PaB PATE .
.ilOTE » .
' CE 016 572 •
BiD^, Jaies ; Ball, HilliaiL.
Oe^onstraticn Projects: Iipleaentation a.&d
6liio State Oniv,, colaibas^ Batiqnal Centex fox
Beseaxch i& Vocational Idacatics.
78 . •
18p, . ' .
MF-$a/83 HC-$n67 Plus Postage,
Administrective Perscnnel; ^idiinistrator £ale;
Audiences; ♦Deionstr^tion Projects; ♦Guidelines;
Sational Surveys;' ^Orgasizaticnal Coiaunication ;
ABSTBiCT-. ' ^ ^ .
' ' Three purposes are listed for Ibis paper: (1) tc
share the results of a national sur.ye; of 9cca.ti<^nal e4Qc.ation
ezekplary projects; (2} to emphasize the importance <3f a prcject
director's communication vitb five .clientele audiences; ardr (3) to ^
snqqesi specific actions likely tq result in institutionalization o£
a demonstration 'project. .A brief procedural^overviev is presented of"
the national srar^rey. which investi^^ated tie activities of ^
4emoBStzfation prcij&ct directoc^ tHrougb^guesti.onnaire/intjsrviev
Contacts tfith tvo groups: a B^ima^y _f cf ulaticn consisting "df* the
project directors of the. projects funded between 1^70 and 1973; and a
secondary populatio|i consisting, of the sites using results from the
projects.* The remain'der of the paper i$ an outline listing suggested
activities of project directors which, based on the study findings,
can lead to effective implementation ard institutionalization. Ihe
actiYitijes are listed as they relate to fiVe key clientele audiences:
host site decision meUce^s;: project staff, ccmm^jnity .representatives,
*6t^dents, and potential replication site representative^. , Because
ttiming'is a critical factor in the success cf a project, the ^•
suggested activities, with each audience are discussed in relation to
three phases. of a ^project: pre- grant # peri<>d, grant period, and
post-grant, period* In summary, 'a list is provide.d of eight suggested ,
gaideiines for project dii;6ctors . as they implement a ^^emccistration.
project^ H^f^y -y-..:.^.......
^ V Seprodoctions supplied by BDBS. are tKt best that can be made * ♦
* - ' ^ , • from the original document* ' , ' *
. ' DEMONSTRAIIOH PJIOJECTS: IMPLEMENTATION AOT INSTIXI^IONALlZAnON
*-* • ' ,
Q - ' \ ■
l-U . .
James V. Bina
William. L. Hull
US 0€»A«TM€NTO^ Hr*LTK
, EOUCATiOH t WCU^AKC
'« S OXwfVE*** «AS BEES P£PQO-
A'.HO • PO'HTS OF viEyr Off
S'At£0 j>o HEiCESWf'LY ftEPRE-
SEN^OPP'C'AtHAT'OHAL HS* '^▼E
The National Center for Research in Vocational Education
The Ohio State Un4.versity
1960 Kenny Road
Columbus, Ohio 43210
*>csy^iSS*OS TO J^EP«O^CE This
USERS OP THE ERiC SYSTEM "
DEMOKSTKAIION PROJECTS: IMPLEMEKTATION AND INSTITUTIONALIZATIOK
INTRODUCTIOH- ' , •
The desionstration project represents one of the laost cost-effective and
' * ' ■ • ■ ■ ' ' ■ J.
beneficial ways of inplenenting innovat^i^ns known today r Dej&nstration pro-
1* * » * *
jects are one of the n^st pronising activities in the continuing effort to
. inprove education general. This discussion focuses on demonstration pro-
jects in Vocattonal Education^ Public Lav 90-576 of r968 brought Federal
support of deiaonst ration projects- to Vocational Education in order to* increase
the \ise of tested nat^jj^s and activities\n local school districts- In
July 1970 ^he Sirst projects were initiated.
There are two prljaary audiences for a dpismsfiration project: (1) persons
in otheSr school districts who are in a position to accept, modify, or reject
the innovation, and (2) persons in the host district who' are likelj to continue
# " * »
or discontinue the innovation being demonstrated. Success nay be defined by
either audience: the spread of the innovation to other school ^istrl^cts or .
» • . ' ' , * •
-the institutionalization of the project on site. Implementation, for purposes
of this discussion*, is defined as the planning and operating dimensions of a
^This p/5aper' is $ revised version of a February 28', 1978', presentation
titled^ Igpleaenting Dcaonstration Projects ^ The wri.ters -extend theii: appre-
^atibn to Jo-Ann Cherry, The Rational Center for Research In Vocational Educa-
tion, for her* review of this paper.
Demonstration, as it is used in this discussion, is defined as a phase
: . • ^
in th^ diffusion process in which the educational project is exhibited in
^ - ^ ; ' t / > '
its specifip setting^ allowing potential users to observe it in. operation,
ex^Qlne evidence- of its -effectiveness, and judge its potential use in their
own Wucational setting (Hull and Bina, 1977a)'. ' This <tefinition is based on
the assumption that a validated* pro'ddct or practice is being demonstrated.
Studies such as. the CXiVESD 3?eport. (1976) found limited docuiLented evi-
dence ot-^he use of , testfed materials li local school districts. The Rand
Study (1975) and the Development .Associates, Inc.. study (1975) repoi;-ted sim-
ilar flDSings. An analysis of /these studies, (Magisos and Moore, 1977) pro-
videa further ii^l^hts concerning the. problem. Avallablf evidence also * -
. indicates that' even in d^soastratioh sites, optimum use of v^alidated materials
and t)ractlces rarely takes place when out*side fxmds terminate.
. ?*^^?_:^^^^]l"?.P^^^^ of -this paper;- (1) to sha^e th^ resirlt:^ of a
national survey of Vocational Education exemplary projects; (2) to es&phasize
th*e Importance of comaunicatiifg wlth'fiv^ clientele audieti^es; and (3) to
suggest^yspecif ic actions likely to result in institutionalization of a dem-
onstration project. ' Jhe following comments are based on the results of this'
national ^rvey (Hull and, Bina, 1977b). A demonstration guide (Bina and Hull,
1977) also has b^een developed for use by projec| directors.
OVERVIEW OF THE HAIIOHAL STDDY * . , *
This ^discussion is based on a recent national study funded by the Bureau
of Occupati^al and Adult Education, DSOfi, to investigate activities of the
project director of demohstratlon projects.. Two, populations were identified:
the primary population consisted of the project dipctors of exemplary project!
funded between 1970 and 1973; aixd the secondary population consisted of the '
sites^ using results from tKe funded exemplary projects. Both -populations
w^re limited to the adjiining 48 states, • '
The exemplary projfect director survey had a 92 percent jrespons^ rate for
the 59* sites funded, betveen 1970^1973*. The response rate for the sites using
the refeults of exemplary projects was 50 percent of the 78 sites. Interviews
were condu(jted with 26 individuals at 17 different sites in 11 states to '
obtain" perceptions on implementing dezaonstration projects.
Although project decisions and activities are typically based on judgment,
it is important to recognize that the s^tudy of activities of demonstration
'.project directors can imprave their performance. Although the following is
not a compreh^ensive list, key actions and activities relevant to the majority
of demonstration projects have been higMighted. In practicei these actions
are not mutually exclusive. The activities will be addressed as they relate
to. five key clientele audiences;. (1) host siXe decision-^makers; (2) project
Staff; (3) community representatives; (4) studei^s; and (5) potential regli-
cation site representatives. T^ecause timing is a critical factor in th^
success of a project, the specific actions with each audience^jwUlT b^ further
discussed in the three time phases of a demonstration prAj^ct: (1) pre-grant
period;^ (2) grant period; and (3) post-gra:ft"^period. The pre-gr^*t^>eriod begin
. wbea. an Xdea. iiaing« jiev.elapad^£ox . 4eooas tjrat ioa^ pu-cposes^ - ^ « F^^a^i&g^ ia^ ^ the —
key activity of this time period. The grant period begins with day one of the r
funded p&iod. ^ Operating the demonstjration project occurs during this time
period/ The termination of funding initiates th^ post-grant period. lAble 1
ofn the next page indicates tfie structure of this paperw, ' ^
DgMOHSTEAXION PR0JBCT.,ACT1VITIES BY PROJECT TIME PERIOD AN& CLIQJTELE AUDIENCES.
1 . Pre-grant,
■ ' 2.2.2
'■■'^^^■^ ^ <»'2< ■«
^cb cell of » the matrix has action statements which are baaed ^on findings
of the 'study, perceptions of project directors during ^ite visits, and a review
o£ literature/ Specific actions for each number in the cells are discussed in
the paper, ' ' . - \
The suggested actions, are based on the findings of the. study, the percep-
tions shared b^roject directors and sta||. during interviews on site, and a'
review of literature. • ^ ' " -
*!• Host .Site Decision-Makers ' ' ' •
The 'project director nnist relate to the follow-ing decisipn-iaakers:
* • *
(1) funding sponsprs, typically the federal governcient ; (2) sci;iool district
.* * • * ' *
officials including the board Qf edcicatioa, the superintendent, the business
martager, principals and faculty members at the host site; and (3) state
department of education officials. * ' ,
1.1 Pre-grant activities include:
V , 1.1.1 Submit writtetf^ project plan .to local officials .
The goals and objectives of the project should be
copsistent yith the intent "of ,fhe sponsor as well
as the school district 's goals and objectives.
, • * • . , * '
1. 1.2- Become .familiar vltfa rules *and regulations of the
^ i school district s "
Knowledge of the .business procedures of the. district
is invaluable to t1>* project director. > Discuss*
specific details with the business manager to foster
, ' cooperation throughout the project.
l^i.3 Secure tentative endorsement jby local officials . ^
BddorsCTient by the key^ decision-makers ^is an on-gojjag.
process and is frequently accomplished on ati incremental
basis. Timing of endorsements *is critical/ Sirpport
. *from decision-makers should be secured as early as
• possible. Be prepared to "sell" the project to this
key. audience* . , . -
^ • ' • ' ^ ^ / ' " '\
1*2 'During the de:s«>nstration grarit^period the project director can:
Provide result-s of formative (process) evaluation to
Establish a periodic schedule for prbvidihg project-
feedback ba^ed on formative evaluation to decision-
makers. A key finding of the study indicated that
Increased frequep'cy of evaluation enhances -pro.ject '
^ success. >r
1.2.2 Involve decision-makers X)n a frequent basis , ^ ^
^ Decision-makers should -have op^rtijni^tles to
be iiivolved in the project. . Project *visits
by boar^ o% education laembets could be scheduled
prior to a regular board iDeetidg. In addition,
•presentations* to the board, administrators^. and
building principals ^ should be conducted.
• ' • . * *
1.2.3 Seek qidorseiDent of project by school officials .
Decision-makers can use the' evaluation results as a
basis for continued and increased ^pport. Numerous
project directors cited the value of a supportive
decision-maker in successful projects.
K2.4 . Develop Informal linkages vfth faculty members .
^ Faculty members, eirpecially opinion leaders,
will be. supportive if they are involved. These
linkages are developed through formal presenta-
tions as well as during informal conversations. ^ *
At the termination of project funds^ the actions of the project
director can continue to reap benefits. Selected activities of
the post-grant phase include: •
1 1 Provide results of sumsaative (product;) 'evaluation ^
Due to busy schedules and competitive forces , the
V summative evaluation r^sxilts should be presented
decision-makers in a brief "attention-getting"
^ format* Indicators such as the number of replica-
,tions should. be reporj:ed.
1.3.2 Secure adoptlon^by decision-makers J
Adoption of^the demonstration dit a continued b'asis
requires 'tl^e decision-nakers' participation. Building
a base for tlils action includes passage of board of
education resolutions as 'well as locai^^funding of the
project. During sAe visits prdject directors of-
successful projects have cited the importance of an
active ro^e by the *superiirtendaat» ^
l.S.S' . Integrate project into school district priority
Integration of project objectives and activities into
the school dist^rict requiy^s the support of ^the trotal
school distrd^. Troject institutionalization is often
enhanced by the feeling, of "ownership" by^ the key actors .
in the^sehooi. district. * . -v ^ ^
2.- Projectf Staff . ... . , ^ , . ' .
Tte project director should keep in mind that the key element x>f project
succegs is people— nam^y 'the project staff, ' All individual inolu<5ing the
' clerical staff are -critical to proj^eCt success. ^
2.1 The pMject staff dui;lng the pre--grant period- should: ^
• *t. Pe'vfilo.p written position descriptions .
Written' pcvsition descriptions should specify
required skills, duties and' responsibilities. • .
Although the deg/ee of specificity varied, 45
• ♦ of the 54 projects which were surveyed had
' . developed bitten position descriptions.'
2.,1. 2,^ Encourage faculty^ to nominate project staff .
^ * Wljile retaining the responsibility of hiring
and dismissing project staff, the astute project
direfctor solicits input on staff selection from
numerous- sources. Faculty 'members should be
encouraged to nominate individuals. This inter-
action is ati opportunity to increase faculty .
understanding of the project objectives. Hiring
y^' ' ' curtent district staff has botb advantages
disadvantages and this' decision should be given
• ^ \
* - , Provide pre-servtce to staff, i£. necessary ,
Regardless of the* source (Internal or external) ^ '
of the iaidividuals who are ultimately hired to
staff tlS«' project, they will ijave strengths and'
weaknesses An assessment of the project needs
' matched with staff capabilities should identify
. necessary staff development activities.-. Hopefully
these nfeeds are mlnjjmal^ however, pre-service nee^s
should be addressed. * , • *
2^2 Activities during" t|ie grant pferiod include the following:
2,2.'l Provide, chanTlels of comnfamication .
• ~" ' - . '
Weekly staff ^meetings is one channel for continuous
comunication with project 'staff. To complement
scheduled activities, jthe project director ishould
^ ' 9eek discussions with, individual staff members to
solicit their, ideas and concerns.
■ o ■
. 2 ,2! ,2 Revlev. allocation^ "match" of .staff tiine\o proie*ct tasks ^; .
' ' : ^
Sixic&^f^ original objectives and tasks of the demoji-
stratidn. project may change during operation, a peri-
odic review of the "fit" between staff time and project '
^ " tasks should be condu<ited. Twenty-nine of the 54 original
projects made clifeges in ^heir objectives,
2,2*S Provide staff Incentives.
Keeping in mlJfc(^ the: priority of the project oi>jectives,
the^project direttor f^uld be attimed t6 the profes-
sional development gjeOT^of individual staff m'embers.
Presentations at^'conf eredce> writing an article, '
^eased. responsibility, and salary increases are
llent staff incentlv^es. ,
£^ ^ 7^tS^^^IM^4^^eeTV±ce for^staff.
i ^^'^^ • ' ^jp^ inservice on" a systematic basis results in a
^ '* ^ x^^^^^^^ project.^ The majofity of projects funded
'conducted inservice one to six
I . houses i>^r month. The Rand study (1975) linked the
^ degr6e-^ staff Inservice with project success,
u ' Project directors ^during site visits cited the
"4 ' * * " * stability of staff and inservice as a positive
\ ^ - • ^ Ijxfljaence on project success.
2,2,5 Evalua.te staff members . .
Staff evaluation is essential and should be related
to the development of future iirservice sessions.
After, termination of project funds staff functipns include;
Retain some staff on -project-related activities , ^
. ' ' If continued funding-^is- availaSl^ from local or other
' . sources, retention of staff for project-related activ-
0 - ^ ities win facilitate jUistitutlonallzatlon,'
• ^ . • ■. . , ^
, *2*3,2 Retain staff menibers In school district in responsible
positions r - ^
. If funding is not available for retention of statp^
project related activities, consider finding- re^onsible
> .^fe positions f of^ them In the school distrlct^-'^^xheir presence
* In t^e iiistrict'^an place them in arf^^adwcate posltioA
'1[ ^ dur'lT^JIfche iiistKutioiiallzatloiip^^^
3« , Commualty Represbatatlvas ^ ... ^
Conmninity teprefeentatiyes from service organizations, civic organizations,
labor unions, businesses, industries, and churches 9Qntributie to the effective-
ness of a demons tyat-ion project; • / ^ ,
3.1 Specific actions during the pre-grant phase are;. - * . ^ -
3. 1. 1 Conduct needs assessment of coTTtmunity . ' . . * , " '
Although needs asses§toent inf4:)nnatlon is a^typiqal
requirement for a aemonstration project proposal,
assessing community needs should' be emphasized.
Directors of the 1970-1973 projects Indicated that
^ asking ques'tiions. of business, industry and labor t ' ,
representatives had a positive influence on project
effectiveness. » . l;/" '
' . ' ' . " . . ' • C
♦ .3.1.2 Involve key opinion leaders in the proposal development
O ' stage. . , _
• ' ^ ' * ' . ^ -
Key opinion l^^ers of the commraity should be-^vited
to serve' on the proposal writing team if time permits.
a minimum pffort, they shouid.be requested to
review the proposal objectives, '^is activity will
foster understanding and frequently will, result in *^ ,
. endorsement at a future date; / ' ,
* ♦ ' - -
3*1 "To Increase community involvement during the g^rant phase, the ^
pro'ject director can:, ; * . . " '
3.2.1 Organize an advisory commit tee ^ ^
. . A functioning advisory committee can provide input
^ \ and a continuous review, of project activities.
Advisory committee members fr<jm laljor.and business
bad a positive influence on the- 1970-L973 projects. '*
, 3.2.2 Keep the commmxl^ informed . * * * ^
• Ah informed community • tends to be supportive. Hews ^ .
^ releases, iradio announcements, fliers 'and newsletters
arc generkl vehicles for conaminicating with the
^^ommunity. Newspaper feature' stc)ries .were a key '
communication strategy '*cited by project director^ * *
, ' during sit^ visits*
•I ^3, 2*^3 Make presentations to cammunlty groups .
* * *
n . Conmunity organizations such -as civic, service, *and
•» fraternal groups, *ai:e often seeking speakers for their
monthly meetings ♦ Project straff as well as the
director should capitalize on this commupication
J ' * channel by developing ani* presenting brief 10-15
• * ' , • minute' talks/ Audio-visual aids usually strengthen .* *
' ' ' the talk.^ ' ^ . \ ; ' ' ' • ' '
3.2/4 Conduct ^'Open House" sessions ^ \ ' ^ /
These sessions provide an opportunity 'for the - .
community to, vi^ the demonstration in action ' *
^ ' rath<?r tian readi^g^^^eports. or newspaper accounts.
3.3 (^crtimamity, support after termination of project funds is essential to
Institutionalization'., A nimijer of •actions during the -^st-grant
phase can faqilitate this' effort? ' - ^
t . *
3*3,1 Develop a cadre of comanunity advocates for the project .
Specific consininity Individfrals should be identified
who are willing to be^^lted, telephoned, or inter-*
viewed- -by r^p'resentatives- of potential replication
3*3^2_ Iricreasje cotmunity demand * ' * / '
• . • * , ' ' ' • *
Individuals, ±n the community,, can maintain int^est
in. project objectives and' activities by advocating""
' / continuation* The project diifector ^an assist these
indivi4uals by providJ^g them with proj*ect data in*
. ^ terms of theit interests and cpncefnp such as • ^. ^
increased eiaplbyabllity of students and .a lower drop
out rate. , , -» # ...
: s ■. . . • ■ . ■ - . ■
./Students are a key focus of a demonstration project The Education Amend-
ments df J976 (P.L. 94-482) placed increased empha^ii on Students. ^
-aTfi:^ In the planning phase prior to.actiial funding, students and' their
role ia a 'demonstration project shoi^d be emphasi2;ed. Activities
relevant -to* students included ^ 4r
4 ♦ r ^ Conduct .needs as^egs iftent ♦ ' " /T * •
1 ' " • ' • .
r - Needs assessment of students can te' accomplished,
through a nuniber of . approaches. Acco^ding-^ td^
directors of the 1970-1973 prpjects,\ Qne>*appr'oafch
^ * was the u§e of existing records' sucH as achieve-'
ment test results and reading scores i Regardless^
of the data sourc^, validity aad reliabij "
' ^< , . the data for ^demonstration project ,pt
. the two key criter^La- for- all data colJ
activities. ^ " * ^
' • - ' * \ * ' •
. .4 • • «• ' -
4*4 ,2 "Sell" or promo1:e project objectives and ietiyities to
students. ' •
Specitic^ plans shoiddj8e"'3S^T5la£ed concerning the
.1 role-of students duT&g visits by""'^entiai^t:epli- '
• , cation Qite ^representatives. ' - ^ • ^ .
4:2 Activities^ involving project stydents during the grant period
^hclude: \' \- . ,
^ ; ^•Z*! Invo^^ve' students in. demonstration site visits . '
' - * ' ^ •
- Visitors, from , potential, replication 'sites frequently
are intefcested in student -reactions to the project.^
' Insights which students share with visitors may also ^
^^^Bovide valuable information f ^r -the host 'site. . ^
4*2.2 Evaluate^st^ent ijfegress .^ , * ,
Student progress shottid be ev^uated periodically
in addition to - evaluating 'pfoj^t act iviti^ suph
, / as opera^ting pyoce^ures. ^""j^f^f^ously 'mentioned
the stu!3y found/ increased frequency of evaluation
positively Influences 'project Effectiveness^ ^ >
4.2.3 Have student men^^s on the ^visory cpmtttee .
V . • ' > - ' f ' . • •
MAabership on the project advisory conmittee sho*uld
^ * be ^tended to sfcuden^.. ,The study found a^sitive . -
V , fiifluence^on pro^ject effectiveness students '
' ^ / '^rved on. tlie* advisory cbranittee*; ■ ^ ^ ■ * '
4*3<ifttudentr can l^^ a valuable resource to foster institutionalization
iA the ho^ site as w^l .as in replicaaribli* sites. Spepific actions^
include: ' ^ ' , ♦ . ^ * / -
4\3*1 Obtain student endorsements > .
Student endorsement of project activities will
^ J encourage schppl district officials to continue ' , •
^\ ^ ^.the project 'efforts. , - \ * ' . ' , '
4.3,2 Coriduct a follow-up sttfdy of project students > .
. * * A follow-up Qtudx of 'students should^ be completed ' • , V
a 'year after 'they exit the project.-^ This ^data ' ' '
-.^ cfin be provided t6 local officials as well .as
« ' ' officials of othpr school districts.-- * ^
'5.* Potential Replication Site'Representativeg
*^^X / '* • <- .
Demonstration ptojects ate designed to increase the use of tested materials
■ . ' • ; . •
and activities in other s-chool districts. . '
j'^'S^l" Airing the. pre-grant P^gid the project director can:
* 5#1.1 Identify' practical, strategies to- reacTi potential
. replication sites .
■ Strategies 'such as; presentations ^t a state
, " conference for 'su'p^tlntendents should be
• * ^ planned. The timing of these plans is
important since being pieced on a conference
program requires "lead" time. . '
• 5.1.2. Build referral Ijbakages .
Identify^ individuals at key agencies such as the
^ . * skate department of ed.ucation, colleges, universities,
and intermediate school districts who can refer
visitors to the demonstration project. Provide
* sufficient project Information to these individuals '
^ to allot? them to make appropriate referrals.
5.1.3 Develop a detailed dissemination plan .
' , This plan should specify a geographical target
. a)?ea of school di6tri6ts which, ar.e considered ^ '
. *; / ^ potential replication sites^ Specific dissemlna-
i:lon activiti^es such as mailing project literature ''\
fco superintendents should be Included in the plan.
The pattern of replication reported in the study
. ' ^ » show:ei.that replication, typically occurred in non- f
• ' .* ad:facent school districts within the state. ....
ERjc . ; : • 14
To daitiate outreach activities during -the grant .period the project
director can: ' . ♦ .
5.2. 1 Organize demonstration site visits . \ ^
Invite visitors to the project on an o^'ganizisd
^ basis.' Establish a schedule and an agenda for
each visd.tof ^or groyip. Project directors from
the 1970-1973 ^rd^ects Vggeste4 identifying .
one project 'staff member to coordinate all visits.
t 4 - w
5.2.2 Request feedback from site-visitors .
Develop a brief feedback f(5rtQ, preferably no
more than dixe page. Request^infprmatibn
• * including their coymnents about thrf^tiSaonstratipn
project and 4 brief description of what replicatibn .
plans they have. ^;courage suggestions. for
improvements for the demonstration proje.ct.
5.2.3 Conduct' promotional activities .
Proaote thef project by providing information
specifically developed for each unique audience.
Awa^^ess literature may b< i d lst ribut e d -ae ^'^^
general strategy, however, information packaged
for a specific group such as superintendents,
students, or community representatives tends to
be n&re cost effective. , '
5.2.4 Have an *'open door" option at the host site . '
Unexpected visitors vill^ show up at the demon- ^
stration site* Develops&t of a general agenda
for this type of visit will lessen' frustration ,
for project staff as well as for the visitors.
The agenda may Includja clarification of the
' needs of the visitor *s school district.'
•5.2*5 Monitor f records of activities . /
Records of activities with potential replication
sites should be maintained**^ Tfaes^ records should
induce (a) a log of phone calls f (b) a leg' of
. ^ v^ltors, 'with addresses at^d phone numbers; (c)
agendas for visitors; and '(d)/vlsltor f^dback
forms* . • « «
13 ^ .
5'. 2. -6 * Utilize demoastfation teams' to visit other school districts.
School districts interested in replicating the
demonstration project may request a visit to
tlieir^^^^«^ict. Demonstration teams responding. *
t0 these requests may include the project
' '/^direfctor , a teacher-^ and, i'f possibl!?, a student.
If dLnstitafionaliz^tion has not occurred, activities vith replication
sites after 'project funds terminate are\dif f icult . However, the
proi'ect director can*: , ^ . ,
5,^.l Collect repIicatiOA data . . - .
Replication, data shouTd be collected one or two
years afteif termination of the demonstration
proj^ct\^iriaeaj5Uf& the project^s success. If the
project is terminated without institutionalization-,
at least on& person should be encouraged to collect
and report* this information.
- - . \ ^ . . \ ; •
'5.3»2 D^elo$ a cost"Shar£ng:plan' f or technical assistance ^
'xy^questss for technical assistance may arrive after '
termiilatioh of project fxmd?. An optional approach
— * is a ,cp st - sha r iug plaa - whieh - ' V<Mtld--^Htw^-pg^j^€^-^ —
personnel who are district employees to. respond to
these requests. "
SUMMAEY ^ ' • . ^ . •
In conclusion^ a list of guidelineis' ^re suggested for project 'directors
th^'Mplement a* deiaonstration ifroject. " .
The guidelines include: \
!• Develop and maintain channels of coimnunication with client^e audiences.
* ' * ► • ' . < ' '
2* Identify and utili^ a cadi^e of advocates. It laay include decision-
laakers, cousnunity representatives, -.students, etc. Provide -recognition
for these advocates.- - ) , " ' .
3. Seek incremental coii^iitments for institutionalizat-ion^ of project ' , k
pbjectiv^ and activities*
4. Use foruiative and ^tomative evaluation procedures and report the result^^
to apjiropriate individuals- and groups. " ' *
5. Encourage active participation in all phases of the deaonstratioci
• < •
project by individuals in each key audieQce^.
6. 'Encourdge project staff to develop professionally through inservice,
.\ ' ' ^ » ^
personal encouragement and incentives. . ' ' ,
^ ' / • '
7* Stlisulate field-initiated requests. Actively sedc opportunities to
' assist pote^tidl replication sites. •
8* Belermine alternative strategies to Achieve institutionalization.
I ' - REFERENCES ^ • ' -
' . / ' ' /
Assessing VocatioiuJ. Educktioa Research aad Development . Washington, D.C.:
* Hattional Academy Sciences. Coimnittee on Vocational Education Research "
' ' *' * jad Develbpa^t (OOVERD) , Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences,
_Hattonal-fesearcb C6uncUr ^ ED 128 654.*^' ^ ' ;
'filna, James V. and Hull, William L. Implementing Demonstrajtion Projects .
A i>aper presented at The Second Annual EBCE National Ifetwork Conference, .
Washington, DvC, Pebrbary. 28, 1978. ^ > "
^ , Bina, Jaiaes V. and Hull, William L. Organizing and Conducting Demonstration^
Ptbjects in Vocational Education . Reseatdh axvd Development §eries No. .
Goluuius, Ohio: The Center for Vocational Education, The Ohio State
^tJniverslty, 1^77. ED^ 1S8 113. ^ ' . . '
' Congress, of 'the United States. Education Amendments of 1976. P.L. 94-A82.
Confess of the United States. Vocational Education Amendments of l968\
/ P.L. 90-576. "
. ^ _ _
EvaluatdLon of Vocational Exemplary Projects . Final Report. Washington, D.C:
' ^ Development Associates, Inc^ , Maifch, 1975. ED 109 475.
• ■ *
federal. Prograaa Supporting Educational Change . Santa^ Monica, California:
' The Rand ^rporation, April, -1975^ ED 108 328.
Sull, Wllll^ L. and Blna, James V. Increasing the Impact of Federally-
AdTalTyf .stered VocatjUmal Education Exemplary Projects . Leadership Training
Series No. 52. Coluiabus, Ohio: The Center for Vocational Education,
.The Ohio State University, '1977a. ED 149 031.-^
Hull,^Wllllam L» and Blna, J^es V. The Influence of Selected Organizational
and Adyfnlstfatlve Variables on Continue and Extended Use of Exemplary
Pcojects In Vocatl63?A Education . Research and Development Series No. 11^.
Coluahus, Ohio: The Center for "^Vocational Education, Thfe Ohio State
- Unlv^xsity,. 1977b* ^ 138 lli^. '
Haglsos, Joel ti. and Uoore^ Al].en B. Evaliiation >^f ideational Educatioti R&D
\ ^ Pr o gr am s An Integrative Aialysis of Recent Studies . Colunbus, Ohio: ^
The Center for VocatdLonal Education, The Ohio, State University, 1977.
ED 142 793^ ' . \ ,
TI#S# Departaent .of Health, Education aiid Welfare. Abstracts of Exemplary^
. . Projects jin Vpcatlonal Education . Washington, D.C: U.S. Government
Printing Office, June, 1973. ED 059 518. .