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ED 053 942 

SE 012 137 





Biggar, Ronald S., Jr.; And Others 

Scientific Activities of Nonprofit Institutions 1966 
National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. 

NSF-69- 16 
Mar 6 9 

88p.; Surveys of Science Resource Series 
Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 


EDRS Price MF-S0.65 HC-S3.29 

♦Expenditures, Federal Aid, Manpower Utilization, 
♦National Surveys, ♦Research and Development 
Centers, *Science Programs, ♦Voluntary Agencies 


This report summarizes the results of th 
Science Foundation's survey of scientific activities of i 
nonprofit organizations in 1966. Information is included 
expenditures for research, development, and scientific an 
information activities and on the employment of scientifi 
associated with these activities. Major findings include 
following; (1) In January 1967, the full- time-equivalent 
of R S D scientists and engineers employed by independent 
institutions totaled 24,300, compared with 5,300 in Janua 
Federal expenditures for research and development contrac 
nonprofit institutions reached $540 million in 1966, nine 
$60 million reported for 1953; and (3) In 1966, nonprofit 
institutions with $1 million or more in R S D performance 
for 83% of total nonprofit R & D expenditures, received 8 
Federal expenditures for R S D projects contracted to non 
institutions, and employed 80% of the FTE number of R S D 
and engineers. Appendices include statistical tables, tec 
notes, and the questionnaires including the cover letter 
instructions. (Author/PR) 

e National 

d technical 
c personnel 

(FTE) number 
non profit 
ry 1 954; (2) 

ted to 
times the 

8% of 
prof it 



0 Q3 








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Surveys of So once Resources Senes 
NSF 69-16 


• I nth {H itfli nf uou profit instif nfitnis. as defined for this surwv, mv Irgal 
entities organized or chartered to serve tin* public interest that are exempt 
from Federal income taxes. Surveyed nrgauizat i<*ns inrlude indeprinlent 
research institutes. Federally Funded Research ami I U-velnpmeiit fVntcr> 
(FFEIM”s) administered by nonprofit institutions, science exhibitors, pro- 
fessional or technical societies. academies of science, and private philan- 
thropic foundations. Educational institutions and Federal. State, and local 
governments are excluded from this report. 

• Total c.r paidif arts for nmarrh and dm htpiut nt include all direct and 
indirect operating costs incurred in support of research and development, 
hen* classified in three major types: 

(a) Current operating expenditures for research and development 
conducted intramurallv by institutions’ own stall’s. 

(l>) Capital expenditures for intramural research and development 
such as expenditures for buildings, facilities, and capital equip- 

(e) Extramural expenditures for research and development con- 
ducted by other institutions. 

• K x /k )ul if nrrs for sricitfifir (md technical in format ion act not n s are ex- 
penditures for the planning, support, control, performance, and improve- 
ment of functions or tasks that deal with the processing, handling*, and 
communication of scientific and technical information. 

• Expend'd urcr for ('duration in tin- scicuas include expenditures for the 
conduct and support of educational programs related to the sciences anil 

0 For detailed definitions and specific applications, see instructions and 
composite questionnaires in appendix C. 

Throughout this report, numbers and per- 
cents may not add to totals because of 
rounding. In all text tabulations, figures 
are rounded to the nearest 10. 



1966 Expenditures and January 1967 Manpower 

Surveys of Science Resources Series 
NSF 69-16 


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price $1 



T his report summarizes the results of the National Science Founda- 
tion’s survey of scientific activities of independent nonprofit organiza- 
tions in 1966. The study includes data on the financial and manpower re- 
sources used by such organizations to carry out research and educational 
programs in the sciences and engineering. It is comparable in scope to the 
NSF-conducted survey of nonprofit organizations covering the year 1964. 

Independent nonprofit organizations, which constitute a rather hetero- 
geneous group with widely differing programs in the sciences and en- 
gineering, perform a variety of functions that contribute to the scientific 
and technological capabilities of the Nation. The research institutes and 
the Federally Funded Research and Development Centers administered by 
nonprofit institutions are principally engaged in R&D performance financed 
largely through contracts with government agencies and industrial firms. 
Philanthropic foundations support scientific research and educational ac- 
tivities in universities and colleges and other nonprofit organizations. An- 
other major category of science-oriented nonprofit organizations includes 
professional societies and academies of science, which are primarily en- 
gaged in information activities to encourage scientific advancement within 
their membership and throughout the scientific community. 

This report on the 1966 survey was prepared in the National Science 
Foundation’s Office of Economic and Manpower Studies, H. E. Riley, Head. 
The National Science Foundation gratefully acknowledges the cooperation 
of officials of independent nonprofit organizations who supplied the survey 

Charles E. Falk 
Planning Director 
National Science Foundation 

March 1969 


This report describes the results of a survey carried 
out in the Office of Economic and Manpower Studies. 
William L. Stewart was responsible for planning and 
directing the survey in its initial stages. R onal d S. 
Biffgar, Jr., assisted by Lester Friedman and Penny D. 
Fostcr i p repared this rep gxt under the supervision of 
Joseph H. Schuster, Study Director, Universities and 
Nonprofit Institutions Studies Group. Guidance and 
review in the preparation of the report were provided 
by Kenneth Sanow, Head, Statistical Surveys and Re- 
ports Section. 




Summary vii 

1. Introduction . . 1 

Scope of Survey . - 2 

Relationship to Earlier Surveys 2 

Limitations of Data - - - - 3 

Plan of the Report 4 

2. General Characteristics of the Scientific Activities of 

Independent Nonprofit Institutions ...... . 6 

Trends in R&D Employment and Expenditures ... 5 

Employment of Scientists and Engineers . . ... 6 

Employment of Technicians 7 

Total R&D Expenditures 7 

Intramural R&D Performance 8 

Capital R&D Expenditures 10 

Extramural R&D Financing 11 

Medical and Health-Related Research and Development . 11 

3. Research Institutes - 12 

Manpower Characteristics 12 

Total R&D Expenditures 13 

Intramural R&D Performance - - 14 

Capital R&D Expenditures 16 

Extramural R&D Financing 16 

4. Federally Funded Research and Development Centers 

(Administered by Nonprofit Institutions) 17 

Manpower Characteristics 17 

R&D Expenditures 18 

6. Societies and Academies of Science 20 

Manpower Characteristics 20 

Total Expenditures for Scientific Activities 21 

R&D Expenditures 21 

Scientific and Technical Information 22 

6. Private Philanthropic Foundations 24 

Manpower Characteristics 24 

Total Research Expenditures 24 

Research Expenditures of Foundations With the 

Largest Research Programs 26 

Current Research Expenditures, by Field of Science 26 

Expenditures for Education in the Sciences 27 

Total Nonscience Expenditures 27 


7. Science Exhibitors and Other Nonprofit Institutions 28 

Science Exhibitors 28 

Manpower Characteristics 28 

Total R&D Expenditures . 29 

Intramural R&D Performance 30 

Other Nonprofit Institutions 30 

Manpower Characteristics 30 

Total R&D Expenditures 31 

Intramural R&D Performance 31 

Appendixes : 

A. Statistical Tables 36 

B. Technical Notes . - 62 

C. Covering Letter, Questionnaires, and Instructions 64 

Text Tables 

Table pao « 

1. Concentration of current total and Federal intramural R&D expenditures among in- 

dependent nonprofit institutions with the largest R&D programs, 1966 9 

2. Total R&D expenditures of research institutes, by R&D expenditure size-class and 

type of expenditure, 1966 - - . - - - 14 

3. Current expenditures for intramural R&D performance of research institutes, by 

field of science, 1964 and 1966 - — 14 

4. Expenditures for extramural R&D performance of research institutes, by recipient, 

1964 and 1966 16 

5. Expenditures of private philanthropic foundations, by asset size-class and type of 

expenditure, 1964 and 1966 - - 26 

6. Total R&D expenditures of science exhibitors, by type of expenditure, 1964 and 1966 29 

7. Total and FTE number of scientists and engineers employed by other nonprofit or- 
ganizations, by occupational group and function, January 1967 30 

8. Total R&D expenditures of other nonprofit organizations, by type of expenditure, 

1966 . 32 


Charts Pa0 , 

1. Trends in R&D employment and expenditures (by source) of nonprofit institutions . 6 

2. Types of R&D expenditures of independent nonprofit institutions, 1966 8 

3. Geographic distribution of current expenditures for intramural R&D performance of 

independent nonprofit institutions, 1966 - 10 

4. Percent distribution of R&D scientists and engineers (FTE) in research institutes, 

by occupational group and highest earned degree, January 1967 13 

6. Distribution of total R&D expenditures of research institutes, by type of expendi- 
ture, 1966 - 13 

6. Distribution of R&D scientists and engineers (FTE) in Federally Funded Research 
and Development Centers, by occupational group and highest earned degree, January 

1967 18 

7. Distribution of research expenditures among selected groups of private philanthropic 
foundations ranked from highest to lowest in terms of total research expenditures, 

1966 -- 26 

8. Total program expenditures of private philanthropic foundations, by major area of 

support, 1966 27 



• In January 1967, the full-time-equivalent (FTE) number of R&D scien- 
tists and engineers employed by independent nonprofit institutions totaled 
24,300, compared with 6,300 in January 1954. This represented an annual 
compound rate of increase of 12.4 percent per year between 1964 and 1967. 

• Current expenditures for R&D performance in independent nonprofit 
institutions amounted to $800 million in 1966, about 7 times the $110 mil- 
lion in 1953. 

• Federal expenditures for research and development contracted to non- 
profit institutions reached $640 million in 1966, nine times the $60 million 
reported for 1963. As a percent of total, Federal R&D support increased 
from 66 percent in 1963 to 68 percent in 1966. 

• In 1966, nonprofit institutions with $1 million or more in R&D perform- 
ance accounted for 83 percent of total nonprofit R&D expenditures, re- 
ceived 88 percent of Federal expenditures for R&D projects contracted to 

nonprofit institutions, and employed 80 percent of the FTE number of R&D 
scientists and engineers. 

• Organizations and individuals outside the nonprofit sector received $81 
million for R&D performance from independent nonprofit institutions in 
1966. Of this total, universities and colleges and their affiliated hospitals 
received $63 million, or 66 percent. 

1. Introduction 

S ince World War II, industry and Federal 
Government contracts for research have 
stimulated a considerable growth in both the 
number of independent nonprofit research or- 
ganizations and the range of their R&D activi- 
ties. In serving the advanced technological 
needs of industry and government, these re- 
search organizations vary greatly in their finan- 
cial sources, structures, the extent of their 
affiliations with other organizations, and the 
diversity of their programs. The dollar magni- 
tudes of their R&D programs range from less 
than $50,000 to more than $75 million. Some 
are concerned with research activities spanning 
virtually all the natural and social sciences. 

The scientific contributions of many non- 
profit institutions have had a stimulating effect 
on the civilian economy. For example, the Mel- 
lon Institute played a key role in the develop- 
ment of synthetic rubber. The Battelle Memo- 
rial Institute was largely responsible for the 
development of electrostatic copying. Simi- 
larly, magnetic tape recording, the hypersonic 
shock tunnel, and printed magnetic characters 
for the processing of financial and other rec- 
ords were among the many scientific contribu- 
tions that resulted from research performed at 
the IIT Research Institute, Cornell Aeronauti- 
cal Laboratory, and Stanford Research Insti- 
tute, respectively. 

Independent nonprofit research organiza- 
tions perform important services for Federal 
and State agencies as well as for private indus- 
try by providing technological advice and per- 
forming research on specific problems. The 
independent character of these research organi- 
zations has had a significant effect on the 
growth and diversification of their research 
operations. By being independent, these organ- 
izations are not necessarily committed to or 

oriented toward the problems of any one com- 
pany or government agency. Their indepen- 
dence also means that they are free to estab- 
lish their own objectives and employ research- 
ers and managerial personnel at existing 
market rates. This flexibility enables them to 
acquire the managerial and technical know-how 
necessary to attract research contracts from 
both public and private organizations. 

The nonprofit sector’s participation in the 
advancement of the Nation’s science capabili- 
ties goes well beyond the performance of re- 
search and development. Science is further ad- 
vanced by the dissemination of the knowledge 
acquired in the laboratory to other members of 
the scientific community. Professional or tech- 
nical societies expend millions of dollars an- 
nually on the publication and distribution of 
scientific and technical information, the spon- 
sorship of symposia, and the performance of 
other services tc help insure the widest possi- 
ble distribution of research findings. 

Private philanthropic foundations have also 
advanced the Nation’s scientific capacity by 
channeling financial support to institutions 
or talented individuals wishing to undertake 
experimental programs. Foundations, in effect, 
make research funds available to creative man- 
agement in conventional institutions that 
rarely have funds for innovation. Foundations 
have produced a record of significant achieve- 
ment in the areas of scientific research and sci- 
ence education because of their ability to make 
strategic allocations of their funds. Perhaps, 
the most important role of foundation philan- 
thropy is to serve as a catalyst to stimulate 
public and private support for the solution of 
social problems. 

Another group of nonprofit institutions is re- 
ferred to in this report as “science exhibitors”