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The Junior College Library: An Overview.
American Association of Junior Colleges, Washington, D.C.; California Univ., Los Angeles. ERIC Clearinghouse for
Junior Coll. Information.
Pub Date Oct 68
Journal Cit- Junior College Research Review; v3 n2 Oct 68
EDRS Price MF-S0.25 HC - $0.30
Descriptors - * Junior Colleges, *Libraries, *Library Services
This Review describes ways to examine various aspects of community college
libraries. Little research has been done on the reasons for success or failure of
certain procedures or of certain administrative or organizational forms. The criteria
most often used for successful library service in the junior college (size of collection,
size of staff, space, circulation figures) are called "process" criteria, and their use is
analogous to judging an instructional program by the number of advance degrees
held by the faculty. "Product" or "outcome" criteria might be better used to assess the
library’s contribution to the total instruction program. When they are determined, they
will make the measure of success a challenge. (HH)
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE
OFFICE OF EDUCATION
THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM THE
ERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIGINATING IT. POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONS
TATED DO NOT NECES SARILY REPRESENT OFFICIAL OFFICE OF EDUCATION
POSITION OR POLICY.
UCLA JUNIOR COLLEGE RESEARCH
JUNIOR COLLEGE INFORMATION
Published by the American Association of Junior Colleges
THE JUNIOR COLLEGE LIBRARY: AN OVERVIEW
Previous issues of Junior College Research Review
have dealt with a variety of topics in the junior col-
lege field— transfer students, experimental programs,
dropouts, and testing practices— to name but a few.
This issue presents for the first time an analysis of
information on community college libraries based
upon data gained from twenty documents in the
Clearinghouse collection. At the outset it is apparent
that these reports must not be construed as being
representative of all aspects of junior college library
service. However, they are indicative of concerns and
issues involving this crucial element in the instruc-
tional programs of these institutions.
Several documents are library surveys. One (ED
013 081) is the report of a survey of community col-
lege libraries in Michigan in 1965. This study, which
was conducted by a research firm under the sponsor-
ship of the Michigan State Library, underlines the
urgency for stronger library holdings and services.
Personal interviews with librarians as well as deans
and presidents of eighteen public community colleges
and a questionnaire which was circulated by the
State Library were the sources of information. Using
the American Library Association Standards for Jun-
ior College Libraries as a base for evaluation, the
study reports a critical lag in the development of
book collections at thirteen of the libraries. It is well
known that the development of an adequate book
collection is dependent upon the availability of funds
for the purchase of materials and staff to select and
process new acquisitions as well as shelf space to
house the collections. Thus it is not surprising that
the primary limitations on the improvement of li-
brary collections at the majority of the community
colleges in Michigan were found to be inadequate
budgets for printed materials, a lack of professional
library staff, and limited facilities. The principal rec-
ommendation of the study proposes a “crash pro-
gram” in the form of yearly grants for a three year
period to those community colleges whose libraries
do not meet American Library Association standards.
Comprehensive surveys of public and private
higher education on the state level are necessary for
long-range planning and have been authorized by
several state legislatures. One phase of such reviews
often treats the problem of library service. Dr. Erret
W. McDiarmid served as consultant in charge of the
study of college libraries for the Commonwealth of
Virginia. This study (ED 013 081) included three,
state-controlled, two-year college libraries. Because
they were very new, these junior college libraries had
not yet reached acceptable standards. However, it
was noted that adequate stack space for a minimum
collection of 20,000 volumes, as well as work space
for the staff, was not anticipated. In addition, the
staffing components were low as were the budget al-
locations. Dr. McDiarmid recommended a long-range
program of supervision and coordination with four-
year institutions of higher education in the state.
The survey method is also used in the examina-
tion of the library in a specific institution. An exam-
ple is the “Report of a Brief Survey of the El Camino
College Library” (ED 012 614). In this report a
Library Study Committee examined such aspects of
the library as its organization and administration,
budget, collections, staffing, and space allocations.
Since the role of the junior college library in the
teaching-learning process is the principal reason for
its existence, the Committee sought the opinions of
teachers, administrators and students on its effec-
tiveness at El Camino College. Responses to an in-
quiry form were somewhat limited and suggested a
rather apathetic attitude among library users.
Strengthening the role of the college by uniting the
administration and operation of the library and the
audio-visual services, under a “Dean of Instructional
Resources” was the major recommendation of the
A variety of techniques have been used in dealing
with the availability of learning resources in the in-
structional programs of community colleges. A case
study of the library at Mt. San Jacinto College (ED
012 185) presents the development of an instruction-
al program utilizing the “multi-media” approach.This
involves the development of learning objectives in
behavioral terms as well as the determination of the
appropriate media or tools which enable students
to accomplish such goals. The role of the library is
great, for it serves as the primary tool in the instruc-
tional process. Conference proceedings as the Com-
munity College Library Administration Conference
held at Wayne State University in 1965 (ED014946)
and the Junior College Library Conference held at
UCLA in 1965 (ED 012 606) stress the relationships
of the library to instruction. Faculty-librarian coop-
eration is emphasized as a basic principle which
should undergird the policy of selecting books and
other educational media (ED 013 635). Innovation
is the underlying theme both of the papers and the
panel discussions at these conferences. Equally im-
portant, however, is the sharing of new devices and
techniques to revitalize the library and its services.
The unprecedented growth of higher education in
recent years has brought not only needs for new
construction but also demands from educators as
well as government officials to ensure the maximum
efficient use of existing facilities. Standards to be
used in determining space needs in junior colleges
are a recent development. In California an extensive
utilization study of the classrooms and laboratories,
offices and libraries in the three segments of public
higher education resulted in the final recommenda-
tions for standards and guidelines to be used in plan-
ning such facilities for junior colleges (ED 013 079).
In the case of junior college libraries, it was found
that reasonable approximations of space required for
audio-visual and programmed learning facilities were
not presently possible. However, the traditional
stack areas, space for reading stations, and working
space for the staff can be determined by applying the
Long-range planning is a critical element in the
development of institutions of higher education,
though often early projections become out-dated.
Such was the case with Cerritos Junior College where
the original campus was deemed inadequate before
it was completed. A revised building and facility re-
port to the Governing Board presented needs and
recommendations based upon enrollment projections
to 1980. The decision to expand the library facilities
led to plans for the development of a Learning Ma-
terials Center, the detailed specifications of which
are given in document (ED 013 649). The rapid ex-
pansion of this and other community colleges
prompted a division of the American Association of
Junior Colleges to compile a “Bibliography of Facil-
ities Information” (ED 014 293) in 1967.
Planning is essential not only to the development
of the total institution but also to its principal com-
ponents. In recognition of this, the Standards and
Criteria Committee of the Association of College
and Research Libraries prepared a set of guidelines
for junior college administrators who are concerned
with establishing new library units. The guidelines
were developed by experienced librarians and ad-
ministrators for the purpose of acquainting the
novice with the steps which must be taken. Given in
outline form, the guidelines report the appropriate
staging of events as well as specifications for the
budget, the collections, and buildings (ED 013 061 ) .
The American Library Association Standards for
Junior College Libraries, which were completed and
published in 1960, were used as the instrument to
measure the effectiveness of Henry Ford Community
College. In an article entitled “Strengthening the
College Library” (ED 015 740), the librarian and
chairman of the faculty library committee report
the procedures used in this self-study. In brief, a
series of questions were developed from the Stand-
ards which were used to study and evaluate the col-
lections, policies, facilities, and administrative pro-
cedures of the library.
The studies reported in this issue of Junior Col-
lege Research Review are indicative of certain ways
of examining various aspects of community college
libraries. Obviously, little research has been done
which gives insight into reasons for the success or
failure of certain procedures — or for the proficiency
or error of certain forms of administration or organi-
zation. What are the characteristics of successful
library service in junior colleges? The criteria of suc-
cess which are most often employed in studies of
libraries — size of collection and of staff, amount of
space, circulation figures and the like— are “Process”
criteria. Evaluating libraries on those criteria alone
is analogous to assessing the quality of an instruc-
tional program by counting the number of advanced
degrees held by the faculty. What types of “product”
or “outcome” criteria might be employed in efforts
to assess the contribution of a library to the total
instructional pattern? Given such standards, the
measure of success becomes a challenge as yet un-
ED 012 600
Recommendations for the Development of the Li-
brary Program at Fullerton Junior College and As-
sociated Campuses , by Ernest W. Toy. Fullerton
Junior College, Fullerton, California, 1965.
ED 012 606
The Junior College Library. Report of National Con-
ference on the Junior College Library, July 1965.
Occasional Report No. 8. Byron Lamar Johnson,
Editor. University of California, Los Angeles, 1965.
ED 014 285
Library Services in Virginia* s Institutions of Higher
Education, by Erret W. McDiarmid. Higher Educa-
tion Study Commission, Richmond, Virginia, 1965.
ED 014 946
The Administration of Library Instructional Serv-
ices in the Community College. Proceedings of a Con-
ference on the Administration of Library Instruc-
tional Services in the Community College, Wayne
State University, Detroit, Michigan, 1965. Charles
Alexander, Editor. Wayne State University, Detroit,
ED 013 611
“Cataloging and Classification in Junior College Li-
braries,” by Arthur Ray Rowland. Library Resources
and Technical Services, 7 , 1963.
ED 012 610
“Processing Center for California Junior College Li-
braries— A Preliminary Study,” by Everett L. Moore.
Library Resources and Technical Services, 9, Sum-
ED 012 176
“Periodicals Automation at Miami-Dade Junior Col-
lege,” by Eleanor G. Eyman, et al. Library Resources
and Technical Services, 10, Summer 1966.
ED 013 061
“Guidelines for Establishing Junior College Librar-
ies,” by the American Library Association, Assoc-
iation of College and Research Libraries, Junior
College Libraries Section. College and Research Li-
braries, 24, November 1963.
ED 014 293
Bibliography of Facilities Information, by the Amer-
ican Association of Junior Colleges. American Asso-
ciation of Junior Colleges, Washington, D.C., 1967.
ED 012 614
Report of a Brief Survey of the El Camino College
Library , by Andrew H. Horn. El Camino College,
Torrance, California, 1966.
ED 012 185
The Changing Role of the Library on the Junior Col-
lege Campus —A Case Study atMt. San Jacinto Col-
lege (Seminar paper), by C. Loran Lee. University
of California, School of Education, Los Angeles, 1966.
ED 014 964
Recommended Community College Basic Library
Allocation, by North Carolina Department of Com-
munity Colleges, Division of Library Services. North
Carolina Department of Community Colleges, Ral-
eigh, North Carolina, 1966.
ED 013 079
Space Utilization Standards, California Public
Higher Education, Report No. 1027, by Franklin G.
Matsler. California Coordinating Council for Higher
Education, Sacramento, California, 1966.
ED 013 081
A Program for the Rapid Improvement of Commun-
ity College Libraries in Michigan, by Nelson Associ-
ates, Inc. New York, 1965.
ED 014 983
Junior College Library Personnel Needs, Report of a
Survey, 1966-67, by Elizabeth Martin. American Li-
brary Association, Junior College Libraries Section,
Chicago, Illinois, 1967.
ED 013 109
Selected Bibliography on Junior College Libraries,
1955-67, Alice B. Griffith, Editor. American Library
Association, Junior College Libraries Section, Chi-
cago, Illinois, 1967.
ED 013 635
Improvement of Instruction. Proceedings of the
Fourth Junior College Administrative Teams Insti-
tute, Pensacola, Florida, July 27-31, 1964. Florida
State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 1964.
ED 013 649
Report and Recommendation for Learning Materi-
als Center , Cerritos College. Cerritos College, Nor-
walk, California, 1967.
ED 015 739
“Paperback Books and the College Library,” by
Frederick R. Hartz. Improving College and Univer-
sity Teaching, 12, Spring 1964.
ED 015 740
“Strengthening the College Library,” by Norman E.
Tanis and Karl J. Jacobs. Improving College and
University Teaching, 12, Spring 1964.
Abstracts of documents processed i*> the ERIC
System may be found in Research in Ed ucatio": a
publication of the U.S. Department of Health, Edu-
cation and Welfare. Research m Education may be
ordered from the Superintendent of U- 1-
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
(Single copy, $1.00; annual subscnption of 12 issues,
$ 11 . 00 ).
All of the documents reviewed are available (in
microfiche or hard copy) from the ERIC
Reproduction Service, National Cash
pany, 4936 Fairmont Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland
C LEA RINGHOUSE FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE INFORMATION
Arthur M. Cohen, Principal Investigator and Director
John E. Roueche, Associate Director
California Junior College Association
EDMUND J. GLEAZER, JR.
American Association of Junior Colleges
ROBERT M. HAYES
Professor, School of Library Service, UCLA
Director, Institute of Library Research
B. LAMAR JOHNSON
Professor of Higher Education, UCLA
Lorraine Mathies, Co-Investigator
Chairman, Council of State Directors
of Community Junior Colleges
THOMAS B. MERSON
Dean of Instruction
Bakersfield Junior College
C. WAYNE GORDON
Graduate School of Education , UCLA
University Librarian, UCLA
The Clearinghouse operates
JAMES L. WATTENBARGER
Director, Institute of Higher Education
University of Florida
under contract with the U.S. Department of Health,
Education and Welfare, Office of Education.
JUNIOR COLLEGE RESEARCH REVIEW
Arthur M. Cohen, Editor
Clearinghouse for Junior College Information
Room 96, Powell Library
University of California
Los Angeles, California 90024
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