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TECSNiCAL KEMKT 


ec i ri 
•«-i-rv 


ALL PURPOSE MATRICES 
for 

COMPRESSED FOOD OARS 


/. 60 IH dJ 


JACK R. DURST 

I 

The Pillsbury Co. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 


Contract No. DA19129 AMC-2103 


UNITE0 STfTES ARMY' 
NATICK LABORATORIES 
Natick Massachusetts 01760 


A v 


Fnt Divisioi 
FD-37 














DISTRIBUTION OF THIS DOCUMENT IS UNLIMITED. 


The findings in this report are not to be construed as an 
official Department of the Army position unless so designated 
by other authorized documents. 

Citation of trade names in this report does not constitute 
an official indorsement or approval of the use of such items. 

Destroy this report when no longer needed, 
it to the originator. 


Do not return 



Distribution of this 
document is unlimited 


AD- 


TECHNICAL REPORT 
66-1-FD 


ALL PURPOSE MATRICES FOR COMPRESSED FOOD BARS 


by 

Jack R. Durst 

The Pillsbury Co. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 


Contract No. DA19-129-AMC-2103 


Project reference: Series: FD-37 

7X84-06-031 


January 1966 


Food Division 

U. S. ARMY NATICK LABORATORIES 
Natick, Massachusetts 01760 



FOREWORD 


In the design and development of military feeding systems increased 
emphasis is being given to the reduction of food bulk. Such a reduction 
becomes a virtual necessity in the development of food packets for the 
soldier who must carry on his person his entire food supply for indefin¬ 
ite periods when resupply is not feasible. In addition to prescribed 
nutritional characteristics, the food contained in such packets must 
combine general acceptability with economy of both weight and bulk. 

Weight economy can be achieved by use of dehydrated foods, which, for¬ 
tunately, are microbiologically stable. Compression has long been 
recognized as a method for reducing the bulk of dry foods. In addition 
a geometrically regular module resulting from compression provides 
obvious advantages for packaging and packing. 

This project is concerned with the development of food bars which 
are acceptable for consumption from the compressed state and which can 
also be rehydrated to yield familiar meal items of even greater accept¬ 
ability. Conceptually, a variety of casserole items, creamed soups, 
puddings, and beverages can be supplied as dry bars for direct consump¬ 
tion or for consumption after rehydration. Recognition is given to the 
fact that many dry foods will require a binder to insure cohesiveness 
and other desirable physical characteristics after compression. This 
project is directed to the development and performance of several 
binders which will insure that a wide variety of dry foods can be 
compressed into bars suitable for consumption both directly and after 
rehydration. 

The investigation described herein was performed in the Research 
and Development Laboratories of the Pillsbury Company, 311 Second Street 
S.E., Minneapolis 14, Minnesota. Dr Jack Durst served as the Official 
Investigator. His collaborators were Merlin J. Slettin, John J. Slavics, 
J. Ringstrom, R. Sundeen, G. Detlefsen, Jr., J. Blodgett, R. Gauthier, 

L. Brandberg, and Robert Brunson. 

Project Officer for the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories was Dr. 

Maxwell C. Brockmann of the Animal Products Branch, Food Division. The 
Alternate Project Officer was Dr. Karl Johnson, Plant Products Branch, 
Food Division. 


FERDINAND P. MEHRLICH, Ph.D. 
Director 
Food Division 

APPROVED: 

DALE H. SIELING, Ph.D. 

Scientific Director 

W. W. VAUGHAN 
Brigadier General, USA 
Commanding 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


SCOPE OF THE CONTRACT ... 1 

PHASE I . 1 

PHASE II .— -. 3 

INTRODUCTION .-.-. 4 

EXPERIMENTAL ..-.-. 6 

I. Preparation of "A" Series of All Purpose Matrices - 6 

A. Matrix A 3 - 8 

1. Formula - 8 

2. Procedure- 8 

3. Results - 9 

II. Preparation of "3" Series of All Purpose Matrices- 9 

A. Matrix B 2 - 10 

1. Formula ----— -- — -- 11 

2. Procedure - 11 

3. Results - 11 

III. Discovery of Matrix "H" - 12 

IV. Special Ingredients ----- 12 

A. Kidney Beans - 13 

1. Procedure - 13 

B. Rice - 13 

C. Barley - 13 

1. Procedure - 13 

D. Barbicue Sauce - 14 

1. Formula - 14 

2. Procedure - 14 

E. Pimier.tos - 14 

1. Procedure - 14 

iii 































TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont'd. 

Page 

V. Manufacture of Phase I Food Bare- --- 15 

A. Pregelatinized Tapioca Starch Bars - 15 

1. Formula - 15 

2. Procedure - 15 

3. Results - 15 

Test - 15 

Initial - 15 

2 Week - 17 

4 Week - — - - ----— --- 18 

8 Week - 18 

13 Week - 19 

26 Week .-.. 19 

52 Week . 20 

B. Graham Cracker Bars -- 20 

1. Formula - 20 

2. Procedure- 20 

3. Results - 21 

Test - 21 

Initial - 21 

2 Week . 22 

4 Week ....-.. 23 

8 Week ..-.. 23 

13 Week -----. 24 

26 Week . 24 

52 Week - 25 

C. Non-Fat Dry Milk (Maple Island-Instant) Bar - 25 

1. Formula - 25 

2. Procedure - 25 

.•V 






























iABLE C" CONTENTS - Cont 1 d 

•*** 


l2££ 

3. Results - 26 

Test . 26 

Initial - 26 

2 Week . 27 

4 Week - 28 

8 Week . 28 

1 3 Week -•--- 29 

26 Week .-.— 30 

52 Week .—. 30 

D. Sugar Cookie Bar - 31 

1. Formula - 31 

2. Procedure - 31 

3. Results - 31 

Test - 

Initial - 31 

2 Week - 33 

A Week .-.-. 34 

8 Week - 34 

13 Week .-.—. 35 

26 Week - 35 

52 Week ..-. 36 

E. Pie Crust Bars - 37 

1. Formula - 37 

2. Procedure - 37 

3. Results - 37 

Tesc . 37 

Initial - 37 

v t 





























TABLE OF COmiEkiS - Cone’a. 

Z£&£ 

2 Week ----—-—-— ---- —-- 38 

4 Week - 39 

8 Week - 40 

13 Week - 41 

26 Week - 41 

52 Week .-. 42 

F. Peach Bars - 42 

1. Formula - 42 

2. Procedure - 43 

3. Results - 43 

Test - 43 

Initial - 43 

2 Week ..-.. 44 

4 Week - 45 

8 Week - 46 

13 Week - 46 

26 Week - 46a 

52 Week - 46a 

G. Peanut Bars - 47 

1. Formula - 47 

2. Procedure - 47 

3. Results - 47 

Test - 47 

Initial - 47 

2 Week - 48 

4 Week - 4-9 


8 Week 


50 






























TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont’d. 

13 Week . 50 

26 Week . 51 

52 Week . 51 

H. Chicken Bars - 52 

1. Formula - 52 

2. Procedure - 52 

3- Results - 52 

Test.-.-. 52 

Initial -. 52 

2 Week .-. 53 

4 Week . 54 

8 Week ..—. 55 

13 Week . 55 

26 Week .-. 56 

52 Week . 56 

I. Chocolate Bars - 57 

1. Formula - 57 

2. Procedure - 57 

3. Results - 57 

Test —.-.-. 57 

Initial - 57 

2 Week .-. 58 

4 Week .-. 59 

8 Week - 60 

13 Week .-. 60 

26 Week .-.-.-. 61 

52 Week .-. 61 

J. Bacon Bar - 62 

1. Formula - 62 

vii 
































TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont'd. 


2. Procedure - 62 

3. Results - 62 

Test - 62 

Initial -?- 62 

2 Week - 63 

4 Week --—-- 64 

8 Week - 65 

13 Week -r- 66 

26 Week - 66 

52 Week - r -*- 67 

K. Raisin Bars ------ 67 

1. Formula -----—---——*■>-- 67 

c 

2. Procedure - 68 

3. Results - 68 

Test -r- 68 

i 

Initial - 68 

2 Week - 69 

4 Week - r - 70 

8 Week . 71 

13 Week ..-.-. 71 

26 Week .-.-. 72 

52 Week .-.'- 73 

L. Fruit Preserves at 20% Moisture --- 73 

M. Herring Bars ----- 73 

1. Formula - 73 

2. Procedure - 74 

3. Results - 74 




viii 
































TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont'd 


Pace 

Test - 74 

Initial- 74 

2 Week . 75 

4 Week .-. 76 

8 Week - 77 

13 Week . 78 

26 Week . 78 

52 Week . 79 

N. Precooked Egg Bars ---- - 79 

1. Formula - 79 

2. Procedure - 80 

3. Results - 80 

Test - 80 

Initial .-. 80 

2 Week .-.-. 81 

4 Week .-.-. 82 

8 Week .-... 83 

13 Week .-. 83 

26 Week .-. 84 

52 Week .-. 85 

O. Romano Cheese Bar --- 85 

1. Formula - 85 

2. Procedure - 85 

3. Results - 86 

Test - 86 

Initial .r.^. 86 

2 Week -*- 87 


ix— 

• y r 


4 Week 


88 
































TABLE QF CONTENTS - Cont'd. 


Page 

8 Week . 89 

13 Week . 89 

26 Week . 90 

52 Week . 90 

III. Complete Food Bars (Phase II) - 91 

A. Beef Stew Food Bars - 91 

1. Formula - 91 

2. Procedure - 91 

3. Results -*- 92 

4. Storage Studies - 92 

2 Week . 93 

4 Week . 93 

8 Week .-. 93 

13 Week . 93 

B. Barbecued Ground Beef Food Bar - 94 

1. Formula - 94 

2. Procedure - 94 

3. Results - 94 

4. Storage Studies - 95 

2 Week - 95 

4 Week - 95 

8 Week .-...... 95 

13 Week —. 95 

C. Chili Con Came with Beans Food Bar- 96 

1. Formula - 96 

2. Procedure - 96 

3. Results - 97 

4. Storage Studies - 97 
































TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont'd. 




2 week -------- - - - 97 

4 Week .-. 97 

8 Week .-. 98 

13 Week .-.-. 98 

D. Shrimp Creole Food Bars --- 98 

1. Formula - 98 

2. Procedure - 99 

3. Results - 99 

4. Storage Studies - 99 

2 Week —.-... 100 

4 Week —.—.-. 100 

8 Week ..—... 100 

13 Week .-.-.-. 100 

E. Ground Beef with Rice Food Bars 101 

1. Formula - 101 

2. Procedure - 101 

3. Results - 101 

4. Storage Studies - 102 

2 Week - 102 

4 Week - 102 

8 Week - 102 

13 Week -.-..... 103 

F. Creamed Ground Beef Food Bar - 103 

1. Formula - 103 

2. Procedure - 103 

3. Results --- 104 

4. Storage Studies - 104 



































TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont'd. 


frage 


2 Week - 104 

4 Week --—— — -— -- 104 

8 Week .-.. 105 

13 Week - 105 

G. Chicken a la King Food ^ar - 105 

1. Formula —- 105 

2. Procedure - 106 

3. Results - 106 

4. Storage Studies - 106 

2 Week - 106 

4 Week . 107 

8 Week . 107 

13 Week .-. 107 

H. Cream of Mushroom Soup Food Bars - 107 

1. Formula -*- 107 

2. Procedure - 108 

3. Results - 108 

4. Storage Studies - 109 

2 Week .-. 109 

4 Week ..-... 109 

8 Week ..-.-. 109 

13 Week .-... 109 

I. Cream of Tomato Soup Food Bars - 110 

1. Formula - 110 

2. Procedure - 110 

3. Results - 110 

4. Storage Studies - 111 



* 


xii 






























TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont'd. 


Poop 

O T.T-1. Ill 

a n cca ----- — — — — — — — — — — — - — — — XXJL 

4 Week . Ill 

8 Week .-.-. Ill 

13 Week .—. Ill 

J. Lemon Pie Filling Food Bar --- 112 

1. Formula - 112 

2. Procedure - 112 

3. Results - 112 

4. Storage Studies - 113 

2 Week .-.-. 113 

4 Week -...-. 113 

8 Week -- T - 113 

13 Week .-. 113 

K. Barley Soup with Beef Food Bar - 114 

1. Formula - 114 

2. Procedure - 114 

3. Results - 115 

4. Storage Studies - 115 

2 Week - 115 

4 Week - 115 

8 Week . 116 

13 Week ......- 116 

L. Shrimp Bisque Food Bar - 116 

1. Formula - 116 

2. Procedure - 117 

3. Results - 117 

4. Storage Studies - 117 


xiii 
































TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont'd. 


P&K3 

2 week - 117 

4 Week - 118 

8 Week . 118 

13 Week . 118 

M. Coffee with Cream and Sugar Food Bars --- 118 

1. Formula - 118 

2. Procedure - 119 

3. Results - 119 

4. Storage Studies - 120 

2 Week .-. 120 

4 Week .-. 120 

8 Week . t-. 120 

13 Week .-. 120 

N. Tomato Juice Cocktail Food Bars- 121 

1. Formula - 121 

2. Procedure - 121 

3. Results - 121 

4. Storage Studies - 122 

2 Week - 122 

4 Week - 122 

8 Week .-.-... 122 

13 Week ...-. 123 

O. Orange Juice Food Bar - 123 

1. Formula - 123 

2. Proce'jre - 123 

3. Results - 123 

4- Storage Studies - 124 

xiv 





























TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont'd. 


Page 


2 Week . 124 

4 Week - 124 

8 Week . 124 

13 Week . 125 

CONCLUSIONS ..7.-. 125 

PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH . 125 

PRODUCTION DESIGN FOR 6,000 FOOD BA$S PER HOUR . 126 

PRODUCTION UNIT .-.... 126 

DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS .. r -~. 127 

FLOW DIAGRAM .-.-.— 128 


t 


l 








-W 














ABSTRACT 


Edible binders have beer, ^"eloped which impart favorable physical 
properties including cohesiveness to compressed dry foods representing 
a broad range of chemical compositions. Further experimental effort 
yielded binders for compressed foods which are acceptable for consump¬ 
tion from the compressed state and which can also be rehydrated to 
yield a familiar meal item, such as casseroles, creamed soups, puddings, 
thin soups and beverages. These binders do not significantly alter the 
storage stability of the basic food components. 







SCOPE OF THE CONTRACT 


PHASE I : 

1. The objective of this project shall be the development, testing, and demonstration 
of edible compositions which permit the incorporation of any food having adequate physical, 
chemical, and microbiological stability into compressed bars which conform to requirements 
herein specified and which are adaptable to commercial production with existing equipment. 

2. Effort shall be confined to two compositions conforming to Compositions A and B 


below. 


Kg-Cal per gram, minimum 
Percent fat, dry basis, maximupa 
Percent high quality protein, flry basis 
Percent ash, dry basis, maximum 


Composition A 
4.0 
20 

20 to 50 
1.5 


Composition B 
6.0 
50 

0 to 25 

1.0 


Each composition shall conform to current Food and Drug Administration requirements, shall 
not be the source of objectionable flayors or odors, and shall not adversely alter the 
flavor or odor of the primary ingredients of the compressed bars. 

3. Each composition when used in pnounts not to exceed 25 percent by weight with foods 
such as those listed below and subjected to compression at pressures below 500 p.s.i. shall 
result in a food bar conforming to spepial requirement^listed in Paragraph 5 herein. 

a. Precooked tapioca 

b. Graham crackers 

c. Dry non-fat milk 

d. Cookies at 5-10% moisture 

e. Pie crust at 10% moisture 

f. Dried peaches at 18% moisture 

< 

g. Peanuts 

h. Freeze dried cooked chicken 

i. Sweet chocolate 




j. Prefried bacon 

k. Dried raisins or dates at 18-20% moisture 

l. Fruit preserves at 20% moisture 

m. Dry fish (cooked) 

n. Precooked freeze dried scrambled eggs 

o. Gouda cheese or equivalent 

4. The preparation and components of Composition A and B shall be fully described by 
the Contractor and submitted in writing. Likewise, all operations in the preparation of 
each type bar, including pre-compression treatments, shall be adequately described and 
critical operations shall be supported by data. All process operations shall be recognized 
as commercially feasible. 

5. Compressed bars shall have the following properties: 

a. Rectangular cross section, 1/2 inch thick, weight 2 ounces minimum. 

b. Acceptable odor and taste normal to major ingredients. 

c. Easily sheared by incisors at temperatures between 30 and 100°F. and subse¬ 
quently chewable without becoming crumbly or difficult to swallow. 

d. Shall not shatter when dropped on a smooth concrete floor from a height of 
6 feet and shall remain dimensionally stable within 10 percent when held at 120°F. for 
24 hours under a load of 5 pounds per square inch. 

e. Shall not become sticky when held 24 hours at room temperature in the 
presence of 40% relative humidity. 

f. When packaged in metalized polyethylene polyester pouches, will remain 
organoleptically acceptable and without significant manifestations of chemical, physical 
or microbiological deterioration throughout three months storage at 30, 70 and 100°F. 

6 . The Contractor shall recommend and describe as an engineering design an efficient 
production process to be submitted in writing, based on currently available equipment and 
the matrix compositions here demonstrated, for the commercial fabrication of 6000 com¬ 


pressed food bars per hcur. 






PHASE II: 


Commencing with the effective date of modification of the contract, the Contractor 
shall continue for a period of twelve (12) months thereafter, to perform the additional 
work to Phase I as fellows: 

7. Objectives stated in Paragraph 2, Scope, Phase I, and the requirements of Para¬ 
graphs 5, and 7 shall be extended to include an additional compression matrix, desig¬ 
nated Composition H (See Paragraph. 8) and the development of compressed food bars which 
are acceptable for direct consumption and which disperse and rehydrate in water to yield 
acceptable casserole-type items (See Paragraph 9), acceptable creamed foods and soups 
(See Paragraph 10), and acceptable thin soups and beverages (See Paragraph 11). All bars, 
Composition H, and all components thereof shall meet Food and Drug Administration require¬ 
ments for food use. 

8 . In the event Compositions A and B are found unsuitable for bars alternatively 
used for any of the thin soups or beverages listed in Paragraph 11, Composition H shall 
be developed as a compression matrix to provide cohesion and other essential properties. 
Composition H shall contain not less than 3.8 kg-cal per gram (based on human metabolism) 
at the time of compression. No restriction is placed on the fat, protein, carbohydrate, 
and ash contents. Composition H shall not be the source of objectionable flavor, odor, 
or physical properties in either the compressed bar or the rehydrated products therefrom 

9. Compressed bars which rehydrate in hot water to produce the casserole-type items 
listed below shall be developed from suitable ingredients and may include up to 25 percen* 
by weight of Composition A or B. 

a. Beef stew 

b. Barbecued ground beef 

c. Chili con came 

d. Ground beef and rice (as for stuffed green peppers) 

e. Shrimp creole '»• 

10. Compressed bars which rehydrate in hot water to produce the creamed items listed 

below shall be developed from suitable ingredients and may contain up to 50 percent by 
weight of Composition A or B. 




a. Creamed ground beef 

b. Chicken a la king 

c. Cream of mushroom soup 

d. Cream of tomato soup 

e. Creamed lemon or banana pie filling 

11. Compressed bars which rehydrate in hot water to produce the soups 

below or in hot or cool water to yield the beverages listed below shall be 
from suitable ingredients which may include up to 50 percent composition A 
unlimited amount of Composition H (See Paragraph 8 above). 

a. Beef-barley soup 

b. Shrimp chowder 

c. Coffee with cream and sugar 

d. Tomato juice 

e. Orange juice 
INTRODUCTION 

While doing research work on food bars in the Pillsbury Research Laboratory, it 
was found that by use of a Stable Dispersion Process patented by the Pillsbury Company, 
food bars could be fabricated using the dispersion as a binder matrix. Rather low 
over-all pressures were required to make the bars. The Pillsbury Company has agreed 
to the Government's use of this process on the food bars covered in this contract on 
a royalty free basis. 

The stable dispersion or encapsulation process is simply two immiscible systems, 
a film former in the continuous phase surrounding a liquid or once liquid discontinuous 
phase. The following are needed to form the stable dispersion: (1) film former, 
something that is capable of forming a film around something. (2) A liquid which is 
immiscible in this film former. (3) A plasticiser which actually makes the film 
former able to form a film. (4) Proper mixing. 

For our use in food bars as a universal matrix a stable dispersion is made with 


listed 
developed 
or B or an 


known amounts of protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals, and water. The stable 



disperlon is then spray dried and the dry powder is then mixed with the other 
ingredients of the food bar and placed in a mold and shaped under low pressure 
into bars 2" x 4" x 1/2" that weigh approximately 2 ounces. 

Specifically, for making a stable dispersion binder matrix we take a 
protein such as sodium caseinate that is hydrated or can be hydrated and limi. 
the amount of the plasticizer to form a film of protein around an oil or a liquid 
melted normally solid shortening which is immiscible in the protein film. This 
can be accomplished by simple mixing such as with a Waring Blendor or Hamilton 
Beach rotary mixer. Once the stable dispersion is formed, it can be diluted 
with additional water to give whatever viscosity is desired. Other materials such 
as sugars, vitamins, flavorings, minerals, colors, other proteins, preservatives, 
etc. may be added to the stable dispersion either before or after the formation 
of the dispersion depending on the desired results. For example, if one wishes 
to add a fat soluble flavoring or coloring, they should be added to the liquid 
fat before the dispersion is formed since the fat will be encapsulated with a film 
of protein. 

An important point in this process is that we add no emulsifiers. Emulsifiers 
can actually hinder or prevent the formation of a stable dispersion because they 
can make the water (the plasticizer) more compatible with the oil or melted 
normally solid fat and thus prevent the stretching of a film around the liquid 
fat globule. A film around a sphere is a thermodynamically stable structure. 


-5- 



EXPERIMENTAL 


•*r 


I. Preparation of "A" Serlea of All Purpoae Motrlcea 


The "A" Series of matrices wai developed to meet 

the requirements outlined in the 

Seep# of the Contract in a typically evolutionary way. 

The first matrix 

, simply desig*- 

nated "A", was formulated to meet the nutritional requirements for this 

matrix. It com- 

pared as follows: 



Contract Reauiremeni: 

Experimental 

Percent fat, dry basis, maximum 

20 

20 

Percent high quality protein 

20-50 

23.4 

Percent ash, dry basis, maximum 

1.5 

l.l 

Kg~Cal per gram, minimum 

4.0 

4.9 

Tha complete formula for Matrix A was: 



Lard flakes 

20% 


Sodium casalnata 

27% 


Sucrose 

53% 


Composition A 

100% 



This matrix was made by the stable dispersion process and then spray dried as outlined 
in the Introduction. The result was a white, free-flowing powder whose detailed manu¬ 
facturing process follows in paragraph A. The food bars were fabricated by procedures 
outlined in section V, 

In taste tests where Composition A was the matrix with graham crackers, vanilla wafers 
and peanut food bars, the bars were consistently too sweet. This led to the formulation 
of matrix Ay, which was formulated as follows: 

Kex oil (Durkee) 2C% 

Sodium Caseinate 27% 

Lactose 53% 

100 % 

This matrix was made by the stable dispersion process and then spray dried as outlined 
in the Introduction. The result was a white, free-flowirg powder whose detailed manu¬ 
facturing process follows in paragraph A. The food bars were fabricated by procedures 
outlined in section V. 

-6- 


-ry -'v'T' 





(The change to Kex oil from lard flakes was made with an eye to organoleptic 
stability during the coming three-month storage study, especially since a 73°F. and 
100° F. temperature variable would thus be experienced, and to eliminate the lard 
flavor and mouth feel. 

Since one of the primary considerations in the development of suitable matrices 
was microbiological stability, it was necessary to spray dry the matrix so that the 
moisture level was low enough to retard microbiological activity. This was done with 
the above formula, and with all succeeding formulas described here. The result was 
always a white, free-flowing powder, whose formula follows: 


Corn Starch (Col-Flo 67) 

15% 

Sucrose 

10% 

Lactose 

28% 

Kex Oil 

20% 

Sodium Caseinate 

27% 


100% 


This matrix was made by the stable dispersion process and then spray dried as 
outlined in the Introduction. The result was a white, free-flowing powder whose 
detailed manufacturing process follows in paragraph A. The food bars were fabricated 
by procedures outlined in section V. 

This formula was somewhat starctyin flavor as the free powder. When used as a 
matrix in graham crackers, vanilla wafer and peanut food bars, it also contributed 
a starctty flavor to the complete bar. Therefore, we developed the A? matrix whose 
formula follows: 


Corn Starch (Col-Flo 67) 

10% 

Sucrose 

10% 

Lactose 

18% 

Dextrose 

15% 

Kex Oil (Durkee) 

20% 

Sodium Caseinate 

27% 


100% 





/■ 




The reduced starch level in this matrix solved the flavor problem. Initially, food 
bars were fabricated from graham crackers, vanilla wafers, peanuts, and bacon together 
with the A 3 matrix, and in all cases the flavor of the major ingredient was very apparent 
and unchanged by the presence of the matrix. It was felt then that this matrix would 
suffice for the general "A" type matrix required in the Scope of the Contract. The 
complete manufacturing process, together with typical batch size and typical weights is 
outlined below. It should be noted in this final formula that the fat was changed from 
Kex oil, which had an A.O.M. stability of 100 hours, to Durkex 500, which has an A.O.M. 
stability of 500 hours. 

A. Matrix A^ 

1. Formula 


Typical 



% Dry 

Quantities (lb) 

Sodium Caseinate, Edible, Land-O-Lakes 

27.00 

54.0 

Water 


216.0 

Sucrose, Granulated 

10.00 

20.0 

Dextrose 

15.00 

30.0 

Durkex 500 oil, Durkee 

20.00 

40.0 

Starch 

10.00 

20.00 

Lactose, Foremost Dairies 

18.00 

36.0 

Water (for lactose make-up) 


36.0 

452.0 total 



200.0 dry 


2. Procedure 

a. Make up 20% Sodium Caseinate solution using Schnellkutter or similar high 
speed mixer. 

b. Pass to make up tank and raise temperature to 130°F. 

c. Add sucrose and dextrose to Sodium Caseinate solution and mix until 

dissolved. 

d. Suspend starch in Durkex oil and pass to make up tank, and mix with the 
Sodium Caseinate solution by passing through an Oakes mixer. Check stability at this 






point by floating out a small amount of dispersion in a quantity of 130°F. water. If no 
"oiling-out" is seen, continue as below. If "oiling-out" does occur, mix for a longer 
period■ 


e. Make up lactose in an equal weight of water, add to make up tank and mix. 

f. Recirculate this completed solution through an Oakes mixer. 

g. Pass to surge tank ana spray dry at 2400 psi with an outlet temperature 
of 170-175°F. and an inlet temperature of 265°F., using a #67 qjrifice and #17 acre 

3. Results 

A free flowing white powder of the following composition results. 

Protein 23.47» 


Fat 

Moisture 

Ash 


20 . 0 % 
3 . 6 % 
1 . 1 % 


Carbohydrate 51-1% (by diff.) 

Calories - 4.9 per gram 
II. Preparation of "B" Series of All Purpose Matrices 

The development of the "B" Series of Matrices also closely followed the require¬ 
ments outlined in the Scope of the Contract. The first formula, designated "B", compared 
as follows: 


ixgm-Cal per gram, minimum 
Percent fat, dry basis, maximum 
Percent high quality protein 
Percent ash, dry basis, maximum 
The complete formula for matrix B was: 


Lard Flakes 

47.1% 

Sodium Caseinate 

19.2% 

Sucrose 

33.7% 


100 .0% 


Contract Requirement 
6.0 
50 

0 to 25 
1.0 


Experimental 

6.3 

47.7 

16.8 
0.8 


This matrix was made by the stable dispersion process and then spray dried as 


9 - 




outlined in the Introduction. The result was a white, free flowing process following that 
given in Paragraph A. The food bars were fabricated by procedures outlined in Section V. 

When used as a matrix for graham crackers, and vapilla wafer food bars, a "lardy" 
flavor was detectable. In peanut food bars, the B Matrix contributed a sweet flavor. In 
order to overcome this, a new formulation, originally called D Matrix, but later changed 
to Matrix, was made as follows: 


Lard Flakes 

47.1% 

Sodium Caseinate 

19.2% 

Dextrin 

33.7% 


100.0% 


This matrix was made by the stable dispersion process and then spray dried as 
outlined in the Introduction. The result was a white, free flowing powder whose detailed 
manufacturing process follows that given in Paragraph A. The food bars were fabricated 
by procedures outlined in Section V. When this formula was used as a matrix for peanut 
and graham cracker food bars, the resulting flavor was too "chalky". 

Another reformulation of the patrix to overcome the above mentioned complaint 
resulted in the following B 2 matrix. 


Corn Starch (Cal-Flo 67) 

10 . 0 % 

Lactose 

16.7% 

Sucrose 

7.0% 

Kex Oil 

47.1% 

Sodium Caseinate 

19.2% 


100.0% 


In graham cracker, vanilla wafer and peanut food bars, this matrix gave good 
results initially, and it was decided that this formula would be the B type matrix of 
choice. Again, the Kex oil was changed to Durkex 500 and the complete formula and 
detailed manufacturing procedure follows: 


A. Matrix B 2 


Formula 

% Dry 

Typical 

Quantities (lb) 

„U1UUI U U .IIU ) U vi ^ U . ^ J uutiu W UUIVV, 

IQ 0 

•5 a 

«/W* -T 

Water 

— 

153.6 

Sucrose, granulated 

7.0 

14.0 

Durkex 500 Oil, Durkee 

47.1 

94.2 

Starch 

10.0 

20.0 

Lactose, Foremost Dairies 

16.7 

33.4 

Water (for lactose make-up) 

— 

32.4 

387.0 total 



200.0 dry wt 


2. Procedure 

a. Make up 207, Sodium Caseinate solution using Schneiikutter or similar 


high sp«..>-.- mixer. 


b. Pass to make up tank and raise temperature to 130°F. 

c. Add sucrose to the Sodium Caseinate solution and mix until dissolved. 

d. Suspend starch in the Durkex (temperature 145°F.) oil and pass to 
make up tank, and mix with the Sodium Caseinate solution by passing through an Oakes 
mixer. Check stability as noted previously. 

e. Dissolve lactose ^.n an equal weight of water, add to make up tank and 


mix. 


f. Recirculate the completed solution through an Oakes mixer. 

g. Pass to surge tank and spray dry at 2000 psi with an outlet tempera¬ 
ture of 263-270°F. using a #67 orifice and a #17 

3. Results 

The product was a white, free-flowing powder of the following composition: 
Fat 47.77, 

Protein 16.87, 


Carbohydrate 


32.57, (by diff.) 





Moisture 


2 . 2 % 


Calories per gram 6.3 

III. Discovery of Mairix "H" 

A note on the discovery of a material suitable fof use as H matrix as defined in 
Phase II of the Scope of the Contract is in order here, since it is al'ic used in the form 
ulation of certain food bars. Originally it was intended to manufacture a series of 
enzyme degraded gelatin preparations in order to test these for cohesion and water dis- 
persability as an indication of their suitability as Matrix H. Our proposed method 
included the following steps: 

1. To samples of gelatin solutions of known concentrations and viscosity, add 
aliquots of a bromalin solution of known concentration. 

2. Incubate samples at 37°C. and withdraw samples at intervals. 

3. Heat inactivate the enzymes (90°C. for 10'). 

4. Centrifuge all samples and determine the viscosity of the supernatant by Brook 
field viscometer. 

5. Vacuum dry the supernatant and screen samples so obtained for suitability of 
use as Matrix H. 

It was then discovered that Wilson and Co. had a collagen fraction on the 
market suitable for cosmetic use, and an inquiry by us elicited the information that a 
similar fraction suitable for food use was also available. This material, "Solu-Pro", 
can probably be supplied by Wilson at rather lower prices than our proposed enzymatically 
degraded gelatin. It has proved acceptable, even though a slightly mucilagenous flavor 
is apparent at high concentrations. The caloric value of this matrix is 3.85 calories 
per gram, dry basis. 

IV. Special Ingredients 

In addition to the development of the matrices outlined previously, it became 
apparent that it was necessary to master certain freeze drying techniques in order to 
ensure that the requirements of the contract of rapid rehydration be met. In most 
cases, the commercially available freeze-dried products, particularly the grains (rice, 

- 12 - 







barley) were not suitable because of grittiness, slow or impossible rehydration without 

«• v f 1 r/v »• Tk O f A 1 ' AT « A /1 qO/'»‘4 Kq O ^ « /la f 9 1 1 fko nVAOnOCt nrt nO/'flOPO VU f A>* 

VWAi Ug) VI. ^/VVi. i. A.UV VI. . X11W i V A ^ V/n A AWWW AM v»*w f A vvwuu AU^J M\.vwaawA ^ A VA 

suitable ingredients as used in the food bars and the compounding of a suitable dry bar¬ 
becue sauce. 

A. Kidney Beans 
1. Procedure 

a. Blanch 2 minutes in steam at atmospheric pressure. 

b. Soak in 17» Sodium Bicarbonate solution at room temperature for 1^ hours. 

c. Drain, then soak in 1% Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate at room temperature for 

1^ hours. 

d. Drain, then cook in excess cf tap water at a slow boil for 25-30 minutes. 

e. Drain and freeze-dry. 

B. Rice 

1. Procedure 

a. To lb water add 1/2 oz salt and bring to a boil. 

b. Add 1 lb long grain par boiled rice and cook at a rolling boil for 

25 minutes. 

c. Drain, then rinse in cold water. 

d. Add rice back to 10 lb water per original lb of rice and cook at a 
rolling boil for 25 minutes. 

e. Drain. Rinse with hot water, then with cold water. 

f. Stir the rice gently to prevent lumping when piling onto freeze 

drying trays. 

g. Freeze-dry. 

C. Barley 

1. Procedure 

a. To 8 lb water, add 1/2 oz salt. 

b. Add 1 lb barley and boil for 1 hour, adding more water if too thick. 

c. Drain and rinse in warm water. 

5 f r " r - - **" <r&* 








d. Add back 8 lb water per lb of original barley and cook 30 minutes. 

e. Drain and rinse in warm water. 

f. Add back 8 lb water per pound of original barley and cook 30 minutes 

longer. 

g. Drain and rinse ip warm water, then in cold water. 

h. Stir the barley gpntly while piling opto freezer trays to avoid lumping. 


i. Freeze-dry. 

D. Barbecue Sauce 
1. Formula 

Onion Powder, soluble 0.29 

Celery Seed, ground of whole 0.11 

Paprika, ground 0.3? 

Cayenne Pepper, ground 0.11 

Cinnamon, Korin tji, ground 0.05 

Allspice, ground 0.08 

Salt, Flour 5.63 

Sugar, granulated 46.3Q 

Tomato Powder, I.D.I.T. S.P.A.* 18.11 

Sodium Diacetate 14.50 

Smoked Yeast, Florasypth 14.5Q 


100.00 

2. Procedure 

a. Weigh all ingredients into a 1 cubic food twin cone Patterson-Kelly 
mixer and mix, using intensifier bar, until homogenous. 

E. Pimientos 

1. Procedure 

Canned whole pimientos were freeze dried witi.out further treatment. 

Available from Tower Instant Foods, Chicago 


1 




-14- 



V. Manufacture of Phase I Food Bars 


A. Pregelatinized fapioca Starch Bars 


Formula 


Pregelatinized Tapioca Starch 

75% 

A 2 or B 2 Matrix 

251 

Water/100 g. dry materials 

15 ml. 


2. Procedure 

The starch and the respective matrices were mixed together in a one 
cubic foot Patterson-Kelly mixer using the blade type intensifier bar. When the 
mixture was homogenous, the water was added through the intensifier bar. Depth 
of fill on the Denison hydraulic press was adjusted so that the resulting bars 
were 1/2" in thickness. About 120 bars were fabricated at 4000 #g.p. (500 psi.) 
with normal press action and zero dwell time. About 100 bars were packed in 
aluminized PVC pouches (pouch stock: 0.5 mil mylar, 0.00035“ aluminum foil, 

3 mil polyvinyl chloride) and 21 were packed under nitrogen in glass jars after 
being dried 20' at 120°F. Storage of the pouched bars bqgan on August 30, 1963 
at 0° F, 35°F, 73°F, and 100°F. The nitrogen packed bar^ began storage at 0°F, 

73°F and 100°F on August 30, 1963 also. 

3. Results: The following test results were obtained: 

Test A 2 Matrix Bj Matrix 

Odor and Flavor Typical of Tapioca Starch Typical of Tapioca Starch 

Mastication 

a. Shear by Incisors 


(1) 

35°F 

Fair 

Fair 

(2) 

70° F 

Good 

Fair 

(3) 100°F 

Fair 

Fair 


- 15 - 

-r . - •+> --■—- 

— ' -- » 



Test 


A 3 Matrix B 2 Matrix 


b. 

Chew 






(1) 35° t 


Fair 

Fair 



(2) 70°F 


Good 

Fair 



(3) 100°F 


Fair 

Fair 


c. 

Swallow 






(1) 35°F 


Fair 

Fair 



(2) 70°F 


Good 

Fair 



(3)100°F 


Fair 

Fair 


Six 

ft. droo test 

One corner broke off on 
16th drop 

Broke in half 
drop 

on 35th 

Stickiness (24 hrs) 
at 40% humidity and 
room temperature 


None 

None 


Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs. at 120 , F and 

5 psi.) 





a. 

Before 

1/2" x 

1 31/32"x 3 15/16" 

1/2" x 1 15/16" 

x 3 7/8" 

b. 

After 

15/32"xl 15/16"x 3 7/8" 

15/32"x 1 15/16 

"x 3 25/32" 

c. 

Net Change 

-1/32" 

-1/32" 1/16" 

-1/32" 0 

-3/32" 

d. 

Percent change 

-6.25 

-1.58 -1.58 

-6.25 0.00 

-2.42 

Moisture (16 hr vacuum over) 





a. 

Nitrogen pack 


11.44 

12.15 


b. 

Pouch pack 


12.54 

13.90 


Bacteriology 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

a. 

SPC 

2700 

1200 

2750 

1220 

b. 

Coliforms 

<ao 

> 5 

>10 

> 5 

c. 

Yeasts and tyolds 

20 

< 10 

<10 

10 

d. 

Staphylococcus 

neg. 

neg. 

neg. 

neg. 


16- 





Bo Matrix 


Storage Study A 3 Matrix 


2 Week - 35° F. 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch ,3 ack 

N 1 frnnon Pfj-i-l* 

• * M VO 


Organoleptic 

shear 


very difficult 


very difficult 

Odor 

- 

typical 

- 

ypical 

flavor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

73° F. 

Bacteriology 

spc 

- 

550 

- 

220 

Cpliforms 

- 

<10 


< 10 

Yeast & Molds 

- 

<10 

*/ 

<10 

Staphlococcus 

- 

neg. 

7 

neg. 

Moisture 

- 

11.32 


14.20 

Organoleptic 

shear 

difficult 

difficult 

difficult 

difficult 

O^or 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F. 

Bacteriology 

SJ»C 

2000 

300 

300 

330 

Coliforms 

< 10 

<10 

< 10 

< 10 

Yeasts & Molds 

15 

20 

15 

15 

Moisture 

- 

10.37 

1 

13.49 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

very difficult 

very difficult 

very difficult very difficu! 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 


Flavor 


typical 


rubber like 


typical 


rubber like 




Storage Study cont . 

4 W^ek - 35° F . 

Oraanoleotic 
* * 

oU A*!** 

UttWU 4. 

Odor 
Flavor 
73° F. 

Orgapoleptic 
Shear 
Odor 
Flavor 
100° F . 

Organoleptic 

Sfyear 

0 <Jor 

Flavor 

8 Week - 35° F . 
Organoleptic 
Shear 
Odor 
Flavor 
73° F. 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 
100° F . 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 


A 3 Matrix B 2 Matrix 

Nitrogen frack Pouch Pack NitrogeiTPack Pouch Pack 



difficult 

- 

difficult 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 


difficult 

very difficult 

difficult 

impossible 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 


difficult 

difficult 

impossible 

impossible 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 



very difficult 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 


’impossibly 

very difficult 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

difficult 

very difficult 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 


very difficult 
typical 
typical 


impossible 

impossible 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

impossible 

impossible 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 


) 






18 




Storage Study Cont. 

Aj Matrix 

B2 Matrix 


Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

13 Week 35° F. 





Organoleptic 

Shear 

- 

difficul l 

- 

diffirult 

Odor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

Flavor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

73° F. 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

difficult 

very difficult 

difficult 

impossible 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F. 

Organoleptic 

Sjiear 

very difficult 

very difficult 

very dif^icul 

t impossible 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

26 Week 35° F. 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

- 

very difficult 

- 

very difficul 

Odor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

Flavor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

73° F. 

Organoleptic 

Sjiear 

difficult 

impossible 

difficult 

impossible 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typica j. 

typical 

100° F. 

Orgapoleptic 

Shear 

impossible 

impossible 

impossible 

impossible 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typicaj. 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 


*19 




JH* 






A.j Matrix B 2 Matrix 


52 Week 72°F 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Moisture 


11.98 



13.29 

Bacteriology 

$PC 

1650 

150 

170 


190 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 


< 10 

yeasts & Molds 

< 10 

< 10 

<10 


< 10 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 


neg 

f almonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 


neg 

100 °F. 

Moisture 


12.11 



13.29 

Bacteriology 

$PC 

160 

190 

180 


140 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 


<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

< 10 

<10 

\ 

<10 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

t 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 


neg 


B. Graham Cracker Bars 

1. Formula 

Graham crackers 75% 

A 3 and B 2 Matrix 257„ 

Water/iCO gm. dry material 5 ml. 

2. Procedure 

The graham crackers were placed in a 12 qt. bowl and broken up on speed #2 of the 
A-200 Hobart mixer until the largest fragment remaining was 1/2” in its largest dimension. 
The respective matrices were added and mixing was continued until homogenous. Water was 
then added by separatory funnel while mixing continued. C-.'pth of fill was adjusted 
on the Denison hydraulic press so that resulting bars were 1/2" thick. About 120 bars 
were fabricated at 6000 #g.p. (750 psi.) and zero dwell time with normal action of the 
press (both upper and lower rams activated). The bars were finished by drying for 
20 f at 120°F. About 100 were sealed into aluminized mylar pouches (pouch stock was 




0.5 mil mylar, 0.00035" aluminum foil and 3 mil polyvinyl chloride.) Twenty-one bars 
were sealed under nitrogen in glass jars. Storage at 10C°F, 73°F, and 0°F was begun on 
August 30, 1963 for the pouched bars. The nitrogen packed bars began storage on 
August 23. 1963 at 100°F, 73°F, and 0°F. 

3. Results 

The following test results were obtained initially. 


Test 

A^ Matrix 

32 Matrix 

Odor and Flavor 

Mastication 

a. Shear by Incisors 

typical of graham crackers 

typical of graham crackers 

(1) 35°F 

good 

good 

PH 

O 

O 

CM 

s-/ 

good 

good 

(3) ioo°r 

b. Chew 

good 

good 

(1) 35°F 

good 

good 

(2) 70°F 

good 

good 

(3) 100°F 

good 

good 

c. Swallow 



(1) 35°F 

good 

! 

good 

(2) 70°F 

good 

good 

(3) 100°F 

good 

good 

Six foot Drop Test 

Broke into 2 pcs. on 

Broke into 2 pcs. 

Stickiness (24 hrs. 

4th drop 

on 6th drop 

at 407 o humidity and 



room temp.) 

Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs at 120°F and 5 psi) 

none 

none 

a. Before 

17/32"x2 i/32"x4 1/32" 

15/32:x2 l/32"x4 1/32" 

b. After 

l/2"x2 l/32"x4 1/32" 

7/16"x2 l/32"x4 1/32" 

c. Net Change 

-1/32 0 0 

-1/32" 0 0 

d. Fercent change 

Moisture % (16 hr. 
vacuum oven) 

-5.88 0.00 0.00 

-6.66 0.00 0.00 

a. Nitrogen pack 

7.66 

6.49 

b. pouch pack 

8.38 

6.99 



S 










M Matrix B 2 Matrix 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

Bacteriology 


SPC 

1040 

180 

290 

200 

Coliforma 

<10 

< 10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts and Molds 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

neg. 

neg. 

neg. 

neg. 

Storage Study 

2 Weeks 

0 

35 F. 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

m 

good 

- 

good 

Odor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

Flavor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

73° F. 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

- 

730 

- 

550 

Conforms 

- 

<10 

- 

< 5 

Yeasts & Molds 

- 

< 10 

- 

< 10 

Staphlococcus 

- 

neg. 

- 

neg. 

Moisture 7. 

- 

7.96 

- 

8.48 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

700 

240 

400 

200 

Coliforms 

<10 

< 10 

< 10 

< 10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<<1° 

5 

10 





B 2 Matrix 


A 3 Matrix 

2 Weeks Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 


100* F 

Moisture 

a» 

4.80 

. 

J. 18 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

4 Weeks 

35° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

Flavor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

8 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

Flavor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 







73° F 

Nitrogen 

A 3 Matrix 

Pack Pouch Pack 

B# Matttx 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

stale 

13 Weeks 

35°F. 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

Flavor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

26 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

Flavor 

- 

typical 

- 

typical 

73° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 


24 - 








A 3 Matrix E 2 Matrix 


52 weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

73 F 

4 a f V 


6.98 


5.67 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

640 

500 

200 

10 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

Negative 

Negative 

Negative 

Negative 

Salmonella 

Negative 

Negative 

Negative 

Negative 

100° F 

Moisture 7. 


8.24 


8.10 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

10 

50 

20 

60 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

Negative 

Negative 

Negative 

Negative 

Salmonella 

Negative 

Negative 

Negative 

Negative 

C. Non-Fat Dry Milk (Maple Island- 

•Instant) Bar 




1. Formula 

Non-fat Dry Milk (Maple Island-Instant) 75% 

or B 2 Matrix 257. 

Water/100 gtn Dry Material 5 ml 

2. Procedure 

The dry milk solids together with the respective matrices were mixed together 
in a 12 qt. bowl on the A-200 Hobart mixer at speed #2. The water was added dropwis«| 
while mixing by means of a separatory funnel. Depth of fill was adjusted on the Deniscpi 
hydraulic press so that resulting bars were 1/2” in thickness. Bars were pressed at 
6000# gauge pressure (750 psi) with zero dwell time and normal action of both rams 
(simultaneous pressing of both upper and lower rams). The resulting 120 bars were 
dried in a hot air oven for 20 minutes at 120°F. Twenty one were packed in a glass 

-2 5- 











jars under a nitrogen atmosphere and the remainder was sealed into aluminized mylar 
pouches. Pouch stock is 0.5 mil mylar 0.00035" aluminum foil, and 3 mil polyvinyl 
chloride. Storage of the pouched bars was begun August 30, 1963 at 100°F, 73°F, 35°F, 
and 0°F. The nitrogen packed bars were placed in storage at 100°F, 73°F, and 0°F on August 
30, 1963 also. 

3 t Results. 

Initially the following test results were obtained. 

Test A3 Matrix B2 Matrix 

Odor and Flavor Typical of non-fat dry milk Typical of non-fat dry milk 

Mastication 


a. 

Shear by incisors 





(1) 

35°F 


Good 

Good 


(2) 

70° F 


Good 

Good 


(3) 

100° F 


Good 

Good 

b. 

Chew 






(1) 

35°F 


Good 

Good 


(2) 

70°F 


Good 

Good 


(3) 

100° F 


Good 

Good 

c. 

Swallow 





(1) 

35°F 


Good 

Good 


(2) 

70° F 


Good 

Good 


(3) 

100° F 


Good 

Good 

6-Foot 

Drop 

Test 

Broke into 3 

pcs. each approx. 

Broke into 3 pcs each approx 




1/3 of bar 


1/3 of bar 

Stickiness 

(24 hrs. 


None 

None 


at 407o humidity and 
room temperature) 


Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs. @120°F. and 
5 psi.) 

Before 1/2" x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 17/32" x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 

After 1/2" x 2" x 4" 17/32" x 2-1/32" x 4" 


-26 





A 3 Matrix 



B 2 Matrix 


Met Change 

o 

-1/32" 

-1/32" 

0 

0 

-1.32" 

Percent. Chauge 

A Art 

u . uu 

*1 c ** 

- x . j 

r\ *7 1 
-v # t 1 

n 
\j * 

An A AA 

VV \J • wv 

_A "7 *7 
_ v/ » / / 

Moisture (16 hr. 
vacuum oven) 







Nitrogen pack 


7.77 



6.49 


Pouch pack 


7.38 



7.00 


Test 







Bacteriology 


Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 


Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

SPC 


1590 

1200 


2660 

1260 

Coliforms 


10 

5 


10 

5 

Mold & Yeast 


40 

30 


80 

30 

/ 

Staphylococci 


Neg. 

Neg. 


Neg. 

Neg. 


Storage Study 

2 Weeks 

35° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

73°F 



Bacteriology 



SPC 

2330 

2020 

Coliforms 

10 

10 

Yeasts & Molds 

10 

10 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Moisture 

G. 74 

6.96 

Organoleptic 



Shear 

Very difficult 

Very difficult 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 


Typical 


Flavor 


Typical 



100° F 


Matrix 


B2 Matrix 


Bacteriology 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

SPC 

2420 

740 

2000 

770 

Coliforra* 

10 

10 

10 

10 

Y«*«t* & Mold* 

*A**>v. a*, iWMy.. 

Moictur* 

Organoleptic 

120 

6.34 

20 

110 

6.50 

20 

Shear 

Very difficult 

Very difficult 

Very difficult 

Very difficult 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

4 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Shear 

- 

Difficult 

-••!***■ '• , ':»| t 

Difficult 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

73° F 

Organoleptic 

• 

Typical 


Typical 

Shear 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Good 

Odor 

%pical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

lOtfF 

Organoleptic 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Shear 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

8 Weeks 

35°F 

Typical 

Typical 

-2 3- 

Typical 

Typical 



Matrix 


B 2 Matrix 


Organoleptic 

Nitrogen rack** 

n. .U 1. 

ruutu rauiv 

VT4 a Dor>l/ 

U i. L 1 V' - 1 <• uvt\ 

Pouch pock 

Shear 

- 

Difficult 

- 

Difficult 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Odor 

SI. burned 

Typical. 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

SI. burned 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 


13 Week 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


Difficult 


Difficult 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 


Typical Typical 


Typical 


Flavor 


Typical 




26 Weeks 

A 3 

Matrix 

b 2 

Matrix 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shssr 

- 

Di f f leu 3 l t 

- 


n-i et 4 i ► 

A 1 

vrjur 

- 

Typical 

- 


Typical 

i tavor 

- 

Typical 

- 


Typical 

73°F 






Organoleptic 






Shea*- 

Difficult 

Difficult 

Difficult 


Difficult 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 


Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 


Typical 

100° F 






Organoleptic 






Shear 

Difficult 

Impossible 

Difficult 


Impossible 

Odor 

SI. burned milk Burned milk 

SI. burned 

milk 

Burned milk 

Flavor 

SI. burned milk Burned milk 

SI. burned 

milk 

Burned milk 

52 Weeks 






73° F 






Moisture 


6.85 


7.70 


Bacteriology 






SPC 


1380 

2320 


Coliforms 


<10 


15 


Yeast & Molds 


110 


40 


Staphylococcus 


Neg. 


NegJ 


Salmonella 


Neg. 


Neg. 


100° F 






Bacteriology 






SPC 

310 

110 

105 


80 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 


<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

<10 


<10 



100°F (continued) 


A 3 Matrix 


B 2 Matrix 

Bacteriology 

Nitrogen 

Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Stflnhvlnrni'rn c 
- r - 

NacraM vp 

~ O"-* * 


NaoaMve 

* ’ W 

Negative 

w 

Neeative 

w» 

<"»-•>__ 1 1 

oa iuiuuc ± ia 

XT __ J.. . 

ncgaiivc 


IT -* J 

j. vc 

XT- 

11C gCl L1VC 

XT- - t - 

negative 

D. Sugar Cookie 

Bar 





1 . Formula 






Sugar Cookie 


75% 




A 3 or B 2 Matrix 

25% 





Water/100 gm Dry Material 5 ml 

2. Procedure 

Sugar cookies were weighed into a 12 qt. Hobart mixing bowl and broken up on 
speed #1 on the Hobart A-200 mixer until the largest fragments remaining were approxi¬ 
mately 3/4" in the longest dimension. The respective matrices were then added and the 
whole mixed until homogenous. Water was then added by separatory funnel while mixing 
continued. Depth of fill on the Denison press was adjusted so that resulting bars were 
1/2" thick. Bars were pressed at 2000 #g.p. (250 psi) and a dwell time of "307 o -10 sec." 
Stratification and cracking of the bar in its horizontal plane was avoided by inactivating 
the lower ram and attaining pressure by use of the upper ram only. About 120 bars were 
manufactured, and these were dried in a forced draught oven at 120°F. Twenty one were 
packed in glass jars under a nitrogen atmosphere, and the remainder was sealed into 
alumized mylar pouches. Pouch stock is 0.5 mii mylar, 0.00035" aluminum foil, and 3 mil 
polyvinyl chloride. Storage of the pouched bars was begun August 30, 1963 at 100°F, 

73°F, 35°F, and 0°F. The nitrogen packed bars were placed in storage at 100°F, 73°F, 
and 0°F on August 30, 1963 also. 

3. Results 

Initially the following test results were obtained. 

Test A 3 Matrix B2 Matrix 


Odor & Flavor 


Typical of Sugar Cookie 


Typical of Sugar Cookie 





A 3 Matrix 

32 Matrix 

Mastication 

a. Shear by Incisors 

(1) 35°F 

Good 

Good 

f*4 

© 

O 

CM 

s-/ 

Good 

Good 

(3) 100°F 

Good 

Good 

b. Chew 

(1) 35°F 

Good 

Good 

(2) 70° F 

Good 

Good 

(3) ICO 5 ’F 

Good 

Good 

c. Swallow 

(1) 35° F 

Good 

Good 

(2) 70°F 

' Good 

Good 

(3) 100° F 

Good 

Good 

6 Foot Drop Test 

Broke into 3 pcs on 

2 nd drop 

Broke into quarters on 
1 st drop 

Stickiness (24 hrs. 

@ 407. humidity and 

room temp.) 

None 

None 

Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs. @ 120°F and 

5 psi) 

Before 

1/2" x 2" x 4-1/32" 

1/2" x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32 

After 

1/2" x 2" x 4-1/32" 

1/2" x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32 

Net Change 

0 0 0 

0 0 0 

Percent Change 

0.00 0.00 0.00 

0.00 0.00 0.00 

Moisture 7. (16 hr. 
vacuum oven) 

Nitrogen Pack 

6.66 

7.61 

Pouch Pack 

7.34 

8.11 

Bacteriology 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch ' 


SPC 

770 

1260 

490 

28 

Coliforms 

<10 

> 5 

<10 

<10 




A3 Matrix B2 Matrix 


Bacteriology (cont'd) 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Molds u Yeasts 

✓ in 

30 

<10 

^10 

Staphylococci 

Neg. 

_ 

MCg. 

VI ^ ^ 

Mo A 

Storage Study 

2 week - 35°F 

Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shear 


Good 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

Coliforms 

Yeasts & Molds 

Staphylococcus 

990 

>10 

<10 

Neg. 


370 

clO 

<10 

Neg. 


Moisture 7o 

7. 

85 

7. 

98 

Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Topical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Bacteriology 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

SPC 

770 

280 

260 

200 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

5 

<10 

Moisture % 

6. 

72 

8. 

16 

Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 


„ *: 




r 





A3 Matrix B2 Matrix 


Organoleptic (coni'd) 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical, but 
bitter after¬ 
taste 

Typical 

Typical, but 
rancid fat 
after taste 

4 Week 

35 a F 

Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shear 

- 

Good 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pou h Pack 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

8 week - 35°F 

Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shear 

- 

Good 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 




100° F 


A 3 Matrix B 2 Matrix 


Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

r> -j 

uuuu 

-a 

uuuu 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical; bitter 

Typical 

Typical; bitter 

Typical 


after taste 


after taste 


13 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

_ 

Good 


Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Different 

Good 

Different 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

26 We^-ks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

- 

Good 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 




A 3 Matrix 


B 2 Matrix 


Organoleptic (cont'd) 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

52 week 

72°F 

Moisture 7. 


7.81 


7.01 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

510 

210 

320 

365 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yea8t3 & Molds 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

100° F 

Moisture 7« 


7.99 


7.41 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

530 

70 

630 

50 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

« 

' f 

Neg. 


36- 




E. Pie Crust Bars 


Formula 


ne uiusl (oaxea) 

757. 

A 2 or B 2 Matrix 

25% 


Water/100 gm dry materials 5 ml. 

2. Procedure 

The pie crust was weighed into a 12 qt. bowl and broken up on the 
Hobart A-200 mixer on speed #2. The matrix was added and the whole 
mixed until homogenous. Water was added by separatory funnel while 
mixing continued. Depth of fill on the Denison hydraulic press was 
adjusted so that resulting bars were 1/2” thick. Bars were then 
pressed at 4000 # g.p. (500 psi.) and a dwell time of "157, -10 sec." 
and normal action of both upper and lower rams. The resulting bars were 
dried for 20' at 120°F. Of the 120 bars manufactured, about 100 were 
packed in aluminized mylar pouches. (Pouch stock: 0.5 mil mylar, 

0.00035" aluminum foil and 3 mil polyvinyl chloride). Twenty-one were 
sealed under nitrogen in glass jars. Storage of the pouched bars was 
begun August 30, 1963 at 100°F, 73°F, and 0°F. Nitrogen packed jars 
were placed in storage on August 30, 1963 at 100°F, 73°F, and 0°F. 

3. Results : The following test results were obtained initially: 

Test A^ Matrix B 2 Matrix 

Odor and Flavor Typical of pie crust Typical of pie crust 


Mastication 

a. Shear by Incisors 

(1) 35°F Good Good 

(2) 70 e F Good Good 

(3) 100°F Good Good 

b. Chew 

(1) 35°F Good Good 

(2) 70°F Good Good 

(3) 100°F Good Good 

o ^ * ( 


Test 


A Q Matrix 


B2 Matrix 

c. Swallow 





(1) 35 c F 


Good 


Good 

(2) 70°F 


Good 


Good 

(3) 100°F 


Good 


Good 

6 Foot Drop Test 


Broke into 3 pcs. 
on 4th drop 

Broke into 3 pcs. 
on 1st drop 

Bacteriology 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitroge 

n Pack Pouch Pack 

SPC 

z50 

420 

350 

460 

Coliforms 

<“10 

■<10 

=*►10 

-CIO 

Molds & Yeasts 

20 

<10 

10 

Z>5 

Staphylococci 

neg. 

neg. 

neg. 

neg. 

Stickiness (24 hrs 


none 


None 


at 407. humidity and 
room temp.) 

Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs. at 120°F and 
5 psi) 

Before l/2"x2 l/32"x4 1/16" 17/32"x2 l/32"x4 1/16" 

After 15/32"x2 l/32"x4 1/16" l/2"x2 l/32"x4 1/32" 

Net Change -1/32" 0 0 -1/32" 0 -1/32" 

Percent change -5.00 0.00 0.00 -5.88 0.00 -0.77 

Moisture 

Nitrogen pack 10.56 7.86 

Pouch pack 10.24 7.88 

Storage Study 
2 Weeks 
35°F 

Organoleptic 


Shear 

good 

good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 


38- 





2 Weeks 

A 

3 Matrix 

Bo Matrix 


Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

TO® T> 

/ j r 





Bacteriology 





SPC 


520 


360 

Colifortns 


<10 


<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

-CIO 


<10 

Staphylococcus 

neg. 


neg. 

Moisture 


9.97 


8.07 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

si. rancid fat 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical/bitter 
after taste 

typical/bitter 
after taste 

typical/bitter lypical/bitter 
after taste after taste 

100° F 





Bacteriology 





SPC 

1120 

420 

400 

333 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & molds 20 

<10 

20 

<10 

Moisture 


10.69 


7.93 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Rancid Fat 

Rancid Fat 

Rancid Fat 

Rancid Fat 

Flavcr 

It M 

It II 

II It 

II It 

4 Weeks 





35°:? 





Organoleptic 





Shear 


Good 


Good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


Typical 


typical 





Storage Study cont'd 

4 Weeks 

A 3 

Matrix 

B 2 Matrix 

73° F 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Oreannlenr* r 

w ' r- 





OU . • — 
tfUCOL 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

si. rancid fat 

sour rancid fat 

typical 

rancid, bitter 

Flavor 

si. rancid fat 

sour rancid fat 

typical 

rancid,bitter 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

si. rancid fat 

rancid fat 

typical 

rancid fat 

Flavor 

si. rancid fat 

rancid/bituer 

typical 

bitter 

8 weeks 





35°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 


Good 


Good 

Odor 


si. rancid fat 


si. rancid fat 

Flavor 


si. rancid fat 


si. rancid fat 

73°F 





Organoleptic 




i 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 1 

Odor 

rancid 

rancid 

typical 

si. rancid 

Flavor 

100 r F 

Organoleptic 

rancid/bitter 
after taste 

rancid 

si. rancid 

si. rancid 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

rancid fat 

rancid fat 

rancid fat 

rancid fat 

Flavor 

bitter 

rancid fat 

rancid fat 

bitter 


40- 


Storage Study cont'd 

A 3 

Matrix 

h 

Matrix 


M-J t rnoen Pu 
-■ ~ 

ck Pouch. Pack 

v . vftv u 4 uvl\ 

_W T5—t. 

a. vuui l ourv 

in ft.-i 

U WCCK 





35°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

75° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

si rancid fat 

typical 

si. rancid fat 

Flavor 

typical 

si. bitter 

typical 

si. bitter 

100°F. 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

rancid 

Flavor 

bitter 

si. bitter 

bitter 

bitter 

26 Weeks 





35°F 





Organoleptic 




1 

Shear 


good 


good 1 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73° F 





Organoleptic 




• 

Shear 

moldy 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

Not tested 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

Not tested 

typical 

typical 

typical 




Storage Study cont' 



A 3 

Matrix 

B 2 

Matrix 

26 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen ; 

Pack Pouch Pack 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

moldy 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

not tested 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

not tested 

bitter 

bitter 

bitter 

52 Weeks 





72°F 





Moisture 


10.86 


7.55 

Bacteriology 





SPC 

80 

320 

100 

110 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

< 10 

Yeasts & Molds 

10 

<L0 

60 

< 10 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

100° F 





Moisture 


11.03 


8.05 

Bacteriology 





SPC 

90 

50 

40 

40 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

< 10 

<10 

<L0 

<lo 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 


Peach Bars 


Formula 


Peaches, dried 

75% 

A 3 or B 2 Matrix 

25% 


Water/IOG gm. dry materials 


4 ml. 






2. Procedure 

Peach halves were chopped using a 1 gal. Waring blindor canister. Water was 
added by separatory funnel to the chopped peach halves in a 12 qt. Hobart mixer 
bowl with mixing on spaed #2. The matrix was next added and mixing was continued 
until the peach places were uniformly coated with matrix. Depth of fill on the Denison 
hydraulic press was adju;itei so that resulting bars ware 1/2" thickness. About 
120 bars were fabricated at "2500 0g.p." (312.5 psi) and a dwell time of "25%-10 sec." 
with the lower ram of the press stationary thus duplicating the action of the Carvpr 
laboratory preec. Bars were dried for 30 minutes at 120 s ? and about 100 were 
sealed in alumlnlxad PVC pouches (pouch stock: 0.5 mylar 0.00035" aluminum foil 
and 3 mil polyvinyl chloride). Twenty-one were sealed under nitrogen In glass 
Jars. The storage of pouched bars was begun on August 30, 1963 at 0 a F, 35*Fi 
73*7. and 100*F. Storage of nitrogen packed bars was begun on August 30, 1963 
also, but at 0*7, 73*7 and 100 a F. 

3. Results: Initially the following test results were obtained. 

Test A 3 Matrix B 2 Matrix 

Odor and Flavor Typical of dried peaches Typical of dried peachep : 

Mastication 


Shear by Incisors 



(1) 35°F 

good 

good 

(2) 70 C F 

good 

good 

(3) 100 C F 

good 

good 

Chew 



(1) 35°F 

good 

good 

(2) 70°F 

good 

good 

(3) 100°F 

good 

good 

Swallow 



(1) 35°F 

good 

good 

(2) 70°F 

good 

good 

(3) 100°F 

good 

good 


-43- 





A 3 Matrix r_. Matrix 

Dimensional Stability -“- --- 

624 hra. at- 1 / >n°P 

' -- - —- ^ * M»«W 


j paij 





Before 

9/16"x 1 

15/I6"x3 7/8" 

9/16"x 1 15/16" 

x3 7/8" 

After 

17/32"x 

1 31/32"x3 7/8" 

1/2" x 2'' x 3 29/32" 

Net Change 

-1/32" 

+1/32" 0 

-1/16" +1/16" + 

1/32" 

Percent change 

-5.56 

+1.61 0.00 

-11.11 + 3.23 

+0.81 

6 Foot Drop Test 

Brok= in 

half on 59th drop 

Broke in half on 

11 th drop 

Stickiness (24 hrs. 
at 40% humidity and 
room temp.) 


None 

None 


Moisture (18 nr vacuum 





oven) 





Nitrogen pack 


20.47 

20.53 

21.50 


Pouch pack 


20.95 


Bacteriology 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

_Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

SPC 

Coliforms 

Yeasts & Molds 
Staphylococcus 
Storage Study 

Weeks 

600 

-<10 

CIO 

neg. 

280 

d 0 

ClO 

neg 

470 

do 

<no 

neg 

290 

Cl 0 

CIO 

neg 

35°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73°F. 





Bacteriology 





SPC 


600 


910 

Coliforms 


CIO 


>10 

Yeasts & Molds 


<10 


CIO 

Stapnlococcus 


neg. 


neg. 

Moisture 


21.92 


21.56 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 



-44- 




2 Weel:s Cont'd 
Organoleptic 

A 3 

Matrix 

B 0 Matrix 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typicalj 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 





Bacteriology 





SPC 

440 

320 

290 

260 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Moisture % 


21.16 


19.93 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

4 Weeks 

35°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 


Good 


Good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 


45- 




Storage Study 

A 3 Matrix 

B 2 Matrix 

ft Uool ra 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shear 


good 


good 

odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

cooked peaches 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

cooked peaches 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

bitter 

typical 

typical 

typical 

13 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

100° F 

typical 

typica 1 

typical 

typical 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 

good 

cooked peaches 

bitter 

good 

cooked peaches 

bitter 

good 

cooked peaches 

bitter 

good 

cooked peaches 

bitter 


-46- 






srage Study cont'd 

Matrix 

B, 

, Matrix 

u 

26 Weeks 

Nitrogei Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Poucn Pack 

35°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

odor 

cooked peaches 

cooked peaches 

cooked peaches 

cooked peaches 

Flavor 

cooked peaches 

si. bitter 

cooked peaches 

si. bitter 

52 Weeks 




• 

72°F 





Moisture 


22.90 


21.27 

Bacteriology 





SPC 

230 

70 

180 

40 

Colifonns 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 j 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

100° F 





Moisture 


23.44 


23.57 1 

Bacteriology 




1 

SPC 

740 

30 

10 

20 

Coliforms 

<10 

■c 10 

-<10 

**10 

Yeasts <i Molds 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 



t} ■ 


s 

\ 




* 9 * 


G. Peanut Bars 

1. Formula 


Peanuts (Grind "A" medium dry roast, Sachs Nut Co.) 757. 

A or B matrix 25% 

Water/100 gm. dry material 5 ml 

Salt/100 gm dry material 1.5 gm. 


2. Procedure: 

Peanuts and salt were mixed together until homogenous in a 12 qt. bowl in 
the A-200 Hobart mixer on speed #2. Water was added by separatory funnel while 
mixing continued. The respective matrices were added and mixing was continued 
until homogenous. Depth of fill was adjusted on the Denison hydraulic press 
so that resulting bars were 1/2" thick. About 120 bars were fabricated at 5000 
#g.p. (625 psi.) and zero dwell time. The lower ram was not activated, the total 
pressure being applied by the upper ram only. This procedure avoided stratification 
and cracking in the horizontal plane. The bars were finished by drying in a 
forced air oven for 30' at 120°F. About 100 bars were sealed in aluminized mylar 
pouches and 21 were packed under nitrogen in glass jars. Pouch stock is 0.5 mil 
mylar, 0.00035" aluminum foil, and 3 mil polyvinyl chloride. Storage of the pouched 
bars was begun August 30, 1963, at 100°F, 73°F, 35°F, and 0°F. The nitrogen 
packed bars were placed in storage at 100°F, 73°F, and 0°F on August 30, 1963. 

3. Results: The following test results were obtained initially. 

Test Aj Matrix Matrix 

Odor and Flavor Typical of dry roasted Typical of dry roasted 

peanuts peanuts 

Mastication 
a. Shear by Incisors 


(1) 35 C F good good 

(2) 70°F good good 

(3) 100°F good good 

b. Chew 

(1) 35°F good good 

(2) 70°F good good 

(3) 100°F good good 




Test 

A, 

Matrix 

B 0 Matrix 

C. Swallow 





(1) 35°F 


good 

good 


(2) 70°F 


good 

good 


(3) 100°F 


good 

good 


6 Foot Drop Test 

Broke into 2 pcs. on 

Broke into ! 

2 pcs. on 


2nd drop 

2nd drop 


Stickiness (24 hrs. 

<? 40% humidity and 
room temp.) 


none 

none 


Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs. at 120°F and 

5 psi.) 





Before 

l/2"x2 

l/32"x 4 1/32" 

17/32" x 2 

1/32" x 4 1/16" 

After 

15/32 x 

2 l/32"x4 1/32" 

1/2" x2 

1/32" x 4 1/16" 

Net change 

-1/32" 

0 0 

-1/32" 

0 0 

Percent change 

-6.25 

0.00 0.00 

-5.88 

0.00 O.CO 

Moisture (16 hr vacuum oven) 




Nitrogen Pack 


5.47 

5.10 


Pouch Pack 


5.26 

4.86 


Bacteriology 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

SPC 

500 

240 

600 

260 

Coliforms 

*<10 

<10 

<10 

CIO 

Molds & Yeasts 

20 

10 

10 

10 

Staphylococci 

neg. 

neg. 

neg. 

neg. 


Storage Study 

2 Weeks 
35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 
7 3° F. 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

Colifonns 
Yeasts & Molds 
Staphlococcus 


good 

si. rancid oil 
si. rancid oil 


good 

typical 

si. rancid oil 

700 

<10 

<10 

neg 


good 
si. rancid oil 
si. rancid oil 


good 

typical 

si. rancid oil 

310 

>10 

<10 

neg 


-48 



c ♦- 

w/ 


V* A O J ^ * <\ A A ^ J 

*»**£,'- W |_VAVAJT cuut Vi 

nauiA 


B 2 Matrix 



Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitro 2 er 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Moisture 


4.52 


5.42 


Organoleptic 






Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 


Odor 

rancid oil 

si. rancid oil 

rancid oil si. rancid i 

oil 

Flavor 

100° F 

bitter after 
taste 

si. rancid oil 

bitter after si. rancid 
taste 

oil 

Bacteriology 





< 

SPC 

770 

280 

580 

190 


Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 


Yeasts & Mold- 

10 

10 

5 

10 


Moisture 


5.39 


5.32 


Organoleptic 






Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 


Odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

) 

Flavor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 


4 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 






Shear 


good 


good 


Odor 


si. rancid oil 


si. rancid 

oil 

Flavor 


si. rancid oil 


si. rancid 

oil 

73°F 

Organoleptic 






Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 


Odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 


Flavor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 


100° F 

Organoleptic 






Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 


odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 


Flavor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 



“49- 




rage Study cont'd 


A~ Matrix By Matrix 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

Moisture 4.52 5.42 

Organoleptic 


Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 


Odor 

rancid oil 

si. rancid oil 

rancid oil 

si. rancid oil 

Flavor 

100° F 

Bacteriology 

bitter after 
taste 

si. rancid oil 

bitter after 
taste 

si. rancid 

oil 

t 

SPC 

770 

280 

580 

190 


Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<10 

<10 


Yeasts & Mold- 

10 

10 

5 

10 


Moisture 


5.39 


5.32 


Organoleptic 






Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 


Odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

i 

Flavor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 


4 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 






Shear 


good 


good 

• 

Odor 


si. rancid oil 


si. rancid 

oil 

Flavor 


si. rancid oil 


si. rancid 

oil 

73° F 

Organoleptic 






Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 


Odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 


Flavor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 


100° F 

Organoleptic 






Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 


odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 


Flavor 

iancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 



“49~ 



Storage Study cont'd 


A 3 Matrix Matrix 


8 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

35°F 

Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


. rancid oil 


.. rancid qi' 

Flavor 


. rancid oil 


. rancid oi 

73° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

si. rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

Flavor 

si. rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

100* F 





Organolep tic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

Flavo r 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

bitter • 

13 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


rancid oil 


rancid oil 

Flavor 


rancid oil 


rancid oil 

73° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

Flavor 

rancid oil 

si bitter 

rancid oil 

si. bitter 

100°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

Flavor 

bitter 

bitter 

bitter 

bitter 



>tir- 


Storage Study cont'd 

A, Matrix 

B 9 Matrix 

26 weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

35° F 

Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


si rancid oil 


si rancid pil 

Flavor 


s1 rancid oil 


81 rancid oil 

73°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

Flavor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

rancid oil 

rancid oil 

acrid oil 

rancid oil 

Flavor 

bitter 

very bitter 

v. bitter 

v. bitter 

52 Weeks 





72° F 





Moisture 


4.74 


5.22 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

160 

750 

70 

( 

160 « 

Coliforuis 

< 10 

<-10 

<10 

-ao 

Yeasts & Molds 

<.10 

10 

10 

60 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

100 C F 





Moisture 


4.93 


5.46 

Bacteriology 





SPC 

1500 

130 

940 

60 

Coliforms 

<10 

<U0 

<10 

-<10 

yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

c 10 

<10 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 


“51 


,gjgr 



H. Chicken Bars 


1. Formula 

Chicken, freeze dried 75% 

A 3 or B 2 Matrix *5% 

Water-glycerine solution (167»)/100 g. 

dry material 20 ml. 

2. Procedure 

The chicken was weighed into a 12 qt. bowl on the A-200 Hobart mixer, and the 
chicken was reduced in particle size on speed #2. The respective matrices were 
added and the whole mixed until homogenous. The glycerine solution was added 
by separatory funnel while mixing continued. Depth of fill on the Denison 
hydraulic press was adjusted so that the resulting bar was 1 / 2 " in thickness. 

About 120 bars were fabricated with a 6000 #g.p. (750 psi) and a dwell time of 
"25%-10 sec." and normal action of both upper and lower rams of the press. Bars 
were dried for 3.5 hrs at 120°F and about 100 were sealed in aluminized PVC pouches 
(pouch stock: 0.5 mil mylar, 0.00035" aluminum foil, 3 mil mylar) and 21 were 
sealed under nitrogen in glass jars. Storage at 0°F, 35?F, 73°F, and 100°F was begun 
on August 30, 1363 for the pouch packed bars. The nitrogen packed bars were 
placed into storage on August 30, 1963 at 0°F, 73°F, and 100°F. 


3. Results: Test results 

initially were as follows. 



Test 

A 3 Matrix 

B 2 

Matrix 

Odor and Flavor 

Normal to freeze 
dried chicken 

Normal 

chicken 

to freeze 

Mastication 

a. Shear by Incisors 

(1) 35°F 

good 


good 

( 2 ) 70 C F 

good 


good 

(3) 100°F 

good 


good 

b. Chew 

(1) 35 C F 

good 


good 

(2) 70* f 

good 


good 

(3) 100°F 

good 


good 

c. Swallow 

(1) 35 F 

good 


good 

(2) 70°F 

good 


good 

(3) 100 C F 

good 

-52- 


good 




Table 


A 3 Matrix 


Matrix 


Dimensional Stability 
04 hrs. at 120°F and 3 psij 


Before 

17/32 ! 

: xi 3i/32 :: x3 7/8" 

i/2" x 2" 

x 3 29/32" 

After 

l/2"x 

1 15/32"x 3 27/32" 

15/32 M x 1 

31/32"x3 7/8" 

Net Change 

-1/32*' 

-1/32" -1/32" 

-1/32" 

-1/32" -l/}2" 

Percent change 

-5.88 

-1.58 -0.81 

-6.25 

-1.45 -0,80 

6 foot Drop Test 

Broke into 3 pieces on 

8th drop 

Broke into 4 pieces on 

4th drop 

Stickiness (24 hrs. 
at 40% humidity and 
room temp.) 

none 


none 


Moisture (18 hr. vacuum 
oven) 





Nitrogen pack 

Pouch pack 

10.71 

9.41 


8.11 

7.76 


Bacteriology 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

SPC 

900 

1080 

900 

1110 

Coliforms 

10 

5 

5 

5 

Yeasts and Molds 

10 

20 

10 

20 

Staphylococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Storage Study 

2 Weeks 




J 

35° F 

Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


si difficult 

Odor 


typical 


typica| 

Flavor 


typical 


typica|. 

t 

73 C F 




Bacteriology 





SPC 


1450 



Coliiorms 


>10 


t 

yeasts & molds 


10 



Staphlococcus 


neg 



Moisture 


8.29 

-53- 


8.18 





Storage Study cont'd 
2 Weeks 
73 a F 


Matrix 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 


Matrix 

Nitrogen Pack 


Pouch Pack 


Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

si difficult 

good 

difficult 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typica|. 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

1200 

780 

550 

680 

Colifonns 

<10 

< 10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

30 

20 

25 

25 

Moisture 


11.98 


8.73 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

difficult 

difficult 

difficult 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

acrid oddr 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

bitter, biting 

4 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

flavor 


si. difficult 

typical 

typical 


3 

1 

si. difficult 

typical 

typical 

73~F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

shear 

good 

good 

good 

% 

good 

odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typ leal 


-54 




Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

difficult 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical/bitter 
after taste 

si rancid 

typical/bitter 
after taste 

typical 


13 Weeks 

35°F..«^ 

Organoleptic 



Shear 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 


73°F 


Organoleptic 


Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

' cooked chicken 

cooked chicken 

cooked chicken 

i cooked chicken 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Lypical 




B 2 Matrix 


Storage Study cont'd A-> Matrix 

26 Week s - 


35°F 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Petek 

Pouch Pack 

Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73 5 F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

stale chicken 

typical stale chicken 

Flavor 

typical 

stale chicken 

typical stale chicken 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

odor 

typical 

stale chic. 

typical 

stale chic. 

Flavor 

stale chic. 

stale chic. 

stale chic. 

stale chic. 

52 Weeks 





72° F 





Moisture 


10.01 


7.56 

Bacteriology 





SPC 

750 

360 

220 

180 

Coliforms 

<10 

20 

< 10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

30 

10 

30 

10 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

100° F 





Moisture 


10.80 


8.60 

Bacteriology 





SPC 

230 

150 

250 

100 

Coliforms 

< 10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

20 

<10 

10 

10 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 


56 - 




I. Chocolate Bars 


J*#• 


1. Formula 

Chocolate (Wilbur Chocolate Co. cookie chocolate) 75%, 

or B 2 matrix 257, 

Water/1009 gm dry material 5 ml. 

2. Procedure 

The chocolate was first comminuted in a Waring blendor, then weighed into a 
12 qt. Hobart mixing bowl and the appropriate matrix added. The whole was mixed 
until homogenous on #2 speed of the A-200 Hobart mixer. The water was then added 
by separatory funnel while mixing continued. Depth of fill on the Denison hydraulic 
press was adjusted so that resulting bars were 1/2" thick. Bars were fabricated at 
4000# g.p. (500 psi) and a dwell time of "15%-10 sec." with the lower ram inactivated 
so that the action of the Carver laboratory press was duplicated. This avoided 
lamination and cracking of the bar in the horizontal plane. Of the approximately 
120 bars fabricated, all of which were dried 20 minutes at 120°F, about 100 were 
packed in aluminized PVC pouches (pouch stock: 0.5 mil mylar, 0.00035" aluminum 
foil, 3 mil polyvinyl chloride) and 21 were packed in glass jars under a nitrogen 
atmosphere. Storage of the pouched bars was begun August 30, 1963 at 0°F, 

35°F, 73°F, and 100°F. The nitrogen packed jars began storage on August 30, 1963 
also, but at 0°F, 73°F, and 100°F. 

3. Results: The following test results were obtained intially. 


Test 

Matrix 

B 2M atr i x 

Odor and Flavor 

typical of choc. 

typical of choc. 

Mastication 

a. Shear by Incisors 

(1) 35°F 

good 

good 

(2) 70 ; F 

good 

good 

(3) 100°F 

good 

good 

b. Chew 

(1) 35°F 

good 

good 

ro 

V-' 

0 

*1 

good 

good 

(3) 100 F 

good 

good 

c. Swallow 

(1) 35 F 

good 

good 

(2) 70°F 

good 

good 

(3) 100 C F 

good 

“5‘ , “ 

good 






Test Cont'd 


Matrix 


Matrix 


6 foot drop test 


Broke in half* on 4th 
drop 


Broke into/3 pcs on 
2nd drop 


Stickiness (24 hrs none none 

at 40% humidity and 
room temp.) 

Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs. at 120°F. and 
5 psi.) 


Before 

17/32"x2 

l/32"x4 1/32" 

l/2"x 2 l/32"x4 

1/32" 

After 

1/2" x 2 

1/16:x 4 1/32" 

15/32"x2 l/32"x4 

1/32" 

Net change 

-1/32" 

+1/32" 0 

-1/32" 0 

0 

Percent Change 

-5.88 

+ 1.54 0.00 

-6.25 0.00 

0.00 

Moisture 





Nitrogen pack 


6.43 

6.06 


Pouch pack 


6.53 

6.09 


Bacteriology 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

SPC 

1270 

1090 

completely 
overgrown with 

830 

Coliforms 

<10 

< 0 10 

mold before <10 




storage could 


Yeasts & Molds 

40 

30 

be started. 

30 

Staphylococcus 

neg 

neg 


neg 

Storage Study 

2 Weeks 

35°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73 C F 





Bacteriology 





SPC 


2200 


2300 

Coliforms 


>10 


>10 - 

Yeasts & Molds 


10 


<10 

Staphlococcus 


neg 


neg 


-58- 



Test Cont'd 
6 foot drop test 

Stickiness (24 hrs 
at 407. humidity and 
room temp.) 

Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs. at 120°F. and 
5 psi.) 

Before 

After 

Net change 

Percent Change 

Moisture 

Nitrogen pack 
Pouch pack 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

Coliforms 

Yeasts & Molds 

Staphylococcus 

Storage Study 
2 Weeks 
35° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 

73 c F 

Bacteriology 

SPC 


Matrix 

Broke in half*"on 4th 
drop 

none 


17/32"x2 l/32"x4 1/32” 
1/2" x 2 1/16:x 4 1/32” 
-1/32" +1/32" 0 

-5.88 + 1.54 0.00 

6.43 

6.53 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 


1270 

1090 

<10 

«tl0 

40 

30 

neg 

neg 


good 

typical 

typical 

2200 

>10 

10 

neg 


B£ Matrix 


Broke into^3 pcs on 
2nd drop 

none 


l/2"x 2 

l/32"x4 

1/32" 

15/32"x2 

l/32"x4 

1/32" 

-1/32" 

0 

0 

-6.25 

0.00 

0.00 


6.06 

6.09 

Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

completely 830 

overgrown with 
mold before <2.10 

storage could 
be started. 30 

neg 


good 

typical 

typical 

2300 
>10 - 
CIO 
neg 


Coliforms 
Yeasts & Molds 
Staphlococcus 


-58 




r 


Storage Study cont'd 





2 weeks 

7"?° 1? 

Matrix 

B£ Matrix 



Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Moisture 


6.38 


6.27 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

Odor 

good 

good 

overgrown 
with mold 

good 

typical 

typical 

not tested 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 


typical 

100° F 





Bacteriology 


duplicate 

sample 



SPC 

1130 

1050 580 

overgrown 
with mold; 
no analysis 


Coliforms 

*10 

<10 <10 


Yeasts & Molds 

30 

30 35 



Moisture 


6.40 


6.30 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

moldy 

good 




not 

. 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

tested 

typical 

4 Weeks 

35*F 

Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good ^ 

Odor 


typical 


typica^ 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73° F 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

moldy 

good 




not 


Odor 

typical 

typical 

tested 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 


typical 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 


“59" 



£ 


■ 


T T 







Storage Study 


8 Weeks 

Matrix 

I^Matrix 


35°F. 

n — 1 4 ^ 

V/4. gauvxcp Lr i.w. 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

moldy 

good 




not 


odor 

typical 

typical 

tested 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 


typical 

100° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

moldy 

not 

good 

Odor 

typical 

stale choc. 

tested 

fruity- 

Flavor 

typical 

stale choc. 


bitter 

13 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 





Shear 


good 


good 

odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

good 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 

typical 

typical 

100 C F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

good 

good 

moldy 

moldy 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

no" 

tesi^d 

not 

tested 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 




60 







Shear 


good 


good 

Odor 


typical 


typical 

Flavor 


typical 


typical 

73°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

moldy 

good 

moldy 

moldy 


not 


not 

not 

Odor 

tested 

typical 

tested 

tested 

Flavor 


typical 




100° F 


Organoleptic 


Shear 

good 

good 

moldy 

good 

Odor 

typical 

typical 

not 

tested 

typical 

Flavor 

typical 

typical 


typical 

52 Weeks 

72°F 

Moisture 


6.30 


6.53 

Bacteriology 

SPG 

570 

580 

290 

790 

Colifortns 

^10 

<10 

<10 

<10 

yeasts & MoIq^ 

<10 

<10 

10 

280 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

100° F 

Moisture 


6.61 


6.62 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

380 

270 

820 

200 

Coliforms 

< 10 

^10 

^10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

20 

<10 

Staphlococcus 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 

Salmonella 

neg 

neg 

neg 

neg 




J. Bacon Bar 


1 Formula 


«- T>- C~.J-.~3 /t.T4 1 tt H.f *-o _a.Do r+r\n l * 7 

DOLUU J ri.ciij.cu \n jl j.o\jh 9 u*. LSCJJcICCI; /->/„ 


A 3 Matrix 

Water/100 gm dry materials 


5 ml 


(Use of B 2 Matrix resulted in an unsatisfactory bar.) 

2. Procedure 

The bacon was included into the 12 qt bowl of the Hobart A-200 mixer, and 
while mixing on speed #2, the water was added by separatory funnel. The matrix was 
then added, and mixing was continued until homogeneity obtained. The depth of fill 
on the Denison hydraulic press was adjusted so that resulting bars were 1/2" thick. 
About 120 bars were fabricated at 3000 #g.p. (375 ps.) with a dwell time of "307o-10 
sec." After these were dried at 120°F for 30 minutes about 100 were sealed in alum¬ 
inized PVC pouches (pouch stock: 0.5 mil mylar, 0.00035" aluminum foil, 3 mil poly¬ 
vinyl chloride) and 21 were sealed under nitrogen in glass jars. Storage at 0°F, 
35°F, 73°F, and 100°F of the pouch packed bars was begun on August 30, 1963 also, but 
at 0°F, 73°F, and 100°F. 

3. Results 

Initial test results were as follows: 


Test 


Odor & Flavor 


A 3 Matrix 

Normal to Wilson prefried bacon 


Mastication 
a. Shear by incisors 


(1) 35’F Good 

(2) 70°F Good 

(3) 100°F Good 

b Chew 

(1) 35°F Good 

(2) 70°F Good 

(3) 100°F 


62 


Good 


Test 


Mastication - cont'd 
c. Swallow 
(O 35^F 

(2) 70° F 

(3) 100°F 

Dimension Stability (24 hrs. 
at 120°F and 5 psi). 

3efore 

After 

Net Change 

Percent Change 

6 Foot Drop Test 

Scickiness (24 hrs. at 407> 
humidity and room tem.) 

Moisture (16 hr. vacuum oven) 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

Coliforras 
Yeasts & Molds 
Staphylococcus 
Storage Study 
2 Weeks 
35*F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 


A 3 Matrix 

Good 

Good 

Good 

17/3°" x 2" x 4" 

1/2 " x 2-1/32" x 4" 

-1/32" +1/32" 0" 

-5.88 +1.56 0.00 

Broke into 4 pieces on 3 rd drop 

None 


12.987, 
14.047, 


Nitrogen 

Pack 

Pouch Pack 

2100 


2410 

t\ 

h- 1 

o 


<-5 

20 


50 

Neg. 


Neg. 

Nitrogen 

Pack 

Air Pack 


Good 

Typical 

Typical 


6 3 



Storage Study - cont'd. A 3 Matrix 


2 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Air Pack 

73° F 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

- 

^3000 

Coliforias 

- 

•clO 

Yeasts & Molds 

- 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

- 

Neg. 

Moisture 

- 

13.28 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

2260 

1480 

Colifonns 

<£10 

?10 

Yeasts & Molds 

A5 

30 

Moisture 

- 

14.46 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

& Weeks 

35 C F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 


64 




Storage Study - cont'd. 


A 3 Matrix 


A Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Air Pack 

73°F 



Organoleptic 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

8 Weeks 



35° F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

- • 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

73°F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

100 'F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Burned bacon 

Rubber 

Flavor 

Burned bacon 

Rubber 


b ^ 


-v-r 








Storage Study - cont'd. 


Matrix 


13 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Air Pack 

35° F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

73°F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Burned bacon 

Flavor 

Burned 

Bitter 


26 Weeks 
35° F 


Organoleptic 


Shear 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

73 c F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Cdor 

Typical 

Burned 

Flavor 

Typical 

Burned 



Storage Study - cont'd. A 3 Matriji 


26 W,^ks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Air Pack 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Purned 

Flavor 

Typical 

Burned 

52 Weeks 

72°F 

Moisture 

- 

14.85 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

320 

920 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

20 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg. 


100° F 


Moisture 15.26 

Bacteriology 


SPC 

930 

170 

California 

ao 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

10 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg 


Raisin Bars 



1. Formula 



Raisins, 

Myvacet coated, Sunmaid 

75% 

A 3 or B 2 

Matrix 

25% 


Water/100 gm dry material 


5 ml 




2. Procedure 


Water was added to the raisins in a 5 qt Hobart mixer bowl and mixed by 
hand to thoroughly wet the surfaces of the raisins. (Attempts to wet the raisins by 
means of the paddle on #1 speed failed because too many raisins were cut up by the 
paddle). The respective matrices were added and the whole mixed for 15 seconds on 
speed #1 of the Hobart N-50 mixer. Eighty gram portions were weighed into the 4" x 2" 
x 1/2" die on a Carver laboratory press, and the hydraulic pressure was increased to 
the point where the gauge needle just began to move. The resulting bars were then dried 
at 120°F for 20 minutes. About 100 bars were sealed in aluminized mylar pouches (pouch 
stock: 0.5 mil mylar, 0.00035" aluminum foil and 3 jnil polyvinyl chloride), and 21 were 
packed under nitrogen in glass jars. Storage of the pouched bars was begun on August 30, 
1963 at 100°F, 73°F, 35Y and 0°F. The nitrogen packed bars began storage at 100°F, 

73°F, and 0°F on August 30, 1963. 

3. Results 

The following test results were obtained initially. 

Test A 3 Matrix 32 Matrix 

Odor & Flavor Typical of Raisins Typical of Raisins 

Mastication 


Shear by Incisors 




(1) 35 C F 

Good 

Good 


O 

O 

r-* 

Good 

Good 


(3) 100°F 

Good 

Good 

t 

Chew 



l 

(1) 35°F 

Good 

Good 

c 

(2) 70°F 

Good 

Good 

: 

(3) 100°F 

Good 

Good 


Swallow 




(1) 35°F 

Good 

Good 


(2) 70°F 

Good 

Good 


(3) 100°F 

Good 

Good 



••-8 



Test - cont'd. 


A 3 Matrix 


B 2 Matrix 

6 Foot Drop Test 

Broke in 

i half on 21 st drop 

Broke in 

3 pcs on 10th drop 

Stickiness (24 hrs 

40% Knmi Hi ty Hnd 
room temp.) 


None 


None 

Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs at 120°F and 

5 psi) 





Before 

9/16" x 

1-31/32" x 3-7/8" 

9/16" x 

1-31/32" x 3-13/16" 

After 

17/32" x 

1-31/32" x 3-7/8" 

17/32" x 

1-31/32" x 3-27/32" 

Net Change 

-1/32" 

0 0 

-1/32" +1/16" +1/32" 

Percent Change 

-5.56 

0.00 0.00 

-5.56 +3.07 +0.83 

Moisture 





Nitrogen Pack 


13.99 


13.91 

Pouch Pack 


14.68 


14.00 

Bacteriology 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

SPC 

820 

720 

1040 

680 

Coliforms 

>10 

<10 

=-10 

^10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

10 

< 10 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Storage Study 





2 Weeks 





35 C F. 





Organoleptic 




# 

Shear 

- 

- 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

- 

- 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

- 

Typical 

Typical 

73°F 





Bacteriology 





SPC 


600 


260 5 

Coliforms 


>10 


>5 

Yeasts & Molds 


<10 


<.10 

Staphylococcus 


Neg. 


Neg. 



h « 






Storage Study - cont'd. 

- 

A 3 Matrix 


B 2 Matrix 

2 Weeks 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

73 U F 





Mo is. tu re 


14.69 


14.29 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

Good 

Difficult 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 





Bacteriology 





SPC 

710 


740 


Coliforms 

^-10 


<10 


Yeasts & Molds 

<10 


<10 


Moisture 


15.22 


14.72 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good : 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

4 Weeks 





35° F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

- 

Good 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 


70 


1- 






Storage Study 

- cont d. A 3 Matrix 

“SJ 5 *~Matrix 

4 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

8 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


Good 


Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Gocd 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Honey-like 

Honey-like 

Honey-like 

Honey-like 

Flavor 

Typical 

Bitter 

Typical 

Metallic 

13 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


Good 


Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 



Storage Study - cont’d. A3 Matrix ' "Cg^Matrix 


4 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

8 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


Good 


Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Gocd 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Honey-like 

Honey-like 

Honey-like 

Honey-like 

Flavor 

Typical 

Bitter 

Typical 

Metallic 

13 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


Good 


Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 




Storage Stsudy - 

cont'd. A 3 Matrix 

32 Matrix 

13 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

73°F 


• 



Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Honey-like 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Honey-like 

Honey-like 

Honey-like 

Honey-like 

Flavor 

Bitter 

Bitter 

Bitter 

Bitter 

26 Weeks 

35° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

- 

Good 

- 

Good : 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

< 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 




B2 Matrix 


Storage Study - cont'd. A3 Matrix 


52 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

22° F 


• 


1 

Moisture 


14.42 


14.5f 

i 

Bacteriology 





SPC 

220 

210 

160 

150 

Coliforms 

<10 

<10 

<•10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

10 

<10 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

100° F 





Moisture 


16.55 


15 .92 

Bacteriology 





SPC 

<10 

0 

10 

30 

Coliforms 

<.10 

<10 

< 10 

<10 

Yeasts & Molds 

<10 

<10 

<-10 

<10 : 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg! 


L. Fruit Praserves at 20% Moisture 

No food bar could be made by compression using either matrix and fruit preserves 
at 207„ moisture. All attempts to mix the matrices intimately with the fruit preserves 
resulted in a toffea-like mass whose surface was quite sticky. Bars could be molded 
from this material by hand but not by using the Carver laboratory press (and therefore pot 

I 

by the Denison press either), even where the punches of the die were coated with release 
paper. The hand molded bars were quite plastic and would fail the 5 psi dimensional 
stability test and the stickiness test. Consequently, because this food bar would not 1 
lend itself to compression forming, no fruit preserves bars were manufactured. 

M. Herring Bars 


1. Formula 




Herring, Dried Smoked 


757. 


A 3 Matrix 257. 

Water/100 gn? Dry Material 5 mil 

/**_*___— . *. *_ - J « n. —.*• 1 r.W f-K 3 nvA/)i<^f \ 

\ni UCUip L » ttU UDiUg D'£ naLHA WCAC UVU ouv.vtoo4.ui. tui .0 (ii.wuwvw. y 

2. Procedure 

The herring was comminuted on a Waring blendor, mixed intimately with the matrix 
in a 12 qc bowl on the A-200 Hobart mixer on speed #2, and the water was added ly sepa¬ 
ratory funnel while mixing continued. Depth of fill on the Denison hydraulic press wap 
adjusted so that the resulting bars were 1/2" thick. Bars were then pressed at 3000 #p -• 
(375 psi) and a dwell time of "307.-10 sec." with only the upper ram activated. This pfe- 
vented stratification (cracking of the bar in the horizontal plane). The resulting bajrs 
were dried at 120°F for 20*. Approximately 100 bars were sealed in aluminized mylar 
pouches (pouch stock: 0.5 mil mylar, 0.00035" aluminum foil and 3 mil polyvinyl chlcrifie) 
and 21 were packed under nitrogen in glass jars. Storage of the pouched bars began 
August 30, 19o3 at 100°F, 73°F, 35°F and 0°F. The nitrogen packed bars began storage 
at 100°F, 73°F and 0°F on August 30, 1963. 

3. Results 

The following test results were obtained initially. 

Test 


Odor & Flavor 

Typical of dried, smoked herring 

j 

Mastication 


• 

a. Shear by Incisors 


€ 

(1) 35°F 

Good 


(2) 70°F 

Good 

I 

(3) 100°F 

Good 

J 

b. Chew» 



(1) 35°F 

Good 


(2) 70°F 

Good 


(3) 100°F 

Good 








Test - cont'd. 
Mastication 
c. Swallow 

(1) 35°F 

(2) 70° F 

(3) 100°F 

6 Foot Drop Test 

Stickiness (24 hrs @ 
120°F and 5 psi) 

Before 

After 

Net Change 

Percent Change 

Moisture (16 hr 
vacuum oven) 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

Coliforms 
Yeasts & Molds 
Staphylococcus 
Salmonella 
Storage Study 
2 Weeks ' 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 


A 3 Matrix 


Good 

Good 

Good 

Broke into 2 pcs on 12th drop 


9/16” x 2" x 4" 

7/16” x 2” x 4" 

- 1 / 8 ” 0 0 

- 22.22 0.00 0 . 0 <^ 


29.7fj 
33.86 


Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

1220 

1150 

^10 

^10 

30 

60 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 


- 

Good 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 




Tr-r 



A 3 Matrix 


Storage Study - cont'd. 
2 Weeks 
73° F 

Bfteteriology 

SPC 

Coliforms 
Yeasts & Molds 
Staphylococcus 
Moisture 
Organoleptic 
Shear 
Odor 
Flavor 
100° F 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

Coliforms 
Yeasts & Molds 
Moisture 
Organoleptic 
Shear 
Odor 
Flavor 
4 Weeks 
35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 


Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 


630 
< 10 
< 10 
Neg. 
12.92 


Good 

Typical 

Typical 


Good 

Typical 

Typical 


^90 

^10 

50 


11.50 


Good 

Typical 

Typical 


Good 

Typical 

Typical 


Good 

Typical 

Typical 




Storage Study - cont'd. 


A3 Matrix 


4 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

73° F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

100° F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typipal 


8 Weeks 
35°F 


Organoleptic 


Shear 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

73" F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

OdDr 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

lOO^F 



Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Turned herring 

F lavor 

Typical 

Burned herring 








A 3 Matrix 


Storage Study - cont'd. 


13 Weeks Nitrogen Pack Pouch Pack 

35° F 

Organoleptic 


Shear 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

.Typical 

Typical 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

SI. bitter 

SI. bitter 


26 Weeks 
35°F 


Organoleptic 


Shear 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

73° F 



Organolep tic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 


78 


— 



Storage Study - cont'd. 
26 Weeks 


A3 Matrix 


100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


Odor 
Flavor 
52 Week 
72°F 

Moisture 

Bacteriology 

SFC 

Coliforms 
Yeasts & Molds 
Staphylococcus 
Salmonella 
100° F 
Moisture 
Bacteriology 
SPC 

Coliforms 
Yeasts & Molds 
Staphylococcus 
Salmonella 


Precocked Egg Bars 


1. Formula 


Nitrogen Pack 


Pouch Pack 


Good Considerable 


Burned fish 

Gas 

in pouch 

Bitter; obnoxious 

Not 

tested 



31.52 

2250 

500 

CIO 

<10 

45 

<10 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 


34.08 

220 

190 

<10 

<10 

< 10 

< 10 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 


Precooked Freeze Dried Egg 757, 

A3 or B2 Matrix 25% 

Water/100 gm Dry Materials 5 ml 

Salt/100 gm Dry Materials 1 gm 



2. Procedure 


The egg, matrix, and salt were mixed until homogenous on speed #2 of the 
A-2QQ Hobart mixer. Water was then added to the 12 qt bowl by separatory funnel while 
mixing was continued. Depth of fill or. the Deniscr. hydraulic press was adjusted so 
that the resulting bar was 1/2" thick. About 120 bars were fabricated at "5500# g.p." 
(687.5 psi) with a dwell time of "157 e -10 sec." and normal action of both upper and 
lower rams of the press. Bars were dried 120°F for 20 minutes and about 100 were sealed 
into aluminized PVC pouches (pouch stock: 0.5 mil mylar, 0.00035" aluminum foil, 3 mil 
polyvinyl chloride) and 21 were sealed under nitrogen in glass jars. Storage of the 
pouched bars began on August 30, 1963 at 0°F, 35°F, 73°F, and 100°F, and the nitrogen 
packed bars were placed in storage at 0°F, 73 U F and 100°F on August 30, 1963. 

3. Results 

The following test results were obtained initially. 


Test 

A-* Matrix 

B 2 Matr 

Odor & Flavor 

Typical of Eggs 

Typical of 

Masticiation 

a. Shear by Inc 

isors 


(1) 35°F 

Good 

Good 

(2) 70°F 

Good 

Good 

(3) 100°F 

Good 

Good 

b. Chew 

(1) 35°F 

Good 

Good 

ro 

V-/ 

o 

o 

*Tl 

Good 

Good 

(3) 100°F 

Good 

Good 

c. Swallow 

(1) 35°F 

Good 

Good 

(2) 70°F 

Good 

Good 

(3) 100 C F 

Good 

Good 

6 Foot Drop Test 

Broke in half on 1st drop 

Broke in ha 


80 


Test - cont'd. 


Matrix 


B 2 Matrix 


Stickiness (24 hrs 
at 40% humidity) 

and room temp.) None None 

Dimensional Stabi¬ 
lity (24 hrs at 
120°F and 5 psi) 


Before 

17/32" x 2-1/32" 

x 4-1/32" 

9/16" 

x 2-1/32" 

x 4-1/32’ 

After 

1/2" x 2 

x 4-1/32" 

17/32" 

x 2" 

x 4" 

Net Change 

-1/32" -1/32" 

0 

-1/32" 

-1/32" 

-1/32" 

Percent Change 

-5.88 -1.54 

0.00 

-5.88 

-1.53 

-0.78 


Moisture (16 hr. 
vacuum oven) 

Nitrogen Pack 5.36 5.26 

Pouch Pack 5.42 5.19 


Bacteriology 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

SPC 

L260 

430 

840 

830 

Colif ortns 

<10 

>10 

*10 

<10 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Yeasts & Molds 

40 

70 

50 

30 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Storage Study 





2 Weeks 





35 C F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

- 

• Good 

•• 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 





Bacteriology 





SPC 

2090 


1550 


Coliforms 

< 10 


<10 


Yeasts & Molds 

<10 


<10 


Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

1 


Neg. 





Storage Study - cont 

:'d. 

A-j Matrix 

B 2 Matrix 

2 Weeks. 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

73°F 





Moisture 


5.48 


5.28 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100°F 





Bacteriology 





SPC 

770 

580 

520 

550 

Coliforms 

>10 

^10 

>10 

>10 

Yeasts & Molds 

45 

75 

65 

65 

Moisture 


5.66 


4.62 

Organoleptic 





Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Acr id 

Acr id 

Acrid 

Acrid 

Flavor 

Bitter 

Biting 

Bicter 

Biting 

4 Weeks 





35°F 





Organoleptic 


% 



Shear 

- 

Good 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73 °F 





Organoleptic 





Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 


82 



Storage Test - 

cont'd. A 3 Matrix 


B 2 Matrix 

4 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen 

Pack Pouch Pack 

100 °F 

Organoleptic 



*. 


Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

8 Weeks 

35°F. 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

- 

Good 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°!’ 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good ; 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

100 °F 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

SI. rancid 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Very bitter 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

13 Weeks 

35 °F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

- 

Good 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 


Storage Study - cont'd. A 3 Matrix B 2 Matrix 


13 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

i 0 <>T? 

/ £ 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

100°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typ ical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

26 Weeks 

35 C F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 


Good 


* -*• 

Good - 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

- 

Typical 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Good 

Stale Egg 

Good 

Stale Egg 

100°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Flavor 

Stale Egg 

SI. Bitter 

Stale Egg 

SI. Bitter 







Storage Study - cont'd. 


A 3 Matrix B 2 Matrix. 


52 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

72° F 

Moisture 


5.03 


5.42 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

1090 

1110 

780 

370 

Coliforms 

*-10 

*10 

20 

20 

Yeasts & Molds 

20 

40 

70 

60 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

100° F 

Moisture 


6.23 


5.56 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

440 

160 

410 

210 

Coliforms 

*10 

-CIO 

*10 

*-10 

Yeasts & Molds 

20 

10 

80 

30 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Neg. 


0. Romano Cheese Bar 

1. Formula 

Romano Cheese, Grated 75% 

A 3 Matrix 25% 

Water/100 gm Dry Material o m 

(B 2 Matrix did not make a satisfactory bar.) 

2. Procedure 

The cheese and matrix were veigned into a 12 qt Hobart mixer bc-wl and mixed 
on speed #2 of the A-200 Hobart until homogenous. The water was added by separately funnel 
while mixing. Depth of fill on the Denison hydraulic press was adjusted so that resulting 

t 

bars were 1/2" thick. Bars were fabricated at "2500 #g.p." (312.5 psi), and a dwell timq 


/ 







of "257o-10 sec." and normal action of both upper and lower rams. From a total of about 
120 bars which were dried at 120°F for 20 minutes, about 100 were sealed in aluminized 
PVC pouches (pouch stock: 0.5 mil mylar, 0.00035” aluminum foil, and 3 roil polyvinyl 
chloride) and about 21 were packed under nitrogen in glass jars. Pouched bars began 
storage on August 30, 1963 at 0°F, 35°F, 73°F, and 100°F. Nitrogen packed bars were placed 
in storage on Auguat 30, 1963 at <0°F, 73°F, and 10G a F. 

3. Results 

The following test results were obtained initially. 


Test 

A 3 Matrix 


Odor & Flavor 

Typical of Romano 

Cheese 

Mastication 

a. Shear by Incisors 

(i) 35°F 

Good 


(2) 70°F 

Good 


(3) 100°F 

Good 


b. Chew 

(1) 35°F 

Good 


(2) 70°F 

Cjo d 


(3) 100°F 

Good 


c. Swallow 

(1) 35°F 

Good 


(2) 70°F 

Good 


(3) 100°F 

Good 


Six Foot Drop Test 

Broke into 3 pieces on 2nd 

Stickiness (24 hrs at 

40% humidity and room 

temp.) 

None 


Dimensional Stability 
(24 hrs at 120° F 
and 5 psi) 

Before 

1/2” x 1-31/32” x 

3-29/32” 

After 

1/2” x 1-31/32” x 

3-29/32" 


86 


Test - cont'd. 


A3 Matrix 




Dimensional Stability (24 hrs 
at 120°F an<.' ' psi) 

Net Change 

Percent Change 

Moisture (16 hr vacuum oven) 
Nitrogen Pack 
Pouch Pack 
Bacteriology 
SPC 

Coliforms 
Yeasts & Molds 
Staphylococcus 
Storage Study 
2 Weeks 
35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 

73° F 

Bacteriology 

SPC 

Coliforms 
Yeasts & Molds 
Staphylococcus 
Moisture 
Organoleptic 
Shear 
Odoi 
Fiavor 


0 0 C 

0.00 0.00 0.00 


14.51 

13.56 


Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

1870 

2180 

z.10 

^10 

<cl0 

20 

Neg. 

Neg. 


- 

Good 

- 

Typical 

- 

SI. sour 



1390 


^10 


^10 


Keg. 


14.60 

Good 

Good 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 

Typical 


-”---- ~ ~ rnmmg- 



2 Weeks 


Pouch Pack 


Nitrogen F» ck 

100° F 

Bacteriology 


SPC 

1490 

910 

Coliforros 

^ 10 

^ 10 

Yeasts 6. Molds 

35 

10 

Moisture 


13. 

Organoleptic 



Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 


4 Weeks 
35° F 

Organoleptic 


Shear 

- 

Good 

Odor 

- 

Typical 

Flavor 

- 

Typical 

73 C F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

Typical 

!00 e F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

C-dor 

Eurned cheese 

Burned cheese 

Flavor 

Sitter 

Burned cheese 


88 


Storage Study - cont'd. 
8 Weeks 


Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 

73°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 

100° F 

Shear 

Cdor 

Flavor 

13 Weeks 

35°F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 

73° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 

100° F 

Organoleptic 

Shear 

Odor 

Flavor 


Kg? 


/ 


A 3 Matrix 


Nitrogen Pack 


Good 

Typical 

Typical 

Good 

Burned cheese 
Bitter 


Good 

Typical 

Typical 


Good 

Burned cheese 
Bitter 


Pouch Pack 

Good 

T-ypical 

Typical 

Good 

Typical 

Bitter 

Good 

Burned cheese 
Bitter 


Good 

Typical 

Typical 

Good 

Typical 

Bitter 

Good 

Burned cheese 
Bitter 




Storage Study - cont'd. 

A 3 Matrix 

26 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

35°F 


Organoleptic 


Shear 

- 

Odor 

- 

Flavor 

- 

73° F 


Organoleptic 


Shear 

Good 

Odor 

Typical 

Flavor 

Typical 

100° F 


Organoleptic 


Shear 

Good 

Odor 

Burned cheese 

Flavor 

Bitter; obnoxious 

52 Weeks 


72°F 


Moisture 


Bacteriology 


SPC 

270 

Colifortns 

<10 


Yeasts & Molds *-10 

Staphylococcus Neg. 

Salmonella Neg. 

100° F 
Moisture 


90 


Pouch Pack 

Good 

Typical 

Typical 

Good 

Typical 

Typical 

Gas life pouc h 
Not tested 
Not tested 

16.75 

180 

5 

<10 

Neg. 

Neg. 

16.04 


\ 




A3 Matrix 


Storage Study - cont'd. 


52 Weeks 

Nitrogen Pack 

Pouch Pack 

100°F. 



Bacteriology 



SPC 

340 

50 

Coliforms 

^ 10 

^_io 

Yeasts & Molds 

^10 

^10 

Staphylococcus 

Neg. 

Neg. 

Salmonella 

Neg. 

Neg. 


III. Complete Food Bars (Phase II) 

A. Beef Stew Food Bars 

1. Formula % 

Beef Cubes, Freeze-dried (Wilson) 40.00 

B 2 Matrix 21.00 

Potato Flakes, Pillsbury 14.50 

Celery, Freeze-dried, C.V.C. 2.00 

Peas, Whole, Freeze-dried, C.V.C. 6.65 

Corn, whole, Freeze-dried, C.V.C. 6.00 

Onion Flakes, Dried, Durkee 1.50 

Salt, Flour 2.00 

Pepper, Black, Ground, Malbar 0.25 

Tomato Powder, I.D.I.T. S.p.A. 5-00 

Mcnosodium Glutamate, Merck 1.00 

Caramel Color 0.10 

1100.00 

Water per 100 gm dry ingredients 10.6 ml 

2. Procedure 


a. The beef was added to the 12 qt bowl of an A-200 Hobart mixer and 

shredded. 





b. The reminder of the dry ingredients were added and the whole mixed 

until homogenous. 

c. Water, previously measured, was added while mixing continued by 
means of a separatory funnel. 

d. The resulting 1600 gm batch was pressed into bars on the Denison 
Hydraulic Press at 5 tons pressure with a dwell time of 2-3 sec. 

e. The finished bars were dried for 4 hours in a forced air oven at 


130°F. 


f. The bars were then sealed in aluminized PVC pouches under air and 
under nitrogen atmospheres. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - acceptable in dry bars and in stew reconstituted 


at 40% solids. 


one corner). 


b. Six foot drop test - good (only about 1/20 of the bar broke off 


c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 40% relative humidity) 


- none. 


Mastication 


Temp. - 

°F. 35 

70 

100 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 

Chew 

good 

good 

good 

Swallow 

good 

good 

good 

e. Dimensional 

Stability (24 hrs 

at 120°F 5 

psi) 

Before 

17/32" x 

2-1/33" 

x 4-1/32" 

After 

1/2" x 

2-1/32" 

x 4-1/32" 

Percent 

Change -5.88 

0 

0 


f. Moisture 
4. Storage Studies 


3.81% 


9 ' 



- -I - »-T" 



Storage Studies 


cont 1 d. 


2 Wee 

:kS 

Air Pack 


Nitrogen 

Pack 

Temp 

(°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

m 

\ ~ * 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

■ Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

4 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Gcod 

(5) 

Moisture 


3.77 

3.74 




8 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

13 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


3.70 

3.91 




(6) 

Bacteriology 








SPC 


1400 

1130 



1120 


Coliforms 


Neg. 

Neg. 



Neg. 


Molds & Yeasts 


140 

320 



260 



B. Barbecued Ground Beef Food Bar 


l. Formula % 

Beef, Precooked, Freeze-dried, 

3/16" Grind, Wilson 53.00 

B 2 Matrix 25.00 

Barbecue Sauce (ref. Para. IV D, 

p. 14) 12.00 

Tomato Powder, I.D.I.T. S.p.A. 10.00 


100.00 

Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 10 ml 

Buffer per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 0.32 Sodium Bicarbonate 

2. Procedure 

a. All dry ingredients were weighed into a 12 qt bowl on an A-200 Hobart 

mixe r. 

b. The whole was mixed until uniform and water was added by separatory 
funnel while mixing continued. 

c. Bars were then pressed on the Denison Hydraulic Press at 3 tons 
pressure and a dwell time of 1.5 sec. 

d. The resulting bars were dried for 4 hrs in a forced air oven at 130°F. 

e. ‘ r he finished bars were then packed under air and nitrogen atmospheres 
in aluminized Jt*VC pouches. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - acceptable in dry bars and in stew reconstituted 

at 40% solids. 

b. Six foot drop test -good (broke in halves). 

c. Stickiness (24 hrs at room temperature and 40% relative humidity) - 

none. 

d. Mastication 


Temp C F 

35 

70 

100 

> 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 


Chew 

good 

good 

good 


Swallow 

good 

good 

good 




B. Barbecued Ground Beef Food Bar 


1. Formula 7 » 

Beef, Frecooked, Freeze-dried, 

3/16" Grind, Wilson 53.00 

B 2 Matrix 25.00 

Barbecue Sauce (ref. Para. IV D, 

p. 14) 12.00 

Tomato Powder, I.D.I.T. S.p.A. 10.00 


100.00 

Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 10 ml 

Buffer per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 0.32 Sodium Bicarbonate 

2. Procedure 

a. All dry ingredients were weighed into a 12 qt bowl on an A-200 Hobart 

mixer. 

b. The whole was mixed until uniform and water was added by separatory 
funnel while mixing continued. 

c. Bars were then pressed on the Denison Hydraulic Press at 3 tons 
pressure and a dwell time of 1.5 sec. 

d. The resulting bars were dried for 4 hrs in a forced air oven at 130°F. 

e. ' r he finished bars were then packed under air and nitrogen atmospheres 
in aluminized PVC pouches. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - acceptable in dry bars and in stew reconstituted 

at 40% solids. 

b. Six foot drop test -good (broke in halves). 

c. Stickiness (24 hrs at room temperature and 40% relative humidity) - 

none. 

d. Mastication 


Temp e F 

35 

70 

100 

> 

Shear 

good 

good 

good 


Chew 

good 

good 

good 


Swallow 

good 

good 

good 



A ■ 

y <4 



Dirr.ensionai Stability (24 hrs at 120°F 5 psi) 


e. 


Before 
Af ter 

Percent Change 
f. Moisture 2.66 
Storage Studies 
a, 2 Weeks 


Temp 

°F 

(1) 

Shear 

(2) 

Odor 

(3) 

Flavor 

(4) 

Stew 

4 Weeks 

(1) 

Shear 

(2) 

Odor 

(3) 

Flavor 

(4) 

Stew 

(5) 

Moisture 

8 Weeks 

0) 

Shear 

(2) 

Odor 

(3) 

Flavor 

(4) 

Stew 

13 Weeks 

(1) 

Shear 

(2) 

Odor 

(3) 

F lavor 

(4) 

S tew 


17/32" x 2-1/32" x 
17/32" x 2-1/32" x 
None 


>^ Air Pack 


35 

73 

100 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


3.77 

3.74 


Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Goc d 

Good 

Good 

Go 3 d 

Good 

Gcod 


Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


-1/32" 

-1/32" 


Nitrogen Pack 


35 

73 

100 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 



13 Weeks - cont'd. 

Air Pack 


Nitrogen 

Pack 

Temp. °F 

35 73 

100 

35 73 

100 

(5) Moisture 

2.24 

2.56 



(6) Bacteriology 





SPC 

880 

820 


810 

Coliforms 

Neg. 

Neg. 


Neg. 

Yeasts & Molds 

^10 

10 


<4 1C 


C. Chili Con Came with Beans Food Bar 


Formula % 

Beans, Precooked, Freeze-dried (ref. 


Par. IV A, p. 13) 


20.00 

B 2 Matrix 


25.00 

Onion Powder, Soluble 


0.50 

Beef, Precooked, Freeze 
Grind, Wilson 

Dried, 3/16” 

25.00 

Tomato Powder, I.D.I.T. 

S.p.A. 

23.98 

Sodium Bicarbonate 


0.08 

Chili Powder 


2.50 

Cumin 


0.22 

Salt, Flour 


2.00 


100.00 


Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 3 ml 

2. Procedure 

a. All dry ingredients except meat and beans were weighed into the 
12 qt bowl of the A-200 Hobart mixer and mixed until uniform. 

b. The water was .added by separatory funnel while mixing continued. 

c. The meat and beans were then added and mixed briefly to avoid 
destroying particle identity. 

d. The resulting batch was pressed into bars on the Denison Hydraulic 
Press at 3 tons gaige pressure. 




e. The finished bars were dried at 130°F for 4 hours in a forced air oven. 

f. Under air and nitrogen atmosphere, the ba ^;re packed in aluminized 

PVC pouches. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - very good as dry bar and when reconstituted at 40% 
solids as stew. 

b. Six foot drop test - fair - 4 piece break (1/8, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2) 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 40% relative humidity ) - 

none. 


d. 

Mastication 








Temp °F 

35 


73 


100 



Shear 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Chew 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Swallow 

Good 


Good 


Good 


e. 

Dimensional Stability 

(24 hrs at 

120°F 

5 psi) 





Before 

17/32" 

x 2-1/32" x 4" 





After 

1/2 " 

x 2-1/32" x 4" 





Percent Change 

-5.88 

0 

0 




f. 

Moisture 3.95 







Storage Studies 







a. 

2 Weeks 

Air Pack 


Nitrogen 

Pack 


Temp ( r) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 


(1) Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

b. 

4 Weeks 








(1) Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


Storage Studies - eont'd 

. Air Pack 


Nitrogen 

Pack 

Temp (°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

(5) Moisture 


3.71 

3.77 




c. 8 Weeks 







(1) Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

d. 13 Weeks 







(1) Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) Moisture 


3.41 

3.92 




(6) Bacteriology 







src 


490 

530 



520 

Colifonus 


Neg. 

Neg. 



Neg. 

Yeasts & Molds 


20 

20 



10 

Shrimp Creole Food Bars 







1. Formula 



% 




Shrimp, Precooked, Freeze-dried, 

Wilson 


41.05 




B£ Matrix 



25.00 




Onion Powder, Soluble 



0.50 




Tomato Powder, I.D.I.T. S.p.A. 



14.00 




Salt, Flour 



2.00 




Cayenne Pepper 



0.05 




Greer Bell Pepper, Dried, C.V.C. 



4.40 




Rice, Precooked, Freeze-dried (Ref. Par. 

IV B, 





p. 13) 



13.00 







100.00 




Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 

98 


5 ml 







2 . Procedure 


a. The shrimp were weighed into the 12 qt bowl of the A-200 Hobart mixer and 

shredded, 

b. The remainder of the dry ingredients were then added and the whole mixed up- 
til homogenous, 

c. Water was added by separatory funnel while mixing continued. 

d. The resulting 2.5 Kgm batch was pressed into,bars on the Denison Hydraulic 
Press at 4.5 tons ram pressure and a dwell time of 2 seq, 

e. The finished bars were dried for 4 hrs at 130°F. 

f. The completed bars were sealed in aluminized PVG pouches under air and 
nitrogen atmospheres. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flour - excellent as dry bar and reconstituted,at 40% solids in 

stew. 

b. Six foot drop test - excellent, broke into halves on 3rd drop 


c. 

Stickiness 

(24 hrs at 

room temperature 

and 40% relative humidity) - none. 

d. 

Mastication 






Temp °F 


35 

70 

100 


Shear 


good 

good 

good 


Chew 


good 

good 

good 


Swallow 


good 

good 

good 

e. 

Dimensional 

Stability 

(24 hrs at 120°F 

5 psi) 



Before 


17/32" x 2 

-1/32" x 

4-1/32" 


After 


17/32" x 2 

-1/32" x 

4-1/32" 


Percent 

Change 


None 


f. 

Moisture 

2.37% 




Storage Studies 





a. 

2 Weeks 


Air Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 


Temp (°F) 


35 73 

100 

35 73 100 


(1) Shear 


Good Good 

Good 

Good Good Good 



Storage Studies - cont'd 


2' We 

eks 


Air Pack 


Nitrogen Pack 

Temp 

t A _« 

UJ 

o «“ 

JO 

-t ^ 

/ 3 

1 A A 

AUU 

O C 

JJ 

n o 
/ J 

1 AA 

LW 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

4 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moit*'ure 


2.77 

2.81 




8 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Gc~>d 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

13 

Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Wet 

card¬ 

board, 

off 

odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

F1avor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

T jisture 


3.16 

3.00 




(6) 

Bacteriology 








SPC 


800 

120 



120 


Coliforns 


Neg. 

Neg. 



Neg. 


Molds & Yeasts 


<10 

100 



100 


**r' 


'CO 



E. Ground Beef with Rice Food Bars 


Formula 


7 

/o 

B 2 Matrix 


15.0 

Beef, Precooked, Freeze-dried, 
Grind, Wilson 

3/16" 

£ e n 
UJ . \J 

Rice, Precooked, Freeze-dried, 
par. IV B, p. 13) 

(ref. 

16.5 

Onion Powder, Soluble 


1.0 

Celery Salt 


0.5 

Pepper, Malabar, Ground 


0.5 

Salt, Flour 


1.5 



100.0 

Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 

5 ml 


2. Procedure 

a. All dry ingredients except rice and beef were mixed until homogeneous in 
the 12 qt bowl of the A-200 Hobart mixer. 

b. Water was added by separatory funnel while mixing continued. 

c. The rice and beef were then added and mixed briefly to preserve particle 

identity. 

d. Bars were pressed from the resulting 2.5 Kgm batch on the Denison Hydraulic 
Press at 5 tons ram pressure with a dwell time of 2-4 sec. 

e. The finished bars were dried for four hours at 130°F in a forced air ovqn. 

f. The dried bars were sealed into aluminized PVC pouches under air and 
nitrogen atmospheres. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - acceptable as a dry bar and as a stew reconstituted at 

40% solids. 

b. Six foot drop test - fair, broke in 3 pieces - 1/4, 1/4, 1/2. 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 40% relativs humidity) - none. 



d. Mastication 



Temp 

(°F) 

35 


73 


100 



Shear 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Chew 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Swallow 

Good 


Good 


Good 


e. 

Dimensional Stability 

(24 hours at 

K-* 

N> 

O 

o 

5 psi) 





Before 

1 / 2 " x 

2-1/32 

" x 4-1/32" 




After 

15/32" 

x 2-1/32" x 4" 





Percent Change 

-6.25 

0 

-0. 

77 



f. 

Moisture 7.17 







Storage Studies 







a. 

2 Weeks 

Air Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 


Temp 

(°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 


( 1 ) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


( 2 ) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

b. 

4 Weeks 








( 1 ) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


( 2 ) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(5) 

Moisture 


3.^7 

3.03 




c. 

8 Wer.ks 








( 1 ) 

Shear 

Go.'d 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


( 2 ) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 




£. 






Storage Studies - cont'd. 

d» 13 Weeks Air Pack Nitrogen Pack 


Temp 

(°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


3.15 

3.10 




(6) 

Bacteriology 








SPC 


? 3000 

3000 



^3000 


Coliforms 


Neg. 

N$g. 



Neg. 


Molds & Yeasts 


360 

500 



400 


F. Creamed Ground Beef Food Bar 

1. Formu la 7. 

B2 Matrix 44.00 

Beef, Precooked, Freeze-dried, 3/16" Grind, 

Wilson 41.00 

Dextrinized Starch 10.82 

Salt, Flour 3.00 

Monosodium Glutamate 1.00 

Pepper, Ground, Malabar 0.18 

100.00 

Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 3 ml 

2. Procedure 


a. All dry ingredients were weighed into the 12 qt bowl of the A-200 Hobart 
mixer and mixed until homogenous. 

b. Water was added by separatory funnel while mixing continued. 

c. The resulting 1600 gm batch was pressed into bars on the Denison Hydraulic 


Press at 3 tons ram pressure with a dwell time of 1.5 sec. 




d. The finished bars were dried at 130°F for 4 hours in a forced air oven. 

e. The dried bars were packed under air and nitrogen atmospheres in aluminized 
PVC pouches. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - acceptable as the dry bar and when reconstituted as a 
stew at 407 solids. 

b. Six foot drop test - excellent - broke into 1/2 and fragments on 2nd drop 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 407. relative humidity) - nope. 

J 

d. Mastication 



Temp (°F) 

35 


70 


100 



Shear 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Chew 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Swallow 

Good 


Good 


Good 


e. 

Dimensional Stability 

(24 hours at 

120° F 

5 psi) 





Before 

1/2" x 

2-1/32 

" x 4- 

1/32" 




After 

1/2" x 

2-1/32 

» x 4- 

1/32" 




Percent Change 


None 





f. 

Moisture 2.757. 







Storage Studies 







a. 

2 Weeks 

Air Pack 


Nitrogen Pack 


Temp (°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 


(1) Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

b. 

4 Weeks 








(1) Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(5) Moisture 


3.11 

3.21 








2. Procedure 


a. All dry ingredients were mixed until homogenous in the A-200 Hobart mixer 
Ln the 12 qt bowl. 

b. The water was then added by separatory funnel while mixing continued. 

c. The resulting 2.5 Kgm batch was pressed into bars on the Denison Press at 
3 ton ram pressure and a dwell time of 2 sec. 

d. Finished bars were dried at 130°F for 4 hours. 

e. The dry bars were packed into aluminized PVC pouches under nitrogen and 
^ir atmosphere. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - good as dry bar and as stew when reconstituted at 30% 

solids. 

b. Six foot drop test - excellent, broke into 1/2, 1/4 and 1/4 on 2nd drop. 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 407. relative humidity) - none. 

d. Mastication 



Temp (°F) 

35 


70 


100 



Shear 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Chew 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Swallow 

Good 


Good 


Good 


e. 

Dimensional Stability 

(24 hours at 

120°: 

F 5 pBi) 




Before 

17/32" 

x 2- 

1/32" x 

4-1/32" 




After 

1/2" 

x 2- 

1/32" x 

4-1/32" 




Percent Change 

-5.88 

0 


0 



f. 

Moisture 3.35 







Storage Studies 







a. 

2 Weeks 


Air Pack 

Nitrogen 

Pack 


Temp (°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 


(1) Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 





Storage Studies - cont'd 
b. 4 Weeks 



:eK.a 


Air Fac 

k 

Nitroaen ! 

Pack 

Temp (°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


3.23 

3.18 




c. 8 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

d. 13 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Stew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


3.19 

3.00 




(6) 

Bacteriology 








SPC 


>3000 

2000 



1900 


Coliforms 


Neg. 

Neg. 



Neg. 


Yeasts & Molds 

< 10 

<10 



<10 

Cream of Mushroom Soup Food Bars 







1. Formula 




% 




B 2 Matrix 




50.00 




Non-Fat Dry Milk Solids, Maple 

Island, 






Instant 




25.00 




Mushrooms, 1/4" 

Dice 



10.00 





Salt, Flour 


5.00 


Formula - cont'd. 


7. 


Pregelatinized Waxy Maize Starch 5.00 

Morel Powder S.P.I. 2.50 

Onion Powder, Soluble 7.00 

Monoaodlum Glutamate 0,50 

100.00 

Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 3 ml 

2. Procedure 


a. All dry ingredients were mixed until homogenous in the 12 qt bowl of the 

A-200 Hobart mixer, the water was then added by separatory funnel while mixing continued. 

b. From the resulting 1.6 Kgm batch, bars were formed on the Denison Hydraulic 
Press at 2-2/3 tons pressure on the ram at a dwell time of 15-207, of 10 sec. 

c. The finished bars were dried in the forced air oven for four hours at 130?F. 

d. The dried bars were packed in aluminized PVC pouches under nitrogen and under 
air atmospheres. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - good as dry bar and as soup reconstituted at 207, solids. 

b. Six foot drop test - fair for pieces about 1/4 of bar each. 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 407. relative humidity) - none. 

d. Mastication 


Temp (°F) 

35 

70 

100 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Chew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Swallow 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Dimensional Stability 

(24 hours at 

120°F 5 psi) 


Before 

17/32" 

x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 


After 

17/32" 

x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 


Percent Change 


None 



f. Moisture 5.517. 




Storage Studies 
a. 2 Weeks 


Air Pack Nitrogen Pack 


Temp (*?>•< 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Soup 'H. 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

4 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Soup 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


2.75 

2.53 




8 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Cood 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Soup 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

13 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Soup 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


2.92 

2.51 




(6) 

Bacteriology 








SPC 


2000 

1800 



1480 


Coliforms 


Neg. 

Neg. 



Neg. 


Yeasts & Molds 


20 

20 



20 




- • Cream of Tomato Soup Food Bars 

1. Formula % 

A 3 Matrix 50.00 

Tomato Powder, I.D.l.T. S.p.A. 25.00 

Non-Fat Dry Milk, Maple Island Instant 10.00 

Pregelatinized Waxy Maize Starch 10.97 

Salt, Flour *+.00 

Cayenne Pepper 0.03 

100.00 

Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 2 ml 

2. Procedure 


a. All dry materials were mixed until homogenous in a one cubic foot 
Pat :erson-Kelley twin cone blender with intensifier bar. 

b. The water was added through the intensifier bar during mixing. 

c. The resulting 1.6 Kgm batch was pressed into bars on the Denison Hydraulip 
Pre*:s at 2-2/3 ton ram pressure and dwell time of 10 - 257. of 10 sec. 

d. The finished bars were dried for 4 hours at 130°C in a forced air oven. 

e. The dried bars vara sealed in alumnized PVC pouches under nitrogen and 
air atmosphere. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - good as dry bar and as soup reconstituted at 157. solids. 

b. Six foot drop test - fair, broke into eight, approximately equal, pieces. 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 407. relative humidity) - none. 

d. Mastication 


Temp (**‘F) 

35 

70 

100 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Chew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Swallow 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Dimensional Stability 

(24 hours at 

120°F 5 psi) 


Before 

17/32" 

x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 


After 

1 / 2 " 

x 2 x 4 


Percent Change 

-5.88 

-1.53 -0.77 




4. Storage Studies 


2 Weeks 


Air Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Temp 

(°‘F ) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Soup 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

4 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Soup 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


4.24 

4.30 




8 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Soup 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

13 Weeks 







(D 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(41 

Soup 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


4.10 

4.46 




<M 

Bacteriology 








SPG 


1090 

520 



490 


Colif orr.is 


Neg. 

^10 



> 10 


Yeasts & ' 

Molds 

10 

>o 



> o 






1. Formula 


X 


A 3 Matrix 

50.00 

Sucrose, 6 X 

24.45 

Non-Fat Dry Milk Solids, Maple Island, 
Instant 

20*00 

Starch 

5.00 

Lemon Flavor, Florasynth 

0.45 

Keltose S.G. 

0.10 


100.00 


Water (containing 0.07 ml. 4% FD&C Yellow No. 6/100 ml.) 2 ml. per 100 g. 
dry ingredients. 

2. Procedure 

a. The matrix was weighed into the one cubic foot Patterson Kelly twin 
cone blendor with intensifier bar. 

b. The water was added through the intensifier bar while mixing continued. 

c. The remainder of the ingredients was then added and the whole mixed 
until homogeneous. 

d. Bars were formed from the resulting 1.6 Kgm batch on the Denison 
Hydraulic Press at 2.75 tons ram pressure and a dwell time of 507. of 1 second. 

e. The finished bars were packed without drying in aluminized PVC pouches 
under air and nitrogen atmospheres. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - good as dry bars and when reconstituted at 307. 
solids for pie filling. 

b. Six-foot drop test - fair, broke into eight pieces. 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 407 o relative humidity) none. 

d. Mastication 1 


Temp. (°F) 

35 

70 

100 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Chew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Swallow 

Good 

Good 

Go od 




e. Dimensional Stability (24 hours I? 120° F 5 psi) 

Before 17/32” x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32” 

After 17/32” x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 

Percent Change None 

f. Moisture 5.40% 

Storage Studies 

a. 2 Weeks Air Pack Nitrogen Pack 


Temp 

(°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

t 

o 

o 

(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Pudding 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

4 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 




Scorched 


Scorched 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Milk 

Good 

Good 

Milk 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Pudding 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 

- u* » 

4.96 

4.95 

, 



8 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Pudding 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

"13' Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

SI. 

SI. 

Good 

SI. 

SI. 




Burned 

Burned 


Burned 

Burned 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

SI. 

SI. 

Good 

SI. 

SI. 




Burned 

3umed 


Burned 

Burned 

(4) 

Pudding 

Good 

Si. 

SI. 

Good 

SI. 

SI. 




Burned 

Burned 


Burned 

Burned 



d. 13 Weeks - Cont'd. 


Ajr Pack 


Nitrogen Pack 


nr* _ _ /O r*\ 

rump v r ) 

(5) Moisture 

(6) Bacteriology 

SPC 


35 73 IQn 

< n n r A A 

1460 1900 


Coliforms <cl0>1.0 Neg. 

Yeasts & Molds 180 -£-10 

K. Bariev Soup with Beef Food Bar 

1. Formula % 

Barley, Freeze-dried, Precooked (ref. Para. 

IV C, p. 13) 48.00 

Bouillon, Maggi 20.00 

B2 Matrix 17.00 

Beef, Precooked, Freeze-dried, Wilson 13.75 

Pepper, Malabar, Ground 0.25 

Celery Seed 0.25 

Parsley, Dried, C.V.C. 0.25 

Monosodium Glutamate 0.50 


100.00 


35 73 100 


1800 

Neg. 

<10 


Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 5 ml 

2. Procedure 

a. The beef was weighed into the 12 qt bowl of the A-200 Hobart mixer and 
broken up into shreds. 

b The remainder of the dry ingredients was then added and the whole mixed 
until homo^-.neous. 

c. Water was added by separatory funnel while mixing continued. 

d. The resulting 2.5 Kgm batch was pressed into bars on the Denison Hydraulic 
Press at 5 tons ram pressure and a dwell time of 1 sec. 

e. The finished bars were dried for four hours at 130°F. 

f. The dried bars were sealed into aluminized PVC pouches under nitrogen 
and air atmospheres. 







3. Result 0 


solids. 


- none. 


a. Odor and flavor - good as dry bar and aa soup reconstituted at 15% 

b. Six foot drop test - excellent - broke in half on second drop. 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 40% relative humidity) 

d. Mastication 


Temp (°F) 

35 

70 

100 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Chew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Swallow 

Good 

Good 

Good 


e. Dimensional Stability (24 hours at 120°F 5 psi) 

Before 17/32" x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 

After 1/2" x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 

Percent Change -5.88 0 0 

f. Moisture 3.64 
4. Storage Studies 

a. 2 Weeks Air Pack Nitrogen Pack 


Temp 

(°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Soup 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

4 Weeks 







(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Soup 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(5) Moisture 


3.74 


3.42 





Storage Studies * cont'd. 


c. 8 weeks 

Air Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 

Temp (°F) 

35 73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

(1) Shear 

Good Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) Odor 

Good Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) Flavor 

Good Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) Soup 

Good Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

d. 13 Weeks 






(1) Shear 

Good Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) Odor 

Good Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) Flavor 

Good Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) Soup 

Good Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) Moisture 

3.43 

3.47 




(6) Bacteriology 






SPC 

>3000 

>3000 



>>3000 

Coliforms 

Neg. 

Neg. 



Neg. 

Yeasts & Molds 

220 

220 



210 

Shrimp Bisque Food Bar 






1. Formula 


% 




Shrimp, Freeze-dried, Wilson 


53.00 




Matrix 


25.00 




Non-Fat Dry Milk Solids, Maple Island, 
Instant 

18.95 




Onion Powder, Soluble 


0.50 




Salt, Flour 


2.00 




Pepper, White, Ground 


0.23 




Nutmeg, Ground 


0.10 




Parsley, Dried, C.V.C. 


0.20 





100.00 


Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 


5 ml 






2, Procedure 


a. The shrimp was weighed into the 12 qt bowl of the A-200 Hobart mixer 

and shredded. 

b. The balance of the dry ingredients was then added and the whole mixed 
until homogeneous. 

c. The water was then added,while mixing continued,by separatory funnel. 

d. Bars from the resulting 2.5 Kgm batch were pressed on the Denison 
Hydraulic Press at 5 tons ram pressure and a dwell time of 1 sec. 

e. The finished bars were dried 3 hours at 130°F. 

f. The dry bars were sealed into af[^i&ipzf|iPVC pouches. 

3. Results > 

a. Odor and flavor - excellent as dry bar and as a soup when reconstituted 

at 257, solids. 

b. Six foot drop test - excellent - broke in half on fourth drop. 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 40% relative humidity) - 


d. 

Mastication 







Temp (°F) 


35 

70 


100 c 


Shear 


Good 

Good 


Good 


Chew 


Good 

Good 


Good 


Swallow 


Good 

Good 


Good 

e. 

Dimensional Stability 

(24 hours 

at 120°F 5 psi) 




Before 


1/2" 

x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32 

M 



After 


1/2" 

x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32 

II 



Percent 

Change 


None 



f. 

Moisture 

3.10% 





Storage Studies 






a. 

2 Weeks 


Air Pack 

Nitrogen Pack 


Temp (°F) 


35 

73 100 

35 

73 100 


(1) Shear 


Good 

Good Good 

Good 

Good Good 



Storage Studies - cont'd. 


O t.Tn»Un 



*4S _ «. 

lemp 

r*; 

(2) 

Odor 

(3> 

Flavor 

(4) 

Soup 

4 Weeks 

(1) 

Shear 

(2) 

Odor 

(3) 

Flavor 

(4) 

Soup 

(5) 

Moisture 

8 Weeks 

(1) 

Shear 

(2) 

Odor 

(3) 

Flavor 

(4) 

Soup 

13 Weeks 

(1) 

Shear 

(2) 

Odor 

(3) 

Flavor 

(4) 

Soup 

(5) 

Moisture 

(6) 

Bacteriology 

SPC 


Coliforms 
Yeasts & Molds 
Coffee with Cream and Sugar Food Bars 
i. Forosula 

Sucrose, granulated 


A 4 «. Dm *.1* \T-f *-_-_r\-1. 

m-L j. oca. HIUU^CU fdUV 


35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

c Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


2.97 

2.96 




Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


3.11 

3.10 





680 

840 



830 


Neg. 

Neg. 



Neg. 


20 

120 



100 


% 

45.1 






A 3 Matrix 


22.5 


Non-Fat Dry Milk Solids, Maple 

Island, Instant 13.5 

Coffee, Instant, Maxwell House 12.0 

Corn Syrup Solids 6.0 

Fcicofix, Felton Chemical Co. 0.9 


100.0 

Water (containing 47, Dibasic Potassium 
Phosphate)per 100 gm Dry 
Ingredients 3 ml 

2. Procedure 

a. All dry ingredients were weighed into a one cubic foot Patterson Kelly 
twin cone blender and mixed until homogeneous. 

b. The water was added through the intensifier bar while mixing continued. 

c. The resulting 2.5 Kgm batch was pressed into bars on the Denison Hydrauli 
Press at 3 tons ram pressure and a dwell time of 607. uf 1 sec. 

d. The bars were not dried, but sealed into aluminized PVC pouches under 
air and nitrogen atmospheres. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - good as dry bars and when reconstituted at 4.37. 
solids as a beverage. 

b. Six foot drop test - fair, broke into 5 pieces. 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 407. relative humidity) - 

none. 


d. Mastication 


Temp (° F) 

35 

70 

100 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Chew 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Swallow 

Good 

Good 

Good 


e. Dimensional Stability (24 hours at 120°F 5 psi) 

Before 1/2" x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 
After 1/2" x 2-1/32" x 4-1/32" 
Percent Change None 





f. Moisture 


4.71 


Storage Studies 
a. 2 Weeks 


Temp 

(°F) 

35 

(1) 

Shear 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

(4) 

Drink 

Good 

4 Weeks 


(1) 

Shear 

Good 

/-s 

CM 

s-/ 

Odor 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

(4) 

Drink 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


8 Weeks 


(1) 

Shear 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

(4) 

Drink 

Good 

13 Weeks 


(1) 

Shear 

SI. 

Diffi 

cult 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

(4) 

Drink 

Good 


Air Pack Nitrogen Pack 


73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Gcod 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Diffi¬ 

cult 

Good 

Good 

Diffi¬ 

cult 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

4.47 

4.39 




Good 

Diffi¬ 

cult 

Good 

Good 

Diffi¬ 

cult 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

SI. 

bitter 

Good 

Good 

ci 

w. X • 

bitter 

Good 

SI. 

bitter 

Good 

Good 

SI. 

bitter 

SI. 

- Diffi¬ 
cult 

Diffi¬ 

cult 

SI. 

Diffi¬ 

cult 

SI. 

Diffi¬ 

cult 

Diffi¬ 

cult 

Good 

SI. 

burned 

Good 

Good 

SI. 

Burned 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 




13 Weeks - cont'd. 


Air Pack 


Nitrogen Pack 


Temp (° F) 35 

73 

100 

35 

73 100 

(5) Moisture 

4.42 

4.42 



(6) Bacteriology 





SPC 

340 

270 


280 

Coliforms 

Neg. 

Nag. 


Neg. 

Yeasts 6c Molds 

^ 10 

<10 


<10 

N. Tomato Juice Cocktail Food Bars 





1 . formula 


07 

to 



Tomato Powder, I.D.I.T. S.p.A. 


67.95 



Solu-Pro, Wilson 


25.00 



Salt, Flour 


5.00 



Celery Salt 


2.00 



Cayenne Pepper, Ground 


0.05 





100.00 



Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 


1 ml 



2. Procedure 





a. All dry ingredients were weighed into the one 

cubic foot 

Patterson 

Kelly twin cone blendor with intensifier bar and 

mixed 

until homogeneous. 



b. The water was added through the intensifier bar while mixing continued. 

c. The resulting 2.5 Kgm batch was pressed into bars on the Denison 
Hydraulic Press at 2.5 tons ram pressure and a dwell time of 20% of 1G sec. 

d. The finished bars were packed without drying into aluminized FVC pouches. 
3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - good as dry bar and as beverage reconstituted at 1GT, 

solids. 

b. Six foot drop test - fair, broke into 8 pieces. 

c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 40% relative humidity) - 


none. 




Mastication 


d. 



Teop 

C°F) 

35 


70 


100 




Shear 

Good 


Good 


Good 




Chew 

Good 


Good 


Good 




Swallow 

Good 


Good 


Good 


e. 

Ditnensional Stability 

(24 hours 

at 120° 

F 5 psi) 





Before 

17/32” x 2-1/32” x 

4-1/32” 





After 

1 /2” 

x 2" 

X 

4-1/32” 





Percent Change 

-5.88 

-1.53 

0 



f. 

Moisture 8.66 







Storage Studies 







a. 

2 Weeks 

Air Pack 


Nitrogen Pack 


Temp 

(°F) 

35 

73 

10C 

35 

73 

100 


(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) 

Drink 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

b. 

4 Weeks 








(1) 

Shear 

C-QC,(} 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) 

Oder 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) 

Drink 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Gocd 


(5) 

Moisture 


7.76 

8.^6 




c. 

8 Weeks 








(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) 

Drink 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 




13 Week s Air Pack Nitrogen Pac k 


Tamo 

K F} 

35 

73 

ioo 

35 

73 

100 

(1) 

Shear 

Si. 

SI. 

Diffi¬ 

SI. 

Si. 

Diffi- 



Diffi 

- Diffi¬ 

cult 

Diff- 

Diffi¬ 




cult 

cult 


cult 

cult 


(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Bitter 

Good 

Good 

bitter 

(4) 

Drink 

Good 

Good 

Bitter 

Good 

Good 

Bitter 

(5) 

Moisture 


7.1? 

8.04 




Co) 

Bacteriology 








SPC 


> 3000 

2350 



2300 


Ccliforms 


Neg. 

Neg. 



Neg. 


Yeasts & Molds 


30 

40 



30 


0- Orange Juice Food Bar 

1. Formula % 

Orange Juice Powder, Calif. Citrus Growers 38.00 
Corn Syrup Solids 32.OG 

Sucrose 20.00 

Solu-Pro, Wilson 10.00 

100.00 

Water per 100 gm Dry Ingredients 3 ml 

2. Procedure 

a. All dry ingredients were weighed into the one cubic foot Patterson 
Kelly twin cone blendor with intensifier bar and mixed until homogeneous. 

b. The water was added through the intensifier bar while mixing continued. 

c. The resulting 2.5 Kgm batch was pressed into bars on the Denison 
Hydraulic Press with a dwell time of 35% of 10 sec. at 3 tons ram pressure. 

d. The finished bars were not dried, but packed in aluminized PVC 
pouches under air and nitrogen atmospheres. 

3. Results 

a. Odor and flavor - good as dry bar and as beverage reconstituted at 


O'* <7 
*» — #t* 


solids. 



b. Six foot drop test - fair, broke into six pieces. 


c. Stickiness (24 hours at room temperature and 407* relative 

1-4 JJ k..\ _ 

WUlUlUiV / / * tlUUC « 


d. 

Mastication 








Temp (°F) 

35 


70 


100 



Shear 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Chew 

Good 


Good 


Good 



Swallow 

Good 


Good 


Good 


e. 

Dimensional Stability 

(24 hours 

at 120* 

'F 5 psi) 




Before 

17/32' 

" x 2-1/32" x 

4-1/32" 




After 

17/32' 

" x 2-1/32" x 

4-1/32" 




Percent Change 


None 




f 

a. • 

Moisture 4.91 







Sto 

rage Studies 







a. 

2 Weeks 

Air Pack 


Nitrogen Pack 


Temp (°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 


(1) Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) Drink 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Gocd 

b. 

4 Weeks 








(1) °hear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) Cdor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(3) Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) Drink 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(5) Moisture 


4.87 

4.86 




c. 

8 Weeks 








(1) Shear 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(2) Oder 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Gor d 

Good 


(3) Flavor 

Crod 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 


(4) Drink 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

uCOd 



Storage Studies - cont'd. 


13 Weeks 

Air Pack 


Nitrogen Pacx 

Temp 

(°F) 

35 

73 

100 

35 

73 

100 

(1) 

Shear 

Good 

Good 

SL 

Diffi¬ 

cult 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(2) 

Odor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(3) 

Flavor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(4) 

Drink 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

(5) 

Moisture 


4.86 

5.04 




(6) 

Bacteriology 








SPC 


60 

30 



20 


Coliforms 


Neg. 

Neg. 



Neg. 


Yeasts fit Molds 


^10 

^10 



^ 10 


CONCLUSIONS 

In the sense and meaning of paragraph 1 of the Scope of the Contract, this contract 
has been fulfilled. The matrices developed and discovered have successfully been used in 
the fabrication of food bars from nearly any food having reasonable physical stability. 
The chemical and microbiological instability of certain of these foods, notably the 
peanut and sweet chocolate food bars were previously well known and were again demon¬ 
strated during these storage studies. In no case could any objectionable flavors or 
odors be assigned to the matrices. 

PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 

Some of our related exploratory work indicates that these matrices, when used as 
coatings, can protect foods against oxidation and some microbiological deterioration. 
These coatings are much the same in formula as the matrices but the water level is 
raised to about 60% tving it the consistency of molasses. The foods are dipped into 
this coating and the resulting "bit" is dried to a 4-6% moisture level. It is conceiv¬ 
able that food particles could be individually coated, then the coated particles 
compressed into food bars, thus completely coating the food and providing an oxygen 1 
barrier. This would exterd the organoleptic and microbiological stability of the food 


material. 




PRODUCTION DESIGN FOR 6,000 FOOD BARS PER HOUR 


Operation 

Wei»hin© 


Ecuipment Required 

Ingredient storage bins, 30 cu ft scale hopper. 
200 # scale levers and dial 


Mixing 


Transfer 


Surge hoppers 
Hydraulic Press 


Packaging 


Spray Drying 


30 cu ft Ribbon blender - Strong Scott IN 30 or equal 
with liquid manifold and spray nozzles. P.K. Blendor 
with intesifier bar or equal 

Gravity spouts, food grade belt or stainless steel 
flight conveyor 

One 30 cu ft hopper 

45 ton force, 6^ second cycle to 1 feed in 2 compress 

3 eject 

12 units per die, each unit 2" x 4" with 4% deep cavity 
compress to 2" x 4" by 1/2" thick 
Denison Multipress with automatic feed (or equal) 

Seal in metalized polyethylene polyester pouches. 

Modify Barfelt Model IM6 to handle food bars. 

Nitrogen metering and pouch vacuumizing accessories 
required. 

200 #/hr weight capacity (dry) 


PRODUCTION UNIT 

The basis for design is as follows: 

Production rate 6,600 food bars per hour 

Allowance for breakage 6% 

Weight of formula mix 1,140#/hr maximum 

710#/hr minimum 


Volume of total formula 
mix per hour 


117 cu ft 




Volume of formula mi>. 
per unit 

Volume of compressed 
food bar per unit 

Number of scale batches 

Scaling & mixing cycle 
time 

Mix time 

DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS 

Ingredients will be scaled into weijh nopper and cycled into batch ribbon 
blender. P.K. blender will be used to premix small volume ingredients prior to adding 
to ribbon blender. 

Ribbon blender is discharged into surge hopper feeding the filler unit oi the 
hydraulic press. The filler unit fills the cavities of the hydraulic press; pressure 
is then applied to compress the mix into 1/2" thick bars. Pressure required to form 
bars varies from 375 psi minimum to 900 psi maximum. 

t 

The compressed bar is ejected into a continuous drying oven, heated to a tem¬ 
perature of 14G°, and retained for 20 minutes. The dried bars are then conveyed to 
the packaging area where they are placed in a pouch, nitrogen flushed when required. 


2 " x 4" x 4-V' » 34 cu in 

2" x 4" x V' = 4 cu in 

6 per hour 

10 minutes 
6 minutes 


and vacuum sealed. 



FlOu/ D/A<$£Art 









Unclassified 


Caa>«w4ii 

JCCuti^jr vtaootiivvuw 


[ DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA - RAD | 

| (Security cleeaiticetton of titie. body ot abatract end indexing annotation must be entered wnen tne overall report is c tat siiieaj | 

t ORIGINATING ACTIVITY (Corporate author) 

The Pillsbury Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Ze REPORT SECURITY C l. ASSi f 1C A T \ On 

Unclassified 

26 GROUP 

3 REPORT TITLE 

ALL FURPO" MATRICES FCR COMPRESSED FOOD BARS 

4- DESCRIPTIVE NOTES (Type oi report end inclusive detea) 

Final (29 August 1962 - 8 November 1964) 

S AUTHORfS; (Lft name. (1 rat name. Initial) 

Durst, Jack R. 

6. REPO RT DATE 

January 1966 

7 a TOTAL NO OF PAGES 76 NO OF REFS 

127 0 

Qa. CONTRACT OR GRANT NO. 

DA 19-129-AMC-2103 

b. PROJECT NO. 

7X84-06-031 

c. 

d. 

9 a OR1 GIN A TOR'S REPORT NUMBER (S) 

9b. OTHER REPORT NO (S) (A ny other numbers that may be ess 1 fried 
this report) 

66 -l-FD; FD-37 

10. AVAIL ABILITY/LIMIT A TiON NOTICES 

Distribution of this document is unlimited. 

Release to CFSTI is authorized. 

! 1 ■ SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 

% 

12 SPONSORING MILITARY ACTIVITY 

Animal Products Branch, Food Division 

U. S. Army Natick Laboratories, Natick, 
Massachusetts, 01762 


13- ABSTRACT 


Edible binders have been developed which impart favorable physical properties 
including cohesiveness to compressed dry foods representing a broad range of 
chemical compositions. Further experimental effort yielded binders for compressed 
foods which are acceptable for consumption from the compressed state and which 
can also be rehydrated to yield a familiar meal item, such as casseroles, creamed 
soups, puddings, thin soups and beverages. These binders do not significantly 
alter the storage stability of the basic food components. 


DD 


FORM 

1 .'AN 6* 


1473 


Unclassified 


Security Classification 





Unc lassified _ 

^prilfttv riaccifiputiAn 


LINK A 


LINK B 


LINK 


14. 


K^Y WORDS 


Development 

Preparation (formulation) 
Matrices (food) 

Food bars 
Military rations 
Storage stability 



i 

i 


INSTRUCTIONS 


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Onelassified 

Security Classification