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School-Age Children in 
CCDBG; 2009 Update 


CLASP 

policy solutions that work for low-income people 


January 2011 


Hannah Matthews and Teresa Urn 


What we know about school- 
age children in the Child Care 
and Development Block Grant 
(CCDBG) program 

CCDBG is the primary source of federal funding 
for child care subsidies for low-income working 
families and to improve child care quality. 

CCDBG provides child care assistance to children 
from birth to age 13.^ In fiscal year 2010, states 
received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States 
are expected to contribute an additional $2.2 
billion to draw down all federal funds. This fact 
sheet highlights key information about school-age 
children and CCDBG. ^ 

CCDBG allows states a great deal of flexibility, 
within minimal federal guidelines, in how they 
design their programs. Among the policies set by 
states are age eligibility limits. While children are 
eligible for CCDBG up to age 13, states have the 
option of extending age eligibility until age 19 if 
children are mentally or physically incapable of 
self-care or under court supervision. Nearly all (48) 
states extend eligibility to children ages 13-19 who 
are incapable of self-care, and 34 states extend 
eligibility to children ages 13-19 who are under 
court supervision.^ 

Another important policy set by states is payment 
rates for providers. Payment rates for school-age 
care vary widely. States may set rates that include 
multiple categories, including separate payment 
rates for before and after school care, summer and 
holidays, and full-day and part-day care.^ Payment 


rates are generally lower for school-age children 
than for younger children because adult-child 
ratios are typically higher. The average payment 
rate for center-based, school-age care in urban 
areas was $426 per month in 2008.^ 

Most states provide child care assistance through 
vouchers or certificates. States can choose to 
provide assistance through contracts, which are 
formal agreements between a state and a provider 
to serve a set number of children. Contracts can be 
a way to guarantee that families can successfully 
find the care they need and to provide a regular, 
stable source of income for providers.^ For school- 
age providers, contracts can guarantee payments 
during school vacation days or other times children 
are absent from care. 


Figure 1. Ages of Children 
Served in CCDBG, 2009 



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School-Age Children in CCDBG 


^CLASP 

policy solutions that work for low-income people 


January 2011 


A third of children served in CCDBG are 
between ages 6 and 13. In FY 2009, nearly 
554,000 school-age children received CCDBG- 
funded child care assistance in an average month, 
comprising approximately 34 percent of all 
children receiving CCDBG (see Figure 1). 

The share of school-age children receiving 
CCDBG varies from state to state. Michigan serves 
the greatest share (44 percent) of children age 6 
and older. School-age children make up the 
smallest share of children served in Arkansas (0 
percent) and the District of Columbia (18 percent). 

School-age children make up 35 percent or more of 
children served in CCDBG in 13 states: 

Mississippi (35 percent), Washington (35 percent), 
Wisconsin (35 percent), California (36 percent), 
Oregon (36 percent). South Carolina (36 percent), 
Utah (36 percent), Pennsylvania (39 percent). New 
York (39 percent). North Carolina (39 percent), , 
Rhode Island (39 percent), Illinois (41 percent), 
and Michigan (44 percent, see Table 1). 

More than half of school-age children in 
CCDBG are served in center-based care. 

Fifty-six percent of school-age children receiving 
CCDBG are cared for in centers. A family home is 
the second most common setting for school-age 
children in CCDBG (see Figure 2). 

The CCDBG school-age earmark funds a 
range of services. Federal CCDBG funding 
includes an earmark targeted for resource and 
referral and school-age care activities. In FY 2010, 
the school-age earmark in CCDBG was funded at 
nearly $19 million, of which $1 million was 
targeted for Child Care Aware, a national toll-free 
hotline and website to provide information to 
parents and child care providers.^ 


States use the school-age earmark to fund a range 
of activities including specialized training for 
school-age caregivers, planning for school-age 
care, technical assistance to school-age care 
programs and providers, supports for providers 
seeking accreditation, financial incentives for 
school-age care providers, and grants to improve 
the quality of school-age child care services.^ 

Funds earmarked for school-age care 
comprise a small portion of CCDBG 
spending. In FY 2009, the latest year data are 
available, states spent a total of $12.4 billion in 
state and federal CCDBG funds — including funds 
transferred from the Temporary Assistance for 
Needy Families (TANF) block grant to CCDBG. 
This total includes funds that were appropriated 
and liquidated in FY 2009, as well as funds that 
were appropriated in prior years but liquidated in 
2009.“^ 

Total spending of funds earmarked for resource 
and referral and school-age care, including funds 
appropriated in prior fiscal years, was $26.4 
million, less than 1 percent of total federal and 
state CCDBG expenditures. 


Figure 2. Settings in Which Chiidren 
Were Served, 2009 



Child's Family Group Home Center 

Home Home 

■ Infants ■ Toddlers ■ Preschoolers ■ School-Age 


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CLASP 

policy solutions that work for low-income people 


School-Age Children in CCDBG 


January 2011 


Table 1. Ages of Children Served in CCDBG by State, 2009 



Infants/Toddlers 
(Under Age 3) 

Preschoolers 
(Ages 3-5) 

School Age 
(Ages 6-13) 

Alabama 

32% 

34% 

34% 

Alaska 

32% 

37% 

31% 

Arizona 

30% 

37% 

33% 

Arkansas 

58% 

42% 

0% 

California 

20% 

44% 

36% 

Colorado 

33% 

38% 

29% 

Connecticut 

31% 

38% 

31% 

Delaware 

32% 

35% 

33% 

District of Columbia 

46% 

35% 

18% 

Florida 

32% 

40% 

27% 

Georgia 

36% 

34% 

30% 

Hawaii 

34% 

40% 

27% 

Idaho 

30% 

37% 

33% 

Illinois 

28% 

31% 

41% 

Indiana 

30% 

38% 

32% 

Iowa 

34% 

34% 

32% 

Kansas 

31% 

36% 

34% 

Kentucky 

34% 

34% 

31% 

Louisiana 

44% 

33% 

23% 

Maine 

22% 

45% 

33% 

Maryland 

32% 

34% 

34% 

Massachusetts 

28% 

38% 

33% 

Michigan 

26% 

30% 

44% 

Minnesota 

30% 

37% 

33% 

Mississippi 

32% 

33% 

35% 

Missouri 

36% 

37% 

27% 

Montana 

36% 

39% 

25% 

Nebraska 

35% 

34% 

31% 

Nevada 

32% 

36% 

32% 

New Hampshire 

30% 

38% 

32% 

New Jersey 

32% 

34% 

34% 

New Mexico 

34% 

36% 

29% 

New York 

26% 

35% 

39% 

North Carolina 

27% 

34% 

39% 


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School-Age Children in CCDBG 


CLASP 

policy solutions that work for low-income people 


January 2011 


North Dakota 

40% 

35% 

25% 

Ohio 

34% 

33% 

33% 

Oklahoma 

36% 

36% 

28% 

Oregon 

30% 

33% 

36% 

Pennsylvania 

27% 

35% 

39% 

Rhode Island 

26% 

35% 

39% 

South Carolina 

26% 

38% 

36% 

South Dakota 

37% 

38% 

26% 

Tennessee 

35% 

34% 

31% 

Texas 

33% 

35% 

32% 

Utah 

29% 

36% 

36% 

Vermont 

29% 

38% 

33% 

Virginia 

35% 

38% 

28% 

Washington 

30% 

35% 

35% 

West Virginia 

30% 

36% 

34% 

Wisconsin 

31% 

34% 

35% 

Wyoming 

34% 

39% 

27% 

U.S. 

30% 

36% 

34% 


Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Youth, Office of Child 
Care, Table 9: Child Care and Development Fund, Average Monthly Percentages of Children In Care By Age 
Group ( FFY 2009), http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ccb/data/ccdf_data/09acf800_preliminary/list.htm. 


^ Some states provide assistance for children between ages 13 and 19 who are physically and/or mentally incapable of self-care or under court 
supervision. 

^ The information in this fact sheet is limited to school-age children receiving CCDBG-funded child care assistance in federal fiscal year 2009. 
Participation data on children served through other sources, including Temporary Assistance for Needy Families funds, are not available. Data, 
unless otherwise noted, comes from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Services, Office of Child Care, 
FFY 2009 CCDF Data Tables (Preliminary Estimates), http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ccb/data/ccdf_data/09acf800_preliminary/list.htm. For 
information on children of all ages served in CCDBG, see U.S. Child Care Assistance Profile 2009, CLASP, 2011, 
http://www.clasp.org/admin/site/publications/files/ccmap09us.pdf. 

^ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Child Care Bureau, Child Care and Development Fund: 
Report of State and Territory Plans, FY 2009-FY 2010, 2009, http://nccic.acf.hhs.gov/files/resources/spl011full-report.pdf. 

^ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Child Care and Development Fund: Report of State and Territory Plans. 

^ Afterschool Investments, National Profile, http://nccic.acf.hhs.gov/afterschool/nationalprofile.html. 

^ For more on contracts see Hannah Matthews and Rachel Schumacher, Ensuring Quality Care for Low -Income Babies: Contracting Directly with 
Providers to Expand and Improve Infant and Toddler Care, CLASP, 2008, http://www.clasp.org/admin/site/publications/files/0422.pdf. 

^ See http://www.childcareaware.org/. 

^ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Child Care and Development Eund: Report of State and Territory Plans. 

^ CCDBG contains several funding streams, each with their own rules for liquidation. Funds appropriated for the school-age earmark must be 
obligated (or legally committed) in two years and liquidated in the subsequent year. For more information on child care spending, see U.S. Child 
Care Assistance Profile 2009, CLASP, 2011, http://www.clasp.org/admin/site/publications/files/ccmap09us.pdf. 


1015 15th Street NW • Suite 400 • Washington, DC 20005 • p (202) 906.8000 • f (202) 842.2885 • www.clasp.org