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in 

EUROPE , AFRICA, and ASIA, 

performed 

BETWEEN THE YEARS I 77 O AND 1779- 


IN FOUR VOLUMES. 


VOL. HI. 

CONTAINING A 

VOYAGE TO JAPAN,. 

AND 

TRAVELS INDIFFERENT PARTS OF THAT EMPIRE. 

IN THE YEARS I775 AND 6. 


THE SECOND EDITION. 


BY CHARLES PETER THUNBERG, M.D. 

Knight of the Order of Vara, ProfetTor of Botany in the Unlverfity of Upfat. 
and Member of various Academies and learned Societies both in 
Sweden and other Countries. 


LONDON! 

PRINTED FOR F* AND C. KIYINGTON, N° 62 j 

st, Paul’s church-yard; 

AND SOLD RY W. RICHARDSON, CORNtfJLL* 







P R E F A G E 


TO THE 

T II I R D VOLUME. 


1 HIS third volume of my Travels eompriles 
an account of my adventures in Japan, to- 
gether with the hiftory of that country. It 
was intended to contain a greater number of 
fheets, and to elofe my journal ; but feveral cir- 
cumftances have rendered the execution of this 
impoflible, and obliged me to referve fome part 
of my obfervations for a future period, and a 
fourth volume. This I am inclined to hope 
will not long be wanting} my countrymen’s in- 
clination to read this prefent volume, and the fale 
of the two former, will much accelerate ics ap- 
pearance. 

The empire of Japan is in many rdpe&s £ 
Angular country, and with regard to cuftoms and 

IB- 


VI 


PREFACE. 


mftitutions totally different from Europe, or, I 
had almoft faid, from any other part of the 
world. It has therefore ever been a fubjedt of 
wonder to other nations, and has been alter- 
nately extolled and decried. Of all the nations 
that inhabit the three large ft parts of the globe, 
the Japanefe deferve to rank the firft, and to be 
compared with the Europeans ; and although 
in many points they muff yield the palm to the 
, latter, yet in various other refpefts they may with 
great juftice be preferred to them. Here, in- 
deed, as well as in other countries, are found both 
iifeful and pernicious eftablifhments, both rational 
and abfurd inftitutions ; yet, Hill we muff admire 
the fteadinefs which conftitutes the national cha- 
racter; the immutability which reigns in the 
adminiftration of their laws, and in the exercife 
of their public functions } the unwearied affi- 
duity of this nation to do, and to promote what 
is ufeful, and a hundred other things of a fimilar 
nature. That fo numerous a people as this, 
fhould love fo ardently and fo uiiiverfally (with- 
out even a fmgle exception to the contrary) 
their native country, their government, and each 
other ; that the whole country ffiould be, as it 
.were, inclofed, fo that no native can get out, 
nor foreigner enter irij without per million ; that 
their laws fhould have remained unaltered for 
feveral thou fa nd years, and that jultice fnould 

b e 


PREFACE. Vlt 

be adminifterea without partiality or refpect to 
perfons; that the government can neither be- 
come defpotic nor evade the lav/s in order to 
grant pardons or do other acts of mercy j that 
the monarch and all his fubjedts fliould be clad 
alike in a peculiar national drefs; that no 
fafliions fliould be adopted from abroad, nor new 
ones invented at home; that no foreign war fliould 
have been waged for centuries paft, and inte- 
rior commotions fliould be for ever prevented ; 
that a great variety of religious fedts fliould live 
in peace and harmony together; that hunger 
and want fliould be almoft unknown, or at leaft 
known but feldom, &c. All this mult appear 
as improbable, and, to many, as impoflible, as 
it is ftridtly true, and deferving of the utmofl: 
attention. 

I have endeavoured to delineate this nation, 
fuch as it really is, without, on the one hand, too 
highly extolling its advantages, or, on the, other, 
too feverely cenfuring its defodts. I put down daily 
upon paper whatever came to my knowledge; 
but feveral fubjedts, fuch as their internal (economy, 
language, government, public vaorjhip, &c. I have 
flnce colledted and drawn together from differ- 
ent parts of my journal, for the purpofe of treat- 
ing of them in one place, and in order to avoid 
fpeaking of them i'eparately on different ccca- 
fions. 


N 




- -r 












viii PREFACE. 

No country in the world, perhaps, undergoes 
fewer changes than Japan, which has been both 
well and amply defcribed by the learned D oft or 
KvEmpfer, in his hiftory of this country. Some, 
neverthelefs, I have found; and have committed 
to writing the few alterations which have occurred 
in matters of fmaller moment at leaft, during 
the fpace of nearly a hundred years. 

But as natural hiftory has in a particular man- 
ner engaged my attention, I have not only en- 
deavoured diligently to colleft the minerals, ani- 
mals, and plan Is of this country, but alfo to 
render them in fome degree ufeful and ad- 
vantageous to Europe, and the country that gave 
me birth. O ! how great would be my joy, 
without the leaft tinfture of arrogance, could I 
but in any meafure arrive at this conftant object 
of my moft fervent willies ! 

In a feparate treatife, under the title of 
Flora Japomca , I have defcribed fuch plants as I 
have found on the Nipon iflands, and at the lame 
time indicated their ufes. But in this account 
of my travels, I have made mention of fuch only 
as exhibit lome remarkable ufe in rural and do- 
meftic oeconomy, and in the art of healing. 

Thus, for food are ufed, befides a great quan- 
tity of fifties, and other marine animals, the Poly- 
gonum fagopyrum, Diofcorea Japonica, Vicia 
faba, Pifum fativum, Phafeolus vulgaris and 

radiatus. 


PREFACE. 


IX 


radial us, fcvcral of the UIvze ard Fuci, the 
Oiyza fativa, Arum efculentum, Juglans nigra, 
Fagus Caftanea, Mt-fpilus Japonica, &c. 

For dr effing viliuals fever al oils expreffed from 
feeds are made ufe of, which oils alfo ferve for 
burning in lamps ; fuch as the oil procured from 
the Braffica orientalis, Dryandr a Japonica, Meiia 
azedarach, Sefamum, &c. 

As fpices, and by way of dejfert at tabic, are 
ufed Onions, the roots of Bamboos, the Amo- 
mum Mioga, Conomon, and Menyanthes nym- 
phoides. 

Clothes are made of Cotton, the Morns papy- 
rifera and fillc, and cordage of different forts of 
Nettles. 

Into houje -furniture and various implements 
are wrought up feveral ufeful forts of wood : 
fuch as the Lindera, the Deutzia, Pin us Abies, 
Box, Cupreflus, &c. 

Materials for dying are taken from a fpecies 
of Betula, and from the Gardenia florida. 

Shtick-hedges are formed of the Lycium Japo- 
nicum. Citrus trifoliaca, the Gardenia, Vibur- 
nums, Thujas, Spiraeas j and arbours are made of 
the Dolichos pojyftachyos. 

By way of ornament , Skimmi is placed in the 
temples, and for a particular purpofe in rural 
ceconomy the Haliotis is ufed. 


Medicines 


Mcdiams are prepared of the Polygonum 
mulriflomm, Convallaria Japonica, Chenopo- 
dium fcoparia, Acorus calamus, Dracontium 
polvphyllum, Inula helenium, the Root of 
China, the Corchorus japonicus, and the La- 
certa Japonica. 




PREFACE 


OF THE 

TRANSLATOR, 


The merits of the Chevalier Thunberg are 
too well and too univerfally known, to need 
any recommendation from the Tranflator of 
his Travels to the Reader. In fact, it is notori- 
ous that this illuftrious naturalift, not content 
with having attained to the fummits of natural 
hiftory, has contributed greatly to the advance- 
ment of its boundaries, by inveftigat-ifig the natu- 
ral products of a great variety of countri&s fttu- 
ated in three different quarters of the globe > in- 
fo much that he may aim oft exclaim with the 
hero of Virgil, 


“ Qaa: rsgb ia terns n.iftri non plena laboris l” 


Sli PREFACE, 

And as the Author mu ft be allowed to have 
feen much, he cannot be denied the praife of 
having related what he has feen, if not with the 
greateft elegance and precifion, yet with the 
ftriCteft regard to truth, and an exaftnefs not 
often found in writers of travels. In delineating 
the manners of nations indeed, the learned Pro- 
fefior muft yield the palm ro many of his con- 
currents ; but in inveftigating the natural pro- 
ductions of the different countries he has paffed 
through, he will, perhaps, be found to be equalled 
by very few, and excelled by none. 

In the account he has given of his peregrin- 
ations through various parts of Europe, our 
Author, it muft be confeffed, has been frequently 
too drcumftantial and particular : of this, in the 
original, a remarkable inftance occurs in his 
enumeration of the different Profeffors in Paris, 
which, not only as it is abfolutely uninterefting 
to far the greater part of his readers, but alfa 
as fince the late revolution in France a total 
change has taken place in that department, is 
omitted in the tranflation. 

If, however, this too fcrupulous writer has 
been fometimes led by his exccffive regard for 
truth, and an almoft inordinate defire of accu- 
racy into tedious details and minute obfervations, 
the fame charge cannot be brought againft the 
relation of his travels in the fouthern extremity 

of’ 


PREFACE* 


xm 


of Africa, which, as, exclufively of other excur- 
iioas, he has gone over the fame ground as 
Profeflor Sparr.vtan, may be confidered as a 
ufeful, and indeed, in many refpefts, a neceflary 
fupplement to his lively and well-informed coun- 
tryman’s entertaining defcription of that country. 

But what moft of all enhances the merits of 
the following fbeets is, his defcription of J* pan, 
for which this lnquificive traveller has had oppor- 
tunities that none elfe has enjoyed fioce the ex- 
pulfion of the Portuguefe from that iflands 
opoortunities, which, it is prefumed, he has 
made ufe of, to the great emolument as well as 
the entertainment of his readers. 


fa 





ADVERTISEMENT. 


io the •preceding obfervations it may he necef- 
jary to add, that the Author , noiwithftanding what 
he has advanced in the Preface to the third 
volume , having changed bis mind with refpeCt to 
the publication of a fourth , thefe fleets were jttfi 
printed off (on a fuppojition that the work was 
complete ) when the Pranfator very unexpectedly 
received from him the loft volume , which will be 
prefentsd to the world in an EngUfh drefs , as foon 
as, by the fate of the former volumes , the work 
jhall appear to be fiamped with the approbation 
of the Britijb Public. 

Phis, it is pref umed , will not long be with- 
held, as a tranflation of thefe travels was pub- 
lifoed tn Germany , as fafi as each volume ap- 
peared, and was received with avidity by that 
learned and ingenious nation , 





m 




w. 






m 











TRAVELS 

• - 

IN " * 1 

EUROPE, AFRICA AND ASIA. • 


A VOYAGE TO JAPAJT, 1J7 $* 

> ^ t _ 

On the 10th of June, 1775, I went on board 
of the Stavenife, one of the three-decked vefiels 
bound from Batavia to Japan. For fome time 
pad the Dutch Eaft India company has fent 
two fhips only to that empire, which fhips are 
feledted by the government in Batavia for this 
purpole, one of them, and generally both, be- 
ing large three-deckers from the province of 
Zeeland j as the navigation of thefe waters is 
accounted the mod dangerous in all the In- 
dies. 

I had engaged mylelf as principal furgeori on 
board of the fhip during this voyage, and, on 
my fafe arrival at Japan, was to remain there a 
year, and at the fame time to accompany the 
Dutch ambaflador on his journey to the impe- 
rial court at Jedo, the capital of the country, in 
vor.. in. B quality 




2. voyage to japam, 1775- 

qualky of phyfician to the embafly. This was 
my ftation in the Dutch Eafl India company’s 
fervice ; but I had befidcs, at Amfterdam, under- 
taken to colleft, for the Hortus Medicus there, 
and fome gentlemen of diftin&ion, as far as I 
could get liberty and opportunity in this dif- 
tant couiitry, feeds and growing plants, par- 
ticularly of ftirubs and trees, to be fent to 
Europe by the returning (hips, for the pur- 
pofe of transplanting. The fhip was command- 
ed by Captain Von Ess, and on board of her 
now embarked M. Feith, in quality of conful, 
and like wife ambaflador, for the fourth time, 
to the Imperial court, who brought with him, 
as affiftants in the commercial line, M. Ha- 
ring a, the fupercargo, together with four 
writers. 

The other fhip which lay ready to accompany 
us was fomewhat lefs, and was called the Bki- 
jtnberg. It had on board a fupercargo and a 
writer. 

All the officers on board, who were to re- 
main a year at Japan, carried with them one 
or more flaves, as fervants, during the voyage, 
and their ftay at that place. This has been al- 
lowed by the Japanefe for more than one hun- 
dred years back,* though the (laves are not fuf- 
fered to go out of the fadlory, or the adjacent 
town, Nagafaki. 


On 


VOYAGE TO JAPAN, I775i 3 

On the lift, about ten o’clock in the fore- 
noon, we weighed anchor, fainted, and got 
underway in the road of Batavia ; but came 
again to anchor, for the purpofe of putting 
every thing in proper order previous to our in- 
tended voyage. 

The chief allowed a f ee table for all the 
officers, both now and during the voyage, as 
alfo liquors, beer and wines, partly at his own, 
and partly at the company’s expence. 

On the iSib , in the morning, by the aid of 
a light breeze and the tide, we were in the 
ftraits of Banc a, which are nearly as broad as 
the Britiih channel. We faw the land of Su- 
matra to the left, the lhores of which are even 
and low, and the land of Java to the right, 
both overgrown with wood. 

On the 27 tb, we remained at anchor, and 
waited the arrival of the other Grip,- which be- 
ing a dull failer, lagged behind. 

On the 28 tb, svc weighed anchor and got 
underway. 

On the ysth, we got fafc through the found 
into the open fea, and were faluted by the Bleijen- 
berg , which compliment being returned, we 
wifhed each other a fafe paffage. 

July 3d, crofled the Line. 

On the 8 tb, faw the rock Pulo Sapato, which 
at a diftance appears like a ffiip, and, on a 
B 2 nearer 




4 VOYAGE TO JAPAtt, 1775* 


nearer view, like the hinder part of a fhoe, 
cut in two acrofs the inftep. Its name figni- 
fies Shoe JJland ; Pule, in the Malay tongue, 
fignifying an ifland, and Sapato a Ihoe. This 
ifiand has been fo called, from its refembling the 
heel of a fhoe. 

On the 10 tb, faw the Chinefe coaft, which is 
a pleafing fight to every Japan trader, as it 
affords an evident proof that the veffel is pretty 
far advanced on its voyage. 

On the 12 th> a hard gale. In this latitude gales 
are very common. Our captain (who was a very 
careful and fagacious man) ordered immediately 
to fhorten fail, lower the top -malts, and take 
down the yards. This precaution was after- 
wards obferved during the whole voyage, wherf 
we were fimilarly circumffcmced, and the event 
{hewed that it was extremely judicious. The 
Bleijenberg, on the other hand, being a-ftern of 
us all this time, carried all her fails, till the top- 
mafts went, and during the gale fhe lofteher lower 
malls alfo. In fine, the {hip, in confequence of 
its rolling, was fo much fluttered, and proved fo 
leaky, that it was with the greateft difficulty 
that fhe was prevented from finking and carried 
into the port of Macao, from whence fhe- was 
afterwards taken to Canton, in order to 'be re - 
paired, being unable to proceed on her voyage 
to Japan. The cargo, which chiefly confided bf 
fofc fugars, was almoft entirely fpoiled. 

On 


VOYAGE TO JAPAN, 1775* S 

On the 17 th t a moft tremendous gale, ac- 
companied by fever e hurricanes, and a great 
deal of rain, which lafted for eight and forty 
hours, but no thunder. 

On the 20 ib, the gale having abated, we faw 
a Chinefe filhing-boat with her keel upwards. 
The filhermen belonging to it were fuppofed to 
have been loft. 

On the iid 7 faw again the Chinefe lb ore. 
Four filhing-boats came to us, and brought with 
them feveral forts of fifh, Amongft others, 
there was the beautiful and Iran (parent fhell-fifh 
called Ojirea pleurcnefas, one of the ftiells of 
which is white, and the other red ; and on this 
account it is called by the Dutch Maan-Jcbulp , 
or Moon-mujde. There were • likewife found 
among them feveral Sepia;, fome large Crabs, 
and the Cancer mantis. The whole of this - we 
purchafed, with fome rice and arrack, with which 
the filhermen feemed highly pleafed. 

Since our leaving Batavia, the feamen had ' 
been very much troubled with intermitting fe- 
vers, but as foon as the cold weather and winds 
increafed, the malady abated. Bontius ob- 
ferves, that in his time agues were feldom heard 
of in the F.aft Indies; but at prefent no ipecies 
of fever is more common. The difference in 
the degrees' of heat, however, was, in fine 
weather, not very remarkable. The thermo- 
B 3 , meter 


€ VOYAGE TO JAPAN, 1775* 

meter flood at Batavia between eighty and 
eighty-lix degrees, and in the northern latitude., 
in which we now were, it was at feventy- 
eight or feventy-nine degrees, by Fahrenheit’? 
icale. 

The very heavy rains which accompanied the 
Jaft gale, were not lefs troublefome than the hur- 
ricanes, as every thing we had was wet, and on 
laying them out to dry, fome articles were found 
quite ufelefs. The Crabs {Cancer es) and Ma- 
rine animals (Sepias) which I had collefbed for 
the purpofe of drying and prefervtng, af- 
forded me at night, as foon as it grew darh, a 
moft delightful fpeftacle, the former of thefe in 
ipots, and the latter with almoft the whole fur- 
face of their bodies, illuminating my little ca- 
bin with a b Unfit phofphoric light. The light 
proceeding from the Crabs, in particular, was An- 
gular, as it appeared upon them in (pots, and not 
covering any part entirely : a fpot, perhaps, bo 
the one fide of the tail giving a light, when there 
was none per cepti ble on the other. T he gl i m mer- 
ing continued for the fpace of two days, and when 
the animal was brought upon deck and expofed to 
the open air in the day-time, it gave no light 
at all. With the naked eye I could neither difir 
cover marine infetts, nor any thing elfe that 
might occafion this phenomenon; and whet) 
l foratched any of the finning fpots ipith my 


VOYAGE TO JAPAN, 1775- 


ft 

V 


nail, the light neither difappeared, nor was it in 
the leaft diminiflied. 

The Chinefe fifhing- boats are remarkably 
large and long, built of thin boards, and deck- 
ed, and bluff both at the head and ftern. Abaft 
however, they are much wider; the deck is 
open, where the rudder t raver fes, and they have 
only one mail and fail. In thefe, generally 
four or five men to each boat, go far out into 
into the fea, and there fifh night and day. The 
officers of the ffiip, who had been feveral voy- 
ages, informed me, that fometimes in fine wea- 
ther fuch numbers of them were feen, as to 
darken the horizon. 

On the 0.3d, a great number of the filh called 
Pilots were this day feen. 

On the 16th, paffed the ifland called Med 
zyn Gat!, and made towards Formofa Sound. 

On the 29 tb, faw the ifland of Formofa, which 
formerly belonged to the Dutch Eaft India 
company. 

This ifland is long, large, and very fruitful. 
Formerly all fhips bound for Japan touched at 
this place, which made the voyage more com- 
modious and lefs dangerous; as, »n cafe of haid 
gales, they have now no port to run into. 

° The citadel, called Zeeland, was furrendered 
in the year 1662, after a fiege of nine months, 
by the then governor. Cot jet, to the Chinefe 
rebel, Coxinia, who had been driven out of 

B China 

* ( 


8 VOYAGE TO JAPAN, 1775. 

China by the Tartars. The hiftory of this 
tranfaftion may be feen in Het verwaarloofde 
Formofa, by C. E. S. printed at Amfterdam, 
1675. This ifland is at prefent in the hands 
of the Emperor of China, but no traffic is car- 
ried on there with the Europeans. 

On the 30 th, we had fevere fqualls with rain* 
but of no long continuance, 

Auguft the 4-th , hard gales, with a high fea and 
fome rain, which lafted till the feventh ; the fea 
being in fuch agitation, that we could carry 
nothing but the main ftay-fail. During the 
whole time I kept as much as poffible on the 
deck. 

On the 10 thy for the fifth time on this fhort; 
paffage, a hard gale with rain, which lafted 
twenty-four hours. Hence it appears, how 
troublefome and dangerous the voyage to Ja- 
pan is, and how boifterous and fubjeft to gales 
the fea is on either fide of Formofa, even in the 
proper feafon of the year, which is the only time 
when lhips may ride for three or four months 
with fafety in the havens of Japan, 

Whoever wi flies for a more explicit account 
of the gales to which thefe feas are fubjedt, 
may perufe Dr. ILempfers Hiftory of Japan, 
the folio edition, pages 49 and 50. 

The voyage to Japan is reckoned the raoft 
dangerous in all the Indies, and the Dutch 

India 


VOYAGE TO JAPAN, 177$. 


9 


India company always confiders one out of five 
of the ihips that are lent thither as loft- That 
this calculation exactly agrees with the ex- 
perience of more than a hundred years, is evi- 
dent from' the following lift of loft flops, with 
relation to l’ome of which, it has never been 
known when, where, and how they were loft. 

In 1642, were loft two fliips in 'the narrows of 
Guinain, viz. the Buys and the Maria , 

1651, De Koe, 

1652, De Sfatwer , 

1 653, Het Lam. 

1658, De Zwarte Bal, 

1659, De Harp. 

j66o. The HeSior, which, however, blew up 
in an engagement with the Chinefe. 

1664, Het RocdcHari. 

1668, The Achilles, 

1669, Two, de Hoog Cajpel and Vrydenburg,. 

1670, De Schermer, 

1671, The Kuylenberg. 

1697, The Spar. 

1708, The Monjler. 

1714, The Anon, 

*7 l 9 > fhfte, viz. the Meeroog > Catherine , an& 
het Slot van Capelle, 

1 7 2 2, The Valkenbos. 

1724, The Apollonia. 

17 J 1, The Knapenhpjf. 

B 4 1748* 




VOYAGE TO JARAN, 1 775. 

In 1748, I let Htiys te Per/yiu 

1758, The Stadivyk. 

176S, The Vreedenhoff. 

1770, The Ganjenhoff. The fame year, the 
Burg was, in confequence of having 
fprling a leak, rendered unfit to pro- 
ceed on her voyage, and obliged to go 
to China. 

1772, The Burg, though flie had been unfuc- 
celsful in the former voyage, was now 
fent again to Japan, and had the Chief 
on board ; but became fo di fabled in a 
gale of wind, that file was abandoned 
by the crew ; and drove on lliore on 
the coaft of Japan. On the 30/$. of 
July, in a hard gale from E. N. E. off 
Meaxhiuiy which lafted two days, fhe 
loft her mafts, bowi'prit, head, quarter- 
galleries, &c. ; and fpringtng a leak, 
had a great quantity of water in the 
powder-room and hold. The chief, 
M. Daniel Armenault, and Captain 
Eveich, faw, on the ift of Juguft, the 
other fii ip, viz. the Margaretta Maria , 
commanded by Captain Steen decker. 

, A council was held, in which it was 
refolved to quit the fliip. On the day 
fol lowing they went on board the other 
fkip, taking with them their money and 

yaluables. 



VOYAGE TO JAPAN, 1 775- 1 1 

valuables, and, leaving the fhip to the mercy of 
the wind and waves, arrived on the Stb in 
Nagafaki harbour. In the courfe of a few 
days the veflel, that had lately been quitted, 
was difcovered driving towards the gulf of 
Japan by fome fifhermen, who towed her on 
fhore, and found no other live animal on board 
of her than a boar-pig. It muft have been in 
confequence of the greateft negligence that the 
ftiip was not towed to land, or, agreeably to the 
regulations previotifly made, let on fire. 

1775, The Bleijenberg , in confequence of hav- 
ing fprung a leak, and fuftained great damage, 
was obliged to go to China; where lhe was re- 
paired, and afterwards returned tp Batavia. 

On the 13/&, early in the morning, we faw the 
ifiand of Meaxima , with its lofty and peaked 
mountains. In the afternoon, we law the land of 
Japan, and at nine o’clock in the evening an- 
chored in the entrance of Nagafaki harbour, 
where the high mountains formed a roundilh in- 
ternal harbour, in the lhape of a half- moon. 

On the mountains, by order of the Japanele 
government, were placed feyeral out-polls, 
which were provided wich telefcopes, that the 
guard might difeover at a diftance the arrival 
of Ihips, and immediately report the fame to 
the governor of Nagafaki. Tltele out-pofts now 
lighted up feveral fires. 

Thi* 





12 VOVACE TO JAPAN, 17 75, 

This day all the Prayer-Books and Bibles 
belonging to the Tailors were collected, and put 
into a cheft, which was nailed down. This 
cheft was afterwards left under the cate of the 
Japanefe, till the tirpe of our departure, when 
every one received his book again. This is done 
with a view to prevent the introduction of 
Chriftian or Roman Catholic books into the 
country. 

A bedftead was now placed upon deck, with 
a canopy over it, but without curtains, for the 
Japanefe fuperior officers to fit on, who were 
expe£ted to come on board, 

A mufter-roll of the Ihip’s company, con- 
fitting of about one hundred and ten men, and 
thirty-four flaves, was made out, mentioning the 
age of every individual, which roll was given to 
the Japanefe. The birth-place of each individual 
was not marked in this lift, as they were all fup- 
pofed to be Dutchmen, although many of them 
were Swedes, Danes, Germans, Portuguefe, and 
Spaniards. According to this mufter-roll, the 
whole fhip’s company is muttered immediately 
on the arrival of the Japanefe, and afterwards 
every morning and evening of fuch days as the 
ihip is either difcharging or taking in her cargo, 
and when there is any intercourfe between the 
Jhip and the factory. By thefe precautions the 
Japanefe are afiured that no one can either get 

away 


i3 


VOYAGE tO JAPAN, 1775. 

away without their knowledge, or remain in the 
factory without their leave. 

On the 14 th, it blew fo very hard, that we 
could not get the anchor up ; at eleven o’clock, 
therefore, we were obliged to cut the cable, and 
got under fail. 

We now perceived a boat coming from fliore to 
meet us. The captain therefore drefied himfelf 
in a bine filk coat, trimmed with filver lace, 
made very large and wide, and fluffed, and fur- 
niihed in front with a large cufliion. This coat 
has for many years paft been ufed for the pur- 
pofe of fmuggling prohibited wares into the 
country, as the chief and the captain of the fbip 
were the only perlbns who were exempted from 
being fearched. The captain generally made 
three trips in this coat every day from the fhip 
to the fadory, and was frequently 1b loaded with 
goods, that when he went afliore, he was obliged 
to be fupported by two Tailors, one under each 
arm. By thefe means the captain derived a 
con fid er able profit annually from the other 
officers, whofe wares he carried in and out, to- 
gether with his own, for ready money, which 
might amount to fever a! thoufand rixdollars. 

The laft- mentioned boat brought from the 
jactory one fupercargo and three writers, de- 
puted from the chief 'to congratulate us on our 

arrival. 


14. AHHiVaL AT JAPAN, 177 

arrival, to enquire about the fhip’s cargo, and 
to know the news from Batavia, &c. 

In the mean -time we difplayed on board a 
number of different colours and pendants, in 
order to give a certain degree of fplendour to 
our entry into the haven. 

As foon as we approached the two imperial 
guards, which are placed on each fide of the 
port, one of which is called the Emperor’s, and 
the other the Emprefs’s guard, we fired our 
cannon to falute them. 

During the whole time of our failing up tills 
long and winding harbour, we had a mod de- 
lightful profpeft of the furrounding hills and 
mountains, which appeared cultivated to their 
very fummits; a view which is fo very un- 
common in other countries. 

We at length came into good anchorage, and 
at noon let go the anchor, at the diftance of a 
mufket-fhot from the town of Nagafittki , and the 
adjacent fmall ifland of Dezima , in which is 
fituated the Dutch factory. 

Soon after the above-mentioned gentlemen, 
who had been deputed- from the factory, re- 
turned on Ihore, carrying with them the com- 
pany’s letters, and thofe of private perfons, 
the chief, who had this year remained at Japan, 
came on board, and with him returned to the 

factory 


"NAGASAKI HARBOUR, 177?. 1 $ 

fa£lory the newly-arrived chief, the captain, 
fupercargo, and writers. 

The intelligence we received was by no means 
agreeable ; as the ftritleft orders had come from 
the court for the prevention of any illicit com- 
merce. Fit ft. That the captain and chief ihouid 
in future be fearched, as well as others, without 
regard to perfons, which had never been the cafe 
before. Secondly, That the captain Hiould for 
the future drefs like others, and lay afide the 
large fur rout, which had hitherto been ufed for 
the convenience of fmuggTmg. Thirdly, That 
the captain Ihouid either remain conftamly on 
board, or, if he ihouid chufe to go alhore, he 
Ihouid be permitted to go on board twice only 
during the whole time of our ftay there. This 
latter point was, .nevertheless in a great mea- 
fure given up, and the captain had liberty, after 
a lapfe of two days, to go on board, and moor 
the fnip. The permiffion for this purpofe was 
obtained from the governor of Nagafakt, partly 
by follicitation, and partly by threatening him, 
that if any accident befel the fhip, the lofs would 
be put to the emperor’s account j and, if the 
emperor Ihouid treat the affair with negleft or 
indifference, the company would certainly, in 
that cafe, refeot the affront. 


Thefe 


1 6 NAGASAKI HARBOUR, *775* 

Thcfe ftrift orders were iflfued from the court 
in confequence of a difcovery that wag made in 
the year 1772, when the Burg, having been 
abandoned by her crew, had driven afhore on 
the coaft of Japan, and, on difcharging her 
cargo, was found to have on board a great quan- 
tity of prohibited goods, which principally be- 
longed to the captain and the chief. 

The Burg was, as before mentioned, in 1772, 
lo leaky, in confequence of the fevere gales fuf- 
tained on her pafiage to this place, that, on a 
council being held upon her, fhe was abandoned } 
and it was confidered as fo certain that fire 
would fink in a few hours, that fhe was not fet 
on fire, agreeably to the company’s orders in 
fuch cafes. Notwithflanding this, the fir ip drove 
for feveral days towards the fiiore of Saifuma> 
where fire was found by- the inhabitants, and 
towed' into Nagafaki harbour. The Japanefe 
having thus the fhip at their difpofal, difcovered 
all her corners and hiding places, as alfo a great 
number of cherts belonging to the principal 
officers, which were full of the raoft prohibited 
goods, and marked with their names. They 
were particularly provoked on finding a chert, 
belonging to the chief, full of ginfeng-root, 
which is by no means allowed to be imported 
into the country. The cheft therefore, with its 
contents, was burnt before the gate of the factory, 

Befides 




NAGASAKI HARBOUR, 1775* 1 7 

Befides the difgrace accruing to the chief from 
being fearched, the captain lofes a confiderable 
fum yearly that he gained by fmuggling for the 
other officers, and the officers are deprived qf 
the profit they made by their wares. 

For many years paft the captain was not 
only equipped with the wide furtout above de- 
fcribed, but alfo wore large and capacious 
breeches, in which he carried contraband wares 
afhore. Thefe, however, were fuipe&ed, and 
confequently laid afide; and the coar, the laft 
refource, was now, to the owner’s great regretj 
to be taken off. It was droll enough to fee the 
aftoni foment which the fudden redu&ion in the 
fize of our bulky captain excited in the ma* 
jor pare of the ignorant Japanele, who before 
had always imagined that all our captains 
Were actually as fat and lufty as they appeared 
to be. 

As foon as we had cothe to an anchor, and 
had faluted the town of Nagafaki, there came im- 
mediately on board two Japanefe fuperior offi- 
cers ( Banjofes ) and.fome fubaltern officers {under 
Banjqfcsf as alfo the interpreters and their at- 
tendants. The banjofes. went and placed them- 
ifelves on the bedftead prepaied for their ac- 
commodation, upon which was laid a thick Ja- 
pan efe ftraw-mat, and over thata callicoc overing; 
and all this was foelrered by a canvas awning 
vol. m. C f rofB 


l8 NAGASAKI! HARBOUR, 1775- 

frorri the rain, and a foot-ftool being placed 
before it to facilitate the afcent. After taking 
off their fiioes, they flept up, and fit down 
fquat on their heels, with their legs placed un- 
der them, according to the cuftom of that coun- 
try. Being ufed to fit in this pollute; they 
could endure it a long while, but it was eafily 
feen that it proved tirefome to them at length, 
by their rifmg up, and fitting for fome time like 
the Europeans. 

The bufinefs of thefe banjofes was, during 
the whole time of our fhip’s lying in the road, 
to take care that all the wares, and the people 
which went on fhore, or came on board, were 
ftriftly fearched } to receive orders from the 
governor of the town j to fign all paflports' 
and papers which accompanied the merchan 
dize, people, &c. 

The way in which they paged the t!me while 
they fat in this tirefome pbfture, was in fmoking 
tobacco, now and then exchanging a few words' 
with each other, drinking tea, and taking a fip 
of European brandy. For this purpofe, the 
captain fet before them a couple of decanters, 
filled with different liquors, and two glaffes. 
Some fweet cakes, likewife, were fet before them 
on a plate, for them to eat with their liquors, 
although they did not confume much of the 
liquors, which they only tailed. 


The 



NAGASAKI HARBOUR, 1775. T 9 

The harbour is about three miles long, and four 
gun-Ihots broad, inclining a little at the end 
towards one of the fhores. It extends north and 
fbuth, has a muddy bottom, and is very deep, fo 
that fiiips may lie within a gun -foot of the 
factory. 

After having feveral times fired our cannon, viz. 
on palling tfifc imperial guards ; on the arrival 
on board, and departure of the committee ; on the 
arrival of the cliiefj and on the officers leaving 
the fnip ; we were obliged to commit to the care 
of the Japanefe the remainder of our powder, 
as alfo our ball, our weapons, and the above- 
mentioned cheft full of books. For this pur- 
pofe were delivered in a certain quantity of 
powder, fix barrels full of ball, fix mulkets, 
and fix bayonets, which we made them believe 
was all the ammunition we had remaining. 
All thefe articles are put into a ftore-houfe, 
till the fhip leaves the road, when they are 
faithfully reftored by the Japanefe. 

The Japanefe have of late years had the 
fenfe to leave the rudders of our fhips un- 
touched, and the fails and cannon on board. 
They were iikewife weary of- the trouble with 
which the fetching of them back was attended, 
and which was by no means inconfiderable. 

The Japanefe having thus, as they fuppofe, 
entirely difarmed us, the next thins is to muf- 

C a 


ter 


aa NAGASAKI HARBOUR, 1775* 

ter the men, which is done every day on board/ 
both morning and evening, when the vefiel is 
difcharging or taking in her lading. They 
reckon always from one to ten, and then begin 
with one again ; a method which is alfo ob- 
ferved in counting out wares and merchandize. 
Each time the number of the men that are gone 
afhore is fet down very accurately, ?/i well as the 
number of the fick, and the number of thofe that 
remain on board. 

On all thofe days, when any thing is carried 
on board or taken out of the fliip, the upper 
banjos, the under banjos, the interpreters, clerks, 
and fearchers, are on board till the evening, when 
they all go afhore together, and leave the Euro- 
peans on board to themfelves. On fuch oc- 
c ifions the flag on board the fliip is always hoift- 
ed, as well as that on the factory; and when 
two Ihips arrive here fafe, bufinefs is tranfadted 
on board of one or the other of them by turns 
every day. The Ihip’s long-boat and pinnace 
were alfo taken into the care of the Japanefe, 
fo that both the people and the merchandize are 
carried to and from the Ihip by Japanefe Tea- 
men, and in Japanefe boats. 

To prevent the Dutch from coming from the 
fliip, or the Japanefe from going to it, and 
trafficking, efpecially under covert of the night, 
and when no Japanefe officers are on board, 

fever al 



NAGASAKI HARBOUR, 1775- 

feverai large guard-fhips are placed round the 
(hip, and at fome diftance from it ; and befides 
this, there are feverai fmall boats ordered to 
row every hour in the night round the fhip, and 
very near it. 

I obferved that the tide in this harbour was 
very confiderable, as alfo that the furrounding 
mountains were very ftcep, and the fhore eon- 
fequently very bold, and almofl perpendicu- 
lar. 

On our arrival, we found in the harbour ele- 
ven Chinefe veffels (or junks ) lying fo clofe to 
the Ihore, that when the tide was at ebb, they 
lay only in the mud. Some of theje veflels 
were by degrees loaded, and failed, but feven 
remained there all the winter. Each of thefe 
veffels generally carry with them a great num- 
ber of people, frequently from feventy to eighty 
men. Hence it is, that there commonly re<- 
main here all the winter about fix hundred men, 
on a fmall ifland, ficuated on one fide of the 
Dutch fadlory, and direfHy before the town of 
Nagafaki. 

On the 15 tb, we fent thebeafts alhdre, fuch as 
calves, oxen, hogs, goats, iheep, and deer, 
v/hich are brought every year to this ph-ce 
from Batavia. The Europeans not being able 
to procure fuch animals here, are obliged -a 
carry them with them, partly for frefii -pro- 

C 3 fiofls 




til Nagasaki harbour 

Cons for the factory, and partly for flock on 
the homeward-bound voyage. They are kept 
conflsntly on the illand in flails, which in 
fummer are open, and in winter are clofed 
up. They are fed with grafs and leaves, which 
are gathered and brought them twice a day by 
Japanefe fervants. In winter they are com- 
monly fed on rice and branches of trees, as alfo 
on rice draw. 

This fodder of the cattle I examined three 
times every day, and felefted out of it the rare and 
uncommon plants it contained, for the purpofe 
of drying them for the botanical collections of 
Europe ; plants which I was not at liberty to 
gather in the adjacent plains, in a country where 
the inhabitants are fo fufpicious, that our 
pigeons, which yet roved much farther, were 
Id's fufpe<fted and watched, and lefs liable 
to be made captives than the Europeans, who, 
for the fake of lucre and commerce, had come 
thither through luch manifold dangers, and lb 
far from their own homes. 

The Japanefe have neither fheep nor hogs, 
and very few cows and oxen. The latter, which 
are extremely fmal], are only ufed, and that but 
fcldom, for the purpofe of agriculture. Their 
flefh is not eaten, nor is their milk made ufe of 
in any fhape. 

On the i6tb and the following days, the 
clothes, furniture, flock of provifions, wine, 

ale. 


AMD DEZXMA F-ACTORVj 1775- 

&le> &.c, belonging to the officers/ were lent on 
.ihore ; which h always done by kfelf* and before 
any of the merchandize Is buffered to be landed : 

•j» 

this is commonly done on the three firft days. 

September 4, the fiiip was fearched by the 
Japanefe, after fuch private property, as was not 
to be fold, had been lent aihore. All the pri- 
vate property which had been entered for fale, 
was this day feat off, and if in the hurry of 
removal any article had been forgotten, it was 
not afterwards differed to be landed or fold. 
The fhip was thoroughly and clofely fearched, 
except in the part neareft its bottom, and in die 
powder-room. 

The remaining part of this month was fpent 
in difeharging the merchandize belonging to the 
.company. , , , 

A great number of labourers (Kalis') were or- 
dered to attend to the difeharging and loading 
of the boats, and bringing them to and from 
the flip, others being fet as inlpectors over 
them. The former ufed conft antly to fmg when 
they were employed in lifting a weight or carry- 
ing a burden, as alfo when they were rowing ; 
and that in a peculiar tone of voice,- their longs 
.being befides modulated to a certain tune and 
v meafure, and the words lively and cheering. 
The Dutch formerly took the liberty to punifli 
.and correct with blows thefe day-labourers, who 

C 4 were 


124 . 


NAtSASAICt BARBOUR 


•Were of the loweft dafs of people, but at pra- 
fent this procedure is abfolutely, and under the 
fevereft penalties, forbidden by the government, 
as bringing a difgrace upon the nation. 

When an European goes to or from the fhip, 
either with or without any baggage, an officer is 
always attending with a permit, on which his 
Jiis name is written, his watch marked down, &c. 

As foon as one half of the flip’s cargo was 
difeharged, we began to take in wooden boxes 
filled with bars of copper. This year, as no 
more than one fhip arrived, one loading and a 
half of copper, <>r 6700 boxes, was taken in, 
each of X2olb. weight, or one pickel. 

On thofe days when there is nothing done 
towards difeharging or loading the (hip, no. 
Japanefe officers, nor any other J^pancfe, come 
'on board, neither do any of the Dutch them* 
felves go to or from the fhip on fuch days. 
The gate pf the ifland alfo, towards the water- 
fide, is locked at this time. Should an urgent 
occafion require any of the officers to cpme on 
•board of the fhip, fuch as the captains the fur- 
geon, which Is fignified by the hoifting of a flag, 
in fuch cafe leave mpft be firft obtained from 
the governor of the town } and fhould this 
be granted, dill the gate towards the fea-fhore is. 
not opened, but the perfon to whom leave is 

granted 


AND DEZIMA FACTORY, 1775- 

granted, is conducted by interpreters and officers 
through a fmalf part of the town to a little 
bridge, from which he is taken on board in a 
boat, after having gone through the ftridfc 
fearches already mentioned. The banjoles and 
interpreters, who accompany him, do not how- 
ever go on board of the fhip, but wait in their 
boats till he has tranfa&ed his bufmefs on board, 
from whence he is conducted back to the fac- 
tory, after having gone through the fame cere- 
monies. In the town, while he is palling 
through it, a great concourfe of people affemble 
together to look at the trayeller, and a conlider- 
able number of children, who by their cries fignify 
their aftoni foment at the large and round eyes of 
fhe Europeans ( Hollsnda O—me). 

W e were vifited one day by fome of t he princes, 
and by the two governors of the town of Naga- 
fakt. They came on board of us out of curio- 
fity to fee our firft-rate Ihip, which was very 
large and handfome; nor had its equal been 
feen at Japan for many years. One of the in- 
terpreters allured me, that during the thirty 
years that he had lerved in the Dutch factory, 
he had not feen a Dutch fhip of that fize and 
ftate. 

About this time we loft one of our failure, 
who had been fent alhore amongft the other fick 
to the hofpital on die ifland. After the governor 

of 

*■ 


i6 


NAGASAKI HARBOUR 


of Nagafaki was informed of his death, leave 
was granted for his burial. The corpfc, after 
having been ftri&ly examined by the Japanefe 
appointed for that pur pole, was put into a 
wooden coffin, and carried by the Japanefe to 
the other fide of the harbour, where it was in- 
terred. Some after ted, that it was afterwards 
taken up by the Japanefe and burnt, but with 
refpeft to this matter, I could not arrive at any 
degree of certainty. 

Cuftom-houfes are not known either in the 
interior part of the country or on its coafts, and 
no cuftoms are demanded either in imports or 
exports of goods, either from ftrangers or na- 
tives. A particular happinefs and advantage, 
which few other countries poflefs ! But that no 
prohibited goods may be fmuggled into the 
country, fo clofe a watch is kept, and all per- 
fons that arrive, as well as merchandizes, are lo 
ftr'ifily fcarched, that the hundred eyes of Argus 
might be fakl to be employed on this occafion. 
When any European goes afbore, he is. fir tt 
fearehed on board, and afterwards as foon as he 
comes on Ihore. Both thefe fcarches are very 
ftrift; fo that not only travellers pockets are 
turned infide out, and the officers hands palled 
over their clothes, along their. bodies and thighs ; 
but fometimes even the private parts are felt of 
people belonging to the lower clafs. As to 

Haves, 


AND DEZIMA FACTORY, 1/75* 

fiives, the hair on their heads is like wife ex- 
amined, All the Japanefe that go on board of 
fhip are in like manner learched, excepting only 
the fuperior order of banjo fes. All articles ex- 
ported or imported undergo a fimilar fearch, L e. 
firft, on board the Ihip, and afterwards in the fac- 
tory, except large c hefts, which are emptied in the 
fadtorv, and are fo narrowly examined, that they 
even found the boards, fufpefling them to be 
hollow. The beds are frequently ripped open, 
and the feathers turned over. Iron fpikes are 
thruft into the butter- tubs, and jars of fweet- 
meats* In the cheefes a fquare hole is cut, m 
which part a thick pointed wire is thruft into ir, 
towards every fide. Nay, their fufpicion went 
even fo far, as to induce them to take an e^o- or 
two from among thofe we had brought with us 
from Batavia and break them. The fame fevere 
conduA is obferved when any one goes from 
the factory to the fnip, or into the town of Na- 
gafaki, and from thence to the ifland of Dezima. 
Every one that pailes mud take his watch out 
of his pocket and fhew it to the officers, who 
always mark it down whenever it is carried in or 
out. Sometimes too, Grangers hats are fearched. 
Neither money nor coin muff by any means be 
brought in by private perfons, but they are 
laid by and taken care of till the owner’s de- 
parture. No letters to be fen: to or from the 

fhip 



NAGASAKI HARBOUR 


a* 

Slip fealcd, And if they are, they are opened, 
and fometimes, as well as other manufcripts, 
muff be read by the interpreters* Religious 
books, efpecjally if they are adorned with cuts, 
it is very dangerous to import ; but the Euro- 
peans are other wife fufFered to carry in a great 
number of books' for their own ufc, and the 
fearcb was the lefs ftrift in this refpe£t, as they 
looked into a few of them only. Latin, French, 
Swedifh, and German books and manufcripts, 
pafs the more eafily, as the interpreters do not 
underftand them. Arms, it is true, are not al- 
lowed to be carried into the country ; never- 
theless, we are as yet fufFered to take ovyr 
1'words with us. 

The Dutch themfelves are the occafion of 
thefe over-rigorous, fearches, the ftruStnefs of 
which has been augmented on feveral different 
©ecafions, till it has arrived at its prefent height.. 
The captain's wide breeches and coat, and a 
hundred more .artifices, lyive been applied to the 
purpofe of bringing goods into the factory by 
ftealch, and the interpreters, who heretofore had 
never been fearched, \jfed to carry contraband 
goods by degrees, and in fmall parcels, to the 
town, where they were fold for ready mo- 
ney. This they have often endeavoured to 
with fo much art, as to hide fmaller articles 
under theij private parts, and in their hair. 

$ome 



29 


AKD DEZIMA FACTORY, 1775. 

Some years ago a parrot was found hid in th e 
breeches of one of the petty officers of the lhip, 
which, whilft they were fearching the man, be- 
gan to talk, and was thus difcovered. Thus 
year were found upon one of the writers, 
leveral rixdollars and ducats, hid in the drawers 
that he wore under his breech.es. 

To all this may be added, the pride which 
fome of the weaker- minded officers in the Dutch 
fer vice very imprudently exhibit to the Japanefe, 
by ill-timed contradiction, contemptuous be- 
haviour, fcornffil looks, and laughter, which oc- 
cafions the Japanefe in their turn to hate and 
defpife them; a hatred which is greatly in- 
creafed upon obferving in how unfriendly and 
unmannerly a ftile they ufually behave to each 
other, and the brutal treatment which the Tailors 
under their command frequently experience from 
them, together with the oaths, curfes, and blows, 
with which the poor fellows are affailcd by them. 

All thefe circumliances have induced the 
Japanefe, from year to year, to curtail more and 
more the liberties of the Dutch merchants, and 
to fearch them more ftrifHy than ever ; fo that 
now, with all their finelFe and artifices, they are 
hardly able to throw dull in the eyes of lb 
vigilant a nation as this. 

Within the water-gate of Dezima, when any 
tiling is to be exported or imported, are feared. 


in 


30 


NAGASAKI HARBOUR 


in like manner as on board of fl;ip, head ban- 
lofes and under barijofes, head interpreters and 
under interpreters, before whofe eyes the whole 
undergoes a ftridt fearch. And that the Euro- 
peans may not fcrape an acquaintance with the 
fcarcfcers, they are changed fo often, that no 
opportunity is given them. 

This puts a ftep to illicit commerce onh’, but 
not to private trade, as every body is at liberty 
to carry in whatever he can difpofe of, or there 
is a demand far, and even fuch articles as are 
not allowed to be uttered for fale, fo that it be 
not done fecretly. The camphor of Sumatra, 
and tortoile-fhell, private peifons are not per- 
mitted to deal in, becaufc the company has re- 
ferved that traffic to themfelves. 

The reafon why private perfons prefer the 
Snuggling of fuch articles as are forbidden to 
be difpofed of by auction at the public fale, is, 
that when wares of any kind are fold by auction, 
they do not receive ready money for them, 
but are obliged to take other articles in pay- 
ment. Thefe articles, confiding of either por- 
celain or lacquered ware, are, in confequence 
of the yearly imports at fo low a price at 
Batavia, that they fometimes get lefs for them 
than the purchafe price. But when the com- 
modities can be dHpofed of underhand, they get 


3 1 


AND DEZiri-1 FACTORY, I775. 

gold coin, and are often paid twice as much as 
they would have had otherwife. 

Some years ago, when fmuggHng was ftill in 
a flourifhing ftate, the greateft part of the con- 
traband wares was carried by the interpreters 
from the factory into the town, but fometimes 
they were thrown over the wall of the Dezima, 
and received by boats ordered out for that pur- 
pofe. Several of the interpreters, and other 
Japanefe, have been caught at various times in 
the faft, and generally p uni died with death. 

Smuggling has always been attended with 
fevere punilhments} and even the Dutch have 
been very largely fined, which fine has of late 
been augmented, fo that if any European is 
taken in the fadt, he is obliged to pay two 
hundred catjes of copper, and is banifhed the 
country for ever. BefideS this, a deduction Of 
ten thoufand catjes of copper is made from the 
company’s account? and, if the fraud is dis- 
covered after the fhip has left the harbour, the 
chief and the captain are fined in two hundred 
catjes each. 

The company’s wares do not undergo any 
fearch at all, but are diredtly carried to the 
ftorehoufe, on which the Japanefe affix their 
feal. In thefe ftorehoufes they are kept til) they 
are all lold and fetched away. 


The 



NAGASAKI HARBOUX 

The interpreters are all natives of Japan* 
and fpeak wich more or lefs accurracy the 
Dutch language. The government permits no 
foreigners to learn their language, in order that 
by means of it they may not pick up any 
knowledge of the country, but allow from forty 
to fifty interpreters, who are to ferve the Dutch 
in their factory with refpetl to their commerce, 
and on other occafions. Thefe interpreters are 
commonly divided into three claffes. The 
cldeft, who fpeak the Dutch language beft, are 
called head interpreters j thofe who are lefs per- 
fect, under interpreters j and thofe who ftand yet 
more in need of inftru&ion, bear the denomination 
of apprentices, or learners. Formerly the Ja- 
panefe apprentices were initru&ed by the Dutch 
themfelves in their language, and this office fell 
more particularly to the doctor’s lot } but now 
they arc taught by the elder interpreters. The 
apprentices had alfo before this, liberty to 
come to the fa&ory whenever they chofe, 
but now they are only fuffered to come when 
they are on a£Uial fervice. The interpreters 
rife gradually and in rotation to preferments and 
emoluments, without being employed in any 
other department. Their duty and employment 
confift in being prefent, generally one, or fame- 
times two of each dafs, when any affairs are 

tranfacled 


JAPANESE INTERPRETERS, I775. 33 

tranfa&ed between the Japanefe and the Dutch, 
whether commercial or otherwife. They in- 
terpret either viva voce , or in writing, whenever 
any matter is to be laid before the governor, 
the officers or others, whether it be a complaint 
or requeft. They are obliged to be prefent at 
all fearches, as well at thofe that are made on 
board of fliip, as at thofe that take place in the 
faftory, and likewife to attend in the journey 
to court. 

Some of the oldell interpreters exprefs thera- 
felves on ordinary fubjedts with tolerable clear- 
nefs and precilion in the Dutch language, but, 
as their own tongue differs fo widely from the 
European languages, in its phrafes and con- 
ftrudtion, one frequently hears from raoft of 
them very laughable exprefllons and llrange 
idioms. Some of them never learn it well.— » 
When they write Dutch, they ufe inftead of a 
pen a particular kind of pencil, Indian ink, and 
their own peculiar paper } they write, however, 
from the left-hand to the right, like the Euro- 
peans, and generally in very fine and elegant 
Italian charadters. 

The interpreters are extremely fond of Euro- 
pean books, and procure one or more of them 
every year from the merchants that arrive in 
this country. They are not only in poffeffion, 
but make diligent ufe of them, and retain 

vol. in. Q firongly 


54 JAPANESE INTERPRETERS, 1775* 

ftrongly in their memory what they learn from 
them. They are befides very careful to learn 
foiiiething from the Europeans, and queftion 
them without ceafing, and frequently fo as to 
be irkfome, upon all fubjefts, efpecially re-* 
lating to phyfic, natural philofophy, and natural 
hiftbiry. 1 

They are obliged to apply themfelves par- 
ticularly to the ftudy of phyfic, and are the 
only perfons in the country who practife this 
aft after the European manner, and with Euro- 
pean remedies, which they can eafily procure 
from the Dutch d odors. This gives them an 
Opportunity both to make money, and to ac- 
quire rather more reputation than they other- 
wife Would, and fdmetimes fikcwife to take 
apprentices for inifeufthm. 

formerly the interpreters were allowed to go 
Whenever they chofe to the Dutchmen’s apart* 
rneutS, but now this was prohibited* in order to 
prevent fmuggling, excepting on certain occa- 
fioUs, when they were accompanied by an Otto* 
man or two. 

The interpreters are always accompanied, as 
well to the fliips as to their college in the ifiand 
of Deiima, by feveral clerks, who take an ac- 
count of every thing that is fhipped or un- 
loaded, write permits, and perform other of- 
fices of a fimilar nature. 

- -My 


JAPANESE INTERPRETERS, 5 775* 

My fir ft care, as foon as I arrived afliore, 
was to get acquainted with the interpreters, and 
to in finis ate myfelf as much as poffible into the 
good graces of fuch of the officers as moft fre- 
quented our little commercial ifland. As phyfi- 
cian, I had a good many defirable opportunities 
of attaining this purpofef as, befides that my 
behaviour towards the Japanese was always in 
the higheft degree friendly, and without the leaft 
deceit, I had frequent opportunities of ferving 
them and their lick relations, friends, and de- 
pendents, by good advice and well-'chofen me- 
dicines. Moreover, -not being in the commer- 
cial fine, I was lefs fufpedted than others j and 
nay knowledge, particularly of the medical art, 
was often of the greateft utility to them, and 
proved ftill mote beneficial afterwards, when I 
had gradually difcovered many powerful reme- 
dies in the plants that grew wiki in their own 
country. Both by means of the interpreters, 
and of the officers on the ifland, I tried to ob- 
tain permiflion to botanize in the plain that 
encircles the town of Nagafaki, and to feek 
iplants that were to be found there, and to 
gather their feeds, a liberty, which otherwife is 
not 'granted to any European. In this attempt 
I leemed in the beginning to be tolerably fuc- 
cdsful, and actually obtained the governors 
-permiflion for this purpofej which, however, 

D 2 fhortly 


36 JAPANESE INTERPRETERS, 17/5- 

fliortly after was revoked. The motive for this 
W3S ridiculous enough, and was as follows : the 
Japanefe are in the highcft degree fufpicious of 
the Europeans, and the governor is at all times 
very fearful of granting them any thing without 
a precedent. Having requefled leave to bota- 
nize, the Japanefe journals were fearched to 
lee if any Dutchman ever had obtained fuch a 
privilege, and upon finding that a furgeon, a 
long time before, had had that liberty at a 
period when diforders prevailed, and that there 
began to be a fcarcity of medicines, leave was 
granted me, without hefitation, to wander about 
the town of Nagafaki in order to collect them. 
But on a clofer examination, it was found that 
this furgeon bad been only a furgeon’s mate, 
and that consequently I, as principal furgeon, 
could not enjoy the fame privilege. So trifling 
a circumftance is often of great moment in the 
eyes of the Japanefe, who with fo much zeal 
endeavour to fulfil their duties, and blindly obey 
the laws iffued forth by government, without 
undemanding or explaining them in their own 
way, or making new ones foiled to their own 
liking and circumftances. 

For my part, I did not eonfider this circum- 
ftance as trifling. Of all the calamities that had 
hitherto befallen me, I had found none bear fo 
hard upon me as this, without de (pairing how- 




ever of fuccefs in future, although it grieved me 
much to reflect that the autumn was all this 
while advancing with hafty ftrides. In the 
mean time J encouraged the interpreters, whom 
I daily inftruCted in medicine and furgery, to 
gather the leaves, flowers, and feeds of all the 
plants they could find in the adjacent hills, and 
endeavoured to convince both them and the 
officers, that between a furgecn and a i'urgeon’s 
mate there was little or no difference, that a 
furgeon is firft a mate, and that in cafe of his 
death, the latter fucceeds him in the appoint- 
ment. This had fo great an effeCt, that 1 again 
obtained che governor’s permifiion ; but lb very 
late, that I could not make any ufe of it before 
the beginning of February. 

During this time I endeavoured to acquire 
fome knowledge of the language, notwirh- 
ftancling that fuch a ftep is ftriCtly pro- 
hibited, and that the difficulties attending it 
were at this time greater than they had ever 
been before. For this purpofe, i enquired of 
the interpreters if any dictionaries, vocabula- 
ries, or other books calculated to facilitate the 
learning of it, were to be had printed in their 
and the Dutch language. After having made 
feveral enquiries in vain, I at laft found an old 
dititionary, in the Latin, Portuguefe, and Ja- 
panefe languages. Ambrofe Calepin’s dictionary 
D 3 had 


|y 

V ; • 





38 JAPANESE INTERPRETERS, I775. 

Iiad been adopted by the Portuguefe fathers as 
tlie foundation of their undertaking. There 
was no title-page to it; fo that I could not 
find out in what year it was printed; but I 
learned from the preface that it was the fruit of 
the joint-labours of the Societas fratrum Europce- 
orum firciul & Japonicorum at Japan. The book 
was in quarto, printed on Japan pape, and 
contained, exclufive of the title-page and the 
laft leaf, which exhibited the errata, nine hun- 
dred and fix pages. The book looked old, and 
one corner of it was a little burnt. It belonged 
to one of the elder interpreters, who po defied 
it as a legacy from his anceftors ; and I have 
the more reafon to believe it to be very fcarce, 
as neither I nor the Chief could procure it in 
any way or at any price, either by purchafe or 
barter. 

Nagafaki harbour is the only one in which 
foreign fhips are allowed to anchor; though 
the Dutch and Chinefe are the only nations in 
the world who are permitted to land here and 
trade. Should any ftrange fhip, by ftrefs of 
weather or other misfprtune, ’q? driven on the 
coaft of Japan, or run in arty where for the 
fake of getting a fuppiy, the drcumftance is 
immediately reported to the court at Jedo, and 
the (hip ordered to the harbour of Nagafaki. 
The town is one of the five towns called im- 
perial^ 




JAPANESE INTERPRETERS* 1 775* 39 

perial 3 and* on account of its foreign com- 
merce* is one of the greateft commercial towns 
in the empire* It belongs feparately to the 
fecular emperor 3 the revenues flow into his 
treafury* and a governor commands in his name. 
Formerly two governors refided in the town 
at one and the fame time 3 and* indeed* at pre- 
fent two are always ordered* but one of thefe 
only rules at a time* and relieves the other every 
year in the month of October. The one that 
is free from his charge returns to Jedo, and 
remains with his familv* which is always left 
behind as a hoftage for his fidelity. A gover- 
nor's yearly falary amounts to ten thou {and rix- 
dollars, exclufive of extraordinary revenues., 
out of which, however, lie cannot fave much, 
by reafon of the many prefects which he is ob- 
liged to make at court, and the heavy expenses 
there, and like wife on account of the great 
number of attendants, of different degrees of 
rank, which he is obliged to keep at his own 
expcnce. The governor bears fovereign fway 
in the town, and over the Dutch as well as the 
Chinefe factories. The town is iurrounded on 
the land-fide with high mountains, that Hope off 
gradually towards the harbour, and are of a 
con fider able breadth and extent. In the har- 
bour are a great number of Japanefe veffels of 
different fizes, from fifty to one hundred and 

4 more. 




40 DEZIMA, 1775- 

more, befides a multitude of fifhing- boats from 
the adjacent places. Their boats are not rowed, 
but always wriggled with one or two oars. The 
oar is large, and for that purpofe obliquely 
writhed. This way of working with oars does 
not appear to be very fatiguing ; but drives the 
velfel on with great fpeed. 

The ifland of Dezima is let by the town of 
Nagafaki to the Dutch company, and is con- 
fidered merely as a ftreet belonging to the town. 
The town therefore builds all the dwelling-houfes, 
and, when they ftand in need ef it, repairs and 
makes alterations in them. Every houfe-keeper, 
however, at his own expence, puts in window- 
frames, papers the rooms and deling, white-walhes, 
and makes other arrangements for his own con- 
venience. The ifland is joined to the town and 
the main-land, and at low water is feparated from 
it only by a ditch. At high water it becomes 
an ifland, which has a communication with the 
town by means of a bridge. The fize of this 
ifland is inconftderable, it being about fix hun- 
dred feet in length, and one hundred and twenty- 
in breadth. It is planked in on all fides, and 
has two gates, the one towards the town near 
the bridge, and the other towards the water- fide. 
The latter gate is opened on fuch days only as 
the Ihip is difeharging or taking in her cargo j 
.the other is always guarded in the day-time by 

the 


DEZIMAj 1775. 


41 


the Japanefe, and locked at night. Near it 
alfo is a guard houfe, where thole that go in 
and out of the town are fearched. Length- 
ways upon this illand are built, in form of a 
fmall town, the company’s feveral ftore -houfes, 
their hofpital, and feparate houfes for their frr- 
vants two ftories high, of which the upper 
ftories are inhabited, and the lower ufed as lWe 
and lumber-rooms. Between thefe houfes run 
two ftreets, which are interfered in the middle 
by another. Excepting the company's large 
and fire-proof ftorehoufes, the houfes are all 
built of wood and clay, and covered in with 
tiles, and, according to the cuftom of the coun- 
try, have paper windows and floor-mats of ftraw. 
Some people have of late years brought with 
them from Batavia, either a few final] windows, 
or elfe fome panes of glals. in order to throw 
more light into the rooms, and to enjoy the 
•view of external objects. By the fea-gate are 
found in readinefs every kind of apparatus for 
the prevention of fire, and at the other end a 
pieafure and kitchen -garden, and a large fum- 
mer-houfe two ftories high. For the purpofe 
of keeping a vigilant eye on the Dutch, 
feveral officers, interpreters, and guards are kept 
on the ifland. There are watch-houles built in 
three corners of it, in which watch is kept dur- 
ing the time that the /hips lie in the harbour. 

When 



DEZIMA, 1775. 


42 

When they have failed, only one Is made ufe 
tof. This watch patroles day and night, like 
ordinary watchmen about the ifland. 

The interpreters have a very large houfe on 
the ifland, called their college, in which, during 
the trafficking feafon, a great number of them 
affemble, but after the lhips are gone, only one 
or two come there, who are regularly relieved 
cnee a day, generally at noon, in order that 
they may reach their refpe&ive homes before 
the evening. 

There is alio another houfe for the Ottcnas , 
as they are called, or reporting magiftrates, who 
during the trafficking feafon afiemble to a con- 
fiderable number, but afterwards only one or 
two keep watch, and are relieved in like manner 
cs the interpreters. Their bufinefe is to take 
notice of every occurrence that takes place on 
the ifland, and to inform the governor of the 
town of it. Within this fin all eompafs the 
Dutch are obliged to fpend their time, which, 
for tliofe who flay here the whole year through, 
is a verv difagreeable circumftancc. 

TheChief for the Dutch commerce is changed 
annually, fo that one arrives every year from 
Batavia, and the Other returns. Formerly, when 
the trade was in a flotvri firing ftate, and 1 the 
profits large, the Chief feklorn made more thah 
two voyages hither; but at prefent he is ob- 
' liaed 



DEZfMA* 1775. 


45 


liged to make three or more voyages without 
being able, however, to make as large a fortune 
as before. M. Feith, who arrived this year, 
now made his fourth voyage hither, as chief, to 
fucceed M. Armenault. Befides the chief, at 
the departure of the drips, twelve or thirteen 
Europeans remain here (not to mention the 
Haves ) and three of thefe make the tour to the 
imperial court at Jedo. 

The Dutch and the Chinefe are the only 
nations that are fufFered to trade to Japan. 
The Dutch now lend hither annually two ihips 
only, which are fitted out at Batavia in the 
month of June, and return at the latter end of 
the year. The principal articles carried from 
hence are Japan copper, raw camphor, and lac- 
quered wood* work; porcelain, filks, rice, Sakki, 
and foy, make a very inconfiderable part of the 
private trade. The copper, which contains more 
gold, an.d is finer than any other in the world, 
is call into bars fix inches long, and a finger 
thick, flat on one fide, and convex on .the other, 
and of a fine bright colour. Thefe bars, 
amounting to 1 2.51b. in weight, are pot into 
wooden boxes, and each Hi ip’s load con fills of 
fix or feyen thoufand fuch chefts. The articles 
which the Dutch company font this year were 
a large quantity of foft l'ugars, elephants teeth, 
fappan-v/ood for dying, alfo a large quantity of 

tin 



■44 DEZIMA, 1775. 

tin and lead, a fmall quantity of bar-iron, fine 
chintzes of various forts, Dutch cloths of dif- 
ferent colours and degrees of finenefs, fhalloons, 
filks, cloves, tortoife-lhell, China root, and Cof- 
tus Arabicus. The few articles which were 
brought in by private perfons, confifted of faf- 
fron, Venice treacle, Spanifh liquorice, ratans, 
fpedtaeles, looking- glaffes, watches, unicorns 
horns, and the like. For the company’s ac- 
count was imported a certain fum of money in 
filver ducatoons, but private perfons were not 
fullered to carry in any coin, although the im- 
portation of it might have been attended with 
fome profit. 

The Portuguele, who made the firft difco- 
veries in the Eaft Indies, found out by accident 
alfo the Japan iflands, being driven upon thefe 
coafts by a ftorm about the year 1542. Thele 
were well received, and carried on a rood pro- 
fitable trade for near one hundred years. After 
the union of Portugal with Spain under one 
fovereign, the Spaniards participated in this 
lucrative commerce. The Englilh alfo traf- 
ficked for fome time with thefe diftant i Hands, 
till the Dutch, by a written agreement made 
with the Emperor in the year 1601, monopolized 
this trade to them felvesj a trade, which in the 
beginning was extremely beneficial to them, but 

of 



DEZIMA, 1775. DUTCH COMMERCE, 45 

of late has become more and more confined, 
and is attended with very little profit. 

In the beginning the Dutch enjoyed very ex- 
ten five liberties; not only that of running with their 
Ihips into the harbour of Firandos, but alfo that of 
fending hither fever al, often five, and fometimes 
fevcn, (hips ; as likewife that of trading to an unli- 
mited amount, and to carry out of the country large 
quantities of filver, gold, and other commodities, 
which have been fince abfolutely prohibited. 
At length in the year 1641, they were ordered 
to eftablilh their factory on the ifiand of De~ 
zima, near the town of Nagalaki. A certain 
fum was fixed, above which their yearly com- 
merce was not to go : only three, and at length, 
from the beginning of this prefen t century, not 
more than two Ihips were fuffered to come annu- 
ally hither, and their privileges and the quantity of 
their wares were by degrees diminilhed ; fo that 
the quantity of goods in trade, which formerly 
amounted to fever al millions, was now reduced to 
two millions of gilders. On the arrival of a rich 
Dutch fleet in the harbour, in the year 1685, the 
Ibidteft orders, on the part of his TmpcrialMajefty, 
were received from the court, that the Dutch, in 
confequence of the per million already granted 
them, Chou Id be at liberty to bring into the fac- 
tory fuch goods or quantity as they Ihould 
.think proper, but that hereafter, no more were 
•. . i to 




45 DfiZfMA, 1775. DUTCH commerce; 

to be fold annually than would amount to the 
ftim of three hund red thou fan d thails or rix* 
dollars, and the remainder fnould be kept till the 
following year* Be Tides this fevere ftroke to the 
commerce of the Dutch, one of the governors, 
who was lels partial to them than his predecef- 
fors, had fallen upon two other methods farther 
to kfifcn their profits, by which many of the 
people in office belonging to the town, and the 
townfmen themfelves, reaped confiderable ad- 
vantage. One was, that before any Dutch 
goods were fold, a certain fum per cent, was 
laid on them, which was therefore to be paid 
by the pur chafer ; and as this duty was to be 
railed from the goods, the natural coofequence 
was,. that lefs was paid for them than before, and 
that rforei goers fuffered a confiderable lofs. The 
Other was, that the value of the coin was railed 
to the Dutch in this manner, that a kobang, 
which paffes current in the country for fixty 
mas, was reckoned to them at fixty-eight, fo 
that eight mas on each kobang, which they lofir, 
became a new and confiderable income to the 
town of Nagafaki and its inhabitants, as alfo 
to fome of the people in office there. Thus 
the Dutch company, having a right to dilpole 
of merchandife to the amount of three hundred 
thoufand thails, did not actually receive more 
than two hundred and fixty thoufand thails worth 

for 


DEZIMA, I775. DUTCH COMMERCE. 47. 

for exportation. The deficient, forty thou fend 
thails, therefore, were railed from fuch private 1 
perfons as hitherto had been allowed to fell 
their wares in fetch quantities as they thought 
proper, and at fuch prices as they were able ta 
get, fo that this lum had been divided between 
the chiefs, merchants, captains of fhips, writers* 
and others. \ ' 

The traffic to Japan was formerly fo very 
lucrative jto individuals, that hardly any but 
favorites were Cent out as chiefs, and when tfaefe 
had made two voyages, it was feippofed that they 
wete rich enough to be able to live on the imereti 
of their fortunes, and that therefore they ©ughfi 
to make room for others. At prefen t a chief is 
obliged to make many voyages. His fuccefs is 
now no more to be envied, and his profits are 
thought to be very inconfiderable. 

After all the merchandize, as well that 
which belonged to the company as that of indi« 
viduals, had been fearched and carried into the 
ilore-houfe's, and notice of the fame bad been 
given to the merchants of the country, the fek 
commenced. Formerly the merchandize was 
fold by public auction. Samples were fliown to 
the merchants, and the governors of Nagafeki* 
of all the different articles, that they might make 
their ptopofals with regard to the quantity they 
wanted, as well as to the price. , 

The 


4 » DE2IMA, 1775 ' DUTCH commerce. 

The merchants, or their deputies, afterwards 
went for feveral days to the ftore-houfes on the 
ifhnd, for the purpofe of examining the mer- 
chandize more ^accurately. After which certain 
commiflioners made the Dutch their offers, 
without previoufly afking what they demanded 
for each fort. The firft time they bid very low. 
If the owner cannot take it, the fecond time 
fomewhat more is bid ; and ftiould he refufe this 
likewife, they bid a third time. If the owner 
is not then fatisfied, he is alked how much he 
wdhes to have. The vender then commonly 
alks a little more for his commodity than what 
he can fell it for, that he may be able to abate 
fomething. And if the Japahefe are in great 
want of the article, the price is generally then 
made agreeable to both parties } but if they are 
not, the wares are kept till the next year’s fate, 
or they are allowed to carry them back to Ba- 
tavia. The Japan efe always bid in majes, and 
not in caijss ; for inftance, for one mas of uni- 
corn’s horn, eight mas of Giver, and fo on. Af- 
ter the fale is concluded, the merchandize is 
weighed, and carried into the town, where the 
country merchants have the liberty to purchafe 
it at a dearer rate. The Japanefe pay much lefs 
now for Dutch goods than they did before, as 
*15 per cent, and more muff at prefent be paid 
under the name of Fannagin (flower- money) to 

the 



DEZIMA, 1775. DUTCH COMMERCE. 49 

the town of Nagafaki, which is divided between 
the fervants of government and the citizens. 
Amongft: the articles which were imported by the 
officers for fale this year, were camphor, fmall 
ratans, tortoile -fhells, fpeflacles, unicorns horns 
(unicornu verum) manufactured glafs, watches 
of different fizes, chintzes, faffron, Venice trea- 
cle, Spanifh liquorice, Ninfi-root, Nuremberg 
manufactures, fuch as looking - glaffes, &c. 
Books on different fciences in the Dutch lan- 
guage were not fold at the fale, but were often 
exchanged with the interpreters, and that to 
confiderable advantage. 

Unicorns horn ( unkorntt of the Monsdon 
monoceros ) fold this year on Kambang very dear. 
It was often fmuggled formerly, and fold at an 
enormous rate. The Japanefe have an extra- 
vagant opinion of its medical virtues and powers 
to prolonglife, fortify the animal fpirits, affifl 
the memory, and cure all complaints. — ■ 
This branch of commerce has not been known 
to the Dutch till of late, when it was dif» 
covered by an accident. One of the Chiefs for 
commerce here, on his return home, had fent 
from Europe, amongft other rarities, to a friend 
of his, who was an interpreter, a large, hand- 
fome, twitted, Greenland unicorn’s horn, by 
the fale of which this interpreter became ex-» 
tremely rich, and a man of conftquencc. From 
voL. m. E that 








50 DEZIMAi 1775. DUTCH COMMERCE. 

that time the Dutch have written to Europe for 
as many horns as they could get, and made 
great profit on them in Japan. At firft each’ 
catje was fold for one hundred kobangs or fix 
hundred rixdollars, after which the price fell by 
degrees to feventy, fifty, and thirty kobangs. 
This year, as foon as the captain’s wide coat 
had been kid afide and prohibited, and no 
fmuggling could be carried on, all the uni- 
corns horn was obliged to be fold on Kam- 
bang, when each catje or |lb. fetched one hun- 
dred and thirty-fix rixdollars, at the rate of one 
mas of Japan filver for eight mas and five con- 
deryns of horn. If any of it could be fold 
clandeftinely on board of the flfip, it fetched 
from fifteen to fixteen kobangs. The thirty-, 
fevcn catjes four thails and fix mas of horn. 
Which I had brought with me, were therefore 
very well difpofed of for five thoufand and fe- 
venty-one thails and one mas which enabled 
me to pay the debts I had contracted, and, 
at the fame time, to expend one thoufand two 
hundred rixdollars on my favorite ftudy. Ninfi 
root, called by the . Japanefe Nifii, and by th'e 
Chinefe Som, fells here- at as high a price as 
unicorns horn. The Chinefe are the only peo- 
ple who bring it genuine and unadulterated to 
this country. It grows in the northern part of 
China, and chiefly in Korea. A baftard kind is 

often. 


i i 1 





DEZIMA, 1775 . DUTCH COMMERCE. £1 

often brought hither by the Dutch, who ufually 
mix it with the genuine root, by way of 
adulterating it. The baftard kind was faid by 
the French to be brought from America to 
China, and is perhaps the Ginfeng root. The 
genuine ninfi fold this year for a hundred ko- 
bangs per catje, if it was large and the root old. 
The fmaller fort fold at an inferior price. The 
baftard kind, of which fuch pieces as are forked 
and white are the beft, and with which the 
genuine is ufed to be adulterated, is ftriCtly 
prohibited here, infomuch, that it is not fuf- 
fered to be imported at any price, but mull be 
burned, in order to prevent any fraud being 
practifed with it. 

Several other things are prohibited for ex- 
portation, as well to the company as to indi- 
viduals, fuch as Japanele coin, charts and maps, 
books, at lead; fuch as contain an account of 
the country and its government, all forts of 
arms, but particularly their excellent fcymetars, 
which in ftrength and goodnefs furpafs the 
manufactories of every other country. 

The copper which was brought hither from 
the interior and diftant part of the country, was 
kept in a feparate ftorehoufc; and as foon as 
the fhip was in part difeharged, the loading of 
it with the copper commenced. This latter 
was weighed, and put into long wooden boxes, 
E 3 a 



52 DEZIMA, 1775. DUTCH COMMERCE. 

a pickel weight in each* in prefence of the Ja- 
panefe officers and interpreters* and of the Dutch 
fupercargoes and writers, and was afterwards 
carried by Japanefe fervants (kulis) to the 
bridge, in order to be put on board. On fuch 
occafions a few failors always attended, to watch 
that the porters did not fteal any of it by the 
way, a thing which would not be the leaft 
burden to their confciences, efpecially as they 
can fell the ftolen copper to the Chinefe, who 
pay them well for it. 

The Japanefe porcelain is packed up in ftraw, 
fo well and fo tight, that very feldom any of it 
is found broken. This porcelain is certainly 
neither handfome nor neat, but rather, on the 
contrary, clumfy, thick, and badly painted, and, 
therefore, in thefe refpefts much like the china 
which is brought from Canton, This has the 
advantage, that it is not eafily affe&ed by heat, 
even when fet on glowing embers. 

The weights at Japan are thus regulated : 
one Pickel makes one hundred and twenty-five 
pounds, one Catje fixteen Thails, one Thail ten 
Mas, and one Mas ten Conderyns. 

The money current in trade is reckoned in 
the fame manner; fo that one Thail, which 
nearly anfwers to one Dutch rixdoliar, is equal 
to ten Mas, and one Mas to ten Conderyns. 

Kambang 



DEZIMA, 1775* DUTCH COMMERCE. ^3 

Kambang money, or the fums due for wares 
that are fold, is never paid in hard calh, as the 
carrying it out of the country is prohibited; but 
there is merely an alignment made on it, and 
bills are drawn for fuch a furn as will be requi- 
fite for the whole year’s fupply, as allb for as 
much as will be wanted at the fair of the ifland. 
This Kambang money is, in the common phrafe 
of the country, very light, and lefs in value 
than fpecie, fo that with the money which is 
thus afiigned over, one is obliged to pay nearly 
double for every thing. All theft: Kambang bills 
are paid at the Japanefe new-year only. Every 
man’s account is made out before the fliips 
fail, and is prefented and accepted at the col- 
lege of the interpreters, after 'which the books 
are clofed. All that is wanted after the new 
year, is taken up upon credit for the whole 
year enfuing. 

When the Dutch do not deal here for ready 
money, their commerce can hardly be confidere J 
in any other light than that of barter. With 
this view, a fair is kept on the ifland about a 
fortnight before the muttering of the fhip, and 
its departure for Papenberg, when certain mer- 
chants, with the confent of the governor, and 
on paying a fmall duty, are allowed to carry 
their merchandize thither, and expofe them to 
fale in booths erefted for that purpole. 

E3 


The 



54 DEZIMA, 1775. DUTCH COMMERCE. 

The commodities which vtfere bought up 
this year by private perfons, were chiefly large 
brown earthen jars, that would contain feveral 
pails full of liquor, for keeping water in, foy 
in wooden veffels, alfo fome fakki, fans, Ja- 
panefe filken .night-gowns, lacquered works of 
feveral kinds, porcelain, both coarfe and fine, 
or white and painted, narrow fil'ks, and fo- 
was-work, as alfo fine rice, put up in paper 
parcels of about a pound weight each. 

Copper is the principal article which the com- 
pany, carries out from hence. This copper is 
better and finer than any other, and the major 
part of it is difpofed of on the coaft of Coro- 
mandel to great advantage. Each bar weighs 
about one-third of a pound.* Next to copper 
in point of quantity, raw camphor is carried 
out, packed up in wooden tubs. The reft con- 
lifts of large filken night-gowns, quilted with 
filk wadding, a fmall quantity of porcelain, foy, 
fakki, preferved fruits, &c. 

The Chinefe have, almoft from time imme- 
morial, traded to Japan, and perhaps are the only 
people from Afia that have engaged in the trade; 
Indeed they are now the only nation, except the 
Dutch, who are allowed to go thither with their 
veffels and trade. Formerly they ran with their 
veffels into Ojacca harbour, although it is very 

dangerous 

* \iide p. 43, 1. 19. 



BIZIMA, 177 5. CHINESE COMMERCE. £5 

dangerous on account of rocks and fand- banks. 
The Portuguefe ftiowed them the way to -Nagala- 
ki, where they are at prelent always obliged to go. 
At firfi: the annual number of their trading vef- 
fels might amount to one or even two hundred, 
each manned with fifty men or more. The 
Chinefe and Japanefe, though they are near 
neighbours, differ, neverthelefs, in many re- 
fpe£ts : the former wear frocks or wide jackets, 
and large trowfcrs ; the latter always make ufe 
of night-gowns ; the former wear boots made of 
linen, and Qroes with upper-leathers; the latter 
go bare-legged with focks and fandals ; each of 
thefe nations has a diftinft and leparate lan- 
guage, and quite different religious tenets. On 
the other hand, they are alike in colour and look, 
write after the fame manner, and have feveral 
religious fedts and cuftoms in common. A 
great many years ago emigrations were very fre- 
quent from China to Japan, efpecially to its 
fouthern ifiands, called Liquejo, which are fub- 
j eel to Japan, but make annual prel’en ts to the 
Emperor of China. 

The liberty which the Chinefe formerly enjoyed 
, with, regard to commerce, is at prefent greatly 
curtailed, fince they have been fufpected of f,j- 
vouring the Catholic mifliqnaries at China, and 
fince they were fo imprudent as to introduce 
into Japan Catholic books printed in China. 

E 4 At 



56 DEZIMA, 1775. CHINESE COMMERCE. 

At prefect they are as much fufpe<5ted, and as 
hardly ufed here as the Dutch, and in fome 
particulars more fo. They are fhut up in a 
fmall ifland, and ftri&ly fearched whenever they 
go in and out. They enjoy, however, the ad- 
vantage over the Dutch, of having in the town 
and frequenting a temple dedicated to the worlhip 
of the Deity, and, at the fame time, of having for 
their daily expences Japanefe money, with which 
they themfclves buy at the gate provifions and 
the other necelfaries of life. 

When a velfel is arrived from China, and has 
anchored in the harbour, all the people are 
brought afliore, and all charge of the velfel is 
taken from them, till fuch time as every thing 
is ready for their departure. Confequently the 
Japanefe unload it entirely, and afterwards bring 
the velfel afliore, where, at low-ebb, it lies quite 
dry. The next year it is loaded with other goods. 

The Chinefe are not fuffered to make a 
voyage to the imperial court, which faves them 
confiderable fums, that the Dutch are obliged 
to expend, as well during the expedition, as in 
prefents at court and to the grandees. The 
Japanefe interpreters are as neceffary for the 
traffic of the Chinefe as for that of the Dutch, 
becaufe thefe two neighbouring nations fpeak 
languages fo different, as not to underftand each 
other. 


It 


DEZIMA, 1775. CHINESE COMMERCE. 57 

It is true, the Chinefe are allowed to trade 
for twice as large a fum as that granted to the 
Dutch ; but as their voyages are neither fo long 
nor fo dangerous, they are obliged to contribute 
more largely to the profperity of the town of 
Nagafaki, and therefore pay more per cent, as far 
even as to fixty, in ( 'f am agin or ) flower- money. 

Their merchandize is fold at three different 
times in the year, and is brought hither in about 
feventy veffels. That is, the firft fair takes 
place in the fpring, for wares brought in twenty 
veffels ; the fecond in the fu turner, for wares 
imported in thirty veffels ; and the third in the 
autumn, for wares brought in twenty veffels. 
Should any more vefiels arrive within the year, 
they are obliged to return, without even being 
allowed to unload the leaft article. The prin- 
cipal trade of the Chinefe conflfb of raw fllk, 
various drugs, which are imported as medicines j 
fuch as ninli-root, turpentine, myrrh, calumbac- 
wood, befides zink and a few printed books, 
which mull be read through, and approved by two 
learned men, before they are fuffered to be fold. 

Although their voyages are Ids expenfivc, 
and they are not under the necdfity of keeping 
dire&ors or other fervants for their trade, yet on 
account of the greater value per cent, deduced 
from their merchandize, their profits are Ids 
than thofe of the Dutch j and as they are no 

longer 


58 DEZIMAj. 1775. CHINESE COMMERCE. 

longer allowed to carry away any lbecie, they 
are obliged to buy Jnpanefe commodities for 
exportation, fuch as lacquered-work, copper, &c. 

When their vdTels are loaded, and ready for 
failing, diey are conduced by a number of Ja- 
panefe guard-blips, not only out of the harbour, 
but iikewife a great way out to fea, in order to 
prevent their difpofmg to the fmugglers of any 
of the unfold wares that they may have been 
obliged to carry back. 

The Chine fe veffels are (lightly built, very 
high, and furnifhed w ith (till higher galleries, very 
much turned up at the hem and (tern, especially 
at the hem The rudder and fails are very 
large, and aukward, to handle. 

QElober the <4 (h, The Dutch Hi ip was com 
eluded from the town of Nagasaki to the Pa- 
penberg, as it is called, there to remain at an- 
chor, and take in the remainder of her cargo. 
It became my duty to follow her, and to hay on 
board of her till 1 could be relieved by my 
predeedfor, who was to return in her to Ba- 
tavia. A few days after, when the blip has an- 
chored in the harbour, the governor points out 
the day when (lie is to fail, and this command 
mull: be obeyed fo implicitly, that were the 
wind ever fo contrary, or even if it blew a hard 
gale, the . friip mult depart without any excufe, 
or the lcaft fnadovv of oppofition. And indeed 

•the 



DFZIMA, 1/75- NAGASAKI HARBOUR. J9 

the wind was fo contrary, and blew fo hard 
this day, that above a hundred boats, large and 
final!, were employed in towing the fhip. All 
this fmall craft placing themfelves in feve- 
ral long rcvvs, dragged with ropes this huge 
Ihip along, which had an uncommon, as well as 
curious, appearance, and was accompanied by 
the cheering fong of feveral hundred Japanefc 
rowers. 

Before the fliip leaves the harbour, the pow- 
der, arms, and the chefts of books that were 
taken out of her, are returned. The fick from 
the hofpiral too are put on board. Whilft flic 
is failing out of the harbour, the guns are fired, 
to falute the town and the factory, and after- 
wards the two imperial guards. 

The Chinefe veflels alfo, after having taken 
in part of their cargo, anchor under this moun- 
tain till they can depart vyith a fair wind. 

During the time that the fliip flaid here, we 
took in, every other day only, part of the cop- 
per and camphor, and all merchandize and other 
things belonging to individuals i when the offi- 
cers arid interpreters were obliged to come al- 
moft a league by water, in order to be pre- 
fent on board. Here is alfo taken in water and 
other articles of refrefliments for the voyage. 
There are alfo guard-fhips here, to have an eye 
to the Dutfh, but they lie at a great diftance. 

' 1 1 A$ 


60 DEZIMA, 1775. NAGASAKI HARBOUR. 

As there are feveral iflands of different fizes, and 
in the environs of this place, the Dutch, after 
they have got their boat again, may row to 
them for their pleafure, without any hindrance 
from the Japaneie. Though, if they ft ay long 
on lhore there, efpecially on any of the larger 
iflands, that are inhabited, they are generally fol- 
lowed by one of the guaid-fhips, the officers 
on board of which, without preventing the Dutch 
from walking about, will merely accompany 
them. And if one fhould happen to arrive at any 
of the villages, which fometimes are very large,- an 
incredible number of grown people and children 
will afiemble to flare, with a clamorous node, 
at a people fo Arrange in their opinion as the 
Europeans. They are particularly delighted 
with our large and round eyes, and therefore 
always call out Hollanda O-tne, 

All thefe opportunities I diligently embraced 
during the time that I was obliged to be with 
the fhip, and botanized on thefe iflands and their 
mountains, and this autumn gathered different 
.feeds of rare and uncommon herbs, fhrubs, and 
trees, which 1 fent to Batavia in the homeward- 
bound fhip, to be forwarded to Amfterdam. 

Papenherg is a fmall ifland, covered to the 
very brink of its fhores with a peaked moun- 
tain, and which may be afcended by two of 
its fides, and that in about a quarter of an 

hour’s 


DEZIMAj I775- NAGASAKI HARBOUR. 6l 

hour’s time. The two other fidcs are very 
fteep. It is faid to have acquired its name at 
the time that the Japanefe perfecuted and drove 
out the Chrilhans and Portugueze, and threw 
down many of the Portugueze friars from thefe 
heights into the fea. 

Vifchers Eyland , or the Fiflierman's I (land, 
lies on one fide of Papenberg, and has only one 
flat, and rather oblong, hillock, with which it is 
covered to the very ftrand, and is, like the for- 
mer ifiand, uninhabited. 

In the months of September and October, 
the diarrhea, attended with a tenefmus, prevailed 
on board of the fliip, and particularly in the 
town of Nagafaki. Amongft the fhip’s crew 
this diforder was occafioned by the great heat 
in the day-time, and the coolnefs of the even- 
ings. In the town another caufe fupervened* 
viz. the excefiive eating of the fruit of the Kaki 
(Diofpyros kaki ) which was a: this time ripe, 
and had an agreeable tafte, not unlike that of 
yellow plumbs. 

During my walks on Kojido , and the i Hands 
before-mentioned, I difeovered feveral remark- 
able plants, amongft which the following were 
moft beneficial and moll in ufe : 

China root (Smilax China) grows every where 
in great abundance, although the Japanefe buy 
annually large quantities of it from the Chinefe fc 

The 


UEZIMA, 1775. NAGASAKI HARBOUfi. 

The root is ufed in deco&ion, as a purifier of 
the blood, and by the Japanefe in many more 
maladies. The interpreters were highly pleafed 
at the difcovery they had made by my means of 
this ufeful root’s growing in their own country, 
as it is come fo much into common ufe, and 
they pay annually large fums of money for it to 
the Chinefe. 

Wild figs (Ficus film'd a and ere Ha) were chiefly 
found amongft the rocks and near done walls, 
where they infrnuated them lei ves between the 
ftones. The figs are fome times eaten ; but are 
lmall, like plumbs. 

The Jpowj’a triloba grew both wild and 
planted. The roots of it were either white or 
black. The latter were ufed as laxatives. 

The F agar a piperita (or Pepper-bufh) was 
common every where, and had now ripe ber- 
ries. The leaves, as well as the berries, have 
a fpicy tafte, are heating, and at the fame time 
rather difagreeable to the palate. The rind of 
the fruit, taken inwardly, expels wind, and 
is fomecimes found ferviceable in the cholic. 
Both the leaves and the rind of the fruit arc very 
commonly ufed in foups in Read of pepper ; but 
the leaves by themfelves, beaten up with rice- 
flour to the confidence of a poultice, are applied 
toabl'cefies and limbs affefted with the rheuma- 
tifi'n, indead of the common blifter-plafter. 

The 



DEZIMA, 1775. NAGASAKI HARBOUR, 63 

The Rubia ccrdata is ufed here by the country 
people for dying, in like manner as- madder 
( Rubia tintlcrum ) is in Sweden. 

Cordage and lines, even of the thicker kind; 
which might ferve on board of the veffcls, are 
made, not of hemp, but of nettles, of which 
different forts grow wild on the hills, and that 
frequently to a confiderable fize. Thofe fpecies 
which were moftly ufed were the Urtka Japo- 
mca and mvea, the bark of which, when 
prepared, produced ftrong cordage, and fome 
yielded threads fo fine, that even linen was 
made of them. From the feeds of die Urtica 
nivea (the leaves of which on the under-fide 
are as white as chalk) an oil was exprefled. 

In the beginning of November , and after flay- 
ing feveral weeks on board, I was at laft re- 
lieved by the dodtor, who was now to return 
with the fhip to Batavia, in order to make 
room for me, who intended to remain here a 
year at leaft. Not long after this the fhip 
failed, and left behind fourteen of us Europeans, 
among fome flaves and Japanefe, in folitude, 

and, it might in fome fort be faid, confinement, 
\ M * 
we being now fhut up within the narrow circle 

of this little ifland of Dezima, and feparated 

not only from Chriftendom, but, in fadt, from 

the whole world befides. An European, that 

remains here, is in a manner dead and buried 

in 


6 4 


DEZtMA, 1775. 


an obfcure corner of the globes He hears no 
news of any kind nothing relative to war, or 
other misfortunes and evils that plague and in- 
feft mankind i and neither the rumours of in- 
land or foreign concerns delight or moleft his 
The foul pofiefies here one faculty only. 


ear 


which is the judgement (if, indeed, it be at all 
times In poffeffion of this faculty.) The will 
is totally debilitated, and even dead, becaufe to 
an European there is no other will than that of 
the Japanefe, by which he muft exafUy fquare 
his conduit. 

The European way of living is in other re- 
fpedts the fame as in other parts of India, 
luxurious and irregular. Elere, juft as at Batavia, 
we pay a vifit every evening to the chief, after 
having walked feveral' times up and down the 
two ftreets, 

Thefe evening vifits generally laft from fix 
o’clock to ten, and fometimes eleven or twelve 
at night, and conftitute a very difagreeable way 
of life, fit only for fuch as have no ocher way 
of fpending their time than droning over a 
pipe of tobacco. 

Not having much to do, I employed my 
time in collecting, examining, and preferving 
infefts and herbs, and in eonverfing with the 
interpreters, whofe curiofitv and fondnefs for 
learning I perceived, and willingly inftrufted 

them 


DEZIMA, I77J. 


€5 

them in different fciences, but particularly in 
botany and phyfic. Many of them had an ex* 
tenfive and profitable praftice in the town under 
my direction ; and fome of them brought to 
me on the ifland various plants of this coun- 
try’s produce, which were not only beautiful 
and fcarce, but likewife hitherto totally un- 
known. Some of thefe they had collected 
themfelves, and others they had got by means 
of their friends from the interior parts of the 
country. At the fame rime I procured by de- 
grees, fome information concerning their govern- 
ment, religion, language, manners, domeftic and 
rural ceconomy, &c. I alfb received from them 
feveral books, and curiofities of various kinds, 
the greateft part of which I wifhed to be able to 
carry with me to Europe. 

To wait about their own perfbns the Dutch 
make ule of the flaves they have brought with 
them, but for all other purpofes Japanefe are 
appointed, fuch as compradors, or purveyors, of 
different forts, who provide provifions, and every 
thing elfe that is neceffary in houfe-keeping ; 
cooks, who drefs victuals in the Dutch manner j 
fervants that, although they are natives of Ja- 
pan and not interpreters, have learned to (peak 
the Dutch language. Four fuch as thefe are 
left, with the chief, one with the fecretary, and 
one with the doctor, who together make the 
vol, in, F trip 


66 


DEZIMA, 1775. 


trip to the court. Should any artizans be 
wanted from the town, they have a fpecial per- 
miffion from the governor to go to the ifland. 
The Dutch here, as well as at Batavia, con- 
fume a great quantity of ricej nevcrthelefs, 
there is wheaten bread baked for their ufe in 
town, which is brought to the ifland new every 
day. 

The cold began now to grow very trouble- 
some at times, and was quite piercing, with an 
eafterly or northerly wind. We began therefore 
to keep fifes in the rooms, though neither the 
windows nor the doors were over and above 
clofe. Our fires were made with charcoal, which 
was brought from the town in a large copper- 
ketde with a broad rim ; and this kettle being 
placed in the middle of the floor, warmed the 
whole room for feveral hours together. 

Of the Europeans that remain here, the 
officers, fuch as the fecretary, doctor, and 
•writers, have each two or three handfome 
rooms, befides the ftorehoufe, which they occu- 
py without paying for them, but ornament them 
themfelves with carpets and other furniture. 
They dine and fup with the Chief gratis, at the 
company's table, fo that their ufual expences do 
not amount to much, except they fquander away 
their money on the fair fox, or make expenfive 
entertainments, and give fuppers to each other. 

An 


DEZIMA, 1775. 


67 


An unexpected misfortune, which in the be- 
ginning feemed of no confequence, but was 
productive of great confofion and alarm, hap- 
pened to me in this our filent retreat. As I had 
not, when at Batavia, money fufficient to pur- 
chafe a flave that might accompany me to Japan, 
the fupercargo had the goodnefs to lend me one 
of his till the next year, when he expeCted to 
return hither. This flave, who had a wife and 
children at Batavia, and who had flattered him- 
felf with the hopes of returning home in the 
courfe of the year to his connections, became, on 
account of this difappointment, very much dis- 
contented, and at length quite melancholy. At 
Jail he takes it in his head to hide himfelf, and 
difappears, without any one’s knowing either 
where or wherefore he had hid himfelf. He was 
immediately fought for by the other flaves, but 
to no purpofe. The day following the interpre- 
ters and fome other Japanefe on the ifland made 9 
Hill ftridter fearch for him. At length, on the 
third day, there arrived from the town, by order 
of the governor, a number of interpreters, head- 
banjofes, and under-banjoles, and a multitude 
of other attendants, to fearch for him, nor 
could they find his hiding place till towards the 
evening, when he was difcoveired lurking in an 
old florehoufe. If he had not, to our great joy, 

I been found, a ftricter fearch would have been 



made 


DEZIMA, 1775. 


6$ 

made by order of the governor, all over the 
ifland, and even in the apartments of every in- 
dividual; and if he had not even then been 
found, orders would have been ifliied through- 
out the kingdom to apprehend the deferter, and 
the cafe reported to the Court. About io 
trifling a matter are the Japanefe capable of 
making a great rout, fearing left any one fiiould 
fteal into the country, which however it is very 
difficult, and indeed almoft impoffible to do. 
The flave was afterwards punifhed for his mif- 
behaviour, by being baftinaded and put in irons, 
after which all this ferment fubfided. 

Amongfi: other things which were brought to 
us on the ifland, and fold for food, I obferved 
fbmething like the row of a filh, which had been 
falted, gently preffed together and dried. It had 
the appearance of a piece of cheefe, and was 
eaten raw, like Caviare. 

Matjkqfa, a kind of filh ( Sei&na ) eacn of the 
belly fins of which, confifted of a thick and bony 
prickle. The fkin, which was very hard and of 
a bony nature, was flayed off. The fifh was after- 
wards boiled and ufed for food. Its fiefh was 
firm and palatable. 

Kitama Kura , was an appellation very properly 
given by the Japanefe to another fifh ( Tetraodon 
hifpidus) which was fo poifonous, that, when 
eaten, it proved frequently mortal, and therefore, 

according 


DEZJMA, 1775. 69 

according to die fignification of the Japanefe 
name, made the north one’s pillow ; it being a 
cuftom with thefe people, to turn the heads of 
thofe that are dying, towards the north. 

Kami Kiri Muji , was the name of 3 large black 
Cerambyx ( Cerambyx Rubus) with white ftripes 
on its elytra. 

Ote Gaki, which fignifies a falling Oyfter, be- 
caufe, like others of tiiis genus, it does not ad- 
here faft to the rocks, was a very large and ob- 
long Oyfter, much ufed as food by the inhabitants, 
and fometimes brought to the Dutch for fale. It 
was well tailed, but being of $ great fize, was 
generally boiled or Hewed, and eaten with fome 
kind of fituce. 

A beautiful Perch (Perea, which by the Japa- 
nefe is called Ara) adorned with feven white 
ftripes, .was alfo brought amongft other filh to our 
kitchen. 

For walking linen they neither ufed foft nor 
lurd Ibap, but in its Head the meal or flour of a 
fpecies of Bean, which, when ground very fine, 
yields an extremely white powder. 

The interpreters told me amongft other things, 
of a very fmgular worm, which in the fum- 
mer was a crawling infe£t, but in winter a 
plant. It was brought hither by the Chinefe 
amongft other medicines, and faid to be poflfefled 
cf cordial virtues. As foon as I was able to pro-* 

F $ cure 


DEZIMA, 1775. 


70 

cure a drawing of it, and afterwards the drug it- 
felfj I plainly faw, that it was nothing elfe than a 
Caterpillar, which againft its approaching change 
to a Chryfalis, had crept down into the ground, 
and there fattened itfelf to the root of fome plant. 
It was called with much acutenefs Totju Kajo. 

To light up their rooms in the winter evenings, 
the Japanele ule candles and lamps. The former, 
however, are but little ufed •, and the latter are 
moft common throughout the whole country. 
The candles are fmall ; being fix inches in length 
and one inch thick at the upper end, and taper- 
ing as they go downwards ; they are therefore 
quite the reverfe in Hi ape to thofe that are ufed 
in Europe. In the upper end is the wick, made 
of paper rolled together, and covered on the out- 
Cde with another whiter and finer paper rolled over 
it in a fpiral form. In the lower end is a hole 
fo large, as to leave room to introduce a nail, 
fixed to what is termed a candleftick. Thefe 
candles are made of oil procured by expreffion 
or decodtion from the feed of the varnifh tree 
{Rhus vernix and Juccedanea ) which tree is 
called Faft no ki x and grows in many diftridls of 
this country, producing a great quantity of feed. 
Thefe candles when frefii, are of a whitilh colour, 
inclining to yellow within, and covered externally 
■with a white coat. The oil grows hard by expo- 
fure to the cold air, and acquires the confidence of 

tallow. 



DEZIMAj 1775. 


7 » 


tallow. In time it turns rank, and is then of a 
yellowifli colour. Thefe candles bum well, but 
run like tallow candles. When thefe candles are 
fold, they are neatly put up in paper, which is 
folded at the lower end, and at the upper end 
twitted round the wick, and about two inches 
above that left open, fo that it exactly refemblcs 
a long rocket. 

The apartments are moft commonly illumina- 
ted with lamps, to the number of one or two in 
each apartment : the oil burned in thefe lamps, is 
expreffed from muftard feed. 

They ftrike fire with a fteel (which is very 
fmall) and a rough greenilh quarze-ftone. For 
•tinder they ufe the woolly part of the leaves of 
Wormwood ( Artemifia vulgaris ) which is pre- 
pared fo as to form a brownilh coloured wool. 
This fubftance catches fire much quicker than 
Moxa, They ufe matches, which are lhort, of 
about a finger’s length and a nail’s breadth, trun- 
cated and cohered with brimftone at the ends. 
Thefe are tied together in bundles, and bent in 
a femi-circular form. 

The Japanefe have the bad cuftom of very fre- 
quently breaking wind upwards, and is by no 
means thought indecent as in Europe ; in other 
matters they are as nice as other polifhed nations. 

About the new year two merchant veflels or 
junks, arrived here from China, which brought 
with them feveral Japanefe, who had been driven 
F 4 in 


7 i DEZIMA, 1776. 

in a gale of wind on the Chinefe coaft. Thefe 
Japanefe were immediately conduced to their 
native places* from whence they will not be eafi- 
ly fuffered to depart. 

Our chief in like manner had brought hither a 
Japanefe* who fome years ago, whilft he was fifh- 
ing at fea, had been driven away from the land, 
andhad for feveral years been abfent from his coun- 
try. At laft he arrived at Batavia, d.reflcd like a 
Malay, and fpoke fluently the Malay language. 

Agreeably to the Eaftern pufiom, the Japa- 
nefe neither viflt each other nor the Dutch, with- 
out fend ing fome prefent previous to their coming. 
Theieprefents are made more for form fake, than 
for their value, which generally is very trifling. 
They frequently confift of a frefh fifh or the like, 
but are always prefented with fome degree of 
pomp ; for inftance, on a fmall table made for 
the purpofe, apd covered with paper folded in 
fome particular fhape, When the grandees of 
the country, who are con fide red as pringes* were 
on board to fee our flfip, each of them fent out: 
captain a prefent, which confiiled of a tub. full of 
Sakki, and a few dried fpotted Sepias, a kind of 
fifh which is in great requeft with the Japanese 
and Chinefe. 

1776, Jan. 1, we kept new year’s day. Many 
of the Japanefe afiifted us in celebrating it. 
The cold was now very fevere and intenfe, pi- 
th ough 


7 $ 


DEZIMAj 1776. 

though the ground was quite bare. According 
to cuftom, this day about noon moft of the 
Japanefe that had any thing to do at the Dutch 
factory, fuclt as the head and fob-banjoies, the 
Ottonas, the head and fob-interpreters, the fur- 
veyors, and others, came to with us a happy 
new-year. D refled in their holiday clothes* 

they paid their relpe&s to the chief, who in- 
vited them to dine with him. The vi£tuals 
were chiefly dreffed after the European manner ; 
confequently but few of the difoes were tafted by 
the Japanefe; nevertheljds, every thing was fo 
contrived, that there were no LafUets full of frag- 
ments gathered. Of the foup they all partook ; 
but of the other difoes, foch as roafted pigs, 
hams, fallad, cakes, tarts, and other paflries, 
they ate little or nothing; but in their flead was 
put on a plate a little of every difh, and wheji 
this plate was full, it was fent to the town with 
a paper on it, on which was written the owner’s 
name, and this was repeated fever al times. Salt 
beef and the like, which the Japanefe do not 
eat, was let by, and ufed as a medicine. The 
fame may be faid of the fait butter, of which 
1 was frequently defired to cut a (lice for fome 
of the company; it is made into pills, and 
taken daily in confomptions and other diforders. 
After dinner, warm fakki was handed round, 
which was drank out of lacquered wooden cups. 

On 


d izim/, 1776 . 

On this feftive and joyful occafion, the chief 
invited from the town feveral handfome girls, 
partly for the purpofe of ferving out the fakki, 
and partly to dance and bear the girls company 
■who were already on the ifland. After dinner 
too, thefe girls treated the Japanefe with feveral 
of their own country meffes, placed on final! 
fquare tables, which were decorated with an 
artificial fir tree, the leaves of which were made 
of green filk, and in feveral places fprinkled 
over with white cotton, in imitation of the 
winter-fnow. The girls never prefented the 
fakki Handing, but always, according to the 
cuftbm of the country, fitting. In the evening 
they danced in their own country fafhion ; and 
about five o’clock the guefts took their leave. 

In moffc of the Japanefe towns there are com- 
monly, in fome particular ftreet, feveral houfes 
dedicated to the worftiip of the Cyprian Goddefs, 
for the amufement of travellers and others. 
The town of Nagafaki is no exception in this 
refpect, but affords opportunities to the Dutch 
and Chinefe of fpending their money in no very 
reputable manner. If any one defires a com- 
panion in his retirement, he makes it known to 
a certain man, who goes to the ifland every day 
for this purpofe. This fellow before the even- 
ing procures a girl, that is attended by a little 
fervant-maid, generally known under the de- 
nomination 



DEZIMAj I776. 75 

nomination of a Kalbro, who fetches daily from 
the town all her miftrefs’s vi&uals and drink, 
dreffes her vi&uals, makes tea, &c. keeps every 
thing dean and in order, and runs on errands* 
One of thefe female companions cannot be kept 
lefs than three days, but ihe may be kept as long 
as one pleafes, a year, or even feveral years to- 
gether. After a fhorter or longer time too, one 
is at liberty to change, but in that cafe the lady 
mud appear every day at the town gate, and 
inform the banjofes whether Ihe means to con- 
tinue on the ifland or not. For every day eight 
mas is paid ro the lady's hufband ; and to her- 
felf, exdufive of her maintenance, prefents are 
fometimes made of filk night-gowns, girdles, 
head ornaments, &c. 

Without doubt, the Chriftians, who are en- 
lightened by religion and morality, ought not to 
degrade themfelves by a vicious intercourfe with 
the unfortunate young women of this country. 
But the Japanefe themfelves, being Heathens, 
do not look upon lafeivioufnefs as a vice, and 
leaft of all in fuch places as are protected by 
the laws and the government. Houfes of this 
kind therefore are not confidered as an infamous 
refort, or improper places of rendezvous. They 
are often frequented by the better fort of peo- 
ple, who wilh to treat their friends with fakki. 
Neverthelefs, the inftitution carries on its very 

face 



j 6 DEZIMA, 1776. 

very face that which is derogatory to human 
nature., and even to the leaft polifhed man- 
ners. Parents that are poor, and have more 
girls than they are able to maintain, fell them to 
one of thefe fellows at the age of four years 
and more. During their infancy they ferve 
as maids to the houfe, and particularly to wait 
cn the elder ladies, each of whom has her 
own girl to attend her. When one of thefe 
damfels arrives at the age of twelve, fifteen, or 
fixieerr, fhe is then, with much feftivity, and fre- 
quently at the expence of her on whom fhe has 
waited the preceding years, advanced to be one 
of thofe ladle? that are exempt from waiting on 
others, or from any kind of employment. 

It very feldom happens that one of thefe ladies 
proves pregnant by any of the Europeans ; but 
if fuch a thing happens, it was fuppofed that 
the child, efpecially if it were a boy, would be 
murdered. Others again aflured me, that fuch 
children were narrowly watched till the age of 
fifteen, and then were fent with the fhips to 
Batavia * but I cannot believe the Japanefe to 
be inhuman enough for the former procedure, nor 
is there any inftance of die latter having taken 
place. During my ftay in this country, I faw 
2 girl of about fix years of age, who very 
tr.ucn refembled her father, an European, and re- 
mained. 



BEZIMA AND NAGASAKI, 17/6. 77 

mained with him on our fmall illand the whole 
year through* 

The molt curious circumftance in this affair 
is, that when thefe ladies, after having ferved a 
certain term of years in thole houfes to which they 
were fold from their infancy, regain their perfect li- 
berty, they are by no means confidered as being 
difhonoured, and often married extremely well. 

In other refpefte, modefty is a virtue to 
which thefe people are not much attached ; 
and lafcivioufnefs fee ms unlverfally to prevail. 
The women feldom took any pains to cover 
their nudities when bathing in open places, 
(which they fometimes did) not even in fuch 
fpots where they were expofed to the fight of 
the Dutch, or where thefe latter were to pais. 

As no Japanefe has more than one wife, and 
flie is not locked up in the houfe as in Chipa, 
but is fuffered to keep men’s company, and 
walk abroad when fhe pleafes, it was therefore 
not difficult for me to get a fight of the fair lex 
of this country, in the ftreets as well as in the 
houfes. The fingle women were always dif- 
tinguiflied from the married, and feme of them 
were even painted. 

The colour with which they paint them* 
Stives is called Bing, and is kept in little round 
porcelain bowls. With this they paint, not 
.their cheeks, as the Europeans do, but their 

lips. 



78 DE2IMA AND NAGASAKI, I 77 S; 

lips, and lay the colour on according to 'their 
own fancy. If the paint is very thin, the lips 
appear red ; but if it be laid oh thick, they be- 
come of a violet hue, which is here confidered 
as the greater beauty. On a clofer examination 
I found that this paint is made from the Car- 
thamus tinHorius or baftard faffron. 

That which chiefly diftinguifhed the married 
women from the Angle were their black teeth, 
which in their opinion were extremely beautiful, 
but in molt other countries would be fufficient 
to make a man take French leave of his wife. 
To me, at leaft, a wide mouth with' black fhining 
teeth, had an ugly and difagreeable appear- 
ance. 

The black which is ufed for this purpofe is 
called Ohagur or Canni, and is prepared from 
urine, fllings of iron, and fakki : it is fcetid and 
corrofive. It eats fo deeply into the teeth, that 
it takes feveral days and much trouble to fcrape 
and wadi it away. It is fo corrofive, that the 
gums and lips muft be well covered while it is 
laid on, or it will turn them quite blue. Some 
begin to make ufc of this ornament as foon as 
they are courted or betrothed. 

’January 20. This day the monies were paid 
on account of the Dutch, and all their affign- 
ments fettled, which is done only once a year. 
For this purpofe there afifembled at the treafury 

in 


DJSZIMA AND NAGASAKI, iJjG. 

in the town, interpreters, fervants, merchants, 
purveyors, and all others who had any de- 
mands. Every one who had money to receive 
was obliged to be there in perfon, or he could 
not be paid. 

February the jtb. Having been fortunate 
enough to receive from the governor a fecond 
time, his permifiion to botanize, I, for the firfb 
time, took a walk about the town of Nagafaki. 
1 was accompanied by feveral head and fub- 
interpreters, head and fub-banjofes, purveyors, 
and a number of fervants. This numerous 
train, did not, it is true, impede me in my quick 
progreilion up mountains and hills, but yet it 
made my diurnal expeditions rather expenfive, 
as it became incumbent upon me towards even- 
ing to regale my wearied companions at fome 
inn or other, which amounted each time to 
fix teen or eighteen rixdollars. As often as the 
weather permitted, I made ufe of the liberty 
thus accorded to me, at lead once or twice a 
week, till fuch time as I accompanied the am- 
bafiador to the imperial court. 

Hard by the cottages and farms in the vici- 
nity of the town, but chiefly on riflng grounds 
and by the road-lide, I faw a great number of 
tomb-ftones created, of various forms. It was 
faid, that &r every one that died, a done of this 
kind was ere&ed, and before it I frequently found 

placed 





PEZIMA AND NACASAKT, 1776". 


placed one or two thick bamboo canes, filled 
with watejr and either leaves or flowers. The 
Hones were fometi'mes rough and in their na- 
tural ftate, but more frequently hewn with art, 
with or without letters engraved on them, arid 
thefe either gilt or not gilt. Thefe bury in g- 
places are frequently feen from afar, on ac- 
count of the great number of Hones created, 

1 found alfo here, and there, by the fide of 
the roads, large holes dug, in which the farmers 
collected urine and manure that had been 
dropped and fcattered about, which they very 
carefully accumulated, and ufed for the im- 
provement of the land, but which gave out a 
di (agreeable, and often intolerable, ftench to 
the traveller. 

The town of Nagafaki is In its fituation very 
much expofed ; it has neither citadel, walls, nor 
fofle, but it has crooked ftreets, and a few canals 
dug for the purpofe of carrying off the water 
from the furrounding mountains, which reach 
quite to the harbour. Before the time of the 
Portuglieze it was only a village; but has fince, 
by the emigrations that have been made thither 
on account of commerce, been extended to its 
prefen t fize. There are a great number of tem- 
ples, and the prettied lpots imaginable on the 
heights furro unding the town. At each end of 

the 



DEZIMA AND NAGASAKI, 17/6, Si 

the ftrects there is a wooden gate, which can be - 
locked, and by this means all Communication wifh 
other ftreets cut off. At night they are always 
locked. In each ftreej:, which is feldom more 
than thirty or forty fathoms in length, and con- 
tains about the fame- number of houfes, there 
is always an officer appointed to fuperintend and 
infpect it j and in like' manner in each ftreet 
there is a houfe, in which an apparatus is kept 
for the prevention of fire. The houfes are fearcely 
ever two Itories high, and when fhey ■are, *ke up- 
per ftory is generally low. The town is governed 
by four burgom afters, who have under them a 
fufficient number of (Qttonas), attendants'of dlA 
ferent ranks and degrees, by which means good 
order and fecurity is procured, and maintained 
in the beft and mod ample manner. 

In the gardens, as well in as out of the town, I 
observed fev.eral European culinary vegetables 
cultivated, and of thefe I had already feen fame 
carried on board of the- Dutch Ihip and to the 
fadlory. Of this kind, were Red Beet (Beta 
vulgaris ), the root of which was of a deeper 
red than any I had ever feen at 2ny other place 
out of Europe j.. Carrots ( Daucus Carota), Fen- 
nel ( Anethum fiemculum), and Dill (Anethum 
graveolcns), Anife ( Pimpinella Anijum) 3 Parfly 
(Jpium petrojdinum), Alparagus {AJparagus. offi- 
cinalis) ; fevera} bulbous plants, fuch as Leeks, 
vol, m. G Onions, 


$1 D 1 ZIMA AND NAGASAKI, 1776. 

Onions, and others {Alium fijiulojum, Cep a ) ; 
Turnips ( Brafica rapa ), Black Radiihes (Ra- 
phanus), Lettice ( Laftuca Jaftva), Succory and 
Endive ( Cichorium Intybus fc? Endivia ), befides 
many more. 

On the hills out of the town I obferved, that 
near every village large ranges of Hoping grounds 
at the foot of the mountains were planted with 
Batatas roots (Convolvulus edulis ), which were 
mealy, and agreeable to the tafte. The plants 
with their ftalks and leaves lay clcfe to the 
ground, and had not a fingle flower on them. 
They are much more agreeable to the tafte, and 
eafier of digeftion, than potatoes (Solanum tube - 
rofum (which they have tried to cultivate here, 
but with very indifferent fuccefs. 

The Juniper tree (Juniper us communis } which 
is generally indigenous to the north of Europe, 
I found alfo here fcattered up and down in dif- 
ferent parts, chiefly near fome temple, but very 
fcarce. 

1 likewife found the Calamus aromaticus 
(Acorns calamus) growing wild here in moift 
places. It was confidered by the Japanefe, on 
account of its ftrong aromatic tafte, as a medi- 
cine of great powers, but they did not know its 
true and proper ufe. 

A kind of Ginger (Jmomum mloga) grew 
wild in fome few fpots out of the town, though 

in 


DE 2 IMA AND NAGASAKI, 1776* 83 

in very fmall quantities. The root is tolerably 
hot and acrid, and nearly as good as common 
ginger, and was faid to be fometimes ufed in 
its Head. 

Tvy ( Hedera ) grew up in lever al places green 
and handfome. At firft, I thought it unlike 
the ordinary European Ivy, on account of its 
having, for the molt part, entire and undivided 
leaves ; but in procefs of time I perceived a 
great alteration both in the form and fize of the 
leaf. 

The Box-tree (Bums Virens') was not uncom- 
mon : it was found both in a wild and cultivated 
Hate/ Of its fine and clofe wood, combs were 
made, which, when covered with red varniih, 
were ufed by the women to ftick in their hair 
by way of ornament. 

The Bamboo ( Arundo bambos) which is the 
only kind of grafs that grows to the fize of a 
tree, grew in many places, and differed much 
both in height and thicknefs. The root of ir 
is made ufe of here, as well as on the India 
^fiands, for (dejar) pickling with vinegar. The 
thicker Items were ufed for carrying burthen?, 
and the finer branches as lhafts for pencils, and 
when (lit up, for fan-fticks, and for many other 
purpofes. 

Near fome farms, and particularly near the 
temples, I found a very curious Ihrub of fix or 
G a eight 



84 DEZIMA AND NAGASAKI, 1776. 

eight feet in height, and of the Celaftrus kind 
( Celajlrus /flatus'), which had projeding, blunt, 
and comprefled borders all along its b ranches > 
and was now full of ripening fruit. I was told 
that the branches of this Hi rub were u fed by 
lovers, to fallen to the outfide of the door of 
the houfe in which- the object of their defires 
refided. 

The Chenopodiunt Scop aria was faid to be ufed 
by fome people in this country as a medicine. 

The Jlcea rojea and the Malva Mauritiana 
were frequently found cultivated in fmall gar- 
dens in the town, for the fake of their large and 
elegant flowers. 

The Mentha, piperita, which grew wild in 
many places about Nagafaki, and the Ocymutn 
crijpum , which ftill adorned the hills, were ufed 
as a tea or infufion in colds. This latter herb, 
when boiled, yields a red deco&ion, with which 
the Japanefe frequently gave a red colour to 
black radilhes and turnips. 

Several kinds of Iweet potatoes (Diofcore#) 
grew wild in the environs of Nagafaki, but I 
did not obferve that any of them were ufed as 
food, except the Diofcorea Japoniea , the roots of 
which being cut into flices and boiled, had a very 
agreeable tafle. 

Common Hemp ( Cannabis Sativd) grew in 
many places, both in a wild and cultivated ftate. 

I found 




DEZIMA AND NAGASAKI 1 77 6. 85 

1 . , 

1 found here two forts of Spanifh pepper, 

chiefly in a cultivated flate. The moft com- 
mon was the Capficum Amman , which the Ja- 
panefe feldom nfe themfelves, but fell it for the 
moft part to the flaves in the Dutch faftory. 
The other was the Caff cum grojfum, which was 
kept in jars, and confined lo as to grow finall 
and diftorted, properties which the Japanefe par- 
ticularly fancy in many plants, a fancy peculiar to 
themfelves, and in which they differ from alf 
other nations. 

Tobacco (Nicotiana Tafracum), grew allb in 
fome places, but fo fparingly, that no large 
plantations of it were to be obferved. This 
herb, fo agreeable, ahd now become fo indilpen- 
fibly neceffary to many millions of men, was firft 
brought hither By the Portugueze, and is al- 
moft the only relique left behind them in this 
country. The Japanefe have no name for it 
in their language, but call it Tobacco, and 
fmoke it, cut as fine as the hair of the head, 
in fmall metal pipes. 

I found a Convallaria Japenica at this time in 
fruit. The knobs at the roots of this plant were 
preferved in fugar, and were highly commended 
by the Japanefe and Chinefe as good in dif- 
ferent diforders. ' 

Buck- wheat {Polygonum fagopyrum and Multi- 
forum) was not uncommon near the farms and 
on the hills, the former in a cultivated, and the 

G 3 latter 





3.6 DSZfMA AND SfAGASAKt, I776. 

latter in a wild ftate. From the former, flour 
was prepared, of which fmall cakes were made, 
which were boiled j thefe were commonly colour- 
ed, and fold to the lower clafs of people. The 
root of the latter was faid to be a cordial, and was 
ufed for that purpofe quite raw. I was told it 
rafted beft when roalted in the embers. 

Windfor beans ( Vicia faba ) and Peas ( Fijtm 
Sativum), as alfo fome fpecies of French beans 
( Phajeolus vulgaris radiatus ) were common 
among the farmers; and the latter fort was 
very much cultivated in the gardens, from 
whence they were carried for fale both into the 
town and to the factories. 

February the i ith. The time drawing near for 
our journey to the court, we began to prepare 
for it by degrees. 

Although the ambaffador hbnfelf goes by land, 
yet a great part of the luggage is fent by fea to 
Simonc/eki , Fiogo, and other places. This day 
were put on board of a tolerable large veftel, 
feveral chcfts with different forts of wine in bot- 
tles, liquors, ale in bottles, kitchen furniture, and 
fome empty chefts, for carrying merchandize in 
on our return. This veflel was to fail for Si mo- 
nofeki, and on our arrival there, to. carry us on 
to Fiogo. 

This and the following days, the prefonfs 
which we wete to carry with us were prepared, 
confifting of cloths of different colours and qua- 
lities, 


DEZIMA AND NAGASAKI, 1776- 87 

lities, chintzes and filks, with other articles. 
Thefe prefents were intended for the reigning 
fecular emperor, the hereditary prince, the 
privy counlellors, and other perfons of diftinc- 
tion at the court, and were packed up in large 
chefts, which, that they might not be left to the 
mercy of the winds and waves, were carried the 
whole way for the fpace of 320 miles.* 

The 18 tb of February was, with the Japanefe, 
the lall day of the year. On this, day, therefore, 
and yefterday, all accounts between private per- 
fons were to be clofed j and thefe, as well as all 
other debts to be paid. Frefh credit is after- 
wards given till the month of June, when theie 
muft be a fettlement again. Among the Japa- 
nefe, as well as in China, in cafe of loans, very 
high intereft is frequently paid, viz. from 1 8 to 
20 per cent. I was informed, that if a man did 
not take care to be paid before new year’s day* 
he had afterwards no right to demand payment 
on the new year. Happy the people, who at the 
beginning of every new year, can reckon them- 
felves free from debt, and owe no man any thing. 

The 19th was the new year’s day of the Japa- 
nefe and Chinefe, when every one drefled in 
his holiday clothes, wilhes his neighbour joy, 
goes about vi firing with his family, and diverts 
himfelf almoft the whole of the firft month. 

* In fpeaking of japan, the Author computes hy 
af fe miles, which nearly correfpoad with the French leagues. 

G 4 The 


♦ 


- f 

88 DEZIMA AND NAGASAKI, I 776. 

The year is divided according to the courfe 
df the moonj fo that fome years have twelve 
and others thirteen months; and the new year 
makes its entry in February or March. They 
have no weeks confifting of feven days, or of 
fix working days, and day of reft; but the firft 
y or fifteenth day in each month, is, in fact, a 
fabbath, or a day of reft. On thefe days 
no mechanic works, and even the proftitutes 
buy their freedom for that day, confidcring it 
as the greateft iliame to be obliged to receive 
the careftes of men. On new year’s day, as we 
faid before, they go about in their holiday drefs, 
which is compofed of fine blue and white check. 

•The night and day taken together, is divided 
into twelve hours only; and the whole year 
through, they regulate themfelves by the fun’s 
rifing and fetcing. The hour of fix they reckon 
at fun-rife, and the fame at fun-fet : mid-day and 
mid-night are always at nine. 

Time is not meafured by watches or hour- 
glafies, but by burning matches, which are 
twifted like ropes, and divided by knots ; when 
one of thefe, after being lighted up, has burned 
down to a knot, which denotes the elapfe of a cer- 
tain portion of time, it is made known in the 
day time, by certain ftrokes on bells near their 
churches, and in the night by finking two pieces 
of wood againft each other, which is done j?y 

the 






D2ZIMA AN D NAGASAKI, S 9 

the patroling watch. Children are always deemed 
to be a year old; at the end of the year in which 
they are born, whether this beat the beginning or 
latter end of it : fo that if a child is born in the 
laft month, it is reckoned a year old on the 
new year’s day en filing. Their year commences 
with Nin — o, or 660 years before the birth of 
Chrift. 

A few days after the Japanefe new year’s day, 
the horrid ceremony was performed of trampling 
on fuch imaged as reprefen t the crofs, and the 
Virgin Mary with the child. Thefe images, which 
are made of caft copper, are fa id to be about 
twelve inches in length. This ceremony is per- 
formed for the purpofe of imprinting on every 
one, an abhorrence and hatred of the Chrifti'an 
dodtrine, and of the Porruguefe, who attempted 
to propogate that doctrine, and at. the fame time 
to difeover, whether any remains of it be yet 
left in any Japanefe. The trampling is per- 
formed in fuch places, as were formerly mofi 
frequented by the Chriftians. In the town of 
Nagafaki, it continue? for the Ipace of four 
days; after which period, the images are carried 
to the adjacent places, and at laft are laid by 
till the following year. Every one, except the 
governor and his train, even the ftnalleft child, 
is obliged to be prefent at this ceremony ; but 
that the Dutch, as lb me have been pleated to in- 

finuare. 


gO DEZIMA AND NAGASAKI, 1776. 

finuatCi are obliged to trample on thefe images* 
is not true. At every place, overfeers are pre- 
fent, who affe noble the people by rotation in 
certain houfes, calling over every one by his 
name in due order, and feeing that every thing is 
duly performed. Adults walk over the images 
from one fide to the other, and children in arms 
are put with their feet on them. 

The figns of the Zodiac are here, as elfewhere, 
twelve ; but they have different names from 
thofe of the Europeans; e. g. r. Ne, the Rat. 
2. Us, the Ox. 3, Terra , the Tiger. 4. Ow, 
the Hare. 5. Tats , the Dragon. 6. Mi, the 
Serpent, 7. Uma, the Horfe. 8. Tfujuje , the 
Sheep. 9. Sar, the Ape. 10. Torri, the Cock. 
11. In, the Dog. 12. T, the Bear, 

Certain years derive from thefe figns alfo 
their names : thus the year 1774 was the Horfe- 
year of the Japanefe, and 1776 their Ape-year. 

The months, which in confequence of the un- 
equal courfe of the moon, never perfedlly cor- 
reipond with our’s, have their refpedtive names 
according to numerical order; and as, during our 
flay here, we were obliged to regulate ourfelves 
by the Dutch, as well as by the Japanefe alma- 
nacks, we formed every year an almanack com- 
mon to both, which fhewed the relation of thefe 
two different modes of reckoning time. Of this 
1 here prefent the reader with a brief abftradt 

onlv. 


DEZIMA AND NAGASAKI, 1776 , 9 I 

only, from which the names of their months, at 
the fame time, may be found. 

1776, or Ape-year, has 355 days. 


Sjoguats, 
correfponds with 
February. 


1 February, 19 

11 — — 29 

is March, — 1 

30 — — 19 

Niguats. 

1 March, 20 

12 ~ — 31 

13 April, — 1 

29 — — 17 

Sanguats. 

1 April, — 1 8 

*3 — — 3° 

14 May, 1 

3° — “ *7 

Sicuats. 

1 May, — 18 

H — — 3 1 

15 June, — 1 

29 15 

Goguats. 

1 June, — 16 

*5 — “ 39 


16 July, — 

1 

30 — — 

IS 

Rokguats* 

1 July, — 

16 

1 6 — — 

3 1 

17 Auguft, — 

1 

29 — — 

13 

SlTSGUATS* 

1 Auguft, — 

14 

18 — — 

3 * 

19 September, 

1 

30 — — 

12 

Fatsguats. 

1 September, 

*3 

18 — — 

3 ® 

19 O &ober. 

1 

2 9 — — 

iz 

Kuguats. 

1 October, 

12 

20 — — 

3 1 

21 November, 

1 

30 — — 

10 

S JUG VATS. 

i Novemher, 

n 

20 — — 

3 ° 


21 


£2 DEZIMA AND NAGASAKI, 1776. 


21 December, i* 

3 ° — — 10 

Sjuitsguats. 

1 December, 1 1 

'21 31 


3 ° — ~ 9 

SjUNJTSGUATS. 

I January, io 

22 _ — 31 

23 February, i 


1777. 29 — — 7 

22 January, i 

In this manner, the months are reckoned by 
the name of the ift, ad, 3d, and fo on to the 
1 2th ; arid the years contain an unequal number 
of days. Every fecond or third year is leap* 
year, of which there are feven in the fpace of 
r 9 years. 

'There are feveral grand feftivals in the year, 
■which ar% kept one or more days together: but 
the celebration of the feventh day, as a Sabbath,- 
is unknown here; and confcquently, the months 
and year are not divided into weeks of feven days 
each. 

The moft remarkableholidays in the year 1776, 
during the time of my refidence here, were the 
following : In Goguats, the 5th day or the 20th 
of June, the Pelang feftival ; in Sicfguats, the 
7th day, or the 20th of Auguft, the Star- fefti- 
val ; and the 13th, 14th, and 15th of the fame 
month, or the 26th, 27th, and 28th of Auguft, 
the Grand Lantern feftival; in Kuguats, the 
7th, 8th, and 9th, or the iSth, 19th, ;:nd 20th 
of October, Matfuri was celebrated for three 

days 





93 


DEZIMA AMD NAGASAKI, 1776. 

days together. There were befides the follow- 
ing remarkable days, viz. In Sjoguats the 4th, 
and following days, when the images of the Vir- 
gin Mary and the crofs were trampled under 
foot by the Japanefe. The 15th of the fame 
month, or the 4th of March, when the Dutch 
ambafiador let out on his journey to Jedo. Fatf- 
guats the ift, or the 13 th of September, when 
the Japanefe fair (fafiak) was kept; in Kuguats 
the 15th, or the 26th of October, when the Dutch 
fair (faffak) commenced ; and in Kuguats the 
19th and 20th, or the 30th and 31ft of October, 
when firft one and afterwards the other fliip, 
were obliged to fet fail on the days appointed 
from Nagafaki for Papenberg. 

On the 2 2d of February, and the following 
days, was performed in^Nagafaki, and the ad- 
jacent places, the ceremony already defcribed of 
trampling on the copper images, concerning 
which, I endeavoured to gain every pofiible 
information. Of the officers that were at this 
time on the ifland, there was but one, who pro- 
feiTed having once had an opportunity of feeing 
it is his way, when fent by the chief to the 
goveraior of the town, about fome matters re- 
fpedting the preparation for the intended journey 
to the court. 

On December the 2 5 /it, the chief, accompanied 
by feveral fupercargoes, writers and interpreters, 

went 




94 DEZIMA AND NAGASAKI* I776, 

went to the town, to take leave of the gover- 
nor, previous to their fetting out. 

March 2 d. Mine, and my fellow travellers’ 
chefts, with clothes, together with the medicine 
cheft, were examined on the ifiand, then fealed, 
and immediately lent to the ftorehoufe ; where 
they were kept, till the day that we fet out on 
our journey. The medicine cheft is large, and 
is furndhed with medicines from the difpen- 
fary, which is under the doctor’s care, and is 
fituated near his apartment. 

The Japanefe ufe no fealing-wax for fealing ; 
but twift and tie a paper about fuch things as 
they wifti to fecure, in fuch a manner, that they 
can eafily perceive if it has been touched. In 
this way, they feal up the locks of the {lore- 
houie itfelf, placing lefs dependence on their 
locks, than on their curious paper knots. 


journey to the court in 1776. 


ON the Afth of March , 1776, the ambaflador 
fet out from Dezima, on his journey to Jedo. 
The 15th or 16th of the firft month of the Ja- 
panefe year, is always fixed for commencing this 
journey. There were only three Dutchmen, or 
rather Europeans j who took this journey, viz, 
Mr. Feith, the ambaflador, as chief in the 

com- 


JOURNEY TO THE COURT, 1776. 

commercial department j myfelf as phyfician to 
the em batty, and the fecretary Mr. Koehler. 
The reft of our retinue, winch confiftedof about 
200 men, were merely Japanefe place-men, in- 
terpreters, fervants, and valets. In patting the 
guard on the bridges, which join the town to 
the factory, we were clofely fearched ; but our 
thefts and other baggage, which had already 
been fearched and fealed, went through free : we 
were alfo attended through Nagafaki, by the 
Dutch belonging to the factory, as like wife by a 
multitude of fuch Japanefe, as have any office 
in, or bufinefs with the factory. The latter ac-’ 
etsmpanied us to a temple out of town, where 
we baited a ftiort time, and treated our jovial 
company with fakki. On our leaving this place, 
ail thefe Japanefe who were now to part with us, 
had placed themfelves in groups, according to 
their different ranks aftd conditions of life, for 
above half a mile in length, on both fides of 
the road, along which we were travelling, which 
not only made a very fine appearance, but like- 
wile did us great honour. Thefe Japanefe cori- 
fifted of the Ottonas of the town and ifiand, the 
head and fub- interpreters, with the learners, 
-head and fub-purveyors, head and fub-banjofes, 
cuit-mafters, and feveral others who in any fhape 
were connected with the Dutch. 


A 




$5 JOURNEY TO THE COUJIT, 1776. 

A banjos was, by the governor of K agafa- 
ki, appointed leader of the whole .caravan, and 
ordered every thing both in going and return- 
ing. He was carried in a large Norimon, and 
a pike was borne before him, to denote his au- 
thority and high command. To execute his 
orders, feveral inferior Bgnjoles were appointed. 
The chief interpreter, who is generally a man 
advanced in years, is carried in a Cango, . has 
the care of the calh, and the management of 
every thing during the journey, paying all ex- 
pences for the Dutch Company’s account, and 
that generally with fuch care and parfimony, 
that he is fometimes a confiderable gainer by 
if, fo that this journey is always fuppofed to be 
Wry profitable. Two Japanefe cooks accompany 
them from the factory, for the purpofe of dref- 
fing the victuals, that are to be ferved up at the 
ambafiadof’s table; alio fix Japanefe fervants, 
who under ft and and fpcak Dutch, to ferve as 
waiters, befides thofe fervants that are fent by 
the governor of Nagafaki, to attend on the 
Dutch, and who do not underftand nor fpeak 
their language. The cooks were fent before 
during the whole' journey, in order to get the 
victuals ready by the time we fliould arrive at 
the inn, where we dine. With them were fent the 
neceflary provifions, a camp table, three camp 
chairs, table linen, and table furniture, which 


were 



JOURNEY, TO THE COURT. 97 

were always ready and in order, on our arrival at 
dinner or lbpper. Some clerks attended tlie 
cooks, to order what was requifite at the inns 
for the whole retinue, and to keep an account 
of the expences. 

The ambaffador, as well as his phyfician and 
fecretary, travelled in large handfome and lac- 
quered Norimons. In K^mpfer's time, the 
two latter gentlemen were obliged to perform 
the j’ourney on hoiieback, expofed to cold, rain, 
ana all the inclemency of the weather, Thefe 
Norimons or Sedan-chairs, are made of thin 
boards and bamboo canes, in the form of an 
oblong Iquare, with windows before, and on each 
fide. The fide-wmdows are fattened to the 
doors, through which one may get in and out 
of the carriage on both fides. Over the roof 
runs a long edged pole, by which the vehicle is 
carried on the bearers’ fhoulders. It is fo large 
that one may fit in it with eafe, and even lie 
down in it, though not without, in fome mea- 
fure, drawing up one’s legs. It is not only 
adorned on the infide, but like wife covered on 
the outfide in the moft elegant manner, with the 
moft coftly filks and velvets. At the bottom lies 
a matral's covered with cut velvet, and it has a 
flight covering over it, either of the fame mate- 
rials or of iome coftly filk ; and behind the back, 
and on each fide, hang oblong cufhtons, alfo co- 
vol, in. H vered 



JOURNfeY TO THE COURT. 

vered with velvet i in the place where the feat 
Ihould be, a round culhion is laid with a hole 
in the middle. In front, there is a fnelf or two, 
for putting an ink-ftand, books, or other fmall 
articles on. The windows at the fides may be 
let down, when frefli air is wanted, and they may 
be clofed both by filk curtains, and by rolling 
curtains made of bamboos, when the perfon in 
the carriage wifhes not to be feen. The tra- 
velling in this chamber is very commodious ; 
fitting long in it feldom proves tirefome. The 
porters that bear this light vehicle on their 
flioulders, are in number according to the rank 
of the perfon they carry, from fix to twelve 
and morej and when there are more, fome of 
them walk leifurely by the fides, for the pur- 
pofe of relieving each other during the jour- 
ney. While they are bearing the norimon, they 
fing fome air together, which makes them keep 
up a brifk and even pace. 

Befides thofe articles which had been fent 
from Nagafaki by water, were carried partly on 
horfeback and partly by porters on foot, our 
fmall chefts of clothes, lanterns to ufe in the 
dark, a (lock of wine, ale, and other liquors, 
for our daily confumption, and a Japanefe ap- 
paratus for tea, in which we could boil water 
while We were on the road. The Europeans, 
however, very feldom ufed this great relaxer 
of the ftomach, but preferred a glafs of red 

wine 


NAGASAKI, 1776. 99 

wine or Dutch ale; we therefore provided 
ourfelves wirh a bottle of each of thefe, 
which were put into the fore part of the 
tiorimons, at our feet; as alfo a fmall oblong 
lacquered box, with /doubled ilice of bread and 
butter, of the fame form. Every one that tra- 
vels in this country, always carries his bed wirh 
him. We were therefore obliged to do the fame 
during the whole of the journey, both coming 
and going. And as it was neceffary to make a 
great (how in every refped:, in order to fupport the 
dignity of the Dutch company, the bedding, of 
courfe, confided of coverlits, pillows, and ma- 
tralfes, covered 'over with the richeft open- 
worked velvets and filks. 

On the other hand, the Japanefe, who either 
went on foot or on horfeback, were provided 
with a hat in the form of a cone, and tied un- 
der the eh in ; a fan, which at the fame time 
ferved as a guide, an umbrella, and fometimes 
a very wide coat made of oiled paper to keep out 
the rain, which is as light as a feather. Thofe 
that travelled on foot, fuch as fervants, hoftiers, 
and the inferior 01 der of fervants, were likewife 
provided with thin fpatterdafhes, feveral pair of 
ftrawfhoes, and wore their night-gowns tucked up. 

The whole of this numerous caravan, com- 
pofed of fuch different people, and- travelling in 
fuch different ways, formed a delightful fpec- 
tacle for an eye not ufed to finrtilar fights, and 
H 2 was 


TO© JOURNEY TO THE COURT. 

was to us Europeans the more pleafing, as we 
were received every where with the fame ho- 
nours and refpeft as the princes of the land, and 
were befides fo well gumded, that no harm could 
befal us, and at the fame time fo well attended, that 
we had no more care upon our minds than a fuck- 
ing-child : the whole of our hufinefs confiding in 
eating and drinking, or in reading or writing for 
our own amufement, in fleeping, drefiing our- 
felves, and being carried about in our nori- 
mons. 

On the firft day, palling by Fimi, two leagues 
from Nagafaki, we proceeded to Jagami , one 
league farther on, and from thence to Ijafaia , yet 
four leagues farther, where we took up our firft 
night’s iodging. 

At Jagami , where we dined, we were received 
by the hoft in a more polite and obfequious mail' 
ner than I ever experienced fince in any other part 
of the world. It is the cuftom of this country 
for the landlord to go to meet the traveller part 
of the way, and with every token of the utmoft 
iubmtflion and refpedt bid them welcome} he 
then hurries home, in order to receive his guefls 
at his houfc in the fame humble and refpeftful 
manner, after which fome trifling prefent is 
produced on a ftr.all and low fquare table; 
and then tea and the apparatus for fmoking, 
which, however, we did not ufe. Being (hewn 
into the rooms prepared for us, we found the 

table- 



ICI 


ISAFA. A, 1776- 

tabic cloth laid; when after taking a dram* to 
whet our appetites, we dined, drank coffee, and 
then prepared for fetting out, after thofe gentle- 
men that were fond of finoking had lighted their 
pipes 

Here we received for the commiflaries account 
fifty Japanefe thails, amounting to about the fame 
number of Dutch rixdollars, for defraying the 
trifling expences which we might be obliged to 
make individually in the courfe of the journey, 
and which were io exactly calculated, as not to 
leave any overplus. Thefe were the firft J apaneie 
coins which fell into our hands, and which came 
under my infpetfion. The firft difburfement we 
made was in new-year’s gifts to our fervants and 
valets at Dezima, as alfo to the bearers of our 
norimons, which, for my (hare, amounted to 
fomcwhat more than ten rixdollars. 

On the following morning, being the 5 th of 
March , we proceeded on our journey, taking 
the road for Omura > where we dined, at the 
diftar.ce of three leagues, and then went on 
to Sinongi, where we flept, fituated five leagues 
from thence. In the year 1691, when K^emp- 
fer went on the journey to the court, the am- 
baffador took another route to Sinongi, viz. 
acrofs the bay near Omura, to avoid which we 
took a round-about way to Ifafaia, byt without 

* A very prevalent cjiftom in Sweden, and fomc other 
countries in the north of iiuropc. In the original Apfrtits /*/, 
or Appt tite d mm , [T j 

II J failing 


102 JOURNEY TO THE COURT. 

failing acrofs the large bay by Simabara, which 
is the road that K/empfer took, when, in the 
year 1692, he went, for the fecond time, the 
fame journey to the Imperial Court. 

On the fixth , in the morning, after travelling 
three leagues, we arrived at Oriffmo , where is a 
fulphureous warm bath. After having viewed 
the bath, we travelled three leagues and a half, 
before we got to dinner at Takkiwo. After 
dinner we palled by Swota to Oda, three leagues 
and a half j and then went two leagues and a half 
farther on to Otfinju , where we llept. 

The warm bath, which was abfolutely boiling 
hot, was walled in, and had a handfome houfe 
near it, for the accommodation of the invalids 
that ufed it. The hot water was diftributed by 
means of conduits, to feveral places, where the 
lick could fit down, and, by means of two dif- 
ferent cocks, draw off, accordingly as it fuited 
them beft, either hot or cold water ; which latter 
was conveyed hither by art. Befides this, there 
were feveral accommodations for the patients to 
reft and refrefh themfelves after bathing, as alfo 
for walking, all which were very neat and clean. 
The Japanefe ufe this and other fimilar baths, 
with which the country abounds, in venereal 
complaints, the palfv, itch, rheumatifm, and 
many more diforders. 

Swota is remarkable on account of the large 
jars (the large!!, indeed, in the world) which 

are 



SWOT A, *776. lOj 

are made here : they are eompofed of a brown 
clay, well burned, and of fuch an enormous 
fize, as to hold feveral pails full of liquor. 
The Dutch buy annually a great many of them, 
and carry them to Batavia, where, as well as 
in other parts of the Eaft- Indies, they are ufed 
for holding water, and fell to advantage. In 
thefe, the water that is ufed for their daily drink, 
is kept cool, at the fame time that the fediment 
fettles at the bottom, fo that the water, by this 
means, becomes more pure and wholefome. 

The road which we had travelled the pre- 
ceding days, was very rugged and tirefbme } 
but, after we got into the province of Fifen, the 
country appeared more fertile, finer, more 
thickly inhabited, and more populous. The 
villages here were nearer to each other, were 
much extended in length, and were fometimes 
two together, each of them half a league long, 
and only diftinguifhed from each other by means 
of a rivulet, a bridge, or by the difference of 
.name. 

The country was cultivated all over j exhibit- 
ing the fineft fields, loaded with rice and other 
grain. 

The province of Fifen is, befides, well known 
on account of its beautiful and valuable porce- 
lain : I had, before this, feen feme of it, in the 
Dutch faflrory at the fair, and had now an op- 
H 4 portunity 




104 


JOURNEY TO THE COURT. 


portunity of informing myfelf farther concern- 
ing it. It is made of a perfectly white clay, 
which in itfelf is very fine, neverthelefs is 
wrought with the greateft diligence and pains, 
and inexprefiibly well ; fo that the veffels and 
ornaments which are made of it, become tranf- 
parent and extremely beautiful, and at the fame 
time are as white as fnow. 

The day following, being the jth, we had a 
league to go to a tolerably large river, call d 
Kaffagawa , over which we were to pals, and 
another league to the town of Sanga, which is a 
league and a half long. From thence, we pro- 
ceeded three leagues to another fmaller town called 
Katifaki, pafiing by Ficfabara, which was fituated 
about half-way to it. Here we dined ; and, going 
farther on, pafifed Nakabara, at the di fiance of two 
leagues, and Tcdcriki, fomewhat above a league, 
till we came to Tavfero, one league farther, where 
we flept. 

Sangc, which ir. the capital of the province, 
has a caftle, which is furrounded by fofies and 
walls, and has guards at Its gates. This, like 
moll of the towns in this country, is regularly 
built, with ftraight and wide ftreejs. There 
are allb feveral canals, by which water is con- 
veyed through it. 

The towns, in general, in this country, differ 

chiefly from the villages, which are allb very long, 

in 


ITSKA, 1776. IO5 

in having one ftreer, while the towns have more : 
befidcs, the towns are furnifhed with gates, and 
furreunded by foffes and walls, and, fometimes, 
a citadel. 

The people, and efpecially the women, are of a 
fmaller ffze in this province than in the former; 
and the married women, although, in other re- 
fpefts, they are handfome and well-fhaped, dif- 
figure themfelves by pulling out all the hairs of 
their eye brows, which, with them, ferves to de- 
note the marriage-ftate, in like manner as black 
teeth do at Nagafaki. 

We lay at T ayjero that night ; although 
K/empflr, in his Hiftory of Japan, mentions 
that this was confide red in his time, as portend- 
ing misfortune, and was therefore prohibited. 
The reafon for this was, that, in the courfe of 
one of thefe journies, a banjos and one of the 
head -interpreters had quarelled, and the for- 
mer, after having killed the latter, had likewife 
made away with himfelf. 

March the 8 th > we travelled nearly ten leagues 
to Jtjka town ; palling, in our way, by feveral 
villages, large and fmall, and over many very 
high mountains. We arrived fir ft at Far da, 
two leagues off, and afterwards at Jem no, one 
leagues more, where we dined. The road from 
thence went over a high mountain, and con- 
duced us a league and a half down to Fiamitz , 
a pleafwg ipot, where we baked fome time, 

regaled 


106 JOURNEY TO THE COURT. 

regaled ourfelves and officers with fakki, and 
made the landlady a {mall prefent in money, 
to the amount of feven maas and five conderyns* 
which is cuftomary at this place. After this, 
we went a league and a half farther on, to 'Utfmi , 
where we alfo gave our bearers a little reft. 

This day, in pafiing through the province of 
'Tfikudfen , we were conduced by an officer who 
had been fent by the governor of the province to 
welcome and conduct us through his territories. 

How much foever the Europeans are defpifed 
in their fattory, and in however contemptible a 
light the Japanefe. are ufed to confider all 
foreigners, yet it is not more furprizing than 
true, that, in the courfe of our journey to and 
from the court, we were every where received 
not only with the greateft politenefs and attention, 
but with the fame refpcdt and efteem as is fliown to 
the Princes of the country, when they make 
their journies to the imperial court. When we \ 
arrived at the borders of a province, we were 
always met by an officer, fent by the Lord of it, 
who not only offered us, in the name of his em- 
ployer, every affiftance that might be required 
with refpedt to people, horfes, veflels, &c. but alfo 
accompanied us to the next frontiers, where he 
took his leave of us, and was relieved by another. 
The lower clafs of people, alfo, ftiowed us the 
fame tokens of veneration and refpedt, as to 

Princes ; 


UTSINI, 1776. 107 

Princes ; bowing with their foreheads down to 
the ground, and even at times turning their 
backs to us, to fignify, that they confider us in 
fo high a light, that, in their extreme infigni- 
ficance, they are unworthy of beholding us. 

The roads in this country are brfiad, and 
furnifhed with two ditches, to carry off the water, 
and in good order all the year round; but 
efpecially at this feafon, when the Princes of the 
country, as alfo the Dutch, take their annual 
journey to the capital. The roads are, at this 
time, not only ftrewed with fand, but, before 
the arrival of travellers, they are fwept with 
brooms ; all horfe-dung, and dirt of every 
kind, removed, and, in hot, dufty weather, 
they are watered. Their care for good order, 
and the convenience of travellers, has even 
gone fo far, that thofe who travel up the country, 
always keep to the left, and thofe that come 
from the capital, to the right; a regulation 
which would be of the greateft utility in Europe, 
enlightened as it is, where they frequently travel 
upon the roads v/ith lels difcretion and decorum. 
The roads here are in the better order, and laft the 
longer, as no wheel carriages are ufed, which do 
fo much damage to the roads. To make the 
roads ftill more agreeable, the fides of them are 
frequently planted with hedges, and on this and 
. . ■ the 





*2 




8 


JOURNEY TO THE COURT. 


the preceding days, I obferved tliem formed of’ 
the tea- fhrub. 

Mile- pods are fet up every where, which net 
only indicate the didance, but alfo, by means of 
an in fee inti on, point out the road. Similar pods 
are alfo found on the c rofs -roads, fo that the tra- 
veller in this country cannot, eafiiy, lore his way. 

Attending to all thei’e circmnftances, I faw, 
with allonidiment, a people, whicli wc confidcr, 
if not in a date of barbarifm, at leait as unpo- 
liflied, exhibit, in every indance, veftiges of 
perfect order and rational chcumfpedt rejftcftion ; 
while we, in our more enlightened quarter of the 
globe, are every where deficient in efficacious, 
end, in feme places, in almoft every regulation 
tending to tire convenience and eafe of travellers. 
Here I found every thing tend to a good -end, 
without boaft and unneceflary parade ; and no 
vhei e diil I obferve on the mile- polls the name 
of the Governor who had created them, a cir- 
cumdance which, in fact, fo litde concerns tire 
traveller. 

Ail the miles are meafured from one point 
only of the kingdom, viz. from Niporibas, 
or die bridge in the capital of the country, 
Jcdo. 

No pod -coaches, or other kinds of wheel- 
carriages, are to be found :n this country for the 
fet vice of travellers ; therefore, all thole that 
arc poor, travel on loot, and feed as are able to 

F 2 Y» 





UTSINI, 1776. IO9 

pay, either ride on horfe-back, or are carried in 
Kangos or Norimons. In Head of their long 
night-gowns, they often wear trow lets, or linen 
breeches, which reach down to the calves ; and 
travelling fokliers tie thefe half-way up their 
thighs. Such as ride make, for the moll part, a 
llrange figure ; as, frequently, leveral perfons are 
mounted on one horfe, lomctirncs a whole 
family. In this cafe, the man is feared on the 
faddle, with his legs laid forward over the Uorfe’s 
neck ; the wife occupies a bailee t made fall to 
one fide of the faddle, and one or more children 
are placed in another barker on the other fide: 
a perfon always walks before to lead the horle by 
the bridle. People of property are carried in 
a kind of fed an chars, that differ from each other 
in point of fiae and ornament, according to the 
different rank of the owners, and, conftquendy, 
in point of expence. The worft fort are fmall, in- 
fomuch that one is obliged to fit in them with 
one’s feet under the fear j they are open on all 
fides, covered with a fmall roof, and are carried by 
two men. The Kan gc-es, more commonly called 
K« goes, are covered in, and eiofeci on the fides; 
but they are almofl fan are, and far from beirg 
elegant. The largdt at d handibipeft are called 
Norimons , are tiled by perfons in the higher de- 
partments of office, and are borne by feverai men. 
At the inns in every town and village, there is a 

number 



110 JOURNEY TO THE COURT. 

number of men who offer their fervices to the 
traveller. 

Thefe Norimons and Kango-bearers can carry 1 
very heavy burthens to a great diftance, and not 
only travellers but goods, which they carry tied 
to each end of a pole or bamboo acrofs their 
fhoulder; they generally go a Japanefe mile (or 
league) in an hour, and from ten to twelve of 
thefe miles in a day. 

On the yth of March, proceeding on our jour- 
ney, we arrived at Nogata river, at the diftance of 
three leagues and a half from the place we had fet 
out from, which river we crofted, and travelling 
a league and a half farther, dined at Koijanojfa. 
From thence we proceeded to Kurofacky, at 
the diftance of three leagues, and going three 
leagues farther ftill, came to a large and rich 
commercial town, called Kokura. 

Kokura is efteemed one of the largeft towns 
in the country, and carries on extenfive trade j 
but at prefent, the harbour is fo filled up, that 
only fmall vefiels and boats can get up to the town. 
This town is a Japanefe mile (or league) in length, 
forming an oblong l'quare, and has a river which 
runs through its ftreets down to the fea. The 
gates are guarded by officers and foldiers. At 
one end of the town, and along fide of the river, 
Hands the prince’s citadel, which makes a 
very handfome appearance, is well fortified 
in' the fafhion of this country, furrounded by 

fofles 


Ill 


KOKURA, 1776. 

folKs and wails, and receives additional ftrength 
from a high tower. In this the prince of Koku- 
ra reGdes, and keeps his court. 

Before we entered into Kokura, we were met 
in the name of the prince, received, and con- 
ducted through the town to the inn, by two 
noblemen from the caftle. Here we were ex- 
ceedingly well lodged, and remained till the 
next day in the afternoon. 

According to ancient cuilom, the lervant 
which was fent with us by the governor of Na- 
gafaki, to wait on us during the journey, recei- 
ved here a fmall prelent of one thayl and live 
tmas, equal in value to about a rixdollar and 
a half. 

Here, as well as at all the other inns, we 
were lodged in the back part of the lioule, 
which is not only the mod convenient, but the 
pleafantell part, having always an out-let and 
view into a back-yard, larger or fmaller, which 
is embellifhed with various trees, fhrubs, plans*, 
and flower-pots. At one fide of this fpot, 
there is alfo a fmall bath for Grangers to 
bathe in, if they chufe. Amongft other things 
that were common in feveral places, fucli as the 
Pinus Sylvejiris , Azalea Jndica , Chryfantbemum 
Indicum , &c. I alfo found here a tree, which is 
called Aukuba, and another called Nandtna , both 
which were fvppofed.to bring good fortune to the 

houfe. 

• ' 


The 



112 JOU&NEY TO THE COURT. 

The front part of the houfe is generally 
either a fhop for the fale of goods, or a vvork- 
fliop ; and juft behind this, is the kitchen and 
the apartments occupied by the family, fo that 
ftrangers occupy the moft commodious part of 
the houfe, and are the fartheft removed from the 
noife of the ftreets. 

The houfes arc very roomy and commodious, 
and never more than two ftories high, of which 
the lower ftory is inhabited, and the upper ferves 
for lofcs and garrets, and is feldom occupied. 

The mode of building in this country is curi- 
ous, and peculiar to the inhabitants. Every 
houfe occupies a great extent of ground, is built 
in the flile of frame-work, of wood, fplit bam- 
boos, and clay, lb as to have the appearance of 
a ftone houfe on the outfide, and covered in 
with tiles of Considerable, weight and thicknefs. 
The whole houfe makes but one room, which can 
be divided, according as it may be found necefla- 
ry, or thought proper, into many fmaller rooms. 
This is done by moving flight partitions, con- 
flfting of wooden fames, palled over with thick 
transparent paper, which Aide with great eafe in 
grooves made in the beams of the floor and 
roof, for that purpofe. Such rooms' were fre- 
quently partitioned off for us and our retinue, 
during our journey ; and when a larger apart- 
ment was wanted for a dining room, or any other 

pur- 





**3 


SIMONOSEKT, I77S. 

purpofe, the partitions were in an inftant taken 
away. One could not fee, indeed, what was 
done in the next room, but one frequently over- 
heard the converfation that palled there. 

As the Japanefe never have any furniture in 
their houfes, and confequently no bed dead s, 
our matraffes and beds were laid on the floor, 
which was covered with thick ftraw mats. The 
Japanefe, who accompanied us, lay in the fame 
manner, but had no pillows j inftead of which, 
they ufed oblong lacquered pieces of wood. 
With the above apparatus for fleeping, the Ja~ 
panefe’s bed-chamber is put in order, and he 
himfelf up and drefied, in the twinkling of an 
eye ; as, in fad, a longer time is fcarcely requifite 
for him to throw the night-gown over him, that 
has ferved him for bed- clothes, and to gird it 
round his waift. And as they have neither chairs 
nor tables, they fit on the ftraw mats, with 
which the floor is covered, with their legs un- 
der them: and at dinner, likewife, every one 
of the difhes is ferved up feparately, to each of 
the guefts, in lacquered wooden cups with covers, 
on a fmall Iquare wooden falver. 

During our flay here, we were not allowed to 
walk about the town, and acquire a more accu- 
rate knowledge of it. 

On the 11 th of March , in the evening, we 
crofled in a yacht over the bay, to Simonojekt , a 
voL. hi, I trip. 


114 


JOUkNEY TO THE COftRT. 


trip* which was reckoned to be about three 
leagues. Here we took up our night’s lodgings 
at an inn. 

Between Kokura and Simonofeki, a low ob- 
long rock was vifible, which at low water ap- 
peared a little above the furface, but was quite 
covered at the tide of flood. A fliip was faid 
to have ftruck on this rock, that was carrying 
over the Emperor Tayko, and to have been loft: 
The Emperor was faved; but the Captain of 
the veflel, in order to wreak vengeance on him- 
felf, according to the cuftom of the Japanefe, 
ripped up his own belly. In memory of this 
difafter, a fquare hewn ftone, about twenty-four 
inches high, has been erefted on this rock. 

Simonofeki is not the feat of a Prince, nor, in- 
deed, one of the largeft town* in the country ; 
but its fituation renders it a place of note, and 
it has a very good and much-frequented har- 
bour, where frequently from 200 to 300 veflels 
are feen riding at anchor. Generally fpeaking, 
all fuch veflels run in here as are bound from 
the Weftern to the Eaftern coaft, or vice verfa , 
either for the purpofe of difcharging fome of 
their wares here, or of making a good port in 
cafe of a ftorm. 

On account of the great number of people 
who flock to this place from all parts of the 
kingdom, the trade here is very brilk. As 

ware* 


SllUONOSfcKIj I77& Uj 

Wares and commodities are brought to this port 
from other parts, a great number of articles are 
to be had here that are not to be procured 
elfe where. In a place where fo many people 
are aflcmbled together, from all parts of the 
country, public ftews were undoubtedly, ac- 
cording to the ideas of the Japanele, highly ne- 
ceflary ; and houfes of this kind have, therefore, 
been eftablifhed, for the accommodation of tra- 
vellers. Thefe the Dutch were not even dif- 
fered to fee ; but when we had liberty to walk 
about the town, the gates of that ftreet where 
they flood, were carefully locked. 

This town is fituated at one end of Nipon> 
Which is the largeft of all the iflands, and con- 
tains the two capitals of the kingdom, in which 
allb there is a road to Jedo } this however we 
did not take, it being very bad, and moun- 
tainous. 

A fpecies of Ulva (or lea weed) was gather- 
ed on the fea beach here, which was called 
Aiva Nori, and which, when dried and roafted 
ever the coals, and afterwards rubbed down to 
a very fine powder, was eaten with boiled rice, 
and fometimes put into Mifo lbup. 

For a cold in the head, which one eafily gets 
in this country, at the change of weather from 
warm to cold, the Japanele made ufe of a very 
fine kind of (huff, like Spanifli. This fnuff is 
I a brought 









JOURNEY TO THE COURT^ 

brought them by the Chinefe, in final) opake 
bottles of green glafs. 

Laxa, is the denomination given to a kind of 
thread or firing, about four yards long, which 
is fold rolled up almofl all over the country. It is 
made of wheat or buck-wheat-flour, and is 
fold by weight. That which was made from 
Buck-wheat, was in a more peculiar manner 
called Sabakiri , by the Japanefe. This firing 
is cut into fmall pieces, and mixed with foup, 
to which it gives a very agreeable, and fome- 
what glutinous tafle, without diflblving in the 
liquor, and is very nourifhlng. When put into 
foup, with leeks and force-meat balls made of 
fifh, this difh is called Niomen ; but, if it be 
mixed with Cayenne pepper or foy, it is called 
Smen. 

We now befpoke, againft our return home, 
either for our own confumption or for fale, 
two commodities in particular, which were rice, 
of which they have here the very befl fort ; and 
charcoal, which we wanted for the purpofe of 
drefling our victuals, and warming our rooms in 
winter. 

Here they do not reckon by thayls, but by 
maafes, fb that for one thayl they count ten 
maafes j and for ten thayls one hundred maafes : 
and in order to make their payments agreeably 
to this mode of reckoning, they have feveral 

forts 





SIMONOSEKT, 1776.- tlj 

forts of coins, large and fmall, made of gold, 
filver, copper, and iron. There is no repre- 
fentative or paper money in this country j but 
it is all in fpecie, coined and ftamped by the 
government: though the filver coin is not 
always of the fame fize, for which reafon the 
merchants never fail to weigh it before they 
take it. 

On the 12 ih of March we embarked on board 
a large Japanefe velfel of ninety feet in length, 
which is hired annually upon the Dutch com- 
pany’s account, at the rate of four hundred and 
eighty rixdollars, for the purpofe of conveying 
the ambafiador to Fiogo. This voyage is about 
one hundred leagues in length, and with a good 
wind is fometimes performed in eight days. 
Another fimilar veffel accompanied us, which, 
carried our baggage and retinue. 

We took up our quarters in the cabin. 
Our banjos had his room partitioned off to 
himfelf on one fide, and the Dutch had the 
greateft part on the other. This fide was 
divided into two rooms, a very fmall bed-cham- 
ber for the ambafiador, and a larger apartment 
for me and the fecretary, which was alfo ufed as 
a dining-room. The reft was occupied by the 
interpreters and other officers. 

A veffel of this kind ranks amongft the 
largeft that are built in this country, being 
I 3 about 


Ill JOURNEY TO COURTS 

about twenty-five feet broad, and very fquare 
at the ftern, with a wide and large opening there 
for the rudder, which can eafily be unhinged. 
Agreeably to the ftridfceft orders, all vefiels mull 
be in this form, with a view to prevent the fub- 
jcifts from going to fea in them, and quitting 
the country : they are frequently built of fir or 
cedar, but are not nearly fo ftrong as die European 
vefiels. The keel has a tarn upwards fore and 
aft. They have only one maft, and in a calm 
they are rowed. When we arrived in any of 
the harbours, our malt was put down, and 
relied on poles fixed for that purpofc ; after 
which, in cafe it rained or was very cold, the 
fail was Ipread out by way of awning, lb as to 
cover the whole velfel, and completely fiielter 
the people in it from the weather. It had in- 
deed, properly (peaking, only one deck ; but 
the cabin with its poop formed, in a manner, a 
lecond, on which we could walk, and acrofs 
which the maft lay. The cabin therefore, on 
board of thefe, as well as all die pleafure-boats in 
Japan, is very large and roomy, and is capable of 
holding a great number of people. This, in the 
fame manner as other rooms in their houfes, can be 
divided into fmall compartments, all handfomely 
papered, and the floor covered with mats made 
of rice-ftraw. The molt furprizing circum- 
ftance is, that the cabin projects on each fide 

over 


KAMIKOS£KI, 1776. 

over the veiTel’s fides, and is therefore broader 
than the veffel itfelf, which has not a pecu- 
liarly elegant appearance. Along its fides there 
are feveral windows. 

From Simonoieki we failed to Ramiro, which 
is thirty-fix leagues, and after having left this 
place, and proceeded feven leagues farther, we 
met with contrary winds, and were obliged to 
anchor off Nakaffima. But the wind continuing 
contrary, and the florin increafing, we were 
obliged to weigh anchor, and fail fourteen leagues 
back to Kaminojeki , in order to get into a 
better and fafcr harbour. Here we were under 
the difagreeable neceffiry of flaying almoft three 
weeks, before we got a good and profperous wind 
to carry us on our voyage. 

All this time we lay conflantly on board, 
but had feveral times, neverthelefi, an oppor- 
tunity to go alhore and amufe ourfelves in the 
inns and temples. 

Whilft the ftorm lafted, the air was very 
cold } fo that we were forced to keep fires in the 
rooms j notwithftanding which we were torment- 
ed with colds and catarrhs. 

The country all over this coaft was moun- 
tainous, but, neverthelefi, in the higheft degree 
cultivated, infomuch, that the mountains in ieve- 
ral places refembled beautiful gardens, 

1 4 Here* 


*20 


JOURNEY TO COURT. 

Here, as well as at Simonofeki, there were 
certain young men, whom the burghers ceded 
to the burgomafter to wait upon him, for a 
fiiorter or longer time. Thefe youths, who were 
known by the name of Kodm-, were the burgh- 
ers own fons ; they were well drelTed, wore long 
trowfers, like people in office, and after a fhorc 
time were relieved by others. 

The women here wore a ftrange kind of cap, 
which covering the fore-part of the head, pro- 
jected at the fides, and was tied under the chin. 
It was made of white Chenille, and by means of 
parte rendered quite fmooth and fieek. Thefe caps 
were faid to be ufed only in winter ; though, for 
my part, I could not conceive that they were 
capable of imparting any warmth. 

Not only the ladies of pleafure, but ladies of 
reputation likewife, are in the habit of paint- 
ing j and the married women had every where 
pulled the hairs out of their eye-brows, which 
amazingly difguifed even the moil beautiful 
countenances. 

I faw feveral kinds of fruit, the produce 
of this country, either dried or preferved 
in yeaft, in a mode which is, I fancy, only 
pradtifed at Japan or China. The fruit that 
was only dried, fuch as plumbs and the like, 
was called Mebos ; but fuch as was preferved 
either whole, or elfe, if it was very large, cut 
into flices, was termed Menaratjki . For this 

purpofc 


221 


KAMINOSEKI, 1 77 6 * 

purpofe the yeaft of fakki is ufed, a liquor 
prepared from rice. The acid of the yeaft 
penetrates into the fruit, gives it in feme mea- 
fure a tafte, and preferves it the whole year 
through, or longer. Me fignifies fruit; Nara 
the place in Japan where the fruit is thus pre- 
ferved in fakki yeaft, and Juki fignifies to pre- 
ferve. Konomon is a kind of large cucumber, 
which is for the moft part preferved in this 
manner, is tranfported in firkins to other places, 
and eaten with roaft meat, or other difhes. It 
taftes much like pickled cucumbers. 

The long time that we were obliged to lay at 
Kaminojeki , on account of contrary winds, the 
Japanefe pafied away with games and Iports of 
various kinds. With refpett to fuch of them 
as were my friends, I filled up their time by 
giving them lectures on the art of healing; and 
fometimes by queftions about their country, its 
government, and regulations in point of rural ce- 
conomy, but particularly with refpedt to their lan- 
guage, which furnifhed me with the means of 
entirely completing the Vocabulary I had pre- 
vious to this period already begun. 

Siobuts was a kind of game which by the in- 
terpreters was called, in Dutch, the game of the 
goofe (Ganfejped). In playing this game they 
made ufe of a thick checkered paper, with dif- 
ferent figures delineated upon each fquare. A 

die 


121 JOURNEV TO COURT. 7 

die was thrown, and each player had a wooden 
flice, or fortieth ing of the kind, with which he 
marked up his throw on the figures. 

Cards are by no means a favourite diverfion 
with the Japanefe j befides, they are very ftri&ly 
prohibited. I faw them played on board of 
the vefiel fometimes, but never on fiiore. The 
cards are made of thick and ftiff paper, two 
inches long, and one inch or more broad ; 
they are fifty in number, black on the under 
fide, and difiimilarly marked on the upper. 
The cards were laid in different heaps, and on 
each heap the money ; after which they were 
turned up, in order to fee who had won. So 
that this game very much refembled that which 
with us is called Sola bybika. 

During our ftay here I made myfelf acquainted 
with the Japanefe compafs. This inftrumenf 
is divided into twelve points : that is, firft, into 
the cardinal points, E. N. S. and W. j and 
afterwards, each of thefe into three more. The 
points bear the name of certain animals, fuch 
as for the North, which is in their language 
called Kitta i. the Rat, in the Japanefe lan- 
guage Ne; 2. the Cow or Ox, Us i and 3. the 
Tiger, Ter a ; for the East or Figaft ; 4. the 
Hare, U ; 5, the Dragon, Tats •, 6. the Serpent, 
Mil fur the South or Mins a mi, 7, the Horfe, 
; Z. the Sheep, Fttt/i the Ape, Sam i 




KAMI NOSE KI, 1776. 12 ^ 

for the West or Nis, 10. the Hen, T m ; u. the 
Dog, hm ; and 12. the Wild Boar, I. 

Some peculiarities occurred in their language, 
which to me appeared to be worth attending 
to. Iquang fignifies with them a thoufand, 
but is not ufed on any other occafion than in 
counting out money; one hundred thayls or a 
thoufand manas, therefore, is always denoted by 
Iquang me. Mom fignifies both a human being 
and goods ; but theft two different fignifications 
are denoted by different letters when the word 
is written. SJugi fignifies Cedar wood ( CupreJ 
Jus and Juniperus) and the particle over ; both 
are founded alike, but written differently. In 
like manner, Kang fignifies warm as well as cold. 
Fas has a threefold fignification ; that is, firft, 
the fmall and round lacquered flicks with which 
they eat, inftead of a fork ; fecondly, a bridge, 
and laftly (mar go) the edge of a table, or of any 
thing elfe. Y efferday, or the preceding day, they 
exprefs three different ways : viz. Kimo, Senjits , 
and Sakkuftts. 

The people in office at this place, who wore 
two fabres, were called Samrai \ and fuch as 
were entitled to wear but one, were called 
Vjonen. 

At laft, after waiting a long time, we weighed 
with a more favourable and prolperous wind, 
and failed to Dtine Kameru > where we again let fall 

oyr 



125 JOURMEV TO COURT. 

our anchor. All around us, as before, we ob- 
ferved iflands of various fizes, betwixt which we 
failed ; thefe waters being filled with them. 

At every place where we anchored, the Ja- 
panefe were very anxious to go on fhore, in 
order to bathe. Cieanlinefs is the conftant ob- 
ject of thefe people, and not a day paffes in which 
they do not wafh themfelves, whether they are at 
home or out upon a journey. In all towns and 
villages, inns and private houfes, therefore, there 
are baths. The poorer fort of people pay a 
trifle only for bathing ; but as many of them 
are apt to life the fame water without changing, 
it frequently happens that they catch the itch 
and other contagious diftempers. 

Of children, there were here, as well as in the 
villages in other parts, great numbers, and it 
was thefe only that called out after us, when at 
any time we landed. I obferved every where 
that the chaftifement of children was very mo- 
derate. I very feldom heard them rebuked or 
fcolded, and hardly ever faw them flogged or 
beaten, either in private families or on board of 
the vefiels; while in more civilized and en- 
lightened nations, thefe compliments abound. 
In the fchools one might hear the children read 
all at once, and fo loud, as almoft to deafen 



KAMINOSEKI, 1776: 126 

Our coafting voyage was again continued to 
Miter at, between a number of fmall iflands, and 
in a narrower channel between two large provinces. 
The harbour here is large and fafe j on which 
account this place is always fought as an an- 
chorage by a great number of veffels. 

In all the fea -ports great care has been taken 
to eftabliih a brothel (and for the mod: part 
fever al) even in the fmalieft villages. They 
were commonly the handfomefl houfes in the 
place, and Ibmetimes were even fituated near 
their idol’s temples. In fo fmall a place as 
Dftno Kamertt there were faid to be no lei’s than 
fifty women; in Kaminofeki there were two 
houfes, both which together contained eighty 
ladies, and in Miterai there weic no Icls than four 
of thefe reputable houfes. 

Amazed at fiich a vicious inftitution amongft 
a people, in other refpefts fo fenuble and judi- 
cious, I was at fome pains to find out from the 
interpreters when, and on what occafion, this 
inftitution had originated, and afterwards been 
diffufed all over the country. In anfwer to my 
enquiries I was informed, that this diffolute 
eftabliih ment had not fub fitted here in ancient 
times; but had firft taken rife during the 
civil war which was carried on, when the l’ecu- 
lar emperor, as general illlmo of the army, dif- 
poffefied the Dairi of the imperial power, except 

that 


tl6 JOURNET TO court: 

. f ■ 

chat, which he ftili holds in ecclefiaftical mat- 
ters. At that time the Dairi was obliged, being as 
yet very young, to flee, with his fofter- mother and 
his court, to Simonoleki. The Dairi’s domeftics 
ftOfififted then, as they do at prefent, of none but 
the fair fex, and he is even now confidercd as 
0 holy, that no male may approach him. In 
this flight over fea, being purfued by the enemy, 
his fofter* mo ther leaped with him into the fea, 
where they both periflied. His female fervants 
who arrived at Simonofeki, and had nothing left 
to fubfift on, were under the neceffity of adopt- 
ing a rather dishonourable mode of gaining their 
livelihood. This, as feveral people affured me, 
gave the firft rife to houfes of this kind; the 
number of which has fince, during the civil 
war and difturbances of many years continu- 
ance, gradually increafed. 

The interpreters told me likewife, that thefe 
women are not called by the fame name every 
where, or alike regarded. In Simonofeki they are 
ftili more peculiarly called Jcrvffi, and this name 
was before, and ftili is borne by the Dairi’s concu- 
bines, who, befides his real wife, are twelve in 
number. All others out of Simonofeki are 
are ufually called Keife or Kefe. The name 
fignifies a caftle that is turned upfide down, and 
therefore is perfectly v.-eli adapted to thefe wo- 
men, who have made the tranfition from chaftity 


fiogo, 1776. liy 

to difhonour. The Faifats are a lower fort, 
who are at any man’s fervice, viz. for eight konde- 
ryns. Fat Gin was a coin formerly in circu- 
lation, of very bad filver, and of the value of a 
konderyn. Eight of thefe Fai gins, therefore, 
have given them their prefenr name. The 
Ofiakv were defer i bed as being of the lowefi: 
clafs, who ran about the ftreets begging. Thefe 
were faid to have received their denomination 
from a woman of that name, who was a lunatic, 
and alfo an idle good for nothing huffey. The 
thinking part of the Japanefe however could 
not but allow, that thefe inftitutions were inde- 
cent, and a fcandal to the nation. 

Sigaki are a kind of oyfters which are caugh! 
«t Miter at, and are well tafted. 

Here and at feveral other places I faw in 
what manner the Japanefe preferved their craft 
againft: the ravages of that deftruftive worm, 
the Teredo Navalis, After having dragged the 
vefiel up on the ftraud, they burned both fides of 
it as high as the water ufually reaches, till the 
velfel was well covered with a coat of charcoal. 
This may perhaps contribute to preferve them 
likewife from rotting. 

Proceeding on our voyage, we again fet fail 
with a more favourable wind for Fiogo, where 
we arrived after a difagreeable and dangerous 
pafifage of twenty-fix days. As often as the 

Japanefe 


1 28 


JOURNEV TO COURT. 

Japaneie went on ffiore, they always took care 
to kill geefe, ducks, and fowls, which were 
dreffed for our table j but when they are out at 
fea, they are fo fuperftitious, as not to kill any 
living creature. Therefore, that we might not 
for feveral days together be without roafled 
birds, I was obliged to take upon myfelf the 
office (which was not very troublefome indeed) 
of killing them. 

In fine weather feveral forts of ducks, and par- 
ticularly the Anas Galeruulata (or Chinefe Teal) 
were affembled in thefe waters (where they are 
never feared away by the gun) in fuch numbers, 
that at a diftance they appeared like large iflands, 
and were not in the leaft afraid of us as we 
pa fled them, not even of me, who was their 
daily butcher. 

Fiogo is fituated about ten leagues (or thirteen 
fea-leagues) from OJaka> diredtly oppofite to it in 
the fame Bay. It has a large bafon, which 
however is open to the fouth, and was therefore 
formerly confidered as uncertain and dangerous 
towards that fide. This difagreeable circum- 
ftance has neverthelefs been removed by the 
Emperor Feki, at an incredible expence, and 
with great labour and difficulty, in undertak- 
ing which great numbers of people are faid to 
have perifhed. This emperor caufed a dam to 
be made to the fouthward of the harbour, in 

order 


froGo, 1776. f2gF 

order to prevent the fea from breaking into it. 
The dam round which we failed appeared it 
firft fight like a land-bank, and was not much 
below the furface of the water. Several hun- 
dred veffels, befides ours, had taken fhelcer here; 
on which account this harbour is of the more 
confequence, as the water as far as Ofaka is but' 
fh allow, and does not admit of large veffels 
getting up thither. The town, like Nagafaki, 
is built along the fhore of the harbour, and then’ 
on the rifing ground that Hopes off gradually 
from the mountains. The concourle of people 
here is very great, and the town tolerably exten- 
five and handiome. 

Kjempfer makes rhention, that he went in 
fmall boats from Fiogo to Ofaka - j but although 
we were here obliged to quit our larger veffel, 
we travelled from hence by land to Kanfaki , 
from which place we were carried over in veffels 
three leagues to Ofaka. 

On tbt 8 th of April, in the morning, we fet 
out for Ifmomia, in order to dine there j after 
this we went to Am agafaki, a fortified town on 
the fea coaft, where, after a journey of two* 
leagues, we relied a little, and then went a league 
farther on to the village of Kanfaki , near a large 
liver. From this place we ordered ourfelves to' 
be fet over in boats to the mouth of that large 
ftream which runs through the town of Ofaka 

vol. nr, K down 


JOURNEY TO COURT. 


130 

down into the bay, and which is about the'dif- 
tance of three leagues. 

Our new hoft was the firft who came in a boat 
to meet us on the river, and then conducted us 
up the fame through the luburbs, which had 
been built all along its banks, and which were 
covered by feveral hundreds. of veifels, that bore 
witnefs to the great and extenfive traffic of this 
town. After we had paffed feveral bridges, the 
gates, and the guard-houfes that flood on each 
fide of thefe latter, we perceived that we were 
come into the town itfelf. 

Here we were extremely well lodged and 
treated. Shortly after our arrival, our hoft 
entered, drelfed- in his bell clothes, and, with a 
joyful countenance and the moft refpedlful de- 
meanor, congratulated us, through the interpre- 
ter, on our fafe arrival after fuch a long and 
tedious voyage,, and brought with him one of 
his fervants, who produced, as ufual, a fmall 
fquare table with a prelent, which was likewife 
decorated in the moft fuperb manner. This 
prelent conlifted of. feveral oranges of the com- 
mon fize, but with a thick rind, a few Micans, or 
fmaller oranges with a. thinner rind, and a few 
dried figs. On the top of this prelent was laid a 
folded paper, tied over .with red and gilded paper- 
thread, at the end of which was palled a ftrip of 
Sea-weed (Fucus). Roun<\ about it alfo were 

laid 


OSAKA; 1776. 131 

laid feveral fquare pieces of the faiift fea-weed. 
All this is according to the etiquette j and is a 
demonftration of the highelt refpeift for the tra- 
velling flranger. 

Among other things, we had for fuppcr a 
kind of filh called Abrame , which was extremely 
well tailed. 

The fir ft tiling we had now to do, was to 
teftify our gratitude to the Captain who had 
brought us fafe in the large veflel to Fiogo, 
and, together with fome of the crew, had borne 
us company hither, and taken care of our bag- 
gage. For my part, I had to pay him fix thails, 
and to the failors feven maas, five konderyns. 
In like manner, we were each of us obliged to 
pay three thails to thofe who had guarded 
and taken care of our Norimons, and to the 
fervant fent with us by the Governor, fix thails, 
amounting altogether to about' ilxteen rixdol- 
lars. 

In Ofaka, we ftaid that day and night only 1 
and, in the mean time, were vifited by fever al 
merchants, from whom we belpoke feveral arti- 
cles, correfponding with the famples which they 
fhewed us, and which were to be ready at our 
return. Such were, in particular, Infefls of cop- 
per, and artificial trees varnifhed, fans of vari- 
ous kinds, writing paper, paper for hangings, 
and fome other rarities. 

K 2— 0 faka 3 



1J2 JOURNEY TO COURT. 

OJaka one of the five imperial towns 
which belong to the fecular emperor^ it is go- 
verned in his name, and, in like manner as Na- 
gafaki, by two governors, one of whom goes to 
the court every other year, and in the interme- 
diate year exercifes the functions of government. 
This is, at the fame time, one of the greateil 
commercial towns in the empire, on account of 
its fituation near the coaft, and almoft in the 
center of the country. In confequence of the 
incredibly great fupply of every article from all 
parts of the country, provifions are here very 
cheap, and the moll wealthy artifts and mer- 
chants have eftablifhed themfelves here. The 
river Jcdogavoa, up which we failed to the town, 
ryns through the ftreets, and is divided by 
means of. canals into feveral branches. The ci- 
tadel, which {lands on one fide of the town, is 
almoft one league fquare, and, in the ftyle of this 
country, well fortified. Acrofs the river, which 
runs, through the town, not only expenfive 
bridges of cedar are built, but they are alfo nu- 
merous, and forne of them very long, from 300 
to 360 feet. In almoft every houfe, the front of 
the ground floor is either a workfliop or a large 
fale-fiiop, where the goods are hung out to the 
view, to entice purchafers. Many rich people 
retire to this place, to fpend their fortunes, 
this town is the ntoft pleafant in all Japan ; fo 

that ' 



;obo, 1776. J33 

that it is in Japan, what Paris is in Europe, a 
place where an inceflant round of amufcments 
is to be had. The governor of the town 
poflTefles no authority over the citadel ; but 
it is under the care of two other governors or 
commandants alternately, who relieve each other 
every third year, and who have no command in 
the town. One of them re tides always at court, 
and when he goes down to relieve his predecef- 
for, the exchange is attended with this particu- 
lar c ire um dance, that thefe two are not to ipeak 
to each other •, and when one enters, the other 
mult go our, and immediately proceed to the 
court, to give an account of his adminiftra- 
tion. 

As it was thirteen miles from Ofaka to Miaco, 
we were obliged to fet out early in the morning 
on the yth of April. We were awakened, there- 
fore, before it was day-light ; and after having 
drank a dilh ofcoffee, and got ready our bread and 
•butter for breakfaft, proceeded on our journeys 
the Japanele who went before with a great 
number of torches to light us on our way, al- 
moft continually cheering us with their enliven- 
ing fongs. After travelling two miles, and ar- 
riving at a large village called Morikuis> \ye and 
our bearers repo fed for a while. After this, we 
proceeded three leagues to a larger village, viz-. 
Firakatta, where we again relied and took fome 
K 3 rcfrclh- 


*34 


JOURNEY TO COURT. 


refrefhment. After which, we went on to ano- 
ther refling place, viz. Jodo, one league farther, 
and dined rather late at Fufimi , to which it was 
more than a league. Jodo is a fmall, but hand- 
fome town, and has plenty of water. Its bridge, 
called Jodo bas, is one of the largeft in that 
kingdom, being 400 paces in length. The 
town is defended by a citadel, fituated on one 
fide of it, in which a prince keeps court. 
Fufimi is, in fa£t, nothing more than a village ; 
but then it is three leagues long, and reaches 
quite to the imperial capital, Miaco , of which it 
may be confidered as the fuburbs. 

Excepting in Holland, I never made lb plea- 
fant a journey as this ; with regard to the beau- 
ty and delightful appearance of the country. Its 
population too, and cultivation, exceed all ex- 
predion. The whole conntry on both fides of 
us, as far as we could fee, was nothing but a 
fertile field, and the whole of our long day’s 
journey extended through villages, of which one 
begun where the other ended, and which were 
built along the road. 

This day, I faw feveral carts driving along 
the road, which were the firft I had feen, and 
indeed, v'ere the only wheel- carriages ufed in 
and about the town of Miaco, there being other- 
wife none in the country. Thefe carts were long 
and narrow, with three wheels, viz. the two 

ufual 


FL'SIMI, 1776. IJ5 

ufual wheels, and one before. The wheels lyere 
made of an entire piece of wood fawed off* a 
log. Round the felly was put a cord, or Tome 
fuch thing, to prevent the wheel from wearing 
away by friction. Nearer the town, and in it, 
thefo carts were larger and clumfier, fometimes 
with two wheels only, and drawn by an ox. 
Some of thefe carts too were like thole of Eu- 
rope, with naves and fpokes, but not mounted 
with iron, and very liable to be broken. None 
were allowed to drive thefe carts, excepting on 
one fide of the road, which, on that account, 
foemed much broke up. For this purpofe, too, 
a regulation was made, that the carts Ihould 
fet out in the forenoon, and return in the after- 
noon, in order that they might not meet each 
other. 

Small cakes made of boiled flour of rice, 
fometimes coloured green and fometimes white, 
were to be purchafed at all the inns, and like- 
wife in the villages ; thefe were bought by tra- 
vellers, and particularly by the norimon carriers, 
who ate them with their tea, which was every 
where kept in readinefs for the convenience of 
travellers. 

Near the river Miacos, dwelt a great' num- 
ber of Pelicans , who had made their nefts in 
pine-trees all along the road, as had alfo ducks 
ar.d ocher wild- fowl ; notwith Handing that, even 
the banks of the river were 110c left flee for 
K 4 thenj 



*36 JOURNEY TO COURT. 

them to dwell on, but were every where inhabited 
and cultivated. 

r , ‘ ' • * r 

I had imagined, that during fo long a jour- 
ney, in a country to which Europeans have fel- 
dom any accefs, I Ihould have been able to col- 
left a great number of fcarce and unknown 
plants ; but I was never in my life fo much difap- 
pointed. In moll of the fields which were now 
fowed, I could not difeover the leaft trace of 
weeds, not even throughout whole provinces. A 
traveller would be apt to imagine, that no weeds 
grew in Japan : Eut the induftrious farmers pull 
them diligently up, fo that the moil Iharp-fight- 
ed botanift can hardly difeover any uncommon 
plant in their well-cultivated fields. Weeds and 
fences were equally uncommon in this country j 
a country furelv, in this refpeft, inexpreffibly 
fortunate. The feed is fown on fmall beds of 
about the breadth of a foot, and feparated by a 
furrow above a foot broad. On thefe fmall beds, 
wheat or barley is fown, either crolfways in rows, 
at a fmall diftance from each other, or elfe 
lengthways in two rows. After the corn is 
grown up to the height of about twelve inches* 
earth is taken out of the furrow, which is 
thus converted into a ditch, and this earth 
js carefully laid about the borders, which, 
by this means, receive frefii nourilhment and 
manure. 

Jft 


FUSIMTj I77 6. iJ 7 

In confequence of fo laborious an operation, 
the com fields bear the exa& appearance of cab- 
bage-beds, vvhich makes the view of the heights 
in particular enchanting, thefe being bordered 
at the foot with a ftone wall, fo that they have 
all the appearance of being furrounded by ram- 
parts. If thefe heights are fown, which is not 
feldom the cafe, with rice, then the water which 
is collected on their tops from the clouds and 
the rain, is conducted from them to the lower- 
pioft parrs, fo that they are laid under water by 
means of a wall ralfed at the bottom, of an 
equal height, through which the water may be 
let out at pleafure. 

In the beginning of April, the farmers began 
to turn over the ground that was intended for 
rice. This, by means of Its raifed borders, lay 
now almoft entirely under water. The ground 
was turned up with a hoe, that was fomewhat 
crooked, with a handle to it, and was a foot in 
length, and of a hand’s breath. Such rice- fields 
as lay low and quite under the water, were 
ploughed with an ox or cow, for which work 
thefe animals only are ufed in this country. 

The other fields which w<?re fown with Eaft- 
Indian kale ( BraJJica Orientalist appeared now in 
the month of April, gilded all over with yellow 
flowers, and gliftened even at a great diltance. 
The feeds of this kind of kale, called Natamti \ 

are 


JOURNEY TO COURT. 


138 

are commonly prefled j and the oil expreffed 
from them ( Natanni abra ) is ufed all over the 
country for burning in lamps. The feed is ripe 
in May a and the root is not ufed. 

In feveral places 1 law a kind of Mallard (&«£- 
pis cerma) cultivated. The Japanefe feldom ufe 
the feed of it to their victuals ; but it was that 
kind which was fold to us now during our jour- 
ney, and to the factory, for common mallard. 

The hufbandmen who were occupied in dig- 
ging, were always followed bv feveral beautiful 
whitilh herons (Ardea), which cleared the fields 
of worms, and were very tame. On account of 
the fir vice thefe birds are of, they are confider- 
ed here as privileged, and are not feared away 
nor molefted by any one. 

In the town of Mlaco we were lodged in the 
upper ltory, which is not cuftomary in other 
places, and we remained here four days. Our 
great chefs were alfo opened, that we might take 
out a change of linen and other clothes, and 
nccefiary proviuon for the remainder pf the voy- 
age. 

During this time we had an audience of the 
chief jafice and the two governors of the town, 
who had all prefents made them from the Dutch 
company. We were carried in our norimons 
to their palaces, and treated with green tea, to- 
bacco, and fweetmeats. The chief ju Rice {grant 
reck ter') is almoft the only male at the Dairi’s or 

tcele- 


MIACOj I776. IJ9 

ccclefiaftrcal emperor’s court, He is, as ti were, his 
vicegerent or court marfhal, who, in the name of 
his great matter, regulates and orders every thing 
about the court, and more efpecially in eccle- 
fiaftical matters out of the court. He grants 
pafles to all thofe who travel higher up the 
country, or to the fecular emperor’s court. 
This much-relpefied man is, neverth clefs, not 
appointed by the Dairi, but by Kubo, and is gene- 
rally an elderly man, and one whofe undemand- 
ing is ripened by age and experience. Some 
trufty old man, who at the fame time is pofleffed 
of a tolerable portion of wealth, was faid to be 
cholen for this office by the fecular emperor; 
and as the income of this place is trifling and 
infufficient, he genaraily grows very poor in time 
with his high appointment. 

The Dairi’s court and palace is within the 
town, and, as it were, in a leparate quarter of it, 
forming of itfelf a large town, furrounded by 
foffes, and a ftone wall. We had not the good 
fortune to get a fight of it, otherwife than from a 
confiderable diftance. Within it lives the Dairi, 
with his concubines, a great number of his at- 
tendants, and priefts. Within this palace all his 
pleafure lies, and here Ire pafTes his whole life, 
without once going out of it. When theDairiat 
any time leaves his apartments in order to walk 
in the gardens, it is made known by figns, to 

the 


140 JOURNEY TO COURT. 

the end that no one may approach to fee this 
country’s quondam ruler, now merely its pope, 
veiled with power in ecclefiaftical matters only, 
but who is confidered as being fo holy, that no 
man muft behold him. During the few days 
we flak! here, his holinefs was pleafed once to 
inhale the pure air out of doors, when a fignal 
was given from the wall of the callle. 

Although Kubo, the temporal emperor, as 
generalifllmo of the army, had wrefted to himfelf 
the chief power, dill, however, the greateft honours 
were left to the Dairi. For fome time after the 
revolution, Kubo made alfo annually a journey 
to Miaco, in order .to pay his refpedls to the 
Dairi. But of late years thefe vifits have been 
now and then neglected, and are now faid to 
be entirely laid afide. 

Miaco is not only the oldeft capital, but alfo 
the largeft commercial town in the empire, an 
advantage, for which it is indebted to its central 
fituatioji. It Hands on a level plain of about four 
leagues in length, and half a league in breadth. 
J lere are eftablilhed the greaceft number, and, at 
the fame time, the beft of workmen, manufac- 
turers, and artifts, as alfo the mod capital mer- 
chants, fo that almofl every thing that one can 
-wifli or defire is to be purchafed here: velvets 
and filks wove with gold and fliver, wrought 
metals and manufactures in gold, filver, and cop- 
per; 


0IT3, IJjS. 141 

per j likewife, fcwas, clothes, and the bed of 
weapons. The celebrated Japanefe copper, after 
being roafted and fmelted at the fmelting houfe, 
is refined and manufactured here. All the coin 
too is fi:ruck here and damped. And as at tin; 
Dairi’s court all kinds of literature are en- 
couraged and fupported, as at a royal academy, 
therefore all books that are publifhed, are print- 
ed Jiere. 

Here the fuperior interpreter delivered to us 
a fum of money in new kobangs, for us to lay 
out during our journey in rarities and merchan- 
dize, or in what manner foever we might chufe. 
The lecretary and I received each of us three 
hundred rixdollars, but which we were afterwards 
obliged to refund from our kambang dock in 
Nagafaki. 

After befpeaking from thofe merchants who 
were permitted to vifit us ieveral articles, fuch 
as fowas-work, fans, and lacquered ware in par- 
ticular, to be ready by our return, 

On the 14^ of April we fet out on our 
journey. Before we had travelled one league 
we arrived at Keagi, where we made a 
lhort halt. We had not much farther to 
go from hence to Jaco J'iaia, where we again 
reded a little. To Fafiri it was fomewhat 
more than a mile, and about the fame didance 
from thence to Jfiba or Oils, where we dined. 
Oils is fituated near a lake of die fame name 

whic 



142 JOURNEY to COURT, 

which, in proportion to its length of forty Ja- 
panefe miles, is very narrow. Ancient hidories 
relate, that this lake was formed in one night 
only by an earthquake, in which this whole 
tract of country gave way and disappeared. 
This lake is very convenient for the convey- 
ance of goods and merchandize by water to the 
adjacent places, and is like wife remarkable from 
the circumftance, that, though it is only a frefh- 
water lake, it contains falmon ; a fpecies of 
fifh which is otherwife fo very fcarce, and, in- 
deed, hardly ever to be feen in the Eaft Indies- 
Some falmon were brought to us to buy for our 
table, which were very delicious, The larged 
that I had an opportunity of feeing weighed about 
ten pounds. Finding in the courfe of our jour- 
ney that we often had this fpecies of fifh brought 
ro us, we ordered fome to be fmoked againd our 
return ; however they were not to be compared to 
our European falmon, either in facnefs, fize, or 
the mode of curing them. 

In the afternoon we continued our journey 
one league to 7 Jett a, one league to Skinova, and 
fomewhat more than a league to Kufats , where we 
took up our night’s lodging. This village has 
at lead five hundred ground-plots. At Tfetta 
we eroded the river over a very long bridge. 
The bridge reded on a fmall ifiand, which was- 

fituated 


S£KI, 1776. 143 

faulted nearer to the town than to the oppofite 
Jhore. It was about three hundred and fifty 
paces in length ; built, according to the ufual 
mode of this country, in a magnificent ftile, and 
furni ihed with baluftrades. 

The next morning, being the i$th of April , 
we had above eleven leagues to travel to feveral 
villages and towns, which ftood quite dole to 
each other, in a large, rich, and fertile di Uriel:, 
called Ojni. Among the mod: remarkable of 
theie were, Memki , Tfftbe, Nafumi, Mhmcuts, Ono , 
Matju.) Fitsjoma , Ino fana Jazva , and Sakanofta . 
We dined at Minakuts, which is a large inland 
town. Here, as well as at the other places, 
were fick people, who had come from the ad- 
jacent parts for advice from the Dutch phyfi- 
cians, in their chronical complaints. Thefe 
complaints were frequently either large indurated 
glands in the neck, and cancerous ulcers, or 
elfe venereal fy mptoms, which had generally 
taken too deep root. 

Towards evening we were come into the 
diftrid of Iffi, where we palled through icveral- 
villages, and at laft arrived at the town of 
Seki, where we took up our night’s lodging. 

On the 1 6th of April our journey was not 
lefs agreeable than it had been the day before, 
and, indeed, hitherto in general j by reaion that 

the 





144 JOURNEY TO COURT. 

the country of Jft was very clofeiy inhabited, 
fertile, and populous, info much that we palled 
through very long villages, which lay upon the 
road, and at very fliort diftatices from each 
other. We were, never thelds, whenever we 
palled through any village, fubjeift tq an in- 
convenience which embittered all our pleafures, 
and obliged us to keep the windows of our nori- 
mons Ihut. A privy, which is neceflary for 
every Houle, is always built in the Japantfe vil- 
lages towards the llreet, and at the fide of the 
manfion-houfc ; it is open downwards, fo that 
the pafier.gers may difeharge their water from 
the outfide into a large jar, which is funk on the 
snfide into the earth. The flench arifing from 
the urine and the ordure, as alfo from the offals 
of the kitchen, all which were very carefully col- 
lected together for the lands, was frequently in 
hot weather fo llrong and infupportable, that no 
plug introduced into the nofe could difpute the 
pafiage with it, and no perfumes were fufficient 
entirely to difperfe it. Ufeful and beneficial 
as, in other refpefls, I every where found this 
branch of the over-drained ceconomy of the 
Japanefe, it was equally hurtful to the eyes. 
For by the exhalations of this intolerable 
vapour, to which the people had gradually 
accultomed themfelves, the eyes became lb 
tnuch affe&ed, shat a great many, and par- 
ticularly 


KWANA, I 776 . 145 

ticularly old people, were afflifted with very 1 ed, 
fore, and running eyes. 

This day we travelled about ten Japanefe 
miles ; and dined at Tjiakuji> after having paffed 
through Noftn, Kamirujammi, Moirinofta, and 
Scno, and in the evening arrived at a famous 
large town near the bay, called Kwana, after 
having palled through Sutjki, OjlwaU , Jokaits, 
a large town, Tomda and Matjdera. 

At Jokaits we were come again to the fea fhore, 
which we followed almofl: all the way to the 
capital, Jedo ; and in our way had many large 
and dangerous ftreams to ford, over which no 
bridges could be thrown, on account of the great 
increafe of the waters in the rainy feafons. 

On our way from Jokaits, we were favoured 
with the company of three mendicant nuns, one 
of which followed each of our norimons, in ex- 
pectation of obtaining fome money from the 
Dutch. They accompanied us with an even 
pace for feveral hours, conftantly begging, al- 
though at the very beginning they had received a 
handfome piece of Giver from us. Their drefs 
was neat and clean, but their incefiant begging 
extremely troublefome. We therefore changed 
a piece of gold into pieces of fmall copper coin, 
which were ftrung on a ribbon by means of 
a fquare hole made in the middle. One or 
two of thefe copper coins, called Sent, wedif- 
V0L * m * L tributed 



JOVRNEy TO COUR T. 


I46 

tributed now and then, fo that the expence be, 
Tame more fopportablc to 11s. The girls were 
of different ages, from 16 to 18 years, decent in 
their behaviour, except the circumftance of their 
begging with fuch pertinacity, and were faid to 
be the daughters of priefts of the mountains, a 
fort of monks in this country, called Jammabos , 
The interpreters told os alfo, that their chief 
fupport was begging, that out of their alms they 
were obliged to pay a certain tribute to the tem- 
of IJi, and that they were not quite fo (veil be- 
haved and chadc, as, from what we faw, we 
might foppofe them to be. They were called 
Romano Bikuni, 

• Kwana is a large and ftrongly fortified to.wn, in 
the province of Owari , which is r ich, and of great 
confequence amongft the princely provinces of 
this empire. Here we took up our night’s lodging, 
in a handfomeand commodious ion. The town 
has two forts, and is furroimded by fofles and 
walls. The citadels have high towers, which 
fifford a plea fing fight, and in every part or them, 
and of the walls, fmall oblong openings are viable, 
through which the befieged may difeharge their 
arrows, under coyer of the walls, againfl the ene- 
mies Ihot. 

On the i~jlb of April, in the morning, we fet 
out from Krjoam in a veffel, and crofftd the bay 
to Mia, which was reckoned feven fea leagues 

Eu r 



MIA, 177-0. 


B-ut this voyage was one of the itioIl extraordi- 
nary that ever was made. We embarked with 
oiir retinue and baggage on board oflarge veffeis 
at Kwana j but when we approached near tire 
harbour of Mia town, the harbour grew fo ih al- 
low, that we were obliged to make life of fmall 
boats in order to difembarkj neverthelcfs we 
could not get up to the town other wife than by 
being puflied over the mud by the hands of two* 
men fording it in very little water. So that we 
might rather be faid to go by land than by 
water, and that a good way up to the town. 

Mia therefore, though fituated near the bay, is 
2 very indifferent harbour, and unfit for larger, and 
even for final ler kinds of veffels; notwithstanding 
which, a confiderable number of them lay here ac 
anchor. The town has neither walls nor forts, 
but is extremely populous, and has great traffic. 
There is befides an extraordinary circumflance 
with refpeft to Mia, that the middle ftreet pro- 
jects full two leagues out of the town, all along 
the large river, up to the town of Nagaja, which 
is fortified, and is the rapital of the provin.ee of 
Owari, 

A fter having dined in Mia, wc let out again on 
our journey, and palling through Ka (fader a, Ma+ 
runti, Si and Imo Kaiva, to Tjiriu , where wc 
put up at night, making in all four leagues. 

On tie merning followirg, being the 1 Ztb of 
April we proceeded throe gh Ufida, Ofama and 

^ 2 7 a f a gi' 










II 


; 1 








JOURNEY TO COURT. 


I48 

Jafagi to Okafaki, a fortified town in the province 
of Mtkawa. Here we dined, after having viewed 
and patted over the remarkable bridge which is 
laid acrofs the river near the town, and is con- 
fidered as the longeft bridge in the whole empire, 
being 158 fathoms long. It is built of wood, and 
is faid to have coft 30,000 kobangs, or 300,000 
rix-dollars. The Prince of the province refides 
in the fort, which is well fortified, and adorned 
with a high tower and walls. 

In the afternoon, palling through Kagiaoies, 
Fufikawa, Motoftku , Akajiki , Goju, Diokafen , 
and Jcotfia , we travelled fomewhat above feven 
leagues farther on to Joots Sida or Jofida^ where 
we ftaid all night. 

The country appeared this day more moun- 
tainous than it had for fame time before, but was 
interlperfed with level plains and vallies which 
were well cultivated. In this month the rice was 
tranlplanted. It is firft fown very thick on fepa- 
rate beds, like cabbage or other rooted plants, 
and, when grown to about a hand’s breadth in 
height, taken up, in order to be tranfplanted 
out in the fields. For this purpofe feveral roots 
are taken together, and with the hand put down 
firm into the ground, which is about fix inches 
under water. Each bundle is let a hand’s breadth 
or more afunder. This tranfplantation is gene- 
rally the women’s bufinefs, who on this occafion 

ar; 


JTQSIDA, 1776. 149 

are uled to wade half a leg deep in water and mud. 
After this, the rice ripens, and is cut down in 
the month of November. 

The rice, the grain of which is furrounded with 
a hulk, is afterwards cleaned in various ways, 
till the grain is totally deprived of all extraneous 
matter. In the courfe of my travels I faw feve- 
ral of thefe different methods. Sometimes it was 
beaten with blocks which had a conical hole in 
them. Thefe blocks were placed in two rows, 
generally four on each fide, and raifed by water, 
in the lame manner as the wheel of a mill. In 
their fall they beat the rice fo that the grain fe- 
parated from the chaff. Sometimes, when there 
was no opportunity for cre&ing fimilar water- 
works, a machine of this kind was worked by a 
man’s foot ; who, at the fame time alfo ftirred the 
rice with a bamboo. In private families I fome- 
times faw rice pounded in fmall quantities, and 
for daily ufe, in the fame manner as on board of 
the fhips and at other places in the Eaft Indies ; 
that is, in a hollowed block with a wooden 
peflle. 

Fucus Saccharinus ( Kcmb or Kohii) was thrown 
up on the fea-fliore in theie provinces. I found it 
of a con fider able breadth as well as length. Other- 
wife it was faid to come from the great ifland 
called Matjmai , which lies to the northward of 

L 3 Japan. 






JOURNEY TO COURT, 


150 

Japan. This Fucus, v hen dried and c’eanfed from 
fand, fair, apd other impurities, is ufed by the Ja- 
panefe, on feveral occafions. As tough as it may 
appear to be, yet it is eaten oecafionally, and par- 
ticularly when they meet together to make merry, 
and drink Sakki. In thefe circumftances it is cut 
into pieces and boiled, upon which it grows much 
thicker than before, and is mixed with other food,. 
It is fometimes eaten raw, after being feraped till it 
is white, and in fuch cafe is generally cut into 
flips of a nail’s breadth, and two inches in length, 
then folded up in the form of a fquare, and tied 
over with a finer flip of the breadth of a line, and 
three inches in length, cut out of the fame fucus. 
Thefe folded fquares are eaten with or without 
Sansjo {F agar a piperita.) When prefents are 
made, about half a fcore or even a fcore of 
thefe fquares are ftrewed about on the fmall table. 
When any prefents are made, which is cuflomary 
here on many occafions, and is deemed neceflary, 
it makes part of the ceremonial to accompany the 
prefent with a complimentary paper, as it is 
called, which is folded in a Angular manner and 
tied. To each end of this paper, a flip is always 
palled of this fucus, an inch broad and a quar- 
ter of an inch long. This fucus is by fome called 
Nofi. 

In feveral of the villages we pafled through, 
I fnv the manner in which the oil of the Dryandra 

Cordata 


JOS t DA, 1776. *5 1 

Cordata (4 brafin ) was expreffed for the purpole 
of burning in lamps. The prefs lies down on the 
ground and confids of two blocks, between which 
the feed is put and crulhed, and the oil expref- 
fed. Oneof the blocks is fixed and immoveable, 
and againft this the other is forced by means of 
graduated wooden wedges, which increafing m 
fize at the foremoll; end, are driven in with a very 
long wooden club. At the fide is an opening to 
let out the oil, which is received in a vellel 
placed Underneath. 

Screens, eight feet high, are contrived fo com- 
modious, that they may be put up together in 
feveral folds, and are ufed every where to let be- 
fore the beds when feveral perfons fleep ifi one 
chamber, or when the occupier willies to conceal 
any thing in his own room. They ferve alfo to 
divide the apartments j to fet before the windows 
by way of keeping off a draught of air j to put 
before the fire- pot in the winter, fo as to make 
the room warmer within the Ipace thus inter- 
cepted, and on many other occafions. Thefe 
fcreens are of different fizes ; they are often 
handfomely painted, and covered over with 
thick painted paper j for the moft parr, they 
are compoied of fix different frames, each about 
two feet broad. 

There is nothing which travellers wear out lb 
fkft as fhoes. They are made of rice ftraw, and 
platted, and by no means ftrong. The yalue of 
L 4 them 



154 JOURNEY TO COURT. 

them too is trifling, mfomucb, that they are 
bought for a few copper coins ( Seni ). There is 
nothing therefore more commonly expofed to fale 
in all the towns and villages, even in the fmalleft 
through which the traveller generally pafies. 
The fhoes, or rather the ftraw flippers which are 
in the moft general ufe, are without firings ; but 
fuch as are ufed on journeys, are fornifhed with 
a couple of firings made of twifled draw, fo that 
they may be tied fail about the foot, and do not 
eafily fall off". And that thefe firings may not 
chafe the inftep, a linnen rag is fome times laid 
over it. On the roads it is not unufual to fee tra - 
vellers who carry with them one or more pair of 
fhoes, to put on when thofe that are in ufe fall ta 
pieces. When it rains, or the road is very dirty, 
thefe fhoes are fdaked through, fo that the tra- 
veller is obliged to walk wetlliod. Old worn-out 
fhoes are found lying every where by the fide of 
the roads, efpecially near rivulets, where travel- 
lers, on changing their fhoes, have an opportunity 
at the fame time of walking their feet. 

Small fhoes or flippers of ftraw, arc ufed for the 
horfes all over this country, inftead of iron fhoes. 
Thefe are tied above the hoof with ftraw firings, 
to prevent their feet from being hurt by (tones; 
and when the roads are flipperv, keep the horfes 
from fiumbling. They are not very ftrong, coft 
but little, and are to be had every where. 

I fa w 






*53 


JOSIDA, 1776. 

I favv a curious and peculiar method praftifed 
here of conveying the water in times of great 
drought to the fubjacent corn-fields. The ri- 
vulets, it is true, are both large, and fwell much 
in rainy weadier; but, at the fame time, they 
run off very quickly into the fea, and are then 
greatiy diminilhed. In order to reap the bene- 
fit of thefe, the farmers throw up banks of fe- 
veral yards in breadth, and of an immenfe 
length, over which they carry the water to a 
great dillance, and draw it off as faff as it is 
syanted from the fides on to the fields that lie 
below. Several of the rivulets rife in the rainy 
feafon fo high, and with fuch rapidity, that no 
bridge can refill the force of the current. Thefe 
firearms, therefore, mull either be pafled in boats, 
if that be feafible, or elfe forded. The bearers 
who are ufed to this bufinefs, and fur e- footed, 
carry the travellers either on their fhoulders, or 
fitting in their norimons ; both which ways, to 
me, frequently bore the appearance of being 
very dangerous. Some of thefe rivulets afeer- 
wardst dry up, lo that they may be pafled dry- 
Ihod in the fummer. 

In the villages were planted in a great many 
places Almond and Peach trees (Amygdalus com- 
munis and Perfua) and Apricot trees {Prunus 
Alrmeniaca), which all blofifomed this month on 
the bare branches, before the leaves had time to 

' burft 


JD'JRWEY T3 £3 7 RT* 


*54 

bur ft forth from the bud. They fur ni [bed a 
moft pleafing fight to the eye, on account of the 
number of blofToms which covered the whole 
tree, and evert at a diftance made a glorious 
appearance with their flow -white petals. Tilde, 
as well as the Plumb trees ( Primus Vonejlka), 
Cherry trees (I'rUrtus Ce rafts), Apple and Pear 
trees ( Fyrus Mains and Cydonia ) bore at this 
rime both fingie and double flowers. On the 
latter, as well as on other deformities of this 
Icing, the Japande fet a great value. 

On the i yth of April, at noon, we arrived af 
a fmall and open town, called Arraij , and fituated 
on the borders of a large bay which runs in at' that 
place from the lea. If its bottom anfwers its 
appearance and fi tuition, it fliould feem to be 
the lafelt and bell harbour in the world; and, 
if fortified in the European manner, would be 
impregnable. We had about five leagues jour- 
ney hither, palling Jmun, Ftagaioa, Jetfurt jama 
mura. Sir of -a, and Moto Sirajka. This placets- 
very remarkable, on account that here the mer- 
chandize and baggage of every navel ler are 
Parched, eipeci ally the baggage belonging to _ 
the princes who travel upwards to the court. 
'Phis Parch is made by per ions appointed by 
the emperor, and in veiled with full powers for 
the ptiroole, whole duty K is to fee that no 
women nor arms are introduced, by which 

the 


OYGAWA, 1/76. 155 

the tranquillity of the country might be inter- 
rupted. After we had dined, and our baggage 
had been fearched, though by no means ftridtly, 
we went to pay our refpefts to the imperial 
commiflioners, and then proceeded on our jour- 
ney, one league acrofs the bay, in flat-bottomed 
veflels, to a town fituated on the other fide of it, 
called Majsakki , from whence we proceeded 
in the afternoon by the way of Sinowara, Nim - 
butjdoy ’Tammamats , a large and con fider able 
town, I'insjenmats , acrofs Findingawa river in 
boats, and farther on paft t Ikeda and D adjoin to 
Mitjke, in all about feven leagues. 

On the following morning, being the cf 
April , we went on paft Mikano , Fukuroj , Nakurj, 
and Furagawa , to a large and fortified town 
called Kakagawa. Before noon we had tra- 
velled four leagues, and here we dined. After 
this we continued our route, palling J amnia 
fano , Nijfaka, Kikugawa , and Kanaja , to the 
river Oygawa, in all four leagues. The river 
Ojingawa is one of the largeft and moft dan- 
gerous in the whole country. It does not only 
rife high, like others, in rainy weather, but its 
courfe towards the fca is inconceivably rapid, and 
the bottom of it is at this time frequently covered 
with large ftones, which the violence of the 
ftream has carried with it from the mountains. 
At all thde large rivers, where no bridges can 

be 



156 JOURNEY TO COURT. 

be built, thegoverment has taken care that the 
traveller lhall be attended, fo as to be enabled 
to pafs them without danger, either in boats or 
carried by other people. At this dangerous 
place, where neither bridge nor boat can be 
ufed, the care has been redoubled. Here, there- 
fore, is ordered a great number of fuch men as 
not only know the bottom well and accurately, 
but are alfo ufed to carry travellers acrofs, and 
are paid by them according to the height of the 
water, and conlequently according to the danger. 
Thefe fellows are like wife anfwerable with their 
lives in cafe of any ftnifter accident happening. 
The pofition in which we were carried over, fit- 
ting in our chairs, was exceedingly alarming, Al- 
though the water was not remarkably high, and 
did not reach much above the bearers knees. 
Several men on each fide bore our norimons, 
and others went along-fide of thefe to fupport 
them, and prevent their being carried away by 
the force of the ftream. In a fimilar manner 
the horfes were taken over, with feveral men on 
each fide of them, as was alfo all the reft of our 
baggage. By way of payment for taking over our 
nornnon bearers, we here diftributed to each of 
them a couple of pinches of ftrung copper coin. 
Being arrived fafe o\ er, we had not much more 
than half a league to our quarters for the night in 
Smada, a village about one-fourth of a league 


m 


PAKOMIH, 1776, I57 

in length. Having refted here two days and 
nights, we fet out again on the 2j d of April 
pafiing by feveral villages, fuch as Cetfo, 
Fujida , Avumi, Okabe, and Utjnoja, till we came to 
Marika . After dining here, we palled the river 
Abikawa, and then through Futsjo and Guribara 
to our deftined night-quarters in Jeferi, after 
having travelled in the courfe of the day above 
ten leagues. 

On the 0.4th of April we were obliged to let out 
early in the morning, as this day we had thirteen 
leagues to go. After having travelled four 
leagues, and paffed Jeferi ncakits, Okits no, 
Frafawa, and Jui, we dined at Kmnbara. Dur- 
ing a journey of five leagues, in the afternoon, 
we paffed in veffels a large river, called Fujikawa, 
and then thro* Mo to Itfiban , or Siro Sakki Joji- 
waro, Kajiwabara, Ipon mats, Farra , Numatfo , 
and Kifigawa , to Mifima. 

Hitherto we had followed the fea coaft ■, but at 
Ferra again a tradt of land appeared, which was 
very mountainous, and over which we were to 
travel. The eountry here too abounded more in 
pines and other forts of wood. Fujikawa River 
is very dangerous, and is faidnor to be paf- 
fablc any where but juft at die fpot where we 
crofted it. It is rather deep, and uncommon- 
ly broad, and rapid in its courfe, lb that our 
rowers, though they pulled with ail 1 their might, 
could not take us ftraight over. 


At 



JOURNEY TO COURT. 


153 

At Jfijiwarfl we were nearer than any where 
elfe, in the courfe of our journey wepoflibly could 
be, to the mountain of Fuji, the top of which we 
had already defcried foverai days before, it being 
the higheft mountain in that country* and almoft 
the wholeyear round covered with fnow, with which 
its white fummit gliftens far above the clouds. 
The Japanefe reckon the height of ir, in theafoent 
from the foot to the top, to be fix leagues. In fliape 
it greatly refembles the one- horned rhinoceros, or 
a lugar-loaf, being very thick and fpreading at 
the foot, and pointed at the top. When the Japa- 
nefe at any time vifit this mountain, where they 
believe that the god of the winds ( MgIus ) has 
his rcfidence, they generally take three days to 
afcend it. In the defcent they are not fo flow', as 
it is faid to be fcmetimes performed in a 
few hours, when they make life of fmall fledges 
conftrufted for that purpofe, of ftraw or halm, and 
tied before their bodies. 

In this neighbourhood I faw feveral boys turn 
round on their hands and feet like a wheel, all 
along the Tandy road, in order to get a little mo- 
ney from us; for this purpofe we had before- hand 
provided ourfelves with fome fmall copper coin, 
which we threw out amongfl: them, 

After this we arrived at our night-quarters, but 
not till late in the evening, and, it being very 
daik, by the Jijjht of lanterns and torches. 

Op 


FAKONIE, >77^. 159 

On the following d;iy a very fatiguing 
and trouble loin e route lay before us over the 
Fakor.ie mountains. The whole forenoon was em- 
ployed in getting up to the top of them, where 
we relied ourfeives, and afterwards fpent the 
whole afternoon in getting down on the other 
lide to the foot. 

This day I was feldom in my Nqrimon ; but, 
as often as I poffibly could, walked up the hills, 
which were pretty thickly covered with bullies 
f.nd wiid trees, and were the only hills that, 
except thofe which lie near the town and harbour 
of Nagafaki, 1 have been allowed to wander up- 
on and to examine. But in the fame degree as 
1 eafed my bearers of their burthen, I rendered 
the journey troublefome to the interpreters, and 
more particularly to the inferior officers, who 
by rotation were to follow my flops. I was not 
allowed Indeed to go far out of die road 5 but 
having been previoufiy ufed to run up rocks 
in the African mountains, I flequendy got to 3 
conftderable di lance before my anxious and 
panting followers, and thereby gained time to 
gather a great many of the* moll curious and 
fcarceft plants, which had juft begun to flower, 
find which I put up in my handkerchief. 

After we had anived to theVtpp of die moun- 
tain, we dcfcended again for about a quarter of 

" ^ A league. 


l6o JOURNEY TO COURT. 

a league, and afterwards continued our route to 
Fakonie village, where we dined, befpokc againft 
our return fcveral pieces of lacquered wooden ware 
and other merchandife, and viewed this beautiful 
fpot, fituated fo extremely high as it is, and on a 
very ex ten five mountain. Here was alfo a lake 
of a tolerable fize, with an ifland in the middle! 
The water of it was fweet, and amongft other 
forts of fifh it contained falmon, which was fet 
upon our table. 

Although the road went up hill continually all 
the forenoon, nevertheless the country was culti- 
vated and inhabited in feveral different places. 
From Mifma we travelled through Skazverc^ 
Jamma Nakka, and Kapio Jes. 

One of the handfomeft and largeft trees that I faw 
here,* was the fuperb and incomparable Thuja do- 
labratdy which was planted every where by the 
road fide. I confider this tree as the handfomeft 
of all the fir-leaved trees, on account of its height, 
its ftraight trunk, and its leaves, which are con- 
ft and y green on the upper, and of a filver- white 
hue on the under part. As I did not find it in 
flower here, nor any of its cones with ripe feed in 
them, 1 therefore ufed my endeavours to pro- 
cure, through the interpreters and others of my 
friends, a few feeds andgrowingplants of it, which 
I afterwards fent' over to Holland by the fir ft 
conveyance. 


A 


FAKONIE, 1776. l6 I 

A fhrub grew here to which I gave the name 
of Linder a ; its wood is white and foft, and the 
J apane fe make tooth- bru flies of it, with which they 
brufh and clean their teeth, without injuring 
either the gums or teeth in any fhape whatever. 
Thefe are lold as common as matches in Europe. 

The Barberry bulb (Berber is vulgaris) botli 
the Swedifli and that from Crete ( B.Cretica ) 
grew here, and were now in bloflbm. 

The Ojyris Japonic#,, that was found here, is 
a Curious flirub, which had feveral flowers on the 
middle of its leaves, a moft rare circumftance in 
nature. 

Amongfl: the biifhes grew a great number of 
the Deutzia Scabra , a flirub, of which the leaves 
were fb rough, that the joiners ufed them uniror- 
fally, in the fame manner as we do the fliave- 
grafs for poliihing wood. 

The northern and mountainous part of Japan 
being very cold, l found here leveral genera of 
trees and flirub s, which are otherwife inhabitants 
in Europe, although, for the moft part, they were 
a new fpecies. Thus I found here two or three 
kinds of Oak, fome Vaccinia,- a few Viburna, 
and trees of the Maple kind, (A ceres) together 
with a wild fort of Japanefe Pear (Pyrus 
Japonic a ). 

Near the farms, as well here as at various 
places, feveral other plants were cultivated, fome 

vol, in, M. for 


JOUSkNEY to court. 


162 

for hedges, fomc on account of their beautiful 
flowers, and fbme with a view to both thefe in- 
tentions. Thefe were, 

Several new fpecies of Viburnum, with both 
Tingle and double flowers ( ft ores radiati) To that 
home exactly refembied the Gueldres rofe (Vibu-r 
num opulus.) 

Of the.. Spires kind I very frequently faw the- 
Chameedrifclia , and the Cren&ta ufed for hedges, 
which, with their fnow-white flowers, made an 
elegant appearance. 

The Citrus trifoliate, with its hard and ft iff 
thorns, of the length of one's finger, was not lb 
generally ufed for hedges. Its bare branches were 
now in full bloom, and the. leaves had hardly be- 
gun to lhew.themfelves. The fruit was faid to 
be of a laxative nature. 

For beauty nothing could excel the Maples 
indigenous to this country ( Acer diffechim, Japani- 
eutriy palmatum, feptemlobum , pifluin, and trifidumj 
which here and at other places were found cul- 
tivated. They had but juft then begun to put, 
forth their bloffoms ; and, as I could no where 
get any of the ripe feed, I was obliged, to befpeak 
fome fmall plants in pots, which, with a great 
deal of trouble and expence, were forwarded to 
.Nagafaki. 

That beautiful plant, the Gardenia fiorida , which 
I faw here both with double and Angle flowers, 

and 


PACONIE, 1776. 1 6, 

and which is Jo feldom to be had in other places, 
was alfo a bufh ufed for making hedges, altho’ by 
the prir ciple people of the country only, and near 
their dwellings. r l he feed veflels of it were fold 
in the fhops, and ufed for dying yellow. 

A long and flender Lizard ( Lacerta Japonica ) 
which the interpreters confidered as a Scincus 
marinas , and which Was called by the Japanefe, 
in their language. Sans jo ns iws, was very com- 
monly feen running in the trafts of the Faconie 
mountains. I afterwards faw the fame animal 
hanging out for fale and dried, in almoft every 
Ibop in this part of the iflaiid; feveral of them 
were fpitted together on a wooden fkewer, that 
was run thro’ their heads. It was ufed in powder 
as a (Lengthening remedy; it was alfo exhibited 
in confmnptiorfs ; and to children that were infcft- 
ed with worms. T he Arum dracontium and dracun~ 
cuius } and the Dracontium poIypbpllum>mth its large 
flowers, that diffufed around a cadaverous odour, 
were feen difperfed up and down in different fpots, 
as alfo the Arum efculentum , which was cultivated 
iti feveral places. The roots of all thele plants are 
very acrid. The root of the Dracontium polyphyU 
lum is ufed by di Solute women, for the purpofe 
of procuring abortion ; but the root of the Arum 
ejcukntim , when divefted of its acrimony, and 
cut into pieces, is a good and nutritious food. 

M a The 


1 64. JOURNEY TO COURT. 

The village of Fakcnie lies on the borders of 
lake Fakonie above mentioned, which is furrour.d- 
ed by mountains on all fides. This village confifls 
of at leaft one hundred and fifcy hotiles, altho’ it 
lies fo high up the mountains as hardly to admit 
of cultivation. The lake is faid to be one league 
long, and three quarters of a league broad. In 
fome places it appeared to me to be of the 
breadth of two mufket ihots at moil. Stroeni - 
ings , a fpecies of Herring fo common in the 
Baltic, and which, according to Kampfer , , is to 
be found here, I had not an opportunity of 
feeing ; but fome falmon was now ordered to 
be fmoked againft our return. This lake was 
laid to have been produced by an earthquake, 
which in this country, and efpecially in the 
northern parts of it, is no uncommon pheno- 
menon. This is the more probable, as from 
the bottom of the lake the divers ftill bring up 
large cedar trees, which had formerly funk down 
thither with, the land itfelf: 

Cedars (Cupreffus Japonic#) grew in great 
plenty hereabouts, as well as in raoft of the 
other provinces j but no where, perhaps, can 
they be found finer, or in greater numbers, 
Thefe are indeed the flraighteft and talleft of 
all the fir- leaved trees. Their trunks run up as 
ftraight as a candle, and the wood lafts long 
without being fubjeft to decay. It is not only 
made ufe of for the conftru&ion of bridges, Ihips, 

bo-vts. 


FAKONIE, 1776. 165 

boats, and other forts of wood -work to be 
kept under water, but of it is made alfo 
joiners work of all kinds and dimenfions, which, 
when lacquered, foews all its veins through the 
varnilh. This wood, when it has lain for 
fome time under-ground, and is foaked through 
by the water, acquires a bluifh colour, and, when 
covered with a tranfparent lacquer, is extremely 
hand fome, and much of it is fold from this 
place. 

We now left this beautiful fpot, and proceeded 
on our journey down the mountain, during which 
time I did not negleft diligently to fearcli for and 
colleft the flowers and feeds of the plants and 
bulhes that grew by the road- fide. In our way 
we faw a great many pretty artificial cafcades 
and aqued u<5ts from the lake, made by the in- 
habitants, for the benefit and convenience of 
their eftates. -But • before we reached the foot 
of the mountain, we came to an imperial guard, 
•by whom we were narrowly fearched, in prefence 
of the fitting imperial commiflioners. 

This is the fecond guard which travellers, 
coming from the weftern diftrift, mu ft pafs, 
when they intend to go to Jedo. The flot- 
ation of the country hereabouts is fuch, that 
every one muft travel over mount Fakenie , and 
pafs this narrow place, which is guarded and 
fhut up with gates. The duty of the commif- 
fioners is particularly, to take great care that no 
M 3 weapon 





1 66 


JOURNEY TO COURT. 


weapons are carried this way up the country, nor 
women downwards, efpecially fuch as are con- 
ftantly kept in Jedo as hoftages for the fide- 
lity of their hu /bands in the exerdfie of their 
offices, and for their loyalty to the emperor. 
This place is therefore like a frontier to the 
northern part of the country, and for the fecurity 
of the capital. It is here that travellers fhew 
their pafTports, and in default of fuch are de- 
tained. 

Fatta, Kama batta , Jomota, and Kajamats , 
were the villages which we palled through be- 
fore we arrived at Odowara, where we ftaid 
all night, after more than five hours journey. 
In Jomoto the interpreters told me, that not 
far from thence there was a warm bath. 

On the 16th of Jpril, we arrived early in the 
morning at a large and rapid river, called Sak - 
kawa, which we croffed in flat-bottomed boats, 
with thin bottoms. After this we followed the 
coalt to the river and town of Faff aw a. 

We went through Mifawa, Kcfmkfikf to Koifo f 
four leagues from Odowara. Here we dined, 
and then travelled on for the fpace of about 
feven leagues to the town of Totj'ka (where, our 
quarters were befpoke for that night) pafled 
Firajka , over the river Banningawa, and then 
pafled Nango, liwada , Fuffawa town, and Foka- 

nojikos. 

Ban- 



SIN AG AW A, 1776. 


167 


Banningawa is one of the larger, rapid, and 
dangerous rivers of this country, over which no 
bridge can be built. We crofled it therefore in 
flat-bottomed boats conftrufted for the purpole. 
Here ended the mountainous tracts, and a level 
plain lay open to 11s, as far as we could fee. 

The town of Totjka was Etuared in the interior 
part of a country, which projects in a very 
mountainous angle towards the fea ; but we foon 
got to the Tea coaft again, and followed its 
ihores quite up to the capital. 

We fee out on our lad day's journey on the 
17 th of April, and had about ten leagues to go 
to Jed o. On this, as on the preceding day, we 
travelled through an extremely well inhabited 
and cultivated country, where ,one town or vil- 
lage almoft joined another, and where travellers, 
in large troops, near the capital, as it were, 
jollied each ocher. We arrived firft at Sinamo , 
and then at Odogaia, Kanagazva, Surumi > and 
Kawojakki, where we dined. Afterwards we 
■came to the river Rokogawa, to Qmuri , Obctoki, 
Okido, and Sinagawa. 

On the coaft, which in different parts was 
well fupplied with oyfters, and was covered with 
a great many fliells cf different forts, of which I 
had no opportunity to get any in the courle of 

M 4 this 






I 63 JOURNEY TO COURT. 

this day. I obferved how both (Fuci and Ul- 
y$) green and brownifh Sea-weed were col- 
lected to ferve thefe induftrious people for food. 
After thefe weeds, which were naturally not a 
little tough, had been well wafhed and freed 
from fait, fand, and other impurities, they were 
put into fmall pieces, which were again wafhed 
and fqueezed, till they were fit to be made into 
fmall cakes and eaten. 

Sinagazva and ‘Takanava are two fuburbs to 
the imperial refidence town of Jedo, the former 
commencing about two leagues from thence, 
and being continued along the fea fhore. We 
refled a full hour in Sinagawa, took fome refrefh- 
ments, and enjoyed the delightful view afforded 
us by the largeft town in the empire, and pro- 
bably on the whole face of the earth, as well as 
that of its beautiful harbour. This latter, how- 
ever, it mull be confeffed, is exceffiyely fb allow 
and muddy. The largeft veftels frequently lie 
at anchor at the diftance of five leagues from the 
town, others lefs than two leagues, and the fmall 
craft and boats in feveral rows within each 
other, to the amount of fome hundreds, ac- 
cording to their different fize and burthen. The 
town is by thefe means well fecured from the 
attacks of an enemy by fea; befides that, in- 
furmountable obftacles lie in the way in cafe 

of 


JEDO, 1776. l6g 

of the tranfportation of merchandize from other 
places. 

With the fame curiofity as we beheld the 
town, harbour, and adjacent country, the Ja- 
panefe beheld us. and making up to us in 
Ihoals, if I may ufe the expreflron, formed 
around us, ftiut up, as it were, in our norim ons, 
a kind of encampment. Amongft the reft were 
feveral ladies of diftinffion, who had been car- 
ried to the fpot in their norimons, and feemed 
difpleafed when we at any time let down the 
curtains. Thefe norimons, when fet down on 
the ground around 11s, feemed to form a little 
visage, whufe fmall moveable manfions a fhort 
time afterwards diiappeared. 

Having paffed through the fuburbs of Sina- 
gawa and ■ Xakanava , compofed of only one 
ftreet, I perceived by the guard, the increafed 
number of people, the filence of our bearers, 
and their Headier gait, that we were in the ca- 
pital. Not long after we palled over Nifonbas , 
a bridge of forty and odd fathoms in length, and 
from which all the roads in the kingdom are 
meafured. After having pafled the gtiard- 
ho ules at the entrance of the town, we were 
carried a full hour along a large and broad 
ftreet before we arrived at our ufual inn, where' 1 
we were carried through the back gate, and 
through a narrow paflage to the other end of 

the’**-’ 



170 JOURNEY TO COURT. 

the houfe. The fhft entrance into this lodging 
did not feem to promife us any thing very great 
■or elegant ; but being lhewn up one pair of 
flairs, we found our apartments tolerably neat, 
■though not fuch as 'I expedled for an embafiy 
from fo diflant a part of the world. A large 
.room formed our antechamber, drawing-room, 
•and dining-room; a feparare room for the am- 
-baffador, and another that could be partitioned 
off for the dodlor and the Jecretary, together 
with a fmall room for bathing, made the whole 
-of our private conveniences, with which we 
were obliged to put up during our flay here. 
The view was towards a fmaller ftreer, which 
was feldom free from boys, who conftantly can- 
ed out and made an uproar, as foon as they 
caught the lead; glimpfe of us, nay, and fome- 
times climbed up the walls of the oppofite houfes 
in order to fee us. 

Thus we had with health and pleafure finiflied 
our long journey; and without any one being 
indifpofed (except the fecretary, who, when at 
fea, fuffered an attack from the gout) were fafe 
arrived at the capital of this country, fituated 
in the remoteft corner of the eaft. 

The road by which we were conducted, was 
at fome few places altered from that which the 
ambafiador took in ICempfer’s time, and a few 
other inns, different from thofe which we called 

at. 



* 7 * 


JEDO, I77 6. 

at, were 11 fed for reding and dining at. The 
voyage, which laded aimed a whole month, 
rendered this journey to court uncommonly 
tedious to us, and made our arrival at Jedo 
later than, perhaps, had ever happened before. 
This circumftanee, however, was quite in my 
favour, as by this means the fpring palled away 
the fader, and the fummer approached the 
nearer, fo that more trees and plants had time 
to bloffom, than I (hould otherwife have feen 
and collected, if the journey had been a month 
fhorter, and we confequently had returned a 
month fooner to the factory at Nagafaki. 

In our way, we had an opportunity of feeing 
how leveral of the princes of the country, as 
well the greater and more opulent as thofe that 
were lefs confiderable made their annual 
journey to the imperial courr, with a retinue 
proportioned to their rank and income. 
Few of them met us in their return. Moft 
of them palled us on their way thither. For 
fuch as were of great confcquence, we were ob- 
liged to dop while they pafied us, unlefs we 
could get on to fome inn before them ; and 
when their retinue was very large, w'e frequently 
fuffered the inconvenience, Specially when we 
met them in places where there were nothing 
but fmall villages, of being obliged to put up 
at very indifferent inns. It even happened to 
us once, that we were compelled to leave the 

inn 


rS '7 — JOURNEY TO COURT. 

inn we had already engaged in the town, and go 
to one of the temples fituated out of it, where 
we {laid two days, before we could get proper 
bearers, horfes, and other neceflaries for the con- 
tinuation of our journey. 

Several hundred men, fometimes even to 
the amount of one . or two thoufand, frequently 
conftituted the train of one of thefe princes, 
who travelled with great flate, order, and mag- 
nificence. A confiderable quantity of their 
baggage was carried by them, or elfe on horfes 
backs. Their coats of arms and infignia 
were always borne at a greater or lefs diftance 
r £rom their norimons, A beautiful led horfe or 
two generally went before, and fome had one or 
rnore falcons, trained up to the fport, which 
were carried on the arm, with a chain fattened 
round one of their legs. Befides this, large and 
filial! chefts, bedding, the equipage of the tea table, 
and even an umbrella, fan, har, and flippers, 
were carried by different fervants, in order to 
have every thing ready at hand. Wherever they 
palled a profound filence was obfervedi tire 
people on tlve road fell proftrate on die ground, 
in order to fliew their refpeft. The norimon- 
bearers wore their matters livery, and every 
thing elfe was marked with the owners coat of 
arms. When they paffed us, the curtain was 
generally down ; fome of them however had the 

politenefs 


JlOOj 1776 173 

politenefs to draw it up, and even to bow to 
us, and fume fent their attendants to compliment 
us. If at any time we arrived before them 
at a town, or village, we had an opportunity 
of feeing, from fome houfe which had been 
already befpoke for us in the main ftreet, the 
whole l'uite pah by, when the curtain of the car- 
riage was generally drawn up, and we had a fight 
of the prince fitting in his norimon, in appearance 
and complexion exadtly like the common people, 
drefifed in the fame manner, and, except in the 
great flate he exhibited, in no wile differing 
from other men. 

On the frontiers of every province through; 
which we paffed, we had always been well received 
indeed, and complimented, but were not allowed 
to pay the princes .a vifit, although we paffed thro’ 
the very town in which they refidedj nor were 
we once vifited by them. The former of thefe 
could not be done, becaufe it would have coft 
us confiderable prefcnts, which, after the man- 
ner of the country, are always fent previoufly to the 
vifit being made. Neither is the latter fuffered 
for certain reafons ; for befides that this is pro- 
hibited, in order that the Dutch may not form 
any acquaintance with the princes of the country, 
which in one refpect or another might prove 
prejudicial to it, the very dignity and great nefs 
of the princes do not allow it, who, if this was 

done. 


>74' JOURNEY TO THE COURT. 

done, muft appear in all their ftate. One even- 
ing, neverthelefs, we happened to have the honour, 
as unexpected as it was unulual, of being vifted 
at our inn by a great perfonage, who came 
to us incognito, accompanied only by two of his 
gentlemen, and (laid till late at night, difCourf- 
ing with us on different fubjeCls. He feemed 
to be as curious and inquifitrve as he was friend- 
ly and engaging. He examined our furniture, 
and every thing belonging to us that was .at hand, 
with great attention, and the converfation turned 
not only on the affairs of japan, but alfo on 
thofe of Europe. Sometimes, it is true, we had 
rain, but not too often, and the cold was fupport- 
able, altho’ rn fo-me few places we were obliged 
to moderate it in our apartments by means of 
a fire. The Japanefe themfelves bore cold better 
than rain, which did not altogether agree with 
their bare feet and heads. If it rained hard, 
they did not willingly go out and expofe them- 
felves to it ; other wife, when on a journey, they 
covered themfelves with an umbrella, hat, and 
cloak. Their umbrellas are made of oiled paper,- 
fuch as are ufually brought from China; their 
hats are round, and deep in the crown, and made 
of fine grafs, platted ; they are very thin and light, 
and are tied under the chin with a firing. 
Their cloaks being made of oiled paper, keep 

the 


jE^o, 177^ 175 

die rain out, and are inconceivably light, and 
at die fame time do not grow heavier by the rain* 
as the clothes of the Europeans do. The poorer 
fort of people,,, who could not afford a cloak 
of the kind, hung a piece of draw- mat on their 
backs, which was generally fmooth, but fome rimes 
rough on theoutfide, from the projecting and de- 
pending ends of the draw. 

In our journey hither we had pa (Ted through 
fourteen provinces, viz* Omura , Fifen y Tf;kungo > 
Tfikudfen , Budfen Jammafmo , Omi 3 Jji t Owari, 
Mika-way Tootomiy Surunga y Sagamiy and Mujaft \ 
befides pafilng by eight more on the coaft in our 
voyage, viz* Nagano y Suwoy. Akiy Bingo y BHsjii? 
Ridfeuy Farm a y and Sidsju. 

i' ' . i:»V 


RESIDENCE IN JEDO, 1 77 C. 


Immediately on our arrival at Jcdo, we were 
vifited by great numbers of the Japaneie, altho* 
we were not differed to go out before the day of 
audience. However, no one had liberty to pay 
us a vifir, except fuch as had received exprefs’ 
permiffion from the government. At firft we 
were vifited by the learned and the great men of 
the country ; afterwards even merchants and 
others were numbered among our vifnors. 


Five 


V]B JED o, 1776. 

Five phvficians and two aftronomers were trie 
very firft, who after obtaining leave from the 
council of the empire, in a very ceremonious man- 
ner cam? to fee us, and teftify their fatisfasftion at 
our arrival. The ambaflador in perfon, as alfo 
the fecretary and myfelf, received them in our 
faloon, and had feveral hours converfation with 
them ; although I, as being more travelled in 
the extenfive fields of fcicnce, was, after the nrft 
general compliments had palled, almott foidy en- 
gaged with their queftions, to which they re- 
quelled fatisfaftory anfwers and illuftrations. 
The aftronomers were Sakakj Bonsin and Subo- 
kawa Sulo, both elderly and fed ate men. 1 he 
queftions chiefly regarded eclipfes, which I found 
that the Japanefe could by no means calculate to 
minutes, and frequently not even to hours. As 
all queftions and anfwers were obliged to be made 
through the interpreters, it often happened that 
we did not clearly underftand each other ; befides, 
I was not fo well verfed in the fcicnce that 
treats of the celeftial bodies, as I could have 
wifhed, and neither they nor I had any book at 
hand, that could be of the leaft afliftance to 11s in 
this point. With the phyficians, it was much 
eafier to converfe, as two of them underftood 
Dutch a little j likewife the interpreters were 
not totally ignorant of tire art of healing. The 
phyficians were as follows: Okada Jeosin, a 

man 



JEDQ, 177 6. 177 

man above 70 years of age ; he generally took 
the lead in the converfation, and amongft other 
things particularly requcftcd me to give him 
feme information concerning the cancer, broken 
limbs, bleeding at the nofe, boils, phimofis, ul- 
cerated throat, tooth ach, and the piles. Kuri- 
suki Dofa, was a young phyfician, who accom- 
panied the former. Amano Reosjun and Fo- 
ie usmoto Dos in were the names of two others, 
who in general were only hearers. All thefedic! 
not often repeat their vifits, which afterwards in- 
deed were not made with any parade, particularly 
to me. But two of the doctors not only vifited 
roe daily, but fometimes ftaid til! late in the. 
night, in order to be taught and inftnufted by 
me in various fciences, for which they had great 
predilection, fuch as natural philofcphv, rural 
oeconomy, and more particularly borany, for- 
gery, and phyfic. One of thefe gentlemen, Kats- 
r ag aw a Fosju, was the emperor's body phyfi- 
cian ; he was very young, good nature d, acute and 
lively. He wore the imperial arms on his clothes, 
and was accompanied by his friend Nakagaw* 
Sun nan, who was feme what older, and was 
body phyfician to one of the firft princes of rhe 
country. Thefc two, and particularly the latter, 
Ipoke Dutch tolerably well, and had fome know- 
ledge of natural hi dory, mineralogy, zoology, 
and botany, colle< 5 ted paitly from Jhinefc and 
voc. m. N Dutch 


tW- 



I?l JEDO, 1776. 

Dutch books, and partly f, rq the Dutch phy* 
fidans, who had before vifited thele rc ions. 
Both of them were inexpreflibly infinuating, and 
fond of learning; and were the more defirous of en- 
gaging me in con verfation, as in me they fou nd that 
knowledge which had been fought for in vain in 
others, and as the interpreters had long before our 
arrival fpread the report, that this year a Dutch doc- 
tor would arrive much more learned than thofewho 
ufually came thither, and who frequently were very 
little better than farriers. The fine fet of inllru- 
ments that I had brought with me from Paris and 
Amfterdam, ferved to confirm them dill more in 
the good opinion they had already conceived ofme. 
Although I was often wearied out by their ques- 
tions, yet Hill I cannot deny, that I have fpent 
many an hour in their company, with equal fa- 
tisfaftion and advantage. They frequently 
brought to me at the inn, either as pre fonts or 
elfe for my infpeftion, fmall colie£Hons of drugs, 
minerals, and various frefh plants, both with and 
without flowers. Of the latter, which I put up in 
paper, dried and laid by, they gave me the in- 
digenous names, together with their different 
ufes ; and 1 communicated to them in return, 
the Latin and Dutch names, and the more ratio- 
nal ufes which the Europeans make of them. 
Their principal books in botany were, John- 
hroti’sHi/iorifi Nature //>, a n d D 0 d cm /rm s ’ s Herbal ; 

and 


179 


JEDO, 1776. 

and In phytic, Woyt’s Treafury ( Qazophyladum ) 
which books they had purchafed from the Dutch. 
In furgery, they had H Bister tranllated into 
Dutch, and I fold to them at this time amongft 
other books, a very fine edition ofMuimjjcufs’s 
Phytograpbia. 

The doctors were diftinguHhed from others, 
by the circumftance that they fometimes lhaved 
their heads all over, and fometindes kept their 
hair on, without taking, like others, part of it 
olf. 

In all the Japanefe towns, the utmoft care is 
taken to prevent fires or other cafualties. A 
mi fly, vigilant, and fufficiently numerous watch, 
is therefore appointed at all places, and is fet early 
in the evening, as foon as it is dark. The firft 
night it excited my attention, and ever after- 
wards took care to be very diftin&ly heard. 
This watch was double in Jcdo ; that is, one of 
them only gave intelligence with refpeft to the 
hour 1 which was done by ftriking two pieces of 
wood againft each other. Thefe ftrokes were given 
very frequent, and almoft at every houfe, by the 
watch, as they went their rounds. The two laft 
Jlrokes followed very quick upon each other, for 
a token that no more were to be expefbed. Such a 
watch was kept for the moll part in every ftrcet; 
The other watch is particularly appointed for the 
prevention of fires, and is known by the circum- 
N ^ fiance 



I SO JEDO, 1776'. 

fiance of his dragging along the ftreets a cleft bam- 
boo, or an iron bar, in the upper part of which 
there is an iron ring, that produces a lingular and 
difagre cable found. At the end of every fireer, 
where it can be fhut with gates, there is always a 
high ladder, on which the watch can mount, to fie 
if there be any where an appearance of fire. At the 
top of every houfe, there is a fquarc place fur- 
rounded with railing, where a vat with water always 
Hands ready at hand in cafe of fire. In a great 
many places are ere fled, near the houfes, ftore- 
houfes of ftone that are fire proof, in which mer- 
chandize and furniture may be faved. On the 
fides of thefe, I obferved feveral large iron hooks 
fixed in the wall, which ferved to hang wet mats 
on, and by that means to model ace the force of 
fire. 

For the reft, the houfes in Jedo 2re, as in 
other towns, covered with tiles, and two ftories 
high, the uppermoft of which is feldom occu- 
pied. 

As the houfes are very liable to take fire, 
conflagrations very often happen in Jedo, that 
lay wafte whole rows of houfes and entire 
ftreers. During our ftay here, fires broke out 
feveral times, but were very foon extinguifhed. 
Our ambaftador gave us the hiftory of a terrible, 
fire which happened during his ftay here in the 
month of April, 1772. The fire broke out at 

twelve' 


JEDO, 1776. 1 8 l 

twelve o’clock at noon, and lafted till eight in 
the evening of the following day, info much that 
the devaluation made by it extended fix leagues 
in length, and three in breadth. On this occa- 
fion the inn occupied by the Dutch, was burnt 
down, and they were removed three times that 
night from the vicinity of the fire, and laft of 
all to a temple. 

Earthquakes were felt foveral times during 
our refidence in the capital, although they were 
not very fevere, and more were faid to have taken 
place, though we were not able to perceive 
them. 

We now difiributed gratuities to thole who 
had brought us hither. The man that waited 
on us had four rixdollars j the norimon bearers 
three ; thofe that walked by the fide of us alio 
three, and two other fervants three rixdollars, 
feven maas, and five konderins. 

Exclufivelv of the ufual current Ipecie which 
I had fecn during my journey, I was at fome 
pains to colled, by means of the interpreters and 
phyficians, every fort of ancient and fcarce coin. 
The moll common current coins were as follow: 
The Neuj Kobangs, which are oblong, rounded 
at tire end 5, and flat, about two inches long and 
a little more than two broad, and fcarccly 
thicker than a farthing, are of a pale yellow 
colour ; the die on one fide confifts »f feveraj 
crols lines damped, and at both ends there is a 

N 3 , paral . 



i 82 JED O, 1776. 

parallelogrammical figure, with railed letters, on 
it, and, befides, a moon-like figure, with a flower 
on it in relief. On the other fide is a circular 
{lamp, with raifed letters on it ; and within the 
margin, towards one end, two fmaller funk ft amps 
with raifed letters, which are different on each 
kob^fig. The value of it is fixty maas or fix rix- 
dollars, Itjib is called by the Dutch Golden 
beans ( Boontje ) and is made of pale gold, of 
a parallelogrammical figure and flat,a little thicker 
than a farthing, with many raifed letters on one 
fide, and two figures of flowers in relief on the 
other. The value of this is five maas or one- 
fourth of a kobang. Nandio gin, is a parallelo- 
grammical flat fiber coin, of twice the thicknefs 
of a halfpenny, one inch long and half an inch 
broad, and formed of fine fiber. The edge is 
{lamped with ftars, and within the edges are 
raifed dots. One fide is marked all over with 
raifed letters, and the other on its lower and 
larger moiety, is filled with raifed letters, and at 
the fame time exhibits a double moon -like figure. 
This I found palfed current on the ifland of Ni- 
pon only, and efpecially in the capital towns of 
the empire j its value was feven maas and five 
konderins. 

Itagannci and Kodama , were denominations by 
which various lumps of fiber, without form or 
fafhion, were known, which were neither of the fame 
fize, fhape, or value. The former cf thefc, how- 
ever 


JEDOj I 776 . 1 8.3 

ever, were oblong and' the latter roiindifli. for the 
moft part thick, but fometimes though feldom 
flat. Thefe pafs common in trade ; bur are always 
weighed in paffing from one individual to ano- 
ther, and have a leaden caft. They differ with 
refpect to the letters infcribed on them ; and thofe 
that have the figure of the God of riches on them, 
are called Daihkus game. A more particular 
defcription of thefe, and the reft of the Japanefe 
coins, illuftrated by figures, is to be found in the 
Speech 1 made before the Royal Academy, of 
Sciences at Stockholm, in the year 1779, 

Sent is a denomination applied to pieces of 
copper, brafs, and iron coin, which bear a near 
refembUnce to farthings. They differ in fize, 
value, and external appearance; but are always 
caft, and have a jtjuare hole in the middle, by 
means of which they may be ftrung together ; 
and iikewife have always broad edges. Of 
thefe are current, Sjumon Sent, which, however, 
at prefent is fcarce, and paffes for ten common 
feni, or half a rnaas. Simoui Sent, of the 
value of four common feni, is made of brafs, and 
is a! moft as broad as a halfpenny, but thin. I 
found it current in the ifland of Ninon only. It is 
eafily known by its yellow colour, and by its 
raifed arches on the under fide. The common Sent 
are of the fize of a farthing, and made of red 
copper ; 60 of them make a maas. D 00/it Sent, 
is a caft iron coin, in appearance like the laft, and 
N 4 of 



i §4 


jEDO, 1776. 

of the fame fize and value, but fo brittle, that it is 
eafily broken by the hand, or breaks in pieces when 
Jet fall on the ground. This was call m a mint 
near the town of Nagafiiki, 

The coins formerly current, and at prefent 
fcarce, which my friends procured for me here, 
were as follow: Old Kobang this is made of fine 
Gold, is of an orange -yellow colour, and fome- 
what broader than a New Kobang, otherwiie it 
bears the fame iinprefiion. It is always worth 
jo rixdollars or rbails. 

Old Jtjib is ibmewhat longer, broader, and 
thicker than the common Itjib ; it is made of pale 
gold, and in value 22 maas and five konderins. 
One fimilar to this, but lei's, was laid tp be very 
fcarce, it was much (hotter, narrower and thinner, 
and of a deeper colour, and was valued at eleven 
tnaas, two konderins, and two Catjes. 

Kosju kin , Kosju bang or Kosju Itjib , Nifin and 
Sjunak, were fmall gold coins, different in fize, 
form, and value. They were faid to have been 
formerly coined in the province of Kosju, and 
from that circumftance to have obtained their 
name. They are made of pale gold, and flat, with 
(lamps on each fide, two on the one fide and 
fpur on the other. Of thefe I obtained four of 
the round and one pf the fquare fort, differing 
in fize, but all agreeing in having the upper- 
mpft ftamp on one fide always fimilar, and the 

other 



other two to the right, on the other file* alfe 
fimilar. The lower ftamp on one fide, anal 
the two ro the left on the other, are warhalhfe 
in fever al of thcfe coins. The round otks 
marked within the edges with railed, 
but the fquare ones not. The value t£ ion 
is from two ro twelve maas. 

Gemome Gin , a flat filver coin, is akmnsi: 
inches long, and half as broad, whh Uumnafflcd 
angles, as thick as a halfpenny, and areafe df 
indifferent filver. On the edges are fewer.il 
fears, and within them, on each fide, there is aa 
elevation, as if a Nandiogin had been laid im jUdefc, 
on which there is a large feamp with railed 
letters. The other Idler moiety isos «me fiiSc 
fmooth, and on the other decorated wills two 
rows of dots, two feraigbt crofs bars, and be- 
tween them a wavy ribband, ail railed. Tibi* was 
valued at five maas, and faid formerly bo Bare 
been current in the capitals of the empire. 

Amongft fuch Japande books as vrarc Usewa 
me, was one which had been printed during 
the time of the Portuguefe being here. It was a 
long quarto, printed on Japan paper, and cnEandy 
with Japanefe characters, except the title jpge. 
At the top of this flood Racvyoxi\ which the 
interpreter could not tranflate into Dutch. 
In the middle was an oblong Portugude coat of 
arms, and below it — -In Colkgio Jnponico Ssaefatis 

7& 


x86 


JEDO, 1776. 

Je/Uy cum facilitate fuperiortim. a. c. moxcvi i i. 
The interpreters faid that it was a vocabulary, 
but without any Portuguefe in it. It was an 
inch in thicknefs. 

My attentive and ingenious pupil, Mr. Sunn an, 
•nademea prefent of a Japanefe herbal, which 
he called Cbimenfo, confifting of twenty volumes 
in odtavo, with deferiptions and very indifferent 
figures. Each volume was one or at moil 
two lines broad. 

Befides this I had likewife a,n opportunity of 
ptirchafing fome other printed botanical books, 
confiding of different numbers of volumes} and 
containing figures of different degrees of excel- 
lence, fuch as Socqua Jenfo y a herbal confifting of 
three volumes, and containing, befides deferip- 
tions, indifferent figures of Japanefe plants only. 
Morckufi Kcpiccf , another herbal, which treated 
at the fame time of quadrupeds, fillies, birds, 
manufactures, and rural ceconomy. This was 
faid to have been firft printed in China, and con- 
fifts of feveral volumes, and fmall milerable 
figures. The fame work, printed in Japan, 
but in a fomewhat handfomer manner, was 
called Khncfi. It confifts of thirteen volumes 
in quarto. 

Foko vo jamma Kuju was a beautiful herbal, con- 
fiding of only one oftavo volume, with elegant 
and diftinct figures of Japanefe plants ; and ano- 
ther (title unknown) in feven volumes quarto. 


JpDOj 1776 l8? 

I alfo bought a large printed book, in large 
quarto, and in two parts, with coloured figures 
of Japanefe fifties, This is one of the moft ele- 
gant publications ever exhibited in this country, 
and the figures are engraved and coloured in 
fuch a manner, as would obtain lingular com- 
mendation even in Europe. 

At this time, and during the "6 days that I 
refidedat Jedo, the weather was often damp, and 
al moft every day cloudy } with fometim.es drizz- 
ling, and home times heavy rain, either in the fore 
or afternoon. 

The Japanefe kept here to their ufual meal- 
times. They eat three times a day, and very 
frequently their fare was mifo-fottp boiled with 
fifb and onions. 

A kind of a thick paper, which was of a 
browniih colour, with feveral fingle daskilh 
ftreaks printed on it, was fold as a rarity. Several 
pieces, of more than a foot fquare, were pafted very 
neatly together, and were Uriel to be ufed as night- 
gowns, Thefe night-gowns, as I was informed, 
were worne by very okl people only, and that in 
the cold feafon of the year, when they do not 
perfpire, and over one or two other night 
gowns. It was faid, that young people were 
abfolutely forbidden to wear them. As this drel's 
was neither durable, or indeed neceftary for want 
of better clothing, it rather denoted the great age 
of thole that were permitted to wear it. 


A no- 






JEDO, 1776. 

Another fort of fluff was made me a prefent 
of, as a ftil) greater rarity. It was woven, was 
as white as fnow, and refembled callico; but it 
was prepared, fpun, and woven, from the fame 
kind of bark and its filaments of which their paper 
is commonly made. This was tiled inftead of 
linen, not through nectflity, but as a rarity, and 
was not very ftrong. It was faid that it would 
bear wafhing, but that this operation was to be 
performed with great care. 

The candles ufed in this country are made 
of an oil prefled out of the feeds of the Rhus 
Juceedanca. This oil becomes, when concrete, 
of the confiftence of tallow, and is not fo hard as 
wax. The province of Jetfigo, more particularly, 
produces this tree, and confequently fupplies the 
greatefl quantity of this oil. Among!! the prefents 
which the prince from this province brings to the 
imperial court, are one hundred candles of a foot 
in length, and as thick as a man’s arm, with a 
wick in proportion. Thefe gala candles are 
burned only twice a year at court ; that is, on 
the ftrft of Sjoguats, and at the feftival of the firft 
of Sjuguars. Although ic is a difficult matter to 
procure any of thefe candles, I had neverthelefs 
the good fortune to get one, which had burnt 
on the above-mentioned occafion. The oil in 
thefe feemed both whiter and harder than in the 
frnali 0 es that are commonly expofed to fale, 
which foor< grow rancid and brown. 

The 




JEDO, 1776. 1^9 

The 18//J of May was appointed for the day 
of audience. This day was not fixed on before we 
arrived at J edo, and always depends upon thefpeed 
or tardinefs of our journey thither. The day being 
now arrived, we were ready in our beft apparel, 
after having previoufiy made a good breakfalt, 
to be conveyed in our norimons to the imperial 
palace. We were drrfied in the European 
falhion, but in coftly filks, which were either 
interwoven with filver or laced with gold. 
And on account of the fellivky of the day, as 
well as of the occafion, it was requifite for us to 
wear our fwords, and a very large black fiik 
cloak. The prefents had been fent before, as 
well to the emperor as to the hereditary prince, 
the privy counfellors, and other officers of ftate, 
and arranged in order at the ftde of the room, 
where we were to have our audience. 

We were carried for a confiderable time 
through the town before we arrived at that part 
which confitures the emperor’s refidence. This 
is furrou tided by foiles and ftone walls, and fe- 
parated by draw- bridges. It forms a confider- 
able town of itlelf, and is faid to be five leagues 
in circumference. This comprifes the em- 
peror's private palace, as alfo that of the here- 
ditary prince, each of which were kept feparate 
by wide folios, ftone walls, gates, and other bul- 
warks. In the outermoft citadel, which was the 
Large il of all, were large and handfoms covered 

facets, 



1 93 J ED0 > l 77&‘ 

filters and great hoofes, which belonged to the 
princes of the country, the privy counfellor, 
and other officers of flare. Their numerous fa- 
milies, who were obliged like wife to remain at 
the court the whole year throughout, were alfo 
lodged here. At the firft gate, it is true, there 
was a flrong guard, but that at the fecond gate 
was faid to confift of one thoufand men every 
day. As foon as we had paSed through this 
gate, having previously quitted our norimons, we 
were conducted to an apartment where .we waited 
a full hour, before we were fuffered to advance 
any farther into the imperial palace. At laft we 
obtained leave to approach it. We paffied thro' 
a long lane of warriors, who were polled on both 
iidcs, quite up to the door of the palace, all 
armed and well clothed. 

The emperor’s private palace was fituated on 
an eminence, and, although it confifled of one 
llory only, Hill it was much higher than any 
other houfe, and covered a large trail of ground. 
We were immediately conduced into an anti- 
■chamber, where we again waited, at leaft an 
hour. Our officers fat down in the Japanefe 
manner on one fide, and the Dutchmen, together 
with the interpreters, on the other. It proved 
extremely fatiguing to us to fit in their manner 5 
and as we could not hold it out long thus, we 
put our legs out on one fide, and covered them 
With our long cloaks, winch in this refpeil were 

of 


JEDO, 1776* I 9 l 

of great fervice to us. The time that we waked 
here did not appear long to us* as great num- 
bers of people palled in and out, both in order 
to look at us, and talk with us. We were 
vi fired by leveral princes of the country, but 
conftandy incog, ; though we could always per- 
ceive when they were coming, from the murmur- 
ing nolle which was at fir ft heard, and the filence 
that en fued upon that in the inner rooms. Their 
curiofky was carried to a great length in every 
thing; but the chief employment they found for 
us was, to let them fee our mode of writing. 
Thus we were induced to write fortieth nig, either 
on paper or on their fans. Some of them alio 
flie wed us fans on which the Dutch had formerly 
■written, and which they had carefully treafured up 
as great rarities. 

At la ft the in ft ant arrived, when the ambafia- 
dor was to have audience, at which the ceremo- 
ny was totally different from that which was tiled 
in K/5s maker's time, a hundred years ago. The 
ambaffador was introduced into the prefence of 
the Emperor, and we remained all in the 
apartment into which v.e had been ufhered, til: 
in a fhort time he returned. 

After the return of the ambaffador, we were 
again obliged to flay a long while in the anti- 
chamber,, in order to receive the vines, and an- 
fwer the queftions of fever a! of the courtiers, 

during 


JEDO, 177 G If 2 

dmiasg whole entrance a deep filence leverai' 
cisraes prevailed. Amongft thefe, it \V2S find 
that his imperial majefty had likewife come incog- 
nito, in order to have a nearer view of the Dutch 
and dbrir drefs. The interpreters and officers 
hsl Spared no pains to find out, through the 
medium of their friends, every thing that could 
tend to our information in this refpefh The 
emperor was of a middle fi 2 e, hale confiitutio-n, 
and about forty and odd years of age. 

At length, after all the vifits were ended, 
vre detained leave to fee fever a 1 rooms in the 
palzec, and aifo that in which the ambafiador 
had had audience. The ambafiador was con- 
ducted by the outfide of the drawing room, and 
along a boarded pafiage, to the audience-room, 
which opened by a Aiding door. The inner 
room confifted in a manner of three rooms, one 
a «tep E'.gher than the other, and according to- 
the noeafure 1 took of them by my eye, of about 
ten paces each in length ; fo that the diftar.ee 
between the emperor and the ambafiador might 
be about thirty paces. The emperor, as 1 was 
informed, flood during the audience, in the moft 
interior part of the room, as did the hereditary 
prince likewife at his right hand. To the right 
of this room was a large faloon ; the floor of 
which is covered by one hundred mats, and 
hence is called the hundred mat faloon. It is 
fix hundred feet long, three hundred broad, and 


JEDO, 1776* 193 

is occupied by the molt dignified men of the 
empire, privy counfeliors and princes, who all, 
on fimilar occafions, take their feats according 
to their different ranks and dignity. To the 
left, in the audience room, lay the prelents piled 
up in heaps. 

The whole of the audience confifts merely in 
this, that as foon as the ambaflador enters the 
room, he falls on his knees, lays his hand on 
the mat, and bows his head down to the mat, in 
the fame manner as the Japanefe themleives are 
ufed to teftify their fubjeCtion and refpeCt. After 
this the ambaffador rifes, and is conduced back 
to the drawing-room the fame way as he went. 
The reft of the rooms which we viewed, had 
no furniture in them. The floors were covered 
with large and very white ftraw mats ; the cor- 
nices and doors were handfomely lacquered, and 
the locks, hinges, &c. well gilt. 

After having thus looked about us, we were 
conduced to the hereditary prince’s palace, 
which flood clofe by, and was feparated only by 
a bridge. Here we were received, and com- 
plimented in the name of the hereditary prince, 
who was not at home j after which we were con- 
ducted back to our norimons. 

Although the day was already far advanced, 
and we had had fufficient time to digeft ouc 
early breakfaft, we were, neverthelefs, obliged to 
vol. in; O pay 




194 


JEDO, 1776. 

pay vifits to all the privy counfellors, as well to 
the fix ordinary, as to the fix extraordinary, at 
each of their refpettive houfes. And as theie 
gentlemen were not yet returned from court, we 
were received in the moll polite manner by their 
deputies, and exhibited to the view of their 
ladies and children. Each vifit lalled half an 
hour ; and we were, for the mod part, fo placed- 
in a large room, that we could be viewed on all 
fides through thin curtains, without having the 
good fortune to get a fight of thefe court beauties, 
excepting at one place, where they made fo free, 
as not only to take away the curtain, but alfo de- 
fired us to advance nearer. In general we were 
received by two gentlemen in office, and at every 
place treated with green tea, the apparatus for 
fmoking, and paltry, which was fet before each 
of us feparately on fmall tables. We drank 
fometimes a cup of the boiled tea, but did not 
touch the tobacco, and the paltry was taken 
home through the prudent care of our inter- 
preters. 

On this occafion I fhall never forget the de- 
lightful profpeft we had during thefe vifits, from 
an eminence that commanded a view of the 
whole of this large and extenfive town, which 
the Japa'nefe affirm to be twenty-one leagues, 
or as many hours walk, in circumference. 

Se 





JEDO, 1776. I95. 


So that the evening drew near by the time 
that we returned, wearied and warn out, to our 
inn. 

On the following day, vjz. the 19/.6 of May> 
we paid our refpefts to the temple lords, as they 
are cailcd, the two governors of the town, and 
the two oommiffaries of ftr angers. 

A few days elapfed after this before we re- 
ceived our audience of leave from the emperor 
and the hereditary prince. This was given in 
a very fummary manner, and only before the 
lords in council appointed for this purpofe, on 
the 23d following. In the mean time, thefe and 
the following days were employed in receiving 
prefents, and preparing for our departure. At 
the audience of leave, the night-gowns, that are 
intended as prefents to the Dutch company, are 
then delivered; but the other prefents, deftined for 
the gentlemen themfelves, were carried to our inn. 
Every ordinary privy counfellor, the day after the 
audience of leave, gives ten night-gowns, every 
extraordinary privy counfellor fix, every temple 
lord five, every governor five, and every com* 
mifiary and the governor of Nagafaki two, 
Thefe are made of the fined Japanefe filk, very 
wide, and reaching down to die feet, with large 
wide lleeves, in the Japanefe fafiiion, and quilted 
either with filk-wadd or cotton. Of thele our 
banjos received two, the fecretary and myfelf 
0 i tw a 


1$6 JEDO, 1776. 

two a piece, and the ambaflador kept four to 
himfelf. Of the fluffs, fome are black, and 
others flowered in different ways. 

The reft are packed up for the company's 
own account, and divided into different packets, 
one for each of the Eaft India company’s ware* 
houfes in Europe, in order that they might be 
fent home in this manner from Batavia. 

Amongft other curiofities that were fhewn us 
at Jedo, was a young wolf, which had been 
caught farther to the northward, and, as a fearce 
animal, had been brought hither to be lhewn . 
The Japanefe were not acquainted with this 
animal, and gave fo ftrange an account of it, 
that we could not but long to fee it. Being 
brought to the place where the wolf, which was 
fcarcely half grown, was kept, we obferved how 
carefully they had tied it about the body and 
legs, though, in fa£t, it feemed more frightened 
than dangerous. The Japanefe appeared rather 
aftonifhed when I told them, that in mv native 
country thefe animals went in large troops, and 
fometimes did a great deal of mifehief. 

A fmall cabinet, fuch as is ufed for the Ja- 
panefe toilets, with feveral drawers in it, a foot 
long, and little more than fix inches high, var- 
niffied with old lacquer (yietix !ac)> was offered 
to the ambaflador for fale. Such pieces of fur- 
niture now-a- days are ftldom to be feen, and ftiil 

feldomer 


*97 


J3DO, 177^- 

leldomer expofed to fale. But, in order to 
purchafe it, one muft have weighed it againft 
gold. For this fevenry kobangs were alked, or 
four hundred rixdollars. It was without doubt 
better lacquered dian what is done at prefent, 
and the flowers upon it elegantly raifed. But 
yet the difference in the price feemed to me ex- 
travagant, and by far too great. 

Maps of the country and towns are ftridtly 
prohibited from being exported, or fold to 
ftrangers. Neverthelefs I had an opportunity to 
purchafe fever al, exactly like thofe that K^emp- 
FiR brought away with him (though with lefs 
trouble indeed) in his time. Thcfe were a gene- 
ral map of Japan, and of the town of Nagafaki, 
Miaco, and Jedo. 

A woman who had been turned out of doors 
by her hufoand, was permitted to vifit the am- 
baffador, in order to beg fometbing towards her 
fupport. She had had her head lhaved all over, 
and walked about with it bare, making a very 
ftrange figure. This was faid to be cuftomary, 
when any female, for fome reafon or another, 
was parted from her hulband. 

Koto was the name of a mufical inftrument, 
which in found much refembled a guitar or 
David’s harp. It was fix feet long, and one 
loot broad, with thirteen firings, and moveable 
Q J piece? 


I98 JEDO, 1776. 

pieces of wood for the better arranging the 
firings . 

The two phyftcians at court, my much beloved 
pupils, who vifited me almoft every day, had, 
through my afliduotis pains, and their own un- 
wearied endeavours, made confiderable ad- 
vances in the fcience which treats of the diagno- 
fis of diforders, and had even begun, under my 
direction, to reftore to health feveral patients 
by means of the fame medicines as are uied in 
Europe, divers of which they had procured, in 
order to ufe diem as occafion might require. 
At this time it happened, that, as I for the 
moft part preferibed the medicines that were to 
be ufed, my advice was afked with regard to 
fome patient of great diflin<5tion at the imperial 
court. But when 1 defired to be informed of 
the patient’s fex, age, &c. which is very often 
highly neceffary for a phvfician to know’, they 
afle&ed great fecrecy, which prevented me from 
being able to preferibe at all. The people of 
diftin&ion in this country feldom fuffer themfelves 
.to be feen by the inhabitants themfelves, -much lefs 
by ftrangers - } and at court, the perfonages com- 
pofing the imperial family are for the moft part fo 
little known, that there are very few people in the 
whole empire that know the. reigning emperor’s 
name before he dies. So that, in fa&, it might 
have been abfolutely impofiible for me to dis- 
cover 




cover who my illulhious patient was. At firft I 
ufed great importunity to be allowed to fpeak 
with the lick per Ion, and to put fuch queftiom 
as would ferve to give me information concern- 
ing the dilorder. And this might have actually 
happened, on account of the dangerous fuuation 
in which the patient was ; but on this occafion 
fuch precautions were to be ufed, as would pre- 
vent me from either feeing the lick perfon, or 
laying my finger on the pulfe. In ihort, my 
vifit was to be made in the adjacent room, with 
the curtain down. As by fuch means I could 
not obtain the necefTary information with refpeft 
to the ftate of the patient, I adopted the method 
of inveftigating and finding out the circum- 
flances I ought necelTarily to be acquainted with 
through the medium of the interpreters, and of 
fuch of my medical pupils as had made the 
greateft advances in their itudies. After which 
the remedy was foon prepared ; and my illuflri-. 
ous patient, who without doubt was one of the 
imperial princefles, quickly reftored to health. 

I had brought with me from Holland a quan- 
tity of corrofive fublimate, and during my re- 
fidence here plainly perceived that this remedy 
was much wanted, on account of the great num- 
ber of people that laboured under the venereal 
difeale. Notwitnllanding which, I could not fell 
any of it to the phyficians of this country, who 

O a were 


SjOo l|, ' jkdo, 1 77^. 

>j V; 

were totally ignorant of the tife and application 
of this fore, but, at the fame time, dangerous 
medicine. They had fome idea, indeed, of fali- 
vation, but thought it too difficult and dangerous. 
With the other methods of uftng mercury they 
were not acquainted. I therefore thought I 
could not do better than prefent the practitioners, 
as well the phyficians of the country as the in- 
terpreters, with fmall parcels of the fublimate, 
and at the fame time gave them directions how 
to ufe it, by diffolving it in water with the ad- 
dition of fome kind of fyrup. This folution was 
afterwards exhibited by them to a great many 
miferable creatures, after the due preparations, 
and with the utmoft caution, but never without 
dally reports being made to me ^and confe- 
quently under my direction; till fuch time as 
at length they could venture to take the manage- 
ment of it entirely to themfelves. The cures 
they performed with it feemed at firft to furpafs 
their conception they were rather inclined to 
confider them as miracles, and bellowed on me 
more thanks and bleflings than I could ever 
have expeCled for a piece of information, which 
I myfelf confidered as trifling} but which was 
of great importance to them, and may here- 
after prove of meltimable utility to a whole 
nation 


The 


cor 


JEDO, 1776. 

The Japanefe have not the leaft knowledge 
of anatomy neither have they the moli aidant 
idea of the circulation of the blood. When, 
therefore, they feel the pulfe of their patients, 
they do it firft on one and afterwards on the 
other arm, not knowing that die beatings of the 
pulfe are every where exaftly alike, and that the 
fame heart propels the blood to both places. 
This feeling of the pulfe, in their manner, is a 
tedious operation, and lafts full a quarter of an 
hour. Bleeding, indeed, has fometimes been 
performed in the arm by a few phyficians and 
interpreters ; but it was but feldom that they had 
recourfe to this operation, and then always with 
a great deal of apprehenfion and fear. On this 
head I gave them not only the belt and moft 
certain inftru Aliens, but alfo encouraged them to 
praAife on certain oceafions, this furs pie but 
often ufcfi.il operation ; and for that purpofe I 
was obliged to make a prefen t to my beloved 
pupils at Jedo of my filver fpring- lancet, and 
other chirurgical inftrumencs which might be of 
ufe to them. 

Amongft the plants which were brought to 
me in Jedo, and which I did not obferve elfe- 
where, were the following, viz. (Juglans Nigra ) 
Walnuts, {Fagus Caftanea) Chefnucs, which, 
however, I afterwards faw in Miacoj (huh 
helenijm ) Elecampane, the aromatic root of 

which 


202 


JEDO, 1776. 

which was ufed as a ftrengthener of the ftomach 5 
and our common Pine ( Pinus aUes ), feveral of 
which I faw at the time that they were carrying 
us up to the imperial court. 

At the fame time too, 1 had the pleafure of 
feeing a man of didinction carried in his nori- 
mon to court in the mod pompous manner, a 
manner which is ufed in the towns; and on 
days of fedivky only. On tiiis occafion the 
norimon is not carried, as ufual, on men’s 
fhoulders, but on their hands, and as high 2s the 
bearers poffibly can, who at the fame time 
run with it as fad as they are able. The other 
hand is carried horizontally, and in running they 
throw their heels up into the air. This norimon 
paffed us at feme didance, like an arrow fhot 
acrofs a field. 

My friends made me a prelent of a large 
chalk-done, which was faid to be found in the 
ftomachs of horfes. The Dutch called it Paar - 
d^JIeen. It was only laid to be found in the 
vicinity of Jedo, in fuch horfes as are kept in 
the liable, without my informer being able to 
throw any farther light on the fubjed, or to fay 
whence this concretion derives its origin, and re- 
ceives its growth. Some fmaller dones which 
I had given me afterwards, were flatter, and had 
no nucleus in them. This done confided of 
lamellar, was very dole- grained, and as large 

as 


2C3 


JEDOj I7"6. 

as a child’s head. I am apt to -imagine, that 
the water which the horfes drink is impregnated 
with lime, and that their {landing full contributes 
much to the growth of this fuhftance. 

The minerals, as well as other natural curiofi- 
ties which the Japanefe brought to me at Jedo, 
were of various kinds, of which I iliaii .here 
enumerate only the mod curious : Gold ore from 
Simar, was called Kan nab. Aibeftus, an im- 
mature fpccies, called Ifmatta . Cupreous Py- 
rites, from Simotjke and Jsjo j amnia, or from 
Asp mountain. A copper ore, brought hither 
from China, was called Simeo Seki : it contained 
a great quantity of fiilphur, and was laid, when 
burned and reduced to powder, to be u!cd in 
coughs. A white and fixed porcelain clay, of 
a farinaceous confidence, was called Fak Sekif:. 
This, together with a great variety of other 
minerals from the Cape, as alfo Bezoar and pre- 
cious dones, I prefen ted to my much - edeemed 
preceptor, the Chevalier Bergman, and may 
be feen in the colle&ion of fulfils belonging to 
the royal academy at Upial ; alfo a white Af- 
beftus with foft and fine fibres, called Sekima , 
which is fpun and woven, and made into cloth. 
Alfb a red Arfcnic, called Ovjco or Kyquan Seki ■, 
a;id yellow Shell-fand, termed dwa Sna (i . e. coar/s~ 
grained /and) . A Lapi s S teati tes, was c a lied Saku~ 
Jekis , and If aw ait a .* this was of a flefh colour, 

and 


204 


JEDO, 1776. 

and very beautiful. Pumice-ftone was known 
under the denomination of Karuifi, and a fpathi- 
form ftalactite under that of Tfurara Ift. Cin- 
nabar, in powder, was called Sju j a round 
quartzofe-done was named from Ffugara, the 
place from whence it had been brought, ! Tfugaro 
Jfty and alfo T akara Jft } white marble, Nikko 1ft 
and Nikkorofiky Galena with Cupreous Pyrites, 
Soi not Megin a fine rock oil, from Sinano, Ke- 
fofo no Abra ; Saltpetre, Siro Jin/s ; Sal fontanum^ 
boiled out of the earth nearfomewarm-baths, Boo- 
Jus Phytolithus lithophyllum, from the Fakonie 
•mountains, Kcnofa lft\ \ Tubipora Mufica, Luukuv 
Sangcda ; Sponge, Uni™ at to. ; a Gorgonia ra- 
mofa, Umemats ; red Corals from Kamaku , 
Sangoditt ; and the fame from Sangami, were 
called Sangosj:: ; a thick red Millepora, from 
the ifland Sjofujima , in the province of Sannoki , 
Ujukuts •, Anomia plicatella, Seki Jen ; Argo- 
nauta argo, from Jot/igo, Tako June-, Cypraea 
mauritanica. Kino Kui ; Cicindela Japonica, from 
Oft, Hammon-, Julus terreftris, Jafude ; Onifcus 
afellus, Saori Kofi , which fignifies a houfe- 
infe<5t j Onifcus oceanicus, Funa Muft, which 
fignifies a fhip-infe£t j Sygnatus hippocampus, 
Kaij ba j Sepia oflopodia (the Cuttle-filh) which 
is much fifhed for, and is dried and eaten all 
over the country, Ika ; Jamamo was the name 
given to a fi(h with red fins, from the rivulets 

of 


205 


JEDO, 1776. 

ef the Fakonie mountains } this reduced to 
powder, was faid to be good for the ladies in 
pedtoral complaints j Anas querquedula, was 
called Kamo. Karafumo was a name given to 
the roe of fome large filh, which, faired, prefled 
flat, and dried, could be eaten like any other 
dry food with rice. Kali, Makotje, Niga Kotje y 
and If aka Gotje, were appellations borne by dif- 
ferent kinds of flounders ( Pleuroneftes ). 

The interpreters alfo fliewed me a root, pro- 
bably of fome Fern or other (Filh f), which 
they called Jabokf and which, when cut acrofs, 
exhibited the figure of a ftar, that was con- 
fidered by diem as fomething extraordinary. 

As the town of Jedo is very large and exten- 
five, it is like wife very populous, on account of 
the infinite number of grangers who flock to it 
from all parts of the country. Every family, it 
is true, has its own houfe, and the houfes are only 
one. or at moft two, ftories high ; but, yet, many 
individuals live crowded together in one and the 
lame houle. Towards the ftreet there are always 
either wofk-fhops, or ordinary fale-fliops» Thefe 
are for the moft part covered with a cloth, 
hanging down before them, at leaft in part, fo 
that no one can eafily fee from the ftreet what the 
people are at work upon. But in the lale- {hops 
are feen patterns of almoft every thing, The 
greets, Specially the principal ones, through 

whief} 



2c6 


JEDO, 1776. 

which we paficd, were very long and broad, 
frequently from eighty to a hundred feet in 
breadth. The town, like that of Nagafaki, is 
alternately governed by two governors, burgo- 
mafiers, and commiflaries ( Otter.as ) over each 
fireet. 

I was informed that the princes of the coun- 
try had not only their ufual palaces for thcm- 
felves and their families within the firlt citadel, 
but alfo feveral houfes in different quarters of 
the town, to flee to in cafe of fire. 

Before my departure my pupils requefied 
from me a certificate with refpeftto the inftrudtions 
1 had given them, and the progrefs they had 
made. I therefore gave them one written in 
Dutch, which made them fo immenfcly happy 
and proud, that neither I nor any young doftor 
could pofllbly have ever plumed ourfclves more 
on our dodtor’s hat and diploma. 1 had the 
good fortune to gain their love and friendfhip 
to fuch a degree, that they did not only fet a 
high value on my knowledge, and on my kind- 
nefs in communicating that knowledge to them, 
but they loved me from the bottom of their 
hearts, fo as greatly to regret my departure.* 

* Since this, during a period of feveral years, I have not 
only kept up an imercourfe by letters with them, and others 
cf my friends among the interpreters, but likewife fent them 
fome fmall> but acceptab'e, prefents, and received in returr\ 
both feeds for the botanical garden at Upfal, and fomc addi- 
tions tc the academy's collection of natural hillory. 


JEDO, 1776. 207 

Our departure from Jedo was fixed for the 
25/i of May , and was to take place inevitably, 
as the 13th of Siguats-, or the 30th of May, was 
appointed by Kueo, the reigning fecular em- 
peror, for his fetting out on a journey to the 
temple of JVjko, which is very large, {lands thirty- 
fix leagues to the eaft of Jedo, and was the place 
where a great feftival was to be kept. This 
journey had been in agitation three years, and 
a great many preparations made for it, although 
it had been continually put off from year to 
year. 

As both the monarch himfelf, and all the 
princes of the country are clothed, and 
their hair drefTed, in the fame manner as the 
reft of the inhabitants, and confcquently, being 
deftkute of thrones, jewels, and the reft of their 
paraphernalia, cannot be diftinguilhed from 
others, they have adopted the expedient of ex- 
hibiting themfelves on journies and feftive oc- 
cafions, according to their condition in life, and 
the dignity of their refpeftive offices, with a 
great number of people, officers, and attendants 
hovering about them. It was therefore neceffary, 
that extraordinary preparations Ihould b^made 
for the fupreme ruler of the country. On the 
roads, new houfes were to be built to bait at, 
as well at night as in the day-time. Every 
convenience that could be thought of was to be 

in 


20 $ JEDO, 1776- 

in abundance, and previoufly in proper order ac 
each place. All the domeftics, both before and 
during the journey, were to be in the higheft 
degree vigilant, every one in his ftacion. Dur- 
ing Kubo’s abfence, the imperial citadel was to 
be in charge with the prince of the province of 
Milo , and the government with fome of the p> ivy 
counfellors. Orders had already been iffued out 
that a careful watch fhould be kept every 
where, to prevent fires, popular commotions, 
and other untoward accidents. The money or- 
dered to defray the expences of the journey 
amounted to 280,000 kobangs, or 1,680,000 
rixdollars. Of this money diftributions were 
made to the privy counfellors, princes of the 
country, and others who were to be in the 
emperor’s iuite. The journey was to be per- 
formed to the temple of Niko in three days, 
and the day after their arrival was to be a day 
of reft. On the 17th of Siguats, or the third 
of July, the feftival was to be celebrated, and 
the day following they were to fet out on their 
return home. At our departure on the 25/6 of 
May from Jedo, we already faw leveral large 
companies, which were to go before; but 
three days before the emperor fet out, fuch 
companies as thel'e began to follow very clofe 
upon each other. On die day before the em- 
perpr’s departure, towards the evening, they 

crowded 


209 


JEDO, 1776, 

crowded fo clofe on each other, that there was 
only an interval of half an hour between the 
appearance of each company ; apd this continued 
till five o’clock in the morning, when the empe- 
ror himfelf fet out with the hereditary prince. 
In the train of this innumerable multitude fol- 
lowed, as the interpreters informed us, feveral. 
very old men, beggars, executioners, and even 
coffins, that nothing might be wanting to com- 
plete the praceffioo. 

Before I quitted Jcdo^ I felt -mylelf excited by 
my pride, not only to know the name of the 
emperor, at whofe court I had had the Angular 
fortune to refide, but alio to learn the names of aU 
the rulers, as well eccle Radical as fecular, who 
have reigned over this happy people and land 
fince K^MrFER’s time, which is alrnpfc a hun- 
dred years ago. I well knew the difficulty of 
this, and forefaw the impoffibility of arriving at 
any knowledge of it at any other place than 
here, which might be done by die afllftance of 
the friends whom I had obliged. It was not 
without a great deal of trouble, though, in fad, 
fortunate enough, and very flattering to me, 
that, a few days before my departure, I received 
an hiftorical fketch relative to this fubjed, which 
other wife could not have been procured for any 
ium of monev. 

t 

vox., jit. P The 






216 RETURN FROM COURT. 

The name of the reigning fecular emperor, 
or Kubo, was Minamoto no Je Faru Kgo ; he 
had alfo received from the Dairi, whole province 
it is to grant tides, the following firname : 'jo ji iji 
mij daijjin Sakonje ho taij Jio zeij ji taij Slogan. 
His age like wife was given into me, and was 
forty-three years. MtNAMOTA was laid to be 
the family name; Je Faru, his own name, 
and Kgo anfwers to fir, although this tide, like 
that of feigneur in France, is only given to peo- 
ple of diftinftion. 

The name of the hereditary prince was Mi- 
namoto no Je Moto Kgo, together with the 
D airi’s title : Su nieji daijrwgon. He was faid to 
be about twelve years old. 


RETURN FROM THE COURT, 1776. 


On the 25 th of May, in the morning, we fet 
out from the capital for Nagafakl. Our jour- 
ney homeward was made nearly in the fame 
manner, and along the fame road as die journey 
upward. We likewife, for the moftpart, put up 
at the fame inns, either to dine or fleep, and 
very feldom made any change. We dined this 
day in Kawajakki , and took up our firft night’s 
lodging in Totfka, On the 2 6tb of May , before 

we 


211 


ODOWARA, 1776, 

we left this place, we made a purchafe of ftve- 
ral elegant, but fmall, boxes of fliells, which 
were laid up very neatly and curioufly on carded 
cotton. Thefe are generally bought by the 
Dutch, either to fell again, or to fend to Europe 
to their friends and relations, as rarities from fo 
diftant a country. Although the Ihells were all 
fattened to the cotton with glue made of boiled 
rice, in order that they might not fall off, I 
picked out as many as were not before known 
in Europe, or at leatt very fcarce, and which are 
now kept amongft other collections of the aca- 
demy at Upfal. 

We dined afterwards in Kcijfs, and fiept at 
Odowara . In our road we oblerved a Pine-tree 
(Finns Sylvejtris') the branches of which were 
fpread horizontally, and formed a vegetating co- 
ver over a fumirser-houi'e, under which one might 
walk to and fro. I had leen feveral of thefe 
pines before at different places, but none by 
far fo extenfve as this. Its branches were twenty 
paces in length, and fupported by feveral poles 
that were placed under them. 

On the 2 jth of May we crolTed the high 
Fakcnie mountains, where we met with the lame 
adventures as on our journey upwards. We dined 
at the village of Fakonie , received and paid for 
the things we had befpoke, and put up at night 
on the other fide of thefe mountains at Mifrna. 

P 2 The 



£12 


RETURN FROM COURT. 


Tiie Epidendram mantle , a parafitical plant, 
that does not fatten its roots in the ground, was 
icon here, tied up in bundles, and hung out be- 
fore the houle. So that this plant could live fe- 
veral years without water or any kind of nouri fo- 
ment whatever, and yet grow and flower all the 
while. 

Several places alfo they had, Acrofiichum haf- 
t at urn, planted in pots for pleafure, although it is 
with great difficulty that this Ipecies of plant is 
raifed in Europe. 

On the 29 lb of May> we travelled on till noon 
to Jofmara , where we dined, and in the evening 
to Kambara. In paffing by, we inveftigated ftill 
more accurately the lofty mountain of Fitfi. 
The foot of it feemed,on the one fide in particular, 
to go off with a very long dope. Its fnow- white 
top appeared now very high above the clouds. 

Here, as in various other places, the ordure 
left by travelling ho ties was very carefully ga- 
thered from off the roads by old men and chil- 
dren. This was done very readily, and without 
{looping, with a (hell ( Ualiotis tuber culata) which 
refembled a fpoon, and' was fattened to a flick. 
The gatherings were put into a bafoet, and car- 
ried on the left arm. 

Neither could I fee without admiration, the in- 
duflry of the farmers in manuring their lands, a 
work, in which they were already pretty far ad- 
vanced. This collection of manure of every kind, 

■ urin? 


2U 


ODOWARA, 1776. 

urine and offals, which they had prepared at home, 
quite thin and fluid, they now carried in two 
pails on their fnoulders to their lands, and there 
with a J’coop poured it out near the roots of the 
green corn, the blades of which were fix inches 
long. This I was told was done twice each time 
they fowed. 

Trapa natans was a very common plant in the 
rice grounds ; and its black roots were much 
u fed for food when boiled in foupsj although I 
thought them rough and dilagreeable. 

On the 29 fb, 30 th, and 31 ft of May, we proceeded 
on our journey as far as Nijjaka, where, on account 
of the great number of people, who met the 
travelling princes, we were obliged to ftay three 
whole days. On the fir ft of thefe days we did 
not travel more than feven miles, to Sutjo ; on 
the fecond day to Smada , on the third we did not 
get farther than to Nijfake, fcarcely more than 
two leagues. 

The catkins of the alder {Be tula Alms') were 
feen in fever al places, hung out in the ftiops for 
l'ale. On enquiry, I found they were ufed for 
dying black. 

The Lycium Japmcum , a fmall handfome 
fti rub, was every where planted for hedges ■, and 

The Azalea Indies ftood in almoft every yard 
and plot, near the houfes, in its beft attire, 
ineffably refplendent with flowers of differem 
colours. 


214 RETURN FROM COURT. 

The Cham^rops excelfa, a palm tree, higher 
than a mao, was feen in different places. From 
the net-like bark that furrounds the Item, were 
made brooms, which were ever y where ufed for 
fweeping, and were expofed to file. 

The fruit of the Mefpilus Japonica now began 
to ripen. Like other medlars, it tailed tolerably 
well, and melted in the month. In the heat of 
the day I thought it very refrefhing. 

In Fulju, we bought feveral baskets of differ- 
ent lizes, and cabinets with drawers, all which 
were made of flips of rattan, woven on the fpor, 
in the neateft and moil elegant manner. 

During our journey down, and in this rainy 
feafon, we were molefted by gnats ( Culex irriians) 
which particularly difturbed us in the night, and 
fometimes prevented us from fleeplng. We 
were therefore under the necefTitv of purchaflng a 
kind of porous green fluff, for curtains, fuch as 
is ufed every where in this part of tiie world, for 
a defence againft thefe blood-fucking in lefts, 
Thefe curtains are very wide, and are tied over 
the tefter, and Ipread below over the whole bed, 
without having any other opening than juft at 
bottom. They are very light and portable, and 
wove fo open, as not to prevent the air from 
palling through them. 

The Dolicbos polyjlacbyos, a plant of the pea 
kind, which ran up winding like fcarlet beans, 

was 



MIACO, 1/76. 21 J 

was planted in many places, and formed into 
arbours. It was not only ferviceable for this 
purpofe, but alfo extremely ornamental on ac- 
count of its flowers, which hung down in long 
ftalks, and made their appearance in gradual fuc- 
ceffion. 

-The Sefamum orient ale was cultivated in ma- 
ny places ; and from the feed, although very 
fmall, a fine oil was exprefled, which was in ge- 
neral ule here, as well as in other places in India, 
for d re fling of victuals, and other purpofes. 

After having fufficiently refted ourlelves, we 
fet out again on our journey, on the 4 th of June „ 
although we did not get farther this day than 
to Kakigawa t which is only two leagues. 

On the 5 th, 6th, Jtb, 8 lb, $tb, 10 tb, and 11/6 
of June , we kept on our regular route, in the 
lame manner as on our journey upwards, and 
dined in Mitjke > Array , Okajfakki, Is)akufi> Mina - 
kuts and dfiba, and flept in Fammamats > Jofda, 
ChiriUy Kwana , Seki, Kufats and Miaco. 

In different parts of the road, between Jedo and 
Miaco , beggars were feen that were cripples, 
for the moft part in their feet. This appeared to 
me fo much the more ftrange, as other wife 
cripples are feldom to be met with in this coun- 
try. 

Red and inflamed eyes alfo were very common 
in thefe provinces, efpecially among the poorer 

P 4 for 


RETURS FROM COURT. 


2 1.6 

of people, as well among fuch as were advanced 
in years, as among young children. This ma- 
lady lias its principal fource in two things, viz. 
in the fmoke from the charcoal within the houfes, 
and the flench proceeding from the jars of urine, 
which are in all the villages near every houfe. 

Double flowers of the Corchorus Japonirus 
{Jamma Buki) grew wild here, and made a pleaf- 
ing appearance. Dried and pulverized, they 
were ufed in haemorrhages^ and, in cafes of 
bleeding at tire nofe, were blown up the nof- 
trils by means of a quilh 

In the beginning of June, which is the third 
or fourth Japanefe month, the firft gathering was 
made of the leaves of the tea plant, which at this 
time are quite, young, and yield the finer kinds 
of tea. In fome places, I obferved, they had 
carelefsly fpread tea leaves on mats, to dry be- 
fore their houfts. 

I had alfo an opportunity of feeing at ieveral 
places in the villages,, how corn, wheat, and 
muftard feed, were thralhed on mats before the. 
houfes in the open air. This operation was 
fometimes performed with flails, which had 
three flicks - y fometimes the fheaf and ears were 
beaten againft a barrel, fo that the grain fel out, 
which was afeerwards feparated from the chaff! 

The wood of the Myrica Nagi, was called Nagi. 
This wood is very fine and white, and is ufed 
for combs and other fimilar articles. 

Fjtts 


MIACO, 1776. CU7 

Fjm no ki was the name given by th * Japa- 
nefe to a kind of wood, which was alfo ufed 
for making of combs. 

On the t -ith of June, we were intro- 
duced to the grand marfhal, or the im- 
perial lupreme judge, as abb to the rwo go- 
vernors of the town, by whom we were re- 
ceived in like manner as by the others in Jedo. 
The fupreme judge ( Great Recb(sr) gave in re- 
turn for the prelents he received, five large 
night-gowns* but the governors of the town, in- 
Head of thefe, gave the aitibaflador a fum of money 
onlyj to the amount of 21 rixdollars. Thefe 
were put up m paper in the manner ufual in this 
country. When fuch prefen ts as thefe art made 
in filver, they are wrapped up in a long piece 
of Japan paper, which is afterwards patted to- 
gether and written upon, on one or both fides. 
Sums fo inclofed, whether larger or frnaller, come 
frequently from the matter of the mint, and pa fa 
through many hands. And the matter of the 
mint, who has written the value on the out fide, 
becomes •aniwerable for the contents, when one 
of thefe parcels is opened. 

In the afternoon I had a private vifi: from the 
t) air is, or the ecclefiaftical emperor’s body phyfi- 
cian. He is about the middle age, and his name 
is Ocino Saffioge je no Sakai. Ogikois his family 
name j je no Sakon > his pnenomtn ; and Sajfisge is a 

title 


RETURN FROM COURT. 


21 S 

tide ofhonor given him by the Diiri. He brought 
me fcveral herbs, the moft of them juft gathere d 
the ufe of which he was very defirgus of knowing* 
as well as of gaining fome intelligence widi re- 
gard to the cure of certain diforders. Our con- 
verfation was carried on through an interpreter j 
but he was not a little fin-prized, when once, in 
order to fix the name of a plant in his memory 
with the greater certainty, I wrore it clown be- 
fore his face in Japanefe characters — Tamma. 

l Tamma Muji was the appellation given by the 
interpreters to the Bupreftis Ignita, which they 
had got here and brought to me. 

On our return from the court we are always 
more at liberty than in going to it. Confe- 
quenrly we were allowed, previous to our de- 
parture from Miaco, which was on the 13th of 
Jtine, to fee feveral of the largeft, moll elegant, 
and beft fituated temples in that place. Thefe 
Hand, as in this country is ufually the cafe, on the 
declivity of a mountain, and command the moll 
delightful profpefts. Here were alfo artificial 
ponds, in which the monks had feveral live black 
turtles (Tejludo Japonica ) for their amufement. 
Amongft thefe temples, that of Daibud is not 
only the largeft, but the moft remarkable. The 
temple Bands on 9 6 pillars, and has feveral 
entries, which are very lofty, but at the Dime time 

very 




MI A CO, 1776. 219 

very narrow. The body of the temple coiififts, 
as it were, of two ftories, which run into each 
other, and confequently have a double roof, the 
uppermoft of which was fupported by feveral 
painted pillars, above two yards in diametr. 
The floor was laid with fquare pieces of marble, 
which I had not feen any where elfe. The only 
thing here wanting was, a fufficient light for fo 
large and magnificent a pile of building, which 
doubtlefs proceeded from the architect's no*t 
having been grounded in the true principles of 
his art. The image of the Idol Vaibud, which 
flood almofl in the middle of the temple, was 
enough to fir ike the beholder with terror and 
awe : terror, on account of its fize, which 
fcarcely has its equal ■, and awe, in conlequence 
of the reflections it muft naturally fuggeft. 
The image was in a fitting pofture, and raifed 
about two yards from the ground, with its legs laid 
acrofs before it in the Indian manner, and gilded. 
The ears were long, the hair fhort and curling, 
the lhoulders naked, the body covered with a 
wrapper, the right-hand raifed, and the left laid 
edge-ways againfl the belly. To any one who 
had not feen this image, the fize of it rrtuft ap- 
pear almofl: incredible. The interpreters afFured, 
me, that fix men might fit on tlve palm of the 
hand in the Japanefe manner, with their heels 

under 








220 


RETURN FROM COURT. 


under them. The figure Teemed to me to be 
well-proportioned, although it was To very broad, 
that its fhoulders reached from one pillar to the 
other, notwithftanding that, thefe, when meafured 
by the eye, appeared to be about thirty or thirty- 
two feet afunder. This idol, as well as the 
ledt that worships it, dr ives its origin from India, 
and their acquaintance with it mull, in all pro- 
bability, have came from Siam, China, or lome 
ether place, at the time when ftrangers were at li- 
berty to trade with greater freedom in this coun- 
try, and they themfelves carried on commerce 
with foreign nations in their own bottoms. 

My aflonifhment at this enormous ftatue had 
not yet ceafed, when we were carried to another 
temple, which was nearly as majeftic, and as wor- 
thy of admiration. The height of it was not 
very extraordinary, nor its breadth, but, on the 
other hand, its length was confiderable. This 
was facred to gtyanwon, and his image, together 
with all his Dii minores , were, to a confiderable 
number, fet up in this edifice. In the middle 
fat Qyanwon himfelf, furr.ifhed with thirty-fix 
hands j near him were placed fixteen heroes larger 
than men are in common, but much lefs than the 
idol, and thefe occupied a feparate room, and par- 
titioned off, as it were, to themfelves. On both 
Tides next to thefe ftcod two rows of gilt idols, each 
with twenty hands. Afterwards were put up, in 


rows 


£21 


OSAK.A, 177 ^. 

rows on each fide, idols of the fize of a man, 
quite clofe to each other, the number of which 
1 could not reckon. Thole that were r.earefl 
to us, or forwards, were the fmalleft, and thole 
that flood behind, gradually larger; fo that all 
the twelve rows could be feen very diftinctly. 
On the hands the heads of all thefe fmaller idols 
were placed, and the whole number was faid to 
amount to thirty- three thoufand three hundred 
and thirty- three. 

We then proceeded to Fufimi , where we flip- 
ped ; after which, a little before fun-let, we got 
into our fmall boats, and went down the river to 
Ojaka, where, after an agreeable night’s trip, 
we arrived the following morning. 

We ftaid at Of aka two whole days, and had 
more pleafure and amufements at this place than 
during the whole of our journey befides ; as here 
we had fever al times an opportunity to take a 
view of the town in our norimons, be prefent at 
plays, fee their dances, and enjoy various other 
uncommon fights, which are to be met with here 
in great abundance. Thofe that I, for my part, 
.ir.oft valued, were a collection of Japanefe plants, 
in a well-ordered garden, a collection of birds 
indigenous to this country, and the cafljng of 
their copper into bars. Their plays arc full ot 
glee ; but lb very Angular at the fame time, that, 
to me, they rather appeared ablurd. The in- 
terpreters 



222 


RETURN TROM COURT. 


terpreters were obliged to explain them to us. 
The fubjeft of them was generally either fome 
love adventure, or heroic deed. In their way, 
the performers feemed to adt well, but the thea- 
tre was very fmall and narrow. The dancing 
was chiefly performed by children of both fexes, 
two or more together. They fomewhat re- 
fembled our country-dances, and the fubjeft of 
them was nearly the fame as that of their plays. 
The body was bent a hundred different ways, 
and then fell back again into its natural pofinon, 
according to the mufic or finging by which the 
dances are accompanied. 

The moft curious part of the lpedtacle was 
to fee the girls drefffed in the moft magnificent 
manner, and in the higheft ftyle, like ladies of 
the firft diftindtion, and with an almoft infinite 
number of night-gowns, the one over the other, 
all of the fineft and thinnefl: fdk. This great 
number of night-gowns, which was not per- 
ceptible, as they were extremely thin and light, 
fometimes amounts to thirty or more, and the 
girls growing warm while they are dancing, 
partly to cool themfelves, and partly to make a 
fliew of their finery, pulled them off by degrees, 
one after the other, fo that a whole dozen of 
them together hung down from the girdle, with 
which they were tied about their bodies, without 
hindering them in the leaft in their evolutions. 

I faw 


OSAKA, I 776 . 223 

I faw in the ftreet called Bird-ftreet, a number 
of birds chat had been brought hither from all 
parts, fome to be lliewn for money, and others 
for fale. There was alio a botanic garden to- 
lerably well kid out in this town (though with- 
out an orangery) in which were reared and cul- 
tivated, and at the fame time kept for file, all 
forts of plants, trees, and fhrubs, which were 
brought Iiit her from other provinces. I did not 
negleit to lay out as much money here as I 
could ipare, in the purchafe of the fcarceft Ihrubs 
and plants, planted in pots, amongft which were 
the 1110ft beautiful fpecies of this country’s ele- 
gant Maples, and two fpeeimens of the Cycas 
reveluta, a Palm-tree, as fcarce, as the export- 
ation of it is ftriftly prohibited, and upon which, 
on account of its very nutritious Sago-like pith, 
the Japanefe fet fo high, and, indeed, extra- 
vagant a value, not knowing that it lifcewiie 
grows in China. Thefe were afterwards all 
planted out into a large wooden box, at the top 
of which were laid boughs of trees interlaced 
with packthread, fo that nothing might injure 
them. This box was afterwards fent off by 
water to Nagafaki, from whence it was fenir 
along veith another box of the fame kind, packed 
at the faftory, to Batavia, to be forwarded to 
the / lor l us Medicus in Amfterdam. 


We 


224 


RITURN FROM COURT. 


We alfo viewed the temples here, and had an 
interview with the two governors of the town. 

The operation of fmelting of copper was one 
day performed particularly for us, and merely on 
purpofe that we might fee it, in conlequcnce of 
the importunate intreaties both of our chief and 
our conduflors. This was done with much 
greater fimplicity than I had imagined. The 
fmelting hut was from twenty t.o twenty-four 
feet wide, and a wall like a niche was built up, 
with a chimney on one fide of it. At the bot- 
tom of this, and level with the floor, was a hearth, 
in which the ore, by the affiftance of hand-bel- 
Jows, had been fmelted before our arrival. Di- 
re£lly oppofite, on the ground, which was not 
floored, was dug a hole of an oblong form, anc} 
about twelve inches deep. Acrofs this were laid ten 
fquare iron bars, barely the breadth of a finger 
afunder, and all pf them with one of their edges 
upwards. Over thefe was expanded a piece of 
fail -cloth, which was prefled down between the 
bars. Upon this was afterwards poured cold 
water, which flood about two inphes above the 
cloth. The fmelted ore was then taken up out 
of the hearth, with iron ladles, and poured into 
the above deferibed mould, fo that ten or eleven 
bars, fix inches long, were ca(l each time. As 
foon as thefe were taken out, the fufion was 
continued, and the water now and then changed. 

That 


* V' 


OSAKA, 1776. 235 

That the copper was thus caft in water, was not 
known before in Europe, nor that the Japanefe 
copper hence acquires its high colour and fplen- 
dor. At the fame time, I had the good fortune 
to receive, through the influence of my friends 
the interpreters, a prefent of a box, in which was 
packed up, nor only pure copper caft in the 
above-mentioned manner, but alfo fpecimens 
taken from every procefs that it had gone 
through, fuch as the crude pyrites with its matrix, 
the produce of the roafting, and of the firft 
and fecond fmelting. 

This box, which may be feen in the cabinet 
of minerals belonging to the academy at Upfal, 
was not lefs gatifying to my late relpeftable and 
beloved tutor, Profefior Bergman, than the in* 
formation I gave him on my return home with 
relpeft to the cafting of the copper in water. 

After this we faw a quantity of caft copper, 
not only in the above-mentioned form of bars, 
as it is fold to the Dutch and Chinefe, but alfo 
caft in larger and fmaller, round and fquare, 
thicker and thinner pieces for other purpofes, 
according as they may be wanted for the fabrica- 
tion of kettles, pans, and other ucenfils. 

Here was a difference made between the fer- 
vants that waited on us at the inns. Young 
boys were ufually called kodom , but fervants, that 
had arrived at the age of manhood, bore the 
appellation of todokos. 

VOL. III. 


There 


il6 RETURN FROM COURT. 

There cannot well be a ftranger fpe&acle than 
that which prefents itfelf to the view, when a great 
multitude of people are aflembled together, which 
is not unfrequently the cafe ; every man’s clothes, 
as well a3 the reft of his paraphernalia, being 
marked with the owner’s mark or his arms. 
This is a common cuftom with the Japanefe, 
fo that every one knows his own property again, 
and thieves can make no advantage of ftolen 
goods. 

I purchafed here a quantity of Mofca of dif- 
ferent degrees of finenefs, and of different 
qualities. The fineft fort of all is white, 
and is uled in common all over the country as a 
cauftic, both for the cure and the prevention of 
diforders. The coarfer kind is brown, and is 
ufed as tinder. Both thefe forts are prepared 
from the common wormwood ( Artemifia vul- 
garis ) that is to fay, from the wool that covers 
its leaves. The leaves are gathered in this 
month, and afterwards dried and let by for far- 
ther preparation. They are then beaten and 
rubbed, till the fibrous part is feparated from the 
woolly, and the latter is obtained pure. There 
are particular furgeons who apply themfelves 
clofely to the adminiftration of this cauftic, and 
who carefully ftudy, when, how, to what part of 
the body, and in what diforders it is to be 
ufed. It takes fire very readily, and confumes 

' flowly^ 


OSAKA, 1776. '227 

flowly. When a fmall ball of this is laid on 
any part of the body, and fet fire to, it burns 
down into the fkin, forming ulcers of different 
depths, which fome time after a£t as drains for 
carrying off the humours that have flowed to 
them from different parts. The back is the 
chief place for the application of this univerfal 
remedy, and although there are but few maladies 
in which it is not ufed, yet it has the beft effe£t 
in rheumatifms and colds. Neither fex, age, nor 
fituation in life, exempts any one from the necef- 
fity of its ufe. 

The Menyanthes nymphoides, with the leaves 
and flowers, was kept here iteeped in brine, and 
was ufed for fallad, in the fame manner as pickled 
cucumbers. 

Of the Box tree, which was common in this 
country, combs were made, which were lacquer- 
ed, and worn by the ladies in their hair by W3y of 
•rnament. 

The Nymphea nelumbo , in feveral places grew 
in the water, and was con fide red, on account of 
its beautiful appearance, as a facred plant, and 
pleafing to the gods. The images of idols were 
often feen fitting on its large leaves. 

The Skim mi ( lllicium Jnijatum ) was every 
where confidered as a poifonous tree, and the 
Japanefe would not believe that the fame tree 
produced the real (/. Inifttm Stellatum) Starry, 
Qjs A niff? 




RETURN FROM COURT. 


12 % 

Anife, which they annually buy of the Chine fe. 
The Capfules did not ripen well In this country, 
nor had they fuch a ftrong and agreeable aro- 
matic tafte as thofe that are kept in our drug- 
gift’s fhops. Other wife, the tree itfelf was in 
high eftimacion, was frequently to be met with 
planted, and particularly near the temples, and, 
as their idols were foppofed to delight in it, 
branches of it were always put amongft other 
flowers in their temples in pots full of water. 

For the menfuration of time, the Japanefe ufe 
the powder of the bark of this tree in a fingu* 
lar manner. A box twelve inches long, being 
filled with a fhes, fmall furrows are made in thefe 
afhes, from one end of the box to the other, 
and fo on backwards and forwards, to a con- 
fiderable number. In thefe furrows is flrew- 
ed fome fine powder of Skimmi-bark, and divi- 
fions are made for the hours. The lid of the 
box is then clofed, but a fmall hole is left open 
in order to fupply the fire with air. After this 
the powder is fet on fire, which confumes very 
flowly, and the hours are proclaimed by linking 
the bells of the temples. 

The fruit of the Melia azedarach wasuli-d, like 
the feeds of the Rhus Succedanea, for making 
an exprefled oil, which oil grew hard like tallow, 
and was ufed for candles, 


On 


FIOGO, 1776. fl £9 

On the 15 th of June we fet out for Fiogo, 
where we made preparations for the long voy- 
age we had to take, and embarked on board of the 
large veflel, which ufually carried the ambafiador 
over to Simonofeki, The paflage this time 
was both quick and profperous, fo that in the 
lpace of a few days we arrived fafe in port. 

From Fiogo we went to Kekura , and on 
midfummer-day, in the morning, from thence 
to Nagafaki. We dined and flept at the fame 
places where we had put up on our journey up- 
wards to Jedo. 

There cannot be a finer lpeftacle in all nature 
than that of the Lampym Japnica in a fum- 
mer’s evening. This is a fly, which near its 
tail has two fmall bladders, that, like the glow- 
worms in Europe, diffufe a bluilh phofphoric 
light. But the glow-worm has no wings, and 
lies quiet in the juniper bullies j whereas, this 
is winged, and flies about free and un confined. 
Thoufands of thefe now filled the air, fome 
foaring high, and others flying lower and near the 
ground; fo that the whole horizon leemed to 
be a iky illuminated by thoufands of glittering 
ftars. 

In Fiogo we gave our norimon-men .five rix- 
dollars and five maas for their trouble, and to 
the hollefs in FiamiSs Toge, according to the efta- 
0,3 blifhed 


2J0 RETURN FROM COURT. 

bliffied cuftom, feven maas and five konderyns ; 
after having baited there, and regaled ourfelves 
with fakki. 

Before we got quite to Nagafaki town, our 
thefts were fealed, in order that they might 
pafs on to the warehoufe without being fearched. 
Our norimons and the reft of the baggage, as 
alfo we ourlelves, were ftrnftly fearched. It is 
true, J had no contraband articles to hide; but 
as to the fcarce coins and maps, which I with 
great pains and difficulty had procured, I wa$ 
unwilling either to lofe them, or, by their 
means, bring any man into difficulties. There- 
fore, after having put the maps amongft other 
papers, and covered the thick coins over with 
plafter, and hid the thinner pieces in my lhoes, i 
arrived, with the reft of our company, fafe in 
the faCtory on the goth of June , where we gave 
each of our fervants one thail and five maas, and 
were received by our friends with fatisfaftion 
and joy ; which were fo much greater and live- 
lier, as this journey had been protracted to a 
much greater length than ufual, and confe- 
quently they had long been in expectation of our 
return. 






TW 





,THE NATURE AND PROPERTIES OF THE 
COUNTRY 


Japan is Jltuated beyond the farthermoft end 
of Afia to the eaft, entirely feparated from this 
part of the globe, and confifts of three large, and 
many fmall i (lands. It extends from the 30th 
to the 41ft degree of north latitude, and from 
the 143d to the 161ft degree of eaft longi- 
tude, reckoning from the meridian of Teneriffe. 
Therefore it lies feveral degrees eaft of the 
capital of Sweden, fo that at Japan they have 
fun-rife and noon eight hours earlier j confe- 
jquently, when it is coon at Jedo, it is only 
four o’clock in the corning at Stockholm, which 
makes a difference of eight hours. 

Moft of the European nations call this empire 
japan, or Japon j the inhabitants themfelves 
call it Nioon, or Nifonj and the Chinele, Sip- 
port and Jepuen. 

The Japanefe i (lands were not totally unknown 
in former ages. Japan is fuppofed to be the 
country which Marco Paolo, of Venice, heard the 
Chinefe mention by the name of Zipangri. Of 
the European nations, the Portuguefe were th? 
firft who difeovered it, and landed there, viz, 
when Antoine de Mota, Francois Zeimoto, 

0^4 and 


NATURE OF THE COUNTRY. 231 





Mature of the country. 

and Antoine Peixgta, were thrown by a ftorm, 
with a large Chinefe junk, on this coaft, on their 
voyage from Siam to China. After their arrival 
at China, and in confequence of the report they 
made, other Portuguefe, and even miffionaries, 
were fent thither. In what year the firfc Por- 
tuguefe made this difcovery is by no means cer- 
tain j fome fay in the year 1535, others in 
1542, others in 1548, and others flill later. 

The whole country confifts'of fcarcely any 
thing elfe than mountains, hills, and vallies ; and 
a large plain is feldom feen here. The coaft is 
furrounded by mountains and rocks, and a very 
turbulent ftormy fea. The greateft part of 
its harbours are entirely unknown to the Euro- 
peans i and thafe few that are known, are either 
full of rocks, or have large fands or Ihoals, fo 
that all failing and entrance into them is ex- 
tremely dangerous. Formerly Portuguefe and 
Dutch veffels arrived in the harbour of Firan- 
dos i but at prefent this, as well as all the others, 
are fhut up, and Nagafaki is the only port in 
■which foreign veffels are allowed to anchor. 
The harbour of Jedo has fuch fhallow ground, 
that even fmall boats cannot approach the ftrand j 
the larger Japanefe veffels keep far out to fea, 
and an European fhip would be obliged to an- 
chor at five leagues difiance. 


The 


NATURE OF THE COUNTRY, 233 

The mountains are of various heights, more 
or lefs fcartered or connected., and fome of them 
alfo are volcanoes. One of the higheft in 
the country is mount Fufi ; its top reaching 
above the clouds, and being difcernable at the 
diftance of many leagues. 

Many of the mountains are overgrown with 
wood i and fome of thefe again, which are not 
too fteep, are cultivated and made to rife in 
very high perpendicular declivities, like fteps, 
one above the other, and that not unfrequently 
up to the very top. In the vallies and on the 
plains the foil differs in different places j but 
mofl: commonly it confifts of clay or fand, or of 
both together, intermixed with a fmall portion 
of mould. 

In general it may be afferted, with the greateft 
truth, that the foil of Japan is in itfelf barren} 
but in confequence of the labour and manure 
beftowed upon it, together with heat and a fuf- 
ficient quantity of rain, it is brought to a con- 
fidcrable degree of fertility. 

The heat in fummer is very violent, and 
would be infupportable, if the air was not cooled 
by winds from the fea. 

In like manner the cold in winter is extremely 
fevere, when the wind blows from the north and 
north-caff. It is always felt to be more intenfe 
than it really is, as indicated by the thermometer} 



*34 NATURE OF T^E COUNTRY, 

v 

as from the violence with which the wind blows, 
it pierces the body like arrows of ice. 

The weather is very changeable the whole 
year throughout, and the ground receives rain 
in abundance. It rains almoft the whole year 
round j but particularly in the Satjaki or rainy 
months, as they are called, which commence at 
midfummer. This abundance of rain is the 
caule of the fertility of Japan, and, of what is 
the confequence of this, its high degree of 
population. 

Thunder is by no means unfrequent; but 
tempefts and hurricanes are very common, a^ 
alfo earthquakes. 

The thermometrical obfervations which I 
made during my ftay in Japan, and which are 
probably extremely uncommon in their kind, 
will fhew in a more accurate manner the nature 
of tliis climate ; and as none fuch, to my know- 
ledge, have been hitherto made known, I have 
thought proper to be very circumftantial in the 
communication. They were chiefly made in the 
fou them parts of Japan, that is, near Nagafaki, 
on the ifland of Dezima, but part of them were 
likewife made during my journey to the court, 
and in Jedo, the capital. 

The thermometer 1 made ule of was Fahren- 
heit’s, divided into m degrees, with a double 
glafs, and filled with quickfllver, and was af- 
fected 



nature of the country. 




footed by the High reft change of weather. I 
always kept it hanging on the outfide of my 
chamber window, by the fide of a wall, againft 
a wooden poft in a northern afpedt, and in the 
open air. 

The greateft degree of heat in Nagafaki was 
98 degrees, in the month of Auguft ; and the 
levereft cold 35 degrees, in January, in the 
morning. The cold weather was univerlally 
allowed to fet in this year later than other years; 
and was of Jhorter duration, infomuch, that we 
began to make fires in our rooms later than 
tiliial. 

As to a barometer, I had none ; and there- 
fore could make no barometrical obfervations, 
in die ftrid fenfe of the word ; in general, how r 
ever, I took notice, 

1. That the eaft and north, and north- eaft 
winds, which here blow from the land, are very 
cold. The fouth and weft, and fouth-weft, which 
blow from the lea, are always much warmer; 
and when it rains, the weather immediately 
grows milder. 

2. In the fummer time, the wind blows at 
Nagafaki almoft every afternoon from the fouth, 
which is a refrelliing wind ; in the nights and 
mornings it blows from the call:. 

3. When a fog rifes in the evening, and the 
clouds gather, it generally rains on diat night ; 

” ' but 








236 NATURE OF THE COUNTRY. 

but if there be a fog in the morning, it generally 
proves fair. 

4. When the fky in the winter is clouded 
over in the eaft and fouth, rain, with blowing 
weather, and ftorms, generally fucceed ; but as 
foon as it clears up in the weft or north, the 
weather turns out fair. 

5. In the months of December and January, 
I twice obferved fine flakes of fnow in the air, 
which, however, at Dezima, melted before it 
could reach the ground. I was told, that in 
other years a great deal of fnow had fallen, 
which had lain for fome time. 

6 . Lightening, thunder, and thunder-fhowers, 
occur lometimes in June and July, but chiefly 
in Auguft and September, as well in the even- 
ing, as all night long. 





1775* SEPTEMBER 


237 


0, M. 

Mom* 

Noon 

Aftn* 

Even, 

State of the weather* 

I 

74 

85 

87 

84 


2 

76 

85 

83 

86 


3 

36 

83 

90 

88 

Cloudy, 

4 

S6 

89 

89 

87 


5 

83 

8l 

81 

80 

Mizzling rain. 

6 

76 

82 

84 

81 


7 

75 

83 

87 

85 


8 

75 

81 

82 

78 

Cloudy, 

9 

73 

80 

8l 

80 


10 

71 

8T ; 

8 3 

3 1 


1 1 

75 

75 

76 

76 

Rain, Sunflilne to* 

ia 

74 

79 

82 

79 

wards evening. 

J 3 

67 

79 i 

80 

80 


14 

72 

79 

So 

79 


*5 

76 : 

8 1 

St 

79 


16 

72 

80 

80 

77 


*7 

72 

82 

82 

80 


18 

73 

79 

*3 

79 


*9 

70 

80 

81 

80 


20 

72 

81 

81 

79 


21 

72 

79 

80 

80 


22 

72 

81 

82 

80 


23 

75 

82 

82 

79 


24 

70 

81 

82 

79 


25 

70 

78 

8x 

76 


26 

69 

77 

77 

77 


27 

69 

77 

79 

78 


28 

7 i 

77 

78 

77 


29 

71 

79 

So 

78 


3 0 

68 

78 

82 

81 ( 






238 177 5. OCTOBER. 


D.M. 

Morn. 

Noon 

Aft!}. 

Even. 

State of the weather# 

1 

7 1 

79 

84 

82 


2 

69 

SO 

33 

81 


3 

74 

81 

82 

81 


4 

72 

81 

82 

80 


5 

•72 

81 

34 

82 


6 

72 

82 

83 

82 


7 

72 

81 

84 

84 

4' 

8 

77 

84 

88 

84 

y 

9 


34 

86 

35 


10 

76 

84 

86 

85 


1 1 

78 

84 

85 

84 


12 

77 

79 

80 

77 


'3 

68 

77 

79 

78 


14 

67 

7 6 

-6 

78 


*5 

70 

75 

80 

80 


16 

70 

76 

73 

76 


17 

70 

72 

75 

74 

Cloudy with rain. 

18 

70 

73 

74 

72 


*9 

70 

7 2 

73 

73 


20 

70 

73 

75 

73 


21 

7 i 

73 

75 

72 


22 

7 ‘ 

72 

73 

72 

Rain. 

23 

70 

7 1 

73 

72 


24 

66 

68 

68 

6 5 


25 

63 

65 

66 

69 

Rain towards Evfcn. 

26 

66 

70 

7 i 

70 


27 

63 

64 

6S 

64 

Cloudy. 

28 

60 

66 

6 7 

64 


29 

64 

68 

70 

70 

Cloudy, with miz- 

30 

63 

68 

69 

68 

zling rain. 

3 1 

60 

68 

70 

68 | 



1775- H0V£M*2& 


-39 


D.M. 

Mom.' 

Kooa 

A fin. 

Even* 

Stale of the 

1 

64 

72 

73 

75 

W ind fouth. 

a 

77 

73 

7 1 

70 


3 

60 

63 

70 

63 


4 

59 

66 

66 

64 


5 

64 

68 

70 

71 

Cl. with miz. rain. 

6 

70 ; 

76 

78 

78 

Rain in the forenoon. 

7 

76 

74 

76 

7 2 


8 

67 : 

6 7 

67 

62 

Delightful funlhine. 

9 

S 3 

63 

64 

62 


IO 

56 

63 : 

6 3 

63 

The breath vifible in 

1 1 

60 

6 1 

64 

64 

the morning. 

ii 

59 

63 

66 

65 


*3 

60 

61 

6 3 

61 


lA. 

60 

60 

60 

60 

Wind north. 

*5 

60 

62 

63 

6l 


16 

52 

66 

63 

62 


17 

52 

68 

7i 

64 


18 

53 

67 

68 

60 


J 9 

55 

64 

64 

63 

The breath vifible 

2o 

57 

64 

65 

64 

when the thermo- 

21 

52 

64 

66 

63 

meter was between 

22 

56 

61 

62 

56 

55 and 60. 

*3 

48 

60 

61 

56 


24 

52 

60 

60 

57 


25 

55 

5 o 

59 

53 


26 

53 ' 

5 l 

59 

55 

Rain. 

27 

50 

5 b 

60 

55 


28 

45 

60 

61 

5* 


29 

53 

64 

6 7 

65 


30 : 

60 

67 

63 

66 

Rain the whole night. 


"40 I?7 5* DECEMBER. 


p.M. 

Morn. 

Noon 

A in, 

Even, 

btitt of the weather* 

I 

<8 

68 

63 

54 


2 

56 

68 

63 

63 



60 

68 

70 

70 

Thunder fliowers. 

4 

59 

67 

67 

59 


5 

48 

48 

48 

44 


6 

39 

5 2 

53 

5 1 


7 

4 1 

55 

57 

52 


8 

40 

5 6 

59 

56 


9 

45 

59 

60 

5 6 


io 

46 

60 

60 

56 


1 1 

5 1 

59 

59 

59 


12 

56 

64 

64 

60 

Small rain. 

13 

51 

64 

66 

60 

Rain* 

14 

48 

62 

63 

60 


T 

*5 

5 2 

59 

59 

5 6 

The breath vifible 5 

l 6 

44 

55 

5 6 

52 

rain* 

*7 

5 1 

54 

54 

55 

Rain. 

1 8 

48 

55 

56 

55 


19 

47 

57 

56 

55 


20 

5° 

60 

6 1 

57 


21 

5 6 

6 3 

60 

56 

Ram. 

22 

47 

50 

47 

47 

Wind N. Bail 

23 

42 

52 

5 2 

48 

Hoar frofl:, rain iri 

24 

38 

55 

55 

54 

the evening. 

25 

5° 

54 

52 

56 

Rain, 

26 

45 

58 

61 

5 6 

Rain, 

27 

5 6 

6 3 

64 

66 

28 

57 

62 

6 3 

57 

Hard rain* 

29 

54 

59 

54 

54 

3° 

56 

57 

59 

55 

} 

» i 

3 1 

48 

53 

57 

54 

1 


1776. JANUARY, 


241 


d,m* 

Morn, 

Noon ! 

Aftn, 

Even, 

1 Stats of the weather^ 

1 

52 | 

58 

60 

54 


a 

5 ° 

55 

54 1 

5 ° 


3 

42 

5i 

54 

48 


4 

38 : 

54 

56 

54 ; 


5 

52 

60 

64 

58 

Rain even * & night. EafL 

6 

66 

68 

68 

70 

Rain. 

7 

57 : 

60 

58 

56 

Ram* afterwards fan thine* 

8 

54 

52 

S 2 

46 

Rain, Wind N. 

9 

40 

46 

44 

46 


10 

43 

5 2 : 

54 

48 


1 1 

44 

52 

S 2 

54 

Cloudy. Rain, 

12 

59 

60 

60 

55 

Rain, 

13 

44 

52 

5 ° 

5 ° 


14 

! 42 

5 ° 

52 

48 


IS 

38 

50 

52 

50 

Froft. 

16 

47 

54 

54 

52 

Rain. 

17 

44 

52 

52 

50 


18 

48 

5 ° 

48 

46 

Cloudy. Wind N, 

*9 

38 

42 

42 ; 

40 

WindN. very cold. Snow, 

20 

35 

48 

50 

46 

Thick ice on the water. 

21 

36 

50 

50 

5 ° 

Cloudy. Rain. 

22 

47 

52 ' 

54 

5° 

Wind N. Rain, 

23 

44 

52 

50 

48 

Rain & hail. WindN.W. 

24 

40 

48 

! 44 

44 

Wind N. Rain. 

25 

44 

48 

48 

46 


26 

36 

55 

56 

55 

Hoar froft. Ice. 

27 

48 

62 

62 

58 


28 

44 

54 

50 

50 


29 

36 

55 

56 

So 


30 

48 

58 

58 

61 

Rain. Wind N.W. 

3 1 

60 

56 

56 

, 52 

Rain. WindN.W. 


VOL, III, R 



1775* FEBRUARy. 


242 


D.M. 

Morn. 

Noon 

r 

Aftn. 

Even, 

S tate of the Weather* 

I 

42 

48 

48 

48 

Rain. Snow, Wine 

2 

43 

51 

5 ° 

50 

S. W. 

3 

40 

52 


52 


4 

46 

56 

58 

56 


5 

50 

60 

60 

58 

Wind W. Sunfhine. 

6 

6O 

64 

66 

62 


7 

47 

54 

54 

51 


8 

48 

5 1 

5 1 

S 2 


9 

46 

48 

48 

48 

Rain. 

10 

48 

54 

58 

56 

0 

3 1 

48 

52 

S 2 

50 


12 

48 

52 

52 . 

50 


*3 

42 

44 

5 ° 

48 

Rain. Snow. 

*4 

44 

48 

48 

46 



42 

SO 

50 

46 


16 

42 

52 

55 

52 


*7 

44 

52 

S 2 

5 ° 


18 

42 

54 

54 

50 


*9 

44 

54 

56 

52 


20 

44 

S^ 

58 

52 


2 1 

52 

58 

58 

56 

Small rain. 

2 a 

60 

62 

63 

60 

Mizzling rain. 

*3 

52 

54 

54 

5 ° 


24 

44 

54 

58 

52 


25 

48 

56 

58 

54 

Mizzling- rain. 

26 

56 

5° 

5° 

48 

Rain. 

27 

40 

50 

52 

48 


28 

44 

55 

52 

5 i 


23 

46 

55 

56 

51 




177 6* MARCH. 


P.M. 

Morn. 

Noon 

Aftn. 

Even* 

State of the weather. 

I 

46 

54 

56 

5 2 


2 

44 

56 

60 

5 ° 


3 

44 

56 

56 

5 6 

On the journey to the 

4 

56 

60 

62 ; 

58 

5 

55 

6 1 

62 

58 

court. 

6 

5 ° 

62 

6 3 

55 


7 

58 

54 

54 

52 

Rain. 

8 

47 

59 

5 6 

52 


9 

44 

58 

56 

52 


IO 

44 

56 

56 

52 

Rain. 

1 1 

5 1 

56 

56 

5 6 

\ 

12 

54 

58 

58 

58 ' 

Thunder fhowers. 

T 3 

60 

62 

62 

62 

Rain. 

14 

62 

60 

62 

60 

Rain in the morning. 

i 5 

58 

55 

55 

56 

Rain. 

16 

60 

62 

60 

56 


17 

54 

66 

70 

66 


18 

5 6 

60 

60 

52 

Rain. 

J 9 

60 

66 

62 

62 

< * 

20 

5 6 

68 

68 

56 


21 

58 

72 

72 

70 

Mizzling rain. 

22 

68 

68 

68 

62 

Rain in the morning. 

^3 

58 

60 

70 

68 

24 

64 

68 

66 

64 

Mizzling rain. 

25 

64 

68 

70 

58 

26 

58 

64 

64 

60 


27 

5 6 

58 

5 6 

55 


28 

60 

60 

60 

5 6 

Rain m the morning. 

29 

52 

5 6 

58 

56 


30 

58 

55 

64 

56 


31 

54 

58 

54 

55 




244 


I776. APRIL. 


D.M, 

Morn. 

Noon 

Aftn. 

Even. 

State of the weather, 

I 


58 ' 

58 

5 6 


2 

60 

68 

68 

60 


3 

62 

60 

60 

58 


4 

60 

66 

64 

62 


5 

60 

66 

66 

60 


6 

60 

77 

77 : 

70 


7 

60 

68 

72 

70 

% 

8 

62 1 

72 

74 

70 

In Ofaka. 

9 

60 

72 


70 


30 

60 

60 

60 

58 


3 1 

S 8 

60 

60 

60 

In Miaco. 

32 

6a 

60 

1 64 

62 

Rain. 


56 

58 

56 

50 

Rain. 

14 

4 $ 

S 8 

60 

58 


^5 

56 

56 

5 6 

56 

Rain. 

16 

58 

58 

58 

62 

Rain. 

17 

62 

70 

70 

70 


iS 

62 

66 

68 

66 


19 

64 

66 

66 

66 

Rain. 

20 

64 

66 

66 

64 


21 

60 

60 

60 

60 

Rain. 

22 

56 

5 6 

53 

58 


23 

50 

56 

60 

54 


24 

48 

66 

70 

66 


25 

60 

70 

68 

64 

Rain and thunder. 

26 

5 2 

70 

72 

58 


27 

58 

70 

76 

68 


28 

62 

65 

66 

72 


29 

62 

68 

68 

68 

Mizzling rain. 

30 

62 

68 

7 ° 

66 

• 


1776* KAY , 


245 


D.M, 

Morn, 

Noon. 

Aftn, 

Even, 

§Utc of the weather. 

I 

54 

7 2 1 

74 

68 

In Jedo. 

2 

72 

72 

72 

68 

Mizzling rain. 

3 

64 

64 

64 

64 i 


4 

60 

70 

72 

68 


5 

66 

70 

72 

68 


6 

5 6 

70 

7° 

68 

Rain in the evening. 

7 

58 

64 

64 

64 ! 

Hard rain. 

8 

62 

70 

76 ! 

72 

Thunder ihowers. 

9 

66 

72 

74 

68 

Thunder ihowers. 

lO 

64 

66 

66 

62 

ii 

56 

64 

68 

64 


l2 

58 

70 

72 

68 


i 3 

58 

70 

72 

70 


14 

68 

74 1 

76 

72 


IS 

68 

74 

76 

72 

Rain, 

16 

70 

76 

78 

74 

i 7 

70 

78 

76 

72 


i 3 

60 

70 

72 

70 


19 

64 

74 

76 

74 


20 

70 

72 

76 

76 


21 

66 

70 

74 

68 


22 

62 

72 

76 

74 


23 

68 

74 

76 

76 

Mizzling rain. 

, 44 

68 

80 

82 

78 


25 

74 

80 

76 

76 

Left Jedo. 

26 

76 

74 

80 

70 

27 

64 

76 

78 

72 

• 

28 

66 

74 

74 

72 


29 

68 

70 

72 

74 

Mizzling rain, 

3 ° 

72 

72 

72 

66 

Rain. 

3 1 

66 

78 

78 

68 , 



R 3 



D.M. 

Morn. 

Noon 

Aftn. 

Even, 

State of the weather. 

I 

68 

72 

72 

70 


2 

66 

76 

78 

72 

Rain in the morning. 

3 

68 

76 

84 

78 


4 

64 

76 

76 

74 


5 

7 2 

76 

78 

80 

Thunder fhowers. 

6 

6 4 

66 

66 

64 


7 

64 

66 

68 

64 

In Miaco. 

8 

64 

66 

66 

68 

kain. 

9 

6 5 

70 

70 

70 


10 

64 

80 

74 

70 


it 

68 

80 

82 

76 

In Ofaka. 

12 

68 

76 

78 

76 


*3 

72 

72 

72 

76 

Rain. 

14 

76 

76 

76 

72 

Rain. 

i 5 

70 

72 

74 

76 


16 

72 

78 

84 

80 


*7 

74 

78 

78 

76 


1 8 

76 

78 

78 

74 

Rain. 

*9 

74 

74 

74 

72 


20 

74 

76 

76 

72 


21 

75 

7 6 

66 

76 


22 

76 

76 

76 

76 


2 3 

80 

76 

76 

76 

In Kokora. 

24 

76 

84 

84 

80 


2 5 

76 

80 

84 

82 


26 

/6 

82 

78 

74 

Heavy rain at noon. 

27 

76 

82 

80 

76 

Rain. 

28 

76 

84 

84 

84 

Rain. 

29 

78 

82 

84 

82 

On Dezima ifland. 

3 * 

80 

82 

84 

82 




D.M. 

Morn* 

Noon 

Afbu 

Even. 

State of the weather* 

1 

80 

84 

88 

82 

Rain in the morning. 

2 

SO 

84 

84 

80 

Ditto. 

3 

SO 

84 

86 

80 


4 

78 

88 

88 

84 


5 

82 

90 

90 

84 


6 

84 

90 

90 

84 


7 

8 2 

89 

89 

82 


8 

80 

84 

85 

80 

Cloudy. 

9 

73 

76 

78 

76 

Heavy thunder-fbr?. 

IO 

78 

80 

80 

76 

Rain. 

1 1 

76 

80 

80 ; 

;6 

Showers. 

12 

72 

80 

So 

78 

• 

1 3 

80 

86 

84 

80 


H 

76 

80 

86 

80 


l S 

s 4 

88 

90 

78 


16 

78 

80 

85 

82 

Heavy rain. 

i7 

80 

84 

84 

80 


18 

80 

86 

85 

80 


i9 

82 

84 

84 

82 


20 

80 

88 

92 

84 

* 

21 

80 

9 1 

92 

86 


22 

82 

88 

88 

86 


23 

s 4 

88 

88 

84 


24 

84 

88 

88 

85 


25 

82 

84 

84 

83 

Showers. 

26 

82 

90 

9 1 

84 


27 

82 

88 

88 

.84 


.28 

84 

86 

88 

84 

Showers. 

29 

84 

78 

78 

79 

Heavy thundcr-Jhrs, 

30 

82 ; 

35 

85 

82 


3* 

82 

88 

88 

86 | 



r 4 



I776. AUGUST, 


248 


D.M. 

Morn. 

Noon 

Aftn. 

E vcn 

State of the weather 

I 

86 

93 

96 

98 

Thunder (howers. 

CL 

84 

88 

88 

82 

Hard rain. 

3 

79 

80 

82 

80 


4 

80 

9 2 

95 

84 


5 

84 

95 

98 

84 


6 

80 

96 

98 

88 


7 

82 

96 

98 

92 

t 

8 

80 

92 

96 

88 


9 

84 

96 

98 

86 


10 

86 

88 

86 

86 

Rain. 

11 

78 

86 

86 

82 


12 

80 

9 ° 

92 

88 

. 

*3 

88 

9 ° 

93 

88 


14 

86 

9 6 

96 

90 


15 

84 

86 

86 

82 

Heavy rain. 

16 

80 

86 

86 

84 

Small rain. 

1 7 

78 

90 

92 

86 


18 

78 

90 

92 

84 


J 9 

76 

88 

90 

84 


20 

86 

88 

90 

84 

Rain in the evening. 

21 

82 

92 

94 

86 


22 

82 

86 

86 

82 

Rain. 

23 

80 

88 

88 

82 

Rain. 

24 

82 

9 ° 

90 

84 


2 5 

80 

9 ° 

9 2 

86 


26 

80 

92 

94 

84 


27 

82 

92 

92 

86 


28 

82 

88 

88 

86 


29 

82 

90 

90 

84 


3® 

82 

89 

90 

86 


3 1 

80 

90 

90 

84 

Rain in the morning. 




SEPTEMBER 


D M. 

Morn 

No-on 

Aftn. 

Even. 

State of the weather. 

I 

80 

88 

90 

84 

Rain in the morning. 

2 

80 

84 

84 

78 

Thunder fhowers. 

3 

72 

34 

86 

78 


4 

70 

83 

90 

80 


5 

76 

9 ° , 

94 

86 


6 

77 

50 

90 

38 

Rain in the evening. 

7 

80 

94 

94 

80 

Heavy thunder fhow- 

8 

8C 

94 

94 

83 

ers. 

9 

82 

94 : 

96 

88 


IO 

80 

9 2 

94 

86 


1 1 

80 

9b 

90 

82 

Thunder fhowers. 

ii 

80 

86 

96 

84 


*3 

78 

83 

90 

86 


i 4 

82 

82 

82 

80 

Heavy thunder fliow- 

*5 

80 

73 

78 

78 

ers for three days 

16 ; 

78 

80 

So 

80 

together. 

ly 

76 

82 

80 

76 


18 

74 

82 

82 

76 


J 9 

66 

80 

82 

75 


20 

68 

84 

84 

76 


1 1 

68 

82 

82 

76 


22 

72 

78 

78 

76 



68 

78 

78 

76 


24 

6 S 

80 

82 

78 

* 

15 

70 

82 

80 

72 


26 

64 

80 

82 

72 


27 

60 

78 

82 • 

74 

1 

28 

60 

80 

80 

; 76 


29 

60 

82 

82 

76 

I 

3 0 

60 

82 

82 

74 ! 

[ 





250 


OCTOBER* 


d.m. 

Morn. 

Noon 

A ftn. 

Even. 

State of the weather. 

I 

62 

86 

86 

78 

f 

2 

72 

86 

86 

80 


3 

76 

82 

82 

76 


4 

66 

84 

84 

73 


5 

7 ° 

82 

84 

78 


6 

64 

82 

82 

78 


7 

66 

82 

84 

78 


8 

62 

82 

84 

78 


9 

64 

84 

86 

78 


IO 

68 

84 

86 

80 


ii 

74 

80 

80 

80 

Thunder {bowers. 

12 

72 

76 

76 

7 s 


!3 

66 

74 

82 

74 


14 

72 

So 

80 

80 

Rain. Wind S. 

1 5 

16 

70 

64 

74 

64 

74 

64 

68 
64 ' 

Cloudy. WindN. 

17 

60 

66 

64 

62 

Mizzling rain. 

18 

62 

66 

66 

64 

Ditto. 

!9 

62 

68 

68 

: 68 


20 

66 

66 

66 

62 

Rain. 

21 

62 

66 

66 

66 

Ditto. 

22 

64 

68 

68 

66 


n 

58 

70 

70 

66 


24 

58 

74 

74 

70 


25' 

60 

76 

76 

74 


16 

64 

80 

82 

76 


27 

72 

76 

76 

70 

Thunder fliowerfc. 

28 

70 

80 

80 

76 

29 

68 

70 

7 2 

68 


3 ° 

58 

74 

74 

66 


3 l 

64 

74 

74 

66 [ 





PERSONS OF THE JAPANESE. 


251 


THE PERSONS OF THE JAPANESE. 


The people of this nation are well made, 
active, free and eafy in their motions, with 
ftout limbs, although their ftrength is not to be 
compared to that of the northern inhabitants of 
Europe. The men are of the middling fize, 
and in general not very corpulent ; yet I have 
feen fome that were fufficiently fat. They are of 
a yellowilh colour all over, fome times bordering 
on brown, and fometimes on white. The lower 
clafs of people, who in fummer, when at work, 
lay bare the upper part of their bodies, are 
fun-burnt, and confequently brown. Ladies of 
difti nation, who feldom go out in the open air 
without being covered, are perfectly white. 
It is by their eyes that, like the Chinefe, thefe 
people are diftinguifliable. Thefe organs have 
not that rotundity which thofe of other nations 
exhibit, but are oblong, fmall, and are funk 
deeper in the head, in confequence of which 
thefe people have almoft the appearance of being 
pink -eyed, In other refpe£ts their eyes are 
dark- brown, or rather black, and the eye- lids 
form in the great angle of the eye a deep furrow, 
which makes the Japanefe look as if they were 
Ibarp-fighted, and diferiminates them from other 

nations. 


25* GENIUS AND DISPOSITION. 

nations. The eye-brows are all'o placed fome- 
what higher. Their heads are in general large, 
and their necks fliort, their hair black, thick, 
and Ihining, from the ufe they make of oils. 
Their nofes, although not flat, are yet rather 
thick and fhort. 


THE CENIU5 AND DISPOSITION OF THIS 
NATION. 

The Japanefe are in general intelligent and 
provident, free and uncondrained, obedient and 
courteous, curious and inquifitive, indudrious 
and ingenious, frugal and fober, cleanly, good- 
natured and friendly, upright and juft, trudy 
and honed, miftruftfu), fuperditious, proud, and 
haughty, unforgiving, brave, and invincible. 

The Japanefe nation fliews Senfe and deadinefs 
in all its undertakings, fo far as the light of 
feience, by vvhofe brighter rays it has not as yet 
had the good fortune to be illumined, can ever 
guide it. This nation is fo far from deferving 
to be ranked with fuch as are called favage, that 
it rather merits a place amongd the mod civi- 
lized. Their prefent mode of government, re- 
gulations for foreign commerce, their manufac- 
tures, the vad abundance, even to fuperfluity, 
of all the neceflaries of life, &c. give con- 
vincing 


GENIUS AND DISPOSITION. 253 

vincing proofs of their fagacity, fteadinefs, and 
undaunted fpirit. That idle vanity, fo common 
amongft other Afiatic as well as many African 
nations, who adorn themfelves with fhells, beads, 
and glittering pieces of metal, is never to be 
obierved heie j nor arc thele unneceflary Euro- 
pean trappings of gold and filver lace, jewels, 
and the like, which ferve merely to catcli the 
eye, here prized at all - t but they endeavour to 
furnilh themfelves from their own manufactures 
with decent cloathing, palatable food, and excel- 
lent weapons. 

Liberty is the foul of the Japanefe, not that 
which degenerates into licenuoufnefa and riotous 
excefs, but a liberty under ilridl fubjedtion to 
the laws. It has been fuppofed, indeed, that 
the common people of Japan were merely flaves 
under a defpotic government, as the laws are 
extremely fevere. But a fervant who hires him- 
felf to a mafter for a year is not therefore a 
flave j neither is a foldier who has cnlifted for a 
certain number of years, and over whom a much 
ftricter hand is kept, a flave, a flave although he is 
obliged implicitly to obey his fuperiors com- 
mands. The Japanefe hate and deteft the in- 
human traffic in. flaves carried on by the Dutch, 
and the cruelty with which thele poor creature- 
are treated. 


The 







GENIUS AND DISPOSITION, 


254 

The rights and liberties of the higher a*d 
lower clafs of people are equally protected by 
the laws; and the uncommon feverity of thefe 
laws, joined to the inevitable execution of them, 
ferves to keep every one within proper bounds. 
With regard to foreigners, no nation in the 
whole extenfive trad of the Indies is more 
vigilantly attentive to their liberties than this ; 
and none more free from the encroachments, 
fraudulent attempts, or open attacks of others. 

The regulations they have adopted in this 
particular are not to be paralleled in the whole 
world. The inhabitants have been forbidden to 
leave the empire on pain of death, and no fo- 
reigners are fuffered to come into the country, 
except a few Dutchmen and fome Chinefe, who 
during the whole time of their ftay, are watched 
like ftatc-prifoners. The people of diftin&ion 
and thofe that are rich, have a great number of 
attendants ; and every one, in general, has fome 
attendant in his houfe, to wait upon him, and 
when he goes abroad, to carry his cloak, fhoes, 
umbrella, lantern, and other things that he may 
want of a fimilar nature. 

With refped to Courtejy and fub million to 
their fuperiors, few can be compared to the 
Japanele. Subordination to government and 
obedience to their parents, are inculcated into 
children in their early infancy, and in every 

fituation 



>: 


GENIUS AND DISPOSITION, 

fituation of life they are in this reipefl: inftruift- 
ed by the good example of their elders, which 
has this effe£t, that the children are feldom re- 
primanded, fcolded, or chaftifed. The inferior 
clafs of people fliew tlieir refpeft to thofe of a 
higher rank and to their fuperiors by bowing very 
low, and in the mod reverential manner, and at 
the fame time pay implicit obedience to them 
cheerfully, and without the leaft hefitation. Their 
equals they always lalute with great politenels, 
both at meeting and parting. In general they 
bend their backs with tlieir heads downward, 
and lay their hands either on their knees, or elfe 
on their legs below their knees, and fometimes 
bring them down to their feet, accordingly as a 
greater or lefs degree of refpeift is to be Ihewn j 
and the greater the' veneration, the nearer do 
their heads approach the ground. If any one 
fpeaks to them, or they are to prefent any thing 
to another, they bow in the fame manner. If a 
perfon of inferior rank meets his fuperior in the 
ftreet, he remains in tlic pofture above mentioned 
till the latter has palled him. If they are equals, 
they both make the lame obeifance, ftanaing 
ft ill, and then go on with their backs bent for 
a fhort time after they have pa fled each other. 
On entering any houfe, they fall on their knees, 
and bow their heads more or lefs low j and before 

they 


256 GENIUS AND DISPOSITION. 

the rife to go away, perform the fame obei- 
fance. 

This nation, as well as mpny others, carry their 
Curiofity to a great length. They examine nar- 
rowly every thing that is carried thither by the 
Europeans, and every thing that belongs to them. 
They are continually afking for information upon 
every fubjedt, and frequently tire the Dutch out 
with their queftions. Among the merchants who 
arrive here, it is chiefly the phvfician of the em- 
bafly that is confidered by the Japanefe as 
learned •, and confequently, on the little ifland 
fet apart for the fadtory, and particularly in the 
journey to court, as alio during the refidence of 
the Dutch in the metropolis, they look up to 
him as an oracle, whom they fuppofe capable of 
giving them information upon every fubjedt, 
particularly on thofe of mathematics, geography, 
natural philol'ophy, pharmacy, zoology, botany, 
and phyfic. 

During the audience we had of the emperor, 
the privy councellors, and others of the high eft of- 
ficers of flare, we were furveyed from head to foot, 
as alfo our hats, fwords, clothes, buttons, lace, 
watches, canes, rings, &c. ; nay, we were even 
obliged to write in their prefence, in order to 
fhew them our manner of writing and cur 
eharadters. 


In 



PENIUS AND DISPOSITION. Iff 

In mechanical ingenuity and invention, this 
nation keeps chiefly to that which is neceffary 
and ufefulj but in induftry it excels molt 
others. 

Their works in copper and other metals are 
fine, and in wood both neat and Jailing j but 
their well-tempered fabres, and their beautiful 
lacquered ware, exceed every thing of the kind 
that has hitherto been produced el fe where. The 
diligence with which the hufbandman cultivates 
the foil, and the pains they bellow on jr> are io 
great as to feem incredible. 

Frugality has its principal feat in Japan. It is 
a virtue as highly efteemed in the imperial 
palace, as in the pooreft cottage. It is in ton- 
fequence of this that the middling clafs of. peo- 
ple are contented with their little pittance j and 
that accumulated {lores of the rich are not dif- 
fipated in wanton nefs and luxury. It is -in con- 
fequence of this, that dearth and famine are 
llrangers to this country} and that in the 
whole extent of this populous empire, fcarcely 
a needy perfon or beggar is to be found. The 
people in general are neither parfimonious nor 
avaricious j and have a fixed diflike to gluttony 
and drunkennefs. As the foil is not wafted upon 
the cultivation of tobacco, or of any other yfe- 
tefs plant, neither is the grain employed in the 
von. hi. 3 dif- 



StjS GENIUS AND DISPOSITION. 

diftillation of fpirits, or other idle, not to fay 
pernicious, purpofes. 

Ckanlinejs and neatnefs are attended to as well 
ydth regard to their bodies, as to their cloa thing, 
houfes, food, veffds, &c. ; and they yfp the 
warm-bath daily. 

Of their friendly dijpsftion and good nature, I 
have frequently with aftoni foment feen manifeffc 
proofs; even at a time when, as now, they have 
every reafon in the world to hate arid ddpite the 
Europeans who traffic there, for their bad con- 
duit and fraudulent dealings. This nation is 
lofty, it is true, but good natured and friendly 
withal ; w-ith gentlenefs and kindnefs it may be 
foothed and brought to hear reafon ; but is not 
to be moved in the lead by threats, or any thing 
like defiance. 

JuJlics is held facred all over the country. 
The monarch never injures any of his neigh- 
bours ; and no inftance is to be found in hif- 
tory, ancipnt or modern, of his having ffiewn 
an ambition to extend his territories by con- 
queft. The hiftory of Japan affords number- 
lefs inftances of the heroil'm of thefe people in 
the defence of their country againfl foreign 
invafions, or internal infurredtions ; but not c^ 
of their encroachments upon the lands 
perties of others. The T *“ * x 

f 

* 


CEKIUS AtfD DISPOSITION, 25J 

kingdoms, or fuffering any part of thcif own to 
be taken from them. They have ever followed, 
and {till continue to follow, the ufages and 
cuftoms of their forefathers, and never adopt tl 
manners of other nations. Juft'ice conftantl; 
prefides at their tribunals, where caufes are ad- 
judged without delay, and without intrigues or 
partiality. The guilty finds no where an afylum ; 
no refpe£t is paid to perfons, nor can any onr 
prefume to flatter himfelf with hopes of par- 
don or favour, Juftice is held facred even with, 
refpeft to engagements with the Europeans, 
infomuch, that treaties once concluded are 
neither broken, nor even a fmgle letter of them 
altered, unlefs the Europeans themfelves give 
occafion to fuch procedures. 

ihwfty prevails throughout the whole count s 
and perhaps there are few parts of the woi 
where fo few thefts are committed as her 
Highway robberies are totally unknown. Th< 
are fcldom heard of ; and in their journey to ti. 
court the Europeans are fo fecurc, that they p : 
very little attention to their baggage; althoug 
in the fa&ory the common people think it mo l 5 
to pilfer a, few trifles, particularly fugar and te^ 
cups, from the Dutch, while thefe articles a 
carrying to or from the quay. 

It is highly probable that thefe people ha-. 

fo fufptcious as they are at pm 
" % • fepi 


j60 GENIUS AND DISPOSITION, 

lent i poffibly their former internal commotions 
and civil wars,- but ft ill more the frauds of the 
Europeans, have called forth and increafed their 
miftruft, which now, at leaft in their commerce 
with the Dutch and the Chinefe, is without 
bounds. 

Superftition is more common with them, and 
rifes to a higher degree than in any other nation ; 
which is owing to the little knowledge they have 
of molt fciences, and the abfurd principles in- 
culcated into them by their priefts, together with 
their idolatrous dodtrines. This fuperftitious dif- 
pofition is difplayed at their feafts, their public 
worfhip, in themaking of folemn promifes, in the 
life of particular remedies, the chufing of lucky 
or unlucky days, &c. 

Pride is one of the principal defedb of this 
nation. They believe that they are honoured 
with that f acred origin from gods , from heaven, 
the fun and moon, which many Afiatic nations 
as arrogantly as abfurdly lay claim to. They 
confequendy think themfelves to be fo me what 
more than other people, and, in particular, con- 
fider the Europeans in a very indifferent light. 
Whatever injury a Japanefe might be inclined to 
put up with, He can never bear to have his pride 
touched. It was pride that expelled the Por- 
tuguefe from the country, and this alone may in 
time ruin the prefent flourifhing traffic carried 
on by the Dutch, 

B elides! 


GENIUS AND DISPOSITION. 0.6 1 

Befides the circumftance of this nation haying 
never (not even in the remoteft ages) been con- 
quered or fubjeded to any foreign power, we read 
in the annals of its hiftory fuch accounts of its w- 
lour and unconquerable Jpirit , as might rather be 
taken for fables, and the produce of a fertile ima- 
gination, than the fober diftates of truth, did not 
latter years furndh us with convincing proofs of 
their reality. In the year 799, the Tartars hav- 
ing, for the firfi: time, over-run part of Japan 
with an innumerable army, and their fleet hav- 
ing been loft in one nighL in a hard gale of wind j 
the Japanefe commander in chief, on the day 
following, raifed the camp, attacked the enemy, 
routed and put them all to the fword, lo that 
not a man was left alive to return with the tid- 
ings of fo unparalleled a defeat, and fo com- 
plete a v’uftory. In like manner, when in the 
year 1281, they were again attacked by the Tar- 
tars, to the amount of 240,000 men, the victory 
was equally great and glorious. The cxpulfion 
of the Portuguefe, and the extirpation, at the 
fame time, of the Chriftian religion in the feven- 
teenth century, was fo complete, that fcarcely 
any traces are now to be found of their former 
exiftence in the country. The war and devalua- 
tion continued for the ipace of 40 years : feveral 
millions were victims to its fury; and at the laft 
fiege 37,000 men fell. Thefe victories are not the 
only proofs of the courage and intrepidity of the 
S 3 Japanefe* 


GENIUS AND DISPOSITION! 

, „ r anele. I fbail here adduce another inftance £hill 
more to the purpose. The affair happened in the 
year 1630. A fmall Japanefe vefii-1 arrived for 
the purpofe of trading at the illand of Formofa, 
■which at tlist time belonged to the Dutch Eaft 
India company. One Peter Nuytz, who was 
at that time governor, treated the Japanefe mer- 
chants ill, who arrived there in this vefiel, and who, 
on their return home, complained to their prince 
of the ill-treatment they had received. As the 
prince took fire at this infulr, and the more fo, 
as it came from foreigners whom he defpifed, 
and at the fame time he did not find himfelf in 
a condition to revenge himfelf, his guards ad- 
dreffed him in the following manner: “ We do 
not confider ourfelves worthy any longer to have 
the care of your highnefs's perfon, unlefs you 
permit us to retrieve y®ur honour. Nothing can 
efface this ftain but the blood of the offender. 
You have only to command, and we will cut off 
his head, or bring him hither alive, to be treated 
as you fliall think proper, and according to his 
deferts. Seven of us will be fufficient for the 
purpofe. Neither the danger of the voyage, the 
ffrength of the cattle, nor the number of his 
guards, fhall fereen him from our vengeance.’* 
Accordingly, having received the prince’s per- 
milfion, and confuked upon the meafures proper 
to be taken, they arrived at Formofa, They were 
no fooner introduced to the governor, in order to 

have 


n * prt/-v. 




QjiNlli^ (t K 


have an audience, than they all drew their fabres, 
made him prifoner, and carried him on board 
of the veflel that had brought them. This hap- 
pened in broad day- light, in the fight of his 
guards, and domeftics, and without any one of- 
fering to flir in defence of their matter, or to 
refeue him from his bold conductors, who, with 
their fwords drawn, threatened to cleave his head 
In two the moment the leaft oppofition fhould 
be made. This anecdote may be feen in Keemp- 
Per’s Defcription of Japan, Appendix, p. 56. 

Any one that, from what has been faid above, 
has formed to himfelf a notion of the pride, juf- 
tice, and courage of the Japanefe, will not be 
much aftoniflied, when he is toId> that this peo- 
ple, when injured, are quite implacable. As they 
are haughty and intrepid, fo they are refentful 
and unforgiving; they do not fhew their 
hatred; however, with violence or warmth of 
temper; but frequently conceal it under the 
malk of an inconceivable fang froid, and wait 
with patience for the proper time to revenge 
themlelves. Never did I fee a people lefs fub- 
jeCt to hidden emotions and affeftions of the 
mind. Abufe them, defpife them, or touch 
their honour as much as you pleafe, they will 
never anfwer you a fingle fyllable, but merely 
with a long Eh / Eh ! certify, as it were; their 
furprife, and conceive in lilence the greatelt 
hatred for their opponent, which no juftification, 

S 4 nor 


26 4 GENIUS AND DISPOSITION. 

nor length of time, nor change of circumftances 
can afterwards efface. Thus they are not ufed 
to treat their enemies uncivilly either in word 
or behaviour, but deceive them, as well as others, 
with diffembled friendfhip, till, fooner or later, an 
opportunity offers of doing them fome material 
injury. 

THE JAPANESE LANGUACE 

Is, on account of its differing in many refpefts 
from the European languages, very difficult to 
learn. It is written, indeed, like the Chinefe, 
in ftrait lines upwards and downwards, but the 
letters are quite different, and the languages, upon 
the whole, fo diffimilar, that thefe two neigh- 
bouring nations cannot underftand each other 
without an interpreter. The Chinefe language, 
however, is much read and written at japan, 
and is confidered as their learned language, 
which, together with various fciences, they have 
adopted from China. 

Not with {landing thefe difficulties, I was at 
great pains, as well during the lad autumn and 
winter months as fince that time, to learn, from 
my bed friends among the interpreters, both to 
underdand and fpeak it a little, as alfo to write 
it; though, as well for their fafety as my own, I 
was obliged to do this with the greated privacy. 
And the better to obtain this end, whence I 
flattered myfeif chat at a future period (and par- 
ticularly 



THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE. , 

ticularly in my journey to court) I might derive 
confiderable advantage, I wrote down the words 
by degrees, as I learned them, and, by the affifl:- 
ance of the Japanefe dictionary already mention- 
ed, formed a vocabulary of a language, which of all 
others is the leafl: known in Europe. At firfl 
I imagined I fhould profit much in this refpeCt 
by my Dutch friends, and the more, as many of 
them fecmed to be able to call for any thing 
they wanted in the Japanefe tongue j but not 
one of them had ever thought of formin° a voca- 

LJ O 

bulary by way of aflifting his memory, or other- 
wife endeavoured to elucidate the nature of the 
language. A Japanefe and Dutch vocabulary 
might, it is true, in the fpace of two centuries, 
have been thought of, and completed for the life 
and fervice of fuch as are to remain for iome 
time in this country, had not incapacity in fornc, 
and idlenefs in others, laid infurmotmtable ob 
flacies in the way. Some ftay here for a fhorc 
time only, others arc merely in fearch of a for- 
tune, and, for the major part of them, the to- 
bacco-pipe lias too great charms for them to 
devote to any thing better, more ufeful, and more 
agreeable, their precious time, which, however, 
here they frequently complain of as tedious. 
Of this vocabulary I have given an extract, at 
the end of this volume, in hopes that fomebody, 
former or later, may reap fome benefit from it. 

THE 



THE NAME 


Of each family dnct individual is ufed in Ja- 
pan in a very different manner from what it is in 
Europe. The family name of the Japanefe re- 
mains unchanged, but is never ufed in daily con- 
verfation, or in the ordinary courfe of life, but 
only when they fign any writings, and that chiefly 
when they fet their l'eals to them. There is like- 
wife this Angularity in the affair; that the family 
name is not put after, but always before the adfciti- 
tious name, in like manner as in botany, where 
the generic name of a plant always precedes 
the fpecific. So that the adfcititious or adopt- 
ed name is that by which they are addrefied, ana 
this is changed feveral times in the courfe of their 
lives. As foon as a child is born, it receives 
from the parents a certain name, which, if a fon, 
he keeps till he arrives at years of maturity. At 
that period it is changed. If afterwards he ob- 
tains an office, he again changes his name ; and 
if, in procefs of time, he is advanced to other 
offices, the fame change always takes place, and 
lomc, but efpecially emperors and princes, have 
a new name given them afeer their death. The 
names of the women are lefs fubjeift to change, 
and are frequently taken from certain beautiful 

flowers- 








V 






NAME. ZSJ 

flowers. Titles are given to place- men of a 
Juperior order, on entering to their employ- 
ments ; and to the chief of them various names 

J I 

of honour are added by the fpiricual emperor. 


TIIZIR DRESS 


At Japan deferves, more than any where elfe 
in the world, the name of national ; as it not only 
differs from that of every other nation, but at 
the fame time is uniform from the monarch 
down to the mod inferior fubject, fimilar in both 
fexes, and (which almoft furpaifes all belief) has 
been unchanged for the fpace of two thoufand 
five hundred years. 

Jt confifts every where of Jong and wide 
night-gowns, one or njore of which are worn by 
people of every age and condition in life. The 
rich have them of the fined filk, and the poor 
of cotton. The women wear them reaching 
down to their feet, and the women of quality 
frequently with a train. Thofe of the men come 
down to their heels j but travellers, together 
with fbldiers and labouring people, either tuck 
them up, or wear them fo fhort, that they oniy 
reach to their knees. The men generally have 

them 



263 


DRESS. 


them made of a plain filk of one colour, but the 
filken Huffs worn by the women are flowered, and 
fometimes interwoven with gold flowers. In the 
fummer, they are either without any lining at all, 
or clfe with a thin lining only ; in winter, by way 
of defence againft the cold weather, they are quilt- 
ed with cotton or fiik wadd. The men feldom wear 
many of them, but the women often from thirty 
to fifty, or more, and all fo thin, that together they 
hardly weigh more than four or five pounds. 
The undermoft of them ferves for a fhirt, and is 
therefore either white or bluifh, and for the mofl 
part thin and tranfparent. All thefe night-gowns 
are fattened about the waift by a belt , which for 
the men is about the breadth of a hand, and for 
the women of about twelve inches, and of fuch a 
length as to go twice round the body, with a large 
knot and role. The knot worn by the fair fex, 
which is larger than that worn by the men, fhews 
immediately whether the woman is married or 
not j as the married women wear the knot before, 
and the fingle behind. The men fatten' to this 
belt their fibre, fan, tobacco-pipe and pouch, and 
medicine-box. The gowns are rounded off 
about the neck, without a cape, open before, 
and fkew the bare bofom, which is never cover- 
ed either with a handkerchief or any thing elle. 
The fieeves are always ill-fhaped, and much 
wider than they ought to be, and fewed together 

half 



DRESS, 209 

half way down in font, Co as to form a hag at 
bottom, into which they put their hands in cold 
weather, or ufe it as a pocket to hold their pa- 
pers and other things. Young girls, in par- 
ticular, have the flceves of their gowns fo long, 
as frequently to reach quite down to the ground. 

On account of the great width of their gar- 
ments, they are loon drelFed and undreffed, as 
they have nothing more to do than to untie their 
girdle, and draw in their arms, when the whole 
of their drefs inftantly fails off of itfelf. So that 
long and wide night-gowns univerfally form the 
drefs of the Japanefe nation, though in this point 
fome fmall variation takes place with regard tofex, 
age, condition, and way of life. Thus one fre- 
quently fees checommon people, fuch as labourers, 
filhermen, and fajlors, either undreffed, when they 
are at their work, with their night-gowns taken off 
from the upper part of their bodies, and hang- 
ing down loofe from their girdles } or elfe quite 
naked, having round their body girdle only, 
which wrapping round and covering the parts 
that decency requires to be concealed, is carried 
backwards between the thighs, to be fattened to 
the back. 

Men of a higher rank in life, have, befldes 
thefe long night-gowns, a ihort ha!f’gowi 7, which 
is worn over the other, and is made of fome 
thin kind of ftuff, fuch as gauze. It is like the 

former 




DRESS. 


T* 

former tit the fkeves and neck s but reaches only 
to the waftCj and is not fattened with a girdle, 
but is tied before and at the top with a firing. 
This half-gown is fometimes of a green, but 
moft frequently of a black colour. When they 
come home to their houfes or to their refpeftive 
offices, where there are none fuperior to them, 
they take off this outer garment, and, folding 
it carefully up, lay it by. 

The breeches are of a pecular kind of fluff, 
which is thin indeed, but at the fame very clofe 
and compa£t$ and made neither of filk nor of 
cotton, but of a fpecies of hemp. They are 
more like a petticoat than breeches ■, being fewed 
between the legs, and left open at the fides to 
about two-thirds of their length. They reach 
down to the ancles, and are fattened about the 
waift with a band, which is carried round the 
body from before and from behind. At the back 
part of thcfe breeches is a thin triangular piece of 
board, fcarcely fix inches long, which is covered 
with the fame fluff as the breeches, and Hands 
up againft the back juft above the band. 
The breeches are either ftriped with brown or 
green, or elfe uniformly black. I have fome- 
times feen them made of Succotas, a fluff from 
Bengal. Drawers are feldom ufed but on jour- 
' - wear fliort and tucked- 


DRESS. 


271 

up nigh: gowns, thar they may walk or run 
with the greater fpeed. 

The complimentary drefs, as a fort of holiday 
drefs is cajled in Japan, is ufed only on foie mn 
occafions, and when people of an inferior rank pay 
homage to their fuperiors, or by fuch as are 
going to court. Such a drefs is worn on the 
outfide of all, over the gowns, that form the 
whole of this people’s qfual drefs. It confifts of 
two pieces, made of one and the fame kind of 
fluff. The undermoft piece is the above -de- 
fcribed breeches, which are generally made of 
a blue fluff, printed with white flowers. The 
uppermoft piece, which particularly diftinguilhes 
this drefs, is a frock, not unlike the half night- 
gown already fpolten of, but is carried on each 
fide back oyer the (boulders, by which means 
the Japanele have the appearance of being very 
broad fhouldered. 

All their clothes are made either of filk, 
cotton, or of a kind of linen manu fa&ured from 
certain fpccies of nettles. The better fort of 
people wear the fined filks, which in finenels and 
tenuity far exceed every tiling produced either 
in India or Europe; but as thefe filks are not 
above twelve inches broad, they are not carried 
to Europe for fale. The common people wear 
'••a. which is found here in great abundance. 

" ~ -trio fit v. 


DRESS, 


n m y 

\L f ~ 

/he Japanefe make of the bark of the Morns 
papyrijra, a. kind of doth, which is either 
manufactured like paper, or eife fpun and woven. 
.The latter fort, which is quite white and fine, 
and refembles cotton, is fometimes ufed by the 
women. The former, printed with flowers, is 
ufed for the long night-gowns by elderly people 
only, and is worn by them at no other time than 
j;i the winter, when they perfpire but lictle, and 
then with a gown or two befides. 

As the night-gowns reach down to the feet, 
and confequently keep the thighs and legs warm, 
flockings are neither wanted nor ufed throughout 
the whole country. One fees the common people, 
however, when travelling, and foldiers who have 
not fuch long night-gowns, wear fpatterdalhes 
made of cotton ftuflf. 1 cbferved that fome people 
near Nagafaki wore alfo hempen Jocks, with the 
foies of cotton ftuft, which they ufed in the 
fevered winter months, to preferve the feet from 
cold. They are tied fad about the ancle, and 
have a feparate place made for the great toe to 
enter, and adapted to the form of the flioe. 

The Jhoes , or, to fpeak more properly, flippers 
cf the Japanefe, are the mod fhabby and indif- 
ferent part of their drefs, and yet in equal ufe 
with the high and the low, the rich and the poor. 
They are made of rice draw woven, but fome- 
tunes for people of didin&ion of fine flips of 

ratan. 



DRESS. 


273 


Jatan. The fhoe confifts of a foie, without 
tipper leather or hind-piece: forwards it is 
croffed by a ftrap, of the thicknefsof one’s finger, 
■which is lined with linen j from the tip of the 
fhoe to this ftrap a cylindrical ftring is carried, 
which pafles between the great and fecond toe, and 
keeps the flioe faff on the foot. As thefe fhoes 
have no hind- piece, they make a node, when 
people walk in them, like flippers. When the 
Japanefe travel, their ftioes are furnifhed with 
three firings made of twifted ftraw, with which 
they are tied to the legs and feet, to prevent them 
from falling off. Some people carry one or more 
.pair of fhoes with them on their journeys, in 
order to put on new, when the old ones are worn 
out. When it rains, or the roads are very dirty, 
thefe fhoes are foon wetted through, and one con** 
tinually fees a great number of worn-out fhoes 
lying on the roads, efpecially near the brooks, 
where travellers have changed their fhoes -after 
wafhing their feet. Inftead of thefe, in rainy or 
dirty weather, they wear high wooden clogs, 
which underneath are hollowed out in the mid- 
dle, and at top have a band acrofs like a ftirrup, 
and a ftring for the great toe ; fo that they can 
walk without foiling their feet. Some of them 
have their ftraw fnoes fattened to thefe wooden 
clogs. The Japanefe never enter their houfes 
with their fhoes on j but leave them in the entry, 

. : VOL. m , . X ... . . Of 


BRESS. 


5?4 

op place them on a bench near the door, and thus 
are always bare- footed in their booties, fo as nut 
to dirty their neat mats. During the time that: 
the Dutch live at japan, when they are fome- 
tinces under an obligation of paying viiits at the 
houfes of the Japanefe, their own rooms at the 
factory being likewife covered with mats of tills 
kind, they wear, in Head of the ufual fhoes, red, 
green, or black flippers, which, on entering the 
houfe, they, pull off j however, they have flock- 
fogs on, and flioes made of cotton Huff, with 
buckles in them, which fhoes are made at J apart, 
and can be wafhed whenever they are dirty. 
Some have them of black fattin, in order to avoid 
walking them. 

This people’s made of dr effing their bair is as 
peculiar- to them, and at the fame time as gene- 
ral amongft them, as their ufe of the night- 
gowns, The men Ihave the whole of their head 
from tliefforehead down to the nape of the neck, 
ar-d, wJbat is left near the temples and in the 
neck is well greafed, turned' up, and tied at the 
top of the head with feveral. rounds of white 
firing, made of paper. The end 1 of the hair 
Shat remains above the tie is cut off to about 
die length of one’s finger, and, after being well 
:1H Speed with oil, bent in fuch a manner, that 
the tip is brought to Hand again ft: the crown of 
.the lie ad, in which fituation it is kept merely by 
the firing above mentioned, This coeffure is 

ftrifUy 


DRESS. 


VS 

ftri&ly attended to, and the head fhaved every 
day, that the ftumps of the growing hair may 
not disfigure their bald pates. Priefts and phy- 
licians, and young men that have not yet attained 
to the age of maturity, are the only perfons who are 
exempred in this refped. The priefts and phy- 
ficians fhave their heads all over, and are thus 
diferiminated from all others. Boys again keep 
all their hair on till fuch time as the beard be- 
gins to make its appearance. 

Of the fair fex, none have their hair cut off, 
except women that are parted from their huf- 
bands. I had an opportunity of feeing fuch a 
one, while I was at Jedo, who traveled the 
country much, and made, with her bald pate, 
a droll and Angular appearance. Otherwife 
the hair* well befmeared, and made fmooth with 
oil and mucilaginous fubftances, is put up dole 
to the head on all fides, and this either quite 
m a neat and Ample manner, or elfe Handing out 
at the Ades in the form of wings. After this 
the ends are fattened together round a knob at 
the crown of the head. Single women and ifervant 
maids are frequently diftinguilhed from the mar- 
ried by thefe wings. Juft before this knot a broad 
comb is ftuck, which the poorer fort of people 
wear of lacquered wood, and thofe that are in 
better circumftances of tortoife-fhell. BeAdes 
thefe, the rich wear fcveral long ornaments made 

Ti of 



DRESS. 


276 

of tortoife-fhcll ftuck through this knot, as alfo a 
few flowers, which fervc inflead of pearls and dia- 
monds, and conftitute the whole of their de- 
corations. Vanity has not yet taken root among 
them to that degree, as to induce them to wear 
rings or other ornaments in their ears. 

Thel'e people never cover their heads either 
■with bats or caps, to defend them againft the cold 
or the fcorching heat of the fun, except on jour- 
neys, when they wear a conical hat, made of a 
fpecies of grafs, and tied with a ftring. I obferved 
inch as thefe alfo were worn by fifhermen. 
Some few travelling women wore caps in the 
form of a terrene, which were interwoven with 
gold. Otherwife, the parafol is what they ufe to 
flielter them againft the rain or the rays of the fun. 

Befides the above-mentioned drawers, fpatter- 
daftres, and hat, which none but travellers wear, 
they are generally provided on journeys with a 
■cloke, efpecially iuch as travel on foot or on 
horfeback. Thefe clokes are wide and fhort, and 
of the fame fhape as the night-gowns. They are 
made of thick oiled- paper, and are worn by the 
fuperior attendants in the fuite of princes, and 
of other travellers; and my fellow-travel- 
lers and myfelf, during our journey to court, 
were obliged to make a prefent to our attend- 
ants of fome of thefe clokes, when we pafled by 
the place where they were manufactured. 


The 


DRESS. 


2 77 

The Japanefe always have their coat of arms 
put on their clokes, particularly on their long 
and Ihort night-gowns, and that either on their 
arms or between their llioulders, with a view to 
prevent their being ftolen, which in a country 
where people’s clothes are fo much alike in 
point of materials, form, and fizp, might eafily 
happen. 

In Head of a handkerchief, I always faw them 
ufe thin and foft writing paper, whicli they con- 
Handy carried about them for this purpofe, and 
which they alfo ufed for wiping their mouths and 
fingers, as like wife for wiping off the fweat from 
their bodies under the arm-pits. 


THE STILE OF THEIR ARCHITECTURE. 


The boujes in general are of wood and 
plafter, and white-walhed on the outfide, lb as 
to look exactly like ftone. The beams all lie 
horizontal, or Hand perpendicular (no flanting 
ones, as are otherwife ufed in frame- work build- 
ings). Between thefc beams, which are iquare, 
and far from thick, bamboos are interwoven, and 
the fpaces- filled up with clay, fand, and lime. 
In confequence of this, the walls are not very 
thick, but when white- walked make a tolerably 
T 3 good 


a 78 STILE OF ARCHITECTURE. 

good appearance. There are no partition-walls 
in their houles, which are merely fupported by 
polls or upright beams, between which again at 
the cieling and floor other beams run acrofs, with 
grooves in them, for partitioning off the apart- 
ments. Thus, the whole houfe at fil'd forms 
only one room, which, however, may be parti- 
tioned off with frames that Aide in the grooves 
made in thefe crofs-beams, and may be put up, 
taken away, or Aid hehind each other at plea- 
fure. Thefe frames aie made of lacquered wood, 
and covered with thick, painted paper. The 
cieling is tolerably neat, and formed of boards 
cloddy joined ; but the Aoor, which is always 
railed from the ground, is laid with planks at a 
didance from each other. The roofs are covered 
with tiles, which are of a Angular make, and 
very thick and heavy ; the more ordinary houfes 
are covered with chips, on which are frequently 
laid heavy Aones to fecure them. 1 n the villages, 
and the meaner towps, I fometimes faw the fides of 
the houfes, efpecially behind, covered with the bark 
of trees, which was fecured by laths nailed on 
it, to prevent the rain from damaging the wall. 
The houfes are generally two dories high, but 
the upper dory is fcldom inhabited, is for the 
mod part lower than the other, and is ufed for 
a loft, or to lay up lumber in. The houles of 
people of diftinttion are larger indeed, and 

handfomer 



STILE OF ARCHITECTURE. 2^9 

ftandfomer than others, but hot more than two 
ftories, or, at the molt, twenty feet high. In 
each room there are two or rfiorfe 'window's t 
which reach from the cieling to within two feet 
of the floor. They confift of light frames, which 
may be taken out, put in, and Hid behind each 
other at pleafure, in two grooves, made for this 
purpole, in the beams above and below them. 
They Ere divided by (lender rods into panes of a 
parallelogram ic form, fometimes to the number 
of forty, and palled over on the outfide with 
fine white paper, which is fekloni or fever oiled, 
and admits a great deal of light, but prevents 
any one from feeing through it. The roof al- 
ways projects a great way bey oh d the hotife, and 
fometimes has an additional roof, which coVerS 
a fmall projecting gallery, that Paiids before the 
window ; from this little roof go flatting inwards 
and downwards, feveral quadrangular frames, 
within which hang blinds made of rallies, which 
may be drawn up and let down, and ferve not 
only to hinder people that pafs by from looking 
into the houfc, but chiefly when it rains, to pre- 
vent the paper-windows from being damaged. 
There are no glafs windows here; nor have I 
obferved motlier-of-peail or Mofcovy talk uled 
for this purpofe. 

Th efbsrj are always covered with mats made 
of a fine fpecics of grafa {J metis) interwoven 

T 4 with 






280 stile of architecture. 

■with rice-flraw, from three to four inches thick, 
and of the fame fize throughout the whole coun- 
try, viz. two yards long, and one broad, with a 
narrow blue or black border. It was only at 
Jedo, in the imperial palace, that I faw mats 
larger than thefe. In the houfes of the lower 
order of people, a great part of the room on the 
outfide is not covered with mats, and ferves for a 
hall, where the company may leave their fhoes : 
within is a raifed floor, which, covered with mats, 
conftitutes the fitting-room, and, by means of 
Aiding fcrecns, may be divided into feveral com- 
partments. 

The infides of the houfes, both cieling and 
Avails, are covered with a handfome thick paper, 
ornamented wnh various flowers ; thefe hang- 
ings are either green, yellow, or white, and fome- 
times embellilhed with Alver and gold. A thin 
gruel made of boiled rice forms the pafte ufed 
for this purpofe ; and as the paper is greatly da- 
maged by the fmoke in winter, it is renewed 
every third or fifth year. 

Tradefmen and mechanics frequently ufe the 
front part of rhe houfe, that looks into the ftreet, 
as a workfhop, laje-fhop, or kitchen, and inhabit 
the part that looks into the yard. 

The rocm which ferves as a kitchen has no 
other fire-place than a fquare hole, which is 
frequently in the , middle, of the room, and is 

lined 


STILE OF ARCHITECTURE. a$i 

lined with a few ftones, which are laid level 
with the furface of the mats. The (moke makes 
the houfe black and dirty, as there is no chim- 
Bey, but only a hole in the roof ; and the floor- 
mats, being fo near the fire-place, frequently oc- 
cafion fires. 

Every houfe has its privy ; in the floor of 
which there is an oblong aperture, and it is over 
this aperture that the Japanefe fit. At the fide 
of the wall is a kind of a box, inclining obliquely 
outwards, into which they difcbarge their urine. 
Near it there is always a China veflel with water 
in it, with which, on thefe occafions, they never 
fail to wafli their hands. 

Every houfe likewife has a fmall yard, which 
is decorated witli a little mount, a few trees, 
fhrubs, and flower-pots. The plants that were 
molt commonly feen here were, the Pinus Syl- 
veftris. Azalea Indica, Aukuba,Nandiaa, &c. 

At fome places, fuch as in Jedo and other 
towns, adjacent to each houfe theie is a ftcre- 
houfe that is fire-proof, for the pufpofe of faving 
the owner’s property. 

One feldom finds a houfe in which there is 
not a room fet apart for the purpofe of bath- 
ing, with a bathing- tub in ir. This generally 
looks towards the yard. 

So that the Japanefe buildings, in town as well 
as in the counti y, have neither that elegant appear- 
ance. 






3 TIL 8 OF ARCHITECTURE. 

ante, nor the convenience and comfort of our 
houfes in Europe. The rooms are not fo cheer- 
ful and pleafant, nor fo warm in the winter, 
neither arc they fo fafe in cafe of fire, nor fo 
durable. Their femi tranfparent paper windows, 
in particular, fpoil the look of the houfes, as well 
in the rooms as out towards the ftrect. 

The public buildings , fuch as temples and 
palaces, are larger, it is true, and more con- 
fpicuous, but in the fame llile of ar chi tenure, 
and the roofs which are decorated with feve- 
ral towers of a Angular appearance, are their 
greatefl ornament. 

The towns are fometimes of a confiderable 
fize, always fecured with gates, and frequently 
fiirrounded with walls and fofles, and adorned 
with towers, efpecially if a prince keeps his court 
there. The town of Jedo is faid to be twenty- 
one hours walk in circumference, or about twenty - 
one French league*. From a height 1 had an 
Opportunity to take a view of the whole of this 
fpacious town, which for fize may vie with 
Peking. The ftreets are ftrait and wide, and at 
certain diftances divided by gates, and at each 
gate there is a very high ladder, from the top 
of which any fire that breaks out may be dif- 
covered* an accident, that not unfrequcntlv hap- 
pens here fever al times in the week. 

The 



STILE OP ARCHITECTURE. 283 

The villages differ from the towns, by being 
open, and having only one ftreet. Their length 
frequently furpaffes all belief : moft of them are 
three quarters of a mile in length, and fome of 
them fo long, that it requires fever al hours to 
walk through them. Some alfo ftand fo clofe 
together, that they are diferiminated from each 
other only by a bridge or rivulet, and their name. 

Neither cbimnies nor ftoves are known through^ 
out the whole country ; although the cold is very 
intenfe, and they are obliged to make fires in 
their apartments from Odtober to March. The 
fires are made in copper kettles of various fizes, 
with broad projefting edges. The hollow part 
of thefe is filled with clay or alhes, and well- 
burned qharcoal is put at the top, and lighted. 
A pot or kettle of this kind is placed in the 
middle of the room, or at one fide, and, on ac- 
count of the apartments being too pervious to 
the air, the fire is made fever al times a day, or 
elfe a conftant fire is kept up for the Japanefe to 
fit round it. This mode of firing, however, is 
liable to the inconvenience, that the charcoal 
fometimes fmokes, in confequence of which the 
apartment becomes dirty and black, and the 
eyes of the company fuffer exceedingly. 

The furniture in this country is as fimple as 
the Rile of building. Here neither cupboards, 

bureaus,* 



FURNITURE. 


bureaus, fophas, beds, tables, chairs, watches, 
looking- glafies, or any thing elfe of the kind are 
to be found in the apartments. To the greatefl 
part of thefe the Japanefc are utter Grangers. 
Their foft floor-mats ferve them for chairs and 
beds. A fmall table, about 12 inches fquare, and 
fcur in height, is fet down before each perfon in 
company at every meal. Here it may be proper 
to obferve, that whereas moft of the other nations 
in India fit with their legs laid acrofs before them, 
tire Chinefe and Japanefe lay their feet under 
their bodies, and make a chair of their heels. 
A foft mattrafs, fluffed with cotton, is Ipread out 
on the mats when the hour of reft approaches. 
Cupboards, chefts, boxes, and other fimilar ar- 
ticles, are kept in the ftorehoufes or elfe, in fe- 
parate rooms. 

Fans are ufed throughout the whole country, 
and every body carries one always about him. 
It is always ftuck in the girdle on the left hand, 
behind the fabre, with the handle downwards. 
On thefe they frequently have their route marked 
out, when they go on a journey. 

Mirrors do not decorate the walls, although 
they are in general ufe at the toiler. Of ghfs 
there are none made in the country : but both 
the fmaller and larger fort are made of call: 
metal, which is a compofition of copper and 

: . Zifik, 









A. 

A e i raw a river ? 157, 
Abrame, 131, 

Abrafirt, ijn 
A ceres, 161* 

Acorus, 82, 

AcroMchum, 212. 

Akafaki, 148. 

Alcea rofea, 84. 

Alder, catkins of, 213. 

Allium, 82. 

Almanack, 91, 92* 

Almond tree, 153. 

Amagafaki, 129- 
Amano Reosj^n, 177, 
Ammunition, 19. 

Amomum mioga, 82. 
Amygdalus, 133* 

Anas, 128, 205* 

Anethum, 8u 
Anife, 81, 

Anifum flellatum, 227, 
Anomia, 204* 

Antoine de Mot a, 231. 
Antoine Peixota, 232. 
Apium petrofelinnnv&l * 

VOlr. ill, A 


Apple trees, 134, 

Apricot trees, 153, 
Aquedo&s, 153; 

Ara, 69* 

Arbours, 213, 

Ardea, 138. 

Argonauta, 204. 
Armekault, id* 

Arms, coat of, 226, 277, 
Arraij, 134, 213* 

Arfenic, red, 203. 
Artemiiia, 71, 226, 

Arum, 163. 

Arundo bambos, 83, 
Aibeftus, 203. 

Afparagus, 81* 
Aftronomers, 1 76- 
Asjo, 203* 

Asjo jamma, 203* 

Atjar, 83* 

Attendants, 65, 93, 96, 230* 
Audience,ambaJTador f s, 1 89, 
195, 217, 

Aukuba, in, 

Awa nori* 1 1|. 

Aw* 



ii 


INDEX. 


Awa fna, 204, 

Awumi, 157. 

Azalea, hi, 213* 

B, 

Bamboos, 83. 

Banca, llraits of, 3. 
Banjofes, 17, 18, 20, 30,96. 
Baningawa river, 166. 
Barberry bufti, 161. 
Barometer, 235. 

Ballard faffron, 78. 

Batatas, 8z. 

Batavia, 1, 3. 

Baths, bathing rooms, 102, 
1 1 1, 125, 166,204, 281. 
Beajts,‘Windfpr, 86. 

Beads for daughter, 21, 22. 
Beddead, 12 , 17. 

Beet, red, 81. 

Beggars, 158, 215. 

Belt, 258* 

Bcrbcris, 161. 

Bergman, ProfeiTor, 203, 
223. 

Beta, 81. 

Bctala, 2134 
Bing, 77.* 

Birds, 22 r» 

Black paint, 78. 
Bleijenberg, the ihip, 2, 3, 
11. 

Books, 28, 33, 178—179, 
4.85— 187. 


Boofu, 204. 

Botanizing, 79, 159, 165. 
Box tree, 83, 227. 

Boys, 158, 

Brandy, 18. 

Bradica, 81, 137. 

Breeches, 270. 

Bridges, 142— 143, 148, 

169. 

Brooms, 214. 

Brothels, vide Stews. 
Buckwheat, 85, 1 16. 
Building, ftile of, 1 1 2— j 1 3, 
277-283. 

Buildings, public, 282, 
Bupredis, 218. 
the Burg, io m ii, i6 r 
Burial, 26. 

Butter, fait, 73. 

Buxus, 83. 

Beet, 81 ♦ 

4 • ■ 1 1 

C. 

Cabinet, 196, 197. 

Calamus aromaticus, 82,. 
Candles, 70, 71, 188, zzff* 
Cannabis, 84. 

Canni, 78. 

Caps, 276. 

Capdcum, 83- 
Captain, 13, 15, 17. 

* Cards, card-playing, 122, 
Carrots, 81. 

Carthamu* 


•• \ 


1 N 

CarthaTus, 78. 

Cam, 

CaulUc, 226. 

Cayenne pepper, 85* 

Cedars, 164 — 165. 

Celaftrus, 84, 

Cerambyx, 69, 

Certificate, 206, 

Cette, 157* 

Chalk ftone in horfes, 202* — 

203. t 
Cham&rops, 214. 

Charcoal, 116* 

Chefnuts, 201 . 

Cherry trees, 154. 
Chenopodium fee pari a, 84. 
Chief, commercial, 42, 43* 
Children, 125, ' 

Chimantfo, 186* 

Chjmnies, 283* 

China root, 61* 

Chinefe, 54—58. 

Chinefe coait, 4, 5. 

Chine fe language, 264, 

Chiriu, 215, 

Chryfanthemum Indicum, 

lit. 

Cichorium, 82* 

Cicindek, 204. 

Cieling, 280. 

Cinnabar, 204. 

Citadel, 146, 148, 189, 

Citms, 162* 

Clay, 203. 

k & 


D E X, H 

Cleanlinefs, 258. 

Cloudy fky, 236. 

Clogs, wooden, 273. 

Coat for fmuggling, 13, 15, 
Coins, money, 27, tot, 1 16 
— 1 17, 1 81 — 185, 230. 
Co jet, governor, 7 . 

Cold, 66, 72, 233, 235, 
Colds, 84, 1 15 — 1 1 6, 227. 
Colours, colouring fub- 
Jftances, 77, 84, 163, 2 13* 
Combs, 217, 227. 

Compafs, 122. 
Confumption, 163. 
Convolvulus, 82. 
Convallaria, 85. 

Copper, 24, 51, 54, 140, 
225. 

ore, 203. 

fmeltmg of, 224 — 

225 1 

Coral, 204. 

Corchorus, 216. 

Cordage, 63. 

Coughs, 203. 

Court, Journey to, 86, 94— 
175. 

Courtefy, 254, 

Cox 1 rf 1 a, 7. 

Crabs, 5, 6. 

Cripples, 215* 

Culex, 214. 

Cupreous pyrites, 205, 
CuprefTus, 164* 

Curiofitv B 




iv 


INDEX, 


Curio/ity, 256* 

Curtains, 214. 

Cuftom houfes, 26* 

Cycas, 217. 

Cyprasa, 204. 

D. 

Daibud, 219-^220. 
paikokus ganne, 183, 
Dairi, 1 3 9—1 40- 
Daifoin, 155* 

Dances, 221. 

Daucus carota, 81. 

Deutzia, 16 1. 

Pezima, 14, 40. 

Diarrhaea, 61. 

Dictionaries, 37, 38. 

Dili, 81. 

Diofcorea, 84. 

Djokafen, 148. 

Djukuts, 204. 

Doctors, 177, 179. 
Dolichos polyftachyes, 214 
— 215. 

Doofa fen?, 183 — 184, 
Dracontium, 163. 

* D refs, complimentary, 271. 
Dryandra, 150. 
Dfinokameru, 126. 

Ducks, 128. 

E. 

Earthquake, 1 42, 181. 
Elecampane, 201— *ozt 


Englifh, 44. 

Endive, 82. 

Epidendrum, 2x24 
Esse van, 2. 

Eveich, 10. 

Eyes, red, 145, 215 — 2r6, 
2 S r. 

F. 

Fagara, 62, 150. 

Fagus caftanea, 201. 

F ah renheit’s thermometer, 
234. 

Fai gin, 127. 

Faifats, 127. 

Fair, 53 > 93. 

Fak fekifi, 203, 

Fakonie, 159, 160, 164, 
2x1. 

Fan, 99, 284. 

Farda, 105. 

Farra, 157. 

Fafira, 141* 

FafTak, 93. 

Fatta, 1 66. 

Fe ith, M. 2, 43, 94. 
Feki, the emperor, 128- 
Fennel, 81 • 

Fern, 205. 

Feftivals, 92, 93, 

Fevers, intermitting, 5. 
Fiamits, 105, 229. 

Ficus, 62, 130- 


Fields, 


I N D .E X. 


Fields* 136 — 137. 

Figs, 62, 1 30. 

Filix, 205. 

Find, ioOp 

Fiogo, 127, 123 , 229. 
Fiofabara, 104, 

Firakatta, 133- 
Firagawa, 135* 

Firaika, 166; 

Firandos harbour, 232- 
Fire, 71, 

Fires, accidental* Fire- 
watch, 179— i$u 
Fifen, 103* 

Fifties, &c. book of, 186* 
Fiihermen, fifhing boats, 5, 
7 * 

FItsjoma, 1 45. 

Fjun noki, 217. 

Flies, luminous, 229* 
Floors, 28 1 * ^ 

Flounders, zoj* 

Fog, 233—236; 
Fokanofikos, 16S. 

Foko no jamma kufa, 186* 
Fokusmoto Dosim, 177, 
Formofa, 7. 

Frah^oxs Zeimoto, 231 . 
Friendly difpolition, 25 8, 
Frugality, 257. 

Fruit, 120 — izi. 

Ftagawa, 154, 

Fucus, 130, 149, 150, 168, 
Fukoroj, 155* 

Funa mufi, 204, 


V 

Furniture, 113, 284—285- 
Full mountain, 15S, zi% % 
233* 

Fufida, 137. 

Fujikawa, 148, 137, 

Fufrnii, 134 , 221 , 

Fufifawa, &66* 

Futju, 214* 

Fut$j o, 137. 

G- 

Galasna, 204. 

Game of the goofe, it%+ 
Ganfe-fpeel, 121, 

Gardens, 8i, 225- 
Gardenia, 162 — 163- 
Genius and difpofmon of 
the Japanefe, 252 — 264- 
Ginger, a kind of, 82. 
Glnfeng root, 16- 
Girls, 74 — 77 » « 45 “'I 4 ^> 
izz. 

Gnats, 2x4- 
Goju, 148* 

Gold ore, 203. 

Gotnome gin, 183* 
Gorgoma ramofa, 204* 
Governors, 25, 36, 37, 39* 
195, 

Groot rechter, 138* 

Guard, 41, 165, 

Guards, imperial, 14* 
Guribara, 157, 



VI 


r N D E X. 


H. 

Handkerchief, 277. 

Hair, mode of drefilng, 274 
— 27 6. 

Haliotis, 212. 

Hangings, 2 So. 

Hat, 199, 276. 
Haemorrhages, 216. 
Haring a, 2. 

Harbours, 19, 38, 114, 

128, 147, 169, 232. 
Heat, 233, 235. 

H^dera, 83. 

Hedges, 107, 162, 163, 
213. 

Herbals, 186. 

Herons, 138. 

Hemp, 84. 

Holidays, 92 — 93. 

Honefty, 259- 
Horfes, 20 3 - 
Horfemen, 109. 

Houfcs, ftile of building, 
112—113, 180, 205. 
Hoft, 130* 

Hours, 88. 

Hurricanes, 234. 

I0 

Jabbki, 205. 

Jaco tjaja, 141, 

Jafagii 148. 

Jafude, 204. 


Jagami, joo. 

Jamma fano, 155*. 

Jamma nakka, 160. 

Jainma buki, 216. 

Jamaijo, 105. 

Jamamo, 204, 20 j. 
Japanefe, afpe&of, 25 1. 
Japancfe nation, 251 — 264^ 

language, 264, 

265. 

Jars, 102, 103. 

Idols, 219 — 221, 22 7. 

Jedo, 1 75, 205, 231, 232, 
Jedogawa river, 132. 
Jepuen, 231. 

Jeferi, 157. 

Jeferi-noakits, 157. 

Jetfigo, 188. 

Jetfuri jamma umra, 154. 
Ika, 204. 

Ikeda, 155. 

Illicium, 227. 

Images, trampling upon* 
89, 93. 

Imokawa, 147. 
Implacability, 263. 

Imuri, 154. 

Ingenuity, mechanical, 257; 
Inns, 111, 138, 169, 170* 
Inofanafawa, 143. 
Interpreters, 20, 31, 32— 
35, 42, 96. 

Inula hclenium, 201, 202. 
Jodo, 134, 


Jokait*, 


I pt JD E X, 


Jqkaits, *43, 

Jomoto, 1 66^ 

Jootfia, 148. 

joots fida or Jofida, 143. 
Jofida, 215* 

Jofiwaro, 157, 158, zii. 
j oruflij T26, 

Journey to court, 86, 94— 

m- 

Ipomtea, 6 z * 

Iponmats, 157- 
Ifafaja, too. 

Ifaka got jo, 705. 

Kami, 143—144, 

Ifi, *43, 144. 

Ifiba, 141, 215. 

Ifibe, 143. 

Ifmomia, 129, 

Isjakufi, zip 
If; watt a, 203, 

Ifuwatta, 203, 

Itagamte, 182* 

Itjib, 182, 

Itfka, 105, 

Jui, 157, 

J ulus ter reflris* 204, 
Juniper tree, 82. 
juftice, 258 — 259* 
juftice, chief, 138 — J39* 
Juglans nigra, 20 j, 

.4 * y 


K, 

KabrO, 75, 

Kaginoies, 148. 

ICakerawa, kakigawa, 

215* 

ivaki, 6l, 1 30. 

Kate, r 37- 
Kalu 205. 

Kamaka, 204. 

Kambara, 157,212* 

Kami kiri, 69, 

Kaminofeki, 119, 

Kamtro, -1.1 9. 

Kamiru ft ma, 1 45; 
iCamo, 205, 

Kjemtfer, 97, ioi, 105, 
129, 170, 191, 197,209# 
263, 

Kanaga, 155, 

Kanagawa, 167. 

Kangoes, kagoes, 1 09* 
Kanfaki/ 1 04, 1 29, 

Kapto Jes, i$o. 

Karafumo, 205, 

Karuifi, 204, 

Kafamats, 166* 

Kafiwabara, 157, 

Kaffadera, 147* 

Kaffagawa, 104- 
Kastkagawa fosju^tj* 
Kawa batta, 166, 
Kawafakki, 167, 210- 
Kay ba, 204. 

Keagi, 141, 

1 Kdfe, 


L. 


Keife, kefc, 1 2 6. 

Kefofo no abra, 204* 
Kikugawa, 155. 

Killing of animals, 1 28. 
Kim 00s 1, 186. 

Kin nab, 203* 

Kino kui, 204. 

Kifigawa, 157- 
Kitchen, 280 — 281. 

Kitama kura, 68. P 
Kobang, 181, 182* 184* 
Koehler, 95. 

Kodama, 182. 

Kodom, 120, 225^ 
Xoijanofla, 1 10. 

Koijfo, 211. 

Koifo, 166. 

Kokura, in, 229. 

Komb, kobu, 149, 150* 
Konofaifi, 204. 

Konomon, 121. 

Kofinfikf, 166. 

Kosju, province of, 184. 
Kosjubang, kin, itjib, 184. 
Koto, 197. 

Kubo, 139, 149, 207, 208, 
210. 

Kurisuki, Dofa, 177. 
Kurofakky, 110. 

Kufats, 142, 215* 

Kwada, 166. 

Kwana, 145, 146, 215. 
Kvquan feki, 203. 


Labourers, 23. 

Ladies, 120, 169. 

Ladies of plea fare, 74 — 77* 
Lamps, 70, 74, 75, 138, 
151. 

Lampyris Japonica, 229. 
Laccrta, 163. 

Lakes, 141, 142, 160, 164. 
Language, 38, 123, 264* 
265, 

Lantern fefiival, 92* 

Lapis fleatites, 203. 

Laxa, 1 1 6. 

Leeks, 81 • 

Lettuce, 82. 

Liberty, 253. 

Lightning, 236. 

Lindera, 161. 

Lizard, 163. 

Lovers, 84. 

Luukuv fangodu, 204* 
Lycium, 213. 

M. 

Maas, 1 16. 

Majfakki, 155* 

Makotjc, 205. 

Malva mauritanica, 84. 
Manure, 80, 212, 213. ' 

Maples, 161, 162, 223. 
Maps, 197, 230. 

Marble, 204. 


Marco 


INDEX, 


x 


Marco Paolo of Venice, 
235 - 

Mariko, 137. 

Married women, 78, 120, 
268* 

Marumi, 147, 

Matfkafa, a ftih, 63 , 
Matches, 88. 

Mats, 279, 280- 
Matfdera, 145. 

Matfmsi illand, 149, 

Matfu, 143, 

Matfuri, 92, 

Meaxima, 10, 11. 

Mebos, 120. 

Medicines, 73, 198, 199. 

M el ia a 7 , e 3. ar ach , 2 z 8 , 
Menaradki, 120. 

Mendicant nuns, 145, 146* 
Menoki, 143. 

Mentha piperita, 84. 
Menyantlies, 227. 

Mefpilns japonic a, 214, 
Mia, 146, 147. 

Miaco, 133, 138, 1 40, 215. 
Mkcos river, 135, 

Mican, 130, 

Mikano, f05, 

Mikawzt, 

Mile pofts. Miles, ic8. 

Ivl } llepor a, 204. 

Minakuts, 143, 215, 
MlKAlWOTAj 210. 
Minerals, 203 204* 

vOj ui* 


Iv. 'tit, m after of the, 2 1 7. 
Mirrors, 284, 2S5, 

Mifawi, 166. 

Misforxv, 67, 

Mrfima, 157, 21 1. 

Miterai, izS* 

Ml to, 226, 

Mitfka, 155, 213- 
MoLrinofta, 145. 

Money, 52, 141, 21 7 
Montin, 88, 90, 9 r, 92. 
Moricfitft, 133, 

MOH-OKOSI KOMOttr, t 85 , 
Moras papvrifcLM, 272. 

M >to it To an, 157* 

Mxofiki, 148. 

Mat 1 fr a Tea, 154. 
Mountains, 158 — 160, 1^4* 
165, 232, 233. 

Moya, zz 6 , 

Malcaliurtmnent, 197, 
Maftari, rjS. 

M after roll, iz, 

Murtenng-, 20, 

M/rica aagi, 216. 

N. 

NT*sija, 147. 

N r i>if.iki, 13, 17, 3?, 4-), 

74, 79 — 8 1 > 8 J> 9J, 23.5. 
Nag!, 216. 

Nakabara, 1 04, 

N ASA" A V a 3 Utf N A W , f ? 

Na:< ^ 


B 



I N p E X. 


x . 

NakafTima, t 19. 

Nakmi, rjj, 

Nam e, ad ci ti i ; us, 266 . 
Names fa rr;i 3 y , 266. 

Names, 209, 210* 

Nandi na, ill. 

Nnndio gin, 182* 

Tfango, 166* 

Naffiimij 143. 

Natannl, nat&rifli abra, 137, 
138. 

N ature of die country, 231 — 
230, 

Neatnefs, 2 5 3 . 

New year’s day, 72, 87* 
Nicotian a, 85* 

Night gowns, J 87* 195, 
22z, 267— 26S* 

Night gowns, half, 269 — 
270. 

Niga kotje, 205. 

Nikko ifi, 204. 

Nikkorofik, 204. 

Niko, temple of, 207* 
Nircbutflo, 135. 

Nlomcn, 1 1 6, 

Ntpon, 23 k 
N lponbas, 169, 
i'iifir), 184 
Nifthka, 155. 

N^gata river, no* 
Ndrimens, 97—98, 109, 

202, 

Noli, 150* 


Noun, 1 45 , 

N urn add, 157- 
Nuns, 14 5 — 146, 

Nu ytz, Pe hr, z6 1- 
Nymphcca nclumbo, 

O 

Oak, 161- 
Obotokl, 167, 

Ocymnm, 84* 

Oda, icz. 

Oiogaia, 167, 

OJowara, 166. :in 

Ofama, 147, 

Ogino, 217, 

O a^u/o, 78- 
Oil, 150, 215, 22S. 

Oifters, 5* 69 127. 

Qk$, 141, 

Ojingawa liver, 105, 

Ojbvakis 143, 

Okabe, 157. 

OK A D A J II OSI N, I76—I77- 

Qkafakk 148, 2 15* 

Old do, 167. 

Ok its no frefiawa, 177* 

Oil pe pled drek, 274, 
Omi, 143, 

Ornura, 10 K 
Omuri, 167. 

Onions, 81* 

Onifsus , 2 04. 


1 


r N P E X. 


143, 

Oranges, 130. 

Online, 102, 

Ofaka, 129, 131, 132. 
Oiiukv, 127, 

O Irea pleuronc£les, 3, 
Ofyris, 16 j, 221 — 225, 

Od gaki, 69', 

Octonns, 42, Si* 

Outpods, tu 
O-v&ri, province of, 146* 
Ovvoo, 203* 

F. 

Paardefteen, 202* 

Paint, 77, 7I 
’Palate, hereditary prince's, 

m- 

Palace, the emperor's, 189, 
192, 193, 

Pap en berg, 58, 60* 

Farfley, Su 
Payments, 78, 87. 

Peach tree, 153. 

Pear trees, 154, i6r. 

Peas, 85 , 

P-£braI complaints, 205 
Pebng fcfliva!, 92. 
Pelicans, 133* 

Pepper bash, 62. 

— S pa a i th ,83. 

Perea, 69. 

Perch, 6 9. 


Pod; a, 153. 

P’-.v.mlus, 35 - 

M- 

Phyfidans, 176, 217 
Pfiy eolith 115, 204* 

Pilot fiih, 7 * 

Pine, 157,202. 

Finns, in, 202, zu, 

PI faro, S6. 

PI a vs, 22i. 

FleurcRncteSj 205. 

Plumb tree, 1 5.1. 

Polygon am barhntum, 85. 
Porcelain, 5 2, 103, 1 ox* 
Portuguefe, 44, 231, cot. 
Poll coaches, 1 c8* 

Potatoes, 82, 84* 

Prefents, 72, 85 , 8;, io5, 
ill, 130, 150, 217* 
Princes, 171^174. 

Pride, l 5 o. 

Privy, 281. 

Provinces, 174- 
primus, 153—154. 

Pub lap a to, 3. 

Fulfe, feeling* 201. 

Pumice done, 224. 

Pynis, 154, 161. 

Quamvon, zn—zzi* 
Quartz, 204. 


i; 


R. 




INDEX. 


•# 


XU 


R. 

Radifhcs, black, 8. 

Rain 6, 8, 174, 1S7, 234, 

236. 

Ra n :loak, 99, 174, 175, 
276. 

Rakvyoxv, 185. 

Rrans, 214. 

Rheumatism, 227. 

Rhus, 1 83 . 

Rice, J16, 135, 148. 

Rive; 10, J32, 135, 155, 
1 7, j66, 167. 

Roads, 103, 107. 

Roc'.- 1 14. 

Roc:; -01), 294. 

Roc of fifh, 68. 

R.okogawa, 167. 

Rooms, 66 . 

Ro os, 63. 

RuVia, 63. 

Rulers, 209. 

S. 

Sabaktri, 216. 

Sabbath, 92. 

Saddle horles, 109. 

Sa ICaici Bonsin, 177. 
Sukanofta, 143. 

Sakkawa, 166. 

Sukki, 73. 

Sckaftkis, 203. 

Sal fcu;;.ncm> 204. 


Sale fhops, 280. 

Salmon, 142, 160. 
Sa’tpetre, 204. 

Salutation, 255* 
oamrai, 123. 

S.inga, 104. 

Sangami, 204. 

Sangodin, 204. 

Sangosje, 204. 

Sunnok*, 204 
Sansjo no 1 vo, 163. 

Saori koJi , 204. 

Schema, 68. 

Sea-weed, 1 13. 

Sea-ports, 126. 

Scaling of chcfts, 94. 

1 Searching for fmuggled 
goodo, 13, 23, 26—30, 
31, 94, 95, 230. 

Seki, r 43, 215. 

Seki jen, 204. 

Sekima, 203. 

Seni, 183, 184. 

Senfe of the Japancfe, 252. 
Sepix, 72, 204. 

Servants, 225. 

Sefamum, 215. 

Shells, 2! 1, 

S hell-fan J, 2 03. 

Shi s, 9. 

Shoes, 151 — 152, 272 — 


Simadji, 




Simidfl, 156* 

Simar, 203. 

Simoni fern, 183. 
Simonofeki, 113, 229. 
SLo feki, 203* 
SLmotike, 203, 
Sinag 3 W 2 * 1 58 ^ 169, 
Sinaitio, 167- 
Sinapt, 138- 
SIngo, 147, 

Sinongl, iqi* 

Sinowara, 153* 

Siobuts, izi. 

Sippon, 231, 

SIro jinfo, 204* 
Siro&kki, 137* 

Sudng, manner of, 1 1 3 - 
Sick, 143, 198, 199. 
Sirafka, 154, 

Siwano, 204. 

Sjofufima, 204- 
5}u, 204, 

Sjumou fan, 183. 
Sjuuak, 184. 

Skawaro, 160. 

S'kimmi, 227, 223 - 
Ski nova, 142, 

Skreens, 151* 

S aves, 3, 65, 67. 
Sieving* apparatus 

J 1 3 - 

Slippers, 272—274* 
Smuda, 213. 

Simla;. Chlra, 6i. 


Sm jgglers, fnuiggling, 15, 
26, 27, 28, 30, 

Snow, 236 , 

Snuff, ik, 1 16 * 

Socks, 272, 

Soi no me gin, 204. 
Solarium, 82, 

Somen, n 5 . 

Sono, 145, 

S 00 qua j:nfo, 186, 
Spatterdafhes, 272* 
Spaniards, 44, 

Spiral, 162. 

Spirit, unconquerable, 2*61* 
Sponge, 204, 

Sula&ke, 204- 
Star-fedival, 92, 

Stavenife, the fhip, 1 , 
Steemdekke n,captain # io; 
S te ws , public, 74—76, 115, 
126, 127. 

Simcus marinas, *63, 
Stockings, 272. 

Stoiehoufe, 281- 
St or s, 4, -j, S, 2 j 4 
Strocmtngs, 164. 
Sublimate, correfivtv 199* 
2O0, 

S u a u ^ a v/ a 5 u lo, i 7 6. 
Succory, 82. 

Supctfution, 2^0* 







XIV 


i N D E x. 


Swoto, 102. 

tfyngnathus hippocrmpus, 
204. 

T. 

Takanawa, 168, 169. 
Takara ifi, 204. 

Takkhvo, 102. 

Tako fune, 204. 
Tammariiats, 155-. 

Tan ma mufi, 21 8. 

Taitars, 261, 

Tayfero, 104, 105. 

Tea. ter. tr:c, 108, 216. 
Teeth, 78. 

Temple, ‘ 3 o, 207, 218 — 
220. 

lords, 2i> 103. 

Teredo naval is', 127. 
TeiluJo, 2iS 
Tetraodon, 68. 

Thayls, 116. 

Thcrmometrical obferva 
dens, 6, 234 — 251 
Thrediing, 2:6. 

Thuja, 160. 

Thunder, 234, 236. 

Tide, 2.1. 

Pjiriu or ch’riu, 147, 215. 
Time, insaiurkig of, 88, 
228. 

how pad at Batavia, 

64, 65. 

Under, 71 . 


Tindingawa river, 133. 
Tinsjenmats, 155. 

Tjcmen, 123. 

Tides, 267. 

Tobacco, '85. 

Todokos, 225. 

Todoriki, 104. 

Tomb-ftones, 79. 

Tomida, 143. 

Tooth bru fnes, 161. 

Totfka, 167, 210. 

Towns, 104, 105, 1 io, 14^;, 
146, 154, 155, 166, i 63 , 
179, 203, 283. 

Trade, merchandize^ 43, 
44, 45— Si, S 3 > US- 
Trapa, 213. 

Travelling, 1 oS, 109, tyz, 
173, 175,207—209,210. 
Tfetta, 142. 

Tsjakufi, 145. 

Tft kudfen, 106. 

Tfugara, 204. 

Tiugaro ifi, 204. 

Tlurara ifi, 204. 

Tabipora muf:ca, 204. 

Tu 1 ko, the emperor, 1 1 4. 
Turneps, 82. 
r I urdcs, black, 218. 

V. 

Vaccinia, 161. 

Valour, z6i — 263. 

Ve.TcIs* 




Veffels, failing, 21, 58, yr, 

1 17—119, 146, 147, 1 55> 
232. 

Viburna, 161 . 

Vicia fab a, 86, 

Vie ux lac, 196. 

Villages, 103, 283. 
Vifchers E viand, 61. 

Visits, 173 — 174, 217* 
Vocabulary, Japarefe, 1S6, 
and at the end of the VoL 

U- 

Umbrella, 99, 174*. 
Umemcrs, 204, 

Uniwatt a, 204. 

Unicorn’s horn, 49* 
Urtica, 63* 

Ufida, 47, 

Utsnoja, 157, 

Utfmi, 106, 

Ulva, 1 15, 1 63 * 

W. 

Walnuts, 201 . 

Wax, 188. 


Weather, regUler of the, 
233—254, 

Weeds, 136, 

Weig ts, 52. 

Winds, 235. 

Windows, 279. 

Wives, 77, 197. 

Wolf, 196. 

Women, 105, 120, 

Work (hops, 280. 

Worm or caterpillar, 69, 
70. 

Worms in children, 165, 
’Wormwood, 79, 226. 

Y* 

Year, divifion of, 88. 

Yard, 281. 

Z. 

Zlpangri, 231. 

Z 1 1 mo to, Franyoh, 231* 
Zodiac, figns of, 90. 






, * 





VOCABULARY 


OF THE 

JAPANESE LANGUAGE, 


A 

ABhorrcnce, Kajir^ modof* 
Abufive language, Sajo* 
to Ac cafe, betray. Sir as 
ftirw t fin in furu. 

Aftor, Sibaida. 
to Ad mo mill, Nagufamu. 
Adopted Ion, Jafi, jootfi> 
jajfina iko* 

Affrighted, Qturujka , Ofi- 

rui okuraft, akatme. 

to be Afraid, Tamagam* 

A gall o chum. Sin fa* 
Agreeable, Jurofikku . 
Again!! the ftream, Sue no 
ivartka* 

to Agree for, ta bargain, 
Makurxi. 

Air, Sara* 

All, Met* 

Almsy Fvd&hjfuy ftgto* 


Alum, Mijban . 

Alone, folitary, Rakarly to- 
Jin t fammifiku. 
to Allow, to permit, JtiuJh 
Allowed, jur us gmtru 
Amber, R&wctkv* 
Ambergrift, Kufir* nt fttng? 
i* e* Whales exer£* 
meats. 

Amendment, Joifo* 

Aniieed, Oikid. 

Anifeed water, UiljoJJt* 
Anchor, Ikdri* 
to Anchor, to hi go the 
anchor, Ikdkarii* 

Anrrrfal, Kzdatkvno* 
to be Angry, 
iha.ru* 

to make any ©n£ Angry, 
Faratdfe? fitfitru* 
to grow Angty, JPmhS* 
iatfunt> fankatatfuru, 

Anvil^ 





2 


Vocabulary 


Aijvil, Kanafiki . 

AnfwOr, Fento> fcriji, kotai . 
to Anfwer, Fcnto furuyftnjt 
furuy kotai furu . 

Anguifli, Atjoku 
Apothecary’s (hop, Surria . 
to Appear, to look like. 
Mid 

Apparition or ghoft, Bak - 
kemonoy jurei. 

Arm, Ud?. 

Armofyn filk, Kaiki . 

Arms, coat of arms, ilfow- 
g°rc. 

Arrow, quiver, 7*, 7* /- 
fufu. 

AHcnal, Zfogw 
Artery,. Miakofufi . 
to be Alhamed, Faffiru. 
Alhes, UfiCyfaiyJinobai. 
to Aik, requeft, Tannomu . 
to Afk, to enquire, . T ajfu- 
nuru. 

to Aflay, Kokuru miru, 

Afs, Lob a, 

Aflant, 7 agamu> jongo, 
Afthma, Ikino/emekv . 
Aftronomer, Fojffimi • 
to Attend, to wait upon, 
A«V#ru. t 
Attendant, Sairio. 
to Augment, to increafe, 
JaJfffjaw, fydatfuru* 

Ax, Waro 3 tjono, flow* 


B. 

Back, Senaka. 

Bad, Faradatc, far at at s, fa- 
rakahiy <i varikakufe, kufe no 
tvarika , ifenowari. 

to Bake, to bake bread, 
7 ak<Vy pan jakv . 

Bali, globe, Tippo no tamma. 

Ball, to play with, Verna, 
tamma , Mali. 

Banilhed, Dufai. 

Barber, perriwigmaker, Ka- 

miyjui. 

Bare, naked. Bo, faguru , 
baguru . 

Bare- footed, Sivajff. 

Barley, Omuggi. 

Ballard, Tetenaffigo. 

Bath, warm :bath, Ijhmi , 
unjtng. 

to Bathe in a tub, Furu. 

Bat, or flittermoufe, Komu - 

ri. 

a Beam or balk, Hariy fai- 
mokv. 

a Beam in building, Bo - 

tfuje. 

Bean, Marne. 

to Bear, to bear children, 
Sam u, famkejffukuy fanfuru . 

1 a Bear, Je. 

Bed, Nedokuri. 

Bed curtain, Kaja katjo . 

Bedftead, 





OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE. 3 


Bed Head, Toka. 

£0 Begin, Hajfim&rW) fasji- 
maru . . 

Beginning, Fasjhne* 
to Beg, a beggar, Morau , 
fitting) kojku 
Bellows, FujigOy 
Belly, Stabara . 
to Bend, Oru* 
to Befmear, Fikv. 
to Befpcak, Atfuraj 
Bcfpoken goods. At fur aj e 
mono, tamoni mono, 
to Bewail, Knuiamajki* 
to Bind books, Tjamintcfim* 
Bird, Tori, tjo. 

Bird cage, Tori no fa* 

Bird lime. Tori mtji wan- 
na* 

Bird’s bill, Tfuhujfa > kutji- 

baJJI. 

Bird’s neit, Tori no fa , Jens. 
Birds, the finging of. Tori 
no fajoru. 

Birth day, Tansjo mtji x Uma- 
ttfi* 

Bitter, Nigaka, Nigai* 

Blind, Mekwura> memokfi 
Blood, Tji y Kjets. 
to Blow, to blow up the fire, 
Fuhv > fichu. 

die wind Blow?, Kofi no 
fuhv, 

to Blo w mu Fukv, kefi. 


to Blow the nofe, Fauna 

toruw 

Blubber of whales, &c. 

TokurUy abra no banjo a* 
Board, eating, Sukomots, 
kuitnonOy hi f nos. 

Boat (Dutch) Oh at era. 

Boat (Japanefi ) Tsmma * 
Body, Got at* 
to Boil up, Fagiru* 

Bone, Fane* 

Book, Sonnets* 

Borough, Ukefaij ukejauj 
kebejanuu. 

Borrowed, Finavoa* 
to Border upon, Sakkai fit- 
ru> 

Botanift, Tanfifi* 

Boundary, Sakkai* 

Boundary mark, Fofi 
Boon, or requeft, Tannomu 
Bow, to fhoot with a bow, 
Jumi, iru. 

a Bowl for playing at nine 
pins, Tamm a* 

Box, Fako* 

Box, I remono m 
Brain, Itadakkf fiakkujc* 
Branch of a tree, Jeda. 
Brandy, and all forts of fpi- 
rituous liquors, $ otju * 
Brafs, Sintju* 

Breadth, Jakob aba } firofh* 
Bread, bread of a woman, 
Tjitji. 


Bread, 



4 


VOCABULARY 


Breafl, Mone> 

Breath, Jki. 
to Breathe, Ikitfuky. 
to Break, Fikfakv^ jafmru, 
jak'if. 

Breeches, Fakama y hakama. 
Bride, Fannajomi. 
Bridegroom, Fannamoko. . 
Bridge, Fas , has* 

Broad, Fir of a, fyqi,froka. 
Broom, Fuji . 

Broom, Foki. • 

Brother, cldeft brother, Ki- 
odai , bubo, ant . 

Brother in law, Koffuto , &?- 
fucto. 

Brothel, JoruJJiay affubia , 
kefeja , ajfubifo. 

Bucket, Tfurubi , tango. 
Buckwheat, «S^. 

Bud, flower bud, Tfubomi . 
Buffalo, &*///. 

Bug, infeft, AbramuJJi . 
Bunch, Tarnma . 

Bundle, Makimome . * 
to Burft, to crack, AVuigrtb 
Kokorobiru, 

to Bum, Jakv 3 mojafi , wc- 

y^ru. -* 

Burgher, or citizen, Skajfa. 
Burgomafter, 

to Bury, Sorin, furx\ y okury. 
Burying ground, 


Button, button hole, 
Botangana. 
to Buy, Ka'ivu, kao , 
to Buy and fell, Baibai . 

C. 

Cable, Tjanfuna . 

Calf, Lf/ioko, kous . 

Calf of the leg, Stofone. 
Calumback, Kiara . 
to Call, y^u. 
to Call out, Nagakvy omck<v , 
Camphor, &?//*, 

Candle, Rofokvy from Ro, 
war*, Sokv, 
Candleflick, #a/a/L tatti* 
Cannon, IJJibia. 

Cap, ityJV 

Capacious, roomy, Tjfya/. 
Captive, prifoner, Sumebito . 
Capital, flock, 

Cards, Semekv , nifkaha. 
Cart, Kuruma , gumma, go- 
fogumma . 

Carpenter, Daiku. 
to Carry out, Saguridajfw. 
to Carry away, Mootj \\ , 

<u>u WA/te. 

Cafh, ready money, Sedan. 
toCafhier, Madoffu, kajcjjix . 
Cat, MtOyfieko. 

Catje, Ik kin* 

Caufe, reafon, IVanjits. 

f 



OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE, 


to Celebrate or extol* Fo- 

meru. 

Chafing difh (large) Fifat- 

fji' 

Ditto (fmall)^ ro. 

Chalky Siraffumu 
Chamber, cabin. Sea fea * 
to Change or alter, Fjigau, 
kazuatn. 

Cl lain* KfivufarL 
Chapter, Ketta. 

Charcoal, Sumijfam* 
to Chew, Asjinva u. 
to Cheat, Damajfu. 

C he e k, Hogeta y fv, fageta* 
Chdl, A ago, nagamtlji* 
Chief juftice, Ofuffi* 
Chicken, Fhfo* 

Child, Kodoma. 

Chintz, Sara/a. 
dropping knife, pei?ako- 

tjOy mmm* 

Church, Tera* 

Cinnamon, Nikke w 
Circle, Maru* 

Citadel or cattle, Sira, Jo * 
Clay, Siraffkmi. 

Claw, Tmmarige* 

Clean, Kirdnp, sjomi* 

Clear, Sstmg* 
to Climb, Nageru* 
to Clip, to clip oft*, Se* 
to Clip with feiflars, Kiru f 
fafami kir\x. 

Cloak, Hawori* 


Cb&k to keep out the rain* 

ToL 

Clock, Suriganni, rei. 

Cloth, So king* 

Cloth, to wipe plates with, 
Fui king , 

a ft] it of Clothes, Kimono * 
to have a fuk of Clothes on. 
Kimono kirn* 

Cloves, fjooji* 
pit Coal, Ifufumi * 

Cobweb, Kvjumo no j& t tnc- 
noje * 

Cock, Qndari, otori , 
Cockscomb, fori no kabito* 
Coxcomb, Kahuto* 

Coffin, Knvanokt* 

Cold, Samka King, 

Cold, a diford er, Kgfim 
fnru* 

to Catch cold, Kafi fukv, 

f&kaji* 

Commo4ioufl>-, with eafe. 

SJiv> SJiona* 
to Compel, Muri* 

Common, general, or uni- 
verfal, Omjijona. 

Common, or ordinary, S/un$ t 

tju* 

Compafs, to fleer by, Fobari 
hoharri* 

a Comp refs, Makimome* 
Commerce, to trade, Akira* 
Sohqu 

to Compare, Attajkarani. 

Coarfe* 




6 


VOCABULARY 


Coarfe, Aral, areka jjnovuai* 
ha. 

Coat of mail, Kapto< 

Colic, SenkL 

Colour, to colour, Iro , trots- 
kuru 3 fomuru * 

a pair of CompaQbs, Buma- 
t wajfu» 

to Complain, fodokuru, uia - 
jura, mofaguru, todtikek<v. 
to Come, Kttru* 

Comb, to comb, ]&wufi 7 
K%vajkes urn* 

Convcrfadon, Koicha atfu- 
me* 

to Con fife ate, Kjsju. 
to Conduct any one out to 
the door, Okuru, utjkkurvt. 
I /ball Conduct him out, 
Waiaks hifi utji ekuri 
majjbm 

Conduit, Kakifi. 
to Confide r, Anfurxx , 
Confectionary, SaUojoki. 
to Conquer, Katfi* 

Cook, Riourir.cn. 
to Cook, Tak<v, niafu. 

Cool, Stiffs, 
to Cool, §ofu,funu 
Copy, Ujuft . 

Copy id, UtjujUy uiufu. 
Copper, Agaganni, akrtgan- 
ni* 

Coquet, Ira mow* 

Corner, Fauna. 


Cordage, rope, Tftna, hi m 
kaswa. 

tarred Cordage, Tjattfunct* 
Cork, Seng. 

Corpfe, Sitting* figejo* fi~ 

gw ■ 

to Cod, e.vpences, Nedang, 
fapiy irk - 

Cottage, Sato, mar a. 

Cotton, Kinvatta. 

Court, Miaco. 

Cough, SRwamaki. 
to Count, to reckon, Kansju, 
fan jo furu. 

Counting houfe, Smjobea. 
Courageous, Kimono filoka^ 
amarw. 

Cover or lid. Ft a. 
to Cover, Tfutfumw, mu 
Coverlit for a bed, Fttmg* 

C o ve nan t> Kuhir u * 

Cow, cow beef. Us, us no 
niku. 

Crofs, SJwnanJi. 

Crols road, Sjumonjt, mt~ 
ji , jotskado. 

Creature, animal, Juka* 
fP* 

Crooked, Magaru. 
to Crufh to pieces, Fifagttrtt* 
to Creep, /au, 

Cray -hill. Game. 

Creek or bay, Nada. 

Crazy, Bakka , bah. 


OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE. 


2 


Cup, tea cup, Wang, tia- 
njoang. 

the Cup of a pair of fcales, 
enbin, 

to Cut, i. e* to he (harp, 
Kuifakv, ktiikirxx. 
to Cut aftmder, Kim. 
Cuftoms, cuflom-lioufcji^i- 
fing, kokfing hamjo * 

C u Ihion, pin - c u fliio it, Fari- 

f*A 

D 

Dainty, delicious, Umaka. 
Dark, Mime * 

to Dawn as the day, Akibo- 

ni{. 

Dam, fifh Dam, Ike. 

D augh te r, Mu fine > gogo • 
Danger, Abunaka. 
Dangerous, Abunaikatb, 
Damage, prejudice, Takka- 

r^jong, 

D evout, Tfutinfunde. 
Devotion, K^ivaum*. 

Damafk, Dons, 

Devil, Out, 

Deep, Fukmf*kaka* 

Dear, ccftly, Takkaj tfufuku. 
Dead body. Sin da fining. 
Dear, my dear, Sulv Suita, 
onego. 

Defire, inclination, Fhnmi 
konomuifuk* 

to D Z&xAXy Kansjo aju > Sanyo 
^ ajvu 


Debt, Sid- (gin* 

Debtor, Sakugin ota fito 
Deceit, fraud, Damajkoto 
Deformed, Fefong. 
to Dig, Foil. 

Di fm dined, without defire 
for a thing, Konaman. 
Dirtinefs, uncle armnefs, 

Akfta, 

Dirty unclean, Kifane-tjogofe^ 
Diffuade, Jamarw . 
to Divine, foretell, Sufi mK 
ru, uranau, 
to Difmount, Orim, 
to Difmifs one fro m office, 
Itoma, 

Difmiffion, Itoma , 
to Difcharge or Difmlft, 
Itimagd, 

to Divide, Wakuouru. 
Diarrhoea, Kuudas* 
to Die, Sinnoru finu* 

Difh, Kooke. 

to Difgnife or inalk, Ifo furu, 
a Ditch with water, Forte* 
Foka. 

Dice, the playing with dice, 
Saiiy bakutji utfu . 

Divers, various. Fro iro. 
Difference, diftmaion, Ma* 

tig**' 

toDifcover, Owamw, 
to make a Difference, Mat* 
figotoru. 

Difciple, Keko . 
to Dislocate a bone, Fanjft. 
Dike or bank. Dote . 


Double 




8 


VOCABULARY 


Double, Kafannanu • 

Dove* Fato, 

wild Dove, Jamma fato. 

tame Dove, Jefato. 

Door, To* 

Doormat* Toma. 
to Double, Kafannu, kafano- 
m* 

Done* executed, has. 
to Do, or make, &rru, Hajfiy 
Sukurrw* 

toDo one's beft, like jai m* 
kuu 

Dog, Inn* 
to doubt, Utagw* 

Dragon, Fir to* 
to Draw the portrait of any 
one. Nag U, torni* 
to Draw, Katamitrti f moot 
fk*v . 

to Draw out, Nugsx* 
Drawers, or under breeches, 
FikOy momofki* 

Dream r jvme jutitl'mHxi, 
to Drcfs one felf, o tja* 
ky fa ru yfifu kfuru* 

DrefTed and pairited Lady, 
Mifmai. 

Drum, Tdih* 

Drunkard,. fetk/arL 
Drink, Nomhiono. 

Drop, Td&ima. 
to be iDrutik, 

to pretend to be Drunk, 

JeikyfarajfurL 

It is break of day# Ju no aki f 
juaki* 


to Drink, AWn. 

Duck, tame Afiruy Wild, 
Kasho. 

to Dwell* inhabit, Tfmu> 
Tatfurw tsilkurU. 
Dyfentery* t)kahara y 
to Dry* dry* in, Fojfi, hojfi. 
to Dry up* wither, Karra m. 
Dry, Kanaka* fru* bojfix f r- 
jora, 

E 

to Earn, dcferve, Sotmuru , 
Stomuru jakv. 

Earthquake, Djifn* 

Earth, the Earth, Tji djt* 
Ear, Mm. 

Ear ach* Menu no Ham . 
Eaft* Figafi. 

to Eafe one’s felf, evacuate* 
J offing, fang, fufo. 

Ebb tide, Swveo no fra* 
Echo, Fibiku. 

Edge* border* Fas . 

Edge of a mat* Tuttami m 
fen. 

%g> Egg Tamago, 

Tamago no kmra* 

Eggs, to la^ Tamago tn$i- 

>• 

Eggs, to fit OTiy Fioko tookomn- 
ru* 

Eel* Unagh 
Ell, Min* 

Elbow, Udeyffi. 

Elephant, So* 

Elnpfe 



OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE. 


Elapicd, paft, Sngita. 
Empty, Mi* 

to Emptyx vac uate^ixu vru . 
Envy, Nett&mj* 

Envious, Nsramu, 

Enemy, Kata ki* 

Enfign ftaiF, Hatofaoy fata - 
favso* 

Enigma, conjecture, Nafe* 
E n t : aih , Farawatta . 

End, Gariy fi me , fimaU 
Eternal, Ifi* 

Every day, Nei/tts. 

Every night, M si bang. 
Events, adventures, Fujtna^ 
hanajji 1 

Even, level. Fir at aka. 
to Exchange, Kajuru . 
to Exercife, Mannabsx. 
to Excel, IV aiarw. 
Executioner, SfohL 
to Exp eri e rx e, Mida/fti, 

Mijkc dajji\* 
to Explain, SimaM. 
to Examine accompts, Fijta 
Su* 

Eye of a Needle, Farim 

mimifi, 

to Eat, Eatables, AW* kui 

mono* 

F. 

Fakon, Vabka* 


Face, or coun tenanc e , Kotjqo, 
omottey minmnte* tf$m* 
to Fall, Otj it sty ta-wareta , 
to Fall fhort, Taring, fu - 
fikv* 

Falfe, to adulterate, Nijt, 
nite ; nijt'ntonoffu. 

Famine, Katfujetof^ hikings 
Fan, Oge w 
Round fan, Utfuwa* 
Fan-maker, Qgitjkuri* 
Fan-duck, Oflori, 

Farewell, Kingo, nigofimt* 
to Fall, Sojimw, 

Father, TV*, toto* 
grand Father, jim* 

F athe r in law , Jit/o/o * 
Fathom, one fathom, Fire, 
fitofiro. 

Fat, it is fat, Kqjutu, kor 
jm wxx* 

Feather, fqrt no fa* 
to Fear, Of rum* 
to Feel, Obajstru* 

Feeble, Joxoaka, jcvjai* 
FefHval, Matfuri * 
to Fetch, Toriuffkri* 

Fever, Nets, hitfx* 

Field, corn-field, FatakL 
Field, Nabekv. 

Figure* Katats * 
a Flic, to file, fa/hri, fa/u- 
rifuruy J a fit ri kakurw* 

Fin, a fin, jsfofrhjirt* 
b Fin« 


fine, Kama kanna , kcmaina , 
kontaka, komai • 

Finger, jub't. 

to Find, to hit upon, Mi- 
daf[\i> midJkurM) midkedajfu . 
Fire, /V, Jinoko. 
a Fire (Inccndium) K'vcajji. 
to Fire off a mufejuet, t/z/ii. 

Fifh, Jwoyfakkana. 

to Fifli, /aw //fcru. 
Fiiherman, Riefe 1 
Fifliing box, Binto* 

Fifhing net, 

Fifh fried in oil, Agi two. 
Fift, Tekobus . 

Flag, colours of a fhip, //iz- 

u. 

Flame, Fctn y moi ibL . 
a Flea, Afar/, 
to Flea, Fagurxi > 

Flint, Kadotfi. 

Flood, Si*wo. 

Floor, 

Flour or meal, Mugilo. 
a Flower, Fanna . 
to Flower or bloom, Fanna, 

fai*u, 

Flower pot, Fanna iki, fau- 
na tfuba • 
a Fly, Hat . 
to Fly away, 7w£u. 
to Fly away, Fukitfirojfi* 


Frame, Aiding frame, Sofo~ 
noko, Sofoncfcnc. 

Free, to free, Frasc, momu. 
Frefll, Ataraf/t • 
to Freeze, Kognfuru. 

Friend, Ftoobai. 
good Friend, Naka a jrfL, 
naka no jokcu 

bad Friend, Naka no <iuarka . 
to Frighten, Odcffii, ofururvL 
to Froth or cream, Anna 

tatfuru. 

Fruit, fruit kernels. Mi, 

fanne. 

Fog, foggy weather, KL* 
ri y donieng . 

,Fold, wrinkle, Fidda> 

I to Follow, Tfufuk v • 

I Foot, 'affi. 

Force, ftrength, Sicaria. 

[ Force-meat balls, Kamma* 
boku/ 

[Foreigner, famma midof. 
to Foul, make dirty, Jcge* 

ru. 

Fountain fpring. Mis no kj- 
rakuri . 

Four-footed, fotfajfi. 

Fox, Kitfnt. 

Fuel, fire-wood, 7 akigu 
Full, Mils. 

Full, fatiaied, 5 kaijuru. 




OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE, 


G, 

IQ Gain, Kata, Katjh. 

Gain, pro fit, Di, disjung. 
GaH, Ox gall, Fang, guzvo* 
Gallery, L htjt* 
to Gape, the jaws, Akuhxi, 
akitoL 

Garden, HannabhatakL 
Garret, Nikai* 
to Gather together^ Atjk- 
jur\x,jorij&L 
Gate, Mong* 

Gentle, Sworn », Jbfikina,/a- 
nuaraJtana. 

to Gild, gilded, Riuii^fan^ 
kimfaku. 

Ginger, Sjoga* 

Girl, maiden, Komufm* 
Girdte, Skimmm***, fanfo- 
kagL 

to Give, Fursm, jam* 
to Give up, WatajJ^furtrO. 
to Give up to, to deliver 
tyer to, Niwatajf*. 
to Give back in return, 
Modoffa, ksjoffu. 

Glad, merry, I%va* t mojfi, 
GJove, Te m hi. 

Glue, Simegi. 
to Glue, Sirngi fafamu . 
to Go away, Madam, kairu, , 
to Go into fame body',5 
Jioufe, Jorjukv,Jito t no Jo 
kurQ juhv. 


to Go down, UfurxL, im* 

* to Go up, Aguru. 
to Go out, Sitsjjugjo* 
to Go to bed, Nin jin, 
he Goat, Jagi, 

God, iS'.vj, kami. 

Gold, gold coin. Kin, kin- 
fag. 

Gonorrh^, Rimjo* 

Good, it is good, Jukka^ 
Jukka. 

Goodman, Jukka fto. 
Good natured, Naka mjuk- 

ka w 

to be goodfor nothing, Jo- 
mht* 

Good*, merchandize, Mcuo. 

Grapes, Buds, 

Gmu, O, Stfqfy* 

Gnat, &u 

to Grind, Ufa, mtmar u* 
to Grind, grindtione, Jcgtt, 
tojifi. 

Ground, P on, fin. 

Guard, imperial guard. Bang 
shan Juru . 

tO'fcecp Guard, Ban Jutju 
to Chiefs, Atjuru. 

Gull, Kagame* 

Gun, fowling piece, Teppo, 

tippo. 

Gut, Qbj&vau** 



i Z VOCAB 

H. 

Hail, Arari, 

Hair, Kami . 

Hammer, Kanatfutji. 

Hand, Te, 

Hand, Koaka, kowai% ko- 
nvarka. 

Handle, Motji. 

Handle of a pot, Knvang, 
Handy, Gajkoi, 
Handkerchief, Tcnogoi * 
Hare, U> u/agi . 

Harnefs, Kapto, 

Hally pudding, padc for 
books, (larch. Nori. 
Hade, to make hade, Motja. 
Haily, AJJegaro , 

Hat, Kafa. 
to Have, Artty ah. 

Haven, bafon or bay. Mi- 

natOy trie. 

Hawk, r obi. 

Head, Kubi, 

Head ach, Attamanna, ita - 
ma y dtlifo • 

to Heal, to cure, Jeta * 
Health, TaJJianijle. 

Heart, Kokiirro,fengJingnofo. 

to Hear, Kikf. 

Hearth, fmith’s forge, Ma- 
kati, 

Heavens, the (ky. Ten, 
Heaven, the manfion of the 
bleiTed, Gohurakv. 


ULARY 

Heavy, Omoka, omotaka . 

1 1 Heel, Kibis. 

Help, to help, Kajfti, tori- 

matj'uy kajj'c fkru . 

Heft?, a Hen, Tori, men- 
der i metori. 

Herb, Kzuufa, Kufa • 
Herring, or Pilchard, Kq- 
noferu. 

Hereditary prince, Dai - 

nag on famma . 

Heron, dork, Sagi, Kona 
toi. 

to Hew, to cut, KirXX, 
to Hide, Kak/u. 

Hide, ikin, Kawa • 

Hideous, OtoruJJik . 

High, Dakka . 
to Hinder, Motomeru, 
blip, Momo\ 

.a Hiftory book, concerning 
* wars and martial deeds, 

1 Ikfauno, hannafibo , 

to Hit, Nerau. 
to Hoard up, take care of, 
Nanuaffiiy u. 

Hoarfe, Kojekari , kui no ka- 
karu, 

to Hoill up a ched, Fikia- 
gur\i. 

to Hoi d a fail, Hoaguru. 
to Hoid fail, Hoagura , ba- 
rn aku. 

Hog, wild boar. Sis , ino Jis, 

Hole, 



OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE. 


Hole, or cavity, /kma* 
to Held one’s tongjte, Da- 
maissm* 

Honour, Roho, 

Honey, Fats mid$* 

Hook, KakkigaiwZ* 
to Ppk foftg K&km * U 
Horn, Fjunm, kakv* 
j£$i urn- 

draught Horfe, A/w, mm- 

M*U 

fuddle Ilorfe, Jams sj we* 
Kotj Jltjha* 

Houfe, Js* 

Houfe rent, Jcnttfs* 

Hunger, Fimft* 
to Hunt, Kart* 
to Hurt, to do hurt, Waku- 
ru* 

Hyfbries, m women, Skat, 
, — in men, 


Jack ferew, Manrjkh 
Ice, KoorL 

jealous, Dittgfuru, mlatm, 
111, Faradati t farataih fara- 
kakiy rivarikaktyl' > kufe no 
<warika ifinesuaru 
to do III, ffi zruk&kmfuru , 
to fpeak 111 of any one, Wa- 

rika , ktifaju* 

important, Tatfeu 


to Improve or meliorate. 

Impolite , B&, ojitnsn^ 

i>urei* 

I mp ud en% Cajlafme. 
ImpoAibk, Sofa arm r* 

I n c e n dia ry , FiifokR 
Tn convenient, Fufuma, 
Income, MdjUf'd moms. 
to Infect, Watjuru* 
lEifeCtious diftemper# Utfvrl 
javrmi. 

Ink, Sum, f ami. 

Ink ft and, Sufimi halo. 

Inn, Jedoja, fu <j fin 
Inful t, affront, Ft as. 
Interpreter, TfiF. 

Ditto upper, OjRdi 
Ditto under, Kzjuji, 

I nil rued, Qjlrzty tftjmt, 
to Invite, Niljkur a, 

I ron, Tds , f b roganni* 
to Iron clothes, Finsfifiwx . 
Iron for fmoothing clothe^ 
Nori^jinnsjt Jit; net, 

Ifland, Dfima* 
to Itch, Kalka, 

Itch, an eruption on the 
fkin, Kaja* 

to join together, Jo/urv. 

tfigu. 

journey, Tabi. 

to take a Journey* Taht furn * 

jour n ey horn cvv ard s , Kudan . 

journey. 




H 


VOCABULARY 


Journey upwards, N abort. 
Ditto downwards y Kudari . 
Judge, Tadajfd. 
to jump off, 7^'u. 

Ivory, 8cge,fogi. 

K. 

to Kill, Korojfd. 

Rils, Umakuiji , Kwytjifu. 

?d Kift, UmaJcutji June. 
Kitchen, Kammado . 
Kingdom, Kutti , kutuni. 
Kettle, Jafavang. 

copper, Tctjak\cxng. 

iron, Fjifdag. 

— — china, Dobine . 

Key, key hole, i^g/, £*£* 

Knife, table knife, 11 aka, 
faha y fotjo. 

folding Knife, On f aka. 
pen Knife, Ko gat anna. 

X £C.e, Ftfa,ffanofarra • 
to Kneel, F tfatatfuru. 

Knot, Fimmo. 
to Know (feire) &>u. 
to Know (cognofccre) M- 

firu. 

Known, Miftcoika. 
a Known herb, Konoku/a, 
mjteurka. 

to let one Know, Jranuaru- 
ra. 


Knap upon cloth, Klunu 
k'-yjadas. 


Lace, Sajjdfcri* 
to Lacquer over, Mai/* 
fyru. 

Lacquered work, Mali* 

mono, nor i mono. 

Lacquered >york, gilded, 
Na/u, 

Ladc^eti Fafigo. 

Lady, Okat/a, mobs. 

Lamb, j Fit/ufiijtki. 

Lame, Tjukjfito. 

Lamencfs, Naijuru. 

Lamp, FUomoJiy f.Uibofi, an- 
don. 

Lamp oil, Fomojt abura. 
Lamp black, Fcgiua fum, 
Siam, -kemuri. 

Land, Kokf, kuui , 

Landgrave or Lord of the 
Diftricfc, Koks Ji, daimio. 
Landlord, hod, Te/u. 
Lantern, Japanefe, of pa- 
per, ¥ jot jin. 

Ditto of glafs, T oro. 
Larboard, Torikaji . 

Lading, Hanni f honnaketo. 
Laughable, Qkajht. 

Law, Sicki. 

ft 

to Lay, 



OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE* 


Lay, Oiv. 

to Lay bold on, Tcrajcra, 
jhamaijoro.. 

to Lay a wager, Kake,furu. 
Lazy, lazy fellow, ltafnro , 
fionakamono; fonajfs. 

L eadi N artdtn, 
white Lead, Strom. 
black’ Lead yrhcil, Seiftu 
a Leaf, Fa. 

Leak, leaky* Meru. 

Lean, to grow lean, Jaffita, 
Jaffa. 

to Learn, Nara u, Ktiku. 
to Lecture, Stajutrafum* 
to Lend, Kara. 
to Lend oat, Karbd&Jjk. 
Length, Nagafan. 

Leflon, Tjumi ju* 
to LriTen, Skttno jttrxu 
to Let fly an arrow, Jnt, 
Letter of the alphabet. MoF 
£ f iff moufi* 

a Letter, an Sja § u- 

garni, 

to Lick, Nebaru. 
to Lie Iff wait, Snolimiru* 
to Lie down to fl *ep, A7- 
turn. 

to Lift, Moljiagaro. 
trake Light, Kamku furu, 
to Light, to JrincHe, Fiiobu- 
/u, ft mat u~ 


to Light a candle, Rofih- 
miffs kuru. 

Lightening, Inafuma, ixa> 
hikai. 

Lime, Strobe, tfikui * Si robot. 
to bom Lime, Shut jaFv. 
to Limp, limping, Ttjm&s 
fkv, fjimbd. 
a Line or ftripe, Mi mi. 
Ling, Hainq/b* 

Lint, Mdja. 

Lion, Sis. 

Lip, Tfuba. 

a Liquor prepaid f>o; 3 i 
rice, Sakki. 

Liquorice, Spantfli, 7a ftkiri* 
Liquorice root, Kanfo* 
to Live, InotjL 
Lrvejy, jfots mijkmt , 

Liver, Kimmo. 

Living, Utoru. 
to Load, Manje tfumu, niai r 
fur xi. 

to Load a horfe, J7oru. 
to Load a !hip, Niakv 

mil. 

to take a Load in, Tfu >v. 
Komvx. 

Lock, So, Sjo,jooiJkt4fi, 
Long, Nagai. 
to Long for, Nagafinx. 
to Look out after, Miamsaf 
Juru- 

to Leo!: ar, Mm. 


Lcokinj 


VOCABULARY 


*> 

Looking glafs* K "garni* 
Lcofe, Ores* 
to Lofc- at play, M&knru* 
to Loo fen, Tekty* 
jLois, 

ta LcL, Sang fum, makur\i 9 
Sirainif fiihifirami* 
\jy?fy rikuu 

Lockyj fortunate, not Juki} 

f:d-jsai. 

L^OTarm, Nasta* 

to Lye, to tell a lye, Sura- 
gate i vjfif* 

hh 

Mai, Kitjigai, cfo> laka* 
Mad, Kit j\ gnu 
ts> have Made, SkuraJJam* 
TilajcEty, Gajo. 

;o Make larger or enlarge, 
TeGt u juru . 

Mtth in the general fignik- 
tauon, Mww. 

Man (yir) Qtoka* 

M anne hOJismmiU * 

Manure, K'jc. 

Map, Sfa. 

Mar** JXtunQ. 

Mark, butt, Sir us* 

Mark, kg a, Survfiu 
%o Mark, to write down* 
Suntjt mr u , f rf jur u * 
to Marry, Kfinrcfiam* 
Marriegc, 


Married man, Mtior\i % iaf- 
Jhru* 

Marrow, Tfjio. 

Mali, H 'shaft . 

Mailer of a fhip, Settjfo* 

Mat, doormat, T ait a mi. 
a Match to light fires with, 

Skedakhi , jlcgi. 

Matter of afore (Pkj) XI mi* 
Meal, Si&nr.doki* 

Mean, $jiwg % tju » 

Meades, Hajjikct. 
to Meafave, to take meafure* 
Slav /&rru, Jtakfuifxx . 
Meafure of capacity, Mme* 
Mcafure, to meafurc length 
with, Siakj\ tmmfafa „ 
Meat, fkfh, Miku* mi. 
a Medicine, K^ajjurhg^furu 
to Melt, Jgum> kiuru loti urn* 
M e rch an t , Jfkiinto , finin . 
Merry, glad, Omafftroi - 
M e ifoge , M eke ng er> S kai, 
KetjLaL 

M e tal , Karaganm . 
to Mew like a cat, Kefo, 
nahnj* 

M !c rofc ope , Mojimtgannz. 
Midwife, Tm&gibaka s To* 
riagik&ka. 

Mild, F dtfnar menu* 

Mile, a mile, J\i t itjirl* 
Mile poll j Itjin fura ■ 

> Miiki Tjtightji* 


Milk 






OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE, 

the Mounting of any thing) 

Kan ago* 

Mo ale, Kmtifmnh 
Mouth, Ruts y hvjutjL 
Mud, Nora* 
to Murder, Totokuroj/o* 
Murderer, StoHoroJfi, meffudo* 
Mufk, Slake, 

Mullard, Karas* 


Milkwoman, Onago no Utu 
Mill, Us y kuruma , 

Milt or fpleert, Hchwfo* 
to Mimic, A^ru. 
Miferable, HajfiL 
Misfortune, FnfainvaL 
Mi reliance, mife image, 

Soifan f chomang, 

Miftake, Matjlgau 
Miff refs, L e. concubine. 
So tekaki* 

Mif-ufe, SojugUy cblgmt* 
to Mix, Mafura* 

Mode, cuftom, Qkftabiri, 
Modeliy, balhfulncfs, Ha/ 
j&Jfi* fltfskaffik n* 

Moment, Met af ah * , 

M on ke y, ape, Sar u , /ala* 
Money, Kane . 

Monthly courics, Swxarri, 
Skinmon* 

Moon, TfukL 

new Moon, M skat Juki* 

full Moon, Mangets. 

Moon light, Wajfukvi 
Mofs, Koh* 

Moth, Kofi, 

Mother, Fafa>kaf a * 

Mother of pearl, Slrfu* 
Mother in law, Jitfido, jit- 
nsfiafa. 

Mould, mouldinefs, KaSl t , 

habl furVU 

Mountain, Jamma* 


N, 

Nail (iron pin) gauger, 
Kuttgi klrs\ 

Nail on the finger, T/ume y 
jz/fura. 

Naked, Had aka* 

Name, Na t 

Nape of the neck, Gcmfoho, 
Napkin, handkerchief, Te 

no golm 

Narrow, ftraitened, Smaia* 
Native country, Hungohf. 
to Naufeate, Mont no nvahkai 
Navel, Fojfi, fefo, 

Navd firing, Faraohh 
to draw Near, to approach, 
SkaljurUy fisaknuru. 

Neat, Chodo^ 

NecefTary, Irlc* 

Neck, Knuabiy nodcr* 
Needle, Far/* 

Neglea, Tfitfinfr ekatarL 

to Neglea, W&fura* 
m Neighbour, Tengri fito * 

: Neff, 


‘■^\C 



VOCABULARY 


a t> 


Neft, Koja , kago . 
a Net, Tfuribai, ami. 

New, Atarajfi , sjoguats. 
New year’s day, Guanfits. 
Niggardly, avaricious, A7- 

giriyfwamboy Jimats . 
Night, Jofariyjoru. 

Night gown, Nimakv . 
the Night watch, Jobang, 
jabang. 

Nightingale, Ogu ifu • 
Nipple, Tjibufa. 

Nobody, Naka y (bare men at. 
to Nod with the head, Gat- 

Old age, 

Open, Ahurw. 
to Open, Aiern. 
to Order or command, 
letjhiy itjkuru. 

Organ pipe, Kubuje. 
Orphan, MinaJJigo • 

Otter, Kawanjo, 
to Overturn, Tawaruru. 
Own, one’s own, Waga . 
Owner, Tojgoro. 

Oy, Kinkiri ufi . 

Oyfters, Otjigaki. 

ting fury. 
North, Kitta, 

P. 

Nofe, F anna • 

Noflrils, F anna nofu. 
Notary, Fiji a. 

Nutmeg, Nihfttk . 

O. 

Oar, Ko. 

Oath, Seiji. 

to Offer, Okuru, aguru ja- 
Jaguni , r.edoajkurw . 

Officer of police for a ftreet, 
Ottona. 

Office, employment, Sobe y 
jakwiin , ftomefito . 

Oil, Abura. 

Oil prefs, Abwra ftmoru. 
Old, Tajjijcri, furuje , furube. 

Pace, ftep, Ajumi • 
to Pack, Tjutfumw . 
to Pack up, Nefuku furz 
nitjkurxx . 

to Pack afrefh, naixaf- 

A 

a Packet, a parcel, 7/i/- 
fumi. 

Packthread, //* foma , ito 
jama . 

Pains (i. e. labour) Kitjla. 
Pain, It ami. 

Painful, Itamofe. 
too Painful to be born, /f/wa- 
ntamc. 

Paint of the face, to paint 
the face, Kefoy oferni, ir- 
Jo Juru. 


to 



OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE, 


to Paint, to imitate by paint* 
ing, fcfitru, jedom. 

Pan, Nah* 

Paper, writing paper, Kami - 
window Paper, Mineganm, 

7h ifokatjiganny . 

Imperial Paper, Otaka daf 
painted Paper for hangings, 
Karakami* 

gilt Paper, Kinkar alarm* 
nofe Paper common, Fana - 
gannL 

nofe Paper large, Sitkufumi* 
Paper for p relents, Faf garni. 
Parafol, Fifafi* 

Parchment, Fkgu. 

Pardon, JiutujJi . 

Parents, Riofin* 

Parrot, Om\u 
Partial, Figi , 

to Partition o£ with 'planks, 
Fedat/urUj Jkiru* 

Pafs-port, SajfigarL 
to Pa[lc, Falfo* 

Palling brulh. Fake* 

Pa 11 ry , c o nfe £Uo nary, 
bwajft. 

a Patch, to patch or mend, 
Kiri, fufe, fuf furu. 1 
Pati#nce, Fakaffuru. 
wooden Pattens, Gma 9 bo~ 
hurt, figefuru 
to Pay, Farau, far at. 

P?ace, Shifts* 


Peacock, Ku/okv* 

Peafant, farmer, Fjakfi* 
Pearl, Kaimtamma * 
to Peel, to peel off, Mukv* 
Penis, Mara * 

Pen, pencil, Fuda* 

Pen knife, Kohaianna. 
Pepper, Kotjo* 

Per cent. Ire * 

to Ferfuade, advife, TasjF 
marn. 

Pheafent, Kif. 

PhyJIcian, Ifa* 

Pike (an inilr ament of war) 
Jarr'u 

to Pile up, Tftm u. 

Piles, hemorrhoids, Df, JjL 
a Pill, Gua]ak*u. 
couch- Pillow, Bo$. 
bed- Pillow, Kahuri makura^ 
a Japanefe wooden Pillow, 
Makura . 

Pin, Fiftfari, tmcb&ri, teste* 
fori * 

Pin cafe. Fart ire. 

Pin culhion, Farifaf 
to Pinch, Ntfumn* 

Pinchers, Kitgi wki. 

Pipe, tobacco pipe, Kifertt . 

P — , to p— > Soling, film 
furu* 

Place-marl or Perfon in oF 
lice, Smn 3 Jcbainin, fo- 
r hittin* 


20 


VOCABULARY 


to Place, to put, Oiu. 
Plank (board) ha hei . 
to Plant, Honu. 

Plaller for a fore, Kofaku , 
hatagcfahv . 

Plate (filver) Firatti, fra. 
Plate (ordilh) Sara . 
Play-houfe, Sibaia . 
to Play at cards, Karta utfu , 
bakkutfu, bakkutjiutfu . 
to Play with dice, Sugoroko 
utfu. 

One that Plays at dice, Ba- 
kutfi utji. 

Pleafant, Omofro of to. 
Pleafing, agreeable, Juro- 
fikku . 

Pleafure, amufcment, Sio f 
ajfubi. 

Pledge, Sits : 
to Pledge, Sitji trurxx . 
Plough, Seri, feribetta\ tfukv, 
tauts . 

to Plough, Togajajfii . 
to Pluck, to pluck Off, Chi- 
giru. 

Pock-marked, Mago* 
to Point out, Miru, oibi • 
Poifon, Sumire doku. 
to Poifon, Douku. 

Pole; (take, Fajfura . 

Polite, Kawattuy kuttona , 
mefraf. 

Poor; Fingi 


Porcelain images, Jakma. 

no ?iingio. 

Portrait, Je. 

Portrait painter, fekak-j. 
Pot, earthen pot, Tfutfubo . 
to Pound, to break by tri- 
tore, Utfwaro. 
to Pour in, Tfugu. 

Powder (gun) powder ma- 
gazine, Jenfo , jenfoia. 
Powder, medicine, San, ko. 
fmall Pox, Fofo. 
to Pray or worfhip, Ogamu 
furu, faifurM. 

Prayer, requeft, Tannomi. 

to heaven, Kjojomi. 

Pregnant, Mimotji , farami. 
Prepofterous, Matjigao « 
to Prefs, Siburu. 

Prefent (not abfent) Kono - 
guru. 

Prefent, gift, Okuro , miage , 
fimots . 

to accept a Prefent, Uketoru. 
Pretty, fine, Migotto , kik- 
kona . 

Prickle, thorn, 

Prieft, Boos . 
to Print, Fanku. 

Prince, IVaka gimi. 
Princefs, W aka gimi gotta. 
Prifon, Roja . 

Privy councellor, JOaimo. 

the 






OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE. 


ihe Privy or neceflary, Sit- 

fujin. 

Profit, gain, 

Progrefs, advancement, Fa- 
ijaka t 

Prohibition, Fata. 
to Prohibit, Fata fium, 
to Promifcj Jakfiako, 
a Prom ik, Jakfiokjta* 
Profpefifc, a fine profpeft, 
Gt y hi jui h* 
to Protect, Hajakvt fi&j&h 

hajai , fiajabv- 
Proverb, Fattoje got oh a, 
to Provoke, F amtatt fiafiaru* 
to Pall away* to pluck off, 
Fikxu 

Palfe (of the artery ) Miak*v m 
to feel the Pulfe, Miahu 

tollfiy 

Pump, to pump, Mafiuki, 
mitfiuki fiuro* 

Punifhment, Nifasnwhjt&ka, 
Jtkka. 

to PimitTi, Nsbzvumu.* 
Purge, Kudoffh, 
to Purge, Kudaffufar u, 
Purfc, Kamefitkurc* 
to Puih, Sukikakarw. 

Q- 

Quail, Ujkra. 
to Quarrel, contend Ijm* 


to Quench, exlinguifh, Et- 
afij u, kiaf* 

Queftion, enquiry, Tfurs+ 
tfiukamma t/uru * 
to Queftion, interrogate* 
7 afifu vitro* 

Quick, Faijo* fatjakL 

R* 

Rabbit, UfiagE 
Rain, A me* 
to Rain, Arne m jmrxi* 
Rainy, Benkju* 

Rainy feafon, NiufmL 
Rainbow, Nifiu 
Ram, Oioko fitfifiju 
Rat, NfiumL 

Ratan, a (pedes of cane, 
T/aje. 

Raven, Karajh* 

Raw, Atmafiji* rmtna* 

Ray, fun beam, Gohj SJt- 
fugets no goh* 

Razor, Sorri, jeri, JbrU 
mL 

to Read, fiom)!. 

Ready, prepared, Sima!? 

final . 

Receipt, 0 kit l or L 
to Receive, Uh twu* 
to Receive a prefect* Uk&r** 
xkitem* 




vocabulary 


m Reckon up, Kajujuru, 
Reeds, dags, Jos* as* 
Refractor y, Nigir. 

Reins, l~afuna, tadfuna, 
m Remove, Jautfuri funs. 
Renown, $m&L 
to Report, Kafwjuru. 
to Report, Tjujhit furl u 
Reft, remainder* A hgori. 
Reft, Jafuns, 

to Refl, to take reft, Jaffudt 
oyu> jnfjiunu. 

Reft deuce, Todomaru, torui # 
Re (in, Mat f fart, 
to be Revenged, 

Rib, Jokabara* 

Rice, Korns. 
early Rice, IVafs. 
tii vc iked Rice, Ski gome* 
boil’d Rice, Mas* 
neddifh Rice, Tobafi. 
white Rice, Maijigme. 
fine Rice for Soaps, Do - 
menfe. 

Rich, Buginfa. 

to Ride on horfcback, Horn* 

Right ftde, MigL 

Ring, gold ling, Ibigami* 

m Ring a bell, Fur\x. 

toRince, Jujfugb- 

Ripe, Jttkfuti* u?/i, 

J&lvcr, KtFiva*- 

Rivulet* river, Nagari, ha- 


Rheimiatifm, Kah * 
Rhubarb, Damw* 
to Roail, /ru, Jakv* 
Rogue, Uje . 

Roll, Maku , kumbahas. 
Roof, Jarine. 

Root, Ne, 

Rofe water* Hanna no mis* 
Rope, Ifunanona- 
to Rot, Kabiru, 

Round, round about, Mamt- 

mawarit 

to Row in a boat, Rsofn~ 
Rumour, report* Vwaffa. 
to Run, Ajiuhtu 
to Run out, Morn > fugurr\x 
Ruft, rufty, Sabir, fahiia* 
to Ruft, Sabirm. 

$* 

Sabre, long* Katarina* 

fhort, iVagiffaJEn* 

Sack, Fsikuro* 

Saddle, Kwura. 

Saddler* Kwnrafukuri, ba~ 
gufi. 

Safe 'for meat, Sokomats bake. 
Saffron, Kahuna* 

Sail, to fail, Hoo t haffim . 

to hoift* Bcagtirtis ho- 

maku * 

to ftrike, take in* 

Hogorujfu 

gailor* 






OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE. 


Sjulor, Sniffs. 

S al t- pc tr e, Sirojinfo. 

Salt, to fait, i Sip/s, Si*wo- 
fur's* 

Salt water, Si-wo mis, ufinvo* 
to Salute, to compliment, 
Refaru, reigifuru* 

Salve, Neriakv, jtirogojak<v t 
Sample, fpecimerv, Asjhvau* 
Sand, reef of fand, Tfttma, 
fijakku 
Sanders wood, 

Sap pan wood, Sc-zoa, fobok. 
Salt in, Sjas. 

Sauce, Sjur. 

Saw, to fasv off. If oh, 
twaAv, 

Saw dull, Ncgokufiu 
to Say, Ju* 

Scabbanb Saja* 

Scales, fra all, Hahari, timbe, 
■ * large, Jsmhin * 
School, fehool-znafter, lira, 

Seifihrs, Fajfami, fajfaim , 
to Scower, Migakf* 
to Scrape ofF, Kujagu, h* 
furu*. 

to Scratch, rub off, Kc/urn. 
Screen, Besots* 

Screw, Neji* 

■Scum, Aatia* 

to Scum off, Amsa Jatf\x p 

&i*:a 

U 


Sea, ocean, Vmt* 

Sea- lick, Fuitinjou* 

Seal, Fang, bang, ittgjo* 
to Search at the culturne* 
A rat a mu. 

S c re ta ry , Jonhs. 

See, to fee, vifton, fight* 
Mira* 

Seed, Janna* 

Seed (in general) Muggu 
to Seek, FaiftmurWy mttjkumz 
to Select, Jerabur u, jtr*~ 
dafu. 

to Sell, Uru* 

Senfe, underliandtng, Ga~ 
teng. 

to Separate, Sar\x* 

Serpent, Kutjhmvsa, bebL 
Servant maid, Onego, jar iiz* 
a Servant man or woman# 
Kerai . 

to Serve, to deferve, Soto- 
muru, ftomuro % jekv, 
to Set or place out, T/um 

to Settle, to finifh, Wakiru- 
to Sew, No, mi * 

Shadow, Kugi. 

Shagreen, Same* 

Shallow, Affai, ajfaksu 
Shame, Haji, foji. 
to Shave, Sorxt* 
a Sheaf, or bundle of any 
thing, iAifamu* 


Sheep, 




V O C A B U LAKY 


Sheep * Fitufi, ft//. 
tt Sheet of paper* hjimau 
Sheets (of a bed) Skinwm. 
Shell, univalve (be 11, Kai, 

km: ana hah 
t-O Shew, Fuji, uta. 

I wBf Shew* Qmnikckl maffi* 

iniji maffu*. 

Ship, an empty fliip* Fum r 
kara f r m. 

Shoe, Krwut/u 
Shoe-maker, Kzv :t tfi tfu k uri * 
Shop, Mife* 
so Shorten* Kogtrx& 
Shoulder blade, Katabme* 
Shoulders*. Kata , . 

Shriek, cry, Tamagatta » 
Sick or ill, hanu mono, bi- 
okr 7ttom r jamai mono* 
Sickticfsi JJmnaiy it ami ^ hi- 
oki. 

Side, WaM. 

to Sift, a fieve, Fu^ /m y 
kujh* 

Sigh, Fame iktjukxr. 

Sign, iign at a fair* Katn~ 
bang* 

to Signify* Wager tu 
Silk* JCinns* 

Silver* Gin*. 

Silver coin, Giftjwg . 
Sflver-fittith, gold-lmith, 
Ginfakrtt*. 


to Silver over, filvei'cd over, 
CAnnagaffi, gimhekv. 
Sinew*. Fouo no tfugaL 
to Sing, Utau> 
to Sing a fong, Uta no ft/* 
to Sink, Si/umvL, 

Sir, Samma, mu / , 

Siller, Mu/m - 

* — el deft, Ane* 

to Sit on mats, Jdorvt. 

on if 00 Is, Kojkakuru. 

Slap in the face, box on 
the ear, Fogeta, utlokuru 
to Slaughter, Utjkorojk* 
Slave, Fro bo, fiyombo, k\i- 
rmbo. 

Sleep, to deep, Nur , num, 
to Sleep with one, Sabir: i 
nur u v 

Sleepy, Hemvctaba, nemutai* 
Slime, Mucus tang. 

Slimy, Nebkf\& i umam* 
Slipper, Kuts. 

Slop bafon, Domhttri, otja - 
*wang* 

Slow, Sifukamai ? jojojora* 
Small, Ko, kmiaka* 

Smell, Nhi f ninuoi, 
to Smell, Kufamun 
to Smile, to laugh, Wara)i* 
Smith, Kajta. 

Smooth, flippery, Subem* 
Smoke, Horibo. 
to Smoke* KtmoH* 


XD 









OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE. 


Kafia* 

to Smoke, fmoke meat, Ke - 
mnra fum* 

to Smoke tobacco, Tabaco 
vmu* 

Smoked, Kstmta* 
to Smuggle, Safi urn. 
to Sneeze, Jkjingu. 
to Snore, Ibikikakw* 

Snow, to fiiow, Juki* Juki 
no fiur\x. 

to take Snuff, Kagu* 

Snuff, Fauna , iubak? kagt. 
Snuffbox, Hanna l&bako ire- 
to Snuff a can die > Sinkim* 
Snuffers, Sinkiri* 

Sober, ffarafofs. 

Soldier, Bannin* 

the Sole of a (hoe, Ur a. 

Some, Ikubakv , 

Son-in-law, JitjufL 
to become Sore, Kifutfukum. 
Sorrow, JumL 
Sorrowful, Kujamo, kinrn- 
dtko* 

Sort, to effort, Rui t rm 
fur u* 

Soul, Qmoj Jiric. 

Sound, Hibiii* 

Soup, Sum, 

Sour, Suika, 

South, MinamL 
to Sew, to embroider, No, 
mi* 


Sewing box, Farifafi* 
to Sow, to fow corn. Taring 
makv* 

* Sowas, SaMo- 
Spaniih green, Rohufea* 
to Speak to a perfon, Mo- 
no/ u, mufmaji , ju, -rnoo- 
fxrxL, 

to Speak ill of any one. 
Wank a koto ju. 

Spectacles, Megmni, fama 
tnigannim 

Spectacle cafe, Megmtit tn 

J Sm 

Speech, Katoba* 

Spider, K~jvutnb k 

to Spin, Fikv t 

to Spin cotton, MomnfFv, 

— — Me, Nib&jfi?rturw, 

Spinning wheel, Movenku* 
ruma. 

Spittle, to fpit, $ubakki> fu - 
bakki b&wk* 

Spitting pot. Fa Juki, 

Spoon, Saiji, 

to Spoil or damage, Ft atm s 
famr U, fo/urM , Jktijhrtmu * 
a Spot, Afa> moja, 
to Spread, Kojji* 
the Spring, Faru, naats* 

Spy, Jtng. 

Square, SikaH\ 

Square, a mechanic at m* 
ftrumem, Magm-ikanu 

to 



* Sw as is .1 eumpofition of gold and topjN'r, (generally n f a black cc> 
lour*! ot which various rnnlc-ts ,ind uttMih are made in liVitl* fNo*, 
ikiUsri to the Trar Jktor by the Author ■] ' 







2 6 


VOCABULARY 


to Squirt, MififukvfuraL* 
Stable bo/, Mogo. 

Stag, Kano Jis. 

Stairs, Faklto fajfigOyfaJJigo. 
Stallion, Kama, 
to Stamp, T/ukv. 
to Stand, Tatfu. 
to Stand up, arife, Okir u. 
Starving, Katfujetofi , hiking. 
Star, Foji. 

Starboard, Omohaji. 

Starch, powder blue, Awo- 
fumi furu , gunsjo . 

Statue, Ningio . 

to Stay over night, JodaJJi . 

to Steal, No/umu. 

Steel, Hagane, fagane . 

Stem of a fhip, Tomotti . 
Stench, to ftink, Kufai, ku- 
Jaka. 

Steep, Somodat/n . 
to Step, trample, Ki, gi . 
Stern-poft of a fhip, Tomotti. 
Sticks, to eat with. Fas. 
to Stick, to adhere like glue, 
Tfugu. 

to Stick, or cleave to, Ka - 
kunx. 

Stiff, Ojoru, Jkorru, kzuuki. 
to Stifle, Simur u. 
to Stir, to put in motion, 
j Xgokv. 

Stirrup, Abumi . 

Stock fiih, Tata . 


Stocking, Merias. 

Stomach, Fit . 

Stone, IJiy i<iva . 

Stone cutter, J/notni. 

Storehoufe, vs archoufe, Ku- 
ra , hx'ura. 

Storm, Okafi . 

Story of a houfe, Kikaai . 

to Stop up, to fluff, Tjumar u. 

Strainer, Kono/eru . 

Strand, Nagifa , ifo . 

Japancfe Straw flipper, *SW, 
agaruts. 

Strawberries, 

Street, 7/0, matji. 

Stream, Afa/o/ favc. 

Streak, S*/?. 

to Strike, Wutfwy utfu, ta- 
takv. 

to Strike on the head, Kubi 
kirn • 

to Strike with the hand, 
Tatakv. 

to Strike from behind, Kirn, 
fanurti. 

Stripe, Mi mi. 

String, fiddle firing, ItJ y 
famji no ilo. 

Strong, Saoka, kitjka y sjioi . 

to caufc any one to be 
Struck, Tat ah . 

to Stumb’e, Kctfu mafuhv, 
taivaru, torruru , ta^vja* 
runt. 

Stupid, 







Stupid* Donna* 

Such, Konojdna. 
to Suck, Nebur u* Jtwaharw* 
to Suck (the bread) Kco~ 
rujfu * 

to Suffer, Tijtkv* 

Sugar candy, Korifatto * 
foft Sugar, Sir of alto. 
to Suit, fit, Au? ota. 

Suite, troop of followers, 
Ike dor Jukama jura* 

Sulphur, l*iuo. 

Summer, Noats. 

Sun, Fit nitji* 
the Sun fets, Fi win* 
the Sun rifes, Ft no de, flw 
agaru. 

Sun dial* Fit eke* 

Sure, certain, Tajkani, 
Surgeon, Gik^wa, guairo* 
to Swallow, Nomikom u. 
to Swathe ? to fwaddle, Ma- 
to. 

Sweat, to fweat, Aji^ afi- 
furu* 

Sweet* Amaka* amai. 
to Swell, to fweli up. Fa - 
rar u . 

to Swim, Ojugtu 
Sword, Kin, 

Sword belt* JsjuohL 
i Syringe or fquirt, Nip | 
Juki. 

d 2 



T* 

Tab 1 e- clo th , Skim. women* 
Table, Sukus^fandai. 

Tail* SiriOiJtriivoy O. 
to Take off a leg, Fanaffu* 
to Take a iikenefs, Jfyii. 
Tame, Sju 9 kimono nafitku ■ 
to Tame, Nogai* 
to Tap, F*fagUt Tjumuru* 
Tar, pitch, Tjan, 

Tar, to tar, Nuru, tjan 
nuru* 

Tafte, to tade* Afi ^wu, 
Tavern, or Public - houfe, 
Kooja , 

Tea, tea-canider, tea-cup, 
Fjjaa, ijmre* tjarwang* 
Telefcope, Fo meganni* 
Temple, Ter a. 

Tefticles, Kintama y inno, 
itamma fugttrc* 

Thanks, Katajkenau 
to Thank, Katajiko no go/a* 
rimafu , 

Thick, Atfsfa, atfimL 
Thief* Nofio, mfobito. 

Thigh, M 'tmo i jbtomomo* 
Thing, Koto. 

Thirft, Nodonokawaltu* 

Thin* XJJfuu 
Thread* Ito, 
to Throw* Naguru * 
to Throw down, Kobgflh, 
Kobmtm, JixtQnm, 


Threfhold, 




■■ , 




VOCABULARY 


28 

Threshold, Sehu 
Thumb, Ojajubly ejubi* 
Thunder, Raminarh 
to Tickle, Kufugum » 
Ticklilh, Kuffwwaika* 

Tidings, Tjitftng' 

to Tie together, KubirU 3 

amidfurUt 
Tiger, Tor a* 

Tile, Kwtvara. 

Time, paftittiCj fiki } 
rafu* 

Tin, Safu. 

Tinder, Fjutji, 

Tinde r- box , Fj utj ibako* 
Tobacco-box, Tabako ire . 
Tongue, St a. Jit a. 

Tongs, fire-tongs, Febaf \ 
Tooth, gum, Ha, fagis. 
Tooth-powder, Hamigaku 
Tooth-ach, Hanoit ami , 

Top, point, Toge. 

Top of a mountain, Toge* 
to Torment, It ax da, fimuruv 
Tortoife, Kame, bekogame. 
TortoifcThell* Bekko* 
to Touch, Kitma\l 3 kakar u, 
&teru* 

to Tow, FiAv* 

Tower, To. 

a Towing veflel, Fikv fane. 
Town, Matji, fotenmtji. 
to Tranflate, Tfuhen furu . 
Train oil, Kifura, no abra. 


to Travel, Tabi furu* 
to Tremble, Fururu. 
to Tremble (for fear) Fa- 
rm, 

Trcafure, Sakkara. 

Trumpet, Tjammera fuku 
Trunk, Fio y tmmra* 

Truth, Makoto. 
to Try, Aida. 

to Turn, <v.n.F Hi kurikajaj/h. 
to Turn, *v. a* F ikikmikagafs 
maku, 

to Turn out of the wa y* 
avoid, Wakaruru. 
to T urn in a lathe, Nejtn 1. 
to Turn about, Kajeru, 
Tweezers, Ken no kin. 
a Twining plant, Kadfura m 
Twins, Futago* 
to Twill, to wreathe, Sib$ru % 

U* 

Ugly, Kifannai. 

Umbrella, Fifafi. 
to Under ft and, Kcnogotok U* 
Unfortunate, Fufai<wai no 
fito , 

Unjuft, injufUce, Mari * 
Unmarried, Gaia fen, naka M 
no rwarrika. 

Unfure, Makotn naranu. 
Unthankful, Katajkc no Ra- 

rajfu. 

Umvhole- 


4 


OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE* 


X J n whol e To m e * Bkfit* 
Uprights fmcere, Majfafiku* 
Stiifjc. 

Uie 3 cuftom, Narrurn* 
to Uie, Motji jura* 

V. 

a Valley, AVtvrcv^. 

Yp.t legated, Fam* 

Veins Su fi* 

Velvety F trade* 

Ventures Kakura. 

Vexation, Naga/ammu * 
it Vexes me, Nagufama Fite. 
Vexed, mentally affti&ed, 
Sitfmkix Jitfnaka, fimariu 
View, a fine view, Ge t h; 
jut h* 

Vinegar, Su, 

Vinegar cruet, Suire* 
Virgin, Imada , kimufmt* 
Virginity, Sara* 
a Vilit, Mimai, 

Vote, Ktje, 

Voyage, Wat am* 

Yglva, Bobq* 

W. 

Wadd, callic o wadd, Watt a* 
ditto filk, jkf&watta, nebas. 
Wager, Kud&moiw , Naimna « 
Wages, falary, Jaknrio. 
Waggon, cart, Kurutna* 
to Wait, wait here. Mat- 
jiuhiru) matte. 


to Wake, O bittern* 
to Waken, Qhujn* 
to Walk, Ita* 
to Walk round about, 

*l naru* 

to Walk lengthways, Arukv* 
Wall, Kobe, 

Wa r, I kufa f fakara. 
to make W ajr , Me to m ur n , 
Warm, to warm, Nakka* 
atjka^ at/ur urn* 
to Warn, to caution, Teds* 
burn* 

to Wafh, Aran* 
to Walh one's -fe If, Jofi* 
to Walh one's feet, Shtfdc 
/urn* 

a Watch (time-keeper) 
hi* 

Watch-maker, TohijeJJt* 
Water, Mis. 

Water- tub (large) Pure* 

(final!) Jofi* 

Waterfall, Tali* 

Wave (of the fea) Arajfu* 
Way, guide. Mite, annefa. 
to Wear out, worn out, $a* 
kitm, Sururxx,fag£ta* 
to Weave, Fattaom, om* 
Weather, good weather, FU 
uriyjui jiun. 

foul. Wand fiuri* 

Weather, boilterous, Horny, 
KitjsfurA 

(me 




VOCABULARY 


fine Weather, Juki a fiuri , 
jui tehg. 

Weapon, Buga. 

to Weep, Jogem, naku . 

Wedding, Nagaodo, naga- 
daki. 

Wedding-day, Kotinifi. 

Weight, Fundo . 

a Well, Jga<wa. 

Welcome, Jokita , jo cidcna 
naferrimafta . 

Weft, Ms. 

Wet, to wet, Naroru, Na- 
ratfu. 

Whale, Kufira. 

Whalebone, Kufira no fige. 

Whale’s fat, blubber, Kufira 
no kavua* 

Wheat, flour of wheat, Ko - 
ntuggi, mugi no la. 

Wheel, Kuruma . 

Wnctftone, Foifi. 

Whip, Mootfi . 

to White-wafh, Mum, Jktti 
mum • 

Whole, Djigokf. 

Whore, Jufo, jorofi. 

Wick: of a candle, Sukv, 
Jukv* 

Widow, Jammome . 

Widower, Otokojammcme, 
ctokegoki . 

Wide, large, Habanna firoka * 

Wife, Niobo, jo me go. 


Wig, Katfura, fir garni, tfu - 
kiganni. 

Wild, /*//. 

to Will, to be willing, Ko- 
nomxxfujka . 

Willing, S/ 0 . 

Wind, 

Wind, contrary, Molaokafe . 
to Wind up, Sutfumn , 
Windlafs or capftan, Mj- 
kido. 

Window, Mado, famma . 
Wing, fanne . 

to Wink, make a fign, Afo- 

Winter, 77////. 

to Wipe up, Nogou, hawaht. 
Wife, prudent, 7/7/27. 
to Wither, £//W/u, kakum. 
Wonder, miracle, Kimcona, 
hurigi . 

Wood (to burn, &c.) Tjji, 
tali gi. 

Wood, grove, AT<w7. 

Wool, Kemono . 

Wound, ulcer, Ayj/z, /ur/- 

to Work, Sigito. 

Worfhipper, Ogamufura mo- 
no, faifuru mono . 

Word, fpeech, Kctoba . 
to Write, a writer, Tiftf/"!’, 
ffa. 

Writing- deik,' Filidhjfi ; ? 

Yam, 










errata. 


2 age* Line ♦ 

19 , lilt, after thing, read they take in hand. 

75 * f or Kalbro, read Kabro. 

7 7, 8,y<?r married, marry. 

78, 1 from bottom, fcr Ohagur, read Ohaguro. 

85, 1, after Spanish, read (or Cayenne). 

141* 5> from bottom, /sr Tiaia, read Chaja. 

143, 11 , after Nafumi, read Ifami. 

146, \z,for Akafiki, read Akafaki. 

155, 1 6, for Futagawa, read Firagawa. 

160, 13, fcr Skawero, read Skawaro. 

203, 9 y for kan, read kin. 

204, 14, for Sangoda, read Sangodu. 

, 5, from bottom, for Sygnatus, read Syngnathus. 

212, 13 ,for Jofiwara, read J ofiwaro. 

226, 1 x, for Mofcha, read Moxa.