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Practical knowledge and 
occupational competence 


Felix Rauner 

Institut Technik und Bildung (Institute of Technology and Education), University 
of Bremen 


Key words 

Didactics of vocational 
education, 
design of vocational 
education, 
domain specific research in 
vocational education, 
applied knowledge, 
working situation 


SUMMARY 

The work-oriented change in the didactics of vocational education (VET) identi- 
fies ‘significant vocational work situations and the associated work process knowl- 
edge as the pivotal factor in the design of vocational curricula and processes. 
What is dramatic about this change of perspective is not merely the departure 
from academic, discipline-based teaching methods, but also the formulation of 
vocational teaching methods for VET practice and VET design thatare predicated 
on development theory. As concerns the structurally oriented method of impart- 
ing VET, which underwentthis change early on, it is necessary to differentiate the 
category of knowledge, above all with respect to practical knowledge and prac- 
tical concepts, and also as a basis for domain-specific VET research. 


Competence development in vocational 
curricula and work situations 

Germany's tradition of discipline-based vocational school curricula is 
to be replaced by a system which prioritises the work and business process- 
es characteristic of an occupation as the focus for curricula structured 
around learning fields (KMK, 1996). The processes formulated as objec- 
tive requirements here nevertheless lend a subject-related quality to the 
curriculum at the same time. This is what is significant about the above- 
mentioned change of perspective. The 'learning field' concept is geared 
notto a systematic sequence offactual material, butto the idea of a mean- 
ingful setof relevant vocational work situations which trainees must learn 
to master increasingly well. Vocationally competent behaviour therefore 
becomes the subject of learning. 

By emphasising learning as a subjective process of construction, re- 
cent discussion of teaching methodology and teaching/learning re- 


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Practical knowledge and occupational competence 

Felix Rauner 


53 


search have highlighted more clearly than ever before the fundamental 
difference between knowledge-centred instruction and knowledge as 
acquired learning (cf. Wittrock, 1990). 

The pedagogical trends implicitly pursued by the KMK (German Standing 
Conference of Education Ministers) via the learning field concept corre- 
spond to theories based on the development of competencies. Vocational 
curricula can be systematised not only technically but also as a develop- 
mental process from beginner (novice) to reflective mastery (expert) (cf. 
Dreyfus; Dreyfus, 1987; Rauner, 1999). F rom a developmenttheory point 
of view, the objective side - i.e. the one presenting the learning require- 
ments to the subject - still remains. This reflects the idea of someone 
being confronted by developmental tasks (Havighurst, 1972; Gruschka, 
1985 t 1 )) but not yet having solved them: what a person cannot yet do - 
for want of the requisite competence - he learns to do by confronting the 
task, which fosters in him the development of competence. On accountof 
this developmental/methodological basic model, the concept of develop- 
mental tasks lends itself particularly well to the structuring of vocational 
learning processes. We ( 2 ) referto 'paradigmatic' work tasks typical of vo- 
cational work (Benner, 1997) whenever the work contexts characteristic 
and typical of an occupation at the same time promote the development 
of occupational competence. The identification of such tasks presup- 
poses an analysis of the objective circumstances constituting a given oc- 
cupation: the artefacts, tools, methods and organisational forms of vo- 
cational work, as well as the (competing) demands made by vocational 
work. The most successful way of reconstructing the most important work 
tasks for the development of occupational competence is on the basis of 
'expert workers' workshops' (cf. Norton, 1997; Bremer; Roben, 2001; 
Kleiner, 2005). 

The expert workers' accounts of their work, training and projections 
are arranged in such a way as to match increasing stages of occupa- 
tional competence development and the formation of occupational iden- 
tity. Two difficulties which can only be overcome by qualification researchers 
with a degree of experience should be pointed out in this connection: 

1) The identification of work tasks can rapidly stray to the level of abstract 

abilities which reveal very little aboutvocational expertise and the com- 
petencies it incorporates. 


(') Developmental task theory was first taken up in Germany in the college project on course 
evaluation. Blankertz refers in his introductory contribution to the symposium 'Didactics and 
identity formation in young people’ (8th DGfE Congress in Regensburg, 1982) to the breadth 
ofthis approach: 'what I find interesting about the recourse made to Rousseau and Spranger 
is simply the high value being attached by a subject theory to teaching methods that are ap- 
propriate to systematic education ata young age, [...] Indeed, syllabuses, textbooks, curric- 
ular materials and classroom teachers at secondary II level often refer by way of illustration 
to individual disciplines and industrial technologies, without systematically taking into ac- 
count the developmental tasks faced by pupils (Blankertz, 1983, p. 141). 

( 2 ) 'We’ means a fairly large group of academics who have addressed ourselves in the past 
few years to the concepts and theories of task orientation in qualification and curriculum 
research (cf. ITB, 2002). 



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2) Work tasks which operate with the same artefacts and tools, and more- 
over superficially appear very similar, often prove to be extremely di- 
verse in terms of the requisite occupational competence (cf. Stratmann, 
1975). 

Both of these difficulties can be overcome by means of vocationally 
oriented studies directed at analysing vocational work processes and 
tasks in situ (Lave; Wenger, 1991, p. 33; Roben, 2005). Interpreting and 
re-evaluating industrial work processes and tasks therefore means taking 
into account the interpretation model emerging in the context of commu- 
nities of practice. Theo Wehner has coined the term local interpretation 
models' here. These are on the one hand imbued with social significance, 
but on the other hand they develop only in places where communities of 
practice operate (Wehner et a I., 1996, p. 79). More specifically, what 
this means for qualification research is that the researcher must decode 
the work processes in situ as an interplay of work artefacts, tools and meth- 
ods, and must decode the work organisation in its functionality, in its gen- 
esis and structurability as a technological and social process. 


Figure! Vocational competence development 'from beginner to expert' 





Practical knowledge and occupational competence 

Felix Rauner 


Bremer (2001) refers to the consequences of this fora work-oriented 
didactics of vocational education. Fora trainee atthe beginning of his vo- 
cational education, the new tasks and situations mark the start of a devel- 
opmentof occupational identity and technical competence. This develop- 
mental process necessitates three elements: (1) vocational learning, (2) 
vocational work and (3) cooperation at work. 

Developmental tasks have two didactic functions. First, they are used 
as an evaluation instrument to demonstrate the formation of occupation- 
al competence and identity at the (as yet unidentified) critical thresholds 
of occupational competence development (Bremer; H aasler, 2004). Second, 
developmental tasks are atthe same time a didactic tool for establishing 
and designing vocational curricula as well as learning and working tasks 
for structurally oriented VET (vocational education and training) (cf. Flowe 
etal., 2001). 

The five stages of competence development identified by Flubert L. 
Dreyfus and Stuart E . Dreyfus, and the four corresponding developmen- 
tal learning areas (Figure 1), have a hypothetical function for the identifi- 
cation of thresholds and stages in the development of occupational 
competence and identity; they also have a didactic function in the devel- 
opment of work-related and structurally oriented vocational courses (Rauner, 
2002 ). 

Expertise research also attaches crucial importance to developmen- 
tal tasks, or their functional equivalents, for competence development. 
Regarding the development of occupational competence in nurses, for 
instance, Patricia Benner notes the paradigmatic significance of work sit- 
uations in the step-by-step achievement of occupational competence in ac- 
cordance with Dreyfus and Dreyfus' developmental model. Benner relates 
these developmental tasks to 'paradigmatic work situations' in the sense 
of cases which promote the competence of nursing staff (Benner, 1997). 

Benner and G ruschka favour a change in the empirical access to 
real learning paths. Blankertz regards this change as dramatic not only 
owing to the departure from the discipline-based structuring of vocation- 
al curricula, but also in that competence development is governed by struc- 
tures of meaning which demand a change of perspective in the trainee: 
'he must anticipate his specific occupational role and identify with it - oth- 
erwise no competence development would be feasible' (Blankertz, 
1983, p. 139). 

Along with the subjectof learning, i.e. the person whose skills are be- 
ing developed from the level of deficient to competent, the analytical fo- 
cus is also directed at learning processes beyond the pedagogical and or- 
ganisational continuum of systematic instruction. The subject learns in sit- 
uations whose quality becomes crucial to the learning outcomes. In a much 
more general pedagogical context, Lave and Wenger pointoutthatlearn- 
ing as a path from inability to ability is accomplished as a process of inte- 
gration into the community of practice of those who already demonstrate 
expertise (Lave; Wenger, 1991). 



56 


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It has taken almost two decades in Germany to translate into didac- 
tic concepts the impetus generated by the attempt to explain competence 
development in VET in terms of development theory (cf. Bremer; J agla, 
2000; Rauner, 2004). 


Dimensions of practical knowledge 

In the context of the change in VET didactics concerning work and 
work processes, work process knowledge is regarded as a central cate- 
gory of knowledge: it is knowledge which arises from reflective work ex- 
perience and is incorporated in practical work. Work process knowledge 
is a form of knowledge that guides practical work and, as contextualised 
knowledge, goes far beyond non-contextual theoretical knowledge (cf. 
Erautetal., 1998). 

Picking up on the discussion about work process knowledge initiated 
by Wilfried Kruse (Kruse, 1986), this key category has been identified and 
explored in numerous research projects as a form of knowledge fundamen- 
tal to vocational learning (cf. Boreham etal., 2002; Fischer; Rauner, 2002). 

Work process knowledge can be characterised in an initial approxima- 
tion as a combination of practical and theoretical knowledge (Figure 2). 
The European 'Work Process Knowledge' research network bases its 
investigations into the subject on a working definition whereby work process 
knowledge is 'knowledge which 

• is directly necessary in the work process (as opposed for example to 

discipline-based knowledge; 


Figure 2: Work process knowledge as a combination of practical and 
theoretical knowledge and of subjective and objective 
knowledge 


Practical knowledge Theoretical knowledge 


Contextualised 
and implicit (tacit) 


Contextualised, 
guiding action 
and explicit 


Context-free, 
guiding action, 
academic, 
justifying action 


Work process knowledge 


subjective 


- knowledge - 


objective 




Practical knowledge and occupational competence 

Felix Rauner 


• is acquired in the work process itself, e.g. through experiential learn- 
ing, but does not exclude the application of theoretical knowledge; 

• encompasses a complete work process, in the sense of designing, 
planning, performing and assessing one's own work in the context of 
workplace processes' (Fischer, 2000, p. 36). 

The category of practical knowledge will now be examined in more de- 
tail. This is especially crucial for VET, since what is directly at issue here 
is the relationship between work experience, knowledge and ability. We 
should refer at this juncture to the current discussion about the founding 
of a theory of social practice, as put forward for example by Andreas 
Reckwitz from a sociological perspective. From the point of view of VET 
research and pedagogy, it is interesting to note Reckwitz's reference to 
the implicit logic of practice, as expressed for instance in the artefacts of 
the working world and in the knowledge, interests and functions they rep- 
resent. 

According to Reckwitz's theory of practice, practical knowledge com- 
prises: 

1. 'knowledge in the sense of interpretive understanding, i.e. a routine 
assignment of meaning to objects, persons etc.; 

2. methodical knowledge of 'script'-based procedures, or how to perform 
a series of actions competently; 

3. motivational/emotional knowledge: an implicit sense of what one ac- 
tually wants, what is at stake and what would not be feasible' (Reckwitz, 
2003, p. 292). 

This definition omits a dimension of practical knowledge which is rel- 
evant to VET research and pedagogy. The materiality of practice, as iden- 
tified by Reckwitz, for example reduces technical artefacts to the dimen- 
sion of the technical as a social process, in the theory of practice just as 
in established technical-sociological research. Curriculum theory requires 
a broader concept of the technical, encompassing the technical dimen- 
sion of knowledge itself. 

In examining paradigmatic work situations and tasks for nurses, Patricia 
Benner attaches constitutive importance to practical knowledge for occu- 
pational competence and takes up the cognitive theory positions substan- 
tiated by Schon in his 'epistemology of practice' (Schon, 1983). The six 
dimensions of practical knowledge identified by Benner (Benner, 1997) 
have gained currency in qualification and curriculum research. In qualifi- 
cation research, Bernd H aasler inter alia bases himself on this category- 
based framework for practical knowledge and confirms its usability in an 
empirical analysis of the extentto which manual work can be objectivised 
(H aasler, 2004). 

(1) Sensitivity to fine qualitative differences (sensitivity) 

A distinctive feature of practical vocational work is that, with increas- 
ing occupational experience, trained professionals develop ever greater 
sensitivity to fine and extremely fine situative differences in the percep- 



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tion and mastery of work situations. For example, a competent tool- 
maker, when removing the protruding parts of steel surfaces that have 
to be particularly flat, must possess exceptional technical sensitivity go- 
ing beyond both the theoretical description of the requisite knowledge and 
expertise and the analysis of flat surface measurements and the machin- 
ing algorithm to be derived therefrom. Experienced tool-makers are able, 
without lengthy reflection, to select correctly from thousands of tiny points 
on the steel surface they are shaving down which ones need to be re- 
moved, and can do so without being able to articulate the algorithm or 
rules they apply (Gerds, 2002). 

(2) Shared understanding (contextuality) 

Another aspect of practical vocational work is that, with increasing work 
experience beginning at the VET stage, members of occupational com- 
munities of practice possess an increasing body of similar and shared ex- 
periences. Their vocational work tasks are largely identical or similar. The 
language, stress, social norms and embedding of the specific vocational 
work in the process of social work constitute occupational traditions which 
lead to the emergence of comparable patterns of behaviour and appraisals. 
This ultimately results in an intuitive understanding that goes beyond ver- 
bal communication, enabling those concerned to work side by side even 
in very complex work situations without the need for many words (cf. 
Wehner et al., 1996). 

(3) Assumptions, expectations and attitudes (situativity) 

Practical knowledge comprises assumptions and expectations about 
typical work situations and work procedures. The interplay of experiential 
assumptions, attitudes and expectations, which leads to perceptual aware- 
ness (Holzkamp, 1985), on the one hand, and situative behaviour on the 
other constitutes an extremely fine differentiation of plans for action, go- 
ing far beyond theory-driven activity. The narration and description of typ- 
ical work situations initiated in technical discussions serves two purpos- 
es here: a contextualised account of work activity as an expression of sit- 
uative assumptions, expectations and attitudes, and the decoding of their 
genesis. Furthermore, this contextualised access to practical knowledge 
ultimately makes it possible to differentiate more clearly between explicit 
and implicit work process knowledge. 

(4) Paradigmatic work tasks (paradigmaticity) 

Benner and Wrubel (1982) introduced the term 'paradigmatic cases' 
for the purposes of their vocationally oriented qualification research in the 
field of the nursing professions. Paradigmatic work tasks only include ones 
which are subjectively experienced as especially challenging and objec- 
tively afford new or additional work experience, but which are at the same 
time mastered on the basis of previous experience and previous knowl- 
edge in such a way that prior knowledge makes it possible to create prom- 



Practical knowledge and occupational competence 

Felix Rauner 


59 


ising plans for action. Paradigmatic developmental tasks have an objec- 
tive side, inasmuch as vocationally oriented qualification research has 
shown which work tasks are typical of each developmental stage in the 
occupational progression from beginner to reflective mastery (expert) and 
whose accomplishment demands or promotes superior and more differ- 
entiated knowledge. One pre-requisite for curriculum developmentfound- 
ed on development theory is the identification and analysis of vocational 
work tasks which have the quality of paradigmatic or developmental tasks. 

(5) Communication in the community of practice (communicativity) 
Experts develop highly economic forms of comprehension in a broad 

spectrum of verbal and non-verbal communication within their communi- 
ty of practice. The subjective significance of information communicated 
within a community of practice is largely coherent. The degree of techni- 
cal understanding lies well above that of communication outside the en- 
terprise. In vocational work processes it is necessary on the one hand to 
be extremely precise when using defined concepts, codes, norms and 
rules, which allow no - or virtually no - scope for subjective interpretation. 
On the other hand, practical knowledge and occupational competence are 
reflected in contextualised language and communication whose full sig- 
nificance is apparent only to members of the community of practice. Access 
to the practical knowledge of a community of practice presupposes that 
one understands its language (Becker, 2005). 

(6) Unpredictable tasks and meta-competence (perspectivity) 

Practical vocational activity takes place in work situations and contexts 

whose predictability varies from one occupation to another. New individ- 
ual and collective practical knowledge arises constantly in such work sit- 
uations, even though it is not possible to solve the fundamental problem 
of work situations that are in principle unpredictable. Related to this is a 
specific form of work-related stress, resulting from what can systematical- 
ly be described as a knowledge gap (Drescher, 1996, p. 284). Thus work 
process knowledge is always incomplete knowledge, which is experienced 
subjectively in the case of unpredictable work tasks and constantly has to 
be bridged and completed in a given situation. In highly complex networked 
automated systems there is an additional unknown factor related to con- 
ditions and causes of faults. Faults of uncertain origin and temporary break- 
downs make complex networked work systems even less transparent. 
Mastery of unpredictable work tasks - fundamentally incomplete knowl- 
edge (knowledge gap) in relation to non-transparent, non-deterministic 
work situations - is characteristic of practical work process knowledge. 
Wherever this is a feature of vocational work, meta-competence can be 
created, namely the ability to cope with the knowledge gap when solving 
unpredictable tasks and problems in vocational work. 

The differentiation of the practical knowledge category as a dimension 
of the work process facilitates research into domain-specific knowledge, 



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which sheds more light on work process knowledge and in turn also prom- 
ises to reveal more about the imparting of work process knowledge in or 
for vocational work processes. However, it provides only a partial answer 
to the overriding question of whether the loss of actuality of work process 
knowledge caused by accelerating change in the working world funda- 
mentally devalues this knowledge as a point of reference for the develop- 
ment of occupational competence. A widely held popular thesis maintains 
thattechnical competence is devalued by the loss of actuality ofvocation- 
al knowledge. Thus the technical dimension is in a sense shifted to a meta- 
level, where all that matters is to have appropriate access to technical 
knowledge documented in comfortable media, databases and knowledge 
management systems. Accessing the 'knowledge' required for specific 
work tasks - knowledge management- would be sufficient. Technical com- 
petence would vanish as a form of domain-specific method compe- 
tence. Yetthis thesis has been rejected by comprehensive studies on the 
transformation of skilled work and on skill requirements, above all in the 
field of diagnostic work. Some pertinent vocationally oriented studies, and 
expertise research too, have confirmed the opposite thesis, namely that 
the vocational work process knowledge underpinning technical occupa- 
tional competence has in fact gained in significance (cf. Drescher, 1996; 
Becker, 2003; Rauner; Spottl, 2002; Gerstenmaier, 2004). 

VET practice, expertise research and vocationally oriented qualifica- 
tion research in the field of personal services and industrial work have 
unanimously concluded that domain-specific (technical) competence is 
the cornerstone of occupational competence (3). (To the extent that it is 
possible to put empirical curriculum research back on a firmer footing 
thanks to domain-specific qualification research, the diffuse formula of key 
qualifications takes a back seat.) Expertise and qualification research at 
the same time supports the concept of vocational learning in the context 
of meaningful work situations and hence the key programmatic idea of a 
curriculum structured around learning fields. The orientation of vocation- 
al learning according to (occupational) work and business processes - 
from a structurally oriented perspective - implies that work activity has a 
rationality of its own beyond the one-dimensional scientific rationality typ- 
ical of the discipline-based curriculum. This finding has unleashed anoth- 
er controversial discussion in VET pedagogy about the connection be- 
tween discipline-based and casuistic learning (cf. Fischer; Roben, 2004). 

A widespread pedagogical belief in the specialised nature of vocation- 
al knowledge ties in with the German Educational Council's requirement 
thatall training must be academically oriented, and assumes that special- 
ist academic knowledge is the highest form of systematic knowledge, in 
which social knowledge is stored. T ade T ramm for instance does not in- 


( 3 ) Cf. on this pointthe proceedings of the HGTB and GTW conferences (Pahl; Rauner; Spottl, 
2000; Eicker; Petersen, 2001; Petersen; Rauner; Stuber, 2001), Gerstenmaier, 2003 from 
an expertise research perspective, and Gardner in his substantiation of multiple intelligen- 
ce theory (2002). 



Practical knowledge and occupational competence 

Felix Rauner 


61 


terpretthe KMK's reference to work and business process orientation in 
its hand-out on the development of learning fields (KMK, 1996) as a pro- 
grammatic reference to an extended notion of competence, but links it 
to the discussion about inductive forms of learning, which in VET are ul- 
timately always directed at 'opening up access to systematic knowledge 
and conceptual awareness, and hence moving from the pragmatic con- 
text to economic insights [in the field of business and administration, F. 
R .] and interpretations' (T ramm, 2002, p. 58). 

This assumption, widespread in VET pedagogy, thatdiscipline-based 
knowledge represents a kind of shadow occupational activity that- in pro- 
cedural terms - guides occupational expertise, derives from a funda- 
mental mistaking of categories, as is demonstrated inter alia by Neuweg 
(2000) and Fischer (2002) (cf. on this pointalso Heritage, 1984, p. 298 ff). 

Our interim conclusion would therefore be thatthe development of 
occupational competence occurs in a process of reflective practical ex- 
perience. According to Schon, the development of occupational compe- 
tence is based on an extension of the repertoire of individual cases with 
which the learner is confronted in the developmental process. Schon, how- 
ever, underestimates here the contribution made by school-centred VET, 
if it is successful in turning work process knowledge and its communica- 
tion in activity-oriented forms of learning into the cornerstone of curriculum 
development and course design. Thatthen means systematising teaching 
and learning content along developmental lines, since occupational com- 
petence can only be developed in thatway - and notalong discipline lines. 

The notions of practical knowledge and 'reflection on and in action' 
correspond to Klaus Holzkamp's notion of practical concepts (Holzkamp, 
1985, p. 226 ff.). He maintains thatthe concepts which people use sub- 
jectively are basically practical, in that their elements, scope and fields of 
meaning (i.e. the sum of their elements of meaning and their context) are 
affected by the individual developmental processes. Scientifically defined 
concepts, however, represent only a fraction of the elements of meaning 
of practical concepts and hence determine (occupational) competence to 
only a very limited extent. 

Members of different communities of practice have their own domain- 
specific practical concepts, in which the domain-specific connotations of 
objects form specific semantic fields (Wehner; Dick, 2001). The semantic 
fields of practical concepts become blurred at the edges, change their 
scope with every new experience, are in themselves quite contradictory, 
and their elements of meaning are often associated with other practical 
concepts. The significance of individual elements of meaning can only be 
clarified (in a domain-specific fashion) by taking into accountthe skill pro- 
file of an occupation. Subjective interpretations of elements of meaning 
are exposed to a continual process of change, embedded in the process- 
es of competence development. It is therefore necessary to investigate in 
more detail whether and how the semantic fields for the same concept 
overlap in different occupations, how the elements of meaning correspond 



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to one another and in what way they are linked to other semantic fields. 
P ractical concepts not only regulate ongoing work activity at a given time; 
they also underpin communication within and between communities of 
practice by symbolically representing contextualised circumstances. These 
processes of forming practical concepts that guide action and facilitate 
communication in communities of practice take place above all as situ- 
ated learning. It is the task of technical and vocational didactic research 
to investigate beginners' prior understanding - or their subjective se- 
mantic fields for technical concepts - and experts' occupational seman- 
tic fields for key technical concepts. Only then will it be possible to devise 
teaching and learning strategies which enable the semantic fields and 
structures of everyday concepts and theories gradually to be transformed 
into occupational semantic fields. 


Conclusions 

The traditional comparison made in pedagogical discussion between 
discipline-based and casuistic learning is misleading. The didactic con- 
cept of activity-led acquisition of discipline-based knowledge is predicat- 
ed on a scientistic misconception of the relationship between knowledge 
and competence. The importance of specialised technical curriculum con- 
tent for the process of developing occupational competence is greatly 
overestimated. In the area of industrial and technical VET, some elements 
of the work-related semantic fields are denoted with definitional knowl- 
edge, even if it is acquired through inductive teaching and learning meth- 
ods. By contrast, the domain-specific practical concepts (Holzkamp, 1985, 
p. 266 ff.) acquired in the process of occupational competence develop- 
ment and the related subjective theories, as well as the understanding 
of the work process context, serve to guide action. This process cannot 
be dissociated from that of integrating into the community of practice. 

Empirical VET research must therefore investigate in a domain- 
specific fashion, for each profession or occupation, what prior understand- 
ing and what experiences impacton the relevant vocational concepts and 
subjective theories of learners. Moving on from there, the steps and stages 
in the developmental communication of work process knowledge must be 
explored didactically. To this extent, the developmental systematisation 
of working and learning situations, e.g. in the form of case-work and proj- 
ects, is an appropriate form of systematic VET where there is an oppor- 
tunity to acquire extensive, meaningful and action-guiding concepts and 
theories, as well as behavioural strategies, embedded in and supported 
by the process of vocational identity-building. The topicality of this discus- 
sion arises out of the European project on the introduction of modular cer- 
tification systems for vocational education as well as the opposite trend 
internationally towards the re-establishment of dual training models (e.g. 
in Malaysia, Oman, Italy, Holland and Scotland). 



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Felix Rauner 


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