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^'Ei 008- 882 

Poignantj, RayaiDiid 

Integrating the Educational Plar. Into the EcDnDmic 

and Social Plan: Some Inspects of French and Soviat 

Experience- HEP Occasional Papers No- 28. 

United Nations EducatiDnal,. Scienti fie, and Zultaral 

Organization^ Paris (France). International Inst, for 

Educational Plann in g. 

Jul 7 2 

28p.: Paper presented .to the conference organize! by 
D . N . I .T. E. " . A. on "The .School in the Technological 
Society" (Rome^. Januarf 6-11, 1972) ; Parts of 
document may be margindlly legible due to print 
quality of the original 

HEP Publications, ^'-9 rae Eugene-Delacroix, 75015 
Paris, France (4.00 francs) 

MF-$0-83 HC-$2.06- Plus Postage^ ' 
Educational Admin is tr at ion ; *Ed ucat ional Planning ; 
Eleiientary Secondary 'Education; Employment 
Pro j ections ; *Governmeit Role ; Jlanpoi? er Needs; 
*National' P.rograms.; Post Secondary Education; 
^Program De scriptions ; ^Statewide Planning'; 
V o c a t io'h a 1 Education 
^France; *asSR ■ 

This paper ""Sescribes and compares tha processes of 
'=^conomic and social planning in France and-th-e U.S. S.R., with- 
particular emphasis on national- educational .planning and how it 
relates to the overall economic plan. ::hapter 1 focuses on varioas 
aspects of integrating the educational plan into tha overall social 
■and economic; plan, with particular attention to (1) the major 
.functions of the central planning bodies and (2) the development of 
the e^lludat ional system and the fundamental balances of the plan. 
' Chapter 2 focuses on relati onships between the characteristics and 
qualifications of the active population and the development of 
technical vocational training, part icular attention is devoted to (1) 
the relationships between employment pLamiing and the development of-, 
specialist training in the U. S . S. R . and (2) employment projectiaa^ in . 
France and th.e tendency toward second- and third- level. technical 
studies. Ch,apt9r 3 focuses on political and administrative aspect s of 
school . and university planning, with particular attention to. .(1) ,the 
predominance of political decision-makiag authority and (2) ,the 
distribution of authority between the central planning bodies and the. 
- ministries re sportsible for educational planning . (JGj ' ■ 

ED 139 061 







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HEP Occasional Papers No. 28 

u s department ofhealth. 
eoucation & welfare 
** national institute of 


th}s Document has be£n repro- 


TO F^^VC -.ND a«G*.r>|l7AT!0NS OPEPAT 


Raymond Poignant, Director, IIEP 

BEST XOP^ ^^^^^^^^^ 

tJneisco: International Institute for 
Educational Planning . - .. 

Paper presented to the conference organised 
by uJn. I. T:E. S.A. on "The school in the 
technological society", Rome 6-11 January 1972. 

HEP .Occasional Paper.s 

The studies in this aeries include papers contributed by the Institute's 
staff, \4siting fellows, interns and consultants. Some of the studies 
have originally been prepared as part of the training, progrannme of the 
Institute; otl:ers have previoasl}^ appeared as working papers for the 
Institute'iJ senrdnars and symposia. All of them, in the Institute's 
.\aew, are of sufficient interest to merit being re-issued and distributed 
on a wider scale. 

By their very nature these papers are less formal and have not been 
given the full editorial processing customary for IIEP ^oificial 
publications'. . ' , 

The opinions expressed in these papers are those of the authors and " 
do not necessarily represent the views of the Institute. The use, 
adaptation or reproduction, in whole or'in~part,""ofi;hese'papers is - 
limited to institutions and persons speciiically authorized by IIEP. 

Printed in Fr'^ance by the 

International Institute for Educational Planning; • 
9 rue Eugbne-Delacroix^ 75 Paris 16e. 
July 1972 . ^ . 



- c ■ 


A. The major functions of the central planning bodies 

B. The deveiopinent of the educational system and tihe 
-fundamental balances of th& plan 


A. . General considerations , v 

B. The. nature and importance 'of the relationships between the 
. planning of employment and the development of specialist 

training in the USSR .■ . .. ' ' " 

C. Projection of employnien^ in France and the tendency towards 
second and third-level professional and technical studies 

D. Conclusion - ■ ■ * 


A. The necessary predominance of the decision-making 
powers of the political authority . ' ^ 

B . Distribution of authority between the centraV planning bodies 
and the Ministry (or Ministries) responsible for educational 
planning ■ ' ■ 

* " ■ 



(a) The importance of French and Soviet experience 

The 1971-1975 five-year period corresponds respectively to the sixth economic and social develop- 
ment ^lan of France 1;/ and the ninth Soviet national economy development plan 2/., Tgday, therefore, 
the USSR amongst socialist countries, and FrEince amongst the planned * semi -liberal' economies, 
have the longest experience. in the field of economic and social planning. 

Right from the firstiSoviet five-year-plan, all economic and social activities, including 
education, were integrated into the plan. In France, the fi.rst plan covered only" certaiTi economic 
sectors considered a^ of priority importance during the icdtial relaunching of the French economy??].? 
then devastated by thfe war (power, steel, transportation, farm machinery, and building materials); 
by the second plan (1954-1957) all social and economic activates were integrated into the planning 
work," and the first -educ a plan relates to this period. ^ ' 

Owfng among other- things to differentiations in the organization of the production and 
distribution s^^stem, the French and Soviet plans differ both in the methodology' of their conception 
and how they' are implemented. In actual fact, the differences concern more how the plan is 
carried into jeffect than techniqui^s for forecasting the future of the economy and determining growth 
targets. - J . , - ■ . ' ' : . 

♦ " ■ . " ■■ • ■ " " ■ 

(b) The specific nature of the French and Soviet experience 

Although these two experiences are not strictly identical, at all events, both France and the USSR ^ 
have fairly highly industrialised economies, and agricultural production accounts for only a min of *" • 
share of the donriestic product. • ■ ^ - 

The Experience gained by feese two countries cai^not therefore be simply transposed to other 
countries. However, certain guiding principles Eind methods of organization, and especially those 
concerning'the relationships between the educational plan and the general economic and social plan, 
are of interest to all countries that aspire to inap/'ove or*set up thei^r own planning system. 

ly The first French plan covered the 1948-1953 period. 
2J The first Soviet plan covered the 1928-1932 period. . 


(c) The limitations of the present paper 
Within the deliberately confined framework of this paper, it is not possible to present all the 
aspects of educational planning in the USSB and France. AVe must therefore confine ourselves to 
dealing in order with a number of major aspects 1/, leaving for the discussion a more detailed 
rev_e\v of other matters which those attending the conference consider as of particular importance 

1^/ The HEP hss already published in 19 67, in French and English, a 
major work entitled 'Educational planliing in the USSR*. 


Within an overall planning concept, the educational plan cannot be prepared \vithoui reference to the 
general pl^an and in fact, quite on the contrary, forms part and parcel of this plan. 

» The educational objectives of the plan (general education, vocational and technical education, 
youth and adult education) form at one and the same time one of the major social objectives of Uie 
.plan (raising the. cultural level of tlie population) and one of the mecUis of carrying the plain into effec 
(training of skilled and highly skilled workers). These objectives cannot be determined rationally 
vtxnouL an understanding of" tIie genei d pd -ttern of developirnent of the economic and social sectors 
as a whole. At all events, the material, financial and human means allocated to the educational 
system are necessarily taken into account in the fundamental economic balances, the conditions of 
which the economists strive to determine during the plsin preparation period and the achievement of 
which they attempt to guarantee during the period of the plan. 

*A. The major functions of the central planning bodies * 
In both the USSR and in France, the bodies responsible for fact-*finding and analysis in prder_to 
prepare the plan have the following main tasks: " 

■ - [ „ ■ ■ f : ~ ■ 

(a) Exploration of possible avenues of development ... ^ . » 
The elaboration of possible models of the future economy from studies of the'trend in "individual ^and 
collective consumption; these models of the future economy take the form of ^projections * of the 
national accounts during th^ period covered by the plan! ■ 7 

The determination of varicOits of the growth rate, the respective development of indi\ridual 
and collective consumption, distribution of income, workihg^hours, etc; these variants, the number 
of which cannot be unlimited, enable the political authorities to choose between the various possible 

N ■ . ... 

(b) ^ Co-ordination of the setting of sectoral targets , 

The ^rough outlines* of the plan prepared at the start of the planning process .(by the Gospian In 
the USSR and the Commissariat du France) and adopted as starting assumptions by the 
authorities must be thorough-going for each of the major branches of economic and social activity; 
the overall co-ordinating of the planning system must sponsor and co-ordinate the work of 
specialist bodies (the Gospian departments in the USSR and the 'Ve^'tical' committees of the . 
Commissariat du Plan in France) responsible for exploringothe trend in the various sectors. 

Integrating the e'ducational plan into the economi^j^ and social plan: 
^5on'le aspects of French and So\'iet experience. - : 

^c) Per n-ianent veri ^fication of the coherence of sectoral objectives and the 
funda mental bal;'ances of- the plan 

l"i:e ptipposo oi the plan is to bring abo it as fast a rate of growth as possible. However,, tliere can 

bv no continuity in this growtii unless fundamental economic balances are maintained. 

• ^ ' Balance betwee n labour supply and demand 

(verificatijDn that human resources are fully employed and compatibility between 

the production 

General economic balance 

targets and existing labour supply); 

(production-consumption balance aiid inter-industry vrade tables); 
'lixport- impont ' balance 

The desi rable growth of foreign trade must as far as possible take place 

in balanc'^^nd the plan must define how-tt? achitvt UiJs 
''Sayings-inve? it ment' balance 

This balance j^ictates. the entire execution of the plan since, if savings 
(public and pr i vate) are inadequa te, it is impossible to achieve the -productive 
- —investments vrhich govern growth of production and-the collective investments-- 
( schools, hospitals, etc. ) projected within the plan. The search for a rising 
rate of investlment is one of the major difficulties facing planners 1_/ . 

5 . ■ Balance betw .e en 'public resources and public expenditures' 

In seeHing this balance, the validity of the 'collective consumption' objectives 
within the plain can be guaranteed. ' . 

bal ances of the plan 

■^^'^^■■developiaent of the educational system and the fundamental 

Most of the various fundamental balances that have to be obtained to achieve steady growth 

call into question the nature and scope of the quantitative and qualitative expansion targets of the 

oducatiunal svstem. 

(a) The balance between 'labour supply and demand' in a full r employ ment economy 

such as that of the USSR and France 

is dependent on the development of enrolments in two ways: 

quan titativel 'v, the expansion of enrolments (raising the school-lea\ing age 
and spontanijous development of secondary and higher studies) temporarily , 
•reduces thelnumber of young workers, and this factor must be-allowed for 
when analysing the conditions of 'supply and demand' balance during a 
five-year plan; naturally, this consideration is particularly important in a 
country whose economy suffers from lack of labour (as has been the case in 
the USSR siiice''l945); ^ , ' 

qualitative!;^ ' 

expanding ei; 
or outside 
economy foi 


1 / .This obs^i 

skilled or highly-skilled worker demand can only be met-'in an 
lionomy through vocational and technical training organized within 

school framework; from this standpoint, tiie* demand of the 
'.trained personnel is bound to influence the content of the training 
5 in the educational plan, and we shall I'eturn to this point in the 

ch apt 

jrvation'is particularly valid for tlie developing countries. 



The various aspects of integrating the educational plan 
into ihe^overall social and econoniic plan ^ 

(b) The balance between sa\-ing5 and investments mast allov.' for linai.cing of 
construction of schools at all levels: this is no minor problem since the cost of building schools 
represents about 1 per cent of.the Gross National PVodue?(GNP) in most industrialised coantoe^ ^ 
and in the majority of cases this cost is financed by public sa\dngs. 

(c) The balanc;^ between public resources and public expenditures ob\dously 
allows for educational expenditures paid out of public funds (State budget, provincial or local 
budgets, i.e. in most cases the greater part of expenditures);' .allowing for the possible inci ease 
in public resources that can be expected from th^ growth of the economy, the problem comes down 
to predicting the share that can be allocated to the scholastic and extra-scholastic educational 

sy s t em with allowance~fo r all other"Stafe-nnanc,ecl services (gen eral edu c atio n 

Justice, etc. ). . - ' ' 

it is within the framework of such projections of the trend in" tax revenue and the desirable 

allocation of public resources that the relative weight of the financial constraints ori^the quantitative 

and qualitative development of the educational system emerges. The'burden of financial cOnstrVnts 

varies wiXh each country, even amongst developing countries 1/ - However, for the most part, 

tentative projections of the limits of public resources that can be allocated to education during the 

period of the plan may oblige the planners; . ' 

' "- to set an order of priority for the objectives of the educational plan 2/; 

to resort to alternative enrolment methods (full-time school or evening 
. ^ classes, correspondence courses) 3/ in order to reduce expenditures; 

to seek other methods of financing (e, g. diversification of resources, etc. ). 



\J For some, the tax revenue fron\ petroleum products has radically 
changed the fundamentals of this problem. 

2/ The tirst Soviet plan^(1928>1932) limited the duration of con^pulsory 
s^chooling in rural areas to -four years, and this rule was applied until 1949. 

3^/ The USSR has broadly followed this policy'since the end of the 
Second World War at'the secondary specialised and higher educational levels 
furthermore, such a policy is not exclusively determined by financial 
conditions. With the ninth plan (1971-19-75), on the other hand; Ihe USSR 
wishes to generalise a complete secondary education (7 to 17 yearsj. 




A. General considerations 


^ ' (a) Vocational artd technical training: an integral part of the educational plan 

As we have seen (cff Chapter I), the developmentpf enrolments affects- the balance o£,labo^ur supply 
^ . h ' ■ . * 

and demand; Rowever, this aspect of the relationship.between the (^evelopn.ent of tlie working 
population and that of enrolments is relatively marginal; it plays an important part only on the 
assumption of a severe quantitative shortage of labour. IM ore important are the relations that must 
be es tabli shed between: (1) the development of the-employment structure and worker qualifications 

^ari sjng? f rom the advance in production techniques and.the expansion of th'e* economy,^ and (2) the 
vocational and technical training programmes to be included'in. tlie educational plan. ' 

Any school system has tliree ultimate aims: to train the man, the citizen and the pr*oduc«r. 
Training of the man (development of individual aptitudes and the personality) and that of the citizen 
(fostering participation.ofnhe child in social life, apprenticeship in densocracy, etc. ) have long been 
the essential objectives- of educational systems. ' The requirements of economic development and, 
in particular, industrialisation have given the school a more important role in training the producer," 
from the skilled worker to the scientist. • . - c 

- Introduction of the 'labour demand* factor in prepqiring school and universitv plans still gives* to fecliolarlj.' controversies. At this juncture, we* propose merely to confine ourselves to- * . 
co!isiderations-qf 'common sense'. ^ 

It is not 

matter of deciding whetl^er pli. -led education must be established with the 'labour 

demand' approach or the 'social demand' approach. When setting the objectives of'-an educational 

plan, one has to ;artal5\se all the facto'rs th^t may decide the pattern of development of the educational 

system: ^ • . .1 . \ ' ' . 

\ *: - demographic : (devjplopment of school-age population) 

sociological: or 'social demand' (rising aspiration of families to see their 
children enrolled in all levels of education) 

' eciononpiic : (need to- train the skilled per sonnel needed for economic 

political : (relationships between the development of the educational- system 
r anil democracy) ' 

1 ■ ! 

Of all these factory, vocational and technical trainiiig is only one amongst several elements . 
Its level of priority has varied historically since, except for training in universities, vocational and 
technical training systenvs in schools are relatively recent; today, industrialisation 1/ has created 
rising needs to train skilled and-highly- skilled personnel that can only be satisfied by specialised 
-institutions (scholastic or extra-scholastic), the development of which is one aspect of educational * 
pJanningT^-^-..-^^^^^^- ... * . . . • * 

1/ The new techniques of agricultural production. 

^Relationships betv^een the developtneni of the structure and quail:: 
of the active population and the development of technical vocatior.a 

(b) The difficulty of predicting the development of the structure and 
^ q u all I i c at i on s o f t h e active pop ul a^i on 

The embodiment of additional vocational and technical'training programmes in t'lte educa::oj:ial plan 

prc-supposes initial exploration of the future requirements of the economy for skilled personne.'. 

This prior assessment of requirements encounters a wofoid difficulty: ' 

1 . The difficulty of making long-term employment forecasts 
The initial difficulty is the time-lag *betv'een immediate short-term labour requirements, wjiich ari 
from economic development during the four or five-year period of the plan, and \he results oi new 
training programmes 1^/ embodied in the plan, which start yielding results onl>- five to t\velve> years 
after-the elementary education cycle, depending on the duration of training. 

Except far accelerated- vocational training for adults or short vocational training courses 

(one or" two years), it is impossibleTo meet additional requirements^ for skilled labour or speeiraH-v 
within the period of the econq.mic plan by means of new training programmes org^jiized dui'ing iv. 
in .the niain, these new programmes yield benefit only during the subsequent plan c5r pjlns. 

For this reason^ particularly at the highei; leveL, vocational and technical training prograr,-. 

should be directed in accordance with longer-t-erm forecasts (ten or twelve vears) concerni^ie: ihi- 

/ ^ . - 

structure and qualifications of .thejworking. popillation. ■ 

■ • - * . 

* ,X-ow;.-it is universa^y accepted that these fore'casts are highly difficult to make sin(5^ tliey 
implv an understanding ten or twelve years in advance of: 

y - the structure o'f economic production by sector £/ 

the^ development of production techniques arising from' the progress of 
research." * ^ . ' . • 

• 2. T\ie nature oT the correlationships betyreen jobs and school<*qualifications. , 
A second major uncertainty concerns the nature of the correlationships that must be established 

t between jobs and qualifications. In order to translate labour demand into training programmes , 
there must be correlationships that are kn6wn'and relatively stable between thenr^aining imparted : 
the various t^T^es of school sind the various job categories. Now, except 'for professions governed- I 

■l/''\Vhich in most cases im.ply the setting-up of new establishments and 
training delays which are -very often e*xtremely long. - 1^.^ 

2/ At a certain level of development, it is increasingly difficult to 'predict 
the pattern of consumer b'ehaviour and the nature of future production 
pj'ogramnies of goods or services. 

integrating''the edacational plan into the economic ai'd social pjzir.: 
some aspects of French and So-.-iei expenence 

rules and regulations (doctors, public office, etc. ) these correlation ships are only toooftc-r; 
1:: adequately known : furthern^ore tliey are not rigid in character and may vary witii time as a 
iLiriCtion of the very development of the educational system^ 3/. ^■ 

The^oiKcome of this, as ari exannination of actual conditions shov.-s, is t}-iat hifjhly diverse 
qualitative solutions can be given to training systems for tlie sam.e job. 

For industrialised countries 'Such as France and the USSR, the currf'^nt trend is iirFr lo 
organize all vocationaJ and technical training on the basis of a wide general education (8, : 10 or 
12 vears^ and second to make such training as multivalent as possible 2/. This is a desirable 
uolicy from all standpoirr.s. However,' it is^expensi\'e; owing to financial constraints, it camioi be 
pureJy and simply transposTed lo the developing countries. 

1> . The nature and importance of the relationships between the planning of 
employment and the development of sp(?cialist training in the I'SSH 

(a) General principles 

The USSR is undoubtedly one of the countries of the world in which planners have made tlie greatest 
effoins to co-ordinate trainir^g programmes for skilled and highly -skilled personnel with forecasts 
of requirements arising from economic development. 

The Soviet methodology- for planning the training of si^illed labour (industry, agriculture, 
services, etc. ) and specialists (medium and'higher-level supervisory staff) is described in detail 
in the HEP publication 'Educational planning in the USSR* (Paris, 1967 - 295 pages). In the present 
paper we can-do no more than summarise. some of the salient features of S oviety experience, , 
confining "ourselves to the planning of medium -level staff (technicians, etc. ) and higher-level st^ff ^ 
(scientists, teachers^ engineers, doctors,* lawyers, sociologists, etc. ). . . 

, As regards, vocational training of skilled or semi-skilled labour, the ^balances' of labour 
drawn up within the framework of tHe five-year plan reveal quantitative aiid qualitative requirements 
which pro\dde a basis for school vocational training programmes (vocational and technical schools^ 
under the State Com.mittee of the Council of Ministers) or out-of-school training (shorter training . 
orgaiiized by enterprises). - . 

1^/ The evolution of the specialist qualifications of the working population 
governs the scope and nature of vocational and technical training progranim^s. 
However, conversely," it is the development of the educational system itself 
"(for instance the length of compulsory general education) that governs the^hs;i^el 
of general qualification of the labour market as a whole, aside from pu'reTy ' 
professional requirements. ' ^ ^ , 

2/ To facilitate the retraining and subsequent refresher courses that will be 
required by new techniques. ^ • . . ^ . 

3^/ In the USSR^he expression 'middle and high-level executives' is embodied • 
in the designation ^specialists*, i. e. staff formed in higher education establisli 
ments (universities and specialis^ed institutes) and secondary specialised 
establishments (technicums). - * " 

• * V *- » 

14 12 , 

Ifeiationships betwe^ the rie^'elopment^of the structure and qualificatix^iris « ; 
.of the active population and u:e-'deyelopment of teghpicaJ vocational traiifing 

I ThQ._piteparation pf_'specialistsj training programmes to be carried out in the framework " ; 

of a pve -year .plan is based on a prior review of mr ' i ' term' requirements . Since «1 9 2 8, 

[Soviet planners have striven to develop the mc ing methods possibl^;;e rnethocls 

have gradually been improved in the light of <■ c ' ' 

. . Right from the outset, "two methods wer«;- u " . . ' ■• 

the first, mainly synthetic, is b;>sed on the long-term extrapolation UO years) 
of supervisory staff trends in the varioij^s branches of ecbnomic and cultural . 
activity: this is the 'satu>ratipn rate metHod' (Coeffitsient nasyshchennosti) l/'. 

r the other, which is more &alytic, is^founded on detailed enquiry among 
, " enterprises and services to learn th^requiremehts fon specialists expressed 
■ . . by users during the period of the plan (five years). . The^se surveys are 
conducted on tl\^ basis of an official classification of jobs to be filled, by 
! \ specialists with higher or specialised secondary tra-.ning (nomenclatura 
/'"p^ "'""dolzhnosyeiy^ 7' ■ '. ' ■ c ' ^ ^ 

- /• The purpose of these projections is to asset's the- number of specialists (reneAval and additional ' 
demand) whp are to, start work during the. period studied and on this basis to determine year by year 
the de^msind for recruitment in specialist training establishments.^. In this way, the recruitrient- require- 
ment jS:.]by; speciality 2/ established . by the Federal Gosplan and the. Gosplaris of the ft epublics working 
jointly with the-Ministry .of Higher' ahid'- Secondary Specialised Education arid the Economic Ministries 
a're." used "for det;ermining**enrolment quotas in training establishments ■3yv-t.lxeret)y fi develop- . 

ment plan of these establishments. . ° ' ■ " \ 

Naturally, this- is not ptirely and simply '^a 'linear'^ extension of the existing system of staff 
trajjning, since at the same. time the services of tlie qtepartments of. the Ministry 9f Education for" . 
Higher aridvSecondary' specialised Education consider' the changes necessary in the syllabuses of the 
specialisations already being taught or the c'reatlon of new specialities rendered necessary by 
sci,'entific and^^technical 'development. *: ' ' r^.^ . ' . 

\ • ■ . • *(b) Method of appraising requirements for sp.ecialists 'on the basis of 
■: ' • j * . , - . * ' : . job classification . " , ... 

Thjs method starts with the. preparation of a job classification for all sectors of* activity ^industrial, 
-agi;i cultural, commereial, tertiary, etc^ ) which must in principle be filled by people holding a di'ploma 
""frdmr.the J4;echnicun)s* or, higher- education establishrnents. In this classification, the level of 
trainihg'ia^^ . / . - 


l/' The word 'saturation' does not evoke the idea of maximuni,-but rather that 
of 'desirable' or 'optin:ialVrate; 

2/ According to the list of ^^.cialities^ taught in' higher and seco*:dary . . 
specialised education establishments.. • t 

* 3y Th.e enrolment 'quotas ' include all training methods: full-time, Sjvening 
classes and correspondence courses.. Each, university dean receives every 
year instructions cqncerhing^^e number of students to be egrolled by speciality 
and method of training. ■ 



Integrating, the educational plan -into" the economic, and social plan; 
some aspects ofFrpnch and Soviet^xperience . " 

Naturally, in real life, particularly during the initial Soviet plans, not all the jobs considered- 

• , ■ . . ■ 

could be satisfied by those holding diplomas and many were filled by 'practicians' CpraktikiM who / 

compensated for the lack of a diploma by professional experience; gradually, with tlte deyelopment of 

schoQl training, the 'specialist' jobs are tending to he set or those holding diplonrras, an'd 

enrolment programmes for training establishments-are prrpjtr d accordingly. " 

The starting-point^for proje'cting staff requirements in ilie USSR is therefore the predeter- 
mination o: £n official 'jobs -qualifications.' balance. 

The requirements of i^i^oijpLKl^e undertakings and administrative departments are subject to 
periodic investigations; they are assessed on the basis of concrete development plans for the domestic 
economy and culture. ' 
•: These a re transcribed on standard forms drawn up by the Gosplan and the Federal Ministry 

for Higher and Secondary Specialised Education and collated at the various hierarchical levels. 

Demand pr'ojections are prepared: » . • - • 

^ - either ^or the period of the five-year plan (medium-term projections"), 

- or for each year of the plan (annual surveys). 

T^ie" medium -term projections (five years) are prepared when the plan itself i§ prepared and 
are used|.n part (see later) for preparing training plans; projections for the coming year are used to 
develop distributiofi and employiyient plans for young specialists leaving the educational establishments 

f' - The queistionnaires filled in by the enterprises or adm°inistrative departments indicate the 
total number of jdl^s and- the number of specialist jobs;.this information shows the 'propbrtion of " - 
specialists to thfe total number of workers fo r 'each^ br a^ich of activity arid the ratio between the 
number of speciali;sts with higher or with secondary trainiing. - * . . * 

This method provides precise information (insofar- as the enterprises are capable of 

accurately expressing their requirements) on, the number of specialists needed during the period of 
t. ^. ■ , . ■ ■ . ' ■ 

the plan , though it dbdfe not permit the long-term projections (ten .feo twelve years) which are 
indispensable for planninjg: " "" - . . • . ^ . ' .- • 

->-rr'^'---'-y--'-'^X^^ - 

.. - -the extension of the physical infrastructure of training establishments; ■ 
. A '^^ - the recruitm.ent and training of.the teaching staff for these establishments.- 

For these reas'ons, a second method of evaluating requirements for specialists, known as 
the" 'saturatiCn-rates method', is used in parallel with the first one. ' 

■ Relationsriips between the development of the structure and qualifications' 
of the active population and the development of technical vocational training 

.(c) Method Of assessing requirements for specialists on the basis of 

the 'satu-ratjion rates' - • 

• Whereas the" 'job-classification' method is applied on the basis of concrete medium-term plans known* 

by each enterprise or service, the 'saturation-raies' -method is based on an overall view of the 

longer-term development of the working population, its breakdown by major sector of activity and 

the development of the proportion of hi staff in each branch. 

The major stages in this f .as k are: 

1. Evaluation ' ' lial^wprking population on the basis of genjeral 

■ population pi-ujecii .is. 

. . . 2. Forecasts- of the distribution of the working population by major economic 
. * V ■■ - sector, allowing for thq long-term prospects of the development of : 

production and pro ductrvify' for each. . 

1 3- _Stud y Qf ^Yie p rojsent proport ion (per l,.0nO w orkers) of secondary and high 6r-< 

education trained specialisfsin the various sectors and its trends in the past. " ' 
■■" ■ ■' ^ . V' :- ■ >.> '" ■" . ' ' ■ ■ •. • 

• 4. Extrapolation according to .methods peculiar^^to each .sector of the trends noted * • 

- * in the development of superivisory staff up to thfe pe^^ipd planned. . V*" 

5. Corresponding E^^essnaenf of tthe .'stock' of specialists needed duH 
. • ' various years of ^the peri o,d, covered- by planning,' 'from which are deduce • ■ 

l^e recruitment requirements cUid training plan's (enrolment leVels in the 
. various types of establishment). : , 

The reasoned'extrapolation of past trends Utem 4 above) leads to^an. overall appraisal of the 

number of specialiists per branch, which liaust'^then be broken down into, groupis of specialities. This 

breakdown is made using other techniques; one must analyse the structure of the specialisations ioi^ 

each branch of activity while, without extrapolating mechanically, attempting to imagine the future 

structure^of specialisations (ten to^ twelve- years- in advance)i basing oneself oii recent trends 1^/ or ■ 

on the study of the structure of the most mode^fn enterprises in the branch under consideration. 

• ■;. ' . ■.■ ..... ,' 'r . \ . ^ ■ ^- . 

' (d) Complementarity* of the two projection n).ethods used and the difficulty / . 
. of the problems to be solved . . • 

The 'classification' method gives relati^rely accurate inf6rifbation on -the desirable trends in staffing 


ot the working population in 1970. The elements thus- provided for 1970 represent a .vital pointer for 

the subsequent extrapolations made in the 'saturation-rates '. method. 

. In addition, by using the 'two methods simultaneously during the period of the five-year plan, . 

results- can be compared, difficulties pinpointed, and one can conie to closer grips' with the x^eal 

.problems. \ : . . .' ' * v„ ^ 

ij These trends ^are revealed by, surveys conducted .using the 'classification' 
: method. • ^ ■ ■ ■ ■ • ^ • 


Integrating the educational plan into the economic and social plan: 
some aspects of French and Soviet'experience 

In theory, the combination of the tvo methods is a logical solulion to the problems as a 
whote, niiniely: ■ " • o • •- . 

r. long-term (ten years or more) projections based on medium -term. 

projections enable the enrolment programmes for each year of the plan 
to be determined^ togeth"??!^ with the relevant additional requirements 
(premises, teachers, etc.); 

- • yearlv enquiries of enterprises represent the basic tool. for placing in . 
< I lent the specialists leaving educational ^gtablishment.s. 

In ac- 'lion of these forecasting mc. iiods raises highly complicated ■.. 

problems which it is difficult to solve completely, owing firstly to the rapid development of - 
production methods ^and techniques and secondly to the uncertainty as to the quantitative develop- 
ment of production per sector. * ; ; . . 

. A knowledge, of requirements for specialist^ ten years in advarioe presupposes that the* 

produc t ion, techniques that will be employed in two years' lime are likewise known. Owing to the . 
^ rapid pace of scientific and technical progress, any such projection is -extremely speculative. In 
' the afrsence of any better s6lu,ti'on, as .has been stated,' Soviet planners use the best possible approxi- 
■ mations and iii particular assume that in a future which varies with the period of use of the invest- 
."Siient.^, t-h(B>Seclor as a whole will employ the production techniq^ir^ of the. nriost up-to-date exi.sting 
enterprises. - t ; ' . ' 

rPurtl^erniore, lon*g-term prospects (ten or fifteen years) o ' nro.duction per sVctor,^ which 
form the basis lo the breakdown o: the working population /paro^: (c) 2 J are tlfemselves hlghl 

uncertain, owiiig to possible changes in consumer behaviour jor, \:. . rticular, to n^ew changes in the^ 
use of raw mai tcials lj/, and a margin of error is practically unj hie in this area. 

(e) Conclusion 

The^e' show that the projections of Soviet planners do not constitute simple rhechanism 
.which can infallibly adjust the fluctuating needs of a constantly changing economy but are, on the 
contrary, a complex undertaking whose methodolog;*/ must be. continuously improved. 


C. : ProjectioiL of einployment in France and the tendency towards second and 
' " third-level professional and technical studies ' ' 

e propose ht,re to confine ourseIV:es to the experiegce of the fifth Fi^ench plan (1966-1970). 

- i/" I^pi^ instance, replacement of metal by plastics,^ 


V • Relationships between the development of the structure and qualifications 

. of the active population and the development of technics.! vocational training 

' ■ . • (a) The long-terni employment projections (1978) of the LaboCir Coniniittee 

of the Commissariat General du Plan 

With the fifth plan, the Labour Committee of the General Commissariat for the Plan studied the 

.conditions of equilibrium of labour supply and demand during the period concerned, while also 

attempting to discover what would be. the best training to give the five million"~Frenchmen who would 

commence their working lives between 1971 and 1978, 

The study of the development of ihe employment structure up to 197 8 wa^ conducted using 

the method of reasoned extrapolh'' ..,uf trends since 1954 (similar /to the 'saturation rales* of 

the US5R). * ■ ' ' • . - , ' . 

Th.e jobs to be provid;ed were classified into six qualification levels, as under: 

. • . Level I :■ 'post-graduate' higher studies . ■ . .. 

Level ir : first-degree higher studies ' . 

• • . * Level 111 : short-cycle higher studies (e.g. University Institute of Technology] 

' . Level iV : baccalaur^at and technical certificate 

Le\ vl V : -skilled- worker certificate . ■ . . 

• . ^ '^l VI : compulsory scriool-Leavtng certificate ■ ■ 

For each of these leveU- (except Level IV), are broken down by major lype of training. 

Table ! gives the results c: these projections for the 1962-1970 and 1962-197 8 periods 1_; . 

'■' • From Table 1 one vcan ':'f?e that the 5, 300/000 workers starting theii active life- between . 

1971 arid 1978, must havt^.^ the lf^^*^^wing qualifications: « * ' ,. ■ . 

Lvcvels and II : 10. 3 % 

' I :i - : 11. 0 To _ ; ' . 

< ■ ■ i V . - : 12'5 % . * . ' ' 

■ , ' , - -evol V : 43.3 % \ . ^ ,; . ' 

. i f^-vtri \a : 22,9 % ■ ' * .. ■:'■* * * ■ 

3_. The 1.971 -197 8 period can be "obtained by subtraction. 



Integrating the. educational plan into the ecohoniic and social plan: 
some aspects of French and Soviet experience 

Table. 1. Requirements by level and typ'e of training 1/ 




1962-1978 ^ 

1 . 1' T ^ rA IT 

sLs 1 ana 

; Higher education graduates 

I A 

Law and commercial 


, 0 



Science and engineering 



444 . 6 , 

I c ■ 

Humanities .. 


, 5 


Medicine and pharmacy t 


, 7 

i A 

Other l^vel I and II training 






, 6 

■ .1 09.8. 5- ■ 

as % of main total ' ■• 

' 9. 



Level. Ill : 

Holders of diplomas from the University 


Institutes of Technology. 2/ ' ; . ' 

- ■ \ ■ 

- \ 


.AJQVV-. ail VI L.iJXHIIlcI CJ^di- 


■ \ 

357. \l. .'i 

' III E • 

l^rfii n at 1 ofi * r 
->-^ wU ^ d L 1 1 


■ III-L 

*Hu m ani PQ . ■ >. ■ 



5 8. 6. " • 

■ III s . 

SoiPTir^P ^JT^H on cri moo t*i n o* »^ — 



' 241 ; 5". 

- ■ III ss. 

Health arid- social 



.204. 6 ■ • 

•Total ■ 



1 171 . 0 

.as % of main total 



Level IV : . 

Full baccalaur^at and technical certificate 

..It. ■ . • CJ 

11.0 \^ . 

■ iv A' 

Agriculture • ■ ,^ 

, 72. 

8 . . 

■ 132.7.. 

. IV B 

Industry — r-'-^' ^ ^ . 

■ 221. 


499. 2 

. • IVC 

The administration tcivil service) 


..9 - 



G.ommerci^ * * c- 



272. 2 . 

IV _SS_ 

_Healtb_and so cial_s.e.r vices. . * 


0 ' 


7 - IV X . 

Other training at full baccalaur^at or 

technical certificate level 




Total *■; .^ 657.7. / 1 337.9 

as % of main total > 12.3 .12.5 

' Lev^l V : - . 

Holders of'C. A. I>. ari'd B. E. P. C.^ diplomas 

V A 

Agriculture . a. :* 

94.4 ^ 


s V B 

Industry^ " " ■■ ■ ' \ 

1 .241. 9 * ; 

2 361. 2. 

''^"Th~aammrs!i*a!ion*^cT"^ — ~ 

. ' "V D 

Commercial , . * ' . 


4 34 ..5 


Health and social servirces 

. 87.9 - . 


: — V X 

Other C.A. P. level training* 


. 486.2 . 

' • Total ' " 

2 403. 8 

4 615. .3 

. as % of main io'tal * 

■ .■44-.;9 

43. 3 

- ' Level VI : 

Compulsory schoqlrleaving certificate 

* 1.249/0 

■ 2 440 . 2 

as % of- main total 


GRA'frp TOTAL , 

5 359. 3 

10 662.9 


. ,100. 0 ■. ■ 

100 !o . 

* y The table embodies the* effect of. occupational changes of farm workers. 

''~^'y^.r, '■ 2j Or equivalent establishments. 


Relationships between the. development of the structure and qualil'icatiuns^ 
of the active populalion'and the development of lechniQal vocational training 

(b) Determining the flows of students to be trained at the various levels 
Table 2. shows the average flows of pupils and students adopted as target 'for 19 V2- 197 5 in the fifth 
plan. .> ./ ^ ' ' 

A comparison of Table 1 with Table 2 shows. that flows of pUpils emerging fronvthe educational 
* p ' " ' -, *■ * ' . . * ■ 

system and which form the objective of the end of the fifth year have been patterned \J on the mean 

^^ • " ^ 

structure of- the qualifications of the population which will start working life between 1971 and 1978 2/: 
• ■ " ' " " ' ■ ^ ■ 

. - 13 per cent of the age-groups must enter Uong' higher educntio' 

8 per cent of the age-groups must enter 'short' higher education 

15 per cent of the age-groups must enter technical second-cycle ^ • 
secondary (technicians) education 

... ■ - 40 per cent of the age-groups must take full-time vocational training 

-25 per cent will start- active^iife di'rectly on leaving school, with part-time 
' , ■ ' vocational training ; - » .' " - 

In this way, a close link is set up bet^veen the desirable qualifications of those newly joining 

the; working population; ..laid down by the Labmur Committee, and the development tiiat it is desired 

■ xto' impart:;'to.the educational system through the objectives' pf the fifth plan. . i 

■ ' ■ \ ' ■ * . 

■ ' ■ . ' ■ '■ ■ ' ; . ■ ■ ■■ ' . . ■ '\ " 

(c) Pupil and student guidance: the deciding factor. in achieving the objectives 
of the French educational, plan , '. \ 

The fifth' educational plan 196.6-1 97 0 ) must therefore result in thfe creation of a training .'supply' 

corresponding to the desirable structure of the qualifications of! those joining the \Vorking- population \. 

between 1971 and 1978. This suppiv has in factbeen' gradually created bv carrying out Ihe. investments * 

provided in the fifth plan. Hov/ever, to carry out the plcOi properly, pupils and students must follow 

career lines in accordance with this supply. . . ■ ■■ ^ . . ■ & 

in second-Uevel education tne guidance system, which is organized systematically at the- end 

of the common secondary first -cycle st ream^ has succeeded in dividing the flows of pupils in accor- 

dance with the major objectives of the plan; e. g:, at the beginning of the 1970-^1971; school year 

enrolments. in the Various second-cycle secondary establishments (classical and modern lyc6es, - 

technical lyc6ec and technical education colleges) correspdnded closely to th.e proportions laid down 

-^..tiy«Jixe«4al2UiJL?2.p,^^^^^ - group ) for . 1 97 2 - 19 7 3 . 

ly Assuming that there is a continued percentage of internally promoted 
adult'6 trained *on-t^erjob'. . 

.2/ These are overall .objectives,.which. are sufficient to determine" the amount 
of investment and the additional human and financial means to be included - 
in the'plan. Th e programmes detailed by speciality** are prepared using 
other methods. 

21 ^ . ' 


Integrating the educational plan into the economic arnd social plan: 
some aspects of French* and Soviet experience 

Table 2. Average flows of school and university enrolments, ISl^-l^ 

Ml '/A l.thunnotinl ic\(l\ [thtl 

1 ,1 1 \ 1 1 . 



' 1 \ 1 1 


( 1 1 r. ^ ; ^ 1 ! \ 


i.r\ 1 1 


( '.'1 .iiidk 





1 . ' ; . — 


, HT 
,s ' > 

i: '> 


40 — 

i'' ' 



'srrnnil c'Vi'ii' 

lon^ .__ 


■" * Second cvclc. shorl 
' ' ■ ■ '40' p ' 

< - A' 





Uncludinii special instmution^ 
for handicapped children) 

0 . ' 

i 1 

*F ' 

k; * 






X ^ 

/ ' , ■ 
Priniarv edueation - 

(ineludinii special, instiuciion '* 
- . for^handicapped'cliiidren) 




Kinderizarien • '-x ' . 


Relationships between the development of the structure .and qualiiications 
of the actiyp population and tlie development of technical vocational training 

AQhe higher-education level the difficulty is much greater si .is oppose ■ e si?-, 

in the USSR ly those holdin^^ the Fronch ;;( ■ ni^ ■ education baccalaur' fr*. > o -I in 

whichever faculty they choose (Arts, Sciencu, ^nI o«-:icLne, Lav;, Economics, etc.). Owing to inade- 
vjuaie information and also owmg to 'pre-orientations' which result from the unenlightened choice of 
specialisations in secondary terminal classes; in 1970 consic':M'able discrepancies appeared between ' 
the outgoing- flows of h?gher education graduates (too many in Arts, lack of engineers and business 
* and management specialists^ etc. ) and the for^tcasts sun^mar .zed in Table 1. " ' 

In the USSR, the student guidance problem has been solved by setting enrolment 'quotas' 
est.abUshed for each speciality on the bat: is of the long-term projections for requirements of the 
higher specialists. In. Finance, it would appear politically difficult to generalise the 'numerus 
clausUs' system *o iiigher education- as a whole, and a solution is being sought in organizing a more 
effectiye student guidance system (in 1970, the 'Office National d'lnformation^ Scolaire et Professionnelle^ 

or »0. X I.S. B^. P. ''was set up). ■ 

; ' ■ ■ ■ \ - . ■ •• * . \ ■ ' " " ' . ' ' ' ' , , . 

* ■ \ D. Conclusion ■ ' ' - ' ^ - 

■ The So\det methods and thb French metllods 2/ which concern'the relationships between the develop- 
nient of the "iitructures and qualifications of the working, population and the determination of the/ 
objectives pt'vdcational and technical training that must be embodied in educational .plans yield a 
wealth ci information in ill respects and would well repav consideration in greater detail.. In the 
present paper it has merely been possible to .show their guiding lines. *- . 

\ Two main lessons can be drawn:' 
"1". \ Firkx^ thai it is poj/sible to- make long-terr^t emplojmrient pro^ct-ions that can be. used for' 
plannirjg vocational and technical training. This belief is questioned 3^ but this pui:ely negative 
• questidning is of practically no value; it to have projections" which may admittedly be 
n\ij)erfect: than no projections at all, since in any event one inevitably has to decide what direction 

vocathjn^l and technicartraining programmes are to take (second and third levels in the educational 

ly ' for. engineering and business sc^hools, where necruitnient is based* 

2/>V-^ least those of the fifth plan -(1966-1970). ' " • ^""^ 

3/ In France in particular, by those who suspect such TDrojections as -possibly 
'encroaching, on the fr>s^€* choiae of higher studiesr- 

Ini ugrating 
■some aspej; 

the educational plan into the economic ancl so.cia) plan: 
ts of French and on t; experience 

^ Second, that it is essential !o have available iiuod 'statistics ^and studies of the development 
of employment and its deciding factiDrs in order to make projections with an adequate degree of 
probabality. This Is entirely a problem of organization and human and financial means 1/ and, in 
the final analysis of political will. ' * ' . ' 

3. In any case, for the reasons demonstrated above, it is certain that all long-term employment 

projections, no matter how sophisti<:ated, will contaiii_an__uriayoidable margin of error; the solution 
can be found only in seeking for more ^polyvalent' training, which will assist the subsequent' necessary 
adaptations in training fpr employment, and in the organization of an effective system ofe permanent 
education. . ' " • ' . ' 

• ly Only too often "the possibility of seriously exploring the development of 
th*^ working piopulation is prevented by the failure to provide the necessary ■ 
minimum of facilities for information and research which are the indispensable 

- pre-requisite of any .projection. 


A . The necessary predominance of the decision-making powers of tlio . 
political authority 

In all democracies, the relationship .between the technical bodies responsible at the highest level for 

preparing plans and the political autfiorities is a fundamental problem; Qwing to the increasing ^ 

importanc'e of the role of high-level planning technicians, one musj: - . 

firstly, organize a broad participation of the rank and file in the elaboration 
and execution of the plan; 

. , secondly, maintain strict control Eind a true decision -making power by the 

' ~" - -political_authorities over all the plianning process stages. . . 

The solution to these problems/differs with the pblitie^lT^girme:.- XrLthe^USSR,^ as in France, 
'drafa plans' 1/ prepared by_lechnical services are discussed by the Council of Mihi^ter*s 2j before 
the governmental directives on the preparation of the plan are drawn up. All stages in the planning 
proceiss must be supervised and submitted to the permanent choice of the political authority, the 
lech|5ician's assignment being confined to proposals arid the preparation, of alternatives . 

In the USSR, the five-year plan is adopted by the Party 'Congress; the ninth plan (1971-19751 
was°ado;")ted by the 24th Congress in April 1971/ on the l^^is of the report of the President of the 
Council of Ministers of the USSR. The Einnual plsuis are adopted by- Supreme Soviet; ' „ - 

In^'France, since the fifth plan, the plan is discussed in tw<5Vseparate parliamentary debates . 

The fi r s t7conc e r n's tfie"m a j o r policies of the plan and the" second, a year later, the detailed programm 

^^v^v-rl'^v' " ■ . " : ■ ■ . ^ 

■ B" Distribution of authority be*tween the central planning bodies and the Ministry* 
(or Ministries) responsible for edacational planning 

' . , ...... - • 

(a) The content of the educational plan and the multiplicity of the levels and 
' . " types'of decision - . .'^ . * - • ^ 

According to the strict theory of educational planning, th^ plan -must embody all the quantitative and 

and qualitative aspects of the development of the educational system. 

In actual fact, one n;ust realise that 'this, overall conception of educational planning comprises 

a whole set^pf widely different* decisions: 

with respect. to their level; ;some fall within the province of Parliament, the 
^ - . Council of'Ministfers, or Councils of the local authorities^ arid educational 

establishments; . ' * ™- — 

with respect to their nature, some involve major financial decisions prepared 
by the central planning bodies and decided by the political authorities^ wl.xile 
others concern quantitative oj:, qualitative objectives that, are increasingly 
specific and are decided by. the various levels in the admini-strative hierarchy. 

ly Together with variants. 

2/ And, in the USSR, by the directing'bodies of the G- P.. S. U. 

some aspects of French and Soviet experience 

* It is therefore pointless to attempt to find in the 'educational plan' adopted by Parliament 
anyihijig more tlian the major quantitative objectives (development of school enrolments) and very, 
broad guiding liue-s as to tlte qualitative pattern^of the educational system \l ■ ' ^ 

This remark applies equally well to both the .USSR and France. ■ • . . 

^' (b) The powers of the central planning bodies and co-operation witji the 

IMini.stry (or Ministries)' responsible for the educational sy stem 

Owing to what was said in Chapter L on the part played by the central planning bodies in preparing 

the draft plans and controlling the cohesiveness-^nd fundamental balances of the national plan, in 

the USSR, the Gosplan, and in France the Commissariat du Plan, have the task of preparing the 

decisions of the political authorities .which set the framework of the financial effort that c^n be made 

for general education an,d for technical arid vocational training. , . , 

The decisions can be prepared only .by means of a thorough appreciation of the deveioptnent 

obJecTi'ves-of-the .educational system, . which is why, in.both-the USSR and France, the centml planning 

bodies have their own fax;ilities for preparing. the educational plan (the Education Departmerm of- the 

' Gosplan and the Educational Committee Of the. Commissariat du Plan). " ■ ^\ " 

■V . 

' -* The .cenlraLj>chpol planning bodies are obliged to work in close collaboration with the Ministr^y. 
(or Ajinistries) responsible^for the educational system, which must have its own planning units /tlie 
JSer vice du Plan', in France, and the Planning and Finance Di rectorateSfin the Soviet Ministries)*.'' 
For instance, the flow-chart sliown in Table 3 summarizes the working relationship between 
the Commissariat du Plan in Frai^ce^and the Ministry of National.. Education for preparing the fifth 
plan (1966-1970.). 

^ ■ ■ ■ * • . 

(c) The competence of the Ministry- of National Education 

• " ' " * ■ •■ 
Notwithstanding, the authority of the central planning services in preparing the school plan, in both ^ 

: '. .' ■ .... * « . • J". 

Frartce and the USSR the Ministry (or Ministries), responsibfe for education remain the. technical 

body resp.onsibie for national educational policy and in theory retain full authority, within the. frame- " 

w.ork of legislation and government decisions, in such fields, as: . ^ 

. ■ .. - .stractural refoVms of the educational system^t'allTevels; > 

• ■* ** ** . > ■ . 

. fixing timetables and syUabdses; ^ • , ; ' ■ ' 

- • organization of examinations, etc. - 

1^/ When voting oh thet plan or isi the separate bills, 'Parliament can adopf main 
directives concerning the reform of syllabuses and methods of education,, but 
the concrete implementation of the directives is the outcome of a whola set of 
decisions by the Ministry of National Education' ; ^ 

Table 5. InteMeMllinr, between the Ministry of National Education and the Conlssariat du Plan 

commissionerIeW mm. plan |^ — : — : i 

Social affArs StRvice'lt 

3— ^ ~J 

... .... (L._ 

Integrating the' edncatioual'plan ijito tlie econoinic and so, -xl plan- 
■^me aspects of French and Soviet experience - f • 

... . . m addition, the actual implementation of the plan (creation of new establishments, ' recruitmem 
■ -and training of teaching body, etc. j fall within the province of the Ministry of National Education in ' 
Franco or the various Ministries involved in the USSR, under, the control. true, of the Planning 

Ministry 1/.. • . 

As has 


•• ■ The inter-relationshi ps b etween the economic^and fin.nn,-al asp^ctrkn d 
. the pedago gical aspects of the school plan ~. ' 

already been stated, ^e can in theory distinguish between'the' economic and financial respon- 
e.s of the central planning organizations andjhe -pedagogical responsibilities of the Ministry 
-hon ill defimng the'content^of the" schoolplan. " ■ 

1" ; ^uai- practice, this distinction is no easy matter, for a variety of reasons: 

- Any pedagogical reform (school building standards, timetables, length of ' 
studies etc. ) has financial repercussions, and in this respect invariably 
comes before the economic authorities who must choose /betiei the 
' . ■ ?or if r ^"^P"°^^"^^"^ educationaKsystem and-other possible uses- 

extent oThp'"°r'f 1 "^'^^ consequently leads, to a certain 

pSag'ogi^affi;^^^^^^^^^^^ . 

■ ■ ^^'''^^\'";^^\^-^-^P^^^ty,as the responsible instrument 

-- ■ economic development policy, have a direct interest in the policy pursued 

Lhn?n!w '^"^litative reforms concerning-vocational and ' 
^4SrSr^ ^! P^-P---^ -^^-^ - dialo gue^bgt^MMuii.1^ 

-ofVEda-ca±roTr^--aOT-flTeTVTinistry for the Plan 
■ The fundamental principle laid down in Chapter I, 'ijamely that the educational plan forms part 
and parcel of the economic ancf national social plan, thus compels the, I^,try of National Education 
and the Ministry for the Plan to co-operate closely . ' , ■ 

, It should be noted tha't this co-operation in educational planning should not be confined to the ' 
• .-ork of these two adnuni.trative denartnienta. but should Uu-ough their qualified represen- 
. :|la.ives to all directly concerned with the operation of the educational system (parents ;f pupils . 
iteacliers, representatives of the local communities, employee and worker federations, student^ ■ 
ijbodies, etc. ), ' . 

e various forms that the central, planning bodies .. 

1/ Tliis'expression^covers th 
may assume'. * ' . . 

2/ Or evaluate the degree , - . ■ 

^fZ^Zn'^t^""^:'^' ■ --ible, by:using sDch methods as -cost: 

eneqtiveness* or 'cost-benoiu t., es. ■ * . ' ■ 

4/. In the .U-SSR, the State Comfnitt. , xor Technidal ancf Vocational Trainin . 





To conclude, we would again emphasi-.e the complexity of the relationships that must uifify the 
economic and social plan as a whole with the educational plan in particular 

since in the medium and-long-term the educational plan determines the 
^ advancement of the level of culture of the population, it is a fundamental 

factor amongst the social and democratic objectives of the national plan; 

since^it sets the targets for vocational and technical 'training, the educa- 
tional plan is one of th^ essential instruments in achieving the plan (and 
subsequent plans). . - 

In the final analysis, the social, democratic and economic content of the educational pjan 

com^s down to a matter of financing, • From this standpoint, and allowing for the inevitable'^ 

financial constraints, the objectives of the educational plan' must be weighed^agarnst the alter- ^ 

native objectives and means for social and economic development. ^ « 

The ideal of certain planners would perhaps be to have mathematical 'mod^els' available 

which would enable the allocation of resources to be optimized throughout the' various sebtdrs of 

economic and social development, including education. Up to now,^ no model has turned out to be 

truly operational and, in both the USSR and France, choices are still made with a certain, degree . 

df^eiTipiricism, where the common sense of the technician and politician play a predominant part, 

— P-erhaps-i-t-is--b^tter-*s&-ii-o'wever7-rT] 

rg^commoTT-g-en's'eT-DiT^iTiJsrTTDlrl^^ — 
absolute necessity for sound economic and social statistics and. good methods, of analysis and 
forecasting in'all fields, * . 

Lacking this, planning would only be a series of blind bets without meaning, instead of 
being the 'reducer of uncertainty » mentioned by Pierre Mass6 \j \ And to obtain these statistics 
and to develop these methodologies, one must above all first train the men and invest in -research. 

ly Pierre Mass6: Le Plan ouVanti-hasard, Paris NRF, 1965,