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Full text of "ERIC ED045062: Annual Conference of Southern California and Arizona Community College Superintendents and Presidents (Lake Arrowhead Conference Center, California, October 6-8, 1970)."

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ED 045 062 

JC 700 261 




Annual Conference of Southern California and Arizona 
Community College Superintendents and Presidents 
(Lake Arrowhead Conference Center, California, 
October 6-8, 1970). 

California Univ. , Los Angeles. Junior Coll. 
Leadership Program. 

Oct 70 
26p . 

^DRS PRICE EDRS Price MF-S0.25 HC-S1.40 

DESCRIPTORS Administrative Organization, ^College 

Administration, ^Conference Reports, ^Discussion 
Groups, ^Governance, ^Junior Colleges 


An address on "Public Confidence in Higher 
Education" by the chairman of the board of the Bank of America 
opended the 1970 Lake Arrowhead Conference of Southern California and 
Arizona community college superintendents and presidents. A summary 
of this speech and the guestions and answers that followed it are 
included here. Comments from conference participants on such tonics 
as activities of the Board of Governors and the program of the 
California Junior College Association are summarized. Synopses are 
presented of five small-group sessions on (1) methods of 
communication among and between administrators, (2) the current 
status of the physical education requirement, (3) Student rights and 
responsibilities, (k) financing, and (5) recommendations for the 
formation of a statewide organization of chief community college 
administrators. Two papers on faculty participation in college 
governance (included with these proceedings) formed the basis for a 
discussion on that topic. A presentation of resolutions passed and 
recommendations made for the 1971 conference concluded the final 
session of the 1970 Lake Arrowhead Conference. (RC) 

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EDO 45062 

UCLA Junior College Leadership Program 

Lake Arrowhead Conference Center— University of California 

October 6-8, 1970 

I. Present: Members of the Advisory Council 

Ellis M. Benson 
Wendell C. Black 

R. Dudley Boyce 
Ralph H. Bradshaw 
Fred J. Brinkman 
Sidney W. Brossman 
Herbert I. Bruemmer 
Robert N. Burnham 
John W. Casey 
Leadle Clark 

Don W. Click 
John J. Collins 
Chester S. DeVore 
Marlon Donaldson 
Burns L. Flnllnson 
Walter M. Garcia 
Wiley D. Garner 
Glenn G. Gooder 

S. Rex Gorton 
Robert S. Hamilton 
Matt 0. Hanhlla 
John S. Hansen 
Robert E. Horton 
Frederick R. Huber 
Arthur M. Jensen 
John E. Johnson 
Milo P. Johnson 
Louis Kaufman 
William N. Kepley, Jr. 
Ray E. Loehr 

John MacDonald 
Stuart Marsee 
Marie Y. Martin 
John McCuen 
Ervin F. Metzgar 
Marie T. Mills 
Robert B. Moore 
John R. Nlcklln 
John D. Riggs 
Siegfried C. Rlngwald 
Robert C. Rockwell 

San Diego Mesa College 

Los Angeles Harbor College 

Golden West College 

Riverside City College 

Los Angeles Trade -Technical College 

California Community Colleges 

Maricopa Technical College, Arizona 

Grossmont College 

Fullerton Junior College 

Los Angeles Southwest College 

Los Angeles Conmunlty College District 

Moorpark College 

Southwestern College 

Scottsdale Conmunlty College 

Bakersfield College 

Rio Hondo Junior College 

Long Beach City College 

Santa Barbara City College 

San Diego City College 

San Diego Evening College 

Glendale Conmunlty College, Arizona 

State Center Junior College District 

Los Angeles Valley College 

Falomar College 

San Bernardino Valley College 

Santa Ana Junior College 

Mt . San Jacinto College 

Los Angeles City College 

Antelope Valley College 

Ventura College 

Mira Costa College 

El Camlno College 

Los Angeles Pierce College 

Glendale College 

Grossmont College 

Mt. San Antonio College 

Orange Coast College 

Los Angeles Pierce College 

Mesa Community College, Arizona 

Cerritos College 

College of the Canyons 

Omar H. Scheldt 
Orlln Shires 
Edvard Slmonsen 
Terrel Spencer 
Abel B* Sykes, Jr* 
J. Lee Thompson 
Burton Wadsvorth 
Stanley Warburton 
John K* Wells 
Donald L. White 
Charles H* Wilson 

Cypress College 
Porterville College 
Kern Junior College District 
Imperial Valley College 
Compton College 
Phoenix College, Arizona 
Victor Valley College 
Chaffey College 
East Los Angeles College 
Barstov College 

North Orange Community College District 

University of California. Los Angeles 

B* Lamar Johnson 
Frederick C* Klntzer 
M* Stephen Sheldon 
James Y. Yelvington 


Julio L* Bortolazzo 
John Lombardi 
Louis B. Lundborg 
Archie McPherran 
Lloyd Messer8mlth 

William A* Nielsen 
Louis C. Bless 

Harry D* Wiser 
Bichard F* Yoo 

Professor of Higher Education 
Associate Professor of Higher Education 
Director, Danforth Foundation Project 
Assistant Professor of Higher Education 

President Emeritus 
President Emeritus 

Chairman of the Board, Bank of America 
Office of the Chancellor, Sacramento 
Executive Director, 

California Junior College Association 
California Junior College Association 
Assistant to the President, 

Pasadena City College 

Accrediting Comnlsslon for Junior Colleges 
Assistant Executive Director, 

California Junior College Association 

Postdoctoral Fellovs In Junior College Administration 

Edwin B* Bailey 
William H* Stanley 



II* The 1970 Lake Arrowhead Conference was opened by John Collins, Chairman 

of the Planning Conmittee, at 1:30 p*m* He Introduced Mr* Louis B* Lundborg, 
Chairman of the Board, Bank of America, who addressed Council members and 
guests on the subject: "Public Confidence In Higher Education*" 

Mr* Lundborg began his presentation by comparing higher education and 
banking as service organizations, both subject to the scrutiny of society* 

He suggested that understanding society should be a part of every person's 
education, that challenging and attempting to Improve society should be 
Included in every student's educational experience* 

An essential characteristic of any effective society is order; without 
order there can be no society* Progress in a society is dependent upon 
freedom* Freedom cannot exist without order* 

The Scranton Report on Campus Unrest has been widely abused, but it was 
a mature, constructive report that pointed out complexities and diffi- 
culties of solving societal problems* Mr* Lundborg supported the need 
for a cease-fire recommended in the Report* The urge to fix the blame, 
he emphasized, is not a profitable path to follow* Far more crucial is 
the process of identifying the problems and posing solutions* 

Mr* Lundborg strongly felt that the only real long-range solution to cam- 
pus violence rested with the students, themselves* Adults should avoid 
doing wrong things and provide opportunities for student recomendatlons • 

We can only encourage students to take an affirmative, orderly approach 
to change* We can also help them realize that rules are not necessarily 
those of any single generation or of this Establishment, but rather the 
products of many generations of thought and precedence* 

We are faced with three alternatives* We can have an autocratic society, 
an anarchistic society or a participatory society* In addition to estab- 
lishing lines of communication with students who want constructive change, 
colleges should Involve community leaders in this endeavor* Frequently, 
the most effective process is through informal associations* 

It Is imperative that we recognize some of the wrongs In our society and 
remain susceptible to processes for remediation* 

The speaker concluded his remarks by encouraging reactions from the audi- 
ence* His replies to several questions follow: 

Q* Did you find similarities in your appraisal of the Isla Vista situation 
and your reading of the Scranton Report? 

A* There were many similarities • The issue of overreaction of the police 
was of particular concern In both* 

Q* How can we get the help of the vast middle group of students and community 

A* Much of the initiative for this comnunlcatlon rests with the conuunlty 
college* Campus forums could be Increased to promote give and take among 
students, faculty, administration and community leaders* Differences 

- 3 - 

will exist, but honest and open differences are healthy. Structured 
programs, I believe, tend to provide continuity, but an air of informal- 
ity is frequently lacking in formal community gatherings. 

Q. How can we communicate with SDS groups. Black Panthers, and other militants? 

A* Such groups appear to be so -dedicated to revolution that communication 
is usually an impossibility* We should attempt to Isolate these groups 
and work more closely with more moderate groups which seem willing to 
listen and Interact in an orderly manner. No group should be allowed 
to infringe upon the rights of others* Any faculty member who encourages 
obstructionism should be stopped* 

Q. How can we join together in our efforts to make the public more aware of 
our strengths? 

A* Our image is no better than the person with whom our customers come in 
contact* Keeping our houses in order is of prime importance* Building 
good will within our organizations is the first step* To build statewide 
confidence, support must be realized on the local level in each community 
with help from the local representatives to the state Legislature* 

Q. What is your view of dismissing classes to work in political campaigns? 

A* Hy first reaction was sympathetic, but my present inclination is to give 
smaller leaves of absence for such purposes* Students must learn how to 
work on these assignments* 

Q. What are the indicators you see of two-way interaction between educators 
and students? 

A* Changes are noticeable on some California campuses, particularly in the 
quality of student newspapers* There appears to be generally less radi- 
cal leadership* 

Q. Do certain violent steps taken in the early stages of development tend to 
discourage orderly processes? 

A* Violence, unfortunately, tends to follow the initiation of orderly proce- 
dures for effecting change, possibly because change does not occur speed- 
ily enough* We must be willing to move at a more accelerated pace if we 
are to avoid some of the acts of violence* 

Q* Do we lack confidence or understanding? 

A* A little bit of each is no doubt lacking* What is needed is more a part- 
nership than an adversarial approach* Our generation may have grown lax 
in upholding standards and in aspiring to certain values which are sup- 
ported by historical precedent* There is little profit in passing the 
blame* We must strive more diligently to take cooperative action* 

Mr* Collins voiced the appreciation of the audience as he thanked the 
speaker for his timely and challenging remarks* The audience warmly 
applauded Mr* Lundborg as he left the Conference Center* 


To begin the evening session, Mr. Collins Introduced Lamar Johnson who 
presented the postdoctoral fellows and welcomed new members of the Coun- 
cil. Mr. Collins then asked Mr. Klntzer for a brief statement regarding 
the recent meeting of the Northern Community College Presidents which he 
is invited to attend as a Universitywide Officer. Mr. Klntzer indicated 
that the problems and issues discussed were practically the same, and 
recognition of the need to cooperate statewide Is certainly evident in 
the attitude of Northern Community College Presidents. 

Mr. Collins presented Sidney Brossman, Chancellor, California Community 
Colleges who reviewed activities of the Board of Governors and described 
future plans. 

Be expressed determination to emphasize the service responsibilities of 
the Board of Governors. He recognized that community college administra- 
tors fear that the Board represents a growing bureaucracy in Sacramento. 
This feeling is partly due to the large amount of paper work emanating 
from Sacramento. A moratorium has been declared on all but the most 
necessary memos and questionnaires until the situation, including the 
work load, can be corrected. 

Mr. Brossman pointed out that legislation, state and federal. Invariably 
brings constraints over which the Board of Governors may not have control. 
In this regard, he referred to the "educational opportunity" legislation, 
"facilities planning," and "academic master plans," all of which have in 
some respects caused restrictions. Be described the Board of Governors 
as being very sensitive to the importance of local control of community 

Mr. Brossman described the need for an expanded general advisory committee 
to the Board of Governors. This group should Include the Executive Com- 
mittee of CJCA, presidents of various teacher's organizations and other 
chief -administrators of comnunity colleges. This group would be asked 
to preview and react to proposals emanating from the Chancellor's Office 
prior to meetings of the Board of Governors. 

The Chancellor responded to a number of questions. During the questioning 
period, he indicated that: 

1. The staff is beginning a study of criteria for establishing 
student full-time equivalence. 

2. Community colleges should identify courses that are Judged 
to be transferable. It should not be expected, however, 
that every course so identified will be acceptable by all 
senior colleges. 

The Council agreed that it was vitally Important to extend communication 
between the Chancellor, his staff and the Board and comnunity college 
presidents. It was generally felt that sessions such as this one, are 
of great mutual benefit and Bhould be scheduled regularly. 

The Chairman next called on Lloyd Messersmith, Executive Secretary of 
the California Junior College Association. Mr. Messersmith outlined 


the Association's program* Securing more funds is the prime commitment* 

He emphasized the need to remain unified if financial goals are to he 
realized* Adult and continuing education should not he split from the 
cormunlty college total obligation* The state's community colleges must 
pull together* 

Mr* Messer smith suggested that many key questions need to he answered 
with regard to local versus state control and the Association, he felt 
should focus on these issues* He described a proposal to Increase the 
Association's Board of Directors to 27 with the addition of nine non- 
voting student members* The non-voting idea was recommended by the stu- 
dents* Mr* Messersmlth also described a new format for publications* 

He further commented that Mr* Nielsen is providing excellent leadership 
for the Association* 

Mr* Messersmlth answered several questions: 

Q* How are proposals of the Association reviewed by students? 

A* Student members may agree or refer an issue back to the State General 
Students' Association* 

Q. What are the reasons for backing away from the mandatory student body 

A* Permission or mandated, it is locally controlled and gives students access 
to funds for uses which may be open to question* 

Both Mr* Messersmlth and Mr* Brossman Joined in a discussion of financing— 
the critical need a greater share of the state tax dollar* The discussion 
centered on a report of the Special CJGA Committee on State Support of 
Junior Colleges* 

The Report included short-term possibilities: 

a* a permissive district tax as a restricted fund for disadvan- 
taged programs; 

b* a district tax to be used in excess cost vocational programs, 

c* a sum to be obtained from the Governor's Budget to correct 
Inflationary increases, and if this Is not enough/ permis- 
sion to levy further district taxes* 

Long-range goals were also outlined: 

a* establishment of a statewide property tax of 25^ to be added 
to the Community College segment of the State School Fund* 

b* the State portion of the State School Fund to equal a 35^ 
state property tax* 

c* elimination of "adult' 1 as defined— so non-graded classes 
could receive same reimbursement as graded classes* 

Legislation would have to he developed under the full endorsement of the 
Board of Governors, CJGA and the appropriate teacher organizations* 

Mr# Collins concluded the evening session by briefing the Council on plans 
for the small groups that would be meeting throughout the day. The groups 
were asked to concentrate on the topics submitted in advance, and the chair - 
men were to be prepared to report during next evening's session* 

The following synopses of the small group sessions are representative of 
the reports submitted by Chairmen at the second evening meeting of the 
Council • 

Group 1 recommended that the Steering Committee explore methods of con- 
tinuing communication among and between chief -administrators • They also 

a* Student government as now operating in colleges --asking the 
question; Should students have control over funds? 

b* State government— asking; How can we make state government 

c* Delegation of authority to academic divisions* 

d* Centralization versus autonomy in multi-campus districts* 

The concept of the teacher as a district employee was given 
considerable attention* 

e* Transfer philosophy— community college transfers should have 
priority over first -time students* 

Group 2 examined the current status of the Physical Education requirement. 
Concern was raised regarding other required subjects. With respect to 
credentials, the group indicated that the State Plan for Vocational Educa- 
tion should not mandate credential requirements that are in conflict with 
current credential patterns# 

Formation of a statewide chief -administrator organization does not appear 
to be desirable* 

Other topics included advantages and disadvantages of the quarter and 
semester calendars. 

Group 3 first concentrated on student rights and responsibilities . Rights 
apparently Include the right to grievance, rights related to hours and 
duties, and right of due process* 

Students who create disturbance to classes and promote violence must be 
disciplined* The only real solution to student unrest will come by get- 
ting students Involved with each other and the college. 

The group also recommended: Involving students in counseling and teach- 

ing, getting students and faculty into the comminity, allowing teachers 
"to do their own thing" (independent study, etc*) 

It was also agreed that the Chancellor and the Board needed and deserved 
full support. 

Group discussed financing. A clear community college posture is needed. 

A coord inat ed voice among individual campuses, CJCA and the Chancellor's 
Office is most necessary. 

Possibility of a statewide president's organization was the major topic 
discussed. John Collins was requested to submit two items to the agenda 
of the administrator meeting President Buffington will be chairing at 
the San Diego Fall Conference: 

a. What are the respective roles of the Chancellor's Office, the 
Board of Governors and local districts? 

b. What would be specific reasons for a statewide chief-administrator's 

Group 5 recommended that a statewide organization of chief community 
college administrators be formed to: 

1. exchange ideas and techniques of unique concern, and 

2. take positions on issues in which our concerns may not be 
the same as those of other elements in CJCA. 

How to improve relationships with students was alos discussed in detail. 

Some suggestions were to: 

1. encourage students to sponsor activities in which they see 
administrators on a one-to-one relationship. 

2. arrange "rap" sessions between radical students and lav 
enforcement; and 

3* develop statements of student rights and responsibilities. 

Considerable time was given to a discussion of speakers, distribution of 
materials and publications. One college Invited the County Counsel to 
discuss legal implications of invitations to outside speakers with student 
and faculty groups. 

Mr. Messersmith and Mr. Yoo were urged to do what they could to help com- 
munity colleges with the Insurance problem. 

V. A presentation by Louis C. Bless, Assistant to the President, Pasadena 
City College, was the feature of the seventh session. Mr. Bless, the 
Immediate Past President, Faculty Association of California Conmninity 
Colleges, spoke on "Faculty Participation in College Governance." 

Mr. Bless' study from which his remarks were taken, is Included with 
these Minutes for the benefit of those unable to attend and also for 
those wanting another copy of the material distributed at the close of 
the session. 

- 8 - 

The speaker also presented "A Proposal to Establish Participative Manage- 
ment as the Basis for Administrative Function and Policy Development in 
Community Colleges*" Because of interest shown by the Council, this 
paper is included in its entirety. 

The Council engaged in a lively discussion following Mr. Mess' s presenta- 
tion* Many suspected that if tenure were removed, collective bargaining 
would soon replace it. Several endorsed the recommendation that districts 
should know where it can. get the best professional help in conducting bar- 
gaining negotiations. 

Mr. Wilson felt that California Community Colleges have about two years 
before mandatory bargaining will be legislated* During a discussion of 
techniques and procedures, he advised against plecemeallng a contract— 
rather to wait until all proposals are on the table* He urged adminis- 
trators to begin to think about a list of possible negotiable items. 

VI* Mr* Collins opened the final session by asking for an oral evaluation of 
the 1970 Conference. The Council gave strong support to the small group 
format, and made the following suggestions for the 1971 meeting: 

a. Reduce the number of groups from 5 to 4. 

b. Begin the Conference— possibly in the forenoon of the first day — 
with small group meetings, and alternate these with sessions of 
the full Advisory Council. 

c. Provide more time for group reporters at sunmary session. 

d. Give the Chancellor the opportunity to visit groups so that 
he can react to the group discussions during their meeting 
and at the wind-up session. 

Mr. Kintzer announced for the 1971 Lake Arrowhead Conference as: 

October 6-8 (Wednesday - Friday) 

The 1972 Conference dates are also secure: 

October 10-12 (Tuesday - Thursday) 

The business meeting was conducted by Mr* Bradshaw, Chairman of the Advi- 
sory Council. The first item was the unanimous election of new members 
and officers of the Steering Committee . The full list is provided below 
(new members asterisked): 

Membership for 1970-1971: 

Edward Simonsen (Chairman) (Member of the AAJC Board of Directors) 

John Collins (Vice-Chairman) 1972 
Dudley Boyce (Member of AAJC Administration Committee) 

Ralph Bradshaw 1971 
Glenn Gooder 1971 
Robert Horton 1971 

- 9 “ 

Arthur Jensen 


*John MacDonald 


*Marie Mills 


*Siegfried Ringwald 


Abel Sykes 


Three resolutions put forward by the Steering Committee were approved: 

a* that chief -administrators of community colleges in the State 
of Hawaii be invited to become members of the Advisory Coun- 
cil for the UCLA Junior College Leadership Program* The 
Secretary was instructed to write a letter of invitation to 
the Vice-President of the University of Hawaii* 

b* that the CJCA, through its Committee on Instruction, study 
mandated courses, including Physical Education in California 
Community Colleges • 

c. that a committee of three members of the Advisory Council be 
appointed to consider means for improving and extending com- 
munication among California Community College chief -adminis- 
trators and the Board of Governors of the California Commu- 
nity Colleges, and that the committee convene before the 
November 8 opening session of the CJCA in San Diego* The 
Advisory Council voted unanimously to create the special 
committee recommended by the Steering Committee and to expand 
it from three to five members, consisting of Edward Simonsen, 
William Kepley, Wendell Black, Walter Garcia, and Hay Loehr* 

A fourth resolution was adopted by the Advisory Council: 

d* That Ralph Bradshaw, as Chairman of the Advisory Council 
advise the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges 
that a sub -committee has been created to improve comnunlca- 
tion between chief -administrators of California Community 
Colleges and his office with respect to matters placed before 
the Board of Governors. 

Nr* Johnson commented briefly on Leadership Program activities* He sum- 
marized some of the on-going projects: self -instructional materials, 

in-basket items and case studies used in administration seminars, and the 
term paper exchange— and current as well as future project of the Danforth 
Program. He encouraged members of the Council to pick up copies of the 
1969-70 Annual Report . 

He mentioned several possibilities for future Council programs: a review 

of the U.S* Office of Education Comprehensive "Study of Junior Colleges" 
(James Trent, Chief Investigator) and sessions with Edmund Gleazer (pos- 
sibly in the late fall) and Franklin Murphy ( in the late winter or spring) • 
The Council Informally encouraged Mr* Johnson to work out details with 
the Steering Committee • 

Mr* Hack presented the status of the treasury in great detail* In sum- 
mary, the balance in the treasury is now $121.10. 


Council members, through their spokesman, John Riggs, expressed apprecia- 
tion for the opportunity to participate, and the Chairman, Mr* Bradshaw, 
thanked them for their regular attendance and their contributions* 

A round of applause was accorded Ralph Bradshaw, John Collins and Wendell 
Black for their outstanding service to the Council. 

Mr* Bradshaw adjourned the Conference at 11:45 a*m. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frederick C* Klntzer, Secretary 
Assisted by: 

Edwin R* Bailey and 
William H. Stanley 





Dr. Louis C. Riess 
Assistant to the President 
Pasadena City College 
September 1970 


The purpose of this study vas to determine the degree and nature of cur- 
rent faculty participation In decision-making in California Community Colleges, 
and to determine in the Judgment of faculty members and administrators the 
degree to which faculty members should participate. 


A random sampling of the staff of 8l community colleges during the fall 
of 1969 resulted in completed questionnaires from 111 (68.9#) administrators 
and 171 (60.6$) faculty members. The respondents were asked to indicate the 
current and recommended degrees of faculty participation for each of twenty- 
three decision-making items, utilizing five responses with the relative weights 
of 1 to 5* Twelve sets of comparisons were made for each of the twenty-three 
decision-making items. The mean and standard deviation were computed for each 
of the twenty-three items in each set of comparisons. The F test vas applied 
to each comparison and the difference vas considered to be significant if it 
vas at or beyond the five percent level of confidence. The mean scores were 
also placed in rank order with the highest mean ranked number one. 


1. The faculty indicated a significant difference for all twenty-three 
items when current and recommended degrees of faculty participation in decision- 
making were compared. The administrators indicated a significant difference 
for twenty. Both the faculty and administrators recommend greater faculty par- 
ticipation for all items. 

2. When comparing faculty with administrators regarding current partici- 
pation, the faculty perceived less faculty participation than the administrators 
for all twenty-three items, with a significant difference for twenty -two . 

3* When comparing faculty with administrators regarding recommended par- 
ticipation, the faculty indicated a higher degree of faculty participation for 
all twenty -three items, with fifteen of the items significantly different. 

k. The only significant difference in the comparisons of faculty sub- 
groups occurred between academic and applied faculty regarding recommended 
participation. The academic faculty indicated a higher degree of faculty 
participation for all tventy-three items, with thirteen significantly different. 

5* The academic senate vas selected by 138 (80.7$) of the faculty, and 
99 (89*9$) of the administrators over the negotiating council and collective 
bargaining as the most effective method of faculty participation in community 
college governance. 


1. The faculty and administrators support a broad and significant Increase 

in faculty participation in community college decision-making, with the dif- 
ferences being matter of degree, not direction, 

2. The faculty and administrators suggest that the Academic Senate is the 
most appropriate and effective model to provide for a significant Increase in 
faculty participation in community college decision-making* 

3* Conmunity colleges should develop an administrative process based on 
the principles of participative management* 


1* Conmunity College Trustees, faculty and administrators should work 
actively to strengthen both the local and statewide Academic Senates. 

2* The president with trustee support should establish a college recom- 
mending body which is chaired by the president and made up of representatives 
from the faculty, administration, students fluid classified staff to receive and 
act upon tentative policy recommendations received from any of these component 

3* The president should establish a Joint faculty, administrator, student 
and classified staff collegewide committee system which would articulate both 
with these component groups as well as with the college policy -recommending 

4* Trustees, administration and faculty should continue to work actively 
for the removal of comnunity colleges from under Jurisdiction of the Wlnton 
Act • 

- 2 - 







Dr. Louis C* Riess 
Assistant to the President 
Pasadena City College 
September 1970 


During the past few years higher education has moved from the obituary 
section to the front page* T* R* McConnell states, "Profound changes are 
occurring In patterns of authority and influence In higher education* In some 
institutions there Is an Internal struggle for participation and pover among 
students, faculty, administrators and trustees*" McConnell further states 
that In response to this disruption, governors and legislators are considering 
punitive laws and asserting personal and political power against public Insti- 
tutions* Pressure groups from the right and left, along with the Influential 
elite and disposed minorities are trying to use higher education to protect 
their Interests* (McConnell, 1970, p* 11) 

The most visible part of this Internal revolution has focused on the stu- 
dents, beginning with the birth of the free speech movement at Berkeley In 1964, 
to the death of four students at Kent State* These activities captured most 
of the headlines and dominated radio and television broadcasts • Meanwhile the 
faculty struggle for full participation In college and university governance 
which began with the formation of Committee T of the American Association of 
University Professors In 1917, continued to accelerate, making significant 
gains and smaller headlines* Recently this drive for full faculty participa- 
tion has been accompanied by a rapid Increase In teachers strikes* Wynn Indi- 
cates that during the 1967-68 school year 163,000 teachers In 114 districts, 
from 21 states engaged In some type of work stoppage, for an average of 8 days 
and a total of 1*5 million man days* He further states that If the current 
rate of strikes continues on the same curve that by 1985 all public employees 
will be on strike* (Wynn, 1970, p* 415) 

What brought about this rapid Increase In faculty militancy? Frankie and 
Howe In their article, "Faculty Power in the CoBmunlty College, " state that 
"at no time has the study of power and authority been of more vital Importance 
to the academic conmunlty*" They set the stage for discussion of faculty un- 
rest in higher education by quoting Arnold Weber, Chairman of the American 
Association for Higher Education Task Force that studied faculty representation 
and academic negotiation* Weber offers the following rationale for faculty 
dissat isf act ion • 

Where they (two-year colleges) formerly have almost exclu- 
sive emphasis to vocational courses, many junior colleges 
have modified their "mission" to become part of a system 
of academic higher education* Where It was under the ad- 
ministration of the local Board of Education governing 
secondary education, the junior college may now be a part 
of a separate district or statewide system* This change 
in function and administration has meant that junior col- 
lege faculty members often are no longer satisfied with 
the passive role of a "teacher" In a highly centralized 
structure where control over educational policies and the 
condition of employment Is lodged in the hands of the 
president and the Board* Instead, many junior college 
professors now seek full academic status and rights of 
participation In the traditional sense* (Frankie -Howe, 1968, p* 83) 

1 - 


Richardson feels that a key factor In faculty militancy is that "Adminis- 
trators have for the most part refused to shareboard -delegated powers with the 
teaching faculty." (Richardson, 1967, pp. 40-4l) He holds that faculty in- 
volvement in decision-making in the administrative process is critical to the 
success of the two-year college • Administrators who fall to understand this 
and who are resistant to change are, he suggests, contributing to the revolu- 
tionary movement among junior college teachers • 

Lahti, who conducted the AAJC's 1964 study of the faculty's role in admin- 
istration and policy-making, recently made the following observation, "College 
presidents will readily admit that there are no bargains at the leadership 
counter. They are finding themselves faced by the same critical shortage of 
competent managerial talent that is plaguing industry and, in fact all adminis- 
trative strata of our complex society." (Lahti, 1970, p. 6l) 

Lahti gives strong support to his argument with the following quotes from 
leaders in the area of educational administration: 

"The spirit of amateurism permeates the academic organization from top to 
bottom,” states David C. Knapp, former director of the American Council on Ed- 
ucation's (ACE) Institute for College and University Administrators. He suggests 
that, the failure to devise and apply administrative processes required by the 
times, • • • • has resulted in conditions of bureaucracy, disorder and poor conrnu- 
nications • 

"The failure to participate in the management revolution that has swept 
American business and industry is hurting higher education today, " Alvin C • Eurlch 
President of the Academy for Educational Development, Inc., has written. 

John Caffrey, Director of the Commission on Administrative Affairs of ACE 
states, "Until the 19th century, the college administrator was simply a prin- 
cipal officer of the faculty, but this is not the year lfiOO, and the complexity 
of today's management problems and of the systems devised to solve them, has 
created a new profession, one of the few Important ones, by the way, for which 
little or no formal training is available." (Lahti, 1970, pp. 61-62) 

The literature and research suggest then that the root causes for faculty 
dissatisfaction with institutional governance result from an unresponsive ad- 
ministrative structure operated by staff who lack modern, relevant management 
skills . 

If faculty dissatisfaction results primarily from an unresponsive, archaic 
administrative structure presided over by leaders who lack modern management 
ski lls, what evidence exists which identifies both the scope of the problem as 
well as possible solutions? 

This writer recently completed a research project which sampled faculty 
members and administrators from eighty -one California Community Colleges. The 
objectives of the study were to determine the degree and nature of current 
faculty participation in twenty-three decision-making areas, the recomnended 
degree to which faculty should participate and process by which this partici- 
pation should take place. 

The major findings which bear directly on the management Issues were the 

Both faculty and administrators recommend greater faculty participation 
in all twenty-three areas when current and recommended participation were com- 
pared. The faculty reconmended a significant Increase in participation for all 
twenty-three areas and the administration for twenty. 

When comparing faculty with administrators regarding current participation, 
the faculty perceived less faculty participation than the administrators for 
all twenty-three items, with a significant difference for twenty-two. 

When comparing faculty with administrators regarding recommended partici- 
pation, the faculty Indicated a higher degree of faculty participation for all 
twenty-three items, with fifteen of the items significantly different. 

The Academic Senate was selected hy 138 (80.7$) of the faculty, and 99 
(89*9#) of the ad'iinistrators over the negotiating council and collective bar- 
gaining as the most effective method of faculty participation In community 
college governance. 

The following re commendat ions are based on these and other findings in 
the study. 

Conmunity colleges should redesign the traditional line -staff administra- 
tive structure inherited from Philip of Macedonia. There should be administra- 
tive structures developed which clearly separate the educational functions of 
the college from the business and housekeeping functions. This should be 
accompanied by a maximum delegation of responsibility and authority to the major 
administrative sub-units; and a highly developed two-way system. 

The president with trustee support should establish a college recommending 
body which is chaired by the executive vice-president and made up of the pres- 
ident and an equal number of representatives from the faculty, administration, 
students and classified staff to receive and act upon tentative policy recom- 
mendations received from any of these component groups. 

Policy re comnendat ions approved by the group, should be forwarded to the 
trustees by the president with the provisions for minority reports to the trust- 
ees on any items that are not endorsed by any of the participating groups. 

The president should establish a Joint faculty, administrator, student 
and classified staff college wide committee system which would articulate both 
with these component groups as well as with the college policy-recommending 
body. This is a vital part of the comnunlcatlons process which links the gen- 
eral membership of each component group to the central decision-making process. 


To implement the above recommendations, the college should be divided into 
an instructional division and a business -housekeeping division, each presided 
over by a vice-president. (See Diagram 1) 


This division would be administered by the vice-president for educational 
affairs and would contain all the functions that relate to instruction and 



student services* The division would he further subdivided into three semi- 
autonomous operational subdivisions, each administered by an administrative 


Would be responsible for the staffing of the faculty, development of cur- 
riculum, evaluation of instruction, development of Instructional resources and 
community service and adult education programs. His related staff would in- 
clude the deans of academic and vocational programs, instructional resources, 
adult education community services and the department chairmen* 


Would be responsible for student admission, retention and dismissal activ- 
ities, counseling and guidance, student activities and special services, such 
as health, psychological services and financial assistance* His related staff 
would include the deans of admissions, counseling and guidance, student activ- 
ities and special services for students* 


Would be primarily responsible to the instructional staff for recommending 
new instructional programs, development of related financial resources, evalua- 
tion of programs and relations with federal and state agencies and with profes- 
sional educational organizations, private foundations and other segments of 
higher education* His related staff would Include the deans of research and 
governmental relations* 


This division would be administered by the Vice-President for Business 
Affairs and would contain all of the business and housekeeping functions which 
would provide the support service required by the instructional division* The 
division would be further subdivided into six operational subdivisions, each 
administered by a director* 








The operational subdivisions would each report to their respective vice- 
presidents utilizing the traditional line system of relationships* The admin- 
istrators of the subdivision would also have direct communication with the 
president through the office of the executive vice-president* Each division 
would have its own representative council and committee structure, with the 
educational division represented by the Academic Senate and the business divi- 
sion by the Business Council* The president would meet regularly with both 
the Senate and the Council and would also hold regular Joint and separate staff 
meetings with both vice-presidents and their administrative staffs . 

The president, assisted "by the executive vice-president, would act as an 
educational leader instead of the traditional administrator* The routine op- 
erational responsibilities ‘would he delegated to the division heads and their 
staff, to be carried out following predetermined policies and procedures* The 
president could maintain adequate supervision and control through the staff 
activities of the executive vice-president and would therefore be able to de- 
vote most of his time and energy to institutional planning and development* 

The president in effect becomes both the catalyst and glue which provokes his 
staff to creative thinking, while at the same time holding the operational 
subdivisions of the institution in functional proximity* 


This administrative relationship would naturally call for a restructuring 
of the traditional community college policy development process* 

The college policy recommending body (see Diagram 2) would be made up of 
an equal number of voting members representing the faculty, administration, 
student body and the business division* The Academic Senate would select both 
the faculty and administrative representatives, the business council would 
select the classified representatives and the student body government the stu- 
dent representatives* 

The president would have full debate privileges and have a vote equal to 
the number of representatives from one of the four segments listed above, thus 
giving him 20# of the voting power* 

The policy body would be chaired by the executive vice-president who would 
be a non-voting member, and would have the responsibility for the agenda, dis- 
cussion materials and the minutes • 

All policy recommendations to the board would come through the policy body 
and be presented by the president* A written minority report from any group 
not concurring with policy recommendations would accompany the majority position 
when it is presented to the board for consideration* 

The Academic Senate, Student Senate and the Business Council would have 
direct access to both the president and the trustees* These groups would be 
free to discuss with the president issues before and after they are considered 
by the policy body, however no policy recommendations would be presented directly 
to the Board without first having passed through the policy development body* 

The Academic Senate president. Student Senate president and chairman of the 
Business Council would serve as ex officio members of the Board of Trustees, 
with full right of debate* 


There have been a variety of administrative -reorganization and policy- 
development plans proposed and tried which for the most part have been unsuc- 

The proposed plan discussed in this article will have no greater chance 
of success than its predecessors, unless the colleges supply the ingredient 
which appears to have been missing in other systems* A plan is only good as 


the commitment and skills supplied by the staff who must function as part of 

Lahti in his recent article "Developing Leadership for the Management of 
Higher Education" suggests that, "Top industrial organizations have found one 
solution to the problem by providing extensive in-service development of their 
own potential management talent. This requires comnltment in terms of organ- 
izational priorities and resources. A commitment in higher education to estab- 
lish leadership development programs within individual institutions may provide 
a means of alleviating the management crisis. (Lahti, 1970, p. 62) 

Following Lahti's rationale, I would offer the following as examples of 
internal management training programs, which should precede any attempt to 
establish a participative management system such as the one suggested in this 
article • 

1. Since participative management is based on the comprehensive inter- 
action by all of the many functional sub-groups that make up the institution, 
all employees of the college, buth certificated and classified, should partici- 
pate in a formal in-service management training program. The training sessions 
should cover basic management areas such as the theory of administration goal 
setting, organization and planning, evaluation, perpetuation, identification, 
communications, and decision-making. 

Staff members who successfully complete the training program should receive 
a stipend. 

Outside consultants could conduct the program as a series of 8 to 10 two- 
hour seminars. If the same seminar is conducted three or four times a week 
there should be enough flexibility to accommodate the individual problems of 
staff members. Using this format, four series of seminars could be conducted 
during a single academic year, more than enough to train the entire staff. 

2. Staff internships should be made available to the faculty, classified 
employees and students. For example, faculty representatives could be selected 
by departments or from the Academic Senate. Each faculty member selected would 
be assigned to sone of the administrative sub-units of the college and, on the 
basis of his interest, could be assigned as an administrative assistant to one 
of the deans in the educational division or to one of the directors in the 
business division. 

The assignment should be for one semester, with a fixed number of hours 
(approximately 6 to 10) per week. The faculty member would either receive a 
stipend or a reduced teaching load commensurate with the assignment. 

This type of program would give faculty members interested in administra- 
tion some insights into this type of assignment and would provide the adminis- 
tration with an opportunity to evaluate them for future management assignments. 

3* A faculty -administrative fellowship program should be established to 
motivate capable staff members to develop new Instructional programs, new teach- 
ing techniques and media, comprehensive methods of evaluating instruction, and 
more functional management systems. 

- 6 - 


A portion of the instructional budget should he set aside and administered 
by a representative staff committee functioning under the direction of the vice- 
president for educational affairs* 

Staff members would he encouraged to submit proposals covering the areas 
mentioned above, thereby becoming eligible to receive grants to pursue their 
individual areas of interest* 

A similar type of program could be developed for the business division* 

Richardson states that administrators exercise less authority than they 
did three years ago and that there is only one direction in which this trend 
is likely to go. No longer is there a question as to whether the faculty 
should be involved in decision-making; rather, the more serious issue is what 
should be the administrator's role* 

Therefore, community colleges must not only reorganize their administra- 
tive and policy development structures, they must also prepare their staff for 
transition from the traditional line -staff system of administration to the 
participative management model* "Paper organizational charts and paper author- 
ity are no substitutes for power*" (Richardson, 1970, pp* 16-19 ) 

Failure to adopt a management system based on shared responsibility and 
mutual respect will most surely condemn community colleges to the adversary 
system of negotiations embodied in the industrial model of collective bargain- 
ing already adopted by several colleges* 


Frankie, R* J. and Howe, R. A. "Faculty Bower in the Community College." 
Theory into Practice. Vol. 7 , Ho. 2, (April, 1968), pp. 83-88. 

Lahti, Robert. "Developing Leadership of Higher Education." College and 
University Business. Vol* 48, Ho* 5, (May, 1970), pp. 6l-bb. 

McConnell, T. R. "Campus Governance -Faculty Participation." The Research 
Reporter. The Center for Research and Development in Higher Education, 
University of California Berkeley, Vol* V, Ho* 1, (1970), pp. 1-4. 

Richardson, Richard C* "Heeded: New Directions in Administration." Junior 
College Journal. Vol* 40, No* 6, (March, 1970), pp* 16-22* 

Richardson, Richard C. "Policy Formation in the Two-Year College •" Junior 
College Journal. Vol. 38, No. 6, (March, 1967), PP« 40-42. 

Riess, Louis C* "Institutional Attitudes Relating to Faculty Participation in 
California Community College Governance." Unpublished doctoral disserta- 
tion, University of California; Los Angeles, 1970* 

Vtynn, Richard. "Collective Gaining." Phi Delta Kaopan * Vol. 51, No. 8, 
(April, 1970), pp. 415-419. 

commm colleges 







Related Staff 

1* Administrative Dean of the Faculty 

a) Dean of Academic Programs 

b) Dean of Vocational Programs 

c) Dean of the Library and 
Instructional Resources 

d) Dean of Adult Education 

e) Dean of Community Services 

f) Department Chairman 

2. Administrative Dean of Student Personnel Services 

a) Dean of Registration and Admissions 

b) Dean of Counseling and Guidance 

cj Dean of Student Activities 

d) Dean of Special Services for Students 

3* Administrative Dean for Educational Development 

a) Dean of Governmental Relations 

b) Dean of Institutional Research 


Related Staff 

1. Director of Budget Development 

2. Director of Personnel Services 
3* Director of Business Services 

4. Director of Institutional Data Processing 

5. Director of Maintenance and Operations 

6. Director of Faculty Planning and Utilization 

comssm college