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BY W. BULLOCK, F. L. S., &c. &c. t. « 








Where grand Ohio rolls his silver floods, t 

Through verdant fields, and darkly waving woods, 
Beholding oft, in flowery verdure drest, 

The green isle swelling from his placid breast } 
Here where so late, the Indian’s lone canoe, 

Swift o’er the wave, in fearless triumph flew, 
Behold the stately steam-borne vessel glide, 

With eagle swiftness, o’er the yielding tide, 

And where so late, its shelter, rude and low, 

The wigwam rear’d, beneath the forest bough. 

Lo ! cities spring before the wondering eyes, 

And domes of grandeur swell into the skies. 








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BY w. BULLOCK, F. L. S., &c. &c. C\. 1 ' * 








Where grand Ohio rolls his silver floods, ! 

Through verdant fields, and darkly waving woods, 
Beholding oft, in flowery verdure diest, 

The green isle swelling from his placid breast; 
Here where so late, the Indian’s lone canoe, 

Swift o’er the wave, in fearless triumph flew. 
Behold the stately steam-borne vessel glide, 

With eagle swiftness, o’er the yielding tide, 

And where so late, its shelter, rude and low, 

The wigwam rear’d, beneath the forest bough. 

Lo! cities spring before the wondering eyes, 

And domes of gr andeur swell into the skies. 



1827 - 


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T It will be perceived that the account of Cincinnati, con¬ 
tained in this work, is written by Messrs. Drake and 
Mansfield, in 1827, and that they have used much of the 
information before published by Dr. Drake, in 1815, and 
whose anticipations in favour of the place were fully 
realized in the interim. The work is so accredited, as 
exhibiting the actual state of the place of which it treats, 
that the author of the present volume has purposely 
^inserted it, instead of relying on his own observations 
juerely, and which might be supposed to be influenced 
by the favourable impression that the place made upon 
him. Convinced of the accuracy of the account by 
Messrs. Drake and Mansfield, he lays it before the public, 
as likewise his purposed intention of forming a rural town 
in its immediate vicinity, with full confidence, that those 
persons who may choose to seek a cheap, agreeable, and 
healthful retreat in that part of the world, will not be 

The generalized plan of the United States of America, 
represents the relative situations of Cincinnati and 
Hygeia, and it will be found, on inspection, that they 
are placed in the very heart of the country, and possessing 
much greater advantages towards increasing prosperity, 
than is to be found in any other part of the country. 


The Author was so pleased with the country in the 
neighbourhood of Cincinnati, and convinced of its 
eligibility, in every respect, for the residence of persons 
of limited property, that he purchased an extensive estate 
with a handsome house there, within a mile of the city, 
to which he is about to retire with his family. The spot 
is so beautiful and salubrious, and affords such facilities 
for the erection of pleasurable dwellings, with gardens to 
them, that, on his arrival in England, with a survey 
of the estate, he engaged Mr. John B. Papworth, the 
ai'chitect, to lay out the most beautiful part of it as a 
town of retirement, to be called Hygeia, as shown in the 
plan exhibited in the front of this volume. This will 
enable, persons desirous of establishing themselves in this 
abundant and delightful country, to do so at a very 
moderate expense. 

Mr. Bullock returns to this estate immediately, and 
application may be made to Ml*. Papworth, 10, Caroline 
Street, Bedford Square, where the plan and model of the 
spot may be seen. 




On my return from Mexico to England, in the spring of the 
present year, I was induced, by the representation of an 
American friend, to pass through the United States by way 
of New Orleans, up the Mississippi and Ohio, by lake Erie, 
the falls of Niagara, the Erie canal, and Hudson river, to 
New York, as by this route the tedious sea voyage would be 
much shortened, with the advantage of affording me the view 
of a large and interesting portion of North America, without 
losing time, or adding much to the expense; nearly the whole 
journey being now performed by commodious steam and tow¬ 
boats on the rivers, lakes, and canals in the interior of the 

We sailed from Vera Cruz on the 20th of'March, in the 
small American schooner General Warren; our little cabin 
contained a motley groupe of eighteen persons, natives of 
France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, and North 
America—myself and wife being the only natives of England. 
The morning after we sailed, we had the misfortune to find 
that one of our party, a Spanish merchant, who came on board 
unwell, had brought among us that terrible malady, the 
black vomitta, so fatal to strangers in this part of the world. 
We were without medical assistance, and the sufferings of 
the unfortunate man were dreadful; to add to our distress, 
the weather, which was unfavourable on our first sailing, had 
settled into one of those gales so well known in the Gulf of 
Mexico by the name of Northers , so that we were compelled 
to confine ourselves to the cabin with the invalid. On the 
sixth day from our leaving land he expired, and was com¬ 
mitted to the deep. 

On the following morning we made land, and in the 
evening entered one of the mouths of the Mississippi, about 



100 miles below New Orleans. The wind being adverse, we 
cast anchor on those muddy banks covered with reeds, which 
here commence the great swamp, or wilderness, that composes 
this part of the United States, and which, though extremely 
fertile, and under a fine climate, is a most dangerous district 
for -the residence of strangers, at the close of the summer, 
and during the autumn, the miasma, or insalubrity of the air 
at those periods, generating a disease, similar to that so pre¬ 
valent, and so fatal at Vera Cruz. The next morning a fine 
steam tow-boat of 300 tons, that we had passed the evening 
before, outside the bar, whilst taking out the cargo of a 
stranded vessel, came up, and took us, and another schooner in 
tow, and proceeded up the river against wind and current to 
New Orleans, where we arrived the following morning. 

The woody flats that confined, or rather marked, the river 
on both sides, as far as the eye could trace, were overgrown 
with reeds, and other aquatic plants, which appeared springing 
up amidst millions of whole trees, with their roots and 
branches, which had been brought down with the floods, from 
the sides of the rivers of the interior, 1000 miles above, and 
deposited here, on the shallow mud-banks. In some instances 
young trees were springing from these old trunks, and thus, 
with the alluvial deposit surrounding them, were increasing 
the territory of the United States in the Gulf of Mexico. 

As we advanced farther up the river, we observed places 
where some of the choicest of these dead trees had been 
pulled on shore, and negroes were employed in splitting them 
for firewood, or sawing them into boards. The recollection 
of the sufferings of the poor in many parts of Europe, from the 
want of fuel, cannot but excite regret, at the sight of such 
abundance of timber, wasting here in decay. For many miles 
the ground does not admit of cultivation or settlement, but, 
travelling onward, about noon we observed trees which began 
to increase in size, and to assume the appearance of low 
woods, which, however, seemed to spring from the water; not 
a spot of dry land being visible across these vast marshes, even 
from the lofty and ample deck of the steam-boat. 

About twelve leagues above the entrancefrom the sea, we came 
in sight of Fort Jackson, now erecting on the left side of the 
river, on the first solid ground we had yet observed ; and on the 
other side Fort Philip, on which the American flag was flying. 

The ground from hence began to improve; we passed several 
houses, and, as we came opposite the site of the battle in which 


'the British army was defeated by General Jackson, during the 
late war, the banks of the river assumed the appearance of the 
neighbourhood of a populous city. We now passed numerous 
good houses, each with a large verandah and garden; and a 
nunnery, in which several of the ladies in their habits were 
distinctly visible. A few minutes brought us in sight of the 
city of New Orleans, where the river was crowded •with com¬ 
mercial vessels from all nations, the majority of which, how¬ 
ever, were- from England. We immediately landed, and found 
ourselves in the midst of a well built street, nearly choked up 
with bales of cotton. Here were handsome shops, filled with 
well dressed people, in the European costumes, the ladies in 
the fashions of London and Paris. The English language 
being generally spoken, produced that unexpected delight, 
which could only be felt by Britons, who, like ourselves, had 
been long absent from our native land, and residents of such 
a country as Mexico. We had an introduction to a respectable 
boarding-house, kept by an English lady, whose politeness and 
attention shortly made us feel ourselves at home. We re¬ 
mained a week in this commercial city, and saw whatever was 
deemed worth seeing; but, as the city has been so well de¬ 
scribed by the Rev. Timothy Flint, in his “ Recollections of 
the Last Ten Years spent in the Valley of the Mississippi/ 
lately published, I shall gratify the English reader by giving 
that gentleman’s account in his own words. 

“ One hundred miles from the mouth of the Mississippi, 
and something more than a thousand from the mouth of the 
Ohio, just below a sharp point of the river, is situated on its 
east bank, the city of New Orleans, the great commercial 
capital of the Mississippi valley. The position for a com¬ 
mercial city is unrivalled, I believe, by any one in the world. 
At a proper distance from the Gulf of Mexico—on the banks 
of a stream which may be said almost to water a world—but 
a little distance from Lake Ponchartrain, and connected with 
it by a navigable canal—the immense alluvion contiguous to 
it—penetrated in all directions either by bayous formed by 
nature, or canals which cost little more trouble in the making 
than ditches—steam-boats visiting it from fifty different 
shores—possessing the immediate agriculture of its own 
state, the richest in America, and as rich as any in the world, 
with the continually increasing agriculture of the upper 
country, its position far surpasses that of New York itself. 


It has one dreary drawback—the insalubrity of its situation. 
Could the immense swamps between it and the bluffs be 
drained, and the improvements commenced in the city be 
completed ; in short, could its atmosphere ever become a dry 
one, it would soon leave the greatest cities of the Union 

Great efforts are making towards this result. Unhappily, 
when the dog star rises upon its sky, the yellow fever is but 
too sure to come in its train. Notwithstanding the annual, 
or at least the biennial visits of this pestilence; although its 
besom sweeps off multitudes of unacclimated poor, and com¬ 
pels the rich to fly; notwithstanding the terror, that is every 
where associated with the name of the city, it is rapidly ad¬ 
vancing in population. When I visit the city, after the ab¬ 
sence of a season, I discover an obvious change. New build¬ 
ings have sprung up, and new improvements are going on. 
Its regular winter population, between forty and fifty 
thousand inhabitants, is five times the amount which it had 
when it came under the American government. The ex¬ 
ternal form of the city on the river side is graduated in some 
measure to the curve of the river. The street that passes 
along the levee, and conforms to the course of the river, is 
called Levee-street, and is the one in which the greatest and 
most active business of the city is transacted. The upper 
part of the city is principally built and inhabited by Ameri¬ 
cans, and is called the ‘ Fauxbourg St. Mary.’ The greater 
number of the houses in this fauxbourg are of brick, and 
built in the American style. In this quarter are the Pres¬ 
byterian church and the new theatre. The ancient part of 
the city, as you pass down Levee-street towards the Cathe¬ 
dral, has in one of the clear, bright January mornings, that 
are so common at that season, an imposing and brilliant 
aspect. There is something fantastic and unique in the ap¬ 
pearance, I am told, far more resembling European cities,, 
than any other in the United States. The houses are stuc¬ 
coed externally, and this stucco is white or yellow, and strikes 
the eye more pleasantly than the dull and sombre red of 
brick. There can be no question, but the American mode of 
building is at once more commodious, and more solid and 
durable, than the French and Spanish; but I think the 
latter have the preference in the general effect upon the eye. 
Young as the city is, the effect of this humid climate, ope¬ 
rating upon the mouldering materials, of which the buildings 


are composed, has already given it the aspect of age, and to 
the eye, it would seem the most ancient city in the United 
States. The streets are broad, and the plan of the city is 
perfectly rectangular and uniform. There are in the limits 
of the city three malls, or parade grounds, of no great extent, 
and not yet sufficiently shaded, though young trees are 
growing in them. They serve as parade grounds, and in the 
winter have a beautiful carpet of clover, of a most brilliant 
green. Royal and Charter streets are the most fashionable 
and splendid in the city. The parade ground, near the basin, 
which is a harbour, dug out to receive the lake vessels, is the 
most beautiful of the parades.” 

“ In respect to the manners of the people, those of the 
French citizens partake of their general national character. 
They have here their characteristic politeness and urbanity; 
and it may be remarked, that ladies of the highest standing 
will show courtesies that would not comport with the ideas 
of dignity entertained by the ladies at the North. In their 
convivial meetings there is apparently a great deal of cheerful 
familiarity, tempered, however, with the most scrupulous ob¬ 
servances, and the most punctilious decorum. They are the 
same gay, dancing, spectacle-loving race, that they are every 
where else. It is well known that the Catholic religion does 
not forbid amusements on the Sabbath. They fortify them¬ 
selves in defending the custom of going to balls and the 
theatre on the Sabbath, by arguing that religion ought to 
inspire cheerfulness, and that cheerfulness is associated with 

“ The Americans come hither from all the states. Their 
object is to accumulate wealth, and spend it somewhere else. 
But death—which they are very little disposed to take into 
the account—often brings them up before their scheme is 
accomplished. They have, as might be expected of an as¬ 
semblage from different regions, mutual jealousies, and 
mutual dispositions to figure in each other’s eyes; of course 
the New Orleans people are gay, gaudy in their dress, 
houses, furniture, and equipage, and rather fine than in the 
best taste. 

There are sometimes fifty steam-boats lying in the harbour. 
A clergyman from the North made with me the best enu¬ 
meration that we could, and we calculated that there were 

a 5 



from twelve to fifteen hundred flat boats lying along the 
river. They would average from forty to sixty tons burden. 
The number of vessels in the harbour from autumn to spring 
is very great. More cotton is shipped from this port than 
from any other in America, or perhaps in the world. I could 
never have formed a conception of the amount in any other 
way, than by seeing the immense piles of it that till the 
streets, as the crop is coming in. It is well known that the 
amount of sugar raised and shipped here is great, and in¬ 
creasing. The produce from the upper country has no limits 
to the extent of which it is capable; and the commerce of 
this important city goes on steadily increasing. 

This city exhibits the greatest variety of costume, and 
foreigners; French, Spanish, Portuguese, Irish in shoals; in 
short, samples of the common people of all the European 
nations. Creoles, all the intermixtures of Negro and Indian 
blood, the moody and ruminating Indians, the inhabitants of 
the Spanish provinces, and a goodly woof to this warp, of 
boatmen, half horse and half alligator ;* and more languages 
are spoken here than in any other town in America. There 
is a sample, in short, of every thing. In March the town is 
most filled; the market shows to the greatest advantage; the 
citizens boast of it, and are impressed with the opinion that 
it far surpasses any other. In effect this is the point of union 
between the North and the South. The productions of all 
climes find their way hither, and for fruits and vegetables, it 
appears to me to be unrivalled. In a pleasant March fore¬ 
noon, you see, perhaps, half the city here. The crowd covers 
half a mile in extent. The negroes, mulattoes, French, Spa¬ 
nish, Germans, are all crying their several articles in their 
several tongues. They have a wonderful faculty of twanging 
the sound through their noses, as shrill as the notes of a 
trumpet. In the midst of this Babel trumpeting, f un pica- 
lion, un picalion/ i& the most distinguishable tune.” 

“ The communications from this city with the interior, are 
easy, pleasant, and rapid, by the steam-boats. More than a 
hundred are now on these waters. Some of them, for size, 
accommodation, and splendour, exceed any that I have seen 
on the Atlantic waters. The Washington, Feliciana, Pro-* 
vidence, Natchez, and various others, are beautiful and com¬ 
modious boats. The fare is sumptuous, and passages are 
comparatively cheap. I have also uniformly found the pas- 


sengers obliging and friendly. Manners are not so distant or 
stately as at the North; and it is much easier to become ac¬ 
quainted with your fellow passengers. A trip up the Missis¬ 
sippi at the proper season of the year is delightful/* 

The vicinity of New Orleans is not interesting, and the roads 
and drives but few, owing to the swamp in which it is placed. 
We went in a carriage to lake Ponchartrain, about three miles 
distant, where we procured a few interesting fresh-water 
shells; but, in general, the subjects of natural history, which 
I had lately seen, had not much novelty to recommend them. 

I must not omit stating, that, in one of my rambles, in a 
small street, near the steam-boat landing, I saw on a sign, in 
large letters, “ Big Bone Museum/* This excited my curiosity, 
and I expected to see mammoth-bones, as the banks, past which 
the water of this river rolls, had produced a great number of 
those surprising remains. I therefore entered, and was indeed 
astonished at the sight, not of the remains of a mammoth, but 
what are believed to be those of a stupendous crocodile, and 
which, indeed, are likely to prove so, intimating the former 
existence of a lizard, at least 150 feet long; for I measured 
the right side of the under jaw, which I found to be 21 feet 
along the curve, and 4 feet 6 inches wide; the others con¬ 
sisted of numerous vertebrae, ribs, femoral bones, and toes, all 
corresponding in size to the jaw; there were also some teeth, 
these, however, were not of proportionate magnitude; but the 
person who found them (W. S. Schofield), assured me that he 
had also discovered another tooth, similar to the rest, but con¬ 
siderably larger, which had been clandestinely taken from his 
exhibition-room. These remains were discovered, a short time 
since, in the swamp near Fort Philip, and the other parts of 
the mighty skeleton, are, it is said, in the same part of the 

On my hinting the probability that these bones might have 
belonged to a species of whale, Mr. S. gave me such reasons, 
on the authority of an intelligent zoologist, and comparative 
anatomist, who was preparing-to give the world a description 
of them, as convinced me, that my conjecture was without 
foundation. I offered a considerable sum for these immense 
remains, but the proprietor refused to part with them, assuring 
me that it was his intention to procure the remainder of them,, 
and then take them to Europe. 

On the 3rd of April we left New Orleans, in the beautiful 



steam-boat George Washington, of 375 tons, built at Cin¬ 
cinnati, and certainly the finest fresh-water vessel I had seen. 
River boats, like these, possess the advantage of not having to 
contend with the ocean storms, as ours have, and are therefore 
built in a different manner, having three decks or stories above 
water. The accommodations are much larger, and farther re¬ 
moved from the noise, heat, and motion of the machinery; 
wood being the only fuel made use of, they are consequently 
not incommoded by the effects of the dense smoke, so annoying 
in some of our steam vessels. The accommodations are ex¬ 
cellent, and the cabins furnished in the most superb manner. 
None of the sleeping rooms have more than two beds. The 
principal are on the upper story, and a gallery and verandah ex¬ 
tends entirely round the vessel, affording ample space for 
exercise, sheltered from sun and rain, and commanding, 
from its height, a fine view of the surrounding scenery, 
without being incommoded by the noise of the crew passing 
overhead. The meals furnished in these vessels are excellent, 
and served in a superior style. The ladies have a separate 
cabin, with female attendants, and laundresses; th%re are, 
also, a circulating library, a smoking and drinking room for 
the gentlemen, with numerous offices for servants, &c. &c. 
They generally stop twice a day to take in wood for the 
engine, when fresh milk and other necessaries are procured, 
and the passengers may land for a short time. The voyage 
before the introduction of steam, was attended with much risk 
and labour, and occupied ninety days, from New Orleans to 
Cincinnati, for small vessels ; the same voyage (1600 miles) is 
now performed, with the greatest ease and safety, in eleven or 
twelve days, against the stream, and the descent between the 
above places is done in seven days; each vessel taking several 
hundred passengers, besides her cargo of merchandise. The 
rate of travelling is extremely moderate in proportion to the 
advantages of the accommodation. We paid about 8/. each 
from New Orleans to Louisville (1500 miles), which includes 
every expense of living, servants, &c. In ascending this 
magnificent river, the Mississippi, of which the Ohio may be 
considered a continuation, is navigable for the largest vessels, 
at high water, from the Gulf of Mexico to Pittsburgh (2212 
miles). The traveller is now enabled, without the least 
danger or fatigue, to traverse the otherwise almost impass¬ 
able and trackless wilderness, and wilds, that bound the 
western states of America, and this, without leaving his com- 



fortable apartment, from the windows of which he can enjoy 
the constantly varying scenery, so new to European tra¬ 

On leaving New Orleans, in ascending the river, the 
country, still the same continuous flat, is enriched and en¬ 
livened by a succession .of pretty houses and plantations, with 
each a small negro town near them, as well as the sugar- 
houses, gardens, and summer-houses, which give the idea of 
wealth and industry. For sixty miles the banks present the 
appearance of one continued village, skirted with plantations 
of cotton, sugar-cane, and rice, for about two miles from the 
river, bounded in the rear, by the uncultivated swamps and 
woods. The boat proceeds continually near the shore on one 
side or the other, and attracts the inhabitants to the front of 
their neat houses, placed amidst orange groves, and shaded with 
vines and beautiful evergreens. I was surprised to see the 
swarms of children of all colours that issued from these abodes. 
In infancy, the progeny of the slave, and that of his master, 
seem to know no distinction ; they mix in their sports, and ap¬ 
pear as fond of each other, as the brothers and sisters of one 
family; but in activity, life, joy, and animal spirits, the little 
negro, unconscious of his future situation, seems to me to enjoy 
more pleasure in this period of his existence, than his pale com¬ 
panions. The sultry climate of Louisiana, perhaps, is more 
congenial to the African constitution, than to that of the 

The next morning we arrived at Baton Rouge, 127 miles 
on our journey; a pretty little town, on the east side, and 
the first rising ground we had seen, being delightfully 
situated on a gradual acclivity, from which, is a fine view of 
the surrounding flats. The fine barracks close to it, contain 
a few companies of troops. We here stopped to take in 
some ladies, who continued with us to the end of the voyage. 
To this place the levee, or artificial banks, are continued 
on both sides of the river from New Orleans, without which 
the land would be continually overflowed. From this to 
Natches (232 miles), the country is not interesting, consisting 
principally of dense forest and wilderness, impenetrable to the 
eye, diversified, however, by the various water fowl which the 
passing vessels disturb, in their otherwise solitary haunts, and 
by the number of black and gray squirrels leaping from branch 
to branch in the trees. The great blue kingfisher, which is 
common here, is so tame, as scarcely to move, as the boat passes. 



and we frequently saw, and passed close to large alligators, 
which generally appeared to be asleep, stretched on the half¬ 
floating logs. Several were fired at from the vessel, but none 
procured. One pair that I saw together, must have been 
each upwards of twelve feet long. 

Natches is a pleasantly situated town, on rather a steep 
hill, about half a mile from the landing place, where are 
many stores and public houses. The boat remained here an 
hour, and we ascended to the upper town, a considerable 
place, with a town-house, and several good streets and well- 
furnished shops, in which we purchased some books. This 
place exports much cotton, and the planters are said to be 
rich. It commands a fine prospect over the river and sur¬ 
rounding country. It has been tried as a summer residence 
by some of the inhabitants of New Orleans, but the scourges 
of this part of America (fever and ague) extend their ravages 
for more than 1000 miles higher up. A partial elevation of 
ground, in an unhealthy district, has been proved to be more 
pernicious, than even the level itself. From hence, to the 
junction of the Ohio, there is little to interest the stranger, ex¬ 
cepting the diversity of wood and water. The ground rises in 
some places, though with little variety, till you pass the junction 
of the Ohio, 1253 miles from the sea. Shortly after entering the 
Ohio, the country begins to improve; you perceive the ground 
beginning to rise in the distance, and the bank occasionally 
to rear into small hills, w r hich show their strata of stone, 
and rise into bluffs, projecting into the bends of the river, 
shutting it in, so as to produce the effect of sailing on a suc¬ 
cession of the finest lakes, through magnificent woods, which 
momentarily changed their form, from the rapid motion of our 
boat. It was now full moon, and these scenes viewed during 
the clear nights, were indescribably beautiful. The tenth 
day brought us to the flourishing commercial town of Louis¬ 
ville, in Kentucky, 1542 miles from the sea, considered as 
second only to Cincinnati, in the western states. It is situated 
in the commencement of the healthy district, but w r as lately 
visited by sickness, but not to the degree experienced lower 
down. The streets are spacious and regular, the houses 
mostly of brick, and the shops and stores large, and well filled 
with merchandise. The falls of the Ohio, which are at this 
place, excepting at high water, prevent large vessels from pass¬ 
ing up; we therefore left the Washington, and embarked in a 
smaller vessel, above the falls. On our road up from Shipping- 



port, at the foot of the falls, we had an opportunity of examining 
the fine canal and locks, now constructing at great expense, to 
enable vessels of all dimensions to navigate the river at all 
seasons. It is a great work, and calculated to be of consider¬ 
able advantage to this country. We took a hackney coach, 
of which there were several in the streets, and proceeded to 
view the town, which is much more extensive than it appears. 
We visited the museum, an appendage to almost every Ame¬ 
rican town. Among the fossil remains, therein, I observed 
the perfect skull and horns of a species of elk, which was new 
to me. The firing of the boat’s gun, the constant signal for 
passengers to come on board, obliged us to shorten our survey, 
and in a few minutes we were again proceeding up the Ohio 
in a steam-boat, with most of our late companions, and many 
additional passengers. I must here observe, that the society in 
the steam-boats is generally very pleasant, consisting of well 
informed, intelligent people, attentive and obliging to strangers, 
readily pointing out to their notice every thing worthy of ob¬ 
servation, or that can contribute to raise their opinionof the 
country and its constitution, of which they are, with good 
reason, proud. They universally complain of the injustice 
done them by English writers, who, they say, seem to have 
come among them only to misrepresent what little they have 
seen of the country, and that, perhaps, like myself, from the 
deck of a steam-boat. 

On leaving Louisville, the magnificence of the American 
rivers and scenery seemed to commence. In no part of the 
world, that I have seen, are these surpassed in grandeur, or 
variety, every mile affording a perpetual change. The trees 
attain here an altitude, and size, unknown in Europe, and 
their diversity of form and colour, formed a contrast with the 
monotonous green of the wilderness below. Among the snow- 
like blossom of the dog-wood, and bright scarlet of the red¬ 
bud, which were conspicuous in the woods that now covered the 
sloping banks of the river, the openings between, at in¬ 
tervals, exhibited rich pasture lands, with comfortable farm¬ 
houses, surrounded with gardens, orchards, and vineyards, 
and convinced the traveller, that he had left the regions of 
swamps and marshes, fevers and agues, and arrived at those 
of hill and dale, pasturage arid health. We now saw greater 
numbers of land and water fowl. The beautiful little summer 
duck was plentiful—we shot several ; and the black vulture 
was occasionally seen. In our passage up the river we had 



not unfrequently seen alligators, but now they entirely dis¬ 
appeared. We now found the cottages comfortably furnished, 
and surrounded by small gardens ; the inhabitants possess 
numerous hogs and cattle. We passed several respectable 
dwellings, with luxuriant orchards and vineyards, that an¬ 
nounced our approach to a more cultivated and richer popula¬ 
tion than we had before seen. 

When within a mile of Cincinnati, the elegant house and 
extensive estate, called Elmwood, the residence of Thomas 
D. Carneal, Esq. was pointed out to me, by a gentleman of the 
country, as one of the finest residences in that part of America. 
Passing the powder-works, and tlie bridge over the Deer 
creek, a few minutes brought us opposite the city, where we 
saw the glass-houses, paper-mills, foundries, and other demon¬ 
strations of a flourishing, and rising commercial and manufac¬ 
turing city. It was Easter Sunday, and the landing was 
crowded with respectable, well-dressed people. We had only a 
minute to view the front of this part of the city, with the steam¬ 
boat landing, and the villages of Newport and Cavington on 
the opposite side, before we were landed, and introduced to 
Col. Mack, proprietor of the principal hotel ; an establishment 
of order, regularity, and comfort, that would do credit to any 
city of Europe. The number and respectability of its guests, 
proved at once, the estimation in which it was held in the 
country. The dinner-bell summoned us at two o’clock, and 
we found an assemblage of about seventy ladies and gentle¬ 
men ; the former at the head of the table, with Mrs. Mack, 
while the colonel was on his feet, attending to the wants of 
his guests, and seeing that the waiters were attending to 
their duty. The dinner was such, that an epicure, from 
whatever part of the world he might have arrived, would have 
had little cause to complain, as in no part of my travels have I 
seen a table spread with more profusion, or better served; 
the only occasion of complaint with an Englishman would 
arise from the want of warm plates, and a little more time 
to have enjoyed the repast, twenty minutes only being 
allowed by the industrious habits of this part of America, 
for their principal meal. Little wine is used at the dinner*- 
table; the guests, being principally merchants, who prefer this 
mode of living, to housekeeping, return immediately to their 
stores, or counting-houses, with a better relish for business 
than is usually found after the enjoyment of the bottle. I 
should have stated, that, before dinner, we underwent the un- 


deviating ceremony of introduction, to the principal guests, 
who were assembled in the drawing-room. In no part of the 
old Continent that I have visited, are strangers treated with 
more attention, politeness, and respect, than in Cincinnati; 
and where, indeed, can an Englishman forget that he is not at 
home, except in the United States ? In most other regions, 
he must forego many early habits, prejudices, and propen¬ 
sities, and accommodate himself to others, perhaps, diame¬ 
trically opposite; he must disguise or conceal his religious 
or political opinions; must forget his native language, and 
acquire fluency in another, before he can make even his wants 
known, or his wishes understood; but here the same language 
and fashion, as in his own, prevail in every state; indeed it is 
necessary for him to declare himself a foreigner, to be known 
as such; and I have always found this declaration a passport to 
increased attention and kindness, for every man in this land 
of freedom enjoys his opinions unmolested. Not having the 
slightest intention of stopping at any town on my way to 
New York, I was without any introductions; but this de¬ 
ficiency, by no means prevented my receiving the usual benefit 
of the hospitality of the inhabitants, which was such, as to in¬ 
duce us, at first, to remain a few days, and ultimately, pro¬ 
bably, to end our lives with them. 

My first ramble on the morning after my arrival was to 
the market, at an early hour, where a novel and interesting 
sight presented itself. Several hundred waggons, tilted with 
white canvass, and each drawn by three or four horses, with a 
pole, in a similar manner to our coaches, were backed against 
the pavement, or footway, of the market-place, the tailboard, 
or flap of the waggon, turned doAvn, so as to form a kind of 
counter, and convert the body of the carriage into a portable 
shop, in which were seated the owners, amidst the displayed 
produce of their farms; the whole having something of the 
appearance of an extensive encampment, arranged in perfect 
order. It was the first time I had seen an American market, 
and if I was surprised at the arrangement, I was much more 
so, at the prices of the articles, as well as at their superior 
quality. For a hind quarter of mutton, thirteen-pence was 
demanded; a turkey, that would have borne a comparison 
with the best Christmas bird from Norfolk, the same price; 
fowls, three-pence to four-pence each; a fine roasting pig, 
ready for the spit, one shilling and three-pence; beef, three- 
halfpence per pound; pork, one penny per pound; butter. 


cheese, Indian corn, wlieaten flour, and every other article in 
the same proportion. 

The fish market was equally good and reasonable; and the 
vegetables as excellent as the season would allow; the 
asparagus in particular, superior in goodness and size to that 
exposed at Covent Garden, and at less than one-fourth of its 

It was not the season for fruits, but, from the best informa¬ 
tion I could obtain, they were on a par with the other produc¬ 
tions of the country. Melons, grapes, peaches, and apples, are 
said to be equal to those of any part of the states, and are 
sold also at a proportionate price. Dried fruits of various sorts 
were plentiful, as well as apples, and chesnuts of last year: 
taking the market altogether, I know of none equal to it; 
yet, this was considered to be the dearest period of the year; 
game and venison were not to be had. 

In the afternoon I accompanied some gentlemen to view 
the environs. We descended the Ohio, in a small wherry, 
about half a mile below the city, and landed on the Kentucky 
side, at the foot of one of those hills, that together form a sort 
of amphitheatre, in which Cincinnati stands. From the side 
of this hill, a complete view of the whole neighbourhood is 
obtained. The town, with its domes, churches, and public 
buildings, lay at our feet. The extended prospect reminded 
us strongly of the view from Richmond Hill; the same de¬ 
lightful variety of hill and dale, enriched by the windings 
of the tranquil Ohio, with its various vessels for pleasure and 
commerce. Its gently swelling hills, however, are covered 
with wood and forests, which have no equal in Europe; even 
the charms of art and refinement are not wanting to complete 
the scene, as the elegant white villas of many of the more 
opulent inhabitants, already make their appearance in the 
most romantic situations in the vicinity. 

Every hour spent in this place, every adjacent excursion, 
every comparison made between its site, and all others that 
I was acquainted with, served more strongly to convince me, 
that, for the industrious peasant, artizan, manufacturer, or other 
person, with a small income, arising from capital, no situation I 
had seen, embraced so many advantages for a place of re¬ 
sidence^ this rising and prosperous little city; which, spring¬ 
ing from the wilderness, has attained its present state of 
opulence and distinction within a few years, through the com¬ 
mercial spirit and industry of its inhabitants, aided by the 


advantages of its local situation and the introduction of steam 
power. To these may be added, its extremely healthy site, and 
salubrity of climate (not an instance of fever, or ague, being 
there known) ; the richness of its soil, the overflowing plenty, 
and unparalleled cheapness of the necessaries, as well as the 
luxuries of life; the industry, the kindness and urbanity of its 
inhabitants to strangers; the benefits derived from its public 
institutions, and the excellent society it affords, from the liberty 
and freedom of opinion being enjoyed under its mild govern¬ 
ment; from the employment given to industry and labour; 
and from the interest derived from capital, which is here in¬ 
creased to treble what it is in Europe, whilst the expense of 
living is not one-third of what it is there, and taxes are scarcely 
felt. All these advantages considered, I know of no place that 
bears comparison with Cincinnati. Impressed by so many in¬ 
viting circumstances, all conspiring to the favourite object of 
my pursuit, I determined to collect my family together, and 
make this rising city my permanent abode. 

A few days afterwards we were invited to spend a day at 
Elmwood, the house of Thomas D. Carneal, Esq., a member 
of the Kentucky legislature, whose residence I mentioned, 
on our arrival at Cincinnati. The estate, or farm, as it is 
here called, consists of about 1000 acres, part of which is 
as fine arable land as ever was ploughed, and part rich 
pasture land. It commences nearly opposite the town, on 
the Kentucky side, stretches about two miles and a half 
along the banks of the Ohio, and is about eight miles in cir¬ 
cumference. It is scarcely possible to find a more beautiful, 
fertile, or healthy spot. A ride round its boundaries, em¬ 
braces every variety of landscape. Its general feature is level, 
gently rising from the river into undulatory hill and valley, 
resembling the finest part of the county of Devon, excepting, 
that the portion farthest from the river is clothed with woods, 
to which, from the size of the trees, their beauty, and variety, 
nothing in Europe can compare. The prospect from the hill 
and house, over this part of the valley of Ohio, the noble river 
winding through it, enlivened by the passing steam-boats, 
with colours waving, and signal guns echoing from the sur¬ 
rounding hills; its floating arks, laden with stores for the 
settlers on the shores, besides the sailing and fishing boats; 
on one side of the river, the beautiful rising city, with domes, 
pinnacles, public buildings and manufactories, and on the other 
bank, the villages of Newport and Cavington; together form 



such a view, as would require a much abler pen than mine to 
do justice to. 

Mr. Carneal, who is a considerable landholder, selected 
this desirable spot for his abode, and, at considerable expense, 
about six years since, erected the elegant mansion he now re¬ 
sides in. It is considered the completest residence in the 
country, and built of stone and brick, after his own designs, 
with three handsome fronts. The lofty apartments, which 
it contains, in point of beauty or convenience, are surpassed 
by few, even in the Atlantic cities, as no expense was spared 
for its completion. It is surrounded by every requisite for a 
gentleman’s country-house, domestics’ houses, barns, stables, 
coach-house, ice-house, dairy, &c. &e. 

I have not, since I left England, seen a house so completely 
furnished with all the elegancies and refinements of society, 
nor a. more hospitable and abundant board, which is wholly 
supplied from his own grounds. Better beef and mutton 
could not be desired. Game is so plentiful, that it is easily 
and abundantly procured within half a mile of the house. 
Fish of the finest kinds, in great variety, are taken in the 
Ohio, within a still shorter distance, and kept alive in pens 
on the banks, and a well-stored kitchen-garden, orchard, and 
vineyard, of twenty-five acres, planted with all the best ve¬ 
getables, and fruit of the United States, contribute to the 
general stock; in short, every necessary and luxury of life, 
excepting tea and coffee, is produced on the estate. The house 
is situated on a gentle acclivity, about 150 yards from the 
river, with beautiful pleasure grounds in front, laid out with 
taste, and decorated with varieties of magnificent plants, and 
flowers, to which we are yet strangers; it commands a full 
view of the river, and all that passes on it. A more desirable 
spot for a family residence, perhaps, is scarcely to be found. 
r lhe great variety of beautiful birds that are found here, 
much enliven the scene. The first night I passed in this 
elegant retreat, the mocking-bird, with its lucid, ever-varying 
notes, continuing until dawn, kept me awake for some time 
with its melody; and in the morning, ere sunrise, the red- 
bird, or Virginian nightingale, was chanting his morning 
hymn, close to my bed-room window. It continued so long, 
that I suspected, what proved to be the case, its nest and 
young were concealed in the honeysuckle on which he was 
singing. Another variety of honeysuckle iii front of the house, 
within ten feet of the door, was the constant resort of the ruby- 



throated humming birds., one of the smallest of that diminutive 
family, whose various evolutions, performed with the quick¬ 
ness of light, the eye finds it difficult to follow. The beautiful 
blue jay is so common, as to be troublesome. The orange and 
black oriole, that makes the remarkable pendant nest, is here 
by no means scarce; its note is charming. Several varieties 
of woodpecker are seen close to the house, and wild ducks were 
hourly on the horse-pond, whilst the farm-yard abounds with 
wild pigeon, as tame as our domestic ones; and the quail, 
nearly as large as our partridge, swarmed in the gardens, 
orchards, and pleasure grounds. The children of the family 
had their pet tame deer; and a pair of the gigantic elk, or 
wappetti (nearly the size of horses), ranged through the mea¬ 
dows, and returned to the house, at milking-hours, with the 
cows. A few weeks before, Mr. Carneal had parted with a 
pair of American buffaloes, or Bonassus, which he had kept 
for some time, for the purpose of improving his breed of draft 

Shortly after my return from Elmwood, I was informed 
that Mr. Carneal was on the point of changing his residence, 
and that the whole would be sold. I could not resist the 
temptation of knowing the price, and, after a few days’ 
consideration, I became the purchaser. 

I now went to reside as a visitor with Mr. C-, and remained 
a fortnight in examining the property, and every day became 
more satisfied with my acquisition. I found on it, every re¬ 
quisite for building; the finest timber, abundance of stone 
and lime, with gravel, sand, clay, &c. It appeared to me, 
that a finer site for building a small town of retirement, in 
the vicinity of a populous manufacturing city, could scarcely 
exist. I made a little model of the land, and determined to 
have it laid out to the best possible advantage, with profes¬ 
sional assistance^ on my arrival in England, and prepared to 
return home to collect my family, and those of my friends, 
whose limited incomes made such a removal as I contem¬ 
plated convenient, and, on June 2, took my departure in a 
stage, that had juSt commenced running on a new road to 
Sandusky, on Lake Erie. The distance is 200 miles; but in 
consequence of the rain, which had been considerable, the 
road naturally bad and new, was worse than usual, and it 
took us four days to perform it. This was the only part of 
the journey through America (2400 miles) that we travelled 
by land. We passed, in many places, through fine cul- 



tivated lands, with neat little towns and villages; but the 
greater part lay through a new country of dense forest, 
where the axe had scarcely cleared a sufficient passage for 
the coach. At one place, where we were to spend the 
night, the establishment was only three weeks old; in that 
time, the family, who had come some distance, had erected 
three log-houses, and placed their furniture and effects 
therein; yet, our entertainment was by no means bad. The 
poor hostess, who never had so much company under her 
roof, did all in her power to make us comfortable; and our 
party, which consisted of eight persons, three of whom were 
ladies, were in perfect good humour, notwithstanding their 
new situation. When we arrived at the latter end of our 
journey, we saw some line lands destitute of woods, but inter¬ 
spersed with small clumps, resembling those in some of the 
parks of our nobility; they were the reserved possessions of the 
Indians, when they sold the adjoining country to the commis¬ 
sioners of the United States. We wished to have entered 
some of their houses, which were well built, with sash win¬ 
dows and shingle roofs, but were told, that in general they 
avoided receiving the visits of white strangers. Many of them 
were wealthy, as appeared from their fine cultivated fields, and 
large herds of cattle and horses. Near one village, we met a 
young Indian driving a handsome waggon, drawn by four re¬ 
markably fine oxen, which would have done credit to any En¬ 
glish gentleman; the youth was well dressed, and passed our 
carriage with a look that sufficiently marked his consequence. 
In the course of the day we saw near the road several 
wild turkeys, whose splendid plumage, glittering in the sun, 
far excelled in appearance those of the domestic ones. We 
also conversed with several Indians, some of whom were on 
horseback, armed with rifles,* they were civil, and seemed 
pleased at the notice we took of them. A squaw, with her son 
behind her, accompanied us some miles. Her dress was a loose 
blue cloth coat, with scarlet pantaloons, black beaver hat and 
feathers, and her face was painted bright red. We arrived at 
Sandusky in the evening, and found a steam-boat just starting 
for Buffalo; but being told another would arrive, during the 
night, we preferred waiting for it, and were disappointed, as 
it passed by, without entering the harbour ; and as no other 
was expected for some days, we took our passage on the fol¬ 
lowing evening, in a sailing schooner, which brought us in 
three days to Buffalo, a distance we should have performed in 



the steamer, in one. Nothing can exceed the pleasure, to those 
fond of aquatic excursions, of such a voyage along the shores 
of Erie, a fresh water lake, of 330 miles in length, and 70 in 
breadth. This lake forms part of the line of separation be¬ 
tween the United States, and British America, Upper Canada 
being the opposite shore. The sides of the lake are covered 
to the water-edge, by the same description of woods we had 
passed, interspersed, occasionally, by neat villages and light¬ 

Buffalo, with its canals, as we entered, reminded us 
strongly of certain Dutch towns. It is a place of considerable 
size, and, like all we now passed, has risen to its present 
opulence in a few years, principally from its commercial 
situation at the junction of the Erie canal and lake. It has 
one handsome street, with many fine houses, and two good 

We were early on foot the next morning, to see the town. 
This being the day, on which the surviving Indians of the Six 
Nations receive their annuity from the United States* Govern¬ 
ment, for the lands which they ceded to them, numbers of them 
were early in town, and made a very respectable appearance. 
Most of the men wore fashionable frocks of broad cloth, and 
black beaver hats; their Indian boots only distinguishing them 
from the “ new people/' The women also were, in general, 
decently clad, each having a black hat and feathers ; the upper 
part of the hat, decorated with a kind of fringe, composed of 
several hundred small pieces of silver, formed a contrast with 
the blanket, which some of them wore. We noticed one woman, 
with her infant tightly swathed to a board, which was fastened 
to her back, and was sorry to observe, the too visible effects of 
whiskey on her, and her companions, even at so early an hour. 
After breakfast we were provided with a coach to Rockport, 
three miles from Buffalo, on the mouth of the Niagara, about 
eighteen miles from the celebrated Falls, where we embarked 
in a small steam-boat, in which we glided upon the surface 
of the water, at the rate of fourteen miles per hour. The 
scenery on the banks of this fine river is of a different cha¬ 
racter from the Ohio, or Mississippi—the trees are small and 
low—we seemed almost to fiy past them. We stopped about 
two miles from the fall, it being dangerous to approach 
nearer, and landed on the Canada side, where coaches were 
w aiting to take us to the inn, close to the mighty cataracts, 
whose rising clouds of misty spray had been visible for some 



time. These wondrous objects of nature are seen to advantage 
from the balcony and roof of the inn; they are considered 
the finest in the world, and exceed in magnitude any thing 
I had ef er seen; nevertheless, having heard, and read so much 
of them, my expectation was so raised, that a slight degree 
of disappointment was mixed with my' admiration of the 
extraordinary scene. After dinner we walked out to examine 
these far-famed “ leaping waters/' and every view, served to 
heighten our admiration. Their extent and size are amazing; 
but the falls on some of the Swedish lakes, and on the river 
Dorgo, in Norway, created more surprise in me, from my 
beholding them unexpectedly. 

The short account of thi3 natural curiosity, in the American 
Northern Traveller, seems to me to be the most concise and 
correct; I therefore give it in the author's own words:— 

“Following a footpath through the pasture behind Forsyth's, 
the stranger soon finds himself on the steep brow of the se¬ 
cond hanky and the mighty cataract of Niagara suddenly opens 
beneath him. A path leads away to the left, down the bank, 
to the verge of the cataract; and another to the jight, which 
oilers a drier walk, and presents a more agreeable and varied 

The surface of the rocks is so perfectly flat near the falls, 
and the water descends so considerably over the rapids just 
before it reaches the precipice, that it seems a wonder the 
place where you stand is not overflown. Probably the water 
is restrained only by the direction of the current, as a little 
lateral pressure would be sufficient to flood the elevated level 
beside it, where, there can be no question, the course of the 
river once lay. 

Table Rock is a projection a few yards from the cata¬ 
ract, which commands a fine view of this magnificent scene. 
Indeed it is usually considered the # finest point of view. The 
height of the fall on this side is 174 feet perpendicular; and 
this height the vast sheet of foam preserves unbroken, quite 
round the Grand Crescent, a distance, it is estimated, of 700 
yards. Goat Island divides the cataract, and just beyond it 
stands an isolated rock. The fall on the American side is 
neither so high, so wide, nor so unbroken; yet, if compared 
with any thing else but the Crescent, would be regarded with 
emotions of indescribable sublimity. The breadth is 900 feet, 
the height 160, and about two-thirds the distance to the bot- 


tom the sheet is broken by projecting rocks. A bridge built 
from the American side connects Goat Island and the main 
land, though invisible from this spot; and the inn on the same 
side, in Niagara, is seen a little way from the river. 

It may be recommended to the traveller to visit this place 
as often as he can, and to view it from every neighbouring 
point; as every change of light exhibits it under a different 
and interesting aspect. The rainbows are to be seen, from this 
side, only in the afternoon; but at that time the clouds of 
mist, which are continually rising from the gulf below, often 
present them in the utmost beauty. 

Dr. Dwight gives the following estimates, in his Travels, 
of the quantity of water which passes the cataract of Niagara. 
The river at the ferry is 7 furlongs wide, and on an average 
25 feet deep. The current probably runs 6 miles an hour; 
but supposing it to be only 5 miles, the quantity that passes 
the falls in an hour, is more than 85 millions of tons Avoir¬ 
dupois ; if we suppose it to be 6, it will be more than 102 
millions; and in a day would be 2400 millions of tons. The 
noise is sometimes heard at York, 50 miles. 


begin about half a mile above the cataract; and, although the 
breadth of the river might at first make them appear of little 
importance, a nearer inspection will convince the stranger of 
their actual size, and the terrific danger of the passage. The 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood regard it as certain death to 
get once involved in them ; and that, not merely because all 
escape from the cataract would be hopeless, but because the 
violent force of the water among the rocks in the channel, 
would instantly dash the bones of a man in pieces. Instances 
are on record of persons being carried down by the stream; 
indeed, there was an instance of two men carried over in 
March last; but no one is known to have ever survived. In¬ 
deed, it is very rare that the bodies are found; as the depth 
of the gulf below the cataract, and the tumultuous agitation 
of the eddies, whirlpools, and counter currents, render it dif¬ 
ficult for any thing once sunk to rise again; while the general 
course of the water is so rapid, that it is soon hurried far down 
the stream. The large logs which are brought down in great 
numbers during the spring, bear sufficient testimony to these 
remarks. Wild ducks, geese, &c. are frequently precipitated 



over the cataract, and generally re-appear either dead, or with 
their legs or wings broken. Some say that water-fowl avoid 
the place when able to escape, but that the ice on the shores 
of the river above often prevents them from obtaining food, 
and that they are carried down from mere inability to fly; 
while others assert that they are sometimes seen voluntarily 
riding among the rapids, and, after descending half way down 
the cataract, taking wing, and returning to repeat their dan¬ 
gerous amusement. 

The most sublime scene is presented to the observer when 
he views the cataract from below; and there he may have an 
opportunity of going under the cataract. This scene is repre¬ 
sented in one of the plates. To render the descent prac¬ 
ticable, a spiral staircase has been formed a little way from 
Table Rock, supported by a tall mast; and the stranger de¬ 
scends without fear, because his view is confined. On reach¬ 
ing the bottom, a rough path among the rocks winds along at 
tlm foot of the precipice, although the heaps of loose stones 
which have fallen down, keep it at a considerable height above 
the water. A large rock lies on the very brink of the river, 
about 15 feet long, and 8 feet thick, which you may climb up 
by means of a ladder, and enjoy the best central view of the 
falls any where to be found. This rock was formerly a part 
of the projection above, and fell about seven years ago, with a 
tremendous roar. It had been observed by Mr. Forsyth to be 
in a very precarious situation the day before, and lie had warned 
the strangers at his house not to venture near it. A lady and 
gentleman, however, had been so bold as to take their stand 
upon it near evening, to view the cataract; and in the night 
they heard the noise of its fall, which shook the house like an 

In proceeding nearer to the sheet of falling water, the path 
leads far under the excavated bank, which in one place forms 
a roof that overhangs about 40 feet. The vast column of 
water continually pouring over the precipice, produces violent 
whirls in the air; and the spray is driven out with such force, 
that no one can approach to the edge of the cataract, or even 
stand a few moments near it, without being drenched to the 
skin. It is also very difficult to breathe there, so that persons 
with weak lungs, would act prudently to content themselves 
with a distant view, and by no means to attempt to go under 
the cataract. Those who are desirous of exploring this tre¬ 
mendous cavern, should attend very carefully to their steps. 


and not allow themselves to be agitated by the sight or the 
sound of the cataract, or to be blinded by the strong driving 
showers in which they will be continually involved; as a few 
steps would plunge them into the terrible abyss which receives 
the falling river. 


About half a mile above the falls, and within a few feet of 
the rapids in Niagara River, is a remarkable Burning Spring. 
A house has been erected over it, into which admission is ob¬ 
tained for a shilling. The water which is warm, turbid, and 
surcharged with sulphurated hydrogen gas, rises in a barrel 
which has been placed in the ground, and is constantly in a 
state of ebullition. The barrel is covered, and the gas escapes 
only through a copper tube. On bringing a candle within a 
little distance of it, the gas takes fire, and continues to burn 
with a bright flame until blown out. By leaving the house 
closed, and the fire extinguished, the whole atmosphere within 
explodes on entering with a candle.” 

The next morning a carriage took us to Queenstown, on 
the Niagara river, seven miles below the falls, passing on 
the way the lofty column lately erected to the memory of 
the English General Brock, who fell in an attack made by 
the United States’ army in 1812, under General Van Ren- 
selaer. Its height is 115 feet, and its base 350 feet above 
the river. From the top, an extensive view is obtained over 
the vast tract of country, including part of Lake Ontario. 
Queenstown is situated at the bottom of the hill, upon which 
the monument stands, on the Canadian side of the river, which 
we crossed in a small boat. It seemed not to have recovered 
from its agitation, since its tremendous leap at the falls, but 
a few minutes passed amongst its currents and eddies, landed 
us again on the territory of the United States. A coach was 
in readiness, and conveyed us to Lewistown, only one mile, 
where, at an hotel, opened the day before, we found a breakfast 
that would have done credit* to any part of Scotland. We 
departed in the stage, after breakfast, forLockport, to meet the 
canal boat for Albany. Whilst waiting on the bank of the 
Niagara for the carriage, I was asked by an Indian, to purchase 
a History of the Six Nations, written by his brother, David 
Cusick, who resided at Tuscarora, a few miles further on our 
route. We were now at the village, which was entirely In- 

b 2 


dian; one of our passengers was acquainted with Cusick, and 
introduced us to his house. He had been confined to his bed 
several years by a rheumatic complaint. His house and family 
Avere patterns of neatness and order, and himself the most in¬ 
telligent Indian I had met Avith. He spoke English Avell, and 
seemed pleased to see us, and told us, a Dr. Duncan, from Edin¬ 
burgh, had stopped some time Avith him. He requested me to 
do the same, adding, “ you Avill be as welcome and safe here, as 
in your OAvn house.” His room Avas decorated Avith coloured 
draAvings of his oavii execution, representing several subjects 
of the Indian history of his tribe; among the rest, Avas a 
draAving of the mammoth, Avliich he informed me Avas so 
represented by his fathers, in Avhose traditions, it Avas stated 
more to resemble a hog, than any other beast. He presented 
me Avith it, and some others, ana made me promise to call on 
my return. Near the entrance of the village Ave met an 
Indian returning from shooting squirrels, Avith a boy laden 
Avith his game; he must have had near a hundred, Avhich 
Avere all procured by the bow, a very short and simple one, 
AA r hich he carried in his hand. The road to Lockport, like 
most of those Ave had travelled, Avas indifferent, and required 
a skilful and attentive driver to proceed. Most of it lay 
through extensive Avoods. Near a village Ave observed three 
large black snakes, about ten feet long, hanging dead across a 
fence, Avhich, Avith one of the same kind killed by a boatman 
on the bank of the canal, Avere all I saw Avhile in America. 
The rattlesnake is uoav nearly as great a curiosity in the 
towns of America, as in England. We arrived at Lockport 
some hours before the canal boat, Avhich left Buffalo this 
morning, and spent some time in examining the stupendous 
excavations through the solid rock, Avhich Avere required to 
complete the navigation here. This great Avork, extends from 
Albany to Buffalo, a distance of 362 miles, Avith 83 locks, and 
raises and loAvers the Avater, in all, 688 feet. 

The labour, expense, and skill, manifested in the construc¬ 
tion of this fine canal, is highly creditable to the talents of 
the directors; it unites the Atlantic Avith Erie, and the other 
northern lakes, and Avill also in a short time, Avhen the 
canal from Erie, to Cincinnati is opened, give an uninterrupted 
internal navigation through the states, of 2500 miles, extend¬ 
ing from the Gulf of Mexico, by New Orleans, to NeAV York. 
Its advantages are already fully developed, in its Avhole 
line, croAvded with boats of considerable size, laden Avith the 



various produce of the western and northern states, and re¬ 
turning with numerous emigrants, moving westward with their 
families and effects ; 1500 boats, from 60 to 70 feet long, are 
stated to be thus employed. It was really surprising to see 
the number of poor emigrants, thus proceeding to their destina¬ 
tion (many of them were Irish, and on their way to the Ohio), 
induced to try their fortune with their countrymen, already 
established in that prosperous state, whose representation of 
their “good luck” had been the cause of their preferring this 
direction. We found the canal boat, though not equally com¬ 
modious to the steamer, yet comfortable and well regulated, 
with every attention to accommodation; a separate cabin for 
ladies, who have female attendants, and a good table, at very 
moderate expense, a small library, and daily papers. The rate 
of travelling, is about 100 miles per day. 

The towns, through which the canal passes, exhibit the most 
flourishing state of activity and trade, and are crowded with 
mechanics and labourers of every description. Handsome 
buildings of brick and stone, with neat gardens and orchards, 
are already covering the ground, where a dozen years since, 
nothing existed, but gloomy forests. To mention the number 
of towns and villages through which the canal passes, would 
dilate this little account, into the history of a whole rising 
country; I shall, therefore, merely mention a few of the most 

Rochester, which was only founded in 1812, contains many 
substantial, handsome buildings, in regular streets, with fine 
shops, several of the fronts of which, like those of other 
cities, are of cast iron; it already contains near 6000 inhabit¬ 
ants. The water-fall close to the town, and another at Car¬ 
thage, about two miles below, are well worth examination, 
as well as the remains of one of the boldest single fabrics, that 
art has ever attempted in this country, which now shows a few 
of its remains in this place. The two great piles of timber, 
which stand opposite each other on the narrow level, where 
once the river flowed, are the abutments of a bridge, of a 
single arch, thrown over a few years ago. It was 400 feet in 
length, and 250 above the water; but stood only a short 
time, and then fell with a tremendous crash, by its own 
weight. Fortunately no person was crossing at the time—a 
lady and gentleman had just before passed, and safely reached 
the other side. The Salina, or grand salt works, through 
which the canal passes, is also deserviug a visit from all 



travellers 3 006,463 bushels of salt were manufactured here 
in 1800,, and the quantity is greatly increasing. Utica, is an¬ 
other busy, thriving place, containing some fine churches and 
other public buildings, and above 5000 inhabitants. We 
left the boat at Schenectady, and proceeded to Albany in the 
stage, on account of the circuitous route of the canal between 
those places. 

Albany is a place of considerable importance, containing 
16,000, inhabitants; it is on the river Hudson, 145 miles above 
New York, to which city it is navigable for large sloops and 
schooners, and presents to the stranger, a scene of commercial 
bustle and trade, not often seen at this distance from the sea. 
Its canal basin, is an extensive work, and was filled entirely 
with craft 5 its public buildings are on a grand scale, some of 
them built of white marble, of a very curious texture, with 
•shining particles of talc-like appearance on its surface. We 
dined here, and proceeded in the evening in a fine steam-boat 
for New York. 

The passage down the Hudson, is, to a person who can enjoy 
the romantic scenery it presents, enough to repay the trouble 
of a voyage across the Atlantic. I know of nothing like it in 
Europe. The Ohio, from Louisville to Cincinnati, is, perhaps, 
equal in beauty, but of a different kind; its banks, and the 
opening views on each side, are more varied, and admit of the 1 
mountainous and grand features of sublimity of some of the 
Norwegian lakes, mixed with the softer scenery of Switzerland; 
while the numerous vessels of every description on its waters, 
and the flourishing towns, villages, forts, villas, &c. on its 
banks, recal to the mind of Europeans, returning from Spanish 
Colonies, scenes, which absence endear to their recollection; 
there is a charm in the very name of places which we have 
been accustomed to from our infancy. The voyage is generally 
performed by steam-boats, in thirteen hours, but owing to our 
being encumbered, by towing down a disabled one, much 
larger than itself, we did not reach New York till the follow¬ 
ing evening; a circumstance I did not regret, as it procured 
me a lengthened enjoyment of a scene, I can never forget. 
We landed, and procured apartments in a respectable board¬ 
ing house at the bottom of Broadway, in which we were more 
comfortably accommodated, than in an English first rate inn, 
and at considerably less expense. In the evening, we rambled 1 
into the city, and were so fortunate, as to meet some old friends,! 
after a separation of several years; their attention, and the 



civility we received from some of the inhabitants, to whom 
we had letters, rendered our short stay extremely pleasant. 

New York is so well known, and has been so ably and often 
described, that I forbear saying further of it, than, that it is such 
a place as a stranger would expect to find, in one of the prin¬ 
cipal cities of a young, energetic, flourishing country, like the 
United States; its spacious streets of handsome houses, and 
public buildings, many of which are of white marble, are 
equalled by few in Europe; the same observation may be ap¬ 
plied to its numerous institutions, markets, and public walks. 
In its situation, noble harbour, and adjacent views, it scarcely 
admits of a competition. We remained here a week, highly 
pleased with our reception, and left it for England on the 
24th of June, in the packet ship, John Wells , and landed 
safe in Liverpool, after a pleasant passage of twenty-four 
days, without any thing remarkable occurring, except, the 
passing of several icebergs, of considerable size, off the banks 
of Newfoundland. The New York packets are considered in 
themselves, and by the manner in which they are fitted out, 
as complete ships, as any that sail ; they generally make the 
passage in eighteen or nineteen days, so that the journey, from 
Cincinnati to England, may be performed in a month. 

•> • 

Reprinted in London, October, 1S27. 

By James Bullock, Lombard Street, Whitefriars. 


G U G b 




1 8 2 6 . 







1 8 2 6 . 





FEBRUARY", 1027. 


Be it remembered, that on the tenth day of January, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven, and in the fifty-first 
year of the American Independence, B. Drake, of said district, deposited 
in said office, the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as author 
and proprietor, in the words and figures following, to wit: 

“ Cincinnati in 1826, By B. Drake and E. D. Mansfield.” 

In conformity to the Act of Congress of the United States, entitled “An 
Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, 
charts, and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during 
the times therein mentionedand also of the Act, entitled “ An Act 
supplementary to an Act, entitled an Act for the encouragement of learn¬ 
ing, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books to the authors and 
proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and ex¬ 
tending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and 
etching historical and other prints.” 


Clerk of the District of Ohio . 


The almost unexampled rapidity with which the late 
humble village of Cincinnati has advanced to the rank 
and opulence of a city, has excited a wide-spread and 
increasing interest throughout the country in relation 
both to its actual condition and its future prospects. 
The authors of the following pamphlet have recently 
undertaken the task of gratifying this general curiosity 
(in which they could not fail to participate), and, ac¬ 
cordingly, their friends and the public are here presented 
with the result of a series of diligent inquiries and re¬ 
searches, during the last two months, into the History 
and Statistics of Cincinnati. 

Deriving their knowledge from personal, and, for the 
most part, laborious investigation, they have some reason 
to feel confidence in the general accuracy of their state¬ 
ments; although, from the great haste with which the 
materials have been collected and arranged, and from 
the occasional interference of professional business, they 
are not without apprehensions that a few errors and 
omissions may be discovered, for which they must throw 
themselves upon the indulgence of their readers. For 
the introductory pages, devoted to the more interesting 



statistics of the State at large, they feel confident that no 
apology will be necessary ; and they have, therefore, in 
conclusion, only to express their thanks to those gentle¬ 
men who have so promptly rendered them assistance, in 
collecting the numerous and important facts which are 
here so imperfectly embodied. 


February 20, IS27, 



State of Ohio;—Statistics . . . . 1 


Ohio River:—Hamilton county 

. 15 


• 17 

Religious Societies and Public Charities 

. 25 


Literary and Scientific Institutions 

. 32 


Municipal Government:—Courts of Judicature 

. 40 

Population .... 


. 49 

Manufactures .... 


. 51 


Capacity of Cincinnati for Manufactures 

. 59 





. 63. 

Public Offices . 


- 71 

Value of Real Estate and Money 







Summer’s Residence in Cincinnati 


• 73 

Fine Arts 


. 80 

State of Society 


. ib. 



. 83 






Phe State of Ohio, situated between 38°, 30', and 42° north 
atitude, and between 3°, 30', and 7°> 50' west longitude 
Tom Washington, is bounded on the east by Pennsylvania 
tnd Virginia; south by Virginia and Kentucky ; west by 
Indiana; north by Lake Erie and the Michigan territory. 
From east to west, its greatest extent may be estimated at 
220 miles; from north to south 200. Its area is about 
10,000 square miles, which will give in round numbers 
25,000,000 of acres. There is but a small portion of this 
mmense tract of land that is not susceptible of cultivation, 
dthough one-fifth of it may be characterized as abounding 
n hills and marshes, the latter of which are not alluvial 
valleys, but wet table lands, which may be rendered dry by 
clearing and cultivation. There are many large tracts of 
evel and exceedingly fertile land; and upon the head waters 
)f the Muskingum, Scioto, and the two Miamies, there are 
extensive, rich, and beautiful,prairies. Among the forest 
:,rees, may be enumerated the black walnut, white flowering 
locust, white, black, lowland, chesnut, and bur oaks, wild 
dierry, yellow poplar, blue and white ash, mulberry, 
loney locust, shell bark hickory, coffee nut, beech, sweet 
nickeye, sassafras, sugar tree, red maple, linden, and box 
dder. The timber of Ohio is supposed to be less durable 




than that of the eastern states, which, if true, may be refer- , 
able to its more rapid growth in a fertile soil. Wheat, maize, j 
barley, beans, rye, oats, hemp, flax, and tobacco,* grow j 
luxuriantly* and constitute the principal agricultural pro¬ 
ducts of the state. All the fruits, culinary vegetables, 
grasses, and flowers of the middle states, are produced in 
abundance. It has been proved, that the soil and climate 
are well adapted to the vine, and that a pleasant wine may 
be made from its fruit. The mulberry tree grows luxuriantly, 
and there can be no doubt that the silk worm will be intro¬ 
duced at no distant day. 


The principal rivers which empty into the Ohio, are Big 
Beaver, Muskingum, Hockhocking, Scioto, and the Little 
and Great Miamies. Those that are tributary to Lake Erie, 
are Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Black, Huron, Sandusky, Portage, 
and Maumee. The navigable water communication of the 
state, on the completion of the canals now in progress, will 
exceed 1700 miles ; upon which her products may be em¬ 
barked at certain periods of the year in boats for foreign 
markets. Of this extent of navigable water, the Ohio river 
affords 420 miles ; Lake Erie, 200; Big and Little Miamies, 
95; Scioto, 100; Hockhocking, 50; Muskingum, and its 
tributaries, Whitewoman, Killbuck, Mohican, and Wills’ 
creeks, 205 ; Sandusky bay and river, 36 ; Maumee, and its 
tributaries, 260; Ohio and Miami canals, 385. Che principal 
harbours on the southern shore of Lake Erie, within the 
limits of Ohio, are at Maumee bay, Sandusky city, Grand 
river, Cleaveland, and Ashtabula creek. And at the mouth 
of Grand river, and at the entrance of Sandusky bay, there 
are light-houses. 


The climate is closely assimilated to that of Pennsylvania, 
perhaps rather warmer and more on extremes. The pre¬ 
vailing winds are from the south-west. The north-west 
is short lived—the forerunner of storms in summer, and 

* The peculiar adaptation of the soil of Ohio to the growth of tobacco, 
its superior quality, its ready sale at high prices, together with the present 
and prospective facilities for transporting it to market, afford the strongest 
evidences that its culture will hereafter greatly increase'the wealth and 
resources of the state. 


txie cause of cold in winter. The east and north-east winds 
have less moisture and more elasticity than similar winds to 
the east of the mountains. 


Salt. —Salt springs are found in many parts of the state. 
I he water is strongly saturated, and the'salt produced is of 
a good quality, ihe salt works in Muskingum county 
yieid annually about 300,000 bushels; in Morgan, 75,000 • 

Lt kSO ^ 10,0fi0; in Gallia ' 10 > 00 °; on Yellow creek, 
00,000. The entire annual product of this indispensable 
article, within the state, may be estimated at 500,000 bushels, 
being about one-fifth of the quantity annually produced and 
consumed in the valley of the Mississippi. 

Iron. The principal known localities of iron ore in Ohio, 
are in the counties of Adams, Muskingum, Licking, Geauga, 
and Columbiana, where there appear to be inexhaustible 
quantities. In Muskingum county alone, there are annually 
produced about 1300 tons of metal, and 200 tons of bar iron, 
liie ore is rich and of a good quality. All the iron of the 
state is obtained from argillaceous or bog ores. 

Coal— Bituminous coal of a good quality, and in large 
quantities, abounds in those parts of the state, watered by 
' e 1 lock hocking, Muskingum, and Beaver rivers, and their 
tranches; and upon the Ohio river, above the mouth of the 
scioto. The nearest localities to Cincinnati, of this im¬ 
portant mineral, are where the western line of the great 
pastern coal region crosses the Ohio, above the mouth of the 
Scioto, and where it also cuts the Sandy and Lickin 0- rivers 
n Kentucky.* ° 

Gypsum. This valuable mineral abounds on Sandusky 
lay, and is supposed to extend quite across the peninsula 
i ormed by the lake and the bay. It is of a superior quality, 
md may be easily obtained. 

The bituminous coal of the United States appears to lie in two 
mmense beds, divided by a slip of. country, about one hundred and 
lxty miles wide. This slip commences in Michigan, includes the section 
f the country watered by the Scioto and Miamies, the fertile parts 
f Kentucky and West Tennessee. The great eastern field of coal 
xtends south to A abama, and as far east as the Susquehanna and Poto- 
iac. It is about 800 miles long by 400 wide. The western stretches to 
f S ? ° f Missouri and Arkansas, and is 800 by 500 miles in 

xtent. Ihe coal lies in horizontal strata, generally over limestone, or 
etween it and sandstone: sometimes it attenuates with the limestone 

B 2 



Decomposable Pyrites. —The greatest western locality 
of this mineral is near Steubenville, in Jefferson county, 
where there is a hill composed of it, from which large quan¬ 
tities of excellent copperas are annually made: but other 
deposites are found near Paint creek, a western branch of 
the Scioto. 

Strontian. —Fine chrystals of this mineral have been 
found on Sandusky bay. 

Limestone. —This is the prevailing rock of the northern 
and western parts of the state. It is in horizontal strata, 
more or less buried up with clay and other alluvial matters. 
It is either blue or gray, of various shades. Being all se¬ 
condary, it abounds in petrifactions. The blue limestone is 
excellent for building. The gray is more disposed to crumble 
when exposed to the air, but makes the whitest lime. It 
affords some beds, which receive a fine polish, and constitute 
a good secondary marble. Some of the sub-varieties yield 
lime, which hardens under water, and is therefore adapted to 
the construction of canals. 

Sandstone.— Sand or freestone of various shades of gray, 
constitutes the prevailing rock of the south-eastern part of 
the state. It abounds in salt, iron, coal, and pyrites, which 
compensate, in some degree, for the comparative sterility of 
the soil which it supports. The stone itself is readily cut 
into blocks of various sizes and shapes, and is sent to different 
parts of the state thus prepared. 


Three per centum of the proceeds of the sale of public 
lands within the limits of Ohio, are paid by the general 
government into the treasury of the state, for the improve¬ 
ment of the roads. This sum, however, being distributed 
throughout the state—each county being entitled to its pro- 
portion—has been heretofore productive of but little per¬ 
manent advantage. Several turnpike companies have been 
incorporated, but only one turnpike road has been completed. 
This extends from the mouth of Ashtabula creek, on Lake 
Erie, to Warren, in Trumbull county. Another is construct¬ 
ing between Cleaveland and Wooster, running through Me¬ 
dina ; and another from Cleaveland, through Ravenna and 
New Lisbon, to the Ohio river. The great national road, 
which is intended to pass through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, 
to Missouri, has been surveyed as far westward as Indian-" 



opolis. Thirty miles of the distance, beginning at Wheeling, 
are already completed, and twenty-eight more under contract. 
During summer and autumn, the roads are good : in winter, 
tolerable: in early spring, from the flat and argillaceous 
character of the surface of the state, nearly impassable. 


One-thirty-sixth part of the lands owned, or which might 
be thereafter purchased from the Indians, by the general 
government, within the limits of Ohio, were granted by 
Congress, in the year 1803, for the use of common schools, 
besides three townships (equal to 69,000 acres), for the use 
of the Miami* and Ohio Universities—the former at Oxford, 
the latter at Athens. In addition to these two universities, 
there are four colleges: the Western Reserve College, at 
Hudson; Kenyon College and Theological Seminary, near 
Mount Vernon; the Cincinnati College, and the Medical 
College of Ohio, of which a part only are in operation. 
There are about twelve incorporated academies. By a 
recent law of the state, establishing a general system of 
common schools, one-twentieth of one per cent., or half a mill 
on each dollar of the grand levy of taxable property through¬ 
out the state, is to be annually assessed and collected for 
their support. 


It is several years since a canal communication between 
the^ waters of Lake Erie and those of the Ohio, was first 
projected, t What was then, however, considered merely 

* This institution, possessing* a productive endowment, and being under 
the care of an intelligent board of trustees, seems now to be firmly es¬ 
tablished, and promises to become an ornament to the state. The 
President is the Rev. R. A. Bishop. During 1826, the institution con¬ 
tained in all the different classes one hundred and twelve students. The 
commencement for conferring degrees, is held in September of each year. 
The village of Oxford is healthy, and the expenses of boarding and tuition 
as low as any college in the United States. 

f In the picture of Cincinnati, published in 1815 by Professor Drake, 
the several routes afterwards surveyed by authority of the legislature, and 
the particular course of the Miami canal between this place and Hamilton, 
are .marked out with prophetic accuracy and singular intelligence. The 
late Mn William Steele, in the years 1819 and 1820, with his cha¬ 
racteristic enterprise, laboured to call public attention to this subject. He 
caused some surveys to be made at his own expense, visited the New York 
canals, and upon his return published a pamphlet upon the subject of 
canals in Ohio. 



speculative, is now auspiciously commenced, and in rapid 
progress towards accomplishment. 

This subject was first officially noticed by Governor Brown, 
who recommended it to legislative attention in the year 
1819. This recommendation he continued with zealous 
perseverance during the successive years of his continuance 
in office. It was first acted upon by the legislature in 
January, 1822. At that time, Mr. M. T. Williams, from the 
“committee, to whom wa»referred so much of the governor's 
message as relates to canals/' made an able and interesting 
Report, representing their great utility to the state, and 
its capacity to make them. Immediately after, a bill was 
passed, appropriating six thousand dollars to meet the ex¬ 
penses of surveys, and a Board of Commissioners was ap¬ 
pointed to examine into the practicability of the project, 
estimate the cost, and suggest the means of accomplishing it. 
This board employed engineers to survey routes, connecting 
the lake by the valleys of the Maumee, Sandusky, Black, 
Cuyahoga, and Grand rivers, with the Ohio, by those of the 
Miami, Scioto, Muskingum, and Mahoning. In the course 
of the years 1822, 1823, and 1824, these surveys and es¬ 
timates were made, under the direction of the commissioners, 
and their respective results communicated to the legislature 
in several interesting and detailed Reports. In February, 
1825, the legislature, with a full knowledge of the ex¬ 
penditures required, and the benefits anticipated, adopted 
what is now denominated the canal policy. They, at that 
time, authorized the construction of two distinct works, the 
Ohio and Miami canals. 


This was located on the Scioto and Muskingum route 3 its 
northern termination was subsequently fixed by the com¬ 
missioners to be at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. The work 
was commenced in July, 1825, and is now in successful 
progress. Its dimensions are the same with those of the 
Erie canal of New York, excepting the bottom, which is 26 
feet broad. Its length, including feeders, is about 320 miles. 
In this distance, there are 1185 feet of lockage,* a large re¬ 
servoir, several aqueducts, and numerous smaller works es- 

* The lockage on the Ohio canal is nearly double what it is on the 
grand canal of New York. 



sential to the convenience and utility of so extended a chain 
of artificial navigation. In its course from the lake to the 
river, it traverses the central, and, in many respects, the 
most productive parts of the state. Commencing at the 
beautiful village of Cleaveland, it keeps the valley of the 
Cuyahoga to Portage, which gives its name to the summit 
level between the Cuyahoga and the Tuscarawas; here it 
passes over to the latter stream, and descends with it by the 
villages of Kendall, Dover, and Coshocton, to the mouth of 
Wakatomaka creek, where it leaves Zanesville a few miles 
to the south, and, passing the high lands into Licking river, 
ascends that stream to the summit level; from this point it 
enters the Scioto valley by Walnut creek, and passing Cir- 
cleville, Chillicothe and Piketon, joins the Ohio at or near 
Portsmouth. A navigable feeder of 10 miles in length 
connects Columbus with the main canal. In addition to this, 
a company has been incorporated, and the stock taken, to 
connect Lancaster with it by a lateral cut. Improvements 
of the same nature will, doubtless, be made in relation to 
many other places, when a little more experience has placed 
the utility of these works beyond the cavils of scepticism 
It will be seen from the locality of this work, that beside? 
the flourishing districts bordering on the Cuyahoga and Tus¬ 
carawas, the whole of the immense and fertile country watered 
by the Scioto and its tributaries, is, in a measure, dependent 
on this canal for its connexion with the markets of the 
north and south. It is from the products of this rich 
valley, that most deductions have been drawn with regard 
to the usefulness of the work. It abounds in all those 
staple commodities, from which a large portion of the western 
country derives the means of easy subsistence, and substantial 

The actual progress of the Ohio canal may be seen from 
the following statement: 

Contracts have been made. 

From Portage to Lake Erie . . 37 ♦ miles—to be finished in June, 1827 

.south to Massillon 26J.1st July, 1827 

On Licking summit . . . . 10J.1st June, 1827 

Feeder from S. fork of Licking 6|- ...... . 15th Dec. 1826 

Massillon to Goshen . . . . 35.1st July, 1828 

Licking summit to the Narrows 12|. 

Deep cut.3£.1st Oct. 1828 

The entire distance is * . . 131 ^ miles. 



Of this, 80 miles are to be finished on the 1st of July next- 
Sixty-four miles of continuous navigation from Cleaveland 
to Massillon will then be open to public use. In addition to 
the regular line of canal and its feeders, a large reservoir 
has been constructed on Licking summit, to supply in the 
driest seasons the deficiency of water. This is a very inter¬ 
esting portion of the work; a natural marsh, flooded during 
freshets by the neighbouring streams, is, by embanking a part 
of one side, converted into a large lake for the uses of arti¬ 
ficial navigation. Its length is between six and seven miles, 
and its breadth about half a mile. This reservoir is now 
completed, and also the feeder from the south fork of 
Licking, and nine-tenths of the labour on the line from Port¬ 
age to the lake, and that on the Licking summit. This 
work has, so far, advanced with greater rapidity, and been 
less expensive, than was originally anticipated.* 

On the part of the .northern division put under contract, 
there will be, after deducting a sum deemed sufficient for su¬ 
perintendence and contingencies, a saving of 100,000 dollars 
from the estimates. 

On the contracts made on the middle division, there will 
be a similar saving of about 60,000 dollars. 


This work connects Cincinnati with the heart of the po¬ 
pulous and exuberant region bordering on the two Miamies. 
It commences at Dayton, near the mouth of Mad river, and 
descending the valley of the Miami, passes by the villages of 
Miamisburgh, Franklin, Middletown, and Hamilton; at the 
latter place it leaves the Miami, and follows the course of 
Mill creek to the upper level of Cincinnati. It is intended 
to connect this level with the river Ohio, by a series of de¬ 
scending locks, and such additional works as may best serve 
the purposes of commerce and manufactures. 

The length of this canal, as now located, is about 67 miles, 
and its dimensions the same with those of the Ohio canal. 
The work was commenced in July, 1825, and has since ad¬ 
vanced with uncommon rapidity. That part of the line now 
under contract, extends from Enoch's mill-dam, above Mid¬ 
dletown, to Main-street, Cincinnati, and will be ready for 

* A beautiful and accurate topographical map of Ohio, compiled by 
A. Kelley, Esq. is now in publication by H. Howard, of Delaware. It will 
exhibit particularly the course, profile, and lockage of the canals. 



navigation in July next. The entire distance is near 44 
miles, and includes a dam over the Miami, a drain from 
the pond at the head of Mill creek, 5 aqueducts, 12 locks, 
20 stone culverts, and some heavy embankments. Of this 
distance, 31 miles, together with most of the masonry, are 
completed, and the remainder in a state of rapid progres¬ 
sion. The rest of the line, between Middletown and Dayton, 
will be put under contract next spring, and completed in the 
year 1828. Amount of lockage, 300 feet. 

The estimated cost of the whole line is 616,837 dollars. 
The country bordering on the Miami canal is eminently dis¬ 
tinguished for the abundance of its natural productions, and 
the rapid advances of its population. It includes the counties 
of Hamilton, Warren, Butler, Preble, Montgomery, Green, 
Clark, Champaign, Dark, and Miami. It is in these counties 
that the immense quantities of flour, pork, whiskey, &c. an¬ 
nually exported from Cincinnati, are produced. Their con¬ 
tiguity to the canal is such, that most of their products must, 
of necessity, be conveyed upon it. They are now transported 
in waggons—a mode of conveyance ever attended with 
comparative loss and difficulty in a country where the soil, 
so abundant and various in its natural gifts, is, however, less 
favourable to the construction of good roads, than to that of 

Besides the ordinary benefits of canal communication, much 
is anticipated from the water power gained in the descent 
from the upper plain of Cincinnati to the level of the river. 
The quantity of water which may safely be admitted, in ad¬ 
dition to what is required for the use of navigation, without 
creating too strong a current,* is estimated by engineers at 
3000 cubic feet per minute. In descending to high water¬ 
mark (about 50 feet), this will be sufficient to turn 60 pair 
of mill-stones. Additional water power, equivalent to about 
one-third of this in value, may be obtained between high and 
low water-marks. At the locks near Reading, and at other 
places between that and Dayton, water sufficient for exten¬ 
sive hydraulic works may be furnished. Of the accuracy of 
these estimates there is no reason to doubt; they were made 

* The discharge of 3000 cubic feet of water from a channel of the 
dimensions of the Miami canal, will create a current of about 400 yards 
an hour, in addition to the ordinary current of the canal; this will be 
too small an obstacle to the passage of the boats to create any serious 

B 5 



by persons skilled in their profession, from minute examina¬ 
tion of the obstacles to be encountered, and the means of 
overcoming them. 

In estimating the revenue to be derived from the Miami 
canal, it may be observed, that the quantity of produce raised 
within such a distance as renders it a convenient means of 
transportation, is greater than it was originally supposed ; and 
that this quantity is continually increasing with the growth 
and improvement of the country. 

The value of water rents is also much greater than it was 
originally estimated by the commissioners.* 

The practicability of extending the Miami canal to the 
rapids of the Maumee has been ascertained by experienced 
engineers,! and the line actually located. When the com¬ 
pletion of the works already undertaken shall have increased 
the public confidence and resources, this northern section of 
the Miami canal will doubtless be commenced. An active 
and numerous population is rapidly spreading over that 
quarter of the state through which it will pass, and substi¬ 
tuting the energies of civilization for the dulness of the forest. 
The length of the entire line from Cincinnati to the rapids 
of the Maumee, including the feeders, is 290 miles, and the 
estimated cost 2,929,000 dollars. 

The funds for the prosecution of these improvements have 
heretofore been obtained without difficulty, and none is now 
anticipated. In the year 1825 the sum of 400,000 dollars 
was borrowed at less than 6 per cent, per annum. In 1820 
1 ,000,000 dollars was obtained on terms nearly as favourable. 
The existing laws authorize a loan of 1,200,000 dollars for 
each of the years 1827 and 1828, which, with those already 
made, will amount to 3,800,000 dollars; a sum exceeding 
the entire estimated cost of both canals. In regard to the 
time required for the completion of these works, it appears 
from what has already been stated, that the Miami canal will 
be completed in 1828. Thirty-one miles being already finished, 

* Water poiver, sufficient to carry a pair Of mill-stones, was estimated 
by the commissioners to be worth 250 dollars per annum: steam power 
adequate to the same object, it has been satisfactorily ascertained, will 
cost more than 500 dollars per annum. 

t A part of these examinations were made by Mr. Geddes; the re¬ 
mainder by Mr. Samuel Forrer, of this city, who made the location of the 
line, and is now the superintending engineer of the Miami canal. His 
practical skill and active usefulness cannot be too highly appreciated. 


and thirteen more under contract, to be completed on the first 
day of July next. 

More than two-fifths of the entire line of the Ohio canal 
are now under contract, and if no uncommon obstacles inter¬ 
vene, the whole will be completed in the summer of 1830, 
or five years from the day on which the ground was first 


The people of Ohio are industrious, temperate, intelligent, 
and enterprising. In 1790 the population amounted only to 
3000 ; in 1800, to 42,156; in 1810, to 230,760; and in 1820, 
to 581,434. At this time (December, 1826,) it may safely 
be estimated, in round numbers, at 800,000. From the census 
of 1820 it appears that there were 24,642 more males than 
females; the number of white males over 18 was 130,460; 
the number of persons engaged in agriculture was 141,000, 
in manufactures 19,000, and in commercial pursuits 1500; 
the black population was 4,723. This increase in a single 
state, from 42,156 to 800,000, in 26 years, is perhaps without 
a parallel in the history of this or any other country. 


From the returns made to the Adjutant-General’s office, 
for the year 1826, it appears that the militia of Ohio amounts 
to 110,176. 


Columbus, the seat of government, is pleasantly situated 
near the centre of the state, on the east side of the Scioto, 
just below the mouth of Whetstone river, and about 45 miles 
north of Chillicothe. It contains 200 houses, and about 1400 
inhabitants. Its public edifices consist of a State House, 
with adjoining buildings for public offices; a Court House 
for the federal courts of the Ohio district, and a Penitentiary. 
The first commitment to this establishment took place in 
1815, since which time there have been imprisoned in it 584 
convicts. Of this number 225 have been pardoned—25 
have died—a few escaped, and about 130 have served out' 
their term of commitment; 15 have been committed a second 
time. They are engaged in different mechanical occupations 
of the ru4er kind, but the products of their labour do not 
support the establishment, and some alteration of the system 
is obviously necessary. 




The chief towns are Cincinnati, Chillicothe, Zanesville, 
Steubenville, Marietta, Dayton, Columbus, Athens, Lan¬ 
caster, Lebanon, Cleaveland, St. Clairsville, Springfield, and 


The denominations of Christians are, Presbyterians, Me¬ 
thodists, Baptists, Episcopalians, Friends, Roman Catholics, 
Covenanters, Seceders, Swedenborgians, Lutherans, Shakers, 
&c. The Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists are the 
most numerous. The Episcopalians are not numerous, but 
extensively scattered over the state, which has recently been 
erected into a diocese. 


The state is divided into 73 counties, which, under the 
present apportionment, send 72 representatives, and 36 sena¬ 
tors to the legislature. These counties are combined into 
fourteen districts, from each of which there is elected a 
Member of Congress—and again, into nine, each of which 
constitutes a judicial circuit of the courts of Common Pleas. 
Each county is subdivided into a number of townships, in 
which trustees, overseers of the poor, with other local officers* 
are annually elected. 


The general Assembly of Ohio consists of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. The senators are chosen for two 
years, and must never exceed one-half, nor be less than one- 
third, of the number of representatives. The representatives 
are chosen annually, and in number must not exceed 72 , nor 
fall short of 36, 

The governor, who performs the executive functions, is 
chosen biennially. His powers are limited, having no veto 
upon legislative acts, and does not nominate candidates to the 
senate, but appoints to office when vacancies occur during 
the recess of the legislature. His salary is 1000 dollars per 
annum. In Ohio there is an unrestricted and universal elec¬ 
tive franchise. 


The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, composed 
of four judges, and in the courts of Common Pleas, consisting 
of nine presiding, and 27 associate judges, and in justices of 



the peace. The judges of the two former courts are elected 
by a joint ballot of the legislature, and hold their offices 
for seven years; justices of the peace are elected by the 
. people, and for the term of three years. Their number is 
regulated by the courts of Common Pleas. The judges of 
the Supreme Court receive 1200 dollars each per annum; the 
president judges of the Common Pleas 1000 dollars each. 


For the purpose of carrying into operation the ad valorem 
system of taxation, a general assessment of ail the taxable 
property of the state was made in 1825, which gives, as cor¬ 
rected by the Board of Equalization, the following results:— 
Land liable to taxation, 15,143,309 acres, valued at 37,714,225 
dollars. Houses of more than 200 dollars value, 1,549,889. 
Town property, 7,321,034 dollars. Horses (138,074 in num¬ 
ber), 5,517,810 dollars. Cattle (274,698), 2,201,093 dollars. 
Mercantile capital, 5,202,400 dollars. Carriages, 20,885 dol¬ 
lars. Total valuation of taxable property, 59,527,336 dollars. 
This valuation includes no other improvements on the land 
than dwelling houses of more than 200 dollars value. Manu¬ 
facturing establishments are exempted from taxation. 


The principal manufactures are flour, distilled spirits, 
woollen and cotton goods, paper, copperas, linseed and castor 
oils,* salt, castings, iron, steam-engines, and a great variety 
of articles in wood, and the metals adapted to agriculture 
and the comforts of domestic life. The principal exports are 
flour, pork, lard, butter, cheese, poultry, tobacco, spirits, corn, 
oats, linseed oil, bees' wax, feathers, ginseng, horses, neat-cattle, 
and hogs. 


By the treaty of 1763, the French possessions between 
the Alleghanies and the Mississippi passed to Great Britain, 
and by the treaty of peace in 1783, between that power and 

* Castor, peppermint, and wormseed oils, have been manufactured 
to a considerable extent in different parts of the state. The soil is found 
to be congenial to the growth of the plants from which they are produced. 
During this year one individual has manufactured and exported from this 
state fifteen hundred pounds of excellent peppermint oil. 



our own government, the sovereignty of the north-western 
territory was vested in the government of the United States. 
In 1787 the first settlement was made within the limits of 
the State of Ohio, and in this year Congress began to exercise 
its jurisdiction over the north-western territory, by the es¬ 
tablishment of a provincial government, consisting of a go¬ 
vernor, secretary, and three judges, in whom were united 
executive, judicial, and a partial legislative power. These 
officers administered the government until 1799* at which 
period the north-western territory entered into the second 
gradation of territorial government, and became entitled to 
a legislative body, composed of representatives chosen by 
the people, and a council appointed by Congress, from nomi¬ 
nations made by the House of Representatives. The country 
composing the state of Ohio was soon afterwards separated 
from the north-western territory, and formed into a distinct 
jurisdiction. In 1802 Congress authorized the people to form 
a constitution and a state government, under which law our 
present constitution was adopted, and in 1803, Ohio was ad¬ 
mitted into the union, and became a sovereign state. 


The progress of Ohio in wealth and numbers, since her 
admission as a member of the confederacy, has been alto¬ 
gether unprecedented. Less than a quarter of a century 
ago, the boundaries, which now include the fourth state in 
the union, marked the limits of an infant, remote territory, 
with a scattered population on its bosom of but 40,000 ad¬ 
venturers. Her moral powers have advanced in a corre¬ 
sponding ratio with her physical resources. As a state, her 
course of policy has been uniformly wise and consistent; 
equally calculated for the promotion of her own substantial 
advancement, and the glory of the nation. Her. citizens, 
justly perceiving the true interests of the state, with a de¬ 
gree of enterprise, only surpassed by its great exemplar. New 
York, have successfully embarked in a system of internal im¬ 
provements, which, for boldness, utility, and magnificence, 
would do honour to any age or nation. 

With a climate highly salubrious; an extent of territory 
including 25,000,000 of acres of fertile land, abounding in 
iron, salt, coal, and gypsum; with 1700 miles of navigable 
water communication; with Lake Erie washing its northern, 
and the Ohio river its southern boundaries, and these con- 



nected at different points by permanent canals; with the 
great national turnpike road passing from its eastern to its 
western limits; with the means of transporting by water her 
varied productions, both to the great northern and southern 
emporiums; secured from the enervating influence of 
slavery; possessing free and firm moral and political institu¬ 
tions ; with a present population of near a million of enlight¬ 
ened, virtuous, and enterprising citizens, the state of Ohfo is 
destined, at no distant day, to attain a degree of power and 
prosperity, surpassing the sober calculations of reason, and 
giving her a pre-eminent rank in the American Confederacy. 



The Ohio, which is formed by the union of the Monorma- 
hela and Alleghany rivers at Pittsburgh, is 959 miles°in 
length. In its passage to the Mississippi it touches the states 
of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, and Illi¬ 
nois. It contains about one hundred islands. Its current, 
when very low, does not exceed two miles per hour; when 
at a mean height, it may be estimated at three miles. Its 
mean width at Cincinnati is about 530 yards. The extreme 
range from high to low water-mark, at the same place, is 58 
feet. Low water-mark on the Ohio, at the mouth of Mahon¬ 
ing or Big Beaver, is 127 feet above Lake Erie, or 692 feet 
above tide water at Albany. At the mouth of the Scioto, 
the Ohio river at low water-mark is 101 feet below Lake 
Erie, or 464 feet above tide water; at Cincinnati, at low 
water-mark, the Ohio is 133 feet below Lake Erie, or 432 feet 
above tidewater at Albany. The descent from the mouth 
of Mahoning to the mouth of the Scioto, in the Ohio river, 
a distance of 322 miles, has an average of 0-71 of a foot 
per mile. From_ the mouth of the Scioto to Cincinnati, 
a distance of 105 miles, the average is 0.30 of a foot per 
mile; and deducting the falls at Louisville (25.86 feet), 
from Cincinnati to the Balize, at the mouth of the Missis¬ 
sippi, a distance of 1562 miles, there is an average descent 



of 0.259 of a foot per mile. If the tide water at Albany 
be on a level with the tide water of the Gulf of Mexico-, the 
entire descent from the mouth of the Mahoning river, to the 
mouth of the Mississippi, is 692 feet, and from Cincinnati to 
the same point, 432 feet. 

The Ohio meanders in a south-west direction, and empties 
into the Mississippi 3° 26' south of Pittsburgh. The naviga¬ 
tion of this beautiful stream is generally suspended for six 
or eight weeks of each winter by the ice. Its only considerable 
falls are at Louisville. 


This county, of which Cincinnati is the seat of justice, lies 
in the south-west corner of the Miami country. It contains 
about 400 square miles, or 256,000 acres of land. It is di¬ 
vided into thirteen townships; and, in addition to Cincinnati, 
contains the villages of Columbia, Montgomery, Reading, 
New-Town, Sharon, Carthage, Springfield, Miami-Town, 
Cleves, and Harrison. Some parts of the county are hilly, 
and the soil second rate—others level, and very fertile. 
In 1820, its population was 31,764. If the existing popula¬ 
tion of that portion of the county, not included in Cincinnati, 
bears the same relation to the population of the city, that 
the marriages of the former, for the last year, do to those 
of the latter; or if the ratio of increase in the former has 
been but half that of the city, the present number of inha¬ 
bitants in the county of Hamilton may be safely estimated at 

The^ value of taxable property in this county, as assessed 
under the ad valorem system, in 1825, amounts to 6,848,433 
dollars; being something more than one-eighth of the entire 
valuation of the state, while the population of the county 
composes not more than one-eighteenth part of the number 
of inhabitants in Ohio. 







The valley on which the city of Cincinnati, and the vil¬ 
lages of Newport and Covington are built, is perhaps the 
most extensive and beautiful bordering on the Ohio river. 
The circumference of this plain is about 12 miles 3 and the 
hills, by which it is environed, intersect each other in such a 
manner as to form an imperfect square; through the north¬ 
east and south-west angles of which the Ohio river enters 
and passes out.* The northern half of the valley is bounded 
on the west by Mill creek; on the north by the river hills ; 
east by Deer creek; and south by the Ohio. The southern 
half is bisected by Licking river, which, uniting its waters 
with those of the Ohio at right angles, separates the villages 
of Newport and Covington, leaving the former on the east, 
and the latter on the west side of its channel. “ The area of 
that part of the-valley on which Cincinnati be 

estimated at four square miles. It is unequally elevated, 
and the upper and lower tables have received the names of 
hill and bottom. The latter, gradually widening, stretches 
westwardly from the mouth of Deer creek, where it is but 
200 feet broad, to the interval lands of Mill creek. Its me¬ 
dium breadth is about 800 feet. The hill rises about 50 
feet above the bottom. The ascent, which is at first steep, 
soon becomes gradual, and continues for the distance of nearly 
1000 feet, when the surface gently declines to the base of the 
neighbouring highlands.”+ 

The hills which surround this extensive valley, present to 
the eye of the beholder one continued ridge, irregularly ele¬ 
vated, and of diversified configurations. They exhibit, un¬ 
der no circumstances, an aspect of grandeur 3 but are always 
beautiful and picturesque. Their average elevation above 
the plain, is about three hundred feet: and, instead of the 
bold and rocky declivities, which characterize the freestone 
regions of the Ohio, they present gentle and varying slopes, 
which are mostly covered with native forest trees. The 

* Dr. Drake’s picture of Cincinnati. 

f Ibid, 



aspect of the valley from the surrounding hills is highly 
beautiful. It is various in its character, as it is seen at 
different seasons, and from different points.* In approaching 
Cincinnati by water, whether ascending or descending the 
river, the view is neither extensive nor commanding. 

Cincinnati is in latitude 39°, 6', 30" north, and in longi¬ 
tude /°, 24, 45 west from Washington city. Following 
the meanderings of the stream, it is distant from the union 
of the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers, 455 miles; and 
from the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi, 504 miles. 
Over land, it is distant from the capital of the state, 110; from 
Sandusky city, 200; from Indianopolis (the capital of In¬ 
diana), 120 ; from Frankfort (the capital of Kentucky), 85; 
from Natchez, 680; from Nashville, 270; from New Or¬ 
leans, 860; from St. Louis, 350; from Pittsburgh, 300; from 
Louisville, 105; from Baltimore, 518; from Philadelphia, 
617; and from New York, by the way of Lake Erie and the 
Erie canal, 850; from Washington city, 500. The upper 
plain of Cincinnati is 540 feet above tide water at Albany, 
and 2o feet below the level of Lake Erie. Low water-mark 
on the Ohio, at this city, is 432 feet above tide water at 
Aimnj, or Hi zeer oetow j^rit?.- 


Cincinnati stands upon section 18, and fractional sections 
17 and 12, in the fourth township, and first fractional range* 
The original patentee, John Cleves Symmes, sold a part of 
his interest in this ground, to Mathias Denman, who trans¬ 
ferred an undivided two-thirds of his interest to Robert 
Patterson and John Filson. Upon Filson’s death his part 
reverted to Denman, who subsequently sold it to Israel 
Ludlow. In January, 1789, this gentleman surveyed that 

* One of the views most worthy, perhaps, of attention, may be had at an 
early hour on one of the foggy mornings of August or September. A 
spectator, under such circumstances, placed upon one of these hills, will 
find himself elevated quite above the dense vapours of the river: he will 
behold the sun rising free from all obscurity, while the plain below him is 
lost in one unbroken sheet of fog, presenting the appearance of an unruffled 
lake. As soon, however, as the rays of the sun fall less obliquely upon this 
expanse of vapour, it becomes rarified, and, assuming the appearance of 
fleecy clouds, passes away to rarer regions, gradually disclosing the city, 
the river, the villages, the numerous steam-boats, and all the countless ob¬ 
jects of the valley. 



part lying between Broadway and Western-row. The pur¬ 
chasers of lots received their deeds directly from J. C. Symmes. 
In 1790, lots on the fractional section (No. 12) were laid out 
by the patentee; and on the 2d of March, 1808, the reserva¬ 
tion around Fort Washington, was sold in lots, under the 
direction of the secretary of the treasury. 


There are seven streets, 66 feet wide, 396 feet apart, and 
running from the river north, 16° west, between Broadway 
and Western-row. The cross streets, which are of the same 
width, intersect these at right angles, and lie the same dis¬ 
tance asunder, except Water and Front, and Second and 
Third streets. Each square was originally divided into eight 
lots, 99 by 198 feet, except those lying between the streets 
last enumerated. The streets in that part of the city east 
of Broadway, which intersect the river, run north, 44° west, 
are but 60 feet in width, and lie at the same distance from 
each other as those in the part of the town first laid out; but 
the cross streets -which run parallel to the river are something 
nearer each other. The donations by the proprietors are a frac¬ 
tion of a square designed for a public cor.VmOii, south or Front- 
street, and between Main and Broadway; and an entire 
square on the west side of Main, between Fourth and Fifth 
streets, one half of which was conveyed to the First Presby¬ 
terian Church, and the other to the county commissioners. 


Materials for building, in Cincinnati, are cheap, abundant, 
and of a good quality. The clay on that part of the valley 
bordering upon Mill creek makes excellent brick; the beds of 
Licking and the Ohio rivers, and the surrounding hills, fur¬ 
nish inexhaustible quantities of the common limestone: se¬ 
condary marble can be brought by water from the cliffs of 
the Kentucky river; and fine gray freestone from near the 
junction of the Big Sandy and Scioto rivers with the Ohio. 
The siliceous limestone pebbles which abound in the alluvial 
grounds produce fine white lime. Large quantities of pine 
boards, shingles, laths, and logs, are annually furnished by the 
Alleghany mountains, and boated down the Ohio. The neigh¬ 
bouring uplands afford oak, ash, poplar, walnut, and cherry 
trees, which are brought by land and water to the city, either 
in the form of squared logs, boards, joice, or scantling. 











r jj 


C fj 












Stone, . 

. . 0 





Brick, . 

. . 17 






. . 0 





Total, 17 






erected in 





• • 

• * 

• • 




In the above enumeration of the buildings of the city, 
kitchens, smoke-houses, and stables are excluded. 

r.nijRT. house. 

The Court House stands in the north-eastern part of the 
city. It is 56 by 60 feet, and measures to the top of the 
dome 120 feet. It has a spacious court, several jury rooms, 
and contains offices for the clerk, recorder, sheriff, county 
commissioners, and auditor. It presents neither in its internal 
economy, nor external architecture, a model of convenience 
or elegance. Its remoteness from the centre of the city is 
justly a cause of complaint. 


The Jail is in the vicinity of the Court House. It is a brick 
building, containing about fourteen rooms, and has attached 
to it a yard for the use of the prisoners, enclosed by a high 
brick wall. 


There are in this city three large Market Houses. The 
Lower Market House is situated in the bottom , and extends 
nearly from Sycamore to Broadway. It is 300 feet in length, 
and supported by three rows of brick pillars. Market days, 
Wednesdays and Saturdays. 



The Market House on Fifth-street, is between Main and 
Walnut. It is 200 feet in length, and has two rows of brick 
pillars. Market days, Tuesdays and Fridays. 

The Western Market House is on Sixth-street, between 
Plum and Western-row. It is about 150 feet in length, and 
has two rows of brick pillars. Market days, Mondays and 


The Banking House of the Branch Bank in this city, stands 
on the east side of Main, between Third and Fourth streets. 
The front is built of freestone , and is forty feet exclusive of the 
wings, which are of the same materials, and 10 feet each in 
width. The remainder of the building is of brick. It is two 
Istories in height, and ornamented with a handsome cornice. 
The front of the building presents one of the chastest spe¬ 
cimens of architecture within the city. 


The edifice for the Medical College of Ohio, is situated on 
Sixth-street, between Vine and Race. It is 54 by 36 feet, and 
two stories in height, besides the basement. When finished it 
will be divided into thirteen rooms, the two largest of which 
'are designed for the public lectures, and are calculated to hold 
j450 pupils each. The seats in these two are arranged in the 
form of a semi-decagon, and rise in such a manner as to afford 
a distinct view from the most distant parts of the rooms.— 
The anatomical lecture room is well lighted by windows in 
the sides, and by a large octagonal sky light. The other 
rooms will be appropriated for the use of the medical socie¬ 
ties, the general meetings of the class, the private anatomical 
pursuits of the professors and students, and the janitor. 
The building will be finished in the course of the ensuing 


The edifice of the Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asy¬ 
lum of Ohio, is a large brick building, three stories besides 
the basement in height; 53 feet in front by 43 in depth.—The 
wing is two stories in height, and is 28 by 44 feet. The 
building contains 13 rooms, and 34 lunatic cells. It stands 
upon a lot in the north-west part of the city, containing four 
acres, which belongs to the establishment. 




The edifice belonging to the Cincinnati College (formerly 
constituting the Cincinnati Lancaster Seminary) stands near 
the corner of Walnut and Fourth streets* in the rear of the 
First Presbyterian Church. It is a capacious two story brick 
edifice* consisting of two oblong wings* extending from Wal¬ 
nut* parallel to Fourth-street* 88 feet in depth* and con¬ 
nected by apartments for staircases* 18 by 30 feet. This 
intermediate portion supports a handsome dome* originally 
designed for an observatory. The upper story of each wing 
is divided into three rooms. The entire building is capable 
of receiving about 1000 pupils. 


This edifice* which is situated on the south side of Colum- 
bia-street* between Main rnd Sycamore* was commenced by 
a company of 30 or 40 persons in 1819: but being erected 
on ground leased at a high rate, the debts of the establishment, 
for several years* accumulated faster than the receipts; and 
in 1825* it passed* by a public sale* into the hands of tivo in¬ 

Since our citizens have recovered from their various em¬ 
barrassments the theatre lias been more liberally attended: 
—and the managers will doubtless soon be able to count 
upon sufficient patronage to justify them in frequently allur¬ 
ing to the ivest the most distinguished actors of the sea¬ 

The lot* which is covered by the edifice and eastern wing* 
is 50 by 100 feet in size* arid is bounded by an alley* over 
which a west wing is to be added* for a saloon. The central 
portion is about 40 by 100 feet* including a wing projecting 
10 feet in the rear, and an Ionic portico of 12 by 40 feet in 
front. The interior* which is tastefully finished* is equally 
divided betiveen the performers and the audience; having* 
for the accommodation of the latter* a pit* two tiers of boxes* 
and a spacious gallery* with commodious lobbies* punch room* 
&c. The vffiole* when improved and completed* according 
to the plan of the present owners* will be capable of contain-, 
ing about 800 persons. 


The city is supplied with ivater from the Ohio river. The 
water is raised by a steam-engine* of about forty horse power* 
into a reservoir on the adjacent hill* at an elevation of 158 


feet above low water-mark, and above 30 feet above the 
upper plain of the city. Two lines'of wooden pipes con¬ 
duct the water from this reservoir into the city, and from 
these, smaller pipes, amounting to about 40,000 feet, are laid 
along the principal streets, supplying at this time about 500 
families, besides many manufacturing establishments. A 
new and enlarged reservoir has just been commenced, capable 
of containing upwards of 300,000 gallons, and during the 
ensuing summer iron pipes,, of 8 and 10 inches in diameter, 
" ill be laid from the engine-house, which stands just above 
Deer-creek Bridge, to the reservoir, and from thence into the 
city. The distributing pipes will be extended as fast as they 
are needed. 

In 1817, the Town Council granted, by ordinance, to the 
Cincinnati Manufacturing Company,” the exclusive privi¬ 
lege of supplying the city with water, for the term of 99 
years, upon the condition of their paying annually to the 
corporation the sum of 100 dollars, and furnishing, in all 
cases of fire, the necessary supplies of water. To accom¬ 
plish this, they were bound to place a fire plug at each block 
along which the water should be introduced ; and to fill all 
such cisterns or reservoirs, free of expense, as might be con¬ 
structed in future by the corporation • the water from which 
to be used only in cases of fire. The Cincinnati Manufac¬ 
turing Company, in 1820, transferred to Samuel W. Davies 
tnis privilege—he refunding to the company its expenses 
incurred in the commencement of the work. On the first 
day of July, cf the same year, the water was introduced on 
the upper and lower plains of the city, as required by the 
ordinance. Subsequent to this, the proprietor made repeated, 
but fruitless efforts to engage the citizens in the under¬ 
taking ; and, with scarcely a hope of being enabled to com¬ 
plete the necessary works, he offered the whole establishment 
to the Council at a price stated to be below the actual 
cost. The proposition was submitted to the voters of the 
city, who decided against the purchase of a privilege, which 
ought never to have been granted away, and which sound 
policy required should be regained by the corporation at the 
earliest opportunity. As a last resort, the proprietor ob¬ 
tained, during the winter of 1825-6, an act, incorporating 
the <c Cincinnati Water Company.” Stock was immediately 
:aken by a few individuals of the city, to an extent sufficient 
:o make all the improvements and additions necessary for 



completing the establishment. It is to be regretted, that the 
corporation should have bartered away, for a small annuity, 
a privilege, which, if properly managed, would in time have 
almost exempted the city from taxation: and that such an 
exclusive grant should have been made, without any restric¬ 
tions, as to the charges thereafter to be imposed by the com¬ 
pany, for the use of the water, is perhaps not less surprising 
than that the citizens should have decided against the pur¬ 
chase of the works, when recently offered. 


There are in the city four fire engines, each having a 
company of 25 men, under the command of a captain: one 
Hose Company of 25 members, and having under their charge 
about 1800 feet of substantial hose: one Hook and Ladder 
Company of 30 men, properly equipped with hooks, ladders, 
and ropes: a Company for the preservation of the fire 
buckets, and a Protection Society composed of about 50 
members. There are a chief, and one assistant engineer; 
16 fire wardens, and about 150 firemen, who keep their 
engines in excellent order, and in cases of fire are prompt, 
active, and persevering. 

The City Council have recently erected, in different parts 
of the city, five substantial brick cisterns, each of sufficient 
capacity to contain upwards of 5,000 gallons of water.— 
These are kept constantly filled, and being connected with 
the pipes which conduct the water along the streets, may, in 
cases of fire, be replenished as fast as the water is drawn 
from them by the engines. These cisterns, affording, par¬ 
ticularly in the season when fires are most frequent, the chief 
and only certain supplies of water, should speedily be in¬ 
creased to treble their present number. 


Wood is the chief article of fuel; which is boated down 
the Ohio and Licking rivers, or brought in waggons from the 
adjacent country. Coal, from the mines above, is brought to 
the city in considerable quantities, but is not yet extensively 
used, except in the manufacturing establishments. 


Cincinnati has six market days in each week. On four 
of these, the market houses exhibit in great abundance, beef, 
veal, pork, and mutton of an excellent quality: fine turkeys, 



geese, chickens, ducks, and quails: pike, perch, eels, cat 
and sword fish; to which may be added the soft-shelled turtle. 
\ enison and bear meat are not unfrequently offered. The 
vegetable market is extensive and excellent, abounding in all 
the roots and herbs common to the middle states—embracing 
the different varieties of the potatoe, cabbage, peas, beans, 
carrots, parsnips, turnips, beets, radishes, celery, onions, 
cucumbers, pumpkins, egg plants, &c. &c. Among the 
domestic fruits, may be enumerated fine flavoured apples, 
peaches, pears, cherries, plums, quinces, raspberries, straw¬ 
berries, currants, gooseberries, black-berries, cranberries, crab 
apples, pawpaws, fall, winter, and fox grapes, mulberries, 
and the nuts of the hickory, walnut, hazel, and chesnut trees : 
melons of the various kinds, and finely flavoured, are both 
cheap and abundant. By our steam-boats, we are supplied 
with oranges, figs, pine-apples, and other fruits of the south : 
also raisins, almonds, prunes, dried currants, filberts. Sec. Sec. 
From November until April, oysters may be had, imported 
in kegs and canisters, hermetically closed. They are oc¬ 
casionally brought from New Orleans in the shell. Salted 
salmon, mackerel, shad, codfish, and herrings are common, 




'Phis society was established in this city in 1791, and in¬ 
corporated in 1807- The pastor is the Rev. Joshua L. 
Wilson. The church belonging to this society is situated on 
the west side of Main-street, between Fourth and Fifth. It 
is a brick building, 68 by 85 feet, and has two cupolas, one 
at each corner of the front. In the rear it has an octagonal 
projection for a vestry. The basements of the turrets contain 
the staircases. It has 112 pews, 5 aisles, a large gallery, 
and a bell. The plan of the building is not however in good 





The Second Presbyterian Society, was organized in 1817- 
The Rev. David Root is pastor, 'its place of worship is a 
frame building on the east side of Walnut, between Fifth and 
Sixth streets. 


This church is under the care of the Rev. Samuel Johnson, 
and was formed in the year 1817- Their place of worship 
is a convenient brick building, 40 by 55 feet, two stories in 
height, neatly finished, and situated on Sixth-street, between 
Walnut and Vine. 


The Methodist Society was established in 1804, and incor¬ 
porated in 1811. They occupy two churches; one a capa¬ 
cious stone building with brick wings, situated on 1 ifth-street, 
between Sycamore and Broadway. The other a brick building, 
two stories in height, standing at the corner of 1 ourth and 
Plum streets. 


The Enon Baptist Church was formed in 1820. The Rev. 
James Challen is pastor. Their place of worship is a brick 
building on Walnut, between Third and Fourth streets, 
capable of seating about 700 persons. The congregation con¬ 
sists of about 250 members. 


The New Jerusalem Church was organized in 1811. It is 
under the care of Rev. A. Hurdus. Its place of worship is 
on Centre, between Fifth and Sixth streets. 


This society was incorporated in 1817, and is under the 
care of the Rev. William Burke. Its place of worship is a 
frame building on Vine-street, between Fourth and Fifth. . 


The Society of Friends was formed in 1813. Their Meet¬ 
ing-house stands near the western part of the city, between 
Fourth and Fifth streets. 




This church was instituted in 1814, and is at present 
under the care of the Rev. L. H. Myer. Its place of worship 
is a neat brick building on Third, between Broadway and 
.Ludlow streets. J 


This church was constituted in December, 1813. Its place 
ot worship is on the corner of Vine and Sixth streets. 


This society holds its meetings in a frame building, erected 
tor the purpose, standing east of Broadway and north of Sixth- 


This society was organized in this city in 1818. In 1823 
the Rev. Doctor Fenwick was appointed Catholic Bishop of 
Cincinnati, and in the course of a few months afterwards a 
frame church was erected on Sycamore, above Sixth-street. 
In 1826 an additional building of brick was added. The 
stated number of the clergy is a bishop and four priests. It 
is in the contemplation of this society to establish, within a 
short period, a theological seminary, and a college for the 
education of youth. ^ Several intelligent ladies belonging to 
the religious order of the Poor Clares have recently arrived 
from Europe, and connected themselves with this congregation. 
1 heir object, in part, is to keep free schools for the instruction 
P^? r c ^^ ren * They have already opened one with a class 
of 60 pupils. Arrangements are making by the society to 
procure suitable buildings for the accommodation of these 
sisters, when they will be prepared to receive young ladies as 
boarders, and instruct them in all the higher branches of edu¬ 

. The cathedral belonging to this congregation is a neat spe- 
omen of Gothic architecture, the plan of which, with some 
slight alterations, was furnished by Mr. Michael Scott, of this 
city. The building is 110 feet in length ; 50 in breadth; 30 
from the base to the cornice: and has five handsome windows 
m each side, 15 feet in height. There are 88 pews on the 
first floor. . The gallery is large, and has the orchestra in the 
centre, which is shortly to receive a splendid organ. The 

c 2 


altar is arranged in good taste, and ornamented with a large 
and beautiful painting by Verschoot, representing the investi¬ 
ture of a religious . There are several other valuable paintings 
hung around the walls. The interior of the church is hand¬ 
somely finished, and presents a spacious and elegant room, 
capable of seating about 800 persons. 

The edifice for the Literary College is to correspond in its 
exterior with the cathedral, and be connected with it in the 
rear by the frame church originally occupied by the society : 
the whole will then form three sides of a square, and when 
properly ornamented with a steeple, will present a magnificent 


This society was established in this city in 3822. It has a 
number of members, and is increasing. A frame building, 
west of Main-street, and Iietween Third and Fourth, is at 
present used by the society as a synagogue. 


A society of Universalians is about to be organized in this 
city. It is in contemplation by the members to build a church 
in the course of the year 1827. 


This society was organized a short time since, and is under 
the care of the Rev. C. B. M’Kee. It has yet no place of 
public worship, but the society has it in contemplation to erect 
one during the ensuing summer. 


This society, whose object is the resuscitation of drowned 
persons, consists of about 300 members, and was formed in 
1819. It has procured a fine set of apparatus, consisting of 
three boats, with four sets of drags for each ; a moveable bed, 
with a stove for heating it, and a pair of bellows, witli different 
sized nozles. The apparatus is deposited in houses at suitable 
places on the river bank. The officers are a president, three 
vice-presidents, secretary, treasurer, and seven directors. 

The Miami Bible Society was formed in 1814, for the 
purpose of distributing Bibles among the poor. 

The Female Auxiliary Bible Society was formed iu 



The Female Association, for the benefit of Africans 
was instituted in 181 7 . J 

The Western Navigation Bible and Tract Society 
was formed in 1818. 

. f” E Union Sabbath School Society was established 
in 1817- 


A society, with the above title, has recently been formed 
in this city. It is intended to be auxiliary to the American 
Colonization Society; but its funds are to be appropriated 
to the expenses of forwarding to Africa the free blacks of 
Cincinnati, who may be found willing to be sent to that 
country. The number of members is already about one 


Cincinnati Royal Arch Chapter, No. 2, was insti¬ 
tuted in 1817 . William Greene, High Priest. 

The I'm. C. Harmony Lodge, No. 2 , was instituted in this 
city in 1791. Arva Wilson, W. Master. 

. The Miami Lodge, No. 46, was formed in 1818. Wil¬ 
liam Greene, W. Master. 

Lafayette Lodge, No. 81, was formed in 1825. William 
Rossell Foster, W. Master. Morgan Neville, Past Master. 

Lafayette, Honorary Member. General Lafayette, 
after whom this lodge is named, and whose anticipated 
reception in this city, was one cause of its being organized at 
the particular time it went into operation, was made an 
honorary member 011 the evening of the 11th of May, A. L. 
5825, and in person signed the bye-laws of the society on the 
19th of May, A. L. 5825. 


This public charity had its origin in the year 1821. In 
the preceding December, Governor Brown recommended to the 
legislature the establishment of a Commercial Hospital. At 
the same time. Dr. Drake, then labouring to lix permanently 
the foundations of our Medical School, suggested to the 
trustees, who superintended the paupers of the city, the 
advantage of uniting with the state, and establishing an In- 



firmary, for the common benefit of the poor confided to their 
care, and the diseased boatmen of Ohio, and other states of 
the west, who might at any time grant to her citizens, en¬ 
gaged in commerce, similar relief. The trustees adopted the 
su"festion, and its author was made the bearer of then; 
petition. To this, he added another from the faculty of 
the Medical College, and a third from himself, proposing the 
addition of a Lunatic Asylum. To the honour of the state, the 
project completely succeeded. 3 he General Assembly ap¬ 
propriated ten thousand dollars, in various kinds of depreci¬ 
ated bank paper; and gave, for the permanent support of the 
establishment, half the auction duties of the city. 3 he 
trustees supplied an eligible site, and an edifice was erected, 
which, for three years, has been uevoted to its proper and 
praiseworthy objects. 

A signal reduction of taxes for the support of the poor, has 
resulted to us, from the execution of this benevolent and 
comprehensive plan ; the paupers of the city, when ill, have 
been rendered more comfortable; many citizens of Ohio, 
when engaged in commerce, and strangers, without pecuniary 
means, have enjoyed the benefits of the charity; while the^ 
unhappy victims of insanity, for whom it is the duty of 
society to provide, have received suitable accommodations and 


The late Mr. John Kidd, of this city, bequeathed, at his 
decease, in the year 1818, one thousand dollars per annum, 
for ever, for the “education of poor children and youth of 
Cincinnati.” This fund arises from the rents of a piece of 
around situated at the south-west corner of Main and Front 
streets. By his will, the Rev. Joshua L. Wilson and the 
Rev. O. M. Spencer were made the trustees, with power 
to transfer the same to the trustees of any literary incorpo¬ 
ration. Such transfer was made in the year 1811) to the 
trustees of the Cincinnati College. The first receipts from 
this liberal bequest were in October, 1819; and between 
that period and October, 1825, the sum of 6000 dollars was 
received. During the first half of these five years, from 75 
to 100 children constantly received instruction upon the 
Lancasterian plan; and for the two and a half succeeding 
years, owing to the great reduction in the price of tuition, 37>> 
pupils weve°constantly enjoying the munificence of this charity. 



In 1825 an adverse claim to the fee-simple of the ground., 
thus bequeathed by Mr. Kidd, was asserted, and the lessee of 
the premises was enjoined from paying over the accruing 
rents to the trustees, until the final adjudication upon the 
title. When this will take place, and what may be its result, 
are uncertain. Should the decision be adverse to the title of 
the donor, it is much to be hoped that a charity, which pro¬ 
mises such lasting and substantial benefits, may be continued 
by the successful party, according to the wishes and directions 
of Mr. Kidd. 


Mr. William Woodward, of this city, with a liberality 
which entitles him to the gratitude of his fellow citizens, has 
recently conveyed in trust, for the support of a free grammar 
school, for the education of the poor children of the city, a 
valuable tract of land, containing six acres, lying a little north 
of the line of the canal, and between Broadway and Main- 
street. So soon as the canal is completed, it is the intention 
of the trustees to divide this tract into suitable building lots, 
and to lease them, subject to a revaluation every fifteen years. 
It is computed that the rents in 1828 will be sufficient to 
authorize the opening of a school with at least 60 pupils. T? 
deed of trust is made to Samuel Lewis and Osmond Cogsu cju, 
and provides for the annual election, by the voters of the 
city, of a third trustee. On the decease or resignation of 
the trustees named in the will, their successors are to be ap¬ 
pointed by the mayor and aldermen, and in case the City 
Court should be abolished, the same power is given perpe¬ 
tually to the judges of the Court of Common Pleas of Hamil¬ 
ton county. Mr. Woodward owns, in common with the 
county of Hamilton, another tract of land adjoining the one 
already described, worth about 9000 dollars. He proposes, 
in case the commissioners of the county will do so likewise, 
to make a similar conveyance of this tract for the education 
of the poor children of the‘whole county. This liberal and 
praiseworthy proposition should certainly be met by the com¬ 
missioners in a corresponding spirit. In that case permanent 
provision for extending the rudiments of an English edu¬ 
cation to the poor children of the city and county, will be 
secured for an unlimited period, to an extent calculated to 
confer the most substantial benefits upon that interesting 
class of our population. 



A charter, incorporating the trustees of this public charity 
by the name of “ The Woodward Free Grammar School of 
Cincinnati,” has just been passed by the legislature, as well 
as a law, authorizing the commissioners of the county to 
convey the tract above referred to, according to the proposi¬ 
tion of Mr. Woodward. 





Early in 1819 Dr. Daniel Drake made to the legislature 
a personal application for authority to establish a Medical 
School in Cincinnati. The bill submitted by him was enacted 
on the 19th of January, and has since been several times 

The institution opened in the autumn of 1820. when it had 
a class of 30 pupils. After two prosperous sessions, there 
succeeded an interregnum of two years, during wnich the 
founder of the institution was induced a second time to enter 
the school of Kentucky, then rapidly rising into a distinction 
which does honour to the western states. 

A new organization of the Ohio College was effected in 
1825, and the respectable number of the present class (82) 
confirms the judgment of its projector as to the superior na¬ 
tural and social advantages afforded by our city for such an 
institution. Among these are, the facility of reaching it by 
water from the most distant parts; the great cheapness of 
living, from its being an emporium of agricultural products; 
its latitude being more favourable to anatomical pursuits than 
southern climates; its numerous and mixed population fur¬ 
nishing ample means for demonstrations in anatomy and sur¬ 
gery; and, finally, its general hospital, contributing to the 
same important object, and affording to professors and pupils 
various opportunities for studying, practically, the nature of 
diseases. Of this establishment the professors of the col- 



lege are, ex officio, the gratuitous medical and surgical attend- 
ants, with the privilege of introducing and instructing their 

In the session of 1825-0 the General Assembly gave half 
the auction duties of the city, for four years, to the Medical 
College Corporation, out of which an appropriate edifice, suf¬ 
ficient for all the professors, has been erected. The residue 
of the fund, as it accrues, will be at the disposal of the trus¬ 
tees for the benefit of the institution. 

The present professors are Doctors John Moorhead, Jede- 
diah Cobb, Josiah Whitman, and the Rev. Elijah Slack. 


This institution was chartered in the winter of 1818-10, 
by an act of the General Assembly of Ohio. A faculty was 
shortly afterwards organized, and the Rev. Elijah Slack 
elected president. The government of the college is vested 
in a Board of Trustees, chosen annually from among the 

The only endowment which the institution possesses arises 
from private munificence. A large portion of the property 
derived in this way, having been appropriated to the payment 
of debts, and the remainder being unproductive, the trustees 
have deemed it expedient to suspend the college exercises for 
the present, and to appropriate the accruing rents to the dis¬ 
charge of the remaining debts. They have accordingly leased 
the rooms in the college edifice, and from the proceeds are 
enabled, not only to pay the interest on the debts, but also to 
discharge annually several hundred dollars of the principal. 
The trustees expect at no distant time to organize another 
faculty, and again to open the college under more favour¬ 
able auspices than attended its original commencement. I n 
the meantime all the rooms of the edifice are occupied by 
schools, except the one permanently appropriated for the 
Lancasterian department, the exercises of which, although 
recently suspended, will soon be re-opened, under the super¬ 
intendence of a competent teacher. 

Of the success of the Cincinnati College there can be little 
doubt, whenever the Board of Trustees shall be enabled to 
procure a gentleman of talents, and extensive literary repu¬ 
tation, to preside over the institution. Until that period shall 
arrive it is gratifying that our citizens, who have sons to 
educate, can avail themselves of the advantages of the Miami 



University, which is located in the vicinity of our city, and is* 
now rising into respectability. 


This institution, of which John Locke, M. D. is the prin¬ 
cipal, is located in a new and commodious brick-house on 
Walnut-street, between Third and Fourth. In addition to 
the principal, there are teachers of the French language, of 
music, of penmanship, of needlework, and an assistant in the 
preparatory department. There is also a Board of Visitors, 
consisting of twelve gentlemen, appointed for the purpose of 
examining the pupils, and superintending the interests of the 
academy. The price of tuition, exclusive of music and the 
French language, is from four to ten dollars a quarter. In 
August of each year there is a public examination, at which 
medals, and the honorary degrees of the academy, are awarded. 
The vacation following the annual examination comprises 
four weeks. The academy possesses a competent apparatus 
for illustrations in chemistry, natural philosophy, astronomy, 
and for teaching the simple elements of the different branches 
to the younger pupils. 

The plan of the institution embraces an extended circle of 
female education. The principal has adopted the demon - 
sirative method of teaching, by which a knowledge of things 
instead of words alone is imparted. The exercises, in relation 
to things of quantity , are such that the eye measures, the hand 
delineates, the reason compares, and the tongue describes at 
the same moment. As the pupils advance, they learn to 
operate mentally, without diagrams, and finally to calculate 
in the usual way in arithmetic and geometry, but with a 
more perfect understanding of their principles. This method 
of instruction is on the plan of Pesfalozzi, and judging from 
personal observations made in Doctor Locke's academy, is 
admirably calculated to advance children in their elementary 
studies. The idea entertained by some persons that the 
system of Pestalozzi tends to infidelity, would seem to be un¬ 
founded ; abstractedly, it appears to have no immediate con¬ 
nexion with the doctrines of the Bible. 

About four years are required to pass through the pre¬ 
scribed course of studies in order to obtain the honorary degree 
of the academy. 

It is a fact not less remarkable than it is illustrative of the 
health of Cincinnati, that of the several hundred pupils who 



have beeii members of this academy, since its establishment, 
not one has died, and but few, during the period of their 
membership, have been seriously afflicted with disease. 


The boarding-school, under the superintendence of the 
Misses Bailey, is kept on Broadway, between Market and 
Columbia streets, and is the oldest one in the city. These 
ladies, who are well qualified, both by their attainments and 
high respectability, for the duties which they have under¬ 
taken, are now assisted in their school by Mr. F. Eckstein, 
who has devoted many years to the instruction of youth, and 
whose testimonials of merit have already been laid before the 
public. All the elementary, as well as higher branches of 
female education, including the French language, music, 
painting, and drawing, are taught in this institution. Young 
ladies, who may wish to board in the family of the super¬ 
intendents, can be furnished with suitable accommodations. 


This institution, for the instruction of young ladies exclu¬ 
sively, is now in operation, under the superintendence of 
Messrs. Albert and John W. Picket, late of New York, who 
have long been advantageously known as instructors, and the 
authors of some elementary works, denominated the “Ameri¬ 
can School Class Books.”" In their mode of teaching they 
follow the analytic or inductive system. Their course o i 
study embraces the ordinary branches taught in female aca¬ 
demies, including the Latin, Greek, and French languages, 
music, drawing, &c. They occupy a suite of rooms in the 
south wing of the Cincinnati College edifice. 

The location of these gentlemen in Cincinnati has been con¬ 
sidered by many of our citizens as a matter of public interest. 
That they will receive the patronage due to their laudable 
efforts in the line of their profession there can be no doubt. 

The Rev. C. B. M'Kee's classical academy is kept on 
Third-street, near the post-office. The Rev. Mr. Slack s 
school, which has a valuable apparatus, and in which lectures 
on various subjects are delivered, is taught in the north wing 
of the college edifice. There are in all about fifty schools 
within the city ; and in addition to those already enumerated, 
may be particularly mentioned those under the care of Mr. 
Cathcart, Mr. Williams, Mr. Kinmont, Mr. Talbert, Mr. 
Winright, Mr. Chute, Mr. Wing, and Mr. Morecraft. 




This valuable establishment, owned by Mr. E. P. Langdou, 
is situated on Third-street, in the rear of the post-oflice. It 
is furnished with many of the most valuable newspapers arid 
literary journals of the United States; among which may be 
enumerated the North American Review, the Museum, the 
United States Literary Gazette, the Port Folio, and also the 
Edinburgh Review. 

It is creditable to the public spirit of the proprietor, that 
lie admits strangers, who remain but a short time in the city, 
to all the privileges of the establishment free of expense. 
This liberality entitles Mr. Langdon to a generous support 
from our citizens. Ilis establishment is deserving of much 
more patronage than it has yet received. Were the pro¬ 
prietor properly encouraged, he would be enabled to engraft 
upon it, at no distant day, a respectable Athenaeum—an in¬ 
stitution which, at this time, forms so great a desideratum in 
our city. 


This interesting establishment, one of the greatest orna¬ 
ments of our city, reflects credit on all who have contri¬ 
buted to its origin and advancement. Its projector was the 
late Mr. William Steele, justly distinguished for his liberal 
and patriotic views. In the summer of 1818 he proposed 
to Dr. Drake to unite with him and two other gentlemen in 
the establishment of a public museum. Dr. Drake pre¬ 
ferred a more extended association, and a meeting was ac¬ 
cordingly held, where a constitution was adopted. The 
museum was first opened for general exhibition on the 10th 
of June, 1820, when a public discourse, on the objects and 
advantages of the establishment, was delivered by one of 
the founders. For several years it was under the manage¬ 
ment of a board of directors, during which its principal cura¬ 
tor was Dr. Robert Best, who lias left in the museum 
numerous evidences of his taste and talents. In 1823 the 
society placed it in the keeping of Mr. Joseph Dorfeuille, 
the present proprietor, reserving only to the members their 
original privilege of visiting it with their families. The 
exertions of Mr. Dorfeuille, to render it worthy of the society 
by which it was founded, and of the encouraging patronage 
which it has received, have been zealous, directed by good 
taste, and successful. 


A multitude of persons have contributed to the collection., 
by sale, donation, and deposite. 

1* Dr. Drake turned over to the society his cabinet of 
minerals, organic remains, fossil bones, and western anti¬ 

2. The managers caused new explorations to be made at 
Big Bone Lick, in Kentucky, so famous for the remains of the 
mammoth and arctic elephant, and obtained many specimens 
of both kinds. 

3. Mr. James Griffiths, Mr. John J. Audubon, and espe¬ 
cially Dr. Best, successively employed as artists and curators 
of the museum, made an interesting collection of the quad¬ 
rupeds, birds, reptiles, and fishes of the west, most of which 
are in a state of excellent preservation. 

4. Our Consul General, Condy Raguet, Esq., at Rio de 
Janeiro, together with a number of his public sjiirited coun¬ 
trymen, while in that country, collected and forwarded to 
the managers of the Western Museum, several hundred beau¬ 
tiful specimens in natural history. 

5. Mr. Dorfeuille united with the previous collection of the 
society, his own extensive cabinet of Egyptian antiquities, 
foreign and domestic birds, and western amphibia. 

0. The same gentleman has lately purchased the inter¬ 
esting collections of the late lamented Mr. John- D. Clifford, 
of Lexington, consisting of many hundred choice specimens of 
American antiquities, extraneous fossils, and minerals. 

Derived from these different sources, the museum now 
contains, 100 mammoth and arctic elephant bones; 50 bones 
of the megalonix: 33 quadrupeds; 500 birds; 200 fishes; 
5000 invertebral animals; 1000 fossils; 3500 minerals;* 
325 botanical specimens; 3125 medals, coins, and tokens; 
150 specimens of Egyptian antiquities; 215 American anti¬ 
quities ; 112 coloured microscopic designs; cosmoramic, 

optic, and prismorama views of American scenery and build¬ 
ings; the tattooed head of a New Zealand chief; together 
with about 500 specimens of* miscellaneous curiosities. The 
museum also contains several specimens of the fine arts. 
Among them, a fine transparency, representing the Battle of 
New Orleans, executed by a lady of this city. It has also 

* These are arranged according to Cleaveland's System. Each speci¬ 
men is labelled, and supplied wit!) its appropriate description, cut from the 
pages of that distinguished Mineralogist. 



an elegant organ; the whole neatly and scientifically ar¬ 
ranged^ in an extensive suite of rooms,, on the corner of Main 
and Second streets. 

One of the original objects of the society, was to establish 
courses of lectures, illustrative of the various articles in the 
museum. Such lectures have already been delivered by 
several gentlemen, and the practice is every way worthy of 
being continued. 


This establishment, owned by Mr. Ralph Letton, is kept 
in two spacious halls in the second and third stories of the 
brick building, at the corner of Main and Fourth streets. 
It was commenced in this city by Messrs. Letton and Willet, 
in the year 1818. The upper hall is principally occupied 
by wax figures. The museum contains about 200 birds, 40 
animals, 2000 minerals, 50 mammoth bones, 23 wax figures, 
besides a variety of Indian antiquities, marine shells, and 
miscellaneous articles. The number of yearly subscribers is 
about 300. A course of lectures on Ancient and Modern 
History, lias recently been delivered in this institution. 


In 1812 a law was passed by the legislature, incorporating 
the ee Circulating Library Society of Cincinnati,” and m 1814 
the institution was opened. The capital of the company 
was raised by subscription. The shares are 10 dollars 
each, subject to an annual tax of 1 dollar, 50 cents; and trans¬ 
ferable by assignment. The library contains at this time 
about 1300 well selected volumes, in the various departments 
of science and literature. It is kept in one of the lower 
rooms of the college edifice, where access may be had to it 
every Saturday afternoon. Its affairs are managed by seven 
directors, annually elected by the shareholders, one of whom 
is designated as president. Strangers, and other non-share- 
holders, can have the use of the books, either by the single 
volume, or by a monthly, quarterly, or annual subscription. 
Valuable books (not already on the shelves) are at all times 
received by the directors in payment for shares. 

The Cincinnati Library having thus far sustained itself, 
through a series of embarrassments, which have been com¬ 
mon to all, and fatal to many of our public institutions; and 
a period having arrived, when the number and ability of 



our citizens to support it can no longer be doubtful, it is con¬ 
fidently hoped, that the urgent appeals of its guardians to 
those who have the interests of literature, and the honour of 
the city at heart, will no longer prove unavailing. 


This important institution was founded iii 1821, by the 
liberality of the citizens of Cincinnati. It contains about 
1200 volumes. All young persons engaged in the mecha¬ 
nical, or any other laborious employments, are entitled to the 
use of the books, upon the single condition of a guarantee for 
their safe return to the librarian. The contributors an¬ 
nually elect live directors for the management of the affairs 
of this praiseworthy institution. 


There are nine newspapers published in this city. The 
Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Gazette, the National Repub¬ 
lican and Ohio Political Register, the Cincinnati Advertiser, 
the National Crisis and Cincinnati Emporium, are each pub¬ 
lished semi-weekly: The Parthenon, the Western Tiller, 
and the Saturday Evening Chronicle, weekly: The Cincin¬ 
nati Commercial Register, daily: There is also one in the 
German language, entitled the Ohio Chronicle, published 

The Ohio Medical Repository, edited by Guy W . Wright, 
31. D., is published semi-monthly. It is shortly to be en¬ 
larged, and will then make its appearance in monthly 

The Rev. Timothy Flint, a gentleman of literary taste 
and attainments, is about to establish a monthly journal in 
this city, to be called the ff Western Magazine and Review/* 
to be devoted to the cause of literature and science. The 
value of such a work to the city must be sufficiently obvious; 
and it is gratifying to us to be enabled to state, that a re¬ 
spectable number of subscribers has been obtained. 


Mr. F. Eckstein, an intelligent and highly ingenious artist 
of this city, is about to commence the formation of an 
Academy of the Fine Arts, on a plan well calculated to 
ensure success. His skill in sculpture and taking plaster casts , 
his taste in painting, and his enterprising industry, will, even 



with a moderate amount of patronage, ensure the perma¬ 
nence and respectability of the institution. Mr. Eckstein has 
already a number of busts, and other specimens of art, 
which will be arranged as the nucleus of his establishment, 
so soon as suitable apartments can be procured. A part of 
the plan embraces the delivery of lectures in the institution, 
illustrative of the departments of the arts which properly 
belong to an academy of this kind. For the honour of the 
city, it is hoped that an institution so well calculated to im¬ 
part solid advantage, blended with intellectual pleasure, will 
be liberally supported by the citizens. 




There are three courts, besides those of the mayor and 
justices of the peace, held in Cincinnati; these are the Su¬ 
preme Court, the Court of Common Pleas, and the City 

1. The Supreme Court of Ohio is held annually . It has, 
bv law, exclusive jurisdiction in all cases of divorce and 
alimony; original jurisdiction (concurrent with that of the 
Common Pleas) in all civil cases, both at law and equity, in 
which the cause of action exceeds one thousand dollars; and 
appellate jurisdiction from the decisions of the Common 
Pleas, in all cases in which that court has original jurisdic¬ 
tion. It can also issue all writs necessary to enforce its juris¬ 
diction, or the due administration of justice. In criminal 
cases, this court has jurisdiction of capital offences. 

2. The Court of Common Pleas holds its session three 
times in the course of the year. This court has original 
jurisdiction in all civil cases, both at law and equity, where 
the matter in dispute is beyond the jurisdiction of a justice, 
and appellate jurisdiction from the decisions of justices in 
their respective counties. This court has also cognizance of 



all crimes, offences, and misdemeanors, the punishment of 
which is not capital.* It has sole jurisdiction of all matters of 
a probate and testamentary nature. It appoints guardians, 
and issues all writs, except those of error and mandamus. 
It is, likewise, vested with a species of executive power. It 
appoints its clerk, public prosecutor, commissioner of insol¬ 
vents, commissioner in Chancery, county surveyor, county 
inspectors. It licenses ministers to solemnize marriages; also, 
auctioneers, ferries, and taverns. The associate judges ap¬ 
point the recorder, and also a county commissioner in case of 
death, removal, or resignation. 

3. City Court. —This court is, by the law of January 
1827, held on the first Mondays of March, June, September, 
and December in each year. It is a court of record, and 
composed of the mayor and aldermen, any three of whom 
constitute a quorum. It is vested with original jurisdiction 
(concurrent with that of the Common Pleas) of all crimes, 
misdemeanors, and offences, committed within the limits of 
the city, the punishment of which is not capital, nor confine¬ 
ment in the penitentiary of the state; concurrent jurisdiction 
with the Common Pleas, in all civil cases, where the parties 
are residents of the city; and appellate jurisdiction from the 
judgments of the mayor in all cases arising under the ordi¬ 
nances of the city. It appoints its clerk and city pro¬ 

4. Mayor’s Court.— The mayor, in his judicial capacity, 
has exclusive cognizance of all causes for the violation of 
city ordinances, and the same civil and criminal jurisdiction 
and powers that are vested in a justice of the peace. 

5. Justices of the Peace.— Of these there are three 
within the city. They are conservators of the peace, and 
can examine bail, or commit all persons charged with a 
breach of the laws. Their jurisdiction in criminal cases 
extends throughout the county ; in civil cases it is limited to 
the township , and does not exceed one hundred dollars in 
amount, except in voluntary confessions of judgment, in which 
it extends to two hundred dollars, and is cc-extensive with 
the county. 

* No crime is, by the laws of Ohio, punished capitally, except that of 
murder in the first degree. In that case the prisoner can elect to be tried 
by the .Court of Common Pleas. 




1. The Supreme and County Courts are held in the Court¬ 
house at the intersection of Main and Court streets. 

2. The office of the clerk of the Supreme and County 
Courts, is on the first floor of the Court-house. 

3. The Sheriff’s office is in the same building, and on the 
same floor. 

4. The Recorder’s office is in the second story. 

5. The County Auditor and Commissioners have their 
office in a room opposite to the recorder’s. 

6. The City Court-room, and Mayor’s office, are in a brick 
building on the north side of Third-street, between Main and 


Cincinnati was first incorporated in the year 1802; since 
which time its charter has been repeatedly modified, and is 
now entirely superseded by a new one, which is to take 
effect from the 1st of March next. This instrument vests the 
municipal power of the city in a City Council, which is to 
consist of three trustees, annually chosen, by the qualified 
voters, from each ward of the city. The qualified voters 
are those who have the qualifications of an elector for 
members of the General Assembly, and have resided one year 
in the city. The qualifications for a trustee are three years’ 
residence in the city, one year in the ward from which he 
is elected, and the possession of a freehold. The Council have 
power to hold property—to levy taxes (not exceeding two 
mills on the grand levy) ; to borrow money (not exceeding 
five thousand dollars per annum, without the consent of the 
people) to erect a city prison; establish a Board of Health, 
with proper officers and regulations; and to enact all ordi¬ 
nances necessary to the safety, morals, and good government 
of the city ; for these and other jmrposes it can create inferior 
offices, open streets, establish markets, grant licenses, and im¬ 
pose penalties. 

Council for 1826. 

Lewis Howell, Pres . W. Stephenson, E. Hulse, 

S. Hazen, S. Newell, H. Gassaway, 

J. M'Intyre, O. Lovell, S. Burrows, 

W. Noble, C. Tatem, J. Whetstone. 



Mayor. Isaac G. Burnet. 

This officer is, hereafter, to be chosen biennially by the 
people, and, besides his judicial duties, is the general super¬ 
intending and executive magistrate of the city. 


The duty of an alderman is that of an associate judge of 
the City Court. They are to be biennially elected by the 


The marshal is the ministerial officer of the city, and City 
Court: he is invested with all the powers of a sheriff and 
constable within the limits of the corporation, but can serve 
process throughout the county. This officer, and the trea¬ 
surer of the city, are elective biennially. The recorder is 
appointed by the Council, has charge of the laws and ordi¬ 
nances, and presides in the absence of the president of the 
council. The clerk of the Council is appointed by them, and 
keeps a journal of their proceedings. Besides these/ the 
council have power to appoint assessors, collectors, sur¬ 
veyors, street commissioners, health officers, clerks and 
constables of the markets, supervisors of highways, mea T 
surers of wood and coal, wharf masters, and such other 
officers as may be found necessary to the general convenience 
and good government of the city. 

Besides the sheriff and marshal, with their deputies, 
there are three constables, who are the ministerial officers 
of the Justices’ Courts: these have, hitherto, been found 
sufficient to preserve peace and good order in a city whose 
population, though heterogeneous in character and pur¬ 
suits, is yet remarkable for its good morals and regular 


Heretofore there have been no other police officers in 
Cincinnati than the regular* ministers of law; but the coun¬ 
cil, in compliance with the wishes of a respectable portion of 
the community, have recently established a City Watch, con¬ 
sisting of two captains and eighteen men, at an expense of 
about 3000 dollars per annum. A watch, in a city of the mag¬ 
nitude of Cincinnati, is obviously of great importance; but it 
may be seriously doubted, whether the erection of a few 
lamps should not have preceded its establishment; for, in pro¬ 
portion to the increase of light, the facilities for the couimis- 



sion of crimes are lessened, and, of consequence, the means 
of detection rendered more numerous. A couple of lamps 
at each intersection of the streets, in those parts of the city 
thickly populated, would add greatly to the comfort of the 
citizens, and the safety of their property. This measure 
seems, indeed, to be essentially important, at a time when 
the constant erection of new buildings necessarily fills the 
streets with lumber, and other obstructions, which at nwht 
often prove highly dangerous. 


It is the duty of the health officers to examine the streets 
alleys, and buildings of the city, and remove all nuisances 
and objects injurious to health. This duty is generally 
well performed. It may be remarked, however, that there 
is not tnat attention paid to the cleanliness of those streets 
which are paved that comfort and health would require. In 
Upper and Lower Market streets the filth collected on market 
mornings is suffered to remain for one, and sometimes for two 
days, before it is removed. The practice, too, of suffering 
the upper parts of the Quay to he occupied as a stand for 
horses and waggons, is objectionable. Whenever this public- 
work, so useful, as well as ornamental, to the city, shall cease 
to be used as a waggon-yard, and shall have been adorned 
with one or two rows of shade trees, running parallel to 
1' ront-street, it will become a promenade not less pleasant 
than beautiful. 


The general health of Cincinnati is good. For a city in 
the latitude of 39°, situate on the banks of a large river, it i$ 
remarkably good. We testify to this fact, after much observ¬ 
ation^ and inquiry. r Ihe desolating epidemics which have 
occasionally invaded most of the towns of the Mississippi 
and Ohio, from New Orleans to Marietta, have never, from 
t e concurrent testimony of our senior physicians, and oldest 
inhabitants, visited this place. Every summer and autumn, 
however, Cincinnati, in common with all the towns of the 
middle and southern states, is, to a certain extent, affected 
with cholera and bilious fever. The former, especially, at¬ 
tacks children, and not unfrequently proves fatal. Its remn 
is co-existent with the period of intense heat. Its fatal 
e ects, we have observed, may be in a great degree obviated 
by a temporary retreat to the country. Bilious fevers occur 



chiefly in early autumn; but are by no means a scourge to 
the city, and do not, as far as we have seen, affect emigrants 
more than native or acclimated citizens. Of chronic diseases, 
indigestion or dyspepsia, merits a special designation. Con¬ 
sumption undoubtedly prevails to a much less degree than in 
the north and north-east, but it is not an uncommon disease 
among us. 

The topographical circumstances of Cincinnati are by no 
means unfavourable to public health. The river beach for 
three miles is rocky and narrow. The plain on which the 
city is built is elevated and sandy, and at a distance from the 
river is not depressed into basins, giving rise to ponds and 
marshes, as is frequently the case in other places. The 
mouth of Mill creek, nearly two miles to the north-west of 
the centre of the city, presents the only drowned lands in its 
vicinity. These, in general, are inundated but once or twice 
in the course of the year; no ponds are left behind, and the 
direction in which they lie causes the exhalation to be, in a 
great degree, wafted past the city on the north. 

The city plat is not without its nuisances, notwithstanding 
the possession by the corporation of ample powers. These 
nuisances are created chiefly by the opening of new streets 
from the upper to the lower plain, which dam up the waters 
and filth, which otherwise would flow off. r l his period of 
transition is, however, obviously a short one; and when the 
intervening squares are filled up and built upon, Cincinnati 
may challenge any other town on the western waters to a 
comparison of public causes of disease. 


The County Jail is at present the only place used for the 
confinement of prisoners within the city. It is the common 
Receptacle of offenders of all descriptions, whether confined 
upon mesne or final process. This arrangement is incon¬ 
venient in practice, and dangerous to morals. There is a 
gradation in crime which ought to be imitated in its punish¬ 
ment : it is also contagious, and those who have not acquired 
inveterate habits should not be exposed to its influence. In 
all large places a Bridewell or House of Correction should 
be provided to punish those whose offences are of inferior 
magnitude, and reform those who are young. The council 
have now the power to erect such a prison; and it is hoped 
that it will soon be exercised, both for the general conve- 



nience of the city, and the improvement of the morals of the 
unfortunate victims of crime and folly. 

The following statement exhibits the number and character 
of the convictions, within the county of Hamilton, during 
1826: * ° 

Murder in the first degree 1 



Assault, with intent to com¬ 
mit murder . 1 

Assault, with intent to com¬ 
mit mayham .... 2 

Stabbing, -with intent to kill 1 


Uttering counterfeit money 3 
Horse stealing .... 3 
Grand larceny .... 4 
Petit larceny.4 

Total, 23 

Of these offences, all are punishable by imprisonment in 
the Penitentiary, except murder, which is capital, and petit 
larceny, which is confinement in the County Jail. 


Since, the commencement of the Ohio canals, a new mode 
of taxation has been adopted, in order to equalize the burdens 
of government, and facilitate the progress of improvements. 
Every species of property,* not exempted by policy, has been 
valued by assessors, and that valuation, corrected by a Board 
of Equalization, was placed on what is called the Grand Levy. 
On this amount a certain per centage is annually levied for 
each of the various objects of the revenue. The entire 
valuation of the city of Cincinnati, under this system, was— 
3,157,392 dollars. On this sum, there was levied in 1826. 
9^ mills, or 29,995 dollars, 22 cents. Of the whole direct 
tax less than one-third was appropriated to the use of the 
corporation. Ihe residue was applied to four different ob¬ 
jects, in the following proportion : 

1. State tax, 2 mills 

2. County, 3 mills . 

3. Township, 1 mill 

4. School, i mill 


6314 78 4 
9472 17 6 
3157 39 2 
1578 69 6 

In all, 6^ mills 

20,523 04 8 

* Besides these, there is a road tax, or commutation in money, assessed 
upon all persons between 15 and 60, who have been three months resi¬ 
dents in the state. 



The state tax is assessed by the legislature, and amounts 
to little more than one-fifth of the whole; a great portion of 
which is applied to the ordinary purposes of government, and 
not, as may be supposed, to the use of the canals. 

The county tax is assessed by the commissioners, and placed 
at their disposal. 

The township tax is levied by the trustees, and by them 
applied to the support of the poor. 

The school tax is levied for the support of common 

The revenue of the corporation is derived, 

1. From a direct tax assessed on the Grand Levy. 2. 
From licences to taverns, porter-houses, coffee-houses, 
plays, exhibitions, &c. &c. 3. Wharfage. 4. Rent of 

Market-stalls, 5. Tax on animals. 6. Fines and other 
miscellaneous items. The amount obtained from each of 
these sources will be very nearly exhibited in the following 
statement : 


Direct tax, 3 mills on the Grand Levy . 9472 17 6 

Licences to taverns, coffee-houses, and por¬ 
ter-houses ...... 4445 00 0 

Wharfage (about) ..... 2200 00 0 

Rent of market-stalls .... 1400 00 0 

Tax on animals ..... 975 05 9 

Licences for plays, exhibitions, &c. (about) 500 00 0 
Fines and miscellaneous items (about) . 300 00 0 

19,792 23 5 

Balance in the treasury at the close of last 

year ...... . 948 58 0 

Borrowed of the O. Insurance Company . 3000 00 0 

Total revenue of the city in 1826 . . 23,742 81 5 

From this statement it appears that not one half of the 
direct revenue of the city is derived from taxation; the re¬ 
mainder is drawn from rents of property, the public quay, 
and from sources which both good morals and sound policy 

The principal items of expenditure are, 1. Public improve¬ 
ments. 2. Expenses of the City Court and Government. 3. 
Salaries of various officers. 4. Fire department. 5. Health 



department. The exact amount of each of the above classes 
of expenditure cannot be ascertained till the close of the 
financial year in March next. The largest portion of the 
city funds has, however, been appropriated to the construction 
of quays and wharfs, the paving of streets, and the construe- 
tion of other works of public utility. During the past year 
theie have been 4800 feet of street paved, at an expense to 
the city of 5800 dollars. Besides this, a considerable quan¬ 
tity of work has been done in grading, paving gutters, and 
setting curb-stones. In the lire department 1000 dollars 
have been wisely expended in the construction of five public 

In the health department, 1200 dollars were expended 
for vaccinating, at the public expense, 2300 persons, in con¬ 
sequence of an alarm occasioned by the appearance of a few 
cases of the small pox in the city, and its prevalence on the 
river below. 

The expense of the City Court and Government, together 
with the salaries of its officers, will not vary from 450?) dol¬ 
lars per annum. Ihe watch will subject the city to the 
expenditure of about 3000 dollars per annum. 

The whole debt of the city at this time is about 13,000 
dollars, of which 6000 dollars is in corporation scrip; of the 
ability of the city to pay this sum, even without further 
taxation, within a short period, there can be no doubt. Fur¬ 
ther sums must doubtless be borrowed hereafter for the pur¬ 
pose of improving the city, and increasing its convenience. 
To an increase of the public debt, or any further expenditure, 
some persons may perhaps object; but what can be accom¬ 
plished without it ? If the beauty, comfort, and health of 
the city be objects worthy of public concern, they should be 
secured at a time when they are least expensive, and least 
difficult of attainment. It is a part of the experience of all 
municipal bodies, that what is expended in works of public 
convenience and utility reads, with powerful influence, upon 
the value of property, and the prosperity of the present at 
well as future generations. 






























fOver 21, 
\under 21, 











3857 J 


fOver 18, 







(.Under 18, 





3605 J 











3142 16,230* 

The average number of persons to a building is six and a 
half. The actual density of habitation is much greater,, from 
the fact, that a large portion of the buildings are occupied as 
stores, warehouses, &c. &c. 

There are within the city, at this time, about 28 clergy¬ 
men, 34 attorneys and counsellors at law, and 35 physicians. 
It is estimated that 800 persons are employed in trade and 
mercantile pursuits, 500 in navigation, and about 3000 in 


The following table is submitted, that the progressive 
increase of Cincinnati may be fairly exhibited, and the 
means furnished for comparing its advancement and pros- 

* r f^ le number of inhabitants, as here stated, may appear to those who 
have not attentively marked the progress of Cincinnati as too great. The 
authors, with a view to accuracy on this important topic, made the enu¬ 
meration in person. They feel confident, therefore, that the actual number 
in this city exceeds that given in the above table. 





pects with those of the most flourishing towns in the United 

^The first settlement of Cincinnati was in 1788. The 
population did not increase, however, with any rapidity until 
1805, when it had scarcely attained the importance or a large 
village. A considerable number of emigrants then came out 
from*Baltimore, and other eastern places ; and from that time 
to the present its growth and consequent prosperity have been 
remarkable, even in this astonishing age and country. 

In 1810 the population was 2320 

In 1813 . 4000 

In 1819.10,283 

In 1824 12 > 01G 

In 1826 . 16,230 

From this it appears that the ratio of increase, from 
to 1813, was 560 per annum, or 24 per cent .; irova Mid to 
1819, 1043 per annum, or 26 per cent. ; from 1819 to 
346 per annum, or 3^ per cent.; from 1824 to 1826, 210; 
per annum, or 17 per cent. The ratio of increase decreases 
every where, as it respects population, with the actual in¬ 
crease; hence, though a new village may double in a sing e 
year, a large city, in its highest state of prosperity, scarcely 
attains an addition of 5 per cent. The operation of this 
principle being considered, the growth of this place, during 
the last two years, has been greater than that of any former 

* The relative population of several towns nearest in size to 
Cincinnati may be seen from the following table: 


In 1800, 7614 

1810, 10,071 
1820, 11,767 

1825, 16,000 


In 1791, ‘ 6021 
1810, 9356 

1820, 12,650 

1825, 15,500 


In 1820, 4012 

1826, 7200 


In 1800, 5537 

1810, 9755 

1820, 12,046 

Pittsburgh and Liberties. 
In 1810, 4768 

1820, 7243 

1826, 11,226 

New Orleans. 
In 1802, 10,000 
1810, 17,242 

1820, 27,176 



From the foregoing table it appears that the population of 
no town in the United States, of the rank with Cincinnati, 
has, for the last sixteen years, increased in a corresponding 
ratio with this city. ® 


Ihe artisans and manufacturers of Cincinnati, who may be 
said to constitute the bone and sinew of the community, and 
upon whom the permanent prosperity of our city so mate¬ 
rially depends, considered as a body, may be characterized as 
frugal, ingenious, and enterprising. 

Ihe number of our manufacturing establishments has 
greatly increased within the last two years, and the amount 
of productive industry for 1826, as will appear from the fol¬ 
lowing statements, although not so great as could be wished, 
is by no means inconsiderable. The general prosperity of 
these establishments is beginning to attract the attention of 
capitalists, and is likely to augment their number. Indeed 
the mechanics and manufacturers of Cincinnati are decidedly 
the most prosperous class of citizens; and were the enterprise 
and capital of some of our merchants embarked in similar 
pursuits, they would profit by the exchange. In this depart¬ 
ment there is no danger, as in commercial pursuits, of run¬ 
ning into excess. The region of country, which extended and 
successful manufacturing establishments will make tributary 
to our city, like the amount of manufactured goods required 
by its wants, is almost unbounded. Our steam-boats may 
already be found upon all the navigable streams of the Mis¬ 
sissippi valley; and our steam-engines, castings, cabinet 
furniture, chairs, hats, &c. &c. are sent to Kentucky, Ala¬ 
bama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Illinois, and Indiana, where 
they are sought after and admired, not less for their beauty, 
than their more substantial qualities. The inducements and 


peculiar facilities for our becoming a manufacturing people 
in this city will be more fully discussed in a subsequent 
chapter of this book. 

The following items, in regard to the manufactures of 
Cincinnati for 1826, have been collected with no small degree 
of labour, and with an earnest desire of having them as con¬ 
formable to correctness as the nature of the case will permit. 
The following brief notices of some of the more prominent 
manufacturing establishments will, it is hoped, not be deemed 

The Cincinnati Steam Mill, stands on Front between 
Ludlow-street and Broadway. It is a substantial stone 
building, based upon the limestone rocks of the river, 62 by 
87 feet, eight stories high, on the end next to the river, and 
measuring 110 feet from the base to the top of the roof. It 
has 24 doors and 90 windows. It required in its construction 
6620 perches of stone; 90,000 bricks; 14,000 bushels of 
lime ; and 81,200 cubic feet of timber. With the exception 
of the walls, this immense building was entirely consumed 
by fire in 1823. It has since been rebuilt, and is now in 
operation. It contains a manufactory of flour, a distillery, 
fulling-mill, &c. The machinery is driven by a steam-engine 
of 70 horse power. The establishment is capable of manu¬ 
facturing 20,000 barrels of flour, 500 barrels of whiskey, and 
of fulling 1000 pieces of cloth annually. 

Steam Mill for Sawing Stone.— This establishment 
has just been made in the western part of the city, between 
Front and Colombia streets, and is owned by Mr. Alvin 
Washburn. The main building is 32 by 50 feet, three stories 
high, with one wing 20 by 40 feet, and is built of wood. It 
has a steam-engine of 18 horse power. The first story is 
occupied with the machinery for sawing freestone . From 
the experiments already made, the proprietor feels confident 
of being enabled to saw 120,000 feet of stone per annum, and 
upon such terms as to make a signal reduction in the price of 
that important and beautiful material for building. 

The second story contains machinery, driven by the same 
power, ingeniously contrived for the manufacture of tubs, 
buckets, and kegs, out of solid logs. About 30,000 of these 
will be produced annually. 

In the third story the manufacture of shoe-trees is carried 
on; the machinery for which is also propelled by the same 



power. About 50 lasts per day can be made, requiring the 
labour of but four hands. 

The Phoenix Foundry, owned and carried on by C. 
latem and Sons, is situated west of Walnut-street, between 
Third and Fourth. It gives employment to 18 hands; and 
about 175 tons of pig iron are annually manufactured into 
various kinds of machinery, such as steam-engines, mill 
castings, &c. &c. The establishment consumes annually 
about 7000 bushels of stone coal. 

The Franklin Foundry is situated at the corner of 
Fifth-street and Broadway. It employs 10 hands, and 
manufactures annually, into the various kinds of castings, 
about 100 tons of pig iron. It is owned by the Messrs. 

The Eagle Foundry, owned by Josiah Hawkins, is 
situated on the south side of Fourth-street, between Main 
and Walnut. It employs 14 hands, and uses 150 tons of pig 
iron per annum, besides about five tons of bar iron, a con¬ 
siderable portion of which is manufactured into ploughs. 
The establishment consumes annually about 4000 bushels of 
stone coal. 

Tift’s Steam-engine and Finishing Establish¬ 
ment, employs between 30 and 40 hands. The business is 
carried on in a new frame building of large dimensions, 
situated on Columbia-street, east of Broadway. The upper 
apartments of the building are intended for the reception of 
an extensive cotton spinning establishment, which Mr. Tift, 
with his characteristic enterprise, is now forming. 

R. C. Green’s Steam-engine Establishment, which 
is similar to that of Mr. Tift’s, is situated on Front-street, 
just below Deer-creek Bridge. 

Goodloe and Harkness’ Copper Foundry, Cotton 
Spinning, and Steam-engine Factory, stands at the 
corner of Broadway and Congress-street. It employs about 
50 hands. The cotton spinning department contains about 
336 spindles, which produce about GOOlbs. of cotton yarn per 
week, or 31,000 lbs. per annum. 

The Etna Foundry, owned by Street and White, is 
situated on Front-street, below Deer-creek Bridge. It em¬ 
ploys about 12 hands, and manufactures 220 tons of castings 
per annum. 

Kirk’s Steam-engine and Finishing Establishment 



is situated on Columbia-street, east of Broadway. It employs 
about 15 hands. 

Shields’Engine Finishing Establishment is situated 
in a stone building on Sycamore, between Front and Colum¬ 
bia streets. It employs about 30 hands. 

Allan and Co.’s Chemical Laboratory, which has re¬ 
cently been commenced, is situated just above Deer-creek 
Bridge. It embraces the manufacture of alum, blue vitriol, 
copperas, nitric and sulphuric acid, and other chemical pre¬ 
parations. It 'will make from one to two tons of alum per 
week. The alum-earth is obtained from the hills of the Ohio 
river, near the mouth of the Sciota, where there are vast beds 
of it. 

Powder Mill. —An extensive and well-planned esta¬ 
blishment for the manufacture of powder has been made 
within the present year, by some gentlemen of this city, im¬ 
mediately below the mouth of Mill creek. The machinery 
is driven by a steam-engine, so arranged as to prevent any 
danger from fire. This is the only establishment of the kind 
within the state, and from the facilities of obtaining at this 
place the raw materials used in the manufacture of powder, 
it will no doubt be found a profitable business. 

The Pihenix Paper Mill. —During the past summer a 
fine establishment for the manufacture of paper was erected, 
under the superintendence of the Messrs. Grahams, on the 
river bank, in the western part of the city. When about to 
go into operation, in the month of December, it was entirely 
consumed by fire. The owners of it are now erecting upon 
its ruins another, to be called the Phoenix Paper Mill, which 
is 132 by 36 feet, exclusive of the wings. Its machinery 
will be worked by a substantial steam-engine, and probably 
go into operation by the first of June. 

The Cincinnati Steam Paper Mill, owned by Messrs. 
Phillips and Spear, is on the bank of the river, in the 
western part of the city. The building is 140 by 34 feet. 
The machinery is driven by a steam-engine. The establish¬ 
ment employs about 40 hands, and produces annually a large 
quantity of excellent paper. 

The Woollen Factory, erected several years since, by 
the Cincinnati Manufacturing Company, stands on the river 
bank, above the mouth of Deer creek. The main building 
is 150 feet long, and between 20 and 37 feet wide. It is cal¬ 
culated for the manufacture of woollen goods, white and red 



lead, linseed oil, &c. The operations of this establishment 
are, for the present, suspended. 

The Sugar Refinery, is a large brick building erected 
for the purpose, situated north of Third, and between Lud<- 
low-street and Broadway. When in full operation, it is ca¬ 
pable of refining about 180,000 pounds per annum. There 
has been but a small amount of sugar refined in it during the 
present year. 

The White Lead Factory, owned by T. Clayland and 
Co. and the only one in the city, is situated at the east end of 
Fifth-street. It employs three hands, and will hereafter 
manufacture about 1500 kegs of white lead per annum. 
The principal supply, however, of this article is drawn from 
Pittsburgh—a fact worth the attention of capitalists. The 
metal from which this article is produced, is carried past 
our city, and against the current of the stream, 460 miles to 
Pittsburgh; and over land 84 miles to Lexington : at these 
places it is converted into white lead, and returned to Cin¬ 
cinnati. In either case, the necessary expenses of trans¬ 
portation, would be a handsome profit for the manufacturer 
in this city. 

The Messrs. Wells* Type Foundry and Printers* 
Warehouse, is situated on Walnut-street, between Third 
and Fourth, where they manufacture, in a superior manner, 
all kinds of type, presses, chases, composing-sticks, proof 
gallies, brass-rule, &c. &c., at the eastern prices. They em¬ 
ploy about 23 hands. This valuable establishment has entirely 
superseded the importation of type and other printing ma¬ 
terials from the eastern states. 

There are in the city three permanent Boat Yards for 
the construction of steam-boats, besides one or two others 
in which they are occasionally built. The regular establish¬ 
ments are owned by Gordon, Parsons, and the Messrs. Weeks. 
During 1826 there were about 200 hands employed in this 
business. The reputation of these yards is superior to that of 
any on the western waters.. 

The manufacture of Hats in this city is carried on to 
a very considerable extent, many of which are exported. 
Our hatters not only select the best furs that are offered in 
the west, but also make importations from the eastern states. 
Some of the most substantial and elegantly finished hats that 
we have ever seen, were from the Messrs. J. Coombs’ and A. 
W. Patterson’s establishments in this city. 



The Cabinet Furniture and Chairs manufactured in 
Cincinnati, are of the most beautiful kind, and will compare 
with those produced in any part of the Union. Considerable 
quantities of these articles are exported to the states west and 
south of Cincinnati. 

There are nine Printing Establishments in this city, 
which print about 7200 newspapers per week, or 175,000 per 
annum. There have been printed at these offices within the 
year 1826:— 


















Spelling Books, 


Bible News, 

American Preceptors, 

American Readers, 

Introduction to the English Reader, 
Hammond’s Ohio Reports, 

Symmes’ Theory, 

Kirkham’s Grammar, 

Vine-Dressers’ Guide, 


Table Arithmetics, 

Murray's Grammar, 

Family Physician, 

Testaments, Hymn, and Music Books. 

There is no umbrella factory in this city. Of the success 
of an establishment of this kind there can be no doubt. 

The value of manufactured articles, or, in other words, the 
productiveindustryof the artizans and mechanicsof Cincinnati, 
for the year 1826, will appear from the following table:— 

Five Steam Engine and Finishing Establishments, 

employing 120 hands; value of manufac- Dollars, 
tured articles ..... 134,000 

Four Iron Foundries, 54 hands . . . 59,400 

Eleven Soap and Candle Factories, 48 hands; 

(451,000 pounds of soap, and 332,000 pounds 
of candles) ...... 51,500 

Ten Tanneries and Currying Shops, 66 hands . 76,500 

Thirteen Cabinet Furniture Shops, 104 hands, . 67,950 

Four Rope Walks, 31 hands .... 23,000 



Two Breweries, 18 hands ..... 20,900 

Seven Hatters’ Shops, 95 hands .... 123,200 

Twenty-nine Boot and Shoe Shops, 257 hands . 88,550 

Two Wall Paper Factories, 9 hands . . . 8400 

Ten Saddlers and Trunk Makers, 06 hands . 41,900 

Three Tobacco and Snuff Factories, 28 hands . 21,200 
One Brass and Bell Foundry, 4 hands . . 3500 

Nine Tin and Coppersmiths’ Shops, 39 hands . 48,800 

One Oil Mill, 7 hands.11,700 

Two Wooicarding and Fulling Mills, 11 hands . 6500 

Six Chair Factories, 38 hands . . . . 21,973 

Three Turners in Wood, 9 hands . . . 2925 

Eleven Coopers’ Shops, 48 hands . . . 29,700 

One Type Foundry, 23 hands .... 20,000 

One Clock Factory, 18 hands .... 20,000 

Three Plough Factories, 11 hands . . . 10,475 

Eight Carriage and Waggon Factories, 37 hands . 26,280 

Two Potteries, 8 hands ..... 4500 

Two Woollen and Cotton Factories, 6 hands . 4100 

Two Boot and Shoe Tree Factories, 5 hands . 1100 

Two Plane, Stock, Bit, and Screw Factories, 7 hands 11,145 
Two Comb Factories, 6 hands . . . . 1600 

One Looking-glass and Picture Frame Factory, 7 

hands . . . . . . • • 2000 

One Sieve Factory, 3 hands .... 3400 

One Chemical Laboratory ..... 2400 

Six Book Binderies, 14 hands .... 11,97! 

Seven Silversmiths’ Shops, 17 hands . . • 8600 

Ten Bakeries, 28 hands ..... 29,400 

One Paper Mill, 40 hands . . . . • 22,000 

Twenty-one Smiths’ Shops, 92 hands . • • 48,000 

Five hundred Carpenters. 165,000 

Thirty Painters ...... 13,900 

Thirty-five Tailors’ and Clothiers’ Shops, employ¬ 
ing 132 men, 467 women • • • 172,815 

Fourteen Brick Yards, 210 hands (10,000,000 of 

Bricks) 25,000 

One Cotton Spinning and Brass Foundry, 21 

hands . . 22,000 

One Mattrass Factory, 3 hands .... 1600 

One White Lead Factory, 3 hands . • • 36/2 

Four Stone Cutting Factories, 18 hands . - 11,100 

d 5 



Three Steam-boat Yards, 200 hands . . . 105,000 

Nine Printing Establishments, 58 hands . , 52,000 

One hundred and ten Bricklayers, Stonemasons, 

and Plasterers ..... 37,650 

One Distillery, 2 hands.4,300 


From the following establishments and artisans no 
returns have been received; 1 Sugar Re¬ 
finery; 3 Copper-plate Engravers; 3 Por¬ 
trait and 1 Miniature Painters; 1 Cotton 
and Wool Card Factory; 1 Steam Saw¬ 
mill; 4 Carpet and Stocking Weavers; 2 
Steam Flour Mills; 1 Powder Factory; 2 
Crockery and Stone-ware Factories; 1 
Carver in Wood; 40 Milliners’ Shops; 2 
Brush Makers; 1 Wheat Fan Factory : 1 
Pump and Block Maker; 1 Saddle-tree 
Maker; 4 Chemical Laboratories; 1 Sash 
Maker ; 2 Blacksmiths; 2 Piano Factories; 

1 Organ Builder; 5 Shoe-makers; 2 Tai¬ 
lors; 1 Distillery; 2 Upholsterers; 1 Cutler : 

9 Confectionaries; 2 Gun-smiths; 3 Lime¬ 
kilns ; 2 Bakeries. 

From the best data which can be obtained, the value 
of the articles produced in these factories and 
shops is not less than .... 100,000 

In addition to the above may be added Pugh and 
Teater’s Glass Works, at Moscow; Duval’s 
Paper-mills, at Mill Grove; and 3 Cotton 
Spinning Factories, all of which are owned 
by citizens of Cincinnati, and the manufac¬ 
tured articles from which are sold in this city. 

The value of the products from these esta¬ 
blishments may be safely estimated at . 68,000 






For the following article we are indebted to the politeness of a gentleman, 
whose general intelligence and accurate knowledge in regard to manu¬ 
factures, entitle his opinions to the confidence of the community. 

The first thing that strikes an observer in Cincinnati, after 
having become acquainted with its relative locality, is the 
comparatively little attention which has been paid to the 
erection of manufactures. Commanding the trade of a dis¬ 
trict of country, which extends at least one hundred miles 
in every direction, and much farther in some, it would seem to 
be destined to occupy a prominent stand amongst the manu¬ 
facturing cities of the Union: and yet, for years past, this 
fact has been as little noticed as if “ the queen of the west” 
had been located in a desert, and held no intercourse with the 
rest of mankind. It is not very difficult, however, to account 
for this singular state of things, and those who lived here 
before the halcyon days that immediately succeeded the late 
war with England, are probably the best able to explain it. 
If their wealth and enterprise had not been alike destroyed, 
by the dreadful revolution in the affairs of the west, that 
was produced by the too great anxiety on the part of the 
Bank of the United States to encourage large loans, there 
was a class of men in Cincinnati, who would long since have 
given a different turn to the business of this country. Their 
experience and acquaintance with the capacity and wants of 
the west, gave them full power to appreciate the importance 
of manufacturing institutions, and they had made important 
preparations to embark in this interesting operation, when 
the storm burst that involved them in one general ruin, and 
made room for a new race of men, equally enterprising, 
equally valuable, but who were not sufficiently acquainted 
with facts, to induce them to enter upon an untried theatre of 
operations. The new population was composed of men of 
commercial habits, and, flattered by the immediate prospects 
of realizing immense profits in their business, which required 



no preparation, and involved no loss of time, they devoted 
themselves at once to mercantile pursuits. Their success 
has answered their most sanguine expectations; but this 
success was based on a state of things that could not last: it 
was, in short, owing to that kind of monopoly which the un¬ 
dertakers of every new business must necessarily enjoy. 
Merchandise, in consequence of the general destruction of 
the old men of business in Cincinnati, afforded a complete 
monopoly to those who entered on business here, during the 
last seven or eight years. But success created competition, 
and competition has been attended with the usual result. 
Exclusive profits are no longer to be derived from this spe¬ 
cies of business, and even the steam-boat speculations, which 
may fairly be viewed as the concomitant of the mercantile 
monopoly, no longer present the brilliant perspective which 
they did two or three years ago. Competition has been 
equally busy here, with similar results. This latter business, 
however, has been attended with much more advantage to 
this district of country, than the other; it has employed a 
great amount of foreign capital in this city, corrected much 
of the exhaustion produced by the mercantile mania , and 
given employment to a vast quantity of labour, the only legi¬ 
timate use to which wealth can be applied. 

The error, however, which has been committed in the 
employment of capital, has been felt; there is, at particular 
seasons, a general complaint among the business men, that 
business is dull. Now, it is impossible that this can be true, 
or that it is not increasing every day. The facts presented 
in this book, afford abundant proof of the unexampled in¬ 
crease of the business facilities of this section of country. 
The solution is to be found in the great multiplication of 
commercial houses, and the consequent division of the trade 
of the place. A remedy is to be sought, and luckily, it is 
simple and plain; it will be found in the establishment of 
that kind of manufactures in which this district is so pecu¬ 
liarly calculated to succeed; and for which, as yet, no other 
portion of the west has established an exclusive reputation. 
Iron and glass may, with propriety, be left to Pittsburgh; in 
those articles that city must ever remain unrivalled. But in 
cotton and woollens, if these are to succeed in America, Cin¬ 
cinnati must, at no very distant day, stand pre-eminent, and 
lucky will it be for those whose capital is first embarked 
in them. 



The report of the secretary of the treasury, Mr. Rush; 
contains the interesting fact, that one-fourth of the cotton 
.raised in the United States, is manufactured at home! The 
greatest portion of this has been done in the eastern states. 
We have no data before us for the last year, but for 1824 we 
have; the whole amount exported during that year was 
142,369,663 pounds; it cannot .then be very wide of the 
mark, to place the amount manufactured by the United 
States at upwards of 45,000,000 of pounds. This is more 
than the whole amount exported during any one year previous 
to the period of 1810, and is nearly equal to one-half exported 
to Great Britain and Ireland for the year 1824. Now, to 
engage so very extensively in business, proves at once that it 
must be a most prosperous one. Our astute and judicious 
countrymen to the east of the Hudson, were the first to dis¬ 
cover the importance of this fabric, and for several years they 
have been reaping a rich harvest of monopoly. At one time, 
about the year 1818, it was calculated that the west alone 
owed them upwards of 500,000 dollars for domestic cottons, 
besides the amount which had been paid for! "What cause 
has existed, or does still exist, for suffering this monopoly of 
a most lucrative business ? It is time that our citizens should 
awake to the importance of this subject. Cincinnati is 
situated just far enough above the line of demarcation, 
between the cotton and grain growing regions, to ensure a 
healthy location ; the raw material is brought to her wharfs 
much cheaper than to any other manufacturing portion of the 
United States; she has the largest and most fertile district 
in America, immediately dependent on her for supplies—a 
district, too, increasing in population more rapidly than 
any other part of the Union ; the Ohio river is ever ready to 
carry to the east, to the south, and to the wide spreading 
population of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri, the manu¬ 
factured article, at a regular and encouraging profit. The 
canals will shortly afford additional facilities for spreading the 
article through the state of Ohio; and Kentucky will never 
buy from the east, when her own produce will command what 
they want in the west. 

The only objection that has with any plausibility been 
urged against the erection of cotton or woollen manufactures 
in this vicinity, is the want of water power, or if steam be 
resorted to, the high price of fuel, compared with the Pitts¬ 
burgh prices. To this, it can fairly be answered, that certain 



calculations are made upon the canal which is to go through 
this place, affording, in a few months, ample water power for 
the purposes of manufacturing. But allowing this to fail, 
and steam to be resorted to, even in this event, the ad¬ 
vantages are greatly in favour of the west. Fuel, at treble 
the Pittsburgh prices, would still be more economical than 
any water power to the east, taking into consideration the 
first cost, repairs, &c.; now, when the coal trade is made a 
regular and certain business, as it is fast becoming, it will 
be afforded at little more than double the Pittsburgh rates. 
This item, then, giving to it its utmost influence, would 
amount to little more than one of those contingent differences, 
which a thousand trifling circumstances produce between the 
operations of different countries, and are much more than 
counterbalanced by the other facilities connected with such 
establishments in this district of our country. 

The imports to this city, for its own consumption, and 
that of the towns dependent on it for supplies, may be fairly 
estimated at 2,500,000 dollars. It is difficult to arrive at the 
exact amount of exports that go to pay for this large item of 
import; but we cannot place the amount of produce taken 
from this port alone, at quite 1,200,000 dollars. Now, to 
place the exportations of a manufacturing district in fair 
relief, let us contrast this statement with one derived from a 
neighbouring city, devoted to manufactures. We have no 
guide by which to form an estimate of the imports into the 
city of Pittsburgh, but they cannot amount to near a million. 
The amount of manufactured articles produced in that place, 
during the year 1825, is estimated at 2,600,000 dollars, 
leaving a balance at least beyond 1,000,000 dollars in favour 
of the industry of that flourishing town. What is the result! 
There is no complaint about the dull times—money is plenty, 
and the cheerful sound of industry is heard from every quarter. 

One or two hundred thousand dollars, vested in the manu¬ 
facture of wool and cotton, would produce a wonderful 
change, not only in the prosperity of Cincinnati, but in the 
speculations of our citizens. By this means, two or three 
hundred thousand dollars would annually be brought back to, 
(or what is the same thing,) retained in, this country, in 
addition to what is already made by the ordinary employment 
of the population. The operations of the country would 
become certain and fixed; a consumption would be created 
for the products of the soil, and agriculture, thus encouraged, 



would rise into respectability. Such a state of things is 
“devoutly to be wished for;” and from the spirit which is 
fast gaining strength among us, it is but fair to assert, that 
before another year passes by, the spindle and the loom will 
be important items in the business of Cincinnati. 



The commerce of Cincinnati is coextensive with steam-boat 
navigation on the western waters, and its trade with the 
interior is expanded and ramified over an extended tract of 
country on both sides of the Ohio. It is the immediate place 
of shipment for the produce of nearly the whole Miami 
country, and a small district of Indiana. It is also the point 
of importation and distribution for most of the goods which 
supply that part of Ohio west of the Muskingum, nearly the 
whole of Indiana, large portions of Kentucky and Missouri, 
and even still more distant regions. Goods are frequently 
sent from this place to Zanesville, Urbanna, Indianopolis, 
Kaskaskia, St. Genevieve, and Florence, besides numerous 
places which are less remote. This mercantile intercourse 
has been greatly increased within a few years, and Cincinnati 
promises to become the depot of supply to nearly all the 
west. To meet the demand for importation from an immense 
interior, and to command the profits of the carrying trade, 
nearly all of its disposable capital has, heretofore, been in¬ 
vested in commercial pursuits. Large mercantile firms have 
been established, which have 'transacted business on an ex¬ 
tended scale: two of these import directly from Europe. 
To facilitate such importations, an effort is now making in 
Congress to render Cincinnati a port of entry. At the 
distance of nearly seventeen hundred miles from the coast, 
to speak of the arrangements of a sea-port, seems idle 
speculation; but if ever the ocean is successfully navigated 
by steam-boats, this measure may be both necessary and 



The navigation of the Ohio was, until 8 or 10 years since, 
carried on almost entirely in barges, keel, and flat boats. 
The two former are now almost superseded by steam-boats, 
the smaller class of which have lately been so constructed, as 
to continue running at the driest seasons of the year. 


The first steam-boat, launched upon the waters of the * 
west, was built at Pittsburgh, in 1811. The first one built 
at Cincinnati, was the Vesta, launched in 1816. It was not, 
however, till 1817 , that steam-boat building was actively 
and extensively pursued in the west. Since that time, they 
have come into general use, and have employed much of the 
labour, skill, and capital of the chief towns above the mouth 
of the Ohio. In this business, Cincinnati has been conspicu¬ 
ously engaged, and in number of boats, has exceeded any 
other place in the west: indeed, it is doubtful whether any 
one place in the world has built more. The history of 
western boat building shows that, like every other species of 
business, it has undergone great and sudden fluctuations. 
Within the last two years, a very large number have been 
built here and elsewhere, and it is rational to conclude, 
that, in succeeding years, money and enterprise will, for a 
time, be diverted into new channels. It must, nevertheless, 
always afford profit and employment. The extended and 
remote connexions of the immense water courses which 
traverse the valley of the Mississippi, and the increasing 
quantities of goods and produce borne upon their bosoms, will 
render steam navigation for ever an object of industry and a 
source of wealth, yince its introduction here, it has wrought 
a change in the appearance and nature of commercial trans¬ 
actions, which the most active fancy could, a few years since, 
have scarcely conceived ; and this change is progressing with 
every addition to population and capital. 

The steam-boats built at Cincinnati afford, it may be confi¬ 
dently asserted, as fine models as those of any other place. 
In the wood f work, a superiority is generally confessed, by 
those who are conversant with the business 3 and in regard to 
the engines, no superiority is either claimed or admitted in 
favour of other places, except that which may arise from a 
greater contiguity to the coal and iron of the upper country. 
This, however, regards cheapness alone, and is an advantage 
more than counterbalanced by the superior quality and 



kind of our timber, necessary in their construction. The 
black locust-, which is here so abundant and excellent., is not 
found in the neighbourhood of Pittsburgh, and cannot be taken 
there, except at an enormous expense. The durability of the 
boats built upon the Ohio, lias, in some instances, even sur¬ 
passed that of boats constructed in the east, from the Jersey 
oak, which is there in high repute for ship building. In speed, 
the'western boats generally excel those of the eastern states 3 
and those built at Cincinnati, are unsurpassed, in that parti¬ 
cular, by any boats upon the waters of the Mississippi. If, 
in the decoration of our boats, there is less brass, marble , and 
tinsel work, than in those of the Atlantic states, it still cannot 
be conceded, that our finish is not equally conformable to good 
taste and elegance ;* while, in regard to their construction 
and substantial conveniencies, the palm of superiority, from 
the concurrent testimony of our own observations, and those 
of many intelligent gentlemen, must, in general, be awarded 
to the boats built upon the Ohio. Taking the cost of those 
boats which were built in the east, and" sent round upon the 
western waters, as examples, the fact is conclusively estab¬ 
lished, that steam-boats can be built at less expense upon the 
Ohio than in any of the eastern cities. 

The whole number of steam-boats, which have navigated 
the western waters, since their first introduction, is 233. A 
very small number of these were built at New York and 
Philadelphia;—the rest were launched upon the waters of 
the Ohio. 

The following table will show the number built in each suc- 

eessive year, 

from the construction of the first:— 

In 1811 . 

... 1 

In 1820 . . . 

. 10 

1814 . 

... 1 

1821 . . . 

. 5 

1816 . 

... 2 

1822 . . . 

. 13 

1816 . 

... 3 

1823 . . . 

. 15 

1817 • 

... 7 

1824 . . . 

. 16 

1818 . 

. . . 25 

1825 . . . 

• 27 

1819 . 

... 34 

1826 . . . 

. 56 

Of the whole number of steam-boats built in the west, 90 
have been lost or destroyed in the following manner, viz:— 
28 struck on snags ; 6 were burnt; 1 stove by the ice; 1 sunk 

* The figure heads, and other sculptured ornaments, with which our 
steam-boats are decorated, and which are so justly admired, are made by 
Messrs. Sims and Shepherd, of this city. 



by another boat; and the remainder worn out. There are 
now 143 steam-boats, carrying about 24,000 tons, running 
upon the western waters: of these, 48 were built at Cincinnati; 
35 at Pittsburgh; 10 at New Albany; 7 at Marietta; 5 at 
Louisville; 4 at New York, and the residue at various points 
on the Ohio, the engines for which have nearly all been fur¬ 
nished by Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. 

The folloiving is a list of all the steam-boats which have 
been built at Cincinnati, with their tonnage, engine, and age, 
as nearly as could be ascertained by the most accurate inquiries. 







Comet . 







Gen. Pike 


Hecla . 




Peseverance . 


Vulcan . 





Gen. Greene . 



Osage . 











Miami . 


Andrew Jackson 



Belle Creole . 


Magnet . 


Rob Roy 







Highland Laddie 




Mexico . 















Gen. Marion . 


Dewitt Clinton 


Geo. Washington 


Helen M‘Gregor 




Patriot . 


Pioneer . 



Worn out 1821. 

Struck a snag in 1823. 
Struck a snag. 

Struck a snag and lost, 1826'. 
Destroyed in 1823. 

Worn out in 1823. 

Worn out in 1825. 

Burnt in the Ohio in 1820. 
Worn out in 1824. 

Struck a snag in 1823. 
Struck a snag in 1823. 
Struck a snag in 1824. 



High. Struck a snag in 1826. 





























. 1825 



Rotary . 




! 1826 






Gen. Carrol . 


Hercules, tow-boat 



Planter . 



Philadelphia . 






Robert Burns 



Red River Packet ; 














Low. J 

Albion . 


Gen. Hamilton 


Ben. Franklin 



Florida . 



Grampus, tow-boat 

* 1827 



Beaver . 


Mongrel. 1 

Brandywine . 



Just finished. 

Now finishing. 

Total. 60 boats, 11,225 Tons.* 

The amount of capital belonging to the citizens of Cincin¬ 
nati, now invested in steam-boats, is about five hundred 
thousand dollars. 

We shall leave this subject by simply subjoining the follow¬ 
ing list of steam-boats, with the amount of their tonnage,, 
which arrived at , and departed from , the port of Cincinnati* 
between the 5th and 12th of February, 1827 : 

George Washington . 

. 360 

Columbus . 

. 350 

Liberator . 

. 300 


. 350 


♦ 258 

Caledonia . 

. 350 


. 325 


. 250 

Lady Washington 

. 150 

Atalanta . 

. 150 


. 125 

Belle Creole 

. 120 

Gen. Pike . 

. 120 

Franklin . 

. 165 


. 80 

Tell .... 

. 100 


. 75 


. 109 

Crusader . 

. 170 


. 150 

Josephine . 

. 60 

Total Number, 21. 

Total Tonnage, 4117. 

Comment upon the above statement is wholly unnecessary. 
It speaks volumes in regard to the trade and commercial pros¬ 
perity of Cincinnati, and the surrounding country. 

* For much of the information contained in the above list, we are in¬ 
debted to the politeness of Mr. Ephraim Robins, of the Protection In¬ 
surance Office. 




Upon this subject, it is impossible to obtain either full or 
minute information, but what is here offered may be con¬ 
sidered as substantially correct, as far as it extends, and may 
serve as the basis of estimates for the immense trade of the city. 

Of the imports into Cincinnati, most of the dry goods and 
lighter articles are brought from New York, Philadelphia, 
and Baltimore, over the mountings to Wheeling, or Pitts¬ 
burgh, and thence down the river. The groceries, queen’s ware, 
and other heavy articles, are brought up from New Orleans. 
The iron, of which large quantities are consumed here, and 
sold to the surrounding country, is principally brought from 
Pittsburgh; Sandy and Licking rivers, in Kentucky; and 
from Paint and Brush creeks, in Ohio. The bar iron of 
Sandy is esteemed, by those who use it, equal to any other; 
that of Licking also sustains a high reputation. 

The castings come principally from Brush creek, and those 
of that place bear a higher price in market than any others. 
Nails come from Pittsburgh and Boston—many from the 
latter place—a strong comment upon the deficiency of our 

Lead is brought from Missouri; salt from the Conemaugh 
works, in Pennsylvania, and those upon the Kenhawa, "in 

The pine timber and boards used here, are floated down in 
rafts, from near the sources of the Alleghany river—chiefly 
from the immense forests of pine around Orlean Point, in New 
\ork. No pine of any consequence is found on the Ohio, 
though locust, oak, black walnut, and other valuable kinds of 
timber are in the greatest abundance. 

Of our exports, the principal part are carried to the West 
Indies and South America. Pork and whiskey find a market 
in the Atlantic cities. Lard is consumed in Cuba and South 
America as a substitute for butter. A portion of all these 
articles, with many others, constitute the supplies, furnished 
by contract, for many posts for the United States’ army. No 
inconsiderable quantity is consumed by the districts bordering 
on the Lower Mississippi. 

Imports for 1826 . 

Iron, bar, sheet, and spike 1450 tons 

* Castings . . . 350 tons 

- p ig • . • • 768 tons 


. 181,250 




Nails . 

7000 kegs 


Lead and Shot. 

550,000 lbs. 


Copper, Tin, Plate, and Glassware .... 


Queens’ ware . 

2200 crates 


Cotton . 

1100 bales 

. 37,000 


46,000 barrels . 


Coal . 

200,000 bushels . 


Lumber, Boards 

5,000,000 feet . .A 

- Shingles 

3,500,000 ( 


- Joice & Scantling . 

400,000 (' 


122,000 cubic feet . j 

Indigo .... 

Coffee . . 

1,100,000 lbs. 

. 198,000 

Tea .... 

220,000 lbs. 

. 208,000 

Sugar .... 

• . . « • 


Fish .... 

3000 barrels . 


Liquors, Spices, and other articles .... 

. 200,000 

Dry Goods 

Total, 2,528,590 

Exports in 1826. 



. . 55,000 barrels . 

« < • 


Whiskey . 

14,500 barrels . 



. . 17,000 barrels . 



. 1,280,000 lbs. 


Hams and Bacon 

. 1,425,000 lbs. 


Feathers . 

. 302,000 lbs. 


Bees’ wax 

. . 78,825 lbs. 


Cheese . ‘ 

75,000 lbs. 



5000 kegs 


Ginseng . 

95,500 lbs. 



1000 barrels . 


Tobacco . 

1500 kegs 


Linseed Oil 

1200 barrels . 


Bristles . 

2000 lbs. 





Cabinet Furniture 

. ..... 


Candles and Soap 

. . . . 


Type and Printing 

Materials .... 


Beer and Porter . 



Clocks, See. 


Clothing.. • • • 

Hay, Oats, Corn, Corn-meal, Apples, Cider, Dried Fruit, 
Castings, Coopers’ Ware, Window Glass, Tin Ware, Ploughs, 


Waggons, Stills, Horses, Poultry, Cigars, See. &c. 






In the exports above enumerated, no portion of that which 
descends the Great and Little Miamies is included. This, 
however, properly belongs to them; for the produce of which 
we have been speaking is chiefly the growth of the Miami 
country, and all which it exports is applied to the payment of 
what is brought into it. It has been satisfactorily ascertained, 
that about 100 boats descend the Great Miami, during the 
high water, in each season, and that 30 descend the Little 
Miami. These boats will average 250 barrels each ; making 
for the whole number 33,500 barrels. If then we suppose 
that they are equivalent to an equal quantity of flour, their 
value will be about 100,000 dollars. 

To the exports must also be added the value of the steam¬ 
boats built here, and paid for by foreign capitalists. 

Of the importations, a re-exportation is constantly made to 
the most distant places with which Cincinnati has any com- i 
mereial intercourse. This business has been greatly extended 
within three or four years, and is now greater than is 
generally supposed, and would be conducted on a still larger 
scale, if our merchants possessed capital, equal to their enter¬ 
prise. Cincinnati, in this manner, derives a profit, like the 
cities on the sea-board, from goods ■which are merely in transitu. 
A large amount, probably more than one-third of all imported 
here, is ultimately carried to places, for whose produce this is 
not the shipping port, hence, the nominal imports and exports 
do not exhibit the true balance of trade. If we could deduct 
from the imports the exact amount of what is not consumed 
in the region watered by the Miamies and White-water, we 
should probably find the exports to equal the imports. 

The pork business of this city, is equal, if not of greater 
magnitude than that of Baltimore; and is, perhaps, not ex¬ 
ceeded by that of any place in the world. This will appear 
from a reference to the foregoing table of exports, and from 
the fact, that between the 15th of November, 1826, and the 
15th of February, 1827, a period of three months, forty thou¬ 
sand hogs have been packed in Cincinnati.-—Thirty thousand 
pf which were slaughtered within the limits of the corpora¬ 
tion, and ten thousand brought in waggons from the country 

Among the exports from this place, beef forms a smaller 
portion than would at first be supposed. The great faci¬ 
lities for raising cattle, and the high price of beef in other , 



places, are such that it may be easily rendered a large and 
profitable article of exportation. It is hoped that the farmers 
of the Miami country will soon make a proper estimate 
of the importance of adding this to the list of their exports. 

The manufacture of pot and pearl ashes is likewise neglected 
in this district, although the material for making them exists 
in such great abundance. 

Hemp, barley, tobacco, and many other articles, have 
hitherto been too much overlooked, in the undivided attention 
which our agriculturists have paid to the raising of wheat and 

The present system of agriculture between the Miamies 
requires, indeed, some important changes, which, when 
properly made, will result in individual profit, and general 
prosperity to the country. 

In the exhibition of exports from the Miami country, we 
have already an animating picture of its exuberant soil and 
productive industry. In it we see the source and principle 
of the rapid growth and flourishing condition of its commercial 
metropolis, and the evidence of its continued prosperity in 
wealth, population, and importance. 




During the year 1826, 8162 dollars were received for 
postage of letters at this office. Within the same period, 
3750 free letters were delivered, and throughout the year, 
20 mails per week were sent out of, and received in, the city 
—ten of which were carried in stages, to wit: three eastward, 
on the Chillicothe, three ditto on the Lebanon, three ditto on 
the Dayton and Columbus, and one southern, on the George¬ 
town and Kentucky routes. The remaining ten were trans¬ 
ported on horseback. 

The Rev. William Burke is post-master, and Mr. Elam 
P. Langdon, assistant post-master. 


s " 


The offices for the sale of public lands, in the Cincinnati 
district, are kept in the eastern part of the city • that of the 
Register (Peyton S. Symmes), near the corner of Lawrence 
and Congress streets; and that of the Receiver (Andrew M. 
Bailey), north of Congress-street, on Broadway. 


_ The Bank of the United States established an office of 
discount and deposite in this city, in April, 1817, which was 
withdrawn in October, 1820, and re-established in May, 1825. 
J. Reynolds, President. P. Benson, Cashier. 

This at present is the only banking establishment in Cin¬ 


Until recently, little attention has been paid to this subject 
in the west. If we except foreign agencies, the Louisville 
Company for a long time held a monopoly of this business. 

In a few years it accumulated enormous profits, and raised 
the value of its stock many fold. A company was established 
here several years since, but it did little business, and became 
extinct in the subsequent commercial derangements. 

Of late two companies have been incorporated here, and 
are now in successful operation. 


T. Goodman, President. Morgan Neville, Secretary. 

This company was incorporated in January, 1826, with a 
capital of 250,000 dollars, which may be increased to 
500,000; 2010 shares, at 50 dollars each, were immediately | 
subscribed, and the amount paid in, or secured by notes and 
mortgages. Its concerns are managed by a president, secre¬ 
tary, and eighteen directors. It has been about a year in 
operation, and, possessing the confidence of the community, its 
business is increasing, and the stock promises to become highly 


This company was incorporated in January, 1827. It is 
constituted upon the principles of mutual insurance, and has 
a certain amount deposited to meet the contingent loss of any 
member. Ezekiel Hall, Chairman. John Jolly, Secretary. 




Agent — Ephraim Robins. 

This company was recently incorporated in Hartford, and 
has. established an agency here,, for the purpose of insuring 
against Fire and Marine risks. To determine and adjust all 
osseSj a Board of Counsellors have been appointed by the 
company to assist the agent, whose award is binding upon the 
company; should the party dissent, arbiters may be called, 
whose decision is also final, as it respects the office. This 
ofhce has issued, since its establishment here, a considerable 
number of policies, and enjoys the confidence of the com¬ 

The JEtna Fire Insurance Company, of Hartford, 
Connecticut, was established here in 1825. William Good¬ 
man, Agent . 

The Traders’ Inland Navigation Insurance Com¬ 
pany, of New York, have an office here, with Thomas 
r* ewell. Agent . 

The United States’Insurance Company, of New York, 
have an office here, with William Hartshorne, Agent. 


An office of general agency and intelligence has been es¬ 
tablished by Mr. N. Holley, which may be rendered very 
useful by making known the various wants of individuals. 


In Cincinnati, there are ten licensed auctioneers, who, in 
the year 1828, sold goods to the amount of 233,800 dollars. 
A duty of 3 per cent., or 7014 dollars, was paid by them to 
the county treasurer : one half, of this is applied, by law, to 
the Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum, and the other 
to the Medical College of Ohio. 






Real property has been advancing in value with the pro¬ 
gress of population. The price of lots varies so much, 
according to their location and commercial advantages, that 
satisfactory information cannot here be given in regard to it. 
Within the last two years, the value of real estate has ad¬ 
vanced more rapidly than for several years previous. With 
those, however, who are acquainted with the prospects of the 
city, the prices are not considered to be above, if even at their 
real value. From the constant tide of emigration there is a 
greater demand for houses than can be readily supplied, which 
renders rents proportionally high. 

It is this, with the regular and certain increase of value, 
which makes investments of money in real estate both safe 
and profitable. Capital to a large amount may be so invested 
in real estate, that it will immediately produce from 10 to 12 
per cent, per annum. Many investments have been made that 
yield at this time from 12 to 18 per cent. Nothing can be 
hazarded in stating, that capital, judiciously expended in the 
purchase of real estate in this city, at present prices, will yield 
permanently from 10 to 12 per cent, per annum. 

Cincinnati for several years has been deficient in the amount 
of its disposable capital: a nominal superfluity of it existed 
during the prosperity of the local banks: after their destruc¬ 
tion, paper currency was almost withdrawn from circulation, 
and much of the metalic currency applied to the payment of 
the debts due the U. S. Bank, and the eastern merchants. 
From this condition of affairs the city has been gradually 
recovering, but its citizens are not yet large capitalists. 
Although engaged in profitable business, most of them have l 
not the means of extending it to a scale proportioned to 
their enterprise, and the resources of the place. Money 
is consequently in great demand, and a high price is j 
willingly paid for its use. For small sums 36 per cent, per 
annum is frequently given, and for large ones from 10 to 20 
per cent, is common. Indeed the market value of money 
may be safely estimated at from 10 to 15 per cent.; for 
there are but few investments in which it will not yield that 



amount. In Ohio there are no penalties imposed upon usurv 
and the contract for any rate of interest is valid Th s 
policy has been adopted to supply the deficiency of capital W 

encouraging loans and investments by foreigners. P ’ 7 

lP9fi 6 f 7 mS m ? 10randa of the aver age retail prices for 
18-6, of a few articles in our market, are added for the in 
formation of distant readers. 

Flour, 3 dollars per barrel. 
Whiskey, 25 cents per gallon. 
Beef, 2 to 3 dollars per cwt. 
Pork, 2 dollars ditto. 

Butter 10 to 124 cents per lb. 
Cheese, 6 to 7 ditto. 

Lard, 4 to 6 ditto. 

Feathers, 25 ditto. 

Turkeys, 25 to 37 cents each. 
Geese, 18 to 25 ditto. 

Ducks, 8 to 12 ditto. 
Chickens, 6£ ditto. 

Soap, 44 cents per lb. 

Candles, 10 ditto. 

Corn, 12 cents per bushel. 

Oats, 12 to 18 ditto. 

Potatoes, Irish, 25 to 50 ditto. 

Do Sweet, 37 to 62 ditto, 
o cents per dozen. 

Bacon, 3 to 5 cents per lb. 

Hams, 4 to 6 ditto. 

Veal, 3 to 4 ditto. 

Mutton, 2 to 4 ditto. 

Honey, 12 ditto. 

Apples, 25 to 37 cents per bushel. 
Peaches, 25 to 37 ditto. 

Dried Fruit, 7 5 ditto 



The position of Cincinnati, with respect to roads and water- 
courses, is such, that those who travel through the interior ' 
from the south and west towards the north, or from the 
latter to the former, can scarcely avoid it, without inconve¬ 
nience to themselves. In former days, a voyage up the Mis 
sissippi was the labour of months, and the southern merchants 
and planters encountered the perils of the ocean to escape 
this delay of time and risk of health. A great change has 
taken place—the trip from New Orleans to this place fs now 
accomplished m from 12 to 14 days, and the Ohio and Mis¬ 
sissippi have become the great highway, upon which nearly 
all who live upon their borders seek the business or the 
pleasures of the north. Upon their arrival at Cincinnati, it 
becomes a new point of departure—they may either continue 
their voyage up the river to Wheeling or Pittsburgh, and 
from those points pass over the mountains to Baltimore • or 
they may go through the interior of Ohio to the same points; 

e 2 



or take the stage for Portland, on the lake; view the rich 
holds of the Miami country ; visit the falls of Niagara : 
examine the magnificent improvements of New York, and 
descend the Hudson. This will probably become the most 
fashionable journey made by western or southern people. It 
affords most of the interesting, the beautiful, and the grand, 
which our country contains. 

The following are the principal routes and distances, pro¬ 
ceeding from this place: 

From Cincinnati to Sandusky city, by Dayton and Colum¬ 
bus, the route, heretofore travelled, is about 250 miles. The 
villages and towns passed through are interesting, and the 
accommodations, as to stages and houses, are good. 

From Cincinnati to the same point, by Xenia, Urbanna, 
Marysville, and Bucyrus, the distance is but 200 miles. On 
this route a new line of stages will be established in the 
spring, which is intended to go through in three days, and 
meet a steam-boat at Lower Sandusky. The whole distance 
to New York, by this route, will be about 850 miles, and the 
journey can be easily accomplished in 10 days. 

From Cincinnati to Wheeling, by land, is about 242 miles. 
On this route there is a daily line of stages, which is a con¬ 
tinuation of that on the Cumberland road. By this way the 
traveller passes through the central parts of Ohio, and arrives 
in Baltimore in eight or nine days. The roads in Ohio are 
generally good from May till November. 

From Cincinnati to Lexington is about 80 miles, and a 
stage generally runs between the places during the summer 
and fall seasons. 


From Cincinnati 


to Read- 



. 9 72 

in g 

. 10 


. 14 86 

To Sharon 

. . 5 



. 18 104 

To Lebanon 

. 15 



6 110 

To Waynesvilie 

. 10 


Scioto River 

. 20 130 

Little Miami . 

. 6 



. 6 136 


. 8 



• 17 153 

Yellow Springs 

. 9 


Sandusky city 

. 47 200 



To Springfield 

. 15 




. 13 130 


. 10 



. 11 141 


. 14 


Mount Vernon 


. 33 174 


. 6 




. 20 194 





. 6 



. 12 


Fairfield . 

. 11 



. 14 


Deer creek 

. 18 


Little Darby . 

. 9 


Big Darby 

. 2 




. 9 203 

New 7 Haven 

. 22 225 


. 10 235 


. 7 242 


. 5 247 

Sandusky city 

.11 258 

To Huron 
Black River 


. 10 

Ohio State Line 

. 15 

. 20 


. 25 

. 25 


. 35 

. 30 


. 15 

. 30 


. 45 250 



. 30 



. 30 

St. Clairsville 


. 17 



. 21 98 

Washington, Pa. 


. 18 



. 16 132 

36* 16S 
75 243 
10 253 
32 285 
25 310 


To Marysville 


: . 63 


. 2784 

Scioto River 


. 105 


. 3634 

Big Sandy . 


. 143^ 


. 3854 

G. Kenhawa 


. 194 

Pittsburgh . 

. 4554 



. 6 

Tarleton . 

. 8 


. 5 

Clear creek 

. 6 


. 10 


. 10 126 


. 7 


. 10 

White Oak 

. 11 


. 8 


. 11 

Union town 

. 9 


. 24 


. 9 162 


. 18 92 


. 80 242 


. 10 



To Reading 

. 10 

Massie’s creek 

. 7 61 


. 5 15 


. 11 72 


. 15 30 

Deer creek 

. 14 86 

Waynes ville 

. 10 40 

Little Darby . 

9 95 

Little Miami . 

. 6 46 

Darby creek . 

. 2 97 

Xenia r 

. 8 54 


. 13 110 



Big Bone 

. 20 

Middletown . 

. 26 

Sander’s Mill 

. 23 



Simpson’s Ferry 


. 10 


Henry Court-house 

. 12 








Burlington . 

. 15 

French Lick 

. 34 

Rising Sun . 

. 10 

E. F. Whiteriver . 

. 17 

Judge Cotton’s 

. 20 

N. F. Whiteriver . 

. 19 


New Lexington 

. 20 
. 17 


. 15 







. 18 

Georgetown . 

. 14 

Theob aid’s 

. 15 


. 12 


. 11 


Eagle creek . 

. 12 




Kentucky river 

. 78 \ 


. 456 


. 131i 

Mouth of Ohio 

. 504 


. 3764 


. 1165 

Cumberland river . 

. 386J New Orleans 
. 444i 


. 1462 


Cincinnati may be considered the nearest point at which 
such of the inhabitants of Mississippi, Alabama, and Louis¬ 
iana, as are induced to leave their homes during the summer, 
can find the advantages of a city residence and a healthy 
climate united. Indeed, each succeeding summer, for the 
last few years, has brought with it an increased number of 
those who are flying from southern heat and disease 5 and it 
may be anticipated that each succeeding year will aflord its 
accumulated numbers. The facilities with which the city 
can be reached from the south by water; its inviting aspect 
to strangers; its salubrious situation ; the affability of its in¬ 
habitants, as well as its being the point of debarkation from 
the steam-boats, for those who wish to view the interior of 
Ohio, or pass to the eastern states by the way of the lakes 
and the Erie canal—all contribute to render Cincinnati at 
once the centre of attraction to those travelling for health and 
pleasure, and the great thoroughfare between the south- 



western and north-eastern states. Those families of the 
south who may not wish to make an annual visit to the east, 
will find this no undesirable residence for the summer and 
fall seasons. 

They can here have the advantage of excellent schools for 
their children, and find, in the bosom of a cultivated society, 
many rational sources of amusement for themselves. They 
may pass without inconvenience either by land or upon the 
canal through the pleasant villages of the Miami country; 
spend a few weeks at the Yellow Springs, in whose vicinity 
are to be seen the beautiful and romantic falls of the Little 
Miami, or partake of the medicinal waters in the valley of 
Big Bone, where lie imbedded the relics of the mammoth, 
alike so long celebrated for its size and extinction. 

It may be supposed, that the period is not remote when 
many of the wealthy planters and professional gentlemen of 
the south will have their summer villas within the environs 
of Cincinnati, and those who may feel unwilling to be de¬ 
prived of the services of their slaves, can still have the ad¬ 
vantages of a city life by locating themselves on the Ken¬ 
tucky shore, in the villages of Newport and Covington, both 
of which are healthy, and delightfully situated opposite to 
Cincinnati. The experiments of the last season have fully 
demonstrated that small steam-boats may descend the Ohio 
from Cincinnati in the driest period of the year; for in the 
months of October and November, although the river was 
quite low, several of the smaller steam-boats made a safe and 
speedy passage to Natchez. The difficulties attending a 
return to the south at that season are consequently lessened. 
This removes what has heretofore been a serious objection to a 
summer’s residence in the commercial metropolis of Ohio. 





Although Cincinnati is perhaps not sufficiently advanced 
in the Fine Arts to supply adequate materials for a separate 
chapter, yet it would be scarcely proper to pass over the 
subject without remarking,, that we have several artists of 
genius and reputation in the principal branches of this in¬ 
teresting department. 

In portrait painting we may indeed boast of a young artist * 
who has but a single rival in the western country. In land- 
scape painting we could name more than one of considerable 
promise ; and in the line of ornamental and scene painting a 
number of excellent specimens might be referred to. The 
admired busts of Lafayette, Clinton, Clay, Jackson, and 
Gaines, sufficiently demonstrate the plastic skill of one of our 
citizens in modelling likenesses: the numerous figure heads, 
and other sculptured ornaments of our steam-boats, display 
the taste and ingenuity of two others as carvers, and various 
publications have lately furnished several specimens of the 
successful efforts of our engravers* 



There is, perhaps, no place in the United States more fa¬ 
vourable for observing the influence of our republican system 
upon society at large than in Cincinnati. Its inhabitants are 
emigrants from all quarters of the Union, and from different 
parts of Europe; yet there is no portion of them from any 
particular district so numerous as to cause a general ad¬ 
herence to the peculiar prejudices and manners in which they 
had been educated. Neither do we find the subdivisions of 
society influenced by national partialities. We have neither 

* Mr. A. H. Cor wine, a native of Kentucky. 



St. Andrews’, St. George’s, St. Patrick’s, nor New England 
Societies, to foster those prejudices in favour of distant lands, 
which are so unfriendly to the happiness of those who have come 
to spend their lives in another clime. An entire freedom 
from political restraint, leaving ail at liberty to follow such 
pursuits as are most agreeable, favours the assimilation of all 
classes to each other, and the adoption of such manners and 
customs as are most suitable to our situation. There is, con¬ 
sequently, a more rapid amalgamation of manner and feeling 
than would be expected among a people so recently collected 
together from so many different countries. 

In morals, we may safely defy the strictest scrutiny to 
point out a rival place, where fewer vices or crimes are 
committed among an equal number of people ; and as our city 
has hitherto had scarcely any other police than public opinion, 
we must, of course, attribute the good order and morality 
which prevail among us, to the correct feelings and sentiments 
of the inhabitants. The most prominent source of crime and 
wretchedness among our eastern brethren—the vice of drunk¬ 
enness—although not unknown here, is more rare than in 
other parts of the Union.* Nor does the vice of gaming 
flourish here to any great extent, although much pains have 
been taken to introduce it at different periods, and sometimes 
with apparent success; yet, happily, it has not yet been so 
far naturalized as to appear to be in a congenial clime. Lot¬ 
tery gambling, so prevalent in most other parts of the United 
States, is not one of our evils. The sale of foreign tickets is 
prohibited by law ; and the only lottery granted for many years, 
by this state, although its profits were destined for a purpose 
interesting to the community, was entirely unsuccessful. We 
trust that this may be the last attempt to legalize gambling 
in Ohio, and that the correct moral feeling exhibited by the 
community in this respect may prove a salutary example to 
our sister states. 

The most numerous class of our citizens consists of our 
mechanics; and, as a body, they may be referred to as one of 
the chief causes of our prosperity. Of this class, indeed, 
we may justly feel proud, not only on account of their pro¬ 
fessional skill and dexterity, but also because they possess, 
generally, the characteristics of good citizens. 

* Ope cause of this may be, that our climate is unfavourable to the 
longevity of drunkards, which may be considered one of the many bless¬ 
ings with which we are favoured. 

E 5 



Our merchants are distinguished for their enterprise and 
activity, the greatest obstacle to their success being their 
number, which is generally more than the business of the 
place can profitably sustain. The latter remark is equally 
applicable to our professional men (to those, at least, of law 
and medicine), of whom a few are eminent, and a number 
very respectable. 

Of men of leisure and fortune, there are few or none. 
Of this class, a certain portion is desirable, provided they be 
possessed of public spirit, and of good taste sufficient to lead 
them to devote a portion of time in such a manner, as to be¬ 
nefit the community, by aiding in the diffusion of literature 
and science, and establishing and fostering useful public 
institutions. The greatest evil to be apprehended from this 
class is, that they may hasten the encroachments of luxury. 
We are aware that, with the advance of society in wealth and 
refinement, a progressive increase of luxury is natural, and, 
perhaps, desirable, on account of its encouraging industry 
and improving the arts; but experience has shown, that its 
uniform tendency is to increase faster than the means of sup¬ 
porting it, and, "in such cases, it becomes the parent of both 
crime and suffering. 

The general features of the fashionable portion of our 
community are similar to those of the same class in the east¬ 
ern cities, with an equal amount of refinement, if not a like 
degree of useless etiquette. J hroughout the winter season 
there are public balls, assemblies, and cotillion parties, for 
the gratification of those who are fond of dancing. Private 
parties are both frequently and elegantly given, in which 
cards, music, dancing, and conversation, constitute the prin¬ 
cipal sources of amusement. There is an increasing fond¬ 
ness for the stage, and for the last two seasons our come¬ 
dians have received an amount of patronage, not less flatter¬ 
ing than unexampled in previous years. The museums are 
becoming fashionable resorts for evening parties. During 
the winter season there are lectures delivered in each, once 
or twice a week, upon literary and scientific subjects, which 
are generally well attended. This rational custom should be 
continued—it being admirably calculated to promote inter¬ 
course, good feeling, and a taste for intellectual pleasures. 

In the summer season, excursions to Big Bone and the 
Yellow Springs, serve to amuse those who have leisure and 
inclination to seek for pleasure, health, and rural scenery. 



In the dwellings of the middling and poorer classes there 
111 general, that appearance of comfort and ease, which 
denotes a fertile country and a benignant government— 
where labour receives its reward, and enjoys it in security. 
I he means of substantial enjoyment are probably more ex-* 
tensiveiy diffused throughout our community, ,than among 
any other people in existence. Although this remark may 
appear to display more of local partiality than of knowledge, 
yet we do not fear the result of a candid investigation of its 
correctness: and however sanguine our expectations may at 
first appear, respecting the future destinies of our favourite 
city, if the grounds on which they are made be impartially 
examined, they will be found, we think, to warrant our 


We are informed, that the members of the different Masonic 
Societies of Cincinnati sre sanguine in the opinion, that 
the grand lodge of Ohio* will be removed to Cincinnati, 
where a grand hall will be erected, that shall reflect credit 
on the state, and do honour to the taste and munificence of 
the fraternity. 


M. W. John M. .Goodenow, Grand Master. 

R. W. Thomas Corwin, Deputy Grand Master. 

R. W. William Rossell Foster, Sen. Grand Warden. 

R. W. Roswell Stone, Jun. Grand Warden. 

W. Lincoln Goodale, Grand Treasurer. 

W. Bela Latham, Grand Secretary. 

W. Walter M. Blake, Grand Marshal. 



For the last two years, this subject has been before the 
grand lodge at Columbus, and it is stated that the strongest 
objections to the location of that institution in this place, have 
been removed, by the liberal offers which have been made 
by the Cincinnati lodges. The remaining objection to this 
measure, most strongly urged, is its remoteness from the 
centre of the state. This objection, even at the present 
moment, has not much weight: but the completion of the 
canals, and the national turnpike, together with the general 
improvement of the roads throughout the state, will not only 
obviate it entirely, but give such facilities for reaching 
Cincinnati, as will be equalled by few, if any other places in 
the state. 

A change in the period of holding the meetings of the 
trraiid lochie, from the winter to the summer season, and we 
are informed that there can be no valid objections urged 
against such a change, would always afford good roads and 
canal navigation, besides securing a more punctual attendance 
from those who are the only proper component parts of this 

The enterprise and comparative wealth of the masonic 
bodies of this city—the numerous facilities which it possesses 
over all other points in the state, for the selection of skilful 

Rev. and W. George C. Sedgwick, Grand Chaplain. 

W. Robert T. Lytle, Grand Orator. 

W. David Spangler, Grand S. Deacon. 

W. William Coolman, Grand J. Deacon. 

W. William Fielding, Grand Lecturer. 

W. William John, Grand Tyler. 


M. E. Charles R. Sherman, Grand High Priest. 

E. John Satterthwaite. Deputy G. H. Priest. 

E. Joshua Downer, Grand King. 

E- Samuel Stokely, Grand Scribe. 

E. Lincoln Goodale, Grand Treasurer. 

E. Rela Latham, Grand Secretary. 

E. James W. Lanier, Grand Marshal. 

E. James M c Aboy, Grand Chaplain. 

Companion Robert T. Lytle, Grand Captain of the Host. 

“ Thos. Orr, Grand Principal Sojourner. 

“ David Spangler, Grand Royal Arch Captain. 

“ James Price, Grand Master, 3d Vail. 

u Moses Levi, Grand Master, 2d Vail. 

“ Walter M. Blake, Grand Master, 1st Vail. 

“ William John, Grand Guard. 



mechanics, and cheap materials for building, together with its 
many other advantages, will, it is confidently believed, induce 
the grand lodge to reflect maturely, before she will withhold, 
from the fraternity at large, the important benefits that will 
follow the location of its hall in Cincinnati. Should the 
grand lodge ultimately select this place for the site of their 
hall, and unite with our societies in its erection, there can be 
little doubt of the efficient co-operation of our citizens in 
aiding its early completion, by donations, or subscriptions 
for stock, according to the plan upon which it may be es¬ 

Such has been the increase of the masonic brethren hi 
this city, within a few years, that the erection of a hall for 
their own accommodation, whether the grand lodge shall 
Unite with them or not, will be speedily undertaken ; but 
not, we are assured, until the societies possess the ability to 
erect such an one, as will do honour to the city, to the state, 
and to masonry. 


It is gratifying, that the municipal authorities of the city, 
as well as the citizeus generally, are beginning to think 
seriously about the purchase of a piece of ground, upon 
which, at some future time, to erect a city hall, and establish 
m,P u . c promenade, for pleasure, ornament, and recreation, 
rlie importance of this subject, as it regards health, utility, 
and the beauty of Cincinnati, is too generally felt, and too 
universally acknowledged to require that any arguments 
should here be urged in its favour. There is but one block 
of ground, eligibly situated for this object, that can now 
be procured at a fair price, and unless this be speedily secured, 
the increasing value of property will soon place even that 
beyond the resources of the corporation. The block referred 
to is the one on which Judge Burnet resides, between Vine 
and Race, and Third and fourth streets. Perhaps the city 
plat does not contain one better suited for the purposes of a 
public square than this, owing to its central and elevated 
position. 7 he terms upon which it is offered, make its 
purchase a matter of speculation, even should it not be ulti¬ 
mately used by the city for public purposes. It can now be 
obtained for about 25,000 dollars, and no one, who has studied 
the prospects of our city, will doubt, but that in ten years it 
may be sold for double that sum. 



A row of lots, fronting on r l hird-street, the buildings 
upon which would not materially injure the beauty of the 
square, could, it is believed, at this time be leased for a sum 
that would nearly meet the accruing interest of the money 
required for the purchase of it. Another row, fronting on 
Race-street, may also be leased to advantage, and the 
proceeds applied' to the reduction of the principal. The 
block is already covered with shade trees, flowering shrubs, 
and evergreens; and several liberal donations have been 
promised," towards ornamenting and improving the grounds 
still further, if the city should become the purchaser. It has 
been stated, that the Cincinnati Water Company would in that 
case supply, gratuitously, the necessary water for ornamenting" 
it with a fountain. 

The building, now upon it, has two spacious rooms—one of 
which would conveniently accommodate the City Council, 
and the other, the City’Court. There are others, which 
would answer as offices for the city treasurer, recorder, 
clerk, &c. This building, indeed, will be amply sufficient 
for the accommodation of the municipal authorities of the 
city, until the state of its treasury would justify the erection 
of a City Hall, corresponding in size and magnificence to the 
future destinies of Cincinnati. 

As the present appears to be an auspicious period for laying 
the foundation of a permanent revenue for the city, it will 
not, perhaps, be considered as without the limits of this 
work, to suggest the policy of the city becoming the owner 
of all the ground lying south of Front-street, and between 
Broadway and the mouth of Deer creek, which can be ob¬ 
tained at a fair price. The public quay, which is already 
melding a handsome revenue to the city, is too limited in 
extent for the amount of business that is now done upon 
it. This must be evident to those who have witnessed, 
within the last few days, from ten to twelve large steam¬ 
boats, crowded together against the quay, for the purpose of 
receiving and discharging their cargoes. In addition to the 
ordinary expansion of the commercial business of the city, 
the completion of the Miami canal will greatly augment it. 
The period is but a short one, when the entire space between 
the limits above mentioned, in addition to that already owned 
by the city, will be required, upon which to transact, with 
convenience, this business. Were this ground owned by the 
corporation, and properly disposed of for quays and ware- 



houses, it would yield, in future years, with the public pro¬ 
perty below it, a revenue which would lessen the burthens 
of taxation, if not entirely supercede the necessity of imposing 
them. W ith these suggestions, the expediency of the measure 
is left for the consideration and wisdom of the Council and 
our citizens. 


This subject has been one of much speculation for several 
years past. Its importance is, perhaps, not less apparent, 
than the practicability of its execution. The scarcity of capital 
among our citizens may delay it for a few more years* but the 
pei iod is manifestly not remote* when its construction will be 

The feasibility of throwing a permanent bridge over the 
Ohio at this place* at an expense which would secure a hand¬ 
some interest upon the sum required for its accomplishment* 
is generally admitted**by those practical* calculating men* who 
have had the subject under consideration* and who have pos¬ 
sessed the existing data * from which to draw their conclusions. 

The water of the Ohio passes over a bed of limestone rock* 
which will not only supply the stone* necessary in the con¬ 
struction of the piers and abutments* but also* an admirable 
foundation for them to rest upon. The distance from the top 
of the bank at the foot of Broadway* to the top of the bank 

Newport or Covington* is 1630 feet* or about 543 yards. 
What is termed the channel of the river lies near the north 
shore ; its south edge is 435 feet distant from the wall at 
the foot of Broadway. There is in this channel a gradual 
descent from the north to the south edge; the distance 
from one to the other being about 225 feet. Should this 
space be thought too great to exist with safety between the 
piers* an intermediate one may readily be constructed in the 
channel* the greatest depth at low water not exceeding 12 
feet. Ihe whole distance across the river would require 8 
or 9 piers* besides the abutments on either bank. From 
the foot of Broadway* a bridge would strike the Kentucky 
shore* opposite the mouth of Licking. A line drawn from 
the hank on the Newport shore* until* at a distance of 206 
feet from the place of beginning* it should intersect a similar 
line from the Covington shore* would indicate the proper 
uoint for a pier* on which the main bridge should terminate. 
From this* branches should be carried to Newport and 



Covington, thus uniting those two villages with each other, 
and both with Cincinnati. 

Between the shore and the northern edge of the channel, 
there is, during the high rvater, an eddy, formed by the steam 
mill above, over which the draw may properly be made to 
admit the passage of steam-boats at that stage of the river: 
at a medium stage, the elevation of the bridge, over the main 
channel of the stream, would be such as to permit the pas¬ 
sage of the largest class of boats. Various estimates of 
the cost of thiswovk have been made, varying in amount from 
one to two hundred thousand dollars. An architect, who 
has superintended the construction of several bridges in the 
Miami country, and whose practical skill entitles his opinions 
to confidence, has recently given this subject some considera¬ 
tion. His estimates of the cost of a bridge, of the length 
above mentioned, supported by nine stone piers, including 
breakers above each, to protect them from the ice and drift 
wood, branching so as to connect Newport and Covington, 
and secured from the weather by a neat and* substantial cover, 
is 150,000 dollars. 

How nearly this may approximate to the truth, remains 
to be determined by more accurate surveys. Should it even 
cost 200,000 dollars, still it is believed, that the tolls would, 
from the time of its completion, yield a handsome interest upon 
its cost, with a certain prospect of an increase, corresponding 
to the rapid advances of the city and surrounding country. 
It is hoped that our public spirited citizens will not lose 
sight of an object so deeply connected with the convenience 
and ornament of the city. If our own resources at the 
present moment are not adequate to the magnitude of the 
w'ork, it would perhaps be no difficult matter to put in requi¬ 
sition some of the surplus capital of our eastern brethren, to 
aid in its early accomplishment. 


The plans of education respectively pursued at West 
Point, and at Captain Partridge’s Military Academy, at Mid¬ 
dletown, are generally admitted to be of the most excellent 
kind. They are systems well adapted to impart vigour to 
the body, not less than the mind. The courses of study 
adopted in these popular institutions, appear to be better 
calculated to prepare young men for becoming useful and 
practical members of society, than those generally pursued 



in the literary colleges of the country. Of the signal 
success of a Military Academy, similar to that of Captain 
Partridge's, if established in Cincinnati, there can be no 
doubt. Its central position among the western, and its easy 
access by water from the southern states; and the prevail¬ 
ing sentiment among the people of the west and south, 
in favour of a military education, unite in designating this 
place as a point highly eligible for the exertion of indi¬ 
vidual enterprise in regard to this subject. These remarks 
are made with the hope of arresting the attention of some 
gentleman, properly qualified to establish and conduct such 
an institution. A degree of success not less flattering to its 
founder, than beneficial to the youth of the west and south, 
would unquestionably follow. 


A canal down the valley of Licking river is seriously con¬ 
templated; of its practicability there can be little doubt. 
The bed of the river itself may be converted into a canal, by 
constructing dams with locks, at such heights and intervals 
as, upon examination, may be found most advantageous. In 
some places, a dam, erected at the rapids, will render the 
water of the river level and navigable for many miles. The 
expense of thus canalling the stream, would be small in com¬ 
parison with that of the Ohio canals, whilst many and rich 
benefits would arise from it to the surrounding country. It 
would connect a large and fertile district of Kentucky with 
the principal seat of commerce on the Ohio. It would pass 
immediately through the counties of Bath, Nicholas, Har¬ 
rison, Pendleton, and Campbell, whilst many others would 
be sufficiently near, to render it the channel of their commu¬ 
nication with the Ohio. Among the resources of this region 
iron ore is found in great abundance. There are already 
works erected on Licking, in Bath county, and owned by J. 
T. Mason, Esq. They consist of one blast furnace, one 
single, and one double forge. Other works will doubtless be 
erected, when the improvement, here contemplated, shall be 
successfully accomplished, and an easy navigation furnished 
from the mine to the market. 


In 1825, a charter was granted by the legislature of Ken¬ 
tucky, incorporating the stockholders of the Louisville and 



Portland Canal Company, under the management of a Board, 
consisting of a president and 4 directors, for the purpose of 
constructing a canal, dry docks, &c. around the falls of the 
Ohio. This charter is perpetual: it authorizes the company 
to lay a toll of 20 cts. per ton on steam and keel boats, and 
4 dollars each on flat boats; and if these tolls should not be 
found sufficient to pay the stockholders a net profit of 12-^per 
cent, per annum, on their capital, the directors are authorized 
to raise the tolls sufficiently high to produce that amount, 
the legislature reserving to itself the privilege of reducing 
them if the dividend should exceed 18 per cent, per annum. 

The work, by consent of the canal commissioners of Ohio, 
is under the superintendence of Judge Bates, the principal 
engineer of the Ohio canals, by whom the surveys and esti¬ 
mates have been made, and whose established reputation is 
well calculated to inspire confidence in their accuracy. A 
contract for the completion of the entire work has been made 
with those experienced gentlemen, Messrs. Collins, Chapman, 
and Co., of the New York canal. 

These gentlemen commenced their operations on the first 
of March last, and since that time they have excavated 
^oo,io4 cubic yards of earth, Out of 633,358 yards, the esti¬ 
mated quantity: 5694 cubic yards of common rock have been 
excavated out of 111,000 yards, the estimated quantity: 4445 
cubic yards of rock have been excavated in lock-pits, out of 
20,000, the estimated quantity. The length of the canal will 
be 73 feet less than 2 miles: the width will be 50 feet at the 
bottom, and 197 feet at the top: its depth 42 from the tops 
of the banks, which are to be two feet above high water¬ 
mark : the sides of the banks will be paved with stone. 

The locks will be at the lower end of the canal, and will 
consist of 3 lift locks of 8.62 feet lift each, and one guard 
lock of the whole depth of the canal. The lift locks will he 
190 feet long, by 50 feet wide, in the clear, consequently 
they will be of a capacity to pass the largest class of steam¬ 

Two dry docks for repairing steam-boats will be con¬ 
structed by the side of the guard lock. A recess of the size 
of the locks is to be excavated about midway of the canal, for 
the convenience of passing large steam-boats. 

The time for the completion of the work by the contract 
is November next, and, from the report of the Board, there 
,$eems to be little doubt of its completion within the stipulated 


period. The entire cost of constructing this canal will be 
about 42(1,000 dollars. 

This important work, when finished,, will exert such an 
immediate and powerful influence upon the commercial 
prosperity of Cincinnati, that no apology is necessary for 
introducing into this work the foregoing details. 


The country bordering upon the two Miamies, that part 
of Indiana irrigated by Whitewater and the upper branches 
of the White river, and those parts of Kentucky watered by 
the Licking and Sandy rivers, constitute the region of country 
which is immediately dependent upon Cincinnati, as its great 
commercial and manufacturing emporium. This region is 
unequalled by any in the United States for the growth of 
wheat, corn, hogs, cattle, and, indeed, all the provision sup¬ 
plies. It includes the iron mines of Brush creek, in Ohio, 
and of Licking and Sandy rivers, in Kentucky, and also the 
salt and coal of these two latter streams, together with vast 
beds of aluminous earth. It abounds in fine oak, locust, and 
mulberry timber, suitable for ships and steam-boats. Many 
parts oi it are wen aaaptea to grazing; ana otners peculiar iy 
suited for the growth of those important articles hemp and 
tobacco. The streams by which it is intersected afford ex¬ 
tensive navigation as well as water power for driving ma¬ 
chinery—the Ohio river cutting it from east to west, and the 
Miami canal traversing that portion of it lying between 
Dayton and Cincinnati. Its healthfulness is proverbial, and 
its population enterprising and industrious. These constitute 
a brief enumeration of the more prominent resources of a 
section of country embracing within its limits 10,000,000 of 
acres of land, and capable, without equalling the density of 
many countries of Europe, of sustaining upwards of 3,000,000 
of inhabitants. That a country of such magnitude, and of 
such resources, must give high and permanent prosperity to 
some point within its limits, is most obvious. A reference to 
its geographical features will at once indicate Cincinnati as 
possessing greater local advantages than any other site within 
this region. In adverting, then, to this interesting point, 
and examining the reasons for cherishing the belief of its 
continued prosperity, the first thing that arrests the attention 
is, the extent, salubrity, and beauty of the plain upon which 
the city stands—these are unsurpassed upon the Ohio river. 



Next follows the cheapness of living, owing to the unrivalled 
productiveness of the country around in the growth of all the 
substantial articles of food; its facilities for obtaining iron, 
coal, lead, hemp, salt-petre, leather, wool, fur, cotton, and 
other raw materials necessary for manufactures; the extent 
of water power, which the Miami canal, when completed, 
will afford upon the city plain; the many diverging channels 
upon which her manufactured articles may be sent to the 
surrounding, as well as more distant regions; and, finally, 
her commercial advantages, arising from a location, which 
affords great facilities for receiving from abroad, and again 
distributing the foreign productions of both art and nature. 

It is to a partial unfolding of these resources that the rapid 
growth of Cincinnati, heretofore, may be referred, and from 
a more perfect developement of the same, that its continued 
prosperity in wealth and population may be safely predicted. 
The period is not a remote one when Cincinnati will hold the 
same rank among the cities of the Union, that the great 
State, of which she is the ornament, now possesses in the 
American Confederacy, 



African Church, 27. 

Apprentices’ Library, 39. 

Academy Fine Arts, 39. 

Aldermen, 43. 

Auctions, 73. 

Academy, C. F., 34. 


Buildings, 20. 

-Public, 20. 

Bank, Branch, 72. 

Bridge over the Ohio, 87. 


Colonization Society, 29. 

College, Cincinnati, 33. 

-, Medical, 32. 

Cincinnati Female School, 35. 

- Library, 38. 

City Government, 42. 

-Officers, 43. 

Cleanliness, 44. 

City Prison, 45. 

Commerce, 63. 

Court House, 20. 

County, Hamilton, 16. 

Church, Lutheran and Reformed,27. 
Courts, 40. 

Cincinnati, Aspect, &c. 17. 


Episcopal Society, 26. 

Exports, 69. 

Edifice, Medical College, 21. 
-, Cincinnati College, 22. 


Fine Arts, 80. 

Friendly Society, 26. 

Fuel, 24. 

Finances, 46. 

Future Importance of Cincinnati, 


Government, Municipal, 40. 


Humane Society, 28. 

Health, Public, 44. 

Hospital, 21. 


Jail, 20. 

Jews, 28. 

Imports, 68. 

Journals, 39. 

Institutions, Literary and Scien¬ 
tific, 32. 


Kidd Fund, 30. 


Land Office, 72. 

Licking Canal, 89. 

Louisville and Portland Canal, 89. 


Markets, 20. 

Mayor, 43. 

Manufactures, 51. 

Money, 74. 

Masonic Hall, 83. 

Materials for Building, 19. 
Masonic Institutions, 29. 

Museum, Letton’s, 38. 

-Western, 36. 

Manufactures, capacity of Cincin¬ 
nati for, 59. 

Military Academy, 88. 




Ohio, State of, 1. 

-, Rivers, 2. 

-, Climate, 2. 

-, Minerals, 3. 

-, Roads, 4. 

-, Education, 5. 

-, Canals, 5. 

-, Canal, 6. 

-, Miami Canal, 8. 

-, Population, 11. 

-, Militia, 11. 

-, Capital, 11. 

-, Principal Towns, 12. 

-, Religion, 12. 

-, Civil Divisions, 12. 

-, Government, 12, 

-, Judiciary, 12 

-, Revenue and Valuation, 13. 

-, Manufactures and Com¬ 
merce, 13. 

-, Historical Sketch, 13. 

-, Progressive and Future De- 

velopements, 14. 

-, River, 15. 

Offices, Insurance, 72. 

-, Intelligence, 73. 


Proprietors, 18. 

Plan, 19. 

Preservation from Fire, 24. 
Population, 49. 

Post Office, 71. 

Public Square, 85. 

Population, Comparative, 49. 


Real Estate, 74. 

Reading Room, 36. 


Steam-Boats, 64. 

Summer’s Residence, 78. 

Society, State of, 80. 

-, Episcopal, 26. 

-, Methodist, 26. 

-, Baptist, Enon, 26. 

-, New Jerusalem, 26. 

-, Wesleyan Methodist, 26. 

-, Friends’, 26. 

-, Baptist, First, 27. 

-, Roman Catholic, 27. 

-, Preformed Presbyterian, 28. 

-, Presbyterian, First, 25. 

- y Second, 26. 

-, Humane, 28. 

-, M. Bible, 28. 

-, F. Auxiliary Bible, 28. 

-, African, 29. 

-, W. N. B. and Tract, 29. 

-, U. Sunday School, 29. 

Societies, Religious and Public 
Charities, 25. 

School, Woodward Free, 31. 
-, Female Boarding, 35. 


Theatre, Cincinnati, 22. 


United States’ Banking House, 21. 
Unirersalists, 28. 







Extracts from a Work entitled, “ A Narrative and Statistical 
View or Picture of Cincinnati in 1815, by Dr. Drake 
Jrom which will be seen the great Improvement that has 
taken place in that City during the last Ten Years. 


“These have been constantly, though not regularly, in¬ 
creasing ever since the first settlement here. In 1787, John 
C. Symmes paid to the United States two-thirds of a dollar 
per acre. Their uniform price, since that time, has been two 
dollars, except at public auctions, when, from competition, 
the prices are frequently raised much higher; and, except 
reserved sections, which were at one time fixed at eight, but 
afterwards reduced to four dollars. 

ithin three miles of Cincinnati, at this time, the prices ol 
good unimproved land are between fifty and one hundred and 
fifty dollars per acre, varying according to the distance. From 
this limit to the extent of twelve miles, they decrease from 
thirty to ten. Near the principal villages* of the Miami 
country,^ it commands from twenty to forty dollars; in re¬ 
moter situations, it is from four to eight dollars—improve¬ 
ments in all cases advancing the price from 25 to 100 per 
cent. An average for the settled portions of the Miami 

f 2 



country, still supposing the land fertile and uncultivated, 
may be stated at eight dollars; if cultivated, at twelve. 

Of tracts that have the same local advantages, those allu¬ 
vial or bottom lands, which have been recently formed, com¬ 
mand the best price. The dry and fertile prairies are esteemed 
of equal value. Next to these, are the uplands, supporting 
hackberry, pawpaw, honey-locust, sugar-tree, and the different 
species of hickory, walnut, ash, buckeye, and elm. Imme¬ 
diately below these, in the scale of value, is the land clotned 
in beech timber; while that producing white and black oak 
chiefly, commands the lowest price of all. 

These were not the prices in 1812 5 the war, by promoting 
emigration, having advanced the nominal value of land from 
25 to 50 per cent. 



The principal kinds are Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, and 
barley. * The first is found on every plantation, but flourishes 
best m a fertile, calcareous soil ; where, with good culture, it 
will yield from 60 to 100 bushels per acre; but an average 
crop, for the whole region, cannot be higher than 4O. Wheat 
is raised almost as generally as Indian corn, and is perhaps 
better adapted to the soil of most parts of the IMiami country. 
Twenty-two bushels may be stated as the average produce 
per acre, though it sometimes amounts to 40. Its medium 
weight is 60lbs. per bushel. The bearded wheat, with red¬ 
dish chaff, seems latterly to be preferred, as least liable to 
injury from the Hessian fly and weavel. The cultivation of 
rye is much more limited, as it is only employed in the dis¬ 
tillation of whiskey, and as provender for horses. For the 
former purpose, it is mixed with Indian corn. Its average 
crop may be estimated at 25 bushels per acre. The common 
crop of oats is about 35 bushels, and that of barley 30. _ The 
latter was not extensively cultivated till since the erection of 
two large breweries in Cincinnati. 


An extensive variety of excellent apples have been intro¬ 
duced, and succeed well, in the Miami country. As in other 
parts of the United States, they are occasionally injured by 
vernal frosts. In the valley of the Ohio this is less frequently 



the case than on the uplands. Cyder, of a good quality, is 
annually made in large quantities. Peaches attain to great 
perfection, and are found on every farm. Pears, cherries, 
and plums, of different kinds, are common; some finer va¬ 
rieties of the two latter, however, as well as the apricot and 
nectarine, have not yet been successfully cultivated. The 
vine has not been planted for the purpose of making wine 7 
nor has its cultivation in gardens been continued long enough 
to ascertain whether the soil and climate of this quarter be 
adapted to its growth. 


The first is raised on every farm. It is said not to be so 
good as that of the Atlantic states. The seed, especially, is 
inferior, yielding much less oil than the flax-seed of those 
states. Hemp, a few years since, was cultivated to some 
extent, and found to succeed well in bottom lands: but from 
a depression in the price, it is now neglected. 


These are generally luxuriant. Timothy, red and white 
clover, and spear-grass, are principally cultivated, and yield a 
good crop. Two tons per acre are considered the medium pro¬ 
duce of the two first. They are not found, except when sown; 
but the latter spring up spontaneously on every farm, after 
the cultivation of a few years, and afford excellent pasture. 

Before the settlement of this country, the woods abounded 
in grass and herbage proper for the subsistence of cattle, but 
these have long since disappeared, except in remote situations. 
In the prairies, however, where the whole energy of the soil 
is employed in producing grasses and herbaceous plants, in¬ 
stead of trees, the pasture is still luxuriant, and the business 
of grazing extremely profitable. It is chiefly of Champagne 
and Green counties that this remark is true. In the former, 
one hundred thousand dollars; it is estimated, are annually 
received for fat cattle. The prairies are likewise found to 
support hogs; which grow and fatten on the numerous fleshy 
roots with which those tracts abound. Sheep, both domestic 
and foreign, are already diffused extensively through the 
Miami country. They are in general healthy, and rather 
prone to excessive fatness. Their flesh is said to be superior 
_n flavour to that of the sheep of the Atlantic states. 

The agriculture of this, as of other new countries, is not of 



the best kind. Too much reliance is placed on the extent 
and fertility of their fields, by the farmers, who in general 
consider these a substitute for good tillage. They frequently 
plant double the quantity they can properly cultivate, and 
thus impoverish their lands, and suffer them to become in¬ 
fested with briars and noxious weeds. The preservation of 
the forests of a country should be an object of attention in 
every stage of its settlement; and it would be good policy to 
clear and" plant no more land in a new country than can be 
well cultivated. 


A part of the region watered by the tributary streams of the 
Great Miama, is in this territory. The portion thus situated 
is bounded on the east by the western boundary of the state 
of Ohio; and is separated from the interior settlements of 
the territory, by a tract not yet purchased of the Indians. 
It is divided into three counties. Dearborn, Franklin, and 
Wayne, which extend northwardly from the Ohio river, in 
the order of this enumeration. The two latter are irrigated 
by a beautiful stream, called Whitewater. In soil and aspect 
they may be compared with Preble county, heretofore de¬ 
scribed. The soil of Dearborn is not so good^ except in the 
vicinity of the Ohio, where, however, it is hilly. 

Lawrenceburg is the seat of justice of this county. It 
is situated twenty-two miles from Cincinnati, in the valley of 
the Ohio, two miles below the mouth of the Great Miami. 
Having occasionally suffered inundation, it has grown but 
little; and a new village, called Edinburgh, has been lately 
laid out on higher ground, about half a mile from the river; 
but this is not a place of much promise. 

Brookville, the county seat of Franklin, is situated 
forty miles from Cincinnati, near the junction of the two prin¬ 
cipal branches of Whitewater. It is a young, hut thriving 

Salisbury has as yet been the seat of justice in the new 
county of Wayne; but a village named Centreville, lately 
laid out, is at present a competitor for that distinction. Each 
of these county seats has a post-office. 

The inhabitants of these counties receive their supplies of 
foreign goods almost exclusively from Cincinnati; but little 
mercantile capital being employed at Lawrenceburg, and 



there being on the Great Miami no depot of merchandise for 
that region. 


Lickung Kivp originates in the mountains of the south- 
^.^,ern part of this state, near the source of the Cumberland 
and Kentucky rivers; and, after meandering about 200 miles 
enters the Ohio opposite Cincinnati, where it is eighty yards 
wide. In spring floods, boats laden with 200 barrels of flour 
can descend from points that are more than a hundred miles 
distant from its junction with the Ohio; but for ten months 
out of twelve its navigation is of little value, and in summer 
and autumn it is a moderate mill-stream. 

That part of Kentucky which lies opposite the Miami 
country is hilly; the soil is various, but generally second 
rate, and the population scattered. There are no prairies or 
bottom lands; mill-streams are neither numerous nor durable ; 
and wells cannot be dug, on account of the limestone rocks, 
which, except in the valley of the Ohio, are every where found 
at the depth of a few feet. This tract composes two counties, 
Eoone and Campbell. The seat of justice of the former is 
pules south-west of Cincinnati, and seven miles from 
t e Ohio. It is not likely to be a place of any consequence, 
as in summer and autumn, water, even for domestic use, can- 
not be had under the distance of two miles. 

Newport, the seat of justice for Campbell county, is 
situated immediately above the mouth of Licking. Its site 
is extensive, elevated, and beautiful, commanding a fine view 
both up and down the Ohio river. It is healthy, and affords 
good weil-water at the depth of forty feet. The proprietor 
of tins town is James Taylor, who laid out a few lots in 1791. 
n 1/93, the plan was extended; in 1795 , it became the seat 
ox justice; and in 1803 the General Government fixed on it 
as the site of an arsenal. But notwithstanding its political 
advantages proximity to the Ohio and Licking rivers^-early 
settlement and beautiful prospects—this place has advanced 
tardily^ and is an inconsiderable village. The houses^ chiefly 
of wood, are, with the.exception of a few, rather indifferent; 
biK a spirit for better improvement seems to be recently ma¬ 
nifested. Two acres were, by the proprietor, conveyed to 
the county for public buildings, of which only a jail has yet 
been erected. The building of a handsome brick court-house 



has, however, been ordered. A market-house has recently 
been put up on the river bank, but has not yet attracted the 
attention of the surrounding country. Two acres of elevated 
ground designated by the proprietor for a common, but, 
upon a petition of the inhabitants, the legislature of the 
state have lately made it the site of art academy., which^at 
the same time they endowed with 6000 acres of land. 1 nlS 
land is not productive at present, and the academy is not in 
operation; but arrangements are made for the erection of a 
brick school-house, and the organization of a school on the 
plan of Joseph Lancaster. In this village there is a Baptist 
and Methodist congregation, but no permanent meeting¬ 
houses. It has had a post-office for several years. The 
United States’ arsenal is erected immediately above the con¬ 
fluence of Licking with the Ohio. It consists of a capacious, 
oblong, two story armory of brick; a fire-proof conical ma¬ 
gazine for gunpowder; a stone house for the keeper, and 
wooden barracks sufficient for the reception of two or three 
regiments of men j the whole inclosed with a stockade.. 

Covington is a new town, beautifully situated imme¬ 
diately below Licking river, on the bank of the Ohio. It has 
]ust been laid out by J. S. Gano, R. M. Gano, and T. D. 
Carneal. It is so planned and surveyed, as to make thy 
streets appear to be a continuation of those of Cincinnati. 
Each block of lots has the advantage of two sixteen feet alleys. 
Liberal donations for public buildings have been made. The 
great road to the Miami country, from the interior of Ken¬ 
tucky, from Tennessee, Georgia, and the Carolinas, passes 
through this place, and will be a permanent advantage. It 
is in contemplation to connect this place and Newport by a 
bridge across the mouth of Licking, a work that deserves an 
early execution. 


Cincinnati, the metropolis of the Miami country, is situated 
in a gradual bend of the Ohio river, on its northern bank. 
Its longitude has been determined by Lieut.-Col. Mansfield 
and M. de Ferrer, who differ only one minute and a half. 
The average of their results is 7° 24' 45" west from Wash¬ 
ington city. Its latitude, taking the mean betwixt the ob¬ 
servations of the same astronomers, is 39° 6' 30' north. It 
lies, therefore, almost under the meridians of Lexington and 



Detroit^ and nearly in the same parallel with St. Louis, Vin¬ 
cennes, and Baltimore. By estimation, it is distant, over 
land, from Pittsburgh, 300 miles—Chillicothe, 94—Detroit, 
275—Louisville, 100—and Lexington, 85. 

Its site is the eastern part of a tract of alluvial or bottom 
land, bounded on the north by a chain of ridges, on the west 
by Mill creek, on the south by the river, and on the east by 
Deer creek, a brook which originates in the neighbouring up¬ 
lands. The area of this plain is about four square miles. It 
is unequally elevated, and the upper and lower tables have 
received from the inhabitants the names of Hill and Bottom. 
The latter (gradually widening) stretches westwardly, from 
the mouth of Deer creek, where it is but 200 feet broad, to 
the interval lauds of Mill creek. Its medium breadth is 
about 800 feet. The north-west portions of this slip are the 
lowest. They have been overflown a few times since the set¬ 
tlement of the town, and in March, 1793, the whole of this 
plain was inundated. The Hill rises about fifty feet above 
the Bottom. The ascent, which is at first steep, soon becomes 
gradual, and continues for the distance of nearly 1000 feet, 
when the surface declines gently to the base of the adjoining 
high lands. The medium breadth of this table is about one 
mile. Its western portions are uneven, and towards Mill 
creek descend to the level of the Bottom. On the opposite 
side of the river, the valley has nearly the same expansion. 
The ranges of hills bordering these extensive plains, intersect 
each other in such directions as to compose an imperfect 
square, through the north-east and south-west angles of which 
the Ohio enters and passes out. Being variously divided by 
streams and rivulets, lying at different distances from the 
town, and having a dense covering of tall trees, these ridges 
afford a pleasant termination to the view; but the prospect 
along the river is limited and uninteresting. From Newport, 
or Covington, the appearance of the town is beautiful; and, at 
a future period, when the streets shall be graduated from the 
Hill to the river shore, promises to become magnificent. 

For estimating the elevation of Cincinnati and its vicinity 
above the tide-water of the Atlantic states, we have no better 
data than the following: In the report of the Secretary of 
the Treasury, on the subject of roads and canals, it is stated, 
that Brownsville, on the Monongahela, is 850 feet above the 
Atlantic ocean. If we allow, in the bed of the river from 
that town to Cincinnati, a fall of nine inches per mile, we 

f 3 


have, in round numbers, 500 feet for the elevation of this 
place. The surrounding hills rise about 320 feet higher, and 
have therefore the altitude of 820 feet. In the report of the 
Commissioners of the state of New York, the surface of Lake 
Erie is stated at 525 feet above the tide-water of the Hud¬ 
son. The central tract, between the Ohio and Erie, is table 
land, and gives origin to several rivers, which flow in vallies 
that become constantly deeper as you advance towards their 
mouths. This will account for their rapidity of current, and 
cannot be considered an evidence of any extraordinary eleva¬ 
tion in that tract. There is reason, however, to believe, that 
it is more elevated than the hills around Cincinnati, and con¬ 
sequently, that the interior of this state is between 900 and 
1000 feet high. 

The interior of Kentucky is probably not so elevated ; as 
the back water of the Ohio, in great floods, ascends the rivers 
of that state more than forty miles, while it does not reach 
farther up the rivers of this state than ten or fifteen miles. 
Upon the whole, the medium elevation of the country, on 
both sides of the Ohio, from Erie to the Cumberland moun¬ 
tains, in the meridian of Cincinnati, may be estimated at 850 
feet above the ocean. 


The face of the country around Cincinnati having been de¬ 
picted in the introductory chapter, the reader is prepared 
to engage in the examination of its internal structure. If 
a geologist, at this place, ascend from the surface of the 
Ohio, when low, to the top of an adjoining hill, he observes, 
first, a region of tabular limestone and argillaceous slate; 
then a tract of alluvion, or bottom, composed chiefly of loam 
and clay; succeeded by a tract of the same kind, but more 
elevated, apparently more ancient, and consisting principally 
of gravel and sand; he then arrives at the same kind of cal¬ 
careous strata exhibited by the bed of the river; which he 
sees surmounted by a stratum of loam, covered with soil, and 
supporting occasional masses of granite and other primitive 
rocks. In attempting to give some account of these strata, 
the following order will be pursued: I. Of the limestone 
formation —II. Of the alluvial formation —III. Of the argil¬ 
laceous formation , or the stratum of loam and soil —IV. Of 
the primitive masses. 



I. The calcareous or limestone region under examination, 
is the largest perhaps in the known world. Parallel to the 
meridian, it extends, with few interruptions, but with con¬ 
siderable variations of character, from the shores of Lake Erie 
to the southern part of the state of Tennessee, and probably 
to the cape of East Florida; as Mr. Ellicot informs us that 
the rocks of the celebrated reef, bordering that promontory, 
are calcareous. From the Muskingum and Great Sandy on 
the east, this formation extends westwardly beyond the state 
of Ohio; but to what distance has not been ascertained. 
After passing the Great Miami, in this direction, the strata 
become disjointed, and lose their continuity, but show them¬ 
selves, occasionally, even beyond the Mississippi. The lead- 
mines, in the rear of St. Genevieve, abound in crystallized 
carbonate of lime; and the strata of the bed of the river, 
near that town, are said to resemble those of Cincinnati, 
except that they contain a notable proportion of chert or 

The strata throughout this extensive region agree in having 
a horizontal position, and in containing marine remains: it is 
therefore a floetz, or secondary formation—a vast precipitate 
from a lake or sea of salt water. To what depth it extends 
beneath the bed of the Ohio, has not been ascertained. In 
some parts of Kentucky, perforations in search of salt have 
been made more than 300 feet deep, without passing 
through it. 

In the qualities and characters of this limestone there is 
much diversity. At Cincinnati, it is of blue or grayish blue 
colour; has a coarse grain; receives but an indifferent polish ; 
is of various densities, with the medium specific gravity of 
2.65; affords lime of a dark colour, but of sufficient strength; 
and is in strata from one to eighteen inches thick, which al¬ 
ternate with layers of clay-slate, the argilla fissilis of Turton. 
This substance, which is in larger quantities than the rocks 
it separates, has a dull blue *colour; breaks into thick irre¬ 
gular fragments; softens and is diffusable in water; effer¬ 
vesces with acids; contains neither sulphur nor bitumen; 
and has the specific gravity of 2.55. To the south it nearly 
disappears, and the calcareous strata change their character, 
passing into the state of marble; large quantities of which 
are quarried along the Kentucky river. To the east, where 
the argillaceous strata disappear, the limestone becomes 
charged with silicious earth, the species of slate called shivers 



is discovered, and,, in advancing a little farther, the transition 
to sandstone is found to be complete. This takes place before 
reaching Chillicothe, on the Scioto river. Limestone, how¬ 
ever, again shows itself in spots, but with few of the charac¬ 
ters it exhibits at Cincinnati. To the north of this town, the 
argillaceous slate has a great preponderance over the lime¬ 
stone strata; which have in that direction less solidity, and 
are more abundant in marine remains. This is the case for 
about fifty miles, when the region of silicious limestone sud¬ 
denly commences. It appears at first in large quantities, but, 
on approaching the sources of the Great Miami, it is seldom 
visible. The prevailing colour of this stone is an ash gray; 
the proportion of sand or silicious earth is variable; it is fre¬ 
quently soft and crumbling when taken from the quarry, and 
hardens on exposure to the air; in some places, as at Dayton, 
it assumes the texture of an indifferent marble; it effervesces 
with acids but feebly; abounds in nodules of flint ; affords 
white lime by burning; the lamina are generally thicker than 
those of the Ohio, and are frequently found consolidated into 
huge masses, which have small irregular cavities, and perpen¬ 
dicular or oblique fissures. An additional distinguishing cha¬ 
racteristic is the existence of rapids or cascades in all the 
streams which flow over it. 


A general treatise on the vegetable productions of the 
western part of the state of Ohio, would much exceed the 
limits of this work, and still more, the knowledge of its 
author. Nothing further, therefore, will be attempted, than 
a catalogue of the forest trees, and such herbaceous plants as 
are deemed useful in medicine and the arts. Many species 
will unquestionably be omitted; but enough, it is hoped, can 
be exhibited to prove, that the botanical resources of this 
quarter are not inferior to those of any other part of the 
United States. ^ 


Cephalanthus occidentals 
Cornus florida 

- caudidissima 

-- alterna 


Button tree 
Swamp dogwood 
Alternate-branched ditto 























sericea, L. 



vulpina, L. 

labrusca^ L. 













radicans, L. 
suaveolens, L. 

popular names. 

Rose or red willow 
Shrub trefoil 
Witch hazle 
Fox grape 
Fall grape 
Winter grape 

New Jersey tea 

Indian arrow-wood 

Evergreen ditto 

Staff tree or bittersweet 



Black currant 

Slippery elm 

White elm 

Common alder 

Red berried alder 

Black haw 

Bladdernut tree 

Poison vine 


Stagshorn sumach 
Lentiscus leaved ditto 
Trifoliate sumach 

flava., L. 

Common or foetid buckeye 
Sfveet buckeye 
Marsh leatherwood 
Long leaved viccinium 

Laurus sassafras 

- benzoin 



Cercis canadensis 

Guilandina dioecia 

Hydrangea frutescens 

Coffee tree 
Mock snow ball 

Prunus virginiana Wild cherry 

-several varieties and perhaps species of plum tree 

MespT^us 8 I" ^ ve or s * x s P ec * es an( ^ severa l varieties of haw 











parviflora, L. 

Crab apple 

} . 

lucida, L. 
Carolina, L. 

> Wild roses 


Swamp rose 




Running blackberry 




Nine bark 


Downy spiraea 


Black linden tree 


Oblique-leaved ditto 


Cucumber tree 

Annona glabra 

Liriodendron tulipifera 

Pawpaw, two varieties 
Poplar, yellow and white 






-— Alnus 






Trumpet flower 
Flowering locust 
St. Peter s wort 




ferruginea, L. 
castanea, L. 

Red mulberry 
Black birch 
Common alder 

L'dbldllud^ JLi. KsUCSJiiCk 

betulus virginiana Hornbeam 
ostrva r—r —- 



cinerea, L. 
alba ovata 
alba minimi 
alba odorata 

Black walnut 
Shell-bark hickory 
Pig nut 
Balsam hickory 

There are perhaps other species of this genus, and 
several varieties, some ox which appear to be 

Pinus Abies americana Hemlock 

Platanus occidentalis Sycamore 

Quercus macrocarpa Bur oak 

■-alba White oak 









prinos acuminata 

prinos monticola 












Smieax, four or five species of green briar 
POPULUS ’ ’ *' 


Chesnut oak 
Mountain chesnut oak 
Upland willow oak 
Black oak 
Spanish oak 
Red oak 
Hazle nut 

American arbor vitce 
Rough barked willow 
Prickly ash 










Cotton tree 

Canadian yew tree 
Red cedar 
Sugar tree 
Red or water ?naple 

pennsylvanicum Mountain maple 
Box alder 

americana? C. 

Honey locust 
Sour gum 
White ash 
sambuci folia ? C. Swamp ash 
quadrangularis ? L.Blue ash. 


I. The foregoing catalogue comprises about sixty genera* 
and upwards of one hundred species of trees, which are 
named. If to these we add* the different kinds of crataegus, 
mespilus, prunus, smilax, and other shrubs, which are known 
to grow in this quarter, but have not yet been scientifically 
examined, we have, for the forest of the Miami country, more 
than one hundred and twenty species. Mr. Marshall's Ar- 
bustum Americanum contains descriptions of one hundred 
and five genera, and two hundred and fifty species; from which 
it appears that the forest of this district produces more than 



half the genera, and about half the species, which were by 
Mr. Marshall known to exist in the United States. 

II. Mr. Michaux, as quoted by Dr. Mease, asserts that, in 
the United States, there are ninety kinds of trees which grow 
above forty feet in height; in the Miami country, there are 
about forty-five which attain to that elevation. According to 
the same authority, there are, in the Union, thirty species 
which rise above sixty feet; in this quarter, there are at least 
an equal number which grow to that height. Hence it ap¬ 
pears that the soil of this tract is superior to that of the 
United States generally, for it affords as many trees above 
sixty feet in height as all the states taken together, while it 
has only half the number of species. 

III. The most valuable timber trees are the white flower¬ 
ing locust, white, black, low-land ehesnut and bur oaks, black 
walnut, wild cherry, yellow poplar, blue and white ash, mul¬ 
berry, honey locust, shell-bark hickory, coffee nut and beech ; 
all of which, except the first, are common throughout the 
Miami country. Many other species, such as the sweet buck¬ 
eye, sassafras, sugar-tree, red maple, linden tree, and box- 
alder are seldom used for timber, but are of great value in 
the mechanical arts. Experience has shown that the timber 
of the western country is softer, weaker, and less durable 
than that of the Atlantic states; which is no doubt owing to 
its more rapid growth in a fertile, calcareous soil, and humid 

IV. The most elegant flowering trees and shrubs are the 
following, which excel in the order of their enumeration: 
dogwood, red-bud, white flowering locust, crab-apple, honey¬ 
suckle, black haw, the different species of roses, plums, and 
haws, the buckeye and yellow poplar: most of which are 
common, and for that reason are seldom transplanted into our 
streets or gardens. 

V. The beech, white oak, sugar tree, and some kinds of 
walnut, hickory, and ash, are the most numerous of any trees 
in the Miami country. The flowering locust, abundant in 
Kentucky and along the Ohio, is rarely found more than 30 
miles north of that river. The ehesnut, persimmon, fox- 
grape, and mountain-chesnut oak are still scarcer. The arbor 
vitae, hemlock, yew, mountain maple, red berried alder, and 
witch hazle, I have only found at the falls of the Little Miami; 
while the swamp ash, cucumber tree, rose willow, leather 

appendix. Ii3 

wood, and aspen, seem to be confined to the more northern 
portions of this tract. 

VI. The juglans paean (a species of hickory), aralia spi- 
nosa (angelica tree), and bignonia catalpa (catalpa tree), are 
common in the Indiana territory as far north as the latitude 
of Cincinnati, but are not found east of the Great Miami. 
The white cedar and cypress (cupressus thyoides and dis- 
ticha) are found on the river Wabash; and the white pine 
(pinus strobus) is said to be occasionally seen on the waters 
of the Muskingum; but neither is found in the Miami 
country. The cane (arunda gigantea) seems not to have at 
any time grown north of the Ohio, in this state. On the 
Wabash it is frequently seen, but seldom pushes itself further 
north than 39°. In the fertile parts of Kentucky, this vege¬ 
table, 25 years ago, formed extensive and almost impenetrable 
brakes, which have long since been devoured by cattle, and at 
present not a single stalk can be found. 


Wood is the chief article of fuel at this place. Beech, ash, 
hickory, sugar-tree, oak, red maple, honey locust, and buckeye, 
are most in use. The first, from its excellence and profusion, 
will long continue to be burnt in larger quantities than any of 
the others. Many teams are constantly employed in hauling 
wood into the town from the surrounding hills; but the prin¬ 
cipal part is rafted and boated down the Ohio and Licking 
rivers—the channels through which this important article 
will be mainly received in future. 

As no coal has been discovered near to Cincinnati, but little 
of it is yet consumed here, except by manufacturers, it is 
brought from Pittsburgh, and sold on the river shore at 10 or 
15 cents per bushel. The English chaldrons seem to be un¬ 
known in the measure of this article on the Ohio. 


There are two market-houses, and at one or the other of 
these, fresh meats can be had, except in the midst of winter, 
on every day in the week but the Sabbath. On the regular 
market days, however, the shambles are much more abun¬ 
dantly stored, and exhibit beef, veal, pork, and mutton. The 
last is of superior excellence; the first, though generally good, 
is said to be inferior in flavour to that of the maritime states, 
which, if true, is no doubt to be ascribed to a diiference in the 



mode of fattening. The poultry is fine. The supply of fish 
is not great, though in the Ohio they are abundant. Perch, 
pike, eel, yellow-cat, and swordfish are most esteemed—to 
these may be added the soft-shelled turtle, which is considered 
a great delicacy. Venison is brought from the woods during 
the proper season, and bear meat is now and then offered. 
The quantity of butter and cheese is in general not equal to 
the demand, and much of both is of an inferior quality, which 
arises from the want of better dairies, and a greater number 
of good cows, than have yet been introduced into the fertile 
pasture grounds of the Miamies. Of vegetables, our markets 
afford an abundance. Among these are a great variety of 
fruits, both native and cultivated. Of the former, blackber¬ 
ries, crab apples, pawpaws, fall, winter, and fox grapes, mul¬ 
berries, plums, wild cherries, cranberries, and the nuts of the 
walnut, hickory, and chesnut, are the principal. Of the latter 
may be enumerated many fine varieties of apple, peaches of a 
delicious flavour, pears, cherries, plums, quinces, raspberries, 
currants, gooseberries, strawberries, grapes, and various kinds 
of fine melons. All the culinary roots, herbs, and pulse, of 
the middle states, with the sweet potatoe of the south, are 
plentiful and delicious. 

Within four years the prices of many articles in our markets 
have advanced, which indicates a rate of increase in the popu¬ 
lation of the town greater than that of the surrounding 
country. The effect of this will be, an increase in the num¬ 
ber of grazing farms, the erection of larger dairies, and the 
cultivation of more extensive gardens, for"the whole of which 
the vicinity of this place is most eligibly situated. 


It is six years since a manufactory of cotton and woollen 
machinery was established, in which time 23 cotton spinning 
mules and throstles, carrying 3300 spindles; 71 roving and 
drawing heads; 14 cotton and 91 wool-carding machines; 
besides wool-spinning machinery to the amount of 130 spin¬ 
dles, twisting machines and cotton gins have been made. 
Plated saddlery and carriage mounting of all kinds, many dif¬ 
ferent articles of jewellery, and silver ware of every sort—after 
the most fashionable models, and handsomely enchased , are 
manufactured. Swords, dirks, &c. are mounted in any form, 
and either plated or gilt. Clocks of every kind are made, 
and watches repaired. 



Sills, chimney-pieces, monuments, and, in short, all the 
varieties of stone-cutting, are executed with neatness and 
taste. Common pottery, of a good quality, is made in suf¬ 
ficient quantity for home consumption. A manufactory of 
green window glass and hollow ware is about to go into 
operation, and will be followed by another of white flint glass 
the ensuing summer. Clean sand, of a beautiful white 
colour, has been found in abundance near the mouth of the 
Scioto; but no clay proper for crucibles has been discovered 
as yet on the Ohio, and that article has to be brought from 
the state of Delaware. 

The principal manufactures in wood are the following:— 
sideboards, secretaries, bureaus, and other articles of cabinet 
furniture; all of which may be had of a superior quality, 
made either of our beautiful cherry and walnut, or of maho¬ 
gany freighted up the Mississippi. Fancy chairs and settees, 
elegantly gilt and varnished. Waggons, carts, and drays, 
coaches, phaetons, gigs, and other pleasure carriages, trimmed 
and ornamented. Plane stocks, weavers' reeds, and the dif¬ 
ferent productions of the lathe, comprehending wheels, chairs, 
screws, &c. The various kinds of coopers’ work, for the exe¬ 
cution of which a machine has been erected, and is now in 
full operation. The author of this invention is William 
Bailey, of Kentucky, who in 1811 obtained a patent. The 
power is given by one or two horses, which, with a man and 
a boy, can dress and joint, in a superior manner, the staves 
necessary for one hundred barrels, hogsheads, or pipes, in 
twelve hours. It can also be employed in shaving and 
jointing shingles, with equal advantage. The proprietors of 
the establishment in this place are making arrangements for 
the exportation of dressed staves to New Orleans. 

To the productions in wood may be added the steam saw¬ 
mill, erected on the river bank, below but adjoining the 
town. The principal building is a strong frame, 70 by 56 
feet, and three stories high. ‘The engine drives four saws in 
separate gates , acting at the rate of 80 times in a minute, 
making the product of each saw about 200 feet of boards an 
hour. The carriages run upon cast racks , are propelled by 
the improved short handy and gigged backwards by bevel 
ivheels, in the manner of the best mills. The logs to be 
sawed are chiefly brought in rafts to the beach, and drawn up 
the bank and into the mill by power from the engine. Other 



branches of business will be carried on in this establishment. 
The engine is estimated at 20 horse power, and of Evans' 
patent, except the condenser, which the proprietors have 
abandoned, as being attended with a degree of trouble and 
expense altogether disproportionate to its advantage. In 
place of this, they pour on the waste steam a current of cold 
water, which, becoming instantly heated, is employed to re¬ 
plenish the boilers. The Steam Mill Company, and Cincinnati 
Manufacturing Company, have adopted the same alteration, 
with great success. 

There are four cotton spinning establishments, most of 
them small. The whole contain upwards of 1200 spindles, 
which are moved by horses. Wool-carding is performed in 
several places, and an extensive woollen manufactory, de¬ 
signed and calculated to yield 60 yards of broad cloth per 
day, will be in operation the ensuing winter. It is owned by 
the Cincinnati Manufacturing Company. The machinery is 
driven by an engine of 20 horse power. The products of the 
looms at this place have not been great; but several hand¬ 
some pieces of carpeting, diaper, plaid, denim, and other 
cotton fabrics, deserve to be mentioned. Cables, the various 
kinds of small cordage and spun yarn , are made in two ex¬ 
tensive ropewalks. The latter has for some years been an 
article of exportation. Wool hats are not manufactured 
here; but fur hats, of good quality, are made in such quanti¬ 
ties, as to give a surplus for exportation to the Mississippi, 
where they are exchanged for peltry. The tanning and cur¬ 
rying of leather is carried on at six tan-yards in this place 
and its vicinity; and the manufacture of shoes, boots, and 
saddlery, is extensive. Skin-dressing in alum is executed 
with neatness. Trunks covered with deer skin and oil cloth, 
leather gloves, and a great variety of brushes, are made, of a 
good quality. Blank books, and all kinds of common and 
extra binding, are executed with neatness. 

The Cincinnati Manufacturing Company have embraced, in 
their plan, manufactories of white and red lead, of such extent, 
as will yield six or seven tons per week. The latter is not 
yet completed; but the former, which is the third that has been 
erected between the Mississippi and the mountains, is in ope¬ 
ration, and produces white lead of an excellent quality. It 
must indeed be superior to that brought from the Atlantic 
states, as it has no mixture of whiting , with which the im- 



ported white lead is always alloyed.* Arrangements for a 
sugar refinery were made early in the present year 3 the 
buildings have been commenced, and the establishment will 
be in operation in a few weeks. Tobacco and snuff are manu¬ 
factured in four different shops. Pot and pearl-ash, soap of 
various kinds, and candles, are made in such quantities as to 
give a large surplus for exportation. 

The rectification of spirit and distillation of cordials, are 
prosecuted to such a degree as to give an ample supply of the 
latter for domestic use. But these establishments, both in 
extent and utility, are eclipsed by our breweries. The first 
was erected on the river bank, in the lower part of the town, 
four years ago, and uses the river water; the other was esta¬ 
blished since, on a smaller scale, and derives its waters from 
wells and cisterns. The two are calculated to consume an¬ 
nually 30,000 bushels of barley. Their products are beer, 
porter, and ale, of a quality at least equal to that of the At¬ 
lantic states. Large quantities have been exported to the 
Mississippi, even as far as New-Orleans, the climate of which 
they are found to bear very well. 

The manufacture of flour, at the steam-mill, will be carried 
on to a great extent. The machinery is all on the plan of 
Oliver Evans, and driven by an engine of 70 horse power. 
Four pair of six feet burr stones will be run. Two pair have 
been in motion for several months, and produce about 60 
barrels of flour per day; the whole, when in operation, will, it 
is expected, afford 700 barrels a week. The flour is generally 
of a superior quality. 

In the year 1814 a mustard manufactory was erected 
above the town; but has not yet got into such extensive ope¬ 
ration as to supersede the importation of that article. 

In the fine arts we have not anything to boast; but it is 
worthy of being mentioned, that all kinds of labelling, sign 
and ornamental painting, together with the engraving on 
copper of official and other seals, cards of address, and vig¬ 
nettes, is executed with taste and elegance. 


Vessels .—Flat bottomed boats, keel boats, and barges, are 
the vessels in which the commerce of this place has hitherto 
been carried on. The first will long continue to be employed 

* See Cooper’s Emporium of Arts and Sciences. 



in transporting heavy articles down the Ohio; but the latter, 
it is probable, will be in a great degree superseded by steam¬ 
boats, of which two kinds are coming into use on the western 
waters. From these inventions the people on this river an¬ 
ticipate many substantial advantages—more, perhaps, than 
will be realized; but all must admit, that no country on 
earth, equally fertile with this, can be more benefited by such 
boats. The reduction of the voyage from New Orleans to 
Cincinnati from a hundred to thirty days,* is equivalent to 
an approximation of the two places, or to the annihilation of 
two-thirds of the distance, and superadds, to the security 
and abundance of a temperate interior region, the productions 
of the south, and of all foreign lands. 

Exports .—Of these, flour is the chief article, and several 
thousand barrels are annually exported from the Miami 
country to New Orleans. After this follow pork, bacon, and 
lard; whiskey, peach brandy, beer, and porter; pot and pearl 
ash; cheese, soap, and candles; hemp and spun yarn; wal¬ 
nut, cherry, and blue ash boards; cabinet furniture and 
chairs; to which might be advantageously added kiln-dried 
Indian meal, for the West Indies. 

Imports .—The different kinds of East Indian, European, 
and New England goods, with several manufactures of the 
middle states, are received from Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
but chiefly from the former. It is not difficult to foresee, 
however, that at no distant time the ingress of foreign mer¬ 
chandise will be through other channels. A portage of three 
hundred miles, over high and rugged mountains, must at all 
times be more expensive than ascending a navigable river five 
times the distance. Whenever the General Government shall 
complete the road from the navigable waters of the Potomac 
to those of the Ohio, the expense of transportation by land 
will be so far reduced, that factories and other mercantile 
houses, will perhaps at no distant period be established on 
the former of these rivers. Should New York execute the 
canal which it has projected, the metropolis of that flourishing 
state will probably become one of our inlets for foreign goods. 
But the great emporium of the western country in future 
must be New Orleans. To effect this change in the current 
of importation, but three things are necessary~more exten¬ 
sive and wealthy mercantile houses in that city; an improve- 

* Now done in twelve clays.— Edit. 



inent in the navigation of the Ohio at the Falls; and an in¬ 
creased number of steam-boats. Even under existing cir¬ 
cumstances many articles are brought from thence at a lower 
price than from the eastern cities; of which coffee, salt fish, 
claret, and some other wines, copperas, queensware, paints, 
mahogany, and logwood, may be cited as examples. In ad¬ 
dition to these, we obtain from the state of Louisiana, of its 
productions, sugar and molasses, cotton, rice, salted hides, 
3 nd some other articles. 

Our imports from the Missouri territory are lead, peltry, 
and skins—from Tennessee and Kentucky, cotton, tobacco, 
salt-petre, and marble—from Pennsylvania and Virginia, bar, 
rolled, and cast iron, with several of the manufactures of that 
metal; millstones, coal, salt, glassware, pine-timber, and 
plank. Castings of an excellent quality are brought from 
Zanesville and Brush creek, iu this state. And furs are 
obtained from the waters of the Great Miami, Wabash, and 

The goods brought for consumption in this quarter are 
kept in more than seventy shops. Of these about sixty con¬ 
tain dry goods, hard, glass, and queens wares, liquors, and 
groceries. The others are stores for iron, shoes, and drugs. 

Cincinnati was made a port of entry in 1808, but the busi¬ 
ness of building ships having been discontinued on the Ohio, 
no vessel has yet cleared from this place. 


It will, perhaps, to many persons at a distance, and particu¬ 
larly to those who have not studied our natural and com¬ 
mercial geography, appear altogether visionary, if not boastful, 
to speak of cities on these western waters. Yet it is certain, 
that those who have contemplated this country with most 
attention, are strongest in the belief, that many of the vil¬ 
lages which have sprung up within thirty years, on the banks 
of the Ohio and Mississippi, are destined, before the termi¬ 
nation of the present century, to attain the rank of populous 
'and magnificent cities. The grounds which support this 
prediction are too broad to be travelled over at this time; 
but it may be rendered plausible in a high degree, merely by 
a reference to the Mississippi. If we consider the quantity 
of water discharged by this great river—the vast extent and 
number of its branches, many of which exceed in length the 



largest rivers of Europe—the general direction of the main 
trunk, nearly from north to south, passing through more than 
fifteen degrees of latitude, in the temperate zone—the diver¬ 
sities of aspect, and inexhaustible fertility, of the region 
which it irrigates—the boundless and perennial forests, which, 
in the east, and in the north, overshadow its sources—the 
numerous beds of coal and iron which enrich its banks—the 
reciprocal ties and dependencies, which can never cease to 
operate, between the inhabitants of its upper and lower por¬ 
tions—the numerous states which will possess in its naviga¬ 
tion a common interest, that must for ever constitute a bond 
of political and commercial amity—we must be convinced, 
that there is no river on earth of equal importance ; or, at 
least, none on whose countless tributary streams so many 
millions can subsist. 

Of all the ramifications which enter into the composition 
of this majestic river, the Ohio will unquestionably retain, for 
ages, the highest rank. What comparison the countries de¬ 
pendent on it will ultimately bear to the Hudson, the Dela¬ 
ware, or Potomac, cannot at this time be determined; but 
any hypothesis that assigns to the former a decreasing ratio 
of improvement will be seen to have no foundation; the 
opinion that these states cannot support even a denser popu¬ 
lation than any in the east, is altogether groundless; the as¬ 
sociations of wildness and ferocity—ignorance and vice, which 
the mention of this distant land has hitherto excited, must 
ere long be dissolved; and our Atlantic brethren will behold, 
with astonishment, in the green and untutored states of the 
West, an equipoise for their own. Debarred, by their loca¬ 
lity, from an inordinate participation in foreign luxuries, and 
consequently secured from the greatest corruption introduced 
by commerce—secluded from foreign intercourse, and thereby 
rendered patriotic—compelled to engage in manufactures, 
which must render them independent—secure from conquest, 
or even invasion, and therefore without the apprehensions 
which prevent the expenditure of money in solid improve¬ 
ments—possessed of a greater proportion of freehold estates 
than any people on earth, and of course made industrious, in¬ 
dependent, and proud—the inhabitants of this region are 
obviously destined to an unrivalled excellence in agriculture, 
manufactures, and internal commerce—in literature and the 
arts—in public virtue, and in national strength. 

Where will be erected the chief cities of this promising 



.i 1 ma > r be answered with certainty— on the borders 
of the Ohio nver. They are not likely to become places of 
political importance, for these must lie towards the centres of 
the states which this river will divide; but the commercial 
and manufacturing advantages that exist in lieu of the poli¬ 
tical, are so much superior, as to justify, in this inquiry," the 
omission of every town not situated on the Ohio. Pitts¬ 
burgh, Cincinnati, and Louisville, are the places which at 
present have the fairest prospects of future greatness. The 
age of Cincinnati is intermediate to the others. Their popu¬ 
lation and business correspond at present with the order of 
thmr enumeration; but the time is apparently not remote 
Pot? r- C erei f U C0 “Pfative rank will be assigned them. 
Sf, Cl T m "r f Ud LouisvilIe seem destined to surpass 
Pittsburgh. 10 this prediction the inhabitants of that town 

or 111 L years the entrepot of all the Ohio countries—are 
not expected to assent. It will even be regarded by them as 
groundless and arrogant; but without stopping to anticipate 
and lepel the charges of self-interest and vain-glory, I shall 
proceed to a brief exposition of the relative advantages of that 
own and this. It is well known to all the people of the 
United States, that for twenty years, both foreign and At¬ 
lantic goods to the amount of several millions of dollars, have 
been annually waggoned to Pittsburgh, deposited in its ware- 
louses, ana snipped m its boats for the country below. The 
expense of these operations has, of course, been defrayed bv 
ie consumers. m Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, and the ad- 
joimiig territories, who have thus made to the prosperity of 
Pittsburgh a yearly contribution of great value. Hundreds 
ot our merchants were passing, moreover, through this town; 
und it was early discovered, that, if manufactures were esta- 
lshed, it would be possible to dispose of many articles re¬ 
quired in the newer_ settlements below. Hence founderies, 
glass-houses, breweries, and iron manufactories of various 
kinds, were erected ; and the wares of this - Birmingham of 
America, superadaed to the merchandise of the East, soon 
spread extensively over our country. During such a period 
of commercial prosperity, the borough could not but flourish; 
and were the causes of its growth as permanent as they have 
been efficient it would unquestionably retain an enviable 
superiority. But a change in the current of our importations 
such a change as has already begun—must inevitably re¬ 
duce the ratio of improvement in that place, just as much as 



it will be increased by the same cause in Cincinnati, Louis¬ 
ville, and the other towns below. The waggoners employed 
in the transportation of our merchandise from Philadelphia; 
the boat builders, and commission merchants; the freighters, 
and those who manufacture for these populous young states, 
will no longer receive our specie for their services, and must 
of course find other employments, or emigrate to other towns. 
The coal and iron of that place will indeed long continue 
abundant; but these are easily floated with the current to 
the towns below; which can thus establish the manufactures 
dependent on these important articles, with nearly as much 
facility as they are set up in Pittsburgh—while that town 
must obtain its cotton and sugar, its hemp and lead, at an 
expense of freightage, taking these articles together, more 
than twice as great as that paid by us. The country around 
that place is, moreover, rugged and sterile, in comparison 
with that about either Cincinnati or Louisville; and the 
greatest population it can support will have a correspondent 
rarity. Pittsburgh, therefore, has not so high a destination 
as its younger rivals to the westward, but it must for ever 
maintain a very important and respectable rank. 

The chief advantage which Louisville possesses over Cin¬ 
cinnati, is the partial interruption of commerce at that place 
by the foils of the Ohio. The cargoes of boats, when the 
water is low, are waggoned for two miles round those rapids. 
This net only gives employment to a great number of hands, 
but it makes the town one of the heads of navigation—a place 
ef debarkation and deposit—where, of course, an active mer¬ 
cantile business may be done. If these obstructions to the 
navigation were irreinoveable, Louisville would certainly 
arrive at a very exalted degree of commercial greatness. . But 
the opinion of professional engineers is such as to dissipate 
much of this interesting prospect. The desired improvement 
was actually commenced more than a year ago; and although 
the prosecution of it has been for some time suspended—by 
causes not necessarily connected with the undertaking'—there 
can be no doubt of its being resumed, and finished before the 
lapse of many years. When this is done, the commercial 
importance of that town must receive a signal reduction; but 
still it will possess the peculiar advantage of a site for great 
water works. It will, moreover, be the emporium of an ex¬ 
tensive and fruitful district in Kentucky; for which its 
situation, on a southern bend of the Ohio, gives it a number 



cL^vxrf 3568 ' Stfll there are reasons for believing that 
Sr? f TO BE ™ FUTURE metropolis op Ini 
° X , Its • S7/ V S . more ell S n ’ ]e ‘ban that of most other towns 

than Loiiisville * 1S , s “ sce P tlbIe . of being rendered healthier 
TbI rp • i 1 j a - nd 18 extensive enough for a lar^e city 

so that'al^th^V 4 T th l South ~ east > soutl1 , and south-west, 
so that all the streets, if extended, would, at one or both 

T^hn, ln t t 1 erse f tlie nver withiu the limits of the cornoration 

whtb% ef ° r ^ " great exteilt ^ore, along the S ole of 

S s On^r/ P ef T Shml *° r«™>‘ the landing of 

A survey of the Ohio will exhibit to us the important fact 

So wTereM". ,rgh Lo " isvill ° there is not a single 
spot where a future rival to Cincinnati can be raised up 

m“y be' S ee y n a tha?T Ce t “ ‘ he “P ° f the Mira,i “nntry, ii 
Mavsville wb^h * th? i IVer -i m a PP r °aching Cincinnati from 
north-west • that mi ? S above ’ runs generally to the 

course and * i P assni S the to ™> it soon alters its 

cornse, and hows nearly to the south for more than fort- 

co^LTilirT^fj ’ tIlat Cincinnati lies in a situation to 
mmand the trade of the eastern and western, as well as the 

mSLnXf 1 K - M r ‘ r ,! ‘T This’ is the Jase for 

more than thnty miles m those directions; and when the im¬ 
provement of the roads shall be such as to facilitate inter¬ 
course with this place, the power it must exercise over these 
opposite districts will be still greater. The adjoining parts 
of Kentucky, although politically disconnected, must Ydim 

Cincinnati ° Thus'il^fth'' 6 - 1 ' COmmerci " 1 dependence oS 
Cincinnati. I bus it is the permanent mart and trading 

New a R f 3 W xi° Se f’ ea eqUals the cultivable portion of 

as^-ats - tity * 

.-these are some of the local advantages of Cincinnati and 

irsitT: sp f; «. ** 

arn,Vmnf b t t f , mot fai1 t0 realize their most glowin«* 
anticipations of future greatness. ^ 0 

G 2 



Extracts from the Rev. Timothy Flint’s “ Recollections of 
the last Ten Years passed in occasional Residences ana 
Journeyings in the Valley of the Mississippi• 

“ Eleven years since, this was the only place tnat could 
properly be called a town, on the course of the Ohio and 
Mississippi, from Steubenville to Natchez, a distance of 
fifteen hundred miles. It is far otherwise now. But even 
then you cast your eye upon a large and compact town, a^ 
extended your view over the river to the fine buildings inmg 
on the slope of the opposite shore, and contemplated tne 
steam-manufactories, darting their columns of smoxe aloic. 
All this moving picture of wealth, populousness, and activity, 
has been won from the wilderness within forty years % In 
1815-16, it contained between eight and nine thousand in¬ 
habitants, handsome streets, a number o ; churches, one a 
very large one, a very spacious building mr a Lancastrian 
school, and other piddle buildings, and two commodious 
market-houses. On the opposite shore rose a considerate 

m i o/vmn Vmrinsinmp 

marKet-nouses. v^n me - . ; 

village; an arsenal of brick some_'>““1 ““"f’S !’S 

village; an arsemu ui uns**., r " x . ' a- 

one or two country-seats., that rose still farther, in 
tance. The buildings on each side were placed m positions, 
that displayed them to the best possible advantage, on gentle 
slopes rising gradually from the shores of the river. V\ hue 1 
am writing, it is supposed to contain between sixteen and 
twenty thousand inhabitants, with the increase of every ap¬ 
pendage to city comfort, beauty, and opulence, m more than 
a commensurate proportion with its increasing population. 
It is a fund for proud anticipation, to minds tnat sympathise 
with the welfare of their country and of man. Inis great 
state, which was, within my -memory, an unbroken wilder¬ 
ness, is now, at farthest, only the fourth state in the union m 
point of numbers. There are not, probably, on die earth 
seven hundred thousand human beings, who in the mass are 
more comfortably fed and clothed, than the population of this 
state. I looked upon this fresh and flourishing city, out¬ 
stretched under my eye, and compared in thought its progress 
with that of the imperial Petersburgh—where a great and in¬ 
telligent despot said, f Let there be a city/ and a city arose 
upon a Golgotha, upon piles ot human bones and skulls, that 
gave consistency ti a morass. The awe of a numberless 
soldiery, the concentered resources of thirty millions ot slat es. 



the will of the sovereign, who made the same use of men that 
the mason does of bricks and mortar, must all conspire to 
form a city in that place. Droves of peasants are trans¬ 
planted from the extremities of Asia to people it. Imperial 
treasures are lavished to furnish inducements to entice the 
noblesse to build and reside there. A despotic court displays 
there Asiatic magnificence, and squanders the means of 
ministering to its caprices and its pleasures. The result of 
all these concurring causes is the erection of one splendid city 
in the midst of a desert; and more human beings, probably, 
perished in this unnatural forcing of a city, than inhabit it at 
this day. 

How different are the fostering efforts of liberty. Sixteen 
hundred miles from the sea, in half an age, this flourishing 
and beautiful town has emerged from the woods, and when as 
old as Petersburgh now is, will probably, in wealth and popu¬ 
lation, emulate the imperial city. No troops are stationed, 
no public money lavished hete. It is not even the state me¬ 
tropolis. The people build and multiply imperceptibly and 
in silence. Nothing is forced. This magnificent result is 
only the developement of our free and noble institutions upon 
a fertile soil. Nor is this place the solitary point, where the 
genius of our institutions is working this result. Numerous 
cities and towns, over an extent of two thousand of miles, 
are emulating the growth of this place. The banks of the 
Ohio are destined shortly to become almost a continued 
village. Eleven years have produced an astonishing change 
in this respect; for at that distance of time, by far the 
greater proportion of the course of the Ohio was through 
a forest. When you saw this city, apparently lifting its 
head from surrounding woods, you found yourself at a loss to 
imagine whence so many people could be furnished with 
supplies. In the fine weather, at the commencement of 
winter, it is only necessary *to go to the market of this town, 
and see its exuberant supplies of every article for con¬ 
sumption, in the finest order, and of the best quality j to see 
the lines of waggons, and the astonishing quantities of every 
kind of produce, to realize, at once, all that you have read 
about the growth of Ohio. 

In one place you see lines of waggons in the Pennsylvania 
style. In another place the Tunkers, with their long and 
flowing beards, have brought up their teams with their fat 
mutton and fine flour. Fowls, domestic and wild turkeys. 



venison, those fine birds which are here called partridges, and 
which we call quails, all sorts of fruits and vegetables, equally 
excellent and cheap—in short, all that you see in Boston 
market, with the exception of the same variety of fish, and 
all these things, in the greatest abundance, are here. In one 
quarter there are wild animals that have been taken in the 
woods 5 cages of red-birds and parroquets; and in another, 
old ladies, with roots, herbs, nuts, mittens, stockings, and 
what they call f Yankee notions.' My judgment goes with 
the general assertion here, that no place, in proportion to its 
size, has a richer or more abundant market than Cincinnati." 

“ An astonishing growth of weeds, and tangled vegetation 
in the inclosed lots and fields, attest the qualities of the soil. 
There are a great many handsome gardens, neatly laid out, 
and ornamented with the most vigorous and luxuriant growth 
of vines, ornamental shrubs, and fruit-trees. As you "recede 
from town and the Ohio bottom, the country becomes 
agreeably uneven, and undulating, though apparently as rich 
as the bottom. These elevations are so abrupt and consider¬ 
able, that you have seldom many houses in view from the 
same point. Some of the sites for the farms, in the vicinity 
of the town, are delightfully romantic. The experiment has 
abundantly verified, that speculation and wealth, without 
natural advantages, in the United States, cannot force a 
town. Every thing, with us, must be free, even to the ad¬ 
vancement of a town. Nothing will grow vigorously in our 
land from artificial cultivation, nor unless nature works at the 
root. If speculation, as is said, founded this flourishing town, 
it happened for once to select the place, where nature and the 
actual position of things called for one. It is intermediate 
between the two Miamies, in the centre of a very rich region 
of country, where points of river and road communication, 
from the most fertile districts and remotest sections of the 
state, terminate. The result demonstrates, that the wonderful 
improvement of the town only keeps pace with the advance¬ 
ment and cultivation of the country. 

The great state, of which this town is the natural, though 
not the political, metropolis, spreads from the lakes on the 
north, to the Ohio on the south, on which it fronts for many 
hundred miles. In the north-west, where it joins Indiana; 
on Mad river, and on the Scioto, it evidences its proximity to 
the prairie region of the west. These prairies are but di- 


miuutive, though fertile copies of the more western ones. 
The far greater proportion of this state is thickly timbered 
with a heavy and deep forest, the classes of whose trees and 
shrubs have been often described, and are well known. One 
remark may convey some general idea of the forest. There 
are very few evergreens, or terehinthine trees, if we except 
some few cypress trees, and all the trees are deciduous. 
With the exception, perhaps, of Illinois, this state affords the 
greatest bodies of good land in America. On its whole wide 
surface, there is scarcely any land so hilly, sterile, or marshy, 
as with moderate labour may not be subdued, drained, and 
cultivated. Toward the north there are indeed extensive 
tracts of marshy country; but when drained, as they will 
easily be, they will become the most productive lands. 
Besides this tract there are no wide morasses, no extensive 
inundated swamps, no sterile mountains, or barren plains. 
The whole region seems to have invited that hardy and 
numerous body of freeholders, that inhabit it, to select them¬ 
selves moderate, and nearly equal-sized farms, and to dot 
and intersperse them over its surface. And in respect of the 
smallness of the farms, the number and equality of them, and 
the compactness of its population, not confined, as is the case 
farther west, to the water-courses, but diffused over the whole 
state, it compares very accurately with its parent, New-Eng- 

To an eye, however, that could contemplate the whole re¬ 
gion from an elevated point, it would, even yet, exhibit a great 
proportion of unbroken forest, only here and there chequered 
with farms. And yet in the country towns, and better settled 
districts, any spectacle that collects the multitude, a training, 
an ordination, an election, the commencement of any great 
public work, causes a rush from the woods and the forests, 
which, like the tenanted trees of the poets, in the olden time, 
seem to have given birth to crowds of men, women, and children, 
pouring towards the point of attraction. The greater part of 
the land, in the settled districts, is taken up, as the phrase is. 
But the population has yet, by no means, advanced towards 
the density of which it is capable. The gigantic strides, by 
which this state has swept by most of those that witnessed its 
birth, seem to justify all the proud anticipations of the most 
sanguine patriots, and even the turgid predictions of fourth of 
July orators. If its progress for the future should correspond 



with that of the past, in one century it will probably compare 
with the most populous and cultivated regions of Europe/' 

“Efforts to promote polite literature have jilready been 
made in this town. If its only rival, Lexington, be, as she 
contends, the Athens of the west, this place is struggling to 
become its Corinth. There were, eleven vears since, two 
gazettes, and two booksellers' shops, although, unhappily, 
novels were the most saleable article. The rudiments of 
general taste, were, however, as yet but crude and unformed. 
The prevalent models of grandeur, beauty, and taste, in com¬ 
position and style, were those that characterized fourth of 
July orations, in the first years of our Independence." 

“ Every new inspection of the town, and every excursion 
in its vicinity, gave me more imposing views of its resources 
and anticipations. Improvements are rising every day. Car¬ 
penters, masons, boat-builders, mechanics of all descriptions, 
were numerous, and found ample occupation, and there were 
daily calls for more. 

In making remoter journies from the town, beside the 
rivulets, and in the little bottoms, not yet in cultivation, I 
discerned the smoke rising in the woods, and heard the strokes 
of the axe, the tinkling of bells, and the baying of dogs, and 
saw the newly arrived emigrant either rearing his log cabin, 
or just entered into possession. It has afforded me more 
pleasing reflections, a happier train of associations, to contem¬ 
plate these beginnings of social toil in the wide wilderness, 
than, in our more cultivated regions, to come in view of the 
most sumptuous mansion. Nothing can be more beautiful than 
these little bottoms, upon which these emigrants, if I may so 
say, deposit their household goods. Springs burst forth in the 
intervals between the high and low grounds. The trees and 
shrubs are of the most beautiful kind. The brilliant red-bird 
is seen flitting among the shrubs, or, perched on a tree, seems 
welcoming, in her mellow notes, the emigrant to his abode. 
Flocks of parroquets are glittering among the trees, and gray 
squirrels are skipping from branch to branch. In the midst 
of these primeval scenes, the patient and laborious father fixes 
his family. In a few weeks they have reared a comfortable 
cabin, and other out buildings. Pass this place in two years, 
and you will see extensive fields of corn and wheat; a young 



and thrifty orchard, fruit-trees of all kinds, the guaranty of 
present abundant subsistence, and of future luxury. Pass it 
in ten years, and the log buildings will have disappeared. 
The shrubs and forest trees will be gone. The Arcadian as¬ 
pect of humble and retired abundance and comfort, will have 
given place to a brick house, with accompaniments like those 
that attend the same kind of house in the older countries. 
By this time, the occupant, who came there with, perhaps, a 
small sum of money and moderate expectations, from humble 
life, and with no more than a common school education, has 
been made, in succession, member of the assembly, justice of 
the peace, and finally, county judge. He has long been in the 
habit of thinking of a select society, and of founding a family. 
I admit, that the first residence among the trees affords the 
most agreeable picture to my mind; and that there is an in¬ 
expressible charm in the pastoral simplicity of those years, 
before pride and self-consequence have banished the repose of 
their Eden, and when you witness the first struggles of social 
toil with the barren luxuriance of nature.” 

"At a small town at the mouth of Kentucky river, I 
crossed into that state. I had for some part of the day’s 
ride, for a companion, a very interesting young man from 
Suabia, in Germany. Highly gifted and educated, he enter-* 
tained and expressed very different views of this country 
from those of most of the European travellers of this class 
that we find here. Neither given to indiscriminate praise 
nor censure, he saw and admitted how different an asylum 
these free and fertile regions offered to his poor countrymen, 
from the overpeopled and oppressed countries of Europe.” 

" You will no where see fairer and fresher complexions, or 
fuller and finer forms, than you see in the young men and 
women, who are generally exempted from the necessity of 
labour. They have a mild and temperate climate, a country 
producing the greatest abundance, and sufficiently old to have 
possessed itself of all the comforts of life. The people live 
easily and plentifully, and on the '‘finest of the wheat.” The 
circumstances, under which they are born, tend to give them 
the most perfect developement- of person and form. It struck 
me, that the young native Kentuckians were, in general, the 
largest race that I had seen. There was obvious, at once, a 
considerable difference of manners between the people of this 



and the opposite states, that do not possess slaves. The 
villages are full of people, that seem to have plenty of leisure. 
The bell of the court-house—for their villages were generally 
destitute of a church—would, on a half hour's previous notice, 
generally assemble a full audience, to what is here technically 
called ‘ a preaching/ It was easy to see, in the complexion, 
manner, and dress of the audience, a greater exemption from 
personal labour, than I had witnessed elsewhere. Striking 
marks of rustic opulence appear impressed upon every thing 
here. There is a great difference in the manners of the 
taverns here, from those of the Atlantic towns. The public 
houses assemble a great number of well-dressed boarders, 
townsmen, and strangers. The meals are served up with no 
small degree of display and splendour. The lady hostess is 
conducted by some dandy to her chair, at the head of the table, 
which seems to be considered a post of no small honour, and 
which she fills with a suitable degree of dignity/' 

“ The ease and opulence, that are so visible in the appear¬ 
ance of the people, are equally so in the houses, their appen¬ 
dages, and furniture. Travelling through the villages in this 
fertile region, where the roads are perfectly good, and where 
every elevation brings you in view of a noble farm-house, in 
the midst of its orchards, and sheltered by its fine groves of 
forest and sugar-maple trees, you would scarcely realize, that 
the first settlers in the country, and they men of mature age 
when they settled in it, were, some of them, still living. Every 
thing is young or old only by comparison. The inhabitants, 
who are more enthusiastic and national than the other western 
people, and look with a proud disdain upon the younger states, 
designate their own state, with the veneration due to age, by 
the name of f 01 d Kentucky/ To them it is the home of all 
that is good, fertile, happy, and great. As the English are 
said to go to battle with a song extolling their roast beef, 
instead of saying their prayers, so the Kentuckian, when about 
to encounter danger, rushes upon it, crying, ‘ Hurrah for old 
Kentucky/ Every one in the western country has heard the 
anecdote, that a methodist preacher from this state, in another 
state, was preaching, and expatiating upon the happiness of 
heaven. Having gradually advanced towards the cap of his 
climax, ‘ In short/ said he, ‘ my brethren, to say all in one 
word, heaven is a Kentuck of a place/ ” 



“When the first emigrants entered this country, in its 
surface so gently waving, with such easy undulations, so many 
clear limestone springs and branches, so thickly covered with 
cane, with pawpaw, and a hundred species of flowering trees 
and shrubs, among which fed innumerable herds of deer, and 
buffaloes, and other game, as well as wild turkeys and other 
wild fowl, and this delightful aspect of the country directly 
contrasted with the sterile regions of North Carolina, which 
they had left, no wonder that it appeared to them a paradise. 
I was much amused to see the countenances of some of the 
hoary patriarchs of this country, with whom I staid, brighten 
instantly, as they began to paint the aspect of this land of 
flowers and game, as they saw it when they first arrived here. 
Enthusiasm and strong excitement naturally inspire eloquence, 
and these people became eloquent in relating their early re¬ 
membrances of the beauty of this country. Indeed, the first 
settlement of the country, the delightful scenes which it 
opened, the singular character of the first adventurers, who 
seem to have been a compound of the hero, the philosopher, 
the farmer, and the savage; the fierce struggle, which the 
savages made to retain this delightful domain, and which, 
before that struggle was settled, gave it the name of f the 
bloody ground,"—these circumstances, conspire to designate 
this country, as the theatre, and the time of its settlement, 
as the period, of romance. The adventures of Daniel Boon 
would make no mean show beside those of other heroes and 
adventurers. But although much has been said in prose, and 
sung in verse, about Daniel Boon, this Achilles of the west 
wants a Homer, worthily to celebrate his exploits. 

In my whole tour through this state, I experienced a frank 
and. cordial hospitality. I entered it with a share of those 
prejudices, which I had probably fostered unconsciously. I 
was aware how strongly they existed in the minds of the peo¬ 
ple, with regard to the inhabitants of the north. The general 
kindness with which I was every where received, impressed 
me so much the more forcibly, for being unexpected. The 
Kentuckians, it must be admitted, are a high-minded people, 
and possess the stamina of a noble character. It cannot be 
said correctly, as is said in journals and geographies, that they 
are too recent and too various in their descent and manners, 
to have a distinct character as a people. They are generally 
of one descent, and are scions from a noble stock—the de¬ 
scendants from affluent and respectable planters from Virginia 



andNorth Carolina. They are in that condition in life, which is, 
perhaps, best calculated to develope high-mindedness and 
self-respect. We aim not in these remarks at eulogy, but to 
pay tribute where tribute is due.” 


[From No. I. of the Western Quarterly Review.] 

c<r At the next census our numbers will probably exceed four 
millions. Ohio is estimated to contain, at present, between 
eight and nine hundred thousand inhabitants, and will then 
contain a million. The lady, in whose house we write these 
remarks, is a young and fresh looking woman, and she re¬ 
members, when they were but six framed houses in Cincinnati. 
It contained last winter, as ascertained by actual enumeration, 
sixteen thousand two hundred inhabitants. It has a great 
many neat houses, and a few gardens, which will bear a proud 
comparison with any that we have seen. Nearly two hun¬ 
dred houses were built the last season, and yet, as we know 
to our cost, not a house is to be rented. We have a great col¬ 
lection of enterprising mechanics, spreading the products of 
their industry up and down our almost interminable streams. 
Turn a hungry army loose among us, and if they have money 
in their pockets, it will be their own fault if they have not 
plenty of pork and flour. Nearly one hundred and fifty 
steam-boats ply on our waters. An Atlantic cit, who talks 
of us under the name of backwoodsmen, would not believe 
that such fairy structures of oriental gorgeousness and splen¬ 
dour, as the Washington, the Florida, the Walk in the Water, 
the Lady of the Lake, &c. &c., had ever existed in the ima¬ 
ginative brain of a romancer, much less that they were ac¬ 
tually in existence, rushing down the Mississippi, as on the 
wings of the wind, or ploughing up between the forests, and 
walking against the mighty current f as things of life/ bearing 
speculators, merchants, dandies, fine ladies, every thing real, 
and every thing affected, in the form of humanity, with 
pianos, and stocks of novels, and cards, and dice, and flirting, 
and love-making, and drinking, and champagne, and on the 



deck, perhaps, three hundred fellows, who have seen alli¬ 
gators, and neither fear whiskey nor gunpowder. A steam¬ 
boat, coming from New Orleans, brings to the remotest 
villages of our streams, and the very doors of the cabins, a 
little of Paris, a section of Broadway, or a slice of Philadel¬ 
phia, to ferment, in the minds of our young people, the innate 
propensity for fashions and finery. Within a day’s journey of 
us, three distinct canals are in a respectable progress towards 
completion. Two will probably be finished this summer. 
The very thought of either would have been rejected as a 
moonshine speculation, at the close of the revolutionary war, 
when contemplated as the work of the whole nation.* The 
Erie canal, taking the freshness of the country through which 
it is located into view, is a project absolutely stupendous. 
But twenty years ago, and nine-tenths of the route was an 
unbroken wilderness. Scarcely have log cabins sprung up 
among the trees, when a survey is made for a canal 320 miles 
in length, and with 1185 feet of lockage. It will stretch 
along from hill to hill, through forests as old as the world, 
uniting the limpid waters of the lake with those of the Gulf 
of Mexico on the one hand, as they are already united with 
the Atlantic on the other. One hundred and sixteen miles 
are contracted to be finished this year. The prospect is, that 
the whole will be finished in 1830, at an expense of between 
three and four million dollars. The Miami canal, terminatin 0, 
at this town, is 67 miles in length ; will cost between 6 and 
700,000 dollars; has 300 feet of lockage, and will open the 
greater part of its extent to boats this summer, and is ex¬ 
pected to connect the waters of Mad river with the Ohio next 
season. Cincinnati will soon be the centre of the c celestial 
empire,’ as the Chinese say; and instead of encountering the 
storms, the sea sickness, and dangers of a passage from the 
Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic, whenever the Erie canal shall 
be completed, the opulent southern planters will take their 
families, their dogs and parrots, through a world of forests, 
from New Orleans to New York, giving us a call by the way! 
When they are more acquainted -with us, their voyage will 
often terminate here. 

The whole country above, below, and on all sides, is on a 
march of improvement, of which this is a fair sample. We 
have twice travelled through the state of Ohio from Wheeling 
to Cincinnati, an extent of between two and three hundred 
miles. We have travelled in no part of the United States 



with more pleasure. The aspect of the country is charming, 
with the pleasant alternations of fertile valleys, and cultivated 
hilis, dotted with a number of considerable towns and pleasant 
villages, and sprinkled with a succession of many stone and 
brick houses, not of the most beautiful architecture to be 
sure, but evidencing abundance and comfort. We could 
hardly bring ourselves to realize, that the country through 
which we passed, in a line of mail stages, was scarcely twenty 
years old. The noble national road is completed in many 
places, and you see hosts of the labourers at their work upon 
it. The taverns are every where excellent. The abundance 
of the table would dine a'file of soldiers, after the guests had 
risen. The load of eatables, with which the table groans, is 
universally surmounted with fowls, killed after your arrival, 
and no doubt from patriotism, placed before you in the form 
of a spread eagle. \ ou regale on old fashioned apple-pies, 
and, for the exhilaration of the true sons of the west, two de¬ 
canters of the c native nod at each other from either end of 
the table. All this, except in the towns, where they have 
learned the vile city tricks of bills, costs you twenty cents, 
except in possessing greater abundance, and something less 
of puritanism, Ohio is now what Massachusetts was thirty 
years ago.. The ladies wear caps after the same fashion, 
The bed linen has the same fragrant and home made smell, 
and the women that attend, are officiously kind, and almost 
to a fault. A man who would impose upon their efforts to 
please, merits the stocks. A stray Atlantic city dandy some¬ 
times exercises this inhumanity, and makes the landlady 
blush, that, after she has done all she can, she cannot please 
the thing.” 



A Table, showing the number of inhabitants from each of the 
States, Kingdoms, and Counties. (From the Cincinnati 
Directory for 1325. J 

Pennsylvania . . . 

. 394 


. 19 

New Jersey . . . 

. 337 

Switzerland . . . 

. 17 

New York . . . 

. 233 

District of Columbia 

. 11 

England .... 

. 192 

South Carolina . 

. 10 


. 184 

North Carolina . . 

. 7 

Ireland .... 

. 1/3 

Tennessee . . . 

. 3 

Maryland .... 

. 170 

Indiana .... 

. 2 


. 143 

Michigan Territory 

. 2 

Virginia .... 

. 113 

Prussia .... 


Germany .... 

. 62 

Holland .... 

. 2 


. 52 

Portugal .... 


Kentucky .... 

. 42 

Austria .... 

. 1 

Scotland .... 

. 39 

Denmark .... 

. 1 

V ermont .... 

. 36 

Poland .... 


Delaware .... 

. 32 

St. Domingo . . 

. 1 

New Hampshire 

. 30 

Georgia .... 

. 1 


. 23 

Sweden .... 



. 21 

Rhode Island 

. 20 


. 43 

-The above table is a tolerable correct basis on which 
we may calculate the origin of the citizens of this city (with 
a few exceptions), the principal one of which is, that a greater 
propoi non of the females are natives of ICcw Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, than appears from this table, and consequently 
a greater proportion of the children and youth who are natives 
of this city, are the descendants of the emigrants from those 

This is oovious, from the fact, that more of the emigrants 
from those states, moved here with families, than those from 
the northern states, or from Europe. 


Jumss Bu'.lock, Printer, Lombard Street, Whitefriars, London. 


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Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: Dec. 2004 



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