A R D
FOR USE OF MILITARY PERSONNEL ONLY. NOT TO BE REPRINTED
IN WHOLE OR IN PART WITHOUT PERMISSION OF THE
Washington 25, D. C, 23 April 1945
IA.G. 300.7 (29 Mar 45). I
/~* l _
OSW(l); AC of S(l): AAF(IO); AGF(IO) ; ASF(2); T of Opns (10); USMA(2);
Additional copies may be requisitioned in accordance with Cir. No. 264, WD,
1944 for distribution to military personnel in contact with the Red Army.
For explanation of distribution formula, see FM 21-6.
/~* l _
MEET THE RED
1 O THE AMERICAN SOLDIER— The purpose of the first part of this
booklet is to introduee you to the Red Army soldier — the everyday "G.I."
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. You have heard and read a lot
about him, now you are seeing and meeting him personally. He is your friend.
He is your ally. He has fought hard in this war, just as you have, to bring
about a United Nations victory. The meeting of troops of the United States
Army and of the Red Army is an historical occasion. It is the first time in
history that so many citizens of the United States have met face-to-face with
so many citizens of the USSR.
i n i n j I f pvh hti
Your first contact with the Red Army of the USSR — the Russian Army —
may come when a sentry halts you with a sharp command:
"STOY! Ktaw ee-DYAWT!" (Halt! Who goes there!).
If he hears no reply, he shouts a second command *
"STOY! Strel YAHT BOO doo!" (Halt! I will fire!).
Make sure, then, that he hears your reply. In Russian, your reply to his
command would be:
"A-mee-ree-KAHN-skee bo-YETS!" (American soldier!) or "A-mee-ree-
KAHN-skee-yee boy-TSY!" ( American soldiers ! ) .
The sentry may then say:
"Ah DEEN bo-yets ko mnyeh, os-tal-NEE-yeh na myesteh!" (One soldier
advance! Others remain in place! ).
/~* 1 _
Follow his directions and be recognized. Remember that he is trained to
shoot when in doubt.
In the Red Army, instructions to soldiers on guard duty are strict. Penalties
for carelessness, or disobedience, are severe.
You will notice that a Red Army sentry keeps his weapon either at the
ready, at order, or at shoulder arms. He does not sit down, or lean against
anything. He does not eat, drink, smoke or sing while on post. He talks
only in the line of official business.
Whenever necessary, he calls his commander of the guard.
At night and in bad weather, incidentally, security posts established by Red
Army troops may be supplemented by trained dogs.
As an American soldier who knows from experience the soldierly manner
of a good sentry, you will naturally respect the conscientious Red Army man
who does his duty on post. '
"~ .,- *
If you yourself arc doing sentry duty, listen for the Red Army man's reply
to your challenge:
'Krasno-ar MAY-cts!" (Red Army man!) or "So-VYET-skee bo-YETS!"
In case of doubt, check his passbook — a little gray-green booklet with a
red star on the cover.
i n i n j I f pvh hti
Your first meeting with Red Army troops will be an interesting and im-
portant occasion. You will begin to see at first-hand what your Allied Red
Army looks like, and to understand its morale, discipline, and leadership.
At first glance, you will notice the uniforms and equipment and the general
appearance of the Red Army. You will notice the loose-fitting and comfort-
able field uniforms of the Red Army men: the shirt overhanging the trouser
tops, the single wide belt, the overseas cap bearing the Red Star emblem.
Even in combat, they wear this garrison cap more often than their helmet.
Officers and men alike wear shoulder boards — epaulets which carry the de-
sign and colors of grade and branch of service. They are supposed to wear
olive-drab shoulder boards in the field, but actually many prefer the gold,
silver, and other-colored insignia of rank specified for dress occasions.
/~* 1 _
Special troops of various kinds have their own insignia and dress. Military
police have a distinctive cap emblem. The security troops, or NKVD, have
uniforms of various types. Their shoulder straps have a white background,
and red stripes and piping. The NKVD troops are not part of the Red Army.
The Red Army includes plenty of horse cavalry, among whom are the famous
Cossacks. Cossacks often wear round fur hats; but their characteristic attire
*is the combination scarf and hood, called a "bashlik", distinctively colored
according to the particular regions they come from in the USSR. Cossacks
also wear long, loose, felt capes which are called "burkas."
In cold weather, the Red Army bundles up in winter uniforms. Fur hats
and padded jackets, as well as overcoats are common.
Officers and men wear Soviet decorations and service badges. Notice espe-
cially the Guards badges, signifying crack outfits, and red or yellow wound
stripes (see illustration p. 37). These will be seen on the right-hand side of
the blouse. Various other decorations may be noted on the left side.
The Red Army travels light. All men are armed with either a rifle, a car-
bine, a submachine gun or, more rarely, a pistol; and the necessary ammuni-
tion. They carry a rolled blanket over one shoulder, or a rolled overcoat
strapped to the back. A canteen, a gas mask, an entrenching tool, and a few
other articles complete the brief list of personal equipment.
i n i n j I f FfH hti
Just as among American troops, great differences in physical types are
noticeable among the men from the Soviet Union. You may see fair-corn-
plexioned Great Russians alongside dark, wavy-haired Caucasians; broad-
faced slant-eyed Kazakhs, and other types hailing from thousands of miles
across the USSR, beyond the Ural mountains.
Women, too, serve in large numbers in the Red Army. They serve as doc-
tors, nurses, cooks, and radio operators. They direct traffic. They may be*
found working on the railroads doing manual labor, or helping in other kinds
of construction work. Most unusual to Americans, perhaps, is the fact that
many Soviet women serve also in combat. Soviet women have won fame in
the infantry as snipers, as guerrilla fighting, and by many exploits of record.
Some have even become commanders of combat formations.
Don't be surprised if that tank commander turns out to be a personable
young sergeant named "Masha" (a popular nickname for girls).
Marching on the road or cross-country, Soviet troops appear easygoing and
casual at first glance. Platoons or companies of singing men march by in
route step, in irregular columns of twos or threes. Horse-drawn guns, wagons,
and carts of every description, even herds of cattle follow behind the troops.
Trucks pass them by, singly or in small serials, packed with men and supplies.
Tanks and self-propelled artillery, each carrying six to ten riders, rumble
/~* 1 _
along. More trucks roll along, pulling artillery pieces of various calibers,
sometimes two or three light guns in tandem, sometimes carrying giant 280-
mm howitzers broken down into separate loads. Frequently, American Lend-
Lease motorcycles, jeeps, or 2Vi-ton trucks can be recognized, and a great
variety of captured German equipment.
This is the Red Army which stopped the Germans at Moscow and Stalin-
grad, deep in Russia and the Ukraine in 1942. This is the army which fought
2,000 miles across eastern Europe, pushing the Germans back across the Oder
into Hitler's back yard.
If you were to travel back across Red Army battlefields, you would see part
of the price it paid for victory on the eastern front. You might notice small
hill-top cemeteries where the honored Soviet dead lie buried near the places
where they fell. Individual graves are marked by wooden obelisks, 2 to 5 feet
high, usually painted red and topped by a gold star.
i n i n j I f FfH hti
The Red Army man is a field soldier. All his energies are concentrated
on one objective, his combat mission. His leadership, his training, and his
experience have emphasized this point.
Elimination of nonessentials, simplicity of method, initiative and improvi-
sation, when necessary, are standing principles of the Red Army.
Clean and ready weapons, plenty of ammunition, preventive maintenance
of clothing and equipment are of most importance to the Soviet soldier. He
does not enjoy the use of post-exchange facilities, tentage, and many of the
things the U. S. Army has in abundance.
To cross the many river barriers from deep in Russia to Germany, he often
improvised bridging materials, using local timber and even barrels and logs
gathered on the spot.
/~* 1 _
t The Red Army man has courage and dash. In combat, he attempts to close
with the enemy with an aggressive, almost foolhardy courage. This courage
is reinforced by full confidence in the courage of his leaders, and their tactical
and strategic ability. Patient planning and thorough preparation have been
evident in every Red Army victory. Bold encirclement, even with small
1 forces, is constantly being tried.
Full reconnaissance, aided by advanced technical methods, like aerial pho-
tography and sound-ranging, is very strongly emphasized.
Tremendous fire power as the base for maneuvering is also stressed. Red
Army men call artillery "The God of War."
Medium tanks as the backbone of armored operations, infantry-engineer
assault teams against fortified positions, close support of ground by air forces
— such methods and many others are common to the Red Army and to our
But the Red Army does have some unique methods and weapons. The
heavy Stalin tank, for example, supports the medium T34's and Shermans by
long-range fire. The Stalin tank mounts the heaviest, most powerful gun on
any tank in the world. It is supported, in turn, by a team of first-class, self-
propelled artillery, adaptable both to close and distant support.
The rocket-launcher, nicknamed "Katyusha" is a powerful Red Army
i n i n j I f FfH hti
weapon. Among Red Army planes, the famous Stormovik ground-attack *
fighter, heavily armed and armored, has been highly successful.
Direct fire by artillery has been especially emphasized in Red Army prac-
tice. Massed mortar fire — 120-, 82-, and 50-mm calibers — also delivers close
support to the infantry.
In offensive operations, engineers with the assault waves are trained to lay
immediate barriers of mines and controlled charges, this lesson having been
learned by experience against German counterattacks.
Task forces of varying size and composition are constantly being formed
to accomplish specific missions: reconnaissance, security, assault or pursuit.
The Red Army is also skilled in supply, maintenance, and evacuation. The ^
restoration of railroads from Stalingrad to Germany, aided by American
equipment, has been an outstanding feat.
Soviet medical men have pioneered in several important fields, introducing
the blood-bank system, and improving plastic surgery techniques. They have
restored to full duty approximately 80 percent of the Red Army wounded.
In short, the Red Army has successfully made a science of war. The Red
Army man may recall his exploits of the last 4 years with justifiable pride.
His ruggedness and courage, his technical efficiency and tactical aptitude —
all have been proved in the defeat of the touted German military machine.
/~* l _
SIGNS AND POSTERS
Where Red Army troops are bivouacked or billeted, you may expect to
see plenty of signs and posters. A headquarters in a town or village will be
* prominently marked.
If you know Russian, you may often read something like this on the walls
of many buildings:
"'Death to the Fascist invaders! Long live the Red Army!"
You will see poster pictures not only of Stalin, Kalinin, and other Soviet
heroes, but also of Roosevelt and Churchill. You will see anti-Nazi cartoons
* lampooning Hitler, Himmler, Goebbels, Goering, and company.
The Red Army does not use much tentage or other types of portable hous-
n i n j I f p¥~h hti
ing. On the move, Soviet troops take over buildings and houses, find shelter
where they can, or bivouac in the open air. Where they plan to stay awhile,
troops rapidly construct rough log cabins or more elaborate quarters.
Even with simple shelter, the Red Army man maintains sanitation. Almost
everywhere, standard shower and clothes-sterilizing units are on hand. If cir-
cumstances permit, a Russian steam bath, one of the Red Army man's favorite
luxuries, is rigged up.
Latrine facilities in the Red Army are not so elaborate as in the U. S. Army.
Toilet paper is very scarce.
FOOD AND DRINK
Kitchen equipment is not elaborate. The hundreds of little items of issue
which help to make the American Army the best-equipped in the world are
not available to the Red Army.
Food is simple, nourishing, heavy. The Red Army man is accustomed to
rich soups and stews of vegetables and meat, garnished with sour cream if
possible. A common dish is the porridge with fat meat, called "kasha." Plenty
of coarse but wholesome black bread is another staple. Cabbage soup is a
Endless glasses of hot tea wash down the food. A Red Army man can get
along without sweets generally, but with his tea, he must have a bit of sugar,
/"* 1_ Original fnom
which he holds between his teeth as he drinks. Tea serves as a drink and
dessert. Russian cigarettes, either ready-made "papeerawsy" with attached
holders, or hand-made "mahorkas" top the meal.
In cold weather, straight vodka with a bit of herring on black bread helps
to keep the Red Army soldier's stomach warm.
OFF DUTY TIME
Red Army men, like other soldiers, spend a lot of their off-duty time clean-
ing weapons, repairing clothes, and otherwise keeping busy.
They play dominoes or simple card games, such as "Fool." Gambling is
rare. Many men play chess.
Others read pocket editions of Russian classics like the works of Pushkin,
Lyermontov, Turgenyev; the army newspaper "Red Star," or other serious
works. Singing, accompanied by guitar or accordion is very popular, as is
vigorous folk : dancing — the famous "preesYATka", or knee-dance, for example.
If the equipment is on hand, and the men are not too tired, Red Army
men play soccer, volleyball, and other active games. Rough-housing and
practical jokes are greatly enjoyed.
Occasionally, troupes of entertainers from Russia come by; folk-dancers
and male choral groups especially. Movies are shown, even in front areas;
i n i n j I f FfH hti
history, present-day heroism, and light musical comedy themes are most com-
mon. Occasionally, American documentary films are shown.
Red Army men love to talk — hours on end. They talk of the war, of new
equipment, of their families, of their dead friends. All through the night, two
or three will sit talking and drinking tea. As they tire and drop off to sleep,
others will awake and join in.
t~* i _
A.8 conditions become settled, you may witness formal parades by Red
Army troops, perhaps in honor of an important American visitor.
If it is a big show, infantry will usually form on the right flank, or in the
front; then NKVD troops, cavalry, artillery, and mechanized troops in that
order. Mass formations will be used, as in our parades. The colors will stand
to the right side of each unit. Regimental bands will form to the right of the
colors of each unit.
After the parade has formed, the guest of honor, or the reviewing officials
enter the field from the right flank of the troops. At this point, the parade
"DRESS! Parade, ATTENTION! RIGHT DRESS!"
All salute while the band plays the "Greeting March."
i n i n j I f pvh hti
As the reviewing officer approaches, the parade commander marches up to
"General Jones, the troops of the garrison are parading in your
honor. The commander of the parade is General Popov."
The reviewing officer then inspects the troops. As he passes by the front of
each unit, its band in turn plays the "Greeting March." In response, the re-
viewing officer replies clearly to each unit with "ZdrAHst-voo-eetye!" (To your
health!) and a toast or slogan, such as "Long live the friendship of our
Each unit thus addressed, replies in chorus: "Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah!"
At the conclusion of the inspection, the commander of the parade orders:
"At ease!" Unit commanders return to line on the double. Trumpets now
blow a fanfare, and the reviewing officer gives a brief address. Thereupon a
retreat fanfare, followed by the Soviet Anthem, are played. After that, the
troops pass in review by company or battalion.
Marching proudly and vigorously, they swing their arms freely to the belt
buckle and back, thrusting out their legs stiffly, and saluting with eyes right
and pieces held horizontal.
/~* 1 _
The Red Army Disciplinary Manual says: "The Soviet discipline of the
Red Army must be firmer and be characterized by stricter and more rigorous
requirements ... than other armies."
Every Red Army officer and NCO in command of troops has authority to
maintain discipline and inflict punishment for violations. Ordinarily, the
higher an officer's rank, the greater his powers; but in case of doubt, or in
combat emergencies, extreme penalties may be inflicted on the officer's own
initiative, and he is not held responsible for any possible consequences.
In normal circumstances, a squad leader may give a public rebuke to an
offender and deny him leave for 1 week. A company commander may decree
from 3 to 10 days imprisonment in disciplinary barracks.
A division commander can order the imprisonment of enlisted men up to
i n i n j I f pvh hti
20 days; officers up to 15 days. He can retire officers and NCO's or demote
them to privates.
Officers' Courts of Honor and Comrades' Courts for NCO's and privates
deal with all cases" affecting the honor of the Red Army. These include drunk-
enness, immorality, fights, AWOL, and similar offenses. Such courts may
order public rebukes, or recommend imprisonment, dismissal or demotion.
Major crimes, especially those involving the security of the USSR, are
subject to courts martial. Very strict penalties, including death, are often the
judgments of these tribunals.
The salute is the basis for military courtesy in the Red Army, as in ours.
Red Army sergeants, as well as officers, rate salutes from privates. Salutes
are given only when covered.
In reporting to an officer, a man halts 3 paces away, and salutes. If he is
given instructions, he must repeat them. Then he salutes again, executes
about face, and marches off.
Naturally, the customs of the Red Army reflect the Soviet way of life, just
as our Army is a reflection of the American way of life. -Americans know
how to play on a team, and take their places, whatever they may be, to help
the team to win. Much the same sense of cooperation governs the voluntary
discipline of the Red Army.
/~* l _
With all the strictness of discipline in the Red Army, comradeship between
officers and men is widespread and initiative by all ranks is encouraged and
rewarded. Enlisted men one day become officers another. Having once been
enlisted men themselves in most cases, Red Army officers demand and receive
from their men the same obedience and effort by which they themselves
have won officer rank.
i n i n j I f pvh hti
WHY HE FIGHTS
Talking with men of the Red Army, you will have many interests in com-
mon. These men too want to return to their homes, to work in factories and
farms, and to build up a comfortable, happy life.
Justifiable hatred of the Germans and grim determination to punish the
enemy has been the driving force of the Red Army during 4 years of relent-
The same hatred and determination have strengthened the home front of
the USSR because, throughout great areas, it was overrun and ravaged by the
Twice in one lifetime, they have seen their land ruined by foreign invaders.
The Germans have slaughtered their people literally by millions, carrying
other millions off to brutal slavery. The richest parts of the Ukraine, White
l_ Griainal from
Russia, Great Russia, and the Caucasus have been laid waste by Nazi hordes.
Twenty years of work in building towns, factories, and modern farms has
been destroyed. Historical shrines, ancient churches, priceless libraries
have been deliberately erased.
Every Red Army man realizes, from the example of his own family, that
the home front starved, lived in rags, and worked for him to the limit of its
strength. He knows that 14-year-olds and 60-year-olds alike labored 10, 12, 14
hours each day. He knows that they have produced for him weapons of
advanced design in great quantities: excellent artillery; tanks and self-pro-
pelled guns of exceptional power; simple, dependable, automatic weapons;
rockets; Stormoviks. He knows that they will expect him to be a leader once
The Red Army man already knows something of America. He knows the
quality of American trucks and jeeps, telephones and radios, Spam and
boots. He admires American Airacobras and B25's. He hears of the common
cause of the United Nations.
All these things together give meaning to the Red Army man's oath :
"I, citizen of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, entering into the
ranks of the Red Army, take my oath and freely swear to be an honest, brave,
disciplined, and alert soldier, sternly guarding military and governmental
i n i n j I f FfH hti
secrets, faithfully obeying all due regulations and commands.
"I swear that I will diligently pursue military science, that I will protect
military and national property at all costs, and that I will be faithful to my
last breath to my People, my Soviet Motherland, and to my Workers' and
"I am always ready at the command of my Government to enter into the
defense of my Motherland — the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and, as
a soldier of the Red Army, to defend her manfully, ably, worthily and hon-
orably, sparing neither my blood nor life itself for full victory over the enemy.
"And should I wilfully betray my free oath, then may I receive the grim
punishment of Soviet law, of universal scorn and hatred."
/~* 1 _
i n i n j I ■frY-H m
Red Army regulations call for two basic uniforms: the field uniform, and the dress uniform. Serv-
ice uniforms (called "everyday dress" in the Red Army) are created by wearing dress epaulets and
caps with the field uniform. The present uniform style dates from early 1943, when Red Army
dress was modified and made more ornate. As in the case of the U. S. Army, in the Red Army
it has been impractical to provide any great quantity of dress uniforms during wartime. In fact,
wartime shortages and campaign supply difficulties have sometimes compelled the resourceful Red
Army to utilize even German uniforms.
STAND UP COLLAR
A RED ARMY MAN
This Red Army man wears a typical
Red Army field uniform. He is a private,
but the salient uniform characteristics
illustrated are common to field uni-
form,* of aU ranks up to general officer
grade. The line-up of decorations on
his breast shows how these important
awards appear when worn.
SERVICE UNIFORM: DRESS UNIFORM :
General Officer Field Officer
worn by other
wear one patch
on each cuff
DRESS UNIFORM: FIELD UNIFORM:
Enlisted Man Officer
Enlisted men's Enlisted men's
coats have no blouses have
cuff patches no pockets
and wool uni-
form for cold
for wear in
Red Army personnel can be identified by the basic Army emblem: a five-pointed star with
hammer-and-sickle device. Within the Army, rank is shown by epaulet insignia. Arm and service
may be told by the use of color and symbols on epaulets. Heraldic experts can also tell rank and
arm by various other items of insignia and clothing, but this is a complex science. However, it is
well to know that in winter, Generals and Colonels wear fur caps with sloping instead of vertical
sides. You should also know that service and dress epaulets have a fancy base, while field epaulets
have an OD base.
MARSHAL OF THE
(OF ARMORED FORCES)
(OF SIGNAL TROOPS)
COLONEL LT. COLONEL MAJOR MAJOR
EER OR TECI
(OF SIGNAL TROOPS) (OF CAVALRY) (OF INTENDENCE) ENGINEER OR TECHNICIAN m ^!SS^!ILl )
Worn with Service Uniform
4 EPAULETS-FIELD OFFICERS Worn with Field Uniform
1st LIEUTENANT 2d LIEUTENANT
(AIR FORCE) (ARMORED TROOPS)
Worn with Service Uniform ± EPAULETS-COMPANY OFFICERS ^ Worn with Field Uniform
1st LIEUTENANT 2d LIEUTENANT
(AIR FORCE) (ARMORED TROOPS)
i n i n j I t" pvh hti
M/SGT, 1st SGT S/SGT SGT CORP PFC PVT
(SIC TPS) (47th CAV) (23d BOMD REGT) (2d ARMD BRIG) (7th MED REGT) (3d GUARDS INF.)
Worn with Service Uniform * EPAULETS-ENLISTED MAN >lr Worn with Field Uniform
M/SGT, 1st SGT S/SGT SGT CORP PFC PVT
ENC TECH TPS) (CAV) (AIR FORCE) (ARTY OR ARMD TPS) (MED OR VET) ( INF.)
t~* 1 _
listed men on service
jobs wear the color
of the arm in which
they are serving.
Their epaulets have
brown (field) or sil-
ver (dress) cross-
ARTILLERY CAVALRY AIR FORCE
MEDICAL VETERINARY INTENDENCE
SIGNAL SAPPERS TRANSPORT
MECHANICAL electro technical BRIDGING
i n i n j I f pvh nri
GOLD STAR. The highest
award for valor. Recipient
automatically receives the
Order of Lenin and the
title Hero of the Soviet
ORDER OF GLORY. Awarded to lower ranks, usually for valor. Its three classes are comparable
to our D. S. C, Silver Star, and Bronze Star. Like the Gold Star it carries with it a small pension.
Gold Star winners get free subway and street car rides for life as well, while Glory recipients get
automatic promotions and free education for their children. The highest grade to receive the Order
of Glory is that of second lieutenant.
GLORY- CL. I
KHMELNITSKY- CL til
FATHERLAND -CL. I
ORDER OF SUVOROV. Awarded fur distinguished services. Class I is for higher commanders,
Class II is for corps, division and brigade commanders and staffs; while Class III goes down to
certain battalion staff officers.
ORDER OF BOGDAN KHMELNITSKY. Awarded in three degrees. Each degree of this order ranks
below the corresponding degrees of Kutuzov which in turn rank below the corresponding degrees
ORDER OF THE WAR FOR THE FATHERLAND. Awmk-d to both civilian and military per-
sonnel for arduous service in prosecution of the War.
Den DAMurp 20 YEARS IN DEFENSE OF
LENIN RED BANNER RED ARMY STALINGRAD
ORDER OF LENIN. The highest civilian and military decoration of llie USSR Its award en-
titles the recipient to the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
ORDER OF THE RED BANNER. This order is the oldest of the U S S R and dates from the
revolution. It is a unit award for outstanding service.
20 YEARS IN THE RED ARMY. Awarded for distinguished service since the first days of the
Red Army. A very important and highly prized medal.
DEFENSE OF STALINGRAD. There are a number of Red Army Campaign medals awarded for
service in famous defensive operations. Stalingrad is one.
GUARDS BADGE. Red Army units which have distinguished themselves in battle may be given
the title of Guards. Their men wear this badge.
RED STAR. A lower class of decoration awarded primarily for valor, on a somewhat similar basis
to the U. S. Army Bronze Star or Air Medal.
DISTINGUISHED SNIPER. "Distinguished" badges are awarded to all kinds of specialists for
outstanding work: cooks, mortar men, scouts, etc.
WOUND BARS. R fl d Army men may wear a wound bar for each wound received. The red bar
stands for a light wound, the gold bar for a serious wound.
j^ -1 * f^riniri^l fi^rri
he great bulk of Red Army weapons belong to three main groups: Czarist types modernized in
1930, Soviet weapons dating around 1930, and the recent models of the late 1930's and early 1940's.
Quantities of British and American material are also used, as are old, unmodernized Czarist arms
and captured German ordnance. But the main types in use in the Red Army are the result of some
20 years of intensive Soviet concentration on the means of defense and on the industry needed to
produce these means. The resulting equipment is remarkable. Derived from both Soviet and for-
eign design features adopted after extensive tests, these weapons stress not only performance, but
also rugged simplicity for ease of production and field maintenance. The star weapons of this
Soviet arsenal are the new Joseph Stalin heavy tank (which compares in weight to German Tiger
Island the latest T-34 medium (which compares with the Sherman). In a breakthrough, the T-34's
with their high- velocity 85-mm gun (older T-34's use a 76) use their great speed and mobility to
flush hostile AT defenses. Stalins behind them, Using their powerful 122-mm guns to deal with
located guns, artillery, and strongpoints, are protected by infantry, artillery, and self-propelled
guns. Once the lines are breached, masses of T-34's with armored infantry and artillery dash through
to wreck the enemy's rear areas.
The SlTs support the tanks at all times. The mobile SU 122 is a Ml 938 122-mm field howitzer
on a T-34. It is the main piece of armored artillery. In assault, the pieces of SU 122 batteries infil-
trate singly, aiding tanks and infantry by firing over open sights from concealed positions. On dif-
ficult jobs they are backed by SU 152"s, which are 6-inch gun-howitzers on heavy tank chassis, and
by powerful, 122-mm guns on armored carriages just like the SU 152's. When required, all these
SU's can attain by indirect fire the same maximum ranges as can their guns when these are on
ordinary artillery carriages.
j" l_ Original from
Tank Destroyers of the Red Army are mainly the SU 85 (a high-velocity 85 on a cut-down
T-34),and the SU 76(a M1942 76- mm field gun on a light tank). Unlike other SU's in that it lacks
top armor and thick frontal armor, the SU 76 is usually given infantry support jobs. When used
for AT, it and the SU 85 are protected by infantry. These light SU's capitalize on their speed
to ambush enemy armor, always seeking to outflank their opponents. Stalins also lay tank
ambushes, using T-34's to entice the enemy in. T-34's then attack his flanks and rear.
122 MM GUN M 1931/37
Heavy and medium artillery consists
largely of these pieces, plus a 152- mm gun
on the same carriage as the 203. The guns
and gun-howitzers are powerful piece's out-
ranging hoth their V. S. and German coun-
terparts. Al>o used are medium 107 -mm
guns, more mobile than the bigger 122's.
152 MM GUN
203 MM HOWITZER M 1931
Light artillery is based on the Model 1938 122-mm howitzer, which outranges the German 105-
mm le. F. H. 18, fires a 48-pound HE shell to the German's 35-pounder, yet weighs little more.
The older M1910/30 is a light 122 for cavalry. These 122's are often used for direct fire. Their
adoption instead of howitzers of 105 caliber is typical of Red Army originality and emphasis on
artillery fire power. Also recognized is the need for mobility. For this reason the Red Army has pro-
duced a lighter, M1938 medium 152-mm howitzer, useful when a more mobile piece than the M1937
76 MM HOWITZER M 1927
76 MM GUN M 1939
Direct fire artillery is composed of light, easily-manhandled-guus used in the foremost positions.
The direet-fire weapons of 76-mm caliber are also intended for use as field artillery and antitank,
except for the M1927 howitzer. This latter piece equips the infantry regimental cannon unit. The
M1942 76 has the same gun as the M1939, but the introduction of a muzzle-brake has pennitted a
very light carriage, the same as is used on the 57-mm M1941. Like heavier pieces, the long 76's are
massed at the point of main effort to reinforce the guns of the units which are launching the assault.
/"* l_ Original from
45 MM GUN M 1942
Antitank is mainly furnished by the 45's and
57s, Like 76's, they are artillery, and are
manned by artillerymen. When not in use as
AT, they furnish infantry with direct support
fire. The new 45 and 57 are very high velocity
guns; the M1937 is only a slightly altered
M1932 45. The 45's are of Rheinmetall design,
and -so resemble the German 37.
50 MM MORTAR M 1941
]Vtortars, either as subordinate units or as independent mor-
tar battalions and regiments, play a great role in Red Army
operations. They are classed as artillery, and are coordinated
in artillery fire plans. Indeed, the 570 pound 120, firing a 35
pound shell 6,600 yards, is a mobile form of light howitzer.
The 50-mm mortars are used only as rifle company weapons.
MAXIM HV MG
Infantry weapons include very high velocity
14.5-mm AT rifles, firing AP-incendiary bullets.
Though new models have been introduced, the
water-cooled Maxim remains the troops' favor-
ite, while the M1927 Degtyarev furnishes the
base of fire for the infantry squad.
/~* 1 _
MOSIN M1891/30 RIFLE
Infantry carries semi-automatic Tokarevs
and manually operated Mosins. Tommy guns
are widely used, especially by tank-borne
infantry (who protect all armor), and by
cavalry. All these guns are cal. 7.62-mm, but
tommy guns use pistol ammunition.
TOKAREV M1940 RIFLE
PPSh TOMMY GUN
M 1943 TOMMY GUN
i n i n j I -fp
MP ARM BAND
GO RIGHT AND TURN
The Red Army has achieved a miracle of supply in its movement of the largest armies in history
over the vast distances of the trackless Eastern Front The movement of troops and vehicles is
aided by Red Army traffic control MP's — frequently women. These MP's are strict and mean busi-
ness. They are armed, and will shoot. The traffic they control is made up of a contrast of masses of
American trucks and jeeps, together with thousands of "hay- burners", for the Red Army is still to
a large extent horse-drawn, particularly in the infantry. Most characteristic of Red Army supply
lines are the American 6-by-6's, and infantry supply wagons like those above. Also to be seen are
many Soviet made and captured German vehicles, and various types of Soviet tractors.
A.S military men of various grades, you are acquainted with United States
Army Tables of Organization and Equipment, especially within the scope of
your own commands.
You are aware that organization is a changing science even within your
Army, and you know that battlefield experience has caused some T/O's to
stand pat, others to evolve.
Our Red Army allies have had much the same experience. The following
section of this pamphlet is designed to present a brief picture of Red Army
organization, noting a few practices in contrast to those of our own Army.
/"* l_ Original fram
T HJEJM G PI CTU R E
The State Defense Committee, equivalent to a War Cabinet, directs and
coordinates the entire military effort of the Soviet Union. Premier Stalin
heads this committee, which combines political, economic, and military
The Peoples' Commissariat of Defense is subordinate to the State Defense
Committee, and corresponds roughly to our War Department. This com-
missariat controls the Red Army's finances, regulations, training, development
of weapons, and recruitment of ground and air forces personnel. Premier
Stalin, who takes an active interest in military affairs, directly controls this
office, since he is himself the Peoples' Commissar of Defense. As such, he is
by Soviet law the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of the USSR.
The Chief of Staff, currently General Antonov, is subordinate to the Com-
S^~^ 1 fVininil fmm
mander-in-Chief. He directs the General Staff, and controls the High Com-
mand and the field forces in the name of his chief.
The General Staff of the Red Army is similar in function to our War Depart-
ment General Staff in Washington, and has comparable divisions. In addi-
tion, it controls fortified areas within the Soviet Union, signal communication
of the armed forces, and has various other functions.
The High Command in Moscow is a pool of Marshals and high-ranking
generals, brought together to plan all large-scale operations of the Red Army.
Among these officers are the Chiefs of the Combat Arms, to whom broad
authority is delegated; the Combat Arms (branches) include Red Army
Artillery, Tanks, Air, Engineers, Signal Troops and Cavalry.
In operations involving more than one of the many Red Army fronts, the
High Command sends out teams of senior commanders to direct and coordi-
nate the over-all effort as immediate representatives of the Commander-in-
As an example, Marshal Voronov is Chief of Artillery of the Red Army. He
is the chief of his branch, and a member of the High Command. His respon-
sibilities are numerous, and are both administrative and combat in scope.
He supervises the artillery munitions industry. He is responsible for am-
munition requirements of all arms, including small arms. He is charged with
/~* l_ Original from
the selection and training of* artillery officers and enlisted men. In addition
to these rear area jobs, he has a command function. This combat job is to
command all GHQ (High Command reserve) artillery, massing these reserves
behind the particular front, or army sector, or corps sector chosen by the
High Command for the main effort. Even in the lower echelons, where
artillery regiments may be organically attached to line divisions, Marshal
Voronov's authority may be often represented by command liaison officers.
From the highest command and staff echelons controlling the Soviet Union's
war effort from Moscow, let us now turn to the combat zone to glimpse briefly
the organization of the Red Army down through the field echelons.
In the combat zone, the largest strategic grouping of Red Army units is
the front; the First Ukrainian Front, the First White Russian Front, or the
First Baltic Front, for example. Each front may contain from four to eight
armies. As of April 1945, there were seven Red Army fronts disposed from
the mouth of the Oder to the Danube.
The difference between American and Soviet terminology may be made
clear by thinking of two comparable units; for example, the 12th Army
Group under General Bradley and the 2nd Ukrainian Front under Marshal
Malinovsky. The army group (US) corresponds to the front (USSR). In
newspaper dispatches telling of Red Army campaigns, you will notice that
i n i n j I f pvh hti
the units mentioned with their commanding generals are these numbered
fronts; in American usage, not the army groups but the 1st Army, the 3rd,
the 9th, or the 7th Armies and their divisions are most often mentioned.
Within the Red Army fronts are the armies. These correspond to our own
units just mentioned, but there are so many of them in the Red Army that
they are not often mentioned in the press. The Soviets like to refer to these
units as "shock" armies when they are in assault. Depending on the mission,
they may vary in size and composition. You may have heard of the 62d
Army, for example, which fought so well at Stalingrad under General Chuikov
in 1942. For its achievement at Stalingrad, the 62d Army became the crack
8th Guards Army. Others have likewise become famous for their exploits.
There are also corps organizations in the Red Army. Perhaps the most
interesting of these to American military men is the so-called tank corps.
It corresponds to the American armored division, and is a permanent organ-
ization. Without equivalent in our Army is the mechanized corps, a per-
manent organization of tanks, motorized infantry, artillery, and other units
grouped as in the German panzer grenadier division. Except for these per-
manent units, corps organization in the Red Army is much more flexible
than in our Army; a Red Army rifle corps, for example, may contain four
divisions one week and the next week exist only as a headquarters cadre.
/~* l _
THE WORKING PARTS
Terminology, words, language — are working parts of a nation in war and
peace just as men and machines. Properly used, they are a basis for under-
standing. To begin acquaintance with Red Army organization, the following
is a highly condensed "dictionary" of terms with Russian translations.
Red Army Units
i n i n j I f FfH hti
squad (or section)
The Red Army rifle division is about two-thirds the size of the U. S. infan-
try division. Its small-arms fire-power is only slightly less, however, since it
is very strong in automatic weapons, especially submachine guns. Its regiment
of divisional artillery has fewer guns than dors the artillery of the American
/~* 1 _
division, but this is compensated for by a large number of 82-mm and 120-mm
mortars. The artillery regiment is equipped with 76-mm guns and 122-mm
howitzers, and is motorized.
The Red Army infantryman is a foot-slogger, like most infantrymen every-
where. Neither the rifle division nor the rifle regiment to which he belongs
has as many assigned trucks as the. U. S. infantry division. His battalion has
none at all. The trucks of the division are used to pull artillery pieces, mor-
tars and AA guns, and to haul ammunition. All other supplies are horse-
drawn. This lack of organic transport, however, does not prevent the assign-
ment to the division of vehicles from higher echelons, when motorization is
Red Army infantrymen are strictly combat soldiers armed with rifles, auto-
matic weapons, and light mortars. They do not operate heavy mortars, anti-
tank guns, or signal equipment. All service personnel, such as cooks, are not
classified as infantry by the Red Army; cooks, mostly women, belong to the
equivalent of our Quartermaster Corps, even if they work in the battalion
kitchens. Similarly, men who work closely with the infantry in battalions and
companies are known as engineers, whereas members of our battalion ammu-
nition and pioneer platoon are called infantrymen.
Economy in the use of personnel is practiced in the Red Army infantry
i n i n j I "f pvh hti
organization, and this principle characterizes all Soviet organizations. Crew-
served weapons, for example, are manned by fewer men than in our Army.
The 82-mm mortar in the Red Army infantry battalion has a crew of five,
whereas our 81-mm mortar is served by eight men. Headquarters of an in-
fantry company is one-quarter the size of ours. In general, centralization of
paperwork, administration, and supply services is the rule. Specialists like
communication personnel are usually attached from higher echelons. Even
in the division organizations, Red Army signal equipment is only a fraction
of ours. When necessary, however, specialist personnel are generously
attached to lower elements.
As in our Army, three rifle regiments make up the infantry strength of
the Red Army rifle division.
A rifle regiment has approximately 2,500 officers and enlisted men. It has
a 76-mm howitzer battery, a heavy mortar battery with 120-mm mortars, a
submachine-gun company, and a horse-mounted reconnaissance platoon, in
addition to its main strength in three rifle battalions.
The rifle battalion has approximately 600 officers and enlisted men, a lesser •
number than is called for in the T/O for its American counterpart. It is espe-
cially strong in submachine guns and medium mortars, but has fewer light
mortars than our battalion. In machine guns and antitank weapons, it is
/"* l_ > Original from
armed in a manner comparable to battalions of our own army.
An infantry battalion of the Red Army is the smallest "housekeeping"
unit, and for this purpose is provided with four horse-drawn kitchens; it has
no organically assigned transport.
The rifle company is also smaller than ours. It is organized in three rifle
platoons with rifle squads like our own. It has a heavy machine-gun sec-
tion equipped with water-cooled Maxims, and a mortar section with 50-mm
mortars. It has no 2%-ton kitchen truck like ours, and has only horse-drawn
carts for transport.
Except for its very large number of submachine guns, the Red Army rifle
company is equipped with weapons corresponding to American weapons. The
Tokarev corresponds to the Garand rifle; the Mosin to the Springfield; the
50-mm mortar to our 60; and the Degtyarev light machine gun to our "BAR."
the 19th of November every year as "Artillery Day." From the start of the
war, the Soviet Union went in for big artillery, and plenty of it, and the Red
Army put this arm to good use against the Germans.
i n i n j I f pvh hti
To understand artillery organization in the Red Army, it should be realized
right away what weapons are considered to be part of the artillery arm.
Within a Red Army rifle regiment, for example, the 82-mm mortars of the
rifle battalions, battalion guns, 120-mm regimental mortars, 76-mm regi-
mental howitzers — all these are considered to be part of the artillery arm.
As such they are administratively controlled, together with the divisional artil-
lery, by the division artillery commander. The men serving those weapons
are artillerymen, not infantrymen, and wear on their uniforms the colored
piping of their branch.
Likewise self-propelled artillery, tank-destroyers — in short, all except
small arms (the basic infantry weapons) and tank armament is artillery.
There are as many types of artillery regiments in the Red Army as there
are types of guns, howitzers, rockets, and mortars. Artillery regiments nor-
mally have three firing battalions; but only two battalions are found in
horse-drawn field artillery and mortar regiments. The battalion is the smallest
tactical artillery unit; battery fire missions are rare and, as a rule, fire control
tends to centralization as in our army.
The independent artillery division in the Red Army is an example of a
permanent organization, as distinguished from a tactical groupment. The
artillery division has a complete staff and technical services for the planning
/~* 1 _
and control of a large number of firing battalions of medium and beavy
The tactical groupments of Soviet artillery are similar to our own, though
they are controlled by army rather than by corps. A special groupment is
formed for each mission. For example, a rifle division assaulting strong
defenses must crush the enemy's artillery and infantry positions, completely
destroy his pillboxes, and prevent counterattacks by his reserves. The divi-
sional and reinforcing army artillery are regrouped into teams to do each of
these jobs. A battalion of 152-mm howitzers and two batteries of 280-mm
howitzers may be combined, for example, into a temporary groupment to de-
stroy the pillboxes.
^ r "V >
The Red Army does not have armored divisions, as in our Army. The near-
est Soviet equivalent is the tank corps.
The tank corps is built around three medium tank brigades and a motor-
ized infantry brigade. This set-up lends itself to the same tactical groupings
as within our armored divisions; each of the three medium brigades may
form the basis for a "combat command."
i n i n j I f FfH hti
Each medium brigade has two medium tank battalions, a motorized infantry
battalion (all sub-machine gunners), an engineer company, and other units.
Of the latter, the most important are the self-propelled artillery batteries,
which are always attached from the corps.
Each tank battalion has about 30 of the medium T34's. These tanks are
the Soviet counterparts of the American Shermans, although they are more
Supporting the medium tank brigades in the tank corps, especially in the
breaching of fortified positions, is the heavy tank regiment. The heavy tank
regiment has four companies, each with five Stalin tanks. The heavy regiment
has infantry organically assigned for close-in protection.
Self-propelled 152-mm and 122-mm artillery together with 85-mm and
76-mm tank destroyers support the elements of the tank corps in action.
These tank corps are balanced fighting teams designed to exploit the shock
action and fire-power of their tanks and self-propelled artillery. With about
200 medium and heavy tanks, together with plenty of artillery and other
elements in nice balance, the Red Army tank corps proved to be more than
a match for their "panzer" opposition. Assembled into tank armies. Red
Army tank corps organizations contributed greatly to the expulsion of the
enemy from Russia.
/"* l_ Original fnom
The Red Army is the only army in the world which employs large units
of horse cavalry. Organization is in corps, divisions, regiments, and squad-
A cavalry corps has three or four divisions, supported by corps tanks and
artillery, including mortars, and rockets. The supporting units are all
mobile, being tracked vehicles or half-tracks. Supported further by aviation,
the cavalry corps is effective in large scale operations over difficult terrain or
in bad weather. At this point, it is well to remember that the Red Army uses
cavalry as a substitute for motorization, not for armor. As such, under cer-
tain conditions, it has exclusive tactical value.
The cavalry division is strong in automatic weapons, light artillery (76-mm) ,
and either heavy mortars (120-mm) or rockets.
A cavalry regiment has about 1,000 officers and men, organized in four 6aber
squadrons and a machine-gun squadron.
The saber squadron consists entirely of combat troopers, armed with sabers,
automatic weapons, and light mortars. All its supplies are carried on horse-
back and on horse-drawn squadron carts. These become ammunition distri-
bution points in combat.
At times, during the war, the Red Army has massed its cavalry corps into
cavalry armies, something which no other modern army has had occasion to
attempt in the less extensive combat areas outside of the USSR.
The Soviet Air Forces are subordinate and supporting components of the
Red Army and Navy.
Like the other combat arms, as Artillery or Cavalry, the air forces of the
Red Army are controlled by a Chief of Combat Arm on the High Command in
Moscow. This position is held by Marshal Novikov. He has broad adminis-
tractive and combat powers similar in scope to those held by the Artillery
Chief, Marshal Voronov.
We have our strategic air forces. The Soviets call their corresponding
forces the Distant Operations Air Fleet, and this fleet is organized in divisions
and regiments of long-range bombers.
A second major organization is the Civilian Air Fleet, or Air Transport
1 leet. It is subordinate to the military air forces for the duration of the war.
The function of this organization is to provide courier service, transport of
all kinds, supply of advance forces, and the evacuation of wounded.
Both of the aforementioned fleets are directly controlled by the High Com-
mand in Moscow.
The third major organization of Soviet aviation includes air armies, air
force divisions, flight regiments. The regiment, equivalent to our squadron,
is the only fixed organization. Depending on ground requirements, an air
force division or an air army might be assembled. For example, a First Air
Army might back up the First Baltic Front.
Flight regiments may consist of fighters, close-support aircraft, bombers,
reconnaissance planes, and of other types.
Popular Soviet fighter planes are the YAK, and the MIG. For close-support,
the Stormovik (IL-series) and the American A-20 are used. Other American
planes, including the Airacobra and the B-25 are employed. The "jeep-
plane" for artillery spotting is the Soviet U2. All Red Army planes can be
recognized by the Red Star emblem.
The Soviets have used many U. S. planes to advantage. More American
planes have been sent to the USSR than to any other country by the Lend-
Lease agreement. As of 1 December 1944, we had shipped 12,000 planes to
help kill Germans on the Russian battle fronts.
i n i n j I f pvh hti
The following sections contain information on staff and supply organiza-
tion and procedure in the Red Army, and a brief description of Soviet mili-
tary government. These are merely highlights of technical and very broad
subjects. Differences between Red Army methods and those of the American
Army will probably be most readily comprehended by officers with staff
experience. However, any enlisted man or officer may gain an increased real-
ization of the fact that the Red Army, like our own, requires plenty of experts
and specialists in higher headquarters, and that command channels and
supply channels, however involved they may seem, are essential to the smooth
functioning and coordination of vast assemblies of men and machines for war.
/~* 1 _
COMMAND AND STAFF
All Red Army units of regimental or greater size have well-developed com-
mand and staff organizations. Battalion units have merely a commander, and
senior and junior adjutants.
The following description of command and staff organization in the Red
Army is highly condensed. The principles are applied to regiment, division,
corps, army, front, on up to the High Command. Naturally, there are varia-
tions in the various echelons. By comparing the division headquarters— Red
Army with American — a fairly good average picture can be drawn.
As in the U. S. Army, the commanding officer is responsible for all basic
decisions such as schemes of maneuver. He concentrates on control of opera-
tions, delegating administration to the greatest possible extent.
Close to the commanding officer is a special staff called the "political appa-
i n i n j I f FfH hti
ratus" which supervises political and civil affairs, counterintelligence, courts
martial, and recreation. It is not concerned with planning or operations.
The Chief of Staff is the second-in-command. He is the only person author-
ized to act in the name of the commanding officer. He commands the Staff,
and directs the work of all the Chiefs of Arms and Services. He signs all
field orders. The staff cryptographic officer is directly responsible to him.
The Staff is an advisory body and has no command functions. It coordinates
the detailed plans submitted to the Chief of Staff by the Chiefs of Arms and
Services (Artillery or Signal representatives to the division, for example ) . The
Staff provides operational security, and supervises signal communications.
The Staff has the following specific functions: operations, combat intelli-
gence, signal communications including postal service, statistical control,
The Chiefs of Arms and Services prepare detailed plans for the pertinent
employment of all specialist elements. For example, the Chief of Artillery is
responsible for coordinating all fire of artillery (guns, howitzers, rockets,
mortars) down to battalion level, including organic and attached units. In
the operations stage, he continues command of all units of his arm not other-
wise delegated or attached to lower units. He maintains contact by means
of artillery command liaison officers, wire and wireless communications.
/~* 1 _
The Chiefs of the various services of supply are charged with actual opera-
tions, even though over-all coordination is a function of the Staff. The opera-
tional responsibility is centralized in rear area districts or supply route centers
which control all transport and construction, and provide local defense and
security troops. Individual services deal entirely and directly through their
own channels. For example, the medical service displaces its installations and
units forward on its own initiative.
Air staffs generally resemble ground staffs in organization and operation.
Each staff, however, operates in three groups under the Chief of Staff : the
operational group, the technical group, and the administrative group.
There are two categories of liaison functions in the Red Army. The first
consists of officers attached to a higher staff from a subordinate unit such as a
representative of a regimental commander attached to the divisional staff. The
second category consists of liaison officers sent by a higher, staff to a subor-
dinate staff. For example, the artillery commander of the 3d White Russian
Front may send a high ranking artillery officer to the Nth Guards Army vo
supervise and control the artillery units of that army. Such officers are
called "command liaison officers."
The paper work of staff operation consists of documents such as field
orders, administrative orders, reports and summaries.
i n i n j I f FfH hti
Paper work is concentrated at the army level; there is practically none
in regiments and below.
Field documents based on urgency are divided into groups *'G," "K" and
"B." Group "G" documents are urgent or operational priority; field orders
are always in this group. They may be classified "G" only by the Comman-
der and the Chief of Staff, and are personally handled by the heads of arms
and services concerned for coding and transmission.
Group "K" documents are to be opened by the addressee only, and are
received and dispatched personally by the Commander, the Chief of Staff
and specially designated personnel only.
Group "B' documents consist of orders and reports pertaining to combat
organization and security. They are delivered by the officers' of the arms and
services in accordance with a time schedule prepared by the signal officer and
approved by the Chief of Staff.
Security classifications are as follows: "Sovershenno Sekretno" (correspond-
ing to our Top Secret) is used for all operational orders; "Sekretno" (corre-
sponding to our Secret and Confidential) is used for army tables of organiza-
tion and equipment, intelligence reports; "Dlya Sluzhebnogo Polzovanya"
(corresponding to our Confidential and Restricted) is used for current field
service regulations and administrative orders.
/~* 1 _
SERVICES OF SUPPLY
The Red Army supply system operates on the following principles: de-
livery of supplies forward, rigid priorities, and the use of local resources. The
delivery of supplies forward means that armies deliver supplies to divisions;
divisions deliver supplies to regiments and independent battalions.
Artillery ammunition delivery differs in that divisions, regiments, and com-
bat groups deliver ammunition directly to the firing positions of their organic
or attached artillery.
Rigid priorities of supply are established, particularly during rapid ad-
vances. Ammunition and fuel have the first priority on transportation, food
has second priority; all other types of supplies move forward by every means
available. Local resources such as food, construction materials, and houses
are used to the maximum possible degree.
i n i n j I hti
The front (army group) maintains rail communication into the combat
zone; its main base of supplies is 200 to 400 miles in rear of the fighting line.
Regulating stations for rail traffic and major dumps are located on the main
line between the rearmost depot and the army forward depot. The latter
point is the railhead, some 50 miles to the rear of the fighting. Supplies move
forward from the army depot to divisions primarily by motor transport.
Each supply road is divided into sections under a commandant who is respon-
sible for all transportation, traffic regulation, road and bridge maintenance,
construction and security. The sections vary in length from 30 to 60 miles,
depending on the type and condition of the roads. Local labor is often con-
scripted for construction and maintenance.
Each division maintains a divisional exchange point, or centralized supply
and service area, 6 to 10 miles from the front line. From here, supplies are
sent to the regiments and directly to divisional artillery firing positions. Regi-
mental supply points deliver supplies to their battalions, and directly to regi-
mental mortar and cannon firing positions. The battalion is the basic house-
keeping unit, which maintains its kitchens and ammunition carts within
1 or 2 miles of the front line.
Supply classes in the Red Army differ considerably from those of the U. S.
Army. Artillery supplies, for instance, include artillery ordnance and instru-
/"* l_ Original from
ments; small arms; and all ammunition. Other arms and services, such as
engineers, tank and air arms, and the chemical, medical and veterinary ser-
vices, control corresponding types of supplies. Special sections of the Inten-
dance (QM) Service provide food and forage, clothing and fuel. The engi-
neers provide water.
In armored and motorized units, the corps and the brigade have supply
and evacuation responsibilities. Maintenance in armored units is similar to
the echelon system of the U. S. Army, preventive maintenance being stressed.
Company, battalion and regimental medical detachments collect and give
first aid to the wounded. Divisional ambulance units and returning supply
vehicles remove them to the divisional stations, which are equipped to per-
form emergency operations. From there, army ambulances, returning supply
vehicles, and ambulance planes carry the wounded to the railhead where
they are sorted. From the sorting station, the casualties are evacuated in
hospital trains to specialized hospitals in the deep rear. Patients with head
wounds, abdominal wounds, contagious diseases, etc., are sent to specialized
hospitals for treatment.
Civil administration will vary greatly in occupied enemy countries as com-
pared with occupied friendly territory.
In territory occupied by the Red Army, all main transportation traffic
points have a Red Army Commandant in charge of all military and civilian
affairs not delegated to local administrators. Signs are posted to designate the
headquarters of the military garrison.
The Red Army Commandant of the local garrison is appointed by a district
commander who, in turn, has been appointed by the commanding general of
a front or army.
The Commandant is senior to higher ranking Red Army officers with pass-
ing troops or with temporarily billeted troops in the garrison, and his orders
concerning garrison duties are complied with by everyone within the area.
/"* l_ Original from
The garrison may consist of various Red Army units and NKVD troops,
and includes troops from outside the garrison who may be billeted therein.
The Commandant enforces adherence to military discipline and dress,
orders areas to be placed under guard, and establishes a guard schedule. Other
policies are directed by the district commanders or by the higher military
Systematic processing of refugees, maintaining community kitchens to feed
them as well as the local population may be additional administrative func-
tions of the Commandant.
Red Army military requirements have the highest priority in all matters
involving transportation, billeting, hospitalization, and evacuation of
wounded, as well as the requisitioning of food and other supplies.
In general, a Red Army garrison Commandant is given broad powers and
can override any decisions of civilian committees on any matters affecting the
military. This authority is established by the Soviet Law invoked on 22 June
1941, which legalizes, in areas under Martial Law, any measures controlling
civilian work conscription, evacuation, requisitioning, or curfew regulations
which may be deemed necessary.
<& U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1945—642286
i n i n j I f pvh hti
n i n j I f f