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Full text of "Volume 69, Number 06 (June 1951)"

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t/ifA i&bue . . • 

The Side of the Angels 

William Schuman 

How Do I Get a Manager? 

Arthur Judson 

How to Start 

a Piano Studio 

Florence Ni. Porter 

Teachers I Have Known 
Henri Temianka 


Too Many Languages 

Virgil Thomson 


The Great Kreisler Hoax 

Fritz Kreisler 



'■ >*• " ' \ 

mmmy -mm 


\x,.& ■! •» ,v A< 

Adventures of the Trill 
Ida Franca 

> i - f ", 


Childhood Days of 

Famous Composers 


Lottie Ellsworth Coit 

Ruth Bampton 

combined in each book based on the childhood of a 
famous composer. For individual or class instruc- 
tion — or just fur fun!— your students will not only 
love these little pieces but they will also pain under- 
standing and appreciation of the works of famous 

There are biographies simply written, pictures of the 
composers and scenes from their lives. Easy-lo-play 
piano pieces ( including a duet ) have been arranged 
so that they' retain the essential elements of the 
original composition. Something to sing, directions 
for constructing a miniature { cardboard ) stage and 
settings, suggestions for a musical playlet, plus a 
list of recordings, all lurve a special interest for chil- 
dren. Teachers may adapt the many uses of this 
book for children from 5 to IS. Whether in school, 

enjoy these books. 






The Aero York Philhar • 
momc-Symphony, following 
the conclusion of its regular 

week engagement at the Roxy 
Theatre in New York. It was a 
return engagement for die or- 
chestra and conductor Dimitri 
Mitropouiot after their suc- 
cessful appearance at the Roxy 
last September . . . Mr. Mitro- 
poulos will be one of the four 
conductors lor the Lewisohn 
Stadium summer concerts, be- 

conduclors are Pierre Mon- 
terror , I I nil im ir Goltrhmann 
and Alexander Smallen*. 

I .S. Army Band in Wash- 
ington, where his Sy mphony in 
B-llat for Hand had 


Hour with Ormundy." is the 

ductor of a major orchestra as 
its disc jockey. The program 
consists ol Philadelphia Orches- 
tra recordings, with commen- 
tary' by Ormnndy . . . The 
March of Time is planning a 
series of ballet programs espe- 
cially created for television. 

Alan f>. Lnngennt. for- 
merly associated with well- 
known music publishing firms, 

in charge of sales, promotion 
Tire National Assorialion 

The non-profit organization has 

lion to members except to play- 
in small ensembles whenever 

write to .Miss Helen Hue . sec- 
retary. NAACMP, 15 W. 67lh 
St„ N. Y, C. 

K. I.. M. Royal Dutch Air- 
liner this summer offers an all- 
expense tour of European music 
festivals . . . Rudolf Srrkin 
and Adolf Burch bead the 
music faculty at Marlboro 
College , Vermont, this sum- 
mer . . . The Lot Angela 
Orchetlral Society oilers its 
filth annuul music festival at 
the Vniverrity of Californio 
this summer, with Front It or- 

Roman. Eugene Conley , 
Ford, Andre Prerin and 

The 13th annual Mutir 
Feslirol at Slrnthourg will 
take place tills mouth, featur- 

French and Italian eomposers- 

and the list of soloists will be 
headed by Robert Cntadetnt . 

COMPETITIONS I For derails. mile la sponsors listed) 

First prize. *382.50; nine oilier prizes. Folds June .30. 1051. Sponsor; 
Choir Guide. 166 W. 18th Sr.. N, Y. C 

• Four-part a cappella anthem. Prize and closing date not announced. 
Sponsor; Chapel Cli«ir Conductors' Guild, c/o Ellis E. Snyder, Mees 

• ;. i . 

• Fnlbright Scholarships lor music study abroad, providing trans- 
portation, tuition and maintenance for one year. Closing date for 
1952*53 scholarships, Oct. 15, 1951. Institute of International Educa* 
tom. 2 West 45th Si.. N. Y. C. 

Foundation. 165 W. 46th St.. N. Y. C. 


and many of 
their happiest 
moments were 
spent at their 
Wurlitzer Piano 

June w'cdding coming up in your 
family? May we join the family council 
to make a suggestion ? 

Start the young couple off with a 
brand-new Wurlitzer Piano. It’s a gift 
that will make them proud and 
happy now — and one they can 
enjoy throughout the years. 

It's taiy to give a Wurlitzer. For 
Wurlitzer Pianos arc made and priced 
to give you the liiggcst piano value 
anyone can buy. Wurlitzer puts 
more into its pianos — yet sells them 
for less— because Wurlitzer is the 
leader in its field. More people buy 
W utilizer Pianoj than those of 

WuRT.iT/.KH Fir 

Wortfi tarjait SuISs* at PUsas M Q>satf 

lit »•«» nniiitt coaraar, n rut. niiaoiSt titonri orrim, tsttaco, union 

VDE—fVXE 1951 

You'll thrill 
to llio voice 

of this superb 


EXSSBSfc*- ” d M 





HtSS g* 
2s£ir|ss> tSrjJff-. 


__ K “* 

=MgSg r£“IL 

1 M®S 

fgils pga; 

*•““ S-SSffSrS 

WwaM fa* 


MOODY BiMe LtUiite 

in ‘ 


Established, Renowned 
Composers of Educational 
Piano Material 


410-40142 Easy Studies In Early Grades s-« 

1 10-234*8 12 Piano Btudtt (or Young Students. oi« 
410-40241 25 Melodies lor Eye, Ear and Hand 

418-40008 Spelling Lessons in Time and Notation 

410-40057 First Grade Book 

410-40063 Kindergarten Book (Treble Clef) 
430-40021 My First Lesson Book. 


430-40099 First How-Do-You-Do 

slJt . 4 

410-40118 Bcgmning with the Pedals 


430-40107 What to do First at the Piano 75 

430-40108 What to do Second a the Piano 75 


await a 

420-40017 First Pedal Studies 60 


420-40010 Piano Method for Little Children - 1.00 



110-40122 21 Miniature Studies without 

Octaves onto ?A-5y, -75 


" „.r (L.h 


T — 

I 430-40 1 00 More Busy Work (p..po.a** T o.d Oral. 

I 430-41004 Mother Goose in Note-Land |a.odt»a, o,o4. 

I 430-40101 Musical Alphabet and Figures. ... tPrp-SeSo« 

I 430-40104 Pleasure Path to the Piano. tP.p-s.hooi, c.od« 


THEODORE PRESSER CO., Bryn Mawr, Penna. 


(Continued Irom Page 7) 

house of Belwin. I tie- “ 
America in 1007 wil.. — 
money, three shirts uud a single 

the 1 1' ' ' pet' 

tho streets of New V "rk m 
searrli of work. Finally he luuk 
out the fiddle hr had brought 
from Rumania ami joined^ a 
group of street musician*. ~ 

down. Later Winkler 
penny hod lodged in ms n** 

With the penny from I leaven, 
Winkler bought o postcard in 

Xeilung. lie got the job. It " u* 
with Carl Fischer. Ine. Winkler 
spent llis first days on the job 
carrying I jtl.pnuml bundles of 

Winkler spent 11 year, at 
Fischer's, learning music pub* 
Halting from the ground tip. It 

by Beethoven or “Weinl Mol 
crate'* by Tchaikovsky. 
Cinema Music (now mW 

ade movies talk. and Bd,;, 
is out of business. 
Winkler sold 70 tom u 
showered printed tr 

8210 fur tile fruit* ol Ira ya,/ 
labor. A lad ironic law 
mill went bankrupt bri* 
Winkler could radi his A-i 
Undaunted. WutLIsr 

I catalogue ul good .tad 
ard music nvenuitht. Is.s-J 
W inkler looked lot an Me, 
lisheil European puUish., ,1. 
wanted I U.5. repteseoUliu 
lie fnund it in the EnfM i- 
o( Bouaey & Hawks. 

~ •' York lirsndt .o ' 

irchestra. organist incorporated as Boosey-iiislw 
Belwin. Winkler .» mb I 
president ami general amuse | 
Hoosry &lla.kes'iolkiM.W j 

than a harv notion of whal the 
liegan circulating about inns ie 

pit. Why not. Winkler reasoned, 
supply a cue sheet with the 

to play? 

Universal Pictures lik> 
idea and hired Winkler 

Booses -Hawkra-Bdsrin lad 

until 1045, when Winkle b 
tame too but, waMm " 

era. Meanwhile be lad umd 
America, talking to 

Soon Winkler v 
ness for himself 
Music. Inc. The 
mand for 

era who could 
fast published reams of their they asked for. 
works ami Still could not keep its feel again, 
up with the demand. In dr-|*v “A Penny from 

Mr. Winkler record, he * 

!> and puls and downs 


In colleges and consers-utories all 
cians this month will receive diplo 
work. Next question: "Where do 
that question. ETUDE', editor. 
articles by well-known authorities w 
most perplexing aspen, of launching 


The President of the Juilliard School, one 

of Americas outstanding composers, tells 

June graduates how to succeed in music. 


will assure for each and every one of you si 

Perhaps 1 should odd immediately that my recipe or 

sician’s life which is concerned with mnsic as a business. 

As young musicians, you arc already well aware that n 
life in music involves extra-musical as well as musical 
matters. Music is studied as an art and practiced as a 
business. When I tell you Ihnl my recipe for success in 
music concerns the art part ami not necessarily the busi- 
ness part, it jloes not mean lhat 1 underestimate the im- 
portance of the business or professional side of music. 

I cannot help feeling, however, that there is no such 
thing as success for a musician unless his highest musical 
potentialities arc realized. Surely, you must achieve a 
sound social and economic base for your existence ami 
music is certainly no different from any oilier normal pur- 
suit — it cannot take place in n vacuum as though it were 
above the practical. But, too many young musicians con- 
cern themselves with developing avenues for commercial 
exploitation at the expense of the time and energy needed 
for their musical development. They often spend n dis- 
proporl o t imount of time in seeking opportunities. 
Each of you will have opportunities to reach your goal. 
You will be auditioned for the orchestras, you will be 
interviewed for teaching posts, you will sing and play fur 
the managers. The main thing is to lie prepared when the 
opportunities arrive. 

Music has become so deeply associated with ils com- 
mercial practice that it is difficult, even as an exercise in 
fancy, to ignore the relationship. If. however, for the mo- 
ment, al least, you could imagine that such a separation 

actually existed, it would follow tlint success in the mar- 
ketplace would have no benriug on success in the practice 
of music. If we removed the competitive aspect of the 
profession of music, wc would arrive at a point where n 
musician would be evaluated by his musical achievements 
and not hy the size of his pay check and we would be 
returning to musical fundamentals. After all. a man be- 
comes the best musician he is capable of becoming when 
he performs or composes with his deepest emotional, in- 
tellectual and physical powers. 

In purely musical terms, being a successful musician 
is a continuing process — it is reaching for a goal that 
moves higher as each step is achieved. There is no sum- 
mit. In the art of music, no man is omnipotent. Every 
musician has something more to learn about music and 
evidence for this is to lie found in the lives of the great 
musicians. The great ones are never satisfied. They sup- 
ply ample evidence that for the musician musicnl growth 
is his very life process. They knew that if there is not to 
be decay there must lie the nourishment of study. 

Basic in tile ability of the musician to 
grow is bis understanding of the true nature of his art. 
He understands that music is the embodiment in toual 
terms of the human intellect and spirit. He understands 
that this intellect and spirit is expressed by composers 
through compositional techniques which make up the 
language of music, lie understands that it is the perform- 
er's task'lo master this language in order to discover what 
the composers are striving to express, ne understands 
that the musician must give performances which reveal 
musical values and which are not used as mere vehicles 

ETUDE— 11 WE mi 


c display. He understands, too. that the 
literature of music, i.e., the compositions themselves, is 
the core of his art. The literature of music is the core 
because it is the focal point for the entire art of music. 
The very art of musical performance exists in order to 
translate composition from musical symbols into the 
reality of actual sound. For this reason a fine perfori 

using his abilities to make clear to his listeners tile com- 
poser’s thoughts. A key to the kind of performance which 
a given piece of music requires can be discovered only 
through an understanding of the musical qualities of that 
piece of music. It follows from this that the rendition of a 
composition must be evaluated in terms of tile perform- 
er's understanding of the language of Hint composition. 
In other words, it is not possible to evaluate a perform- 
ance in the abstract by marveling at the manual dexter- 
ity of the performer, or remarkable breath control, or any 
other isolated technical feature. These techniques arc 
only valid in terms of the musical demands the composi- 
tion makes upon them. This is the reason why every per- 
forming musician must haven thorough grounding in the 
literature and materials of the art of musical composition. 

The musicinu who understands the fundamental im- 
portance of composition will have an attitude towards 
the choice of repertory which goes far beyond the super- 
ficial. Such a musician will comprehend full well the 
necessity of fighting the battle for creativity. He will 

he will have the courage to perform those works which 
satisfy his innermost musical sympathies. He will per- 
form works which are not necessarily calculated to daz- 
zle. lie will explore the repertory os a natural part of the 

's insatiable curiosity a 

result of this way of musical life, he will serve the music 
of the past and the present and consider his choice of 
repertory as a more serious process than the mere selec- 
tion of pieces to glorify his athleticism. 

T seem to hear you saying, "This is all very- 
good, but it is too idealistic. What has it got to do with 
my career?" Frankly. It may have n great deal to do with 

will never lose sight of the values in which he believes and 
he will bring to any task, however modest, an intensity 
of expressive purpose. 

In considering the practical aspects of the market- 
ability of your music talents, nothing is to be gained 
through a denial of the highly competitive world you will 
face. Naturally, you are concerned with econpmics and 
you wish to achieve a satisfactory economic status and 
to do this through music. May 1 suggest to you that it is 
possible to reach this goal without compromising your 
basic artistic convictions. Compromise, itself, need not 
necessarily destroy values. It is only a lack of awareness 

that a compromise lias been made that makes inroncU 
on one's musical integrity. It « possible to have mini, si 
integrity and to be commercially successful in music it 
the same time. This can be achieved if the demands of U» e 
music business are always understood objectively for 
what they are and if the musician never confuses Uicso 
with the demands of the art of music. 

A THtrE musician is one who remains faith- 
ful lo bis own highest artistic standards despite the prac- 
tical compromises he may be obliged lo make. Such a 
musician docs not become the tired professional whore 
personality has been so warped and embittered through 
commercial music-making that he no longer has any liv- 
ing relationship with his art. You eau remain true nra- 
sirinns if you will remember that regardless of extra- 
musical pressures or unmusical pressures you have the 
power to maintain your own values in the private world 
of voor mind, and if you do not do so, you are forfeiting 
the realization of your highest potentialities. This Ind- 
ira lion is one of the special joy* reserved for genuinely 
imaginative people- If this. too. sounds idealistic, may I 
say that to me it is most practical ami supplies the most 
reasonable approach for maintaining the highest goals in 
the face of the necessity for practical compromise. It is 
practical because a musician who i* deeply contented 
with standards will always attempt to raise the level of 
music wherever he is. Inside himself he w-ill never he able 
to accept a shoddy performance nr shoddy material- lie 
will always try to raise the level because always there 
will he preseut a healthy conflict bet wren what he may- 
be obliged to do and what he feels should lie done. This. 
I believe. Is I he road to progress in music. Ultimately, 
maintaining one's private world of purely musical stand- 
ards is neither idealistic nor private, but practical and 
public. Practical because it provides the only truly inde- 
pendent avenue for continued individual progress in niu- 
sie, and public because musicians who refuse iu their 
innermost convictions to compromise will always remain 
a force for raising the standards of the profession. 

The considerations that have been set forth to yon a! 
practical have concerned your individual relationship 
with the art of music. I have tried to tell you why I con- 
sider this relation-hip to be of primary importance. even 
in the practical side of the musician's life. This does not 
mean that I am unaware that these individual musical 
considerations often have little bearing oil one’s success 
in the music world. The music world is concerned with 
competition. Each of you will compete with each other. 
mTH SJtT mU " V ' n " S who “ re already in the field and 

low you. This competition is often based on value* 
which are only partially valid musically and sometime* 
on valuis which have nothing to do with music. It is 
too obvious to require I Continued on Pay' SO) 


How Do I Get a Manager ? 


As Told To Hose Heytbui 

Look at yourself from the manager’s point of vieic . . . 
Hate you something the public mil buy? 

O NCE IN » WHILE, some person ol 
kind heart and good faith tell* the 
heart-breaking story ol a phenomenally 
gifted young friend who plays 

m deluded. Don’t let him de- 

lude yon. 

The fact is that any youngster con gel 
a manager — if he convinces that manager 
that he has something to say which the pub- 
lic will pay to hear. 

The concert manager does not run an 
experimental laboratory nor yet a Depart- 
ment of Culture. He is a business man. He 
has a commodity to sell. That commodity 
reveals itself through accomplishment on 
keyboard and strings, hut it consists only 
partly ol an ability lo play. Its much more 
important ingredient is the agreeable pro- 
jection of mature musical thought 

The experienced manager does not allow 
his preferences to interfere with his busi- 
ness. Personally, he may lake a great lit- 

lievea that the youngster cannot make the 
grade in stiff public competition, he gives 

Ituddislg artists do well to realize that 
the concert bureaus arc not trying to keep 
them down. Quite the contrary. We man- 
agers have never yet hod enough fine art- 
i*ts. With the splendid development of our 
national concert field, the demand lar ex- 
ceeds the supply — so much so that occa- 
sionally we find ourselves obliged to book 
very good artists of somewhat less than 

doing this, knowing quite well that only 
top quality can consistently hold public 

interesl (and fees I . The artist with some- 
thing to say has no trouble finding a man- 

llow does he go about it? At Columbia 
Artists, we audition everyone who applies, 

believing he merits an audition. When his 
reeumtnmdalions come from unknown 
sources in which I have confidence— well- 
known teachers, local managers, etc. — I 
hear him at once. I give some .100 audition* 
a vear, a stimulating task to one who loves 
music and devoutly hopes to discover top- 
rank new material. 

Ilow do I judge? Musicianship must 
he evident, certainly; but there must also 
bo a good stage presence; adequate tech- 
nique: something to say; and the ability lo 
project this something through the inde- 
finable yet unmistakable lift of a magnetic 
personality, liudge for yourself ol the per- 
formers you most enjoy hearing. I The fel- 
low who rises to his best only when he is 
placing alone, by candle-light, is not for us 
no matter how gibed lie may he. 

When artist and manager have found 
each other, their problems ore by no mean* 
at an cad. This business-man-maaager 
shuns nothing so much as getting stuck 
with the quick-lash meteor who gives one 
hurst of flame and then peters out. He 
wants a star of steady brilliance, upon 
whose light he can depend. 

rilal program and a couple of concerti. and 
think they’re ready for a career. They are 
mistaken— but worse tilings than that can 
happen to them. If. by chance, they make 
a success with their slim equipment, ihev 
can easily he ruined. 

You can't lake more out of the jar than 

yon put in. and you can’t make a career on 
inadequate equipment. A manager advises 
such young artists to study and mature. 
If they cash in too'fasl. they are apt to do 
neither. Then, in o season or two, they 
are heard of no more, at which point they 
generally come hack to the manager, lo say 
they wish they'd listened. It is no pleas- 
ure lo teeall lire many eases— some with 
one-linn; "names" — to whom this applies. 

The quick-success youngster* often say 
they mean to go back and study later on— 
aber they've lasted a bit of success. Then 
I ask them this: if they earned a million 
dollars by over-playing at the wrong time, 
what would they do with it lo salvage their 
careers? Advertising and publicity are 
helpful in Idling people know you're there 

hearing you. 

Never have there been greater opportuni- 
ties than those now open to the performer 
with something lo say and tile gift for say- 
ing iL Twenty years ago. American concert 
business ran to about $500.(HX>. Today, our 

seven millions. That means a lot of money 
— more, it means that people are willing to 
spend such a sum for the stimulus of hear- 
ing the kind of performers they want to 
hear. And that’s the thing to remember. 

How does tile manager determine the 
type of tour a new artist ia to have? En- 
tirely on the reactions that artist is capable 
of arousing. Heifetz made hi* Auiericau 
debut in Carnegie Hall and from there, 
went all over the cmrnlry. A less precocious 
performer would be developed on tile road 
before entering New York. Corot, a fine 
pianist, never warmed New York at all. and 
usually worked out of Chicago westwards. 

Stew York appearnnres are not csseu* 
lial to a career. More and mure. New York 
ia regarded as a most lo-lpta! and apprecin- 

henven. Its influence on a nationwide tour 
is no longer whnt it once was. An experi- 
enced performer of European reputation 
can tackle New York: the youngster who 
has never played a larger town than Halo* 
mazoo had lielter waiL No one should play 
New York without three to four years' 
concert experience. I Continued on Page 5 1 1 


How to get started on 

Your Career as a 
Piano Teacher 



der. Your recital is a brilliant memory. 

glamour ie passed. Now. [or new adven- 
ture. a career teaching piano. 

just a matter of publicity and getting stu- 
dents. All your friends want a hand in your 
success. People in your church, vour clubs 
and those whu attended your recital will 

her your friends the mail man. the milk 

grocer will help by putting your card in 

Dale Carnegie will help you “Win 
Friends and Influence People" and Veron- 
ica Dengcl will help with “Personality Un- 
limited," for hi this career personality is 
of utmost importance. 

Have you forgotten your neighbors? 
They provide the students most help of all. 
so on with your prettiest dress, the perky 

purse you got for graduation as y ou go to 

llare you remembered to stock that 
printed with your name and “Teacher of 
number in opposite lower comers? Now if 

way. just read your own cards! ft will help 
your self-confidence. 

Have you a notebook for names, addres- 
ses. phone numbers and appointments? 

Meet adventure with a smile. When your 
neighbors come to the door, offer them 

your card along with your smile! Say you 
are a graduate piano leather olid would 
enjoy teaching them or their children. 

Since you arc just starting, your longer 
lessons *40 minutes I and lower rates will 

heavy traffic just at the time when they 

The children will benefit hv the latest 
methods as you have been in school more 
recently than older teachers. 

Ij /mu / de any they hate no children to 

teach, that is not the end! Do you know 
adults have a “suppressed desire" to learn 

so and want to be invited? They often 
make better progress than youngsters. 
They will lie glad to know so many adults 
are taking up piano that the stores are full 
of beginners' hooks written ju»l es|ieeially 

friends as well ns students. This ap|ieals to 
housewives who are often lonely during 
tho day. They want friends too and can 
come for lessons before school children, 
when you are not so busy and can enjoy a 
visit. This saves them the embarrassment 
they dread of having a child hear them 
ploy simple things. 

No sale? Anyway they will start think- 
ing. “Who needs a good piano teacher?" 
Did you leave your card, just in case? 
Many of the best teachers have started 
their careers litis way. 

You arc just too, too timid to go calling 
on your neighbors? Well, try an easier 
way. Stick your cards into doors. Or hire 

some small boy to do it for you. Or bn 
a postal card printed and mailed to it, 
“Occupant." Folders are nice but opts 

How about putting an ad in the lent 
newspaper, under “Musical Ioatuaiis,.- 
“Business Cards" and “Musical Imps 
ments?” People who buy piano, 

You don’t know how to write an ad? 
Just begin with your name fotlounl l, 
"Teacher of Piano. Conservatory pads 
ate. beginners and adults," your plan 
nuiulier and address last. 

Have yon a sign to pul up on soar 
house? Try' one about 12 by lti jncbx, 
“Teacher of Piano" printed with the la 
tors of “Piano" five inches high, w r(v 

black picture frame with a glass will pro 
I eel It from the weather and make it lag 

each month will he fun and hdp with men 
problems, difficult for one. but can iw 
another teacher. Thru too, time other 
teachers may give you “headache" da* ! 
dents. Wo all have them. Teachers vi!l 
sometimes give you their whole vlaaa ready 
made, when they lake “maternity leave," 
or when they move away, or even wbai | 
they dir! It has been done! Many tearhen 
got their start by such a legacy. 

Don't think you can keep all these gib 
Students. It does not work that wav. Yw 
will do well to keep half of them, so doit 

Often voice, violin and dance tear ben 
are asked about a piano teacher, so male 
friends with them ton. Any other tearhen 
iu your neighborhood? You don't know? 

do the trick. 

“Nothing succeed* like * or ecu" no 

know, so always appear to be busy. Tewi 
students consecutively when they come to 
vour home, h takes only three student# to 
fill the time from 4 to 6 at 40 minutes esdc 
They naturally assume that ill your dap 
are so occupied. 

These same three students earh pUyiaf 
little “pieces" from their study i*“k» 
I they need not lie sheet music I can have a 
musical tea some Sunday afternoon at l« 
home or theirs, and play for parrots sad 
friends. You may be asked to play tw 
Lend the affair a festive air by at'®! 
candy or light refreshments. Tho vod* 
like a charm and helps make friend# aai 
increase popu- l Continued on Page STI 


I have known 



- Dutchman mimed Card Blitz. 
Ih- lived in the heart of Uotterdam. Hol- 
land. ou a big, flourishing thuruughfare 
facing the zoo. You walked in through the 
store, li here violins and strings were sold 

■laughter, and yon went upntuirs for your 
lessons. In the hack of tile house the son 

ft Was a united family and the most 
hospitable hotnc in Rotterdam. Very soon 
1 was slaying to lunch and dinner and get- 

nvemighl. Blitz started me when I was 
M-ven anil 1 stayed with him until I was 15. 

Right from the first lesson he won inv 
youthful confidence by Inking my violin 
und balancing it on his forehead while 
precariously walking across the room, lie 
would iierlorin sleight of hand tricks tlut 
left me goggle-eyed, or sit down at llic 
piano with his violin tucked under his chin 
and improvise on both instruments at the 
same lime, Tlii* improbable feat was ac- 
complished by the occasional use ol open 
strings und left-hand pizzicall. one free 
hand dexterously roaming across the piano. 
Once in a while both hands were itsed for 
thunderous lutli or u brilliant violin ca- 

lllitz also look me sailing in his boat 
on the lakes that ringed Rotterdam and 
taught me to play billiards. He let me help 
him when puttering around in hi* work- 
shop. where he made everything fromfumi- 

words for the popular song he composed. 
It was accepted by an American publisher. 
Recently I came across the lyrics anil shud- 

Lasl. mid not least, inv teacher gave me 
an excellent technical and musical loundn- 

Reprinted Irom Ts*ai Slrlsj Newl. piibllihcd 
by the College of fine Arts. Tbe University 

1. He It 

it deal to give, a 

accepted and absorbed 
for I adored bins. Hr hail found the hey 
In my hrart and Ihnl is the basic lead ol 
nil goad leaching. This, I discovered in 
later years, when I in turu was faced wilir 
the great responsibility of passing on to 
others what 1 had acquired, was the great- 
est lesson I had learned from him. and one 
I have always tried to remember. 

When I was 15 1 went to Berlin to con- 
tinue my studies with Professor Willy Hess, 
one of Joachim's most prominent pupils. 
The contra*! could not have been greater, 
lie— was as impersonal as my first teacher 
had liecn warm-hearted. An extremely able 

knew by heart all the Kreulzcr, DonU Itodc, 
Gavinie* and Paganini Eludes ami hod 
them ail neatly indexed in his mind. “Kfeul- 
zer No. 33 for next week." he would say 
without looking at tire hook and forthwith 

lie bad the hahil of always piaving 
along with ihe student, using a very loud 
Giiadagnini. We soon learned the trick of 
play ing softly when we Were not well pre- 
pared. That was the way to have a “good" 

single bowing or fingering. “Do volt think 
you know better than Joachim?" was a 
squelcher to which none of os could find 

Hess taught the old-fashioned German 
(rowing: stick under the first joint nf the 

elbow. All progress ami initiative had come 

Hess, in short, seemed la ignore Ihe vital 
Im/mriance o/ developing his students' in- 
illative and imagination, surely two essen- 
tial and desirable qualities. The indelible 
memory of this fatal mistake on the part 
of an otherwise able teacher still rises up 
to warn me. particularly when I am guid- 

ing a sensitive und gifted student. 

I shall never forget the day we serenaded 

day. We had taken great pains lo make this 
a memorable day for him. At seven o'clock 

chamber music students, secretly asseni* 
bird in the music room of his penthouse 
apartment in the Chariottenhiirg district of 
Berlin. We had spent grueling hours re- 
hearsing and learning tile Concerto of 
Bach for two violins and siring orchestra. 
Stealthily we climbed up the six flights 

double basses, folding chairs, music and 
stands. When we laid finally assembled our 

selves, and everything was perfectly ill 
place, the maid was sent to call for Herr 

joying an early eup of coffee. Unsuspect- 
ingly. Hess walked toward tile music 

the threshold, tire jubilant strains ol Bach's 
great Double Concerto hurst forth. 

Hess did not lose his composure. He 
stood there with folded arms while wo 
fiddled away for lull an hour. When the 
serenading had come to on end. Kulen- 
knmplf, the oldest of tire students, who 
later became very prominent in Germany 
and died a few years ago. nuiile a meticu- 
lously-prepared speech. 

tiling and we all waited with haled breath. 
Hess spoke, and after briefly lliaiikiug us 

again to use that particular edition of the 
Bach Double Gmcerto. as he lord uhserved 
a number of errors in it during our per- 

From Berlin I went to Puris, where 1 
studied with Jules Buucherlt of the Con- 
servatoire National. Bourherit upheld 

bowing technique. Among these must lie 
mentioned the fanatical pursuit of the 
“Scree," a bowing that digs deeply into 
the string and has much to do with the 
intensity, charm and vitality, even in the 
minutest passages', which you will at once 
recognize in the playing of famous French- 
trained violinists like Krcisler. Tllibaud 
ami FrancescattL 

Boucherit drove me so relentlessly in 
the persistent study of these loathsome 

treadmill. Bui wltrn 1 look track today. I 
realize that limited though Roucherit’s ob- 
jeclivtw were, I must thank him for the pro* 
clous lesson of a (Continued on Poge 40 1 

How to 

for a concert 

Make the most 
of your 
recital debut! 

A icell-clioien program can help 
your professional career lo a good start 


T he most imt'obtast event in a 
young artist's career it his first 
professional recital. A debut is not 
to be undertaken lightly. If it is success- 
ful, well and good. If it is not successful, 
tile artist would have been better advised 
not to appear at all. It is relatively easier lo 
make a good first impression than to re- 
verts an original bail impression. One 
should not plan his debut until he is con- 
fident that he is ready for it. 

course, there is the 

he has acquired one), family, friends and 
possibly enemies — and it may seem un- 
necessary, to say the least, for me to add 

pressions gathered from many years of 
professional concert-going may he inter- 
esting for the inexperienced musician who 
is considering his first professional pro- 
gram and wondering what will best please 
his audience, including the critics. 

There are , of course, certain fairly 

is that the works chosen should be worth 
presenting — which does not mean that all 
must he intensely serious. A program of 
average recital length needs variety of 

merely miscellaneous; each item should bo 
considered in its relation to the others and 
to the program as a whole. An ill-assorted 
list is rather like a collection of canapes, 

But a good program may he the wrong 
one in individual cases. Any experienced 
critic has heard quite a few talented young 
artists who devote much of the concert to 
showing what they cannot play or sing 
particularly well. It often seems that they 

section of their talents in a comprehensive 
program, revealing both assets and limi- 
tations, as if their audiences were judges 
at an audition. 

A recital is not an audition, hi which 
you must play or sing what the judges ask 

ready for public appearance and your 
repertory is not too narrow, you need 
offer only music which you want to per- 
form, which lies within your technical 
powers and which you believe that you 
understand. It should not be hard for an 
artist to make up his mind aliout his tech- 
nical ability, but I have heard perform- 
ances which suggest that cither the artist 
or his teacher has been too optimistic. 
There are, most often, song recitals, which 
sometimes are mainly a hunt for well- 
produced tones, sometimes captured only 
to be lost again, throughout the program. 
But this represents a generally dubious 
technique, rather than one not yet able 
to cope with certain exacting works. 

The question of interpretative under- 

standing is much subtler. By understand, 
ing. I do not mean knowing everythin; 
that there is to know about a psrtkuW 
work, revealing the last word iu whit it 
has lo say. 1 doubt if any great artist fob 
that ho has accomplished this. I mean both 
lo understand and lo feel the musk, to 
atmosphere, style and expressive content, 
and to be able lo communicate this bdinr 
to your listeners. For certain worb this 
calls for years of study and derpetmt- 
acquaintance, anil in most cases the deW 
tant would be wise lo leave them la ho 

convincing until his interpretation cf a 
work has become distinctly his own, bawd 
upon an earnest desire to real ire the cum- 

pretatiou. a young artist naturally seeks 
his teacher's advice and that of other et> 
porienced musicians. He can learn by lis- 
tening to performances by great artists in 

But ideas gained in this way are valtn 
able only If the artist finds iheio worth 
accepting and assimilates them as euatn- 
buting to his own understanding of the 
music. An imitative interpretation, no mat- 
ter huw faithful to its original usaalh 

genuine, amf the critic is likely to rernsik 
that the performance did not bring out the 

politan traffic. Roth i 
seiously personal interpretations, the re- 
sult is likely to be elocution rather thu 

Ambition is natural, and so is a wish 
to follow prevailing fashions in your parti- 
cular field. This is where the question of 
the standard program comes in— the lour- 
language vocal program, the piano pro- 
gram which rum from Bach or Scarlatti 
via Beethoven. Brahms, Schumann or Cho- 
pin to. say. Liszt. and the violin program 

certo, its unaccompanied Bach and ib 
group of transcriptions. It is open both to 
defense and attack. From a general musi- 
cal point of view, its chief draw-back is 
that it tends to limit the repertory to famil- 
iar music. But the newcomer hears so often 
that this kind f Continued an Page 62) 


Too Many 

Tradition forces young vocalists to 
sing four languages and all of them badly. 
Such acrobatics should be discouraged. 


T younger ones, feel obliged lo offer in their recitals 
is a formula that has long seemed lo this reviewer 
ill suited lo advancing either musical or technical excellence. 
Its fault can he staled in three words — too many languages. 
Not long ago, speaking before a meeting o( voice teachers, 
he reproached them with responsibility for its continued 

pedagogical and artistic, had ever become established in 
custom. They answered in unanimity, “We do not know, and 
we do not approve it." Nevertheless, every aspiring singer 
in our midst feels obliged to offer in recital an Italian, a 
German, a French, ond an English group of songs. 

Naturally, they sing all these languages badly, rveii, in 
many eases, English. Often, having merely learned their 
foreign songs phonetically, thrv have only an approximate 
idea of the texts' meaning. The communication of poetry 
under such circumstances is quite impossible. It is not easy, 
either, to sing agreeably when the full conlenl of the com* 
poser's feelings, as embodied in verbal values, is not rlear 
lo the interpreter. Moreover, nobody demands this monkey* 
like behavior. The public does not like it: the press does 
not like it amf managements care only for what the audience 
and the press like. Singing teachers, who are responsible 
for the tradition and its preservation, all know it is opposed 
to good artistic standards. And vet they hesitate In do away 
with it. Several of them have suggested that since music 
schools in America require of singers three language* be- 
sides English, if a degree is to be awarded, they themselves 

e the v 

But it 

teachers who determine, finally, degree requirements for 
singers. Surely they could demand revision of a faulty cur- 

Such a curriculum is faulty because it is not a prepara- 
tion for professional life. Few professional vocalists of the 
first class ever sing four languages in public. The best usually 
slug two, their own and one other. Knowing one foreign 

ling of his own. Helen Traubel, by specialising in German 
repertory, has had a great career. Mary Garden did the same 
with French, Jan Pecrce and Richard Tucker with Italian. A 
language means something in the mouth* ol these artists. 
They know its feel, its style, its nature, its relation to life 
and to music. A few singers have the gift of tongues; Imt 
for every Jennie Tourel iu the world, there are u dozen 
Lotte Lehmanns, Pinzas, and Carusos, lor whom a new 
language has to be approached slowly, circumspectly, once 
in a lifetime. 

A young singer needs to know, for studio purposes, the 

Italian songs to acquire an acquaintance with these musical 

should adopt a country, -peak its language, read its hooks, 
five among its people, ealdts food. In this way he may learn 
to interpret its music with understanding. As lie udvunces 

Spanish and Russian. But he does not have to si ng them, and 

with their sound ami with their sense. An uceasioital compli- 
ment to local audiences will lie enough exception lo prove 

learning it, loving it. making its sounds liehave, and making 
the farthest ticket-holder hear what he says. This is the way 
singers work abroad, and it Is the right way. Any other is 
Injurious and silly. Requiring young vocalists lo sing four 
languages is like asking string players lo be equalli profi- 
cient on the violin, the viola, ami tile cello. Such acrobatics 

If any person knows any reason why the four-language 
formula should lie further tolerated by teachers or by con- 
cert-goers, I hope he will correct my impatience. In my view, 
and the voice teachers met in convention did seem to agree 
with me. it is unmusical, unintelligent, inarlistir. and peda- 
gogic-ally unsound. the e.vd 




career when it all started,” Mr. Kreislcr said- "For o while 
I wasn't sure what I wanted to be. I had studied medi- 
cine and art. I also wanted to be an army officer and had 
entered training.” 

"You mean up to that time you had considered the 
violin nothing more than a hobby?” I asked. 

"Not quite. The violin was really my first love. I had 
begun to study it when I was four. I entered the Vienna 
Conservatory when I was seven and fiuished at ten with 
first prize. Then came the Paris Conservatory and the 
French gold medal at twelve. At fourteen I was already 
touring America.” 

“What made you undecided about continuing your 
career as a violinist?" 

"My father was a medical doctor, and at the time I 
thought of becoming one. too. He himself had wanted to 
be a violinist, but his parents wouldn't let him. Being a 
violinist then was like going around in the streets with 
a hurdy-gurdy, unless, of course, you were a Wilhelmj, 
a Sarasale, or a Joachim. Well, in spite of the risks, I 
dropped the idea of becoming a doctor and decided to 
remain a violinist.” 

"I suppose by 'risks' you mean more than the dangers 
of bucking competition with the spectacular personalities 
of that time.” 

"Well, there was the problem of programs. To be a suc- 
cess in those days you had to know how to make programs. 
The violinist's recital repertory was then very small." 

'1 don't follow you,” I interrupted. "How about all 
the standard violin concertos?" 

“Anybody playing a violin concerto with piano accom- 

paniment at that time would have been laughed off the 

"How about Bach's unaccompanied sonatas?” 

"They were not very popular." 

"Beethoven and Schubert?" 

“There were some sonatas by Schubert, but Bee- 
thoven's sonatas were out of the question. You had to 
be big to do them and you needed a big pianist to col- 
laborate with you. a combination. let us say. equal to 
Horowitz and Elman or Rubinstein and Heifetz today.” 

"Couldn't you hire an orchestra to play the concerto 
accompaniments?” I asked. 

"Scarcely, if you were poor and unknown. The result 
was that if you were a concert beginner you never played 
a concerto. And if you were poor and unknown, no great 
pianist would appear with you. Therefore, no Beethoven 

“I begin to sec why medicine and a military career 
seemed more attractive to you than music." 

"So what did you do if you began to give concerts?” 
Mr. Kreislcr went on. “You fiddled around with Bach's 
Chaconne or the 'Devil's Trill' of Tartini or sonatas by 
Corelli. Veraeirii and Geminiani. The rest of the program 
was made up of smaller pieces, like Erast'- Elcgic'. HafTs 
•Cavatina', Wieniawski's 'Mazurka' and Polouni-c'. and 
Vieuxteraps' 'Ballade'." 

"Odd how so many of those titles have completely dis- 
appear.-] from the repertory." I remarked. “People must 
have moaned when they continued to reappear on pro- 

"They were all good pieces as far as they went, but I 
wanted to play other things. And (Continued on page 5«) 



Ij^UROPEAN MUSIC festivals will again be in full swing this 
summer. All the wartime casualties, like Salzburg and Bayreuth, 
are again operating, and there are new attractions, such as the Casals 
Festival at Perpignan, to lure the music-loving traveler. Most Euro- 
pean countries arc making it as simple as possible for the American 
tourist to come and bring his dollars. In all but half a dozen countries, 
visas arc no longer required. One still needs a passport and a smallpox 
vaccination certificate. (Without the latter document, you can get out 
of the United States, but not back in.) Latest reports are that there is 
plenty of ship and plane space, no shortage of hotel accommodations 
and adequate food, even in rationed countries. Prices arc about the 
Same as last year’s. 

Leading summer music Frenis in Europe Include: 


from April I 10 May 10. Con- 
ductor* will include Kielberg, 
Cui and Klradti. 

Salzburg Festival. Salzburg. 
July 27 to August 31. Mozarl'a 
“Magic Flute" and “Idome- 
nco": Alban Berg’s “Wo*, 
leek 'a"; Verdi'* "Otello." 


Bordeaux International Fes- 

Bordcaux. May 16 to 27. 
Music Fc-tival. Toulouse. 

Casals Festival. Perpignan. 
June 10 In July 5. World- 
larnOTi- cellist Pablo Casals 
and other arlisU will perlorm 
works of Boch and Mozart, 
Music Festival, Aix-en-Pro- 
rente, July IS to 30. 

Festival Weeka. Zurich. June 
S, 12, 19 and 26. Opera, con* 

Ing regatta. 

Festival. August 8 to 26, 

Three Gty Music and Art 
to July 15. 

Music Festival (Fci* Cocil), 
Dublin. May 7 to 12. 

Fifteenth annual May Fee- 
May 3 to 24. 

Nineteenth annual Barce- 
lona Festival. June 10 to 25. 

Open-air opera perform- 
ances. Ostersund. July. 

“Music of Oar Times." 
Due— eldorf. May 18 to 22. 

tivaL with orchestras and 
choirs from Aachen, Cologne, 

Wuppertol and Duesseldorf. 

Songfest, Frankrurt-am- 
Main, June 15 to 19. Concerts 

International Music Festi- 
Darmstadt, June 23 to 30. 

July 29 to August 19, Festi* 
val programs will include 




After only tiro newton*, this festival of music anti art, high in 
the Colorado Rockies, is a major summer event far musicians 

Y i:\ns ,*oo. America's 
■ lovers who wauled to hear 

Kurope to find il. 

are growing both in number and 
musical excellence. 

One of the newest ami best 

which is to open July 4 and con- 
tinue until August 29. 

Although it is only in its third 
season, the Aspen Festival now 
ranks as one of America'- top 

Il was launched auapicinu-ly 
in the summer of 1040 with a 

having as its guest of honor the 
famous musician, music scholar. 

medical researcher and mission- 
ary. Dr. Albert Schweitzer. 

The first season also offered 
concerts by the Minneapolis 
Symphony Orchestra, under the 
direct ion of Dimitri Mitro|miilo-. 
with outstanding guest artists 
like Nathan Mllstcin and Gregor 
Piatigor-k, v. who made a joint 
aptauranre playing the Rrahius 
Double Concerto (see cut). 

of the first season, the Aspen 
Festival continued in 1950 with 
a concert series by Soul Caston 
and the Denver Symphony. An 
outstanding feature was the all- 
Wagner program which had 
Helen Trnubel and lamritz Mel- 
chior ns soloists. 

In addition, thr Festival of- 
fered chamber music by the 
Pagauiui Quartet, the Alheneri 
Trio and many solo performers. 

elaborate festival is scheduled to 
take place. 

The French composer Darius 
and in addition null appear ns 

other music. The general music 
director is Joseph Rosenstock. of 
the New York City Opera Com- 
pany's conducting staff, who also 
has led orchestras in Germany 
and Japan. Mr. Rosenstock will 
direct tin' Aspen orchestra, tench 
conducting and head the new 
Studio of Opera anil Dramatic 

Rudolf Firknsny heads the 
piano department, and the dun- 
pinnists Vronsky ami Babin will 
be on hand for part-time tcaeh- 

Itoman Totenberg, ^ violinist, 
will be active Isitli as |k-rformcrs 

A-pen's chamber music activ- 
ities will again be headed by the 
Paganini Quartet (Henri Tcmi- 
nnkn. Gustave Roseels, Charles 
Foidart and Adolphe Frezin) 
and the Albcncri Trio (Erich 
I lor Kahn. Giorgio Ciompi anil 
Beuar Heifetz). Both ensembles 
will play and teach chamber 

The vocal faculty includes 
Karin Branzell. Herta Glaz. 

Paula Lencbner, Leslie Cliabav, 
Mack Harrell and Martial Sin- 

Woodwinds will be taught by 
Albert Tipton, flute. Lois Wann. 
oboe. Reginald Kell, clarinet, 
Norman llcrzbcrg, bassoon, and 
Walter Griffith. French hum. 

win attend the Festival as guest 
artists, lured by Aspen'- tine 
music-making and its superb b- 

Rockies. 400 miles from Denver. 

Despite its superb scenery, As- 
pen was just another Western 
ghost town from silver-mining 
days until 1035. wheu Swiss ex- 
pert* declared it an ideal spot 
for skiing- A ski tosr was in- 
stalled. and ski trains began 
bringing in winter sportsmen in 
ever-growing numbers. 

The experts' high opinion of 
Aspen ns «ki country was con- 
firmed in 1949. when the Inter- 
national Skiing Cliampiim-hip- 
were held ill the fnrmrr ghost 
town. It was the first time this 
international event had been 
stages! in America. 

Meanwhile, Walter P. Paepeke 
of Chicago, boars! chairman of 
the Container Corporation of 
America, had beesunc interested 
iu Aspen. Pncpcke. who already 
ownpsl a ranch urar Lark-pur. 
Colorado, loved the Western 
country and believesl Aspen had 
psrasibilities for slevelopment 
both ns n winter and summer 

I x 1949. with a group of 
associates, Pnepekc founded and 
incorfa-rnted the Aspen Com- 
pany. Their first objective was 

Williamsburg, moslernizing it 
but retaining it* flavor of bonan- 

Thc Aspen Company first ac- 
(| Hires] on a long-term lease the 
Hotel Jerome, a Victorian struct 

at the height of the silver-mur- 
ing boom in 1889. The Hotel 
Jerome was modernized inside, 
but it* gingerbread facade !*- 

Other properties also were 
leased by the Company and put 

in shape to provide adequate ac- 
commodations for the expected 
influx of visitors. All moderniza- 
tion was carefully planned un- 
der the supervision of artist-de- 
signer Herbert Bayer aud Chi- 
cago Architect Walter Frazier 
to retain Aspen’s mid-Victorian 
charm. The metamorphosis of 
the community even included 
an offer of free paint to any 
home owners who would paint 
their houses in conformity with 
the ideas of tile planning staff. 

Aspen thus was ready for the 
winter skiing season. Pacpckc'- 
ideas, however, did not stop with 
a single season. The master plan 
for Aspen envisioned a year- 
round center for recreation 
against the background of the 
Colorado Rockies. 

Already, knowing fishermen 
had passed the word that trout 
were plentiful in the nearby 
Roaring Fork River. Deer and 
small game hunters were well 

acquainted with the area. 
Then in 1949 eainc the ambi- 

tcnuinl, presided over by Chan- 
cellor Robert M. Hutchins of 
the University of Chicago. Di- 
rectors of the event were seeking 
a festival location which would 
be easily accessible from both 
seaboards, and would avoid the 
distractions of an urban me- 

Aspen proved to be the an- 
swer. and the Goethe Bicenten- 
nial attracted visitors from all 
parts of the US. 

With two successful seasons 
behind it. the Aspen Institute 
this year will offer an even more 
ambitious program than pre- 
viously. In addition to the music 
festival, the program will feature 
lectures and seminars on relig- 
ious, business, literary and gov- 
ernmental subjects, conducted 
by outstanding specialists. 



of the Trill 

77ie vocal trill, ichich liat ornamented 
mutic since the flays of Pythagoras, it subject note as 
alicayt to the public's taste and the style of the day. 


.1 Greek 

. 1 . is the old- 
est embellishment used in singit 
trace il as far back as the auc 
singers of the sixth century fi, 
defective execution can be traced into antiq- 
uity, when 2,300 years ago Aristotle vainly 

Here are the fundamental rules concern- 
ing the basic trill as they were taught in 
Athens by Aristotle tea. 350 B.e.1; in med- 
ieval England, France, and Italy by Guido 
Arctinus tea. 995-10501; two hundred 
years later, in thirteenth-century Paris, by 
Hieronymus of Moravia; at the end of the 
Renaissance, in papal Rome, by Gonforti 
11592); throughout cightcenlh-ccntury 
Europe by Tosi 1 17231 ; in France by the 
Abbe Joseph La Casaagne 1 1766) ; at the 
art-loving Austrian court in Vienna by 
Mancini (17771 ; at the Conservatory of 
Paris by Careia (1311); and so forth 
Until the present day. 

two true, real notes as often was and is 
believed, but it is the equal vibration be- 
tween one note, the real or principal note, 

which is always higher in pitch than the 
real, or principal, note. This equal vibra- 
tion between the real and the helping note 
is achieved by moving the larynx regularly 
up and down. The more regular these throb- 
bing movements are, the more hirdlike will 
sound the trill. The throbbing starts on the 
auxiliary note after the principal note has 

always on the principal note. The stronger 
and more flexible a throat and neck, the 
more perfect will be this movement, which 


is the extreme limit of celerity in vocalixa- 

can reach £=200. He who is complete 
master of his lower jaw, which has to be 
very mobile in its sockets, can easily 
possess a faultless trill. 

There are many extremely different 
theories concerning the production of the 
auxiliary note, but there has never been 

both auxiliary note and real note the true 
vocal chords do not change shape — either 
in length, thickness, or tension — but al- 
ways assume the shape necessary for the 
production of the real note. Yet no singer 
ever bothered about all this. Besides, no 
one before Garcia's invention of the laryn- 
•goscope knew what shape the vocal cords 
assumed during any vocal production. 

The trill always was — and always will 
be— an artistry passed easily from singer 
to singing student, not thruugh explana- 
tion but by imitation. Two factors only 
are essential: the teacher must have a per- 
fect trill; the student must have a free 
throat. That is all there is to it! 

The slrabitos (our trill) was an ap- 
preciated ornament in live singing of an- 
cient Greece. The soma vibrant lour trill) 
was just as cherished in ancient Rome as 
soon as Rome started to imbibe tile Creek 
culture. When after the collapse of the 
Roman Empire the Catholic Church be- 
came the center of all occidental art. the 
prestos (our trill) adorned medieval music, 
until in the thirteenth century polyphonic 
singing took undisputed possession of the 
musical compositions, and the Roman 
chant slowly- lost its biggest value in pro- 
portion to the irresistible advancement of 

the new style. The grace of the Gregorian 
chant vanished, and instead there appeared 
the new and very hard harmonics of the 
discard. Into this graceless music, which 
presents the first tentative! of the later 
glorious counterpoint, the crude voices 
of the Franco-Flemish papal singers trilled 
enthusiastically ... with the result that 
the musically sensitive Pope John XXII 
(1316-1334J strictly forbade in a Bnd 

scholu cantorum gradually lost all splendid 
with tire unavoidable decline of its Gregur- 
ian music, fur the reason that Sl Peter’s 
Chapel exclusively asked for singers who 
were experts in the new descant. Vocal 
ability had become unimportant 

Ever so slowly and only after many s 
setback this situation of vocal decadence 
-was changed: after the return of Pope Greg- 
ory XI from Avignon, in 1377; alter the 
fusion of the Avignon Chapel, consisting 
of twelve singers (French, Flemish, and 

lani cantori ponlificii; and after the con- 
struction and foundation of the Sistine 
Chapel by Pope Sistine IV, in 1473. when 
the Apostolic Chapel of the sixteenth cen- 
tury became the center of the Roman poli- 
phonic school, which, finally having ma- 
tured into simplicity and beauty, claimed 

"And so" we see in 1592 the rebirth of the 

medieval pres sat as trill ttr.t through its 
introduction into St. Peter’s music by 
Giovanni Luca Conforti 11560-1671, who 
was the first known “Italian" contralto 
in papal services. 

IF ith the stress on vocal virtuosity dur- 
ing the following centuries, it appears 
only natural that the trill also should be- 
come elaborated and brought to its extreme 
perfection. Pier V'roncesco Tosi. in his 
treatise of 1723, which is considered the 
Bible of Bel Canto, distinguishes eight 

1. Tile Major Trill: This is a triB be- 
tween two notes having an interval of a 
whole tone — a major second. The lower is, 
as previously explained, the real or prin- 
cipal note, the upper the helping or auxil- 
iary note. The throbbing starts on the auxil- 
iary note and ends an the principal note. 

2. The Minor Trill: This trill is be- 
tween two notes having an interval of a 

not. of course, (Continued on Pape 57 1 

T X THE simplest folk song or the 

is a vital necessity to our success as per- 
formers, teachers and conductors in achiev- 
ing a musically satisfying performance. 
Pure intonation is the ne plus ultra of the 
mechanics of music. 

The aural capacities of the average stu- 
dent are limited, and it is necessary, there- 
fore, that his auditory sense lie aroused by 
relationship of tonal timbre, rather than by 
association or discrimination of pitch. For 
example, here are specific teaching tech- 
niques demonstrated with an eicraentarv 

student of a brass in 

We shall assume that this student lends 
to play on the “flat side of the lone." In- 

reUlionship to the tone he should have 
produced. Through this development of 

player will consciously begin to develop 
listening habits which will eventually re- 
sult in an improvement of intonation. 

Assuming that our student continues 
to plsy “under the tone," he-, flat, instead 
of telling him he is playing Hal, we proceed 
lo awaken his concept of the quality of the 
flat lone. We call his lone “flabby,” 

“tubby,” “veiled.” By means of such asso- 
ciation, ihc student will soon begin lo 
develop lonal concepts which will eventu- 
ally be as vivid to his aural capacities as 
are the primary colors to his sight. 

Now, let us demonstrate with a student 
who tends to play on the “sharp side of 
the tone.” We endeavor to awaken his 

we call his tone “strident.” "harsh." 

“forced,” “rigid,” “taut," "strained,” and 

for the undesirable tones. By ibis means 
we will not only improve the tonal concepts 
of the player, but his intonation ns well. 

Such procedures, if begun early in the 
player’s career, tend lo encourage active, 

the aural and mental powers in a specific 
direction. And they chart the student's 
practicing and progress more construc- 
tively than the usual method of “thinking 
and listening for him!" 

JVt’s tune up! 


Teaching lechnir/ues ichich develop lonal 
concepts tcill encourage the student's intelligent 
listening and improve his pilch. 


ear in Improving intonation, 
may draw a circle. This will serve ns a 
hull's eye. Next, place a dot in the lower 
part of the circle. (See Example A.) Then 
demonstrate for Ihc student that by focus- 
ing the breath into the lower pari of the 
mouthpiece, and by placing Ihc tongue in 

Ex. A the lone will be flaL If the stu- 

O dent wifi listen he will hear 
that the quality of tone is sim- 
ilar to that described in the 
first experiment as soggy. 
Next place ihe dot in the upper part of 
the circle. I Sec Example B.) The student 
discovers thal by playing into the upper 
portion of the mouthpiece and placing tile 
tongue high in the mouth, the tone be- 
comes sharp and the quality, as previously 
described, tout, pinched, squeezed, etc. 

Next, place the dot in the center of the 
circle. (Sec Example C.) The comparable 
lone may be achieved by 
reeling the breath into t 
proper spot in the moutbpiei 
plus the longue attacking 
its proper position. The si 

is resonant; it lings, and is more brilliant 
than the flat or sharp pitches. 
Ex-C This is due somewhat to the 

O overtones which ore most valu- 
able in adding to the “creamy 
quality" of a tone that is on 

scored a bull's eye. Such vivid pictures are 
of great value in helping to solve difficult 

l- Ex.B 

; 0 

Naturally, other factors enter into the 
production of any tone. Such problems 
as breathing, embouchure, and support 
have an influence upon tile quality and 
pilch of all tones. Nevertheless, any means 
which will serve lo encourage and improve 
the player's “quality concept" will also 

Here’s another technique for developing 
attentive listening: 

and the other class members to identify 
its timbre. Ask the students lo raise their 

with this experiment. Performers of sev- 
eral years' experience are frequently un- 
able to distinguish between Ihe flat or shill'll 
tones. Some will indicate thal the tone is 
sharp, while others insist it is flat. 

At a recent concert performance of a 

“May the Lord forgive them, for ihey know 
uot what they playeth!" Which one might 
amplify by adding that their sin is not in 
playing out of tunc, but in not being aware 
that they arc out of tune. 


temperament — the process by which all 

use — the scale of C Major was usunfiv 
tuned on keyboard instruments in what is 
called “Just Inlona* iContinueil on PagcM I 


wRC.ivi.srs Ptr.s 

What every 

young organist 
should know 

In hit first church job, the new clioir- 
matler facer both mimical anil non-musical problem * 


T hose of us who (each in colleges 
and conservatories know (he signs 
when graduation time is approach- 
ing. The seniors nearing the end of their 

They ask us all sorts of practical down-to- 
earth questions. For four years or more 
they have led the sheltered life of a student. 
Now they are about to he on their own. It 

chosen career. The prospect is both excit- 
ing and alarming. 

I tell mv students that if the) * 1 2 3 have 

the college or conservatory had to offer 
them, they have nothing to worry about. 
Opportunities come to everybody. The 
main thing is to be prepared for the oppor- 

This is especially true of organists, 
paring themselves for church work are 

organist who also has a flair for choral 
conducting will find himself being sought 
after. A good organist who is only average 
as a choirmaster can always find a place: 
and an unusually gifted choral conductor 
is even more in demand, though his skill 
as an organist may be moderate. 

All this assumes that the organist is 
thoroughly prepared and can take over at 
short notice. Church music committees 

and then spend three months learning to 
be a church organist; they want someone 
who can play the service next Sunday. 

graduate will he as well prepared for 
experience. There are, however, certain 

ganist who undertakes a church job. At 
the start of his professional career, the 

(a show the following accomplishments : 

1. He should be able to play any hymn 
in any hymnal expertly for choir and con- 
gregational singing. 

2. He should have in his repertoire 

enough organ music for a complete church 

3. He should have an adequate supplv 
of organ music for all the festivals of the 
church year. 

4. He should have at Ins fingertips as 
many of the standard anthems as possible. 
He should know both voice parts and 
accompaniments. His list should include at 

Alway," Purcell: "The Heavens Are Tel- 
ling," Haydn: "Hallelujah Chorus,” from 
“The Mount of Olives," Beethoven : "Jcsu, 
Joy of Man's Desiring,” Bach; Gloria, from 
12lh Mass, Mozart: "And the Glory of the 
Lord," Handel : “Hallelujah Chorus," Han- 
del: 150th Psalm. Franck; “How Lovely is 
Thy Dwelling Place,” Brahms; "Tc Drum" 
in B-flat, Stanford; "Immortal, Invisible," 
Thiman; “Praise,” Rowley, 

5. He should have a repertoire of fre- 
quently-performed vocal solos, including 
at least the following— “0 Rest in the 
Lord." “But the Lord Is Mindful of His 
Own," “Then Shall the Righteous Shine." 

"If With AB Your Hearts" and “LordCsd 
of Abraham,” all by Mendelssohn; “Gene 
llnto Him" and "I Know That My Re. 
deenter Liveth," Handel; “Clouds and 
Darkness" and "God Is My Shepht-rd." 
Dvorak; "The Lord Is My Light," Allit. 
sen: "How Beautiful Upon the Mouniain." 
Darker: and "The Lord's Pratrr." Muiottr. 

6. He should be thoroughly familiar 
with at least the following cantatas— "h. 
caninte Word." Elmore; "The Crucifixion.' 
Stainer ; "The Seven Last Words," DuR<,k 

I must repeat that the above are mini- 
mum requirements. Naturally, the largo 
the young organist's repertoire, the better 
prepared he is to begin his career. 

Meeting its musical requirements, hov, 
ever, is only half the battle. The young 
organist will face mm-musical problems at 
well. His success in his new job will de- 

relationships. He must secure the coopera- 
tion of every member ol his choir, lb 
must bo able to gel along with every mem- 
ber of the rhureh staff, from die minatrr 
to the sexton. And be must work in har- 
mony with the congregation, who after iB 

In my years as a church musician I 
have seen marry young organists, splendidly 
equipped musically, fail In the human side 
ol their jobs. The commonest mistakr it 

one must moke a clean sweep. Many yotme 
people go into church positions with the 
idea that they are going to turn the world 
upside down. They are disillusioned when 

It is far bettor to appreciate whst his 
boon done before and hnild on that. Work 
hard, and results are bound to romr. There 
is nothing more true than the saying that 
one gels out of something exactly what h» 

Re sure yon arc interested in what the 
church is doing as a whole. One cane* 
on a musical program in a church 
expect it to make a success independ 
The program will fail il it is present 
an end in itself, rather than as a t 
ol furthering the aims and ideals ol the 
church. The whole music program 
tic in with the religions and educathsul 

program of the church. 

For this reason, the young organat 
should be npen-mimled and willing to I* 
ten to sugges- (Continued on Page Ol 

ETVOE-m'l 1 4 5 


of a piano teacher 

Only the most worthy should touch the keys to 
Beethoven’s “Waldstein” Sonata 



f henever a husky pianist 
— male or female — sits down to play Bee- 
thoven's “Waldatein" Sonata (Opus 53) 
yon know what is going to happen. It 
doesn't make any difference whether the 
pianist is on experienced proicssional or 
just an advanced student with gobs of facil- 
ity. You know it's going to ho a field day 

(or vi 

is a great pity, for the sonata, dedi- 
cated to Beethoven’s friend. Count von 
Waldstoin. is one of the master's towering 

tremendous scope. Even with its first and 
last movements of almost unprecedented 
length, Beethoven put in another very long 
and prolix movement — the weU-known 
“Andante Favori." When he played the 
sonata to a friend, the friend advised him 
to ent out this long andante, Beethoven 
went into his usunl uncontrolled rage, but 
immediately excised it and substituted the 

a movement, but a glowing, mystical intro- 
duction to the last movement. 

The first movement glorifies the mechan- 
ical age. Science and industry sweep all 
before them. Everywhere there is the re- 
lentless beat ol the machine and the march- 
ing feet of the robots. The second theme of 
this first movement is a wonderful shock. 
It is in the unusual Key of E Major (in- 
stead of the Dominant Key, G Major), os 
though one of the regimented robots sud- 

denly saw a vision of infinite happiness. 

The development which follows is full ol 
rolling thunder. Hashes of lightning, and 
again the drive ol mechnnixed science. This 
extended development suddenly rushes 
headlong into the returning first theme. 
I The entire movement is filled with glit- 
tering key-excursions.) A long coda fol- 
lows, hall development, half cadenza. 

The slow movement, a Recitative and 
Aria, is like the meditation of a prophet. 
The music is far removed from the drum 
beats of human conflict. Whenever I hear 
it I like to think of the greatest Master's 
words: "Come unlo Me all ye that labour 
... and 1 will give yon rest." 

The last movement, pare spirit, takes off 
at once into the rarefied air of the highest 
summits. It is like an eternal ascension— a 

Where, in a composition of inch con- 

fer o virtuosie Roman holiday? Let’s put 
the “Waldstein” Sonata up on die moun- 
tain top where it belongs. Only those who 
school themselves to scale the heights are 
worthy to touch it. 


I am sick to death ol hearing the Grieg 
Concerto beaten to a pulp by today's pian- 
istic show-offs. Why don't they stick to 
their Tchnikovskys, Rachmaninoffs and 

Prokoficffs to show their percussive powers? 

You can't tackle Grieg: he is too frail, 
too sensitive. Remember, he lived many 
years with only one lung; he was shy, mod- 

the shock treatment given to it by most of 
our contemporary pianists. To la 
when the youthful Percy Grainger first pro 
claimed the Grieg Concerto to an cnchantm 
world he played il vigorously, and dyi 
ically, hut also richly and romantically 
Today, the piece has degenerated into 
technical war-horse, its hardns-nnils mea 
urcs pounded out by every budding pint 

No virtuoso would dare to abuse ScJi 
mann's Concerto in A Minor as they do 
Grieg's yet I feel that in sincerity, ai ' 
and romantic warmth Grieg’s A Minor 
Concerto stands a close second tr 
mann's in the repertoire, (Grieg and Sehu- 

So, please approach the Grieg piece as 
fresh, lovely music, not as clacking clap- 
trap. Study il respectfully; play it freely, 
deeply and buoyantly. 

Do you remember Grieg's adventure with 

had not yet received much recognition or 
when he took the manuscript of his con- 

“Play it!" said Liszt. 

“I cannot," answered Grieg. 

"Well, I'll show you that 1 cannot, also!” 
Whereupon Liszt sat down, read it su- 
perbly, all the time conversing. 

As he played the opening ol the slow 
movement he remarked, “Ah. this is one of 
the simplest and most direct moods of sad- 
ness 1 have ever played." But his enthusi- 
asm broke all bounds when he reached the 
G-natural in the last movement's Gnal mea- 
sures. Striding across the stage, arms lilted 
high, lie roared out lire theme. Then ho 
shouted to Grieg. “Keep on and on — don't 
let them intimidate you — you have the 

Grieg used to say, "Whenever disappoint- 
ment nr hillemesa threatens me, I remem- 
ber Liszt's words, which uphold me." 

When you study the Grieg— or any — 


850 by 


Modcrato (J:7a) 
Tango Tempo 


able study in octave p| ay . 
Keen the sixleenth, eighth 



No. 23087 

The Arkansas Traveler 

Old American Fiddle Tune 


DDE- JUNE tfil 


No. 430-40121 

Frere Jacques 

(Brother John) 




Molto Adagio 

Jt U.\ |^°° n night will pass; Through field and grass Wliat o - dours sweet the innrn-ing send - eth 1 

in vale and height “Let there be light!” Tbussalth the Lord, and dark- ness end - eth. 




From Partita No. 3 for Unaccompanied Violin 


Dancing Fawns 


Corporal Lollipop, G. C.M.* 




Snwt'o'p^ 1T.U boss and pirU under' e'f.h^'yrar" oft^! 

Claw A— (5 10 18; C1«M B— /2 lo /.S ('.lam C— under 12. 

from the dote bock of («*«“» l95 °- 5,) 


Mkh ' a "" j "' w °’ w ° nd K ^^2 

•astfjssws s-.r 

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©hpObfteiiXnaltetf offi^Bfc 


( Continued jrom Page 18) 

^ '‘Thai wasn't done then," replied 

which was called 'The Virgin's 
Prayer' in the violin version. There 

"Whot about the 'Hungarian 
Dances' of Brahms?" 

ler leaned* forward, his brow fur- 
rowed. ns if he had reached the 

I "111- Couperin, ihc grand'falher of 
n. Maybe i * 

them. So wilh Padre M 

have done a better job of copying 
wasn't my plan at nlL I just wanted 

le them. I gave them these 
is eighteen then and I wanted 

“What about Francois Gtuperin's 
grandfather?" 1 Baked. “How did 
you manage to get away with him?" 

“I played a 'Chanson I.ouia X1H’ 
which 1 ascribed to Louis Couperin. 

a borrowed 
ideas from him. So had others. And 

wanted to give recital* and I couldn't 
put several pieces on the program 
and sign them all ‘Kreisler.* It 

"So 1 took those old forgotten 

it. First I brought out a piece by 
Pugnani. There is extant only one 

period. I played it and it was a huge 

'Tor s couple of years I was. 
Then a colleague of mine asked. 
'Can I have that Pugnani piece to 
play?' I replied, 'With pleas 

... Frit* Kreisle. . 

“flow about the critics?" 

“They were calling them Tittle 
mnsterpieeos.' worthy of Bach, and 
so forth. A few violinists called me 
all kinds of names for not surrender, 
inp them as public property. ‘You 
lend them and then ask them back. 

attacked me. saying 'every artist has 
a right to play them.’ " 

“You must have been really 

preached you." *** 

“I was ready to give the whole 

ne to me and said, 'Kreisler. Wi 
*1 have these things.' I was in . 

whole truth. The pieces were a 
mine. I said, but I didn't want n 
name apiiearing on them. Scho 

“Were you paid very much fi 

“He bought the whole eel i 
twenty-five pieces at ten dollu 
each, bringing me exactly $25 

That wt 

"When I was ten a Jesuit 

d gave Louis Cou- 
nty repertory with what 

among violinists. To m; 

"What did . 

pie began to ask you wbere you had 

j them to Carl Fischer's 

“Did Schott profit front the deal?* 
“Did he? He made n huge for 
me from them. Hundreds ol thou 

reading what the critics had tc 
about tltese 'old and forgotten' 
“ you recall 

i sorry, but if the tan. 
re 'worthy of Schubert.' 
a- Schubert, because I h*j 

»o. then the same tiling mao 

II. and Pugnani pieces.' AH 
they bad to do was look at the pievo 

Parts. They were in dusty old mann- 
s. f Copied them on my cuffs 

He played beautifully, hul naturally 

"You didn't write him a little love 
nole telling him the truth, did yon?" 

“No. hut I did tell Eugene Y-aye. 
the great violinist, oue day that the 
pieces were all mine." 

"What was his reaction?" 

you wrote all these things? Then 

the mysterious 'classic ounnscripts' 
"Fischer hemmed and hawed. Rr 

to Fischer : "There's more hftr ibis 
meets the eye.' He raided me » 
Vienna for the information. 

"That wo* really rite very feu 
time 1 was ever asked directly. I 
did not want to He. Sa 1 eahW 
hack: *1 composed them all BlysrlC 
and gave my teason: I had amirf 
program material and thought it 

store appeared in the New York 
Timet. That started tile avalanche" 

Mr. Kreisler picked np a o>pr 
ol hi* Concerto In G and signalW 

them in the st 
'Caprice Vicnn..«, ,„ c „„ 
day Leopold Schmidt, the r, 
the 'Berliner' ace 
onactlessncss, || c raved a 

of Schubert, he said* How 
bracket my own lirtie s«l„ 

"Or Frit* Kreisler himself.* • 
replied smiling, "that is. if 
one else had dlwnvrmf the rearer 


( Continued from Page 22) 
one. It follows, like 1841. anil many 

rapidly, and must ho detached soon 
after it it heard. It b especially 
suited le lively urias. and gaina in 
charm and hrilliance 11 ended with 
a piahettaio or in echo preeAeernro 

le, trilled scale was 
(flight). Senosino 
re Handel singer and 

Both eft's rondo trills (4 
are rejected by Tosi aa pr 

avc sounueu sue- " — -- , 

insider the nine slowly, for Tost 

tremolo— an unsteady 

sagne (1766) calls it 
ly n “lake" IriH. be- 
trill; it never throbs: 



'he right hand. an, I the C-Aarp 
Major Scale ,ciA the 1 ejt hand a, 
the same time. It sounds very bad 
to my ears and I am pulled. Do 


line, las, measure, firs, beat: is I, 


=£r^2=x ESSaS* 

i'irjErxss . tsur. tuatsJK 


scale, «h ir ?,y all o^r^e. 

'ttfd'isfihes prac 

i i 7 %.K 



recreating his interest and rekind- 

Presser i 


3„r 3n ill in c r 

rtf i fr* ¥nm'p uuuiii 


Flash Cards 







swssi&gm ssa as 

\ mm gxwew** 




In the "World's Most Unusual 
University," your associates are 
fine Christian young people from 
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than a score of foreign countries. 
Your instructors are not only well- 
trained scholarly men and women 
but genuine Christians. 

The highest type of academic and 
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spiritual training and an evangelistic 
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Academy in connection