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Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(6): 1432-1436, 2016 
DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2016.040621 


http://www.hrpub.org 


Value Orientation among Tribal Future Teachers of B.Ed. 
Programme: Need for Curricular Interventions 

Rajendra Prasad Dasari 


Department of Education, Kakatiya University, India 


Copyright©2016 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under the 
terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License 


Abstract Schools play a vital role in inculcation of 
values and development of values. It has become, of late, the 
central concern of teacher education. Teacher education 
programmes are the effective modes of transmission of 
values having a direct impact on the school education. A 
College of Teacher Education was established at 
Badrachalam exclusively for tribal population in the State of 
Telangana under Integral Tribal Development Authority 
(ITDA). In this institution only tribes of different 
communities are given the opportunity of pursuing B.Ed. 
Programme. Tribal habitat, culture and living styles are 
different because they live in deep forest in hamlets away 
from the mainstream of the society and their value system 
needs attention for their emancipation in social development. 
In this article, the value system and value preferences of 
tribal future teachers of the B. Ed. Programme are discussed 
to provide guidelines for curricular interventions for quality 
tribal teacher education. 

Keywords Tribal Future Teachers, Values, B. Ed. 
Programme 


1. Introduction 

Thought is the root cause of every action. At 
impressionable age, school children are quick to grasp. 
Teacher plays a vital role in creation of values among the 
school children. Upanishads (holy scriptures of Elindu 
religion) have long ago given the concept of 
VasudhaivaKutumbakam (all humanity is one family). 
Science is continuously predicting natural laws and 
technological applications are taking place in every field to 
establish a better society. Different Commissions and 
Committees and National Policies on Education stressed the 
need of value education. Institutions like Santiniketan, 
Ramakrishna Mission, Pondicherry Ashram of Sri 
Aurobindo and Krishnamurthy Foundation are providing 
education based on values. The Forty-sixth International 
Conference on education held at Geneva on the theme of 


‘learning to live together’ made conclusions and proposals 
for action related to the teacher. These are: a) improving the 
education of the teacher so that they can better develop 
pupils’ behavior and values of solidarity and tolerance b) 
prepare them to prevent and resolve conflicts peacefully and 
to respect cultural diversity c) changing the relationship 
between teacher and pupil to respond to the evolution of 
society. Hence, it placed great responsibility on the teacher 
with a vision of protection of the universe, nature and society 
by way of educating the future generations [1], 

The Fifth Survey of Educational Research conducted by 
National Council of Educational Research and Training [2, 3] 
identified values as one of the important areas of research 
and the survey cited studies under ‘Moral, art and aesthetic 
education’. Of the thirty one studies in moral education, one 
is related to value preference and the other related to value 
clarification, were of teacher trainees. The Sixth Survey of 
Educational Research [4] stated that there was a marked 
decline of interest in value research and the area of value 
measurement had remained a neglected area as far as Indian 
Research is concerned. The Survey has identified eight 
studies related to values of teachers and student teachers. The 
Eighty First Parliamentary Committee Report [5] had, 
nevertheless, in recent years, elaborately dwelt upon the 
nature of desired value education programmes and the need 
to develop strategies for implementation of these 
programmes. Longstreth [6] found that almost all teachers 
believed that the schools should be concerned with values, 
but they were divided on the issue of ways of inculcation of 
values. Most of the teachers did not believe in planning 
value-education, and rather preferred giving examples for 
values. 

Kakkar’s [7] study on the values among teacher trainees 
and college teachers reported significant differences on 
economic, aesthetic and social values and no significant 
differences on theoretical, political and religious values 
among teacher trainees and teacher educators. Usha Sri’s [8] 
study on ‘Restructuring Teacher Education for Value 
Orientation’ suggested a syllabus for value education paper 
for the B.Ed. course comprising of twelve units covering all 
aspects of value education. Singh and Singh [9] conducted 



Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(6): 1432-1436, 2016 


1433 


an experimental study using Value Clarification Strategies 
(VCS) in comparison with traditional method to teach values 
to B.Ed. students and concluded that VCS are more effective 
than conventional methods for teaching the value of 
‘dedication to teaching profession’, ‘cooperation’, 
‘nationalism’ and inculcation of scientific outlook. Mark 
Winterbottom study [10] used cluster analysis to examine 
groupings of trainee teachers against dimensions 
underpinning their values and practice in relation to 
assessment. Cluster analysis of factor scores from varimax 
rotated principal components analysis revealed four clusters 
of trainees in relation to their practice responses, and two 
clusters in relation to values responses. Membership of 
clusters was found to be associated with membership of 
particular subject disciplines. Bhushan’s [11] study findings 
are: male and female prospective teachers uniformly 
assigned highest importance to self control, obedience and 
honesty. Female prospective teachers ranked forgiveness, 
ambitions, helpfulness, and lovingness higher than their 
male counterparts, while male teachers ranked logic, courage, 
capability, responsibility, imagination and independence 
higher than female counterparts. The highest importance was 
given to self-control and honesty and lowest importance to 
logic and capability by female prospective teachers. 
Flighest importance to intellectuality and lowest to 
broadmindedness was given by male prospective teachers. 
Nayyar [12] study revealed that the future teachers’ most 
important values are justice, discipline and honesty. Singh 
[13] identified a significant relationship between intelligence 
and value orientation gain for cooperation, dedication, 
perseverance, scientific outlook and rationalization among 
B.Ed. students. 

Rajendra Prasad [14] found more similarities among the 
male and female in-service teachers of B.Ed. (distance 
education) programme with regard to more preferred 
terminal values but more preferred instrumental values of 
them were found to be totally different. In another study, 
Rajendra Prasad [15] found the more preferred terminal 
values of M.Ed. students were a world at peace, equality and 
wisdom and the more preferred instrumental values were 
ambition, helpful and broadminded. Escobar, Ortloff, L. M. 
and Ortloff, W, G. [16] study revealed that both professors 
and students of teacher education had given highest 
preference to the terminal values, equality and exiting life. 
Professors ranked the value “A world at peace” a more 
preferred one. The students had given least importance to the 
same. The more preferred instrumental values of professors 
were capability and helpfulness while that of students are 
independence and politeness. Aparna Mitra [17] stated that 
despite the heterogeneity found among the different tribes, 
they all display some common characteristics in their family 
and social values. Steven Locke and Lorinda Lindley [18] 
collected data from American Indian pre-service teachers. 
Their study revealed that the course replicated and 
reproduced dominant cultural values and knowledge of the 
state university and was insensitive to American Indian 
history, values, and pedagogy. The review of studies shows 


that the value system of B.Ed. students of tribal community 
need some attention as many of them go back to their native 
places to serve the educational needs of tribal community 
and influence the value system of tribes. Zheng [19] stated 
that pre-service teacher beliefs are the focus of change in the 
process of education and teacher education should be 
oriented towards the formation of beliefs. 

The present study is an attempt to look into value system 
and value preferences of the tribal future teachers of B.Ed. 
programme. For the purpose, student-teachers undergoing B. 
Ed. Programme in the teacher education college at 
Badrachalam established by Integrated Tribal Development 
Authority (ITDA) especially for tribes had been selected. 

2. Study Procedure 

The study adopted Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) with 
terminal and instrumental values, each with 12 set of values 
mostly related to teaching profession, looking into the 
common judgment of the experts. Each value was 
accompanied by a short descriptive phrase in parenthesis. 
The values in both sets were arranged in alphabetical order. 
Terminal values were presented before the instrumental 
values. The responses were given by the future teachers in 
order of their own preferences guiding their life, 1 to 12 
against each value for each set of values. The reliability 
coefficient of 0.76 for terminal values and 0.69 for 
instrumental values, had established substantial reliability 
(The range of 0.60 - 0.80 indicates substantial reliability) of 
the tool. The validity coefficient for terminal values is 
0.919175 and for instrumental values is 0.787594, indicate 
the acceptable validity. The sample included 47 future 
teachers completing their B.Ed. programme, selected 
randomly. It included 21 male and 26 female of them 21 
belonged to koya, 12 lambada and 14 other primitive tribes. 
10 were married and 37 unmarried in the sample. It also 
included 32 and 15 future teachers belonging to 
science/mathematics and social studies methodology 
respectively. 

3. Results 

The data collected by administering the tool is presented 
in the tables 1 and 2. Normalized-rank order method is used 
in which the sums of the rank values for various values 
would give the best indications of ranking. For different 
numbers ranked (n), corresponding C-scale values are given 
in the table. Sum of the product of total preferences and C 
values calculated is represented by YffiC- The means of YfjiC 
are computed, known as response value Rj. Based on the 
means of 12 values the rank order is given for each value. 
Highest mean value is given rank 1 and the lowest one is 
given rank 12 in the tables 1 and 2 for terminal and 
instrumental values. 

Table 1 (Appendix-1) reveals the rank order of terminal 



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Value Orientation among Tribal Future Teachers of B.Ed. Programme: Need for Curricular Interventions 


values of the tribal future teachers. The order of preference 
of values system of the future teachers for terminal values is 
observed as follows: 

1. A comfortable life (A Prosperous life) 

2. True Friendship (Close companionship) 

3. Pleasure (An enjoyable, leisurely life) 

4. Wisdom (A mature understanding of life) 

5. Freedom (Independence, free choice) 

6. An exiting life (A stimulating, active life) 

7. Happiness (Contentedness) 

8. Equality (Brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) 

9. Social Recognition (Respect, admiration) 

10. Self-respect (Self esteem) 

11. Family security (Taking care of loved ones) 

12. A world at peace (Free of war and conflict) 

Table 2 reveals (Appendix-2) the rank order of 
instrumental values of the future teachers. The order of 
preference of values system of the future teachers for 
instrumental values is observed as follows: 

1. Polite (Courteous, well-mannered) 

2. Obedient (Dutiful, respectful) 

3. Honest (Sincere, truthful) 

4. Capable (Competent, effective) 

5. Independent (Self-reliant, self-sufficient) 

6. Helpful (Working for the welfare of others) 

7. Broad-minded (Open minded) 

8. Responsible (Dependable, reliable) 

9. Ambitious (Hard working, aspiring) 

10. Forgiving (Willing to pardon others) 

11. Intellectual (Intelligent, reflective) 

12. Courageous (Standing up for beliefs) 

The more preferred and less preferred terminal and 
instrumental values of the future teachers are represented in 
table 3 (Appendix-3). 

The more preferred terminal values of the future teachers 
are in the order of: 

1. A comfortable life (A Prosperous life) 

2. True Friendship (Close companionship) 

3. Pleasure (An enjoyable, leisurely life) 

The less preferred terminal values of the future teachers 
are in the order of: 

1. A world at peace (Free of war and conflict) 

2. Family security (Taking care of loved ones) 

3. Self-respect (Self esteem) 

The more preferred instrumental values of the future 
teachers are in the order of: 

1. Polite (Courteous, well-mannered) 

2. Obedient (Dutiful, respectful) 


3. Honest (Sincere, truthful) 

The less preferred instrumental values of the future 
teachers are in the order of: 

1. Courageous (Standing up for beliefs) 

2. Intellectual (Intelligent, reflective) 

3. Forgiving (Willing to pardon others) 

4. Discussion 

The tribal future teachers have given highest preference to 
a comfortable life followed by true friendship and pleasure. 
This shows that these future teachers’ values are oriented 
towards comfortable life and true friendship leading to 
pleasure. They least preferred a world at peace followed by 
family security and self respect. Their values of end state of 
existence are found to be much self oriented. Politeness is the 
most preferred instrumental value of the tribal future 
teachers followed by obedience and honesty. This shows that 
their mode of conduct is much oriented towards politeness, 
obedience and honesty, indicating that their instinct of tribal 
character is intact in the teacher education programme. They 
least preferred the value of courageousness followed by 
intellectuality and forgiveness. This shows that their mode of 
conduct is less oriented towards courageousness, 
intellectuality and forgiving nature. 

5. Conclusions 

The study revealed that the tribal future teachers’ values 
are oriented towards a comfortable life with pleasure and 
true friendship rather than social dimensions of freedom, 
equality and peace even though the Indian constitution is 
based on a democratic and socialistic set up. Hence, the 
curricular interventions are of greater significance to 
inculcate these values in the tribal future teachers. However, 
their mode of conduct is more oriented towards politeness, 
obedience and honesty, indicating their basic tribal character 
is intact. Tribal future teachers’ least preference towards 
courageousness, intellectuality and forgiving nature needs 
some concern. To inculcate these values among tribal future 
teachers curriculum should provide space to encourage them 
to participate in independent and group based problem 
solving activities in the practical component offered in the 
teacher education programme so that they become not only 
self-confident, courageous and intellectual but also develop 
tolerance, forgiving nature and learn to live with other tribes 
and social groups as well. 



Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(6): 1432-1436, 2016 


1435 


Appendix-1 


Table 1. Rank Orders of Terminal Values of Tribal Future Teachers of B.Ed. Programme 


SI. 

No. 

Terminal Values 

CScale Value 

IfjiC 

M c (Rj) 

Rank 

Order 

1 

A comfortable life 
(A Prosperous life) 

8 

262 

5.57 

1 

2 

An existing life 
(A stimulating, active life) 

7 

234 

4.98 

6 

3 

A world at peace 
(Free of war and conflict) 

7 

219 

4.66 

12 

4 

Equality (Brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) 

6 

231 

4.91 

8 

5 

Family security 
(Taking care of loved ones) 

6 

223 

4.74 

11 

6 

Freedom 

(Independence, free choice) 

5 

235 

5.00 

5 

7 

Happiness 

(Contentedness) 

5 

232 

4.94 

7 

8 

Pleasure 

(An enjoyable, leisurely life) 

4 

241 

5.13 

3 

9 

Self respect 
(Self esteem) 

4 

228 

4.85 

10 

10 

Social Recognition 
(Respect, admiration) 

3 

230 

4.89 

9 

11 

True Friendship 
(Close companionship) 

3 

248 

5.28 

2 

12 

Wisdom ( A mature understanding of life) 

2 

237 

5.04 

4 


XfjiC - Sum of the product of total preferences and C values 

M c - Mean 

Rj - Response Value 


Appendix-2 


Table 2. Rank Orders of Instrumental Values of Tribal Future Teachers of B.Ed. Programme 


SI. 

No. 

Instrumental Values 

CScale Value 

IfflC 

M c (Rj) 

Rank 

Order 

1 

Ambition 

(Hard working, aspiring) 

8 

230 

4.89 

9 

2 

Broadminded 
(Open minded) 

7 

234 

4.98 

7 

3 

Capable 

(Competent, effective) 

7 

240 

5.11 

4 

4 

Courageous 

(Standing up for beliefs) 

6 

214 

4.55 

12 

5 

Forgiving 

(Willing to pardon others) 

6 

219 

4.66 

10 

6 

Helpful 

(Working for the welfare of others) 

5 

236 

5.02 

6 

7 

Honest 

(Sincere, truthful) 

5 

247 

5.26 

3 

8 

Independent 

(Self-reliant, self-sufficient) 

4 

239 

5.09 

5 

9 

Intellectual 

(Intelligent, reflective) 

4 

219 

4.66 

11 

10 

Obedient 

(Dutiful, respectful) 

3 

254 

5.40 

2 

11 

Polite 

(Courteous, well-mannered) 

3 

257 

5.47 

1 

12 

Responsible 
(Dependable, reliable) 

2 

231 

4.91 

8 


XfjiC - Sum of the product of total preferences and C values 

M c -Mean 

Rj- Response Value 











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Value Orientation among Tribal Future Teachers of B.Ed. Programme: Need for Curricular Interventions 


Appendix-3 


Table 3.Preferences of Terminal and Instrumental Values of Tribal Future Teachers of B.Ed. Programme 



More Preferred Terminal Values 


Less Preferred Terminal Values 

1. 

A comfortable life(A Prosperous life) 

i. 

A world at peace(Free of war and conflict) 

2. 

True Friendship (Close companionship) 

2. 

Family security(Taking care of loved ones) 

3. 

Pleasure(An enjoyable, leisurely life) 

3. 

Self respect( Self esteem) 


More Preferred Instrumental Values 


Less Preferred Instrumental Values 

1. 

Polite(Courteous, well-mannered) 

1. 

Courageous!Standing up for beliefs) 

2. 

Obedient(Dutiful, respectful) 

2. 

Intellectual(Intelligent, reflective) 

3. 

Honest (Sincere, truthful) 

3. 

Forgiving(Willing to pardon others) 


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