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DOCUMENT 



RESUME 



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ByMathies, Lorraine 

The Junior College Library: An Overview. 

American Association of Junior Colleges, Washington, D.C.; California Univ., Los Angeles. ERIC Clearinghouse for 
Junior Coll. Information. 

Pub Date Oct 68 
Note”4p. 

Journal Cit- Junior College Research Review; v3 n2 Oct 68 
EDRS Price MF-S0.25 HC - $0.30 

Descriptors - * Junior Colleges, *Libraries, *Library Services 

This Review describes ways to examine various aspects of community college 
libraries. Little research has been done on the reasons for success or failure of 
certain procedures or of certain administrative or organizational forms. The criteria 
most often used for successful library service in the junior college (size of collection, 
size of staff, space, circulation figures) are called "process" criteria, and their use is 
analogous to judging an instructional program by the number of advance degrees 
held by the faculty. "Product" or "outcome" criteria might be better used to assess the 
library’s contribution to the total instruction program. When they are determined, they 
will make the measure of success a challenge. (HH) 



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EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES 
INFORMATION CENTER 




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE 
OFFICE OF EDUCATION 

THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM THE 
ERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIGINATING IT. POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONS 
TATED DO NOT NECES SARILY REPRESENT OFFICIAL OFFICE OF EDUCATION 
POSITION OR POLICY. 

UCLA JUNIOR COLLEGE RESEARCH 




CLEARINGHOUSE FOR 
JUNIOR COLLEGE INFORMATION 




Published by the American Association of Junior Colleges 



THE JUNIOR COLLEGE LIBRARY: AN OVERVIEW 



Previous issues of Junior College Research Review 
have dealt with a variety of topics in the junior col- 
lege field— transfer students, experimental programs, 
dropouts, and testing practices— to name but a few. 
This issue presents for the first time an analysis of 
information on community college libraries based 
upon data gained from twenty documents in the 
Clearinghouse collection. At the outset it is apparent 
that these reports must not be construed as being 
representative of all aspects of junior college library 
service. However, they are indicative of concerns and 
issues involving this crucial element in the instruc- 
tional programs of these institutions. 

Review 

Several documents are library surveys. One (ED 
013 081) is the report of a survey of community col- 
lege libraries in Michigan in 1965. This study, which 
was conducted by a research firm under the sponsor- 
ship of the Michigan State Library, underlines the 
urgency for stronger library holdings and services. 
Personal interviews with librarians as well as deans 
and presidents of eighteen public community colleges 
and a questionnaire which was circulated by the 
State Library were the sources of information. Using 
the American Library Association Standards for Jun- 
ior College Libraries as a base for evaluation, the 
study reports a critical lag in the development of 
book collections at thirteen of the libraries. It is well 
known that the development of an adequate book 
collection is dependent upon the availability of funds 
for the purchase of materials and staff to select and 
process new acquisitions as well as shelf space to 
house the collections. Thus it is not surprising that 
the primary limitations on the improvement of li- 
brary collections at the majority of the community 
colleges in Michigan were found to be inadequate 
budgets for printed materials, a lack of professional 
library staff, and limited facilities. The principal rec- 
ommendation of the study proposes a “crash pro- 
gram” in the form of yearly grants for a three year 
period to those community colleges whose libraries 
do not meet American Library Association standards. 



Comprehensive surveys of public and private 
higher education on the state level are necessary for 
long-range planning and have been authorized by 
several state legislatures. One phase of such reviews 
often treats the problem of library service. Dr. Erret 
W. McDiarmid served as consultant in charge of the 
study of college libraries for the Commonwealth of 
Virginia. This study (ED 013 081) included three, 
state-controlled, two-year college libraries. Because 
they were very new, these junior college libraries had 
not yet reached acceptable standards. However, it 
was noted that adequate stack space for a minimum 
collection of 20,000 volumes, as well as work space 
for the staff, was not anticipated. In addition, the 
staffing components were low as were the budget al- 
locations. Dr. McDiarmid recommended a long-range 
program of supervision and coordination with four- 
year institutions of higher education in the state. 

The survey method is also used in the examina- 
tion of the library in a specific institution. An exam- 
ple is the “Report of a Brief Survey of the El Camino 
College Library” (ED 012 614). In this report a 
Library Study Committee examined such aspects of 
the library as its organization and administration, 
budget, collections, staffing, and space allocations. 
Since the role of the junior college library in the 
teaching-learning process is the principal reason for 
its existence, the Committee sought the opinions of 
teachers, administrators and students on its effec- 
tiveness at El Camino College. Responses to an in- 
quiry form were somewhat limited and suggested a 
rather apathetic attitude among library users. 
Strengthening the role of the college by uniting the 
administration and operation of the library and the 
audio-visual services, under a “Dean of Instructional 
Resources” was the major recommendation of the 
Committee. 

A variety of techniques have been used in dealing 
with the availability of learning resources in the in- 
structional programs of community colleges. A case 
study of the library at Mt. San Jacinto College (ED 
012 185) presents the development of an instruction- 



al program utilizing the “multi-media” approach.This 
involves the development of learning objectives in 
behavioral terms as well as the determination of the 
appropriate media or tools which enable students 
to accomplish such goals. The role of the library is 
great, for it serves as the primary tool in the instruc- 
tional process. Conference proceedings as the Com- 
munity College Library Administration Conference 
held at Wayne State University in 1965 (ED014946) 
and the Junior College Library Conference held at 
UCLA in 1965 (ED 012 606) stress the relationships 
of the library to instruction. Faculty-librarian coop- 
eration is emphasized as a basic principle which 
should undergird the policy of selecting books and 
other educational media (ED 013 635). Innovation 
is the underlying theme both of the papers and the 
panel discussions at these conferences. Equally im- 
portant, however, is the sharing of new devices and 
techniques to revitalize the library and its services. 

The unprecedented growth of higher education in 
recent years has brought not only needs for new 
construction but also demands from educators as 
well as government officials to ensure the maximum 
efficient use of existing facilities. Standards to be 
used in determining space needs in junior colleges 
are a recent development. In California an extensive 
utilization study of the classrooms and laboratories, 
offices and libraries in the three segments of public 
higher education resulted in the final recommenda- 
tions for standards and guidelines to be used in plan- 
ning such facilities for junior colleges (ED 013 079). 
In the case of junior college libraries, it was found 
that reasonable approximations of space required for 
audio-visual and programmed learning facilities were 
not presently possible. However, the traditional 
stack areas, space for reading stations, and working 
space for the staff can be determined by applying the 
appropriate standards. 

Long-range planning is a critical element in the 
development of institutions of higher education, 
though often early projections become out-dated. 
Such was the case with Cerritos Junior College where 
the original campus was deemed inadequate before 
it was completed. A revised building and facility re- 
port to the Governing Board presented needs and 
recommendations based upon enrollment projections 
to 1980. The decision to expand the library facilities 
led to plans for the development of a Learning Ma- 
terials Center, the detailed specifications of which 
are given in document (ED 013 649). The rapid ex- 
pansion of this and other community colleges 
prompted a division of the American Association of 
Junior Colleges to compile a “Bibliography of Facil- 
ities Information” (ED 014 293) in 1967. 



Planning is essential not only to the development 
of the total institution but also to its principal com- 
ponents. In recognition of this, the Standards and 
Criteria Committee of the Association of College 
and Research Libraries prepared a set of guidelines 
for junior college administrators who are concerned 
with establishing new library units. The guidelines 
were developed by experienced librarians and ad- 
ministrators for the purpose of acquainting the 
novice with the steps which must be taken. Given in 
outline form, the guidelines report the appropriate 
staging of events as well as specifications for the 
budget, the collections, and buildings (ED 013 061 ) . 

The American Library Association Standards for 
Junior College Libraries, which were completed and 
published in 1960, were used as the instrument to 
measure the effectiveness of Henry Ford Community 
College. In an article entitled “Strengthening the 
College Library” (ED 015 740), the librarian and 
chairman of the faculty library committee report 
the procedures used in this self-study. In brief, a 
series of questions were developed from the Stand- 
ards which were used to study and evaluate the col- 
lections, policies, facilities, and administrative pro- 
cedures of the library. 



SUMMARY 

The studies reported in this issue of Junior Col- 
lege Research Review are indicative of certain ways 
of examining various aspects of community college 
libraries. Obviously, little research has been done 
which gives insight into reasons for the success or 
failure of certain procedures — or for the proficiency 
or error of certain forms of administration or organi- 
zation. What are the characteristics of successful 
library service in junior colleges? The criteria of suc- 
cess which are most often employed in studies of 
libraries — size of collection and of staff, amount of 
space, circulation figures and the like— are “Process” 
criteria. Evaluating libraries on those criteria alone 
is analogous to assessing the quality of an instruc- 
tional program by counting the number of advanced 
degrees held by the faculty. What types of “product” 
or “outcome” criteria might be employed in efforts 
to assess the contribution of a library to the total 
instructional pattern? Given such standards, the 
measure of success becomes a challenge as yet un- 
explored. 



Lorraine Mathies 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



ED 012 600 

Recommendations for the Development of the Li- 
brary Program at Fullerton Junior College and As- 
sociated Campuses , by Ernest W. Toy. Fullerton 
Junior College, Fullerton, California, 1965. 

ED 012 606 

The Junior College Library. Report of National Con- 
ference on the Junior College Library, July 1965. 
Occasional Report No. 8. Byron Lamar Johnson, 
Editor. University of California, Los Angeles, 1965. 

ED 014 285 

Library Services in Virginia* s Institutions of Higher 
Education, by Erret W. McDiarmid. Higher Educa- 
tion Study Commission, Richmond, Virginia, 1965. 

ED 014 946 

The Administration of Library Instructional Serv- 
ices in the Community College. Proceedings of a Con- 
ference on the Administration of Library Instruc- 
tional Services in the Community College, Wayne 
State University, Detroit, Michigan, 1965. Charles 
Alexander, Editor. Wayne State University, Detroit, 
Michigan, 1965. 

ED 013 611 

“Cataloging and Classification in Junior College Li- 
braries,” by Arthur Ray Rowland. Library Resources 
and Technical Services, 7 , 1963. 

ED 012 610 

“Processing Center for California Junior College Li- 
braries— A Preliminary Study,” by Everett L. Moore. 
Library Resources and Technical Services, 9, Sum- 
mer 1965. 

ED 012 176 

“Periodicals Automation at Miami-Dade Junior Col- 
lege,” by Eleanor G. Eyman, et al. Library Resources 
and Technical Services, 10, Summer 1966. 

ED 013 061 

“Guidelines for Establishing Junior College Librar- 
ies,” by the American Library Association, Assoc- 
iation of College and Research Libraries, Junior 
College Libraries Section. College and Research Li- 
braries, 24, November 1963. 

ED 014 293 

Bibliography of Facilities Information, by the Amer- 
ican Association of Junior Colleges. American Asso- 
ciation of Junior Colleges, Washington, D.C., 1967. 

ED 012 614 

Report of a Brief Survey of the El Camino College 
Library , by Andrew H. Horn. El Camino College, 
Torrance, California, 1966. 



ED 012 185 

The Changing Role of the Library on the Junior Col- 
lege Campus —A Case Study atMt. San Jacinto Col- 
lege (Seminar paper), by C. Loran Lee. University 
of California, School of Education, Los Angeles, 1966. 

ED 014 964 

Recommended Community College Basic Library 
Allocation, by North Carolina Department of Com- 
munity Colleges, Division of Library Services. North 
Carolina Department of Community Colleges, Ral- 
eigh, North Carolina, 1966. 

ED 013 079 

Space Utilization Standards, California Public 
Higher Education, Report No. 1027, by Franklin G. 
Matsler. California Coordinating Council for Higher 
Education, Sacramento, California, 1966. 

ED 013 081 

A Program for the Rapid Improvement of Commun- 
ity College Libraries in Michigan, by Nelson Associ- 
ates, Inc. New York, 1965. 

ED 014 983 

Junior College Library Personnel Needs, Report of a 
Survey, 1966-67, by Elizabeth Martin. American Li- 
brary Association, Junior College Libraries Section, 
Chicago, Illinois, 1967. 

ED 013 109 

Selected Bibliography on Junior College Libraries, 
1955-67, Alice B. Griffith, Editor. American Library 
Association, Junior College Libraries Section, Chi- 
cago, Illinois, 1967. 

ED 013 635 

Improvement of Instruction. Proceedings of the 
Fourth Junior College Administrative Teams Insti- 
tute, Pensacola, Florida, July 27-31, 1964. Florida 
State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 1964. 

ED 013 649 

Report and Recommendation for Learning Materi- 
als Center , Cerritos College. Cerritos College, Nor- 
walk, California, 1967. 

ED 015 739 

“Paperback Books and the College Library,” by 
Frederick R. Hartz. Improving College and Univer- 
sity Teaching, 12, Spring 1964. 

ED 015 740 

“Strengthening the College Library,” by Norman E. 
Tanis and Karl J. Jacobs. Improving College and 
University Teaching, 12, Spring 1964. 







du 






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System may be found in Research in Ed ucatio": a 
publication of the U.S. Department of Health, Edu- 
cation and Welfare. Research m Education may be 
ordered from the Superintendent of U- 1- 

Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 
(Single copy, $1.00; annual subscnption of 12 issues, 

$ 11 . 00 ). 



All of the documents reviewed are available (in 
microfiche or hard copy) from the ERIC 
Reproduction Service, National Cash 
pany, 4936 Fairmont Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 

20014. 



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C LEA RINGHOUSE FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE INFORMATION 

Arthur M. Cohen, Principal Investigator and Director 



John E. Roueche, Associate Director 

Advisory Board 

LLOYD MESSERSMITH 
Executive Secretary, 

California Junior College Association 

EDMUND J. GLEAZER, JR. 

Executive Director 

American Association of Junior Colleges 

ROBERT M. HAYES 

Professor, School of Library Service, UCLA 

Director, Institute of Library Research 

B. LAMAR JOHNSON 

Professor of Higher Education, UCLA 



Lorraine Mathies, Co-Investigator 



RICHARD KOSAKI 

Chairman, Council of State Directors 

of Community Junior Colleges 

THOMAS B. MERSON 
Dean of Instruction 
Bakersfield Junior College 

C. WAYNE GORDON 
Associate Dean 

Graduate School of Education , UCLA 

ROBERT VOSPER 
University Librarian, UCLA 



The Clearinghouse operates 



JAMES L. WATTENBARGER 
Director, Institute of Higher Education 
University of Florida 



under contract with the U.S. Department of Health, 



Education and Welfare, Office of Education. 



JUNIOR COLLEGE RESEARCH REVIEW 
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