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Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.; Stapp, William B., Ed. 
International Perspectives on Environmental 
Education; Issues and Actions. Proceedings of the 1st 
International and 13th Annual Conference of the North 
American Association for Environmental Education 
(Banff, Alberta, Canada, October 5-9, 1984). 
North American Association for Environmental 
Education, Troy, OH.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Inst, 
for Environmental Studies. 
Feb 86 
352F. 

North American Association for Environmental 
Education, P.O. Box 400, Troy, OH 45373 ($9.00, 
member, $11.00, nonmember). 

Collected 'forks - Conference Proceedings (021) 
MF01/PC15 Plus Postage. 

Conferences; *Con8Arvation (Environment); 
Conservation Education; Developing Nations; 
Elementary Secondary Education; *Bnvironmental 
Education; Foreign Countries; *Government Role; 
Higher Education; *Instructional Development; 
International Educational Exchange; *Natural 
Resources; *Nonformal Education; Outdoor Education 
*Environmental Issues; Informal Education 



The proceedings of the first International Conference 
of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE), 
which was also the 13th annual conference of the National Association 
of Environmental Education as the NAEE was formerly known, provides 
as complete a record as possible of the conference activities. Papers 
and reports are listed alphabetically by presenters in 10 general 
sections. Keynote speeche? are given fuj.1 length while abstracts of 
1500 words or less are given for the remaining papers. Sections 
included are: (1) major addresses (representing perspectives from 
Canada, the United Nations, the United States, and Australia); (2) 
Banfi Declaration (affirming a commitment to a new governmental 
ethic); (3) sections workshop report (focusing on ecological 
sustainable development); (4) international issues and actions 
(reviewing programs and conditions in Swaziland, Brazil, Barbados, 
Norway, India, Egypt, New Zealand, and Thailand); (5) governmental 
roles (includi-^g a symposium on Canada/U.S. relations and panels on 
information systems and a national center for environmental 
education); (6) issues (covering such topics as acid rain, nuclear 
arms, toxic substances, and population); (7) nonformal education 
(considering parks, centers, churches, and environmental history); 
(8) tertiary education (examining training programs ) ; (S) curriculum 
(describing outdoor progress, community issues, technology, energy, 
and computers); and (10) research (reporting on attitudes, behaviors, 
cognitive models, evaluation, and curriculum materials). (ML) 



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North American Association for 
Environmental Education 



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ERIC 



International Perspectives on Environmental 
Education: Issues and Actions 



1984 
Conference 



■ PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS 
MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY 



TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES 
INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)" 



INTERNAm PERSPECTIVES ON ENVmONMENTAL 
EDI .aTION: ISSUES AND ACTIONS 



1984 

Confarence 

Selected Papers from the Thirteenth Annual 
Conference of the North American 
Association for Environmental Education 



Edited by 

Dorothy A Cox 
William B. Sta.-p 



Published by 

The North American Association for Environmental Education 

P. O. Box 400 
Troy, Ohio 45373 



In Cooperation with 

The Institute for Environmental Studies 
University of Wisconsin-Madison 

February, 1986 



^v^^'"^ '''' 



PREFACE 



This Is the proceedings of the first International Conference of 
the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEt), 
This also docuiTients the 13th annual conference of NAEE (formerly known 
as the National Association of Envlron.iiental Education). The 
conference was held from October 5 to 9, 1984, at the Chateau Lake 
Louise Hotel In Banff National Park near the townslte of Lake Louise 
1r. Alberta. Canada. The conference featured five keynote addresses, 
over 12 Invited speakers, 13 workshops, 10 panels and symposia, and 
over 75 contributed paper's. While more than 10 field trips were 
available before, after, and during the conference, one entire 
afternoon was devoted to interpretive field sessloiis In order that 
everyone would be able to enjoy and learn from the spectacular 
Canadian Rockies environment. The conference began with over 100 
participants meeting In a two-day workshop dt.veloped by the combined 
planning of the three NAEE Sections. (See their report In Part III.) 
One of the significant conference outcomes was the adoption by the 
participants of the Banff Declaration. (See Part 11.) Over 350 
Individuals attended the conference from 2B countries representing all 
regions of the world. 

Participating In the Conference with NAEE was The American Society 
for Environmental History, a society which provides a coordinating 
network of environmental historians and professionals In environmental 
science, humanities, and social sciences. The ASEH presented four 
panel presentations as a part of the conference. 

The purpose of this proceedings Is to provide as complete a record 
as possible of the annual conference activities. 

This proceedings contains ten sections. Papers and reports are 
grouped by general topic with presentors listed alphabetically within 
each section. Major addresses are full length; all others have been 
edited to approximately 1500 words or less. If a long abstract was 
not submitted by an author, the short abstract (from the conference 
program) Is Included to complete the record of the conference. In a 
few cases no text tr auctract has been available, but the presentation 
Is listed by title to Indicate that a presentation was madi. 

The editors most gratefully thank Gloria Stapp, Glovanna DIChIro, 
Lorl Mann, Martha Monroe, ana Oebra Yandala for their Invaluable 
contribution In reading and editing papers; Arthur Sacks for arranging 
for the typing to be done at the Institute tor Environmental Studies, 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin; and Joan Heidelberg for 
handling a myriad of details that made our Job so much easier. 

Dorothy A. Cox 
William B. Stapp 
Co-editors 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 
I. Major Addresses 

A. Bradley, Fred D. "Welcoming Address" (Canada) . 13 

B. Fraser, John. "Stalus of Environmental Education 



Issues In Canada" (Canada) 16 

C. Brown, Noel. "The International Environment" 

(U.N.) 21 

0. Baez, Albert V. "The World Conservation Strategy 

and Environmental Education" (USA) 22 

E. Linke, Russell 0. "The Challenge of 

Environmental Education In Today's World" 
(Australia) 32 

F. Sacks, Arthur. "NAEE President's Address" USA) . 38 
II The Banff Declaration 41 



III Coordinated NAEE Sections Workshop Report 

Serberet, Jerry and Arthurs Sacks. 
"Environmental Education for 
the Biosphere: Workshops on Ecologically 



Sustainable Development" (USA) 42 

IV Presentations: International Issufs and Actions 

A. Allen, Irma A. "Environmental Education: Impact 

on Three Aspects of Development In Africa" 
(Swaziland) 46 

B. Atchia, Michael. "Environmental Education In 

Afrlca-A Review" (Mauritius) 51 

C. Crespo Gualda, Reglna Elena. •'Environmental 

Education and Latin America" (Brazil) .... 55 

D. Ealey, E.H.M. "Contract Research as a Component 

of Environmental Education" (Australia) ... 59 

E. Francis, George. "Issues of the Great Lakes: A 

Transnational Problem" (Canada) 63 



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F. Greenall, Annette. "A New Beglnring for 

Environmental Education In Australia" 
(Australia) 63 

G. Holmes, Roland C. "Environmental Education: A 

Third World Experience" (USA) 67 

H. James, Carlaton. "Environmental Education and 

Public Awareness In the Wider Caribbean: An 
Overview" (Barbados, West Indies) 70 

I. Lleberman, Gerald A. "RARE: Environmental 

Education Catalyst" (USA) 76 

J. Lien, Arne. "Environmental Education 

Implications of Technological Development In 

the Arctic" (Norway) 79 

K. Medina, Augusto 0. "The Caribbean Environmental 

Education Program* (USA) 79 

L. Metcalfe, Peter. "Environmental Science for 

Solomon Islands Teachers: a Pattern for Third 
World Countries?" (Australia) 81 

M. Quaye, Eric C. "Towards the Development of 
Environmental Literacy In a Developing 
Country-Ghana" (Ghana, Africa) 86 

N. Saxena, iC,G. "Ecological Implications of 

Shifting Agriculture" (India) 87 



0. Sellm. M. Saber. "Environmental Education In the 



Arab States: Issues and Actions" (Egypt) . . 90 

P. Simpson, Philip. "Education Prerequisites for 
Integrating Conservation and Development In 
New Zealand" (New Zealand) 95 

Q. Slocombe, D. Scott. "International Environmental 
Campdigns-Case Studies and Discussion" 
(Canada) 99 

R. Smyth. J.C. "The World Conservation Strategy and 
Public Education: An Investigation of 
Structures" (Scotland) 102 

S. Sokoloff, Boris. "Australian Aborigines and 

Environmental Education" (Australia) 106 



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T. Srinlvasan, S. and O.K. Banerjee. "Environmental 



Problems of Developing Countries and 
Appropriate Solutions Through Environmental 
Education" (India) 108 

U. Trant, Anton. "A European Experiment In 

Environmental Education" (Ireland) 108 

V. Tribe, David. "The Role of the Gould League of 
New South Wale'; In Environmental Education 
In Australia" (Australia) 115 

W. Tuntawlroon, Nart. "North-Soi/lh Dialogue" 

(Thai land) 119 

X. Webb, Joan. "An Australian Contribution to 
Environmental Education in Thailand" 
(Australia) 119 

Y. Wheeler. Keltn. "The Role of the United Kingdom 
Council for Environmental Education \n 
Promoting Environmental Learning" (United 
Kingdom) 123 



Z. Panel: "A Network In Conservation. Natural 
Resources, and Environmental Management 
Education: A Model for the Eastern 
Caribbean." Robert Roth (USA), Elsa Talero 
(Columbia), Alfredo Morlllo (Dominican 
Republic), Jill Sheppard (Barbados), John 



Dislnger (USA) 123 

1. Roth, Robert E. "A Research and 

Development Communications Network for 
Conservation, Natural Resources and 
Environmental Management Education In 
the Wider Caribbean** 124 

2. Morlllo, Alfredo. "Environmental 

Education In the Dominican Republic" . .128 

Presentations: Governmental Roles In Environmental 
Education 

A. Baer. Richard A. "Preserving Human Freedom In 

a Time of Environmental Crisis" (USA) . . . .133 

B. Martin, Jim and Diana Thompson. •'Government 

Support and Leadership In Environmental 
Education" (Canada) 138 



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C. Nelson, Kenneth J. "Overview of the Role of the 
Environmental Education Advisory Committee to 
the Environment Council of Alberta" (Canada) .138 

0. Symposium: "Canada/US Environmental Relations" .143 

1- Sokolsky, Joel J. "Canada, Congress, and 
Transbcrder Environmental Issue!^" (USA) 

2. Baldwin, John H. "Acid Rain: The Science 



and the Conflict" (USA) 143 

3. Schwartz, Alan M. "The Resolution of 

Environmental Controversy by 
International Diplomacy: The Case of 
the Skagit R1ver/Ross Dam Controversy" 
(USA) 144 

4. Francis, George. International University 

Study on Great Lakes Ecosystem 
Rehabilitation" (Canada) 144 

E. Pane^. : "Information and Dissemination Systems: 

Recommendations, Realities, Possibilities." 
Oavid L. Hanselman (USA), Tony Angell (USA), 
Augusto Q. Medina (USA), John Dls'mger (USA), 
John J. Padalino (USA) 144 

1. Padalino, John J. "Information and 

Dissemination 1n Environmental 

Education" .145 

2. Olslnger, John F. and Robert W. Howe. 

"Clearinghouse* Functions for 

Environmental Eoucatlon" 148 

F. Panel: "Toward a National Center for 

Environmental Education." John R. Paulk 
(USA), Alexander J. Barton (USA), John J. 
Padalino (USA) 152 



1. Padalino, John J. "National and Regional 
Centers for EE: Following up on the 
Recommendations of the First National 
Congress for Environmental Education 
Futures-Policies and Practices" . . .152 



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VI. Presentations: Environmental Issues 

A. Backes, David. "The Air Ban War: Sigurd F. Olsc j 
and the Fight to Ban Airplanes from the 
Roadless Area of Minnesota's Superior National 



Forest" (USA) 157 

B. Cook, Oon. "The Acid Rain Forecast: Moderate 

Precipitation, Visibility Limited" (USA) . . .160 

C. Lanfried, Steven E. "Update from the 

Subcontinent: Efforts to Save the Siberian 
Crane" (USA) 164 

0. McClaren, Milton. "Mediating the Unthinkable- 
Discussing the Problem of Nuclear Arms With 
Students" (Canada) 168 



E. McKone, Thomas E. "Tracking the Global Fate of 

Toxic Elements from Energy Systems" (USA) . .168 

F. McNeil, Richard J. "International Environmental 

Issues: Teaching at the University Level" 



(USA) . .170 

G. Ottum, Margaret G. "Education's Role in Toxic 

Waste Control" (USA) 174 

H. Page, Garnet T. "Industry's Task - To Keep 

Nature in Business" (Canada) 178 

I. Schultz, Judith M, "World Population Imperatives 

Precipitate New Trends in Population Policy" 
(USA) 183 

J. Swihold, Susanne M. "Environmental Censorship 
and the Media-A Test Case: The Fur Seal 
Harvest of the Pribilof Islands" (Canadu) . .186 



K. von Hofsten, Anne. "Acid Rain in a World 

Conservation Strategy Perspective" (Sweden) .188 

VII. Presentations: Nonformal Education 

A. Allen, Barry. "People, Parks and Preservation" 



(USA) 191 

B. Anderson, Eddie. "Creating Environmental 
/Awareness Through Natural Resources 
Education" (USA) . .193 



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Barwise, Joanne. "Development of an 

Environmental Education Centre: The History 
of Shannon Terrace Environmental tducatlon 
Centre" (Canada) 197 

0. Coombs, Hary S. "The Students Are the Explorers, 

Discoverers and Scientists" (USA) 201 

E. Fortner, Nina. ''Exploration Into the Night 

Environment" (USA) 205 

F. Greene, H. David. "Coastal Issues Small Grant 

Program"* (USA) 205 

G. Harding, Karen. "Interconnectedness: The 

Emerging Paradigm" (USA) 207 

ri. Hopkins, Charles. "Incorporating the Built 

Environmental Education Program" (Canada) . .210 

1. Kennedy, Carolyn L. "Strategies for 
Involving Youth In Wildlife and 
Environmental Issues" (USA) 210 

J. McDonald, Kevin. "Community Environmental 
Education In New South Males, Australia: 
Issues, Strategies, and Chu;>nge" (Austral1a)211 

K. Murray, Cam. "Education and Leadership: The 

Role of Non-Profit Societies" (Canada) . . . .214 

L. Vallentyne, John R. "Globes as Symbols of 

Oneness" (Canada) 216 

M. Yandala, Deb. "The Church as an Example of 

Nonformal Environmental Education" (USA) . . .218 

N. Yandala. Deb. "Values and Environmental 

Education A Workshop Model for Training 

Teachers and Leaders" (USA) 222 

0. Panel: "Cultural Resource Management and the 
Environmental Historian." Carroll Pursell 
(USA), Samuel P. Hayes (USA), Martin V. 
Melosi (USA), Thomas Den'.ap (USA) 223 

P. Panel: "Environmental History In the Science 
Curriculum." John H. Perkins (USA), Thomas 
Ounldp (USA), Samuel P. Hayes (USA), Joseph 
Siry (USA), Alfred Runte (USA) 224 



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Q. Panel: "Issues and Interpretations In 

Environmental History." Alfred Runte (USA), 
John Opie (USA). Linda J, Lear (USA), Carroll 
Pursell (USA), Morgan Sherwood (USA) 224 

R. Panel: "The Past, Present and Future of 

Environmental History." Morgan Sherwood 
(USA), J. Donald Hughas (USA), Martin V. 
Melosi (USA), Lisa Mighetto (USA), Donald 
Worster (USA) 224 

VIII. Presentations: Tertiary Education 

A. Gell, Mike; Edward Pizzlnl and James Splvak. 

"Simulating Competitive and Collaborative 

Models for Decision Making" (USA) 225 

B. Henning, Daniel H. "The Role and Neglect of 

In-Service Environmental Training Programs In 
Jnternat1ori?.l Environmental Education" (USA) .226 

C. Horvat, Pobert E. "Erergy Education: Past or 

Prologue?" (USA) 228 

0. Hudspeth, Thomas R. "Utopian Visloning and the 

Creation of Alternative Futures" (USA) . . . .232 

E. Hunwick, John. "Training Pre-Serv1ce Teachers In 

Environmental Educ&tlon-A South Australian 
Approach" (Australia) 232 

F. Hurry, Lynn B. "Environmental Education and 

Primary School Teacher Education: Meeting the 

Challenge of Inescapable Issues" (Republic 

of South Africa) 235 

G. Rallton, Esther P. "Where are the Jobs for 

Graduates with Master's Degrees In 

Environmental Education?^ (USA) 238 

H. Shewchuk, Terry R. and Joan M. Snyder. 

"Environmental Biology: Grande Prairie 

Regional College" (Canada) ^40 

IX. Presentations: Curriculum K-12 

A. Andrews, Bill. "Environmental Education: A 

Moral Base for Decision Making" (Canada) . . .242 



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B. Carroll, James. "Outdoor Education Programs In 



Metropolitan Toronto Schools" (Canada) . . . ,242 

C. Clausen, Bernard L. "An Analysis of Teacher 
Selection of Project Outlook Activities" 
(USA) 246 

0. D1 Chiro, Glovanna; wmiam Mor^.n and wmiam 

Stapp. "Environmental Education and Commun'^ty 
Problem Solving" (USA) 248 

E. Fensham, Peter J. "New Movements In Science 

Education: International Evidence Awareness" 
(Australia) 253 



F. Fleming, Lyn and Jennifer Clark. "The Time Is 

Right To Do Something WILD" (USA and Canada) .258 



G Harmon, Terry and Robert Schwab. "A Program of 
Natural Resource Management at High School 
Level" (USA) 259 

H. Howard, Jeanne. "Visons of the Future: Premises 

and Materials" (USA) 259 

I. lozzl, Louis A. "Sclence-Technology-Soclety. 

Dealing With Conflict Issues In Elementary 

and Secondary Schools" (USA) 261 

J. Kumar, B.N. "Environmental Education as an 

Integrating Concept In the School Curriculum" 
(Guyana) 262 

r Leflos, Pattl. "Grar.ylUe Island Curriculum 

Resources Book and Video" (Canada) 266 

L. Lipka, Jerry. "Environmental Educati^r Alaskan 
Style: The Bristol Bay Curriculum Project" 
(USA) 266 

M. Lubbers, James 0. "Environmental Education Is 

Conspicuously Missing" (USA) 2S9 

N. Mickelson, Belle Heffner; Janet Ady and Peggy 
Cowan "Alaskan Environmental Education 
Strategies" (USA) 272 

0. Phillips. Hugh C. "Energize Your Curriculum: 

1 to 6" (Canada) 273 



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p. Phmips, Hugh C. "Energize Your Curriculum: 

7 to 12" (Canada) ?73 

Q. Phillips, Hugh C. "Hughlsms for Interpreting our 

Natural World" (Canada) 273 

R. Richards, Don. "Er^vlronmental Educa ion In 
Practice: Across a School Curriculum" 
(Republic of South Africa) 273 

1. Jonsson, Caroline "How We Cover 
Mathematics." 276 

2. Champklns, Allen. "An Urban Survey: A 
Geographical Study of our T>wn Mool 
River." 278 

3. Blain, Sally. "A Study of the 
Drakensburg with Special Reference to 

the Bushman." 281 



4. Hurry, Nicola. "Science Section - The 
Mool River." . 282 

5. Laundy, Patrick. "The Zulu People and 
Their Inter-relatlonship wUh the 



Natural Environment." 284 

6. Parvess, Barry. *^Zulu Cultui^e and 
History." 286 

7. Jaavacki Adam. "Urban Conservation." . 288 

S> Smith, Elizabeth H. "Environmental Education and 
the Sifted Student: a Survey of Some Inter- 
national Programs In Schools" (USA) 290 

T. Smith, Kay M. "Rationale and Mctlvltes for Early 
Childhood Environmental Education: The Effect 
of the Home and School on Envlrcnnental 
Learning" (USA) 290 

U. Stayton, Vickl and lenne Pool. "Environmental 

Education and tne nung Child" (USA) 293 

V. Stubbs, Harriet and Marylou Kllnkhammer, "Acid 

Precipitation Informatlon/Educati on/Curriculum 
Materials" (USA) 293 

W. Wilson, Terry L. "Taking a '3YTE' out of the 

Energy Problem: Bit by Bit" (USA) 294 

Presentations : Research 

A. Dayton, Thomas G. and Roger Allen. "Attitude 
Changes of Youth at Environmental Education 
Residential Camps" (ISA) 294 



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B. Hanle, r.ohert. "BlocuUural Edu:at1on: A Post 

Industrial Education Process" (USA) . . . .295 

C. Fortner, Rosanne W. "Environmental Edu'^atlon 

Adoption Potential of Inservlce Workshop 



Participants In the U.S. and 

Barbados" (USA) 298 

D. Hines, Jody M, "An Analysis and Synthesis of 
Research of Responsible Environmental 
Behavior: A Meta-Analysis" (USA) 301 



E. Hungerford, Harold R.; Audrey N. Tome«a, Trudi 
L. Vilk, Archie P.C Sla and Jody M. Kines. 
"Predicting Environmental Behavior" (USA) .305 

F Larson, Mark A. "Theory Bu'.lding In 

Environmental Education" (USA) 309 

G. Liiubers, James 0. "Analysis of College 

Students' Environmental ^^^roblems" (USA) . .315 

H. Mills, Terence J. and Francis Fenderson. 

"Children's Concept of Earth: Preconception 



for Understanding the Biosphere" (USA) . .319 

I. Nelson, Ray A. "Cognitive Models for 
Developing Global Perspectives on 
Environmental Problems" (USA) 323 

J. Pe p son, Ervand M. "A Research Alternative 

Environmental Education" (USA) 326 

K. Puntenney, Pamela J. "Environmental Education 
a Res:>ons1ve Policy Making Process: Pattern 
of an Essential Alliance" (USA> 328 

L. Robottom, Ian. "Evaluation In Environmental 

Education: Time for Change In Perspective?" 
(Australia) 332 

M. Stevenson, Bob. "Curriculum Materials for 
United States and Aus' allan Schools: An 
Explanation of the Th^iory-Practlce 3ap In 
Environmental Education" (USA) 334 

N. Vogl, Robert; Sonia Vogl and William Stapp. 
"Major Threats of Environmental Quality 
In North America: A Survey" (USA) 339 



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I. A. Bradley Honourable Fred 0., HInUter of the Env1ronir?nt, 
Alberta, Canada. 

It 13 a distinct pleasure to be Invited to address you this 
evening. I note there are people attending this conference from all 
over the i^orld. South America. Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North 
America and In particular our neighbours from the United States* On 
behalf of the Alberta Government I would like to welcome all of you to 
Canada and Alberta and to Lake Louise. 

I wou^d like to conmend the North American Association of 
Environmental Education on Its decision to go 'contlneotaT and 
demonstrate this by holding this conference In Alberta. I think you 
will agre^ that you could not have chosen a more beautiful and 
tranquil site than Lake Louise for your activities. It Is a truly 
magnificent example of a natural environment. However, I'm sure that 
you all bring with you concerns and reports about other environments 
—your local environments—and through sharing, the focus of this 
gathering will become the 'global environment*. 

Understanding global environmental conditions and needs Is 
difficult, even for those who make It their profession to understand. 
Connecting local Initiatives and actions to the global view and needs 
of environment Is difficult, even for those committed to undertaking 
such Initiatives and actions, as minister responsible for the 
sustenance of a quality environment In one small region of this globe 
I applaud those professionals who understand and work toward this goal 
accordingly. 

However, I reserve a special respect for those professionals who 
attempt, as you do, through educational programming, to addres: the 
complexities of global environmental conditions to students, 
communities and diverse publics* This respect Is heightened when I see 
the atten^ots made to develop an Interest and Involvement of these same 
audiences In their local environments, to act locally, to foster a 
lifestyle cognizant of the need to sustain a quality environment. 

However, education about and for the environment cannot be left to 
the professionals alone. I firmly believe that education Is a 
responsibility of society as a whole and that Includes matters of the 
environment. It Is through education that the foundation for 
meaningful discussion between differing value-oriented groups on 
environmental Issues can occur. It Is the foundation for trust and 
understanding between proponents and dissentors of cievelopments 
affecting the quality of the physical envlrorment. It nourishes the 
roots of a developing empathy for others needs and aspirations. 

Alberta Environment Is In this business of education because 
ultimately decisions have to be made, some value positions supported 
and some rejected. It Is to our interest that the public understands 
the basis for these decisions. But education is dynamic— ^it flows 
both ways. As with an agency that makes decisions about the 
environment there is a need for us to be part of the educational 
program as recipient. Alberta Environment will undoubtedly learn much 
from the proceedings of this conference. 



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Alberta environmental educators have Instituted a number of 
Initiatives of which we can be rightly proud and that demonstrate the 
directions and commitment that the province has made to environmental 
education. Proudly, we can say that the environmental education 
movement In this province was achieved through broad grass roots 
support. The Involvement of teachers, recreational leaders, 
naturalists, Interpretors, university and college faculties, 
environmentalists and parents concerned with quality learning 
experiences for their children In and about the environment must be 
recognized. These are the people who Initiated programs, who acted 
and led others to act. 

Though our history In environmental education Is not long, at 
least In the formal sense, the list of achievements and depth of 
programming Is truly astonishing. The list of school-based and 
community environmental projects numbers In the thousands. The 
efforts to Interpret t'ae school curriculum to Incorporate 
environmental topics have been extensive^ The development of local 
resource materials to support both school and community programs has 
mushroomed. Formal and Informal organizing and networking to Improve 
communications and coordination of effort and resources continues to 
grow. 

!n support of these efforts the Alberta Government has provided 
extensive assistance for the past fifteen years. At present, eleven 
government departments, services and agencies actively support formal 
and Informal educational efforts on the environment- Direction for 
formal environmental education lies dually with Alberta Education and 
Alberta Advanced Education. Alberta Education Is reviewing, with the 
university community, the possibility of providing credit instruction 
In environmental education at both graduate and undergraduate levels. 

Support for specific program development and special projects has 
been afforded by other government departments. Three of these have 
beon notably active In the field of environmental education. Alberta 
Recreation and Parks has perhaps the longest history of support 
offered In the area of environmental and outdoor education. With 
Initial efforts at the Blue Lake Centre to provide leadership training 
still continuing today, this department has br adened Its support to 
Include: grant funding of special and Innovative projects; provision 
of equipment and supplies; Initiating community- based leadersh'^p 
programs; development of support materials; and, leadership, 
consultation and coordination services through Its many professional 
staff. 

Alberta Energy and Natural Resources has, through three of Its 
branches, developed a broad array of resources available to 
environmental educators. Project WILD. Hunter Training, the Energy 
Conservation Program and Junior Forest Wardens are Just a few of th^ 
programs reaching out to serve educators of our nat*jral resources. 

The department which I am responsible for, Alberta Environment, 
has also offered extensive support to educators for more than a 
decade. Our Involvement has been In program development and 



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teachei 'er 1nserv1ce. Lately, programs focusing on environmental 
issues ano addressing core curriculum in the schools have been the 
focus of most of our educational efforts in the department* We feel 
that we have been, and will continue to be, responsive to the needs of 
environmental educators in this province. 

One should not forget that in this resource rich province there is 
one other major source of support for education of the environment* 
Industry has played a major role in support of environmental education 
though often of an indirect nature* Support for relevant programming 
has often come through funding of special programs* An excellent, and 
perhaps the finest example of industry's support of environnmental 
education has its toots in Alberta* The SEEDS Foundation, of i^ich I 
am sure that many of you are familiar, demonstrates what can happen 
when industry is included in the educational process* 

I encourage you to attend the presentations made by Alberta 
government staff and to view the displays outlining some of the 
programs that have been developed here in Alberta* 

Or* Stapp, Alberta educators are fortunate in your association's 
choice of this part of Canada to hold your conference* It provides us 
with a unique opportunity to learn from you~as we have learned by 
more indirect means in the past* However, we do hope that this 
learning will not all be one way* One would hope that in your 
discussior.s, delivery of papers, formal sessions, and field trips, you 
will learn extensively from each other and perhaps come to appreciate 
the directions and growth of environmental education in Alberta* 

In closing, I would like to leave one thought with you: 

A Quality Environment is a ^ound economic Investment. 

The challenge for policy mak<^rs is to recognize that short term 
decisions which don't address environment protection, i*e* air, water 
and land quality, may result in longer term economic, social and 
environmental costs* I*E* ACID RAIN * Governments are now discussing 
taking action on the clean->up of acid rain producing industries* The 
question of cost and who is going to pay is a serious question* There 
is no doubt that society will be asked to bear some of these costs* 

Had decision makers known the cost of clean-up cost to reduce acid 
rain today, I am sure that they would have recognized that p ollution 
a^ ntement and control would have made sound economic sense back when 
these industrial developments were approved* 

Environmental Education, I believe, mi., include selling 
environmental protection as sound economics* 

I note from your agenda you will have plenty of time to take in 
Alberta's natural environment* Enjoy yourselves and please take time 
to see some of the other features of orr diverse and beautiful 
province and country* 

Hay I take this opportunity to wis;» you all the best, that you 
have a successful conference, and that your efforts on behalf of the 
environmeni everywhere are successful also* 



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l.B. Fraser, John, " Status of Environmental Education Issues 1n 

Canada ," Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, House of Commons, 
Vancouver, South, 120 Federations Building, Ottawa, Ontario, KIA 
0E6, Canada. 

rd like to begin by bringing you greetings from the Honourable 
Suzanne Blals-Grenler, Minister of Environment. Tm delighted to meet 
with you again. The last occasion, as some of you may recall, was at 
your 1982 meeting In Lake George, New York. 

When 6111 Stapp Invited me to this Conference last February, he 
mentioned that your groi'p had changed Its name from the National 
Association for Environment Education to the North American 
Association for Environment Education. 

i applaud the change for two reasons. First because your new 
name does reflect the reality that when we North Americans start 
thinking about our environmental problems, we pretty soon come up 
against the reality that they don't fit neatly on either side of the 
49th parallel, or Indeed on either side of state anJ provincial 
boundaries. The other reason Is a little more prosaic. By changing 
your name you've given me an excellent opener for the point I hope to 
make In this address. 

Which In simple terms Is this: The environmental agenda 
confronting us Is made up very largely of Issues which are simply too 
large, too all-embracing, and too complex to be treated as purely 
domestic concerns. Most are International, and many are global In 
their ecological Implications and also in their political 
Implications. Whether the aim Is to defeat long range air pollution 
across national borders or to davelop a coherent water management 
policy within borders, success for the governments Involved depends on 
wide horizons. 

Our conceptual horizons are being stretched by two forces. One of 
these Is the Impact uf modern technology and Industrialization. The 
pressure of the huitan race on the environment grows heaMer by the 
day. Our numbers multiply, we burn more energy, we consume more of 
our resources, we assail air and water and land with new and more 
persistent chemical combinations. In this crowded, mechanized world, 
environmental problems don't fit neatly within the lines on a map, 
parish pump politics don't generate solutions. What one nation or 
state or province does affects other Jurisdictions; polluters and 
polluted are reminded constantly that they are not In separate 
worlds. In that sense we are learning by hard experience. In a more 
positive way, our concepts are being widened by scientific discovery. 
We know more than we did. We are finding out that environmentally we 
are linked In ways we did not previously realize. 

My perspective on these changes Is not that of a scientist or an 
ecologlst, but of a member of the government with a responsibility to 
the public. As a former Minister of Environment and now as Minister 
of Fisheries and Oceans, I have a special Interest In environmental 
politics. I've been particularly fascinated by the political process 
the chemistry - by which, In an open society like ours, new 



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understandlng of envlroritnental problems translates eventually into 
concrete environmental action. Along the way I've also come to 
unaerstand the significance to that process of informed and active 
groups such as this one. with that In mind, I want to pass on some 
observations about the way the process has worked In the past, and go 
on from that to how I think It will have to work In the future. 

In the case of purely national problem solving, you can usually 
divide the process roughly into three phases. In Phase One, the 
problem Is spotted, so to speak, from the crow's nest by the 
scientific lookout, the person with a special Informed interest In the 
problem. In Phase Two the alarm Is sounded, usually by groups like 
this one. Then and only then Is the latent political power of public 
opinion mobilized and focused. In Phase Three you get political 
action. We saw that sequence In the 1960's. It took a long time to 
go from Phase One to Two, but beyond that point, action came very 
quickly. 

And with good reason, a great deal of political energy was being 
generated In a very direct way. In most cases, polluters and the 
polluted were neighbors and fellow citizens. Environmental 
constituencies came naturally into existence. Political pressure 
could be quickly mobilized and readily translated into corrective 
measures. 

w;ien the problems were International, events followed a somewhat 
different scenario. In the case of the Great Lakes for instance, 
environmental problems festered quietly for decades. Action did not 
come until It was compelled by something close to catastrophe. One 
reason was, undoubtedly, environmental Ignorance. People didn't 
understand the deterioration and what It meant to their communities. 
Another was the existence of borders, not Just the ones drawn on maps 
between nations and provinces and states, but the crucial ones which 
limit our definitions of the possible. 

These conceptual barriers have been broken In the past. Aruund 
the turn of the century, Americans and Canadians were discovering that 
there were certain environmental problems. Including minor disputes 
about fisheries and water that could not be solved unllate.ally. That 
discovery lead to the Boundary Haters Treaty of 1909. And the treaty 
In turn led to the establishment of the International Joint 
Commission, which In spirit and accomplishment has given us some of 
the world's most encouraging examples of International cooperation on 
environmental matters. In the ensuing 50 years the IJC conducted many 
studies of trouble spots In the Lakes and other shared waters. In the 
mid 1960's the Commission was authorized to Investigate the build up 
of eutrophlcatlon In the Lakes, particularly In Lake Erie. And In the 
early 1970's, Impelled and reinforced I'm sure by the environmental 
movement of the era, Canada and the United States launched their 
massive Joint cleanup of the Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality 
Agreement. 

The arrival of the sea lamprey, via the Wei land Canal, was the 
disaster to the fisheries of the Lakes that prompted action. The 
lamprey wrought so much devastation among prime stocks of lake trout 
and whiteflsh that It could not be Ignored. 



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Congress, Parliament, the state houses on the American side, and the 
legislature In Ontario, a11 saw the light. That awakening led to the 
formation of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission and a highly 
successful International attack against the lamprey. 

But the real test of our ability to respond In a transboundary way 
to transboundary challenges came much later with acid rain. In this 
Instance, with one or two significant changes In the cast of 
characters, the three phase sequence I*ve talked about, did In fact 
occur. There was certainly a time lag between Phase One and Phase 
Two. Scientists had published reports on acid rain In Canada and the 
United States In the early 1970' s. But not until 1979 did acid rain 
become a public Issue and It achieved that status In a different way 
from the Issues ov the 1960's. The constituency for cleanup could not 
come together spontaneously In this case on the basis of perceived 
common Intermit. For one thing, the pollution Itself was Insidious 
and stealthy. For another, the makers of acid rain and those on whom 
It fell were on different sides of hutlon. state and provincial 
borders. The polluter's victims couldn't reach him. and the 
polluter's neighbors didn't care. That raised the question about the 
political process, how. In this situation without smoj and bellyup 
fish could you mobilize a constituency for cleanup? The situation. In 
fact, called for politicians *-o assume the role of bell ringer. Our 
task, as Minister of Environment at the time, was one In which I was 
directly Involved, not just to reflect and transmit public will, but 
to raise awareness. The task. In fact, was to mobilize a constituency 
against acid rain. Not just a national constituency but one that 
represented all the afflicted In all jurisdictions, a North American 
constituency, a coalition we hoped, of the ralned-upon. The only way 
we could do that was by Canadians and Americans moving out from behind 
some of the conceptual fences and talking directly to each other as 
members of one transboundary constituency. 

That constituency took hold and It exists today. On both sides of 
the national border and on both sides of state and provincial borders. 
Canadian and American politicians, supported by environmental groups, 
have discovered, proclaimed and acted upon their common Interest. 
They have found their allies and. as you would expect, their opponents 
on both sides of national and other boundaries. Their operational 
premise Is that acid rain Is not Canada's problem or the problem of 
the United States. It Is North America's problem. In fisheries terms 
the acid rain casualties Include not only Nova Scotlf. "(almon but trout 
In the Adirondacks. The zones of devastation Include not only 
thousands of Ontario lakes, but hundreds of miles of fishless streams 
In Great Smoky National Park, and many more In Pennsylvania. 

I'm not here to claim that the process has In fact carried us to a 
successful conclusion. It hasn't. Acid rain continues to fall — we 
are still In the midst of an unfolding North American ecological 
tragedy. But In at least one respect there has been progress, that 
transboundary constituency exists. And. given the new and more 
constructive relationship that exists In Canada-U.S. relations, we can 
look with optimism to the future. 



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ray present Job, I m mnlster not only of Fisheries but Oceans. 
It Is an area on which we will be placing more emphasis In the 
future. It's also an area with Its full share of environmental 
jvrobleras and Interconnections some of which we are only beginning 
to understand* 

One example In El Nino an occ'^n phenomenon characterized by the 
sudden Intrusion of warm waters Into parts of the ocean which are 
normally cool. As , as the 1960's It was thought of as a 

purely regional pher ...vrt confined to the waters of the eastern 
Pacific off Latin America. We know today It's a global one, with 
Impacts on climate that register throughout the entire equatorial 
area of the planet. The El Nino of 1982-1983 caused simultaneously, 
the worst drought of the century In Australia, devastating rains In 
parts of the southern United States and Latin America, and some of the 
worst hurricanes ever to hit Tahiti and other islands of the south 
central Pacific. In Canada, El Nino resulted In one of the mildest 
winters recorded In British Colunri)1a, and considerable changes In the 
migrations of fish stocks. 

This train of events Illustrate a definite relationship between 
the dynamics of ocean and climate. Scientists say It Is possible to 
learn enough about the cause-and-effect relationships to make the 
effects predictable, and the eronomic and other benefits of that would 
be Immense. 

The problem Is that no one nation has enough of the pieces to 
complete the puzzle alone. If we are to understand El Nino and 
benefit from that understanding, we must seek the answers together. 
And In this case, too, we need to begin with the uncomfortable 
exercise of discarding familiar and obsolete concepts. We need to go 
on from there to mobilize a constltuencv to support this effort. In 
this case, one with a hemispheric field of vision. 

I want to turn now to an Issue thac probably makes the case for a 
new politics of the environment better than any other. I mean the 
documented, ominous buildup of cirbon dioxide In the atmosphere, the 
so-called "greenhouse effect." 

As a measuring stick for the relevance of our political conce^ :s 
and Institutions, this Is probably the most Instructive Issue of the 
lot. It exhibits many of the characteristics of the new breed of 
environmental challenge. Like acid rain n Is Insidious. It Isn't 
something you can see or feel. At this point. If this problem 
reylsters In the public mind at all. It does so In terms of dry 
scientific measurements and speculations about effects In what seems 
to be a safely distant future. As with acid rain one of the 
challenges It poses Is <1mply convincing people that there really Is 
something out there to be worrying about. And yet whit we are 
confronted with here Is a problem that knowledgeable and cautious 
people have called the most profound environmental Issue facing 
humanity. 

Let's review ti.e facts. Massive amounts of CO2 are being 
released Into the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels. 
Roughly half of that amount Is staying In the atmosphere where. In 
simple terms. It oC*^^ as a thermal mirror, passing the ref letted heat 



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from our planet Dack to earth. We're told, on good authority, that 
the CO2 loading of the atmosphere will double over the next 70 to 
100 years. If that happens, according to some forecasters the average 
temperature of the earth could rise by two per cent. That's a 
worldwide average. In high latitude countries It would probably be 
more. Some experts say, for Inslance, that the Increase In Canada 
would not be two per cent but anywhere from four to eight per cent. 

One needs to make a mental effort to translate these dry numerical 
predictions Into a picture of the physical results. The predictions 
vary from pessimistic to reasonably bright, fr^m slight Improvements 
for some regions, to absolute disasters for others. Some studies 
suggest that the Western prairies could become deserts. The Icecaps 
would diminish. The water they release would lUt the ocean level and 
put many areas Including, I believe, 30X of the state of Florida 
underwater . 

Looking this grim scene over, one has to ask whether the 
greenhouse effect Is a good Illustration of the need for wider 
environmental constltutencles. With a problem so Immense, Is It 
likely that any responses would be adequate? We can't take all the 
traffic off the roads. We can't ground all the aircraft. We can't 
turn off the heat and the lights all over the world. 

It Is a reasonable question. The answer Is that there are things 
we can and must do. We must learn more about the phenomenon Itself. 
We need to chart Its progress more precisely, we must define Its 
timetable. That missing half of CO2 that Isn't getting Into the 
atmosphere needs to be located. Presumably It's going Into the 
ocean. If so, how much CO2 can the oceans absorb? What Influence 
should the greenhouse effect have on our plans for energy 
development? What should we be doing to avert some of the stock and 
dislocation that changes will bring to some regions? What shoulcJ we 
be doing to oenefit from climatic changes that favor some regions^ 

To say that we In Canada are Interested In climate variations of 
any kind Is an understatement. We live In a narrow margin of 
climate. A couple of degrees one way or another, sustained long 
enough, can make us or break us. Fisheries, forestry, agriculture, 
those three sectors are pillars of our national life. All three are 
sensitive to climate variations. 

No single discipline Is 1nc1s1/e enough to comprehend the 
problem. No one country Is large enough or rich enough to answer the 
questions single handed. So this too Is an area where the world has 
been dragged kicking and struggling by stark environments realities 
Into global collaboration. In this case the mechanism Is the World 
Climate Program coordinated through the U.N. system. This country Is 
making Its contribution. The Canadian Cllmawe Centre was established 
by Environment Canada eight years ago and It coordinates a general 
Canadian Climate Program. Canada has been monitoring CO2 In the 
atmosphere since 1969. The Institute of Ocean Sciences, has been a 
leader In the study of CO2 levels In vne Pacific Ocean using Its own 
vessels and commercial ships as measurement platforms. 



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To sum U up, this Is a time when the challenge of preserving the 
human environment has become a challenge to our perception of our 
ability to adapt to change. Your group has a crucial role to play. 
You are capable of greater maneuverability. You can adapt more 
quickly than rigid government organizations. New environmental 
challenges have produced this new cross boundary. In some cases global 
constituency. It Is a constituency made up of people concerned about 
where we are going, people who are not going to care much about 
quill-pen diplomacy, people who will form together In coalitions that 
are skeptical about protocols as a wav co achieve goals * coalitions 
that will not hesitate to cross bourlarles no flatter how upset 
traditionalists may get about It. You In this Association should be 
the natural leaders and moblllzers of this coalition, throughout North 
America as your new title suggests, and globally too. If that's what's 
required. 

In closing, I'd like to return to the subject of add rain and In 
particular to the challenge It makes to our preceptlon. We have made 
agonizingly slow progress toward the joint effort we need. 
Nevertheless, there are signs that the International transboundary 
consciousness Is evolving, that the constituency tor the environment 
1s gaining strength. 

We have some progress to show. In 1979 Canada and the United 
States joined with member nations of the European Economic Community 
In signing the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. 
That Convention Is now In force. It requires the countries who signed 
It to exchange information on control strategies, to conduct research, 
end to take account of transboundary pollution In the planning of new 
plants that emit sulphur dioxide. Canada and nine other nations now 
belong to the "30 per cent club", countries which have pledged to cut 
SO2 emissions by at least 30X- Membership 1n this club Is not 
closed; other nations are welcome. 

We Canadians have gone even further. Canada has pledged to begin 
Its own attack on acid rain aiming for a SOX reduction In Sulpher 
dioxide emissions based on 1980 levels by 1994^ We realize In doing 
so that this action alone will not solve the problem, but we are 
confident that In time, the United States will join us In this work to 
preserve our common heritage, are confident, In short, that the 
transboundary heritage will prevail. 



KC, Brown, Noel, "The International Environment." Director. New 
York Llason Office, UnUed Nations Environment Program, United 
Nations Building. New York, New York, USA. 

(Speech not available at this printing.) 



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I.i. Baez, Albert V., "The World Conservation Strategy and 
Environmental Education." Chairman, lUCN Commission on 
Education, Greenbrae, California, USA. 

INTRODUCTION 

We are here to try to Implement the now famous adage of Rene 
Dubois to "think globally and act locally". Hy purpose today Is to 
remind you of the role that the World Conservation Strategy of the 
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 
(lUCN) has played and can continue to play In Implementing Dubois* 
admonition. 

Many of you work on local environmental problems possibly without 
considering their global Implications but some of us, I am afraid, are 
so caught up In International work and concentrating on the global 
Issues that we have no time to get Involved In local problems thereby 
running the risk of losing touch with the local reality. Both groups 
must, obviously, strive for a better balance (i). 

I am delighted to be In Banff for the first time. I can see at 
least one reason why so many of us were attracted to come to this 
Conference. The legendary natural beauty of Banff reminds us of what 
the Earth can be like when It Is not ravaged by the careless Impact of 
modern technological society. It Is a fit place to celebrate the 
causes of conservation and environmental education. 

Canada has been kind to me In providing a platform for the 
expression of my views on envlornmental education. The last occasion 
was thft Man Environment Impact Conference held In Ontario In 1982 and 
I would like to begin my talk today where I left off then. In my 
concluding remarks there I pointed out that the long-term 
Implementation of the goals of lUCN's World Conservation Strategy 
demands the development of a world environmental education strategy 
whose main objective would be to Infuse an environmental ethic Into 
all educational activities worldwide. 

Two years have passed since the Ontario conference. There has 
been a great deal of activity In envlronmontal education worldwide. 
My term of office with lUCN Is coming to an end and before It does I 
would like to make two suggestions to the Banff conference In order 
not to lose the momentum which has been gained. One Is that the topic 
of a world environmental education strategy be kept alive and 
elaborated during this conference and ano^he- Is that you Issue, In 
the name of the Conference, a resolution a declaration which 
supports worldwide cooperation for envlronhK^ntal education. It might 
be called the Banff Declaration. 

1 will return to these topics later. 

THE WORLD CONSERVATION STRATEGY 

Most of you in this audience already know about the World 
Corservation Strategy (2). For the benefit of those who don't, 
however, I shall begin by giving a brief review of this Important 



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document, how 1t came about and what role U can play ln g1v1nti 
environmental education a global focus. 

I will then discuss some a^eas where the message of the Strategy 
needs to be augmented from the point of view of education and, 
finally, T will express some thoughts on how to get started on a world 
environmental education strategy and a Banff declaration. 

In what follows I will be quoting freely from the Strategy and 
from the booklet titled " An Introduction to the World Conservation 
Strategy" (3) which was written by Stan Croner to present the Strategy 
In non-technical language Illustrated with striking photographs by 
world- renowned photographers. And at the end of my talk we will 
screen Mark Boulton's new audio visual presentation titled "Planning 
for Survival" to further Illustrate the concerns of the World 
Conservation Strategy. 

The World Conservation Strategy has been called "a blueprint for 
survival." It Is a 72-page document that directs the world's 
attention to the Increasingly dangerous stresses being put on the 
earth's biological systems and recommends measures for relieving 
them. It represents the efforts of more than 450 government agencies 
and conservation organizations, and more than 700 scientists and other 
specialists from round the world working in collaboration with lUCN, 
the world Wildlife Fund (WWF), and with the support of the United 
Nations Environment Programme (U.JEP). 

The goal of the Strategy Is the Integration of conservation and 
development to ensure that modifications to the planet do Indeed 
secure the survival and well-being of all people. It calls on all the 
rations to adopt conservation policies and practices at home, to Join 
International efforts to Improve the human environment worldwide, and 
to protect the biosphere that sustains all life on earth. 

The main purpose of the Strategy Is to persuade the nations of the 
world to adopt ecologically sound development practices. The Strategy 
provides remedies, applicable worldwide, for the on-going destruction 
of nature that casts such a dark shadow over the future of our 
species. It points the way for development-minded and 
conservation-minded people to unite in a common drive toward survival 
and a life of dignity for all people on the shared planet. 

The Problem - A Deteriorating Planet 

The World Conservation Strategy addresses itself to the problem of 
a deteriorating planet. The biosphere, the earth's thin layer of air, 
water, soil and living things that sustains us is deteriorating 
because of the burdens put on it by our Increasing numbers and needs. 
The combined destructive Impacts of a poor majority struggling to stay 
alive and an affluent minority consuming most of the world's resources 
are undermining the very means by which all people can survive and 
flourish. 

By the end of the century there will be about 6,000 million people 
on the earth and four fifths of them will be 1n the Third World. Kore 
than 2,000 million people today are landless peasants In the 



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-leveloplng countries. Caught 1n a dally struggle for enough food and 
fuel to stay alive, they strip the land bare of trees and bushes for 
firewood. They overgraze grassy drylands and overfish and overhunt 
local wildlife. Many migrate to crowded cities where they find 
shelter In slums and shanty towns often falling victim to hunger and 
disease. Such widespread poverty has resulted In the devastation of 
large areas of once-fertile land on three continents. 

Only about 25X of the world's people live In the developed, richer 
nations of Europe and Morth America, and In countries such as Japan 
and Australia and the OPEC nations. Yet these countries account for 
80% of the world's consumption of resources. The developed nations 
also suffer the Ills of environmental abuse. In many developed 
countries forests are being logged faster that tre*$ are growing. 
Pollutants, the side products of Industrialization and high 
cons'-^tlon, continue to degrade the a1r and poison around water 
supplies, rivers, lakes and coastal waters (4). 

The earth. If It Is to provide the means by which all people can 
survive and prosper, can no longer tolerate the destruction of living 
systems by either the poorer or the richer natV-ns. It Is the task of 
this generation to act to reverse the damaging trends that are making 
the planet less and If s fit to live on. 

The W rid Conservation Strategy points the way to what must be 
done If we are to satisfy the needs of the world's people and, at the 
same time, preserve the earth's living systems on which all life 
depends for surv1v£^ 

The first objective: to maintain ecological processes and l ife support 

systems. 

If the earth Is to be able to support Its growing human 
population, we must, according to the Strategy, make certain Its 
essential ecoloilcal processes and life support systems are maintained 
and functioning properly. It defines and Illustrates the meaning of 
thesp Important concepts. It points out, for example, that at the 
rate agricultural lands are being damaged by erosion and poor 
Irrigation practices, and being put to uses other than farming. In 20 
years close to a third of the world's arable land will be unsu. table 
for growing crops. If the rate of loss continues. It will likely 
result In famines and huroar jnlsery on a scale never before known In 
hu«nan history. It considers. In particular the Important roles played 
by tropical forest systems, coastal wetlands and fresh water systems. 
The Strategy provides guidelines for the protection and maintenance of 
the earth's life support system;. 

The second objective: to perservt genetic diversity . 

The Strategy's second main objective for keeping the earth 
habitable for humans Is the preservation of genetic dive. s1ty. This 
means taking steps to ensure tha^ the earth's many species of plants 
and animals are protected from extinction. The greatest threat comes 

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from the destruction and degradation of habltits. The most serious 
threat to genetic diversity Is the continuing destruction of tropical 
nin fore ts, the roost species-rich land environments on earth. 
Because half of all plant and an; Ml species live in these forests, 
their destuctlon would result In the mass extinctions that would 
permanently Impoverish tti planet. 

There are other reasons for preserving the species which are not 
stressed in the Strategy but which, according to Stan Croner. are 
Important In the development of an environmental ethic. Simple human 
compassion is one. Respecting the rights of othar kinds of life to 
exist Is another. The extraordinary beauty of natural forms is yet 
another. Perhaps most Important, we are obligated to our descendants 
not to leave the earth less alive, less interesting and less wondrous 
because we have been here. 

The Strategy calls on all governments to participate in 
International programs and treaties designed to preserve tne world's 
genetic lesources. And because the earth's gene pool Is a coiwion 
heritage of all humankind, the Strategy recommends financial aid to 
less developed nations to help them preserve the species-rich 
ecosystems that lie within their border. 

The third objective: to ensure the sustainable utilization of species 
and ecosystems . 

One way to consider living resources, forests, soils, water, 
plants and animals. Is to regard them as biological capital available 
for human use. If we use up this capital, It will no longer produce 
interest: the food, raw materials and life supporting services we need 
to survive. Currently, our specUs Is consuii.1ng the capital by, far 
example, overfishing, overgrazing and unsuitable farming practices, 
denuding the land In search of firewood, through deforestation of 
watershed forests and by the accidental killing of non -target animals 
In the nets of fls'ilng fleets. 

The Strategy's ultimate goal Is a sustainable society. To that 
end. It calls upon the nations of the world to Join International 
efforts to protect the global commons: the open oceans, the atmosphere 
and Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. 

Choices 

In 1982, Mustafa Tolba, Executive Director of the UN Environment 

Prograrwne Issued this blunt warning: " nations have two choices: to 

carry on as they are and face by the turn of the century an 
environmental catastrophe as complete, as Irreversible as any nuclear 
holocaust, or to begin now In earnest a cooperative effort to use the 
world's resources rationally and fairly". 

Someone has called the nuclear holocaust the "fast bang" and 
environmental ravaging the "slow bang." What Tolba Is saying Is that 
the final effect would be the same In either case, the devastation of 
the planet, its life and Its resources. 



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The Strategy concludes: "Human beings, 1n theU quest for economic 
development and enjoyment of the riches of nature, must come to terms 
wich the reality of resource limitation and the carrying capacities of 
ecosystems, and must take Into account the needs of future 
generations. This Is the message of conservation." 

THE WORLD CONSERVATION STRATEGY AND THE ROLE OF EDUCATION 

The World Conservation Strategy Is not an educational document. 
It devotes only one pag^* to education. It concentrates on how 
education should be used for building support for corservatlon but It 
docs not spell out In any detail what needs to be done In education, 
nor who should do It, nor who will fund educational projects. It 
poses, but does not solve, educational problems. It leaves It to its 
readers to invent solutions. In other words, It does not propose an 
environmental education strategy^ 

But In its defense I must say that the initial paragraph of the 
section on education in the Strategy is an eloquent statement of the 
fact that the domain of environmental education is broader than 
conservation, and that environmental education must have an ethical 
component. Here it is: 

"Ultimately the behavior of entire societies towards the biosphere 
must be transformed if the achievement of conservation objectives is 
to be assured. A new ethic, embracing plants and animals as well as 
people, is "required for human societies to live in harmony with the 
natural world on which they depend for survival and wellbeing. The 
long term task of environmental education is tc foster or reinforce 
attitudes and behaviour compatible with this new ethic." 

For me the infusion of an environmental ethic into all of 
education has become the most important overall aim of environmental 
education. 

I do not intend to redefine environmental education here. This 
has been thrashed out in many previous conferences and summarized 
neatly in the Unesco report titled "Environmental Education in the 
Light of the Tbilisi Conference". 

What I have to contribute are some personal reflections on topics 
which I feel should be given prominence in devising an environmental 
education strategy. If yju keep in i^ind my background you will 
understand and compensate for the biases I might have. 

I am a physicist hy profession and a science educator as a result 
of my association with the curriculum reform movements of the Physical 
Science Study Committee of the U.S., of Unesco, of ICSU and of several 
other organizations. My comprehension of biological concepts is 
limited but my acquaintance with science education internationally is 
broad. I am a peace activist out of conviction and sensitive to the 
needs of developing countries because I was born in one and worked in 
several of them. I have been influnced by the recent works of Capra 
(6) (7), Roszak (8), Berman (13) and Lovelock (14). In the light of 
this background, then, here are some topics which I believe merit an 
expanded treatment in the World Conservation Strategy and would be 
Important in the design of ao environmental education strategy. 

o 29 

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1 . Population 

As I have stated many tiroes elsewhere (9). of the 4 P's: 
oopulatlon, pollution, poverty and the problems of peace* population 
Is the roost serious one and Is not j1ven sufficient prominence ^n the 
World Conservation Strategy. All the problems of a deter 1orat1/ig 
planet art aggravated by the fact that the number of people on the 
planet keeps Increasing ^ven In countries where the birth rate has 
decreased drastically 

Incidentally, the time In years >^equ1red for the population to 
double Is given by the simple forrr^ula: 70 divided by the percentage 
rate of growth. If the percentage growth Is Z%, for example, 70 
divided by 2 gives 35 years which Is the world average doubling time 
for population growth. But there are countries, like Mexico for 
example, where the percentage increase 1s greater than 2 and for which 
the population doubling time is, consequently, less than 35 years. 

Environmental education should work closely with national and 
International organizations, like the International Planned Parenthood 
Organization, whose concern Is to slow down the expansion of the 
world's population. An environmental ethic should stress the need for 
considering the damaging effect which a burgeoning human population 
has upon the biosphere. 

2- The Peace amd Armaments Issues 

Sustainable development Is Impossible In a state of war and 
extremely difficult If sizable expenditures are utilized for armaments 
1r time of fiace. War and preparations for war tend to be 
exorbitantly wasteful In teims of natural and human resources. 
Preparations for nuclear war on earth or In space devour resources at 
nroh1b1t1ve rates. So the Issues of war and peace, armament and 
disarmament and violent or nonviolent approaches to the solution of 
political problems all Impinge upon environmental education and should 
be taken into account (10) 

3. Th e Role of Science In Environmental Education 

Th(* new science which Is basic for a consideration of 
environmental problems Is ecology (11). As an academic discipline it 
Is usually treated at the i!n1vers1ty level. But ecological principles 
should be considered 1n designing environmental education activities 
at all levels, both In and out of school. Ecology Is an eclectic 
science which draws upon the other basic sciences of physics, 
chemistry, bluU^y and the sciences of earth and space. 

I believe that environmental education must be solidly based on 
the facts and approaches of science. It will, I believe, benefit from 
a stronger Infusion of the processes and products of science. 

We need to continue training research scientists but I believe 
that even they should have a general education strongly infused with 
an environmental ethic so they can look at science In the light of Us 
overall environmental Impact. Integrated science courses. In 



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partUular, could benefit from the use of the environment as an 
Integrating theme (12). 

There are Interesting thoughts abroad In the philosophy of 
science. One Is an awareness that stems from the Helsenberg 
uncertainty principle of physics at one extreme and systems analysis 
at the other, that scientific Investigation cannot be as purely 
objective as the pioneer scientists and philosophers like Newton and 
Descartes once thought. These new approaches support the 
environmental Insight that man has to be considered as one of the 
variables in the global equation (13). 

Another Idea stems from the growing scientific evidence that the 
Earch behaves like a self<-heal1ng organism (14). This hypothesis 
deserves further study because It may give us both scientific and 
philosophical Incentives to care for Mother Earth. These new ways of 
looking at the earth may lead us toward a feeling of respect and 
compasslson for the earth as our habitat^ and as the source of life 
and of our basic necessities such as food, shelter and clothing. 

4. An Environmental Ethic 

Although the adage "all power corrupts and absolute power corrupts 
absolutely" refers to political power. It contains some truth as 
regards the physical power which science and Its partner technology 
have given us. With enough powerful bulldozing machines we could, for 
example, demolish In a relatively short time a pyramid that took many 
men possibly decades to build. With a nuclear blast we could vaporize 
It In an Instant. These considerations lead us again to the need for 
moral restraint and ethical guidelines In environmental education. 

These Issues then: population, peace and armaments, science and 
ethics, are examples of topics In environmental education which could 
be elaborated further In a revised version of the existing World 
Conservation Strategy or be Incorporated Into a new world 
environmental education strategy. 

The list Is not exhaustive and the responses from members of my 
Commission have convinced me that there Is a wealth of Information and 
Insights on environmental education which can be tapped from our 
network. 

For example, John Balnes says: *...we must have the courage to 
divert resources from armaments If we are to achieve peace through a 
safer and more caring world." 

Alexander Peal reminds us that we have not addressed ourselves to 
the needs of the absolutely poor. 

Chris Haas Geesteranus warns us that the consumption patterns of 
the Industrialized world are wreaking havoc In the Third World. 

Sophie Jakowska tells us that there are theological Issues 
associated with the environmental ethic and that organized religion 
could be an ally in the Implementation of an environmental education 
strategy. 



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Bartholemle VaohUa gives us the catch phrase "development without 
destruction" to summarize the essence of "sustainable development." 
I could quote many others but I must move on. 

TOWARD A WORLD ENVIRONNENTAL EDUCATION STRAT££V 

Now let me quote directly from another part of the Strategy where 
It stresses the need for other strategies to be developed In parallel 
with one for conservation: 

"Living resource conservation Is Just one of a number of 
conditions necessary to assure hui^n survival and wellbeing, and a 
world conservation strategy Is but one of a number of strategies 
needed: a strategy for peace; a strategy for a new International 
economic order; a strategy for human rights; a strategy for overcoming 
poverty; a world food supply strategy; a population strategy. All 
such strategies should be mutually reinforcing* None has much chance 
for success unless they are." 

When I read that paragraph It occurred to me and to several other 
members of my Commission that an educational strategy belonged in this 
list. Th€ topic was brought up In several meetings, starting in 1980, 
and considerable Interest was generated in the creation of a world 
environmental education strategy, but enthusiasm for this Idea died 
out for lack of official support from International organizations. 

I think, however, the time has come to breathe new life Into this 
old Idea. If r^^tlonal environmental organizations like yours around 
the world raised the priority of this Item on their agendas It would 
be possible to create task forces In different parts of the world to 
begin discussing environmental education strategies, first at the 
regional and local levels, and later at the International level, 
eventually with support from an International organization. An 
International conference might be convened to pool loaas from the 
different regions to form the basis for a global approach. If an 
extraordinary effort were put into Its prepararatlon, such a 
confernece might be held three years from now (certainly no sooner). 
The least one could hope for would be that It be discussed at the 
meeting of the Commission on Education of lUCN at Its next General 
Assembly meeting In 1987. 

I think that discussions of a world environmental education 
strategy could begin by studying Section 13 of the Woi Id Conservation 
Strategy In which f'ducatlon programmes and campaigns are proposed to 
build support for conservaton. 

Let's begin by stating that one of the principal alms of a world 
environmental education strategy should be to build support for 
conservation through environmental education activities as suggested 
In the world Conservation Strategy. How this Is translated Into 
action depends on environmental needs as perceived locally but 
visualized. If possible, wUhln a global context. 



32 



A BANFT DECLARATION 

At the end of my talk 1n Ontario, Craig Copland read a resolution 
which had been penned by John Smyth of lUCN's Commission on 
Education. It forms part of the tape recording of that session but It 
has never appeared In print. Here It is: 

"Whereas the World Conservation Strategy has provided a foundation 
for the global improvement of our quality of life through the 
conservation of living resources and whereas education Is a vital 
component In the achieving of a sustainable society, Man Environment 
Impact 1982 affirms Its high regard for the educational objectives of 
the lUCN expressed through the work of Its Commission on Education and 
urges that the highest priority be given to continuing support for 
worldwide conservation education as fundamental to the achievement of 
the alms of the World Conservation Strategy." 

I suggest that the Copland/Smyth statement be studied as the basis 
of a Banff declaration which reinforces the need for a world 
environmental education strategy based upon the Infusion of an 
environmental ethic Into all of education. 

Let me conclude with the following thoughts: 

Man prides himself In being the only intelligent animal on the 
earth. Yet he Is the only one that has caused such vast devastation 
on the biosphere (15) (16) (17) (18). 

In less than a thousand years, which Is the blink of an eye In 
geologic time, he hos consumed most of the fossil fuels which took 
nature millions of years to produce. The air we breathe Is full of 
noxious fumes and radioactive particles of his making. 

He has placed millions of tons of concrete and cement on roads and 
cities where there were once forests and wildlife. At least 3000 
square kilometers of prime farm land Is disappearing each year under 
buildings and roads In developing countries alone. 

Thousands of millions of tons of soil are being lost each year as 
d result of deforestratlon and poor land management. 

Hundreds of millions of rural people In developing countries are 
forced to strip their land of vegetation In order to find woo'^J for 
cooking and heat. 

Each year 4000 million tons of dung and crop residues are burned 
for fuel which could otherwise regenerate soils. 

Now man has the capability of generating a nuclear holocausc which 
could devastate the biosphere and make life on earth extinct. 

There are those who believe that a world environmental education 
strategy Is too grandiose a scheme. But what, short of that, Is going 
to reverse the trends that are driving us to demage the planet even 
further? 

I believe Man Is Intelligent enough to develop a world 
environmental education strategy which will Infuse all of educotlon 
with an environmental ethic so that we can move away from the 
destruction of species and ecosystems and lead to development without 
destruction, the ultimate aim of the World Conservation Strategy. 



33 



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Ref erences 

1- The Global 2000 Report to the President . Vol 1 . A Report 
prepared by the Council on Environmental Quality and the Department of 
State, Gerald V. Barney, Editor and Study Director (Washington, D.C., 
U.S. Government printing Office, 1980). 

2- World Conservation Strategy- Prepared by the International Union 
for Conservalon of Nature and Natural Resources (lUCN) with the 
advice, cooperation and financial assistance of UNEP and WMF and In 
collaboration with FAO and Unesco (Gland, Switzerland, 1980). 

3- An Introrl uctlon to the World Conservation Strategy . Prepared for 
the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural 
Resource*: (lUCN) by Its Commission of Education, text and selection of 
photographs by Stan Croner (Gland, Switzerland, 1984). 

4. Brandt Commission "Report, North South: A Program for Survival 
(Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1980V 

5. Unesco. Environmental Education 1n the Light of the Tbilisi 
Conferen ce (Paris, 1980). 

6. Fritjof Capra, The Turning Point (New York, Simon and Schuster, 
1982). 

T. Fritjof Capra and Charlene Spretnak, Green Politics (New 
York, E.P. Dutton, 1984). ~ 

8. Theodore Roszak, Person/Planet (New York» Anchor Press, 
Doubleday, 1979). 

9. Albert v. Baez, "Curiosity, Creativity, Competence and 
Compassion: Guidelines for Science Education 1n the Year 2000", 
World Trends 1n Scien ce Education . Charles P. McFadden, Editor 
(Halifax, Atlantic Institute of Education, 1980). 

10. Jonathan Schell, The Fate of the Earth (New York, Alfred A. 
Knopf. 1982). 

11. Rodger w. Bybee, "Science Education and the Emerging Ecological 
Society", Science Education (N'»w York), Vol 63, January 1979, p 
95-109. 



12. Albert v. Baez, Innovation In Science Education-Worldwide (Paris, 
The Unesco Press, 1976). 

13. Morris Berman, The Reenchantment of the World (New York, Bantam 
Books. 1984). 



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34 



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14. J.E. Lovelock, 6AIA-A New Look at Life on Earth (Oxford, Oxford 
University Press, 1982). 

15. Donella H. Meadows, Dennis Meadows, Jorgen Randers, William W. 
Behrens III, The Limits to Growth (Mew York, New America Library, 
1972). 

16. Aurello Peccel, 100 Pages for the Future (New York, Pergamon, 

1981). 

17. Erik P. Eckholm, Down to Earth (New York, U.W. Norton t Company, 
1932). 

18. Paul thrllch and Anne Ehrllch, Extinction (New York, Random 
House, 1981). 



I.E. Linke, Russell D., "The Challenge of Environmental Education In 
Today's World." Director of Academic Planning, Tertiary 
Education Authority of South Australia. 18 Oequettevllle 
Terrace, Kent Town, South Australia 5067. 

The challenge of environmental education Is In many respects the 
challenge of life Itself, of survival and prosperity, of peace and 
social equity. The fact that Its domain Is not constrained by any 
boundaries of national Identity, physical, cultural or political, 
makes each of these goals more complex In conception and Inordinately 
more difficult to achieve. This Is not to suggest, however, that 
environmental education has abandoned Its characteristic alms to 
become absorbed within the whole dynamic morasv of human affairs, but 
rather that the fundamental Issues which It seeks to address and the 
goals to which It aspires are some of the most Important concerns In 
the world today, and our success In achieving them will by definition 
have a determining Influence on future patterns of world development 
and on the quality of human life. 

What then are these fundamental goals; how should we address 
them; and what are the likely constraints In their achievement? 
Firstly, t' reflect briefly on the general characteristics of 
environmental education as proposed In 1972 by i'JCN^ and 
subsequently developed and refined through the Belgrade Charter and 
the Tbilisi Conference In the mld-and late-1970s respectively: 
environmental education alms to develop. In Individuals and society as 
a whole: 

(a) an understanding of the complex and dynamic 
interrelationship between ourselves and our total 
environment; 

(b) an appreciation of, concern for, and commitment to the wise 
and Indefinitely sustainable use (conservation) of both 
natural and modified resources; and 



-33- 



(c) the ability and wmingness to participate with others In 
solving environmental problems and thereby attennptlng to 
Improve the quality of human life. 
The emergence of the World Conservation Strategy In 1982 brought 
us one step futher In attenptln^i to develop a functional as well as 
Intuitively appealing philosophy of environmental education In 
establishing that principles of conservation and development were not 
necessarily Incompatible. Indeed It Is largely because of this 
Strategy, and the many National statements and strategies currently 
being prepared In response to It, and In other places the discussions 
and debates surronding It, that one of the primary goals of 
environmental education (which for want on a better term I shall call 
Its "econoMic" goal, though It is really much more than that) can now 
be expressed In both meaningful and practical terms: It Is to promote 
and seek to Implement the concept of sustainable development; to 
reconcile the fundamental alms of conservation and development In a 
way which permits the utilization of natural resources within the 
limits of their replacement potential and with explicit consideration 
for their long term Impact on human society and on the world In which 
we live. It Is In this respect to expand the tempore 1 perspective of 
economic and technological development, but It Is not, and should not 
be, to subsume the basic values of environmental conservation within a 
more appealing and. In political terms at least, more "responsible" 
development strategy. There Is a fundamental difference In priorities 
between those who seek to conserve and those who seek to develop the 
world's resources, and In the sacrificial cost that asch Is prepared 
to bear In fulfilling their respective goals. 2 To reconcile these 
different priorities Is to establish a functional balance between 
them; a working compromise based on mutual understanding ar»d respect 
but without any assumption on either part of unconditional surrender 
or ultimate conversion of the other. 

There Is a valuable lesson to be learned In this from the 
principle of multicultural Ism which has achieved a new prominence, and 
In many respects a new meaning, throughout miny countries of the world 
In recent years. It Is presently defined In Australia (and presumably 
ln compatible terms elsewhere) as the maintenance of culti^ral 
divervity within a cohesive social framework. By the latter Is meant 
a single broad legislative structure within which different groups. 
self-Identified by race or religion, place of origin or any of a 
variety of other characteristics, may coexist with equal rights of 
access to all forms of social support and legislative control. This 
at least Is the Ideal, and while In practice It may be undermined by 
human Intolerance and by a variety of tensions and anxieties, both 
chronic and sporadic. It still provides an essential and to a large 
extent practicable model for social development. In the same way It 
Is possible, I believe, to establish an effective working relationship 
between thore whose values lean predominantly toward conservation and 
those concerned mort for development without attempting to constrain 
or to Ignore the Inevitable spectrum of Individual differences. 



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This leads me to the second major goal of environmental education: 
what 1 shall call its social goal. In brief it is to promote and seek 
to establish patterns of behaviour which are consistent with the 
concept of a world community within which is acknowledged a single 
class of humanity, heterogenous in racial origin and cultural 
affiliation bwt, within reasonable bounds, homogeneous in enjoying a 
similar standard of living. It is this goal which presents by far the 
greater potential conflict both in its interpretation and in its 
achievement. 

Let me first consider some of the basic problems of 
interpretation. The term "community* normally implies a close 
affiliation, or at least some form of shared identity, between Its 
members, ^nd when we speak of particular sub-groups or factions within 
a community we Imply that the differences which separate these groups 
are in some sense subordinate to those shared characteristics which 
define them as one community.^ In what sense, then, can we 
seriously speak of a wr-ld community? At the global level we do not 
share a common theolog lOr a common set of legal rights, nor a 
common educational franiv^ork, nor a common, or even conq}arable, style 
and quality of living, nor any of those things which we assume as 
basic elements of both national and more specific community 
identities, and to preserve which we are prepared to dedicate and If 
necessary sacrifice our lives. We are, of course, all human in the 
broadest biological sense, but If this Is to be our only criterion for 
describing ourselves as members of a world community then we stretch 
the term beyond the limits of Its normal meaning to the point of 
blatant hypocrisy. 

World consciousness does not necessarily imply a world community, 
and the present Workshop theme "^tnink globally" which has underscored 
much of the discussion at this conference is Just as prone to 
concealing unmitigated self-interest as to reflecting any genuine 
sense of international identity. What differentiates the two are the 
motives we attach to consideration of global issues - the limits to 
which we are prepared to accept responsibility for the well-being of 
other people and to this end moderate our own behaviour and 
ambitions. We cannot, I suggest, speak seriously and with conviction 
about establishSig the concept of a world community without 
acknowledging the need for personal compromise in the interest of 
broader social equity. 

Moreover, if we accept that the principle of social equity is 
inherent in the meaning of world corrmunity, at least to the extent 
that we assume in more specific uses of the term community, then we 
need also to confront some further problems of Implementation. 
Firstly, there are two characteristic emphases in environmental 
education- the promotion of personal experience and Involvement In 
local community issues (this is reflected in the second part of the 
present conference Workshop theme, "act locally") which in their own 
right could be argued to undermine the more fundamental aims of global 
perspective and world identity in that they focus explicitly on 
personal interests and concerns. Identification with other people. 



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other counti^ies, and other cultures cannot be assumed as a natural 
development while these remain largely unseen and, 1n the normal 
educational process, largely alien. They must be taught, and 
particularly where the focus is on personal experience they must be 
related explicitly and contiguously to that experience if they are to 
be effective.* 

The second problem Is a rather more complex one and may indeed 
present something of a paradox in attempting to resolve the two 
fundamental goals of sustainable development and social equity 
referred to above. If we assume, for example, that the object of 
sustainable development can only be achieved through the development 
of better (in the sense of more sophisticated and more efficient) 
technology, and if it could be demonstrated convincingly that such 
development were more likely to succeed in a soclo-economical ly 
elitist rather than egalitarian society, then both goals would not be 
jointly, or at least not concurrently, achievable. Of course the 
assumption of technological advancement as a prerequisite for 
sustainable development is itself a contentious issue and in practical 
terms open to abuse, and the relationship between this and social 
egalitarianism is as repugnantly false to some as it Is self-evident 
to others. But it 1s at least conceivable that both aspects of the 
argument have some foundation, and it is the way of human nature that 
whatever foundation they have, as well as some they have not, will be 
exploited by those with greater economic wealth and capacity for 
self ^advancement as a basis for maintaining, rather than sharing, this 
capacity. 

It is not my intention here to propose an argument for social 
revolution, nor to deny the many excellent and successful 
environmental initiatives that have been taken by countries throughout 
the world on behalf of others as well as themselves. But I do wish to 
point out some inherent problems and potential contradictions in these 
two fundamental goals of environmental education that will have to be 
addri ssed in the coming years. How exactly they should be approached 
and how successfully they can be achieved or reconciled will to a 
large extent determine the Jhape of environmental education for the 
immediate future, as well as its practical contribution to our 
survival and to the development and continuity of human culture. 

In concluding 1 should like to comment briefly on some of the 
major themes and issues which have emerged throughout the present 
conference and which have not already been addressed. Firstly, the 
cormitment and enthusiasm of those involved in environmental education 
at every level and in every sphere of educational influence, while 
encouraging in itself, does not appear to have been matched with any 
compardblc sense of urgency and enlightenment among those responsible 
for funding and administering educational systems. It has been argued 
several tiines at this conference that environmental education is not 
so much a field of study as a way of life; a philosophy which 
pervades, or ought to pervade, the entire education system. But if 
this is so then the measure of its success is the extent to which it 
does infuse, explicitly or otherwise, the whole educational process. 



-36- 



both formal and Informal* In this we have achieved only limited 
success; our philosophy Is generally tolerated and often formally 
acknowledged by educational authorities, but seldom Is It promoted 
beyond that level and very rarely Indeed as an essential curriculum 
element. It Is true that we have made some valuable progress In this 
area against formidable forces of apathy and Inertia and In 
circumstances dominated by more Immediate problems of rising 
unemployment and general economic uncertainty, but we have no cause 
for complacency. The decision-makers have yet to be persuaded of the 
fundamental Importance of environmental education, and we ourselves 
have yet to reach consensus on how exactly this philosophy should be 
Incorporated within the mainstream of educational thought and 
practice. 5 

The second major Issue Is that of evaluation and research, which 
seems always to have had a disappointingly subordinate role in 
envlro.imental education to that of curriculum development and to have 
been characterised by the somewhat superficial and haphazard 
techniques of afterthought rather than by any planned and, as far as 
Is possible In research of this kind, controlled experimental design. 
In an area of education uniquely defined by the attitudes, values and 
personal behaviours which It seeks to develop, this Is a matter of 
understandable but nonetheless serious neglect, for It opens a new and 
largely uncharted field of educational knowledge which may well hold 
the key to successful 1fq)lementat1on of environmental education 
programmes but In which we have had so far to be guided simply by 
personal experience. Intuition and prejudice. 

For the first time at this conference there are signs of serious 
and systematic attempts to bring together the disparate strands of 
research on attltudlnal and behavioural change relating to 
environmental education and to explore new paradigms aimed at 
providing more substantial Insights Into this vexed and complex 
field. Unfortunately, the type of answers we would like to f1nd--the 
universal generalizations on human learning and behaviour- do not 
exist; the number of different factors Involved and the complexity of 
their Interactions do not permit such simple descriptive or empirical 
models to be defined. But there are valuable elements of knowledge to 
be gained from these approaches, albeit Incrementally, and 1f we are 
evfer to understand In detail the process of environmental education 
these research efforts must be encouraged to continue and to develop 
further as the necessary methodological basis is established. 

In many respects this conference has provided an extremely 
valuable Insight Into the status and directions of environmental 
education around the world, and In some respects, too, It clearly 
represents the forefront of world understanding and philosophical 
development In this field. Without In any sense detracting from the 
conference environment- a setting of almost unparalleled beauty which 
cannot fall to arouse In each of us a feeling of exhilaration and 
wonder-^what remains from the conference to disseminate to others, to 
guide and promote the further development of environmental education, 
to encourage those already committed to the field and to persuade 



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33 



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those who are not, are the Insights, understandings and supportive 
affiliations which have tsen established here. In every respect It 
has been a bounteous hirvest of experience, ai d one which we now have 
an obligation to share with others throughout the world. 



NOTES 
1 



Earlier definitions had also been proposed by various Individuals 
and organizations, the most notable being that endorsed In the 
U.S. Environmental education Act of 1970 (subsequently repealed In 
1980); but the lUCN aeflnltlon was probably the first to provide 
both a detailed and comprehensive statement of the brfsic and 
essential characteristics. 

It Is Interesting to note here the definition proposed by William 
Saflrc of an "environmentalist" as "an antl-pollutlonary; one who 
puts the values of tlie preservation of the earth and Its 
atmosphere ahead of tconomic development." ( Saflre's Political 
Dict ionary . Random House; Mew York, N.Y., 1978, p. 204). While 
any such dichotomy Is bound to be simplistic this does provide a 
reasonable Indication of relative priorities In the spectrum of 
conservation and development values. 

We sometimes speak also of a community within a community, for 
example of native. Aboriginal, or particular immigrant communities 
wUhIn a broader Nation or State, but when we speak of such 
specific groups as members of the larger community we tend also to 
subordinate their differentiating characteristics to those shared 
by all members of the larger group. 

Similar difficulties In Identification have been found, for 
example, In attempting to establish or discern positive attitudes 
toward conservation or wilderness areas among students living 1n 
metropolitan areas who have never experienced such an environment, 
or to the protection of wildlife species which they have never 
seen. 

The widespread support already shown at this Conference for the 
development of some form of World Environmental Education Strategy 
appears to reflect, at least ln part, the need for a more unified 
International approach to environmental education and to Its 
principal concerns and possible Implementation strategies. 



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'](} 



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l.K Sacks. krt>w B., "NAEE President's Address", President of NAEE. 
Acting Director, Institute for Environmental Studies, University 
of WUconsln-Nadlson, 1007 UARF Building, Nadlson, WI 53705. 

Comrades et amis, Pour nous, ^association d*oducat1on envlron^nale 
de TAmeMque Nord, c'etalt un grand plalsir d'avoir notre premiere 
conference lc1 a Lac Louise; de recevoir Vhospltallte tres gentllle 
de la province d 'Alberta et du governement du Canada; et de disceter 
nos interets partages au sujet de Teducatlon envlronnale. 

Colleagues and friends. It has been a great pleasure to hold our 
first conference as the North American Association for Environmental 
Education here at Lake Louise, to receive the splendid hos;nal1ty of 
the province of Alberta and the fiovernment of Canada, and to pursue 
our common Interests In environmental education. 

As my attempt at fuAch Indicates, changing the nariie of this 
association from one based on notions of political sovereignty to one 
based upon regional and geographic environmental realities Is more 
than a matter of nomenclature. And It means more than simply holding 
our annual conference In Canada, or Hexico, or other parts of Worth 
America on a prescribed basis. It also means that we must recognize 
the growing diversity of our growing membershliV the language 
differences, the cultural differences, the political differences, and 
the broad range of new needs and requirements ^jhese differences 
reflect. The North American Association for Environmental Education 
will attempt to respond to these differences by Incorporating greater 
participation by Canadians and others In North America In NAEE's 
governing structure. And we 11 establish a special committee to 
examine the totality of the 1r4)licat1ons of changing our name. This 
special committee will be asked to offer recommendations for changes 
In NAEE policy, procedures, and structure that may be needed. Our 
commitment to these goals 1s real. 

The new venture we have embarked upon here In Lake Louise, 
however, emphasizes commonalities as well as differences- our shared 
Interdisciplinary mode of Intellectual Inquiry; our shared concern for 
the fate of our only one eartt; our shared pedagogical perspective; 
and, as both the Honorable F.O. Bradley and the Honorable John Frazer 
so eloquently stater^, our shared need to approach environmental 
problems that are transnatlor.al and global In orientation as they are 
local. 

We In the various nations of the region have imjch to learn from 
each other as we continue to develop rational and meaningful responses 
to the vast complexity of problems, questions, and Issues facing our 
environment. We have much to learn from each other as we meet our 
responsibilities as environmental <^ducators to educate the general 
public; to educate environmental managers; and to educate and continue 
to educate ourselves—the present and future environmental education 
community. 

Tfe new direction of NAEE reflects the awareness by environmental 
educators that perhaps we have focused too narrowly upon our own 
backy<irds, our local problems of pollution and resource depletion. 



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resource consumption and the broad array of factors that Influence 
human activity at local levels. The local perspective Is critical. It 
U trUlcal for citizen Involvement, It Is critical for 
problem-solving, and It Is critical because Individuals can most 
forcefully affect change at local levels. But, we must also Instill 
In our multiple audiences the certainty that as Individuals, as 
consumers, and as waste producers, we are also global citizens, and 
what we do as Individuals in local communities Is part of a larger 
picture— that the Individual decisions we make, those our communities 
make, those our governments make, are not merely discrete acts without 
connections to other discrete acts in cowmunltles. In nations, 1r, 
large geographic regions, and In our world. Unless we can provide 
this sense of connection In space and time, over the long haul, we 
will not have completed our objectives or met our responsibilities as 
enviroriffluntal educators. 

And we muSt be able to provide this sense with a surety and an 
Intellectual rigor in our substance, our content— platitudes are 
Inadequate for educators. Rigor requires that as educators we roust 
remain current— remain active In our fields and our 
professlon--contr1but1ng new Ideas and perspectives based upon our 
experience, our thought, and our research. The requlreflients of our 
Jobs and our personal lives In a w( Id so often filled with doubt, 
uncertainty, and overwhelming complexity. Is often an Intimidating 
reality. Opportunities to come together to explore new Ideas and 
approaches, opportunities like those afforded by our annual conference 
help us to keep current and sharp--and contacts with our peers and our 
friends resuscitate us so we can continue our efforts when the 
conference ends and we return to real life. We need our peers to 
evaluate our thinking critically— to assess, 1n essence, whether we 
are hdndwaving, whether we are mouthing empty phrases, or whether. In 
fact, we know what we are talking about, what we are, and what we 
expect to be as professionals. 

This partJcular conference has made this clear. It las renewed us, 
helped us set new directions. It has also shown us that professional 
standards are required of professionals. The success of this 
conference has been due to the trer 'ndous personal effort of Bill 
S<-app and tne team he put together, especially Dorothy Cox, Martha 
Monroe, Joy Finlay, Susie Washington, Glovanna Olchiro, Jerry 
Ber beret, Joan Helaelberg, and niany others In support groups fi 
across Canada and the United States. 

Join me In applauding their foresight and their 36 months of 
planning and en-^rgy. And Join me in thanking the province of Alberta 
and the Government of Canada In their tremendous support and 
cooperation to make this first International NAti Conference a 
memorable one. 

This conference Is a culmination, and NAEE has come a long way 
Ince Its first cor.ference in 1972. We have iflore definition \*Mh e 
learly articulated mission statement. We hav a structure which 
equitably Incorporates and fosters the Interests of our diverse 



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metnbershlp. We have expanded that meti*ersh1p and services to them. 
And we have recognized our fesponslblllty as a professional society 
within an International and global context. 

It Is a good beginning, but It Is only a beginning. As an 
Association we must continue with energy and vigor to further build 
NAEE membership and membership services, to continue to develop a 
coherent and substantive program for our members based upon their 
Interests, needs and concerns. We will attempt to do Just this In tf.e 
year ahead. We want to hear from you— we want to Invite your 
participation, your Ideas, and your suggestions. 

But we must do more than build our own organization. We must 
further the field of environmental education, sharpen Its goals, offer 
leadership In developing ideas. In getting beyond the obvious. In 
deepening our understanding and conveying the best Information 
currently available to our publics. This requires professional 
commltraent and Imagination. The talent and energy Is here within 
NAEE. We win seek to tap It rapaciously. Ue need your help. 

Next year, our conference will take place 28 September-4 October 
in Washington. O.C. We hope many of you will be able to be there. At 
that time perhaps my French will have Improved and I win have had 
reason to learn Spanish as wen. Thank you. 



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II. THE BANFF DECLARATION 

In October. 1984, The North American Associ;»t1on for Environmental 
Education convened an International meeting on environmental education 
In Banff, Alberta, Canada, attended by representatives from 28 
nations, Including several from the developing world. The Conference 
was international not only In Its participants, but also In the global 
nature of Its concerns . 

Twelve years after the United Nations Conrerence on the Human 
Environment held In Stockholm In 1972, It Is evident that the overall 
quality of life for vast numbers of people Is now worse than It was, 
and that the state of the global environment continues to deteriorate. 

Therefore, we, as environmental educators, affirm that the current 
educational approaches and the back-to-basics movement In education 
will fall to meet the needs of hiimanlty unless we begin at once to 
address the serious environmental concerns that presently face every 
member of the world community. The new basic education must endow 
learners with environmental competencies that will enable tha. to 
contribute to the resolution of local and global problems and 5 the 
development of n ecologically sustainable society. Such competenrles 
will need to be supported by a new environmental ethic vhat embraces 
the whole of the natural order with which human societies must live In 
harmony for survival. This moveiuent mu5t achieve no less than an 
Infusion of the new environmental ethic Into every aspect of the 
educational process. 

In light of this, we, th^ participants cf the Banff Conference, 
call for an unprecedented effort to educators throughout the world to 
restructure their entire educational programs , to meet effectively the 
urgent needs of humanity and of the plsnet. 

Approved October 8, 1984, by participants at the annual Conference 
of the North American Association for Environmental Education, lake 
Louise, Canada. 



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III. Berberet, William 6., "Environmental Education for the Biosphere 
Workshops on Ecologically Sustainable Developmentj^." Sean* 
College of Liberal Arts, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon 
97301. USA, and Sacks, Arthur B., Acting Director, Institute for 
Envlroraiental Studies, University of W1scons1n-Nad1soi, 1007 
WARF Building, Nadlson, WI 53705. 

Environmental educators and scholars, and a scattering of other 
environmental professionals and students frofi ter countries and five 
continents participated In a workshop to evaluate educational 
strategies for ecologically sustainable development. The workshop 
Involved Intensive small group assessment of ideological and cultural 
Imperatives which contribute to patterns of environmental exploitation 
as an economic resource. Insights gained from the analysis of 
economic, political, social, and ecological factors In development 
formed the content for educational approaches and methods the workshop 
generated to Improve the ability of botti formal an citizen education 
to respond to crucial Issues of biosphere survival. 

Sponsored by the Environmental Studies, Education and 
Non-Formal Education Sections of the Morth American Association for 
Environmental Education (NAEE), the workshop Inaugurated the annual 
Conference of NAEE which met for the first time In Canada. The 
purpose and structure of the workshop was modeled after the 
International Workshop on Development and Biosphere Stability, held In 
New Delhi, India, June 1-5, 1984. The one*-hundred participants from 
ten nations at the workshop In India foc:!sed upon patterns and Impacts 
of development In the developing Third World; the Lake Louise 
gathering emphasized the economic development-environmental protection 
Interface In the more highly Industrialized North American context. 
Both workshops related their respective regional analyses to the 
blogeochemlcal being of the biosphere as a whole and the notion 
of protecting habitats as physical, biological, and cultural 
ecosystems. 

The New Delhi workshop, cosponsored by the Indian Environmental 
Society, the India Department of the Environment, India Ministry of 
Education, the World Council for the Biosphere, and the International 
Society for Environmental Education, concluded that problems of 
rieforestatlon, desertification, soil erosion, and sallnlzatlon of 
soils are environmental problems first and foremost because they 
threaten the ability of developing countries to feed themselves. 
Facing high rates of population growth and low per capita Income, 
Third World nations place higher priority upon economic development 
than environmental quality. Alarmed by the Increasing magnitude of 
environmental problems, however, especially those caused by population 
pressures, concern Is growing that effective environmental management 
must accompany economic advances. 

In addition to the recognition that steps are necessary to 
maintain the very existence of the environment as an economic 
resource, the New Delhi discussions revealed anxiety about the Impact 
of economic development upon traditional cultural values and mores. 



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Some saw the environmental movement as a way to shore up cherished 
elements of culture which transcend material aspects of human well 
being. The call was heard that developing countries should 
"re1ndustr1a11ze" and **remod«^rn1ze** In ways that avoid the disruption 
of values, family structure, and comunlty which have accompanied 
Irdustrlallzatlon In the West. Maintenance of cultural diversity was 
seen as comp<;rable in Importafice to the notion of ecological 
diversity. Preservation of traditional cultures which have sustained 
cnv1rc;;n:c;;ts for esinc::l£ and values w^l1c^i stress cofiSefvation and a 
land ethic were especially emphasized. 

Environmental education was seen as a vehicle to promote a balance 
whereby standards of living could be upgraded In a way compatible with 
Imperatives of environment and culture. Workshop participants 
recommended establishment of a national environmental education center 
In India to provide research, teacher training, and iJIrectlon to the 
Indian EE movement. Educational efforts were seen as especially 
needed to reach Into rural areas and to Influence decisionmakers In 
government, business, and Industry. In order to have biosphere-wide 
impact the workshop recommended that a global environmental education 
network be established to foster research, share Information, and 
Improve communications on environmental matters. 

The theme of the Lake Louise Workshop, "Education for the 
Biosphere: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally,* Invited participants 
to devise educational strategies that would move environmental 
' ' Ion beyond the classroom to the large community. In fact, the 

op Inspired an activist mood which carried over In the NAEE 
conference and resulted In approval of the so--ca1l€J "Banff 
Declaration/ a call for a renewed envlrormental education movement on 
a global scale due to the decline In quality of life "for vast numbers 
of people" and continued deterioration of the global environment since 
the UN Stockholm Conference In 1972. The Banff Declaration noted that 
environmental education must be Inserted at the center of the 
so-called "Back to Basics" movement In education In order to "endow 
learners with environmental competencies that will enable them to 
contribute to the resolution of local and global problems and to the 
development of an ecologically sustainable society." Further, the 
Declaration proposed the evolution of a new environmental ethic 
embracing "the whole of the natural order" and "every aspect" of 
education. 

Workshop participants adopted a series of recommendations to 
address resolution of local to global environmental problems more 
effectively. Specifically, the group recommended development of a 
"Global Environmental Education Strategy" and establishment of a 
"World Environmental Education Fund" to support realization of the new 
environmental ethic also called for In the Banff Declaration. The 
workshop also urged creation of a global environmental Information 
network and widespread dissemination of advanced Information 
technology. Finally, the workshop urged Increased efforts to develop 
environmental education programs In the major sectors of society 
beyond the schools. 



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Although the New Delhi and Lake Louise workshops were structured 
similarly, differences In setting and backgrounds of participants 
presaged several contrasting outcomes. The Lake Louise workshop 
attempted to use the setting of Banff National Park as a case study of 
a conscious attempt to limit development in systeicatlcany planned 
ways. Although the Uke Louise gathering took pains to consider 
development regionally and globally as well, the context of this 
workshop contrasted starkly with New Delhi's urban setting and the 
pressures upon the land everywhere In evidence In India. 
Contextually, the two workshops represented almost the extremes of 
priority upon econonmic development and anvlronmental preservation 
which exist within the global environmental education conmunlty. 

The professional backgrounds of participants In each workshop 
varied significantly, even though ten nations and several continents 
were represented In each. Most of the New Delhi participants were 
research scientists and social scientists or environmental officials 
from India. They tended to analyze ecological and cultural 
Imperatives In detail and were largely Inexperienced In developing 
effective educational strategies to coimunlcate this knowledge In 
classroom and community. The Banff group, on the other hand, largely 
consisted of professional environmental educators from the highly 
developed West, notably Canada, Australia and the United States. The 
Lake Louise participants had mixed success In evaluating and relating 
ecological and cultural Imperatives In depth, but were systematic and 
comprehensive In articulating the "Global Environmental Education 
Strategy." 

Keynote speakers reviewed the New Delhi Wo'^kshop, described the 
Banff and other par', planning and management processes, and Introduced 
discussions of ecological, cultural and educational Imperatives. 
Workshop Co-Director, Arthur Sacks, NAEE President-elect, outlined 
major conclusions and recommendations of the New Delhi gathering. 
Sacks' remarks underscored the critical contributions of the 
humanities to environmental education In providing analysis and 
Interpretation of the culture-environment relationship. Alan Schwartz 
of St. Lawrence University presented a case study ot the planning and 
execution of the 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid, an elaborate 
development undertaking In the midst of northern New York's Adirondack 
Park. This project, relevant to the Workshop because of the proximity 
of the 1988 Olympics to Banff Park, Illustrated ways In which 
environmental and economic Interests can be served through a 
systematic management process. 

Valerius Gelst of the University of Calgary, John Baldwin of the 
University of Oregon, and William Stapp, NAEE President, from the 
University of Michigan, delivered keynote addresses prior to the small 
group sessions on ecological, cultural, and educational Imperatives, 
respectively. In sustaining development. Gelst emphasized the 
necessity to maintain the regenerative and, therefore, productive 
capacity of soils, to preserve protect' d natural areas as the "seed 
stock" for ecological recovery of damaged lands, and to control toxic 



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pollutlon of food chains^ a hazard «4t1ch may be reaching crisis 
proportions In some of the most highly Industrialized parts of the 
world. 

Baldwin stressed lifestyle Implications of the emerging poit 
Industrial society In the West. Citing such works as Nalsbltt^s 
Hegatrends and Toffler's The Third Wave , he suggested that the arrival 
of the "Information Age" raises possibilities of reduced energy 
consumption, resource utilization, and pollution output per unit of 
production as the "smokestack" Industries are replaced with computers 
and robotics. At the same time, decentralizing tendencies 
accompanying this "Information revolution" may create new 
environmental problems as populations move away from urban areac ^o 
settle In and around high quality, often unprotected, natural areas. 

Stapp outlined a comprehensive and systematic strategy for 
environmental education, truly a systems approach which would enable 
the educational process to mirror Interdependent, Interacting 
characteristics of the human ecosystem. His analysis related the 
formal and nonformal dimensions of education, the public and private 
sectors of society, the producer and consumer elements of the economy, 
the decisionmakers and general citizenry of the state, the rural and 
urban portions of the landscape, and the natural and built 
environments. Stapp enq)has1zed the roles of holistic thinking, 
effective communication and Individual empowerment as necessary 
techniques to provide environmental education with the organization 
and momentum to grow In Influence. 

For the more than one-^hundred participants, the highlight of the 
workshop was the brainstorming process on the Imperatives In nine 
small groups, each mirroring the International, gender and 
professional characteristics of the workshop as a whole. General 
reporting sessions captured some of the richness of tiie small group 
sessions, but were unable to communicate effectively the subtle 
elements of discourse and the Intense fellowship which occurred. 
Although few new Insights about ecological and cultural Imperatives 
emerged, the focus and content of conclusions and recommendations 
regarding environmental education were gratifying, especially In the 
Integration of ecology and culture In the educational strategy. 



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IV. A. Allen, Irma A., "Environmental Education: Impact on Three 
Aspects of Development In Africa," P.O. Box 135, Mbabane, 
Swaziland. 

Developing countries In Africa are exciting, dynamic places, with 
great diversity yet sharing certain aspirations. Among these Is a 
strong desire to establish an Individual Identity, to provide basic 
education and primary health care for all, to 1nv>rove the general 
quality of ll^e, to become self^suff Iclent In food production, and tc 
develop a thriving economic Infrastructure. 

At the same time, there are some common constraints to development 
shared by most developing countries. One of the greatest Is the very 
high population growth rate. On an average, the population In Africa 
Is expected to double between 1980 and 2000. This type of rapid 
population growth places great pressure on resources, such as land, 
water, forests. Another constraint Is that most of the developing 
countries are still burdened with vestiges of what may be referred to 
as "colonialism." For example, systems such as those of 
administration and education were established under colonial rule, and 
these have now become the habitual systems, but do not necessarily 
best meet country needs. Lack of trained manpower Is another serious 
problem which hampers development. 

In efforts being made to eliminate or reduce the effects of these 
constraints, I have observed certain areas where environmental 
education Is making a great and significant Intact. I will share some 
of these with you by referring to three conv>letely different 
environmental education projects in three different developing 
countries In Africa. 

Environmental Education for Survival 

For the RendiUe people In northern Kenya, environmental education 
may be a question of life and death. 

For centuries, the nomadic Rendille people had been subsisting 
entirely off their herds of camels and goats, ^f^DvIng over large areas 
In search of forage and water. When bad droughts occurred, livestock 
died in large numbers. Those that survived werft U5;ually shared. 
Nevertheless, some people starved, too. It was a life of great 
hardship, but still the people adapted and lived In balance with their 
ecosystem. However, 1n recent times, development has resulted in the 
Introduction of things such as a few permanent boreholes, some 
schools, clinics, and even famine relief. Ironically, this 
development has had harmful effects. It has caused people to become 
Increasingly sedentarlzed, resulting In ever growing circles of 
overgrazed, denuded land around their "manyattas" (camps). The 
fragile ecosystem cannot support their altered lifestyle, and the 
Rendille's existence Is threatened by desertification. 

Since 1976, UNESCO has been carrying out one of Its major Han and 
the Biosphere (MAB) projects, associated with desert encroachment and 
ecological degradation of arid lands, in a 23,000 sq. km. study area 



43 



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1n northern Kenya occupied primarily by the Rendllle. A team of 
scientists has been conducting ecological research on the rangeland, 
woodland, livestock human migrations water resources, climate, etc., 
and building up an excellent picture of the environment, its problems, 
and possible solutions. Land use and livestock irjnagement plans for 
the area were developtid. At that point, ther, the challenge was how 
to reach and motivate the pastoral Is t% to adopt a modification of 
their practices. 

A pilot project was designed to test the efficacy of radio as a 
suitable medium to communicate with pastoral Ists, and to see whether a 
specially designed series of radio programs could be used for 
environmental education purposes. 

Radios were placed In twenty manyattas (;irwiad1c camps), and field 
assistants were trained to operate the radios, lead discussions after 
each program, and fill In evaluation sheets. 

The radio programs were dt:veloped and broadcast for a period of 
six months. Thi topics chosen were based on the Rendl lie's main 
concerns: camels, trees, water, goats, security, etc. Each program 
would begin with a local person voicing a particular concern or 
question. This was then linked to IPAL's research, to make the point 
that the research was aimed at helping to solve the people's 
problems. Practical results of the research on that topic were then 
disseminated. 

Although the logistical constraints were tremendous, the pilot 
project was a big success. A pre-radio program survey and a 
post-radio program survey were conducted, and the findings showed 
marked gains In desired knowledge and attitudes 

Environmental Education for Relevance of Formal Education 

In Zimbabwe, since 1979, all primary schools offer an 
Environmental Science and Agriculture Course In Grades 1-7. This Is 
the result of an Environmental Education Research Curriculum 
Development Project. 

The Project began with a needs assessment study. Education 
officers. Inspectors, headmasters, teachers, parents and resource 
people all made valuable Inputs to the content and structure of the 
new course. In an Initial questlonaire, the respondents were asked to 
describe one concept or main Idea they would like to Include In a 
course of environmental studies and why. The responses were 
tremendous. Here Is an example: "Children should be taught about the 
Importance of trees, and how to plant them." Why? "Because In our 
area, we are very short of trees, and people have to walk far for 
firewood." 

After the curriculum was developed, teachers assisted with field 
testing and with determining the most appropriate level for various 
activities. The end result of this cooperative effort was an 
Integrated program with prov'.-lon for the development of capabilities 
to enable primary school children to be aware of and concerned about 
their environment, and to Interact effectively and to mutual benefit 



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w1th 1t. This curriculum takes Into consideration factors such as 
Individual needs, national needs, teachers' capabilities, the nature 
of primary education In the country, available facilities and other 
resources. It Is relevant and meaningful. 

Environmental Education for Cultural Integration 

With development, come many new and sometimes foreign Ideas, 
opportunities, responsibilities and expectations. Every developing 
country faces the challenge of reconciling traditional beliefs and 
practices with these "modern* Ideologies. 

In Swaziland, an Interesting applied research project Is taking 
place. It Is aimed at bridging the gap between the powerful group of 
traditional healers and the modern doctors and health workers. 

During the last few years, the Ministry of Health, with financial 
support from the Agency for International Development (USAID), has 
been building up an Information base through research Into traditional 
and modern health care. Green and Nakhubu (1984) have specifically 
Investigated the possibility of cooperation between the traditional 
and modern health sectors. 

The picture which has emerged from this research shows that there 
appears to be some very sound reasons why action should be taken 
towards Improved cooperation. 

1. Roughly BS% of the population consults traditional healers at 
one time or another; 

2. There are roughly over 5,000 traditional healers (tinyanga) 
operating very lucrative practices. This constitutes a 
healer/population ratio of 1:110 as compared to a medical 
doctor/population ratio of 1:10,000; 

3. Traditional healers are Interested In cooperation with the 
modern health sector. In training 1n modern health care 
techniques, and In a Healer's Association which has government 
support; 

4. There are areas of traditional medicine where a common ground 
for cooperation exists, and there are some traditional practices 
which are harmful, and where some form of Intervention Is needed; 

5. There are certain "modern" Illnesses (e.g.. Cholera) which the 
traditional healers feel they cannot treat; and 

6. In order to provide basic health care for all the population 
by the year 2000, all available manpower must be harnessed to 
achieve this goal. 

After some exploratory meetings, a pilot project to exchange views 
and to train healers was approved^ Its purpose was to demonstrate 
that the training of traditional healers should Increase cooperation 
between the traditional and modern health <;6Ctors and Improve the 
treatment and prevention of diseases common In children. 

The first pilot workshop was held In June, 1984, and attended by 5 
clinic nurses, 25 traditional healers, and some outside observers. 
Concrete recommendations were made, and training took place. 



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Slnce that Initial workshop, district workshops have been held, 
with participation from healers who attended the first workshop* It 
Is estimated that about 4,000 healers have Joined the Healers 
Association, and that 2/3 of the healers from the first workshop have 
built, or are In the process of building, latrines at their 
homesteads. 

Some of the hoped for goals are: 

1. Standardizing of remedies and treatments. 

2. Minimizing harmful practices through education* 

3. Cooperation In promoting prevention of disease through basic 
sanitation, hygiene, nutrition education* 

4. Self monitoring by healers to discourage unsaft; practices. 
If these goals are achieved, the Impact on the Improvement of 

health conditions, especially In the rural areas, will be great. 

Although these 3 case studies are quite different, the one thing 
1n common Is that at the heart of each. Is an environmental problem. 
It ;$ becoming Increasingly clear that the greatest problems facing 
developing countries In Africa today, are environmental ones, e*g*, 
overpopulation, deforestation, desertification* Also, these problems 
^^ave arisen In fairly recent times, and are largely due to man's 
Inability to keep pace with chanies and to maintain a balance of 
resources. Thus, It Is through er vironmental education. In Its 
broadest sense, then, that man. In developing Africa, will acquire the 
knowledge, skills, and *»tt1tudes to make wise choices and forge ahead 
In well-planned development. 



51 



Allen, Irma A. "The Development of an Env1ronme..cal Science Course for 
Primary Schools, Grades 1-7, In Zimbabwe Rhodesia." Tucson, 
Arizona: Unpublished PH.D. dissertation. University of Arizona, 
1980. 

Allen, Irma A. Report of a Consultancy In Education and Training . IPAL 

Technical Report F-1, UNESCO, Nairobi, 1981. 
Green, Edward C. and Lydia Makhubu. "Traditional Healers In 

Swaziland: Toward Improved Cooperation Between the Traditional 

and Modern Health Sectors." Research Report, Ministry of Health, 

Mbabane, Swaziland, 1984. 



IV. B. Atachia, Michael. "Environmental Education In Afrlca-a Review." 
Mauritius Institute of Education, Redult, HaLrltlus. 

A Preamble on the Colonial Era 

Environmental Education In the African context cannot be seen 
separately from the process of development. 

The colonial era had In many not so superficial ways, 
de-developed the continent through the colonial emphasis on cash crop 
cultivation, on service to a distant metropolis, on 
"deculturallzatlon", and reorganisation of peoples, communities and 
frontiers on a 'non ecological basis'. 

The colonial era was marked by a serious non-recogn1t;on of some 
of the values we today recognize as being essential to Environmental 
Education namely: balance between population and resources; 
conservation of soil; and self-sufficiency, both In terms of physical 
resources and soclo-culturally. 

The colonial era came to an official close round and about twenty 
years ago, with variable degrees of perslstance (Zimbabwe's 
independance, one will recall was In 1982). Africa has now come to 
terms with the conservation y/s development Issue. The terms of this 
truce may be found In the statement of World Environment Day: 
"Development without Destruction." 

The Meaning of Development 

"A process called development has become the Ideal goal of all 
nations on this planet" (UHEP, 1979). 

The author has had numerous occasions to ask and hear (or be 
t-old) the meaning attached to this concept in various African 
countries or Instances. There Is no unanimity In that this 
development must be done without destructing physical Africa, cultural 
Africa and human Africa. This may prove quite Impossible In practice 
1f some of the conceptualisations of development heard and recorded 
were to be adhered to. 

Clearing up the meanings attached to development Is thus a 
priority task of environmental education In Africa. 

The following questions way now be asked to broaden the debate. 



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. How do small isolated coniminities share this notion of 
development? If so, in what way? 

. Is it fair to differentiate that aim of biology education which 
is community (i.e. human) development, from the comparable aim of 
physics, mathematics and engineering education which, it is 
assumed, serves industrial and technological development? 
. How does a community develop from what some of Us individual 
members learn? (E. Rugumayo, 1978)* 

. What are the existing (desirable) inter-relationships between 
the various agents of development? 

. What does development mean to you: more cars? more houses? more 
buildings? more people? more money? more leisure time? longer 
life? 

. Does development mean increase in 6NP? Modernisation? 
. Do you share the view (Atchia 1979) that development is a 
process of stabilisation leading to sustained equilibrium rather 
than growth? 

Environmental Education as the development of positive environmental 
attitude 

How is attitude change to be achieved? Stuoies by Perkes (USA, 
1973), Eyers (Australia, 1975), Richmond and Morgan (USA, UK, 1977) 
and Atchia (Africa 1978) have come to some very definite conclusions 
regarding the relationship between environmental knowledge and 
attitudes. These environmental conclusions, given below, could well 
be a suitable guide to how environmental education must be tackled: 
1) a very strong relationship has been found to exist between 
conceptual knowledge and attitude, 2) only a very weak relationship 
has been found bet%^en factual knowledge and attitude . However, 
programmes of environmental education, aimed by definition, at 
development of positive environmental attitudes must be based on 
concepts not factual information. Furthermore the traditional 
attitudes to nature must be taken Into consideration on the African 
(or Asian) context wh^^re a lot of already very positive environmental 
attitudes exist. 

Sources for E nvironmental Education 

The question of the sources of environmental knowledge was first 
stt^Jied in detail by Eyers. Several studies have since been conducted 
on the subject in North America and Europe. In these continents, 
formal schooling is thought to contribute 40X or less to the 
environmental education of students while 60X of the environmental 
knowledge and attitudes held comes from reading, talking, radio and TV. 

In modern African cities, 50% to 80X of environmental knowledge 
could come through formal schooling: however, in rural areas, 
especially where there is little formal education beyond the primary 
level, close to lOOX of environmental knowledge and practically all 
the environmental attitudes come from the community. Attitudes to the 



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environment In rural areas c<«e froM first-* and experience of the 
environmental behaviour of teachers, elders and others In the 
connunlty. The study of such traditional cultu.es and the 
environmental and scientific knowledge they possess and utilize seems 
to the author to be essential to the future of environmental education 
In Africa and elsewhere. 

As far as formal schooling Is concerned. Roth In the U.S.A., 
Concepclon-ltedel In the Phlllpi^jnes, and Atcnla In Africa have 
ecently worked out the details of which concepts are essential for 
environmental education. These concepts fall under several main 
headings. Indicated below In outline only: 1) Humn ecology and 
population dynamics ?) Natural reso;:rces and resources management 3) 
Conservation and development 4) Technology, pollution and pollution 
control 5) E v1ronmeir««^ health 6) Ba5<-, ecological relationships 
7) Social, political and economic influences on the bio-physlca-soclal 
environment 8) Town and cou^ttry planning; land use. These major 
headings can be utilised to construct an "Environmental Studies" 
curriculum, provided local Illustrative examples are built-in. 

Catalogue of environmental problems In Africa 

1) Resource deterioration: e.g. soil erosion, saTilzatlon. 
desertification. Improver Ishment of the genetic resource base; 
redHftlon of good quality water reiources through pollution, 
exhaustion of mineral and other resources. 

2) Disturbance of natural biological equilibrium. 

3) Chemical pollution of the envlroiimont. 

4) Physical disruption caused by man's activities. 

5) Social disruption caused by the erosion of trrdltlonal culture 
and settlement patterns through colonization and westernization. Of 
Pc.tlcular importance has been the partial loss of the nigh degree of 
social organization and community feelings that has always 
charactfrized traditional African societies. 

The African .-. hool as information centre o.\ environmental problems 

Dr Magnus A. v. Cole, Njala University College, university of 
Serra-Leune writes that, traditionally, the school has heen at the 
receiving end of support emanating from the central government, tne 
local government or the community which it serves. The school in this 
setting makes use of *iformatic.i derived extra-territorial ly jnd at 
best, derived nationally and frum the immediate society for 
Instructional purposes in the education of the child. 

Recent efforts in educational development encourage the Inquiry 
approach at primary, secondary and college level. With this approach 
to learning, the learner becomes involved in finding out knowledge, 
Jeveloping intellectual and psychomotor skills, while at the same tine 
acquires posUive attitudes towards, problem- recognition and 
problem-solving. Such activitias as mentioned generate usef 1 
Information, which in the area of science teaching, would not have 



S4 



hsen avall^' e otherwise, since ^ ^Ulonal science teaching had been 
concerned more with transmUsIc • facts than with developing of 
appropriate skills and attitude^. 

Surveys of Indigenous technology has revealed that • large nuri)ar 
of rural technologies conmoiily operated by men, women or children can 
be successfully Integrated Into the curriculum. Through this process, 
children learn useful dally life skills but also with the help of 
teachers and other adults develop new Ideas and new skills. 

Integrating Environmental Education Intc curr i cula 

On the African scene, as elsewhere In t^e world, Envlronmentav 
Education Is perceived as a dimension to <f Isclpllnes, not as a 
discipline. The following trades and crafts have been Indentured at 
the outskirts of Riany towns; ways and means are necessary to Integrate 
an environmental culture Into them. 
List of trades and crafts; 

Pan^l beat\ng 

Automechanlcs (bush) 

Electrical Fitting a;id Repairs 

Heavy Equipment Repair 

Printing 

Small scale Agriculture 
Clerk, Typist, Accountant 
Manufacture of traditional 
crafts 

Automechanlcs (garage) 
Carpentry and Joinery 
Motor car electricity 
Machinist 



Fitter 

Sign writing 
Radio and T.V. Repair 
Bricklaying 

Office Machine Malntence 

and repair 
Plumbing 
Refrigeration 
Cutting and Ta^.orlng 
Proctography 

Agricultural Implements 

Mechanic 
Seller of traditional crafts 



Research seems necessary to Jetermlne the best ways of effecting 
the Integration of EE Into these trades and crafts and, furthermore, 
looking Into the Integration of these trades and crafts Into comr^unlty 
development. A ^ook at the formal curricula themselves to see to what 
extent Improved general education will have an Impact on the various 
piecemeal efforts, local or International, to Improve quality of life. 

Finally a strong recommendation must be made here to reach and 
educate decision makers In Africa (both polltlcans and professionals) 
about Environment and decision-making - or put In other words, to 
In^^oduce ecology Into the act of government. 



Bibliography 

K Atchia, M. "Concepts and Dynamics of Envlrofiiiietntal Education 
with Particular Reference to Britain, Africa ajo Mauritius 
Ph.D. thesis, Salfortl, 1978, 

2. Atchia, M. (ed.) "Environmental Education In t^e AfrWan School 
Curriculum." African CiTrlculum nisatlon, Ibadan, 1982. 



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3. Cole, M.3.A. and Hamnton, O.B., "Indigenous Technology 1n Sierra 
Leone." Ministry of Social Welfare and Rural Oevelopraent, 1969. 

4. Eyers, v.C. "Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs Among Grade 10 
Students In Australia." Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State 
University. 

5. lUCN Commission of Education. International Working Meeting on 
Environmental Education In the School Curriculum. Paris: 
UNESCO, 1970 

6. KnarallUr, G.W. "School-based Environmental Monitoring In 
Developing Countries." University of Leeds, 1979. 

7. Perkes, A.C. "A survey of Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes 
of Tenth and Twelfth Grade Students." Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio 
State University, 1973. 

8. Richmond, 3.M. "A survey of the Environmental Knowledge and 
Attitudes of Fifth Year Pupils In England." Doctoral thesis, 
Ohio State University, 1976. 

9. Roth, R.E. Fundamental Concepts for Environmental Management 
Education, K-16. Doctoral dissertation. University of Wisconsin. 
1969. 



IV. C. Crespo Gualda, Reglna Elena. "Environmental Education and 

Latin America." Secretaria Especial Do Melo Arablente, Minlsterlo 
Do Interior, Brasll. 

Since the 1972 Stockholm Conference on Human Environment, and the 
publicity given to the several studlas on economic growth. 
Institutions oriented to the preservation and Improvement of the 
environment were created In almost all Latin American countries 
Following this same tendency, the term "Environmental Educatlor/ 
became popular, meaning the set of Initiatives oriented towards 
modifying the behavior of the people of those cou'^trles In relation to 
the environment, as a means of preserving the natural heritage and as 
a guarantee of nondlscnntlnulty of the national dev^,.opme^t process. 

Of course, the maintenance of ecological processes and the vital 
systems 1s uot a postponable huma-i task, but we have to agree that, 
while an abstract recommendation, 'hanging the behavior and attitude 
of each man through Environment- • education needs some critical 
approaches In those countries which are part of the so called Third 
World, among these, mainly the Latin American countries. 

Traces of the European culture from the XVIII century, full of an 
lllumlnism, inclined to attribute to education capacities and are 
still strong enough In the majority of those countries, among these, 
the power of modifying men's behavior without taking into 
consideration their concrete life conditions. When transported to 
Environmental Education, these values are particularly alienated 
because they Inhibit the development of a concrete and Immediate view 
of rfallty: they inhibit therefore, the creation of responsible 
"atlonal policies. Natlonol nollcles can effectively contribute 



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not only so the national development process te exempted of risk of 
discontinuity, but also so planet aarth maintains Its capacity of 
supporting the human beings who Inhabit It. 

French economist, Jean-B«^pt1ste Say, wrote In 1983 that a farmer 
or leaseholder knows how to take better advantage of the land than a 
naturalist who administers his own farm, despite the fact that a 
naturalist knows more about land than a farmer. Behind this 
statement. Is the ascertalnty that the environmental ^cods do not 
exist. In view of society only as natural goods* They are subject. In 
our world, to a social relation - property* Therefore, this generic 
man to w1)om we refer whi^n we speak about education In general or 
Environmental Education In particular. Is not sufficiently generic to 
be monolltlc. He Is divided Into at least two classes, those who 
detain power and those who do not possess power over the environmental 
resources. That Is between those who have and those who do not have 
decision power to allocate environmental resources for pre--determ1ned 
objectives. It may seem curious, but It Is not surprising that the 
International Union for Nature and Natural Resources Preservation 
states In the document "World Strategy Towards Preservation" - the 
poor people of the rural zones of the world pull out and burn several 
million trees yearly, using them as fuel In the kitchen or as 
heating. The poor people, that Is, those who lack property, love 
nature as well as the rich, however they also consider themselves as 
part of nature and love themselves sufficiently, at least not to 
commit suicide In the name of preserving a heritage which socially 
does not belong to them. 

Parallel to this kind cf devastation practiced by about 5000 
minions of undernourished and 8000 millions of destituted, who total 
around one quarter of tie world's population, we know that 2000 square 
kilometers of the best K^nd for culture disappear every year to give 
place to buildings and roads, only In the most developed countries - 
which affects not only the environmental and social conditions of the 
undeveloped countries that have to Ircreaslngly produce food to attend 
this additional demand, sacrificing their natural resources and 
populations. 

As we also know, the undeveloped countries, even those that 
experienced significant Industrial Improvements In the past few years, 
are all dependent upon the Importation of technology and capital. 
Frequently, the technological practices are highly harmful to the 
environment and as such, are not accepted any more In their countries 
of origin. Because they don't have the means to utilize their own 
technology, the undeveloped countries lack sovereignty to Implement 
adequate environmental preservation policies:, because they don't have 
the fundamental decision power for the allocation of environmental 
resources for the productive activities. 

Considerations are ueing made with the objective of establishing 
the principle that the discussion of Environmental Education can never 
Ignore the concrete conditions adopted by the social systems within 
which we live. We must not minimize the fact that these social 



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systems are Industrialists and have as a fundamental asset the 
accumulation of capital at the expense of the depletion of nature, 
either under the capitalist or the socialist system. This means; 
Environmental Education, before anything else. Is Political Education. 

There are some well established trends according to which It Is 
pos:1b1e to overcome tlie means of Inadequate use of the environment 
through the iraiisfer of technology between the developed and 
undeveloped countries. Although there Is an efficacy line, well 
reduced. It should also be clear that the transfer of knowledge and 
the transfer of technology are not the same thing. The transfer of 
Ideas may well be something you give more or less free In the course 
of communication between societies In this global village, however, 
technology Is not an Idea or knowledge In general. It Is the applied 
knowledge converted Into capital. And the criterion of efficacy of 
capital Is not the fulfillment of genuine human needs, but the power 
to produce more capital. Thus, those who have technology produce 
technology, for only they can decide the optimal conditions for their 
society to apply this technology. 

There Is no doubt that these distressing current conditions of 
use of the human environment can not be resolved without technological 
reorientation. This probably Is easy In a develope<1 country; but. In 
the undeveloped countries, to where the Installations and 
technological procedures rejected by the central nations are 
transferred, this reversion Is not done easily and based on economic 
considerations. They would have to develop, at their own expense, 
technologies to protect their environmental resources. To this end, 
they would have to possess Internal savings for Investments, the power 
to establish capital reserves, and transform the consumption habits 
already conditioned by the current standards of the developed world. 
This Is more a political Issue, that can only be solved according to 
political criteria In which Environmental Education can not Interfere, 
except as Political Education, as a means of preparing Individuals for 
the exercise of citizenship. There Is more; If environmental 
degradation Is a real situation, this education has to turn tc tho 
present citizen In his community. 

Another current trend also places formal education as a 
privileged vehicle of Environmental Education, that which Is exercized 
In schools and has Its focus In youth. This Is a performance 
procedure of unquestionable Interest, however attention should be 
called tj the fact that Environmental Education can not be reduced to 
this, without taking the risk of falling Into a postponing trap, or 
putting off to the future decisions which are already crucial 1n the 
present. 

It Is In these torms that we are attempting to work with 
Environmental Education In Brazil. With the communities, trying to 
develop their capacity to Influence in the defense of the 
environmental quality and In those aspects which are critical In each 
place where they are; In the training of technical 



58 



Staff and experts, aiming at producing a critical mass capable of 
technically Influencing the decision power related to national 
development projects and to give practical application to the legal 
measures Issued by the State; In the formal education aiming at the 
creation and the continuance of a social consciousness oriented 
towards the preservation and improvement of (environment quality. We 
are not Innovating as to the components of which we consider generally 
Environmental Education* Our Intention Is to avoid reducing It to 
each of these components In particular* We also are not trying to 
utilize Environmental Education as a means of social cf>ntro1 when 
actuating together with the communities; on the contrary, despite the 
difficulties normally encountered In these situations, we are 
attempting to transmit the Idea that nobody educates a community* 
except the conmunlty Itself* This education passing unquestionably 
through political education, or by the practice of freedom, which Is 
the discovery of Its fundamental pr'^blems and the fight for Its 
solution. 

In relation to the training and recycling of technical staff, we 
count with 2 ve'^y Important Instrument, the Environmental Training 
Network for Latin American and the Caribbean, which is a initiative of 
the governments and institutions of this region and of Interest in 
PNUMA (United Nations Environmental Program)* 

The Network has as its basic objective to support those national 
and subreglonal instituions through the promotion of training. 
Investigative and informative activities and environmental material; 
to assure the technical cooperation among the countries of the region 
and the exchange of experiences of common interest, as well as to 
structure a program to support regional environmental training which 
complements the specific activities of each one of the participating 
countries. 

Created by suggestions of the governments of the region and 
recognized by the Administrative Council of PNUMA, in 1S79, this 
entity of malti lateral help developed several activities in the past 
years, be'ng the majority of them ^n attempt to establish an 
operational structure appropriate to its purposes, as well as the 
gathering of information on the effective demands of the countries 
involved, in terms of environmental training, besides the potential 
supply of the institutions Involved for the exchange of knowledge, 
information and services. Only recently the training activities 
started, being the course, held in Rio de Janeiro, for the updating of 
technicians (belonging mainly to Brazilian institutions), one of the 
most important ones. This course centered in the technology and 
environment and attempted to formulate practical and consistent 
methodologies for the evaluation of development projects that have a 
reflection on the environment. 

Notwithstanding the fact that it is a new entity, the Network 
presents itself as a promising initiative, being sufficient for this 
to consider two aspects: first, that it is organized and oriented 
towards the problematic of countries with similar formation and 
historical situations; second, that the Network is mainly a concept 



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1t dims at the participation of entitles of each participating country 
(the Network's focal points), therefore, with the capacity to transmit 
experiences resulting from concrete situations and not of Ideal or 
theoretical situations, or yet so lacking In objectivity that they 
become sufficiently general to Include any country without explaining 
or serving any of them. 



IV. 0. Ealey, E.H.M. "Contract Research as a Component of 

Environmental Education." Director, Graduate School of 
Environmental Science, Nonasa University, Clayton. Victoria, 
Australia 3168 

ABSTRACT 

It has been shown feasible to use teams of supervised masters 
candidates from the Graduate School of Environmental Science to 
undE-take contract research for goveinmefit and Industry thus giving 
real life training and earning over $200,000 for Honash University. 
The clients not only have the services of an enthusiastic hardworking 
team of supervised graduates, they also gain access to University 
facilities such as laboratories, computers and library services plus 
continuing links with supervising academics. 

The research project 1s guided by a committee consisting of 
representatives of the Sponsor, the supervisors and a School staff 
member. Once the terras of reference are agreed to, there Is no 
academic freedom allowed In the research leading to the production of 
the Consultant Report. This Is made clear to all concerned. However, 
It Is also made clear that the candidates have the right to produce a 
thesis with cor*Dlete freedom, even to criticize the Sponsor If they 
wish. Thus, everyone gets what they want. The candidates learn two 
sorts of writing and gain practical mult1d1sc1pl1nary research 
training. The simple contract protects the Sponsor from premature and 
possibly embarrassing publication of results but nevertheless, 
safeguards the rights of the students to produce theses and publish 
wU>*out constraint. 

IWTRODUCTIOW 

Monash University has been successful In negotiating a number of 
agreements with industry and government agencies to provide teams of 
"supervised graduate students." The Honash motivation for such 
agreements Is to provide "practical training as an element of the 
graduate curricula." At the same time, clients have received the 
benefit of having the values and viewpoints of entry- level 
professionals and also gain usefu' on going links with the supervising 
staff of the university. This paper describes several examples of 
such agreements and the results achieved. 



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TH E PROGRAM AT HONASH UNIVERSITY 

The Nonash Master of Environmental Science course is two years' 
duration of wtiich 25X is research* Teams of candidates are "sold" at 
Research Assistant rates, which at present are about $9,000 for six 
months' research. Therefore, a four person team would cost $36,000. 
This fee covers all expenses of the contract and all expenses of the 
candidates. The surplus is used by the School for publications, 
additional staff, etc. This fee also covers the services of an 
academic supervisor for each team member and those of a staff member 
from the School who co-ordinates the supervisors and the students. 
Monash staff do not receive personal renumerati ori as the supervision 
is part of normal duties. 

There are over 150 academics in the University who find 
themselves assisting the Graduate School by giving courses or by 
supervision of research. An appropriately qualified academic is 
appointed to supervise each graduate student and a staff member from 
the School co-ordinates the group research and helps edit the final 
report. It is difficult sometimes to ensure that supervisors stick to 
the contract terras of reference and guide students to produce a report 
which win suit the needs of the client. From the data used to 
produce the report, thesis topics can be identified and candidates and 
supervisors are assured of academic freedom in thesis writing. We 
guarantee not to publish anything until after the final report is in 
the hands of the client. 

The coursework component is designed to remedy deficiencies in 
the original degree so that all mefirit)ers of a research team have a 
common background as well as their own degree; for example, an 
engineer must learn some ecology, while a biologist must learn some 
engineering. There is also a compulsory subject on Science and 
Systems Theory. However, t;ie most important unit relating to research 
is Multidisciplinary Organisation managed by an outside consultant and 
an expert in group dynamics. Here, team management, critical path 
analysis, etc. are covered while a small project is completed by a 
strict deadline. Final teams are formed after this course is 
finished. Student Interests, academic skills available and possible 
topics for contract research are taken into account. Contracts are 
arranged in various ways. Sometimes the School is asked to undertake 
a project and in other instances, a topic is identified and funding is 
sought by the team and the School. 

EXAMPLES OF CONTRACT RESEARCH 

Over 60 team projects have been successfully completed. Those on 
contract research have earned about a quarter million dollars for the 
Graduate School. This list below gives examples: Land Capability for 
Recreation; Forest Management and Arboreal Species; Study of Coastal 
Crown Lands in the Inverloch Area; Evaluation of the Hiritano 
Highway. Papua New Guinea; Werribee Coastline Study; McArthur River 
Catchment Management; Problems of Toxic Waste Disposal; Latrobe 
River 



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Study; If.truslon of Mercury 1n Food Chains; Agricultural Development 
In TamhLnan, Sabah» Malaysia; Sallnlsatlon In the Samut Songkhram 
Province. Thailand; and H^st Nakanl Oil Palm Scheme. P.N. 6. Social. 
Economic and Environmental Effects. 

Of these examples, three are worth mentioning In detail: 

(1) Social and Economic Impact of the Hirltano Highway. Paoua New 
Guinea 

This highway had been built to link Berelna In the rich 
agricultural land In the Angabunga River basin, to Port Moresby, about 
150 km to the east. The objective of this highway was to facilitate 
transport of vegetables to Port Moresby, stimulate vegetable 
production and thus reduce the need for Imports. 

The team of three visited the area for a short Initial fa^t 
finding mission and then returned ^^o Australia, where the academic 
supervisor and the School revised the terms of reference and set 
practical limits to the study. These were agreed to by two 
representatives of the P.N. 6. government who assisted with In-country 
supervision. 

The team assessed the success of the highway and f*)und that for a 
number of reasons production and flow of vegetables frcm Berelna had 
Increased very little and the cost benefit analysis on which the 
decision to build the highway was based was Inappropriate. The team 
and supervisors produced Environmental Report Mo, 6 Soclo-Economic 
Impact of the Hirltano Highway. The three these produced were not 
related to the terms of reference. Indeed. It Is unlikely that the 
P.w.C. officials would have Initially agreed to the thesis topl'^^ as 
two ^^ere rather controversial. I.e.: 

••The disbeneflts of the Hirltano Highway" which pointed up the 
problems caused by sudden access between a city and a rural 
community such as massive Inflow of beer and consequent social 
disruption. 

"Factors to be Considered to Stimulate Agricultural Production:" 
which emphasized that transport facilities alone would not cau*;e 
Increased production of vegetables, especially when the land was 
covered with betel nut. a very much more valuable crop. 

However, the officers In the National Planning Office found the 

theses «t very useful bonus of the contract, and one of the candidates 

later gained employment with the National Planning Office. All of the 
candidates iearneci a great deal about Papua « New Guinea. 

(2) Aspects of the Latrobe River Ecosystem 

This river Is the most Important In the region, being L«sed by 
power stations, a paper mill, and many towns along its length. The 



62 



Australian Paper Manufacturers Limited (APH) contracted with the 
Graduate School to undertake a baseline study of the river and to 
assess the Impact of the discharge from their paper mm on the 
river. The research team consisted of a civil engineer (hydrologlst) • 
a biologist, and a Chinese chemist from the EPA In Peking. Because 
the river condition Is regulated under the Australian EPA State 
Environmental Protection Policy (SEPP). Ying Hsuan became Involved In 
a most practical way with the working of the Australian £PA as well as 
with the Impact of a wel Vregulated paper mill on a river and the 
methodology of water quality assessment. The team and supervisors 
produced: 

— Environmental Report No. 15— Aspects of the Latrobe River 
Ecosystem, while each candidate produced a thesis: 

An Appraisal of the SEPP for the Haters of the Latrobe 
River Catchment. 

Effects of Pulp and Paper M111 Wastewater on River Water 
Quality. 

Environmental Implications of Hydrology and Water 
Resources Planning. 

In this case the theses were more critical of the EPA policy than 
the paper mill. 

(3) Land Use Changes and Sallnlsatlon In the Sarout Songkhram 
Province. Thailand 

This was not actually a contract as It was funded by the 
Australian Government. However, It Is worth considering, as the 
process Is similar and was extremely successful. Two Thais came to 
Australia on fellowships to undertake the Monash M. Env. Sc. with a 
view to them returning as stat, members to the Faculty of 
Environmental and Resource Studies. As well as completing much of the 
course. work component of the degree, they formed a team with two 
Australians. The team and a supervisor did the field work and 
secondary data collection during a three-month visit to Thailand. The 
Australians learned about research In the Third World by falling In 
klohngs, being bitten by dogs, and catching amoebic dysentery. The 
Thais were most useful as Interpreters and In translating secondary 
data. The Australians will be most effective as officers with the 
Foreign Affairs Department or In private Indusl.y. All have had the 
experience of tackling a most complex array of Interrelated ^and use 
problems, using techniques such as Landsat, I. R. photography, soil 
and water sampling, economic and social surveying. They also now have 
some understanding of the political and financial ramifications of the 
land use problems they assessed. 

Conclusion 

The research component of the Master of Environmental Science program 



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at Monash University has been developed so that It can be used by 
teams of candidates to earn funds for the university and gain 
r«^a1-11fe training. The supervising Member of staff from the Graduate 
School ensures the successful completion of all contracts and happily 
an have been successful so far. Financial links with Government 
agencies certainly Mkes them more Interested In the School and Indeed 
some graduates obtain employment after the client has actually seen 
him/her at work. 



IV. E. Francis, George. "Issues of the Great Lakes: A Transnational 
Problem." Chair, Env ronraental Studies Program. University of 
Waterloo, ^98 Westcourt Place. Waterloo. Ontario li2L 2R7 
Canada 

The current status of US-Canadlan cooperation on Great Lakes 
issues win be explored through the Water Quality Agreement and 
through the Inlernatlonal Joint Commission on the Great Lakes. An 
analysis of environmental education opportunities was highlighted. 



IV, F. Greenall. Annette. "A New Beginning for Environmental 

Education In Australia." Director. Environmental Education. 
Department o** Arts. Heritage, and Environment. GPO Box 1252. 
Canberra. ACT 2601. Australia 

In 1980-81 when I last wrote about the future of envlromrental 
education In Australian schools. I was quite pes:»1m1st1c and concluded 
that environmental education had been a phenomenon of the affluent 
seventies In Australia. This conclusion was based on observations, 
reading experience with schools, education authorities, and curriculum 
projects over the preceding seven years. 

Environmental education alms to develop not only awareness, 
understanding, and skills. Most Importantly. It also alms to 
e'^courage feelings of concern for the en.'ironment and Its protection. 
This means that It Is concerned with social reconstruction 
-^-envUonmental education programs must have noral and political 
components 1f they are to achieve the accepted alms of environmental 
education. In 1980-^81 I argued that environmental education had been 
subjected to Incorporation ^Hhln the -existing hegemony of schools 1n 
a neutralized form--the radical 'action' components of the 
environmental education alms had been deleted from school programs 
whilst the less controversial cognitive and skill alms had been 
retained, together with the name "environmental education." There was 
evidence that programs of this genre lud Increased during the 
seventies. Including an Increased environmental content In traditional 
subjects in the curriculum. In general terms there was little 
Inducement for schools to Implement all the alms of environmental 
education. 



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RELEVANT DEVELOPHEIiTS 198V84 

Since I published these conclusions there has been a number of 
developments which have made the outlook much more optimistic. 
Although the Horld Conservation Strategy yas launched by the Prime 
Minister In March 1980, there was no Immediate noticeable action on It 
at the nation?! level. However, by late 1984 a Rational Conservation 
Strategy for Australia (NCSA) had been developed and endorsed by the 
Federals South Australian, Victorian, and Northern Territory 
governments. 

It Is this NCSA document which gives us a new direction, focus, 
and hope for the future of envlroMiental education In Australia. The 
document acknowledges the need for environmental education In 
Improving the capacity of the community, professionals, technicians, 
and users to manage the environment "^d In achieving the objectives of 
the NCSA. In 1980 the crucial role of the Horld Conservation 
Strategy, and consequently the NCSA, In providing a new stiniulus tor 
environmental education In Australia was not clear. Hut It Is now 
apparent that the NCSA Is a most Important document for us. 

At the non-gover.imental level, the Australian Association for 
Envlronriiental Education has grown In strength and Influence. The 
Association Is now represented on the Australian Environment Council's 
(AEC) Environmental Education and Information Sub-committee. The 
Association Is also represented on the Interim Consultative Committee 
for the National Conservation Strategy for Australia as the sole 
education voice. The Association's representatives at the June 1983 
NCSA conference (which developed the NCSA document) were responsible 
for instigating Important changes to the references to environmental 
education In the strategy docM^oent. 

The draft NCSA docun^ent which was discussed by the conference 
only saw a need "to develop educatloTi programs to develop awareness 

throughout the community " As we all know, promoting awareness Is 

only the first step In achieving an environmentally educated public. 
In recognition of the need for an "action* component to environmental 
education programs, the Assoclatloti representatives managed to get the 
Conference to agree that education programs should also encourage the 
practice of living resource conservation for sustainable development. 
Th1i expansion Is a vital addition when considering the future 
directions of environmental education In Australia. 

In<leed chls acceptance of the role of education In encouraging 
envlror^neiital action Is quite a step forward. In the past, 
envircnmentdi education had mainly been envisaged and Implemented In 
terms of developing awareness and understanding, so this formal 
r^f^cgnltlon ancl recorn:<iendat1on for environmental education to 
encourage action is most Important. 

T he Future 

The National Conservation Strategy for Australia provide: a focus 
and framework for developing environmental education programs for 



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scho Is and other audiences. 

The four objectives of living resource conservation adopted for 
the NCSA Include three Identified In the World Conse'^vatlon Strategy. 
The objectives are; 

to maintain essential ecological processes and life-support 
systems; 

~ to preserve genetic diversity; 

to ensure the sustainable utilisation of species and 
ecosystems; and 

to maintain and enhance environmental qualities. 

These objectives give basic guidelines for developing future 
environmental education programs. 

Within the NCSA, education and training Is seen as one of the 
priority national actions. Specifically, the actions are to: 

a^ Develop and support Informal education and Information 
programs. Including those conducted by voluntary and other 
non-government organizations, which promote throughout the 
community an awareness of the Interrelationships between the 
elements of the life-support systems and which encourage the 
practice of living resource conservation for sustainable 
development. 

b. Review, strengthen, and develop In schools environmental 
education programs which have regard for the basic objectives 
and principles of the NCSA. 

c. Review, strengthen, and di^velop training, retraining, and 
extension programs for professionals, technicians, and users 
Involved In planning and management of activities which 
Impinge upon living resources, which have regard for the 
basic objectives and principles of the NCSA. 

The endorsement of the NCSA by the federal government and the 
support for the NCSA in Australian Labor Party (ALP) policy all also 
give hope for the future. The fec^eral government is now examining 
ways of Implementing the strategy, such as through the national soil 
conservation program and national tree program, and education Is 
accepted as a most Important Implementation strategy. Environmental 
education Is recognlseo In the ALP Policy as a means of f;»c111 tating 
public participation and awareness of conservation for sustainable 
df^velopment. Developing appropriate programs to achieve the NCSA 
objectives Is a task for the present and future. 

Conclusion 

The NCSA is a most significant document for Australia as Its 
endorsement, or even acceptance In principle, by the Commonwealth, 
State, and Territory governments Indicates a turning point In the 
prevailing attitudes to the Australian environment. To paraphase 



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John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1961), .adopting the principles and objectives 
of the NCSA will mean that we will no longer be asking what our 
envlroninent can do for us. instead we will be asking what we can do 
for our environment. 

However, If Australia 1s to succeed In achieving living resource 
conservation for sustainable development there Is a crucial role for 
education and training In developing public awareness and encouraging 
Individual and group participation In appropriate practices* This Is 
a large task and thet^ Is a danger that the enormity of It could prove 
too much. 

Environmental cJucatlon progrems which aim to achieve the 
objectives of ^;ie KCSA will nee^i to be Interesting, stimulating, 
colourful, arj appealing. They will not only be designed to develop 
awareness, understanding, and feelings of concern, they will also need 
to motivate people to act constructively for the envlronm^. t. This 
will mean a change from the fact-orientation of many current 
environmental education programs to an act1on*or1entat1on* Facts are 
still an Important component of the process of educating people for 
action, but they are not sufficient In themselves. As a recent 
exploratory survey of public attitudes to nature conservation by 
McNaIr Anderson concluded: 

:Our data seems to show that, given present levels of knowledge, 
and present attitudes. Australians only think about Nature 
Conservation when a specific Issue arises. Once that Issue fades 
a»^ay, so does awareness and Interest. 

... If a campaign stimulates Interest, excitement and 
Involvement, there Is a real danger of frustration If they are 
not told what they can do about It." 

Action Is an Integral part of the success of environmental 
education. 

At the moment environmental education does not have the high 
profile It needs. ?1any people still only associate the environment 
with Issues such as th.. Franklin dam or Cape Tribulation road. They 
don't know about "living resource conservation for sustainable 
development." We need to get this message or philosophy tor living 
across to as many people as we can through formal and non-foimal 
education programs. To do this, government ^nd non-government 
organisations will need to become more political— seeking funding and 
publicity, representation on appropriate committees, and, most 
Importantly, being visible as environmental educators. 

All Interested Australians must work together to get the NCSA 
message across and to get It Implemented around Australia. 

The National Conservation Strategy for Australia Is a document wo 
can all analyse and act upon. It Is most unusual In that It was 
arrived at by consensus by government. Industry, conservation, and 
othei Interest groups Just over a year ago. It has a lot going for It 
and It has a lot going for us because It gives us a focus for 



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developing our future progran^s and ^or seeking mor^^ attention and 
funding for environmental education. 

aiblloqraphy 

A6PS. "A National Conservation Strategy for Australia.*" Canberra, 
Australia, 1984. 

AnstralUr, Labor Party. Platform 1984. ALP Secretariat. Canberra, 

Australia, 1984. 
Curriculum Development Centre. "Core Curriculum for Australian 

Schools ! What It Is and Why It Is Heeded." Canberr*:, Australia, 

1980. 

Greenall, A.E. Environmental Education In Australia: Phenomenon of 

the Seventies. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre. 1981. 

Curriculum Occasional Paper No. 7. 
^ireenall, A.E. "Environmental Education: A Study In National 

Curriculum Action." Environmental Education and Information . 

1981, 1(4), 285-294. 
Greenall, A. "Education and Environment.* Heritage Australia , 1983, 

2(1), 42-43. 

Greonali, A. "Starring with Or. Seuss." Paper given at Endangered 

species conference. Total Environment Centre, Sydney. 1984. 
McNaU Anderson Assoc1a':es Pty Ltd. Report on an Exploratory Survey 

of Public Attitudes In Relation to Nature Conservation." 

July/August 1982. 
South Australia, Education Department. "Our Schocls and Their 

Purposes: Into the 80's." Adelaide: Government Printer, 1981. 
World conservation strategy . Switzerland: lUCN, 1980. 



IV. 6. Holmes, Roland C. "Environmental Education: A Third World 
Experience." Assistant Professor, Department of feography. 
University of South Florida. St. Petersburg, FL 33701 

Through the efforts of the Peruvian university system, a new 
awareness of a iroad range of environmental Issues Is coming Into 
focus. Some problems uelng addressed by these universities Include 
Increasing food production, protecting unique natural env1,i>nments for 
present and future generations, and Informing the citizenry on how 
best to cope with the earthquake hazard. Within this context, 
environmental education can play a vital role In the curriculum of 
Peruvian college students. Env1ronm€<ital education links academic 
learning to the commurlty and heightens one's appreciation of the 
conncsctlons that exist among many of these pressing problems. 

This paper sets forth tJie author's experience In teaching 
environmental education courses at the University of San Agustin In 
Arequlpa, Peru.' Since envnonmental education should Include an 
ana.ysls of hOw people make decisions, these courses concentrated on 
resource management. 2 a geographic viewpoint formed the basis of 



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this teaching. The conceptual presentation began by raising a 
fundamental environmental question that was analyzed from two 
distinctly different perspectives. Later students used four basic 
methods to analyze resource or environmental management situations 
Finally, challenging field studies followed the theoretical 
discussions. As an outcome of this tea^Mng, the university published 
a monograph on Arequlpa's natural resources. 

Field Studies 

These foregoing principles were among the more difficult ones to 
be applied by me In two courses taught to Peruvian students In the 
University of San Agustln. Field studies formed an Integral part of 
the resource management courses so that the principal objective 
centered on the pragmatic presentation of theoretical Ideas previously 
discussed In class, in addition, the outings allowed students the 
opportunity to acquire a comprehensive view of their conwunlty. 

The field exercises focused mainly on the chief economic activity 
0. the region— Irrigation agriculture. By concentrating on only the 
one resource activity of Irrigation, the class was able to comprehend 
readily the basic concepts of resource man^jement. Students learned 
about good and bad management practices and the causal factors 
determining these differences. The exercises emphasized the 
approaches used In studying resources, especially the analytical 
approach. 

As backgrounu Information, data collection and analysis 
constituted an important field operation. Specifically, students made 
precise measurements of the hydrologic system and mapped land uses of 
Irrigated areas. They also drew landscape sketches to establish ^aslc 
spatial relationships. Finally, students Interviewed farmers and 
government officials concerning their water-use practices and related 
activities. 

To give a sense of realltv to the students' field work, our group 
held several town meetings. At these sessions off1 lals and other 
village ; met the students and heard their presentations, after which 
a llvetj discussion ensued. 

Students learned several thinys fr^m this field experience for 

Instance: 

— that gathering field Information, Including the making and 
recording of meaningful observations, Is a necessary and 
Involved undertaking; 

that managing resources constitutes a complex prc-.-^ss; and 
-- that politics forms an Integral part of the management of 
natural resources. 

Conclusions 

Lecturing on resource management in the Third World challenges 
those who come from more developed areas. While environmental ethics 



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and pollution control are Important topics In resource management, If 
overemphasized these subjects can easily overshadow a concern for the 
beneficial uses of resources for economic development. This paper has 
expressed a positive viewpoint about the role of resource man<.jement 
In environmental education, it supports the claims that f^.eld studies 
should be Incorporated Into an environmental program and that a 
holistic approach as expressed In geography can make an appropriate 
and valuable coitrlbutlon In educating students who have an Interest 
In the environment. 

For a meaningful presentation of concepts In the resource 
manageinent courses » the gr'^up engaged In theoretical discussions 
followed by field studies. As a capstone of this teaching* a Joint 
publication was prepared* Two Important and contradictory 
perspectives on the resource/population question were purposely 
presented that enabled students to better grasp the complex Issues. 
By applying concepts of resource management In the field » and by 
allowing them to Interact with the local population {the actual 
managers of resources), students developed a better grasp of the 
parameters under which they must function In defending the resource 
base. In having several members of the resource management courses 
participate In writing a monograph about the resources of the local 
area, I was able to effect a close union amongst students » Peruvian 
colleagues, and me. As a result of this collaboration, we hope that 
participants In this enterprise will be more willing to Implement 
lessons learned. Fellow Fulbrlght scholars (Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 
n.d.) have cogently captured the essence of this exper1ence--a message 
that bears repeating. The following paraphrases their Idea: Unlike 
the stranger who comes to teach In a foreign land and Is considered a 
person who comes today and goes tomorrow, with a bit of cultivation 
and much hard work, one can Instead be considered a person who corner 
today and stays tomorrow. 

Nevertheless, two points of caution are In order. First, the 
interested teacher should not expect too much from students or 
colleagues: a rule of thumb that allows one tc revel In pleasant 
surprises when things turn out well. Second, always be ready to 
1mprov1se>^a condition that can range from making a base map without 
sophisticated Instruments to unexpectedly spending the night on the 
open desert at near freezing temperatures because of transport 
problems. 

University education In Peru should continue to be more community 
related and reflect In the classroom societal r;eeds. This Is the 
place where environmental education can play an Important role In 
connecting the university to the community and where the study of 
resource management can contribute much to a meaningful education in 
the Third World. Tralnlno In resource management enables students to 
uncerstand the need for proper management of resourc**s In economic 
development. On the other hand, when they are encouraged to engage in 
field studies, students eventually will come to Investigate the whole 
gamut of their heritage and begin to appreciate how the entire 
cultural and physical milieu Infringes on the decision-making process 



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In resource management. In particular, through the use of the 
analytical approach to the study of resources, one arrives at an 
under starling of a fundamental theme In environmental education: the 
responsive behavior we take towards the environment. Finally, as 
Stapp has so ably stated. 

It has become Increasingly evident that there can 
be no hope of finding viable solutions to environ- 
mental problems unless and until education at all 
levels Is also suitably modified to enable people 
from all walks of life to comprehend from childhood 
the fundamental Interactions and Inter-relatlonshlps 
between humans and their environment" (Stapp, 1979, 
p. 37). 



IV. H. James, Carleton A. "Environmental Edu?*-1on and Public Awareness 
1n the wider Caribbean: an Overview." Consultant, Caribbean 
Conservation Association, Savannah Lodge, The Garrison, St. 
Hichael, Barbados, West Indies. 

This discourse Is based on a project currently being executed by 
the United Nations Environment Programme, through the Caribbean 
Conservation Association, on behalf of some thirty Governments of the 
Wider Caribbean. For the purpose o* this project and Its framework, 
the United Nations Environment Programme (UHEP) Caribbean ;^ct1on Plan, 
the Wider Caribbean Is defined as that region comprising the Insular 
and coastal States and Territories of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf 
of Hexico, Including the Bahamas, Guyana, Surlname, and the French 
Department of Guiana, as well as the waters of the Atlantic Ocean 
adjacent to those states and territories. 

The framework, the Carlbbe-.n Action Plan concentrates Its 
activities on the coastal areas, with special reference to thf 
Interactions among terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems, and has 
a*^ Its objectives: 

the assistance to governments of the region In minimizing 
environmental problems In the Wider Caribbean through assessment 
of the state of the environment, and development activities In 
environmental manage/nsnt; and 

the establishment of a framework for activities requiring 
regional cooperation to strengthen the capacity of the states and 
territories of the region for Implementing sound environmental 
management practices, and thus, achieve the goal of development 
ot the region on a sustainable basis. 

This cooperation specifically 1ncluv,es: 

1) Assistance to all countries of the region, recognising the 
special situation of the small Island countries; 



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2) Use of the region's human, financial and natural resources 
through technical cooperation among developing countries 
(TCDC); 

3) Regional self-reliance through the sharing of experience In 
common problems; 

4) Cooperation on problems of a transnational or International 
nature. Including natural and man-^lndueed disasters; 

5) Stimulation and coordination of International assistance 
activities; 

6) Strengthening of existing national and subreglonal 
Institutions; and 

7) Increasing public Interest In, and awareness of the 
environment/development process. 

It is on this area of environmental education and public 
awareness, maintained as a top priority project by the governmer^ts of 
the Caribbean and UNEP, that I will dwell In this presentation. 

Since 1974 the Caribbean Conservation Association has been 
Involved In environmental education In the region through Its 
programme of speakers on environmental topics In secondary schools In 
Barbados, and elsewhere In relation to the enrichment of the quality 
of life through public awareness. It was almost natural then that the 
CCA should have been chosen by UNEP as the 1nv)1ement1ng organisation 
for a project of this nature. 

Implementation of The Project on Environmental Education and 
Public Awareness In the Wider Caribbean was begun early in 1982, 
almost a year after the Intergovernmental Neeting In April 1981 In 
Jamaica, at wTtlct. Its top priority status was agreed upon. 

The first pUse was mainly a survey of environmental education 
activities In tho area to help determine the state as well as the 
status of the activity reglon-^wlde and Identify existing Indigenous 
resource materials. This activity took the form of visits by 
consultants to most of the countries and the use of a questionnaire 
(copy attached at Annex 1)* In the case of countries where a visit 
was not possible, the qjestlonnalres were sent to governments and 
non-governmental organisations and the Information collated upon 
receipt an(j returned to governments for verif Icatlon, 

The Information collected during the Survey was Instructive and 
revealing. For example, we learned that: 

1) In many countries, at the governmental level, there was a 
blurring of responsibility for environmental matters, 
constnuently mattei : such as land use, environmental law, 
environmental health, energy, human settlements arsd marine 
resource management were handled by different ministries of 
govern'' nt, without a central coordination point. This 
result Invariably In Inadequate coordination of activities. 

2) At the ^chool or Institutional level, there Is no subject on 
the curriculum entitled environmental edu atlon. Rather, 
environmental education appeared as a component of other 



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subjects such as General Science, Social Studies, Geography, 
etc. Curriculum developers everywhere were adamant that this 
approach was better than the Introduction of yet another 
subject Into already overcrowded curricula. 

3) Contrary to popular belief, both In and beyond the Caribbean, 
there Is a concern for the environment among Caribbean 
officials and technical personnel. The main barriers to more 
positive action are a paucity of informatlvf?, poverty, 
pressure to reduce unemployment and underemployment, and the 
absence of any obvious and dramatic environmental mishap, the 
results of which could lead to massive public support for 
allocating a greater share of national budget allocations, 
enacting legislation, or enforcing legislation which alr3ady 
exists. 

4) WUh one notable exception, the smaller the country the less 
was the emphasis on environmental education and public 
awareness. 

5) The level of cooperation between countries of the region Is 
severely hampered by the barriers of language, culture, and 
tradition, e.g. the volume and scope of information and 
resource materials In Jamaica to the north and Antigua and 
Barbuda to the south, could be tremendously enhanced by the 
Infusion of material and the sharing of experiences from 
Puerto Rico which lies between them. However, because of 
these barriers, those countries are much more likely to 
Initiate discussions with other English-speaking Caribbean 
countries, or the U.S. mainland or Canada. 

6) Despite the above, there Is a spontaneous willingness among 
technical people to exchange Information, aiiu to collaborate 
and a yearning for some mechanism to make this possible. 
This willingness as expressed during the two year survey 
(1982-1983) has already manifested Itself In the donation of 
texts and audio-visual material to the Secretariat of the 
Caribbean Conservation Association for replication and use 
elsewhere In the region. 

7) Unlike many groups In North America and Western Europe, the 
environmental non-governmental organisations In the Caribbean 
are not pressure groups, lobbyists, or aggressively active. 
Rather, they are groups of concerned citizens with common 
academic or social Interests which provide Information 
through publications, lectures, etc., and a persuasive 
approach to a realignment of attitudes at the level of the 
politician and the general public. Most of these 
organisations deal with the historical and cultural 
environment through National Trusts and similar activities 
aimed at preservation of the architectural and Historical 
heritage. 

8) The mass media are willing ai.^ eager to use environmental 
public awareness material, but need to have the material 
provided by environmentalists, governments, universities, 
scientists, etc. 

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The above are some Insights into environmental education and 
public awareness activities In the Caribbean, obtained during the 
survey. The 1()format1on collected In the survey 1$ being published by 
UNEP In a directory which will be available In January 198S* Another 
product, a manual on coral reefs for schools Is due to be available at 
about the same time. 

Phase II 

The Caribbean Action Plan Monitoring Committee, whose main work 
Is follow up and evaluation of the Plan, has continued to maintain the 
high priority of the Project on the list of priorities of the Plan, 
and authorised limited funding for the next phase, January-December 
1984. During this phase, the main activities were the holding of an 
Environmental Education Workshop for media personnel from the region 
In Barbados 6-8 June 1983, production of public awareness material for 
circulation throughout the region, and work toward the development of 
a network of cooperetors In environmental education In the region. 

The workshop was held. In view of the realisation that the public 
Information media In the region were expected to be catalysts In 
almost every area of development, and yet were rarely ever exposed to 
the subjects they were expected to deal with, eg* economics, 
diplomacy, agriculture, public health, etc* It war decided, 
therefore, to Invite nominations for participants from government and 
non-government media for three days of exposure to, and Immersion In, 
matters of an environmental nature, and discussion on suitability of 
various approaches to environmental communication In the region. The 
workshop also provided the opportunity for discussion on the needs of 
communications personnel for the Implementation of sustained 
programmes of environmental public awareness. 

The public awareness material currently being produced consists 
mainly of a series of 30-m1nute radio documentary features entitled 
"The Caribbean Environment and You," which are circulated for monthly 
brc ::cast to twenty-five stations In the Caribbean ? ' ^i-g1un on topics 
Including "Coastal Conservation, Environmental Legis ion and 
Education, the work of the Caribbean Environmental Hi.,.lth Institute, 
and Watershed Protection," Other components Include radio and 
television public service announcements and short newspaper articles. 

The response to these products has been positive, in that the 
feedback from participants In the workshop was that It was a long 
overdue Initiative which should be foUowed-up. The feedback from 
governments on the media material Is that the radio programmes were 
regularly used and repeated, while In the case of miaterlal on 
video-tape, much greater use Is being made of dissemination through 
video home systems (VHS) In small groupr and service organisations, 
then throuijh national television systems. I'hls Is understandable In 
view of the embryonic stage of national television In most of the 
Island states and the absence of national television as In the cases 
of Angullla and Guyana. 



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During this phase, also, tne Caribbean Conservation Association 
has worked closely with the Division of Environmental Education of 
Ohio State University and the Rare Animal Relief Effort (RARE) of the 
United States on environmental education projects in the region, 
consistent with the goals of the Caribbean Action Plan. 

Phase III 

This project is about to enter its third phase In 1985. This Is 
a consolidation phase with the following objectives, activities and 
outputs. 

Objectives 

Short term 

1) To ensure coordination of action In connection with 
environmental education and public awareness activities being 
carried out within the Ulder Caribbean, particularly by 
organisations outside the region, %#1th a view to ensuring 
their compatlbllty with the objectives of the Caribbean 
Action Plan. 

2) To improve the conceptualisation, development and evaluation 
of their pi!b11c awareness programmes In the countries of the 
region. 

3) To facilitate and encourage the storage, production, and 
exchange of Indigenous resource materials, printed, 
audio-visual or otherwise. In the countries of the region. 

4) To promote the use of audio-visual material about the 
Caribbean environment from the perspective of the Caribbean 
peoples. 

Long te rm 

To develop an environmental ethic among the populations of the 
region, leading to the support of regional Intergovernmental 
Initiatives consistent with the priorities and goals of the Caribbean 
Action Plan. 

Activities ard Workplan 

The Caribbean Consarvatlon Association will: 

1) function as a co-^ordl nation point for regional environmental 
education activities, and as a clearinghouse for resource 
materials; 

2) provide specific assistance to Individual countries In the 
production of Indigenous audio-visual material for their own 
public awareness activities and encourage the production of 
material for use In primary and secondary schools; 



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3) continue the production and circulation of public Information 
material of regional Interest, Including the quarterly 
"Caribbean Conservation News,* which will be Improved; 

4) develop closer links between environmental education and 
public awareness personnel In the English and 
Spanish-speaking Caribbean, through liaison with ROLAC and 
other Intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations; 
and 

5) will select consultants to work toward the Implementation of 
this phase of the project. 

Outcjt and their use 

1) Agreement and collaboration between the various organisations 
and agencies concerned with environmental education In the 
region. 

2) Video programmes for use by community, national, regional and 
International media to provide concise Information on the 
state of the Caribbean Environment, the level of awareness 
among Caribbean people. Including decision-makers, what Is 
being done, and how the average person can help In various 
efforts. 

3) Improved production skills among national media, and an 
Informal network of collabor^ rs, the nucleus of which 
already exists In the form ol the participants In the June 
1984 CAP Workshop for media personnel held In Barbados. 

4) Public Information material copies of which could be made 
available upon request, for broadcast, reference, or research. 

In conclusion, environmental education and public awareness In 
the wider Caribbean Is taking place at a number of levels - national 
and regional, sometimes with allocations from national budgets, but 
more often with International funding and technical assistance. 

In the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, there are a number of well 
developed programs at the university level. In the English-speaking 
Caribbean, the University of the West Indies, through Its School of 
Education, has a program of environmental education In Its 
teacher-training activities, through Its campuses In Jamaica and 
Barbados, and Teacher Training Colleges In the smaller Islands. The 
French Departments of MartlnlQje and Guadeloupe have access to and 
support from France In the development of this type of training. 

Throughout the Wider Caribbean, public awareness activities are 
taking place, and being executed by Individuals, groups, agencies and 
governTOnt departments on specific subjects. The common need, 
however. Is for audio-visual and printrd material development and 
exchange, and access to Information as to where suitable might be 
available. It 1s envisaged that the Caribbean Conservation 
A..soc1dt1on Secretariat In Barbados, will perform a clearing house 
function for the short term to satisfy this need. The long term plan, 
as agreed to by UNEP and the governments. Is to establish a Regional 
Coordination Unit, as funds become available. 



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The picture then Is one of hope, given an adequate level of 
Intra-reglonal cooperation and collaboration. My colleagues In the 
prolect and I believe that a presentation such as this, on a project 
currently being executed could serve a imiltltude of purposes. It 
could serve to give reolonal and International environmental planners, 
resource managers, decision makers, researchers and public education 
specialists, an Insight Into a sensltlsatlon process now underway In a 
region of the world with many different cultures, languages, and 
models of socio-economic development, and many small Insular states, 
with fragile ecosystems, and severely limited carrying capacities. 

Through this. It 1s hoped to bring to the fiittentlon of the many 
environmentalists here and of course their organizations, that there 
already exists a framework for environmental education and public 
awareness activities in the Wider Caribbean, approved by the 
governments, within whUh they tan structure their proposals for 
pre* cts In the region, thereby Increasing the likelihood or these 
projects making a contribution to the sustainable development of the 
region. 



IV. I. Lleberman, Gerald A. "RARE: Envlronmentc Education 

Catalyst." President, RARE, Inc., 1601 Connecticut Avenue, 
N.W., Washington, O.C. 20009. 

INTRODUCTION 

There has been great progress In the protection of the Earth's 
natural heritage during the past twenty years. However, the lasting 
success of these efforts Is endangered! by rapidly gro'^lng popu'atlons 
which cause continually changing patterns of resource use In 
developing countries. 

RARE believes that we must begin to build support for 
conservation through education and training. If we are to assure the 
long-term effectiveness of con ^rvatlon programs Implemented by 
various organizations In developing countries. 

Recently, the World Wildlife Fund-US (WWF-U3) recognized that the 
vast ree'l r.nd p'^tentlal for conservation education and training could 
significantly Increase ^-he Intact of Its ongoing international 
conservat'on program. Thus, RARE and WWF-US decided to Join efforts 
In this .rtportant field. RARE has since become the conservation 
education affiliate of HWF-US, and as stch, develops and directs all 
International conservation education programs on their behalf. 

CONSERVATION NEEDS AND GOALS OF AN EDUCATION AND TRAINING STRATEGY 
Seeds 

In order to Improve the menagement of natura resources through 
conservation education and training, RARE has undertaken programs 
which address three basic needs: 



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1) Archiving modifications 1n the processes of policy-making 
among decis'lon-roakers In both the public and private sector; 

2) Changing the cultural and sociological relationship of the 
citizens at 'arge to their environment; and. 

3) Increasing technical capabilities and human resources in the 
field of natural resources management and conservation. 

Goals 

To be effective, we believe that conservation educat:on must 
occur at all levels of society and must teach p<;ople now to live in a 
sustainable manner with the natural resources upon which they depend. 
It 1s critical that these efforts result in modification of day-^to-day 
policy-making processes in both public and private sectors, and that 
the cultural and sociological relationships of citizens to their 
environment undc lo dramatic change. 

RARE*s programs are designed to achieve the following five goals: 

6oal I: To incorp o r a te global resource management concerns into 
government and private sector policy-making processes. 

Goal II: To Improve understanding bv the general public and 
thereby encourage support for the development of appropriate 
natural resources management and conservation policies. 

Goal III: To develop conservation ethics in young people that 
win enable them to become responsible stewards of their natural 
resources. 

Goal IV: To change patterns of consumption of natural resource s 
on an International basis. 

Goal V: To Increase the technical capabilities of professior^ls 
dealing with natural resource management in developing countries. 

THt PROCESS OF CONSERVATION PROGRAMMING 

Keeping in mind RAf(E*s conservation goals, education and training 
must guide individuals beyond a general awareness of environmental 
problems and shculd provide the technical capabilities necessary to 
implement effective management programs. Conservation eaucation and 
training activities must deal with under'^tanding of environmental 
problems and lead to the actions which eventually solve these problems. 

A five step progression for resolving environmental management 
problems Is outlined in detail below: 

1) Awareness of an Environmental Problem Individuals or 

groups must be tiiade aware of an environmental problem before 
they can be expected to take any action. 



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2) Understanding the Problem — In addition to being aware that 
a problem exists. It Is crucial that people understand the 
causes of the problem; In this way, they will be able to work 
toward Iti solution. 

3) Comprehension of one's Relationship to the Problem — Once 
people become aware of the problem and develop an 
understanding of It, they can i)eg1n to relate a specific 
environmental problem t^ their present health, well-being, 
and economic situation, etc., and begin to consider the type 
of environment which will be available for their children and 
grandchildren. 

4) Notlvatlon to Look for Solutions to the Problem — People 
only become motivated to take -action after they realize that 
an environmental problem and Its consequences can affect 
their personal health and happiness. 

5) Search for Solutions to the Problem ~ Solutions to 
environmental problems range from public education to 
technical training activities for professionals. In some 
cases the Implementation of these solutions Is complicated 
and may require specialized technical assistance In addition 
to training. 

6) Implementation of Corrective Actions — Implementation of 
corrective actions requires all of the ^bove steps. The 
support of decision-makers and the general public Is ciudal 
for the long-term success of any actions undertaken by 
technically capable natural resource managers. 

HOW RARE PROJECTS IN EDUCATION Ai^D TRAINING ARE DEVELOPED 

STAGE I: IDENTIFICAITON OF GOALS 

Clearly defined conservation goals provide the basis upon which 
decisions are to be made for the next four stages In the strategy. 
These goals constitute the underlying assumptive framework from which 
the educator approaches specific conserv ion probleRiS. 

STAGE II: ANALYSIS OF NEEDS 

Priorities are determined through the study of a given country's 
status regarding each of the five education and training goals. Only 
an in-depth, country-specific strategy can adequately Identify highest 
priority needs. These needs are than translated Into education and 
training objectives and subsequently, methods. 

STAGE III: AUDIENCE AND METHODS 

After basic needs have been identified and priorities set, the 
audience Is researched. Because methods must be audience specific, 
inadequate understanding of an audience can result in Ineffective 
education and training programs. Generally, several methods are 
combined to form an education and training package. 



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STAGE IV: APPROACHES AND IMPLEHENTATION 

Education and training objectives, knowledge of selected 
audiences and choices of methods constitute a program. Part of RARE's 
overall education training strategy Involves determining how a program 
can best be developed and Implemented In a given country. There are 
four basic approaches wtilch are used depending upon the financial and 
technical resources available In the target country, these include: 
1) RARE staff development and implementation of programs; 2.t providing 
technical assistance to a government, private voluntary organization 
of Individual: 3) tralnlny professionals In less developed countries 
(LCD's) to enable tham to develop their own st,r»\teg1es anu program^; 
and, 4* providing funds to groups and Individuals who are pursuing 
activities and Implementing programs compatible with RARE's 
conservation education and training goals. 

STAGE V: EVALUATION 

Evaluation of each proJe::t 1s used to Identify problems as well 
as positive attributes and allow for adjustment on subsequent projects. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 

h number of conservation education and training programs have 
been Identified for Implementation, based upon RARE's conservation 
education and training goals and the previously describee process. 
Many of these activities are parts of already on-going programs, 
others ar* new and will be In^lemented at the earliest possible time. 

Because ra'IE Is worUng to achieve long-term conservation yoals, 
H Is crucial tf»at the International education and training programs 
be developed and implemented in cooperation with agencies In t.^e 
"target" countries. In this way our programs produce both direct- 
benefits for the countries involved and act as the cata'yst for local 
activities undertaken with or without RARE's continuing assistance. 



IV. J. Llsn, Atne. v.r,v1roiii"ental Education IihplUatlons of 
technological Oevelc^^i«en*: ;rv the ^rcMc." University of 
Trondheim, N-7C84, Melmus, Norway. 

(no text has been made ^^allable) 



IV. K. Medina, Augusto Q. "The Caribbean Environmental Education 

Program." Education Speclalls RARE, Inc., 1604 Connecticut 
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C 20009. 



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The Idyllic picture of an Island paradise In the eastern 
Caribbean Is easily shattered for those who look beyond the gleam'.ng 
notels and white san<^ beaches* Deforestation, erosion, habitat loss, 
and solid waste disposal are .lust a few of the problems confronting 
these fragile tropical envlronvnents. At the same time. Individuals 
with the necessary skills to Increase public awareness and take action 
on these Issues are few. 

In Auyust of 1983, the Agency for International Development (AID) 
gave a $125,000 grant for International envlrowmental education to 
RARE, Inc., the World Wildlife Fund-US education affiliate. This 
grant enabled the launching In April 1984 of the Caribbean 
Environmental Education Program (CEEP), a good example of World 
W^ildllfe Fund-US/RARE's overall conservation education program. 

CEEP addresses the shortage of conservation educators In the 
eastern Caribbean by training Caribbean professionals In environmental 
education and puollc awareness techniques. Unlike typical training 
programs In developing countries, CEEP has recruited most of It*; 
Instructors from among local environmental experts who underst«ind the 
region's problems. Specialists from the United States are also 
participating. Together, these experts are working with the trainees 
who are learning to design and Implement environmental education 
programs for their countries. 

CEEP Is supplementing training with funds so that all 
participants can Implement an environmental education and public 
awareness program In their own country. Technical assistance Is also 
being made available to help ensure that the momentum developed during 
the training will not be lost when part^t:1pants face the challenge of 
their home sltu.^tlon. 

On the Island of St. Lucia, during Phase I of the progr^^r, 
t'^alnees Investigated major resource management Issues conr^un to the 
eastern Carlboean countries. This study was reinforced by travel 
throughout the Irland t^ study local environmental problems. 
Participants saw example?^ uf slash-and-burn agriculture, visited an 
oil storage Installation and snorkeled on a coral reef. This gave 
participants first-hand knowledge of the problems and helped them 
develop an appreciation for the complexity of environmental Issues. 

Participants were also exposed to the Important role that natural 
r^esource and socio-economic data play In understanding the dynamics of 
an issue. An exercise which investigated Important natural resource 
Issues on St. Lucia (sand mining, solid waste, and conch cxolft^tatlon) 
gave the participants the opportunity to practice ard sharpen their 
own data gathering skills. A prototype environmental education 
program was thAn developed based on the data collected by the 
participants. 

Durlag Phase II participants returned to their countries to 
collect Information on environmental Issues of concern there. Four 
participants Investigated fisheries related Issue: such as destruction 
of coral reef:, conch and spiny lobster overfishing, and reclamation 
of inangrove swamps. 



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Other participants researched endangered wildlife and soil 
eroslcn problems due to deforestation and agricultural practUes. 
Participant* used this Information during Phase III of the program to 
determine appropriate programs dn6 materials as well as design a 
strategy for mounting an environmental education campalan \n their 
respective countries. In addition, Phase III, a 4 week'lo^^g session, 
stressed training In a wide array of education and cofflmunl cation 
methods . 

Ourlns Phase IV participants are In their own countries 
Implementing the environmental education strategy they developed 
during Phase III. They are working to Increase public awareness ab jt 
the Issue they selected and are seeking local support to ta^e action 
on the prob.cm. Environmental education materials to address the 
Issue ar olso being developed by the participants. These materials 
will later be disseminated throughout the region to maximize the use 
of the products of this workshop. 

In June 1985 part*'-*Dants and Instructors will meet again for 
Phase V, the final phas of the program to assess the effectiveness 
of the envlionmental ed;icat1on campaigns Implemented by the 
participants. In addUton, strategies for sustaining future education 
eff i ;s 1n th» region will be developed. 

E, bring .ng together Individuals from different countries, CEEP 
hopes to burd an environmental education network In the eastern 
Caribbean and stimulate Increased envlrormental awareness and action. 
If successful, CEEP will serve as a mod'. i fof conservation education 
training In other developing regions of ths world. 



IV. L. Hetcalfe, Pettr. "Environmental Science for Solomon Islands 
Teachers: a Pattern for Third WorVJ Coujitrlesi" Arraldale 
College of Advanced Education, Annldale, N.S W., Australia 2350. 

General Background 

The Solomon Islands Is an Independent country situated In tue 
Soyth-We:t pacific. There are 6 main Islands, and hundreds of smaller 
Islands. The main Islands are mountainous with only limited areas of 
flat to undulating land. The cVjmate Is tropical and the vegetation 
1s basically t: epical rainforest with mangroves being widespread. The 
surrounding seas are rich In fisn and there are Urge expanses of 
coral reefs and lagoons. 

V flora &nd fauna are rich and varied, there being many ,idem1c 
species. For example 44X of bird >pec1es are endemic to th? Solomons 
and 38X are unique subspecies or races (Diamond, 1976). 

The population Is approximately 250,000 with a growth rate of 
approximately 3.5X cer annum, the highest In th(. Asla-Parlfic region. 
Ninety percent of the population live In coastal villages of fewer 
than 100 people. In 1982 the cash gross domestic product uas $400 per 
h^ad (Hughes 1982). Life expectancy was 54 years . '»r1a was the 
major diseise In the country. 



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Major exports are logs and fish which are extracted from the 
ecosystem. The plantation products copra and palm oil are also 
exported. Major Imports are petroleum fuels, manufactured goods, 
mac/tlner'' and transport equipment, and food and beverages. 

Fo ne majority of the population basic needs are met directly 
from th' Dcal ecosystems rather than through the cash economy. Food, 
housing materials, water and firewood are drawn from the nearby 
gardens, forests, mangroves, streams, and lagoons. 

Students Background 

Most students begin teacher training after three years of 
secondary education. Typically they under-value their (wn knowledge 
of their environment and perhaps over-value book knowi«»dge. They have 
rarely been given the opportunity to develop science process skills 
during their schcoling and these skills need to be developed. English 
Is frequently the^r third language after local langua^^ an*i PlJIn. 
The students therefore need practice at expressing their own Ideas 1r 
spoken and written English. Since reading Is not a common pastime 
there Is also the need for reading comprehension exercises to Improve 
their reading skills. 

Methods of Curriculum Developr cnt 

Discussions were held with a broad cross-section of the cominunlty 
Including teachers and headmasters, factory managers, logging 
managers, community development workers, conservationists, health 
workers, ei:c. Tn addition, a wide range of the aquatic and 
terrestrial ecosystems of the Solomon Islands were Investigated first 
hand. Published materials about the Solomons and the Pacific Region 
were gathered. 

All discussions and field lifivestlgatlons were geared to . iswer 
the overall question: "What science Is appropriate for the Solomon 
Islands?" 

The topics, nominated by the Solomon Islanders as being 
appropriate, were ar.^anged as shown In Diagram I to show 
1nter-relat1onsh1ps between t^e topics. 

Many activities and excursions were trialed on train ^ teachers 
using different teaching strategies. Field activities were also 
undertaken with primary teachers and primary and sect^ndary classes. 

Practice teaching supervision made evident the richness of the 
typical school environment which make It possible to teati grod 
environmental science despite the lack of equipment. Also, science 
has the potential to Improve math and language lessons which are 
current! aught In Isolation from other subjects. 

Tht jicive Investigations and activities led to the formulation of 
the ' rles of Integrated units shown In Table I. These units fit Into 
cur At and proposed course patterns. 



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DIAGRAM I 

SCIENCE TOPICS NOMINATED BY 
SOLOMON ISLANDERS AS BEING 
APPROPRIATE TO THEIR SOCIETY 



Topics arrangec) to ftK<>w intt^relationthipt 




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TABLE I Proposed Environmental Science u'^ ts for Solomon Islands 
trainee teachers* 

SEMESTER IWTESftATED HALF SEMESTER UNITS 

*1 Population Studies 1 People and Materials 

*2 Population Studies 2 People and Energy 

3 Common Animals People and Water 

4 The Life of Plants Air, Wind and Weather 

5 Fire, Plants and Soil People and Foresti; 

6 People and Mangroves Ocean, Reef, and Beach. 

* Foundation courses for both teacher and technical trainees. 
General Structure of the Units 

Each unit is Integrated to Include: 

- bas^c scleiice understandings 

- science process skills 

- basic language and math skills 

- science teaching methods (semesters 3 to 6) 

The balance of these components change:^ as the st Jdents proceed 
through the cour^.e. 

Each unit oa Population, Energy and Materials has a spUal 
structure which begins with the Individual and the village community, 
National data Is then studied and compared with other Pacific 
countries. Global aspects are dealt with last. The other units are 
fpore local In their focus but national Implications are dealt with. 
Articles from other Pacific countries are Included as reading 
comprehension exercises. 

The units dealing with ecosystems Include four broad concept 
areas : 

- the diversity, adaptation, and Interaction of plant and 
animals 

- people *s utilization of and impact on the system 

- conservation and stewardship 
how to teach about the ecosystem 

Since the Islands differ In both ecology and local language, the 
students are required to Individualize their assignments, using local 
names for the plants and anImaU of their particular ^-sland. However, 
the basic concepts developed and the teaching methods used can be 
applied to any ecosystem. 

Alternative Units and Coorolnatlon with Other Subjects 

Alternative units are necessary to allow for the changes In 



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expertise and Interests of the lecturing staff allocated to teach the 
course. For example, units on "People and Shelter," "people and 
Transport." and "People and Tools and Machines" could be substituted. 
Similarly, with cooperation fro« the Social Science departnent. a unit 
entitled "Peopie and Industry" could be developed, "cand Use and Land 
Tenure" would be another suitable Envlronnental/Soclal Science unit. 

The recent amalgamation of the separate departments of 
Environmental Science, Hom* Economics, Agriculture and Health, and 
Physical Education should ensure coordination between topics. For 
example "People and Forests" should interlock with the agriculture 
topic "Subsistence Farming." Similarly "People and Mater" links to 
the health topic "Mater Supply and Sanitation." 

Teaching Strategies 

Emphasis u placed on group activities during excursions and 
laboratory sessions. No lectures are given but students are 
encouraged to discuss their experiments and observations, producing 
written statements which they then record on the board to form a class 
nummary. Most activities Involve no more than simple Improvised 
equlptisent and may be readily adapted to the elementary classroom. 
Discussion of teaching methods Is woven among the activities as 
appropriate. 

This approach is used to help stuoents develop 

skills and confidence In oral and written language 
skills and confidence in science process skills 
confidence In their own knowledge of the environment 
positive attitudes towards workln; wltt* others frtu different 
islands 

respect for the ideas of others, particularly those of women. 

Evaluation and Evolution of the Course. 

Subjective evaluation and modification of the units has been 
continuous since the work b^gan In 'i983. In sone units pretests were 
used to Identify attitudes and Interests of the students and the 
concepts that needed development. Subsequent tests and assignments 
then Indicates! how successful the teaching strategies had been. 
Activities wierfe also evaluated In terms of Initial student response 
and how readily students later transferred the activities to the 
practice teaching situation. This process of evaluation and change 
will need to b(» continued as staff and course structure alter over the 
next few years. 

Transferability of the Program. 

The general model showri In diagram I shcjld be widely applicable, 
but the specific elements fitted into the model should reflect the 



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actlc'^s taken by the particular culture to obtain basic needs from the 
ecosystems accessable to that culture. Consequently, the titles and 
content of the Integrated units would need to be altered. 

It w^uld also be necessary to evaluate the need for basic 
language and maths skills, science process skills, teaching skills and 
science content, so that teaching methods could be adapted to mtt the 
needs of the students. 

Bibliography 

OIAHONO. J.H. A Proposed Fortst Reserve System and conservation 
Strategy for the Solomon Islands - a Report to the Solomon 
Islands Government. 1976 

HUGHES. A.V. Central Bank of Solofron Islands Annual Report. 1982 



IV. M. Quaye. Eric C. "Towards the Development of Environmental 
Literacy In a Developing Country - Ghana." Professor. 
Department of Botany. University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, 
Ghana. Africa. 

The Improvement of environmental quality Is the ultimate and 
significant goal of environmental education. More specifically, this 
goal 1s to create a concern that leads to a commitment to preserve or 
develop optimum environments and to Improve less desirable ones. Host 
Third World societies are gradually becoming aware of the ultimate 
threat to human survival of further deterioration In man*s 
environment. This threat comes from several Interrelated problems, 
the major ones being: (1) the explosive Increase in human population; 
(2) the rapid depletion of both renewable and nonrenewabe resources; 
and (3) an awesome Increase In man's ability to pollute the 
environment. 

In some developing countries, solution? to these problems have 
not made any significant impact on decreasing the rate of 
environmental degradation. This Is a clear Indication that these 
countries are not dealing directly with the underlying cause*^ and 
long-range Implications of the problems* Instead, most attrition Is 
devoted to ways of dealing with the symptons Mther xU?f\ fUe disease 
itself. 

In Ghana, a K. lf-he?rted atteis^t Is being made by tho Government, 
through Its agency, the Env1ronm<jntal Protection Council (EPC), to 
Institute programmes to educate the masses on the consequences of 
decreasing the quality of the environment. The programmes take Into 
account the existence of im systems of environmental education - a 
nonformal and a formal system. The nonformal <^ystem, wnlch Is the 
Immediate focus of attention, directed at ttie public at large or 
particular <:ef""^nts (ta'^get groups) of the general public. The foriral 
system, on tht ther hand. Is centered? on teacher-student 
relationships through oeclfic curricula <nd Is, ther^rfore. directed 
at peof)le receWInc formal education only 



87 



The ultimate goal of these programnes Is to create a citizenry 
that Is environmentally literate. However, being Informed may not 
necessarily bring about the desired change 1n attitude or commitment 
to Improve environmental quality since behavioral patterns In adults 
are mainly directed by attitudes developed In childhood. Awareness of 
the youth, therefore, should be the major aim of environmental 
education In Ghana and other devcjloplng countries. 

The poor state cf the economies of developing countries Is not 
the only drawback facing the successful Implementation of 
environmental programmes. Equally Important are the eco-soclal 
systems and the eco-polltlcs operating In these countries. The 
problem of environmental literacy can therefore be Improved If It Is 
Integrated Into an overall national progranme. This must be a 
"package program." which must take account of the Interrelationships 
of soc1o-pol1t1cc<l, economic and technical factors In a systems 
approach. 



IV. N. Saxena, K.G. "Ecological Implications of Shifting 

Agriculture." Department of Botany, P.P.N. College. Kanpur 
University, 96/12 Hahatma Gandhi Harg, Kanpur, indU 208C01 

The tribal populations of the north-eastern hill region of India 
practice shifting agriculture, locally referred to as "Jhum." This 
Involves slash and bu n of developing forested commun1t1*»s followed by 
mixed cropping for a year or two. The land 1$ abandoned for secondary 
succession In order to restore soil fertility until It Is next 
cultivated. This Intervening fallow period between the two suctestlve 
cropplngs on the same site (Jhum cycle), which was 20-70 years long 
previously, has now been reduced to only 4-6 years, 

Jhum cultivation varies depending upon the length cf cultivation 
cycle. In a plot under a long cycle of 10 years or more, as many as 
14 crops may be sown together simply by dibbling and ha vesting at 
different times. The crop mixture cons'ists of grain ano seed crops 
like Orvza satlv^. Sesawum Indlcum. Zea mavs. Setaria itaMca. 
Phas eolus munge, Riclnus communis (also used for rearing T'lkworms). 
leafy and fruit vegetables like Hibiscus fu bdarlffa. H- b*«c»s 
esculenta, and a wide variety of cucurbits, and tuberous r?ops l^kc 
Hannlhot esculenta and C olocasia ant1cor>jre. Tht succs-^ve harvests 
of crops not only create additional space for the remaining crops hut 
also Improve soil fertility as a result of decay ot left over plant 
debris. In the second year of cropping following tiie burn, Sesasniai 
indlcum. Mannlnot esculenta and banana along with vegetaMe crops are 
preferred to the cereals. Under short cycles of 4-0 years, c:ops like 
Sesamum indlcum . banana and vegetable crops are i^h^:*7e'j :ather thars 
cereals which give poor yields under these situations (Rawkrishnan et 
il. 1981). An In^ortant feature of such a t>'i5d*t'ioi.al ag-1c«ltyrs^ 
system pertains to mixed cropping which U apiirently an efficicf-t way 
of utilizing rapidly dwindling resources tv choosing mutudlly 
compatible crops. Furtheriecre, this Agr*:ulcural systf.c involves 



88 



neither any sort of land preparation nor any fertilizer Input, in 
view of the socio-economic problems of the region, the tribals perhaps 
try for all their essential needs at one time, and Independently, 
probably because of poor inter-communlcatlon. 

Ecological analysis of vegetation development following slash and 
burn may form a rational basis for evaiuetlng the Impact of shifting 
agriculture on structure and function of hill ecosystems, and 
subsequently, for arriving at a precise management policy ensuring the 
quality of environment. Such an approach becomes also relevant 
because early successlcnal species act as weeds owing to their direct 
Interference with the planted crops. We present here our findings on 
the ecological analysis of shifting agriculture, emphasizing over the 
weed problem and the related environmental Issues. 

The pattern of vegetation development following the burn was 
found to be Influenced by the length of the cultivation cycle (Saxena 
& Ramakrishnan, 1984a). Under the short cycles of 4-6 years, where 
the disturbance of fire Is more frequent, early succession conformed 
closely to the "Initial florlstic composition model" of Egler (1954). 
In contrast, the classical "relay florlstlcs model* was found to 
operate under long cycles of 10-20 years with a comparatively low 
frequency of f^"^e disturbance. Such a difference In the pattern of 
vegetation development under short and long cycles may he expected 
because under the former situation of highly perturbed commnlties, 
"Initial florlstic composition model'' ^.ends to be more successful 
(Cornell & Slatyer, 1977) • 

When short Jhum cycles of 4-6 yearv are repeatedly Imposed over 
a site as Is the case at present, succession gets "arrested" at an 
early stage wt^en the coNwinlty Is exclu'>1vely composed of exotic 
herbaceous weeds having high reproductive potential (R^Strateglsts) . 
In contrast, under long cycles of 10-20 years, these weedy species are 
eventually replaced because of str'^ss conditions by bamboos (Saxena & 
Ramakrishnan 1984b) and sh^de tolerant herbaceous species with low 
reproductive potential (S-slrateglsts) which dominate here ^^axena & 
Ramakrishnan l9B2d,b). This change results In the burn being more 
^ntense due to heavier fuel load under long cycles compared to thai* 
under shorter cycles, A high reproductive potentlel of the early 
successlonal species and consequently a high propagule production 
during the Intervening fallow period coupled with a low Intensity burn 
may account for a high weed population under short cycles compared to 
long cycle" of 10*20 years. The success and apparent co-existence 
thii^ weeds following the burn may be associated with their divergent 
patterns of resource allocation, reproductive and growth strategies, 
and differential nutrient uptake and use associated with C3/C4 
photosynthetic pathways (Saxena & Ramakrishnan, 1984c). Drastic 
alterations In the m1cro*env1ronment caused by these exotic weeds has 
resulted in a rapid depletion of germplasm. Many of the orchid 
species of Vanda , Dendroblim i ani Cvmb^dlum are In the list of 
e'^dangered plants. 

The less of nitrogen, which Is the most critical element In the 
terre5;tr1a ecosystems of sub-trcplcal and tropical cllmcktes (as Is 



90 



89 



the case here). Is due to rapid nitrification and Intense rainfall on 
the steep slopes with sparse crop cover unOer short cycles compared to 
the longer cycles. Moreover, shorter cycles of 4-6 years do not 
permit adequate recovery In soil fertility, whereas long intervening 
fallow periods available under 10-20 year cycles can restore the 
soils' fertility to a large extent (Toky & Ranakrlsf lan, 1981). 

Thus Jhum cultivation could be sustained provided the cultivation 
cycle Is long enough, permitting the adequate recovery In soil 
fertility and also avoiding any Invasion of noxious weeds. The 
repeated slash-burn of a site at short intervals deteriorates the 
environment in terms of both soil fertility and vegetation cover. The 
monetary yield gets reduced to nearly half under a 5 year cycle as 
compared with a 10 year cycle (Toky & Ranakrishnan. 1981). This Is 
obvious due to serious weed and soil fertility problems associated 
with shortening the cultivation cycle. The extent of damage to the 
ecosystem could be better exemplified by an extrome case of Jhum at 
short cycles at Cherrapunji. which Ix one of the areas receiving 
highest rainfall in the world. In spite of an exceptionally high 
precipitation. It Is surprising to observe general bareness of the 
landscape. However, there Is a smali "relict forest" and a few 
valleys which are protected from the human interference Indicating 
that the climax vegetation of the area could be a rich forest cover. 

Agriculture Is certainly an Important land management practice 
and It Is perhaps practically impossible to eliminate Jhum from 
north-eastern India. It may be mentioned here that Jhum, In fact. Is 
a part of the cultural heritage of tribals. Several festivals are 
celebrated with various operations of Jhum like cutting, burning and 
harvesting. However, this age old practice should be restricted In 
view of the critical geographic and climatic conditions of the area; 
otherwise modifications are urgently needed In fact, reperc- *ons 
of soil erosion caused by shifting agriculture on the steep st due 
to heavy monsonic rainfall appear In the form of silting of rivers and 
frequent floods In the plains of the sub-continent. It is suggested 
that the area could be better exploited for horticulture and forestry 
whlrh would piotect the soil from erosion and would also maintain a 
rich germplasm. Modern agriculture which Involves large energy 
subsidies in the form of land preparation and fertilizer input may 
create more problems than it would solve. Since Jhum is a traditional 
agriculture adopted as a way of tribal life, int<»ns1ve environmental 
educaiion to the largely illiterate and highly conservative tribals is 
primarily needed to maintain the quality of environment in 
north-eastern India. 

Acknowledgements 

This research was financially supported b»' the Department of Science & 
Technologi/, Oepartment c* Environment, and lovernroent of India under 
the "Han and Biosphere" pr' gramne. 



90 



Bibliography 

Clement^, T.Z. "riant Succession Analysis of the Development of 
Vegetation." Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, 
1962, pp. 242; 542. 

Cornell, j^H. & Slatyer, R.O. Nechanlsms of Succession '^n Natural 
Conmunltles and Their Rule In Coimunlty Stability and 
Organization. Aw erlcan Naturalist , 1977. vol. Ill, pp. in9«T*44. 

Egler, F.E. "Vegetation Science Concepts. I. Initial Florlstic 
Composition - a Factor In Oldfueld Veget^.tlon Oevelop^^ent." 
.station . 1954. vol. 4. pp. 412-417. 

Raroakrlshnan, P.S. tt Toky, O.P. •Soil Nutrient Status of Hill 
Agroecosystems and Recovery Pattern af^.er Slash and Burn 
Agriculture (Jhum) In North-eastern India. Plan t and Soil . 1981, 
vo\ 60, pp. 41-64. 

Ramakrl!;hnan, P.S , Toky, O.P., Misra, B.K. & Saxena, K.6. "Slash and 
Burn Agriculture In North-aastarn India." Fire > «l wc$ and 
Ecosystem Properties . Edited by H.A. Nooney, J.M. Bonnlcksen, 
N.L. Chrlstensen, 3.1. Lotan ^ H.A. Relners. United States 
Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical 
Report, 1381, HO-26, pp. 570-584. 

Saxena, K.G. ft Ramakrishnan, P.S. "Reproductive Efficiency of 

Secondary Successlonal Herbacec jS Populations Subsequent to Sldsii 
and Burn of Sub-tropical Humid orests In North-eastern India." 
Proceedings from Indian Academy of Sciences (Plant Sciences) 
1982a, 91, ^)D. 61-68. 

Saxena, K.G. & Ramakrishnan, P.S. "Partitioning of Blomass and 

Nutrients Id the Secondary Successlonal Herbaceous Populations 
Subsequent to Slash and Burn." Proceedings from Indian National 
Science Academy, 1982b, B 48 . pp. 807-818. 

Saxena, K.G. & Ramakr^.shnan, P.S. "Herbaceous Vegetation Development 
and Weed Potential In Slash and Burn Agriculture (Jhum) In N.E. 
India." Weed Research . 1984a, 24, pp. 135-142. 

Saxena, K.G. & Ramakrishnan, P.S. "Growth and Patterns of Resource 
Allocation In Eupatorlum odorattwi L. In the Secondary 
Successlonal Environments Ful lowing Slash and Burn Agriculture 
(Jhum)." Weed Research . 1984b, 24, pp 127-134. 

Saxena, K.G. & Ramakrishnan, P.$. "C^/C4 Species Distribution 
A;iiong Successlonal Herbs Following Slash and Burn In 
North-eastern India." Acta Oecoloqia Occoloqia Plantarum , 1984c, 
S, pp. 335-346. 

Toky, O.P, & Ra>nakr1shnan, P.S. "Cropping and Yield Patterns \n 

Agricultural Systems the North-^Eastern Hill Region of India," 
Aqro-- ecosystem . 1981, 7, pp. 11-25. 



IV. 0. oellm, N. Saber. "EnvlrOiimental Education In the Arab *"tates: 
Issues and Actions." Professor, College of Education, 
Aln-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. 



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The importance of envlroanental education Is enphasUed at the 
present time as one of the niost effective tools to meet the different 
complicated problems of the environment. Such prob1e«s arc getting to 
be a major threat to the quality of human life on earth. They are 
usually referred to "environmental crisis,* and exist In all countries 
at various degrees of magnitude and complexity. 

In orde; to present the state of environmental education in The 
Arab states, it Is necessary to consider some relevant issues of 
effect on the programs of rnvlronmental education. A brief historical 
review of the conception of environmental education 1$ helpful to 
explain the present activities, institutions and actions. 

SOME ISSUES TO BE CONSIOfcREO: 

The Arab region Is a region where one finds many extremes: (1) 
very oil rich countries, and some of the poorest by world measures; 
(2) countries with unlimited resources, and others with very limited 
ones; (3) some over-populated countries and some under-populated ones; 
(4) some of the poor countries have huge amounts of resources, but 
untapped, others with limited resources, but we 11 -developed; (5) some 
countries have generous supplies of fresh water, others are deprived 
of any. 

Environmental problems are always the product of the previous 
conditions. In the oil producing countries pollutants are of a 
specific nature different than pollutants in agricultural countries. 
Desertification, although an acute problem in some countries like 
Sudan, does not exist in sorje others. Population control Is a hope 
for over-populated countries, while rejected by undsr-populatcd ones. 

Agricultural resources are we 11 -developed In some countries to 
Include every inch of cultivable land; in others millions of 
cultivable acres are negleted. In some countries where no cultivable 
land exists, very modern technology Is used for agricultural 
production which does not depend on land resources. 

Industrial production Is developing In countries where man-power 
and resources are available; others with no resources and no man-power 
are starting Industries with everything Imported. 

Some Arab countries have we 11 -developed man-power with an 
abundance of scientists, engineers, educators. tec( klans, medical 
staff, etc.; others are striving to develop their .^n-pcwer in 
d fferent aspects. 

It Is of the utr..c-* If oortance to m^^ntlon that all Arab countries 
are govern^ by two ma^or religions: Islam and Christianity. Both 
religions stress the importance of the environment, the 
Interrelationship of its con^onents. and ways and means to protect 
It. Religion Is a very ImporUnt force to guide individual behavior. 

Most of the Arab countries were occupied by foreign forces for 
different periods of time during this century. Their systems of 
education were greatly Influenced by the occupiers. Local environment 
was never the resource for education, because all phenomena, 
specimens, etc. were from the occupiers en«^1ronment. All the Arab 



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states ^re now Independent, and started working together to develop 
their own educational systems to be based on the local and regional 
environments. Along with this, some countries with more developed 
teaching staff, like Egypc, started to help other countries who did 
not have enough staff* Some curricula and textbooks of the more 
developed countries were adopted by other Arab countries. This led to 
a kind of regional cooperation which is still progressing until now. 

The Arab States, with much In common (religion, language, etc), 
started to develop structures to strengthen their cultural unity. 
After The Arab League was established in 1945, o^^ of Its import;»nt 
departments was the cultural department responsiblie for activities in 
the areas of education, science and culture- It was felt some years 
later that the task was more than a department could handle. In 1970 
a specialized organization was established which is The Arab League 
Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (ALECSO). Th^^ 
organization in The Arab League is comparable to UNESCO in The United 
Nations system. The establishment of regional and sub-regional 
organizations made it possible for The Arab States to interchange 
experts, projects, and above all to plan for some regional projects in 
different aspects of education. 

Through these organizations many problems of the region started 
to be identified, among which were the environmental problems. Added 
to this, the convening of The Stockholm Conference in 1972 aroused a 
world-wide concern and Interest in managing environmental tasks with 
environmental education as one of the most effective ways tc do so. 

ALECSO PROGRAM OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 

In l! a survey of textbooks used in the Arab countries in the 
fields of cience and social studies was conducted by the writer of 
this puper. It revealed that very little emphasis was placed on 
environmental education. In February of 1972, a meeting was held by 
ALECSO in Khartoum, Sudan to discuss aspects of the environment. 
Among the topics discussed was the topic of environmental education in 
The Arab States. It was recommended that ALECSO ccrry on a program of 
environmental educa^^on fnr the different stages of education. An 
extensive program wa;» planned and carried out by ALECSO to help 
encourage environmental education in schools, univer<;ities, adult 
education and for the lUbllc through mass media. It was decided to 
plan for all categories at the same time. 

The program of environmental education for schools included the 
development of a Resource Book for general education which would be a 
source of Information treating environmental problems, a guidebook for 
teochers, curriculum planners, etc., and curriculum modules for each 
•school level. The impact of this program Is felt in many Arab 
States. Helping the teachers to build their own curriculum modules 
promotes their awareness and helps to plan and carry out successful 
environmental education activities. Some countries are now building 
their scier.ce curriculum with a '^ore of environmental education. 

The EE program for the tertiary level started with the 



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development of another resource book directed to the higher 
1i<:>t1tut1ons ana universities, published through the cooperation of 
ALECSO-UNEP. Although this book was not so successful, many colleges 
are either developing EE programs for undergraduate and graduate 
studen.s, or reconsidering their programs In light of the nted for 
effective EE programs. 

Realizing the Importance of mass media to environmental 
awareness, ALECSO held training courses for newspaper writers, radio 
and television experts to develop their acquaintance and awareness of 
environmental problems. As a follow up, a monthly bulletin was 
published by ALECSO and distributed to all experts of mass media in 
the Arab States containing articles and scripts to be released to the 
public. 

ALECSO started to Initiate efforts to Introduce environmental 
education In the programs of teacher education on both t' . pre-servlce 
and In-service levels. Many teacher praparatlon Institutions In the 
Arab States are now offering courses 1p environmental sciences to 
prospective teachers. Concepts and methodologies are also dealt with 
In the professional courses and durlrig practice teaching. 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOHHtHOATIONS 

All the Arab States are aware of the importance of environmental 
education as the most effective means to protect the environment. 
There are specific Issues which should be considered In planning for 
effective programs of environmental education. Such programs are In 
different stages of developnwnt In the different Arab States. More 
emphasis Is given to the programs of the pre-unlverslty education. 
Research Is oeallr.g with different aspects of environmental education, 
but more research Is definitely needed In this field. Ntre 
researchers are getting Interested In dealing with the different 
problems of environmental education and the situation Is Improving. 

To plan for effective programs of environmental education In the 
Arab States, the following are somt recommendations: (1) Institutions 
responsible for leaders training In £E In the region need to cooperate 
in planning a strategy, develop programs of EE, and supervise the 
Implementation of Its different activities. This could be achieved 
through Institutions, ,.g. universities, mass media and professional 
organizations. (2) The availability of resource materials Is basic 
for developing and Implementing successful EE programs. TMs should 
be achieved tnrough International, regional and national efforts. (3) 
There Is shortage of evaluative materials for the assessment of 
effectiveness of EE prcqrams. It Is suggested to help construct 
different types of tests and criteria and help the experts In each 
country use It and Interpret Its results. (4) Sub-regional centers 
f'jr tE should established to help construct and prepare curriculum 
materials, teacning aids, and train personnel and leaders In the 
different areas of environmental sciences and technologies. (5) 
Research activities should bo planned and carried out cooperatively by 
universities and centers In the region. Efforts should be made to 



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train the necessary personnel for this vital aspect cf environmental 
education. 



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IV. P. Simpson, Ph1l1p. "Education Prerequisites for Integrating 

Conservation and Development In New Zealand." Commission for 
the Environment, CPD House, 108 The Terrace, P,0, Box 10 241, 
Wellington, New Zealand. 

Introduction : the challenge 

An educatloral challenge facing the people of New Zealand 
(Indeed, all peoples) Is how to put modern ecological theories and 
social aspirations Into practice. The challenge Is both '.ramedlate and 
long-term: Immediate because of the high demand for existing (often 
already depleted) resources and an existing political, social and 
economic order which Is always a little behind prevailing needs; and 
long-term, because of the need for present-day youth and future 
generations to le3rn how to cope w^th new and unknown opportunities 
and restrictions. 

The fundamental message of ecological understanding is that 
humans depend on natural ecosystems, the material and non-material 
benefits of which are constrained within limits imposed by natural 
processes. Parallel to this is the recognition of social needs to 
ensure adequate quality of life for each individual: for example, 
adequate participation in decision-making, peaceful coexistence, and 
equity amonj different elements of society, particularly in terms of 
race and sex. An awareness that each natural resource has different 
values for different people has also emerged. These rights and needs 
point to the fact that environmental awareness is but part of an 
interrelated package of Issues. The great social movements of our day 
- for peace, for a healthy environment, for nature, for racial and 
sexual equality and identity - seek to change personal attitudes which 
over time have become enshrined in the social, political and economic 
policies of the day. Tbe exciting, but radical, task of environmental 
education is to unravel the complex origins of these standards so that 
individuals become capable of and motivated towards resolving the 
social problems they cause. To some, the challenge calls for a 
"paradigm shift" in philosophy; to others, a gradual evolution of 
a}.prnpr1ate values and understanding is already under way. 

The New Zealand Problem 

In many respects New Zealand is a country with a high standard of 
living and high environmental quality. Yet, there are many problems. 
Modern New Zealand society has inherited a legacy of colonialism which 
Involved deep dislocation of the indigenous Maori people in terms of 
land, language and values. The narrow vision of colonial resource 
exploitation has been passed on so that some resources have become 
depleted, and a pattern of nonsustalnable use gets repeated. 
Contributing to the need for special care in managing resources are 
New Zealand's small size, the unstable, sensitive nature of Its 
landscape, changeable weather, endemic species Incapable of 
adaptat-ion, and rapid expansion of pests in the inland environment. 
Administrative and legal structures established for early phases of 
New Zealand's development can be m-adapt3d to deal with modern 



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problems and aspirations, and can lack the perceptions engendered by 
centuries of habitation. A fractured organisational basis for 
managing the many aspects of the environment Is particularly 
characteristic (OECO, 1981). The cost of servicing a high demand for 
resources is Increased by geographical Isolation, which also Imposes 
dependence on an International economy beyond local control. New 
Zealand shares many of the problems of other "western" countries, but 
also has a number of problems uniquely its own. 

Integrating Conservation and Development: what does It mean? 

In broad terms the Integration of conservation and development 
means matching the social aspirations of New Zealanders with the 
ecological realities of our resource base. Wore specifically, this 
Includes Identifying the principles on which resource use should be 
based. To a considerable extent these principles are based on 
scientific - especially ecological - understanding, applied to human 
needs. The needs are both material and non-materlal , and the 
resources both living (renewable) and non-living (non-renewable). 

The approach Is a superb example of holism, one of the 
fundamental tenets of ecological science. In this connection It Is 
Instructive to consider the history of ecology, so ably reviewed Dy d1 
Castrl (1981;. Understanding this history (both on a global scale, 
and 1n Its particular expression In New Zealand [Simpson, 1983]) 
should become a specific aim of environmental education In New 
2ealf.nd. A detailed consideration of the underlying principles Is the 
means by which the Issues, gaps In understanding and necessary 
priority actions can be Identified. A national environmental 
education strategy Is one of these action requirements. 

New Zealand Conservation Strategy Principles 

The task of Identifying the components of an environmental 
education strategy has been greatly assisted by Identification of the 
conservation strategy principles. They Identify not only the broad 
content of an appropriate education strategy. Including who should be 
educated, but also some of the ethical considerations essential to 
education. For example, the explicit view that conservation and 
development are Integrated parts of a whole tnat operate In concert 
rather than opposition Is, In Itself, a paradigm shift In awareness. 

The New Zealand Strategy recognizes five principles, stated 
simply as the: 

1. protection of ecosystems and ecological processes 

2. preservation of genetic diversity 

3. sustainable use of living resources 

4. wise use of non-renewable resources. Including a transition 
to renewable resources where possible 

5. proteclon of natural resources for non-material needs ^Nature 
conservation Council Technical Committee, 1981) 



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Each of these principles contains some elements which are broad, 
even global, In scale, end ether elements which are specific to New 
Zealand. Of particular significance to New Zealand Is Principle 5 - 
protection for non^-nu M needs - because attention Is hereby drawn 
towards the unity bet^ environmental and other social concerns, and 
the significance of pe' inal values and personal skills - such as 
problem clarification and values clarification - in resolving these 
concerns. 

Environmental Education Strategy 

In order to facilitate the principles of the Conservation 
Strategy specific alms, target audiences and programmes for each 
audience need to be Identified. One possible set of alms for New 
Zealand is as follows: 

1. To foster the development of an environmental ethic 
appropriate to Mew Zealand. This Includes such aspects as 
sensitivity tc the non-human aspects of environment and to 
Muorl and pakeha (western) values, developing a sense of 
place and heritage, awareness of the need for stewardship, 
and 1ear»"1ng assertive personal *"ehav1our. 

2. To develop an understanding of environmental Issues and the 
ability to resolve them. This Involves a knowledge of 
ecology (particularly nature/culture Inter-relatlonshlps) , 
New Zealand resources and history. It Involves developing 
skills appropriate to values clarification, problem-solving, 
decision-making and understanding the future. 

3. To motivate a desira to act to resolve environmental Issues. 
This Involves developing a working knowledge of how decision: 
are made, and how to Influence them through appropriate 
actions . 

The triad, ethic - understanding - action, serves as a rrjdel 
which could be applied to any specific element of an environmental 
education course; for example, to an environmental ^^sue such as the 
sustainable use of fisheries. 

Target Audiences 

Not all elements of society need environmental education of the 
same kind, or to the sane degree. For Instance, there already exists 
an extremely well developed public environmental lobby which has been 
largely responsible for the progress that has already been made In 
awareness and advancement In legislation and Tanagement. Specific 
target audiences Include: 

1. Existing decision-makers whose decisions affect 
environmentally sensitive areas. These Irr I f1e ooMcy-makers 
(politicians, staff of government departments, local bodies 
and private companies) and resource mand^(^rs (such as 
farmers, fishermen, contractors and t\n\r advisors). 

2. Youth, both In and out of school. 

3. The general public, as parents (csp-^ 'ally mothers), 
consumers and voters. 



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Priorities for Target Audiences 

This is a ver> large area for investigation which cannot be fully 
developed here. One priority, identified by a conprehensive New 
Zealand research programme (Scott, 1983), is formal education in 
schools. Scott reaches the following conclusions: 

1. Ther<» is excellent opportunity within school curriculum for 
infusing environmental education without new and specific 
subjects. Science and geography arc particularly well 
developed, although there is a neeJ to deal mre explicitly 
with environmental issues. 

2. The two greatest shortcomings are In values clarification and 
motivation of action to hc^p resolve environmental problems. 

3. Teacher training is inadequate for dealing with value-laden 
issues. 

4. Teaching recources, in the form of .ssues-specif ic lesson 
plans which deal with values, are inadequate. 

There is little doubt that these sarne limitations apply to 
training and education for all target audiences. 

Conclusion 

The main conclusion is to be drawn concerning the education 
prerequisites for integrating conservation and development in New 
Zealand is that the main area needing attention lies in personal 
development: how to deal with underlying ethical considerations, 
understanding the complex origins of environmental Issues, feeling 
competent to resolve conflict, being able to identify appropriate 
actions and motivate a personal desire to be involved in resolving 
problems. My central thesis is that these areas can be approached 
rationally using known skills. The educational challenge is to 
personalise, and ultimately societize, the considerable scientific and 
social knowledge which exists in New Zealand culture. The prospects 
are very exciting, but things wi II not happen sufficiency fast by 
themselves. Th3 single greatest need is the training of teachers. 

References 

di Castri, F. Unesco Courier 1981, 1981. 

Nature Conservation Technical Committee. Integr ating Conservation and 
Development: A Proposa l for a N? if Z .alar.d Conservation 
Strategy . Wellington: Nature Ccnservation Council, 1981. 

OECO. Environmental Policies in New Zealand . Paris: OECO, 1981. 

Scott, Graeme. "Environmental Education in Existing Classroom 

Practice.** Unpublished report, Centre for Resource Hanage.nent, 
University of Canterbury, 1983. 

Simpson, Philip. * A History of Ecological Thinking in New Zealand." 
Unpublished paper presented at the Conference on History of 
Science in Wellington, New Zealand, February 1983. 



99 



IV. Q. Slocombe, 0. Scott. "International Environmental 

Campaigns-Case Studies and Discussion." School of Community 
and Regional Planning, The University of British Columbia, 
6333 Memorial Rd., Vancouver, B.C.. Canada, V6T 1W5 

The objective of this paper Is to present a framework for 
comparing and discussing environmental campaigns, to apply this 
framework to five Internationa i environmental campaigns of the last 
century, and to draw some conclusions theref^^om for the conduct of 
environmental campaigns, such as the World Campaign for the Biosphere 
(Anon., 1982; Davis, 1983). , Finally comment Is made on the relatlv.) 
Importance of substance anrf process, education and activism. In such 
campaigns . 

The Framework 

One needs, first of all, to Identify the campaign one Is 
referring to. A short descriptive title, the campaigns dates, Its 
Initiators and their main location are recommended for this purpose. 

Then one wants to consider the campaigns preparation - Its 
problem definition. Its rationale for Intervention, Its preparatory 
process, and Its goals. Also to be considered Is the campaigns 
Implementation - its form, scope, level of operation, actors, 
resources, methods, and mandate. Finally one needs to evaluate the 
campaign - In terms of Its effects. Its adaptlveness and Its follow-up 
efforts. 

The Cise-Sttidles 

Five liiternatlonal environmental campaigns have been chosen as 
case-studies. Each Is summarized here In a paragraph and the main 
referej^ces for each given. 

1 . The Plumage Trade 

Bird feathers first became fashionable on hats about 1875; they 
dominated millinery styles after 1880. hany species from all over the 
world were utilized but especially hard-hit were gulls, terns, herons 
egrets and Ibises from the New World. In London the Society for the 
Preservation of Birds (SPB) was founded In 1889, In the United States 
the American Ornithologist's Union (AOU) became Involved In the Issue 
In 1884, while the Audobon Society was founded In 1886 (re-organized 
In 1896). All were primarily concerned with stopping the millinery 
trade. The U.S. Lacey Act was passed In 1900, and by 1905, 33 states 
had passed complementary legislation on the plumage trade. In 1913 
the U.S. Federal Tariff Act, with plumage trade prohibitions, was 
passed. In England the U.K. Board of Trade passed an Importation of 
plumage regulation In 1917 and, finally. In 1921 a Bill on the 
Importation of Plumage was passed (Doughty, 1975, Welker, 1955) 

2. Operation Tiger 

Although the decline of tiger populations had been noticed as 
long ago as 1940 It wasn't untM tlie late 1960's that serious attempts 
were made to assess and remedy the problem. Considerable "behind the 
scenes" work by Guy Mountfort In Europe and Asia led to the launching 
of "Operation Tiger" by the World Wildlife Fund (HWF) In September, 



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1972. In 18 months L800,000 (U.S. $1.7 m11 Hon) was raised through an 
extensive and Innovative public campaign. Soon the International 
Union for Conservation of Nature (lUCH) was conducting scientific 
re!>earch on the species and India (and later other countries) were 
setting aside reserves for the tiger. By 1980 over 40 nature reserves 
In 10 countries had been established and the tigers* population was 
estimated at about 6400 Individuals of six races (up from 5000 In 
1970). (Mountfort. 1981). 

3. The Club of Rome 

The Club of Rome was the brainchild of Aurello Peccel In the mid 
1960*s. He Joined with Alexander King to organize Its founding 
meeting In Rome In April, 1968. There a handful cf people agreed to 
continue, and to found the Club of Rome; a "non-or^anlzatlon" of 
selected Individuals 

concerned with the well-being of mankind as a whole,... 
future-oriented In Its thinking. . .and. . .necessarily [taking] 
Into account the Incongruities of the human condition, 11s 
values and goals, both actual and desirable. If the species Is 
to survive. (Peccel and King, 1977). 
After two years of globe-trotting and meetings the Club's series 
of reports on "The Predicament of Mankind" was begun. Today, as 
Alexander King succeeds Aurello Peccel as the Club's president. Its 
structure and emphasis appear to be changing (Horgan 1984) - not too 
surprlzlngly In view of some earlier soul-searching (Lazslo, 1977; 
Carlson, 1977; Peccel, 1977). 

4. The Northwest Atlantic Seal Fishery 

Sealing In the northwest Atlantic (malniy for harp seals) has 
been taking place since the early 18th century. Production peaked In 
the 2nd quarter of the 19th, and again In the 20th century. The hunt 
was first brought to public attention by a 1964 Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation (CBC) documentary. Soon thereafter Brian Oavles, later to 
found the International Fund for Animal Welfare, became Involved on 
the side of the seals; In 1976 Greenpeace appeared on the scene. From 
the beginning there was strong foreign media, conservation group, and 
pubTrc Interest In the subject - and stopping the hunt. 1977 was the 
year of the protests, B. Igltte Bardot's visit, and Paul Watson's 
debr»^le on the Ice. In 1978 France banned the Import of sealskins 
from toe hunt. By early 1983 several other EEC countries had also 
banned such Imports and In Octobe*^ 1983 an EEC directive was Issued 
banning Imports of harp and hooded seal pup products. In June 1984 
the Canadian Federal Minister of Fisheries appointed a Royal 
Commission to look Into all aspects of Canada's sealing fishery 
(Bonner, 1982; Colsh, 1979; Holt and Lavlgne. 1982; miscellaneous 
press reports). 

5. The World Conservation Strategy 

Initial discussion of the need for a strategic approach to world 
conservation took place within lUCN as early as 1969. Plans for the 
actual development of a World Conservation Strategy (WCS) were 
Initiated between lUCN, WWF and the United Nations Environmental 
Programme (UNEP) In 1975. Four official drafts, various Intermediate 
drafts, each submitted to the lUCN membership and nearly 1000 



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scientists and other advisors. Intervened before the co-ordinated 
launch of the WCS In 35 countries on March 5,1980. By August 1983 
some 32 countries were at various stages of evolving national 
conservation strategies (NCS), and the potential of state or 
provincial conservation strategies was beginning to be explored. In 
November 1983 an expert workshop on NCS formulation was held In 
Geneva; a conference on the Implementation of the WCS Is being planned 
for Ottawa In 1986 (Talbot, 1980, lUCH Bulletin, LSupplements) . 

Discussion 

All fWe of the above campaigns could be called successful, but 
they achieved very different forms of succe:>s by rather different 
routes. Some of the points to be drawn irom the analysis of th»se 
campaigns follow. 

Preparation and organization before launch appear to pay off In 
terms of faster results after Uunch. A campaign with a broad and/or 
strong base of support similar advantages. 

An easily stated roblem, and clear-cut goals and objectives, 
greatly simplify the gaining of popular support for a cause. The 
greater the geographic and taxoc jmic scope of a problem the more 
difficult It Is to solve the problem through a campaign (although It 
may be easier to raise public concern). The greater the scope of the 
problem the more Important It 1s for the resulting campaign to be 
directed at decision-makers as well as the public and to aim for 
Indirect (e.g. trade controls) as well as direct (e.g. nature 
reserves, plant closures) actions. 

All these campaigns underscore the power of organizations and 
networks, even when started by only a single individual, to <nove a 
campaign along. All these campaigns underscore the Importance of 
having large resources of nwney, people and expertise, In order to 
bring a campaign to a successful conclusion. And this, of course. Is 
where an organization (and an organizer) are most useful. 
Correspondingly these resources need to he expended In a mult1- faceted 
campaign that Includes research, publication, publicity, education, 
negotiation and even confrontation. 

A successful campaign will likely combine effects on the public 
with mandated changes, creation of new Institutions with the creation 
of new frames of mind and thought. 

The campaign must be "adaptive*, ready to take advantage of 
unintended effects or to change tactics when necessary. And finally 
campaigns must engage In follow-up activities, whether that 1s 60 
years of different activities In the case of the RSPB and Audubon 
Society, or the very useful Information supplements published by lUCN 
about the WCS. 

Conclusion 

From the foregoing It should be clear that successful 
International environmental campaigns are complex, multl^-faceted 
organizations Including many different activities. They require 



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attention to both matters of substance and of process ; and to the fact 
that both education gua education, and activism may not only both be 
necesiary but. In the long run, have similar results. 

Bibliography 

Anon. Declaration: "World Canval^jn for the Biosphere." Environmental 

Conservation , 1982, 9(2), 91-2. 
Bonner, w. Nigel- "Seals and Man: A Study of Interactions," Seattle: 

University of Washington Press, 1982, pp* 170* 
CerUon, Michelle* "Public Feedback for the Club of Rome," Goals 1n a 

global cowminlty (Laszlo, E. and Blerman, J. eds), 1977, New 

York: Pergamon, 1, pp. 335* 
Colsh, E. Calvin. Season of the Seal: the International Storm Over 

Canada's Seal Hunt . St. John's, Newfoundland: Breakwater, 

1979, pp. 296. 

Davis, Craig B. The World Council for the Biosphere/International 

Society for Environmental Education. Environmental 

Co nservation , 1983. 10(4), 354-5. 
Doughty, Robin W. Feather Fashions and Bird Preservation: A Study 

In Nature Protection . Berkeley: University of California 

Press, 1975, pp. 184. 
Holt, Sidney, & Lavlgne, D. "Seals Slaughtered - Science Abused." 

New Scientist . 1982, 93) 1296), 636-9. 
Morgan, Denis. "Club of Rome Chooses New President." Toronto: Globe & 

Mail, May 28, 1984, pp. 1-2. 
Laszlo, Ervin. "The Club of Rome of the Future vs. the Future of 

the Club of Rome." Goals in a global community . (Laszlo, E. & 

Bierman, J. eds.), 1977, New York: Pergamon, 1, pp. 33^^, 
Hountfort, Guy. Saving the Tiger . New York: Viking Press, 1981, 

pp. 120. 

Peccei, Aurelio. The Human Quality . Oxford: Pergamon, 1977, 
pp. 214. 

, & King, A. Foreward. Goals for Mankind . (E. Laszlo et al.). 

New York: Pergamon, 1977. 
Talbot. Lee M. "The World's Conservation Strategy." Environmental 

Conservation . 1980, 7(4), 259-68. 
Helker, Robert Henry. Birds and Men: American Birds in Science. Art 

Literature, and Conservation. 1800-1900 . Cambri dge : Be 1 knap 

Press, 1955, pp. 230. 



IV. R Smyth, J.C. "The World Conservation Strategy and Public 

L»1ucation: An Investigation of Structures." Department of 
biology. Paisley College of Technology, High Street, Paisley, 
Renfrewshire, PAl 2BE, Scotland. 

An Investigation of Structures 

In the last sentence of her last book 'Progress for a Small 
Planet* Barbara Ward described the inescapable physical 
interdependence between man and environment as the chief new insight 



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of our century. Two sentences earlier she Identified humanity as 
constituting the only insoluable problem to achieving a balanced and 
conserving planet, as indeed many others have done. Those entences 
are quoted by Brian Johnson in his contribution to the response by the 
United Kingdom to the World Conservation Strategy. One mic»:.': fairly 
regard WCS and the further constructive documents which it has 
stimulated as the most promising response to the problem, prepared as 
they have been through widespread international discussion. 

To be widely successful practical remedial actions call for the 
modification of human behaviour on a global scale, not just of 
decision makers and environmental intervenors but of the general 
public whose lives wiT. be altered thereby. This is primarily the 
task of educators, to provide people with the knowledge and 
understanding, skills and attitudes consistent with the new 
environmental ethic which achievement of WCS objectives demands. If 
this seems an impossible target, one can at least reflect that the 
environmental problems to be resolvec are products of the very rapid 
adaptability of human behavior (in contrast to other processes of 
natural change) and that this same speed, if properly directed, might 
save the day. 

Relating conservation to education has not hitherto been easy 
except 1n a few special contexts. Conservation has itself evolved 
fairly quickly from more restricted ideas of preservation and is still 
apt to be regarded as an attempt to maintain the exotic and the 
picturesque at the expense of measures which might relieve m^re 
obvious immediate problems of poverty and malnutrition, of 
unemployment and boredom. The objects of consevatlon also vary 
confusingly between different promoters - nature and natural 
resources, landscape quality, historic buildings, works of art, 
standards of living, population control are only a few of the things 
which different people think of when they use the word. To those 
especially who live and work in socially and environmentally deprived 
urban industrial areas it is difficult for conservation to be made 
both clear In its objectives and relevant. 

By founding the Strategy on the most fundamental objectives - 
maintenance of ecological lif e-^support systems, iriaintenance of genetic 
diversity and sustainable use of species and ecosystems for 
development - its authors have given conservation a rpjaning which 
underlies all the diverse Interpretations, Such concepts pose severe 
problems for the educator, however, who can only hope to present them 
convincingly in terms of the familiar experience of his students. 

Two other features of WCS constitute important progress in the 
presentation of conservation to the public. One is the recognition of 
human society as a part of the system to be conserved and as a result 
the severe human needs which so often have been treated as a separate 
and conflicting set of problems. For education one difficulty of this 
1s that educators trained to handle the complex issues of ecological 
conservation are rarely skilled in the equally complex and vice 



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versa. V this difficulty Is to be no more than temporary, some 
urgent revisions are needed In the education and training of 
educators. The other critically 1ii^)Grtant progressive feature of WCS 
Is that It alms to be active rather than reactive, to Incorproate 
conservation principles Into planning processes rather than to 
struggle with rescue and rehabilitation attempts, a more familiar 
function until now. Educators will miss the boat If they cannot 
respond quickly enough to do likewise. 

As a global strategy KCS necessarily deals to a great extent 1n 
generalities. For both practical conservation measures and for the 
educational programmes needed to sustain them It was foreseen In the 
strategy that the global statement would be followed by Indlvldu&l 
national strategies which would apply WCS principles to the particular 
conditions ot Individual countries. This has been dofte, or is in 
progress, in several countries. The UK launched Its response In 1983, 
after an Intensive process of discussion between many different 
organisations and Individuals, dividing Its subject matter between 
seven groups dealing with Industry, urban, rural, marino and coastal 
environments, overseas environmental policy, environmental ethics and 
education; an overview report drew together the many ideas and 
recommendations from these groups and proposed in addition ten 
strategic ways to action. These documents offer more specific Issues 
for treatment by educators u the UK but a wide gap still exists 
between these Ideas and the practical needs of classroom teachers. A 
third tier of responses could help to fill the gap - In the UK, for 
example, we now have a national conservation strategy prepared by the 
Nature Conservancy Council and also a broadly based Welsh strategy 
significantly Including an additional element on Welsh cultural 
heritage. More of these responses ere needed however, specific to 
activity or geographical areas, and then a fourth tier of response 
translating them into action strategies. Including In the case of 
education, practical projects and classroom materials, before the gap 
Is clofed. 

For practical purposes conservation education must be 
Incorporated In more broadly defined environmental education. The UK 
response to WCS has greatly eased this by Its Inclusion of the urban 
and Industrial environment and by the emphasis it places on social and 
economic sustalnablll ty. By these means conservation ceases to be 
seen as a fringe luxury and becomes a primary objective of 
environmental education In any of Its definitions. To carry these 
Insights through to practitioner level, however, calls for the 
collaboration of representatives from many different academic 
disciplines and from a wide range of specialist organisations. This 
can b€ done successfully If they are given soir*eth1ng freih to do 
together. One difficulty that may have to be overcome, however, lies 
In the definition of education. Conservation groups, anxious for 
quick responses In public support, may express their educational needs 
by the provision of selected Information In a quickly assimilable 
form; educators on the other hand place priority on drawing out the 
talents of the student for longer-term benefits. The latter focuses 



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on the subject, the former on the object. Both approaches have their 
roles 1n the adaptation of human behaviour, and are Inter-dependent, 
but ought not to be confused. This understood, the role of the 
specialist In constructlong teaching programmes Is vital; In the field 
of study as complex, varied and far-reaching as this the dangers of 
promoting under-researched and over-simplistic solutions to problems 
are huge and expert guidance Is essential. 

The little working parties of practising teachers and topic 
specialists who should meet at the fourth tier of response to put 
together practical materials for classroom (or Informal group) use 
should find that WCS documents offer as good guidance to potential 
subject content as any we have had: selection thereafter Is guided by 
the other determinants. Three points are stressed, however: the need 
to draw 1n to the treatment of any Issue the perceptions and skills of 
as many as possible of the relevant specialist Interests (there are 
various ways of achieving this In different currlcular patterns); 
because of the variety and complexity of the subject area the need tc 
emphasise concepts and approaches, skills and attitudes rather than a 
pre-determlned body of knowledge; the need to move outwards from the 
familiar In some form. 

Course materials must be assessed, both before and after trial, 
against the objectives which they have been designed to attain. A 
general set of objectives In terms of concepts, skills and attitudes 
has been drawn up, but for each particular case this has to be 
expanded and adjusted In conformity with the set of main course 
determinants for each particular teaching situation. Unit modules are 
checked against these for variety and success. Courses may likewise 
be checked for coverage, for level and for achievement, and Indeed the 
process could be extended to assess the quality of development through 
an entire school record. 

Will the Inclusion of appropriate topics In teaching programmes - 
1f It can be achieved on a sufficient scale - meet the educational 
needs of WCS? Probably not: the educational chapter of WCS was 
neither so courageous nor so understanding as other parts, and there 
1s a need for more radical rethinking of education and for more 
extensive changes than are within reach of groups of enthu'jiastic 
teachers. These concern the realignment of educational philosophy and 
the reconstruction of curricula to take account of a redefined 
relationship between man and environment; they also require much 
tnought to be given to the environment In which education takes place, 
both formal and Informal, and the educational consequences of many 
other policies seemingly unconnected. It Is for these concerns that 
we need a World Environmental Education Strategy. 

Can It all work In educational systems notorious for their 
Inertia, and as yet showing little sign of responding convincingly to 
warnings of Inadequacy? The changes In life-style Implied by the 
recommendations even of the U.K. Response, described as Initially 
applicable "flexibly and progressively, without vast Investment, 
revolutionary legal changes or unrealistic human responses," will need 
a prepared public to receive them. Other moulders of public opinion 



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can. of course, do much, but they will be more successful 1f the 
ground has been prepared. Carried throughout the recommendations 
would lead to an ecologically sounder but very different world. 
Convincing presentation of conservation values Is liable to be offset 
by large aid Impersonal administrations, paternallstlcally operating 
relatively Inflexible programmes In monotonous surroundings, for young 
people who see their futures affording little opportunity to work, to 
think for themselves or to do anything but nform to a limited 
life-style, or explode Ineffectively In rebellion against ;t. 
Progress In education will necessarily be part of a wider progressive 
change In the system which It serves, and will reflect Its values even 
when striving to shape them for the future. 

Bibliography 

"Conservation and Development Progranine for the UK: A Response to the 
World Conservation Strategy." London: Kogan Page Ltd. 

Forbes, J & Smyth, J.C. "Structuring Environmental Education - a 
Strathclyde Model." Environmentalist s 1984, 4 (3), 196-204. 

Johnson. B. An Overview-Resourceful Britain . London: Kogan Page Ltd.. 
1383. 

Strathclyde Environmental Education Group. Environment: A learning 
Experience . Scottish Curriculum Development Service, Glasgow. 
1984. 



IV. S. Sokoloff. Boris. "Australian Aborigines and Environmental 
Education." Consultant, Hunter Region, New South Wales 
Department of Education, P.O. Box 120. Cardiff, N.S.W.. 
Australia 2285. 

Within the last twenty years Interest In the Aboriginal past has 
been nutured by the archaeological discoveries around the continent of 
Australia, particularly now that many young Australian trained 
archaeologists are working In the field. At the same time a 
renaissance of Aboriginal Culture has occurred, as the Australian 
Aborigines have shown a renewed pride In their heritage. 
Interpretation of their past by Aboriginal people has been bised cn 
their lore rather than on the archaeological discoveries. In ^act 
there has been some distancing by then, almost as though they are 
reluctant to accept the evidence unearthed by non-Aboriginals. 
However, both points of view can be accepted to establish the very 
lony occupation of the Australian continent by the Australian 
Aborigines. 

Being a hunter-gatherer, the traditional Australian Aborigine 
knew his flora and fauna Intimately. T!,*' seasonal changes were a 
familiar part of his/her knowledge. The location and range of the 



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wildlife and natural products were exploited In their dally quest for 
sustenance. They respected each others rights and property. An 
Intricate system of tribal rules, based on the wealth of their ^ore, 
had evolved over many generations. The land, and Its natural 
products, were irespected because they relied on titem for their 
survival and because they were all linked with * <e1r beliefs and their 
past^ 

The Australian Aborigines were not wasteful of the bounty 
provided by nature. When harvesting this produce they were mindful of 
the future generations. In this way a conservation ethic was 
practised. It has been claimed that the Aborigines have had an effect 
on the natural vegetation by their use of fire, Bushfires In 
Australia are a natural feature, with the plants and animals very much 
adapted to their occur'-ence. "Fire-stick farming" was practised by 
the Aborigines to encourage the plants to regenerate and wildlife to 
breed. Because they depended on, and used natural products, the 
Australian Aborigine had a comparatively minimal Impact on the natural 
environment. This provides us with a most valid comparative study 
between their methods and the profligate use of the natural resources 
by the present-day Australian. 

A historical perspective can be projected Into an fijivlronmental 
education, beginning with the ^re-contact period, protraylng the 
traditional lifestyle of the Australian Aborigines. With the advent 
of the European contact 200 years ago, the traditional culture of the 
Australian Aborigines was affected to an Increasing extent as 
settlement spread throughout the continent. An alien approach to the 
land was Introduced, which entailed large-scale clearing of the 
vegetation and slaughter of the wildlife that the Australian 
Aborigines had harvested on a sustained basis for many generations. 
Naturally, the traditional way of life w? modified as the Indigenous 
people tried to cope with the changed circumstances of disturbed 
habitat and loss of free range. Other effects were direct persecution 
by the Ihvaders and Introduced diseases. 

4Mh few exceptions the newcomers* attitudes towards the original 
1nhdi)1tants was an extension of their de:,ire to exploit the natural 
resources of this "land of prr^se". Any Impediment to their 
exploitation was regarde^i as a i^^lsance at the least, and at worst, a 
pest or vermin which had to be subjugated or exterminated. The media 
have reflected thin attitude right to the present generation. In the 
recent pasc a change of attitude In general community fueling has been 
developing. Current publications are presenting a more balanced 
viewpoint of the Indigenous people and their place In modern and past 
society. 

Educational systems In various states of Australia are addressing 
the problem of bias and prejudice that has been the norm for so long. 
In New South Wales the Department of Education has recently Introduced 
a policy on Aborigine Education where teachers are urged to 
incorporate An Aboriginal Prespectlve Into their programs or 
Aboriginal Studies. These are a'imed at raising the awareness and an 
appreciation of the Australian Aboriginal Heritage. That heritage Is 



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an Integral part of the environmental education process, witnout an 
adequate Input of the Australian Aboriginal Heritage, any 
environmental education program Is unsatisfactory. 



IV. T. Srinlvasan. S. and O.K. Banerjee. "Environmental Problems of 
Developing Countries and Appropriate Solutions Through 
Environmental Education". School of Environmental Sciences, 
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi - 110067. India. 

In a developing country like India, nearly half the population 
are still Illiterate. Industrallzatlon, urbai.lzatlon and 
over-population ire the main causes for the different pollution 
problems. Among many factors which have contributed to the pollution. 
Ignorance and poverty top the list. Two-thirds of the Illness 
reported In our country are caused t.' water-borne diseases. Only 
one- tenth of the 540.000 villages In India h-ve a protected water 
supply. Air pollution Is becomming a serious problem In urban areas. 
As per calcjlatlon. ninety percent of Industrial air emissions are 
confined to a small number of urban pockets. It would be easy to 
Imagine the health hazards these localities face. Many people In 
developing countries still use firewood as their only source of 
energy. This leads to large scale deforestation. Industries freely 
discharge their highly corrosive and toxic chemicals Into the rearby 
rivers and streams. Due to the seepage of these chemicals , vast 
tracts of adjoining land become sterile. It Is very difficult to 
demarcate residential and non-residential areas in cities because of 
the noise produced by Industries, road transport, community 
activities, ^tc. The pollution Is mainly a human problem and 
therefore p u^le should be made aware of the hazards they have to 
face. Environmental education In different form? at all levels In 
simpler and regional language Is the first and foremost step in 
saving the environment from furthec deterioration. After analyzing 
the problems of environment In developing countries, a syllabus of 
environmental studies suitable for people a> 2ll level' has been 
suggested and was discussed. 



IV. U. Trant» Anton. "A European Experiment In Environmental 

Education". Director, CDVEC Curriculum Development Unit, 
Trinity College, Dublin, I'-iand. 

The European Conwunlt:* Is generally associated with trade and 
economic policies. The Community's envlronm^^ntal policy is less 
widely known, despite the fact that It Is now entering its second 
decade. The European Community wis In fact among the first 
International organizations to respond to the United Nations 
Conference on the Human Environment In Stockholm in 1972 when a plea 



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was made for global action on the environmental crisis. Concern for 
the environraentt however, is not something new in the European 
Community. It goes back, in fact, as far as 1957, to the Treaty of 
Rome aiid could be said to be an essential part of the fundamental 
philosophy which brought the Commnity Into being. At the Treaty of 
Rome the Member States declared that economic growth was not their 
only objective; they were also concerned with the standard and quality 
of living of all their people. Keeping the balance between economic 
expansion and the quality of life was emphasised again at a summit 
conference of the European Community ^n Paris in 1972. This meeting 
was to act as the forerunner to the Community's subsequent Action 
P'^ogramme for the Environment. In calling for such a programme the 
leaders of the Community declared: "It should result in the 
improvement in the quality of life as well as in standards of living. 
As befits the genius of Europe* particular attention should be giv n 
to intangible values and to protecting the environment so that 
progress may really be put at the service of mankind." (Commission of 
the European Communities, 1976 page 7). 

It was in this way that the Community's Action Programme for the 
Environment came into being. It was first formally adopted by the 
Council of Ministers on 22 November 1973 and was later renewed and 
supplemented in 1977 and 1983. Underlying the programme it is 
possible to detect two major principles. The first is that man's 
relationship to the planet and Its resources should be characterised 
by husbandry and good management rather than by unthinking 
exploitation. Environmental policy is therefore not a gjoss added to 
production and consumption but an effort both to understand and 
respect the planet which sustains us and to develop a right 
relationship to it. In times of recession and shortage it Is all the 
more necessary to do this since the short-term wisdom of 
prof it-and-loss does not itself ensure the best use of resources to 
meet social needs. 

The second principle is that environmental policy should be 
designed to increase human welfare by Improving living ard working 
conditions. Thus while it is important to be concerned with reducing 
the negative consequences of production, consumption and urbanisation, 
and with preventative measures to safeguard the future, the ultimate 
concern hould be to create the best conditions In which individuals, 
families, groups and whole societies can flourish. 

Educationa? Implications of Action Programme 

Although the Community's Action Programme for the Environment is 
not chiefly concerned with specific educational measures, it does have 
an overall educational significance. A basic assumption underlying 
the entire Programme is that concern for the environment is the duty 
of everyone in the Community and that public opinion should therefore 
be educated to be more aware of the fact. This point was emphasised 
in the first chapter of the original Pro^.amme: "This means that at 
all levels continuous and derailed educational activity should take 



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place so thi»^ every person 1n the Coramunlty becomes aware v^f the 
problem and fully assumes his responsibilities towards the generations 
to come". (Commission of European Cownunltles, 1977, page 5). 

T*ie second version of the Action Programme which was adopted In 
1977 contained a more specific educational recommendation - one that 
was to assume Increasing Importance In the years that followed* The 
Intention was announced of launching a network of pilot schools across 
Europe to exchange Ideas and experiences In environmental education, 
and to disseminate these Ideas to a wider audience* This plai^ had 
been unde. consideration for the previous three years In the 
Community's executive « the Cowwlsslon of the European Communities* 
Before launching It, however, the Commission decided to test Us 
acceptability by undertaking a feasibility study. 

Feasib i lity Study 

The need for the feasibility study primarily arose from the 
ambiguity that surrounded the term 'environmental education' In the 
meftiber states of the European Community. Ther? was considerable 
diversity between and within the various national educational systems 
1n the way in which the objectives and content of environmental 
education were defined, and the way in which it was organised whether 
as an integrated component of the curriculum in its own right on, or 
as a number of separate components within traditional subject 
disciplines. 

The purpose of the feasibility study was envisaged as being 
twofold. The first element would be largely descriptive in that 
examples of outstanding practice at upper primary and lower secondary 
levels (age group 9/1* years) would be selected from all the members 
states and presented as case studies* The second element of the study 
would De concerned with the acceptability of the network idea. A 
range of contacts would be made with key people working in the field 
of environmental education In the member states; and guidelines put 
forward for future network activities, such as establishing links 
between schools in different countries, animating exchange programmes 
and study visits for teachers and pupils, and producing resource 
materials in environmental education, both for direct use by pupils, 
anri as background information for teachers. In this context the study 
was envisaged as a preparatory phase in the establishment of the 
network itself. 

A report on the feasibility study was presented to the Commission 
1n April 1976 (Trant, 1978). The report noted that it was difficult 
to define in precise terms environmental education ]n the member 
states of the European Coramu*i1ty; it was not a subject like history or 
matheme^-lcs but was more like an Ideal or general aspiration. 
Nevertheless there were certain similarities in the efforts of the 
different member states to develop patterns of environmental 
education. Within the age group 9/14 years the following common 
trends were identified: a realisation at primary level that active 
and child-centered learning was readily realizable through a study of 



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the environment; an effort 1n the lower years of secondary schooling 
lo Integrate different subjects along environmental themes; and effort 
to link the school with environmental facilities, such as museums, 
zoos, botanical gardens, etc*; a growing nuiirt)er of research and 
development projects In environmental education; a realisation of the 
potential for environmental education in such traditional activities 
as field studies and outdoor pursuits; and emphasis on the role of 
urban studies as an essential element of environmental education; a 
growing awareness of the importance of voluntary organisations, clubs 
and action groups which offered young people an opportunity of 
Involving themselves directly with their own environment. 

One of the main purposes of the feasibility study was to 
establish contact with Interested officials 1n the ministries of the 
member states. The report stated that In all cases there was 
agreement In principle to cooperate In the development of a network of 
schools In environmental education for the age group 9-14 years. The 
report added a two-fold Ji-stlf Icatlon for developing such a network. 
There was first of all tl«e need for an Interaction at Community level 
to help Integrate an environmental dimension Into the school 
curriculum; most of the ministry officials who were consulted were In 
favour of such an Initiative and were av^altlng an official 
notification of the Commission's Intentions. Secondly, the proposed 
network would be an example of European cooperation In a practical and 
meaningful way. If the Community's ultimate aim was to lay the basis 
for a united Europe, then a Joint undertaking In environmental 
education by all the member states would be a snail but Important step 
In that direction. 

Structure of Network 

After nearly three years preparation, the European Community 
Environmental Education Network eventually came Into being In February 
1977. The basic Idea was simple: to enable a chosen group of pilot 
schools to enter Into meaningful contact with each other. With this 
end In view, the Network was given two principal alms. The first was 
to enhance the quality of environmental education In the pilot schools 
through mutual cooperation and learning from each others' experience. 
The second was to collect, test and disseminate environmental 
education materials. 

The first aim denoted the dynamic nature of the Network. It was 
assumed that the pilot schools would be chosen not only because they 
had a record of good practice In environmental education, but also 
because they were willing to share with and learn from schools from 
^ther parts of Europe. In this way It was hoped a rich and varied 
picture would emerge of how environmental education was taught In a 
whole range of different cultural and geographical surroundings. 
Furthermore, the potential for comparative studies would be exciting 
since the Network would Include a series of contrasting 
env1ronments--the urban and the rural, the coastal and the Inland, the 
mountainous and the lowland, and the Industrial and the agricultural. 



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The ^nd aim had a seminal implication. The Network would 
exist not only for the sake of the pilot schools, but for other 
schools and institutions. It would have a responsibility to preach 
the gospel of environmental education in the highways and byways of 
Europe and to seek to influence not only the educational systems but 
the general public as well. It was primarily expected to do this 
through the dissemination of environmental materials. This brief, 
however, was to be interpreted widely; the materials could be 
audio-visual as well as print and the vehicles of transmission could 
include press, radio and television as well as the more traditional 
journals and hand-books. 

When it came to a consideration of the term "environmental 
education" the Network adopted a pragmatic approach. It did not seek 
to define In exact terms the meaning of environmental education; that 
was considered to be the prerogative of each member state. The 
Network, however, offered a simple and practical guideline, which It 
was hoped would help to produce case studies of environmental 
education in action. Singly stated, this was that In the development 
of project work H was envisaged that environmental education would be 
interpreted broadly, as taking into account the different cultural 
background of the pupils and involving disciplines of both the social 
and natural sciences. 

The responsibility of coordinating the activities of the Network 
was entrusted by the Commission to the Curriculum Development Unit, 
Dublin. The Curriculum Development Unit was established In 1972 by 
the City of Dublin Vocational Education Comnittee (CDVEC) and is 
managed jointly by the CDVEC, Trinity Colle^je, Dublin and the Irish 
Department for Education. The Coordinating Team keeps in contact with 
all members of the Network and facilitates the inter-communication 
which is necessary for the dynamic development of the project. An 
advisory committee, composed of officials from the Commission of the 
European Communities, representatives from the member states (national 
experts) and members of the Coordinating Team, Is responsible for 
oversetin<j the progress of the Network ar.d advising on all policy 
matters. The national experts also play a vital role in their own 
countries in supporting the activities of the pilot schools. 

The Network so far has had two phases: primary and secondary. 
The primary phase, comprising 29 pilot schools, lasted from 1977 to 
1982 and catered for pupils in the age ranye 9-11 years (later 
extended upwards in some member states to 14 years and downwards in 
otfiers tc 4 years). The secondary phase, wh^ch comprises 28 pilot 
schools and caters for the age range 14-19 years, began in 1982 and is 
scheduled to finish in 1986. 

The Network in Action 

The purr^ose of the Network could be summed up as an effort to 
develop a ' ystem of communications through which ideas about 
environmental education can be generated and disseminated throughout 
the European Community. The two basic a^.ms emphasize this purpose and 
Over the years a cownunicatlon system has in fact been built up 



114 



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through translating these alms Into operational objectives. The 
objectives have been realised through such concrete activities as 
school projects on agreed themes, visits between teachers and pupils, 
the publication of newsletters and various teacher hand-books, visits 
to schools by the coordinating team, and teacher seminars. These 
objectives were devised on the first occasion that the teachers met 
each other. In Dublin, In June 1977 and they remained the guidelines 
for all the NetworV^s activities during the subsequent years* 

The most Important aspect of these objectives was the amount of 
personal Interaction they brought about. The Network was primarily a 
network of people who agreed to undertake together a journey of united 
exploration. To do this, they had to meet each other and their 
meetings were the high points of the Network's history. 

Future of the Network 

At the beginning of the article we showed how the justification 
for the Network lies In the Community's Action Programme for 
Environment. The third edition of the Prograraro**, which was adopted In 
February 1983, takes a long-term view of environmental action. 
Recognising that the times are hard. It nonetheless states 
categorically that "environmental policy Is a structural policy which 
must be carried out without regard to the short-term fluctuations In 
cyclical conditions In order to prevent natural resources from being 
seriously despoiled ano to ensure that future developr^ent potential Is 
not sacrificed." (Commission of European Communities, 1983, page 4.) 
Indeed, the Action programme sees Itself as contributing significantly 
towards a solution to the Community's major problems In the 
socio-economic sphere, especially In creating new jobs through the 
development of key Industries which are either less polluting or use 
few^r non-renewable resources. As a recent Comnilsslon Publication 
expressed 11: "ecology Is nothing other than properly thought out 
long-term economic^." (Commission of European Communities, 1984. page 
82.) 

It Is In this context that the future of the Network will have to 
be situated. Just as the Action programme sets Itself the goal of 
ensuring that an environmental dimension U Included as an essential 
part In all socio-economic thinking and planning throughout the 
Community, so the Network should seek to give a lead in Introducing 
environmental education as a necessary component at all levels of the 
educational systems of the member states. This Is an ambitious aim 
but one that Is In line with what the European Community stands for. 
In this regard It Is appropriate to let the Comlsslon have the last 
word: 

"In 25 years the European Community has gone through many crises but 
also recorded major successes. Education policy has not escaped the 
controversies, in the future, far more than at present. It will be 
necessary to view this policy within a broader framework, against the 
background of the fields In which the Community pursues an active 



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policy and from which It will receive new stimuli. In this way n 
will have an opportunity to be more effective at the European 1s?vel." 
(Coraralsslon of the European Communities, 1982, page 27.) 

References Cited 

Commission of the European Communities. The Europea n C^rHtnunlty's 

En vironmental Policy . Luxembourg: Office for CiMclal 

Publications of the European Communities. 1976. 
Commission of the European Communities. Official Journal of the 

European Communities . Luxembourg: Office for Official 

Publications of the European Communities. 1977. 
Commission of the European Communities. An Education Policy for 

Europe . Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the 

European Conrounltles. 1982. 
Commission of the European Communities. Official Journal of the 

European Comraunltles . Luxembourg: Office for Official 

Publications of the European Communities. 1983. 
Commission of the European Communities. Ten Years of Community 

Environment Policy . Luxembourg: Office for Official 

Publications of the European Communities. 1984. 
Curriculum Development Unit. A Summary Analysis of the Views of the 

National Exoerts . Dublin: COVcC Curriculum Development Unit. 

Trinity College, Dublin. 1979. 
Curriculum Development Unit. Recreation and the Fr Mronment . 

Dublin: O'Brien Educational. 1980. 
Curriculum Development Unit. A Synthesis of Envi- onmental Education 

P rogrammes carried out in the European Comffjnity Environmental 

Education Network . Dublin: CDVEC Curriculum Development Unit, 

Trinity College, Dublin. 1981. 
Curriculum Development Unit. Integrated Science and Environmenta l 

Education . Dublin: CDVEC Curriculum Development Unit, Trini'ty 

College, Dublin. 1983. 
Curriculum Development Unit. Report on the Annual General Seminar fcr 

Teachers and Experts. Deventer. Netherlands. 12-17 June 1984 . 

Dublin: CDVEC Curriculum Development Unit, Trinity College, 

Dublin. 1984. 

International Union for the Conseryation of Nature and Natural 
Resources. Final Report of International Working Meeting of 
E nvironmental Education in the School Curriculum . Morges 
lUCN. 1970. 



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Trant, Anton. Environmental Education 1n the Age 6roup 9-14 Years 1n 
the European Conmunltles . Luxembourg: Office for Official 
Publications of the European Cofiwunitles. 1978. 



IV. V. Tribe, David. "The Role of the Gould League of New South Wales 
In Environmental Education In Australia." Deputy Principal. 
Mosman Primary School » Cromer, N.S.W., Australia. 

The Gould League of New South Wales (NSW) Is a semUgovernmental 
body working under the auspices of the NSW Department of Education 
amongst teachers and pupils in schools. Through Its orgaiiUatlon, the 
Gould League gives schools practical as'^lstance and support in 
developing environmental education. The Leaguers history and growth 
make an Intt esting story for all environmental educators to read and 
reflect upon. 

Historical Background 

During the early years of settlement In Australia, stories of 
strange birds and other animals were carried by sailors to people of 
other lands. Occasionally, people would make a sketch of a bird or 
animal that they thought particularly interesting. However, no 
complete records were made until much later. It was not until 1839, 
after settlement had been made on the western shores as well as the 
eastern seaboard, that a careful and detailed study of the wealth of 
Australian wildlife was begun. 

This work was undertaken by an Englishman, John Gould, and his 
wife Elizabeth. They arrived In Australia In 1838 and In the short 
space of two years, these hardy pioneers, aided by collectors and 
explorers, went out Into wilderness bush and brought back records of 
new species. They made sketchings and paintings of no less than 681 
different kinds of birds. When Gould arrived In Australia, the 
continent was scarcely more than a name but when his book on the Birds 
of Australia was completed In 1850, t -e name was so familiar that the 
discovery of gold immeolately placed It 1n the forefront of the 
younger nations. 

About 70 years later. In 1909, the Victorian Education Department 
established the Gould League of Bird Lovers to honour John Gould enc* 
his work. On the 22nd of Octobe , 1910, In Wellington, NSW, two 
teachers, Edward Webster and Waiter Finlgan, whilst fitting In the 
shade of trees In the local school playground discussed their concern 
about the endangering of native bird life. They felt that something 
must be done. Therefore, on this day the New South Wales Gould League 
of Bird Lovers came Into being to perpetuate the name of 3ohn Gould 
and to encourage teachers and pupils toward an active Interest In the 
study of our native birds. 

Within a short time this organization spread throughout New South 
Wales with the formation of branches In almost ev^ry school. Each 
branch was encouraged to carry out practical activities to preserve 
and protect bird species. 



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In 1936 the Junior Tree Wardens League was formed. This 
organization was slmlla? to :hat of the Gould League, Its role being 
to protect and plant trees and native plants. 

In 1967 It was decided to amalgamate the two bodies and to cover 
a wider range of conservation Issues. The new body was called the 
Gould League of New South Wales. The pledge was changed In keeping 
with Its new and wider approach to education. "Earth Is our home and 
I promise to try to \ beautiful by learning tc understand and 

conserve Its soils. • - . water, natural beauty and all Its living 
things 

Tnis new body now enlarged Its role to one of conservation 
education, leading into environmental education In the early 1970s. 
Its alms arc: 

(1) To develop an awareness of man'i total dependence upon the 
Interrelationships operating w1th1n both natural and man-made 
systems, and consequently the need for the maintenance of the 
optimum benefits for man from these systems. 

(2) To develop an awareness of man's total dependence upon the 
resources of nature for his very survival and consequently 
the need for eff1c1»P* management systems to optimize the 
long-term availability of the resources. 

(3) To develop an ability for decision making and 
self-formulition of a code of behaviour about Issues 
concerning environmental quality. 

The Gould League's Achievements 

Following Its new emphasis, the Gould League of New South Wales 
rapidly grew into one of the foremost environmental organizations 
working with teachers and children In New South Wales. Its growth 
commenced with the formation of the Gould League Advisory Service In 
the early 1970s. This service was run In a voluntary capacity by 
small group of Gould League Council members. This dedicated group 
asslstet^ teachers with Ideas In environmental education, conducted the 
League's first Inservlce courses for teachers and commenced the 
League's weekly televlsoln segment on the environment. Soon the 
growing demands of teacheis could not be mt by this group. In 1974 
the Department of Education in New South Wales seconded a teacher to 
the position of Gould League Education Officer. The first education 
officer. Frank Haddon, established the position. In 1977 the secor^d 
education officer, OavlcJ Tribe, was appointed who continued to further 
and extend the Influence of the League. In 1981, owing to government 
cutbacks, these po'iltlons were amalgamated and a new position of 
Environmental Education Consultant/Gould League was created. 

From 1974-1981 environmental Education was promoted and 
established In a great many schools In NSW. Ro'-Mests for assistance 
from teachers were met by school visits, Inservi.e courses, lectures, 
demonstrations, assistance In structuring environmental programs and 



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resource materials. Content included sensory environmental awareness, 
use of school grounds and environs, establishment and use of natural 
areas, energy education, urban, natural and marine environmental 
education. Students ranged from kindergarten to year 12, colleges of 
advanced education, university groups, field studies and community 
groups. Interest was maintained through a 10-minute weekly segment on 
TV. 

Realizing that all the requests for assistance from teachers of 
the services of the education officer could not be met, a Gould League 
Coordinator network was established all over the state. This network 
comprised college and university lecturers, field studies center 
teachers, administrativ3 staff in schools, classroom teachers and the 
general public. These coordinators have various Gould League 
publications and act as an immediate support for teachers requiring 
assistance. 

Publications 

Through support from the Department of Education, the Gould 
League is given a grant to produce publications on environmental 
education, its regular publication is called the Gould Leaguer which 
gives teachers guidelines for ideas in environmental activities and 
programming. In addition, the Gould League produces the E Kids 
Magazine designed to educate children about the environment. These 
publications are given free to schools. 

National Conference of Gould Leagues 

Realizing that there were other Gould League organizations 
working independently in Victoria and Western Australia, the Gould 
League of New Soutn Wales organized the first national conference of 
Gould Leagues in Sydney, in 1976, where New South Wales, Victoria, 
Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland were represented. 
Each year since 1076 these annual conferences have continued and have 
done much to unite and coordinate the work of the Gould Leagues 
throughout Australia. These conferences contributed to the eventual 
formations of the Australian Association for Environmental Education. 

Celebration of Special Oavs 

In order to bring teachers' ano children's attention to specific 
environmental events, a number of special days are celebrated 
throughout the year. These celebrations are Arbor Day, Wattle Day, 
Earth Week, Bird Month and Bird Day. In connection with bird Day, the 
Gould League conducts an Operation Birdwatch where children from all 
over New South Wales count the number of birds and species found in 
their school grounds. This information is returned to the Gould 
League office where it is collated and the results printed on maps of 
NSW. 

Environment Awards 

Annually the Gould League presents environment awards to New 
South Wales schools for worthwhile projects completed by children in 



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schools on any aspect of the environment or environmental education. 
The award takes the form of a plaque, suitably engraved. 

Cayley Memorial Scholarship 

In memory of the ornithologist Neville Cayley who wrote the 
famous Australian book entitled "What Bird Is That/ the Gould League 
offers an annual Cayley Memorial Scholarship for an approved project 
or undertaking, designed to promote wildlife management, particularly 
Iri relation to bird life. 

Promoting Field Studies Centers 

The League helped to establish the field studies center at 
Wirrlmblrra, Bargo south of Sydney with the donation of a large sum of 
money to build the "J.E. Roberts Memorial Classroom." It also donated 
a large sum of money to pay for the erection of a classroom at 
Longneck Lagoon Reserve so that the site could be established as the 
Longneck Lagoon Field Studies Centre. This centre Is on the edge of 
Sydney's western suburbs. Children from all over New South Wales 
raised money to fence the whole of Longneck Lagoon area. This was a 
positive way to Involve children In environmental education. 

Introduction of Environmental Education Ideas from the United States 
During 1980 the Gould League hosted Ouane Toomsen, Environmental 
Education Consultant for Iowa, In New South Wales to conduct a series 
of environmental education Inservlce workshops. A similar hosting 
occurred In 1981 with Joseph Cornell of "Sharing Nature With Children" 
fame. Both of these people greatly assisted large numbers of teachers 
with the latest Ideas and trends In environmental education In the 
United States. This Input helped many teachers to develop their own 
programs and Ideas for use at the local school and district level. 

Gould League Headquarters and Present Input 

The Gould League has established its own office, display area, 
llbrarjf and conference area as an environmental centre In the grounds 
of Beecroft Primary School In Sydney. It distributes and sells the 
latest resource material and publications and Is acknowledged as the 
leader In promoting environmental education In schools. The centre 
has established agencies throughout NSW to promote Its materials, 
whilst at the centre Itself a demonstration native garden has been 
created for school use. 

Annually a competition Is conducted by the Gould League. In 1982 
the topic was the "Year of the Tree." This theme was celebrated 
throughout Australia as the first year of a lO-^year greening program. 
The standard of entries was extremely high, incorporating 
contributions from kindergarten to year 12 students and covering a 
wide scope of media. The theme for 1983 Is centered around "Our 
Endangered Species." 

The growth of environmental education Is considered so Important 
that ea"^ Education Region throughout NSW has been asked by the 
Department of Education to form Its own environmental education 



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commUtee, under the chaUpersonshlp of a District Inspector. Thesc 
committees are formed by the selection of teachers with outstanding 
expertise In environmental education and naturally many of these 
people are Gould League coordinators. The committees cater to the 
special needs of their own area. During 1982, some have created 
suitable resources, prifited news sheets and have led Inservlce 
courses. All regions ana activities are assisted by the Environmental 
Educ?.t1on Consultant/Gould League and Ideas and expertise are 
exchanged at their combined conference. 

The Gould League has come a long way In 75 years. Edward Webster 
and Walter Finlgan, Its originators, would no doubt be very excited 
with the progress that the League has made In Introducing 
environmental education to many people. Indeed, environmental 
education has not been taught but rather caught. Environmental 
education has shown teachers and children that they must have a 
stewardship approach to the managing of the spaceship earth, which 
they depend on for their very existence. 



IV. W. Tuntawlroon. Ndrt. "North-South Dialogue*. Faculty of 
Environmental Resource Studies, Mahldol University, 25/25 
Phutthamonthon 4, Salaya Nakornchalsri , Nakornpathom 73170, 
Thai land. 

(No text has been made aval lab 



IV. X. Webb, Ooan. "An Australian Contribution to Environmental 
Education In Thailand." Kurlng-gal College of Advanced 
Education, Eton Rd., Linfleld, N.S.W., Australia 2070. 

One of the significant needs In Thailand today Is support for its 
programme of environmental education. This paper outlines the success 
of nine In-service courses held for teachers at Pranakorn Teachers* 
College, Bangkok, during 1981-84. 

The Need 

"In response to world concern on environmental quality, Thailand 
has taken the Initiative In Introducing a new curriculum on 
environmental education for the school syster As It Is still In Us 
early stages of development. It Is In need o! firm support." 
(Conservation for Thailand, 1979.) 

"In-service training should be organised for established teachers 
who have already graduated, as a matter of urgency." (Conservation 
for Thailand, 1979.) 

Thailand has a conservation policy. It has a new curriculum, but 
Us teachers are unprepared, and resources non-existent. The Thai 
teacher would be the first to admit that he has operated for too long 
on the principle of "chalk and talk." Thai teachers themselves see 
the need to develop the techniques and skills needed to lead field 



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trips. Especially In elementary schools, but at present they wander 
around without objectives— there Is no written resource material for 
guidance. 

The author visited Pranakorn Teachers College In July 1980 with a 
group of students from Kur1ng--ga1 College of Advanced Education. 
These studmts were taking their final practice teaching session In 
local Thai schools, staying on campus, and helping teach English to 
college students and evening adult classes. A seminar on 
environmental education was given by the author to the Science staff 
of Pranakorn and this was followed by a request to return In 1981 to 
conduct an In-service course for local teachers. Pranakorn Teacher's 
College takes the responsibility for teacher In-service in Bangkhen 
District, Nonthaburl Province and Patomthani Province. 

The Response 

"The education of teachers In conservation and environmental 
Issues should emphasise the Importance of practical work and encoirage 
them to adapt their teaching to the local environment," (Conservation 
for Thailand. 1979,) 

Emphasis In the curriculum Is on the need for conservation, but a 
much more basic need was seen to be knowledge and skills In how to use 
the local environment in order to understand the basic principles of 
ecology and their application to ronservatlon, 

A programme was drawn up for a three-day course In July 1981, the 
main objectives being: 

1. to develop an awareness of the natural environment; 

2. to develop skills In observation and recording; 

3. to gain knowledge In the basic principles of ecology. 
General sensory awareness activities were carried out with 

materials In the lecture room, and with materials In the College 
grounds. Emphasis was placed on the need for children to use as many 
senses as possible in their study of the environment— sight, touch, 
SiTiell, and hearing. Simple materials from the local environment were 
used In activities designed to develop more rareful observation and 
accurate recording. 

Four basic principles of ecology were presented as a guide to a 
study of any natural environment. First these were applied to a study 
of ten m1n1-hab1tats in the College grounds, and then to a major 
ecosystem, the rocky shore at Bang Saen, on the Gulf of Slam (a 
two-^hour bus trip down south). The four basic principles or concepts 
are: 

1. the diversity of living things; 

2. the physical factors of the environment; 

3. adaptations to the environment; 

4. Inter-relatlonshlps in the communUy. 

At the end of the course, the teachers agreed: "You have Introduced 
us to a new way of thinking, a new method of teaching." 

The Pranakorn staff members were looking ahead. "We are just 
beginning to understand. There are more teachers who need to listen 
and learn. Come back In January." 



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In January 1982, two courses were held, a three-day course for 
elementary teachers, and a four-day course for secondary-tertiary. 
This time, the field was expanded tf# Include the man-Mide environment, 
and fresh-water studies In ponds of the college grounds. 

"For In-school education, more emphasis Is expected to be put on 
the Individual's Interaction with his environment, and on responsible 
participation In community activities to preserve and improve 
environmental conditions.* (UNESCO Bulletin, June 1981.) 

Observation of the local human envlronme/it to Include traffic, 
houses, food stalls, pollution, temples, schcols, etc., was followed 
up by the preparation of posters which told th$ story with polaroid 
pictures, magazine cut-outs, and suitable captV'ins. 

For the secondary teachers, the f resti-water study was directed at 
a comparison of a large clear pond with a small polluted one, with 
coll^^'-tlon of samples being followed by tests In the laboratory. 

In these two courses, an effort was made to relate activities to 
actual local conditions— a local school (whose environs were :;1rap1e 
but taught many useful ecological lessons), the fresh-water pond 
(common In most school grounds), the streets neerby, and the nearest 
major ecosystem, the rocky shore. 

Teachers attending these courses cam-» from the Bangkhen 
District. They said to the Pranakorn staff, "We need written 
resources; the children need field note-books; the teachers need 
hand-books. Let us have a workshop to prepare resource liaterlal 
The request came agr^n, "will you come back In July 1o help us write 
resource materials?** 

The Bangken District teachers went back to their schools; they 
tried the activities they had seen In January; they enrolled again for 
July. 1982. 

Two similar workshops were held In July 1982, but the emphasis 
was different. The elementary workshop concentrated more on 
Integrating the ^environmental material with other subjects In the 
curriculum; the secondary workshop aimed to satisfy the requirements 
of the science and social studies curricula. Each workshop of nine 
days was conducted as follows: 
Day 1: (1) How to write a unit. 
(11) Setting objectives. 
(Ill) Format for worksheets. 
(1v) Excursion to :oca1 school. 
Day 2: Writing student workbook ar»d teacher's guide on 'Jsing the 
School Grounds. 

Day 3: Excursion to the rainforest and freshwater creek In Sam Lan 

National Park. Overnlgh^: st^y. 
Day 4: (Saturday) Initial 2teps In preparation of written maierle'^. 
Cay 5: Written materials completed for National Park Study. 
Day 6: (1) Student preparation lor an excursion to the Zoo. 

(11) Visit to Dusit Zoo. 
Day 7: Preparation cf written materials for students and teachers 

visiting the Zoo. 



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Day 8: Visit to the rocky shore at Bang Sa^n. 
Day 9: Preparation of written materials for students and teachers 
isiting the rocky shore. 

Lack of expertise in the T' ai language made it difficult for the 
visiting lecturer to help in the writing sessions; supervision and 
correction of manuscript fell heavily on the shoMlders of two senior 
Thai lecturers; the young typist worked late each afternoon, the 
laboratory attendant was busy in the print-room. By the end of Day 8, 
all the participants had three sets of materials to take away, each 
set of notes neatly bound and ready for trial runs. Day 9 notes were 
to be posted within a few days. 

During the closing hours of Day 9, discussions were held on the 
procedure for trialling the materials, all trials to be completed by 
Decenrt)er when the author returned to Bangkok for a week to obtain a 
progress report. In the trials, questions such as the following were 
asked: 

1. Do the activities fulfill the objectives i 

2. Is the degree of difficulty of the activity suitable for the 
student? 

3. Is the workbook easy to read and understand? 

4. What is the estimated time for each activity? 

5. Are the proposed activities accurate in their factual content? 
In Thailand, a comprehensive in-service programme is conducted 

for teachers by The Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science 
and Technology (IPST). However, the IPST programme does not help 
teachers to relate the curriculum to the actual environment. IPST 
trains teachers to follow the curriculum but the Pranakorn Project is 
training teachers to be independent by writing their own resource 
materials for a number of field trips which will form a pattern for 
all other such trips. 

Followirtg feedback from the triai runs, the ^ranakorn staff 
rewrote some of the resource material during 1983, ard made it 
available for ci-culation. 

In January 1984, the concept of environmental education for 
schools was expanded to include the infant 1evel->two five-day courses 
were held with integration, sensory awarer^ess, and creative work the 
major emphases. 

July 1984, saw the first attempt to spread the in-service net 
wider, with repetition of the primary level course and plans to 
spread the project nationwide. 

In April-^May 1983, three science staff members from Pranakorn 
attended a prograiigne in Environmental Education specially designed for 
them at Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education. Two more lecturers 
took part in a similar programme in Hay 1984. In this way, che 
Pranakorn Project in Environmental Education is being reinforced and 
complemented. 

The Belgrade Charter makes it clear that environmental educatiofi 
leadf to the recognition, prevention and solution of environmental 
problems. The Pranakorn people ask: "Where do we go from here?*' The 
obvious answer is, a study of local environmental Issues and the role 



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to be played by the comnunlty. But what would be the reaction of 
g'.vemment to a foreign consultant who attenq[>ts to offer a programme 
0/1 local environmental issues, each one of which imist have a political 
component? The decision to conduct such a progranme has yet to be 
made. But one definite line of action will be taken-^the author will 
help establish at Pranakron a Centre for Environmental Education where 
teachers can come for advice and resource material. 

In a nationwide radio broadcast In July 1982, the author was 
asked: "Why do you come to Thailand?* The following answer appears 
to be a fitting conclusion to this Australian contribution to Thai 
education: "The world is facing an environmental crisis as resources 
become scarce and the population Increases. Thailand has excellent 
laws on conservation*-it has a policy on conservation, but no one 
knows what to do with this policy. People in Thailand must develop a 
new awareness of the environment, and at Pranakorn we are starting 
with the teachers>>a new awareness in teachers means a new awareness 
in their students. I believe I have certain skills in the field of 
environmental education, and I discovered a need in Thailand* I think 
I have a responsibility to other countries as well as my own." 

Bibliography 

Conservation for Thailand--Policy Guidelines. National Environment 

Board of Thailand (lUCN & UNEP). March 1979. 
"Environmental Education In Asia and the Pacific." UNESCO Bulletin . 

June 1981 . 



IV. Y. Wheeler, Keith. "The Role of the United Kingdom Council for 
Environmental Education in Promoting Environmental Learning." 
Chairman, Executive Council for Environmental Education, 
University of Reading, Member of lUCN Commission on Education, 
44 Hidcote Road, Oadby, Leicester LE2 5PE, United Kingdom. 

The Council for Environmental Education was set up in the UK in 
1968, and has continued to play an increasingly important role in 
generating both formal and non-formal environmental education 
initiatives. The work of the Council was detailed and a "model" 
outlined for implementliio environmental education. 



IV. Z. Panel: "A Network in Conservation, Natural Resources, and 
Environmental Management Education: A Model for the Eastern 
Caribbean." Panel Chair: Robert E. Roth, The Ohio State 
University, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. 
Panelists: Elsa Talero, Doctoral Candidate and Fulbright 
Scholar, Bogota, Colombia, South America; Alfredo Morillo, 
Director of Environmental Education, Ministry of Agriculture. 
Santu Domingo, Dominican Republic; Jill Sheppard, Executive 



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Director, Caribbean Conservation Association, St. Michael, 
Barbados; John Dislnger, Associate Director, ERIC/SHEAC, The 
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43212, USA. 

The establishment of a communications network Is proposed as a 
ffltat: of achieving the considered goals of Institutional develorjment, 
effective materials modifications and production. Information base 
establishment and retrle* ''I program evaluation, and the monitoring of 
knowledge gain and attltuoe shift over time. Panel presentations and 
discussion focus on existing components of such a network that should 
promise for further Implementation. 

1 . "A Research and Development Communications Network for 
Conservation, Natural Resources and Environmental Management Education 
In the Wider Caribbean." (Robert E. Roth) 

Global concern about ^environmental problems, quality of human 
life and the 1ii4)act of development led to the convening of the United 
Nations Conference on the Environment In Stockholm, Sweden, In June of 
1972. The recently concluded tenth anniversary of the Stockholm 
Conference stressed the need and role for environmental education 
(Connect, 1982). 

Recommendation 96 of the Stockholm Conference called for the 
establishment of an International program in environmental education 
that would be Interdisciplinary In approach, formal and non-formal, 
encompassing all levels of edi^catlon and directed toward the general 
public (UNESCO, October 1977). 

During the past decade rour dominant trends are recognizable 
according to the Global Perspectives Quarterly (1983) (TUCN, 
'^ctober/December 1983). First, popular and scientific Interest In 
environmental quality have combined to establish a new kind of 
conservation movement. Second, there has been an explosion of 
environmental data, but much of the Information Is of limited use In 
assessing trends as a base for decision making, action and 
evaluation. Third, new understanding of the structure and functioning 
of environmental systems provides opportunity for more reliable 
planning. Finally, 1t Is apparent that the lack of social 
organization, training and political will are the common limiting 
factors In Improvement of the environment and quality of life. 

Environmental and natural resources agencies now exist In 14>S 
countries, a 500X Increase In only 10 years (Global Perspectives 
Quarterly, Fall 198'?). Such agencies are Increasingly Involved In 
establishing natural resources and environmental management programs 
Involving substantial land areas and equipment, many professional 
personnel and clients, and considerable financial resources. In 
addition to the short-^range goals of reversing trends Involving soil 
erosion, deforestation, environmental degradation and water 
conservation problems Including health and sanitation In developing 
countries, a commonly stated major goal is: "development of an 



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environmental ethic in the people of the country" ( The World 
fcnvlronment Handbook . 1984). Yet, effective research and development 
In environmental management education remains a key problem. 
Similarly, there are few effective evaluation strategies that can 
provide both short-^term and long-term evaluation or program 
effectiveness. 

AN R & 0 COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK 

The Identified needs must be addressed In meaningful context. 
The (establishment of a workable Conservation, Natural Resources and 
environmental Management Education Research and Development 
Communications Network that can systematically address the broad 
issues of training, Information dissemination, materials development 
and the evaluation of materials, projects and programs can provide 
that context. Such efforts are essential In relation to both the 
formal and nonformal education communities 1f the goal of an 
environmentally literate citizenry and quality life are to be achieved 
In the developing countries of the world. 

Perceived needs were Identified In relation to work In both the 
English and Spanish speaking Caribbean, funded by U S. A.I.D. In 
relation to three years' work through an OSU Title XII Strengthening 
Grant, and a five-year Natural Resources Management (NARMA) project 
with the Dominican Republic and Us Ml.^lstry of Agriculture. 

The strategy that would seem to be the most appropriate Is to 
build on existing Institutional bases and educational structures for 
the development of trained personnel, materials, disseminating 
strategies, message targeting and evaluation, through the 
establishment of the Network. A program of research and development 
In the Caribbean through environmental management education was 
Initiated by the Division of Environmental Education at OSU 1n 1931. 
Projects Involving U.S. A.I.D. , the OSU/AID Title XII program, the 
Ministry of Agriculture In the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean 
Conservation Association headquartered In Barbados have been 
established to Incorporate relevant Information about International 
environmental Issues Into existing courses at OSU and to provide 
assistance to developing countries In the development of useful 
environmental management and educational strategies. A basic goal 
contlnuf^s to be to help the people of the various nations develop an 
environmental ethic and to Institutionalize appropriate training and 
environmental management education programs that lead to greater 
educr^tlonal, economic and social well-being. 

ELEMENTS OF THE PROPOSED COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK 

The proposed Research and Development Communications Network 
emphasis will be to: Strengthen Institutional capability In the 
development of needed Inf'^rmatlon systems and materials on 
conservation, natural resources and environmental management 
education; develop the capacity of cooperators to produce an 



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appropriate data base in response to changing Identified needs over 
time; assist In designing appropriate environmental education plans, 
and strengthen agency. Institutional and organizational cooperation In 
conducting long-term evaluations and short-Urn Investigations wUh 
Implications for practice. 

Project Format 

The proposed Network, when established. Is Intended to function 
by utilizing a Network Support Center at The Ohio State University and 
a Network Research and Development Center located In each cooperating 
country* Each Center would be governed by a director with guidance 
provided by a steering committee. Communications would be maintained 
through the use of microcomputer linkages thereby providing effective 
Information transmission, storage and retrieval. The development of a 
relevant data base, subsequent materials production, and a 
clearinghouse service for information, evaluation^ and expertise are 
typical outputs expected from the functioning of the Network. A 
quarterly newsletter would be produced with each Center adding a page 
unique to that country. 

Project Sequence 

As a first step In establishing the Research and Development 
Communications Network it is proposed that a Workshop in Conservation, 
Natural Resources and Environmental Management Education be conducted 
1n Barbados *n early 1985 In cooperation with the tirlbbean 
Conservation Association, the University of West Indies and selected 
developing countries of the English speaking Caribbean. As a means of 
establishing the proposed Research and Development Communications 
Network structure a series of goals are specified below that are to be 
accomplished during the proposed workshop. 

1. To Identify counterpart conservation, natural resources and 
environmental management educators and scientists In each 
participating developing country of the Eastern Caribbean. 

2. To define appropriate evaluative strategies and research needs in 
relation to conservation, natural resources, and environmental 
education development in countries of the Eastern Caribbean. 

3. To determine the current status of conservation, natural resources 
and environmental information and programs development in each 
cooperating Eastern Caribbean nation. 

4. To assist narilcipants in developing procedures by which baseline 
data can be developed concerning environmental, conservation and 
natural resources concepts and attitudes held by various segments 
of society in each of twelve cooperating Eastern Caribbean nations. 

5. To initiate exploration of the application of conservation, 
natural resources and environmental information and education 
practice and procedures to problems in developing countries of the 
Eastern Caribbean. 



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6. To produce a documenc suitable for publication detailing current 
status and identified research needs in conservation, natural 
resources and environmental information and education in 
participating countries in the Eastern Caribbean. 

Network support would: (1) facilitate communications; (2) 
implement policy decisions; (3) Insure appropriate evaluation; (4) 
monitor the use of resources; and (5) conduct workshops involving 
materials production, microcomputer applications and evaluations. 

The Center Directors would: 

1. establish a Center in each cooperating country; 
2- modify materials to meet identified needs; 

3. participate in evaluation strategies; 

4. train educators » communicators and Interpreters; 

5. meet periodically with other network directors to review 
policy programs and to share information. 

Potential Benefits 

The proposed research and development effort, when fully 
implemented, will provide a basis for evaluation of conservation, 
natural resources and environmental management programs, ^nd the 
evaluation of knowledge and beliefs held ^y various clientele groups 
in the cooperating nations and their changes over time. It is 
anticipated that prog^*am benefit would occur in relation to the 
stabilization of natural resources degradation, development of sound 
natural resources and environmental mu.rigement education programs in 
the schools, colleges and universities f.nd for the general public. 
Monitoring of such programs over tiine as a means of assessing cost 
effectiveness and enhancing sustainable development would help assure 
the development of a quality of life and environment in the most 
economical manner. 

Benefits to the U.S. citizen, funding agencies and organizations 
concerned with conservation, natural resources and environmental 
management will include: 

1. Establishment of effective evaluative strategies of use in 
measuring program effectiveness as determined by knowledge 
gain and attitude shift on relevant conservation, natural 
resources and environmental quality issues. 

2. Establishment of procedures to define a baseline of 
environmental information and beliefs possessed by various 
clientele and voting citizens of cooperating countries: 

3. Development of strategies for assessing the cost effectiveness 
of environmental management information and education 
strategies. 

The proposed Research and Development Communications Network will 
provide a mechanism for the effective management of natural resources 
and the development of sound programs \n environmental learning. The 
accessibility of useable information Is essential for the fulfillment 



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of basic human needs and the eradication of poverty while 
achieving the goal of sustained development* Reversing the 
trends of soil degradation, deforestation, desertification, 
pesticide impact and ^dmfiMt population growth will require 
intense envi^onmenta^ education at all levels. The formal and 
nonformal sectors will have to be utilized effectively. The 
proposed Research and Development Cornvminicatlons Network for 
conservation, natural resources and environmental management 
can provide the necessary framework for the development of an 
environmental ethic and improvement of the quality of life for 
people of the Wider Caribbean. 

Bibliography 

"International Environmental Education Since Stockholm and Tbilisi." 
Connect . March 1982. VII (1), 1-4. 

UNESCO. Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education, 

Tbilisi, U.S.S.R., 14-26 Octr'>er 1977. Final Report. Paris, 1978. 

lUCN Bulletin . News series, Oc.uber/Oecember 1983, 14 (12), 1196 
Gland, Switzerland. 

Natural Resources Management {in the Dominican Republic) . Project No. 
517-0126. U.S. AID, 1981, p34. 

The World Environment Handbook . World Environment Center, New York, 
1984. 

•^K^rld Environment Trends Between 1972 and 1982." Global Perspectives 
Quarterly . Fall 1983, 1(1), p. 5. 



2. ''Environmental Education In the Dominican Republic." (Alfredo 
Norillo) 

Overview 

The Dominican Republic shares with Haiti, the Island of 
Hispaniola, the second largest of the Antilles. Occupying the eastern 
portion of Hisoaniola, the Dominican Republic covers 48,442 square 
kilometers (KM^) (30,276.25 H^) In a natural resources inventory 
(1065-66) carried out by the Organization of American States, the 
country's land was classified according to its production capability 
as Is presented In the table belcw. (#1) 



130 



129 



Table I. Land Capability Classification (AID, 1981) 



Class 




A, 

4.9 


Production Caoacltv 
tkt*l!#nt m Cultivation 


I 


537 


II 


2.350 


Very Good for Cultivation 


III 


3,122 


6.6 


Good for Cultivation 


IV 


3.639 


7.7 


Limited or Marginal for 
Cultivation 


V 


6.071 


12.7 


Pasture; no erosion hazard 


VI 


5.611 


11.8 


Pasture; Erosion Hazard 


VII 


25. Ui^ 


52.7 


Forest 


VIII 


1.202 
47.693 


?.5 
100.0 


Wild lands 



In 1967» tree cutting was prohibited and the sawmills were 
closed. At the same time, the Nllltary Forces took over the national 
forest. However » those measures were not enough to stop the 
progressive degradation of natural resources. In fact» many people 
continued cutting trees for different reasons, such as {[rowing crops, 
building houses, and raising cattle; of course, these activities were 
Illegal because the Law 5856 (1967) prohibited this action. 

For these reasons, 'deforestation continues largely unabated In 
the broad-leaved forests" (Dominican Republic Environmental Profile, 
AID, 1981). The other renewable natural resources, such as water, 
soil, and wildlife were affected, too. Many former sawmill workers 
became little farmers who began to grow crops on the Condi lleras 
(forest lands); however, they did not know how to conserve the soil 
and control erosion In order to obtain good production for long 
periods of time. In addition, no educational program was developed 
with those people. 

The soil loss Is une of the most Important problems In the 
Dominican Republic. We are losing, through erosion, about 500 
tons/ha/year In the most critical watershed. The Dominican Republic 
Environmental Profile remarks: 

"The Dominican Republic faces very serious challenges Involving 
food, energy, and population that have already caused substantial 
environmental degradation and portend a bleak future not only for 
natural resources, but for the country as well." It continues: 
"In this decade (1980s) the Dominican Republic must accomplish 
what she has been unable or unwilling to do 1i the recent past." 
This Is certainly true. However, In late 197b the problem 
concerning natural resources was seriously considered by the new 
government. Indeed, three soil conservatlo.i projects were Implemented 
at that time In three different, critical watersheds. Joined to those 
projects was the first environmental education program led by the 
Secretariat for Agriculture (Subsecretarlat of Natural Resources). 



131 



130 



ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION PROGRAM 

Activities 

The Environmental Educat'.on Program developed two types of 
activities: (1) conservation education, and (2) environmental 
education. Itself. 

Conservation education: the conservation activities were led for 
little farmers (Campeslnos) located In the most disturbed watersheds. 
It was the first time that a conservationist message was taken to the 
campeslnos who work In the cordllleras. 

These activities started with Informal meetings to which community 
leaders were Invited. For cultural patterns, the first step In any 
rural community must be to meet the local leaders. After several 
meetings only a few people accepted conservationist works In their 
small farms. The environmental education team had the responsibility 
to the project cf teaching campeslnos about the erosion problem and 
the accurate methods for Its control. 

After two or three months the campeslnos began to realize that the 
conservationist technicians wanted to help them. Then, many 
campeslnos offered their lands for soil conservation works and 
attended every meeting scheduled. 

Environmental Education: While conservation education activities 
were Implemented in the watersheds, others were developed In the urban 
area. An agreement with the Education Ministry was reached for 
training In-service teachers and students. Other institutions and 
organizations, public and private, offered to help order to 
organize an environmentalist movement. At the same time, audlo-vlsuai 
materials were made, and workshops designed. These workshops were 
designed according to type of audience and local or regional 
problems. In addition to these activities, a T.V. program was 
presented and committees for conservation were organized. 

The scope of the environmental education was nationwide. At that 
time the audience was divided Into: farmers and no farmers 
(campeslnos); teachers {In service and pre-fervlce); students 
(different levels); agricultural technicians (extension agents); 
community leaders; organized groups; and public In general. 

The Domlnlcaii Republic, as Is well known. Is a developing country 
with economical problems. However, In 1978 the new authorities 
considered It necessary to support a program for 
environmental/conservation education- Indeed, the program had the 
necessary resources for operating. 

In early 1979, an environmental education project was presented to 
the Inter^American Development Bank (lOB) joined with one general 
training project in agriculture. It began in late 1980. Another 
project was approved by UNESCO in 1980. It was an experimental 
project developed in a specific area and its major goal was to teach 
people abott natural disasters, especially hurricanes. 

In 1980, a Natural Resource Management Project (NARMA) was 
presented to the U.S. AID which included a component for environmental 
education. 



132 



131 



NARrM PROJECT: EnvironmenUI Education Component: It \s the 
first interdisciplinary and interagency project implemented in the 
Dominican Republic in the natural resources area. It is being 
supported with funds from the Dominican Government and the U.S. AID. 
The NARNA project could be considered having the best purpose for 
natural resources management and agency integration* Its general 
purposes and goal are: 

-to strengthen the institutional capability to effectively promote 
the development of the country's natural resources, 
-to establish a soil and water conservation model that can be used 
to help stop the degradation of the nation's natural resources. 

Goal . 

The goal of the project is to increase the income and standard of 
living of the rural poor* 

In order to reach the purposes and goal, NARNA project has several 
components including environmental education* The specific objectives 
and goals of this compon are: 

-develop an environme. ^1 education campaign in both nationwide 

and watershed levels. 

-develop environmental education materials for workshops and 
specific messages targeted for school teachers, farmers, 
technicians, and community leaders. 

-develop criteria and procedures for evaluating the impact of mass 
media programs for natural resources education and workshops given 
to farmers, local leader, technicians, and the general public. 
The environmental education activities are developed both at the 
national as well as watershed levels. This component is working in 
formal and informal education as wcil ds conservation education. 
Posters, written bulletins, pamphlets, radio programs, T-shirts, 
bumper stickers and video tape of the project have been prepared for 
the mass media program. Curricula for environmental education for 
grades 1-6 have been designed with activities description. A number 
of programs for short courses have been designed with different target 
groups in mind. Also, following the curricula suggested by Dr. 
William B. Stapp (Perspectives, UNESCO, 1978), modules for 
auto-instruction are being written for teachers* 

In 1982, the first national conference about environmental 
education was held. It was sponsored by the NARMA Project, 
Environmental Education Component, Universidad National Pedro 
Henriquez Urena, and The Ohio State University-Division of 
Environmental Education. About a hundred people from different 
agencies, universities, and conservationist groups attended this 
conference. 

In order to r^ach the goals, the environmental education 
activities have been designed according to: the audience interest in 
specific conservatiOii topics; the local problems; the utilization of 
local and regional organizations and committees; the urgent necessity 
of our country in focd-crop production; and the cultural patterns. 



er|c 



132 



SUMMARY 

Environmental education activities are relatively new In the 
Dominican Republic. Consequently, people who are Implementing those 
activities have» (most of them) empirical knowledge about 
environmental education because they are not graduates In this area 
but In other related areas. 

However, environmental education has gained power In the Dominican 
Republic and a few people are (and will be) studying environmental 
education, natural resources management, forestry, and soil 
conservation. 

The present activities are going to be rt^lnforced when the 31menoa 
Training Center win be completed this year. It Is a National Center 
for training In Natural Resources Conservation by the Department of 
Environmental Education. 

In the same way, a strategy for Environmental Education Activities 
was written and recently began Its Implementation. 

We have a great challenge. We are wining to accept it. We need 
to work hard In order to control the natural resources degradation and 
to Improve the standard of nving of our people. Environmental 
education Is one way to reach our goals. We ben eve so. 

Blbnoqraphv 

1. Agency International for Development (US AID). "The Dominican 
Repubnc Country Environmental Profile: A field study." 1981. 

2. Tlnnermeler, Ronald et a1. "First Evaluation Report of the 
Pomlnlcan Repubnc Natural Resources Management ProJect-NAREHA." 
Santo Domingo, Dominican Repubnc, 1984. 



134 



133 



V.A. Baer, Richard A. "Preserving Human Freedom In a T1ir*e of 
Environmental Crisis. Professor, Department of Natural 
Resources, New York State College of Agriculture and Life 
Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. 

As the United States and other nations grapple with environmental 
problems, and particularly as the need for more environmental 
regulations becomes apparent, governments will likely Increase their 
control over the lives of citizens. This will be necessary to 
preserve productive farmland, limit population growth, regulate toxic 
wastes, limit the depletion of non-renewable natural resources, and 
ward off environmental disasters which might result from such 
developments as acid precipitation or the worldwide Increase of 
atmospheric carbon dioxide. 

With particular reference to the United States, the question was 
posed: How will we be able to preserve personal and societal freedom 
In a time of Increasing government control? In particular, the 
discussion was focused on schooling and government's role In schooling* 

Small minorities of both liberal and conservative thinkers today 
go so far as to argue that the present structure of government schools 
In the United States Is unconstitutional, particularly at the 
elementary and secondary levels. This system, dependent as It 1s on 
monopoly government financing, violates— so they hold-basic free 
speech and freedom of religion provisions of the First Amendment. 
These critics argue for various changes. Including the 
disestablishment of the government monopoly position In financing. 
The presentation showed why there Is substance to these arguments. 

This paper focused on the United States, but It has relevance for 
all nations concerned with government's role In schooling and the 
preservation of freedom In a time of global environmental problems and 
a deepening awareness of planetary environmental limits. 

In particular, discussion focus was on the teaching of values, 
Including environmental values. In government schools, and the 
presentation made clear why problems such as which values to teach, 
censorship of textbooks and library books, and whe>:her prayer should 
be permitted In public schools, are so difficult to resolve under 
present circumstances. 



V.B. Martin, Jim and Diana Thompson. "Government Support and 

Leadership In Environmental Education." Head, Environmental 
Education Branch, Alberta Environment, 0820-lOfe Street, 
Edmonton, Alberta T5K 2J6, Canada; Environmental Education 
Co-ordlnator, Alberta Recreation and Parks, 1001-9029 113 
Street, Edmonton, Alberta T5K 2N9, Canada. 

Executive Summary 

The purpose of this paper Is to trace the key role that provincial 
government departments have played In furthering the growth of 
environmental education In Alberta., It describes the level and type 



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13^ 



134 



of provincial InvoWeipent past and present and makes recommendations 
for the future. 

The historical perspective, analyzed through a process model, 
Includes major thrusts from government and non-government sources 
which culminated In provincial government Involvement through funding, 
policy development, facilities, materials and personnel support. 

An examination of the current situation outlines the Influence of 
government departments In and on environmental education programming. 
A comprehensive overview Including specific examples from within 
government will be given to Illustrate program thrusts, level of 
funding, specialized environmental education personnel and target 
markets. 

The factors Influencing future directions In government 
environmental education programming efforts will be explored through 
an examination of the environmental, social, political and economic 
pressures that are the reality of the next decade* 

Introduction 

The purpose of this paper Is to trace the key role that provincial 
government departments have played In furthering the growth of 
environmental education In Alberta* The paper analyses this role 
through use of a process model. The aithors of this paper feel that 
the model could be apolled In any situation where government Is 
Involved In environmental education. The paper Is written as a 
theoretical treatise In hope of generating discussion. It does not 
reflect the policy or opinion of any government department or agency. 

Process Model of Government Response 

Government can play two roles In the development of environmental 
education: that of catalyst and that of leader. 

As catalyst, government agencies provide the spark that Is needed 
to generate environmental education activity. This can be In the form 
of grants, leadership training or program Initiatives. In the 
catalyst role, government provides only Incentive or support. It Is 
the grassroots sector that becomes responsible for environmental 
education development. 

In a leadership role, government takes an active role In promoting 
and ensuring the development of environmental education. In this 
situation, the grassroots sector depends on government to provide 
facilities, to train personnel, and to develop a variety of programs 
and material . 

As catalyst, government seeds environmental education growth. As 
^^ader, government provides direction that shapes environmental 
education development. 

In both the catalyst and leadership roles, government can either 
respond to need or Initiate environmental education developments. 
This Is Illustrated In the model presented In Figure I which shows the 
process of Interaction between government and the grassroots sector. 



138 



135 



F igure I 



Likely Responses 
from Grassroots 



Government Role 



Government Action 



Yes/Y s 



Catalyst Responding 



We know what you want 
and we* 11 supply the 
support possible. 



?/Yes 



Leader Responding 



We'll do what you 



No/? 



Catalyst Initiating 



think should be done. 
We think this should 
be done so >re's some 
support* 



No/No 



Leader Inltlatln'^ 



We know what needs .0 
be done and we'll do It. 



Environmental education development occurs In four ways through 
this process: leader Initiating, catalyst Initiating, leader 
responding, catalylst responding. Let us examine the Interplay 
between the grassroots sector and government when government takes on 
each of these four roles. 

When government as leader ^initiates environmental education 
development the government stance Is "we know wnat needs to be done 
and we'll do It." This will often result In e negative response frorn 
the grassroots sector. Because It has not been part of the decision 
making process. It has no vested Interest In the resulting course of 
action. 

When government takes a leadership role that Is responsive, the 
stance changes to "we'll do what you think should be done*" This 
approach receives more support with the grassroots sector due to Its 
potential for meeting direct needs. However, since the Initiative 
does not come from the grassroots sector there Is often no commitment 
and confusion as to what course of action to take and gove nmer.t 
support Is not as effective as it could be. 

When government as the catilyst tries to Initiate, the stance 
becomes "we think this should be done so here Is some support." Again 
the grassroots sector resists government control but the possibility 
for direct support from government Is appealing. 

When government In the ca^^^lyst role Is responsive, the stance Is 
"we know what you want and we'll provide the support required." 
Response from the grassroots sector Is positive. Environmental 
education grows through a strong grassroots support base that 
Initiates development and Is supported by government wherever possible. 

The role of government will shift and change within this proce:s 
with varying degrees of success* Ideally, as has been described, 
environmental education will be strong where there Is grassroots 
Initiative supported by government- -w^ere government as the catalyst 
respords to need. 



137 



136 



rhe ?5lstory of environmental education In Albe.-ta may De traced 
through an analysis of government's changing role as outlined In the 
model. In describing the process of government Involvement, we are 
dealing w1*h a theoretical framework within which to explain events 
and courses of action that have Influenced environmental education 
growth. This framework Is shaped by many factors into reality. The 
social, economic and political climate Influence the role that 
government can play. The most constant and consistent trend within 
this context Is change. 

Analysis of Interaction 

The following chart Is an analysis, through time, of the 
Interaction of provincial government depaitments and the grassroots 
environmental education movement. It attempts. In a very generalized 
way, to outline the roles and responses of government to ^e 
grassroots sector through approximately fifteen years of environmental 
education development In Alberta. The growth and organization of the 
grassroots sector Is paralleled by growth and organization In 
government. 



138 



GRASS ROOn* 



Environmental Educators 



Leadership 



With greater resource support 
and Interest progrm begin to 
develop and grow. 



Individuals conniltted to ee/oe 
identify sources for support frost 
govermnent. 

Pressure on leaders to assist new 
educators In the field of et/oe. 



Programs continue to develop In 
number and size as support from 
service departments and educa- 
tion department Increases. 



Leadership organizes to deal 
with expanded grassroots 
Interest. General needs of 
Alberta educators In ee/oe 
Identified and conmunlcated. 



f-ome programs are accepted 
and meet needs— others are 
not subscribed to because 
they did not raeet cur^^ent 
needs . 



Educators redirect some 
Interest away from ee as pres- 
sures to meet needs of formal 
curriculum and new curriculum 
Increase. Lack of coordinated 
ee support continues and ee 
lea<^ersh1p Is less visible. 



Leadership by coonltted 'pioneer' 
leaders Is replaced by leadership 
who loc^ upon ee/oe as a profes- 
sional responsibility— leadership 
Is of shorter duration and needs 
of membership not clearly Identi- 
fied and conmunlcated. 



a; 
a. 



139 



GOVERNMENT 

Service Department Alberta Education 



Government sources respond with available 
funds, generally of a one-time nature. 

(Catalyst responding) 



Pressure on government departments for 
more support of an on-going nature leads 
to need for greater rationalizing within 
each department's mandate'*- programs must 
show a service to the department. 
Programs developed to meet expressed needs 
of grassroots also seen as service to 
department mandates, 
(Leadev responding) 



Pressure on the department 
leads to statement of 
basic support. 

(Catalyst responding) 



Departments develop positions within 
the bureaucracy to respond and Interpret 
requests of educational cominlty. 

(Leader resvcnding) 

Programs are developed that are Initiated 
by this staff based on their Interpretation 
of need. 

(Leader responding) 



Education responds with 
continued support of ee/oe 
and through non-specific 
program funding. 

(Catalyst responding) 

Some programs developed at 
the department's Initiative. 

(Leader initiating) 



Government staff has difficulty responding 
to grassroots leadership because It per- 
ceives their reduced capability to ascer- 
tain grassroots needs and beceuse of the 
sort duration of their Involvement. 



Coordinator's position 
developed by the deoartment 
to deal with ee/oe. Program 
Initiated by the department. 

(Leader initiating) 



Department does not accept 
responsibility for leadership 
of coordinated ee responses, 
departments. Proarams often lack 
curriculum credibility. 
(Leader initiating) 



Programs continue to be Initiated by 
the departments. Prorram efforts are 
not effectively coordinated between 



140 



138 



Intervention s 

Although the preceding chart Invites critical analysis of the 
history of environmental education development. It is Important that 
any criticism allow learning for future well-being. In doing so we 
would like to focus on three Interventions that could have altered the 
history of environmental education development In Alberta and that can 
still be applied today to ensure growth of environmental education In 
the future. 

1. The responsibility for all education, including environmental 
education, lies vith Alberta Education. With the growth of 
Interest in environmental education in the province, from the 
early seventies, the leadership in government could have been 
assumed by Alberta Education. This would have included 
direction-giving to the grassroots leadership, coordination of 
government resource and response and the legitimization within the 
curriculum of enviroranental education progra: . 

2. The environmental education leadership could have focused in its 
needs Identification on leadership training and a communication 
system with Its grassroots membership. This would have led to a 
more knowledgeable and committed leadership with the ability to 
advise government on environmental education needs and to provide 
for continuing quality leadership as the "pioneers" retired. 

3. Direct cowrouni cation and formal cooperation between the grassroots 
leadership, service departments and Alberta Education from the 
earliest endeavours could have enhcnced development in 
environmental education In the last decade. 

Conclusion 

As stated, It Is not beyond the capability of the environmental 
education comr.unlty, including the government service and leadership 
sectors and Alberta Education, to Institute the above Interventions as 
the basis of environmental education action now and for the future. 

The broad base of environmental education requires the 
coordination that comes from a strong leadership. This leadership in 
turn can depend on fewer but still considerable resources from 
government. Alberta Education can. in its present restructuring of 
curriculum, take the initiative to provide the overall direction for 
environmental education In the future. 

It Is Imperative that, within the confines of the educational 
curriculum, the needs of environmental educators be communicated to 
the government sector and they, in turn, respond with continued 
support. 



V.C. Nelson, Kenneth J. "Overview of the Role of the Environmental 
Education Advisory Committee to the Environment Council of 
Alberta." Coninuni cat Ions Officer, Environmental Council of 
Alberta, 8th Floor Weber Centre, 5555 Calgary Trail, Edmonton, 
Alberta T6H 5P9, Canada. 



139 



The Environment Council of Alberta (ECA) Is a government-owned and 
funded corporation set up to assist the government of Alberta with Its 
environmental decision making. It has a mandate to review policies, 
programs and government activities which relate to envlronmentdl 
conservation In this province* ECA supports a small In-house staff. 
At the same time, the ECA underwrites the activities of several public 
advisory cmnmlttees on the environment made up of volunteers from many 
sectors of Alberta society* ECA staff provides a secretariat for 
these volunteer committees. These committees advise both the ECA and 
the government on environmental Issues of concern to the public at 
large. 

When requested to do so by the government, the ECA Involves the 
wider public more directly through large-scale public hearings on 
specific environmental Issues. Reports and recommendations go 
directly from the ECA to government on these occasions. 

Since the formation of the ECA In 1970, there has been a public 
advisory committee on environmental education. At the present time, 
this committee Is called the Environmental Education Advisory 
Committee, or EEAC, with a membership of approximately 18 people. 
These people are, for the most part, representing themselves, rather 
than some outside entity such as a school or an association. They 
are, however, usually professional educators or communicators who may 
or may not be associated with the educational system In a formal way. 
They share a conviction that environmental education Is central to the 
lopment of a child's Intellectual awareness of the world around, 
that communicating about environmental concerns-^and what can be 
done about them— Is of vital Interest to everyone. Including 
educators, throughout life. As a committee, their main function Is to 
give considered advice to the ECA and the government on environmental 
education In the schools, and on Information programs for the public 
about environmental Issues. That Is, their role Is to assist the ECA 
to raise public consciousness about the environment, and about ways 
the public car participate In decisions affecting the environment. 
It*s not an easy task at the best of times, let alone during the worst 
economic conditions Alberta has faced since before World War IK 
In 1972, this conmlttee seh out to Identify what was 
currently being done In environmental education In 
Alberta, and what directions and Initiatives could be 
pursued. The following year. It concentrated on 
defining environmental education. No single definition 
was agreed upon, but several elements were set down. 

The committee organized a provincial conference on 
environmental education for Hay 1974. The conference 
had three objectives; to provide a setting for the 
exchange of Information among those Interested In 
environmental education, to direct public attention to 
the Importance of environmental education, and to 
provide a basis for future planning. A "state of the 
art" study was commissioned to form the basis for 



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142 



140 



discussion at this conference. It focussed on the 
formal education system, provincial governmnent 
departments and non-government groups. 

About 220 delegates from a broad spectrum of agencies 
and organizations attended this First Alberta Conference 
on Environmental Education. Its proceedings were 
published In December 1974. The conference generated 
227 recommendations for further action. The 
Environmental Education Advisory Committee published a 
condensed version of these under fivt areas of concern: 
the environmental ethic, the role of government, the 
role of universities, teacher education and the role of 

the educational media These recommendations were 

endorsed by the ECA and then brought to the attention of 
the authorities for Implementation. 

The following recommendations were addressed to all 
government departments and other institutions and 
agencies concerned with environmental education: 

I) There should be a general campaign of Information and 
education, using all the appropriate media and 
sophisticated methods of presentation, to emphasize 
man's role In the environment, taking a holistic view of 
the relationships between science, economics, 
aesthetics, social morality and Individual growth. 

II) Environmental education should be concerned with all 
three modes of learning - Intellectual understanding, 
emotional awareness, actual behaviour (I.e. what we can 
do about It), and with values. 

III) Such learning should be an Integral part of 
educational activities at all levels, i.e. kindergarten 
to recurrent education for adults. 

1v) Action should be taken by all govirnment departments 
Concerned, to work In concert with one another and with 
the ATA (Alberta Teachers' Association) and ASTA 
(Alberta School Trustees Association) to prepcre 
Information and relevant materials for use In the formal 
education system. 

V) Such concerted action should also be taken to prepare 
relevant Infoimatlon and materials to be used by ACCESS 
(Alberta Educational Communications Corporation) and 
other media agencies in their prorjr arnming outside the 
formal education system. 



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141 



In 197S the conmlttee merbershlp completely changed 
and moved toward more 'public' representation. The 
committee set about to define Its goals, mode of 
operation and possible future ictlvltles. It 
Initiated follow-up on the 1974 conference. The 
membership structure was changed In 1979 to Include 
six people* each representing one of the Public 
Advisory Committee study groups. There were to be 12 
others, drawn from the public at large 

During this time the Public Advisory Committee on the 
Environment (PAC) also noted matters relating to 
environmental education. A resolution was passed at the 
1979 Joint meeting of the Public Advisory Committee on 
the EniTlronraent and the ECA: 'Be It resolved that the 
provincial government develop educational programs and 
Information outlets to make the public aware of the 
Impact and consequences of existing urbanization trends 
and the range of urban form and settlement alternatives 
that are available to thirn. ' 

In 1980 the EEAC published a role statement. 'Its 
purpose Is to advise the Council and the Soverraiient on 
matters of environmental education, to comment on 
environmental programs both within and outside of the 
formal education systems, and to assist In the 
formulation, development and Implementation of such 
programs ^rherever possible.' 

During 1981 and 1982 the committee was more act've. It 
outlined an education strategy that would be appropriate 
to bring about public action on a specific environmental 
issue. It then applied this to the Issue of private 
sewage disposal. The result was an 'action kit' which 
was assembled and distributed to members of PAC and 
members of the Legislative Assembly for pilot test. 
During this time two sub-^commlttees were established: 
one, to meet with environmental education co-ordlnators 
In government and the other, to assess the status of 
environmental education 1n formal Institutions. (Braiiin, 
1984) 



In Hay 1974, when the "First Alberta Conference on Environmental 
Education" was held, over 200 Albertans had the opportunity to 
exchange Ideas and develop a basis for future planning. The 
Environment Council of Alberta's then Public Advisory Committee on 
Environmental Education, now EEAC, consolidated tne many 
recommendations that emerged. These were directed toward teachers' 
organizations, government, universities, the media and other agencies 
concerned with environmental education. 



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142 



This June (1984), the Environment Council of Alberta and Alberta 
Environment sponsored the "Communicating Environmental Trends" 
conference. Delegates to this conference discussed environmental 
education past, present and future. This conference was billed as 
the second Environmental Conference for Alberta, and from It came 
a further set of recommendations: 

MAJOR RECOHHENDATIOWS 

1. That a study of the environmental movement In Alberta, including - 
history of the movement and an assessment of its accomplishments, 
be undertaken. 

That Alberta Environment take a lead role Initiating and/or 
funding aspects of this assessment. 

2. That a conference be held to expand on aspects of communicating 
environmental issues. 

That this conference Include and be funded by environmentalists, 

educators, government. Industry and the media. 

SUPPLEHEWTARY RECOHHENDATIONS 

3. That a clearinghouse be established to Increase access of 
environmental information from diverse sources (e.g. government. 
Industry, environmental groups). 

4. That the existing mode for networking smongst environmentalists, 
environmental educators, government, industry and the media, be 
identified. 

5. That there be public service announcements to Increase public 
awareness that environmental protection is everyone's 
responsibility. 

In the light of the recommendations from the i984 conference, it 
seems that the more things change, the more they stay the same. The 
1974 conference was about formal education, and the 1984 conference 
was about environmental communications in a broader sense than formal 
education. Yet, both conferences, and the Public Advisory Coranlttee, 
and so many others, speak of the need to "network", and to make 
information clearinghouses that actually work available as a real 
public service, information remains the challenge. How it gets 
packaged may change, but the basic need for it remains, I am afraid, 
largely unfilled. Those packages are not getting delivered often 
enough. 

Ken Nelson 



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REFERENCE 

Brainm, Susan. Environmental Education 1n Alberta: The Last 

Ten Years . Edmonton: Environmental Education Resources Branch, 
Alberta Environment, 1984. 



V.D- SYMPOSIUM: "Canada/U.S. Environmental Relations*. CHAIR: Alan 
M. Schwartz, Director, Environmental Studies, St. Lawrence 
University, Canton, New York 13617, USA. PRESENTERS: John H. 
Baldwin, Department of Planning, Public Policy ^nd Management, 
156 Hendricks Hall, University of Oregouv Eugene, Oregon 97403, 
USA.; George Francis, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2R7, 
Canada.; Joel J. Sckolsky, John Hopkins University, School of 
Advanced International Studies, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 

The United States and Canada share the longest border between any 
two nations 1n the world as weTl as the longest water boundary. 
Opportunities for environmental conflicts across this border are 
numerous and It Is Indeed a significant Indication of the effort both 
nations have put forward that the problems between the two nations are 
not more numerous and do not result In wore conflict. Although acid 
rain Is a well known problem, other problems, and the mechanlsmns to 
solve these problems, are crucial to the fate of the environment 
shared by these two nations. This syn^oslum examined aclu rain, 
fisheries, and water resource problems between the U.S. and Canada, as 
well as the mechanisms by which each country tries to Influence the 
other. 

1- "Canada, Congress, and Transborder Environmental Issues". {Joel J. 
Sokolsky) . 

This paper examined the role of Congress In the resolution and/or 
lack thereof, of environmental issues that have arisen between Canada 
and the United States. While the two national governments and Joint 
bodies such as the International Joint Commission are the most salient 
actors In transborder environmental Issues, Congressional action can, 
and has, had a profound Impact on the ability of the two national 
governments to arrive at mutually acceptable solutions to such 
Issues. Moreover, because the ultimate resolution of particular 
problems depends upon funds voted by Cono'^ess, the legislative branch 
1s often important In determining whethei the United States will be 
able to live up to Its obligations. 

The paper revH.^ed several case studies, such as the Great Lakes 
Water Quality Agreement, the Garrison Diversion and Acid Rain, to 
Indicate the Importance of Congress In this area of Canada-U.S. 
relations. It also examined the efforts on the part of the Canadian 
federal government, (and varlcjis provincial governments) to lobby 
Congress on environmental Issues. While It Is clear that Canada 



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cannot Ignore the views of Congress on such Issues, 1t 1s less certain 
that Canada can influence Congressional action In ways favourable to 
Its own environmental Interests. 

2. "Acid Rain: The Science and the Conflict". (John H. 
Baldwin) . 

In the past four years, the conflict between the Canadian and 
American governments over the problem of acid rain has escalated to a 
point of serious International conflict. This paper briefly 
summarized recent findings on the acid rain problem, then 
characterized: (1) the parties In conflict; (2) their positions; and 
(3) the scientific, political, and economic foundations of these 
positions. The alternative solutions proposed by Industry and the 
Canadian and American governments was discussed with reference to the 
efficiency of the cleanup, the costs, and the equity of economic and 
environmental Impacts. 

3. "The Resolution of Environmental Controversy by 
International Diplomacy: The Case of the Skagit 
River/Ross 0am Controversy". (Alan Schwartz). 

The City of Seattle received approval from the International Joint 
Commission over forty years ago to raise the height of a dam which 
would flood up to 5,000 acres of British Columbia. As plans to raise 
the dam were being finalized thirty years later, the new environmental 
consciousness of the 1970' s led to protests from British Columbia 
about the proposed flooding. British Columbia asked the International 
Joint Commission to nullify previous approvals to raise the dam while 
Seattle steadfastly maintained that It had the legal right to 
proceed. In 1983, the commission used new and untried techniques by 
creating a Joint consultlve group comprised of members of the IJC, 
representatives of the governments of Canada and the United States, 
the Province of British Columbia and the City of Seattle as well as 
two Independent technical advisors. In order to bring resolution to 
this conflict. The IJC departed from Its usual role of fact finder 
and instead became active mediator working toward a problem resolution 
that would not only satisfy both parties, but would uphold the Intent 
of the boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. This paper emphasized the new 
methodologies used by the Commission and the environmental amenities 
that were thus protected. Speculation on the applicability of this 
technique for the resolution of other transboundary environmental 
Issues was discussed. 

4. "International University Study on Great Lakes Ecosystem 
Rehabilitation". (George Francis). 



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V.E. Panel: "Information and Dissemination Systems: Recommendation, 
Realities, Possibilities". PANEL CHAIR: David L. Hanselman, 
Professor, Oepartnent of Landscape Architecture, College of 
Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New 
York, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA. PANELISTS: Tony Angell, 
Stpervlsor, Environmental Education Prot^rams, Washington State 
Dept. of Education, Northwest Section, 18237-40th Avenue. NE, 
Seattle, Washington 98155, USA; Augusto Q. Medina, Education 
Specialist, RARE, Inc., 1601 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Washington, 
O.C. 20009, USA; John F. 01 singer. Associate Director, 
ERIC/SHEAC, 1200 Chambers Road, Columbus, Ohio 43212, USA; John 
J. Padalino, Director, Pocr.no Environmental Education Center, 
R.D. 1, Box 26R, Dingmans Ferry, Pennsylvania "58328, USA. 
Recommendation 33 of the First National Congress for Environmental 
Education Futures: Policies and Practices calls for the Invention, 
Implementation, and Institutionalization of an expanded Infonnatlon 
system for collecting, describing, Index'ing, and disseminating 
materials useful In environmental education. Panelists addresesed 
these questions - What specific services are requested, explicitly and 
Implicitly, by this recomnendatlon? To what extent might an 
Integration of existing systems provide them? What else Is needed? 
What alternative models of meeting the specifics of this 
recommendation are possible and Implementable? Who would use such 
services, and to what extent. If they were available? Who should, and 
can, provide leadership and support? Is an expectation of continuing 
support feasible, or are alternative support mechanisms needed? To 
what extent are such alternatives feasible? 

1. "Information and Dissemination In Environmental 
Education: Recommendations". (John J. Padalino). 

The first step In obtaining consensus for educational change to 
Improve the global environment Is to convince ourselves that the task 
must be accomplished. We must also convince our constituents, 
students, as well as their parents, that basic education at the local 
level Includes communication, higher problem solving skills and 
environmental literacy - the thinking tools that allow us to 
comprehend the seriousness of the world's population, resources, and 
environmental problems. 

Recommendations from the parti cipjnts at the First National 
Congress for Environmental Education Futures: Policies & Practices, 
call for support for environmental education via a responsive 
electronic network. Information and dissemination systems, 
dissemination to teachers, and the media. These recommendations echo 
similar statements made at previous national meetings focused on 
Improving education on environment. This first EE Congress, August 
83, was preceded by no less than eight national policy conferences 
that had been convened since 1970. These national convocations served 
as a valuable prelude for addressing environmental education policies 
and practices In America for the next decade. 



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The Alliance for Environmental Education (AEL/, the organization 
that coordinated the Congress, has been nurturing the growth ani 
Influence of environmental educators In America longer than a decade. 
The AEF. was founded during the early 70*s among .organizations of 
professionals with support from the Johnson Foundation. AEE 
affiliates now number 30 and represent diverse Interests of youth, 
physical fitness enthusiasts, naturalists, educators, business and 
Industry, labor unions and research Institutions. AEE extends an 
Invitation to provincial, regional, and state organizations, and their 
equivalents to affiliate with our network. 

Coordinating this Congress was AEE's most recent contribution. 
The meeting became a forum for over 400 concerned professionals from 
21 environmental organizations listening, discussing, and drafting 
*.deas for a coalition of organizations to Improve the quality of 
environment and education throughout America. Our educational opinion 
making and decision making has been characterized as diffuse and 
fragmented. Hence, It Is recommended that practitioners In the 
environmental education community work together to analyze the 
decision/policy making process, monitor them and provide colleagues 
with technical assistance and Info^rmatlon as needed. In order for us 
to be more effective to our colleagues we need Information about: 

the current status of environmental education at the pre-coUeqe 
level - Including statistical and descriptive Information; latest 
policy, programs, and legislative developments at locai, state, 
and national levels; list of available environmental education 
speakers and audio-visual materials; 

member organizations within the environmental education community 
> lists of their environmental education activities, experiences, 
and resources; school materials available for teachers. 

There has been In the environmental education community an ongoing 
need for ronmunl cation. My premise is that environmental education 
practitioners (school and community, local and state and regional) 
can, and want to assist each other and themselves In developing 
effective environmental education programs. To accomplish this our 
colleagues recommend that: 

"AEE Initiate the development of a committee of researchers and 
evaluators from the environmental community to establish a 
responsive network through electronic data base which would 
include: 

-A director of researchers and evaluators in the field, their 

interest and their activities In process: 

Needs of researchers and evaluators as thoy pursue their 

activities: 

Recommendations (made by other researchers and evaluators. and 
by practitioners) for further research to help environmental 
education practloners do a better job." 



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In addition to researching and evaluating Information, the 
expansion of current information and dissemination systems was 
recommended . 

-An expanded information system should be devised, implemented and 
institutionalized for collecting, describing, indexing, and 
disseminating materials useful in environmental education 
training, research, and communication. This system should be 
designed by those currently Involved with existing segments which 
should be Incorporated into it, and should use existing 
intranstate centers. 

These centers should be capable of collating, maintaining, and 
circulating information to the educational community. Local centers 
should also evaluate regionally produced materials for Inclusion in 
this system. 

This information should be developed by a central clearinghouse 
which would actively seek environmental materials produced by the 
public and private sectors. The clearinghouse should also coordinate 
the flow of information with the intranstate centers. 

With regard to dissemination of information anJ technical 
assistance to teachers, Congress participants recoimended to: 

-^Improve development and dissemination of environmental education 
information and materials to teachers and leaders. Participants 
stated that AEE should establish an ad hoc committee to develop a 
plan to review and report to the AEE Board of Directors on the 
status of recommendations not less than biannually. The plan is 
to include Input from academic, resource agencies, state 
environmental education associations, and other interested 
colleagues. 

In a focus on the media, Congrf*ss participants believed that the 
communication media remains one of our most powerful tools. They 
recommended that: 

We need to continue to build sophistication in the use of existing 
and emergnig media (1) to promote awareness and understanding of 
environmental issues, and (2) to promote environmental education 
general and environmental education opportunities in particular. 

From an analysis of these recommendations one may infer that there 
is evolving an expanding definition of "Information Oessemination*' 
from one-way flow of information about results of research to an 
activist concept of using information to produce change. A viable 
example of this concept is the current Department of Education's 
National Diffusion Network. This model takes into account how 
environmental educators behave when they need assistance. Hopefully 
the results of our colleagues' recommendations will answer the 



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questions: To whom do ervlronm^ntal ed'ication practitioners turn 
when they need help? For what? How do we use the assistance? 
and What were Its effects.? 

Possible means of addressing our need to exchange Information are: 

directories - for stable Information and data; 

regular and timely newletters - for keeping up to date with 

developments In environmental education; and 

instant exchanges - to Inf rm environmental education practloners 

and policy makers of important news of iMiedlate Interest. 

The Information and dissemination recommendations of our 
colleagues at the Coi^gress are relevant In terms of the needs of the 
field. They re sound In terms about what Is known about delivery 
assistance. 

In addition* t;iey are feasible in terms cf being implemented and 
maintained given the know-how and cofmltment of NAEE members and those 
of us in the environmental education community with kindred Interests. 

Complete proceedings of the Congress containing a set of 
thirty-six recommendations are available In a two-part report. The 
172 page report documenting the policies track Irxludes papers 
presented at the Congress, resolutions, and recommendations frni 
interest groups. This p^rt of the proceedings, entitled. The First 
National Congress for Environmental Education Futures : Policies & 
Practices . Is available for $5.85 from SHEAC Reference Center, 1200 
Chambers Road, Room 310, Columbus, Ohio 43212. 

Of Interest to practloners Is the report of the practices track 
workshops held at the Congress contalnlr.g practical helps In 
environmental education, from suggested teaching stratgies and student 
activities, to techniques for Informing adults of the various action 
plans and practices related to environment. This part of the 
F/oceedings, "Reports of Workshops In Environmental Practices." was 
published as a special Issue of the lournal of the American Nature 
Study Society, Nature Study , Vol. 37, Numbers 3 and 4, which can be 
purchased from ANSS, c/o John A. Gustafson, 5881 Cold Brook Road, 
Homer, New Vork 13077. 

2. "Clearinghouse Functions for Environmental Education". 
(30hn F. Oisinger and Robert W. Howe, Director, 
ERIC/SMtAC). 

The Educational Resources Infornwition Center (ERIC) Is a 
decentralized information system which collects, abst'^acts, indexes, 
and disseminates printed materials In all areas of education. It does 
not include audio-visual materials or scientific/technical 
information; other data bases cover such materials. ERIC covers 
"fugitive" documents, announced and indexed monthly through Resources 
in education (RIE), and Journal oapers and articles, announced and 
indexed monthly through Current Index to Journals in Education 
(CUE). About 90 per cent of the RI£ documents fwy be obt lined from 
ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS) in microfiche and/or paper 



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copy; appr-xlinately 700 standing' ^rder custorors around the world 
receive munthly shipments of r cRIC microfiche. ERIC provides no 
microfiche or paper copy backu for CUE documents. Basic funding for 
ERIC system is from the National Institute of Education* (NIE) ot the 
U.S. Department of Education. 

ERIC Is compuler-searchable by descriptors (key words), author^^. 
and other search elements. Searches can be broadened or narrowed by 
use of combinations of searce; elements. Many standing order 
customers, and others, provide computer-search services, usually at a 
price. ERIC also may be searched on-line through several commercial 
vendors. 

Each of ERIC'S 16 clearinghouses have specific areas of 
responsibility; taken together, they "co^'tr* all areas of education, 
with emphasis on ^formal* (school-related) activity. Through 
September 1984. a total of 237.005 documents had been Indexed for RX£. 
and 300.897 for £iOE. Of these. 7.^29 carry the descriptor 
"environmental education." which another 3,000 or more are Indexed 
under other envlron^'iienVrelated terms. 

The ERIC Clearinghouse for Science. Mathematics, and Environmental 
Education (ERIC/SMEAC) h^s hai responsibility within the system for 
environmental education since 1971. ^Iven the non-precise 
definitional nature of environmental education, many other ERIC 
clearinghouses routinely process documt^nts of Interest to 
environmental educators, using the same descriptors and procedures 
system-wide. 

Each ERIC clearinghouse Is chargtd with the responsibility of 
developing and maintaining contacts In il: field, primarily In the 
United States but to some extent Internationally, as part of Its 
effort to access appropriate materials for the data base. Each 
clearinghouse also dtvelops special publications. Including 
Information analysis products, monographs Information Bulletins, and 
Fact Sheets (Digests). Over the years. ERIC/SMEAC has published more 
that 90 such Items In environmental education. 

ERIC clearinghouses do not process all documents which come to 
them, even In their assigned areas. One constraint Is budgetary; 
there Is real cost associated with document processing, and mnre 
documents are received than can be budgeted for processing. Selection 
criteria Include accuracy of content, qualities of llterateness, 
potential for contributing to the field, availability, appropriateness 
to the d^^a base, and reproducibility. On the basis of one or more of 
th^ above criteria. SMEAC rejects approximately 60 per cent of the 
documents which It receives. 

S^]EAC currently expends approximately $80,000 of Its annual NIE 
bMd<|et of eni onmental education. Through cost-sharing, ihe Ohio 
State University contributes more than $25.u00 aiinuelly In support of 
SMEAC 's environmental education activities. Also. Sf!PAC spends more 
than $17.0U0 of Its own funds, generated primarily from sales of 
publications, for environmental education. Also. SMEAC currently 
responds to more than 15.000 Inquiries •^^lated to environmental 
education annually. 



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Among other existing data bases which index and abstract other 
useful materials are: National Center for Educational Media (NICEM), 
National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Dissertation Abstract!, 
Science Citations, Psychological Abstracts, and Agricola (U.S. 
Department of Agriculture). There are many others; most are 
computer-searchable. Back-up services (microfiche and/or paper copy) 
vary widely, but all provide Information leading to sources of 
dvXuments and other materials. 

The above provides a summary of the current 
information-availability situation; In a word, the amount of 
information and resources existing and available is staggering. 
Looking to the future, it would seem counter-productive to initiate, 
from scratch, another entity to regenera^;e the environmental education 
services provided by existing data bases. The point is, of course, 
that much of what researchers and practitioners say they want is 
already available through one or more data bases; the basic problem 
is determining which data oase is the proper one to search for 
specific needs. An additional problem Is gaining access to the data 
base, then learning how to use it. A more insidious problem is in 
determining gaps—that is, what is it that is wanted that cannot be 
found from existing sources; then, how might that be found? 

Two key factors needing consideration are linkages and 
sustainability. Much of what a "National Center"* for environmental 
education, or anything else, should do Is already being done by 
someone, somewhere; the above descriptions, sketchy as they are, 
suggests tue depth tf ERIC involvement and hints at other currently 
existing components. The major effort of a "National Center," then, 
should be In terms ot linking existing efforts, capitalizing on 
existing resources, identifying gaps and determining how to fill them. 

ERIC has been in existence for 18 years; it has dealt with 
environmental education, per se, since "environmental education" was 
recognized as a viable concern, and continues to do so. SMEAC has 
been in existence as long as ERIC, and has been Involved with 
environmental education from the beginning of tr^ ERIC system. The 
details of SMEAC s operation have changed with ch<i..ging times and 
circumstances, but its mission is still there, accomplished within the 
constraints of the times. This would not have happened without 
cost-sharing on the part of Ohi?> State, or without the generation of 
local funds, primarily througi. Sdles of publications ("cost recovery," 
in effect, and in increasing percentages). If ERIC were not obligated 
to operate in a cost-recovery mode, SMEAC (and the other 
clearinghouses) could in fact provide the services which many seem to 
feel they should receive without cost. Based on numbers and types of 
requests received, SMEAC could in effect give away its current 
$700,000 inventory in about three months--but then would no longer 
exist, and thus would no longer provide services of any kind. 

One of the ways that SMEAC has rhaintained its viability, at the 
same time increasing its services to a segment of the field, has been 
through the development and operation of an Instructional Resources 
Center for the Office of Wct«*r Program Operations of the U.S. 



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ErivMronmental Protection Agency. Operating under a series of grants 
from EPA, SMEAC has developed a targeted data base dealing with water 
quality from an Instructional point of view. This Is the Water 
Quality Instructional Resourcas Information System (IRIS), also 
computer-searchable. As part of Its arrangement with EPA, SHEAC also 
publishes a b^-jwnth^y newsletter, for practitioners, and operates an 
audio-visual lending library, along with a paper-copy reproduction 
service for pertinent documents— training manyals and the like. SMEAC 
Is In the process of becoming self-sustaining in this effort. 

SMEAC and EPA Instructional Resources Center (IRC) activities have 
already demonstrated that many people, agencies, and Institutions will 
pay a reasonable cost for some services and materials. Interaction 
with users and user surveys have been effective ways of det«rm1n1ng 
these Interests and needs. Services built on a planned cost-recovery 
program can be sustained and expanded In an Incremental way; SHEAC 
and IRC have continued to Increase their services and materials 
available every year. 

ERIC, SMEAC, and IRC activities have also demonstrated that some 
needed services and activities cannot be provided on a 
dollar-for-dollar cost-recovery basis. Question-answering services 
require substantial personnel time, material support, and 
communication costs, tbt^^t costs are significant, and more support, 
probably Federal and State, Is needed to respond to these demands. 
Developing and maintaining an effective conmunlcatlon system to 
various publics with respect to environmental education needs, 
programs, materials, and oiher activities Is also costly; It has not 
been fully developed, Additlonot funds are also needed to extend 
current developments of such a system and to provide resources for 
operating it. 

SMEAC s activities tf the past 18 years and analyses of other 
Information dissemination and communication programs lead to two other 
observations . 

1- Start-up costs are substantia"! In any program of this type, 
often equalling those of more than one year of actual operation. 
Many programs are Initiated with funds for start-up and perhaps 
one year of operation; If they are not continued, the start-up 
costs are essentially lost and must be duplicated to re-start 
similar programs. 

2- There Is a lag time between (a) establishment of an Information 
service and user awareness, and (b) user awareness and user use of 
the service. The duration of these "lags" depends on several 
variables, IncluUIng the forms of communication used to provide 
user awareness, the types of Information services available, the 
ease of use of the service, <tnd the probability that the service 
will continue to exist. If any costs are involved In learning to 
use the service, tht expectaMon of continued existence Is 
particularly Important. 

It would seem that any plan for establishing a comprehensive 
environmental education Information and materials clearli ghouse must 
consider: 



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1- The avoidance of creating entitles that duplicate existing 
services, especially If those services are continuing ones; 

2- linking to existing activities particularly those which are 
long-term; 

3- providing for Incremental growth rather than extensive 
start-ups and re-starts; 

4- providing for sustained operation, through a combination of 
cost-recovery mec^ianlsms (which involves recognizing the costs 
associated with provision of services and developing techniques 
for recovering them), and external support for some activities; 

5- the long-term Implications of any plan developed— how w1 11 It 
change the behavior patterns of people, what will be dropped by 
others In deference to the activities newly Initiated, what will 
happen to those services if newly Initiated activities cease to 
exist? 

6- prioritization of needs, particularly needs of users; and 

7- methods of demonstrating positive Impacts. 



V.F. Panel: "Toward a National Center for Environmental Education". 
PANEL CHAIR: John R. Paulk, Chief. Skills & Educational 
Developro(>nt Branch, Division of Land & Economic Resources, 
Tennessee Valley Authority, 1E35 Old City Hall Building, 
Knoxvllle, Tennessee 37902, USA. PANELISTS: Alexander J. 
Barton, Program Director, Office of Science & Engineering 
Personnel & Education, National Science Foundation, 1800 G. 
Street, NW. Washington, D.C. 20006, USA.; John J. Padalino, 
Director, Poconc Environmental Center, Route 1, Box 268, 
Dingmans Ferry, Pennsylvania 18328, USA.. 
Recommendation #1 of the First National Congress for Environmental 
Education Futures calU for an Independent national center for 
environmental education to promote environmental education training, 
research, and comraunlcat'on. This recommendation echoes similar 
statements made at other meetings. The panelists will discuss the 
functions of a national center, the significance and Impact such a 
center could have on the field of environmental education, current 
opportunities and constraints, and key strategies for development and 
support of the center. 

1.- "National and Regional Centers for EE: Following 
up on the Recommendations of the First National Congress 
for Environmental Education Futures -Policies and 
Practices". (John J. Padalino). 

Fron the reports of the National Commlsslori on Excellence In 
Education, the Education Commission of the States, and In the wake of 
the plethora of studies on schooling In the United States, we learn 
that there Is a crisis In education and something must be done. The 
environment, too. Is In crisis. The quality of our life depends on 
the state of the earth's atmosphere, oceans and lands and our 
relationship to them. The classroom Is the place where problems of 
education and envlronmtrt must be met. 



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Those of us in the environmental education coamunlty have been 
saying this for some time. The First National Congress for 
Environmental Education Futures (August 1983) called attention to the 
common issues confronting environmental management and education. 
Both focus on future quality of life* The media, those who determine 
what receives the public's attention, are picking up these causes. 
Education and environment are again taking center stage. Now Is the 
time for environmental educators to seize this opportunity to gain the 
attention of the nation. We must know what to do with this 
opportunity, what goals to pursue, and in effect how best to discharge 
our responsibility. At the EE Congress August *83 our constituents 
urged the Alliance for Environmental Education to seek major 
qualitative improvements in envirionmental education. 

DIALOG AND ACTION 

To nurture environmental education, the Alliance for Environmental 
Education has: 

Sponsored national and regional conferences to exchange 
information on environmental issues. 
Developed and promulgated guidelines for operating sound 
environmental education. 

Advised the Federal government on its role in international 
conferences on the environment. 

Represented the non-government sector in oversight hearings and 
implementation of the Environmental Education Act of 1970. 

The members of the Alliance believe our highest priority is for 
professionals in environmental education to reach a firm consensus on 
concrete double measures and to mobilize our efforts to achieve them. 

What measures? At the EE Congress our coneayues, in a unanimous 
resolution asked the Alliance to work for an independent National 
Center for Environmental Education. This center wouIq promote 
environmental education training, research, and communication. Tn1s 
request echoed similar statements made at previous national meetings. 

The first recommendation that Congress participants made was: 

AN INDEPENDENT NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL 
EDUCATION SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED THROUGH THE COORDINATING 
EFFORTS OF THE ALLIANCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION, IN 
ORDER TO PROMOTE EE TRAINING, RESEARCH AND COMMUNICATION 
WHICH INVOLVES THE VARIOUS GROUPS CONCERNED WITH 
ENVIRONMENT... 

This independent national center for environmental education would 
have its goals to: 

Promote cooperation and communication among professional 
organizations and associations, government agencies, business, 
labor, citizen groups, arid the research and education 
communities. 

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- Serve as a clearinghouse and Information dissemination center on 
environmental education, training and communication* 

- Promote and participate In. and be supportive of local, national 
and International networks. 

- Monitor and communicate progress and activity In EE, training, 
research and communication. 

- Provide current status feedback to Its network on achievements 
and needs. 

- Undertake appropriate action (I.e., publications, proyrams, 
conferences, seminars, fnd legislation) to promote the 
development and Implementation of EE training and communication 
locally, regionally, nationally and Internationally. 

- Assist In gaining financial anJ poUcy support of environmental 
education. 

- Serve as a mechanism for public participation In understanding 
environmental decision-making. 

- Serve as a referral center and repository for materials and 
Information. 

- Establish a communications network with teacher centers, state 
and local education systems, non-governmenta'i organizations and 
business/Industrial organizations Involved In environmental 
education. 

- Serve as a forum for environmental policy development. Issues 
Identification and educational strategies formulation. 

- Conduct educational research. Instructional materials 
development, testing ami evaluation, and similar supportive 
activities for environmental education. 

- Conduct teacher/youth- leader training activities In 
environmental education Including the validation of programs 
developed by others. 

- Encourage public accessibility to usable public and private land 
sites for environmental education activities. 

Further, 1t was felt that the Center should give first priority to 
promoting and supporting the efforts of existing local, regional, 
national and International operations. Networking and catalytic 
action were Identified as the Cen^:er's first order of effort. The 
Centp*- should move to galvanize artlon and provide leadership to the 
environmentally concerned community. 

The Center should have a core staff of full -time Individuals from 
scientific, research, resource-abased and representative Federal 
agencies, non-governmental organizations, state and local government, 
business and Industry. Opportunities should ;»lso be afforded for 
part-time and/or short term staff participation as needed to conduct 
projects Initiated by the Center. 

The Center's personnel would need modern computing facilities and 
library retrieval services. Information compiled by the Center's 
personnel should be available In p; Int form and through subscription 
by other computing and referencing systems. 

Constraints that such a national center mu«^t deal with Include: 



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A- A new organizational structure In addition to the Alliance for 
Environmental Educatio Is bein] sought. 

8- Implementation of this recommendation would stretch existing 
Alliance funds and would require new funds. 

The Alliance president has called for the development of a 
position paper on the goals and vision of the National Center, a needs 
assessment, staffing requirements, policies and procedures, and a 
timeframe for establishing a National Center should the environmental 
education community deem It a doable measure* 

The Alliance board Is planning to convene a management team to 
Investigate other successful centers and design a marketable 
management scheme, budget process, and evaluation Instrument for a 
National Center for Environmental Education 

We are promoting discussion of the Independent National Center 
concept among governmental, educational and Industrial leaders and 
other appropriate Individuals who are In a position to support the 
plan either directly or through other sources* 

Our goal Is to formulate an achievable fiscal and operational plan 
for the Initiation and maintenance of the National Center within the 
next year as we seek funding from private and public sources. 

It Is our Intent to present a proposal to appropriate government 
offices and other associations and organizations. 

The Alliance has accepted responsibility for exploring functions 
of a national center, the significance as well as the Impact such a 
center could have on the field of environmental education, including 
current opportunities and constraints, as well as strategies for 
development and support of the center* 

A national demonstration area and regional demonstration areas for 
environmental education should be established to: 

- Oemon<:trate the Involvement of all sectors of the American 
public In the education process. 

- Demonstrate the economic, recreation and tourism benefits that 
can be associated with environmental education programs. 

- Bring together In one location In each region, successful 
programs for demonstration, refinement and application. 

- Provide an opportunity for scholars and practitioners to study 
<i>>nllcat1ons and methods Involved In environmental education. 

- Demonstrate the Inter relatedness of education. cnn«nun1ty. 
business and natural re-'^urces In environmental education 
programs. 

A network of regional centers of environmental education should be 
established to: 

- Act as a clearinghouse and Information center in environmental 
education. 



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- Pror:ote cooperation among environmental education associations, 
Fe^ieral governmenr offices, citizen groups, youth organizations, 
and the scientific, research, and education communities. 

- Provide referral service for environmental education 
consultations* 

- Support and participate In an International network of 
environmental education centers, 

- Monitor and report on the status of environmental education. 

- Monitor and report on emrglng Issues In environmental education. 
* Establish a communications network with teacher centers, state 

and local education systems, youth organizations, and 
non-governmental organizations Involved In environmental 
education* 

- Assist In planning for environmental education research and 
development. 

- Serve as a referral center and repository for environmental 
education materials ^nd Information. 

rhe EE Cdngress co-sponsors, too, are working on initiatives of 
environmental education, some national In scope and some at the grass 
outs. For example, the National Science Teachers Association 
established a Task Force for defining excellence In environmental 
education and charged it to develop a position paper defining "desired 
state" condition; for environmental education. A prominent state 
Initiative for environmental education Is occurring In Pennsylvania 
where two cabinet secretaries agree that environmental education Is a 
top priority within the state. The Secretaries of Education and 
Environmental Resources established a 37-member task force to draft a 
master plan for environmental education for Pennsylvania by the end of 
this year. 

The momentum will grow. John F. Kennedy charged, "Human resources 
and natural resources are Inexorable, Intertwined, and tomorrow's 
children. If they are to manage this land well, will need the 
precision uf scientifically attuned minds, coupled with a sensitivity 
to their fellow men (and women) and creatures." Our approach to this 
challenge should be neither optimistic nor pessimistic. Neither 
unfounded optimism nor undue pessimism provides a firm basis for 
problem solving. Realism Is more appropriate. 

In the future, while consolidating past gains and assuring a 
strong environmental presence, the Alliance for Environmental 
Education Is active nationwide. It: 

- Provioes materials and services which will promote environmental 
literacy among our citizenry. 

- Plans national and affiliate strategics for environmental 
education for the next twenty years. 

' Develops and promotes guidelines to help state and local 
officials meet the need for growth and development without 
disrupting delicate ecosystems. 

- Attra.ts media Interest In environmental concerns. 



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Let us build our consensus about the measures that are doable, 
while we have the attention of the ration and, together, get on with 
our task. 

John 3. Padalino, Director 

Pocono Environmental Education Center 

RD 1. Box 268 

Dingmans Ferry, PA 18328 

(717)828-2319 



VI. A. Backes, David. "The Air Ban War: Sigurd F, Olson and the Fight 
to Ban Airplanes from the Roadless Area of Minnesota's Superior 
National Forest*. Department of Agricultural Journalism, 
University of Wisconsin, 440 Henry Mall, Madison, Wisconsin 
53706, USA. 

In the late ''930s, a handful of northeastern Minnesota pilots 
offered fly-in fishing trips into Superior National Forest's protected 
roadless area. Most conservationists paid little notice. They were 
busy expanding the boundaries of both the forest and roadless area, 
looi'ing ahead to the day when the Quetico-Superior region could be 
managed as an International Peace Memorial Forest. 

The Quetico-Superlor, encompassing nearly 15,000 square miles 
along the Ontario*Minnesota border, was consindered the finest canoe 
country on the continent. The land had been carved by Ice Age 
glaciers. Its legends were carved by the OJibway, Sicux, and several 
generations of fur traders known as "voyageurs." One could start near 
the small city of Ely, Minnesota, and travel by canoe through this 
vast labyrinth of jagged lakes and Interconnecting rivers north to 
Hudson Bay, or northwest alonq Saskatchewan's Churchill River to Lake 
Athabasca, Great Bear Lake an^ the Arctic coast. 

The first attempts to conserve the region began near the turn of 
the century, after the iron and steel trade had established a score of 
towns and the timber barons had cut the forest. In 1909, Canada 
created Quetico Provincial Park, and the United States established the 
adjacent Superior National Forest. The 1920s and 1930s marked 
successful battles against opening the canoe country to roads and 
hydropower development. Also, the U.S. Congress passed legislation to 
prevent shoreline logging, and President Franklin b. Roosevelt created 
the President's Quetico-Superlor Committee to ork with the U.S. and 
Canadian governments toward the establishment of an interna^^ional 
wilderness area. 

While expanding the Superior National Forest at the end of the 
1930s, the Forest Service passed up opportunities to buy some of the 
many inholdings that dotted the roadless area. Meanwhi ^e, the 
development of reliable small aircraft made possible a new kind of 
tourist trade — fly--ln fishing. People who owned la^id in the heart 
of the roadless area saw a golden opportunity, and began building 
fly-in resorts in the wilderness. Surrounded by federal land, with 
air travel the only easy access, they had built-in monopolies on their 
own sanctuar^ies. 



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The first two resorts were built In 1940, but the real boom began 
In 1945, as World War II drew to a close. Only a few conservationists 
had seen the possibility before the war, but now such groups as the 
President's Quetlco-Superlor Committee and the Izaaak Walton Le^^gue 
sprang to action. They staged two national campaigns — first, to get 
Congress to pass a bill authorizing Forest Service acquisition of the 
Inholdlngs; second, to ban private planes from flying Into the canoe 
country. 

To get the acquisition bill passed, they needed to work out a form 
of compensation, agreeable to the local business comnunlty and county 
commissioners, for taking land off the tax rolls* But northeastern 
Minnesotans had grown to distrust all forms of outside control, due to 
years of sour relations wi. absentee-owned mining companies and 
down-state politicians, and they demanded more coi^)evi5at1on than 
Congress would give. 

Events in Canada made the bill's passage urgent* The only 
Canadian access to Quetlco Park was a railway along Its northern 
boundary. Consequently, nearly all of the park*s visitors were 
American, outfitted by Minnesota residents. Businessmen from the 
small Ontario towns near tne park complained that Minnesota resort 
owners were getting all the financial benefit and paying none of the 
upkeep. They pressed for access, and In 1946 officials opened several 
customs stations to encourage air travel Into the park. Plans were 
made to lease cabin sites, and there w^'e rumors of a road that would 
cut through the center of the park. 

To American conservationists, such development meant the end of 
any chance for an International wilderness. The Quetlco — which was 
completely government-owned — had always been held Inviolate. But 
the Americans received little sympathy at first from officials of 
Ontario's Department of Lands and Forests, who said the United States 
should preserve Its own side before expecting much uf Canada. In the 
months ahead the official tone softened, and the Canadians promised to 
held back all development in the Quetlco until October 1948, giving 
the Americans a chance to prove their sincerity by passing the 
acquisition bill. 

Nearly all of 1947 passed without any progress In the compensation 
talks with local leaders, and the bill was tied up In Congress. The 
conservationists needed someone who could break the logjam in Congress 
and a'^ouse public opinion against airplanes and resorts In the canoe 
country. They needed someone who knew the wilderness well and had 
contacts with supporters on bofU sides of the border. They turned to 
Sigurd F. Olson. 

The 48-year-old Ely resident had participated In the fights 
aqalnst roads and dams, and was one of the few who had foreseen the 
airplane problem before the war. He had guided canoeists for over 20 
years and knew the wilderness Intimately. Educated at the University 
of Wisconsin and the University of I.llnols, Olson had a master's 
degree 1n plant and animal ecology. He had recently resigned as dean 
of Elys Junior College to devote full time to his life's desire 
writing about wilderness. Perhaps the one thing that meant more to 
him was the canoe country. Olson agreed to spearhead the fight, and 
began work In January 1948. 

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To meet Canada's deadline, the Americans had to get the 
acquisition bill passed during the next session of Congress* Olson 
generated national publicity through articles In The Christian Science 
Monitor , Sports Afield . Nature Magazine . American Forests and other 
publications. The President's Quetico-Superlor Committee sent copies 
of his articles to newspapers throughout the Midwest and to outdoor 
writers across the country. Editorials In favor of the acquisition 
bill soon appeared, and letters poured in to Congress. Olson also 
worked to get the county commissioners behind a conv)ensat1on plan that 
was agreeable to Congress. After a last-minute showdown he got their 
support, and the bill became law just before Congress adjourned for 
the summer. 

The conservationists then put their full weight into the airplane 
fight. They pressed for an executive order from President Truman that 
would prevent private planes from landi'^a in or flying less than 4.000 
feet over the roadless area. 

To have a chance of success, they needed a good show of ^ocal 
support, but in the small mining towns of northeastern Minnesota the 
issue divided families and broke friendships. This was especially 
evident in Ely. A handful of men who represented the airplane 
interests uere attempting to gain political control of the town. One 
of their key strategies was to control the flow of information. They 
gained control of the Chamber of Comhierce, the weekly newspaper and 
the radio station, and used these to spread rumors that played upon 
local fears of outside control. They also attempted to intimidate 
those who favored an airplane ban. A number of people received 
threats, and a bomb exploded in a canoe outfitter's backyard. 

Olson helped generate local support through a 30-m1nute, color 
documentary film, "Wilderness Cc'^oe Country." He wrote, directed and 
starred in the film, which was produced by the President's 
Quedtico-Superior Committee. By April 1949 ~ three months after the 
film's debut — - 75 northeastern Minnesota civic groups had gone on 
record favoring the air ban, countering thf) opponents' claims that the 
area was united against it. 

In addition to the film, OUon wrote articles for American and 
Canadian magazines, formed a Canadian Quetico-Superior Council to 
build support for the international wilderness, and worked in 
Washlfvjton to <:ee Miat the airspace reservation request made it to 
rTesident Truman's desk. T«^uman signed the reservation on Dec. 17. 
1949. Locil resort owners subsequently set up a court test, but the 
U.S. distrii^t and appeals courts ruled against them. The U.S. Supreme 
Court turned dc^ their request for a final appeal in October 1953. 

The airplane battle turned Olson from a junior college dean into 
an Internationally-known leader of the wilderness preservation 
movr^ment. During tut next 30 years he served as president of the 
National Parks Association and The Wilderness Society, and as advisor 
to the Secretdry of the Interior, participating in wilderness and 
national park battles all over the United Ctates. It also gave new 
life to his dream of being a writer. His first book. The Singip g 
Wilderness , was published 'n 1956, and quickly made the New York Times 
bestseller list. He wrote eight more before hi^ death in January 1982. 



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The airplane battle's Injportance extended beyond the preservation 
of the canoe coi-ntry. It demonstrated that two countries could work 
together to protect a common heritage, in the United States, It gave 
the Forest Service Its first authority to buy land for purposes other 
than timber production or waterrhed protection. A U.S. President had 
taken unprecedented action to preserve a wilderness area, and the 
courts. In upholding his action, declared wilderness preservation a 
government purpose. Behind all of this was a groundswell of public 
opinion that focused national attention on the need for wilderness — 
attention that continued to grow in the following decades and resulted 
In our national wilderness preservation system. As The New York Times 
said In an editorial praising the district court decision that upheld 
the air ban, the country had decided It could afford to preserve 
wilderness, that 'the gift of tranquility, wherever found. Is beyond 
price." 



VI. B. Cook, Don. "The Acid Raid Forecast: Moderate Precipitation, 
Visibility Limited". Associate Director, Acid Rain Project, 
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, O.C., USA. 

It Is a pleasure to return to this group after a long absence to 
review some of the science and policy issues related to the acid 
deposition phenomenon. I have always considered NAEE to be the 
epitome of effective environmental learning In terms of teaching 
ecology, the human Impacts on the environment and— most 
critically- the corrective steps needed to protect ecosystems and 
hu.Tian healt.1. 

The fundamental barrier to a U.S policy on controlling the acid 
rain phenomenon is that proven damages due to acid deposition that c:n 
now be stated amount to only tens of millions of dollars, whereas many 
of the control strategies won id cost tens of billions of dollars. The 
high cost of controls and the uncertainty of the science combine to 
make a consensus on a public policy difficult and Illusive. 

The hard evidence of acid rain damage In the U.S. Is limited to 
200 to 300 lakes that have been acidified and have lost their f1sh 
populations. This Is equivalent to 2 to 3X of the surface water area 
of lakes solely In Heu York state. In the opinion of Jerald L. 
Schnoor, an aquatic effects specialist and professor of environmental 
engineering at the University of Iowa, the upper limit of lakes likely 
to be acidified In the U.S. Is about 1000. However, fchey are among 
ths most pristine and beautiful of lakes. 

At present, EPA does not have a reliable estimate of overall 
damages. That Inforiiwtlon Is being collected for the 1985 assessment 
of acid deposition effects, which will provide a physical Inventory of 
the damages. Of the three categories of possible damages (aquatic, 
terrestrial and man-made materials), aquatic effects are probably of 
the lowest dollar magnitude. 

The other two categories are mere likely to be In the billions of 
dollars, If provable. Hard estimates of the damage to forests depend 
on more convincing evidence that the Increased tree mortality and 

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reduced annual growth now seen can be linked to acid deposition* For 
materials built In the hun;an environment, the rates of deterioration 
of various exposed coatings and surfaces are undsr study and could be 
very large. 

The major question on effects Is: Have they peaked with the 
acidification of 200 to 300 lakes or Is there much more bad news to be 
delivered. Many fear that the pattern sten In West German forests, 
where 34X of trees showed some damage In 1983 ana SOX showed some 
damage In 1984, win be found In the U.S. 

The struggle to forge an acid rain policy hinges on ^ handful of 
critical Issues that we can briefly examine: 

Safe Target Loadings : Usually stated In kilograms per hectare 
per, year, the target- loading measurement attempts to determine what 
level of deposition can be sustained without causing aquatic and 
terrestrial effects. The current discussion among scientist has 
centered on a level of 20 kilograms per hectare per year (equivalent 
to 18 pounds/acre/year) of wet sulfate deposition, but areas of the 
Adirondacks receive more than 40 kg per hectare per year. There Is 
now little scientific certainty upon which to base a standard. 

The Linearity of the Atmospheric Chemistry Is another Issue. The 
atmosphere can be viewed as a large-scale chemical reactor that cooks 
and cools pollutants In liquid, gaseous and solid particle forms. 
Although sulfur Is widely believed to be the dominant component of 
acid compounds, the role of many other components may be critical. 
Ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and volatile organic compounds also 
are fact:>rs that may play Important roles In determining the rate of 
conversion of pollutants to acid rain. One theory Is that sulfur may 
not be the limiting chemical In the process. There may already be an 
excess of unconverted sulfur dioxide whose conversion to acid Is 
limited only by the shortage of some catalytic trigger such as ozone 
or hydrogen peroxide. The Implication of nonlinear chemistry Is that 
a reduction 1n sulfur emissions may not result In a proportionate drop 
In acid deposition. 

The Issue of the Importance of wet vs^ dry^ deposition Is another 
question. Since acidic compound are deposited In wet and dry forms, a 
control strategy needs tc deal with both. Some scientists think wet 
material Is perhaps half of total deposition; others say two thirds. 
However, the regular measurement of dry deposition on a regional scale 
Is still In the developmental stage. 

Stm another question Is whether the contaminants come from 
distant or nearby sources . Acidic compounds appear to be transported 
a long distance because they are detected In remote, previously 
pristine areas that lack nearby pollution sources at an Intermediate 
distance (300 km) or a long range distance (1000 km) has been 
virtually Impossible. 

These and other persistent scientific uncertainties are a barrier 
to setting policy on acid rain with guaranteed results-^-^somethlng that 
politicians are looking for when considering costs as highas those 
require: to build a second nation-wide Interstate highway system or 
orbit a permanent space station. 



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Another th'ng the politician are confronting Is a political fervor 
combined with an emotional tension thit Is strong and getting 
stronger. In the pollutant emitting states, the belief U: What's a 
little acid among friends, when we all eiijoy the same benefits of 
tires, refrigerators and electricity from the Midwest? Hith a slight 
delay » we can avoid ser1ou< mistakes and cut costs, they believe. 

But to Canada and New England, the Issue Is fairness. Forget the 
sc1ence~v«e have a right to be free of having adds dumped In our 
backyards. The Midwest must stop the effluvia now. 

From my viewpoint, only two regulatory policies make sense now 
given the scientific uncertainties. 

The first Is the targeted emission reduction tUt EPA's 
Administrator William Ruckelshaus proposed to the Cabinet In September 
of 1983 but that failed to gain Administration support. The estimated 
cost of $2 billion to $3 billion Is substan^'il but far ^^Zi than that 
of most Congressional measures. The Intent . his program Is to 
jncentrate emissions cuts In 10 or 12 states. This would address the 
Mnearlty issue by establishing the rata at which sulfur deposition Is 
decreased by cutting sulfur emissions In an area directly upwind from 
a target 7one. It should Improve areas ^hat now have the greatest 
deposition levels #ind that also have lakes and forests at greatest 
risk, such as the Adirondacks. Even with an Immediate decision to 
Implement the targeted :*educt1on approach, technologies such as 
flue-gas desulfurlzatlon or coal cleaning could not be put Into place 
until 199C. Ruckleshaus has oescrlbed this as a minimal Insurance 
policy that we sb'^jid adopt while the research cottlnues. 

A second measure that would help to bring about the targeted 
emission reduction and help the Federd deficit Is a tax on fossil 
fuel combu tlon. The tax could take effect much sooner than 1990 and 
would have the benefit of promoting many of the non-hardware 
approaches to reducing emissions (fuel switching, fuel cleaning, 
turning the dirtiest plants on last and the early retirement of older 
facilities). The tax would also give an edge to solar ard other 
renewable energy sources that cause little or no pollution. 

The tax should be set at relatively low level for all fossil fuels 
but carry a surcharge for those that have sulfur. The sulfu. charge 
should be prograsslve and should not apply to sources that already 
have reduced emissions below 1 pound of sulfur per million Btu. 

The fuel tax could create a fund for use at a future ti^ze to help 
emitters of all acid forming compounds to Install controls. If 
emerging research reveals that nitrugen ox1des--for which only 11rr;ted 
control technologies now ex1st--are a serious proble^j, the fund could 
be used to muke research and construction grants for that technology. 

The main benefit of a fossil fuel tax Is that. Immediately but 
gradually. It would tilt Industry's practice away from using the 
highest polluting fuels without risking another "tall stack" type of 
mistake. (Up to the early 1970 s, tall stacks were considered Ideal 
for dispersing pollutants t;:^ sate levels. Now It appears that ihey 
mj^ct sulfur al levels that Increase the production of acid-forming 
compounds.) Several t^nierglng technologies, such as the limestone 



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Injection multistage burner* hold the promise of providing relatively 
cheep pollution controls (about $40 per kilowatt hour of Installed 
capacity vs. up to $280 per kwh for conventional flue-gas 
desulfurlzatlon)* 

Many of these technologies are costly* but U«S* scU^nce policy 
needs to assume that something like the ^orest decline of Central 
Europe and the aquatic damages In ttie Nordic countries will occur in 
North Amer1ca--w1th the hope of being happily wrong. There Is little 
chance that air pollution exposures thjic North American ecosystems now 
sustain will fall significantly In the next six to etght years. Some 
pollutants such as ozone and nitrogen oxides will Increase* At 
present sulfur emissions In the U«S* amount to two thirds pound per 
person per day and nitrogen oxide emissions are at one third pound* 
These pollutant levels* while apparently tolerable to humans» may 
still be too hazardous for forests and lakes to maintain equilibrium* 

The United States needs a greatly expanded and more comprehensive 
research program for ecosystems and environmental protection closer to 
the scale of research in the economic sectors of space, agriculture 
a^id health. Current year expenditures on acid deposition research are 
$55 million for the Federal program of which $36 million Is for EPA* 
This research could easily be tripled and still not cover major 
uncertainties. This con^ares with a cost of up to $100 million for 
capital costs of sulfur removed! at just one coal-fired power plant. 

In 19G3, Theodore Roosevelt said In dedicating Yosemlte Valley as 
a National Park: "We are not building this country of ours for a 
day— It Is to last through the ages.* Only 81 years later. U*S. 
efforts to master the science of ecosystem damage are fal !1ng far 
short of that needed to protect major con^onents of our national 
wealth. 

Continental housekeeping and maintenance should be a first 
priority. Now as we cipproach 1992 and contemplate a permanently 
orbiting space station to commemorate t! » voyage of Columbus 500 years 
earlier, there Is a Oisturblno point to ponder* While that space 
station may be orbiting over tne continent he found for the Europeans* 
It may j circling over dying forests and lifeless waters* We have 
only au^ut half a decade before projected nitrogen oxide and ozone 
level" In North Anierlca reach levels found In Central Europe today* 
The alarming fact Is that kn-nwledge of th* trends* causes, effects* 
and corrective steps for forest 'lecllne* acid rain and lake 
acidification is at a point comparable to medicine at the turn of the 
century-few proven treatments are available. 

No industrialized country or continent has reached a point in 
which its pollution controls have been brought into balam.e with what 
its ecosystems can bear. The U.S* end Canada have perhaps the be^t 
chance in the world to unravel the scientific questions. The other 
continents are either too politically diverse or Ideologically 
resistant. f1ndii»j the r^ght mix of controls that will correct the 
add rain phenomenon is something we could d'^ for the world and for 
humankind. 



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VI .C. Lanfried, Steven E. " Update from the S ub^- ontlnent: Efforts to 
Save the Siberian Crane ". The Big House, Route One, Highway 59 
East, Evansvllle, Wisconsin 53536, USA. 

The continuing saga of the last 36 Siberian Cranes wirtering in 
the Indian Subcontinent has a new chapter. 

Efforts to save this remnant flock f'-»m p^tlnctlon were given 
renewed hope b« recently Implemented legislation In northern Pakistan 
and new research proposals In India. These major breakthroughs are 
largely the fruits of a multidimensional four year program of 
environmental education detailed by my 1983 MAEE keynote address In 
Yspllanti . 

The new laws in the Northwest Frontier Province are designed to 
protect Siberian Cranes and two other crane species as well. 
Baluchistan, the NWFP's neighboring province to the west, has stepped 
up Its attempts to prohibit border crossings by crane hunters from the 
NWFP bound for remote areas of that province. Botn provinces joined 
with sind Province in outlawing the hunting of Siberian Cranes. 

Siberian Cranes transit these provinces along as yet undiscovered 
seasonal migration routes between resting areas at Lake Abl-Estada in 
Afghanistan and wintering grounds at the Keoladeo Natural Park In 
Bharatpur, India. Likely migration paths take them through crane 
hunting areas In Pakistan. 

The suspected pressure on Siberian Cranes Is a result of the live 
catching and shooting of more numerous Demoiselle and Common Cranes by 
an estimated 2,000 Pathan tribesmen who practice the sport In northern 
Pakistan. These hunters catch their prey by throwing lead-weighted 
cords over the long, outstretched wings of descending cranes lured 
toward them at night by caged decoy cranes. Between 1,500-2,500 
cranes are live caught yearly in this manner. (Uncaged decoy cranes 
are also used by Pathans In Afghanistan to lure migrating cranes 
toward hunters who shoot the birds rather than catch them. 
Unfortunately, the unrest In Afghanistan has made research on the 
magnitude of crane hunting there virtually Impossible.) 

Announced on February 28, 1983 by provincial governor, Lt. General 
Fazle Haq, the new crr.ne protection laws In the NWFP area significant 
step for conservation in Pakistan generally. Tom Roberts, a 
distinguished British naturalist and longtime resident of Pakistan, 
feels the developments are "very important- because It Is such a tough 
problem Involving long term educa*:1on to change attitudes." 

The new laws were carefully drafted, for the first time In the 
NWFP, crane hunters are required to obtain hunting licenses to pursue 
their sport. Because of the Impossibility of licensing Individual 
hunters In the remote areas Involved, licenses are sold to crane 
camps. Camp hunting fees for the spring are 1,000 rupees; half that 
1n the fad. The differential In fees Is Intended to create financial 
disincentives for spring nunting and to provide an educational tool to 
Impress hunters with the Importance of allowing the cranes to 
successfully migrate to breeding grounds to replenish their dwindling 
numbers. 



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In order to discourage hunters from exporting their sport any 
further, the new laws Impose a tax of Rs. 500 for each crane 
transporter* out of the province. Lest hunters be tempted to cross 
Into neighboring Afghanistan (only fifty miles away), a fee of Rs. 
2.000 will be assessed for cranes exported out of the country. 
Commercial crane trade within Pakistan Is outlawed; as Is the use of 
firearms for crane hunting. 

Thoughtful environmental action Involves careful planning. In 
this case, the timing of publicity regarding the new crane hunting 
legislation was of strategic Importance. According to Mumtaz Malik, 
Chief Conservator of Wildlife In the NWFP, "the new crane hunting 
restrictions were purposely announced at the last »1nute so hunters 
could not organize before the CMinencement of the crane hunting 
season. By the time It was clear the laws would be enforced, Vhe 
hunting season was half over and many camps did not go out."* a 
result, Hal Ik estimates that "hunting was reduced In the spring by at 
least one-half." 

Practical political strategies must be balanced with other 
realities. Experience indicates that th<? effectiveness of new hunting 
regulations in developing countries, or developed countries for that 
matter. Snproves when hunters are given incentives to cooperate with 
conservation measures. Recognizing this, the new laws waive crane 
possession fees for the llfetim^^ of any crane produced in captivity. 
In addition, each hunter who provides a healthy freshly caught crane 
to NWFP wildlUe staff for color banding and release back into the 
wild (for crane migration studies) will receive a two year waiver of 
possession fees for one of his captive cranes. In addition to 
providing incentives to hunters, it is hoped these provisions will 
also help reduce the depletion of the wild flocks. 

The laws are an outgrowth of educational and lobbying efforts with 
conservationists, top governmental officials, forest and wildlife 
departments initiated by this author in December. 1981. They are also 
a result of studies of the cr^ne catching in March and April. 1983. 
Research was conducted by provincial wildlife departments in 
cooperation with the World Wildlife Fund-Pakistan, the Pakistan Forest 
Institute, and the Special Foreign Currency Program of the U.S. Fish & 
Wildlife Service. 

Legislative wildlife protection is only as goi>a as the degree to 
which a broad spectrum of people affected by the laws understand and 
support them. As a result, broadly based educational activities have 
been initiated in Pakistan to bolster support for the new 
legislation. These include briefings for key national, provincial, 
and local officials ultim^,tely responsible for enforcement of the 
laws; educational programs conducted in the field for friends and 
relatives of prominent crane hunters; training sessions fn: wildlife 
staff; and wide-spread publicity of the program and its goals. Not 
surprisingly, some sophistication has be-^n required in tailoring 
messages for differences in the pe-^specti ve? and educational level of 
these and other target audiences. 



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Tom Roberts 1s enthusiastic about developments. He feels Pakistan 
has taken "a step forward from which there won't be a full retreat. 
The hunting will go on for some time but you've got all the top 
government officials In the Frontier, including the governor and chief 
secretary, conscious of the problem In a way they never were before." 
Furthermore, Roberts believes that Important long-term spin-off 
benefits from the project may have nothing to do with cranes: "If you 
can make progress here, you will automatically open a lot of other 
gates. It's really a pilot project In getting at grass roots 
conservation in Pakistan." 

In India, too, progress Is being made. Effective counts of Sarus 
Cranes at Keoladeo National Park In Bharatpur In April, 1983 and 1984, 
have Increased the awareness of crucial importance of the sanctuary 
for the survival rj the Siberian Crane. Organized by the local 
natural history group, the crane counts brought scientists from the 
Eombay Natural Society, park staff, proressors and students cf a 
nearby college together for the first time to learn about cranes, 
wetlands, and protection of the environment. The possibility of 
expanding crane counts elsewhere In Rajasthan and to other Indian 
states 1s under consideration. 

More Importantly, a high level meeting was convened in New Delhi 
1n August to discuss the feasibility of a ground survey of possible 
Siberian Crane stop-over places In India. The scientific and 
political wisdom of capturing a few Siberian Cranes for 
radio- telemetry tracking was also raised. Participating In the 
discussions were chief conservators of wildlife from the five northern 
states through which Siberian Cranes may migrate. Plans are now on 
the drawing boird for a ground survey during the spring 1985 
migration. Ol5cuss1ons of a sister project have occured In Pakistan. 
In each case, ;he goal is to piggy-back research and educational 
activities by enlisting the participation of diverse groups In the 
project. 

Meanwhile, a flow of prtss releases, newspaper articles, radio and 
television reports In local and regional dialects, and the release of 
Siberian Crane stamps have increased awareness of the plight of the 
bird at all levels of society in both countries. Several wildlife 
organizations, including tne International Council for Bird 
Preservation, have funded the development of an audio-visual program 
designed to strengthen these efforts. The slide show will be released 
by national organizations of the World Wildlife Fund In India, 
Pakistan, and Nepal In Urdu, Hindi, and/or English to maximize its 
effectiveness . 

Many challenges He a.i^id. Sustaining interest In the project is 
absolutely essential. This Is no small order In an area bereft with 
political, economic, and bureaucratic problems. (Author's note: a 
case In point s the death of Indira Gandhi which has put Siberian 
Crane ground "^vey and radlotagging proposals on temporary hold.) 
Intensive popu.jtlon pressures In the area have obviously onerous 
economic and environmental Implications. Longst nding hostlMtles 
between Pakistan and Its neighbors to the north and south further 
complicate the situation. 



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Broadening the th1n ranks of the conservation Infrastructure Is 
another major challenge, partlcelaryly In Pakistan. Because wildlife 
has tra-lltlonally been relegated to appendage status under the forest 
department there, the curriculum at the Pakistan Forest Institute 
finds wildlife as only one-half of one of cne jo courses required for 
a baccalaureate degree In forestry. The lack of any degree program In 
wildlife management In Pakistan means that no more than a handful of 
people have received extensive training In wildlife riianagewent. These 
Individuals are widely dispersed throughout the country and several 
key persons are at or near retirement age. A clear need exists to 
send environmentally sensitive people overseas for training, but, 
ironically, this sometimes requires that fledgling programs are left 
to less competent staff with neither the expertise nor the Interest to 
keep them afloat until the person returns to the country. 

Development of environmental conscientiousness has another 
paradoxical effect: awareness of one problem Invariably leads to 
awareness of other problems. In this case, cranes provided an 
opportunity for individuals to express concerns about environmental 
problems In other areas. Ensuing contacts often find outside 
expertise and resources being drawn In those directions. Whether the 
crane project will retain Its current priority remains to be seen. 

Whatever the case, however, there Is something to be said for the 
old addage about one hand washing the other. Consciousness raising 
and Institution building are slow processes and a multiplier effect 
can develop which necessitate temporary reallocation of resources to 
other projects. At the same time. It Is Important to recognize the 
need to nurture proje^.ts along until enough Interest Is generated In 
them to allow them to stand on their own. 

In the meantime, the Siberian Crane's brush with extinction can 
serve as a lighthouse to draw peoples' attention to more fundamental 
environmental Issues. In a real sense, the cranes serve as nature's 
barometers; as an early warning system about the status of wetlands 
along their International migratory paths. Studying and trying to 
protect them teaches us much about man and his abuse of their wetland 
homes^-^and the forests on which many wetlands ultimately depend. 
Experience with this project also provides Insights Into the Intricate 
social context In which environmental action occurs-- and the 
Importance of recognizing that future success depenas on our ability 
to consistently reach diverse target audiences with effective 
conservation messages. 

Developments of the last year offer hope for the future of the 
Common and Demoiselle Cranes, If not for the Siberian Crane. At the 
same time, they remind us how fragile and sensitive our efforts are to 
the whims of fate and the accumulated effects of man's unthinking 
exploitation of Increasingly scarce natural resources. Pers1sttr.ce 
provides many lessons, Ideas for more effective strategies for 
constructive action ... and few guarantees. 



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VI. D. McClaren, MUton. " »ted1at1nq the Unthinkable — Discussing the 
Problem of Nuclear km$ with Students ". Faculty of Education, 
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, 
Canada. 

This Is an era when many people feel as If they are living under 
the constant threat of nuclear conflict. For adolescents, these 
feelings are often translated Into a syndrome of hopelesseness, 
apathy, and futility. Many adults, teachers and parents alike, feel 
unable to negotiate with adolescents to help them deal with these 
feelings. Assurances that, "Everything will be alright" are not 
helpful and silence may be taken as affirmation that the situation Is 
hopeless and that nuclear devastation is Inevitable. 

This presentation explored soinc avenues by which adults may 
mediate the issue of nuclear arms and the threat of global catastrophe 
In ways which neither Ignore the seriousness of the problems, nor 
surrender to a blind fatalism while consigning total responsibility 
for finding a solution to someone else. The paper developed a 
definition of the mediation process In terms broadly related to the 
field of "Problem Solving", and proposed that while the problems of 
the arms race, nuclear arras, and war In general are grave, they are 
also worthy of our best critical and creative thinking. To engage In 
this we need to learn how to gather Information, to evaluate sources 
and arguments, to recognize bias, dogma, propaganda, and to attempt to 
create a new vision of a peaceful world, as well as of the processes 
which might create it. 

In the paper, war ger se, was seen as a generic human problem. 
One of the unfortunate side effects of our concern for nuclear war Is 
thct other forms of International and denominational armed conflict 
have been "trivialized" because they don't seem to have the planetary 
consequences of nuclear war. We also need to learn to develop empathy 
for people whose lives have been devastated In "brushfire" wars or In 
"police actions" and to learn to think about avenues for *-he 
r olutlon of conflict which does not entail the e*- »rt«,c ^f arras and 
the death of humans. 

The focus of the presentation was on the propos .ion the "vision" 
and "Invention" are coupled to objectives and effort In the resolution 
of any problem. Humans need to "re-vision* their Ideas about 
conflict, victory, security, and defence In an era of blocldal and 
planetocldal weapons. Teaching strategies and resource materials were 
explored, as well as ways of avoiding political and Ideological 
polarization. 



VI. E mcKone, Thomas E. "Tracking the Global Fate of Toxic Elements 
from Energy Systems". Staff Scientist, University of 
California, lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 761 Pine 
Street, Livermore, California 94550, USA. 



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All energy systems Involve alterations of the geochemistry of a 
local, regional or global environment* Huch of the recent literature 
on the environmental problems associated with carbon fuels has focused 
on two outstanding aspects: the Increasing concentration of carbon 
dioxide In the atmosphere, and acid precipitation* However, there Is 
a third aspect that Is receiving Increasing attention and is the focus 
of this paper. This Issue Involves the liicrtased mobilization by 
fossil fuel cycles of toxic elements from the earth'* crust to tha 
surface environment. The paper addressed some ways In which energy 
production can alter the chemical cycles of toxic elements within 
natural systems. Particular attention Is given to methods for 
visualizing and teaching about environmental chemistry. The 
"landscape prism" Is presented as a tool for representing the earth's 
surface environment In terms of the Important systems through which 
mass and chemical exchange occur. These systems Include the 
atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere, soil and rock as well as 
Industrial societies. Particular consideration Is given to how 
large-scale combustion of coal In this century has disturbed the 
quasl-equlllbrlum of trace elements In the environment and to the 
likely consequences for human health. The role of the Increasing 
global acidity In rain Is consloered as a change that could further 
Intensify the mobilization of toxic elements In our environment. 

The components of the earth's surface are linked by chemical 
cycles to form a system In which there Is chemical balance. Each 
element has an "environmental chemlcai cycle," which can be mappJ In 
terms local, regional, or global fluxes. The chemical cycle of 
most elements begins In the crystalline rock that Is at the base of 
the upper crust. Groundwater dissolution, erosion, uplift, and 
volcanoes transfer elements from this zone to the surface 
environment. At the surface, elements are distributed among 
sediments, soils, flora, fauna, rivers, lakes, and oceans. These 
cycles provide chemical stock for the biosphere Including humans. The 
ancient Greeks first noted that overall health Is Influenr.ed by the 
chemistry of the environment. In Air, Water, and Places Hippocrates 
demonstrates that the well-being of Individuals Is Influenced by 
quality of air, water, and food; the topography of the land; and 
general living habits. For thl5 paper the methods of "environmental 
geochemistry" provide the tool for mapping element cycles In landscape. 

The calculation of element distributions within environmental 
compartments U composed of five steps. First, one constructs the 
landscape prism. The landscape prism Is a visual tool used In 
environmental geochemistry to Illustrate the flow of elements In the 
earth's near-surface environment. Second, the landscape prism Is 
divided Into a set of compartments consistent with patterns of element 
circulation observed In the global environment. Third, for each 
element, trarsfer coefficients between each set of compartments are 
determined. General geochemlcal data are used to calculate transfer 
coefficients for the landscape systems model. Fourth, these transfer 
coefficients are used to set-up a system of first-order, ordinary 



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differential equations that define the time-dependent distribution of 
chemical elements In the landscape. This set of equations is solved 
numerically. 

Studies on coal fly ash Indicate that It Is enriched relative to 
the crust In several elements Including the toxic species arsenic, 
lead, mercury, and radium. This paper examines some potential health 
and environmental effects of changing the surface abundance of these 
species at regional and global scales. Such geochenlcal wobl 11 rations 
must be analyzed In a way that Integrates knowledge from several 
d1sc1pl1r«s. Using the models described above, average environmental 
concentrations In air, water, and food are derived and translated Into 
a collective population exposure expressed as dally Intake. The 
collective population dose Is converted to population risk, which Is 
expressed as lifetime cancer risk per Individual for carcinogens and 
as a range of blood levels for other toxins.. 

The overall analysis Is used to Investigate &nd rank the Impact of 
additions of arsenic, lead, uranium ore, uranlum-238, and radlum-226 
to the groundwater and soil of generic landscape. The toxic rank Is 
obtained by determining the steady-state flux of a given species 
required to equal the population risk of 1 g/km^ per year of 
radlum-226 similarly Introduced. The results provide a rough awasure 
of the quantity of a toxin such as arsenic that provides the 
equivalent detriment of a unit quantity of radium. The basis of 
comparison Is the steady-sta«-e change population health risk within 
a physical region, such as a river ba: n, as a result of a continuous 
source. It Is found that, when one considers environmental chemical 
cycles, the hazard ranking of those species falls to correlate with 
tradlcnal measures of toxic hazard that are derived using drinking 
water standards. 

This process of assessing chemical cycles and the Impact on human 
health has been Incorporated Into a computer program called "GEOlOX", 
which Is being modified for use on personal compucers (PCs). The PC 
version of this program Is Intended for use as a screening tool for 
regulatory agencies. Nonetheless, It also offers the potential for 
use as a tool In classroom demonstrations or for Individual research 
at the college level , 



VI. F. McNeil, Richard J. International Environmental Issues: 

Teaching at the Unlve'-slty Level. Assoc. Prof, of Natural 
Resources, Dept. of Natural Resources, Fernow Hall, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York 1^853, USA. 

A very large proportion of critical environmental issues are 
International In their causes, efrects and solutions, especially if we 
Include secondary effects. A course on International environmental 
Issues, using foreign and International case studies, provides good 
Illustrations of concepts, problems, and solutions applicable to 
domestic sUuatlons. The background provided Is useful for many kinds 



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of International and foreign careers and for domestic activities which 
have foreign aspects. Finally, to be a good citizen today, a deeper 
understanding of the complexities and Interrelatedness of these Issues 
Is essential. 

ESSENTIALS OF A COURSE 

- *> 

Concepts 

I make concepts central and facts secondary to my teaching 
methodology Novak and 6ow1n (1984) present an excellent argument for 
stressing concepts (which, of course, are abstractions and must be 
Illustrated with facts and case studies)* 

It Is Important to minimize the number of concepts dealt with by 
Including only those which are fundamental, or critical to 
understanding behaviors related to the course, of grea^, exolanatory 
pow^ , misunderstood or neglected. 

Issues, policy and managemen t 

A normal sequence of events occurs In resource management. A 
phenomenon appears and Is perceived; a problem Is defined; If the 
problem Is not solved and becomes Interesting puL 1cly, an Issue 
arises; a policy decision Is made; management occurs (modified from 
Caldwell 1984). 

An understanding vf this sequence Is fundamental to teaching a 
course on International environmental Issues. It becomes easy to see 
that perceiving phenomena Is difficult, that public Interest about a 
problem grows slowly and unevenly and therefore that Issues arise 
slowly. Discussions of policy-making In an International arena then 
flow easily from case studies of problems and Issues. 

Policy decisions are, of course, almost always difficult. Besides 
the questions surrounding such decisions themselves, an International 
course must examine the extra problems related to the process of 
declslon-maklng. Yhe Law of the Sea Treaty and the developing debate 
over Antarctica provide outsta iing demonstrations of both the vexing 
policy questions and the difficulties of finding Siiltable processes 
for reaching decisions. 

Which Issues are signific a nt? Which are critical? 

Caldw 11 (1984) defines Intrinsic significance as "the ultimate 
Importai ,e of an Issue for the welfare or survival of human society." 
He says that political significance Is reldom determined by Intrinsic 
significance. Too many other political considerations (Caldwell 
Includes "perceived public preferences, the state of the economy, 
military security ... and Implication: for the personal fortunes of 
the policymakers") enter Into setting priorities. And so, snail 
darters and furbish louseworts get a large measure of attention while 
hundreds of tropical spec^'ies dwindle to extinction. We work out 
methods of artificial resuscitation for sea turt ^s while erosion 
carries away millions of tons of topsoll. 



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Some Issues are crltlc^/5. Inmedlate action Is necessary If a 
problem Is to b. averted or alleviated* It oiay be a useful exercise 
to ask students to create (spontaneously, without reference to outside 
sources) a ranked list of Intrinsically significant and critical 
International envlrcnmental Issues* A short discussion will reveal 
their interrelatedness and will raise students' consciousness 
regarding significance and critlcallty. 

Which significant or critical problems are not usually perceived as 
Issues? 

It Is li^portant for students to understand that sook fundamental 
problems, mostly not 'envlronmentaT In a narrow sense, are not 
generally seen as Issues and yet are basic causative or confounding 
agents In other problems and Issues* These tend to be deeper, less 
susceptible to management, perhaps representing *the human condition/ 
and Include, for exan9>lep human greed » misuse and uneven distribution 
of power and wealth, political Instability* lack of political will, 
Inability of Insufficient capacity of socio-political systems to 
respond, and rapid rate of change. 

What mechanisms are available for the creation and execution of policy? 

Students must understand the kinds of Institutions commissions, 
governments. International quas1*governmental organizations, private 
groups (Including lobbies and transnational corporations) —that 
create and execute International environmental policy. Learning about 
sn-»c1f1c Institutions Is only of secondary value; only the few most 
prominent examples of various types should be examined. Also, the 
tremendous power of multinational corporations can be Illustrated by 
various cases end readings. 

Similarly, the major types of Instruments — laws, treaties, 
agreements, conventions should be examined but with only a few 
examples receiving any prominent attention. Many pivotal conferences, 
statements, and programs could also be examined. 

A discussion of enforcement of agreements Is usually Instructive. 
The power, or lack of power, of the International ':ourt of Justice 
(World Court) often leaves students feeling helpless until a deeper 
discussion reveals that power available In public opinion, economic 
uoycotts. International prestige and similar social tools and 
mechanisms. 

Va lues, attitudes ant! world views 

In the cla'^sroom i try to make a few of my attitudes and values 
explicit because a) I think they can set a good example, students 
can better understand my rationale, objectives, choice of case studies 
and other wa^'s I Influence the course content, and c) dlscucr^on of 
attitudes and values helps to explain differences between cultures and 
to point out some sources of conflicts In policy dec1s1on--mak1ng. 

Among the values I bring to the discussion are: a sense of 
obligation, especially but not only to human beings and other living 
things, present and future; a belief In the need for movement toward 
sustalnabillty, toward sufficiency, toward equltablllty; an assumption 
that progrtfss Is possible. 



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Attitudes I find especially useful Include optimism, hope, 
concern, a sense of urgency, acceptance of uncertainty and change, 
ability to cope with the realliat^on that some problems have so 
(short-term) solut1o,:S. 

I begin and end my course with an extended discussion of the 
meaning of the word 'development.' I find that values and attitudes 
come forth easily; at the end of the semester students have become 
much more sophisticated In their understanding. 

Different world views can atfect behavior markedly; resource 
management decisions are quite different for example 1n fatalistic 
cultures, those which believe In reincarnation, those which believe In 
progress, those which believe In the concept of limited good. Slight 
differences can usually be accommodated; radical ones may or may not 
be compatible. Even distinctly different views can be accommodated 
If, for example, laws are accepted as valid arbltors of behavior, 

METHODS 

Concept mapping and use of case studies are central to ray teaching 
methods- Concept mapping organizes my thinking and teaching, assists 
student learning, and ensures that student and teacher have reached 
•shared rr*?an1ng" (Novak & Sowin 1984). Case stiidles provide concrete 
Illustrations of abstract concepts. 

With complex subject matter a discussion format is essential. I 
also require a lengthy (20-30 page) term paper which is analytical. 
Issue-centered, and offers proposals to resolve problems. I use essay 
examinations and find that most students prefer those which tney can 
take home or. If done In class, which have pre-ainounced subjects or 
questions. 

I have used ext^^nslve readings fror a variety of sources, an<f a 
required text, by Caldwell (1384). I believe that en understanding f 
the recent historical setting of current environmental Issues Is 
valuable. Caldwell does that very well, and Includes appendices 
listing International organization, programs and events of 
significance for protection of the b^osph ^. 

THE CONTEXT SUnROUNDlNi^ ' COURSE 

Courses do not exist In isolation. They are parts of curricula. 
More than that, they are Immersed In an environment (which they help 
to create and modify). A small collection of relevant books and a 
steady flow of journals and daily newspapers Is essential. I have 
found the following journals to be especially valuable: Amblo . 
Biological Conservation , Ceres , Developmr i nt Forum , Envlronw^ental 
Conservation , lUCN Bulletin , Hazlngira , UNESCO Courier . Films, 
videotapes and similar aids are useful, especially for setting a scene 
or mood, for cheap surrogate visits to foreign regions, and for 
certain examples and case studies. Access to such materials Is easy; 
also visiting scholars from other regions are available in any large 
community or school. Other faculty members, other students, other 
courses, and related programs such as semester- or year-^abroad courses 
can greatly strengthen International curriculum efforts. 

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A curriculum can be part of a prog/am, which may Involve research, 
faculty colleagues, and Interaction with related departments. Such a 
program, in my opinion, needs several elements. These Include 
self-improvement (Including travel, extensive reading^ contacts with 
collegues elsewhere with rlmllar Interests), networking (i.e. building 
up a set of relationships with Interested scholars, government 
officials, members of organizations, foreign students), and 
administrative support (both financial and emotional) at all levels. 
A final requirement Is to assist colleagues to grow, through 
discussions, literature, seminars, and other means* 

Courses, curricula, and programs are always Imperfect but those 
targeted toward International perspectives have a :*pec1al probability 
of becoming fuiictloral, valuable, and pleasurable teaching-learning 
experle'^ces. 

REFERENCES 

Caldwell, L.K. International Environmental Policy; Emergence and 
Dimensions . Duke Univ. Press, Durham, North Carolina. 1984. 

Novak. J.D. & Gowin, D.B. learning How to Learn . Cambridge Univ. 
Press, NY. 1984. 



VI. G. Ottum, Margaret 6. " Education's Role 1n Toxic Waste Control 
Associate Professor, Department of Environmental and Health 
Sciences, Johnson State College, Johnson, Vermont 05555, USA. 

Toxic wastes are a byproduct of the modern Industrial society and 
how a nation handles them Is a measure of its commitment not only to 

current population, hut also to all future generations and the 
world at large. The U.S. Envlronniental Protection Agency (EPA) In 
1980 estimated the U.S. generated over 58 million metric tons of 
hazardous wastes a year and that the quantity was 1ncrear;1ng by 3 to 5 
percent per year (EPA, 1980). Unfortunately many of these dangerous 
wastes that have been produced and sub<:equcntly "thrown away* have 
surfaced again at places like Love Cai.^i, Valley of the Drums, Times 
Beach, Chemical Contrcl and many many mere. 

EPA (1980) lias on file Jdov hundreds of docuiRerced cases of damage 
to llf » and the environment '^i^sultln^ from the Imnproper management of 
hazardous wastes and the list Is growing - and the list will continue 
te, giow as i; Is estimated that 90 percent of all hazardous wastes 
:ave been disposed of In unsafe ways. 

Hizardcus wastes are produced by many Industries Including paper, 
met.^V., machinery, stone, glass, and so forth, but the largest single 
cont v/tor 1> the chemical and allied products Industry. This Is a 
broad Industrial category, that Includes fhe producers of such thinas 
as detergents, cosmetics, paints, plai cs, synthetics, fertilizers,' 
^rj pesticides. Collectively they gen rate about 50 percent of the 
hazardous wastes produced and some of the most difficult to deal with. 



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Hazardous substances have been with us since historic time but the 
nature of the substances and the magnitude of the problems they 
present has changed m£:rked1y In the last 40 years. VIorld War II might 
be vIew.J as the birth of the 'Chemical Age", for It Is largely since 
then that America has been transformed from a nation of natural 
substances to one of synthetics. By the 1970s, there were an 
estimated 70,000 chemical substances In the marketplace and about a 
thousand new ones were being Introduced each year* At the birth of 
the chemical age many big questions were overlooked as attention was 
focused on the role of these new chemicals In protecting, prolonging, 
and enhancing life. The enjoymnent of new synthetics, plastics, and 
pesticides was not marred by fear, because few realized that risks 
might also be associated with them. Even the scientific comminlty's 
Interest and concern over these new chemicals was limited and sporadic 
until the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring (1962). 

By then thousands of chemicals had already been produced and very 
few had been adequately tested. Even when testing had been done*, 
little was known about long-term effects or how substances responded 
when combined. Unwittingly America was becoming a laboratory for 
chemical testing but few Americans recognized the dangers. 

Also few recognized that the wastes produced by this growing 
Industry needed special care and handling. Most of the wastes 
produced were In the form of liquids and sludges and most of those 
were going Into unllned waste ponds and lagoons or being dumped Into 
landfills. In most caser attention was paid to site locations, 
safety measures, or the maintenance of records. 

This has led to a hazardous waste leo^cy that is national In scope 
and almost beyon'i comprehension In slie. 

It ha<^ been estimated that there are between 32,000 and 30,000 
landfill .>ites that contain hazardous wastes and that probably 
2,000 of these pose imminent danger to public health and the 
environment (U.S. EPA, 1979). 

A surface Impoundment assessment funded by EPA and conducted by 
the state In 1980 Identified 176,647 Industrial lagoons and other 
waste Impoundments. A preliminary Investigation of 8,163 of them 
found that 70 percent had no lining and 95 percent had no 
monitoring system ^li.S. EPA, 1980). 

EP'% estimated In 1980 that there were more than ^00,000 weils Into 
which liquid wastes were Injected and that each year about 5,000 
more were dug (EPA, 1980). 

In 1976 Congress confronted with overwhelming eviderice that the 
Improper disposal of huge quantUles of hazardous waste was 
endangering millions of Americans, passed the Resc^rce Conservation 
and Recovery Act (1976). This art was designed to Impose "cradle to 
grave" control over the treatment, storage, transportation and 
disposal of hazardous wastes which have adverse effects on health 
(RCRA, 1976). The goal was to assure safe and tightly controlled 
handling and disposal of aP newly created hazardous wastes. 



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Congress, four years later (1980), enacted legislation creating a 
"Superfund" designed to provide money for the cleanup of abandoned 
dump sites i'Tid toxic sp11l> (Comprehensive Environmental Response, 
Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980). 

The law Imposed a tax on chemical producers, with th* inoney placed 
In a fund to be used If and when the parties responsible for the toxic 
dump or spill could not be located or could not be compelled to 
rectify the problem (CERCLA, 1980). 

So far the Implementation action regarding either of these pieces 
of legislation has not been good (National Ul'idllfe federation, 1980). 
There were delays by EPA In promulgating regulations, suspension of 
Implementation, rule changes, charges of fraud and nlsmanag^ient, and 
a»»ove all- ,«ck of enforcement. The results have not only been an 
Vftcreases risk to public health, but also an Increased lack of 
c edibility on the part of EPA. This quickly translated In the 
!>ub11c's perception to a distrust of the government's Interest and 
sincerity In protectin'- '^helr health and safety. 

Currently, one of t <t major problem'^ facing the Industries that 
produce hazardous waste, the state governments, and the public at 
large Is the lack of good disposal facilities. A considerable number 
of ; iatment ind disposal options are available but In each case they 
require the siting of a facility and this has become extremely 
difficult anr In some cases Impossible due to public opposition. 

When legitimate waste disposal at a reasonable cost Is 
unavailable, the Illegal hauler or "mldiight dumper" often becomes a 
major element 1n the hazardous wiste picture. These "d. ^i^ers" dispose 
of waster at night wherever It Is most convenient and often at a 
fraction of the cost required for legitimate disposal. 

As a result, such hazardous wastes have gone Into streams, ponds, 
lakes, down storm drains and mine shafts, been spreao cn farms and 
roadways, left In vacant lots, and even in city ftrwets. It has also 
been rnlxtd with heating oil and scld In cities, mixed with oil and 
spread on gravel roads, or even mixed with asphalt and used to surface 
roads . 

These piactlces have resulted in environmental damage, adver:.e 
health effects, and enormous cleanup costs. The huge profits involved 
with thl*; type of disposal and the low penalties when apprehended have 
encouraged such practices and aTso made thU a lucrative "business" 
for organized ^rlme (New York State Senate Select Committee on Crime., 
1980). 

Breaking the past cycle of Irresponsible disposal pn^ctlces will 
be a ra ^'nental task. It must Involve strong control and clean p 
legislation but also must Involve education. For only t.rcjgh an 
Informed and educated public Is It possible to stop the current 
practices - let alone rectify the past mistakes. 

Education must: 

Promote the 1<fea of limiting the amount of hazardous wastes 
produced, and substituting less dangerous subs be It on the 

small icale of the home or the large scale of try. 



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Promote recycling and re-use not only of bottles, cans, and oil, 
but also a myriad of other substances. 

Promote the utmost care and the safest possible disposal methods 
for z toxics that must be produced. 

Provlue us with the tools to -^xert pressure on elected officials 
and government agencies to develop Incentives for Industry to 
procf >ce le^s and for government to Impose strict and stringent 
penalties for those that do not. 

Instill a (.omnltment to responsible action. 

It may cost us all a little more for the products bought, but that 
1s a small price to pay compared to the long-term riski associated 
with any other action. 

The cost of c ean up Is far more expensive than proper disposal In 
the first place. Typically, costs Just for determining groundwater 
quality ai an Industrial waste disposal site have been estimated to 
range from $50,000 to $250,000 and the total cost of clean up at such 
a site to be In the millions. EPA Itself estimated that the cost of 
remedying the most severe toxic waste problems In the U.S. may he $50 
billion and that does not Include the social costs. 

Hopefully we can and will break with the past practices of dumping 
wastes wherever It Is cheapest and easiest. 

Hopefully we will make a genuine effort to rectify past mistakes. 

Hopefully we will use our technology to provide a better life and 
w^ll not aTlow Its byproducts to threaten our very existence. 

Hopefully toxic wa.tes will not be cne of the ma.^.or legacies that 
we leave for future generations. 

Useful References Cited and Nonclted 

Brown, Nicfiael. Laving Waste: The Poi s oning of America by Toxic 
Chemicals . New York, N.Y., Washington Square Press, 1979. 

Carson, Rachel. S11e»>t Soring . Boston, Ha., Houghton HlffUn, 1962. 

Center for Science In the Public Interest. The Household Pollutant 
Gu*de. Garden City, N.Y., Anchor Books, 1978. 

Central States Education Center. Hazardous Waste: An Iritrcductlon. 
Champlain, 111, 1984. 

Citizens for a Better Environment, Natural Resourc<*s Oefens*^ Council, 
and Sacramento Toxics Alliance. Hazardous Waste Surfa ce 
Impoundments: The Nation's Host Serious and Neglected ihreat to 
Groundwater . 1983 

Comprehe * * ve Environmental Response, Compensation, a ' 'lia bility Act 

(CEJ ^ , 1980, 42 use 9601. et seq. 
Counr', of Environmental Quality. Contamination of Ground Water by 
3x1c Organic Chemicals . Washington, D.C., Government Printing 

ufflce, 1931. 

Epstein, Samuel S., Brown, Lester 0., Pope, Carl. Haza rdous Waste I n 



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America . San Francisco, CA.. Sierra Club Books, 1982. 
National Wildlife Federation. The Toxic Substances Dllenma: A Plan 
for Citizen Action . Washington, O.C., U.S. Government Printing 
Office, 1980. 

N.Y. State Senat'- Select Cowmlttee on Crime. Organized Crlnte and 

Toxic Wastes . July 8, 1980. 
R esource Conservation and ..ecoverv Act (RCRA), 1976, 42 USC 6901 et 

seq. 

U.S. Congressional Office of Technology Assessment. Technologies and 

Management Strategies for Hazardous Waste Control . Washington. 

D.C., Qovernment Printing Office, 1983. 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Preliminary Assessment of 

Clean up Costs for National Hazardous Waste Problems . Prepared 

by Fred C. Hart Associates, 1979. 
U.S. Envlrnnmental Protection Agency. The National Assessment of ::he 

Ground Water Contamination Potential of Waste Iiooundments . 

Washington, D.C. ,(iovern;ient Printing Office. 1980a. 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water and ^:aste 

Management. Everybody's Problem: Hazardou Waste . Washington. 

O.C.. 1980b. 



VI. H. P?ge, Garnet T. "Industry's Task - To keep Nature In 

Business". Chairman. Canadian Committee, UNESCC Man and the 
biosphere Programme. 4-834 Second Ave. N.W., Calga'-y, Alberta 
T2N OES. Canada. 

MY VIEWS ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT 

It is appropriate to state some of my personal be/tefs, based on a 
long experience with Industry. I think that they are shared by many 
in the private sector. 

1) The environment Is what Is all around us and where everything 
happens. Where M all happens Is not Just air, land and water, 
but all of nature. The entire globe Is Involved In environmental 
considerations that transcend all boundaries and Jurisdictions. 

2) The environment Is defined more formally as the surrounding 
conditions, and the Influences or forces which Influence or modify 
them. Within this context therp Is a host of physical, 
biological, physio-social, blo-soclal and psycho-social factors. 
Therefore, the term environment encompasses every aspect of We 
and living, every aspect of nature. 

3) The environment undergoes and adjusts to constant change 
because of natural phenomena. Man has added to these changes 
because of his own actlvUlec. He has overgrazed pastures, 
cleared steep slopes, blocked rivers, over-farmed land, 



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over-killed wildlife, felled too '^any trees, built roads and 
communities, drained swamps, and has surf-?* e and underground mined 
to recover many comnx)d1t1es of great value to our way of life. 

4) In the past relatively little concern was given to the Impact 
of man's actions upon the environment. Nan probably had the 
erroneous dea that he was put on earth to donlnate nature, and to 
do whatever he chose with It- But, In recent years, many people 
have Insisted that we become aware of air and water pollution, 
soil erosion, stream slltatlon and mutilated landscapes as major 
obstacles to both the quality of the environment and man's future 
condition on earth. Perhaps man has been greedy, thoightless, 
careless or Just plain Ignorant, ar-d he Is Just now learning that 
he must keep nature In business because It Is essential for his 
own continued happy existence. He Is learning, and learning fast, 
that to stay In business, he mast help to keep nature In business. 

5) Nan Is supposed to manage his activities In relation to ure 
so that his needs may be met with least harm to nature. Because 
there are meny people and they all want different things at 
different times, but often In the same place. It Is Important to 
have good criteria and guidelines. If we know what we want, we 
should be able to know how we are to get it, making sure that we 
don't upset nature v^r our communltle;";. How we do this should be 
discussed with all concerned before starting a project and, after 
agreement, should be written down. These are the 'rules of the 
game,' as It should be played. 

6) I believe that Industry has an Increasingly real concern with 
discharging Us environmental responsibilities. It should be 
prepared to do the things that It can believe In as fair, clear, 
practical, reasonable and necessary. It should be prepared to 
work with governments In deciding what these things should be. 
Agreeing on some rules, recommending what should be done by whOiH, 
how, when, and where, and seeing that It gets done fairly and 
properly; this Is what we must do both to meet our needs and to 
keep nature In business. 

7) W kmw that we do not have all the answers. We know that In 
mining for example, there Is no one standard recipe to resolve all 
problems because of greatly differing soils, topographies, 
climates, desired uses, etc. We know the serious dangers of 
making superficial comparisons between problems In one area or 
country and another. And we kno^ that a sufficient range of 
technology exists to carr*/ out successful resolution of almost any 
specific environmental problem. That technology Is continually 
being Improved In everv annual cycle. 



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8) Finally. It Is my environment too, I am personally as 
dedicated to Its conservation as any of those In the audience, 
perhaps mere so. I cannot tolerate casual, careless or airogant 
behaviour towards the environment. 

THE GOVERNMENT - INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP 

Government:; and Industry are both concerned with economU growth, 
often Involving large quantities of material resources and energy. 
Such activities carry with them the necessity of dealing with an 
enlarging potential environmental disruption accompanying such 
growth. The Increasing complexity and manipulation of global 
resources requires sophisticated management to ensure that the 
natural reslllerice of global systems Is not exceeded, and that 
potentially Irreversible disruptions and unexpected 'surprises' are 
avoided. It Is Impossible to say that this cannot be done and equally 
Impossible to say that It will be. 

une of the major problems facing governments and Industry Is th^t 
uncertainties about the future Impacts of their current choices 
suggest that what are believed to be acceptable or even good choices 
for the near future may prove less satisfactory for the more distant 
future. This Is particularly important because the scale of efforts 
Is often large, and the degree of reversibility and time required to 
reverse some environmental impacts n»ay be quite long. 

Uncertainties often make It difficult for governments and Industry 
to make universally accepted statements or choices on environmental 
Issues. National and regional perceptions of value differ on many 
matters. Moreover, envlror^nental Impacts differ because of regional 
characteristics such as meteorology, topography, population density, 
and resource distribution. For such rea*^:ns, those concerned r^y take 
differing positions on the nature and extent of the environmental 
control measures required. 

ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE 

Governments and Industry together lean Increasingly on the two 
words, 'environmentally acceptable' as their joint objective In 
designing and qualifying Industrial projects for Implementation. For 
example, energy related projects require that economic, energy and 
environments objectlv&s must be balanced, and the costs of protecting 
the environment weighed against vhe benefits to be gained. Assessing 
where this baiance lies Is far from simple, but at some stage a 
judgement ha: to be made as to the deg,ee of environmental p otectlon 
for which the costs can be accepted by society, 30 that regulations 
and standards may M formulated. 

The words 'environmentally acceptable' contain a strong element of 
judgement and are Impossible to define 1r absolute terms. They may be 
understood to mear 'with effects on the environment which are 
acceptable to governments and to the publV. But what Is 



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•envlrr^nnantally acceptable' In terms of effects will change jver 
time, end 1n particular with advances In pollution control technology 
and In knowledge of the nature and extent of environmental effects. 

This means that, for the best judgements to be made about 
environmental acceptability, continuing attention msut be paid to 
environmental education, environmental awareness and perception, and 
to the many relevant areas of research and development. Governments, 
the private sector and the public are all concerned end each has heavy 
responsibilities. They should also develop awareness th.it neW 
technologies arising from research and development In many countries 
now enable Industry to resolve many of the environmental 'i>robiems that 
It creates. This vital work imist continue, supoorted by gov^^rmnents 
on behalf of the public, and by the Industry, so that somt^ damages we 
may now consider *ney1table may be minimized or eliminated. 

ENVIRONHENTAL EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY 

The U.N. Belgrade Charter of 1975 defines environmental edi'catlon 
as that branch of educatlcn wh'ich seeks to develop a population that 
Is aware of, and concerned about, the environment end Its associated 
problems, and which has knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivation 
arid commitment to work Individually and collectively toward solutions 
of current problenis and the prevention of new ones. 

The responsibility for providing environmental education lies 
largely at the door of those agencies entrusted by the publH with the 
ccwnon good; schools, universities and government departments. It is 
a large public responsibility, and can only be managed this way. 
Others with considerable responsibility are special Interest groups, 
industry and the media. 

As an example of Industry's growing sensitivity to the 
environment, and of Its responsibilities for public environmental 
education, the private sector In Western Canada and Northwestern 
U.S.A. Initiated and continue to support a program of assistance to 
the formal education systems called SEEDS {Society, Environment and 
Energy Development Studies). This highly successful programme 
develops energy and environment related materials for grades 1 to 12, 
assists teachers In their effective use, and conduct*: field trips with 
qualified guides, .md Is spreading widely In our two countries. 

A special neea that has been identified by both UNEiCO and UNEP Is 
that of Improving l^e training of engineers In both the private sector 
and In government 1n conservation of the env1ron.iient and the promotion 
of their awareness of envlronii^ental Issues. A positive program to 
help fill this need Is being developed, recognizing that environmental 
education has an Important psrt to play both In general university 
education arid In the training of specialists whose later professional 
activities, often as dedslon^makers In Industry, are likely to have 
an Impact or th« environment ar^d Us associated problems, theU 
oreventlon ana ^.lutlon. 



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CONCLUSION 

Not too many years ago there was some fear and speculation that 
environmental concerns would fall by the wayside as Canada developed 
Its economy to meet increasing demands for material things and 
energy. But this did not happen. In recent years the nation's 
awareness of its many-sided dep&nderice on material goods and energy 
has sharpened. Over the same period, Canadians, including leaders of 
industry, have grown increasingly aware of their unparalleled 
environment and of those things that threaten it In the course of 
producing goods and energy. 

I am prepared to continue to work with industry to encourage it to 
do those things that it sees as fair, clear, practical, reasonable and 
necessary: and to work with governments and the concerned public in 
deciding what these things should be. Much progress has been irade, 
based on environmental education to a large extent. We are going to 
have to work harder, and work together to keep natcre in business. 
But the results are worthy of nothing less that our Dest efforts. 



183 



VI. I. SchuUz, Judith M. "World Population Imperatives Precipitate 
New Trends 1n Population Policy*. Professor of Biology and 
Environmental Science* University of Cincinnati » Raymond 
Walters Colleg:'. 9555 Plalnfleld Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45236, 
USA. 

The current world population size of 4,700 million Is projected to 
rise to 6,100 million by the year 2000 and 8,200 million by the year 
2025. Of particular Interest are the demographic futures and 
population policies emerging from the world's most populous 
nations—the one-child family policy of China and the compulsory 
sterilization proposal of India In response to population growth the 
past decade. In addition, there have been Intriguing demographic 
phenomena emerging within the Caribbean nation of Cuba; 

India, maintaining the world's second largest population of 746 
million persons as of 1984, is projected to grow faster between 1980 
^nd 2000 than had been formerly Indicated* The largest country In 
south Asia, IndUt maintains 15X of the world's population with only 
2.4X of total world land area. India's population doubled between 
1947 at the time of Independence from British rule and again in 1981. 
India's recent accelerated population growth Is due chiefly to a drop 
In mortr^llty wh1':h has greatly outdistanced the decline In fertility. 
Knowledge of this phenomenon has resulted In calls for revUallzatlcn 
of the family planning program which Svffered backlash during the 
1976-77 coercive sterilization drive, a major cause of Prime Minister 
Indira Gandhi's political defeat In March, 1977. (In 1976-77, 
sterilizations rose to over 8 million, dropping to one million the 
following year Acceptance of other means of contraception also 
dropped.) 

following Mrs, Gandhi's defeat In 1977, due In part to coercelve 
population policy, the new «jianota 6overnm*^iit avoided family planning 
issues. The shocking results o; the 1981 census prompted Indira 
Gandhi to call for a "relnvlqurated family planning program." 
Howeve* . Implementation of such measures ^s extremely d1ff1c^*t, since 
75% ot Indians live In rural areas dispersed In close to 600,000 
V nages. Thirty-eight percent of urban Indians and fifty-one percent 
of rural Indians live oelow tne poverty level. For the desperately 
poor rural Indians, children are an economic asset. Tremendous effort 
will also be needed to dispel the h'istorical cloud of suspicion 
surrounding vasectomy. 

Rapid pupilation growth has defeated India's original plan to 
provide free education for all children up to age 14. Water supplies 
are dwindling with only 33X having acc:jss to safe drinking water In 
1973. Reliance by 75X of Indians upon wood for 70X of energy needs 
has caused rapid depletion. 

[A simulation exercise and fact sheet will be utilized at *h1s 
point in the d'.scussion to assist secondary/college students and 
teachers in dealing with population policy questions and compulsory 
vs. voluntary methods of birth control. The exercise will examine the 



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compulsory sterilization law of the Maharashtra Assembly, the first of 
Its kind In the world, passed (but not Implemented) during the 

Emergency' ] 

The People's Republic of China, currently maintaining the world's 
largest population of 1,023 million In 1983, has undergone a recent. 
If not ten^orary, fertility decline In the past dec ie. The 1983 
figure represents an Increase of 329 mllMon since 1964. This size 
and growth are the basis for both Interest and concern. Of greatest 
concern Is the scarcity of arable land. China possesses 7X of the 
world's arable land while malntalninq 2Z% of the world s population. 
Only one-tenth of the land Is arable. Population growth has caused a 
drop In arable land per capita. Inportantly, expansion of cultivated 
land has apparently reached a limit. 

In three decades, the reduction In Chinese crude death rate 
amounted to as much as the decline In U.S. death rate over a century. 
However, birth rates did ntt drop as fast. This decline In death rate 
was caused by winning major battles over disease, natural disaster and 
wars. The early years of the People's Republic resulted In unbridled 
optimism about population growth. By 1979, however. It was realized 
even that with the current number of persons In reproductive years, 
even a two-child family would Imply continued population growth for 
another fifty years. As a result, the world's first "one-child 
^^amlly" national population policy and campaign was established. By 
1982, 15 million couples had pledged to have only one child. 
Incentives for such families now Irrclude free health care for the 
child, bonuses, larger pensions, priorities In housing, school and 
employment. The 1982 census prompted even more Intensified effort to 
limit the population size to 1.200 minion by the year 2000, when It 
was realized that fifty percent of the population was under age 21, 
and that 13 million couples would reach child-bearing age In ♦^^ next 
18 years. This was In great contrast to the call for an 1ncr» , In 
population to preserve the Chinese race by Sun Yat-sen. founder of the 
Chinese Republic In 1911. Communist party Chairman Mao had suggested 
that revolution plus production would solve the problem of food 
production and employment for the Chinese population, believing that 
an Iranense population size, vast ter.-itory, all abundant resources 
were a distinct advantage. Population size, however, soon came to 1-* 
viewed as a liability to socioeconomic development. Debate ensued a^ 
to whether people should be considered producers (supply-side 
economies) or consumers (demand theory). In promotion of socialist 
development, in 1971 a national population plan for family planning 
was intentionally brought into the realm of state planning in contrast 
to Individual choice in the capitalist nations. With the death of «ao 
and demise of the "Gang of Four" in 1976, emerging leaders were 
committed to birth control. Population regulation is now defined as a 
major pclHicai thrust to modernize the n-ition. Emancipation of ^omcn 
has made ^reat strides, but China along with India is still one of the 
few countries of the world where males outnumber females. Hale 
preference has resurfaced strongly with the one-thlld family 
campaign. Female infanticide Is increasing, as \z maltreatment of 



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women rearing firstborn girls; underreporting of female firstoorns 1r 
order to have a chance at a second male child Is also common. The 
government u atte^iptlng to counteract this problem by coercive 
educd'don. China's attempt to deal with demographic trends from a 
coe'^dve basis continues to generate mixed opinions of admiration and 
aJmorJtlon within Its conflict of state authority vs. reproductive 
right of the Individual* 

Cuba» the largest and most populous of the Caribbean Island 
nations » has ar estimated 1983 population of 9.8 million. Among 
developing nations » Cuba has the highest life expectancy, lowest 
1r/ ' ortallty, and lowest fertility rates. Historically, 
Immigration caused a tripling of the population In the 19th century 
when 1/2 million African %\^yes and 120,000 Chinese Indentured 
servants were brought Into the country to support the booming sugar 
Industry, and when hundreds of thousands of Span;a;d^ and Europeans 
Immigrated to the Island. During the world economic depression, many 
forhier nlgrants returned to their country of origin. Tn the early 
19f0s mass Immigration commenced, with an excess of 80i/,000 persons 
d'^ported to the U.S. between 1959 and 1980 from the beginning of the 
revolution until the recent Harlel seallft of AprlUSeptember 1980. 
However, also during the early 1960s, Cuba ext^erlenced Increc : In 
fertility or a baby boom. The Cuban revolution hos brought about 
dramatic changes In education and health, as well :s 1iiv>roved :>tatu: 
for women and has eliminated class differentials. An attempt to 
provide basic needs for all has resulted In a more austere society* 
Thus, the Cuban housing situation Is currently reaching crisis 
proportions and difficult economic times are forecast. 

.Carriage rat3S rjse as urban poor viewed redistribution of wealth 
of the socialist regime optimistically, ard the government legalized 
conser^sual unions. When abortion was suddenly restricted and the 
economic blockade by the U.S. also dramatically cut off contraceptive 
supp'iles which had been mostly Imported, birth rates dramatically 
Increased. Fertility subsequently declined due to ease on abortion 
resti Ictlons, such that In 1978 Cuba had the world's highest rates of 
legal abortion. Contraceptive practice Is now relatively high and 
rising due to supplies made available by the government, the UN and 
International Planned Parenthood. A reduction In marriage rate and 
high divorce rate In the 1970s have also affected fertility decline. 
Government sponsored family planning services have now been 
Incorporated Into the health ministry. The government opposes the 
argument that overpopulation Is one cause of poverty afflicting 
developing nations. Post^revolutlona y modernization process^^s have 
Involved compulsory education for children and adfilt education, 
raising of the status of women, and urbanization of rural areas. 
These attempts have decreased the value of children as contributors to 
old age security which played scm part In reducing fertility. The 
recent deterloratUig economy world certainly be expected to thwart 
aspirations of the population as did the depression. By 1980, the 
effects of the 1960*s baby boom became evident with a surge In 15-19 
year olds working age Individuals. Coupling economic slowdown In a 



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society which prefers early and universal marriage, it Is not 
unexpected that Cuba's crime rate Is dramatically rising. The housing 
shortage has become dramatically acute. The government, undoubtedly 
acutely aware of this demographic phenomenon has sent large 
tohtlngents of Cuban civilians and military personnel to Africa, 
Central America, and Caribbean countries to relieve unemplcyment and 
housing shortages. This newest plan of the Castro government would 
Indicate that enormous growth has not kept pace with education. The 
second phase of coping vlth this baby bom age cohort was the 1980 
Harlel seal 1ft. It seems clear that the Castro government planned the 
April 4, 1980 congregation of 11,000 potential emigrants Into the 
Peruvian Embassy cofi4>ound with official permission for all who wanted 
to leave. In the next five months, one half of the natural Increase 
In population occurring during the peak baby boom year of 1963 left 
the nation of Cuba. The Immediate results were the opening of 
thousands of housing units, reduction of crime rates, and reduction of 
unemployment pressures. The «ar1el seallft added 122,061 Cuban 
Immigrants over the U.S. legal total Inmlgratlon quota of 400,000 In 
1980, impacting population growth In that nation* Immigrants to the 
U.S. at the beginning of the Cuban revolution in 1959 had Included 
wealthy, powerful, business persons, professionals, and many 
coUege-iegreed, while the Marlel exodus included lower socioeconomic, 
primarily urban bluecollar proletariat, which required greater efforts 
at ass1m11<it1on by the Carter administration of the U.S. Government. 
As more cohorts mature, a future exodus Is undoubtedly within the 
planning of Fidel Castro. An echo boom can also be expected from 
those who remain behind to establish their t vn families. When this 
echo baby boom reaches retirement age, medical and pension benefits 
can be expected to consume an Inordinate amount of Cuba's resources as 
a socialist state. 

^ Schultz, 3.n. and Coon, H.L. Population Education Activitie s 
for the Classroom .. 1977 ERIC/SMEAC. The OHIO State University. 
Contact author for revised version. 



VI. J. Swibold, Susanne N. "Environmental Censorship and the Media - 
A Test Case: The Fur Seal Harvest of the Pr ilof Islands". 
Flying Tomato Productions, Box 910, Canmore, nlberta TOL OMO, 
Canada. 

Over th^ last four yeirs I have been producing and directing films 
on the Prlbllof Islands, Alaska. The four films In the series will 
comprise the most comprehensive blcck of work ever done on these 
Island habltates and their Inhabitants, the Aleut people. The first 
film of the series, ^Peter Picked 3 Seal Stick", Is completed and will 
be featured In this session. The film Is a stralght^forward 
documentary of the fur seal havest of the Prlbllof Islands, ir^^ the 
killing field to final boxing of blubbered pelts. We provide the 
edited film and the Aleut people scrloted and narrated to the 



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picture. Aleut history Is highlighted by a series of archival 
photographs and a song written and sung by an Aleut couple* The film 
Is not an Issue film; nor was It created to encourage or discourage 
the event. It was produceci as a falthfuH record of sealing In 
collaboration with the Aleut peop"^e. It Is the first film of Its kind 
to adopt a native point of view In relation to the harvest of a wild 
animal . 

The growing awareness of environmental and animal protection 
groups about Canada's harp seal harvest and now the Pribllof fur seal 
harvest have made sealing very controversial* However « both the r^^ila 
and animal rights groups have failed to present a comprehensive visual 
portrait of the harvest, Including the human element Involved, their 
point of view and their history. Without this basic understanding of 
the entire process. Involving the Aleuts ^or over 200 years, the 
Pribllof seal harvest becomes a propaganda vehicle obscuring the w« < le 
truth of a very complex Issue. 

In showing our film to television networks, producers have been 
reluctant to broadcast the film, preferring Instead to show short 
clips of clubbing on the harvest field coupled with "talking heads" 
offering opinions on the Issue. We have further discovered the 
television networks want artistic control to edit the film to their 
format, destroying the Integrity of the content. There Is an apparent 
reluctance In the media - newspapers, magazines and television - to 
address the complexity of seal harvesting. The treaty nations 
Involved In the Pribllof harvest are very aware of the seals' health, 
population and welfare as well as the Aleuts' livelihood and culture. 
Television has not addressed this environmental Issue In Its 
complexity and promotes hate and violence towards the Aleut people by 
portraying ' iii as "senseless killers of an Innocent wild animal" 
through clU > of the clubbing scenes on the harvest field. 

How do we bec^ia to face the complexity of man and the environment 
1n e responsible way? Kow can we begin to understand that whole 
habitats are destroyed by agriculture and Dff shore oil drilling? How 
can we begin to understand that man will always have an Interaction 
with wild animals, plants, trees, as well as domestic animals and 
agrlrvlture, but In a balanced equilibrium, not an either/or 
situation. If we forc^- an al l-aqrlculture (Including aquaculture) 
food environment and an oil-based clothing economy, we will destroy 
the balance of the pla^rt In the food chain atd In global weather. We 
are not teaching our children or ourselves about •.he reality of 
killing wild animals for subsistence and for some necessary clothing. 
The people of the clrcumpola*^ regions have different needs and ways of 
life than those of us In warmer climates. The people of the equator 
and :outh sea communities have different needs In food and clothing 
than those of temperate zones. How can we realize that the survival 
of the wisest will mean a sharing and conserving of aJM the natural 
resources? 

How can we realize we are an Integral part of living systems and 
recognize tht necessity of balancing our values to fit nature's laws 
and economy? Self-awareness and self--d1sc1pl1ne In choices of our 



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ends as well as our means will become paramount to our survival as 
iiumao beings. He i^iust want to know the complexity and full picture of 
our environmental problems so we may wisely perceive what can be given 
and received In balancing the situation* Self-restraint and 
self-discipline have been lacking In our society as we have removed 
more and more external restraints. This has created an Imbalance 
psychologically ancf sociologically In Internal and external conflicts 
and aggressive-defensive responses requiring prevention or cure. We 
must Join feeling and reason, non-verbal and verbal as well as our 
subjective and objective sources of Information for problem-solving. 
The scientist and the artist will be required of all of us If we are 
to act with wisdom In our environment. 



VI. K. von Hofsten, Anne. "Acid Rain In 3 World Conservation Strategy 
Perspective". The National Swedish Environment Protect'ion 
Board, Information Section, Box 1302, S-171 25 Solna, Sweden. 

The aim of the World Conservation Strategy Is to achieve the three 
main objectives of living resource conservation: 

a. to maintain essential ecological processes and life-support 
systems on which human survival and development depend. 

to preserve genetic diversity on which depend the functioning 
of many of the above processes and life-support systems. 

c. to ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems 
(notably fish and other wildlife, forests and grazing lands), which 
support millions of rural communities as well as major Industries. 

The objectives thus formulated are Important, but must be 
explained to the public and school children In a concrete way. This 
can of course be done In many ways, but I would like to do this with 
acidification as an example. The UCS draws the world's attention to 
the increasingly dangerous stresses being put on earth's biological 
systems and recommends measures for relieving them. The Strategy 
calls on all nations to adopt conservation policies and practices at 
home, to join International efforts, to Improve the human environment 
worldwide and to prote the biosphere that sustains all life on 
earth. Acidification 1s a problem that occurs almost all over the 
world and whole ecosystems will be extermlnatec If nothing ^s done to 
stop It. It Is an International problem that Is f.ot recognzlng any 
borders. It 1s also a problem that goes deep Into many fco'loglcal 
systems with an Influence both on higher and more primitive organisms 
and with both primary and secondary effects. All this means also, 
that It Is a good example of how ecological systems function and how 
man's actlvitlt afluence those systems. 

One main purpose of the Strategy Is to persuade the nations of the 
world to adopt ecologically sound development practices. The air 
pollution of today In western countries Is not a sound development. 
Nature (lakes, forests, the soil) has reacted strongly. It Is time 



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not only to explain to decision-makers, but also to our children and 
youth^-the decision-makers of tomorrow. Acidification Is a dramatic 
and serious problem that concerns all of us. 

"Perhaps the worst environmental threat ever to hit us, an ongoing 
environmental catastrophe" are drastic terms In which acidification of 
land and water In Scandinavia and North America have been described. 

The effect of acidification depends on the scale of the total 
deposit and the Inherent resistive power of land and water. Hinds and 
alrmasses around us transport the emissions from one place to another 
regardless of frontiers. This Is why It Is an International problem. 
It Is why we In Sweden and Norway talk about It as one of our biggest 
environmental problems In the 1980* s. 

The history of acidification goes back several hundred years when 
the fossil fuels, mainly oil and coal, were formed. Over the Ust 200 
years we have released that long confined sulphur and let It go out In 
the atmosphere. Another serious emission Is from the car exhausts, 
the nitrogens. 

The SO2 from the chimneys occurs either on small particles or In 
cloud and raindrops. This Is how It literally rains acid. 

WATtR 

The primary effect of acid rain was first recorded In the 1960s In 
Sweden when more than 18,000 lakes of Swedens' 98,000 lakes were 
acidified and 4,000 of them were seriously acidified with severely 
damaged animal and plant life. The number of species decline with low 
pH. All ""normal" life Is gone at pH less than 5. The white mosses 
(Sphagnum sp.) are left to cover the bottom and water Is very clear 
due to a declined decomposition of nutrients. 

Besides these effects of low pH, It also means an Increasing 
content of aluminum and other metals, like cadmium, zinc and lead 
becoming more soluble and thU5; more easily accessible to animals and 
plants. The gills of fish, for example, are covered by a kind of 
Jelly caused by u chemical process with the Increased content of 
aluminum. The fish can nwt breath normally and die. 

SOIL 

By expansion with water, soil has great resistance to 
acidification, but this varies, of course, depending on the bedrock 
and soil types. That Sweden (and Norway) ;!;e so hardly hit by 
acidification Is mainly becau"^ ot our bedrock of granite with very 
little limestone. Modern silviculture and agriculture help to create 
Imbalances between the production and consumption of hydrogen Ions \a 
the ground. We fertilize, we till the 30II and we harvest the plant 
macs. When plants absorb nutrients they rid themselves of hydrogen 
Ions at the same time, thus acidifying the soil. When, on the other 
hand, parts of plants are left to rot, the process yoes In the other 
direction and the soil becomes less acid. 



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When the soil has become acidified plants can more easily absorb 
heavy metals like cadmium. Our crops have ever higher contents of 
cadmium and It Is not advisable to eat kidneys and liver of moose and 
row-^deer because of the cadmium content! 

FORESTS 

The most evident effects of air pollution are seen In the 
forests. It began with occasional reports but In 1984 ^orest damage 
Is common In southwest Sweden where the dor/mani winds come from 
southwest which means *rom Centra^ Europe and the UF. About 75% of 
acid precipitation comes from abroad while the rest comes from our own 
sources. Also, beeches and other deciduous forests are affected with 
changes of colour of the leaves and stunted growth! 

Other effects of acid rain 

Groundwater Is affected and many water supplies are based on 
oround water. Heavy metaU are dissolved In the water. Children come 
oown with diarrhea and their hair becomes green because of the copper 
In the water, etc. 

The sulphur (and nitrogen) deposition causes corrosion of me^,als 
with high costs every year. Still worse Is the Irreplaceable damage 
to historical monuments. In the last 100 years many monuments have 
suffered more than In many hundreds or thousand years past. 

We face a world wide problem where not even the Arctic Is 
healthy. The Ymer expedition In 1980 found that the Arctic becomes 
the finci deposit of long-ranged transport air pollution from Europe 
and North America. What does this mean for the climate? 

With all this In mind we have star ,,ed many projects on how to give 
Information about acid rain and Its effects to school children and to 
show what can be done about It. A positive approach Is very 
Important. A few schools have adopted a lake and made chemical and 
biological Investigations and compared an acid lake with a healthy 
lake. They have noted the differences, they have made studies In the 
laboratory. Interviewed old people and fishermen on how It looked 
years ago. Everything Is noted and followed up at different seasons. 
Parents are Invited to learn about the problem as are local 
authorities. Villagers are Invited to bring water from their wells 
and have It analyzed. Last but not least, the children do something 
about It. They I'me the lake In winter. (The lime Is paid for by the 
authorities. Twelve million dollars yearly Is used for liming lakes 
In Sweden!) The who^ - village Is engaged In this project. 

Also, primary school children take active part and all teachers 
and most subjects at school are Involved. Could you think ot a better 
Integration of school subjects, of better balance between theoretical 
knowledge and practical work, with an International outlook? "What I 
hear I forget, what I see t remember, what I do understand" Is an 
old Chinese proverb. The teachers Involved know It Is true. Similar 
projects are now started to follow the changes In forests and In the 
fields. 

Much more could be said, but let me also mention than lUCN, 

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Coninlsslon on Education through Us North West turopean Committee has 
started a Joint acid rain project where Swedish and Norwegian 
experiences are used from all the member countries and a teachers 
training course Is being planned. 

To ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems as 
stated In the W^rld Conservatloii Strategy, we must fight a1r pollution 
wUh every means there Is no time to wait. The degradation of 
ecosystems Is accelerating and we all depend on them. There Is only 
one earth! 



VILA Allen, Barry. "People, Parks and Preservation* • Director of 
Env1ronme;>tal Studies, Rollins College, Campus Box 2753, Winter 
Park, Florida 32789, USA. 

Perhaps the most underestimated (and under-researched) problem 
facing preservation efforts today Is that of excessive and Improper 
land acquisition. Government acquisition of private lands for 
Incorporation Into National Parks, National Recreation Areas and other 
components of the National Patk System has always been, and continues 
to be, the protection strategy that has all but monopolized protection 
efforts. 

Increasingly this strategy Is being called Into question by 
property owners In and around components of the National Park System, 
by federal officials with budgetary responsibilities, by those 
Interested In historic preservation, and belatedly, but finally by 
conservationists as well. The long neglect of the problems associated 
with land acquisition as a management tool (or the denial that 
problems Indeed exist) threatens preservation efforts. By closing our 
eyes to the Increasing problems of this approach, the "preservation 
movement" has left fertile ground for the exploitation of this Issue 
by those In the far right who are opposed, for Ideological or material 
reasons, to any federal efforts to protect Important or threatened 
land; and landscapes. 

At Big Sur, along the scenic rivers of the Olympic Peninsula, on 
the Upper Delaware, and elsewhere, preservation efforts have been 
hafppered and even defeated by a fear of federal Intrusion Into the 
lives, lifestyles, and livelihoods of local communities. These fears 
are well-grounded; the usual NPS polKy of acquiring all lands within 
park boundaries regardless of the need for a given parcel, the status 
of a given parcel, or the threats to a given parcel has resulted In 
many well publicized problems for Individuals, families and 
communities . 

It Is often argued by National Park Service officials that this U 
a necessary evil, an unfortunate side effect of preservation efforts. 
When questioned about the eviction of 142 families from along the 
recently designated Middle Delaware Scenic River, an iiJPS official 
remarked somewhat flippantly that "you gotta break some eggs to make 
an omelette." This analogy 1s not only Insensitive, It Is also untrue. 



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19? 



European nations have for many years employej strategies for land 
protection that are mu^^h less disruptive than those used by the 
National Park Service. Recently, some parks In the United States have 
begun to experlmen. ^ '^'^ many of these same approaches that minimize 
outright acquisition 

In fact, It could c argued that fee simple acquisition and Its 
subsequent removal of local residents Is a less than satisfactory 
.^reservation policy In many areas — especially those settled areas 
with Important cultural, agricultural, and historic resou«^ces. Its 
Impacts on property owners and local communities are severe. It Is 
often not a cost effective way of preserving complex landscapes. And, 
It Is often Inconsistent with the Intent of Congress and the 
expectations of both local preservationists and area residents. 

For example, at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area 
(DWGNRA) the National Park Service has followed a policy of total 
acquisition. It now ow^s over 80 structures on the National Register 
of Historic Places Inc ading several farms. All of these structures 
were functioning and In fine repair when In private hands. Now, 
lacking funds to maintain these properties, the NPS has allowed them 
to fall Into disrepair and become the t-^^^get of vandals and arsonists. 

At DWGNRA, Cuyahoga NRA, and Lake Charles NRA excessive 
acquisition has decimated the tax base and disrupted essential 
services. Including police and fire protection. In addition to the 
hardships suffered at the community level, the Impact on families and 
Individuals create hardships from ^rt^lch many never recover. 

Recent 6A0 reports have charged that NPS land acquisition policies 
often violate the Intent of Congress. At Big Cypress National 
Reserve, Lower St. Croix National Scenic River, Golden Gate National 
Recreation Area, Voyageurs National Park and other components of the 
National Park System, officials failed to consider alternal ^e 
strategies for land protection. This has resulted In large ^ost 
overruns, delays In Implementing management plans, and considerable 
111 will toward the Park Service and often preservation efforts as 
well. 

Despite the reluctance of federal officials to use them, there are 
many effective strategies to protect valuable lands and landscapes 
that Involve minimal acquisition of private lands. Local and state 
zoning regulations, preservation easements, federal dredge and fill 
regulations, tax Incentives and many other tools have been used 
successfully all around the country and at all levels of government. 

Adirondack State Park In New York and th'. Pinelands National 
Reserve both show how regional planning can protect complex landscapes 
without unnecessarily disruptino community life, lifestyles, and 
livelihood. State scenic rivers programs In Wlsc-tnr.ln, ^ilnnesota and 
Oregon Indicate that local zoning and state taxing duthorlty can be 
used to preserve river corridors. The Upper Delaware Scenic River Is 
a more recent attempt to Integrate all levels government and the 
general public In the preservation effort. 



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European countries, faced wUh considerable human activity within 
proposed park areas have come up with Interesting and effective 
strategies for land protection. In England and Wales, the Sreenbelt 
Parks, the Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and the National Parks 
all use zoning controls developed by local planning authorities to 
limit and control land use and developement. In West Geriiiany the 
Natureparkes are managed to provide environmental preservation, 
agricultural development an<5 recreation. The French National Regional 
Parks Integrate nature and community. Local crafts, small family-run 
lodgings and historic preservation are all Important components of 
park planning. The goals for all these European park systems are 
minimal land acquisition, minimal disruption of local ways of life and 
preservation of the cultural landscape. 

The U.S. National Park System Is growing >nd expanding Into areas 
that have long since lost their "pristine" character. Hany of the 
newer units of the National Park System have been settled for 
generations. They possess not only natural resources, but cultural, 
historic, and human resources as well. 

The Inability or unwillingness to cope with existing and 
^radltlonel communities In park areas Is a threat to existing parks 
^nd their resources as well as to potential additions to the National 
Park System. 

None of this Is to argue that land acquisition Is not an Important 
and often necessary tool for land protection. It should, however, 
indicate that other protection strategies are often necessary. These 
alternatives to land acquisition need to be explored and Implemented 
when appropriate. It Is the almost total reliance on fee simple 
acquisition which I am objecting to here. Other strategies have been 
proven successful both here and abroad. These alternative strategies 
dese»^ve greater attention by both government and the environment 
community. 



VII. B. Anderson, Eddie. "Creating Environmental Awareness Through 

Natural Resource Education". Coordinator, Natural Resource and 
Environmental Education Program, Forest Service. United States 
Department of Agriculture, 12th and Independence SW. P.O. Box 
2417, Washington, O.C. 20013, USA. 

Introduction 

Throughout Us history the Forest Service has uncertaken a number 
of education programs to promote understanding and Knowledge In many 
areas. These programs have been used, for example, to emphasize 
research r^'SuUs and activities, cooperative forest fire prevention, 
visitor Information and Interpretive services, environmental pollution 
and litter, youth conservation work and environmental awareness, and 
environmental education. Except for the environmental education 
program, which Is broad In scope and focuses on resources In general. 



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most of the efforts have been used to achieve an unusually high level 
of success compared to campaigns and programs of other federal 
agencies and national organizations. 

Program 

The Natural Resource and Environmental Education (NREE) Program Is 
the newest Forest Service education program on line and competing for 
acceptability and support. Begun In 1981, this program builds on the 
Environmental Education program Introduced In 1970, As with the older 
program, the basic focus Is on developing public skills for 
understanding and Implementing environmental actions and programs* 

The NREE program, however, goes farther In developing these skills 
by providing Information relative to various elements Involved In 
l ocal . regional and national resource issues . It also strengthens 
support for land and resource management through organizational 
relationships and external cooperation. Materials are developed for a 
wide variety of audiences from youths In school and In conservation 
and environmental education organizations to In-service and other 
adult audiences. 

Purpose and Oblectlves 

The NREE program proposes to establish Itself as a vehicle for 
accomplishing two basic purposes. These are (1) providing assistance 
to resource managers In .neeting their program goals and objectives, 
and (2) providing a balance between the technical and social processes 
of the Agency by offering multi-audience education material and 
processes for developing and conveying education, research and 
technology transfer topics, results, and effects. 

Environmental education In Its simplest form deals with 
communicating the effects of human activity on the environment. 
Therevore, relating the work of resource professionals under legal, 
technical, social, and economic constraints contributes greatly to the 
education process In this perspective the program also proposes to 
expand knowledge of resource management by focusing on the 
relationship of the professional resource manager and his/her 
responsibility for stewardship through conservation, management, 
planning, and design. 

Hajor Characteristics 

The NREE program has the following major characteristics: 

1. It Is national In scope; that Is, It attempts to achieve Its 
purposes and objectives on a nation-wide scale while 
maintaining the flexibility to deal with local, regional, and 
national matters and topics. All units of che agency are 
affected by the program. 

2. It promotes Internal support for the program through Internal 
review of materials and planned communications of information 
relative to issues and problems common to the various resource 
management activities and groups. 



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3. It competes for resources as do other programs and therefore 
operates as efficiently In Its Anput/output relationships. 

4. It provides outputs of Inforratlon and educational materials 
for use by the agency and the public. 

5. It Is resource Issue driven. As Issues change so does the 
subject matter of the program. This process allows for 
flexibility and ease In focusing on Issues determined to be of 
Importance at a particular time. 

Program Design 

The design of the NREE program Is In response to many activities, 
efforts, and trends that have taken place over the preceding years 
since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act. This 
Includes the enactment of federal and state enabling legislation for 
enhancement and support of environmental quality, management, and 
protection; population migration to and from rural areas and the 
effects of this phenomenon on the resource management and production; 
changes 1n societal, organizational. Institutional, and Individual 
values and decisionmaking strategies; and changes In outlook for 
resource demand and supply. 

Material Development 

?<ater1als are developed by Interdisciplinary groups with agency 
education specialists taking the lead In the work. The material Is 
developed by use of a modular approach. 

Modular Approach : The modular concept and approach for developing 
resource education material Involves the use of a central building 
block or unit around which other materials iwy be developed or adapted 
for use with different audiences to achieve objectives. At least four 
basic categories of material are Included In each module. These are: 

1. Background material to cover areas such as the social history, 
economics, social or psychological relationships, national and 
state laws and/or local ordinances, national, state, and local 
management plans, and emphasis areas, etc. 

2. Learning activities and education exercises to Include features 
such as Important definitions, field trips, problems, case 
studies, mock plans, simulations, games, etc. 

3. Briefing materials that Include supporting research results, 
decisions, actions, or approaches that clarify, summarize, or 
highlight the problem or Issue. These materials are presented 
by means of video or slide tape, fact sheets, newspaper, 
clippings, report summaries, or other suitable media. 
Information Is also available on contact. 

4. Reference and source material for review and/or additional 
study of Issue components, relationships, effects, etc. 



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This approach ls supported by: 

1. Involvement of resource staffs most affected by the Issue. 

2. Internal reviews by other resource staff members, Individuals, 
and groups. This process in and of itself Is viewed as an 
Important communc1at1on:> process with predictable positive 
benefits. 

3. Cooperation of all segments of the Forest Service National 
Forest System (NFS), research, state and local agencies, 
education, public and private organizations. Industry, and 
other cooperators depending on the Issue. This Is highly 
Important In that resou'^ce Issues almost always transcend 
National Forest administration boundaries and affect other 
people and resources. Materials developed cooperatively with 
others tend to broaden the base of understanding and extend the 
range and opportuntly for use. 

Delivery System 

The NREt program makes use of three methods of delivery: 

1. Briefing sessions for selected audiences. 

2. Workshops 

a. To teach others to use existing material. 

b. To develop material on an Issue of mutual Impo^-tance. 

3. Exhibits and expositions. 

Summary 

The NREE progr^^m Is not a solution to all the problems ^he 
Forest Service but 1t does have excUIng possibilities for some 
areas. It can be very helpful In promoting environmental awareness, 
rural oriented skills, and a better understanding of resource 
management processes, problems, and Issues. The future of the program 
Is dependent upon the support It receives from the Forest Service for 
resi urces people and funds to make It go and upon support from 
tht public. We hope these are forthcoming. 

References 

1. Carroll. Jefferson E. "Forest Service USOA: A Diversified 

Program For Environmental Understanding,** Washington, O.C. 
Unidentified, 

2. Ellis, Thomas H. and Mace, Arnett C, Jr. ^Forest Research In 

''lorlda.- Journal of Forestry , 1981. 79 (8), 502-505,515. 

3. Johnson, Susan. "Population Dynamics in National Torest System 

Zone of Influence." Washington O.C. USOA Forest Service, 
Policy Analysis Staff, 1983. 

4. Malsfc tt, John. Megatrends New York: Warner Books, 

Incorporated, 1CB4. 

5. USOA Forest Service "America's Renewable Resources: A Supplement 

to the 1979 Assessment of the Forest and Range Land S1tudt1on 
In the United States" Washington, O.C, 1984. 



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VII. C. Barwise, Joanne. "Development of an Environmental Education 
Centre: The History of Shannon Terrace Environmental 
Education Centre". Environmental Education Coordinator, Fish 
Creek Provincial Park, Box 2780, Calgary, Alberta T2P OYB, 
Canada. 

Park Development History 

Local communities and conservation groups were largely responsible 
for the creation of Fish Creek Provincial Park. City of Calgary park 
planners proposed the park In 1966. In 1972, the Provlncia" 
Government purchased some park ^and and In 1973, 15 million dollars 
was allocated for Its development. 

In 1973 a Fish Creek Advisory Committee was set up to determine 
what kind of park the people of Calgary wanted Fish Creek to be. 
Based on the results of a questionnaire published In Calgary's two 
newspapers, a concept plan was developed. Public hearings were held 
to obtain comments on the concept plan and a committee was struck to 
coordinate the planning end Implementation. One of the committee's 
reccmmendatlons was that facilities should be provided for 
environmental education. 

Shannon Terrace Environmental Education Centre 

In 1979, the Minister of Recreation and Parks responded to 
request: from the Calgary Board of Education and the recommendations 
of the planning committee by announcing the development of the Shannon 
Terrace Environmental Education Centre In Fish Creek Provincial Park. 

Rather than build a new centre, one of the homes expropriated by 
the government In purchasing the park's west end was deemed suitable 
.or renovation. 

Alberta Provincial Parks' environmental education and planning 
staff and consultation with the Calgary Board of Education determined 
how an existing building could be renovated to serve as a year-ground 
environmental education centre. The 5,000 square foot building now 
contains functional areas for public use, group use, and 
administration. Because the centre is designed primarily for school 
use, public access is limited to the main entry, reception/information 
area. Areas available for group use include the orientation area, 
three classrooms, an exhibit called the Discovery Room, resource 
centre, and a small meeting room. The administration area contains 
staff offices, workshops, storage and maintenance are.s. 

The centre has a landscaped setting adjacent to oitu^al areas of 
white sprucp, aspen, and balsam poplar forest. The programs utilize 
the regular park trail system through a diversity of flora and fauna 
and aquatic environments. 

Three methods of operating the facility were considered: They 
were as follows: (1) Provincial Parks operates the centre completely, 
providing all staffing and programming; (2) Provincial Parks 
coordinates use of the centre. Group leaders are responsible for 
devising and conducting their own program; however. Provincial Parks 



198 



will support materials and training for ti.em; and (3) The centre 
operates on a concession basis by a private group, following minimal 
guidelines established by Alberta Provincial Parks. 

After the consideration of all alternatives, advant^aes and 
disadvantages. Option 2 was adopted. 

By 1981, building renovations were completed and an Environmental 
Education Coordinator was hired to develop programs, control bookings, 
develop exhibits, and plan the general operation of the centre. A 
caretaker was hired to maintain the centre and grounds. 

One year prior to the Centre's planned opening date, work beqan on 
developing programs and purchasing furniture and necessary supplies 
for the Resource Room. Initial priorities were In the development of 
the centre's resources. 

I. Display Development 

Three areas In the centre were Identified as requiring displays of 
various complexity: (1) Public Encry/Informatlon area; (2) Group 
Orientation area; and (3) Discovery Room. 

A Terms of Reference was developed and sent to five firms to bid 

on. 

Entry/Information Area 

Entry exhibits were to establish a sense of arrival, capture 
visitor's attention, stimulate curiosity and Introduce the centre. 
Adjoining the entry Is the Information desk area. This area Is 
designed tc provide park visitors with park information and schools 
with a check-In point. 

The Information desk was not designed to be operated as a full 
time Information service with a special attendant. It was designed to 
handle casual Information requests of drop-in visitors. When the 
Environmental Education Centre Is closed, an Information lube, a type 
found throughout the park, Is located outside the centre. 

Directions to the contractor were limited to general objectives 
that we hoped the completed exhibits would fulfill, l.e ep*ry 
exhibits now consist of historical panels above and beh -) the 
Information desk. Two panels, one on the Centre, the o on the 
park are part of a wall unit with doors that open to sK^le niessages 
or Photographs on the Centre and park themes. The doors work well 1n 
stimulating a degree of curiosity and visitor Interest in what is 
behind them. 

Group Orientation 

Alberta Recreation and Parks Environmental Education Policy 
emphasized the "...development of support materials and the training 
of user group leaders and not actual field deli very .. .of programs." 
Because of this and the stress on non-consumptive public use and 
preservation of resources, it was felt that park-conducted orientation 
should be provided tc all groups to set the proper tone tor the 
groups' activities and to heighten the park's personal profile as the 
administrator and custodian of the park. 



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The objectives of this orientation area were to: (1) establish 
Immediately the participatory/Interactive aspect of the centre ari Its 
program; and (2) orient group visitors to the facilities, natural and 
cultural history of the park and define env1ronmf*ntal education 
concepts that are appropriate. 

The exhibit design that was accepted Included a large stylized 
pa\k map with doors that opened to photographs and exhibits supporting 
a complete park discussion, and special puzzle seats that teach two 
pirk/envlronmental themes. Both the map and the seats are used by the 
groups and seem to fulfill their Intended purpose very well. 

Discovery Room 

The main objective of the project was to produce an Innovative 
hands-on exhibit systt-m, which would be child directed rather than 
teacher directed. It was hoped that positive experiences In 
self-discovery gained In the Discovery Room would reinforce the 
self-discovery program developed for the field. 

The exhibit themes planned were diverse and meant to employ a wide 
variety of media, sensory experience and Intellectual development. We 
hoped U would be like a giant environmental education toy box that 
could never be utilized In one session anJ would require repeat 
visits. The level of preparation required for this contract was very 
high. Contractors cannot be expected to research and produce such 
exhibits to meet the particular vision of park personnel. By 
providing all written material and reference materials for graphics 
and minutely detailed specifications, this project succeeded. Without 
the detailed specifications and close liaison with key park staff. It 
Is doubtful that most companies would even bid on such a project. 

Exhibits completed to date Include elaborate animal and plant 
costumes. Discovery Boxes, Feely Bags, kaleidoscope, Children of Fish 
Creek, an Energy Game, and a Beaver Lodge. 

All materials were thoroughly reviewed and edited a number of 
times by a team of visitor services personnel representing park, 
region and head office levels. This process contributed greatly to 
the overall quality of the exhibit. 

II. Program Development 

Concurrent with exhibit development was the development ot school 
programs. During the previous planning phases, several things were 
decided prior to staff arrival: (1) that programs would be 
teacner-conducted; (2) that park staff would greet and orientate 
groups to the centre; and (3) that park staff would conduct workshops 
for teachers to familiarize them with the program and the facilities. 

GU'en these, programs needed to be developed that keyed into the 
Alberta curriculum, were targeted to grade levels that conducted a lot 
of field trips, tied into park themes, and had an environmental 
education philosophy and process. 

A basic program and activity sequence was established in the first 
program to serve as a model for all subsequent programs developed. It 
was decided that the first two programs would be ENERGY and CYCLES. 



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Both topics support the Environmental Education policy and school 
curriculum. Further, they are core curriculum topics for the most 
easily accessible markets—grades 4 to b. To attract Interest and 
curiosity, these programs were Intended to be very active and 
participatory. 

The activities were test run by the Environmental Education 
Coordinator on summer day camps, modified and then Incorporated Into 
the program package. The programs were reviewed by teachers, school 
board consultants and park staff* This process was followed for all 
the programs developed. 

III. Operating Plan 

A Centre Operating Plan was developed by park, regional, and head 
office staff, to provide operational guidelines based on Environmental 
Education policy within the constraints of staff, and resources 
available. The plan was the directing document during the Initial 
year of facility operation which began In September 1982, and Is 
subject to periodic review and modification. The operational methods 
In the plan were designed to makf* the best use of existing resources 
and staff, and to ensure that high standards are maintained, 
consistent with the overall standards and level of service provided at 
Fish Creek Provincial Park. The plan also served as a tool to 
familiarize Recreation and Parks staff and client groups with the role 
and functions of the facility. 

An Operating Plan Is Important. The Centre plan identified 
specific issues that are not usually addressed 1n facility planning. 
For example, centre promotion, method of booking, hours of operation, 
visitor Information, method of group orientations, outdoor group use 
impact assessment, program options for teachers, and so on. It 
provides guidelines that ensure continuity of operation. Staff may 
change but the plan does not. The plan helped to minimize the 
possibility of conflicts brought about by unrealistic expectations at 
otner levels of the organization or potential confusion resulting from 
a lack of established procedures. 

The Shannon Terrace Environmental Education Centre currently has 
12 teacher-conducted programs. Teachers booking Into the facility 
attend a workshop ar. the Centre prior to arriving with their group. 
Each teacher receives a program package which contains preparatory, 
on-site, and post visit activities. 

During the school year 1982-83, the first year of operation, 
school visitation was 4,289. In 1983-84, 7,683 visited. The centre's 
optimal use is approximately 10 to 11,000 students. 

Its success can be contributed to a large extent to tha planning 
prior to opening the doors to schools. More reviews are expected of 
the Operating Plan to ensure the smooth operation of the centre; as 
well, more schools will be using the centre. 

During the 2 years of op3rat1on, several teachers have made as 
many visits as 6 with classes. The program: have been designed to 
allow repeat visits and we are pleased to see teachers viewing and 
using the centre as a viable, reliable resource to teach in the 
outdoors. 

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The centre 1s a commitment by Alberta Recreation and Parks 1n the 
field of Environmental Education and will be part of our heritage and 
the education of our children. 



VII. 0. Coombs, Mary S. *The Students are the Explorers, Discoverers 
and Scientists." Coordinator of Children's Programs, Arnold 
Arboretum, Box 39i), Franconia, Hampshire 03580, USA. 

At the Arnold Arboretum, Boston children are having the experience 
of being explorers, discoverers, and scientists. Boston area teachers 
are discovering the Arboretum's Children's Program as a way of 
covering parts of their curriculum withoul their having to become 
Instant botanists. 

The Arnold Arboretum Is located In Jamaica Plain, a section of 
boston, Massachusetts. This 265-acre collection of woody plants was 
designed by Frederick Law Olmstead, and contains trees, shrubs, and 
vines from temperate regions throughout the world. 

The Arnold Arboretum was the first arboretum Intended for both 
university and public use. It Is a part of the Boston City Park 
system and of Harvard University. In addition to being a valuable 
scientific Institution, the Arboretum offers many educational programs 
and evf^nts. 

The newest addition to our public programs Is the Children's 
Program. It consists of four FIELD STUDY EXPERIENCES. Each 
Experience teaches a hands-on lesson In botany, natural history, and 
ecology, while Integrating other skills and disciplines. 

For years science curriculum has been a lew priority In many 
school systems throughout the country. In the Boston Public Schools 
(BPS), the quality of science education has been declining, 
particularly In the elementary grades. There are several factors 
which contributed to this problem. These Include: low teacher morale 
and weak science training; funding limitations; and no updated, 
systemwide set of standards. 

In the fall of 1983, a new citywide Science and Health curriculum 
was developed and distributed to the schools In Boston and to several 
science Institutions, Development of these curriculum objectives was 
a great rtep towards clarifying what Is expected In the classroom from 
educators. However, given the present state of training of teachers 
and tlie resources available to them, many are overwhelmed by the bulk 
of Information for which they are now responsible. 

The Arnold Arboretum was one of the Institutions contac^^ed as a 
resource to provide supplemental assistance to the schools. Museums 
and science centers offer new methods and creative approaches with the 
use of collections, reference materials, and specialized staff. These 
Institutions are equipped to teach many area?; of science with 
expertise and resources not available In the classroom. 

This year, the BPS Issued an "Implementation Plan." Cited are 
three ways In which outside InstltutlCMS can help Implement the 
curriculum. They are: conducting teacher training workshops, 



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providing materials and outreach personnel » and curriculum-based 
classes at institution sites. 

In response to thU request and In recognition of the nc^d for 
Improved science education » we have begun a program of as:k1 stance t3 
elementary schools » Including: the Field Study Experiences » a 
resource to teachers » and a reference center 

The Field Study Experiences 

The FSE's do many things. They are designed to give the students 
the experience of being explorers » discoverers » and scientists. They 
are hands-on and act1v1t1es«based. They Integrate the basic skills of 
reading and mathematics* and the arts and humanities. Each child 
creates a tangible product » leaving the expedience with their own 
chart, arawing or poem. Lastly, the TSE's teach science as a living 
process, rather than a dead language. All programs stress development 
of the skills of observing. Investigating and asking questions. 

Because the birth of this program coincides with the release of 
the new BPS Science and Health curriculum, in many cases we were able 
to address the objectives directly. 

The four Field Study Experiences are: HEMLOCK HILL, AROUND THE 
WORLD WITH TREES, PLANTS IN AUTUMN, SEEDS AND LEAVES, and FLOWERS. 

HEMLOCK HILL Is a studv In forest ecology. The students are first 
given an Introduction to these topics through a discussion and display 
of materials, after which we travel to the other side of the Arboretum 
to explore the native ^tand of hemlocks. 

There, they observe and measure several environmental parameters 
such as wind, light, climate, and blotic surroundings, as well as 
their feelings about a space. It is a comparative study recorded on a 
simple chart, requiring the use of basic skills. 

When the chart has been completed, *:he students have collected 
data from two distinct areas; the base, which Is an open lawn 
environment, and the cool, forested top of Hemlock Hill. 

Tho walk from the base to the top of t;.e hill Is loosely 
ft-uctured, and the children are free to collect, explore, inspect, 
e^d Investigate whatever catches the1»^ eye. They are provided with 
bugboxes and magnifying gla<^ses. The walk back to their buz is 
usually filled with questioi.. many of which are answered with a 
question for them: "What do ^ou think?" 

In > ROUND THE WORLD WITH TREES , students explore the collection of 
deciduous trees, focusing on the Arnold Arboretum's special role in 
plant exploration and cultivation. This program stresses the positive 
impact that humans can have on a natural environment. 

Once the children arrive, they view a specially designed slide 
show on the plant explorers. They learn about the travels of Ernest 
'Chinese* Wilson, who introduced over 1500 new plants into cultivation 
from the far east. 

The activities start outdoors with specimens located around the 
Visitor Center. The students first assume ♦'he role of a plant 
hunters-exploring unch^^irted land in search of new plant species, and 



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observing individual trees with regard to size, shape, form, color, 
tlower and fruit. Because the name and the coui ry of origin roust be 
filled In on the chart, the children learn to rebd and Interpret the 
labels which are found on all specimens. Tape measures and magnifying 
glasses are used. 

Ihls program brlrgs the students on a walk to the pond area where 
one Is apt to hear "the amphibian overture to spring" or see a great 
blue heron at the water's edge. 

In the fan children may participate In PLANTS IN AUTUKW: SEED S 
AND LEAVES . In this FSE, they expi^^re the arboretum's paths observing 
and collecting seeds and leaves from a wide variety of plants, noting 
their seasonal changes. 

The students are able to bring back their s-^ed and leaf collection 
to their classroor^ for later use. They learn about preparation for 
winter by plants and animals, structure of flowers and seeds, plant 
reproduction' seed dispersal and germination, and uses of seed'i for 
animals and humans. 

This program brings the students along th^ meadow area to the 
maple grove. Leaves are Inspected and seasondl coloration Is 
discussed. Jere they can compare leaf shape and color of some of the 
137 different kinds of maples at the arboretum. 

FLOWERS Is a strong botanical lesson. At the arboretum, children 
have the opportunity to see growing flowers, rather than learning 
flower structure from generic models. Through the study of flower 
structure the concept of family and Identification Is Introduced. 
Pollination mechanisms are Investigated and observed. Early spring 
and seasonal changes that plants undergo are witnessed. Children see 
that most trees Indeed have flowers. They see a wide diversity of 
flower form: dandelions, magnolias, willows and more. Flowers In 
this setting ':an be appreciated for their "Ingenious" design and 
"smart" aJap 'e features. 

Resource to Teachers 

The children are not the only stt^dents. The teacher as well gains 
a useful science lesson from the FSE's. In fact, when a trip Is 
scheduled, a pre- and post-visit packet Is s^ent to the teacher. The 
contents of this package Includes materials tu be used in preparation 
for the visit, handy activities and lesson plans, as well as follow-up 
materials to complete the experience for teacher and student. This 
Information helps ease any anxiety which may be Involved In field trip 
planning. 

Much time Is spent by the coordinator and teacher discussing the 
particular needs of the Indlvlduo'^ "lasses and the tailoring of the 
appropriate FSE to fit those need^ . 

Reference Collection 

In addition to our FSE's and outreach services, the Arnold 
Arboretum maintains a collection of books, articles, films, journals, 
slides, posters, and field guides which may be borrowed free of charge 
by teachers. All materials relate to the natural sciences, with 
special emphasis on botany and science education. 



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The Guides 

The volunteer guides are a very Important part of the program 
which Involves their recruitment, training and coordination. These 
guides are parents, retired persons, college students, professionals, 
and former teachers. 

An guides participate In an Arnold Arboretum course entitled 
"Sharing Nature with Children: Training Guides For Children's 
Tours." In this 15 hour course, each participant receives an 
Introduction to the Arboretum s history, purposes, resources, and 
collections, as well as needed botanical and ecological facts* 
Guldes-ln- training are led through the actual FSE's, which equip them 
to lead classes through those same programs* New guides are urged to 
participate first as observers and then to lead groups on their own. 

Development of the Children's Program as a whole has Involved 
liaison with teachers, science coordinators, administrators, and 
parent groups of the Boston area schools* Tnis stage Is extremely 
Important, 1n fact, crucial* Without establishing this relationship, 
no program can hope to be adopted and used* How did we do this? 

We visited local schools and presented the program to principals, 
teachers, and their classes* Several meetings were held with 
representatives of various BPS agencies. We started with the 
Institute for Professional Development to discuss teacher training and 
explore effective means of communicating with elementary school 
teachers. 

After a k.iajor mailing and our "crusades" were underway, a meeting 
was held with the manager of Instructional Services, whj designed the 
curriculum. He enthusiastically reviewed the Program and commended It 
as a model of an Integrated approach to achieving the curriculum 
objectives. 

The Arboretum education staff have been cooperating with other 
science institutions in the Boston area as a member of the Cultural 
Education Collaborative, an institution sesponsible for helping the 
city's schools to better utilize the area's tesources. 

In the first year cne Arnold Arboretum's Children's Program has 
been applauded by school administrators, educators, and of course, the 
children. In fact, a major school system in the Boston area has 
incorporated the FSE's into their fourth grade science curriculum for 
the 19P/-85 school year as a way to strengthen their plant science 
component. 

By participating in an FSE, an urbar ^,hild has the opportunity to 
feel, see. r.ear, and smell, elements of the natural world. Each child 
is 'encouraged co ask questions and then Is guided to discover the 
answers through his/her own observations and investigations. 

The Arnold Arboretum's Field Study Experiences are designed to 
Improve the quality of science education by conveying solid scientific 
content and involving students and teachers alike in fun. hmds-on 
activities. 



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VII. E. eortner. N1na. "Exploration Into the Night Environment", 

FnvUonmental Education Specialist. Land Between the Lakes - 
Tennessee Valley Authority, Golden Pond, Kentucky 42231, USA. 

This workshop presented a collection of activities that could be 
conducted while on a night hike. The activities range from flashlight 
exploration to a deeper understanding of the night environment by 
participants achieving night vision. This program Is highly 
applicable to all env1ronment<kl education resident programs and 
Interpretative facilities. Major focus was on heightening sensory 
awareness, animal communications, and programming skills by enforcing 
sound environmental education concepts during a time of day which Is 
ofter^ under utilized. Each participant received a copy of the 
TVA-Land Between the Lakes Environmental Education Curriculum Guide: 
"Exploring the Night Env1ron??iC*it". 



VII. F. Green, H. David. "Coastal Issues Small Grant Program". 
Regional Extension Specialist, NYS Sea Grant Extension 
Program, 21 South Grove Street, East Aurora, New York 14052, 
USA. 

Environmental and Ecological Illiteracy is the most pressing 
secular Issue addressing the world today. Because of It most of the 
other world problems, from racism to world nunger, exist. Getting our 
youth Involved with Informed natural resource decisions that can lead 
to better communities Is an Important task for the formal and 
non-formal educator. 

The 4-H Coastal Issues Program provides small grants to New York's 
Coperatlve Extension Associations to assist In the development 
efforts which Involve youth and the coast. Grants are made available 
for one year to Initiate new and Innovative projects concerning the 
cuast> The program over the past two years, with around $4500, has 
gsnerated over $40000 In support dollars from the local communities 
applying for the grants. Potential program dollars for continuation 
number in the hundreds of thousands. 

A typical amount awarded has been $750. While proposals covering 
any coastal Issue have been considered, ^our areas are emphasized: 
the coastal environment; erosion control, shoreline stabilization, 
coastal vegetation; nutritional aspects of seafood use; and coastal 
heritage, recreation and tourism. Although service projects are 
supported, It Is expected that youths participating In 4~H/CI programs 
win be encouraged to: 

1. Participate on an equal basis with adults In the decision 
making process. 



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2. Assume a high degree of responsibility for themselves, for 
the project and for others. It Is Important that other 
people In the program depend on e?ch youth to fulfill 
Important responsibilities. 

3. Interact with persons different from themselves, e,g,, those 
of different ages or of different physical, mental or social 
conditions. 

4. Make significant contributions to the community and the 
coast. The significance Is based on whether both youth and 
adults consider the contribution important. 

5. Learn both the subject matter and the processes of the 
coast— political, business, social and educational— relative 
to the specific program* 

5. Concentrate on a goal over a period of time. This Is a skill 
discouraged in schools by the constant changing of classes. 
It Is important that participants have the opportunity to 
reflect upon their experiences In order to help Integrate 
them Into their base of knowledge. 
7. Have the opportunity to fail, and to learn from that 

failure. Adults often c'lalm that one can learn the most not 
from success but from failure. With youth, however, we try 
to guarantee success, either by selecting tasks that are too 
easy or which entail little risk, or by doing too much for 
youth Instead of with them. 
The program has Initiated marlculture projects, marine recreation 

projects, water quality Investigations, and wildlife Inventories. 

Three such funded projects are of particular Interest and will be 

discussed In thVJ presentation. 

Queens Catherine iMarsh Wildlife Inventory 

The Queens Catherine Marsh Wildlife Inventory Project developed 
and conducted an Inventory of wildlife associated with the newly 
Installed open water areas In Queen Catherine Marsh to assess the 
Impacts of the Improved habitat on wildlife and to aid NYSOEC In their 
management of the marsh. Members of the locc^ Junior naturalists club 
and the seventh, eight, and ninth graders at the local middle school 
undertook the year long Inventory and shared the results with the 
NYSOEC, the Friends of Queen Catherine Marsh and other Interested 
people. Cornell University's Natural Resources staff was actively 
Involved with the project. The successful Inventory will be conducted 
periodically In the future In cooperation with Cornell, NYSOEC and 
other local agencies, groups, and colleges. 

Hard Clam Rafting: Marlculture Project. 

Agriculture has been a traditional source of 4'H projects. 
Marlculture Is the culturing of marlneorganlsms In a controlled 
environment. In coastal communities, marlculture may prove to be a 
viable source of 4-H programming and a source of Income to th^ 
community. On Long Island the marlculture of hard clams provides the 
opportunity for clam fishery which provides many economic and 
recreational benefits to New York State. However, the hard clam 
fVhery Is In the state of decline. Methods to Increase the stock of 
^ hard clams are needed. One experimental technique Is the raising of 

t\\\L the clams In 20S 



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rafts. youth, by growing clams 1n rafts, had the opportunity to 
work on an Important comminlty Issue, to provide scientific data to 
researchers, and to explore marine careers. Some twenty 4^H teens 
were Involved In the project that was located at the SUNY at Stony 
Brook unuer the watchful eyes of fisheries biologists from Stony Brook 
and New York Sea Grant. Since that time other projects have been 
launched In other areas of Suffolk County Long Island. 

Sport Fisheries Clubs 

Taking advantage of the natural ability of fishing to recruit kids 
Into youth groups, this pilot combined Natural Resources and 
Recreation focuslny on the marine environment .The development of 4-H 
sport fishing clubs was believed to be a great way to generate greater 
Interest among youth In marine Issues. Spor^ fishlny Is a subject 
area that can help attract all types of people to the study of the 
environment as It Is a life long sport that can be undertaken cheaply 
without Interference from either artificial or real barriers. In 
addition there Is an ample supply of adult leadership. On Long Island, 
the site of the project, over 50 adult sport fishing clubs exist. In 
this program 25 youth took part In a sport fishing project taught by 
volunteer expert anglers and were taught related science and 
environmental concepts by university and extension specialists. Since 
the Initiation of this project the Department of Natural Resources at 
Cornell and New York Sea Grant have decided to make It a state wide 
program with several years and thousands of dollars of support. 

The Coastal Issues Small Grant Program must be Jujged a success If 
the criteria of perceived value to the IocjI community and additional 
dollars of support (as well as number of hours of volunteer time) are 
taken Into consideration. The projects generated have been good to 
outstanding and each has gained immeasurable support. One cannot 
underestimate the Impact of the Clam Clubs on their communities and 
the warm acceptance by the Daymen and local government. Sportflshing 
Clubs may have the ability to attract hundreds of thousands of youth 
to leern about the waters of New York State. The Queens Catherine 
Marsh study will give a group of Schuyler County youth the opportunity 
to work with their parents and adult leaders to make decisions about a 
piece of their environment. These and the other Coastal Issues 
projects are giving youth the opportunity to learn success and failure 
hand In hand with the adult leaders and e^^crts of their community. 
Whether this work will aid In the development of an Informed adult 
population In years to come Is still to be know. But It Is the 
opinion of this presenter that It will, c.nd that the problem of 
environmental Illiteracy will be lessened to a certain extent. 



VII. G. K-^rdlng, Karen. "Interconnectedness : The Emerging 

Haradigm". Instructor, Ft. Stellacoon Community College, 
9401 Farwest Drive, Tacoma, Washington 9849B, USA. 

To most people the view of the world that Is used In science seems 



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very far removed from their everyday life. In fact, science has a 
profound effect on how we view the world around us. Each day we are 
exposed to millions of bits of information, yet we choose to pay 
attention co only a very few of them. Were we to attend to each bit 
of Information that presents itself to us we would quickly be 
overwhelmed. Rather than arbitrarily choosing one bit of Information 
over another, we typically attend to those bits of information that 
fit Into a pattern. The pattern that I am referring to is our view of 
the world: our paradigm. Recent findings in science are suggesting 
the need for a revolutionary change in our paradlspn concerning how the 
world Is organized and how it operates > 

At least since the time of Hewton we have tended to view the world 
as a collection of separate entities. We expect that the apple that 
fell and hit Newton on the head would have fallen In the sanie manner 
and at the same velocity regardless of whether or not he had been 
sitting under the tree. The fact that he was sitting under the tree 
had no Impact on the behavior of the apple. We assume that the 
entitles that make up the world have a set of properties that are 
attributable to the object itself and act to separate the object from 
its surroundings. This view Is the scientific view of the world and 
also corresponds to our common sense view of the world. 

During the twentieth century a number of research findings In 
environmental science, brain research and particle physics have called 
this well-accepted worl(«v1ew into question. A change in our worldvlew 
will affect each of us as Individuals and will also affect our social 
Institutions. I have chosen to focus on the scientific findings that 
show a need for this paradigm shift and then discuss changes that It 
will bring about In the practice of education. 

The need for a shift In our thinking that will Include the 
Importance of Interconnections is very apparent In ecology. Ecology 
1s a fairly new discipline and includes as one of Its basic tenets the 
Idea that objects ? j more appropriately viewed In terms of their 
Interactions with other objects than as a collection ot separate 
objects, with this as a basis, the field of ecology has led us to ne\ 
Insights about the Inner workings of nature. One brief but familiar 
example involves the use of the pesticide DDT. When DDT was 
originally used, only the direct effects of the pesticide were 
considered. It was only later that we became aware of the effects of 
the blomagnlflcat^on of DDT within an ecosystem. 

The field of ecology has been considered by some to be a special 
case by virtue of its emphasis on Interconnections. But, In the 
twentieth century the idea of Interconnections has become Increasingly 
Important 1n other fields of science such as subatomic physics. The 
field of subatomic physics is the current focus of man's long term 
search for an understanding of what the world Is made of and how It Is 
all held together. Early In the nineteenth century there was general 
agreement that the atom was the most basic part of matter. Later in 
that century It was learned that atoms themselves were made up of 
something even more fundamental: protons, neutrons and electrons. 

All of these sub-atomic particles exhibit unusual behavior. For 



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example, the electron appears not to have any properties until 
something Interacts with It. The type of properties that are seen 
depend on the nature of the Interaction between the experimenter and 
the electron. This conflicts with our common sense which tells us 
that an object has a certain set of properties regardless of whether 
anyone Irte'^acts with It or not. 

Just as an electron appears not to have any definite properties 
until one Interacts with It, the same may be true of Ihe universe as a 
whole. As an example, one of the current theories of brain structure 
and function suggests that the properties of the universe arise as a 
result of Individual's Interaction with It. This Idea Is a result of 
the work of Karl Pribram, who after many years spent studying the 
brain, has proposed that the basic structure of the brain Is 
holographic. Pribram sees the brain not as an Intricate set of wiring 
but Instead as a pattern of Interacting waves. His theory proposes 
that patterns of Interactions within the brain Itself Interact with 
the wave nature of the universe to produce patterns that we then 
recognize as objects. This theory Implies that the Interactions 
between the brain and the universe are crucial and In fact that the 
brain helps to determine the nature of the universe. 

These descriptions, although brief, do point out the Increasing 
emphasis that Is being given to the Idea of Interconnectedness In 
three widely divergent areas of science. A shift In our paradigm to 
Include the Idea of Interconnections will have major Impacts 
throughout cur society and will certainly be felt In the field of 
education. 

Education and educational practices are themselves caught up In 
the Idea of separateness . Examples Include the separation of academic 
disciplines from one another, the attitude that the most appropriate 
way for learning to take place Is for the Instructor to talk and the 
student to listen, and the feeling that a students 's personal life has 
no place In the classroom. A perspective that sees Interconnections 
as fundamental show us that an Individual's personal life and 
self-Image are closely tied to his or her ability to learn. Most of 
us have seen examples of the effect on an Increase In self-^conf Ideice 
on someone's ability to master the material being studied. 

In addition to confidence, context Is also Important. The 
Importance of context goes beyond the need to present topics in such a 
way that the relationship of one topic to another Is apparent. If the 
learner Is aware of the relationship between the topic under study and 
the rest of his life, the learning process becomes more effective. 
The level of personal motivation also Is very important. When we are 
personally motivated It Is not only easier to learn It Is also easier 
to remember. 

In thinking back to what Is remembered from our own schooling, 
certain things stand out. For most of us, the Items that stand out 
are those that were presented In some manner that was out of the 
ordinary. These experiences help us remember things In a way that Is 
not just "mental". The sense that a baker has of how to bake bread 1s 
very different from that of som^»one who has only read a bread recipe. 
The type of learning that takes place when one actually experiences 



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the making of bread 1s often Ignored In the educational system. We, 
as Instructors, often expect students to learn how something happens 
by Just reading about It or listening to a lecture. Including 
activities other than reading and listening In a classroom will have 
beneficial effects on learning. The use of visualization, relaxation, 
and body movement techniques help the learner remember In ways that 
purely mental exercises do not. 

Cross-disciplinary courses are yet another way In which the Idea 
of Interconnectedness can be Incorporated Into the educational 
system. Although this Is not a new concept I am suggesting a new 
approach. Most often a cross-disciplinary course Involves Instructors 
from a number of different disciplines all looking at the same 
problem. Too often the student Is expected to do all of the 
Integration of one subject area with another. What I am suggesting Is 
the actual integration of a number of different subject areas into one 
course where the Integration of subject areas Is as Important as the 
content of the course. 

Few educators would argue with the need to Integrate the body of 
Information that a student Is exposed to Into some sort of coherent 
scheme. What Is needed therefore Is a commitment to bring this about 
In the classroom and a sense 3f how this can be accomplished. 
Guidance can be found In an analysis of the need for a shift In our 
paradigm concerning the nature of the world and how It operates. If 
we see the world as a coherent whole rather than as a collection of 
separate parts, we will be better able to share with others our 
understanding of the Interconnections between different subject areas 
and their different ways of looking at the world. The need for a 
viewpoint that focuses on Interconnections Is receiving support from a 
number of fields of scientific endeavor and will have a major impact 
on the field of education. 



VII. H. Hopkins, Charles. "Incorporating the Built Environment In a 
Comprehensive Environmental Education Program". Boyne River 
Ndtural Science School, 19 Grenadier Heights, Toronto, 
Ontario M6S 2W5, Canada. 

(Text 1s not available) 



VII. I. Kennedy, Carolyn L. "Strategies for Involving Youth in 
Wildlife and Environmental Issues". Director, Elliott 
Wildlife Values Project, Girl Scouts of the USA, 830 Third 
Avenue, New York, New York 10022, USA. 

The workshop Introduced the materials available from Girl Scouts 
of the USA for wildlife and environmental education. Through research 
and role-playing, the participants explored the depths and comf»lex1ty 



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of a variety of cnvli omental Issues of thts process, students can 
learn skills necessary for active pa»^t1c1pat1on In resolving 
environmental problems. 



VII. J. McDonald, Kevin. "Community Environmental Education In New 
South Ual ^tralla: Issues, Strategies and Challenges". 
President, .^w^clatlon for Ef<v1ronmental Education (N.S.W.), 
P.O. Box li4. New Lambton 2305, New South Wales, Australia. 

There seems to be an assumption In much of the literature on 
environmental education that education about . In and for the 
environment Is the preserve of formal education systems. Where It 1s 
conceded that education of the total community regarding environmental 
phenomena and Issues might be undertaken. It Is assumed tiiat the 
methods and strategies of formal education are applicable. This paper 
proposes that: (1) E.E. of the adult (non-sch^'ol) population 
represents a vast area of neglect, yet of enormous potential; (2) 
traditional educational methods, techniques and strategies of the 
formal education system are not particularly relevant or acceptable to 
the adult community; (3) ccmm^nlty E.E. Initiatives should not. In 
general, be publlcy referrco co as "environmental education", but 
rather be promoted under a suitable banner which Is appropriate for 
the particular time, event, place and people Involved. 

Although the writer feels that there has been an Improvement In 
society's regard for the environment. It Is clear that streets still 
tend to be littered, streams continue to be poMuted, soil erosion Is 
occurring on a massive scale, freeways proliferate, noise Irritates 
millions of people, glass and metals continue to be burled In sanitary 
landfill operations, trees are being felled at an alarming rate, and 
so on. Hence this paper addre5;ses the Questions: (1) how might the 
community be "better educated" concerning environmental issues, and 
(2) If the methods of the formal education system are not appro: ^^te 
to the adult community, then what alternative methods and strategies 
might be used? The paper examines those attributes of the adult 
community which make the approaches of formal education unacceptable. 
Attention Is drawn to those particular environmental Issues which 
affect the Individual directly and for %*h1ch appropriate skills and 
strategies necessary for effective community participation are lacking. 

A case study will serve to highlight a procedure and strategies 
which were particularly effective In a public education program. The 
Issue concerned public participation In sewage disposal op^'^ons for 
the city of Newcastle (New South Wales). The relevant responsible 
body (the Hunter District Water Board) appointed a Community Educator 
for a four-month period to 1nf<?rm and Involve the public In the 
Board's decision-making process. The paper describes how the educator 
proceeded with the project and how lessons wf^re learned In the course 
of the public education exercise. The program. 4^% highly successful 
and possessed the following attributes: 



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used only one paid person 

was very economical In terms of money spent for Interest 
obtained 

Involved many resource people In the community 

reached many thousands of people (e.g., at "open days") 

raised Immense public Interest generally (e.g., press letters) 

derived excellent media support (was seen as a "good story") 

resulted In a detectable change of opinion 

witnessed a more positive. Informed attitude develop towards 

the Hater Board and Its problems 

Increased the level of public knowledge (e.g., regarding 
problems of engineering, concept of collform counts) 
was seen as a democratic process by many people in the 
community 

resulted In a reduction of conflict and tension In the 
community 

Other case studies Involving the Association for Environmental 
Education (N.S.W.) working at the community level Include: the Wyong 
Valleys Study; the work of an environmental education coordinator on 
the Central Coast; the management of wetlands and small farms; 
observance of 1982 Year of the Tree. 

Resulting from some experience with community Involvement In 
environmental declslon-roaking. It has become Increasingly clear that 
each Issue "stands alone" in many respects. It Is not possible to 
have one formula, or one riiodel, for dealing with various environmental 
Issues In the community, even though there is certainly a suite of 
specific strategies which might be mobilized where appropriate, it 
has to be remembered that each case Is different: the issue Is 
different, dlffe'^ent people are involved. With few exceptions, people 
are only "turned on" when they are directly affected by a particular 
Issue, usually only in their own community. There is something if an 
"ambulance service" character for community environmental education. 
The reality Is that the real community needs are "out there" In that 
community. It Is not a scene of classrooms, chalkboards, overhead 
projectors, and erudite lecturers. 

Thus a set of postulates emerges for community E.E.: 

1. adult (non-formal) educa'lon Is concerned with a clientele 
which cannot, or prefers not to, meet the terms and 
conditions or products that are marked In formal mainstream 
education; 

2. there Is no one best method of adult (environmental) 
education; it Is an entrepreneurial activity responding to 
Individual needs In unique ways, utilizing all the 
community's resources; 

3. there Is no one over2ll body which the public Identifies as a 
contact point for informed environmental Information. 

4. It Is not helpful to talk atout "model" programs; each 
program Is designed for a "one-off" occasion to handle the 
unique need by the best~1n-the-c1rcumstances provision at the 
time. 

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An Important message for educators 1s hlcihlighted: Community l.Z, 
programs nee^' to be carefully aimed at the needs of specific 
audiences, conducted at appropriate venues (some of which might be 
quite unus'saU\ and timed to receive maxiimim public acceptance. 
Everyday citizens do not comprise a "captive audience" as school or 
college students. The community educator must be skilled al assessing 
the appropriateness of time, place, event and target audience. 

The concepts of "trickle" and "surge" educational prograuis for the 
community in respon:^e to reacting to environmental issues are also 
important. By "trickle" E.E., the wV:(ct means the provision of 
on-going, adult education courses, classes, seminars, field d^ys, 
camps, etc., open to the public throughout the year, and conducted 
through various agencies including Adult Education Boards, University 
extension programs, and local conservation/environment organizations. 
By "surge" E.E., the writer means something which currently does not 
exist, at least in the Australian setting: the appointment of paid 
community educators - personnel skilled in adult education procedures 
and approaches, and having, as a secondary, but Important 
consideration, a strong interest in environmental matters. First and 
foremost, however, these people must be EDUCATORS. 

The question is examined: wtiich Is the appropriate employing 
authority? Several possible "contenders" are ruled out for various 
reasons. Two possible bodies (at least for the scene In this State) 
are the Department of Technical and Further Education (T.A.F.E.), 
and/or the Board of Adult Education. The point is made that not all 
trained teachers will necessarily make effective community (aduU) 
educators. The task needs a person with entrepreneurial skills, and a 
flair for an integrated, holistic approach to learning. Community 
E.E. is a very special vocation. Wany excellent environmental ists 
would not necessarily make good environmental educators. However, 
doubtless some would. 

The paper then looks briefly at some strategies tor effective 
community E.E. and draws attention to the outstanding contribution 
made by some innovative people in this field. The pioneering work of 
Professor William Stapp of the University of Michigan is highlighted. 
Challenges for the future are indicated. 

In New South Wales the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 
(1979) of State Parliament enabled public input into the environmental 
decision-making process. Although this legislation is greeted with 
some enthusiasm, the criticism is made that the citizenry is yet to be 
equipped with the knowledge and skills for adequate and meaningful 
participation. Attention is drawn to the establishment, in 1983, of 
the Environmental Education Advisory Committee. This government 
committeee has produced its first Report: The Scope of Environmental 
Educ tion in New South Wales > The committee has also established a 
sub-committee to examine community E.E. specifically. The next task 
to be taken on by the Advisory Committee will be the drawing up of a 
State Plan for E.E. in N.S.W. Although New South Wales is the first 
state in Australia to instigate such a development, we are far behind 
the United States of America where State Plans for E.E. have been in 
existence for most States for some ten years. 



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There have been some encouraging developments and events 1n aw 
South Wales, Including the very successful third National Conference 
on Environmental Education held In Sydney In August, 1984. This 
conference had the theme: "Urban Environmental Education* and brought 
together, on the one platform, not only educators, but representatives 
of Industry, trade unlcns, citizen groups, the media, government 
departments, and various International speakers. The breadth of the 
Conference proceedings was most encouraging and has made a significant 
forward step for the environmental education movement In Australia to 
break out of Its former somewhat blinkered view that E.E. was the 
preserve of the formal education system. 



VII. Murray, Cam. "Education and Leadership: The Role of 

Non-ProfIt Societies". Past Chairman, Outdoor Recreation 
Council of British Columbia, Suite lOn, 12OO Hornby Street, 
Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 2E2, Canada- 

The Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. Is a non-profit society, 
formed In 1976. It provides a mechanism through which the Interests 
and activities of orgarlzed groups 1n outdoor recreation, conservation 
and education can be coordinated and represented to government and 
Industry. 

Currently, 42 provincial associations are members of the Council, 
embracing motorized and non-motorized groups, land-and water-oriented 
activities and conservation Interests. In addition, a number of 
regional committees address concerns at a local level. 

One aspect of the Council's activities has been to foster the safe 
and wise use of the outdoors. This has been achieved In several 
ways. Most notable has been the production and distribution of a 
widely acclaimed series of safety and education brochures covering a 
diversity of topics relating to the safe and wise use of the outdoors. 

More than 856,000 brochures have been printed to date, and the 
series continues to expand, its progress has been supported 
throughout by the provincial government, and Its success can be judged 
by the ongoing demand. In addition, a series of slide/tape packages 
have been produced. Like the brochures, these are made available to 
schools, outdoor centres, clubs and others to use as an educational 
tool. Both are Intended to reach a wide "udlence among the recreation 
public. 

Since Its Inception, the Outdoor Recreation Council has encouraged 
programs of safety education, technical instruction and outdoor 
ethics. The Implementation of a leadership program remains an 
unfulfilled dream, although a Wilderness Leadership Program has been 
Initiated at Capllano College In North Vancouver, by several persons 
closely ossoclated with the beginnings of the Council. 

From the outset, vigorous debate has ensued around the topic of 
"leadership" with proponents of a diversity of viewpoints - ranglnv, 
irom a "certification" model, on one hand, to a "laissez-faire" 



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acquisitions of leadership skills on a voluntary basis, on the other 
hand, a debate continuing over the years. 

In 1980, the Deputy Provincial Secretary for B,C, suggested that 
Interest a;nong outdoor recreation organizations for a provincial scale 
outdoor recreation leadership development ought to be gauged, and, 
that If fufflclent Interest was evident, further efforts toward the 
development of such a program should be stimulated. In 1981, the 
Council assisted In distributing a questionnaire lo Individuals, 
associations and educators. 170 responses were received as outlined 
below: 

Existing Programs 

most groups require a "high" or "moderate" skill level of 
their outdoor leaders. 

the majority of groups set their own standards, about 
one-third use standards set by other groups. 

Weeds for Future Programs 

an overwhelming majority felt that a leadership program, 
encompassing social and environmental knowledge as well as 
core skills, would be iseful. 

respondents Indicated the following preferences for program 
delivery: 



First choice: 


Short Courses 


28% 




Intensive 1-3 week course 


21X 




Certification program 


16% 


Second choice: 


Short Courses 


32X 




Visiting groups of experts 


24X 




Self-directed module 


18% 



British Columbia does not yet have a provlncewlde program for 
outdoor leaders, and the arguments for and against conservation 
continue. In this context, It Is Interesting to note the solutions 
reached In other parts of the world. 

In Nova Scotia the result of a long study Into leadership was the 
Implementation of the Nova Scotia Outdoor Leadership Development 
Program (NSOLD). It Is designed to provide a basic leadership 
train ng program, encompassing general outdoor recreation skills. 
Certification was rejected as Inappropriate. The certificate gained 
therefore evaluates efficiencies and deficiencies, rather than 
providing a seal of approval. The NSOLD Basic Leadership Course 
Includes five weekend modules (woodmanship, w'llderness ethics, 
wilderness navigation, survival and emergency procedures), capped by a 
nine-day Outdoor Leadership School. All modules are based on direct 
experience. 

New Zealand has also rejected certification. The New Zealand 



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Outdoor Training Advisory Board places emphasis on ongoing self 
assessment for leaders, and to this end has produced a detailed manual 
to provide advice for leaders, instructors and course coordinators. 
The Advisory Board recognizes three basic principles for outdoor 
leadership training: 

certification, while perhaps desUable for professional 
guides and instructors, is inappropriate for the amateur 
leader. 

leadership training should be based on acquiring technical 
competence, gaining experiences through practice and 
developing leadership skills. 

leadership training should be available at different skill 
levels. 

Leadership programs are offered to New Zealanders through a number 
of organizations. 

The Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. is now looking at the 
potential for leadership in British Columbia. Response to the survey 
has indicated that a short course would be the most popular form of 
delivery. However, program must cater to individual learning 
prcferen as and woulci therefore ideally offer the course content in a 
variety of forms: short courses, longer courses, videotape, manuals 
etc. Nothing can replace the direct contact component, however, and 
this should be par* '^f any model selected. 

It is not the tounciVs intent to offer certification. Soi^e of 
the Council's member groups do offer certification, particularly in 
high-risk activities; however, this is not applicable to all forms of 
recreation leadership. Rather, the Council would encourage 
self-assessment, or p?t^r assessment, occuring on an ongoing basis. 

The course component would focus on core skills: leadership 
techniques, oi tdoors philosophy, human relations, safety 
considerations and legal considerations « The development of specific 
skills Is appropriately left to the associations. 

A proporal will be put before the Outdoor Recreation Council of 
B.C. to establish a Leeuership Training Advisory Board. This Board 
would be responsible not only for developing core leadership courses, 
but would also be in a position to enhance leadership training through 
work-shops and other info; ...ation dissemination. In addition, the 
Board would develop responses to leadership issues, such as those 
raised by the questionnaire ^respondents. 



VII L. Vallentyne, John R. "Giobes as Symbols of Oneness." Senior 
Scientist, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada Centre 
for Inland Waters, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario, Canada 
L7R 4A6. 

Globes provide an opportunity to ^ee a model of the Earth at once 



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as a whole In a manner that Is not possible cn maps or even In 
photographs from space. Because of this they have Immense power In 
shaping * .e way we see ourselves In relation to people In other 
cultures and to The Biosphere. 4s hollow spheres, globes resemble The 
Biosphere more than the solid Earth* Planar projections, no matter 
how refined, are distort. ons. 

In depicting the oneness of humanity and The Biosphere, globes may 
be crucial to the success of The Vtorld Campaign for The Biosphere 
(Anon., 1982 and Davis, 1983) » By providing a wordUss Image of The 
Biosphere, they transcend the need for language and translation. 
Furthermore, they are capable of stirring human thought and passion. 
Consider, for example, the following: 

a small globe held In one palm, to suggest that the fate of 

The Biosphere Is In human hands; 

a medlum^slzed globe cupped In two hands, to suggest the 
preclousness of The Blospnere; 

the fingers of one hand stretched over the surface of a 
larger globe, to portray the environmental ravages of 
humanity; 

a globe swinging on a string like the pendulum of a 
grandfather's clock to Indicate that time Is shortef/.ng, that 
not to act Is to act; 

carrying a globe on one's back as an expression of the bond 
of feedback between person and planet; 
a globe with a heart-beat, symbolizing The Biosphere as an 
Independent living-breathing agent; 

a globe with a slot for secret messages or contributions to 

some worthy supranational cause. (One suc?i globe brought In 

contributions of U.S. $:02 from attendees at the NAEE Banff 

Conference to the Indian Society of Naturalists.) 

a globe that magically lights up In response to hearing about 

good ecological actions on Ihe part of chlldien; 

looking jp tn a globe held high In one hand. Indicative of 

respect; 

a geophysical globe to show patterns of circulation of air 
and water. 

These are some of many ways In which globes can be used 
Imaginatively to communicate Important messages and meta-messages 
about our rel^t1on to ^he Biosphere. 

Based on conversations with people from various countries my 
Impression Is that In welUto-^do nations every primary school Is 
likely to have at least one globe; every secondary school Is likely to 
have several globes of assorted sizes and types. In underdeveloped 
countries the rule 1s different. Every secondary school Is likely to 
have a globe, but globes are generally lacking In primary schools. 
Very little Imaginative use Is made of g obes In pr*«iary and secondary 
schools. They mostly gather dust on shelves In classrooms or on top 
of bookcases In libraries. 

My Impression Is that there Is a certain "magic" In globes for 
children In the age range of 5-10. It could be that there are windows 



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1.^ the minds of elementary school children Into which Blospheric 
messages can be inserted; and that after a certain age the windows are 
s^ut tight and bolted. If true, particular attention should be given 
to making possible and improving the use of globes in elementary 
schools. 

On the above information and conjectures, it seems to me that two 
first and most essential educational objectives of The World Campaign 
for Tho Biosphere should be: (1) to stimulate governments in all 
countries to ensure that every elementary school has at least one 
globe; and (2) to produce a small booklet available In many languages 
outlining ways in which teachers at all levels might imaginatively use 
globes to stimulate a Biospheric ethic. The cost of globes is not 
excessive. The price in North America iinges form less tha;i $10 for a 
30 cm inflatable globe to $100 for a beautiful 30 cm plastic 
geophysical-political globe with an internal 25 watt Ught. Balloons 
could be even cheaper Substitutes. 

Attention Is now being given In many parts of the world to 
implementing an ecosystem approach to living in which we see ourselves 
as parts of larger systems, rather than as separate agents looking out 
at external environments. To the extent that this attitude depends on 
person-plant viewpoints,, it could be that governments and other 
national or sub-national forms of organizations may be able to 
advocate but not to implement an ecosystem approach; that only people, 
individually, can do it. If that Is the case then environmental 
education should begin from the top-down (Biosphere to person) as well 
as bottom-up (person to Biosphere). Globes, as the flags of The 
Biosphere, are essential in both respects. 

References 

1. Anonymous Declaration: The World Cair;:.ign for The Biosphere 

Environmental Conservation, 9(2): 91-92, 1982, 

2. Davis, C.B. "The World Council for The Biosphere/International 

Society for Enviromental Education.* Environmental 
Conservation . 10(4): 353-354, 1983. 



VII. M. Yandala, Oeb. "The Church as an Example of Nonformal 

Environmental Education." Director, Miami Valley Outdoor 
Hinlstries, 3304 N. Main Street, Box 505, Dayton. Ohio. 
45405, USA. 

Every day people are faced with making decisions that in some way 
effect the environment. Energy use, the food system, transportation 
and other issues interface with the daily lives of citizens of this 
world. With an increase in the complex relationship of technology and 
natural systems comes the need for a greater understanding of the 
environment. Environmental literacy is essential for all people and 
not Just for those in positions of power. 



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Many quality environmental education programs have been developed 
in schools to help facilitate the awareness and skills of young people 
to make informed decisions. Yet there are many still not reached with 
invircinmental educatior. programs. While some people may choose to 
atte.id programs at nature centers » museums, zoos, etc. or use the 
medii to gain information* there Is a need to broaden our 
perspectives, and therefore our offe-'lngs, so that more people might 
become Informed. Agencl. not normally thought of as environmental 
education resources may have the ability to each diverse audiences. 
The church can be such an agency, providing environmental education in 
a nonformal setting. 

Ideally, environmental education can be a mixture of formal and 
nonformal learning. This would allow for lifelong learning to develop 
awareness and concern. Nonformal education provides the core of many 
adutt educational systems around the world. Planners in a wide 
variety of settings are coming to realize that an effective national 
education system must be a mixture of in-school and out-of-school 
educational processes. Nonformal education can be complementary, 
supplementary or a replacement, depending on the situation. 

With increased learner Involvement and motivation, such programs 
can have long lasting effects. The opportunity to use innovative 
learning styles, to provide experiential learning, and deal in the 
area of beliefs and values can make nonformal education a valuable 
tool for environmental education. 

Churches generally put major emphasis on religious education. 
They are dedicated to educati >n for youth and adults, to help share 
faith and beliefs. Religioi;> education also often stresses giving 
people tools for living as people of faith in the world. These tools 
center around many lifestyle issues: health, peace, Justice, food, 
^amily concerns. Interpersonal relationships, etc. Educational 
programs attract youth and adults, both separately and together for a 
variety of learning experi<^nces . True to the definition cf nonformal 
education, learners (other than young people In traditional "Sunday 
School" learning programs or specific training programs) have choice 
over their topics, but churches, either through teachers or published 
curriculum, provide the "hows" and content in their instruction. 

Hany church programs already touch on environmental education. A 
recent study showed that environmentally-related issues receiving the 
most attention through church educational programs are world hunger, 
lifestyles, land stewardship, conservation of energy, and 
environmental ethics. Use of the printed word Is the most popular 
form of addressinc these issues (Yapole, 1983). Because the church 
works with a variety of people, many people may not choose to be 
exposed to environmental e^jucation in other settings. For this reason 
alone, churches need to consider their role in preserving the earth. 
Environmental education professionals and religious educators agree 
that churches need to be in the business of environmental education. 
In a recent survey, 99. IX of the church officers polled and 99. IX of 
the National Association for Envirom-mntal Education members polled 
strongly agreed or agreed with the statement "Part of the mission of 



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the church should Include a concern for the teaching of environmental 
responsibilities" (Yaple, 1983). 

Churches » both on a local and a national levels can provide a 
healthy arena for dealing with the affective part of environmental 
Issues. Values* beliefs, and attitudes can be safely discussed In 
churches » partly because of the expectation that religious education 
will Indeed deal with the affective domain* While knowledge about the 
environment may be presented, the opportunity to carefully look at 
lifestyle questions, global Issues, community Involvement, and 
personal decision making through values education and studies rooted 
In faith Issues, makes the church a valuable educational setting. 

Another major contribution the church can make Is to provide 
reinforcement for what Is being learned In other settings. Especially 
for young people. If that which Is presented In schools Is reinforced 
In other places, education can become more deeply rooted and provide 
greater potential for change. Churches and other community based 
agencies can reaffirm knowledge and content areas In addition to 
stressing the affective domain. 

Environmental education also has certain principles and 
characteristics which overlap with the purposes of religious 
education. E.P. Hart applied a criteria or Importance of key 
environmental education characteristics In environmental education 
literature. He found among the ones mentioned most often were: 
Interdisciplinary, multilevel, global ethics, concepts, process 
development, problem solving, values clarifying, systems thinking, 
first hand experiences and activities (Hart, 1981). Many of these can 
also be found In religious education. For example, it Is definitely 
multl-le^el and Includes both concepts and process development. 
Global ethics are Important to many denominations who take world 
mlsslc* and outreach seriously. Problem solving and first hand 
experiences are reflected in a service orientation. Where some of 
these characteristics are not present, perhaps religious educators 
might gain from environmental education, especially with Its 
experimental approach. 

The theory of humanistic education has strong ties with religious 
education. Differing from secular humanism, humanistic education 
emphasizes values, beliefs, attitudes and the affective domain In 
suggesting styles of teaching and learning. The overriding concern Oi 
attitude formulation Is Important to both humanistic education and 
environmental education. John Miles suggested that there Is a need to 
recognize the role of humanistic education In environmental 
education. Consider Miles' definition of a humanistic person: "...a 
humanistic person Is one who Is empathetic, who seeks to understand 
other people's feelings and Ideas and Is able to do so. Such a person 
Is also compassionate, sensing the needs of othe^^ and responding to 
them with support and assistance" (Miles, 1979, p. 177). Religious 
educators strive to help develop values based on religious principles 
which are humanistic, according to this definition. Environmental 
educators need such people so that there are citizens and 
decision-makers who are concerned about the welfare of all humanity. 



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The long range goals of both religious education and environmental 
education includes an emphasis on improving life on earth. They also 
both are "causes* in that followers are convinced of the "rightness* 
of what they believe and are eagur to share it. Both are spiritual in 
the depth and morality of what is being tauQfit. Perhaps Oames Swan 
says it best; "Ultimately, living In harmony with nature is an 
energetic phenomenon which involves a harmonious attuning of human 
life, body, mind a^^d spirit with nature. A holistic view of human 
nature requires that the spiritual nature of humankind be considered 
as wen as the material aspects" (Swan, 1978, p. 47). The 
"other-centeredness" of religious education and environmental 
education along with the concern for that which is not human-made, 
lend to a spiritual sense of the work that both are about. 

Once religious educators accept a rationale for their Involveraent 
in environmental education, be It for ethical, theological » or 
educational reasons, then the potential for types of involvement can 
be realized. Perhaps the most obvious place for inclusion is at 
church camps. Camps provide a place where people can come into direct 
contact with the earth because nature study and outdoor living are 
usually parts of most camp programs. Be it through the camp's 
curriculum, through special programs, or interest sessions, 
environmental education can be effectively shared in the outdoor 
setting. Perhaps even more exciting in terms of education potential 
is the opportunity for camps to model environmental concern, through 
their buildings, food service, resource use and the commitment of the 
staff. Camps provide a good opportunity for people with experience 
life-styles that are compatible with the environment and sensitive to 
global needs. 

Environmental education can be Incorporated into the ongoing 
educational programs of the local congregation. Sunday school, 
vacation church school, youth programs, adult education and special 
programs may deal with environmental issues and ethics. Service 
projects, such as recycling, gardening, and picking up litter can 
reflect environmental concern. Such a simple thing as recycling 
church bulletins can provide a witness to members and to the 
community. Congregations can use their own theology and practices to 
be models to the community of commitment to the earth. 

The church buildings, congregational meals, educational programs, 
worship and special events can all serve to involve people in 
environmental concern and reinforce within them the importance of 
caring for the earth. The church can effectively provide people with 
motivation and tools for changing behavior and lifestyles in order to 
preserve the environment. 

Environmental educators can gain greater effectiveness in their 
mission as they seek to work with nonformal agencies, especially those 
who are not normally aligned with this field. Religious educators can 
broaden the perspectives of their programs by taking advantage of the 
resources environmental education can bring for their purposes in 
training people to live responsible lives. The mutuality of a joint 
sense of mission in caring for the earth can lead to reaching and 



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effecting more people with a message that Is Important for the future 
of people and the earth. 

References 

K Cesaretti, C.A. and Conwlns, Stephen, editors. "Let the Earth 
Bless the Lord." B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids. 
Michigan* 1980. 

2. Hart, E.P. "Identification of Key Characteristics of 
Environmental Education." The Journal of Environmental Education , 
1981, 13(1), 12-16. 

3. Miles, John Charles. "Experimental Humanistic Environmental 
Education: A Description and Rationale." Doctoral dissertation. 
Union Graduate School, June 1979. 

4. Mocker, Donald W. and Spear, George E. "Lifelong Learning: 
Formal, Nonformal, Informal, and Self -Directed." National 
Institute of Education, Washington, D.C., 1982. 

5. Swan, James A. "Environmental Education: A New Religion?" The 
Journal of Environmental Education , 1978, 10(1), 44-48. 

6. Wilkinson, Lor^^n, editor. "Earthkeeplng. " William B. Eerdmans 
Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1980. 

7. Yaple, Charles H. "The Christian Church and Environmental 
Education: A Study of Involvements In the United States." 
Dissertation abstract presented at the NAEE Conference, October, 
1983. 



VII. N. Yandala, Deb. "Values and Environmental Education: A 

Workshop Modol for Training Teachers and Leaders." Director, 
Miami Valley Outdoor Ministries, 736 Walton Ave, Dayton, 
Ohio, 45407, USA. 

The goals of environmental education emphasize awareness, 
knowledge, concern, and motivation which lead to working for solutions 
and prevention of environmental problems. In seeking to eMcIt 
concern for the environment, one must take Into consideration deeply 
rooted values and how they effect decision-making and 
problem-solving. A basic understanding of the value process and 
specific valuing strategies can be beneficial to teachers and leaders 
1n designing environmental education experiences. Training In values 
education can also help teachers and leaders be clear on personal 
values and encourage personal development, particularly In relation to 
environmental concerns. 



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Values are enduring beliefs which are prized and considered to be 
of prime importance to an individual. When a value is activated, 
certain actions or behaviors reflect the value. Each Individual has 
his or her own value system, which Is an enduring organization of 
beliefs. This system helps i!id1v1dua1s make decisions, solve 
conflicts, and make choices. While a value system Is relatively 
stable over time, change occurs when there is a reordering of 
priorities. New Information or experiences can produce conflict which 
leads to clarification or reprlorltlzing, both of which are valuable 
in an individual's development* 

There are numerous ways to work with values In an educational 
setting. How a teacher or leader chooses to work with values is 
dependent uptn goals, atmosphere, the nature of the group, and 
specific topics in a given situation* By combining the use of various 
strategies, the strength of each can be used to complement one 
another. Strategies used most often with envlroranental education 
include lalssez faire, inculcation, values analysis^ action learning, 
behavior modification, values clarification, and moral development* 
Both moral development and values clarification are worthy of In depth 
study by environme'.ital educators ecause of their significance to the 
field. They are given special €.i4>has1s In the workshop model. 

The workshop model Is designed to be a one and one-half to two and 
one-^half day experience for teachers and leaders wanting to develop 
skills in values education, to examine their own values, and make 
applications to environmental education. Suggestions are given for 
those conducting the workshop as well as specific explanations of each 
part of the model. The model Includes valuing activities, 
mini-presentations on valuing theories and strategies, and group 
discussions on the application of values education. Guidelines for 
handling values, follow-^up possibilities and evaluation are also 
elements of the model. 

It takes both skill and sensitivity to handle values in a way that 
is helpful to people. Understanding how one might best approach 
values in a variety of situations requires a knowledge of valuing 
strategies and theories on how to apply them. The workshop model is 
designed to give both content and process suggestions to enable people 
wanting to incorporate values education into environmental education 
experiences to do so more effectively. 



VII. 0. PANEL: "Cultural Resource Management and the Environmental 

Historian". PANEL MODERATOR: Carroll Pursell, University of 
California. PANELISTS: Samuel P. Hays, University of 
Pittsburgh; Martin V. Melosi, University of Houston; Thomas 
Ounlao, The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State 
University. 

Environmental historians, it is frequently charged, have devoted 
far too much attention to parks, wilderness, and wildlife, and not 



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enough to the relationship between the built and natural environment, 
ihls panel explored the Issue, as well as the responsibility of 
historians to help protect historic structures and aboriginal sites. 
The need for cooperation between historians and developers was 
addressed. 



VII. P. PANEL: "Environmental History In the Science Curriculum". 

PANEL MODERATOR: John H. Perkins, Academic Dean, Evergreen 
State College, Olyrapla, Washington 98505, USA. PANELISTS: 
Thomas Dunlap, The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State 
University; Samuel P. Hays, University of Pittsburgh; Joseph 
Slry, Sonoma State University; Alfred Runte, University of 
Washington. 

How can scientists benefit from a more In-depth understanding of 
the origin and evolution of environmental Issues? What does the 
environmental historian have to offer the scientist, especially those 
1n the natural resource professions? Indeed, do scientists have a 
responsibility to teach the historical origins of natural resource 
debates affecting their respective professions? These and similar 
Issues was the thrust of this panel. 



VII. Q. PANEL: "Issues and Interpretations In Environmental 
History". PANEL MODERATOR: Alfred Runte, Professor, 
Department of History, 0P-20, University of Washington, 
Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. PANELISTS: John Opie, 
Ousquene University; Donald Worster, Brandels University; 
Linda a. Lear, The George Washington University; Carrol 
Pursell, University of California, Santa Barbara; Morgan 
Sherwood, University of California, Davis. 

Environmental history can be and often Is controversial since the 
field addresses such emotional Issues as whether corporations art 
Irresponsibly toward the environment. This panel addresses the need 
for care and deliberation In researching such debates, debates whose 
current context often obscures the search for historical accuracy. 



VII. R. PANEL: "The Past, Present and Future of Environmental 

History". PANEL MODERATOR: Morgan Sherwood, University of 
California, Davis. PANELISTS: 0, Donald Highes, University 
of Denver; Martin V. Melosi, University of Houston; Lisa 
Mighetto, University of Washington; Donald Worster, Brandels 
University; Alfred Runte. 



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Enylronmental history emerged during the early 1970s with great 
fanfare. Why and how did this happen? What did the field accomplish; 
what did It Ignore or fall to address adequately? Does environmental 
history have a future In the 1980s and beyond? What are the 
responsibilities of environmental historians toward their students and 
their field? 



VIIK A. Gell, Mike; Edward Pizzlnl; James Splvak. "Simulating 

Competitive and Collaborative Models for Decision Making". 
Coordinator, Environmental Field Programs, Summer Science 
Training Program, 465 VAN. University of Iowa, Iowa City, 
Iowa 52242, USA. 

Simulations can be a powerful and effective teaching aid for 
examining ethical Issues and lllufnlnatlng the s^cllls and Interpersonal 
relations Involved In group dec1s1on*mak1ng. Environmental Issues 
often Involve conflicts between various groups. Such conflicts may 
encompass differences with regrrd to economic, pcl1*:1cal, social, 
religious, and cultural Ideologies. Arriving at suitable and 
acceptable courses of action Is often extremely difficult In light of 
these conflicts. Individuals with widely diverse Ideologies and 
concerns must be able to communicate effectively and work together 
during the decision-making process. 

This workshop allowed participants to become artWely Involved In 
a simulation designed to Illustrate aspects of both competitive and 
coHaboratlve models for declslon-^maklng. These models were examined 
within the context of both Intragroup and Intergroup dynamics. The 
Importance of the Individual's perceived role for themselves and for 
their relation to a group or groups, becomes clear through the course 
of the simulation. Aspects of group dynamics and human nature are 
vividly illustrated. 

Simulations may be used successfully by environmental educators 1n 
a wide variety of settings. Including high schools, 
colleges/universities, national pork programs, field studies programs, 
etc.. The simulation used in this session as well as other 
simulations, also to be examined, have been used by the presenters in 
environmental education courser at the University of Iowa, in 
environmental field study courses, at National Wildlife Summits, and 
^n high school classrooms. 

Ideas and hints for effectively managing and developing 
simulations also were discussec^. Participants were provided with 
several additional simulations dealing with environmental Issues. 



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VIII. B. Henning, Daniel H. "The Role and Neglect of In-Service 
Environmental Training Progrd«»s In International 
Environmental Education". Professor of Political Science and 
Environmental Affairs. Eastern Montana ColUge, Bmings, 
Montana 59101, USA. 

In-service training programs are basically centered upon the 
participant within his governmental setting, ihey provide one of the 
most effective, economical and practical ways of reaching large 
numbers of government personnel who will be making decisions relating 
to the World Conservation Strategy (HCS) over the next few years (lUCN 
1960). Yet International environmental education has given relatively 
little recognition and support to this Approach. 

It Is safe to say that much of the success or failure of the WCS 
win depend on government decision-makers and their exposure to 
environmental values and considerations. Or. David Munro, past 
Director General, International Union for the Conservation of Nature 
and Natural Resources "N) has stated, "Although they would be 
harder to Influence, a ^at deal could be accomplished by 
facilitating environmental training programmes which reached officials 
In the middle and senior ranks. With 10, 15 or more years of 
experience, these Individuals will be making the key decisions for the 
present and Immediate future." (Personal Interviews with Dr. Munro 
1979). Personnel of this nature will be making the major decisions In 
environmental developmental affairs for the present and Immediate 
future. 

It Is recognized that many government officials have 
techno-sclentif 1c specializations and backgrounds e.g., engineering, 
forestry, etc. Through a procecs of upward mobility, many specialized 
personnel find themselves In administrative or generallst positions 
while those advancing in the specialist classifications find 
themselves making more and more value judgements and human/societal 
decisions In their various activities. Through their educational 
backgrounds and training programmes, both categories of personnel may 
lack sufficient exposure to environmental values and considerations 
for 1ncorpor*»t1on into their actual decision-making relative to the 
WCS. 

A major point of the WCS 1s that various values and alternatives, 
particularly environmentally sound ones, should be examined and 
analyzed on a long-range basis In the decision-making process by 
public officials (lUCN, 1980). A pragmatic and technique orientation 
1n training often places emphasis on short-range and expedient 
approaches to problem-solving and declslon-maklng; consequently, 
little attention will be devoted to long-range and In-depth value 
considerations and related alternatives. As a result, such training 
ccntrlbutes little to attaining a comprehensive. Internalized 
perspective which would Include exposure to, and analysis of, 
environmental values and considerations. Th!s would be essential for 
the Implementation of the WCS. 

It can certainly oe recognized that the Immediate needs and 



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specific Interests, Including techno«sc1ent1f1c concerns, of 
government personnel require In-service training attention. 
Supplemental courses o^ Integrative dimensions that are of a broad and 
general nature are also needed. They wouH provide perspectives, 
synthesis and overall analysis of values » considerations and 
relationships In terms of the environment, society and development. 
The adage of not being able to "see the forest because of the trees" 
Is certainly applicable here. 

Ulth the complex and long-range problems associated with the WCS, 
there appears to be a definite need for general training In 
environmental administration to provide an overview. Host government 
personnel are Involved In managing the relationship between society 
I.e., people, and the environment rather than managing the environment 
or living resources per se. This former area Is usually where the 
problems and decisions occur, creating a need for an envlroftmental 
administrative framework. Training In environmental administration. 
In this sense, could also contribute to better utilization of the 
social sciences In Interdisciplinary approaches. 

Training programmes have a special responsibility to educate 
public officials about value considerations so that their public 
participation activities, judgements and decision-making can be more 
effectively employed to determine the long-term, public Interest for a 
given environmental araa or living resource. However, public 
participation cannot be effective, let alone encouraged, unless It has 
a clear orientation toward value considerations In the administrative 
process. Comprehensive training for government personnel calls for 
considerations that deal with perspectives, awareness, knowledge and 
Incorporation of values Into public participation and actual 
administration. 

The lUCN Commission on Education, UNESCO, UNEP, FAO, UNOP, and 
other International organizations have large and challenging 
responsibilities for stimulating and assisting environmental education 
activities. Including training, under the WCS. 

However, environmental education must recognize that personnel In 
environmental and developf ental affairs will be making the Important 
decisions for the present and Immediate future of living resources and 
society. It wouUi appear appropriate that more emphasis be given to 
In-service environmental training activities In this vital sphere; 
furthermore, there Is relatively little researched or published In the 
the area of environmental training of governmental personnel. 

Adequate attention needs to be devoted to research In this field 
for more effective training programmes, along with strong emphasis on 
Implementation of In-service training courses and workshops on a 
worldwide basis. Environmental education and global environmental 
problems cannot afford further neglect through lack of training. 



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References 

1. INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL 
RESOURCES (lUCN). World Conservation Strategy. Gland. 
Switzerland; lUCN, 1980. 

2. MUNRO, Or. D., Past Director General, lUCN. Personal Interview, 
Merges, Switzerland, August, 1979. 



VIII. C. Horvat, Robert E. "Energy Education: Past or Prologue?" 
Associate Professor of Geosclence, Phys*cs and 
Interdisciplinary Sciences, State University of New York, 
College at Buffalo, 1300 Elnwood Avenue, Buffalo, New York 
14222, USA. 

Introduction 

The Arab Oil Embargo of 1973-74 was the first dramatic sign ot 
U.S. reliance on In^jorted oil to fuel our economy, in the years that 
followed, concern for energy and related environmental Issues spurred 
the development of energy education programs. 

Now, ten years later, the general public seems to think our 
nation's energy problems are over. Gas lines and station closings are 
vague memories, and In^orted oil has declined somewhat In price. 
Energy education has lost the national spotlight. But our energy 
problems are still here, like a sleeping vampire waiting for night. 
Effective energy education Is still needed, even at the 
elementary/Junior high levels. 

Unfortunately, most teachers of elementar" grades, and many 
science teachers at the middle/Junior high levels have had little 
background In energy. The need for effective energy education 
workshops for our nation's inservlce teachers continues. One model 
for these workshops, the Buffalo State program. Is the focus of this 
paper. 

Workshop Objectives 

With a variety of sponsors, Buffalo State has offered Intensive 
ten day workshops (over three weeks) for elementary and Junior high 
teachers with little or no background in energy education. In 
general, each program had these goals: 

1. - to accurately and objectively convay factual knowledge about 

the multlfacted dimensions of current U.S. energy problems. 
This Includes the laws of energy, energy conversions, 
efficiency/conservation, and current and future energy 
options . 

2. - to Introduce teachers to the vast amount of existing 

currlcular units, films, and ether teaching resources on 
energy topics at the elementary and Junior high school levels 



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(pre-K tO grade 9), Including materUU available from 
various states, and local utilities (2). 

3. - to demonstrate how energy education may (and must) be Infused 

Into current classroom subjects. 

4. - to discuss classroom and field energy activities appropriate 

for children. 

5. to develop energy currlcular units by workshop participants, 
and to disseminate the best of these units to other school 
districts. 

Format 

30 or 40 teachers are selected each sunnier to attend the 
workshops. The teachers represent a wide variety of schools/districts 
In western New York, and northwestern Pennsylvania. Host of the 
teachers commuted dally, although Inexpensive dorms or other housing 
was occasionally used for teachers living too far to commute. The 
teachers received three graduate science credits upon successfully 
completing the program. They also received a large amount of 
currlcular materials, and generally got quite energized. 

The mornings were generally devoted to lectures, guast speakers, 
and discussions, while afternoons featured hands-on activities. The 
1984 program offered separate afternoon sessions for elementary and 
Junior high teachers. An Energy Film Festival was conducted during 
part of the lunch hour, and after the formal afternoon sessions 
ended. Each teacher could choose the films he/she wanted to see, and 
evaluate for classroom use. All of the films were available to 
teachers free of charge, from our State Energy office, local 
utilities, or film libraries. 

Field trips were an Important part of each year's program. Among 
the various sites we have used Is the hydroelectric facility at 
Niagara Falls, which Illustrated the many benefits of hydroelectric 
power. A wind turbine atop a local publishing company helped to show 
that alternative energy facilities are becoming more common. A 
passive solar/energy-conserving home, dramatically Illustrated how 
much energy can be saved when proper construction and pre-planning Is 
done before the house Is built. A coal-fired power plant showed how 
tne most common fossil fuel Is used to make electricity. 

Four Instructors had primary Instructional responsibilities In the 
workshops. A geologist, home economist, and elementary science 
educator joined me In presenting content and activities appropriate 
for use with young children. Guest speakers Included representatives 
from local electric and gas utilities, and the American Petroleum 
Institute, Washington. Several assembly-type programs on energy 
(available for school use) were also presented. One day of the 
Workshop was devoted to the New York Energy Education Project being 
developed at the State Education Department. 

In addition to guest speakers associated with energy Industry, the 
Workshops also featured a local Industrial arts high school teacher 
who directs a large number of energy-related projects with his 
students, winning national recognition; a local earth sciences teacher 



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who had his students construct and maintain a passive solar greenhouse 
at their high school; and a representative of the State Public Service 
Commission who discussed the utility rate-se'cting process. 

Content 

In terras of content, our workshop stressed ei-ergy basics, a 
ganerai overview of energy options, and energy conservation . The 
course Instructors felt these were the most appropriate mix of topics 
for tea^, rs of children below the high school level. In terms of 
developing these topics for classroom units. The following topics 
were Included: 

The Historical Roots of Energy Problems 
Energy Basics (thermodynamics, efficiency/ 
Overview of Energy Options 
Fossil Fuels 
Energy Conservation 
Renewable Energy Sources 
Nuclear Power (fission, fusion) 
Economics and Energy Options 
Energy Education Curricula and Resources 

In addition to the numerous films Included 1n our Film Festival, 
three films deserve mention. Swain Wolf has produced a very 
philosophical film which relates energy U5t t*> our society, called 

Energy and Morality", used to close each workshop. "Lovlns on The 
Soft Path" features Amory and Lonter Lovlns discussing renewable, 
generally communlty-baseci en*' ^y production matched to the final use 
for the energy. Also, a videotape by Or. Albert Bartlett, titled 

Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis" (5) explains how 
exponential growth In the use of any resource (suih as coal) will 
dramatically shorten the time we'll be able to use the resource. 

Evaluation 

Several evaluations of each workshop were conducted. The first was 
conducted near the program's mid-point, which allowed us to modify any 
Items causing confusion or consternation before the worKihop 
concluded, ihe final evaluation, at the end of the last week, was 
strongly positive In each suwner program. The teachers reported that 
they had achieved their main objectives; to obtain Information to use 
In teaching or energy education projects and to Increase their own 
energy content background. The teachers said they had gotten a lot of 
good Ideas and materials, and enjoyed the Instructors and guest 
speakers, whom they all ranked as good to excellent. 

Before and after the Workshop, the participants In the 1983 ano 
1984 programs completed the Young Adult Assessment of Energ y developed 
by the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP). About half 
of the 1983 groups also completed the NAEP survey again six months 
after the Workshop: ? longitudinal assessment of any Immediate changes 
in energy knowledge and attitudes. In general, there were 
statistically significant gains in teachers' knowledge of energy facts 



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and Issues, belief In the effectiveness of persona^ action, and 
feelings toward the seriousness of the energy problem/energy 
tradeoffs* Teachers completing the six month followup survey showed 
no decline In their observed post-Workshop gains (6) 

Future Funding for Energy Education Workshops 

Beginning In 1979, Buffalo State has host-^d five suimer workshops 
In energy education, for teachers of various pre-college grade 
levels. After all Federal funding for these type of programs was 
cancelled In 1982, the Workshop instructional staff decided to try and 
continue the program-*at considerably reduced fund1ng-->by soliciting 
support of local electric and gas ut111t1es--tfur1ng 1983 anJ 1984. 
The Interest In energy education In westevn New York, as evidenced by 
over>subscr1pt1on of available seats In the summer workshops, has 
prompted the utilities to continue their current substantial support 
for 19B5, 

Buffalo State's experience In finding new sources of funding, 
while maintaining academic Integrity for these Workshops can be 
repeated at colleges In other regions, I believe. Your local electric 
and gas utilities already have In place some type cf educational 
program for schools. They will have a specific staff member (called a 
Consumer Education Specialist, D^'^ector of Consumer E^Jucatlon or 
something equivalent) who Is responsible for energy education. By 
contacting that person, and discussing your plans, and resources, you 
may find that government funding Is not necessary for successful 
energy education programs. 

Acknowledgements 

The programs described In this paper were supported by the U.S. 
Department of Energy, New York State Electric and 6as Corporation, 
Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, the New York Power Authority and 
National F'jel Gas Distribution Corporation. 

References 

1. Horvat, Robert E. "Back tc Bc-^lcs: The ABCs of Energy." National 
Association of Secondary Schotl Principals Bulletin, 1978, 
62(419), 1-7. 

2. Laspesa, Sally. "The Effects of an Energy Education Worksnop oi; 
.vchool Teachers' Energy Knowledge and Attitudes." Masters 
project. State College at BuffalD, 1984. 



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VIII. 0. Hudspeth, Thomas R. "Utopia V1slon1ng and the Creation of 
Alternative Futures". Assistant Director, Environment 
Program, University of Vermont, 153 S. Prospect, Burlington, 
Vermont 05405 

The senior seminar in Environmental Studies at the University of 
Vermont— the culminating course for all self -designed majors and 
coordinate majors In Environmental Studies— seeks to motivate students 
to make a difference, to think globally and ^ct locally, by 
emphasizing Utopian visloning and the creation of alternative futures. 

The course first seeks to help students consprehend and make sense 
of the enormous changes which are occurring in the world today and to 
clarify the nature of "the environmental problems* In our global 
society. It then reviews the uioplan visions of a variety of 
Individuals, families, communities, and social grc»u!)s through time, 
focusing on Utopian models that are environmentally sensitive and 
steady-state In nature. Students then gain experleijce in "creating 
alternative futures," or collectively d^y-dreamlng about their desires 
In c number of areas for the future. Social and environmental change 
strategies are then considered that en^ower the students to work 
backwards from their desired futures to the present and to begin to 
affect positive changes towards their ultimate goals. 



VIII. E. Hunwick, John. "Training Pre-Servlce Teachers in 

Environmental Education - A South Australian Approach." 
Lecture- In Curriculum Studies: Environmental Education, 
S.A. College of Advanced Education, FAculty of Health, 
Science and Education, Sturt Road, Bedford Park 5042, South 
Australia. 

What Is Environmental Education ? 

To appreciate what Is (and Is NOT) happening in teacher education 
In relation to environmental education. It Is flr^t necessary to 
define what 1t Is. 

The author's understanding of Environmental education Is based on 
the 1970 lUCN definition and Its development at the Belgrade and 
Tbilisi meetings. Out of this has come the following significant 
features which serve as the basis for Identifying Environmental 
Education: 

1. recognition and comprehension of the Inter-relatedness of the 
Individual, society, And the biophysical environment. 

2. a priority for developing values and attitudes as well as for 
learning the more customary conceptual knowledge. 

3. the del'.berate attempt to develop the skills necessary for 



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Identifying, Invest'-gating and resolving environmental problems 
4. the training In and application of citizenship action skills. 
Accordingly, Environmental Education Is considerably more than a 
revamped ecology course or some type of outdoor education subject. 

Environmental Education and the S.A> Schjol System 

In South Australia the Initiative for the Introduction of 
Environmental Education Into schools has been taken by the S.A. 
Education Department. This has been done through Its policy document 
■Our School and Their Purposes* (O.S.T.P.) 1n which eight curriculum 
areas have been Identified as forming the framework for planning and 
organising learning experiences. They are: 

1. environmental education 

2. health and personal development 

3. human society 

4. language studies 

5. mathematical studies 

6. science and technology 

7. the arts 

8. transition education 

It Is yet to be determined what role "environmental education" 
will havo In the overall framework. It could, more appropriately for 
this list, change Into "environmental studies", and focus only on the 
blosphyslcal relationships with the other curriculum areas; or U 
could serve to draw attention to the Inter-relatlonshlps existing 
between the Indlvluual, society and the biophysical environment as the 
use of the term Environmental Education <«ssim^s. 

The official Interpretation yet to be? pUced on the title 
"Environmental Education" as part of the curriculum framework, 
however, will not obvlat: the need for Its expression In schools (and 
teachers). This Is made necessary. If not overtly recognized by the 
Department, In the four areas Identified as having prior' cy In 
schools. They are: 

1. literacy * numeracy 

2. communication 

3. skills for social living 

4. problem solving ';k111s 

Separate document laborating on three of these priorities have 
been produced, namel> Literacy and Numeracy, Communication, and 
Problem-Solving Skills. The difficulties encountered with defining 
the Skills for SccUl Living suggest It will be some time before a 
widely accepted statement Is produced. In the meantime, the 
significant features of Environmental Education are supported and are 
to be given priority ^ In determining the school curriculum. 

For "Problem-Solving Skills", O.S.^.p. states that 

" It cannot be emphasized too strongly that learning Is an active 

process. People learn by doing, whether the doing Is hammering a 
nail, writing a lyric or programming a computer. Learner's need to be 
able to see the point of what they are learning and need to be able to 



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apply their developing skills, attltudas and knowledge to real 
situations ab much as possible." 

In outlining the "Skills for Social Living", the document 
Indicates that 

"A more generalised social awareness also needs to be developed, 

so that rational consideration of environmental Issues or economic 
forces In our society Is possible. Adjustment to social changes 
caused by developing technologies such as computers will be assisted 
If there Is some understanding of the relationship between 
technological and social change... The point here Is that schools need 
to give high priority to the whole area of preparation for effective 
participation In society. 

Preparing for Teaching Environmental Education 

For each of the features of Envlrownental Education the S.A.C.A.E. 
(Sturt) hac something I.t its pre-servlce programme that supports It. 

In developing a greater awareness and compreh nslon of the 
Interrelatedness of the Individual society and the Diophyslcal 
environment, three compulsory general studies units are significant. 
They are: 

The Australian Identity 
Science Technology and Values 
and Power and Decision-Making 

In addition, students who elect to undertake studies In the 
Science and Environment strand are required to take the units. 

The South Australian Environment 
and You and Your Environment 

Such students, along with students majoring In Health, can also 
elect the tnvlrcnssental Health unit. 

All the afore-mentioned units Include an emphasis on developing 
appropriate values and attitudes. This occurs particularly In 
Science, Technology and Values, and also In the required Curriculum 
Studies uiilt: Sciences. This unit presently combines the stu'ly of 
three S.A. curricula: Science, Social Studies and Religion Studies. 
It stresses what these curricula areas have In common by focussing on 
their teaching strategies, particularly those related to Investigation 
or problem-solving. This Is reinforced by the students preparing to 
teach a small unit of work In the schools, based on a theme for which 
the opportunities to Integrate the three curriculum areas, and others, 
are explicitly nade. 

In addition, the Curriculum Studies: Science unit, by Its 
Integration, Introduces the notion that curriculum areas can be 
defined In terms of their Intentions, and accordingly demonstrate how 
much they have In common and reinforce each other. This Is frequently 
obscured when the curriculum focus Is largely or content, and not so 
much on their concepts, processes, skills and values. 

At present, the opportunities for students to apply social action 
skills to real situations does not occur as a required component In 
study units that they must take. For example, does not occur In 
some of the workshops associated with the required unit Science 



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Technology and Values, but such workshops are optional choices from a 
range of offerings. 

On the other hand, social action Is a required cofi?>onent of the 
Environmental Health unit, but that Is only an optional unit for 
Science or Health majors* 

Finally, just before completing their Bachelor of Education, 
itudents can opt for an Environmental Education unit. In which the 
following topics are dealt with: 

1. defining anci understanding the nature of environmental 
education* 

2. reinforcing the definition of curriculum areas In terras of 
their concepts, processes, skills and values, and not so much 
In terms of content. 

3. practice In developing themes for teaching that satisfy 

a. the goals of Environmental Education 

b. departmental policy 

c. curriculum requirements. 

4. preparation of a year's teaching programme that Included 
Environmental Education, and how to monitor It 

5. developing and applying a framework for Environmental Education 
In the classroom, based on activities and the Cort Thinking Kit. 



F. Hurry, Lynn B. "Environmental Education and Primary School 
Teacher Education: Meeting the Challenge of Inescapable 
Issues". Environmental Education writer/ -esearcher, P.O. Box 
458, Mool River 3300, Republic of South Africa. 

The purpose of this paper Is to share Ideas on primary school 
teacher education. 

South Africa Is the most Industrially and commercially developed 
nation 1n Africa and as a result has many large and densely populated 
urban complexes. There are also large densely populated rural areas 
where subsistence land-use practices persist. As a result man-Induced 
environmental degradation In So^th Africa Is evident at both ends of 
the spectrum. There are types of degratlon typical of Industrial 
consumer nations (e.g. In URBAN AREAS overcrowding pollution, high 
crime rates) together with degradation typical of the rural poor In 
underdeveloped countries (e.g. In RURAL AREAS Impoverished soils, 
energy shortages, high Incidence of disease). Furthermore as the 
human population of South Africa Is growing at a rate of between 2 and 
2% annum, there Is a concomitant Increase In the rate of environmental 
degradation. 

Whereas environmental change and some environmental degradation Is 
Inevitable both In the urban environment as well as In the rural 
environment, much environmental degradation Is avoidable 
(CSP:CSIC:1983). There are TWO means available to counteract 
excessive environmental degradation. These are law enforcement and 
education. In countries with good records of environmental standards 



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the latter usually complements the former. In countries where 
environmental education Is weak or Ineffective, environmental law 
enforcement Is also weak and Ineffective. 

Environmental education (EE) need not be a formal process. Indeed 
In most cases It Is not. However, there appears to be general 
consensus In South Afi-lca that formal education processes have great 
potential for Improving environmental awartness. There Is a growing 
demand for compulsory formal education In South Africa and many 
educationalists see our best hope for Improving envlromjental 
awareness In the formal education process. (Hurry, 1980 and 1982; 
Irwin, 1982). 

South Africa shares with other African ?;tates the challenges of a 
multi-cultural society with a large range of cultural values, 
environmental perceptions and levels of (formal) education. This 
calls for a highly flexible educational system which recognises on the 
one hand the needs of groups, while on the other maintains global 
perspectives on the nation as a whole. 

Research In South Africa strongly suggests that school teachers 
are frequently uninterested In or uninformed about, environmental 
matters (Hurry, 1978; Irwin, 1982). Although teacher education 
programmes may deal with aspects of environmental education (EE), It 
Is generally poorly dealt with. According to Irwin (1982) teachers In 
South Africa who are environmentally aware and who Include EE In their 
teaching programmes are 'Invar'iably self-taught In this respect'. 

There Is a need to Improve the environmental education conqponent 
of teacher education programmes In South Africa. All teachers should 
receive Information and Instruction In envlronrental education as an 
integral part of tb,'i. training. 

THE SOUTH AFRICAN EDUCATIONAL MILIEU 

In order to better understand the discussion contained In this 
paper a few notes on the South African educational milieu are 

necessary: 

a. At present compulsory education only applies to certain 
sections of the South African community. There 1s Increasing 
pressure being brought to bear for compulsory school attendance 
until the 7th Grade. 

b. About 70X of children presently In school are In the 7th grade 
or lower. 

c. School Syllabuses In both the Junior and the senior phases are 
controlled from central "core syllabus" committees. 

d. Colleges of Education may develop their own teacher-training 
progranmes, but these are controlled In the final analysis 
either by a university or by an education department. 

From the above the following points are significant: 

. The large majority of children (over 70%) presently In school 

are In the primary phase. 
. To a large extent It may be expected that the same grade levels 



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throughout the country are following the same school subject 
syllabuses. 

. Teacher education programmes are similar to each other since 
they all have to cater for the teaching of "common-core 
syllabuses. 

This paper Is based on the universally accepted premise that 
environmental education (EE) Is the responsibility of all school 
teachers, regardless of their areas of specialization. 

The prime goal of all EE programmes Is given as the training; of 
environmentally literate people, where environmental literacy Involves 
the development of envlrofimental know'udge and concepts, healthy 
environmental attitudes, and patterns of behaviour which reflect a 
concern for the health of the total environment. 

With regard to teacher education the goal of environmental 
education Is to produce environmentally literate teachers who have the- 
knowledge and attitudes necessary to be effective environmental 
educators. 

This paper discusses a theoretical model for pre-servlce primary 
school teacher education and gives examples of effective environmental 
education programmes In South African training Institutions. 

The theoretical model has two components. On the one hand trainee 
teachers should be encouraged to become environmentally literate, 
while on the other they need to be trained In the didactics of 
effective environmental education. The former training Is refi rred to 
"learnlng-and responding", while the latter Is referred to as che 
"didactics of environmental education". 

In South Africa there Is central control of the contents of school 
syllabi from c'^de 5 to grade 12, through the Joint Matriculation 
Board. All education departments base their subject syllabi on 
syllabi determined by national core syllabus comm1tt<*es. Teacher 
education programmes need to take cognisance of core syllabi, and, 
with regard to environmental education, need to train the student 
teachers to make the best use of all subject syllabi to create 
environmentally literate school pupils. 

South Africa Is well placed for curriculum development In teacher 
education^ Since school curricula are similar throughout the country, 
training college curricula may be more readily compared and 
contrasted. Progressive colleges such as Edgewood and Johannesburg 
have become models of EE In teacher education, and with their example 
other colleges are now considering their own curricula with regard to 
EE. 

Development of EE courses has been hampered by apathy In schools 
with regard to "new" programmes or projects, but with the recent 
upsurge of Interest In EE that this country has experienced 1t Is 
hoped that both college and school curricula will be more effectively 
used In developing a more environmentally literate public. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cooperative Scientific Programmes/Council for Scientific and 



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Industrial Research. A South African Perspective on Conservation 
Behavior - A Progranine Description. "SA National Scientific 
Progranmes Report No. 76", 1983. 

Harvey, 6.D. A Conceptuillzatlon of Environmental Education. 
■The Report of the North American Regional Seminar on 
Environmental Education." Aldrlch, 3.1. , Blackburn, A.M. and Abel, 
G.A. (eds.). Columbus, Ohio: ERIC/SHEAC, 1977. 

Hurigerford, H.R. and Peyton, R.B. "Strategies for Developing an 
Environmental Education Curriculum." Paris: Unesco, 1980. 

Hurry. L.B. Directions In Environmental Education and Their 
Implications for the Training of Pr'<mary School Teachers In the 
Transvaal: Toward a synthesis. D.Ed. Thesis: UNISA, 1982. 

Irwin, P.R. Conservation Awareness Amongst White Adolescents In 
South Africa: A Study of Senior Secondary Pupils In Natal. M. Ed. 
Thesis: University of Cape Town, 1977. 

N.ghtengale, C.S. An Analysis of the Educational Potential of 
Sites In the Cape Peninsular for Secondary School Fleldwork In 
Environmental Studies. M.A. Thesis: University of Cape iow7., 1<;77. 

Smyth, J.C. Environmental Education: A Hajor Advance. "The 
Report of the North American Regional Seminar on Environmental 
Education." Aldrlch, J.L., Blackburn, A.M. and Abel, 6. A. 
(eds.). Columbus, Ohio: ERIC/SHEAC, 1977 

Stapp, W.B. and Cox, D.A. Environmental Education Activities 
Manual . Farmlngton Hills, Michigan, 1979. 

Stapp, W.B. "Design and In^lementatlon of Environmental Education 
Curricula ,or Primary and Secondary Schools. Environmental 
Education: Proceedings of the Internationa. Conference on 
Environmental Education 3rd-8th April 1982. Mool River: Treverton 
School. 1982. 



VIII. G. Railton. Esther P. "Where are the Jobs for Graduates with 
Master's Degrees In Environmental Education?" Professor of 
Education, Callforrtia state University, Hayward, Hayward 
California. 94542, USA 

Ken Hanley probably found the most Interesting answers. Last 
spring he took a leave to lead an expedition of physicians to study 
high altitude physiology In Nepal and the Himalayan mountains. Of 
course that wasn't his first trip overseas, and while there he did his 
own study of the Impact of trekking on the local cultures. He also 



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leads expeditions from village to rock climb In Switzerland, and 
closer to home to hike Into the California wilderness, climb Mt. 
Shasta or raft the Russian Rivers. That's not all, he and his parents 
formed a non-^proflt organization to bring bobcats, eagles and other 
wildlife Into classrooms. He supplements these erratic Incomes by 
teaching adventure courses In a community college. 

The graduates to be described in this paper aro e;tamples of the 
people who obtain a master's In environmental education through an 
option In curriculum In the teacher education department of California 
State University, Hayward. Their stories should give environmental 
educators Ideas of the scope of opportunities everyvihere^ As the term 
education Implies, over 50 percent of the graduates are teaching* 
Most had jobs when they entered the program, but have enhanced their 
work assignments by being allowed to do spc^clal projects or take 
curriculum leadership In their districts. Some have become 
administrators or resource teachers* They can qualify for 
administration by choosing electlves In the field. Several have found 
that private schools offer more opportunity for Innovations In outdoor 
education than the more bureaucratic and suite-shy public schools. 

The program has attracted students from other countries. Larola 
returned to New Delhi to set up a science and environmental curriculum 
center while teaching science and Is now worScIng for the United 
Nations. Shieh Is a professor In a teacher's college In Taiwan. 
Aresh, from Japan, Is now teaching language In Australia. But Mun 
Ping Ma became Elizabeth Peoples and teaches senior citizens Chinese 
culture and oriental cooking in Michigan. 

Four graduates direct outcoor education programs. More of these 
positions have opened recently. Some combine teaching In the winter 
with outdoor adventure programs In the summer. Special education 
offers special opportunities to use gardening as therapy, or rock 
climbing for social rehabilitation. Moreland decided after a master's 
deg.ee to leave alternative education and obtain a teaching credential 
and she Is now directing a therapeutic play program. Carlston raised 
thousands of dollars for one district through federal funds to 
Integrate economically hard-pressed and culturally diverse children. 
Alton directs an American Indian program for two large school 
districts. 

Several find Jobs In higher education. Junior colleges have 
already been mentioned. Taylor moved from being the author's graduate 
assistant to taking her place while she went on a sabbatical leave to 
a lectureship In the Recreation Department at San Francisco State. 
Swift Is currently a very successful doctoral ca:id1date at the 
University of Michigan. Others are pursuing degrees at Stanford and 
the University of California. Several have been encouraged to teach 
extension courses at Hayward, their parent college. Miche finds this 
to be a nice supplement to her work as a special Instructor for gifted 
children In a public school district. Meanwhile she Is working on a 
doctorate In philosophy. 

Not all education Is done In formal or informal schools. The 
regional, state, and national parks have hired several of the 



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graduates or encouraged them to get their degrees In envlrinmental 
education with electlves In life sciences. Two of these people have 
become park directors. Others are In the Fish and Wildlife Department 
and In forestry. Some work In nature centers and wildlife programs. 
The rationale Is that these Interpreters are In most demand for school 
field tr1ps» therefore It behooves them to understand the organization 
of curriculum and the psychology of Instructional techniques. 

Of course a few have ussd the master's degree to move from formal 
education to Industry. Garrlsan uses his curriculum development 
courses to direct the training program at Lawrence Labs. Two alumni 
direct personnel training programs In Industry; one teaches auto 
mechanics In a privately owned shop. Reld serves as executive 
secretary of the Interior Forestry Association. Conversely, others 
use the degree to go from other occupations Into teaching. Cook 
retired from the Air Force to teach In upstate New York. Rodriguez 
moved from P&E llason to energy manager for a school district. 
Schardt and Jaeger moved from volunteer work In school gardens and 
nature areas to teaching assignments In charge of the programs. 
However, others have chosen for personal reasons to go Into volunteer 
work. For example, Lawton organized ANTS, a program to train 
volunteers to lead urban outdoor Instructional activities with the 
schools. 

Jackie Gllmore attended the NAEE conference. She Is an example of 
those who have found free-lancing to be most rewarding. She left 
California teaching to help set up the outdoor education center In 
Jackson* Wyoming. Now she has developed her original Interests of 
photography and writing to develop slide-cassette programs and 
children's postcard series about the national parks. Warren Arnold 
developed his hobby of wood and soapstone carving to achieve 
recognition and success as a marble sculptor. 

The achievements of the alumni, kept current by a newsletter, are 
Impressive. A large number of the graduates now lead Project Learning 
Tree, Project Wild and other workshops offered through the Oakland 
Museum and Ihe county Offices of Education. Their Influence Is 
significant by their participation In an annual Bay Area Environmental 
Education Resource Fair. Burnwerth won the Kodak Teacher's Award for 
her use of the camera to teach primary science. Caruso's Junior high 
students won so many awards at the regional science and energy fairs 
that he also won the classroom award. 

These selected graduates represent about two hundred alumni. They 
hold all sorts of Interesting environmental vocations In teaching, 
administration, parks, museums. Industry, and private pursuits. 
Environmental educators are an especially creative and Interesting lot. 



VIII. H. Shewchuk, Terry R. and Joan M. Snyder. "Environmental 

Biology: Grande Prairie Regional College". Coordinator, 
Biology Instructional Group, Science Department, Grande 
Prairie Regional College, Grande Prairie, Alberta, Canada T8V 



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4C4; Instructor, Biology Instructional Group, Science 
Department, Grande Prairie Regional College, Grande Prairie, 
Alberta, Canada T8V 4C4. 

Normally Biology 298 - Environmental Biology Is offered In the 
standard lecture/laboratory format In the first or second year of a 
university transfer program at Grand Prairie Regional College. Since 
1981 we have offered on additional section of this course conducted In 
an Intensive two week field trip format. 

Students who Indicate an Interest In taking this course are 
Interviewed and prioritized according to their background, program 
requirements, past performance In other biology courses. Interests and 
maturity. A maximum of 16 students are permitted to enroll by the end 
of January. 

Two evening sessions are held. In mid-February and mId-Narch, to 
outline In detail the course objectives, reading assignments, format, 
st'dent responsibilities, staff responsibilities, contract 
construction and expectations. A map-reading assignment, a soils 
assignment and a population sampling assignment are handed out and 
these are coiiq>leted by the student before m1d-^Apr1K Students are 
also expected to complete a written contract outlining their 
objectives and to obtain approval of their contract prior to mid-April. 

The actual field course begins In late April. Two days are 
devoted to equipment orientation, sampling techniques, visiting a 
local timber harvesting operation and final preparation for travel. 
The following 17 days are devoted to vIsUIng and examining natural 
habitats In Alberta and British Columbia. Major stops occu> In 
Jasper, Banff, Waterton. Creston, Kokanee Springs, Osoyoos, Vancouver, 
Victoria, Nanalmu and Pacific Rim National Park. Arrangements are 
made to draw upon the knowledge of local experts In Industry or 
natural history suchs as company foresters or park Interpreters. 
During the 1983 trip, at least 18 such external assets were directly 
Involved In providing the group with local Interpretation. 

The students prepare for such guided activities by prior reading 
and observation as well as participating In student-prepared seminars 
on some aspects of the next day's activities. For example, prior to 
visiting the Columbia Ice Fields, one student presented a seminar on 
glaclatlon and prior to visiting an Intertldal area another student 
presented a seminar on Intertldal ecology. Guided activities are 
followed by evening discussions of ecological principles and concepts 
observed. Students are expected to make field notes, keep a personal 
log book, and to make a collection of 5 plants In museum condition as 
part of their minimal course requirements. 

During the course, the students are responsible for the following 
expenses: tuition, books, food and accommodation whicd has to be paid 
for (e.g., motels, camping npr^its). It Is estimated that these 
expenses amount to $350 to $450 per student. The College provides 
transportation, ferry fees, admission fees and Instructor/technician 
expenses. 

Student grades are assigned by the Instructor/studenl contract and 



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evaluation Is done by all participants collec' ively. 

Students who have taken the course In the field tr*.p forTtat have 
Indicated that this style of learning the basic principles and 
concepts of ecology have been most meanlngfu!, realistic and lasting. 
A number of students have described thaU experiences with this course 
as the most significant event In their education In that It has served 
as a focal point for making future career and educational decisions. 
The course has also played a significant role In the personal 
development of students and has provided a nucleus for the formation 
of very lasting friendships among members of the group. 

It Is also significant that the Instructors of the course have 
received both encouragement and support of colleagues, administration 
and the Board of Governors in undertaking to present this course In a 
uniquely personal way. 



IX. A- Andrews, Bill. "Environmental Education: A Moral Base for 
Decision Making". Science Education Department, Faculty of 
Education, University of Toronto, 371 Bloor Street West, 
Toronto, Ontario M5S 2R7 Canada 

Environmental problems arise largely from the accumulative effect 
of the "environmentally-negative" behavior of individuals. As a 
result, environmental problems can best be alleviated by changing this 
behavior. Behavior change can be effected through legislative and 
market Incentive methods. Such methods are, at best, of short-term 
value since they treat symptoms instead of causes. The long-term 
solution Involves the development of an "environmentally-positive" 
moral base upon which people can make decisions which determine their 
behavior. This paper described that moral base and the means by which 
It can be developed and utilized In the classroom. 



IX. B. Carroll, James. "Outdoor Education Programs In Metropolitan 
Toronto Schools." Co-ord1nator of Geography and Outdoor 
Education, Scarborough Board of Education, 21 Chipping Road, 
Don Hills, Ontario, Canada M3B 1L2- 

Where We Are 

Toronto, the capltol city of the Province of Ontario, celebrated 
Its 150th year as a city In 1984. The city Is the "centre" of a 
region known as the "Golden Horseshoe" of southern Ontario. This 
region Is Inhabited by 3.8 million people and Is the most populous 
area in Canada. Metropolitan Toronto's population In 1984 Is 
approximately 2.2 million. 

The city U located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, towards 
the western end of the lake. Since Ontario has always been one of the 
major hubs of population and Industry in Canada, the city has 



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grown quickly in the last 100 years. 
Who We Are 

The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto is a corporate federation 
that links together the cities of Toronto, Scarborough, York, 
Etobicoke, North York, and the Borough of East York. It was created 
in 1953 to provide unified services for the entire metropolitan region 
as a whole. 

The Metro School Board 

Education in the metro region is under the umbrella control of the 
Metropolitan School Board, and Roman Catholic education Is in the care 
ot the Metropolitan Separate School Board. The School Board is 
composed of Trustees from the six area boards plus representatives 
appointed by the Metropolitan Separate School Board. 

An advisory council of directors to the MSB reports to the central 
board, and its work is supported by a number of staff committees with 
representation from the various are'^ boards and the School Board. 
These committees deal with a broad range of topics of metro-wide 
concern such as outdoor education. 

It Is as members of this Outdoor Education Committee that this 
brief and visual presentation is offered. 

Ed ucation in Ontario 

In Ontario, taxpayers support two different systems: the public 
school system (non*denominational) up to Grade 13 and the Roman 
Catholic separate school system up to Grade 10 prior to 1984 but now 
up to Grade 13. Elementary and secondary schools are administered by 
public and separate school boards made up of elected school trustees. 

The boards are governed by the rules and regulations of the 
provincial government's Ministry of Education. The federal government 
has no Jurisdiction over educational matters in the provinces. 

Outdoor Education Committee 

This committee meets regularly, and its aim Is to help promote 
outdoor education in the schools of Metro Toronto. All 
representatives share a common Interest in the goals of outdoor 
education and are Involved in promoting this interest within their own 
school boards. 

The group acts as a forum to dic'iuss policies and standards such 
as safety guidelines, as well as to simply share ideas. 

Representatives from this committee also sit on committees 
established to assist the Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation 
Authority administer residential programs shared between the KTRCA and 
the Metropolitan School Board. 

Formula Financing 

Much of what is accomplished in outdoor education comes from the 
formula financing administered by the Budget Formula Review 



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Conroittee. The money which each member boird uses to finance Its 
outdoor programs Is set by this cowmlttee. The amount Is ba«ed upon 
the student enrollment In each of the elenentrry and secondary 
panels. Other sums are similarly allocated for related activities 
such as plant maintenance or transportation. Guch money Is drawn by 
the member boards based upon the formulae financing but can be used 
for whatever program priorities the Individual board established. 

Alms and Ob.lsctlves 

Although there may be slight variations In the programs practised 
by each of the member boards, all share a common philosophy of outdoor 
education. This philosophy can be 'Summarized by the following 
characteristics : 

- direc expericr«-e 

- natural se'vting 

- a living laboratory 

- interdisciplinary approach 

- experiences, attitudes, skills only obtainable in and 
applicable to an outdoor setting 

As early as 1971, an outdoor education report concerning the 
number of residential experiences that each student in Netropo'itan 
Toronto should have during his/her stay in the school system from 
Kindergarten to Grade 13 was made to the Metropolitan School Board. 

At present, the Outdoor Education Committee recommends that each 
student in the period of tiwe that he/she is In school from 
Kindergarten to Grade 13 have at least two 5-day (or equivalent) 
residential experiences. It further recommends that one experience oe 
at the elementary level and the other at the secondary level. 

Over the past few years since the residential ain was established, 
most boards within Metropolitan Toronto have expanded their programs 
ronslderably. 

Perhaps the most Important expa'^sion has taken place in the 
purcha':1ng of land in order to build the board's own outdoor education 
site. Several boards havt either purchased property or shared in the 
administration of a property with another organization. 

The school boards of Metropolitan Toronto can " w offer an 
outstanding outQ<^or education program. 

Individual Board Program 

It would be impossible to list the wids variety of programs 
offered by the memte"^ school toards. The hai.douts accowpanilng the 
presentation will give a good description of the programs offered by 
each boa>'d. 

Ir' general, most boards offer sites and personnel to carry out a 
Wide variety of day activities in outdoor education. Many boards also 
offer financial assistance and/or transportation for such programs. 

The boards' residential programs are offered at their own sites or 
on land which is leased. All boards within Metro Toronto use '■'^e 
facilities of the Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conserva^ on 
Authority under a shared "Agreement" plan with the Metropolitan 

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Toronto School Board. The MIRCA ?^^o operates several sites at which 
time blocks can be purchased. 

The school boards of Metro pronto make excellent use of either 
nearby or distant wilderness facilities to expand their resident al 
programs. Large private camps and other facilities are Decked by 
schools which desire different experiences. 

Several boards offer summer school programs which often reflect 
the uniqueness of tha envlrorknent. These courses can be taken for 
Interest, leadership training, credit, or certif Icatlon* Co'irses are 
often offered for both students and teacher*^. 

Hetropolltan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority Programs 

The Conservation Authorities Act of 1946 provided the means by 
which the Province of Ontario and the municipalities on Ontario 
watersheds could Join tcgether as a conservation authcrlty to 
undertake prograiT!S for natural resource management* 

Since 1957, the MTRCA haf; undertaken a comprehensive program of 
resource management on che w^^tersheds under Its Jurisdiction* 
Conservation education was one of ch^ major problems undertaken and It 
was In this program that the school boards of Metropolitan Toronto 
became Interested. 

The NTRCA now offers a wide rang^^ of programs In which school 
boards can participate* 

Perhaps the most Important prograiH metro schools 1> the 
residential facility program shared with the Metropolitan Sihooi 
Board. As early as 1963, the Authoi^ty showed Interest In the 
development of residential programs whc? a permanent facility was 
established at Albion Hills* The "Schools Muf.'inlstr ^tlon Act" enabled 
boards of education to enter Into a9reements with Conservation 
Authorities for the development of facilities for "out-of-classroom" 
programs on Authority lands. 

In 1973, the Authority entered Into an "Agreement" for the 
development and operation of a field centre with the Metropolitan 
Toronto School Board, the Metropolitan Separate School Board, and the 
neighbouring York County Board of Education. In 1979, such an 
agreement was a'iso shared with the development of residences at the 
Lake St. George property. 

Under the "Agreement", provision was made for a "Joint Planning 
Committee" composed of representatives from the boards and the 
Authority A "Program Advisory Committee" also assists In the 
planning of programs shared between the two parent organizations. 

Time blocks, the number according to board size, are divided among 
the school boards that have signed the "Agreements." Classes of 
students are **en sent to the field centras for a residential 
experience. 

Staff from the "Agreement" school boards are seconded to the 
centres arnJ provide the educational l3adersh1p des'^red by visiting 
schools . 



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IX. C. Clausen, Bernard L. "An Analyst of Teacher Selection of 

Project Outlook Activities'. Associate Professor of Biology, 
University of North Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614 USA 

Project OUTLOOK Is a new type of env1rorM«ental education program 
created In 1982 by a group of Iowa teachers who were experienced In 
environmental education. OUTLOGK Is a curriculum enrlctMnent program 
designed with an educational philosophy and methodology derived from 
the research of Plaget and Karplus. Project OUTLOOK Implements the 
concepts of Plaget who Identified levels of learning readiness and the 
learning cycle which was formalized by Karplus. 

The project Includes 140 enrichment activities written for 
specific grade levels and Is published In grade level sets for K-2, 
3-5, 6-8, 9-12. The packets for grade levels K-2 and 3-5 each contain 
36 separate activity cards. The packets for grade levels 6-8 and 9-12 
contain 34 activity cards each. Eleven topic spheres and six themes 
were Incorporated Into the activities. 

Project OUTLOOK Is sponsored by the University of Northern Iowa, 
Iowa Department of Public Instruction and the Iowa Natural Heritage 
Foundation with the assistance of the Iowa Conservation Commission and 
other state resource agencies. 

Project OUTLOOK was Inservlced during the summers of 1983 and 1984 
through twenty wccf' long workshops offered by the University of 
Northern Iowa. Th.. workshops were held at the Conservation Education 
Center which Is a f*.eld station operated by the Iowa Conservation 
Commlsc^on In Sprlngbrook State Park. UNI science education faculty 
members were the Instructors for the workshops, which carried two 
semester hours of graduate credit. 

Two courses comprised each workshop. During the five mornings, 
Plagetlan theory and Its extensions were examined. The five 
afternoons were devoted to incorporating the OU"i.OOK activities Into 
the curriculum of the Individual teacher and In cnductlng some of the 
activities with peer groups. As teachers worked through the 
actlvUlts In their grade leve' packet, they shared ideas for 
Implementation and curriculum r'-^rdlnatlon. The Instructors assisted 
the teachers In perceiving how ^nelr subject matter could be extended 
to the environmental interface between traditional subjects by using 
the OUTLOOK enrichment activities. Many participants found this 
effort to be a particularly exciting and beneficial part of the 
workshop. 

The pv,pulat1on of participating teachers was somewhat pre-selected 
by several factors. The field center location attracted those who 
were Interested in the out-of-doors. The workshop announcements 
tended to be noticed by science oriented teachers because of the Iowa 
law which requires, as a minimum, the teaching of "conservation and 
environmental awareness" in the science curriculum and the designation 
of the workshop for sci^r'-p education credit. Co<:t and credit hours 



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were attractive. The reputation of the University as a leader In 
conservation/environmental education was an Influence on those 
desiring to obtain a new program of environmental teaching activities. 

The participants reflected a wide variety of teaching positions 
rarrging from small rural school districts to large urban school 
districts. Soiiie participants were generallsts and some were 
specialists • The age and experience range was wide with some having 
taught for thirty years and others who were Just beginning their 
teaching careers. 

Thir study Includes data from the five workshops on Implementing 
OUTLOOK taught by the author and one section taught by Or* Carl 
Bollwlnkel. The total number of teachers Involved In the study was 
231. The teachers were required to select approximately 50% of the 
OUTLOOK activities from the grade level packet for Incorporation In 
their curricula. The course assignment was to Identify the specific 
placement of each activity selected and to explain the rationale for 
the placement. 

Overall the teachers exceeded the minimum requirement^ by 
selecting substantially more than 50% of the activities from their 
grade level packet. 

The median numbers of activities selected by each grade lev^l 
group decreased from 26 for K-2 to 18 for 9-12. The decrease In 
medians correlates with Increasing levels of specialization. Time and 
opportunity were primary limiting factors. 

In order to determine teacher perceptions on placement OUTLOOK 
activities In the curriculum, self-contained classroom teaching 
situations were analyzed as a ?^*3b-populat1on. The teacher of a 
self-contained classrorm has responsibility for the subject areas of 
Science, Health, Socla'i Studies, Language Arts, Reading, Mathematics, 
and may or may not have responsibility for Art, Music, and Physical 
Education. Private school teachers additionally may have 
responsibility for teaching Religion. The self-contained classroom 
provides the maximum variety of choice In currlcular placement of 
these enrlchme t activities. It also provides maximum opportunity for 
multi-disciplinary applications. 

The laraest numbers of activities were placed In Science, Social 
Studies and Language Arts by the self-contained classroom teachers at 
grade levels K-2, 3-5, 6-8. Some teachers were able to cross 
correlate an activity to enrich more than one subject area at the same 
time. Many teachers apparently had problems with time sequences In 
the curriculum which obstructed such correlation between subject 
areas. Some teachers viewed one subject area as the primary 
curriculum area for placement of the activity, while the correlated 
subject areas were considered to be secondary or so obvious that there 
was not need to Identlfv them. Mathematics and Health were not saen 
as primary areas subjec*. areas for Inclusion of large numbers of 
OUTLOOK activities although mathematic skills and health concepts were 
acknowledged to be r'3lnforced by a number of activities. The 
assignment seemed to sta»-t a number of teachers thinking about total 
curriculum reorganization to more adequately reflect cross 



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correlations. 

However, the majority of participants found that a complete 
reorganization of their courses of study was too much to contemplate 
during an Intensive task oriented one-week workshop. 

Selections were distributed widely by discriminating teachers 
governed by personal needs. The data on activity selection for 
self-contained classrooms shows each of the activities being selected 
by at least one teac^ier for various subject areas* When the 
opportunity for choice of subject areas Is reduced to only one option 
no teacher failed to select less than SOX of the activities for 
enrichment of the single subject. For example, mathematics teachers 
selected 64X of the activities and art teachers selected 11%. 

The study shows that 231 teachers In the sample population found 
the Project OUTLOOK activities versatile and useful. Regardless of 
grade level or subject area taught, the 140 activities were 
Incorporated into existing curricula at median rates exceeding 

The analysis of s&lf-contalned classrv'vii teachers* selections 
showed the highest placement of activities to be In Social Studies and 
Science curricula. A large number of activities were also placed in 
the Language Arts and Reading curricula. Teachers who had more 
restricted teaching assignments and teachers who were specialists In 
one subject area generally selected almost as many activities as those 
who were In self-contained classrooms. The multi-disciplinary 
applications of the activities demonstrates their usefulness for 
enrichment of any of the subject areas represented. 

The very high levels of flexibility, versatility and utility for 
the OUTLOOK activities which have been Identified In the population of 
Iowa teachers studied underline the suitability of this enrichment 
program for at least the entire midwestern region of the United States 
and probably the world with minor modifications. Other states may 
wish to supplement with some activities to reflect regional 
differences. Other nations may wish to develop their own set of 
activities using the proven methodology and philosophy of the OUTLOOK 
program. The OUTt OOK program system of curriculum enrichment and 
Inservlce training Is easily adapted to reflect cultural and 
environmental uniqueness. 

OUTLOOK Is a copyrighted program and the OUTLOOK staff Is 
available to assist any state or nation which may be interested in 
adopting, modifying or developing Its own versions. Individuals or 
teams from other states and nations are most welcome to participate 1n 
the Inservlce workshops. 



IX. 0. D1 Chiro, eiovanna. William Morgan and WMHam Staop, 

"Environmental Education and Community Problem Solving." 
School of Natural Resources, The University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. 



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This environmental problem solving and action research model 
embodies an Ideology and methodology of both educational research and 
learner Investigation. It Is rooted In the process of reflection and 
action, and Is the means for teachers to Improve their own practice 
and to help students to acquire knowledge and personal empowerment* 
The model Is also designed to encourage the Integration of the basic 
disciplines within the curriculum, to reflect upon and Improve the 
learning and Instructional goals articulated by the school system, and 
to Improve the quality of the bio-physical and social environment 
through education. 

The Instructional model functions as two simultaneous "moments" 
aimed at Improving the teaching and learning environment: 1) The 
Action Research Moment: Conducting classroom-based research to develop 
an Improved teaching and learning environment 1.e*» developing 
appropriate curriculum to more effectively link education with real 
world issues through systematic planning. Implementing and evaluating 
classroom actions: 2) The Environmental Problem^SolvInq Woment : 
developing a critically aware and responsive population of j^oung 
people with the motivation and skills necessary to solve problems of 
Important local social and environmental Issues with the aim of 
enhancing the quality of the social-ecological environment through 
educational means. The process ]s designed for students to gain 
skills and personal empowerment through participation In the analysis 
and resolution of a conmunlty Issue. 

Major Alms of this Pro.lect 

1. To develop the understanding that our Individual and community 
actions are connected to human and natural systems worldwide. 

2. To promote a cross-cultural direction In education to Increase 
tha understanding that we do Indeed live and operate In a 
global society. 

3. To Improve the learning environment by actively Unking 
education with real world problems and their solutions. 

4. To Improve the teacdlng environment by ednptliig a more critical 
pedagogy v^hereby the teacher reflects upon, and critiques the 
curriculum and his/her teaching practices. 

5- To enhance learner responsibility and efficacy 1n taking 

committed action to Improve their own community and environment. 

The Roles of Participants 

To promote critical thinking amongst the various members of the 
project team: teachers, students, administrators, and university 
personnel (UP). All participants are involved at different stages of 
the project development and to different degrees. 

1) School administrators: principally involved In the Initial 
stage of the project to discuss school system concerns and 
Identify problem areas and trends. They also attend an Initial 
planning meeting with teachers and UP to discuss goals, roles, 
processes and the extent of the support they are able to offer. 

2) Teachers: Involved every stage of the process Including 
Initial planning and negotiation sessions with administrations. 



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designing of the project. Implementation, monitoring, and 
constant evaluation. They should focus on the personal. 
Institutional and political constraints encountered In the 
classroom In order to work toward their resolution* 
3) Students: Involved directly In the environmental solving 
process In the classroom. Also Involved In reflection on 
personal feeMngs and values regarding the learning process 
they are experiencing. They should consider different aspects 
that Influence this experience Includlng-^themselves, the 
teacher, the school, the administration, the community, the UP, 
parents and significant others, 
4. University Personnel: Involved In initial planning meetings and 
throughout the process If deemed necessary by participants In 
the project. Assist In planning. Implementation, monitoring 
and evaluation of classroom activities. Provide suggestions, 
feedback, and currlcular materials, and other resources In 
support of the goals and directions of the project. 
The Components of the General Process 

The components of the general process Include three steps-^-the 
negotiation process, the probleii solving process, and the action 
research process. In the negotiation process , the UP, teachers and 
administrators meet to clarify goals, roles, classroom processes, and 
research plans. The problem solving process Involves teachers, 
students and UP and focuses on Identification of a soc1o--env1ronmental 
Issue of Interest to the students, fact-flnoing and Information 
gathering on the Issue, formulating alternative action plans, and 
taking some action to solve the problem. The action research process 
(which occurs simultaneously with problem solving), concentrates on 
understanding, analyzing and Improving the classroom environment. It 
Involves reflection on teaching practices. Institutional constraints 
to effective education, and designing action plans to Improve the 
situation. 

The Implementarlon of the Instructional Hodel: 

Four pilot-level studies were conducted by University of Michigan 
researchers In the Ann Arbor Public School System, and another In an 
undergraduate course at the School of Natural Resources, The projects 
were undertaken In an elementary. Junior high, and high school. In a 
pH^>l1c school system In a middle-sized community (110,000 
Population), The elementary sciool study entitled Community 
Transportation Involved a 6th g^ade class and teacher for 23-1 1/2 
hour sessions over d period of :welve weeks. The facilitators and 
teacher met regularly to reflect on the project, evaluate the process 
and plan for the next session. Initial cl;»ssroom sessions Involved 
Identification and assessment of social and environmental problems 
within the community. Through negotiation and consensus 
decision-making and valuing processes, the class selected 
transportation Issues as their problem area. Subsequent sessions were 
concerned with developing and conducting an Interview questionnaire to 
gather Information, establishing criteria for selecting a specific 
transportation problem and Interpersonal valuing and group process 



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activities to aid In understanding other viewpoints and making group 
decisions. The class then decided to research bicycle transportation 
problem areas and to brainstorm Vjeas for solutions. Out of this came 
a process of evaluating alternative routes with prev^^ously Idi^ntlfled 
criteria In mind such as safety, economics, expediency, and community 
access and use. 

Some of the project outcomes and cofimunlty actions that occurred 
were: development, administration, and analysis of a community 
transportation questionnaire, setting up a question/answer session 
with city planner and bicycle coordinator, and writing and circulating 
a formal transportation position plan. 

The Junior high school study entitled Civics In Action was 
conducted tr rough the social studies program In five ninth grade 
dvlcs classes. Students selected, individually or In groups, a 
social or environmental problem that concerned or Interested them, 
taking into account previously determined criteria for selection — 
Interest, available Information, learner^s ability to affect change, 
appropriate timeline to Impact the Issue, etc. Alternative 
information resources were Identified and sought out such as: 
government agencies, public Interest groups and organizations, city 
offlcals, etc. The Issues selected for Investigation gave the 
students the opportunity to Interact with community organizations as 
their primary source of Information. Students chose to research 
Issues such as teenage runaways, child abuse, and drug abuse, rape, 
crime, recycling, acid rain and nuclear power. 

Some of the project outcome and community actions that resulted 
were: videotaping and broadcasting an environmental debate on 
community cable TV, publishing letters to "Letters to Editor," writing 
a column In community newspaper, fundralsing, oind personal lifestyle 
change. 

The third and fourth ection research studies were conducted In a 
high school science program called Monitoring for Water Quality . The 
projects Involved five senior biology classes for nine 55-m1nute 
classes and three advance placement biology classes. The project was 
designed to work through the process and techniques of testing water 
quality ln the classroom, followed by running each test on the local 
river. The students ran nine ieparate water quality tests on the 
river and calculated the overall water quality Index. In-depth 
discussions of test results led to recommendations on the hazards and 
potential limits to community uses of the river. 

Outcomes and actions resulting from the project Included: 
establishing baseline data fnr the r1v3r so that future classes can 
monitor the river's changes 1n water quality, establishing an annual 
water quality testing program for the community, and submitting data 
to local watershed council, local governments and public health 
officials. 

Evaluation cf the Instructional Model 

The action research process functioned differently for the three 
levels of participants learners, teachers, facilitators. The 
University facilitators decided that there was the need for a 



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redeflnmon of the facilitator role, the need for more extensive 
p1anr<i5ig sessions with the teacher before ronwlttlng to the process, 
and a greater understanding of the Institutional constraints to action 
and comminlty-orlented research In the public school system. 

From the teacher evaluations, we were able to determine the 
Institutional constraints to actlon-orlented classroom teaching, such 
as time schedules and number of students, as well as the effectiveness 
and appropriateness of personal teaching practices and training. 

Invaluable Information was gained through learner evaluations. 
Students gained Increased awareness of their efficacy In having Input 
In community issues, of the ability to achieve success In consensus 
decision making even when faced with conflicting viewpoints and people 
with different backgrounds and cultures, of the positive and negative 
Implications certain values have on social and environmental problems, 
and of the Impact of social, political, economic and ecological 
factors on a community and societal problem. The following evaluatory 
comments were obtained from the culminating written evaluations. 

Comments of students: 

"We learned about how to solve prob^ms, we showed a lot of people 

that we cared, we learned how to resolve their differences." 

"You get round to ether resources and you find out about different 

resources outside of the school." 

"It helped me to learn to work together as a groi.p." 

"I learned a lot from my peers." 

Comments of a teacher: 

"In the area of mathematics, reading, and language arts, we were 
able to bring students to real world use. They suddenly Izd 
reasons to compute percentages and to grasp the concept. They 
utilized pie graphs, bar graphs, and histograms. Best of all they 
had to think critically, communicate thoughts, compromise on 
various Issues, state values and sort through those values. 
Working through the democratic process was far from being an 'all 
time' simple task." 

For the more critical comments and an analysis of the four Inltlei 
experiences, we have Identified recommendations for project 
modifications and items In need of further Investigation. Aspects of 
action research that were not resolved as a result of our three 

studies: 

1. Whither learners shoild be Involved in all discussions between 
facilitators and teacher/administrators In the preliminary 
action research planning. 

2. Whether the goals/objectives of action research are best 



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achieved by focusing on small-scale projects 
(school/neighborhood) or large scal*^ projects (state/national). 

3. Whether teaching practices are changed permanently as a result 
of action research* 

4. Whether Ihstltutlonal changes resulting from the action 
research project are permanent* 

5. Whether some or all of the following teacher guidelines would 
be beneficial to the teacher: In the roles of participants; 
general classroom processes; data collection techniques; 
principles of procedures; action research case studies; 
selecting a community project; handling controversial Issues; 
teacher preparation; program evaluation; etc. 

6. Whether the facilitators should play a passive, semi-passive, 
or active role during the action research project. 

7. Whether 1t Is feasible to expect a teacher to do action 
research as a part of his/her teaching practices without 
outside assistance. 

8. Whether It Is possible for a teacher to effectively evaluate 
his/her teaching practices alone, or Is a critical community of 
other teachers/facilitators necessary. 

Prospects for the Future: 

The environmental problem solving and action research model 
surfaced a number of 1i>sues regarding the realization of EE goals In 
the formal classroom context. Additional Investigation and experience 
in other classrooms Is neede. to resolve some of the above Issues. 
Currently, the University of Michigan research team Is in the 
preliminary stages of Implementing this Instructional model with new 
school districts, teachers and students, as well as assisting In the 
negotiations to Institutionalize the model In the school system In 
which it was first conducted. 



IX. E. Fensham, Peter J. "New Movements In SC .nee Education: 

International Evidence of Environmental Awareness." Professor 
of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Monas:. university, 
Clayton, Victoria, Australia, 3168. 

Science curricula for schools at both the primary end secondary 
levels of schooling underwent a remarkable change In irany countries 
during the 1960s and early 1970s through curriculum rrojects which 
sought to modernise ths teaching of science and to oxtend It more 
universally throughout the whole population of school age children. 



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The new curricula had a number of characteristics. Most, perhaps 
all of them, emphasized the place of activity or laboratory experience 
as a more central aspect of the learning of science. For secondary 
schooling, many of the curriculum projects set out to bring the 
content of learning more In line with the current understandings of 
nature that make the sciences such powerful and significant features 
of humankind In this second half of the 20th century* If these basic 
understandings of modern science were the content emphasis of the new 
secondary science curricula, the new primary science curricula very 
often emphasized those Intellectual processes that were seen to be 
Important In the ways scientists go about their work of extending 
knowledge and applying It to problems In the physical and biological 
world. Natural phenomena 'ere seen to be excellent contexts to 
dev^^lop In young children to the basic processes of enquiry, of 
classifying, of measuring, of Inferring, of pr^*d1ct1ng and of 
so-called problem solving Itself. 

Regardless of the level of schooling the changes that have Just 
been outlined for science education In schools were reforms that drew 
their content from analy$<»s of the nature of very pure or academic 
forms of the sciences. This Is hardly surprising since these 
curriculum projects were almost Invariably In the hands of 
welUmeanIng academic scientists, science educators (a new breed of 
professionals within academla) and successful secondary science 
teachers whose whole socialization. Interest and expertise lay In 
these forms of science. 

Nevertheless whVie these reforms were being Implemented In 
schools, two other movements Involving science were gathering 
momentum. The first of these Is the Environmental Movement which 
began with Individuals In a number of countries recognizing that there 
was very serious deterioration of the biophysical environment ',n which 
civilisation and human society exists and on which the more 
Industrialized forms of society Increasing depend for energy, food, 
shelter and consumer goods. Many of these problems such as 
atmospheric and water pollution, soil loss, resource destruction, and 
the endangering of species have arisen from the application (via new 
tecnnologles) of scientific knowledge. 

The second movement Is known as Science and Society, or as 
Science, Society and Technology (S.S. & T.). This Is a two-pronged 
response to the negative Image of science that has developed among 
many persons throughout the world. Possible sources of this negative 
view are the continuous fear of a nuclear holocaust, the Involvement 
of something like SOX ot ♦•he world'^ scientists In developing military 
science, the undesirable side effects of some of the so-called wonder 
drugs of pharmaceutical science and of the pesticides and Insecticides 
so widely used 1n contemporary agricultural science, polluting effects 
of acid rain and of Industrial wastes that stem from technological 
processes that were associated by c dinary citizens with outworklrgs 
of science. 

The Envlronnierital Movement and Science and Society (or S.S,&T.) 
are movements that both recognize that there has. In many Instances, 

been 



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a mismanagement of the use of scientific knowledge and that a much 
more responsible approach to how science Is applied Is needed If 
quality of life Is to be Improved for more and more people and for an 
Indefinite future. 

SOME NEW CRITERIA FOR ENVIRONHEWTAl AWARENESS 

Towards the end of the 1970s and certainly now In the 1980s, there 
has been a much more Informed discussion among science educators about 
what the Environment or Science, Society and Technology can mean for 
teaching science In schools » These discussions have produced new 
criteria for science education that are evidence of growing 
environmental awareness. 

I. A workshop at the HIJmegen Conference of UHESCO/CASE/ICSJ-CTS 
produced a very useful set of characteristics (Table 1} and If applied 
In the classroom, coulc^ enable science tochers to teach almost dny 
science curriculum so fhat It made a ^-^ntrlbutlon to environmental 
education. Of course, some curriculum materials do Include much more 
content than others do, that greatly assists science teachers who wish 
to make that contribution. 

A recent production by UNESCO (1984) of two new sets of resources 
that win assist sclerce teachers to teach their science education 
morp env'ironmen tally could do more to accelerate these Ideas In 
practice. 

Table 1 : Characteristics of Environmental Science Education 

f. Environmental Science Education (ESE) Is oriented towards a 
problem. 

2. ESE Is concerned with realistic situations. 

3. ESE alms to elaborate the alternatives that exist for 
situations and the skl'l of choosing between them. 

4. ESE Includes action as an Integral component. 

5. ESE uses the real environment of the school and Its surrounding 
as a context. 

6. ESE Involves the clarification of values. 

7. ESE alms to Increase the ability that students have to 
contribute to Improving their own environmental situations. 

II. The UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education Project (1980) Identified 
five broad areas ^ Population, Food, Resources, Energy and Ecology 
that embr?ce many of the acute environmental problems facing mankind. 
Each of them nas many sub*top1cs that could be treated within the 
curr1r»;U< content of science courses at school. The curriculum 
workshops 1n ^sla under the leadership of the Asian Programs of 
Educational Innovation for Development (APEIO, 1980) are outstanding 
e^^mples that hd^e heV^ed many countries In that region to Implement 
this tvpe of content Into tneir primary science curricula. 

III. In 1982 a list of topic areas was proposed as a basic core 
science learning for all students at schools. Each topic area, to be 
on the 11st, had to readily yield In any country or more local 
setting, science sub-topics for learning which could enhance »he 
quality of the learners' lives outside of school, at home and In 



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S'' -.1etv. 

The 11st of topU areas is given In Table 2 and It will be evident 
that there Is considerable overlap with the broad areas of the 
UNESCO-UNEP Project. 

Table 2: Topic Areas for Science Education at School that Can Meet 
Criteria of Quality of Life 
Topic Areas 

1. The Senses and Measurement as an extension of the senses 

2. Our Universe 

3. The Human Body 

4. Health, Nutrition and Sanitation 

5 . Food 

6. Ecology 

7. Resources {natural and man-made) 

8. Population 

9. Pollution 

10. Energy use 

11. Technology (social and personal) 

12. Quality of life 

IV. Again, the Regional Office for UNESCO In Asia set In motion In 
1983 a new APEIO project under the tUle of Science for All (APEIO, 
1983). This latest effort In the Asia Region to Improve science 
education Is based on the belief that Science and Technology and their 
applications are not part of social science and culture. At both the 
personal and national levels, health, nutrition, sanUatlon, 
agriculture. Industry and the Improvement of the environment, are seen 
as fields In which scientific knowledge can be used as a powerful tool 
ior solving human problems. Science education has a role to play in 
developing in the whole population - scientifically trained personnel 
and citizens alike - the capacity to use these powers responsibly c ^d 
to appreciate their potential for good. 
APPLYING THE CRITERIA OF ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS 

How environmentally aware are the new school science curricula? 
When criteria of environmental awareness are applied to many existing 
science curricula they do not score at all well. On the other hand, 
It Is possible to point to curricula for science education that do 
seem to measure up welt on these sorts of criteria. 

Furthermore, even without wholesale revisions, the content of 
science education does often offer the opportunity for teachers to 
Include an environmental emphasis In the way In which various topics 
are taught and learned. 

ESTIMATES OF EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS 

To provide some current estimates of how science cjrrlcula are 
changing in the direction of environmental awareness, the opinions of 
science educators in forty different countries were sought early In 
1984. ' 

The Information sought was about "the change In student learning 
experiences" from 1970 to 1984 for each of twenty- three sub- topics, 
most of which are related to the five broad areas mentioned earlier. 



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The sub--top1cs used in the survey are given in Table 3, and are 
strongly influenced by the list of topic areas in Table 2. 

The responses from 33 countries to the survey's sutr-topics were 
given for the three levels of schooling, e1e?pentary, Junior secondary 
and senior secondary* Responses could be (t) deflrcitely more learning 
experiences, (ii) probably more learning experiences, (lii) either 
estimates of lessened (-) learning experiences and (iv) not sure or nc 
chango or not present* 

Table 3: The Syb ToLlcs of the Sttrvey ef Changing Environmental 
Awareness of Science Curricula (1970-84) 

1* nutrition in relation to health (not just food science) 

2. causes of disease and illness among humans 

3. population control 

4. population issurs in relation to those of food supply 

5. health of the human body 

6. effective use of water \j\ agriculture 

7. water as a key ingredient for hinnan health 

FOOD AND POPULATION 
6, consumption and conservation of living resources 

9. consumption and conservation of non-living resources (minerals and 
fossil fuels) 

10. the pldce of human beings as integral parts of, and interactive 
contributors to the ecology of biophysical systems 

11. critical conditions of threatened biological species 

12. how science contributes to better quality of life 

RESOURCES AND ECOLOGY 

13. more efficient use of energy. 

14. alternative renewable sources of energy for use (solar, wind, 
tidaK etc.) 

15. advantages and disadvontages of nuclear sources of energy for 
peaceful purposes 

16. scientific aspects of nuclear armaments and the risks of nuclear 
war 

17. varieties of pollution and pollution control associated with 
industrialisation 

18. preservation of features of the human historic heritage 

ENERGY AND INDUSTRIALISATION 

19. technology in society at large 

20. technology affecting students as individuals 

21. interaction of science and society 

22. instrumentation and measurement 

23. how computers are changing the nature of scientific w^ork 

TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY 

No single sub-topic had more than 50% of the respondents reporting 
a definite increase at any one of the levels. 

Fourteen sub-topics emerge at all levels with 50% or more of the 
respondents saying definite or probable increases. 

''nergy use (sub-topics 13 and 114) and conservation of resources 
(8,9) are now being considered by teachers of science and all their 



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students (all three levels) fairly conmoniy, and these topics are 
Joined by others associated with nutrition (1). population health 
(2.3,4,5), pollution (10,17) and technology (ID) in a good many 
sUuatlons. The presence of the sub-topics at each of the three 
levels means that all students at school, and not Just those 
speclallsina in th« senior sciences, are 1nv<rlved. 

The lowest penetrations of '^he curriculum are r<*ported for 
sub-toplci T6, 18, 6 and 7. These gaps are serious ones and the more 
so because there Is much public debate about them In many countries. 
Acid rain and ether types of atmospheric pollution art rapidly 
destroying the facades of historic buildings and other heritage 
treasures In most Industrialized cities (sub-topic 18). 

The loss of arable land through shortages of water or Inadequately 
controlled use of Irrigation Is very serious In many countries 
(suf:-top1c 6). Likewise the pollution of '"ter supplies Is worsening 
rather than Improving on a world scale (si jlc 7). 

Finally, It Is disturbing to find that on^y a few countries, even 
at the upper secondary level, have inrarporated sub-topic 8, the 
scientific aspects of nuclear armaments and the risks of nuclear war - 
the source of what would be the greatest environmental disaster of all 
were a nuclear war to break out. 

The findings reported here, if they do not reflect actual changes 
in the learning experience of student* , are bo: , encouraging and 
sobering. They do indicate considerable change towards greater 
environmental awareness In science curricula. However, on the tough 
criterion of SOX "cporting a definite Increase, t is Indeed sobering 
to learn that uot one of these sub-topics has been incorporated that 
widely into the curricula at any of these three levels. 

For srience educators cojwmltted to the environmental movement the 
findings are also a measure of how much still has to be achieved. 



i::. F. Fleming, Lyn and Jennifer Clark. "The Time is Right to Do 
Something Wild." Director of Project Learning Tree, 1905 
Chalcix Dr , Unit E, Lafayette, Colorado £10026, USA; 
Conservation Education Officer, Alberta Fish and Wildlife, Fish 
and Wildlife rivision, /.iberta E.jergy and Natural Resources, 
Main Floor, North Tower, Edmonton, Alberta T5K 286, Canada. 

Wildlife managers have long dreamed of a well inforned public 
awAre of the value of our wildlife heritage and the need to manage and 
conserve it. They have tried to inform the public about the wildlife 
resource through information brochures, A/V's and public 
presentations. Howevi»r, to use this type of content-based materia"., 
many teachers had to uiake rrjm in an already full curriculum. If a 
teacher did not have an Interest in wUdllfs and conservation, chances 
were good thai the material either decorated walls or gathered dust on 
the shelf. 



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Project WILD 1s a unique environmental education program that Is 
designed to make students aware of wildlife and the environment while 
doing Indoor and outdoor activities that ar« easily Integrated Into 
basic subjects areas: e.g. math, science, social studies, language 
arts, music, art and physical education. It was written and developed 
by educators and resource agency personnel for use by classroom 
teachers in kindergarten through grade twelve, as well as youth group 
leaders. WILD has a "bias balanced" approach to wildlife that has 
gained It the support of a wide varlcly of conservation and 
educational organizations. 



IX. 6. Harmon, Terry and Robert Schwab. "A Frogram of Natural Resource 
Management at the High School Level". University School, 
Hunting Valley Campus, Chagrin Falls, Ohio, USA. 

Over the past fourteen years a program has been developed which 
applies basic science to the management of natural resources on and 
around a high school campus near Cleveland, Ohio. Two hundred acres 
of forest - and meadow-covered land provide protection to a small 
watershed which serves an on--campus trout hatchery. Integrated 
activities In aquaculture, forestry, and wildlife management provide 
abundant topics for study, and products such as lumber, maple syrup 
and trout are provided to the public, earning Income which supports 
the program. P;oblems of managing resources on the campus are clearly 
Identified with the broader, but similar problems In society at 
large. Evidence Is provided that students' concerns for environmental 
problems and Integrity Is established and strongly reinforced b>/ the 
program. 



IX. H. Howard, Jeanne. "Visions of the Future: Premises and 

Materials." Associate Professor, Environmental and Urban 
Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute ani; State University, 
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA. 

The purpose of this presentation was to offer a selection from the 
variety of materials which have been prepared for classroom use In the 
field of future studies and to analyze some of the assumptions ?nd 
premises which underlie their development. 

It Is the author's premise that there are three factors of 
over-arching Importance which are critical to shaping our t**nughts on 
what the future will be like, and that an emphasis on one or the other 
of these three factors tends to sh^pe inost of the well-known scenarios 
for the future. These three factors are: flr^t, the Importance of 
technological development (and the rush to high technology) as a 
determining factor In our thinking; second, the significance accorded 
to environmental considerations In the past f1fte3n years, and an 



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acknowledgement of the Importance of factoring envUomiiental concerns 
Into declslon-rnaklng; and, third, the rapidly-occurring globalization 
of the world's peoples and concerns, with the accompanying (w»> hope) 
shifts In the perceptions of human beings toward one another. A 
number of scenarios have evolved which emphasize one or another of 
these concerns: the author believes that the best material for 
classroom use— or for general use->would Involve a synthesis of all of 
these concerns. 

Among ihe many materials which have been developed for classroom 
use which have a primary technological emphasis, probably the best 
known are those which are derived from the scenarios produced by the 
Hudson Institute, under the leadership of Its late director Herman 
Kahn. Last year the group protiuced a program called "Visions of the 
Future*, which has been pilot-tested In Arizona and Initiated In 
several other states. The basic premise of "Visions" Is that 
high-school students had been subjected, during the 1970s, to a 
barrage of "negative thinking" In the classroom, and that the 
materials which had been offered during these years had an 
anti-technological, anti-Industrial, antl-feconomlc-growth bias built 
In. "Visions" offers Its materials as a corrective to what it 
considers these biases: In the words of the program's lead author, 
"The goal of the program Is to restore a balanced perspective to the 
excessively negative (and often outdated or misleading) rendering of 
recent human history— e.g. , the population "explosion', the food 
'shortage', resource 'depletion', the energy 'crisis. '.. .the school 
children who have been exposed to these more realistic visions of the 
future are redeveloping a sense of pride In America." Technology, in 
this scenario, will and should advance with great rapidity, leading 
the way toward a prosperous post-Industrial society which, with luck 
and good management, should arrive with the minimum of social and 
environmental disruption. 

The "excessively negative thinking" to which the Hudson materials 
refers came, as Is well-known, primarily from the environmental 
movement, and especially from the landmark studies from the Club of 
Rome, led by the Limits of Growth scenario. Limits and other 
materials, while not p*^ spared specifically for classroom use, quite 
appropriately were utilized In many classrooms. While the negative 
bias which has been attributed to these materials may have come 
largely from sources unfamiliar with the m^^terlals themselves (the 
conclusion of the original report was that It Is possible to alter the 
trends, and the sooner we begin, the greater ou^- possibilities for 
success), the Image of the Club's findings was sufficiently 
pessimistic to justify the development of a text which would seek to 
correct this Image. Therefore, the U.S. Association for the Club ot 
Rome prepared a text called "Making It Happen: A Positive Guide to the 
Futire." This text proposes to offer an environmental emphasis with 
optimistic conclusions: In the words of one of Its contributors, 
Donella Meadows, a belief that "there Is a wonderful world possible, 
one In which each person's needs are met, amply, elegantly, and 
susta1nably...we see that world fo:.T.1ng already. In sfrall pockets 



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everywhere." In this and other, reore recent, environmentally-oriented 
materials, the focus Is on shifting to styles of life which are 
conslstert with the progress toward a sustainable world. 

A number of materials are also appearing which emphasize global 
connectedness, with particular stress on developments In the "third 
world." Among the best of these are the materials prepared by the 
British Centre for World Development Education, located In London. 
This agency has prepared a number of classroom games* slides, and 
other visuals and also has a monthly newsletter, oriented toward 
classroom use. A consideration of some of these materials was 
Included In the presentation* 

As previously stated, It Is proposed that the most convlete course 
In the study of the future will Include elements from all three of 
these emphases. Recent efforts to produce such courses. Include this 
summer's Governor's School courses for gifted 5nd talented pupils. In 
New Jersey and In Virginia, which have attempted to develop just such 
a total perspective. Materials from these courses was also presented. 



IX. I. lozzl, Louis A. "Sclence-Techno logy-Society. Dealing with 
ConfMct Issues In Elementary and Secondary Schools." 
Associate Professor of Science and Environmental Education, 
Cook College - Rutgers University, P.O. Box 231, Mew Brunswick. 
New Jersey 0d903, USA. 

The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) recently adopted 
a major policy statement which concluded that "the goals of science 
education during the 1980s Is to develop scientifically literate 
Individuals who understand how science, technology and society 
Influence one another and who are able to use this knowledge In their 
everyday decision-making." Thr NSTA recommended a minimum of 15 
percent of science Instruction at the middle/Junior high school level 
and "20 percent" at the high school level be directed toward science 
related societal Issues. 

While science and environmental educators have enthusiastically 
endorsed this new policy position, they have also expressed concern 
over what appears to be a widespread lack of qu'jllty curriculum 
materials and/or expertise in the science education community to deal 
effectively with such Issues In our nation's classrooms. This 
presentation, therefore, was designed to: 

1. present "proven effective" strategies for dealing with 
sclence-techologv-soclety Issues In elementary and secondary 
school science, social studies, and environmental education 
programs, and 

2. to briefly describe a U.S. Department of Education endorsed 
proqram currently available for adoption/adaption In a variety 
of existing programs for yrades 7-12. 

This presentation Included activities and "hand outs" to guide 
participants In utilizing these strategies to develop their own 



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materials and/or to adapt/adopt existing materials conwerclany 
available at low cost. 



IX. J. Kumar, B.M. "Environmental Education as an Integrating Concept 
In the school Curriculum." Unity Village, East Coast, 
Oemerara, Guyana. 

SUMMARY 

Environmental education serves as an Integrating concept In the 
school curriculum generally. Three major stages can be distinguished- 

1. Teaching from the environment; 

2. Teaching about the environment; 

3. Teaching for the environment and the emphasis In primary, 
secondary and tertiary levels can correspond to these stages. 

A curriculum based on the environment Is integrated; field 
studies, pollution, conservation, pesticides and wildlife are 
Important In education. 
INTRODUCTION 

Education Is a developing process In which change approaches, 
methods, curricula and teaching aids are always taking place The 
constantly Increasing knowledge and understanding of science and 
technology and the new patterns of human life which they entail make 
change essential In the education of children, students and adults 
Today educational Innovations are expressions of efforts towards more 
social relevanc* and of attempts to bring environmental education 
closer to real life and Its needs. This pragmatic view reflects an 
educational pol'cy bated on a scientific approach to the world, an 
approach which wiust form part of any envlronratntal education programme. 

It Is clear that environmental education offers an Ideal 
Integrating concept for education generally involving ma.iy approaches 
- conceptual. Inquiry, relevance and process. Some general objectives 
of environmental education are: 

1. Involves actual participation In the teaching process: 

2. Aids In the training of a critical mind; 

3. Helps In the practical application of theoretical knowledge; 

J- Helps In education towards problem solving and decision-making: 
5. Lends Itself to Integrated presentation. 
W HAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL FDUCATTON 

Environmental education is the process of recognizing values and 
clarifying concepts In ord>r to develop skills and attitudes necessary 
to understand and appreciate the Interrelatedness among man, his 
culture and his biophysical surroundings. Environmental education 
also entails practical practice In decision-making and 
self-formulatv of a code of behaviour (Policy) about Issues 
concernlrg env^ omental quality. 

The 'environmental crisis' has been bringing conservationists and 
educationalists together. The expression 'crisis presents a 
disturbing state of the human environment, especially the natural one. 



26; 



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as It Implies a need for urgent, national, worldwide actions of 
conservation, Improvecient and wise Mnagement. Even authorities, 
organizations and Individuals who <l1d not care much In the 
not-too-distant past, are now committing themselves to the cause of 
environmental education. In some countries, national bodies for 
environmental education are set up; national legislation Is made; 
environmental education acts are passed; environmental education 
centres are built up and thus MAB has an extremely vital role to play. 

International organisations, both goverrimental and 
non-governmental, are also heavily Involved In the stimulation and 
promotion of environmental education. At the Stockholm Conference In 
June 1972 came out - 

"The essentially Interdisciplinary, humanistic ethical aspects of 
environmental education - the science of ecology, planetary 
loyalty, respect for life, care for others and lack of all 
rapacity - should be stressed at every l^vel of education and mass 
communication, so that all people develop a primary love for their 
fellow human beings and for their native planet*" 
In December 1972, the European working conference on Environmental 
Conservation Education put forward: 

"Whereas environmental conservation education, under present 
circumstances of Increased Impact of man on the natural 
environment, has become a matter of urgent Importance In all 
countries; 
and 

Whereas we recognize the aim of this education Is to create a 
responsible attitude among the entire population towards the use 
and care of natural resources, and the protection of the 
environment as a whole against damage from pollution and other 
dangers." 

This group reached the consensus that the Implementation of 
environmental education and conservation education should Include the 
following activities - 

- appropriate education and Instruction In school courses at all 
levels; 

- education and training In environmental matters in Institutes 
of higher education of all kinds; 

- out-of-school Involvement of young people and adults In 
practical environmental education and conservation activities; 

' in-service education and training of teachers and others 
concerned with general and out of school education such as 
youth leaders; 

- the training of professional people concerned with 
environmental affairs such as statesmen and administrators, as 
well as planners, architect!., engineers, and technologists; 

- the education of the public at large by the use of mass 
information media and other methods; 



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Teaching from the 
Environment 



Environmental Education 
Nursery 
Primary 
Secondary 
Levels 
(A) OBJECTIVES 
Themes 
Teaching about 
the Environment 



Teaching for 
the Environment 



Basic stage in the 
development of 
programs 



- Study specific topic 
to gain Information 
(data) 



- Teaching tries 
to tell how 
right, wrong, 
human Inter- 
fererence has 
been 



Emphasize open-ended 
environmental work 
(no Syllabus) 



Done 1n and out of 
classroom 



Where 

conservation 
and 

environmental 
education? 



Investigate and enquiry 



Field studies - 
first hand experience, 
make conclusions 



Interelatlon and 
interaction 



Learning materials 



Interdisciplinary 
feature of programroe 

Applied science 
experts 



Recreational and 
aesthetic values - 
link programme 
wl^h humanity 

Interrelationships In 
ecosystems between 
living things and 
between them and their 
physical environment, 
and there Is the Irrpact 
of man on the natural 
environment what can 
happen a$ o result of 
his activities. 



- Problem 
solving 

- Conservation 
Is understood 
as "wise 

use and 
management" 

- Curriculum 



- Evaluation 



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I. An Environmentally Oriented Curriculum 
A. Categories of Concepts: 



1 . 


Land forms, soils and minerals 


2. 


Atmosphere and Cosmos 


3. 


Social organizations 


4. 


Aesthetics, ethics, language 


5. 


Economics 


6. 


Area and location 


7. 


Plants and animals 


8. 


Water 


9. 


People 



B. Coordination between existing subjects 

1. Biology Incorporation 

2. Connection between school education and real life In 
formulating a correct attitude towards the natural 
environment* The above view Is shared by many industrial 
decision-makers, engineers and other specialists. 

3. Environmental education cannot be taught as a discreet 
subject. It Is more of an approach, a 'synthesizing concept.' 
The syllabus content Is Important as well as the method and 
approach, with the objective of establishing a learning 
situation concerned with principles, concepts, attitudes, 
values and skills rather than mere factual content. 

II. Environmental Integrating Concept Implementation In Curriculum 
Design 

1. Environmental topics - contents, objectives, cooperation 

2. Identification of various topics to be related to the 
environment In and between different subject - correlation 

3. Environmental Education In the curriculum text books, 
leacher's Guide, work books. 

A. Interrelating Courses 

1. Integrated course - revolving around major topics Involving 
environmental concepts - to give a variety of lecture; 
Inte'^relatlon and Interdependence of all components and about 
nature's severe responses to the arbitrary violation of Its 
laws by man. 

2. Major themes and biosphere approach - give a global 
environmental awareness. 

3. Comprehensive Syllabus - 4 Sections 

(a) Processes and systems of the natural environment and the 
Limits of the Resources; 

(b) The ecosystem; 

(c) The Interaction of man and the environment; 

(t.) Environmental pressures and planning - a field study. 

B. Methods^ Forms and Facilities 

1. Combining environmental education In the school curriculum 
requires Innovative methods - field studies; 
out-door activities 



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regular observations 
"for every school should have suitable nature study areas 
attachec to 1t or wUh1n easy access, and that, 1n che 
development of new schools, specific provision for such 
facilities be Incorporated at the planning stage" 

school garden 

national science service groups 
out of school activities 

Conclusion 

Other components of environmental education 
teacher training 
out of school education 
Integration In other areas 

The concept of environmental education, conservation of nature and 
natural resources should merit recognition in a permanent role as a 
coordinator of the curriculum In our schools. Moreover, for teachers, 
educators and decision makers to defer for much longer the acceptance 
and simplification of environmental education as a basic requirement 
for all pupils could be tantamount to committing suicide, because the 
loss of the natural environment of this world for generations to cone 
Is unlikely to be replaced by acceptable environments on the moon o\ 
on mass. 



IX. K. Lefkos, Pattl. "Granville Island Curriculum Resource 3ook 
and video". Board of School Trustees of Vancouver School 
District, 4236 Garden Grove Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia 
V5G 4E6, Canada. 

The Vancouver School Board produced teacher resource material for 
Granville Island, a unique site in Vancouver made up of restaurants, 
theatres, a public market, art galleries, a maritime market and 
various Industries. This session presented an overview of the 
Curriculum Resource Book — a good model for any urban studies unit. 
Suggestions for pre-trip, on-site, and post-trip activities were 
stressed as well as various evaluation techniques and formats. 
Several timeline activities ard gameboard instructions were Included. 
The Granville Island Video was shown. 



IX. L. L1pka, Jerry. "Environmental Education Alaskan Style: The 
Bristol Bay Curriculum Project". Assistant Professor. 
University of Alaska, Box 10206, Dillingham, Alaska 99576, 
USA. 

Native peoples of rural Aliska today are caught In a complex and 
Interestl.i^ Intermingling of life-styles. Traditional values, 

28[) 



267 



customs, and a subsistence economy combine with modern conveniences, 
technology and membership In multi-million dollar Native Corporations 
to ;rike up the fabric of life. Life In rural Alaska takes place In 
villages which are w\<le1y separated due to vast distances, natural 
physical boundaries, a^^d the lack of a road system* Alaska, unlike 
the lower 48 and third world countries. Is not yet at the point where 
problems of pollution, depletion, and population are the critical 
environmental concerns, although, of course, specific Instances of 
each of these can be found. Instead Native people \n rural Alaska 
found environmental problems In terms of possible impacts on their 
subsistence and commercial use of local fish and game resources. The 
land remains fundamental to life In the north; It provides physical 
and spiritual sustenance* The people are directly tied to the land 
for their cultural survival. 

The rural Alaska scene Is today rapidly changing, as H has since 
CO. ict with Europeans. Technological and cultural Innovations are 
coRmonplace, for example adopting the snowmobile tor hunting 
purposes. The passage of the landmark federal legislation called the 
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) In 1971 quickened and 
altered the pace of change. This law partially extinguishes aboriginal 
rights by arranging for a land and cash settleme t of 40 million acres 
and $962.5 million. ANCSA also established Regional Native 
Corporations, thirteen In all, to manage the land and cash. This 
creation of profit making Native Corporations has substantially 
altered the age-old ways of surviving off the land to Include, at 
least presently, corporate profit. 

There are currently strong pressures for development, both 
external and Internal, as a response to the profit potential of 
Alaska's vast natural resources. Fo'* Instance, ANCSA mandates the 
Native Corporation to make profits; developing natural refources Is 
one means of accomplishing this. However, these developments 
Invariably put Increased pressure on the vast environment and fragile 
ecosystems which are necessary to the continuance of a subsistence way 
of life. These often conflicting factors - development, environment, 
and culture - are all part of che unique set of circumstances which 
shape rural Alaska. 

It ^Itnln this total environment that many challenges are 
presented to envlronmcr^al education, primarily the need to adapt to a 
context which the environment Is of fundamental concern to the 
people or reasons of cultural survival. International environmental 
educators for some time have been calling for an Intermixing of 
economic development and environmental concerns In environmental 
education. In rural Alaska concerns about subsistence. Native 
sovereignty, and Native Corporations must also be considered. 
Otherwise, 1nq(>orted views of environmental education or r,mited 
environmental perspectives and solutions may neglect and offend local 
people. This paper describes Oiie curriculum development project which 
integrates Issues of development, environment, a d culture by using 
vital regional problems as a learning opportunity and course content. 
The following case Information on a curriculum project In the 8r*,stol 



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Bay region of Alaska shou^:: prove applicable to others In developing 
countries or cr .ss-cuUural contexts. Nore generally, this example 
should be useful tj those Involved in developing Issue-oriented 
environmental education programs. 

The Bristol Bay Curriculum Project Is an on-going high school 
currKul'im development project sponsored by the University of Alaska 
In cooperation with three ;-cliool districts and ten Native 
communities. Bristol Bay is located 350 miles sout>«wsst of Anchorage; 
It Is comprised of 26 villages, the PMjorlty of which are populated by 
Alaska Natives; Yuplk Eiklmo, Aleut, and Athabascan. It's S.DOO 
Inhabitants are scattered over an area tfce slie of the state of Ohio 
The majority are Involved a mixed cash and subsistence economy. 
This vast wilderness area supports the largest red salmon fishery In 
the world, and other rich natural resources Including caribou, moose, 
walrus, oil and gas, and minerals. 

Developing an appropriate curriculum for hljh school students In 
Bristol Bay called for an open approach that would allow for the 
gathering of Informatlr^n from diverse Interests: developers. Native 
Corporations, environmentalists, state and federal agencies, and 
village communities. A three phased approach to curriculum 
development was designed. As the intent of this approach was to 
formulate curriculum that responded to felt needs of the region. It 
had to maintain flexibility to change, reflecting both political 
Changes In the regio** and the curriculum developers* Increasingly 
deeper understanding of local concerns. Simultaneously the project 
1f«:elf becian to create changes In those publicly debated issues 
through student Involvement In on-going regional debate. 

The first phase, utilizing an ethnographic approach, was 
particularly Important since It transformed the curriculum. Initially 
the project was conceived as emphasizing environmental concerns raised 
by various developmental plans, and their potential impacts on 
subsistence. The project's original goal was to Inform and Involve 
youth In tlie public debate on these plans. But our ethnographic data 
collected from more than ten villages disclosed that ANCSA-related 
Issues needed to be addressed as well. After appn^xlmately one ^ sar 
of data collection from community groups, and state and federal 
agencies, a more holistic curriculum was designed which addressed 
usues of ANCSA, land and development. 

The second phase, curriculum design and Implementation, placed 
Important emphasis on the matching of In-classroom activities to 
regional events. Students had the opportunity to participate in a 
series of regional and state-wide meetings concerned wHh ANCSA, 
development, and environment. One such svent, a region-wide youth 
conference, was a response to requests from students and cowinl ttees . 
students, teachers, NatWe Association and Corporation members, and 
diverse developmental and environmental Interests participated In the 
conference. The students not only learned about the Issues buc they 
also shaped, however slightly, the public debate. The curriculum, by 
being tlecl to on-going regional conferences and meetings became part 
of a larger political process. In addition, tM^iirriculum is slowly 



^69 



adapting to regional differences In attitudes, language, school size, 
and local problems and concerns by designing flexibility Into the 
curriculum content and process for each village school. 

The third phas formative evaluation, has begun to direct us to 
more fundamental questions uncSerlylng the dynamic Interplay between 
Native Corporations, the environment* and development. Issues of 
politics (Native sovereignty). Identity, and economics are of deep 
concern to students and community members. Oa^ provided by students 
at the youth conference suggested the tmportance of Involving students 
In many phases of the project^ making them feel that they have 
"ownership** In the curriculum, and connecting them to potential 
leaders. The curriculum continues adapting by Including grassroots 
community concerns ^nd by being open tc feedback from students, 
teachers, and diverse developmental and Native Interests. The 
project's vitality comes from Its timeliness. Its process of 
responding to deeply felt regional Issues and Its cooperative spirit. 

In summary, the Bristol Bay Curriculum Project has transformed 
Itself from an environmental curriculum to a more holistic curriculum 
fitted to and contributing to the Bristol Bay region. By utilizing an 
ethnographic approach to data collection and an open approach to 
curriculum development, environmental education Alaskan style Includes 
development, environment, and culture. The curriculum process of 
Involving students In publicly debated regional Issues matched with 
In-classroom curriculum contributes to a dynacnic Interplay bett*een 
school and community which Is so Important In small homogenous 
communities. What Is learned In the classroom Is applicable to the 
larger community and visa-versa. Youth are learning skills necessary 
to them as potential leaders In the region and the corporation. 
Developmental Issues and their environmental Impacts are of greater 
concern to youth and adults when they are viewtd In a local frame of 
reference. Environmental education Aieskan style Is still evo^vln, 
as learn more about the Interrelationship of these Issues In the 
context of a chcingl^.j trvlronment. 



IX. M. Lubbers, Oames 0. "Envl onmenta Education Is Conspicuously 
Missing". Assistant Professor ot Science Education, SUNY 
College at Fredonla. fredonia. New Yoik, 14063, USA. 

The recent report from the National Science Foundation, Educating 
Americans for the 21st Century > Is a plan of action for ".., Improving 
mathematics, science and technology education for all American 
elementary and secondary stud'^nts so that their achievement Is the 
best In the world by 1995." Conspicuously missing from this report Is 
any mention of environmental f.ducatlon except as It can be related to 
biology or technolo gy education. Fitting environmental education (EE) 
into the curriculum has been a continual and difficult problem, but in 
this report it is particularly relevant to issues presented in 
technology education. 



ERIC 



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Also, several national organizations are documented In the report, 
but NAAEE Is not among them. NAAEE has a lesponslblllty, not only to 
support the objectives of the NSF report, but also to make known Its 
owT, objectives for the future. This approach could also provide a 
framfework for the future concerns of the Association. 

The report Is largely a response to a recognized need for 
Improvement In skills and knowledge related to the Increasingly 
technical nature of society. Computers, of course, are the major 
Influence, having been compared to the written word and books as a 
revolutionary agent of change In connunl cations and educ*:.1on. There 
Is no question about the need, particularly In math and science 
education, for people to adapt to this trend. The third component 
emphasized In this report (NSF, 1983), exam^nts the neetf for 
technology education to provide the fundamental understandings 
concerned with "technological Innovation, the productivity of 
technology, the Impacts of the products of technology on the quality 
of life, and the need for critical evaluation of societal matter: 
Involving the consequences of technology." 

In addition to the NSF report, many other organizations have 
offered similar statements of the need for technological literacy 
(AATE. 1983; ASCO, 83'84; ASE, 1981; ATE, 83/84; BSCS, 1984; NSTA, 
1982). This Is clearly a trend that will mushroom through the next 
feu years, and the Implications for EE are quite obvlou:. A major 
goal A F.E Is to Increase the knowledge and awarensss of the Impacts 
that humans— through technology— have on the environment, and to 
translate this sensitivity Into a rational decision making process 
which minimizes such Impacts. Throughout the relatively brief history 
of environmental education. It has often been confusod with outdoor 
education, conservation education, and/or nature study, it has become 
part of bloljoy education, has evolved into environmental science 
courses, and has been incorporated Into many disciplines, most notably 
In science an- social studies. It Is pervasive, difficult tv, 
pigeonhole, and It relates to virtually every aspect of education, but 
It will never disappear. Since It Is often under the guise of some 
other concern, people do not usually realize the fundamental 
ecological or environmental issues Involved until after the fact or 
unless the concern afTects "birds bunnies' or themselves 
directly. Technology educctlon may provide the mo' : logical 
connection yet for l£ becast- at least som« of the goals are In coiwion 
and ;ome of the most fund-niental Issues aro the same. For example, 1n 
ScVe.ice In Socjetjf (ASE, 1981), one of several new programs In 
Sc'fcrico/lechnology/Soc'.ety (STS). the alms of the project ara a 
combination of both scientific and environmental concerns: 

1. To understand the nature and limitations of scientific 
knowledge. 

• To appreciate that the use of scientific knowledge can be 
both beneficial and detrlmenta' to society and the 
environment. 

3. To appreciate that the Earl s resources are finite. 



273 



271 



4. To understand the need for, and to develop the ability to 
make reasoned decisions which take account of all relevant 
constraints; and to recognize that moral considerations are 
involved in making decisions. 

It is easy to see the overlap with EE in objectives such as 
these. Similar objectives were offered by Lubbers (1981b), and In 
many of the recent statements Issued by national teachers and science 
organizations, the concern for negative Impacts of technology is an 
integral part of technology education. 

The trend toward technological literacy can be 1nter;preted two 
different ways. A somewhat limited view Is more precisely termed 
"computer literacy" where the emphasis Is on being able to function in 
a high tech society. From "ecology,", a more encompassing view of 
technological literacy Involves the ability to not only be able to 
function in such a society, but also to cope with the on-going change 
and to understand the development and structure of our not-so-natural 
technological system. It Is this second and more broadly Interpreted 
conception of technological literacy that U Important as a general 
understanding by the public and as a vehicle for increased 
environmental awareness. Also, it should be noted that technical 
expertise and literacy, with computers or machines In general, is 
desirable as well but it may not be within the grasp of everyone and 
it may not provide the balance of perspectives essential to 
understanding the role of technology In society. 

It can also be argued that technological literacy is a product or 
synthesis of both scientific and environmental literacy (Lubbers, 
1981a). The role of technology in society obviously includes both 
positive and negative impacts. In a traditional sense, the scientific 
community (ana by implication science education) has promoted and 
supported technology. I.e., the "appll rations of science,' whereas the 
major outc;^me of the environmental movement (and environmental 
education) has been to question the negative impacts of such 
applications for their actions. Technology education Is a more 
objective approach because both the benefits and cost/risks are 
examined. EE has incorporated this approach to some extent but 
technology education has an inherently more neutral stance, and like 
E£ in the 70s, is now being recognized by the general public* 

Top'-down problems may best be solved by bottom-up or "grass-roots" 
types of approaches. The public is asking for the atility to 
understand and cope with the rate of change In toddy's society. EE 
shoijld not only be given some credit for the trend towurc technology 
education, but should alsc cap1*:alize on the opportunities for helping 
people understand the "nature" ov our technological society. 

REFERENCES 

American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). Yff, 
J. and R. Butler, M.J. Technological Literacy; Challenge for Teacher 
Education. ERIC Clearin:ihouse on Teacher Education, February, 1983 
{No. SP 021 725). 



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Assorlatlon for Supsi^vlslon and Curriculum Development (ASCO). 
Educational LeadershlD. Vol 41, No. 4. Dec. 83/Jan. 84. (Issue 
devoted to Mathematical and Scientific Literacy for the High Tech 
Society.) 

Association for Science Education (ASE). Science In Society 
(teacher's guide), 1981. John L. Lewis, Project Director. 

Association of Teacher Educators (ATE). Action In Teacher Educ ation 
1983-84, 5(4). — *- 

Blologica' sciences Curriculum study (BSCS). Science. Technology, and 
|9Cletv J 984. (Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and 
Technology Program). 

Lubbers, J.D. SET L1*»-acy: "A Goal for the Perplexed." Current 
Issues In Environments Education and rny^ronwental S tudies. VJI 
1981, !*5-93. 

Li.iers, j.n. "The Role of Technology In Society: Implications for 
Scler.re Edu»at1on," The Hoosler Science Teacher. 1981 VII (2) 54-58(5) 

National Science Foundation (NSF). Educitlng Americans for the ?lst 
Ce"t"ry. September. 1983. (The Natio .dl Science Board Coiwnlsslon on 
PreCollege Education In Nathem^tUs, Science and Technology.) 

National Science Teac^ers AssocUtloft (NSTA) . Search for Excellence 
In Science Education, 1982. 



IX. N. Hlckelson, Bells Heffner; Janet Ady and Peggy Cowan 
"Alaskan Environmental Education Strategies." Asst. 
Professor, University of Alaska, Box 325, Cordova. Alaska 
9S574, USA.; Visual Information/Environmental Educo^ion 
Specialist. U.S. Fish S, Wildlife Service. Anchorage Regional 
Offl'.e, 1011 East Tudor, Anchorage, Alaska 99503, USA. 

Alaskan environmental education efforts must overcoTie great 
dista— IS, teacher transclence, teacher Mnfarolllarlty with AU kan 
ecology and peoples, teacher hesitancy toward using coro..iurUy and 
field experiences and lacJc of knowledge or outdoor survival skills. 
S11<i9s presented i variety of Alaskan environmental education 
approaches. Participants discussed new options for environmental 
education In Alaska. A variety of "hands on" activities and handouts 
were avallible Including wildlife games, seaweed and sand samples, 
wetlands .'ctlvltles, walrus puppets, community In sea 
shanties and Alasksn seafood. 



P.7S 



273 



IX. 0. Phinips, Hugh C. "Energize Your Curriculum: 1 to 6." 

Program Director, Society, Environment and Energy Development 
Studies Foundation, #440 10169-104 Street. Edmonton, Alberta, 
Canada T5J 1A5. 

This participatory, hands-on workshop Illustrated the use and 
1mp1er»ntat1on of energy/environmental materials In your elementary 
classroom. The S.E.E.D.S. (Society, Environment and Energy 
Developnirnt Studies) 1 to 6 Energy Literacy Scries ya$ featured* 
Complimentary SEEDS posters with teacher's guide, SEEDS provincial 
field trip guldrs, the SEEDS energy/environment blbMrgraphy and SEEDS 
newsletter was available. 



IX. P. Phillips, Hugh C. "tnergUe Your Curriculum: 1 to 12. • 

Program Director, Society, Environment and Energy Development 
Studies Foundation, #440 10169-104 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, 
Canada T5J 1A5. 

This participatory, hand^-on workshop Illustrated the use and 
Implementation of energy/onvlronmental materials In your elementary 
classroom. The S.E.E^O.S. (Society, Environment ar-d Energy 
Development btudles) 7 to 12 Energy Literacy Series was featured. 
Complimentary SEEDS posters with teacherS guide, SEEDS provincial 
field tr'.p guides, t^ie SEEDS energy/environment bibliography and SEEPS 
newsletter was available. 



IX. Q. Phillips, Hugh C. "HughUras for Interpreting our Naturdl 

World." Program Director, Society, Environment and Energy 
Development Studies Fonndailon, #440 10169-104 Street, 
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5J 1A5. 

Tills participatory session outlined techniques, tea^Mng ideas and 
resources In the Interpretation of our environment. The session 
Included practical ^nd timely ''Hughlsms" In developing your competence 
and confidence. 



IX. R Richards, Don. "Environmental Education 1- Practice: Across 
. School Curriculum". Principal, Treverton M.pdratory 
School, Private Bag 505, Mool ^Iver, Natal 3300, Republic of 
South Africa. 



276 



274 



IWTRODUCTnN 

Education's function should bt to educate all sectors of mankind 
to understand the total environment so that not only does mankind 
benefit from It, but that the total environment remains a stable 
productive factor. :n fact, a symbiotic Inter-relatlonship which Is 
mutuallstlc. 

What we are looking «t here Is the survival of both man and his 
environment. San depends entirely on his environment. The 
environment can do without man but can also be totally deftroyed by 
man. 

Two r»$pon?P? K»on to sugs*st tkie mountlnn interest in 
Environmental Education. These are: 

The current concern with the problem of cities - the built 
environment that Is becoiring Increasingly Inadequate as a concept for 
living. Population density. Inner-city decay, pollution, alienation, 
and moral decline are some of the environmental and psychological 
stresses to which urban iiMin is subjected. 

We cannot divorce our man-made environment from the natural 
environment, nor man from his natural world. Thus our second 
awareness concerns the natural world. Nan Is effectively polluting 
and depleting the natural resources of his world, the envlronfiferit he 
cannot be separated from. Han Is causing a vanishing wildlife and a 
threat of ecological disaster. If man Is to Itve In har.aony with the 
natural order of things, and lispire his deeper self, he needs to find 
a bette" balance between the Integrity of his envlroiwient and Us 
destructive exploitation. Indeed there Is a concern sweeping the 
world today which recognises that mankind can no longer have a free 
ride at the expense of the earth's resources. 

If we are to Interpret the creation of this world from Genesis we 
can see that God provides a garden - an ordered and Planned 
arrangement of living things - for man's needs and enjoyment. 

In this garden, man was set not to Indulge himself, but to till It 
and care for It. Calvin's comments on this are most appropriate 'the 
earth was given to man. with this condition, that he should occupy 

himself In Its cultivation The custody of the garden was 

given to Adam, to show that we possess the things which God has 
ccimltted to our hands, on the condition, that being content with 
frugal and if^'Jerate use, we should take care of what «>hall remain. 

Let everyone regard himself as the steward of God We all know 

what happened to Adam and man has been on a steady decline since. God 
^mands that wise stewardship of us and we either obey or disobey God. 

fown and urban study programs, environmental and conservation 
awareness prograiwnes and a multitude of symposia on world 
environmental problems and on environmental education testify to the 
urgency with which we seek a more empirical analysis of the 
relationship between the behaviour of man and his complete environment. 

The writer believes that children must be Introduced into the 
concept of the environment, imjst be exposed to the environment as soon 
as possible. 



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Palget, the noted child psyc*^o1og1st and researcher, maintains 
that from about the age of eleven years , children begin to be able 
to evaluate the world around them without relying .on Information 
gathered from concrete objects. According to Plaget, they are now 
ready to begin learning abstractly. Children at this stage gradually 
develop the capacity to reason through the use of hypotheses » When 
given Information, they can start making logical deductions without 
first turning to concrete examples* 

Hence It 'Is reasonable to presume that children at the age of 
eleven upwards would be the suitable age to Introduce to "envlroiment* 
and Its role for the survival of mankind. 
A BLUEPRINT THE TREVERTOW PttOSRWWE 

Treverton Prepartory School In Mool River, liata>« embarked oi: «n 
exciting educational venture by Introducing environmental studies 
across the whole curriculum at the Standard five (grade 7) level In 
1979. This method Involves tuition and practical work In all the 
normal school subjects. Including science, geography, history, 
mathematics, English, Afrikaans, art and religious Instruct' n in the 
outdoors and then later In the classroom where the pupils consolidate 
what they have learnt. 

The central theme of the study Is the Mool River from Its source 
In the Drakensberg Mountains to Its confluence with the Tugela River 
and then down to the sea. The many varying ecological habitats and 
systems provide Idbal subjects for study and comparison by the boys 
and girls In the Stendard five classes. The study aroa also embraces 
three major wllc'erness areas In Natal and Zululand. 

The study area also contains two differing urban environments, the 
seaport city of Durban and the small town of Nool River. Both of 
these are used across the curriculum In urban studies. 

The class spends an average of five days away In the field at each 
study area, using the environment there, rural or urban, to cover all 
subjects normally taught ^n the classroom. As environmental studies 
Is an inter-subJect discipline, suffice to say that when a cUss goes 
out Into the field to study the basic history of the area, the 
students will at the same time be exposed to science, geography, 
r^thematlcs, the languages, art and physical training there. 

Once In the study area, the class Is usually divided Into groups. 
Each group concentrates on a specific research of the study although 
they wVl be exposed to the whole. On return to school, the class 
complefes a two week consolidation period which Is Interwoven Into 
normal school subjects. During this time, the pupils prepare projects 
and group teach-backs on thd results of their research. 

This environmental approach to education Is a scholastic one which 
enables boys and girls to stud> and learn through re£l-11fe 
situations, backed up bv nonnal teaching practices. As they get to 
grips with the environment whether wilderness or urban, they discover 
their place In It and their responsibility to It. 

Ten study ;::reas are researched each year. These are:- 

1. The school and Its environment 

2. The Giants Castle Game Reserve - a study of the Drakensberg 
Bushman. 



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3. Noo1 River town - an urban survey 

4. The Kamberg area - study of the sources of che Hool river and 
Its surrounds. 

5. Zululand - a study of the culture and history of the Zulu 
people plus bushveld ecology and estuarinf ecology. 

6. Rosetta - a study of the upper middle Mool river and Us 
environs. Here a comparative study Is made between the river 
and a dam. 

7. A study of Durban - early history of Natal, the early 
settlers, settlement geography, a studjr of the coas^: and the 
sea. Including fish and the docks uf Durban. 

8. A study of Pletermarltzburg, capital of Natal. 

9. A study of the Nool River falls. 

10. A farm study. 

Comparison of all study areas Is made and conclusions are dr/iwn up. 

Although each study area Is covered Inter-currlcularly, for the 
purpose of this presentation, six study areas will be covered by the 
pupils sharing the platform today and each study area will be 
approached from a specific discipline. From these report backs by the 
student you will be able to glean some Idea cf what the children have 
learned during the year and the extend of their Involvement. 

Each student has written their own paper and produced their own 
overhead transparancles tc be able to give you some Idea of the 
academic depth of the programs and to give you a sample of one of the 
procedures used In the classroom, namely the teach back. 

CONCLUSION 

During this year of total Involvement In the environment, the 
children emerge as young people whose attltud^^s and values hav:i 
changed. They have not only received a true education, but I'ave 
become caring people, caring for others, for their environment and for 
the wilderness they have grown to love. 

We have to look to the future and we believe t;iat this form of 
education Immerses the student mentally, physically and spiritually, 
building up his Confidence to meet demands and to solve problems. The 
students gain a deeper understanding of man's dependence on his 
environment and his environment to It as the custodian of God's 
creation. Our young people hold our planet earth In their hands. 



IX. R.l Johsson, Caroline. "How We Cu/er Mathematics''. Se anth Grade 
Stujent, Treverton Preparatory School, Private Bag 505, Wool 
River, Na'^al 3300, Republic of South Africa. 

IN TRODUCTION 

I win now tell you how we cover the mathematics syllabus In the 
Standard 5 environmental year. Whatever we are taught In the field Is 
then applied to classroom work. For example, having completed the 



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study of ar area In the field by measuring playing fields and swimming 
pools, consolidation Is carried oyt In the classroom, using the 
necessary text books. Furlhermore we can understand the different 
math problems as we are faced with them In real life situations. 
Nevertheless the entire math syllabus Is also covered In the classroom. 

For this talk I am concentrating on only on3 of our stu^y o^eas, 
and that Is of the school. The class Is divided Into flvt* grou';s, 
each group 1$ given a certain task* 

GROUP (Hi£ Is given the task of measuring an thi buildings In the 
school grounds, they also have to note the building materials used and 
the colours of th3 buildings. In the meantime* 6RQUP IW l measures all 
the playing fields Including the swimming ^ool. They also measure the 
width and length of roads In the complex and the dlstan^te between the 
buildings. From this Information, the two groups get to^et^er and 
draw a scale pUj of the school and Its grounds. 

Using a theodolite, GROUP THREE have worked out gradients a»id 
contours and are thus able to furnish further Information ^or groups 1 
and 2. 

GROUP FOUR'S task Is to make a count of all the trees, esi*.wte 
their heights and to plot the trees on a sketch map of the school 
grounds. 

GROUP FIVE has Ihe task of setting up four blrd-^vlewlng stations 
In the school ground?;, making bird counts and plotting their movements. 

From all the Inforinatlon produced by the five groups, the class 
constructs a scale model of the school and Its grounds during art 
periods. 

Each group had further mathematical tasks to perform In this study. 

GROUP ONE had to Interview the school caterers and from this 
Information construct bar graphs of the different foods used In the 
school on a dally and monthly basis. 

GROUP TWO had to find out how the swimming filter operates, to 
draw the system and to work out amounts of chlorine and acid used 
during the study period. 

GROUP THREE hacJ the additional task of maintaining a weather 
station and from the recorded data to produce graphs of maximum and 
minimum temperatures, rainfall and atmospheric pressures during the 
study period. The group .also plotted litter found at the school, made 
counts of the different types of litter and from tt^ recorden date, 
drew pie graphs A litter -tree was then placc^d at tht entrance of the 
school hall w^th a message to r:^1nd the scholars of their 
responsibility to the environment. 

GROUP FOUR*s main task during the survey was to obtain sell 
samples from four different stations ^n the school grounds. Once 
having obtained the readings of nitrogen, phosphe^'ous and potast, 
graphs using a soil test kit were produced from the rc^^evant 
Information. The group also Interviewed the school bursar, finding 
out the school maintenance costs ano produced nraphs from these 
figures. 

Further graph wo?^?' involved the percentages of tie different tree 
types found In the ^chuol grounds. 



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GROUP FIVu had the task of counting the nuniber of different birds 
of each species at each of the four stations. Three counts wer-e made 
each day at the same cime during the week. After totalling, bar and 
pie graphs were produced of dally counts and also total counts. 

We also make use of our environmental centre at the school, which 
actually houses our standard five classrooms. The centre has three 
acres of land through which tvfo self-guided trails run. These are an 
ecology trail and an estl-metre trail. The centre also contains a 
soil-pit, a pond ecosystem, a weather station and a walk-In bird 
aviary which also contains a reptile pit. A great deal of our 
practical mathematics takes place In this Environmental Centre. 
CONCLUSION 

We are Involved with mathematics data and problem solving 
throughout the y»ar In various study areas and I am sure that you can 
see how much more meaningful mathematics can be by using the 
environment. We certainly think so. 



IX. R.2 Champklns, Aian. "An Urban Survey: A Geographical Study of 
our Town - Mool River." Seventh Grade Stud&nt, Treverton 
Preparatory School, Private Bag 505, Mool River, Natal 3300, 
Republl of South Africa. 

Many geographer's claim that geography 1j environmental sducatlcn. 
Be as It may, settlement geography Is an extremely valid component of 
environmental education. Our next speaker, Alan Champklns, will talk 
on our 'Urban Survey' - a survey of the small town of Mool River. 

Mool River Is situated In the midlands of Patal. Practically the 
whole of this area Is approximately 1500 metres ab"ve sea level. The 
average rainfall varies from 35 nm In the west to ?6 m In the east 
per annum. The climate Is cool and bracing In Simter a!>d cold In the 
winter months. The area around Mod River Is mainly sour vel^J which 
means frhat the Indigenous redgrass (Themeda tricandra) loses Its 
feeding value In the cold winter months. The couniry very 
mountainous to the west and undulating to the east. 

As part of our standard five year, we had as a .JdS"^, to 3»ai:t- n 
geographical study of Mool River town, where Treverton i> sUudCid, 
To accomplish chls the- class was dlv^aed Into five gruupi each 
concentrating on a certain aspect. Theses f1v5 33n'»cts w^re:- 

1. A study of communications 

2. A survey of food Imported to ana -spcr^^'d frcsj Hooi River 

3. A survey of the people of the town 

4. A study of land use 

5. An Investigation of pollution and & health survey. 
I was Involved wtn the group wtilcn made * ^^uHy of 

communications. To accospllsh tnU, we <t<id^e'J the raMw^y sjstem, 
the pest office complex, which InvsNed ..ott, telephore and ielegraph, 
all the garages and lastly a vehicle cer.suc. 



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Two of our groups posted themselves at the railway station for 
three mornings to note the number and destination of the trains. 
Information was also gathered from the station master and It was thus 
possible to work out what goods were being carried and to where. From 
this information, our group was able to create flow-line maps once 
back at school. 

Whilst tnis was going on .the two other members of the group and I 
were making a study of the Post Office In Nool River. We made a 
survey of how many letters go out and come In on an average day. 
Where to and where from. We also noted the range of stamps used In 
the post office and In which proportion they were sold In an average 
day. 

An hour of each day during the first week was spent by two of our 
group making a vehicle census of the vehicles entering and le«.v1ng 
Mool River at a certain point* We noted whether they were heavy or 
light vehicles or other, for (example, tractors. We also noted their 
registration numbers. From this Information we were able to make 
graphs representing the different vehicles. 

The survey of the garages entailed finding out the number of 
vehicles visiting them, the!r purpose - whether for petrol (gasoline) 
or repair, the a!?K)unt of petrel sold on an average day and what sort 
of repairs were oeing done. These calculations made the 
Inter-relatlorishlps of maths and geography very meaningful for us. 

During our second week of the survoy our group had the privilege 
of actually working In the post office, taking turns In manning the 
counter, the manual telephone exchange, and the telegraph office. We 
also sorted the mall and Interviewed the Post Haster. On returning to 
school we had co write up our findings end experiences which re:^ulted 
1n a greater understanding of cur commiinlcatlon system. 

Whilst completlnn this survey, the oth^.r groups were not Idle 
eUher. Group two traced the orlg^r* of all food Imported Into ?loo1 
RUer and who the manufacturer^ were. From this Information, flow 
line maps and graphs were produced during consolidation back U 
school. This group worked the local supermarket In their second 
wpek, stocktaking, loading shelves, pricing goods, manning tills an^ 
working 1n the butche-^ shop. 

Group three completed the most unenviable task of all - that of 
completing a people survey. Asking people how old they wero, where 
and when they were born, attracted some strange reactions, but brought 
oui. some Interesting figures i/hen compiling graphs and flow line 
iiwips. The Information was supported by checking past records from the 
municipal offices and churches. Apart from population counts, 
marriages, births and deaths were recorded from the be4;1nn1ng of Mool 
RWer up to the present day. Graphs were also compiled from 
Information gathered on occupations, ages^ popular names and schools. 

Group four had the task of studying the land use In the town and 
future town planning. They had to record the buildings In Bool River 
and their functions. They also had to show on a map of the town where 
aM the shops. Industries, resldentlel areas, etc. were situated. 
They also hid to discuss future town planning with the Towri Clerk. To 



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this end they were assisted when the whole class sat as a town council 
In the actual municipal chambers for one morning and debated a problem 
that wa thrown to us by the actual Town Clerk of Mool River, 

Group four spent their second week working In a factory, namely 
the cheese factory, actually making cheese and going through the whole 
process from milk tc packed cheese. 

During group five's pollution and health survey, they had to plot 
and photograph sites of pollution and mismanagement In the town. They 
also noted the state of drains, streets, gardens, shopping and 
Industrial areas and the river, namely the Wool River, which runs 
through the town. This group also recorded noise and air pollution 
and collected san^les of water pollution. They calculated the 
proportion of plastic, metal, paper, glass, etc. In each polluted 
areas and presented Interesting graphs. Group five worked with the 
Town Engineer during the second week, at the sewerage and water works 
- collecting samples, analysing theta and learning how these Important 
aspects of a town worked. 
CONCLUSION 

This geographical study of our town Nool River was not only 
Interesting, but taught us how a town functions and hopefully, those 
of us who have had the privilege of learning through the environmental 
manner will be aware and educated regarding our urban environment and 
will be conscious of the need for wise urban planning. We were not at 
all happy with what we saw In our town and hope that our results, 
delivered to the town council, will produce action. 



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IX. R.3 Blaine, Sally. *A Study of the Drakensberg, with Special 

Reference to the Bushmen.** Seventh Grade Student. Treverton 
Preoarai-cry School, Private Bag 505, Mool River, Natal 3300, 
Republic of South Africa. 

.The ability to CMmynlcate Is probably the nost IfRportdnt asset 
that any humar* being Is blessed with. From primltl'/e tribal days to 
cur modern technological society, comnNinlcatlon between min and man, 
country and country In the written or verbal foftm can extend man's 
endeavours and strivings to higher peaks* tl5^1ng the EngTish language 
a^' - 1c as her medium, Sally Blaine will speak on *h Study of the 
Oraicensberg with special reference to the bushman.) 

Kaa the Bushman iat at the entrance his sandstone cave, shaping 
the rounded stone which he was making for his d*^aGit,g stick. Tomorrow 
Kos, his wife, would use It to dig up the ant nest they had found down 
1n the valley. Behind him the mountains were a br1c;ht splendour of 
shimmering blue, topped with the massive face of iilgonv<Mteng, %^1ch In 
tliw to come the whlt^ fi^ri would call C^thkln Peak. Belew film the 
sunlight slept In the green valley-ind In the sky above, the gr^at 
cloud caravans moved silently over an azure flaln. BeMnd hlRn. tos 
his wife was preparing the bulbs and the roots they hab gathereo that 
morning for the stewpot, while In the far corner ^onelb was busy 
painting an orlbl on the wall of tne cave. 

Ny task today Is to talk to you on how we utilize the environment 
to study the Encllsh language. One can Imagine what effect the 
surroundings have on pupils through personal experiences. I know what 
the effect Is whilst sitting doing snlltalre, we can Imagine the 
bushman living In harmony with the hills, mountains, summits and 
stre^.tAS of the Drakensberg range, the highest mountains In Southern 
Africa. 

Don Richards w^Ote: 

"on sunlit coves, and around fires In caves, little brown men 

lived, hunting to eat, and enjoying the simple pleasures of life; 

and they too were content." 

bushmen average at approximately 135cm tall. The woman have 
large buttocks and stomachs while the men are taller and sllmner. 
Other characteristics of the bushmen are their high cheek bones and 
flat noses. They are believed to have ;n1grated from Mongolia because 
paintings similar to the ones In thp Orakensberg have been found 
around the Medlteranean sea. The bushmen language Is a click language 
which Is similar to the Hottentot lariuage. The Hottentots vere an 
early race of Southern Africa. 

We are able to study the English language on trips in the way that 
wc have to give adjectives, adverbs and verbs describing our 
surroundings and emotions. I will now ask you to take an Imaginary 
journey Into the past when the hushmen still Inhabited the Orakensberg 
range, 

Kaa was one of the many Inhabitants of this beautiful area which 
night was wrapping her cloak around. Kos, who had prepared the bu!bs 



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for the stew, saw Kaang returning with the group rf young and more 
experienced hunters. They had obviously been tracking eland because 
they returned with a large eland ram. Son-elb saw then returning and 
decided, to please their 6od. Kaggen. he would paint a picture of It 
on the cave wall. 

That evening they had a feast consisting of the day's hunt and 
collection if roots and berries. The y^ung child of T8 nonths was 
wrapped In a caross and put on an eland hide to prevent the cold 
attacking It. Once the child was asleep they danced aroond the fire 
to celebrate the successful bunt. After a rousing dance the old isan 
of the tribe, Son-elb, started telling stories about a great hunt when 
he had been younger. This was his first attenpt at hunting and a 
successful one. He had hunted a giraffe and killed it. This had been 
possible with assistance froa nore experienced. hunters. Kaang was 
following close In his footsteps. 

Let us take another Journey back Into the present day 
Drakensberg. Where have the original Inhabitants gone? Why are they 
no longer In existence? 

EXTINCTION has struck their.. When the white and black men intruded 
Into the Drakensberg they took over the grazing lands of the eland. 
Th'jy also hunted out the eland. The bushmen were slowly starving so 
they Mfit and hunted the cattle of these intruders. The Intruders 
though; th^s unjust and hunting parties were sent out to hunt them. 
THE 0RAKENSCER6 HAS LOST THESE WONDERFUL PEOPLE AND APART FROM THEIR 
PAINTINGS THEY SHALL NEVER BE FOUND AGAIN. It seems unjust that su ^ 
a harmonlus people should end so tragically. Their extinction Is our 
loss. 



IX. R,4 Hurry, Nicola. "Science Section - The Mool River". Seventh 
Grade Student, Treverton Preparatory School, Private Bag 505, 
Moil River, Natal 3300, Republic of South Africa. 

(The Mool River, as mentioned. Is the central theme of our year's 
study. Nicola Hurry will now present 'A scientific study of the 
river'. As you listen, you will be av<are that science, mathematics 
and geography have no harriers here.) 

■NTRODUCTION 

The Mool river (the beautiful river) rises In the Highmoor area 
close to ♦^he Giants Castle peak. In the Natal Drakensberg. It 
meanders slowly down through the foothills of the Drakensberg. passing 
througn the town of Mool River. *.he hoifle of our school. 

Approximately 12 km upstream from Mool River town the Moo1 river 
Is Joined by the Little Mori. This Is good farming country with crops 
such as hay. potatoes and malie being grown. There Is also horse 
studs and dairy farms. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DRAKENSBERG CATCHMENT AREA 

The Mool r1vtr Is part of the Drakensberg catchment arsa. Water 



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from this area 1s used by towns and farms In iwny parts of Natal. 
Cities such as Durban and Pletermarltzburg use water which comes frovp 
the Drakensberg, and many Irrigation schemes rely on Orakensberg 
rivers for their water supplies. 
THE HOOI RIVER WATER CYCLE 

The eastern escarpment of the Natal Orakensberg Is one of the 
higricst rainfall areas In South Africa. Some parts of these mountains 
receive 1, 500 mm of rain* Of this snow and mist contribute about 500 
m per year. 

Because of the warm Mozambique current that washes the shores of 
Natal, the eastern seaboard and Interior experiences high relle? 
rainfall. Warm winds sweep liiland from the east, carrying evaporated 
moisture from the Indian ocean* They are forced upward by the land, 
they cool, clouds form and rain or snow results. 

The movement of moisture from the Indian ocean towards the 
mountains and then back again to the Indian ocean Is a perfect example 
of a water cycle. 

OUR SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE WOOI RIVER 

In order to get a good Idea of the Moo1 River basin, we studied a 
number of different aspects. I will mention some of them to give 
examples of the work we did: 

1. One of the things we studied was the wild temperate forest 
that grows on the cool, moist slopes of the Orakensberg. It 
Is Important to conserve forests In order to conserve water 
supplies. Not everybody realises this. In places farmers 
have cleared the vegetation and planted crops right to the 
river bank. As the crops can't hold the soil as well as the 
natural vegetation many of the banks have collapsed and parts 

the river have silted up. (I might say that this happens 
respite laws which state that It Is illegal to plant crops 
within 30 metres of the river banks). 

2. At different places along the Mooi River our class studied 
different aspects of the Mool river Itself. One of the first 
things we did was to use simple measurements and observations 
to measure the width of the river at different places. 

3. Afiorher measurement that we did was to measure the depth of 
the river .1 uirferent places. To do this we waded Into the 
river measuring the uepth at one metre Intervals along a 
straight 11r<^ with a metre rule for a distance of 10 metres. 
We did this at three different point:. To draw the bank of 
the river we continued with our ttansect up the bank for 10 
metres by stretching a line from the highest point parallel 
to the original line from the water. 

The results were discussed during consolidation In the 
classroom. We used our Information to draw cross sections of 
the river at the three places. 

4. An example of another measurement was that of speed flow. We 
measured the speed of the river at different places by 
dropping a stick Into the water and timing It over a 10 metre 
ulstance. We found that the fastest flow was near the 



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Shallow part of the river, while the river flowed slowly 
where U was deep. 
5. We caug'rtt small river animals and studied them In glass Jars 
before letting them go again. He studied different parts of 
the Mod river and learned that the cleaner parts had more 
animals than the more polluted parts. 

By studying different parts of the Mool river we loarned that 
certain animals do better In polluted water than others;. 
Through this we learned which animals show polluted water and 
which animals show clean water. We called these animals 
INDICATOR SPECIES. 

CONCLUSIOHS 

The health of the river depends upon two things: 

Firstly, the river catchment must be In good condition so 
that the river does not silt up or the river banks collapse. 
Secondly, the river should not be polluted by chemicals, 
fertilizers and sewage. These will affect the plant and 
animal life. 

Wattr ^3 one of the most precious possessions. By looking ?<fter 
our rivers we can ensure that we always have a clean, reliable water 
supply. 



IX R. 5 Laundy, Patrick. "The Zulu People and Their 

Inter-relatlonship with the Natural Environment." Seventh 
Grade Student, Treverton Preparatory School, Private Bag 505, 
Mool River, Natal 3300, Republic of South Africa. 

(Conservation Is an Integral part of Environmental Education. A 
week during the year Is spent by the class In Zululand to study the 
Bushveld eco-system and the Inter-relatlonshlps of the Zulu people 
with their environment. Patrick Lundy will cover this aspect.) 

As part of the S" dard Five year is spent In Zululand to learn 
about the history and culture of the Zulu people, we were also able to 
camp In the natural environment where the Zu>us lived. 

By studying the rhythms and cycles of the nrtural worlH there In 
the bushveld, we were able to realise how the Zulu lived In harmony 
with his environment and ^ow he understood It. 

The Zulus were a pastoral people and it w«i *n their Interests to 
know how the environment could be used to help them to survive and 
t;ier3fore It Important to them that the environment was conserved. 

We were ion to learn that practically every bit of vegetation was 
of some use to the Zulu, and we found It to be most Interesting 
learning how the Zulu way of life was Inter-related to most aspects of 
his environment. 



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First of an, we learnt that the Acacia tree Is very Important In 
the bushveld. Apart from being a good browsing feed for his C€;tt1e, 
the gum expelled by this tree was used by the Zulus to cure dysentry 
and the thorns were used for needles* We learnt that the Acacia Is a 
legume and therefore a very Important part of the nitrogen cycle and 
encourages shade grass for winter grazing. Furthermore, It was a 
wonderful experience to sit under an Acacia tree In the wilds and to 
see how It had adapted to that environment. 

As the Acacia tree grows In low rainfall and high temperature 
areas. It has a small leaf surface, therefore little transpiration 
takes place. The tree Is umbrel ia-shaped exposing a wide area of 
leaves in the process of photosynthesis. This imbrella shane also 
keeps the leaves away from the fire which Is common occurence In the 
acacia savannah. 

The Acacia Is a source of food for many of the browsers cf the 
area. The animals browse on different levels. This prevents animals 
concentrating on one area. Thus there Is more food available enabling 
the vegetation to support the maximum number of animals. 

Because of the shade rast by the Acacia tree, the ground aUo Is 
rich In shade grass wh'ich the animals leave for their winter grazing. 
The animals stay In the shade ot the Acacia tree at midday, chewing 
their cud, they then drop their dung there. Tha seeds of the grasses 
In the droppings germinate so there are more edible grasses. This 
causes further grazers and their predators. Food webs soon form 
around the tree. 

In the acacia savanna we find the harvester termite or white ant. 
The name white ant Is actually wrong because the termite Is not an 
ant, but a member of the cockroach family. The termite Is In fact 
preyed upon by the black ant. 

In our study we found that termites build mounds that extend about 
one-^ tenth above the surface and the rest below the ground. 

Termites use grass as a source of food. They take grass way down 
Into their termitaries. They can cause terrible devastation of a». 
area unless cnecked. 

Termitaries become the centre of food webs. The termites bting 
deep seated mineral salts to the surface, fertilizing the ground and 
thus causing rich grass growth, which In turn attracts grazers and 
therefore predators. 

So It has become obvious to us that termites are useful as well as 
harmful and that natural control? are necessary to keep a balance. 
This Is something the early Zulus reccs^ized, but unfortunately this 
natural law has been lost ' ) many of our modern day people, who have 
exterminated the controls, resulting In starvation of their cattle and 
eventually themselves. 
CONCLUSION 

Our time spent In Zululand Is rewarding for the clas" and the 
Individual. By carrying out our studies as we do, we not only learn 
about man, animc s and plants, we feel them, see them and absorb the 
atmosphere of the place. We also learn to live with and understand 
AdCh other. We become better pupils and, surely more ^.iportant, we 



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become better people. I have found that I no longer take the things 
of nature for granted, and that I must be responsible to look after 
the world that God has created. 

It seems to me that the world Is golrg mad to prove something. If 
only we could be like the early Zulus, but maybe then, with better 
understanding we can. 



IX. R.6 Parvess, Barry. "Zulu Culture and History." Seventh Grade 
Student, Tre^crton Preparatory Scnool, Private Bag 505, Wool 
River, Natal 3300, RepuMIc of South Africa. 

(History for many years has been taught In such a 'dead' way that 
many a young student has been completely 'switched off. History is 
about to change, and taught In the environment of Its happenings, can 
Inspire even young students to enthuse. Barry Parvess will, from his 
experience whilst with the class In Zululand, speak on the 'History 
and Culture of the Zulu people'.) 

Africa accounts for a quarter o^ the land surface of the earth and 
lOX of Its population. Almost ha.f of this Immense continent Is arid 
or terribly humid; desert or equatorial forest, both of which a^e 
hostile to man. Of the total land availability, only 3% of It can be 
classified as truly fertile, and a further 8X as moderately so. 

Like other continents In the world, Africa's resources will not 
last forever, and the fact that strikes a note of urgency Is that 
Africa has one of the fastest growing populations of the world. By 
the tur ] of the century her present numbers would be doubled. 

Much of what Africa Is now was determined by her recent past and 
her colonial experience. African systems were overwhelmed by Western 
systems which offered material alternatives to traditional African 
wdys. 

Essential to traditional African systems Is the availability of 
plenty of land Into which their ever-growing numbers can spread. An 
example of this Is the so-called Bantu migration, which, over a long 
period, carried the black man steadily southward from his original 
home 1n Central Africa Into Southern Africa. 

As a previous speaker has mentioned. In South Africa the Eastern 
parts are more generously watered then the Western parts, therefore 
the migration poured Into this Eastern part. One of the nations that 
developed this Eastern part of the sub-conttnent was the Zulu. 
History 

One of the tasks In cur Standard 5 year was to researrh the rise 
and fall of the Zulu nation. To achieve th1$ we spent a week In 
Zululand to study the history and culture of these peoole. and their 
present status. 

The Zulu people originated as a minor vassal clan of the pouerful 
Mtethwa Tribe under the chieftainship of Oinglsjayo. A wife of 
Senzangakona, chief of the Zulu, gave birth to a son Shaka, whose name 
means '1nt<?st1nal bettle'. He, In turn, began the great rise of power 



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of the Zulu Nation. 

He moulded the Zulu Into a fighting ifiachlne, and the superbly 
trained, well disciplined brave men formed an army which made the Zulu 
the most dominant tribe In Natal and ZululantJ until the close of the 
nineteenth century. Shaka was assassinated by Oinghaan, his 
half-^brother . 

The Zulus tragically began to lose their power under the 
leadership of Oingaan, who, through his treachery, incurred the wrath 
of the Dutch Trekkers and the British Cottiers who lived in Natal. 
This led to the eventual defeat of the Zulus at the hands of the 
Trekkers in the Battle of Blood River in 1838. 

A further decline was accelerated by the leadership of the next 
king Mpande who was, at this stage, merely a vassal to the British. 
The power of the Zulus was finally deposed under the leadership of 
Cetshwayo, who, like Shaka, was a warlike chief, but in the battles of 
the Anglo-Zulu war of 1879 was defeated and later Imprisoned in 
Britain. However, the pride of the Zulu was still great. 
Culture 

The culture of the Zulus is one of great Interest. Their families 
ar^ led by the patriarch and the work is divided evenly between the 
male and the female. The women of the tribe do the thatching, 
beadwork, pottery and the floors of the hut, as well as the 
cultivation of the crops. The men do the woodwork, hornwork, basketry 
and the making of the hut frame, which is beehive shaped and thatchea 
all round. The Zulus are a pastoral people and the boys' 
resnonsibility is to herd the cattle. The villages in which they live 
are known as 'iimuzl' which in English means 'homestead' . 

The increasing population has caused the movement of peoples to 
the towns. Less than a hundred years ago most of the Zulus lived on 
the land sustaining themselves by what they produced by subsistence 
farming and the breeding of cattle. Urbanization has practically 
destroyed this system of self-^sustenance, and the advantage of their 
way of life was never fully appreciated until they had been lost. 

An industrial development has gained momentum in South Africa, 
more and more people have moved into the industrial regions in search 
of employment. Today, the rural areas are often under-populated and 
desperately short of labour. The children and elderly are left In the 
village while the able-bodied men turn to the towns to look for 
opportunities of which there are simply not enough, and the women, in 
turn, follow their men. 
CO:iCLUSION 

Unfortunately, with this increased migration to the urban areas, 
the rural and pastoral elements of the Zulu society is being 
affected. Proper farming methods are being taught and encouraged, but 
the Western way of life and the cities are an irresistible 
attraction. It must be remembered that the Zulus in Zululand are now 
managing their own affairs under their own parliment. 

I will conclude with a quote from 6.E.W. Wolstennolin's •'Man from 
Africa." 



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•'I think 1t 1s Afr'ca uhere man probably began» f.hat can give hope 
of a new life. Bv an Ininense combined effort Africa can save 
Itself and glvt a vital breathing space, to the rest of the 

world. 

Man everywhere ne ^ Africa* Even more, I beJeve, Africa, so 
near to a fresh start, can set an unviable example to the older 
world." 



IX, R.7 Joavack, Adam. "Urban Conservation." Seventh Grade Student, 
Treverton Preparatory Scriocl, Private Bag 505, Mool River, 
Natal 3300, Republic of South Africa* 

(Our last student t^ speak Is Adam Jaaback, who will talk on 'The 
Conservation of a City . Thuse are h^s Impressions after our study of 
the seapoit city of Durban In Natal. Here conservation and spatial 
geography are covered.) 

The Increasing advancement of our c^'vlllzatlon Is reflected In Its 
effect upon out Environment. We are usinq up our resources and 
releasing pollutants Into our natural "system at a rate which places a 
great strain on Us ability to adapt* Today, there Is no part of 
South Africa which has not felt the Impact of man. 

Our modern cities are a highly artificial environment, with bleak 
vistas of glass and concrete and rivers which have been boxed In 
concrete and burled beneath streets. It Is this artificial quality 
which sends city people by tne thousands Into more natural areas each 
weekend and holiday season. And yet there Is no reason why our cities 
have to be such unnatural sterile, communities. With Imag^ ^tlon and 
forethought and some expense, they could be turned Into pla* es where 
people enjoy living and which offer a healthier and a more relaxed way 
of life. Architects and city planners are becomlna aware of this and 
some are making provisions In cities for recreatlu.i areas and green 
belts. Many buildings and complexes are being designed so that 
plants, trees, gardens and sometimes parks are part of the structures. 

During our studies this year, we were lucky enough to take a trip 
to Durban to explore It as an Urban Settlement. 

I took a look at the conservation of the urban settlement of 
Duioan. Being a coastal city, I did not only 5;tudy the conservation 
of the city but also the conservation of tho oeach and coastline and 
harbour there. 

What Is conservation? Conservation Is the wise use of our Natural 
Resources • In my case, doing Urban Conservation, .itcans the wise 
use of the Urban Environment. 

Whilst In Durban, as a class, we studied th^ Mfe cycles of the 
area and the way that many of the natural coK#r>.-n1t1es have been 
affected by man. The main fact stressed greitU while we were there 
was that Durban bay was actually an Importa^ Estuary, full of life. 
When man moved In, urbanization began to taKe ^ ^ace and many of the 



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Natural Communities and life cycles died out. When Durban became a 
harbour, all thoughts of an ecological system were destroyed and as 
shipping and Industry Increased the conservation of that area was 
forgotten In Its planning. 

We were able to compare this with a small Estuary that has been 
conserved by the Durban authorities and we studied the habitats and 
Ecosystems that have been preserved there. The Umengi River estuary 
runs through Durban and it v^as there that we learnt about the 
Importance of an estuary; and the surroundl.ig habitats like the 
Mangroves and the Dunes. 

Fish spawn at the mouths of estuaries and It Is here that the fish 
swim Into the upper estuary for food and protection. It Is here that 
we find the smaller organisms that feed larger fish and mammals In the 
area, and naturally, where they occur, crocHlles. This means that 
any change 1n the water affects not only tht Inmates of the estuary, 
but also the fish populations from the surround'ing coastal shelf, to 
whl;h the estuary Is a vital producer. 

Whilst at the Umageni Estuary we :tud1ed a mangrove community. 
Th'se swamps are dominated by the mangrove and few other trees occur. 
Algae grows thickly on the trunks and parts of the mangrove below high 
water level, and phytoplankton is washec^ Into the swamps at high tide 

Mangroves are Important because they help to hold the banks of the 
estuaries together, provide oxygen and form habitats for Important 
^^stuarlne food webs. 

Between the Mangroves and the sea, we studied the role of the 
liaportant sand dunes. The plants of our coastal dunes, from the 
pioneers to the climax forest community, all play a vitally Important 
role 1n creating and maintaining a stable environment along our shore 
line. 

We did rot only study the conservation of flora In Its natural 
community, but we also visited a. few centres and reserves for the 
protection, conservation and rehabilitation of fauna and flora. An 
excellent example of this Is Stalnbank Nature Reserve. This Is a 
nature reserve In the middle uf Durban which does not only provide 
homes for giraffe, zebra, impala, bushbuck, grey duiker, and other 
small animals but also filters the cities pollution by absorbing 
carbon dioxide and releasing fresh oxygen, making It very Important 
for educational purposes and ecological functions. 

We also visited C.R.O.W. the "Centre for Rehabilitation of 
Wildlife". In an urban environment animals will obviously be hurt or 
affected by man. Many olled-up birds are found on the nearby 
coastline and rehabilitated. CROW also plays a part In educating the 
public and schools. 
CONCLUSION 

South Africa boasts a wide diversity of wildlife, flowers, trees 
and animals. Unfortunately, we tend to be accustomed and careless 
about them. True, our birds are coming back to old and established 
suburbs rich In trees. In Durban water fowl and game birds come back 
to the ponds on the reclaimed water works. Our towns and cities 
could, however, do better. Hills, ridges and streams could become 



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Refuges for Wildlife if we but allow It. Unfortunately many of our 
bigger city and town parks are 'formal' gardens with exotic species of 
trees and flowers, our hllU or high ground are the suburbs for the 
rich, and even worse, the sites for huge flat complexes and our rivers 
are channeled Into lifeless concrete canals. 

Through my study I believe that people living In Urban areas 
should become more Environmentally aware. Certain organizations are 
doing good work In Environmental Education In Durban but It Is up to 
the public sector to stimulate action for better Environmental 
conditions In our cities. 



IX. S. Smith, Elizabeth H. "Environmental Education and the Gifted 
Student: a Survey of Some International Programs In Schools". 

The same characteristics which set gifted students apart from 
their classmates equip them to understand the complex 
Interrelationships of the environmental realm. These are the students 
whose creativity. Idealism d:.d marked Intellectual abilities to 
conceptualize, synthesize and generate Ideas can be enhanced by 
environmental education curricula. Their skills and Insights Into 
problem solving are a natural resource, a fact now recognized In 
school programs around the world. The study examined reports on 
environmental education programs for gifted students In Korea, 
Malaysia. Australia, the United Kingdom and the USA. 



IX. T Smith, Kay M. "Rationale and Activities for Early Childhood 
Environmental Education: The Effect of the Home and School 
on Environmental Learning". Director of Teacher Education, 
Loyola University of Chicago. S20 N. Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago, Illinois 60302, USA. 

In the recent whirlwind of reports by educational commissions, 
private foundations, and other evaluating bodies, the lack of science 
education In United States' schools and of science knowledge of United 
States 's students Is lamented. Many points to solutions like 
requiring more credits In science at the high school level. I propose 
another solution. It seems to me essential that we begin with a 
child's natural curiosity about scientific relationships at a 
pre-school age. The title of my presentation Is: Rationale and 
Activities for Early Childhood Environmental Education: The Effect of 
the Home and School on Environmental Learning. 

Mary Budd Rowe notes the need for Inquiry-oriented science 
Instruction and for students to see every day applications of their 
science knowledge. Such science Instruction can begin at a very young 
age and environmental science lends Itself particularly to inquiry 
programs by Its nature and content. Inquiry programs Include 
activltle:; which arouse students' curiosity and prompt spontaneous 



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exploration of Ideas, This curiosity and exploration Is Important for 
environmental education In Its capacity for Involvement by families. 
The role that persons and families nlay 1n maintaining the environment 
Is significant. 

The first step 1n teaching young children science 1s the use of 
the discovery method. When compared with other learning methods. 
Sellm found the discovery method superior In producing learning. The 
discovery method translates to teaching what the child Is currently 
attending to and allowing exploration (Tucker. 1976). This technique 
Is easily communicated to parents. Barsch (1969) recommends that 
parents be approached as Individuals and that teachers avoid Jargon. 
Swick anJ Duff (1978) note four behaviors that teachers should develop 
1n order to Interact more effectively with parents. Teachers should 
exhibit: 

1) flexibility 

2) approachabllliy 

3) sensitivity; and 

4) dependability. 

Another way to teach young children through their parents Is by 
sending activity sheets home for families to do together. Some tips 
for developing a relationship with families to produce an environment 
In which parents will use teacher suggestions are provided by Long 
(1982): 

1. Send a welcome note to parents. 

2. Conduct some learning sessions for parents. 

3. Establish a classroom newsletter; this Is a perfect forum for 
send heme activity sheets. 

4. Keep parents Informed of current school science and 
environmental topics. 

5. Use- the telephone to reinforce. 

6. Encourage parent assistance with home projects or school 
:»roJects . 

7. Periodically make home visits. 

Algozzlne provides a caution for using parent assistance in the 
classroom. She remind! teachers to make the most of volunteer 
services. She suggests that teachers assess the needs and talents of 
the volunteer, allow them to correct papers (but be sure to give them 
an accurate key), let volunteers share pertinent life experiences or 
provide opportunities to students, use volunteers to do research on 
new teaching methods or assist students In research projects (a 
volunteer might have time to see where the caterpillar 1s going), and 
use volunteers to link to tht community. 

The link to the community Is a special role for family Involvement 
In environmental education. Part of the objective of environmental 
education 1s to educate the larger community. Small children learning 
and practicing environmental services (clean-up activities) can 
galvanize a community In a way that nothing else can. Another aspect 
of using a parent volunteer as a classroom aide Is to allow more 
activity diversity and a link to the outside world. Young children 



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often think of teachers as living at school (that's the only place you 
see them, right?) but another child's parents really "knows" about the 
cornnunlty. Environmental e<<ucat1on activities In school but provided 
by parents cai' nave special Inipact. Obviously having another adult In 
the room also expands the capacity for a variety of experiences via 
email group work or learning centers. 

Activities for home and school learning should be based on a 
rationale that derives from the science world. Yager (1984) notes the 
need for elenientary science curricula to do more Integrating and to 
address affective environmental science dealing with energy, natural 
resources and acceptable environmental quality. These concepts can be 
dealt with when teaching young children by slaiple exposure which 1s 
followed by capitalizing on children's questions. The whole (oncept 
of custodianship can easily be developed In young children by allowing 
them to do It. Follow a caterpillar and make sure no one steps on 
It. Look for rocks or twigs and assume the responsibility of cleaning 
up the school yard trash that obscures them. 

Young children as beginning readers are not candidates for text 
book methods of environmental education. This Is good as teachers too 
often succumb to the temptatlc of the text book method of science. 
Yager and Penick (1984) contend that the supremacy of the text book Is 
a serious limitation of science learning and regret the fact that the 
Investigative or laboratory dimension of science It almost totally 
Ignored. Environmental education meets the complaint f»om teachers 
and parents of a shortage of laboratory equipment and space. The 
nearby environment 1s the lahoratory. Jackson (1984) reminds teachers 
of Dewey's Insistence on the experience of "doing" science, 
experiencing Its frustrations as well as its excitements. This method 
Is supported In nearly every corner of science education. 
Environmental education should consist of gu1<fed Inquiry and extensive 
parent-child and teacher-child coninunlcatlon (Rowe, 1983). 

Finally, 1t 1s crudai to recognize and capitalize on the 
pre-d1sc1pl1nary world of young learners. Without barriers of 
artiriclal division, children learn readily (Hawkins, 1983). This Is 
enhanced by diverse materials and observation of natural phenomena. 
These sustain and Increase children's natural curiosity. School u 
only one component of the total mlleu of children's opportunities for 
learning; family life, peer association and the big world are part of 
the opportunities, too, and should be drawn Into the conspiracy to 
foster environmental learning. 

Activities for young children In environmental education can 
center around such general areas as conservation, cyclical 
relationships, equilibrium, change, time and space, and renewable and 
non-renewable resources. Related topics such as the evaluation of 
effects, the Influence of values and helping versus hurting the 
environment may also be explored. 

From these general areas, specific topics for learning activities 
are generated. Wind, vacant lot projects, plants and food, and song 
makers In nature are examples. These topics lend themselves readily 
to learning activities for pre-schoolers. 



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Activities for learning occur in two general locations - the 
school and the home. School activities can Include nature walks, 
learning centers, flald trips, coloring activities, televlson or 
fllmstrip lessons, scrapbook creations, presentations, "laboratory" 
experlRientL, Integration with other subject areas (language arts, 
math), and guest appearances (people, animals, plants). 

ActlvUles for home learning may be shared with parents In a 
variety of ways. Special television workshops and a section or column 
In children's or parents' magazines are possible. Activity sheets or 
home learning recipes are another way to give specific suggestions to 
parents for learning at home. A local resource brochure or activity 
bock provides additional ways of conmunl eating with the home. Several 
specific suggestions for home and school learning activities will be 
available on handouts at the session on preschool environmental 
education at the conference. 



IX. U. Stayton, Vickl and Jenne Pool. "Environmental Education and 
the Young Child." PhD Candidate, Department of Special 
Education, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820, 
USA; Center for Environmental Education, Murray State 
University, Hurray, Kentucky 42071, USA. 

Young children seem to learn best through concrete, direct, 
hands-on experience. By using all of their senses to observe and 
explore the world around them, children begin to develop concepts and 
perceptions about their environment. The role of the teacher In this 
process Is to continually provide activities and allow for situations 
through which children can expand their experiences and develop more 
complex concepts. This workshop, based on a 15-hour workshop 
presented annually at Hurray State University. Murray, Kentucky, was 
developed by the facilitators based on their own experiences In 
working with young children. This two hour workshop was designed to 
provide teachers of children aged 3-8 years with specific activities 
that can be used with children In the outdoors, to provide them with 
teaching strategies that facilitate working with children In the 
outdoors, and to share resources containing environmental education 
activities for young children. This was accomplished through hands-on 
activity, discussion, and perusal of curriculum materials. In 
addition, participants received a reference list of curriculum 
materials appropriate for young children and written descriptions of 
the workshop activities. 



IX. V. Stubbs, Harriet and Marylou Klinkhammer. "Acid Precipitation 
Information/Edocation/Curriculum Materials". Exerutive 
Director, The Acid Rain Foundation, Inc., 1630 Blackhawk 
Hills, St. Paul, Minnesota 55122, USA. 



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Add Deposition — a global problem and issue. What Inforrnati 
can you. as an educator, utilize? Act locally! Inforroat on was 
presented about Instructional materials at the elementar < and 
secondary level; resource materials from International, national 
regional and local sources; Information from many different 
viewpoints, and audlovlsuals. 



IX. W. Wilson. Terry L. "Taking a 'BYTE' out cf the Energy 

Problem: Bit by Bit." Director, Center for Environmental 
Education, Murray State UnlversUy, Murray, Kentucky 42071, 
USA. ' 

Microcomputers are becoming a part of classroom environments In 
schools at an ever Increasing rate. Instructional software 1s being 
developed quickly in an attempt to provide school personnel with 
connections to their curricula and Instructional efforts. In the fall 
of 1983, the Center for Environmental Education at Murray State 
University received a contract from the Kentucky Energy Cabinet to 
survey Instructional software available In the area of Energy 
Conservation. The goal nf the survey was to evaluate those programs 
available. In both the commercial and public domains, and to 
dUsemlnate the results of the survey to public schools In Kentucky 
The software Is being evaluated by a panel of experts that Includes 
Classroom teachers, university professors, energy resource persons 
and the project staff. The evaluations covered content, process ' 
applicability in educational settings, and the 'user-friendliness' of 
each program examined. The presentation Included an explanation of 
the project and its results, as well as hands-on exposure to selected 
software . 



X. A. Dayton. Thomas G. and Roger Allen. "AttUude Changes of 
Youth at Environmental Education Residential Camps". 
Environmental Education Coordinator. Youth tmployment and 
Training Programs, Traverse Bay Area Intermediate School 
District, 890 Parsons Road, Traverse City, Michigan 49684 
USA: North Central Michigan College. 1515 Howard Street. 
Petosky, Michigan 49770, USA. 

Since 1981 the presentors have been measuring changes In 
self-perception by low-Income youth, ages (6 to 21. This attitude 
Change 1s part of a controlled experience and Is compared against the 
youth s reference base. Measurement Is taken 1n environmental 
education wof:v/study residential summer camps In northwestern 
Michigan. Since 1981. approximately 250 youth have been tested. The 
pre and port-te.t are designed to measure the youth's :hange in locus 



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of control. An Increase In environmental awareness Is Inteaded to 
create an attitude change which promotes greater Involvement In 
matters of self determination. 

Locus of control Is defined as a distribution of Individuals on a 
continuum according to the degree to which they accept personal 
responsibility for what happens to them, INTERNAL Individuals believe 
tha*: their own actions Influence outco:nes. EXTERNAL Individuals 
perceive that outcomes are not due to their own efforts, but to luck, 
fc^te, or other Influences. 

These summer camps are operated by the Youth Employment and 
Training Programs, and are located In rustic settings. Economically 
deprived youth are employed at the camps five days per week during the 
summer. Instruction In construction skills, forestry/biology, and 
environmental awareness Is provided. Youth receive high school o^ 
college credit for completion of the program. 

The presentation Included descriptions of: (1) design and 
implementation of the camping program, (?) relationship of program to 
youth attitudes, and (3) study methodology and findings. 



X. B. Hanie, Robert. "Blocultural Education: A Post Industrial 
Educat'ion Process." Associate Professor of Citizen Action 
and Hum<»n Ecology, Environmental Studies Program, Sangamon 
State University, Springfield, Illinois 62708, USA, 

The purpose of this paper is to comment upon the end of the 
industrial era, to examine its stepchild, our existing Industrial 
educational process, to restate certain natural premises of education, 
to take cognizance of the character of post industrial America and to 
describe a five year experiment in creating a post industrial 
educational process. 



In a recent press bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
appear these significant words: •'Employment in the consumer, 
financial and service industries has irwved above the Job total in the 
production industry for the first time In the history of the American 
economy... In discussing what he called an economic milestone, Samuel 
E. El,renhalt...said the changed relationship reflected not only a 
shift toward a service-oriented economy but the weakness in goods 
production... New York Times > 3uly 6, 1982. This brief official 
statement marks the closing of a great histoiic movement. 

The passing of the industrial era has rendered much of the settled 
area of our country into a vast wasteland. Indeed, a trip through 
these Roszakian Badlands around Bosnywash, San Difranangles and 
Pittsdechicago resembles a post riuclear nightmare. In the future by 
digging into the strata of these areas, post Industrial archeologists 



The Passing of an Era, 1865-1982 



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will find the symbols of this Important era of our past. What tliey 
will find and can easily reconstruct Is the Image of Its God, 
Science. "The mindscape (and landscape) to which our culture has been 
shaping Itself over the past three centuries— and with ever more 
decisive urgency slrxe the advent of Industrialization—Is the 
creation of mo(5ern science" comments Theodore Roszak In Where Ihe 
Wasteland Ends . It Is science which has produced unparalleled 
material gains and the bourgeoning loss of wilderness, species, 
communities, health, society and spirit. In his keynote address to 
the First Global Conference of the World future Society at Toronto In 
1980, Willis Harman spoke of the effects of science ".••It has led to 
an unnoticed bias In the knowledge base of Indurtrlal society. The 
quantifying, measuring, predlctlon-and-control emphasizing methods of 
science have brought fantastic gains In knowledge about the 
sense-perceived world... Along with these gains there has been an 
Ignoring of, and even a bias against, systematic exploring of the 
•other half of human experlence-^-the realm of Inner experience of 
conscious and unconscious mental activities..." Consciousness has 
been described as much like an Iceberg ~ only minute part of It can be 
perceived by the senses The unconscious realm covers a vast new 
frontier: Intuition, vision, spirit, the creative process. 
Imagination, autoiomic functioning, reflexes, dream-like, habitual 
behavior, memory, pattern recognition, conceptualization. 

American Industrial Educational Processes, 1965-? 

American education 1s and Increasingly has been since 1865 another 
Industrial process. Our educational system has developed a 
corresponding thought process with Industry which Is at once rational, 
objective, reductive, linear and pragmatic. American Industrial 
education has produced an "Incredible Hulk" of reading, writing and 
arithmetic on the one side of the student, and an "Invisible han" on 
the 3ther side which has hardly been developed. The very traits we 
neerj to get us through the challenges as we approach 2000 AO - the 
main one being survival - are those most neglected: creativity, 
Intuition, Imagination, Jioy, hope, aspiration. Public education 1s 
presently undergoing one of Its periodic review;. The last serious 
critique was In response to Sputnik In 1957. Five major appraisals of 
American educational processes appeared during 1983. Not one 
mentioned the passing of the Industrial era. Not one mentioned the 
transitional nature of our time. Not one mentioned the need for an 
educational process that deals with the so-called other half of the 
self. Objective education, like science, Is a cultural artifact of 
Industrial America. In this time of transition from an Industrial era 
to a post Industrial era It would seem wise to devise an alternative 
educational process. For not only Is the Industrial educational 
process outmoded, the computer, the culmination of Industrial 
conmunlcatlons devices, will take over the linear functions of that 
paradigm. 



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Nature, The Grand Teacher of Prelndustrlal America 

Kature 1s the source of all learning. Education Is an ancient 
process of adaption. It Is an attempt to grasp nature In a fashion 
plausible to the time and convey It to the children of a given 
generatlor, Shamen and professors have been doing this for thousands 
of years. Nature was the grand teacher to the people of prelndustrlal 
America. Fredrick Jackson Turner spoke el'^^^jently of this In his 
watershed address before the American Historical Association In 
Chicago In 1393: "The Significance of the Frontier In American 
History:... that coarseness and stiength combined with acuteness and 
1nqu1s1t1 veness; that practical, Inventive turn cf mind, quick to find 
expedients; that masterful grasp of mater*'l things... that restless, 
nervous energy; that dominant Individualism, working for good and for 
evIU and withal that buoyancy and exuberance which comes with freedom 
— tnese are the traits of the frontier.." Such Is the magic of 
nature which Carl Oung like Henry David Tho^^eau before him has said Is 
the source of all creativity. Nature Is not to be found In the 
objective Cartesian-Newtonian defined methodology that we were taught 
In grammar school, nor In the Kuhnlan derivative, normal science, 
enforced upon us In latter life, nor In the curiously shrivelled words 
of Jacob Bronowski. What we need Is an "artistic method" of Inquiry 
that Is as powerfully Indeterminate as the scientific method has bsen 
aetermlnate. 

The Springfield Experiment, 1979-? 

The premise cf the Springfield Experiment Is that we are living In 
a time of transition, a time which bears witness to the decline of an 
old myth and paradigm and the rise of a new myth and a new paradigm. 
While no one book or document expresses Its philosophy. It will be 
built around linkages to all the energies of the earth, the self and 
the future. The* Springfield Experiment has attempted to devise a 
subjective educational process v^lch Is post-lndustrlaly based, 
mythological ly oriented utilizing pictorial symbols to categorize and 
define reality to link to the existing objective educational process 
which Is Industrially based, scientifically oriented and 
mathematically defined. The result Is a process which Incorporates 
the best energies of the both paradigms. We call our experiment 
Blocultural Education for It attempts to link all the traits of nature 
and culture and to consider them 1n both a rational and IntultWe 
fashion. It could also be called education with the corpus callosum 
In mind (or spirit). Our curriculum Is based upon the premise that 
education should mimic nature, not Industry. (400 students have spent 
up to 13 weeks In our program which will enter Its sixth summer during 
1935). Our curriculum attempts to trace the Journey of humankind 
through a thematic approach which Is divided Into three parts: Primal 
Studies, Historical Studies and New Studies. It utilizes the methods 
of guided Imagery, meditation, kinesethotlcs. journal keeping, dream 
work, vision quest, song, story and dance, ot^er approaches to 



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creativity and Intuition, etc. All of this Is In addition to 
traditional education and traditional courses which are tcught 
concurrently. Besides yearly goals, objectives and theip-^s the program 
encourages three major undertakings by Its faculty and students: the 
development and understanding of one's own personal myth, the 
development of at least one technical prof 1c incy. I.e. computer 
programming, along with a thorough understanding of the history of 
technology; and, the exploration of avenues of connections between the 
world of technics and mythcs. 

Conclusion 

Hans ChrlstUn Anderson's story of tne ^Nightingale* could 
probably stand as the metaphor of our time. A wondrous nightingale Is 
Imprisoned by a king so that h^ can always have music of unsurpassed 
beauty. The nightingale finally escapes. The king falls 111. The 
music box built to mimic the nightingale breaks down ~ after constant 
playing. The nightingale Intuitively returns as the king approaches 
death and sings him back to life. Then the king accepts the bird on 
Its own terms Just so he can hear the wonderous music 
occasionally. Of such Is the story of human nature In our time. Of 
such Is the story of our h^ 1th as a species. li Is hoped that we 
will have time to learn to accept nature on her own tennis and that our 
lives h»111 become "Attuned to the rhythms of nature. Of such should be 
our education. 



X. C. Fortner, Rosanne H. "Environmental Education Adoption 

Potential of Inservlce Horksh Participants 1n the U.S. and 
Barbados." Assistant Professor, School of Natural Resources 
and Coordinator of the Ohio Sea Grant Education Program, The 
Ohio State University, 2021 Coffey Road. Columbus, Ohio 
43210. 

Formal education progr--^^^ frequently Include teacher training as a 
mechanism for dlsserr^lratlon of environmental Information, curriculum 
materials, teaching techniques and the like. Diverse evaluation 
strategies gauge the effectiveness of such programs In terms of thel*^ 
Impact tn the teachers themselves, their curricula, end their 
students. Rarely, however, are such programs evaluated for their 
potential among differing populations. Reviewing the literature of 
inservlce education likewise does not provide such Indications of 
potential, because reports usually do not include a complete 
characterization of the participants. 

The literature of education contains many studies related to 
factors that facilitate the adoption of innovations. If It Is assumed 
that the infusion of environmental education Into formal school 
settings constitutes an Innovation for many, the adoption literature 
can provide an important means of predictln-^ the success of Inservlce 



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environmental ejucatlon programs. 

This study was designed to Incorporate the adoption literature 
with a comparison of teacher characteristics from Inservlce 
Envlronmeital Education workshops In two different cultures. The 
questions to be answered were: 

(1) What characteristics of teachers, of school situations and of 
Inservlce programs are related to predictable adoption of 
educational Innovations? 

(2) What are the characterV.tlcs of the voluntary participants In 
Inservlce Environmental education workshops. In Barbados and 
^n Ohio (representing the United States)? 

(3) riow do the workshop participants perceive the chararterlstlcs 
of the school systems that employ them? 

(4) What a^e the partlclpunts* needs for Inservlce Environmental 
Education? 

(5) What Is the likelihood that the participants will adopt 
materials and methods used In the workshops? 

WORKSHOP DESCRIPTIONS 

Four Inservlce environmental education workshops were conducted In 
1983-84, two In Barbados and two in Ohio, U.S. A, The worksiiops 
differed In funding source, presenting faculty and to some extent 
subject matter, but there were many similarities as welK All 
workshops Included faculty from the Ohio State University, School of 
Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Education. All had as 
their goal an Increase In environmental awareness among participants 
and the development of positive attitudes toward the environment, as 
well as encouragement to use non-text curriculum materials and open 
Investigative methods for Instruction. 

The format of the workshops consisted of (1) Introductory 
activities 'or acquainting participants and Instructors and 
establlshi z a precedent for Interaction; (2) alternate periods of 
subject matter presentations and hands-on activities; (3) field work* 
(4) group projects and Individual activities. For all portions of the 
workshop the Instructors encourageo Involvement of all participants. 
(Complete workshop descriptions are available from the author.) 

Some workshops were prepared In advanc*^ for distribution to 
participants. These consisted of curriculum materU.s from the Ohio 
Sea Grant Education Program, Projects COAST and ORCA, subject matter 
outlines, and other activities developed by the Instructors 
specifically for the local environment. All materials were evaluated 
during use and after the entire workshop was completed. In addition, 
each participant was asked to produce an original or adopted 
curriculum activity as a final ^ '^ss project. This served as c means 
of Applying Information from th^i workshop and .Tiaking an Immeuiace 
transition of the methods Into the classroom situation. The 
teacher-made materials were compiled and returned to all participant*^. 

PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS 

Each participant of the four workiihops completed a Teacher 



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Questionnaire which requested demographic Information, a description 
of the teaching situation an assessment of the school's 
facilities anH potential for environmental education. The number of 
males and females did not differ significantly between workshops, nor 
did the age of participants, which ringed from 25-55. Ten percent of 
all participants were school or school system administrators. The 
grades taught by the classroom teachers ranged from kindergarten 
through twelve, with more elementary teachers in Mentor, Ohio, and 
other worksliops having a range of grades represented. Of the Barbados 
teachers, 60-70X had the equivalent of a Bachelor's degree. Thirty to 
40X of the Ohio teachers held graduate degrees and 60X indicated they 
^ad taken .hree or more courses since completing their highest 
degree. Seventeen percent o' Barbados ceachers had this number of 
courses. 

A. School Characteristics 

As for teaching situations, 1/3 of teachers in both countries 
reported teaching more than 100 students per day. The subjects taught 
varied In Barbados with the announced content of the workshop; In 
Ohio, 40-50X of participants taught all elementary subjects, and 
another 40X were science or social studies teachers. For all groups, 
75X taught using a required textbook. The mode of Instruction most 
commonly used In all workshop groups was a total group Instruction. 

The school situations represented were quite varied. Half of the 
Ohio participants claimed that "a reasonable amount of money" would be 
available for new activities they might develop, but oniy 22% of the 
Barbados teachers expected such support. All Ohio participants 
Indicated that their schools could provide for trips away from school, 
while 1/2 of the Barbados teachers would find this impossible. Both 
groups (70-89X) regularly use classroom activities that are not 
Included In their textbooks, but many (36-50% U.S., 83X Barbados) 
found their schools' environmental education library holdings and 
other facilities to be less than adequate. 

Teachers in all groups expressed satisfaction with both teaching 
as a career and their own teaching situations, with up to 61X of the 
Ohio teachers claiming to be very satisfied. Sixty-four percent of 
Barbados teachers and 15X of U.S. teachers had never taught 
environ .lental topics. 

Participants were asked to Indicate how Important it would be to 
Include certain topics In future environ ^ntal education workshops. 
Responses diffe.ed between the two cultures, with Barbadians 
expressing greater needs for assistance with development of materials 
for strategies to evaluate both learner outcomes and teacher 
effectiveness. All groups indicated that teaching methods and local 
applications of subject matter were of greatest Importance. U.S. 
teachers In elementary schools considered It important to actually 
work through the curriculum activities, while middle and high school 
teachers wanted assistance with curriculum development. 



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CONCLUSIONS 

Based on these factors 1t 1s Ukely that teachers Involved 1n the 
four workshops have a better than average potential to becoming 
adopters of the Innovative techniques and materials presented. Many 
of the Ji*1opt1cn facilitation factors were Intentionally built Into the 
total workshop program, and 1t Is hoped that these factors will 
outweigh the potential problem areas. 

The Teacher Questionnaire should be modified to accomodate the 
cultures of other countries and to collect more Information cn 
community characteristics and professional activities of the 
teachers. This would facilitate prediction ot workshop success. 

In future workshops an effort should be made to Involve school 
administrators on a larger scale, especially In developing countries. 
These Individuals can not only encourage Innovation but also provide 
the *cl low-up support that may not be possible through overseas 
communications systems. 

In order to extend the results of this research, three quest' tif.b 
are offered as a basis for cooperative efforts with others workin^ 
environmental education for developing countries: 

1. What testing Instruments are suitable for measuring teacher 
characteristics In different cultures? 

2. What teacher characteristics facilitate adoption of 
educational Innovations In developing countries? 

3. Can adopter characteristics be developed or can their 
acquisition be facilitated by providing training and 
exparlence In Innovation? 

Educatlcnal change has historically moved at a glacial pace. 
Perhaps there are ways to speed Innovations by combining the results 
of previous researc^. with what we have learned of the educational 
systems of different cultures. 



X. 0. Nines, Jody M. "An Analysis and Synthesis of Research on 
Responsible Environmental Behavior: A Heta Analysis". 
Assistant Professor, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar 
Falls. Iowa 50613- 

Responsible environmental behavior Includes those behaviors 
Initiated by an Individual, with the aim of remedldting an Identified 
environmental problem (Peyton, 1977). The development of Individuals 
who Intentionally engage In such behaviors Is the overriding goal of 
environmental education (Rolh, 1970; Hungerford t, Peyton, 1976; Stspp, 
1971.). 

This goal Is net one which can be easily attained and Indeed It 
has not as yet been realized (Roth, 1981; Hungerford & Volk, 1983). 
The process of altering human behavior Is extremely complex and Is 
dependent upon possessing knowledge of variables which Influence the 
desired behaviors. Such Information Is vital to the environmental 
educator for Its potential In terms of providing a sound empirical 



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base on which to construct appropriate curricula for the successful 
development of environmentally responsible behaviors* 

Despite a significant Increase In empirical research In this area 
over the past decade, research efforts have not provided environmental 
educators with a clear picture of the necessary components of such an 
educational program. While a tremendous variety of variables have 
been Investigated In relation to behavior In an environmental context, 
there Is at present, no agreement among researchers as to which of 
these variables appear to be most strongly associated with responsible 
environmental behavior* 

The research reported here attempted to address this problem* An 
analysis and synthesis of environmental behavior research was 
conducted In an effort (1) to determine those variables which have 
been Identified in the research as being associated with responsible 
environmental behavior, (2) to determine the relative strengths of the 
relationships between each of these variables and responsible 
environmental beh<^v1or, and (3) to develop a model of variables 
associated with environmental behavior which would be mcst 
representative of the research synthesized in the Investigation* 

The primary methodology employed In accomplishing these goals 
Involved the use of the Schs«1dt-Hunter meta-analysis techniques 
{Hunter, Schmidt, & Jackson, 1982). Meta-analysis is the term applied 
to groups of precise statistical methods designed to Integrate 
empirical findings of studies addressing the same relationship. 
Meta-analysis allows the researcher to determine the relative 
strengths o^ the associations between the variables Investigated and 
responsible environmental behavior and thus provides a means of 
showing which aspects of the relationships are truly Important and 
which are only thought to be Important* 

Environmental behavior studies were located as a result of an 
exhaustive search of the literature. The search covered research 
which had been reported since 1971 and Included published works, 
dissertations, and fugitive literature. A list of 380 studies for 
possible Inclusion In the data set emerged from this search. 
Sixty-five of these works could not be located. Of the remaining 315 
studies, 128 were found to contain empirical data on the relationship 
between any number of var'iables and responsible environmental behavior 
and thus provided the data for this study* 

Characteristics and findings for each of these studies were 
transcribed onto coding sheets. Analysis of this data revealed a 
number of broad categories of variables which had been researched In 
association with responsible environmental behavior. These categories 
Included cognitive, personality, and demographic variables as well as 
a category of experimental studies comprised of behavioral 
intervention approaches and classroom strategies aimed at encoura^'i^g 
responsible environmental behavior* These categories provided the 
organizational structure for the meta-analysis of tiie data. 

The following findings emerged from the meta-analysis: 

1. The variables which were found to be most strongly associated 
with responsible environmental behavior and the relative strengths of 



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these c ,1at1ons, as represented by an average correlation 
coefficient were: a. an individual's intention to take action (r s 
.491), b. locus of control (r « .365), c. attitudes toward the 
environment ^ id toward taking action (£ « .347), d. personal 
responsibility felt to help alleviate environmental problems (r ^ 
.328), and e. knowledge of environmental issues and of the modes of 
taking action on these issues (r « .299). 

2. Extremely weak to non-existent relationships we'^e detected 
between the following variables and responsible to human behavior: 
income, age, educational level, gender, and an individual's economic 
orientation. 

3. The behavioral intervention studies which were meta-analyzed 
were all found to be effective in increasing the incidence of 
responsible environmental behavior. These strategies and their 
corresponding average r values were: a, the use of verbal and written 
appeals (r = ,707), b, the offering of incentives (r = .690), c. 
providing information to subjects (r = .472), and d. providing 
feedbacK to subjects (r. = .^^67). 

4. The mode by which behavior was assessed was found lo have a 
moderating effect on study outcon^s. In most cases, higher 
correlations between the variables assessed and environmental behavior 
were obtained from studies in which measures of actual behavior were 
employed as opposed to those studies which relied upon self-reported 
behavio"" assessments. 

5. Study outcomes were affected by the population sampled. In 
all c<«ses, hiyher correlations uetween the variables assessed and 
responsible environmental behavior were detected in those studies 
whose samples were comprised of individuals with ties to in 
environmental organization (e.g. Sierra Club). 

6. Experimental design was found to have moderated study 
outcomes. In most cases those studies which employed pre-experimental 
designs reported substantially larger changes in behavior than were 
observed in quasi-experimental and true experimental design studies. 

I?ased on the findings summarized above and on additional findings 
presented in the original research (Hines, 1984), a model of 
environmental behavior was formulated. One essential component of the 
proposed model was an IndividuaTs intention to take action, which 
while directly linked to behavior, also appeared to be strongly 
influenced by, or perhaps merely an artifact of, a number of other 
variables operating in combination. These other variables included 
cognitive knowledge, cognitive skills, personality factors, and 
situational variables. 

The rpodeTs pathway implies that before an individual can 
intentionally act on a particular environmental problem, that 
Individual must be cognizant of the existence of the problem. In 
addition, that person must also possess knowledge of those courses of 
action w<>tch are available and which will be most appropriate in a 
given situation. Another critical component related to behaving 
responsibility towards the envlrori.nent appears to be skill in 



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appropriately applying this knowledge to a given problem. These 
cognitive skills, combined with the appropriate knowledge, endow 
individuals with the abilities needed to act upon environmental 
problems. 

However, in addition to possessing the ability to act, an 
Individual wust also possess a desire to behave responsibly. One's 
desire to act appears to be related to a host of personality factors. 
These Include attitudes, locus of control, and an Individual's sense 
of personal responsibility. A person who possesses positive attitudes 
toward the environment and toward taking action, who has an Internal 
locus of control, and ?iho feels a personal responsibility to help 
solve environmental problems, will be wore likely to behave 
responsibly toward the environment than will an Individual who does 
not possess these characteristics. 

The proposed behavioral model also Indicates that situational 
variables such »s economic constraints, outside Intervention, and 
opportunities to '•.hoose different actions, may enter the picture and 
serve to either counteract or to strengthen the operation of those 
variables In the model. For example. If an Individual has the 
ability, desire, and opportunity to help stop pollution by 
contributing to a local toxic waste fund, but simply cannot afford to 
do so, that person will not engage In the environmental action. 
Situational factors may also act to Increase the incidence of 
responsible environmental behavior. For Instance, a person may curb 
energy consumption only to save money. While this person obviously 
possesses the knowledge and abilities to conserve, his actions have 
likely not stemmed from a deep-seated desire to conserve fossil fuels 
for the good of society and of the environment as a whole, but rather 
from personal and financial bases. Thus, In situations In which 
Individuals do not possess those personality characteristics which 
lead to a desire to help alleviate environmental problems, these 
Individuals may be enticed into behaving responsibly by the 
manipulation of situations In which environmental beha-lors are 
rewarded and anti -environmental behaviors are penalized. 

Meta-analysis of the data did not ailow the determination of the 
Interrelationships between each of the factors In the proposed model. 
In addition, t^'ls research was limited by the na*-ure of the variables 
which researchers have chosen to Investigate. In *hat where only one 
or two studies were located on a particular relationship (e.g., 
adrogyny vs. behavior), findings were not meta-analyzed. Despite 
these limitations, however, it Is possible to provide environmental 
educators with knowledge of those factors which appear to be essential 
to the development of environmentally responsible Individuals. 

The proposed model Indicates the necessity of the de"elopp;ent and 
Implementation of environmental educational approaches which address 
both affective and cogn1t1 'e experiences and which provide Individuals 
with opportunities to develop and to practice those skills necessary 
to act on environmental problems. While the research synthesized 1n 
this Investigation was unable to specify precisely how the affective 
component might be addressed 1n the EE curricula, the knowledge and 



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skill components can be addressed via Issue tdentif Ication, issue 
investigation, and action-taking approaches (Ramsey, 1979; Klinger, 
1980). It Is essential that EE curriculum development efforts become 
more focused on these aspects if the ultimate goal of environmental 
education is to be achieved. 

Reference List 

Nines, J.M. An Analysis and Synthesis of Research on Responsible 
Environmental Behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1984. 

Hungerford, H.R., & Peyton, R.B. Teaching Environmental Education . 
Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch. 1976. 

Hungerford, H.R. & Volk, 6.L. "The Challenges of K-12 Environmental 
Education." Paper presented for a National Association of 
Environmental Education Monograph, 1983. 

Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, F.L., & Jackson, 6.B. Meta-analysis: 

Cu mulating Research Findings Across Studies . Beverly Hills, CA: 
Sage, 1982. 

Peyton, R.B. An Assessment of Teachers' Abilities to Identify. Teach, 
and Implement E ivironmental Action Skills . (Doctoral 
dissertation, Sourthern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1977). 

Roth, R.E. "Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Management Education 
(K-16)." The Journal of Environmental Education . 1970, 1:65-74. 

Roth, R.E, "The Whole Earth: an EE Perspective." The Journal of 
Environmental Education . 1981, 12(2), 1-2. 

Stapp, W.B. "Environmental Encounters." In Schoenfeld, C. (Ed.) 
Outline of Environmental Education . Madison, WI: Oembar 
Educational Research Services, Inc., 1971. 



y I Panel: "Predicting Environmental Behavior." PANEL CHAIR: 
Harold R. Hungerford, Professor, Southern Illinois 
University-Carbondale, Illinois 62901, USA. PANELISTS: 
Audrey N. Tomera, Professor, Southern Illinois 
University-Carbondale, Trudi L. Vclk, Assistant Professor, 
Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky; Archie P.C. Sia, 
Assistant Professor, Rockhurst College, Missouri; Jody M. 
Hines, Assistant Professor, University of Northern Iowa. 

The development of environmentally responsible and active citizens 
has become the ultimate goal of environmental education (Hungerford & 



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Peyton, 1976; Roth, 1970; Stapp, 1971). A national survey of 
professional environmental educators, conducted by Volk (1983), found 
overwhelming support among environmental educators for the Importance 
of this goal. Yet these same Individuals also feel that this goal is 
not being achieved. Volk points out the pressing need to develop new 
curricula which address the environmental behavior goal. 

One of the major impediments to the accomplishments of this goal 
has arisen as a result of a lack of knowledge of those factors which 
Influence the development of environmentally responsible individuals 
(L1nke, 1980). Bruvold (1973) considers this problem to stem, in 
part, from a lack of theory to guide environmental behavior research. 
In order to ameliorate this shortconing, a theoretical framework for 
environmental behavior prediction is needed. 

Mines (1984) has taken a step in the establishment of such a 
theoretica framework by conducting a meta-analysis of environmental 
behavior research. Heta-analysis consists of a group of explicit, 
unambiguous and operationally def ^led methods for Integrating 
empirical research findings (Hunter, Schmidt, & Jackson, 1982). 
Applied to environmental behavior research, such techniques allow the 
determination of the relative strengths of the relationships between 
the variables which have been researched and responsible environmental 
behavior. Thus, meta-analysis provides a means of determining which 
relationships are truly important and which are only thought to be 
Important. 

In Hines' study, an exhaustive search of the literature was 
conducted in an effort to locate empirically bared environmental 
behavior research which had be»n conducted since 1971. This search 
yielded a list of 380 studies :or possible inclusion In the data set. 
Of these, 128 studies were found to contain empirical data on the 
relationship between a number of variables and responsible 
environmental behavior. Analysis of these studies resulted in the 
emergence of a number of broad categories of variables which research 
has found to be associated with responsible environmental behavior. 
These categories include cognitive variables, psycho-social variables, 
and uemographic variables, six of these factors mentioned above were 
shown by the meta-analysis results to be associated with responsible 
environmental behavior. These variables, along with their average 
correlations, are: (1) an individual's intention to take action 
(I--«1). (2) locus of control ,r - .365), (3) attitude toward some 
aspect of the environment or toward taking action (r = .347), (4) 
personal responsibility felt to help alleviate environmental problems 
(r = .228), and (5) knowledge of environmental Issues and of the modes 
of taking action (r = .299). 

Based on the findings mentioned above, and on additional data 
summarized in her research. Nines formulated a model of responsible 
environmental behavior. The essential components of the model include 
an individual's intention to take action, which, in turn, is directly 
linked to an Individual's knowledge of environmental Issues, knowledge 
of how to take action of these issues, skill in the application of 
this knowledge to environmental Issues, and *-o a number of personality 



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factors which include attUudes, locus o< control, and personal 
responsibility. 

Some of the variables mentioned In this model have been 
Investigated by Sla (1984). Sla's research examined the relative 
contributions of eight variables In predicting overt environmental 
behavior. These predictors were: (^) level of environmental 
sensitivity, (2) perceived knowledge of environmental action 
strategies, (3) per» iklll In using environmental action 

strategies, (4) pert ^eu Individual locus of control, (5) perceived 
group locus of control, (6) psychological sex role classification, (7) 
belief In/attitude toward pollution, and (8) belief 1n/att1tude toward 
technology. 

Stepwise regression revealed that the best predictors for all 
respondents, accounting for 49.24X of the variance, were perceived 
skill In applying environmental action strategies (34.54X), followed 
by level of environmental sensitivity (12.92%) and knowledge of 
environmental action strategies (1.78X). Separate analyses of the 
comparison groups. Sierra CWB members and an Elierhostel group, 
revealed that the best predictors for the Sierra Club sample, 
accounting for a total of 4CX of the variance, were perceived skill In 
applying environmental action strategies (30.15X) and level of 
environmental sensitivity (S.^'^X). The best predictors for the 
Elderhostel sample, accounting for a total of 64. 50% of the variance, 
were levels of environmental sensitivity (45.24X), skill In the 
application of environmental action strategies (13.41X), and group 
locus of control (5.91%). 

Together, the descriptive studies conducted by Hines and S1a 
provide support for the Importance of specific knowledge, skill, and 
affective components In the prediction of pro-environmental behavior. 
Yet, these studies are correlational In nature; evidence of a causal 
link between these variables and environmental behavior cannot be 
gained from studies such as these. However, experimental studies 
reported by Ramsey (1900) and by Kllngor (1980) do provide the support 
needed concerning the Importance of these variables In the deveK '^ent 
of environmentally responsible individuals. 

In a quasi-experimental stuay, Ramsey (1979) Investigated and 
compared the educational and behavioral outcomes of two discrete EE 
methodologies, one directed at issue awareness and the other focused 
on environmental action training. The case study group was exposed to 
information concerning knowledgi? of environmental issues and knowledge 
of how to act on some of these issues. A second treatment group not 
only received knowledge of environmental issues and how to take action 
on these issues, but also learned issue investigation skills, 
identified implicit value positions associated with environm^^ntal 
problems, f.utonomously investigated environmental problems, and 
applied environmental action strategies to real environmental issues. 
One of the dependent variables measured was student's self-^reported 
over! environmental behaviors above and beyoH those associated with 
school . 

Analysis of the post-test results revealed that the action group 



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reported engaging 1n a significantly greater number of overt 
environmental action behaviors than did either the case study :ir the 
control groups. In addition, no significant differences In the number 
of self-reported behaviors reported by the control group as compared 
to the case study group were detected following treatment. 

Kllnger (1980) applied the same Instructional model used by Ramsey 
and concluded that the Instruction did result In a significant 
Increase In overt environmental actions reported by students. He 
further Inferred that there appeared to be a relationship between 
environmental action training and the dej^lre to engage In further 
environmental actions. 

These studies provide further evidence for the Importance of the 
Inclusion of knowledge of environmental Issues, knowledge of 
environmental action strategies, end the opportunity for the 
application of this knowledge and skills to real Issues. The findings 
of the Ramsey and Kllnger studies also emphasize that knowledge 
without the skills needed to apply that knowledge to the problem, does 
not result on the desired behavior changes. If w.» are to meet the 
goal of environmental education, which Is to produce environmentally 
responsible citizens who can work for a balance between quality of 
life and quality of environment, it Is Imperative that those predictor 
variables Identified In the research summarized above be af''iressed In 
EE curriculum development and Instructional practice. 

Reference List 

Bruvold, W.H. "Belief and Behavior as Determinants of Environmental 
Attitudes." Environment and Behavior . 1973, 5(2) :202-218. 

Hines, J.H. An Analysi s and Synthesis of Research en Responsible 
Environmental Behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1984. 

Hungerford, H.R., 8, Peyton, R.B. Teaching En vi ronmental Education . 
Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch, 1976. ~~~ ^ 

Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, F.L., & Jackson, G.B. ?^?ta-ana1>«s1s: 

Culminating Research Fin din gs ; r ross Studi es. Beverly Hills. CA: 
Sage, 1982. " 

Kllnger, G. The Effect of an Instructional Sequence on the 

Environmental Ar tlon Skills of a Samole of Southern Illinois 
Eighth Graders. Unpublished masters research paper. Southern 
Illinois University at Carbondale, 1980. 

Linke, R.o. "Achievements and Aspirations In Australian EE." Journal 
of Environmental Education . 1981, 12(2):20-23. 



311 



309 



Ramsey, J.M. A Comparison of the Effects of Environwental Action 
Instruction and Environmental Case Study Instruction on the Overt 
Environmental Behavior of Eighth Grade Students . Unpublished 
masters theses, Sourthern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1979. 

Roth, R.E. "Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Management Education 
(K-16)." The Journal of Environmental Education . 1970, 1:65-74. 

Sla, A. P. An Investigation of Selected Predictors of Overt 
Environmental Behavior . Unpubllshe^i doctoral dissertation. 
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1984. 

Stapp, W.B. "Environmental Encounters." In Schoenfeld, C. (Ed.) 
Outlines of Environmental Education . Hadlson, WI: Dembar 
Educational Research Services, Inc., 1971. 

Vo^k, G.L. "A National Survey of Curriculum Needs as Perceived by 
Professional Environmental Educators." (Doctoral dissertation. 
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1983). Dissertation 
Abstracts International . 1983, 44(5), 1327A (University Microfilms 
Ho. 83-21,474). 



IX. F Larson, Mark A. "Theory Building In Environmental 

Education." Associate Professor, Journalism Department, 
Humboldt State University, Areata, California 95521, USA. 

That future history will be a race between environmental education 
and environmental catastrophe Is quite clear. Therefore, 
environmental educators have set out to help bring about Informed 
environmental policies for society that will be compatible with the 
maintenance of a suitable planetary environment (Pettus, 1976). 

In order to accomplish this, environmental education must produce 
a citizenry that Is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical 
environment and Its associated problems, aware and skilled ln how to 
become Involved 1n helping to solve these problems, and motivated to 
work toward their solution (Stapp, 1969). Presumably, then, 1t would 
serve society If It were known how to more effectively change 
Individuals Into "environmental activists," I.e., "persons who have 
changed or directed their lifestyle to Include more environmentally 
sound practices (such as reducing energy and resource consumption) and 
have worked 1n society, either Individually or with groups who shared 
their goals, to conserve natural resources and to slow, halt or 
prevent environmental and ecological problems, crises or pollution 1n 
any form" (Larson, 1977). 

The difficulties of this task have been compared to the 
difficulties of the early alchemists: 

Environmental comirtunlcators often arrive at a purpose closely 

parallel to that of eai ly alchemists who sought to transform less 



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desirable metals into gold. The environmental conraunlcator, ^oo, 
begins with a material of lesser quality - the unlovely human 
mind, 1n many instances wholly lacking In environmental awareness 
and ecological values. The communicator hopes to add something to 
the cognitive material that will elevate It to a state of 

•ecological conscience." The problem Is to discover the 

manipulations, the treatments that bring this transformation about 
(Schramm, 1973). 

Unfortunately, it Is still true, despite LowenthaTs (1972) early 
criticisms, that while research contributions to the understanding of 
environmental perception and behavior have Increased In number, the 
field fis a whole remains essentially unorganized and disjointed. What 
Is lacking is a unifying theoretical model which brings together the 
range of variables that may account for variability In environmental 
activism, and which could serve as a framework for organizing previous 
research findings: 

It Is only the construction of theorttlcal edifices and the 
Invention of constructs and postulatlon of processes ... that will 
allow us to Interpret the meaning of our empirical findings and to 
engage In cautious but essential generalizations to situations 
different from those dealt with In a particular study (Wohlwlll 
and Carson, 1972). 

This research proposes, therefore, a theoretical model to use as a 
guide while Investigating Influences In the socialization process of 
environmental activists. The socialization of environmental activists 
Is conceptualized as the process by which an individual acquires 
environmental attitudes, values and Interests; knowledge of 
environmental problems, motivation to participate in environmental 
activities; and a psychological Identification with a reified group 
called "envlronmentf^l activists." 
THEORETICAL OVERVIEW 

The term "socialization" is usually defined as: processes by which 
Individuals learn to participate effectively in the social env^.onment 
(Ward, 1972): as the whole process by which an individual develops, 
through transactions with other people, his/her specific patterns of 
socially relevant behaviors and experience (Zigler snd Child, 1969>; 
Or tho process by which Individuals acquire the knowledge, skills and 
dispositions that enable them to participate as more or less effective 
members of groups and society (Brim and Wheeler, 1966). 

A key assumption of the socialization perspective Is that to 
understand human behavior, researchers mus specify social origins ov 
that behavior and the processes by which It Is learned and maintained 
(McLeod and O'Xeefe, 1972). Simply making a roster of the 
soda Izatlon Influence upon environmental activists Is viewed as a 
difficult and probably dysfunctional task, however, because of their 
potentially unlimited number. Instead this research proposes to 
Include In this model of the socialization process of environmental 
activists only the major categories of Influence variables commonly 
used 1,1 socialization research. This model expands upon one of the 
few attempts in the literature on environmental attitudes and behavior 



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to explain 1n schematic fashion the range of Influences on an 
Individual which affect behavior (Sonnefeld, 1972). and an outline of 
the major problems In political socialization research (Dennis, 1968). 

Figure 1: MODEL OF SOURCES OF INFLUENCE IN THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS OF 
ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISTS 



learning Process 



Agencies 



Maturation Generation 



Action/Reaction Style 

a. Cross-cultural Variation 

b. Sub-cultural Variation 



Interaction 



STIMULUS FIELD + INDIVIDUAL 



Environmental Activism 



Content 



Feedback 



System Relevance 



Environment 



Each Influence category describes different Input, but all 
Interact In the final socialization process since the Influence 
stimuli must go through the Individual before being translated Into 
behavior. The model does not emphasize any one Influence category, 
until research findings are available to support modeling main effects 

The model Is then used as a theoretical framework for organizing 



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research that already exists 1n the area of environmental attitudes 
and behavior. Here, tho socialization Influence categoric^ are defined 
briefly, along with suggestions for their use In future research Into 
environmental attitudes and behavior. 

SOCIALIZATION IMFLUEMCt CATEGORIES 
System Relevance: 

When we look at a number of Individuals collectively In a social 
movement, we can look at the body of shared knowledge, values, 
attitudes and behaviors that set that social movement apart from the 
rest of the population. As researchers, we need to discover the body 
of shared knowledge and environmental values, attitudes and behavior 
which maintains environmental activists as a social movement. We also 
need to explore the most effective means of bullying membership In the 
c .vlrcnmental movement 
Content: 

Environmental content Is that Information which Is transmitted to 
new members of the environmental movement which results In persistence 
of that movement. We need to study variables like environmental 
Interest or concern, environmental Information, party IdentUlcatlon, 
organization belon, ng and left-wing ideology, but we also need more 
explicit analysis of types of environmental content crucial to the 
effectiveness of environmental socialization. 
Maturation : 

If the circu ances of environmental learning are likely to 
affect Its character and relative transience or permanence, then we 
should also analyze the development of environmental socialization 
across the life cycle. The developmental antecedents of social 
attitudes and behaviors are the goals of researchers looking at 
maturation from a socialization perspective. We will need 
longitudinal data bases for this type of research. 
Generation : 

In a second temporal dimension, generational variation results 
from differences In experience of members of society who are born at 
different times, and these differences in experiences may become 
Incorporated Into the environmental socialization process. The 
research problem Is to discover how different each generational 
experience has been or Is likely to be and to understand what Impact 
this difference and Its effects may have when th3 ne^ generation 
participates In ♦ wlronm^ntal natters. 
Action-Reaction Style, Cro >: -Cultural Variation: 

This Influence area concerns Itself with variation In the 
socialization process acros*^ dK erent government systems. One could 
conduct cross-cultural comparison research with environmental ^.tlvlsm 
In different countries where It exists as well as look for reasons why 
environmental activism does not appear to exist In other countries 
Action-Reaction Style, Sub Cultural and Group Variati on: 

Differences In envlronmeii'cal activism within cultures and between 
groups due to sex, socio-economic status, religious preference, 
regional and geographical variation and so on are the objects of 



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analysis under this influence area. The research questions usually 
asked are: How extensive are these differences and how persistent? 
The Lea; ,.ing Process : 

We need to attempt to formulate a learning model of environmental 
learning that goes beyond describing what society (the system, its 
agencies, the teachers) does to or for the learne*. Dennis (1968) 
suggests the major thrust of past socialization research has been upon 
what the society does for the Individual. A different approach would 
be to observe the self-adaptive activities of the individual — how he 
or she attempts to make sense or an environmental system which he or 
she had no part in creating; this may include self-socializing 
activities as well as displays of resistance to society's 
socialization efforts. 
The Agencies : 

It is still important to know who teaches what to whom in the 
socialization process, so we need to identify which agencies have 
roles in given settings. How much influence does each have and what 
is the direction of influence? What factors explain the effects that 
each agent may have? The answers to these questions could vary from 
system to system, stratum to stratum, and early to late life-cycle 
periods, depending on how important a role was played by th<t agency. 
Interaction : 

This influence area includes all social contact with other 
individuals since communication is viewed as facilitating 
socialization, as well as being a product of that socialization. Mass 
media use is included in this area. As researchers, we need to know 
media use patterns, information-seeking behavior and which interaction 
influences are most important in the socialization process. 
Feedback : 

This influence area represents th^ individual's awareness of: (1) 
the actual efficacy and consequences of action, and (2) responses from 
other persons regarding that action. These represent information to 
the individual, and ue need to know whether that information could 
stimulate further environmental socialization and action or perhaps 
lead to inaction. 
Environment : 

Sources of influence within this category include actual 
geographic or spacial reference, physical data and individual 
perceptions cf one's natural and man-made or ^-influenced 
surroundings. We can analyze whether these pnysical and cognitive 
variables may be stimulating or inhibiting the socialization process. 
SUMMARY 

Researchers in the field of environmental socialization also need 
to ask: What are the types of environmental orientations and their 
spread over segments of the population? What is the leadership 
training and motivation of the "elite" wnvironmentr i activists? Does 
this specialist training differ from th^ general environmental 
activist socialization process? 

The most important task is to summarize the extant literature in 
environmental attitudes and behavior, according to the theoretical 



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framework offered here. Theory should be used to decide which 
virlables to study, and this sort of literature review should Identify 
^Teas where we need to direct future research. It should also provide 
more solid ground for generalizing about the "alchemy" of 
environmental educatlor. 
LITEkATURE REVIEW 

What follows (available upon request) 1s a summary of research 
f Indlrgs. 



References 



Brin, 0.6. Jr. and Wheelers, S. Socialization After Childhood: Two 
Essays. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1966. 

Chaffee, S. "The Interpersonal Context of Hass Communication." Kline, 
F.J. and Techenor, P.J. ed Current PerspivClves in Hass 
Communication Research . 1^ Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1972, 

Crittenden, J. "Aging and Party Affiliation." Public Opinion 
Quarterl y. 

1962, 26, 657. 

Lennls, J. "Major Problems of Political Socialization Research." 
Midwest Journal of Political Science , 1968, 12(1), 85«ri4. 

Gerbner, 6. "Communication and Social Environment." Scientific 
American , 1972, 227(3), 152-160. 

Gordon, T.F. Mass Media and Socialization: Theoretic Approaches. 
Paper presented for the Association for Education In Journalism, 
Madison, Wisconsin, August, 1974. 

Larsc*., M.A. An Investigation Into Environmental Activism. 
Dissertation at the University of Wisconsin, Madison 1980. 

i.owenthal, 0. "Research 1n Environmental Perception and Behavior." 
Environment and Behavior . 1972. 4(3), 333. 

McLeod, J.M, and G'Keef^^ G.J. Jr., "The Socialization Perspective and 
Communication Behavior." KUne, F.J. and Tichenor, P.J., ed. 
Current Perspectives In Mass Com^.^unl cation Research , Jk Beverly 
Hills: Sage Publications. 1972. 

Massen, P. "Communication and the Development of Presoclal Behavior." 
Asha . 11(5). 1975. 

Pettus, A. "Environmental Education and Environmental Attitudes." 
Journal of Environmental Education . 1976 8(1), 48* 

Schramm, W. Men. Messages, and Media: A Look at Human Communication 
New York: Harper and Row, 1973. 



o 317 
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Sonnefeld, J. "Social Interaction and Environmental Relationship." 
Environment and Behavior , 1S72, 4(3), 267-277. 

Stapp, w.o. "The Concept of Environmental Education." Journal of 
Environmental Education , 1969, 1(1), 30. 

Ward, S. Consumer Socialization . Paper presented to the Aroer^.can 
Psychological Assoc' "^lon, Honolulu, September, 1972. 

Wohlwlll, J.F. and Carson, D.H. Environment and the Social Sciences: 
Perspectives and Applic at ions. Washington, D.C.: A. P. A., Inc., 
1972, 298. 

Zigler, E. and Child, I.L. Socialization. Lindsay, 6. and Aronson, 
E., ed. Handbook of Social Psychology . Reading, Mass: 
Addison-Wesley, 1969. 



X. 6. Lubbers, James 2. "Analysis of College Students' Attitudes 
Toward Technology as Related In Environmental Problems." 
Assistant Professor of Science Education, SUNY College at 
Fredonia, Fredonia, Hew York 14063. USA. 

INTRODUCTION 

People often view technology as either having caused or able to 
solve most environmental prrjlems. Neither extreme Is realistic by 
Itself and. In fact, both conditions are valid to an extent. In 
courses where the role of technology Is discussed or Implicated In 
some relationship to environmental Issues, students may often be 
confused or Influenced by the biases Inherent In much of the 
Information presented. Understanding such attitudes can be of great 
Importance In helping students learn about the causes of and solutions 
to environmental problems. Attitudes of students enrolled In Scl 100 
(Contemporary loplcs In Science) or Scl 231 

(Pollutlon/Envlronment/Soclety) at the State University College at 
Buffalo during 1981 to 1963 were examined. The purpose was to compare 
the effects of the course content. Identify any trends or changes In 
attitudes among students throughout the two-year period, and to 
compare over-all attitudes with attitudes of students at Indiana 
University (Lubbers, 1984). 
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROBLEM 

It Is a well known fact that technology has both positive and 
negative consequences. Unfortunately, many of the negative 
consequences have been recognized too little or too late. 
Understanding how people feel about technology (broadly defined as 
aspects of our technological system) Is an Important first step In 
helping people understand environmental problems. The causes of and 
solutions to environmental problems Involve a myriad of factors 



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relating to technology, any of which can be defined on a contlnum from 
•purely system" to "purely Individual" In their orientation. Knowing 
which factors are which (cause or solution) and where they fit (system 
or Individual) are often open for debate, and depend largely o;i a 
person's attitude toward and understanaing of the technological 
system. Valid Identification of these factors depends on having a 
balanced perspective concerning the role of technology In society, and 
any bias for or against technology will automatically $kow one's 
perspective. If attitudes can be recognized, and If educators can 
promote a little mo^^e consistency among attitudes, the outcome should 
be a more streamlined and efficient declslon-maklng process. 

Environmental problems have helped people realize the "Faustlan 
Bargain" they have with Science and Technology (S&T) where they must 
learn to accept the bads with the goods. Since It Is easier \o blame 
S&T for the bads (rather than taking responsibility themselves), 
Public support for S&T has eroded In recent years* 

This change of attitude Is Important for several reasons and 
carries with It many Implications for education. First, It Indicates 
a fundamental change In the public perception of S&T which must be 
reflected In the manner In which S&T Issues are presented In the 
classroom. Second, It reflects a better, more abjective balance of 
perspectives regarding the Impacts of S&T In society which. In the 
long run, should help to minimize the negative Impacts. Although It 
can be argued that people cannot maintain an ambivalent or 
contradictory position for very long (Bybee, Harms, Ward & Yager, 
1980), at least understanding (but not necessarily accepting) other 
viewpoints, can lead to earlier resolutions of conflicts. Third, the 
change In attitudes signals the realization that all Impacts of S&T, 
both positive and negative, must be examined In order to achieve a 
rational balance between technological growth and environmental 
preservation. In the classroom, educators now have the opportunity 
and responsibility to refocus and. In effect, synthesize their 
concerns regarding the role of S&T In society. 
PROCEDURES 

This study was based on the development and validation of a survey 
at Indiana University (lU) In 1980, to measure attitudes toward 
technology as related to environmental problems (Lubbers, 1984). The 
survey was based on the constructs, PRC- and ANTKtechnology, which 
would help define attitudes characterized, respectively, as believing 
thctt S&T will solve environmental problems, and, that S&T have caused 
environmental problems. The survey was administered to a total of ten 
sections (5 each) of two different courses (Scl 100 & Scl 231) from 
1981 to 1983 at the SUNY College at Buffalo (SUCB). T^le purpose of 
this study was to see If a deliberate attempt to present technological 
and environmental Issues In a neutral fashion would have any effect on 
students* attitudes toward technology, and also, to Identify any 
trends over time and to compare the results with attitudes of students 
at lU In 1980. 

At SUCB, both Scl 231 and Scl 100 were Introductory science 
courses taken by a large percentage of the student body, ma'nly to 



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meet the science requirement for graduation. Five sections of each 
were taught by the Investigator during the period from Fall 1981 
through Spring 1983. These courses were designed, within limits, to 
address the nature of contemporary problems and Issues facing society, 
with Scl 100 focusing on the Impacts of techi^ology, and Scl 231 
focusing more on environmental Issues. Since both of these courses 
were "science* courses, It was predicted that the results would be 
similar and woulO most closely match those of students enrolled In 
E200 (Environment and People) at lU. Also, at lU, there was little 
change In attitudes during a one-semester period, so significant 
change In attitudes among students at SUCB was not expected. 
Regarding the two-year time ^raroe of administering the survey at SUCB, 
each class was a matched pre-post measure with that group of 
students--no attempt was made to measure attitudes of the same 
students over the two-^year period. The net effect was simply a larger 
sample of students. No trends were evident for the period 1981 to 
1983 for students enrolled In either course. 

Responses to the 28-1tem Likert scale were coded 1 through 5 for 
strongly agree/agree/neutral/dlsagree/strongly disagree by each 
student. Mean percentage response distributions (PROs) and subscale 
means for the 14 Items of each subscale, PRO and ANTI, were used to 
characterize attitudes. Since there were no significant differences 
between attitudes of students In either class or among students In 
different semesters, data for all ten sections were combined for a 
total H of 215. The results were examined for pre and post changes and 
compared with responses of students at Indiana University (E200 
students only, N of 95) . 
RESULTS 

For students enrolled In E220 at !U and for students enrolled In 
both courses at SUCB, changes In attitudes were very small pre to 
post but were In the "right" direction. For both groups (lU&SUCB) the 
mean PRDs and subscale means were "less extreme" on the posttest than 
on the pretest. Extreme agreement or disagreement with the Items on 
either subscale was considered to suggest an unrealistic attitude 
toward technology as related to environmental problems. The most 
extreme case would be If all respondents were to completely agree or 
disagree with all Items on one subscale and do the opposite on the 
other. This would illustrate an absolute Imbalance of perceived 
differences In the two roles of technology— causing or solving 
problems. A more realistic Interpretation of attitudes would be to 
recognize a baseline condition or generally accepted and prevalent 
attitude toward technology where there Is some degree of ambivalence 
present. This situation would be characterized Ideally by lOOX 
agreement on both subscales, PRO and ANTI. Since such results could 
not be expected realistically, a best case effect of course content In 
changing attitudes would be to strive for matched means and PRDs on 
both subscales regardless of absolute percentage values. Such 1s the 
case with the data derived from both study groups. There Is greater 
agreement with the PRO subscale than with the ANTI subscale for the 
pretest, but the values are about the same for posttest, thus 



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reflecting an "Improved" balance of attitudes. 

Subscale means were also used as a method for describing attitudes 
as measured by the survey. Item means on each subscale were averaged 
to provide subscale means for each group pre and post. Any value less 
than 3.000 would Indicate agreement with that subscale* and, as with 
the mean PRDs» Identical values on the two subscales would Indicate a 
balance of perspectives, whether agreeing or disagreeing. The means, 
as you would guess from the PROs, were closer In value for the 
posttest than for the pretest for both study groups. 

There were no significant differences pre to post. However, 
resfjlts for the two study groups are very similar. Both Illustrate 
slightly l*ss agreement with the PRO Items pre to post, and slightly 
greater agreement with the ANTI Items pre to post. In addition to the 
consistency between the two groups as measured by the survey, these 
results also suggest that attitudes toward technology are relatively 
uniform among selected college students from different parts of the 
nation and have remained quite stable among that age group since 1980. 
SUMMARY 

Support for technology has traditionally been somewhat stronger 
(NSB, 1981; Taviss, 1972). The bindings here and by others (Bybee, rt 
al., 1980; Etzloni & Nunn, 1974; NAEP, 1979) would suggest that this 
support Is on the decline, especially among the younger generations. 
In that an "antl* technology attitude is becoming a major concern. 
Increasing ambivalence may be an In^rovement as long as It doesn't 
become a problem Vi and of Itself In generating Indifference or 
confusion. With luck, anyone who begins to see the dilemma facing 
society, will also realize that something must be done about It. 
Understanding atdtudes toward the role of technology Is an Important 
first step In helping educators meet the needs of people as well as 
society. 

Deliberate attempts to present a balanced perspective regarding 
the Impacts of technology on the environment and on the way wa live 
can lead to a more rational and realistic understanding of the role of 
technology In society (Lubbers, 1981). Such an u'-derstandlrg can. In 
turn, possibly help us 1de:it1fy the causes of the many problems facing 
society and perhaps Improve our ability to solve them. If these 
perspectives get out of balance. It Is plausible that the natural 
environment will get the short (shorter?) end of the trade-offs 
between technological growth and the preservation of the natural 
environment. 

If we do not become more environmentally responsible, our ability 
to modify the world will be severly diminished for us through natural 
limits to growth. We must recognize our dependence upon both the 
natural and built environments In every decision we make. 

REFERENCES 

Rybee, R., Harms, N., Ward. B , & Yager, R. 1980. "Science, Society, 
and Science Education." Science Education , 64:3, 377-395. 



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TavUs, I. 1972. "A Survey of Popular Attitudes Toward Technology. 
Technology and Culture , 13:4, 606-621* 

Etz1on1, A., and Nunn, C. ^9'^4. "The Public Appreciation of Science 
In Contemporary America.-* Daedulus . 103:3, 191-205 

Lubbers, J. 1981. "SET Literacy: A Goal for the Perplexed." In 
Current Issues In Environmental Education and Environmental 
Studies VII , 95-99. 

Lubbers, J. 1984. Identification and Characterization of Students' 
Attitudes Toward Technology as Related to Environmental Problems . 
Ed.D. Dissertation, Indiana university. 

National Assessnnent of Educational Progress. 1979. Attitudes Toward 
Science. (Chapter 2, Science and Society), 25-72. 

National Sciences Boaru\ 1981, Science Indicators 1980 . 158-179. 



X. H Mills, Terence J. and Francis Fendersen. "Children's Concept 
of Earth: Preconception for Understanding the Biosphere." 
Professor of Science Education, Director, Natural Resources 
and Environmental Education Center, 306 Gunderson Hall, 
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA; 
Public School Teacher, Ponca City, Oklahoma 74601, USA. 

What an experience It would be to step out Into space and view the 
earth 1n this way, to visualize for the first time our planet as a 
whole. How sobering It must be to realize the earth's unique position 
1n the solar system. How much more we might appreciate and value our 
relat1on:a1p to the envelope of life and the planet It surrounds If we 
could take this viewpoint? Unfortunately, at present, this experience 
Is reserved for the select few who have traveled In space. Being 
earth bound, how does one develop a holistic view and appreciation of 
our planet? 

Investigating elementary children's understanding or "notion" of 
earth Is the focus of the research presented here. From an 
educational standpoint, development of the earth notion has 
significance for Instruction and curriculum development In the social 
sciences as well as the physical and biological sciences. The 
concepts of earth's shape, gravity and position In space are included 
In the study of subjects such as geography, history, astronomy, 
physics and ecology, to mention a few. Perhaps most Important 1s the 
significance of the earth notion to concepts In the field of 
environmental education. Our earth Is a finite body In space. 
Children all around the world must grasp this Idea before we can 
expect them to deal with the Interdisciplinary aspects of 
environmental education and the necessity of International cooperation 



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for conservation of resources and pollution control. The awakening of 
a sound envlronniental and conservation ethic may ue predicated by the 
development of a notion of earth as a finite body In space. 

Armed with the knowledge of how we develop our concept of earth we 
iiiay better apply our collective efforts to maintain and appreciate 
that which sustains us. 

The Intent of this study was to Identify earth notions held by 
elementary students In a rural Oklahoma community and some of the 
significant Independent variables related to development of these 
earth notions. Using the structured Individual Interview procedures 
suggested In previous studies on earth notion. It was possible to 
identify and categorize the earth notions of Kindergarten, 2nd, 4th, 
and 6th grade students. Results of these Interviews support the 
finding of past research. Children In rural, U.S^A. hold generally 
the same notions of earth as did children In other studies. 
Suprlslngly, the distribution In the rural U.S.A. sample was skewed 
more toward upper notion levels than was the distribution In previous 
research. This seems to support the Idea of greater development of 
spatial perceptual ability for rural children. However, 
Interpretation of the results must not overlook possible 
discrepancies. The pre-lntervlew activities conducted to ensure 
better rapport with the U.S.A. children may also have Improved the 
responses. 

A number of Independent variables have been Included In past 
research to help account for the variance In earth notions by children 
nd have been found to be significantly related. Of these, age, sex, 
grade, parents' years of education, achievement scores, verbal 
ability, and spatial ability were Included In this study In an effort 
to further validate these findings. Although support was found for 
the significance of all of the above sources of variance, verbal 
ability, spatial ability, achievement scores, and sex were determined 
to be the more reliable predictors of notion Tevel. Other studies had 
not looked extensively Into the sources of Information In the home and 
school contributing to earth notion (with exception of Hall). 
However, both were found to be statistically significant In this 
study. The parent and teacher surveys were successful In Identifying 
Important experiences children have been exposed to, and further 
development and refinement of these Instruments should be continued. 

There Is a degree of readiness for earth notion subject matter as 
early as kindergarten. In the kindergarten saiiple, 18 percent were 
classified at level 4 and another 13.6 percent neld notions 2 or 3. 
Of those kindergarteners who demonstrated a relatively high 
understanding of earth concepts, most had been exposed to a wide 
variety of family experiences In the home. Including travel, books, 
science museums and esp<^c1ally discussions with parents. 

Meny experiences, although Intended to clarify meaning and further 
the child's understanding, may In fact further elaborate their 
misconception. The 6th graders In this study may be an example of 
such a case. Twenty-^slx percent of the 6th graders Interviewed 
believed we live Inside the earth (Earth r'>t1on level II). These 

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Students were generally average In verbal ability and achievement 
scores. How did these preconceotions develop? These students had 
received forenal instruction beginning in 2nd grade and yet their 
understanding is seen as conceptually naive when compared with 
external criteria. One surprising explanation for this anomaly came 
during a discussion about why they believe we live on a flat surface 
into the middle of the sphere. Several students related their 
experience in 5th grade of visiting a planetarium. They talked about 
how the sky looked curved and how we were In the middle. It seems 
very possible that the root of their alternative framework was the 
experience of seeing the sky projected on a curved celling with a flat 
floor at the planetarium. We can see here the Importance of exposing 
these ideas before they become stable and the foundation o?i which the 
child attempts to assimilate later learning. Although this 
explanation is yet untested, the Implications should be of special 
interest to planetarium directors and all instructors alike. 

The emphasis in the earth notion research to date has been placed 
primarily on understanding the development of children's concepts, 
improving methods for exposing their ideas and developing better 
instructional strategies. The Importance of the sa^'th concept Itself, 
although It may have been implied, has been a secondary emphasis. As 
advances in technology continue and as natural resources become moi^" 
and more a limiting factor, the significance of this basic concept 
becomes increasingly clear. 

Children develop basic attitudes at a young age, and when those 
attitudes are guided by major misconceptions, the effect may be 
carried into adulthood where significant resource management decisions 
are influenced. The research reported hero supports previous studies 
showing the prevalence of alternative frameworks in children of many 
ages even after receiving formal instruction. Attitude toward the 
earth's resources and a sustained high quality of life will be 
influenced by how we perceive our planet. Although it has not been 
the purpose of this study to investigate children's attitudes toward 
the earth, the need for such research is evident. 
Future Exploration 

A number of unanswered questions surfaced as a result of this 
study. For example, during interviews with K and 2nd grade children, 
the influence of older siblings on younger children's level of 
understanding was sometimes mentioned. This source of variance needs 
further investigation either as part of the earth notion Interview or 
as part of the home survey. 

It has been suggested that the interview itself may be 
instructional. Therefore, an experimental design with an interview 
followed by another interview one to two months later could offer 
important suggestions for development of improved instructional design. 

Textbook authors and environmental curriculum planners should 
consider the major preconceptions of children when developing 
curriculum materials. Teachers' guides need to include ideas for 
sequential concrete experiences for teaching concepts such as earth's 
shape, gravity and position in space. Existing texts should be 



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analyzed to determioe contents that contribute to earth notion 
development. It would be beneficial to have discrepant event 
activities included in texts to create cognitive dissonance and 
stimulate children's accommodation of a more mature earth concept. 

Classroom teachers must become aware of children's preconceptions 
before beginning any environmental education. It cannot assume that 
because a concept was covered last year the child has accomodated the 
necessary learning free of major misconceptions. It Is essential to 
begin where the child Is and this requires more listening on the part 
of teachers to assess this level. Correct answers on paper and pencil 
tasKs are not always the best measure of the child's true level of 
understanding. As suggested in other studies, the Plagetian clinical 
interview method should ba utilized more often by classroom teachers 
to assess student progress. For example, two students expressed a 
belief that gravity is in the atmosphere pushing things down. 

This kind of preconception must be identified by the classroom 
teacher, in fact, adriitional interview questions need to be Included 
which explore this or Keption. It is very possible that other 
level 4 children may i e held this idea however it was not Identified 
in this study. 

Kindergarten children must not be ignored! Other studies found 
2nd graders with definite alternative frameworks already in place. 
These ideas certainly had their roots In much earlier experiences. 
Any real attempt to understand the development of the earth concept 
and its influencing factors should begin before major preconceptions 
develop. Developing a rich base of experiences at the primary and 
preschool level will certainly enhance the growth of preconceptions 
compatible with mature concepts. An environmental earth notion 
teaching unit should be develop^u and tested in kindergarten. 

The curious question of the effect of trips to the planetarium on 
children's notions of earth will require further study before any 
serious conclusions may be drawn. A pre-interview followed by a 
planetarium trip and post Interview would be a good place to start. 
Perhaps one group might have some preparatory remarks prior to the 
planetarium show to sensitize them to the discrepancy in their 
|,erception uhile another group would receive no explanation. The 
possibility that the planetarium environment promotes developing a 
level two earth notion needs Investigation. 

Finally, and perhaps most important, children's attitudes toward 
conservation of resources, the biosphere or other environmental issues 
could be correlated with earth notion. Would children with less 
egocentric views of the earth have more positive attitudes toward 
conservation of natural resources? If so, this would add real support 
to the importance of developing level V earth notions in students. In 
addition, the earth concept's place in research and curriculum 
development, especially in enviroo'nental education, would be given 
appropriate emphasis. 

The study reported here supports research from California, New 
York, Israel, and Nepal. Regardless of the cultural setting of the 
sophistication of the population, major alternative conceptual 



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frameworks of the earth do exist. In addition, It would seem that 
children worldwide develop similar notions about the earth. Educators 
concerned with promoting a greater understanding and appreciation of 
our planet, earth, should find the research presented and cited here 
of special Interest. We must Join In a global effort to understand 
the nature of development of the earth concepts In children and the 
relevant experience promoting development of these concepts. With 
this knowledge we may have greater educational Impact on children who 
upon becoming adults must make responsible decisions concerning the 
resources of a finite earth. 



X. I Nelson. Ray A. "Cognitive Models for Developing Global 
Perspectives on Environmental Problems." Professor of 
Education, Bemldjl State University, Bemldji, Minnesota 
56601, USA. 

A visitor from another plant observing the American System of 
Education might easily conclude that In the beginning "God created the 
discipline." Since the earliest population explosion (In the 
B1b1e-where the begating begins!) humankind has seen fit to divide, 
dissect and parcel out the "Body of Knowledge" for convenience sake. 
We have become experts at creating "experts " who have In depth 
knowledge greater than the world has ever known! Indeed we need those 
experts but In our rush to create knowledgeable experts we have failed 
to stress the connections between disciplines. 

Harlan Cleveland (1984), Director of the Hubert Humphrey Institute 
or Public Affairs, University of Minnesota put It this way, "we have 
gotten very good at producing experts. But the limiting factor to our 
civilized energies Is our capacity to get It all together .to relate 
the parts of the whole... to see the Interconnections among the 
disparate 'facts', to play the Intervals as well as the notes. The 
linportant thing about any process Is not Its Isolated components; what 
makes them dynamic Is the connections between and among them ." 

In yet another context John Nalsbitt (1983) In his best selling 
book Megatrends echoes Cleveland's contention by stating: "We are 
moving from a specialist who Is soon obsolete to the generallst who 
can adapt." 

In the modern highly technical world we live In today 
specialization 1s very useful but also creates tremendous problems 1n 
solving our problems. Specialists fall into the trap of trying to 
solve problems as If they are Isolated and not related to anything 
else. 

Pollution for example Is a natural, social, economic and political 
problem. A solution to a problem such as pollution must take Into 
account these factors and consider long term, bread based ecologically 
sound solutions Instead of short term seemingly simple solutions. 

In summary, onr educational systems must teach the basics 1n a 
global perspective and to be more effective our specialists need also 



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to be generallsts. It 1s this writer's thesis that to deal with the 
global environmental problems we need people who can process, 
synthesize, and Interrelate the various aspects of environmental 
problems (social, political, economic and scientific). To assist the 
learner In this difficult and somewhat foreign tasllc we will take a 
look at some cognitive process models that may help In Interrelating 
and Internalizing global Information. 

The process of relating factual knowledge Into a coherent vehicle 
In /Gives a number of components. Probably the first and most 
Important Is a scheme for taking in and categorizing knowledge so that 
It can eventually be processed and Internalized. 

Figure 1 

Individual Model 



Social Emotional 



Intellectual Physical Body of knowledge 



If one visualizes the four circles In Figure 1 as wheels an a car 
representing various known components of the Individual and therefore 
the sum total Body of Knowledge about Individuals then the 
Inter-relatlonshlps begin to appear. For example, suppose for a 
moment you had a broken leg (Just suppose)! To study the total Impact 
on you of a broken leg we would plug the event Into the physical wheel 
of the car. It becomes obvious immediately that the damaged physical 
wheel of the car causes difficulties for the other three models and 
thus the operation of tne total vehicle (you). Damage any other wheel 
of the car and the results are the same. 

Let's assume for a moment that each of us Is a microcosm mirroring 
the world (mecrocosm). Using the analogy of the world and Its parts 
as a macrocosm and fitting It In to the "car" paradigm (Figure 2} one 
begins to see the Interrelatedness of all things. 



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Figure 2 



Soil 



H20 



Lifekind 



Body of knowledge 



Using the analogy of the self as a car being a rolcroview and the 
earth as the macrovlew one can make the "cognitive leap* of viewing 
an life processes in the same car analogy framework. 

Using a "cognitive" leap to relate a microcosm to a macrocosm one 
can see the interrelatedness of all things. (Figure 3) 



By Injuring a wheel of the paradigm one alters the functioning of 
the whole. 

The world is an extremely complex interrelated system. Our 
lifestyle and technology has given us the means to knowingly as well 
as unknowingly tamper with it. 

Pollute the environment and all life will have to readjust 
accordingly. 

Let's reverse the process of thinking our world to pieces, and 
start thinking the world back together again. 



Cleveland, Harlan. "Telecommunications and the Global Society." 
Address given to the Global Crossroads Conference Shoreham Hotel, 
Washington, O.C. 5-18-84, the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public 
Affairs, 1984. 

Hclnnis, Noel and Albrecht, Do. "What Hakes Education 
Environmental." Louisville, Kentucky: Data Courier. Inc., 1975. 

Nalsbilt, John. '•Megatrends", New York: Warner Books, Inc., 1982. 



Figure 3 



Microcosm 



Cognitive Leap 



Macrocosm 



References 



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X. J. Peterson, Ervand M. "A Research Alternative In Environmental 
Education." visiting Tutcr at Deakin University In Geelong, 
Victoria, Australia. Present address: 2213 Magnolia Ave., 
Petal uma, California 94952, USA. 

PriT to the 16th cantury most of the planet's population viewed 
the wo. J as organic. Individually and as groups, people related to 
nature In organic relationships shaped by spiritual and physical 
phenomena. The Church and Aristotle were the authorities of this view 
and the frameworic which defined It. This science was r(;:«;ed In reason 
and faHh, seeking to ultimately understand che meaning and 
significance of things. In the 16fi century this loving, organic, and 
spiritual universe was replaced by that of a great machine. 

It was Francis Bacon who proposed that society should begin 
building a true method of the universe such as It Is In fact, not as a 
man's own reason would have It be. This method or way of representing 
the universe would be In the fashion of mechanics, where there Is a 
"true" model; one that Is beyond man's own reason, one that can 
provide an objective understanding of the workings cf the universe. 
Bacon proposed that this objective knowledge rfould allow people 
command over things natural - over bodies, medicine, mechanical 
powers, and Infinite others of this kind. 

Isaac Newton adopted this mechanical view and applied Its 
principles to the phenaiiena Df nature dealing with material In motion 
and mathematical methods to xplain the universe. John Locke, the 
British empiricist, further applied these Ideas to knowledge and Its 
assessment, seeking to analyze not the extent, but the certainty of 
our knowledge, he argued that primary qualities of existence - bulk, 
shape, and motion - could be measured, thus establishing certainty 
abOMt the object. 

John Stuart MIM further ingrained the material and qechanlcal 
world view upon society. Mill states that "all things possess 
quantity; consist of parts wMch can be numbered; and In that 
character possess all properties which are caMed properties of 
numbers." These wltlngs supported Newton's work and the deductive 
character of the physical sciences which ied to presenting the 
universe as all phenomena operating In accordance with mathematical 
laws. Thus the world became a part of Bacon's "true" model In which 
an objective quantifiable understanding was paramount - the scientific 
metho d. 

The scientific method has four criteria which emerge as central; 
objectivity, measurement, control, and generallzablllty. The goai Is 
prediction oriented toward the discovery of theories that anticipate 
future occurrences with maximum probability. 

It Is this reductlonlstic approa-h and tradition of classifying 
that Is linked to the development of science as an Ideology and the 
sciences of medicine, biology, physics, economics, etc. This practice 
has continued to be refined and accepted by society to where "science" 



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1s viewed as "the" reality anc£ "real" research. 

Gregory Bateson made the following conments concerning present day 

education and research as "obsolete" referring to: 

What Bacon, Locke, and Newton gave to the physical sciences is out 
of date in 3 different ways: Pragmatically, It Is clear that 
these premises and their corollaries lead to greed, monstrous 
over-growth, war, tyranny, and pollution* . . 
Intellectually, the premises are obsolete In that systems theory, 
cybernetics, holistic medicine, ecology, and Gestalt psychology 
offer demonstrably better ways of understanding the world of 
biology and behavior, c^ As a base for religion, such premises 
become clearly Intolerable and therefore obsolete abo; t 100 years 
ago. In the 18th century, William Elake saw thft the philosophy 
of Locke and Newton could only generate 'dark satanIc mills' 
(Bateson, 1979). 

Bateson expresses the need to move away from the present mechanical 
view of the universe. The posltlvlstic Image of the world Is 
unnatural; we must delve more deeply Into the actual patterns of the 
universe. 

Bob Sample states that the world ^s an open s^'stem which operates 
on the premise of Inclusion, not exclusion as In a olosed system. The 
former being holistic, self-ger-^ratlng, and repattei nable, while the 
latlsr Is digital and linear. 

In the Western tradition we operate In a reductive mode - breaking 
larger preconceptions down Into components. We like the pieces, 
rather than wholes. The result Is "^a kind of philosophical chauvinism 
that ends In an elitism of reasons." (Samples, 1982). 

Consequently, truth and fact have become that which fits into the 
\forld of pulleys, levers, and falling objects. Thus our view of 
reality has become closed and fixed and we are not accepting of open 
systems as having "value" or of being able to study them as "science". 

The f:1tuat1ons In which environmental education occurs are open 
systems - nature centers, park trails, classrooms, :ommun1ty meetings, 
etc. They cannot be dissected Into components and inen assigned 
Integers - these are holistic life phenomena which require different 
strategies and philosophy of re*^earch. 

One approach which offers a .nore holistic view Is a 
phenomenologlcal/qualltatlve methodology. Philosophically, 
phenomenology uces not view subjects as being passive part^ *pant$ 
capable cf being ^manipulated but as Individuals who are Inteiitlonal 
and conscious beings. 

A seconr< tenet Is that of the llvcd-world, the everyday world of 
values, purposes, rules, social organizations, other people, social 
roles, etc., all components real to us In our everyday lives. It Is 
by going into vhls world that we gain an understanding of It. By 
becoming one with It If to understand Its meanings or reality *n at 
once, encountering the life-world and movTng with It, not ilsst *^1ny 
It Into components. 

This requires the researcher to become a part of the sce^e In 
order to analyze it through methods of observation or In-depth 



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Interviews. Gaining an understanding of the context Is one of the 
tasks of the researcher - this Is always affected by that moment In 
time, as well as by the experiences that the researcher and Informants 
share. 

The fourth tenet Is the concept of bracketing. As we bring with 
us our baggage of previous experiences, history, prejudices, and 
prejudgements, we cannot deny their existence. The qualitative 
researcher cultivates the skill of acknowledging, critically 
examining, and attempting to temporarily suspend these 
preconceptions. S/be studies prior research and theory bist attempts 
to look at the phenomenon with fresh eyes until experiences with the 
research setting suggests its relevance. Thus by suspending, or 
"bracketing" these and laying time out for oneseH and the reader, the 
researcher puts his/her Interpretation In a proper context. 

A fifth Issue Is the dialoglcal nature that Is essential to the 
research process. Through the dialoglcal process mutual understanding 
Is reached by the researcher and subject. It Is the result of 
exchange and naming of the world that the Inner world Is revealed to 
the researcher. 

The next concept Is that ot process versus product. It Is by 
revealing the Insights, wisdom, and understanding the situation that 
the reader and researcher determines applications from research. 
There Is not dependence on "experts" to create theories and laws from 
above, but a belief that ordinary people are capable of producing 
knowledge and analyzing it. 

Finally the presentation emphasis Is on communication to 
researcher and layperson alike. The style Is more literary than 
hidden In Jargon and pretentiousness, it seeks tJ paint a picture of 
the situation Including Lextures, colors, feelings, etc. - a rich 
account of experience rather than a superficial one. 

In conclusion this qualitative approach Is well suited for 
environmental education as It f.eeks to reveal the Integrated nature of 
our world and the participants who shape it. Environmental education 
situations are so variable that researchers must be sensitive to the 
uniqueness there and become one with It to understand and reveal Its 
essence. 



X. K. Puntenney, Pamela 3. "Environmental Education and a 

Responsive Pol Icy-Making Process: Pattern of an Essential 
Alliance." Environmental Education Consultant, Research 
Associate, School of Natural Resources, The University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. 

"rhink Globally, Act Locally"... "Man and the Biosphere". . ."Global 
Ecosystems "..."One Earth". . ."Development Strategies", familiar phrases 
to environmental educators and seemingly an enigma when viewed within 
the larger context of organizational efforts. Continued environmental 
degradation and rising concern for the "Quality of Life", shifting 



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population dynamics, Increasing technological Innovation* and growlig 
resource dependencies have and will continue to evoke liajor changes In 
social and economic frameworks. Since this Interactive and rapidly 
changing set of cultural and environmental Influences shapa the 
direction of policies and programs* there Is an Increased need for the 
development of responsive structures* especially In the area of 
knowledge systems* But where does ^nvlronmenta! education fit? 

The relationship between pedagogy and environment Is very complex 
and Its past riddled with notions about disseminating and Implementing 
environmental programs* As members of a global community* our avenues 
for education are but one small focsl point when the environment, botn 
natural and man-made permeates the life cf the organUetlon and then 
goes out through the Individuals who share Its various activities back 
Into the larger society. Within this framework* our avenues for 
educating are more tnan their structural components. Thv*y are 
cornnunltles of values derived from th'^ meaning of the wor'^d as 
experienced by Its participants. 

What Is new and what Is my particular aim here Is te ma. 
dimensions of envlronme/ital education In an organizational );text and 
to suggest Wat decision-makers Incorporate a responsive view of 
environmental learning into the repertoire of perspectives on planning 
and management strategies. The discussion will focus on several 
questions: What constitutes a responsive policy-making perspective? 
What are the essential pv'ocesses and contexts of learning In 
environmental education? And In «^at ways are organizational 
priorities linked to environmental education? While this effort Is 
necessarily expi^>ratory the purpose Is to broadly consider what a 
knowledge systems^ view of environmental learning might entail. 
EE 1s Part of a laroer Picture 

The Idea of learning strategy rests upon the premise that 
environmental education Is not an event per se but a process. 
Environmental education Is essentially concerned with developing 
educational structures that will allow people to learr throughout 
their lives acquiring skills necessary "to work Individually and 
collectively ' rd solutions of current problems and the prevention 
of new ones", m his article "One Nan*s Luxury Is Another Man's Need: 
How Education Can Sharpen Our Awareness of Environmental Issues", 
Peter Fensham IndlCr^^'is that these Issues Involve: "social values, 
political organlzr ^s* economic policies and structures^ 
technological conx. i and development, and national and International 
patterns of distributing resources". This list suggests that 
organizations Interested In educating people about the environment 
should not be Isolated from the community and implies that their 
efforts should be socially based. 

The environmental education movement has atteinpted to provide thU 
Impetus. Examples can be cited of great Improvements In educational 
efforts but some key problems persist that suggest that FF Is not a 
package to replace current priorities In an existing system or 
organizational effort but Is a crucial aspect of a larger picture. 

Since EE Is a process that Includes not only the natural but also 



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the social system that has Its own Inherent dynamics. It Is an 
approach to education that Involves more than a particular mandate, 
training package, currlculim design, or specific project. It Is a 
process essentially based upon relationships between the educator and 
the learner. 

Julius Nyerere, President of Tanzania, explains that self-reliance 
Is the key because people cannot be developed or educated. They must 
develop and educate themselves through a process of thinking, 
problem-solving, and acting. Problems have arisen with many 
International programs and projects because the educational component 
has been based upon old models that Impose knowledge and values. 
Existing local or Indigenous knowledge systems have been ignored or 
even undermined. These pre-domlnate models assume that X's knowledge 
needs up-dat1n^< and If one Just supplies that new Information people's 
behavior will change. The consequence of this approach Is that the 
chances of success are limited. The strength In Nyerere's vision Is 
that It points to alternative paths for envlroraft^ntal educators based 
upon the Integration of knowledge with pers(mal experience. 
Knowledg e Systems and Oroanl7at1onal Effectiveness 

The dynamic and Interacting environmental factors point to the 
need for like models of education that are responsive to the rapid 
changes In environmental understanding and conditions. Rather than a 
single knowledge base, there Is a need for knowledge systems coi^rlsed 
of an array of sources of Information. Oavid Hughes-Evans points out 
that schemes for holistic approaches to resolving the dilemma of how 
to begin to effectively address the complexity of environmental 
problems have emerged through such documents as the World Conservation 
Strategy developed by the International Union for Conservation of 
Nature and Natural Resources (lUCH) and Mankind at the Turning , the 
second report of the club of Rome. But sc far the educational 
Implications oi what has been proposed have not been adequately 
defined. As the tension builds between the benefits and costs of our 
environmental choices, the demand Increases for the need to know how 
to learn. The education of the public and the training and retraining 
of professionals and dec 1 son-makers requires educational mechanisms 
that are a vehicle for keeping pace with rapid changes. 

As organizations grapple with this Issue, several models are 
emerging. From the business community, Mitroff suggests strategic 
planning using a stakeholders analysis. Schon explores professional 
knowledge and purports the idea of ref lectlon-ln-actlon through 
Intuitive knowing. From the International arena, Drake et. al. show 
how useful Insights that yield a variety of planning and Intervention 
approaches must be based upon contextual and situational Information. 
Models and Issues are continuing to emerge around the notion of 
knowledge systems and effective action becau-e the s^.akes are higher 
and the costs greater for not being able to respond appropriately. 
Each calling forth the Important role participatory learning plays In 
understanding complex realities and deciding on a plan of action. So 
as environmental educators what Is our plan? Are we fully aware of 
how we can form the necessary links between our alms and the 

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priorities of society's systems such as literacy for formal schooling 
or long term change through development projects or corporate vitality? 
Patterns 

In studying the Oxfordshire, England system of education several 
key factors emerge that suggest the foundation for a learning strategy 
for environmental education* They are as follows: 

1) M vehicle for communication Is the lateral transmission and 
sharing of knowledge; 

2) The role of education Is based upon Integrating personal 
experience with knowledge; 

3) The focus of educating people about the environment Is not on 
teaching and the Imparting of knowledge, rather It Is on 
learning practices and knowledge systems. 

4) Environmental education Is not an event per se but a 
process. Mence It Is comprised of relationships that 
orchestrate learning strategies. 

And In response to the First Intergovernmental Conference on 
Environmental Education, 1977: 

The notion of problem solving should be founded on the Interest of 
the learner. Before 'Environmental Education can help people 
acquire an awareness of a sensitivity to the total environment and 
Its allied problems" and enable people to make decisions and to 
take action, the process must begin with the learner^s awareness 
and sensitivity to some aspect of the surrounding environment. 
I.e. what they personally experience. Problem-solving Is 
developed through the learner •s powers. Self-reliance, learning 
how to learn, expressing Ideas through a variety of mediums, and 
success are examples of factors that contribute to a responsive 
policy-making process and organizational effectiveness. These 
result In the development of problem*solv1ng skills such as 
learning to assess Information, being able to recognize and 
confidently utilize one's own personal knowledge and creative 
abilities, and developing a repertoire of communication skills. 
Therefore, It Is essential that the learner's viewpoint be 
Incorporated Into the carrying-out of a broad-based responsive 
policy-making structure vhat provides opportunities that 
capitalize on this source of knowledge Integration; this viewpoint 
Is valuable especially as an Integral piece of Information for 
those charged with designing and developing methods, training 
programs, and an array of learning materials to facilitate the 
process. 



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X. L. Robottoffl, Ian. "Evaluation In Environmental Education: Time 
for Change In Perspectives?" Lecturer, School of Education. 
Oeakln University. Victoria 3217, Australia. 

I^JSI^mfcry/uCTS"*^^ education is closely associated with the work 
of the UNESCO/UMEP program in environmental education. The landmark 
events of modern environmental education were the conference at 
Belgrade (1975) and Tbilisi (1977), and the language of the 
environmental education movement Is still dominated by that of the 
Belgrade Charter. One of eight "trend papers" presented at 
Influential working sessions at Belgrade was on the topic of 
evaluation In environm ental education . The question addressed here Is 
wfiether the environmental movement Is now In need of a change In 
perspective In evaluation. 

The environmental education movement since Belgrade has had a 
chequered history, with contestation at various levels. There has 
been contestation at the level of language (does the essence of 
environmental education reside In Its "education about the 
environment" form, or In Its "education fsL the environment" form?)- 
at the level of organization (is Improvement In environmental 
education programs best achieved through centre-periphery approaches 
or through local school initiatives?); and at the level of practice ' 
(what Is the relationship between conventional teaching patterns and 
environmental education?) 

The Belgrade trend paper on evaluation In environmental education 
was written at a time when considerable contestation and 
reconceptuallzatlon was also occurring In the field of educational 
evaluation. The ^o,^ of the dominant quantlvatlve, 
scientific/analytic approach to evaluation (rightly exemplified In the 
Belgrade trend paper as "the state of art") became contested by 
Interpretive and critical approaches. Methodological Issues debated 
In this ongoing period of reconceptuallzatlon In the field of 
educational evaluation Include epistemologlcal dllenwas (Is It 
reasonable to surtain a notion of objective knowledge?), ethical 
dilemmas (whose Interests Is the evaluation serving?), and procedural 
dilemmas (where does the locus of control of the evaluation reside?) 
However, developments In the field of environmental education appear' 
to have been Insulated from the influences of these debates In the 
field of educational evaluation. As the recent review of research In 
environmental education conducted by the NAEE shows, the dominant 
paradigm of evaluation In environmental education remains 
"scientific/analytic". 

The proposition has been advanced (see "Editorial", Journal of 
Environmental Education. Summer 1982) that the appropriateness of 
conventional approaches to evaluation of environmental education needs 
to be regarded as problematic. The Intention In this paper Is to 
address this proposition by considering the resonances between two 
different perspectives to evaluation ^n the one hand, and 
commonly-accepted characteristics of environmental education on the 
other. Both perspectives to evaluation (scientific/analytic and 



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critical) win be considered In respect of their eplstemology, locus 
of control, and Interests served In short. In respect of their 
•political theory V Finally, the argunient win be advanced that the 
choice )f evaluation paradlgii for environmental education wni be a 
deliberate one based on the relationship between the *pont1ca1 
theory" of the evaluation, and the Intentions of the program to be 
evaluated. 

Scientific/Analytic Approaches to Evaluation 

Scientific/analytic approaches are typically used to determine 
the effectiveness of a program. Congruence between goals and outcomes 
Is measured quantitatively and presaiud as an Indicator of program 
effectiveness. The evaluation design Is one In which learners are 
pre-tested and post-t€sted, and attempts are made to Identify and 
control most of the variables In the educational setting; the effect 
of the experimental variable (a changed activity In a program, or a 
"new" program) In achieving the program's obje4;t1ves Is determined. 
The Instruments used to measure student performance are developed by 
the researchers; an appropriate statistic Is employed to measure for 
statistically significant shifts In student performance In the groups 
"exposed" to the materials o"" activities of the program. 
Scientific/analytic approaches to evaluation are frequently used In 
the context of a centrally-controlled process of development of new 
curriculum materials (as In "Research, Development, Diffusion, 
Adoption" models). 
Critical approaches to evaluation 

Critical approaches to evaluation are represented here by action 
research . Action research Is a participatory, democratic form of 
educational research for educational Improvement* Action research 
recognizes that teaching, and educational practice In general. Is 
complex, problematic and uncertain and takes place a context that 
1s complex, changeable and political. It Is characterized by a method 
comprising recurrent cycles of three phases. There Is a Planning 
phase, in which existing personal practice Is regarded as problematic 
- the individual teacher looks for dissatisfactions, or areas with 
room for Improvement, In his/her own teaching. "Dissatisfactions" and 
"Improvement" are terms whose meaning Is embedded In theoretical 
discourse about the nature and purposes of the Innovation the sense 
1n which a partlcuUr practice can be Improved can be traced to a 
particular conception of the Innovation held by the teacher. What Is 
"planned" In this phase Is a teaching/learning activity In which It Is 
possible to exercise or manifest the sought-after Improvement. The 
"Action" ^nase occurs when the plan Is put Into practice In an 
educational setting. In addition to trying to manifest a desired 
Improvement In a teaching/learning activity, the teach-»r organizes a 
means of monitoring what takes place In that process (for example, the 
activity may be videotaped or audlotaped). The means of monitoring 
must be capable of detecting and recording when in Improvement {In the 
teacher's own terms; has occurred. The third phase Is "Reflection" : 
1n this phase, the data collected from monitored action Is analyzed. 
In particular, the teacher reflects critically on the relationship of 



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his or her practice (the monitored action) and h1s/he»- view of the 
Innovation (the "theory* of Innovation). 

Action research, then, Is Mediated by praxis , a process of 
critical reflection upon personal practice engaged in by the teacher. 
It alms at personal Improvement through praxis applied at the level of 
thought and action; It also alms at program and Institutional 
Improvement. 



X. M. Stevenson, Bob. "Curriculum Materials for United States and 
Australian Schools: An Explanation of the Theory-Practice 6ap 
In Environmental Education?". Wisconsin Center for Education 
Research, University of U1sconson>Nad1son, School of Education, 
1025 West Johnson Street, Madison 53706, USA. 

The Theory-Practice Dlleiiwa 

A number of authors have noted a discrepancy between 
Internationally accepted objectives for environmental education, as 
expressed In the Belgrade Charter and the Tbilisi Intergovernmental 
Conference Report, and the objectives emphasized In school programs 1»i 
both the United States (Childress, 1978; Hungerfard, Peyton &W11ke, 
1980) and Australia (Robottom, 1982). This apparent Inconsistency has 
been attributed In part to "the Inherent difficulties confronting a 
curriculum developer charged with the task of translating what are 
actually general goals Into manageable Instructional objectives" 
(Hungerford, et a1, 1980). 

On the other hand, Robottom (1982) proposed that the discrepancy 
can be explained by teachers' dominant presuppositions (often 
subconscious) about knowledge, teaching and schooling. These 
presuppositions Include: (l) knowledge Is discipline-based, objective, 
and value-free; (2) teaching Is the authoritative Imparting of factual 
Information which Is manifested In a didactic approach to Instruction 
wUh in almost exclusive reliance on texts and other second hand data 
sources; and (3) the purpose of schooling Is the socialization of 
students and the maintenance of the existing social order. Such 
generally held presuppositions, argued Robottom, are Mghly consistent 
with an emphasis on the knowledge or Informational dimension of 
environmental education, but In conflict with a problem-solving and 
action orientation. 

Curriculum materials, whf^n available, frequently serve as the 
major resource for teachers Involved In curriculum planning for 
environmental education. Therefore It Is appropriate to examine 
whether curriculum materials reflect the International philosophy of 
environmental education: ar» Initial condition for estab11sh*;ig a 
congruency between theory and practice In schools. However, If an 
analysis of the materials should reveal a consistency with the 
rhetoric, then It cannot be Immediately assumed that their use will 
ensure the same objectives that will be emphasized by schools. 



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Analysis of U.S. Materials 

Four sets of North AmeMcan environmental education materials 
were selected from a small number nominated by two environmental 
educators who were familiar with materials thct had been prominent In 
schools up to 1981. Only curriculum materials that were multi-grade, 
with secondary grade levels Included (e.3., R*12t 7<>12), and Inter- or 
multi-disciplinary were considered. 

A content analysis of these four sets cf materials was carried 
out using 28 sub-goal statements developed by Hungerford, Peyton and 
Wllke (1980) as the criteria for evaluation* These statements, which 
were published subsequent to the development of all the materials 
analyzed, had been valldate.1 by the authors against the five Tbilisi 
categories of objectives (or more accurately, general goals). Each 
set of materials was closely examined for statements of objectives and 
a conceptual frameworh that could be compared with the 28 sub<-goals. 
Then activities were reviewed to further ascertain the objectives 
implied by their content and suggested Instructional strategies. Thus 
both stated and Implicit objectives were considered in analyzing the 
Intentions of the particular materials. 

There was a very close match between curriculum goals related to 
the knowledge dimension of environmental education (I.e., the 
development of conceptual understandings alout the environment) and 
the explicit and Implicit objectives of all four sets of materials. 
Two sets. Project Learning Tree (P.L.T.) and •Teaching Activities In 
Environmental Education,* were perfectly and highly matched 
respectively on objectives concerned with the two categories of 
attitudes (and values) and skills for environmental Investigations. 
The other two materials embraced only half or less of the curriculum 
goals In these two categories. A reasonable degree of congruency was 
evident again In P.L.T. and Teaching Activities In relation to 
objectives concerned with environmental problem-solving skills, while 
both Project I.C.E. and *We Can Help" had a low level of congruency. 
however, no set of materials paid much attention to the participation 
or action category. 

In order to gain some Insights Into the developers* conceptions 
of knowledge and teaching as they relate to environmental education, a 
second content analysis was conducted using five criteria from a 
series of curriculum Implications derived by Stevenson (1981) from the 
objectives and guiding principles for environmental education (as 
stated In the Tbilisi (Conference Report). The questions representing 
these criteria were Intended to gauge whether students: are regarded 
as active participants In the construction of knowledge: and are 
Involved In making decisions with respect to both their own learning 
and alternative actions on environmental Issues. To summarize the 
results of this analysis, the majority of materials did not Infer the 
use of a didactic teaching approach, but neither did they advocate a 
student-directed one. 

Thus the Idea of stud^'nt autonomy In decision-making on 
environmental Issues and In taking action on those decisions Is not an 
Integral part of United States curriculum mater1als-~at least not In 

o 33d 
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the sample analyzed In this study. 
Analysis of AustraHan Materials 

While the U.S* materials that have been discussed were produced 
centrally by curriculum development specialists to guide practice, a 
major project In Australia, the Environmental Education Project 
(E.E.P.), was designed to stimulate activity In environmental 
education by capitalizing on existinq 'exemplary* practices In 
schools. Essentially teachers were Involved In describing their own 
"tried and tested" programs or activities, but addltlona^y some 
theoretical perspectives and suggestions for practical activities were 
produced. Five sets o? materials were published: "A Sourcebook for 
Primary Education", "A Sourcebook for Secondary Education*, two 
booklets of activities entitled "Streets" (for urban environments) and 
"Exploring Outdoors" (for natural environments), and a planning 
simulation exercise called "Ualmit Divided", 

The project's philosophy of environmental education, which Is 
detailed In the two sourcebooks^ Is consistent with the International 
rhetoric that emerged from Belgrade and Tbilisi. Vlhlle the E.E.P**s 
rhetoric advocated an action orientation to environmental education, a 
content analysis of the case studies of practice and the three 
publications of activities revealed a different pattern. Only three 
case studies and "Halmit Divided" could be regarded as satisfying the 
participation objective, while an additional three examples described 
the development of environmental prob1em*so1v1ng and decision-making 
sklVis In their programs. The majority of examples, however, 
represented an emphasis "on the acquisition of knowledge about the 
environment through the exercising of process skills In the 
environment" (Robottom, 1983). Thus In the case of these Australian 
materials there exists an overt theory-practice gap to which 
curriculum developers—through their suggestions for practice as well 
as their selection of exemplary practices— have contributed. 
Toward an Explanation of Environmental Education Hissing In Action 

The literature on both environmental education and citizen action 
curriculum suggests that the following reasons can be hypothesized for 
teachers* and curriculum developers* reluctance or unwillingness to 
incorporate an action dimension, consistent with the rhetoric. In 
their environmental education programs and activities: 

(1) an explicit lack of agreement with the rhetoric on philosophical 
or political grounds (Robottom, 1983); 

(2) Implicitly-held conceptions of knowledge, teaching and schooling 
that are Incompatible with an action orientation (Robottom, 1983); 

(3) a perceived lack of expertise-either real or Imagined (Hungerford 
et a1, 1980); 

(4) students* lack of maturity, ability or Interest to engage In 
environmental action (Newmann, 1975); and 

(5) perceived community resi stance-el ther real or Imagined (Newmann, 
1975). 

Although some teachers disagree with the International rhetoric 
of environmental education for political reasons, a survey by 
Childress (1978) found that 75X of teachers rated political 



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Justification as being at least of some Influence on the rationale for 
their program or project. This suggests the need to search further 
afield for a more adequate explanation than political dissonance. 

Evaluations of thi piloting of a program Involving student 
participation in citizen action helps Illuminate the validity of the 
other hypotheses (NeMwnn, 1979; Kelly, 1980). Uck of student 
Interest In action projects was not found to be a probleA^-provlded 
the Issues on which -action was taken were ones that are significant to 
the students Involved (Newmann, 1979). Similarly^ Kelty (1980> did 
not support the contention that high school students don^t possess the 
ability and maturity to participate In community ad^^ocacy but Implied 
that the solution to such problems lies 1n more staff Intervention In 
group work. NewP!3nn (1981) nominated teacher expertise as tht single, 
most significant factor affecting the successful Implementation of 
action-oriented curriculum; and of the two teachers Involved In the 
pilot program confirmed the need for teachers to have a background In 
political advocacy (pe/s. comm., 198t). 

Despite being frequently raised by teachers as a likely concern, 
no evidence of community resistance was encountered In the literature 
on student action projects. On the contrary, examples were found In 
both the United States and Australia of environmental action programs 
that received active community support (Branan fit Nathan, 1977; 
Malcolm, 1981). 

In summary, two factors appear to emerge as the real, as distinct 
from perceived, reasons for the discrepancy between the rhetoric and 
practice In relation to the action dimension of environmental 
education. Lack of expertise In political action or advotjcy among 
teachers and curriculum developers Is the "technical" Inhibiting 
factor. A more fundamental and serious epistemologlcal and 
pedagogical problem Is the dominant conception of: knowledge as 
objectively construed; teaching as Information dissemination; and 
schooling as social reproduction. Only the alternetlve perspective of 
knowledge as problematic and personal, teaching as the facilitation of 
critical thinking, and schooling as the fostering of social change. Is 
consistent with the action orlantatlon to environmental education. 
Environmental education curriculum materials. In their present form 
and method of development, rather than trying to overcome the 
obstacles tend to perpetuate them In they way they teach about the 
environment. 

References 

American Geological Institute. Essence I & II . Henlo Park, Calif.: 
Addison Wesley, 1971-75. 

Belgrade Charter. Connect, UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education 
Newsletter 1: 1-2. 1976, 1-2. 

Branan, Karen & Nathan, Joe. "Being Ripped Off? Call a Kid." Learning . 
March 1977, 72-78. 



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Childress, Ronald 6. *Pub^1w School Envlrofimentai Education 
Curricula: A National Profile.* Journal of Environmental 
Education , 9(3), 1978, 2-11. 

Curriculum Development Centre. Streets . Canberra: C.O.C. 1980. 

. Exploring Outdoors > Canberra: C.O.C., 1980. 

Walmit Divided . Canberra: C.O.C., 1980. 

• Environmental Education: A Sourcebook for Primary 

Education . Canberra: C^O.C, 1981. 
. Environmental Education: A Sourcebook for Secondary 

Education . Canberra: C.D.C., 1981. 
Education/Research Systems Inc. Project Learnli^q Tree: Supoljwentary 

Activity Guides for Srades K through 6 and 7 throufrti 12. 

Washington, DC: American Forest Institute Inc*, 1977* 
Hungerford« Harold R., Peyton, R* Ben. & W1 ike, Richard J. "Goals for 

Curriculum Development In Environmental Education.* Journal of 

Environmental Education , 11(3), 1980, «2-47. 
Kelly, Thomas E. "The Problems Encountered By Adolescents Engaged In 

Civic Action Projects: A Case Study.* Unpublished doctoral 

dissertation. University of U1scons1n*-Nad1son, Wisconsin, 1980. 
Malcolm, Steven L. "Educational Use of an Urban Creek" In Curriculum 

Development Centre. Environmental Education: A Sourcebook for 

Secondary Education . Canberra: C.D.C., 1981. 
Newmann, Fred «. Education for Citizen Action . California: NcCutchan 

Corp,, 1975. 

Newmann, Fred N. Evaluation of the Community Studies Program, 

1978-79, Memorial High School, Madison, WI: Madison Metropolitan 
School District, 1979. 

Newmann, Fred M. Personal comments, 1981. 

Ne^^nn, Fred M., Bertocci, Thomas A, & Lands^tess, Rnthanne M. Skills 
In Citizen Action: An English-Social Studies Program for 
Secondary Schools. Skokle, IL: National Textbook Co., 1977. 

Project I.C.E. flnstrucelon-Currlculum-Envlronment) : Environmental 
Educat ion Guides. Green Bay, WI: Project I.C.E., 1972. 

Robottom, Ian M. "What Is: Environmental Education as Education 
about the Environment." Paper presented at the Second National 
Conference of the Australian Association for Environmental 
Education, Brisbane, July 1982. 

Robottom, Ian M. The Environmental Education Project Evaluation 
Report. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre, 1983. 

Stevenson, Robert B. 'Developing a School Policy on Environmental 
Education" In Curriculum Developmient Centre. Environmental 
Education: A Sourcebook for Secondary Education . Canberra? 
C.D.C., 1981. 

Toward an Action Plan: A Reoort on the Tbilisi Intergovernmental 
Conference on Environmental Education . Washington, DC: U.S. 
Government Printing Office, 1978. 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We Can Help . Minnesota: Jenny 
Publishing Co., 197.- 

Wheatley, John Ho & Coon, Herbert L. (Eds.). Teaching Activities In 



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Environtiiental Education ^ Vols I, II and III. Ohio: ERIC Center 
for Science, Nathematlcs and Environmental Education, 1973-75* 



X. N. Vogi, Robert, Soma Vogi and Ullllani Stapp. "Major Threats to 
Environmental Quality In North America." Lorado Taft Field 
Campus, Northern Illinois University, Oregon, Illinois; School 
of Natural Resources, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 

Introduction 

In April, 1984, 150 selected environmental educators from the 
United States and Canada were surveyed from their opinions regarding 
Issues considered to be threats to environmental quality In North 
America. The purpose of the study was to reveal which Issues seemed 
the most pressing and to determine ^reas of agreement and disagreement 
regarding them. 

Background 

Ever since the Stockholm Conference In 1972, an effort had 
existed to bnng an International dimension to environmental 
education. The theme of only one earth has advised us to think 
globally as we act locally. The goal has be<^n to unite people In 
seeking their common purpose and shared Interest In sustaining a 
quality life on our planet. The First International Conference on 
Environmental Education, sponsored by the North American Association 
for Environmental Education, represents an Important effort to examine 
more of our environmental education efforts from the Joint perspective 
of practitioners In the United States and Canada. By moving toward a 
North American Continental perspective on environmental education. It 
becomes Important to give some thought to ways In which our 
educational programs can Include a North American perspective while 
acting within the context of our own local communities. 

Certainly many of our serious environmental problems extend 
beyond national boundaries. Problems like acid rain affect large 
eco-^systems and large numbers of people. Despite their large scale 
IfiHpacts, they are proving exceptionally difficult to resolve. 

Resolving problems that transcend national boundaries Is not easy 
since nations find It difficult to give up political autonomy; and 
since the costs of controlling such problems are often large, one 
nation might benefit more from polluting the other than It would gain 
from controlling the problem. While that Is neither proper nor 
desirable* It Is an "important consideration as to why such problems 
will continue to prove difficult to solve. 

However, the promise of the env1ronme:ital movement has always 
been that through education we can change perceptions and behavioral 
patterns and bring about the needed reforms. No other choice exists 



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but to try, for If we do net, the prognosis Is clearly gloomy. 

Our hope has alMys rested ln creating an mfomed public willing 
to press for needed reforms. 

This study Is an effort to try to find some common ground from 
wh^ch environmental education can ^incorporate a broad North American 
perspective. 

The object of this survey was to garner the opinions of 
environmental educators In both the United States and Canada to reveal 
their priorities regarding environmental Issues on which to focus 
attention and the availability of educational materials for the 
Issues. Responses are subjective and some disagreement will persist 
over the relative ^«nportance of ea:h Issue, but It Is always 
surprising ^ow much general agreement emerges through such a survey. 

Procerf-'-e 

I nstrument . It was felt at that time that a revised statement, 
reflecting concerns for t{*e 1980s and beyond, was necessary. A list 
of such concerns appeared in the December. .983 Issue of the 
Conservation F oundation newsletter . The list Included 47 Issues which 
were considered the most Important current threats to environmental 
quality. It was generated through six separate surveys of 
International sclsntlsts and other knowledgeable Individuals. 

Survey . In April, the survey was sent to 100 s«l3cted 
environmental educators from the United States and 50 from Canada. 
Those surveyed were recommended by William Stapp of The University of 
Michigan and Charles Hopkins of the Toronto Board of Education. In 
forming the lists, balanced representation from the two countries, 
types of organizations, and geographical areas were sought. Survey 
participants were asked to Indicate on i scale of one to fWe the 
relative Importance of each issue to environmental luallty In the 
United States and Canada; to rank cn a scale of one to five the 
relative availability of educational materials to present each Issue; 
tc list educational materials the> were aware of which do an adequate 
or better job of presenting each issue to general audiences and to 
students; and to list their uwn top priorities for environmental 
education 'n North America. Personal dala was also solicited. 

Results. Sixty percent of each group responc^ J. 

In order tD llm1t the discussion to key Issues, mean scores for 
each Issue were computed. Items were rank ordered according to means, 
and placed into quartlles. Items In the first quariile were 
considered essential to focus on in the Immediate future; those In the 
fourth quartlle wtrr conslde.ed of low priority; and those 1r. the 
second and third quartlles for each group o* respoh-^ents were compared 
to extreme items to test for agreement between groups. 

\ctual mean scores were also considered In addition to quartlle 
placement. Issues with mean scores of 2.0 or less were considered to 
be extremely Important; those with mean scores of ?.0 or more of low 
Importance. 

Nine Items were placed In the first quartlle by both U.^ and 
Canadian respondents. Both >iroups considered one Item to »e extremely 
Important: #25 - Hazardous waste management received a mean score of 



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1.87 from U.S. respondents and ^ .BS from Canadians. 

Thv item ranked highest J,S. respondents* with a m^n score of 
1.86, was: #32 - Groundwater .iid drinking water contamination. It was 
also placec: In the flr.^t quartlle by Canadian respondents. 

Not surprisingly, ^he Item Canadian respondents Cb?s1dered to be 
the most Important, with a mean score of 1.65; was: #23 - Acid 
deposition. U.S. respondents revealed a growing awareness of the 
problem, also placing It Ik the upper half of the first quartlle. 

Other Items placed In t^e first quartlle by both U«S. and 
Canadian environmental educators Includeo: #31 Toxtc pollutants In 
surface water; #^^3 - Pesticides; #13 - Radioactive waste disposal; #43 
- Damage to the marine environment; #11 - Sprawl prpblems (laL.^ 
usage); and #36 - Soil erosion and overexploltatlon of agricultural 
soils. 

All other Items t>1aced In the first quartlle by U.S* respondents: 
#27 - Toxic poliutants In air; #9 - Population growth; #37 - Loss of 
agricultural lano due to d<dsert1f Icatlon and urbanization; and #17 - 
Solid waste disposal, were placed Into the second quartlle by 
Canadians, Indlcatino some egrc^nt. All other Items placed Into the 
first quartlle by Canodlan respondents: #39 - Ocean fisheries 
depletion; #30 - Non-poini source water pollution; and #2 * Nuclear 
accidents and terrorism, were placM Into the second quartlle by U.S. 
respondents, again Indicating %otu ^ireement. 

Availability of materials was di;1ded Into two categories: those 
Items with a mean score of less than 3.0 had readily available 
materials; those with a mean score of 4.0 or more had 1r adequately 
available materials. U.S. respondents felt that only ■! Issues had 
readily available materials, while Canadian: felt that 19 Issues had 
readily available materials. However, Canadians felt that four of the 
Issues had Inadequete materials, but placed these four Issues Into th? 
fourth quartlle, and considered three of them extremely unimportant. 

Respondents from the U.S. felt that of the Important Issues, only 
the Issues of population growth, acid deposition, and solid waste 
disposal had adequate materials, while Canadians felt that all 
Important Issues except those of ocean fisheries, depletion, nonpaint 
source water |>ollut1on, and nuclear accidents and terrorism had 
adequate materials* Since disparity existed between United Stdtes and 
Canadian views on the availability of materials. It Is possible that 
curricula could be exchanged, limiting the amount of work necessary 
before ^jequate educating on the Issues can occur. 

Canadian oersonal priorities . Personal priorities of Canadians 
ocused on attitudes, values, and skills, environmental education, and 
the specific Issue of acid rain* Developing attitudes and values that 
lead to env ronmentally sound lifestyles, and exv\m1n1n9 personal, 
social, and global values were mentioned. Coments Included: 

- Me need to develop an environmental ethic; too much emphasis 
ha% been placed on cognitive, not affective, learning; and 

- We have developed the skills, we now need to develop an 
environmental ethic wihlch encourages people to stand up and be 
counted for what they believe. 



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However, some disagree. One comnented : 

- We need a rational approach; attitudes and values have not been 
very productive. 

Numerous coffiments were nade regarding eRvlronmental education; it 
was considered central to all education. Direct experiences and 
involveiient with natural resources for children, teachers, the public, 
and Industrialists In order to develop a comltnent to proper 
stewardship was considered essential. Several respondents felt that 
critical thinking, proble* solving, and analysis and coanunlcatlon 
skills need to be developed. Networking, reassessaent, and upgrading 
environmental education programs were mentlonetf as well as examining 
and assessing Information and learning to Influence public opinion. 
One respondent suggested developing an <inalyt1c approach to all 47 
Issues. 

Economic constraints on degradation, anything that degrades 
natural resources, population concerns, maintaining ecological 
processes and genetic d1v>frs1ty, and Insuring a quality environment 
for future generations were specific priority Issues. 

Several listed personal priorities from the list of 47; the most 
commonly mentioned was acid deposition. One respondent felt that the 
nuclear threat '«s key to all Issues. 

U.S. person al priorities, Personal priorities of U.S. 
environmental educators focused on the social/political system, 
environmental education, and specific Issues. The elimination of 
causes rather than symptoms, developing a sense of community, and 
working on th*> ►"Mtlcal and economic bases of problems were seen as 
key action areas. One respondent stated that the U.S. and Canada must 
play a key role In helping other countries curb population. Another 
expresc<»d the belief that the underlying issue was that of government 
corrupted by Industry, and the Inequalities In the battle between 
citizens and conservation groups and government and Industry which are 
unwillingly funded by taxpayers and consumers. The Inability of the 
existing social/political system to use already existing scientific 
Knowledge to cope with problems was seen as a weakness. 

Environmental <>ducat1un was seen as an Impot ant priority area 
for the U.S. Both cognitive and affective skills were seen as 
Importan;;. Comments Included: 

- Don't develnr 100% cogni^-lve courses as science education did; 

- Develop cognitive and .i-rning skills to deal with problems; 

- Develop critical thinking abilities; 

- Students must learn to make effective environmental decisions; 

- Change schools to involve students In community issues; 

- EE must move beyond awareness to allow for derision making, 
^.nblem solving, and action; 

- The primary goal Is to develop action-oriented citizens who 
will not only be willing to take action but will have th-j 
skills to discern the appropriate action to take, regardless of 
the Issue priority. 

A number of respondents listed as their major personal priorities 
Issues from the list ot other Included nucle^ir war and total 



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environmental destruction, population, and hazardous wastes. 

U.S, and Canadian priorities. Working on Improving the 
effectiveness of the social/political systetUp and Improving 
environmental education prograiis appear to be top priorities for U.S. 
envlronnienUI educators, while developing personal attitudes, values, 
skills, and environmentally sound lifestyles, developing effective 
envlronmntal education programs for all sectors, and a basic concern 
for natural resources In general appear to be top priorities for 
Canadian environmental educators. 

Summary 

This survey reveals that a fair amount of agreement exists 
between environmental educators from the United States and Canada 
regarding the Importance of selected threats to envlronmerttal quality 
In North America. The Issues Identified generally have an opportunity 
to be acted upon locally, which should reduce their adverse effects on 
a continental basis and perhaps In some cases, on a global basis. 

Both groups placed high priority on hazardous waste management, 
groundwater and drinking water contamination, acid deposition, toxic 
pollutants In drinking water, pesticides, radioactive waste disposal, 
damage to the marine environment, sprawl problems, and soil erosion 
and overexploltatlon of agricultural soils. U.S. respondents also 
placed high priority on toxic pollutants In the air, population 
growth, loss of agricultural land due to desertification and 
urbanization, and solid waste disposal. Canadian respondents also 
placed high priority on ocean fisheries depletion, nonpoint source 
water pollution, and nuclear ^?cc1dents and terrorism. 

Both groups felt that th^ Important Issues of population growth, 
acid deposition, and solid waste had adequate educational materials; 
while the Important Usues of ocean fisheries depletion, non point 
source water pollution, and nuclear accidents and terrorism had 
Inadequate materials. Canadians felt that Inadequate materials exist 
for Ihe other Important Issues, while U.S. respondents did not. 

A long educational process will be necessary to develop a 
citizenry w1 h a global perspective on environmental Issues. While en 
Issues approach Is necessary to point out the dangers from current 
practices, we need to Include a synthesizing message of how all people 
will benefit from pollution control. 



X. 0. Yarobert, Paul A,, Ronna F. Dillon and Carolyn F. Donow. 

''Egocentric to Egocentric: Assessing Changes In Environmental 
Knowledge, Ethics and Behavior." Professor, Department of 
Forestry; Associate Professor, Department of Educational 
Psychology; Re'^earcher, Department of Forestry; Southern 
Illinois Univeislty at Carbondale, Carbondale. Illinois 62901, 
USA. 

Th2 Tennessee Valley Authority sponsors residential environmental 



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camps at Land Between the Lakes (LBL), an area of Kentucky and 
Tennessee. Our project Is part of an existing proflraw for school 
children who are In the grades £^8. The project has several goals, two 
of which are to (a) enhance students* experiences at the caMp and to 
(b) evaluate the effectiveness of the caips's program by measuring 
changes In students* envlromieiital knowledge, envlrofwiental ethics, 
and envlroniicntally responsible behaviors. Three steps In our 
approach to enhance»;ent and evaluation of the existing program are 
briefly outlined as follows. 

Our first step was to Identify basic themes that apply to the 
many topics that are customarily taught In environmental education. 
The three broad themes that we Identified are spatial, temporal and 
congeneral. 

The spatial theme stresses that we should be concerned about the 
whole ecosystem, not just the local area where we live. Elementary 
school children are typically egocentric and tend to think almost 
exclusively about the^r own Immediate surroundings. The thrust of the 
spatial theme Is to determine whether our treatments can extend 
students' awareness to Include environments that are spatially 
remote. Acid deposition, wor>d hunger, and population pressures are 
Issues that readily relate to this theme. 

The temporal theme expresses a concern for the future. Because 
of students' natural egocentrlclty, they tend to think about only a 
small slice of t1me~the1r time. Since many environmental Issues 
question how and If future generations of animals and plants will 
live, the thrust of the temporal theme Is to determine whether we can 
extend students' awareness to Include a concern for future 
generations. Some examples of Ideas that are Included In the temporal 
theme are fossil fuels, nuclear waste, and renewable energy resources. 

The third theme, congeneral, encourag^^s students to think about 
the needs or the rights of all life forms, not just people's rights. 
We assess whether the students tend to move from a solely 
anthropocentric to a mo.e nearly ecocentric perspective as a result of 
treatments stressing the complex Interrelationships that are 
inexorably a part of our world. Examples of Ideas that are Included 
1n the cogeneral them^ are food chains, the web of life, and 
environmental Impact. The underlying premise Is that the commonly 
accepted goals of environmental education cannot be attained unless 
the students* conceptual horizons are expanded In space, time and 
spec'is. However, these rather philosophical themes need to bz 
presented In environmental topics that are relevant for students In 
the elementary grades. He wanted the topics to serve as the content 
basis for enhancement activities and for the test Items on the 
evaluation Instrument. 

Once we defined the basic themes and the topics of concern, our 
second major step In the LBL project was to develop a test, "You and 
Your Environment," to evaluate the effectiveness of the camp program* 
The multiple choice test had twenty-four questions equally divided 
across the six content areas. 

The six topics selected were: energy, pollution, 
interrelationships. Impacts, cycles, and quality of life. The 

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hierarchlal framework for these ccxepts Is shown In Figure 1 and may 
be Interpreted as follows. "Quality of life* was chosen as the 
comprehensive area subsuming the other five areas; The broad 
definition of "life" provided a basis for Incorporating attitudes and 
knowledge that are not United to the humin role \n the ecosystem. 
This perspective was of special significance because our work Involves 
attempting to gain Insights Into possible extensions of ecological 
concern assessed by the criteria of remoteness in tliae, space, or 
species. 

Among the numerous factors that coHectmiy determine quality of 
life. Interrelationships and impact were chosen as representative* 
Interrelationships are, of coiirset tfee essence of ecology, and- 
understanding Interrelationships Is prerequisites to ecological 
reasoning. Impact was chosen as a basic concept since It provides a 
perspective for assessing both the effects upon ecosystem components 
and also effects caused by them^ Impacts may be seen as 
Interrelationships viewed In narrower and sharper focus. Pollution 
and cycles were selected as basic concepts because they are 
respectively specific examples of iiTPact and Interrelationships. The 
concepts of cycles was broadly Interpreted to Include both natural « 
I.e., blogeochemlcal cycles, and the cycling and recycling efforts of 
people. Energy was chosen as tAe final concept because of Its key 
role In the functioning of both human and natural ecosystems. In 
summary, an attempt was made to select a modest number of concepts, 
which comprised a representative sample and were meaningfully related. 

Energy Items centered on the necessity to use energy efficiently 
and to understand the role of renewable energy resources. 
Environmental Iroact Items assessed th^ students' understanding of how 
various user behaviors alter the envlrotwient. Pollution Items dealt 
specifically with pollution-related decisions that typically affect 
large groups of humans, other animals, and plants. Interrelationships 
Items pertained to the Importance of the 'web of life" and to how all 
forms 0' life are dependent upon each other. Cycles Items required 
students to think about n itural cycles and the manner In which matter 
1$ recycled In nature so that It can be reused. Quality of life Items 
pertained to all life forms. Items tapped Issues such as sharing 
natural resources with other animals, concern for Individuals from 
less-advantaged countries, and concern for the welfare of future 
generations. 

The test was also divided Into two basic areas, environmental 
knowledge and environmental ethics. Two knowledge and two ethic 
questions deal with each of the six topics. 

The ethics questions were ba<^ed on Koh1berg*s theory of the three 
levels of moral development: preconventlonal , conventional, and 
postconventlonal levels (Kohlberg, 1982). As a brief review, at the 
preconventlonal level, people respond to the rules of good and bad 
behaviors because of the physical consequences of ctlon or the power 
of authority figure. At the conventional level » people conform to 
ru es because of loyalty to the family, group or nation and a desire 
to maintain the social oru^r. At the postconventlonal level. 



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Individuals attempt to define nioral values and universal principles 
apart from the authority of t^•^ group hotding these principles. 

Although lozzrs Envlronnental Issues Test (lozzl. 1978) was 
based on Kohl berg's theory, we wanted a test that would lieasure both 
envl ronnental ethics and knowledge. To keep the ferMt s1«11ar for 
both areas, we decided to use multiple choice questions ami construct 
the response options or dis tractors of the ethics questions to 
correspond to the three levels of noral developr&ent. In an attempt to 
gain Insight Into developmental levels, the students were Instructed 
to nark £w2 answers, the one that they agreed with the most and the 
one that they agreed with the least. An example of an ethics question 
and the developmental level each fo*1 represents Is: 
We should recycle aluminum cans because: 
N L A. we can get money for them (preconventlonal) 
N L B. scouts, schools and other groups want us to recycle 

(conventional) 
M L C. recycling can save energy (postconventlonal) 
The knowledge questions are similar except that only one foil Is 
correct. 

The test-retest rellabllliy of the test was .75. Validity data 
Indicated that students' scores correlated significantly with 
standardized test scores measuring science (.62) and social science 
(.84) and with teachers' ratings (.60). (See Table I and Table II). 

The test, "You and Your Environment,* Is ui^ed to measure 
environmental knowledge anJ envlrormental ithlcs, but unobstruslve 
observations are used to treasure environmentally responsible 
behaviors. Food waste In the dining room and use of electricity In 
the dorms are the two unobstruslve observations selected because they 
met our criteria of being readily quantifiable and Indicative of total 
group behaviors. 

A third step In the LBL project was to develop activities and 
materials to enhan