebrooey wiow doldw atsh gitde edt ,eonnte tbh 10? gnioag Sas 

to J93% boa eetiand sedi ‘te +redmen odd bas oqyd aft Yo Bete fenco eSmentgee 
aoiosce of qnibrogos hevot mot, evil 

éusg edt timtfeb of reby0 ai stameayse ateds qd bebrooet ew atail 

gottanwretat etdd mort ,deabeads feos ovae eadtif dotdw co toolid « to etrag 16 

davon Haid ef? ylno of an biverex eragagoon odd axftaoo of sidiascg eaw FE 
. dlase ete eerao deom ct doide .esers 

beltason orew aoold « Yo aattts Iayever sit so betoelion stab oct 
avaw aviosae yé estos 1eg mets evil Yo Jest has eedeird asdli te vedmen edt bas 
reltagthars ad? ret eldalteve esw aeoliserotnt eid? .aqys doae 10k bederquoo 
heboes tearsdd eftag to serge add tates gaintorateh mi een ‘etoe lvrsqie 
ee ts 

craw amas dgae 760% stab Moold edt asonaee Blatt edt to seoio ait dA. 
etos Taq eedk® aft wore oela atlueet seedT .yrammve gmsa 6 otnt beatdmoo 
; - vd 

—-———_- _ 


During the period Jurie25<30the temporary personnel assigned 
to checking were treined on Ch baat | in 1931 and 1928 on the Priest 
Lake Timber P reining of checkers 
and -#-sati efectory ole dk of chalg Sed dS stilted! Prom the! Werke done dur ng 
this Wehbe aden In addition, Pn days of systematic scouting gave the men 
- "that! pia nee-nd dlieter ruct was found, this work gave. — 
tha Fine tartevtoar te not” Rover ikl Rl the’ aay Tate | 

addi, rpoory 

ee Go: hula Ri Ae Li . ; it 

Reet } Migs 

OS eam aA 

The ¢hecking regults | ave been a pnd 1 reported ‘Fhiroacs, of | i 
me DB ae workinge-unt te, thee’ report g,- the” Vee of wat che ap Ot ah be i @ 
ee me 

vege aboard Thogal 24.0 | "92.91 8 89,3 38.4 _31,.9|-75, 71 g. | 42, 21 
empeoncieareespeaniacin 8 So oe eretection ah 
| scaled Meugas, Montana, | , 
| Hat Forest 1.1932] 97,2 | 190,.01 9 Bie) ed Sa 71. . 96,.8| 25,2) 34 Te: ae ed main | f 

Frenette Ribes Enadi cata on, “Gieervater Neti cmt “pre st. ue 
a Ki ry # 5 4 

5 Z ? : 
ee Pctihoan Renan ae. Peoria nai 

| Ribes Bediceti on, st. Joe Stioml Forest, 
Maries River | 3952] 100, 0 | 109,01 109,01 100, 9| ide 91.109 20} | a 
Laree 4._( Re ne, Gear men ier, mraiectiae 

A SO cnn ie by ea em 4] 26,2 aig it; ek Fe oi. 1 hen 8 
Upper &, Checking after 

i 7 

oe il licetA aia sanded % ites: Hyer” dee: 

82,4! 8 Se Re ee: 4. 8 uh, 

; est Yi © inber Protective a 
tion, 177 tk : ‘ee 

Aegsias nearly BRM | Bes Mel. | aa.6 | se. ai eh, 84.3! » A aS AS fe si. a. ma une! IE yo aise 4 460.3 is 4 he g 

Sa ire 

wit the eter pee on the five forest units (all working i} 
mec ction a, theterhi.g been" toupute” =| 

me e's 

tsk ai a Rb oF Spe eat * type¥ 6: nd ‘all typesof i 

ed 8 feet or Te stent per sere AI 
devas. sown An ‘eye Ye,” oyen s% is 

PUe oe uni ts Were &: Leven oF “ $s On | 


vic | 

ani ee 

. Wi 

In moet cases, a mich higher intiee of the o re oa) | 

brought within the 80 foot limit, Here again it ia avide ‘ ; werk iil 
Wee. in general, far superior to the work done in 1931, ‘ wt 

The one unit worked in 1932 thet showed a decrease in the sortage I 
bs 7 4 4 ¥ x C \‘_ ., a 4 n " 2 ‘ Hi] 
unier SO feet of live stem per sere ig the Prigst lwke fisher Protective i 

Association, This wae wei ny the result of a deci agian agai 

& lares acreage of i deloe wetaure timber thet ran 100 feet of we, BEB 
hive stem per acre, [% was felt thet this amount ia mature tisber woul 
mot be & sericun blister rust factor ant thet these Eibes would’ be resid a 
ahaded ont, 

Tot 9 ee eee ae ae ee 


SS ae 

hongises Lenwos ret Neeregned, ent, Otel cask, boireq edd aaixgd 
esiqa eff ao £5¢{ na TPCL a ekrdw gaeva att mo Beaters ore an bloeds of 
gTeiects to printed tagoreds scld Atok 0 Eta iover A evitcetert tedmiT adad 
sitrob enoh xvow ort mort bediyeet gaia anedd te wero qrefoats lise = bas 
Gat @ 2g antdvooe olfametay2 to aeysh ows .nokdibbs al holreq alidt 
aveR es 2 Pd shave? gaw deur tedelid om sont? blett att nt eometreqxe 
ova! d¢aisT eff mf Jnahatds tom ah pektoet ! one tady somebive [ancttibha 
0 fget 
28. Saae TO%, hadyoges, bes bal Samos pi evad athanpeanhtonde: afis é aor 
i {Liv olla, totem to aelsit. add. .edseqet seed? ..@t ta, i eet 
8 A overt t0%. eageogl nots aackhens &: eodti edt testa bagot 
ot SF Ie ROR ee. St ote Seu eee 

mo ttoestor™ chest oanovad edt 0 apthaotoast: eedit zed tergmidoedd: gl ''. 
senaiack .aag0a8 preva 

Je oral alae Ltisicensan suo ba thers wiaban 7edts an tines Pa 
i Meee te 

teoret Lomo tt a ak, ee eaten thank errs siieacantuediauien txt 
evitosderl tedat? 1siawraelD MObseotiail sedi t9dts aa bised) 

0 bisloog2 4 
peony ered seliall -y neagt 981890 ihexk s0¢th n0it0 shoew fs wees 
oe Ee ae to Bae w beaoo 

av tosiert ‘yen! wials deotnd. va0dss the! 29dHi. 195 santon glo yor 
ot S3e santroanabganed ‘ 
ay & gi oy Api euluda & pine 

ga kirow Lf8) ) wstng Weed” awit add m0 * Tako te ort "to cane al 
beivguoo nead vad ~reds (gets soidgvtotg. yee! oagevad,.end dqooxe at tae 
to wogyd Lis: baeserid. basigu..cqyd masita bavoedg. edt, te egataeoteq sii | 
328 49g mote, avilte. deat. 88, bag.0e QOL, -b2saz08 od ton bad. jadd Ilaw dase 
ai 8 ofds? nt reeds, 8 atab #9 oc]... goitgotbhers, 10d te 

oy Fy 
a Cae = ae 4 + 2 Sty Z 

i ie r 4, : 4 re ‘ 
ox i Pie a oats i 
fg 8 Sh GE i 
fe 6 oh cr shy fey |e ares 

ee i) 

Bie ; i 
sedtaind saree “bo <meta BES 
ft " sa Ane Re Dee » re Tart 
Rew Mess Sart aE me ERS wo Ea SoOGe Td & aa BS OS 
: 1 ) *eyigee rer seantr ie 
aan Hirewet 

NAVE: Ale! ni? 7h. BOLD A, 
3 oe ure eer Piapheeye VERS, BER @ OAS. CoS ama 

oN g ore 
eres Ee 


Caml, KER Hass 


Nat, Fore st 932| 97.2 he 

se he 

Ee ntdatpetas att 

noe egy River 00, 0 00, 0] 100, 0 

Prie at Lake 
Timber Protec- 

sre Associe- nissi| 0.0 2| 84,2 

_—_—_____— => a 


Since a maximum of 50 feet of Ribes live stem per acre was shnetia 
arbitrarily to denote protection of white pines, it is seen in Table Wo, 1 
thet on only 2 of the 8 units worked in 1931 and 1932 was there any 
appreciable amount of stream type worked to the protection status. It is 
notable that both of these units were eradicated of Ribes in 1932, 

In most cases, a much higher percentage of the upland acreege was 
brought within the 350 foot limit, Here egain it is evident that the 1932 work 
was, in general, far superior to the work done in 1931, 

The one unit worked in 1932 that showed a decrease in the acreage 
under 50 feet of live stem per scre ig the Priest Lake Timber Protective 
Association, This was mainly the result of a decision against reworking 
ea large acreage of open meture timber that ran 100 feet of Bibes lacugtre 
live stem per acre, It was felt that this amount in msture timber would 

not be a serious blister rust factor and that these Ribes would be rapidly 
shaded out, 


(EE pe 

a Soe st tennant eats pcan ntiar eineiatinstta ea imation iio 
a4, 1a made ay hl. aedih dite 329), 18 
Ta eeae e —hneoni ot jg 

toe 2S Yep 0 
i edd, ie al permed 

tra ba 

i Ae meen naar 

Stel wane’ seca 
IOf | ae foore A oviy 

batgoba BAY PISS Eee mode evil nadie to set de 
Lg aldol Ai .sse2 at oh og art ad tcde. <0 ie pte ot gf buena. 
Wa ore sux seer bra ite ad hod ow ad tow + ode “to ‘<. rae 0. $: 
ai it wautads ne ttsatoyq edt of beings sqyd. marie “te Janome . al .gq 
SSCL at eactl te bedaothare evew eftae Seedt Yo dtod stadt ofdston 

eae saséroa Anelgy edé to esatnesred +Srigis momm 6 .eenao taont sI 
drow Sée@r ed? tad? taabive ec? $i otens evel .thmtl soot 0€ edt aiddiw Idamotd 
ASEL at ench srow aft of yobreqre tet lateness of .eaw 

aaaeroe eft wi segeroeh a bowode ¢etd SbCl al badvew diay ex0 ‘eit 
a¢ivosdor® yodwt? alat deeivd edd sf a1oa 19q meds avif Yo seet 0¢ sober 

ay bly ower ‘enteoe setgtooh a te tives: edt ylaism egy 2id? ,s0ltatooge’ 
azigeses! coddi to taet OOL mar Jsdt tedmtt etstam meqo Yo egse1da satel « 
Aigow Todett “eet Sean at duvema eld? fadd fist eae 41 .e1oa teq mete evil 
yloteat sd Aiwow wed Ki sped? jef3 bna sotoa? fear vetelid asoltes a ed gon 
xdEF0 behsade 

Since it was tentatively agreed that the white pines on areas 
supporting not to exceed 50 feet of Ribes live stem per ecre were to be 
classed ag protected, it is seen in Table No,..1 that on only 2 of the 8 
areas worked during the last 2 years wag there any appreciable amount of 
stream type worked to the protection status, . 

Of unusual interest are the data for the Priest Lake Timber 
Protective Association area worked in 1928,.4 years before this check, 
Although all of the stream type was found to support over 100 feet per acre, 
81 per cent..of the uplend type falls within the 50 foot classification and 

59, per cent within.the.25, .Ja.this connection, important to note that 
about. twoethirds of the upland acreage is in the open mature end cut-over 

Ce Ai 

eS OF #1o~ e7go4 *5q made evil geadif te gest SG beesxe of ton galtsoqare 
2 eg to & cla ue dads £08 afde? a2 soon ui $2 ,batostorg 23 bocaslo 
to dayoss Sit@eiosig¢a tae rods yew eteey § asi edd anivnh hextsow geo1s 
i aviste noltostesg edt et baitow eqyt mesiie 

i 26818 2 senky otirw of? sad’? beopge elevitstne?d eaw it somte 

+ ade? ofad dmeisT etd aot abcd. te ere fteoretat ‘Lsrepes, 30 
wicerin aidd ereted ezsey &4SS6i mt batsow sera ao tistogsbA avitostord 
r :on08 “oq dest OO! yevo froggmm of Sevet aw egy sewrte ead. Yo fa dgvoddtia 
| baa notiaattteeals #ee% Oe ead oldtiv alist sqyd boalqu ed? Yo taso. 19q [6 
hi  tadv etes ot tradzogm? ef $}..aotdoomco fad al... oS aw: plate tao dr. ee 
I] | Teyo-dto ts marten nego edt of ef ares Oe. . 

A Ny 
apy ts 

LB) THEY WEL EEE G3 wie? y, Re | 
" Yariations in effees: gent P : : | | 
re: Ne gel ne lam John F. Breakey ‘0 
ime OF Sséo50u, Agent | 

ds S iS2ea eeive % TC 2 tie ¥ Thrkoputrrow i> 2 ax F ) 

The program of the GHémickd eradication méthode unit concietea or 
@ check on the experimental work performed in 1931 and further experimenta» 
tion with chet cols : we 

8. ‘ena. “ethos” or" Bhp lteacion, 

a itrect of’ wiithtideb/ Za? St of ‘water. in. one chlorate’ 
solutions: used per-“unit of erea compared with the effect of 
vérieti6ns in weight of sodium chlerate, 

be Mie eel of” vartots: Poona setae tf, aay 4 form" to tne” “pofl, 

& a. S88 $0861 ' toate ty ® ‘of 5" per. ‘bent, qi} per cent and 16 per 
cent concentrations. by. weicht of Atlacide. and. sodium chlorete 

o. "ntfectivens ss. of Atlactde’ and. Voluiacchteisias shen applied to 
serial portions of Ribes bushes and fo the soil. Second treate | 

ment of Ribes inerm areas) with these solutions during current 
s€a son, 

atic q. Atiadide ® ‘applied ‘da: ‘fora. of. ‘Beate. 

gr oon. 

eaderara tasections of. eepper compass ni ea “nets 


3 4 ‘sigs Stem, F990 

os i pe thalgre itt sini ee Gat #81 ‘the ‘ail eee laa’ AW chuaa Ae 

a. Effectiveness of sodium chlorate and smnoniun thiocyanate 
sOlutions when applied to serial portion of Ribes bushes and to 
the soil, else when applied to the soil only, 


i bali 

pbodieé aoliaotha® La: 

+ 4 z 
cet c. Oe a 
Me es, ae a ve . “ ou - 
Megro GF fox wa letecure 

peaiawrore oe Hoenats 
wih? wo Pet b adtegey! ss ay ig 
3 DwMeTle eoyl Baers 

Bo NOTH s ov Fioatoxd 
See We eS Sow 8300 oats ets. oe iin Sarodtia 

1e note Hints ‘tine afbiivon nbttoyrbers Teo taeity edt tonatgeny off? = 5 {° 

~sicorbreqxe vedive® baw f8ef ch Serre tie wow fatatabrégte satin Wedd o 

© pottsertge a 26 ghédien bra efile teers’ dd tW nets 


etenelds aulboe al vetsw to employ af enolisinav to jostTi .s 
to tostto off ative hersquoo sere to ting 29q beew eno liulog 
setervolio muthoeg to tdgtow af eno téalrav 

Afes acd? od mrot qib st tatlaqge elas imedo eucivay to qiotroT .d 
‘antteed a tei 

tog OF bas nen veg S\f.f ,daeo t9q @ Yo ytiotxed Iamoase® 1s 
etatelds mutbor fas ebtoalit to triatew yd anctiatinesnes Ineo 
2 VOT Ge 

o¢ Setfqqa sede eteroids mythos bas sbhtos{tA to sesmoviiosti od 
~tasr? booos? ,lioe ed? o3 has eedauvd eadi® te enotiveg Latres 

drerirs amkush exoltulor seedi citw eset gerend godit Yo Jnem 
te 898 

ainch to met at bellaqa ebipaliA .o 

xelomos taggoo ‘to exoldoetat awoto bas goct mes ab 

ion eft of asottsotiqqa tIis2 .e 

stanagooidt murfsomme baa etatetdo maibos To szonovidoett® oa 
ot has eorlexd gadih to mofiveg (aires of betiqqe aoe anoltsylor 
syioo Ltoe edt of betiqas aedw orls .Lloe sat 




a a 


; Nal 

eas pst 

bo. Effect of variations in volume of ‘water in chemical solutions 
used per unit of area compared with the Setubal of variations 
* cin: theeweight» of) chemi cals, ; 

ce, Variations in effectiveness of chemicals as influenced by the 
time of paeeen. 

a, Successive ‘tesstenate of areas during current season, 

_ @ Application of ammonium thiocyanate in dry form to the soil, 

_ f, Best utilisation of chemical measured by ‘the i reabiant of 
Ripe man! <3 dla a 


Be sioakiatt: apeifedtions 6r drenches on R ee aréas using 

| hhno oat “Teli per cent, ‘Sel/2 per cevit end S per cent solutions by 
f Sidbion basin weight of sodium chlore te.” ‘Second treateent of parts of areas 
“so treated, 

he ay >be Select ve a orizetsae t to aerial porte OF 3. inerme and to 
hied Gal wee: ‘pol! _with 5 per cent and 10 per cent solutions by weight 
) of sodium chlorate, Second applicati ons to Bibeg so. treated, 
C Jecoha. treatment s ‘to areas, “originally treated with 5 per cent 
solution of: godtum chlorate in 1931, with 10 per cent solutions 
oe either “‘sodi we chlorate or ammonium thiocyanate, 


d, Use of ammonium thiocyanate by a regular credication crew : 
throughout the season for spraying R. petiolere, i 


The e: xperiments were conducted on Orogrande Creek on the Clearwater | | 
Wational. Porest 5 ‘6 to 6 miles from the Bungalow Ranger Station, This area igs ‘| 

& few miles below thet on which the 1931 work was performed, Yory heavy | 

fntiae of B. inerme covered the wide flat bottom bordering the creek, i 

and R, lacustre were lees widely distributed, The stream type” 
was rep sentative of the conditions under which B, inerme is found, with — 
dénse patches of willow, alders, thorn brush and other dectduons vegetation 
growing in close association with the Ribes, In gene rely the “work ng” 1 
conditions were $7 difficult, / Ii 


ee ee 

2nofvgion lapimeds af sejae 19 emlev ai emotjalsav Yo toettt 
pachiaivay Yo toetie ede dbiw ter So ayia ™ tiay req bess 
aise ksdo te viel add. at 

heen serf tet elaotmods Yo geemevitostie al sahisebeat 2 

ogaee Io emit 

Mop ave Cer soserk «serge Ie ataentaernd evrlesaoore 

wite effi od. prot yee. gt cs at nas toons x sotisotlgga ‘ 

to taawteosit aft yd beage am Lao tneds to. nobhas Lh ise tend. 7% we a ate ‘ 
socom favk iv iba! ae 

# teasbebie” 

2acis Seeregl 2 m0 gaforerh 19 SHG feo Flog 

“ArT recs 
Oui Sa 

ud esoliclor teso seq of treo neq £\Le$ Peed Tag a\let 
catia YO sited WW tesmiaord Ares st sistolda gar thos: ‘tp. jdgtew 
eteert Oe 
et Sac coppers 2 to aotirog tah 108 0¢ amottactiqgs. avisgeslea .d, 
tis tew yo enoticlos dJas9 139g Of boa tnso 19q & dttw [foe oft 
Hoisext o8 esdit ot gactias er bone? §6eterteids surlboe Te... ... eo 
Taso ieq C ditw jetser) qlanigiza ,esete,od efaontsert,bpo0e8. 2. 
suotiofos tuas teq CL Atte ,ITCL at steroldo ow thor “to xottuloe ° 
wistegoords smitiknomws te eta1eldo at thoe Teiiio to" 
vars aottes thave tale Lk a yd eteneyoolss ow inomns-To of. Bb , 

enaletieg 4 i sateen 1O% itog ne onl twomsyordy 


tavreeiS sit no deeT) shrargex9 so badembaso giev ginomitegxe ed? 
gi asta aknt wetted? segmait 1 vot Reni v@ eft moet selim 6 oF 6 Jesrdl Lanol tail 


eepet an ay 

heaxetieqg ese axow [EQL ed? doidw ae tadt woled selim wet s 

obo pod ¢elt chiw sf} fevav0s artant 9 Yo eto ft s1tneones 

Bae x wate ott stodimteth glebiv eeel eer Z bos .oralotieg 

dt ive gharrot 21 aeecenel Aa dotecie ~obay emord aac ods “$5 Setalaasoraer 2ay 
witotager arovbtosh teddo bas casi wrodd ,etebla ,wolliw to gerotag oe 
gation eat 4 fede ah ed ih edt AGte ne hiatoosen seofo at gah 

of URES Cay Tat Ee 


whe o% aman tere: fab carted. “on By a°érée of :tenymén, 

imiepeé oD whe WO. 1° 


tak Ey , a oss st 


M4 st Aibipeue “Teas ne Rey othe saa wie hp 57 i | 
as ‘ravel and Transportetio eee 2 Oe 

spray ing pet hods EXDEe nse s 23 69 Se a { 

; eo $74.26 9. | 

_. The method of fidetiivé the ele d in 1932 differed from thet 
uged in the pre lind Heryieehiple-checky meee th LOST" TH 1931 the best « wapowerl 
“the obe¥ ohdunit® of Hibey RteM exbrined, THiS stew weak classified my dead, 
GB A ditt 18," ‘or’ whi ve,” WHTCh' Weis Hetetmivied bys He Condit fom of thes” 
“pertterler bush or ‘rant System ‘to HIGH Theo stem wae Gireotly atteched, The 
effectiveness was not meesured by the number of bushes, but by the total 
stent in SUGh biel Wine Gh Clinssy Tn "YS, the veiste of the check GH theo: 

* _ Yost" WOTIE Wey) the mtiber of Giehed 4navthe Teer of ctem Gent or alfives) -, 
te metho Wee poswivle’ tices creat Beal of the unter-tatnty ae to the 
Wi SN kA the’ Mites Hhd veens lamina fea.° However, the Me tte r ‘of? determi n- 
att * const 4 tikes” a bushi < ‘gtih feet 86 wee Wartetion of ite rpre tats ome” 
‘constae ttt) the numbe¥ of busted End the feet of stew c€ untts of menties 
ee Sg te AR ‘Vie WHS keep Gn mind thet the: dae errectiveness of the 
treatments are probebly greater than that indiceted by the per cent of 
bushes dead and less than that indicated by the per cent of stem dead, The 

ro} er 
psi “AS i Me PAS ae 7 - a” 

EAT By ‘i 
en wad to worse a xe Te bitr'say antkent edT 
» tc emis 
be ett i ; 
tegana , 
esta es EE cs % P< 

Regent Ho ne te ioe NN ce RC a eS NE BN 

Loc a wend 
ie eee i 

| 89,583.58 : ee 

| $0,581 wAE | OS BOSS | 


RS) et TW: Oly HY Seine ie 

i mont Dereizih S€CL of et igaer. adt, ag threo 92. i fodian edt 
aw shead. eit Jéel. «tl .. feel at ahag Nag olomag. wr saimtlang ogi i, beew 
oi ae haitlerelo esr weie. e fat bon imax. mata god ts. 20, Jayoma, ts ee 
of? Ie said ibn, edd yd Rentorsteb 2ar doles. gov tls, 70 eldanels agg 
ft . ,bedoadia a fost th eaw adda. ard, doidw of moda ye. F0e7 76, damd, eae 

Lades. sit wi tvd .eodevd to todwung oct, ud Bericase Jor ear 2s big 
eit ac douse oft te atead ad? .Stel ol ,«paalp. motitbaop, dard 

vila ve bieh gata te Jest edith. fea. Age Me ‘to. 1a 

eft ai 2% yWauladreom odd to Lesh deste 5 sonte. eldtezog 2an, fr dd 7 Hes 
sinmreteb to 18¢¢am off yravewol fotanuerte! aesd hat aedt® edt to Lav tvins 
Wohtetergradat to seftatray shie of goetdnue ef dard s eetstizenco tadw yat 
ere som Yo giflar es mete te tact eft baa gored to redmyn oft qaiveblienoo al 
ed? To saexevitodtte ert ef? ted? bole nt gee teom sro ,eeonsvitoetie to 
te $oeo veq adt yd heteothe! tad? medéd retsetp, yldsdorg org 2 tnomtaort 

off ba0h mote Yo tase veg aft yd betas thant tadd omlt eget bas heeb aedesd 

reason ‘tor. this is that when, & particular concentration of Ribes eppes rently 
coming from one central root system is killed, it is counted as one dead bush, 
On the other hand, if the chemical failed .to destroy this concentretion and 
resprouting took place at more then one potnt on layered stems or crowns two 
or more bushes with independent root ystems. might result which would be 
counted accordingly, 

Rithough it is the aim of this project to get an accurate measure 
of the effectiveness or toxicity of the chemicals used, there ere other 
important: considerations which Such meesures do not show, Some of the 
treatments, ‘while not completely suppressing the Ribés Zrowth on an area, may 
serve to Open up a’ difficult area and destroy the Ribes sufficiently for 
vorki ng Py hang ppliing ae 

te gd the by biek of checking used in 1931 is & laboriots process and 
aw atE bya’ thé"yalne of the plots in so far as the number of bushes pulled out 
is concerned) 4t° was not used Pn Checkine the current season's work in 1932, 
Tt is believed that forthe purvdses of mn preliminary Check & measure of the 
Ribes stem, classified a& deat, auestionable, or alive isc satisfactory, 

. .. Preliminery ‘checks or {ncstetione were mode on all #reae treated in 
1932 and” where the-action of the chemical was suffi clently advanced to show 
definite resulte the date were recorded, However, any inspection made during 
the current’ season permits only & analified etetement as to the condition of 
the, Ribes and: the»probablie final results which may or may not be in sccord 
withithe true:results obtained by an inspection made the followings year, 

B. Spraying Methodg-ss ia, “ols & 

Three different methods were used to treat the Ribes with chemical, | 
each requiring a certain type of equipment; 4 

i, Heng: spraying, | Portable. knapsack spraying outfite were used fi the 
special, plot studies and) for some’of the selective work on te sprayin 

2s oeeia abd phnitehs the rani: ‘This method: ig ¢imilear to thet used on power} 
work during the past seasons requiring a crew of about 7 men, including a 
foreman and.mechanic, Thesequipment used in this method ie most satisfactory 
when only. ‘se Ribes are treated with concentrated solutions; 

“ls preying Baie method was first employed in 1932 for 
the. tenes of Rives, hy crew of 4 men ‘were used, e foreman, mechanic, 
ond 2 nozzle men; ~The purpose was tocdrench @11 the soi1 on an @rea where 
there might oe Ribes, ..Only those spats which obviously held no Sibes were ) 
eliminated fromthe drenching, The foliage of all Ribes end brush wee sprayed |i 
along with drenching: the seil, <The equipment used in this method is described 
inthe report.on "Development of Rives Fradication Bdauipment*; It is most. 


giigersecs sedi te solravtoenes telvediyeg scene gedt eft etdt 10% conser 
cae Aeeh sno ee hetswes of #2 ellis wt meteye toot Lazimep eno mo1t gn taoo 
NCiieriaasno 2 iid youte of a4 Ll int Leo tiv shbasd-tesiio edd nO 

(¢ aveda bevegel ae tnieg eae asdt stom ta eoslg dood antivotge or 

bivew cs tew ilunoy tisgte suete qo deta Caebaegehat ative aedaud atom 16 
sgatbresos bedavson 

vragsoe giasuoos m8 deg of Joolomy eftid: Yo ate add af t1 dgvodtia 
ugigo axa evedd .beew eleotreda shi to viloTxes +0 eeonevistoetts adi to) 
afi to axoS ,wede gos of aeapesem dove dotrw enoliatefhianco tastroqmt 
sors oe nO Hiwors ead il ody omtezerqiive (leretques ton” ef tie jetremtsers 
wot yidwe ts Fr tire BoGlh aiid ire da bas so4. dio ITiLlbh a ge mege of evrge 
| Ds sab jie ciitata tal ae ae: wae 

tas Re sett ate Predgsei’ a-et FEel “3 heey at tioeds te aeteye - Odd ad 2388 
tuo beline eeteud Veo sdewe of Sara? weed Bn ait sxlav ont Peveey 
20Of gi trou « nogase Jnerteg edt. go bieads- ae Bees. tom aew Jf ,banteomco ef 
att Ye syiesen « toots. yrenimilerg « to aeatitig wat ot Jad? bevelled af #1 

wrotgate Htae a? aeiks ° $a a: er ne anisieeato — ue) 
i foteord zacve [Le co shan. euwr-eeet toomenk te. vounde Nila tater es 

wore 7 be aqnavee Bliaeic! Veer Le imeadsoct to anigea, odd et ari wir SER! 
wivuh shat pottosgenk ¥Sa. Sav eHO! Jpabreost eree siah ed) alleen stint tsb 
te ne td Eferoo arid: oF af doonotade fortiianry a yino ei imeee nogses IeTELO, . ont 

heogas mt a6 ten ye so yam dofde etiveos Ignkt oléadotty adt bas eedin ont 
7 ate a iwolio’ add eB. ne Hoaqand. EB, se Pee od ABBE ‘Aas Agee 

of eo reds dtiw esdit off daard of boes aren shodien jnessttib seid? peas, 
 gtaeag ings to sayt nigives s anintuper doae 

edt vo't beew stow géiicwo amkyaxqe voasqend ef datrot  aaiiverge bag oy 4 
aniysrers: mo vow eyitoeler orf? to smos 10T bre aathute Jol” ssi 


no Bee ded 09 sel tein a! Dodtem ead? .. 

sh sine utes § aueds to wero, a saiaiveet esorese Jeag, odd, erase sites 
xodoetg ites dean et hotter wind mb Boas. Janome laos. Oat. etaato em bas suangete™ 
ane Raclen sisath bilsasiias At. i Ratner? wre yskiat edt 4 laa. fae 

net SG of boyeiocas Ina lh eax heaton aitt.. an fyeige .2S8og. f2 
yiiseioen yaaseros a beso ator. pom & To y21D A ead Fi to gots erage ‘has 
avila sete ge oo ifee att fia: Sailing Ot oa, secgutg ; ‘Get ginson & Ana 
orew se od 14 on fl ad Leona ype side eteqe oeadd plat, erat et fre “gradi 
howetqe eae daurd boa-meght Lfa ‘te ageitot ad? . .qutdoaetb odd sox? he ec img bL a 
o¢imonch et edtem eldd ai beer gxemaiuge ofl sh tos edd gutdonesh , ad iw ggois 
deém ahbidl. i gitoomcined apiteg thank nent am papmarlereds, BD, aiaiacs auld, fe 

ore agp 

ERROR ts nce tras tile fo Aad la: 

satisfactory for applying di lute solutions of chemical in large volumes, 

For the purpose of clarifying any uncertainty that may arise in 
the interpretation of some of the terms used in this report the following 
explanations are presented: 

i Que stionable, This term when used in connection with Ribes stem 
refers to that stem which has been injured by the application of chemicesl but 
there ig some doubt @s to whether it will survive the treatment, 

2. Special plot studies, These studies were controlled, the size of the 
plots were definite ly fixed, treatments were made according to a definite 
amount per unit of area, and all possible variables were controlled and 

recorded, | ata.aré presented on & sodusre rod basis and all treatment 
constituted « complete uniform coverage of the meet regardless of the 
a evreDat yew: - —e Ribes Cuaimybeion 
3. Exthanice suc, “Mis work ley rdeunted & practical job, ifen were 
instructed and.coathed to give arses certain types of treatment, There wes. 
#0 way of controlling the ‘exect amounts of chemical applied per unit of ares 
or the manner in which the chemicals were applied, Data on this work are 
presented on a per acre basis, ‘The treatments given do not constitute a 
complete coverage of the ground, 

. Selective spraying, his refers to the customary method of working 

an atte The men look over the entire ground for Ribes, applying chemical 
only to the Ribes or the area supporting Ribes, In this method, acres worked 
refers to the number of acres looked over by the men, 

 & Brosdcast spraying, This method of spraying calls for the drenching 
of all brush éu@ ground which contain or might contain Ribes, Only areas 
obviously heving no Hibes are eliminated from the treatment, In thie method, 
acres worked refers to the number of acres treated; 

6. Measurement of area, In the body of this report data are presented 

on a square rod besis when the treatments constituted » complete uniform 
coverage of the area. Data are presented on an acre basis when the treatments 
do not constitute a complete uniform coverage, ‘The number of acres worked 
refers to the area looked over by the crews, The actual area treated with 
chemicals is unknown, However, in the case of broadcast spraying, the number 
of acres worked represents approximately the number treated, but the treat- 
ments were not uniform over the entire area ae in the cace of the square rod 
plote, The amount of chemical applied to certain spots was varied with the 
emount of Ribes present and the physical characteristics of the ground, 

a RAs 

wamifov setal of Ian heady “te aKe Finaioe ‘sdtri is gctylqgs 10% ‘yrds ste Ly ae 

AB Sy ert wee. wile 

t otis yon tadi giatsd+eomr yes gakyt fas to eatgiig. add sot a el 
tiwolfot ad Sreqer etod al beew emres aid to emee Yo holisterqredat act 
> bata ag esq. aA ‘Wheat 

ese asin. dete et iisaminos at ‘Hower neds ev ed. alae alae Ae itso) he 
Pee ineda Jo setigaliaga elt yd bowtat sead nad dotde mete jadi od euster 
Wesitasris ath oe livrume if bea ei cad (F ogi ot 28 tduob moe al eras 

Re te ch rd ‘ Peed ner sy 
at Sr ee a 


of? Yo ovty eft .befldrinen ocew sedbete coodll esthiia tela tained 6 
stint ted s ot goitroooa shem svau gdacmiserd .bexit yletiatieh sier etolg 
fos felfouiaes e1ax eeldaivey old leaog tig baa 19%8 to itor teq tagome 
piaemissrt Lis bus aieas box erase 2 po belneaerg ozs sisil...,baht0os 
eft ‘ aeelinere: jola. of3 Yo ageteves wretins et alqmon a betsd tance 
_egreds eedft ent, to, sokdudinigit 

eroy aeki, of [avitosie « bedseeerqes asow 2fdt, -gizog avizgeix! .¢ 
sew oven? ,inewtserd, Io esayt miadues pasts eviy of badosos bas betoritent 
swia te dtus wag 63iiegs fan dmed> Yc efavormea deaxe off satllondnoo te: yer on 
ore trow etdé no gist ~ietlgas: e:re9-eiao leeds of do tdw al tense jadd ro 
s otod ftaaco, foeseb —s edrentasrd ed? - plead etoe 18q a xe Seder stg 
| phasors eff to. egersroo ee 

uniivor to botdem yramoiseus sit of erstar ‘git? 9 3 | Le 
fas Igoe gtivlage ,egedif tot baworg svitne edd rsv90 fool en od atta 18 
beirae.goiom .boddew afdé al @odtif. goidaoqutte acta edd. ro gediR- ont oF yao — 
aon it gveve bestool eoros, to; tedaps, ond) od e719 Ter 

erh als yo% alien aniyetge to bertem eid 
28te ylas edit miatnep Jdgin 20 cis inoy totitw ae bars eve my te 
“teas ag gid? cl Jeentaers edd mort betentntle ore gedit on guivad ylauo ivde 
pasibonaioas ROTORS ae paheaete ont ot niscigeate | bomios_ ean 



belasusta sas adeb dveqer eel 20 ind exit al .6S%8 Us Joomoeties fy 
motive stalyuso « tedudttesom: etnontaan? edt “eae + ea om eravpe wiko 
eceaniger? edt nedw alead e198 oa we Bsdxesetg ovo ata asta edt to egatevos 
bore’ goToe to. sstueg edt ypegaveves nre tiac sted qieo. A” eirtiteneo-ton ob 
iti boise aore Laxioe aft yevers ond yh seve bevel gore ert ot er eTor 
codemx odd age iqemys teaodactd to: ope ont sl ,revewol « .nrcedae pb eDao leeds 
~taont adv ted ,hedeend sodmn edt glotemizerquevetnes sr qet bedrow ge15e ‘te 
fot gatos eft. %e sego 863 of os sevg orbits odd tove°moYiur doa view staer 
ot} déiw Seiveav eu* stoes windres of betiggas ladinets: Ww tabeme ofk-” Stotq 
smiroxy add te coddaivetserots Laateylg edt has teevety sed ht Te tavone 


". Weights of chdnical used in sdletione: H 
Solveigg 4% Uvlettde | Bolltinut chlorate Ammonium Thi ocvanate ff 

Bea GO 7 We per get. 25/18. perizet, = 5 Ib. per gel ) 
CCC Re Speer keer E of f 
et ee Oe et PP LO! * per | 

nick : ; 3 + F ‘ 2 F 1, S . a sh , z 

“Tell. NORE “Pe RT ORYED 4 my Se suis 
ga bbe oh Ah RS . 

be & . 93] fork | } 
A, Sodfum_ chemist Qed ta donuts i for S11 Drencne a" 

il Parbas. b 4) test the effecttyenasé ut eéafom Shlorate on all Ribes 
specieg when anp ilies in solution asia soil dréenth in mounts renginge from | 

oneehalt pount ta 4 pounte per severe: ret set 15 voto of water rangi ne 
from 2 (cellos te 32 gtllons per<sovere Tay 

yy ethad, The grenches rere applied to tie seth only and no treatment 
ras given the; gent t ab bra ha ‘of the’ Ribe a ch 


Pete ace ee 

ts OF ae 


tet mrtaoun’ starolm) moehe® «.) "eb iogkea motte Loe 

ia, eq dE, Se £39 39q.6f Ga: chap meq MENS Deer. ais FX 
a ik St SOC alee ach eWakeos to ko} MOS arsiul a 
gb Easy TE SAY é o i i , Ov ; " ° . Pek. RS EY ae ea $OL Ort aReiw ey 

nadit@ LIhe-ne etsreido sy thom: *e aniacnihtn ed ‘ ‘4a: test oR: Wo ets Get eee 
antes? “gee byieiet wine utodoners Lioe » es so tisloe nt baliqqs nedecgeiosge — | 
yitsew: tatae to eemufov at hae bor stespy sq ehaveg #03 ibayog Ailsiesne — 

OT Oso te 70q anol Lng = od oe s mor t 

z- Sie ail 

eset Hee jos #08 vine L tor: edt of hetlqua wise vesioaert ‘ont.  bodien: & shiigale 
igor ong ort 20 are Lotion isien ed’ sevig 23K 

% at dee i 
Pe re PREY Sr’ Cs i 

tye tee ee 3 our ee ee OP eS es ae 
¥ Sei Cie i £; “35325 a ie 
_ Dee , 
ge sy 2 ie a 4 £ 
Pe 4 be oi , 2 
*: si Side sisttpiet : e- . 
nt ty 
; Foes Pe 
ik Wy 
4 at es, 
“ yee a 
ey é Top Se yee ee 
i i my is ‘y 
” aay et a. hy 
* ¥ 
>. y + 7 
iNet M 
} j oe ey 
4 es My 
‘ ¥ te +} Pa: 
§ Sa: Gao hw I hs 
a 4 ee | 
3 ux x eae AY t 
/ * > Wat ¢ x 
ae i 
4 ‘ e398 a Ea oke 
ey st, ig amy ster py 
t page 3 
¥ y , } ft ay eat He DHE 
¥ xe se ve seus a” 
; mm rt 
z i pa BSS UD 

*CS6l SE" VsNnsny payayo syoTa 

“TE6L “GEOR BSnsFNY epwE suo 142041 ddy 





F5a Diaa e ES TOF Tet I 
- “TT? a 
BS set r2t | 
pops] 7 

ares spunog 30Td | 

oP carina ei ales 

: 2 8 ig ow saraat 


mousad JIOk TO eTavess 


an i= Ss ic aa Lee. es se | 


= ores OO pl rnicad Ri > 2a dhl “ | Ss... “Ts 


— mond aera 

j in i } 
wemphe ao oS wand eee eRe 7 mea ok — oe Ee 

Sere of leat = jak mya eo ae Aap es es 
| == ee es Se ae ae ee a Sele art 


i & gn f & ¢ * 
a oes fenetae ae i ee ee ke Soe rd a i. . On & 5 ee G5 Eh. oh 
3 = 

Le 86 ; ek S11 
wn SE ECE. i a “2 ae Se ee ee = LS. sa Erne wee 3 a Bs 

z 5 
wi EES cerned sai: ee ge ee ae ENC Some Se OO | Teter ne: Be eee “pes GF pS 7 oe 

te ra ee Es 4 
» . £% 3 ; Py 
S ot ae Pe Meh aon en | seen mn 41 at. $ Sta... eee Be 

ith «s * 2. oe + ty ace Ge: 
of SBE SE sont Lown — it... a eat seomomne cee re _ whe a a ade 
a ee i 
SP eye j ‘ : ; $ : o : ef 
} => ~ - ; ; 2 f te 
swe eg a OE = ee A ne ee a ee i kil 
ue G § 3 nm i i. t Z er 
¥ : #3 , t S323 i 
is (2 RSS Jak ie aie a2 aa = ene ae? aoe ee SS ae: Seen See Se 
z . 7 ‘ +f ”. > 
2 ee & : j 5 i 
BS ae ; 4 ae se cm pees i te ol LE 
a Rn NILES Re et Le ee Sa snd ene A asl Rtcenncit cont ee. pmctbncey te Pi Crpcomestin pttleorene 
~¢ > : i } tne o- i ey PRS ts ‘ i j ; fs ‘ 
tar 4 . oc ipa eteses ‘y : tse {<= : Bee- 
= 92 4 Ses EE Tee Cao SO ee bs tk Se Fic aghast conniattean bine nee mamenbaon SPS ange 
weak +, = bat es 
+b tr ee 
3 etoile. SRP A 
t = : é ? re 7 
sot <i: js 3E CS ; 

3. Results. See Table Wo, |2, The treatments were made lete in the 
season in 1931 arch would tend | toward poor resulta,, Certain indicat 

shown in the results which willbe helpful fn plignanine future erper! mente. 
work, Wo a préeiable kill was secured with applicetions at the rate of onee 
half and one-pount-of “thentcal per gcuare rod on sither Wibes or other brush 
species, Oxnetheiplots receiving th¢sa amounts of chemical there was not only 
sprouting from’ the Ribeée crowns, but there we¢ a considerable amount of 
survivel of ‘the “‘origidal Mibes gtem,—dn those plots receiving 2 p ound s and 

4 pounds of chemical|a considerable. jamount of damage was done to #11 be 
brush on’ the area.2nd in practically all cases the originel Ribes sten : 
killed, ° | Rexpréuting wag all from the-erowns,. Attention is called to plots 
Nos, 12 and 17“an' which |2 pounds of chemical in 4' gellonse of witer and 

of chemical An gettong of water were applied, each mixture repre senti 
approximately, asd per cent solution, °&) very good kill was secured on both 
plots, In regard to volume of water applied, 2 gellons per scvare rod seens 
to be insufficient, and_amounts over-I6 ceblons per square rod aspperently do 
not sccomalt sh ay edditional ‘kill. | 

Ay : Chewj in arm to the gus saa wang 

iB Purgose, “fo +6 9t“the éfredtivene sp-of varying amount’ of chemi dels 
applied in dry. ery stalline form,on reas with heavy -Ribes congpntreti one, 

experiments, ere, optlined on the basis of a maximum cost figure of $200 per sere 
and a ai ni mum figure | of $50 for material, ‘trensportation and labor, 

Be Meths. fhe chemicsis were scattere? broadcect by hand on seuare 
plots, | The ered ce tiong we re made to give a uniform ground coverass over 
entire Plot a 

“Phe Foti ond ne chet cals were ineeks sodium chlorate, ammonium chleride | 
sodium hydroxide, zinc chloride, and caletum chloride, 

{ t tn 
® a 
. - 
ad ‘ 
_ = £2 
2 & so 
. , 
¢ 4 
a “ 
os F 

us + 
e ms 
fm ‘ a 
bd > 
- > Me 
; me 
- fi a vt 
ie e. 

= “ 
Fe s 
" ; 
. > y 
%: Co} ne 
; 2 
=“ 1 





$$$ — 

Chemicals Aop R, petiolare R, ne rme R, lacugtre | Per Cent | 
Plot Bushes Fee tem | Busheg Feet Stem Bushes Feet Stem] Brush | Se 
No, |Pounds| Chemical |Dead| Live! Dead| Live} Dead) Live) Dead) Live, Dead| Live|Dead| Live) Kill | lit 

aE Anes 
50=75 26-4 | 
= 2 mae 91} 78 1 ai ~}) 50279 | _26- _——+ 
Nacla, | 
ee ahs es, 10 . Hats 30} 25-5 —|-9__ = 

8-1/4 eee | 
y ah] ctl Cac 
= ee 
a a mia SR 
eve oa 
oc eee ae ee 
2-1/2} NeC10z 
47-1/2| CaCl not ie Q | 
NaC10, 60-p 
age pio a eee eer 
ae NaCl; 

18-3/4 ae ee ee ea | 

11-1/4| CaCl, 23 senpeer 0 
3-1/8 Ti, c1 
9-3/8] CaCl = e Q 
12=1/2| NH,C1 
14 oie CaCl, 50 
Bd a ea OO 
12-1/2} CaCl not{ chec| ked 
6-1/4| NH,Cl 
6-1/4) CaCl he 4 
faze cotte | {| | | oot CE 
17 |22-1/2} caci not| chec| ke 
1-1/4) NH Cl 
fe ci CaCl, not| chec| ked 
NE, C1 
eel ie — not| chec 
ee WO ae Po 
ReSVE ane 642] 0 1 7 20 5-50 
5/8) NH4Cl 
1 |11-7/8] CaCly 2| 338] 57 
a [es PREREE zee 
oe Ci = eer 
12-1/2 CaCl, 33 : 83] 116 (e) 
6-1/4] ZnClp 
24 6-1/4} CaCl Q 4 1188 
6-1/4) ZnClo 
25 | 18-3/4] CaClo eee 358 
1-1/4] ZnCl5 
11-3/4| Cac 
2-1/2] ZnClg 
27 |22-1/2 Cacls not 
ss 3-1/8] znClp 
28 =e Cacl not |chec|ked 
29 Pe CaCl i olieer. 




= KR inerme; p = RB. petiolare. ( CONTINUED ) Annval Report 1932 
Applications mede September 6, 1931, H, E, Swanson 

Plots checked August 8-11, 1932, 

a | 
| | Chemicals R. set iclare ; er Cen 
eg Bv a Feet Stem! Brush | Seed- 

| Plot! Applied Bushes Feet [Feet Stem | 

han thai ha Chemical) Dead iis inane ca = Live| Dead| Live] Dead! Live| Deed! 


| ae 45 CaCl, 

283/a| Gacte HHH | | 
31 |23-3/4| CaClz 0 . 
5/8] ZnClo 

ee Ea CaCl an ee cke 

cecte Poss a pes er he 
Became : = OY 


2-1/2 | 

ss [ae] Sa ann nnnae ae | 

afb te tet | 
Sheipheat-——[ : SD 
[alist t | 

ee Sap | 
mE ae rie 
39 | 12-1/2| CaCl 29 155{ 428{ - 

nl on 


6- 1/4| NaOH 

40 ; 

NaOH | 

4 CaClz 2} 23 74 480] - | a= = | 

Nao | 

42 CaCl2 O| 19 | 118] 263] -| -J| - | 

F| | 6-1/4; Nao | | 

r/ 13-3/4| Cach | , i 

i! | 43 Bro | oe een releeed| 

| | 3.1/3] NaOH | | 

| 9=5 /3 | } 



1 | 
| not| che|cked| _ [oun ee Soe ; an Exec) H 
not h ked | 0 | aoe: | | 

_not| che! cked Eee anaes |e ae 


Plots No, 54-57, chemicels applied in solution (16 gallons per square rod) 
izR inerm; p = R petiolere, i} 
Applications made September 6, 1931, l 
Plots checked August 8-11, 1932, | 

Annual Feport 1932 

) EK, E. Swanson 

jj 4 

C pebehthe See Table No, 3. With the exception of plot. fo. 1,-0n | 
lois ii 21 pounds of sodium chlorate and 29 poumis of calcium chloride were 
applied, there wes HO satisfactory kill, On this particular plot excellent 
results were Obtained, However, equally gati sfactory results can be obtained | 
with a smaller amount of sodium Chlorate when avplied An solution in two | 
succe ssive tren ineate as shown in other experiments, ) 


oy To. compare the doxteity of 5 per cent, 7=1/2-per cent. and 10 ) 
a) per, cent by. — of Atlacide and sodium chlorate sprays on i 
2k petiolare, | es | 

“e. To. test the’ seasonal tonicity of Atlacide and rieatan chlorate 

= ie Re | PEATE: on Ee SoRLllb ies i | 

: tte Methbal There are two importent Sonaidwsdtt de. to be wept an ami nd it 
rl a ants gtd 

Be The duperinent wes to test the fixs dity of sprays on BR. petiolarell 
he method of Spraying the serial portion end crown of Hibes 

eS bushes used by regular eradication crews for treatment of 

io & petiolare was followed, “Since this treetment alone is not 
_ the mogt successful method of treating BR. inerme and RB, Jecustre si] 
the results secured.on these. mies! areonly incidental to the i 
' mein purpose of the. ‘experiment, | 



be The experiment Was bondteted bye , etude erbaicdts on crew to 

take it as comparable to averacé trew work @s possible, Although | 

Atscan not be presumed thet ‘there was a“uniformity of ‘onsale i 

of all Ribes.on| the plots. the experiment wes sufficiently large | 

| tovedequatély test the effectiveness of the various solutions it 
4 Mader conditions ii team eke of regular chemital eradipation 

Pip re pions, : I 

test |,on ! rea! 

pot? | i it 

| : : 7 taat 

re ie 

et? |. 

ot reg) 
re : r a0 f 

& .@ S18at 

£5.55 @r diiisca eyana2 aTAROIH mu 1ace UA HOIQATTA Wo _YTI9ICT Jawoease 

saiad to 

EBige jaot94 Y¥SIgs | bregzi 

71 orrg : “le 18% at] ste [isdaa 
91 ¥s0t iece | on} er9A 

| sof ofS | teer 



} the WILit me f : Be Bak i 43 Jkt - DAL 2 BE, 5 

16. CORVTR Get ay OP RRL Gs f } 



r eathea of ting fe. L°AMDOTIME OF SPRAYING | 

i Tate. | wel aera q7 | 4 a 59 30 f [301 791. Wl 
7-1/2% Solutions [8165s] 8913 ahccgasT os at ae 65 | 94 fll 
lt 95_| 99 | ssl 7a 33 

; 3. Healt See, Tables Mo. 4 and. 5... oscctble to mbke a: » cont ae 
Pe nicaacieathe ¥ Be ‘fe detec and’ ‘sodium chlorete were a ghar i? effective when Atlacide | 

©°°Swe's used in amounts which provided’ “epproximéte ly the aime sodith 
‘““ehlorete content in’ the Atledcide spreys asin ‘the corresponding 
sodium chlorate sprays, In these sprays 1,4 pounds of A tlacide . 
were used to 1 ‘pound of sodium chidrate. ‘ta achteving ~ ty 
ORR OR EM epproximate ly’ ‘the game dépree of Ail, "2 per gent more Stlactée” i 
| soe OS ves “886d than” ‘soatum chlorstes: 8 ad wa | 
she rin Tie 0 per cent bBTHEE Ena killed 33 per cent nore “oF the tober” soa 
' the iar RO r “pushes: ‘and 2 per cent ‘more ef the stem. on the plots {i 
” - sheds _, Shar ‘the er ‘cent solutions; 7 il 

c, Spraying performed in June with the three different concentra- i] 
“ttons of spray killed’? per cent more of ‘the | totel 3. peticlere | 
“pushes on the plots ‘then spraying Gone in July, end 14 per cent” 

* gore than epréying done fn Nuenst, elthough the June spraying 
“Killed 4° per Cent lessor ‘the ‘stém. However, attention ts colied | 
“66 the “excellent results securéa with & 10 per cent solution oF” Iii 

dt * sodfum- chlorate’ on s atfrerent ‘plots: ‘preyed fn Bugust., * a 

rea tae et: vere it 

‘ “Oh thé°basts Or these results, it is recommended that e 10 per cent |i! 

solution of sodium chlorete be used on all knapseck spraying operations for 

WAI Gh Beneve esate 
BaSUO RO as a , 
~ g¥ARSE.. TC 5 SOT tan 

x ae, a ; * . * a eleboties Tes pease @ te 
~aianoal oanen} WE €. 7 ee See 22 a 

iaete Ltt W622 21 td naps * jp odes S| peeks 4e%!  ommil > 

(ess oe e eS fete tat | | 

aie ee re 

Prue eh eb 4ee pec | ae | ia fase | ae bb " 
{ } b — 

Lar il ss. yeaa bei es | or i , eit ies 
Pe ee s ott { aotdat owe gist rs 

slog lil nedy oe tae 9 herraerest OI OFS Cpere me bboe bee ebfsalda s 
al Shea san ott Uetamixorgge bebivor¢ sohdw gtavoms ai bear eae | 
sn ibacoe s1t69 oY nk ee egssge Sbhlosltd etfont daotges | ei erolds. 
ehingtii to a baw ee bA ayetce beotd al weystad etsrolds susibos 
peivsindes al ...staroldo muting. to dawg tod fees. ate: 

ehtosid’ @rem gaso teq os ihe to eerTgah exae ant qiotsmixonqas 

: MOdartel: ito | ‘ou ibee sont | peed aoe 2 



lasek eat Yo: vie — TER Fe ‘Holle eno ttelon ti te or bien 

stela art so mete | ‘ond te arom fap Tay © bra eorend oy sialelieg 1 : 
mnotintos mane ai &: ‘ne ants 

¥ evdneoio isecavitel eerie ods adam. dat. a hier ms pactqanae re 
2 ako t2g i Lated ariz- to som tage Taq T boll fi ystge te eaets 
juan teg Sf Sos .ylel of encod aniyarge aad? atofa sit a0 aedeud 
mn ae si yerde aml att dawottla giesgoh wt sab mrlystgs gait a 
| boflas 2k aotinatig ,reyewok ete 23 to e2al ipeo tog 4. peli bf 
to adktufor dues teq OF o ddiv batioee’ edige or jnollooxe arid: od 
qieagA tt heqerat atelg dnsaott Lb. & a0. ne ng Shor 

janes ‘aq Qi dat. ‘bobhaameses- ‘et ay ative ‘seed? to 4 as: “ect “10 | 
tot gad ti atege gatysrce re ifs me a fd. a nroldo ae tq aottulos 

the ki Lling of ‘he pekiolere, and thet all spraying be completed as soon as it | 
is conveniently. possible after the start of the spraying season, Wxeellent | 
-regults.can be secured from cereful spraying in hugust, A thorough 
_saturation | of all leaves and stems and an application of spray to the base 
of the bush where it enters the ground appears to be the most satisfactory 
method of treating §. petiolare, 

a. To find a practical method of destroying all Ribes species, 
ER. inerme in particular, with chemicals, 

2, Method, Refer to pp, 1022107, 1931 Annual Report, 

In general the first treatment consisted in spraying the serial 
portion of the Ribes to the point of dripping end spraying the ground 
representing the root distribution of the Kibes until puddles began to form 
The sécond treatments varied according to plots, These varistions will be 
discussed along with a consideration of resulta 

3 Eegults, See Table Wo, 6, It wes possible to make a 100 per cent 
check on plots Nos, 1 and 2. In making the check, the actual size of the 
treated area was recorded, This showed that on the area recorded as worked, 
approximately 50 per cent of the ground was ectually treated with chemical, — 

& higher per cent kill of R inerme was obtained on Plot Wo, 1 Hy 
than on Wo, 2, ‘The treatment of these plots differed in the method of apply. || 
ing the second dose of chemical, On Nog 1, the roots of all R. inerme and B, } 
dacustre were heavily drenched whether they appeared to ve alive or dead and ii 
the eerial portion of any releafing or resprouting Ribes was sprayed, On Wo, i 
2 the treatment was the same except that the serial portions of releafing or 

resprouting &. inerme and & lacustre werenot sprayed, On these species only . 
root treatment was <iven, . 

Because of the relatively poor results on plots Nog, 3 to 6 a . 
complete check would have been very difficult and of little value. Less thal i 
5O per cent of the R. inerme and BR. lacustre bushes were killed, The ‘ 
variations in the treatment of these plots from those on Nos, 1 and 2 which iil 
probably contributed to these results veres less chemical was applied; area all 
was sprayed later in season; insufficient time elapsed between first and || 
second treatments to permit much resprouting; and only resprouting Ribes were q 
sprayed the segond time, || 

2s noo as Betelgmes ad gatyetqe Jig dant bea satsloites a, to pats pa ond 
tealfleor’ ,wcease aafyerae sft to drade af? ratte eldleseg yinstineyaes ft 
cgroredt A ,teo,cA at artyexga Leteres moxY Hermebe of? Rao ed iva or 

sad oft of wnce to noltagliqes as bax emede bow eeveol Lia to, soldarnuitsa 
yrotoate tian deen oft ed of ermeqaa’ haem od gxetns, ci 3 exedw dend edd Yo , 
’ Waehotiog A gatltsord Yo hod sin 

faé_ttaivas st ebtoalis bas od a tbo ts aduantaaaT ovtassaased 

ilove eedts | lie Caebeee 20h te bodtan- Yan senate a hatt-o? oe” 
miso hess sake eralieths, aa wh ha 

“geoqet Tatmek PROP wotdeor ey OF eta eee 

faites eff anivavgqe at bets tenes Srewtaert tae Pt act far os g Oh. hee 
Seuorg act eniysser baa gataqin& te iateg add. of eedift axt 1 no ttzoq 
MOT Ot maxggd avihtiry Thee wedre ody We neNod sets toby “ade ‘po tiacyatget | 
ad {fiw encitalzay set? .etola ef gatirvesos beivay, ataemtse1s hacoa, aly 
caus : wiivesy So ao ttarsh ents és te anti ‘Beeatoe Te 

teas teq OOL # oalam od ofdigeca aa¥ st 48 oe stds aoe j 

afd .40 92 te Jactoa eds; goog adt aaiven af. «Sf bos. t 308) waéla 10 ioeerlo 
.badtow aa bebreget sets edt a0, dads, bowode, ata? abebr0997.. 2av,e9%8 bataord 
el aolmeda At le fadacr Uigutos, san amor: odd 20. neo 34:8 O@. yledemixorgas 

il Lf ow oft ae ‘Ben bad dé, saw. ase, i. to. need trap, 184, ods ti a 

«iqas te bovier ast gf berottib adelg. aged. te treiteotd . att ..08 .08 a6 sarlt 
O bos eptent .< [fa te etoor aft gh. go%, 90 mi ae touts. 3 to. geod tT eies ant gat 
‘fea Bseh ro ovila od of botasyga ysds teddeiw | Hedorery “gh tvaod sien etigsoel 
8. 20... beyenge car 99d. we tdwoxge st ae wittesian. yas te adifaeq daives ent 
i 28 satteelex to ae tfrog fatree. ant, darig igaoxa. tank att. Bak, dosndaerd erid & 
(yino eetsege saad? oO 4howsyge tosexew Sidavoal i. bo ai ant yok. gotsvorgqeet 
pmcljny aaw “Guemtsets soor 

| a. of E ao ee tole. no ae ive os "90g ylavideler adt 4c aeu aa 06 
li catt seed .etlay el¢eii to. boa tiegktith, yrev_ased svac blygw ageto stelquoo 
ex? aboli tt exes sorlesd, ortegoad. fh. Die veer xf. ond, te Sno req 08 
dotte $ bas f .eot ag. sa0cd mort, stela,. paed?. to. da omy cor 3). edd | al ano ite hav 
sere ibetlaga.eaw Lz agtwurds avel . ,ersyr at fice on. epeit ot, bstudiadncs yldadorg 
| “heres tax2% now doo heeonts snl’, dasiottivent, imogsee at retal beyatqe 2aw 
| orev acdit gridvorqasy Ylao bax raaidireage ot dou gforog of atmamtsors Snones 
i cena setts Libel ane boyetga 

STE Eee 



The kill on plots Nos, 1 and 2 was heavy on Ribes and brush, The | 
area wes opened up sufficiently to permit the eradication of the remaining hy 
Ribes by hénd pulling methods ‘requiring less then a man day per acre, On the | 
other plots. an edditional chémical necessary before the area 
will be ready for clean-up work by, hand, 

_ ‘It is estimsted from the results of thts study, that heavy R.inerme 
| ereas can be properly worked at an’averagze cost of $40,00 to 550,00 per acre, 

| i ray 
1 t 
ft } 
. ea 
| | 
: | i 
im al, | 
if i ii 
uw i] i 
' LH ’ 
i) | } h 
| j 
1 | t : 
\! ! Nt 
7 | Uy 
; | |) 
| 4 
tt “ 
| | 
/ \ 
. 1 | 
i | 
y if 
{ \\ 
HI) | 

SS SS = 



SS SSS ae = 

ad? ,festd bes gedif me yasd gar S baal. ok ateta no iftf eff | 
atinianey edd Io oo ease adi ifeseg oF ylinetottice gr beveqo bow sets 
eft a0 9194 29g yob wan s cad? easl gatrivpor eboddem aatileg hasd yo eedta 
gots Of e10ted yisersoon at toemiaary fagtmars lacot?ibha as jetela ‘redto 
baat qa inte qu-neelo: ‘tet aer’ od S720 

omer t & yveol jad? ,ybrte etdt Yo etiuveas: sf? nest hotamites es! 31° : 

-eTog. T9y OO Af of OO.088 te deco sastsys. na Ja betrow ylsegotg 9d gan esete 


: oY Fe? = y “BRET {geRFeY pergeuP rest ey Poyeary $40T¢ 

‘ “squenyoany jo" ‘yango08, Parton 405 qioday Hey Te6t ur vOt a ‘c “ON @TGBE vas 


: Ses 10e SN1_OF GUA eNala WO enc Imes Jalssa OF 

| xe g | 8 eno geo 92 | a8 | mss 

oe an 

rs er las ames: Via ee faasne 

| = 42 [sobs pen ive suse 
i 08 ? et <a | tbe at a Ae 1 
a: j++ 

2 S jones I Ae i a | . nV en ‘g ce ae ries coo. SP 

r | — i 
, “il ao ffs fost ees _| loss pape th out 2 
Ls 7 Cam | ieee. 2 et: as Ss a oS Cee Sa a ee oh Eas eee a 

| : weinemisert to taseooa baliadeh 10% droge lawnanA ffeil at AOL .g 26 OF sida axe 

ECE ,tamyerA befoeds .[f°f ak boteart efolS 

ho. t et ‘the. ei i be ago on ‘ tidlere,’ E: inerme' ena 
¥ : e when bioited in’ the oa ust’ to the bushes and 

| F 
a 4 = * 
7 Tihs eid. + fulive é¢aert 1 to ‘ bg if Le 
t " ny ra 

i % .- 4 

j | 
id } 
P, ; aT te tab thea Fas rare on’ B” oer scale late in | 
je font 1931 with & dusting machine purchased from the Chipman Chemical | 
(ea Engineering Company. Considerable difficulty wes experienced with the { 
BS machine which resulted tr anunéyen distribution of Atlacide over the area, 
> Algo more time and aebor Was Tequi red ‘Wan® shoul be? necegse ry, ° Ins far as 
3 possible e fine layer ofa Heer ae ori wei Ly gab over. ane the: Habe and the ! 


s0il beneath them ** ~*~ * BS ti OsrAre ls Bs ed, ~y 

e sult, See! Tad leoWo.e 7%! y Thee uneven: dist ributiion: of» chemicel, | 
) resulted in a we ry Unevel® KI) over the: plots... Preemebly: where, the, create st | 
q KETEtook place’ way’ whee: the heavy applications: of: Athecide dust were made, | 

Le... 015..' td's meithodor. tpn lratiion does not compare favorably with the 
| standard spraying methods used by regular eradication crews, Although a 
| more suitable @usting machine would probably reduce the amount of lebor 
as required and give @ more even distribution of chemical, it can hardly be 
r expected that @ suff4 Heit saving could be made td make the method practical. | 
% Since the amounty Of Chemical’ weed faited to kill a sufficiently high per | 
Pl cent of the Ribes, a taseer: vapnioo hahah E ishyrigaae be iheiabitamtid yh obtain f 
I satisfactory results ° oo & mee Or Gn ly destroying plan mn | 

cus a as I 

e se bE} se Soe See Pe ee ae La . 4 ‘ 
ek alae i spSvuas or are uscasi ON OF ATLACIDE 
py expe ns a pi =A 1 Ow mur OM muna 

° hee | ‘Peothwaane - 

: 4 Bohies a Ge wie: 3 Te of O£,, } 

2 l-~es Stem Hos 4 «| 
fe I Ye ea Reales 4 toa abt inal 

Chemical applied “Bogust, | ‘I931: tianlian aia 164 “i9Sey 

Size of plot - 1/2 acre. | 
Cost of work « $65.00 per acre, 430 lbs, Atlacide per acre, 4.4 man days per 

ser ee A 

hxs seyect 4 ,stelotteg \ a4 ahtoslta “ vi 5 rad ery ltueg oT a 
Ste seregd eft of Sagxh Yourre? ef¢ wt oat meer Sttamal oh. * try 


at etal efaoe [fame a-no Senreireg 237 inom bregxe Slade | bode .S 
fso ied memgq iis, att mot, bokadamerg ‘en tdoam giiteob « dite Leer Taga A 
ens dite beoasitegxa ese ys iro tttte Old srebighicd ~~ syreqmod : ‘anit ssn tual 
29718 a03 revo abioal#é to nofiedingath Gov aus og of beiiveor d>.telw an fd5 am 
| Ba tat o¢ al .yrsesscom od bigere- naff ferinper. sr. total bes outs rom oels 
oct fa eed eft Ila reve hearge eeaw terh ob pal a t xeyal entt. & eidlasog 
pee i aencd ikea 

isoimeris te sofdudivte th nevens eAT X 8 olga? Sez. we tli at & 
teatsors adt eredw qeldamvesr? .toly add reve £1 ht: revers prev s AE Bos lue or 
Sher ater teyh abiogltA to smtisotlags yeaod bid patete, ear eoata oot If bi 

sif Athy yfdarovet stagmes ton asoh neitsan tage: to Shaded a tat. be. 
& MgvedtfA vewess sottsothaye tslirge1-yd Bear ahodt om ga tyotoe “brghoate 
todai ‘te tavons edd epeber yldadorg fierow Sxinoam gattesh oLdat ive stom 
ed yvibvad mao tf .ieo iments 46 se Pied ivte tb eve som s svta bia berivper 
Asoiiserg hodien ett wlan oF ehem sd bisce an hyras dnefottige @ tadt betoagxe 
t9q Agtd yUdsosiobltee s ILbiot belial-beeg lesiaedo-te atavome att 90nt2 
tistdo of yraresoan. od | atone i tile prone negra @ ,eodth. ‘ed? to inso 
hengerovealh i iG ie Farioeta teas 



ee ae 
ot oe eet eee oh 
tu. OU LA man BH 

taeit on mete 

AR AT e Deo: 

a asi aay j iL tee Ke 
ne | | Ar Rpm co 
QO. TT fs is ja ete TL ele : 

ECL gOL tadmetge?. Benicia send fer ~derraA hetiqqs Lao imexdo 

| ; 5 6198 S\L « tolq to srté 
teq eyeb mam }.i ends eq sbiosis woot OER, re meq 00 ee ~ x1ow to teod 
: 9198 


| 2, Stem, Kootend Crown Injections — | | 

1 4 total of 166. bushes on 2.4 ecrés were injected with a copper 

| complex peste. during June and July, 1931, Approximately 3,200 injections 
f, were made and 4 gallons of peste used, Actual time spent finding the Ribes 
bushes and crowns and making the injections was 1781/2 man days, 

“This. study,is more fully described on pages 100-101 in the 1931 | 
Annual Report, The final check on the area in September, 1932 showed the | 
following results; 

| 39 BE. inerme buehes treated. 1 bush killed, | 
: 9,287 feet of BR. inerme stem treated, 3,365 feet killed, 
| | 77% petiolare bushes treated, 11 bushes killed, | 
| 1,992 feet of R. petiolare stem treated, 1,183 feet killed, 


This method is ineffective as far ag this particular paste is 

| concerned, Any method requiring root and crown injections involves a creat | 
iP amount of labor, principally for locating the roots ani crowns, | 


G, Salt (NaCl) Applications to Soil, 
1, Purpose, | 

a, To test common crystalline salt (WaCl) es a means of Ribes i 
suppression in stream type, i 


} b, To test salt as a means for entirely destroying plent life on 
stream type areas, 

2, Method, See Page 99, 1931 Annual Reyort, . i 


3, Results, See Table No, 8, While the application of salt as made i 
in this experiment is not e practical method of Ribes suppression, some of | 
the treatments demonstrate a possibility for entirely destroying plant life |i] 
on an area, The results show that: 

& 7 tons of common salt per acre vere not sufficient to satisface 
Le _ torily suppress the Ribes on the plot, 

| b, Prectically no kill was secured with an applicetion of 1 ton 
ea of salt per acre, 

c. Common salt is more effective on other brush species than on . 

reqyqon 2 diiw betoeiat arow esioa $5 no pedawd Saf to [esos A. 
ssoigoelat COC,# gletamixerqgA FECL .ytul fea envl aolieh-siesg xe qnoo 
cog ia add gat Degtt 3 ‘rege ontd TautoA . .bege sjeag to enoiias & baa ebam e197 
yah eam S\I ofl paw pacity afe.t.. ad# ae Bios tas andor’ ‘has aedeud 

“G0 eenaqg a0 hedixvoeah yilot oxod ef bute ‘gia? 
Tadesiogs, at sare eft ao xed fant? fat ,dsoged Lesnaaa 
sediiget ‘se iwoliot 

phat Lik dancd f.. Aataent pe ‘df. ania oe 5 te fo riba nacht 
ielipl gest 655, .fedeer?.cats, goon 2 to Jast ake ye Me a as 

wool ibs eatin sid ik . «batewsd aatecd stalekisa i yin 
eroilia geet f6f,f betes note ayslotigg .A Yk ret ‘eect 

eh wteeg tsiun iad s/tdt es tet ae ev oat tem? of bodionatdt .,: 
janes a covieval sactteetayt avers fra doow enbriaper .beddem qa | sbepeoue 
mere tas eteorvott-anthdap of —_ “flexion? +e. stodal to . dao 

siietont meinntiank Sa te 

“ec o ” 8 

ead £5 te Peer. 5 BS (Baloo Las era cies nemmos. vast ‘of. pee —. baplite i" 
eit See eaves ‘ eh ua) sseeideithel bakes aoden eG gue... 

no eth doalg gahyo veiah ele athe 16 anaem @ BB ‘diaa ded. or of 
Beers eg ys aasiie 


roger Laaiusd freer see et e28 . oddou .% 

ehan aes Jian ts sortie de add ‘wltat A a. ofaat eck wiiueok .& 
to wro8 wo lgeerggys eocit to be dieu isoivoctg 2 Jva ef tnemtvegze eldd at 
aril jaala amivertesh alotirre aot ytiflidinacg 2 ete tanomeb avaaud send avid 
_ plas “woely berciaha oT wate te no 

esate tian @t dneto to Jom Te? orOS 8q. Ave RORRBS : to auek ~ f. 

dole wttomo ea0 ih oat sath dap vine? 
so? Lf Ye lacks ac tleqa th a he bervges oBy ot en: qiisotisect” hare care 
' ; pts 124, atae 7, vs 

i. ie 4 > 
ane vhs Et rd Ae Bhat tee, AeA 

no cat? ealooge seo gad? go svyijoet te sroc ae @iae wommod woo 
7 oe ahah “Sesctue tt 

ose Ree 

a, THe | aad me thod oF applying salt te the crowns of Ribes 
is Hot 2d" effective as. & broadcast distribution of the seme 
pmount of salt over the entire plot, ‘Where this selective 
method wee aged the amount of 11 on other: brush species was 
pit ny sin the. salt. was spplied only! to the Ribes crowr 

poy | 

e, {fhe alt. wag more. ef eetive in Y eghas’ - tnerne then 5 

petiolprey =| 
; 4 ae 4 


oid oF tlaa gniylaqs to Sedtem eviiosles ont 5 

gudixtea ib 

aki arrest? 
fsterd +redgo no Ifbit Yo taveéms sit Seer saw bhodion 

3 gmrots 

> east 
= s 

teaohactd 3 sa s¥yiiostits ea ton at 

etola srtinw af? reve Iiee 

it to sof 



sy Ptoal se 
* asics 



e Sf 


oo et 
ie S23 

of yfno Boetiage sav tise ent eonte Gristle 

an fifbi cl evtioette stom ear diane edT 2° 


, i 



—s q185 Betoy 
wo Tita; § 4 WOT Jo 
04 aut =: ‘Ss : THe , spuncg 
-xoiddy ' 




ea A RE AP LOY i 

1 aodt! QOS .£15 

ee og’ os @ gist beilaqs tiaé 
S tedmetqest Saioes 



2 eee 

» gtois 

ii,946, Selective avplication of crystal common salt to crowns of R. lecustre and BR petiolare. July 14, 1931) 

W. 946-2, Dead R. lacustre and B. petiolare one year later, July 14, 1932, 

; n a 2 pF te ac 
#1102, One year after broadcast application of crystal common salt at rate of 7 tons per acre, 

Annual Report 1932 
H. E. Swanson 

Fach test included the treatment of 24 plots. On 12 plots 
the treatments were, made to the soil only and on the, other 12 plots, the. 1 
serial parts of all brush to the height of the Ribes were. saturated and... |i! 
the remainder. of, the..solution ras distributed uniformly. over. the ground, . ee || 
Table No, 9 .shows the schedule of twelye treatments with the amount of ) 
aapiiade used. in each, volume of water,,. .. f chantens 

We «Ty, Results of 1932 Work M 
1, Purpose, fo test the, toxicity of sodium chlorste end ammonium | 
ihhocrpse le in. soluti on, | | 
SP a | 
a. As influeticed by the time of season, | 
v When applied as aerial spray end sot 1 drench, ° \ 
c When applied as sdil drench only, | 
fe? When ae in aifferent. ebiouint s end in different volume s i 
e. Then ea ewe in two treatments. ‘aig ai , . 
2, Method, These tests were conducted on plots 2 and 4 square rods 
in sizé,freetments were made with knapsack spray outfits, \ 
“pwounrs or. SODIUM CHLORATE AND {| 
+" Y te aa ee es , 4 Si 5 ~e °¢ ? ae a s * 
1 “4 Amount of i 
EN i a ee ay la. ae eer ff 
oH Hl 
of | 
ere 4 i 

a ok the following. woke of plots * were ‘extedli shed: | 

WroW SbCl to etine sh 47 

tiw sedogerd [tot fas sa tyergs 94 

mi tmonms’ bas s 

mutaccma bas steroldo merfihor to yttokrod oft tea’ of .esoqued 
wwottufore af eianayoo id? 

ereegse to amtt edt yd heonsnltal ga .a 
womerh [toa bas ystqe fatrea es belligqas ved .d 
eyine donetbh Ifoe 2a betiqasa neath .o 

eaculey dasrTettth af baa stnvoma tasrottib at betiqqs cedt  b 
sio3ar To 

winentsetd owt af betlqqs aed¥ .2 

ahoyr siavoe # bra & 29 elg se besosrbaog 91998 etast eesecdT boedgek .& 

wiitieo ystqa Hoseqsad dtiw ebem s1ew atnaomtseorT ,Oste at 

m (8 Sle At 
€ eh Wear 


aC @ 


at eran 

| 30 dnuroma | 
} j | {a9 bmosid 

: 8 - | § {srerp? r9T] 
ledavod [ahruot jebased | bef 

(a | ke to redawil 

8 1 8 ete eaoliad| 
a: ) at jf i] 19% tata® | 
3 t j a Lf sn 8 ; f pe, { 

ay | oD mm 3 rey 
3 a ee Dee Pisani 

stofg Sf sO .ztolg @& to saomtsend edt bebwloat teat doal 
edt etola Si tedio odi se bas ylxo Llosa edf of ahem grew atnamisert end 
bre Aotatias orew 2edifl edt to tdgted and? od dawyd Ifa to etraq Isives 
~bavers off save ylerretios bedudinsie lbh aay aottulee edd to tebatemer odd 
so tevrome adt dttw edaemtaots eviews to elubedoe art awore © of efdal 
wretsw to employ foae mt baaw Lao tmedo 

shade fidsise o19" etolg to efse gatwolfot adt 



at nee 

& 24. dc canna, rod peal treated one 25eJuly 6, 1932, One. 
half. of each plot resprayed at the rate of 2 pounis chemical in 4 gallons of 
waa per aU: rod, 

he 24 - ‘Aeaquare rod plots, treated July 21, 1932. One-half of 
each plot.resprayed August 20 at the rate of 2 pounds chemical in 8 gallons 
of : Eon per square rod, 

: a ak ie eens rod plots, treated July,27, 1932, One-half of 
sek plot resprayed August 24 at the rate of 4 pounds of chemical in 8 
eens of wede® per sQuare rod, 

ody a, 24 = Qesquare rod mike. treated August 20, 1932. On this set 
2 plaka were given the serial and soil treatments combined, On the other 
12 plots the seme method of application wee used, except that 1/2 of the 

amount..of solution wes applied on one day and the other 1/2 was applied the 
following day, 

o t a € 

& 24 » Zesquare rod plots, treated June 20.24, 1932, Onewhalf of 

gallons water per square rod, 

be. 24 © 2egquare rod plots, treated July 7-19, 1932, One-half of 
each plot resprayed August 31 at the rate of 8 pounds chemical in 3 gallons. 
water per square rod, 

Cc 24 =» Zesquare rod plots, treated August 2, 1932, One-half of 

each plot resprayed at the rate of 8 pounds chemical in 8 gallons water per 
equare rod, 

3. Results, An estimate or check of the effectiveness of these treate 
ments meade during the current season is of little value, Vowever, 
observations made in October as to the condition of the Rihes show that some 
of the treatments were proving very effective,. 

in general, the treatments with sodium chlorate calling for the 
spraying of the brush and drenching the ground were apparently more effective, 
Results on the portion of the plots receiving one treatment were uncertain, 
Excellent kills were showing up on practically all the parts which were 
resprayed, On those areas originally treated with 4 to 8 pounds of chemical 
per square rod and later respreyed between 80 per cent and 100 per cent of 
the KR. inerme was apparently dead, 

e "4 

2 ttn » Bat isotmedo ehauvog $ to stat oe 

gtarolde ger thos 

eo =4f8ei 4a tery gut. heisert .eioiq bor aieaupese @ BS gt. 
eadifan Ast fastreds ghstrog S to ator sAy t= Seyret sefq: Hoss tc) tad 
or sracde toe today 

) tfadont Sher fs yiut hotasre ,etol G hor or A pgeG of ig 
3 ga OS detach Bayetqeet Tolg ‘doae 
et0% etapa 19q tedew To 

to WadeosO tll VS ylel betleord ,atoig boi siaypee& - PR .O 
Bai iesineds to ebavog b To ofa edt ¢4 BS Jauarvh beyatqae: tolq doas 
abO1 *eube Teq tedew to enollag 

fee wiié oO meet ,0G ¢egavd hotasrt ,galalg bo1 eigupgeS - #& .b 
~ " * ca % gi Dp 

retie sdf af » elasaisedd Ifee tae ishras edt nevig erew aetof[yg Sl 
wom S\i 3 oxe bees sar noidwotlgges to beddem emae odd atolq SI 
figcs eav Si aedto sf3 brs Ys eno GO bellges aan nolisfoa to Ingoms 
stab aniwollot 
Siecawoldd puthogms 
futon wolhi ,Pe) anol begets .atelqg bor wiatrgeek ~ BS 1a 
fagiwaca to sinvoy 2» to etar oft Ya Lf tava beyargesr tolq dose 

> short miaupe  18q 1ataw enollag 

to Uud-grO {SEOL [eres vfat evar? ‘deta ‘hoe earpeck Se 
enGifaa B of lastmedto eshavoq & to atar eft ts 3 LE darrgcd heyaroce sr gola dose 

(hos ailagga req  retaw 

wtel .& feomrdé Sosawtst wtoig. bor SiggteeE = BE .O 

oq vaten cntifax, Teolwaio abarge, 3. Fe Ce eit ja heyarga ox tolg rose 


atseta? ssadt to seonsvbioSt te adf to soetie to Siemifes ad etingse .2 

atoreret orlae slit ht do ef ogace Grertis oft aainch eben einem 
tadv? eects an? ? oft 8 woke keane wif dome stadndved «f aban eso ttavresdo 
grvitoot! te tev ag tyetg grew ginemtaert edt to 

etd 46 setiies sdvceido me thoe. xf) tw sihourasty sat .fgreasg ae 
ftootte erom vfsuaegoe Stor Favors oad satdonts Arta ieatd eit “to” arene 
Ateiveo srer frouteers aro “aaty tog a1 aldol edd” to nd frog sat ae gt Lire oF 
oi aw tte Esie efruq oc$ ffa er! fan ktoatg ©O gy aii bwecie oy ae alibi Soelleoxa 
» to gherog GS od 2 AF iw botaord Gi fin ty rie abere pads gO” ‘ Peyetge ss 

Sal dak <oq NOE Res too 4 2g O& meowd od beyerge ox ad af bre bor STBIOR “Kh SY 
Sea a bese’ yinetaqya saw garsat fod 

tn regard to the ammonium thiocyanate, those plots given a soil 
i drench only were showing more satisfactory results then those given serial 
“and soil treatments combined, The resprayed portions of the plots were 

showing excellent results, The killing effect of the ammonium thiocyanate } 
seems to be entirely through the roots, The action is more rapid than HH 
in the case of sodium chlorate end consequently in some cases the two. hy 
“chemicals were showing ecually good results, Through the entire schedule | 
of treatments it seemed that for each pound of chemicél used thet sodium : 
chlorate was slightly more effective than ammonium thiocyanate on 8. inerm = | 
% end B lacustre, As stated under another experiment in this report, amnone | 
Be som, Cadet xe not practical for use on & padiglurss 

st From ienieet Gndvontions-e plan calling for two’ odttauttons of. 
Ri cat vith e sufficient. period of time between to permit resprouting, \ 
-. involving a total of 6 to 12 pounds of chemical per square rod, will be ‘ta 
ai satisfactory for killing R 4nerme, The proper coordination between the two 
_ treatments will reduce the Ribes live stem end bushes on an area sufficient ly 
to permit » very efficient cleanup Job by hend pulling methods, . 

ftoe a aavis esele Sohn sstansyookd? mrinomue eft of braget al 
ahtae cavks anor’ ui? aiinesr yrodosteliar srom saiwode orew ylao dometh 
wiev wtolg acc} 10 enottvog Boysigest St hentduce simeantsett [lor bas 
$anayoe LA? mer nonin eG to dostte anhif bt off atiueet dnelleoxs aniwome 

wot? bigay orem ef xoftos eiT  wioor eff dyword? ylertias ed'os aaese 

22895 entts sf yltosspeeces bas etatolds mutbos to aaao edt af 

O87 GG iy 3 
eicherfoo stiine oft ifyysord? wedfee er beon yUlairpe getwore crew also Imerio 
maifbor tat beer Iso tver to Bayeg does ior tadtd bewees $F etn emsaerd Te 
cezogt A ao o¢aneyootdd eurisemma nedé evidostte oxom yledagtle saw sea16l ds 

“sommes gitocst etNd ow! toemirsgxe teddéons tabsc bedate aA eertevosl § bas 
Misioizeg G 20 ean tet Isotioarg tome? Sianaypotd? apt 

on enoftacifgqs ow? re? gnifieo aalq s enctiaotiat taeseiq mort © o>: 
yiituorqaet dieres of seavted amtd Yo hotreq troto Prive a dd iw Tao tmeds 
a 4 tf te wow avetros tee lapbrera to eherog 81 63 8 Ya {edot « aatviovat 
ews wit weeded agitanifyoeo vegeta of? seated? Uf acti lpe got [IStoe te eae 
{inetshles avid na mo esdued Bao mety evil eedti edé sorbet {1 iv atnomd ard 
whowiem astifve baad yd dot qretaslo tasinltts yrew- a Shrreg oF 




July 19, 

i ©) 

fore treatment, 
of water per acre. 





2, 1932, 

September 2 

ven weexs after treetment, 

-l. Se 

W, L1LO4 


Annual Report 1932 


““h small test wes mede. with ammonium thiocyanate applied to the | 
sotl in dry form, Four plots, one rod square, vere treated with 4 pounds,” "+ | 
8 pounds, 16 pounds, and 32 pounds of chemical, 

the last ‘Inspections ‘mage On the plots showed that & good kill may | 

result. from the 16 and 32-pound applications, It te highly probable that 
the heavier applications my be very effective but as in the case of sodium jf 
chlorate better results for the amount of chemical used are obtained when it | 
is applied in solution, ' 

C. fad rida bus Sty avehehae the ‘Use of | pyerboahe Vaiuie’ and Concens 
} 3 abe 1é¢ ; a apd. ‘pot Systems of | Ribes, 


tips, 8 Vin! } spe "tn gt abe is td study the best utilization of chem” |! 
ical on B- inerme ené in so far &s possible to provide some besis upon | 
which to describe how heavily e buch should be sprayed, | 


Ba Metbod, - bn. experiment. similar to this was performed in 1931 but’ on 
account of ‘the improper method of estebli'shing the plots it was impossible 
to make a check on the individual bushes, During 1932, each biish wes staked 

indi vidue lly and any Ribes on the aree not identified ag individual bushes / 
were. treated, at the seme time, It te hoped that this will make it possible ) 
to identify definitely during the following season each individual bush thet i 
Was Spoclelyy treated, | a Nag oe Pig me . i 


The treatments used’ ‘are LS to ibd set up in Table Wo, 9 on’) 
page 109 of the 1931 annual report. The treetments are besed on the shount ji} 
: of gglution required to spray bushes to the point of dripping end to spray i! 
the soil to the point of formation of puddles on the ground, The concentrae fj 
tion of chemical is. varied in the se treatment ¢, | 

B Fe silts One hundred” and fifty B. inerme pushed were treated between i 
August 3 and August 13. ° Mo’check was made during the 1932 season, Hi 



ive Bor ‘aa ss 304 

art ‘ebilpiees BH with the ‘dontsetiea plot atudies, éremd were 
engaged in Aiatixe all Ribes species with either sodium chlorate or 
ammonium thiocyanate, ‘The purpose ‘was to usé some of the most promising 
methods for ef lling Ribe's and to determine the cost and tpi pater of such th 
Work, é 

eb lo va hl The methods of apaltndink were of two general anne | 

a Selective, in which only the Ribes and the ground covering their | 

roots were sprayed, The power seteup used in former yeers with 4 to 5 
men on nogzles Was used, 

10% ed) oF mrod vid at anotisotiggA oteaayooldt myinommA .& 

siz of botlgas atansyootnt aurtnosms dtiw sham asw geod Ifame A 
| Ht sehavog & dite hetser}d erer ,eragpe bor ano wetele rye yet yb at [tos 
wWeotmeds to ehavog SE has ,ehawog af .ebavog & 
Aa you If bf boos # tad? hewode atolq ent ao sham eaxoltoegen! teal edT 
| tadd efdsdotq yYlratd ef #1 enctisotiega SaoqeSE bas Af odd mort tlyest 
mrthor to e260 sft at as dud evtjostte yrov sd yan enotiaotiqgs rstvaed edt 
| tt mote bentaido ars beas Lactmeds te tevoma add tot efIueer todted ststoldo 
| mOfdcloa at beifgqs et 

| 1 “£9900 bus gomurloY Inerattii to eal oa —— rete text ath ty fy this AY) 
| If 2Sdit te emetave soo 3 Fi : i. oc8 ad E02 tt a 

—r@in te sot3agiifde tead ont vbhete of s! jnemivegxes 2tdT .se0qtyd wf 
soqy atesd amos cscs. od si¢iaa0q ea tat oe at Sa eoyont .§ no Laot 
| eystge ed binoda deod a yliveed word sdiroaeb of dotdw 

Mt |, widieacqm! agw tf etelq oft yatdeiidedes to fedten asgerqmi add Yo Javoons 
a sah aan = eae abi athe eile! tasbivibst add so doers » sam of 

At Uae no tud [60 s} Semiotreg saw ath? ot 1ali@ie taamivegxe oA -bodteM oS 
| | 

Hetsers ylistoege easy 

|| 0 © WoW efdat mt qu tee seodd of valimte ots boa etnomtasti edT t 
| it | Jayomsa adj so bsesd sts atnemtasid eff .troqst iasane [ECL edt Yo COL egaq S| 
yy ysiqe of bas amtqagith te fmieog aft of gerard yerqe of bortuper sotiuioe to 
il||  eartneonos ad?  baverg od no eolhh aq to xO heorret Yo taiog sit of Itce esris 

wineniser) seed? of bsinsvy ef [sotmeds to scott 

i| |: nosviod hetsers evew aedend omrant & ystit hoe borbasd anO 8 wetivees .o q 
| Moesez StL oft aniuyb sham saw Noedo of EL temauvA bus © dauand S| 

If | 10 etetolds muthce rentie diiw eetosqe aeed!d Ifa gntiastd at beasgne 
I acfeimorg ¢eost eit to emoe ser of sew seoqmg edT ,stansyootds mrtaomms 
Wal dove to yoretortte bas teoo aft satmreted o3 fae eedifi gatil bl rot ebodtem 

| si10W 
Haqyd Is1sse3 ows to orsw sotiaotiqgs tw ehodtem oft ,bodte¥ .S 

“feds gelravea tayets edt bas gedih edt yino dotdw at ,evitoets? vs 

Cod # cSiw axeey reset at Boau quetoz r98eg od? ,beystge stow etoor q 
ft sbeeg saw 2elyzon no nem .| 

| F 
Wad ® j 
| i «#79 ewes westiyte tolq bailerssoo off ditw acttonuiaoo ol .sgoqusrt of ; 
| | I 

b, Broadcast. in which the entire aree was sprayed, except where | 
there were Obviously no Ribes, A special power set-up wes used for this | 
work Which is described in the report "Development of Ribee Fradication | 
Equipment", Two types of nozzles also described in this report were tested, { 
A special Rame~ Born nozzle was used on plots J, K, L and ™ I 

‘The concentrations of chemical and volumes of water were varicd | 
on the different plots, Parts of certain plots were resprayed to obtain a . 
better kill, | eee | 

3, Regults, See Table No, 10, The accompanying map of the plots shows | 
the treatments given each aree-anéd-the time required, Plots A and B were | 
sprayed first by regular Fforest Service crews in 1931 with a 5 per cent | 
solution of sedium chlorate and were regoreyed in 1932, Sufficient action i 
has taken place to show’som very excellent: results, A cleaneup of the I 
remaining Ribes on the area can be done at = cost of $3 or $4 per acre. ‘The | 
root-systemp of the surviving Ribes were severely injured, In this decayed || 
condition they are very easily pulled, 

The treatment on Plot:B, with an original spray of sodium chlorate 
followed by a respray.uith ammonium thiocyanate, regardless of the interval | 
between, can not be, used without creating a very severe fire hazard, It | 
was learned on this plot, ag well as on‘others where sodium chlorate and | 
emmonium thiocyanate came in contact with each other, that spontaneous fires ff 
were certein to start where the sun's rays fell on the area, _ 

On the plots which were not checked, it was difficult to forecast || 
whet might finally teke place, It was observed thet in the case of the heavy | 
drenches severe root injury had taken place as deep as 12 and 15 inches, 
while the crowns of the same Ribes were still in a relatively hardy 

With the wide variety of treatments and respreys, some indications 
may be hed as to the most economical and efficient use of chemical in the 
first and second trestments, 

On a tributary creek of the Orogrande special extensive work was 
done with ammonium thiocyanate on RB. petiolare, The amount of ammonium 
thiocyanate solution epplied was creatly in excess of the amount of sodium 
chlorate which would be required to kill all the 4. petiolare, Indications 
at the close of the season were that even the heaviest concentretions of 
ammonium thiccyanate would not kill a sufficiently great amount. of the 

& petiolare to make its use practical, It was more effective on ER. inerme 
and R. lecustre than on 5. petiolare, The results of thie test are shown 

in Teble Wo, il, 

cry opel oy iyaox2 hayes qe #3", 897s er tine arig tip Exiy ak PY SF 
efdd 16% horn par otter Ysroq Estoaqe A 2 etET on SA ere aig ‘ovede 
aoliapibar: agdiv to dnemgoleved* sSroget ait at hoditoveb af pio tdw arow 
i. erew dxeder aldd af bedtrog ob cefs galssca Yo 26g gid owt” »*dnemg type 
a Boa dk oh gh wioly Re hoes, aa olenon ard -amsi fatoage 4 

Setsay e:ax tats, to genuloy hos Iaotmero to enciiassqennos. ant. 
® atadde ot bays ie wren etoig Soba ao to atts watolq sterattih ant mo 
fpr tet tod 

avode agoilg edt to gan aa Pynaqmoags ont orale woe of dat eof " pitoe of © ae 
ere & bao A edoli ,bevivpat omts off bos sets sas nov ts sicsmtsert odd 
taao tag 6.4 din [Eel af awero, sotvie® seetot taliget, yd darth Seysrge 
ao lies dn ts PTigt ee EOL at hayetae ot exe bra adprotry: otbow “to ‘notdelow 
end Bo queiaats 4 atitve st Inell sate “rev smo ‘wore of ‘goaig amistad 
afi .@to8 t9q 38 10 £6 to deoo a tse onoh od nap soie gedit gaintamer 
heveneh atit al _,be orstsbetl Yi er aves aroe esd ih geivivwe adt t6 ametey doce 
alia ut fa.59- er8y ars yon to Ft Biaco 


eieacolds @ewiboe ‘le yarqe [asinine xe ddiw.,8 Jolt no suamtastd off 
fevsedal eld te npeliiage: 437 Ratan id mes tresses. fy Fo yatoe ox & ee bawollot 
1 raced wit stevee yrov..@ aahiseis des oxtd ty heat ed” tom Hed. aaersed 
bus eterelde apibce ev ate giadto no ax [flow aa state afdt ne beimrasf ese 
eontl auoonatsoge tadd ,vadde foa9 déie tox -dedo a} eridd adanayoo ft ime fromite 
eer edt go {fot eyat a’ ave ae di ei adi rate oF fkattss How 

ay a 

teanerot of tinarttti® esw ti ,batioads fon erew dotdw stolg ‘estt nO” 
en eff Wo-aneo ont ab. fant heviwdo asw $1 .eostq eet Yllan tt difg im tarde 
exatioai Ci bos Si aa gaek ag soalg, nxiat bad yu ula ‘toet orsvse gedoneth 
ybsed yLevitslow sal. {Ilda evew eodlf sane add _ to eatoT9 | add of Fdw 

. _ ok? thos 

S747 a 
‘2 ue 

tisothalr emoa ,eyatqe ot fre e Hamd.aots te. qt einav ‘ehiw add Ad BY a 
“ot ei Las spy daeici tts tse Laoimercgs.deom od? of 9a bad ad yan 
winomtaort. Esoee bat Sern ft 

aaw wow ovdemeine Lateeg shag1ga70. di to desis gretydigd & ah 
arfaomms to dayveng af ,Sialehieg ge éfenayoorat vost Hivos “bbe ‘onreh 
aathee to sdagoms. ot, to pesgxe.ct yldagty,cawr, bailaga, ao tislog atang yoo is 
esottsothal: -sezaleides og Ifa Ilided, bowtupes ed Blaod ‘fo frie st erel do 
30 eae atiaeo ian tae teed aid aeve dacs. stor soeaer add to. solo. ast ‘ts 
ent te. dorors Jaexvs gidneto Miwa. s. If bt, Jen, biuoe atanetoo ltd, mir PGema 
sayont Af, co oyitostts arog eaw JT ,iaoliserg soe ait ovam oF sisletiag a 
aeode era tess efdd to gélveed ant as q mo sedd oytenoal a bis 
ak off, act ol gat nt 



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TABLE WO, 11 | 

| Concen-| ¥en |Gellong | Pounds 
Acres| tretion| Days} of. Spray} Chemical | Approximete \ 
in of . |Per |Per Per | | 

Note: A very high percentage of the area was covered with BF. petiolare, } 


The results of each experiment have been discussed in the body of 
the report, However there are certain reconmmendationg which can be made for 
future control work and future experimental ror with chemical, 

e ations for Fut Wi 
1, Spraying R. petiolare, The method of treating R. petiolare 

tentatively set forth in the report for 1931 and followed during 1932 on 
the control operations is now established by the fine] results on experiment il 
plots and by the experience of Ribes eradication forces, The method is? | 

#, 10% concentration of sodium chlorate, 

bd, Thorovgh saturation with spray of all leaves an? stems until 

Cc. Application of spray to the base or crown of the Ribes where 
it enters the ground, 

2 Treatment of K, inerme and Re lacustre, On the basis of present 
information the following method of killing B. inerme and KE. Jagustre in ! 
place is recomended &s the most satisfactorys 

a. An application of a 5% solution of sodium chlorate to all the | 
leaves and stems of the Ribes to the point of dripping and an application | 

of the game solution to the soil representing the root distribution of 

the Ribes until puddles begin to form on the ground, ‘This will requi re 
approximately 16 gellons of a 5% solution (8 lbs of NeC10,) per square rod 
for area actually treated, ; 


if T aroye UAsa A ATUO aR ou Ya BES Se 
mnt cee pace ee eee Sete aeee 
| | ebaivoct | snot f 3) me ~Teore D 
| ! Stamiroraqa) 489 fmad? yatac to yt Theo ftart ls egy 2 Ah 
nie no Life | +9T | +684 | 793 la 
il Lwiafotieq i _moAl  si1gA jet {8% 
| oath rae ee 
ef bn age 
rie aes: <>h Va Rh = mia eO1 
| 2 See ee ee 3s ta ert a 
i i +7 
j eae teen gs Uatleetuakt Gert naeaccnasan wonebentinabehe S63 dresnronibsboreveinre sentdome 

wialofieg # dtiw berevco ea gets eft to eaataeorsy agtd yrov & :evok 

o x svt of heeevoe th aasd 4 ¢nomitagxs doses to etivees ofT , 
io% shan od aac doliw eno tishn noi niatroo aia svat revyewoH voces eft 


wito% Lowigo) sugtgl 707 20 f? abremmooet, A 

Wie siafoiteq of antisert to boddem ofT .sisloitog fl antvarge of 

| no LCL ankru® bewollot bas LE@L rot sroger sdt af dirot toa ylovitaiaed 
‘{doemtveqxe no etiveoy Iantt ad? yd bedetidates won xi snoiterego Lorsmoo sad 
| tat forder oft ,aaotet sofianthare sedi to eonetieqxe end yd bas esolg 

| wzwieroito mathoe to no liargaesnco %0L ys 

if fitoy emedin base eavael fia to wetce diiv as peceted dyrorodyT .d 
gin yordt 

ax goiw pedif odd to mwors 10 arad ent of yYertca tO wo tdao Hoa aw 
soarroty, aot arataa If 

ill | tueseatg 6 ainad add a© aidan merry 2 bos ourront 8 36 inegseext 9S 
: nt ayteyoal oi bas pares a Ls nifitt to toddéew aniwollot edt sotiarotat 
SYTSIOR jae teom odd 2% bebrarwoger ef soalg 

gt} ffs ot aterofdo muthor to noftyloe %6 2 ‘to motvsotiqas aA .# 
otfaeu aa bea goiqgitb to Jatog edt of aadth eft to emste boa a oval 
| to golinudinteth toor ens aafinorerqet [loz off of sokislos emes odd to 
estuger [Liv afd? ,bavows odt go mot od atged eelhiuq [its godth edt 
bor ovstrpe req {sCL0ak to wedi &) wotioloe & s to enoliss Sf ylatamtxorqgs 
. botaert yilestos aets 10% 

Aantmetio ftir sso fadaom i1Sgxo agyict baa vaow Lortaon eisdut. 

b, & second treatment with a 1lo% solution of sodium chlorate 
applied after a périod of 30 to 60 days or of sufficient duration to permit 
the résprouting of Ribes, Or in case of areas originally sprayed in 
August, the second treatment to be made the following season, This second 
treatment to be applied heavily to the serial parts of resprouting or 
releafing Hibes and their roots and in the case of respraying during the 
current season to be applied to all RB. inerme and R. lascustre whether 
resprouting or dormant, nis will require approximately 4 gallons of 
solution containing 4 pounds of sodium chlorate per scurre rod, 

Present information on the experiments performed by the chemical 
eradication methotis unit indicate the importance of successive trestments 

for killing RB. jnerme and R. Jecustre, The following program is 
recommended $ 

1, The continuetion of the pperiet plot studies: 

a Respraying plots éesteblished in 1932, 
bd, Establishment of additional series of plots calling for two 

2, The continuation of extensive work ae outlined in 1932, vith a 

special large scele test using the method tentatively recommended for 
control work, 

‘3, The continuation of the use of sodfum chlorate and ammonium 
thiocyanate in the series of tests, with the exception of the eliminstion 
of ammonium thiocyanate in the treatment of RB. petiolare, 

4, Development of equipment, 

stavolda muy eee = aoticloe SOL # doiw-teemtacrt baooea 4 od 

f si % oftive to 10 eysh O38 ot GE to botteq « tette bellags 

| (f feysioe “ifn eahiied ASOTS +0 9980 si xO .eetPt Yo xrltsotgss1 sd 
bg oe ugtwolfot edt eiam ed of tremieexs bnoose off .tevagA 

i} 10 wviduerqaat to etray (aines eft of yl byaed heilggqa sd ot tnomiasrt 

: 2 Att . A 
oUDSe wf ret 1 see Se SS 

add an i eb yates ox to @s29 odd mi bee atoouw tiedd bas esdit galtaclear 
| yodisdw oyjeyoel 2 bus sorpot .f die o¢ betigqgs o¢ of nosase Jagrirs 
| . Seo en~ollan | yfed am PROT SO % ertypet Jitw et? Vénesreh 10 sativorge er 

»bo7 erauoe tag etaroldo muthon Yo ebayoq A emintermbo. nolialos 


[so heeanp edd yo hawretisg eiasmirsgze eft no ro Kamo tat “fueeenT, 

am sinemdaesd evissaaaue ‘to apaigsvoost sft wteoltbhat tiaw » bor deo notes there 
at ot meragdre safeolick off Sifavosl af ba s eaet ook .s aged bi 0% 
i 3 babs samoo or 
\ seethrde tolg Iatoeqe add to nettarnttres ad? ,f 

Weel at here tidstes etoigq anivesqest .@ 
eed tot egiiiao etele Ye soiree Igaci¢ifbbs te ivoereitidadel...d 
wt toemd asré 
a dis < Sef ot hestldro es Mrew evisneize to sotiauntiaos adit .& 
yo% hebtnemroost ylavis at ned: bodies odt sates tess slace egtel caiosge 
wires Lortnoo 

mo tnowms fas etareido metboe te ses edt. te mottavaiinon aAT, .B.: o 
soidagimiie eld to mottgesrs edt dtiv setaet to asizee add. af atanayoiads 
gloizeg ff to snondaerd edt af, eianayooltd? myiacmaus, to 

saergivpe, te ¢uemgoleved ,} 

ao ie i 
——goehn Tt. Breakey 
Cee . Agent 

= the experimental development of two seneral types of equine 
wal lndertaken. in 1932). Each had for its orincipal ob 
degtmict ion of Ribes in aga in wide stream bottoms, One undertal 
tha, essen bling of @- & practical power outfit for the broedeast apo) 
of chemical and the other\was the equipoing of 2 tractor for renc 

A ; t 
wa bis 
jective the f 

2 ei ! ) 
brugh | from stream bot toms. - il 




A small nas avVides maker opera tite. 7 ‘ centrifugal pins is 
Belk at A (see diagram on following pegey witeh pihps water constentiy | | 
at ‘hel rate of 10 gallons per minute Gite ctly frog) the creek through « i 
one-ingh diameter hose into two 1 gallon fanks located at B, bry i) 
chenf cal is mixed into the waterAn one of the tenks while the solut 
is being oumped out of the othe by\\the chemical pressure pump. 1 
and motor is the regular 4-¢ylinder Type N Forest Service fire f 
Mill hose 1-1/2" in diameter extends as main trunk line solution 
| from /B\to D and B to ¢.  eouplings are placed in the trunk Line 

10 LOT 

D-C for attaching 1-1/4" diameter lateral hose lines at 
: the individual areas. The main line and lateral hose lines 
: | a 

19 LAG & 

lines \are Yaid to form pare iel strips apporoxin: 
After finishing with an individual gies ion of 
a strip) the hose is coiled and moved in S0-foot 
@irectly across to the next strip. 

At points BD, &, and ff re hose lines are attached. String | 

A three-man crew, one man on the motors and two men gs 
was used on the power outfit, The greatest cutout 

working day was 4,200 gallons of spray. SULEHAnne : 
2-1/2 per cent by weight of sodium chlorate were - 

Rems Horn Nozzles 

Two rams horn notzles were ven a trial. They gave a better 
spray distribution than any other nozzle that has been tried. A direct 
forceful fog spray was secured which carried a considerable distance, 
penetrated through dense masses of brush, created-a draft: which caused a 
more complete coverage of leaves, and pernitted better control in the 
application of the spray az the fog did not spread out in a cone shape likd 

that coming from most nozzles. 


pau ee a Gs igh BOTTAQ TGANG he | Et ae SSS 

yousert 4 aera | 

sola Mg 

gh BEah 

insentipe So aeqys Latena, ond te humeral ocah Istaoutroces. oot ge be 
eft evitestdo faqtonticg etk tot bed dow SSCL al medattehex aaw 3 
| gave gibistrebor es0 .exedgod maatte ebiy at to. aolioutse ob . 
| wobtsotfeas tussbeotd aff vor #ftino seer Tas isms a YO wiilIdssees add 
gitvomet 9% teioett s t¢ sali ads aaw tedio of Bas L[aotmedo to fi 

| | 
| i 7 anottod maaette sue dagsrid 
Wt WOTTACTIAGa Japiveno WI aeyawee agzvos Tespmoy _— 

yy 1 i 
| il | il ak quar ot titeag & gatserege TOPO ages cam al files Ay . || 
At | ae yi¢aaiams tadew agavg dotty (agaq gatwollc't ao merasts sea) A ta beteool ‘ 

iH = dmuetse Meets olf moti ylas area eéuite: tog eaglisy OL to eter eit ts | 
| i at & 36 bedavel eine! sollag-O0L of oda saad tsdeustd dont-ono 4 | 
11 ae selitvies af aftdw eaast add ‘te = at tetew adi odet baxiw et Iso tmado q 

ve 4 creates e hat gm oivessig Lentueds edt yo todte add te dwo beqatra anted at . | 
ME cedigit ett apiviea Jeetol 4 eqyt tabatiye-) taloger. edd af tojom bas i 
| i | Teyavaes soltcice eolf sor atam ea sinedxe tetemalh mt, "Sink end. AESM , | 
Hh) | deo antl sor? ocd¥ ct beosiq ete egctiqnes T .0 of A baa Cot & west , | 
| ! aniystaa tot agaiog da semtl szod Latetal tetemets “a\r-£ sulbdsatts toi 0-a 4 
a doot-C4 at eve eonti egod Leratal Sas enll oten. PH : ease Laubiviaet eds -  ) 
UM ; . "§ BE iF. ek neaotsoon . 

Wa wEe psoas sis esa f ated farajel I jus ,@ .o adutoa ta 

Hye biw af afeio S\i yletentxotocs eqitéa, Ieileweg aot od .btal. erm sentl 

iH Sc biatenes yeh so geod to notices Lauaivtbat ag dil gatdeiat? t0dta 

i | 

aniidess foot-OCL to fo0t-02 at Sevom Sas bolton at sacd odd ,qttie s , | 
I itte fron add of saeotos yltoerts . 

i! I .wiiystce wen owt bas atotom ol? ge gam ome ,weto Sanesetds 4 _ 
it ego ai ¢giay ald? tot grodeo Srefdastg eal .titdwo tewoq edt ae bees eaw ee 
We bow nee toc $\I-I Yo eeotivfo! qatar Yo ancllag OOS.) aae yab yoistiow : 
} | been sisw stetoiso aukboe to tdgtew yd Jason 10¢ S\i-¢ 

Hi goiszo# moh email © 

ill), tedied « svaa yscT .iatse 2 gevis etew selssox ated emat owT 
Ai toorth A ,Seitd need ead todd slazon tedéo Yue asdt aolindintats ysrde 
HH||: sonsielh efdstebfenos » beittso dotiw betiose aaw ystge got Isteote?t .s 
Blii ® howren dofdw fark © hetasto ,dectd Yo seaeam saneb dgvoidds bodationed. q | 
RPh ads ak lotdaos tadded bots tat ag baa ,esvael to saeteveo stelqmos gtom 
ie auil mjate syoo # oi deo Seetqe tom bb got ed? es yatqe edd to gRoitsaoliqgs | 

Hi olason dson mort gotmen stadt - 











DECEMBER 7, 1932 






ud Se 

nz t 

d mixi 




emical p 
power outfit 




ntrol o 






1 Report 1932 

John F. 

= = — a — 


Certain adjustments were necessary to make these nozzles 
function properly on the power unit. Other modifications are necessary 
to make them less cumbersome for use in dense brush, The principle 
involved in this,neszle:ig to be adapted for use on the hand spray pumps. 

Following successful. experimentation with fire nozzles iin 1921, 
& straight stream nozzle was devised. which provides for stream deflection 
in mop-up work ges shen jet ven anode Getanen, where a straight «irene is 

The nozzle has. ea aasekuns aes ane pins. pletes for ‘Stesen 
deflection, The round plates are set at a 45 degree angle with the nozzle 
outlet, Certain portious of the plates are cut out, By revolving the 
pletes various streams may be obtained. The plates are held in place by 
@ spring washer.» .The nozzle has been adopted as standard equipment by the 
United States Yorest ech hapeele Peinntte i 

Following preliainery tests with a ul ldozer. equicped for road 
construction in 1932, a decision was made to construct @ wacluame blade 
for removing brush, me 

The special blade as constructed consists of ten teeth, 36 inches 
in length, made from 2 inch square vanadium steel mounted on a crossbar, 
The crossbar. is,8.fs6et. in length and.1l-iaches deep, and is made from-. 

1/2-inch cold rolled. steel,...bach fastened to the crossbar with 
two heavy U bolts, This makes it possible to adjust the teeth for any 
desired depth. .It was found that 10 inches below the crossbar was the most 
satisfactory. adjustment for rooting out most..of the an area, The 
teeth are set to slope back angle of 40 degrees from the vertical 
frame. at the. front: ‘of.the bulldozer... The upper ends of the teeth serve as 

rt for a brush guard, The brush guard is made of light channel iron 
and is bolted to. the crossbar, Hach segment of the guard is supported by 
the tep.of one.of the teeth, In the construction of the blade ali corners 
and braces are electrically welded. 

fhe blade and. brush moe are held. fast. te the palidoser by cutee 
inte. 1-1/ 4" x 12". pins, _.& £ront and, side, view.of the machine maybe. seen 
se hepa’ of. i, Johnson, on omperinental work at Charley: Idseho.. 

ie. 26 Fs 

‘The purpose. ‘of. this. (tate of blade is. to, ave ‘the tooth reot out. 

- sumer ae 

and the. rea Fade bold the,the tractor advances: formrd, Althoug: /) 

BR Gare a wet wi £5 

asissen seant slow of YIRsReoen SOW ejuentertbe alsadzs> ih 
YIS2 GOR tA aitoitactttbom redtO dior tewog sf a0 ylisgotg aolsjonnt | 
efqtontiq of? Mestd sensed at eer tot emcetadam eeel medd ealam of 
eqmpg Ystos Sead oft ao een 0% Dedgabs ed of at afsson eidd at bevioval 

2gmp% beak rot efssol atl mastsé dndaietse 

[=@f at aelsson otft addin sottetuemfieqxe Isfiesenose yoiwolict 
notipelted masite tol eeblvotd dotde bentved eaw elzxoa wiotte Idgtette © 
wt mostte tdaterte s etsiw eeasteth 5003 geovis oals bas xtow asr-gom at 
etisy et 

wagtda tot eetalc saad baa eaad muimefe se eed efsson adT 
aivsen ait ddiw ofgae sotgeb Cd & ts toe ets sedaig bosrot sdT mottosltsh 
eis patvievet YL .tuo gD ets sedaiq od¢ to encidtog ntasish «6. telitso 
yi eosig af bied e1& astale ei? .Senlatdo ed yeu awsoxte exotisy setuic 
ott yd gnemyione Btabusde 2&8 Setgeda xesd 2ac oiseon act .tedeey gaitge & 
f meine ,anivasé teetcl estate bat tall 

Mealy ee 8 Ee aac, HBS Wier 

baot tot banckope teoxsoblind s avin egeeat yranimilerg palwollot 
ehald {atosga a demriteaca of sham Baw soteteeh a ,GECL af aolidnmrtéecoo q 
arid safvomet tot 

nedonk Oo ,dieed wed to etealenos betourgenoo sa abeid Latsoqe edT 
tadeseis & so bejarom Leets asthasay oronoe dont & mort ob6n ,adpoelt at q 
mott shan ef bas ,qoe eedont If bas digas ak goet 8 si tadezots oT 
dite tadegoto odd of Senetast at dicot dosnt _feete Salfor bloo dont-S\i 
me tot dieet odd tentbe ot eldiesog +2 sexdwm efct aiiod U yvaed ows 
doom odd eae tadeeoto edd woled aeront Of sed? Savot aew Jt .ddqeb Setteod a 
ed’ .s@1a as mo Mesrid od to deem we gatioot tot jnemtestbe vrofostei sss q 
{sotdrev sd¢ mort esorseh Oh to etnas ae 32 sioad sgote of Joa ots dteet 
es evres dised edd to abse toa att texvobiled! eff to taott aft os emsrt 
nott fosmeio titi te ebem az Stary dawtd edt = .D1ary deasrd « tol sioqgsre 
yd bedtoggre af ircamy ond To dmonges disek  tadeeets elt ot hetfed ai bas i 
erento Ife ebaid edg to aekvorréenos add al gest sit to ono Yo got oft 
pobfew yYllasiuésele ets seoam bas 

seult yd tezobilsd add of teat Sled ots rom desu bos abaid eit 
sees of yan antdyam odd to wetv eSle baa gnott 4 vantg "SI x wa\f-f ogiset 
odabi ,sbias{) 3a vxrow Istnonizeqxe m0 sorndo® <o .D te duoqet oft af 

tra Yoot steed edd svad of ef ebsid to ey eidd to esogtrg eiT 
dovodtiA  bimrrot seonevhs totosts edt ea dered odd Sblod set desrid eft Sos 



BP Reel) my me ee PPA Ree ir aa 

certain changes Are necessary, the blade proved practical. 


Ez n or Power Outfit 
1,000 feet 1-1/4" mill hose (cowpied)............. $130, 82 
CVE Uc ea IA Bream masnte em. oi ci. i ccs 55. ise, Se OE 
rs 4. 3/4" Garden hose Hogzlés............. 1.50 
RTE Mg a ae “Kama horn nozzles...) 0.2.26... «1192 
_ehghag den toyngaate eo x 19" “Siamese with ‘valves... 2... 12,00 
ceoue oe tort, SOMO 31g "Three-way Valve. 002... 6 26... tae 5: aim 
ce _Centrifagal water “pam. . oR ae a 
bs ve sata ind dal perts. reehsisbentavesetssedecces ) 6.08 
| otal’ awepoied. bid ater. rvet. sont). Fie dG, Ff $204.77 
aozer Remover 
Livi thouBrashepemhoweri: . 2255 .¢p 9.07. ores, . Ri be$208200 
& Extra: teeth for brush-remover,..ii.cvie> 45.00 
(8 10scecsoBxtra U.bolte for brush remover....ce.. 22.5 
2 Extra brush racks for brush remover.... 6,00 
‘ 2 gk ee ale “Totel _ nnn roiarypmumngeaectngtar 50. - 

or the eee power. spreyer provides a large volume output for 

Bet) men. In case the. larger volumes. of spray do not prove effective, 

_ broadcast spraying can be repleced by more selective eprpyine in which 

__ heavier concentrations of chemical Bre used. Since the output of spray 
yer nozzle is decreased in the more selective type of spraying, it is 

‘@dvisable to increase the nimter of nozzles on the nait and to substi tute 

ey ‘inch hose for laterels which is more flexi tte in the brush, 

TS" 8, \ Seve yams horn nogele should’ be reduced tn size te make it more 
suitable for hand PTO INE, 

: The standard braces of ‘he common “trage laying tractor are not 
wide enowgh to carry the weicht of the machine in soft wet ground, ané the 
progress is completely stopped in some instances. Wide swamp tracts are 
; more stited to this type of work, The é¢iggzing teeth of the brush remover 
“should be set on an open frame in order thet the dirt may filter through 
it. A motor driven mechanical shaker would keep the wet earth that sticks 
to the brush roots from packing between the teeth, The tractor should have 
@ cage or roof to shield the operator from falling snags or brush, 

So ltoests Sevotg ehald 

SMS ae am TATgUIR 

edd , h pert StS esguaro aiattea 
ES =e a EO O_O 

‘eh ve W wort deat! 

SB O8L0...... eee . (bolqrex) emod £fIM. "O\e-~. Pest COOL 
SS ee Aer: eslseon asatd "B\i-— = & 

C8 Sli gey, 2a, ) pelgeer eect nobis tale oo" @ 
SOLO eo fee bn! trod ene hag Agia. 
OOS Wan A. eer Lay fittw orem re ONE a “hy 
BOL stat dani .... Sviay Yew-setsT "SE x "Sf-1 
062.08 ...... ieee garg wetaw phils fi 

OG .8 8 AGA BARS 0 Pees ag pe eta eligi 
SP ROCR A 88 2, A SOS SRA AAS 200 Tsto® 

“vem maf soon 3 2exs cba 

Pe OM a ek eae es wk eee pine eed --2 6 -28VORST dame < 

OO .2h ........+.%SreneT deed aot agesd: stig é 

G8 .SS ..... ...tevemet dasrd tol edled U atix& GL 
GO.8 5 ..evene) dEtnd tet etoet dewtt Bede OOO 8 e 

On Bebe Nw Siskcm veewecd een ech eer Rue eree senses ot FeOO lato? 


tot Side eastoe seval’ a 1 aalaving severe TSewoq fait babs 1 git: 
ee ljoutts evew gon 6) yetre to: een lor’ teg isl” oA ¢ ones at xen iad 
ijiswial artyetoe arivesice Stan te feo ateot sd tas aaiverge seasbaotrd 
ystqa So dette sdf aon Seer svm laotnedy Yo ai rMersasands tehysed 
ai if ,gatyatge to sqyt evttostes exem sas ni Beeaerosh ef slesom tog 
ainttisdre of Sree gin ed} so asluton te tal tee Gay semetoni od bidselvos 
»Mesrtd sey mY sid teelt atom ab ote Baiw sisted f ‘tot over oat ‘eit 

erdir ¢f esleor OF ete at bagirbet od c pitirbie elinod tot eaier ado" 8 Oe 
: : a LUNES 2% Aid satyeter bite’ xt" aldadtes 

tox evs totosrt salyal wats soamoo alt Yo etost? btabsete edt 
$d} baa ,bterony Yow Por at oatdobm edd Yo ddintow oft yrrso of fgsose obiw 
ets etoatt qaewe oSf% eesrktant ome me Sexwote “Isssi¢ads ab BRetgoty 
tovoihet ertd elt to d¥eed writen th edt! “siren to eryt etdt of Satins” eror: 
teacoils vadlit yam oath edt dads teSi10o ak samt gece ga no tea ed Sirrode 
svoties dots fies tow eit ood Bitow veulmde Lao thadsent nev tab” “totom A tt 
ovad Sfvode togoat? et  diebs oft nected aatisan aott rider Aner’ ade oF 
tentd t6 ayace galiiat sort todatego edt Sletde of toot to enao 2 

cl, IDAHO 

kia wes Be yp 
Associate Pathologist 


oe" small percentege of strean type in the Inlend Kupire white 
pine ‘belt hes ‘Hibes inerme bushes in very dense concentrations. Extensive 
experimentation has proven that the cost of treating these areas by tue 
hend pulling method of eradication is prohibitive. Furthermore, extensive 
So . hes feiled in its object of developing a chemicel treat- 
ment for &, which is economicelly practicable. Siuce there are 
several shot ten acres of stream type of this charecter occurring within 
the belt of white pine on which blister rust control should be undertaken, 
it is Sarerativesd that a aatteteetery method of treatment be. developed in 
the near future, 

% iizeek ‘without. exteption, dn this type of srea, Ribes ere closely 
associated with dense, tangled masses of other brush, In order to destroy 
the Ribes itis necessary to destroy the complete brush cover. 

; The performance of tractors with bulidozer attachments, while 
constructing motor ways on. the mationsal forests, suggested the possibility 
of the use of similar equipment for removel of the brush cover on H. inerme 

areas. .AS g preliminary test, machines were borrowed from road “operations 
in ‘the fall of 193l.and given short runs primarily to ascertain whether or 
not the machine could operate efficiently in the moist stresm bottom soil 
and whether a special blade for the bulldozer attachment would be necessary. 
One such test was made on Dry Creek near the Savenac Forest Nursery at 
Hangan, Montana, and the other: in Idaho on the Coeur d'Alene Nationsl Forest 
near the Honeysuckle Ranger Station. ~The results from both runs were 
encouraging and. it was. decided that an extensive triel should be made during 
the field seeson of 1932. The Middle York of the St. Maries River near 
eae sipatney obs 46 nee RR. 2 ke wee chosen for the ephaanneny 

ra Co Coe 

Nt wecs te cau con pe, PRRPOSK OF EXPERIMENT 
1, To determine the per acre cost of Ribes eradication by this method, 

2. To determine the period of the year during which conditions in 
Stream bottoms permit sufficiently firm footing for tractor operations, 


Po test the: spit or a blade’ iigeotaliy designed for brush 
“vemovel. from streon cone cmed to secure cig eae upon which to base 

pe: 2» . vi 
‘ ae Ro labhorelga’ ing 1 Halotiva: inflammadi2ity of all brush ana’ ‘densie 
efter. having lain in the. piles: ec’ bala mci time as burning 
ee. ri A apa ecg. anaes : 


moved by trector the pi ge pooiage suteretty or ervittotelly. extebl ished 
tort or meadow wR: retard Spettsbiisiiient, of Ribes. =” 

| 1. It is located in the center of some of the finest white pine second 
growth and reproduction in the region and is @ part of a protection srea 
upon which Ribes on upland end remaining stream type had already been 

yiew of 

ie It represents severe work nici ng conditions. 

It was believed that if the method proved practicel under severe 
working conditions, « great deal more progress would have been made than 
if a streaw with less severe working conditions hed been selected for the 
experiment. Oy: At was: felt that, conducting | the experinent where 

all eonditions were. steountered would men sary reveal any Weak links 
nn. 5 ao“ wees : time, 9 ; 

from gerne sg — centety on : ett 
hindered. to some Seah 

_ A -horge power Cletr as ‘agatpoel with e ‘mlidoser hho 
ment, was used. This attachment was ‘fitted with a special blade with ad-— 
dvatable teeth for games! fra. piling” rush, end debricg, This assembly 

2.) = _—_— —— = = a Se ES ees een a ns acme eh 
Oe een =a = oe ee he oe x a ts ii AE — Emmy BEM Fe 

W.1061. Side view of trector and bulldozer attachment, 

Annval Report 1932 
C. H Johnson 

Front view of tractor and bulldozer attachment, 


was readily raised end lowered by the operation of a lever controlling 
the hydraulic lifting and lowering device tothe proper position for up- 
rooting, moving or piling brush. fhe detachable teeth could be adjusted 
to any depth below the crossbar desirsd, Fictures accompanying this re- 
port show the machinery and the wenner in which an area is ph leieiaats 

"Generally stream type ¢ area has « few spruce, white fir and trees 
of other so-called inferior species lightly distributed throvgh its fringes 
or higher portions, It was the practice io fall these trees onto the piles 
for the purpose of adding fvel and to reduce the hezard these trees would 
represent if they were still standing at the time of the burning of the 
piles snd. windrows,.. When thesé.trees were left. Standing, “8 Wes the case 
when they occurred Sit‘large. groups, the. brush. and — were. phled et Be anes 
considerable, Ae: eva shen... 

Lé et cl 

i Down, aux hiedtarea the progress. of thie tractor. [t was. neces= 
sary to send a crew of ten ahead of the tractor. to wack see logs —_. 
peepee which the aes could move. mackanan eas om 

i. me i2 

dny Shalala place. was. “palected. asa ati ing iie. for. the 
sranter. Brush wes pushed. to the. nearest. polnt.on the site-previously’ 
designated for the winerow or to.the center .of the site designeted for 
around pile, he machine was then.back«d up for snother "bite" or gweth. 
This. ‘procedure was continued until clesring to e convenient distance wat 
completed. It was. generally the practice to leave » cleared strip eany- 
where frem 20°te 40 feet wide around each pile or windrow. It was also 
the practice to limit the windrows to nea name wonid: “aprntt ourning ”~ 
by ene: blocks if ne: oe a 

ist ae ce mT 3 
i fee re ‘amal) “pawhios. ‘of the. area..Was ‘dirfiewlt. ‘b pers dns Pow 

besver orn Small sloughs, beaver dams and bogs. On such portions, 
work according’ to a definite’ plan wes ovt of the ge yy “at best some” 
of saat sieht were” a mescinh “ the: niente | os Me ee: ‘ 


rater La ati Es we HESULIS 

ia 4 ef “he cost: of work done: on the > progect as shown in: table Novo le. 

Se see? ry 


in ag ok |frenching | oe 
‘ a ? Burning and | 
Preperation | 
for Burning| 

eee Middle |Gold Center| 

itu’ of of Expend ed eee ee rest A Rotel | 

‘[fermnent SS 5 ,00/ $157,50 |S ee 
Seleries [Temporary 461.03| 563,00 | 2,024.03 | 
dubets\ence 1, 09¢ seals @ $. eT te The. 25 __.75225 | _ _ $81.50 | 
Malyels of {nae ee ee ee zal ene 00 {21,357.13 J 
ven ea one ae PY cc REN BS RTS pn | 857.20 | 
 .° beeps : 3 “esol a Mae ok 16,90 j 
125,yg| "741 | 143.54 | 
50, 20] 7,00 | 57,20 | 
esse and irack Oil Rd a: 
[Ge ae CH his thrbb At deal 2 2 ee ee ee 

qui pment Taepairs it Li OE 5. 26 
¥ lrenspor tation .c aaehendadeion Seibel th eI 2 55 0. : 160,65 | 
| Expenses end Transportation of © b= 
9 ermanent Men > b 8g 00 | | 89-00 | 


ib | miscells neous AMbensee l Ss 0 | 16.4 [20,53 | 
: i 61, 75 

[Grand iota Red Oe NEw OM: 5]. +i 21 ($5,549.96 | 
“the ak Howie in which we are moet interested are ‘the ones 

pertaining “to ‘the actual clearing operation on the Middle Fork of the St. 

ie Maries River) “°It will be noted thet the full time of e permanent employee 

V for the field séasen is charged. On a going operation it should not be 

i? necessary to assign a full time permanent employee tc svpervise the work, 

| The cost of "the Blade showld not be charged against the per acre cost, nor 

‘ie should the é6et of seed sdasocer = for seeding following the burning of 

. brush be ineinded. 

“<->. *. fhe maghine rented from the Forest Service was needed on a road 
cam in July. Thus it was necessary to rent another wachine, the 
f only one available, ‘which had to be shipped from Seattle and returned 
there at the end of the season: <As a result of this delay, in addition 
iz to weather end other fectors, a machine wat available for field use for 
7 approximately one-half the working season. Ordinarily the transportation 

Veet le) 

F " 
y - 
G i 
as . 
s a 
i 5} u 
} } i 
z i 
i 4 t 
dk i 3 
4 i i 
4 , i 
“ ~ 4 ; ~ + 2 
: . . : 
= +3 
“ _4 of 3; : ™ 
v x s = = * = e . 2 3 Ss 2 2 be 
* t ’ 
“- } ; i 4 
; ; 
i a 
c> 2, 
y+ * 
a é 
fe) e & - J & ¥, « 
ry « » % © s 2 e - » = § 

a es 

charge | fers a eektae ae i, not mnneee SAdetiess for a mane ne the Season's 
ae pit yori ay 548 Bae ohh eee me bh WE Ee 
at incendiary hw ere 4 Miaks the BAR of @ Liver 
The hee Pap te por of. this, f,gperetion should be $4,566, 75 sinus the 
£03 ow Gre yore tio C2VR UNS Say Pay sous Laas eta : : 

Piles pnd SB ays Rig, 
“i ree ‘cost ‘of blade, ball, by. bend for -experinentel: purposes 
oi hie ee ze seed. ae 4h cn 3 
- excessive Leadbpar tation 

eee - excessive supervision due te operation ning an 
dag apa experimentsl. setieascae fi 

ra 'e ductions wher Crs weir Ghee: 
geht ie ee ~, net, sda clearing. operation nee be 

EER PS ke be 
Burrownced Bi. 3i 

Pir mts Bh 

£09 ac tealieh 
OR RL wile 

ae sek 


. nme hours igt {ise covlt ho. vted sunenagentty | 
rssh rp Sri hours tractor under repair.,....-+--, 4271/2. 
er “actasl hoyra tractor. bogged in m@......... 50-3/4 
SHOwse OC MAstyel hobhs Cooling engine.......sssseeeee 4-1/2 
Agtyal hours lost tine moving between ares, 5-1/2 
| Total hours posbible for clearing. .....-,.-400-1/2 

to Complies Avabegereske pir hour’ for actuel clearing time” 

sisi alia CLEP AEA RRS PRPS Re ee eS 

a Leh eee a 


Vek oC AF Pee Acs an BOs Whee BOTs 

ee ee 007.13 $5017 
Seeii o )xpiransportation of tractor..... 75.00 24 
Wield F@palTGi cic die cece ks 16.90 On. 
Gasdlime,, 668 gellons'@ $.14507. 125.93° © °° .40 
grasses wor@ramkencasevetlings. iF. lho. e7he 8° SOPROR TESS 8S, Te" 
gon 6e _ Greasejand track” Others. 6. cee Uae ee = « 
Miber. Ke tana bearers Dede Bee e deco e ee 2199,801005 Tee GET EGY ROE ET 

Lore t SY ne a am 

Cost of operation. ... ceyibpiieiee ek oc cece ene $0) Ole dO 
Acres cleared for burming..........ccceeee 62 
ie om “a neg aps agpaetcaee O57. 76 | 

a ee Vu: a 3 ¥ 
SOEs. b Lae Ors rare SA), « 

a ee ney Hoare at 2 

~ , ee We ieee eK eae ee We Sark ce ie CPR MMS 

even aoabietl Jy my en st o heewy <yAe 

oS oe 



. * * 
x - 

| Unforty analy 3 e EON the. elroumstences of wnieh show thet it 
wes of | ‘noun’: ary origin, ‘swept across the bulk of the cleared area in we 
the face of a ‘high wind about the middle of September, At the time of | 
this. fire preperations were under way for controlled burning of brush 
‘piles end windrows a® soon aS weather conditions would render it safe, 
fhe portion of brush not burned in the September fire was later burned 
on @ controlled. basis under sue sere of the ranger in charge of the 
Clarkis district. 

— Two contiguous areas, + abouts So mere#’on the Main York just 
east of the junction of Gold Center Creek with the main stream, end 
about 20 acres on the South Fork extending from the junction to a point 
one-half mile south,” were. surrounded with a fire lene about 10 feet 
wide,» ‘This fire lane was. constructed by hand labor. The purpose was — 
to make burning Safe 66 that fire cold be used subsequently to destroy 
brush and. Ribes, Qn the. South Fors area, 3) petiolere bushes had been 
sprayed the previous year. Hence a portion 61 the brush is now dead end 
should be an aid to future burning, _ 

“Owing to the lateness of the season when the work was done, it 
wes found that burning could not be successfully done, so it was decided 
to complete the experiment during the spring or fall of 1953. 

In addition to the above, a fire ae was constructed. extending 
oA entire distance from the Gold Center junction to. ‘the western. Limits e 
the area on which work ‘was done during. the ‘wépson. This fire as mas 
several miles ma ane and -. constractea te nachine. a io ‘ens 

yeuavee sitting wa Generne ees shentaa, of sot-forming, ues 
grasses were sown on portions. of the area to demonstrate to what extent - 

sod so established would ‘constitute ‘@ barrier to the ‘reestablishment of . 
Ribes, Hesults from similer sowings made at the Savensc Forest Nursery — 

in Montana indicate that density of sod is the chief factor eatonnin ine 

the success of this method of contreliing new Ribes edie 


In view of the fact that the St. Maries River area represented 

conditions more Severe than will ordinarily be encountered, and it was 
even Ma ae eae a ~~ tractor could perform on Shriesses of the. 

we ie 


Stream vottom area on Middle Fork of St. Maries River in which Ribes imerme end other species of Ribes are ver) 
abundant, practically messed in places, No preparation for workine yet made, 

The machine will clear from one to two ecres or this 

W. 1059, The same area as above with the cleering pertially completed. 
type per day depending upon the adverse conditions encountered, 

Annual Report 1932 é 
C. H Johnson ui 

area, high eqsts.of treatment were expected. However, the tractor wes 
eble to work on more than 90 per cent of the aren at costs which were 
lower than those resulting from previous experiments with other methods. 
This is ample reason,for,believing that.this method offers gound pos- 
sibilities, Nace Maken: waka’ 20. Ges eecn ue 

tractor -On..dry, brushy eites complete brush removel, together with durf 
disturbence,was such an extent that’ efficiency of eradication 
end effectiveness of control were never in dovbt. — @ a 

vonei aes. Wet ground constituted the greatest obrtacle in the way of 
successful operation. Without good traction the best that could be 
achieved was a patchy end pertly finished job. Difficulty was always 
encountered in attempting to remove brush from the edge of streams where 
generally there is a strip of brush varying in width from 4 to 6 feet 
which, due to the insecurity of the ground, covld not be cleared with 
the tractor. Narrow patches of brush situsted between abruptly rising 
timbered slopes and the stream were always herd to work because en 
excessive number of windfelis were present or the streom tyoe area Was 
too narrow to permit a satisfactory disposal of the prush, In most cases 
the greater portion of the brush wes removed and the areas were made more 
accessible for hand pulling and spraying work. 

As a result of experience gained during the 1942 operation, it 
is very strongly urged that similer werk in any normal season be not under@ 
teken before July 1. Previous to this tine stream bottom soil is too 
boggy to permit satisfactory work by the tractor except on areas well 
drained or with e gravel bottom, 

The bulldozer blede which wae especially designed for tuis’ 
operation proved satisfactory. However, too mach soil is etill moved onto 
piles, together with the brush end debris. Some changes have been made 
to overcome the faults of the machine end no doubt further improvements 

cen be effected. 

Por reesons given previously in this report practically no 
information could be secured with regerd to the success of burning under 

controlled conditions. 

The work of beavers constitutes e decided hendicap to tractor 
work in stream type. Dame umst be opened and the water kept down for 
several weeks in advance of actuel working with a tractor. 

From past experience in brush clearing it is safe to conclude 
that no extensive piece of ground can be completely worked with a tractor, 
Hand pulling or spreying should pley a prominent part on a brush clearing 


si eds ‘oveaHoH betsaqxs etew Jaamdasis to 33205 dgid ,s9%s 

2 w ag gadd stom so drow ot olds L 
P ragsde giljivest ssodt asd stowol ’ | 
~ 2 2% d tot noaast slume at aia { 
rb ditw tefiss [avemeat dagid aiafcmog aotia ydautd yrb a0 ; 
taothet my + beatetdo eaw aonedtosetb 
ytzaeo to 28enavisoette bas 
7 yw aiid jeamoo barorg jew . 
ad Hind Js hea o Inkeassoua 4 7 
i aay bats aan beveldos 
s190w 2useti2 to BOLts bs ‘ted myoone8 
to od Bi ginga a af stand yiietensy 
od iw Serastr Sityosant edd of eob ,doidw , 
. : Yd sdotaq wots zoster? edd ' 
“a sacaosd Jvow of bred ayewla etsw aaetie ond fas 2aeqgole bersdmid 
igqw gots auyl Rastyea ij xo tneaste siev aligihuiw to asdmyem evisasoxe 1 
aean5 9 i « g 9 co Iseoqeib ytotoststies a Jimitsq of wottisn oot 
ion shad sraw @aa%s afd fh hovome™ saw daprd acd to nolitog t9sa0e1m odd } 
oA ssg2 ban gatliivea baad tot el[dtaszesss i 
Zt HOLE] Se ame sircu i , sis freure } dizgaovt 3 BA | 
@-tebnhi Jom eu Hors [eurtoma yaa a ow taflote jisdi beats yieaotss ytev at 
oos @f [toe metiod msotia suati atds of auotvetd .f ylut sid6ted masaed 
[lew gaets ao JSusoxs todosts ocd yd Mrow ytostostatiag Jimteg of caned 
.odsod fevets s détw to bontsth 
‘aled tol benataeb y{Igtosges agw dotdw obald reasobiIsd saif | 
tito beve {ftja ef Lloe som cof ,YsvawoH hiasirasveae bevorg aoldstageo | 
shan mead rziaio exces .@itdeh bas dacrd edd déiw tedtegot ,aelig | 
ajasmevorumi tadintut ddvo&b of baa eatdoam gat to 2if[uat ond smootevo of | 
hatostis ed ago : | 
1 Ylisois q 4 < & ik yt aavig anozsst tol Pi} 
sHhacr gat t Que } Ht hetuoss ed blyop mcoltamtotal =| 
: -e10lsibhuon Sellordiacs . 
totsats of geolbaad hebiosb aeisgizgenos atavyeasd 6 Mrow acl 
a wy 4 2 : ~ ¥ RES) v +) , bA | 
TY. Totew oft Baa bensco ed Jamm Biel .egys masta al srow 8) 
stovout? s difw sofsvrow [avios to sonsvbs ai aiesw Istevyes 
ehyolodoa of bene 3 feagced af sonefiteqxe Jasq mort 
TOUS TO ed aaa hayote to aoote svisnedxes on Jaci 
oiteelS dazer mo t% e ystq brrode gaxtyarq? to goiifeq Sos Hi 
solsatsgo al 
7, | 

ae pilin specks. Act. bhe tractor ae PEAY S very helptyy, to 

aM q 

Burning mst be done as wednlor tonditions permit and as a 
result complete disturbance, which 16 the object of burning, cannot 
alwayt be obtained, Whenever it can be avoided, brush removed with « 
tractor should not be piled sgeintt live brish, Burning weather cennot 
be anticipated in advance and if loose brush in e« windrow. or pile omst 
be held over for en’ indefinite: period, Ay wil if. thoroughly uprooted 
ph eh end partly aecomposed. “the coat of burning dry brush is _ 

aii a Below that of burning green brush, aes 

S ree 

Bad a. SES 

Ses een} 


& series of 4 inf ee 
A ITAGEG. Of no ‘ a om "et Fs 00 a 
open for li Lengtae y see%ble tc « 
611 ef the ponds from s ee ecg 
LS,inghes at the dam. eerie 
pagsiy ke th thave . i 
eten and a Javte 7 

tk 3 
ahi a be i eo 
stem..of the mn 
af% ee i bine 244 we. the 
or the Live stem. ¢ 


of ae aoe ‘ 
Level bia 

ain ; S it * A: ts 
WLthou} Lowering. ths nt ey Sintered ics 
Ob ane ae & af Che # & 
ann we t ‘4 . 4 : 
A ‘ gt 
Tt PRAM Tee mek q 
Ae its Bute nee ead m & at fete %, Sage @ <3 hs eae Sh Ua 
Seat Bee boon deniusd before seaovine the B.. aatieiey 
Fanprowt tae. 



B. A. Anderson 
Junior Forester 

It 4s possible to securd ‘a 100 per cent kill of B. petiolare 
witha 10 per cent Solution of sodium chlorate on almost any site except 
where these bushes are partially covered by water. ‘This condition 
frequently exists above beaver dams. Extensive experience in spraying 
this species of Ribes ia all ‘the regions where, these particular conditions 
@xist reveals the fact that im practically no case have satisfactory kills 
on R. petiolare resulted. Apparently the failure 4s due to the Ribes 
crowns and roots beine submerged by the backwater from the beaver dams. 
During the past summer a series of experiments were run to determine 
whether draining the ane before spraying the 8. petiolare would result in 
a betterkill. . 

4 series of beaver daua, suitable for excsrimental purposes, were 
located on Blk Creek near the Oxford Ranger Station. ‘The dams were kept 
open for varying lengths of time. It was possible to lower the water in 
@ll of the ponds from about S inches at the upper endte approximately 
18,imehes at the dem. Lowering the water level this amount made it 
possible to thoroughly drench with spray almost 100 per cent of the live 
aig in & Janse BRapORson af the water roots which were present. 

ss in all of the peaver. ponds the z. netiolare occurred in patches 
of ‘different. sizes with varying percentages of the total amount of live 
stem of. the bushes submerged in the water. These patches were marked and 
after draining the pond no patch was sprayed before an estimate was made 
of the live stem still submered. 

a e . After each of. the. ponds had been held open the requisite number 
of days, dams were then carefully rebuilt so as to bring the water 
: fae to ‘tat the same height as before draining. 


without lowering the water lever; om the second plot the dam was blown 
out and L geataed ‘but. the Ribes. were left without spraying. 

ithe: plots were sprayed during the period July 28 to August 2 
end. were inspected at regular intervals until September 15. At that time 
Be: 4m the undrained control plot was resprouting in sufficient 

b to reestablish itself within two or three years. On every plot 
that had been drained before spraying the B. petiolare showed no signs of 


' fwo control ‘plots: were used. On the first the Ribes were sprayed | 

TR ae 3 ; orem ° 


postebad oA. &: 
totceatc?..xo bmi 

ama tevaes ah agivoy) otelotias aad id to suomisorT, L - 

atetotivg .{ to [ft frse tec OOl a eie]er oF eldtesed at 21... el a 
jysere ott: una teomfs nto etetoide ey isos To nottaloe. aaco seg OL «dein 
noktticon stiff .tetaw qd Bersyoo Ylafviag ets satavd eeedt cxecdh 
seivertcs mi eomeixeqze eviznstni .emsh tevee0d svods atuixe eliaeupett 

nots tSaos wsieetécog eeod? oxedw eaolget oot Lis af eedik te sefeege aid? 


{lis qvrodeatetise ovad sane on yllagisoa tg wk tadd toat edd alaevet deixe 
nod?® ead of anb ef sveltst edd yliaotaqgA bed Ipeot gieloftieg .# mo 
coed teveed oft mort seteedbad oadt yc bestomdve snied etoot bas emwote 
Sxionsieb of ava oiey adxemitegxe to eottes 8 temmun faed an} gatuotl 

at tineex Sivow atslotier 3 edd antystce azetsed emeh old aatafath tedv ede 

soyeue etaw eedih est gaat: 

iii tegted s 

te a tea sy tne a ORT ER £ a Wh tes Leen erie ee oy Pet Fe shales Be . : « 
cay ,geenqiay iatsomitegxs sot efdadion ,¢mab tovaed to aoiter A 

teed otew sinah of .netiad?é tanne8 bsotyd ott teem Heotd ULE mo hotasol 
at tedaw ait vewol o3 ef{divaoq saw @ { eat %e sddxool satvtav wot nego 
yistamtsoxqgs at dae toqqe odd ts sedoat 8 sgod@e mort ebaog sit to IIs 

+t ehom dgyome sidt level tetdew ofS gafiewod tab edd te esdont Of 

avif eds te ¢meo teq COOL teoula youre Atta dowetb yistguotodd of eid faaog 
.jceaota exow dofdw efoot tovaw eds %o aokdtoqeta eytel # Sas mets 

nefotac ak bermeso eralokiey .2 edd abnog yovaed eit to fe al 
evil to dmvoma Istod ot to senetaeoteg arivisy dttw sexsis éasteTilb to 
bes bosian atew vedstag eeadt .totaT etd xf besrsmdse eedesd ot to mate 
ghem paw etamtise ms stoleod heyatme 208 dnisg o Saog oft qeigtarh red la 
eoroméve (Lida mage evil odt to 


soda e¢tetupet efi seqe bied sead Sas abaog edd to dose ted TA 
“afew oft yalid o¢ ag og tlindex yifutetss aedd stew ameh ed} ,eysb To 
netetanS oyeted an tcgied emag odd yftoaxe of Level 

+ oft a beer orew efol¢ Ioxtacs owl 
suoldéd gay ash ont Joico bmosea sft oo sasyol tetew off syustrewol tyodtiw 
stkyee isodiia dtef ettow aedfh add dud bontaih bas tuo 

derark of && inl Betreq edd gativh hoyerxqe stew edoig ot? 
emit gedt? tA af uwedeetqet Ittay sfavisiat tafeset ts betoecent otow bas 
trotet¥ten af galdwotqsot aaw toly fovgnon hbentwibar edd af. axeloiiag me 
éele yreve oD .avasy coudt zo ows aidéiw tieest defidateset of Sausoms 

to spafa om Sevods ataloliog ad? sxiystes ototed hertarh rowed bad tend 

smutivorges t 



meee sane caneers eb tt rts parm apnea ern nn se pene RN OES 

gt Ab ae. conn BEAUER: DAMS 

| iL rmon Rance fio. Gate. of]Loncth | 
/  vipei-’, we famehesyFall | 10% Waclo. lof ! rime} 
Area of = whewlr O. “pOfe Faber 20) | Solu= | Dam = | 
Plot |Beavernr: »i gj Vate Dam Rees eats’ ‘Bete | tion | Kent 
‘Number |Ponds Acres) (Opened | a. #3 i Used ———t_-Open__| 
ese Cet WEG tO 
yooh ee” a 
Wul.28 )00 20 147 Days 
2} “im, en Daya! 
4. Days! 
ice —herg ed 
| fs. open ed 

ae ‘yard ous orees wn be a Fethieckit edo, sie ‘e538 field 
sealer ott fined rewlte: ere ; 
1S3 iL Bree VLE, AS aie Be? R 7 ARemde ¢ ® ut 
in heavy Qj Wpadte: ee an croeine in Dense Brash by 
_ nompips. off the 1 ive Sten. ab, croune. Level. 

type Ribe ene! rakdvel’ of’ R: vt secsivitium when growing in dense brush. on 
ol@ panna fe pé¥Rahs “the most difficult problem with. which hand pulling. 
oPews* inthe Inlend Bmpire st; forced ts contend. Where the roots of the. 
RIVES “Bushes “aPe interwound with those of willows, Ceanothus, alders, ete. . 
its extremely aifricilt to hand pull thea. To remove. the Nibes. from 
- these sites 4¢ 4¢ necessary for the cradication crews to use tools of. . 
-variods sorts--Pulaskie, trench picks, rub hoes--anything with a cutting 

oriptying devices” The brush mt be removed in the majority of cases, _ 
— the ‘Hibes ‘oon cain ‘be pried oat. package? ) 

Pe AOL Meee STH Sat Ai i al me 

woud prt eibes on ‘paaed’ étted’ as & genéral Fit. have an immense crow with 
three or wore very Larce “‘semi-tap rodts. The live stem usuglly consists of 
2 6F 3S main branches star tine atrectty: from the crom. ‘hese branches as a 
rule ‘are vetttle und break Off eastly. The présence of = large wunber of 
dead iain b¥erichcs Gndientes that competition with the dense brush is severe. 

 «~‘Phae struggle for existence by Ribés is” 80 severe on these aites 
that it seems probable thet If they reeeived any particular set-back, they 
would b¢ unable to’ survive. fo test out this theory approximately a 
thousand bushes of &. viscosissimm located in dense brush were lopped off 
at the ground level, above the crown. Ordinarily. these bushes would re~ 
establish themselves during the following year. In the face of the severe 
competition by dense brush 2% is doubtful af 211 bushes will survive. 
The results af this epersnant wii), be available at the end. of the 1933 
lao season." 12 QIKE 

atands of werted sg 

ck r a apis ~" % » — A ehort 2 bre 
ats an ms soy? at? yee ot in eee io 4 i 4 thy Aye Fa" Nathan dae 
& ee) rc Me di abies, AN: A , 5 ae ; dae. et dbs ale Miah ee hhh 2 


= a EEE SS SS _ - : = 

fa ah a 3 re a ae ay 





os nner nemeane atone msacoweee- aati ja bag ee i abate dea it <A AN PE I —— Pe yaneee were = ae 
> o oe t et 
| AD ow, va £ me a 
wa hito .e@feL or te .o8| | 

ak? Yo (3g OEOM ROK Ai seo Miatoded fog | | 
wiets wtih To? ; 1OL taIw% ) tai i to. nord. | 
geek} wotg( foedads doeveds goat jaa biel, “ aoyeoky 

peu 1 hee jhomerab. Jaa Berane : 

a ie 4. ee feepe. es “be be: 

aya it EN as ag taht : ear VET i. 

nn ee rage Pees ete nhs Re 

Eh s08 Serk a Se geet Oh ag RS oe ‘err ane? 

i ee ees et ee {eg ee 

ase xa 

difye swois een 
th agefenos.% 


bomato 2b fiat. losvetae $9) FL “s Seat Et OF: 3 “Therm 3 
Biot SLOT ett Lkbro® Gasinaiiont ed ftw atote ai bux ett 

_péivuest Ianktt- 2o¥ soeses 

yf ais? pemet me Sragere simian leone ty. off Se acideothas? _, 
ie¥s. }_ Saves 3 wa meat 2 ett ani te test 

0 pe ie f saneb ni yafwors wecw mutts tage fy. to Tavondr eft” ies 

riteq Saad Sotdw adie meldoxuc $foobthth seom edd scactreg gt — Bre 

ait te ejest eft stadt — ,dnetnos ed Beotet ets ethos hota fet ext? nf ewer 

» TR, 

, ,wrebin ,eudsonsed vewoll fw to esods dtiw kinowiadnt ota eorend goere 
mort eedfifl ad? evomer oT wegdt Ilse bead of ¢Lroritth ylsmetsxe ef St 
tc a? ast of aywetm mobise Ser add cet wreanesor et dP notte seerld 

agittie a aitw S nativyne--aeod dur ;wanlg tone ¢ ,ahleslitt-ettor ato brav 

BSREOD xe wet xotam edt eh bevoset o¢ dain att ett © sire’ ankere *ro 
at 50 bern; od ans ROIS aot ont eroted 

eit om svad slut ias0P) 2 a6 setts asedd fe godin 

fovert mote avil oft .e7007 sad+iniee avtelr tks¥ stom xo se1st 
na gedorexd Beat? .swotD ly HOTT eMioerth eckliate eodonesd wie 8 ra 
t7 godwurn eyral a ‘be eoaéeeta sit witese *to xacid bite efssied ote 3 fue 
aysg at cayid eaaoh ody Giiw Bo ttitenqmon taily vedao liad astone td tiem bash 



dhe onan? mo SyoVaR Of af eee die YG enced e tte tot olteuade ag? . 
t viva ton talgotiaed yaa Bevioos t yous °F tant sidsdotg guese TF fits 
. vletamixorggs yieerds afdt tuo. jaat of .aviwive of 3+ eidags od Sluow 
quel aren deri’ wagsb mh badaset poateeteone cy § to esdeud Saeasost 
“Bie a pagfend seaud vik tantiro ~ swore ott evods \favel Brarota eit ts 

Ag ~ "one ent mi ,xeey Bh. reo tfot ead sarred. gavicements tel fdatee 

yenivisn iis eadasd [le “Xt fotsanod et #2 Meoxd ‘ganeb yd “no htivegmo 
<SOP off to Sua ond ta ofdalteva od {fre IetomP tears wind to gi finet “Sat 
souaoe ‘STert 

r Rust Control 
ot stant Supervisor 

ay E dicate “the, pibes from along streams where the | 
j ‘ba as well as the most ben sed dese oo occur, In 

ay née sure ageinst blister ay the progrem of stream 
athon has been effective, It. has served to protect 
the area of white pine thet « program of complete 
ands and in streau type could have accomplished 
\ This is evidenced to « certain extent by the fact. 
tons known to have come in on areas where Ribes | 
This one’ exception is a light 
seedlings which sprouted on an aren after 
ag/Has done in 1929 and which has not yet been reworked, Although 
hart time has elapsed since work done in 1929 and 1930, if Ribes 
nen ey ited from the streans on these areas. such infections 

st Control maintained 5 camp on Qrogrande Creek engaged in the 

i ra conjunction with the Forest Service work, the Division of 
i various chemicale on BE. inerme. 


This area includes working unite 1 to 4, Bach. dreinaze has timber 
stends of waried age classes which have # great influence on Hibes distrie: 
bution, The mature stands were relatively free from Ribes ond required 


Fae trey FI BOee 












ANNUAL REPORT 1932 1931 

‘a wake © 
“ a 
v ae Ny re 
a va 
Pa &, . rom | 

ie wig vos y The Sa aadaettiin ktenka’ ‘coltet ned many "Bibe &s 

¥, pelally: aifficult for ‘working were teo,lanece reprotuction stands, one” . 
ot, weper. Whuyse dhe 11 Greek ‘and: tie: other on“iolo Creek below the North’ 

hg fore, bh vary fine stand of: bite: p{ne reproduction compri ging @bout. 5. 
ecti north of Uud.Creek Lookout on Bldorade Creek, 

hei Servet ta shade out 6 gens iteret amount. ot 

© wets and vere elimtastes from the Eavttol axes. In doing thls, tae 
orisideration. ly ae *0°establish hounderies wiih weal: se Be , 
fo sdjncenp areas of 08s white pines ee eS 

9, erevhy ‘i 18° $i s district As fae ered end ‘steep ip 
aiid Nae ahe- “ihe. gi sie me 

Se hy i is area Ai nereaeiss ee a fats? a 6. “Oroftne: Creek iin 
‘consi sts of varied age Classes. The pole and mature stands req ui red very 
TS t Ole WOE Re PPUA REL GH Stand s ahd Peay FHP supported w lee wy Bibes 
greete and presented difficult working conditions, 

ae the. AR fork of. “an creek eoitnl as priiiiga Lie an exeslient 
pole abn: of white. pine with some reproduction and mature etands spotted 1 
/through it. gome of thie ares bas been erezed over by sheep which has served || 
| to suppress” mach of the Fibes «nd brush growth, . A condition om thie area 
welch neg not been found on any of the other workiag vnits. ig the wide 
_distripytion of B. petiolere, Wot only did the win streame suvport a 
heavy growth of B. yetiolare put there are numerous amell seepeges ~ithin 
the pine stent ent algo above it which hed BR petiolare scattercd alone 
_ thetr, oars. ‘These Ribes. Rvew in close association with dense alder. j 

ches. hich made. searching and eproying very difficult. The egncentrations i) 

ot Mices were sufficiently heavy. to maine hand ’ pulling meio? Tous + if 

far. only ud oaks wee york has been done, on thts area, s : 

Bf i . nies warkna! on the exst stae ot: bees Uhokrante: creek 
upported fins stends of white pine. Ag on other arees, the pole and m ture 
iB as “requi. Me d very Little work, The: ‘reproduction ‘eteads do not. Coupri ee. 
if Neate: mtigvous blocks, elthourh there 1s a considerable azount of | 
e pine re repr magne reattered over the ares. ‘The patches of: Matai on iy 
©. Cresk are #0 located that they were hard to reach. end while not | 
ser bes growth were be bicasaer ov wr oe of the 
al oe 1am om 

_- -~ ——— —— — 

brush and slope, 


per acre, 



Open reproduction, 2,000 

Difficulty factors, 

W. 1079, 

Be SS 

Ca ay 


i“ es 
Pog is an ems r i RS oa 

RES A a el NE RE. yng Xa: 


necessery On area, 

ground cover shaded out. Scouting only 

Dense pole, 

ibes free, 



Annual Report 1932 
H. E, Qranson 

e ae pol pies. socal a 

heavy: indfe ‘nh and brush. endian 


Ph iSe pinectyne pf liO<.yrane,, or mare in eee 
There was very little brush or windfel 
Dihabret bk AR. the AVS, | ti mbe 

[aiiidedi—eee eee 

ad owas # the only ‘ungt OS no sala work. had. been Pi 
snta.the lowest cost work and also ‘the Largs et solid Bibek wpe: 
ole be pas 2 bpaporaait pay been A AOnR : 

lacustre hidden by brush and down log, 


Difficulty factors, 

W. 1095, 



lecustre revealed by moving surrounding brugh ané 


W. 1096, 

Annual Report 1932 

H. E. Sranson 

; ‘ rT fees ol pa . wigsten ‘ 
Based BSS CABS LInse se. a eX thee vas 5 
PORLS RINGER Bee Wee (Hat te 
fe * PR 

vy yb eb ‘of ‘the. eoradeekis WAS -the same as ta 1931, Ae 
cama: eet ine: of the Clearwater Yational Forest; whose responsibilities 
and duties were chiefly «those pertaining to organization and maintenance 
“Of camps, wae in charse of the operation, Working in caope ration ‘with 

chim wasia ‘project leader from tie Division of Blister Rust Gontrel whose 

ive sponsibilities and duties pertained chiefly to the supervision of the 
work in the field, These men were assisted by three unit supervi sore 
each of whom directed the work of six or seven campe, 

‘fhe project.consi sted of 20 camps with 21 or 25 men in each, 
a thi 5 anna amen roe gig we ms singer make ieabigany wo ri, 
Tt % @ * oy FA Be 4 was ‘a AMER 
Cleaswnter The: Diviieson- nai,BASabon Rest Contes] ambos thenetde an ‘independent 
fohecking co tenat sation ef ten men, ‘one man ete —* biped Sagprieei to niacicet ae 

il ge cheek of: pes thei ren: ohare 

wns Om Skee. 2 Ata ee se aa ee ae a4 8 ki ee eee em. Ay Sea 5 AP tie 
<a dey, iis Oo 2 > & shi f : », be Fas ace oid 4 ~ 
- hb Gare On. Ai bes SPAS. CASLER, : 2 Lee 3 Wie S ; 
nen jae 1 SP as ‘ & ein i] kp hty 9 eg 
i: ¢ wy cH te re Py ano Oe ah an iu 

she erupt at ome) po asthdnr this an, spe secure . SB ‘ee tear on a re tach 
devtanatiens of the: general amemployment situation. However, (the turnover in 
men was greater than it: hed been in previous years, Thie wes due in part 
ho. wage reductions taking plece:onauly 4. part to the large number 
of new men who were hired under the policy which was necessa app preted to 
eget ie maseoep Lagsie nt: ened an in oe ag gspstea the £4 ° 

Vretg Ha the Poet, Fe he i BE ie ae LUT eS Pe Roe ei 
Cont re] sitihliedngla thes Milam oatinoet of men: who wesuliineil dhtetnduont the 

‘sea son. conetituted the strongest. end moet efficient field organization if 
that has: been engeged in dibes eradication on the Cleerreter-Nationel Forest, || 
the large turnover among the other men wes a drain on the output and |} 
efficiency of the entire project,’ On the bagig@ of tests made in former 
years in the training of men, the average daily output during the first 

ten days of work ie 30 per cent<-to 50:.per cent) less: tham ‘the averece > 
output: for ‘the belance: of the season.> This Toss in output amoints to ebout 
$26: per man: béive'd on effective man=dzy cost s,>° With = total turnover of 
more than 102) menduring the sumer thie lose in: out put represents:an: Hi 
important’ 4 tems-approximatedy $2,652.00, The hindrance which an inexye rieneei 
man is to an experienced crew and the attention which he requires from the ! 
crew leader haw mot» pata a, epee in a Sessa eninge may? area Madea 
‘cost of trainings: of © t= pitied te 3. setinlds ER Be 

Por the most effective field forces it ie-necetsary to haveos |) 
nucleus of capable, “expe rienced men with & pcod knowledse of the frm@ementals ||) 
inwethods of work, «In 1931, on the first: laree’ scele: ope retion, this 1 
group constituted shout 20 per cent of the totel number of men hired,’ which 
wes mot adetuste’Se-a.trained nucleus, In 1932 about 35 per cent of the men 


il | 


SS —— 

c oi 
et OFS tJ 
fh. ar ” 
2 Be DIT i746 
7 2 ¢ o 4 a 
Ofs7st IqGeor 
: on dn or 
( Lov ig rf 
4 “. ~ & 4 - 
es Ly wy hs 
eae | ; od } 
se TOse rey eq 
t - 
“f en cr oveory 
ww Ml es Ge 
- os 12 . 
Pw iu | hOLs BD 
ve catse 
; Sars) 

pt EE ens WAL. : 

Lise ; 
AO to Segoe’ 
ts figh bes 
if. vrado at seams To 
sad wor t 268 gel rape pal a aaw oid 

ais of vf xee dy hentatysa getéub haa aeltd ii id feaoge st 

ga7 rie os gem seodT biett ed? at arer 
. . ‘ z % = 
oF 4 itow aft betoerth modw to dose 

n db an ae ~ Alal 
20D SIseteta sAT 

ait dtiw bedosnnes stew mem OBS ylotamtxotqgA 

- tre 4 ; bee AEF ty 
trite lovdaed tamS§ rede tig to aotelnl ett 
ie e. XO Xs to po tigs fanart 

wre oft Ila to stoeno oltiameteys 

0 ODOT TS 18S : 3 $ 
om sires vrs f oJ can SOL sedd arom 
noir: ae stiw 9 ¢ he oe geaneat t taatroamt 
| ; ort & 6 orf w motdn gaxo ma OF ef cam 
ont ake Phaere ¢ 220f et tex ae trehsel wers 
: . - stated to sg0o 

ry i peagon af tt ,eorot Hf et? avitoetts teom oadt TOF 

ens! % halwort hoon 3 diiw com beoae kr egxe ,eidagss to arelonun 
x .. + é weno efaos eT ; toe Ft oft 10 gl bel rae tow to ebedien st 
mare vee ee dram Latot ent to treo req OS Jvocs hetutitencs gyorg 
“ Rh "80 3 , Be sods FECL nl ,eueform boniats 8 838 etayooba ton 2a¥ 

hired were experienced, This percentage is a minimum requirement for it 
represents ebout one experienced man for each crew, To insure an effective 
organi sation which will function from the start of the season to the close, 
a nucleus of BO per’ cent capable, experienced wen, who are known to stay 
the entire sesdny, is edviseble; Unfortunately, 1 1932, ebout 50 
satisfactory men with one yerr's experience on Ribeg eradicetion ere 
dequalified unter the policy which was necessarily edopted to relieve 
most satisfactorily and fpiagsllaaepid the digo res bn Calapan situation 
in the reer eS ts pelne 5 are, web Laks 

pact vork, Tigre Lie ye. wd eh oleate QR P eat Fs he 

“2% t 3 ee ae 4 Ry 

During the season ‘the call for blister rust men as smoke 
chasers was not heavy out prectically all of the camps were called out to 
four larger fires, twovon the Selway Hational fore st and two on the 
Clearwater. Wational Forest, Time mee by the crews on each fire varied 
from three to nine days, A total of 2,760 man days vas chargeable to fire 
suppression,» Thie reprasents nore things 8 per. went:.of .the:,teteal man days 
spent on the entire season's job: and 13: percent of the total effective 
man days on Ribes-eradication, . Although the man days on five were yea 
for out of fire funds, there are certain.losses resulting from the } A. 8B 
interruption in the steady and uniform progress of the work, the camicnt 
reduction inthe efficiency of ‘the men, end the fewer number of man days 
over which fixed charges are spread which are not equalized, This 
last item increases the effective manedey costs 



Blister. reat - crews.are a-planned element “in the fire control 

forces onthe forest,’ To prevent exceesive interference with blister rust 

control operetions, thé: ‘Pore st. Service adopted a. policy which. zeve 
due consideration ‘to fire emergency; but eliminated unnecessary holding 
of men in camp. rr: bea Attlee on. fire ater roh. 

The waited: and itihinkad sand on Ribes erediceti on work were 
for the most part the same as those used in 1930 and are more fully 
described in that report, For hand pulling work the standard 3-man crew 
Was used, except on some areas with lerge numbers of Ribes where one and 
Zeman crews were used to adventage, 

In chemical work sodium chlorate in a 10 per cent solution 
(.9 lb, per gallon of water) was applied to BR. petiolere with hand pumps, 

To insure good work, all the erea wes inspected by = checking 
organization of 10 men, The check consisted in a systematic cruise of 
2 per cent to 4 per cent of the ares worked, Any areag on which the 
Ribes growth had not been reduced to approximately 50 feet of live stem 
per acre were reworked, 


~% toometinost momiscin s at sgsiseoteg eldT beonerreqns grow Sar te 
etyent of ,weTs doaS- s6% age Beonetracxs ese Jods atnee Si grt 

wots off ot nogste eh? Yo grate oft mort xekiounrt IfLtw doitdw mo bi ar inagto 
cade of Rework ete ode jes beote iteqze "46! daqso Saad aeq70@°%o ereisoun 3 
G2 syoda’ ,REQL af _elotcavstotad jel Gaetvbs et poe ses ae line edt 

avew ae ita hate eadth no sone ta ogxs a 'taay ote ative wear yrosemte tiae 
svaiiet of besqob’ yf Insea cc anidde do tin go biog eddotabas ho titiaspath 
sotteutin $neevolomend' Sntveerqoédi yilsitesgrt bas yltrotestelitas teom 
pro igsr ett ont 


stare ga nen tam tstethd eot {fan ‘eds s6aBer anit? ae tted 

ofar scued sdéo%o Ife eilastésarq ind wards ons se etoqado 

so Lanotta yawlst edd mo owd ,2or kt stogial wo0t 
balvey ach ipso ao aworo edt yd tasqe -omdt teerot fetéitel r9otewrssl) 

o-ttiet aldeegrads aa” py cam Gal Soto Letwdad ine qed om Px 03 ccends moti 

‘atod off Yo ones t4¢ Sommtit orem.e tase OTgot gist. > soleesigqie 

at dao bef iss 
> oe) + 

Sir 8H Owes 

bere is 

Veh HAM J 3 § Q 
ay be igged af to tron voq SL bae dot s'aogsee erfins edt mo Iaege 
bisa @ exit ae suet sam edd agus ark woftsothare sadii ao eyeb aan 

tiinser etenol atedies ata ated? ehowrt exit to tyo 10% 

exetoqeed odd giver aff lo waangotd eroticy Baa ghadds coeds orl to tigauirsdal 
gysh cam ke edssx vewst ad¢ Bas aod odd jo -veretot tte edd in borskionber 
aie? oSevtlarae ton eta dort Beene ws ¥t¢greto bextioudoide reve 

wives yafertss evitegtte sad gsasetom? aedioteal 

cont meme 
Usb t.e aster 2 4 

fortesos orit edt of jwontgle Seanalgse stg ests demi wete tia. 
fafld dtiw eoagretaial ovigesoxs sasvorg of weotot eft no agorot 
ava Hohie yotleq « Bi qots ao ivrs® teerel elt ,aacttareqe Lorine 
gr itled grag dosnt bevact hit o ted aqpaegrams (et ht of atetterebheaos gerd 
(leréag srl? ae yteh Hsheetse bus ert? od Dias satttaws qmes! ab irom Xo 

oar drow s0tiexiiors wodht ao hese teong ive? brs » Sd fds ea? 

elistmemoens hate OCR a? hare esed? es wmap ad dh aq tear ede poet 
ners ated fiskeeds aft Son geal leg dans 10% Wwroger dadt at-hedhroe at 
grote sgral adiv cavts, wree Ko ta goxe og beethoae 

Lae S20 aeaiv @odis ke 
A Gtgnd Se GE DOM, BEIM VSB gages. 

dopa thor srer lsekwedo at 

codes inn cee seq OL ent £ 
fqus aaw (vetaw to sabes req oat 

vowre Beat Mier araLotieqg J ot bet 


ouinoeda « yéchedoegen k eae aeta ord ihe gies Howg reread oT 

gtiawatieys 2 at bedeitisoo ale ede cortt ogren O02 w0bd gs Eataggyto 

to se heres 
oti dodciw ae edexea ga! Bebhrow ata aid td difeo seq et ed pdaer tog € 
nsde wari ho dee) C6 yloteatrorgga 1 deauhot seve toa Sad idbreva med if 
ROA LOST: CLew an 

ClARewli ied @ipemditures, calugine year 143, 

4, Solewlexn « 
r cent of the present control area has been 

compintol worked... An: ek act 38 per cent has been given partial 

protection by, the, working of stream type,, Qn the remaining 20 per cent 
no Ribes eradication work has been done, 
e's woo is being prepared which; will include s summary of all 

past work, suena amr ig and estimates for — the present 
control areas Gong’, . 

Se * 
o« @ Bie «@ ” Meg BEA, Rue, oe 5% 

2. tre adhd PS? pe oie OF EXPENDITURES 

tuna, by. Server, 

a mepepetons, celenter year 1932, 
aa year, keay a st half) | 837, 32 148. 86 

A. Forest..Service blister rust sppropriations, . +4 %93i,489, 14 
B, Division of Blister Rust Control approe 80 

Ky PFLBEIONS. 004-0004. RPh ONO oer eb eae ue boeeboroos 7. 337,44 

i. Paar hee we ae neem eremesrebeercossserssrsserescccan thay 826, 58 

SSE y p 4 7 1% | 
Piscal yeer 1933 | (first half) pi S 2A0, éx 

{3}. Esra gt vase Ae fe 

2 * peta Seales | bits ster rust SpPTOm. " * 28%, 41 

Sacer cgi sinc seene Shs OlG OS 5 suk ke 
of 2 Ottis cr rennet Bs nett 
= Salaian Prt e sees se seaenscence pode 024, 39% 5 mi 8 
B. Division of Blister kust Control “°° °° i 
PTT RSL ORG Gib ciek ks 6 85 tN neko kc chee cians 
MOURA oe cb cce ceca cap sse oe tons a0 6 skid DG ose <OPOIRRTO TS 


Grand total, both fiscal years.... geececes $139,094.32 

Re ee OE 
hie 0 Pet 2 
ae TAROT ct Pe 

12 55 SBM a Lert SLL OS. CLM, Bs Yates Be trot¢eda 
wd wy ¢ 3 ; er 4 oy ae fr FA — hw ont as 
Z 5 i? ie: § Bt & pre 0 5¢ th ae shh ee FBT Oe i ag I CIGD 

sorar~ ye MA. Bis 

yt ett gd moltosioug 

asad aad srow wo ltagivats padta orn 

> - ” . z me Se . . » e, 
re a s i w MO LCY & SyPITgG Af 2 sh 
borg ay t 447 so ee é 5 Ft ane ye to 
5 oz i ei ae = j i 3° > DS sitei Ss iz RAa 
z= ; ee 
were Loriaceo 
Li EEA E gici hs 
nee Breen onaemrninarhem maa pal oer on 
Pa ; , 
SSEOL ora97 cabaslao ok 
~ 7 . a | 
~ ore + oy hog -weney oe “3 ee ™ Om 
x Oe « é 5% RRO x fe es yO Rs ve Sto" 
- or ® s arn 
~ ne ie k ak ; rN 2, * ; 
wertcy 4 & te woke ty iC 
; ‘ ere es ee Pie 
+. ‘. x. eS wale o GRE eR ORER. « nN 0 506 2529S RTE oy 
Cre ¢ OS_goernre vases 2 e+ 6a 8 9) 2376804 06 DETNSS . Hie . ES 
r 4 _ . nie. @ ~ 
64% epee id » sb s ~« &t re 
Ais SES teweow ade £40 30 wf 
ft 2» ae & ery 
GE his U5 FG TA NE Sowa L08S wed hewn <M BO TRAAT 
t es eka 
9 SPP Pee ee ee ee ea Del ie 
© , & if ’ oe | “y ee sery 
GSrxsvaoveae 6eat ae 5 Ks ea ¥ iP } 


ITi,. Actiwity 
Il, Classified addenda’ tures, galt fl year 1932, 
Ay Baye ert eh iis 
Dae bletan beekeck ‘Kenerrinion Jove Bh, 01,8) 
i Fi a. maudkibieihcs..,..... hearers 94. ” ? oe 174 oe 
4 @. Division of BAister......... comers Ledede? 
; w Eust Control... ‘ee GOs oe Me BSS..57 . ® $12,635, 51 
a by COG heel oh Or WRT POS bw Bc eo ai , ms 
B, dagen... e « ts ehee & ae ® & 
A Forest Se 54. 864s 673. 91 
4. Be Division of Blister 
be Rust Control... oi. ee 3339, 39 $y > °T3 583, 80- 
a Sreight, , Th i 
4. Fore st aaaionas ee tat eae , © gute ROE tye Set ad Sag 
2. Division of Blister 
ot} uiiats Controls... feces, " 837,32 16, he be 

Kit SAORI eo eke ow u's Ps a4 ge » 
D, Subsistence’ SUDPUOS ao veesvnsrenes yess sale 27,960, 76 
oy RG niente: Urage et and oxy ) Cand Py 
Lm Supplicm end equipment =. 20% 82 
puppies: GaP a) a oa ee a ncarawoiitttiecine eaten te 9 
(a) a. $3,360, 09 
ty OM >» (d): Bradi cations. .o....6. 3, 752. 55 
Le (ed OEE Ks eeeeeeeservenee. ana l «+ -: a a 



Re Bes 2 

= * >@* 

oI ee 

at 1 Ons &s 
# BRB Bike pe ee) eeeve “ee 

PR, Mi sovdianeone at CCE ARN as 1,484, 16 905 BS 

{1 enfetea 
e : es CoPe Ger Serer e ree renerecrenrerasreres 139, 094,31 
« > Ma 
oa “eee tee oh @ eeave 2 @ 4 7% te 2 Re tre 
(Hee eH SHEE DH we we .  @ « : ore & & 
; a de ei 
eee * SeewRe ep eee sv enasoeeur se 2 2 Sep wi § => e ; 
ier i t eo Pee fe & i 2 
4 : 
* v7 
= ae 2 ee 
é at Fe cae 3 Barre ” 
2 Vinee I ay 2s 
ce (ite 2 to A Peneevea 4 € sg ” 
on , ; 
Pi Cis 4} es ,& te ee & ee a oe * gaye & ae a oe ee ie ee # 7) Pa 
* td ee ee re 
4 nd 2. 45%.) 3 5 x iy & a 6 a a e ° * e 2, 
P es 
‘ } g 4 3° 2 ° && i 
= 4 a me pap ae . + as ve i sey Dita oe i ak 
Rote: i, PPISGLMLIGN Chatgee On A guigne é 4 
- “ * eg * 
# & # 

ee Rar x 



Iii, Activa ky pea cateniur year 1932, 

L Ve yomo.o 

rae ev vaiean 2 tore, .. : 
ea. ‘Direct’ “project weiieewtnion6 356: vce sieve@hl, 662,82 
er Pay MMC G MNS (81. nine scccc cts odo. 7eaneereoe Ze 819,16 

h Ove rhead, & le suka Ge Nin bow eee wees 6 1, 231, 73 
in@,! OQvetheed office work employment......... %5458, 55 

So Preeredi cetion sMrveysieiis cc ccsereeses a “1, 905,.%0 ; 

6. ro tage RR Ee A a a 2330.78 $28,077, 73 

2 aes. BY S Pi 

5, evtabeegontibs Sibi '=i3 ee lions 

1 Transportation af. MIapercce heGBGei?-+° $40, 00 

2. Freight, SEpPre sao. ATAYO BC. so ooresseenons ‘ 986, 78 

fo Gy) Trncit.drenepo rtetion, § io 915% asecaee sess. 20 71,85 nee ee 

4, — RRRPRRE AREER, a nnn nant ts - st AROSE 15, 151, 98 
Seon COS Gredi Gatign oaeration,: 
G. Dgulipiaat men “Har oe $8.48... ce 3, SEC Pam 

ee ee er cas eas "$336, 28 

Be HQUAP MEN a veins es conc beecceeew based oe 285, 85 

3, lida ntenanee’ (wages and expended le, repeirs) 

(a) Camp Se. cin eesecceenesas ce Soe 209; 92 —e ' a 
(b) Eveafeatis Tees eee "39,80" aod} men ats oe 

Doin) FO WAT ee ree ern eneerwcees retin 2428276 2,904, 89 
D. Depreciation ot eget pucat’- chee , ’ 

Ly CAMP, . Sie Wee eels ews welaene son srreerrceececs 3,941.42 

2. Wridieatians.:...... oO eee . “893, 22 

ae Rea Aky Sr" Bibi LUAU ERTL ON EGE a tango 


_ * “them cel sana supplies e 
f em 2 Ghemi cat... SOOseeeeeeeaqgesranbecsergece , 2,904, 83 
D ty ee GraBltenssssesereeeceeceessec ese sssecsesees 7 ‘17,60 

GM A oho ela hs nigi nia bncipeie'c'soc'ew eae 6b ss 8035 98 3, 526.41 
ae) ad hee fe segend Bihae Steet $ mis ty : 

Camps eee and mhSakannnen)< 2,007. 07 
? ae Trail work 8 i ae 221, 50 

x Telephone communication and winitaee } 170,93 2,399, 56 

G. Hand ES ERS Crete ae diab, eld aS Ue dive Wes CW ko b CRO eRe b wk 79, 510, 30 
Hq, Chemi cal PERNT OGL ORS 65s iis bio bow eiiwecR elie. c cig acu kiwis ot 4,400, 09 
t to Miscellaneous GAPENSS reece casnoveveccpomecceaccevercses i 38,60 

Total cost of POJECH. cr eececceseevaesDIG0e 794, 78 

Wote: 1, Depreciation charges on equipmentused but purchased out of funds in || 
previous years accounts for the difference between total cost of 
project and total expenditure for the curreat year, 

2 For more detailed report on expenditures and costs see report of 
January 4, 1933, by P. H. Gerrard of the Forest Service, 

a SV, a8¢ 

8° fel ef 

C8 ,f0e.S 

SS ,=Ot 42 

Lt 468 ,€ 

| BE ,COE,S 


oe a 
By ben Ole eGo D STH HOH SHAKRBEHKHHS woehorg ‘to f209 Lave? 

. ECL. 759% asbrelgs se Jego sitvitos all 

~ sola ivrequa 
£8 ABBA IRS oaes vey neetobe Hrnegire toetotg toorit Bows 
Af C154 vv dies ot ae Salieri ae one a 
eX ALES f es iia ig bends eiocaie Oe & bsbifreve- ot: 
SE SELLE 6.4... deel gad Ziow ashy basizeve wb 
OT BOC Lise ewcensevecnenatVine aOltnotharsert £ 
SORE. s + ++ ois Stee nde ries «+ aainniie sane gee men, 2 

00 »CA% sad ree ale an ugianoeee i 
BT .dee ctvunnecoves es s@gmyeth ,aeeigxe ,idyiert .S 
CE La 4S cr igeedeteersedes se ett fisotogenart Bore? r 
revpisrmmeiintnMMIR L228 3 a oe 

2 Pnengino= 
SE. 4GE és (Tones ema e acc eeene eraser sense es oS GRIOTE wd 
6 26S asteun cic saucaesesaeccenenees os Oiteni Lp & 
(et lager St se bantiee ioe 2930") Sonanetaial .f 
LO QOE 88 in yesnseas aces ia: +s wee. ta) “ 

CB .BE nce iaeneece se dO tdMS bbmte (dG) 

BT» S8S.5_ SE BB nee sce scence sens eet OPO (a) .. 

i a gee 

= diiddig tvoe %o- ‘Ko HBloes 70% 

"gh ,£20,8 ashe hak teed keen eer ee ok 

+ uk 


x: | 

BE 805 Sc etereeneesesousawspers see gO hao there ass : 

SL 25S si adie woe 0 on SOAS DSR EE OD cule etn eeee 

“e esiiqase bas ales tmodd 
£6 ,40€ .& bie 8a A WoW ae els ee ee okt 
Od oi » aie ww Wwe 06a 8 wh ied wails RO hd sa & 
LA CTT er Perr er ey rrr er Terr rrr rs, fF  - aa | 

= sqm 

TG 800 .S ...,(Sommeotslom baa colttontience) eqnad ft 
OG »fS& ft 8 " aver Liar? 

09 Oe 

€G,OC1 (ecuanedatem dae cotiaoizermoo enosiqele? .f 
e#eceenwnenenaneeuneeeaneune er Mere rine warmer er. ts Be Beak 

gd wee ka wwe dle pO Rea eke w dad wal ce ei Does fan imedd 
Te oe ee ee a nsdn: Col egoenal Leow iM 

eee Tneriss att stot suytibeegze fated baa Joejotg 


7 ee re ee Ae Yb Pe ae meet 

30 dxocay soy edeoo O56 eoretibaegze wo Sroger beltateb stom 10% .o 
ofere® foero'l edd te brarred BH A yd .8bel «fb yrevaat 

w? ebagt Yo doe bevadoverq ted beewsnargiops ao eegiado molselperged of saton ot 
to teoo (adot weewted sorcerettis edt tot atasovos axa0ey euolverg ie 


eampoi si te. oaks’ =| ao 
Me pay. on me a oe] 

- P >] 
77 ores 792 1.5663 


a my 

4 [Ald Upland Vie etthivevecveeee sy 

[Stream ee fo ee a t chew cal ered ee SE DMs a ol. 

LStream_( 2 = 

in aay et ry 85..$1, eee: 
nos genes & $, O80 409,90 

beep neverteeescereede ks Coos 

- ~. eee 2 Ag < eh Bs : 
=e Tae ameaort: ‘Rives eredteetion : 2 
Spere er eee eee, 734, 78 

po the ae Rides eradication operations aré pre eaenhed tn 
febiariag Len ae | = 

bad. Uplaps * p58! 
fears aa “ae Nb p 

oT 645, 208! 

= Senet Bibe es tte, 



Work- | —_ : | T_Acre Beate | 

ing | | 
Unit | R. R. visco- R. Gallons 
Number Type Acres lacustre | sissimum |petiolare Spray | Cost 
[_177 ___ 34,198] 
Be ee ee ee | 257). 
~_ 22,469] 7,592 | a “5,968! — 58,3034 — 
£2038}. 4? 1.280] 145186] 
74,625) _ _ 264, 2461 
oot 8754206] 
=. --| —_ 604958} a 
757430 207 = aC ae 7 1,912,743) _ 19, 488, 17 a7e 
Se | aco *3.512] 936,249) 90) | - =| 667,362, -_| 11,6721 1,38) 665 
ense Reproduction] 120] 1°] 500), ~—Ss1,000,, i -__|____07, 2a! raf 
Se soil 7,424; 80. | ~~ a2, gel_.04l 5 
| 4 [all Upland Types | 2,966] _1,87¢]___ 1,878] __ 844,670] _____81_] 8774 ~32,151,7¢] ,631 Peal = 14,07] 
| [Stream (bana) __| 194] 177/ 56,794] 8,179] 500. =| 64447 j_-20347,121 +23} _ age] = 2 
| [stream (chemical)*| eal gale zee 424,98! 72 - [47 1 6,28 
| 4] P8794] eee 209 ks 1,572,101] 0 a an oe 
jim -?410}] 87,667] __ 852,849] __1,le1 | - "TT eaisee7. dle _-13,723, 6] _, 66] _20gf = 1 4.1] 
[- Serer ey Pra STI 684, 147,386, 64,046] 2,704 | sult6,_-__| 4.492, 964 271302] = | 6.20 | 
| coea [tact eal 7,536] 9060) 2 | es eno] = 54a gol sel anel . 81 _| 
Mature | sol jea ag,7esl  7.agol pa | | soggy) | 192, 40 al el = 1.2 | 
I 6 (aut Upland Seca Tu.soal“os2l 197,72] 80,586| 2,280 | 20,507) | e160, a5]. Lav sol aa 
| ream (hand) _ | _183| 90) L214] ss 350 | ER 5 32,570| = 583, 28! Se ee 
| [Stream (chemical)*| 11) 13 = “t oe ee 0 ee ee | S21. : 148. 68! 1,64] 29 13,52 | 
| [All Stream Type | 168] 108) os), 514, =a -s “30 a ee a ee - | 3,89 
5 [aii types Ti,ceil 1,060) "220 ,226| 01,092) 2,639) - | - | 2.057, amt) 001, ot] vga) iss) - | 4,06 
lopen Reproduction | azz] 226! _2°,200[ 32,716] teas! - | = [ ¢3.soal  - Tisga- eo! a! joel = | 44 
| fgganeate "tat 9 aaa CEP yas | aS RRS BNE Yo _ | 3,843, 12) 82 —Ls2l - | 5,35 | 
| LOpen Pole mou 9738137) iol [- | - | 3,705) - |e? se) Sagal 
| Dense Pole =a yak Si $52! | aa <1) eee (eee A yo) eee ee _s2. 41 ot ae 205 | 
| 6 (Dpen Mature _ 1,214] 536, re 142,052, 4a | | 0s, 2go] 445,021, 57] 167] 3.66 | 
| [all Upland Types | 2.179] 1,607, 170,306! Ee er ee ee Oe Pe 10,414, 86] 51] ize) - 3, 28 
| [stream (hand) | 455, 252) 79,403] "6.187] 4.622 j= |  . | __ge,219| _-__| __1,6a3.20] 65] 196 - | 3.50 
| [Stream (chemicel)*| _552) 660, = | at 138,202} _7,363,701,20| = _65 | 13,34 
| [al vam Type _ 552,912) 79,403) 8,187, 4.620 [ - | - ! 90,219 "35,702,_8,996, 9011, 651 __— = 16. 20_| 
acer ae  OMTORTS 270 444) “7.2031 - | ~~. $27,436! 35,7021 10,411, 76.68! 14il- | 5.20] 
1 Lops ‘tion | 1,016] 1,866, _ 46,789]1, 302,628) 7o2 | 8,24] - 11,368,360" = 12,242. 4311, 8611,337| 2,05 
1 114 3.535 1508) as eee eee 7 | s—'7S8, 83), 32! 97 - Ph! 
aL 25] 1,640] Tease as Cae Ca -__| 167,021" rely ,egsl__- | 21.57] 
aT 1,381] 2,028] _51,964]1,349,338! 767 | 8,257] - ").410,396| - | 13,143. 3311, 4711,00| - | 9.62 
8 Pare eee Trem w1z0] 135,574] 4,205] = | = | | 49 eo] 74228, 451,07] 471] 6.90 
([“o" Topen Mature 2 ey a a Ye eae ee eee 272, 201,78) 400] = }—8.04 
Reproduct ——eaol aja! 30,926] o7a,n6.) 7e7] - | - | g19,04 : 6,022.57, ,99] 237) ; 6.44 
2 21 3.9531 Ses 4,24 =| 142. sal 
40) : 140] 25,02) 
2,088] 611 911] fone 83? = | 13,532.19] .21 
14, 12. 26, F 
! | ae eran 12.9591 = err £502 24) _.15)___ 1¢ So 
| | {all Upland ? Se al E : 19,896, 
| [Stream (hapa) __ sof 88 1.040, 288.718 __ 2426 me =| 4 ___64740.17] 
| stream (chenicni)*l16l. al. |e 7]. 644. 7al 4 
(all Stream Typ: | 1,88)] 1s1el_ 395,714] 2,260] 6,685 | — ___=__| 344,650] 1,307] 7,384,051 ,50/ - | 
____[ail types ______]13,249] 4,386] 904,519] _ 377,870] 13,776 | " 51143971 27,281, 41! , 32] 1041 _ 
[Open Reproduction | 266] 128] 2.439) __ -- 82.868 as 84 = __ 820, 56] 44 
j nMature «| 44,545) 951 37,040] 68,692] 1,468 | 157] 4,876] 182,23 - | 6.163.371 .2 
(iene Reser 719,881] 2.7471 og | = TL, 004 eee ol 
| 15 |All Upland Types | 4,995) 1.1761 109,360] 173,822] 1,945 | Hit} ses] 203601 6], 24] 
| [Stream (bend) __|___a2ai__ 94 276 402110490. | aval aes, 580] = |, my 
sstrees_{ebsoieel 2/4 ae — = Sores es ee ee | es OR 
I LALI 423) __ 213) _ 276 409] 10.4! _378| zl 65, 201 1.805.231 2501. 
| -.-11]_Types__ ipl foeao 1,369] 162,636] 175,231] 12, 35) 740 -—-201| 9024, 
oe : | ooo 
z geo 94 ei 
__ 2,054, 
3.290] 2.5771 665,701 17,54) 22.660] rela Ee 748 oe 
04524] 12,9161 2,201,425] 5,046,737] 82,032 [25,2631 79,8921 7 2.402 ol : 

Pan Ea ae 
2] 152 = 52,62 ] 
“Acres in stream type worked by both hand and chemical methods are included only once in totals. 

Annual Report 1932 
=. E. Swanecn 

i —— ———— ee ee = : — at _ = aoe 
= ——_ =~ 4 —— eee ae 5 

or 49 ound 

Syadi cohen 

gC al GAT 


aera noi Tete est [Mbua) aie 
ate es asd) ode | 


db, Eb [© lace __| maorte LAL _s = 
: © & 109 SUS ad... 
EE : x 4 ; 

eee anne ree me 




pa I 

- nad 332 | 


__ Ee [ee lot Meat Ico. hawt: thw Be [eel 
las j Tao —— aa MN Ca eters TAsa.c. er eas nga - © 
il nn Pars = Be : po aa, it oe ~ ine 2 a a 1Oce Jou 
east Bente, ne 108» IS 3..0 ee ope ere coer 
Det |= 1 - lation les losa.s | = ts “Ene 

FEIT. 3 $3.63 e 

“el 2 eM led, [e0.08e.2 | = [era 966 [@a0,c8 [eve te Ljete ale = 
S02. —aee je a : see [Cami Seuss ifs | 

ae as : JOE, INO S02.S aC eee ak Sane —_ 


oe ae. ist. FEBS [LOO 6k (pe3.8 985, [Ba aa se leve.& a lésé 9.1 [ebb 261 [NOSE [p0S,$| mastta JtAls: Aied toU | 
wiatod af gono yisco befelont ets ebodiem Iaotmedo bus baad diod ¥¢ healiow sqyt msetie af BOTS AS 

SSeS ————E == — : = : SS SSSSE—EEEEE___— 
— =—— ——= ———— = = SS eer ——————— _ —— a 
— ———————— — a ———————————— - : 
= = 
—— eee Se SS ee 
—— —————— SS —— 

| Camp ‘ ois paueer are ON 

See er oe es 


scat Poors ce EoteY of 41,758.6 acres 

radi caeen'st ‘of Bive wae, checks in 1932,--Of thie totel 34,170 acres were 

worked 4n°1932 and'6,914,6 ecrés in 1931, he belence, 674 ecres, is in an 

unworked, block-destgnated as ‘Supporting, jess. than- 50- feet of live stem per 

08 does the Bcreage checked total the acreage eradicated _ 

the. 1932. each ore tha ee Se were i atributea among 
“3 fable No. ~1 the- -Ribes: “per acre ee iet Sreceeett on ere shown 




iguum | All Species 
Feet | Veet 
} Live | Live 
; § Bushes| Stem | Bushee Ster 
es Sees eee eee eee ee 
Open Mature i eae ae ee es a ES eee Oe Es 
1 [Stream rh re ih ree ee ee _| 34 | 194 
CE CFP aaa AT RD WS CR LP |. Te ee 
Qpen Reproduction | 4,1] | [| | i ae ae a 33 | 44 
ai a 
[Dense Feproduction| 6a] | | | | | pa a a ae 
[Open Pole = «(| 6.4) #4 [| you 21) 
[Dense Pole si a ee, ae 37 
2 [Open Mature _ P23} Hf oe es a ee eee 
Dense Mature | 2.0 | —_——_——. W 
, ECG ee aa 210 ae ees 
feadow ci a el i i ESS) DAN «ee ee 
| Stream ___ aA See eae ee ca ae ape pL 
All Typep | 2S | || __20 aeecb ecco es tase 36 
Open Reproduction | Q 88 sat 8.18 
Dense Eeproduction | 2,.0[ | | 2 ae ee eee 
Open Pole a ata [us | 6 | 137 
Dense Pole [2,0 | 4 aie = 
Open Mature Emon eee i Ne Oe fee 
sf Fr mi a E108 ee 
Brush Ea Ree eae 
Barren Ei a a] 
Meadow pepe 
nore io 
All Typeg ae aes _ 
Open Reproduction ae 10 ___ 87 
Open Pole ae _9 Ab 
Dense Pole 0) 
Open M 
_Repr “40 | 
Dense _Reproductto nome - £0 si 20 

Open Pole 

pen Reproduction 

| 2.6 | 81 
Dense Reproduction | 2,2 mbes: eel 
| Oven Pole a p20 coe 3 ae 
Dense Pole 11 
6 | Open Mature ~ 
Dense Mature 
Brush _ Cs 2,0 
sotream ers 
All Typeg 7 egies 
| Oven Reproductioa 4.0 
Open Pole _ 
| Open Mature 

pen Pole 

ial Lea 
n_| 20] | 
| 2,0 | Se ba ees 
een = aes ae 6 

| 11 [Brus 

—_— = ed 
Types Q DS RS 2 DR 
N - Negligible or less than 0.5, 
Checkers included veriations in types not recognized in Rites ersdication records, 

Annual Report 1932 ( CONTINUED ) 
E, L. Joy : 

fs 4 



re | 

i Spedeg | 

Per HR_netiolare | Feet | Teet | 

Cent Live Live Live | 
oe S| et i aa Re 

—— el 

fiense Heoroiuation {2g fT TT Ya Tag Fa Q | 9 38 
een Sale Popa pole =. (O00 ale ee Ise ee 1 3 25 

De es enpe Pole. 5 | giG@nis 0 p=) elas s i ee eames ee At es 2 

ES (Da ee 3 3 

; FE Cry ae eA a — 3 12 5 25 
ponen-uators go 5 16 10 46 

es a ae es 2 4 nt as 2 4__| 

FL SO 1 SOU Kec! CCT cD aS pee REN Ce EG 

Te TT FN a ed ee SE 30s is a 
(Open Reproduction | 20] | | | | 17 | 40 | 30 | a1 | 47_| 121 
v4 [Open Mature ss | aot Ts 68 6 15 51 | 183 
* fie eet 216 

ee ee ee ee 

Dense Reproduct on 2.0 
Open Pole 

15 a 
fi +--+ 
pense Mature ae! 

am 1 29 
tities tee 

Qpen Reproduction 
1g (Dense Reprogjuction 
Open Mature 


Open Revroduction 
17 |Qpen Mature j 
Dense Mature nes Rs N 
Foe ee dee ee ae 26 2A | 
nn oe or ee ee ee a ee ae | 
Open Reproduction a ae ae ae ae 24 a8 24_| 
18 | Open Mature 6 
ense Mature 

Open stars 
Dense Mature 

| 20 = 
_ fee 1S a eee ee ey ee 
Open Reproduction | 27] [| | | | 3 13 23 | 10 
pense Renrodustion | ae [PP a a 13 ee Oa te 
ee = 
Deage Pole 
I’ NalGrea Mature eae as 
All [Dense Meture 
(amp s| Brus 
} eurn 
411 pes 

N- Negligible or less than 0, 5, 
Checkers included variations in types not recognized in Ribes eredication records, 

Anmual Report 1932 
FE. L. Joy 

: ee 
ta be seen 

ri Rig at : 
i Ne ‘ahington [Pupkev Geb! bie band poe inate a ao om 



| | Frou Table Wo. 1 wen derived the paneentage of moreagecin | 
st type, upland types and ei? Wes th kt hot SHE POO She BS 
feet of Ribes live stem per-mcre. These datanere showndn * Tavle ‘Ko, Iz. | |, as 

a ! ree a 
| Drainage | Area Type | Checie) Bu 1ahes| Stem | Bud Sten | Bushes St Stem | 
" - } ' 

ar wR 
Bar, Larson | 
| if 
| Me | 

Nerth Fork | and Unnamed 
tof the 
| Clearwater 

j Rar | 
ee AE pee a oe a —— 
Totals Rosebud| 

Creek amé eR by | 

eg __ [Stream Perea, mina jf dereage Suphorting | Ribes — aa 

Se eae a pa 

lOpen_ Heture ge jae PS aot pxeced ing mi henceinrtrni 

lecrante | somin fon kao reer eo reer Tom Fee 

eee Creek Stre 

Be 00| 

orn Creek —— ated mies Ki 

ek Sa FER 1 | 
iG ETD | SS te 



pOeen. Seprotucttoa.[. 2 
Qsen Pole L 
|Open Mature sss 4, 
iDense Mature 

eye AC rn 



(2 Bp ead ftoase. 
vo owe Speen omectfbh Degen. epee 

{Open Pole 
| Qnen Me ture aw 3.1_ 
111 Areas ete tte 3.7 | 

; - Tru 17 
se 4.0 

St eam 


a oe WT 7c ae ee 

ee a on 0.5 - . ; : , Pars 
le or less than 0.5, Checkers included variations in typea not recognized in Ribes eradication records, 

TABLE NO, 3 it { 


sas Ga sea oe ~T HH} 

cre after Eradication eae | 

inerme |R, lecustre |R, viscOsissimum All Species | ii 

Feet Feet | 4 
Live Live Live Live | — 
Bushes; Stem 

Drainage Area 

Bar, Larson 
North Fork | and Unnamed | 
of the Tributaries 
Clearwater | Sneak and 

River |Sheen Creeks 

Totals Rosebud 
Creek and 



Sewmill Creek 

| Tumble Creek 
Washington S it 
Creek i ili 
Washington, if 
| and Unnamed ay 
Tributaries | 
Seay ype s a 43_| oN Ny] 43 | 160 an 
Open Mp 93 | 25 392 27 485 | |i} 
Halfway Creek eee __ | 3 43 | 59 62 HH 
tream 1,0 10 [1,000 | sid 190 J1 000 | Hh 
| pen Mature 5 164.|_ 5A 39 729 | iy 
} | Neitas |Bighorn Creek [Brugh rio! w 2 Sis Baa 14 | 77 1,077 80 11,20 Hj 
Creek Stream 1.0! 37 | 350 33 [3,165 [90 [3,515 | |] 
Doris end pen Meture ¢) 1 tA 1 96 | 111 i! i} 
| fleitas Creeks [Brush | 2,0 N i 2 16 | 92 94 11,299 | I 
tream 2.9 | 13. | 757 | 150 |36,442| 4 [176 7,332 | |W 
i A pes 5 3 iH) ° 

Oven Pole — 
pen Mature 
Camp Creek Dense Mature 
| | Lolo Brush a 
Creek Sub-Alpine _ 
; Dutchman and pen Reproduction 
Black Creek tream 

Open Reproduction 
| Open Pole 

| Open Mature 

|All Areas enge Mature 



| annu2l Resort 1932 | 
| EB. L. Joy il 

y N- Neclteible or less than 0.5, Checkers included variations in types not recognized in Ribes eradication records, 

In Table No, 3 the Ribes per acre one year after eradication 
are shown, by type, for each area checked, The percentages of the 

‘eeréage “instream type, ‘upland types and all types, that fell within 
“the 100, 50 and a5 races of soem live stem per ecre classes are shown 
“4n Table No. 4... ohh 



From Tables Wo, 3 and 4 it is evident thet only a very small 
portion of the 1931 worked acreage on the Clearweter National Forest 
supported less than 50 or even less than 100 feet of live stem per acre 
one year after eradication, 

Within the area assigned to camp 12, one block consisting of 
674 acres, was estimated to have not over 50 feet of Ribes live stem per 
acre, -A check of baer area showed the occurrence of Ribes per acre as 

TABLE Ko, 5 


Nw negligible or less than 0,5 

= tes 2 ee ~ ———— ——_—_—_—~ x dlr ta a A — - - 



plenned tirt th: 

that most Of the Kibes ¢ 

li et 

ehows the average Hibes ebundence over 





a aan 
Aq paxivu axe UO FAB TPere BeqTy Jo SepiupuMog “4S8ealog§ [VUCTIBN eof “4g ‘esaupeIp Heeig dooT oyy uo uYtou FuTHOoT “LTV eel qtodey penucy 



i a ae OO OT] ol 
Ine i oa NGoL 
} NObL 
~ 4+ ~— --— = 
| rt 
ees a3 i NLvL 
Jepeid, Oy 
RGookok i 
| ina 
| MICS MZ2E 4 MELA 354 ata | 38 
I | 
Z€61 AINO 3dAL WV3YLS ae ee 
}— — — ars a IvosS ae i a aaa - : 
a eaimene [—] | NVIGQIYAW 3SIOg | 
V3YV TOYLNOD IsNYy ¥aisine | OHVQAdI | 
aN 3937 ‘ 
! ay (ye tha OTT ol 

trail’ ce sak GANLON. om aus 88 JOR: waviowaL # fonupt 
een werd e205 Waves aaernstoe duniot VoFenter. 

r ” en “he ercces Davision of Blister Bust Control, 
Lae everioe Sor eonetkePablerton, Junior Forester 
Forest Service 

Ribes a Tp for the sontrel. of white pine blister rust on 
the’ St. Joe Mational Forest: was started during 1°32. This work was carried 
on by the Forest Service and Division of Blister Hust Control, as part of 
an intensive program: to protect our commercial white pine from blister rust. 

Work. in 1932. was confined to selected. portions of the Big Oreex, 
Slate Creek, Little Worth Fork of the St. Joe River ané Loop Creek drainage. 
All these drainages are loeated in the northern part of the St. Joe Forest 
and the Little North Fork of 8t. Joe River and Loop Greek drainszges join 
the Idaho-Montans boundary on’ the east. A map accompanying this pig sary 
Zives. the’ rade: ‘location and extent of all areas worked. 

A large part of the area has been burned over several times. 
Those ‘areas burned once had.a heavy growth of brush and Ribes. The areas 
burned over more than once, especially in the Slate Greek drainage, were 
fairly free from aay concentration of either brush or Nibes. 

a The majority of the white pine area worked has been planisd .. 
during the. Jast.eighteen years. There has been a fair return of natural 
white pine reproduction in the areas protected along Loop Greek, the . 
locality surrounding . a; saa Greek protected area has a heavy otend of: 

young sas ay pine. . 

sites Iesuaice oni, Re. at scpnigaisnin were. distributed over the 
entire sone BR. Anerme was found in the stream type along the Little 
North Fork of the St. Joe River and the Middle Karis of Big Creeks: «4 
R. petiolare was found in the stream type of working units 16 and 1s: mA, 
toa en extent in the stream type of working units 14 and 15. 

wale” % forest ‘officer of theSt. doe National. Forest was in charge of 
the project. His Fesponsibility and duties were mainly those pertaining 
to organization and maintcnance of camps. A project leader from the 
Division of Blister Bust Control, ‘whose responsibility and duties pertained 
chiefly to technical supervision of the work in the fisld, worked in 
cooperation with the forest officer in charge. he four unit supervisors 
and nine of the thirteen camp bosses were temporary men having previous 
experience with the Division of Blister Rust Control. The four temporary 


camp bosses not having previous Ribes eradication experience were former 
trail crew foramen’ on the St. Joc Forest with years of experience handling 
men. The 13 camps had an average of 25 men per camp and these temporary 
men were fairly satisfactory. ‘The men with former eradication experience 
and men who worked for the Forest Service in previous years were above 
the — ot ree guar ypeaaer effort. 


2. tradi. .. usm oy BXPANDITURRS. 

Laat halt fiscal hoy) 1932; 

A. Forest Service ddintor: i Pasar 9° re $27,536. B 
B. Division of Blister Rust Control. venpeinneemere span aes 29801. 26 
ial aly th OY ON Te Ee A EE A a, | Dee $29 ,913. 56 
¥ornt Mar Aehhges ak Gr aoe 
A. Forest. Service blister rust approoriation............. $66,090. 46 
B. Division of Blister Rust Control AEDT EEE AEL HD wt tt 6 cee he Chie BB 
a Sis Tae Pea eee $72,454, 74 
Total, both f#4scal years.. oxida “ A a Mes heel . i Pik shin. «. carn, . 91024363, 29 

II. Messifiad Expenditures. Splondar year 10.22% 

A. satested). POPPER: Pn ee Oe. $10,103.12 
B. Wages, temporary one Wy cues ya asian an ee ” ere 57,787. 76 
Cc. Travel and agicaatide., seoteeewnwe’ teed Bho wma cw ene 4,243.05 
DB. Subeletemes supplies. . 6.5. ccc eet eee eda igh die wnebing - 18,733. 
S, Sipplies and equipment - , a? GG 
1, Camp eq™uipment......... serene -«- 4,674.12 
““@ Rental of equipment... . . 6-5-0... - 1,495.00 
S$. Other supplies... ............-, iii wowed 
SAE Ae aD eS IE oe RB Se #12 esi aCe Tu es sod 11,499.77 
vi dagleptutad2 eo 
1. Direct project saverviston.. . $9,371. 75 
EBS Chedking }3) 2.00% PE steecaee. a ioe 
«? Overhead: service of supplies.... 1,014.54 
3 Overhead office work. ..::.s0.0.._ 2 999, 32 
_ Potal. wees sen w ne ees wens Bn ee es 912,608, , | ee $12,603.12 
4 ae 
Rew arta ¢ a 


tsmrtot otvw somekicox® soltsolhaie sedis exobvexg anivead Jon seazod quao 

saifheesd soaeltsone to ateaeg tifw sgaetol vot .e8 off no nesexet wetm [rex 

yretogmes exedi ore ose gay vem GS Be exeteves me Sad somes SL ed? sea 
esnefraqcxe nelisolheto tenmie% ative cem oct syvotoeiekies yitial etree com 
avede Sew EIHSY wae. at aolvrs® Jest t eft tot beatrow odw aém baw 
srotts see Shaekoenes Tor egateva odd 

Gane Lees 1. Tie Ae 

saben tage-ene. ad asc toca aa 

ERLE tase Laon? "hfe! Sunil : 
OS 656, 1Se..... -...- 2. of tabegqotode teot gedelhid eolvtet taetoT .A 
BS SES... mebistagoscs Lorsaod sent asteh i to no ka kv bd .€ 
8.5 [8,9 3... . . ae bee eee A teen ee 6 bah ek hee ae ON Be rere ow tatet 

abe aay fanatt Subasl fait, 
Gi ORG. OSH eS on 0 BE QE IOC wee Fees be-ahnegrid seme tevre? wT 
iS PMS 3 _. “uettetaneveqe toueets deo! tetellh to! spietw ht oa: 

ar larg > sb i 
eY oe , 0s Meee a0 la, se 2 - Ka ie, ROR ATS hate Pine sreiursl pail orale areas » BIOS 

WE BOE BOLE 2 a ies ocd ale Side a ATW al a Savalkt tod ieaatducinit 

i be rernath at 

ROT ten opebiose fe ‘ioe foe 
VSPA oy (Pig CHa ane eae geet ton an Oger Aaa oe ‘Seat Gratoemesy , eager . 
G0 Eee at ppah aha Tete daveceett 1... ito Bde) tongheed bee Levert 
<r Be EE ye, SOR fogere saae Fe Tdi: 
-~ seemekampeo Bien aot fqqne “yf 
eT. rr tonhios qa of 
U7 GBP TS ess Smee “ty Egat et ed 
‘ o — ee eet ened , ek Lepore ‘some ae 


aie & 


ST..00%, [8 0 os. 
G8 £96. a80L% 

sadnen udivites ITs 

oe ~ HOketwers gare | oA 
Ov Ave Oe... hela ree as sabora seaet of, 
m3 lO : | Bet faque ‘35 a9 ivsve aniteeon A 
pigs le ine oe eS see eoltto heetasy 2 
SL .£03,.8f9 ...-...82,808,81¢,.... pts Crees eet ne EPR 


ree TE Rao MOTE SON de > ae ea OO ee 

Brought forward. A SvaiiieMh hits vacua oo + bn esa 

i oP L2,608.12 

B. travelianat--+ss--0:- ES RA aR eS were , 4238 
C. Transportation -. t ; 
1. Freight and express................ $612, 81 
RM Oo io x ove od ban ees wih ah %. 6" 924,71 
S, Bas invaded toes sk ais aa ce + ine orm te Aen GE cL? 
venga oe ow eee . SSR LO eee Reve eve eo 3,524, 14. et eyee «ks 8824.14 
Dd. Bantpaent an i ie 
1l., Rental. and depreciation of equipment : 
» Be Depreciated camp. equipment..§2,236. 4 
b. Depreciated chemical equip- 
; ment... eee CUP ae # 8 eyes 6 oe ee oe 12,88 ao 
@ Rentals (Spokane mprenonse) ‘i 
WE evga eae ea ks Conk + $3.83. 37....... 3,834. 37 
z. Silt ho supplies. =... > ‘23 . 
he Ghenicels. «e oa @eeeveo Rs di asi ee Me ae a -$3_863..20 sth 5 
eR er rey FE a ee 0 eee 35. 40 
Be Twine. ee ae a __._.£60. 01 
’ ; Total. be swe CP POD Re eee eee wee ef ar ie + $2,873.66. + gee 2,973. 66 
¥. Camps Se ee nian ae i : | 
Be UR es aks ks 4S ed ee Wee oe $1,983.12 
2. Trail construction... ee SFP = irae 268. ai 
3. Telephone. commmnication...... villa suid hited Pi 
SOURS én oe ARS ar ie ncdhesad eee ne bik 419.83. ...... 2,319, 38 
G. Hand eradication bidkaibtin y Baedask,- geome sek eoepeniineene Oto nt AS 
Ae Chemfesl "eredieation. _ si igs ma bt i Da ee oe aes hades 4,917. & 
c. " Preeradieation,. fall RR vbencanisi.« « Cdgias inns <inertnniong.<! iRe le 
Prageme kata; PRG Canith eaneineecey> oe eee seinen eet thins ats 

Subai stone: rn é Sided clcheics Akaclak te 
Subsistence per man fein sale eh biG gainer Ne .908 
Chemical supplies used 1932 - 
Be Ghemical COM iiews sys - Pepe, vty vis 4,363.25 
b. Chemical transportetion......... 321. 84 
RCA Gh k cae s'S's 5 alah us Oe 0.0 db we vee BB. 40 
bes a on Sar ar ee ea ne oe ie ee $2,720, 40 
Maintenance, wages: oak repaife to Cmtipecnt 
'. (rt@-be charged to 1933 blister rust 
project. had | 
Be Pied uWilaitbies euek. cout cor, $182. 62 
b. Zradication er pepe w iow ae da 94 
NL a cui de eka s Ne oo wie a ieeaea te $213. 56 

Supplies on hand for 1933 season: 

a. Chemical (at Avery, Idaho)........ Le cis $1,058. 5 

b. Equipment (residual value)....... sarin vy, On 794, 5B 

e. fwine...... BUS hinhs br ba Vids 6 ftw EE Bee b Ae 70.22 

ip: Total. fats’ Sts’ Hottest tage ote a a a ee wee «45924.07 
evel ‘ei a) ara cic Toa 2. Wee 

‘%. Suporviston 
1. Direct project supervision includes salarics of Fullerton, 
_ Guernsey, unit supervisors and camp bosses for time engazed 

Chow Wie Seatve field work. 

 "'R.Dvethesa service of supplies includes salaries of mon engaged 
at warehouses: in Avery and Calder, Idaho. ; 

S- Overhead office work includes contiributed time, Fullerton’s 
~ end’ Snernsey's salaries. end a portion of stenographer's time. 

adie “~~ Tnelu@es expense accounts of Fullerton and Guernsey and 
Operating costs of bliater rust Ford project. 

GO. Transportation.- dibs :, 
4, Frefeht and express includes cost of transporting by rail all 
~ “e@uipment, food supplies, chemieal ani other supplies for the 
“project. a if CRE. 

& Track Transportation by truek includes rental of Chevrolet 

“"traak, @river hire, gas end 94] and 2 snall smount for parts. 

& Pack; Fores? Service rental of remount etring, salaries of 
“packers, bleckemith, forage, shoes and gontribated meclkinz 
time paid for, are all included in this item. 

Dd. Eoat nent < Se aed 2 yj : ¢ : 
1. Deprecigted camp equipment. This figure includes 1/2 of the 
$1,357.00 Beaverhead equipment (which has been partly depr«- 
_ elated), 1/3 of the $4,674.12 new equipment, and $112.83 or 
“Lf? *sost of ch eal equipment rcoeeived from Clearwater 
“Bational Forest. 

Rental of equipment ficure is total paid for equipment rented 
from Spokane warchouse. 

E. Chemicals - 
These items are the costs of the amounts used on the job. 

¥. Camps - ; 
1. Camps: Prorated wages and subsistence on an effeetive man day 
basis for cutting wood, and setting up and taking down camps. 


ynoaaee SS0L got baad no eeklqgs’ 
08 .880,18. ...>-(ode5I .¢revA $e) Leskmedd oa 
BS BOVE coc. cceeeese ss (ulav Lauhteet) tramgkopt 16°" 
BROT ee jane . Gabe? 
WO AGO. AS... .. | 


Gio! ssteod wtivktoa to mokiasalgqa® °” 

«= gobsivregn® of. 
 sedzalfiu® te asttaiae sehrlont wofetvieque faetoiq vostkG ot 
hoteenh amid Tol seeaed qian One etosivtecire dingy ,eaaeten — 
sow blokt eviies at 

feysgne sem Yo veftelsa esbufont tellqque to ssivres Sagttevo i$ 
eeY ,tebiad fee grevé mh acetodeter 3a 

atsoguntin® ,ewit Sagodixindo aekerlond drow ooltte basdasv) od 
amie eizsdestaocets te no hitog & Das tolcates at yoentoy® bis 

Sas, veers) Bon godtelfel Yo atmreone omega sobs leony: 
_awmaketa so bess Brot gant wotalld Yo stacs waiiatage 

«~ motisttéqedar® .9 
ff~ Sher yd yatsroweaese Wo’ goon anbefont seetgne See detest of 
eg? sot selfeque totic oxo Inohsode ,2etiqgse Book » Suse keroe 
| .tostomg? 

gefowedk® Yo fataak acholon? sosesd qd soitattocetert © gxientt 
atta. tot dagoms Clog oe ote {to feo ecg .otkd torieh . aosss 

%, sobtavan ,seiuée tawomet to [odmet so feted teetot s898% 
sntasex betjudtagaos bos esos ,enevet ,ddinedioalé )ereieaey 
wedt gidt cf hebwinet Lio osm atel blag emi 

. ) oo Peseoamce Ramee 
ads %9 S\L eooeien? ewett eta .dmomgived quae hota tavmced .£ 
~stqeb Yliceq sped uml Sofdw) seem sope Soeulyey oe OVE fe °°: 

0 BO.0L1% Bes .dnemgtges wer S1.EVS.34 ant Xo BAL . (hodake 
vajeeiaels merry Seytovi« daemyplape Soo keerls te Seon RYE 
aeetet Lem ttat 

Sesnot dromytmpe oY Sing lates at cmmylt daomeyties to Eedeel 
‘" Sepotontay area aOR 

; diag afte frat? 
Jot, odd mo boss ainwoma ost To sdacd ett ete amoth seonlt 
si Si PRR « etated 
gab nas ovitooTts as go epmatelodse drs aopew begetosd seques st 

eqrse awob mittzad Dete erie yoliger bas .boow ash ag an yeY eben 

Lipa hs 


. , I "| | Ai ¢ 
EE re | Trails? Bane) paste as above for gutting new t#odla ond maine 
a ga | taining established traile in passable condition. | 

) & Teleunones | She basis as above for strimeing em: orgeney line 
es auth mepsing aap. Pe ee and maintenance of same, 

aba BS 

wb Be 

e| , tei vennp ape MM 
= _| Proratign| of _ 

| , a ies teal a hob tobueb labor but no trens porta 
| | Hom costs 4 are arosten in: bhe| | sabqi Renge total. 


al Sak LG PU a Ce -it-4 
: Hhenepehcuedle ¢ oats | ate nat equal Bree actnal expenditurce | 
aay ry td aviated. ee Bayear bi ie. Ghere was ao 

meow reine ted chem Taek” bukanne and a towel amg ab ve pheetpols 

alia wai not all used. al ty 
5 3 isl nen eee lela RE of ola lal o| Td | i i | ig 
1" cnteneat. a? ide_somoat bk hates 
+ | telly poe, Se arewkae JPL Bl ¢SIH wie Cale aes 499, 775. 79 
et | - Manas. east chemical - roi masas opeirs, dost. and. 
S| i a ‘Tronsgortetton of chemical. ale pie deme eeree + Beal, AO 
af aes ae | : i $97 055, 20 
4 | § gai | 
a) ae Hana etl ine ¢cost per man day $97,055.20 - $5.1946 
ay fd} ae | fy 15, 652.9 
| "i - Ghentent ‘end spraying equipment cost 12,720.49 = #3.1879 
} 1,260.7 
| ae * inet, cost: per. chemical ceeptie day. 
slg ctl shoe aredication operations + are ° pronented in 
the seh obi! he +h j 
| wee ij : a 
| rit me 
Ji die H 
i Howl AS 1) cal 

= se c= SS OS Fz 

eaioe sad ge°sg Jo 4S0d B@ 4e UOoSBaS fasuszany *9 * 

Vv ue 

ysel Sty. Sutanp payoayoud saroe 926‘'6e2 JO [8404 B SAATS STUL °IeTJ SaqTY punoy 2e61 yaoday prenuuy 

pue sdZeaxoayo pue sassoq dumo fq pasaza00 ATT BOTZeWayst{s arom yeyR UCTYONPpoOAdssz uado 
Jo Satde FIN‘O [BUOTYIDpe ue payoayord yotum smaro £q patza0d sarde ZOg8‘SS adam aiayy, 

*sTeqoy “Ut 
9QuO ATUC papnN TOUT sie spoyysw Tedtwayo pue pusy uzyOq fq paytom adfy urwearys uy satoy « 

Lets J é6t ee ee W298" Ob | 4B0"26L"e [SES "BEL*T] 6°89 HTL LOTEE| Si 
es | [ees"sso'r [cee [ecreoy eestor | so0'ste | tee"aee [erases [Sore | SS0MT esrts Tv 
ere [Re - = : re io eae Be | Rene ES | z*ose*t | ebt't | «(teotmodg) meerys 
ZU" "36870 eee EO neg tess eof ees"oe | soovete [tes *scz | e*seo'm | See's | pued) weer3s|s3 tun | 

ors pert se erent eerreee er | eee foes tore] eco Ves _¢ [eee 680'T] 0-00r ei] cer oe |  sedk puerch Try] ud 

ere | | ore | 08” ab" tee" 

Leo | __lecht | uae] vcr cor Jete’ea 

33°T [2 | 98° [90°60 906 “Oe Ss eae 296°9T B0e"S Wotyoupoidey esuad 
FC °SS SZT e woTyoUpordey wedo 
[6S ~ | st Chr cZO'T sedaL tty] 
erat TC CSS | 
sera, | OE TCT SUT [egrete es | SST eT Z | 
TCL SS | Oe —festusevs CCST OEE at 
gee [| «| ast | so ~—*(Sevevevet | «| «906 OSL Z 
ee ee ee 
os [aot [esr feevees yg | eeer tee | 
mr [st ete [ o8*  fte*ece*6e$ | aay | 2*e36'S | 9TS"9 | soday tw] 
seve | CT ee | oot foortoa'tt [| ——«[|:« Ses T¥h | 
ava, | te CT Cd eT ~‘ifot bors ‘[ BotTST| = 
wee TP eet | SO" itevctoet | | ets Oh gt | 
Leas eT See fsereset eer | = 
[seve et [es fserort TC 06S 
[see [eet [vs- _[torsesst [| 2ea0se 
So *28 OA AN Ts LL de 
sore | [| ost [ 6o*  fes*coovs [| | szo‘set | peer] [ sedAy weesyS Tiv] 
rh) oT | iy ee? verse oes e(THOTWSYO) WesITS 
Le°e Post [so foesore 
ee [| oul mw jsoeceet | | St 
0672 Tost [os* [retareve [I [eT soe"sot J 
“ey | Ci i Cparsst | SC*dTC = Over’ te 
iets sks oe lap-coy ols |  —«|:‘Oad BES ois fet 96e Zetcos _—*|6aL of T 
rT eoss [| toe | 26° [St’uptecs | | «stSeesh't | ses"t [oats | pastte | Sos"see"l [oda ete oes er ey seer TM 
eo°o_ TC SPT eert = [4ove90"S Ts SOE CET e6s_{vee's [| 69S"St | Oea'STt  [6Sz™¥s 
GRE A 2 ans wee ix 

$86 *eTt'l 

ees [| Se POT feerseey Tf eereet [eee free"s | 
[+p ese [ a6* [e008 Fe 

[sé eee | OL [ecvee'b el a Le 
[____—‘{ ose [ Te 6e 108 619 6ap | 6*t1ee | B0e'r | a cor 
i | ea ere 

feids saqtg}sfkeq uen]4s09 TezoOy feads |seqtW eyo, Jumnzyszit | awisut | aretorzad |ummtsstsoosta] arzsnoet| shaq ua °ON 

suo{ [Bg suo{yTeo “a “a “a sal yrun 

oa Stseq 2i0y Jed Petind seqty jo Jequnn Sut 



i ~ =. —— -——1 §—.—_—_-4 aa a ee — > ie te i le CEH 

A — — ee er oe eee 

== = = = — a —— = = ree 

—-— a ee See ee ee 
~ EEE SLES 2 oe Se Se = ~ 

Joe National Forest in 1916, Ribes eradication performed 



Pinug monticola planted in Allen Creek drainage, 

in 1932, 

W. 1087, 

Ribes eradication performed in 

St. Joe National Forest in 1916, 

Pinus ponticola planted in Cedar Creek drainage, 


W. 1088, 

G. Guernsey 

Annual Report 1932 


Three men working in line was the general crew method used. 

2 and 4-man crews were used during trainine periods. It is necessary 
to use « lerser sized crew in training men when a Limited mmber of 

experienced men are available. 

"he S-man spray crew was used tn chemical work. These men 
used hand pump spray outfits, spraying 10 per cent sodium chlorate solu- 
tion (.9 lbs. sodium chlorate per gallon of water). 

eg ccna was made of all areas worked. ‘This work was carried 
's arate project, which gave detailed. information to the eradica~ 
aie vaoyeet: when any area needed reworking. bigs 

4 —aeecueeene A ee 

i “All arees on whe Ribes eradication was planned were paataains 
worked Elaceat for part of the Loop Creek saree where Ribes were removed 
from stream type only. It is planned to complete the work on this area 

to assure protection. 

It will be necessary to make a check in 1925 of stream type 
areas sprayed with chemicals. There were parts sprayed late in the season 

that may need some respraying. Z 

& periodic inspection or systematic check should be made on all 
areas worked to determine the extent of survival of Bibes. This is 
essential in order to plan any reeradication work that may be necessary. 


Bsa ey 

> 2 be 
> bi 

eyo) ¥ 

a 6 Ss 
bd a . 
€ : 
mm & - 

<> a ci 4 
tre tO #3 
. ‘ " fa 
wt o y fom + 4 § 
a ae & 
hn ee 
CS X er Oo) eo 
¥ - 
- S th 
ted > ? ~ . 3 
,; = * é 
=. 2% es 
. ? 
- F E 
. a 
ties “ 
ae ; » i p 
4 ‘ 3} 
“ ind 
‘ ak x 
. ” = 

ee ee ee 

or} Tape Check Bushes|Live tem? Ry hl. doy 
lOpen Reproduction | 2.0 | ae Forester 

Le ng: Rives ravetfenttis enk-beed dent en: the Bk. Few Haticual 
Fore vitirevlade 40-1932, Because of this fact no areas on this unit 
“were. aVOLIaRE® ‘for, srecking until suby a6. goes this date and 




Sor, o.oo a re ee ee ee 
H | Se ee Ribes Per Acre After Bradicatiop 9. 9 
| R,_petiolare _|____R. inerme _| __R._lacustre _|R. viscosissiz _R. ipriguum |” 11 specie 
| Camp Per Cont | Feet Feet Feet Feet Feet Feet 
| Numb er Type Check /|Bushes|Live Stem|Bushes|Live Stem ia cia Stem|Bushes|Live Stem|Bushes|Live Stem|Bushes|Live Stem 
ee == = a ee ee ee a a ———— === = = 

Se. eee 


—- = 


Open Re pro eT rod 

Open Reprod lo 

Open Re dv ion 
Open Pole 
| 8 [Brush 
| ream _ 
; ! 'ypes 2.4 
| ‘Ope n Reproduction 2.0 
Brush 2.0 
9 ream 2,0 
Open Reproduction 
| 10 |Meadow pease eee * 
tream _**_ ee 
___{ai1 typ g 2: 
ripe Stream 
p_ Reproduction. 
5°) 2 ee eee eee Bete 

tee ee en EE 
tream ________ ~- 3-6 

[$10 Types.) eB 

| Reproduction | 2,2 _ 
| je Reproduction| __ 2.0 
LPole = 22 2,0 
| muenie ee jo 2a 

| N - Negligible or less than 0.5. 
* - Reworked but not rechecked. 
** _ Apparently poor chemical. 
Checkers include variations in types not recofnized in Ribes eradication records. 

j Annual Report 1932 
E. L. Joy 

From Table No, 1 the pereantages of acreage in stream type, 

upland types and all types that supported not over 100, 50 and 25 feet of 
Ribes live stem por acre were commuted. ‘those results are shown in 
fable No. 2. 


povesinosath stor net 


bruala From ‘ebte We. 2av4 te det dioage halt: a wary cane pak ‘of Boeh 
the: igtredn type and woland tyes had not to oxeeed 50 feet of live stem 
per sore, Itdsubeo shown that sliehtly lese than 3/4the of the total 
acreage wes within the 25-fect limit. These results indicate the oossi- 
bility of raising the protection standard by lowering the allowable 
amount of live stem per acre after sradication to 25 feet. 

Station. “ Gheakine: vost comutattons: for this unit era ag: follows ts 

Zor) ovat és. adie! Migan, Bian, ich Pepe 
eorkee by Aves reported im eradication report 29,926 acres - 
Tt was 6 aE eat wet 4 sere ‘for gered 1222,.5) . “90, 041 aT 

WALCH wy i tr Nigra 
fim suopert for Fue Baildon r. mabey > Ge 
f’ sont we stumps whic: ter od tae 
M ae 
day  % 
mW 4 



4 3 . et 4% 
i 3 3 rs 
tS" bg 7} : 2 | 
> ; ce a é , 
~ 4 ; 
gt «iQ - 
7 + t 
fy te 
; A ' 
ba 4 4 ’ 
. ~ 
© » 
y ¢ 
: i 
‘ ‘; 
— = 
FS a a ee 
~ ~~ ————— ——————— 
= = queqicsanin ee 
= ee 

ini ae = 

= Swe 

pe gg ee en 

OREO LANAI LORE A ET tt tht tetas 

eee RL 

SN CE reese 

John FF, Breakey 

Agent j 


In addition to the mlldozer operation near elarkis, Idaho , 
a late season operation during October end November wos weerried on 
near the Homysuckle Ranger teal on tte: ‘Coeur a'élene National 

Forq 8} «- le une iee Co a aeeint Service and 
st Contro 
eee ——= a 


——, ae 

This w i ; ote. the peginking of a wvitaukie program 
for destroying Aeavy conceatrations of Rites, principally R. inerne, 

: oil the Little North Pork ef theCoour d'Alene River. 

brush on areas. Rear the Hot yonck le Waneer Station by means of tractor 
equipment. Since this method\of Ribes eradication is in its initial 
stages of de wlopue hb the work was varied somewhat framthe way it was 
conducted at Clarkia for) the purpose of finding better methods, 


//  wescaxeti0N OF AREAS 

In 192% and 1928, Ribes eradication work was performed on the 
Coekr-ttAlene Nationél Forest in the vicinity of Honeysuckle Ranger 
Station, iy oat of the heavy coneentrations of R. inerme end the 
as on certain wide flat bottoms along the the Little 

heavy brush} conti tions 
North Fork-6f ¢ ir M'Alene River, which could not be satisfactorily 

work@ee bY Kant /fmlling methods, the @reas were left for future working, . 
It was GnSthes# areas that the bulldozer was used. The perticular area 
which was aq a/ large “per ceatage of slid ground which provided 
firm support the bulldozer.  Beaver-dims were imerous, The valley 
floor contai apd ma 3 stumps wach increased the difficulty of working. 


avi the dns: left a the Rives evadicatien crews ag well as 
the area worked tn-the fall of 1932, are! Monuaies adjacent to fine stands 
of whife pin, =| =), STANDING” TREES 


NI DECEMBER |, 1932 

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DECEMBER |, 1932 


aN fi net ine Sexe 28 art, eee 084, 9 roe 
Lopplan “ty Qostiétruc Gbauet Uaht Spied’ with an ee ee balldoger and 
special ae ae es oy The construction of this SEE is 
fully des ie fare port. "D. pment of kibeg Eradication #qvipiént”. 
iZ if “written, by Johison, Ta" eadi~ . 

fostiot t 3/4" : ble was used in paji ing “the 
cared two ‘a 0 at 3/4" wire Gibles were used 

a ‘ané logs, fe at , 

The method employed neeessitated two definite operations: 

NA Gee” ay yee > Bs ot mah ares aa Daye pas 

vit ve s Prepariz fig “the Bred | for” york ‘bythe | batidorer: +t ibs TT ot 
108. i » gids apvlad a eihe tia" er agt6 10% “pitt aieay, * . 

fhe first operation ékiled. forse preliminary survey of the ground 

in order to plan the work, A sketch was made to show the limits of the 
area to be worked, the location of the etreans, swamps, beaver dams, 
standing trees, down logs, and all features of topography which would 
interfere withthe progress of the -walldoser,. From tais survey it was 
determined what beaver dams had to cage. out anc what land had to be 
drained, the snags and-irees” “to. be felled andthe Loge. ‘40 te moved, ‘The 
best lecation. LO¥. ng ee ana Windrows: facia: Slso datdinhined, 
# : EIS Yes 2 

Sab On. the. hala. of. is Se the. prepinitiory snillé, Basaty tan mostly 
hand | labor, ‘was°done, | san xp 

tae) _ Aa, a Fe j ] Ae ; 40 : 

AS it Sag érew: of. five. men, ‘Beisel. with. axes,. gamai ouddgas, stumping || 
powder; ‘te, téckout.the necessafy beaver..dams, stumps and other obstacles, |i 
On the area@s‘where the brush wag. to be subsequently stecced with the Hil 
bulldozer, this crew slashed and piled the brush im windrows, This step 
in théwork wasotoveliminate the mess \of green? Brugh undef the brush piles 
which(wouldcinterfere with burad ; ‘Where possible the snags and trees 
(cottonwood ang white fir in most eneen which had to come down were felled | 
on theSe windrows)« fhose which:could not bacdropeed directly onea windrow 
were cut into sectians ‘and«moved by hand or horses to the preliaimery 
wincrows. When necessary the same was done to the down logs already on the 
area, One purpose of the prelimiiiary windrow construction ws to provide 
air space and fuel under the brush piles to be ~ageirbaeeion made “7 the 
polldoseri% 42 planned to torn the broek piles ox a are 
geod 3% with ernes Fer the commlate smppreseion af fy 
will tw donkfeer? ‘the: caubeabies seh Pada tbs done ts, ere teh bans for the 
balldozer, the trush was removed and pushed into the windrows by machine. 
The operation of the machine on the ground is explained in the report 

previously mentioned, 


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tan. reeearad: to fagurs me hs Gith the. bab baee 
Lei pat wae ‘Pinar “efean“up ‘to cds tHe piles more* “eeageict ‘wes done by 
“tipi ‘bruait ‘witch projected From: the winarows, 1° 
Page 4 ue Say r SePushi be mace is % ‘ 
by the ol Oeeedtion 7: ea ties Ses ei sap tis Che due ‘aFee showing | the 
es AN ‘Se “the-winidréwe ‘of brusW. ° The “eystem Gf placing ‘the piles 
ear sincere gtr Pym ge ‘a better “Fire end ‘of Clearing the ‘orish ‘away 
Joint Slopes tomaie’ torning ‘Iets Yn sehedonte 
ae teviatiine: ray tn od used af Clarice’, Tdmie, (88 ay 

; ss we ERSULTS 
Ctvieusiy this type of ro dk BR) C2peawh we. ragcrd boss 
“ih Gheteat ates Oa the: ae nt wine mag, ‘x0 ates Waite woried’ ap ‘the 
RA ge ie, No babiing ‘wad done in the f#1) of 
dition Peres re ared. ‘for working by the walldozer: 
eonsit ae at a ets 1) limi ante Gar. 2; DO? Ks 

3 Beis tad ft 
Soom oki: uy. jronted ay head pul sige ogg hog. 


* No general acreage cost can be given because only 10 of the 
22 acres had both the preparatory and traeter work completed, 

It is planned to tmrn the brush piles on this area and to 

‘seed it with grass for the complete suppression of R, inerme. This 
will te done at the most satisfactory time during the 1922 season. 


- |. In regard: to future operations with the bulldozer, it is 
anticipated that improvements cam be made on the machine itself which 
will reduce the costs of removing. brush. It is also possible that 
reductions can be made in the costs, of preparing the ground for working 
by the tmlldozer. a considering the.entire method involved in the 
suppression of R. me including the preparatory work, the bulldozer 
work, the burning = the seeding, & more complete understending of all 
the problems and all the factors influencing costs will make it possible 
to perform the work.on each individual erea more satisfactorily and 

'. ‘Obviously this type of work will be expensive regardless of 
nefinenens % or improvements.which may later be made, Hence, in planning 
work on any stream type area having KR. inerme, it is extremely important 
that ‘the foremen. of a trector unit have. tue ability to. size up areas under 
consideration and to eliminate any sizeable. ner! ice can be most 
economically treated by band pulling methods... ._, we 

* mn ws 4 ee ao hy py, pce eae ws 38 —— A ¥ a . nf 
& i ee is path Roe M, a ee SS RE €3 Set 43 Z 

err ee ae ee 
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et gi .texobifsd edt diiw exolttatego strtet of StsgeT al 
goide tleatk sntdosm edt ao ehsm.ed geo. sizemevotgmt.3 act, Sodaqtolias 
¢ecd$ oldteeog cele at $1. dep 2aatvemet to. atago. add. somber [liw 
aaksyow vot Aewots olf sabtaget¢q to edaoo ade af ebem ed neo anolssuber 
ei? at Bevfovat horigom etijae oft qaiuebienes al. .tesoblind edt xd 
teschifed aig Qtew ytotstagetg ef! potorlont eereul .B To moleseigasre 
ila te aatbestatebar eg alqmon. atom A ,nekbese edd daa gatewed edd .wtow 
ofdiamog 3k ova Siiw eteoo anftonentis£ auoten? ad? lie baa euoidontg edt 
‘9 (liretsAtebiee siom aors lepSividar tome ap Aton, odd mrotisg. of 
(lias tmoitoas 

to eeelbtsset evisseore sf [ite aiow to sayt eis? ylasoivdd 
satciale af ,soseH 9b 0d tetal yam olin adsoreyvotgm:. 10, stsemeatiet 
jacttogn! ylawsettéxe ef 22 ,eettenk .ff aclvad sow egyd msetds ya a0, for 
tehas eacie qu saie of yiilida edd evad dlar tojoats & to. Ssmetoi edd. Jedi 
¢som sd geo dofdw azolivoc aldaweste ys stantatis of S528 aottatebiencs 
shodtem gaiding baad yd betastd yLisoimonoss 

peat cieaaaewie: 

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ee pre 

has shania iia «eat OS 

CiOS Wher Cow Oe VaR wi ie ‘By: 
the Gontues oF She Tiel’ wogy- Cc, strong 
Associate Forester 


Biicter Whe preeradication’ survey m the Cocur d'Alene National Forest 
conducted durinz tho fall of 1932, was made for the following purposes: 
tie éhda To ‘determine the Yoeation, quality and mumerieal abundance of 
white pine on the area surveyed, © ri s 

2. o determine what portions of this area had the requisite amount 
of white pine wesent to constitute white Pine type of sufficient value to 
justify protection from blister rust and to map that white pine accordingly. 

' € of determine wherever possible the commonly used aze classes 
represented or, in the event this wae not possible, £5 determine the 
boundaries of four broad classes; namely, Feproduction, pole, mature and 
over-taturé and to map accordingly, = 

in rhe Be de termine: ths character of stream and upland types as it would 
affect cost of tréating, method and administration of work and the location 
of control crews in protcating white Pine aréas against blister rust. 

2) toe Ordinarily the Division of Blister Rust Control functions only 
in securing the information called for under 4 above. However, Region One 
forest officials felt that additional information such as called for under 
1, 2 and 3 above should be secured to substantiate that information 
already available at the Coeur a'alene Forest and the Regional offices. 
Regional forest officials suzvested that, if the blister rust survey was 
to be made by experienced and thoroughly competent men, both time and 
funds: could be’saved by having the Diviston sf Blister Pust Control under~ 
take the entire program: This was the basis agreed upon. 

_ the Divistom of Blister Rust’ Control exercises no authority 
whatever iu the selection of arens for treatment. Those areas designated 
in this report for protettion were selected by a representative of the 
Regional Forest Office after a thorough anslysis of the information secured 
through the survey enad*from all other available sources. 7 

i Toe uy 4 Tice fy of ts ivi he s / 

wit She Before this report was prepared all ficld data were compared with 

available data at the Coeur d'Alene Porest office and beth sources of 
information were utilized in making fina? determinations, 


The survey party met with whole-hearted cooperation from the 
Coeur d'Alene Forest officials and were accorded full use of the facili- 
ties which ¢ou¥a@ be taken advantage ‘of. This was decidedly helpful to 
whe ‘conduct hed Dis 2 at work. . 

_ md Hate? was re on Sct personne? of the Division of 
y Blister Rust Controls all of whom had had extensive experience directing 
Ribes eradtestion ‘Operations. © Through ‘this extensive oxperionce these 
‘men had ‘gradualty wequired | Sehr Tedge “of ‘the factore affecting cost and 
methods of treating so that hey could recognize in ground conditions the 
Composite of those factors aud be ‘enabled to Gnterpolate fh terms of man 
‘days as tere’ for ‘treating under ‘any condition existing. 

iy > Bh 

section | 3k Es bea re, 7 “PMR OD UF. wo rad } 

AE i» ite season of ve ener aurnid aia ds aiess 3 are in nant leaf is 
‘itse seer tine for a survey of thie natiire)’ This period was eliminated, 
however, because all the men qualified for the work were necded to direct 
the treating crews, Héetice the only choice was to wake the survey during 
the fall diutedtn (aly foVlowine the termination of other control operations 
which was September 20 to Jctober 28 in this case. The only danger involved 
in making a survey @t that season is due to Hibes being partially and in 
some locations almost totally defoliated, especially in the latter part of 
the period. The result fs that in the absence of éxtreme care the teniency 
“ig “to underestimate control costs which fn turn means an underestimation 
‘of ‘the men needed ‘to worl: A eevee area in’ a season. : 

the sain area surveyed is bounded as follows: The forest boundary 
on the e6uth, east and north; Crooked and Lookout ridges and the line 
between ranges 1 east and 1 west on the west. Areas excluded were the 
MePherson burn of Y9S). and the heavily _—, portions of townships 
= ‘and '60 Horth. Panges: T aad 2 east. 

eGCULGR, tn ‘addition to the main aren surveyed selected portions of towm- 
“ange 48 and 4° north; ratiggs 2 and 3 west and the Hayden Creek drainage 
“4n township S2°north, ranges 2°and 3 west were covered. Of the lettor 
areas the Cedar and Hayden Creek drainages were covered late in November 
rincipally for the pirpose of securing information on white vine valucs. 
't was to Yate at that tins to make accurate estimtes on cost of treating 
‘but the Information secured on acé classes ond ground cover will probably 
eat ‘of ‘elose Sgproxtmations. 519,340 aeres were covered by the survey. 

ees . A viene, aut Dvn se , g~ 
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ute Edens % ‘e ». a “ Ne 
¥ Pee ey 7 ’ PAT CZ, 


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the gonaate leager, guided by available information substantiated 
by information secured on advance inspections, wherever desirable to make 
them,”assigned exch night a blodk for each man for the following day. 
These men that night mapped their respective blocks to a suitable scnte on 
field sheets. Up-to-date topozraphic mans served ae the basie informétion 
for Construction of field MAPS. . 

“In the field 4t was the’ duty of each man to 8° cover his bloek 
es to secure accurate information on each of the points enumerated above. 
Only general rules for covering blocks were pres¢ribed, 4{t being Teft 
tothe judgment of the individual as to the exact manner in which he could 
moet effectively work. “Wopoeravhy and ground cover were larvely the 
determining factors. Streams, ridges and points of known location such 
as section lines, peaks, lookcouts, roads, trails and planting markers 
served as maidées 4n determining the recorder's approximate position at all 
times. This mothod of determining position is sufficiently accurate for 
the purposes: ‘served by. the preeradicatt on survey. 

on SeesPorRe general instructions with regard: to white pine type designa~ 
tot which were followed were: 

ipa 1) Retroduet4 on: 

Genérally only those areas haying 200 or more white pines por 
aere Were classed as white pine. On sites favorable for white pine afcas 
having from’ 100-200 thrifty and uniformly distributed white pines. per 
acre with little of other ground cover and other reproduction were ¢lassed 
as white pine if those areas lay below 4,500 feet in elevation and indica. 
tions’ were that a good white pine stand wwld ultimately devel Op. 

2. Pole: 

The men making the survey were acting under no very specific 
instrietions with regard to the minimum Mmuliber of white pinc goles per 
acre which constituted white pins type of sufficient value t5 warrant pro- 
tection. Fortunately the bulk of pole stands cmld be classified at.a 
glance as white pine or non-white pine type. “The djubtful cases were 
hand ted" par hak bars ant aS Foto ows: res 

Tlgannr 9. Ny "ggqued ¥adibeige Se Sidilite stad the ee t5 which pole 
othase mast” "be ‘Subjected between the present and the maturity of the timber, 
that there should be ensush trees resent now to promise 10,000 board 
feet per acre at maturity. It was estimated that the average tree at 
maturity would sale 600 bodrd feet. Wence 20 trees of pole size por acre 
would ‘Constitute the minimum for this Classification. Actually the ‘figure 
was ‘eet ‘at from 20° to 36 depending om the factors affecting the future 
dévelopent of the stand. 


o_HOSare mtion « yi das ) z 

£ tind. Tate glasaifiestion. includes el] merchantable timber except 
ovorsmature. decadent, stands. Generally, the doubtful cases were areas 
intermixed with goad. white pine and were in moat cases.not so wide but 
that: the; protectiion,zone around the good white pine wuld include the 
doubtful areas.. For this, reagon it wags aot cosidered sufficiently 
important to warrant the additional expense which wold have. been necessary 
+a, make an accurate determination. | ) 

On isoleted sreas,the determination was left to the judgment of 
the, individual making the survey om that block. -The miniomm was considered 
as jcaanaaieid not. less then <b to 36 per eent by volume of a fairly wel) 

stocked stand, 
4, Over-maiure: 

This classification includes very old timber in a decadent condi- 
tion of which white pine makes up a small percentage of the present stand. 
It occupies good white pine site and undoubtedly contained a high ver- 
centage of white pine esrlicr which is eredualily drooping out due to old 
age, disease and bark beetle attacks. White sine should reoroduce heavily 
when these decadent stands are removed. 

Under average conditions on white pine arcas 14 was possible for 
one man to cover from one to three sections per day, depending upon the age 
and density of forest cover and topography. On non-reproducing double 
burns and areas on which it was doubtful if white pine occupied large 
enough blocks to warrant protection correspondingly larger acreages were 
covured per day. 


Maps accompanying this revort show areas classed aw white pine 
and also the acreage which can be worked per man day by quarter sections 
as determined from the factors affecting working conditions. 

fhe white pine is shown in only three classifications. These 
Classes are: (1) approximately under 60 years of age; (2) approximately 
60 years and over, and (3) over-mature. Pole size tinber was not included 
as a class because working conditions in younger pole stands approximate 
those of reproduction while working conditions in older pole stands 
approximate those of mature stands. 

The map showing working conditions siso shows Location of 
R. imerme too heavy to be hand pulled, boundaries of working units, con- 
. trol areas and camp sites, except on areas where camps can be established 
at almost any desirable point. 

% | 

——— ee ee = — 

—- oo === 

Information sequred during the progress of previous blister rust 
control, principally during the period 1927 to 193), tyne mene and records 
of timber cutting operations served as the basis for computing estimates 
on units %3 inclusive. ‘he estimates on those unite provide for rework- 
ing about 24,000 acres originally worked in 1927 and 1928 and orivinal 
eradication on all other portions except the barney Creek drainage where 
logging was just completed. On the Barney Creek drainage Ribes cradication 
should be delayed until the Ribes which germinate following logging dis- 
turbances are large enough to be readily seen by workers. 

«| Zhe, following tabular statements show the ti fenton secured 
from ‘past surveys, princinally the, 1933 survey, for use in planning blister 
pugs” ‘@ontrol ‘Operations on the portions of. the Coeur ous are National 
torest Pires to dates “qi 

as i 
eh :  e 2 
Lg Dink F 4 ie 
¥ 4 t & > 
? , = 
. ¢ 
‘J ay 7 
Ye ef 
go Le. : 
es 2y hil tates f ot 
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} s Waa. * Sf 
J v 
4 ‘ ai d 
i ¢ ¥ é é 
7 ; Ps 
4 £ ae 
» a t wy a 
€ ie yg 
Hy ik a Me 
Se wea $ 
ee, ve Coe Let z 
da th SgAe ati Abe 
7 * erent y 
a ae tN We £ 
‘ ase d ah. 5 
% PL i ihe dea 8 a ¥ % 
es ae eo ta etal a3 Lb H 
OS ae TS 5 axa ik: ® je 
} * i bys er? 
4 LSU EA 8 Ea ae hes 
: ay : 2 
L. TR Se, ee i Be 
She ty cam pe 
4, Pa ee e i, 4 9 
£75 =< 
‘ ihe * aon x 
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hy i Be. te 4 F yk 
Prete CJ 




| $Pona 
j2u) 1-| 

| Aeres 
_ otal ia 2rot Sei 

par EEO Occ fe ahs pee how) ela... 
Bina sbbaaeng. 1 oKE 701 2b 0021 F7, a8 


ew ies? 10 
> © iO c ; > : { peas . , m9 42 L 
; ; ez ee | es 
- ; i . 
ic & 2 : mol fat ee P —~» bs be A 
ry < ~~ 7 tev 
€ D 3 ho Ep fe Ey ® & wm 3 
wl * - 3 an ov i a » Fa. a o at 
= 3 ; : “ t , o . f “ ._ & A “& . > fe ¥ t o 
= ~ $ “ J ’ 5 5 ~ ‘ 
= a ‘ - “4 me | z : 
= + < re > Bs ic iy Py Om 4 i : 
¥ is 2 ¥ ( . ‘ 7 ap . = - 
’ } bd . ay ' 
Oo f ; - ; : ' ’ 
"7 F 4 ‘ rte 4 e + 5 : 
> . ! 
s i apt ns 2 i be ; 

| £36 




White Pine A Aer eage fal 

ak en ara 

ee ee Loe “heres 
ee kat Loe eee ee 
sap eae aa Acres. Block 

sAMabaAgreevek heen exception. It is included in thie table because it 
Was not possible to make any out inates such as called for in the last 
three columms of Table No. le 

The white pine data on units 3 to 8 inclusive were taken from 
the latest forest tyne map and are belicved to be very recurste, 

All cost estimates were based on a composite effective per man 
dey charge of 46.00 and an average per sere cost for working _— 
R. imerme stream type areas of 350.00, 

, An defined aga full day for foremen or . 
laborer actually engaged upon Ribes eradication. All other time such as 
general supervisors, unit supervisors, ¢amp bosses, checkers, warehouse- 
men, men engaged upon transportation). eooks, filunakies and laborers 
engaged upon trail and eamp constructioh&s.ctc. is classed as contributing 
time and 1 7 RAT as — to. the “aoe effective per man day 
vanes 3 ; 

It is noted that ia0the case of Unit No. 13, Lavarne Creek, the 
arca im the protection block totals more than the actual area of the unit. 
This is actounted for by the fact that the white pine extends to, and 
slightly across, the ridge between the unit and the ares to the south 
which is not included in the protection plans, Howeversoit is proposed 
to give full protection to the top of the ridge only which necessitates 
working a one-fourth mile strip outside the unit boundary. This same 


condition applies to some of the other units but in no other ease does 
it cause the area of the protection block ‘to exceed the actual area of 
the working unit. 

The area included in the McPherson burn of 1931 was found to 
have been so severely burned as not°ts permit of any forecasts as to what 
might be expected in the way of future forest growth, Nor was it possible 
to estimate what would be the future Ribes growth. Hence the only work 
done on this area was that which constitutes the basis for these sencral 

The 1926 burn in the vicinity of Magee Ranger Station was com- 
pletely covered although on a more extensive basis than was the survey 
made on. the portions of the forest not burned over recently. Yor the most 
part the portion of the 1926 burn which represents a sinele burn only is 
reproducing heavily to the ssecies which undoubtedly constituted the 
original stand. However, it appeared to be too early to say defini tely 
what portions would have a ‘satisfactory stand of white pine in the future, 
The fire hazard is so great on the sing’e burn as to constitute a menace 
to any contemplated control efforts in the near future. Furthermore, 
Ribes growth is very heavy and working conditions severe. Yor the reasons 
given it is felt that attempts to treat this general area for the contro} 
of blister rust would be neither practical nor economically justifiable 
at the present time. 


During the late summer of 1932 extensive scouting was conducted 
over the bulk of the forest. White pine infection es follows was found: 

tS mR BEN SR RN rs 2 me a 

Hoo. | } WMumber Cankers 

Trees|No. Trees (Aetual or 

ts SCULODS |txamjiinfected | Aporoximatel vs ne 
B00 i ae 

ce, a Wie pen 


The center of the latter infection is at the mouth of Burnt 
Cabin Creek on the Little North Fork of the Coeur d'Alone Rivor. 


so es ee eee... Vee . 254 

The results of the scouting, due to the nature of the rust, do 
not tell the whole story. They merely lend emphasis to the belie? that 
the whole forest is potentially infected. However, it is believed that the 
Honeysuckle Ranger District is the most vulnerable aren at the present 
time so far as the rust is concerned, 

at pene & It is not. wishin the seope of this report to maics eny specific 
‘recommendations ag to the course of action to be followed other than to 
encourage first treatment in what appears to be the most immediately 
threatened portion: of the forest, the Honeysuckle Ranger District end 
contiguous areas. To do this would mean, in addition, taking full 
advantage of the work-done in 1927 and. 1926 when my bared — 
acres were ELSeenyrte 


————EeEowowrwnrlc (‘“ i‘ Cre Or U!mUC OTL lh S SS. = 

sea avi ee When plier at icont rok: edu vlase for ie Clearwater. 
Timber Protective Association were formlated, it was recognized that 
stream type Ribes represent the: greatest @anger in the spread of the 
disease. Therefore, it was decided to eradicate these Ribes within the 
next four. or five years fron the greatest possible. area that available 
funds permitted. This wes to be followed by @ second eradication or - 
‘mopping up" two or three years after the initial work, It was believe’ 
that the removal of the stream type Ribes would retard the. spread of the 
rust sufficiently to permit removal of the ‘upland Ribes before materisi 
damage to the pine resulted, which now appears to be the case, However. 
due to the rapid spread and intensification of the rust as evidenced ay 
the great amount of rust showing up in the last year, it wes deemed 
dangerous to delay longer the rewoval of the upland ithe s.. merefore As: 32 
weer, plans calied for: : 

The paueval of ‘uplaae Rives from areas where the stream wee he a 
mien worked two or three aca before. 

“Be “Reworking of strean type on. area “where “upland areas. ere ‘worked 

oi eT initial ‘eradication. of Rides froin stream twpe on 4 unworied 
“sgl of working watt Ho. 10. Op tae aes 

“re During 1932 a ‘total of $30 O, a decresse of 420, 000- tron tex. 
was availeble for local control of white pine blister. ist on the. 
Clearwater Timber Protective Agsociation, ‘The following is a atetenent 
of the net allotment for project 5. 42-1 after 4 the 8- Lig — cont redu 
in cor ree ha ‘been ware dees for: es 

yer. aie 864, 23 

+28 968.96 ae Cc 

fakin ne She Sek Rites | yas. stnvied in: prs at 
Case gies? Alger, oe. se becgide Fork: or ed's Cree! 

ant st 

—— = _—~ -~-o - - — = ee —— ——— — — _ 
~ -_ — ae ee ee ee. eae a se 

cdoTg0eS OFT UXOTT AQ arnqoTd 

Puno FHOVQ UF 4Bor0g TVUOTISN Jozensres[O UoTABPOOsSY Sy} UO Bais Jado pouang qsesietT ug SF UMg PTeTsouss seus 
°34809 woyjZ0e4{oId eFeicae oB yer ATPeyqnopun {TT Bpuetdn eyy uo MHPSSTSOOSTA “YF pue surses4s oeyy uo GIBpoOT}oa “YT 
jo Suoyq4eiquesuoo AaBeR cuofgonpoider ouftd oy}4ymM jo pueys gueT[eoxe UB sqioddns sou ‘suo};zde8s wey ynoqe ‘Bale 

elygue eyy ATT BOTZORId UOTISTOORSY oATZOOZOId 1OQuTL Jeyealee[Q ey} Uo Wing PTEFJoyOsS sso19e “| Od qanos BU TIOOT 

uosiopuy “y “g 
2L6T yxodey [enuuy 

am eo 



ec — —_—— 

drainages, Wo work was done Ole the latter @mainage above Headquarters 
Séyity “AIT: stream type 

| bl a al bebbiGa a4 4 

| rai [ 4 y 

i of Bena! 

Pratcet ton work aa 

Initial etreen'd Toi in working 

unit 10, This work r re t in po\far_ as possible, the. entire 
area on which stream tyve a teetion had een, iv da 4 
it |p eet TN mene ELS O07 nt 
| The map, included (this-report, [3m ‘shots the areas nate work 
has Wen done, No attempt ede. te de ives infections, Areceus 
a cla e inspection of Rihe Seaband ae irigs Feyesied ica presence | 
rust, RI . 
| i» TR = $4 i 
[ el 3 1 Bi LACE Siew | i 
I Approximately 100 men, éf° (2-pides cq, were wun iesad 
gor | i ae oh 
from she midgle_ of June.%o )Septembe: “6th, =: 4 coy ii _t6 Locate most 
of the camps on ‘they a sneer tee : 
Necessary pack's x was ‘gainh Fron. the aie ga 
sae dain Lt |i \ 7 Re, ali 
it Heretofore no -aplend nid’ BEbee Cor eding ation pena ‘apne on | 
the Associationn ods ay ‘conge aysnce it\ Fas n ce spary Ko “rein évety man on| 
the job in this typeof eradrcation, “It ‘Required the constant, Bttention 
of per eracre (earing the” early), DPrt of the’ ‘yendon to ia iolish | this, ~ 
| mS 
| Kear] donevntrat ohiie?'h 7 saeseat alge ot Syere erry in sect | 
22, 26 and 24 in the upper ent 87 the dex Cpécék drainage. The Ries | 
growing to immense bushes tad ntxedw 4 “denbe, prash, were extremely i 
diffigult to eradicate, “¥he- ‘orews” carried) Basil $fench picks or used a | 
specig@lly devised-mattock withie: elew sim mim te aid in erephing out |} 
the R bes. - . 1 
|| [==] stREAM TYPE ONLY -T35N | ! 
|| A 1929 L _ | | 
| ; 
| B 1930 AN k A; 
| S193! i | 
fi o. 1932 | 
| LL in 1932 H i 
i] ee if 
| an 
Les Sa NSS CCN ESE Creel 


& enact 

af saod 
eit ,9 

a initow 

St irsais 

idfeeoo #8 tet of al 
ate aeed back mofise 
sxeiw esetsa oid rie 

efit Saiaevet SECL af 



hem Sere rr ng ay 
BIYL fame @Taw , & 

$ a0 fi 

mas Dai 
aganol et eldiskogq RaW Ts Ad 
tsetibh beilacsa od 

- far) srig ¥ #] Ys { 
svttoetord sadmi? tetewyesl) eng 

wt soltaoihste 
Vis8s9D OF B2W 
Feadinal aele tT 

ornssa oct ko 

oO 25 gas 
fo Sm CIsys 
cotigetis tuetenoo writ 

wetds deiiacaosos of 

re oY § Se x 


Ri BTI Os 

enotinee at Sarvrot stew su osiv 
sedii adT vonanieth i 
(lemetixe atew , das 

dons Res 
bowery to enor 

an kidiety i ; 

mate 2 

oe 20) 

A Inte. 





& dogmetd 

c. 2 
efi te 

oe sy 


tarh retiael 
tneoes oot neod Sad enolistego gatagol «¢ 
Asiltowel esw sensotatb seeds no 
sow SNtow sotisotbats esdik eqys 

thate god ft 

~troqet eidt af 
enottostat eedtH stsool of ebam 24 jqmetie ck 

o@tat Sabivib ,aem COL 

pott ders $8 

#f 9 

geareb détw BSextm Sue 
ame betray eaeweto sdT 
es welo 

adit so sno) esw Ntow of .eegantatb 

bsitow yilentatzo 

es oo ak 
mgpextea Iaettial 

,ive Sebarrot sxow eldT OL of thas 

eqyd mactte doldw no sets 

hSebsfont ,cam ect 
an0b seed esi 

s9ectesi1b Yits m0 aod iki to aotioscant szeolo & 

wteotr ant to 

agar Pag oe aan to efbbim edt = 
2 aoa seaq cineasoel 
aiifi buslos on stototete 
agerosenoD 8 sé sokistooesd ant 
otssolbats to eqyt etdd af dot, edt 
gisq yltse edt gatisch etoetvteqmre to 

to anoidsiiaeenoo (vse 
to bas tecay odd ai bs baa 


gedend esecommt of satwotg 
stasibsre ot tleolttip 

@ dttw vootian beeiveb y{{sfoeqe 
.esdih edt 





, of 

a / 


’O | 2  3MiLES 














c 1931 

y = 


| | 
| {| i etel ft HH 
V &) I 

fe Sy Tes 

18) 1932 



Cost eae 
Per Item.| Total _ 

___| $2,655.46} 

15,608.38] $19,262, 84 

otal AAP cM GAIA G SAE GO iy kT oN SE aay 

Statement of Expenditures According to Fiscal Years: 

Fiscal Year 1922, period 4/1/22-6/20/22........... $9,806. 35 
Fiseal Year 1922, period 7/1/22-3/31/33.......... 19,397.19 
Grabs tatels 2.0.6... $29 , 203, 54 

Statement of Meal Costs: 

Total cost of subsistence.,....... SUN peas cpa oe Oy 34.08 
Number of meals served....... er ba oe 23,224 
Average cost per meal served...$.27 

ed Poe 

ost of Chec Work: 
Salaries and expenses of temporary men........... .$ 653.37 
Subsistence of temporary men (250 meals @ 27¢ ea. ) 67, 50 
og GE) | ee aR ae $ 720. 87 
Cost per acre checked $720.87/127,200....... $.055 

L 64 





es oe ge haere t 

{ ae __ veou 

| [ste? motl x2 __ gurgidbmecx® Yo mest 

herent —aapeoornae ~- a cra na a a 

EE S 888.52 | mem Jrenanred co 

lag 508, OL2 | ears ei 7a __ fem bis oft YUKA Vistoqme? |s egoW bas egtialsé 
| ae GL. i jesiz Mnolt ous soos 


(888, | __ Soot to g209 

\80.958,8 |e 2.cf3 _ boot to sotsgatrogeustT| seo ede tadné 
EL fe te pene 209 

i |S. Ob sone ME __._ @tisgod 

\28.$60 ae _ ‘gotisdt roganatT| tnemutia Lstesep 
Pose sepa eeepc eee 

lan.esh | 

(QB .ffS 1.08 | goijadiogenat't gassing t 

) / 7 
NS. .66 
} ee eee 
(es. OS 
MER ent Earnmies eicrrenatrene-tnmeniepr dr Noesrn sntn 

1S 084 

_____ esi bat 
[od ares YO molsataqd 
| _ stoatvisqua j _ avvoenalisoa tl 
Sh O8 Tae 3809 

en ee 

eT en Hi SE ABO Hh oP a re ont 

ig.80a,t 105.928 Res Crane neers gcolises fogenst? | __ SHtsdo Lao torest) 
[po £0S.088 | er eee 

setseeY feoett o3 satbtoosA sow stonsqxd to snowed ads 

3m .808,02....... ... 8h on \a-Se\i\b boite ,SE@L tse¥ Lanett 
OF SOS ,CL.. 1.6... 252 BEV e\e-sals\ botreq "SEQE ree¥ Laoelt 
ba 50S, 882........... dade? bnew 

teoD Ise to suomoetssé 


BODIE BF... cee ec e eee eee ees o BOK@te fads to tz00 Latot 
OSS ,55..... teces se HOVISE aloes to ted mee 
TS .0...beviea [sem teq feos sastevaé 

:roW patsosdo Zo tao) 
bv ert It ee fem yraxoqmet to seeneqxs hus keetialsd 
o.%8  _ (.#8 89S @ alsem O@S) mom ytetogmed to eonete tad uF 
WOE OGS ~ Bs caste on eins ale .....d809 L[atoT 

ma0,¢,-.....008,SL\"8 .083# belnero etos teq Jeo 

EI ree nae ees aa 

“an eS re 



Total coal of operation... ag Pye or i 
Less chemical charges: Paral ater 
‘Bouignent and revairs,. se As eal 86 
Chemicals is. eps e dee ; bt ig Ba Soe eyes, be 1,618, 58 
Cost eee MOT BS HOM: 5: i Hs BUSR ave cco nee ee | 


13 ees 

umber of effective. — ony 
$27,584 Sifax fo 85.81 

Cost "per effective hace aey 

Cost. of chem ice. dwekpeeist abl. ea 
wepady <j --- tf Sree S “i 
dayeiy)...istryre ets ni hac 

day $211. 06) SR ey by ip ac ee oe Bg 
Cost 7 a cael say witie vic is 91 plus $.37.... $6.28 

Yee a 

ost. ‘of hectare 4 | URE s Joe penen. day ta..2...... $1,406.72 
Mam ber of ebhnw ia “locke. che 280. 
: oe’ r : cesses HaT6 


in (Caran erat ae 


>yed eM sy ijostta 299. t200 stleoqued to snemetaté 
DE CER ie ce eas op ey ce eprereaie © « nottateqo to gaoo [s3oT 
7 ‘eentadn L[antimerio seal 
OS. LIGB 0. war «2 .. £tiaeget Boa Joomginvod 
8a .2f5.i0 s EN OOe Lo es er are . ee Lleotmedo 
RE BOS SSS sc ccc cee reba sunesrennnes aoutacio {80 tmecio eeel teod 
a syed gam evigoslte to tedani | 
{2.83 ee, alae 283, 58s sh tam ot itostte-req deo) 
ee fare Par re fa Fiasds Ye Fad” 
BO ETE Pee er eee eh teens etisqet 
ae schyeree svijoetis to ‘ted mutt 
CO8 ee Ea ees eres ee 
aie < eabcacens pote dees [asotdtbba 
i, wth eas orn rs vee tee, 088 \88 ALS? Yad 
BS as Te &-eado 12.62 sa tyongs ot ide yeh pear svitostte ‘teq 3209 - 
isies a. Lao Emec . to incas augeb ts 
"308. [2 ilies oer eres e ree eR re reee . Jaoimedh to $200 
G88, S4. _-bottage, esolies to ted msi 
BALE Bee icnys a ar mer a am . .dofiaa tsq teod 
SRIUedi Ges __ csi eee 3 sui : 
rbedel lamcoas Baer act $e ee & aria soit ga lwol Lot cyt y tame 

6 *a0u0 £Tu0 S[2404 Ul pepntoul seus 
fa perzom. 


ee nn mentee mene Sates a nar ame omens 

paren soe agpananiic He ) MOITADIGANE 2ZHIR IAITIBL 


‘eas ee ie ‘ 

sedis to: —_ H 

at : 
-- ‘ 
¢ a it oe 4 " 
* “e > ws xe 2th) am 


f6_[sae.805 (6 4OSG 

thr [ass leas, 60f| (ash | 

cents 31%, 108 [088 60a US ral 

Se A ON MOS AN A Te EL a ae 

i8ov,. Of IGAS AS [e8S  1aBD a 

preicoe —- i 

ror | i 2 \Ob.3 “nee HES] ee ee : ——— 18 of 
(gs.or8 | _—* Ser [se flav. EPiae.Se 5) [ave.a [sae 2, ¥ [Bo i 

783,59 (baad) 23 

ere eae eit e CE a 
iso.e* [| ve leg. [se 800 ,e38 [ate 8 [187 08r.1 lat 

Tees, lara, Sea /8: x, 008 (008.8 [98,00] seat 114 _| 
gos seadd .shodtem Ian tzario Kos baad dgod yd betow sta s¢ys macite at 29198 ance aoct* 
wore Yao alatot ai bebriani ota 

—— = SSS SS Sa SS SSS — ~ -_ = —_—_—$<—— = SE = = — = —~ 
eS seen ———-- = Sa — — = 
= SSS ee SS SS SS EEE ——SSSSE=TT Se — — —— = Se ae. 
~ —_——— ——————_ ee ———— ———— ————— - 
_ - - SSS SSS SSS SSS SSS ——— eee ———————— eed ee Se 
ce - - — = ==. = = = — eS 
a _ ~~ = — — = ——$—$—————————— ee a a == 
_ eS eee ——<$<$<—— ee ee 

SS — = - = — —_———————— — oe = = _—_—— 

= ; ore Soao8 98 ay ‘spoygem peatmeyo pus 

* 2 ~? Tid seq 


~ == — — Ses Ne eee eee = % Ss 
_ —— — i Pa i ee = “< =a 
Str areamy 
&..- UX sgt i 
ph 2 RE NS ee Oe OE te = 8 OES AD ee ee 
EO ee On FI AS IR OE Me IER SA Oe SE See NE Se oat OT OC eT 

SA taG 4 

Lan iT inci 
fig . a 

es ous ; nang ; 
: Fe Anh y r ‘ 
eS) i } ai | fistol ot ho Sadek i : f 
} x! 
dene? | ao § . a pap ert ne a eS : ES ; ey r : 
5° BRL od #5 i temas goa eo. PSIG | 290 ts. jOmTon « | iben 8 as 4 
vas" nb ht eprateae a SRS. 2 ae ES = a om 
2 ; ' ; ; [ ¢ 3 } t 
i f ' H i i k H 
tg ih | He yeh ‘a Wer eS; Ae os eee ee 5: Se Sd. SS Sel ol a om n= a 
see me) 4 188 a. {ra.28 bs BSA BES, £0 Spee St SST TI Lei, 3 i268, 0 ube Se. BAS Loe ae 
5 H f { ; 
t 5 { ; 
eal * : = we ce cae i ad 
i los. toa OFS A bk Oe beet 
Sen Ce 8a BEI AES kk Ree 8 Frat ena fen ee re ed age ee Na meaner eaten fo 
Sera =. pole a moe ; 
: : 2 3 ‘ 4 : } 
‘ gj or tesa 1 easy Ore pe Le S%h 8 Wena ey B28 (~ose I wer Te 
a aa = Gs <<. sa? ae Loe 4 mt 40 5h G Peas 35 the c “3, iF 3g hg rani mE a = Beh 3 oe O49 3 fe Bee, See St eS ES 2 Ss 
eR. 1k Ry a, SE SEES me 2 SPE RE AE ha 8 ATR SS Be dy OCB 
Demet Pe Fey = “2 x PD hy Pit Pie y ey, Pees tir Bae aged aiod wa 555 Mote gua Orret mgoasp zr f 2 ei: 
ai bebtiionkt ate sets 62 Shs - Peo TOR 167 een Drs Moe BIOS YO bine Sas Gey Mesgtea cdi sei. 
Pe it 

a ee 

— Ste 


{mde r 

ter T4 


nse tyve, 


deve loved 



Clearwater Timber Protective Association, 

2 o 
a oO 
hh & 
® ® 
oO Pp 
° uw Pp 
a is} 
a4 a a 
al » ~~" 
oo é 
“ » 
Es] a Pr 
o be 
2 ge | 
A «4 Oo By pacer 
_ Pi ol 
£ mo 
co) a 
o @ ert 
& aa 
<>. awd 
& Q % 
2 m8 
a a 
< oa 
io} Ps 
° MSs 
a @ o 
° Ap 
a mele 
3) > o 
3 35 
oO uo 
rH a 
o a) 
a Aa a 
Cx a 
2 Poe Ne) 
4 3 om g 
e d a 
oso PO 
ag BE 
a a 6 ao 
i= ot ov 
7 oho as 
Pood = 
° ao 18 foal 
7- Oo @ 
8 Food 3 < 
= a 
4 & . 
. 6 =a 
te o 

A total of 11,223 acres of upland type was completely worked at 
a cost of $1.69 per acre. — On ‘this same aree 1, ‘$29 ‘acres of stream type, 
first worked in 1929, were reworked, The working of the 11,223 acres of 
upland and reworking of the 1,529 acres of stream type afforded complete 
protection to 12,752 acres of white pine.’ A total of 448 acres of initial 
work on stream type was aint - afford partial protection to 4,800 
acres of white pine. 

LS : 00 sere whe et CAL G7). men 

au > oa! Sepcevenae: with ‘the: tabor spoke ‘outlined tase winter fully 
50 per dent of the mén employed could be classified as loca) labor, This 
type of labor performed very well and it is deemed advisable to contime 
the policy of giving local men preference. However, there are certein 
qualifications necessary to make a good Ribes eradication worker which 
should not be lost sight of. We must train men who will be available for 
supervision in the future, 

The weather conditions of the past summer were evidently favorable 
to the spread of the rust. There was scarcely @ drainage in the Clearwater 
region which, if examined closely, did not reveal blister rust infection on 
Ribes. Phis is a fact of very great importance in planning future control 
operations. There is every reason to believe that a very great deal of pine 
infection took place this year within the boundaries of the Association. 
Several years later the results of this 1932 wave of infection will appear 
in the form of very numerous new infection centers, which will from that 
‘time on rapidly develop in size and intensity. 

In view of these infection conditions, it must be recognized that 
if the control program now under way is to be successful, it must be 
completed within the next few years. The situation obviously calls for a 
sharp and determined effort in the near future. If the white pine is to be 
protected from severe blister rust damage the Ribes within that area must Ht 
be removed before the new cankers, formed in 1932, have developed sufficiently || 
to cause ancther wave of infection. ! 

Therefore the Division of Blister Rust Control recommends: 

1. The immediate completion of stream type Ribes eradication. 

2. The eradication of all upland Ribes in the white casa areas within 
the next few years. 

3. The reworking, es rapidly as is necessary, of all areas to be 


Ht iH 

Hit, | 
Niet | 
} | {f| vi 
A \ | 
i | 
| tt P 

eitow vietslamon eaw scavs baalaqs to eatos SSS,I[f to Istot J 

sefrabnrod odd otdtiw taey 2idt sosiq stood soitoetat ; 

in I i 2 *) 
ae ,soys asetde to setoa @Sc,1[ sets omse etd oO .et9s teq 23.1% to teoo 2 
NW to 8: 96 ESS.f£f adt to gatsitow ofT .Bbooltowet stow eCSOL at bestow getlt 
|! iw a3 5 + meotte to estos C62, edt to aninitowet bas basiqu : 
| uth lal i Istot A .entg ottdw to eaxoa S2T,Sf of noisoeatetg 4 
i it ; fsi¢tag hiotts ot Detelqmoo saw says msotse m0 ator ei 
Al vl wikg etidw To estos q | 
EG ‘ 
AY ee 1 
|} if \h| 4 
in| 193 anf { pifog te ag tw SdBHT0998 al ; 
| Hi aiiy .stodafl L[aool as Gsft af{o ed birros dSeyolame sem edt to Snes teq 
IN or ¢t bos [{sw yrov beariottesq todsl to says 
We = souetstetg sem [ac0l satvis to yolloq add | 
Ha 9 ibste eed ks HOS & sian o¢ YIsaes Ort enoidsoitilavp | 
Wal, ow sem miatd desma eW .to tdgie veol ad jon Sivoile | 
Ni, ; emrtet ett at motaivisqse s,| 
\ Mea 
cyst tesa add to asottibnoo tadiser sAT 
i) HI S168 & yYlecitsoa ese otedT -basrt eaij to basige ad? os | 
i) | i b§h .yfesolo bantmaxse TI » Alp Esiw Holger g 
ce | Gg od 3 ytev to tost s at aint .esdiz - | 
i tl | S { of soesot viave et etedT .anoiisieqe } | 

seat edd t9tsl atssy Istevet a 
avotemn YIsv to aret eld af 


te at qoleveb yibtqat oo emis - 

io Sys 

Nay gofdsisoszea Sod Te 
tl re ewes & ff 4 ° “ey r a © : 
Ti! : e ae, ; 
INK i de ort [fiw dokdw ,etetmeo so: 
| udtes 
} ; : 
| tadd be: 

stmraopet od gemma ti ,acotifonos noigoestat seed? to wetv al . 

tegenoie ed o¢ at yew tebar wor metgzet¢ Lotsuoo aid tf 
sticwtin of  eraey wet gxan edt aididtw batelqmes P| 
il .surtet teen edt af stotte bentsreseb bas qrads an 
sect aig eaausb tem tedetid stevees mott befoetot¢ q | 
| Petr seoisvab svar , T mk f 2») won sit ototed bevemet 9¢ | 
i) gcottestal to avaw tedtons savag ag 






iH ~ St webe tl Be stmiwtil ar: 9 ay ; { 
ehrarnmost LOTIAOU Faith 2476 tie %*o cofeiwru ¢ my} stereo real El 




Hil goigsetbats aadif eqyd meetsje Yo noissiqaos eisibenmmr edt .f L 
i q 
Wi | 
| | 

2 s s+ wd nat ttt fwalfan a & * gn * haw 
whittw eseta eatg sitdew sdt at eed th basiqu [fa to noLlgsof bate 


betostotn a 

os ee ~_ f 7 ; 4 : Bari 
ef of esats iia to ,yiseeeen af aa yfbigst es ,gakitrowet eit .6 : 

Or n_ Pole | 

Dense Pole 
gen Mature 

[Dense Mature 
W tover-Open Pole 

1Cut tomer 


, ~ - 4 ©: 

| a 
[cutover-Open i Mature. 
Mesdow _ 

(ne ee 

|Open Reproduction 
Dense Reproduction 

24... eects Se = E 
jatonis=Opn i ae eee a cal a aa a_i Se a 
| CutoversBurn _ Seen Katee Werner 4 ase } 
} | Brush = Com _ 
= 7 a live 
KE @ i 

Se oe ee 

4 ae 
~ - — ae 4 
2 2 } Ra 

ay Oe Sees eer 

: = 16 1 13 
Brush ae Loe ; ar 3 
(oul | | Stream Stream ti 

iDe prenss. ise Reproduction 

| 4 ) (aaa Pye 
. tr Open Topen Reproduction _ 

| s4 

3-4 : 4 

| AA | 
1S 5 

| } a 




______|All Types aaa ie 12 2,2, i ae = Ee ees ee 
NH - Wegligivle or lese than 0.! 
Checkers included variations ia types not recognized in Ribes eradication records 

Annual Report. 1232 
a oR. 
E. L 


46 intgl. 



sarnwm COS 
& 9 %9 %& OS. 4‘ 

t-, = 
i @ 



oe. eet es. e88 

y ? 




{ acs ef fis: 

beatowet: eqyr 


“dG, @wor 




wo Tas 







my end 




Re eet _Ribes Per Acre After Eradication _ eee | 
R, petiolare | R. inerme | R. lacustre |R. viscosissimum] All Soectes - | 
| | 
Camp Type 

Per Feet Feet Fest Feet | Fee 
Cent Live Live Live Live Live | 
Check|Bushss} Stem |Bushes; Stem |Bushes; Stem | Bushes Stem | Bushes Sten 
: =eeeen eee a ee eee eee 
Qpen Reproduction | 2.0/ [| | [Jf 7 To 0 
Dense Reproduction| 2.0] J [| w [-w | 3 [ 10/ 2 | i3f 4 | 23] 
[Open Pole | 20M i ey ie Ta | 
23:7 ee ee ee ee ee 

Open Mature 

an Matu 2.0 
Dense Mature 2.0 — 



| 2.0 | 
n Pole | 2.0 | 
Open Mature 
x Denss Mature 2,0 
| 2,0 | 

Cutovsr-Open Mature 

Brush 2,0 
Meadow 2,0 | 
Stream 2.7 
All Types 2.0 

Open Reproduction | 2,0 
Dense Reproduction | 2,0 | 
Open Pole 2 


Dense Pole | 2,0 
Open Mature 2.6 

x Dense Mature 
Cutover=-Open Mature | 
Cutover=-Clear _ 

87 | 
ss ao 
Se | 28 

__ 84 

Open Mature 

All Types 2.6 5 8 43 
Fly [Open Pole [2.0 | 16 he vile 16 
Camp [Brush | 2,0 | 182] 16 200 
(Dull | Stream 2.0 h 25 §25 
Axe) all Types [ 2.0 | g2 [14 150 
ie Open Reproduction | 2,0 | __ 86 | 16 | 106 
Dense Reproduction | 2,0 | eo ee ae 
[Open Pole —s——séd(S;:s«C2 OO Ww ae on so 
[Dense Pole sid’: 2,0 | aes ee ee ee 
[Open Mature _—s_—si'| 2,0 | | 5S} 6 37 
2.0 | Ni] oN z 
All [Cutover-Gpen Pole | 2,0 | aes ie ae 4 
ee eee ee ee ol 
Cutover-Clear 15 § vid 
Cutover-Burn | 87 7 111 | 221 
Brush_ | 2,0 [130 | 20 147 
Meadow 2.0 re ae) 0 
| Stream __ eS ee ee 
z= All Types 2,2 9} 9 43 
N - WNegligidie or less than 0.5, 

Checkers included variations in types not recognized in Ribes eradication records. 

Annual Report 1922 

E. L. Joy 


Fao Pade iG As Pe Sar «Spare he ae. Meet 
ak Yoel [bw joer ww = Pte ain 

From Table No, 1 the percentages of acreage in stream type, 
upland types and all types that supported mot over 100, SO, and 25 
feet of Ribes live stem per acre were computed. These results are shown 
in Table No. 2. 

“ABLE. 0, 9 

dikes Grd dott bY work utar : 
Gireinagse 1% Pon excuPeD nob Olea 10: Avo or LIVE stm 
Blister ke st don & vere “AaEER = a; ¥5 

fhe past, Per Cent 3 ates | with Ribes Live 
er Fer Acre Hot Excasd ng 

It is seen in Table No. 2 that elthough only 5 per cent of the 
total acreage supports over. feet of. Ribes. live stem per acre, 32.5 
per cent is over the 50 foot-limit. .Yhus, the acreage with more than 50 
bat less than 100 feet of live eed per acre is 27.5 per cent of the total, 

seapwgglrtah . 9 pigtail pe nig op for the diesiwater Timber 
Pri tec ctiv Association silat Sade “ost! ae ee ee 

east v0 ie es ete worked “4720.8 87 
_Aeres. initial | and second ; sey beh Be, 



top ix 

“reported. e©eneeere 7 soe oe eeoeemperv eee” eeveoede 13, 200 
a, Bae per. acre. for SAAD. +2 rae hid 055 . 
$e, PS Ces yee : os § astm A n I 4 18,200 . > 
a + » te # t we ‘ 2 
xe an eo pomeese bis wres 
q hs my tie é pic) ry é # 
; Sant E #4 3) , 
j reng% wi 
“ove, fe sprevinge was tox b, 
Et x3% 782 F 4 3 & 

acyd mpetse af egaotos to segadacoteq edd I .oW el{dat sett 
aS bee ,CB COL tevo tom bedtoqqus tad? eecyt [is baa asoyt basios 
P - art tf 

seat? ,betucmoo etew Sios teq sete evil seit to seat 
S ,ok aids af 

i, hee 
el = 
{[.38  imasrtd 
een a 
a { fs 
6.88 |__ ALA) 

oe ee 

afdsS af noe at +7 

tast GOL teve ettocaa agsetos [atod 
$imt{ toot Od sai tevo gi dmeg Tad 
mete avtl to geet OOL aart aeel jad 

sadwit tadaewiasld edd wt anotistuqmos taco gaifsnesio att 
sewollot es o18 motistooees ev ttoetott 

oe es ee sgithsio ado to taod 

S Scopes Sea [stttok seroA 
OOR EL ccccccevescsvessecns Coe ea ee DOFTOTST 

6 . T8,O8N :.-- qgitzosiis tot e08 ug taoo ogee avd. 



| & A eeR ag to JEC r 
= ee ra Anderson 
SCALE Junior Forester 

We We 

oP bes ip blah started in the spp 5t, Waries River 

: ne past, 

eA 2 TRE 

eipep-erattpatton wet pertogmed tn 4n ‘eections 23°25, 26, 27, S4, 
BS and 36 of tanship 42 north, range 2 east on the South Fork of the 
Middle Fork ira thes Pte: Maries Rive M<gthe entire area is classed as excel! lent 
rhite —. si Use gapports-e fine stand of ehite pine of verious age 
( o atter part Siar = Bl @ gevere fire. swept to the ridge 
top in sect’ pa via oA a “area worked on the west, This fire 
ppotted oven tat ben og trees in these two sport ons and 

Ps or r 

in aay concentrations on the main 
nd on this part of the working unit, 
 oceur a9 aid over all of the upland 

Fo) eae \ - 

awd ve 5 employed ‘on ‘the project. ite | men were divi 
nto Seman ctews when hand pulling. | on 2 to Seman crews when spraying 


| A 10: ‘per cent ghiution af sodium chlorate was used in all spray 
prk, No spteyine was done efter hugust 15, 

ANNUAL Gail @@utipiiont. supplies and chemicel were packed in by the 
rest Servio@ cat Clarkia according to en agreement made at the start of 


wiesd “sno-10 tort" & 0 
at betoybnoo s3ed gad ne 


soar ea had site i 


ete ero vo let 



savyii 2efral tc reqqU oft af e 7 
© motetvid aff  vorase \SECL odd aatiwh hovaitacs eaw feel at seasatatd 

* mee ry oe > wow Anas 
bajarogqueonl ,etes1ot sods | . 
} : edd Ses yxaqmod bast sensawl th godt 
evitareqeoo dotdw meqy ete ad ort 

eesq edt 

ated tot dusmdolia ton onit to teometata x at ga twoilot ext 
atest taiaket af motforber tnao.t9q @\le6 adt x 


Betnrosos New 

SF ECF .Sa,. stot Istehsi 

7 ee oe ae oe ee ee 

OC OOS sf tart oviisrsqood 

BS ASEAN Ric & & 2 * 

ESE EE, ec one e emolila Jat 

es . s ¢ ota ae, Fre a fF 
eS aXS .dS ES .ES eacitoee xt bemrotteq esw nottaothare eed it 
att %o Meret digo! off co dase S egret ,ddrom S) qidenwod to GE bas cé 
4 oc3 to drot of bb rm 

fravin sefrak 7% 9 
ait 8 edroqiuia boa Stix saig ad ide 

3 ad .aSeaato 
eit anthared £6 bea SS anotioes af qos 
aigkarh fret eIWhiv odd ctat asvoe betsogs 
. eotod Bi tuods sve hemiue 


7 ey 

S$ Oe 

. : — Bale a es ae ‘ 
otam ect mo epeivarinesro> Yaon ai : p 
: meta ix r ps «a hele ore & re rig » gag py 3 3 f SST fe 
sing unt thyaawy acy tO graq 2 f «me Baro zt BOOTS 272, j 
o be wee d~ : - onan ; re $ Po ee hag & sitgyosl of 
brafos edt to Lia tovo Yilatesog M920 Remige reesei me = LS 


r eee tari? % we't* 
craw can saed? fostorq edt ac beyoiqme o19F Hom eyvylawT 
Sw ever fatie oF GS te sgaiiivg bused sew swoTs ramet ofat 
; A 
P a? - = x «~ beer fa of Sry ‘ c 1 
aves [Ia at boas eaw statoido mythos to anortufloe Tas 254 of A : 
—_ Qi tavavd tetta snoh saw gatystga ok <sror 

hevosa erew Isotmedo bas gatiqgane .Jtmemqiyps gmav 2 : 
shan froamesras os of anfhro9938 shixald ts sotv19e Jaeor0t 
: stogaee blett edt 


ne Es 

SCALE Legend 




a a 

S| fy 



—— ee a. a a aaa a Hi = — a —- 
a ha emt 

-_—— = a ee == 
SS >= SS a ——————————————— : : 

SSS SSS See = = = — ———— SSS — 

a a Fe SS Se = = a = 

i SS SS ——— —— 

= = = —= eS —— 

—————————— i — = = — 

— ee ee ee et nee ans aS ee eT end 

‘Stel ceaeth OF Pye PaEengur<as des 04 WO: 1 

fee chewlcal Ghers**igpaTRMEwT OF COST OF OpeRAT] OW 

‘ ee ee ee NR AEE ET DO : a ~ = 
Grand Tote $4,013,39 

Classification of expenditures according to fiscal yezrs: 

Period April leJune 30, 2689. | 8s oO, 743, 08 
Period July leMarch ol, iS A ap a ee ge” FW gO, BY 
COCR es ees ae ae sic on ee 945015, 39 

t work: 

Subsistence of checker e 
133 meals we 28¢ per WERL. sO TSS tS OHM 
Total Cost (included in Table Wo, 1)....... 3% 24 

Cost per acre checked $37, 24/1570 = $0, 024 
No salary cherge ageinst 3,42.3, 

Statement of meal costs: 
Total cost of subsistence. ........0000000009819, 07 

Humber meals served, ...-.e.svece 29955 
Average cost per meal served...,$, 28 

1715" 6 

eTe0d ‘we elaytava 

STE00 "w 4 

{ OW GIdAt 

} i nr 
Vata | 
" ; | 1 
ala a | 
i MI ea ; i 
| en iatoh Cast 495 | 
ill | 
| " ii 
| \) Mh i 
| \j Mi 
ya Te 
Win | 
mea | 
hel i 
Hy til . | 
Wall 8 
Nill | 
Wi eo 
| | § 
Hn i ______---istol _b hasr eae =. 7 
HAE | 
| Ay S 
ii ii serasy [aceit of anthrooss eseryd tbasqxs to motssottiezalo 
Way 4 
| ial BO SES Lc acevccccsceee StOL OF saytel [ingA botred 
i i | LEAISEaS see eee ee ne oBROL wit dorvalv.f yiucl bolrsd . a 
i CE ELO.BF... 2-56 seu denen cee _ iste! § 
i i" | swyOF gio to deo | 
Pa Ih : 
TaN ; 
| i » ysiosdo to sometafedse et 
We ME DEL. ccc ecccceveeessseef8om 19q 468 © alsom EEL j | 
Ha bE SE ...2.00(f of ofdaT at hobulont) teod iasoT | 
et | ‘2 
| i S90 Of » OVEL\sS VEE beeloedo gra T9q geod ei 
| i We ceSh.d teantsgs eg1sdo yrefse ov a 
| Mi } 
wll | 
1 dees tema 
a | 
| i TO CL8E cc cc cere wecen ee. 208038 fade Io feos LgtoT | 
| il | BEC gS een ascancouss hawt ee siaom +s sda | 
it ; es .¢,...bevree [sem req e009 egsTevA | 
| i | | 
| Hat | 
th \ { 


= || 

. te 



nr “y mn 
7 ‘ R 4) Mey 
f : > 4 
; © ' ® s bs a y 
; 7 ilk 4 Eien ; 
a & 

Bh yerh? : b i ’ He 3 

Motel cost of operation Al. foi.) .b-b-)-pegeedocearsececsnrse++00$4,013,39 
i “falc : Fah 74 Te Phas ERT Fie 

Less chemical - gherge 3! 
Equipment end re 

ra ae 

ri fs ri 

Cost less chemtcal cherges. vhs ey 


Wumber of effective OAD Ceara dé = 
Cost per effegtive man day, ++» 638, 73/51. 

5 #3 eli $f e e; j 
Cost of chemi éa equipment: 7 Leb ah rl. 4 
Wamber of effective spraying ma: an daye..... 
Additional cost per gprayit epee 
Cost per woe men my 9 Bs bole 

EN ay set aaa $6, 35 

Caan Ceri, 4a 

Cost ‘of Bit dig: L dcalh ob oll ae Reeeere $318, 59 
Number of gallons ay Ted... ... he Be stp ecseeeerers 3,839 
Cost - per jo me OC ate os : ° on fee ceteeerevce $. 083 

ee : 
dg y 
Kr : Fs 
O35 } 
are ) 
«al. } 
en . 
at : 
34 ¢ 

7 * 
é ik 
rf ~HE ip 
foe = xy ‘ er 
' 7 . 
} es 4 iat 
4 sd s 4 
; x i ; te 
f 5 by 
¥ 4 Cd 
a A ¢ , 
ay f a 
y 4 i opt 
: \ ae 
; = Y 
% a 
ER myst 
ce a it é ot 
4 #° 

TAC WAM | ZI20OV0] TO ThswaTare 

OF, O10 ,834. se*@ @ Deveson cscs ce gee HHe Kielamee cosseses SOLS EtOgO to gg09 Isgoi 

’ saegisdo [ao hredo zeal 
LODLSt cote Tie vce ecavevec edt ingest baa Inemq tupd 

Os eve Bet ees sees eevee esasenee encores s BLg9 iment) 
OT EB ET wee ewes eess tate ee aces owrgalsie geome Bag TAD: igo tmero s2ol 3209 
=o . = ~ 

pa ; Ler rere je ran evidootte to sedmtrit 
a | vege ences eet acee ees TEL ES CEB, BE ans OBE el “evitsstts 19q 3260 

| £0 £8? apap eT te pes dromgtype {sotmedo to. treo 
; —PEbory vs es etal car an tyergy evitostts te “ay chet 
Sa, f seve oS PRL sfetecc cc ooo e air er ger yer teq teen [amo td ibbs 

48 af Bete Ey Ir re w TD, Test 6 EE Pes Yee. mac ga fystae 294, ag00 

giuct_Iealmedd to taomete ye 

86 OL &* Dik crprireee crore a ae a to teee™ 
oS Onin er rn er Oe ree botlage gphrolieag to 1sdmaus¥ 
E80 .* SE eer CETEAEEAEEAEE' "ene tog teod 

enitiens wx aubmonst es bh 

ut berie itiniboos dro" ert to -yramme-s- ‘Sorts beds’ gareoiter ‘ont 




A[uwo pepapouy ee 

i a 
Ft sort 
fot Gg Re Fe - 
4 Z 
és f * s 
Bs by 5 
x 2 a 3 , 
s Bs ‘ : 
f a 3}: ee x 
= - e é o> 83 i 
is oe: 
ag : 

a wh *S12904 Uy sou0 
#2102 aveug ‘spousau TaD THe pre poe, won a Aa pando are edd, weai4s U} Selde ses Udyy, 

ee ee at Ee tel 

we te ~— i 
sarees eae lace 




qinc Ashefont ers esras ado? .ehortom jagimeds Saa baad dod Fad fedrow ets aqyt maoite ai asics sma mod? 
. ’ g@iateot ast sono 


In naiiiieabliall with the practice on all ipaeivied this season all 
acreage worked was checked for missed bushes and poor spray work, ‘The 
final check of the entire area: showed’ an average of 15,7 feet of Ribes 
live stem missed per acre, “On/ho timber type did the missed live stem 
exceed 45 feet per acre, as 
re wit a Lit es ae 

Special attention was paid to the spray work. Every effort was 
made to secure 100’ per cent cove “on beth upper and lower surfaces of 
the foliage i Ribes bushes, In addition « ground drench was applied about 
the base of ¢¢h bush, thereby insuring a thorough crown epplicstion. 
Where BR. petiéléte wae proving in beaver dems the dams were pulled out and 
the water allowed to lower BS muck | as Beda te before the weiss were 
sprerets ; Ti BLS ih ee ge Ey, 

The areas eer over a the 1931 fire in sectione 27 end 54 
will undoubtedly support a heavy growth of B. yiscosissimum within two or 
three years. Observations of whet has happened to similar areas burned over 
in this region tn’ past’ veers. is = Beats: for this statement, 
Infection was found ¢ on civiee type Ribes near the center of 
section 26, township 42 north, range 2 .¢ast, About.a mile down stream 
from this point scattered infections on white pine are beginning to show and 
from here to the forks, ‘the pineis badly flegged, Severe: pine damage - 
resulting from infection taking place previous to Ribés eradication may - 
pe cing oe within fhe next few a ace in thel fringe. slong stream tyve, 
[Open Mate White pine. blister. rust. hagle. sectite “foothola in the Clarkia 
region, Unless 2 definite control program is put into effect immedig te ly 
adv edministered on 2 ‘permanent besis, the excellent stands of young white 
ples @ in this region will be wiped “outs The. control work done up to this. 
ime will be entirely vitiated unless future control work is carried out 
on.a systematic.besia. The 1932 operation was entirely too small to cope 
with the situation, 

on ee ee 
Femi TP Ht 

1 RF vb haha Tad aoe Te oe ee ee ey ie ea aie oe 

mod vee) tReet o fl Co «eR RR. ee eee : Ye Fo RK 

tick Me ett ee he streme tree wer 3 ‘ 

oft row ysrce yO0q baa 2 eflesd begain-r0? beniosrio esw beotrow e480798 
sodii ‘te see? 8 .Gf to sgatevs ae bowed sora oxtine ed} to doedo Lag it || 
mets evil bewe tm eid B28 toys ih ak ea ae “q8I9S T9qG Bees Lui sete evil 

4! sigan os woyeepatt besimtce tI 

| Lis monate 2 fds asoptiing ‘IIs 20 eo itoatg edt id tw eonabi0998 st, 




{i wave bearvd waets taligie od bemeqqed aed fady to asclisvi3ad® s#isey seidt | 
Ve | atomet sia eid toi elead sds at eraey ae “4 0 ger ging of q 

Aly is Lag +S1D% 28) do0% Gh beeoxs . | 
b aow drctie yrovd pe yoras) ‘eels od nhag ean Be ttudita Lalpedt q 
mi to ssoatrve rowel base reqge Atod a9 9gaTeves ines 19q OOL exuo9a of ebam if 
| tyoda betiqys aay donoyh barvrorg +2. moltitiha al ,weteud 2edifi te agstict edi. 4 | 

| 4 acitaotiqgs aword dyuerods « aq hivgal yereds .tand n° ey gead edt i 

| My bas to belivg orev emah odd gmab toveed af guiworg gaw gisle & ered 

\ i Nie orew 2edend odd mroted ais Hees 28 down Be: ores od paola yvetaw odd 

H | Hy ycidl DOYST Qe 

| SE faa TS erotiose at oft reer ‘dat Pee evo. acess asotm, oT 

He to owt alddiw mumtsgtegoaty — te dtwery qwaed a dIxcgaze ylbesduohay Ll fe 

HY ae 



te tsiaso aid teed 20088 eayt agotte a0 binolt egw aditsets 

| ‘| . sapere aint olin « todd .teee & date Pehp asd $$ gidemwos 0S aolioes 
| bira worl od go ino tged ers oniqeedinn ac eno tested beted dace iniog etdd mort 
| agunah exiq etovee. begael? bad ef en tg. and vedio? ads of ered mort 
Mh ih | | yan sottsotharé sadif et euotystq evale anblat nottosint mort gatiiveet 
| i | U sseyt weords anole esi aieiel ot at RI8ey, ete ss es acid a bdd bw betoeqxs ed 

Wl Hy | sbhirait edd at bfedtoot aio be is 2 grt Fie ddgtid ut Bey ot fw | 
| I i otaihommt gostte oiai duq af matgorg Lotiges of tn Pieb a oe lal AO $B e | 
lll). e¢fdw gesoy to shaeta teefisoxe edt welead Iaenacriog « ao berodelnimbs bas 


i eldt of qx snob.xrow Joytaeo edT © aun beqiw od {lie noigey atdd at eatg 
eA tyco betttes af drow fer dns ergtut eaelas batawttiv yleriéae ed [ftw emtt 
HA sqoo oft Llare ood vfevitas eae gol arene SFC eff wiesd otiemeteye 5 20 

Oi iano butane f winds ( ottartte odd dite 

SSE ea ae areca ceca 


PAM LS ee 


é. L. ie 
Junior Forester peng a 
Rites Per Acres Dane Jear Afier Sam 

2, | PLS | Bu. | Si. J 
Bt. iM ae River arek & 7 of 5,484. or acres 
i total, T, 266. “acrés Was Worked in igz2 
ithe BS: Le5 SEras worked by Bi bes 


Smeeermarscroney tan yay 
Seng rer sano epee on a oe 

[All Types -RIMS-PER 

tage eer BP Toa aie 
gec°e* \ pathos le. 1.5. inches! PT, 5, iushes! 

| Peresntage 

N- Wegligitte or less than 0, Sen 

Ee Oa tt is “seen ‘that the entire e aereage ‘worked in 
6d less then BO feet of Ribes Live stem [pee Te ¢radica- 
7 at the stream ty: S tetor 3 1) 1.4 

we A ib oR” TER EUS GES AN SUR. N° 1S _” ERO NR ee a Re 

an of te <A De». the Bibes ps. Awe of ane. PRE: abher 
orndi cats an oH bys, ie’ aise ee i Ry: : 2. ot , 

ae 4 
is ri rti ner @yident that ok pe pat of. €48 total ot ¥ 
+m . oy et ms en oe z 
106 feet per acre. Table No. 2 shows that most 

* ’ d ~ P ett t ewseseeka ee Camnhietieow 2 
thig letter elase Still wimperts 247r°gS GUanie tars 


wor MADTOAT em esr BEL “pun0gH : 

ae ‘" GRA ers 

» tke al A. ey fy 4S 

’ , tetgartot Noth * wie SY 
- Kor rouapwiner ere 

aetna 8. ere te , Lndos. fh gee wevkh aaitaM $2 xeaal, ent. 70, rr" 
Goel at bestow aaw acing 9.8L: Leted eis 20 Shel wi bsinesio ae xd aewip® eto s: ins BOM B2SD. Tedd ten Pe ASL at aetos 838.6 bee 
; af el ee Rai > ae eae 


gos eft ao molt dotbake wig ody ‘e198 599 aod ff ‘eft 't Cae oidat is i 
— rab avede ots ree ak betice 

sek Bk sOITIDS sas _ ‘A. 
, wn hh SE eden 
oo rere yon en iy ee s ae 
sii UD: Be ce au Beg 
afod e200 

A te crept re 

iS opis of | Choteau on 
7 : Bee coos nei Pt a wow 0 os 
a weet Hl 

a: 2 vals aver igh ya ratipor = iy 

at Sesttow egsetos etidne silt gads seae ek ai £ of etter lai 

-sothats tedte eres teq weds evil asdifi to geet 08 aad} easel betroqara SSeL 

98% @8 wolsd esw ecyt wsotte ect jot Ife bos sold 

«esta tasy sno e%8 tag eed? ods ,oqyt wo awore & .of alde? 
IE@L at basttow eats sit no molsaoibare 

SS a 



= = a ee 

Ales ree Ace ax i 1932 2 08 THE — WORKED as 1931 


bes. Per were. One - Year. A: ter. Brad stion 

SAPO sek 


N - Negligible or less than 0.5. 
fable No. % which is derived from Table Ne. 2 shows the 

percentage of stream type, upland types and all types that supports 
not to exceed 100, 50 and 25 feet of Ribes live stem per acre, 



aah ggg of Acreage Supporting Ribes Live Stem 
Fer Acre Not Exceeding 
so test 25 Feat 
a ae 1.4 
Sag RRR T eRe PROEE  O 0.0 

A Sees i OB ol oo A 1.4 


It is apparent that only & very small part of the acreage 
worked im 1931 is under the 50 feet of live stem per acre limit, It 
is further evident that 42.1 per cent of the total area supports over 
100 feet per acre. Table No. 2 shows that most of the acreage in 
this latter class still supports large quantities of Ribes. 


0 MEE q 


| | 


Nan | | 
1 a {eet MI GOON woaNeDa Bar WO Ser WT 2 SIDA $ G75 SagIs Gq 
1 You Tudo #94 S 

P| poe nase 
all Hotd WoL Sg 2hs “tasY o2 aa 2 } 
{ \Zaiveg’ Lt saky eae ] 
| j a ’ H ' a eae arta 
| i\ i tJ Lt Gass ie" i) Se ji Get 
Mi Nip ios See sce PE See 
VT Wa rr ; 
in! 4 
| i 
| iy 
as iE Dy 
Wine i i 
| a | \| + ‘ \ : 
Hi | 20 aadd esel to eldtatige - # q 
WH 7 y 
ih), —eht amode &. of eifat- met? beviteb st datide & lot eidst ~ j ; 
Li) aitogqne Jadt-asqyt Lia dis eecyt basiga .eqys mmetie to egeineoteg i 
i (Wt es tse made ert i wad 25 Yo toot 88 brn 03 90. [ beenga of ton 4 
HL ea a! E 
SO : 
ui pm me 
Wea | 
| | Ny i wate Bet 1 4O. maUOwA. OT oi Preteens aes @muog9. eauDA 
Vl init I PEO aia 
| ij | Hh , 4 
i i H}i | Pa a =e agra retin MeecepbhLahterra> nian Ate 10 tsematinrtag tira inannabasaibeliitigs tnitiaeeties - q ‘ 
| He ede av it adh pt hagor ip seca Feo egaineo tos | | i j 
LT | 
| i | 
ane | | 
ib) HW 
i id 
| Hk 

Wi, 4t dtmtl etos teq mode ovif to gest Ce ond ysbar et feOL at bestow 
HH i) “evo attoggsa sete feted edd to jase teq [52 jade saebive tedtist ef 
WI il at egsotss eit te ¢eom fads swore & .of sidaT .stos teq feet OOL 

Hy tl eneetos bat to Sag lene yisy & eine tate sneteqgs tl it 
£ sedid to seitkianvn agisl advoqoure (five aealo tedial alda 


ae a 

Fehae ae 

2 es nF ihe 
af Oy | Gee ey |e 
OGPRRARE VS jerhtls © 

Checking cost eaipaththatlin. tne. ck this unit were as follows: 

Cost of che ek ae os eee GU so vbw es eins 8481.16 
Acres COOMBE cate Crees pbk sees es aS a .9 

apenas Sach pee ae $481.4 = $0,094 

Protective Aesoeiati On Wag cont immer & 518 


under the mipervision of the Divi wi a ‘ 

ccageration with the sa eo 5 

unite were selected th wa Beg, eke a4 i 
nreaes Tor contioutng ok eles 

sper poh tey Pye 
# ta ae thf 

ese ON a 

The purpose of the work was : 
biieter runt by hand eradication ef Hives from the avers ae lected, 

pyibeuw and Travpe 

north ond rengec 3; 4 ea 

Stogert exeniiernt atané 

fareging the traie <f 5 

mane cl a eb ro 

imutances pres y 
gene rnily ; 

did not ecear ix ‘ 

She pe racnne i. 
of Blister Bust Sentrol, 
houge men, 

ine to th - _ 

hand pulling methods ort 

Hote styect ami wo) 

and these hewi tenn thar 
the Came YOte ate were Boge 


% tot shotteisgmos geon 


mutts ea 

% re 
29 PEOW 

Palen ord 

es epehhde 



ap teva. 

=—= — —= 

— ———— 
= = = SS a ee ee = 


. { Hunter tisecker | Er 4 

y i is A ¥ 
4 : 4 . j / 
| J ‘ ee 

Cooperative Ribes eradt, tion, on the  Prie gt lake Timber 

Se yet Association was continv din 1932,:The work’was performed 
undér the supervision of the Divisiow of Biister Rust Control and in 
cooperation with the State of Idaho, ‘The’ G6eribou and Trapper Creek 

uni ts were selected by the*Tdeho State Pare eter es the mo at advantage ous 
areas for continuing the Niclas control } pfoarem, nn 

* ACH ‘ 

© 1 

The purpose on-tné work wl te. loce? eontror-or white pine 
blister rust by hand ee of Pye from the areas selected, 

= < 2 


The cart Bow’ “asa ‘Trapper bed torette cuntts. diate all of the 
Caribou and Trapper Creek drainages and lie’within townships 63 and 64 
north and ranges°3;"4end 5 west, Boise Meridian, ‘The areas chiefly 

i support excellent stands of immature white pine, growing vigorously and 
forming the basis of & splendid timber crop, The Trapper Creek aree was 
moderate ly rough while the Caribou erea Wes very steep and in some 
instances presented serious problems, #. Jacustre and B, yiscosissimum 
were generally distributed over the areas; BR, inerme and. B. acerifolium 
did not occur in sufficient quanti ty to ue of any importance, 



The personnel consi sted. of one project leader from the Division 
of Blister Rust Control, three a calp units, one pele and a waree 
sciaie eu 

Due to the Ribes apo li” dre sent rong work was done entirely by 
hand ‘pulling me thods using two and thyee—man’ crews, 

Both stream and upland typed were wid hreag-free of Hibes 
and those having less than 50 feet of live’ stem pervacre were scouted by 
- the ce boss and were blocked out irom the area to. a apeveree by the crews, 


(iG § 
& j 


i : 
H o 

iN stantizal ,& resiel | 
| ae +940 s7r0F we6laet 4 
alla | yedmi? e263 ge eixd add no oo Naothere vedih-ewivareqcood ‘ 
we SH hentotreg aaw Xtox oct <SECL nt beenidnos asw nolisioosa’ ev itoesest 4 
| ie at bas foytnc? tau yedefiG Yo meletvil edt to sotetvieque aft tebay | 
I 4 deer? teqgart baa vodti2a sfT odabl Yo siege ant dtiw aolis1eqocs : 
| el sucsgadcewhs teow eff 2a totgero% sts%2 onsbl odd yd hetoelee sien at ine | 
ae watgorg Iougs0eo [gcol edd aniuntines 16% seer 4 
\ \"} t 4 | 
ma yh ; . i 
|) inh | " A 
| | | ante eticw to fortaoo faocl oft eaw sivow end To seoqieg eT | 
1 He betoafees gsers off mort eadif te acitsothsre head yd teut ate lid an 
' This i} 4 


SS a 

Wal ed? ‘to {fe shelont atian exbivew Xeet8 tagger! bas sodired ed? 

bil bd pos £3 eqidanvot atdéty eif bas eogaatsth dee1d xeaqget? bas rod ine 
MND qiteisno esets ed? sathixe¥ ea tod teow G baad ,f aegnet Sas Adron 
ih ! bea ylpuovogiv aniwoig .saiq odisw studemmi to ghusde tasileoze trogque 
WA aaw sera deer) tscqatt ed? ,qots rodeld bthoelq: a to eleed oft gaterret 
KW | I, exce af fra qoote prev eaw sore vodiral of? el tdw dayot yl eter obon 
\ Wa momieateoogty 2 bee aatevpsl «2 amoldotg euofver: betaseetg esonaient 



See ee 

i guilotiqees 2 bes syzeat 2 isaets ed? reve hetodinielf ylieteseg ator j 
il, jeonadioge! vase to ed of yd Naeyp tasiofltee af tuo00 fon bib i 

A 0 a RO ra val 

jn | : 

LAU notaiviGd edt movt vehael jostotq ase to betziesoo Lennenisq edt 
MLA ooiae 2 hie tevfosg ans wating guao asmS serdd ,fostn00 Jas totalid to 
WHT A: sas se rod 

| A yw yleviiae each aaw srow oft dase cig saiooqa gedik add of oy. ; . 
; ests satesardt? bas owd gates abond om gatifog Sead | 

ay eedid to esi saeth ,beteor arew seqyt haslqy Bae maorse dtod 

wy ud betyooe stew ates Teg mode evil to geet OF natt geel gatvad eeodd hae 
\| | warn oft yd berevoo od od sere oct wort tro bevfoold etew bue secd queso edt ; 

| Raw 

f 4 ' ' 



Lh shoo. 





| peo | _2_§ aie 


| be) WORKED 


A 1928 
B 1931 
Cc 1932 





. ry Perens 
Sees pombe thane cas ea aneame Ce yon es e) 4 ¥ 
| por East" weed, SOFVD sec eceececsstseweatansetinncecsetecatenns 0 Bo2D 

Total cost. ‘of Pi alta, Re ne ee $e 
© Total number oo. man BBY Se e+ none ehe 456 y a 

Weeds year 1932, yies) af 30, 
“Petal yer 1958 pertot re 

Grand RCW o u.ecie-sin ee ene 65 64.000 da eee eee D Mn 

| . B7200 WO BIevtAMA 
i |  ~ Lom Giear .. 


1 tI 7 ag T r 4 
iit ee a co 2 


Has | 

Hi i | 
ne P| 
\f | S 
aly ‘ 
| He 
ball | 

t i | | | 

sea | L naveas 
j ii [26 BOC 


\ OF OSG Goce. cae c wees cc ccnccrcunccscccencnceces fO0NGSR tadina to #200 Lato? i : 
A = ‘ . i 
| BBO OS ane ereocecceseccces HOVIGe elsem 1edmul e 
RSG esl nate alalwlareiclelarsia, «ale Se. Ta asd oaie ate wins ielaraieie avetely crete Oe igen teoa sgatevs 

i Val agi evivooti® 199 Jeo) 99 trogsod to tuemetsde = 

| OL Ome gObG css e sas sacea ya paeenandad He6 4-000 deen ee ae OLE MENeS to feos {ateoT ol 
ih | BED Pec eee ee eS Kam svyitoette redmya Lasot | 
ih | ED Oct aiat ian’ gi clain ea. a: GW. oleae 5 wae ms aieia ete eb a ealeie lain ee Ra RSM evisostts 1T9q $200 

. : acbiged? 2o trod 

ai VEU Re ae ee Oks Foe RE aa bees soibin kaw eine ORaNnS to Se Loqxs bre qraleé 
SRI ona aa aralg stale oc 8 6 oladie s1dlance d oldin. dc dota ad a laitaere’ s Gre OL ee Oe to eoneds fa dire 
Hl Hh) ad OCA wa a aiul aia Siw 6.4, 0.a7 are. alele ave otal ele: & aves olate wate ate'ale-al pamlateieiw ais. a:aTais aivreie ania istoT 4 

sO, & Sr ea-uv sas u's wal seule asieis aou.e kee noth Ghee LOOOLL Seal aris S198 To aod 4 

hi | $2 oo OB, at ee) Se\O8\auge\i\s bo hreq “(Stel TASY {soa IT Bs 
} Mh } 6 eb Gi eeenvesese eeoenrec aes to ave 7 oBE\LE\EnSE\I\F bo freq fel TASY Leoe Lt £ 
A ahi ke etre ane acu ec 4 dla "a's 51 atte once wele aeea Cee paetoO 

W.107€, Generel view of upper Trepper Creek drainage, Priest Lake Timber Protective Association, O-3C year old stand of 
Western white pine, Ribes occur chiefly alone streams and ridces, 

W.1078, Portion of same stand as shown in above picture, 
the oven reoroduction stands, 

Annual Report 1932 
H. J. Hartman 

Exceptional area in thet Ribes occur only sparsely tnrougnoue 



a a en 


——— es 

--—— --  — - - - 

> ees 

tT WR Neha rte ora sey 

+ een cor ¥  Siineme ney Heeted : ianenieriGenoneechnheet cael Sus ans 
Ki] a “pea ; Se 
: tee on eet i 3 
os 7 i ot 
< f 
‘ iy 

Cnr RE din OO OREN AE sag uloioh 

a al a a 

EG = . 

LR eR EOS ~ eee ts cs 

vice rer eae ar yer ey nA ACP wR IT 

SNe RY aE mi: 

5 dl _ nN : 5 ie Saat oe ‘ - Re 4 4 e 
ae oo ety te Bt Benet ane rs peepee nee een a! 
+: Saree eer coe see a) 

i.e ee ear 4 Sane Reet & i 
4.) ee OE SORE 
< : eae — 
oa é SE eae 
Soe tee age 4 

ani) 2 a CIO IN YP BO REI EMRE “ara 

~ 1668 i a" 
eerieer | ————a at _ 

pS ese 


i te 
es Aa 




we ne ee oe are! 





and SEE st] a58,al! ean Cie 
a a eee evea ees [gos 

aecueiaans uaereanetier omstenoreaee 

i ee See 

OD 2K S12] _3et Gi 

ie,S | REL oS ac 

3 Ties | 

: aa 103s fp 

= - eT saess los “Tes Ps 
ant £ ace osiat [Tes da SACeL [ELS ab | cen nin nme 

Lats 1808 ees aot 

cou sn nanho s ieee rang ecrenaten reaanamrabanarnerareettaenene StaRes wet H 

aac weep Bid 4. = ‘A QE i = Sol says Pe Ren pe Ae Sd Apes po : ths 4 { 

| av pee ascii ete [west | mass | 

ae cos MEK Nr A Fin met ne  RS = 
BS ik BS&, S52) Fas. {so it? wi Too! 2088 | JMR base, (7 Sie 23aut. ifAl 

ae hte A ee 
< PRs Se so.f Sitenn 

— _ 
a ——— —_ ——— =-— ee a ee ——S— = ———-~- + —-— ee Sa 
a RE Ce . =e = es et ee ee ee = SSS ——— == a Ss 

—-_ = aS — = = =.= SSS Sa a SS ——— = 
= ————— == = —_—= SSS ———eeE ee = = ——- a 
— — SS a —— aa ee 
== SS a ee a eS — =a aaa 
——— ee ————— ———————————————————————e ee eee — See SS 

PHI E Nie Ag SONY aie S cl ON 

During the summer of ‘1982 Doctor E. BE, Rubert found a Ribes 
infection on the Benton Creek drainage’ of the Priest Lake Experiment 
Station srea which lies within:-the boundaries of the Priest Lake Timber 
Protective Association, The repid spread of the rust is certain, and 
every possible effort’ should be' made to inerease the operations ed 2¢ to 
complete the initial Ribes eradicat ton over ny @rea at the 
ear est date possible, ” y ome OTe aor in LOSE 

, a aan a) ee we tpe PeAGeL 
the i933 work oa the Worth 
Ps oar gQenl erules Im tbe Gate BER hv Ba e 3 ph res 
whore | RAbRe Gradient? om enc done dn i928, 2 4 ner ont chad? exe vada 

~~ 03, . Re. a . ? Pie kt aie he 
am. Wabie Fo, 2 the Bihee ax 

rm a nwt > Dane 4 ¢ + gee eae ip eRees, 2 wee ye Ys Se tie ln et i 
are SUG sR any ay Me SOY Seen D7 Ne ast © ESGWES « 

SSS ee aS 
—- ——_—  - — 

a ee 

= =z ~ e 



renee Yeh oe Rad wan) if as fast fe 
Rap byes tt Si] 4 : 
aN TAGE ; Oe 

peat e bayot erady® We. .F tetodt seer "Yo Teemerg OAS a0 Prod 
tremivegx? Gad? Jagin® ad% ‘te i ar bat 6 sees) nedmed odd ac so tfookrs 
cadet? aval geetxd od? Yo egtisbaced edt whl is eet tio tiw se1s glare 
ats to bastge hiquy eaz od giooged aviigatord 
ote de@tts afd igeog yiove 
igiziat eds eteiqmoo 

aga -ftiadyso of. ter 
fae os anolisroqe Bit Seaetoet of aban ed bir 
+ ja aera motistooe2e 4 adt seve sottaoibete eo tk 

Uy nts 

~ioinsog stish te eilixse 


‘Bs Gi: ibe: 
- duntor Forester 

— the. Priest. Lalte tinber Proteetive: Assoelabion a total of 
22, 331 daies waa checked. Of this total 8,194 acres were worked in 
oy orm aeres in. isl, and 974 acres in 1928, 

olive. 1932 work ou the Trapper and Cariveu Greek drainages and 
the 1921 ‘work on the North Fork. of Kast River drainage were given - 
2 per art cruise. On the third area,s portion of the Biz Creck drainace 
where Aibes: eradication was done in 1923, a 4 ad Gent check was made. 

dn fable No. q the RAbes per nite after eradicotion in 1932 
are ‘shown aby types for each of the 3 Same 2 a5 


“aay Le Sekt hah _ouh ae zany 

a leore et roiaart ‘ 

%o isto? « note loonady #9 phenstos F nodal 3 asimsd penbet ott £0 
at besivow crow eotec: PEL, b Ievot #26e % . .belottio Row aetiot hoe 

882s ah aerse SFO bcs . Ohh eotes Sai Sk shart 

toed sodkieO bres tegget? ed? so tace SCL at. 

vow Yasties® tevil sane %o Het dtcoW add ao attow reer gad 

eestor door? uli odd to aokitog 6.4078 acti edt #0 seatero {ned Tq $ 
Bhan weve ats toon seq * » 8SAL af omob mart Mod tiwothess vedi stele 

eear et wotdegfhare tetls ots tod nodi® od £ of ofded at 

comes & ois to does Tex ws acy ¥d awoke OTe 



> * . a : : ve ate nr 
Ra ¥! 
1. [hs Bu. L.5. 

ae | 

CL ee 
Dit Re SoBe: i sa ERM 


oe at 

H- egligible or less than 0.5. m 
Gheckers included variations in types not recognized in Ribes eradication 
methods. Bh. a? 



int oa) 

om osutiiabiiies panetienonenense 
aoe me hee nt OL OD A OT 
- sac paneer ara ed 
ransom omens nw —« > . x H 3 
fF > ie 2 t 
& woe 
; Ho 



tt ee 


sf sarge 


4 Sais 
suits & 


chibi atband 


Rt 3 5 

mae ne 


nee team 


b &. By 

he Sacer 
t * f° 
Koa * 
takes HG aers 

i crmok bh 
oA E pn S: 
: , 

Silene Seen 

. ob seihmionse 


z 3 ani dt Sut 
‘ sa 4 a & ddddad: aati 
me pe ye : c 2 <r Fe Sade wes Gyr MAT: 450 + 
Et aad: qa Be pe Aa q @ 43% , a qa So 
a} 7 4 <i o «3 eH BH: 2 oe of i = oe ar t | hg og gt mt es 
Ef ic a het De PL SeREe FELEr eae ce Bee 
ow 114444 gevil il ies ae Pid tite SR pt yy 
BSPPSERLES en F SESE SS bcm at ap tt a2 & 
a por ror aa rs a i Os CTT TTT TT ii gis 
eee ere eee Se Ree ees eee rrr ee ar 
4 x 8oe 4 i44 Fae PP ELLE Pe | Pi EGET TATE EE TLE A 
sg a. * ‘ i $ ; j $ 8 45: ; 2 i 3 3 1 | % 3 f rf k i & i i ; 3 j i t 3 £ # ¢ Fi 
bs 4 , , j $ if i Fi ‘ $ j © } 3 r i . BO As ee | { vecesd ace thee: ‘ee Se: 3 i 
si a i oo oe orice te ee a Se SSR ESEEEE GEESE 22 1 
5s : 3 i PS 4 Ss. i H 5 ae | 4 
> “a ot i as i P 3 ay g 
f ; i \ 

ts ee: ae 
LN ffl. 
at Tot 


ee 1 
- ; a “0 wad’d “gee ' Fi 
besteagesot tou goayt 2 enolialtev bobeloas ately 

bead wo benres 


— Sensans ove soe 
age ee 

Ganev eng cepew 
, ¢ 
a | ake 


Hon Se ome Serene 
is ae es bg 






sh BEE son a Sh 

showy senator iF 

bbs nr nt ae 


et: at 

abt &. 

mri oe 

ae % 
eaten te Rae D re 
3 } 

ye OES 
Barn 3 
say a 4 a oh si 



t % 

Donemncrrer ote 

X , 
el teeta 

a i 
a oe a 
es Yh 



vt i ty 

i 4 
i? fem 1 Se 
exes onsnurigalpcnionnsesgeilicaiontiirs tar 

> GARRET stich eet Reis 


pact a ag 
$ ds 
no BA. 
rose eden one oe 



Oe, ae 








t asd 
i Pi 

net AIOE Pee 

een any neta ee 

eee oe 


pag a es ie, 




pce). eae | See 



ieee og) 

be aie ; 









i HH. 
ee) ae 
‘| ~*~ 
ify ; 
Ruepreween ike 
basements Srnomsisieints ana 


2 ; 
ivy nasen ate S 


, Seen 
rors eae | 
et ee 

ay ey 

$5 - dane 

aR reemnes 

re hme mom ee 
seat gecieenanne tn acy enw hele 
watt cnet 





i bt 

ears Ca mw ce 

senate tis 


ere Fe 


amnnt pane ae 9 

pan tery leh ners 
i eae, 
j A 4 
cna «ener rine sere mire L) 

Pp: meee 


; £3 
a a wai 
eaneel een ernie, een 
Ney Ts eae 

enti tsar det 08 Vern Me Veet Ren STN ER 

: . 
| > ; ; | 
a ; a Ps 
= : 3 # i & 
oe i : 

1 mer nee ae at 


ee ails eal Ma 

x 1 RO re ie 

Sipe aie ae rR Cet 

a eae 
r t 
. wee 

C panne ripen 
j eh i 
ED cuecpotenorerelp means adttlaerren oot smote 
. H 


ee ens 
pth, OT era 



‘ie 4 
Beenie tnesarerinnerant 
Taser inion canine cere 

Ln nS rane MN reat 

es a 
far tee 
7} enone 
yn ta eee ry RE AN OI 
& t 
Se Enean tert 



2 4 Sy * | 6 OR . 1 
3 , 5 Z «wht F ‘ i % MN ete 
<a 3 . oi 3 sh * iy oe 3 as 
“ol ee | z i Ay} : oh ij ee S&S: i a CY ca Sei 8 Lae t wy 
ad : a} gat a ro CH tet Gol ie} SH COR | aR - tt a Sel 8 i 

; : 7s $ i ¢ r OR i of 8 : fF 5 

ot ; if + | ‘ 1 4 Se Bory | H of a 
mi UE SESGESEEee eS ie ae Bad pid dd 
333 1 } + ip te ; woo ff fj i : ¥ nO 5 z= § 
a i Pi EEL ES Fi bphip hid Aidt =o es 
Best 4 f-> § oe! we Ge ae es Se aera Vannes ie man arcade 

aoktaokbiveca eatin 

fable No. 2, which is derived from Table Ho. 1, shows the 

percentage of stream type, upland types, and all types that supported not 
to exceed yt 60 and 25 s dived Hives live stem Lan ACS. 

that a ca ‘Laree “asliags of the 
‘feet per aare bub only: @oout 55 
= fe ae nal ind Ag chiefly dye toe | oO 
wting 100 feet of Ribas: per sere that was 
not sovihed beomase it 4s believed that the natural reduation of Ribes 

by egy "aa rapidly a to-mitertally reduce this amount 
of — stem. 

ay «SSE S he ra hi ee hae z 

Pale: we. BS anoe re Gp hb Winds per acke on thie area one 
year after eradiention. 

Serco & 
60 ant 25 feet 



Bas : 
re tie 




ed? awoke .f .o% oeldut sovt Bovited et satio jo Loh soldat 

som bagxecewe dads escys Lin Sas ,keqy baniqn ,aqyt maotda to ogsinenteg 

on 18g meda evil gedih Yo geet &S baa CS COL heonxa of 
$08 wear 

pc nh tN rca aN aa FA AA LL ALLA LLIN phere eatin nas! ETS A NORA ED 

RN AA LOMA NO OI sesh ee Mie EA A PALE LALO IN ema men S enmtepie Wp nwee 
lmaia ovdl aedgil £328 agaci92 to dxo9 teh) 
_.eabboens! tot. wth me Soo lt 

ge “ } 
3s | gest 08. } 
a en ean ne rn acca aaa pseite hoesn tos) 

j 4 

Ce eee ee ee | 

0, OE 

pen. Saree 
De AL ned etn ee 

Roar | Seen een 





i 4 














t ‘ 
a eames Wee. oes oe | ae cee +! Beet 

ads tp exeteemter swiel tev a dadd trye'e ef #2 SB .o8 olde? wt 
38 ¢erodacyiao 220 e%OR “TOG jest OOS aadt esol ettoqqua satorss Isteod 
to otasmpe eatal 2 cd enh ~ftebio ef ath® teed G2 cadd eval -daso. 199 
now Gade acon cog eadapoel aeche %e geet COL aaidueqee sodas. etude 
sada to woftoubex Iacedan end sate beveiied ef 32 sduaned Bedtowet sos 
Jouous ehdd enoket yllabioiam os domes tibiges evotgota Iifw aetbades ya 
| sabte evil to 

ero Sota aid? ao een tag aedlB add neq? ye wots. of. eidat:. ; 
mottaotbats etta’ tay 

TABLE NO, 3. a 

~., 493k, 2 POR CANT OHECK ) HY 

Ribes Left 22 Acre 
Ali S5celes | 

Fs. Bu. [¥.L,3.|/Bu. |¥-b-3.|3u. |?-L-5-|_ Bu. Wet 

BN tat 
| ad 
| | | 
M - Wegligibie or less than 0.5. Nal 
Checkers included variations in types not reeocmized in the |} 
Ribes ersdiestion records. | 
Table No. 4, derived from Table No. 3, gives the pereentece of 

stream type, upland types and all types that supported not to exceed 100, 
_ & and 25 feet of Kibes live stem per acre. | ey 

TABLE WO, 4 | 

" “er n , 
| YOO Veet |... 50 Feet _| ge 2 CE 
Sean et pment Ett wctloyes worn oars bee os actin, BY LB ee ceo 

ae FB Fo oe Pe mpenraatn — — peewrennenens = Ft 

UDLa TG SE 2 : pO. 4 ; 48,4 pat 

Per Gent of Acreage With Ribes Live Stem a 

Comparing Tables No. 4 and Wo. 2, it is seen that the 1921 
worked aren had 11.7 per cent less acreage in the 100-foot per acre 
classification but 9.7 per cont. more in the S0-foot. The difference in 
the amount of acreage in the 25-foot class was only &7 per cent in 

favor of the 1932 work. 
In 1928 Ribes eradication work was done on a total of a, 467 
acres in the Big Creek and Fox Creek drainages. As a study of the Ribes 
Conditions on this area 4 years after eradication, a 4 per cent check 
was made of 974 acres. Table No. © shows the results of this check. 

In this table it is notable thet 75.3 per cent of the aren had 
not over 50 feet of Ribes live stem por acre and £4.7 per cent had 25 feat 
or less. ‘This indie¢ates thet the present protection status of the 1928 
work is better than that of either the 1921 or 1932 work in the Priest 
Lake region. 


1928, 4 PER Cin? CHECK 

Ca a ee 

o Bu. ¥..8.|Bu. Fel. 8. aE? 8.|Bu.|F:L.3. _| 


The checking cost computations for the Priest Lake Timber 
Protective Association area are as follows: 

Cost of checking................ Caen $341.42 
Area reported in eradication report.....17,366 
Average cost per acre for checking 

27366 = %$,020 


SUSIE FOR WL RP ee TR Bil RY wid § 
Areas worked in pea lhe ‘1928 (training camp) 3 

Salaries (21 ia eae, t,t 
Expenses. .... -FWURGRUTRA GR. ee oes 115. 24 
Subetatemees 0065. es ies 3s: See 
rt oer ine (charged: to. pysden tty 2): Phe DS, 74.... 
ape Cs 3% “Bia a8 Mik ttierad over oene 78 
whieh pine Aven reported. 4. eradication report 1931 = 11,068 .. 
in the vtanee parted 11928. end, chonked: dm 1932, >, mtn OLS, 
Pie bes mek » Letal area che checked. 2 "leuewm ooirepater “Peart v4 5, 12,042 


of the ma! 1.0 pexagiel.weste pur ners for: ehetetne dL. 26 80.209 - 
Oy ® 

Deductions were made fromthe total training camp costs for 
scouting and checking of the Savenac nursery. The latter was conducted 
_ bY, for, mit dang the net: Tow days of the: training period. sone 

& wehdi f. i 

BR 3 eg : 
hi y Shey a 4 Gor ay 4 2, 
BPE bins ak ‘oe ren *4 
Sey aut em” sh] a > in 3 fas Ba : a xee3 
« # Mk so Bigueet, 
AY CAG Bhs De? ie fon € 
we 2 b> Ae a LB & 
cs sail NL asa Seth a en " aoe, ie 2 i! 
y Wii ae eas ESE. FS kee ideas > Rete HERE F a. ose $ 
os ty, £ 
eo ihn 4 4 Gs ied 2 Ss Ss Oe se § pe ai 

i , Bog is. Pa ae % 
one ted? $- Ene Ft owe ‘ ? ¥ ite 7M ae i e 
Bboy on FS ole mit wee ea - toe 
Cae Wes WL Eh oe Mire are an ; 
a a 
cor PP Re cw ‘ ee =e . * sa 
& OF COR? S ) teke G2  Bems sis Sa eee ee  B5aes 

a OO if ry 

4: M ; 
BR ye 



i F Bie 

4 (omas “pgintevt) 88°f baa I60f af baaltow aaoth 

Perr rr _»». (xom IS) aeftalaé 
OS GIL .n-cecsccveannes rere Tee asenaqnd 
4A ee ..+,-. Onasteleduc 
BY Sf f@ (S.2 dootorq of Soytado) LegoT 

a = A PP) 
Ii atisr et & « 

£30,ff£ = lef dxoqet moltsotbars af bettoget ‘Mats 
BOs = SSCL wht Berloesto bas b50L ak bealtow goth. 

$0, 8F Sy id eke ae .... beteedo seta Iatel 
@OL.0% bY SiG.L% salipeds t6t st98 TWHG Jans epete vA 

ast efeco qmes aatatetd Iatot add moukt ebam ate eno kioubed 


begorbeos sav tettal eff .ytes tant aerevae edt to anhioelo bas sativoos 
soltey satalard efg te eysb wet teal sci uatirh mom astot yd 

Pe. 4 ae et aps “a ne 
Cd aay ‘SY "a 
se ._ Fuator, Forester : 

tee me sees 

jaan ae previous. years-has shown +nke whe ‘rust on © 
Ribes ‘ér eee As beattered over practically the entire Inland limpire 
which pine The most. serious invasion of the disease has occurred 
in the south ‘part of this regiom coineidental with the occurrence of 
Ribes > petiolare. “Seouting ia 19$2 has. shown, that the-region just north 

of the pe Ry Batiolars zone Tas a Hed ‘seattered nine infeetion 

; i al f oh 
ee Fre pra ws e 
ae . er * Re ed 5 - 

rt o> * i ah mde a, 
a 3 fe Rar a : ed hy a 

vt purpose of seoubine is to determine the extent. ond s Antonetty 
of the a | coe cy ee 

Ou! ks 3 #: a ; S = 

ie | j 3 ren A ; } i ei : : f 
5 AA ‘ pieepipe tn ee Rises oO Se, pa haan r ‘“ Freeh, SDipecons yeanitearent <3 ts a 
C4 bone j ee a tps tmet mtn. ech Senge bossy a: ws % J Bch: ated 5 
poy i A eae “& “a 4 x on iG oe Sb % ve: Pi. ie 2 C iy. oe 

“| S| Th 1932 syatomtie sobuting was ‘oandulted' da. the Kanteen. bia 
ont G@'Alene ational Porcsts. Random Secuting of otlier north Idaho forest 

63 wee performed throuchout the $@ason by both the ‘permaneat: and 
seapormry ane she be > mo bia with their peepee care ts. > pe 

Be Pry Ps Bs: : : c 1 , * “ . 
aby en, : Be i Gren ae 
a — i “pads | I eg 
e ae oe : be 


al Fidei bas to 1932, e totel. of a gine infcetion centers. haa been : 
located in the Inland Empire, TY of. ‘whtoh probably originated in 1923, ~~ 
the year in which the disease ent ered this regions | “The location and data 
for caéh of the 61 aor? = aes on ee 178 ae ive ‘et the: ee Anmal - 
Report... f ir fit ; Ce it ik ie BS 



1 1932, Yona sal Gaeaae vavdalaiee Sands i one of witdh > 
wichitinanal™ n ‘jez Tims the total known’ a Infection centers we now 7 
and the total that otetnat ge in 1923 fe * ie 

fabls No.2 1 ig a favelation of the Loakéicn and ae « for each: ng 

the 16 centers found in 2. is 
xi ‘i 4 

®, o byt i Cs fe 

ae 4 i ut oe “ 
in 4s at tk fi i 
‘ * ‘ ? % sa 

ef ec Be ‘ as : a 

1) } ys F ¢ H i “y } is 

eis ee eee 

Pty i i i g oe 

a " ; M ; ” ; a | 

He + > eS s & ch 


——= == -= 


sg oe 

tou aF2,2°" 
sojestet tolawt 


wo geut totekld ted? twode gam wiser, ato byetg Bait Salsso0e 
erfomi Saalni ettine sia yifastiesig t3V¥o bevedtace ef renkg me TH agd fh. 
petruose ead semestd of? “te aofeowat exebree fecet 3a? .netact enig dotdw 
to some riseed ght Hate fetnebfantes nofyory ata’ Ye taq wisddsor ead . a2 
a4vren tent moteex odd tadd ewoda ead SHPE st antywosd: etalotion aadle® 
cotisetat ant Leteftaca wel set wor ones sxeioiteg. vi sian edd To 

1 age 
‘ J N n es Ge aa A ‘ + a r sing fas, Bay “yp wi : r 
vsieneint faa dhesxocadd satenetob codysk aattacss to seogeegy 982 cot ve 
= .eaeeth ef3 to 

Kectevat es Be Teenen? 
are _BOPTasGe 

hes srevinex edd ao Sevoubnoo aaK aniszoos ofiamdeys sseof al 
horet odabi déiem toile se seiguons mabass  etestot Leactiak eno lA’ h tse09 
ins taonameq ois diat Yd norase acs grodexotdé bemrtotiec 3s% eOets 
wiremegines te lirget sfod? dita noltomm[saco of com yretoqmed 

reed bed evetres woftootet snty {8 tc Isto? 8 Sel oF 20 Pret Ss 
Ser gf beteatzicze videietd cote to £f ,ottons breeInl of? of botasol 
stab bean mobtsool sat = .o tet gins Sovetae oemeath of? tio liw mi ta0ey oft 
lesncd INCL aid To OY oF AYL smsa wo morte at evedzen £6 edt To doses 40% 

dati to ano ular baot etew awdass fanotdibaa af wPEOL al 
cS wor ef wisdned selvostal esl een fated of asmiT .ES@L al betantalie 
Gf at SSei at Sedantatto ged? Intod oft bane 

to doa cot adh Dam meksanol oat To noizelodat « ef I ot oida®? 
SOL xf basot etedaed af add 

Se eet ed 

~ AEE Lhe ecad' T248M 
aes eae es wd@eT) “Si °N| “S88TD 
oes Ge arte el “20% 
| ; : = ad ayy 24 

2 “‘Gp-it) | Fe Stile [Nop] = “40 29zenn] 

me at Lo phen satin 

i a 2) Grit 

Stipe “Sete |ie-ozet 

| *dOue'y “STA HET 


Restos 2. 

‘syary -aed-Kf 
Sie SE 

ee a Raab 

cuuGe auras nol tozauh wag | 

mem ii Soe re a oo a ee 

ee ; a z cee ae = te saodae f= 

Bstats caeh 
a sodif . __ 

At. SRS LOE zai sn natn BP. ~ ae 

—— eS ce ee no conga qe eremeiereinaeeipsaine 7 semen ar. aS a: 

pet lets 

i. ait L.dos 

‘ee fish ais 

\ 9 962 ES a 9 ee 

i. = i888 
psaated | do yaaa | ats 

1-4 Loja 

eer ge i. Fi 
paths hoa TS-6S° at 


—. joueies { wadglt Neatewree log 
ab sa | Ob-f fide & | go OL: as ov tae 3 

$e ps Sennen ee 
ee oe an erg’ 

ae vee 

[ef eih_ «2 St 
aDae 5% teat | 

Rian | 

Bt Jenage iss eshsdlslis the 

oe ren erent em 


iatt a thes aclibsh ip tanec 

one: [le ia rere £2 xeott| 
err eee _|_ decal <SEiSS area 

Saran 2a Ke- By Ar $23 ac | 


pr sae AS ee x0 me tanclinaljemodees 82 | 

ic ay wit , 

ab geen | sarasmamente 
~pidsd Soca | 

ad tanned 

wt tel anthe! gL. TLi8 mrs 


“ Wet Ct! £3 S| wily é US. fe OF ae 881 
i GaefS] fs 7 
uh [00a Bi 0S OL 5 sie! re 
Eis sedswseet2 ! 

- tegal  SSel me Te ore. ar oor! 

taet 105 sa 

x pObakL fe Ok ae » g 

- "281.8 sal ie 

aS ae Bae go om 

J a8 eo ae ae aoe nt Es 

net afi ied “ie ee tS ss sate 

TEs ae a nee & . 

Ae Leen 

It is seen from Table No. 1 that five new centers were found 
on the Cocur d'Alene National Forest. All of these are outside of the 
region in which 2. medica, eeretts cass this region were found 11 
_ new SPE sents oe 

sa “Daring cr summer a See portion of the. Kanikgu National Forest 
gg spi dae ‘Lake ‘Maber Pretastaee pomtes ay area was scouted. Wo pine 
vo Sheet and only one Ribes infection was found, that being on a single 
“Leaf of B. viscosissimum. This cer eeesen was located slong Benton Creek 
@ast of the Benton Ranger Station. — ™ 

It is evident: ‘that within t the R petiolare region pine infection 
centers are abundant and rapidly increasing fn number. In contrast, on 
the Coeur d'Alene National Forest, ‘immediately adjacent to the BR. petiolare 
“region, there has been found a otal, i ia eevee, eae farther north on 
the Kaniksu. National Forest, none. eure 

Raikes infections were found in two localities where 1t has not 
‘been located previously. One is along the Palouse River in the Palouse 
Division of the 3t. Joe Nations] Forest and the other is alone the Lochsa 
River near the Powell Ranger Station on the Selway Wational Forest. The 
following is a list of the points outside the general region known to 
have abundant war) ian ts, where Rihe Anfections were found in 1932. 

a bk, 

ott ; he South Fork ef vee puiiase Rivers %. @ “ae ° 2. 2 w.. Sec. 22, 
oe odnfeetion on BR. lacustre. - : 

. South Fork of the Palouse cinta ze 42.6. Rc ka, Sec. 26. 
i aetoetion ome — Ie 

4 ES ¥ ds 

: sora south ork of ‘the Palouse River, % 428.4. 2W., Bec. 26. 

- agen xeon Torah 
SPP 33. 18 SS 
a. Lochsa nieone Re e Mi » R. 14 Bey See. SO. Infection on Re 

. + a f..3? W.. Re U4 Bix See. 36. Infection on R. potiolare. 

headt exow etsdaeo wea ¢vit dadt I ,o% aide? sozt xsea at 31 

att Yo ebletwoveta veedt<to TTA ,teenot isnctial oasié' bh tae00 edd Bo 

If bast stow moiget etd aldgi¥, .e10D80 aralotten iA dotdw af aofget 
2 ie ie ged wer 

sugxod Innottal wastes’ edd to mossgog eyiel = temawe od wer bag 
exter of. .hetvots 2av gots colgakacsed, avigootott godmtt eoiad taolxS bas 
ofnate » so anied tad? . beret sew nobtsetat zedil exo ylao bas cohgootat 
waatd sotned gapia betevel aan noksoetat gid? . eos to Yael 
aciie’g wweyaek gods’ oft Yo Jase 

acttoetat eniq sotyet exalatiar «i oxy nidgiw decid dacbive af 31 
fo .temrteos oi eodenn nt orfesexoat yliiqat bre jaehaoda gia etedueo 
atafotien .ff..ens of joeoet be ylatalbenunt ~teorok Laantte® ene Li" sug 09 okt 
no dies todd tet, Dia neves yoo to Iesos & ferot cood gad @redt ,golgzet 
o> eam , fo 10% fenctiak® weiined sat 

ioe vad 32 ovetw solikinoot ow? at hoot orev ecoffsetat endif. 
eavoia’t eat of uevit esmbiad ott apecia ster ~¢lemeivesy betacol ssed 

pexood eff swole af tedie ens fein Seenet [enoitak aot .ft edt to noke ty fC 

edt deetot TauctiaW yawiet eid fo splial® ce2ceR {iewed edd is0u “teP iE 
od vend’ moines Terenas oft. abhedue atntoqg’ edd Te geti a at ottkwo [Lo% 

“Sef gt bavet wrew anotioetal aedih evade aoliow tet sakg foabards eas 
taste% Snsokial aux tied 

A te sobtestal, .d5 .908 » Weds Hh. HBS if yxeet? godnod oe 

tore’ [anotiad eok_.t8odt tonoletrtd sanole? 

Oo .998, HR OSS sPaecr lt aquoisa sft Yo sitol ddwoe Pe 
wopteeesl «2 &o aofiowtal ~ 

at pet ,.WR dis EGP Gh marl onmoles odd Yo ToT Hoe m3 
ane -oitent .& so solsoatal 

Be owe ,.8) 8) 2 4.8 cat evil eg so lae wl? %¢ axo% divod. .& 
outent .& to aoticetkal 

* jaazo'l [anotialt venlee 

: ~  etaloLieg 

fatten .ff so netépotal 88 .ook HA A.W E..F reve sedood oS 


Sait S25 eae ee eo 


a} q 
did a we 
ome \ aw 

» BeRSEea BUST. ea eas LB _BASEE RRO: 

Blieter rust control. activities in Washington were contimed 
ag a cooperative project betweén the Bureau of Plant Induetry and the 
Washinzton State Department of Agriculture. There is given below the 
smendment to the basic memorandum of ‘understanding, which was drawn up 
to cover the cHRERETO ENE work for the. jecoiale year 1933, a SEANRERE Sse’ f 
bad : 1 Soon herd ecncen sek convisted of Biles erect aetius and. weeredian 
 Sheecing of tee Bi Tt ee ie ie Tad Pye wht sae mage By! 
ack ake Bn anttetion wa 

jee bebcthd OF TATED ear cere iihheay oF PLA®! INDU visite 
masuIA To _sraré Sapaetieee ie A } IGUL TURE 

r ontrolling White Pine Blister Bast ie Washington, 

th > gpg ap alnavittna Mn REELS + get that the memorandum of under- 
amen Wetween the United States: ‘Department of Agricalture, Bureau of 
‘Plant Industry and the Washing ton State Department of Agriculture effective 
July2,- 1927; to eontinue in effect until June W, 1928, oe way be contimed 
im full force and effect in all its provision for the ‘iscal ending 
June 20, 1938, with the excent toa eee. oe ee Witch shalt 
be- ‘$0 Feed fas follows: au site Pie ee & 

OG Gee Lawad re Bing ele RORECE SPER He Les te nea a ; 

prob 0 IY J Rin tit maior ie seaside tate ‘ettese” 
Taly 1h 1932," ‘end continue in woreck. Sarr dime 2, ss, ‘orovided that © 
either party: 1 mate the agreement at any time by a written state- 
ment to that effect” 20 days in aavanee AF Bc mate af pecainnts desired. 

et BS TSS Pee Bie y 

yeni B60" Phat’ for the fiscal ee: ral ‘ 9950, Yo tine! 0, a aki aia 
the Washington State Department of Agriculture Ae ‘expend abgut © ** 
$4,000.00 andthe’ Federal Governinent in behalf of ‘the United States = 
Department. of Agricul ture, Bureau of Plant’ er about- _—. se tat * am 


pe Be 

chamnd Sees tie Seay eee gator eS SN ee OL 

elias semeee< s 7 ews et ‘pad lee b's % SRS Se OES Pee Hike a 

eve Bt at al. ad Ene esre ye Be! : x : 

et ioe, Reef pete i= ie ingooemae a ge ap EET a oe javigtears 
April 19, 1933. Wm. A. Taylor oe Ae REO REDS RDO SUT Om 

Chief, Bureau of of Plant In Industry, U. 8. De A. 


r tek? so oF re ak sser*” : as oh ik iy: 

Kaamtdncs sow’ nodseindaw nf netytrt¥hs fettnos ¢evt Yedef ta 

edt bes yitexsbal toald to weet ede asewted Joelota e¥itetedoos & Bs 
eds. woled sevis ef atedt _ ott Tem Parga to tremgrsqed ofeve nod paride st 

ay mwarb esr dotdy , anisnatereSnr ‘0 muybittiomen stesd. ‘end, of, taombuoma 

I yiirt sathnetaed S88F rgoy teber? oils cot Seow evttar-qnos Sy soveD of 

pa am fe, Bee he me We ao) ge SO 

ets a 

Le te sues 
Pee LS RN RS er a ae 

arr ot Br ee ay Ge ee 
“Sel Sigh ovEeipette 2. 

vaseuttel Sh uld x0 thoe " SRUDAUD TOA TD TRAE  gurare Garam ae 

Hotynitics? af geet xevetle onkt eoidF gist fYowgnod” mt fro, syitezsgqood 

be ae 7” 

fébetr Yo mubassonen edt gate oetse yifevtom fembtotebar of” 
to pRotrk .etwd ieeteRa to’ deoreraget setait hatin’ aft seswied untinete 
gvitsette sti teolrgé to tnomitace’ etet? codanides¥ edt brs viderbal tants - 
hommbsnos a¢ Iisde ,200f .0& saut Ittay sootte nk seebinod od (SSCL  f-vint 
aaibnae taey Isoett aft so% enotatvorq ast Lis af Jootie baa egotot L[fvt st 
Leta’ Hokie 850 Soa ToD eitqersatad: to mo £fqooxs ede dite ,260r 2 ent 
sewolfet en Sesx of bebnome od 

fostte mist (fede sobhaadstebasr. te axbxacoment & kid Fete TAO Jit. ; 
jedt bebive wm Rel , env) [tins fnetts at sunkinoo bas coel .f ysl 
~ofase asitiiw o ye emit yas oe jnsmeetne odd pt enters) yee ydteq todd fe 
botiseb achiasiates to etab edt To eonsebhs kb aye OS goerte dads of saem 

ROOM Gs. enst vd ,SBAL Lf yvfyt teey fapeit ond tot Pad? 829.6 
tyoda beaqxs [fiw etwtinotrgé Te dain dao”. eee wotantdaaW odd 
ealat® betint! edt to tiaded af toomirtevod Iq@tebel ed? bana 00 .000,a¢ 
wt K.0O0 Ts saods. ers vin lL teolS ‘to seo , emrtinetyya to thomtiaqe’ 
tot Bebivew atstod wrow ent aitiw noksoennos 

pay 20% ASST Eee 
todnet..1 8 e80l ti thre 

rn an a acmerne hw Ti a 

OT SEP patewbed deel Eto. baete® ,XebAs eno 

The. murpose of. this portion .of..the progran, was to, complete 
‘eradication’ 6f Ri ws over an area sufficient to insure protection to 
the designated white pine stands on the basis of what is now known 

“Wegarding the width of protection zone necessary. 

Ribes: eradication 1 was 
BS oak sepinrot aah 


| va 
ty ‘yoda : re Mi tial eal ya ioe pep aa ER 
toseetol tolm ppar hs 

a a NM Cale Te a m ie fe 
f Bn ROG Spe ae A eae 

sy Ff 2 2 Sg are i #2 sad verte ae 

‘ i Woes oud a3 Bo de te byte $e Of. See ee 

anbute Savnfiaos etoe ,CEUL a? Sedsidtal ,eeftiviise tte eoes 

soltsothoree: bas cotisothers eodti to Begaianes bas aoueen bfeit Sher edz 
wetatié satg sfidw rot gotéwons .dzom seitaotbere eediat ed? to galioedo 
Sore eso ao yowtse aolfestat as bas test 

Sp AE ER oe ar ne spn Sa nly 

qiaveensn sit botlouse Loxtued dani teyell€ te nolalvid edt | 

_steldivigde savdi 20 Lila. xok wetsivtecim tetenem, =| 
at} steigess of now moxpotg att To aeldteg eid? Lo secqimy ent | 
ot wokdvetorq wumenl of tnelotiiue sets ae Tov0 eal ii te soktaotbate 
swcad wom at getw to sized oAs, ne Brande pat wt iin hotammteeb old 
! Stings stot aeidoadorg, ip cable al? aatiocoget, 
need autash eaets eetdt Ho homers 199 ase. noliaathero, god LS at. Oo eowt 
botoigmes need Sat nottsetbats eedif Latttat tad¢ Serebbereo paw of dywoddlé, 
ext Suetxe of Gebined tedel esw dt .aots teoToT sevflti-eitmeuod edd mo | 

sete. sd} 10 molsasias as of arolacg of ssonetant ompn at ogog moltoeretg 
sevis, cesd pad sexs efad So aetightesah sae wotsanol, es? Aatoetotg of of — 
| , ee ete usu, eeTeget eamdvetg Al» 

era moldeotbars aedii Latdiat tot betanyized sesis wan ows eft 

sitivo? weet ybauN ods 20 .,nuote ofands. das. stiiwes waved: ybees eat es mons 
gga To gia0y. 0-6 ante eticy axetgew To ewmne. UOT, 1 vlodamizenqua ets: 
songs xamtio an uldaetegge ef enlg edicw mete. end te soidseq ogtel a Tove. 
onig edite dqeome avlgsiegey ea edtogae Yiletenes hae eptame ef Lhoeedto' 
gntou stom eld to owes dad Hawete edd .ao- ‘Y2eb on eh oved? jeatet daa: I 
erew gtigrsal .& das pwegeteatd sogifi wollby bea *ebfs stajsoo sodte | 

eff Sdiw asbieliid odv ao Seswot orew aedif ok .ummetis ait ynola daelavetg 
bas geble edt dtiw nokéetoceea ak etignosl 2 Seredtens wet 8 to doligesxe: ) 

‘ gd hh bam satq tide ao daesere as motigetal .wolliw 

Bron Of tina 

\e 1142, General view of Muddy Fork Cowlitz area, Mount Rainier National Park, White pine 20-40 yeers old with heavy; 

¥. 1137, 


BR bracteogum concentrations in stream type. 

Portion of seme stand as shown in picture above, No Ribes are found on the hillsides in this erea, 

a ra nye _ nur wntnet 9 . 
va a > Ly . ay s . t 
: a Rie te a i c™ ie 
5 pat nee ag . y at att 
ant eh eo he ny ’ “i s 
a hi ae . * ii 2 
5 4 * get 4 vy 
et s “ 
Shay Ps s » 
is ene | Ba “ Oo mere ¢ 
us. % ye 4 % 

: The | varbo. Brea. leondishé of  ppprizinately 420, Roi of 20-40 
‘pi “along with soe Scattered, elvips of White bark 
ohiva ee dacustre were. the. predominating species 
1 tributed over the area, being especially 
y) slides had removed the timber narrow 
: n sid of White ved, ae pompine failed to 
a a an si tes e - iS 

oe ‘ 
i ; is is 
S| WIS cm a 7 eet ee 
3 8 
ie j 4 


he ve in iy og bate, all ales’ ‘jredication ip was done by 

@ hand pull ng-method. “the: three Wah crew was used whenever the number 
men available permitted, In addition $0 eradicating all Ribes from 
the actual aree to be protected, RB. bractedsmm was removed, for a distance 
of one mile from the: white pine stends and other” ibes Heme were 
reupved rs * een of padarearnes: ee 


sdloalic Biba | the results of. ell tnitia Ribes 
ator hi sd has sa ford | sapentts : 


ip age EE oa i: a Ea Sa 

een esis 2 
ee 3 
wits okt 


| > x 
ia F g MW 
! iene 2 = 
i ae - 
és | Ft e 
me 4 € 4 
Sy ; 3! x 
xe : 3 § 
| $ z. t 
§ 5 i an Ay 
5) y é & ay 
|, ae aii > te epee, : 
a pete > tate ob 
H eli } bi & 
f mv | ¢ ae abe 
‘ ; pi 
by y ‘ & vont 3 
v a 1 kG 
ty iH Hs ae 
t 4 48 wi 
‘ i oat gies te Biro ech re amet 
se ms 
: We pc 
“A % 
; Ge ; 
i ie 2 
i & 3a 
} ; ¥ + 
} k : eee 
\ ‘% 73 
: St a 
“¥ z wah F 
‘ ? br Tr 
¢ re “ 
¥ a> sit 
i ds pie 
Ry ce BS e 
| ae 1% 5 a = 
ee aa Re 
re my 
£5; ” = 

Oh-O8 to setos OSh ylotaaixotggs to staisnos sets odtad2 off 
sad afidw to equvlo hetevisoe ome dtiw anoles sntg otide Slo 1asy 
estoece gaitisulimebetg edd eTo9 eigasrosl .f bas atfotixess aedifn .eatg 

vlistosuse gated ,£9%% eit tsvo botudintets yilsiteneR Siew yers baa. 

worisn mort ted aks ais bevemet bat sebtiewous stedw eeselq at sansh 
of beltat gatisooa cou¥ ‘SoviS effdW te sbie dixon edt gaols egqiata 
, Iusea TC gotiostnt you wode 

:doemotsp® bas edodish 

yd oa0b asw tow noltisoibetes gedill Lis ,81s9y¥ auotvetg at ad 
sedaem odt tevexedw boar asw weto Asm esids eff .Sodt¢em antileq baad eg 
mott eefih [is gatdacthate of sotgiabs al .betitarey elésiisye nom to 
sonstetb s tot bavomet so7 puegetoaxd of ,bedoetoug ed of sets Jasrioa el? 
grew sotoege sedi tacdio bis shasta entg ottdw et mott elim ono to 
eftm cedraup-eno to sonatelb 6 tot hevoust 

iow ‘to et [reed 

sad dS Ietttal {fe to a¢inact agit eevia eldat auiwollot eT 
ssoeaes Sisit SSel eds sot sotisolbst® 

Eero so eee 

Se ee es 

pee eae 


STO7 wedp - “7°6 
—wOT_onpoadey watio - “H’O 
ed mepage - “145 



3 : ae > .3 i YF & h ie : Sk wrt 
a Thy ps Ht : y iD 4 ¥ : b 2° = ngs 
$ oo ay . 4 S & : a at — oR i af ss 
~~ Ww e a te’ 2 ~ Rg Se St BS ae i “g aa 
}+ = 3 : : s a a 53 . ; f 4 a ; j 
x » tS Se 2 Za =F 26 28 2 3 Ae c ¢ IS Fidva Feewes tle nonngaret sti nmneen eet s, ence shanneniee ecpeeneninesg 

~ <e ~ we = sth SOE gg a ERE ee > 

{ 0m 21aat 




oh Saat CEES 

rca toh 
"£.8 S150 216 
ws lech. 

og .b Si0s, [2 OLs ea0, fe 

Fn Re i pa a cn a orc 

2 .if% 

2 S12 52S 


a ’ we . an ‘ ' ait : 3 ‘ 

gg O12 8S 218 SES Goseet| ef (80s. TjSs5.5 _[QbV, OS | L1G. b 858 SdjOLl SLLIS Tee tiSe8 __sonatsvA to | 

says saesdi - .1te 

notiorSotges maaG - 4.9 
sfod mei - .4.1 

The figures given in fable Wo, 1 apply only to the acreage 
actually worked, whereas the acreage afforded initial protection is 
considerably \in.exeess of ‘this figare, especially on the Muddy Fork 
Cowlits area where it. was necessary to work only the stream type. Wo 
figure can be given for acreage afforded initial protection since the 

Initial BRibes eradication has not deen completed on the Muddy 
Fork Cowhitz area. The amount of money allotted for this area would have 
completed the work but no money was appropriated for the additional 
equipment needed and it was aleo necessary to spend some of the funds for 
trail maintenance in order to transport caap equipment as early as 
required. Money for Ribes reeradicetion work also came from the Muddy Fork 
Cowlitz allotment. 


Temporary check strips, on the basis of a 2 per cent check, were 
run on all areas where Ribes eradication has been performed, The check 
of the work on the Longmire area wes made after Ribes reeradication; on the 
Sunrise area one year after initial working, and on the Muddy Fork Cowlitz 
and Starbo areas the check wae made the same year as the original Ribes 
eradication. Results of these checks are shown in Table Ne. &, 




ayagtio# adf ‘et ‘ao afogs L? ol oléatt ak jovi cre ad? 
st aoltoejentq Isitint behietta osastes eat ameredw .bextow yf Lorton 
sol YeSe% edt ao yilsisoqee .stmgit aid’ te aeeoce gk yiderebianos 
of .eayt adette ef? yine stew of YIagescen ea ti ersdw sets ett iwod 
acit conta stash, ree one Rowerta agastoa Tot ‘prev bs ed ase etoglt 
ay  tagt sige: pou ar avis par so wow 

ebbik exo ao et obenel cae toa aad waithes sheitsh socte fatetat 
eved bisow gota aids 0% hetjolla ‘ysmom To Sopot. eat sera gtifwo) 20% 
{asotéthbe eid tot Sedalicetcga saw Yeaom of. ter. Show snd heseigaos 
40% abaut off to. smem Saege Of Ylaseasen oala gow 32 ns. bobesn da smgtirp 9 
es yitee Be toenrivpe qeey Processed of yobto at somansiatam fiast 
rok You exit a wotee we nl sean ian 9 nog tT “et yaaok .bexrkepet 
Z a ane et a ean adi fvod 


eiex ,woois dao tea Bs To obnad | aig 0 aqghtte sipexio lide 
dgpado ed. ,bewratteg ceot aad wo lteotberta Boa th. erode 2aore Iie no aus 

ant se imohiags bay set aodik +9Fta aban tew B61a Stimgacd.eddno atow et Te 
yétived seTeghSyM ei? ao bom: + BUF OF faitiak tsdts ta9y eto aets ea lrase 
zed ts fnafimive ad¢ as teoy smaa ety sham gaw Boorio Ot aaeta ofiats baa 

& 108 sitat af awoke ote saies an oald Led edinand not denkbert 

i Ream 
aes ad io eatoaa 
—— oe Se ee ty 
i BE: | of a i aS (es peed eek tee 

fo fe rosie fg 5 gee Peg “fe 
| St OT ol RE Ld ON fet BZ Be. S tte 
Bs ) - is o 
Bo See eceies Sar an ee itera oom ? 


,: ioe oe at wa 
TBS. = eo ‘. bee 
wae: Lee se wiht Sf 
Tr. 1g .tel 

Re ee ne 

Ss ie Te Re Ss 



as aia 

by the 


ae Ts ATER BY ees ee se m ‘= s 
9 wet ae : Va ES PS ak eS : @ 

bes reeradication work are tabulated 



circ or ae Shae en Bee 3 

oe ote 

dyeing Rae 


2 Sih 
= , 

Atte 9s 


, j : 


jp gia tior-oarteg 
HES bs oe te 


BU FAO LU Aea ae. 

-~otismuonl ety. to. egyt seetes odd so Sedoshoos caw atow eat" « ail 
bourvtotiss need bad aclseplocte esi ih lesigine onedeo seta seotot tev Lhe 
add. yt. esed sew Mee edt. .ereenea Bieitt (kel baw OGL eds eitiewh 
Hea aw wets sea eemds ec} han Sodten aniifeg baad 

bat eindad ais 

Miow poties bowiest. cadif odd te eiiceet otf 
wol{ot es 

Spo ae le s 

Bee ae dee 

Tay OFeTOAy| 


Si0y Jd 


ee ee ee 


owe Dao me mae 


ete ee tn _ 


“ON Wiav : 

Annual = 

ral lee] 

.Gv 82 = atos tag deod 8.08 Lato? .8.8S sedi .£.28 edoorge = atos teq mode avid test eA 

Series Wi. 


Series of pictures taken at Narada Falls, Mount Rainier National Park, showins portion of the Longmire-Silver 
Forest area. R, bracteosum in upper picture eradicated in early September 1930, Center picture, taken in 
July, 1931 shows a few B. bracteosum sprouts. Reeradication wes conducted in September, 1931, Lower picture, 
teken in July, 1932 shows original Ribes ground cover replaced by salmon berry (Rubus) and Menziesii. 

Annual Report 1932 
M,C. Riley 


ae Kao rey eS ee 

oot SR er) Ee ae ERS 

The acreage in the-table- above Goes not correspond with the 
total acre for the area since some portions did not support sufficient 
Ribes oe hedge HeersBitatiod.” he initial Hibeseraéication | 

1.9 man ays’ per ‘nore ore averaxe ‘cont or “ay, 85 per dere. 

PAS pin acon om née Aree. to deterwine the infection ¢ 

iden tat the lonuhs 108 ORG GF “OST acaerers mieat hawe & bheearios 
ck @nice Bas LE * « ree + 

Upper the Ribae eradication work wAich wa 2 t ‘ime beat 

wht oh COO the” fol Le wi te” hae Lists the? veers reriereern cinee 

sufficient funds weve not aevalizcebe, 

Strips 13,2 feet 
angles to te course of 
re wars ; rete, 

xte pe. eye Cua SAS To by 
ah ndy of 2 per epee - a 
SURF, J yois we A ag ay ee 

Subsistence Packing 
fruck Ren anc Qperation 

oe tan on a an ei 

Grand Total 
*Subsistence at ¢.40 per mesl included in this item, 

Ponds expended by the Division of Blister Rust Control are 
represented by the items for supervision, twine and freight. Figures in 
Table No, 4 give a cost of $6.11 per effective man day. 


In an effort to locate new infection centers, scouting was carried 
on in and around all major white pine stands and was also conducted on all 
of the drainages outside of the vark, where it was felt that the presence of 
infection would jeopardize stands in which the National Park Service was 
interested. Wo new infection centers were found. 


até A¢tw Baogeettoa gon 2e0h evods aided edd at ensetoca oat 
Sustotttiee gicqawe tom bIb anoittog smoe sonia seta wid tot sgsetos Isto? 
gotisotosie sedi fetdial eat soiieothstest statieeesen of dtwotg sedifi 
.2toa sq SB.L[k to Jeon egsisvS A8 TO STOS Te eysbh naam @.f betispet 

en ee erent 

& OM GiaaT 

Oe ae i OE 


WwATMAGATaN ee me a rey it 
= eS... oh AO A Boner mi 

wanntnecatersenerpiaihtie entectanetenniocet sta gy nesnehee stoners nen? tte OO OCCT L ALL OG LLCO CCN CLD LT A nn 
i ti nit j 
3 npn Se anon oe 

a > 4 rs sat t - . a ~4 = P P ; 
lomepenoce S'S OR eS 5 —setastanioe auniciciecncneaneee gifog es & ig = me 

| Sb ses. £2 sole tyr aque 
i oat aa TC “e I par wh oe a ak ae cosacmentcaataicance etna ttt NR RE AIREY TEI = 

[| *@8 ,8at 9 SS get.8 gtetodal ets teqmelT 
a co rerscrononatin ach Tare RS Ne ee + ena eer RPE NTN ee Ae OOONIPN getia annn—s 
| SE. Pie ee ee eh BOD LagoT 
100.08 | ob sone Bart 
WE Se cee ore nnn ED IG EGE 

CEE oj aabinss eonosetedue 
_._ Sokistaad bos Letaok aorr? 
en ene SESE 


aie | 


asroonaitsorn fit 

| 5 Te — ss nen darenaon ne ener steer oar aan ee 
caren amare on ether ter ee eS ane en aa S ETI rm nm 
yaa anti =n Sea tnerereee 

__..__fstot das 

£ ei. pene nang aim ec pe A hae ee in ee see rte vein sane fm Nie i NAA E RE RONG COLOR GIA SEEN 

madi aldd at Sebslont Isem t9q Ob. 3a aonedse Ledve* 

ets Lotgue? ten tegatik te aclaivid edi yd bebneqxs sbact 
si savoglt .tdytett baa entwi sotatvtecka tot esest edd yd. het nea stqget 
.yab man avidoetts teq [1.85 to deco a avis, b of sidaT 

heivtsas ese gulsiwoos ,ststas9 notisstat wen stasof of dots as at 
fin mo Sedorbsen cele aaw bas ahasie enig efinw rvojsm [is basots bas af go 
%o someseva edd fadd diet saw 3k stedw  . wits ait to ebtetuo eegantatb edt to 
gaw ajivte® syst Ieoclisl edt doldw af shbaade exibiecest, Siscew sottostat 
_borrot stew arednes nolisstal wen off betzarsiat 

_— ey seks: PR ETT ee PO TT Oe MN ae aye ee 



Lo os 

Nae se a3 < isi 



\ Infection is general over the Muddy Fork Cowlitz area but 
random scouting had failed’ to locate any infection centers, A survey 
was condurted on the area to determine the infection centers with the 
byodl that the location and extent of these centers might have 2 bearing 
‘upon the R bes eradication work which was in vrogress at. the tine bat 


| sufficient | 
| z \\ st rips 13.2 feet wide and 10 chains apart were run at right 
angles tio ‘the course of the streams and all white pine trees on these 
‘strips were examined. The strips did not cross each other and did not 
| yond the limits of the white pine type and they represent a 
or\cent 6f an area of approximately 1,100 acres, A canker 
analysis’ was made, for ‘each infected tree and the location of that tree 
‘on the strip mas ‘Feconded, 

ee [~ i 

ds were not available, 

| | The following table: _gnd-graphs show the data obtained, — 
‘No. 1 shows the samc data ss presented in Table No, 5, while Graph No. 
‘shows the data plotted the distance from the strewn ee 
‘Tegardless of stream type. The difference between the two graphs 
|Fepresents a more detailed plotting of the cankers in the strean tyne. 

- N 




| | 

6oh— \ 






i; £ 



xay aus ROLPOReUy 

gud acre sitive?) att yobut on. SY. Lerten, ad. mediated, 1 
yeruue A ,stedoe9 nolioetal.yas steoel ot, haliat.bsc,, yatisens. et 
ad# dtiw eredaes rottestat aft entareseb of sets edt no bado ubuoo Bay 
aitteed a eyad ddata etejne9 sead? te duetxe boa actiacel edt tans aebl 
tos smtd edd ga eeorsots HE aaw dotiw avow aeivsolthare eedih edd noqs 
eonte sonsge Sioit teers edt gaimwh betelqeoa od tog SL00 to lin 
sidalieva gon erew abartt jmatolt tre 

fdsit ts mort etew dracs eat sds OL dae abiw deat S.8f aaiete 
SuGiy LO Beets enig etiaw {is bus emsetie edd tc eatuee git of esiana 
jon bE Sua tedéo Hoge Be0tS Fon SID agitte edT .beatmaxe otew eqitte 
a ixoeetge: yods Sea seyy sittq: Sitiw 6A% Yo efiat{ odd Saoyed inodxe 
sevnas A  setse OOL,f yledsutéetoge to sets as to tues teq & to ybrve 
agit tacla te aoké¢aoo!l eA? Sia oot? Setootat sos9 sot ont eaw eleylans 
bsbisset bax Gtuts edt ” 

Heatt peckgite wieh® att wore edverrs bici ‘elder yaivelt oY ser" 
& .ef gow elitr (4 of sive? mt betusagte ae 8225 aoe add oe A col 
*fartt ‘drte as meet eniedetS ott of mithoons | asttofe etab-enid ewes 
angatg owt sit neew¢ed vometsttip off ecyt aisette To sselbtsge7 
ch) mses He odd at-etoinss: edt So y satteeag, iokigvele ‘eton &  Mamarss 






EAM W-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 






3-4 4-5 "I-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 






peg | peat 

g 0d S1aAT 



Low remeron 

steiaad| bet| tod 79% | 
basroF sort est? | {2407} get? | Isto? leer? {stor )eorT | {esoT |sotT | Lad {aj oT jsett | {ajot | seett bel bute 

‘ i ee ae Se @ 
| : | Sal tise [ss | as | es | es 

} ¢ t ; 
jt bof art 


| | | 
| oor | oor is.s lepostle. | Sec rs | a 

In Table Wo. 5 the data taken in the stream type are represented 
by "0" ia the colum headed “Chains From Stream Type.” fhe width of stream 
type crossed by the strips varied with a maximum of eleven chains, Ribes 
bracteosum was the prevailing species with some 2, lacustre in mixture 
and there were ao Ribes outside of the streaa type. The area. is reasonably 
uniform in pine distribution. This table shows no infected trees more 
than 13 ehains, fren stream, type although the strips were extenied a maximm 
distance of 26. chains. Random seoauting has disclosed all stages of cankers 
set te Stotenets. itor oth heetaihens the nates did. not locate 
any he*@oacsrative work Fe 

As a result of this survey two infection centers were found. OGne 
of these centers was directly on a strip end the other was located through 
the preponderance of cankers found on two other @@joining strips. Both 
of these centers were approximately three ehains from stream type which 
accounts for the peak on the graphs at. that ‘point. A graph showing cankers 
per infected tree would give o peak at the same place althovgh it would be 
Lem 2 “3 1 and the welsh ses nt ne. staan. Fak cankers to another would 
no @ same, 

(i. % aT > a) ye Kat a ‘ rR 

During the 1932 field season Bibes eradication was performed on 
856 acres at an average cost of $10.88 per acre. Gheeking was done on 
all areas where Ribes eradication had been performed, Mibes yeeradication on 
421.2 meres regulted im renoving 70.5 feet of live stem per acre at an 
average cost per acre of $2.75 as compared with $11.85 per acre for initial 
Ribeseradication on the same area. Scouting was conducted on all important: 
. BPORS. ni phakic git MORO Was = made on & means of the ieee York Cowlits 

area, efi ac tn & ‘ ; 

With the exematiasce 

Feat aa fazi 

Mite y 

ut } Sfuhi it 
Pile £. 9089 bn dedtune t6 af Saak 
Se tha YD 6 452 eS SERED hee ee TO 
eltner pariy mer tarecsaia the 
tx as » Pe ld FI a a ht aha sith oe sks 
® BRAS B25. Si ee Be Bes 4 
Aue ty 

a ae ee <n Re Suan: weir 
Jveron Stage Brees 

a & es fi, as alee $ 1 eRe sk ils caidas 
SUG LAP Gr FAP Se Ee or 
“ Py a 7 
Lagae wilh eunarwe ¥ 

Qe Eee TE ee a 


hadasagtqet 91s oad maerta old at Lseiatals atab sed a. oll ‘eicat ak 
motte te S3Stw sit “laorT meorse mort edtato" pebaeog HmirLon ofd at "0" yd 
sadifn soled sevels on itso 883 iw. baby eqitge.edi yi beeaots says 
oustxin at etjepvosl ff emoa a3 hw aatoege aati lavets ‘eit saw mreosioaid 
yldancese? gi seta oh are. mctie o03 10. ebis¢se . ‘a6fit on etow -eteid dns 
ero esetd betostal oa ewoulg olfat pict .aoktwditsaib entq at mottos 
maumitan ¢ Sobhedes avo~r eticge off cewodfIs soyd Mastoe gott entado SL madi? 
eremies to eeeste Ife heaoloe lS eat gotiwcos cobash © “eaksti a& to eonstels 
afacol sou bib eqtt seeds, Hgrents Le. egy? ame1se mott egotadelh sedeetg de 
; | ono to Ye 

en’ ,battot gtew eredces ‘a0 itoetnt ond eye: ‘elds to. seed Beh 
tasgriig 5 batisool eae teddte att bas obide 2. sto. ~_lisatis Raw atetoso) ge ods to 
dtoG. .eqitéa sriatojSs xedte, ows, ao boy? exgunas to souuTebmegetq erly 
Moise sexe mastte wort antarin eetht vlodemkxetccs stew atedaeo beodd to 
ersinse paliwocs RGSS A. .€Ghog Galt Ja. asigas.. sat ad dagq oft 16% @tarosss 
ed Bisrde 32 oyciptd ia sowite éuen odd, ts thes ovis. blow: port hbgtoetat T9¢ 
strow tedicas oF aveiaes te spate axe Yo solvaler sais! bak boocmresatg ea ol 
SO eee | bald ed tom 

a fanaa 

0 begvotts eaw api ianloage ood ik Rownse Ssort 5 Beer olf aotiie;| h, 
ao pxoh es% gatyoed> etoe teq 88.017 to teem: egatere ua te, d6r98 Bee 
ne hotsab bharesrt- eed Bi bewrott sg saat! bash sokiso lsat eadif sveciw gaers iia 
“iG 38 soe eg pete ~evil to seek a OV set v opis i Sstiveot e@ree &,{Sb 
fatdint sot eta toy 26 Lit ddiw betagmos ea ay. ck to eres toq 3899, sgeteva 
‘$asttoqmt [ia no bsioshaco enw aikivosé seus sage adj ao sokissthate eodiz 
att fwod dito: a costie eit te aa. tosom s & ie eden ae eres notiostat 2 o SATS - 






of the Un Pe Saige gear contro ties A Ores bh h wer, ‘eoatinned as a 
eooperative project between retiagteratteg fant Indus tg and the Buresu of 
Plant Iadustry of the State le th a! Agriculture, the Oregon State 
tof Forestry and thé-Oregon State Golleze. There 4s. given below the 

amendment to the basic “memorandum ‘Of utiderstandiug, which was dram, Ww, te... 
cover the cooperative*work for thé fiscal year 1932 begtaning July 1,— : 


1.0 0.00 ag Ke. is eri Ld je : 

pes geep gate. OF oy DEAD 
$2.6 TE0..00 he. ile ‘ne 

; Lee yo alo a aby een” + * ’ 
rt res DEPARIus) oF vi | OF PLANT INDUS7E 
au mse stars EPs ae seRLGULTOR, BURA 0 Fase InDus7ey, 

ra ae. “OF eae LAN r a 4% | a COLLEGE ° = 

Cooperative Work in Controlling White Pine Blister Rust in Oregon. 

x * .& 

The undersigned mtually agree that the memorandum of under- 
stending between the United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of 
Plant Industry and the Oregon State Board of lorticulture, Oregon State 
Board of Forestry and the Oregon State College effective July 1, 1927 to 
Continue in effect until June Si» 1925, shall be continued in full force 
and effect in all its provisions for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933 
with the exception of paragraphs E-1 and Eeé which shall be amended to 
read as follows: 

Bel. That this memorandum of understanding shall take effect 
July 1, 1922 and continue in effect until June 30, 1933, provided that 
either party may terminate the agreement at any time by a written statement 
to that effect D days in advance of the date of termination desired. 

eG. Thet for the fiscal year July 1, 1952 to June XD, 1933 the 
Oregon State Board of Hortieulture will expend about $2,500.00; the Oregon 
State Board of Forestry will expend about $1,000.00; the Orezon State 
College will expend about $1,750.00; ani the Federal Govermaent in behalf 


“OXe jiviat povted etah off & «ot Qieet as 
“oUkHe WI MAOW DORTHOS TeUs hiniaas weislon “ads wi °O* yA 

hee ae bitare ug wit 3 

shea) ie BN 

a te hasttinoe ote nosero af wets fviins Yortnoo tery tedeFTe © DRA 
to maanue erie bow yxtavbet taal To ine te odd ‘iteowtod teetote evii steeds’ 
otate coyerd sit Joust ietesn io Prremeraded efese oie Mo Yrtesinl tantt 
Sis ee led new? cf sx “eyelid wiede reget? Sx) bre Vat ato To’ Hanoe 
of ex meth caw cokdv Vaotbantete nr oe socbersonen oted eff of Yoembront 
wf ylyb antomkged SECL wey Iwoett edd sot tow evitsteqods ets teveo 

2% y 9 Poa tes so vor: alge. te eineat a te 

. é F LA ~ 

4 Cre i = S S38 * 9 (gi Gay 38 

aa Re BD WOGMATOMaM OSD FO 5. seoig osg 

pe ee rT ay pe i tates Puli yr i be “e t% 
ah eS aes 5 ieee ae ie ap Re aK epadks IG 
“Seel  Celgt eytsoet aay wseene 

‘a Oe ee pda aa 

Wf de y : ‘ 


: NERS ie | + 2 69 tot. Sse ay SNS Bo BiAaweer eae Oe oRE 5: 

oo nt mene — ere emp fa vena ee 

Bethe LAE Bi IE eee eee 

me ag 
3a sit 2 ae 
fae, GS YOR 

mouet? wh tel tees tle oat gdtd® oniifeovtno? nt aa0¥ evitetagoe? 
eb iteswmetoe: Siet? Peek edt pulaee 
Sl G84 aA AOOM AHS ERY a Pee 
“débnsr to aubratoment ett Yadd corse ‘gffandim Borgtatrsdne ett 97" " 
4 veows .otetlimtrad Id, droattayet gedat?, Radiat off soowt ad artbrste 
“e3932 poset? ,otuduottsoh To ‘$rso€ esate ateget0 ‘ead Bre yrtenbal seers 
‘py SSel 4 t- Yiat. ovlsgatts ‘gaeffo® eas Hozet? edt baa Griestot Yo Breed 
esset ffot ef Paraticos ed I fade {Beer (Oo Sart ‘Titan’ doetta of erektaes 
sper 08 sav acthae aot Imoa lt ond sot enoteiveig ati Lis at sootte ins 
et bebrrams od ffece dobiw aR bas f ot sdearsaaise to aoligeoxe edt dtiw 
saewollcot ea baet 

goette edet Ifode axbiradatobar %o subretomem eld? ted? [i 

dedi bebivota «Sef .0f sagt Iites dostte mk santtaoo baa S5eCL ,f yet 
frammgate cogdirw o yd ould Yas ta Taemeengs ost atantertes yam yWusgq redi te 
bocteah cottantons? te vteah eff Ye eomar ha nt eyeb O soette tadi of 

eft ESOL ,CS earl of SACL .f vist teey, Inca lt sgaly «o% daft def 

noge a edd ;00.008,.8) izoda Baogxs {itv etwitiimtice to braol stat] noyet0 
ssas2 momotO oft 300.006, f¢ dueds baeqze {ite vitestot to braok esate 

tiered at dmomatovod Iervabe% add bas 200 .0a%, [8 saoda broqee [I tw eanellod 

Age ss ¢ seh oe PRR ek ae 

of the U iets Fr apa of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry 
ehont.42,506° opt ti “with: ‘the work e herein’ proveded ‘fore 

&x, ne : awake Bf * 

iB, p00. bo" **' Hosord, AES Om eet vd a ek ME Cog cee ha aah oe 
i “Bi presenta ° Bureau of Plant Industry, State Gegaitent 
: af herieattore ( queceeding State Board of Horticulture) 



pepe es eo 

1 se sande meng tts Wie at nt ee NE eT ae AeA tt ct OA a IC 

state Yo! ° “tate Board f Forest 
tions. ‘The firet of thicae Et a ae Ores is) Yta * Pye 

UBBAT Loney pi ent 
Te the noet of fiuw,: 
The ssa are Wewety 
sad bee na me 

ste? ta) 

"of sf iswh Eaton, ae 3. D. Ms % 

Paks én Taree: Rivers, «% Phys 
“nteeved in 1920 aad 1637), was Mc a 
Metoling Hiver mesoclhted «tf 5h 4x ‘ RAE 
feiicd to show tafeos ton. te ¥ 2 he Ae ; 
wonld be ound en Hiwe ey fo a4 Oe ws 
abundant on HR. bractsomur: at <h- 
Mear-by soures of itnfertieos. Amesu te 
Ro attemwot gee wecie $0 aete SiGe Camere? « 
Sand: general Peet vas whi gh, Seecmak oF Ao Seer wih is 
pines and Ribea, or eece yee TES ‘ 
VOns ere s! WES) CRAMLGRS Res Fee: aw ce aR eS 
“Pe wktehed ecarefatiwoia tee Pat wn, Seay Se dn ep 
Firet. The Beit tan. oeeecus 
betwoen the typten? wayar wis +e ie : 
tion wes found there@ if 1°23 3 ; cs 
Assooiation with sneer chow ie west 
opportunity to etudy inte ate i 
Climatic coratti ope are xe i, a €; : 

Ftvation of the Suet tee eet: be fees be me eden 
the poccible euee rt ton Po ty Bae OF oa 

Seeaee. Ames tier made t ae 
typical western’ ahki<c mie ete 
the heedwaters of Whe Perciactes 
Here are wast qwerty Ase we By 
western whites pine eee Yor. 
Gurvents ara Tikele to 99 tint 


Yitashal foeld te seetsh ow [yatta to tneadregqe? seiats betial edi to 
aX NS aieved auow add Adin. pp téanneap ah 1x00. AAA: ee 

Sains Face occ asae a ) peter e tren) > ta ape Hs 
 desmstaged adiade ey qedeuine | duel to seo tw .,xodoethG 
(etstiveliaoll to, biacd edade sntfeoonaue) otnd Loot to 

See? ee et tregot® .T_mayd 
wwitsetes to ‘btse8 etese ane waedesroT Staeg2 

meeresnatn chert vcecieasen amenities i Ee A nat, a9 ey 
esol Tod ‘etal mozatt paeransense® jnald 

Fae Oye ee Meee aie Sage pot Oa i; 

A Ce a sciiecbel deal to saetal ,tefdd 


Sh Dept ty me wares 


00,08" , I 

| BROL wa anal 


no Hel repr GY MBO.” Goodding 

bes wi ti me of f rig ae Pathologist 

un Fo wigeint dea dita Violas were conducted in Oregon during 1922. 
“Brief a editees de of the following topics is in order: first, scouting for 
blister rust; second, the a Ribes garden; third, cooperation; 

a pinay he rao gi chp yin 

; the goo vOR LTR zu 

THO Ba ere elite was me early in the seagon to locate pine infec- 
re-h The first of these was in the Marshfield region where the Coos Bay 
Lumber Company planted Pinus strobus about 25 years ago. The planting is 

‘near the post office of Summer about four miles southeast of Marshfield, 

The pines are Glosely associated with Ribes brectevsum and as blister rust 
had been found much farther south then this it seemed to be a likely place 
to find it-establiehed on the’ pine. © Nothing was found. Pine on the Couts 
Place on Three Rivers, above Hebo, thouch growinz noar Ribes heavily 
Anfeetéed in’ 1920 and 193), was free from rust. The sugar pine on the 

‘Metolius River associated with infected BR. netiolare in 1°20 snd 167 

“failed to show infection. It was confidently expected that bldcber rust 

‘would’ be°found on pine on Lest Creek on the McKenzie Hichway as rust was 

“abundant on E. hracteosue at that point in 1921, anparently indicating a 
near-by source of infection. Again the search was futile. 

An ABS she ‘attempt was made to establish inspection points. There are 

- some> uakt ‘vegions which, because of climatic conditions, association of 
pines: and Ribes, or geozraphical association with existing infection 
‘eentere, were examined ag far as time would permit this season and shovid 
“be watched ‘carefully in the future. A description of caeh region follows: 

First. The Metolius represents a region ranging in humidity 
between thé’ typical sugar pine and yellow pine types. Very light infec- 
‘tion was found there {nm 1920 end 1931 on B. nokinlare in excellent 
‘assoofation with suger pine. This region will probably offer sur first 
opportunity to study infection on sugar pine unéer natural conditions. 

‘Climatic conditions are probably more favorable here for spread and intensi-_ || 

fication of thé rust than will be found in most sugar pine regions vith 
Pray yd exception of the upper Rogue River. 

a const s66%na Another region representing the tranaition from more 
“typical ‘western white pine sites to the more arid sites is the resion at 
the headwaters of the Deschutes where the stream flows toward the south. 
Here are vast quantities of 8. netiolare associated with an occasional 
‘western white pine seedling. This seems to represent a region where wind 
eer ere berg “ bring blister rust spores at an carly dates 

= Se See ee 

Third, While the lakes at the summit of the Cascades generally 
do Mot represent the best association of the very susceptible species of 
Ribes with pines, the drainages to the west often do. Waldo lake drains 
to the west: duto ‘the North Fork of the Willanette and into Black Creek. 
Odell Lake drains to the east but the headwaters of Salt Creck rise very 
near ‘the Take. @his drains to the west. Heavy timber in this region 
may retard: the progress, of the rust. ‘Khes@ drainages should be carefully 
watched. Crescent Lake represents a drier site and one less favorable to 
‘Trust, invasion than the west slove but the headwaters of the Middle York 
of the Willamette represent a natural avenue for the spread of the rust. 
The fact that dt has been found on 8. bracieosum below Oak Ridge adds to 
‘the signifteance of this region. 

Fourth. The headwaters of the Umpqua have been very inadequately 
scouted. Some extensive burns add to the likelihood of the rust becoming 
established at an early date if, indeed, it is not already in the region. 

Fifth. The headwaters of the Rogue is to be the blister rust 
battle ground in Oregon in the immediate future. If anything in the line 
of control is ever done this should be the center of operations. On Muir 
and sherwood Creéks,and perhaps other streams as well, there is an abun- 
dance of 2. bractsomm in association with young western white pines. 

If this region is not watehed it will be because we are remiss in our 

Sixth. Crater Lake National Park offers a variety of conditions 
in associations of Ribes and pines; different species of pines; species of 
Ribes, the susceptibility of which littie is known; and merked differences 
in humidity. There are no true stream type Ribes present but such trail- 
ing bushes as 8. erythrocarpum and R. binominatum grow in intimate asso- 
clation with the pines. White bark, western white and suger pine are all 

Seventh. Blister rust can be expected any seaSon along the coast 
north of Marshfield where luxuriant patches of &. bracte2sum can be found 
in exposed situations. Pines, however, are found only at a considerable 
distance back from the coast and along the high ridges where Hibes are 
either absent or sparse. At Summer near Marshfield, however, there is a 
Planting of 2. strobus in excellent association with B. brecteosum This 
has been inspected repeatedly in the past but it mst not be neglected in 
the future. There are many favorable sites for infection on Ribes along 
the coast south of Marshfield. Infections found on these Ribes along the 
coast can be taken as an index of the spread of the rust. 

Kighth. £1k Creek, along the Crescent City-Grants Pass Highway 
rises in California and flows across the line into Oregon. In many places 
along this stream occur large patches of BR. bracteosums Some of these 
ere in excellent association with sugar pine. This region is so situated 
that blister rust could readily be expected to show up here on its passage 

205 6 

a2 oid to timmre oft fa sodaf edd ef fd wbttat 
(renee yoy sit to soktskoogas gees end tagaexqet tom of 
f ob sedte tagw ont ot pemaunkartb edd seonky atie godkF 
as etgomelfkY add to axod AstoR odd odnt teow. olf of 
at to exedavbood edt dod tans oid of patath otal Trebo 
sada «.vaek .. deav est. 02 gsteath etal ..edal of’ sagen 
tie sonentash @era? «tert ent ‘te gee tgotd add Duatet ‘yam 
ong bom otis tofth 2 adnogarget edad dmonn ony pil 7.86 
%o pyetawbeod adt iad seets geow oct madd solgawak tems 
ed? xs gonews Iaigias aw thesesye% essemal@ltW edt to 
wumoeineit oi mo basot meed earl $2 gadd? Soat ed? 
wzotger elds. to esnaclttagie sdt 

Wer te hay 
+h Gels 


Yleiazeabent yiov saad evad avogal edi to axctewbsod ahh» <tssot 
gr tmoned gues aid 3¢ hooditextt att of She cauad evignedzs amol  hagweos 

wekges wid mi ybosetla tem et tt ,boobat , ti ofeb yfise ma de hedaildatves 

aig to atedewiaed sf? cddTst 

tnx teteklad edd ed cf al amaoe 
Geil walt wi -* lomeat etethennt sone tO ak Sayoty efsiad 

ogo % weotown edd-od Blscada gktlt aaob tows af fonémog, to 
teis ,fisw on eagowe “tathio ecacttog hag aioss) boowteds ine 
mente wdidw misiver qurey atie ao t@atoosra sk pumosdectd Yo senad 
ye mk ask Pipe ie {fiw th bedotew tog-ef sotgay edd x1 
ero W 



exatto ars faae tial eziat xotaed ddxté 


%o agkssne j:eaniq. te aelosge. tuovoThsa -aosiq dos eodik to angidaioogas me 
j merce wb otatit doidw Yo Gillicitqeosse ant ,aodik 
he ee ‘¢ guGhh eqyd megtze out? of @T® ated? ys kbtuud of 
~paes etamkdnt at wows submeineahd <8 bre _mimyeooudives .2 as aoslend ack 

ve ies of hte amedesy ined eth’ .sembe ote dtiv cottado 


a ee #3.% 
2EGhG ES Es 

old tigsee "re Gadaagma 66 Meo gRos “oe hS,. mdaove’ 
murscadostt .2 to eedoteq tualureel svete bfektdgtev te aloros 
vino. dagnt ot ytevowod ,aoatt «aio tiwudie Seaogxe at 
§ biy oinia ood gan la bas daaon eid meet dom oonadalh 
stovewo! ablalttiatal’ ts6m Tans th outage so ¢aeada teitio 
nit? .supemtoem «gf ab iv aofstaiovsem tre f feoxe af audoniz «4. te seredcual q 
dou g2 aud geay ot of yfbetacges bedsogens need. ead 
» sot eadte sigatovet yaan ote oro eiustot edt 
seats to bupot anoktigetal .bfekiediatal Xo dives Jeaoo ail 
ess ostd to beetgr oft to mebul se 28 sisdat ad, map, aao9 

vewlatii seat ataato-ytiD tmegget) sus apo te ,xee%0 afd idee 
aeonlg yusu oi »aoget) odad, oak l ads seoves avelt bus abrrottfad af, soatt 
paodd to omek smancadaard «ff To esnotag ayiel suyeao seotde. nidd greta 
bpadgengie of af nofyet vist went tegue Selo aoftetoosss dtnelffeoxs af ots 
aaq adi ne ered qa woe od besoogxe 90 uftheer bluco taut tetelfd dade 

to the south. 

The inovd-degorited locations shduld represent excellent in- 
dices of the edvance of the rust toward California. To make its appear- 
ance in California without striking one or more of these locations scems 
extremely un} ikely and assuming that blister rust is to enter California 
by natural spread it would seem logical to maintain a careful watch 
* shase Tocaprene) before “Going extensive scouting in Gal Sfornios 

The following table sives the data for the noteworthy anfections 
located in 198, 

por SS oe Sis ~~ = Sus : ; usta wee 


=~ Ss ae 


ee cn ona ern 

lestgoses GH | <n ri 

oe eyes 
Figs to 

a =) 
a P+ nere f TE i ca 
4) 2) A eS ast Sh $x! at 

qT 26 
natn exper 8) | soe; # 
pe seats) oe ee means BOSSA 

lie Bane beh OS OES ee 
| Sensex | 

ahoet i .atdstli 
a) So bboeD. | .tdahfy __. 

petnrmpr tan ion 

a <> 

Se Pa > 
ee? ee es ee ee 

. - am aot es 
13 BOM eRee ty ZyE | 

' ie 

? : | tn aera 

! } P a . jas 
: SER 2 SI ie _ ines 41 BS thes sete iat 

be Dirt 7 
< i , teres 
Pee —— t ‘ ob 
: SS Ba: gs tee ime Ps | SS ee om > Gee ses a2) 2 
> aie ; er Ph? : iE Sila dm eeet noe nth A 

Pn Pig OOS oe eee mre 

} } ; 
? a 
} | 
) ie ay 
e om ; * } 5 
- ce seen A ot ond et arene > wee enn 5 
< i } dascee| 
? ; i — 
i z 
a _ pe ~ ans epirmete os ee - = = 
} ' 
2 i ing : : sae. 3 
x : EP RE Ws nee ee 
i i r i Hee 
* : } OQ wh { ; 
; ‘ - ; 

; on > 2 wt 
! : r ees aS ae ee Pie See 
3 ; Baca 4 1 = r : ¥ : “ = 
oe —y os MeTOm «4s ‘i 
| f a* a 9D ; 
H aT < a : 32 
+f i % 4, %, * s . - a 
#it? Pays : . E s 2 . 
5 af a i x es = 
7 a es ser ok J eit 
j | 
~ ¢ oi : 
ok 9@ : - g 5 j 
i aww - S 
| OF 2 3 2 LO Fok eee. 
SYA 3 ase | nO) eee Reh Se pa: 
| ; | | _ ‘ a : a ‘ 
| ex f 
; g a «> « 2 @ * — - ' 
IE Fy i ‘ Lf 
| ! poe Se ee ee ee 
Ve eet i t Pe Sk WS! ee Bee = ae e a 
} : wart <4 i ww¥aesi sk 

" __the eetablishuent .of this garden was reported in the 19H 

Ancus] Report, and a discugsion of conditions there was given in the 1931 
répert. During this season four new Ribes specics have been added. Late 
tn April thirty Norwegian Red Dutch currant plants sent to Corvallis by 
Dx. Hahn of the Division of Forest Pathology were planted in ths garden and 
4n O¢tober a half dozen of each of the following were planted: 

H, montigenum, B. roezii and 8. lasienthum all from California. ‘the 
Norwegian Red Duteh currant is a horticultural variety of BR. wilgere. 
Seah cmethll Norwegian Red Dutch was inspected several times during the 
early summer and no infection was found. Later 1t was badly eaten back 

why rabbits or deer. The other Ribes were not molested. The following 
report on susceptibility was made by the Division of Forest Pathology at 
Portland, Oregon, November 18, 1932; 

_ B. Klamathense (2 varieties) &. nevadense 
B cruentum j RR erythrocarnum 

Norwegian Red Dutch (Ribes yulgare var.) 

~->, “Yeu will note that all species except the Norwegian Red Dutch fall 

_ "into two groups, viz., extremely heavy infection and heavy infection. 
All species produced abundant telia except E. yelutinum. ‘The 
results of only one year's test on this species, however, cannot 
be considered a true index of its teliozspore-producing capacity. 

"All species were given two heavy inoculations, the first on May 
13 and the other on May 19. The second inoculation was made 
because no rain followed the first one." 


Early in the spring Mr. Kimmel of the Forest Service suggested 
that money mizht be raised for control operations in the Hebo planted 
area to protect 2. strobus. Owing to the unsettled conditions of blister 
rust plans at that time nothing was done. It 4s possible control work 
might have been done there and at Government Camp if normal conditione 
had prevailed, Mr. Buck having intimated on previous occasions thet the 
protection of the Government Camp area was desirable. Mr. Collins, who 



2 , 

of Oe ee Ce 
Soldat baat Ai} 
foYOROh _Be rI9gF 

Sh he Ge 


wep Oa f * FRA 
iene Loe Seip bheh a Pee 23) 

a ee tetnnee ben 

* hosvocoe asw Gebiag, akild 4. JSaouielidstee ed? 

enctdtbaon to molkagsoels a bos troqes Sango 

“seg eved astoegqs eecih wee «eo% soeace eldd gatrt ttqet 

aris dated bot satgewroll ydaidsd {high md 


at nea 

botnefa oyew yaolodtal saatg® te nokpivid ed@ to mish 1a 

G > ofd to Home %o mexob tiad s redots0 nk 
te mudtooiesl, i sep Lisaor ff wmunopisoos ff. 
sae TausiTwotgiod @ ef Taeviwo dated Boi gakgerto 
won batooqant saw sou bell catsuewroll eT 
d} asgad .basct eee golfpotal of htte tomme Yl tee 
ateg vehi sedio, alt vied to atiddat xd 
afk ¥o Sonat eat wiilidiicasase ao d1oges 
we or fr earapyow jnoget? shasfiro% 


ioe T ae De eu titie oe "f ach $2 : rep tie it 
gi wees gotiodtal wwaell_yieomtiae 

ail mat titer olk 

23 igatsokvav &) sgaaddemala of 


matinogso, i 
iitteadexam 8 
autantoaaid. 2 

gottoetes on" 

soagih) dodod bok nalgewro & 


netaswirol edt igenne geipeqgs ffa tats stom [fie sot" 

Ss "S S xt a ay Dear * a we, He a 
reocrea: UW ve Tee Ke « Rr a BEER ZS OWs  GIME 
ee a Red clakes | Culms eerie Rete fF Pe 
;. af j 3 Diep Ser SHALO SG BOs Rage I ra 

e kis ao 4 aiteoy eno Ylao to edivest 
ephoveea torch ie? atk te zwebak aris SB berabkenos ot 

? " ae ia e ‘ PP 

aooank yraed owd sevig eter sakooge fis 
; wet, eo a pte crt Eos Kt 

.Of wil mo teste abd. Ons er 

ig pbewollo? alat on PeKaDod 

‘% pe} 
bs Shy ke ee 
wagers eo wee 

to foot! «ch patage odd af ¥ fenil 

1f3 pt etokgatice Towlaoo vet be¢gia’t ed doyia youont tesit 
4 oy ented .gudomde <G foetorq oF ast 

ow gatdeos omrd! dads tm ensfg Jet 


amr yend ta bag orale, saoh need eves fia Bes 

nae * ay 23 Pa Oey. Oe 

mae | 



cagoo, ascive yg ao) Se teattial gaivest siowd «tM «iotiavetg Das 

‘iovieeoh gay Bets Ome? fnemeravod oft "to moftsatotg 

sind OS 


owns much of the private land in this region, had stated his willingness 
to pay for his portion at such time as the Forest Service was ready to 
have the work done.) While it is true that the Forest Service doubts the 
desirability of extensive contro? operations on lands where beetles are 
likely to take the half grown or mature crop of western white pine, 

it is hardly fair to the Forest Service to conclude that its. members are 
uninterested in control. work or unwilling to contribute funds for certain 
projects. such. as those at Hebo, Government Camp auc Breitenbush. It is 
similarly unfair to, assume that the Forest Service holds this attitude 
toward the suger pine stands in southern Oregon. ‘there are rather exten- 
sive stands of sugar pine. in Jackson and J osephine Countics on both 
Forest Service and private lands, the protection of which is quite as 
urgent as the protection of sugar pine land in California, in fact proximity 
_to the disease renders their early protection much more urgent, 

UGCA OBA. : Q ; ’ 

On January 28, 1022, te 2. ‘Goodding delivered a paper before the 
Northwest Section of the Society of American Foresters in Portland, Oregon 
on “the Blister Rust Situation in Oregon". The aseatieng° of this paper 

Bas obtained from the 1931 Annual Report. ce oa 

»» & circular. letter to Tire wardens, Forest eceh ce field men and 
others was prepared and approved by the Washington office, Owing to lack of 
stenographic assistance and Goodding's absence at a time when this should 
have been sent out, it was never mailed. 

fine. feature article written by. Mr. John Burtner of the Oregon 
State. Relians, News. Service appeared. in the Sunday Oregonian for July 10, 
: 18Gir: ein was based on conditions in the Mount Hood region. . 


= eae oe 


= = = = ——~- SS 


ot eft ges emit door wa 

aid addvob esivist dxetol otf Jad? oirtd ak $f 

‘ : ; nie ae Che ge me ee 
ats mafieod evadw shref nc enofistoqo [oiynen sv reiedxe 
' ~. pres ar Ti; 
,orka atidw wte?g “5 sritem th deo Biad add ested od 


ensl dnomimoved ,0doH fm SROs se ilotra 

tiv .enob Mow. ef? 
to YstTidartaes 
is pit of od ooivrel festot off oF ctket ylbreil ef 32 
hers “0 shat otudivenes o¢ ankifiway to a08 fortnon at betesitetnlan 
+3 pre SFoaLorxg 
wrt g2o%o% Sad Jett emweea oF wheter yUristiate 

emisttf — iw eft beiaie bad ,notkses etad nt bas! etavita eld ‘to dow anwo 
sokieoq eid tot Yaq o# 
¥ geek 

{edo Set togert avediocve mi saiste satg teque gat. byewod 

aidgeeot has 208 
nme Reaee ery Bris 

avavita bas esivies 

ra * \ vo Me ~ ey 
Frowg go2t ne e goktoutse sy erly 36 
es sie tadd exdabiat saasoath 

a ~ 

" “5 * aw XS '~ ¥ 

ee gh ri ee x i? 2 i ? fit YO se bie ge tsases 43 ‘Ye i 
KG aw a 4 “ i Y 

¢ bela , perryrt 2 7 rg Ferré 3 of oe oe erg gst no 
reer att sort bentatdo saw 

b Pa * = . > Sues come 4% % mb oe Fe af me re Yeh whe F 

5S. ait Be) BF % QAaSEO. gBSHhroray vs f ‘ Oe hpee OS “AB LA caw 
‘ 4 pl dyes de mre CS ” Sa sey a Cyan opm SD 
i ? ROTAMIO GSE OoGe a) Bervo wes Bes LS Tees Ig aay 22°C ide 

ae oe ae oe me on te te hn Owe e ” 

sicdd mecsiw awaits & TA MWSLOR snr bboow Dkm Samad t 2288 oldos TROMRS we 

goeek ead Ye Licance fateh ot vd neds kus afattce orsstast on0 

ap 7 
> o 

ni onig ae ‘to abaate evie 

ise ro? 
ome te 


¢ 70 > - . hy eet “ he 4 
beftam steven gar JE aweo eee mS Bus 


ey att 

pree onfd ak bermeaqsn eolvrs: awe ogeffoo vias 

nuk att of enckathmoo no bered 2nw eink .S5eL 


rane  Pileter ust control wekivities tn bat evadita were continued 
saoperative project. between the Bureau of Plant Industry and the 
Galifornia Department af Agriculture, the California State Board of 
Forestry, College of Agriculture, University of Californie, and the: 
Department of, Botany, University of California. There is given below 
the amendment to the b&gic memorandum of understanding, which was drawn 
ved to cover the nme work for the fiscal year 19233 beginning July 

The undersigned mmtually agree that the memorandum of understand- 
ing between the United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant 
Industry, the California Department of Agriculture, the California State 
Board of Forestry, the College of Agriculture and the Department of Botany, 
University of California effective July 1, 1921, to continue in effect 
until June 3, 1932, shall be continued in full force and effect in all 
its provisions for the fiscal year ending June W, 1933 with the exception 
of paragraphs Fel and Fé, which shall be amended to read as follows: 

Fel. That this memorandun of understanding shall take effect 
July 1, 1932 and continue in effect until June 2, 1933, povided that 
either party may terminate the agreenent at any time by a written state- 
ment to that effect 30 days in advance of the date of termination desired. 

Fe6. That for the fiscal year July 1, 1932 to June 30, 1933 the 
California Department of Agriculture will contribute in value approximately 
$9,000, the California State Board of Forestry approximately $3,000, 
the College of Agriculture, University of California approximetely 
$10,000, the Department of Botany, Untversity of California approximately 


RU ne re a a ae 



begetoans avew atorottigo al asiiivitea foxteoe dant tetetIG 
adg bua extaubal Gnald to ssetwh otf neextsd toelorg eviieteqoo® & BS 
to frac fat? abrvottin® sft ,ctutivottga to Yesmiaged ataroti lad 
add bat ,etarttle? to wWieterial jotstloaftg’ to esellod ogxdeotol 
wofod nevis ef Sted simrotiia® to yrevevial yosto€ to jasntreqed 
saath gew softs ,antbusserehar to ‘merbheroson olesd of2°Gs Jnombaoms ods 
yin& getartyed Shel is8y feoaht ag ret slzow ovlieteqoos edt zsv0° oF go 
deel sf vinb avisoetre 
meorte® . 

Ree aie panne met te at es 

aia Glace atame alucUTLAd aan, WLIO Dies Yo umiteM ALWOT lua cer 



ee tee 

pietoti {ed at tewi cetetif ent’ ettaw untffordned af sho¥ evisateqood 

& & 2 

-bretersbos to mubaarosem odd tadd setas ylieudom hangterebays odT 
gnett to ometet poted lvoe. to fromiteqet gedade betia ed? seewied get 
atede abirtctife® off seal feoltsé To dxounttaged afatotiiad ony ayrterhal 
senstok to saeatieast ete hos wiptfuotrsd to epallod edd ,cuiastet To bradd 
foetts at exntiaoo of , 180i al yiirb evicostte simvottiso to yilereviad 
ffs gi gooTte bas cotot [lwt af beunissoo od flede ,SSeL Ce eonl Ittas 
roitganxe off ditw SS€L .0b saul sathee teoy fapelt odd tot saotatvoig ast 
spwolfot 2 baer o¢ bedrems od [fade dolsiw ,d~% Sie fe% arigetaeiteq to 

fests edad [lade eolbnatatobav to mudactomen efit gadt . ff 
gals bebivesy ,oS0L ,0S sant Iftar gostts af smttaos bum Shel .f yet 
wateee aetiiecr oe yd euttd yrs te doemeet5e sit etentwied yam yiisgq teddte 
beriseb uotteninret to eteb edt to eonavba af eysh O8 soette dali of rem 

act S8eL ,O8 emul of SEL Lf ylot im8y laoett edd tot dad? 2-7 
yletamizozgee soley af etuditgnos Ifiw oxwiinoitgé To dromivaqed siarotliad 
,000,89 yletamizerqgs ¥tisetoT to freot ofste alototiiad aid .000, 8% 
eleiamtxoigqe alerottiad To ytterevial ,simtfeoltaa *%o egelfod ods 
ywlotamtzorgas sferetiisd to ystetevial ,yastot to dxemisqed eis ,000,0L¢ 

$3,000 and the Federal Government in behalf of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Tadustry, approximately 
$22,000.00 in connection with he work herein provided for. 

Dee. 21, 1932 ni ene , Dudley i Ragen’ te ne 2 Sama nce nn nica naccrneana 
uate data. wae Direetors Cattfornia Department ‘of Jgriculture. 


vs cer nt denies oh 

CAVES GOB OS“ Stute Forester, California State Board of Forestry. 

ge Be ; 

44. %* 
Tae alle 4% 


BeCGe. Tez 

et as sy Bs a * 


& tees 

* Cre oe ay eck le oe Con TS ae tat Sod 
LEME SNES id Gi am . 8 lee Dean : Col 7 

at CE ete Celifornis. i 

Se 2 
Ca SRS Cen OF faieg 

ege of Acrteul ture, University of 


t ‘Sy ag > Ry ms i i cn Wie 4) 
wank. was a calla aiactll Pe oe 

ic, Mea yee a 

versity of California. 

gq oo ve ee 
B@ae er Siw 

y he 

te “224 Ee 

ie DER 

3 TRL a8 aes i oy 

Hi SR od: Gags 
wed k CE ie 

oted? botin off 4c TMarisd nt frsmertevcO Tetabet edd baa COO,E% 

ylovamixoicgs «Utd aubel daslt ts ssexrd avd IvotirsA to tram raged 

‘40% bebbyverg aterved arow ect dite sotsoennoo gf 00 000, SF 

TO ae eee eee eee cece seiee-semny co ee te ant ‘“eger [8 98d 
_oted Luarraa to. daoads ages’ atirrotifad ,rotoeskt inuonn Legis. 2 yale 

. : * s oie ¢ i A 
cere ace corte inert es meapecaaer  peear eee Fe vent Ot Got oee 
$eitaste to fiasd etas © akezotilaQ ,%o las oN SPATS 

Sper igs eeu 

emo Te ofl ni Sher .ar .oe 
%o ytietovinl ,etat lyoitgh te enelio? aed 

vs ee A eT iedatee kf enef OS .oef 
,mtccretilg5. 26 giisrarin’ syaaton to taemtteqeS. 

OO eee os Sher 03. .o8t 

fh 4.2 cersectal taslt te ameiwe te de - - 


Car ther Cater ite By 

My George A. Root 

x} ae ah eeay As soeiet e” Patholo zist 
SHiatoy, Ciacia, Watne and Ineeen Goaaties, hh 
Maun saa F ar ee ner cm ar th reno ler * 
LHR (ped By Ravria in bis recashal seats > 

Lens oh Yate serene ‘eae? inception of active: works 4’ whivte rent? oie in 
alien abit ing “tack to 1924) there naturally haz been a careful watch 
kept for signs of the rust. In the nea pel © iy sy! oe aah yl of t nea a 
stock received cOiiviterable ‘attention. 

Tho MOVED afl ey ave t Tey Page ot ies! 
SOR On By SRD the! gratin enraient water ‘gins bri ster wad. tae 
lovee ited au’ or#emfred scouting program in the northwestern part 
of California. Scouting continued into southwestern Oregon where the 
rust was fond “in Curry County less thati 50 miles from the California 
“Wine.” Tt 1980 and 1931 “seouting was again conducted in this general 
van Be = a ‘as’ ratispaart northera Californie ‘as fer east as Shasta City. 

32 ting project had been relegated to a short period — 
Quite ng ie” el a a ion of otter "fiel@ projects. “It wad felt, in the 
‘Tight ork Pagid of ‘the @isease in Idaho and Oregen, that # ‘concerted 
‘scouting ‘program Yager duration should be inaugurated for california 
mess tors vier ‘a "Large | ‘ger bet hear egy one: ‘Newada region. ws 

i ge Oe teaie? isteresst 
Sad Cmadenney* the work in’ Californie: ‘some Véeubing engssne Ye 
war ane ‘asi southern Oregon. “It wee thoteht that the ruct might be found 
further one Res ey every then Lap fem ll known bat seve was Gai the 

oe a 

‘ penne « es he ee aa aun pee ly te wo a 
t: aaeeuthag eerie ri cartr beni ‘tel ta poor say « and continued with 
“r4eete ain he first pert of ‘Oebober. oe 

keno Liat thon ; SRO dics Nell % a Eee SreeUr ORK oes ae 

“precinae tae sucess, teyaeien BP Ry i “0, sthtadtery 

Serge tem Ph Te Me ae oe a Te 
ER be Pe 4 thee bite Gade na 

It has generis bess aaietel:| that the rust would make its entry 
P uate. Califorita y y wey of the’ coast. “With this in’mind the first “scouting 
‘Work'Was done in Del Morte and Aum bolat Counties. “Both harbor the very” 
ceptible species, Rites tractéSsun,'in great alunaance and in some: 
: le ssotiation with 5-needled'pines. “Om the higher ridgee,”’ 
of Del Norte ‘county, both anger and westérn white pine’ grow 
a peare ble mumbers tut ei th a ‘senrcity of Ribes presént. Alone the®® 
are River and sone of its tritmtaries, S-needled pines reach & comparative 
od “elevation. The @rainage of this river affords = very likely place for 
he ‘rust to Zein a foothold. 

Scouting on the coast was conducted as far south as Eureka, 
Particular attention was paid to R. bracteosum tut some of the other 


i Re) Ck a a 

.  deet> A epteck.. 
setnolosved efaiooeas.. 

yg wpe 

ser fyi « Sites PAR AG gen eae A 
at dovinen teot tedeitd mt etow eviies To meisqesnt ext eonle 
inten futetso a ceet sai Yliswwian @redd ,BSeL of soad gnidveb ataretifsd 
yrostea To golsioeqenl sisey seiivee eff. SY, dat ats to eagte tot dqex 
| tind te alderedtanes bevisoet xoose 

si deer ‘tafelid eata etidw Yo baetge. damber old CSQh yh of ine” 

fins mpeteswitiog entat wetgote gotiiose Bestarsve as belastraw 103610 
ad? bredw geaetO oeteowdines ctat bepals noo, aalivoo?e stareti{so to 
sieroti(so eid mort eelia 8 aed? eval yYsavod yrwWo af bavot eaw secre 
fevexes, ett at batsobu0o alege eamegnidwoge L50L bas O8eL gic ,eagl 
<“did- adeede gs fase tat a8 sintoti fad etedston gact9e a2 ifew ea notger 
baiteo Mots eof hedagolet seed hat doutei aakiwoos add Sel of GU 

adj ut ,tiet aew @1 wefooiotg afoit sehde te aoktanterred: edt gakwol let 
bedueomes @ tact meget? das ofebT at oesocth ody. to haetgs off to Sdgil 
aberotiia® rot Aetarmasant ed bicode vols awh ‘sequel to matgotq gatdsroos 
Bolget sbeve¥ atiefa edd to moidiog ogial 6 ebrisank Sivode bos 

ak enobh sew gatdvooa emer statottiad af aixow edt of tott 
howe od fitgitm ¢omrt odG todd dogsrodt eae OT monet atedinos bas Latines 
ih | ei? som saw Sose isd meonn elewcivetg asds stata aidd at djvoa teddt0t 


Wi gdtie Soumigaes bas yivl etal uk asged alesothia® at row galjirost 

wh | tedateO Yo gusq dati add Lido aoitgrrietat oftett 

aoiuel gesoD 

ystae edi exlem Siow desrt acid teeid bebeouso ased yilarenea ead 31 
satsseos tatit odd Sokm at etdé dti® .dacos ed? to yer WW atatotifsd ognat 
eiey edt wdred stoi .seisasrod doled anh Bue edtoK Lad xt snob ase stow 
ances ai baa osashatia daery ai .mrgoptost! gedifi ,aeloece eld itqeosre 
,geghit todgid ad? nO .asatg beldoon-d dtiw coitealooess at seonetant 
i wots entg etice atedaow Bre tease dtodd sydaod efrod tel to vital istsg 
HW eit aseolé .tueaerg sadit Yo ysloises s ddtw asf etedmem eldateblanen at 
Nill levisaraqaep 3 doset sentg belfeen~d gattatiditd eft Yo omoe bas tovih Aviae | 
Hi “6% soalg yLwill yev = abtotte tovit eldd to epenteth ed soltarele wot 
A bfodtoot # aleg ot Jana ond 

aigisd as divce 12t es batjombooo esw 32n0d og mo puidsone 
| | aadto aft to amen dod greostosid 2 ot Slag sew aciiaetian wali bored 

ili. Ses 
be ‘hale ME 

species wer, n0F ‘iver Teghia -Y 

ee Me 

3 4 a a rp id sas Oe Bate Trae 1s 
qmiaty ta ‘the spt ‘iimad te: bmagiag Sececaaead \ as sonnets Skekt yon, 
trinity, Shas o@ afid Lassen Counties. The Klamath Wationa? Forest 

occupies a large portion of the western part of this area and is well 
described by Harris in his reedntaissance report for 1927, This forest 
Yes almost wholly within Siskiyou County, where conditions are! ‘favorable 
as Per*saat ad" Yreka forthe’ rus $°t5" gain oateys : 

ies wt e. PgR Ae 2 a a ae Lg eae ae = 5 ExeR Te ‘ 
DEGRA ie Rie Klee th River and particularly’ its érwetaeted: cont: ta: 
from" ths north offeriezteltent aasécfatione of B. bracteosum and 5-needied 
ines. &. cruentum is another species which will be a factor in establish- 
bipttheieade: ‘in this region. 


. One important area is in the Vicinity 6f Mt, Shasta City’ 
possessing matiy factors condueive*to harboring the rust. It has a relative 
ly high annual rainfall, is open to sweeping winds from the north, and 
good pine afd ‘Ribes assotlations are every-where tn evidsnee, Que other 
x9 t — by ig Black Butte, @ cinder eone rising more than 1,000 
t above the s countfy at the end of ® vast open platem.  ~- 
pe ‘the "paae-¥s the Bo “oh the north slope there is excellent association 
of ‘sugar and western white pine with R. roeali, HB. nevadense, 2, “haltdi 
and °R. #ereum. ‘Of yar betas ‘interest is thé preeenes of Foxtail pine, 
Pinus balfariane near the summit. The base of Mt. Shasta on the west side 
not At, from ae Batte: offers: ‘BeveraY ‘goa8 SEad peers on! ‘points. © 
Bie «= a 
abies yen este stay you° Soult parthoat arty that ‘portibn Ging of 
by Shasta ts x gal Ty good stouting eomtry. 28. eureum 
pb Mare ‘fp oand east 5f Bil Arai t iat ied aan “gooa- Je Fy ma Ribés 
pages eas Peat Tange just west of Mt. Hebron. &. roezii, R. inurme 
ond 3, nse ‘to ‘be the predodineting species. In spité of these 
Besoclations snd’ Pb Plt A of Teritant, the county” Ss-90 arid ae-to 
te? Karlie ery invasion 6f bDviste? rusts ‘The southeastera somner of 
Ps to be more favorable Por rust development partiewiarly 
fier et icbat y of Bart¥es, yet here conditions are not very good. 
if Modoe ‘Coutty offers Tittle inthe way of g05d Séouting territory. 
nt aratively gt ‘white piné ts Present ‘ahd the country 4s exceedingly 
f terrain “is of Yave formation and whist” wugerpite there 
a. becustes roeky “plateaus. ° “Tie 6nly* ‘Beneedtecd ‘pines fin the northeastern 
corner of Gata rata are ‘fn the Warne? Ranée near the sumait of Susar 
H21) northeast “of Vavie Creek, Dut Ho Aibes are in Hose. ‘proximity to these 
€P@s.°SGme “ftiportance can possibly be attached to the inspection of 
BR. aurcum, which oomure gig @ or _— a 7 nee not in —— ass oak er 
tion with pines: ° ? As : : 

shaving Creve Jom etew aslooge 
alawtifas oxcdizol 

,ooybilere satetyqmco as bedamalesh eiguet ed yem £0 Enet eldT 
feo! ferotigt dismaTd ed? .eckiauc) sezeed bre SoboM ,staah® .ysinia? 
frow ef ban acts afd’ to Stag wteteew edd Yo solisog ewial a seiquose 
Snatot eta? .f29L sot duoqet somacatenncont afd at efrisk yd beadivoash 
aldstowst.ote aaclitoaos etode vydaued sogidals alditw <uffodw dzemfa eotf 
YHae alay cd deos oft tot gist! es iaae tet a0 

at aatmos sobtsiadind edt ¢frsismitieg bus toyed dtamalh add, 9 Zon 
batbesm~¢ bee suanadeand .B to exctiakoceas iaeffeoxe xeTto ditom sd mott 
etek (dedes ab codgat g od [fle detdw soloege tedsome at mudeesae .2 .esatg 
' 8 zekget aidtst tent edt gat 

“t!9 atead® at To ydiatoty edd ai of mote dnght0@Mh ORY coor gece 
ovisafey @ eat 31. «Seat od@ gattedias, of eviogboco aetodest yram anicensecd 

bro p~keton act meth ebaie gaiceows of nego at al fetates favens agtd yf 
sede eaG -sesnobive ud, ozeria-Ureye ote ogo tiaisc gee godt bag eakg Sood 
OCC,! maid stom peiviz eaop tobato se ,ediet sont th et, yd. igen datog Boos 

eeeiaic seqo gears Yo. bee edd, $a YIIese potbarovise oid ovods. ise’ 
notietpoase dee tieoxe ef orsds egele Mxem gat a9, qoF edd o@ aged. oft moxt 
Liffad & seaaeberem di i teoed: «i dike emia od ide, wie deen, har, zayee. to 
~onke thadxol to esmexete ocd at gestedat tafsotired tO mente ff bes 
hie faew ocd co esgade .2% Le ezat etl: of lamue. 984, 1H guek 

wintes toftoegent Scog fazeres ataity od g& aoalt mort, tar. Jon 

to jens weftére¢ dadd xfrafwotitaq syeoued wogbieté avetasd ees 
mutase of wyrianmeo galdsooe Boog wtfeneticeoxe toa af gieade .th San aaletT 
eedhi fen atthe boom Gace, OMe Medd roa sais1¥. to ¢2ee, Soaot gerkt of 
amisat & eifzso% -So.mpxdol, &h to, deer jeot, saoet,cid al. ssotiaiocars 
ensid to often ol .2efsoqe aakianincbeig ess ed oF moses Sanebever of bus 
ot as bite of af ylavoo at? ~tracce® be dioce eteito Sane riottatsosas 
to teatro. mtedeaedisoe sit toiee Sodektd to actaavat mebbue edd ehuloo tg | 
yfiafoskitag suenago reyoh deut vot ofdaxovet ston of OF Btaegis yimuen, add 

.booy Yrev fox ote cacktthaos eted Joy Re tral to ystetoty ods wt 

sqrocivied sxtivess,.doeg to yaw erie at ef fall gtetic yiawod 90B0M 4): 
“igutbeenwe 22 yiiagoo aid Sea jasewig of satq edidw afisit ylevitstegeS 
otedd ont vague tade bas, motiencot aval, to at siaries add to slog. 4rd 
ctesaagdeton adit at soxtg Sotbesa-d yiao sit _-guaetatg wloot geiguooc ef 
tautk to dinewe off tase gael teertgt Gad nk sia efor thfad Tp testes 
sacks of Yliminerq.esofe af ote aed li om ‘ud .deet alvell to deaad ‘rom (LEH 
%o moitsequal oad gf Beoetia ad yldtaacg sine oouadtogat wage  .aee'td 
_eptopaes Boon atdon dad ydamos alas at yidsepet? sumse dotdw .mmeigs 


w & t tisfact acouting 
into the RPA LOURAT & ens Ph ge Bg th a tg Ae BF the 
pre kexts species in thfg region. The area around Susanvilie is 
fairly good territory. with considerable 2.. aureum.. “hat portion of the. 
the, vieinity of Nestwod offers excellent, scouting--there is 
‘ with, santas 2 2aand west pine. mpnoeiastan. 

Sey NRO t OMS 
a1 y. part of the... 
‘Gomi ah careful. Anspection. R. roezli, 
are the most abundant species. Near the 
. caret BASS eee At lower eleva- 
. with £. Lode The region 
4 se - , eas Fay s}. @ECEREESe WAS chen Lota’ 
owe wWrere the of een rast hee bem found Tara Waster at youre anc 
eth excel tend eite for blister rust 2ther taeoect. on 

ns hey : ny ts . _ 7 
made not Yer ‘daa verpanes at this report those countics to the south of 

veep tar: REP ERP NAABIRE 08 SOs HAE, SAG 

% NAT gp istarigé BGrS.. 21h 
. “4 it} ‘> : 



iitions Kon oat Spear 

ai cay Scouts since fe: om ROARS 

gter mit P warrants 4 etiong in a...» 
sisi AE ns ee fp a 3? Peer. apa tie ¥ Sw 
of Ribes and pine. Exceptionally good areas to scout are in 

the vicinity of Lake Almanor and Bucks Lake. ‘The enstern part of the 
county is quite dry and little attention need be paid to this area. 

Sierra and Nevade Counties are quite similer to Plumas County 
and the western portions of these can be seouted to g00d advantage. 
However, particularly good areas are in the vicinity of Slerraville and 
Hobart Mills, also around the several mountain lakes with particular 
attention to Douneor Lake. 

The west side of Lake Tahoe in Placer County has long bee. cone 
sidered an ares where blister rust might gain a hold. An abundance of 
Ribes and pines favored by good moisture conditions makes this region one 
to be scouted at regular intervels. ‘The same is true of this region in 
Bldorado County, Although somewhat arid, a small area in the eastern 
part of this county along the Alpine Highway south of Meyers, warrants 
some inspection, 

Inspections in Alpine County were made largely to zet an insight 


agiegooe yrofastatian Salt son 2905 oxo, giaueh soared 21... 4) os 
edt af brane # ,bedoset ef odad ofgal te yttatotv on Flo nsr grt st09 

et effivaseré basor sete ott .aotget sidd at egtopge palianionberg 
edie to solétog ted? menus ff efdaveblancs djiw yrod fried boog yatta 
al, aapdd-~nsbivoss, taeffaaxe, static bogedas! Xe yintety. edt af yeaues 

aolishooqen only foge, bas aodih evotenma tile apne ate, ‘te. sspharints ae 

ed. %o dane sodnets odd at peor) Rotel yaauod prede, mantel vad be ten ah 
piamn <i ...mghiosqans, Uiftetas, ad cat rem, ame famed 3 elt ofgeate’ uum 

eat t40% .makoeqe dnabade trom eff ote weeah Lh die ann@bates ood 

-owwelo sevol ¢& .eedih om ted : newot ef ekinaeid’s .F aesent .ti to titemte 
aolges aft ..aloaiiaas 5 dole, nottelncass ak. Siset  emoks 

2 asm Samos 
ibaa sasdiliete seo. ini pinges sei 

76 oket ee 

to disor eds of: saltgico Seods, ¢toget etait to eenogsnd eit s0F 
Rodpet evseks aad a bajanatael ete 9 EABARY. diciniea hee sigs 

waatxa, eeottibaus gat su0o8 boon, yiaare® poner niatnes. em ap 
van fle Ro ankg tegue, 2ebiseli latent to yi hate ty: weld 4h, Bg ed 
weanty dtiz soltetooras boon at aod? = to sedsum saci & ata atest. 
-gofaved J at. 20% sapkeibaap dacli eons auette awe bao bee genoa auroras 
neni sad dazog hls on SFRi at Sersomhe ad bose %, eet. dale, me YyshS....dmes 
amls. tads,.eouly peévons. teh dpatednt, aes, es ee ne 

a mi snodiosqant einatiew, yiaued. sagt Xo. Bhach nuedeow vie 
an détw ,coktavele daid “frist to af tf Yo foul rRoty unt imeee 
ab. ete, droge. of, seats. hoog yitanoktqeaxt, -entg. Bre aodka ‘to eonshurds 
edt Yo dsay wrtegene eh 2 2B gone bas tosemtA sated to uttatoty eds 
cena elt of bhag ad bese gotinedse efssty Deu eb otisp ef eiaed 
qoanseD “ eomat et tal tate at feo sta anti aued abavolt bas arte ‘ 
wpgadaay hs BOOT, ot betoopa od gam seeds So. snolétog yevad gon a ron 
_ bas sl giinto iy seid ct es esate Long, 4 ftatoatiseg stow saoa 
2 Alene te alt he. ici alatraom faxayee oz, hauove calg.os (Iti. sradoi 
sae desta Pha end ‘tomo of soljanise 

aod sped yrol. aad, yiewa> 299atS at eoriat: ead ww, ebie deow edt 
to somahads MA Plot. & piesa ddgis deer notetid atedy este pa botebis 
ang ckyer. aid? eaace amati tines, ottatos Boom ‘ed: boxovst. paiig how eodli 
. ah soepire, efdd to pent ai. omar. on? ~,  elayteiat satingos 32. betuaoa, ad ot 
arstaee. afd ah aots Lene, @ hire, tadwemos, MaredttA ‘wyieared, ohatoal 2 
ate sen cw saaeil te démon pea nie aiid ipini aaah ebhe. 40 éxag 
ae: Baste ; '  aptaagiiellire pot 

figtent as ten ct cfeyzat “ebam o1e0 cianed oafgta al hdd pong gas 


pe ae ee Ref 

into the pinyon rust. Only, in the western part of the county near the 
summit are there 5-needled pines Im association with Ribes. 

In reaching Mono County it was necessary to go through a portion 
- Of the Carson Valley in Nevada. A planting of BR. nigrum was inspected here. 

“At sone re hala ‘these bushes may show infection which wil? be wmsually 
interest on pate te tab Inspections were made in the western part of 
: hein sey en rou hs Tuolumne County but no S-needled pines were noted 

whe sate was Feached at the county boundary line. 

pu iia dian ae ot Rives oa ofain aucselebiendl ¥ogin: $6. anpear seat over hhe 
Sierra Nevada on the west side in Tuolumme County. Occasional inspections 
were made: es far west as Pine Grest. Special attention was given Leland 
Mendows where the pinyon rust hes been found for # number of years and 
which offers an excellent site for witetow rust. Other Seapestions were 

tere not ras te td 

UMS Re pest of. the s2@250n for the lo. 5 an were whhe 
Rinmacrdeeeenn. particular iaterest were those near the Calaveras 

Greve of Big Trees. - te: yp are ideal conditions for rust development 
@houlé 4% once gain.entrance.. This 4s attested by the presence of pinyon 

rust on B.. roezli not far from Big Trees... This. locality like Mineral 

end Leland Meadows. has harbored this rust. before. ‘the interest in these 
places lies in the fact that all are in. excellent 4 a _ areas and 
ree Tt any smn. pinyan. trees. 

_ Sabre 2 Ho. 1 gives a , suanery of the ras mre peer in California 

ala 3 

. a oe 

oft “ten ving adi te bray oreteow edt wt yind .tent novnky edd odah 
vodhl ditty #otiaiooess a} aeate befboen-d eted? ota ?imnve 

nottte, = Hacom) cg ct yuteeedam aw Ft “tatoo cook sxtdosst of 9 
oted Segseqen? maw mrain sk to geltaatyg 4  .Abero® a? ‘serfal moetad scif te - 
ulfaverur ad (fie dolde notroetal woxe qa aetend oasis ents suudnt omoe A 
‘to trac eteteow edd at ahem erow anotiooqentl stasixequt bas yatteotedat 
hetor erew sénte Lefsven< on tod viavod eammriouT od sérox as ysauoo ahat 
Re. lsat Ytnbawod Yinwos odd ta decdoset cow tinue ode fhiaw 

geld 1a96 donk «s8qe8 ef afged saohistooras saty ban gedia Boo 
sttebieqent fexotemead .ytusc0 cemifon? mt ebte teew at ao ‘phavell sto f8 
Srefel nevis aaw moftnssia fatoeq® .taard sat as feew tst es shan stew 
boa ovsey to todeem « tot Sayot mee sad dent nogute eft etede swobsek 
etew anctinacant reitO stent vetel{[d wt edie dmeffoaxe sa wtstto sto hil 

sYxredwatts mort tah Jom $ basi 

sham oro Hobget errele add 16k moss, ant To apotteecen! vast 0 
nsrerated edt weet eect ster teevedat talootitag TO. »eixwod estovelad at 
dramysteveb tauy tet eaoti thave fash era oxs% .seett ff to vrete 
notaiy te sonéeetg Od ys Seteedte ef elit — .eoanty ne alas somo Si bY woe 
feerenk® oitt vatteos! etait .asexT gif meat t3% ton 2fsc0% 8 ao geet 
deed) ck teoxvedai ott seteted teat eidt beredsem ead awohses Ocafet bas 
hee aagus eota tague tneffesxe at ote (fa Suds ‘gnuat edd of outf adosiq 
Cu SE eye ptengetber sito iol gems mb TT as Liat 

atetot? [ad at Stee suttwcen sdf Be ytesmne 4 sevts f we ee gC eee We 

| pean Wes ae eee aatha te LeeAnn 

a rn en ene ot prema Re RE NR i in RN 

renenirevmennioman eines : 
Af R8 er il Wanbor With] — fwembor 
; ‘ai eat iL. 

/Go od a | Number pines Leainea 

on; n ster | OE ys com Patats 

*This total is ¢ lpphsee ‘of Seb6G3 BR. xoezli, 2985. inerme, 2,630 

BR. hracteosum, 1,871 R..mewadense, 1,005 2. crnentun, 795 B. aursum, 283 
R. velutinum, 275 R. montigenmum, 169 R. divaricatum, 169_"._hellii, hae 
lasianilom, 125 2. geram. 115 B. lobbii, 105 BR. incustre, 90 &. jaxifio 

60 R. sanguineum, "15 A menziesii, and 12. klamanthense. 

# Ribes 500 feet or Ides to pine. 

#¥ Pinyon rust, &. oncigentale. 

es od 


iM * 1 al hcl “ ; rer ener rte: tins - cae ; . a 
| rr momansth - a ee et IE is 
pial Tas i¥ soaaw’ § |-a) ro dawit , 

odmer thee peter 
(aolsoogent sadust adult | eat book sey day edie 
Lenecbinte’ pats intact es: 

AR * 
come Poe ele awe ee re rc mmo AD “ere 

hice Mu» ch Pa L ~ ia) c ted. 

t a 

| ih catranereersittaioteaond nO Cr an 
ne Seen "5 ain ee) eres Soe yo: Sat onee 
Ln enn rere fe ee Genie. Faere we | 
are varie seem ba ey eer pr ea” NE 
beanie Lasnisitiie RIE BE ees & eo eee 

re ee Sol peceatins ie ik ke oe 
ana ta teh . : 7 

—_ S a ee see , 

SS ena } 

. PR! WEEE os mes ei suits AV o8 

ee ="fres.t _1_Sr soiban waa a. 

028.8 .earmaxt .£ Gees ANAS ¢ SEG,& to beeiqmon at fatod eigdT* 

SSS .smassin “i hg uiaerm of 500, f f .exeebaven .f [98.f ,memeetoaud .2 
o& Sal Ltt ted..% AE ,wetenizavth .§ CO! .memegi¢aca .5 aye — oi 
wuortine? .2 OF oatuiaal wi GOL Liddell .2 Gf! HED 4 OSf ,sugitwsteel 
Saxedénomets Jf bos .ifeetsnam A of neuaiaase J, 08 

wate of pest to doe O08 eadth % 

atedtuehiona 2 ,tew: soyntd Fh 

So AS 



V ifs Wt 



G.A.ROOT 1932 


heaceeccunte AND EaGommunud 2108 
man ome paeebies of whe rast wored in Curry Comty, Oregon in 
1928 ana again: in 198] JYeads one to believe it will be found tn De? 
; ' 4fornta before’ very long. This northwestern corner 
1a be continously stouted but’ it hardly seems feasthte to go’ further 
swath ‘then Bureka in Humboldt County. Trinity County as a whole can be 
eliminated until the rust, ds f ound to the north in Siskiyou County. 

bamy “Northern ‘gtekiyon County should reteive constant attention 
oxpecsatt ae the Klamath River drainage and tributarics coming in from the 
‘4s Little need to go enst of Yreka, Ac stated elsewhere 
in this reptits ‘careful Anspectitns should be made in the vicinity of 
ue ‘Shasta City--onast of here Vittle work need be done. Modoc County’ can 
be renee eliminated as, well ne the northern half of Sassen County. 

ve "8°" pe! Seouting is to be done in the Sierra vista, and it seems 
Sonate to continue such each year, eastern Shasta ond Tehama Counties 
should receive first consideration. © More exténsive scouting is warranted © 
in Oregon, endeavoring to get’ the southernmost limits before assuming an 
extensive Program. for those Counties” south of Sehrma and Plumis Counties. 

ih i: With the situation as now known, little evobiane can be placed 
in scouting in this‘state prior to Avgust. The later this ean be done 
with favorable weather conditions, the creater the chances for finding 
the Gisease. In a ‘known rast” area, earlier scouting can a profitably be 
conducted. RG: she 


The edveationa’ work in this state has kept pace in a seneral ~ 

"ak | with the control program.° Phe subject of blister rust’ is well known 
it now betomes imperative to keep the public informed ‘ef progress’ 

made ‘pnd ‘status’ of the disease’ Pelative to this state. — ma 

two exhibits were made during 1932. On April 16 one was 

set up at Tae im conjunction with others representing plant pathol ogical 
problems of the state. the general exhibit wae arranzed for the antiunl | 
— a vatate a aeeinted by: mevenen ht per rc each year. 

chars are Aa stucntiwnay’ teats in tha? way of an tint ddaatterbareptieon 
sisintn ats: was arranged for the state feir in Sacramento and set up in the 
exhibit of the United States Department of Agricelture. Mechanical troubles 
de-vetoned after two Gays: ané further use of it was abandoned. Excéssive 
heat generated by the machine itself coupled with the extremely hot 
weather caused the difficulty. There is a place for this type of machine 
in educational work but it hes certain limitations. 



gi mogetO ,ysenod yi of Seton tent aft te eemeeetg eft 
rod mt Bao od ffiw ¢f evetfed of smo sbacl (Ser af atage bos OSPL 
ycuton mxedgowsdtoa aid? .gnof ytov stoted stem tttTad ,¢tasod sttol 
seftist og of ofdtesot emone yf brad di ted bedwose yfesoumtinw@ ed Sfyode 
ed aso efodw a es yseuod ytiaktT .ydared ¢bfodowH at stot nadt disoe 

cqiswo® woyttate at ditom edd of buwot af seur odd fiday hetentuhts 

notinsite gnstenco evteoes biuode yawod yoytalale mrodisol 
efi mort mk satmoo eskistadias bes ogsntath sovih diame! add yflatooges 
ersnweefe betste eh .stetY to tease om oF boon ofsdtt af etcAdT citron 
to ytintotv edd at ebam od Sfuode enéitooqent Intetas ,dtoget eidd at 
man yao soboM .smob ed boan atow of tii ste to tese~-ytld ateais .t# 
Yiaued nesead to fad mrodizon ei? es ffow as bodanimtto yferitae ed 

anmee df bua ,nolyet evielé odd af oncb od of af yativese II 

esitouoS emeioT bas steads atetese »Tssy dose dove ountinos of efdteast 
hetearvaw ef aatdsooe sylesedxe stom wofisteblenco getit evisset biyode 
vs uitonrmas etoted etiaif jsomertedduos sdf fog of gabicvescae arogerO of 
wsottauc® eamufS bas amedet to Adwea ee htasoo aeokt tot matgo1g evienotxe 

Beoste ed nag sosebets eftsif sword wom a8 acltavtte edd Atiw 
enoh ef neo etd? sedaf of?  .dauguA of soliq state eldt sk gafisone ak 
anthstt rot asonedo ed tedseTR edt ,enoithbace tedisew efdatovat dite 
ad yfdaiitets aso gotduvooe aetftes ,so%s gest mwort a ai eeseetd ont 



farenex & at eoag tqsd sad state etdd at dxow fanottaoube sdf 
mont Ifow ef dearc todeifd to tpetdve off .matgotq foxtaoo aiid diiw Yew 
aretzcta to homictal offdug edd qeea o% ovitersqmt gemosed wor ¢f bas 
e¢age aidd of osvitefet eeasekh est to extete bus sham 

esw ato SF TiugqA a0 .Séer antag obams eteow avidinxe ows ¥fn0 
fastgofodiag tnalq saiineesiget etodte dtiw sotteayigoo af e ai ta qu tea 

faunee edt tot bexneris eaw 3 idisdze fexecos off .otate odd to ame fdo ta 

teey ions of qday basesodd fareoves yf Bebnotis et dotdw stroke ‘ eyoorrat 

sootiqofad oltanctys a8 to yaw add af stuteot fanoitaoube sm. 
eft at qu fe8 baa cinemarose ak whst etede add tot begnaTis kaw enidoss 
eetdyots faotasdoe sist feoirga To Snomtisqes@ astss? begin etd to gididxe 
aviegeox® .benofneds eaw #f to Sey sofitist Sra 2eyab ows toSts béoo fevob 
fod yfemetéxe eft ditw belques ‘testi ontdoam edd yd Seteteceg teed 
antdoam to oayt eidt tot eoslg # af stodt wd fooktiib edd beasrao toltas® 
eaottadio£’ atatres ead tf dud urow fanoltsoube at 

Several articles were prepared during the year. A short one 

"the White B Be Biseter Rust at the ind of 1931" was given the Pacific 
Rust publication. Another, “Progress sf Preparedness for 
Protecting Sugar Pine jgeinst Blister Rust" was printed th the jo22 °° 

| roasy-areh 3 ae F the Honthly Bulletin of the Cali sornin Department 
of Agriculture. The 193) December 4s*e, which ime out in 198, con-- 

tained a summary of the blister rust work for 1°), 

On April 7, a talk with lantern slides was given before the 
botany and plant pathology classes of the College of Agriculture, 
University of California, at Davis. On April 21, one was given before 
the County Agricultural Inspectors of Santa Barbara County at Santa 
Barbara. On April 28 o talk with lantern slides was given before the 
biology classes of the Polytechnic Hizh School at Long Beach. On May 12, 
remarks on the status of the rust were made and a map ghown before the 
convention of County Agricu) tural Commissioners at Yreka near the Oregon- 
California line. 

On August 4, ae radio talk “The Present Outiock in the White Pine 
Blister Rust Field" was given over KGO and its associate network of 
stations in the Western Farm and Homs Hour program, Radio is one of the 
best agencies through which general information may be disseminated, 

Educational sets were given to the state teachers! collages 
at Santa Barbara and San Diego. ‘This completes the list of schools of 
higher education which have reecived sets. Specimen boxes with 
literature were sent on request to various high schools and individuals, 


Tae last of the pine-growing nurseries of the state was examined 
regarding blister rust protection by ¥. V. Benedict in early June. 
At the request of the Long-3ell Lumber Company an estimate of the cost 
for the protection of its nursery was determined with other information 
pertinent to this matter. 

_ This nursery i situated not far from Tennant in Sisikiyom 
County in an area of lava outcroppings in a semi-desert recion, Benedict 
says: “The only S-needled pines in the whole region (S.P.) grow about 
5 miles east air line, on the upper slopes of Garner Mountain. ....... 
There are a few sugar pine seedlings produced in the nursery and if 
the appearance of the present erop is any indication of the quality of 
the site for sugar pine production, I rather doubt if a blister rust 
Gontrol allotment need be set up for the nursery. ‘This is of course 
entirely aside the point". 


eno dred: A wtasy oft aakachbemsgetg ote" aefetite farcved 

attien? oid nevis eaw "TECl to bai oat ts tegSl wotekT@ enkd ot tdW of?" 
soho ageebogere tl Tor eee Tgh tH » a tai OBA, s,totiept (dae tetpezstl tank 
SEe! add of beindag paw "teut total lh. dami@gs eab% gee. guitootet 
tnomisage” abso tiisQ ods to nitelfné xfdegolveds tq augat dotel-yReuidst 
maton {S608 nb dato .emao dolde «eek tadmeges, °F sy, _eatied, obeys... te 
69F aa} atiow tan. apdatia eds 20 remem Doabed 

aud a1eted nevis saw acbife azotnef dsiw fet a 45 fisgA xO 
rut ivoliaé to egellod afi to eanealp manietian dat pas yrstod 
eicise geviy aaw ef0..1S fiacd nO. .atvad, ts .aterott fa to yilexertal 
aised 3s eiaued aiadied siane to atoise yank Laud tooirya yaauod oid. 
edi eckadcoviz aon goblfe atsiaal Side tad % BS fda gO eigd38, 
St yal 60 .doacd gacd tw foodng dy th olmutoodylo’ odd ‘tc regasta, we fold 
EEG t 


edt asoted svods qsm 4 553 ohan stom 4en7 eft to auseta, edi se. 
-~foyett sid taea StetT de etonoteetomod fenudfuoftpa ytniro to notineviacd 
oat t ataroti fas 

oth’ ethhi ati af AwottnG docget tock” fed othat.o > darud M00 bfoody 
46 storied eeeioosns 3ti,bae Gra tere gatty on "Sfokt janh satetis 

gt to are ab ef Bak .aARBT ROT "ell. Sa TL bee stat getedsas? gat ail aaotiata 


bosantmovealh ed yom aofdeario tal fareneg infiw dugoudd “eefoaeys tee 

aage Lloe \eqgsdgaed omar e ocd ot savlg eT9u 239% \Sanobdenmbl,. 2, 

bo afnodes to. dab! odd setetqamon afd? ..ogald gat bus argd7ad,otsae Je 

ditv.aoxod soukoog? -.ete2 davisgst svad sistdiy aotisouhe,,reagid 

efaubivibst dae efoodoer agld avoiver of deounet mo tise STOW ossates tl 
AG hieah Wo GREAT EMRE 50° 

bocinexs ase eet oft Te agers gtint qubvota-enig os. te. jeaal sat 

a peel GLa sk dpkbeced V8 yd woliggdetg.d2ue ‘tatalid gnisiaget 

a9 Ss Yo, OF aehGRs 24 qaagnel Tadmand . tleg<gaol ods to, dascyes galt t4 

biawsctak testo die bemkerteted doe “Gis etes, edi Io soliaetorg oa 02 
writen aldt of insatiieq 


 eteyhale Rack jnerimEomott ast som hesmadte we: meethecetde® Go or 8re 
totbowed .cctget dtosebeiner a af: seatoquseevoceys! Tos sota: mboak ytaveG 
gyro wove {oS ) wodget efedwacd, ak senta be fheated ylao edt? sayet 
oo... otthatonch reatao ttc aogels tecas ant mo ,enkf tia deae eolia G 

te Soe exer eds pal) begebord anehrbeee sala tagee Wats OTs prod? 

4o “edifaup ety Xo aobasodbal gogiet qestotaseotT ofé: ko gonataceqa esd 
feun wadebtd a RB: dded. xo FH25: i quot boty ankg: tagva, tot%oed 2a eae 
gees Yeoh Skit pa eisr ius edt vo. qu tsa.o8 poon dcemte {le fotdace 

ni vas Stunts op Se tdeteqvedd gbhtaangietitaa 

én ater an, he Deere odes 
Ga 2 ; perrah JG kets Se 

mig nure ory at Susanville in 

cine County ear exanin ine or . “he bed of sugar pine present 
3 has g Renny removed and canes @ pines are now growing there. 

‘The propagation of this seetes = a oned for the wees. 


The ites Geulsey Here vase can fhadd “44 a8 
eatabbiahed shots Ts - Rita harry area or bhe 
Gaky one ePpeckowRs made pnd tort wee dvrineg the 
early jun. 

he Pellooing wirudiew dere nontiemed “ailing the (O77 

Rt hes were ™ the Zessine cowass L 
Rites seestablishment in ao ase ey oie Tir gal 
Pimdetisn pine trode after 
Bima moettgniisooent 2c ste a 
i Re bee COGe wero wation cad dene ts 
Rives eed wemwiaation and seedling 
atbew cea ‘HeGrREe A koe dul wae 445% 
Leelee recta ue etwd ies, 

x ¥ 

se me 



ALE oft the etetie m with 

& } Rog 
on ones SA4PHRGF ef the GSss Pe LS Seis se 
wei te given Tor wack ous, fA apa He ge 

reper’, paced Ber arr Oy 5 Dowevre? wee wd 
—— iti he Gyan i 

ae _ tke | Sayer ol 48 next i 3 Pamers an’ V5i) les Studies. 

Puitiese: Fe etaiy te dafiusnas wt 64 fee: 
Mey Rives. eotabli din sit awl wecemain i¢ there is 

of thaven} ‘that wiki fehiBe’ cea product ion em mew HY ¥ 
eotuive aid iivan Unformeatien on the ‘mn of Saarly tae: One 

opagen ae time Hike selhenadn Con mw te coed ta ad sex 

bye tg si y ad Bets ah’ Pipes 

et deusr bagi on eng SiMe te se 
ois : ahi ieee Locsin Suma aut mii? sioie Tee ted 4d eho’ ge at sive 
Wadi onsl forest. if Becsiow 88, he 4 Fp Bowe Re. Whiek were 
iy the PorveutGervice en « tink gale * in Iee8, There 
iG-sere clots sad eeckh won Lomguc 
marting and «utting nractics. 

2390 : 




e . 

sa bvi2¢ 






ng iasw Ye 

> > Be. ba 


he ttc 
Mag ORL, 

sadn acre 

a a 




¥ to we F¥sQeqoetd 


& a 




bat. Segue ROOLOGY; "GA BYFORNIA®* aan 

stendard Tore: oe jer! 2091 By ! bt 
Be ETL i 43 33 tr? ¢ ants i} hy mS Sey OP yanic A, ‘Patty neat e4 kare ea Gis % 
dist) a bat Od, HOBAKLO RR pe “Asstatant renee ee Sess ‘ , 
5 dh ee Raa Te i Wes te & R, 
Lot | R.. Maro, ct ans copiing i¢ 
cabling sy ape ange ‘aeursey 8 wore wes" eon rinea +6: Sb chia tiie “6.2 'the 

éstabiished plots im the Strawberry area of the Stanisiaus Batisiial Forest. 
‘Only éne “heck wae made and that was during the latter part of Way and 
vhaetig. June, 

‘im “ a 

practios reise -fighze auveatee: were ‘contiamed aaring | ‘ine 19s” ‘geacon 
fiz earl cade.¥ «sare. ae! “et. So Ex 
stan Bac Bites -garvey of “the hecinc hiss and mill plot studies. 
B. Ribes reestablishment in sugar pine fie ang. sh gil emg 
pondéross pine tyoes after logting, 
evedio@he Rive $ reestablishveut. in stream type: canter Leeging. 
ae 8 Dy Ribss seei gemination and seedling ‘survival. a 

iste are Ribes ‘seed germination and seedling sirvi vel “on: ey loves. 
“bes Bee Ribose seed'stomace tn tie duff end gol! * 

ars ie Miscellaneous ee age Lor » gabes oo 27.3 
Bere ate Fe ne $3 ANAT: rE Wai Boy: 

All of the studies with the exeeption of A have been described 
on pages 247-267-0f the 1931 Aunntial Resort’ so only tiie remilte to date 
‘wHAl be wiven for “each one, “An necount of appears in the 1929 annual ° 
report, page e 267+270; ee “gone 00h £01 eae nde yoeer i 8 ned eeepating $0 this 
study will be‘given, ~~ = a 
on the plote were checked es welt’ a ite Of Eos sia x 

uf Ss. ‘of and Mill Plot Studies. 

‘Purpdge:' Yo study the influence of different cutting practices 
‘upon Rives establisinait’ and ascertain if there is Any feast ble regulation 
of thevcut ‘that will ituhnibit the production “of new Ribes ‘plants, Also to 
‘mequire sdditional information on the amount of yearly geno hy pm “-_ the 
etua tome ces ign Ribes seed beset ag 7% ‘to drag ‘Srv a att gs ; 
Ai. the ciatine AF. EF WAS BD Be 
able Ribs 4 Pligg ale née itaertnictaty? « Thi s ny - er conducted, 
‘pn the three. logding i e' and mil¥ plots located in the Stanislens ° 
Wational Yorest: 4m Section 28, 7% 4 N,, 8. 18 ©. which wre © e¥ubl fehed 
by the: PorestGervice on a timber sale arez in 1929, There are three 
15-acre plots and each was logged curing 1929 according te the following 
marking and cutting practice. 

“Heino lodia® srsdeiaes 2, 4 ini 

mae LF ee, 


sit to anon siitoeta of Senttsoo saw sow vaclons sedi sAT 
taero fonctited emaiaiaagé edt Yo sors orredes id? odd ni etofe beds tidstse 
bos yall te grac tetial edd anivod sew fade bas ebam aaw doedo eno vind 
ort yitee 

:gosaea SOL end gulanh Semzi¢aos otew ealbate gatwol fot ea? 

eothute golq (Lim bas sgsmab nefpmol eft To yertoe eel fn 


~enig tague bus tit-ealg tegue of dnoaulelidadesati eedia ja 
saingel xedia eecyt entq agotehaog 

paingel tevta eqyd ametie af daonielidajeee: aedifi .O 

| Javivire gpaiisess bas ootiectiote, Seer sal ix .o 

eecole yrh go laviviwe axtibeas bas notdanieneg Seer zedif i 

Lice Sas Ties wit al esatota Sooe eof ti .T 

-asiauvés esoensif[soein § .D 

hodftaneeb cecd eval A to aetiqeoxne act dgiw solbiria adj to [£4 
gts of eiiment odd ylao ce dtogeh LenanA [50L ofd to VOS-VAE eensg ao 
fanene @80f adf mt eieeqcs A le tavoonpa cA aco dose tot nevig od Ifiw 
nidt of yaistetveq edateg Lanoljiobs eror ,tevewor :OVE-TOS genaq , Projet 
mwevis, od [fiw youte 

eathese tolS GLiM bos sgamed guimgel off Jo yovire sedii A 

geottosta gaisico duorelits tc esaerftat edt yooda of SR OgTLT 
roftalimer eftizaet yra ai ered? Tf alatveses Sak isemciotidagas aedifi mogus 
of oefh .etuele sedif wan to mottorbotq odd 3idbiet {ifw sant giro ens to 
edd bus seitanteres yltsey te fanoms od¢ ao soliaato tal fanotsibbs eaxiopos 
nation o tee otaxinves; ot amitaon bese eodti amis ‘to dignel 

hedoubaoo sated ef vbode eit! iigentgetd bas so tecties’ told 
witelobenss add at botasel stole (Lim bua saeme6 gatonol setdt edt go 
hedetidagee o1sw dotdw .0 Sf .29, 0S 8 88 mottoe® af seotot fazolsali 
sovdt ere sted? ,@8@L af asxvs elae todmté a ao saivte® saerot old yd 
antwefio% eff of yaloreses Q50L geiis beguel saw tee das atelo exos-Gl 
soitosta gaittivo has gabtram 

~"VWaatked , eut and logged in accordance with 
dmber.gale practice of the Region. © This 

11 mature timber tut leaving at least 3 well 
e or Shear pine trees per acre. All of the 

ted ae amach as possible, : ( 

aS eo 
ae tae 

Marked, cut. and lozaed kcoRilng. to. a heavy 
¥ “mérchantable trees of all spasion te 4 low 
an evéial. pre cti ce)... vind at oe the regidual 


Metked, eut and Yaeeed in ncesrtaley) ‘with the 
economic selective logging plan, ‘leaving all Me 
below &@ DBF. of 30 inches. Much 4f the residual |i | 

‘are cake within jn ares "fram whieh Ribes were 

eradicated. in 1926 land again in 1929 prior to any logging, The exact 

manbe® of ayete or acts ‘eel by the 1926 eradication ie not knows. for 
eh | ots are logated there was an Average of 29 

plots ten chains away showed 20, 32, 56 

“or an n avers for - penny acres. ae 87, 5 Ribes per 

Fite ln “eat. 

Agi sve also beet aired around the outside of ‘the three 
in plots rar a Baebes ice of a mile or wore on the north and west sides. 
A record wes mede of sik the Rites prior to logging on a 8-chein strip 
surrownding the plots.dut the bushes were not removed, In 1932 the Ribes 
on thé plots arta jcked as well as the ones on the es strip outside, 

bat a neit were. they destroyed. 

Results 1 dats: Table No. 1 gives o summary of the mumber of 
ib heat me, ‘live stem per acre fouiid prior to legeing in 1929 
and three His green in1922.. Table No. 2 gives the same points for the 
2~chain strip: nd the. outside. 'Although tie definite conclusions can 

| sabdy for several years, a few poiats are indicated. 

ne aysteas appeer to permit the establishment of « formid- 
able Ribes| br ora, . Th years after logzing a large Ribes poptiation is 
present in spit i. fhe fact tint the old Ribes were removed in 1926 and 
1929 prior m loge pe” ‘Stored seed ast account for at least part of 
these new 3, . 



dtiw encneitoceos at begyel Sua due ybetred of 
eid? .molyeT eff To ssfisatg else ‘Gedal cia deetot Srsbaste 
ifow © teeel 4@ actvael apd tedmtt opptan Ils zatidem eevieval bodtom 
aig to {fA .eto8 t9q@ gerd, enic tepee so oalg seotebcog boted trtetd 
old shah &2 sett sa befsedoto et basis favdteet 

yvned a of gutitenos beaxol has dso a & 08 tolS 
wol = oi, aaisege Lin te; eeetd aided madorex Savomey ieinw meteye gatiteo 
lavbiee:, edt. ke. sev¥ laren anna eager ot imil, setemaih 
oe tt af eaiaemncs™ nt ants 

ed¢ ditty eovabtesos ai Semnol bas do ,boitek (2 of old 
iis, paivasl .wsig audgzol,evitoeles okuesiope aa af Sebsenmpet so lioai¢ 
eas to dosh -aedouk O5 to 4.9.4 2 woled esntc [ia bas tabeo bas 1fY 
2 Ne V4 —— Saate 

erew sedi doidw mor? asta as "abate setepol ara etolg onrdt: ot 
toaxe ed?.. .padnaet qws.od teive: @S0L atoatega bam OStL ak bejmothate 
Tol .aworsl sor ak notvesibate a80f edt ud bevoemt-etem xeg eedifi Io red ann 
cS to. ageteve ae ecw oteadd. Se¢acel, ele eseig Seiad. odd colon at aoold exis 
62 8% ,OS Sewode yous saiaip, ced siele et0e-erst. wel, .etas Teq eedifi 
1m sedid & VE te estos Yinows odd tel spepeTe aa, Te. ates teq eedif Sh ina 
50D RH naga ond stoted st9% 

eld. ond Ae», 5 esd, bapretan cotieani need? ‘onde watt pods - 
ah. pdt boa dét0ea odt.Ke, stom, 19, alist a Io onnsis thes 30%: etele erabial 
qitta otede-8 «a0 geiggel o¢.teliq rodtit, ads, [is to shser aay Stoser. A 
gedif edt SECL al .Bevremet yon e1ew assecd elf dad etolq edd satsopertes 
,abiadie gitde siaio-8 od} oo eaco oft ea [low es balverio grew atolq ed} ao 
Aayoutesh yeds stow sesso rediied al dei 


28: age ait te yieseme «a sevig, fee) cldet. > tg3e6 of ~diee sh nekpsol at. tole, bapct > sea: tea: avde. ovii, to test ect San sodiil 
ent tot agsiog smug ofd.aevig BS ek efdali, S8@L af tehel eiasy sont? baz 
aan gaotasionos egiaiieb. om dgweddia «.ebtedi so ef@ cauets) gttde omtarion& 
betsolbal eta ataiog. 994.8 ,etssy. isrewen tod. ude ekddumor? cwetboad 
—hiwrot = to saeodeiidates ad? ifsireq o3 tasqas emeteye patito ond to ILA 
ae! aoitealoqeg eodil .eptel a gityged tedts eravy setdl: - stellt vedth eidna 
2, BS2E al Sovewex ste eed th ble addtad? tye? add: tovetiqa al tkeaanc 
to ¢tsq@.tagei te: te euiehiel Og tas: ohiaiv vive swpobaned od rebtq  Qb2L 
» cole seeded wom oe edd 

Sohne aller 
u hud 

. gone xed Sausng SFL iea _s saFT. ae | ries Sisy aod ese aAT? 
A PT Oe 

& & “M9 8Wp SERGE = + ‘C44 8S tie mIeyO GZS 

DOT GaouY diuas NIvid-2 40 AMANNS SauTe 
bart BB ag & en ee 
; = & : aR my | Beyer ab am, perso SHUN “G26T UE pepeotpeae pus peqqoTd @eq ty 

aaa ter Lek tit 

a a NE! I a NT Oe en I | aT RS 

ens — — 

=) Sy BS toe 
eS ESSE Mee wee 

4S PATT| > 301d 


gana entes ir er 

ST, a h 5 Es <2) 

“(eer af bolao thats ton dad Geass asdis .e8el st bod ao ibars bas bedsela sed if 
-. $208 guaat © 

SRaUTE. on tas, ‘dha sonnel wrseo PeUOLA: ues 

Se ER NR ek aero 

$02 ruse 

oS A ST HE a a Nome riedmaatiameainermdnahe one —e wonnisspes Aibinantbiceien Pe RN CL NTE me RD. NN NRE CoS Re rr tenn gi ART a aT re CE pan 8 ATE ALOT COS 

- wos é : a enema “aston oY kee von ee oye martin sym prarent a 
30 agile ato teh alae | 
| 4 gesard |. Siok ted wade ovid | ¢oft | 

ARE es en” | 

333. ne "ecaraagccaiy 

_ liad ss =o i liaier = 90% ies. aL om oi tate seat A vou.S) xed oui) 
[Bes {Be mae? Se Tes : as SE be ile z) _* OS sop eS 
10.80. esas [a.vse be So (en hse |} osg- | ets | 
OST. ee ore FRET $j 2.588 wrote “Ane Ts.5 = $8 | OL sr ee et wn Samad 
7 i | i {séeoT 

| | Le oad | Peo en: | ih 
lae3 | saa 4 Be le .ofe) 3 .sen. S35 5 | aos Be best i Sf jenstovs| 

S80f to BS@f HE bedeotSaxe gon aodfh 


Pim -Po nderose ind au | Sugar Pine-Fir 

| rereen Nene ve oy 

rd ‘Potty desdétied,; on peges 251 and 252 of the 1921 
Hse red ‘to date are shown in Table Wo, 3. Ribes seed 

nage to any extent until the second year following 

F gemiination has made a material drop, due in 

om gf source of néw seeds. io doubt there sre 

e soil that will be bought te the surface 
diet ances within ‘the next few years. The feet of live 
ing the last two Tepresents mostly sprouts from bushes 
e? digeted;) This sttdy should make an interesting 
ecg tn int ; the Ribes have been removed every year 
an at | not. aN een iat 

os ail ; ‘ 

¢ -$hie- study apperrs on page 254-of the 193 
eives. ‘the results to date, New Ribes bushes 

started app saa § “gumbers the first year following logeing, 

contimed 7) ; the-~ Fee oh poets apart year-end then-mede a decided 

arop~ the third ye, years iting bashes haye been eliminated from this 

plot . this m eeomt ¢ or the:drop in new bushes during the thira 

ar, There jee! 
ore is ‘a a 

Pome Reve 


» Up yarn te 
wo hese ear. 
in eo 

aed | 
* “ed 
y oan ee 
ep | : ay 
hg § of 
hae] 4 get 
roe i bes : 
4 ‘ bE ; 
ent 4 & : ; 
ae : ae # uk of 
ie : m = 
H 1 ed anal Oe a } 
yal i Re te RS Bee ee paras ~ 
i ro ie ea ee at Fi 
G73 ; i ; Shs ce ie ; 
03} bls PEs Rais SN GS oe oe 
at toes Ye o-8 r : ina 
uate i He es § ise anys ‘a £ } 
iar i : et “ai oH 
bs a *, ry 4 i: 
ell | 4 % ps ad ne 2 ‘e H é 
reas & saps " ae mmadlt 2 aah es ann cy 2 nein eee eee 
bak » ay Be us 
hig f ; fee B a3 i 
a) & = seh 4 rigs oy 
‘ aS oe eee WE vt 
nee GS : OC «ee So Malt P 
ie 3 a ee t 
| ERE I, <P St Reta SAI ane nerienin fr - 
- Sag id bo a op a ; ' 
4 ge bop ee ee e072 “4 ai * 
+ RS | as as a5 baa , 
3 (. Biome & ee 
me | he & i Os Puen an a) y 
rat aM ) £F9 oR ot Bs 
ae onttah Sie sce ipineace . £ 
} ‘ 
; “ & io i? 
; ae ¥ ‘ 4 a , 
we $9 be gs ; 
? Si tas 4a vi ir a 
| fe tii %y 
Aw en a es eT ae ee 

‘oni 2 “saath Be axiS gno1sbaoi-ertd eat a a ee 

[eel ag + ey eae | bus 168 segeq ao , bed Promeb ee 7 thi 
See refi -.& .oF elds? at awode ore stab ot at ioe ott ote 4 adxeqed Larrea A 
aikenlioct ta9y ddeoes es2 [tiae Inetxo ya oF stent toren re lage ton 5£6 
nt oebh- opti ieitogsn | % bam gad not sax bones ‘189y, Bessa Pe at base mifage I 

ete sted? doved oF 

erste oft of Ydguiesd ad Iftw jad? Ltos sat ott abe eae Yotian, Ltd 
evil te dset e@f “ethes Wet teen eng midds tw sonnadh? eth’ Lice "renee wr yd 
suizod mort sévettck ylirom stimererqet eise¢- ows teek- ‘eeft - gar busiy Sourot mode 
qaitsoredat aa eine bivoda ybuse ati? Jedao toate Pca tied erew slo fw 
Tey YrONE Bavorst end eved eef ti edi 4 af eecened A~ybote' ¢¢ moeitsqmos 
ton vedas, wat vine patanol: ~eoate 

pata god of tote ocx mewtt® ot dnnpasttéatoeet sof2 0 

[ker oi to BS eye te unseqae ybinte add te sottqrieet ost 

weciecdt aedla wet .edab of as Leet edd eavia “p cof elfat .stocek [mentees 
. aetsagod ago! fet saey faait edd etadonen egret: ak sa brasqcs betrete 
bebicot # stem sedi Sox tedy intoves <4) atey setae ott” tuede ts boon td a0 
alté- mrt bedecinife need ered seiesy gatihmet cps,” brbie edt af goth 
Stig old azinwb aatieod wen et goa edd tot dorpnoa-xen efdt has tog 
srecit wan? ‘enh a Asse te aywtoda TElae & bg tots at ered? .188y 
baa f eat at el oredt 

“PSP IOUT FOU SHul[ pees aol wejs SAT fo year, 

a dal 
voz ya73 
ae] | 



ae — a a 8 a Me RE RB 3 =. 5h BIBAS 

1 L900. Eo “eae a sass auoce Ba Besa “2z0g: CHOLES Sa006 WI VAUMMELISATEZSH ZETA 

Se Orme Aer ERNIE Doin Ta re 


iT aes “ane var tH oni 5 Sebcateotenlt sepa | 8 a <i¥-anit taupe 20k go aedif 18I-sulS tag, 
bedsoiberd sefiB {| ames mg mpbat cf Say ae i ee ese ayge4 atotel Setan theta 

aoisaal ero es MMs Be Fae aOR oe: 2 = 

2 of sol. Sg boat mo : = . ge 3 Se. 08 Fe i. 
 sedeei | t29% (to 7 $0.0 : ie Het cee oe fae. <T oda Foot te .c8 | to .oif — dost $o .o8 [to.08 

7 lsvid S£0}- -beski °% ~ a “pyid Pea es ae ahabea es B10 ~ Bed B1O}-beet! ent? 

ativtt |moté |sedesitpegati f eget f atit moze jeadertijagail: stad 

te% | 185 <a ted} ieee ¢-)- ‘ : - aS) SS ime i ae) 137 = 
st gi94| 8 iL BTod rio A! SESE riod) eoalbeln 

= a 


befeion? Jon eanifiese tot mate evil to fest* 

re SSnsSs=s=S=SSSS SS = >= iS ———— 
a a : a = 
a nme a a a — — = — a 
=-2 = eS ae Se Ses = ~~ 2 ees, Se SS SSE Ce SS SSS SSS SSS SS ——- == SSS SS SSS ——eEEae 
TT le ee - — — ————— — = 
— a _ _- SS = —_-— = A 8 AA A -_— —_—_—_ -—- — —_—— -- 


= Sa ae OLD 

Arr ei t 
eS dediie toe 


Gah ae tae) a 



eee pen 


a ee 


Sut ecimbetigoteaee casis 

FS mm NE I a Sree 

wreo pafdan tered Safa tT i 
Ones at 4-2 Sak at. LO -2 
fae ies is ES $=. ore Basrot ee eamesg jasd ki 

jak: githe ict pheke sa ttactorred saittantan90| bio 
S8QL <} £808 Ofer ct. ecel at «|. sedené 

| at Bast 
BE aes Stk EE O5! 155" meee ost set 12 aia a St re [os" 2 

se Ds eta al oi lk sclehc ek ef 
a - Be Sis) O01 3 : * fs “is j 
f HIGTiBS | Sf F S' {8 (ear io xs 
= lo 0 k maar 
(S08 LL o fer £ {OS [ES | eis? | 

at {gt boot | -oge} 


o le. | we 

Bees . <9 a agente rey) Sane ane me 

“te fa 

; ae the lal as_iece in jo foe le ee eas} Sit 

wae- EE =. 
ee oe —= - — _ == 
= — a. <= SS SS Sea els <1 SS Se — — = = == SS = = = 

patie A _ — - —=. = See 

Dd. Rites Seed Germination di Survival. 

| This study was originally begun to determine the effect of soil 
dis ieee ‘on Ribes seed germination and is so titled on page 260 of 
the 1931 Annual Report. The data thus fer have shown that removing the 
duff and siirrifig the soil or stirring ef the duff ané soil together make 
wae most. favorable gonditions for Ribes seed germination. Therefore the 
wan a ey has been. changed to find out the percentege of 
vE ve from year to% veer. fe change pat been made sia the 

ie ot the ne plots. ee hn, 

ew! Lk 

; Saar colums ee tavte Wo. 5 aie the dusvibet ae + 
SODETE us 1931 seedlings and. the number of seedlings that were found 

‘fn the spring of 1932, ‘The seeds that vroduged the seedlings in 1922 on 
+8! Y929".pl ots have-remained. dormant. in. the goil.since 1929.. There were 
170 yolunteer Rites present on the 1929 plots in the fall of 1931, 105 
@ied and 65 were living the following soring, making a survival percentage 
of 38.2. Only two volunteer Ribes neve heen hon S on the 1930 plots and 
they 1 were still “alive ‘3 1988. 

eae 2 

4 Awad BS ie a ace ri ' Sam wes 
© ~ “ae ie Fay he 2% er eg 
Le Uys TiRve cS fae §£ Bini TREE 3 5 
ef the lee? OBR PS sax Hens fremcc? « mercer 
er ee ee ee ee - aE SURVIVAT, Asi SHED” MTNA TON 
cv sar : rst om eoiih len Sag Te ai 2 ie. €«6ThelTe ae eS 

#3 Wy S34 le ae < “iid iG TiS oe 

af timber] tartar of Seeds} 
‘of “) Survival |" Tings ¥ound 

|_Deaths|Percentage|in Spring 19 

rare eb “Geseription of the ‘stndy popears on pages 258-260 of the 1921 . 
Aopial, Rapest. Table No. 6 gives a summary of the Ribes conditions on these | 
plots in the fall of 1921 and the spring of 1932. On the irrigated plots i 
conditiong for Ribes survival are better than on the, dry .ones.. Mo volunteer 
seedlings were found oa. either one.of the plots, wale tine that ihere are | 
Arment — ns WE dl aN are Aegeteds,: eu beaa 

Ks r 
> * gf 


Javiy we set Two? pon Sty, an k hs G3: 
iloe to tnstto edd entmreteb of negod YLIsntytxe enw. ou bps 
to 08S vaegq wo boléit oe at dus molgenterep boos. £0 | 
oft gitvoset fad awode aad tat att etek saY  idsogek.. Taina LEek ad? 
exam tedtegod [loa San Ttrh odd to Batetite to Lior edt afiviise bas Ttrb 
ait erotetad? .cottentere, bese sedi rot enodt taaoo aliatonst feom end 
to sgadaeots¢ edt two Salt of begmado seed ead bude. veld ‘to sxoqirg 
oft at sham ased ead spain of “a TARY mort aebrioe dag eanifbese 

Fg adi to qu-dee 

~taeotse Laviviwe oft weds @ .off rant at inalitoa| cant. teal ext 
brat orsw todd? eguifbees to codmma! edd baa ast (ooee OL & ‘eid XG ons 
@o Sher at egal i buss ast boorbots Ptedd ebeea ont Seer t c] reine ‘gold at 

etow a1enT .PROL sents [toe edt mt jkemiob beatae gal adoig @SOL ssit 
OL ,Léei to fiat eid at etole GSeL edd no. tee! iq aed tA seetasloy OTL 
SHeToT eg faviveite #8 pablam , sc itge adbwollot edt sckeli eves 38 bas belb 
baa syots OGL ent co havo’ nead vad aod 38 seetatrioy owe. ¢fn0 Ss {BE to 
yoniee at et tac ae ks ot oH ii 

wovol? yr go Lovivn® gut theese pao. o Lop 190 dove gedit 

f5@L edt to C88-8GS esnac mo stascen vide: and. “> aed aghionst, A 

esedd m0 Eeitvote gedit edt to ytsmure & eovia 8 .of Bidet ttogel Lenn dé 

atelc betapizit edt a0 .ShOL to gatos: edf Son [SRL to ifs? ‘ad¢ of siolq 

~setorfov of ,eeno yrb edd so cadd tetied ots fav ivars godt’ et > a enotsiono 

oi2 etedt tasit pean} ew. edf to eno tedtts Re berot stew exatibess 
ejagol sts apola. oat: SEY hetote® aot sedi on 

Rey WERE PTUs. CML GLY . bo. &, ge " 

! purpose eihd deeeri ction « of fey uy | te fowna’ on page B49 

of the 1971 Annual “Report. Ah examiuetion of the’ eee thr t were placed 
in the flete' in the fall: or I9Bl-revesied that 9.3 per tent of the samvies 
of’ the’ top layer "22,22 per eéht of thosé@° or the middle layer and 27.77 

per cent of the ones from the bottom layer contained viable Ribes seeds 
which had germinated’ end prodieed seedlings. There wes an average of 2.2 
seeds per sample for the top)" 1.7 for the middie and 2,% for the bottom 
Yayers; These reshit# cannot be teken as final becense more Ribes scedlines 
a provably be rena: next = ene" to ‘the deleyed tormancy of some of 

1. In the fall of 1930 the teps:of 80 &. roezli bushes were cut off, 
leaving the crown and the roots in the ground , and in another group of 
80 bushes both? the tops” @H@. the’ erowas'were cht off. A check in 1622 
shéwed that’ 40.6 per cent of the beshes with tone removed were stil} itive 
ana that 4@° per’ eet. of these were bearing fruit. Only one per cent 
survived when both the tops and crowns were renoved and none of these 
were Senrthg, feasts’ Gt the Ri bie 

i Pe we aenie bl i seer’ 
2, Several hundred R. see fruits were placed on top of the ground 
in scPeened boxes in 1929 to find ont how lone ft would’ take’ them ‘to 
gsemmindte! Phe seeds of thése fruits have been subjected to dessicetion, 
6x€ess Woistufe, frosts and fungi. In 1936, 1931 and 1932 some germination 
has taken place mt there are still a lerge number remaining that apvear 
-to be viable. 

ne * " é, oy ea ¥ pi  — lt 2 . 
Ga 4 OW RAGAe Bi Aa (te Bis By Pgs Se EE ha SR Ph I a 9th be 
2 Bo Ak NOP RS Ay ORIOL A A ils ean DY j 

; eS =< See- a See Sti - 

ee et 

(“hoeb te Lon TED geome aaa ew eae oe oh ~.- 
ord} esoif| Lavivise | “te A ee Bane %- a: at Coe: ban a beni Hida 
Soe aairg ot js aeices o5% 0% a SPOT anita <_ Sfhood ort: 

Be Suk 
ia ‘2 

I a ae a ee we Mp 

SBS eset mo Sait Ot af vbute ats to g biqhtgaeb baa. beoctrg. ‘sit, 
beoala etew jad? eefoass adi to soltanimexe aA wreqei Lauans reer ey it, 
eelcmae odd to tues toy £°.e0 tacd balaewes [89S to ifet edt at atelt odd mt 

SULTS fas toyafl elbbim off Yo Geod¥ Yo tase req SS.S5 ,teyal qot edt to : 

ahooe esdifi oldeiy beaiasaco teyal mosied oli mort aano eft to taeo Teq y 

£.S te exeteva an saw eted! LageklSese Boeombotq has hetentanre, bad so tiiw - 
motted eft tot £8 baa olbbim eft tot S.L .qod add tet olomse COG abess 
onetibeer.eedifl. stor sersosd dantt 24, setet ed Joncao.atlimer peadT  Jereyel 
to. omma. to. LOmMsaseb sien eds od oom: ‘satsae tent give, ak Ud sgotg, litw 
OER Cae P| igh? #083 

pe em 
SEAN ph a i 

‘Yto dgo.erew etdesd tlesoy .f 08 to. ius ns. ek ‘30. “Tht eit ite a 
il te grb ima tetiess ub bork. botvews odd wh edoot add baa aweta olf: Gatien 
Mt) SECL at woede 4 210 dvo stow emyet ald baa eqod ead dtod eedard 08 

( avila [itis sree bewenty wey débw Bedead od To dna Taq 2108 said! : 
i tsa tog eno ylnO .dtett » galtaed etew saodd To gaeo teq Sb dad? Sas q 
[ Seedy to Seon fg beyenaek crew omworrd one eco" be iow medw Sev ivive ; 
I |  aaieeae a Gat Raia thy | j 
4 . ve if i 4 ie k 
if bitter, ot Yo od: ko beos la otow asirrt tineor ig haprtaicd tatevee? ! oy 6 - 

HM | ot med? vied birow oF gol won toe neers GEer wk eexod” peers ee ht 
AP soltsoizesh of bevoe(dne dobd oval ether? easts t6 ebseg oft” ‘btarterds 
noldeuterren ome SSCL baa [hf ,O8el al .ipest ban steott ,etvdatom saeoxe 
yooocs ¢aid gaintaret tedmon enisl « iftts ets etedy gal soaiq seta? eas 

; Olfaiv ed of. 

z. Ia the fall, o£ 19350: epproximately 2, 900, Ribes, seeds were. scattered 
evenly, over a milacre plot having.a. heavy duff mantle, to see whether. or ald | 
not they woulde find their wey: the soil. One year later a section of | NG | 
the duff mantle wes removed, ‘The top, middle, and bottom layers of duff | 
“ removed. separately end. divided. into helves. .Qne-balf of each sample 

Laced. in flats out.of doors, near. Strawberry end the balance of each 
roan! e was brought into the laboratory for mechanical separation of the 
seeds: from. the, duff,..4 ¢heck of the, samples in the flats the following | 

_ showed 88 seedlings. dn the top layer, 65 in the middle and 7 in the 
botton layer. There will probly be more germination next year. By 
mechanical; separation 163 seeds were. recovered from the top layer, 98 from 
the. middle and 7. from, the, bottom. There is still a section of the duff 

Tet ve 

year to see. advent downward. the seeds, have traveled. , 

c¥ veer: yodent ‘proof plots eight feet square were established in 1931 
to determine, how would take a given mumber of seeds. to. gerninate,. .., 
They, were. thoroughly. cultivated to a. depth of about.18 inches. and. thea each 
one; plented.with,2,500 BR. roezli seeds. A checic in 1922 showed an average ~ 
of 21 Ribes seedlings per plot. The seeds were collected the same year they 
were planted; henes the after-ripening process which seems to be gies 
for this species might not have taken place. 

5. In 1931 several strips approximately 6.5 feet in width and from 20 
to 40 chains long were cultiveted in the area at Strawberry,where Ribes have 
been removed for several years,to find out if eny viable seeds are present 
in the soil. Wo seedlings were found when the strips were checked in 1932, 
When areas are logged Ribes seed germination does not usualiy begin until 
the second year following logging and this may account for the absence of | 
Ribes seedlings, or there may be no seed stored where these strips were made. 


1. The Forest Service, economic and heavy cutting methods have all 
permitted the germination and survival of a large number of Ribes during 
the last three years, 

2, The removal of the Ribes twice before logging (1926 and 192°) did 
not prevent the reestablishment of a sizeable Ribes flora after logzing. 

2. In sugar pine-fir and suger pine-ponderosa pine types Ribes seedlings! 
began to appear the second year after logging mt dropped considerebly during 
the third year. 


beretisase etaw zboor eed lth 000,S vist amixe tags O8eLl toe {st oft al .8 % 
40 todtedw ove of ,eltaem Tterbh weed a getvad tol evostia se tevo ylueve e 
to softooe # tetsi tmey sm? .ftoe edt od mwob yaw tis? Saligoisow, yods ton 
tw to etoval mmdisd bas. .ofbdin ,qot ed? ~ bevonwx ase Téasm Ytrb sod % 
elomse dose to tiad-en0 .eeviad o¢at Sebtvth bas yfetstaqee bovomet stow a 
doae to soutalad odd bos yoisdwatsé “sen et00b te dre etait a) beoalg san 
wif ‘to foiteteqer Iacinadjem ‘tod Ytod@rodat adi otat tigsoid say ‘eles 
gebwofio? sdf edaft edt af ebiqmec “edt to seeds A Yih edt mort Y: 
dt mi N Bae ofS5im eds wl Ga rexel god odd at ‘egcilbseas £8 bewods gat i 
ui asey gxea nOlgantonr9g stom of Yldatow [ftw ered .reyal motiod a 
mort 8 ,teysl gat ed¢ mort Satevoset ster ebows 55f. solietaqes Laotaadnen : 
Tivh off to aotisen.e Iitts et oved®  .wodted sdt-mott Shas, sfbbim ads 
dixon efquee tedious toelfoo of auiseatstal of biluvow ff bas .df ah phesa tie 4 
belovart aved shoen silt rsmiwob “sat wot age OR ABN 3 

S805 AF Waite f tetid es eise wate Feat jkgte etofa Wig dnebor ewer i 
stasistey of absex to tedoua aevig 2 sist disow tf ane wed an iorrageb ot 
isa sett one aedent 6L tsods to d¥yob @ of hetavis feo YUldaroteds sion ‘yon? 
' sgemeve a= Deworla SRGI ni sosdo A .2be00 Ligegt «8 008,% .détwbetasiq ono 
yond teey. ose adh beteoiicn ovew eheee gal. stole Xeq epatibese eedih Is Yo a 
Wines 29mm MM ad Boe b Soha ausoorg gulaegit-tedie edt eoced ,botaalg erew a 
sonic oeded evad dom denn aainean a hie hag 4 

O% mozt, bas idbig ut dost a ® rletamixerqge agizte af peti sel, ple vibe a 

evad aadih stedw,yrredwaide Je, nets odd gi bodavitioa exon gaol, aniade On os a 
inenorg etn ebese eidstv yas. th ggo Satt of etesy fstevee tot Dsvomes aaed 

Sh0L af Belaeds atew aghtde add osdw bavol.ctsw agatibece ol. .Lhor df at \ 

tigay alyed yilavesr ton sa0b noliaciutes bese aedif baggel ets eats. aed a 

%o esnveda sit to® davoson yam efdd bos autesol satwollot teey Baoses edt | er 
cham ete sqisde seedt otede betods beee on of yam atedd to ,egaiibesa ged is 

oO ee ee 

is eva aboiitom get $00 weed na pdsnnos wae daat0% Ty yet ; te 
aniwrh aadifi Le Ted mar want A he lial baa coltantmtes odd. beddinteg 
ME 30 PRON apres aan aes 

Sis (eset haze ager) atimel ‘ptdtad duied eects adi . ‘taromen: iv. we. “a nH 
ytieeol toda arolt aonan soir @ "ka oe arene. edt eee Jon 4 

at tbews ead hi: eece? sng cabana taaire ee rhea mare : he 
. neroan yldorsbieans bagged: dais artaset ‘ania AX: ciagarowds pals _— os ell 
ME: he tah ‘aiad 

4, In stream typé tle Ribes begun to appeer the first year after 
logging, continued at about the same rate the second year mt dropped 
off considerably in the em a. 

5, There were 798 Ribes on the ‘eentruliel plots in the fall of 1931. 
Only 327 or 40.9 per cent of thesé were: found alive in the spring of 1972 

6. Moistmre seems to be the ie drys comer of. Rites seedling survival 
on sone ey - sia ws paver 
re conne Roe pir Sa 

ny, | phar Ribes lgnetke are present din the » 0p infidde: end bottom 
Ihiye rs -" ged nee am amma 
Fac ¢ = Li YY i 
“Rabe scous an work : these wey down ro the eifferent leyers © 
mobd | a CG oe Lopete! brie wee nna’ 

Acséede a RK. ree. ad arte diunbtnty atile. to aideiii adverse conditions 

(does ost ot) ‘excess moisture; Seeag y and ee for xt Yee st three yore 
and” #tilY resin ie bret © otim 

rugs t. 
2s nd Lek 
BB sey the ” Se + Dy ety 4 
Bat ‘ 
re senge ri gy ihe ni 
nA e ¢ tre 
wugar pine é 4 ig 
by rs) & 
a be WARS 2a t LOS, 
OnLy thos® guger pine secti ona 
4 R 4 oe yrur 
ty © eee VS SEF 
; A Bs £32 2 t & 
and the I ronnie : 
* ox Pere, RE Oey 
wists & ke be 
i, . ie . 
Se me Ba 3. Bi y1 
1! tue ¢. wy! ® 
WOrkeG Oy Aku 3 y 
. — | 
Ls 2 2 “pet 
ie ore¢er ’ 
brush is i ; 
ritteen gections = 




YSTia “sey feTtt odd 4aende ot atiged sedifi arid ere meette wl jh 
Seororh tit BOY, , Sieteoen aad oper ‘Omen ett “treds +4 Bevat indg Jpakases 
; hag sonic red att ak “Ualwrshianos pin 

LEGT To Lise oitd wt ‘arolg' Wal fercdides ond do Red ht Bey orew ered Oe ota 
SPOL ‘to eitren “oul rt evita evaand ‘ot8w et to Reg gy @. ar id Bic! cn 

Law twa qatibooe | waste | e xfs? sete iatr oe 08 ‘amese: “erodeten 2 ti 
As vis eennoass oe based to" “eno = 

itoddod: fetts 9108 tm Sele att at taser ous i bdde: Gods? wtnates!: ei 
Aloe bes’ Fes’ herd Yo ow 

ersysl tuetettid add heed’ a ete ore tow (tw ‘seer eect ot; tee 
, sea an: sea Vie ane to 

enoifthees sare bs owre Dery ‘ olaa ene wie? Stile - ie to. pede’ ts 
wt. oR vornde — 1a Oe LS id bos i engl wie ae bon aoa eer aon te 
uae Hare seh stort fore bee 

ue BORA cS SR oe Bee a ae 
£ 2) 
é 7 wy f a 
% aa be aly eae j 
re 7. ‘ , a 
Beh é uk : 3 : 
iF % ie ; 
‘3 LF of #8 he 3 
a is 
mm fT eg 
F a aot 
A Vs & 4 
cas Cy ‘ athe ie ou Tb 
§ oe ay ae Le: 
& Py “ preted 
; ¥ et Pee te 
“f ' 
i sy ‘ 
F fa pane 
4 a i pty Feshiey 
YS as fy! UB 

Douglas R. Miller 
Junior Forester 


“The greater portion of the important sugar pine stands of the 
Stanislaus and Zldoredo National Forests had been covered by control 
reconnaissance previous to 1932, There were several small areas of sugar 
pine, however, chiefly on the Stanislaus Forest which were omitted during 
the first working. Information on these pine units was needed to 
fecilitate the work on the generel sugar pine survey of California, started 
this season, Since funds for reconnaissance work were not ample to 
finance the regular fiel@ party it wes thought advisable to employ a small 
mobile crew to extend the reconnaissance survey on the Stant slaus and 
Pldorado Wational Forests In addition to locating suger pine types, 
Ribes and other conditions within the stands were recorded to afford a 
basis for prepering cost estimetes to protect the sugar pine from bileter 


K detailed description of these two Povees has already been 
presented. The one for the Stenislaus was given in the 1927 Annual Report 
ane the. one for the Eldoredo in the 1930 Annusl Report, 

The areas worked this season consist in general of outlying 
suger pine types bordering on main bodies of sugar pine previously. covered 
by reconnaissance, The following desc¥iptions of the individual unites “er 
only to those suger pine sections completed in 1932, 

1,, The Strewberry area on the Stanislaus is composed of sixteen 
sections lying along the north and west. bounderies of the 192621927 
eradication and the 1926 reconnaissance areas, ‘The sugar pine in this 
locality is mediocre, the country rovgh with large ovtcroppings of rock and 

much of the srea has & ground cover of dense brush, The greater part of the | mi | 

timber here has been cut, 

2, The Dorrington unit on the Stanislaus lies along the North Fork 
of the Stanislaus River and Beaver Creek between two areas that were 
worked by reconnaissence in 1927, The timber over most of the unit 
ie good, Feproduction of both sugar pine and its associated species 
is present in large amounts and in many cases form dense thickets. Some 
brush is present under the timber as well as in the large openings, 
Fifteen sections make up this unit, 


3. The Mokelumne unit on the Stanislaus is composed of the alternate 
sections that were left»in 1927 and a large body of sugar pine north of this 
which extends to the northern boundary of the forest. This area contains 
fifty-three sections, There is & good road system throughout, making it 
ell accessible. Starting from the south, it is drained by the South and 
Middle Forks of the Mokelumne. River, Forest and Blue Creek and the North 
| Fork of the Mokelumne River, all joining just west of the area to forw the 
Mokelumne River. This unit has very good timber. Heproduction is ebundant 
in the southern portion, Abinaing, out in the northern eni; some brush ig 
present throughout, 

| 4, The Lumber Yerd- fini on the Bldorede National Forest i¢ a small 
block lying north of the Worth Fork of the Mokelumne River end is bounded on 
the west by the forest boundary, on the north by the Amedor Highway end on 
the east by the Bear Fiver, The timber is generally poor and is inter. 
 spersed with many large ‘brush petches, Large rock slides are elso present, 
This area was not completed, and the unfinished portion extenis to the north 
| and west, Scouting inficated thet the best timber had not been worked in 
. this district, “there rere ae eee and one-half sections covered hatte ad 

_ MetHops ow WORK 

The mechanical me thods ‘used in eedvacsiu data and in meking 
type maps were the same as those employed during 1931, Extensive 

“peeonneigsence wag used only to locete the boundary of sugar pine type in — 
marginal timber, Ms 

The compilation of data wee handled in the same way as in 
preceding years. The types used were the same as those described in the 
reconnaissance report for 1931, 

Field. work wes performed by Roy Blomstrom, F. A. Patty end 
BD. R. ui Lier, 6ll permanent members of the Division of Blister Rust Control. 
ie eS of. data and map work were done by Roy Blomstrom, ; 

“he results of reconnaissance performed in 1932 are given in 
the Following t Sahjen: 

b SS pti g 
co Rows 




niytl waol 


iSW 2@¢ 






"2 BON 

Sd t 
ay = 4 
—_ «< 
P a? 
“ at 
is we 
& ahs 
: ‘ - “Ft 
to # 
“a H 

pat 8 

= & se # ¢ % Fay 9. 
a ee tt Fi ra ® ¢ *2 
4 cee 6 : o 
me i r 
e 6 ¥ a} Ds 
> bow] r toad 
o * 3 H 


pent a cA ee TAS EE ATTA 

1 cssnaiicamcnenatenegiipenensiiiont eho en aah RAL A eR BON 
pegs ds , pa 

beet tramieryene cers ha een Mer TT NEO SE SS 

Solidekrmamamemnennianene Bor pets nontealouoeyrmantigtlonoceslta se a 


a5) bie} a4 Sy FR RSIX 

AAA nom a ehiiamennnemmmeiatte 

sgrsablansooos os fenedat i RY | 

er eee 

arm Sansetee anaes : 

LANG... nub when ipemeeveemnpemersitinpraniec in Bisset le. 


& : 
, fa | aa Maree nhesnrcmaneniehawad BS “ 

2 i 
min PRs eee rt nome a 
Ba CES saketuedeossjos oth 

Loe 2 eS es Rw remade 

5 Pe oe : _ a =) 13) + Po. a a ri ra 

‘ he remeesie Sa aS oe eae panuanagsared SL tf: Pye tcl = f- mS mamma aa =a AO 

BE 8 Sputek fet bie. {$34 Ea 2, 05005,2 Biel Ssfi | 
: ath eS 30h, baka quel! 

Sete Res 

3 a8. iol al bebe : 
= g 

bah, S 1 Se i ‘ 
LS ae sesecn SBD E 16.232) 

acre bnotens ad ath dat na 9 Ratoe Se a 

inat ix} ae ae 

areca wrvstapen a et 
wears ins tes 

4 oh ‘ 
4 j 
PAO" ASE RES Weta Sener aT ee 

reneiusatninncennecnr ree y entire aA RAEI DIOR AS ANILINE NAIC ERAT REA eT etesinee icone NOR Ter ere sl ieiabieetnemens t 

Rony = 

Terassoviomgeverenessntetei:hernnaaiacinenncalihmmcsssin as War FEE Br taerncmmenestenncnrscnnareememnsit 

; aa Pr a % 4 =a 
er gy Nee i ok OR Cd 3, a5 F008 
Jaiei ae Cebmet last’ BE A ou ehe Mas af. 
| = 

eatnreenineia cena cendieninecopenicnarnden canner imanrmnnrenegnemptnanteiod 

; ts t 
on 2 : 
sec mnsienssmncpepecp seen etitnitn te Ct LATTES DEALT TI nasoameirngmcnnaresnennrmnnty 
ee CS pki 

macmennins have omcseirmtsttnete nite CAAT DLL =A ST OCDE ALOT AEA 

i : eS 
i rs H Oe. wa i ; 
nt eee ae acme SOO) ae 

Ei nsonttasiampitinitane sisi oc 
e fara] & 
3 BE # 
5, aaa Sian wepeomen! moneettth | re 

oA A 
| nen oe oT OS EEE OPT pete eat otek OR 

& i 
i hed i 
Fenn Me oars snimt L cnseenaryrvdn sisstiae HO one hms OES AEH NEES IEP HAS aOR AA APNOEA 

i Puta P 7 t aa { H om 
eseeammenee aes aiden aie SOrssate asa a eat SOE 

202.0 Yn eens Tt 

f weartdanire te alles epee eat ee 

D3 te l aes List SrTarloreant ou 



SRL A @ NOS Lyumne  @ f 
Percene ; tibes Per Acre 
| tage of! i, e. | m Le 
Lypes M amd € 7 Ot POS & he wo 7 rm aco o 5 Pam All Species 
SP.PP Mg 1 4 29.96 | le 59 $3 | « Lj 19,0 

Lye Paves a2 a eee Sloe es 3 ae : . hb 23. 05 

ispexeco— Segal aad Tank sal “aicaol valae | eaal asus 

244° ' 

> pw wT TAT 
= até th ak Cab 


teeta renrernnnnnreneevennn ALLE BTS. i ae a 
; Lam et od, 

Ee: + Te ao 2 | ies i cada, 

| 218 88 nat a | 

i | at it wand | 
LA] stony. late. aia aso2 jxedeut 

ih poe 1 Be 08 is Saf Fics 1%. 

Ce eee ae 

Hi . r 
= - bad } ry oe 
a an CR 
hearer! Prenbaweremas: Sas tase SEAR aeSensiapaccbanperebea a2 Srey 
i i 
— POLS 165... oti BLL ee EBs ened ee Srrerben 
Lecce mem PI tease = cra sdwaxté s13 he Bes 
Sh _sts.. atin te) YS) Geren aa mee ige i g “ aoe 
ae: 2008 fee 78 G.5 IVE of be 
ee “en ae z Ss sa 
t " weet < nd a ae ce a anes nee 8a we : . ots | 
Ireerar esha Smt Sib. ee om inane emer eee eT 

ME ate nme PX. ‘ < O)n4e 
$8500. be Le ee ee ALL a aT aee : 
[—aevsar lor | ten 0B atm RELL leer 
Bd SE Ee maak Gf Sai es Sets vt Ts Tv 

ies res a = yee se a i i a ears o— 
Be NT eg a ee Shs Hesse ae wx : 

ry eS ee 

 teentinc hee ealk ropsarcrai wwe Penns oO 

ay Torcancnrine renee owner 

bo “ee sir —lea.8 Ao renters {oa oat loro, 

NT TCE A = aolaninaod = 0 ined 

|e ea eee oe a Ae le ee 8 
—-, Ys eo as oa Pe. ee —tuset [iss feces | ie | 

* bad i ~ i ie : es) | 
Ea feat ee ee = | | ; 

ch We er paaaehin’ sal cmoonerss eimsoressnewenpienssinensotesenanaeelssnsitamraresieneeart 
a 5 2 , me 
of i : 


i j i 9 efato? 
ee | iw lanes | 00.00t so. | “sonazeval 
been eee cree RRM ae 
| _§S aS. SE ee ae i #delf {Goa} eke 
ponent OE (3 a | ee ane 

errs ans! Barn nent BY nnd PE a frm 2 ae: 

See eco tiny einen teri, 

eee Oe ee He np ek ala 
| ee snp tantied dbase “Tel £S 
SE PY Sa EN BET se.28 | | 
aa: Et 2 ‘ i en OK $i he 
free A th Gs. cone Ea. 
| eth eS ee is copes EE sdeenestbtinn — 

2 [ ae relate? 
| | “ me 
| ogee, dea, lara lssee | on.00 lpessadl arama 



P E « Lumbe 5 ~ Lbidoredoe ; es 
rc & 
Percene Ribes Per Acre 

| tage of 
Total aly nevad 

rcemrewet crap nene eo ef an Re fen aca ncneneneanen eee eameannans Tg rg oo 

2 ee ae 
|SP.PP-CO | 131) de 100,00, = ——|__=__1_s_1__300.00.__] 

The last week of the field season was spent in extensively mapping 
an area of 35,200 acres of mixed timber types on the northern end of the | 
Tahoe and ‘southern end of the Plumas National Forests. This mapping vas 
done in comnection with the suser pine survey of the state in order to locate 
suger pine areas not covered by timber cruises cr other tyne maps, 


The cost per acre of intensive reconnaissance (extensive 
reconnaissance wes not figured since its cost is not separable from that 
of the intensive) was $,035 obtained by dividing the totel cost of the 
work by the number of acres covered intensively, This cost ie slightly 
in excess of the normel for these forests as the field work was performed 
by the higher salaried permenent personnel, If the cost is based on the 
regular field assistant rate of $100 per month for two men, with the 
supervision the same, the cost per acre is $, 028, 


AE Se Se eee 


HF | & [t agat] 
y | pricey Sat | 5 Sf aao% t. “ee Sy deus 
— ra soar Sate [eis 

aa sy oa a , | 
t sd : : 




mf ae 
27) a 


BS BE il A at Sine lis és aati Locales | 
ems ty inne enim pip ee BS = hee big ft 

Sie RBS. nih et ame Soe? Eee bo leads ot eee.5L | — ban SE 

ohare ia al tees bad 4S tla So eee 

pero a ‘ae Bw Stren HE ~ eons. ye £F68. He 

[Lannea BS. ee ae tfibnil Ss 25 Tat Nel 00.8 

Lh En, wank | Si San "aE See Et 

i nant Seek. — snow tate : = meneame GbE | SS ok 
$ 1 BO) ad ae oat ais an | OS 

ean STS aoe wie 

Tf Ad. us, { ee Tere manta temee g i 1 ad a 1 S 
fr bat: i BS Ve 

Se eee 

j gS col < 
ee or se mesioans thea eet SS es peek 
wk 7 Pema cc am FO 

to AgoR gaat err 

gttqgen yleviagssdxe ci iseue 4.8¥ sane Rieit oat‘ 

a St 

eds ‘to hae avediies off MO @ ag’ «xed? hatin Le 8et3a O08, t5 To .6Ta 26 
ge aa tgqsie wine aiaeret f ane Mat eamte!< odd Yo bao wvediece bas eodet 
sau of? ddby aotfosmios af sob 

ates off be yourse oniac t29 
oyd vedte wa aoe Ter weds? ys 


het ayeo fer eaexs wig Tagva 

1 Timers Te 

Ta ve Nee ne Cae: 

syieqedte) somges tannegsy? sv temetat to etas Tey deco ont | 
: aaos ton st geod wth eorte Sous ft fon way conase faenog st 

oe mot t afcare as 
add? Ye seen Isted edt anibtyih xd i dot ach 4M) .& eae’ (ovisastal et? To 
qigdgiie ef deco otdt: sylevisgesct ' porevas ier “6 Yodan end yd stew 

hearrotra¢ 23¥ 
ei ao ees te 
erty cid bor“ gnrenr one 

teow bhatt edd? an ‘etesiet aeon? «et famrom edt ‘to-areoxe at 
at teen add tk ~ fennoeteq hated at feivalag ‘roty in ent yd 
nat dined yar COL? to eter taeda foes biel? ealsrget 
»880 2 sf e1ga 18q deco sft, Smse @de mo pitebde) ald 

i NY. 

cyst ¥SIS 

| | Per Cent | 

| ihinbe'r of meals served in reconnai ssence camp. 648, 
Cost per meal = $, 2298 


On the Stenislaus and Eldorado National Forests a total of 
63,010 acres of sugar pine and associated types have been covered by 
intensive reconnaissance at a cost of three and oneehalf cents per acre, 
Extensive reconnaissance added 7,405 acres of types which were penaet to 

hs delimit the sugar ae in ee stands, 


— SS — 





= om 

——ES OT SS ae 

‘s at ? 
| eS 

BLEY.. Abi. 


ere ha 
dee nd 
oS at 

aR eR RRO LER SI Rea ea 


eo serene aoe gin tenes te Nt 

tiegas) _._.... 
$e Gr ms “I 
OS... ae lat ion “TSiaenae ine salon , = mote lyre 
Py we Pr: Sawn Bona Ree 2 2ioate 
| i F Ose fF. Bt a oD 
lepecierste a vem wR ak bed ace Boece te tenet AR eT grater 

> ence hane 8 Oe 
he re EN PRR rR eM Pt 


io omer 


el Elen 

‘ 8 

sneat2 ta aye 

io. t2e9 
$ Men Fe SB § $e 

! m i 
— ow weet 


Bee sis ence rity ENA TOE NE TEE RELL 

bea Lud ns grpedvans? 9 xisem 3o- $2.09 



oibeye d¢ elo 

AA eb AERP if te 
Sarah end nde NE ENTE IR NREL LIT EDT 

to ao tis Pbcanai? | 
SAM tcyrean tnt 

samy hype | 
ae teanc ios Yo -tae0 

duemetiyss te. — 

noe pore siti pobr sar cet amma 
3 “afte ea. 
mpsey ne rans Bee sat 

Seen eels mM ner AL 
rome. Ce a mee 

e grr ES " 

met Ne aa. mee 

on to F200 


» Saw Sele ie Gi, 
BO ei slosiyeh } 

Lt cs et Aer A eS SATA 

scence ritaasne poten eh tnarer os Ne TE 
cane nt SERPS TAN OR rane baa 

aren wo o9oae Aa 

sae te ener poe 
Renn fp en a reetane oae 

ae a re aunianiin 

asmags t 

Regvag elaem to = odearll 
BESS .& = Laan teq. 3209 

osx af 


frets ont Mak 
ee by “30 B87 2£0 ,BS 
BEA Pee ry Be eaae a ov leneds ' 
ae axed xa 

# i ARGOS 
5 : had Yi how 
ante «ague edd dimifed 

& oy 

De ope 

ri oF Mie x 
a: ‘ penodlal 
'  Aasistant Forester 

: % » OSs Vat ie. ‘ a “ . 
bet a aS b PAR tN Rel, & Pela Cee. \s FOR, 
: ng 0 

“Although. white: ‘eine bisset. rast. has as yet not been found in 
California, there. is every.reason to believe it will enter the state within 
a few.years and seriously ripe suger pine stands, The need for a ‘general 
plan of contr: was discussed at the. 1932 meeting of the Forest service, 
Region 5 Investigative. Pah ad it wes considered expedient. to undertake 
the. formilation of a Rides. eradication. policy... York was. started in June, 
Heid (as a joint. undertaking between the U. 5, Forest Service and the 

sion of Blister Rust Control with one member from éach organization 
Sed to the project, Two additional members of the Blister Rust staff 
20 8 — i, the: season, oe, has weal suoude be ‘Semeveiet by. June 
i Bevis. Soar ¢ Pi ois Soceen én OG ' ; 


septa ek meal snd peliey statement will show ia “detail the following 
petites nak’: 

rh “The: ‘location (on 780" to the mile national forest maps) of eli 
‘sugar pine type Galifornia, both virgin and cut-over, segregated into 
sugar pineepemtereen. pine. ARM. ad suger pine~fir. (3?-F) typed. 

oa be 

pe Sieber, type ana class. of emat abs. 
ndeg An. estinate, of suger pine voluse outside the sugar ot type... 

ty “to He "Peccmmanias iong. ha, to the: acreage and, stend af. sugar ‘pine to be * 
srebnatete ani the priority of their treatment, The sugar pine producing» 
capacity of the different pine units as re = volume will be used 
as a oe aa Soterntnt ne: oan, selene lems: Si i 

» Be: pagar a! of: the. ‘east of. contre) ey areas selected for treatment 
vi on. ae, rust, , arecmanteennee and Ribes APPEL PAH OR, records, 

Oy 2h Pt ¢ Laan 

+ + 4 . - ¥ 2 Hd 4 
‘ a 1 See gor z 5 owes 2 Pe sips oh at $i 
cS eo Ot ee Ok ae ast pete ig & 43 + Fes PAs F 
+ a 2 
we NSS a 

: on finek- step dn he program ts ‘to ‘assenbie from all sources 
Cisaanes rust reconnaissance records, Forest Service timber SroiggP 5 records 

a ‘he, ‘total. ‘yolume. ‘end. acreage of. suger pine da, the, suger pine. all 


SR ere ty. 


Solhwnod .¥ .W 
teisaxvot jasdefess 


ai hewot weet ton Foy za sad demt tedelid aaiq eélsw davoddIA 
atdtie o¢ete eft tefes (fhe Ff avetied oF Geeset ytove at. eted) ;,siatotiles 

favexes # 40% been ad% ,chasda eit Yepey cates ylewoltes bas etasy wot 6 | 

,eoivrs? festoX edt to awtgeom SCL ona Js Bbeesroet) saw fotiuco to aele 
eilatrebhay of sastbaqxes Seveblexoo eaw 31 daa [housed eyiseaiiaeyal @ moigei 
_oant af hetiste cow sro? syotiog- motteothers esdif @ to solsatemno’ ait 
aig dae gobrre® teotet .€ .Uoout asewfed anhsietrebar talot se ea Soel 
soltasinesto Mose sett tedmua ave déby fotined tan tetell€ to soletvid 
Sade ¢eu@ todedid ott Ye atedeoa Janet dibbu owt ,toet tore sit ot bemgleea 
sot, yd Bedelqmor sd bivods incmmptoes eff .adeaee ofg of tedet betaters 

uutaofich ont {tetad at wodn ify duauetate wileg betelqnon sd? 
ai mai e A ag gatntog 

Lie to (egam ¢eetot fenottes efta edd ot *S\f a0) wottsser eae I 
otat SefsgeTgon ,tevendso Sis atgtiv dtod ,atetotif{ed at aque eatg taawe 

gsoys (8-92) tit-sale tage bas (ii-Ki} ealg ssotebscg~-enig tag0e — 

sgys emia tages edd of ontg togire Yo sgeetas $n5 emufoy Iatot ed? ,& 
wideteave to saslo bas says tedakt yd 

weqgd ett Tages edd shteteo oualoy eakg tegue to etsmites ma 5 

ed of anita ‘tegre Te busts hae egecins edd of ea ato itabronms sit ob 
@itinubotg onty tagva ef?  doembaett tiedy ie yritolte adi baa’ Hotsstota 
hoor od ifte aourfev yd JDedsetaxe 28 efiay entq IneteTt th alt To ysiosgqas 
sottoetse theld antatmteteb al ebiog & es 

jnoutsertt tet Sotosiee assta sot Lordaon to deco sft To otemiiag mA Pe 
~wervreoet aoltselbate eedif hee sonseelannopes tent teteild no Soead 


seousoe [14 mort oldweese of si migeta add af qete ss1ft sdf 
aixogsx yortine tedints golive deered ,sbt0et ennaze annooet daurt ode bid) 

hae are: of orivate t pee ean st) 

st headquarters and ¥ .gitices 
sre ead. erate op ‘ll sigar pine 
siivess vi hy 

‘eruiees re zaréless Of ownershig or national 

8 % vane, ‘qf sugar pine ‘ta each forty. . 

" veed where. gore. ‘estimates are 
ensh. apts, icy Cakes ag 
ser tt Ste ‘ang SPF type nite 
aving in, At me Par ta ‘sttn Pee tire or 
ose pin tor more fir volun 
vet “proportion 2 classi- 

(Ss corre’ ta blister. Yust types. 
and “buried needs Bnd cutting Limits 

re Lodited, an 1 omersnia record. {a pre= 
s Owners on 2” to the mile towiship 

{a this aA ie fs ¥e eonstrict the 4 wager ‘pine ‘tyoe 
St 18 ‘edn pare TFs, Stigar ping. areas . 

e in the “aggregate ae Gsidhsive: “end: larzely adjoin-~ 
ilisacs! @levations, are Reb ts ania with i 
national Forests By Baye tee es POR S Parariiekwes et sdelaiciiali *D Faye teen gan te, 

wort; “ET: ee | sanee ‘a now aval: we ‘For rovghly ‘ 

der cent’ 6f the sugar Siner'y ie 2 igh ton ts, are used fntact 
ang supply the cate eae tks for atest oe pine + 

rust ; { 

2 MAD, The two blister 
rp Bite Aad 9 ir ‘pine-Tir, " The pine type 
‘of the Grier ‘youth and wee ‘sldb which ponderosa bine occurs 
a the Bal sepa ‘siver pitts assodiste. The fir type represents the more 
moist north and east slopes. ube re. one. Sr ber more, species of firs predominate, 
In both types suar pine eons “Ceht or more of the total volume 

2 ay Or . ay Reb GE ~Y he Sy, nm oe F ik 
ke FROCticaliy 2 14 Gimber ¢¢tiaates OR PHS AL is ist S624 i) a 

Sugar se renertene enna et ahi cig? iat” ve wid aes 3 ee thy ig 

therefore heeetsaty to’ defitie the minimum limits of a sugar pine tyve in 

ps a fonda tee to coincide in far.ags possible. with blister rast 
."° Ayo ume of 7,000 ened! hak ey acre Shey ‘aporoximetes this. 

fae int identifies sugar pine type on the ernise sheets,: 

Distinct’ between fir an pine associates are made when recording timber 

Setingt on bee “Breas are dal by mean f oe original eruises and shown 

in distinctive colors, be be worked are the Starve, Lescca, 


Tahoe, Flmnath, Trin fe) 5 noe ‘ey HAG Beate, 

=. “ri. 
a — anid 

eromeo tadmt? etavitg to sollt ald af setamiies tedmt? ,sqam says bas 
(eenrite ysorres Dts aredtevo seed texted 30 ebiodet gidetenwo Saal ed? bas 
te tanga [Le to cidereswo bas employ ,noliaool oft antitanes soltamrotat 
°° gare Lh Lo% #8 osoS et efdtT ,etate sdy at 

= ee = See SS 



fenottan to qidersavo to sealiaget 2saioip tadets efdatteva {Lh of 
vizot dose at enig tegse te enaley off-Sas bonimaxe eta esitsebarod teeto? 
ets 2etanttes yfot e19de bear ota sensilov “otiner bus aolises 19¢%aMp ) 
géiteterqiedat ak jetala cittense? atia adi of "t go babrocet (isatxe jou 
at eoord YX Bae TY-32 fart tefelld sdlisesh of adtamtjae 2duls to 
46 deP bercd) Balt at caafoy doom ee eo tet geivad ‘aotitet ff, jetem oaks 
s Sarlow VEY ston 10 aes Teg CB To” ,eat¢g neotesacd dt ea (it ga Lasrad 
afesate ote wotéredeto fads mal? seel vatvedt seen? bis enyd “GPW defodal ES 
aoe) Fart totalled of haoqagttos snotisakifseals ened?  edyd i ente ea belt 
attatf safftne Sada" cASts Booted bas beste! to Y asad “ota seahorse Lents to 

SS ne 

ee ee te 

oo, ¢. v 

dere ot preset Ridetenvs se ,botasel et# anets eaia Tague ‘sia sed® 8 Ese 
gtdemect effa of? og “S ae etenwo sioitay edt to anatbfod eid gatwode -dsteq 

ecyt exig tanitg end dortianco of af Yeviie asd ai cede Sacoen act 

gestae sania taare .yfstetadse jetebtesosd af feetol isactiss soak gam Ylegtal bas evieaaixne Jon Siayetaae aid mi ,zteet0? Ienottaa bbtetizo 
joesatpa satin betarogiesal sts senoltsveie teyol 3s esitabasod dastot get 

. heii sles shat , Pe) ESoo gteetot Esnoltan 

Of yldyret rot ofdaltavs wou ptm Soaegetansosst sett totel it” 
gocsat bore ox azteetet Leaoitas evil a0 sqrt ext tagve edd Yo se99 Ts¢ 
wagerid ows si? glam Sees sate tages Sat “Ot goed Stesé BaF Ylqeta dae 
ecvt ontg off  thiewaiq tants bas eakc seeTetaot-sale autre “gts seeed fait 
eino50 eute asciebseq dotsde mo segola drew bane déwoe toiah ed? to atelenos 
ede add atnsceres1 soyt tH ed  .etatoosas ‘ealq tative Legtowitq- edd es 
,sisaimesetg stit to aeiosge seni To exo wiese esqols dss Sua diton Ss tom 
eusricr tedod ede Yo stow “te Fae t8a BY eadiniteaes seiq tawre weeys diod al. 

ai #i .qam ecyd odd efefemon 08 Bete Viestel ea ged aetiae eotRiFo 6 ee 
gst eayt exig 18afe 4 Te eiimif meminim ed? ontteb of YIeaeense sro ters ad 
utd tofabid Agiw eidieadq as wet de at obtoates of gktt=-emr iow Yo eatet 
atid gsfamtzorce® GleeelS “Sie “60 Feet Press ODOUR To leamléy a jeeqys 
,atesde eririm edd no egyd salg tages eottitasbt bus ttmti smmtaion 
sedat? guibioost asde ebau ete aedaiooges entc Bus itt meowied soltontdel’d 
nwode bee seatutn fextgite to sagem yi beqyd oie seete tevo-ts0 ,zetamises 
oleae OF 7) ENR, wil SS Oey Oidontiels at 

» Sugar pine areas not Covered by blister rust reconnaissance or 
vinta AY are’ typed from other miscellaneous type maps, Field 
examinations ere made to fill any remaining gaps, 

the third’ step in the’ sigar pine survey is to summarize aecreaze 
and volune data, Tabulations are made according to ownership and timber 
_ type® for each township ané working circle of the forests, The classes of 
ownership computed are (1) Federal, (2) Large private owners Listed 
separately, end (%) miscellaneous small owners lumped together, Volumes 
for areas in the eagar pine type not covered by cruises are computed from 
ah average of timber ‘estimates in’ the seme township (sesarate for each 
type), or, if these are tawifficient, from those in an adjoining township, 
This’ same procedure is folleweé for the non-sugar pine type in which 
sugar pine occurs (stende eontaining sugar vine averaging less than a 
boerd feet per eng A: i ee ae 3 suenary of a forest shows? 

1, The total beahae 6ey Wo Fine asi acreare by Shepp and &P-f Sviéi 
fer: each omership- elaes a et eos and ‘working circle with totals 
for’the forest, °° 

- 2, The acreage of cut-over for the abeve, For the present, because of 
the lack of other information, logged areas will be considered as come 
parable to uneut areas in the’ ‘seme Bis sage etrele in gauging suger ‘pine~ 
—t. eo a eee 45 

Lens Be Fo hendd Sy }enaber’ S¥kd rapidatbils. oe hen Gi fox’ -twitistiips and 
working circles shown separately for cruised and uncruised areas, ¥ron 
rcs engl fone teat of eraised ‘and uneruised arene cau be obtained, 

Hy The veluns for lands vies sugar pine in munabitine less than 
3,000 board feet per acre, classified in this report as non-sugar pine 
type, for cruised and uncruised areas, 


1, Practically ali timber estimates and ownership status are collected, 
Sugar pine estimates are available for approximately 89 per cent of the 
sugar pine type of the state, 

2, Type maps are completed for the Eldorado, Stanislaus and Plumas 
Wational Forests, 

3. Sanmary statements are completed for the above three forests, 

Forests remaining to be worked are the Sierra, Lassen, Sequoia, 
Tahoe, Klamath, Trinity, “Mendocino and Shasta, The last five forests are 

249 \ 

= Se 


Bist® ,agnm egyt erescsllaseth toMgo mot beqgy? era setamtias todmts 
bats asictamet ya LTiT oo aban. ots ase Lesa k mux 

ao entibeeiachooet dara tegeiid yi Sexeveo Joe sacts ontg ‘teige? 

egeetos esiranue od ef ysvime saiq tsy7e ast ai qete.biidd off. 
qaimty baa gitezome of gathtosae sian era. enotiatods? ,etab emmlov, dus 
to neeests eH!  egeetot aft to efotio satsro< bas gtiagwed doas “ot paqyt 
Reset grenwe efavine egal (S) ,letebet (1) ats Sesygnoo qidetoawo 

bomiicY taddagod Gammad sxenwo [flame eroorallecata (S) bas, «iedsreqes 
mott batreon ota estherts yd betavog ton aqys ‘enka tay eof at geeta tol 
thee Yor ataracos) qhdeawod emes add at esd aetise tedaty Te, Sastevs Ae 
«idatiod gniakotde ox of o90dt sort ,tabloiyineat sie seadt 2h e709 (SQxut 
do tee BE agxd patg tagieenos add ict bawellot ef stybooetg amsa eta 
C00,8 suit aes sGigateva. aute . TARO. palalalsos shsaia) saoe9. aig T8ave 
: sexeda deorot s to yYramewa bedslomos ad? .{evss teq test, Dract 

sory? J~i bas Tie ys sasozoe bus, onmrloy doo™ brand Letet oAP of 
aia$ot Atty sfotk> saboMew bua gthaswod dose mt sealo qhdptemio, sae, 20% 
| : : iy sieerot odd tet 

to sesaped ,dnerseq alt rok  .eveda wit, 10% tavordue to gasetse eff .S 
winod an Soxebtends od Litw nese bepgol ,soleagsptat xedto to gost at 
-sxle tauve stlatby ak éforte 4satstow susan edt af. seers dmas of sidatay 
nig? :  gitke iff tot ydioaqes aatacborg 

bee agidzawot tet qidetenwe to ceelotanet seqyd sedaid vd seaploy S&S 
poty seers Seetotone bas Sealers tot ylegeteqes aeoda eelotio guiztow 
~beciceds sf geo esere Bealimigay. bas bea kro te gegatiasgteg att elas 

fat abi ealst¢eein ab cafq taghe galved abnel 0% emblov, edt 0 
eiie tagumeioe ag Psogot aint me 

beltiagalo ,si%pd.i294 deat biagd. 00098 

seis besiviony baa Soatota tot .eaye 
betoslios wts awiate qidetenvo bam setamiias sedaks ffe uiisotégard L 

sci? to insm tog G3 ylotamtsotggs th gidaliave eta eclantias satq tegy 
| | eer tale ed? Yo.eqyy ankg tape 

wie Sa tow 

Ki Tye 

eiugf’ Sdn eoalataste ,ahetobl® edt xo% Setelqmes ote eqam eqyt 8... 
“i a age aaah: wdactct Iegotdsil 

ndeot’t sett avede edt a0¥ Dado lquos ots sinometede, view Bo) i 

patoups: ,araad gsrtslt eddy eta Seoltow od of acibat anes ‘adagvict =. 
er eigort avit deat edt  oteads bos oaisebaek eViiaks? gtidavelX ,oodaT 

of secondary importance: im emogunt.of sugar pine and only « representative HW 
working citele om each wil} ‘be gimmarized in the dete il of the more earl il 
forests, . ay wh 
¥, Sow : 
The Yosemite, scot ett Senemal Grant Wational Parks also have 
important sugar pine stands which will be included in the final sugar pine 
survey, but whieh; Bedause of the nature of their administration, what be 
Ginette sea Andependeatly when preparisg * mated, policy, Pago 
of Ske § Cente] gue wets Dae one: Lares? ead i 
g verte » Those engagéed> dinconducting. he: sugar pins, gurvey. “felly. realize 
the’ Tint tations ‘of sthe-data, - they are, £Fom . several, sources. of 
gene vel ly conflicting» inforaation which i te as beat. 
o meet: the requirements of the survey, itis iucredikle to ¢xbect 
‘@ refined: agai secagnaneat ti ecm be, exorel sed in. local BPeLtcation.. 
effeatinn thei? reooFal ot eh wierd «: 
PS RE to ox »Becamse of the, mature,of tbe. ‘dase “eecared. in this survey it 4s 
‘considered as of little value until completed and summarized,” For this 
reason, no partial figures are included in this report. The results of the 

survey will be given in a ‘wanigk Hernns to be completed later, 

‘whet. oe _ 
Mout Of; PRT: fern’ Oh 

ans reerndigation stuther ato tparks 

ar 1930), Se expenditures, tagurr red. by the. Rivision of BYister® Rust Control 

Pon 9 

nim prometing. the.sugar pine o ite present status (Jan, 21, 1923) 
smmonnt bo 45.947. 63... nee N salary . and expenses of 7. Mf. Harris 
‘from May, kp 1932-0 danuary,21. 1953 and the salaries and expensed of * 

Re Re dd llervand 4, V,, an eos at iat oe ney spent gu the project, 
The expenses incu by. ‘in performing” ‘the typing 
“Jo, 0n,-bhe “inane x oho 

aoa nugt adventageguel; aces é ry bane ee ee ee ee 
operat od fron: yuat 13 ti Ageeet : 

SA REDAEY ip ange eee ; gi ty 

eor the, Vou: in general Albis reeehas< vox ‘ bad 
Gexioin Olea, however, cit erly aiene strc 2x4 iia 
epining #&, btreng Joothelid, Sabie fe. RnR Ee Dio: St xhel sei aa, 

rs Fk. te Sey ey Foe vip a. ‘ . ‘ a % 
a) HOLY ER RP eERERA Dee aes & See: Bice 
BP RO RSS: Ar ee RS RRR a Ae de Ree ee: A eee ian tae 

UAEReR, eogerdiag to erigin vith reapest 

seacling 'Oprasents the ne 
LE my Ae o . te . . sae 7 ; me 
CPA, eat 3 UP ah wor. MASS aK. 4 Sniais PeA eee Tie GM sap OP a Se ae WE 

Ch, GOR T pre wLy gown Wed, 226 Rio ede deal lyme days tae 

mot. Zomudk.the 4 sesh %, tes. 

I | wiisigeeacet 4 ¥ino bm, sate tagwe Lo teyvome, ab eorsitoqnt. yirbaoses te 
|, | tasttocal, ates orld te Liateb, add, mh isco eamenaia ih Ai ow kane arenes 

: t Re ¥ j J EIR BOLE ) 

evad coals avis ienotiali tnaxd.torened, Jan alespe? sodinseoY ast 

enti tepie Ientt oft af beberingt od Iitw dole ebeaieantg tame gaataoqmh: 

a¢ Iitw olisitelal gis tied to eutded mié to eegnped .loine gud: .¢yovamm . 
eet fog Loxtuag, & sats Soe eesti Xfinobapanhad: Surphtnaae: 

estiaor. yLiit yev'ree ents Lagi add pat dembacs ers ‘donee eso 120% 
%o esomwos, Lersvee mot] ete yess en. betecet! . .mtab; ads. to. navte nb dete poms 
deed. ox, Dog incertecd ad. sexm. do tiie ‘se lvestotat guldoificos yifarsaen: 
tobene of eldtbeioat 2) ¢f gyevtwe oft to etaesetinper edd teoom-0% eidiagog: 
Aottarilege revel st Deelorexe. ad dein ROLES ERS 3 Debian pane i 
OSE a ees | 

ek tf (av Tse gicd ak hertss ee nied aid to pextax ‘ode to preyttoirs © 
eid? vot .boaitemue bas Dejeleuoo, Liven evfey afsthi Yo sa Seteblanos 
adt te atiuagt od? .,dteget-eind al bebuioal e1g goimgtt. of gig OR g ROBOT | 
grovel batelams ed of Stocat Iatsege ¢ ai aovks od. dldw yovter: 



forsee), donk sodalii, to sotsiviG, edt rT sores sons theeaxh: ont a. 
(Beef gff .aal) extate tnesstq esi of yoviwe: sag: tage, edd, gattompng, oc 
sivisl .A .T to eeedecxe bos yxelea ont zebylont aid? 88 Th, 58 of sovoms 
to ssenocas baa eatiales ect. bus £50) Lk yrawan§ 03. Sigh Yas mn 
stastote scf se. tanga ..yodd, omi?d edt tet solbemed, .7.4% bus. tofLi Mh ak a 
guiqys ede gabertotieq sf get ansasslannoner oad. yd borsenat measegxe off 
,bebriont esis ete edeetot soda? bas nue aie ho dol, 

ter ey 

mn z is sy EL iy ne E 

Se ee = = 


att dhl Abad lus 

| ai pista 
PUPAL 21553 “m,. Bp Benedict 
Assistant Forester 

A Tm eat me ERG em a 

| Ekperinental Hibes: “eradication in California for 1932 Sonsisted 
two operations, itlccel Tete eat of Rides ‘on ‘the Vorriagten unit 
'@ Natio ay, rss’ mene), om initial cxagication on. 

“As: given on page 275, Anwal ieport for 1926. ib 

‘ a exce, ; “= r alterations resulting from row. 
ae ‘itis tn in the. pest four years, The 

Paster ege 8 Cox nS and costs of. 

it’ area four years ater ¢ the first working 

seen the econ area to provide » wider. field of. 


9 ert 
Pain Peng 19 ol 

ca . RAD T yi Santee 

STRAT OE tr 9 pL Fr a pe 

veoreatsthoa® of ree Work were essentially those used in 
studtes ats 21930. () 198, Annus] Report 
‘for 1 1950)», extépt that ; recorder mee att taaben hese ett: 
oat Mees gion’ ‘Scarcity of Rides Mes toteritzes of evecial data was 
dane by a regular orem pmb Pe Ome,” two end-three man créwe were. used,” rp 
ae i bundence, the smaller units’ functigning to” % 9B 
ting-areas-free -of Rives” Od in eradicating: ‘ema a 
: (auabtdgea gu tated tor bushes, The entire orieinel ares wee rewortod except” 
for 9 acres of stream type extending outside: the general erverimental stem 
| a4. not po wees i lecated for —— ptaay A \3—man camp wes 7 
rated from Pure 15 to August 28.00... 8 : , 

or. the, area in general Ribes reettablishuent was Light, In 

Certain, sites, hewever, chiefly elong streams and in brush, Aibes were again 
gaining #, trong foothold, fable io.-l shows the @ibes distribution, beth 
vtotal § eng avereges per acre, for the seversl,types encountered in the: 
experimental .arsa. fhe bushes sre classified into seedlings, sprouts aad 
weissad, according to origin with reapect te the daitial eradication, ‘the 
seedling group represents the new plants germinating after the first 
eradication; the eproute are, these resulting from vieble fragmmte of root 
and crom net properly ighelaegle oad: pugeemge clase Andintae state: ‘bushes 
not found the sg sgeorsthy gd ! bet. * : 

> % feet, 3% 3 ig hs . fs fort feel oe tere + ater Ses hs ee 1 Gy: * 

2eW Year iny Lléwered this ever ye ae ee ae te 

tras > oe Se i & Poe ‘ * 
wueh far the area ct & Wha ce 


git TT 
vothese® .¥ 4% 
qwtee 10% éosbelesa. .cii sows? 

hod¢etakos Beef “fot stwtetkifs0 af wat teothere 2th hetaomkrege: ocorece 
¢tess sodzaltrod edt! ad’ woke Xe Ko taotharset & (i) yenaitetege evs te 

eo sotisothexe faltint am (S$) Bes deetc’ Sancta asmlaiaes< add to 

giolacioo A sbastiow <efesoiverg Jom eet amptgnivrod adi To colfieq 4 

sf Beer tet stoqeh Iscuné .eVS eaeq c6 kovis, Bt gots ahd} to aatiqhsoaeh 

fact mott, gatd ives anotierstia tom ist se% sqeere Sas tedutd atgtiviad al 

* gal .e1aey wet feaq’ one ai o(eS2f Jud Sogoerts sed. sesaonevongal 

%6 edeos bee enoltinwoo 2edte eteatteevat e@ etew atom edt To aevitoelde 

saisdrew 2a%lt edd sovis eineY% Wot sets toms ae HO Isvomex thedd galtoette 

"to bleit tebiw 2 ebivota ot aie Iatnombteqns emt  bisgxe et bas 

¥ ° a 

ee ee 

at bess eaods yliaisaouas oxed tree aS pertarrorreq te ebhoritek 
_dteqed, famnok, SOL eyen) O&@L at grivdusiG ta selbsde soitsolba tee eid 

wrexo moldanlberes os of bedoatia tor ssw tebrooer s tart tyeoxs 4 (OSL sot 
nay ateb isicega, to goibsones pdt eedi# Yo Yiiowede Leten’s efd "te eanaoe ti 
ghons ovew gwar gem seul? bre Owe 8 sedwem we're telegey & YE eno 
“ed patrottoact Btiay 10 lfawt sit eomsbards mide tod?l moux gatbieqob 

ssi ifane gatianthere st bam aedtf Yo Gott seam gititaoo! mf egedaevbs 
fgeaxe bextevst 38% aars Lacigiao eatise emt .agtand ‘to serotag botsdtase 
aot [etsemttoqxe Iessq0ey od? ebletuo euibmets9 ogy anette ‘To ‘gexse @ tot 
asw qa? core ci A «tats tnoseateg tot botanel qfanoagsias vis fox bas 

«ak gemgok of GL ean’ mort Setetege 

ni wstigil @ar Snemilaiidadeset sedi Latency oi sets ecg sot 
riage eve sedii ,daxrid at bua anvette gaois (fteide iovewon gaeiis nias1e3 
dted ,cottudiusstS sedth end awode I scot efdat .bLodtoct anotta s paiaiag 
edd mt bevetnvosne seqys Imtewes o9 xot ,9%9s Teg seneTove bas alates 

ban etuorqs ,aadifhsse otnt beltieasto eta audusd off e018 iad comiteqxe 

edt ,tatiaotante fettial edd of Yoognet dtlvy afgize of gatbtoesss ,beealia 

gat? odd xodta gattantetey, staal wen odd eiaesorget esota aallbese 

toot to agnemgatt? ofdstv mott acid breet sgodt ets stroxge off yaolisolbars 
sedasd exeit:ashelont eagio betelm odd dom ,bevomet uUlrsqerq ton swory fas 
. emit guttt edd basot som 

lable NC 

ee ee 

BO ea: : 2.0 : Se 

ae rm sages erupt 

remedied ‘SPLUP. # (yeniee ara ae now eariea SP_PP (ronderoea pine). 

5 e'No.'2 shows by ee of te total the three classes of 
Ribes erbdicated from the. different types. Of special eignificance is the 
small amount of new Ribes growth in the seedling group produced in four 
years in’ ‘the: at ‘cin forest. For a logged area, represented by reeradication 
data secured at Strawberry 4n 1930, 88 per cent of the bushes eradicated, 
containing 60 per cent of the live stem, were seedlings. 

ae average seedling has &6 feeb: of live stem, the average 
yu a ae feet ‘and the average missed bush 20.0 feet. In stream type the 
age ‘bush contains 5.3 feet of live stem, for brush type the average is 
forte in SP_¥ type 2.0 feet. (numerous. current ) ver seedlings along a 

Way lowered this average) and in SP_PP type 13.9 feet. The average 
bush "ee Gs the area as a Whole contzined 5.9 feet of live stem. 


aan of aag 
Sake F8 Skits 

i ss TAD a i 62818 JATOT 

Le Ashe St BOSSES) Soil 0 i 
(oad .£8 les ; 
iSO. 88 | 

[Sea ,o¢ : 

ae ae arcane eee a ER aE 
ino a,OLEl EIS BE Paste Wishes arta fir tal =a 

itente asersbact) 44-46 betiso wor ‘(ante woo) a8 Oiaktine 

LABS MUS ~uLeeo. 
Le TGAMUE BA aes aon GAs Cael & 


Lee pes fees tear lee 
te acenalo egaid: at ingod ott Yo vomsdasosee vd eeodw @ 10k ofdel 
ocd af sansolting ta fafoege O .eugyt JnetsttEh add mort hotwotbate eed? i 
wot af boovbory quot gut iieee ais gt advow eed it wea 6 Ydvems Ifans 
cotéasiisyeox yd betawesiges ,ante beggel w tol Jdeene? atgriv of? of at Y, 

enews aarand acd bo feed ter BS {OCel nk presidente ta. ‘betwee etel 
sRarntfbest) eee  japts: owl ads vane tune ha Oe Sakiterihe 

epasevs odd vote evil kes eels wart grbt heise aa te ve wet 
add eqyd meore chi deet 0.08 dend heoesin, saateve edd’ beta dent Pee ‘tiles 
2! ensievs edt exyd deuid to% ymoda evil to Joe} &.o entatacd: dand e3e19¥e 
& gnoluw avatibeee ws5~¢ teetiao axvotemmr) ¢oet 9.8 eqyd E26 af ,teo0% T.d 
egereva ell 

feet @,eL aq yt FI.%8 ot bow (egavevea eidt berewol yevbser Wer 
wmete avif to feet €.2 feniateon ofLoit a ag sets odd tot dend 



In Table No. 3 is shown the percentages of Hibes foes)i and 
R. nevadense occurring in the different types. Outside of stream type 
R. nevadense is negligible in the locality, 

. Be SeboTUAL Ie ! SUMMAR 2 

Bushes were recorded as fruiting or not fruiting when they were 
eradicated, Kesults are shown in Table No. 4 Fruiting in the aggregate 
is light, being largest, as. Would normally be expected, in the missed bush 
group: and even here. light compared to fruiting im logged types where 24.4 
per cent (reeradication at Strawberry, Anmal te ef 1930, pege 211) 

“— pee winnad. — were eissinei fruits. 

oe 3 
2 ws LU 

; | 1! “Apes Goliad iad 


wasends (e BIeIS 40 Baons wioaNe 


stegetags et at geitiext .@ .oll eldest af avgde ois atlaeed .beisoliato 
dexd boweth od? nt ,botoeqze od Ylfewisa browt aa eF62QuaL gaiad. ataig ht ak 
DOS ovedw segyt Sessot af patttott of besagies Ioytl ated geve. Sane quot 
(Lis sgeq yOUOl to troget famasd acrtod@ett 2 ts ‘molvadkbazest) saeo z9q q 
“et 3Lott ga torborg “even” bhi ees bake to q 

DA $300 al fast “eal es Gat. 
| 1 mT ane Lizeot gedis to aegadmeoteq ef3 awoda 2f © .of eldest af : 
mili eqys masta to.ebiedad” aeg(d saeteTila edt af yaktimooe easebavon «A 4 
th Glilsool eit at sidigiigen st esgebeves .§ | 
! | iI erow yer? aociv mare? #08 to ‘geswahey'’ as babroset Siow aedaui acu 

| H | 





‘Serradivetlon werk the Prewnies pee cumpheed Tm tani 
revelte obtelned je PRO RVPARES OF BUBHMS FR ULTING - 

ee ce Pe 
iis ie penne: a 


Tiives| Acres 
ofrer Par- 

ab osareae ‘Wreaxéa: wat! teeckate ‘nap wont area rt ‘than 85 “feet oF live tem 
“per ecre, 

“Gosts ‘of erdiication ere Largely governed by Biber Bbundehnce 
- mithowen other. fector's encountered in working ‘at wrea,’ tuch as brush “cover, 
‘yoced ze of bushes, Tock outerovpinges and topo raphy erert =m tmportant 
igo at ‘Thus costs ers Lowest in the open sugar. pinéspont cross ‘pine type | 
where Ribes are fewest, Conversely Coste sre Breatert fx the brush and 
' ® stream types agra the heaviest Hibes and most diffienit working Condfti ons 
oo tare pencdount ered..° These itu. types, areregating only 3 per cent of the area, 
contain 25 per cent of the Kibes and represent 19.8 per cent of the cost, 

Pes 5 

SS OE ee = 


| ¢ 

errr ae ee ee 



oe er rte ee 



‘ecyt ent aectohsogesaig tagse meqo oid ‘al ‘Faqwe 

ia made So aoa = 
l” %& sind. x3 i 4 saat a To, rp oa ° Pe) 729) 
nar ya Mh Seat) eryowg es _ | peated ti 
| een 7 De ) 
ote eK a 
ms a. OE Supunpruaniebon: sreeeine tt Re perme wal re epidlta Ringer senate acute mn ont macounescmne 
busi a of Oh | Ons eae eae ‘ 

nk sewosia ata yiqyd 7] badeit ng ok nol $a0 thao ‘oitg te tae” 
seanocxe toatota tae? wort Hotirmies Siew Saud Head act etvod ~~ .8- sot efdat 
29qy) ines tol A108 To ye gam to toda od? to atand edd ao 

fay. pe. 

t0%| 29%) 

eM | 

mets avhl to feat ae aaay weer -pontabiiee- vee edilenad.d ye) jr Py aneta* 
r ee 1930 

2) * ESR, Lye 

oo sanbaarcle: aed ' “d, ieocnven ee ag ‘abi hit 6: Setied as 

TS tao resred 89. chess de os getitoe i betodaionrs «avedaat tedto daseatla! 
| | Rrmieqes ae ttexe ydeetgogod Sra suatareroize Aoot: sedans Ro orta., 
‘etn e980 agg?” weoceeh iat: 
bas cdesrd edd af teedaeta ta afsoo (leetewne) deeweoots | sedi otecdt. 
gaoftiones acbtier cig deom Sna Bodik ssetvasd od? otedw eeqys maotda 
ott to des E ‘ae anidegotmas ,seqyo ost exedl ,betedavonns 9s 
pt#on ait to tea 9g 8.0L dncseiget bae addi ent %o dae teq GS aad roo 

9 SRE 9g 

HOST OW Oy Order te" hore felly widerstand the significance of the 
r6eradication work ‘the results ere compared in Table No. 6 with the 
results obtained in the initial eraditation four years esrlicr, ° 

*Stream type acreage in original enadication shown erroneously as 266.7 instead |i! 
of 216 acres. As the total acréage for the initial eradication is correct A Te 
this error of. LRA? BEF is throm into the. blocked out area ..§.- : | 

ser in Yor the area as a. whole prern have. ‘fallen 74 per. Gent and Bibes 79 

per cent, . in the .cugar pinefir . ype, Shere cost and, Kibes. reductions are 

lowest, . ~ new highway has, been. constructed... Ihe ground disturbance along the 
right_ofeway created favorable Ribes seed bed conditions resulting in the 
establishment of many seedlings. The seedlings were largely of current season 
germination and contained but little live stem, The presence of these 
seedlings obscures the real reductions in numbers of Hibes and costs although 
it is seen that there has been a 90 per cent reduction in the amount of live 



Contrast the reduction in costs and Kibes for this uncut area with 
reeradication results obtained in 1930 for the legged area at Strawberry, 
Where costs and Ribes for the uncut area fell almost fourfold and fivefold 
respectively, the reductions in the logged areas were a little over halved, 
It appears obvious from these studies that permanent Ribes suppression will 
be mch more readily and less expensively obtained in timbered regions, In 
fact, based on the 1932 reeradication results, Ribes control for the 


ie notase Jnerurs to Ufental ever agak lisse wd Saniibeos yorum to tapeubtidades 

edd to eomaoltiasia sdf bastereban yfiot vic of tebt0 at 
att diiw @ .o sfdaT af botsqmes ote etiseet odd drow nofisolSateet 
wweilies 2twe% te0% soteedibate Fatfiat edt of beniatdo ativest 
5S ee 

SAV sUANe akin si. BOLUADLGAgERe Go BQeT: 

j eo ar weit te fest] 3 okeoinaa andi ieee. 

| weenie 399 S280 pod 199 bets 
| | AMES Se Rica So 

} Recor ; wit} ~ #aa0t 

0 <i} fi iat wat to} 

oe "9 or tS | ote | SEs 
fae BBS: sd Sai | fxs ue: eebae wih ins Leda batt se oe e 
eit: rate, 808. 1088 
aS Bs) +e ‘es 
LE NON ane e * -- 


= ai 

£ if 
{ re } age | iat in. 7 
¢: ; a oe S 
er tees ieae se oa 


i a a A 
HAG Teak. ae (G4 
MH ; . ; 
| " 1 z 
AWN i a Ot} } Gad - -- 
ATi tl Hike en = = ARTE in oR ga aes Shek net pera 
ayy Hy | } H ' } ae Vee re ae 
¥ ! 3 ‘ E 
| i] 

eee 2 eer [ane where 

pestint T.856 as yleavenctts aweds. nektsoiiers Barsrnd i O2e6 198 ae" aanene 
dnerses 2% nolisotias’ Sabsiat eit rot egaetos Estos odd Bh .ee%0% 18 to 
Say esetg fae BE ad ‘08 =e: weave tat! i 

Ao asdiZ tas taney 20g as rian. pers itaoa’ otede a. aa Ladi. ait ge ae is 
win anotiames. eedii Bae days otedt) ,equd: 3h — tagre.ede ol. -sdman 799. 
eat stole aactute hb aavoty eat betaratends eed eed qatiigid wom a, gteevo! 
ead at galiiosuy aealiisgoe Sad gene evden sidatevs) Jetaet. gare ntrigt+ 

aesd?. to soavsatgy sit mode evel wit 22 Jad. Hoptatwos bag: hoftaniarres 
 Pexodtis ataoo ‘bes sedi “tc exeduma oi anotioubet [est ed? aousesds agntiasos 
avil to tavema odd at. aottazhet.died tieg G8 w aad ead otaild: mapeusl naive Mr tt 
B25, gto de 

dite sexs tuaget eft? sot sadli bam sie0oo ah motvagben edt gastiacd | ae 
sexedtat’ de sate, feprel odd wet GCL ah bontetdo etivass apiiecliates: | 

' BLoteshs fax blotasct sonle Lis? eet tusay odd tel eedth baa ategn ezeda 
sbevied tove oti « 970%,age%s boggol ent at eapitowhen edt .yyleviiasaqn et 
iiiv geteveiqcu® and! taocamieg sect: eelands s2eddrmes? syotves erasggs 11 
AL. notes bautatde ylevieneqze eeet bas yitbeet.e ton doem od 
add, tot. Letdaed.avd si deine sienerane hace voip one: a0: — ia 

ee ee eee nn aL Pee ee) Ee eT ee Pa Ore ae SN A Ly ete fae ee Oe 

Derrington area 18 now attained: and can be maintained by periodic 
maintenance Work in the favorable Ribes sites until some major disturb. 
ance, such as logging, alters present forest conditions, 

... the, reeradication work was systematically checked, both by 
‘the camp boss as it progressed and by regular checkers after the aren was 
completed. Instead of. the 50. feet of Live sten standard of efficiency 
used for gael eradication work, the reeradication job was ‘held to a 
28 foot Limit. ng. results showed all parte of the area to be within. 

| this Timi te 

‘ea semua um Tn ‘conneetion ‘with ‘the ciseie “Job an Gate iar was unde tem 
eee acy of the checking Work, especially with respect 
. ‘out arese: of Ribes, Regular eradication crews in 40 
ale a days completely covered 2,485 acres of the suger pine-ponderosa pine 
prea d@eetenated by prechecking- es supporting less then 25 feet of live’ 
stem per acre and consequently not requiring Work. A total of 1,566 Kibes 
with 23,534 feet of live ‘stem Was removed, This is en averace of .7 
“Kibes oF 9 -5 feet of: ‘Live ‘stem per acre, The cost of this experiment 
“‘pimoun ted to $197.22 or $.08 per acre. ‘The cost of the Work ‘snd kibes 
| Femoved ‘are incIuded in the ‘hotel results of ‘the reeradi¢stion job, 
“which, on @ ‘prorated man ‘dey vasis, ‘adds $02 per acre to the average 
ac ett on =e. Bader sg A ‘circumstances ‘this cost Would not 

“ Mfter the reeradication “gob Wat completed the remainder of the 
field season War devoted to initial cradication in an sdjoining stand of 
mature sugar pine under which occurs considerable brush and reproduction, 
fhe location of this area is show on the file map of the Dorrington 
Ribes eradication unit. fiesults of the work are shown in Table No. 7. 


oisotied 4d banistaban 26 tae Bas Seaiad in Was 6h 6972 sot gaivred 
Juststs sohem eae Litas actia wsdit efdaxevs?, odd, af .arow, songne tedom 
eiaatd liaoo taezo%. ‘daosetgevedia _gtit te gaignel aa dorm gaaes 

ud déod ,bodoedo yLlaotiauseys sew ctiow notizoibkeree galt 
sew aose e062 zotte eredoeds teluyet yd Bae bensevgotq tf ea B20d qmso ed? 
youstoltte to Siabagde mote evil. ter doe. OG eat do bagtent .bedofamoo 
a of Bist Gav dét Koltsotsetsox oad aitow sofdaothbate faitiat tot bess 
“sha Ww od of BOTS eat to sire fle beworde aa Lutes Eons oShmtt bad Se 

nedet tobi’ saw Fieart LoeKe ne O67,” sAtineds adi. dd br a ae Beto 
toe x a3 Fe Giaksagsa , igitow acisoedo sit ‘te yoats9os ond eds of 
oN mk ewora s nofiaok sgt te Legal tod 1K. Xo east epets tao. gohioeld of 
oatg evar saeg-entg Taga e12 2o satoe 968 boiewgs ylesatoma: eyed ll 
“SVE So tae af madd aot srtiteccwe Bs prbtoedsetg ys ‘bessngiseh B67 
eodit Sea, f to idiot 4 ~ otto? geitinnet tor Uiiteassies Bas S198 Tq ino fa. 
Sh. aly +6 eugtevs na af-eld .boveest eaw mesa Svit Yo test BEE, EE se were! 
‘dmenittoove Vit tg teen act ~ exo toy wets ovil te feet ao to ‘ees 
eedti-bae wtow- ed? to tooo eff satus Ty Bog te St Sele oF. enna 
«det mo Meatbsrest edt “ro 09 lexan fader sdf at Searisnt ete bevomet 
sasiees off3 of etae wey 0,7 shba ,uisad ysb aos boteteta 8 fo etlotity 
tox sl getet dees fad eenaet sas to i gaat “8 wha, _atape, io Heath 

ait ‘ke wabectoslirs ~~ nalretaihd saw aot dt Geiaien? ‘eng ‘wake 
to busta age ba op at mettastbats (altiail of beteveb 228 mozne? “avs 
wortorthotges bax Peed efdereb inion eanede otite vebasr enig ese otudec 
avognitietl sit "ho quam eIeh sft mer nworle ar sote 2t8? Yo cobltcoet ony 
0) OW OER eh ameter Sua ata oad te ne liao | tna aotteothers’ “peor? 

ae TR ibes| Acres 
“*- @gatée —~-fper per 

Ring aa 
Both Pay Dy rt me Ja 

lisse, ok iieeeten ie a ‘man day basis. oe “phown in 
Table No, 8. The project; leader’: Salary for one month is charged against 
supervision immadition to the: talery and expenset.of the camp bors, the 
equipment ee, Guene _ an arbitrary sheers proportionate to the 

i Sno gevcteann-Ana/e-Vu-treck plus» 
onan Sodeaes truck: lites. £20,000 miles, 

i ais ail 

Pe Rs Be TE ae 


(prceceae eS “e — o Bis 
ree SEAS le 

we Saat i 
wee a 
Syn Be 
ey 3 

Le ron mney sibisiaad oh te kT ae 
CARO OR ay als. sarees, i wclbanctinlai 
lGost far Mead oc. i cr ei bh tasice ai ty este 

Reta: .. Xee. Tull ohacen tox. ercipont wil 
mere] 2y be berms y y the reaceticns ae st Pe: Ge a, ae CE, Bat TR i 63 
AWOSRBe 1B emit Leet iy = ey wy SEPenee ox coniusting the sheexime 
aay ynliok Ae fnoinded is. reeradigation soot, ey 4 
‘tenes ere vrere tek Qhtien clivet & mere a&atar ’ Y 

epodication 566. 




7% het a : * ~ eww 4 
‘ 4 r yen ee ec Sse Rt Neieget 
eee 2  S 3 Ts OD Myx ap tes 
A : a 
cc FEM ee. i EERR NG Satie ML, Ad 
: nine t 

VaAiidie WOU EAD] Ck 

ee claret cise, nite menibeeemnarsesatanaetabeabenaneens 
BOTA \aedla| | 
T4 BY 1 e hou. si 

geSi} ted] 

Tera ae 


¥ mes ies ah 4g Bi eae neeap x 

Inbiiat bos aodtgotbateszatod tel molier%qo Bieft add to.ateod. 

at wiode oe aliad yok mem ogo bedeto7q has boslanil 318 aotisothete 

featese aogwmio i dinen eao 10% yralea 2'ibeel Ineloiq edt 18.08. sidat 
etl ,a900 qusd.cdd. to seaasqrs fag viele edé of wolf thba at solelvisess 

eid ‘et etaaslizogetg sieglt yratdicis ae ai egtado melfatosiqeh inamginne 
ssanegrs goltaiiegeaatl, .1o Haoliese aes ee od? uot wagde sgiedo doauclepe 
3 eglc dortd aod S\inf dasaqtevog ocd gaidateqo to eoeme axe elt ahuloal 
<2oLim 000,08 to ettf dowd betamites os co boasd sgtads mottaloexqed oysol ia 
stew thmegre bielt [auiom eis east! sanegrs wedtC 

o@, 00 sidgi ot bvdati eta.ede, tied tei et20s eonetaiades 

: Y se ay yin : Pie ab ie ae aM a RSPCA BS AR NS ML a ANG SR aR RM eT MOM ad NS 
t bch ih 
aye a 

© a 

pois he 

ee tes 


en TS Hy 

oe ic te ay a 
iM, cet 

wee Wee. fall ‘shacee for. be ee = Nae aie supplies should 
normally be borne by the reeradication job. Im this case, however, this 

expense is practically offset by the expense of conducting the checking 
experiment which is included in reesradication costs. ‘therefore all expense 
items are prorated Which gives a more accurate cost for the initial 
eradication job. 


8 Wh DTEA Az 

KOMEA we "KO B09 

Ne ee OA A TR RFR MN Hane oo 

test aj 

we £207 & 

x eae * ok i a 
encores antes ot aay Cee a hn oat nin Sane Sahm “enn pag 

ait alltel 

freien mraeeraes Cae 83.50 te saa Toa ‘samedi. of eo idal 

} : . mf 
Foinscsieesssbic asia 5 ae Se oe es aS OSs) Sef 
rs e 


why P 

ny ah Gee 

wm avd 

n, ae 

vag it 

SER00 BORAT ei adic 

vy * a 

ey. eens ae a 

beewmsse: = 

be os es 
Heariaioeieris nae SD % panieutioe asa LHD Be gE, Bes 

bieede sefticque euceneileozin Sig Snomytype tot eptado [int edt setol 

eid? ,rovewor ,easo tidt al .det sofisotiareet etd yd onted ed yilsertes 
suidosdo off palveobogo to eenegxe ed? yd festto yilasitoata si sensqzre 
aasegre ffs erotecsd? .a¢a0o nolteothatest mi Seboleat a2 doldw Jaemtregze 
fatticl edt tet ¢eoo etetucoon otem « aevia dotdw betjetotg ots amodi 

edo sottsothate 


ene ei Ven Atte 
ben te hgent 

ein enn more yERe in _ atanlé let 

+44 was not. ered to check the 1931 denen in thie area 

waited late Qetober of. 193¢,, After a brief survey of the work, it wes decided 
that only a ‘partial check would be. needed. to. bring to light. all, the salient 
points that. could be learned at that late date. This decision will perhaps 
be more ‘peadily understood when it 1s pointed out that the accuracy of a 
detailed check is conditioned by the degree to which the experimental 
plant® are” ‘disturbed between the time of treatment and the time of checking, 
if checking is. performed in the spring following the treatment, disturbance 
by_enimals. end ngn. ds at. & wininum,. BS fai however. checking is delayed.until 
i i, as it was. in ‘this instance, . it becomes. impossible. to accurately 

etermne. the Limits Ee stem, or. rhe? number of bushes erenediy ih 
the treatment, eiktes nae Soadtiy ta the ta x 3 be 
ce tee “ity jPrigiitee™ ‘Amberent, in lete checking, dp_not. fe vlibes & 
the observer. from. obtaining. perfectly valid informetion.of » general 
nature regerding the effect of experimental treatment, although accurate 
detailed. measurements sonnets he. to those. pereigertlys nade: in. the rine 3 are 
eh: of the qe tion, — 

ee ‘accord with, the taakes ‘set Pte Benes one Seine of shows. 
experiments ere presented below. in. the form of general observations rather 
ee, ee numerical data, 

be We nena” setae aceite win hagas ge amie gr ‘fated to” 
tomate % raelie 

nie’ pana kan: hineaate. veut dust in an steasun sprey  eentbintae not?” | 
more than. 1625: -pounde of chemical per gallon failed to daitage B. roevli, — 
Sprays. conteining. 1,76-%0 2.10 pounds: of ammonium thiocyanste- ‘killed some 
| regzli stem but. failed io kill any of the bushes trestéd, Om the — 
basis of shone trials wr shee ea ent acme el _ fois a, not to by 

‘ 3 ’ + he ‘ial ie bit & 
BAA Vly Nr a eee “4 he oY 
oe Sohbede Bat ee & i aan 2 


agia aay ad aad 

sonkoban2i oud ny sion saat. sta 0 hat ee meee 

neta aided wt bd ema sexe Sel ons Bpede oF aitdieien gen gee P1> 
beblooh aaw #2 Sow et TS GiveiTse Teled s sorta sSeel Io tedeto0 eiat fttas 
imelise edt Ifa BARti ct gated oF Sehvor ed bigor toed faltes¢ a ylao tadd 
aad aq iiliw note test athe seteb saat tant is So ntael ed Sigos tadd atatoy 
s io yoativede Bay Jedi get Beintod at of teiw booterehag yllheet stom ed 
igises tags aus Aatiiw of setyeh ads yd Be toltrtanoo 2 xosdo beallaiss 
ivace to Smiv efS baa Yaomdeery to amis edi saapsed. hogtute th. gts adaaly 
sadurielb sasmtgett edgy grtwolfot gaitqe es at Leatotieg 82 gakdoeda TI 
nv Se usfob ak galteots” evowor Ti ymemiaio a te ef eee ‘ton alemius 
gieiazuaas of sidiavogul samosed Ff. qooaadent eds af saw St ag ,fLst 
qd feliie-yfiavise sent? “to wedage eAY to mere To ubiinacn ery eatevedob 
siieatgett end 

dnevetg Jor ‘ob. i eeheeae sia ah jnereditt ieee 
farsie3. 2 to, moftsmrotal bliav giiosiieg asiaisida. oott. cavroedo add 
etguvoos Hayodiin ,frémiass daiowmtiogzs to “Yoatte add anti 18.58% etried 
ets gaitqe sii af sha vf Magtiio chiamadl od fo teaswiaee ‘aidemstvesen heliateb 
sMolsesirp edd To sro 

weeds to aiiveet edd ,oveda détet doe mtoat odd dttw Sroooe se. 
‘ood et anol inves 2280 maieaibce to aot og af woled worry: ats admaltegre 
— feo bt amsit ag sgtil 

ot Belig?- (aot detmaorg - Intoxeanoo =) “oLiti ne andrea: ae bcd 
“ hbaeos +H ogame 

tox uctaigtuss cates siiobups fers nt ree inte acamaialad pe prertnss 
wiltooy dé sgnsigh ob. bollal..colleg tog Lactmede So abapog Gael neds eto 
eros beliél otensyooldd avtooans. to. abavog OL,5..04.0N,1 gotainigoo eyatge 
efi oO: Sedge’ seodend eds to yon [ftu o8 belint dod made Lfssot of . 
ad oF Tom hag ating i? CTEMS LOCI AT iets omat beanie weear tor ~— 

considered a practicable herbicide for use es a spray upon this species, 

Le Wy cording weed Killer was ey trely without damaging effect 

MPP He EB oe 


“tre Yale aia ‘ts ‘nicks defini tely Worthless when used e# a soil 
ilies to kill a Roegli or Re nevad.ens é, 
Athylene oxide killed only three plante out of » total of 86 that 

were treated with ‘this chemical, The averace quantity applied wee 
pane tnetel one ounce by OS per bust. | 

Be zt will he recalled that the experiments conducted under this 
division of the work were not expected to constitute tests of specific 
methods of eradication, as such, but were designed to explore the Zenersl : 
possibilities for eradication of Ribes by any meen whatsoever that would 
involve the application of chemicals directly to the internal paris of the 
plants, the most promiging suggestion for the development of practical’: 
methods of eradication that has thus fer arisen from this work deals with 
the application of toxic solutions or solids partly in solution in moderately | 
small quanti ties directly to thoroughly lacerated crowns and top roote of {i 
Plentes after the ‘perial parte have been cut away, In practice, the vse of 
such e treatment would” ‘probably be limited to the larger plants of the dry — 
land types, which plants ere frequently quite costly to eradicate entirely 
by hand, No ‘assurance is offered that such @ method will prove completely 
satisfactory, ‘at Andicatton: are that it has more than a fale chance’ for 
success, a , 

ied 4 Mn ‘1929 at! Clamcta.” Taaho, 

ve ‘cnevteie ‘eere iby! ‘were late out end treated with experimental |) 
f pt Clerki#, Idsho in 1929, “After they were checked in 1930, the by 
rd ated hed received five end ten per ‘cent chlorate sprays were divided 
into halves; one of “each pair of half plote was then given © second treatment | 
with the same Kind” “of solution es Was uted in 1929, “in 1931 efter the half | 
wits were again checked, ‘2 ‘repetition of the original chlorate +resteeny 
SEE. hea 4 thet eroup td half Plots ‘which ‘wes le ad ca is Tr 

‘Wier ‘the Clarkia eres wat exemined this yeer, the eet ides hae? the 
tectint eat difficulties imposed by the site had upon the resulis of the ~~ 


saatoegs aid? mogu ystGs 2 aa ear tot ablotdred eldaotioarg a detebiagoa 

jostie gaigensh twodiis clovhd mt aad wo 124 boot agatiiod Wf ud 
ebisoos od sogw 

[loe a aa beer sew sas lidcon arabes ee at ‘eteth pale ag 
- pagebaves Bh so Jfason of J1fs od tanga 

“band 08°%o fafot e to fue analy Sout? yim baler ebtxo ‘eoolyae 
gan Deliqgs ci time, exo tove ‘eat _ eleo ined | atdd Be be, hedasrd ‘ataw 
i “glad aq idglew M BOM PRD, AUD 

atid rohmr betovhaos stasuleeyxe 44) dedd So fLaoer ii a it 
oftfueee To atze? siutttamos ot hevoeuxs Joc stew Stor add to nolaky Eb 
fatenss gis otolgce of omy 2ek etee god | fers RE qiobveo! here, to abodsom 
bicnw jadd vevectiake gisen cee vt Bed ta he" votseohBare tot aelsilidtaaag 
ant to eiteq {sovedat ad’ of gifoott® aleotwaris to aokisoliqte ea avlovat 
I[gstioaxg te tusagofave> soltagggua gals imorry seo ext ,e¢agig 
dvtw einel drow sity mort meats, “st audd Bett Jedd. solvaothste ‘to shodden 
Nisdatebon af sotiulos: at’ yliag #hifes to esto fifo gixog Yo nok sotiqgs ‘edd 
to etoot god byw eowoers betwusosl ‘elvignotody oe eltoexts ashe bs rian, Ilo 
"to wae eke eabtoutg al  Siewe tus Dead eval afeay Iptves. ade tests Bomalg 
uth edi to a¢aelq tegtal eid of Batlatl ed yldadorg bow ¢nomlaszs 3 doves 
qlotiine eisoifate od yldaoo eilyp eliaerpeti ote elnalg dotdw ,seqys baal 
(levaiques avete Chae hotiow ¢ Have dane heretic af ‘eotetsséa O% .bhoed xe 
toi soaede thet @ sade wtod agit if dads ote amo tiea tbat tere “ eiotosia Has 
moe —geeeoorre 

|| igttemtraqus dite hadsend dae 290 hel ero adolg Soe Mdioae OBI 

arid ORR ai fexoero etow yout tadtaA 42ael at odabl ,whakal) te eyatge 
bobiyib eves ayangs sdatolds tues tag aed bag ovit Bevieosr bed doicy aiolg 
+ pad aos hainmee @ fev ig med? aaw etolg Bhan to rag Hose Yo! sao jaevied otat 
‘tiad edd. vedia [gel ak “ened at bsay san ee noRefos Yo°babl: ome erty “Atte 
taanigond eictelas dntiaive: el¢ Te sottieget s yhetloeds: thar athe atoly 
sOG0L al vsluecel tos Bow sranmiee me, ‘nd ri lost: ene viel heklGan bot 

eds jadd stostte adi ieee airs ‘Sektaen aee BOTS “ ghiaef0 eds sock 
add to atisees off moar bes site odd yi besoqut selifvaltiitb fgofadood 

‘Wengen ee. m Ss = EM NON Sr ele ere ene enna 
eee ere eRe Te eer pees Tere Tr ie ee wo 

experiments) “ere, even more, apparent tnen they pad been at-eny other time 
since, the; work, was, undertaken,). the site end. the conduct of the experiments 
are renerdad in the 1929, 1930 end 1931 annual Reports, 
pierre hs ng ( 
the be o chdbad telat eres. von: Dot, performed, upon the. area this 
fel i ihe, Or serrin ds, plent environmental circumstances encountered 
obs end the changes. that have occurred.due to spring freshets,.ihe 
avers. end, other, epigels, a8, pel) a& the regrowtas..of: dbrush,. would 
ak ned 60, render, the.. data, thus collected.. inacecurese, aud of ¢yubtful 
a & general, survey, of. the whole. ereg was; made, however, end it served 
Smphesize, the. following. polatet 0. 

coe a Ee “upo eet 

Pat i Y be % ey 
Oe Be any ophcome, of. ‘phe, experimen te ahice War. 
2 Beer sts 

typeof site, within, ihe.eree wes £0 
+s vis Fasder sPeeste. cf many.of, Ane.warietions in the experimental 
te RLS s t aay My completely = tga yt py 

conyS? Hone. of. ‘tbe. ctemicod ‘[Peatmente ensiiel. at, Glarkia were,.by eny .. 
neant satisfactorily effective upon bs pesiclare eroving ia certain... 
“t etions shi ch the presence of, BRHAT OURS benno pn, 
jenantne aise heavy, brush, : end. Wipdfebher.s, 2s sos 
te se Pp pergiadie 25 seco pee cyl ie 
Lh “ese facts ‘have: previously. been. ‘yeasgnised, mt ‘their, sigoifhcence 
sei tid, of present. mowledge Rareense “_— mention a tate time... 
a ab the risk. ae Agetiers, eget bas: sien Lilt Ny 
ais CLs at Be % 
to be snd, 1988 it, wes uepet: mee ioe. Cleskis reine tera would serve to 
the relative effectiveness of applying chemicals in early, mid, 
e season, The verietions in site mentioned above entirely frustrated 
of seasons for this stat t (Cam be shown. by 
beak sa Shae ae Le features of the en ai thé plots treated 
during June lay mastly at the lower end of the area, those treated in July 
at,.about .the middle of. the wmrea, while the squgust asplications were made 
om plots thet ley fer up 2 side branch of the creek at the extreme upper 
end of the area, Large local variation within each of these blocks does 
exist; nevertheless, if ench block be.considere’d at a unit, it is possible 
to recognize three types of site each so different from the ovhers thet 
even if, efficiency of crew. methods and season of application hed ceen tue 
sane. throughout,..lange differences im response to treataent might 
ressonably be expected to appear between the three blocks, resent 
knowledge indigates. that, the mmgnitude end direction of these differences 
in results would tend to duplicate those actually observed on the plots, 
The exact magn tudes of these influences are, however, not knom and it is 
consequently impossible to use the Clarkia experimeni® as a basis for ts 
conelusions, upon the relation the season. of epplicetion sears to the result 
of chemical treatment, 


std tendvo “ne fe need bad yes) wadd Sostsega eron ‘fieva otow ei aomiteqxs 
esmeuitegzo sid to Joubaoo edi baa site off  netigtrebou aew stow efi sonte 
eedioceh Iennom €el boe OFHl ,Gael eds al hobtoos OTB 

$I ote9% ata gots odd moqu beartotseg Jon Baw soeds bellsvas 4 
herotavesms seoosdemrorio [atsemnctives dust of semetixe ont ‘tadt tfo% “aaw 
eid ,@tedaorl galige of ovh beriwoco ovad ¢add sognedo oft bag atolg edd ao 

BLeow ,Jauid to ddwotyet od! ea ilew an alamkag +9dt0 bmx etevaed to stow 

{etideoe to bas evsiwaoeat Setoelioa andd sigh ads tebaet od. Seatdmos sve 
feviee if bas ,tevewod ,shad saw gets elode ‘ods to yevine Len 9 3 Sue 
Caintog yrtwolfot edt exfasdene 3iotie 6 

“ent af 
08 ag¥ gots ons niddiw efte to sqyd af ‘nolttaliey gral edt Ye hesrsx 
fajasmiaeqse odd af apotisitey eit ‘to yaar to aiostts ed} rebser of 3a ‘Fasts 
,eldastoacoe tat vate lana. aay ioameda Ai gentaens | 

aaw dolce aimemiiegks edd to éucndiro adi aoqy ‘soustiftat 

Sap 4 

Yas yd exe8 adsalo +s bellaga | Sigemiget? Iaaimedo eft to anok o& 
siadiea af yaisory ¢ nk BOGS ovijaette Uttolastatisa 
stab Asveed agoteass to 9909499 add rch beaitodserasa | Sis msn 

ae ak _athigthaty bas .dacrd qwaad yiev ,teler gatamot ie 

somsattiayte ated dud box Lasoo: mead ylegctverg. etal adast “428 
madd aldd ia Aeliasm aostaaat eigettaW pghelwom dneastg , Yo 4. git * 
eS aa , 6 i remohdt tne, pains, ae) eat hy 

od oviss blue ag ls ah My abenih aiid, dedi bagod eax “Wk. eset ai Sy int leat 
, ~blm .yiazeo al alaclimeds gatylage to eaeaert toatte ‘ovids, <4 om Feglg 
besaudaypri, yleovidus, evade, hosos trem. otie mk amolisizay ont ORB? sial Bas 
(o/ Md sede 6 Aao,demedas ald 19% saoases eds to ‘smoe stoginy 8. 
bosacts, adolg Bai. saiapattegze edt to setyisst aheite9 paleavoath yiteitd 
quiet af beiser? esont ,aeta edi to Soe iawol edd ja yldsom yol Bast ge tinh: 
gham oteow anotiaolilage targa edd oltdvy .aete odd to elbatm of? foods. "ts 
teqqy suetixe od jg aeet® edd to denetd shlx 6 qe. tat. Nol, sada pig's a0 
each axoold eaeat to Heas allSiw sob¥atray feo0r Sgt” oss ‘ef? to brie 
eidtasog ai Ji ,tlay a ae, botebiagos sd deeld dase if ,saelediteves italxe 
éadd atedso edg moth iaetstiis o% done otis to “eaays eed | mg0geT oF 
oii weed hed solisollegs to coaaea bag abosiom wer, to. atoftts tt neve , 
idyio Josnigeyd.od sangqset mi aeanetatitb ogt atuodgy pas oma 8 
: Jraasi .s@ia0ld se7ds af ceeuded 1asgga ot batoegas od videsoasex 
aeoseTetiibh aotdogtib baa ehui lagen. edd tadd. eelnathal « ole om 
ebiolg ods me beviscdo yllauias goad sdgoilqub. cd. bast blyow ailvess at 
ei dt boa awomi dom ,tavewod ,ste aeoaenital ‘ened? to. asbuiliyam dogxe eit 
Tol elagd & as aigomitegxe sista ld eds ead od aldieaogm | ct 1 ein 
dlveet acd,o% otaed apddaoilags to gases edd, paohiates, add ANT anolentasoo 
eimendsets Iad ime Yo 


$2 © > he second point refers particularly to the upper bleck of plots 
wentioned mga —_ _ nor-greael wal even ow importance than the first, 
“the ree aa it fed ut Yate to seaphukal eradicate or, on 
the basis of the’ 1932 abservations, to apparently even seriously damage 
Ry petiolere plents growing on the upper block of plots cannot be 
‘pttributed ‘to inexpert ‘treatment, since se number of the plote were caree 
fully Sprayed twice (in different years) with the most promising chemicel 
solutions, © These plotd were trested Pate in each of the seasons, wont thie 
Yact could st ‘the most account for only # susll part of the failure, since 
singte trentmente ‘with the spme chemicels spplied equally late elsewhere 
Have een much more effective, Other fectore the those now recognised 
“vebir a thate of the responsibility for the failure, but 4% seems certain 
¢ the major POPE ont of ‘the lame for the lack of success must be- 

pte te the | type | ‘of ite Pepteren ted cabal 

The plo ® in the upper block lie atitis the stream in « narrow 
canya They are covered ‘for ‘thé most ‘part ‘with denté nigh ‘brush ‘and are 
oR Swampy | ground” dich 6f Wich YS wmder stdnding or runing weter throvghout 
the summer,  Tuimerous teaver dams add dceastonal windfalls are largely 
es espon ible for. Reepitg the ‘Yand> ‘éontinual ty flooded. Thése same general 
Reeatey ons” “elso_ obtain ‘tn lesser aégrée om some ‘of the lower plots, but 
es are by no sear ae Widespread or e@ severe there se they are upon 

= upper ‘block, Definite plang ‘have not yet péen laid, “but when the area 
ed this year it wat quite apparent thats ‘Sud uTy afferent 

te of watiack, ‘than eny ‘thus far eaployed must be adopted if chemtcals are 
ve pabenmmegens fully. used for the eradication of Be petiolare growing ‘upon 

imilar.s BR BLbCR, 

ih | tinct erate 1 is.a4 Bummary of the experimental chemical spplicetions | ii ait 
le. weet ob PME ity Bt eae E are in the wenatchee and Snoquelate National 

pri py ois west, of  Healan were employed in performing the 
ai rege, beviered in the table. “The kinde of treatment tried were: 

apr (2). surface drench, (3) Bpray end surface drench, (4) subsurface 
Aty BP teh crown drench and (6) injection, 

ie “With the. exception of those trigle in which the chemicals were 
lied. by, injection into the bodies of the plants, the crown drenches 
-#nd. those in which ethylene oxide was used, none of the experiments reported 
“dn the table involved selective treatment to individual Ribes plents or to 
Ribes plante only. Grest care wat taken tc treat each plot uniformly over 

esolg to soold sweagqu edt od yYitelvolttag steter #nfoy Baooss ‘edt © LaqZe 
staorlt ead aiid ae dy teen nave "ks besa ef — bon time 

ao ,to sigoltbate elosateuin “ wristta’t peep ‘antlinssa ot 
esciah yleroivee nave Yltoetagde oF ,esotiaviedds SSCL ent to ahead net 
ad Joatss siolq to Asold teqqy sit a0 gatworg oi malg ot 
“sind siew atolg ead Yo sedate odate ,imeutastyY Preqxeat of betudPsssa 
Inciow do yateluotd Jom edd déiw (#tasy Sinserg'¥ 15 mt) sates ‘ps ystad yfiat 
atdt dud ,anoesea 92 ‘to ose at ofall Bedaotd etew edolg eaedt™ “eahottstor 
eonte ,exslist edé¢ to drag fama a ylao tot Yauooos “Feat add ds bhvog | ‘Yount 
etedweale etal ullaups beilqgd efsotuocd> sree edi div etnemteert efguty 
besiagooet wom erons madd arosoal t9a30 svisosTie s10m opm assed. svad 

||| | stadvoo amoee $F dud ote T fat eat rot Geil id teaoques ens YO etteds 3 tab | 
a ry 

od veum @aesnus “to doaf siv 40% emsfd sdf to Ho Hog token: odd 
— betnsaetqet sits 0 sae BAL ot hedud Inia 

wotran 4 wt meotsa edi grate etf sloeld teqge ed? af esolg aft 
era baw, decid gin eeseh ad tw digy Seon eit to¥ fetevis ote YodT © «tO YsIBS 
jrodgcotid +etew gatamer ty yatbuete cepae et dette to Howe bmyoty ygmewes mo. 
giegtsl em SListhaly fenotagovo bos ereb vovaed svoteaud ~,teamra ens 
leveneg ange gaat .beboolt yiavatiaso nat’ ett gefgesd tot old tenoceed 
sud ,stolg tewol adv to owos ac se1g9b teeeel at aladde cals anoldé Lbaoo 
| Moi. BES “yede ae stedd eTeves Bs te basiqeebiw aa sheen Ga” Ye $13 qeds 
sete ods maie dod ,biet seed dey dow evel eagle ed tarted © aoole req edd 
sdosr9itib yllavlber a dedi Iasieqge 0d typ saw ¥T Yas ¢ ‘efit betrimaxs aew’ 
ova algolmeds tt besgoba ad damm boyolgms tat eudd yg andi dontis to shom 
aogy aakwons erabolied i te: oan apthare ode: rot ave ylinteadoocre ad of 
is 2 Beenhy Bifig 2 

-modaaieasl c!. aéaem: rie ye Fy 

i anoktgeatiqas: Yonlioah pe Sa toed eds! - exundare® a e £ ou otskee? ; EL: 
: Aaxatiot oe bag sethingeenee ads ae stead or eit? eo it gh? dear: pbesr 
RAF | td botot 

ada aireatian: oh he okie: Stew. ‘saimabaekt? to abotion vidas eo eM 

tsua" befits togudeets to ebala eft /.eldat ods af hewetvet. erent 
eogtavecue to) ivseth eogtrse fas qsrqa (8) ,somets soatise 48) jwarge (LP 
genes el (8) fas be gored anes 48), peresosk 

orga alealinds. edt dotsde: inh ale lis ‘eoudd: t6° ahltqinié id re 

| edaneth sworocwds , ai male edt to -eagibed eda at at Het ioe tie yd betniqa 
||| || Se¢eeqet tiaomivegse aii to enen deat eew 6hhto onefydis askew at etedi bas” 
1 et te at@aely eed th Laubivibat ot Iaesitget? sv iios ies ‘hav Lowat oldad sat at’ 
tivo ylezsi tas sekg doas dgets of (need One rao dats “Ye lae’ giaalq ‘eedhe- 


_its entire area ana for wai: ‘reason with the exception of the exper iments 
De noted above, the figures given representing. the quantity of chemice! used 
per jacre may be considered tq ‘Breyratery: p< baa dosage per ott aT Cas, 
| | “The. work: “performed | aa ‘ochialgion ‘chaartdy concerned &. inerue 
| Plot Ngan | ‘except where: otherwise specified % the: remerke ‘hat soliton will be 
"Understood to ‘refer to-thet-epectes;— vaserdscnees che 


————_—a_eaaYGKYQYKYYT ay sa 


rma a rer peas beet of - the effect) venene-of setarals cheateals, Wiese experin- a 
ie gnts Seem £61 ule: fut farth: iF consideration $f uiic sulphate end ethylene = | 
IIA 0-, oxide, Had ethy oxide been xbplded evenly to the. whdle prea of the plot. 

OS ere eile _than teltetivela..te.dh.. S Only. 80 that. the figures for the. 
larzp een yr used Fouls have’ béen Gomparable. to. those for the other chemi¢als, 
srs. -the amovitt- ntopoesy for treatwent wodld have been ebdmuonss. The paste, 
lip o..Qf She vest ‘algo Tenover 0 DHE} r complex from forter a i a 

zal “potsen for ‘Streew “type bee ened tenttody 

[xa Atle ——-Soray__|__saol___4e ee eon Be aie mee) 
|XIIB, . 32. 66 Spray 213). 17 ae 128) | 
godt dichromeyery ielded Jlenurbeat a reer one. yu ares fo but: the: 


Reelin oe Wieeiaet eEed: telavively: darger than ihat agplied ta. the. 

[Pa atts periments -ehé:dé impadersocortein thavhad. the seme quanti by: of on oo 

—_ fe oF aman tiem, thisdyanste been, aged,..better, results: would, § pave.. 
been..obtetaed,, The salthiof heavy metals in,general Have. eonsietenshy. oon 

lve. 33 


i {VA OW, ae 

i nae poisons against sireat type y Kibes, They do, “however, offer ome ‘promise: 

| lan of help in certain other dastences which aré disdisted elsewhere, see “| 
fe “paragtaptil relating to upiend type “Hibts in’ “Recdmiendetion® concerning field ff 
“!stodtes t6 be undertaken during 1993", Part 1, Seetion @; and peragrapas 

pa -beleting tod. viscesissiuua end kh. roezii in “#ield recomuendations for: «1 

the chemise] apperessing. of ni vey. -ond. barberry", #art ili of, this report, 

L1Yh 0-64 * | =z do ___ 1100 | 
| ecpegtnmtnnmionel ‘ofl. ‘Veedinents were fairly effective, it should be 
| BE Be: ever, thet the site of these particular ireatments wat drier». 


11¢ aac: there upon weich By -imerue : generally establishes iiself, This fact 

ee ow out doubt contributed much to the degree of suctess that was attained, 

aa “tetals ¢ ‘onaueted elseWiers: havine previdusly Showk that Diesel oil is of 

| Dene ieseorery ‘gpplied’to HK. interne growing upon wet sites, shen ihe 

| | ~-ortgingl cost, trensportetion difficulties, sand restricted field of 

|  o.cappbgabila sy of oils reconsidered, it is readily,,c@en toei they cannot 
uo-. hold sem: importent place instream type eradication, 

LIT. 70-1.0. * i 

| *Dwo-thirds of er smmon tum thiocyanate, and sodium chlorate either alone oF a8 

oo "ne Vac ide, were the two most satisfactory chemicals used, The 1931 experiments 

| sons] RQ Wot of themselves furnish adequate basis for comparison of the 

effectiveness of these chemicals, The most that can be said upon this point 


“poor reaplte ‘ener uheg- heave bees peed. either ws Sprays or ‘soil. a3 i 

tise fraqze eAf to Reis geoxs ods dd iw: m6Raer ais sobcbng sett etivas aif 
Bey faotaeis 10 Yditesnp edd galseyectget devig setegit advo jevods sbedor 
~sets ting i9q¢ sgatob Inetotget Yledatyooa of bere bianco od Yam etds Tog 

Saven? .& beatessoe el hiaaitq Bosgel dagh: mk bemtotteg Atoe @dfs tens oss 
o¢ “iliw wellet fgnd alltanss ode: dDeftioege estexedie evede.igqegae dae 
p oh 2g ,2efoeg2 gedsing a82et oF Boose tohay 

-freqxa 63083 jalsotsecs Istevsa te/asenevisgoetio eld to. 389d.8 Beso frotox 
dito fiydis baa etadgive sais is sotigteblanoo sedaxet éa0 elt od meer ai gem 
sole’ sd0°ts sete eloduveds of yinevd bobiqqs aeed abixe omelydes bab . sshlxo 
$s 10d eptmattoeds sads 0a), ¢lao-gpteah, of. ed eoeviiseles ssdt teciat 
jsiacimeds tédéo sdd-rot e2edd of eidetagmes. pad aved. biyow beay yditagyp 
eifrewt amt: yaccaoce osed ovad blqow,dmeatapte.tol  yraecened, teyoma edi 
@ an NXoldatablasoo rwedésed wove zolquos xvegqoo eyouetosls adees Dc Fh 
wotiesthbaxe eedid egyd agerde tot meetog Itoe 

ect dod -eomadant eno. al ejlumet thet hoblely stamotinkh authos |. 
oe) af batloge sada sedi tegiel yleviveles eaw boay Igolaeto to Gi itaayp 
‘to yei¢neyp emse ocd bad dodd atadtos. otasgga, st bmn. aipemisaqes teito 
avid bigeow sciueoutes jed:.9088 teed olaneyooidl aylazquma 10 asatotde autboe 
qlineseieaca oved Levene uh siadom, qvacd, to, efor eat. abealeido need 
Lips to aystt® aa toddie. boa. apod, vad youd, nade atlveor toog beds tatty 

o - 

satmorg omoe soko ,zevewod ,oh. yoo, «sedii ogyt maotia Janings enowtoc 
pee. yetetuoele, beesuosth eta doldw egonaisat redio aisizea af gfei to 
bist? gulmmesnco, emoitsbasamooes”. al eodtn sayt Aualqy of gofisior ‘@tigatsatag 
naigatsecen, bam 22 sotsoed..4.s10%, "Gel gaultub tesedtebar sd ot eethuie 
sot atolisbaeuroaes blelt" of tfssot .4 bas sumfeatrosaty J od gatisiet 
ettoget aidd to Lil tue ,"yrtedted Sag aadii to sofesescate [sotmerfo edt 

ad biuoda di .évitestte vlatat stew atnedtaet? [to-feveid- ot 1 SDE gts 
| .teltb asu aideadgs'tt seluotitog saend to etka ads Jad? ,toverad ,hetedmeres 
- goat at@l .«tieail sedsildasan yliewne, surest 2 dolde ‘gods asedt sedt 
boatatéis aaw Jadd esesova to aoxgeb edi of dom betudicinco ddvobh srodtiw 
tc et Ito feeeti tadé swore ylevotverq gaived etedesale betunbass efatx 
edi, wedi... .sadts ter oogu golwots sagem of at hatlgga sade gar oljaif 
te bie!% Sotainiaas baa ,zqiifvoli tis agtsadsogadati ,aoo Iaatgtro 
 donnaa yess Jani apes ylihaet at tf fewekiagco etm sfio to qs tiidad Hage 
| " ettolieothara aq if udords mt eselg sastrogmt “gs Bho 

HH as to anole sce te eigtolde mythos baa .signeyooids mutnoums 
i s¢oamivagas.teel ef  sheex sleoimedo. yrofoatetiae j3da ows @d? stow ,eblos {sn 
1 ee at te coatvagmes tot. atasd eisgrebs ‘Aetirst asefosmed? To som ob 
Ill @etoq afad aogu biae 9d cas fadt Jaom eat | “afa0habad Seed? to eubsaviioette 


aan aE Sea ee ee ee ieee alae ie os ae ee 
| ESSE — | Num 
Gallons|Pounds | Gallons| Pounds Number | | ber 
of of of of Feet of Feet lof 
Solu- | Chem- | Solu- | Chem- of Per |Ribes | Per | of Ribes 
tion ical tion ical Ribes | Cent |Bush- | Cent | Ribes | Bush- 
Avplied| Applied] Applied] Applied Ribes Stem of es of Stem tee 
Method of Per Per Per Species |Treat-| Stem |Treat-|Bushes) Per Per 
Plot Number Chemical Cent| Gallon Application Acre Acre Acre Treated |ed Killed| ed |Killed| Acre |Acre 
sa ———————— ———— — = ee ee ———SS 
een Neca ain aie ann (am! ee i ieee rah ss | 
TA 0-.33 ___Spreay_____ |. __ _ 560. - 37 _37__| 0.0 | 277,060] 1, 480 
TA_, 33, 60 do as : O_1132,073) 1,612 
IA , 60-,94 _ eS ee —20,0 43,400] _ 776 
Ta .94-1.0 85.0 33,248 272) 
IIa 0-, 57 do 94, | 2,032 84 
IIC (E.66-.90 | 
__(W. 71-, 90 do 5 4 ace Drench 51,5] 26 | 19,6 | 325,03411,632 
KIIB . 25-.49 do 5 42 Drench : ¢ 7.524] 34,0! 40 | 12,5 | 413,820] 2,200 
XIV 0-.40 4 do [2,955] ( 660 | R - 8.01 68 | 20.6 71] 2,244] 
XID 00.25 eat a5 5 0501 24-0! 6 el 
gi 42 Spray 75.0] a1 3.2 |102,432|1,364 
IIB_0-, 20 do 5 az o| 0,0 | 6,600] 220 
eS 50.0/. 8 | 12.5 | 10,915] 285) 
IIA ,57-,94 Atlacide Q 96,2 5 80,0 1,486 78 
xm, vse] 38 | 
1 do 0 

Q-, 3: onpe omple 
Atlacide ea . 84 
30) 60 od m hiorate 5 A: 
66 oppe omple 
[VA 0-33 | : 

______ do 0 i | 2,010] 2,395 | 2,010 |R, dnerme 
- Subsurface R. inerme 
XIIIA 0- do 4 Drench 4,790 Q10| 4,790 | 2,010 |R. pe 9 
| Suosurface | 
XIIIA , 59-. 75) Copper Compl 5 | 42 Drench 10,650} 4,450,10,65 4,430 |R. 
Copper Complex- j i | 
VIIAB O -1,0 yeerine Peste Injection |. 3.4) Ri s 
Copper Complex- \ | ! | 
VIA Q -1.0 lycerine Paste 4 : 6.8 | R. lacustre 80 
| } 
IVa .54 0 Diesel 0 rface Drench 1,574 74 R h=rme 
Spray 547 
ace Drench 3 oe 834 5 parme Q 
Subsurface ae 
ae Drench — 794 944 754 944 |R. inerme 1,595 2 22 18, 2 |150,277) 2,074 
odium Chlorate) _§£ es eee _----{- 45690. 4970] 4,690_ 14970_|R, iperme _|_1,426| 24,7] 20 | 5.0 112),79511,7G8 
Dichromate Spray 509 426 
(WBZ. Surface Drench | 1,530} 1.258) 2.039_ 714_ B.tnerme..|_4.778| 94.81 _35.{ 2a2. 270 29 
TIC (2, 64-. 66 Spray 843] 2,785 : 
_(W, 61-,71|______ do face Drenc Ie} 475|_ 3,628 | 4,530 C) __| 2.9821 28, 8{__?1__| 62,0} 1. 00 
| Drench ___|__ 7,895) 3,315) 7,895 | 3,715 |R, inerme |. W.R.] 0,0] NW, RB.J 0,0] 5. R,_ 


ee Lae Pes _____|R. bracteosum| N, R.| 75,0] WN. R.| 5,0 | wR P 
Co aaa eee i ut 

217} 14135 | __47 ctcosuml W, R| 12,01 N. Rt 30} N, RIO 
__sa2l 370 1.323 | 74 we! 701 yp! ool malty 

"Two-thirds of area in plot treated. Figures given for quantities per unit area calculated on basis of area actually treated. 
N.R. No record. 

Annual Report 19342 
G. R. Van Atta 


¢) ® 

is that ajonon tim, tifocyanate’ is less effective than sodium chloréte then” 
used ab’ on aqueous” Spray of low concentration applied to the aerial parte" ‘ 
of the er: Whe retuli® obthined with aumonium thiccyenate applied 

as @ subsurface drench were somewhat encouraging, but the experinents 
pone i iP rete MD. veut. Ahe two chemicals in this manner dale 

smtage atte ‘of ‘the action of ¥everel ch aukeaiie wae tree one of ‘the 

ime of the wale ‘Performed in 1951, “The experinent# amet bled ‘be regurded 
ws ‘eliminary Steps Yin the investigation of the relztive merits of the — 

bo ay 

Several wethods of applicstion previously enumerated as well se sttempte: 

‘to es ' at tablish 4 dosage ‘limits that vould ye used we’ guides for future’ work,” 
Mae, reason that the conclusions drew from the 1931 work must for 
‘, a ‘ve ‘Boméwhat ‘Mndefinite end general in nature is to be foinid © 
tet the T arge rumber of Variables tnyolved in the program by réason of the 
‘facts reentionéd ‘an the foregoing paragraph, ‘The following example {¢ given 
‘p® ett illustratfon of the requirements that aultiple variables impose upon 
on experimental hig lp in order to test and compare the action of only 
two chemicals vipon K. wien Weed according to three tetucds end in 
‘tee dode, ed At would Hecessury to perform ut least’ ‘8 fetr sized” | 
“experiments ‘upon’ jae are ae Bite, “ff tte wamber of methods to be tested 
is four instead _ of Biron pt keast « experiments would be necessary instead 
of oh lhe if bate ty réquirenments are only partterly ‘wet, the results. of. ‘tite 

+ eis will 8 “heceedi ty Ve tnconetistre, en ' ee, ees 

mt 2 ‘b . Raita Yon! ‘of saasaninty: ‘definite: “ayedaanl ee the 
Bias dosege of any widely applicable chemical necessary to the perfect 
eredication of g. ‘In growing * ‘on one type 6f site would ve ‘equivalent 
“to ‘the “establidhdent of ‘» standard df reference which would very materially 
‘gimplify ond a¢sist future’ -edperimentel ‘programe, “Canite the 19s) work “did 
‘ot ‘fernish sudl a’standard it st Teast brought out the fact thet for the 
eradication of Re inerae: ‘growing Wygod “the perticular’ type of eite concerned 
“da these experitedts, the @inion ‘doseage: ‘Of ‘either “antonius thiocyanate or 
dodivm'éhlorate 46 greater than 2,500 pounds per Brey ‘Subsequent to the 
Aggl field season end before ‘enécking the experiments ‘tn 1982, ant “indirect 
‘methéd of ‘caledlabion ‘was @evised by Wnich ‘the winfmun dosage 6f “godt? 
‘enlorate réquired for perfect ‘epedi¢etion Of 3. inerte wat ‘caleulated to be 
‘approximately 3,500 ‘pounds: per ‘sere upow the ‘basis of Complete coverages 
Tt/is Hardly necessary te point ovt thet this figure 12 ‘not ‘meant to" 
‘vepresént the quantity of cHemidal that mist be teed per acre in ordinary 
iépudfeatiion but rather thet %t f# an estimate of the quantity ‘needed ‘to 
‘¢peat en adre of ground complétely covered with B. Iermé, “Ihe Gate “upon” 
which: “the calculation ‘wae Dased included ‘%hése telkeen from all whe experiments | 
“‘pecorded Oriled tp - to ‘that’ date bl watch sodium chidrsve ‘was see) ‘te Wy Anerdie | 

Gitar.y 4% ie ae We ee hs 

aes 8 enh 

Fis 2 ba) tate: ase ee ae 4: ee 
Se treats ed 1% vey |) bs Sie, PAS Pee Ob ee ee «ae 

2265 i 


serv stutolds awiboe oad’ evisostts a2ef af sianaysctds mutoomme tadd al 
adtag Isites edi of botigags aokiatsasonoo wol to yatg2e eroeypa ae 2a boas 
beliqgus edansysolds auvtnomus déiw boalssdo asiueet edt ,adastq edt to 
gineuiteqzes sat Jud ,antaatyooses Jadwemoe stew doneth eosatruadya gs 2s 

to tenagm efdd al el{goimeds ows acid dsad of stavpebs mott tsi etew 


edd to ano (lao 2ew algotmeaco L[atoves to molsos sit to soaltsqmod 
bebrasgot ed oals Jamm sinsatisgqxs oft leet ai bawtoiteq grow edt to sats 
git to adivem eviigler eft Yo mottagiseevat sii at egetea yisatmifetg as 
atomeits 3¢ flew as beleraacns ylevoivetg aolfiacti[qge2 to ehodtem Ia1rsv92 
etzow stusut tot aeabina aa beeu ed blyoo tadd asint{ egasob datidaies od 

“ot jeum arow [éef edd mott awatb anotevlonos on3 Said noaget ect 
Borot ad of sf otrtan at Latemeyg basa sitaitebat Jsdwemos ed diaq Jaom eds 
add to moasey yd matgorg edd af bevfovat seldatiay to tedmen eatal edd at 
wevis #t slamsxe gutwolict eft .fgstastag gatogetot edd af henoltiaem esont 
aoay esoqmf aeiisitay sighilus jadd efaemertignes edd to moliatiansili ag eas 
yiso to soljos oJ sisqmos Dus ised of tobto al ametgotg I[gt¢momiteqxe ne 
ot bug sbodgex setid of anthtosoq beey nedw suwtgnt of moqy alsoimeno owd 
beafa vist@ vaael Js artotteg of yreseeosn ed blyow sf ,89gs80b setds 
besess od of #bcajen to sedagn sdt tl ,yedte to egyt dose mogy etaoemlisqxe 
bseveal yrteseessa sd Sivow ainemiteqxe #& teset ja ,astid to bastant ayot ef 
edd to aslvaet edd tem yfistiasg yfluo ere atmemetiupes seedt tl .8f to 
wviaslonooal sad yttsaeosen to [Liw alates 

ais .cloxrson0o epbelwond eiintteb yldsnoaset to aolstafupoa 
dJostusq sili of creassceq [goltmeds s{dsotiogs ylebtw yas to exyse0b muminin 
tasleviops ed blyow edits to agysd eno ao gatwortg smtent .f§f to aoltigotbate 
“ilsiteism ytov bileow doldw esonetotet to bigbasda a to tasmdsifdetes edd of 
bib swrow [gel sod olla stmaryotq Iataomitegxe otustwt tetasg bne yitiqnte 
eadé tot dand gost ect duo teguotd Janel ga sf btsbasia a dove defeist Jon 
Semtesaoo sila to eqgys taluolixsg ent mogy gatwoty satan! of to aoltiaolbdate 
to ¢iaasyootds wrincuma tedits to eaasgo0b auminin ods ,asoomivegxe sacdd at 
edd of Jmeupesdye e198 t2eq sbhareg 006,48 aadt veteota et statolido mulbos 
Sostibat ag ,Séel at @tnoutreqne ed gatdosdo evoted baa noagsa bloftt Léel 
msibos to sxas0h muminatu add doide yd beetveb eaw aoliafwolso to hoddom 
ad of betalusics sew gasent of to actisotbats doetreq tot betispet esdatoldo 
seBotevod eisiguos to efesd et sogge etog taq ebavog 908,8 ylotamixorqgs 
od gagem dom @f ovwgit atdd ¢adt tuo Jateoq of yrsseesen ylbred af si 
yzanibte af eros teg bear sd saom jadi (golmedo to yilinaup ont Snenetget 
ot bobeed yilinaauy sid to etegties as at 32 sands tediat Jud mottaoltbate 
mogs atab edT reat ~ diiw berevoo p[eteIgmoo hayotg to estos ma taets 

| &taawitagxe sii Lia moti asdet saodt hebulont beaad sew aoliniuolas odd dotdw 
aageat wi od botigga eaw atetotdo mythoe dotdw af eish tedt o3 qu bebrose+ 

as well as some special information collected during the 1941 field season, 
At tae tte the” ‘es tthe sf is only a very rough pale and it now appéars 

Ge That, tigre given n may be too low, 

poe val hays yt method wat the only type of treatment etiployed thet. 
: nitely wneuiteble for stream type or thicket Biber” 

Miudte att, Re ‘ 
seat o mahy reasons why this method camnot bé used te 
tage in Shr a but the following one is considered sufficient to 

pn 9 the sate " ofa leet far greater time is spent upon each thicket 
pe y to accomplish complete Ribes eradication by hand, it 

imp sible . to treat all or even nearly all of the individual 
eket and thus the primary reason for using cheuicals rather 

en 4 F Le ‘plone. is. defented. 

om his * Eg surface pha surface Grenches a6 well as combinations of sprays 
m3 drencheg, seem to have some merits but require more rigid test, Crom 
new te tat ng 18 arg A modification of the ‘surface drench method end is hot 
new to 
O : 

0. this nate Pat Re eR Ae denz Ss 

the eondd page asia of the’ 1931 program ao not pein ging beyond these 

general toneiusicns ng methods of treatment for the sasie reasons that 
vere meitioned in the’ . ecusst n of ‘chemicals, id: ; 
megan, & zai goe Howe ge = hs eo ie eS ae es 

 cee8t Wie few trial# of salen ci wadepanace apps to R. petiolare 
yar seem to indicate that this chewicel is inferior to sodium chlorate 

at’ an“herbitide upon that species, but final judgment should be withheld 
eas?! the reavlte oF nore extensive trials: are available, 

mre) ye ay fr he 
the figures in table Hoe 1 illustrate the apparent iack of 
tionship ‘petween the stew kill and the bush kil] achieved by chemical” 
aaa "this Yaet Was often before been remarked, tut seldom have the 
periaentel a. 80. well illustrated the point, On plot iA 60.94, 
90 eit of . ttem existing at the title of treatment was 
Lie Piste @ single bush @ied from the effects of the chemical, 
‘: nae e OK was checked in the ‘spring of 1932, if one were te 
2 pa Met igh percentage of siem killed, it would have been cary 
to cone x fh the treatment hed been feirly succestful, By midsuswer, 
Rarerers ie profuse regeneration bad taken piace that hardly any evidence 
e. dam , the chemical wes apparent to. casual ‘observation, A 
state. of affairs than that mentioned above existed on plot 
eT arnde. cent of the stem end “64 3 per cent of the bushes. 
J re é of Summer the appearance of the plot had not 
en, "ince the spring check, Soil drenching seems to afford 
A slightly et rrelation between stem and bush kill then does spraying, 

a cer proves and of doubtful significance et the present time, 
t is oa 7 

re rwnsafe to base conclusions gonceraing effectiveness 
met woon figures representing stem kill only. 


stoagee ABleti Seel end yalavh, beotgsllos, nol isartoiat fatpsqs_ goose as Ifow as 
sigegga won 4{ Dan soligmixotqgs davox yrsy a, chao 2° ejantiag adj wiaed 7A 
8.0L, 008 40 Yain pay ts. ought od? gas 

tedi bowsiqas simasaotd to 9< gt, yiso ‘as Raw Bose ae, qolfostat edt aR 
agdia sesioirig to aged maotsa _ aldad Luss ylaitniteb od of ‘tfeait havorg 
of heey ed Jonnso bositen atdd ydw Sactset Yash ots siedt “,nofigs Bars 

of taalo fitws haceh nnen a? eso gatwoilos edd dud. atom dove ot egedasvbs 
ipagids dose mogy ¢oaga b+ elt tedaotg tat asalal. statog. edd avati agit t 

dt basa yd ackisothets ,aedia eselquog dallqugnca od Yrestesen sd bisow, «eds 
Laubtyil ext odd to tis <lieen oave x0 [le daetd of oldtesogul viiae nV. at 
aotiies elgsinedo .gatey toh cucast vrenitg of3, aud bog deaotcd edd af . ainala 
ebed: ae te} al ‘endia nodal baad ‘nade 

ayaigs to aielianidmos ag (lew ge aadioneth agatwa bag, ‘gastroadua es 
i Sints atom extuget dud etkvax axes avad qi m9a8 ssdoneth bas 
uiten daseth ¢aattve odd to noligottibon « ylorem.s! galdogesb 
aXtQu Bist of wes 

BOG. aon" & 
ie ‘4 

eG Si 2as 

eagns Saoyed gulga é in 

mtsq tomo mergers (sel agd to a2 luge ‘eat, 
dads “doraeey SOR A VRS toe 

Sudeetsi to shodiex ahthta ge ang teufonoa. ‘toroges 
etisoteeds to aoleeune ib eof ah, eur aem. ete" 


apadotieg ..o8 be liggas @ieaayoo tid mut moms AQ. algint wot “acit. 
sietoldo myfbor of totretat af tasiueda. aida dasd eigothal. od, i893  Laew 
bleddijtw sd bivoda coomghuy, faatt tod s2eiosge dass nog ehtotdted as an 

seidad tous ota: aiets? eataneiae eayou to, asiveer odd (iting 

te, aise $a91aG5 Tare sian ects Leak; glial ah ‘qotwgit. ‘oat, 

isgaliwede “a beveidos ILbd gaud.ecs.. doe ILbiwoss edd gaenied -. qidenoktalen 
ci eas} wobies dz¢, Ssidtemes god. e19%90.. aed te agai doa aleZ.. vi aed SOT 
«7060.41 4049.80  -cthoe odd bodatianwili Llen..os satuait Lad aewiteg%s 
rind tgsuiset).to,omkt.adi ia gatiaize tesa otroml of gMF 10,3 a99 19qg)/H8 
siasiasds 943, 30 eioetie ous moti, beth save elgnts = tea dgvediia, beoliti 
. od sew eo tt ,Geel to agiage ole af bedeoso agw, Joly. edd.emdtpetaoda 
Ysen. seed ovyad: bivow, dé. ,balLiX.ewts. io egal seareq datdpadi.xd, lee sabsi, 
atoacsnebia yi .«luteaesevs yitigt mod hed Jaendae dead dads, chylongo,ef 
eogeblve gan ylbugs dedt.eosig aoded. bed aol danegeget seuiorg dows, ,tevewon 
A siiniisvse2do, laves>.o¢ Japiagqga sav. i griaedg. add. wi oaob, sgamsby: edd, lo 
Jolgq so. besetxs syeds. beaciiges Jady ands, siletia te.eied2.taeteti ib: yrev 
aodaud ods le inea.. tag $0.boa mete, es ie:daaa tag 0G Otel, « ChyeQ, a. faxX 
jom Ban dolg odd to gongxsegqe ond albila eds ya. ebolild:ourew 
Stetka.os.amgo2 galdometh [hoe -doeds gufiga adi coniz. eldatoerqga.begaeds 

eaatyetgs ee0b agcé Lf bi dawd.bagsmads seewied,.cotialonis9.retied yitidglia,a 
ld Sagaerg ods ba aganoiliagha fwtédyob to,baa bevergay 2 Jatog. ads dud 
enoxevitostts yatareoncs eaoteanfonoo eaad of stazay ylematixe ef sf! ylraeld 
sjimo {fff weve antineserget aotegit sogue tnemtsets To 

hor Mekh A oebt fe tot always practical to present all of the data nocetaary 
- ote the ‘correct evaluation of “experimental re@ulte in concise form, in the 
\Yabsendeccf extredely “lengthy reports, it is teliéved that the type of 
olgeteral discussion thet “is offered here and which is intended to take into 
account the maltitude of factors known to be involved in the problem affords 
a better pan tare tot = wren reed ‘the bee then a ie 8 of the numerical 

oe fon ty atvacsenr fon the % Dares. ROL AN LS BU ee 
@ chlorate Ampdeteonts aviage of the ier danas ae Sho aNibtey?! ‘Brogren Past 
vine ea the 1981 field season Wad devoted to « study of ine possibilities 
vend importance of soil treataent in pores ruil ies't fon. A brief sulimeary 
EN SE ee te ect ces re CERN A RSE ee 
MO. per. cent of, eR ae i. t RE Ca! 8 
‘the toxigitios bo Rives of severat chemicals were compsred in a 
series of experiaents im Which the subetence® to be tested were sdded in 
Pmessured quantities to culture solulions in which plents were growing, Under 
the conditions of the trials, sodtud ervenite was fount to be bt least 26 
times as toxic to Ribes as sodium chlorate and et least 15 times as toxic 
es ammonium thidcyenate. When the same chemicsla were applied ‘a® soil 
treatments to’ potted Ribes plant’! somewhat different resvlis were obtained, 
At least two times as umch sodium chlorate es sodium arsenite was needed te 
kill the phents, «ammonium thiocyenate was somewhat less effective then 
sodium chlorate, Berberis yolgaris plente were killed with the application 
of only about three-quarters of the quantities of sodium chlorate’ ‘gna 
ammon ium a. necessary to — the same effect upon Ribes, 

The ie ttevenene in the results. o the two types of exparinante do 
not impeath the eceuracy éf either set™or findings, but inttesd furnish o 
Seong meas PS oof the extent to wiich’ tne” ‘chemicals concerned are eltered 
by (codtact with the soil; The résult® of: the’ culture golntion tests should 
conshaps ‘best be régerdéed af representing ‘the relative Poxicities of the 
\chémied]#°WAllé ‘thosé of "thé soil experiments ore to be more properly © 
weonsidered as expressing the relative effectiveness of the same chemicals 
under conditions soamaradle to pnone found op!  hyaatelae o 

. KG: a | 
icides By vsing ane wonsrié @ eae wéete ‘and “by swbcltilg “the | existence 
sor andetgd probable but ‘as yet wmptevert relationships, rough ‘calculations * 
‘were msde which indicated ‘that it would: ‘pe hecessary to use bout 5,000 ~~ 
‘pounds of dedium ahlorste per ‘acre | te eee ‘the’ ee of Rives: 

By wnifdrm coll treatment, © 

In snottier series of éxpertuents a ‘study ‘was made ‘of the rate 
‘GP Witch "certain Chemitsl¢ were either destroyed or reso ved from the . 
‘Solution 4An-contact with the scfl, Samples of forest soil gathered in 


vigasesen gis edi to Ike teseetg of [notioatg syania jo at be / 
sdj al artot eatonos at ailveer Indmeaizveqxe to goiteuleve sperr09 edt of 
to ecyd saa dais bovelled ef ¢t (atvoqet vad geet ylemordze to apne ade 
od gt exist of bebaetiat ef doldw bac eved beteTio af Jest moleaygath Leredea 
ahtotia meldore ey at hevloyal ac of avoed azedgest to ebatia lum edi juyooges 
lagitangn eas 16 oode o Bead azQM., oii ze. ‘guiaiea eat te. etoiolg etied. a 
, bint lh 's | wees ae eaols eiab 


tach aijors rotnrod of bis wbbdiladeny oad Te’ windd Sen biaiar ‘ak ah : 

aelvilidkeso, off to yAuts a of botoved agw mosses blolt [sel Moh aariad 

ytewmve telud A .Solisotbats Ieotmedo af Sasmiaesd {toa Yo sonastoqat Bre 
pit esvoilot wow edd to d1aq eldé to 

3 ai Sevsqnes sye* efaataedo Igt9evos to eadta od. egitinined ‘sat 
at Sebke ovew botzed ad of esomadadue edd dofde alt bleed § to ‘agttoa 
teh caateoty evew evaciq dofdw at agoticlos araiive oF solstinesn ‘heteesen 
G& ¢usel ga ad.o¢ Samat egw aiineats mutboe ,alaltd edt 20 sanksibaco ods 
22 uGd 4a souls al dagel dg bus siarolda muiboe es zed ti of gkxod an wemks 
Cisse ae betiggs otew alan imei. euge ozs melt sigasyootad mrtagams.. 83 
euteasdo eree sélgwet JmetstilS tadwomed tingly agdis hetiog of 2) meatdaots 
of beboed age aiime2is aulige a, eJarolda autbce temit ows Jess fA 
Mads avtioskis sacl jiedwamoe 390 etgaayaokds gerk acum ; satoalg odd fits 
notigailqgs adi ajie bolita eaten aieclo atigaioy . sigediag . starelde. outboa 
bag siatoldo weiboa ie aeltiiaeys add io e1edtaupresqad dsods yiaa To 
e2edi tog dette omae ait cer tqreers ot ytaszeoet etensyoolds aert romans, 

of at aentreqse ta eaqud ows. odd to ailseer edi at seomorett ih oft 
@ dakatut, basiast vcd ,agaibatt to dee tadits tO. Yaatuoa ade ‘doggqmt tou 
hewsile ete bagtesme» aleotmads ass dotaw of Jootze add. 20 etyaaem Ager 
Bluosde ead soliuloe oxydf [ag ad? to efiveer edt eitoe and ‘Hdte 4o8%309° Pcl 
ond to. selgtokcos evidales egy Bhd se serqet, es" Ba lrityet ed daed #8 qedrag 
Gitagotg evom od od ate aineutsagxe Iie eat to sacdd alt dw stattaeas 
slaoimeso smg3 gdj to tuenetiiostie ovitefot eat gulavatqxe 8g ‘bersbtamos 
tattosia ak bearot seods OF eldanaqmos sea tP0Fe, <sbay 

eonelatee eat ‘gxfuess yd ham aluel eandy to adtiad4 eft antan 4 sseeeepe 
scofsalwalas agrvor »Scidanoltislor: gevotgar ‘doy. ea dud Ur algae tyre 6 
000,c ijgcdm gay of ctassesea od Blyow tt “Sass ‘Bojao that aot 

aod a to koljowittob Gf Aatiqnoar¢ oF Sto. 18q Sigrolio curt bse “Yo. vp ee 
Hide pa Pao fee ts | shay 

‘ gta% off to Shaw tow ybute Fs eaiegia 2 @ ‘welnga tedione ‘a 
eis mott betoues 16 Beyortesh redite stew alsotmerds: raja! se 
ai betedda; Itoe Jaetok to selgmag . oltoe ad tte, Jogia0  m piss 

nerthern .idahe. were used: in the tests which were continued over a period of 
about five months,: Bach chemical was tested in samples, the moisture of 
thestontents of ‘which waeemainiained . ‘respectively at 15, 30, and 4 per cent 
of the weight of she wet agit, 
re othe Stebilities: of vas bapaniaet end. chlorate: ions. were found to. 
vty runt y-wen tne node tore contents. of. tue soils, che tuiocyenate ion 
dis about twice as rapidly ss the ehlerste ion from the samples 
at’ 15° to $0° per Cent aoisture, bub took sbout ten times as long as the 
rete ton ‘to disappear from the’ snuiplew containing 40. per cent of. water, 
The’ 2o rete” fon @teeppeared about nine times es Tepidly frou. the seuples 
kept bt 40° ber cent moisture as from those kept at 15 or 80 per cent, ithe 
rate at which the anicerenass. ion disappeared from the soil solutions was 
about, two and three-quarters’ t imes e& ‘repi@ inothe semples containing 15 end 
98% eent.of water ‘oY in those kept et 40° Ber cent ae | ’ 
be ‘congbdted £5, + 
Pert of “the reealye ‘of ‘Subitd ‘fiers apatite th ‘end. ‘the auth taken 
from the _Salbure, solution tests have. been utilized in celculating the dosage 
figures for amuonium thiocysnate and sddium chlorate given belost 

Fy es n re ‘ me 
Be TIBeActes sutic 

Te fe hapaly necessary to point out) tapi: all. figures derived as. 
‘these were, from calculations involving meny uncontrollable and as yet 
incompletely studied variables, are susceptible to considerable inaccuracy, 
: eration. ‘of the known ‘Sovreds of probable error Leads to the belief 
‘that the estimated “dosazes are vomewhat emeller than will be required in ~ 
yy ie) 

a a PASS Tg 

¥ cy re | 4S Fy 

any: wS¥E GDe6 And Taded <t bets ef bbe effectiveness aa’; _ il 
ns ld me seréral “Chemical® which ‘previcusly were wmtried for this om 
Poses forte: ryt stabilize thfiseyanate and chlorate in coniact with ggil 
possi wmsuccessfule. “Peavy ‘metal fons ‘were ‘found to -be very -repidly removed, 
from solution in contact #ith sofl and for tais Feasen cannot be considered 
a® good,.soil poisons for the broadcast types of sup) seation. 
can) Ue radi y we 
Whe ‘movement’ oF" chemicals” a bevedt ih the peay of the plant was 
studied in the laboratory with the aid of materials gathered during the 1931 
field season, Space dces not permit a review of the findings of this investie|f 

to Sebteq # tove Benalisnos arex dofdw eceet edd. ol boas erew ofebl ateddton 
to etyfalon gilt ,sefomee of. beseed enw igotmeds dash... &ddsomevtt duoda 
¢aso geq GS Sas, 0b. .¢L Ja yvlevidceqset beoalsiaiagncase pinkie: to vi acdaon acd 
adie te lice jew edd to. doylow: edd: to 

of Sagot stew agot elatoldo baa sdansyootds Fo velit tiga. edb.) io6 4 
Hol eieaaysoias eft ,alkloa sat to adnetaos erueelom ed? déiw eliserg: grav 
aeiquiss oi¢ matt sok siatolde efi as yibigat aa solwd dyoda berseqqsath 
eas 48 gaol aa agaky aes duods. dood. tud.,.etgtalon dapo tog 08 of Bf 48 saeal 
atedew Io doo seg OP Galniadnco selquae odd wovt tasaqacth of mol statoldo 
signet ois mori ylbiqnt as seuti enta tveds. betaeqassth nok eiaxolie eAT 
edi «feo t2g OS 40.61 ts sged eepdd wort. 2a. erosetom taeo tsq QO 38 geod 
aaW agolcgioe [koe 9:4. mott betsaqqeatS got etansyooldd edd dotdwts oder 
Soa Gi gutaissaos eelquez edd at bigat as  SouLe. @t9dtevp-geTds) bag owed! Juoda 
setstalom ¢a99 teq OP Ja Sqec eanold of as teiaw to geo taq OF 

toast @2ab od bas aj cpu iseqes allos atens to siiuees edd toidteh esto 
saesob oid galigivalso gt bosilldc aged avec ajnge sottudea omvehie:sd¢emort 

; aE Bes ea ES 2 eer. “iv Yo shas " 
Japmigers Atos to same vd segth 2o motdowet aed»): 

Sisgaspold! agtanmes  etasoli) mrtbeg.. . Lhoes 

OOO 8 * 5, 00B gS 
00g,2 ao Rene att See 
608.5 ODS ,& 

ea Bevigeh setust? Ife tas) deo tatog od. ginsaecen ylbued Mt dhe! fon 
$2y%, 48 bea oidellorjsooa: youn gatyloval aaolialuolso HOT ,ot9H ened 
eyartooant eliatabianos 03. aldtigaoasa ee ,eligivay belhuste. pLededqmonnt 
teiled and of abas! sores aldadotqg to. saeuroe meoad eld ko soltarehiaaod 
ai hetincer ad {ite fast wslione Jaswomoe svg segagroh Bbetamtsag’ end. dastt 

: seis . kay te . Se peohigatd 

@a aaenevilovtte edd to sjies? bebafont oale “aoe eeyodnests aft 
aig’ tot beisimm exew ylevotverg dotdw alpotmnds Ioreves Bo sebfs tdred 

fiow défw, ¢dpainos at eigroluo. hon sipasyootds aslifidavs of ad sett. .eeoquye 
heveast (ibiges gia¥ ad od. bowot stew. anot Indom 4voek .,ivteaesouear.etow 
hovebleaces ed. janugs. nosge% #iat tot bea Lice délw gontags. at aoleg!loa.mert 
stoliaoklyas to eegyd Janobeotd ais tot enpateg Ilex begg ec 

&ay igaig. and to ybod ene alt hadse{al afeoiseds to. taewevoe eat 
féel ecg gauttwh sexedisn sletvesan to Dis old gite ytossstodal adj mk. beibese 

i|[|\l| ~#4sevag ated Yo vsabbatt oft. %6 wetvex 9 iigseg Jou se0b goags .sorqee, biel? 

ta dhs vo anita, “Tt Wi1t “surrice $0: Stbte tukt! trahelegetion ty extremely 
ite ler pad thie this behant an cin hardly Be” expected to, turn: sh the 
basis for a wetnoa” or , foal Grew Fe 

Mee ty Senay and theerthinty experienced 1h ‘dbtéinihg satiéractory sil! 
FIle hlanty ror greenhouse culture Lhd eiperinmentition his mae it destroble fj 
te devel pl Gupe thule Had Convenient methods tot propagating Rites plants 
Fron tetde: ‘Work toh thiG" subject Wa Stertéd after the close of the’ 1931 
Hidde on aha btill”cont’ hie s, Results obtained to dete indicate thet 
the’ desired’ methods" will goon be roPthcoming and thet consequently the _ 
problem of stecktng’ the creénhonse ana Ribes gerden will be solved 

aati sfactori ly. eee ae eee ee “ot 
Attéer the: season: was vader Pay Bb RS & WFR TR 8 
beste O° Sme' Poregoing’ brief cketth=oF tHe Lobore toty “End preethoase pragre 
Porsthe year takes “no'ménti ono? 2 nitber’ of studied bade’ Bare “tnt deutel bo 
phacnli ees ebge chs of” pt it go oh We, ‘separate laboratory reports should 
eo \consultéed' for any detalle here omitted! “98 oo tes : 
solution to freshly aus surfaces of §. viz s DAY 

be Se @ 7 P 2 m be de 7 i a 
ae Ae9%. cipiee & a vi eh es io) RASS PS EGR 

ibe’s eradication, 


HeLa ies we sey i 

$8 BS a 1) ATS Gp 

Te ay 
7. ge 

Beemer vrata pant Aik Aiea POT 
Y inve : ‘ ae 

_ Gemended ‘that lerrorta°ve made to cont re stigétive “activities rather 
sharply “to°th dse problems, % Solutions for whi ch would “be “most “argently Yieeded | 
fA° the Unwed Ste ature, “It eae decided, therefore, to devote nearly all 

_of the field program to a concentrated effort aimed st the completion of 
certain phases of the work begun during 1931 in the Wenatchee National 
Forest, Wappily the investigative work hed reached a etage at which a 
narrowed scope of activities was virtually demanded from the technical as 
well ag the practical point of view, 

The principal problems thet were selected for study in the field 
were; . 

1, The comperigon and evaluation of sodium chlorate and ammonium thide 
\ cyanate es herbicides upon EB. inerne, 

. 8. The determination of the reletive effectiveness of three methods for 
_@pplying the two chemicals mentioned above to R. inerme. The three methods to 
be tested were: (a). application of chemical as an aqueous spray to zerial 
plant parts; (b) applicetion of chemicel in solution beneath the surface of 
the. ground to the soil about the roots of the plants; and (c) application of 
_ Chemical by a combination of the two foregoing methods, 

3. The establishment of the minimum dosage of either sodium chlorate or 
ammonium thiocyanate necessary to eccomplish the eradicetion of KR, inerme, 


qlemerézs gt mol) doolaneiy tant atite of sdhitwe [fiw sD stab oF notag 
ont dg tauft os Setoegxs aif _F Start dao oe ttterise © tit dai? ‘hats tategerc ht. 
Pers aoe | gitidae Tiare wedk® to boriten a ro? etead 

Pt oe ; i ae Ramee ee ee ee a 

ytotostw ites gaintsédo af beoneiregxs yWnistssoam Bas q@inottiib eff 

 elderises 2: when aad coftdaumbreqte bac etstive ecvnduesty aetoetastg Biott 
. otadlg cadt¥ ga f¥egsqerq Tot wbodson saettovese Sas sldabaeqeb qolevss os 
(NOL off te seul (Sha 43d ts Hosrtate saw vost cee idt cogs #108. \abeee work 
tad¥ stagthrl staf 6? hewtatdc etivesl .-weucisneg ti tte bas aoesse bial? 

"oo Sed ylteoupaeaog tadd haa go inégddtot od soe2 SLkw 2bodien, bet lead odd 
 pewlog ad Life mabrag ead ubas eeuodceera ads gabloote to moldotg 
cee ro Subs 2808? GUM an anetaon thes aeRO IA 

neegot segodneatg baa yx! eredal edt.t0 dodge Aging gatogsxct oat perk 
of ia¢ueblon! ever tad? eatbode. to redeya.s To seitasm on 3adan “‘e8ey odd TOY 

aivode gdvoge: yrotstedal stersgee sat wwottagizeevai te adootdue totam oft 
i at nas _pmbattine ored ef tasob ya sot beiiveaoo od 

ncemoy Sek add te drate eft sa gall tay soolive Lefonaat? ont 
yedior potitvitss by lite ieerrh srt thos oF shan od aitotie tad? bebsansh 
hebeen qidasara fteom od BIvew ‘tio triw sot -enotdulos jeaeldore ewecd of yotere 
ifs. wamas stove of ,mroteteds behioeh as 31 ,@urdet oteltbemmt edt af 
Yo soffelamds Sit te bemts ero%te bolarsavdnes 2 Cd igrgota HLelt. ed? to 
{sueiial esdotene® edd mt [FCI gatish avged stew ad? Yo eaeaig nisires 
3 dette ga sgade 8 horoaet ‘pad arew ovivagiteeral edi? vlogs feet 
ua fag tito? edt mort Sebasmeb -yllaviiiv saw eo tt ivitsa 1 eqooe barori sc 

wotv to tatog Igotioarg edt es Ilew 

Afott etd af veute 10% berasion exse 

dad? emeidorg laqiaaitg edt 

uottd mrthoms beast aveiso methee Je so itagiays, bs seq itegncd. ent of 
: : < sepa. .B, soqs eehiotdsed 2 

. 8 Staneyp 
sot abodes serdd to en enevisostte evigsie,x ed? to cottenterroted Dc a iad 
ot ebb be Gendt abt oVpemeat 2 ot avode heaottacm aisobmetg owt edt aaiviqas 
{aptaa of ystge kwesupa ae es, Laodasdo: Xo cetéeoilgas (3) s@r9x beige ad 
%) ena edt déeoned aottutes at Lap tmeso 30. aotiastiqaa (d) jatrsy taslg 
td Ho ffeotiyea’(o) baw gadnalg oft, to, af00% asi Jucds Tice eis 09 brtotg eas 
ae | Up nelpantdnps Xe Taokasito 

janbortt a gt iogeret, owt odd 

10 stately mother todtte te ogaeeb sosore ber fm edd ‘te Frome ti dates oct ae 
sentend. A wo thso there add da tfguoaag of yrassenen efanayoo td? mw brome 

L 4 ( ; f ess z “ , . # yi ade ie vid og gi tied ex Be ft ” i Rents} at on 


Aiak Ay 

4, An inquiry designed to diseover :the main causes underlying the 
observed fact. that Rilbes, plents,of,.the. sema.epe cles growing upon different 

sites sometines re respond quite ase renvas ly to identicel treatments, 

i th In haat tion to the aiegor objeatiye’s set’ forth above, the plan 
| bie the field program provided: that can: inorganic areenic compound bette sted 
| tot 1 large dosage ag @ subsurfacé: Sbil drendh fh°brdér bo SEtebILsh if” 
osdtble an ultimite sstendard of ‘conperi som forties type ‘of “substance, © It 
ee Dd Gast es ea —— of chemicals which was i. 

#8 herbichderumicy the eeigeae yk Chefon" Af a 208 
ent supply" ‘of ohne “mater 7 

0.50 | sie 60) 

ae avi maaan ie ire the sea dom, - 
4 After the: seawon ‘aca bon: wae al Len s “acchaed to. ‘Mnclude | leeverdict 
© teste gf emthod of Sapiysms ghaintcats ia an EGueoug, solution #2 a drench’ 
r the foligze andthe Aof- the soil, Several neg ex, rs Hime ey. ese, 
0 0 Widertaken- tn thé Clearvcter: regton ta. de 3 é ¢ penbextde: 7 
- aq grants ottf)end SRF REONT sbeithlor oe 

uti on to rows surfaces of i 
38 u roxide (4) ay ee ee Oe 5 
Balckans Bh oFon Ta 

| do i 
a, i oo acetal neste Sprey 
a do j Subsurface Drench 

{ ek 
‘CE See ee toe eee) eeeeneereeee ones Clan meme 
j do Subsurface Dreach 0.50 | : 
se ae Spray Bare) SS 
‘a _. Spray. | 

LCRA |. a eters 
= See RO: es 
29 | Jn (> eee a 
EYE (AG) Ae a” > Ra Sasraanige pecan Spray. pee feerra ee Ee : 
eG 2 ae a CS a Ye _t 212.50 | 991187, 501 6 
oe ae Se Te 1 “2,50 | 75, 001 187, 
| 32 | do | Foliage and Surface | 0.6 | 243.00) 121. 50 

poo at EES ee TIE Oa fre POTS CREB 5s _ - 2+ --— 5 H 
f {-~--— RE =—T ar 1 "Tse Os a4 - 
PR hd eS. [- 4a ie _375, 00] 187, 60)_.0275 |_10,000 | as 

(1) A commercial grade of this chemical sold under the trade neme’ "Weedex" containing aporoxiuatel: 

(2) Half the total quantity of spray was applied and allowed to dry on the foliage before the remaining hele up 


(3) & commercial product containing approximately 10 per cent of calchum hypochlorite, CalOCl) o. 

(4) Sod4um hydroxide was aided to Caleftum-Chloron solution to partially stabilize the hypochlor# i 
destruction of the setul equipment used in mixing and apolying the solution. 
(6) The quantity of #23 on applied was equivalent to one gellon per square foot of 

Annual Report 1932 
G, R. Van Atta 


iyliphay gsecso stan ed?  ~syoor fh of bers 29h o fiurpak a4 at 
cot galvors, ealoeqe enae. odd to etaalg eadi® jadi dost Serie2 do 
and Ie Shimek} of vlaaerattib agios Pe a7, acoit amar Bad 52 

isetde sxotam.edd of agtstoha af 
ni ae "des ii hebiverg matgova bisit od? met 
“toners { tow. agatis vadie 6.6% .03%80b satel mt 
nz ; ate ed BE & as sldigaoc 
exuinim Jafoy mms & yer o¢ banaal 9, 48 ear 
*? “gordi dd ointad® omen shat? edt 1ebss ebfoidiad og eg Sar stio 
acfeuh efdaliavs eban od Siupo_ [atrosenm ane I ut qotre Jdneto itive 

eaw nopsee ant 199A 
aed amt Piirotess to. bodies « to etaed 
nos tim i bos, sasilos ed’ meager 
Bl af po by ary + ane wiseld add mi swledisbas opie 
a8 esdesg e& Saligas eraw eh iio did £5 deercapeaiie Deki (bing obneete ae) 
o teal: ‘peivoonty # tO ssostrve tuo yideortld of no ttulon 

atadm it aqrs 
iiveiacog sinser 


ods %e@ wotscedxa edd cid ih 

i @% iia, aviiostdocolan diinuel eas of 
fedod gee! S37 KL Baw a sare. BO bsaoel, 2938 Cee edi. o} dosoat da etolg sequ 
anigeat, ah dgorot Lanotiet 


iat 2 acavis Oe, 49 29a e gus 

Tatousizvecta edt ‘to ea@ivyeanin, Laoiraen wot 

oP DLS. Se Gh RD 



weds | Total 
of Chem- Pounds Gallons Gallons Total 
ical Per| Gallons of Area of of Pounds of| Date 
| Gallon Chem- |Treated|Solution|Chemical|]Solution | Chemical of 
of ical in Used Used Used jAppits 
Chemical Used | Method of Application jpemueton Used | Acres |Per Acre|Per Acre|Per Acre | Per Acre| cation 

i 33,80! 34. £ 
dg 2)[ 1.75 70, 50| 123. 40 

d 2)| 2,50 | 75.001187, 50 
Foliage and Surface 0.50 375. 00] 187. 50 

: do 0.0l+ 375,00] 5,00 
Galette Chi cron (3) do 1.00 187. 50} 187. 50 
m hydroxide (4)| = a2 0,024 | 187,50, 5 oo 
prsen < q Q, 50 1 <1 rj 6 geste 
pe ee 0187 eee See 
2 aaa 0, £0 451 ae ee eee 
| 1 |Sodjum chlorete _| 0, 50 169,00! 84,60! .0 | 5,000 | 2,500] 5,000] 2,500 |6&23 _| 
-—4+__—#2 —___- 0,60 | 221,00/115, 30) .0320 | 7,000/ 3,500| 7,000 | 3,500 |6-22 | 
a _— ae 0,50 | 356.0) seo 8 0358 10,000 8,000 10,000; __£,900 }=2,22 
| 26 | do 5)| 0, 32+ [1,220.00] 395.00] .0282 | 43,560 | 14,000 | 43,560 | 14,000 | 7-9,12 | 
aaa Subsurface Drench 9. 50 93. 30| 46.60 3,000 | 1,500 
do ore 1,43 Pale oR 10 = m0 000 6 
6 do pray 1,43 __ 23.60) 33, 80 0338 6) 1. 000 5,700 6 
do Subsurface Drench 0. & 232. 60] 116. 80 7,000 3,500 
Foxes ES ee: |. Eee ee (PSM EN) 0) of: Smee 2,14 | 29,20} 50,00) .0334 | ___ 664 | 1,500 | __ 7,664 | 5,000 
ol a ae a sbeas Easel aon __1,000 |" 2,500 |-"_1,000 | 2,500 
| 28 | so bee do ___ 87, 50|_ 93,75) 20375. 000 | _ 2.500 1,000 |~_ 2,500 
g ad eo 2 eidou tao 2) __75,001121,25, 0375 2,000 0 2,000_ 3,500_ 
8 ge IG Obs ed tee Sprey _______ ds _ 45, 25/120, 20301_|__1,500 | 4,000 | _ 1,500 4,000 
9. i: |. anes 2 do ) __75, 001187, 50 eae eee 5,000 |___ 2,000 _ 53000 
27. do aan a: (- on ___75, 001187, 50 37 2,000_ 6,000 |. _- 2,000. 5,000 
32 do Foliage and Surface 243.00)121.50| .0253 | 10,000 5,000 | 10,000 5,000 
ek | SRR ee es ar earns Fe eeenE ou 
SAE ek 0 oe tO is ~375, 001167, £0 50} 0376 |10,000_ 5,000 10,000 | _ 5,000 | 8-11 

(1) A commercial grade of this chemical sold under the trade name "Weedex" containing approximately 80 per cent of ammonium 

(2) Half the total quantity of spray wes applied and allowed to dry on the foliage before the remaining half was applied. 
(3) A commercial product containing approximately 10 per cent of calcium hypochlorite, CaOCl)>o. 

(4) Sodium hydroxide was added to Caleium-Chloron solution to partially stabilize the hypochlorite and thus avoid rapid 
destruction of the metal equipment used in mixing and applying the solution. 

(€) The quantity of solution applied was equivalent to one gallon per square foot of ground surface treated. 

Annual Report 1922 
G. R. Van Atta 

ge eee _ eck es a ‘ 
e ‘]} t 
t a 44 dA @ 
> i « 4 be 
1 aI ; im vr F 
' ue y , v 
} # ) at 
iY 1% 
St g 
ys ‘ 
why » 

el Medd om Foe I ay for ‘Schon pe recorded as (1) Gold, less 
than 55° F., (2) Cool, 55 to 64%F, , pea. 66 to 74° Ye. ep Warm, 75 to 
cs” cums (5) Hot, 85° 7. Jor'more,” dcmisel 

ao y if 
bet The term Cheng anti cites the total. lesb. + aeariy! total absence of clouds 
for the major portion of the day, and the term Gloudy indi ce tes: the revere, 

The terms Rein and seoo ko Ss Seth that sy or heavy rain fell at some 

time during the tayo ae ? be fant he . es 
; ts : 5 ‘ | 2 mais 
i ; ey te 


ob S3 a } % 2 

aS 4 Eee emer ©: 3-7 

| aetemtiieeennthe time rvemaemenenatr a 


? } sung 

ones Fe be Sib Deo 

Lt - 

heaters tere 

Poni arcies aomesereeieninre vn vero astccamucnaaminne oe 


Yomi areas nevmanrenmonees —— 

\hcpeene mente nena iene repaaee 

Em tre 



$cc NNER AINE SEAT MDI SE SA caver apnea Atren Men Sem 

| a ma i le PAT AIR 

Age LI RA NARI AIR ILE NANI ATOR ma croney rine hgh t 



eae C 







i ange are Oi 
DerperenS MNO ataatetremes 



; 4a oF are |} 
§ cgme erernn nse? cee PE BLY + acefhanee panes rads 
' i 

Bcemrennencnmaconunnmmnencorenannt sadn tet seer enc SM AD MN PORTIS 

ates yflusen 


ba 6 


g9% 3VF 

£8 5 


et si sho 

pe a  S 2% 
anne Ge Lis 

‘ My 
a Lit {Ad ae: ee 

Ta a Rey LBs 

pean ek). eee Semen A 

ayols mred e@clt 

+ oxi) 

gé_Cloter vyseH 2f009) &f | 
«sel! el) 



nh A te ae ocean ane tae 

. ones 3 bos 2]  vhwold 

pe x 


Os. aouh 

tS atti BR 

Seow eed 


rence mr 

aa US 
&& i 



oe" > ef 

gift ei Ts... 

etd 1 389! to mae BG 

en SLi ~xbwelo bl. \s 
a0 BL | ____tibes 

vdhcanat ioc usnadbpeamecassnasssaene fe 23 
a Se wecenrnree—ed 

i iH 

a ne eed 

al bee $f .eL 
i aa. 
| > 

BALE! tt } 
apa Se 

AGO4s (2_.hiiM) 2. “4 

+ ae ee op 
is faa 
bp ee ION ee: tS ig 

paren 1 E ; mr Sf on ne) 


~-—-188 £m Lal 

ge : 

eh MOLD so SIEM 
yeaa _anal | 
bzol9 .l000 | a 
i ees eee “gonesd aS | —wbsolo_ a‘ a7 

peso vey prea | 

Sit fogetS 

ey a 


rood (S 3)  K 88S seats 
8 ,foH (&) bas ..% 8 ue 

$ ot 
b edt at! hawt omkt 

jadt etao thal gies 

ye oe ee EO 2 

ovat | mit 

oor gad . tlagh tar lt lier 

ah Se ec acicnengenene a 

-s10 bact ‘te oahe api 

mecitte aveb Py 
quad ehoddox Sel mort 
orishl oetd ebamrnox© | 

*2 — otsan th 
iw ao goer, acs: 

al tabce) | 

"S mode sed ean tb w AML 
ay gitiw soigoaut mort 

qeterath “s\S bas 

+4 to eat. 

sry tec imental: ON OTOP ATA es eens metas <~ rata 



-9d bao to s3bhs tee! 
bas e1stirsavphsel neers 
ditrotesac basls! gfe) 
wohask to dtrex of im 
tehLl. feed 

of arnobh6 

a RI mane ssn nr 



) The experience, gained in the previous season demonstrated that 
many “important technical advantages could be gained by applying experimental 
‘chemicals uniformly to the srea within each plot, Accordingly, that 
procedure mae adgnted, for She. naneaaventios of mht slags treatments undertaken 

in, siellabiba aces sat, x aa: WIE Bk 

vent ” voy The  auiitge of. abe. 1931. field experiments together with the 
sthedi tos obtained.ina, the. conduct of the winter program in the laborstory 
and, greenhouse indiceted quite clearly that it would be necessary to apply 
chemicale in quantities upwards of 2,500 pounds per acre in order to 
eradicate-§. inerme. This,opinion wos confirmed by a study which was made. 
ofthe. records of.ell. aprevious, field experiments performed upon §. inerme 
end BR. lecustre. It wes feared’ thet treatments such as were planned would, 
when: epplied..over a fairly:extensive area, constitute a hazard to roving 
‘live: stock and that the danger’ from fire would be excessive unless steps —. 
‘were taken'to minimize this risk; moreover, destruction of treated plants by 
-enimals and man sometimes sertously.detracts from the value of field 
experiments; It wes decided, therefore, to build = stout four strand 
barbed wire fence around the whole experimental area and to cut fire ‘aie 
‘around all thé plots that were to receive sodium chlorate sprays, This wes 
(@one before any of ‘the treatments were began, A wery strong end tight seven 
‘strand fence enclosing 4 ‘emill area that wag to be used for the arsenic 
“experinent s:was'also erected within the cuter fence, Conspicuous warning 
*sigus were placed at frequent intervals sround the arsenic plots, Im all, 
ore than 2,000 feet of fence was buiit, 

“The plots were all laid out to the size of two rods by three. rods, 
These dimensions. were selected as standards to facilitate certain features 
of the work and to. ingure. provi sion for adequate test of euch treatment 

‘Te. ‘fecilitete handling ‘large volumes of solution, a portable 
engin engine, Ariven pump wes employed in making the treatments, The 
t seteup used was very similar to that which has been developed for 

‘Tere scale power spraying, 

Great care was taken to apply each. treatment weds to the whole 
area. eoncerned in order.thet the cause for any variation that might leter 
appear in the results. of eny dei ous’ aes would not lie in aia 
of SARA ental, procedure... 


‘ “AS ter. the aipte. hea peen laid out and before the treatmente were. 
wae am accurate mep of the plots was drawn showine the brush cover and 
other. features pertinent to the work, In those instances in which flowing 
water, wes found to be Within the bounderies of a plot, the area covered by. 
ter. was determined and deducted from the totel area of the plot. ‘The 
‘treatments thet were subsequently made were epplied only to the portions of 


tad? botsrsemomeb sozace agotvetg adit af beeley some it oqKe ait 
[adcomiregxe aaiylgas YW bentag ed bluoo gogatsevbs.factndos? dastregai yam 
gadd .yfgakbicook “olq. dose aidii-v geta ed? of ylarotion elas insti 
amistrehas sdicentaers jeLq [fa te aolvsotiqga edt 20% besqohs aw  sigheopig 
| a et - SOL nt 
edd détw tedisgot .etmemitoqne biett (eel ges to aiivees off. ee 
grojerodsl ent at meraovg tesatw odd to toubeds ett mi bemtatde sactba lt 
yiqq» ot yteeasoen a6 bioow Fi Jad? yliaels of ere bedao tha? eavodnsers ‘brs 
ot tehid at sina req shayog 000.8 to ebiawau sel? itnaup nt fs tmedo 
sham saw dotdw yherte « yd pemrbiacs ecw oe iniee, efit .peyapt ij odao there 
eoxegi' fi xeqs berrotreq edmenirsaxs eialt euoiverq, ifs a abrooe: sz? ‘to 
wbisow bernalq stée 2% fovea a smsadtast s tary forest paw ti: -sendemest & bas 
gsiver of biased 9 sted kdenon ,geta Sv iames xs via ie? a revo betiqqs sénw 
eqode easlay oviewsoxs od bivow orlt mort sognsh ef? fadd, bes goose evil 
ud adaalq hedeots to mo iouniesd evoatom vada tr evict ox imitate oF roiet arrow 
Bflokt 10 eulav oft most gtoarteb ylerc hise eemitemde nam bas elamins . 
bearte tect twate s Blind ct. .aroteresd ybohigek aev $10 2emecttroqxe 
slier? ortt dye of bas aera [sinoniveqxe elostw ‘eit beers sone? er iv badrads 
sev eit?  eystce etaroida mythos av fooet of avow dad? atple af? {ia Bryeta, 
neavee Jdgid baa gnonte vror A frged ore" siuemsaerd edi to yis erotad eaok- 
gingers sit 16% beey of cf 2ow Jags ears iLeme a gateclone anneal biaarde 
yilrray evougigege?  soaet redio eft aidgiw boigere oels sew edrominegxs 
iis al .etofe olroete odd tavore sfavietab dxsgpet? 24 booslq orew aagie - 
a bo te SL wd ean eos tte. test 000.8 madd grom 

ehor serct qd ghos od “te as te add ot two bial Ife etew atolg sit , 
sowtast aiaineo stad iitest of gbisbasia 28 beiosleg si1s¥ Zuo Mane td ae oat 

tnomtsets dove to teed edaupobs 29% oo by tvorgy eriignt oF Sra hiptelis OB 
i rs eee 3 ies besslqmaiaos 


eldatroy a .soltvlos to sommlayv ‘egral sat baail ptat ti tos? of < 
sd?  .edmemtasrs acd ap bien at beyolque e&w qnig fevinh ankgao an tlozag 

202 peuoleveh seed sad doinw tadif oF tal bate qrev paw bers quatoe Jnemgqiape 
= @gabyesae 18R0G alsoe agiat 

afodw oft of ynove tnemtsest dead eUgqias od aenlad 289 9185 taord 
satal #igim ted aottatiey yas tot Seago ocd .tastt Tebro af barresm09 Bots 
setiivalugerrt of sti ton bloow teed galwatdrag ye to etiueer edd af tapaGs 
eee ombooorg Latnombraqxe to 

erow etoamiagnd adé s1oted Bas do b isl ased bas etolg oft rodTtA 2 

bxa yeveo fesxd edd aciworg awarh ear edolg add to gen eigivooR oe mirgod 
axiwolt doidw at essosvent saddt al ofsow edd od Shanitreg gorrdast Tedie 
yd Beteves saqs add ,tolg s Te gebrabaued of? aidtiw ed of bao? sw Teta 
of? tol sdf to sets Latod edt mort betouboh-tas hea lmreteb aaw ratew end. 
So anoittog edt ot ylao bétiqas ets" bam qltqeup eo: dae e19% fait ataontaers 


the’ slots. that. were not Sort ce the @osage having peen “Computed upon thet | 
beet e ate Ses ot ' 

meek S16 | was aivtited into narrow Gitnd with rstittily 4s, Cross 
Hits gee @lgo leid witch divided the length of the lanes into quarters, 
During the course of each application, the man in charge of the mixing 
station kept’ @ close’ sccount of the rete at which the solution was being i] 
delivered and the progress of the treatment on the plot. In thie wey i) 
pe ey were ‘80 be ory igen Nene Mniterie apy cation of i ‘ek cel was achieved, MW 

: Yor penises the: qo werraie drenches, the ‘spray nogele was Teplaced 
ote cow ‘ei ‘of the extension pipe’ with a small pointed hollow cap having two 
holes ‘about ‘oneesixteenth of an inch in diameter drilled throu, h the wall 
oppesite ‘one another about three-ef, this of an inch from the ¢ p. ‘The 
diameter of the cap wes only slightly “Targer then the regular extension pipe. 
TO operate the implement, ‘the point wes thrust Just under the surface of the 
ground; ‘the control valve wes opened, nnd pressnre was applied to drive the kn 
extension pipe into the ground about 20° inches, wheréupon, the valve wak closed li!!! 
and’ the’ tool was with@rawn from the hole, The interval of time during which iff 
the valve remained open and the pipe was beitig pushed into the ground was ~ 
Seka hae by” the yolude’ of solution intended for each hole and the rate or 
flow, “The rate’ of solution delivery unter operating ¢ond ditions was’ 
determined’ and the time required to spply each dose was ‘computed before the 
experiments were started. The applications were made in holes that were 
uniformly speced nine inches spart, over the. =H, of each a BER’ treated by 

> > 

tee, Pela e rani surface goil, drenches. were “applied. by. meens ‘of 4 # tine | | 
sisiest fans “ebien. repleced. the. extension rod at. the end. of. the hose, ... 

aie . Bower. applice tion. as has. been ‘stated was ‘adopted at the first of 
the season. rimerily. for the seving of time end labor... Experience. speedily 
te seen however, that it offered. even more important edventage sg. by, ; 
reeson of its. Hiei ih end the. aranyedy “of. treatment. sempre that it. ...<, 

permitted. . So 

The, ‘attempts. that were. made. to paleo ‘the effects. of ‘chemicals 
applied. es spreys with, tho se thet, follor, drenching were. partially frustrated 
by reason of the fact. that. very, shortly. efter the sprays were applied, heavy... 
raing fell which washed neerly,all. the chemical fromthe folisge.onto the... 
ground, . ‘The foregoing statement, applies particularly to the sodivm.chlorate | 
sprays. The.first time thet rain interfered with this part of the program wes | 
on June 18 just after a series of sodium chlorete sprays had been applied to 
plots number .7,.8.end 9, Later in: the season a second and extra, series of:.. || 
the game kindof, treatments was applied to plote.naumber 27, 28 and:2%,.. The... | 
work Was.finished on. the morning of.July 9 and in the afterneon.heavy rain...) 


+ atolg edd 

jodd Hoge beiegnoy ceed yx ivad syaecd eds Seyreeane fos “STSy “Fax 

anor) «wan setste Adtw eenal weere efal SeWiviS easy Poly dost PELTON 
weroiisyp ofa? weaal edd to ddqnel odt bebivib sotew biel oala erew “‘eontl 
yilxia sf3 to agiado ni cam act .motdacitiqge doae Ye servos odd galied 
gtied naw nelnio: edf dotde Ga stu: edd to Yardage eeols B oqo aottada 
7 qav wifdal wale eff no Soonttsens edt te epergerq edt bas ‘Hero feb 
| ,bevsidos sat Degtneds edi To nohsotiqga mrotiag ted) hetastha On etew ered Tam 

bayalgersaw efeson vores edt je sdorerh aoativedya odd aniyiqgs s0T hecahali 
ord anitvar qa wollod detatog Lfam ‘s dite aqtq nolenetxe eds We be j ett ts 
fine ef? davotd? teilivh vetemeth af tent ast finestxiguace turoda. geford 
ent it ext? mort deat os witty foneerd? trode asdifore ‘ae ot fredee 
gig notevetze raloger ait mans mearal yids ie cine eat ‘gas ‘od? “te teem th 
aig % aga ue ead rebar tart daciutd eaw tetkog et? -,teomslemnt sit eter ago oT 
aad evinS of betiggs saw emectq fad ebensqo gov ovlav fovtnes ed?) bavers 

wn Reecio eswoaviav acd vneourarenw 2 ontond OS twods Bevors eft ofal sqig pohwredxs 

de tie antieb emia ted weredab- ott wood adv wort dwarhdtiweaw Jood writ bas 
ane baverg eat ocad berowg goted sav oqig pid baa nego boataner eviar adi. 

eo. stay edt fas-slor dome sot, bebretat: we ttulon te enirlow add qh ben tezadeb 

gev sceudiinen guiieieqe tela .qrevtleb goitsies ‘to eten ad? gwolt 

aid ereted haiegwes saw eyeb tons ylaue od berispen ante edt fae bentarceteh 

erew jad ecled af ebam sxew eoottsotlzga ett: bedreta: ever edwem)regKs 

40 Setaers tolg dose t soative odd reve otage votoat ‘@zte beosqe ‘ficto tian 

. whoddem ols 

Wh easem yd bellqge sre vedoners I'tod soatiie Bae egattet ext 
esor oho Yo kno off Sa hot notenedxe wid booalgqer’ no tdw sisson. sdgian. 

4o tetfi edd $a betqobs aaw betads seed eat ge ao tisotiqga rewet 

qlibeeqe scuetieqnil: sredal Sas eaftd to yohrar sft tot yi traning mousse add 
“0 cogatnavhs thatroget stom nave herette of ‘Pais ‘~ravsword beter veromeb 
tk Sade Lovseon Suentaort Yo watveos eff bas YL YatwelY wt? ‘oO ‘wopset 

on Bad dirt oq 

atiotmods to S2oet¥e°RHy et sanos of ahaw' ersy tai? atgmefte sot 
haveiieort yllatiray crew antddnerh welior tate modf Aviv eyetoe as beliqags 
yrood ,Peilgqa Siow eysrge Gf? Yetta ¢iivona yer tad todt ed? to nokast ys 
edd ofne egegiict add mort Leohesdn sit ifs yiratn Berane fotde [fet eater 
aterelda myrfboa ocd oF viuvalivottxag eollaqs daametate gatogerot edt payors 
gave mat gory’ ede Re drag etre detw bere trsyar stat’ durif eaitd tetkt edt .eyetge 
od Berletia weed bat eyerce staerolio mriboo ‘te deine go totta tert ‘BL east so 
Ro eeires ertce Bra baoses B moeate oft at Tetat .e bus 6 Ned etolg 

“PR Pra Be .tS rete etolg’ ot hetiqas wav ginemdacry Yo ba bl esse ond 

z 7s 
xian peed noorredts off ar bns' © ylot ‘ro gn ivtow eit nO’ bere tart aw arow 

began end continued to fall for gome hours, The spray treatments were in 
effect, therefore, combinations of sprays and surface dréenches end met be so 
regarded when they are chécked in the spring of 1935, “A record of the 
weather that prevailed during the field ‘season } SOgethe ‘with a log of the 
plot treatménts is given in Table Wo, 3, ~ 

During field season in the Inland Smpire it 1s not unusual for 
paine to Sccur which ere heavy enough to wagh chemicals from sprayed foliacé, 
It has beew observed that large quantities of some chemicals, notably the 
chlorates, can ean and do usvally persist unchanged upon the leaves and stems 
of sprayed plants until they are removed by water in the form of rain. 
Recognition of these facts leads to the conclusion thet an aqueous spray 
applied’ to: aerial plant’ parts must ordinerily be considered to be the rough 
equivalént ofa combination Of aerial spray and surface soil drench, Fven 
without further information it is conceivable that contact of the chemical 
with the subterranean plant parts through the medium of the soil solution may 
éommonly be” ‘quite ‘as important in achieving eradication as contact with ‘the 
stems and leaves, This hypothesis gains weight from the indefiniteness of 
the results which have followed efforts to prove that Ribes plants may be 
killed by chemicals translocated downward from the ‘leaves and stems, There 
is, furthermore, good evidence taken from other sources thet this process is 
not possible to any great extent, et least in the case of chlorates. ‘The 
relation of Shoes points. to the plan of the fiele program will be at once 
epparenty © 

In the foregoing poges the expression “type of site” has been 
used to convey # meaning which my not be quite clear without further 
definition, The chéracteristic groupings of ‘environmental influences that 
condition the responses to chemical treatment shown by plants of a single Rib 
species growing in different locations are regarded as typifying the verious 
kinds of sites with respect to that’ ‘species, In other words, response to © 
chenicel treatment is considered to bee function of environment, 
Morphological and physiological characters and tendencies are regerded as 
being acted upon by environmental influences but they need not necesseri ly 

be the only factors directly ‘concerned’ in differentiating plants of:e single” ||] 

species from oné another*with regar@ to the action of chemicale, «Kina of 
soil, abundance of rain, abundance of soil moisture, and presence of running: 
or stending water are some of the other agents that may be considered as 
typifying a site, Until the present time, not much work has been done in 
studying the effect of ecological variation upon results of chemiesi ssentaeen 
within what is generally: called stream type. More complete information upon | 
the subject is pry inl needed in artery that secon of ‘Sradic tion may be 
ae chosen, OS ARMERS, J ave Eras re sg . ‘ 

| Meeottal ties of the principle eet forth above led to the formulation 
of the fourth objective, ofthe. 1932 field program. At the start of the season 
almost no information Was available to serve 4&3 a guide in selecting the best. 


at grow. gtnsussot! yatge edT. .e21u0d emce yot. Lieto? beuattaes bas, saged 

oe 24 derm bus aofonesh sogtxue baa eysiqe to amelisaidmes ,erotered? .toette 
eft to brooer A ,BfCL te gatrgs ond nt hedoedo era yort nedw hobrsaer 

agt Yo gol, a dil redtegod corges. blalt etd geiued belteverg. jacdt reritisew 

a. 08. aldat at aevig at adoaméaoz?. dol 

s0% at tho ontemé bacial. sdd a} moesag blast gatwwOe eco ity 
easifot beyarge mort aleoteedo deer .ot dgvcae weed. era, doide wg990- od entar 
edt yidatoa ..eisoimeds..swos to soit iinanp,agral tad? Sevres do meed.sant ti 
amote Sus gevesl edd moge begnadoas teteteg yllaver ch bua aad ,setarofrio 
ist 36 aot edi at yeter yd bovemsr. erm yedd [iter eteslq boyetga to 

Yeree avoasps om ded? octawioaeo ald.ot ehsel adoat seodd to. moss ingeoeh 
faye t oft od.of berebtenes ed. ylinanthre. jame 2d2sq.daslg isires,ot beligqgs 
gevt .domeh Lice esstive Sas yige Jetres te avltanidaos ato. taaisviage 
faotwado adf toe dostaoo dadt sldavitessoa af if soiteuro ini yeddqwt.dwodd iw 
dact neitules Log add to mutben edd daverds atteq tasiq.agoegrieddua ed? civ 
aiid itive Jostace as noiiso thurs actveldeos al tasizogn! es,edisg od ¢iacumes 
to sgenetinfiebal edé mott Jdgiey satay eligoddeqyi aidl. weveel Saa emote 
ad yan edasiq eadik Jed? evotyg of size tie bewollot.evad .dokivy giivees edd 
ered? . emete ins asvael sat mont biased Sedsotlanets alsaiseds yw bell il 
at sesoorg aidi tadd eoopoe 29die mort amiss gonabive Soey .sremradeiet sat 
ail .gedazolde to sap add ol daaedi ja .,~tastxe Jaovg yas 07 el digaogios 
gong ja od ILte worgoty, bieit acd. to meig edt.ct,eiatog sradd to .2oktel on. 
ne wes ee ae eu cetee i Sedeateo ava. of ere 

waed sad Watts to equt” nofaesiqxe sd? eaysq grtogei0t add xf 

sadturt tyvortiv rs9f9 etivs ad ton yam doldw sainsem 2 ysrnoo ot beau 

i) AW tedt ecomevlint (et¢nomacrivae to sgaiquots otdals atogiano si?  gfoltinttss 

Wiiipodt? elgrfe a ‘to adiclg of awode tromtaott iso bneds of 2 eanoge st aid xo lt tbacs 
ill svoivsy off yatytteyt sa Sebrsget ers exottsool fxeveTtib at anivory 2siosge 
ot sanogeer .ehrow tacto a1 .estoege sad? od foeqeet dtiw estte to gba kt 
Skomsotivas te selfom ts ed of botebiencs af sromiser? Iso brods 

vs Bébtayer ets avtonebaat bes evstoeiaio factanlotaydg bas. fap tgolodgioW 
gltvagesood fon beer yadt ivd esonovlta! Istnemsotivas yd nogy botos gatsd 
afants 2 tO ettald yatiaivnerst tit nf fheaTecnes uldoorth erodost ylao ait ed 
to be fi ,elaoimedo to sottos edt ot hiager déiw redioas so mort wo egy 
gotemrt to eoneeetg has ,oresetom Ifoe to sonshasds waiter to eosabayds ,ttor 
ya Sevebtencs ad vam tad? otmoga tedto off “to emos “sia tedsw yn ihasze, 10 

Hh. nk erob weed wad Brow toum Jor ,omtt dueeetg eff Iitatt .stte 2 an iyitagt 
| sadeePaert Lao tineris Wo @fliwer vogr tottshrev [uotyolovs 30 tostte st aniybode 
cogy 20 Mamet t stolqroo srolt” .eqyt meer te petlan yffareneg ef tariw obit te 
ad yam coftaeibere So shorten dail? +ebro nh Heber ydaegi pt soot dine add 

| gsottettmrot® of% OF Bel eveds dito? for Siqfoulrg ot fo aei¢tmgooemt ~~” 

| nosaoe off Yo trate odd TA inargore biert Ser “ett “to ‘ev itsetdo Ad sHot “ods ‘te 
jgad od garttoeiee nf oh toy a ea evren od eftallavs saw sotiamre'tai om teouls 

gtudy and it. me. ce », bhenefore, that the firet 
kaa eaet ib SITS ‘known had to. do with the 
Xue nts. ,48 a first move an attempt was made jto block in 
mae ure by directing attention to, the immediate envirenuont 
sand, hiatisibe roots themselves, jen, 

Ss pilots on Swank Greek were laid out. a number of 
: Aves ‘or the water table were dug at various spots ~ 
on the eres, ‘These holes were ke fee en and a rough check of the verticla 
movement of the water table was ke aah Youghout the season with the intent to 
‘ Vea! ight, of the mater teble could be reed ly. ©. 0% 
se of. the plents to chemicel treatucnt, ..leter in 
Se hology..and. dumediete, environment | || 
i at. ep points in northern | |i 
chee neipsl species, examined, , | 
sas e than, orientation: 
er. be “Found sieahisanet seem 

ns aries any 

nas ‘hag by ‘ tas Sol - rm 
“i he dost So: oor sere ee 

3 % vn & 4 
i obe nie be Si me OS § 

par - S84 d avd Abst if hecessary to at Pre ace st of ee ik inexrue 
Be * 

3. Ribes petiolare roots ea and” do prow in eeriated flowing water, but 
they Pigenog? Shere e.. shad ongee fh in the, mapene tt aie dpinpork of» om ey 

— “ffi Be is ne a 

situ ¢ 38 Telnet penst, of atures - on iG? 7 

2 a 
gre Wh iii 0 » > CRS 

ies ai i e fn the fares, ob servations at relative aerite | 

om. p& § 9&8 genera 1, knowledge. of.plants;.severtheless, poeitive 



ante hese and other like points is deemed necéssery to the aN | 
ue of sound besic phere for the chemical OSEAIOR EES of prey . 

re the AME nc we the I nrorman < thet checking will revee. 
pointe is; 

tn thé | fat 

AY hoped, ¢ thet ae ida be. oS te emulation 9f recom ni iH} | 
a YED ‘Glose ; coordination with controlled chemical plot stuiies, 

_ the work bed apeuiaua at present, follows, the _ set iat te in: 
: Ye tline 0: 9: dave stigations to be Ur 


eee AEE a ee et age ene ee | ne nae Rs ol ee ee a 

fort? aff Jatt, ,exoreieds ,yiszaecen gan, 22 fos, ybule edd, yo toerug, 10%, shogian 
até tity ob of bad arocd gan tadt sliset | ont amines at ratatalqxe ad, 


nt Xoold of sham esv. tqmetia as avon Jett? « ah adoalg edt. to. gtaag. 

sasmnonivaa of 4tbecmt add of 26,i3.a93 36, ne fort a wuntols ads, So as 
a svi oamecdt etocs odd 

to, Teduti, B 2806 bial ovew deo1) aevewe ao ajelo odd am coce. pA 
gtoga 2noiiav t3 gub stem aided aetan ot to, egatue, odd nay ste Be 
alottier ed? to wosdo desert a bra Lago iqed, oan aoled on edt sO 

of teeta? edt Atta noesse ort trodaucitt tqel 2am efdet qotaw Sens 9. snonevan 
qithaer sd Siaos, efdst, retaw edt to ddgtett aft ton 10 ted ede, 

* tevooalh 
gisotel .imemtser4 La tmedo of atnalq oft %o: eenoqpet adi, alexx05 

il, orediser a2 edaton Larovee ta bas sais teers auewd ont at dtod atoox, eed it > 
Wa sbantmaxs, peiosqe Iaq toning arid Siar guslotiog - & bra gen. ‘BQdle . ose 

|) noljainetro get stom ott! jmonorgar tat estit, Obes BARAT RB ois “Agrond la 
if iil mbar. Inaott fagte. hrgot ad neta, i , to kde k SOLES sb py ge .nglbute 
Hil ; | ale sien be peliens hee geod damage 26.09 

aurthos dottw ct esera ntedias nog pas “pant. ‘adnala patel oct, a: iw 
hes tisto: rad srow LECL at ap e0otE taom ot dtiv bellqas..197 ayergs atatoldo 
. ‘ : aa! taox. wotleds: Ueniveea at 

aart on t oh ytd sed to fe Ae adit ot ‘crsegenen al "otbaties £108. . 

gud . totam aeetwals. betsires. pay #O7%, Ob: tie pPey Setar, ‘wralotieg. ant sah hy 
er 6 eit tonmaincahnatte ond; aa oh peote dikes a at Xo. Pcie sore te, seacid 
wi no oon E gol tne: ent 
<otam ads 0 postoua exis wol od a tony: naaeitle reer’ pie vocal pa ah. i ber bok 
hae ot dd to: aida ank4h hetadee: ai we oidat 

a sat Z te Neg" ¥ CR, 
hedo Lherg eed. ona Selgin aie Abia wurden eich. ‘ou: tage. aur are re ¢ yaks 
avittecg ,geelodtyeves jetaale to agbel voad Jerensy 9 .bas, sone inen ks ent 

etd of wrsegsoem hamech of adaiog evil vaije, ne eeedd gatomaoges: egh 
sed YO 110 p hiteeshinaree hao ined: matte sterol oe nike, Ah. free ™ dstonedet (deste 
cate ald 8 
La Pree ye: 
i anbedeatumeiieh ahs? apts vr pi Ginna ak ‘Claw oe ‘tas? auaie ud $2 er behtrte 
| ) we akiete ke ornndinets vagina HaRR, Peeveciaire atte i sie orusiirt baal Bt 

1 noe 

I) sreduegas? Doseet ext -r0 1 naradr’ avian bined 

| | ber on ‘ 7 | 
AI et déeo% 3 ae ian ot ane het damit ‘oe i hl ners a2 sett one 
| ||| «there Leotment odd of meaingrehal ad of sxofteytieeral to cash sasieh clive othe 
| | 
| | 


od fara pees Bade ye ‘to 

josmnot vas eta thonot baa, quolodarom e2otg edd soqu. aged 2aw trom , 0Rae .§ o. 

{ou df RUbe es SHY BEroe ery 19326195 9 witch waw submitted by Mr: Offord 
Wevember 1, 1932, This program is the direct outgrowth of the 

investigative work completed up to that date Yor further details, the 
reader “i ¥ rred to tne above! mentioaed outline and the ‘spe glak reports 


site gimilar to the uppe 

We Gubmit ted a's the verious studies ere completed, > 
wer end of the % Farag tenis 404 : 

sd ‘ 

2s to 


be Undertaken During 1933 
%. Helation of undergrougp itevnieris ani iy envi ronment &e 

response of Ribes to chemical treatment These. studies eshonlas } 
z f K ; ; é o 7 oe oS Sh tie 2 OSS PE ap 2€ Ad Ri Y 
oe 01.0 sey jland ‘type Rivee sro At ‘the opresent: tine ponly (one. typeof, trestme nt 

re ropa ed fo further triel upon the dry land .tyge a of ‘Ribes found in)» ie 
Mnis “eta te. “The method of éxperimentation recommended consists iu aoplying 
mésle iu woderetely da Licquantities toitihe thoroughly scarifiedor 
miti lated crowne “End ‘top rodts of decapitated plants. sboth oils ad water 
soluble! sélta “should be -té sted in the experimats, .0f the former) elesa of 
sub etétice $7Diegel- oil is recommended for test by resson of its general 
availability, low cost, end the fact that former trials have ghown it to be 
as good if not better fA¥: tie purpose cthan “other ,othks thet might be «. , 
cogefdesed. “past “expérténce ‘indicates: that tsodium chlorate, copper sulphate, 
esaium flusride should be submitted to further: tests the development — 
of this type of method is only intended to assist in the destruction of 
those occasional plants the eradicetion of which by hand ig excegsively 

inland Empire 

» Pefinite recommendations for future work with 

Stream tyne Bibes: 

chemicels and methods of application, dosage, etc,, cannot be mde until the 
results of the 1932 field trials become available through the spring check 
to be performed in 1933, It is believed that the comprehensive tests 
conducted in the Wenatchee area in 1931 with sodium chlorate and ammonium 
thiocyanate will furnish conclusive evidence regarding the relative merits 
of these two chemicals, ‘The check should also make possible the correct 

evaluation of the methods of application and dosages used so fer @s that type. Ae} 

of site is concerned, 

‘Since the information that checking will reveal regarding the se 
points is considered to be vitel to the proper formulation of recomnenda- 
tions for future work, it is hoped that the 1933 check can be made well in 
advence of the regular field season, 

It is suggested that the 1933 field investigations of chemical 
eradicetion in stream type include work upon the following sub jects: 

1, Methods for the destruction of R. inerme based upon the findings of | 
the 1932 work in Washington, This work should test previous conclusions and | 

HrortO” eu Yd HSet Imdoe aSH HD tow MEler—keer” vile” bag isis. to'a at 
eas “to dée6r2900 Sootth adé*et mar getq eta? ceef., asdue 3 

Sd lal tateb tsdsant 4X” e448 ¢add of at betslquids stron pore 

atroue, istisqs odd bea an tldge Benelisem-eveds acd es ‘berreter a! 

edolgnies 443 2ethode ‘egofray eff az bastinae “a6 ot 
hes atitwG selsiiabsll_ sd of ‘wether? 

ia omteard IO eqyt sa fied ott filehbte and #4 tgedta AS. ee ae 
gi bovot gdh to eeqyt Snal qb odd Hoge Lalxd aadtit r6t beeoqorg . 
stiviqgs af etatencs Behaermeset nO f¥asuom iagre to. Bosidon aft” eda 2, 
4¢ Belt fieos vidgootodt ott of gefstinarp Ilana” yoterefen at ‘piso im 
revaw faa efte dtod** 2tnalq bated igaoesh te etoct qos’ Sas enwors Sotal tiam 
weeals samr0t add Ko eimemireqxe edt at betest sd Sierode aalaa’ efdeleg 
feratsy ett te noreagt vd desd tot Bekuammeser af ‘Tio foeeit ab 098g 
ed od tt swode oved glatvt temtot tadd font ect bas (eon wel vs tl tdal fave 
od tegin dedt alte rwwdto asd? aseoqtrg eft tot tetied ton Yk boo, ea 

| | «stangive xeqqoo startet dn mobos. san? e6tao lint eons hr agxe Yeut ob orrsb, 

tasmqoloved sft .teot tedéret of Bed ttndie ad Bivore | ebtroult ‘my thes. bas 
to aottowrtesb eft at Jaftese of Sebastat qloo af Boris Yo Sqyt efdt to 
Vievies 92x29 st brad yi dotcdw to soitegthare edt staalq Lanolegono erent 


av tw aero wilt t0t wide FAAnNtindds elt servett”® igeott sav? maeriz oa 
eit Ltdmyr shoe od doamao , odo .¢gaeob «co ttas Migs to ebodies Sas cop bapa 
adooria guitge eft devordd eldaltave emooed elaird biett St€l edt Yo. etfuser 
“ete? evivaedetqres sit taht boyelied oi IT * Beer ate, bowro%s oq" od ot 
msiromns bas edaveltio amtbow Mttw (ECL ‘nt ders séfodane? sdf af betordaco 
etizrem avitaler odd gothisget eoash ve avieulomsoo deloxst Lite edanayoo ind 
| #oerree off eld ined wlan orf bivorly Wpod> ott elaotmeds owt seedt to. 

Tf | tees stanets an sca ow beet venaeob bits’ te Piao HGga %e abodt sa ‘edt ‘te rye 

© bens anno, at La PTE a 

seeit antirrayet Sawer ffLtw enti datid 0 LS. amro'e t aid estle 
~shiemmejex to woivalumrot teqotq eft ot Las tvy ad ot hershieqoo ef Pen 
“Bb flaw shan a6 mss Xosite Eber’ otf? tat equi et ¥F wow ‘orbiot 10% eno tt, 
é “esse Hist talegey edd Yo toeavee 

fsotmedio Ih gsnattagita svat blort peed. et? Sant hoteogyem ‘et + SARA SS. sae 

sedootdue gaiwolfot add noos arow shulomt eqyd meorte te? bctb ali iebee 

to age bhatt edd wegr hoesd sirpert 2 ‘to’ ‘Ro tfonr te ob x9 40% ‘aber $ ol 

| hg i 
||| See ead tecLoroo edotvarg teed Bivede srd9 stat’ ‘abt 3a tte a ni brow eeer ‘ef 


yh ol rN f 

should be conducted during June upon the bench and sand bar classes of 
site, or 

ge Wplue of draining inundated Ribee sites prior to thé application of 
chemicals, The trials relating to this sud ject should be performed upon a 
site similar to the upper end of the 1929 experimental area at Clarkia, 


3. Relation of underground plant parts and their environment to 
response of Ribes to chemical treatment. These stwlies should be linked 
very Closely with the chemical studies conducted by this project upon 
the controlled plot basis, They should be designed to discover if possible 
whether or not @ relationship exists between type of site end effectiveness 
_ of ‘chemical treatment, If such a relationship does exist, these studies 

and the results of the chemical experiments should be designed to furnish 
a definite basis for distinguishing the various types of sites prior to 
chemical treatment, cio oneggn 

“")" ‘Upland type Ribes: ‘The recommendations that are made for this 
branch of the work are exectly the same as those for the California species 
end ere intended to apply in particular to R. viscosi sgimum 

et 9 

(2, ovo volley Be, Offord, Agent, and George 3. Draper, Agent 

the. ‘eooperat ine agreement set up ‘in the spring ‘of 1930 ‘hetween 

the Davdaion, of Barberry, Sradication and the Division of Blister Rust 
Sentrol has been operative during the field season of 1932. In accord- 
anes, with the terns of, this agreement, laboratory, capexinants have been | 
undertaken, at. Moscow, Idaho, and field experiments at Maumee, Ohio, and 
Pennsylvania Furnace, Pennsylvania, The previous results of laboratory 
vend field experiments were used as a basis for the selection, dosage, 
and manner of application of the following chemidals: sodium ee: 
ammonium thiocyanate, copper complex, and zinc ammonium chioride, | 
eumary of laboratory findings. for barberry., and the application of. pen! 
findings to aaah a ig given in Part. III. ofthe, anaual. report for 
this. project. t, Part If,. deals. only with the results of 

pf apoio eal nil the. program ef field. work hasbeen under the. joint ” 
supervision of 3,,.C.. sabes. Pathologist-in-Charge, Division of Barberry 
Bradient ion, on... B.. Offord, Agent, Division of Blister Rust, Control.. 
All of the field work mipeeees herein has been undertaken by acerue. z. 
Draper, Soom “8 wh Treetuon ¥ 

the. 11930 pel ED gia 5 ay Ng gt A I RD gs COE ede Bk 
reuak at..Maumee,. Ohio, were. given a cursory check to note any departure 
from data taken in 1931,. The following observations were made: 

Spr by nis: Ali plots sprayed with sodium chlorate. 
er Atlacide atill cued 400. per cent.ki2] of barberry plants. No aproubiae: 
appeared in any of these plots. Mo change was apparent in the date taken 
over plots sprayed with pitch 11 in.1921,,. Those ushes which vere. 
Sprouting at that tine were stil) living. The data taken on the kerosene- 
sprayed plot likewise remained substantially the same. Due to the slow 
penetration of oils, it was thought that a second. year's check on oil- 
a@prayed plots might show a substantial increase in per cent kill. Such 

did not prove to be the case; it was noted, however, that on the plot 
sprayed with the keresene-phenol solution practically, all seedlings of less 
than 0.5 feet.ofJive stem were dead. The live stem reduction on bushes 
with more than 0.5 feet of live stem was not significant. 


EY PuAa 


jaenA (teqeaTd JE aytes) faa , dregs SfroPtO LK Le 


aeewted G86L to wnitqe edt ot qn tee snomeutys evivareqooa edt 
geod retalit Yo molaivid edz ons actiasfher® yrredrei to sotelvid edt 
~Hioses al Bel Yo mogesa Sol? ad? saburh evitvatege ceed eat lforztaed 
teed ovad etnenivecxs yrorstodal ,Jnenestgs efit Yo Barred adt dtiv soma 
bao ,ofi) ,sentrall ts atneattecre brett Soe ,oinsT ,woseot ia oevsdrshas 
ytotatodal te edineet avotverq ef?  etmevivenaed |, soan’ty'? sivav lypene4 
,ogezob .polioelee sid tet utied & aa beat etow etaamiteoxe bleit bas 
.stereids wrt bos :eLentmeds antwolfet edt to moltsoliqgs to Texaan bas 
A ,abivnoldo mrloomm ote bas ,xefemon teqyos ,etatayeotad mrtaomes 
gaodd te soivactiovdsa pas Sus yriedsad tot ayotbalt yietatalal te ytammve 
sot ocet Isuneem wit to TIL frst wt nevis ef emeidota bialt ov esatsadt 
to etioeet ati Mitw vino sieob ,1] tn24 ,¢toqet git .toetorg elds 
intot oi? tebe agad sad strow brett to mernote ed? .edneubtsoxe Slelt 
Ytteviad te acisivid ,egtsdd-al-getgolodied ,retex .> .f to aotaivieque 
evtaed tes tedallif to aolfeivi’ .¢aesd ,BtoT?O Hf LH bas ,aotseolbard 
.E sproed yl meaetredar seed asd alerted bedteger sitew Sfelt ed} to ILA 

S934 ,regsTT 
oidd sonal ts etnemiteqad OFe@f to soedoet A 

stnemtsoxnt Asad Lewhivibal Soa efsemttsoxe yaiyerge OS0L ed? 
sisdisced yon et¢oa ef Soety yitostso a geovig eiew ,ofd0 ,semral ta bearotteq 
ighicui etsy waeldavaseda aniwolfot eff I88L af cesisd ateb most 

ejateldo wrtbos dtie« Seywigs afeiq [14 teinemizecns nelyoic’ 
aihivotqu of .einalo veredtad to iif! deas t9q COOL Sewoain ILites ablos lta 19 
nea? ateh sdt of taevaugs eew sygato of .adolg seed? to yea af betaeqqa 
asew doidw eedand eved? .L8CL af Ike dodiq silw beyetca atolq teve 
-gaisesetss edt ao asdat ateb off paltvil ifhte orew cats tadd Ys gativorge 
gola add? of axl .eome alt yllatinatedva Benianst eetwatil tol beoywrge 
~fio ne avado e'tasy bscoee 2 dade dogrods aaw i .alto Te solletteaned 
dose fin daen tey ai seeston? Lattasteden s wede idpiom stola baystge 
delay eft ae tedd ,tevewod ,beton aaw i jesse oct of of avotg tom S15 
ancl to saciibses [ia yllacitoerg molimion Jomedig-saszotex edd titin beyoige 
esdast so soidguben mode evil edt .baed otow mete evil to teot 2.0 asdd 
jneoitiongts jon gaw mete evil to test &.0 aad? etom ttiw 

9 Atcerding te the 1932. check, all 
indd vidual: Sa gh ger ods 8, 9, and 10 (see below) were still 
100 per cent effective, though some changes in the 1931 data were noted 
for several, bushes, treated by, other,methods. , Of these changes the. foliow- 
ing are the more important: Bushes treated with arsenous oxide by method 
(2) produced shoots, several. inches, below the. portion treated; and bushes 
treated, with, copper, complex by method. (2). produced.shoots one inch fron 
the crow on @ large root. Hach of the chemicals, ammonium chlorids, 
ferrous amonium, enlphate, pitch oil, and, phenol applied according. to. 
method.{ 1): teaulted im one,edditional dive, bush the second year efter — 
treatment. »Metaod (2). resulted. in four new.sprouts according to the 1992. 
‘check; method (3) showed a decrease of four in the mumber of live tushes, 
method (4) @ decrease. of; two bushes, method (5) an. fanreese: of, root pothady; 
(6),an increase af) one,),ad method (7) dncrease, of. one,.. a. - 

rer the sake of te 

ten met bod) though perp ae ny onney: cape Pe of, nas a 4 doar sanaaanbion 
of: sald, barberry, wishes, from,heavily populated areas, it.bes, been recognized 
- thet, by. far the greatest-portion of the barberry eradication program is. 
wi th the. destruction pf, single, mshes,. For this reeson,. consider- 
attention was given to. individvel. tush’ trestwente. both, ot Maumee, Ohio, 

= and: 8. Pena sy) vaala. Furnace, . Ja Table No. 1 are summarized the results of 

the 1931 individual bush treatments at Pennsylvania Furnace, Pennsylvania, 

Methods Application Used in Individual Bush Treatments at Maumee, 
Ohio, 1930, and at Pennsylvania Furnace, Pa,, in 1931. 

1. Bush cut off through crown, groove cut in crown, filled with 
paste (1-5 grams). The word "crown" as used in this report refers to that 
part of the stem which is at the base of the plant and immediately above 
othe juncture of the roots with the stem. 

2. Bush cut off through crown, hole bored with a three-sixteenths-_ 
inch bit and filled with peste (1-5 grams). | 

aa 3. Crown lecerated and large roots exposed, email quantity of 
- saturated solution (2-4 cc.) applied, 

F 4, Top left intact, hole bored into crown and filled with a 
paste (1-5 Man, : 

5. Ome stem cut off at crown, groove cut in crown and filled with 
, @ paste (1-5 grams). 

Ile ,doatio SECL edd oF gakbtco9A atest? dagvd Fasrbivibal 
[itde erse (wolod eee) OL dus .@ ,8-ebedten w einentse1s dad Lavbty that 
beion stew ateab [20S edt at eegosdo ome chewods ,ovtioetie jaeo 19q OOL 
-wollot sf} sesaats seeds 10 .ebodism ‘sadto. Se ‘bsdastd eadesd [ete se tot 
boritam yf sbixo evoneets dd tw botaest eedav# stassiogmt etom edd ots gal 
eodend bog :betaets dotsiog edt} woled ‘ssdonl Lerevse atoode beorbotq (S) 
govt dont ano etoote beosbotq (S) bodtem yd xslqmeo teqgos diiw besser 
,ebitoldo mrtnomms ,alaol meio: od? to mai toot eatal a mo mwoto orld 
od patbtoses bellges Lonecig bas -fto dotig ,etedceloe suinoams esotrst 
aeits teey boos © oft dard evit Lanotstess sito mi bed iveey At). bositem 
Beer edd og gnthtésse girotcs won tvot at bed tire ot (&) boddel -dhemtaett 
7 eeaane evil to tedmim sd? at -tsot to sasetoed a bewors (8) bed¢ oat Ts ait 
botitem . ows to” sesgToct as (a) bodsem wonder Ged ‘to° seaetseh 3 (ay ‘bedtem 
- Piet +8tro ‘Yo ‘seaoton! ats “€%) Seddon beled + SHO" bod ‘eadetat: a8 a2) 


29st? Wee at an Nebo te 32 eioecd eer? Hoot La ae 

soitaothars edd vei sorts %o° ‘a: hfivow Yate ovEsseyte: as" iegiionth a 
bexingéset ased sad #2 , exerts Seda isqoeylivesd mort eaderd Taebcae 1 thane Yo 
el rarrgotd” net Sag Loans yriedtes eds to fofdrog JesieoTs edt tat yd pads 
-1sdi anes ‘ oeset stad Tet jeederd @igaie th nottsrtdéoh offs dot ‘hawreon09 
oft lesaral ga dted ¢inseteetd Hesd Lavbivibat-of ger te raw nebinetins efda 
‘to dé ives oid hoe ftenuwe O78 f° o8 olde? al seoertsy. aksav fyesnes ta baa 
Stasy iysnce’ _ epee ‘ghiov Iyeated vig aia ond ard dake SactG fx LEME ‘Teenveds 

Rema $8 einemserT dass fap acbivtbol at boal nol tag tiga’ ‘tee sbontew™ 
ESL £ of at 39 sSORnTUy _ataey iysnne_& 3s 28 208e4 pt 

ddiw beilit ,mweto mi ts avoorg per dgsrotdd ‘tt0 yong sient wy 
jane oF etetev froget edd at S6en ea “awoi* Hrew oit .lam@rs a-1) sJaag 
oveda ie gen Bete taste oft Yo @ead ede taal de thw meta oft to dtaq 
oO ‘pete emt dtiw edoos 6ds Yo ews saw hl Sds 

HH ~e1id nO66R Fo “eet? a adie eer alos mots dgsotdif te tro Hest Ss 
i! enats @ ~L}) sdeeq ‘ag iw penstt ben® bol inser 

to Saeed rane | Bevoers, adda kei bite’ pesanesat aoe gic 
bet iqge t vo #9) ener a vag boteentas 

ait te w Bett are fwo'Ts” ‘ott dered ‘ston oath stot 55 i Sete On 
| ett "a-1) ota: 

dt te borer? bea: iad haat 08 er ears “awons to '¥t0 108 one gad 8Be Oras 
ee fe eae G1). sean: 8 

6. One stem cut off, piece of rubber tubing fitted on and filled 
with a saturated solution (5-20 ‘cc.). 

7. Crown grabiga, aus, ‘paste applied to ‘Foot’ eu thus exposed, 

| | Chearieael Ueod and Concen- |cc. 
| Plot Numbers - 

a Satter ante at base of plant removed; a chemical in 

EW ici s-aGh fon 4 ee applied to soil about crown, 

decrees Pass Fitter atotase of plant removed; 50 to 75. per ceat of 
surface of exjpeed port: tions } oF Yeots and crown lacerated; a chemical in 

22:Slea arated te ee -wokutic “or solid f form applied to exposed roots and erown. 

ti ___bimonium thiceyvanate 20% | 236] 70, 

2 Cia es te ae aie Vitter at tase of plent removed, Bush out off through 

22) oo ee CERT asa solid or in aqueous solution applied about 
ne : . 1 i 

~ oe amon L ac. eyenate &% | 118] 6.01 
io(3 RE See -Atlacide See i iy 
+ - 

tne erat bo Aityand clerity in subsequent discussion, the 
af Anéividual- -t¥ea tient are grouped under four general 

ey may be. described-as follows: (1) Application of an aqueous 
aio SOTUtion or. 8eliGschent cal “te thé sofl around the crown; (2) subsurface 
isii0.12, PPL i eatiex of, Base ous chenicals; (3) application of small volumes of 
Bea Bia rate solution by tubtlation; and (4) injection of a glycerine paste 

yr. Combiex 

ates. by ‘menns-of & special tool. 

lio, 11,12,1,2.2 h5y60? 
|3,24, 13), a(7.,8} Greek 
ies 0, 11 Bo, ah 623,27 0) 
119), Bfs ph2.32. 
poe Cresk Bank. 
| | Cee 
[B25 _ Ie. 


JauPont, ws 

oo __1GuPont Sajid 
[pls = ~faubons se 
Ae 22). Outside bres |® thylene Oxide 190% 

\ eee |, spylane Oxide} 
Cer eh aD - Ee aprlene. 

de Arce 
|c22, B(16,19), 3 

Ja(16,17,19), M4: 

Annual Report 1932 
H. R. Offord and G. E. Draper 

| «=«- He LIED hes we SoSFIT gaided tsddar To agekq 310 tao weda ea0- Ja 

i ‘ . 
| i} . a) c-) sori lod besmivdat & dota 
. itt hesouxé eons ebs toot’ od Beles sceae4 5 sare: begets neow ite 
I of faviasds & ;bavonet iaalg To deat $a wedtit éomteie 8 
ia We wet erode Lioe oF bes fat® aot” bifee te notisior ae . | 
} ri ee 
» i 4 to re 4 ise BT-69 OS jbovenmet tealg To sead 36 Sesstt sae .& , 4 | 
i i cb La9bmbt a phaderseal wets Bas etoot eo esotitog Gseecks toa sosxtise . | 
cH Wie anbts! ‘bas 2fbo% Sseoaxe of Settags ater bi foa 10 wortntos ” ‘esdesDS eeeinas 
i an 
, i davotd? 20° duo cevt” jPevcttet Jaale Te esa -ve cedtis eswmme® ol) hie 
HI trode betlcqs softsles s#0etpe nid bilo see Yodete [é> tinea baa aw 
| | is gies -£m0"%9 
| i aij ,mokeermeis drvacp eed tre at gaprvigi* bee eihvued to odes en ae 
i fatsnss “ect tebne Socsst& ova toomfaant Nerd “Larhivi bar ta eboddem set 
ahh q -goeeweea aa Yo aefdsglleqh& Ef) rewelfot as befitesss of yan yet? aborites | 
AM aocttiadins (8) pees sho Settota ffoe ed of Leo tawds Silos te notsiwfoa . | 
if to agamrroy {fame Yo nofteotiqags (€} :elsotesds enveass to Soltanrtleds P| 
| steag satreoyts % Horsso tat ($) Sas jHottalaled qd aotreloe be tety aoones : | 
at 4 . food fatooge e) » stem ee eet Pat FF 
| | j | 
! im f | 
i I ] 
ih}! Z | 
iN | 
| ai 
Ht | . | 
Wil i Ki \ 
We Gq 
MAW p | 
i} , | i Te 
Me . . | 



| 3 LG s a c fey a 
\ wh! hey s i 
Mt th ¥ salle 3 i , RSE a 



r : jee ee aa cae ae 7 
Paes | 
| Grams H 
Per Linear | Per | 
j Average} 100 Feet Cent |Per Method | 
Avorage| Grams | Feet j|Live Number |Live |Cent of 
| Chemical Used and Concen- |cc. Per) Per Live | Stem Bushes |Stem | Bushes Apoli-| | 
| Plot Numbers | tration (By Volume) Bush | Bush Stem |Treated|Treated|Killed|/Killed)cation) Date of Application | 

_ } i | July 14,31; August 12,12,| 
(10,12,22) ,¢(16,17, 20) rhydrip 40% =| dod 42.0] 0.6 | 12,550) 32 | 85 84] ._.2 {14 September 2.8 anes ix 
327) 5 0( 24,5) ______ | Copper Complex 10% _______ {____158| 16.0] 4,2] 2.60] 7 | 58 | oO) 2 |Judy 14,15,25 
2). s0(2,3,4,5,6).__ [Copper Complex 25% | __78| 20,01. _&.2 | 3,025] 8 eo --24duly Ms 12428 _ Bera ae 
Copper Comp) ex_: A OE AIRE SET “ig [ee | oe aly 29.90. _ 
G(10¢11,16,19.20,24.2, | | | 
3,4,5,12,13,21), B(9, | | 
10,11,12,1,2;3,4,856.7. | | | Aveust 2,5,6,7,8)10,12, 
8,24,13), A(7,8) Creek | | 13,14,20,21,25,26,27; 
{Banc _ ___1 Copper Complex 35%. ____ te ---11])___ 39.0] 9.6 }_66,110]__167_-| 94 | als September_1,2 
C(10,11,20,21 ,23,17,16, | | eb | 
|19), B(3,6,9,11,12,22, | August 6,7,14,21,28,2°, 
3,24,19)_ tetok Gate. Worn Gamtex dod. ._..2-| sel gaol 40. 2| 46,820} 80__ 272 | az ---3{313 September 1.2.2 ___ 
__-_ | Copper Complex 40% i ea See eet" 37s eee ee torte aaa viy14_ es ~*d 
[B26 Copper Complex 40% _ 278] -111,0}° 51.0 | 3,700] 37 [a1 | 3s] 5 [July 24 = 
jp2o dL Copper Complex 40% | ea RTE =1s600}}. |. 99") 0 Sn eee 
Copper Complex Solid ____|__- _|1,255,0|_1040 | 1,mo] 1 | 20 ole lguyis 
104,18) ________{ duPont —_______| 184] _9,0] 2,4] y.o25l os | ssl ol a lmiy ia = 
________________] duPont 5 -- 2500. 125,0| 55,5 | 22s] [es ToT a lely le - 
O58 Ne A000! aes July Ole 
116,0 | 1,250) EES 3 IJuly 15, August 14 

{agli ___ 350) 
I" 35,4 | 14,9281 16 _ 

___ 5,2. 250! ___) 

--5{July_Sl, August 21____ 
oe BS J) ye ee 

Zine ‘Ammonium Chloride 

Annual Report 1932 
EH. R. Offord and G. E. Draper 


J Ss dD 
Ke @) cp 


| | the order ef the four general bethois as the preceding 
paragraph arranges them in decreasing order of practicability for field 
use. In the first group chief interest centered about the toxicity of 

| ammonftis thiocyanate. Data 4h ‘hehe No., that, in. the quantities a 
tae gga ete chemical did not effert eonetstently: ‘gooe kill, Zine amaoniun 

_ “chloride and copper complex might be similarly deseribed. As a killing 

| pagent, the concentrated aqueous solution of these chemicals wessuperior 

es. $0 the: dry: form. Even distritmtion: of the ghémical ovér the ground 

[2 ia wmperjacent to roots. seemaot> be quite important. and is 
°° apparently accomplished. better im fnec a dare eens rv os ‘solution than” 4 
52° withthe ieekee, = ee) | 00! | 

Byes, ae ten Us fideo (>) Lay "8 
B, 230 [7 
Ee sens Luton hytene mers mee ‘100 a deh #trective, ve canndt be” 
2,24, recommended. for, ‘general a ipornt ust. Sines the chemical must be. empaies: in. 
[524 & senies, jafheles about the bushjas | a aubsurfsceomppbi cation, - Ate use - 
[co,n'o) WouLa pole to those sites dn which | the $01] was loose enowgh to. 
ow 8 prod: Po d to enter; mat ag sy ouch, te abe ia, the highty Volatile mr 
bl.) Aare Clay surfaces, rocky se, and, very Nogky erownd.would: 
agent ce. of the more aifficalt aes ‘for, ‘application, - Exopylsin 
no Oxide, which-hasja higher boiling poinb: than éthylene oxide, might be more - 
eer __practival : siéc-d4t( ould be produeed cleanly esoughy: | The. other. aca sah Wc tried 
i pa method: did not prove tebe df) ay wMldNe 70 |0.08 | 9.09 10.270 | | 
oat 1 7 12/1 Aucontun thi evanate 0, 45) ___ so! 173 | 2,360 |o,03 | 0.29 [0.014 | 2.) | 
| he “third generat “a ebiiea “hat Eau wes tren quite an 
a extensive “trial,, Ry Tks treatment, of ie is apolicable. only to large 7 
|o20, wishes, and Wes given & test| because o ts ‘possi ple. sé on estates and 
loei,o Perks. where it ts necessary to, kgep the. ‘Qhent confines ptrictly. to the 

[8.212 3aeh) reated, OF. ‘Several “giadegis [tented ta gt Soper, Gogiplex. prayed 
aan, | Ty , MESt, ‘suitable for tubulation becauge of) ite oe id entry and ready 

@ “the stems and roota.  the- ‘resus. oF the 1922 cheek, 
om vi On 4 apoarent- that: ‘the eee peaibe cai: in 
f Mable Moy 2 Was 2 mot: teecteaas bE meee ; 

a 0 $8 2 | 
TE ' . , ease ‘theek of the Maumee 

: ual epraying teats ware mi canal “as Ponnsylvenia Furnace, 
(«) Conbennsyivania, in July aad.duguss.of the seme year, The Pennsylvania plots 
(>) Butt were. Biegtee tr Fone of idea ‘wave the results as shown in the following 

(e) Seed 

(4) on » bables: experimental area in Mr. Geo Irwin's pastu 
plot ast of norba end of exper inate al ares. 

Anrua? Report 19% 

BH. R. Offord and G. # 


untbeosig eff af sevis 2s ehodtéem [atenes tiret edi to 1ebto edT 
Sfolt rot vttitdaciseartg to tehte golssetoeb at mold esegaaTis sqetgsts¢ 
to ysinixod off dmroda Seredaes festeink tside qrotg tetit ad? al eer 
asitiijcsop off at ,tedd wode [ of oldaT at ated .etansyootds mriaonmms 
mrtsoms paiS [fit boon yltasdsiamos gosttse ton Sth Isotmeds eldd ,bear 
nriiftt s aA bediveeeb yitalinte ad tdyin xefomoo teqqos bas ebitolido 
tofvegmaase sisnimedo seedt To weltalea exoesps bstatineonos end .trene 
bavets of? tsv0 Laotmedo edd to notdmi intel eovi vemot yrh edt of 
at bua tastiocmt efiie od of emese atoct of iasostteqve yflotsth samt 
nadd motéeloe exowps beistinesnos edd dil xstied badetiqmoscs ylinestsqqs 
»bifoe oft dtiw 

ef fonuso ti ,evitestte nso teoq COL saw ehixo enefydtes dayodt la 
at betices od tamm Isotmedo odd exut® ees bislt istemes tot Sebssmmoet 
ear ast ,aotiaoiiqgn sostinedye = aa dead edd tuods easfod te seeliee 4 
od dgroxs seool esw [toe odd dobiw al gette oeedit ot bedimil ed biyow 
elitaloy yidgin sid ateset o2 dyrone Jelom fxs .teine of bot boty a wolls 
birew Sarota woot yrev bas ,segbel wioot .esostwe yalo bisa .{Iao isco 
eneiygqeti .tetiaocif{ggs tot gaofst&aon slop ittrS stom off to empae Faavetget 
etom of tdgtm ,ebixo ensiydis gadt djatoy gatifod tedgid 2 ead doidw , shine 
borg efaotmede tedjo off .thaoone ylqe0odo Deorbotd ed Hiro i 2 Lastioaig 
euisy wis to ad ed evotg Jom bib bosdsem atdd yd 

me stiop aevia esw .coltsiudsd To Jad: ,bodtom [erenes brtdd sit 

estsl of yiao sidacticcs ak ,eetros to ,dnomtsotd efit .faiss svienetxe 
bus setates ao eer eldiaaog eft to gacsoed geet # asviy, saw bas ,aecesst 
eit of ylteicde beafines Isolimsro edd gqeex of yiseaeoen eit sf eredw adteq 
beveta xeigaee reqgoo , [Sel ak betes? alastaeds Latsves TC .beiacts das 
yoast bas yidas bigest sti te eemsoed aolialmist 10% oldative teom od of 
tosis SS@L sdf¢ to etimset odT etoot Sos emete edd dgvord? fasmerom 

ak beofesthal Isotmeds to ytiinawp add jad? taetaqqs ti ebom ,tovewod 

idaeb etuene of gnetelttiwe fox aaw [ .o% sidef 

xsggoo ,exttesyin « goisoe{al tot food bempteeS yllatoscqe A 
ed of boiéem aids bewode sousitecxt  faltt s seviz oe{s saw steag xelqms 
botalcsegans ate ateet seiitiet om dads yrofosteliassy 08 

asmrali eft to xoedo LhCL old aott bermee ativest to zlead edz a0 
goss atnaviyenne’. ta cham otsw etaet yatyatce [anottibba .sidemitecxe 
afola ainsavyiyenne off .teey emae sit to denvgvd bow Yiet at ,etoaviyeansS 
gcckwolfot ef? ai awode ea adiseot eit dé¢iw SkCL to sagt at besloeda stew 



Sa ee 
| nt Jie | | | 
| Quanity App? tec ed __ a | 
Jons Pounds | | | 
Live Per | Per |Live 
Date Concen- Stem Gal- | 1C0 |} 100 |Stem | Bushes 
| of ) tration (a) Number |Treated| Jons | Feet Pounds! Feet |Kitled Kitted| 
| Treat- in Pounds |Gallons|Bushes |Linear | Per j|Live Per | Live |Per Per | 
Plot Number ment Chemica? Used Per Galton | Used |Treated| Feet Bush | Stem Bush | Stem |Cent Cent 
Se eos ——— — —— ———S—=— —= ——_—_——_=—— Fah Oe eee —— See ee ——————d 
23. —=s«dw /e/Silatiactde (b) 
Bees eieeide cs = ot 
By aL ae Atlacide (> en 50 | 
B223y ___|2/re/s)|atrectae __ _ 0,80] yo | 23 uy 
E oe ar ee aon fas | 
[3,22 7/17/31| Atlacide 1.40 J) Aig), «8 t 
AIO «dS; 7/24 ee ee Atiacide (b) + Glue e(c) eal 40/0.05| 2.00 | {245 | 
Bae4) 7[16/31| atlacitde (b) 4. am Re | 
Beet Nnrefailattectae Ba ch “Veale a9 0k 
eal | 


Atlacide (b) + Glue (c) 2.00] 0. sel 85 312 [0.012 | 0.32 10.024 

Atlacide (b) _2.00 ol |g 5. £0 4 0.16 [0.260 | 0. 32 96 
weneeide €o). sh Sh BO s | 4,460 10.12 | 0.12 |0, 320 7 | 27 | 

8/20/31! atyacide vice eee 2.70| | 1.40| 32 | 1,792 0,12 | 0.72 0. 
8/20/21; Atiacide (bd 2.70 1.00 61 218 |0.016 | 0.31 10.043 | 0.84 

1 g/20/s1latiacide (bd) 3. 40 5.75 a4 _| 5,301 |0.068 | 0.11 |0.20 | 0.37 | 100 05 % 
Cy1e ____ | 8/20/3)| atiacide 3. 40 1, 60 20 | 1,740 |o.08 | 0.09 |0.270 | 0.21 | 99 7 
B20 7/18/2)| Ammonium thiocyanate 0.45] | 4.50] 173 | 2,260 10,03 | 0.39 |0.014 | 0.09 | 58 a | 
[B20 7/24/31| Amm nium thiccyanate + Glue(c)| 0.4510.05| 2.25| 69) | 2,247 |0.00331 0.10 10.002 | 0.05 | 46 
ayy, 7/18/21| Ammoniun thiocyanate  _ 4.00 | 126 | 3,540 |o.03 | 0.11 |o.040 | 0.15 | 82 7 
1 8/24/3)| Ammonium thiocyanate 5.90 51 5,350 | 0.098 0.09 |0.130 0.16 16 
2 i 
sii P)AG | ah ieee iam ad peyannke" 6.00 | 117_| 4,070 |0.05 | 0.12 10.140 | 0.32 

7.79 | so | 3925 [0.13 | 0.09 Jo.ss0 | o.24| 96 | a2 | 

| c21,¢ ‘227 | 8/24/31} Ammonium thiocyanate 

1, Ammonium thiocyanate 

OT! 2 5.00 Results very poor; no date taken. 
100.00l_ 3.75 ss | asso [o.oce | oar tomo Lora} es | ai 
Cresylic acid 98.00]2.00| 3.00 | 475 0. aes [o.042 [1.07 | 28 | 18] 
Cresylic acid Qp 4,00 0 99 | 1,0 = fono7a | ose {a To 
Phenol 93.00/2.00| 1.38 4,250 0. 024 [9.08 10.160 | 0.20 | 16” 0 
yr idine 98.00/2.00| 1.00 3,158 0 
g/20/31|Purnace o11 + Pyridine ool s.00] 3.00 Fea cece ae 
(ere 7/20/31 Atlacite 1. 40} Q.12 | Very little reduction in number of plants. 
| 0. BO Q, 25 a 
[5 7/20/31 at acide 0. 45! 0.25 Very 1ittle reduction in mumber of plants. 
a 8/6/31 | Atiacide [2.70| 4.25 estimated 98 to 99 per cent kil}. 
[eee | 7/20/31 Ammonium thiocyanate 0. 45 Very little reduction in number of plants. 
Le ofzefsiamontan vikeevanate. 2.00 0.75 Bstimated 85 to 90 per cent kilt. 
1 | 7/20/ 21| Furnace oi) + Cresylic acid 98.00| 2.00] 0.05 | Very little reduction in number of p’ants. 

(a) Concentration as given for o11 sprays is per cent by volume. 

(0) Buffered to pH 6.5 by Chipman Chemical “ngineering Company. 

(c) Seedling plot sprays. 

(ad) On plot outside experimental area in Mr. George Irwin's pasture. 
(e) On plot outside and east of north end of experimental area. 

Annua? Report 1932 
H. R. Offord and G. E. Draper 



Examination of the data in Table No. 2 shows that for Atlacide 
(0.89. to. 3.4. paunds. per. g@llon of water). the requltant. per cent kill varied 
between 22 and 100. In the 1930 tests at Maumee, Atlacide (1.4 to %. 4 
pounds per gallon of water) killed 98 te 100 per cent of the tushes. The 
same year sodium chlorate (0.45 to 2.7 pounds per gallon) accounted for 11 hy 
96 to 100-per cent of the bushes, Several reasons are advenced to explain — ili! 
_ these apparent discrepancies, The unusual drought experienced at: Mewmee “at 
in 1930 undoubtedly contributed in part to the mortality of busies.~ It is 
also true that the bushes at Memes were generally such smaller and less 
at ‘those treated at Pennsylvania Furnace. Perhaps the most 
rtant etor which influenced results was the lower dosaces sed at 
Lia a Furnace, For the above mentioned range of concentrations, 
_ lacie was used at Pennsylvania Furnace in dosages varying from 0.04 to 
0. 84: pi per,100 feet. of live stem, At Maumee, Atlacide was enplied at |||! 
. te of 0.80 to 1,26 penal. per OR sa ¢ iv. ia for ‘the concen- - |) in 
Ligzatiee Fraps nated above. cee | | 

meres heuer Jomtoaten eee wag hae ee | first a ‘abe ee eer | 

Cae in 19 . Reference to Table No, 2 shows that the icii}ing action of | 
-@queous Atlacide or ammoniua thiocyanate | Spray.on barberry is determined? © ||| 

““partly by the weight of chemical per 106 feet of live stem and partly by 

» the, concentration of the spray. solution, — Apparently there exists a certain 
minimun concentration for effective spray work. Data in Table Wo, 2 show 
that csgeeageeanaes _— is less texte — for pene. than sodiwn chlorate. 

ya rc ae ‘he tacts “r the yes. wae at Wako tania Fisages and ‘the Wit 
1930 tests at Maumee, oil aig can be tonip cond ruled _ of consideration ai 
as = ie poebip a : ms gleen be. woll eee 4 ont ne 

cawe’ $07 a le 20, ‘limited hime porns man. ‘porers: anise two ebuehaniv vere. = 
tested, by. spray. application ab Pennsylvania Furnace in 1932, Efferts were 
oon to.a study of the minimus anount of emoniue thiocyanate end 
m.Chloron, ® pre ary, chenical,, required. per 100 feet.of stem te 
The latter chemical —re wos tested lergely tecavse of 
the: cledms, pdvanced: by its, mamufecturer,. The plan of experimentation nie 
| the application to different plots of one concentration and different: 
| >Lume 8 of... solnt ion,» 100. feet.of stem. The method was not entirely 
successful as consi: rable difficulty was encountered in making the punp 
consistently. deliver the eame volume of solution with each stroke. Hed time 
permitted, it. was hoped to. make. the exoeriment extensive enough to. show the 
most. efficient. concentration end the. mininun poundaze of chemical: per adh 
feet. of stem sem eee weeks bine Boni & een a worsesy: of. here 
SARATIRERS Ss Biwi mek. me +7 

as Sa Pe ape ie ee 
Pa. (EAS AA DRA aL f 


shioalté tot gadd ewods & .oW8f elds? ai atsh ed? to aoltanimaxd 
beftsy [ibi tmag teq tasdiseor oft (t0etsw to molien req eabasog 2:8 of 8.9) 
h.2 of A.L) ebkosivA ,eomrsli ta etdeod OFOL adt al .OOL bas SS seowted 
eit .eedend add? to dneo te¢ OOL of BC belli (xetaw to solieg toq ebamog 
sot Betesrosos (aolisg teq¢ ebawog T.S of 8).0) etoaroldo mribos Issey emse 
ntelgxe of beonavhs sts exosset I[ateve® .estend edd to ine teq OOL oF 6° 
seuveli ts boomoitsexs sdycot) Lesemmy efT .eelousgetoeth tnetaggs osedd 
et $1 .eerend to ysiledtom edé of disq at Sesoditisos yLbetdmobay OSeL ai 
s20f baa teliame doom ylistones stew senwali te sadesd oft Jadd ord outs 
geom edit sqadtel  .eosatyt stoaviyenoed fa bstsett oeodd aadt esotcaiv 
$a boast e@wecb tewol edd esw odinect Seonerital doidw totest taattoqml 
-eaotiaténgesos to syiurt Sonoltaen eveds edt tof .sosmtl alasvivennet 
ot SO.0 mot? aatytsay eegeeod af eonntel stasviyaanel ts Sear esw ebiosltA 
ts Setlows ess ebtos{tA ,semval t4 meta evil Yo seet OOL t08q shasog 48.0 
-~xeoxeo eff tot mete evil to test OOL teq ebacog B&.f of 08.0 to stat edd — 
.wods Seton epast moltat? 

sicevivenas’ je amt? setit edd tot beer saw stanayooids mrinomma 
to aoltes aalkiité add sadd awede 6 .o aide? of sonetetei .[60L af eoartet 
Hemisisded el yrtedtad so yatqe etencypotd? ainomm zoe sblosita esoanps 
yd yituaq bas mete evil to test OOL tsq¢ Laoisedo to tefytew odd yd yittag 
xtagtes @ adaixes stadt yLtaetsgcA .aolivler yetqe edt to softtettasonos sds 
wode & ok sidsT at ated tow yates evidootte set aoltatiasomoo aumiain 
eferotds metbos nadt basog tot Sayogq ofzod eeel ai stansyootds muinomms jad? 

ait bas esemst atasviveanes’d ga eteos ([59L sdt to elead sd? 20 
aofterebienes to tvo bale yletiaiteb od cao aystae Lio , seme ts eteet 0S@L 
toons naliiinl es 

GSCI ph span sigeyiveanel $s asuiajieba etoomtiegx? aatyeige 7 

eiow elsolmedo ows yiao ,teweg asm bas omid botimil of gatwO 
stew 2370%t% SEL al soasts't atuaviyeaneS da seotdavilags yatqa yd Sotesd 
bas etansyooid? mlacume to davous mymtaim edd to yhvte a of beaitaos 
o¢ mate ‘to deat COOL teq Gerinvet ,Iaotueio yisteitqetg & ,notoLi oxrlo led 
to vsanaoed ylegtel bedeet asx bavoames iscimends sedial edT .dised emane 
befisa nottataemitegxs to asiq edT ctetistosivasm ati yd beonsvbs amtalo edd 
dnoiettib bea soltertnesnon sno to atole dmetsttlo ot sottsotigqa eft t0% 
ylortiae jon eaw boddem iT mete to feat OOL 19eq meligios to semlov 
qevg edt entiem ot betetnvosse aa Yiinolltib sidetabieasoo as Inteaeoore 
guid bet .exorde dose déiw sotisloe to emufov ames elt toviieh yLinese tenon 
fit woe o¢ dycons eviensixes snemitecne odd adam o¢ beged aew Jf , bettintec 
OOL voq facimeds to agahascy mrataim odt bas notiatinsenon tnefoltic Jeom 
ezadt to yismure w eevig & .off ofdaT {fbf ste{qmoo 10% mete to seek 
inom itogns 

pore in 1922 a 



© thaa’spraying. Sodium chlorate, amoniun thiocyanate, ,ané..Calciun Chleron’. 
owere’ selected for é. » Field: ‘trial of the effectivenses of,9011 applications. 
hy. rietary compound, wat the. experimental _ 
tests to evaluate th 2 attractive week IKMiling properties claimed by its ~ 
urere, Preliminary tests, however, did net substantiate some of 

re ‘these claims. It is very “objectionable to handle either ss a°solid or in © 

)_polmtion teceuse ofthe evolution of copious fumes of chlorine. gud, 
consequently, ‘gannot be considered asa To substance for ‘future work 

Sis the chemical SMM HBO Dt of barberry.. “8, ‘ 
 Sodimm chlorate, solution was, amiiei. shyt. the. akg: of the bash 

oa iat 
“by means of a en pe spray unit.” “The” whirl disk was removed from the» 

% f more rap id flow of. solution, © To minimize the fire 

iggy me and Caleta ih sna were eppitet in similer 

: - Considerable Le tone tia was given bi oil, perth seas of bhient eat ; 
a at in solid andaqueous form, since earlier.experiments indicated that a method || 
| | Dom- ef seal treatment would’ require less ehemica). and. would involve less. labor © 


gard, all of Pas soil Dep liaatiene of sodiin chlorate were mefie in aqueous | 
| 188-928 _ Solutions, containing not: more then 0.89 pounds of sodiwn chlorate per 


; fH | I} (heltacd 3 ae ere 
| | | Sotfocs xis dman 

508 SUGAT 

MARTSS Clu iiss on i situs 
a (Recut : a ea fam Mad a 


edt | | 

i} | eek Golan) 
Nt {Loe dmed> | te%. 
1OOL xeGj'OOl 
7 é 3 

peal) a be ie 

bia neeo ont cf mee vate 98. 


6. japt 3 2 
ee ee 
ibis iteds 26 to; 00 oatd heetgad sie add we pha tects been _yeatetgers * 
i. oo = e8am 

8% soomufl stosy iyense9 ta Asset r0 ont stasutvocxs i sots teo8 Joa Loe oi 
| ; Et 

| aoe to sotisoliqgca {foe ot re sow goljnetis old ere bbaaso de 
| Doddem o gedit Sodantbul adasmttegxe teiliae eoute ,mmot sucespsbas biioa at 
todel exaf avlewat Bivow bie Iagtmede “eest etioper Ainew tasadteet? Ifoe. te 
sotold) myrisiaS bas ,etanayoolds carkapoma ,adetolia sythot .yatyetqe sad? 
en6itsotiggs Eee te seetey! soeti4 aiff Yo feiad Hiei? w ret ‘Betoelee oT ew 
| ‘Tadnentteere atid at Bebtinal ecw , bavoomée Yiste rqetg ® ,ROr0IdD ovtotes 
att qd°henisio esitteqoty gall tht toow ovitsathia ‘at Bhar ove of egegt 
to sie Stettastedys Sor BIS jtovewed ,atoot ‘“teckat ford: evourjes tras 
ai to Biles ses tadtie 6lbead oF eliancliostds Ytov al 3i .embefo “a2 4d 
,bee eritoide to eoewt asolqeds to aottefove aff to seregef nolivlos 
aor ow _ Tet ented ad ne Eas tes ang” a @n Sevghianon of tobasa” eltienp dando 
i : erie tad +) cotssetqaee fas tues. oat itt 

oe a 
tee bo 

HR | iiasd eit $e itad ord tases pir iogn’ saw nobtotee otto tits: perry te ia 

Hh saidv meri Bevemot ese werh Itidy ed? “lt taw Ystqe aseeqard 2 to snteor vd 
if Orlt sib eetmbinte of Mokteide to wort Steet erém weTl# of elsaca Yige 

li arosups af sham etée etatolas athe t¢ sHotdsotiqad Fes ‘edd to Tis  brarad 
teq etetolide mriboa te ebouog 08.0 aed? etom stom gutatatacd’ ‘edetdetoa 
i talimte af Sailoqs grew moreid) myfoted bas edaneyootdt saurincomés. collay 

fashion avd in the same concentration. Since previous experience showed 
that ammonium thiocyanate was less toxic than sodium chlorate, the former 
chemical was vased in larger ‘quantities ‘per 100 feet of live stem. 
<amaboiaw “gett ep Pheseteut of the ary form of these chemicals were made 
according +o the technic used in the regular salting treatment. In the 
1tcation of solid ‘amaoiiiwa thiocyanate the dosage was prescribed partly 
on the results of leberatory tests on the comparative toxicity of sodiua 
chloréte ‘and ammonium thiocyancte and partly on the results of some 
liminary field’ ‘tests made ‘by Dr. W. W. Melander, State Barberry Leader 
of ‘iiznesota. “Although application of solid sodium chlorate cannot be 
sentient for re; field use becase of the fire hazard involved, 4 
‘bushes were” 30 ‘treated to “Complete the series of experiments on & 

comparable: padis. 

apie, ee "ere “ait in —" jieviien Draper from perform- 
Sib laté-season check on the 1992 experiments at Pennsylvenia Furnace. A 
sumnary of these experiments is presented in Table Wo. 4: 


A Live 
| Cone. [Stem — 
jin Buches|Treat | 
‘| Dbs. Treat-| -ed_ 


q t 
‘ | 
\ | 
: H 
| { 
Ta ee : 
\ | 
if \ 
} i 
i : 
| i 5 
| | 
7 iG 
4 | 
tf i i 
De ie 
nh : 
| : 
\} : 
| o 
I : 
aie % 
f | 
i i 
i VF ot 
] Hy 
ti g 
} ; 
, | - 
anal 2 
| : 
| | 
i an 
MH : 
| At 
} ia 
' Te ; t 
ae es F 
j 1 ‘ 
The | 
t ft . 


ee re pee 


emens eomees, 

heroce ssvelteqe srotverq eonte® woltatisesnos omex ond mt bee notdest 
Tom10% até ,Statolia mukkoe cadi oimot seet ean : mulaqman tats 
mote Svit Yo toer OGL eg aelettnesp renter SE Sear ese Leo bnedo 

ebem stow elaninedn saedt to mrot yb ad? to enottantiaqga [tot 
end al .inembeerd gatclae tategor ent af bent siniined ent oF gaprossa 

ylittar Seditseste eew sgee05 eff etazusyootds mvinewma biier to a0 lian tiqga 

mrtbee te ysintxe? evitatagmo edi go ateet yrotatedal to eimeot edt mo 
emne to etlvee; adj ac ylting bos etansyooliid atv rocseme Dre, edet0 Ilo 

te6se) yrredisd state .teinsled WW. .w .xd vd ebse eteod dLalt fexq 
ef Jouiso ede@toldy atitboe Silos to woltsailoon sgwods ia odor enti Ro. | 
& [bovlowet Strasse otf off to Surccot eer brett tairget tot Serahtenco 
a nO etasatenccs te eolter ead stelqace ot Matec oe orow — wat i 

. ~wroh tse MOTs Tegetd ors @tencpeix al ‘ipaiaieda Blekt A: f ce 

& eal steay yeened te etuembieqxe SfCf ‘edt mo needs monass-etal s gat “ 

18,04 efdel ak Hetneeesy ak aiid one iit, ha Sracee! ; 
. . : a? * : Cs wate d ieee x», Ey 

Ser Tae d Muay iveiuns 

at | .ef60)to soak) owt (pueda aldarabts 
Leo toed Postc® | Setrow > node | +t wmoedhe? covmens b 
QOL “S) To feos toot] ther? vernon BEDE Pee 
to toot} edit tbotaet?) be< j-teerl) addi oo o> 
y | ‘evit ‘Hemddteterp@ frsonta; Be f° taap” 
ast. ase. me ‘tan -{ J3 8 = ge se ite fagrgt fam 

VLG ee 

ye in 1932 

arther riments were undertaken in which heavily paraffined 

par dees were applied to cut-off stems and then filled we ‘concentrated 
aqueous solutions of ‘sodium chlorate and aumonium thiocyanate. ‘The in- 
consistent results of earlier experiments suggested that a lethal dose of 
copper conplex had not been attained; for this reason, both the mmber of 
tubes and the quantity of chemical per 100 feet of stem were doubled and 
trebled over those used in 19351. Sodium chlorate was not used in the 1921 
experiments. Atlacide was given a trial, but it apparently contained 
insoluble ingredients that prevented the solution from entering the stem 
readily. Concentrated sodium chlorate solutions were given preliminary 
trial in 1932 and they compared so closely in the rate of entry with 
concentrated aqueous copper complex that a large number of bushes was 
tubed. To determine the relative merits of sodium chlorate end copper 
complex, they were used in about the same quantity per 100 feet of live 
stem. The results of these tests are given in Table No. 5: 




Shel gh sopra’, sii: oevivesce! j2 sestebey. gsnos 

boulTistag. 4d brasd sig iiw at acdadreoay. oxen eiaomtrecse nekhut. oh 

bedatjaconoo détw Sbeiltt aedt base emote Tto-duo of beilqgsa etow acd r9ce¢ “4 

-pi off Vetsceysolst evigomum. ine eisiole> ouibee to. ancksyioe siroempe i 

to nog, adiel « Jedt bodaopaee atagntieqee telitas. te. giivest. taateiencn 

to. tedsum edd diod ,mogset. else +02 jbeniad ta. aes ios bed xeigano, tequoa 4 
baa Seidvoh e1e~ mote to dsst OO. teg ieoimade te. iiuam. eds. hos aed sd 
I8OL od at Seay ton sew etetoiee amtaot ..1E¢! at bean geodd 19v0.boldext 
banlsizoo yl IRC BIGS gk dtd feted a novia aaw, ebloadé4s  .sinambregze 
wots of puttajae att cottvilos odf batusyene tadd stastborant alésfosat 
yisciailsty ceriy sipw.ameiiosea ateteidg avtbos Seteziasone)....ylibact 
ditw usige to stat eddot qloaols. oa bersqmes, yods_ba4. GEOL. asd. dabed 

aan second to *edann at a ted? xelgaen teqgeo suceupa Se¢erdasance 4 

aeqycs bas eberelda mriboe to etivem syttelet edt eniaeted oT .bedud a 

avil.te test OL Taq Yildesup ome edd trode ai Doug. stem yod?  xelqmoo 1 

a sitay xi sev ha. ote. atead, ea odd, te. OARS ORE: ete 

“a ou Syaay 
SOMME ATHAYIGNRAS ‘ty cus cue ets Pecornsned ISAO 1 <O TeAMNTE 

poke A A NE ER. tc MT 

betigqgda ysis 

ors ae ie she delle 
—, is Geet RS ON 
19% dug bon. suyloV | daorT igederd ico” mi 
to '‘COLi-imeti! -giot) Sea- |-teaorT| toep to ata 
be a nd | woke Taeedl | be | WW |faokmed)| eoligaa; tolS | 
so Sexo | 20 See tel mir jomm Loy | a 6 ete te~ jetted 

® ns peas | 88, 18\% 
etatolde; 5,08 | 

fat apheresis os 

eins coger i alee 


3 o 

i : 




i | (88 bo9,o8- pfS Oe 
| ( | ij i e 

iin ey Win ae ied nd Sorcha Hath ieitieece 

; : 
S Se = 
* net 
. ‘ 
g : 
fi ¥ : 
: i s 
; ; 4 
, s ¢ : 
{ BASS : 
‘ £ , fom 2 
P x x > 5 2 
; be Pieris oi 
t Basie Risin 


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i ¢ see ooRRsn PS: gi prone me Us 

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See tte ie 2 & ar’ soca OS ern Sear hae . ms os Samer se a 9 en 

athe shettrpatsiien 

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siloumannecne nt 


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atone ate = eg “ee Ass wer be aeter; 

Aah Sno on nt ome an Red NATE aCe Nye tttSe! sone Sy iSy egg avery 
f Bi vat 

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2.08 eldal pi Seton ss 2d igeet 

ws : | 

“Gass Way Fees = OF GAT PSTCHT 59008 
Wueig JO WOR “MOL BOTT 4eer 2 OF BT 488ST 4B UAeD 
POLITY °3002 deq aeTnoypucdized eviey ‘dn Sup quetd eaztquy|eqeuefooryy umyuouny 
"S0BlINS 9} JO 4G BPUdp" one BSqooaA o6e1] FO Sloe ‘UmOZS 
way ,8T puodeg Ainfuy sous 2aqj0 TITiS eTtue umosd mor 
,8T 4rufuy TeopueyS JO soueplAe woys sq00r [Tams. awos "GHOIO : 
wos 200% g JO SOUSRSTY 09 PoUaRSeTG [lee eoezzne a0Teq ,OT| — 
0% g 3004p ed = wena 0 Spys Tipuda wo pen aee te do osereseeras umn yronnny | 

~2q ,OT 2008 at ot “amon mo 2 400s auc mnokeq, Salyer: 24 
03 Wees BGOCy “UkeIO wry jeez Eg pus soVJANS wOTeq 4003 
suo <9 p _va/T 300% peas = amore # ae _ aug enews lk ad 9 

*UMO1S wory 920s fe 4 a pest "eoazans soteq. a “z090u8yp 
sa/T 3002 ouQ ‘peep ATei;4ug "“WmoLD May Qaey Ge 04 2 
pue tas pat a Bedied td ov tT ae eae hess deeee 

: iz 0 Ge 
z0q30 of toate oe $3002 ‘ered Neeera eas gees 
€ Pues SdFJINS AOTSG 49 * peqowerg yon ‘segouatp wb /T 400, 

seyjoury “ysaq JO epys TT BO mhOZa WAZ 4aezl 2 04 #q pus 
eoBjans “nk goo a? Seer bal ne Tt mae he 4 qteeun 

je uoy4ae auyttTy oa FuEZeD uous wMOsD- wwe ‘wue48 99002 
Ily “@oezane oT oq om corte. 00x dey ‘evezaus 04) 
@S0TD 4002 srrees T ‘abe eue wi ; boa a re nhs nit 

you a0 paxotos stp Ketek sore) wao25 pmose S300. 
Suypesy pue. sy007 Trewg: ““@BT 3S40l ye 81004 ea wy O4UT 
UROP POTITA Pay TeOEMAND ‘“WMOED 04 asoTo Syo0ys dn Pes ~ 
pues 7001 ah/T SHO pe go0r 4B/z eu. “magshs yo0z ext {-TEr 
— => pd eae aod pees ze sae oot : 

ee SS ee 

ry rw ot o ISE 

athe rie @ Svisra of eaolo 
feo toot "B\i eno Sas foot "8\S enO .asteye soot aii f~sst 
mwob befftd bad [actmed) wots of seols esoode gz gak~ 
gutbest Sag, ctoot fiawé ."8f sesel te sfoor omtal ods otnk 
fox Yo berefooets yLisi¢teg toitis ewote Danoita eseot 
a etestia 
ssolo door geibset [leer eno yin .doot gad isoltvery agiad 
[iA .soePrite wolod “DI hbednasid foot qaT .ssatawe of 
to cobtes gaiiipl offatted wcda atom bas ,emede ,etoot 
a siuvotce wocts 
sostive woled toot emo tetese!S gi WE\f foot sao beddtseat | 
qedtenk .depd to ebte {Lfdqs ac avots moTi gest © of #S bus 
| 8 bas eomtewe woled "8 .bedonerd doum .tedomeid HE\L toot 
‘| sedto of .baxesioald yLeritas ezoot gol meets mott tsek 
i re '%o sbte tadt ao diged Jedd of Soitot edoot 
baa eostiia wolfed *S xotemeld “A\{ efoot Lstevee betdtasnl 
s\c goot on@ heed vylotlind .mwota mott test gS of S| 
wots sort geet 46 ci aw Sae% .sociiwe woled “S redomst3| 
<a peieii psy if daiteg Jad} Suovedt 
t exo 1ofemets "S\f goct wotl gaimoo 2tnotqe to grotg vad 
od mace atook sworn mutt fost $6 dae sostave woled soot 
leg “Of toot "“8\% ox .owots mort doot ens beoyed avils ed 

xsiqmod teggo? 


Ea? aria ona 


wots mort fest #5 Jesel ta Sseh sostive wol 
fesd to eble Iiidar no beroqee etooll |stanayooid? astcommn’ 
lsoxt feet S$ to esuatets of heawisaid [iow sostive woled “OL FOL 

| “8 qsutalfsotmeds to soasbive wade adcot [isms ome® ,nwoTd 

| mott "8f Sopyed yretel soce tease {tte eafide awots sort 

i_soatie eds to 8 witste ots ef o0% oasis To ewok .mwOt BS me — _| | 
| Sefflh .deet gad ts lsnlhacateg eatal af gh gasiq stitakjeteneyooiat mpiseome; 2  j3C iss \es\r jse\ar\s) | 
donatd te geo .mwoto mott test S of "SI fase ts mach FOL i ; | | 
i gwots moti feat S of "Sf bel iil asoot} ceiage eee eed a i 

nar alee OS nn I ea A 

i : 

ae een 


are gio alan ve ebtain * sane » preliminary. idea of the ‘dength of time 

vata’ certain chenicals toxic substances ia field soils, square 
- foot plots were treated with 1/3,.2/3, and 1 quart each of 40 per cent | 

. solutions of the following chemicals: . amnoniwa,thiecyanate, Atiacide, 

and sinc ammonium chloride. The plots were treated in August, 1931. . Beans 
were Planted) in these plote on July 9, 1942, and notes were taken three 
weeks laters ‘The beans genmineted end showed. cood growth on all.plots 
thexoepbcthese: treated with sinc amonim chioride. On these plots many of 
the beans molded while those that germinated had thick, club-shaped 
radicles.and short branched roots. .The leaf stocks were very short. 

ae aneeins ‘tees Rear to. vere numerous  Geinteaie have been testel on 
“common shane at Meumee, Ghio, and Pennsylvania Furnace, Pennsylvania, 
by several methods of application, With the results of these tests at. 

* hand, it‘seemed advisable to undertake an eradication jcb with one er more 

. of the most effective chemicals aécordine to the best known field practice 

foreach chemical,  Sodiug chlorate and a@nandnium thiocyanate were finally 

-oseleeted as the best chemicals for mech tests. Incidentally, preliminary 

data were to be ‘secured: for comparing the eradication cost by chlorate and 
thiocyanate with that of common salt. An area at Meunee , Lama wes chosen 
the ur. ied mal yatets for: ‘the: ee -fteke: nat, ae ae bye: 

Fag ¥ 

lamadin te} ‘hsctee ef: a ke shhentibe as @ mee killer has: cain open te’... 

‘eseneceriticiem on account of its toxic properties te animals and the firs 
hagara it creates, To minimige these dangers, & concentration of 0,89 
pounds pér gallon was not excceded for any method of treetment.. By using 

°,@ subsurface drench: it was thought that much time could. be saved end hg " 
fosipechasant: gis aangee te: satock: opeka be peti shinineteds er 

meat me ae a ee BR RE ON RE, BS ans rie 

Plant an _oenen ite thiocyanate is one of, the newer cheminole +. be pe on | 
Rides inl barberry, and although its toxicity had not been fully demonstratei| 
for barberry it: was included in the field demonstration beezuse of its i} 

9 -@e sirable a weed killer. Among these might be noted low 
toxicity to animals and non-inflammability. It is also an excellent 
agricultural poison since the toxic effect on soil is quite transient, 

After the thiocyanate has decomposed the products of decomposition exert a 
beneficial action on the soil. In the early stages ef toxic effect a 
sterilizing action on seeds has been reported. These favorable properties 
place ammonium thiocyanate high in the scale of acceptability as a substi- i’ 
tute for common salt which is now used in very large amounts to ensure kill, | 


ad$p tec © oixot dite betes “af etolS at bs 

ont? to ttawel S49 ‘to se6i yteetetfetg sae uteido of zwsb16 at the 
oisvpe ,afkoe Sfolt at seonefided sixet es bentecwt staytmeris mtetro pads! 
faea-4a¢ O02, to dene Mang I Sas ,E\S .8\< Mite Sosvgortd otew etolg toot 
hinalté (stanswmold? sxtdbdamm, ~“:@Iaoinedo suiwollot etd? to saoiteten | 
exnge .sROk (tatrgcd al betact? stew stolq: edt ©. eb itolio ‘motacems oats baa) 
egitt melee etew soton bag .Sh0L ,© ylirt mo Bicig sepdt af begaala etew 
atolg Lis so Mdworg boos boverle bas Hotenterey east eft  .aetel exoow — 
%6 you efolg s#ed nO .eblreld> marinogna ona citto boisest @zant tqeoxe « 
booete-delo ,aoli? Sad Setentores Jacky aawid ofthe bebiom Braed end i” 
—“lgtode prev etew vaocte tas ed? edowt Beonerd Prose, Spa eolothar . 

BlQl wt eid oeaweh Ja nertatrgon 
ao Begaed fe5d evad elaoliust> arorancn etaoy ows dust alt gon rare, ‘a 
eksertivgsas4 eos study fyerned Ena ,otd0 ,sesmat ta ytrodesd Mommag | 
ka agaat ocedt To atinget e4f de woidadtfage t6 abadtom Latoves W 

"0 2 goatd. 


eres te soo Stiw dol sotéiapibane 6 siaiteiad ef older ivbe bewtve ti .dasd 
soiteste bist: awodx deed at aq) wxiProads aleatged> oviiasite Jeom odd to - 
qifastt siew esansyoolds ae laome bas odeteido alice .ieotatrip dose 10% es 
wishtediotc. Ullsinetiog!.. .2tred sean ack efsotserdts teed edd ee besoolos — 
asa. eietoldo YF Taco setfasisets sft gaitsgmes 161 Detiose ef oF stew Riad. 
nescdo 340 ,ck4D .goasra 2 asta wA | .diee mommoo, To serlt Stiw ejanayooldd — 

oe ess Sat Bott beeognse edt rey tetel 40.0 tM vd |: 

of gogo seat ead 1elfin beow & 45 etatoids mrthos to ean edi. | Foe 
erit edd bas slomine ot waliteqete eixod adi to sagoooe so mfoldixe ems” 
08.6 to sotjarinenace 2 ,etegash exsed? exiatata of eodagts 2f insved 
nate YG .dapsdaerd to boddom yas tot Sebesoxe ton saw sollag, req sbacog 
‘eit Sana bevek o@ Sizep omtd Soest ject degvedd eae Jf doneth’ soxtivadim 3. 
b@tanhatio yleatal ef bivon vote of tegnsh baw esgea @tit 

i} x0 best od of alapimeds tows alt to suo et etanaybotd? mrkseamA a 
PU batact teccoseeS yiist aged ton fat yslotsot eff dyvotits bas eerredtad 58 29d ih: 

ask to ouimed mottettesomed bfett edt nt beberiant saw df yrredtad <0? . 

sof wedon of ¢eigim ezend gaomk .zeliit beow # Be estireqoupeldariaeh — 
faelieoxe ae oele af $1 si itdesmeDal-cor tee aiaainae of ystoizot — 
winotagerd effop ef [ice ne tostte ofsod sft sonte sogtog Ieaitivattza © 

s dtox® woltiaegmoed to etosiotg sit besogmeced ead ataagypoiss ald tedts, . 
e gostte atzot to eayete vitae od? al” .ftoe Sdt ao sottos falotiened 
aariiaqete sitarevet seth Lesrget sgeat eect ebsge me mottos pateiitvess © 
| -£tude o aa yslitdestqespa to eisse odt at daid edanezcsots) avimoom spalg. 
}| iit ertaae of etatoas egtal wrov ki beaw wot ef dette tise nomen tet ots? 





on ee $2 
ea ead 

Ma ri 


ies 3 ree i 

i ee test “ the ipemisehal rani! or eatipniun thiocyenate at Matmee 
iasidorarie ad i Uty was experienced 1a spremfing the sticky chemical 
evenly around the» “crown, Since ‘small quantities of thiocyanate inset 
be used if At is to’ compdte favorably on a cost basis with common salt, a 
test was mate) mixtured of ‘@mmonium thiocyanate with an inert material as 
& spreading edi 7} Sawdust: was used for this purpose. It is light; 
absorbent and gremler in-structure end can be readily obtained in large 
qpantities. Wheat Ghaff is being investigated ap a substitute for sawiust |] 
Gace: ‘tt is-reagonable to arsume that the termes) ‘would be even more avellable 
than sawdust in farming meen tiens, 

ae ue te was aiatioat as a lockenrteee lias and as a 

“4 siaction ends spray and subsurface drench for conperison with sodium 
chlorate. steer? laboratory and greerhouse teste indicated that the thio- 
cyanate is les¢ to 

of ig aes 

pen a pound shay sodimn chlorate astronger solition Ath 

Bent! lextahill ba ) spray bp sie. Tor the eatb: bushes the prod was 

thrast barely into m neral ‘Boil in a number of places about the crown; far 
the larger bushes this er wes re by a rine-¢ of holes 4 to 5 
ay: orayi frost the ba “ 

a ei wal a vs | dd with the eguick knapsack spray unit. ~The 
. cia parts of the pie were well wetted ond in sddition the soil 
ediately about the crown was soaked. Sprays, suppleuentary to subsurface 

drenches, were ype: just heavy enough to ihe the foliage. «= 
oo Ge 
“a 4 Solid appliestions of chemical were nate with a wooden ny 
tthe chemicel was § eg uniformly as: possible in a circle atout the crown 
for a distance of 2 te 6 Taatee, depending upon the size of the bush. Sew- 
dust mixtures wore. by hand.from a pail or poured en the crown of the 
Plant ‘and aur to fom # cone with the crown of the tush-as the center, 



a4 A sumry: ‘of shake excerinents is siven in Table ie. 7. Tentative 
cost figures. ard i prepented. in Table. Wows’, 

Paes 13) 


senstebl dx evanayso ttt cyinonee to ober Iatetenee' edt guivee®al 0. 
[actmed> wiotée edt gutbasica af booneltane ser qiivelttid efdatebienos 

farm edsneyootds i sertitasp Ilere sontt “ree Yaake edd Sarots yiaove 
& .¢{ac nocums Miiw elenf aon # mo yidstovet sisters oF ek gt YE Boum od 
ac fettedam dren? aa dtiw séansyolds eriaozus To eeretrto to sbam aew teed 
Set af oY lonomring eit tod Seer ear tesbes=  cerbbem snibeowge 8 

estel at beatetdo yfitaer ef fas’ bas stedoutte ei ta fomers bas Suedwoads 
jetbwae tet etboitedue sas Soiapivacvat gaied wt Thetio deodt) vents ieneagp 
afdallavs oxom neve of 2irhw nentto? edt dant ontiess oF oidsuseesot BE. df oonla 
. { BIR D4) Seong ety aneteo ga Beta ab gerbwas odd 

s aa ban toaeth ehatresdye aes bellqqa anw etzmaynoidd miroommb 000% 
eathoe dgiw-moettaqaes tot dometh eosdamedye Sas Yetqe latues sotianidmon 
~oidd edd tadt Sutaolsak atead semowieoty one _yrossteds! sexth steroids 

nolislos tegaeste-s,otatoldo mrihoa neadt haxsog tok basvog slcot eel ef etaaayo 

al eto £05 ay sae peey eer sianeyoorlds To 

no dant yates tesegams 2 dehy Shen otow anoidediiqdh: eo Simsradge: oo 
fein eit Seoatget qif feety Seéeiog = Aske hot wofecetzs Isioons: 2 dotde 
eax borg oft seized sellume 2c? co% pispon yas hms poteaotxe tip tl 
neh tawers edd deeds seeed@ te vofewa a Bi Thoa foxvcatm otnt yletad denids 
8 of & eefeod to saiy oy batuemelanve Rew dikectoovd sid? ecteed tepral ed? 
op LS ee 2a Oo sop osteo adda yews madoal 

en? dkocr yerge daoseqan ‘airger old aie enol aan gobyerge ie oe ; 
Sios off moltibbe af bas besier ilew erow inealq edd to edraq Isiros 
sontriedim of “Satnewelque sqetge bedece caw tors edb domfs yletathsaml 
pegat Pes orld stew ‘od digsone yvasd dart, gohan row es erseath 

singags Bakoow & dtiw eben sree Teolmern to anotivelinga Biles °o%' 
awets 20% d¢eets efotto a af old inect 86 “torction eg bastae saw Leo iment wrk? 
~gst feed ei te esie ons ogee anthvoyed ,sadoat 2 ed 2 te asnatels @ Tot 
aft to meoto adit we Setreg to Lise @ sort bead y bebba otew eorotcio sand 
aséhes ait se dat edd to arene ect tiv outeo BR aot ef Serelie bus inal 

ovidadns? oN (ot sidaf nt movin et atcoiitoce wares yo eames BBE 58 
oe. PRIA GH 8 Oe didet xt Sodnenvig ets. we tig! #aoo 

prcoey Of » 

ét'ot/8 | Iv ‘oS ‘(v'e*e)m “1 
90lg moeup «(aad 

‘a'a°yje ‘(aa a‘a'o 

"EV)L "19 ‘(p' aaa 
‘o*a’yv)9 * (0°a‘a’a’ 

‘g* ¥v)¢ ‘oh II worry 

(R'o'as’a' aoa y)IT 
fee NOE aad OT 
pop: 7o SER Cee 

‘£0 “0: ‘az_1 sexy 

Feids TelTaey Fai mu Tpes 

de pees wezseseney | eae ‘mt ‘ont 
= aa eg se 

ose oid Se J (Eo'a'e a'o'|)et 


taeecoo td? ; 

| [pttoa|+ 0 
= ¢ gevoess iif B\s = 

a ‘ pertaoomat “ i ee {i seta 
1 ‘efsmayoolss. fl. __ Bei, Ge 
; oe Se, MSil .3% II sess} 

(5.8, %,8,0,.8. a)af 
0,%,0)8f ,GaL .0al 
Tal HAL. (% 1 
he ee SE, OTL) 
eee eG & & a.8.8.11 

( 0,0, 08 

ii sets 


# (0.2.4, &,' AJOL! 

é a ae ae rs (8, 9,9,.8,0,9, 2,4) {1 | 

et x Heset | sss. dncans ooateevee| @8 0lezstosio miseelatcl\s | (0.518.0,9,4.4)8t 

7 | HA} OR IT ser 
f O,8,A)8 , (9,0,0.0, 
| .@.4)¥ dB , (0,4.5,5 


4, F.A)8 {98,0,48,09 
Sold sass o.%, 2} 

. : 7 } , 3 {2 
J Seige tsi O8 .Cjedetotd> mriboe Si, Oi\B | Is .0S .(h.5.58)8 

me rn OE A arte a SRepeeen S De 

Brose of * 


"fey T38 @ Se pesn onT# Juea sed TO°O (4) 

"qof wo pumod aed fot 9% poanszy TwoTmeyD 50 ys0D (®) 


ays wMPoOE 

| ent? gatlecd| etal 
. tf ~daort tot} to ad daar t} begastTl 
GB tS 0s {eo tmad ae “stapps| 
cutamt 80H) bool _jmedausi 2082 

O f8i 

siiiees lt esi cA) 
etsasyooids su tnerid | 

-| gtrizio tevoeet |, 

eseroida mer COOK 

Jet ao Saurog req 400i te Berg tt ino Emecdto to s209 (#} 

qesoite s ea Ssev atria dasa tog 16.0 -(é) 

The data for cost of chemical per mmsh as given in Table No. 8 
indicate the possibilities of ammonium thiocyanate and sodium chlorate 
for field use in the chemical destruction of Marberry. It is apparent 
that the quantity of chenical used as spray or as an aqueous soil drench 
ig considerably leas than the amount necessary for application as a solid, 
Dime. of. treatment, bas ake @écidedly favors the latter type of work, 
A comparison. of. the, effectiveiess of the different types of treatment should 
‘be made next sumer tefore deciding on their relative merits. Wo monetary 
value has been given for the labor as the work was done without the 

Assistance of 2 regular. crew. 

Before tad, Se aie a ‘field-seale test of ‘solid applications OF .. 

‘emonton, ee ae At.geemed desirable to learn something wbout the 
regular salt: {used by field crews and at the same time obtain 
some, data on. the quantities of salt used per bush, This. opportunity was 
provided at Marshall, Wisconsin. ‘The crew of four men was supervised by 
Mr. Adolph Hendrickson, Table No, 9 presents a sumary of some date taken 
in the course of observation | or the working crews. ~~ 

PSM Sie ie c FOS ant Se 
A c “Eo M 
¥ . 

SALtE¥ amealdchecestelab-elcenheatcite. hebedcisT: ‘pushes that. were salted, 
y per ae rpoens as. . cle basthhe table wore: recorded #9P: omly 43 bushes... 


& ,of eids? at covin as dest 194 kab tmedo te tego bh perk “ot 
sfarefdo athos bas stanaqpotdé sriaooms “Ge geliilidieged ed? staoltiatk 
émeteggs af #1 .yrisdied te adits: jand Igotmeio edd al es Bieit xot 
fonetS [lon avooups ae a8 to Ysttr 6a bear [eo tandn fo. “iiosnp edt sactd 
bifer a es sottscilaas 102 Yideads un Jowets at macit neol “idersbienos si 
108 Yo aqyt tettel ed? stove? qlbebioas sterowed . inom aod te omtt 
Sivede taeataet$ to veqyt daersTtih asi Qo eveusyidostteé exé te ace iragaos A 
yrstenom of .etisom evidalet =tady no gakbineb etotel temmme txen shen of 
ait twodsiw eos saw sYio¥ add as todsal of} tet noviy aged aad erlay 
werd ioe ty . a poneieteus 

Seel af os 

to aaciiaotiues biice Te ined 9 fsipe~bEet% & ee © eroted 
ait geods natdtesoe arasi of oldatigal bameog 2f sianayoo tit ht oom 
ateido ents mse sdd tahoe owato Sletl ~é bexm-ebergem patties raleges 
asa utieesieqge aiit dag teq beard lag t0° eei¢isonrs ait ao stab smo 
‘dé decivreqee asw sem tot ‘to wenn aft “ianonei® .Lfatesei te babivorts 
netlet sta5 omos to Viammtrs 8 elaesetq © .of efdaT .sondottSaeR dgfobA 1M 
aH HED sakirow ond to saliorieg @ | aqpwen agit mk 

Seel ff LUURA UI RKOOET jueamenay 

| a ae a’ Fe op Estet 
jte seo8) add aod 4 > Savor’ 

| owns $fo8| dise| dedet | costae | 

to .edij sedd «st; tel est dneem aelerzopa) | 

Isotmedd| teS jetacpi "oor 

fiat 1 (ometo of [s 
| Agel xed) dast toot; avid q 

bebtegh| bataer? 

, SAG! Vs [QBHSyA| WOT) | wede |. a0, a saek 9 vue. 
fie BRS 4 iS 2 b 
a Pie: 
OO .@3 

Detiae ever tastd’ asdend SHE letes ita to. soe fon Sidon ed bieedle $2? 
.escand &) ying tet haps ops' ten! eidas wits St wh ie aseb etaigueo 


gdp a sumnary ‘of the date that were taken on 
size of bush cfown @nd quantities of salt used in the treatment 
“ a of ah fy oie bushes involved in the-field test. Hotes were taken 

n 43 bushes: whi¢h were ‘considered “to be fepresentative of small, medium, 
on ak ad Bp clasten of: ts... The eatire experiment involved the treatment 
of 147 bushes or which 1,500 poundsof galt were needed. A 4-man crew 
and & crew Peet sl two hours: on the joe, Of these plants, 80 bushes 
pot, del than 0: fee tect f live. stem’ and 67. averaged around 200. The small 
; wae treated with about. two-poiads of gets per bush and the large 
op arama 20 rant per a 

Fo Ly 

Walle & wor i | in this area aitSatit was Girected to some bushes 
that. om been salted im late June of the current year. Wotes were taken 
on the sige of the ‘area. About, @ach Wish on which grass had been killed by the 
salt. In general, the j ge pod was killed six inches beyond the outer 
edge of the galt tree i “Qn steep ground the salt may be washed down so 
as te kill sod ay of two to two and a mgt feet. 

it Os 
nib Sarge 
‘eee as 

} y ‘ is mel Bred eet 
‘Grown Application of Solid Chex aicals Appl led by a Sel ting Crew at 

y a0 aga 
33 mt Wes eo’ i. sce | eee 

: in or er “ss study ee the pi Npethed of solid anaonium 
aa, Sgt conditions end to: compare its use more closely with 
‘thatoof salt, ‘the services of a salting crew, operating out of Trempeanlean, 
were obtained, A is tented arene were ‘tat aa tae reserved for the experiment 
in an cS ye 6 wot ah i P ti al 



I whe “ ex ipitineal was “bendithed ‘| G. t. Pricer, eatikad by 

ir, ¥, 0, Tayler tg Sartore State Leader, Mr. Eri¢cson, crew foreman, and & 
crew of four fa The experiment, priest il ane L di rected by Mr. F. C. 
Meier, ve performed on September t 

A ia ares w selected whieh — te ‘ pohalstea into chain square 
riot oi, Antena ta were then treated with ammonium thiocyanate and 
tas plan of application was adopted to redvee as much as 
songs such variables: aS en eae ane an size and maper ef bushes, 

Py ; 


es _ Instrue i dipere given to the’ Gren on ‘piepering’ chamicals, 
methods of application and quantity of chemical to “be used,. The instruction 
period was followed by a ‘practice’ treatneat of a.few tmskes outside the 
established plots. ‘The salt was the Qustomary manner. in begs. 
One 6-quart bucket waa provided for ench 2-man crew és an auxiliary carrying 
unit, Each man wes then provided with ® 6-inch panto be used as 
a ladle and spreader, The crew was also fastructed to work at the customary 
rate of speed and to kc the salt, at the usual rate per bush, 

A cumary of, tera dite ai tentative cost figures for this 
oxpuriness is given. % “ibrar A Cf ; 3 


20 wStet etow fac} e306 eds to ramus 3 pineeerc @ on ofdat 
sreadser? sd? gt boay ¢iex to eeldtinanp bak sore to Sate dard To° ete 
nowed etow eodok © ead blott ‘eit xt Sovfoent eoceud edd to’ aottroq & to 
‘cethse , flare te evitetseesrget sd ot Setebtaneo go Sotdw pecumi bb no 
dnautaert off Bovfovel ¢renktecxe sitine ed? .etnsig to abueslo “egret Sina 
werg camp A .bobasn stow tina te eSaveq 008, f so idw aot gériasd SRE to 
eolinnd O8 .esanty seeds 20° ol até co wtbed owt tneqe nanerét wers = bre 
Thare en? 00S bavets begetevs TS baa mete ovtl to seeF OG madd teel Sad 
egal ett bus mast Toq Silas to ebandc’ owt ‘gpode dtiw beteets gow qrorg dard 
| Hand sec sbuteq 08 Sano'te’ quote’ Head 

oetand ence of betoothd saw nottatdis sets eltt ab gaismow eliay - eS 
genet gtew eefoK .1sey daotie edt To saute etal at Bediag aged Sad stadt 
ade yd Herttt meet bat eemts doidw ao deat rae quo sere oft to onie sdf mo 
“sto of? Sooved wetioat the balitd aaw boa eeatg, att, favone, ot tise 
an feeoh Berlasw of Yam time ef? bavote ceets O° Vinentaet? gist ont to sate 
, 299% thet a bas ows of ond To eoundeth 2 of foe Tita oF es 

te vary notj fae’ Sy Bek iggk piso tem 

myinoxce bifos te aokteoilova et audiast yoete of tebt0 at 
ddiw ylescia etom eay vit stagmea 02 hoa sootizbeon bilelt tebay esanayooldd 
saetveagmet? Yo avo getsetoqo (wore ald lee & Se gentrien add, dine to tals 
wombiscxs eit tot hevreret Sus betosise stew saets eldatix&® benistdoe orev 
qd aavatess \teqetd .1 .0 yd bedorbnon sew frembtegxs ody 
a bos, caters? wore \RoewbhE ti  rohsot etste yriedtaa ,tolyst .0 .¥ eR 
Lge ol qd Begoetib. Sam Tor bextionys .dkexbiogye eat nem <vet To wet 
oe oe: ee spe BP, <odinwsqeR no Destro Prag: giw {ret oi 

wrote study ofst Hobivibiue ed Sivoo ieidy pedosles ose ys) er 
aoe ptansyoolsd ewlnonm Mein Setaeis madd stew edoig etastatia .atoig 
gs dora ge eoeber of betgahe. esw neftaniicga to wAig vt? tien Bommo 
seresd to ede dae este has .omtd guitotses ee aoidelxay dome aldteaog 

alacimeds. gaitagetg ao wets odd of mevig exvew enoliomttent 
netourtent off been of ad Isatondo te ys itaoenp. bua mhidapilags Le ebodien 
odd phtatwo oder wet c To taemabii esisoate s ud Dbewolfo? aew Sotveq 
waned ot .<eanem quesetess eft af botries ew. tisk wt? Ri6i¢ bedelidiades 
guiyrias yisiifees s8 22 wetD HatKS doas wok bedlivetg saw toaoed duanp-5 en0 
as boos of oF nag Sahat rbal-s 2 die bedtvo td nome aew fam oad |, o hnar 
qratedare ef ¢e drow of Bedorttvnt ola dew wero OAT) ebacigg baa efhel a 
Mend toq e¢at fever edt de tise ed ylous of baa beoge to eter 




etd? tot gseteett gece ovitetnes baa atab Slert to yrsume fl 
OL .of efdet at aovis at tromts egxe 



SS ae 

| ‘oP em to Pica 48d f% Fe poansyr: ree Jo 4809 

ar on 0 ® puted asd (F0T ye eee. ¢ het chee mm yhomas ge 4805 

a9 8 bo beige & 28S ae ‘ad ye toy ‘v2 

AQ YP; ual SATB TSI. pre. Sg9 pare ‘sh "a9 ancien’ 3 ste ion pus “27 a 5 tes vacednes eras, So.injesedus4y 

Tyos * sated. 08 3g pus * ‘md By ’ mens ~ Meortes, se ens oie Z “mie 2 to! oa 3 emvos, 


todal (199 geod 4a E 
t9% ererpe. fas- <eiat| 

$% .p2| to sock geod} reir 

swat) “get, dent} 


_- teers exempe| 3% OOL! Lao- 
tom | ahh 

“= £mget | ~Lexseid 
tot jxe% fea jc tes tered). te add nD 
pr feet bovser? 

ov bt <eGj> Iso - 

pte nen eb TN 

a) ingwol| stH-geu) avo | mest | iat ee 

Re ee ee ee 
yithtoucl evttsfet Bsa 780 Sun 

ae ME: i somnk tl serA 
saxduce 4 a 

at mu: ‘auincent| —2etA| 
hue... = 0,b2. _s. sd ot letenamers| xed 

pawl fet | sa Sebvoser.acs VT uedgeiqe< se bab ang eee 
227 a8 Gasetaneyagy sia :@Y.dks ST: : 3 Seal ap. om et Sisy getug stem? 
= & "¢ a Be Oh... BE. 


dok off ne Snssog hie: £01 te pores! t efansys ols? defentiveet te dead {2) 
Jot, .ecdi mo Setiog Teg al 4a bowrsit 2 ise: ed deed 

Bape ane ab art rdukhnens the, nin ota werkt at iidlasueal iy Aadicased 
thet: thé: emount:of salt acceded: for adequate treatuwent of a bush depenis . 
more on: the variation in size of crown rather than the veriation im» feet . 
of live stem; This is rather’ to. be expected from the uasature of the 
application: Thus; “the comparative cost figures for solid applications 
of* ammonium thiocyanate, znd salt at Trempeauleaw should be examined on a 
basis of square foot of crown treated. Table Wo. 10 shows these figures 
to be about: the same, beth for chemical. cost and iabor cost. ‘fhe chief 
advantage of the ammonium thiocyanate would be in the transportation of 
much Smaller anounts of: chemical, The quantity of ammonium thiocyanate 
used was about: 1/7 that. of the: salt; when mixed with sewiust the amount 
of» thiocyanate applied’ was: around 1/14 of the quantity of salt. Of course, 
it must be borne in mind that: the figures for both ammonium thiocyanate 
and the sawdust mixture were teken from the work af eo crew that had only a 
few minutes é¢xperience with a:new chemicaliand a new méthod, and: that the 
game* crew wes quite. experienced in the use of salt. Phis:would increase to 
some extent the time required for the: sumonium thiocyanate applications. 
Attention neod hardly be called to the limited scope of: this eaperiment 
and the danger of aceepting cost: figures in Table No, 10 as the: final 
Statement on the comparative cost: of smuoniun thiocyanate aad sodiun 

ao ate Lae pales of: Seahas Genial ig crown pag par of matin 

ti wants at Pennsylvania Purnace sent up sprouts from roots some distance 
back from the cPown. “It-was also noted’ that a large bush treated with salt 
had some roots showing signs of life # year after the time of treatment, 

Wor this reason, e trip was planned to sevwral barbverry areas close to | 
WaGigon, Wisconsin, which had been solted. in previous years te find ont if 
any of these. bushes were reestablishing themselves from live reots. It was 
also planned to study the effect of the salt on nearby vegetation. The trip 
was conducte® by Mr. Adblph Hendrickson, whe: rane si aia gl ia gal ae 
a ee eee where a hyicbssans Uae F 

eae ren: aye reecated on lie Harvey Taylor's rbneh out of seuk elites 
au fvubhois: were dead; with the exception of one large bush located on a 
gently sloping sandy hilidide. This tush, 10 feet high with 500 to 600 feet 
of dead stem, had received about 100 pounds of salt. Several sprouts were 
found: on the uphill side of the bush at o distanes of 4 to 6 fect from the 
crown. Bo sprouts were found on either side of or downhill frem the bush. 



, | ee eee 
bejeotbot (ladere ta wtow gaitiee adtosatigh eis ams bisivcoed} 

sicoceh derd o to taondsetd etawpedsa tot bebe: diss to tasomm edt tadi 
Sect at notiatiey edt edt yeddar awoto to exte gt aoliskisy edt xoyeton 
adi to et:tas eff movl betgnaces od 97 Sacdianr 2k tat © mote svt to 
gnoigesotiggs bifoe 10t eeteeglt tacos evitatagmos ect ei? inotdaotiagas 
ano beatuace of bincde ssefrsaquetT $3 Slap: bas efacswotdd minomes to 
agumit ened? ewode Of .of Oida® Ddadactd dwoto Yo Poot exaupe to atesd 
sotio ad? deo ‘total Sam jeep Iaakewim aot déod ease ale iveds ed of 

%o motéadiogeaatéd off mt ed bivow ‘@danayoatdd carknosme @dd To egadaavbs 
atacayootd? micoms te ytitnamp ef% leek mats to admwom teliana dorm 
¢nrome add teroves <die bextm pede :tise edd to pads S\i donds saw Boer 
eames 70 .tiea to ytideanp edg ‘to AL\L Senots eav battcds sdanayootst to 
afaneyookdd amiaocma Sod x02 ectryati.add sad’. Salm Si.asred.od tema if 

s vino dad tadd wero a wolttg edd mott seded. eter eurtxl@ tattbese off bas 
sit gedt Baa ,dedten wes s has leo tmeds wor & f¢ie sonezteqxe sefunia' wet 
ny saaatani Bisow eid tise to eat edt ai bao neltoaxe sdivpg eaw WO" ome 
amottestiqgs edansyoeist aslnomua edt. tot. beciepet omit ens daedx se enoe 
jnowtvecae eid? to egene Reding old od Saifao oe yihuul beas polinet ta 
faxtt eff se OL .of efda? sf eerogt? teqs gciiqesos to toga of bce 
agvtbes bas siaqsyookds oviaomms to teos aviiquagqaas sdf ao tromeded@ 

. a Ee EE WERE ee i 

xiip avsk to yibotolV edt ak ompey evotvert mt begiae 
We fe ce Fa seen mck IES. 

ovinomus te solteotiqgs mwotp. yd hedactd sedans to ted apn & ie 
sonegisib emaa sfoot mott atmotae gv sacs soarium sloariveasel 46 etanayoe tds 
Jise A¢tw beteet? deni sgtal s-tadd besos oala sav-3t..aeet..cdi gott toad 
deentaetd %o emis orf ¢edta tasy a etit to emgle ga wode escort esok Sad 

ot saolo eacta pruedtad faxever of Beanalg sew gits @ ,mogeet afc toil 

ti duo Sok? of atasy anveiverq at Seifen mesd Bad Hottie .xkestooei¥ . mob Lhsk 
caw ¢1 .etoo ovii mow? wor leemeds gatdeildssates econ gauged Seedt Te ys 
git¢ ad? .moltstegey Ydreen so diag add Ye toekte off. yberta of Beakale cals 
og Sealytegrve ylisutalto Aad. cit oedgitbash dgiah, .i8 4d Sotowdacs aay 
- gain, ad to etede egrets to ache tse 


yeiD dust lo Jase cones we tolyst Yevtak .1¥ so befahek " Lseth | 

a to betencl dead ogial ea0 to molsqeoxe os djitw bab otow eodeud [ih 
dost O08 of COG lw sigtt Foot OF .danud elct. ,abialitd ghase geigola yliaey 
orew edsotce Lasevet ..élas to ebaveq GOL twats Sovisoe: bat ,aete Sa0d To 

ed} sort tget 3 of + So eoneteth a de desd edd ‘te ebia {i tdan eft ao baxrot 
fesd odd mort Sfiseweh te to eble teitie 20 Sacto etes edsorga of nwo 

_ dogated across Higuway)12,. north of Mr, faylor!s. ranch. 
ey ? mg of very .large.. bushes two of which were. sending up 
bate y iving reots. ,,case the sprout appeared three , feet. fran 
crown.on the aide. aud in another, two feet.from the crown in a 
at leteret direction, The sprout from the second tush was also two feet fron 
, leteral direction... A few scedlings were noticed en this 
ine Momma ® lateme) theeet ete: Aster gee 


ana: Ce 

a ry D, a a 4 
ess ni a i “Located. £ four milaa: ‘south ‘of, Sauk “Ch ty. on ae. ‘King's 
“Sas lar, ge, bush on. a sandy hillside hed several.sprouts four. to 
fie en from mi arOeayen the uphill | side.of the bush, ..Wunerous, seedlings 
noted es several of | the . bushes... The. ‘bushes. ia all three areas had 
tees salto: St I93l. It was noted that oak, trees were very little affected 
dy the t éven though it.. wes piled next to the trunk. Only that part of 
yeti tyes ‘hazel brush and red cedar in direct contact with the salt had been 
killed. Poplar proved to be sauewhat, sensitive end, if much salt had been 
znd unera tree, dea aaah lye wesulted,., Zirch appeared tobe even 
a ceptible than was only moderately. snaceptible. 

cot ra inches bey ne the outer rim of the salt 
tia ic gosta pare black. nightshade, and. 
AT, within sueh partially sterile areas. 

aa pty ‘Dest of Black Barth, on Mr. Deneen's ranch. 

\.1930, . Tae soil clay, texture.. In some 
. ne ra a the, hen ayer to ‘the. bash 

nate of 1 the. Vicinity of Black: is “hia, arene 
eo rane teropping, had. been salted in,1928. . 
plier art slus, grass, and clover, were just. tats 
gee the salted area, io sprouting bushes were ional 

bik a sii ne Area 6. __ been ted in. the ‘wieinity. of Peculiar, Wisconsin, "hde. 
aba ve one part ar interest as the barberry bushes in the area were. 
town to have récei ved excessive amounts of salt. But even here the spots 
that, had OEP covered with salt were. growing some clover, dandelion, catnip, 
end milein. Fo. Lob blag bashes ‘were ‘noted, 
Gay qbaveag ee Beh, o have Seen ca 

annual x aga Z, aponbodion: bivin dex Pam near oping Deeens sRethnen 
were, coming up thickly under the larger bushes even in the soil next to the 
crown, Catnip and other weeds were intermingled with the barberry seedlings, 

There was no evidence of any root sprouts. 


Jocet a'toiya? .tM to déxvoan ,Sf yewiig i esotsa beofenet .S e9tA 
ww? gctboon etew owt eedesd oytal yrov te sedaws « Deniainos +1 
sett test send} Seweccs Jwotce of gaeo S00 GE .wteot yotvit mort isdoods 
2 ar users add mort gost owt \predtoma at haa qsbte Iitdqv edd ao cnwom malt 
aoxv? faet owt cells saw demt Soeose oft mott teotace of? ..mottieethh iatotel 
etd? moa Sesitoa otaw pst pte irk ke: in. cerhgans Iereteal a st awerts orld 
i ie es ee 


w'palk oh do wet 0 pitted to ‘dibworks eatin relia betecod.. : aathe 
et? tot waisotaqa Iatrever Dod abis ilid ywoase « wo demi aartel. sake pi all 
onucliSsse eeoremt .yiewd eld “to ebte [ftdott edt go Awots edd mets teet evit 
had aners eovie Lie ct aeraed olf vsedeod edd te fereves Sobne Seton erew 
haivetts oft#iL-yviev etee eget? aise tadt Baten aaw dl 60! ai betisa oped 
to axeq ted? vind. .almers eds-of deen Selig aan ff afeweds wave tise adit yd 
feof bed tee et sitiw dsatgeo teotib al-sabse bet bua dagad itead ieqiert 
geod Sac iiae dow tl jbus aid ismea. tadwemme af ef Sevorg talgod:: befiii 
were ad of botnets dowd .betives: yilemy diseb ,eurt a tobar Seneic 
oidticqesar: “ietatehom ylne gee yrted)  stelgoq edt sad? eld tiqesave o1tom 
tier ot te sit sada ost booysd senbal ¢duis ot als Lhos edz, Latenen al 
bos. gharledigin soaid .qintad. .ofivede yilatiiaq ed of Saiseqga slig 
,esets giitete ellatitag cose abddie gutwoty bare? yi lasolesono ange: mPa 
Jonet e'meansd .1¥ ao ,dévali aosIS to teow botsool .A seta seta 
omen ai ietateet oh mol. paso eaw [foe edt ,CoGL ah ‘hedias sax see SeLS eld? 
seri ef od seolo Lice aft hesiifseda yledefquso bal tasmdisets ,zacuetuct 
yt Sw —- bax  beowsrams eae to efasiq [lane etodgo at oLtcdw 
bi2 ay ee james EER a: ‘od: wants aren 

GAB: wae: ren ina ‘40. eb tabety odd. Py bekanadc i olehne 
ost? ,Q8Ch at botise need bad ypalegots tu emote emt£ a: ep et aire N 
ot miimatsed devi, exer tovoln bac aeatp.enld este wvibem to wey sedan 
“larmsatt orem eectnant —_re o% jeeta betias aunt pace etos slineie odd tedas 
ae ptened rgginp al 

obit mien: musket te mi theabeiee: edit Re pedened: . 
stew aete ant al eodesd yvrredted ad? os tasted - peat or ie age : eninenat 
stoge edt sted pove dni .tise Te atewors svlessoxe Serleoet svad o¢ swomi 
:qtadeo. ,aoifsbaad mrenke 3 eseg gtiworg otee tlac idly betevoq mood bad tasig 
‘a shen oeen —_ ee Le sy gi ane 

eurbibest ameest: ap Pe area: ebteteid. go ‘ioe . ee pera Sm 
amt of txem Itee acd mhigend aeteod neptel edt t9baer ybio ltd qe: Sakeoe. rege 
egal fbver yruedusd oft déiw Sefgataietmat acee cheow vedto,hme qkada .aweno 
.eigoige toot yes te sonebive on sew etod? 

ee ra, ee Pe ee ay SN Cee eee eee ee ee eT PR Ree AR Te PO Ae 0 sak eo 

In eonélasion it is noted that the bushes which had aprouted 
were invariably found to be large ones growing im more or less sandy soil — 
om hillsides. The sprouts were usally found two to six feet in a Hitoral 
ee sp ‘the® — or on hye igi side of the bach. 

o)  o-@he texidity of ammonium thiceyanate showld be definitely 
esteblished for barberry plants according to the following technic: (1) as 
a mixture with sawiust or wheat chaff applied te the soil immediately 
adjacent to the: ‘erowny"(3)" as'x supersaturated aqueous solution applied in 
the shme ihanner @s (1); and (3)° as ®' saturated solution applied at a 
gudsurface application by means of @ pred Poa.’ Deshger for the oar? 
methods Just semErt ae showl be bdadeenr deed or 

oe 4 eats of othy1enae waka’ bia on iaaaytvebee Furnecé in 1922° 
sheer? this’ chemical’ to be fully effective under certain soil conditions. 
Use’ of the chemicel Sppeare to be ‘Limited to those areas where a prod red 
can be readily plunged into the soil. “The soil, furthersore, showld not 
be’ So sandy as to ellow rapid diffusion of the gas, The “@0snze° Of ethylene 
oxide shoulé be definitely established for rere ‘wits and he: “seope 
oe" the’ owe mere ethrate ty: Wefinet: a wR 

ve FaPthbe! Wap ckameanner ehene: be had: eee Guam. kanes ‘of 
wade! chlorate applied to the ground about the base of the plant. Appli- 
cations at Pensylvania Yurnece in 1931 gave euch favwreble resulte that 
further experiments should dé planned, The method should be modified, 
however, to @liminete the fire hezard and the danger to stock by injecting 
the’ cheni¢et by Meany of a prod ‘fod inté mineral soil in # series of closely 
plade@ holes within en aren of two to ‘six inches frem the crown, The | 
solution should be as —enwe ed ib sence to reduces: te @ mininum the. 
amount of water used, 

Final experiments with the tubulation method should be made to 
determine the lethal dosage of sodium chlorate or copper complex to berberry 
plants of various sizes. 

BN. Tentative Recomnendations for Field Use 

Recommendations for field use have been given in Part III of the 
annual report for this Sagan pat for the sake of PORPAET En eee they are 
herein repeated. 


betrvovce bail do friw sofeud off tadd deter at ef corer lonon ‘eI 
 «ffoR ehrae s8ef 10 etm at gritore pene eptef ed of Setot ‘Uidebievar etew 
Lar oent s'nt test xte 6d owt bavet YFlavsr etew strowe ae bbtel ft to 
sino odd ‘te obte “Eft eteas ott ne 6 wor ed ‘mort bd as 

yfetintted ed Sivods id sian ily avitomn te 5 ney ate 
a2 (1) sotatiost sertwoffet sil? of ‘anFitones ginsta ‘Urtedias ye? bone tidates 
UfetelSsant tos ef} of batfeqa Yiats Peecie to tavbyae riiw ewizts » 
bt Set leew hettslow sroeupa hetathtaetsqew @ as’ (6) jowo'rd ‘ody of Insp ats 
‘@ eb bet fous ‘notewien Sedetrdtsg @ ex (5) ban; (0) es ‘wennam mee ® 
_Ietorer ont rot a: bot hetq = to anes yw actias : "oiissittre 
; abate Pidatee od 'b fiesta haf trgept jert, ohehe 

Beer ab enniiintt stl 1 Geiciet os eben shice oixe rtd to" ‘ereer eu 
sholtthaes (tee xtatres tober ovttnette Vite? od ot Tao topo eta se 
Bor Bott & ered edets sebd? of het tmti of oF etsecc® Ino tate “edt % 
tor BEstwts: -oremedeivt (ffow adil {tox edy odat a sige Bre ete hi 
oxelynte Yo s4an6b ef® eee df to ofestt}s otqnr wolls of 2s ybas 
agtns ed? bee eette oftstovet tc¥ here tidadee Yes tented ad bivoiie” a 
‘. pheatted _etaumes eto Aodtem ont ‘to 
Xe enortstoe ee at te ‘ae ed bivode sinomiteare seatne sili ita 
“Hood desley eft 10 eed edt trodes barctg elf of pete sisreliy antboe 
sasit siseeee? efdsrovat dome eves LOL ai sosrtot staavIyenies, ry “enotiao 
\batttboa ed bivode Bodden ef?  bermmalg od blvode efzemiteqxe tedden? 
gultosiat yd soote of t9gasebh edt Sea Gtasad eri} edd etantmile ot Chang ng 
Usnois ‘to aeites a st fide Ietentm otnt bor bore’ s to gasem Jeatende ’ 
off igvows eft wat? vatbat xte of owt To setine nintin: “Bessig 
ene nave Po s oF sotto of ‘bidtaacg ae Deteticeon00 ‘ea ‘ed biwose “moigttlos 
“boar ‘Tetew. te fares 

ot slam ed bivore bordism softalngot wit cifw yicewiregne Legtt 
Wrredtad ot noigqmos teqees ‘to stetoite me Lioe 39 e3s205 fasitet ete ontaxod 
| Seale agortay to bist bg 

eit to Ill dtet at covin pres pare Say blot? rot  besttidesmniak 
rs #:) nee i opemggeenig te: ike maine odd ated —_ a, eidd tot eget apes vec 

e Peon Sara pn geet 

sete sai 

Berbveris vulgaris: Of the chemicals thet have ben tested by 
eooperative. experiments. of the Divisions of Iarberry Rradication and 
Blister Rust: Contrel, #0dium chlorate is the only one ‘that can at present 
be recomuended for field use, *Po dete it is the one chemfonl that has 
been definitely proved by field teste: to be fully effective on barberry, 
Ammonium thiocyanate in quantities about 50 per cent more than sodiun 
chlorate may prow to be an effective substitute mt camot be recommended 
for generdb field use wmtil, ite bth is pentizves, by. EDDA: nrretd- 
mental mgr Hizative aid Se apr maven & 74 REL ay NS OS! hw 
— Seay Crest ee hee the 

iloes wpec or the eraddenhion ne sumer oun, pore y epi and oul bushes Fe 
alld ei feet of live stem), this project. advises spraying with 
‘one pound “sodium chlorate et the rate. of 0, 6,6 pounds of. chlorate per 
“YOO feet of Live stem.’ Large bushes should be treated by soil application 
of saturated aqueous sodium at the rate of 0.2 to 0.4 pounds per 100 feet 
of live stem after the remdval of Guff aid ‘ally surface litter, The latter 
scheme of eradication i ooh to heave some economic advantages over salting 
for numerous large bushes. The destruction of single bushes in, perks ar 
‘private estates can ve:mesoupl ished. by cutting off the . bush, close .to . the. 
VsrowWid ané gubsequently applying sodium. chlorate OP * sod ius fluoride ........ 
‘dineetly tothe scarified crown, ‘Phe dry chemical. should be. gprinkled 
“evenly over: ‘the wetted durface of the crown and a1] aveilable.roots, 
‘One-half pound of less of the: enerel neti dene aiing: on he sabiios aul the bush , 
shoul fad desig «sami tovensuré death... . ; iteratuye of tix 

SUwjeey x oY Than OY Givaes Gare ot iene? é j ee, 
Law: areyory. ghd ‘ase’ chémtcal methods “may tat ssbaisatann! ‘ua a eaiee ‘been 
osurfictentiy éeHonstrated on an excerinéntel acale to-merit.field trial in 
“aivferent localities one more or less controlled. besis. of-larce-sesle 
Mest) What effectiverwesults can’ be expected: from the use of these methods 
is certain; that such methods will be cheaper than the present salting 

plan can only’ te! deter’ ned” by comparing their costs with those of ‘wisine 
wen series or field’ mr ‘performed over e periad: of PARE: oF Peporttiy 

BO PR Sa aa. % Riera; S ade) ae < ; ; 
vadertsia by thie projes$ shiulg nneie tas rerepm e | 

ie tae a ae ip i ia ag hs att eet 8 yen “y hee f < aid Fi a uae x ¢2 BEM ae a a4 es 

26° Caper shasit@ dnetwie @ eanetah sie tacay b 
Bi ak Bie, ms : . , 

SE FOSCL VSS, B anyrt rete of oraelons + 
TE ade a i ai eit bake : g 

ta i? ee. te pate Eye Lae war: Yer ana? rey 

1S le ania, ge te Wes pean Mie ae ie aie: site ae “ I n i 
larorentios shone Prope. Bpee ay Ip tae eee?” Senet, 

% . ¥ 

e, f f # a ase ¥ ve ar os i y 

erg & cA os it T90F ey ai a nes oy yet it % € at’ [sero tine ¥ ‘ ae 
a ae o eres wis eee peels cctnn ene Reon) Be va nn ele Ju) OS eai ba cae ¥ Te Ez 

yk ese a & i ana 


~ - “ ’ a 
ne ty . er Te. ae re 1, eh ih ee 
A teendearh Tore bee boon tyme we far the eect te yt be 

* be t ? a ~ ; ‘ 
eentejeon of 611 date wertiment g¢ thm fetetia of sae 


vd bagesd ced eval tad? elaotasde addy 30, 28 rey Be eb 's 
ban cotiagthard griaftal to anetgivid oad Jo ataonh sexe .evitatsqgoos. 
“tneget: te nao dedt.cag ylgo edd el qtateidg wvibea ,lowdsod $end tedel le 
eal jucd Lao taeds enovatt ef Pb-ejab.oP » seee bLeld. 10} hebasomage tas 
xriatad so evisoette ylint ed of atest bfert yw bevete ylotiaiieb aved 
eiheg wadd etom taes a0 08 dued 9 -eoti eave ai stanayootdg mars somo 
bebxemmonet of onan fea edrditedma ovijoette as ed oF ‘w aig Yea otatoetico 
-tyaque aediint yt demsbions ab. gitobros att..ditarr. oem diet? daeteneg tol 
EE aa Fe: el big Rts Ee Ts 38 " PR ONS Bae AM es has pe RE 
_ pederd. ica das 2ynii hese agoteams. t¢ nottao hate Old ACbs gous akin 
déia satyasge acaivha gae,org aidd.,. (meds evil To fost OL ed) 
<9 stateide ke ebaruqg 8,0 of 0,0: to,.0fe0 ods, 78 sieroitg maisor basog. aco 
notisotioga [los yi besaot? sd biome aedamd Gy tad, sete evil te veel Gos 
fost OOL teg same $0 of 6.0 %e edgar edt $8 artbos ecvenpe betatoise To 
nobfafetf> .1egelt sqatwre{facdua Tish te Leremet aii tects sede ovif To 
ocitiag tao eegaisavas. olrenege asoy.eved of @iseque ugitaa soars to emesos 
“49 ese ah gadeud oigaia to moisoniiesh oaF eatecd satel esetesma to? 
ode of egein cue aft Bie yabtim vd Sedeliqnoase of shy setatee. oda hig 
_ohbtow{? aioe te etatelio mtaoe gatyiggs yLicerpeci ne a5, bavety 
beldubics of Sivois sagkmeis yuh ast: “wot beltiiace edf of. yiseento 
etoot efdsiiava [ia bas awots ans Yo soabisg, Sad dew. od, 29¥0 yleove 
deed off to oxte edd co gatsasced , lao laests add? te eael to Sauog Tfad-and 
Mon aueite fio aay of hiheeh oturaap od daotet¥au ef 5 irode 

. qeed palved 34 betebieags.od ysmrebediam Llapimeda syais. MGT) s wedi sce 

ah febug biettdfism-c¢ sieoe, Jadroniteqxe 2.00 Setetigaoed yisnolaitive 
-@lega-en7tal Je aivad bsilovscep 229i, 12 et0a $ H0.ae8 jifscol daetettiv 
ghodtew seed? 3e sat od? mots Sefooges way edivest svitoatts ¢act,.daad 
nstetes seagety act. medd teqasd,ot Iitw shodsen done tad? paiasiss ek 
agkt lew toe eeetd <éte adeop ahecd poltsomms. yd benintgdes of yluo aso: malg 
eiser to Boles s teve bemretieq #3203 bles? Je aettoe gk 

Rick mr 

‘HE STATUS OF WwVi.s1 6 TV aK IN THY phtidrtt ERADICAPT OW oy bi 

24a ae By 
hed, WS R. Offord — 
Pre _ Agent Kea 
Cap ° tet it Ye ‘the ‘anmal +i | for project 2,3-1 discusses the 

dieitiih oF Ynvestigative work in the chemical eradication of Ribes end 
barberry and @escribes the limitations of chanical work for important 
Ribes species and for common barberry. It is intended to serve both as a 
ed statement of the major objectives now unéer investigation, ané as 

swimar in which al? field and laboratory date are brought ‘up to 
eae tit he ‘form of Field ‘Fecommendations. sat, al : 

teks why ie ee 

wropesed % ial + so aoa! me tat 
tee Wes ; Ge 64s 

— he’ a tevit: prune ecueGnt eee ue uncertain Fai it 
oband? Eun OR to embark on any research program of a fundamental nature 
unless such work has an immediate and practical application to our control 
program; therefore, the investigations to be undertaken this winter will 
be focussed rather sharply on problems of an immediate ficld nature. 

fon of a fundamental nature having a bearing on the destruction 

of plants chemice] means will pe sought for in the literature of the 
subject rether than by direct investigations of such problems in our own 
laboratory. “It might alse be stated that this sharp delimitation of © 
objectives is advisable at the present time,’ Tegardless of the tuestion of 
finaheés sinec the writer is anxious’ to male m careful anslyeis of all 
past work before recommending the line of future attack. 

in keeping ‘with the ebove-mentioned change’ in the type of labora- 
tory” work, a number of” chengés are contemplated ‘4n the mannér of reporting © | 
on experimental wok. In future, a complete file on laboratory investigations {/if) 
vepeeseneh: maf thee: a, ‘ahoald’ ‘Séutatn” ‘the’ oitgiie information: iat 

at ES Oe’ 

alewwht Ps “mate ipa vonowta’ Anetuce’ a dodo’ ‘apelin? sf fie rate 
hares ' objectives,’ ‘a short resume of: previots ‘work, ‘and a briet’  * 
the AALS Scocsigat ine of the ‘proposed work for each bbjecttve. “Such” 

chao 2 larorantion: ‘should’ Boh sett Stet: in’ the’ anmaat’ Teport. 


05, PO" A Standard form’has’béen drawn up for the compilation and pre- | 
sentation of all data pertinent to the details of each 


1L1 aad 
gear ton) WOTMAOTARS JAOT IND mH? AI BsOW AN a cLiaaved Be. 20Bawe ae 
: oe Mi, MRL FN EP Stee Bia a RE ye ra 
" beets Po 3 re % ; : Se @ sas nies a ak 

att gepatrsetd FS .S Pootors sot Ptotet Pastas gat to SE Sede oacs Se 
bee padifi tc aettaoibate feotmeto oft af wow eyvidasiieoval: to andais 
dundiogmh tot Brow tantwsde to emoitetink? oda esdixoeeb baw yrisdiad 
a an doce evtoe of Hedustat et 31 Setisdiad gosKes wet beg eatoeqs sodin 
ea Dime, rotianttesvat tebe wee aevitootde “ro (am eifs %) tremesade Taveren 
43 ou tdggetd ote sine vrotatedal: bus &fatt (le dotde ch dxeget Yrseme 4 
SAGES AS ve 8 pre Pt ebremepes blett Secret edd gst send 

ay ge 

$2 ,feeeent’ ‘ahetueona to no tbautie’ Sue estG esd Be. AMakhP edt stbo ccc oy 
stiten faisenekay? «Ye meray Aereeeot era go anedey oF bosivha-{ik smaee 
fesdaee swe of mo dteotiqgr’ feotinawy Sao efetbeamt os pest pitsow doure ogo taxr 
Thy ve dite sidd neladyeban 9G 69 ans bvawties vat etd: qeiote tens :margorq 
yepisn Bfokt asaibormi #s ty eis fdote sto ei ouates tedéan bagesool os 
pobtourrsaeh aff ao scirasd Ss on ivand et aK {aseomebours & to soktawroint 
eft te aurtavedif edt mi tot ddguoe ad fiw essen Isoineio xdi.sinatg to 
wwe a0 oi encfdorg dos ‘to erottegitcoyat goexis vo not tonite gout dis 
%o wodied bet fel quade wits Salt @etete od cata idgtn ih” yrosetodal 
no etiaend edd Yo seolinages yomti sagas te ait ta efdantvha ah sovisoeldo 
fra % eieetace fiftetae 2 voles od eyokace vl toting ed? oonke gomaa lt 
i  sstihesee emg? to ent foadé patinommovey ato ted arom 28a 

wenodal Tso. sayt eid nk agnado beso timem-ave ds gad date antqoed. aloe oa 
i snitieqes to serra add RE Hodefometmeo eta aeyesds to xsdmat @ )atow, Wo? 
| anotdagtizevat yietntods! ae efi stof@uco a ,etrdast of cow {ataemtisgxs Mo 
taoktamrotnt anime lic® es? gieteoo Biseds tneto tc oidt yo esdledrebas 

pcottostizsvrl tnetotd te antadh odio dzogee A af 

toatotg ol? to Inemetava sautoses @ ebrfoat Binode tegaq eid 
tatid « ban .tiow esotvety to emirot dtode & ,eavisooido 
foe .ovitpetdo daee tot arow heaoroavey edt to ark f tern 
wieccet [sonia edd ai Te o7s eleqotg Sfuode sotdamre lak 

does. aot euctiaatizeral to stiuef mo troged beliadet A a 

-exq bag notiallqmos oat tot ow swend ased sak mot Srabeste & 
dosa to eftateb edt of taonkiteg sjeb {fa to mobiesaes 


Poh sy OMe OMIA eenD. es 

experiment. Detailed reports on laboratory experiments 
nf fas ed aceording to this standard forg,will ivclude 2 
be Si et asd {Eat of; title,. introduction, procedure, 
my equipment, prozress of experiment, summary of 
results, raiisedatee: ‘and recommendations for future work. 
hese reports will appear as separates from time to time. 

tes ‘ts. hoped. that, ‘these. changes in the manner. of reporting. on 
“a ont, ‘Work will more definitely line up the needs of the going 
operation with. AED STeRENT 3 work. meter teers BoM the chemical investi- 

alleen pBEPSARES va 

z othe giatus. ‘of ‘faxes theative: work be dissents. ahice the fohlow- 
12 tuarony ne | (1) Ribes. eradication, chemical; (2) berberry eredicetion, 
oe and. (8) Ribes. and. barberry morphology. Yor: purposes of presen- 
redeVions: a brief summary ef previous work and. a general atatement. of 
(work is eppénded to each objective under the three main divisions 
saith work. ooIt might: be noted that the present resume retapitulates some 
ns, which have. —— Som Sarenahed relatize to werk: ay Rk for 
ne Se eyeiaee Sioa hag ol? ies - 

igh Ravkal anrep ea oot sRAMNG ERADICATION, GHUNTOAL 

 Setablishment.of the minimum dosage of sodium chlorate for.100 
‘ape one eredigation of Be imerme. and B - legustre when applied (e) as.a 
drench, (>) 2s.a combinetion pee oe spray.end.soil.drench, This 
douare to be pabcat ea aene for the igs Sauces ores af R. Saarna ae 

Pach Sones 

basa: aeeitas cates ‘Phela. ae. plete om se ry deka; have. shows the 
“mpractiesbility: ef an aerial epray. for chemical destruction of most Ribes; 
oybut.@ high per cent Kill of oushes has ususily been obtained eiiher by 
appLicetion. of soil immediately adjecent to the crown of. fhe 
oy plent or bysepplying’ chemical. to aerial -perts plus « diberal application to 
vi the sofl;.in this regard the problem of minimum dosage is of paramount 
> odmportanee,: clt' was: first mde a mejor: objective of field experiment at 
»oBlewett Pess, “ashington during the season of 1921. Experience of 1932 
shoved that it will be necessary to establish a minis dosage figure for. 
vothe d4fferent ecologicsl forms of Ribes. Leboretory work of 1971 studied 
- the rete of fixation and alteration of sodium chlorate and ammonium 
el thiocyanate by forest soils and demonstrated that both chemicels were 
/o@xcellent soil: poisons; of the two sodium chlorate appeared to be @& more 
) efficient poison per Goller expended thovgh more hazardous to handle, | 
i, Bxpertence end: observation of the past field season heve brought up the point | 
- ‘thet,: regardless of the. ciantity of chemical finally added to tach unit area | 

iw #$ 

‘ " F £ & xs se eng = aye m ; ‘ 5 x p = or 
¢ “ 'ivae fe eas <i Ht See l Me oe e: i 4 < —) ; 
Bre 5. DAE We 2 eke GS GEA Pisitese aedie. BA MEAT bd bed jhe. ee | EA oe 


ajnemiiegzs ytotatodal mo afizoget gofiagsu .tnemitegure 
3 sbulont [itw aot Srebdnade aidé ot snibtoses botagetg 
,owubeooug. cofiombettat.,eléit. to an kéqiunaeb. toftd | 

So yrngmew , daomlt9qxe to S26t3Otd slnomatupe »eialts dan Sal 

tow etwiut tot snottabsammonst faz ‘sotageyelh , 22 ivaet 
sett of omit aott eotategse 8f, «neqga ILiw etecqat sent 

: a # eh oe Ht 

ao Batitocet ‘to ‘tenmem ed al segcado seedt sacs beqed af 31 
antog add to eheen edd ge esti ylediatte® stom. i ftw 2t0w. Iainemitogne 
-tieownt Ledimeds add yo atiad reisy 2tow yrotaredal ditw sottsiege Dfelt 
Se ce muptereah! ot anientee eee 
cwottet <dé sebow Bogasmatd ab attow gvidagiiesval ts sit9is.e4t.. fecucdy 
-aoticotbate vriedted (Ss). i fenkmedo ,notisotbars edit AT). remotety?S, gah 
-resetg to aeanoqieg to% eee Lacig nes, WEReEE AS bos aadti ©) bas ;leotmedo 
to seamedade faxeseg 2 bas drow ano. gate to yrsmuce telid a enottad 
atoteivib utam eowl? edd teans aviios{ide dose od Sebaeaqgqa 22 dx.7 bexogotg 
enor sodainticaost emibet Iness 19 ‘eit dedd bodon od tdatm 21 attow to 
tet oasig stiow cf aviteless iodekgtut aved ybsatla saved sig daw adm eit to 
Fe oe case -dipnasaedods Ae ex aml totals yriaos es 

% os UO > eee ok 4. We A ee BRAS * t Pye ¥ ero 
“GAR Dias SOTO Tags SHEE gate ted pe 

QOL got aistoldo autbos ‘to egsned fumintn oat to Jnomiat toate, re 
3 aa ia) bekloga sede autanpel ..2 bag 

pal .2 fag amzamk .& te antienthare.dnem sed 
ais? domes Stce boo yetqy, Leltes 0 taaideos « 2a (d) «donee thos 
ee mapead & to aurtart Iantaclone eid, tot besiatidadas ad 0% agaaob 
ae ie oleae eh made. gehen  setawmel 

eit nwose ovadl sist of stow geiarodel bas. blafE os 

ahtou pnetnesS 
‘gedit! tgom to noiiarisas® taaimedo. 10%. yoses Jaites oe ‘te hi idepizossgak 

yd reitte beataide seed yiiaces aed essae to Lite! goe0 tq gets & tad 

gid to omoro afi of. donde yletalheant thos ot teainate to godseol iqga 
ng nottantiqna fered?l a aaiq atisq Lefts o@ iagimedo aabylage yd to daalg 
jewpomatas to at saeach mumiata to metcerq adit Sasget abd. ak ;1toa end 
te inomisegxe Belt to aviiavtdo sotan * obi test® sev tI .eonatroqml 

SECL to sometiegx® .182f to noames odd. paltab, noi gaksdaas: ,eeal tteweld 

wot sauatt epanoh aumtatn a Saildeiae of Wrmpaeaes ed Lite ¢8 ted beworde 
bethste POl to axon vrctatodad. pad ks, to agaot, Saatgo leon, gneteTt iS olf 
mutgesma bis atesolda subhos. Ro ao tiated ia. See aotgaxét to eter odd 

stew eiaotmedo décd tadd Sets tsenomeh bre eftos gaotot yd etasayoo lad 
exou god o8 bexseqas otatoide mpthor owls ast to: ;amostog Ifca snefileoxne 
ofbredt of esobresad etom itgmods bebaegre telfoS seq mopglog tis poitte 

tt gutog of? qu ddguoid eval cosses bilett teaq eat To solvavisedo Sas cone freoxd 

sete tins doae of, Debbe ytinatt Leotmedo to, yetdmaup. acl? to. asotiraget .tadd 

ee SY 

of soil fad tm be chemical as applied oust not be below a certain 
minimum concentration. .1t seemed desirable further the question 
of miniuum dosage with reference io the factor of concentration when a 
chemical is used as a soil drench. 

Brapenhd worki. To. ‘ppply sodiwa. chlorate in such quantities. to. 
sel: of an. approximately optimum moisture content for Ribes growth that 
resultant concentrations of 1/4, 1/2 and 4/5 of one wr cent in the soil 
solution will be attained. hese quantities of sodium chlorate are 
approximately equivalent to dosages of 2,500, 5,250 and 8,000 pounds per 
agre respectively. With a lmown voluma of soil in each pot, the dosage 
will thereby be known in terms of weight of chemical per unit volume of 
soil.and concentration of sodium chlorate in per cent. or parts per million 
in the soil solution. The aqueous chlorate solution will bé distributed 
evenly over the soil in wich the potted plants are growing and the potd 
subsequently maintained at optimum Sotatave content by frequent weighing 
and addition of water. R. xoeazli growing on Stanislaus Forest soil will 
be used as _@xper imental material withextension to R. inerme when that 
material is ready. If time end materiel permit, an extension of this 
experiment will be made to include smntteatten of the chemical ag @ combina- 
tah a@erial spray at Soil drench, ae ag eee 

Search. for and adequate greenhouse and field testing of new kil oo 

ing. ‘adeata. for) more. effective use as under Objective 1. These chemicals t9 
be iadahbine gah ‘odie chlorate as to.cost and. effectiveness, ; 

vious. : On the basis of the chemical ‘properties of yartous 
classes’ ‘of chemical substances, such as inorgenie and organic acids and 
bases, complex salis of heavy metals, inorganic and organic salts, 
inorganic and organic oxidizing and reducing compounds, oils and gases, 
over one thousand formulae have been tested by field and greenhouse. 
7 lication to ‘Rives. Over 95 per | “@ent of these formulae were tested as 
“ays, and considerable time was spent synthesizing compounds which by 
vintes ‘of their chemical properties and by virtuc of our kmowledge of the | 
chemical composition of the various Ribes species, were designed az specific 
poisons. . Ia the selection or. Synthesis of these poisons for spray appli- 
cation, a premise postulated early in the course of projected investigations 
Kept in mind. This premise suggested that the most effective toxic 
ageats would be found among those chemical compounds having concealed 
slaetiie of ‘toxicity so that sn immediate caustic or blasting action on 
foliege would not occur, While subsequent | field and laboratory experiments 
bore gat the validity of this premise, an ever-increasing volume of data 
indicated the more eA of chemical destruction of stream type 
Ribes. (except &. ) by single application of any ‘Chemical to acrial 
parts alone. “Recent studies of the gross morphology of Ribes have shown even 
more ee | the Se at of ‘the inhale mathe? a so far as 100 percent 

oh | 

uiasves # voted sd Jom tem Botfage at $f as tide’ ae’ eostiwe fos to 
notseuy: oft vadeact youte of sfdetrees Portis 31 Caotisrtasence mamta tm 
3 otal soitetinsencs ‘ts xotoa® ods oF. egnetetet AS iw ‘e3580b suminte To 
tismeth Stew a 38 beau al feo brady 

ot scidthuies fove mi statofds partie yfqga of witow besogotd 
“tatit fdwom sedtf tcl Inetnos ototetom meattgo yfetantxotgys ma to fhoe 
ftoe edt at ines vay eno ‘to G\S bts S\F VS\E Yo anolttertneomed tnetfyeer 
ers edatolds muthor to sefttinedy eved? bentatia ed Tftw aottetos 
tsa ebugog 000,8 bas O85, ,008,5 Yo senscoh of saalavicpe yfods oe 
egsech edi .jog anes at thos to amerfow avomd 2 dékW .yfeviseoyees stos 
to ommfov ding teq Teolmeds “to Siigtow tc enved ni awoml ed yereds [fiw 
nolfTia teq ater sass Yor at sietelde welbed to aod endusoced ‘Baa Thos 
addudicteth oF (ike aolinloe efwroliis’ epoorves ef .sottofor flow odd at 
ate ft tae anieor, wre etmnfe Bestog ent deifw al floe edt seve yiweve — 
gqaidatew ieousevt vd teetnos stmtsion swuitqo ta Seontstaton yfineuposdsa 
fie {ive teoret emaletmeds ao grivo1g iigack .=  .tedew Yo sold isha bas 
tadé sede syveg? .3 of cobemedx eo dtiw fate tan Iataantwese ea hboew od 
elds to s¢lenstxe ae ,ifexeg {sitetam bos emis ti Jpheet ab falistom 
~aidmes 2 8a fenkmede ads to eh ites ehwfoul ot sham od f[lkw taomktegxe 
fewerh Itce bes yerge laizes mols 

«IS ?H wos to watiiee?s Hfekt Sez secradtrsors staupods bas “tot focee? 
of eTastnods suet? of! evitestd® tebiis a9 e60 ovtics Tie stom tot: ‘atceaa gat 
‘se@oaeelsooNks wie! sees: bad as hohe ieee Make segues ed 

encitiey to es texeer xa leohmeda ont to alae odd no i BER 
bos efiies cineaie bot ofmegtest ea dons qnocantadie prac to ‘peceate 
tise sfnegie bes aisegromt ,afatem yveed to atfae xefquoo ,aeend 
2aeney bits allo pehanenmes gotseber bee selathixe eiaegic das simegton! 
eaoieaeen baa blakt yt foteed ‘need ovat oeTuwro't feeewodt sno teve 
2a Leteet orev eolomrt estcy ha dnae we 6 tev “wed iA ef mablashiqgs 
¢é dofdw ehawogson Rats tecitnye Jooue zaw ontt ofdaiahieaes bas ,ayange 
ec? te oabslwont wp to eretiv yd bee eskivoqeng Laetosds thedd to eedaty 
olticese an bersteo! etewo,eetseos ved bh? svokuar odd “tome lticoqmen | feoiaedo 
~Eiqas yews wot scovlog saod2? To eatuodimee to aoktoelee aft al oncatog 
etolisetiservsi beteelatg to seis odd at “ftsa botafotacg satmetg @ yaoktass 
‘fxey ewitosTie tom edt Gadd Bedeagace weiss ug eid? Sabo at iqed eaw 
hbeledtwon gaivad shasoqmos (Soiaede oeodt aaome boact od bigew aefga3gs 
no moltws ankisaftd t6 sSifewas etatbount as Indi ca ytiotrot Re elttome!ls 
asnemiaayxs retecadal bas Bleit taoupeadse el ia «sragee toa -bisow wegakfot 
ateb to suclot uatesetont-reve as ,oetmatg aidé to qitbifer od? tue wed 
_ Beet agetie te aetiouréseb ‘aotmeds te ysifidestteciemt edt Bedsotbal 
[aiton of [aahmeie ye to aofinsklages ef gate ed: (ecmalotiar 2 tqecxe ) asd If 
seve nwoda evad eedii te ypoledqiom eeote at to estiute gasoet 8 .enola attag 
treo teq OCF ee tat ca at Sorter guiyerqe edd Yo anotisiiat! edd yfiselo otom 


kill of treated plants is concerned. This project is now attempting to 
felect 2 satisfactory sol) polson to be used either Ss 2 soil drench alone 
or as a: Sab isavesa Soft: agen and bobiat “ne ina the ech ainantiow: of 

R. Mherme. 
Re Bee pms it 4 # rw eae 

* The’ app Mention’ of ahiadeatiss as aot titania wes a alates part of 
enw’ hinitana investigations program from the ineeption ofthe work in the 
West’ in 1924 until 1920. Commencing with the field season of 1930, the 

of soil poisons has been examined by both ficld and laboratory 
methods. The results of experiments with soil poisons have been presented 
in annual reports (1924-1931) under synonyms of crown applicat lon. root 
epplicxtion, sof? applidation, sot? drenen, and subsurface dtoreh, Tha 
most promising chemicals that have been reported under these headings are; 
godium dhicrate, alisline sedtuwe fluoride, sodiua arsenite, aunonium 
chloride, ‘coppe complex, sine aumoniue chloride, ammontwa thiscyunate,: 
his icapen tame Diese? of1, and petroleum sludgo-ott. - 

vets 2.) .4m ghoosing @ soil poison a lengthy list of possible toxic agents — 
is ts grostiy shortened by considerations of low cost, availability, eas¢ of 

erties and smfety. A succesful soll poison must combine the afors~ 

mentioned features with dewirabYe toxic vropsrties. Amone the latter 
pep eel MWoted rosistatice to alteration and fixation oy the soil and 
‘Anjoriousmess | ~ Ey pin pad udderate gar piggy “ae - 

Reiley abhor 
Proposed. work: Under this aeoie the tthoatere will be thoroughly 

explored and ell 4nformeation which oun’ be obtaivied from allied investigators 
wil) be Kept''on fi7¢, © Chemical compounis which ere sucgested throuch this 
rork efther ‘directly ‘Ov Indiréetty will ve given adequate ¢r@enhouse test 
‘and a new compound mppearing to have possibilities for field vse wil) be 
ae. = i ce Seat on wad aie Fs etigeg ~ ie a ee ee 

chases ippaptoebaeas by vend. 4 test: of the aflousiednete: of: deanationiiae 
“et r rous “godimn chlorate (one pound per gallon) to stems: nome roots: at hes 
2 ate el “against effectivencss “of “ooapteve doverager re i 
Ssaen wi oe yet 9 
| ey inte “oder: Ke barty"as71926 howde sheen: thet m“ ‘petiolare 
seeald "Ba staresareiey: eradicated by one application of aqueous sodium — 
“chtorate® to the steme and leaves of the plant.’ During succeeding years, the 
Gonéentration of soditm chlorate in aqueous solution has been reduced from 
38 P Gent to 10 per esnt with satisfactory resulte, It'hag been 9 - 
“detePmined that complete coverage of aerial parts with sodium chlorate in 
Re # solution as Yow'as & per cent will give 100 per cent results if 
ed carly or mid-geason “in localities where the water table is not. rors 
highs “In 1931, to avold misinterpretation of local conditions on the part 
‘Of crew foramen, 1¢° was recommended that 10 per cent sodium chiorate be 
uged to effect complete coverage of aerial parts and that additional 
chemical be #quirted on the ground near the base of the plant. This in-- 
“struction: toe iseaed’ “po gop + _ ee of ‘field date woken 

 gF aay 3 WE a 


of aatgquesde wos ef vosfox, aid? seerteonpo af ataaiq hesentt ' to ffket 
kote conoub {Poe a 8# tedtio beer of od noet g Eee qytorpatatese is guelow 
to no tfeok bere ode et yeu fattee Sua 3 doxoth ey trator #88 eo" 

6 oe Be 

to éten tenia # sew enoetog Ifor ea ataotueds te mohiankians ed? 
df ni Moy edd Yo to kagomel” weft yr: METROTT ane ttagtiesrint ‘Teetmeds sit 
aif (EOL Yo dommes lett edt ibe Sagem Cet rein SSOP ak Jeo¥ 
yuotatodar bre belt, dtad yd hosteme need eal stoxtog Tow Ye ne nottesey 
oinensth nad svat amok tng Tioe itty ‘etnentteqxe *¢ etfxbet one 4 
soot ,mofgaotiygs Neoty, Te merenooye tebe * rger beer) geroget teams pre 
adit? fortet® ensteiedve bas donot: tor wcobrastfqas | ficw sottsot fqae 
toxp python eust) tsasy hogtoget seed evel gaat ofan tmedds 
Mektomms ,otixsets author .abeealt sarthos ong entre he sato “mek bow: 
al sur bpeo tase a bbPr0 Ky ger Peoonta oats “Esiqgaos bE to 
; walte-og bale. ave fottey J bre afte foaged coteonoh® meth 

FQTg 84 

' adawga ofmod a! tdteesg te. fart wiser s ‘feetog” Phoe &, gare ond ut oy weal ak 

to tp as sqar tidal tees _ ,epen worl to, ano ttereblano> ye borat cap . | vias’ a 

eetota bd? Braceis tan acetog Thea Titewesoss 4 ugetse bas , gut rhnag 

. aagtal eff viromh  se0kstapoug otra? afGarteed igh ‘setueset, Bogo lt oo, 

Brees rhe se edd ys mokiuxtt Sas aotiewdia of eukadalect Baton at bivode 
wwotsiinaep etavebor al inal of acqmnyer rE 


eldequorte ié ad ftw ousderesghl edt aigos, pies "te bat! a 
grciagid as vat bettie mo%t Bentatdo ad dott oz taxttotAt ff ‘hen boners 
ard? Mmepeids Hotsoasive aks si Peer ahatoguion Tre triad werkt go toot od f 
feos sauodnotrs ‘tapaber evisu ad tfiw erigorkhal x6 tay %: 
ed ffkw sav, Sfelt sot eotetitidteasog evat ed puite cas. bayogMcm wom & bas 
eet baltte te yer eis at aaleoTy sodts bine ito Fest ie a sovis 

ry HF $Sapae Nar ey Base 

_gnigtour to asi thats edt * i ‘cy we sis 25 cene* hae 
s took bas smste pd Gio Tia toy big ono) otare leo cee aioe e 
, ‘sagatevod of stone, te aca hid hie ipl 

atafetiag. ok fads reode eew of aeer ee ytrae pf cattoy. von PONT 
meriboa asosspa te motinstiggs smo Dis Sept pipe ef bIxoo 
ed} , RIS gatbsesoue oetrnt  bmefe silt - “payact baw guody ott 62, ‘eget fits 
sovt boombet need art wokiufor euoenps pi oserolis a srtboe 26 gibi oi 
mosd Bek FT sav tweet. vrosste log. d$tw ines tog 0 nus 
gi ateto fd | setica Bitw atteq Isizaa to epateyoo boi’ 

4? effzeet Jad 794, dor evig sfilw tues te S Se eof 3a grey 2 
ood Sea et ‘sfdat wetaw ocd sredw agtitleoal mt § osaca-bts: 0, has 
Sxey oft he anetetbsos fedot to ‘polietstqrtotnteh  biova, oF ofSPL : 

Se egero tin mipthea éheo tea OF fany Lebnaamonsy Baw “or rae wer 
Taw Po thbe tadt bes stisq Yektes te OReTS VOD. wires goat 8 ct ae 

Wk gti  \anatg odd Yo ened oft ‘gue baoty of3 no Belainpe 6 ibaa” 

fotdw atad Sfett to sottieliqnos est of tnervpeadve boweet aan nagineee® 


aegeenea ‘Ba gneiderable killing nates resulted from the chemical 
found {ts sto $0 the ground. It is now suggested that treatment of 
 pitiatten mae ‘be Just as eff cetive if the chemical is applied directly 
to the ground vith coverage of the basal portions of the stems, It is 
not @xpected that uy appreciable saving of chemical can be made by 
substituting this method for the old one of eomplete coverage but it 4s 

quite fade that a ‘aus in the paring ‘time of the crew may be 

: Vecchia Ses A series of experiments is planned ‘in which 

Re inaee carefully proteeted so that no contamination of the soil by 
the. chemical is possible, will be dipped in solutions of sodium chlorate. 
Subsequent examination and analysis of plant parts will be made in order 

to note the extent of the serial toxic action. Objective 3 will also be 

made the subject of a careful field experiment next year. 

ae 2 cd lig 

< SoAMSAAE hE Lin of the spplication of. sme] quantities of chemical 
teted ‘crows as ® possible chemical means for the eradication of 
, Roezli., B.. ; and other Ribee.of the individual 
ith the Prag importance. ef upland Ribes eradication the 
oat shquld be given more attention. 

-eviolis work: Methods of. legiouninn Ribes’ ‘by stem. indestion; 
silettalfie and crown sear ification, were not tested by this project until 
1930 when they were designed ily as follow-up methods for the ~ 
eradication “of ‘stream type Hibes and os possible general methods for 
upland Rives. “Special tools were gonatructed by Yan Atta and Breakey 
for Anjecting into lit stems of Ribes a toxic chemical in the form of 
a ‘glycerine yaste. Methods of stem injection have proved to be unsatis- 
factory both om the grounds of poor kill and impraeticability of the method 
itself, “Pabulation has been used largely as a means of studying the uptake 

and movement of dyes and heavy mctal complexes rather than as a field 
method for des Ribes. Of the methods used, mechanica) injury of the 

crown with subsequent application of chemical to scarified crown tissuc 
hae show best. results. Of the various chemicals tested by application to 
searified « Crowns» the sell ofine have proved to be moat effective: copper 
comptes. sodium chlorate, Diese] oil, sodium arsenite, and eadmium chloride. 
— ence ta 1930-1921 field experiments showed that although 
Ribes such as R. nermo which possess intricate underground systems could 
not be successfully attacked by this method, Ribes having a single well 
developed centre! crown micht be aetisfectorily destroyed. Diesel oi] hes 

proved to be a satisfactory kehlling agent for R.. roezli ia dry locations 
ie ‘applied as @ s0i1 drench or as a combination omer and soil drench at 
eet tay eee. eS Ee : 

“¥o A ‘compilation will be made by Yan Atta of all field 
and IR cng data which are available from his tubulation experiments. 
Some 216 samples of plant material are now being analyzed for eopper content. 


fenhueds oft nowt Hed fsaet goitoe pak fit ai¢gershtance todd Sotaoanue 

46 trompaots tad? botsoyguea wee ak ¢1..bowormy ocd of yaw. ath, basct sada 
glisetth botfods ei faotmeds ost at oviiectts ae tent, ed yar azalubios ot 
al +1 .amede edd to sactétog faasd osfd to egatovon div basot, edt of 

yd eben od aes fsotmods “to carves slidatoosqgs. 054 fads betosqxe Gon 

ek i) Sud ogatwves ateferos 2 eno blo edd tot hodtou aidt pakiusts ede 

od au wersved? to outs aabyerqe eg¢ af goivae « agdt ylokil ating 

Sobde xt Somealy ek ataomixegn® %o aattee A wana pomegestd es 
qd) Ptow edt to aottantssiaes ot tadé 08 betoototg vi iatotss atalakieg A 
sjaxofae mrbtee To ane tepfon at Boggib ed [ike siidinesg of Seakmedo oat 
espe mt ebag od Ifta eatsq inale toe steylans See ne cdagtsece dacwveoedye 

ed cate ffiw 5 evitostdo ncrios ofsod Saizes en! to dnedxe of? 80m 03 
Wey teen soemhtoyes: Sfort fsttetaa @ te gentdue odd bam 

fantmado to soldisaary trowe Ye agdisokique edt To sotsatehtanc® sale Seep 
te potiantbavea edd tel sasem fantmeds efdhsveg & 8 aHIeT, eltirses. oF 
Caubiviba? edd te vedké sedge due emmmiankl 2 -diaaer of suminctacnety. f 
edd notsaothats eedtt hralay: ko eoustrogm? gatasetons edt A¢28...eqyt ciaad 
wwoktaetia stom nevis od bisnde g<untestsonety ff to mafdotr 

peottnet mi made yd! aedift cetyortasé te ghoddew mixewameswaed 2 fous 
Eueoe dookotmy stds 46 Sednad sox stow asotiaaltitace ‘geots. Lap ,moltalgdud 
compet tot ebodtax quewo TLot, en Uf bremetg: bematesd stow yous sede C52! 
aot abodes iavpaeg, etd tesog goohas sod eggs: naetie te solsentbes® 
yotes sd Sas atta oat xd betouwrdemcg etor efood faipege  -eedta baat gus 
eo wxot edt at feotmedts ofxe? & geod to emote sile com gatsoatet tot 
-atianus ed of bavota sved sobipetat mete “Lo sbodieN .steag esttooyla:® 
bodgem off to Yi idaotisaignt Sas fii «oog ‘to ebawota odd ao ‘daod giotoat 
wintes ete stiyhote eo geo mae ylenne? Dose, aeed aunt nokta lander? atfoett 
brett # em nedé twddat aoxelqgnno- faton qvesd bee eeyt te daeaevont, Lact 
edt to vital {eolnadonnt shor shoddum eas t6. aedti partyoud eal we bods ort 
syarki meots bartixeoe ot faetrmda to sofiestiqan trasposdie dghw swore 
ot amitaatiqns yd boteed alaotmects profi efi TO, “edisgot axed mode aad 
qeqqes iowitsetis dae ot of bevor evad gaiwollo’ ois .,rawots befitusse 
ehbteino eattabes firs weitneasa outbor Wffo foest® ,stawoide avibos, axelqeod 
dguodt in duds bewods aineettegee (plost (Sei -BeL at Aouiag eonaktogx® 

bigog pmetaye AawoTyobar staoltsnl eBPeecs dofdw omutt & aa dose woah. 
ffoe ofssts « gated sedi? sfioddem aided we betnetia yf ieteesuoms ed gos 

ext [to TewotG .hayottaes qitsotestetica of digta awote Larstaso hagolsveb 
gnoitaoot gib of Lfsent <8 wet deege ant Le yuotostaliar a od of Bayou, 
to duh (hed baa Yous mottactdee » 29 "t¢.doneth ftog w ex botiqgn tt 

as po. Wek . dest tog etal. ont of 980 to etetvecd 

bfett ffeto argh nat yd sham 0d trie sobtattquoe A lsombaaamaTS ou 
wafsombregxs motialodad ahs sont ofdal lava ota, dotde «tab anodarocel bite 

tuednos tegges wot basyfana gated wom om Patsotem taafg to eelqmas of 



A final report on this problem will be presented later in the year. In 
regard to the eradication of 8. wiscosissimm, it is believed that con- 
siderable help might be. secured from 4 method of crown searification after 
cutting of off uring’ the: tops of the plants, with gubsequent application 
of coneantrated solution or dry erystals of godtum chlorate, sedfum | 
fluoride, Diese] ofl, or capper Sulphate to the searified crowmm. ‘Suffi-~ 
mbps : rat “and é tests of this method will be made this wintcr 

se rat 

nite “ree jendation as to chemical and quantity of chemten! 

re i ‘arort” rearting next year's field work. This method is 

ne Y céw Use As af auxiliary method to that of hand eradteation — 
: i ives. 3 ere. ‘engount ered and ag such might be _Bomeldered for 
“drrigu + end perhaps: a. bracicosum. 

OD ie eae 

sia y 

bia ot fattics on Idakio R. inerme to 2B. Saget problem 
ch Ba $i bate ar “pine forests of Onl iformia. ‘ac 

ny “to the fact thet R. inarme 1s often © 

- 2 @ in north Idaho stream type, the 
mg method on BR. patio’ directed the atten- 
r 4 pment of a similar niethod for 
ric.  te29 ‘eufficient choaicals ‘were tested by spray 

; wt to he Tear paste? of B. inerma in Idaho and California to 
show the imprecticability of that method, From 194 to the present date 
investiga: ae cae been a of methods of soil poisoning, injection 
ato E ring stems deation to searificd crowas, 
‘guid forte - ot tiles methods, soil poisoning had proved to 
“method ¢ @ of general application. Considerable data 
tained on the grows morpuclogy of BH. Emeric as related to 
_of the chemien] and miniwum dosage of chemien!l needed for 
Progress has been made in the development of crew 
feel 2 bor ® broadcast mannerto the soil, Al of 


2tais Dosage of sodfum chTorate nebessary 
bel, &: 44 ous ous ecological forms may vary from 350 
re : for bt aint ieecrocted, gand-bar type to 1,200 pounds per 
dee 08. ¢ 350 pounds per aére seleetive 
8 about vegetal to £,000 mony per acre for even distri- 
ed on the same basis, 1,200 pounds would be equal to 
Me sical methods for the ‘sradiontion of BR. oe 

that = : sistance will be “terete eon the data 


. % 

xperiments and’ trom ‘the methods of mechanical ‘ut 

sl .tssy ad¢ st total betaessig ed fliw mefdote sid? so beh he Tamit A 
utes ace bevelfod sf 32 ,gumbenteonaly .3 te fe td anthers, eat « 
oi ta seodtantiiises awcie Yorbedten w aw bru syer ot Tod 2. 
phi ini Jnoupeadim iistw,esiat¢ eA’ to seed ed? aatrytat “to | 
autho ystavolde mytbow te efateyie vab td sotdpTos. sodas Xp 
Hick .awoxm bel’ Preoe ek? Of vtedq hie teqqbe'to , Te Teasid., ebfroust 
<ojutm adda ehanod Ttihwhodfom etd to eteed Sfett fas Trodezodal, fees 
faotemeia to weiter baw Testinetis of ea no itebagmmess + ofiatieb 
ok Sedden-etdt Mow bTo8¥ o they tree oetTiat¢ sidted eben 
sottactists beed to tad of Soddom ytetfices ae es cag wets «0% roy dle 
tot bozeblegce ' ed tvale deve es bua B5eys faercoge | at8 Sadth o ddpte asiw 
; sauscndoaTe s “toi r0q: Bae 2 ‘ sear oa 


me fio wg nitian BOF siete - rm dant ag i eigtiety'4 te i Bae TR 
sbegeti ted to edgerot eake ange oredsxox at atetze sot 

sedto of asreat .— tadd dost odd et gatw0 nirow aschvess ay 
stv ,aeyds meotte onlshi dytot af analetian | iin mise 
———— aia padsetes axaletites Sf re Bodom aatystce odi To sesonwe gixee 
ot besitom waftete a Ye vaomayefevee oss of welagiout ee to. ae 

yates YC Saveet ovew afeottets One iol ive eget ot SSCL motl . 

od stnwetii{ad Gris o¢eRT wk omen? 2° to arte ‘Taitos end of. of: Hf 
etek teeestg eit GHOSE sert ~ .podsom jae to “PT idee tiestqmt eid wode 
settestat ,gntnoetog [loa to ebodies to siem need svad saotseptieoval 
i vapron bottivend of ketteblicds “ede gibtoyal Bes Tal apa. iat 
od beverer bat quimectoy Ttoe bette eee? XO “ue FT es Tande Sea. 9 i demb- 
stank o ‘dsvebleao? wackteot iors ten to efdsges bodies EERO. aad, nt 
od ietaiek em omamh 2 te ye fetettm akery oay a0 bentatio. yee ae ; 
Tet hebaait fantmeds: to-egseeh imualtatat’ baa Srofmords ett Io. setisot 
wore to dxenge level eit HE ehom weed ved seerQoTS {TH tne 
to fae ceftee silt of vonnae Qeeeteere ont Igotmeto gctylaqs : ‘30° ine. 

itecowd! peixiagoset ta v7 teeonen shy worth ef Be 6i3 témcs ovad. @ af as te eeeds; 
Utaavedec sigieihe acthos Tes @eeaot “emfouk 23 o& te eanet, P sige Logs, etem, 
C8E hott qa¥ year ews Tabige fess” eee Ms. “tg Tit taag.teq OOL me? 

‘eq ehasmeq QOS, f od seyd: tadabase “escor—eo! [ate 243 sot otae req abaueg,, 
eviseaios toe ts abegog C88) .eqyt domed hi aa edd 6% ets. 
~iréehh nave xo? tea tg ebtate 000,5 oF imleviupe juocs. a sesisottea 

ot Leape af Sittew ebevoq 00S, fF rehed ‘onset oat ” ee feaoy abo, tt 
alt 006,82. tina: 

aes Ki he cebtinahen oats Nebel “eboald ong Tag ke rs Beige 

» spate GX ofa Seyi 

xaélodepvom a seer ae ecniee vaiae aes? eaatidde ‘siat Gitow pa save anh : E . 

deerg eit antivh codatvebsn eaieek” 2 to ‘gottot feo woke ie ne sd to es00n, 26... 

atorotsfad off gmant JPd melden oift ot ‘betfoqe 6d T tw ofabl ot SBOr 
scab elt mov? SodetareY od Thr sonsteters sats hevetfed cafa a 

ho Pen teeioam te sbedtem sed mort bas etnembtsax® cma’ ‘ebodtiell mort litters 

cpogemio’ ww. Bothute * aS ee “soaimarsccaet 


Lat y 

Consideration of. hand pulling, | erown searification and applice- 
tion ef toxic agents to injured crown for eradication of 2. bractoosun. 

: Previous work: Saperiments on the chemical eradication of 
R. bracteosum were atarted in 1923 and continued during field seasons of 
1929 and 1930. Work dealt chiefly with the spray application of 
ehlorates, and copper complex. Hesults showed that the effectiveness of 
sprays varied considerably with the ecolozieal forms encountered and 
furthermore that .chlerates were definitely superior to copper complex for 
all ecological forms of R. bractoosm. For plants growing ix moist, shady 
locations adjacent ho. sloughs. . @ live-stem kill of 95 per cent and ‘® bush 
kill of 65 per cent represent results which can be expected from sodium 
chlorate 1.4 pounds per gallon. The same concentration of chemical killed 
95 per cent and 25 per ¢ent live stem and bushes, respectively, where the 
ants were crowing An Apes, Aocations ‘in soft, mossy ground. Poorest 
aera were obtained on k. where plants grew slong the margin 

trean | } 

a, Footed 4m a light soil containing many granite boulders, 
dfall and pope ony surface material, Under these conditions the live - 
(excec 90 per cent and “a kill varied. between zero and 
cent, 1e shade-slough form of R. bracteosum, satisfactory 

ah ‘be sahddeet by. increasing the dosage of sodium chlorate. 

Trapkual ‘sexx: This particular problem is also a problem for 
further field experimentation rather than laboratory work at the present 
time. For R. bracteosum having composite crowns createst hope for economic 
destruction seems to lie in the direction of mechanical injury to the plant 
with abies, em 4 (yan hggee ag _ —— ed easy orem. 

Hees RES 

aii ee gli tad af! ‘canis: on — ripecseevitent eoppeptc tied’ of dnouier 
es which ‘hag been “in setual vise to Hote the permanency of the fire- 
S0fine and water-prosfin® trestment after the eloth has been subjected 
to normal field wear and repeated leundering. Search for a Meroe of 
stannic. oxide ‘whiten: will prove mgt ‘Derttianent veg Kalowas. ° a 

rial pis Pievtihi vobe: ‘The iied®? of aff oraine bétection r re Nebacod in 
nanitsie ehiorates was Pecoenized as early as 1926) A heavy coat of 
tum paint was "used to coat ‘trouser ‘legs’ ‘of elothing worn by the 
“faves tigations crew in°1927, “This test showed the need of’ eom- 
sister & fireproofing a#ent with a ‘water-proof ite’ substance. “In 1928 
Perkins’ processing for “tinnine" cloth was combined with beBaonite 
ce etar postin azent ‘to produced a eloth whith was quite safe from the 
prac + (th of rapid ‘pr ‘propagation 6f flame ee, dznition of chlérate- 
Somos of the cloth, In 1920, the water-proofing and binding 
agent,” igonite, wad ‘replaced ‘by Halowaxs 2 Gommereial flame-proof wax. 
Tate" ‘Combination! retult ot bon ha pel ote eee id ge yg _— onenee 

hts WE? Kar ae 

Foie peti wet SE See % eines +s cas 
ass Bye Bhan 42.2.3 BERET MAwRe.e. 









oe =. wirowved 
mse db Lopes hee soddan dt inane avoid: Sh tage Sou to sepia et 
agraosdas % to soitaolbets, sq% Avot betwtet od ave pixod to inet 

to soisapthste Laotaads. 2d? 20 asnomizegek ixow fy pes 
to sogasa bilatt agimwh beuntiecs bas 6S2L ne betugta e1ewW mun 

to soliaoiiegs yaitae add. ditty, ultetas ‘leek stow _O8eL bes seit 

to sesueetioa tte off dadt bexcda ‘ad fused. xetquos teqgea Det ‘getwte filo 
. ine boxedmuonge semot daalyoloea, adé. dtie edetedtancs boftay 2 vent 

tot xelqmon %sayoo od tolteque: ylos nites. etew govateotda dads ‘stone dd 
ybade ,teion sh actwoxs gisala tot muacotesis a Lé emrot feotsefoos Ifa 

dewd 3 bore dned ne ag to (fit aete-evil « ,edyeols of teeoatSa ano fsao 
asthoe mott osgocoxe od aso doldw atfomet sneesiget theo Xeq ‘Ba to Tt bs 
balitet Ino fmwsts te cotgmitaaones emea eft  .sollea tog abumg #.I etatolids 
gait ovede vlov tiosqre t,aedend baa mete evil ino wea GS Bas tmaa ateq 6t 
tasicoS .bane1R YRaos ‘st0R si anctisool hsdocxe at ‘anfwors Stor “gitnalg 
ab sis ost amole.gesy eaalg oteis quacedosin i) so, Sen bantaido stew at iyret 
 wtehigod etinats yom griniadsos itea sdatl « at botcot yiqoeh magia # te 

gett oft enogtibace.cusad tebal . iskisias epatire, anos ltyoqe is ‘Latsaty 

bas oven eoented boluey Dhl sand, xe $682 eT Gf bebesoxe amblee tiki wer 
qoiomtelian .guacetoud. 3 to sxe dgeola-shede ost tol, theo tog OL 
enenetsa matbos Yo ayseek edd. yataaeyout we bayeldos 90° tists 0 attri 

0% meitend. r’ ‘onde: ak we idoxg ‘aelootdtag eid’t gitow Banogo tt ; 
teegeta eat: te. Maow yaodetodel. sads telist noljedgemiteex® bioitt saa 
oimogene t¢%.0qed dpotse ty aavoto gd leoquoa. paivad muncedoass .3 sot out? 
jralo ost: od dinsnisan teptaagone te aodtoatth edd ak- ail os sacar go tioimdead 
ASO RD: edt of. dao luado, te ORR REATE, Aaoupenty? adits 


oagout: ko. seltisgesg énatetews any one. 0. abused. ‘Ap setdelemed. 
ret. edt. te. youonamiog edt: at08 08 eax lautes ab goed eat dole. wy 
hedeeidve seed aad diets edd te tsdta trond 20; ed pe toe sg yaw ‘Bae. sak too tg 
to. cabntd = tek doses8, - pertteberal petsesos bag seve Breit ioarton ot 
cosioy pamela api} dieaaerreg 930m 9F9%G [ftw dotdw ne, pinnate 


at boats: gem at goksandocun ont ret te te ‘bees edt s puotvess be 
Soc teoo. eves A ASEL ao, Citas as bos bagenet ane ery to at BE 

eid yt aiow uatdtols to exel seanor? gson of dean asw, teteg pei 
nos to ben off bewode teod ald? .3SOL mt wet see hgashiooval Tab tmsdo 
+, S30L al. samatetive aakloorgetosae) 8, Ag tw. dao 28 aut toosqent?t & soinid 
etiuoed fy tio Sontduon sms, iots ‘patanrs” wot setzescors ‘emtited ble edt 
eit pot oles efiug aa dotsdw dioto as sosbote. ad. daote: Bn ' Se ave sau 8 ee 
) pees 

-steredio to nobtingt soleolf[ot emalt. to, soliageqotg bicat. 

sahinks bes. sat toa wytodan ond SCL wl . tol ana <0. enomtorge. 
xew tootq-emalt Istotemmco & azawe Len ed beoedces Baw. ,otinon lhe. ate 
,eldatyS ,tten yidanceset ase doldw dtefo a ak getiouet mokiexidmoo 8 

and free from any immediate discomforting effects on the wearer. Recent 
“tests of trousers mamifactured from this ¢loth show that some skin 
irritation results ane a  proureeyes. pinto of the pants. 

Hie Peaied sat: ‘samples oF me worn and washed trouser material 
® wan ve tested init bea 

sot ay as wnig' ow are,” 

=(b) after soaking in 10 per cent atte chlorate for one hour, 

rs sissies qualities with respect to ignition by: 

Sta) apatle profited by clowing wood ‘splinter, 
wernt eh ob) strteing of & match py Pubbine vigorously on cloth, 
© CLS O8L66e) open flame of match. 

- Prelim iminery eports by those persons who wore fiteprooted” 
Baty ‘atring last field season indicate that the Malowax comnound now 
%o form a roe water-proof cores Over the tin arte fibre 

whe not ‘protesting. ‘thé ‘wearer from n irritation by the f nely divided tin 
oxide. “Synthetic. resins have been sugzested by Van Atta ase possible. 
bon, hetero ‘over the Halowax and will be mde the subject of laboratory 

tavestigation. “When “alt “tests ‘have Deen ‘completed, @ final recommendation 
““whll be made tothe office eéverine tost, practicability, and advantazes 
"“to"be secured by’ treating trousers. and all canvas material “used m2 
‘— ‘chiorates. — 

CRAuBEeny: ares emumroa’*~ %°* 

out Lhe eer -- Eetablishnent of the biniem, deen ah sodium f= lle and 
te. per. uit area of ground. surface. for 100..per-eent kill 
pre ect when applied. in aqueous solution to the soil; and. establish- 
@ meant: &- the. same time, of this: minimum dosaze with respect to the distri- 
bution of barberry canes comprising the bush treated and the total area 
hover, which this minimm dosage must be applied to ensure complete kill. 

eoReexioug work: Field expcriments of 1920. t0.1932 inclusive have 

.«shown that, althoush barberry can be successfully killed by spraying of the 
serial plant parts with sodium chlorate, application of s chemical in 
solid or concentrated. aqueous solution te the ground immediately adjacent 
yok: the Grown or.crowns.of a. barberry.bush is the most effective way .of 
- accomplishing. chemical kill. .dodiu. chlorate and, ammonium, thiocyanate 

> have.proved to be the most, effective chemicals when applied to the 20il, 
sand the latter, in view of the hasards-of sodius chlorate, offers, best 
) possibilities for..general method.of chemical eradication. Field teats 

wv chave: shown thet, 2 spray, 0.4 pound per 100 feet of live stem 

» fer sodium. chlorate.or. 2.6 pound per 100 feet.of live stem for amroniun 
thiocyanate is sufficient to cause death of the plants. Tests at 
Pennsylvania Furnace in 19Z1 and 1932 showed that, applied as a soil drench, 
sodium chlorate 0.22 pound or ammonium thiocyanate 0.45 pound per 100 feet 
of live stem will kill barberry plants. ‘This question of mininum dosace 


fxecok .tetser etd co stoeite gaticotmonst&S efatiamnt eens movt sett bas 
sibtn amos tad? wode déefo aids mort beretostumes: steasor1d to atest 
.eteag sit to aatisew desoniwtety 4 ett si Lieet noite? best 

ce Vics option’ hakhaly bga atow one te a Tqnat wane beeeqex’ 
x ahpeteet oad Ithw 

pre feet oO ere wor godt ee GaP 
aud od xo bjwtolde exthee suas req Of ak griaisog wos te ey sirens eo 

~ nots tire ot ines ative pit [: obxger 2% 0) 

do To ito {iss seat wattddes e ik a to ase ba ee Li 
B98 am Yo ‘ome lt rego. oe, * a Bf itr 

Betoorger}? stow otfw eogeteg yi ee ettocet sevkaitihtes! sas coma 
won Eoyochwn xewolet off Paks ofsothet aozsea Sfert teal sxbavh’: wrIseuoTt 
e¢dtt bed weraoigm! KES edd tevo teo0 too ty-~todaw evitsetorr fh atxot of hones 

ot bebiy ts Ylenkt ont ad aertad iret ‘phie BOTT TeTseN ors gitioe so te zon ‘et 
oldizsce @ ta eifé aay wd bettesaee need syed enteox ‘giiadsaye . “ebire 

_ Mtodemsdal to fpeldue edi shen ad Itty bas xewole® od? teyo dnogp yo" 
sekiabrotmeoot Tach t 2 dete Toman #296 weal gteot ‘tte gene ‘hobtosties Z 
2encdcevbs Bis oye tt Pian Fore sieon saPieyoo eg MY bad’ of ebaar of {ftw 
"a? beet Iatrotan davrse Ile bas vrbéeuo<d “ntieord yd Semoee od of 

Samp sa ioe spetetetée ant [brad 


base evernica exiine. 46 sie, pi ye ait ‘Yo ‘Suomilabidas uh 
{Lidl aaeo weq COOL 10% seatese Savory to acta thaw teq stansyooiat: ear koe 
~jeiidaice bas ;ifoe sdi of meltsloe avoeupe at Setiqgs new ¥Tredtad ‘to 
ombiselh ed} ot desqees diin epased muamtatm eidd To emit omee od? 3a Jnem 
sere tated od Las betaerd dawd ot onteixquos eanao yrredied to mottud 
Libs ssalqmoo ayERe od, bo hae. od. fenm mnanoh seein a nictibe taro 
evad evlanfont geet ot O89L So edanaiioane ‘blert | Ee: 
edd %e gcigexqe yd befits ylisteeesous sd men yrredisd gent? Ca ‘ aid ‘aoe 
ai iecigeds @ to solteoliqas ,etatc lig sukbes ditw mitag tasiq Iatzee 
tneontha qioiaibennt banc and o¢,2olisloa asosupa boistéaeosion 1. ae 
to yew ewitostte deom ont af daud yerediad a to. gawox to avomp elt of 
Sisneyposis antmomms bas etaxofde swtboR ..titk Laolmedo set lqnonos 
elion mult of ballgge nade aleolmesdo. svitostie geome esis ad 9%. bevoig aver 
ined asekte,otatolio cuihee to sluszad od: to wely ni ,tedtel ent bas 
aige? Bight ..noliactiers .agtomdo to, bouton Ieragea 6 x0 zat gaistitdtascd 
wete evil to geet COL toq Saag &.0 .yaTge 4 Ba OR al WO, eas 
unknowns, tot mea evil Yo. test COL req brug 2.0 1 -etato fio mmctbo 
te staat rimele.odd. to déaok sarap of dnoteitva et anaypo h 
wioseth Stow « ex botiqgs .taid Sevody SBC bua BOL mt aoesich sinaylyscore’l 
test OOL teq Brom 6.0 etaqaypold? autscoms ro bewog SS.0 etatolde mytbow 
egeeob muatain to aoldwexp elt .atnelq yrvedtead [Lit Iftw mete evil to 


should be ted © the subject of additional laboratory investigations. 

Proposed work Barberry plents growing on Pennsylvania and 
Wisconsin sol? will be treated with three concentrations of sodium 
chlorate aad ‘emmonium thiocyanate. The aqueous solutions wil? be applied 
evenly to the soil over Warying areas of soil surface, Pots wilt be maine 
tained at a constant moisture content. Complete records will be taken 
of the progress of ki2t, i : 

‘We pet te A) ay 
i ag ‘ 


200°C By tmp Lehment of the’ value Of & solid @itutent for use with 
ammonium thicéyenate and comparison of that dilutent with water as a medium 
of dis tribution, 

Ss RE Aik pees 

Eravious work: In the application of solid ammonium thiocyanate 
about the basé of e barberry plant, it was found that the tendency of the 
tlifocyénate to cake and form lumos militated against an even distribution 
of the ¢chemteat, “TO overcome this diffien?ty the thiceyenate was mixed 
with varying quantities of sand or sawdust before application. Results of 
these preliminary field tests strongly indicate further investigations of 
solid dilutents for use with ammonium thioecyanste. It was further noted 
that the killing ection of this chemical did not extend very far into the 
roots from the point of contact, thus sugeesting the desirability of more 
iforw Goverage of the so1) immedintely superadjacent to the ro>te. 

“) <<° “Proposed work: Varying quantities of sawdust, sand, powdered 
chalk, #tiphur, Fullers' earth and wheat chaff will be mixed with amnoniun 
thiocyanate and spread evenly over the soil surface adjacent to barberry 
plants. Results of work under Objective 8 will be kept in mind through- 
out the course of the experiment. Sxamination of the mixture #111 be 

ibsequentiy made to determine the amount of ammonium thiotyenate fixed 
or absorbed by the dilutent. Pots will be maintained at moisture content 
closely approximating that of field soils. . | 

ea a 
G32 Lae} ua Som 


Search for and test of new killing agents by greenhouse applica~ 
WM SP Gee wie te Sok ye cae, e.8 é : 

ORS oot bit work: On the basis of ficld experience in the chemical 
eradication of Ribes, tests were made of 172 chemical formlae designed for 
the chemical destruction of barberry by several methods of application. 

Of these spray formilae 69 were tested as sprays, 55 as soil potsons, and 
43 as direct poisons bes lied to searified crown, root, or stem tissue. 

Sodium chlorate, r dum thiocyanate, Diesel o17, and soffwn dichromate 
were the most effective sprays; sodium chlorate, ammonium thiocyanate, 
Diesel of1, zinc ammonium chloride, sodium fluoride, and copper complex were 


wmonttagisesvral qrotatedal Lanoiéthbs Bic soaydue ada. eham.9¢ Sigode 

hus etaevfyansed so anivots edusla “UTte dis i sixow Degogets 
aybbos "to anoitexixsases aexdt adie detanrs od Cfiw [foe atenooel® 
beifogs of ‘fkw anctinfos anosnps aa? ,edanayooidt muisomn tas eteretado 
anita od [fiw ated .seatise Ifoe te eeota gabgrav teve [Loe ocd od yfaere 
vedas od Tfiw ebioset etefqmeD = .casiaeo eudeiem gaagencs 8 is benias 
_ Lit te esorgoty oft to 

déie eer tot taptattd Btice « to sulay ‘odd Xo. éusndat fdete®. 
suwthen « 96 ‘tata dibs toate lth daddy te Bae Paes, hus otanavooids suknomns 
. sah ime ssottadiatets to 

staseeotds wvtaomas bifoa, ‘to soticokiqgs eat ad ina ated 

edt te voesdaet ed? ded? Sut gaw 32 \isats yruedsad # to saad ont isods 

fottmd? welbh nova oa sentane fotadifin eqrurl act Das ‘eign at etansyootdd 
boxix sew adanaysoind efi ys frefktt efild amogzsvo of. fan tmerts add ro 

S, gdfemet colisotfoaa stotad taniwsa Sasa Yo gefthiaan » griviay st iw 

to yrotianivesval edie otaptiat yfsaows gined Sfalt ywrertiatiorg eeedt 

seta vaddagt war U1) saganevooldd muinowms dite aag Tok ateniuiih abfoe 

“A f 

af¢ o§ak tet vise Beoixe toa BED ‘faoimady eft? to, coitos aobf Lf ost tad? 

arom to ybifidarisss oft gaiteenpis suck ‘,foataeg to, datog adi MoTt Bhoot 

“efit ef of teopst bare que vfetatbeumd Sloe edt to sgatevoo. ao thay 

betobwox .5aea .temhwes to eeidiesaup gatyiel. stax besoqetd 
metaoume dite bexim of fiw Tras deodw bas dfrae ‘ose flet .aedqioe ,Afads 
erredted of tnenrtba soative flow sit weve ylaeve Saorge bus sdacayooldd 
-iguetdt Sein wi tqent ad (fiw 8 evisontdo tebaw stow to ed foewel et aatg 
ed {fie awisxter ed? to no fiat tant” sinomiveded add Yo servo odd two 
hort  o¢aneyso ttt mokacem To dagoms oct enimraded of oben yfimeupsetse 
fissueo erstetom go Sontaictam adsl fiw eve q° deter th odd ye Hodiweds 10 
AVR Me <eiion Blo PE Ts tedd anf? aaixetods eterolo 

aso kfeda eawodesory Xe ‘ginegs pahitit wax Ic dead bes tot gorises 
: *'f iG RESO Sy SS. Ae in yo ie SACS SS Aha eS ee BF 

tagvedy ait ab onrotetexs blo ft “Yo efead eit a0 Gio umotvent ain 
not bamgiesd eetodret fadimede BT to shan exew atest -,aodif to ‘go Nao kbete 
“Hebiasttods “to ebodtem fereree yd yrediad To sotfondaeb feolmedo odd 
baw Sertvated foe et 3e jecarge we hosesd orev % osfowiot yee odor? TO 
bowls mode to ook .avoTs eltitase ov ba kts eaoetog Yoorkh as b> 
stoniotioth msthow Bae \ Tho fowetd’,otematechty neutaomen ,etetolin mrthot 
hay ookdy surknome jeteroltde matdor payongs svitoe tte Seo, oY ets¥ 
gree xefomed teeeon Bre sSisonTt myiioe , shite fie aetaome gate. fio [602d 

nrg effective Soll poisons; topper complex and sodium thiorate 
are no seen most effective for ‘tabplation; for direct poisoning, 

7 oe eattrid or mechanteally £ Crowne and roots, 
er Complex, ammonium thiocyanate, ‘Caimium chilori@e, 

ave proved to be most toxte. 

wth Rhine Under this topic the literature vill be thoroughly 
d all. information which cen be obtained from allied investi- . 
7 it on ftle., ew, chemical “Compounds which are suggested 
ceither dtrestly or indfreetly will be civen adamuite 

| Retention’ should be paid to cbamounds of cailwium and to 

i. ak ee 244, Whe 7 

by wih Mrs 3 ee ei aes ; 

_ Sor a ots ons ers ~. ae hd seit ‘ae’ joao 

« 8nd ammonium chloride with sodiun chlorate end amm roa | 

ry ty ‘a x ete ate 8 oe Aes most LPR PONT, é tethutdon m 
oe nc : 

faye sti je BRE ery: | ahaa eS. Baws oe ay 

ial . “= Expe: aah re ‘phe! andeat atl Bia of eK” 
erty ha : Fine ammonium compounds to bé satisfactory ‘soil 
ois’ ce " the ann ‘comp iS can” Se consideret as 
relative mtoxic ‘to an! s they represent destrable compounds to use 
dn the ficté, Por this papal 4% is desirable to extend ficid expcriments 
to the eral SaaS sya, of. Pontes palidasd as soil . 

ete a Se 
Ps 34% ta 



3 Subse gst oe rey: of sohs ee ander.