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EA 006 422 

Horiarty, Dick; Duthie, Jaaes 

Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent 

Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, 
and Becreation, Ottawa (Ontario) . 
Mar 74 

7p.; A related docuaent is EA 006 423 

CAHPER Journal; v40 n4 pp22-23, 33-36 Mar-Apr 1974 

MF-$0.75 HC-$1.50 PLUS POSTAGE 

♦Athletics; *change Agents; coaaunity Services; 

Cooperative Planning; Information Disseaination; 

♦Organizational Change; *0rgatti2ational Developaent; 

Research Methodology; School Coaaunity Cooperation; 

Systems Analysis; Universities; ♦Voluntary 


Canada; Change Agent Research; ♦Research Practice 
Relationship; Sports Institute for Research 

The decline of the independent, scholar- scientist 
closeted in a library and/or laboratory resulting froa increased 
social stress on universities for "aore scholar per dollar** and '*Bore 
relevance for the real world" predicts an inevitable shift to action 
research. The shift in systea froa relatively independent basic 
researchers to task force action research teaas requires a new 
organizational structure (accoaaodating theoreticians and 
practitioners) and a new action oriented research aodel and aethod 
(allowing tentative solutions to significant probleas rather than 
definitive answers to ainute questions) • Inflexible university 
discipline structure and the rigid basic research aodel, aethod, and 
techrology are inappropriate to aeet the challenge of today's future 
shock conflict and change. The Sports Institute for Research (SIR) is 
a voluntary autual benefit service organization at the University of 
Windsor in which the physical education faculty has gathered, froa 
the university and the coaaunity, scientists, educators, and 
technicians capable of and dedicated to programs of coaaunity 
service, disseaination of knowledge, and discovery of knowledge. 
Change Agent Researca (CAB) is a systeas analysis technique coabining 
organizational developaent and organizational research, which 
consists of organizational audit, disseaination of knowledge via 
coaaunications technology, and organizational reaudit. In short, CAR 
is a link between theory and practice, while SIR is a link between 
the university and the coaaunity. (Author) 

ED 096 748 













Sports Institute for Research, Faculty of Physical and Health Education, 

University of Windsor 


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The decline of the independent 
$chotor*scfentt$t cto$eted in a (tbrory 
and/or laborotory resulting from in- 
creased social stress on universities for 
'more scholar per dollar' and 'more 
relevance for the real world/ predicts 
an inevitable shift to action research. 
The Corry-Bonneou report in Canada(l) 
and the Coleman report fn the U.S.A.(2) 
dictate Q decade of frontier oction re- 
search focused on problem solving — 
policy planning rather than curiosity 
seeking — discipline discovering. 

The shift in system from relatively 
independent basic researchers to task 
force action research teams requires a 
new organizational structure (accommo* 
dating theoreticions and practitioners) 
and o new action oriented reseorch 
model and method (allowing tentative 
solutions to significont problems rathttr 
than definitive answers to minute ques- 
tions), inflexible university discipline 
structure and the rigid basic research 
model, method ond technology are fn- 
opproprtote to meet the challenge of 
todoy's future shock conflict and change. 
Windsor's Spotts Institute for Research 
(SIR) ond Chonge Agent Resecrch (CAR) 
present a first generation alternative in 
terms of flexible reseorch organization 
and frontier research rtiodel and method. 

Whot if SIR/ CAR? 

Within the voluntary mutual benefit 
service organization er^titled the Sports 
Institute for Research (SIR) the University 
c' Windsor Faculty of Physical and 
Heolth Educotfon hos gathered, from 
.the University and community, scientists^ 
educators ond resource technicians cap- 
able of and dedicated to progroms of 
(1) community service^ (2) dissemination 
of knowledge ond (3) discovery of 
knowledge. Within SIR's three mofor 
program levels there are a variety of 
pro{eet9 such os (1) community service 
OS in advising the Windsor Bikewoys 

Project, (2) dissemination of knowledge 
by cooperofing with the University of 
Windsor Canadian American Seminar 
on "Sport or Athletics: The North 
Americon Dilemma/' ond (3) discovery 
of knowledge through Change Agent 
Research (CAR) in projects such as Sport 
or Athletics in Little League Busebatt 
and in Windsor Minor Hockey, funded 
by Canada Council and Windsor Minor 
Hockey, respectively. 

What Is CAR? 

CAR is o systems onolysis technique 
combining organizational development 
and organizational research. CAR con- 
sists of three phoses: 
Phase t = Orgonizotionol audir by 
Seeing, Asking and Writ- 
ten questionnaire (SAW), 
followed by communica- 
tion feedback to orgoni* 
zationol subunits* 
Phase II — Olssennlnation of knowl- 
edge (or treatment) by 
meons of participative TV 
• clinics and cooperative 
consultation aimed at pro* 
ducing change ond deveN 
oping a cadre of change 
agents In the organization. 

Phase HI = Orgonizotionol reaudit by 
the SAW method to Iden- 
tify significant changes re- 
sulting from the treatment 
in Phose IL This phase 
also includes packaging 
of CAR model and metho- 
dology to oilow future re- 
search projects. 
The Change Agent Research (CAR) 
Methodology and Procedure chart which 
follows outlines the title, purpose, pro- 
cess, populotlon crnd instruments for 
each of the three phoses of CAR. 

CAR Operottont and Methodology 
The three phases of CAR listed above 

MARCH 1974 . APRIL 1974 
VOL. 40, No. 4 





''^ "" *v i """" 


provide an outline of the operotionot 
procedures in Chonge Agent Research. 
Below ore the goals and processes of 
each phoses 

Phose I Organizational audit and 
communication feedback. 

The current status of on organization 
(mutual benefit, service, commonweal or 
business) is determined by employing 
the SAW process: (a) Seeing or observ** 
Ing through TV monitoring and unob* 
trusive observation utilizing instruments 
tike the Paces Projection Attitude Scale 
ond Socio! Behoviour Index, (b) Asking 
or interviewing employing the Semf* 
Directed Focused Interview (SDFI), and 
(c) Written questionnaires and source 
materiol. Random sampling technique 
is used to select subfects from among 
executives, coaches, o^ficloU, sponsors, 
parents, players, fans ond the generot 
public, in order to identify the ultlmote 
goat of the orgonizotion, obstacles or 
conflicts which prevent achievement of 
tliis goat, and assess incongruity and 
dissonance between structure and in** 
diviHuols or groups (See the 3M Model 
beiow). After the data is procesieci 
communication feedback through o cllnfc 
allows the organtzotlon's executive to 
see what CAR*SAW. 


zotion and administrative science, (b) 
sociology, (c) psychology, (d) principles 
and ethics, (e) biomechanics and macro* 
movement education, (f) physiology and 
health-fitness, diet ond drugs, and (g) 
group dynamics. Each of the six (6) 
clinics includes o thirty (30) minute TV 
presentotion shown to the torget popu- 
lation, followed Immediately by o one 
(1) hour participative discussion allow- 
ing members of the organization to 
opply the contents to their particular 
association . interpersonal and inter- 
group interviewing, group dynamics, 
role reversal, confrontation meetings, 
and sensitivity training sessions are 
integrated into the treatment. Th' pur- 
pose of this phase is to provide back- 
ground information and essential focts 
needed for examinotion and treatment 
of conflict within the organization. Ex* 
posure to M3 onoiysi* technique leads 
to the development of Cnonge Agents 
in the organization who can help to 
bring the ultimate goot tnto focus and 
delineote monogement techniques likely 
to reduce conflict and bring about 

Phase III ~ Reoudit of the orgonfzotfon 
to note significant change 
and packaging of CAR. 



1, tUTXHMt GOAL {Ki.««ion> 


* tiaoi'M t>t Situation iMm) 


SMomoiuxJ •) Traits (ChM«ot«ri«tlc«> 
* OHOVtS b) SittuiUoci (Holt) 

fMttiKtiona - Proceed through th« m>amX itmm Dy lt«i. 1 ti>mn th#n 2b thmtt S«, #te. 

Hmkm •Mtm mil itm^ mrm cov«rt4* ^ ^ ^ * ^ * 

Rmm4» Nui^rs X through ft d««X vith pnaant ccmSitiOft*. Ku«6#ra 1 Uirough 10 «r« ftftucictio 
or pradietiv*. One* 10 km r«»ciM v«tHrn ta 1 and bm^in th« cyelm m^mia* 

Phase il — Disseminotion of knowledge 
and treotment through clin- 
ics and consultation aimed 
of developing a codre of 
change agents within the 

Porticlpative clinics ore utilized to 
disseminote knowledge on (o) orgoni* 

SAW method (Seeing or observing 
through TV and unobtrusive observers, 
Asking or interviewing on audiotape 
ond Written questionnaire) ore em* 
ployed to reoudit the organization ond 
occumulate dota to permit evaluation 
of the outcome of the program and 
identify slgniflcont changes resulting 

(eon'f po0« 33) 

MAICN * AFifU 1974 23 

Specialist ond committee settloni to 
be leheduled: 

• Administrative theory committee 

• Research Council (CAHPER) 
^ Coaches association 

• Health education 

• Elementary school committee 

• Elementary school equipment 

• Oortce committee 

• Exercise physiology committee 

• Psycho-motor learning committer 

• Sports committee 

• Blomechonici committee 

• Sociology of sport committee 

• Philosophy of sport committees 

• History of sport committee 

• Other sport ossociations 

(con'f from po9# 23) 

from Phase 11. The knowledge discover- 
ed is fed bock into fufure studies for 
Phase M treatment. In oddition. Phase 
in Includes packaging of Chonge Agent 
Research procedure (CAR-PAK), metho- 
dology and instruments so that the 
study con be replicated in other oreas. 
Included in the CAR-PAK is a pomphlet 
on CAR model, procedure and metho- 
dology, OS well as (T) SAW instruments, 

(2) videotapes and pamphlets Including 
directions on conducting participatory 
clinics and follow-up consulting and 

(3) compvfer programs and statistical 
methodology for treatment of dota. 

CAR and the cadre of change agents 
developed can provide a seivlce for 
other organfrotions. 

The PERT chart (Three Phases of CAR) 
which follows outlines the operational 
procedure in Change Agent Reseorch. 


Conodion universities are entering o 
new ero (not a changing era) and o new 
organizotionol structure and reseorch 
model and methodology It demonded. 
SIR/CAR presents on alternotlve op- 
prooch and should be evaluated on the 
tenets of action policy research, rother 
than pure research, (cf.2) 

COPY mntimi 

Session des sp^cioHstes et comtt^ 
seront enregistr*s. 

• Comity d'odmlnlstrotton des 

» Conseil des recherches (CAHPER) 

• Association de entrafneurs 

• Education sanltoire 

• Comity d'6cole 6l6mentalre 

^ Equipement pour octlvlt^s 6 I'Acote 

• Comit* de donse 

• Comit* de phytiotogte de I'exerclce 

• Comit* de I'opprentissoge 

• Comit^i des sports 

^ Comlt6 de biomdcanique 

• Comit6 de seclologle du Sport 

• Comity de phllosophle du sport 

• Comit* de I'hlstolre du iport 
^ Autre associations du sport 

SIR/CAR mointolns: 

1* Partial data at the time of action 
is superior to complete dafo offer 
tho* time. 

2. Change agent supercedes re^eorch- 
er if o choice must be mode. 

3. Objective analysis of reality In 
vernocwlor and redundant terms of 
the torget population Is more op* 
propriote than the parsimony and 
eloquence of discipline reseorch. 

4. Separation of policy manipulation 
of the independent vortoble (or 
fortuitous seizure of the situation), 
and meosurement ond ossessment 
of the dependent variable need 
not be separoted absolutely* 

5. 'Publish or perish' should be re- 
placed by 'public service or perhh/ 
The ultimate product is not 'contri- 
bution to knowledge' in the UterQ- 
ture but a change in social policy 
based on shored knowledge and 
research results. 

6. Reol world problems ore not dis- 
ciplinary In origin or noture and 
con only be solved by Interdiscfp- 
linory tosk force teoms bringing 
together theoreticians and practl^ 

MAiCH . Amu ^974 93 

copy fliMf( p 




-p* T S 








0. a 

34 MAiCH . AMtk 

7. A dialectical or adversary proceit^ 
such as SAW m CAR, should be 
included in the action research 
process to ossure self-correction. 

8. Principles of schotorship pnd sc!^ 
ence, i.e., objectivity in realizing 
reality, oppty in action research. 

9. Value free terms, such os effective- 
ness (get the {ob done) and effici- 
ency (expending the fewest physf* 
coi and human resources), should 
replace evaluation of good or bad 
end, and right or wrong msans. 

10. Mutuol trust is a sine qua non for 
cooperative university - community 
research and change agent clinics, 
consultation and communlcotlon. 

1 K Organization* wide dissemination of 
knowledge and open communko* 
tion of reseorch results are essentia! 
for lasting and meaningful changes. 

12. interdisciplinary stages of research 
(execution of the s^udy and cond!<* 
tfons of communicating results) as 
well OS the octlon stages of re* 
search (formulation of the research 
problem, communicotlon of results 
and recor?<mendafIons on poHcy) 
must be governed by objectivity 
rather than the investigators' val- 
ues. Be value free ond avoid ad- 
vocacy beyond reoHstic presento* 
tion of alternatives and probable 
outcomes (Monogement by Objec- 
tives ^ MBO). 

CAR is a {Ink betwee^i theory and 
practice. SIR Is a link between the uni- 
versity ond community. SIR/CAR is 
bringing town and gown and policy 
and practice together in Windsor. 

IDEA Format 

SIR/CAR culminates in the IDEA For^ 
mat: tdentiflcotion, Delmeation, Evolu- 
otion and Action. 

Identification of the research problem 
stems from the felt need o' the client 
system or a request for SIR/CAR service, 
and the opproprlate probU^ms and/or 
hypothesis originate from ^//ithin the 
organization and focus on Vi;inogement 
by Objectives (MBO). 

Dei ineo tion of the reseorch problems 
by CAR shifts the focus of attention !n 

research and development from micro 
studies on competitive skills, psychology 
of cooching, and philosophic treotises 
on persisting problems to macro studies 
on conflict and chonge. The emphasis it 
on administrative decision making and 
the way the organizotion represents 
itself to society at targe and its con* 
stituents in particular. 

Evoiuation in the IDEA Format In- 
cludes questions of the universal and 
sample, as well as research procedure. 
The sample is drown from organization 
e acuttves, coaches, officials, sponsors* 
parents, competitors, fons and the 
generoi public. The research procedure 
is SAW, OS described previously. 

Action or operotlonoi methodology, 
consists of the three phases of CAR. 
There is no clear demorcotion between 
dissemination of knowledge and dis- 
covery of knowledge, although the 
emphasis in Phase f and Phase fl is on 
dissemination of knowledge and organi- 
zational development, whereas the em- 
phasis in Phase III Is upon discovery of 
knowlcKige or orgonlzationol research. 

Future research is enhanced by pock- 
oging of CAR methodology in Phose Hi 
and allows replication in other regions, 
in other orgo n irotions, longttudinaf 
studies, cross sectional studies and com- 
parative cross sectional studies. 

The full IDEA Format is outlined on 
the Change Agent Research (CAR) 
Methodology and Procedure chart which 


(?) Sonrrtou, louU-PNUrpp* ond J. A. Corry. Qv«tf 
for fh* Oftf^mvm; Rtioorch foKey fti (fi* tInU 
vftfftHM of C0*i^da. Tht roport of a commU- 
ilort to %tvdy fho rafionofliotlon of vnW^rtHy 
rotoorch. Ottawa: Af$oe2af{o(t of Un^vonit!*! 
ond Coffegtft of Conoda, 1972. 

(2) "Ttft Prlttcfpft$ Ooyrnlng PoHcy Roitorcft," by 

Dr. iom9t Cettmoit tn Fooffioftt, Am^rlutn 
Socbfogkaf Atfoelotfon/ t. No. 3 (March, 
1973), h 

(3) Bonnti, G. Cfiottglnf OrfortitoHoftf. Ntw 

York: McOrow.Htr^ \9M. 

(4) So* ofto tht AddUofi»W*i!ft)r iftf^tl on or^cnU 

totbnol dtvtlopmtnt pubfUHtd In 1959/ 
whkh Irtefvdti: 
o) Eckort, Rfchord. Orgattltalfomii CI«v«iofim«itt: 

Strotogtoft ond Mod*!, 
b) Uf%nt%, Worron O. OreantfafloKt O^VtUfM 
mtntt iH OHgfnft ond l^rotptctt. 

MARCH * APRft 1974 3S 

BEST copy mimii 

Ch«n9« RtiM«rch (CAR) 

tf»thodol09y and Procedure 
SOEA K#thod • Xd#ntific*tion, DeXin.atlon, EvaluatiDii mnd Action 
^r«lt N««d « r«qtt««t for siR/CAR ••rvlce 

Xdi!^ float ion 


Sfort or Athlotica 

Managa»ent by Objocttvoa (MBO) 

-^Hypothaaoa Organlaational Strttctura 

Effactlvanaaa and Efflolciney 



cch C Davalop«a|>t^^ 

(Futura) (thaory a profaaalonal praotioa) 


^ModaX - 3N 

ultimata goal 
conflict or obataclaa 
atructura l» groups 
nanaganant tachniquaa 

Sawpla (random) 


Prooadura » SAK( 

$ft«in9 or Obaarving 



Aaking or Xntarviawing 
Ifrittan Sourcaa fi opinionnaira 





Phaaa I 

SAW for Organisation Audit 

ommunioation raadback 

Diaaatnination of Knowladga 

ning of Cadra of CAR 

^SAM for Organiaational Raattdit 
haaa lll^^Of acovary of Knowladga 
^^PacKaging of car 


Ptttura Raaaarch 

CAR in othar aporta 

Croaa Saction 6 Longitudinal 


c) »tok». lobart «. an<l iaaa S. ^^^^ 
ivikfini a Hyiwmtc Carparatfaa Hiraaf^ arid 

d) Dovl*, A. H. Orayf farftnaaftea. 

•) Uiwr#n€#, Pout R. and i. W, Iwdt. DavtU 
•fifng Off««l«aflaiifi Wafnati* and AeHaa. 
f) $€h#{c% Wflor H. PractM Ctatakaflaat H» 

tat* fa Orfatiiffaflaa P a v t timta»> 
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M«iklaf: CaafrwiTaflaw TWfd faity C^mmU 

($) $#« olio CASIA Progf$i RaporH for Wl-W 
avoltobta thfowgH tha Caftttr for fha Ad- 
voitcad Sttfdy of Mueoffartot AdrntnUtroHon/ 
Uftivarftlty of Oragai*, fifgant, Oftgoft, ^«0^ 

96 MAKCH • APRIW 197^