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ED 046 381 

JC 710 032 



Research, Innovation and Experimentation. 
Santa Ee Junior Coll., Gainesville, Fla. 

I U'J 7 0 



EDRS Price ^-$0.65 HC-$3.2° 

Experiments, ^Institutional Research, ^Junior 

Colleges, ^Research Projects 



This is the second in a series of annual 
presentations cn the innovative, experimental, and research 
activities conducted at Santa Ee Junior College. The studies include; 
classroom activities, college-wide research, short statements on 
different instructional approaches to formal dissertation abstracts, 
subjective observations, intricate experimental designs, and an 
up-datinq of reports presented in last year's publication (En 034 
c 1 3) . Contributors include faculty, administrative staff members, 
students, and University of Florida graduate students. (Author/CA) 




- 4 - 














AUGUST 1970 


FEB 12 1971 




Two major concepts form the philosophical foundation upon which 
Santa Fe Junior College is based. Succinctly stated, they are: Santa Fe is 
dedicated to learning, and Santa Fe is an open-door college. In its attempt to 
transfer this philosophy into an existing reality, innovation, experimentation 
and research are encouraged throughout the College. New student programs, 
teaching methods, and organizational structures are constantly being 
investigated, developed, and implemented in orde** to provide each Santa Fe 
student with those educational experiences which will be the most suitable 
in fulfilli g his needs. 

This booklet is the second in a series of annual presentations of the 
innovative, experimental, and research activities conducted at Santa Fe 
Junior College. The studies range from classroom activities to college-wide 
research, from short statements on different instructional approaches to 
formal dissertation abstracts, from subjective observations to intricate 
experimental designs, and from updated reports presented in last year’s 
Research Activities to projects initiated immediately preceding this 
publication. Contributors include faculty, administrative staff members, 
students, and University of Florida graduate students for whom Santa Fe 
Junior College served as a laboratory. 

If this collection of ieports and abstracts serves to stimulate others to 
investigate better ways to teach and learn, to document what has been tried 
at the College, or to reinforce the need for educational evaluation, it will be 

This booklet was prepared by the Office of Research. 

Ann Bromley, Ph.D. 




L Team Teaching Basic English Composition and 
Literature and Composition - Carolyn Arena 
and Janet Terlume 

2. Individualizing Student Learning in Practical 
Nursing - Martha Bell 

3. An Attempt to Evaluate Student Progress in 
Reading * Mary Ellen Bradford 

4. Evaluation of Work Experiences in the Vocational 
Exploration Project - Bobara Broce 

5. A Behavioral Approach to Auto Mechanics * 

Ralph Carlysle 

6. Project Algebra - Florence Cline and Carlos Piedra 

7. Audio-Tutorial Experimental Spanish Program - 
Manuel S. Couto 

8. “Open Your Ears. Eyes and Do It" in the Basic 
Humanitites Course - Helen K. Davies 

9. Precision Teaching as Applied to Behavioral 
Science - Edwin E. Eddy 

10. Mass Communications and General Education - 
Marilyn S. Fregly 

11. An In-Depth Study of the Manpower Development 
and Training Program - C. D. Geiger 

1 2. Health Related Core Program - J. Richard Gilliland 

13. Diversified Individual Teaching (DIT) in the 
Basic English Course - Evelyn Hale 

14. Santa Feand the Critical Thinking Gap - 
M. Drew Hurley 

1 5. Student Attitude: The Criterion for Success? 

M. Drew Hurley 







1 1 





16. The Innovative Use of Dance in Music Appreciation 

Class - Betty Keie 22 

1 7. The Use of Counselor Aides in Vocational 

Exploration Project - Mary Landsman 23 

18. A Laboratory-Centered Unit Research Design - Mary 

Ann Linzniayer and Norma Dew 24 

19. Student Evaluation of a Political Science Textbook - 

D. R. Matthews 25 

20. An Approach to Teaching an Introduction to Anthropology - 

Stuart L McRae 26 

21 . The Effect of Musical Background on Listening 

Perceptivity - Sandra L. Noc 28 

22. Student Involvement through a Community Project - 

Robert W. North 29 

23. Use of Films in a Self-Concept Course - Robert W. North 30 

24. Video Tape - A Way to Develop Self-Concept - Robert 

W. North 31 

25. The Use of Television Techniques in Teaching Chemistry - 

R. K. Richardson 32 

26. Student Attitudes Towards Foreign Language 

Learning - Irene Scholes 34 

27. A Further Development of the "Open Lab” - Mary Taube 36 

28. Biology for Leisure Time - Mildred Vyverberg 38 

DURING 1969 -1970 

1. An Application of the Motivator-Hygiene Theory to 

Public Junior College Personnel * Paul Raymond Lyons 39 

2. Sonic Commonalities of Faculty Selection and In-Service 
Development Techniques as Related to Faculty Operating 
Behavior Which is Consonant with Community Junior 

College Philosophy - Robert E. Shepack 41 



1 . Survey of Post-Secondary Occupational Education ■ 

Florida Community Junior College Inter-institutional 
Research Council and Santa Fe Junior College 

2. Survey of Compensatory Education Practices - Florida 
Community Junior College Inter-institutional Research 
Council and Santa Fe Junior College 

3. Survey of Student Rights, Freedoms and Involvements - 
Ann Bromley, Santa Fe League Representative 


1 . The Santa Fe Student ■ Who is He or She?- Ann Bromley 
and Stephen S. Sledjeski 

2. Student Evaluation of Faculty Development - Ann Bromley, 
Stephen S. Sledjeski and Daryl Johnston 

3. Educational-Aide Program - Stanley Lynch 

4* A Study of Motivational Factors in the Learning 
Laboratory - June Prows 

5. Mini-Unit I - Russel Roy 

6. Operation College Bouno * Robert Wheless 


1 . The Community Junior College Experience as Perceived 
by Students Who Have Withdrawn - Billy Hampton Davis 

2. Action Project with Transfer Graduates of Santa Fe - 
John W. Dykes 

3. The Late Bloomer in the Junior College - Robin Lawrason 

4. Audience Reactions to some Generic Words and Their 
Associations with Advertised Products * JoAnn Myer 










Carolyn Arena and Janet Terhune 

The purpose of the project was two fold: to relieve the pressure of 
having to teach composition as well as literature by the Literature and 
Composition teacher and to provide subject matter for the compositions 
written by the students in the Basic English Composition course. The 
rationale was that students will write more willingly and more thoughtfully 
about topics related to the subject matter of courses they are taking. 
Moreover, most writing required of college students is not about their 
personal non-academic interests but rather relating to the subject matter of 
their academic work. Composition classes should help students write about 
their readings. 

In order to accomplish this, students were required to enroll in both 
courses simultaneously. Papers written in the Basic English Composition 
course were based upon literature studied in the Literature and Composition 
course. During the 1 1 week term the class met for a double session writing 
lab on every other Monday. Both instructors were available to give individual 
assistance on both mechanics and content of papers. On alternate Fridays 
the class met for a double session of literature study, often enabling the 
complete presentation of a recording of a play, etc. Each teacher assumed 
responsibility for the course assigned her but each was able to make a 
contribution to the other's class where it seemed desirable. The grades for 
the Basic English Composition course were derived from the content and 
mechanics grades of the six papers assigned. Each paper received two grades, 
one for content and one for mechanics. The grades for the Literature and 
Composition course were derived from the content grades of ihe six papers 
plus the average of the ten reading quiz grades. The content grades on the 
papers were decided jointly by the two instructors. 

Tentative conclusions of the project were the following. Due to errors 
in registration, the class was very small (12 people), and thus, results were 
influenced by class sLe. The project should be tried again with a larger class 
before final conclusions can be reached. However, it was noted that students 
showed only moderate tolerance of double class sessions which is similar to 
endurance problems in night classes. Second, content of papers seemed to be 
above average quality. Third, the instructors involved in the project teach in 
the same discipline which provided familiarity for each with the content of 
both courses although all team teaching requires more planning time than 
individual teaching. And fourth, this procedure might be successful on an 
interdisciplinary basis with sections of the Basic English Composition course 
taught in conjunction with sections of other content courses. 




Martha Bell 

The Practical Nursing curriculum is twelve months in length and 
combines classroom theory with clinical experience. There are fourteen 
courses in the program, starting with Vocational Adjustments, Health 
Nutrition, Life Span, and Structure and Function. These courses allow the 
student to start with something familiar and non-complex before proceeding 
to the more complex Fundamentals of Nursing, Illness Conditions, and 
Disorders of the Various Body Systems. 

In the 18th week of the curriculum there is a course, Introduction to 
Illness Conditions. This course introduces the student to illness conditions, 
the causes of illness, defenses against illness, and the nursing needs of people 
who exhibit selected signs and symptoms of illness. Included in this course 
are 39 nursing skills or procedures of which the student must have 
knowledge: purpose, technique for performing, safety measures, expected 
results, and correct method of reporting and recording. 

It was felt that the student saould be allowed to move at his own rate 
of learning and provisions were made for this activity. For each of the skills, 
an assignment sheet was developed, which included suggested references and 
those visual aids (trainex and the Single Concept Film Loops and tapes) that 
were applicable to the topic. A progress test was developed, and a patient 
unit was set up for each of these skills so that return demonstration of some 
of the skills was possible. Some skills, such as Oxygen Therapy, Sterile 
Scrub, etc., could not be demonstrated in the laboratory Jetting. The 
students were given the packet of assignment sheets. As each student 
completed an assignment sheet, he contacted one of t he five instructors who, 
in turn, reviewed the sheet with the student. Errors were corrected and 
incidental teaching took place. After this was accomplished, the student 
took the progress test and gave a return demonstration of the procedure. In 
some cases the demonstration preceded the progress test. Approximately 4*5 
hours per week for six weeks were scheduled as open lab, and the faculty 
worked with students as they were ready. 

The strengths of this project were obvious to the faculty and the 
students. First of all, the students were active participants in this learning 
activity and, in so doing, assumed more responsibility for their own learning. 
The student that needed additional practice in a specific skill was able to 
remain in the laboratory and practice until she felt comfortable with the 
procedure; then she went to the hospital for actual patient contact. This 
method allowed each student to progress at her own rate of learning. The 
instructor was free of classroom presentation and was able to work with each 
student on an individual basis during the time of the assignment sheet 
discussion and at the time of the return demonstration. Each student was 
encouraged to seek additional help for individual learning problems by 
attending the Learning Lab as well as seeking counseling if appropriate. 

The weaknesses were also obvious. The A-T lab was not equipped with 
carrels, and this produced a problem. Also, some of the progress tests were 
not ready when the students were; so they had to be given at a later time. 
The nursing lab was not ideally situated, but the instructors were able to 
arrange for return demonstrations for the most important skills. Some of the 
students did not complete all the return demonstrations as they wanted to 
until the last week of the course, and time and room ran out. In another 
year, though, adequate lab space and, most important, an A-T lab operated 
effectively should be available. 

The faculty evaluated this project, and felt it was very worthwhile, even 
with the problems. The student reaction was enthusiastic and they felt it was 
of great value to them. With this in mind , plans have been made to employ 
this type of teaching to the Basic Nursing Fundamentals Course, in addition 
to this course, for the September 1970-1971 class. 




Mary Ellen Bradford 

The purpose of this research project was to find out if the students who 
attended the Santa Fe Junior College’s North Center Learning Laboratory 
made any significant gains in reading level, as compared to those students 
who did not attend the Learning Lab. 

Furthermore, to help in the evaluation and ordering of new materidls 
for the Lab, the researcher planned to discover the reading materials that the 
students enjoyed the most and what materials they felt helped them improve 
the most in reading. 

Lastly, the researcher planned to see if there was any correlation 
between the gains made by the Learning Lab students and the material they 
used the most. 

From a comprehensive review of the literature regarding reading 
improvement, the following conclusion was drawn: studies of reading 
improvement often yield conflicting results. In some, improvement is noted, 
and in others, the experimental groups attain levels of performance which 
are net significantly greater than those of control groups. When experimental 
groups do not demonstrate significantly greater gains, this is frequently 
viewed as failure of the treatment program. However, it is felt that it may be 
that the instruments used and the range of variables analyzed are insufficient 
for discriminatory scope or capacity. 

Two groups were utilized to facilitate the purpose of this research 
project. The experimental group was composed of twenty-four students 
(fourteen black and ten white) picked at random fiom the tenth, eleventh, 
and twelth graders who attended the Learning Lab. The control group 
consisted of twenty-four students (fourteen black and ten white) picked 
from those North Center students who did not attend the Lab. These 
students had grade levels very similar to those in the experimental group. 

In late September, 1969, all students were given the pre-test, which 
consisted of the comprehension section of the Stanford Diagnostic Reading 
Test (form W, level II). In late April, 1970, the post-test was administered. It 
was the same form and level as the pre-test. The mean gains in grade level 
from pre-test to post-test for both groups were then compared. 

For the second part of the research project, the researcher asked two 
questions of the students in the experimental group: 1) What material did 
you enjoy the mo$tT2) What material did you feel helped you improve the 
most in reading?The responses were tallied and then tested for significance. 
Next, the twelve students who made the highest gains were selected. The 
researcher then examined the work in each student’s folder and noted the 
material used most frequently. 



It was found that the experimental group made a mean gain of eight 
and one-half months in reading level. The control group made only a two 
month gain. Furthermore, in the experimental group twelve out of the 
twenty-four students made a gain of eight months or more. In the control 
group only four students made such gains. Although these gains did not 
prove statistically significant, it can be noted that the students who attended 
the Learning Laboratory made much greater gains in reading level than 
those who did not attend. 

The material that the students enjoyed most, as well as the material 
they felt helped them improve the most was the SRA (Science Research 
Associates) Reading Laboratories. The materiil receiving the second highest 
response was It’s Your World. Both responses proved to be highly 
significant at .05 level. 

Lastly, it was found that there was a strong relationship between gains 
in reading level and the type of material used the most (the SRA Reading 

The instructor wishes to express her thanks for the assistance offered 
by the Office of Research in the statistical analysis. 




Bobara Brace 

The Vocational Exploration Project is sponsored jointly by Santa Fe 
Junior College and the Florida State Vocational Rehibilitation Agency. It is 
designed to give twenty-five vocational rehibilitation clients twelve weeks of 
a wide variety of experiences that evaluate the vocational aptitudes and 
interest of each student. All resources of the College are available in order to 
perform the project. 

The majority of the participating clients in the five completed 
Vocational Exploration Projects were persons who were underemployed 
such as maids and food service counter help. The remainder of the 
participants were either physically handicapped, behaviorally disordered, or 
not previously employed. The total number of participants in the five 
projects was 96 with 82 (or 85%) completing the entire twelve week 
program. Of the 82 completing the evaluative phase, 42 are now in training at 
Santa Fe Junior College, 21 are employed, and 19 are neither employed nor 
in training. Of this last group of 19, all have expressed a desire for 
employment or training in the future. 

In addition, the objectives of the program have been realized 
demonstrating its success. These objectives are: 

1 . Reasonable vocational interests have been identified 
for each student. 

2. A positive, friendly, safe, supportive, and success- 
oriented atmosphere has been maintained throughout 
all experiences in order to reinforce and increase 
each individual's feeling of self worth. 

3. Counselor aides have been utilized in order to maximize 
personal skills. 

4. Opportunity has been provided for each person to 
improve his basic educational skills. 

5. Opportunity has been provided for the development of 
interpersonal skills. 

6. The learning of a skill in a protected work lab, such as the 
electronics assembly lab, has provided personal growth, 
vocational exploration, and the experiences of learning 

a new skill. 

7. The students have become aware of the existence of the 
community college as an agency that occupies a real and 
valuable place within their personal sphere of living. 

8. The counselor aides have experienced what it means to 
work with people an'* have had an opportunity to explore 
the possibilities of including Human Service occupations 
in their own vocational goals. 




Ralph Carlisle 

In an effort to make the auto mechanics course at Santa Fe Junior 
College more than just a study of automobiles and tools, student behavioral 
modifications were attempted. The goal of the project was to teach the Area 
Technical Vocational high school students to live successfully with their 
fellowman through the study of auto mechanics. 

The procedure employed is a high degree of personal interaction 
between instructor and student with honesty being the most important 
ingredient in the interaction. Subjects discussed in the interaction process 
were the competitiveness of the working world, application of academic 
couises to auto mechanics, importance of post-secondary education, and 
military obligation laws. 

While no evaluative instrument was used to measure the changes in 
student behavior, the observations of the instructor are as follows: an 
increase in responsibility, growth in respect for ones fellowman, and an 
increase in interest for post-secondary education by approximately fifty per 
cent of the students. 




Florence Cline and Carlos Piedra 

Project Algebra has the purpose of establishing the best possible 
curriculum in the algebra sequence leading to the successful completion of 
the pre-calculus courses. The algebia sequence is characterized by continuity 
of learning experiences, flexibility in entering the sequence, and 
individualized instruction whenever feasible. The specific objectives for the 
project are as follows: the serving of both transfer and terminal students, 
the evaluation of our present courses, the determination of each course’s 
content, the evaluation of methods of instruction and textbooks, course 
evaluation by students, and the measurement of students’ change in attitude 
toward algebra. 

During the Winter Term, 1970, two sections of Elements of Algebra 
were taught by the instructor using the lecture method and a regular text 
book. Attendance was required. Two other sections were taught 
experimentally by an instructor using a series of two programmed textbooks. 
Here the students came to math lab for help when needed and to take their 
chapter tests. No class attendance was required. There was a total of 22 
people in the control section and 22 people in the experimental section. 

Pre-tests were given each group, A 25 item ability test was administered 
to see their current level of algebraic ability. Also an algebraic attitudes test 
and * biographical data form were given. Post-testing included the same 
ability test and algebraic attitudes test. 

During the term each group was given chapter tests. All sections had 13 
question “multiple choice tests”. They had to get at least ten questions 
correct in order to take the next test The chapter by chapter coverage was 
not the same but the end result of knowledge acquired was essentially the 

An analysis of the data revealed that both the experimental and control 
groups began the course at the same level of competency in algebra ability 
although each group performed differently on several of the 25 items. No 
statistical differences were found in the gain scores of the experimental and 
control groups. Two variables, though, did show significant differences in 
gain scores: 1) day students did better than night students, and 2) females 
had higher gains than males {although the fact that there were 8 female 
students and 36 male students must be taken into consideration). 

Due to outside factors, it was possible to give the attitude tests only to 
the two experimental classes. The post-test scores were signficantiy higher, 
statistically, than the pre-test scores for both classes, and the attitude gain 
scores for the day students were significantly higher, statistically, than for 
the night students. 



There was no pressure put on the students in the experimental sections 
to finish the course during the term. With this provision it allowed a great 
deal of individuality in the treatment of students. A woman in her late 50’s 
said, “1 never would have made it in a regular classroom/’ It took her 16 
weeks to complete the course. Another student who was afraid of math 
worked for two quarters before completing the course. He now states his 
fear of math has greatly diminished. A foreign student took two quarters to 
complete the course but had a better grasp of English and algebra at the 
conclusion, A girl, due for plastic surgery before the end of the term, was 
able to finish her work several weeks early thus enabling her to go into 
surgery with one less worry on her mind. One student completed the entire 
sequence in three weeks. Fifty per cent of the students that did not 
complete the course in the 1 1 weeks of the term are working on it now or 
have since then completed it. 

The instructors involved in the study wish to thank the Office of 
Research for the statistical analysis of the data. 



Manuel S. Couto 

The primary objective of language learning is communication. Thus, the 
Spansih Program at Santa Fe Junior College is geared in such a way that all 
students can learn the Spanish Language and be able to use it. To achieve 
this goal, and considering the needs of the students, an experimental 
program was introduced during the Winter Term, 1970, based on 
Audio-Tutorial instruction and placing as active role upon the students. 

The Spanish instructors tried to solve the difficulty of some adults from 
the community who were interested in taking Spanish for credit and could 
not attend the regular class meetings. The instructors grouped them and 
agreed to help them one day per week, on their own time, to reinforce what 
they had done during the week. This was the experimental group; it 
consisted of persons all in their twenties with one an army officer, two 
housewives, and two teachers. The instructors provided them with: a) 
textbooks; b) reading materials; c) programmed vocabulary to develop 
conversational habits; and d) worksheets of assignments: Language Lab, 
letters, compositions, and other free topics. They knew well in advance what 
to do each week. They were tested once a month, covering all units of that 
period. The tests were the same as those of the control group. 

The control group was composed of normal college students who were 
able to attend regular daily classes. They used the same textbooks; they were 
provided with the same worksheet of assignments; and they were tested after 
each individual unit. 

In both groups the active role and personal involvement of each student 
were emphasized. This situation helped to promote excellent attendance and 
fine cooperation among students themselves. 

The same outline of the Spanish program was followed in all the classes 
so that at the end, all students could evaluate the whole program. This was 
to see if the same methods of teaching should be continued in the future and 
to see if students thought their time was well spent in the Spanish class. 

The results of the experiment showed that while the experimental 
group’s tests were answered as correctly as the control group’s, the control 
group covered more subject areas than the experimental group, and the work 
was easier for the control students who met everyday. So the IDEAL for a 
language class, it appears, is to meet everyday for a short period of time 
rather than to meet once or twice a week for a longer period of time. 

All the students taking part in the Spanish Program were polled also in 
order to get their feedback and see if the instructors were going in the right 
direction in accordance with Santa Fe philosophy. Their answers reflect 
overwhelmingly that the Spanish Program is very much in line with that 



Helen K. Davies 

A different approach to the basic course in humanities was at temped 
employing the single conviction that one can appreciate fully the creativity 
of others only by having the same experiences. 

Therefore, if the class is studying architecture, it begins by looking at a 
film on the life, works and philosophy of Frank Lloyd Wright. Then it takes 
a bird’s eye view of architecture, beginning with the Egyptian era for 
example, to see how Wright evolved the concepts he demonstrates. Next the 
class is given materials (this can be a costly procedure as most of the 
materials and references are furnished by the instructor) such as house plans 
and books on architectural terms to study. Then they are ready to create an 
architectural “happening” themselves. With graph paper and furniture scaled 
to the same size, the student plans and draws floor plans for a house and 
arranges the furniture within it. Then each student explains his or her plan to 
the class, telling why he has selected particular space and furniture 
arrangements. Many students have later made a model (out of various 
materials * cardboard, for example) based on the plans he first rendered as a 
class project. This model may then become his term creative project. To 
achieve an “A”, the student does one large creative project and many 
incorporate one of the class projects into this. 

No formal text is used in this course. Films, slides and dittoed material 
are the substitute. The films include not only information about the arts of 
different eras but also how the artist actually works. Many books from the 
instructor’s personal library are available for the student to study including 
books on various techniques. The procedure explained by the architecture 
section is the same for painting, mustic, etc. 

A humanities lab is being set up where the student can go to paint, 
design and build models for work in sculpture, music (with use of electronic 
pianos) and the like, using material furnished for him. It is by doingithat 
students truly learn. 

Many unusual effects have been achieved in the^e creative projects. 
Students have gone on to further study in some of the fields first attempted 
in this class, having never known or realized before that they had both the 
talent and desire to create. 


Edwin /T. Eddy 

Precision Teaching is an instructional method requiring that the course 
to which it is applied, have its objectives stated in precise, behavioral terms 
that are observable and measurable. In addition, it requires that the learner 
receive continuous feed-back on his progress toward the achievement of the 
course objectives and that the instructor keep accurate data of each student's 
progress and adjust the course curriculum accordingly. 

During the Spring Term of 1970, Precision Teaching, utilizing primarily 
the instructional strategy called the Performance Session (a technique 
developed by Dr. H. S. Pennypacker of the University of Florida), was 
applied to the required freshman course in behavioral science. The purpose 
in conducting this experiment was to determine the relevance of precision 
teaching to the total junior college curriculum and to ascertain whether or 
not it conflicted with the more humanistically oriented views of the 
educational process espoused by the philosophy of the junior college. The 
goal of the classroom itself was the emission of technically meaningful verbal 
behavior at a rate characteristic of persons in the field of goal-directed 
human behavior. 

Each learner was assigned a student manger. The student managers 
were selected on the basis of their past academic performance in behavioral 
science, their interpersonal relationship skills, and their interest in helping 
others learn. The role of the student manager was to meet, at least, twice per 
week throughout the course's duration with each of the learners assigned to 
him and assist him (the learner) in appraising his progress toward the 
fulfilimentof the course objective. 

The principle strategy applied by the student manager in these meetings 
was the performance session. It consisted of presenting new and basically 
familiar or well-known material on item cards to the learner, continuous 
feed-back relative to the learner's progress toward the fulfillment of the 
course objective, on-the-spot diagnosis of individual learning problems and 
discussion of possible remedies, and one-to-one interaction, at the learner's 
request, with a knowledgeable peer concerning course related matters. The 
performance sessions were all conducted, with but a few exceptions, during 
the regularly scheduled class periods. As they were going on, the instructor 
met with the students as a group for the purpose of discussing course 
material and learning problems wich them. As each student's performance 
time would arrive, he would merely leave the room, go to the precision 
teaching laboratory, and have his performance session. 



An analysis of the data collected showed that approximately one third 
of the students who originally registered for the course dropped out or 
switched to another section primarily due to the fact that more work was 
required of the student than in other behavioral science classes taught by 
orthodox methods. A comparison of the final item card session dealing with 
all the courses content and the first item card sessions showed the mean 
number of correct responses emitted by the learners on unit 1 was 14. On 
unit IX (the overa! unit), the number was 39, thus, showing a mean increase 
of 25 correct responses. Errors were reduced from a mean of 21 on unit I to 
a mean of 0 on unit IX. 

It can also be concluded from the data and the comments of students, 
that this seemingly mechanistic teachMg-learning process has many very 
human aspects. Helping relationships developed by student managers for the 
learners assigned to them were extremely gratifying and illustrative of the 
ultimate in individualized instruction. 






Marilyn S L Fregly 

This study diagnoses some of the problems in junior college journalism 
today and prepares the groundwork for an up-to-date curriculum in mass 
communications. The method used is in the frairtework of action research 
which first analyzes the problem in order to generate hypotheses (o: further 

In the first phase, two courses v/ere taught: One was with a social 
science emphasis on mass communications as an American institution. The 
majority of educators recommend this consumer orientation for 
introductory level journalism courses. The other with an emphasis on 
technical and editorial skills was favored by a majority of students. Their 
responses correlated with national student surveys in which students 
requested more career information and experience as well as more 
opportunity to participate in curriculum organization-its design, grading 
system and content orientation. 

In the second phase, both teacher and students embarked on an 
experiement in creative problem solving. Two courses were offered in which 
each student was allowed: 

1. To select any area of human life which could be 
investigated with the tools of graphic and-or 
electronic media. 

2. To set his own goal. 

3. To seek help from any source available in or out of 
class or college (i.e., teacher, books, working journalists, 

4. And to present the results of his term-long study; 
to the rest of the class for final evaluation and 

a grade. 

This individualized approach to both content and design led to a 
manifold increase in the number, variety and originality of student projects. 
At the end of these two terms, students were polled again. While an 
overwhelming majority reacted favorably, the few negative responses 
indicate the kind of student who is not stimulated by initiating his ov .i 
learning and prefers to be led by another. Further study is needed in this 
area of motivation. 

The report ends with the following recommendations for phase three: 

1. That the catalog listing of “Journalism" be changed to 
“Mass Communications" in order to reflect a twentieth 
century approach to all media. “Journalism" connotes 
a nineteenth century idea of writing for a newspaper, 
journal or period ical-strictly graphic media. 



2. That equal time be given to workshop-laboratory in order to 
teach skills as well as encourage creativity and productivity 
(experience level) and to lecture-discussion (conceptual 

3. That workshop experience include a “hands-on” experience 
as in a science or art laboratory to handle and create 
graphic and audio-visual materials. 

4. That lecture sessions use the mass media to convey 
information through media, i.e., audio-visual 
presentations of historical background, controls 
and regulations, career information. 

5. That the instructor’s role be recognized as three-fold: 
Teacher of technical skills, programmer of conceptual level 
information and as counsellor to deal directly with 
individuals and in group conference. 

6. That students be given career information about job 
opportunities . pay scales, etc., in the mass media, 

but also be encouraged to take the media skills learned to 
other occupational areas, i.e., teaching, law enforcement, 
nursing, as well as to the study of other academic 
disciplines (social and behavioral sciences, physical and 
biological sciences, art, humanities as well as all aspects 
of written and oral communication). 

7. That a mass communications curriculum be designed for 
tomorrow’s citizen whose leisurely preoccupation may be 
equally as important as his occupation. In his spare 
time, tomorrow’s student-citizen need not be today's 
passive consumer of media, but can be an active producer 
using media tools such as a camera, tape recorder or 



C D . Geiger 

A project was initiated in the Manpower Development and Training 
program at Santa Fe Junior College in order to provide the MDT staff with 
an opportunity to insert their ideas into the program and to better prepare 
them for the eleven month training period. This was the first opportunity 
since the MDT program started in Alachua County in January of 1965 that 
the program was developed by the acting Director and staff and that time 
was allotted to do so. 

The MDT Vocational instructors were provided with a two-week 
pre-planning research period. During this time, they were able to accomplish 
the following: 

1 . An in-depth study of curriculum and teaching plans. 

2. An opportunity to see hov’ the instructors support 
each other. 

3. An opportunity to share innovations that had worked 
for individuals in the program. 

4. An opportunity to have seven members of the junior 
college staff representing other departments share 
their experiences, their desire to help, and offers 

of continuing services to the program. 

5. An opportunity to preview materials and schedule 
them for later use. 

6. An opportunity to study and plan for individualized 
instruction in order to have a better concept of 
individualized instruction and to realize its bene- 
fits to trainees. 

7. An opportunity to study pre-employability skills and 
how important they are, and how to better prepare 
students in this area for the work world. 

8. An opportunity to consider all audio visual resources 
and how to better use them. 

9. An opportunity to get in the position to meet the 
responsibility ahead as a team with one objective 
with time being provided for each individual to 
familiarize others with his responsibilities as he 
sees them. 

10. A time to analyze the open-ended concept part of the 
new program and how to carry out its philosophy (when 
a person reaches the work-entry level he will be 
encouraged to get a job, and another individua' will 

be coming in to fill the slot of the one placed in the 
work world). 

11. An in-depth study of the prevocational concept (a six- 
week block of time at the beginning) with complete plans 
being made as how to present subjects needed and give 
each trainee a hands-on look at the occupations avail- 
able for entering after the initial six weeks. 




J. Richard Gilliland 

Students displaying an interest for moving into a health related program 
are being asked to enroll in a summer enrichment workshop. The purpose of 
the workshop is to: 

L Provide students with a comprehensive look at all 
allied health careers. 

2. Provide extensive counseling services for students 

in order that they may make wis? vocational choices. 

3. Provide learning lab experiences so students will 
have better developed learning skills in order to 
maximize their chances of success in their specific 
chosen program. 

This experimental workshop will later be turned into a regular core 
program which all students in health related programs will take prior to 
moving into the specialized program they have selected, (e.g. dental assisting, 
associate degree nursing). 

To accomplish the above mentioned objectives, a team teaching 
arrangement has been developed which includes the following areas: a survey 
of health related fields, behavioral science, and laboratory communications. 
Evaluation and modification of the workshop will occur at the conclusion of 
the Summer Term. 



Evelyn Hale 

The open door policy in junior colleges has resulted in the attendance 
of students with a wide range of abilities within the S3me classroom. In an 
attempt to meet the needs of all students, a research project employing 
diversified individual teaching was performed at Santa Fe Junior College in 
the basic English course. In diversified individual teaching the level of ability 
of each student is determined and he is then helped to cultivate his own 
proficiencies or remedy his own deficiencies in the communicative skills. 

As a means of implementing this concept, a learning lab was established 
to provide programmed materials and individual assistance in specific skill 
areas. Students who have shown weaknesses and those who have shown 
strengths can thus take advantage of the lab as desired or required for work 
on projects which meet their individual needs. By placing students of all 
abilities in the learning lab, it was felt that a more equitable process of 
learning was provided without attaching to the learning lab the stigma often 
associated with clinics. 

The principal hypothesis formed was as follows: Students provided 
with diversified individual teaching (DIT) obtain greater gains in achievement 
in the basic English course than those taught in an orthodox fashion. From 
this hypothesis, two conclusions were made: 1) fewer absences occur with 
DIT than with orthodox teaching, and 2) after the course's completion, 
more students from DIT continue using the learning lab than those from 
orthodox teaching. 

The sample was one of convenience consisting of two sections of the 
basic English course which were assigned to the research teacher. One was 
arbitrarily designed as the control group and the other as the experimental 
group with each containing 20 students. Both groups used the same 
text-books and were pre- and post-tested on reading, grammar, and writing. 
The students in the control section were invited and urged to avail 
themselves of the facilities of the learning lab, but those in the experimental 
section were required to use it and were scheduled for DIT in the lab one 
period out of five every two weeks besides being encouraged to use the lab as 
many hours as possible beyond this. In some cases the help given was 
remedial; in others it was augmentative. 




Through the use of statistical testing, it was seen that the experimental 
group’s gains were greater and were significantly different (at the 5 7c level 
or lower) from those of the control group in the testing areas of skills in the 
use of phrases, overall grammar ability, writing content skills, and overall 
wilting ability. While all other testing of reading, grammar, and writing 
showed no significant differences between the experimental and control 
groups, the mean gain of the experimental group was higher in each case. 
These two facts tend to support the genera! hypothesis that DIT does 
increase achievement as compared to orthodox teaching methods. 

The experimental group also exhibited less absenteeism and more 
frequent use of the learning lab after the course’s completion than did the 
control group. Absenteeism was significant at the 107c level, and continued 
use of the learning lab was significant at the 17c level. These two differences 
seem to imply a higher degree of student motivation being instilled by DIT 
than by orthodox methods again demonstrating the advantage of using DIT. 

While the results are satisfying to the experimenter in that the students 
appeared to gain from the experiment, it should be noted that the sample 
was small (n=40), and the sample that was used was a sample of convenience 
limiting any type of statistical inference. 

The instructor wishes to express her gratitude to the Office of Research 
for the statistical analysis of the data. 


M. Drew Hurley 

In an attempt to better diagnose the academic abilities of our: tudents 
several social science instructors decided to use several standardized tests. 
because its results gave a reasonable indication of the verbal reasoning 
ability, critical thinking skills, and general intelligence level of the students 
within each class. However, because the purpose of this study was diagnostic, 
every attempt was made to insure individual student anonymity. 

administered, over a period of two years at Santa Fe Junior College, to 405 
students in the basic social science classes. The mean score of this population 
is 65.75; with a standard deviation of 10.26; with a range of scores from 34, 
as a low, to 94. In the “Instructor’s Manual” published with this test, 65.0 is 
noted to be the mean score for all high school seniors, based on the authors* 
nationwide standardization tests. As most of the students who were 
administered this lest were freshmen, these results would indicate that our 
students are in no way lacking in their critical thinking abilities. Indeed, 
because of Santa Fe*s diversified Community-Service programs, and our open 
door policy, these results speak very highly of the abilities of our students. 

One trend in the pattern of scores was observed during the testing 
program which, although not statistically significant, is very encouraging. It 
was able to document an increase in scores through the later terms of the 
school year. The mean score for all students in the Fall Term is 64.8, the 
mean for the Winter Term is 65.9, the mean for the Spring Term is 66.8, and 
the mean for the Summer Term is 66.9. Progressive increases in scores, such 
as demonstrated here, tend to indicate that the instruction students received 
during the course of the academic year is having a positive effect on 
increasing the students* verbal reasoning abilities. However, the gains noted 
here are not statistically significant enough to rule out chance, and there are 
also other variables involved, notably mid-year transfer students. 

One other significant finding needs to be menthioned. On four separate 
occasions, in two different terms, the research instructor selected classes that 
had a fairly e'en mixture of black and white students, and asked these 
students to indicate their race on their otherwise-anonymous answer sheets. 
The mean score of both blacks and whites was extremely close and clearly 
not statistically different. 

The conclusions drawn from this testing program are significant in two 
respects, even though there is no overwhelming statistical deviation. First, 
the findings tend to indicate that, despite other problems of communications 
and articulation, black students do not start off at a disadvantage in terms of 
their intellectual abilities. Second, all students, black and white alike, based 
on progressive increases in scores during the academic year, develop their 
critical thinking skills during their academic tenure at college. 



M. Drew Hurley 

Attempting to describe the academic preparedness of students is always 
a tenuous undertaking. It is even more difficult to ascribe the psychological 
factors comprising a student’s belief systems which might allow for academic 
success. Because of the diversity of the academic, technical and vocational 
programs offered at Santa Fe Junior College, the task of evaluating student 
attitudes seems onerous. 

The majority of the students in the research instructor’s classes of 
behavioral science during the academic year 1968-69, expressed the ambition 
of furthering their education, upon graduation, at a four- year institution. 
Therefore, the instructor was left with no alternative but to hypothesize that 
there was no significant difference between the attitudes of these students 
and the attitudes of students at four-year colleges. To test this hypothesis, a 
one-year study was conducted using the Dogmatism Scale (designed by 
Milton Rokeach) and the Heuristic Scale {designed by the research 

During the one year testing program, 235 students were administered 
these psychological attitude tests with consistent results each term. The 
findings for the Heuristic Scale, which measures attitudes of 
anti-intellectualism, and those for the Dogmatism Scale, which measures 
open and closed mindedness, show that the mean scores obtained by Santa 
Fe students differ from those obtained at other universities and colleges: 
Michigan State University, Ohio State University, and University of South 
Florida. In each case, Santa Fe students were more anti-intellectual and 
closed minded although the disparity between the scores achieved at Santa 
Fe and the other universities bears some interpretation. There appear to be 
several factors mitigating against Santa Fe students. 

First, the Santa Fe sample population is made up almost entirely of 
freshmen (the tests were administered in a freshman level course). All of the 
test administrations conducted at the four-year institutions were presented 
to classes at the sophmore level. Consequently, two phenomena will have 
likely occured before the administration of these tests to the university 
populations: these students whose attitudes were extremely dogmatic or 
anti-intellectual would have flunked out, dropped out, or modified their 
ideas significantly in order that they might compete successfully in an 
environment that necessitates open minded intellectualism; and upper 
classmen may have comprised a portion of the sample population. 
Additionally, the students comprising the university samples have shared a 
much longer period of exposure to the liberalizing and mind opening aspects 
of college life. 

Secondly, the sample size of Santa Fe subjects was more than twice 
that of the other schools. 

Thirdly, because of university practices of selective enrollment, Santa 
Fe attracts many students who might be rejected elsewhere. Even though a 
student may cany many attitudes which pose a potential liability toward 
academic success, he is perfectly free to sit in a Santa Fe classroom. 




Betty Keig 

The purpose of the presentations in Music Appreciation class involving 
the dance is to show the relationship between sound in space and movement 
in space. 

Since music is abstract, the technical terms used to define its 
fundamentals have little meaning to the student music listener. Dance 
movements, therefore, are used to clarify musical terminology and to enlarge 
the scope of recognition in the relationship between the two arts. 

An example of this method of approach to music learning is in the 
exposure of students to the innards* of the phrase in both its structure and 
interpretation. 4 

The phrase is first compared to a sentence, starting with a familiar 
quotation such as “To be or not to be; that is the question.** Each student 
may interpret the phrase as he sees it such as “To J^e or noj to be; that is the 
question. *' In so doing the student also sets a certain tempo and suggests a 
quality of expression which the dancer then interprets in movement. The 
musician-teacher then writes a melody which agrees with the student's and 
dancer’s interpretation of the phrase. The student, dancer and musician then 
combine results into one; the words now sung instead of spoken. 

Following this, new phrases are introduced and translated into dance 
and music. Gradually more students begin to participate by taking an active 
part in the dance movement making and melody writing. 

With the encouragement to be involved emphasized, the concepts of 
movement and music can be better understood and much more enjoyed than 
using only the usual verbal means of explanation. 

As the students work with other fundamentals of music in a like 
manner, a growing awareness of the close relationship of the two arts can be 
realized. The culmination of this recognition is brought to a focal point via a 
video tape which demonstrates improvisation in both dance and music. 
Through this means the students can recognize how the disciplines they have 
encountered can lead to an artistry of spontaneous creations so that the two 
media are as one art form. 



Mary Landsman 

Since November of 1968 a Vocational Exploration Project has been 
jointly sponsored by Santa Fe Junior College and the Florida State 
Vocational Rehabilitation Agency in Gainesville, Florida. The Project is the 
one referred to earlier in this booklet in the article entitled “Evaluation of 
Work Experiences In the Vocational Exploration Project.” Besides providing 
each student with a wide variety of experiences in order to evaluate his 
vocational aptitudes and interests, a second important objective was to 
provide junior college students with a hands-on experience in working with 
people in a helping role. These students would be assigned to the project as 

At the beginning of the project, each vocational student is assigned to a 
counselor aide. In groups of six or seven students and one aide, they spend 
one-fourth of the morning in each of the following locations: the learning 
lab, the typing lab, the electronics lab, and in vocational exploration 
counseling. During this time, an initial evaluation of interests and skills is 
compiled by the counselor aide. The first five weeks of the program also 
includes a sewing course for the women as well as goup interaction sessions. 
The last seven weeks of the project are used to pursue special interests in 
occupational areas. This is done by field trips, the auditing of courses, and 
setting up individual experiences with highly skilled technicians and 
professionals. The learning lab and vocational exploration continue to be a 
part of each person’s experience throughout the project. 

In the learning lab, each person has an opportunity to work at a level 
where he is able to succeed. A pre-test is given by the counselor aide and 
work is selected based on the results of this test. Each student receives daily 
feedback from the counselor aide about his success, and suggestions for 
further work. At the end of the project, retesting gives everyone a chance to 
see Low much progress they have made. The mean amount of progress in 
silent reading comprehension for the 12 weeks has been 1.4 years, and the 
amount has ranged from none, to five years growth. No one has regressed. 

The instructors and counselor aides feel that they have been successful 
in knowing each student as a person, in finding ways of magnifying each 
person’s worth and individuality, and in giving them the experience of success. 





Mary Ann Linzmayer and Norma Dew 

Since a house containing four units is the basis of the planning for the 
physical structure of the new campus of Santa Fe Junior College, thirteen 
faculty members at the East Center are researching the unit concept as it 
applies to a multi-disciplinary, multi-sensory laboratory approach to 
teaching. A unit is a group of instructors representing different disciplines 
housed in a common physical space and sharing a common teaching 
philosophy. The philosophy shared by the instructors in our unit involves a 
belief that learning is best achieved in a “hands on” situation where each 
student can progress at his own rate through a variety of multi-sensory 
experiences. The instructors will be located in a common area including 
office, laboratory, classroom, conference space, and multi-media workshop. 
With each instructor housed adjacent to his discipline’s laboratory-classroom, 
these laboratories become instructional workshops available to all students. 

The laboratory classroom will be equipped with a variety of media 
designed to involve the student as much as possible in his own learning and 
to enrich his classroom experiences. The student will be provided with an 
opportunity to experiment with ideas related to course content and to 
investigate principles at his own rate. Classroom lectures, which may cross 
the lines of various disciplines, as well as seminar discussion and individual 
conferences will comprise the instructional program. Experimental and 
innovative use of modern media will facilitate individualized learning. 

Since individualized learning is an integral part of this unit, specific 
behavioral objectives will be defined for all areas of this unit’s curriculum. 
Overlapping of objectives is anticipated in several disciplines. It is planned to 
correlate closely these specific behavioral objectives with the design of 
evaluation procedures. 

The research is designed to investigate how the unit concept can be 
effectively related to a laboratory-centered approach to teaching utilizing a 
variety of the most recent media and stressing individualized instruction. In 
addition, by crossing traditional disciplinary lines, it is hoped to dramatize 
the interrelationship of all learning so that the students achieve an integrated 
concept of man and his environment. 



D. R. Matthews 

In order to encourage the active participation of students in discussions 
which will better enable them to assume a more responsible role in the 
political process of the nation, the instructor used a text in his political 
science classes which he felt was easy to comprehend, offered provocative 
questions and clever cartoons, and at time, maintained a biased presentation 
(which the author admits) to provoke student reaction. 

An evaluation by the students in one of the political science classes 
showed that more than 86 per cent of the students agreed that the reading 
level of the text was appropriate, the glossary and illustrations were helpful, 
the text included sufficient information, and the opinion responses increased 
interest in political science and led to good class discussions. Only 40 per 
cent of the students thought the text was too biased in its presentation of 
controversial subjects, and 77 per cent found the cartoons helpful. Regarding 
an overall opinion of the book, 87 per cent of the students consider it a 
good textbook. 



Stuart /. McRae 

In order to improve the teaching methods of anthropology and to allow 
the maximum number of students to take advantage of this improvement, 
the introductory course to anthropology will utilize various innovations 
beginning with the Fall Term, 1970, at Santa Fe Junior College. 

This introductory course in anthropology will be taught with the use of 
multi-media, auto-tutorial tapes, lecture, and small group sessions designed 
to apply the data. It will permit a single faculty member to instruct 250-300 
full-time students better than he can now instruct 100. It will allow the 
students to learn at their own pace, grasp more data, and understand the 
application better through those media than by traditional methods. It will 
further permit increased interaction on a meaningful level between faculty 
and students. 

The teaching methodology consists of four basic stages. Under the first, 
the instructor will meet the entire class of 250-300 students once a week in 
an auditorium situation where he will seek to stimulate interest in the field 
through a lecture or a multi-media situation or sometimes both. There are 1 1 
of these sessions and four full length color films will also be used. Since this 
is the instructor’s only lecture of the week, it i. c designed to be the “best 
lecture”. It is not a lecture given over to the transmission of facts, but to 
inspire, create enthusiasm, and infuse a spirit of contagion regarding the field 
of study. Its purpose is to motivate and to confront the student with as 
much stimulating material as possible. 

In stage two the student may enter the learning lab carrel at any time 
during the week and listen to an auto-tutorial tape, illustrated with slides, 
prepared by the instructor. He may reverse the tape whenever he chooses or 
listen as much as he wishes, thereby learning at his own pace, rather than 
being forced to learn at the pace set by the lecturer’s normal rate of 
speaking. If the student can learn faster than the normal speaking voice on 
the tape, he may set the speed on a “compressed speech” selector and 
receive more information at a faster rate. 

This auto-tutorial method is designed to replace the instructor as a 
surveyor of facts or source of data. The student will absorb most of the core 
data for the course by auto-tutorial methods. 

During the third stage, once a week the instructor will meet with small 
groups of about twenty students in an informal situation and discuss the 
relevancy of the core data, explain its function and discuss its application. 

In the last stage the evaluation will take place in the form of two 
examinations, one at the end of the fourth week and one at the end of the 
eighth week to deterrr ne the student’s grasp of the core data. The 
combinded score of these exams will count 40# of the student’s total grade 
The final method of evaluation will be in the form of five pioblem solving 
.situations which will be devised by the instructor and placed on the 
auto-tutorial tape. The student must solve one of the five problems, which 
will require both the knowledge of the core datum and its application, and 
turn in a written answer to the instructor. 


Should the student fail to solve the problem to the professor’s 
satisfaction, he may then choose one of the four remaining problems. If lie is 
unable to solve three, he must repeat all or part of the course and better 
equip himself to handle these problem solving situations. This assures that 
the student not only knows the core material, but that he also has a working 
knowledge of it. 



Sandra S. Noe 

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of musical 
background on adult perception in listening. It was felt that such a study 
would provide a starting point for deciding what the scope should be in a 
music listening course and that the deficiencies would offer information to 
the instructor as to what areas to emphasize. 

During the Winter Term, 1970, a self-designed questionnaire was 
administered to a Music Appreciation class in order to ascertain the general 
musical background of each student regarding musical lessons, membership 
in musical groups, self-taught musical skills, ability to read musical notation, 
composition of record collection, and parents’ attitude towards music. Based 
on the information obtained from the questionnaire, the class was divided 
into two groups: Group I, students with good musical backgrounds, and 
Group II, students with very little musical backgrounds. 

Next the research instructors designed a listening test which consisted 
of multiple choice questions about the compositions to which the students 
would listen. The selections were of a varied nature and tested listening 
ability in the following areas: identification of instrumental and vocal 
timbres, musical styles, recognition of basic musical elements, formal 
structure, compositional techniques, and subjective impressions of total 

The results of this test were: 

L Group I and Group II had the same range in scores on the number 
of questions missed. However, Group I scored slightly higher on 
the technical questions. 

2. Both groups were faily successful in the recognition of instru- 
mental and vocal timbres. 

3. Neither group was successful on questions dealing with formal 

4. Subjective reactions were extremely varied. 

5. Lack of a common musical vocabulary was a barrier in responding 
to sounds heard. 

Two basic conclusions resulted from the findings of this study. First, 
musical activity in a person’s background has very little influence on his 
aural perception, and second, lack of a common musical vocabulary is a 
definite barrier to correct responses to sounds heard and also seems to 
prohibit focus in listening to specific musical sounds. It appears, therefore, 
that a Music Appreciation instructor should direct his attention to this 
problem. He should try to help students gain deeper insight into music 
through perceptual awareness of the relationships of the various elements in 
musical sound. 

This project was conducted in cooperation with Mrs. Nancy Coles, a 
graduate student in Music Education at the University of Florida. 




Robert W. Xorth 

During the Winter Term, 1970, students in the course Interpersonal 
Communication began an innovative cooperative project with the 
Department of Correction Division of After-care. The course syllabus 
emphasized the study of interpersonal communication, and as a “lab” 
project, each student volunteered to befriend one high school student who 
had recently returned from one of the state's reformatories. 

The need for this cooperative venture grew out of the Division of 
After-care’s severe shortage of counselors. Each of the division’s counselors is 
required to visit each high school student once a week; however, because the 
counselor’s case load averages 50 students, the development of a helping 
relationship, was impossible with the limited time. Consequently, alternates 
had to be explored for providing someone to act as a friend, confidant, and 
role model. 

With the cooperation of two after-care counselors, each Santa Fe 
student was selected for a particular after-care student on the basis of 
interests, age, maturity and sex. The high school sample consisted of 18 
students, two thirds of whom were black. After the initial formal meeting, 
the Santa Fe student made contact with his or her friend once a week, 
frequently at the after-care student’s home. Supervision was provided for the 
Santa Fe student in a once-a-week encounter group with the Santa Fe 
instructor and one of the after-care counselors. A weekly written “reaction 
paper” was required of each student. 

Much was learned from this experiment to assist further ventures into 
the community. Many more problems arose than anticipated, and many 
unexpected benefits came to light. Despite the preparation given the Santa 
Fe students, all manifested some degree of “cultural shock,” and some were 
overwhelmed by the social and economic differences. Most, however, 
bounced back by overcoming the initial indifference of their students, the 
sometimes hostility of the parent(s), and their fear of the sights, sounds and 
values of an unknown strata of society. Fifteen of the origninal eighteen 
Santa Fe students remained with their contact until the end of the course 
despite such difficulties as following their friend through numerous foster 
homes. Some continued seeing their student after the termination of the 

The values of this involvement by Santa Fe students in a community 
project are difficult to assess. We know that Santa Fe students became 
increasingly aware of their isolation from some aspects of the community. 
We know that the experiment brought about closer relations between the 
Department of Correction and Santa Fe Junior College. The project 
demonstrated to after-care counselors the effectiveness of training and using 
para- professionals in this helping capacity. We also know that individual 
supervision of Santa Fe students was less than adequate. The students need a 
great deal of individual encouragement in order to confront and integrate the 
new experience positively. 



Robert W r North 

In an attempt to integrate the course. The Individual In a Changing 
Environment, with other academic subjects and to concretize many of the 
felt-ideas “discovered' 1 during this course, an experimental film program was 
instituded during this past year as part of the course content. 

The course content was divided up so as to present systematically 
specific felt-ideas (l-thou vs. I-it, Alone vs. Alienation, Ecstasy, etc,) in a 
sequential manner. In this way “artistic” rather than documentary films 
were chosen that would express the felt events being studied. The art films 
present the student with more of a subjective, symbolic expression of a felt 
event which was more in parallel with the personal, individualistic nature of 
The Individual in a Changing Environment. Students did not react to the 
objective content as such, but attempted to seek their own identification 
with the films and the emotions they stimulated. 

Award winning feature films were prf ,ented such as the American film 
DAVID AND LISA, which captured the development of love in two 
teen-agers, and the French THE 400 BLOWS, which has as its theme the 
groping for love and fulfillment of a young “juvenile delinquent.” The 
students compared a felt-event in their own lives with the quality and 
accuracy of the expression in the feature film. Many other short films were 
obtained from The National Film Board of Canada and the Santa Fe Audio 
Visual Department. 

The only evaluation of this method of introducing students to 
themselves was through their written self reports. DAVID AND LISA was 
found to be the film with which most could identify and which seemed to 
bring about more self-understanding. The short film, THE PARABLE, which 
concerned a clown’s selfless giving and dying for others, was reported to be 
the most inspiring and the students found themselves considering ideals and 
aesthetic concepts relevant to society and man. Some students expressed the 
fact that they could now understand and enjoy films which were not 
“objective action-orientated” as opposed to the art film. 



Robert W. North 

In September, 1969, Santa Fe Junior College purchased video tape 
equipment which was both portable and simple enough to be used 1 y the 
faculty. Use was made of this equipment for student self evaluation and self 
development in the courses, Individual in a Changing Environment and 
Interpersonal Communications, and in the teacher-aide program. 

Many studies have shown the necessity for honest and emphatic 
“feedback” for the development of positive mental health. A great part of 
our self-image has to do with the way we interact with others and our 
physical representation to others. In order to develop the accurate and 
positive self concept of the students, part of their group experience consisted 
in their getting involved in activities which were video taped and then 
discussed in an atmosphere of openness, trust, honesty and empathy. These 
activities began with general group fun games such as playing charades, and 
as the self-confidence of the students developed, activities which focused 
upon the practice and evaluation of specific communication patterns were 
encouraged. Students reported that they enjoyed seeing how they “came 
on” in both group and dyadic situations. “It’s fun to laugh at ourselves.” 

In addition to the above purposes and methods the video tape 
equipment was employed in the teacher-aide program to facilitate self 
understanding and self evaluation in the classroom. With the assistance of 
staff in the Learning Resources Center, equipment was transported to an 
elementary school for the purpose of taping Santa Fe students who were 
involved in a work-study project as part of the teacher-aide program. The 
students were taped on several occasions both in the classroom while 
involved with “their” elementary students and when in interaction with each 
other in their weekly training seminar. Portions of these video tapes have 
since been edited and presented at various professional meetings as examples 
of the way Santa Fe is engaged in training para-professionals. 

A third use for video tapes has been for evaluation of the effectiveness 
of the courses, Individual in the Changing Environment and Interpersonal 
Communications, to effect positive changes in the communication patterns 
of students. During the Spring Term, the students were each asked to be 
video taped in two five minute sessions. In the first session, they were asked 
to “find out as much as you can” about another Santa Fe student who had 
been previously selected and coached. In the second session, the students 
were asked to help another student with a problem. The students were esked 
to repeat the sessions at the end of the term. By comparing their “pre” and 
“post” performances, the students estimated their improvement in ability to 
communicate genuineness and empathy to the person whom they were 
interviewing or helping. 

With respect to utilizing video tape to evaluate a curriculum’s 
effectiveness in improving student self-concept anl communication 
effectiveness, j Genuineness-Empathy scale is being developed which, 
hopefully, can be utilized for this purpose in interview and counseling 
situations. The scale shows promise because it specifies variables and requires 
little training of faculty or students in its use. The task of statistically 
validating and standardizing this scale for general use and distribution 
remains. One approach to the validation of the Genuineness-Empathy scale 
has been to correlate changes in its measures with changes in a standardized 
personality inventory. Other methods are being examined. 



R. K. Richardson 

During the Spring Term, 1970, video tape recorders and television 
techniques were employed in teaching general college chemistry courses. In 
chemistry, as in other courses, students miss class for many reasons: work, 
health, death in family, babies, etc. There are also those who need much 
extra help outside of class or might benefit by having the lecture again. 

The object of using television taping was to afford students who miss 
classes for any reason a chance to see that class, and students who feel the 
need to review classes or portions of classes a chance to do so. 

The course was structured as follows. Each class was scheduled to meet 
three periods, one day per week, 8:00 ■ 9:00, 9:30 - 10:30, II :00 - 12:00. 
These times correspond to the beginning of regular class meeting times but 
end 15 minutes early. There are four reasons for this scheduling: (1) video 
tape comes in 59 minute reels; (2) 30 minutes between classes give students 
time to digest some of the material and refresh themselves for another 
session; (3) 30 minutes allows technicians time to rewind the tape, get a new 
reel in place, and prepare the equipment for the next periodana (4) 30 
minutes allows the instructor to talk to students after class, prepare 
demonstrations, and refresh ideas of the next lecture. 

After taping the classes, the video tape and recorder were moved to the 
chem lab for viewing. Viewing was allowed upon demand any time machines 
and an operator were available. 

Taping of classes was found to involve much effort, and many technical 
difficulties were encountered. However, video or audio tapes were 
successfully made of all classes and used later by students for viewing and 
reviewing. Over 120 classes were either viewed or reviewed by 36 different 
students (about 80 enrolled) at some time during the term. 

The instructor found that lectures turn out better when presented the 
pressure of the greater television audience. Also, since the instructor ran the 
playback machine most of the time, he had an opportunity to review the 
lectures and rr ke notes for improvement. 

While the potential uses of television in the classroom and in recording 
class lectures seems to be practically unlimited in its ability to extend the 
presence of the instructor and hence make him more available to the 
students, there are several pitfalls. First, such a program cannot be offered if 
equipment does not work. Many difficulties were encountered with the 
television system, and thus, it is suggested for any course program that at 
least two video tape recorder units be provided, one for recording in class 
and one for playback to students. The playback machine could be used as a 
standby in case the class recording machine broke down. 

Second, an instructor cannot adequately manipulate the equipment 
himself. A staff of two persons is required, one to operate the machinery in 
class (i.e., a camera man technician) and one to play back tapes for viewing. 


The camera man would work about four hours for each course with the 
extra responsibility of exam administration. It seems entirely possible that 
chemistry students might be awarded these jobs as a sort of scholarship. 

Finally, to avoid overburdening the Audio-Visual department, purcuase 
of equipment and staff fundings should be channeled elsewhere. 




Irene Schotes 

This study is an attempt to discover the relationship between a 
student’s success in a beginning foreign language course and his attitudes 
toward the factors which determine that success. The instructor also wished 
to find out how much his initial attitudes were changed by the course. 
Knowledge of these relationships would be of benefit to the foreign language 
instructor in that, if there were correlations between attitudes and grade, the 
instructor could attempt to instill the most beneficial attitudes in the 
students; and f at the very least, knowledge of the students* conceptions of 
the task of learning a foreign language would create a greater awareness of 
the factors affecting the efficacy of the language learning situation. 

Twenty-three Santa Fe Junior College students were given a 
questionnaire before and after taking a beginning language course (French or 
Spanish). This questionnaire asked the students to rate, on a five point scale, 
their attitudes concerning: 1, factors affecting success in learning a foreign 
language (nine factors discussed below); 2. four factors (motivation, 
creativity, intelligence, and industry) about themselves; 3. the importance of 
five skills concerning language (understanding, speaking, reading, writing, 
and translation); 4. the relative importance of a knowledge of English 
grammar; 5. a comparison of the language being studied to other languages in 
ease, utility, and interest; and 6. the reason for taking this particular 

To determine the relationships between attitudes and success, the 
twenty-three students were broken down into three groups: the group which 
received a C in the course (5 people), those who obtained a B (6 people), and 
those who received an A (12 people). 

Of the nine factors affecting success, all groups found motivation and 
the instructor to be most important. Imitative skill, creativity, and 
intelligence were considered moderately important: and age, sex, and success 
in other subjects were considered unimportant. These relative evaluations 
were only slightly changed by taking the course, the only category to be 
shifted in rank being sex, which is least important of all after taking the 

The three groups differ only in their ratings of creativity (which the A 
people find less important initially, but equally important after the course) 
and sex (which the A group find* reasonably important initially, but least 
important after the course). 

Thus, it appears that certain conceptions concerning students are not 
well-founded. Many language teachers, for example, seem to feel that 
students regard knowing only one language to be a hindrance to success in 
foreign language learning; these students are fully aware of what really 
counts, i.e., motivation. They also seem less concerned with the role of 
intelligence than are many of their teachers and advisors. 

In their attitudes toward themselves, they think of themselves as highly 
motivated, somewhat creative and intelligent, and only moderately 
industrious. Changes in attitude toward oneself seem highly correlated to 
success in the course: the C students nearly reverse their rankings finding 
themselves considerably less motivated than initially and much more 


industrious; the B group changes a little; and the A group does not change. 
This suggests that the poorer the student does in the course, the more his 
opinion of himself is altered. It is also suggested that the less well he does the 
less motivated he finds himself to be. It is interesting however, that although 
the C student changes his opinion of his own motivation, he still regards 
motivation to be the most important factor in success - the rationale fer his 
C grade. 

In their conception of what using a foriegn language involves, all grou t s 
rated comprehension highest, speaking next highest, and the other skills of 
reading, writing, and translating to be about equally unimportant. The 
course and the grade were unaffective in changing these rankings. Again, as 
with other attitudes, the students seem to have pretty clear insights into the 
relative importance of these skills. These facts suggest that the beginning 
foreign language student probably has fewer “misconceptions’* about the 
task facing him than is usually thought. 

For the other evaluations and attitudes, most students consider a 
knowledge of English grammar to be somewhat necessary; they find no great 
differences in the difficulty, utility, or interest inherent in languages. In this 
aspect of the attitudes, it is interesting to note that while opinion regarding 
interest of the language decreases over the course (probably due to the C 
students, as mentioned above), opinion of utility increases. 

As to why students take the language they do, nearly all of them say it 
is because they intend to use it. This would seem to tie in well with the 
motivation rating and also is a very satisfying finding when one considers 
why students take foreign languages in many other institutions. 



Mary Taube 

An attempt was made during the Spring Term to develop an “open lab** 
in physics which would allow the efficient use of time and the maximum 
availability of the instructor. 

Previously, the “open lab” was open all day, every day of the week. 
Experiments were explained through the use of a tape recorder and slides 
freeing the instructor for other teaching duties and permitting the student to 
proceed at his own pace. 

This method, though, presented several problems. Students felt alack 
when the instructor was not present if they did have a question occasionally 
forcing them to interrupt an experiment until the next day. Second, the 
instructor was constantly being called out of her office to answer a 
students’s question. And third, class enrollment was often 50% foreign 
students who were unable to understand the tapes. 

In order to avoid returning to the non-enriching experience of the 
traditional “closed lab” where the students could only come to lab for 
three hours every afternoon but where the instructor would always be 
present, the following “open lab” approach was attempted. The lab is now 
open for three hours, four days a week. The students have signed up for a 
preferred day in order to balance the daily attendance, but they are not 
forced to stick to this schedule. Any student may come to the lab at any 
other time, but he knows that no instructor will be present. During the three 
hours each day, there is someone, cither the instructor or her lab assistant, 
with the students at all times. A student may certainly stay longer than three 
hours, and the instructor and lab assistant will remain with him if it seems to 
be advisable. 

The tapes are still used, but in a minor role. They are used to explain 
how to operate a particular piece of equipment rather than how to perform 
the entire experiment. The procedure is in written form, sometimes adapted 
from other lab manuals, sometimes original. The procedure forms are 
available to the students in orderly cubby holes in the lab room. No previous 
preparation is expected of them; they may read the procedure form for the 
first time when they come to do the experiment. 

The students now have a choice as to which experiment they perform. 
Each week they have a choice of from two to four experiments. And, they 
are not limited to those experiments devised by the instructor. They are 
encouraged to set up their own experiments. The grading sustem for the 
laboratory course does acknowledge those students who do more than is 
required of them. A grade of B is received if a student does an experiment 
according to accepted procedure. A grade of C is given if it is not as well 
performed nor reported as it should be, but if it was felt that the student did 
3rasp the basic idea behind the experiment. If a grade of X is received, a 
student did not grasp the over-all purpose of the experiment, or used some 
apparatus incorrectly. A grade of A is reserved for those students who do 
more than is required of them. They may do a larger number of experiments; 
they may devise and perform their own experiment; they may do a regular 
experiment, but do a detailed analysis of it. 


In summary, it was felt that an “open lab’* does not work as well if the 
only thing “open” is the time factor. To make the instructor or her assistant 
available for guiding procedures as well as answering questions, the students 
now come to lab at a given time. The lab is still an “open lab” and in many 
ways is more truly open to experimentation than it was before. It is exciting 
for the instructor to mingle with twelve students doing, say, five different 
experiments. The students seem to be more interested in the lab. Several of 
them have devised good, original experiments. Although it is still too early to 
say that this is “the best of all possible worlds”, it is hoped that several more 
terms of implementing the “open experiment” laboratory will show it to be 
satisfying to students and instructors. 


Mildred Vyverberg 

It was felt that many students enter college with a dislike of science and 
that a “fun course” in biology would help to alleviate this problem. The 
“fun course” was also envisioned as helping thestudentsbecome familiar with 
the various guides and keys available in order that they may be able to 
identify other plants and animals in which they are interested at some later 

Thus the first “Flora and Fauna of Florida” course was offered in the 
Spring of 1970. Colorful fliers were posted before the end of the previous 
term. The scope of the course was presented to interested students 
explaining that a science background was not required to take the course and 
memorization of terms and names would be held to those specifically 
needed. The enrollment was limited to 20 students. Three of these students 
dropped out (reasons not known), but the others seemed quite enthusiastic 
about the course. 

Various teaching techniques were tried and frequent use made of 
blackboard drawings, transparencies, slides, handouts of various kinds, 
mounted and preserved specimens, and records of bird songs, frog calls, and 
insect sounds. Four identification and short-answer tests were given during 
the term. 

Since this was a laboratory course, Field trips were taken each week. 
Transportation was not a problem, but the trips will be even more valuable 
when a bus is available to take the entire group. Various areas around 
Gainesville were visited and a study made of the plants and animals generally 
found in each type of habitat. The students enjoyed these excursions and 
considered getting to know the other students better as one of the dividends 
of the course. As a finale, they planned an outing at the lake home of one of 
the class members. 

Collections of leaves and insects were made during the term. This also 
provided an opportunity for sharing knowledge and companionship which 
too often is lacking when students come to class but have little opportunity 
to get to know their classmates or teachers. Permanent collections for the 
college have been started as an aid in instruction and for general interest. 

A companion course to the “Flora and Fauna of Florida” course is 
being considered that would encompass the geology, ecology, and 
paleontology of Florida. 




1 969 - 1 970 







Paul Raymond Lyons 

The major purpose of this investigation was to attempt to determine 
the extent to which junior college personnel exhibit constellations of job 
attitudes consistent with Herzberg’s Motivator- Hygiene theory when a 
methodological approach different from sequence of events was employed to 
determine the existence of job factors. To avoid areas o! major criticism 
lodged at methodological creativeness in dealing with the theory, namely, 
use of too few a priori First Level Factors and use of measures of overall 
satisfaction-dissatisfaction, this investigation concerned itself with eight First 
Level Factors and made no attempt to assess overall 
satisfaction-dissatisfaction. In addition, several hypotheses were presented 
concerning sub-sample differences on factors should a definable factor 
structure emerge. These sub-samples were occupational faculty, academic 
faculty and administrators within each college. 

The semantic differential format was utilized to obtain the raw data to 
be transformed for use in factor-analytic solutions and subsequent statistical 
manipulations. Eight First Level Factors were converted to concepts or 
concept phrases and paired with each and every one of eight evaluative 
adjective bipolar work pairs. This combination gave rise to a 64-item 
instrument which also contained questions relating to such descriptive 
variables as employment category, age, sex, years of experience, and level of 
education. Approximately 40 percent of the full-time staff at each of two of 
Florida’s public community junior colleges responded to the instrument. 
One institution was labeled as “urban* 1 , the other “sub-urban* 1 . Both colleges 
became operational in the same year. 

The data was subjected to both orthogonal ( v arimax) and oblique 
(simple loadings) factor solutions. A factor sturcture was selected from the 
Varimax rotations as being most meaningful. Incomplete factor scores were 
calculated on the basis of this factor structure and colleges, sub-samples, and 
combined sub-samples were compared for mean factor score differences over 
the factors (6) from the chosen rotation. 

In order to examine the basic assumptions underlying the 
Motivator-Hygiene theory, rotation of only two factors was carefully 
examined and found to be highly inclusive in terms of variable (item) 
accountability and amount of variance but not psychologically meaningful. 

The structure (rotation of 6 factors) that did emerge as being most 
meaningful consisted of five factors (I. College Policy and Administration, II. 
Responsibility for Performance, III. Supervision, IV. Status, and VI. Working 
Conditions). This structure accounted for 82 percent of the common 
variance and 61 of the 64 variables loaded .50 or greater. The factor 
structure was probably the most significant aspect of this investigation. In 
terms of satisfaction-dissatisfaction, the entire sample (N = 160) mean factor 
scores were not significantly different from one another. While there was no 
basis for satisfaction-dissatisfaction in the discrimination of specific job 
factors for the total sample, college samples and sub-samples were found to 
differ significantly on all of the factors to some degree. 



In terms of tests of hypotheses, the two colleges were significantly 
different across ali factors. College A and its sub-samples had consistently 
lower mean factor scores than did College B. In terms of sub-sample 
differences, Factors I (Collegj Policy and Administration) and Factor IV 
(Status) discriminated between sub-samples with the greatest frequency, 
respectively. Perhaps the most significant result of this series of comparisons 
were the combined sub-sample comparisons in which case administrators 
differed significantly from teaching faculty while there were no differences 
found between the two teaching faculty sub-samples. 

It was concluded that this investigation did not confirm the 
Motivator-Hygiene Theory of Frederick Herzberg, but it did provide strong 
support for the existence of specific job factors. 



/ r / 


Robert E. She pack 

This study was an analysis of evidence indicating what configurations 
resulted from faculty selection, in-service education, and administrative 
organization patterns designed to facilitate experimental and innovative 
teaching in a comprehensive community junior college. 

Santa Fe Junior College, Gainesville, Florida, had been in operation for 
almost two years when the study was carried out. The College proclaimed a 
commitment to being a student centered developmental problem solving 
institution and had taken the position that to accomplish this objective it 
would seek out, recruit, and employ experimental and innovative faculty. It 
has committed itself to providing an administrative staff and organization 
that not only allowed change required by innovation but hopefully aided 
and abetted it. 

A letter that required thoughtful and philosophy-revealing responses 
from applicants was designed for use in recruiting applicants. Predeaching 
orientation and imservice education programs were provided. The faculty 
was invited to participate in the development of innovative programs and 
participate in policy change and formulation required to accommodate new 
programs and changes. 

Perceptions of the value of in-service programs, general feelings about 
the College and experiences with various aspects of the College, and evidence 
of attempted experimentation were obtained in interviews. 

Examination of college commitments is carried out by the use of 
instruments considered appropriate. Faculty members and administrators 
were tested for personal beliefs about experimentalism, verbal understanding 
of experimental teacher practices, open mindedness and 
liberalism-conservatism. Effects of selection on social and leadership 
configurations are examined with a two phase sociogram. 

Faculty and administers* perception of the College as a democratic 
organization were tested by a bureaucratic-collegial scale instrument. 

College documents and materials were reviewed with regard to their 
implications for faculty understanding of their freedom to experiment and 
innovate, and administrative practices which supported or limited such 
response. There was a marked consistency found as the documents relate to 
each other, the philosophical basis for their design, and the legalistic 
implications to be considered. Organizational patterns chosen appear to be 
similarly consistent. 

The total faculty^demonstrated a high degree of verbalization regarding 
teacher practices. However, the overall level of personal beliefs regarding 
experimentalism does not appear high. Open mindedness test scores and 
liberalism-conservatism scores do not appear unusual. When the philosophy 
letter selection instrument was used as an interview guide, success in 
identifying experimentalism appears to be much greater. Opportunities to 


respond in written form frequently resulted in low beliefs scores and high 
verbalization regarding experimentation. 

Scores for all instruments were higher for groups carefully selected by 
one administrator who thoroughly understood the instrument and its 
purpose and who used the oral response technique. 

A large number of innovative attempts were reported by faculty 
members along with an extensive list of recommended practices for 
improving in-service and orientation programs, and college operations in 

Although the College rated well into the democratic range of the 
bureaucratic-collegial scale, inaccurate perceptions of the College 
organizational patterns appear to force actual administrative operations 
toward bureaucratic patterns. It appears that these inconsistencies tend to 
support feelings of insecurity among faculty, restricting their use of the 
policy formulation and decision making mechanism provided to encourage 
development of innovative practices. 

Faculty leadership patterns were reflected in a variety of beliefs score 
characteristics combined with seniority. Long term leadership among three 
identified groups appear to be related to beliefs about teacher practices and 
liberalism-conservatism. Shorter term leadership characteristics appear to 
relate to seniority. 

Implications for Santa Fe Junior College, other colleges, further study, 
and education in general are drawn from conclusions derived from the study. 






er|c r o 



Florida Community Junior College Inter-institutional Research Council 
and Santa Fe Junior College 

In order to compile information on the development, implementation, 
and evaluation of curricula in all state institutions offering post-secondary 
school occupational education programs, the Florida Community Junior 
College Inter-institutional Research Council is conducting a survey of faculty 
and administration. Involved in the survey are eleven area 
vocational-technical schools and twenty-seven junior colleges including Santa 
Fe Junior College. 

During the first term of the 1970-1971 academic year, a comprehensive 
questionnaire will be administered to a sample of faculty members, program 
directors, occupational education heads, and lay advisors for selected 
occupational education programs. Personal interviews will also be given to a 
relatively small sample of staff involved in post-secondary occupational 
education at the participating institutions in order to provide additional data 
required to meet the study’s objectives. 

A preliminary report of the study will be available on January 15, 


Florida Community Junior College Inter-institutional 
Research Council and Santa Fe Junior College 

In cooperation with the Florida Community Junior College 
Inter-institutional Research Council, Santa Fe Junior College participated in 
a preliminary survey of compensatory education practices among Florida 
public community colleges. The purpose of the survey was twofold: 

1. To determine existing compensatory education practices. 

2. To identify appropriate areas for further study. 

The information for the survey was collected by means of a descriptive 
questionnaire which was to be completed by a college staff member who is 
directly involved in compensatory education. Information was sought in the 
areas of student characteristics, course offerings, instructional materials, 
counseling and financial services, recruitment, in-service training, and goals. 

Based on the results of this survey, further study by the Florida Junior 
College Inter-institutional Research Council of particular colleges is planned. 



Ann Bromley , Santa Fe League Representative 

As a League for Innovation project, a questionnaire concerning sti dent 
rights, freedoms and involvements was distributed to three colleges in the 
League on a pilot basis. The questions in the instrument referred to policies 
or statements of the junior college with reference to classroom activities, 
rules and regulations for student activities and student organizations, student 
records, disciplinary proceedings and student involvement in decision 
making. The purpose of the questionnaire was to survey the varying degrees 
of student involvement in junior colleges and to examine the students, 
faculty and administrator’s awareness of these areas. It was not intended to 
make an analysis of individual forms; the identity of the institutions involved 
will remain anonymous. 

The questionnaire was administered to random samples of students and 
of faculty and administrators. In the initial analysis of the results, 80% of 
both samples understood the college’s admission policy and rnew that it was 
available in print; that public and college facilities were open to students; 
that free discussion was encouraged in the classroom; and that a student 
publication existed. 

Approximately half the students, faculty, and administrators realized 
that the college attempts to secure access to public facilities for students; 
that grades are based on academic performance alone; that the college is not 
concerned with a student’s political activities; that student organizations 
select their own advisors and maintain a statement of purpose; that the role 
and purpose of student government is stated in a formal document; and that 
the college maintains a written policy on student records. 

The areas in which all groups displayed a lack of knowledge were the 

Whether or not academic and disciplinary records were 
kept separately; 

Whether or not disciplinary records were periodically 

What was the relationship of student organizations to 
outside affiliations and on-campus speakers; and 

What is the role of the college when a student is involved 
in civil or college violations. 

The two samples expressed a difference in opinion only as regards to 
committees. Faculty and administrators stated knowledge of student 
membership on college standing committees whereas the student sample was 
not knowledgeable in this regard. 












Ann Bromley and Stephen S. Sledjeski 

"\ l . ho is a Santa Fe student?” If the query were made by a per ;on 
seventeen or older the simpliest answer might be “It could be you”, The 
answer is true and accurate, but it might not satisfy the person who asked 
the question. What it does imply is that they are most likely to be over 
seventeen years of age. Santa Fe students have a wide range of interests and 
academic goals, and Santa Fe attempts to assist them to fulfill their needs 
with a wide and diverse offering of courses. Academically, a student may be 
gifted or in need of a great deal of help. Financially, his family income could 
be below S3, 000 or above $20,000. He might walk to one of Santa Fe’s four 
campuses or he might drive a late model sports car. 

For the past four years, incoming students for the Fall Term at Santa 
Fe Junior College have participated in a survey of characteristics of junior 
college credit students. In toto, 1,954 students have participated in the 
survey. A statistical analysis was performed on the data by combining the 
frequency counts obtained during the past four years and by calculating 
percentages according to the total number of responses. Responses during 
each of the four years were consistent. 

The results of this analysis revealed that the typical Santa Fe Junior 
College credit student is male (5490, white (8790, and under 21 years of age 
(73%). His parents are high school graduates (6590 who have an income 
between $5,000 and $15,000 (6090; the student, though, finances 
three-quarters of his college expenses by himself (53%). No time-lapse exists 
between high school graduation and attendance at Satna Fe (51%). 
Graduation is most likely to be from an Alachua or Bradford County school 
(46%), probably Gainesville High School (32%). If he is a transfer student 
(23%), there is better than a 50-50 chance that he previously attended 
another Florida public junior college or one chance out of five that he 
transferred from the University of Florida. He applied to only one college 
(71%), and if he applied to more than one school, Santa Fe was his first 
(39%) or second (40%) choice. The primary reasons for his selecting Santa 
Fe are its proximity (34%), its providing a good opportunity for success 
(13%), and its being inexpensive (12%). He is concerned about his future 
goals and seeks career information (46%) and improvement of his study skills 
(25%), Religious and sex education are on the bottom of his list of requested 
services (less than 1%). Enrollment is full-time (83%) as a freshman (79%). 
He is in a transfer program (78%) planning to enroll in a senior institution 
immediately after graduating from Santa Fe (83%), most likely at *he 
University of Florida (71%). His planned major is either in education (267c), 
probably elementary education; in arts and sciences (23%), probably 
psychology; or in business (16%), probably business administration or 
accounting. Nursing and engineering are also possibilities. Hopefully, he will 
go to graduate school (62%) and obtain a masters degree (51%). 

It should be noted that due to changes in the survey questionnaire the 
percentages for full-time enrollment, transfer status, location of high school, 
and planned type of graduate degree are based on the years 1967, 1968, and 
1 969, and for race, on the years 1 968 and 1 969. 

rr } 



Ann Bromley , Stephen S. Sledjeski, and Daryl Johnston 

The Student Government Association of Santa Fe Junior College, 
conducted a pilot study on faculty evaluation by students. The undertaking 
to conduct the project was based on a request from the Faculty Association 
of the College and was a totally student controlled project. In this sense, the 
evaluation differed from all previous ones as indicated by a review of the 

The purpose of the project was twofold: 1) to develop and administer 
a pilot instrument for possible use in faculty evaluation and 2) to provide 
participating faculty members with unidentifiable student opinions on 
various aspects of their teaching performance. It is important to note that by 
having the Student Government Association, aided by suggestions of other 
students, develop and conduct the entire study, those aspects having import 
to students were given primary attention. 

Of the 235 faculty members employed in January, 1970, 127 were 
requested to participate in the project. One hundred and twenty-five (125), 
or more than 98% of those contacted, voluntarily agreed to allow the 
administering of the questionnaire in their classes. 

A total of 3,819 non-signed questionnaires were received for analysis 
from 251 class sessions with the mean number of questionnaires per session 
being 15.2. The first section of the one-page questionnaire contained four 
questions requesting demographic data of the student respondent. 

An analysis of these four items showed: 1) nearly half of the students 
were between the ages of 18 and 21 with the remaining over 2!; 2) 
approximately half were males and half were females; 3) one -third of the 
student group were married and the other two-thirds were single; and 4) 
over 9Q% of them expected to receive at least, a passing grade. 

Eight of the eleven questions dealt directly with classroom and 
instructional activities, specifically: presentation of subject matter, interest 
level, openness to ideas, availability out of class, class organization, 
encouragement for participation, fairness to class, and suitability of 
textbooks. On all of these questions over seventy-five per cent of the 
students rated the instructor as average or above. 

The three remaing questions were more global in nature attempting to 
assess the attitude of the instructor to the student as a person, the 
instructor’s overall rating, and an appraisal of the questionnaire’s fairness. 
Good or excellent was checked 79% of the time in response to the first two 
questions with 71% of the respondents answering positively to the third. 

While this was 2 pilot study being limited in time, organization, scope 
and funding, the project’s objective to determine those insufficiencies and 
problems which can be avoided in a future full scak administration of a 
more sophisticated faculty evaluation questionnaire has been achieved. 
Perhaps the most important factor determined in the study was the 
cooperativeness of the large number of faculty and students in carrying o' it 
the project. 




Stanley Lynch 

Santa Fe Junior College in cooperation with the Alachua County board 
of Public Instruction has developed an educational-aide program in order to 
provide on-the-job training for students interested in the field of education, 
specifically, elementary school teaching. 

The program became functional in the Fall of 1969. Twenty-four 
students enrolled, and twenty hours a week were spent in three, new 
differentiated staffed elementary schools. They performed various duties 
which would allow the elementary school teacher to focus more on teaching 
and the student. These duties included: keeping attendance; taking lunch 
orders; maintaining up-to-date health cards; verifying absences; duplicating 
and typing materials; helping with reading, vocabulary, and creative writing; 
correcting papers; working with small groups under the teacher’s supervision; 
encouraging exceptional children through extra projects; and other general, 
non-professional duties. Each term the academic program included education 
courses and seminars on the role of an educational-aide. The program led to 
an Associate in Arts degree which allowed the student to either transfer to a 
senior institution for a teaching career or continue serving as a teacher-aide 
in a public school. 

Students were chosen for the program based on financial need, interest 
in elementary school teaching, and the recommendations of the program’s 
staff and the participating elementary school principal. Each student 
received a tuition scholarship plus an hourly rate salary for services provided 
to the elementary school. 

Twenty-two students, or 92% of the original twenty-four, completed 
the program. Twelve of these have transferred to senior institutions, three 
are still in the program, four have not provided any information as to their 
post-program plans, and three are working full-time in order to continue 
their education at a later date. 

Of the two students who left the program, one transferred to a senior 
institution, and the other is still a student at Santa Fe Junior College. One 
student had scheduling and Financial problems, and the other was terminated 
because of unsatisfactory work. 

In the evaluation of the program, each participating student was asked 
to submit a personal evaluation of himself and the program at the end of 
each term. Each student was evaluated by the programs director and by the 
cooperating principal and teacher. In addition, classroom interactions were 
video-taped allowing the student-aide to critically observe himself in action. 
The tapes also gave the counselor in charge a means to re-enact situations 
that needed improvement. Overall, the evaluations proved favorable. 



June Prows 

Finding the right motivational factors to encourage students to 
complete voluntary programs in communication skills in the learning 
laboratory has been the major emphasis for the 1969-70 academic year. 
Three major factors have emerged: 

1. Establishing a course, Laboratory in Communication Skills, for 
which variable credit from 1-3 hours was given. 

2. The addition of University of Florida graduate students who were 
employed as teaching assistants to assure more personal 
interaction with the students. 

3. Developing progress charts for all materials so that the student 
could record his progress and see evidence in each area as he 

The staff of the learning laboratory wished to maintain the precedent 
set from the beginning that work in the lab should be on a voluntary basis, 
based on a student's desire to improve his skills. It should continue to be 
flexible with regard to when students worked and the amount of time they 
wished to invest so that they would not fee) undue pressure. It was also a 
desire of the staff to continue to provide programs tailored to suit each 
individual's expressed needs and to give him his choice of materials and 
machines so that he would enjoy his work. Another important consideration 
was the desire to continue past the end of the term if he wished. A student, 
also, should have the opportunity to work uifferent amounts of time or 
pursue more than one type of program. 

Each day's work was recorded on charts which provided a visible record 
of each day's progress. Through this medium, the staff endeavored to 
enhance the self-concept of each student and counseled the student about 
subsequent activities in his acquisition of improved skills, it is believed that 
the increase in the number of students who completed n program can be 
attributed to this personal attention made possible by teaching assistants 
whose only duty was to help students. 

A real effort was made to counterbalance the aspect of compensatory 
learning for the educationally disadvantaged student with enrichment 
learning for the superior student. That this was accomplished in reality can 
be verified by the not uncommon sight of persons in a vocational 
exploration program sitting at the same table as persons in college transfer 

Prior to Fall, 1969, all students in the English 100 course were tested 
and interviewed by learning lab staff. Many students would begin a program, 
but more pressing needs of credit courses would cause them to drop the 
prescribed program. The first attempt to see the effect of offering credit was 
begun in the Fall Term in the form of Individual Studies. Of the 630 
students in the English 100 course who were tested, 127 wanted a credit 
program planned but some never pursued the program. Fiftymine of these, 
however, started out in earnest and completed the program for credit. In 
comparison, 60 students signed up for nomcredit programs and only 20 
completed the program. With this incentive, a course called Laboratory in 




Communication Skills was established and put into the schedule for the 
Winter Term. During registration and later through testing English 100 
classes, a total of 92 students registered for credit, 90 of these completing 
the program. This shows a higher completion rate for credit students than 
for non-credit students where 87 began programs but only 52 completed 
them. There appears to be a continuation of the trend in the Spring Term, 

Studying records of students in the lab show that an increasing number 
of students are taking advantage of the opportunity of earning credit in the 
lab. This increase comes both from a larger percentage of students in the 
English 100 course and from regular registration. 

With the results of these efforts, it is felt that a better understanding 
exists of some of the factors effecting student’s work in the lab. The 
addition of teaching assistants from the University of Florida, which offers 
more one-to-one instruction, designing of progress charts so the students can 
see their progress each day, and initiating a system in which the students 
can register for credit and still maintain the former flexibility of laboratory 
work have been our most significant and rewarding changes. However, there 
are other factors which need to be investigated. At the present time studies 
are being conducted to determine what kinds of programs and materials lead 
to greater completion rates. 




Russel Roy 

The philosophical basis of the Mini-Unit includes providing an informal, 
open atmosphere where students and faculty can work together in achieving 
the goals of the common program. The mood is one of experimentation and 
free exchange of ideas. Student involvement is stressed; they are given the 
chance to be free, structuring their own responsibilities rather than having 
them imposed. 

The first such unit at Santa Fe Junior College is Mini-Unit L It consists 
physically of several offices and rooms clustered together in Santa Fe Junior 
College's West Campus. There are two genera! purpose classrooms each 
capable of holding a maximum of about 25 students, a seminar room called 
the “Pit”, and a good sized student lounge, around which the faculty offices 
are clustered. There is also an entrance wall with a secretary's desk and six 
student study carrels. The furniture used throughout is informal. 
Trapezoidal tables and individual chairs are used in the classrooms, the pit 
has a carpeted bench and backrest built in around its perimeter, and the 
lounge is furnished with armchairs, tables, bookshelves, and a couch. The 
lounge also has a multicolored, multipatterncd rug which the students put 
down, and the students have painted the lounge orange and yellow. 

Individual faculty offices are located around the lounge resulting in 
excellent student-faculty interaction. Physically, then, Mini-Unit I is an 
enclosed “unit” which provides a base for the students. They can have their 
classes, they can study, and they can relax all in the same physical area. 

The courses taught by Mini-Unit instructors are all general education 
courses, called the “Common Program” at Santa Fe. There are presently six 
instructors in the unit each representing one of the courses in the common 
program: Behavioral Science, Mathematics, Humanitites, Social Science, The 
Sciences, and English. 

Usually what happens is that two sections of students (totaling about 
50 students) are bloc scheduled for three periods at a time. Three of the 
instructors then operate flexibly within this time, splitting it up in different 
ways at different times for special purposes (movies, lectures, discussions, 
demonstrations, etc.). Sometimes there is a team teaching aspect, sometimes 

At the present time there is a mini-unit experiment under way involving 
Behavorial Science and l'he Sciences being completely team taught by two 
of the instructors. The basic idea here was to broaden the application of the 
encounter group techniques (used in Behavioral Science) to the more 
cognitive areas (those in The Sciences). Although the experiment is only two 
weeks old the teachers and the students are already extremely excited and 
pleased with the situation. 

In terms of providing a true learning situation for teachers and students, 
of providing a sound emotional and intellectual base for building a college 
career, and of providing a challenging, dynamic milieu for people to grow in, 
the Mini-Unit is a success. 





Robert Wheless 

Operation College Bound is a study which attempts to compare the 
efficacy of a specially designed program and the regular program at Santa Ke 
Junior College in meeting the needs of low income students with low 
academic achievement in high school. 

The low income students were recruited from the bottom one-third of 
their graduating class, and approximately thirty subjects were randomly 
assigned to each of the two programs during the Summer Term, 1970. 

All subjects will be pre-tested and po<Wested on 1) Tennessee Self 
Concept Scale, 2) Reading Speed Test, and 3) Reading Comprehension Test. 
The number of subjects in each group entering and completing the six week 
program will be noted. The number of subjects in each group re-entering in 
the fall will be noted also. 

Statistical analysis will be available after the completion of data 












Billy Hampton Davis 

The effort of the community junior colleges to attract students of all 
levels of ability and motivation has raised serious questions concerning 
academic standards, the relation of attrition rates and institutional 
efficiency, and whether or not the college experience is of any benefit to 
either the withdrawing student or society. This study attempts to deal with 
some of these pressing issues through an investigation of the community 
junior college student’s perception of his college experience. 

Students who enrolled as full-time, first-time freshman in the Fall 1967 
term in three Florida community junior colleges and withdrew prior to 
completing their program of studies (withdrawals) were informally 
interviewed in depth with the use of a 35-question interview guide. Based on 
a stratified random proportional sample, 141, or 64.7 percent, of 218 
withdrawals who remained in their college districts two years after the date 
of enrollment were interviewed. 

The findings indicate that the withdrawals are pragmatic and 
materialistic, and recognize higher education as one of society’s major 
prerequisites for upward mobility. The most common reason reported for 
choosing the community junior college was economy and convenience; 
however, for many it is seen as less threatening than the four-year college. A 
majority of the withdrawals have a positive perception of their college 
experience as evidenced by 69 percent reporting they would enroll again 
under similar circumstances, and 65 percent reporting they planned to 
return. Insturction, course offerings, campus climate, evaluation, 
student-faculty relations, and administration are perceived favorably by a 
majority of the withdrawals. 

A sizable minority hold strong negative perceptions of many aspects of 
their college experience. Counseling, lack of faculty interest in students, and 
evaluation are the areas most commonly criticized. The Negro withdrawals, 
though entering college with a higher level of confidence than the while 
withdrawals, left with less positive perceptions. 

The reasons for withdrawal are multiple and complex. Finances, 
irrelevancy of college education, discouragement with meeting academic 
standards, marriage, health and family problems, or a combination of these 
are repoited as the major causes of withdrawal. Only 18 percent of the 
withdrawals sought assistance to stay in college. The withdrawals seem more 
disappointed with themselves than with their college for thei-* unsuccessful 
efforts to further th^ir education. 

Dr. James Wattenbar, Jr., University of Florida, served as Chairman of 
the Committee. 



John W. Dykes 

This study is reproduced in part from the 1969 edition of Research 
Activities in order to present the project’s results which were not previously 

A former Santa Fe graduate, John W. Dykes, attempted to evaluate the 
degree of success in implementing three of the goals of Santa Fe Junior 
College. The goals were ta) to give each student a successful experience, (b) 
to provide for social mobility and (c) to prepare those who want to go on to 
a four-year institution. Two groups were examined. The experimental group 
was a sample of 24 transfer students from Santa Fe Junior College to the 
University of Florida. The control group consisted of members of t ne course 
entitled “Individuals in a Changing Environment” at Santa Fe Junior 
College. These groups were asked to provide demographic information and 
to complete the Self-Concept as a Learner test which was developed by 
Walter Waetjen of the University of Maryland. 

The results obtained in the measurement of the three goals are as 
follow;: (a) Successful experience - the experimental group scored higher on 
the self-concept test than did the control group and gave an unanimous 
positive response to the question “Do you feel that Santa Fe Junior College 
prepared you for the University of Florida?” (b) Social mobility - there 
exists a high correlation between the racial and economic composition of 
Santa Fe Junior Cvllege transfers and the racial and economic composition 
of the district served by Santa Fe Junior College. A similar correlation dots 
not exist between the University of Florida student body and the population 
of Florida. And (c) preparation for transfer - the average grade point average 
for Santa Fe Junior College transferstudentswas as follows: 26% of Santa Fe 
Junior College transfers had grade point averages abovp 3.0, 41% between 
2.5 and 2.99, and 1 2% between 2.0 and 2.49. Only one transfer student had 
a grade point average below 2.0. 

The University sponsor was Dr. Purkey and the Santa Fc staff member 
coordinating the project was Mr. Tal Mullis. 





Robin Lawrason 

Robin Lawrason, under the University of Florida sponsorship of Dr. 
William W. Purkey, investigated the principle of the community junior 
college of giving students a “second chance”. The purpose of the study was 
to determine how the community junior college through its open-door 
policy provides the experiences for “the late bloomer” to rebuild 
confidence, reassess his needs and abilities and discover his place in society. 

The definition of “ the late bloomer” was based on a scrutiny of the 
students* previous ^cords: low high school achievement , poor grades if 
enrolled at a four year institution; and sometimes low Florida Test Scores. 
Sometimes an admitted late bloomer did fairly well in high school, yet alt 
claimed to find high school dull and unchallenging. 

The research was heuristic since the subjects were limited to two 
psychology clashes at Santa Fe Junior College. Two self-concept tests, aimed 
at high school and junior college experiences, were administered. Of the 47 
subjects, 25 claimed to be late bloomers. On the items that referred to their 
pre-college experience, the late bloomers far surpassed the “perennials’* in 
negative self concepts. On the items that referred to their present college 
experience and future goals, the late bloomers were slightly more positive 
than the perennials. 

While the investigator cautions that this heuristic research needs further 
study, the following conclusion has been made: the late bloomer seems to 
have gained, through his “Cinderella** transformation, a better understanding 
of himself and his role in society. He is more mature, even than the 
perennial, because of his experiences with failure. 

Persona! interviews were given to a volunteer sample of the late 
bloomers. The factors these students gave for early failure ranged from need 
for glasses, transient experience through early schooling, busy social lives, 
impersonal or authoritarian school systems, no self discipline, family 
pressures, monotony and, most of all, lack of future goals. 

The factors that brought them back to school were just as diverse: 
prodding parents, added maturity gained in the service, employment or 
marriage, and the realization that only further education could get them the 
job and the personal satisfaction they all needed. These factors, therefore, 
gave each an extra dCve or incentive before getting to junior college. Yet 
despite this desire to succeed, all could have met even more failure had it not 
been for the specific philosophy of Santa Fe Junior College. All students 
interviewed seemed to have opened lip with the more non-threatening and 
respectful attitudes of many of their instructors. Now teachers seemed to 
respect what they as students nad to say. Work was not restricted to a rigid 
curriculum, students had influence in the course’s direction, and no grades 
below C were recorded. 

Th ese students who were personally interviewed appreciated the 
non-threatening approach, and seemed to have come to a better 
understanding of education and learning. They were finding the answers for 
themselves, not for their teachers. Learning was becoming o growing process 
for each as he developed his own understanding of himself and the world 
around him. 




Jo Ann Myer 

It is a commor, practice in broadcast writing to remove or change a word 
in a script that might have an association with an advertised product. A 
sponsor asks for the omr.sion of words or pictures that might make the 
audience think of a a competitor’s product, or give on unfavorable impression 
of the sponsoring product. 

This study sought to investigate the actual need for a practice of editing 
or changing such words, and to reveal audience reaction to the practice. 

Through free word association testing and an open-ended response, this 
study established that out of 61 5 possible associations (41 respondents times 
15 exposures to words associated with advertised products) only 2 
associations were made, and most respondents disapproved of the practice of 
such editing by sponsors. 

Miss Myer, a University of Florida graduate student in the College of 
Journalism and Communications, conducted this thesis study under the 
sponsorship of Dr. Mickie Ncwbill of the University of Florida and with the 
cooperation of M r s. Katherine Cutler and Mrs. Ann Ritch of Santa Fe Junior 

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