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Allegany  County  and  its  People. 

A  GentGnnial  Mem^orieil 



Allegany  County, 

NEl\^r  YORK. 


JOH/N   S.  /V\1/\I A'R'D,   Esq.,  eounty  Historian. 


"J  liave  considered  the  days  of  old,   the  years  of  ancient  time.'" 

Psalm  LXXVII—s. 


■Histories  of  the  Towns  of  the  County. 

M-RS.  G  BOH©  I A  ■D'RE^W  ME-R-RI  L  l_,   Editor. 

W.  A.  FERGUSSON  &  CO., 

ALFRED,    N.   Y.,  "-'  C;'! 



Copyrighted,  1896,  by  W.  A.  Fergusson. 

University  Press, 

Sun  Publishing  Association, 

Alfred,  N.  Y. 


THE     OHIGIN     OP     THE     NAME. 

Indian  tradition  attributes  this  Aboriginal  name,  which  has  so  strongly  fastened  itself  upon 
various  places  and  geographical  features  of  America,  notably  the  Alleghatiy  Mountains,  Alle- 
gheny City,  Allegheny  River  (Penn.).  Allegany  River  and  Allegany  County  (N.  Y.),  to  an  ancient 
race  of  Indians  called  Talegi,  Talligewi,  or  AUegewi.  This  nation  was  a  very  warlike  one  and 
spread  itself  over  the  country  east  of  the  Mississipppi  and  Ohio  rivers,  but,  after  long  and 
bloody  wars,  it  was  overpowered  and  driven  south  by  a  confederacy  of  tribes  whose  descend- 
ants are  the  Iroquois  and  Algonquin  nations  of  to-day.  This  ancient  people  is  conjectured  by 
some  to  be  the  early  Appalachian  Indians,  whom  De  Soto  found  in  1539  in  Florida  and  the 
territory  of  the  Gulf  States.  Schoolcraft  says,  "  They  were  numerous,  fierce  and  valorous* 
They  were  clothed  in  skins  of  wild  beasts.  They  used  bows  and  arrows,  clubs  and  spears. 
They  did  not  poison  their  darts.  They  were  temperate,  drinking  only  water.  They  did  not  make 
wars  on  slight  pretences,  or  for  avarice,  but  to  repress  attacks,  or  remedy  injustice.  They 
treated  their  prisoners  with"  humanity  and  like  persons  of  their  own  households.  They  were 
long-lived,  some  reaching  a  hundred  years.  They  worshipped  the  sun,  to  which  they  sang  hymns 
morning  and  evening."  Washington  Irving  deemed  the  name  Appalachia  or  Allegania  as  the 
fit  name  for  this  continent. 

Rev.  P.  J.  Wilson  of  St.  Bonaventure's  Seminary  and  College  at  Allegany,  N.  Y.,  kindly 
sends  the  following:  "  The  Indian  name  for  Allegany  is  a  compound  word.  Talegwi-henna  or 
Talegwi-hanna.  Let  us  see  first  what  talegiui  means.  The  chronicles  of  the  Algonquins 
state  that  the  Lenape  migrated  eastward  from  the  far  west.  When  they  reached  the  Mississippi 
they  found  the  country  east  of  it  inhabited  by  a  people  called  Talegi,  Talligewi  or  Alligewt. 
Therefore,  to  the  Algonquins  Talegi  or  Alligewi  meant  the  country  and  people-east  of  the 
Mississippi,  the  country  to  which  they  emigrated  from  afar.  The  next  part  of  the  compound 
is  Henna  or  Hanna.  It  means  river.  Hence  Tallegwe-henna  or  Tellegwi-hanna,  the  Indian 
name  for  Allegany,  means  the  river  of  the  country  of  the  Talegwi— M^  river  of  the  country  to 
which  they  immigrated.  At  first  the  name  was  given  to  the  Ohio.  After  the  Lenape  reached 
it  they  called  it  Talegahonah.  The  Iroquois  changed  this  to  Ohio,  a  word  from  their  own 
language.  But  the  Ohio's  chief  tributary  still  retains  the  name—  Talegwi-hanna,  Alligewi- 
hanna,  Alleghany.  The  Alleghany  mountains  for  a  similar  reason  were  called  Talega-chukattg." 

The  Publishers. 


Chapter.  '  Page. 


Early  Glimpses  of  Our  Territory. 

H.    Early  Explorations,  Etc. 


Mary  Jemison  —  The  Great  Water 
Route  from  the  St.  Lawrence  to  the 
South  —  Casconchiagon  —  Joncaire  — 
Plate  of  Lead — First  Mention  of  Oil 
Springy — Falls  ia  the  Genesee — Charle- 
voix' Expedition. 

in.    Our  Predecessors — The  Iro- 
quois  22 

The  Seneca  "  Trails  " — From  Mt.  Mor- 
ris to  Olean — From  Belvidere  to  Penn- 
sylvania—  From  Caneadea  to  Houghton, 
Rushford,  Centreville,  Freedom  and 
Buffalo  —  From  Caneadea  to  Alien, 
Birdsall  and  Arkport,  the  "'  Canisteo 
Path " — The  Agriculture  of  the  Iro- 

IV.    The  Senegas — Their  Origin. 


Hawenneyu,  the  Creator — Seneca  Tra- 
ditions—  Great  Hill  People— Snake  Leg- 
ends— Funeral  Rites — Eclipses. 

V.    Indian  Feasts,  Dances,  Etc. 


The   Sugaring    Feast  —  The  Planting 

Feast— Green   Corn  Dance  or  Feast — 

Corn  Harvest  Feast  — Winter  Hunting 

VI.  Life  of  the  Senegas.        .        .       31 

Diseases  and  Their  Treatment  —  A 
Wonderful  Medicine  —  The  Medicine 
Feast — Old  Silverheels'  Story — Indian 
Women  -Cooking-Customs  and  Amuse- 
ments— Ball  Playing — Jellis  Clute. 

VII.  Caneadea  and  Oil  Spring  Res- 

ervations  34 

The  Western  Door  of  The  Long  House 
—  Gahneyadeo — "Open  Door" —  John 
Hudson — A  Thrilling  Pioneer  Incident 
— Gahneesongo —  Caneadea — Treaty  of 
Buffalo  Creek — Survey  by  Joseph  Jones 
—Origin  of  Cuba  Oil  Spring — Title  of 
ii  The  Reservation. 

Chapter.  Page. 

VIII.  Early   Skirmishes  and  Pion- 

EtKS 42 

IX.  Early    Visitors  —  Extinction 

of  the  Indian  Title.    .        .     45 

Rev.  Samuel  Kirkland — Robert  Mor- 
ris—  Oliver  Phelps  and  The  Phelps  and 
Gorham  Purchase — Treaty  of  Big  Tree. 

X.  Early  Survey  and  Surveyors.   54 

Joseph  and  Benjamin  Ellicott — Augus- 
tus Porter — Moses  Van  Campen — Elisha 
Johnson  —  His  Description  of  The 
Country — Other  Surveyors. 

XL    Robert  Morris. 


XII.  Boundaries  of  Allegany  Coun- 

ty  64 

XIII.  The  Church  Tract.    .        .         69 

XIV.  This  Century's  First  Decade.  70 
Settlement  of  Various  Towns —  First 
Marriage — First  Death — First  Road — 
First  Capital  Crime — First  Sawmill — 
First  Painted  Dwelling— Dr.  Ebenezer 
Hyde — The  Town  of  Angelica — Lake 
Erie  Turnpike — Formation  of  Allegany 
County  —  Early  Settlers  —  Transit 
Bridge— Court  House  and  Jail — First 

XV.  Second  Decade — 1811-1820.  7S 
First  Supervisors — Pioneer  Teachers — 
Improvements —  Carding  Mills  —  Cold 
Season — Hard  Times  of  1817 — Genesee 
River  a  Public  Highway — Other  Settle- 
ments— The  First  Newspaper — Second 

XVI.  Third  Decade— 1821-1830.  84 
More  New  Settlers  —  Inns  Opened — 
Schools — Saw  and  Gristmills — Board  of 
Supervisors — Sheriff's  Bill — First  Mur- 
der— First  Execution — State  Census — 
New  Towns  Erected  —  Bounties  on 
Wolves —  First  Justices  of  the  Peace 
Elected-Governor  Clinton  Recommends 
Survey  of  Genesee  Valley  Canal  — 
Action     of   Board    of    Supervisors  on 


Chapter.  Page. 

Poor  House — Canal  Route  from  Roch- 
ester to  Olean  Surveyed  —  Equalized 
Value  of  Land  in  Each  Town. 

XVII.  Fourth  Decade — 1831-1840.  91 
Legislative  Action  on  Bridges  and 
Highways — Action  of  Board  of  Super- 
visors— Census  Reports — School  Mon- 
eys—  County  Superintendents  of  the 
Poor — Action  on  Genesee  Valley  Canal 
Continued — Many  Churches  Organized- 
Disastrous  Floods — Angelica  Academy 
—Allegany  Mutual  Insurance  Com- 
pany— Windstorm— Work  Commenced 
on  Valley  Canal — Erie  Railroad — Valu- 
ation of  Real  and  Personal  Property. 

XVIII.  Fifth  Decade— 1841-1850  98 
Good  Times  —  Thirty  Towns — Com- 
mon School  System  Changed  — Alle- 
gany County  Agricultural  Society — 
Hard  Times  —  Propagation  of  Silk 
Worms  —  First  Pupils  Sent  to  State 
Normal  School — ^More  About  Wolf  and 
Other  Bounties — Vote  on  State  Con- 
stitutional Convention  —  War  with 
Mexico —  Public  Works  Resumed  and 
Better  Times  Inaugurated. 

XIX.  Sixth  Decade — 1851-1860.  102 
Genesee  Valley  Canal  Opened  to  Ora- 
mel — Erie  Railroad  Completed — Many 
Water  and  Steam  Sawmills  Built  — 
Much  Lumbering  Done — Cleared  Fields 
and  Comfortable  Homes— Many  Cat- 
tle and  Sheep  Raised — First  Republi- 
can Convention  —  Change  of  County 
Seat  Agitated  -Much  Butter  and  Cheese 
Made — Woolen  Factories  —  Extensive 
Census  Statistics  —  First  Republican 
Nomination  —  Angelica  Regency  — 
Belmont  County  Buildings  Erected — 
Two  Jury  Districts — Abraham  Lincoln 
Elected — Secession. 

XX.  Seventh  Decade — 1861-1870.  no 
Civil  War  —  The  Action  of  Allegany 
County — Her  Patriotic  Soldiers — Vol- 
unteer Bounty  Fund  —  Bonding  for 

XXI.  Later    Developments  —  Pro- 

gress, ETC 116 

Projected,  Narrow  Gauge,  and  other 
Railroads— Oil  Industry — Dairy  Busi- 
ness— Iron  Bridges  —  New  County 
House  —  Later  Schoolhouses  —  Some 
Distinguished  Alleganians —  Valuation 
of  Real  and  Personal  Estate  from  1871 
to  1895 — Amountof  Taxes— Banks  and 
Banking — Allegany  Politics— Centennial 
County  Officers. 

Chapter.  Page. 

XXII.  Travel     and     Transporta- 
tion  121 

'  Early  Hard  Roads  to  Travel — Descrip- 
tion of  The  Church  Tract — Construc- 
tion of  Early  Roads- — Bath  and  Olean 
Turnpike  —  Erie  Canal  —  History  of 
Genesee  Valley  Canal — Inception  and 
Progress  of  the  Erie  Railroad — Address 
of  Gen.  Micah  Brooks — Completion  and 
Celebration  of  the  Erie  Railroad — Other 

XXIII.  GEOLOoy  AND  Physical  Ge- 

ography  132 

By  Charles  Butts. 

XXIV.  Natural  History.        .        .     140 

By  Prof.  F.  S.  Place,  A.  B.,  B.  D. 

XXV.  Oil   and  Gas    in    Allegany 

County 144 

By  Lewis  H.  Thornton. 

XXVI.  Our  Agriculture.        .        .159 

By  A.  W.  Litchard,  Esq. 

XXVII.  Development  AND  Progress 

OF  Our  Publi.c  Schools.        163 
By  Samuel  A.  Earley,  Esq. 

XXVIII.  Alfred  University.  .     173 

By  Rev.  Lewis  A.  Platts,  D.  D. 

Biographies  of  Pres.  Wm.  C.  Kenyon 
and  Pres.  Jonathan  Allen — The  Faculty. 

XXIX.  Bibliography  of  The  Coun- 

ty Newspapers.         .        .193 
By  Rogers  Stillman. 

XXX.  Woman's  Christian  Temper- 

ance Union.        .        .        .    199 
By  Miss  Mary  E.  Bowler. 

Allegany  County  Sunday  School  As- 
sociation —  Federation  of  Women's 
Clubs — Political  Equality  Clubs. 

XXXI.  Prominent  Organizations.  205 
Allegany  Co.  G.  A.  R.  Association 
and  Posts  —  Woman's  Relief  Corps 
—  Farmer's  Alliance  and  Industrial 
Union— Allegany  Co.  Farmers'  Club— 
Allegany  Co.  Farmers'  Co-operative  In- 
surance Company— Allegany  Co.  His- 
torical Society. 


Medical      Societies     and 

I  Physicians.        .        .        .      210 

chard  Charles,  M.  D.— William  M. 
bmith,  M.  D. — John  Bowen  Collins,  M. 
D. — John  H.  Saunders,  M.  D. — Charles 
M.  Crandall,  M.  D.— Charles  W.  Saun- 
ders, M.  D. — Gilbert  M.  Champlain.  M. 
D. — Stephen  Maxson,  M.  D. — Seneca 
Allen,  M.  D.— H.  H.  Nye,  M.  D.— Hon. 
W.  W.  Crandall,  M.  D.— Sheffield  W. 
Greene,  M.  D.,  etc. 

XXXIII.    Courts  and  Lawyers. 


Hon.  William  G.  Angel — Hon.  John  G. 
Collins — Hon.  Clarence  A.  Farnum — 
Hon.  S.  McArthur  Norton — Hon.  W. 
B.  Rochester — Hon.  Richard  P.  Marvin 
— Hon.  Martin  Grover —  Hon.  Henry 
Wells —  Hon.  Charles  Daniels —  Hon. 
George  Barker — Hon.  Wm.  H.  Hender- 
son— Hon.  Hamilton  Ward — Hon.  Ed- 
win W.  Hatch — Hon.  Alfred  Spring — 
John  Baldwin,  Esq. — Gen.  Alexanders. 
Diven — Samuel  M.  Russell,  Esq. — 
Hon.  Wilkes  Angel — Hon.  Marshall  B. 
Champlain — William  Pitt  Angel,  Esq. 
— Elias  E.  Harding,  Esq. — James  M. 
Curtiss,  Esq. — Col.  A.  J.McNett — Hon. 
William  Folwell  Jones— Hon.  Edward 
D.  Loveridge — Edgar  W.  Chamberlain, 
Esq.— Hon.  Henry  M.  Teller— Willard 
Teller,  Esq  — Hon.  David  P.  Richard- 
son— Gen.  Rufus  Scott — Hon.  Seymour 
Dexter — Capt.  George  H.  Blackman — 
Frank  Sullivan  Smith  — ■  Hon.  Oscar 
Fuller— Church  &  Church— Hon.  Fred 
A.  Robbins,  and  others. 

XXXIV.  Civil  List.         .        .        .293 

Members  of  Congress — State  Senators 
Members  of  Assembly — County  Clerks 
— Sheriffs  -County  Treasurers. 

XXXV.  Allegany's       Centennial 

Celebration.         .        .      296 

At  Wellsville,  N.  Y.,  June  26  and  27, 


XXXVI.  WELLSVILLE.     .         .         .325 
By  Lewis  H.  Thornton. 

Description — Advent  of  the  White  Man 
— Roger's  Survey  of  1826,  etc. — Early 
Prices —  First  Tavern  —  First  School- 
house,  etc. 

XXXVII.  Wellsville  Village.      ,    346 

Schools —  Churches—  Free  Public  Li- 
brary, etc. 

Chapter.  Page, 

XXXVIIL    Wellsville  Postal  His- 
tory—  Manufactures — 
Societies,  etc.        .        .    369 
Something  About  Some  of   the  People 
— Biographical  Sketches. 
XXXIX.     ANGELICA.         .        .        .405 
By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 
Early   History  —  Churches  —  Angelica 
Academy — Wilson  Academy. 

XL.  The  Village  of  Angelica.  .  418 
The  D'Autremonts — Civil  War — Angel- 
ica Lodge — Banking— Business  Inter- 
ests, etc. — Something  About  Some  of 
the  People — Biographical  Sketches. 

XLI.    Amity 443 

By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 
The  Town  of  Amity — Old  Stone  Grist- 
mill, Belmont — Mills — Manufacturing — 
The  County  Seat — Cemetery — Banks — 
Business  Interests — The  Samuel  Van 
Campen  Family. 

XLII  (I).    Churches,    Schools    and 

Societies 456 

Churches — Belmont  Union  Free  School 
and  Academy — Belmont  Literary  and 
Historical  Society  —  Societies  —  Some- 
thing of  Some  of  the  People — Biograph- 
ical Sketches. 

XLII  (2).     Scio 479 

Description  —  Pioneers  —  Time- Worn 
Documents  —  Mills  —  Village  —  Cheese 
Factories — Churches — G.  A.  R.  Post, 
etc. — Some  of  Scio's  People— Biograph- 
ical Sketches. 

XLIII.    Allen 498 

By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 
First   and   other   settlers  —  Religion  — 
Cheese    Factories — Postoffices —  About 
Some  of  the  People. 

XLIV.     Birdsall 507 

By  Joseph  K.  Weaver. 
Pioneers  —  Manufactures  —  Religious 
Worship — Soldiers. 

XLV.    West  Almond.        .        .        .511 
By  George  A.  Morton. 
General   Descriptiop — Early   Settlers — 
Mills     and    Factories— Churches — Sol- 
diers— Later  Settlers. 

XLVI.    Granger 516 

By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 
Name — Short    Tract — First    Settlers — 
School-meeting  —  Schoolhouse — "  Sol- 
diers' Monument  " — Business   Interests 
— From  the  Town  Records — Civil  War 



Chapter.  Page. 

— Religion  —  Societies —  Chronology  of 
Some  Citizens. 

XLVII.    Ward. 


By  Eldyn  Reynolds,  Esq. 
Description — First  and  Other  Settlers — 
Pioneer  Life  —  Manufacturing,  etc.  — 
Churches — Dairy  Interests — Tornado. 

XLVIII.     Grove 536 

Incorporation,  Name,  etc. — Early  Set- 
tlers— Soldiers  —  Churches — Village  of 
Swains  —  Its  Business — "  The  Ossian 
Giant  " — Stockbreeding — Farmers,  etc. 

XLIX.    Willing 540 

By  O.  T.  Perkins,  Esq. 
Topography  —  Shongo  —  Hallsport  — 
Stanard — Stone  Dam  —  Mapes  —  Set- 
tlers and  Settlements — Church — G.  A. 
R.  Post  —  Societies  --  Cyclone — Some 
Personal  Chronologies. 

L.    Alma 548 

Changes  of  Title  to  the  Soil,  etc— Al- 
lentown  High  School-  Societies — G.  A. 
R.  Post — Some  of  the  Townsmen — 
Biographical  Sketch. 

Towns  of  the  Phelps  and  Gorham  Pur- 

LI.    Almond 559 

By  D.  A.  Stebbins,  Esq. 
History  of  the  Settlement — Cheese  Fac- 
tories— Almond   Village  —  Manufactur- 
ing Interests — Some   Early   and  Other 





By  T.  A.  Burdick. 
Settlers  —  Churches — Oil  and  Gas  — 
Cheese  Factories — Andover  Village — 
Union  Graded  School — Bank — The  Lo- 
cal Press^-Mills — Societies,  etc. — Early 
and  Later  Settlers. 

Independence.          ,        .        .    597 

By  S.  S.  While,  Esq. 
History —  Whitesville  Village —  Manu- 
factories —  Societies  —  Spring  Mills  — 
Green's  Corners  —  Fulmer's  Valley  — 
Early  Settlers — Churches — Soldiers,  etc. 
— Something  About  Some  of  the  Peo- 
ple— Biographical  Sketch. 

LIV.    Burns 615 

By  W.  H.  Barnum,  Esq. 
Name — First  Settlement  —  Canaseraga 
— Fires — Local  Press — Creamery  Com- 
pany —  Water   Works  —  F.  &  A.  M. 
Lodge — Churches— Educational— Burns 



Village —  Burns  Station  —  Garwoods  — 
War  Veterans — "The  Big  Elm,"  etc. — 

LV.     Alfred 624 

By  Silas  C.  Burdick,  Esq. 
Settlement  and  Settlers — Reminiscences 
by  Ethan  Lanphear — Developments  and 
Products— Cheese    Factories — Roll     of 



Alfred  Chfirches  —  Schools—  Temper- 
ance—  Villages — Business  Interests — 
Personal  Chronology. 

Towns  of  the  Holland  Purchase. 

LVII.    Caneadea 657 

By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 
History — Old  Council  House— The  Ger- 
mans— Religion  —  Houghton  Seminary 
—  Societies — Of  Caneadea  Citizens. 

LVIII.    Belfast.  ....    ^^i 

By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 
Early  Settlers  —  "  Bull  Froggers  "  — 
Wind  Storm— Tanneries — Cheese  Fac- 
tories— -The  Village — Genesee  Valley 
Seminary — Churches— Societies — Of  the 

LIX.    Friendship 699 

By  L.  C.  Aldrich,  Esq. 
Name — Settlement    and     Settlers — Or- 
ganization —  Development  —  Civil  War 
— Roll  of  Honor — Schools. 

LX.  Friendship,  Continued.  .  .  708 
Friendship  Village  —  Manufactures  — 
Friendship  Academy — Union  School — 
Baxter  University  of  Music — Fire  De- 
partment— Banks — Press  —  Societies  — 
Cemeteries  —  Churches  —  About  Some 
of  the  People — Biographical  Sketches. 

LXI.    Hume 736 

By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 
Boundaries — Description — Mills  Mills — 
Early  Settlers — Pioneering  on  the  Gore 
— Hume  Village— Wiscoy— Fillmore  Vil- 
lage —  First  Canal  Boats — "  Genesee 
Valley  Express  " — The  Caneadea  Indi- 
ans— Early  Settlers  on  the  Reservation 
— The  Village  Tract — A  Flood  Incident 
—Brook's  Gore,  or  Dutch  Hill— The 
Irish  Pioneers — Early  Roads — Church- 
es— Soldier  Dead — Banking  and  Socie- 
ties, etc. — Of  Hume's  Townsmen. 

LXII.    Centreville.  .        .        .    780 

By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 
History  —  Churches  —  Societies — Some 





.     789 

By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 

Settlers — Mills — Pine  Apple  Cheese  and 
Other  Cheese — Manufactories  -  Rush- 
ford  Academy  and  Union  School — Fire 
and  Flood — East  Rushford — Railroad 
— Cemeteries — The  Press  —  Banking — 
Vickery's  Music  School — Traders — Fire 
Department  —  Semi-Centennial  —  Sol- 
diers— Societies  —Churches — Of  Rush- 
ford's  Townsmen. 

LXIV.    Cuba. 

.    813 

By  John  S.  Minard,  Esq. 

History— North  Cuba — Cheese  Market 
and  Factories — The  World's  Largest 
Milk  Record — Cuba  Temperance  Camp 
Meetmg — Churches,  etc. 

LXV.    Cuba,  Continued. 


Cuba  Village — Cuba  Union  School  and 
Academy — Water  Works — Cuba  Fair 
Association — Cemetery — Banks— Board 
of  Trade — Business  Enterprises — Soci- 
eties— Of  Cuba's  Citizens — Biographi- 
cal Sketch. 

LXVI.    Wirt. 


By  S.  L.  Stanton,  Esq. 
Settlement — Richburg--An  Oil  Town — 
Soldier  Dead— -Cheese  Factories— Relig- 
ious—  Societies — Something   of    Some 
Citizens — Biographical  Sketch. 

Chapter.  Page. 

LXVII.  New  Hudson.  .  .  .868 
By  Hon.  H.  H.  Wakely. 
First  Settlers — Mills  and  Lumbering — 
Religion — Early  Times  and  Homes — 
Times  70  Years  Ago— Soldiers — Of  the 
Town's  People. 

LXVHL    Genesee 878 

By  Miss  Mary  A.  Lackey. 
Description-  -Little  Genesee — Ceres — 
First  Settlements — Early  Events  and 
Industries  —  Early  Experiences  —  Mills 
and  Lumbering  —  Oil  in  Genesee  — 
Churches  —  Physicians  —  Military  List, 
etc.-  -Something  of  the  People-  -Bio- 
graphical Sketch. 

LXIX.    Bolivar.  ....    902 

Topography  -  -  Early  Settlers  -  -  Early 
Mills  and  Manufactures— South  Bolivar 
— Soldier  Dead— Railroads— Cemetery- 
Bolivar  \'illage — A  Bit  of  Bolivar's  His- 
tory- Business  Interests — Banks — Fire 
Companies  —  Physicians  — Attorneys — 
Societies — Churches — Schools — Of  Bol- 
ivar's People. 

LXX.    Clarksville.  .        .        .931 

By  Victor  Hammond. 
Of  the  Town — Some  of  the  Pioneers — 
Industries—  Schools — Societies  —  G.  A. 
R. — Business  Interests — Oil  Producers 
— Oil  and  Gas  —  Railroads  —  Dairying 
and  Dairymen— Merchants — Soldiers  of 
the  Civil  War — Some  of  the  Residents. 

Biographies  and  Illustrations. 


BiograpHiGs  and  Illustrations. 


Guy  Johnson  Map,  1771, 

Robert  Morris, 

Map  of  Proprietary  Grants, 

Map  of  Allegany  County,  1806, 

Map  of  Allegany  County,  18 10, 

Map  of  Allegany  County,  1820, 

Map  of  Allegany  County,  1830, 

Map  of  Allegany  County,  1840, 

Map  of  Allegany  County,  1850, 

Map  of  Allegany  County,  i860, 

Samuel  A.  Earley, 

Samuel  A.  Earley,     . 

Memorial  Hall,  Alfred  University, 

The  Steinheim,  Alfred  University, 

President  William  Colgrove  Kenyon, 

President  Jonathan  Allen,  Ph.  D.,  D.  D.,  LL.D. 

Faculty  of  Alfred  University,  1895-96 

Mrs.  H.  M.  Barker, 

Mrs.  B.  C.  Rude, 

Mrs.  E.  J,  Potter,     . 

Mrs.  M.  L.  Willard, 

Mrs.  N.  S.  Bradley, 

Richard  Charles,  M.  D., 

William  M.  Smith,  M.  D.,      . 

John  Bowen  Collins.  M.  D., 

John  Hanford  Saunders,  M.  D., 

Hon.  Charles  M.  Crandall,  M.  D. 

Charles  W.  Saunders,  M.  D., 

Gilbert  B.  Champlain,  M.  D., 

Stephen  Maxson,  M.  D., 

Seneca  Allen,  M.  D., 

John  C.  Young,  M.  D., 

Jonas  Wellman.  M.  D.,   . 

H.  H.  Lyman,  M.  D., 

Anthony  Barney,  M.  D., 

Horace  H.  Nye,  M.  D., 

Hon.  W.  W.  Crandall,  M.  D., 

Sheffield  W.  Greene,  M.  D., 

Hon.  William  G.  Angel, 

Hon.  Harlan  J.  Swift, 

Hon.  Clarence  A.  Farnum, 

HLon.  Sheridan  Mc Arthur  Norton, 

Hon.  William  B.  Rochester, 

Hon.  Richard  P.  Marvin, 










































































Biographies  and  Illustrations. 

Hon.  Martin  Grover, 

Hon,  Martin  Grover, 

Hon.  Charles  Daniels, 

Hon.  George  Barker, 

Hon.  Hamilton  Ward, 

Hon.  Edward  W.  Hatch, 

Gen.  Alexander  S.  Diven, 

Hon.  Wilkes  Angel, 

Hon.  Marshall  B.  Champlain, 

Col.  A.  J.  McNett, 

Hon.  William  Folwell  Jones, 

Hon.  Edward  D.  Loveridge, 

Hon.  Henry  M.  Teller, 

Hon.  David  P.  Richardson, 

Gen.  Rufus  Scott,   . 

Hon.  Seymour  Dexter,     . 

Capt.  George  H.  Blackman, 

Frank  Sullivan  Smith,  Esq., 

Hon.  Asahel  N.  Cole, 

Hon.  Edward  Judson  Farnum, 

Enos  W.  Barnes. 

Orville  P.  Taylor, 

The  McEwen  Brothers, 

John  McEwen, 

William  Duke, 

A.  J.  Applebee, 

D.  C.  Ackerman, 

The  d'Autremonts, 

Judge  Philip  Church, 

Maj.  Moses  Van  Campen, 

Vial  Thomas. 

Peter  S.  Norris, 

Samuel  Van  Campen, 

Belmont  Free  Public  Library, 

Alvan  Earle  Parker, 

Isaac  Willets, 

Leonard  Frost  Willets, 

Hon.  Wolcott  Hatch, 

Archibald  Morris,  M.  D., 

George  A.  Green, 

Maj.  Peter  Keenan, 

Benjamin  M.  Vincent, 

Capt.  John  Emory  Middaugh, 

William  Wilson, 

Col.  Thomas  J.  Thorp, 

Riley  Allen,     . 

Daniel  Dexter, 

Phineas  A.  Burdick, 

Hon.  Clark  Crandall, 

Rev.  Darwin  E.  Maxson,  A.  M.,  D.  D„ 

David  Stillman, 








,                , 











































































Biographies  and  Illustrations. 


Major  Alanson  Burr, 

Stephen  Wilson, 

Prof.  Jeremiah  Hatch, 

Prof.  James  Baxter, 

Hon.  Asher  Wetmore  Miner. 

Hon.  Abijah  Joslyn  Wellman, 

Stephen  Welcome  Cole 

Herman  Rice, 

Herman  Rice, 

William  H.  Pitt,  A.  AL,  M.  D.,  Ph.  D., 

William  P.  Brooks, 

Samuel  A.  Farman, 

A.  W.  Henry, 

Mills  Family,    . 

George  Minard, 

John  S.  Minard, 

Charles  Ricker, 

Mahlon  L.  Ross, 

P.  C.  Soule,  M.  D., 

Stephen  H.  Draper, 

Charles  J.  Elmer, 

J.  B.  Gordon,    . 

R.  B.  Laning,  Esq., 

O.  T.  Stacy,  M.  D., 

George  H.  Eldridge, 

William  J.  Glenn, 

David  Kirkpatrick, 

Col.  Samuel  H.  Morgan. 

Henry  and  William  P.  Stevens, 

Hon.  Addison  S.  Thompson, 

Hon.  Calvin  T.  Chamberlain, 

William  Henry  Bartholomew, 

Deacon  Isaiah  Jordan, 

LaFrone  Merriman, 

Alvan  Richardson, 

Hon.  H.  H.  Wakely, 

The  Childs  Family, 

William  Cranston, 

Richard  L.  Andrus, 

The  Cowles  Family, 

Nelson  Hoyt, 

The  Meads,    . 

Stephen  W.  Thomas, 

Hon.  Martin  Butts, 

The  Congdon  Family, 

66 1 

















































Where  the  dark  green  pines  and  hemlocks  grow, 

Where  the  fountains  of  hght  from  rock  sources  flow, 

Where  the  Red  Man's  foot  had  scarce  ceased  to  roam, 

Our  fathers  established  their  pioneer  home. 

'Tis  the  "top  of  the  world,"  'tis  the  land  where  we  see 

The  waters  flow  all  ways  to  get  to  the  sea ; 

To  the  north,  to  the  south,  to  the  east,  to  the  west, 

The  crystal  streams  spring  to  the  broad  ocean's  breast. 

—  W.  A.  Fergusson. 

Allegany  and  its  People. 




"  Realm  of  the  Senecas  !     No  more 
In  shadow  lies  the  pleasant  vale; 
Gone  are  the  chiefs  who  ruled  of  yore, 
Like  chaff  before  the  rushing  gale. 
*         *         -x-         *         *         *         # 
And  hut  and  hall  of  council  now 
Are  changed  to  ashes  cold." 

IT  may  be  well,  perhaps,  before  entering  upon  the  subject  proper  of  the 
history  of  Allegany  county,  to  consider  briefly  the  scene  of  the  ad- 
ventures, exploits,  hardships  and  privations,  which  will  necessarily,  to  some 
extent  at  least,  be  recounted  in  succeeding  chapters. 

The  territory  included  within  the  present  limits  of  the  county  of  Alle- 
gany, up  to  the  very  dawn  of  the  nineteenth  century,  with  some  few 
exceptions  of  "open  flats  '"  along  the  winding  course  of  the  Genesee  river, 
the  Casconchagov  of  the  early  French  Jesuit  explorers.  Shining— clear — 
opening. — Pleasant-open- valley.  Clear-valley,  or  Beautiful- valley,  as  its  name, 
somewhat  differently  rendered  in  the  elastic  Seneca  language,  implies,  was 
covered  with  a  prodigious  growth  of  timber  of  various  kinds,  the  stately 
pine  largely  i^redominating,  yet  liberally  interspersed  with  hemlock,  oak, 
ash.  elm,  chestnut,  cucumber  and  hickory.  On  the  river  flats,  also  on  the 
bottom  lands  along  some  of  its  larger  tributaries,  sometimes  quite  close  to 
the  banks,  were  the  beautiful  butternuts,  which  annually  shed  their  fruitage 
of  toothsome  nuts.  Huge  buttonwoods  and  large  cottonwoods  and 
poplars,  were  also  found  in  abundance  along  the  river;  wild  plum  trees  were 
also  frequent,  and  graceful  elms  of  mammoth  proportions,  with  such  a  multi- 
plicity of  branches  as  sometimes  to  defy  successfully  any  attempt  to  count 
them,  at  intervals  were  found;  while  the  trees  which  fringed  the  river  bank 
were  for  most  of  the  way  serving  the  purpose  of  trellises  for  the  thousands 

18  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

of  vines  which  attained  a  marvelous  growth,  and  chmbed  in  some  instances 
to  their  very  tops  profusely  laden  with  grapes;  the  beautiful  bitter-sweet 
and  ivy  also  contributed  to  the  variety. 

The  open  flats  were  covered  with  a  luxuriant  growth  of  grass,  reiwrted 
by  some  enraptured  explorers  as  attaining  a  prodigious  growth  and  heigth. 
"tall  enough,"  it  was  claimed,  "to  easily  obscure  and  hide  from  observation, 
not  only  the  horse,  but  his  rider."  In  places  this  grass  was  burned  off,  ex- 
posing a  soil,  which,  subjected  to  the  manij)ulations  of  the  rude  husbandry 
of  Indian  women,  laughed  with  a  bountiful  harvest  of  corn,  beans,  squashes 
and  gourds,  when  only  slightly  tickled  with  their  primitive  farming  im- 
plements. Fish  of  various  kinds  swarmed  the  waters,  as  yet  suffering  no 
hindrance  from  dams  nor  polluted  with  sawdust,  and  speckled  beauties 
abounded  in  such  profusion  as  would  to  day  tempt  from  long  distances  the 
enthusiastic  disciples  of  Izaak  Walton.  Not  a  tree  had  fallen  a  victim  to.  or 
even  showed  the  scar  of  the  white  man's  axe. 

It  was  in  very  deed  a  virgin  wilderness,  peopled  with  a  considerable 
population  of  bears,  wolves,  elk,  deer,  raccoons,  otters,  panthers  and  other 
beasts  of  prey.  This  territory  was  sparsely  peopled  with  a  tribe  of  Seneca 
Indians,  who  lived  in  small  villages  along  the  river,  and  at  different  times 
camped  out  upon  the  highlands  for  purposes  of  hunting,  or  catching  pigeons 
wherever  they  might  chance  to  roost  and  build  their  nests.  A  dark  and 
dreary  though  betimes  a  beautiful  and  enchanting  forest  solitude  it  must 
have  been,  its  awful  and  oppressive  stillness  broken  only  by  the  laughing 
streams  bounding  over  the  p'3bbly  bottoms,  the  frightful  screams  of  some 
wild  beast  of  prey,  or  made  to  echo  the  war-whoop  of  the  Senecas,  or  the 
wild  songs  they  sang  when  celebrating  their  feasts  and  dances.  It  was  and 
had  been  for  ages  the  terrestrial  paradise  of  the  Senecas. 

This  was  substantially  the  condition  of  things  as  they  existed  100  years 
ago  in  the  territory  now  covered  by  the  county  of  Allegany,  and  the  atten- 
tion of  the  reader  is  called  to  this  uninviting  scene,  and  it  is  hoped  he  may 
be  sufficiently  interested  to  follow  carefully  the  process  of  evolution  which 
has  resulted  in  the  Allegany  of  to  day.  presenting  to  the  eye  almost  every 
variety  of  scenery;  beautiful  fields,  and  lofty  wood-crowned  summits,  wind- 
ing streams  and  lovely  valleys,  rock-bound  gorges  and  extended  plains, 
dotted  with  quiet  hamlets  and  thriving  villages,  in  one  instance  almost  ap- 
proaching city-like  proportions,  and  peopled  with  a  class  of  citizens  drawn 
from  many  nationalities,  but  intelligent,  patriotic,  industrious,  contented 
and  happy. 

Early  Explorations,  Etc.  19 



The  distant  top  of  the  wooded  hight 
Was  edged  with  a  rim  of  tender  light, 
And  thicket,  fountain,  rock  and  tree, 
From  cloudless  sun  a  radiance  drank, 
While  washed  the  rapid  Genesee. 
*  *  *  -Sf  *         *  * 

The  shambling  elk  shrill  whistle  gave, 
While  breaking  through  the  thicket  green 
To  plunge  his  muzzle  in  the  wave." 

ALTHOUGH  the  first  white  person  whose  foot  pressed  the  soil  of  Allegany, 
whose  name  can  be  given  with  any  degree  of  certainty,  was  the  captive, 
Mary  Jemison.  the  De-he-wa-mis  of  the  Senecas,  so  generally  referred  to  as 
the  "White  woman  of  the  Genesee."  As  with  her  Indian  captors  she  made 
her  advent  into  the  ••  Genesee  country,"  about  1759.  when  the  party  halted 
for  a  day  and  a  night  at  the  upper  Caneadea  village  (Gah-yah-o-de-o  of  the 
ancient  Senecas).  which  was  in  the  present  town  of  Caneadea,  on  their  way 
to  Gardeau,  it  is  nevertheless  reasonably  removed  from  the  field  of  conject- 
ure that  possibly  La  Salle,  and  perhaps  some  others  of  the  early  French 
Jesuits  or  their  subalterns,  had  already  a  full  half-century  before  passed  over 
this  route  of  travel,  which  afterward  for  a  time  served  as  the  pathway  from 
the  St.  Lawrence  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

Remembering  and  ever  keeping  in  mind  this  fact  that  in  all  the  earlier 
explorations  of  our  country,  the  natural  water-ways  were  the  medium 
through  which  the  remote  recesses  of  the  vast  forest  solitudes  were  reached, 
and.  glancing  occasionally  as  you  read  at  a  map  of  Western  New  York,  care- 
fully scan  what  follows. 

In  his  admirable  address  before  the  Livingston  County  Historical  Society 
at  Nunda  in  January,  1886,  the  late  lamented  Geo.  H.  Harris.  Esq.,  of 
Rochester,  asserted  that  "  The  great  water  route  from  the  St.  Lawrence  to 
the  south,  sought  by  La  Salle  and  other  explorers,  was  by  way  of  Lake 
Ontario,  Irondequoit  bay,  and  the  Genesee  river  to  Belvidere,  the  Oil  and 
Ischua  creeks  to  Olean.  then  down  the  Allegany,  Ohio  and  Mississippi  rivers 
to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  There  were  variations  in  this  route  between  the 
Genesee  and  Ohio  rivers,  the  discovery  of  which  caused  a  vast  expense  of 
time,  money  and  human  blood.  During  the  French  dominion  in  Canada 
their  voyageurs  were  frequently  upon  the  Genesee  and  its  connecting  trails. 
The  first  description  of  the  river  ever  published  was  that  of  the  good  Father 
Charlevoix,  who  passed  along  the  south  shore  of  Lake  Ontario,  in  1721, 
Writing  from  Fort  Niagara,  he  says  '  There  is  a  little  river,  which  I  would 
have  visited  if  I  had  sooner  been  informed  of  its  singularity,  and  of  what  I 

20  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

have  now  learnt  on  my  arrival.  They  call  it  Casconchiagon.  It  is  very  nar- 
row, and  of  but  little  depth  at  its  entrance  into  the  lake  (Ontario).  A  little 
higher  it  is  140  yards  wide,  and  they  say  it  is  deep  enough  for  the  largest 
vessels. '  Two  leagues  (six  miles)  from  its  mouth,  we  are  stopped  by  a  fall 
which  appears  to  be  60  feet  high,  and  140  yards  wide.  A  musket  shot  higher, 
we  find  a  second,  of  the  same  width,  but  not  so  high  by  two-thirds.  Half-a- 
league  farther,  a  third  fall  100  feet  high  good  measure,  and  200  yards  wide; 
after  this,  we  meet  several  torrents,  and  having  sailed  50  leagues  farther, 
we  perceive  a  fourth  fall  every  w^ay  equal  to  the  third.  The  course  of  the 
river  is  100  leagues,  and  when  we  have  gone  up  it  about  60  leagues,  we  have 
but  ten  to  go  by  land,  taking  to  the  right  to  arrive  at  the  Ohio,  called  La  Belle 
Riviere.  The  place  where  we  meet  with  it  is  called  Ganos,  where  an  officer 
worthy  of  credit,  and  the  same  from  whom  I  learnt  Avhat  I  have  just  now 
mentioned,  assured  me  that  he  had  seen  a  fountain,  the  water  of  which  is 
like  oil  and  the  taste  like  iron.  He  said  that  a  little  farther  on.  there  is 
another  fountain  exactly  like  it.  and  the  savages  make  use  of  its  waters  to 
appease  all  manner  of  pains. " 

The  officer  to  whom  Charlevoix  alluded  was  Joncaire,  a  Frenchman,  who 
had  been  adopted  by  the  Indians,  and  lived  for  some  years  at  Lewiston,  on 
the  Niagara  river.  He  was  on  the  best  of  terms  with  the  Indians,  had  two 
half-breed  sons,  Clanzonne  and  Chabert.  The  elder  Joncaire  made  a  number 
of  journeys  up  the  Genesee  river,  to  Belvidere,  over  the  divide  to  Oil  creek, 
and  so  on,  down  the  Allegany  and  Ohio  rivers.  One  or  both  of  the  sons  also 
made  the  same  journeys.  On  these  journeys  they  were  sometimes  provided 
by  the  French  government  with  a  number  of  lead  plates,  about  eleven  inches 
long,  seven  and  one-half  wide,  and  one-eighth  of  an  inch  in  thickness,  with 
inscriptions  thereon,  leaving  blanks  to  be  filled  out  with  date  and  place  of 
using  them.  They  were  to  be  buried  at  certain  well  defined  places,  like  the 
confluence  of  important  streams,  or  where  some  strongly  marked  geograph- 
ical feature  existed.  It  was  one  of  a  class  of  ceremonies,  which  was  con- 
sidered of  importance  in  "  taking  jDOSsession  "  of  the  country  in  the  name, 
and  by  the  authority  of  the  French  sovereign.  On  one  of  these  trips  a  plate, 
designed  for  such  a  purpose,  was  stolen  from  Joncaire  w^hile  going  through 
the  Seneca  country,  and  on  the  29th  of  January,  1751,  Gov.  Clinton,  into 
whose  possession  it  is  presumed  to  have  fallen,  sent  a  copy  of  the  inscription 
to  Gov.  Hamilton  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  inscription  as  translated  is: 

'•  In  the  year  1749,  of  the  reign  of  Louis  the  15th,  King  of  France,  we 
Celoron,  commander  of  a  detachment  sent  by  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de-la- 
Galissoniere,  Governor  General  of  New  France,  to  re-establish  tranquility  in 
some  Indian  villages  of  these  cantons,  have  buried  this  Plate  of  Lead,  at  the 
confluence  of  the  Ohio  and  the  Chautauqua,  this  29th  day  of  July,  near  the 
river  Ohio,  otherwise  Belle  Riviere,  as  a  monument  of  the  renewal  of  the  pos- 
session we  have  taken  of  the  said  river  Ohio,  and  of  all  those  which  empty 
into  it,  and  of  all  the  lands  on  both  sides,  as  far  as  the  sources  of  said  rivers, 

Early  Explorations,  Etc.  21 

as  enjoyed  or  ought  to  have  been  enjoyed,  by  the  Kings  of  France  preceding, 
and  as  they  have  there  maintained  themselves,  by  arms  and  by  treaties, 
especially  those  of  Ryswick,  Utrecht  and  Aix  la  Chapelle."  .• 

••This  was  the  tirst  reliable  account  of  the  Genesee  given  by  the  old 
writers,  and  errs  onlj^  in  the  exaggerated  distances.  The  fountains  men- 
tioned were  a  petroleum  oil  spring  near  Cuba,  N.  Y.,  and  another  in  Venango 
county.  Pa.  The  wonder  expressed  by  Charlevoix,  over  170  years  ago,  is 
still  felt  by  all  who  have  a  personal  knowledge  of  the  Genesee  river.  From 
its  source  in  Pennsylvania  to  its  entrance  into  Lake  Ontario,  its  course  is 
through  some  of  the  most  magnificent  scenery,  and  is  marked  with  wondrous 
changes  wrought  by  the  hand  of  nature." 

The  third  fall  mentioned  in  this  description,  is  the  one  at  Rochester,  and 
the  fourth  at  Portage,  which  should  have  been  given  as  three.  The  exag- 
gerated distances  given  are  not  to  be  wondered  at,  as  the  river  was  very 
tortuous,  and  its  course  lying  for  the  most  part  through  such  an  entirely 
primitive  wilderness,  the  w^ay  must  necessarily  have  seemed  much  longer 
than  it  really  was,  and  it  was  really  much  longer  to  travel  with  boats  then 
than  it  is  at  the  present  time. 

It  would  of  course  be  a  satisfaction  to  know  more  of  the  olficer  of  whom 
Charlevoix  speaks  and  how  he  pursued  his  journey,  and  how  many  men 
accompanied  him,  their  names,  etc.;  but  as  that  is  impossible,  and  from  the 
fact  of  the  Genesee  river  being  the  principal  stream  of  the  county,  traversing 
its  whole  length  from  south  to  north,  thus  furnishing  its  most  prominent 
and  distinguishing  geographical  feature,  the  reader  will,  it  is  trusted,  agree 
with  the  writer  in  considering  the  foregoing  account,  even  though  meagre, 
as  appropriate  in  this  connection.  I  will  close  this  chapter  by  introducing 
an  extract  from  an  address  which  the  writer  delivered  before  the  Allegany 
County  Historical  Society,  January  8,  1890.  This  expedition  of  Charlevoix's 
lieutenants  had  been  briefly  alluded  to.  •'  I 'fancy  that  if  our  honored  friend 
Major  Richard  Church,  who  is  detained  at  home  by  illness  this  evening, 
would  only  provide  himself  with  a  sort  of  reversed  horoscope  of  reasonably 
strong  i^ower,  adjust  its  focus  for  about  1720,  and  train  it  so  as  to  sweep  for 
some  distance  the  banks  of  the  river  along  about  opposite  his  beautiful 
homestead,  he  Vv^ould  be  able  to  descry,  through  the  intervening  mists  and 
shadows  of  the  ages,  the  well  defined  outlines  of  the  particular  officer  spoken 
of  by  Charlevoix,  accompanied  by  a  few  privates  and  an  Indian  guide  or  two, 
as  they  pulled  and  poled  their  bateaux  up  the  shallow  waters,  unloaded  their 
store  of  trinkets,  cam])  utensils  and  accoutrements,  and  prepai'ed  for  the 
portage  to  Oil  creek  I     There  is  no  reasonable  doubt  of  it." 

22  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 



"  The  red  man  boasts  no  herald-roll, 
But  views  with  equal  pride  of  soul 
The  painted  symbol  on  his  skin, 
Allies  to  memory  of  sires 
Famed  for  their  prowess,  while  within 
His  bosom  wakes  heroic  fires." 

WHEN  the  white  man  first  entered  this  beautiful  Seneca  country,  he  found 
numerous  deeply-trodden  paths  threading  the  forest  in  different 
directions.  They  led  from  one  Indian  village  to  another,  and  occasionally 
branched  off  to  their  favorite  hunting  and  fishing  grounds,  and  here  and 
there  marked  their  intercourse  with  neighboring  aboriginal  tribes.  These 
were  the  "trails,"  and  were  the  routes  pursued  by  the  French  missionaries 
and  traders  and  by  the  Dutch  and  English  in  their  intercourse  with  the  In- 
dians. They  afterwards  served  to  guide  our  early  pioneers  through  the 
forest,  enabling  them  to  appreciate  the  value  and  beauty  of  the  country. 

One  of  these  trails,  the  one  with  which  we  are  just  now  more  interested 
than  any  other,  passed  from  Mt.  Morris  up  the  river  to  Gardeau  and  Canea- 
dea,  and  still  on  to  the  Allegany  river  at  Olean,  leaving  the  valley  of  the 
Genesee  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Church  manor-house  at  Belvidere  and 
following  the  valley  of  VanCampen's  creek  to  some  point  near  Friendship 
village,  from  thence  taking  a  feasible  route  to  the  oil  spring  in  Cuba,  and 
following  the  course  of  the  water  to  the  Allegany  at  Cornplanter's  town  later 
Olean  Point,  afterward  for  a  short  time  Hamilton  and  now  plain  Olean.  An- 
other branch  of  this  important  trail  led  from  Belvidere  up  the  river,  fol- 
lowing its  course,  in  a  good  part  of  the  way  being  identical,  with  our  present 
"river  road,"  and  passing  on  to  Pennsylvania.  Prom  the  upper  Caneadea 
village,  located  on  the  east  side  of  the  Genesee  river  in  the  town  of  Canea- 
dea, nearly  opposite  the  village  of  Houghton,  a  lateral  trail  branched  off  to 
the  west,  following  ui3  the  ravine  just  north  of  Houghton  Seminary,  thence 
striking  almost  exactly  the  line  of  the  road  to  Rushford  as  at  present  located, 
and  bearing  from  thence  northwesterly  through  Centerville,  Freedom  and 
on  to  Buffalo.  This  was  an  important  trail,  and  was  much  used  during  the 
French  and  Indian  w^ars  and  in  the  Revolutionary  times,  communicating  as 
it  did  so  directly  with  the  lake  frontier. 

Prom  the  Caneadea  village  another  trail  passed  easterly  through  Allen 
and  Birdsall  to  the  Canisteo  river  near  Arkport,  and  was  known  by  the  early 
white  explorers  as  the  "Canisteo  path."  This  w^as  also  a  very  important 
trail.  It  was  over  this  trail  that  the  hordes  of  savages,  led  by.  Mohawk, 
Shongo,  and  Hudson,  passed  when  they  set  out  upon  their  expedition  against 

Our  Predecessors — The  Six  Nations. 

Wyoming  in  1778.     Many  a  war  party  has  passed  along  this  aboriginal  high- 
way of  travel. 

These  trails  were  in  fact  the  "highways  "'  of  a  once  powerful  nation  of 
American  Indians,  the  Senecas,  one  of  the  original  Five  Nations,  the  Iro- 
-quois,  and.  later,  after  the  adoption  of  the  Tuscaroras,  of  the  confederacy  of 
Six  Nations,  our  immediate  predecessors  in  the  occupation  of  this  section  of 
our  country.  The  Iroquois  have  been  called  the  "Romans  of  the  new 
world."  Their  federal  system  of  government,  although  a  pure  oligarchy, 
sedulously,  and  with  great  ingenuity,  guarded  against  centralization  and  the 
aggression  of  power,  always  recognizing  the  principles  of  local  self-govern- 
ment, in  the  admistration  of  which  their  women  were  allowed  a  potential 
voice  and  influence,  and  their  rights  M^ere  sacredly  guarded  and  plainly  de- 
fined. It  has  been  claimed  that  the  ultimate  object  of  their  federal  pohcy 
was  nothing  less  than  a  peaceful  union  of  all  the  tribes  of  the  continent,  and 
is  i^erhaps  without  a  parallel  in  affording  to  its  people  more  than  300  years  of 
uninterrupted  domestic  unity  and  peace. 

Agriculture  had  to  some  extent  begun  to  modify  the  life  of  the  aborigi- 
nal hunters  of  New  York  when,  in  1687,  the  Marquis  De  Nonville  invaded 
the  lower  Genesee  country.  In  his  report  to  his  government  he  claimed  to 
have  destroyed  "  more  than  a  million  bushels  of  corn."  Said  the  late  David 
Gray,  of  Buffalo,  in  a  paper  on  "The  last  Indian  Council  of  the  Genesee,"' 
pubhshed  in  Scribner's  Magazine,  "  In  the  midst  of  their  fields  they  built  their 
villages,  some  of  which  contained  more  than  a  hundred  houses.  Three  sis- 
ter divinities  of  their  religion  were  the  spirit  of  the  maize,  the  bean  and  the 
squash.  A  fancy  superior  to  that  of  the  average  of  savage  peoples  stamped 
their  unwritten  legends  and  mythology.  They  had  even  a  rude  astronomy, 
and  mapped  the  heavens,  giving  names  to  the  principal  constellations. 
Among  them  the  art  of  eloquence  was  cultivated  as  assiduously  as  that  of 
arms.  Their  parliament  was  an  indigenous  growth  in  the  depths  of  the  New 
York  forests."  Of  the  annual  councils  of  the  sachems  Gov.  De  Witt  Chnton 
wrote  that  "in  eloquence,  in  dignity  and  in  all  the  characteristics  of  per- 
sonal pohcy,  they  surpassed  an  assemblage  of  feudal  barons,  and  were  per- 
haps not  far  inferior  to  the  great  Amphictyonic  council  of  Greece." 

24  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 



Lo  !  the  poor  Indian,  whose  untutored  mind 
Sees  God  in  clouds,  or  hears  Him  in  the  wind  ; 
His  soul  proud  science  never  taught  to  stray 
Far  as  the  solar  walk  or  milky  way  ; 
Yet  simple  nature  to  his  hope  has  given. 
Behind  the  cloud-topt  hill  a  humbler  heaven  ; 
Some  safer  world  in  depth  of  woods  embraced, 
Some  happier  island  in  the  watery  waste. 
Where  slaves  once  more  their  native  land  behold. 
No  fiends  torment,  no  Christians  thirst  for  gold  ; 
To  be  content  's  his  natural  desire  ; 
He  asks  no  angels'  wings,  no  seraph's  fire. 
But  thinks,  admitted  to  that  equal  sky. 
His  faithful  dog  shall  bear  him  company. 


IT^is  "Written  in  the  life  of  Mary  Jemison  ' '  Perhaps  no  people  were  more 
exact  observers  of  religious  duties  than  the  Indians  among  the  Senecas 
who  were  denominated  'pagans,'  in  contradistinction  to  those  who,  from  hav- 
ing renounced  their  former  superstitious  notions,  have  obtained  the  name 
of  Christians.  They  believed  in  a  Great  Good  Spirit,  whom  they  called  in  the 
Seneca  language,  Ha-weii-ne-yu,  as  the  creator  of  the  world  and  of  every 
good  thing;  that  he  made  man  and  all  inoffensive  animals;  that  he  supplied 
them  with  the  comforts  of  life,  and  that  he  was  particularly  jDartial  to  the 
Indians,  who,  they  said,  were  his  particular  people.  They  also  believed  that 
he  was  pleased  in  giving  them  (the  Indians)  good  gifts,  and  that  he  was 
highly  gratified  with  their  good  conduct;  that  he  abhorred  their  vices,  and 
that  he  was  willing  to  punish  them  for  their  bad  conduct,  not  only  in  this 
world,  but  in  a  future  state  of  existence.  His  residence,  they  supposed,  lay 
at  a  great  distance  from  them  in  a  country  that  was  perfectly  pleasant; 
where  plenty  abounded  even  to  profusion;  that  the  soil  was  completely  fer- 
tile, and  the  seasons  so  mild  that  the  corn  never  failed  to  be  good;  that  the 
deer,  elk,  buffalo,  turkey  and  other  useful  animals  were  numerous,  and  that 
the  forests  were  well  calculated  to  facilitate  their  hunting  them  with  success; 
that  the  streams  were  pure  and  abounded  with  fish,  and  that  nothing  was 
w^anted  to  render  fruition  complete.  Over  this  territory  they  believed  Ha- 
iven-ne-yu  presided  as  an  all-powerful  king,  and  that  without  counsel  he  ad- 
mitted to  his  pleasure  all  whom  he  considered  worthy  of  enjoying  so  great  a 
state  of  blessedness.  *  *  *  According  to  the  Indian  mode  of  burial,  the 
deceased  is  laid  out  in  his  best  clothing,  and  put  in  a  coffin  of  boards  or  bark, 
and  with  him  is  deposited  in  every  instance,  a  small  cup  and  a  cake.  Gen- 
erally two  or  three  candles  are  put  into  the  coffin,  and  in  a  few  instances, 
at  the  burial  of  a  great  man.  all  the  implements  of  w^ar  are  buried  by  the  side 

The  Senegas — Their  Origin.  Etc.  25 

of  the  body.  The  coffin  is  then  closed  and  carried  to  the  grave.  On  its  be- 
ing- let  down,  the  person  who  takes  the  lead  in  the  solemn  transaction,  or  a 
chief,  addresses  the  dead  in  a  short  sjDeech  in  which  he  charges  him  not  to 
be  troubled  about  himself  in  his  new  situation  nor  on  his  journey,  and  not  to 
trouble  his  friends,  wife  or  children  whom  he  has  left;  tells  him  that  if  he 
meets  with  strangers  on  the  way,  he  must  inform  them  what  tribe  he  belongs 
to,  who  his  relatives  are,  the  situation  in  which  he  left  them,  and  that  hav- 
ing done  this  he  must  keep  on  till  he  arrives  at  the  good  fields  in  the  country 
of  Ha-wen-ne-yu;  that  when  he  arrives  there  he  will  see  all  his  ancestors  and 
personal  friends  that  have  gone  before  him,  who,  together  with  all  the  chiefs 
of  celebrity,  will  receive  him  joyfully,  and  furnish  him  with  every  article  of 
perpetual  happiness.  The  grave  is  now  filled  and  left  till  evening,  when 
some  of  the  nearest  relatives  of  the  dead  build  a  fire  at  the  head  of  it,  near 
which  they  sit  till  morning.  In  this  way  they  continue  nine  successive 
nights,  when,  believing  that  their  departed  friend  has  arrived  at  the  end  of 
his  journey,  they  discontinue  their  attention.  During  this  time  the  relatives 
of  the  deceased  are  not  allowed  to  dance.  ,, 

/  The  tradition  of  the  Senecas  in  regard  to  their  origin  is  that  they  broke 
/  out  of  the  earth  from  a  large  mountain  at  the  head  of  Canandaigua  lake, 
which  they  still  venerate  as  the  place  of  their  birth.  Thence  they  derive 
their  name,  Ge-nun-de- wah,  or  '  Great  Hill, '  and  were  called  •  Great  Hill  Peo- 
ple,' which  is  the  true  definition  of  the  word  Seneca.  The  great  hill  at  the 
head  of  Canandaigua  lake,  from  whence  they  si^rung,  is  called  Ge-nun-de- 
wah  and  has  for  a  long  time  past  been  the  place  where  the  Indians  of  that 
nation  have  met  in  council,  to  hold  great  talks,  and  to  offer  up  prayers  to  the 
Great  Spirit,  on  account  of  its  having  been  their  birth-place;  and  also  in 
consequence  of  the  destruction  of  a  serpent  at  that  place  in  ancient  times. 
in  a  most  miraculous  manner,  which  threatened  the  destruction  of  the  whole 
of  the  Senecas,  and  barely  spared  enough  to  commence  replenishing  the 
earth.  The  Indians  say  that  the  foot  of  the  big  hill  near  the  head  of  Canan- 
daigua lake  was  surrounded  by  a  monstrous  serpent,  whose  head  and  tail 
came  together  at  the  gate.  A  long  time  it  lay  there  confounding  the  peojDle 
with  its  breath.  At  length  they  attempted  to  make  their  escape,  some  with 
their  hominy  blocks,  and  others  with  different  implements  of  household 
furniture,  and  in  marching  out  of  the  foot  walked  down  the  throat  of  the 
serpent.  Two  orphan  children,  who  had  escajoed  this  general  destruction 
by  being  left  on  the  side  of  the  foot,  were  informed  by  an  oracle  of  the  means 
by  which  they  could  get  rid  of  their  formidable  enemy,  which  was  to  take  a 
small  bow  and  a  poisoned  arrow,  made  of  a  kind  of  willow,  and  with  that 
shoot  the  serpent  under  its  scales.  This  they  did  and  the  arrow  proved 
effectual,  for,  on  its  penetrating  the  skin,  the  serpent  became  sick,  and  ex- 
tending itself,  rolled  down  the  hill,  destroying  all  the  timber  that  was  in  its 
way,  and  disgorging  itself.  At  every  motion  a  human  head  was  discharged 
and  rolled  down  the  hill  into  the  lake,  where  they  lie  at  this  day  in  a  petrified 
state  having  the  hardness  and  appearance  of  stones,  and  the  pagan  Indians 

26  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

of  the  Senecas  believe  that  all  the  little  snakes  (of  the  land)  were  made  of 
the  blood  of  the  great  serpent  after  it  rolled  into  the  lake.  To  this  day  the 
Indians  visit  that  sacred  place  to  mourn  the  loss  of  their  friends  and  to  cele- 
brate some  rites  that  are  peculiar  to  themselves.  To  the  knowledge  of 
white  peoi^le  there  has  been  no  timber  on  the  great  hill  since  it  was  first 
discovered  by  them,  though  it  lay  apparently  in  a  state  of  nature  for  a  great 
number  of  years  without  cultivation.  Stones  in  the  shape  of  an  Indian's 
head  may  be  seen  lying  in  the  lake  in  great  plenty,  which  are  said  to  be  the 
same  that  were  deposited  there  at  the  death  of  the  serpent." 

The  Senecas  were  very  superstitious  in  regard  to  snakes,  and  in  con- 
firmation of  this  statement,  I  will  relate  a  legend  told  me  by  Capt.  John 
Buck,  an  aged  Indian,  who  when  a  boy  lived  at  the  upper  Caneadea  village, 
and  was  familiar  with  the  different  localities  along  the  river  in  Caneadea  and 
Hume.  In  the  autumn  of  1890  the  writer,  this  Capt.  John  Buck,  Geo.  H. 
Harris  of  Rochester  and  M.  B.  Turpin  of  Mt.  Morris,  went  from  Fillmore  to 
visit  the  site  of  the  old  Indian  village  of  Caneadea.  When  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  the  Holy  Cross  Cemetery,  near  Long  Beard's  Riff,  Captain  Buck, 
pointing  over  to  a  deep  gorge  or  gully  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  said  (in 
substance,  it  would  be  impossible  for  me  to  give  his  exact  words,)  "  May  be 
you  never  heard  of  it,  and  maybe  after  I  tell  you,  too,  you  won't  believe  it, 
but  I  am  -going  to  tell  you,  how  a  long,  long  time  ago,  a  great  luliile 
ago,  a  big  snake  lived  up  on  that  mountain,"  pointing  away  off  to  the 
highlands  in  the  east,  "big  snake  took  a  notion,  one  day,  to  go  to  the 
river,  and  in  going  plowed  out  that  deep  gully  or  ravine.  After  this,  snake 
frequently  visited  the  river.  One  day  just  at  or  a  little  after  sunset,  an  In- 
dian took  a  little  drum  and  going  to  the  mouth  of  the  gorge  where  it  empties 
into  the  river  seated  himself  on  a  stone.  He  then  commenced  tapping  on 
the  drum.  After  beating  drum  awhile  big  snake  came  down  and  laid  his 
head  upon  a  stone  near  by  the  Indian.  The  Indian  took  a  sharp  little  knife, 
and  opening  a  vein  just  back  of  the  snake's  jaw,  drew  some  blood  into  a  smaU 
cup  and  drank  it.  This  made  the  snake  and  the  Indian  brothers,  and  the 
Indian  was  called  a  '  Witch  Indian '  ever  afterward,  and  had  supernatural 
powers  and  gifts.  It  was  getting  duskish  at  the  time,  and  some  of  the  blood 
being  spilled  upon  the  stones,  it  flashed  up  in  a  great  blaze  of  fire,  and  lighted 
up  whole  country."  Capt.  Buck  told  this  with  every  manifestation  of  pro- 
found belief  in  the  remarkable  story. 

A  notable  instance  showing  another  strange  superstition  of  the  Seneca 
Indians,  was  furnished  upon  the  death  of  the  noted  chief.  Little  Beard,  who 
lived  at  Cuylerville  in  one  of  their  largest  villages,  called  after  him  "  Little 
Beard's  Town."  He  died  in  June,  1806,  and  June  16th  occurred  the  "great 
eclipse"  which  I  suppose  was  total.  The  Indians,  who  had  buried  their 
chief  with  all  the  honors  of  his  rank  and  were  entirely  unacquainted  with 
astronomy  as  relating  to  such  phenomena,  believed  that  it  was  their  old 
chief,  who,  on  account  of  some  old  feeling  of  hatred  he  held  toward  them, 
had  placed  himself  between  them  and  the  sun,  to  prevent  the  growing  of 

The  Senegas — Their  Origin,  Etc.  27 

their  corn  and  thus  reducing-  them  to  starvation.  They  held  a  hurried  con- 
sultation, the  result  of  which  was  that  in  their  opinion  the  only  thing  which 
would  effectually  remove  it  was  the  use  of  powder  and  ball,  and  every  gun 
and  rifle  which  could  be  procured  w^ere  brought  into  use.  and  a  continual 
firing  kept  up  until  the  old  fellow  withdrew,  and  the  obscurity  was  removed, 
which  afforded  great  joy  and  relief  to  the  ingenuous  and  fortunate  Indians. 



''Where  are  your  hoary  magi-wrinkled  seers, 
Clad  in  their  dread  apparehng;  who  made 
Rude  rocky  altars,  stained,  and  mossed  with  years, 

And  held  terrific  orgies  in  the  shade  ? 
Gone,  like  the  shapes  that  populate  a  dream. 
Or  twinkling  dew,  drank  up  by  moon's  effulgent  beam." 

TN  each  year  they  had  six  "  feasts,"  or  stated  times  for  assembling  in  their 
1  tribes  and  giving  thanks  to  Ha-wen-ne-yu  for  the  blessings  they  had  re- 
ceived from  his  kind,  liberal  and  provident  hand,  and  to  solicit  a  continuance 
of  such  favors.  The  first  of  these  feasts  occurred  immediately  after  they 
had  finished  "  sugaring."  At  this  feast  they  gave  thanks  for  the  favorable 
weather,  the  g-reat  quantity  of  sap  they  w^ere  enabled  to  gather,  and  for  the 
large  amount  of  sugar  they  had  been  allowed  to  make.  On  these  occasions 
the  chiefs  by  turns  arose,  and  addressed  the  assemblage  in  a  kind  of  exhor- 
tation, in  which  they  not  only  expressed  their  own  thankfulness,  but  urged 
the  propriety  and  necessity  of  general  gratitude,  and  pointed  out  the  course 
which  ought  to  be  pursued  by  each  individual  in  order  that  Nau-ivah-ne-u 
might  continue  his  blessings  and  the  designs  of  the  evil  spirit  might  be 
thwarted.     At  the  mai^le  festival  in  olden  times  the  leader  made  this  si^eech: 

'•  Friends:  The  sun,  the  ruler  of  the  day.  is  high  in  his  path,  and  we  must 
hasten  to  our  duty.  We  are  here  to  observe  an  ancient  custom,  handed 
down  to  us  by  our  forefathers,  and  given  to  them  by  the  Good  Ruler  Ha- 
iven-ne-yu.  He  requires  us  to  give  thanks  for  the  blessings  we  receive.  We 
will  be  faithful  to  this  command. 

"  Friends,  the  maple  is  yielding  its  sweet  waters.  We  join  in  thanksgiving 
to  the  maple,  and  also  to  Ha-wen-ne-itu.  who  made  this  tree  for  the  good  of 
the  red  man." 

The  services  of  the  day  were  closed  with  the  "great  feather  dance." 
When  they  addressed  the  Good  Ruler  directly,  they  threw  tobacco  on  the 
fire,  that  their  words  might  ascend  to  him  on  the  incense.  They  never  used 
incense  at  any  other  time.     The  leader  would  say: 

28  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

''  Ha-2ven-7ie-yu!  Listen  now  to  our  words.  The  smoke  of  our  offering 
arises.  Listen  to  our  words  as  they  arise  to  thee  in  smoke.  We  thank  thee 
for  the  sweet  water  of  the  maple.  We  thank  thee  for  the  return  of  the 
planting  season.  Let  our  corn  and  beans  and  squashes  grow.  Ha-wen-ne-yu! 
continue  to  listen,  for  the  smoke  yet  arises  (throwing  on  tobacco. )  Preserve 
us  from  pestilential  diseases,  preserve  our  old  men,  and  jDrotect  our  young. 
Ha-wen-ne-yu\  Thou  dost  love  thy  people,  and  hate  thine  enemies.  Thou  hast 
given  us  the  panther's  heart,  the  eagle's  eye,  the  moose's  foot,  and  the  cun- 
ning of  the  fox;  but  to  our  enemies  thou  hast  given  the  eye  of  the  owl  in 
day-light,  the  foot  of  the  turtle,  the  heart  of  woman,  and  the  stupid  brains 
of  the  bear  in  winter. 

On  these  occasions,  the  chiefs  would  describe  a  perfectly  straight  line, 
perhaps  ten  miles  long,  turning  neither  to  the  right  nor  to  the  left,  but  push- 
ing their  way  over  hills,  through  valleys,  across  gulfs,  through  swamps,  or 
whatever  else  they  might  encounter,  and  direct  their  people  to  travel  upon 
it  by  x:)lacing  one  foot  before  the  other,  with  the  heel  of  one  foot  to  the  toe  of 
the  other,  and  thus  continuing  until  they  arrive  at  the  end.  They  took  this 
method  of  impressing  upon  their  people  that  they  must  not  turn  aside  into 
the  paths  of  vice,  but  keep  straight  ahead  in  the  way  of  well-doing  which 
would  lead  them  at  last  to  the  paradise  of  Nau-iuah-ne-ii . 

After  planting  another  feast  occurred,  at  which  they  returned  thanks  for 
the  favorable  time  they  had  had  for  preparing  the  ground  and  planting  the 
seed.  When  the  green  corn  became  lit  for  use,  a  third  or  "green  corn 
feast  "  was  attended,  at  which  a  good  portion  of  the  time  was  spent  in  sing- 
ing, and  dancing,  and  other  ways  of  expressing  their  joy  and  manifesting 
their  thankfulness  for  the  addition  to  their  diet  of  an  article  of  food  which  is 
to  day  held  in  high  estimation  by  the  whole  civilized  world. 

The  late  Loren  Houghton,  of  Caneadea,  informed  me  that  he  once  wit- 
nessed a  "green  corn  dance,  "or  feast,  which  was  participated  in  by  several 
hundred  Indians,  delegations  being  present  from  Buffalo,  Tonawanda,  Cat- 
taraugus, and  Big  Tree  reservations.  This  feast  was  held  at  the  upper 
Caneadea  village.  Some  idea  of  the  multitude  which  attended  may  be  in- 
ferred from  the  magnitude  of  the  preparations  made  for  their  subsistence. 
Mr.  Houghton  said  the  succotash  was  made  in  six  five-pail  brass  kettles, 
and  all  of  them  once  full,  only  served  for  one  meal.  Twelve  or  fifteen  deer 
were  killed,  and  the  venison,  cut  up  in  pieces  of  a  pound  or  more  in  weight, 
was  thrown  in  with  the  green  corn  and  beans,  and,  without  a  particle  of  salt, 
all  were  boiled  together.  When  sufficiently  cooked  the  kettles  were  sur- 
rounded by  the  Indians,  and  each  one  helped  him  or  herself,  some  eating 
out  of  the  kettles  with  wooden  spoons, -some  with  iron  spoons,  and  some,  pro- 
vided with  bowls  or  other  dishes,  would  take  their  portion  and  retire,  giving 
others  not  so  well  equipped  a  chance  immediately  around  the  kettles.  This 
feast  passed  off  without  any  disturbance,  no  quarrel  or  unpleasantness 
marring  the  general  good  feeling  or  the  high  degree  of  enjoyment  of  all  who 

Indian  Feasts,  Dances,  Etc.  29 

participated.  The  next  year  the  Caneadea  Indians  visited  some  of  the  other 
reservations  to  enjoy  this  feast,  and  thus  it  was  passed  around. 

A  fourth  feast  was  celebrated  after  corn  harvest,  and  a  fifth  (at  the  close 
of  their  year)  was  always  observed  at  the  time  of  the  old  moon  in  the  last  of 
January  or  the  first  of  February.  This  feast  deserves  particular  description. 
The  Indians  having  returned  from  hunting,  and  having  brought  in  all  the 
venison  and  sldns  they  had  taken,  a  committee  of  from  ten  to  twenty  active 
men  was  appointed  to  su^oerintend  the  great  sacrifice  and  thanksgiving  to  be 
immediately  celebrated.  Preparations  were  now  made  at  the  council-house, 
or  place  of  meeting,  for  the  reception  and  accommodation  of  the  whole  tribe, 
and  then  the  ceremonies  commenced.  The  whole  was  conducted  with 
great  order  and  harmony  under  the  direction  of  the  committee.  Two  white 
dogs,  without  spot  or  blemish,  were  selected,  if  such  could  be  found;  if  not, 
the  two  that  had  the  fewest  spots  were  taken  from  those  belonging  to  the 
tribe,  and  strangled  near  the  door  of  the  council-house.  A  wound  on  the 
animal,  or  an  effusion  of  blood,  w^ould  si^oil  the  victim  and  render  the  sacrifice 
useless.  The  dogs  were  then  painted  red  on  their  faces,  on  the  edges  of 
their  ears,  and  on  various  parts  of  their  bodies,  and  were  curiously  decorated 
with  ribbons  of  different  colors,  and  fine  feathers,  which  were  so  tied  and 
fastened  as  to  make  a  most  elegant  appearance.  They  were  then  hung 
on  a  post  near  the  door  of  the  council-house,  at  the  height  of  twenty  feet 
from  the  ground. 

The  frolic  was  then  commenced  by  the  assembled  Indians,  while  the 
committee  ran  through  the  tribe  and  hurried  the  people  to  assemble  by 
knocking  on  their  houses.  At  this  time  the  committee  wore  only  breech- 
cloths,  and  each  carried  a  paddle,  with  which  he  took  up  ashes,  and  scattered 
them  in  every  direction  about  the  houses.  In  the  course  of  theiceremonies,  all 
fire  was  extinguished  in  every  hut  throughout  the  tribe,  and  after  removing 
the  ashes,  'old  coals,  etc.,  a  new  one  struck  from  the  flint  on  each  hearth  was 
kindled.  Having  done  this  and  discharged  one  or  two  guns,  they  v/ent  on 
and  repeated  this  ceremony  at  every  house  in  the  tribe.  This  finished  the 
first  day.  On  the  second  day,  the  committee  danced  and  went  through  the 
town  with  bearskins  on  their  legs,  and  at  every  time  they  started  they  fired 
a  gun.  They  also  begged  through  the  tribe,  each  carrying  a  basket  in  which 
to  receive  whatever  might  be  bestowed.  The  alms  consisted  of  Indian  to- 
bacco, and  articles  used  for  incense  or  sacrifice.  Each  manager  at  this  time 
carried  a  dried  turtle-shell  containing  a  few  beans,  which  he  frequently 
rubbed  against  the  walls  of  the  house  inside  and  out.  The  committee  continued 
these  performances  for  two  or  three  days,  during  which  time  the  people  at 
the  council-house  recreated  themselves  by  dancing. 

On  the  fourth  or  fifth  day,  the  committee  made  false  faces  of  husks,  in 
which  they  ran  about,  making  a  frightful  and  ludicrous  appearance.  In  this 
dress  they  ran  to  the  council-house  smearing  themselves  with  dirt,  and 
daubing  every  one  who  refused  to  contribute  toward  filling  the  basket  of 
incense,  which  they  continued  to  carry  for  alms.     During  aU  this  time  they 

30  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

collected  the  evil  spirit,  or  drove  it  off  entirely  for  the  jDresent,  and  also  con- 
centrated within  themselves  all  the  sins  of  the  tribe,  however  numerous  or 
heinous.  On  the  eighth  or  ninth  day  the  committee,  having  received  all 
their  sins  into  their  own  bodies,  took  down  the  dogs.  and.  after  having  trans- 
ferred the  whole  of  the  sins  into  one  of  their  own  number,  he,  by  a  peculiar 
slight  of  hand  or  a  kind  of  magic,  worked  them  all  out  of  himself  into  the 
dogs.  The  dogs,  thus  loaded  with  all  the  sins  of  the  people,  were  placed  up- 
on a  pile  of  wood  that  was  directly  set  on  fire.  Here  they  were  burned,  and 
with  them  the  sins  with  which  they  were  loaded,  surrounded  by  the  multi- 
tude who  threw  incense  of  tobacco  or  the  like  into  the  fire,  the  scent  of  which 
they  say  goes  up  to  Nau-wah-ne-u,  to  whom  it  is  pleasant  and  acceptable. 

This  feast  formerly  continued  nine  days,  but  later  was  not  usually  con- 
tinued more  than  five  or  seven  days,  one  dog  was  deemed  sufficient.  Dur- 
ing the  continuance  of  this  feast  the  chiefs  reviewed  the  national  affairs  of 
the  year  just  passed,  agreed  upon  the  best  plan  to  be  pursued  through  the 
next  year,  and  attended  to  all  internal  regulations.  On  the  last  day  the 
whole  company  partook  of  an  elegant  dinner  of  meat,  corn,  and  beans  boiled 
together  in  large  kettles  and  stirred  until  the  whole  was  completely  mixed 
and  soft.  This  mess  was  devoured  without  much  ceremony.  Some  ate 
with  a  spoon  by  dij^ping  out  of  the  kettle,  others  served  themselves  in  small 
dippers,  some  in  one  way  and  some  in  another,  until  the  whole  repast  was 
consumed.  They  then  performed  the  war-dance,  the  peace-dance,  smoked 
the  2)ipe  of  peace,  and  then,  free  from  iniquity,  each  repaired  to  his  place  of 
abode,  prepared  to  commence  a  new  year. 

In  this  feast  temperance  was  observed,  and  order  prevailed  to  a  greater 
degree  than  would  naturally  be  expected.  They  were  fond  of  the  company 
of  civil  spectators  and  treated  them  politely  in  their  way,  but,  having  been 
frequently  imposed  upon  by  the  whites,  they  generally  treated  them  with 
indifference.  The  late  Charles  M.  Mills,  of  Hume,  informed  the  writer  that 
he  had  attended  this  feast  as  observed  at  the  lower  Caneadea  village,  just  a 
little  south  of  Rossburgh.  On  this  occasion,  John  Hudson,  quite  a  noted 
Indian  in  these  parts,  and  also  very  eloquent,  addressed  the  Indians,  with 
such  remarkable  effect  as  to  leave  scarce  a  dry  eye  in  the  audience.  Other 
pioneers  have  related  to  me  substantially  the  same  thing.  Hudson  left  a 
great  fame  as  an  orator.  Capt.  Shongo  once  said  "  I  know  as  much  as  Hud- 
son, but  I  can't  say  it." 

The  Life  of  the  Senegas.  31 



THE  diseases  of  the  Indians  were  superstitiously  treated  by  charlatans. 
Vapor  baths  were  quite  generally  resorted  to.  and  were  in  many  cases 
successful  in  removing  disease.  These  were  administered  by  digging  a  hole 
in  the  ground  (clay  being  preferred)  in  which  the  patient  was  placed.  Then 
covered  with  blankets  he  would  be  steamed  by  dropping  heated  stones  into 
a  small  quantity  of  water  at  the  bottom.  After  continuing  the  process  for  a 
sufficient  time  the  patient  was  taken  out  and  plunged  into  cold  water. 
Thoroughwort.  spurge  and  Indian  hemp  were  used  for  emetics,  the  inner 
barks  of  the  butternut  and  horse  chestnut  for  cathartics,  and  water-pepper 
and  mayweed  were  much  esteemed  as  rubefacients.  The  Indians  were 
familiar  with  many  poisons  and  sometimes  used  them  for  self-destruction  or 
for  purposes  of  revenge. 

I  am  permitted  to  quote  from  "Our  Life  Among  the  Iroquois  Indians."' 
by  Mrs.  Harriet  S.  CasweU.  The  authority  is  Old  Silverheels,  a  pagan  Cat- 
taraugus Indian. 

"  Listen,"  said  tl:ie  old  man,  "  Tliere  is  a  wonderful  medicine  used  by  the  Iroquois,  which 
they  believe  will  restore  a  man,  even  though  shot  through  the  body,  if  he  can  have  it  in  season. 
They  tell  us  that  this  medicine  is  composed  of  a  little  of  the  flesh  and  blood  and  fiber  of  every 
animal  and  every  herb  on  this  continent.  It  is  prepared  by  special  medicine  men,  and  I  will 
tell  you  its  origin.  Many,  many  years  ago,  a  Seneca  was  killed  by  some  southern  Indians  while 
upon  the  war-path.  He  was  shot  with  an  arrow  through  the  body,  and  left  in  the  woods  near 
the  trail.  He  had  been  a  great  hunter,  but  it  was  his  habit  to  take  only  the  skin  of  the  animal, 
leaving  the  flesh  for  the  wolves  and  bears  to  eat.  As  he  lay  dead  upon  the  ground,  there  came 
along  a  wolf  who  looked  upon  the  dead  man  with  sorrow,  and  set  up  a  wail  which  called  all  the 
wild  animals  about  him.  He  then  addressed  them  :  '  Can  we  not  in  our  united  wisdom  bring 
this  dead  man  to  life,  who  has  been  our  best  friend  by  always  killing  the  larger  animals  and 
leaving  their  flesh  for  us  to  eat  }  '  The  eagle,  vulture,  bear  and  all  flesh-eating  animals  said, 
•  We  will  try.'  So  they  set  to  work  to  prepare  a  medicine.  Each  was  to  furnish  the  most 
potent  remedy  with  which  he  was  acquainted.  An  acorn  cup  contained  the  whole  when  fin 
ished.  This  they  poured  down  the  throat  of  the  dead  man.  Then  they  sang  to  him,  each  one 
with  his  peculiar  note,  while  the  birds  fanned  him  with  their  wings.  All  night  long  they  sur- 
rounded him,  making  their  best  efforts  to  restore  him.  In  the  morning  they  discovered  some 
warmth  about  the  heart,  and  the  question  was  raised,  '  Who  will  go  after  the  scalp  which  the 
enemy  has  taken  from  him  ?  '  After  much  discussion  the  chicken  hawk  offered  to  reclaim  it. 
He  flew  with  great  speed,  soon  arriving  at  the  enemy's  camping-ground.  He  saw  the  scalp  of 
his  friend  stretched  on  a  hoop  with  many  others,  suspended  on  a  pole  and  painted  red.  The 
whole  settlement  was  dancing  about  it,  and  rejoicing  over  their  victory.  He  seized  it  with  his 
beak,  flew  back,  and  found  the  man  sitting  up  and  almost  well.  They  soaked  the  scalp  until  it 
was  soft  and  then  htted  it  upon  his  head.  They  then  taught  this  man  how  to  make  the  most 
wonderful  medicine  which  had  restored  him  to  life  and  which  they  named  Ga-ne-gah-ah  (a  little 
liquid).  And  this  is  the  origin  of  our  famous  medicine,  which  will  restore  the  dead  to  life  if 
taken  in  season.     In  our  day  this  medicine  is  made  into  a  very  fine  powder.     Then   some   one 

32  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

takes  a  cup,  goes  to  the  brook,  fills  it,  dipping  toward  the  way  the  water  runs,  and  sets  it  near 
the  fire.  A  prayer  is  offered  while  tobacco  is  thrown  upon  the  fire,  so  that  the  words  may 
ascend  with  the  smoke.  The  medicine  is  placed  upon  a  piece  of  skin  near  the  cup,  then  taken 
up  with  a  wooden  spoon  and  dusted  upon  the  water  in  spots  in  the  form  of  a  triangle.  If  the 
medicine  spreads  itself  over  the  surface  of  the  water  and  wheels  about,  it  is  a  sign  that  the 
invalid  will  be  healed.  If  it  sinks  directly,  there  is  no  hope— the  sick  person  will  die,  and  the 
whole  is  thrown  away." 

In  the  olden  days  the  Indians  celebrated  the  medicine  feast.  It  was 
held  at  hunting  time.  "  As  soon  as  it  is  dark  on  the  night  of  the  feast,  all 
those  permitted  to  attend  shut  themselves  in  one  room  without  light  or  fire. 
The  embers  are  covered,  the  medicine  is  placed  near  them,  and  the  tobacco 
by  its  side.  Then  they  begin  to  sing  something  which  proclaims  that  the 
crow  and  other  animals  whose  brains  form  the  medicine  are  coming  to  the 
feast.  At  the  end  of  the  song,  the  caw  of  the  crow,  howl  of  the  wolf,  etc., 
are  imitated.  Three  times  in  the  course  of  the  night  prayer  is  offered  while 
throwing  tobacco  upon  the  smothering  flames.  They  pray  that  the  medicine 
may  heal  the  sick  and  wounded.  Through  the  night  the  door  has  been 
locked,  and  no  one  allowed  to  enter  the  house  or  to  sleep,  as  this  would  spoil 
the  medicine.  Just  before  dawn  the  leader  takes  a  deer's  head,  and,  biting 
off  a  piece,  passes  the  head  to  another,  who  does  the  same,  until  all  have 
tasted.  A  little  later  the  leader  takes  a  duck's  bill,  and  dipping  it  full  of  the 
medicine  gives  it  to  each  one  present,  who  puts  it  in  a  bit  of  skin,  and,  w^rap- 
ping  it  in  several  coverings,  keeps  it  carefully  until  the  next  feast.  The 
skin  of  the  panther  is  preferred.  Those  who  take  part  in  these  ceremonies 
are  medicine  men.  These  medicine  men  add  pulverized  roots  of  corn  and 
squashes  and  bean  vines  to  the  original  powder." 

"Perhaps  you  have  been  told,"  said  old  Silverheels.  "that  the  Indian 
knows  more  about  the  healing  herbs  than  any  other  race."  "How  can  it 
be?"  I  asked  skeptically.  "I  will  tell  you,"  said  the  Indian,  "as  my 
grandfather  told  me.  An  Indian  hunter  went  forth  to  hunt.  Suddenly  he 
heard  strains  of  beautiful  music.  He  hstened  but  could  not  tell  w^hence  it 
came.  He  knew  it  was  not  from  any  human  voice.  When  he  thought  he 
was  approaching  the  sound  it  ceased.  Then  came  Ha-wen-ne-yu  to  him  in  a 
dream  and  said,  '  Wash  yourself  until  you  are  purified;  then  go  forth  and 
you  will  again  hear  the  music. '  So  he  purified  himself  and  went  into  the 
thickest  woods,  and  soon  his  ear  caught  the  sweet  strains,  and  as  he  drew 
near  they  became  more  beautiful.  Then  he  saw  that  the  wonderful  music 
came  from  a  plant  with  a  taU  green  stem  and  tapering  leaves.  He  cut  the 
stalk,  but  it  immediately  healed  and  became  as  before.  He  cut  it  again,  and 
again  it  healed.  Then  he  knew  it  would  heal  diseases.  He  took  it  home, 
dried  it  by  the  fire,  and  pulverized  it.  When  apphed  to  a  dangerous  wound, 
it  no  sooner  touched  the  flesh  than  the  wound  was  made  whole.  Thus  Ha- 
wen-ne-yu  taught  the  Indian  the  nature  of  medicinal  plants,  and  from  that 
time  has  directed  him  where  they  are  to  be  found." 

The  Life  of  the  Senecas.  33" 

"When  we  read  that  the  Indian  ornamented  himself  with  the  husks  of 
his  favorite  maize,  and  went  forth  from  house  to  house  with  a  basket  to 
gather  offerings  from  the  people,  we  call  it  heathenish  and  barbarous,  while 
the  story  of  Ceres,  goddess  of  corn,  whose  head  was  surrounded  with 
sheaves,  and  who  holds  in  her  hand  a  hoe  and  basket,  is  picturesque  and 
beautiful !  We  listen  to  the  Indian  story  of  the  woman  in  the  moon,  who  is 
constantly  employed  in  weaving  a  net.  which  a  cat  unravels  whenever  she 
sleeps,  and  that  the  world  is  to  come  to  an  end  when  the  net  is  finished;  and 
we  say  '  ridiculous  ! "  But  the  story  of  Penelope,  weaving  her  purple  web 
by  day  to  be  raveled  by  night  during  the  prolonged  absence  of  her  husband, 
Ulysses,  is  a  conception  worthy  of  being  expanded  into  a  poem  of  a  thousand 
lines,  and  translated  into  all  languages  I  " 

Very  few  Indians  were  found  who  were  lame,  crijipled,  crosseyed,  blind, 
hunchbacked  or  limping;  all  were  well-fashioned  people,  strong  in  constitu- 
tion, well-proportioned  and  without  blemish.  Their  mode  of  living  contrib- 
uted largely  to  these  conditions.  Their  women  were  held  in  a  degraded 
condition,  did  all  the  work,  tilled  the  earth,  and  bore  all  the  burdens  except 
those  of  war  and  hunting,  and  even  in  hunting  they  were  sometimes  expected 
to  haul  in  the  game.  Boys  were  schooled  from  early  infancy  in  athletic 
feats,  requiring  skill  and  dexterity.  The  probation  of  the  young  warrior 
was  attended  with  long  fasts  and  extreme  torture,  and  he  was  only  given  a 
name  and  a  recognized  position  on  his  return  from  his  first  battle  or  expedi- 
tion. Those  who  fell  in  battle  were  scalped,  and  prisoners  were  either 
adopted  or  tortured.  Fires  were  kindled  by  rubbing  two  sticks  together,  or 
by  some  device  by  which  a  stake  was  made  to  revolve  and  rub  against  a  well- 
seasoned  piece  of  wood  until  a  blaze  resulted.  Their  cooking  was  very 
simple,  and.  before  the  introduction  of  pails  and  kettles  by  the  whites,  the 
common  way  was  roasting  over  a  fire.  They  depended  largely  on  parched 
corn,  which  they  used  on  journeys,  and  often  hid  in  holes  or  caches  marked 
for  recognition.  Their  amusements  were  quite  numerous;  running,  leaping, 
paddling  the  canoe,  games  of  small  stones  and  ball.  The  ball  game  was  the 
national  pastime  of  the  Senecas.  in  which  many  attained  great  proficiency. 
This  was  played  very  differently  from  modern  baseball.  *  "Little  David  "' 
has  been  spoken  of  by  the  early  settlers  in  northern  Allegany,  as  a  chamx^ion 
player.  He  was  quite  small  of  stature,  but  he  excelled  by  far,  all  in  his  tribe, 
as  a  ballplayer,  and,  in  these  days  of  "Bisons,"  "Red  Stockings,"  "Alerts," 
etc.,  he  would  no  doubt  be  considered  quite  an  acquisition  to  any  asi^iring 
company  of  players.  I  think  that  in  the  name  of  this  Indian  is  seen  the 
work  of  Kirkland  or  some  other  missionary,  perhaps  the  Jesuits,  as  it  would 
be  quite  natural  for  them  to  recount  to  their  Indian  auditors  the  story  of 
little  David  and  Goliath,  and  quite  in  keeping  with  Indian  habits  and  customs 
to  adopt  and  use  the  name  whenever  it  had  a  proper  application.  The  broad 
level  flats  along  the  Genesee  river  afforded  excellent  grounds  for  the  game, 
and  sometimes  attracted  considerable  numbers  to  witness  it.  Many  of  our 
pioneers  attended  these  games,  and  retained  vivid  recollections  of  the  excite- 

34  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

ment  usually  attendant  upon  them,  and  became  quite  familiar  with  the  rules 
governing  them. 

The  Indian  population  of  this  region  when  compared  with  its  present 
white  population  was  never  large,  and  immediately  previous  to  the  settle- 
ment of  the  county  by  the  whites,  was  quite  small.  In  1819  an  enumeration 
of  all  the  Indians  in  the  state  was  made  under  authority  of  the  state  govern- 
ment. From  this  it  appears  that  the  whole  number  on  all  the  reservations 
of  the  Genesee  river  was  only  456,  and  they  never  afterward  numbered 
more.  The  Indians  were  generally  weU-disposed,  quiet  and  orderly,  and 
practiced  to  some  extent,  in  a  rude  and  primitive  way,  some  of  the  arts  of 
husbandry,  some  keeping  a  few  horses,  sheep,  cattle  and  hogs. 

Jellis  Clute  of  Moscow  was  regarded  by  the  Indians  with  a  good  deal  of 
veneration.  They  respected  his  opinions,  always  looked  to  him  for  the 
settlement  of  matters  of  dispute  arising  from  their  relations  with  the  whites, 
and  in  all  such  cases  accej)ted  his  verdict  as  conclusive  and  carrying  all  the 
weight  of  a  judicial  decision.  It  was  at  his  suggestion  that  they  raised  the 
price  of  venison,  which  they  bartered  with  the  whites  for  bread.  A  loaf  of 
bread  had  always  been  the  price  of  a  ham,  two  loaves  that  of  a  saddle  of 
venison.  He  taught  them  to  drive  better  bargains,  and  they  were  quite  apt 
in  learning.  So  venison  "  went  up,"  and  afterward  it  took  two  loaves  for  a 
ham  and  four  for  a  saddle  of  venison. 

Whenever  any  difficulty  arising  out  of  their  social  or  domestic  relations 
could  not  be  settled  by  the  home  or  local  authorities,  a  messenger  or  mes- 
sengers would  be  dispatched  to  0-wis-e-o-we  (Buffalo),  the  residence  of  Sa- 
go-ya-wat-ha  (Red  Jacket),  burdened  with  the  whole  subject  in  controversy, 
which  was  laid  before  the  great  chief.  His  decision  was  i^atiently  awaited 
and  generally  faithfully  carried  out. 



"  Fair  was  the  scene  !     Before  the  gaze 
Lay  verdant  fields  of  twinkling  maize 
Bared  to  the  full  bright  blaze  of  day  ; 
And  meads  to  charm  romantic  eye, 
Whereon  the  grass  was  thick  and  high, 
Spread  green  their  carp>ets  far  away." 

IT  was  indeed  most  natural  that  at  the  treaty  of  Big  Tree,  when  it  was  left 
to  the  Indians  to  decide  as  to  the  number,  size  and  location  of  their 
reservations,  that  the  territory  about  Caneadea,  the  chief  Seneca  town  of 
the  upper  Genesee  region,  should  be  selected  as  one.     Its  upper  village  was 

Caneadea  and  Oil  Spring  Indian  Reservations.  35 

the  westermost  town  of  that  famous  Iroquois  Confederacy.  It  was  the  west- 
ern door  of  the  "Long  House,"  at  which  "  Do-ne-ho-ga-weh,"  "open  door," 
was  required  to  reside,  and  was  distinguished  for  its  poHtical  and  strategic 
importance.  And  so  its  territory  was  made  to  correspond  with  its  import- 
ance and  dignity,  being  laid  oif  eight  miles  in  length  by  two  in  width,  the 
largest  reservation  on  the  Genesee. 

It  is  very  pleasant  in  this  connection  to  be  permitted  to  make  excerpts 
from  the  "Life  History  of  Horatio  Jones,"'  a  work  to  which  the  lamented 
George  H.  Harris  of  Rochester  devoted  some  fifteen  years.  It  is  stiU  in 
manuscript,  but,  through  the  kindness  of  Mrs.  Julia  E.  Harris,  his  widow,  I 
am  enabled  to  present  them.  It  is  expected  that  Mrs.  Harris,  an  accom- 
plished lady,  will  soon  complete  and  publish  this  work.  Every  reader  will 
join  the  writer  in  thanking  her  for  her  kindness  in  allowing  this  advance 

"The  "door"  of  the  Long  House,  or  westernmost  town  of  the  Senecas, 
prior  to  the  Revolution  was  located  upon  the  present  farm  of  A.  O.  Arnold, 
in  Caneadea.  The  locative  title  of  the  place  was  Gah-ne-ya-de-o,  '  where  the 
heavens  rest,  (or  lean)  upon  the  earth, '  now  corrupted  to  Caneadea.  In  ac- 
cordance with  national  usage  or  law,  Do-ne-ho-ga-weh,  '  open  door, '  the  hered- 
itary military  sachem  of  the  Iroquois  league,  had  here  his  residence.  The 
person  bearing  the  title  at  the  opening  of  the  Revolution  was  an  aged  man 
who  had  become  distinguished  for  his  feats  of  war.  In  his  young  manhood 
he  had  assumed  the  name  of  a  white  friend  named  Hutson.  commonly  pro- 
nounced Hudson.  It  Avas  the  custom  of  the  whites  who  did  not  know  the 
Indian  name  of  a  chief,  to  call  him  John,*  and  the  Seneca  sachem  was  better 
known  by  his  white  name  John  Hudson,  than  by  his  title,  Do-ne-ho-ga-weh. 
As  he  advanced  in  reputation  as  a  military  leader,  he  was  caUed  Captain 
Hudson.  Probably  no  Indian  of  his  day  was  more  familiar  with  the  Iroquois 
domain,  for  both  in  peace  and  in  war  he  made  numberless  excursions  to  all 
parts  of  the  country.  It  is  said  that  he  had  knowledge  of  every  hill,  valley, 
and  stream  of  the  territory  termed.  Un-ah-e  (June-yah-e)  'The  interior,'  the 
country  lying  between  the  Senecas  on  the  Genesee  and  AUegany  and  the 
settlements  of  the  whites  on  the  Susquehanna  and  in  Pennsylvania. 

■•Just  prior  to  the  French  war  Capt.  Hudson  took  his  eldest  cliild  to 
Pennsylvania  and  left  him  with  a  white  family  at  Hah-nee-jo-ney,  '  Red 
Banks,'  on  the  Allegany  river,  twenty  miles  above  Pittsburgh.  The  boy 
was  educated  in  the  way  of  the  whites,  and  the  family  treated  him  as  one  of 
themselves.  One  day  in  the  early  spring  of  1756,  when  the  men  were  absent, 
the  door  was  suddenly  opened,  and  the  head  of  an  Indian  appeared,  be- 
daubed with  paint  and  crowned  with  feathers.     For  an  instant  he  cast  his 

*  The  knowledge  of  this  fact  has  greatly  assisted  the  writer  in  dispersing  some  of  the  shadows  resting 
upon  Indian  genealogy.  John  Hudson,  John  Blacksmith,  and  John  Luke  each  held  the  office  of  "  Open 
door,"  and  yet  were  almost  totally  unknown  by  the  official  name.  In  John  Abeel  (O'Bail)  we  find  the  great 
chieftain  Cornplanter,  and  the  latter-day  Johnny  John,  was  the  distinguished  "Slump  Foot."  Montour,  Green 
Blanket,  Tall  Chief,  Seneca,  Mohawk,  Gordon,  Snow  Banks,  and  a  score  of  other  Iroquois  chiefs,  were  called 
John  to  designate  their  rank,  and  in  time  lost  their  native  designation. 

36  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

glittering  eyes  from  one  to  another  of  the  silent,  terrified  group,  then  closed 
che  door,  and  turned  away.  The  mother  burst  into  tears,  and  informed  the 
children  that  the  Indian  was  a  spy  from  some  western  band,  not  a  Seneca^ 
and  would  soon  return  with  his  friends  and  kill  them  all.  She  called  Hud- 
son's little  son  and  told  him  that  all  her  family  must  die,  but  that  he,  being 
an  Indian,  might  possibly  escape.  She  dressed  him  in  his  best  suit,  and, 
after  they  had  bade  him  goodbye  with  tears,  covered  him  with  some  old 
rush  mats  in  a  corncrib.  She  bade  him,  no  matter  what  happened  them, 
not  to  make  a  noise  or  expose  himself  until  after  the  departure  of  the  Indi- 
ans; then  to  come  out  and  watch  for  some  one  to  rescue  him. 

"From  where  he  lay  the  boy  witnessed  the  return  of  the  spy  with  a 
large  number  of  savages.  He  could  hear  the  shrieks  of  the  victims  as  the 
tomahawks  and  scalping-knives  did  their  murderous  work;  soon  all  was  over. 
After  plundering  the  premises  the  Indians  set  fire  to  the  house.  A  strong 
wind  drove  sparks  and  smoke  toward  the  corncrib,  and  cinders  fell  so  close 
to  its  side  as  to  ignite  the  grass.  The  lad  thrust  his  hand  through  the  slats 
and  patted  out  the  flame.  The  savages  suddenly  departed  without  tiring 
the  crib.  After  a  time  the  boy  ventured  out.  What  a  sight  met  his  gaze ! 
The  home  he  had  learned  to  love  was  gone,  and  the  bones  of  his  friends  lay 
among  the  ashes  that  marked  the  spot.  He  looked  for  food  but  found  none. 
Running  hither  and  thither  about  the  place,  a  day  or  two  later  he  heard 
voices,  and  looking  across  the  river  saw  Indians  in  canoes.  Hearing  words 
in  the  Seneca  tongue  he  went  up  the  bank  and  shouted.  Instantly  every 
gun  of  the  party  was  aimed  at  him;  one  of  the  Indians  recognized  him,  they 
lowered  the  guns  and  took  young  Hudson  with  them  to  the  Genesee. 

"When  Hudson  heard  his  son's  story  he  swore  to  avenge  the  family,  and, 
striking  his  war-post,  enlisted  a  party  to  punish  the  guilty  savages.  Cross- 
ing from  Ga-ne-ya-de-o  to  the  nearest  point  on  the  Allegany,  the  party  went 
down  the  river  in  canoes.  On  arriving  at  Red  Banks.  Hudson  began  sing- 
ing his  warsong,  which  was  heard  by  a  party  encamping  there  that  recog- 
nized and  hailed  the  Genesee  chieftain.  On  learning  his  mission,  the  chiefs 
of  the  party,  who  were  friends  of  the  guilty  savages,  invited  Hudson  ashore, 
and  showed  him  two  white  men,  naked  and  fastened  to  stakes,  surrounded 
with  bundles  of  wood  ready  for  torture.  To  appease  Hudson's  wrath  they 
offered  to  give  him  the  two  men  and  one  female  prisoner  to  do  with  them  as  he 
wished.  Hudson  accepted  the  offer,  placed  the  captives  in  his  canoes,  and 
paddling  down  the  river  camped  on  the  opposite  side.  On  questioning  the 
captives  he  learned  they  had  been  captured  in  the  interior  of  Pennsylvania. 
Supposing  they  were  to  be  tortured,  they  begged  this  chief  to  spare  their 
lives.  The  elder  man,  named  Words*  offered  to  give  half  he  was  worth  at 
any  time  Hudson  called  on  him,  if  he  would  save  him  from  torture.  Hudson, 
to  test  the  truth  of  this  statement,  took  two  warriors,  and,  without  revealing 
his  purpose,  conducted  the  prisoners  up  the  Kissiminaritus  river  to  where 

*Geo.  Words,  Mrs.  Gray  and  others  were  captured  in  Tuscarora  Valley,  June  13,  1756,  and  released  by- 
Hudson  in  July. — Day's  Hist.  Coll.  of  Pa.  384.     Daniel  E.  Shongo,  Salamanca. 

Caneaidea  and  Oil  Spring  Indian  Reservations.  37 

the  whites  were  captured.  Words  recognized  the  place  and  convinced  Hud- 
son of  his  sincerity.  Hudson  conducted  them  back  to  the  Allegany,  and 
delivered  them  unharmed  to  the  French  at  Fort  Du  Quesne.  After  the  war 
Hudson  went  to  Bedford,  where  Words  was  prominent,  and  he  gave  the 
Indian  the  deed  of  a  house  and  lot  in  Bedford,  made  him  other  valuable 
presents,  and  always  welcomed  him  and  his  friends  when  they  visited  Bed- 

'*  About  1770  Hudson's  son  who  had  escaped  the  massacre  died,  and  the 
second  son,  Hah-yen-de-seh,  variously  interpreted,  '  Dragging  Wood  '  and 
'  Hemlock  Carrier. '  was  now  the  eldest  of  the  family.  He  had  become  a 
leading  warrior,  and  in  the  first  campaigns  of  the  Revolution  won  rank 
as  a  chieftain  of  merit.  It  is  now  impossible  to  separate  the  deeds  of  the 
old  sachem  during  the  early  years  of  the  war  from  those  of  his  son.* 

"The  second  chief  at  Caneadea  in  1779  was  Gah-nee- son-go,  '  Man  fond 
of  nannyberries. '  He  and  Hah-yen-de-seh  had  been  warm  friends  from  boy- 
hood, inseparable  companions  in  peace  and  war,  won  their  honors  together, 
and  now  ranked  equally  as  chiefs.  Gah-nee- son-go  was  a  dignified  man  of 
herculean  frame  and  great  strength.  The  British  officers  abbreviated  his 
name  to  Shongo,  and  after  the  Revolution  he  was  termed  Col.  Shongo. ' ' 

Another  extract  from  Mr.  Harris'  book  has  reference  to  the  expedition 
that  captured  Horatio  Jones.  "It  would  seem  that  Hah-yen-de-seh  had 
changed  his  residence  to  a  town  afterwards  known  as  Ah-wes-coy,  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Genesee  some  seven  miles  below  Caneadea.  but  the  latter 
name  was  usually  applied  to  all  the  valley  lying  between  the  two  villages. 
In  later  days  Shongo  told  Barker  that  John  Hudson  and  himself  were  the 
leaders  of  the  expedition,  and,  as  it  was  organized  at  the  lower  town,  Hah- 
yen-de-seh  was  probably  the  one  Shongo  referred  to,  though  old  Capt.  Hud- 
son accompanied  and  guided  the  party." 

In  1791  Col.  Thomas  Proctor  went  from  Philadelphia  to  Bufl'alo  Creek  to 
attend  an  Indian  council.     He  thus  makes  note  of  Caneadea: 

The  next  day  arrived  at  an  Indian  town  called  Canaseder  situated  on  a  high  bluff  of  land  overlooking  the 
Genesee  river.  It  consisted  of  about  thirty  houses,  and  some  of  them  done  in  a  way  that  showed  some  taste 
in  the  workmen.  *  *  *  in  this  place  was  erected  a  wooden  statue  (or  deity)  fashioned  like  a  fierce-looking 
sage.  This  form  tliey  worship  by  dancing  before  it  on  festive  occasions  or  new  moons,  looking  on  it  as 
through  a  veil  or  assistant,  whereby  they  pay  admiration  to  the  supreme  Spirit,  as  knowing  it  hath  a  form  but 
not  a  substance. 

Major  Van  Campen  was  at  Caneadea  early  in  1782.  He  makes  no  men- 
tion of  the  statue  of  which  Proctor  speaks.  As  only  nine  years  had  passed 
it  was  undoubtedly  there,  but  he  had  other  matters  which  engaged  his  atten- 
tion. His  gauntlet-running  ordeal  excluded  minute  observations  or  study 
of  religious  rites  and  ceremonies.  While  Van  Campen  was  at  Caneadea, 
having  successfully  run  the  guantlet  and  become  somewhat  of  a  "lion,"  he 

*  Unquestionably  the  younger  Hudson,  Hah-yen-de-seh,  was  the  Hudson  so  well  known  to  many  of  our 
pioneers.  To  his  military  reputation  was  added  great  fame  as  an  orator  ;  indeed  he  was  regarded  by  many 
as  next  in  eloquence  to  the  renowned  Red  Jacket.  It  was  said  that  he  was  educated  by  Dr.  Wheelock 
President  of  Dartmouth  College. 

38  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

was  made  the  guest  of  Caj^t.  Nellis,  whose  son.  Lieut.  Nelhs,  headed  the 
party  which  made  him  a  prisoner.  Capt.  NeUis  was  a  tory  renegade  from 
the  Mohawk  country,  who  secured  a  commission,  and  came  to  Caneadea, 
where  he  spent  his  time  in  organizing  bands  of  Indians  and  sending  them 
out  under  command  of  his  son  to  harass  the  border  settlements  of  New  York 
and  Pennsylvania.  His  wife  was  a  squaw,  and  he  was  probably  the  first 
white  who  ever  lived  at  Caneadea. 

The  spelling  of  Caneadea  on  the  oldest  majD  we  have  yet  discovered  upon 
which  any  place  in  Allegany  is  put  down  with  any  reasonable  degree  of  cer- 
tainty is  Kar-a-ghi-ya-dir-ha.  It  has.  when  spoken  rapidly,  a  sound  quite 
like  Caneadea.  The  map  referred  to  is  the  Guy  Johnson  map  of  1771,  and 
the  town  is  indicated  as  a  chief  town.  There  was  another  town,  said  to  have 
existed  about  1765  near  Belvidere,  named  Kar-at-hy-a-di-ra.  The  place  put 
down  on  the  Johnson  map  as  Gis-to-quat  seems  to  me  more  likely  to  be  the 
Belvidere  town.  Ga-o-ya-de-o,  Gah-nee-ya-de-o  and  Gah-o-yah-de-o,  were 
other  of  the  early  renderings.  In  the  narrative  of  the  Gilbert  family,  cap- 
tured in  1780,  it  is  spelled  Can-a-ca-de-ra,  while  Joseph  Ellicott  in  1797  wrote 
it  Ka-oun-de-ou.  Elisha  Johnson  (1807)  made  it  Can-i-o-de-o.  Capt.  John 
Buck,  who  when  a  boy  lived  at  the  old  village,  pronounced  the  word  much 
as  we  do,  differing  only  in  the  decided  accent  he  gave  the  third  and  fifth 
syllables,  Can-e-ah-de-ah. 

The  meaning  was  "where  the  heavens  rest  or  lean  upon  the  earth.'* 
This  appears  to  be  the  case  anywhere,  but  it  is  said  there  was  a  place  in 
which  this  appearance  was  so  decidedly  emphasized  that  an  Indian  who  had 
heard  the  name  would,  as  he  first  approached  it,  recognize  the  place.  Some 
early  settlers  claimed  to  have  it  direct  from  the  Indians  that  its  meaning 
was  "the  place  where  isinglass  is  found."  In  support  of  this  definition  it 
may  be  stated  that  mica  was  found  in  considerable  quantities  in  two  places 
originally  included  in  Caneadea,  one  near  the  0-wa-is-ki  village  and  the  other 
a  mile  or  more  above  the  upper  Caneadea  town. 

The  territory  to  which  this  beautiful  and  now  historic  name  originally 
applied  extended  from  three  miles  above  Portageville,  Wyoming  county,  to 
Caneadea  creek.  When  the  treaty  of  Big  Tree  was  consummated,  and  its 
boundaries  defined,  it  was  found  to  be  considerably  abbreviated  in  length, 
while  in  some  instances  it  was  made  to  extend  farther  back  from  the  river 
than  its  original  limits.  Its  boundaries  were  run  by  Augustus  Porter  in 
September,  1798.  At  that  time  it  presented  as  perfect  a  primitive  wilder- 
ness as  Western  New  York  could  offer.  The  vaUey  of  the  Genesee  has  been 
termed  ' '  the  terrestrial  paradise  of  the  Senecas, ' '  having  in  mind  it  is  thought 
the  lower  part  of  the  river,  but  if  ever  there  was  a  region  fitted  by  nature 
with  all  the  conditions  for  an  ideal  home  which  a  people  like  the  Senecas 
could  desire  it  was  the  rectangle  laid  by  Porter  in  1798.  It  completely  fiUed 
all  the  requirements  of  such  a  race. 

The  Senecas  exercised  undisj^uted  dominion  over  the  Caneadea  Reser- 
vation until  1826,  when  negotiations  were  consummated,  whereby  the  pur- 

Caneadea  and  Oil  Spring  Indian  Reservations.  39 

chase  of  the  whole  territory  by  a  syndicate  of  capitalists  and  land  specula- 
tors was  effected.  The  treaty  at  which  the  purchase  was  made,  was  held  at 
Buffalo  Creek  on  the  last  days  of  August,  1826.  For  a  consideration  of 
S 18, 2 16  the  Senecas  conveyed,  with  other  parcels  of  land,  the  Caneadea  Res- 
ervation. To  the  deed  of  conveyance  was  appended  the  names  of  47  sachems, 
chiefs  and  warriors.  A  few  of  them  are  here  given.  Sa-gu-ar-gar-luch-ta 
or  Young  King,  Forh-ku-ga  or  Little  Billy,  John  A.  Beel  (0"Bail)  or  Corn- 
planter,  Ty-wan-e-ash  or  Black  Snake,  On-on-da-ka-i  or  Destroy  Town,  On-a- 
ju-ah-ka-i  or  Tall  Peter.  Kan-e-ac-go  or  Blue  Eyes,  Nat-wen-dy-ha  or  Green 
Blanket,  Muk-ha-da-gen  or  White  Boy,  Ha-pan-guish  or  Henry  Two  Guns, 
Shi-can-a-du-ah-que  or  Little  Beard,  Sa-tu-gan-a-cre  or  Twenty  Canoes,  As- 
lan-a-sa-ish  or  Silver  Heels.  Kan-a-ja-u-a-ri  or  Big  Kettle,  Sa-way-doc  or 
George  Red  Eye,  Kan-ish-shon-go  or  Capt  Shongo;  Tal-a-gan-a-ta  or  Red 
Jacket,  Sa-ga-in-a-shat-se-a  or  Stiff  Knee.  Robert  Troup,  Thomas  L.  Ogden 
and  Benjamin  W.  Rogers,  signed  by  their  attorney.  John  Grieg. 

Readers  acquainted  with  Indian  history  will  observe  the  difference  in 
some  of  the  names,  Red  Jacket  is  here  Tal-a-gan-a-ta,  while  he  is  universally 
known  as  Sa-go-ya-wat-ha,  though  on  the  1797  treaty  paper  he  is  Soo-goo-ya- 
waw-taw,  and  still  it  is  certain  there  was  only  one  Red  Jacket. 

The  sale  of  the  reservation  having  been  made  and  Messrs.  Wadsworth, 
Waddington,  Depace,  Campbell.  Ogden,  Bayard  and  Muncy  taken  in  as  pro- 
prietors, preparations  for  removal  to  Tonawanda,  Allegany  and  Buffalo  were 
soon  commenced,  and  in  the  summer  of  1827  Joseph  Jones,  the  "Quaker 
Surveyor,"  appeared  with  compass,  chain  and  jacobstaff,  and  a  corps  of 
assistants  to  subdivide  the  tract  into  lots.  In  his  general  remarks  descript- 
ive of  the  tract,  and  preliminary  to  the  survey,  Mr.  Jones  says: 

The  bottomland  is  uniformly  an  alluvial  soil  of  the  first  quality,  and  where  it  is  not  culti- 
vated, is  covered  with  elm,  butternut,  sycamore,  plum  trees  and  a  kind  of  timber  which  bears 
some  resemblance  to  the  balm-of-gilead,  but  is  not  the  geniune.  The  table  land  is  a  sandy  loam, 
and  is  timbered  with  large  white  pine,  white  oak,  sugar  maple  and  some  birch,  the  high  land 
with  pine  and  oak,  with  some  mixture  of  chestnut,  white  and  soft  maple,  and  the  soil  with  few 
exceptions  is  a  gravelly  clay.  The  herbage  on  the  first  quality  is  May  apple  or  mandrake, 
nettle,  polypod  balm,  ginseng,  leak,  etc.,  that  on  the  table  land  is  fern,  mandrake,  spikenard  and 
sarsaparilla,  and  on  the  highlands  the  sweet  scomium,  fern  or  brake,  sarsaparilla,  wintergreen, 
chequerberry,  and  prince  of  pine,  in  many  places  forms  the  principal  shrubbery. 

Mr.  Jones  began  work  at  the  northern  extremity  of  the  tract,  boarding 
first  with  Esau  Rich,  who  lived  just  north  of  the  Wiscoy.  Opposite,  and  a 
little  below  the  "  Lond  Beard  Riff,"'  a  lot  of  about  170  acres  was  laid  out  into 
village  and  jmsture  lots,  with  streets,  public  squares,  cemetery,  water  lots, 
etc.  The  cemetery-  was  laid  out  adjoining,  and  on  the  north  side  of  Holy 
Cross  Cemetery.  In  no  other  particular  has  the  dream  of  Joseph  Jones's 
future  metroiDolis  of  the  upper  Genesee  been  realized.  Not  even  the  splen- 
did waterpower,  which  was  the  controlling  thing  in  his  mind  in  locating  this 
paper  village,  has  been  utilized,  and  the  "  Village  Tract  "  is  now  the  farm  of 
Augustus  H.  Purdy.     No  mention  is  made  in  Mr.  Jones's  notes  of  any  white 

40  History  of  Allegany  County.  N.  Y. 

settlers  or  squatters  occupying  or  improving  any  of  the  land  he  surveyed. 

During  the  survey  of  the  tract  the  Indians  gazed  with  awe  (I  don't  think 
we  can  say  with  admiration)  upon  the  operations  of  the  party,  and  sadly 
made  preparations  for  leaving  their  old  home,  which  they  all  did  by  1830. 
some  going  to  the  Tonawanda,  some  to  the  Allegany,  and  others  to  the  Buf- 
falo reservation.  In  the  winter  following  the  lands  thus  surveyed,  subdivided 
and  numbered,  were  properly  delineated  upon  an  engraved  map,  showing 
all  the  lots,  numbered  from  1  to  82  with  the  number  of  acres  in  each,  copies 
of  which  were  profusely  scattered  before  the  admiring  eyes  of  land  specu- 
lators and  those  in  quest  of  homes,  and  thus  was  oi^ened  to  the  impatient 
forces  of  civilization  the  last  reservation  on  the  Gah-ah-yah-de-o  of  the  older 
Indian  tribes,  the  beautiful  vale  of  the  Senecas. 

The  sales  of  land  were  quite  rapid  at  first  and  the  entire  tract  along  the 
river  was  soon  disposed  of.  Some  of  the  least  desirable  lots  v/ere  not  sold 
until  1855;  the  prices  however  were  all  the  time  advancing,  so  they  "  carried 
themselves"  so  to  speak,  and  became  no  burden  upon  their  owners.  Im- 
provements were  noticeable  immediately  upon  the  whites  taking  possession, 
and  have  continued  to  the  present.  The  Western  Nev/  York  and  Pennsyl- 
vania railroad  runs  the  whole  length  of  the  reservation,  following  the  line 
of  the  old  Genesee  Valley  canal,  and  along  its  line,  beginning  at  the  north  or 
lower  end,  are  the  villages  of  Rossburg.  Fillmore  and  Houghton.  Its  agri- 
cultural lands,  on  the  hills  as  well  as  the  river  flats,  have  been  reclaimed, 
and  the  territory  to-day  embraces  many  excellent  farms  and  comfortable 
and  attractive  homes.  Save  a  single  Indian  apple-tree  which  marks  the  site 
of  the  lower  town,  and  three  or  four  others  on  the  j^lace  of  the  upper  viUage, 
not  a  vestige  of  outward  sign  or  token  of  Indian  occupancy  remains. 

Oil  Spring  Reservation.*  The  famous  oil  spring  near  Cub.i  has  been 
known  to  the  whites  for  200  years;  how  long  known  to  the  Indians,  it  is  im- 
possible to  tell.  It  was  a  muddy,  circular  pool  of  water  30  feet  in  diameter, 
the  ground  low  and  marshy  immediately  surrounding  it,  and  the  pool  with- 
out apparent  outlet  or  bottom.  A  tradition  of  the  Senecas  'thus  ascribes 
its  origin.  A  very  big,  fat  squaw  was  one  day  observing  the  pool,  and 
becoming  quite  curious  in  her  investigations,  she  ventured  too  near,  fell  in, 
and  disappeared  forever.  Since  this  time,  which,  it  is  said,  was  many  cent- 
uries ago,  oil  has  risen  from  the  spring.  Curative  properties  of  a  high  order 
have  been  ascribed  to  it,  and  the  Indians  made  use  of  it  "  to  appease  all  man- 
ner of  pains." 

Under  date  of  Albany,  Sept.  3,  1700,  Lord  Belmont,  in  his  letter  of 
instructions  to  Col.  Romer,  ''His  Majesty's  Chief  Engineer  in  America," 
used  these  words,  "You  are  to  go  and  visit  the  well,  or  spring,  which  is 
eight  miles  beyond  the  Seneca's  further  Castle,  which  it  is  said  blazes  up  in 
a  flame  when  a  lighted  coal  is  jDut  into  it."     The  Indians  for  years  gathered 

*  The  author  acknowledges  indebtedness  to  the  "  History  of  Chautauqua  County,  N.  Y.,"  published  by 
W.  A.  Fergusson  &  Co.,  Wm.  H.  Samson  of  the  Rochester  Post-Express,  and  Hon.  E.  D.  Loveridge  of 
Cuba,  for  valuable  information  concerning  the  Oil  Spring  Reservation. 

Caneadea  and  Oil  Spring  Indian  Reservations.  41 

the  oil  by  spreading  blankets  over  the  surface.  These  readily  absorbed  the 
oil,  as  it  floated  on  the  top  of  the  water.  It  was  wrung  out  of  the  blankets, 
caught  in  a  vessel,  put  up  in  vials,  labelled  '"Seneca  Oil,"  and  sold  to  the 
trade  or  dispensed  to  individuals.  The  writer  hT3s  seen  it  upon  the  drug- 
gist's shelves,  and  it  was  once  highly  esteemed  as  a  medicine.  Wells  have 
been  drilled  in  the  immediate  vicinity,  the  "  surface  indications  "  showing 
that  oil  would  be  found  in  paying  quantities,  but  no  trade  in  petroleum  has 
been  the  result,  notwithstanding  it  is  claimed  by  some  that  oil  exists  in 
quantity  sufficient  to  warrant  putting  down  more  wells  and  fully  developing 
the  territory. 

The  writer  is  informed  that  some  years  since  some  parties  made  quite 
thorough  exploration  of  the  spring,  and  found  it  walled  up  like  a  cistern,  in 
shape  quite  like  a  caldron  kettle.  Considering  the  great  fame  of  the  spring, 
and  the  miraculous  healing  properties  ascribed  by  the  Indians  to  its  waters 
or  oil,  it  was  naturally  expected  that  they  would  at  the  treaty  of  Big  Tree 
make  a  reservation  including  it,  and  this  was  so  understood  by  the  Indians. 
We  can  well  imagine  their  surprise  when  upon  having  read  to  them  the  deed 
of  conveyance  drawn  up  on  the  ground,  and  to  w^hichis  reasonably  surmised 
the  names  of  their  sachems,  chiefs  and  warriors  had  already  been  appended, 
it  was  discovered  that  no  mention  was  made  of  the  oil  spring  reservation. 
The  attention  of  Thomas  Morris,  who  acted  for  his  father,  Robert  Morris, 
was  called  to  this  omission.  The  Indians  were  very  much  excited  over  it, 
and  it  has  been  said  that  a  '•  big  drunk  "'  followed,  during  which  they  declared 
their  intention  to  annul  the  whole  transaction  unless  the  Oil  Spring  reserva- 
tion was  re-conveyed  to  them.  The  account  says  "  Thomas  Morris  with  his 
own  hand  took  a  sheet  of  paper,  and  wrote  thereon  such  a  conveyance,  signed 
and  executed  it,  and  then  handed  it  to  Handsome  Lake,  a  leading  Seneca 
chief,  stating  to  him  the  purport  of  the  instrument.  Handsome  Lake  took 
the  paper  with  him  when  he  shortly  afterward  went  to  Onondaga,  or  some 
other  place  east,  where  he  soon  after  died  and  the  paper  was  never  after 
seen.  Having  never  been  recorded,  it  had  no  validity,  and  the  status  was 
legally  the  same  as  when  the  discovery  of  the  omission  was  made." 

The  paper  title  to  the  land  being  in  the  Holland  Company,  they  sold  it  to 
Benjamin  Chamberlain,  Staley  N.  Clarke  and  Wm.  Ghalliger,  who  held  the 
lands  adjoining  it.  It  is  claimed  however,  that  they  regarded  it  as  Indian 
property,  and  treated  it  as  such  until  some  years  after  when  Mr.  Clarke  was 
sent  to  Congress.  While  in  Washington  Mr.  Clarke  examined  the  books  of 
treaties  and  made  the  discovery,  much  to  his  surprise  (?)  that  the  Oil  Spring 
reservation  was  not  named  in  the  treaty  papers,  and  that  the  legal  title  was 
in  him  and  his  two  partners.  The  reader  Mill  probably  find  some  trouble 
in  suppressing  the  thought  that  these  land  buyers  and  speculators,  had 
some  correct  intimation  as  to  the  existing  conditions  before  they  made  the 
purchase.  It  certainly  looks  so  to  the  writer.  Immediately  after  making 
this  important  discovery,  they  took  possession  of  the  reservation,  surveyed 
it  into  four  equal  parts,  and  one  quarter  was  conveyed  to  Gov.  Horatio  Sey- 

42  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

mour  of  Utica,  but  the  quarter  containing  the  oil  spring  was  conveyed  to  one 
Philonius  Pattison.  who.  about  1856.  cleared  and  fenced  80  acres,  erected  a 
house  and  barn,  and  planted  an  orchard. 

About  this  time  the  Indians  directed  Daniel  Sherman,  their  attorney,  to 
bring  an  action  of  ejectment  against  Pattison.  It  w^as  done,  and,  after  con- 
siderable litigation,  the  Indians  won  the  case,  almost  wholly  on  the  testi- 
mony of  Governor  Blacksnake,  who  related  substantially  what  has  already 
been  recited,  with  the  addition  that  he  "had  for  years  kept  in  a  chest  under 
his  bed,  a  map  made  by  Joseph  Ellicott  of  the  Indian  lands  sold  at  the  treaty 
of  Big  Tree,  with  the  reservations  marked  in  red  ink." 

Blacksnake  said  that  Ellicott  presented  the  map  to  the  Senecas  in  a  gen- 
eral council  of  the  chiefs  and  warriors  at  the  Tonawanda  reservation  about 
1801,  when  he  stated  that  the  majj  contained  a  correct  description  of  the 
eleven  reservations,  reserved  to  the  Senecas  by  the  treaty  of  Big  Tree;  that 
the  eleven  places  marked  in  red  on  the  map  belonged  to  the  red  men. 
Among  the  places  so  marked  was  the  Oil  Spring  reservation.  This  map  is  on 
file  with  the  testimony  of  Blacksnake  concerning  it,  in  the  county  clerk's 
office  at  Little  Valley.  It  is  said  that  Mr.  Seymour  utterly  refused  to  take 
any  part  in  the  defense  of  the  suit. 

Since  this  action  the  title  of  the  Indians  has  never  been  questioned,  and 
they  have  continually  exercised  dominion  over  this  land.  The  tract  is  nearly 
denuded  of  timber,  and  a  large  proportion  of  it  has  grown  up  to  bushes; 
blackberries  being  the  most  notable  product.  It  is  controlled  by  the  Indi- 
ans on  the  reservation  at  Salamanca,  and  until  quite  recently  a  single  In- 
dian family  has  resided  there,  but  now  that  has  gone,  and  the  territory  is 
little  else  than  a  waste. 



LORD  BELMONT  in  his  letter  of  instructions  to  Col.  Romer,  under  date 
of  Albany,  Sept.  3,  1700,  used  these  words  "  You  are  to  go  and  visit  the 
well  or  spring,  which  is  eight  miles  beyond  the  Seneca's  further  castle, 
which,  it  is  said,  blazes  up  in  a  flame  w^hen  a  lighted  coal  is  put  into  it. "'  Col. 
Romer  was  "His  Majesty's  Chief  Engineer  in  America, "'  and,  it  is  reason- 
able to  suppose,  carried  out  the  instructions  of  his  superior  officer.  M.  De 
Joncaire,  a  French  officer  under  or  in  conjunction  with  Charlevoix,  was  the 
next  white  man  whom  I  have  been  able  to  learn  traversed  the  territory  of 
Allegany,  though  it  is  reasonably  certain  that  Father  Hennepin  and  perhaps 

Some  Early  Skirmishers  and  Pioneers.  43 

LaSalle  visited  this  region  not  far  from  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury. Hennepin  certainly  visited  Tonawanda,  and  probably  also  the  upper 

In  1759.  Mary  Jemison  came  from  the  Ohio  town  on  her  way  to  Gen-i- 
shu-a,  and  stopped  for  a  day  and  a  night  at  Caneadea,  then  a  chief  town,  for 
rest.  She  was  attended  by  the  family  into  which  she  had  been  adopted,  and 
perhaps  other  Indians. 

When  Major  Moses  Van  Campen  in  1782.  then  a  captive  with  the  Indians, 
was  compelled  to  run  the  gauntlet  at  Caneadea,  he  there  found  a  Captain 
NeUis,  who  was  living  with  a  squaw  wife.  As  Captain  Nellis  was  a  Tory  rene- 
gade, who  made  his  headquarters  at  Caneadea  only  to  organize  marauding 
bands  of  Indians,  and  prepare  them  for  descents  upon  the  frontier  settle- 
ments, he  could  in  no  sense  be  considered  a  settler;  in  fact  as  soon  as  hostil- 
ities were  concluded  he  left  the  country. 

The  first  half  of  the  last  decade  of  the  last  century  found  our  territory 
absolutely  uninhabited,  save  by  a  few  Indians  who  had  two  or  three  villages 
near  the  northern  limits  of  the  county  on  the  Genesee  river,  and  the  wild 
animals  so  prevalent  in  those  days  in  all  this  region.  Here  reigned  an 
impressive,  an  ominous  stillness,  like  the  stillness  which  precedes  the  shock 
of  battle,  a  stillness  which  was  soon  to  be  broken  and  to  never  again  return, 
for  plans  were  even  then  being  laid  which  involved  the  opening  of  this  dense 
wilderness  to  the  light  of  civilization,  and  the  glorious  arts  of  peace. 

In  the  spring  of  1795,  Nathanael  Dike,  a  native  of  Connecticut,  but  who 
settled  soon  after  the  Revolutionary  war  was  ended  in  the  Mohawk  valley 
somewhere  near  Canajoharie,  where  he  lived  for  a  few  years  and  then  made 
his  way  to  Tioga  Point,  Pa.,  began  settlement  in  the  eastern  part  of  present 
WellsviUe,  on  what  is  yet  called  Dike's  Creek,  and  in  a  locality  known  as  Elm 
VaUey.  Mr.  Dike  was  a  man  of  good  parts,  a  devoted  patriot  during  the 
war  for  independence,  serving  on  the  staff  of  Gen.  Joseph  Warren  of  Bunker 
HiU  fame,  and  later  for  a  time  a  member  of  Washington's  military  family. 
It  is  said  he  was  educated  at  Yale  College,  though  it  must  be  confessed  that 
an  examination  of  his  account-book  reveals  no  modern  proficiency  in  scho- 
lastic acquirements.  Beyond  what  has  been  above  recited,  but  very  little 
has  been  learned  of  Mr.  Dike.  No  incidents  attendant  upon  his  advent  into 
this  new  country  have  been  handed  down,  and  although  many  by  the  name, 
descendants  and  distant  relatives,  are  to  be  found  in  our  county,  they  seem 
utterly  unable  to  aft'ord  any  certain  information  concerning  the  pioneer 
settler  of  Allegany.  This  is  much  to  be  regretted,  as  there  must  have  been 
some  interesting  occurrences  and  exciting  incidents  attending  his  journey 
from  Tioga  to  WeUsville.  From  Hornellsville  up  the  Whitney  Valley  creek 
to  its  summit,  thence  down  Dike's  Creek,  following  substantially  the  route 
afterward  adopted  by  the  Erie  Railway,  the  progress  of  the  small  party  must 
have  been  laborious,  slow,  incurring  hardships  of  every  conceivable  kind. 
His  family  consisted  of  himself,  his  wife,  two  sons  and  possibly  other  chil- 
dren, and  it  may  be  other  persons  helped  make  up  the  party. 

44  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

From  a  ci'itical  examination  of  an  account-book  which  he  kept  we  are  led 
to  conclude  that  Mr.  Dike  was  a  sort  of  "all-round-man,"  and,  as  such,  a 
very  important  person  in  a  new  country.  He  could  turn  his  hand  to  almost 
anything,  and  must  have  been  very  useful  to  his  neighbors  in  the  many  and 
varying  exigencies  sure  to  have  occurred  in  the  settlement  of  a  new  country 
one  hundred  years  ago.  His  name  frequently  and  honorably  apj^ears  in  our 
early  records,  and,  as  if  in  some  way  atoning  for  the  lack  of  specific  know^l- 
edge  concerning  him,  the  stream  uj^on  which  he  constructed  his  cabin  and 
made  the  first  settlement  in  Allegany  has  been  given  his  name,  and  so,  in 
the  long  years  to  come,  will  the  name,  if  not  the  memory,  of  Nathanael  Dike 
be  preserved. 

In  the  following  year,  1796,  Rev.  Andrew  Gray,  Wm.  Gray,  Maj.  Moses 
Van  Campen,  Matthew  McHenry  and  Joseph  Rathbun  settled  in  what  after- 
ward came  to  be  Almond,  some  in  Karr  Valley,  and  some  in  McHenry  Valley. 
These  settlers  had  the  advantage  of  the  road  (?)  which  Mr.  Dike  made  the 
previous  year,  and  travelled  not  nearly  so  far  as  he  to  get  to  their  several 
locations.  The  first  cabins  they  constructed  must  have  been  of  the  rudest 
kind,  and  they  managed  somehow  to  get  along  without  any  chimneys  through 
the  summer  months,  as  Major  Van  Campen  years  after  related  "  In  the  faU 
they  all  united,  and  in  one  week  built  three  chimneys  and  killed  thirty-six 
deer."  Two  brothers  of  Maj.  Van  Campen,  Samuel  and  Benjamin,  came 
from  Pennsylvania,  settling  in  Almond  in  1797.  Religious  services,  without 
doubt  the  first  in  the  county,  were  conducted  at  Karr  Valley  by  Rev.  Andrew 
Gray,  a  clergyman  of  the  Reformed  Dutch  Church,  at  his  own  house.  May  1, 
1797.  Mr.  Gray  afterward  ministered  in  the  neighboring  settlements. 
Judge  Philip  Church  described  him  as  "a  broad-shouldered  man,  of  extra- 
ordinary muscular  power, "  and  said  "  I  remember  his  getting  so  earnest, 
on  one  occasion  while  preaching  in  Angelica,  in  enforcing  religious  precepts 
upon  his  back- woods  congregation,  that  in  his  gestures  he  knocked  to  pieces 
our  store  desk  that  we  gave  him  for  a  pulpit. " 

In  1798  John  Cryder  settled  in  Independence.  Wliere  he  came  from  or 
went  to  is  lost  to  history,  but  it  is  known  that  he  built  a  house  and  sawmill, 
made  a  few  other  improvements,  and  suddenly  left  the  country.  The  creek 
upon  which  he  located  is  called  Cryder 's  Creek,  and  so  his  name  is  perpet- 
uated and  passed  down  to  remote  generations. 

In  the  old  cemetery  at  Elm  Valley  is  a  rude  stone  upon  which  is  recorded 
the  death  on  January  21,  1798,  of  "  Zeriah  Dike,  daughter  of  James  and 
Phebe  Dike,  aged  10  months  and  5  days."  This,  was  the  first  interment 
as  far  as  can  be  ascertained  of  any  white  in  Alleganj^  count3^  and  it  is  quite 
safe  to  assert  that  Zeriah  Dike  enjoys  the  distinction  also  of  being  the  first 
white  child  born  in  the  county. 

So,  with  the  few  settlers  whose  names  have  been  recited,  and  possibly  as 
many  more  scattered  about  in  settlements  commenced  in  WeUsville,  Almond, 
and  Independence,  the  last  century  closes.  Closes  with  religious  services 
inaugurated,  but  not  a  school  within  the  present  limits  of  the  county,  but  it 

Early  Visitors — Extinction  of  the  Indian  Title.  45 

also  closes  with  ominous  forebodings  which  meant  much  to  its  grand  old 
foi'ests.  forebodings  that  the  woodman's  axe  is  soon  to  ring  continuously  in  its 
valleys  and  on  its  hilltox^s.  And  so,  as  the  index  on  the  dial  of  the  centuries 
points  to  IbOO.  and  the  19th  century  is  dawning,  the  awful  and  oppressive 
stillness  which  lias  hitherto  pervaded  the  primitive  woods  of  Allegany  is 
broken,  for,  in  the  language  of  Alfred  B.  Street,  often  quoted  but  none  the 
less  appropriate, 

Through  the  deep  wilderness,  where  scarce  the  sun 

Can  cast  his  darts  along  the  winding  path, 

The  Pioneer  is  treading  ;  in  his  grasp 

Is  his  keen  axe,  that  wondrous  instrument, 

That,  like  the  talisman,  transforms 

Deserts  into  fields  and  cities.     He  has  left 

The  home  in  which  his  early  years  were  past. 

And,  led  by  hope,  and  full  of  restless  strength. 

Has  plunged  within  the  forest,  there  to  plant 

His  destiny.     Beside  some  rapid  stream. 

He  rears  his  log-built  cabin.     When  the  chains 

Of  winter  fetter  nature,  and  no  sound 

Disturbs  the  echoes  of  the  dreamy  woods. 

Save  when  some  stem  cracks  sharply  with  the  frost, 

Then  merrily  rings  his  axe,  and  tree  on  tree 

Crashes  to  earth  ;  and  when  the  long,  keen  night 

Mantles  the  wilderness  in  solemn  gloom. 

He  sits  beside  his  ruddy  hearth,  and  hears 

The  fierce  wolf  snarling  at  the  cabin  door, 

Or  through  the  lowly  casement  sees  his  eye 

Gleam  like  a  burnkig  coal. 



LTp  to  the  American  Revolution  (1775-1783)  our  immediate  territory  was 
J  known  to  only  a  very  few  venturesome  explorers,  whose  restless 
natures  and  innate  curiosity,  coupled  with  a  natural  desire  for  speculation 
and  love  of  adventure,  with  which  they  were  highly  endowed,  impelled 
them  to  make  the  acquaintance  of  the  country  and  its  inhabitants.  Jesuit 
missionaries,  like  LaSalle,  and  Hennepin,  had  also  no  doubt  invaded  its  soli- 
tude, and  the  best  of  reasons  exist  for  the  supposition  that  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Kirkland  had  also  visited  the  Caneadea  villages,  for  he  was  a  missionary 
among  the  Six  Nations  for  a  number  of  years  previous  to  the  Revolution, 
and  "  on  January  16,  1765,  he  left  the  mission  station  at  Johnson  Hall  on  the 
Mohawk,  in  company  with  two  Seneca  Indians  on  a  mission  which  embraced 
all  the  settlements  of  the  Iroquois.  They  traveled  upon  snow-shoes, 
carrying  a  pack  containing  his  provisions,  some  books,  and  a  few  articles  of 

46  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

clothing,  weighing  in  all  about  forty  pounds."  There  is  no  doubt  but  that 
he  visited  the  Caneadea  villages  on  this  mission.  He  had  numerous  ad- 
ventures with  the  Indians,  but  after  a  while  "lived  in  great  harmony, 
friendship  and  sociability "  with  them.  Writing  in  March  of  one  of  those 
years  when  a  sort  of  famine  occurred  (the  corn  had  been  short  and  the  game 
was  scarce),  he  said  he  had  sold  a  shirt  for  four  Indian  cakes  baked  in  the 
ashes  which  he  could  have  devoured  in  one  meal,  but,  on  the  score  of  pru- 
dence, he  ate  only  one. ' '  He  lived  four  days  on  ' '  white  oak  acorns  fried  in 
bear's  grease."  His  suiferings  and  privations  were  as  severe  as  any  his 
Jesuit  predecessors  had  endured.  The  discovery  of  a  neatly-carved  Jesuit 
cross  on  one  of  the  timbers  of  the  old  Council  House  (which  was  more  than 
twenty  years  ago  removed  from  its  site  near  the  old  Indian  village  of  Can- 
eadea, by  Hon.  William  P.  Letchworth  to  his  beautiful  grounds  at  Glen  Iris,) 
would  seem  to  support  the  idea  that  it  had  either  been  done  by  a  Jesuit,  or 
by  some  Indians  recently  converted,  or  who  had  been  made  acquainted  with 
the  symbols  of  the  ' '  true  faith. " ' 

The  territory  embraced  in  the  Caneadea  Indian  reservation,  so  remotely 
situated  upon  the  ' '  upper  Genesee, ' '  in  contra-distinction  to  the  ' '  lower 
Genesee  country,"  was  considerably  remoA^ed  from  the  scene  of  the  depreda- 
tions of  De  Nonville's  expedition,  which  invaded  the  lower  Genesee  country 
in  1689,  but  there  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  it  has  been  the  scene  of 
many  a  sanguinary  conflict,  not  only  long  ago  between  aboriginal  tribes, 
but  also  during  the  French  and  English  controversy  for  the  supremacy. 
The  lower  Genesee  country  was  brought  into  very  conspicuous  notice  by 
Sullivan's  expedition  against  the  Indians  in  1779,  and  its  settlement  and 
occupation  by  the  whites  was  no  doubt  much  accelerated  by  that  event. 

Some  idea  of  the  extent  of  production  of  the  famous  lower  Genesee 
country  can  be  learned  from  General  Sullivan's  report,  wherein  he  says: 
"The  quantity  of  corn  destroyed,  at  a  moderate  computation,  must  amount 
to  160,000  bushels,  with  a  vast  quantity  of  vegetables  of  every  kind.  ^  ^  ^ 
and  I  am  well  persuaded  that,  except  one  town  situated  near  the  Allegany, 
about  fifty-eight  miles  from  the  Chinesee  (Genesee),  there  is  not  a  single 
town  left  in  the  country  of  the  Five  Nations."  The  town  Sullivan  refers  to 
must  have  been  the  Caneadea  village,  and  it  is  no  tax  upon  our  credulity  to 
suppose  that  the  Indian  population  of  this  immediate  neighborhood  was  pro- 
portionally as  thrifty,  and  had  comparatively  as  large  corn  fields  and  as 
great  a  variety  of  vegetables. 

Soon  after  the  Revolution  Robert  Morris,  the  financier  of  that  memor- 
able struggle,  and  the  most  potent  individual  ally  that  Washington  had  in 
the  prosecution  of  the  war,  hearing  the  glowing  accounts  of  those  who  had 
seen  the  famous  "Genesee  country,"  resolved  to  visit  Western  New  York 
and  see  for  himself  if  these  accounts  were  true.  He  did  so.  and,  after  some- 
thing of  an  exploration,  determined  to  make  an  extensive  purchase.  It  is 
certain  that  he  visited  the  site  of  Mt.  Morris,  and  good  authority  says  made 
the  selection  of  what  has  since  become  famous  as  "Murray  Hill,"  as  his 

Early  Visitors — Extinction  of  the  Indian  Title.  47 

future  country  seat.  Whether  this  journey  was  made  through  the  upper 
Genesee  valley,  or  by  way  of  the  Conhocton  and  Dansville.  the  writer  has 
failed  to  learn,  but  inclines  to  the  opinion  that  the  latter  route  was  the  one 

Negotiations  were  at  once  opened  with  the  Commonwealth  of  Massa- 
chusetts, in  which  the  pre-emptive  right  to  purchase  of  the  Indians  had  be- 
come vested  by  cession  from  the  state  of  New  York. 

Oliver  Phelps,  of  Connecticut,  had.  for  himself  and  others,  begun 
negotiations  in  1787,  with  a  view  to  purchase  a  portion  of  the  lands  con- 
tained in  this  grant  of  pre-emption  right  ' '  from  New  York,  and  Nathaniel 
Gorham,  about  the  same  time,  made  an  offer  to  the  legislature  of  Massa- 
chusetts, of  one  shilling  and  six  pence  per  acre  for  1,000.000  acres  of  those 
lands,  to  be  paid  for  in  the  public  paper  of  the  Commonwealth."  This  offer 
was  not  accepted,  but  had  the  effect  of  exciting  public  attention  and  to  bring- 
other  competitors  into  the  field,  who  as  fast  as  they  appeared  were  taken 
into  the  association  much  after  the  manner  of  the  modern  "trust,"  ••com- 
bine" or  ••syndicate,"  Messrs.  Phelps  and  Gorham,  having  already  united 
their  interests  and  efforts.  In  April.  1788,  Phelps  &  Gorham,  acting  for 
their  company,  purchased  all  the  land  comprised  in  the  cession  to  Massa- 
chusetts for  $1,000,000,  payable  in  three  years  in  the  public  paper  of  the 
state,  which  had  become  greatly  depreciated.  Phelps  at  once  began  opera- 
tions looking  to  the  extinguishment  of  the  Indian  title,  and  was  immediately 
confronted  by  another  complication.  He  found  that  what  was  in  common 
parlance  called  the  "Lessee  Company."  had  been  formed,  and  had  procured 
two  leases  from  the  Indians,  covering  a  large  portion  of  the  territory  just 
purchased  by  Phelps  and  his  associates.  Massachusetts  promptly  declared 
the  leases  void,  and  Governor  Clinton  commenced  active  operations  against 
them,  personally  meeting  the  Indians  in  council,  warning  them  of  the  in- 
validity of  the  leases,  and  taking  evidence  which  established  the  fact  that 
the  leases  had  been  procured  by  bribery  and  corrupt  means.  The  influence 
however  of  the  leasers  and  their  agents  with  the  Indians  and  others  was  so 
strong,  at  one  time  threatening  to  form  a  new  state  from  the  disputed  terri- 
tory, at  another  time  stirring  up  enmity  and  dissatisfaction  among  the  Indi- 
ans, that  finally  the  purchasers  of  the  pre-emption  right  were  forced  to  com- 
promise, and  granted  the  lessees  an  interest  in  the  property.  Mr.  Phelps 
then  soon  perfected  arrangements  for  a  treaty  with  the  Indians  which  was 
opened  on  the  14th  of  July.  1788.  at  Buffalo  Creek,  which  resulted  in  the 
Indians  selling  for  i?5,000and  an  annuity  of  $500,  about  2.600.000  acres  lying 
adjacent  to  the  Massachusetts  pre-emption  line.  Meantime  the  scrip  with 
which  Phelps  and  Gorham  and  their  associates  had  agreed  to  make  pay- 
ment for  the  lands  had  so  much  appreciated  in  value,  owing  to  the  increased 
prospects  of  the  state  as  a  member  of  the  Union,  that  they  were  unable  to 

*  I  am  aware  that  this  may  be  questioned  by  some,  and  still  I  understand  it  is  only  claimed  by  the  doubt- 
ers that  he  never  set  his  foot  upon  the  "Holland  Purchase."  Such  a  statement  is  easily  reconciled  with  the 
fact  of  his  visiting  Mt.  Morris,  as  that  place  is  several  miles  east  of  the  "'  Holland  Purchase." 

48  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

obtain  it  to  meet  their  obligations,  and  suit  was  entered  against  them  by 
Massachusetts.  A  compromise  however  was  effected,  by  which  they  were 
allowed  to  retain  the  portion  of  the  purchase  to  which  they  had  extinguished 
the  Indian  title,  re-conveying  to  Massachusetts  the  residue.  This  arrange- 
ment was  the  more  easily  perfected  owing  to  the  appearance  of  Mr.  Morris 
with  an  offer  to  purchase  these  lands. 

On  the  12th  day  of  March,  1791,  Massachusetts  agreed  to  sell  to  Samuel 
Ogden,  as  agent  for  Robert  Morris,  all  the  lands  before  sold  to  Phelps  and 
Gorham  except  the  portion  retained  by  them,  and,  on  the  11th  day  of  May, 
1791,  the  state  conveyed  to  Morris,  for  a  consideration  of  $225,000,  the  whole 
of  this  land  by  five  separate  deeds;  the  first  tract  adjoining  the  Phelps  & 
Gorham  purchase  and  comprising  500,000  acres.  Massachusetts  reserved 
in  this  conveyance  one-sixtieth  of  the  whole  tract  to  satisfy  a  claim  of  John 
Butler,  who  had  entered  into  a  contract  for  the  purchase  of  the  same  from 
Phelps  and  Gorham  prior  to  their  surrender  of  the  lands  back  to  Massa- 
chusetts, which  interest  Morris  afterward  purchased  from  Butler,  thereby 
acquiring  the  entire  title.  This  tract  of  500,000  acres  was  retained  by 
Morris,  and  sold  by  him  in  different  tracts,  and  was  called  the  "Morris 
Reserve."  And  so  the  reader  can  see  how  it  came  about  that  this  tract  so 
generally  known  as  the  "Morris  Reserve  "  and  so  commonly  referred  to, 
covered  two  ranges  of  towns  immediately  east  of  the  eastern  "transit 
meridian,"  or  eastern  boundery  of  the  HoUand  Land  Company's  land. 

The  land  covered  by  the  four  other  deeds,  being  3,600,000  acres,  was 
conveyed  by  as  many  separate  conveyances,  dated  one  December  4,  1792, 
one,  February  27,  1793,  and  two  on  July  20.  1793.  by  Robert  Morris  to 
Herman  Le  Roy  and  others,  as  trustees  for  the  Amsterdam  capitalists, 
afterward  so  generally  and  favorably  known  as  the  Holland  Land  Company, 
of  whom  "Wilhelm  Willink,  was  the  largest  owner,  and  Rutger  Jan  Schim- 
melpenninck  bore  the  most  conspicuous  name. 

These  conveyances  all  contained  a  covenant  on  the  part  of  Mr.  Morris 
to  extinguish  the  Indian  titles,  and  he  at  once  set  about  the  business.  It 
was  an  undertaking  of  considerable  proportions,  and  its  accomplishment 
brought  into  requisition  a  high  degree  of  skill,  tact  and  diplomacy.  Upon 
his  son,  Thomas  Morris,  devolved  the  task  of  procuring  the  consent  of  the 
Indians  to  hold  a  treaty.  He  proved  an  able  lieutenant.  He  went  into  the 
heart  of  their  country,  followed  their  trails  from  the  wigwam  of  one  chief  to 
that  of  another,  and,  after  much  difficulty  and  the  most  lavish  use  of  all  his 
persuasive  arts,  the  Indians  finally  agreed  to  hold  a  conference  and  desig- 
nated Big  Tree,  now  Geneseo,  as  the  place  where  the  council  should  be  held. 
President  Washington  nominated  Jeremiah  Wadsworth  as  commissioner  on 
the  part  of  the  United  States,  and  the  interested  parties  met  in  August,  1797, 
and  negotiations  began.  Gen.  William  Shepard  representing  Massachusetts. 
A  large  tent  was  provided  by  Mr.  Morris  under  which  daily  conferences 
took  place.  (This  was  the  fact  notwithstanding  the  popular  tradition  goes 
to  the  effect  that  the  treaty  was  held  under  the  umbrageous  shade  of  a  large 

Early  Visitors — Extinction  of  the  Indian  Title.  49 

oak  or  elm.)  William  Bayard  of  New  York  represented  the  interests  of  the 
Holland  Company,  and  Mr.  Morris  appeared  through  his  agents,  Thomas 
Morris  and  Colonel  Williamson.  Mr.  Williamson's  engagements  were  such  as 
to  call  him  away,  so  the  whole  responsibility  of  conducting  the  treaty  devolved 
upon  Thomas  Morris. 

Great  preparations  had  been  made  by  Mr.  Morris.  A  large  herd  of  fat 
cattle  had  been  sent  on  to  furnish  meat.  Great  numbers  of  Indians  were 
present,  attracted  as  much,  perhaps,  by  the  prospect  of  good  cheer,  as  by  a 
desire  to  consider  the  business  in  hand.  After  duly  opening  the  council  the 
commissioners  offered  their  credentials,  and  explained  the  reason  of  their 
appointment;  after  which  Mr.  Morris  presented  in  a  speech  of  some  length 
the  object  for  which  they  had  been  convened.  Representing  the  desire  of 
his  father  to  obtain  by  purchase  a  part,  or  all  of  their  lands,  and  how  much 
better  it  would  be  for  them  to  dispose  of  aU,  except  what  were  actually 
needed  for  settlement,  and  place  the  money  at  interest,  than  to  retain  in 
their  possession  uncultivated  wastes,  whose  only  value  to  them  could  be 
such  as  were  derived  from  the  chase;  and  that  this  advantage  would  not  be 
lost,  for  they  could  still  use  it  for  hunting  the  same  as  before,  he  concluded 
by  offering  them  the  sum  of  5^100,000  for  the  entire  tract  which  still  remained 
to  them  in  the  state,  allowing  them  such  reservations  as  might  be  needed  for 
actual  use. 

After  deliberating  for  some  time  the  Indians  returned  an  answer 
unfavorable  to  Mr.  Morris,  saying  "  they  did  not  wish  to  part  with  any  more 
of  their  land."  Mr.  Morris  urged  them  to  reconsider  their  answer,  telling 
them  they  ought  not  to  decide  hastily,  setting  before  them  in  different  ways 
the  favorable  terms  he  had  proposed.  They  again  deliberated,  and  again 
they  returned  the  same  answer  as  before.  Meetings  and  speeches  suc- 
ceeded: Corn  Planter,  Little  Billy,  Parmer's  Brother,  Little  Beard  and  Red 
Jacket,  each  taking  a  part  in  the  discussion.  Red  Jacket  assuming  the  chief 
burden  of  debate.  Mr.  Morris  urged  upon  them  the  liberal  sum  he  had 
offered  for  their  lands.  Red  Jacket  replied,  "We  are  not  yet  convinced 
that  it  is  best  for  us  to  dispose  of  our  lands  at  any  price."  "  But,"  replied 
Mr.  Morris,  "  what  value  can  they  be 'to  you  as  they  now  are,  any  farther 
than  the  consciousness  that  you  own  them  '?  " 

"Yes,"  said  Red  Jacket,  "but  this  knowledge  is  everything  to 
us.  It  raises  us  in  our  own  estimation.  It  creates  in  our  bosoms  a 
proud  feeling  which  elevates  us  as  a  nation.  Observe  the  difference 
between  the  estimation  in  which  a  Seneca  and  an  Oneida  are  held.  We  are 
courted,  while  the  Oneidas  are  considered  a  degraded  people.  .A';'  onlij  to  make 
brooms  and  baskets.  Why  this  difference  ?  It  is  because  the  Senecas  are 
known  to  be  the  proprietors  of  a  broad  domain,  while  the  Oneidas  are 
cooped  up  in  a  narrow  space." 

"Ah,"  said  Mr.  Morris,  "you  presume  too  much  in  regard  to  the  con- 
sequence of  your  nation.  It  is  far  from  being  as  great  as  you  suppose;  and 
in  proof  of  this  let  me  refer  you  to  the  manner  in  which  your  deputation  to 

50  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

the  Miamis  was  received  in  1793.  TThough  large,  and  composed  of  many  of 
the  first  men  of  your  nation,  it  had  but  httle  influence. "  "Very  true," 
rephed  Red  Jacket,  ''and  ivky  ?  It  was  because  we  were  in  6afZ  cornpam/. 
We  went  with  the  pale  faces.  Had  we  gone  alone,  we  should  have  been 
treated  ivith  the  dignity  lohich  belongs  to  the  Senecas  throughout  the  world.'" 

While  Red  Jacket  was  still  standing,  some  one  interposed  the  remark, 
•'He's  a  coward."  Turning  around  with  a  look  of  contempt,  and  in  a  tone 
and  manner  expressing  the  deepest  sarcasm,  he  said,  "Yes,  I  am  a 
coward."  And  then,  waving  his  hand  over  the  broad  and  beautiful  lands 
that  were  spread  out  before  them,  added:  "Assure  me  that  you  can  create 
lands  like  these,  ivhich  the  Great  Spirit  has  created  for  us,  his  red  children,  so  that 
you  can  give  us  lands  like  them  in  return,  and  I  ivill  be  brave;  Until  then  I  AM 


The  commissioners  after  listening  to  this  talk  began  to  consider  the 
undertaking  hopeless,  and  so  urged  Mr.  Morris  to  use  more  decisive  meas- 
.  ures  with  them  and  bring  them  to  terms  one  way  or  the  other.  Mr.  Morris 
yielded  to  their  sohcitations  although  contrary  to  his  convictions,  from  his 
knowledge  of  the  Indian  character,  as  to  its  being  the  best  method  to  pursue, 
^nd  suggested  to  the  Indians  that  they  make  him  a  proposition.  After  a 
brief  consultation  the  Indians  made  him  the  offer  of  a  single  township  on  the 
line  of  Pennsylvania,  at  one  dollar  an  acre,  Red  Jacket  assuring  him  that 
lie  could  sell  this  at  a  sufficient  advance  to  pay  for  the  trouble  and  expense 
of  the  treaty.  To  this  Mr.  Morris  would  not  agree,  and  told  them  if  that 
was  all  they  could  offer  they  might  as  well  return  to  their  homes,  as  the 
sooner  the  conference  was  ended  the  better;  upon  which.  Red  Jacket  sprang 
to  his  feet  and  said.  "You  have  now  come  to  the  point  to  which  I  wished  to 
bring  you.  You  told  us  in  your  first  address  that  even  in  the  event  of  our 
not  agreeing  to  sell  our  lands  we  would  part  friends.  Here  then  is  my 
hand."  Mr.  Morris  taking  his  hand,  he  then  added:  "I  now  cover  up  the 
council  fire."  To  all  present  but  Thomas  Morris  the  prospect  of  accom- 
phshing  anything  after  this  seemed  quite  hopeless;  yet  his  hopes  of  success 
were  so  sanguine  that  he  with  some  difficulty  persuaded  the  commissioners 
to  remain  and  give  him  the  opportunity  of  a  new  trial. 

The  next  day  after  the  council  was  thus  abruptly  broken  up  Farmer's 
Brother  called  on  Mr.  Morris,  expressing  much  regret  at  what  had  trans- 
pired and  the  hope  that  it  might  not  destroy  his  interest  so  obviously  mani- 
fested for  his  nation.  "  Certainly  not,"  said  Mr.  Morris,  "  you  had  a  right 
to  refuse  to  seU  ycfar  lands,  but,"  he  added,  "  the  treatment  he  had  received 
from  his  people  at  the  close  of  the  council,  especially  in  allowing  a  drunken 
warrior  to  menace  and  insult  him  while  they  were  yelling  in  approbation  of 
his  conduct,  was  uncalled  for  and  ungenerous.  He  had  not  deserved  this 
from  them.  For  years  they  had  had  food  at  his  house  in  Canandaigua,  and 
liquor  as  much  as  was  for  their  good,  and  whenever  any  of  them  had  been  at 
Philadelphia,  his  father  had  treated  them  with  equal  kindness  and  hospital- 
ity. "     This  was  all  acknowledged  by  Farmer's  Brother,  who  much  regretted 

Early  Visitors — Extinction  of  the  Indian  Title.  51 

that  the  council  fire  had  been  so  hastily  extinguished.  Had  this  not  been 
done,  they  migiit  have  had  another  meeting  to  smooth  over  these  difficulties. 
"With  great  tact  Mr.  Morris  urged  another  ground  of  complaint.  "Red 
Jacket,"  he  said,  "  assumed  the  right  of  covering  up  the  fire.  This  did  not 
belong  to  him,  for,  according  to  your  custom,  he  only  who  Idndles  the  fire  has 
a  right  to  cover  it  up."  "That  is  so,"  said  Farmer's  Brother.  "Then,  as  I 
did  not  cover  up  the  council  fire,  it  is  still  burning."  After  thinking  a 
moment  Farmer's  Brother  replied  "yes,"  seemed  pleased  that  it  was  so, 
and  expressed  a  desire  to  have  the  council  convene  again. 

Mr.  Morris  intimated  that  he  would  like  a  delay  of  a  few  days  to  give 
him  time  to  look  over  his  accounts,  pay  for  the  provisions  that  had  been  con- 
sumed, coUect  his  cattle  that  had  not  been  slaughtered,  and  arrange  matters 
preparatory  to  leaving  the  treaty  ground.  He  had  acquainted  himself  so 
well  with  Indian  customs  that  he  had  resolved  to  resort  to  another  expedi- 
ent, after  failing  in  his  negotiations  with  the  sachems.  Among  the  Indians 
a  rule  prevails  that  their  sachems  shall  have  a  right  to  transact  whatever 
business  belongs  to  their  nation,  whether  relating  to  their  lands  or  anything 
else.  But,  in  transactions  pertaining  to  lands,  if  their  course  is  not  satis- 
factory to  the  women  and  warriors,  they  have  a  right  to  terminate  the  pro- 
ceedings and  assume  the  management  themselves.  The  reason  they  give  for 
this  rule  is  that  the  land  belongs  to  the  warriors  because  they  are  the  defense 
and  strength  of  the  nation,  and  to  the  women,  because  they  are  the  mothers 
of  the  warriors.  They  recognize,  therefore,  "head"  or  "chief"  women, 
whose  privilege  it  is  to  select  a  speaker  to  represent  their  views. 

So  Mr.  Morris  determined  to  refer  his  proposition  to  the  chief  women 
and  warriors,  and  accordingly  sought  and  obtained  such  a  meeting.  Then 
he  made  known  to  them  his  business,  told  them  what  a  liberal  offer  he  had 
made  to  their  sachems,  portrayed  in  glowing  terms  the  advantages  which 
would  accrue  from  the  annuity  so  large  a  sum  would  bring — how  much  food 
and  clothing  it  would  furnish  them,  thus  relieving  them  of  anxiety  and  toil 
and  many  hardships  they  now  had  to  endure — that  the  sachems  who  were 
unwilling  to  sell  the  land  always  had  enough  to  supply  their  wants;  that  they 
could  kill  game  and  feast  on  the  meat,  and  go  to  the  settlements  and  seU  the 
skins  and  buy  them  clothing,  and  so  did  not  care  to  sell  their  land  for  money 
which  would  enable  the  women  to  obtain  for  themselves  and  children  food 
and  clothing,  whereas  they  were  now  often  compelled  to  go  hungry  and 
naked.  By  accepting  his  proposition  they  would  have  the  means  of  supply- 
ing their  wants,  and  making  themselves  comfortable  and  happy.  He  dis- 
played before  them  a  great  array  of  beads,  blankets,  silver  brooches,  and 
various  other  ornaments  of  which  he  knew  them  to  be  particularly  fond, 
and  said  he  had  brought  them  with  him  with  the  design  of  making  them 
presents  in  the  event  of  a  successful  treaty,  but  he  had  made  up  his  mind 
that,  as  the  women  were  not  to  blame  for  the  breaking  off  of  the  negotiations, 
they  should  have  the  presents  just  the  same  as  though  his  offer  had  been 
accepted.     He  then  proceeded  to  distribute  among  sparkling  eyes  and  joy- 

52  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

ful  hearts  the  beautiful  presents  he  had  brought.  These  gifts  ]3roved.  a 
most  powerful  addition  to  his  arguments,  and  were  the  means  of  a  favorable 
turn  to  their  counsels. 

For  several  days  after  this  the  chiefs,  women  and  warriors  could  be 
seen  scattered  about  here  and  there  in  small  parties  earnestly  engaged  in 
conversation  which  resulted  in  a  renewal  of  negotiations.  After  a  little  Mr. 
Morris  was  informed  that  their  council-fire  was  still  burning,  but  after  this 
would  be  conducted  by  the  women  and  warriors. 

Cornplanter,  being  the  principal  war  chief,  appeared  on  this  occasion 
in  behalf  of  the  warriors  and  women.  In  his  opening  speech  he  said,  "  They 
had  seen  with  regret  the  misconduct  of  the  sachems,  they  also  thought  Mr. 
Morris  was  too  hasty;  but  still  they  were  willing  the  negotiations  should  be 
renewed,  and  hoped  they  would  be  conducted  with  better  temper  on  both 
sides."  Mr.  Morris  offered  a  few  remarks  of  a  conciliatory  nature,  and 
Farmer's  Brother  spoke  for  the  sachems,  saying  that  these^  proceedings 
were  in  accordance  with  the  customs  of  the  nation.  And  so  negotiations 
w^ere  renewed  and  prosecuted  to  a  successful  termination.  The  Indians 
consented  to  sell- -their  lands  for  the  sum  proposed,  ^100,000,  leaving  their 
reservation  to  be  settled  as  they  could  agree.  It  was  agreed  or  provided 
that  the  |100,000  should  be  vested  in  stock  of  the  Bank  of  the  United 
States  by  Mr.  Morris,  and  held  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  as  a 
trustee  for  the  use  and  behoof  of  the  said  (Seneca)  nation  of- Indians. 

This  treaty,  from  the  magnitude  of  its  effect  upon  a  large  percentage 
of  the  territory  of  Allegany  county,  and  in  consideration  of  its  importance 
in  some  other  respects,  really  marks  an  epoch  in  Western  New  York  and 
AUegany  history,  and  for  that  reason  we  introduce  the  essential  part  of  the 
conveyance  by  which  the  Indians  parted  with  the  title  to  that  portion  of 
New  York  embraced  within  the  limits  of  the  HoUand  Company's  Purchase, 
excepting  of  course  the  reservations.  After  the  usual  preliminaries,  such 
as  naming  the  parties  and  stating  the  consideration,  it  proceeds  thus: 

"  Now  THIS  INDENTURE  WITNESSETH,  that  the  Said  party  of  the  first  part,  for  and  in  consideration  of 
the  premises  above  recited,  and  for  divers  other  good  and  valuable  considerations,  them  thereunto  moving, 
have  granted,  bargained,  sold,  aliened,  released,  enfeoffed,  and  confirmed,  and  by  these  presents  do  grant, 
bargain,  sell  alien,  release,  enfeoff  and  confirm  unto  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs  and  assigns  for- 
ever, all  that  certain  tract  of  land,  except  as  hereinafter  excepted,  lying  within  the  county  of  Ontario,  and 
state  of  New  York,  *  *  *  bounded  as  follows  :  East  by  the  land  confirmed  to  Oliver  Phelps  and  Nathan- 
iel Gorham,  *  *  *  southerly  by  the  north  boundary  line  of  the  state  of  Pennsylvania,  v/esterly  partly  by 
a  tract  of  land ;  part  of  the  land  ceded  by  the  state  of  Massachusetts  to  the  United  States  and  by  them  sold  to 
Pennsylvania,  being  a  rightangled  triangle,  whose  hypothenuse  is  in  or  along  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie  ;  from 
the  northern  point  of  that  triangle  to  the  southernmost  bounds  of  a  tract  of  land  one  mile  in  width,  lying  on 
and  along  the  east  side  of  the  strait  of  Niagara,  and  partly  by  the  said  tract  to  Lake  Ontario  ;  and  on  the  north 
by  the  boundary  line  between  the  United  States  and  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  excepting  nevertheless,  and 
always  reserving  out  of  this  grant  and  conveyance,  one  piece  or  parcel  of  the  aforesaid  tract  at  Canawaugus, 
(Avon)  of  two  square  miles,  *  *  *  one  at  Big  Tree,  (Geneseo),  of  two  square  miles,  to  be  Little  Beards 
Town,  *  *  *  one  other  tract  of  two  square  miles  at  Squaky  Hill,  *  *  *  one  other  parcel  at  Gardeau, 
*  *  *  one  other  piece  or  parcel  at  Ka-oun-a-de-au  (Caneadea  reservation),  extending  in  length  eight  miles 
along  the  river,  and  two  miles  in  breadth,  *  *  *  one  at  Cattaraugus,  also  one  of  forty-two  square  milss, 
at  or  near  the  Alleghany  river,  also  two  hundred  square  miles  partly  at  the  Tonawauk  (Tonawanda)  creek, 
also  excepting  and  reserving  to  them  the  said  parties  of  the  first  part  and  their  heirs,  the   privilege  of  fishings 

Early  Visitors — Extinction  of  the  Indian  Title.  53 

and  hunting  on  the  said  tract  of  land  hereby  intended  to  be  conveyed.  And  it  is  hereby  understood  by  and 
between  the  parties  to  these  presents  that  all  such  parcels  of  land  as  are  hereby  reserved-,  *  *  *  shall  be 
laid  off  in  such  manner  as  shall  be  determined  by  the  sachems  and  chiefs  residing  at,  or  near  the  respective 
villages  where  such  reservations  are." 

There  were  present  on  the  occasion  of  this  treaty  besides  the  commis- 
sioners ah-eady  named,  Nath.  W.  Howell,  Joseph  Ellicott,  Israel  Chapin, 
James  Rees,  Henry  Aaron  Hills,  and  Henry  Abeel.  Jasper  Parish  and  Hora- 
tio Jones  were  present  as  interpreters.  The  names  of  fifty-tw^o  sachems, 
chiefs,  and  warriors  were  appended  to  the  deed  of  conveyance.  A  few  of 
them  are  here  given.  Koy-eng-giieh-teU,  alias  Young  King;  Koiv-u-ta-no, 
alias  Handsome  Lake;  Sat-ta-kan-gu-yase,  alias  Too  Skies  of  a  length;  On-a- 
ya-ivas,  alias  Farmer's  Brother;  Soo-goo-ya-ivaw-taw,  alias  Red  Jacket;  Gish- 
ka-ka,  alias  Little  Billy;  Ow-nea-sJiat-ai-kai,  alias  Tall  Chief;  On-nong-gaih- 
e-ko,  alias  Infant;  Koe-en-tivah-ka,  alias  Corn  Planter;  Qo-sau-kaw-new-daio- 
ki,  alias  Destroy  Town;  Soor-oo-wan,  alias  Pond  Nose;  She-gum-daugh-gue, 
alias  Little  Beard;  To-no-iuan-i-i/a,  alias  Capt.  BuUett;  Ah-gua-tie-ya,  alias 
Hot  Brand;  Haw-fua-nowe-wo-am,  by  Young  King;  Ka-on-ya-naug7i-gu,  alias 
John  Jemison.  Robert  Morris  signed  by  his  attorney,  Thomas  Morris,  and 
the  entire  transaction  was  certified  by  Jeremiah  Wadsworth  on  the  part  of 
the  United  States  and  William  Shepard  on  the  part  of  Massachsetts,  the 
preliminary  papers  having  been  approved  by  John  Hancock,  governor  of 
the  Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts. 

The  simplicity  of  the  Indian  character  had  a  fresh  illustration  in  the 
eagerness  with  which  they  desired  to  know  about  a  bank;  the  President  hav- 
ing directed  that  the  money  they  received  for  their  lands,  in  case  they  were 
sold,  should  be  invested  for  their  benefit  in  stock  of  the  "United  States 
Bank  "  in  the  name  of  the  President  and  his  successors  in  office  as  trustees 
of  the  Indians,  and  they  earnestly  inquired  "What  is  a  bank?"  It  was 
explained  to  them  so  that  they  came  to  understand  that  the  United  States 
Bank  at  Philadelphia  was  a  large  place  where  their  money  would  be  planted, 
and  where  it  would  grow,  like  corn  in  the  field.  They  were  also  made  to 
understand  that  the  dividends  from  it  might  be  greater  some  years  than 
others.  This  was  explained  by  referring  to  planting,  as  they  knew  from 
experience  that  some  years  they  would  have  from  the  same  ground  a  better 
crop  than  others.  After  this  when  speaking  to  Mr.  Morris  about  their 
money  they  would  inquire  "  What  kind  of  a  crojj  they  ivere  going  to  have  that 
year?''  They  were  also  interested  in  ascertaining  how  large  a  pile  the 
money  they  were  to  receive  would  make?  This  was  explained  by  telling 
them  how  many  kegs  of  a  certain  size  it  would  take  to  hold  it,  and  the  num- 
ber of  horses  it  would  take  to  draw  it. 

The  agreement  as  to  number  and  size  of  the  several  reservations  was 
reached  after  a  good  deal  of  debate  and  controversy.  Instead  of  moder- 
ate very  exorbitant  claims  were  presented,  growing  out  of  rivalry  between 
different  chiefs.  Their  comparative  importance  would  be  graduated  by  the 
size  of  their  domain,  and  the  number  of  people  they  would  thus  be  enabled 

54  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

to  have  about  them;  hence  they  were  individually  ambitious  of  not  being- 
outdone  in  the  size  of  their  reservations.  Red  Jacket  put  in  a  claim  to  about 
one-fourth  of  the  entire  tract  sold.  Cornplanter  wanted  about  the  same 
amount,  and  other  chiefs  were  ambitious  of  securing  extensive  reservations; 
and  they  wished  them  marked  out  by  natural  boundaries,  such  as  rivers, 
hills,  or  the  course  of  streams.  Mr.  Morris  gave  a  resolute  denial  to  these 
demands,  requiring  them  to  fix  upon  a  certain  number  of  square  miles,  which 
should  not  be  far  from  350  in  the  aggregate.  The  difficulty  of  settling  upon 
the  size  of  their  respective  aUotments  was  a  source  of  a  great  deal  of  per- 
plexity, and  finally  Mr.  Morris  was  requested  to  assume  the  office  of  arbiter 
and  decide  for  them,  which  he  accomplished  generally  to  their  satisfaction. 

In  this  account  of  the  treaty  of  Big  Tree,  1797,  I  have  drawn  largely 
from  J.  Niles  Hubbard's  "  Red  Jacket  and  his  People, "  and  have  been  favored 
by  Geo.  W.  Harding,  Esq.,  v/ith  access  to  valuable  papers,  which  he  some 
years  since  procured  and  collected  to  use  in  an  important  suit  involving  the 
title  to  certain  lands  upon  the  Caneadea  reservation.  For  various  reasons 
the  council  at  Big  Tree  was  one  of  the  most  notable  convocations  of  Indians 
ever  held,  and  in  point  of  numbers  was  largely  attended,  while  the  stand- 
ing and  influence  of  such  men  as  Red  Jacket.  Cornplanter,  Farmer's  Brother 
and  Little  Beard,  assigned  to  it  an  importance  second  to  none  of  the  memo- 
rable conferences  which  have  been  held  with  the  Indians  of  our  state  and 
immediate  vicinity.  And  then  the  result,  clearing  the  title  to  such  a  vast 
area  of  fertile  and  highly  desirable  land,  of  itself  alone  places  it  in  the  list  of 
important  treaties,  and  will,  it  is  trusted,  be  ample  reason  for  devoting  so 
much  space  to  it  in  this  history. 



AFTER  the  treaty  of  1797  had  been  concluded,  the  first  step,  preparatory 
to  bringing  the  lands  into  market,  was  the  running  of  boundarj^  lines, 
laying  out  the  several  reservations,  surveying  the  township  lines,  and  sub- 
dividing the  several  townships  into  lots,  and  the  work  was  prosecuted  in  the 
order  named.  The  Transit  Meridian,  or  eastern  boundary  line  of  the  Holland 
Company's  purchase,  was  run  in  the  summer  of  1798  by  Joseph  and  Ben- 
jamin Ellicott,  with  an  instrument  made  expressly  for  the  purpose  by  Ben- 
jamin Ellicott  and  the  famous  German  instrument  maker,  David  Rittenhouse, 
of  Philadeli:>hia,  to  which  place  Benjamin  repaired  for  that  purpose.  It  was 
a  large  and  cumbersome  affair,  and  I  believe  was  never  afterward  much 
employed.     It,  or  rather  such  parts  of  it  as  are  left,  is  now  in  the  rooms  of 

Early  Survey  and  Surveyors.  55 

the  Buffalo  Historical  Society,  where  it  was  placed  a  few  years  ago  by  the 
late  David  E.  E.  Mix,  of  Batavia;  a  very  wise  and  thoughtful  disposition  of 
an  interesting  historic  instrument.  The  strange  thing  about  it  is  that  so 
many  of  the  parts  should  disappear  !  There  must  have  been  quite  a  number 
in  this  surveying  party  of  the  EUicotts,  for  it  was  an  enterprise  which 
involved  considerable  work,  and  together  with  the  surveyors  and  their 
assistants  sent  out  upon  the  different  township  lines,  must  have  been  the 
cause  of  considerable  astonishment  on  the  part  of  the  natives.  Besides  the 
EUicotts,  the  names  of  thirteen  other  surveyors  are  given  by  Turner,  which 
list  includes  Augustus  Porter,  but  no  mention  is  made  of  Wm.  Peacock,  who 
surveyed  T.  6.  R.  1.  (Hume)  nor  Alexander  Rhea  who  surveyed  T.  5.  R.  1. 
(Caneadea.)  Some  idea  of  the  magnitude  of  these  operations  may  be  inferred 
from  the  fact  that  Mr.  Ellicott  "  contracted  with  Thomas  Morris,  to  deliver 
on  the  Genesee  river,  or  the  shore  of  Lake  Ontario  near  the  mouth  of  that 
river,  100  barrels  of  pork,  15  barrels  of  beef,  and  270  barrels  of  flour,  for  the 
supply  of  the  surveyors,  and  their  assistants  the  ensuing  season,"  and  at 
the  request  of  the  Agent  General,  made  a  list  of  articles  to  be  provided  for 
the  next  season's  campaign,  consisting  of  a  diversity  of  articles,  "from 
pack-horses  to  horse  shoes,  nails  and  gimlets,  from  tents  to  towels,  barley 
and  rice  to  chocolate,  coffee  and  tea,  and  from  camp  kettles  to  teacups,  esti- 
mated to  amount  to  $7,213.33."  "This  statement  however  did  not  include 
medicine  or  wine,  spirits,  loaf  sugar,  etc.,  for  headquarters."  He  also 
calculated  the  wages  of  surveyors  and  other  hands  for  the  next  six  months, 
at  $19,830.  Augustus  Porter  represented  the  interests  of  Mr.  Morris  in  the 
survey  and  establishment  of  the  boundary  lines.  Mr.  Ellicott  and  his  sur- 
veyors and  assistants  having  arrived  on  the  ground,  the  first  work  was  to 
establish  the  southeast  corner  of  the  Purchase.  The  Pennsylvania  line  was. 
accurately  measured  from  the  southwest  corner  of  Phelps  and  Gor ham's; 
purchase,  or  the  82d  milestone,  twelve  miles  west,  and  there  they  erected  a 
stone  monument  for  such  corner.  The  whole  company  was  then  divided 
into  parties  to  prosecute  the  undertaking  to  advantage.  The  principal 
surveyor,  Joseph  EUicott,  assisted  by  Benjamin  Ellicott,  one  other  surveyor, 
and  the  requisite  number  of  hands,  undertook  the  running  of  the  eastern 
boundary  line,  while  the  other  surveyors,  each  with  his  corps  of  assistants, 
were  detailed  to  run  the  different  township  lines. 

Thus  prepared  with  a  suitable  instrument,  Mr.  Ellicott  and  his  brother, 
with  their  party,  established  a  true  meridian  line  north  from  the  corner 
monument,  by  astronomical  observations  at  different  stations,  to  guard 
against  accidental  variations.  The  progress  in  running  this  line  was  slow; 
it  could  not  be  otherwise,  as  a  great  amount  of  labor  was  involved  in  clearing 
the  vista,  which  was  made  three  or  four  rods  wide  on  all  the  prominent 
elevations,  and  great  care  was  exercised  in  all  the  observations,  which  ren- 
dered anything  like  haste  an  experiment  too  hazardous  to  be  permitted. 
June  12th  the  party  on  this  line  had  advanced  so  far  north  that  they  estab- 
lished their  store  house  at  Williamsburg,  about  three  miles  south  of  Geneseo, 

56  History  of  Allegany  County.  N.  Y. 

to  which  place  they  had  poled  their  supplies  up  the  Genesee  river  in  flat 
boats.  On  the  22d  day  of  November  following,  eighty-one  and  one-half  miles 
of  the  line  was  established,  but  the  precise  date  of  its  completion  I  have  not 
been  able  to  ascertain.  This  line,  which  defined  the  west  bounds  of  the 
Church  Tract,  passed  through  the  Cottringer,  Ogden  and  Cragie  tracts 
about  two  miles  from  their  west  boundaries,  as  described  in  the  conveyances 
from  Robert  Morris.  However  as  their  titles  were  of  later  date  than  the 
conveyance  to  the  Holland  Company,  no  deviation  from  the  established 
meridian  was  made.  The  location  of  the  Ogden  and  Cottringer  tracts  being 
moved  two  miles  to  the  east,  the  other  tracts  were  reduced  in  area  by  the 
amount  lying  west  of  this  line.  In  the  same  year  (1798)  Augustus  Porter 
came  to  survey  the  boundary  lines  of  the  reservations  made  by  the  Indians 
at  the  treaty  of  1797.  His  notes  of  the  survey  of  the  Caneadea  reservation 
bear  date  Sept.  3,  1798.  George  Burgess  is  reported  to  have  been  with  the 
party  establishing  the  Transit  meridian,  but  could  not  have  been  with  them 
all  the  time  for  his  "Traverse  of  the  Genesee  river,  beginning  at  an  Elm  on 
the  Kananscraugas,  and  ending  at  the  Pennsylvania  line,"  is  dated  1798  and 
must  have  taken  considerable  time. 

"  September  7,  1810,  On  this  instant  commenced  surveying  the  land 
belonging  to  John  Barker  Church,  Esquire,  situated  in  the  county  of  Alle- 
gany, State  of  New  York.  Beginning  at  a  pine  stake  standing  on  the  Transit 
line,  and  marked  on  the  south  side  with  the  letters  John  B.  Church  "  were 
the  words  with  which  the  gallant  Major  Moses  Van  Campen  began  his  notes 
of  the  subdivision  of  the  Church  Tract.  The  business  was  of  course  prose- 
cuted with  dispatch  but  no  mention  is  made  of  the  date  of  completion. 
Probably  it  was  finished  in  1811.  This  was  a  very  important  work  as  it  pre- 
pared for  market  100,000  acres  in  the  heart  of  Allegany.  The  most  exhaus- 
tive inquiry  has  failed  to  reveal  the  names  of  his  assistants.  Tradition  says 
that  his  favorite  axeman  was  a  half-breed  Indian,  but  his  name  is  lost.  It  is 
said  however  that  he  was  a  remarkable  man  for  the  business.  Tall,  strong, 
of  quick  motion  and  quick  to  perceive,  he  knew  just  what  and  how  much  to 
cut,  and  was  a  valuable  helper.  Major  Van  Campen's  notes  are  in  possession 
of  Major  Richard  Church,  who  some  years  ago  offered  them  to  the  board  of 
supervisors,  if  they  would  preserve  them,  or  have  them  faithfully  copied. 
An  offer  which  the  board  for  some  reason  (it  can  hardly  be  said  reason  for 
there  is  no  reason  in  it)  refused  to  accept.  Major  Church  has  withdrawn 
his  offer,  but  it  is  hoped  he  may  yet  make  some  disposition  which  will  make 
them  available  to  the  public,  for  they  are  very  valuable,  and,  under  a  special 
act  of  the  Legislature  passed  a  few  years  ago,  they  may  be  authenticated 
and  certified  by  a  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  so  as  to  be  conclusive 
evidence  in  court. 

Elisha  Johnson's  Survey  of  the  Cottringer  Tract.  In  the  spring  of  1807 
Elisha  Johnson,  then  a  young  man,  came  with  his  ijarty  to  subdivide  the 
"Cottringer  Tract,"  then  lately  purchased  by  John  Greig  and  others,  and 
as  'all  the  northern  part  of  Granger  and  the  northeastern  part  of  the  town  of 

Early  Survey  and  Surveyors.  57 

Hume  is  included  ia  that  tract  it  is  but  fair  to  make  mention  of  it.  From 
Mr.  Johnson's  report  to  "John  Greig  and  gentlemen  concerned  in  the  pur- 
chase of  the  Cottringer  Tract  "  it  appears  that  his  first  work  was  to  re-sur- 
vey, and  establish  the  boundary  lines,  which  for  a  part  of  the  way  were  not 
sufficiently  distinct,  and  for  the  purpose  of  settling  the  matter  of  an  encroach- 
ment on  the  part  of  the  Church  Tract  adjoining  it  on  the  south.  In  his 
preliminary  remarks  Mr.  Johnson  mentions  a  road  from  "  Mt.  Morris  to 
Caniodea  (another  spelling  for  Caneadea)  where  wagons  pass,  but  the  road  is 
very  crooked  and  otherwise  wants  improvement."  Regarding  the  advan- 
tages oifered  for  settlement,  he  says:  "The  last  season  (1806)  there  was  a 
sawmill  erected  on  the  Wiscoy  Creek,  about  three  miles  from  its  junction 
with  the  Genesee  river,  and  is  now  in  operation,  and  are  there  making  pro- 
vision for  putting  a  gristmill  in  operation  next  season,  which  will  accommo- 
date the  south  part  of  the  tract. "  The  strange  thing  about  this  is  that  no 
sawmill  was  built  there  until  1828,  and  the  gristmill  was  put  up  in  1829. 
Was  Mr.  Johnson  wrongly  informed,  or  was  this  an  advertising  scheme  to 
induce  people  to  settle '? 

As  to  health,  etc,,  I  will  quote  Mr.  Johnson,  verbatim  et  literathn  et 
capitalatim  (Mr.  J.  was  profuse  in  the  use  of  capitals):  "As  the  altitude. 
Purity  of  the  Air,  Sweet  Softness  of  the  water,  are  the  Governing  influences 
as  it  Relates  to  Health,  incline  me  to  conclude  that  this  tract  is  healthy  ex- 
cept the  Valley  along  the  Genesee  River,  which  is  known  and  considered  as 
producing  many  diseases,  which  must  be  attributed  to  the  water  of  the 
river,  and  the  Depth  of  the  Valley,  being  such,  that  the  Rays  of  the  Sun, 
act  very  Powerful  on  the  flats  and  water,  which  necessarily  produce  copious 
exhalations,  and  the  Air  becoming  so  rarified  The  dew  coming  on  at  an 
Hours  Sun,  so  that  Herbage  on  the  flats  is  very  wet  with  dew  at  Sunset, 
while  on  the  Hills  it  remains  dry.  Fogs  here  are  common  in  the  warm 
season,  at  Night  and  Morning.  Some  Peculiar  Property  Exists  in  the 
Valley,  that  Causes  many  of  the  Natives  and  White  inhabitants  to  have 
Swelled  throats.  I  think  However,  when  the  land  is  more  Cleared,  which 
will  cause  a  inore  free  circulation  of  Air,  some  of  the  stagnant  waters 
drained,  and  having  the  flats  present  fields  of  Grass  in  Place  of  the  Present 
Luxuriant  Growth  of  Natural  Vegetation,  these  Complaints  will  not  be  so 
common."  Mr.  Johnson  makes  mention  of  there  being  "  Seven  Families  of 
Indians,  who  Improved  forty  acres  of  the  open  Flats,  and  had  enclosed  the 
residue."  This  was  at  the  lower  Caneadea  village.  He  speaks  of  a  number 
of  squatters,  who  had  preceded  him,  as  N.  Dixon  on  lot  108  and  James  Smith 
on  lot  113,  and  says,  "  It  being  requested  of  me  to  apprize  their  Betterments, 
I  have  considered  their  Value  to  a  Purchaser,  and  not  the  Value  of  the  Ex- 
pense. It  will  probably  be  your  duty,  if  they  are  worth  the  sums  apprized 
to  as  to  purchasers,  to  cause  the  monies  paid  to  the  different  Possessors,  if 
they  do  not  purchase  themselves.  But  I  should  not  think  it  a  duty  in- 
cumbent on  you,  to  suffer  many  of  these  inhabitants,  if  any,  to  remain  in 
their  respective  possessions,  after  the  Lands  are  offered  for  sale,  if  they  do 

58  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

not  purchase,  as  it  would  iiaturciUy  impede  the  settling  of  these  lands  by 
enterprising  men;  they  very  naturally  not  wishing  to  associate  with  such 
neighbors,  and  the  prospect  of  good  society,  schools,  etc.,  would  wear  an 
unfavorable  aspect.  Relating  to  his  search  of  minerals,  etc..  he  says:  "And 
also  could  not  find  any  of  the  Lime,  Granite,  Free  or  Grit  Rock,  but  was  in- 
formed that  there  was  an  excellent  quarry  of  Grit  Stone  on  the  '  Caneodeo  ' 
(another  rendering)  Reservation,  of  which  I  saw  specimens,  and  makes  ex- 
cellent Grind  Stones,  and  used  by  the  inhabitants  of  this  part  of  the  country, " 
which  was  somewhat  erroneous;  the  quarry  was  without  doubt  on  the 
Caneadea  Creek  quite  a  distance  south  of  the  reservation. 

The  reader  I  am  sure  will  pardon  me  for  making  just  a  little  invasion  of 
the  town  of  Genesee  Falls,  which  for  years  was  a  part  of  Allegany,  to  quote 
an  interesting  historical  fact  not  very  generally  known.  Quoting  still  from 
Mr.  Johnson's  report,  "It  is  known  to  you  Probable,  that  this  Tract  is 
Nondon  Tract;  or  so  called  by  the  Inhabitants  Living  in  its  Neighborhood. 
This  was  the  ancient  Indian  Name  for  a  Large  Village  of  Indians  that  Lived 
during  the  last  war  (the  Revolution)  in  lots  105  and  107,  it  being  a  place 
where  many  of  the  American  Captives  were  Taken.  On  lot  107  is  a  Small 
Hill  which  presents  an  Ancient  fortification,  by  whom  or  when  done  is  not 
known  to  the  oldest  Indians  on  the  tract."  This  is  what  is  known  as  "Fort 
Hill ' '  on  the  Dunn  and  Mills  place.  No  traverse  of  the  river  is  found  or  even 
alluded  to  in  Mr.  Johnson's  notes. 

The  allotment  of  Alfred  was  made  in  1795  by  one  John  Smith  in  the  em- 
ploy it  is  presumed  of  Phelps  and  Gorham,  and  it  is  doubtful  if  the  sub- 
division of  any  other  town  in  our  county  preceded  it.  Moses  Van  Campen 
subdivided  Independence  in  1815.  The  Patterson  Tract,  part  of  townships 
one  and  two,  range  two  Morris  Reserve,  was  surveyed  by  Van  Campen  in 
1817.  In  1818  he  surveyed  the  Cazenove  Tract  (West  Almond).  The  Bond 
Tract  (Ward),  was  subdivided  in  1822  by  Daniel  McHenry,  and  the  Willing 
and  Francis  Tract,  comprising  Willing,  part  of  Wellsville  and  part  of  Ando- 
ver,  was  surveyed  into  lots  by  John  M.  Wilson  in  1823.  In  1825  L.  G 
Shepard*  subdivided  the  Dickey  Tract  in  Grove. 

After  the  subdivisions  were  made  and  the  lands  came  to  be  sold,  the 
services  of  the  surveyor  were  in  frequent  demand,  and  this  was  met  by 
local  talent  in  almost  every  neighborhood;  indeed  surveyors  sprang  up  as  if 
by  magic,  some  good  ones,  others  not  so  good,  a  few,  perhaps,  adventurers 
and  charlatans.  Their  work,  compared  with  that  the  surveyors  of  the 
present  day  have  to  perform,  might  be  said,  to  use  a  modern  (?)  colloquialism 
to  be  a  "pic-nic."  The  lines  they  had  to  follow  were  freshly  marked,  the 
corners  (or  at  least  the  "corner  trees"),  still  standing,  the  facilities  were 
good,  and  the  work  was  rapidly  done.  The  pioneer  surveyor's  equipment 
was  generally  very  plain,  a  light  open-sighted  compass,  in  some  instances 
with  no  levels  upon  the  plate,  in  others  with  but  one.     In  a  few  instances 

*An  extended  notice  of  the  subdivision  of  the  Caneadea  Indian  Reservation  by  Joseph  Jones,  the  Quaker 
surveyor,  is  made  in  the  history  of  Hume. 

Early  Survey  and  Surveyors.  59 

two  levels  were  attached.  It  is  averred  that  one  of  the  early  Southern  Alle- 
gany surveyors,  used  a  compass  the  graduations  of  which  were  made  on  a 
circle  described  on  a  sole-leather  face,  and  a  surveyor  in  the  northwestern 
part  of  the  county,  from  his  using  a  compass  some  part  of  which  was  made 
of  wood,  was  commonly  called  "  the  wooden  compass  surveyor." 

In  looking  over  the  records  in  the  different  town  clerks'  offices  one 
frequently  stumbles  upon  crude  and  elastic  descriptions.  "  Beginning  at  a 
pine  stump  from  a  quarter  to  a  half  mile  distant  from  the  red  tavern,"  is  the 
way  a  certain  road  survey  in  Hume  commences;  an  important  road  too! 
Many  such  descriptions  are  to  be  found.  The  compasses  were  all  used  upon 
a  Jacob-staff,  which  made  a  good  stout  cane  for  the  surveyor  when  going 
from  one  station  to  another,  and  the  chains,  (the  best  they  had)  were  made 
of  coarse  iron  wire.  But  the  pioneer  surveyor  did  his  work  as  he  must. 
He  ran  his  lines,  stuck  his  stakes,  established  his  corners,  and — died;  and 
while  his  body  returned  to  the  dust  from  whence  it  came,  and  his  spirit  to 
God  who  gave  it,  his  stakes  rotted  away,  his  corners  disappeared,  and,  now, 
in  most  instances,  the  blazed  trees  which  marked  his  lines  are  gone,  and  the 
surveyor  of  to-day  is  frequently  caUed  upon  to  retrace  and  restore  those 
lines  and  re-establish  those  corners.  This,  all  things  considered,  is  the 
most  difficult  task  in  the  whole  practice  of  surveying. 

Here  are  the  names  of  a  few  of  the  many  surveyors  of  pioneer  days. 
Joseph  and  Benjamin  Ellicott,  Augustus  Porter,  George  Burgess,  Moses 
Van  Campen,  Elisha  Johnson,  William  Peacock,  Joseph  Jones,  John  Smith, 
Daniel  McHenry,  John  M.  Wilson,  and  L.  G.  Shepard  were  all  employed 
upon  tract,  township  or  subdivision  work,  as  were  others  whose  names  I  do 
not  know.  Then  came  Nicholas  Van  Wiclde,  Samuel  Van  Wickle,  Alvin 
Burr.  James  Reed,  Jonathan  Rogers,  Samuel  Jones,  Samuel  Liver  more, 
Asa  Morse.  Simeon  Capron.  Christopher  Hurlbut,  Samuel  White.  Russell 
Burlingame,  Wait  Arnold,  Asa  Lee  Davidson,  Henry  W.  Tracy,  Hiram 
Draper,  Wittel  Larabee,  Charles  Collins,  James  P.  Rounsville,  Henry  C. 
Jones,  Seth  Wetmore,  and — ,  but  the  list  must  close,  with  many  more  un- 
named than  named.     Peace  to  their  ashes! 



ROBERT  MORRIS,  at  one  time  the  proprietor  of  all  of  Western  New  York 
west  of  Phelps'  andGorham's  Purchase,  thus  becoming  identified  with 
the  territory  of  Allegany  county,  and  the  source  of  all  its  land  titles,  was  a 
prominent  figure,  and  potential  character,  during  the  Revolutionary  period. 
He  was  born  in  Lancashire,  England,  January  20,  1734.     In  1745  his  father 

60  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

emigrated  to  America,  settling  at  Port  Tobacco  in  Maryland,  where  he  en- 
gaged quite  extensively  in  the  tobacco  trade.  He  met  his  death  in  a  very 
singular  manner,  while  Robert  was  yet  a  youth.  A  ship  from  some  foreign 
port  was  consigned  to  him.  The  custom  then  was  to  fire  a  gun  when  the 
consignee  came  on  board.  Mr.  Morris  had  a  presentiment  that  the  cere- 
mony might  prove  fatal  to  him,  and  requested  that  it  be  dispensed  with,  and 
the  captain  so  ordered,  but  a  sailor,  desiring  to  honor  Mr.  Morris  and  sup- 
posing the  omission  accidental,  seized  a  match  and  fired  the  gun  as  Mr.  Mor- 
ris was  leaving  the  ship.  A  portion  of  the  wadding  fractured  his  arm, 
mortification  ensued  and  death  resulted. 

When  Robert  Morris  was  thirteen  he  was  placed  in  the  counting  house 
of  Charles  Willing,  a  leading  merchant  of  Philadelphia,  and  by  1754  showed 
so  much  proficiency  in  mercantile  afl:airs  as  to  recommend  him  to  a  partner- 
ship with  a  son  of  his  employer.  This  firm  continued  in  business  until  1793, 
and  at  the  beginning  of  the  Revolution  was  the  largest  commercial  house  in 
Philadelphia,  and  when  the  first  difficulties  occurred  between  the  colonies 
and  the  mother  country,  although  he  was  to  be  seriously  affecced  thereby, 
he  was  one  of  the  i^atriotic  merchants  of  Philadelphia  who  signed  the  non- 
importation agreement,  which  restricted  commercial  intercourse  with  Great 
Britain  to  the  bare  necessaries  of  life.  He  also  opposed  the  stamp  act.  He 
was  elected  a  delegate  to  the  Congress  of  1775,  and  served  on  the  military 
and  naval  committees.  On  July  1,  1776,  his  vote  was  recorded  against  the 
Declaration  of  Independence,  and  on  the  4th  he  declined  to  vote  at  all,  assign- 
ing as  a  reason  that  it  was  premature  and  inappropriate  but  the  measure 
having  been  adopted  he  signed  it.  When  the  news  of  the  battle  of  Lexing- 
ton reached  Philadelphia,  it  found  him  j^residing  at  a  dinner  on  the  anniver- 
sary of  St.  George.  He  joined  with  a  majority  of  the  company  in  putting  a 
sudden  stop  to  the  celebration  in  honor  of  an  English  saint,  and  helped  to 
upset  the  tables  that  had  been  spread.  A  few  days  after  the  battle  of  Tren- 
ton it  became  a  matter  of  great  importance  and  no  little  concern  to  the  com- 
mander-in-chief to  obtain  a  sufficient  sum  of  money  in  specie  to  use  in  keep- 
ing himself  well  advised  as  to  the  movements  of  the  enemy.  Applying  to 
Mr.  Morris  for  that  purpose  he  received  this  answer: 

Philadelphia,  Dec.  30,  1776. 
Sir, — I  have  just  received  your  favor  of  to-day,  and  sent  to  Gen.  Putnam  to  detain  the 
express  until  I  collected  the  hard  money  for  you,  which  you  may  depend  shall  be  sent  in  one 
specie  or  other,  with  this  letter  and  a  list  thereof  shall  be  enclosed  herein.  I  had  long  since 
parted  with  considerable  sums  of  hard  money  to  Congress,  and  therefore  must  collect  from 
others,  and,  as  matters  now  stand,  it  is  no  very  easy  thing.  I  mean  to  borrow  silver  and  prom- 
ise payment  in  gold,  and  then  collect  the  gold  the  best  way  I  can.  Whilst  on  this  subject,  let 
me  inform  you  that  there  is  upwards  of  twenty  thousand  dollars  of  silver  at  Ticonderoga. 
They  have  no  particular  use  for  it,  and  I  think  you  might  as  well  send  a  party  to  bring  it  away, 
and  lodge  it  in  some  safe  place  convenient  for  any  purpose  for  which  it  may  hereafter  be  wanted. 
Whatever  I  can  do  shall  be  done  for  the  good  of  the  cause. 

I  am,  Sir,  yours,  etc., 

Robert  Morris. 

Robert  Morris.  61 

When  in  December,  1777,  Washington  had  for  the  second  time  recrossed 
the  Delaware,  the  time  of  service  of  nearly  aU  the  eastern  troops  had  expired. 
To  induce  them  to  engage  for  another  six  weeks  he  offered  a  bounty  of  ten 
dollars  each  and  applied  to  Mr.  Morris:  for  the  funds.  The  money  was 
forthcoming,  and  accompanied  with  a  letter  in  which  he  congratulated  the 
commander-in-chief  upon  his  success  in  retaining  the  men,  and  assured  him 
that  "if  farther  occasional  supplies  of  money  are  w^anted,  you  may  depend 
upon  my  exertions  either  in  a  public  or  private  capacity. ' ' 

With  Benjamin  Franklin  and  others  Mr.  Morris  was  in  March,  1777. 
chosen  to  represent  the  assembly  of  Pennsylvania  in  Congress;  and  the  next 
November  was  associated  with  Mr.  Gerry  and  Mr.  Jones  as  a  commission 
to  repair  to  the  army  for  a  confidential  consultation  with  the  commander-in- 
chief  upon  the  best  plan  for  the  conduct  of  the  winter  campaign.  In  August, 
1778,  he  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  standing  committee  on  finance. 
The  years  1778-79  were  the  most  distressing  time  of  the  war,  and  in  the 
attending  emergencies,  Mr.  Morris  not  only  advanced  his  money  freely,  but 
he  also  put  in  requisition  an  almost  unlimited  credit.  During  a  period  of 
nearly  hopeless  despair,  Mr.  Morris  in  addition  to  money  and  credit  fur- 
nished several  thousand  barrels  of  Hour  to  the  famishing  armies.  This  aid 
came  very  timely,  as  it  was  being  seriously  contemplated  to  authorize  the 
seizure  of  provisions  wherever  found,  a  measure  which  would  have  been 
unpopular  with  aU  sections  of  the  country  and  might  have  turned  the  tide 
of  popular  feeling,  then  flowing  so  strongly  in  favor  of  the  Revolution.  The 
public  records  show  many  transactions  similar  to  those  just  related.  Gen- 
erals of  divisions  as  well  as  the  commander-in-chief  turned  to  Mr.  Morris 
as  a  last  resort  when  money  and  provisions  were  wanted.  To  his  large  pri- 
vate means  and  credit  were  added  financial  abilities  of  the  highest  order, 
and  when  no  other  resource  seemed  available  he  would  fairly  compel  others 
to  use  money  and  credit  for  the  colonial  cause. 

With  him  in  financial  negotiations  to  will  a  thing  was  to  do  it.  So  he 
was  appointed  by  the  Continental  Congress  "Financier,"  or  what  we  now 
term  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  and  perhaps  in  no  country  was  ever  a 
finance  minister  placed  in  charge  of  a  treasury  whose  condition  was  w^orse. 
Not  a  dollar  in  it,  and  a  debt  of  $2,500,000  staring  him  in  the  face.  To  this 
duty  of  financiering  for  Congress  and  the  country  and  its  cause  was  Mr. 
Morris  caUed  in  such  a  terrible  serious  crisis.  When  apprised  of  his 
appointment  to  this  important  office  he  said:  "In  accepting  this  office  I 
sacrifice  much  of  my  interest,  my  ease,  my  domestic  enjoyment,  and  inter- 
nal tranquillity.  If  I  know  my  own  heart,  I  make  these  sacrifices  with  a  dis- 
interested view  to  the  service  of  my  country.  I  am  willing  to  go  further. 
The  United  States  may  command  anything  I  have  except  my  integrity, 
and  the  loss  of  that  would  disable  me  from  serving  them  more." 

He  began  his  official  career  by  establishing  confidence  and  restoring 
credit.  Among  the  financial  expedients  to  which  he  resorted  was  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  Bank  of  North  America.     Bonds  signed  by  wealthy  Individ- 

62  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

uals  were  given  as  collateral  security  for  the  performance  of  the  engage- 
ments of  the  institution,  and  he  headed  the  list  with  a  subscription  of  £10,- 
000.  At  a  time  of  the  gloomiest  depression  Mr.  Morris  interviewed  Gen. 
"Washington.  The  subject  of  an  attack  on  New  York  was  broached.  To  this 
Mr.  Morris  dissented,  claiming  that  it  would  be  too  great  a  sacrifice  of  men 
and  money,  that  its  success  was  quite  doubtful,  that  even  if  successfvil  it 
would  be  barren  of  results  as  the  enemy  having  command  of  the  sea  could 
again  land  fresh  troops  and  retake  it.  Conceding  these  objections  Washing- 
ton said:  "What  am  I  to  do?  The  country  calls  for  action,  and  moreover 
the  army  cannot  be  kept  together  unless  some  bold  enterprise  is  undertaken. " 
Mr.  Morris  replied,  "Why  not  lead  your  forces  to  Yorktown?  there  Corn- 
wallis  may  be  hemmed  in  by  the  French  fleet  by  sea,  and  the  American  and 
French  armies  by  land,  and  will  ultimately  be  compelled  to  surrender?  " 
"Lead  my  troops  to  Yorktown  !  "  said  Washington,  appearing  surprised  at 
the  suggestion.  "And  how  am  I  to  get  them  there?  One  of  my  difficulties  about 
attacking  New  York  arises  from  want  of  funds  to  transport  them  thither; 
how  then  can  I  muster  the  means  required  to  enable  them  to  march  to 
Yorktown?  "  "  You  must  look  to  me  for  funds, "  rejoined  Mr.  Morris.  "  And 
how  are  you  to  provide  for  them?"  said  Washington.  "That"  said  Mr. 
Morris  "  I  am  unable  at  this  time  to  tell  you,  but  I  will  answer  with  my  head 
that  if  you  will  put  your  army  in  motion  I  will  supply  the  means  of  their 
reaching  Yorktown."  After  a  few  moments  reflection  Washington  said: 
"On  this  assurance  of  yours,  such  is  my  confidence  in  your  ability  to  per- 
form any  engagement  you  make,  I  will  adopt  your  suggestion." 

The  army  soon  arrived  at  Philadelphia,  and  Mr.  Morris  experienced 
considerable  difficulty  in  furnishing  the  promised  supplies.  At  last  he  hit 
upon  the  idea  of  borrowing  twenty  thousand  crowns  from  Chevalier  de 
Luzern,  the  French  minister.  The  Chevalier  objected  that  he  had  only 
funds  enough  to  pay  the  French  troops,  and  could  not  comply  unless  two 
expected  vessels  loaded  with  specie  arrived  from  France.  About  the  time 
the  troops  were  at  Elk,  preparing  to  march  on  Yorktown,  the  ships  arrived, 
the  money  was  received  and  especial  pains  taken  to  parade  the  specie  in  open 
kegs  before  the  army.  The  men  were  at  once  paid  and  cheerfully 
embarked  on  the  expedition  which  resulted  in  the  crowning  triumph  of  the 

John  Hancock  in  one  of  his  letters  to  Mr.  Morris  during  a  severe  crisis 
says:  "I  know  however  you  will  put  things  in  a  proper  way;  all  things 
depend  upon  you,  and  you  have  my  hearty  thanks  for  your  unremitting 
labor."  Gen.  Charles  Lee,  in  a  letter  addressed  to  Mr.  Morris  when  he 
assumed  the  duties  of  secretary  of  an  empty  treasury,  wrote  "  It  is  an  office 
I  can  not  wish  you  joy  of;  the  labor  is  more  than- herculean;  the  filth  of  that 
Augean  stable  is  in  my  opinion  too  great  to  be  cleared  away,  even  by  your 
skill  and  industry."  Paul  Jones  appointed  Mr.  Morris  his  executor,  and  as 
a  token  of  his  high  esteem  bequeathed  to  him  the  sword  he  had  received 
from  the  king  of  France.     Mr.  Morris  presented  it  to  Commodore  Barry, 

Robert  Morris.  "  63 

with  a  request  that  it  should  fah  successively  into  the  hands  of  the  oldest 
commodore  of  the  American  navy. 

In  a  book  of  travels  written  by  the  Marquis  de  Chastellux,  who  was  in 
the  United  States  from  1780  to  1782,  a  major  general  of  the  French  army 
serving  under  the  Count  de  Rochambeau.  he  writes  of  Mr.  Morris,  after 
visiting  him  at  his  home  in  Philadelphia,  "He  was  a  very  rich  merchant  and 
consequently  a  man  of  every  country,  for  commerce  bears  everywhere  the 
same  character.  Under  monarchies  it  is  free;  it  is  an  egotist  in  republics; 
a  stranger,  or,  if  you  will,  a  citizen  of  the  universe  it  excludes  alike  the  virtues 
and  the  prejudices  that  stand  in  the  way  of  its  interests.  It  is  scarcely  to 
be  credited  that  amidst  the  disasters  of  America  Mr.  Morris,  the  inhabitant 
of  a  town  just  emancipated  from  the  hands  of  the  English,  should  possess  a 
fortune  of  $8,000,000.  It  is  however  in  the  most  critical  times  that  the 
greatest  fortunes  are  acquired.  The  fortunate  return  of  several  ships,  the 
still  more  successful  cruises  of  his  privateers  have  increased  his  riches 
beyond  his  expectations  if  not  beyond  his  wishes.  He  is  in  fact  so  accus- 
tomed to  the  success  of  his  privateers  that  when  he  is  observed  on  Sunday 
to  be  more  serious  than  usual  the  conclusion  is  that  no  prize  has  arrived  the 
preceding  week.  *  *  *  Mr.  Morris  is  a  large  man,  very  simple  in  his 
manners;  his  mind  is  subtle  and  acute,  his  head  perfectly  well-organized,  and 
he  is  as  well  versed  in  public  affairs  as  in  his  own.  *  *  *  He  lives  with- 
out ostentation  but  not  without  expense,  for  he  spares  nothing  which  can 
contribute  to  his  happiness  and  that  of  Mrs.  Morris  to  whom  he  is  much 
attached."  Quite  likely  this  account  of  the  wealth  of  Mr.  Morris,  is  not 
exaggerated.  The  translator  of  a  London  edition  of  the  above  work  speaks 
of  the  great  money-making  facilities  which  Mr.  Morris  enjoyed,  his  relations 
being  such  as  to  enable  him  to  obtain  special  permits  to  ship  cargoes  of  flour, 
etc.,  in  a  time  of  general  embargoes.  At  one  period,  says  the  translator,  he 
circulated  his  private  notes  throughout  the  country  as  cash.  So  the  close  of 
the  Revolution  must  have  left  him  in  the  possession  of  wealth  far  exceeding 
that  of  any  other  citizen  of  the  new  republic. 

With  the  return  of  peace  the  energies  of  the  i^eople  were  directed  into 
other  channels.  The  somewhat  congested  population  along  the  seaboard 
became  restive  and  sought  opportunities  for  exj)ansion.  This  led  to  the 
appropriation  of  lands  farther  inland,  and  the  development  of  the  interior 
regions.  Mr.  Morris  was  quick  to  perceive  the  possibilities  of  the  situation, 
and  turned  his  attention  to  land  speculation  and  soon  became  the  largest 
individual  land  holder  in  America.  He  had  great  credit,  not  in  the  least 
impaired  by  the  business  of  the  Revolution.  He  borrowed  money  to  replace 
funds  he  had  borrowed  during  the  war,  sometimes  in  large  sums,  and  offer- 
ing and  giving  security  on  his  city  property  and  immense  estates.  A  reac- 
tion soon  followed  this,  what  in  our  days  would  be  called  "  boom,"  and  when 
it  came  it  found  Mr.  Morris  possessed  of  an  immense  landed  estate  and 
largely  in  debt  for  the  purchase  money.  Reverse  followed  reverse  in  quick 
succession,   and   Mr.    Morris  was  swept   from   opulence   to   poverty,  and 

64  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

merciless  creditors  made  him  for  a  long  time  the  tenant  of  a  prison.  It  has 
been  supposed  by  some  that  his  reverses  were  owing  in  part  at  least  to  large 
advances  he  made  the  young  republic.  His  son,  Thomas,  however  is  author- 
ity for  this  statement:  "My  father's  j^ecuniary  losses  were  not  owing  to 
his  public  engagements  in  the  war  of  Independence.  Heavy  as  those  engage- 
ments were,  the  last  years  of  the  war  having  been  supported  almost  entirely 
by  his  advances  and  by  his  credits,  he  was  eventually  reimbursed  by  the 
public. ' '  It  was  very  saddening  to  those  who  were  enjoying  the  fruitage  of 
his  labors,  and  sharing  in  the  blessings  they  received  as  the  direct  result  of 
his  wonderful  financiering,  that  his  last  years  should  be  clouded  with  adver- 
sity, even  to  the  darkness  of  abject  penury,  so  plainly  intimated  in  this 
extract  from  a  letter  to  the  late  Benjamin  Barton: 

You  have  now  the  clearest  information  I  can  give  you.  I  have  been  frequently  applied  to  about  this 
affair,  but  hope  there  is  an  end  of  it.  If  however  you  should  find  it  necessary  to  write  again,  be  good  enough 
to  pay  the  postage  of  your  letters  for  I  have  not  a  cent  to  spare  from  the  means  of  subsistence. 

I  am  sir,  Your  very  obt  serv't, 

Robert  Morris. 

Mr.  Morris  died  at  Morrisania,  N.  J.,  Nov.  6,  1806.     His  name  and  public 

services  will  be  long  and  gratefully  I'emembered. 



FOR  ten  or  twelve  years  subsequent  to  1772  the  territory  included  within 
the  present  boundaries  of  Allegany  county,  formed  a  part  of  Tryon 
county,  which  was  that  year  erected  out  of  Albany  county,  and  was  made 
to  comprise  all  the  country  in  the  state  of  New  York  west  of  a  north  and 
south  line  extending  from  St.  Regis  to  the  west  bounds  of  the  township  of 
Schenectady;  thence  running  irregularly  southwest,  to  the  head  of  the  Mo- 
hawk branch  of  the  Delaware  river,  and  along  this  stream  to  the  southeast 
corner  of  the  present  county  of  Broome,  thence  in  a  northwesterly  direction 
to  Fort  Bull  on  Wood  Creek,  near  the  present  city  of  Rome,  all  west  of  the 
last  mentioned  line  being  then  Indian  territory.  In  1784  this  same  territory 
took  the  name  of  Montgomery,  and  five  years  later  (1789)  all  of  the  state 
west  of  Phelps  and  Gorham's  pre-emption  line  was  set  off  as  Ontario.  In 
1796  Steuben  was  erected  from  Ontario,  to  consist  of  all  of  the  Phelps  and 
Gorham  Purchase  south  of  the  parallel  of  latitude  which  now  bounds  most 
of  that  county  on  the  north,  including  therefore  the  township  which  now 
form  the  eastern  range  of  towns  of  Allegany  county. 

Genesee  county  was  formed  from  the  portion  of  New  York  bounded  on 
the  east  by  the  Genesee  river  from  its  mouth  to  the  mouth  of  Canaseraga 

Boundaries  of  Allegany  County. 



S  HO  W/N<^ 

r  H  L 


INTO    WH/CH   ITS  T E-Fi-Fi.lTaR.Y    WAS   OIVIOEDy 
PR.IOR    TO    ITS 


wroM/fv^   County. 







.SI  Oil.  SpfL/r>/<f 

Ll"^  If^qsTON 










Q  F      F'eLNfNSVLVAh^/lA. 

66  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

creek,  and  from  thence  by  a  line  running  south  to  the  Pennsylvania  line. 
This  last-mentioned  line  at  the  same  time  marked  the  western  boundary  of 
the  Phelps  and  Gorham  Purchase  of  Steuben  county  as  originally  defined, 
and  today  is  the  western  boundary  of  the  towns  of  Burns.  Alfred,  Almond, 
Andover  and  Independence.  The  act  erecting  the  county  of  Genesee  w^as 
passed  March  30,  1802.  Its  name  was  singularly  appropriate,  comprising 
as  it  does  so  large  a  part  of  the  widely  and  favorably  known  "Genesee 
County."  then  "far  west." 

An  immense  tide  of  immigration  about  this  time  flowing  hitherward 
from  the  east,  it  was  not  long  before  projects  for  other  new  counties  were 
put  on  foot.  In  1806  numerous  petitions  were  presented  to  the  Legislature 
asking  for  the  formation  of  Allegany,  Cattaraugus  and  Niagara  counties 
from  the  southern  and  western  parts  of  Genesee.  These  petitions  were  ex- 
tensively circulated,  and  received  the  signatures  of  some  750  citizens  of  the 
territory  to  be  affected  by  the  proposed  legislation,  including  the  Ellicotts 
and  many  other  leading  men  of  the  western  part  of  the  state.  It  seems  the 
Legislature  heeded  the  prayer  of  the  petitioners,  for  on  the  7th  of  April, 
1806,  an  act  was  passed  creating  the  new  county  of  Allegany,  and  James  W. 
Stevens,  Philip  Church,  and  William  Rumsey  were  named  in  conformity 
with  the  prayer  of  those  petitioning  as  Commissioners  to  locate  the  site  for 
the  county  buildings.  The  northern  boundary  of  the  county  thus  formed  is 
the  same  parallel  of  latitude  that  now  forms  the  north  line  of  the  greater 
part  of  Steuben  county,  and  included  the  towns  of  Eagle,  Pike,  and  Genesee 
Falls  in  the  present  Wyoming  county,  and  Portage,  Nunda  and  Ossian  in 
Livingston  county  as  now  defined,  the  first  five  set  off  in  1846,  and  Ossian 
in  1856.  To  gratify  the  curiosity  of  close  students  of  early  local  history, 
it  is  thought  best  to  quote  quite  freely  from  the  Act. 

CHAPTER   CLXII.    OF    THE    LAWS    OF   NEW    YORK    FOR    1806. 

An  act  to  erect  part  of  the  county  of  Genesee  into  a  separate  county  by  the  name  of  Alle- 
gany :  Be  it  enacted  by  the  people  of  the  state  of  New  York  represented  in  Senate  and 
Assembly,  that  all  parts  of  the  county  of  Genesee,  beginning  at  the  southeast  corner  of  said 
county  and  running  thence  northerly  forty-two  miles  along  the  western  boundary  of  Steuben 
and  Ontario  counties,  thence  westerly  thirty-eight  miles,  along  the  dividing  lines  of  townships 
numbered  seven  and  eight,  to  the  northwest  corner  of  township  number  seven  in  the  fifth  range 
of  the  Holland  Land  Company's  land,  thence  southerly  forty-two  miles  along  the  western  boun- 
dary of  the  7th,  6th,  5th,  4th,  3d,  2d,  and  ist  townships  of  the  fifth  range  of  the  Holland  Land 
Company's  land  to  the  Pennsylvania  line,  thence  easterly  thirty-eight  miles  along  the  Pennsyl- 
vania line  to  the  place  of  beginning,  shall  be,  and  hereby  is  erected  into  a  separate  county,  and 
shall  be  called  and  known  by  the  name  of  Allegany. 

The  organization  of  the  county  government  was  deferred  for  one  year, 
and  it  was  provided  that  courts  should  be  held  at  specified  times  (the  first 
on  the  2d  of  June  in  the  next  year).     Continuing  the  Act  says: 

And  be  it  enacted  that  the  Courts  of  Common  Pleas  and  General  Sessions  of  the  Peace,  be 
holden  at  any  convenient  house  in  the  village  of  Angelica,  which  may  be  appointed  by  the 
Sheriff  of  Allegany  for  that  purpose,  and  that  the  prisoners  of  the  county  of  Allegany  be  con- 
fined in  the  gaol  of  the  county  of  Genesee  until  further  legislative  aid  in  the  premises.     The 

Boundaries  of  Allegany  County 


A   L  LE  qA  NY . 

AS,     <Z    R.  E.  AT  ^  O 
By     ACT     O  F    T  H  E.    L  Eq  I  S  L.AT  U  KC. 

Q       E.        N 

s     ^    s     County. 


J  NO.  S.A^/NAR,D    Pe-t- 

68  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

inspectors  of  elections  in  the  several  towns  in  the  county  of  Allegany,  sh-ill  return  the  votes 
taken  at  any  election  for  governor,  lieutenant-governor,  senators,  members  of  assembly  and 
representatives  in  Congress  to  the  clerk  of  the  county  of  Ontario,  to  be  by  him  estimated  as 
part  of  the  aggregate  number  of  votes  given  at  such  election  in  the  county  of  Allegany  ;  and 
that  all  writings  relating  to  real  estate  in  Allegany  should  be  recorded  in  the  Genesee  county 
clerk's  office  until  after  the  first  courts  were  held,  and  that  the  new  county  should  form  part  of 
the  seventeenth  Congressional  district  of  the  state. 

To  more  clearly  comprehend  the  territorial  extent  of  Allegany  as  origi- 
nally defined,  the  reader  is  referred  to  accompanying  map. 

It  was  for  only  a  brief  time  however  that  the  boundaries  fixed  by  the  Act 
of  April  7,  1806,  were  allowed  to  remain,  as  we  find  that  important  changes 
were  made  by  an  act  or  acts  rather,  which  passed  the  Legislature  on  the 
11th  of  March,  1808.  One  enacted  that  "  All  that  part  of  the  county  of  Alle- 
gany west  of  the  meridian  line  between  the  2d  and  3d  ranges  of  townships 
of  the  Holland  Land  Company's  land  be  annexed  to  the  county  of  Genesee." 
The  three  ranges  of  townships  thus  cast  off  com]3rised  the  present  towns  of 
Allegany,  Franklinville,  Farmersville,  Freedom,  Hinsdale,  Humphrey,  Isch- 
ua,  Lyndon,  Machias,  Portville,  Olean  and  Yorkshire.  These  towns  were 
soon  after  made  a  part  of  Cattaraugus  county  by  the  provisions  of  the  act 
creating  the  counties  of  Cattaraugus,  Niagara  and  Chautauqua. 

The  other  act  referred  to  fixed  the  present  eastern  boundary  line  of  Al- 
legany county.     Parts  essential  to  copy  read  as  follows: 

•'  Be  It  enacted  *  *  *  (-j^^t;  ail  that  part  of  the  county  of  Steuben  lying  west  of  the 
division  line  between  the  6th  and  7th  ranges  of  towns  in  the  said  county,  and  south  of  the 
division  line  between  the  6th  and  7th  towns  be  annexed  to  the  county  of  Allegany  *  *  * 
that  the  supervisors  in  the  county  of  Allegany  *  *  *  shall  direct  to  be  raised  and  levied  on 
the  freeholders  and  inhabitants  of  the  said  county,  the  sum  of  $1,500  for  the  building  of  a 
courthouse  and  a  jail  in  and  for  said  county,  *  *  *  jj^at  Moses  Van  Campen,  John  Gibson 
and  William  Higgins,  or  any  two  of  them,  be  and  are  hereby  appointed  commissioners  to 
superintend  the  building  of  the  courthouse  and  jail  in  the  county  of  Allegany,  which  said  court- 
house and  jail  shall  be  erected  on  one  of  the  public  lots  near  the  square  of  the  village  of  Angel- 
ica, *  *  *  that  that  part  of  Allegany  comprehended  within  the  ist,  2d,  3d,  and  4th  towns 
of  the  7th  range  of  the  county  of  Steuben  hereby  annexed  to  the  county  of  Allegany  be  erected 
into  a  town  by  the  name  of  Alfred,  and  that  the  first  town  meeting  of  the  said  town  of  Alfred 
be  held  at  the  dwelling  house  of  Benjamin  Van  Campen  (in  Karr  Valley,  Almond,  as  the  writer 
is  informed),  and  that  all  that  part  of  the  county  of  Allegany  comprehended  within  the  5th  and 
6th  townships  of  the  said  7th  range  aforesaid,  be  erected  into  a  town  by  the  name  of  Ossian, 
and  that  the  first  town  meeting  of  the  said  town  of  Ossian  be  held  at  the  dwelling  house  of 
David  McCurdy  ;  and  that  all  that  part  of  the  county  of  Allegany  bounded  east  by  the  east 
bounds  of  the  said  county,  north  by  the  north  bounds  of  said  county  and  south  by  the  division 
lines  between  the  5th  and  6th  townships  in  said  county,  be  erected  into  a  town  by  the  name  of 
Nunda,  and  the  first  town  meeting  of  the  town  of  Nunda  be  held  at  the  dwelling  house  of  Peter 
Granger  (m  present  Pike,  Wyoming  Co.),  and  that  all  that  part  of  the  county  of  Allegany 
bounded  north  by  the  south  bounds  of  the  said  town  of  Nunda,  on  the  west  by  the  west 
bounds  of  the  county  of  Allegany,  south  by  the  Pennsylvania  line  and  east  by  the  Transit 
Meridian  line,  *  *  *  be  erected  into  a  town  by  the  name  of  Caneadea,  and  that  the  first 
town  meeting  in  said  town  of  Caneadea  be  held  at  the  dwelling  house  of  Jedadiah  Nobles ;  and 
that  all  the  remaining  part  of  the  county  of  Allegany  be  and  remain  a  separate  town  by  the 
name  of  Angelica." 

The  Church  Tract.  69 

In  1846,  the  northwestern  part  of  the  territory  assigned  by  the  act  just 
referred  to  to  the  town  of  Nunda  was  set  off  to  Wyoming  (a  small  county 
only  a  few  years  before  formed  from  Genesee,  embracing  the  territory  now 
covered  by  the  towns  of  Eagle,  Pike  and  Genesee  Falls,  Wyoming  county), 
and  by  the  same  act  Portage  and  Nunda,  as  at  present  defined,  were  added 
to  Livingston  county.  In  1856  the  town  of  Ossian  in  the  extreme  northeast 
corner  of  the  county,  after  being  reduced  from  its  original  size  by  the  erec- 
tion of  the  town  of  Burns,  was  also  set  off  into  Livingston  county,  leaving  the 
county  of  Allegany  with  its  present  boundaries  as  appears  by  the  last  of  the 
series  of  small  maps  accompanying  this  history.  A  separate  map  has  been 
prepared  showing  the  subdivision  of  the  county  in  1808. 



THIS  tract,  the  largest  in  the  county  held  by  an  individual  proprietor,  em- 
bracing all  of  x\mity,  Angelica  and  Allen,  the  north  part  of  Scio  and  the 
south  part  of  Granger,  and  a  portion  of  some  150  acres  in  the  town  of  Hume, 
in  all  100,000  acres,  was  in  round  numbers  twenty-six  miles  long,  and  six 
miles  wide,  and,  quoting  from  the  Sheriff's  deed  to  Philip  Church,  dated 
May  6,  1800,  "admeasured  according  to  the  following  bounds  and  lines,  to 
wit:  Beginning  at  the  southwest  corner  of  a  certain  tract  of  Fifty  thousand 
acres  granted  by  the  said  Robert  Morris  to  Garrett  Cottringer  (this  is  now 
the  northwest  corner  of  Mr.  Dwight  Gillett's  farm  in  Hume),  thence  running 
east  along  the  southern  boundary  of  the  said  tract  six  miles,  thence  south 
with  a  breadth  of  six  miles,  between  lines  to  be  run  from  the  two  extreme 
points  of  the  aforesaid  line  in  a  direction  to  form  right  lines  with  the  east 
and  west  boundaries  of  the  said  tract  of  Fifty  thousand  acres  so  far  as  that 
a  line  from  a  point  of  termination  of  the  said  lines,  so  to  be  run  and  parallel 
to  the  first  above  mentioned  line,  will  include  within  the  said  lines  one  hun- 
dred thousand  acres  of  land;  together  with  aU  woods,  underwoods,  waters, 
water  courses,  privileges  and  advantages,  hereditaments  and  appurtenances 
whatever  to  the  said  tract  of  land  and  premises  belonging  or  in  any  wise 
appertaining,  and  the  reversion  and  reversions,  remainders,  yearly  and 
other  rents,  issues  and  profits  thereof,  and  all  the  estate,  right,  title,  inter- 
est, use,  trust,  property,  claim  and  demand  whatsoever,  both  in  law  and  in 
equity,  of  the  said  Robert  Morris  of  in  and  to  the  same." 

Major  Moses  Van  Cam|ien  subdivided  this  tract  into  lots  of  three-fourths 
of  a  mile  square,  beginning  his  work,  Sept.  7,  1810,  at  the  northwest  corner 
of  the  tract.     His  notes  besides  giving  the  measurements  gave  the  character 

70  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

of  the  soil,  its  surface,  timber  and  herbage,  and  located  the  points  on  his 
lines  where  streams  crossed  them  or  gullies  or  high  ridges,  and  furnished 
sufficient  data  upon  which  to  fix  the  prices  of  the  different  lots.  Probably 
every  kind  of  timber  found  within  the  county  was  then  standing  upon  this 
tract,  and  as  for  soil,  it  presented  a  great  variety  from  the  richest  bottom 
lands  on  the  Genesee  river,  to  the  thinnest  clay  and  hardpan  on  the  hills,  not 
on  all  the  hills  however  as  some  of  the  hill  land  is  of  the  first  quality.  Many 
convenient  mill  sites  were  found,  and  a  goodly  number  were  utilized.  Game 
and  fish  were  found  in  great  abundance. 

Settlement  was  begun  at  Angelica  in  1801  by  Judge  Church,  and  in  a 
number  of  instances  land  was  sold  and  boundaries  established  in  advance  of 
the  subdivision  of  the  tract.*  From  about  1810  up  to  1845  settlements  were 
many  and  nearly  the  whole  tract  had  been  taken  by  1850.  The  first  sales 
were  made  at  |2  and  ,^2.50  per  acre,  in  afew  years  advancing  to  -$5  to  .^7.50 
per  acre,  while  some  lots,  covered  with  an  extraordinary  growth  of  pine  and 
oak,  brought  very  remunerative  prices.  Purchasers  came  from  New  Eng- 
land, New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania,  and  as  a  rule  were  enterprising,  self- 
reliant,  sturdy  men,  who  made  good  citizens  and  did  well  their  part  in 
reclaiming  the  desert  places  and  transforming  its  forests  into  beautiful 
farms  and  thriving  villages.  It  will  not  be  necessary  to  pursue  the  treat- 
ment of  the  "  Church  Tract  ■*  here  to  further  extent  as  the  town  histories  of 
Scio,  Amity,  AngeKca.  Ahen  and  Granger  will  take  up  the  progress  of  set- 
tlement and  other  events  in  their  proper  order. 



I^HE  year  1801  opened  quite  auspiciously.  Capt.  Philii^  Church  appeared 
to  make  an  exploration  of  the  100,000  acre  tract  purchased  the  year 
previous  at  the  foreclosure  sale  at  Canandaigua.  He  was  met  at  Almond  by 
Major  Van  Campen,  John  Gibson,  John  Lewis  and  Stephen  Price.  He  had 
stopped  a  day  at  Geneva,  to  supply  himself  with  provisions  and  camp  equip- 
age. The  party  on  their  way  to  the  tract,  pursued  almost  identically  the 
route  afterward  adopted  by  the  Erie  Railway,  entering  the  territory  near 
the  southeast  corner.  A  most  thorough  and  exhaustive  exploration  was 
made,  which  proved  of  great  service  to  Van  Campen  in  the  sub-division 
which  he  afterwards  made,  and  to  Capt.  Church  in  establishing  prices,  and 
the  location  of  roads,  villages,  mills,  etc. 

The  reconnoissance  completed,  Capt.  Church  and  Van  Campen  deter- 

*  Evart  Van  Wickle  came  in  i8o2,  and  in  the  capacity  of  surveyor  and  local  agent  was  employed  by  Judge 
Church  for  several  years.     A  small  log  land  office  was  erected  at  Angelica  in  1802. 

This  Century's  First  Decade.  71 

mined  on  a  "  trip  to  Niagara  Falls  ""  while  the  others  returned  to  Almond. 
This  trip  was  the  pioneer  visit  to  this  wonder  from  all  this  section.  They 
encountered  hunger,  fatigue,  hardship  and  exposure,  and  before  reaching 
New  Amsterdam  (Buifalo),  they  were  compelled  to  resort  to  whatever  sus- 
tenance the  native  forest  offered.  Capt.  Church  soon  returned  to  New  York, 
where  he  assiduously  devoted  himself  to  preparations  for  actual  and  active 

It  was  during  this  year  that  the  first  marriage  in  Almond  occurred, 
Peter  Putman  and  Polly  Waters  being  the  contracting  parties.  The  first 
death  there  that  of  Matthew  McHenry  also  occurred  this  year. 

In  1802  Capt.  Church  sent  Evart  Van  Wickle  to  select  a  site  for  a  village, 
and  begin  settlement.  The  site  was  determined  upon,  and  also  the  name- 
for  the  embryotic  village.  With  filial  reverence  and  aifection  he  named  the 
place,  the  first  village  in  Allegany  county,  for  his  mother,  Angelica,  the 
eldest  daughter  of  Gen.  Philij)  Schuyler.  The  same  year  a  store  was  estab- 
lished, the  first  in  the  county,  by  Capt.  Church,  his  friend  John  Gibson  con- 
ducting it.  Previous  to  this  the  nearest  store  was  at  Hornellsville.  In  1802, 
at  Angelica,  was  also  erected  by  Capt.  Church,  the  first  saw^mill.  This  year 
John  Gibson  bought  20  acres  of  land,  bounded  north  by  Main  and  west  by 
Olean  streets,  at  one  dollar  per  acre,  agreeing  to  put  up  within  a  year,  a 
framed  building  twelve  by  sixteen  feet  "  square  ! '"  Silas  Ferry  and  John 
Ayers  cut  a  road  from  Angelica  to  Almond,  and  Joseph  Taylor  came  and 
opened  the  first  public  house  in  the  village  and  county.  A  log  land-office  was 
this  year  erected.  Bath  was  the  nearest  postoffice,  over  40  miles  distant, 
and  the  few  settlers  had  to  arrange  as  best  they  could  to  get  their  mail. 
Any  reliable  settler  who  w^ent  to  Bath,  was  commissioned  with  lots  of 
errands,  and  to  bring  in  the  letters  for  the  whole  settlement.  Postage  w^as 
high,  money  very  scarce,  and  so  comparatively  few  letters  were  sent  or 

Ephraim  Sanford  and  Zephaniah  Huft",  from  Wayne.  Steuben  county, 
put  in  an  appearance  in  1802.  Striking  the  river  at  the  "Transit,"  they  fol- 
lowed down  the  stream  as  far  as  the  falls  at  Portage,  then  crossed,  and 
returned  upon  the  west  side  to  the  place  from  whence  they  started,  select- 
ing lands  in  the  vicinity  of  Caneadea.  where  they  soon  after  settled  with 
their  families. 

It  was  as  early  at  least  as  1801  or  1802  that  the  first  road  was  constructed 
in  the  county.  It  followed  the  stream  up  from  Hornellsville.  entering  the 
county  at  Almond,  thence,  following  the  Whitney  valley  creek  to  Alfred,  it 
went  on  to  Andover,  where,  striking  the  source  of  Dike's  creek,  it  passed 
down  that  stream  to  the  Genesee  river  at  Wellsville,  thence  by  way  of  Marsh, 
Honeoye  and  Oswayo  creeks  to  the  Allegany  river  and  on  to  Olean,  then 
most  likely  called  Hamilton.  This  was  done  under  the  administration  of 
Charles  Williamson  as  agent  of  the  Pulteney  estate,  and  was  considered  to 
be  greatly  to  the  interest  of  that  vast  landed  property  as  it  furnished  a  w^ay 
of  communicating  with  the  headwaters  of  the  Ohio.     Nathanael  Dike's  old 

72  History  op  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

line  of  blazed  trees  and  scantily-cut-ont  sledroad  was  largely  followed,  in 
some  cases  improved  in  course  as  well  as  construction. 

In  1808  four  brothers,  Benjamin,  Elisha,  Calvin  and  David  Chamber- 
lain, coming-  from  Pennsylvania,  located  on  the  river  near  the  ' '  Transit. " '  in 
Belfast.  This  made  quite  a  little  settlement,  and  a  road  was  soon  opened 
from  the  mouth  of  Dike's  creek  (Wells ville)  through  Scio  and  Belmont,  and 
very  soon  after,  as  far  down  as  Caneadea.  In  1803  also  occurred  the  first 
capital  crime  in  Allegany,  the  victim  being  one  Stevens,  who  was  killed  in  a 
quarrel  over  cards,  and  was  the  first  one  buried  in  the  cemetery  at  Angelica. 
The  man  who  killed  him  (name  now  unknown)  was  tried  at  Geneva  and  sent 
to  states  prison  for  life.  Nathanael  Dike  built  a  sawmill  this  year,  the  site 
being  just  within  the  present  limits  of  Wellsville  adjoining  Andover.  A 
single  timber  of  the  dam  remains  to  mark  the  spot.  A  road  was  opened 
from  Angelica  to  Belvidere  in  1803. 

In  1804  John  T.  Hyde,  who  had  previously  settled  near  Nathanael  Dike's 
place,  and  whose  daughter  Phebe  he  married,  removed  to  what  is  now  Amity, 
purchasing  the  place  now  owned  by  N.  Bosworth.  In  this  year  Capt.  Church 
erected  for  a  temporary  residence  at  Belvidere,  a  framed  structure  of  liberal 
dimensions,  which,  from  its  being  painted  white,  came  to  be  known  all  over 
Western  New  York  as  "The  White  House."  This  was  said  to  be  the  first 
painted  dwelling  in  New  York  west  of  Canandaigua.  The  building  is  stiU 
standing,  and  is  now  used  as  a  hay-barn.  The  nails  used  in  its  construction 
were  all  wrought  by  hand.  Betsy  Sanford,  daughter  of  Ezra  Sanford,  was 
born  in  April,  1804,  being,  it  is  claimed,  the  first  child  born  in  Caneadea. 
James  Rice  and  Timothy  Hitchcock  came  in  1804,  from  Bainbridge,  Che- 
nango county,  settling  at  Caneadea  village,  being  the  first  ones  there.  Rice 
built  the  first  house,  a  log  one,  no  sawmill  being  near.  The  first  religious 
service  in  Caneadea  was  held  by  Rev.  Ephraim  Sanford  at  his  own  house, 
where  Oramel  now  is,  in  1804.  The  first  whice  male  child  born  in  Angelica 
was  Moses  Van  Campen  Chamberlain,  who  "  came  to  town  "  March  31,  1804, 
and  Widow  S.  Smith  taught  the  first  school  in  the  same  town  that  year. 

Among  the  more  important  events  of  1805  was  the  settlement  of  Dr. 
Ebenezer  Hyde,  a  brother  of  John  T.  Hyde.  He  was  the  first  practicing 
physician  in  the  county,  and  an  acquisition  of  very  much  importance  to  the 
sparsely-settled  population.  He  at  once  erected  a  very  superior  log  struct- 
ure of  quite  ample  dimensions,  the  logs  all  nicely  hewn  and  carefully  "  dove- 
tailed "  at  the  corners.  It  occupied  the  ground  now  covered  by  the  resi- 
dence of  Mr.  S.  H.  Whitcomb,  and  later  was  opened  as  an  inn.  An  upper 
room  in  this  house  was  afterwards  finished  off  as  a  hall  for  the  use  of 
the  Masonic  order.  It  was  here  the  first  meetings  of  that  fraternity  were 
held  in  the  county.  In  his  practice  Dr.  Hyde  traveled  sometimes  40  or  50 
miles  over  the  worst  of  roads,  and  sometimes  with  no  roads  at  all,  following 
paths  and  blazed  trees,  having  in  some  instances  an  Indian  as  a  guide.  The 
Indians  on  the  Caneadea  Reservation  i^atronized  him,  and  some  of  them  were 

This  Century's  First  Decade.  73 

his  best  paying  patients,  for  there  was  a  period  of  a  few  years  when  the 
Indians  had  more  money  than  the  whites. 

February  25,  1805,  the  foicn  of  Angehca  was  formed  from  Leicester,  in 
territorial  extent  being  12  miles  wide  and  34  miles  long,  and  was  represented 
on  the  board  of  supervisors  on  the  first  day  of  October  by  Benjamin  Riggs; 
the  session  being  at  Batavia.  The  supervisors  constituting  this  early  board 
and  towns  they  represented  were:  Angelica,  Benjamin  Riggs;  Batavia, 
Isaac  Southerland;  Erie,  Daniel  Chapin;  Leicester,  John  H.  Jones;  North- 
ampton, Gibbons  Jewit;  Southampton,  Christox^her  Laybourn;  Willink, 
Peter  Vandeveuter.  As  appears  by  the  minutes,  David  McCracken  was 
chosen  clerk;  no  mention  is  made  of  any  presiding  olficer.  Joseph  Ellicott 
was  re-elected  county  treasurer,  and  a  bounty  was  offered  of  $5  for  "each 
wolf  taken  and  killed  in  the  county  aforesaid  the  ensuing  year." 

A  previous  board  (1803)  had  "  Resolved  unanimously,  that  twenty  miles 
be  considered  a  day's  journey,  to  be  computed  going  and  returning,  and  that 
each  supervisor  be  entitled  to  $2  for  20  miles."  Reuben  Riggs  (was  he  a 
brother  of  the  supervisor?)  made  out  a  bill  for  his  services  as  constable  in 
the  case  of  Joseph  Rhineberger.  who  was  taken  from  Angelica  to  John  Jones, 
Esq.,  at  Leicester.     It  was  in  September,  and,  to  quote  literally: 

From  Thursday  the  22d  to  Wednesday  the  28th  myself  and  two  Gards  ;  We  have  considered  our  Selves 
intitled  to  the  Same  Wages,  as  if  We  Were  at  our  own  imploy.  Which  is  for  myself  8s.  per  day,  and  the 
men  6s.  each,  and  five  Shillings  per  day  for  our  Expenses,  Which  amounts,  to,  for  myself  at  ihirtet-n  Shilling^ 
per  Day,  ii-?7 

for  the  two  Gards  at  iis.  per  Day  Each,  19-25 

&  the  boarding  of  Rhineberger  three  &  half.  Days  2.19 

The  above  accounts  We  Submit  to  your  Superior  judgments,  after  considering  this  our  Wages  here,  &  the 
hardships  of  laying  in  the  Woods,  &  that  We  Were  Volunteered  to  the  Service.  Reuben  RiGns. 

Angelica,  Oct.  the  20th  1803. 

If  Benjamin  Riggs  Supervisor,  had  as  hard  a  time  of  it  in  getting  to 
Batavia  to  meet  with  the  board  of  supervisors,  as  Reuben  did  in  getting  to 
Leicester,  he  j)robably  spent  two  nights  in  the  woods  ! 

The  next  year,  so  say  the  old  Genesee  county  records,  Luke  Goodspead 
represented  Angelica  on  the  board.  The  name  of  the  latter  is  at  least  sug- 
gestive of  less  time  on  the  road  (V),  and  greater  expedition  in  traveling  if 
nothing  more.  The  session  of  the  Genesee  county  board  of  supervisors  for 
1807  was  the  last  one  at  which  Angelica  or  any  part  of  present  AUegany  was 

-By  act  of  the  Legislature,  March  28,  1805,  the  Lake  Erie  Turnpike-road 
Company  was  organized.  It  was  to  extend  from  Bath  to  Lake  Erie,  and 
Fred.  A.  Dezeng,  Philip  Church,  Henry  A.  Townsend,  Adam  Hoops,  William 
Helm,  Dugald  Cameron,  George  Hornell  and  George  McClure  were  named 
as  corporators. 

Other  events  of  importance  in  1805  were  the  marriage  of  Capt.  Church 
and  Anna  Matilda,  eldest  daughter  of  Gen.  Walter  Stewart  of  Philadelphia, 
and  their  commencing  house-keeping  in  the  "■  White  House  ''  in  June  of  that 

History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

year,  the  youthful  couple  finishing  the  journey  thitherward  by  traveling- 
from  Bath  (44  miles)  on  horseback,  a  part  of  the  way  following  a  bridle  (why 
not  bridal)  path  and  marked  trees.  In  1805  Joseph  Knight  and  son  Silas, 
from  Oneida  county,  located  at  the  mouth  of  Knight's  Creek  in  Scio.  Mr. 
Knight  cut  the  road  most  of  the  way  from  Belmont,  and  only  a  sled  road  at 
that.  From  this  it  might  be  inferred  that  the  statement  just  made  as  to 
cutting  a  road  from  the  mouth  of  Dike's  creek  to  Belfast  and  farther  down 
was  incorrect.  Such  discreimncies  in  statements  depending  entirely  upon 
the  accounts  of  the  old  settlers  will  inevitably  occur.  Benjamin  Van  Cam- 
pen  opened  the  first  inn  in  Almond  in  1805.  He  was  a  brother  of  the  re- 
nowned Major  Moses  Van  Campen.  The  inn  was  in  Karr  VaUey.  In  1805 
also  Moses  and  Jeremiah  Gregory,  John  Gaddis  and  Samuel  Rodman  settled 
on  Canaseraga  creek  in  Burns.  In  August  of  1805  occurred  the  birth  of 
Deborah  Reynolds,  the  first  in  Belfast. 

From  the  time  of  the  first  settlement  to  1802,  Allegany  formed  a  part  of 
Ontario  with  the  county  seat  at  Canandaigua.  Then  (1802)  Genesee  county 
was  set  off  from  Ontario,  the  shire-town  being  Batavia.  As  the  settlements 
increased  the  people  came  to  regard  their  necessary  journeys  to  Canandai- 
gua and  Batavia  on  legal  business  as  burdensome  and  oppressive,  and,  m 
1805.  began  the  agitation  for  a  new  county,  which  resulted  in  the  passage  by 
the  Legislature,  of  an  act  on  the  7th  of  April,  1806,  whereby  the  county  of 
ALLEGANY  was  formed  from  territory  embraced  in  Genesee  county. 
How  the  new  county  came  to  be  named  Allegany,  or  who  suggested  it,  the 
writer  has  never  been  able  to  learn.  The  act  creating  the  county,  which  in 
territorial  extent  was  seven  townships  east  and  west,  and  seven  north  and 
south,  named  Angelica  as  the  county  seat,  and  it  was  in  fact  the  only  town 
in  the  county.  No  courts  were  held  until  the  fall  of  1807,  though  the  act 
provided  for  a  court  to  be  held  in  June,  1807. 

In  1806  it  came  about  that  the  extreme  northern  part  of  the  county  was 
to  receive  attention  from  those  seeking  homes  in  this  new  country,  and  set- 
tlers began  coming  in  from  the  north  and  east.  Roger  Mills  from  Canajo- 
harie  came  in  the  spring  of  this  year,  having  passed  a  part  of  the  previous 
season  in  Pike.  After  making  an  extended  exploration,  he  made  choice  of 
lots  36  and  37  in  Hume,  where  were  the  upper  falls  of  the  Wiscoy,  and  very 
favorable  sites  for  dams  and  mills.  In  1806  came  also  James  Wilson,  a  native 
of  Ireland,  and  began  active  operations  in  Allen,  and  Richard  Friar,  from 
Kingston.  Ulster  county,  who  was  the  first  to  settle  in  Friendshii^.  In  this 
year  occurred  the  first  birth  in  Scio.  Polly,  daughter  of  Silas  Knight.  .The 
first  religious  services  in  Burns  were  conducted  by  Robert  Parker,  a  Meth- 
odist, at  the  house  of  Moses  Gregory  in  1806. 

In  1807  Clark  Crandall  from  Rensselaer  county,  and  Nathan  Green  from 
Madison  county  purchased  land,  and  began  making  improvements  in  Alfred, 
the  former  in  the  northeast  part  of  the  town  near  "  Baker's  Bridge. "  Cran- 
dall came  to  be  very  prominent  in  town  and  county  affairs,  was  associate 
county  judge,  and  a  member  of  the  Legislature.     Roger  Mills  threw  a  dam 

This  Century's  First  Decade.  75 

across  the  Wiscoy  at  ••  Mill's  Mills  ''  in  Hume,  and  erected  a  sawmill  in  1807. 
John  Harrison  and  Simeon  and  Zebiilon  Gates  settled  in  Friendship  this 

Although  1807  marked  the  first  settlement  of  only  one  town  in  the  county, 
a  constant  stream  of  immigration  Was  pouring  into  the  towns  where  settle- 
ments had  already  been  made,  and  the  year  closed  with  a  considerable 
accession  to  the  population.  In  November,  was  convened,  in  the  inn  kejit  by 
Evart  Van  Wickle,  the  first  court  ever  held  in  the  county. 

In  the  spring  of  1808  Joseph  Maxson  from  Otsego  county,  then  only  18 
years  old.  arrived  in  Pike  with  two  cents  in  money  and  a  few  articles  of  pro- 
vision and  clothing.  Bartering  the  shoes  on  his  feet  for  an  axe.  he  pushed 
on.  following  the  neM'ly-opened  Allegany  road  to  Centerville  Center,  and 
there  made  the  first  opening  in  that  town. 

The  location  of  the  county  seat  at  Angelica  was  one  of  the  pet  projects 
of  Judge  Church.  [He  has  heretofore  been  called  Capt.  Church,  but  having 
on  the  8th  of  June,  1807,  been  appointed  by  Gov.  Morgan  Lewis  '"First 
Judge  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  for  Allegany  county,"  he  will  hereafter 
be  referred  to  as  judge.]  It  being,  however,  so  far  to  one  side  of  the  geo- 
graphical center  of  the  county,  it  began  quite  early  to  excite  in  his  mind, 
and  in  the  minds  of  others  interested,  serious  ai^prehensions  of  an  attempt 
to  remove  it  to  some  point  farther  west,  so  as  to  better  accommodate  the 
people.  Accordingly  the  aid  of  the  Legislature  was  again  invoked,  and,  on 
the  11th  of  March,  1808,  an  act  was  passed  restoring  the  three  western 
ranges  of  towns  to  Genesee,  and  adding  the  western  range  of  towns  from 
Steuben  county,  which  made  the  county  seat  substantially  in  the  center  east 
and  west  as  well  as  north  and  south.  By  other  provisions  of  the  act  the 
county  was  divided  into  five  towns — Angelica,  Alfred,  Caneadea,  Nunda  and 

In  1808  Roger  Mills  put  up  a  gristmill  in  Hume,  and  Judge  Church 
erected  one  at  Belmont.  The  first  religious  services  in  Andover  were  held 
by  Rev.  Silas  Hubbard,  at  the  house  of  Nathanael  Dike  in  1808.  Eneas  Garey 
from  Vermont  began  improvements  in  1808  in  Rushford.  He  built  the  first 
framed  barn  in  that  town  but  in  just  what  year  cannot  be  told.  The  first 
birth  in  Friendship  was  that  of  Sherman  Haskins,  March  8,  1808,  in  a  sugar 

During  all  these  years  the  Genesee  river  was  crossed  only  by  fording, 
by  canoes,  or  on  the  ice.  but,  in  1809.  a  bridge  was  begun  by  Wilson  Redfield, 
and  finished  by  Jonathan  Millett,  at  the  "Transit."  So  at  least  say  some 
authorities,  and,  being  so  particular  in  giving  names  of  builders,  it  would  seem 
conclusive.  It  still  seems  strange  that  a  bridge  should  be  built  at  any  other 
point  earher  than  the  one  at  Judge  Church's,  which  is  said  to  have  been 
put  up  in  1811.  Whenever  and  wherever  it  was,  the  first  bridge  was  an  im- 
portent  event  to  the  people. 

By  the  act  of  March  11,  1808,  -^1,500  was  authorized  to  be  raised  and 
levied  on  the  freeholders  and  inhabitants,  for  building  a  court  house  and 

76  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

jail,  and  Moses  Van  Campen,  John  Gibson  and  William  Higgins,  were 
appointed*  commissioners  to  superintend  the  construction.  It  was  provided 
that  the  county  treasurer  should  have  1  per  cent  for  receiving  and  paying 
out  the  money  thus  appropriated. 

Joshua  Skiff  an  Otsego  county  man*  made  his  appearance  in  Hume  in 

1809.  He  became  a  man  well  and  favorably  known  throughout  the  county. 
In  1809  David  Sanford  built  a  saw  and  gristmill  in  Belfast,  the  first  in  that 
town.  The  first  marriage  in  Friendship  was  in  1809,  James  Sanford  and 
Sally  Harrison  the  contracting  parties.  Silas  Bellamy  and  Betsy  Knight 
were  the  first  couple  married  in  Scio,  the  year  1809.  Edward  Green  this 
year  erected  the  first  framed  house  in  Alfred.  The  first  birth  in  Center- 
viUe  was  that  of  Calvin  P.  Perry,  in  June  1809;  and  the  first  death,  that  of 
the  same  person,  the  same  month.  Dr.  Ebenezer  Hyde  the  same  year 
opened  the  first  public  house  in  Amity.  Silas  Bellamy  and  Silas  Palmer 
settled  in  Scio  in  1809. 

The  year  1810  was  marked  by  an  increasing  number  of  actual  settlers, 
and  the  inauguration  of  new  enterprises  and  improvements.  The  first 
school  in  Amity  was  taught  this  year  by  Polly  Baker.  Joseph  Baker,  wife 
and  seven  children,  and  Joseph  Woodruff,  wife  and  three  children  settled  in 
Andover  in  1810.  Major  Alanson  Burr  was  among  the  most  prominent  of 
the  settlers  this  year,  locating  in  Caneadea.  Bethiah  Belknap  and  Samuel 
Gordon  were  born  in  Rushford  in  1810;  the  former  in  the  spring,  the  latter 
June  the  12th.  They  were  the  first  births  in  that  town.  The  first  inn  kept 
in  Centerville  by  a  Mr.  Thatcher;  the  first  in  Caneadea  by  Lucretia  Radley. 
The  first  gristmill  in  Friendship  was  built  in  1810  by  Aaron  Axtell  and 
Sylvanus  Merriam.  It  was  on  the  south  branch  about  half  way  between 
Friendship  village  and  Nile.  The  first  religious  services  in  Friendship  were 
held  in  a  barn  by  Samuel  Vary  in  July,  1810,  and  first  school  by  Pelatiah 
Morgan  in  the  winter  of  1810-11.  The  first  birth  in  Allen,  that  of  William 
Wilson,  occurred  Jan.  30,  1810.  The  first  gristmill  in  Burns  was  built  by 
Daniel  Shull,  and  the  first  school  was  taught  in  that  town  by  David  Crooks 
in  a  log  schoolhouse  one-half  mile  west  of  Canaseraga  in  1810.     February  8, 

1810,  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  incorporating  the  "  Angelica  and  Alle- 
gany Turnpike  Company."  in  which  Philip  Church.  John  Mullender  and 
John  T.  Hyde  were  named  as  associates. 

An  enumeration  of  the  inhabitants  was  made  and  a  census  taken  in  1810 
by  the  United  States,  which  gave  a  population  of  1,942  to  the  five  towns  of 
the  county  shown  in  the  accompanying  map. 

This  Cintury's  First  Decade. 

/^S    O  ^F{  N  LD    AND   Di^/DEO  JNTO    TOWNS    BY 
ACT    OF     MA/iC/iU.I'xiO? 

Q    £  ^  E  S   E  E  <^0      U     N    r     Y. 

/V       /      A 

78  History  OF  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 


second  decade. — 1811-1820. 

PROMINENT  among  the  settlers  in  the  northern  part  of  the  county  in 
1811  was  Benjamin  Blanchard  from  Vermont,  who  located  in  Center- 
ville.  John  Gordon,  Samuel  Hardy,  Tarbell  and  William  Gordon  settled  in 
Rushford  this  year.  The  first  marriage  in  Centerville  occurred  this  year, 
William  Foy  and  Ruth  Morrill.  The  war  of  1812  interrupted  to  some  extent 
the  progress  of  settlement.  A  sufficient  number  of  inhabitants  were  found 
from  which  to  secure  quite  a  number  of  enlistments,  and  some  were  drafted. 
The  board  of  supervisors  constituted  Robert  Hoops  a  commissioner 
to  attend  an  Indian  council  at  Cold  Spring,  for  the  purpose  it  is 
supposed  of  entreating  the  Indians  to  side  with  the  United  States.  The  In- 
dians finally  determined  to  espouse  the  cause  of  the  United  States,  and  no 
further  anxiety  was  experienced  in  regard  to  them.  Rockwell  Hopper  from 
Chenango  county,  and  Harry  Burns  from  Oneida  county  settled  in  Scio  in 
1812,  staying  there  only  a  year  they  moved  down  to  Belfast  where  they  re- 
mained the  rest  of  their  lives.  Eleazar  Burbank  and  George  P.  Ketchum 
began  improvements  in  Caneadea  this  year.  The  first  school  in  Hume  was 
taught  by  Caroline  Russell  in  1812.  Settlement  was  commenced  in  Cuba  in 
1812,  by  Salmon  Abbott,  from  Luzerne  county.  Pa.,  locating  near  the  site  of 
the  reservoir.  From  the  proceedings  of  the  board  of  supervisors  for  this 
year,  which  is  far  back  as  the  records  have  been  preserved,  we  learn  that 
the  board  consisted  of  six  members,  the  town  of  Olean  (then  very  large)  in 
Cattaraugus  county  being  by  law  required  to  be  represented  upon  the  Alle- 
gany board.  The  following  are  their  names  and  the  towns  they  represented; 
John  T.  Hyde.  Angelica;  Thaddeus  Bennett,  Caneadea;  John  Griffith.  Nunda; 
Clark  Crandall,  Alfred;  Richard  W.  Porter,  Ossian;  and  Cornelius  Brooks, 
Olean.  The  board  met  at  the  jail,  and  adjourned  at  night  to  meet  at  6  o'clock 
the  next  morning.  A  resolution  was  passed  appropriating  $o  to  pay  Tim- 
othy H.  Porter  for  "Pleading  for  the  People  vs.  Berry,''  acting  in  the  capaci- 
ty of  District  Attorney.  Eli  Griffith  and  John  Mullender  were  allowed  pay 
for  "going  to  the  lines."  and  Robert  Hoops,  for  attending  Cold  Spring  coun- 
cil, was  allowed  rj^8.06.  Cattaraugus  county  was  charged  one-half  of  the  clerk's 
fees  $32.50.  At  the  June  term  of  the  Court  of  General  Sessions,  in  1812, 
Jasper(?)  Clark  was  indicted  for  intent  to  commit  murder.  Afterward 
tried  and  cleared,  but  was  bound  to  keep  the  peace  especially  toward  James 

In  1813  Mark  Blanchard  and  Eber  Hotchkiss  erected  the  first  sawmill 
in  Centerville.  and  a  Mr.  Warren  built  the  first  gristmill  in  Rushford.  It 
must  have  been  quite  a  rude  affair  for  it  is  said  the  bolt  cloths  were  book ' 

Second  Decade.— isl  1-1820.  79 

muslin,  and  the  upper  stone  hung  at  the  end  of  a  shaft  from  a  tub-wheel, 
with  no  intermediate  gearing. 

A  settlement  was  made  between  Alfred  Station  and  Alfred  Centre  by 
David  Satterlee  from  Rensselaer  county,  in  1813.  The  first  birth  in  Wirt 
occurred  in  1818,  the  new  comer  being  Benjamin  Crabtree.  At  the  annual 
session  of  the  board  of  supervisors  in  1813,  it  was  "  Resolved  that  in  equal- 
izing the  rolls  the  board  establish  the  following  rates:  unimproved  lands  -|1 
per  acre,  and  improved  lands  $2  per  acre."  Prisoners  were  taken  to  the 
jail  at  Bath.  The  Alfred  school  fund  this  year  was  $28.70,  and  the  town  at 
that  time  comprised  all  south  of  Ossian  in  the  eastern  range  of  towns  in  Al- 
legany. The  town,  and  a  large  one  at  that,  of  Ischua,  Cattaraugus  county, 
was  represented  on  the  board  this  year. 

Pliny  Bannister  was  the  pioneer  teacher  in  Rushford  conducting  a 
school  in  the  winter  of  1813-14.  The  first  school  in  w^iat  is  now  Wellsville 
was  taught  by  Ithamar  Brookings  in  1814  near  the  east  line  in  the  Dike 
neighborhood.  The  first  religious  services  in  Amity  were  held  at  the  house 
of  Samuel  Van  Campen,  by  Rev.  Robert  Hubbard  in  1814.  This  year  Rich- 
ard Hull,  Abel  Burdick,  Stephen  Coon  and  Stephen  Coon,  Jr.,  Jesse  Whit- 
ford  and  James  C.  Burdick,  made  beginnings  in  Alfred.  Rev.  Dr.  N.  V. 
Hull  was  a  son  of  this  Richard  Hull.  The  first  postoffice  in  Almond  was 
established  in  1813  or  '14.  Perkins  B.  Woodward  taught  the  first  school  in 
Centerville  in  the  winter  of  1813-14.  The  first  religious  services  in  Hume 
were  held  at  the  house  of  Roger  Mills  during  the  war  of  1812-14,  being  con- 
ducted by  missionaries  from  Rushford  and  Caneadea.  A  decided  improve- 
ment in  roads  now  began  to  appear.  The  clearings  were  much  enlarged, 
and  fields  which  were  stumpless  rewarded  the  ardent  labors  of  the  pioneer 
with  bounteous  crops  of  grass,  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  rye.  Large  bounties 
w^ere  paid  for  the  destruction  of  wolves,  which  made  havoc  among  the  sheep 
of  the  early  settlers.  Deer  were  very  plenty,  and  venison  constituted  quite 
a  percentage  of  the  meat  used.  The  trusty  rifle  was  largely  depended  on  to 
secure  it.  Every  settler  was  more  or  less  a  hunter,  some  attaining  to  rare 
skill  and  achieving  no  little  fame. 

Levi  Benjamin  from  Vermont  settled  in  Rushford  in  1815,  about  a  mile 
north  of  the  village.  He  was  the  first  postmaster.  In  1815,  Rodman  Place 
from  Rensselaer  county  settled  in  Alfred,  and  David  Stillman  from  the  same 
county,  settled  near  Alfred  Centre.  The  Peaveys  settled  in  the  west  part  of 
Allen  this  year,  giving  their  name  to  the  Peavey  road.  This  year  came,  also, 
to  Burns  Horatio  Tilden,  from  Avon,  and  Alvah  Cruttenden  from  LeRoy. 
Samuel  Hunt  from  Vermont  came  to  Caneadea,  and  Samuel  H.  Morgan  to 
Cuba  locating  near  the  Reservoir,  while  Ebenezer  Steenrod  made  his  begin- 
ning in  Friendship. 

1816  was  distinguished  by  the  erection  of  carding  mills  at  Friendship 
and  Mills  Mills,  events  of  great  importance.  To  each  of  these  in  time  w^ere 
added  machinery  for  fulling,  dyeing  and  pressing  the  home-spun  and  home- 
woven  cloth  made  by  the  pioneer  wives  and  daughters,  and  w^hich  did  such 

80  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

good  service.  "Shoddy"  was  a  thing  of  the  far  distant  future,  and  the 
wearing  quahties  of  garments  made  from  those  cloths,  were  wonderful  in- 
deed. Paris  Green.  Amos  Burdick  and  Russell  Davis  from  Madison  county 
settled  in  Alfred  this  year.  This  was  probably  the  first  Paris  Green  ever 
seen  in  the  county,  and  preceded  by  an  ordinary  lifetime  the  event  of  the 
potato-bug!  The  first  house  (a  log  one)  where  the  village  of  Belfast  is  was 
put  up  in  1816  by  Alex.  V.  P.  Chamberlain,  and  William  Miller  from  Avon 
settled  in  Burns,  having  to  cut  a  road  over  a  mile  to  reach  his  land.  John 
Hoyt  from  Vermont  settled  in  Caneadea  immediately  erecting  the  first  saw- 
mill in  that  town  at  the  mouth  of  Caneadea  Creek.  Settlement  was  com- 
menced this  year  in  Granger  by  Reuben  Smith,  his  sons  Wilcox  and  Isaac, 
and  sons-in-law  Rufus  TurnbuU  and  James  McCoon.  In  1816  the  woods  of 
New  Hudson  were  also  made  to  ring  with  the  axe  of  its  first  settler.  John 
Spencer.  Matthew  P.  Cady  and  others  built  the  first  sawmill  in  Rushford  on 
Caneadea  Creek,  and  Judge  James  McCall  opened  the  first  store  in  Rushford. 
Lucy  Moore  taught  the  first  school  in  Scio  in  Silas  Knight's  house.  1816 
was  and  is  known  as  ' '  the  cold  season. ' '  According  to  aU  accounts  it  was 
in  very  deed  a  very  cold  one;  frosts  occurring  in  every  month  in  the  year 
shortened  the  crops  to  a  mere  nothing,  but  the  most  pinching  times  came 
on  the  next  year. 

The  prospects  were  dreary  when  1817  dawned.  In  addition  to  the  hard 
times,  which  closely  succeeded  the  war,  was  the  general  shortage  of  the 
limited  area  of  crops.  The  condition  of  some  of  those  settlers,  who  had  no 
teams  nor  other  means  to  get  out  to  the  older  settlements  for  corn  and 
wheat,  became  before  harvest  distressing  if  not  alarming.  With  some  leeks 
were  a  blessing  being  some  degrees  better  than  nothing  as  food.  Ground- 
nuts and  "putty  root"  also  helped.  In  cases  of  dire  necessity  potatoes 
that  had  been  planted  were  dug  up  and  eaten.  Ripening  grain  was  eagerly 
watched,  some  of  the  earliest  to  rijjen  was  harvested,  cured  as  quickly  as 
possible  for  threshing,  placed  in  a  large  kettle  over  a  fire  and  briskly  stirred 
to  get  in  a  condition  to  grind,  then  hurried  off  to  the  nearest  miU.  Some  of 
the  old  settlers  used  to  claim  in  all  sincerity  that  the  sweetest  cakes  and  best 
bread  they  ever  tasted  was  made  from  flour  thus  prepared.  In  1817  came 
Samuel  Thatcher  from  Vermont,  and  Stephen  Collins  and  Isaac  Burdick 
from  Madison  county  and  settled  in  Alfred,  Collins  coming  all  the  way  on 
foot,  and  covering  his  first  log-house  with  split  hollow  basswood  logs.     This 

year  came  also  Chester  Rotch, Otto,  and Lefever,  and  settled  at 

Allen  Centre,  and  a  Mrs.  Armstrong  settled  in  the  southern  part  of  that 
town.  Nathaniel  Bennett  from  Vermont  located  in  the  north  part  of  Burns 
in  1817,  journeying  all  the  way  with  horses  and  wagons.  Luther  Houghton, 
wife  and  family  of  five  children,  settled  in  the  northwest  part  of  Caneadea 
this  year.  A  small  creek  in  the  neighborhood  stiU  bears  his  name  as  does 
also  the  village  near  where  he  located,  the  postofiice,  and  the  Wesleyan  seat 
of  learning  at  that  place.  Cyrus  H.  Clement,  also  from  Vermont,  settled  in 
Caneadea  in  1817,  as  did  Joshua  Wilson  and  sons  Simon,  Freeman  S.  and 

Second  Decade.— 1811-1820.  81 

Lewis  and  Angus  Mcintosh.  Russell  Higgins  and  Packard  Bruce  built  the 
first  gristmill  in  Centerville  this  year,  and  Gen.  Calvin  T.  Chamberlain  built 
in  1817  the  first  sawmill  in  Cuba.  Ira  Hopper  from  Steuben  county  bought 
land  and  settled  in  Granger  this  year.  Joel  Stockwell,  a  Vermonter,  "  took 
up''  a  large  farm  on  the  river  flats  in  the  extreme  northeast  corner  of 
Hume  in  1817,  and  Daniel  Atherton  opened  the  first  public  house  in  West 
Almond.  At  the  January  term  of  court  Medad  McKay  was  indicted  for 
murder.  About  this  time  there  seems  to  have  been  an  epidemic  of  assault 
and  battery  cases.  Indictment  after  indictment  was  found,  very  many  of 
the  parties  being  pronounced  "not  guilty  "  by  the  jury.  In  cases  where 
they  were  held  they  were  fined  from  $1  to  $150;  $1.50  to  $2.50  being  generally 
the  amount  imposed. 

In  1818  Amos  Crandall  and  Samuel  Lanphear  and  families  came  from 
Rhode  Island  and  settled  in  the  north  part  of  Alfred,  bringing  their  goods 
on  an  ox  cart,  a  horse  being  hitched  on  ahead  of  the  oxen.  About  this  time 
was  built  the  first  framed  house  and  barn  in  Elm  Va]le3^  by  whom  author- 
ities dilfer.  The  first  framed  house  in  the  valley  at  Andover  was  built  by 
Asa  S.  Allen  about  this  time.  Settlements  w^ere  many  this  year.  John 
Common  from  Northumberlandshire,  Eng.,  came  to  Angelica,  John  T.  Ford 
to  Belfast.  James  Matthews  to  Birdsall  Centre.  Samuel  Whipple  and  Ezra 
Whiting  to  Burns,  Thos.  Worden,  Samuel  Horton,  Oliver  Smith,  Charles 
Abbott,  James  Osmond,  and  John  Wheeler,  afterward  so  weU  known  as 
supervisor  and  member  of  assembly,  came  to  Granger  and  began  improve- 
ments. The  settlement  of  Grove  was  commenced  in  1818  by  John  White, 
from  Herkimer  county,  moving  his  family  in  with  an  ox  team;  cutting  his 
own  road  from  Nunda.  His  house,  a  log  structure,  which  he  at  once  erected, 
was  the  first  in  town.  Alexander  Bailey  came  about  the  same  time.  Ros- 
well  Gibbs  came  this  year  to  the  northwest  part  of  Hume,  and  Oliver  Austin 
to  Wirt. 

By  an  act  of  the  Legislature  passed  March  19.  1818,  it  was  declared 
"That  so  much  of  the  Genesee  river,  from  the  confluence  of  the  Canasaraga 
creek,  up  to  the  bridge  near  the  house  of  Philip  Church,  Esquire,  in  the 
town  of  Angelica  in  the  county  of  Allegany,  except  from  the  foot  of  the  falls 
to  the  head  of  the  rapids,  in  the  town  of  Nunda,  and  so  much  of  said  river  as 
is  included  from  the  Pennsylvania  line  down  to  Phillipburgh  MiUs,  in  the  said 
town  of  Angelica,  be,  and  is  hereby  declared  a  public  highway:  Provided 
that  nofhing  in  this  act  shall  be  construed  to  extend  to  or  affect  any  mill, 
or  dam  for  the  use  thereof,  that  may  have  been  erected,  or  the  building 
thereof  commenced  on  either  of  the  said  streams  of  water  before  the  passing 
of  this  act.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  if  any  person  or  persons  shall 
hereafter  cut  or  fell  any  tree  or  trees  into  said  stream,  or  roU  any  log  or 
logs  therein,  except  for  the  purpose  of  rafting  the  same,  or  place  any  other 
obstruction  therein  and  shaU  not  remove  the  same  out  of  said  stream  with- 
in 48  hours  thereafter,  every  such  person  shall  forfeit  and  pay  the  sum  of 
five  dollars  for  every  such  offense,     *     *     *    Provided  nevertheless.  That  if 

History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

any  person  erecting  any  mill  or  other  works,  on  either  of  the  above  men- 
tioned streams,  shall  cut  or  dig  a  sufficient  canal,  or  make  a  sufficient  lock  or 
locks,  so  that  the  navigation  of  the  same  be  not  injured  by  means  of  such 
dam  or  dams,  mill  or  works,  such  persons  shall  not  be  liable  to  any  penalties 
of  this  act. ' ' 

April  10,  1818,  an  act  was  passed  appointing  Thomas  Dole  of  Nunda, 
John  Hoyt  of  Caneadea,  and  James  McCall  of  Rushford,  commissioners  to 
lay  out  a  road  on  the  west  side  of  the  Genesee  river  through  the  Caneadea 
Indian  Reservation,  and  to  "  agree  with  and  satisfy  the  Indians  owning  and 
possessing  said  land,  for  their  reasonable  damages  for  said  roads  passing 
through  their  improved  lands,"  and  $1,000  was  appropriated  for  the  pur- 

In  1819  Joseph  Claire  from  Rensselaer  county  settled  in  Alfred  and 
Luther  Strong  built  the  first  saw-and-grist  mill  in  Andover  about  f  of  a  mile 
east  of  the  village.  Edmund  Coats  settled  in  Angelica  in  1819.  Angelica 
was  the  largest  place  in  the  county.  All  roads  were  laid  with  direct  refer- 
ence to  reaching  the  county  seat.  Many  people  were  called  there  during 
' '  court  week. ' '  It  was  on  the  line  of  the  Lake  Erie  Turnpike,  and  had  already 
become  a  place  of  considerable  importance,  attracting  men  of  means  and 
enterprise  as  well  as  the  more  distinguished  in  the  legal  profession.  Lewis 
H.  Ford  came  to  Belfast  this  year  (1819)  and  Stephen  Mundy  from  New  Jersey 
purchased  500  acres  in  the  west  part  of  Burns  beginning  active  operation  in 
clearing  and  making  improvements.  Daniel  IngersoU  purchased  land  and 
began  improvements  in  the  north  part  of  Caneadea  this  year,  and  Newman 
Crabtree  began  the  first  sawmill  in  Genesee  on  Little  Genesee  Creek.  The 
first  birth  in  Genesee  was  that  of  Francis  K.  Bell  and  his  was  the  first  death, 
he  being  born  Nov.  25,  1819,  and  dying  Dec.  29,  1819.  Darling  Smith,  Curtis 
Coe  and  John  Bouton  settled  in  the  northeast  part  of  Granger.  Elijah 
White  came  to  Grove  this  year,  and  "White  settlement"  still  retains  his 
name.  Dexter  settled  in  the  northeast  part  of  Hume  on  the  river  flats.  A' 
burial  place  was  enclosed  adjoining  his  north  line  and  is  still  known  as  the 
"  Carpenter  burying  ground. "  Capt.  Isaac  Van  Nostrand,  who  afterward 
became  a  very  prominent  man  in  town  and  county  affairs,  came  to  Granger  in 
1819,  and  built  its  first  sawmill. 

In  October,  1820,  Franklin  Cowdery  started  at  Angelica  the  Angelica 
Republican,  the  first  newspaper  of  Allegany.  Previous  to  this  the  nearest 
printing-office  was  at  Bath.  This  was  a  great  convenience  to  the  pe%>le  and 
was  an  event  second  to  no  other  in  this  decade.  In  1820  the  first  store  in 
Centerville  was  opened  by  Sparrow  Smith,  and  Judge  John  Griffin  located 
in  Cuba,  purchasing  the  lands  upon  which  the  village  has  grown  up.  The 
first  framed  dwelling  in  Independence  was  put  up  this  year  by  John  Teater, 
and  the  first  religious  services  were  held  on  New  Year's  Day  at  the  house  of 
Samuel  S.  White,  Rev.  Daniel  Babcock  a  Seventh-day  Baptist  conducting 
them.  The  settlement  of  Hume  village  was  commenced  this  year  by 
Sylvanus  Hammond  building  the  regulation  log  house,  and  Spencer  Lyon 

Second  Decade.— 1811-1820, 


LL  EC  AN  y 

<:;     E    N    E  S   £:  £ 

84  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

located  in  the  south  part  of  New  Hudson.  Abel  and  James  Tarbell  and 
Nathan  C.  Kimball  came  to  Rushford,  and  Hazard  P.  Clark  settled  in  the 
south  part  of  Andover.  The  first  birth  in  Birdsall  occurred  this  year,  that 
of  James  E.  Matthews,  and  Bolivar  made  her  first  attempt  at  population, 
other  than  by  immigration.  Almond  W.  Cowles  being  the  recipient  of  especial 
attention  ujjon  his  birth.  Rachael  Gilbert,  for  the  extravagant  compensation 
of  seventy-five  cents  per  week,  taught  the  first  school  in  Bolivar  (in  a  log 
school  house  of  course)  and  was  followed  the  succeeding  winter  by  Austin 
Cowles,  who,  in  1820,  conducted  the  first  religious  services  in  that  town.  The 
first  store  and  jDublic  house  was  opened  in  what  is  now  Ward  about  this  time 
by  Joseph  Goodrich,  who  came  in  1819. 

This  decade,  notwithstanding  the  existence  during  the  first  part  of  it  of 
discouraging  oonditions,  at  its  close  showed  a  great  improvement  over  the 
preceding  one.  Important  roads  were  opened,  and  the  last  years  were 
marked  by  a  large  influx  of  population.  More  men  of  means  were  turning 
their  attention  to  its  inviting  prospects;  its  wealth  of  pine  forests  was  coming 
to  be  considered  with  reference  to  and  in  connection  with  improved  facilities 
for  transportation,  and  instead  of  being  regarded  with  abhorrence,  "  shied  " 
around  and  avoided  as  undesirable,  became  the  subject  for  many  close  cal- 
culations on  the  part  of  capitalists.  The  older  clearings  were  becoming  in 
many  cases  well  conducted  farms  showing  thrifty  husbandry,  while  new 
ones  were  continually  being  made.  The  appalling  monotony  of  uninterrupted 
forest  was  broken,  clearings  in  some  cases  connecting  with  clearings.  Vil- 
lages and  hamlets  began  to  appear.  Centerville,  Rushford,  Pike  and  Friend- 
ship had  been  formed  and  their  supervisors  took  their  seats  at  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  board.  The  census  taken  that  year  revealed  9,330  inhabitants 
in  the  county,  which  was  subdivided  into  nine  towns  as  appears  by  the 
accompanying  map. 


THIRD  DECADE. — 1821-1830. 

IN  1821.  Joseph  S.  Raymond  opened  the  first  inn  in  Belfast,  near  present 
village.  Henry  Bennett  settled  on  theStateroad,  in  the  eastpart  of  Gran- 
ger. The  first  birth  of  a  white  child  in  Grove  occurred,  that  of  Laura  Bai- 
ley. The  first  public  house  in  Scio  was  opened  by  Alfred  Johnson,  in  a  small 
log  house  just  south  of  the  town  line.  The  first  school  in  New  Hudson  was 
taught  this  summer  by  Mrs.  Graham  McKean.  Philip  Appleby  from 
Onondaga  county  settled  in  Wirt.  It  is  said  that  he  caught  42  deer  in  one 
trap  in  the  course  of  three  or  four  years.     The  first  marriage  in  BirdsaU 

Third  Decade— 1821-1830.  85 

occurred,  the  parties  being  Samuel  Van  Wickle  and  Harriet  Freeman.  As 
the  last  decade  closed  with  nine  towns  in  the  county,  represented  by  as 
many  supervisors,  who  annually  met  at  the  county  seat  to  transact  the 
county  business  we  give  the  organization  of  the  board  at  the  commencement 
of  this  decade.  This  year  the  board  of  supervisors  organized  by  electing 
Jesse  Bullock  chairman,  and  Amos  Peabody  clerk. 

1822.  Elijah  Woolworth  settled  in  Alfred,  raising  some  grain  on  a  farm 
in  the  west  part  of  the  town  on  which  some  improvements  had  already  been 
made.  Joseph  Jennings  settled  in  the  south  jDart  of  Allen,  and  Adelbert 
Root  began  improvements  in  Bolivar.  An  association  of  early  settlers  in 
Bolivar,  Christopher  Tyler,  Luther  Austin,  Asa  and  Austin  Cowles  built  the 
first  sawmill  in  that  town  near  the  village.  Settlement  in  ClarksviUe  was 
commenced  by  John  and  Horatio  Slayton,  a  little  south  of  the  center.  It 
was  then  one  unbroken  woods  from  Cuba  to  their  purchase  and  they  had  to 
cut  a  road  the  entire  distance.  Joseph  Palmer  also  settled  in  ClarksviUe. 
The  first  birth  in  ClarksviUe  that  of  Joseph  P.  Slayton  occurred  this  year. 
Hannah  Scott  taught  the  first  school  in  Birdsall,  and  the  Baptist  Church  in 
Friendship  was  organized  with  six  members.  Jabez  Burdick  made  a  chop- 
ping and  built  a  log  house  on  lot  3  in  Genesee,  and  Samuel  Moses  settled  in 
the  northeast  part  of  Granger.  Riley  Parker  began  improvements  in  Grove, 
and  Jonathan  Parsons  made  the  first  beginning  at  Brewer's  Corners. 
Jacob  Baldwin  and  Stephen  Cady  built  the  first  gristmill  in  Cuba  on  Oil 
creek,  about  two  miles  from  the  village,  and  King  and  Graves  opened  the 
first  store  in  Cuba  in  1821  or  1822.  Jesse  and  Philip  Haseltine  settled  on 
lot  74  Independence,  building  a  log  house  and  cutting  and  logging  three 
acres  of  an  old  windfall  without  the  help  of  a  team.  "Pudding  and  milk  " 
was  their  chief  article  of  food  eaten  from  wooden  troughs  with  legs.  Cal- 
vin and  Samuel  Riggs  also  came  to  Independence.  The  first  marriage  in 
New  Hudson  occurred,  that  of  Earl  Gould  and  Catharine  Eastwood.  Benj. 
Palmer  built  the  first  sawmill  in  Scio,  and  Jonah  French  made  a  beginning 
in  Wirt.  The  town  of  Hume  was  erected.  The  board  of  sujjervisors  con- 
sisted of  13  members,  Jesse  Bullock  was  made  chairman  and  Amos  Peabody 

1823.  The  first  religious  services  in  BirdsaU  were  held  at  the  house  of 
Wm.  Dey,  by  Rev.  Robert  Hubbard,  a  Presbyterian.  Samuel  Davie  came 
to  Bolivar,  bringing  the  first  span  of  horses  in  town,  and  the  only  one  be- 
tween "Notch  Hill  "  in  Wirt  and  Ceres.  Ebenezer  Kellogg  also  settled  here. 
In  the  spring  Jabez  Burdick  was  appointed  pathmaster,  his  beat  extend- 
ing nearly  seven  miles,  and  his  was  the  only  family  on  it.  He  and  his  son 
worked  about  60  days,  and  used  ^10  of  public  money.  Blakely  and  Drake 
built  the  first  sawmill  at  Hume  village.  Abner  Comstock  settled  in  the 
northeast  part  of  Granger,  and  Beriah  Crandall  started  the  first  tannery  in 
Independence.  Prominent  among  the  early  settlers  of  this  year  were  Jacob 
McElheny  who  settled  at  Black  Creek,  and  C.  H.  Ingham,  who  opened  a 
public  house  (a  log  one)  at  Hume. 

86  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

The  towns  represented  on  and  the  members  of  the  board  of  super- 
visors were,  Angehca,  Vial  Thomas;  Allen,  James  Wilson;  Alfred, 
Jonathan  Lanphere;  Almond,  Geo.  Lockhart;  Caneadea,  Hiram  Gray;  Cen- 
terville,  Alfred  Forbes;  Cuba,  C.  T.  Chamberlain;  Eagle,  Torrey  Buckley; 
Friendship,  Sylvanus  Merriman;  Hume,  Joshua  Skiff;  Pike,  George  Barlow; 
Rushford,  Matthew  P.  Cady;  Nnnda,  Geo.  Williams;  Scio,  Nathan  Wright; 
Ossian,  Nathaniel  Porter;  Independence,  Nathaniel  Covil.  Sylvanus  Mer- 
riman was  made  president  and  Amos  Peabody  clerk.  Some  of  the  sessions 
were  at  Maj.  Van  Campen's  house,  others  at  the  Court  House.  Joseph  Wil- 
son was  sheriff  and  his  bill  including  fuel  was  $600.94;  $420  interest  was 
voted  to  be  paid  on  the  |6,000  loaned  to  -build  the  court  house,  clerk's  office 
and  improve  roads.  $1,000  was  parcelled  out  among  the  towns  for  bridges. 
On  the  morning  of  Dec.  30,  occurred  the  first  murder  (outright)  in  the 
county,  that  of  Othello  Church  of  Friendship  by  David  D.  How  of  Angelica. 

1824.  This  year  Andover  village  consisted  of  one  framed  building  and 
three  log  houses,  and  its  first  store  was  opened  by  Asa  S.  Allen,  the  first 
log  school  house  had  been  built  in  1823.  James  Adams  came  from  Vermont, 
with  wife  and  two  small  children  in  a  lumber  wagon  drawn  by  oxen,  being 
24  days  on  the  road.  The  first  death  in  Birdsall  occurred,  that  of  Leah 
Riggs,  and  Wm.  Lord  erected  the  first  sawmill  in  that  town  on  Black  Creek. 
Martin  and  Asher  Miner  settled  in  Allen;  and  Joseph  Wells  and  RosweH 
Streeter  in  Genesee.  Ira  Parker  and  Daniel  Moses  began  improvements  in 
the  northeast  part  of  Granger;  Nathanael  Covil  built  the  first  gristmill  in 
Whitesville,  and  James  Maxwell  one  at  Spring  Mills,  the  first  ones  in 
Independence.  Smith  Dexter  and  Ebenezer  Parker  also  settled  in  Inde- 
pendence. Micah  Hall  came  to  Rushford,  and  John,  Joseph  and  Matthew 
Engle  and  Oliver  and  Daniel  Dean  settled  in  West  Almond.  Phny  Evans 
settled  in  Wirt  and  H.  B.  Newton  made  a  beginning  in  Bolivar.  On  the 
"  third  Friday  in  March  "  occurred  the  first  execution  in  the  county,  David 
D.  How  being  hung.  People  came  from  great  distances  to  witness  it.  The 
gaUows  was  erected  on  the  north  side  of  the  square  near  the  present  Charles 
Hotel.  Belfast  and  Andover  were  erected,  the  former  taken  from  Canea- 
dea, as  Orrinsburgh,  the  latter  from  Alfred. 

1825.  Stanley  Gleason  settled  in  Belfast,  and  H.  B.  Newton  and  Asa 
Cowles  opened  a  store  in  "Root  Hollow  "  BoUvar.  Theodore  Halsted  came 
to  Cuba.  The  first  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in  Birdsall  was  formed  by 
Rev.  Eleazar  Dewey.  Ezekiel  Crandall,  Riverious  Hooker,  Jr.  and  John 
Loop  settled  in  Genesee  in  December,  and  James  D.  McKean  opened  the 
first  store  in  Hume  village.  Nathaniel  E.  Mills  opened  a  store  at  Mill's 
Mills,  and  started  an  ashery.  The  Indians  would  bring  ashes  in  bags  from  the 
Reservation  and  exchange  them  for  goods  and  trinkets.  New  Hudson  was  set 
off  from  Rushford  as  Haight,  which  name  it  carried  until  1837,  and  Bolivar  was 
taken  from  Friendship.  The  board  of  supervisors  this  year  consisted  of 
20  members  representing  as  many  towns.  The  board  met  Nov.  15,  and 
organized  by  choosing  Sylvanus  Merriman  president  and  Edward  Renwick 

Third  Decade— 1821-1830.  87 

clerk.  The  next  morning  they  met  at  the  public  house  of  Alexander  D'Au- 
tremont,  and  removed  Mr.  Renwick  and  elected  Matthew  P.  Cady  clerk. 
A  state  census  was  taken  this  year  and  the  enumerators'  bills  were  audited 
by  the  board,  calling  them  "marshals,"  their  accounts  ran  from  |5.62  to 
$32.50.  The  amount  of  bridge  money  raised  was  $188.16.  The  bounty  on 
wolves  was  raised  from  §5  to  $10.  John  Ayers  was  appointed  to  sui^erin- 
tend  repairs  to  the  court  house. 

1826.  Burns  was  set  off  from  Ossian.  Allen  received  quite  an  acces- 
sion to  its  population  by  the  settlement  of  James  and  Samuel  Willison, 
James,  John,  Robert,  George  and  WiUiam  Burthwick.  A  postofiice  was 
established  at  Hume  village  with  C.  G.  Ingham  P.  M.  and  the  first  public 
house  in  Burns  village  was  opened  by  Simeon  D.  Brown.  A  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  at  Short  Tract  was  organized  by  Elder  Buell,  and  Emily 
Page  taught  the  first  school  in  Grove  in  John  White's  log  cabin.  Jared  C. 
Hurd  settled  at  Black  Creek,  New  Hudson,  and  Simeon  Brown  in  Ward. 
Ege  Pierson  made  a  beginning  north  of  Allen  Centre.  Calvin  T.  Chamber- 
lain was  elected  president  of  the  board  of  supervisors  and  Amos  Peabody 
clerk.  Alvin  Burr  was  appointed  treasurer.  The  enormous  sum  of  $15  was 
voted  to  repair  court  house,  jail  and  clerk's  office.  It  was  voted  to  appro- 
priate $25  for  a  stove  and  pipe  for  the  court  house,  but  it  turned  out  to  cost 
forty.  A  resolution  was  passed  directing  Nicholas  Van  Wickle  to  make 
maps  of  the  county  and  the  several  towns  providing  the  cost  shall  not  exceed 
$100.  The  county  this  year  paid  $285  bounty  on  17  old  and  28  young  wolves, 
and  the  state  paid  $225.  Allen  paid  ten  dollars  bounty  to  Aaron  Hale  for 
one  fullgrown  wolf,  and  Cuba  seemed  to  be  especially  infested  with  wild 
cats  eight  being  killed,  the  killers  receiving  a  bounty  of  one  dollar.  On 
August  31st  at  the  council  house  on  Buffalo  Creek  a  treaty  with  the  Seneca 
Indians  was  concluded,  at  which,  for  $48,216  they  parted  forever  with  their 
title  to  the  Caneadea  Reservation,  and  the  whites  were  allowed  to  purchase 
and  occupy  this  desirable  territory.  This  was  one  of  the  most  important 
events  of  this  decade.  The  Legislature  April  12th  passed  an  act  authorizing 
Samuel  King,  Asa  Lee  Davidson  and  Martin  Butts  to  erect  a  dam  across  the 
Genesee  river  at  Belfast. 

1827.  The  first  death  in  Ward  occurred,  that  of  Luther  Powell,  and  the 
first  school  in  Clarksville  was  taught  by  Maria  McDougal.  Andrew  Clark 
settled  in  Allen,  John  CoUer  in  Cuba,  D.  P.  Carnahan  in  Friendship  and  John 
Cook  and  Marmaduke  Aldrich  in  Granger.  The  first  Genesee  Seventh-day 
Baptist  Church  at  Little  Genesee  village  was  organized  with  14  members,  by 
Wm.  B.  Maxson  and  John  Green.  Grove  was  erected  this  year,  and  23 
towns  were  represented  on  the  board  of  supervisors.  C.  T.  Chamberlain 
was  made  president  and  Amos  Peabody  clerk.  Some  sessions  were  held  at 
the  house  of  Hugh  Magee.  Alvin  Burr  was  re-elected  treasurer.  The 
county  paid  $156  bounty  on  eleven  fullgrown  and  eight  young  wolves,  and 
the  state  paid  $102.50  as  bounties.  This  was  the  first  year  in  which  justices 
of  the  peace  were  elected.     Governor  Clinton  recommended  "  the  survey  of 

History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

a  route  for  a  canal,  to  unite  the  Erie  canal  at  Rochester  with  the  Allegany 
river."  And  so  among  the  intelligent  and  discerning  the  hope  of  improved 
methods  of  transporting  the  products  of  farm  and  forest  to  the  seaboard 
markets  was  kindled,  and  people  began  to  take  courage. 

1828.  Isaac  N.  Town  opened  the  first  store  in  Canaseraga,  and  the  first 
inn  in  Clarksville  was  kept  by  Daniel  S.  Carpenter.  Allen  received  quite  a 
start  in  the  settlement  of  Henry  Burt,  Thomas  Cole,  Robert  K.  King,  Jared 
Atwater,  Uriah  Cook,  Solomon  Woodworth,  Austin  Mundy  and  Henry 
Laight.  Elias  Hull  opened  the  first  public  house  in  Birdsall  and  Joseph  B. 
Welch  the  first  store.  Elias  Scott  settled  in  Bolivar,  David  S.  German  in 
Cuba,  Rowland  Coon,  Dea.  George  Potter,  and  Daniel  and  John  Edwards 
began  operations  in  Genesee.  The  first  religious  services  in  Clarksville 
were  held  at  the  house  of  Nelson  Hoyt,  by  the  Methodists.  The  first  settle- 
ment at  Wiscoy,  in  Hume,  was  made  by  Lawrence  Wilkes,  a  blacksmith,  and 
a  sawmill  was  built  by  Ebenezer  Mix  of  Batavia.  This  year  came  to  Inde- 
pendence, Lewis  B.  Pitch,  to  New  Hudson  Benjamin  Whipple,  to  Willing 
John  Graves,  and  John  Scott  to  Wirt.  The  board  of  supervisors  was  organ- 
i2ied  by  electing  C.  T.  Chamberlain  chairman  and  Nicholas  Van  Wickle  clerk. 
Some  of  the  sessions  were  held  at  Hugh  Magee's  house.  Alvin  Burr  was 
again  elected  treasurer.  The  president  by  vote  was  directed  to  sign  a 
memorial  for  toll  bridge  across  the  Genesee  at  Belvidere.  The  court  house 
debt  still  remained  unpaid,  and  |420  was  voted  to  be  paid  as  interest  thereon. 
$100  was  voted  to  repair  court  house,  clerk's  office  and  jail,  and  $10  appro- 
priated to  pay  for  a  county  seal.  13  fuUgrown  wolves  and  one  whelp  were 
reported,  for  which  the  county  paid  $67.50  and  the  state  $62.50.  The  need 
of  a  county  almshouse  began  to  be  apparent  and  was  shown  by  this  resolu- 
tion passed  by  the  board:  "  Resolved  that  the  president  sign  the  petition  in 
behalf  of  this  board  to  the  Legislature,  praying  for  the  passage  of  a  law 
authorizing  the  supervisors  of  the  county  of  Allegany  to  loan  money  and 
build  a  poorhouse,  and  that  James  Wilson,  Jesse  BuUock,  William  Hicks, 
Asa  S.  Allen  and  Lazarus  S.  Rathbon  be  a  committee  to  superintend  the 
same."  This  year  a  survey  was  made  of  a  canal  route  from  Rochester  to 

1829.  The  First  Baptist  Church  of  Andover  was  organized  with  twelve 
members.  Stephen  Wilson  settled  in  Belfast  and  Jeremiah  Beebe  in  Cuba. 
Elliott  Smith  and  Ebenezer  D.  Bliss  began  improvements  in  Genesee,  and 
Abram  Lampman  and  Salmon  Remington  came  to  Granger,  and  Henry  Torry 
opened  a  public  house  at  Mixville  as  Wiscoy  had  come  to  be  called.  Nelson  P. 
Coats  settled  in  Independence,  Asa  Parks  in  Willing,  and  John  Scott  in  Wirt, 
and  many  improvements  were  observed  in  all  sections. 

1830.  Amity  and  Genesee  were  erected,  Amity  from  Angelica,  and 
Genesee  from  Cuba.  Orrin  Kingsley  and  Isaac  Wheeler  opened  a  store  at 
Mixville  and  Dr.  Keyes  settled  there,  its  first  physician.  Nelson  McCaU 
established  a  store  at  Black  Creek  corners  New  Hudson.  Jeremiah  Burdick 
and  Leonard  Daniels  settled  in  Bolivar,  and  Samuel  S.  Ayers  in  Cuba.     26 

Third  Decade.— 1821-1830. 


A  LLE<;/\^v/, 

l<h3  0. 

C     E.    N    e    S     E.     E 

C^    O    U    N    T  ^ 

90  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

towns  were  represented  on  the  board  of  supervisors.  Clark  Crandall  was 
elected  chairman,  and  L.  Rathbon  clerk.  Alvin  Burr  was  again  elected 
treasurer.  Before  this  but  five  committees  had  been  appointed  and  those 
mostly  special.  Now  it  was  "  resolved  that  the  chair  appoint  all  committees 
considered  necessary  to  transact  the  business  of  the  board. "  Among  the  rules 
adopted  was  this,  "  Art.  3.  No  spirituous  liquors  shall  be  brought  or  drank  in 
the  room  while  the  Board  are  in  session,  nor  smoking  (allowed)  in  the  same 
during  the  session."  The  committee  on  equalization  reported  as  follows: 
Alfred  and  Allen  $1.65,  Almond  $1.75,  Amity  and  Birdsall  $1.35,  Andover 
and  Scio  $1.03,  Angehca  $2. 50,  Belfast  $1.56,  Bohvar,  Genesee  and  Independ- 
ence $1.06,  Burns  and  Friendship  $1.55,  Caneadea  and  Rushford  $1.60,  Cen- 
terville  and  Hume  $1.70,  Cuba  and  Grove  $1.50,  Eagle  $1.45,  Haight  $1.40, 
Nunda  $2.70.  Ossian  $1.70,  Portage  $2.85,  Pike  $3.45.  Some  dissatisfaction 
in  regard  to  the  report  being  expressed  the  subject  was  reopened  and  Amity, 
Friendship  and  Hume  were  raised  each  15c.  on  the  acre,  Centerville  10c.  and 
Rushford  5c.  A  resolution  was  passed  to  raise  $500  for  a  bridge  near 
Church's,  and  $300  for  one  near  the  Transit,  or,  if  committee  considered  it 
advisable,  to  appropriate  the  whole  $800  to  build  a  bridge  between  the  two 
places.     Richard  Charles  was  appointed  physician  to  the  jail. 

Mr.  Hull,  of  Birdsall,  from  the  committee  on  jjoorhouse,  suggested  abol- 
ishing all  distinction  between  town  and  county  poor,  recommended  the  ap- 
pointment of  superintendents  of  the  poor;  that  they  be  authorized  and 
instructed  to  purchase  a  farm  not  exceeding  200  acres,  and  commence  erect- 
ing buldings  for  the  poor,  and  to  loan  money  not  to  exceed  $3,000.  The 
report  was  accepted,  resolutions  passed  and  Messrs.  Van  Nostrand,  Hull, 
Lockhart,  Gordon  and  Merrick  were  appointed  to  make  nominations  for 
superintendents.  S.  S.  Haight,  Angelica;  Lorenzo  Dana,  Friendship;  An- 
drew C.  Hull,  BirdsaU;  Stephen  Major,  Almond  and  Wm.  P.  Wilcox,  Nunda, 
were  nominated  and  elected  the  first  county  superintendents  of  the  poor  in 
Allegany.  A  new  bell  was  ordered  for  the  court  house  at  $100.  S.  S.  Haight 
was  appointed  to  attend  a  meeting  of  the  Bath  and  Lake  Erie  Turnpike  Com- 
pany. The  sheriff's  account  for  the  year  was  $525.  "  Expenses  for  county 
purposes,  $1,475.75,  Wolf  Bounties  $467.50,  Bridge  Money  $1,000,  Paid  on 
Court  House  debt  $2,315."  One  panther,  23  wolves  and  18  whelps  were 
accounted  for. 

This  decade  was  distinguished  for  rapid  increase  in  population,  and  the 
large  number  of  new  towns  erected.  The  board  of  supervisors  was  fast  assum- 
ing the  proportions  and  dignity  of  a  real  legislative  body.  School-houses  and 
churches  were  being  erected,  and  a  general  appearance  of  thrift  and  enter- 
prise was  plainly  observable.  An  enumeration  of  the  inhabitants  was  made 
by  United  States  marshals  and  the  population  found  to  be  26,276.  By  an 
act  of  the  Legislature  passed  April  17th,  a  "Survey  of  a  canal  route  from 
Rochester  to  the  Allegany  river  "  was  directed.  It  is  not  learned  that  the 
survey  was  made. 

Fourth  Decade.— 1831-1840.  91 


FOURTH  DECADE. — 1831-1840. 

IN  1831  the  first  gristmill  in  Granger  was  erected  by  Luzon  and 
Lewis  Van  Nostrand.  By  actofLegislatureof  February  19,  apart  of  Can- 
eadea  was  annexed  to  Belfast,  making  the  township  lines  of  the  Holland  Land 
Company  the  town  line.  April  21,  a  bill  passed  the  Legislature  making  pro- 
vision for  a  bridge  across  the  Genesee  river  near  the  mouth  of  Caneadea 
creek,  and  naming  David  Hitchcock,  Timothy  Rice,  and  Arad  H.  Franklin 
commissioners  to  superintend  its  building,  their  compensation  to  be  "$1  per 
day."  April  26.  a  bill  was  passed  appointing  Nathan  Rumsey,  Henry  C. 
Jones  and  James  Sprague  commissioners  to  lay  "a  public  highway,  or  so 
alter  the  present  ones  as  to  make  one  continuous  road  from  the  village  of 
Angelica  in  the  county  of  AUegany,  on  the  best  and  most  practicable  ground 
and  shortest  distance,  to  the  village  of  Batavia  in  the  county  of  Genesee." 
The  first  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Whitesville  was  organized  with 
about  25  members  by  Rev.  J.  D.  McKenney.  Orlin  Marsh  settled  in  New 
Hudson,  and  Henry  Hagadorn  and  Lot.  Harris  in  WiUing.  The  board  of 
supervisors  organized  by  electing  James  Wilson  chairman  and  Nicholas  Van 
Wickle  clerk. 

In  1830  1200  was  raised  to  purchase  the  right  of  Geo.  Williams  and 
others,  to  a  bridge  at  Portageville,  and  Geo.  Williams  and  his  associates  re- 
fused to  accept  of  any  consideration,  but  were  willing  to  give  it  to  the  public, 
so  the  $200  was  directed  "  to  be  laid  out  on  such  bridge,  as  might  be  directed 
by  the  town  of  Portage  upon  Williams  and  others  assigning  the  right  to  the 
public."  $2,885.31  was  raised  to  discharge  the  debt  incurred  for  the  con- 
struction of  court  house,  clerk's  oflice  and  repair  and  improvement  of  roads. 
A  resolution  was  passed  appropriating  $2,500  to  defray  expense  of  building 
■poor  house.  $1,200  was  appropriated  for  extraordinary  expenses.  James 
Wilson  was  directed  to  employ  counsel  to  defend  a  suit  brought  by  Philip 
Church  against  the  county.  It  was  ordered  that  the  county  treasurer  give 
bonds  in  the  sum  of  $10,000. 

We  give  the  towns  and  their  population  in  1830,  and  the  amount  of 
school  money  assigned  to  it  for  this  year.  Alfred,  1.416  pop.,  $73.77;  Allen, 
898  pop.,  $46.78;  Almond,  1,804  pop.,  $93.98;  Amity,  872  pop.,  $45.43;  Andover, 
598  pop.,  $31.16;  Angelica,  998  pop.,  $51.99;  Belfast,  743  pop.,  $38.71;  Birdsall, 
543  pop.,  $28.29;  Bolivar,  449  pop.,  $23.39;  Burns,  702  pop.,  $36.57;  Caneadea, 
782  pop.,  $40.74;  Centerville,  1,195  pop.,  $62.27;  Cuba,  1,059  pop.,  $55.17; 
Eagle,  892  pop.,  $46.47;  Friendship,  1,502  pop.,  $78.25;  Genesee,  219  pop., 
$11.41;  Grove,  1,388  pop.,  $72,31;  Haight,  655  pop.,  $34.13;  Hume,  951  pop., 
$49.55;  Independence,  877  pop.,  $45.70;  Nunda,  1,291  pop.,  $67.26;  Ossian,  812 
pop.,  $42.31;  Pike,  2,016  pop.,  $105.03;  Portage,  1,839  pop.,  $95.81;  Rushford, 

92  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

1,115  pop.,  $58.09;  Scio,  602  pop.,  $31,37.  Andrew  C.  Hull,  Samuel  S.  Haight, 
Moses  Smith,  Amos  Burdick,  Jr.,  and  James  Wilson  were  elected  superin- 
tendents of  poor.  $6  was  appropriated  to  purchase  a  desk  for  the  surrogate, 
and  Peter  Cherry  was  appointed  to  do  the  necessary  printing. 

1832.  But  little  legislation  directly  affecting  Allegany  was  passed. 
April  20,  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  authorizing  Harvey  H.  May  to  erect 
a  dam  across  the  Genesee  river  in  Amity.  The  old  Lake  Erie  Turnpike  hav- 
ing become  an  undesirable  thing  with  its  tollgates  exacting  fare  from  every 
passer-by.  its  demoralized  management  ignoring  the  conditions  of  its 
franchise,  a  bill  was  passed  April  25th  declaring  thirty  miles  of  the  east  end 
of  it  a  public  highway.  Henry  Winn  settled  in  Willing  and  Benjamin  Van 
Fleet  in  New  Hudson.  The  first  Baptist  Church  in  Richburg  was  organized 
by  Rev.  Eliab  Bowen,  and  the  first  store  in  West  Almond  was  opened  by 
Samuel  M.  Eddy.  No  new  towns  were  formed  this  year,  neither  is  it  re- 
corded that  any  first  settlement  of  towns  were  made.  There  was  however 
quite  an  influx  of  immigration,  and  the  old  settlements  were  considerably  en- 
larged. The  older  farms  were  i)utting  on  the  appearance  of  the  eastern 
towns  from  whence  our  pioneers  emigrated  and  things  began  to  look  com- 
fortable and  wear  a  home-like  appearance. 

The  board  of  supervisors  met  November  13th  and  organized  by  electing 
Wm.  Welch  chairman  and  Sam'l  Van  Wickle  clerk.  The  first  business  done 
was  to  appoint  John  Simons,  Tarbell  Gordon  and  David  Stillman  a  committee 
to  make  arrangements  for  board,  etc.  They  soon  reported  that  Daniel 
McHenry  would  board  and  lodge  them  at  the  rate  of  $2  per  week,  keep  a 
horse  for  62+0.  per  week,  and  would  keep  up  fires  and  furnish  candles  in 
addition  to  board  and  lodging  at  75c.  per  day  all  told.  The  board  adopted 
the  report  and  availed  themselves  of  the  terms  offered. 

Under  an  act  of  the  Legislature  the  board  of  supervisors  and  the  judges 
of  the  county,  five  in  number,  elected  by  joint  ballot  the  county  sui:>erin- 
tendents  of  the  poor.  They  elected  James  Wilson,  Moses  Smith,  Jonas 
Wellman  and  Samuel  S.  Haight.  Asa  S.  Allen  was  elected  treasurer  and 
Patrick  Gregg  physician  to  the  poorhouse.  On  motion  of  Jesse  Angel  of 
Almond  it  was  "  Resolved  that  the  county  of  Allegany  and  the  several  towns 
interested  in  that  part  of  the  Bath  and  Lake  Erie  Turn])ike  lying  between 
the  western  termination  thereof  and  the  house  of  Jesse  B.  Gibbs  in  Almond 
release  and  forever  quit  claim  the  same  as  a  public  highway."  And  the  old 
turnpike  became  a  common  road.  A  petition  to  the  Legislature  was  signed 
asking  for  the  passage  of  a  law  requiring  the  supervisors,  town  clerks  and 
justices  of  the  peace  to  audit  town  accounts  on  the  Friday  next  succeeding 
election.  Benj.  F.  Smead's  bill  for  printing  in  1831  was  allowed  at  $19.  Jesse 
Bullock's  account  as  sheriff  was  $765.22.  The  county  paid  for  14  grown 
wolves  and  ten  whelps  $190,  and  the  state  paid  $95.  First  formal  annual 
report  from  the  county  treasurer. 

Capitalists  had  begun  to  visit  the  county  with  an  eye  to  investments, 
and  some  of  our  people  had  prospered  to  an  extent  which  naturally  caUed 

Fourth  Decade.— 1831-1840. 





<'£N£S££        C  o  u  fw  T  Y 

L  IV  I  r\/C,  ST  O  N 

Co  UNTY. 

94  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

attention  to  the  assessment  rolls  to  learn  if  possible  the  extent  of  their 
accumulations.  The  tax  rolls  however  gave  but  little  intimation  of  aggrega- 
tions of  wealth,  and  the  matter  came  to  be  the  subject  of  talk  and  discussion. 
So  the  board  at  this  session  resolved  that  the  clerk  and  assistant  clerk  direct 
a  circular  letter  to  the  several  town  clerks  in  regard  to  the  assessment  of 
personal  property.  Luther  Couch  a  justice  of  the  peace  of  Hume  was  allowed 
$4.75  on  skunk  certificates.  Luther  C.  Peck  and  George  Miles  were  retained 
by  th6  county  to  defend  a  suit  brought  by  Philip  Church. 

1833.  April  15th  West  Almond  was  formed  from  parts  of  Angelica, 
Almond  and  Alfred,  and  the  first  sawmill  was  erected  there.     Settlement 

was  begun  in  Alma  by  Warren  Hough  and Longcore.     Albert  B.  Crandall 

commenced  operations  in  Genesee,  teaching  a  school  the  next  winter  and 
chopping  by  moonlight.  Henry  C.  Champlin  settled  on  Dodge  Creek,  Gene- 
see. The  Erie  canal  had  changed  the  direction  of  shipment  of  the  surplus 
crops  from  the  Susquehanna  route  to  the  seaboard  via  Bath  and  Hornellsville 
to  the  more  feasible  and  shorter  Genesee  river  route  northward  where  the 
canal  gave  the  settlers  better  markets  at  the  new  cities  of  Buffalo  and 
Rochester,  and  they  became  anxious  for  a  lateral  canal  connecting  with  the 
Erie  to  furnish  easier  transportation  for  their  surplus  grain  and  the  wealth 
of  their  forests.  A  meeting  at  Geneseo  in  1825,  held  under  a  call  signed  by 
Philip  Church,  Daniel  H.  Fitzhugh,  Wm.  H.  Spencer,  Ira  West,  Jonathan 
Child  and  Heman  Norton,  was  the  first  step  in  an  organization  which  secured 
favorable  legislation  for  ' '  a  canal  from  Rochester  along  the  valley  of  the 
Genesee  and  Canaseraga  and  of  a  canal  from  Genesee  river  to  some  point  on 
the  Allegany  river. "  Only  two  or  three  bridges  as  yet  spanned  the  Genesee. 
Canoes,  skiff  sand  rafts  were  extensively  used,  while,  in  low  water,  the  many 
shallows  afforded  good  places  for  fording. 

1834.  The  Third  Seventh-day  Baptist  Church  in  Genesee  was  organized 
with  12  members,  and  in  Independence  the  1st  Seventh-day  Baptist  Church 
was  organized  by  Rev.  Stillman  Coon  with  40  members.  Charles  Rogers 
and  Enos  Gifford  settled  in  Willing.  Heeding  the  importunities  of  the  people 
along  the  Genesee  Valley  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  authorizing  a  survey 
of  a  route  for  a  canal  to  connect  the  Erie  canal  and  the  Allegany  river,  and 
the  survey  was  made  under  the  direction  of  J.  C.  Mills.  Only  the  part 
relating  to  town  and  county  audits  can  be  found  of  the  proceedings  of  the 
board  of  supervisors  for  this  year.  The  poorhouse  had  been  completed  and 
was  furnishing  food  and  shelter  for  92  inmates.  10  wolves  and  27  whelps 
were  paid  for  this  year  the  sum  being  $235.  The  state  also  paid  $89.50. 
This  year  James  Pinkerton  of  Caneadea  killed  an  old  wolf  and  11  young  ones. 
April  30th  an  act  passed  the  Legislature  authorizing  and  directing  the  survey 
of  a  canal  route  from  Rochester  to  Clean,  and  May  1st  another  directing  the 
survey  of  a  road  from  Hammond  sport  to  Angelica. 

1885.  The  Third  Baptist  Church  of  Cuba  with  22  members  was  organ- 
ized by  Rev.  Mr.  Tuttle,  also  the  first  Baptist  Church  in  Hume  with  22 
members  by  Elders  James  Reed,  J.  C.  Sangster  and  A.  Miner.     The  Bap- 

Fourth  Decade.— 1831-1840.  95 

tists  of  West  Almond  also  organized  with  88  members,  with  Rev.  J.  P.  Evans 
as  first  pastor.  Jacob  Truax  settled  in  Willing.  27  towns  were  represented 
upon  the  board.  Josiah  Utter  was  chosen  chairman  and  S.  C.  Wilson  clerk. 
The  state  paid  $67.50  for  ten  grown  wolves  and  seven  whelps.  Lindsley  Jos- 
lyn,  Richard  Charles,  Matthew  P.  Cady,  Jesse  Angel  and  Ezra  Smith  were 
elected  county  superintendents  of  the  poor.  The  board  resolved  to  raise 
$500  toward  a  bridge  at  Buttsville  (Belfast).  The  most  disastrous  flood  in  the 
Genesee  river  and  some  of  its  tributuaries  occurred  this  year.  Old  settlers 
speak  of  it  as  the  "great  flood,"  and  it  has  since  been  used  as  a  time  marker. 
The  water  reached  its  greatest  height  October  19th  it  having  rained  hard 
for  two  or  three  days.  Large  quantities  of  corn  were  destroyed.  Not  a 
bridge  was  left  upon  the  Genesee  river  from  Rochester  to  Pennsylvania. 
Fences,  houses,  barns,  mills  and  dams  were  taken  away  and  much  loss  and 
great  inconvenience  followed.  Calvin  T.  Chamb  erlain  was  elected  member  of 
the  Assembly.  Clarksville  was  set  off  from  Cuba,  and  an  act  was  passed 
incorporating  the  village  of  Angelica. 

1836.  A  select  school  started  in  Alfred  by  Bethuel  Church,  the  begin- 
ning of  Alfred  University.  The  first  white  child  born  in  Alma,  Emeline 
Hurlbutt.  John  Whiting  made  the  first  settlement  in  Fillmore.  Baptists' 
first  house  of  worship  in  Hume  erected,  and  first  school  taught  in  Willing  by 
Betsey  Lovell.  The  board  of  supervisors  consisted  of  28  members  and 
organized  with  Josiah  Utter  chairman  and  T.  I.  Lyon  clerk.  Richard 
Charles.  Elias  HuU  and  Ezra  Smith,  elected  superintendents  of  the  poor. 
Charles  D.  Robinson  appointed  physician  to  the  jail.  Asa  S.  Allen  resigned 
the  office  of  county  treasurer,  accepted.  The  judge  and  supervisors  elected 
Andrew  C.  Hull  county  treasurer;  Thomas  Smith  "sealer."  State  paid 
for  seven  wolves  $35  and  the  county  for  six  $30.  The  bill  of  George  Miles  dis- 
trict attorney  was  $466.08.  Sheriff  Moses  Smith's  bill  was  $1,008.32  and  the 
superintendents  of  the  j)oor  drew  $2,256.  The  Church  lawsuit  was  still  on 
and  a  bill  of  $125  for  fees  of  Azor  Tabor  and  M.  T.  Reynolds  was  allowed,  as 
assistant  counsel.  AUegany  was  entitled  to  elect  two  members  of  the  As- 
sembly, and  C.  T.  Chamberlain  was  re-elected  and  Azel  Fitch  elected.  May 
12th  an  act  was  passed  to  incorporate  Angelica  academy.  May  13th  a  bill 
was  passed  authorizing  the  supervisors  of  the  counties  embracing  the  Hol- 
land Purchase  to  obtain  from  the  HoUand  Company,  and  have  the  various 
county  clerks  record  or  file,  "  such  field-notes,  maps,  books  and  other  statis- 
tical information"  as  they  should  decide  to  ask  for  and  " the  local  agents 
consent  to  furnish."    A  good  move.     Was  ever  anything  down  about  it? 

1837.  First  public  house  in  Alma  by  Azor  Hurlbutt,  and  first  death  in 
Wihing,  a  young  child  of  Austin  Butler.  By  an  act  of  the  Legislature  "  that 
part  of  Little  Genesee  creek,  extending  from  the  sawmill  now  owned  and 
occupied  by  Messrs.  T.  and  M.  Cowles,  in  Bolivar  in  the  county  of  Allegany,  to 
the  Pennsylvania  line  is  hereby  declared  a  public  highway. ' '  April  4th  the 
name  of  the  town  of  Haight  was  changed  to  New  Hudson.  The  AUegany 
Mutual  InsuranceCompany  was  incorporated  by  act  of  the  Legislature  passed 

96  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

April  13th.  The  bill  provided  that  "Jesse  Angel,  Benedict  Bagley,  Ezra 
Smith,  Edward  H.  Johnson,  Richard  Charles,  Augustus  A.  Common,  Gilbert 
B.  Champlain,  William  A.  Kirkpatric,  Orleton  N.  Messenger,  Milton  McCall, 
Ransom  Lloyd,  Lawrence  Hull,  Hiram  Wilson,  John  B.  Church  and  Samuel 
King,  and  all  other  persons,  who  may  hereafter  associate  with  them  in  the 
manner  hereinafter  prescribed,  shall  be  a  corporation,  by  the  name  of  '  The 
Allegany  Mutual  Insurance  Company,'  for  the  purpose  of  insuring  their 
respective  dwelling-houses,  stores,  and  other  property  against  loss  or  dam- 
age by  fire."  This  company  continued  for  ten  years  when  it  closed,  assess- 
ments having  become  so  frequent  and  oppressive  as  to  make  a  member- 
ship in  the  company  undesirable.  The  board  of  supervisors  organized  by 
electing  Josiah  Utter  chairman  and  Thomas  J.  Dwyer  clerk.  Ezra  Smith, 
Alanson  Burr,  John  Brathwait,  Samuel  C.  Wilson  and  Chauncey  F.  Clark 
were  elected  county  superintendents  of  the  poor.  There  were  two  newspa- 
pers published  in  the  county,  and  the  board  resolved  to  print  the  oflicial  can- 
vass in  each.  The  bounty  on  wolves  was  placed  at  $10,  a  resolution  having 
been  offered  to  fix  it  at  |20  and  lost.  The  judges'  seats  in  the  court  house 
having  become  worn  it  was  resolved  that  $20  be  raised  for  the  purchase  of 
five  chairs  for  the  judges,  and  that  the  judges  be  a  committee  to  secure  the 
same.  $50  was  voted  for  stoves  and  pipes  and  fixing  fire-places  in  the 
county  poor  house.  A  bridge  having  been  commenced  at  Burrville  (Canea- 
dea)  and  more  funds  needed  $200  was  voted  to  complete  it,  and  $78.05  appro- 
priated to  purchase  a  set  of  weights  and  measures  for  the  county.  It  was 
considered  that  $25  would  pay  for  necessary  repairs  to  the  court  house,  and 
$20  was  voted  to  build  a  fence  around  the  back  yard  of  the  court  house. 
Only  $55  were  paid  in  wolf  bounties,  this  was  for  three  old  and  five  young 
ones.  Alexander  S.  Diven  presented  a  bill  as  district  attorney  for  $301.30 
and  George  Miles,  for  same  service,  $279.02.  Seth  H.  Pratt,  of  Hume  and 
Samuel  RusseU  of  Alfred  were  elected  to  the  assembly. 

1838.  The  first  religious  services  in  Alma  were  held  by  Rev.  Reuben 
Kent.  First  public  house  in  Fillmore  opened  on  the  hill  west  of  the  route  of 
the  canal,  by  Abner  Leet.  The  First  Baptist  Church  of  Whitesville  organ- 
ized with  11  members  by  Rev.  John  B.  Chase.  A  Presbyterian  Church 
organized  by  Revs.  Lemuel  Hull,  Phineas  Smith  and  A.  S.  Allen.  Work  on 
the  Genesee  Valley  Canal  was  being  prosecuted,  and  the  construction  of  the 
Erie  Railroad  commenced,  which  stimulated  the  hopes  and  lightened  the 
labors  of  our  people.  Both  lines  were  to  pass  through  the  county.  July 
26th  occurred  one  of  the  most  fearful  wind  storms  that  ever  visited  the 
county.  Its  tract  covered  a  width  of  three-fourths  of  a  mile.  Scarce  a 
tree  was  left  standing  in.  its  course.  Houses,  barns,  wagons,  all  things  in 
its  way  were  hurled  to  the  ground,  and  in  some  instances  moved  quite  a  dis- 
tance. Wm.  V.  Ayers  was  living  in  the  track,  though  not  in  the  midst  of  its 
worst  effects,  with  his  wife  and  child  he  escaped  injury  by  seeking  the  shelter 
of  the  milk-house.  Stephen  Wilson  had  a  horse  killed.  The  water  in  the 
river  was  swooped  up  leaving  the  channel  for  a  few  minutes  dry.     The  mud 

Fourth  Decade.— 1831-1840.  97 

and  water  were  scattered  over  everything  in  reach,  and,  near  the  Transit, 
the  soil  from  a  lield  was  swept  completely  off  plow-deej^.  The  storm  came 
from  the  west  and  passed  in  a  southeast  direction,  crossing-  the  Genesee  a 
little  below  the  Transit  bridge.  Its  effects  were  seen  for  years.  But  one 
evidence  of  this  storm  remains,  a  pine  stub  lying  in  the  stumj)  fence  north 
of  the  Transit  school-house.  The  board  of  supervisors,  28  members,  organ- 
ized by  choosing  Wm.  Welch  chairman,  and  Thos.  J.  T.  Dryer  clerk.  James 
Matthews,  Jason  Hunt  and  J.  B.  Welch  were  appointed  a  committee  to 
obtain  board,  etc.  The  board  in  joint  action  with  the  judges  appointed  Ezra 
Smith  and  Chauncey  F.  Clark,  county  superintendents  of  the  poor,  and 
could  agree  upon  no  others  so  they  dissolved  the  joint  meeting.  Nine  wolves 
and  16  whelps  were  paid  for,  bounty  allowed,  $170.  A.  S.  Diven  was  dis- 
trict attorney,  his  bill  for  services  was  $482.78.  Considerable  dissatisfac- 
tion being  felt  in  regard  to  the  non-assessment  of  personal  property,  this 
preamble  and  resolution  was  passed:  "Whereas  it  is  evident  that  the 
assessors  in  many  of  the  towns  have  neglected  to  make  a  correct  assessment 
of  personal  property  in  their  several  towns,  which  neglect  operates  unjustly 
on  those  towns  which  do  assess  the  same,  therefore,  Resolved  by  this  board 
that  any  assessor  who  shall  hereafter  neglect  to  ascertain  and  assess  the 
personal  property  of  his  town  according  to  the  best  information  he  can 
obtain,  shall  be  presented  to  the  Grand  Jury,  for  indictment."  "  Resolved 
that  a  copy  of  the  foregoing  preamble  and  resolution,  be  taken  by  each 
supervisor,  and  read  at  the  next  town  meeting  in  his  town."  Seth  H.  Pratt, 
of  Hume  and  William  Welch  of  De  Witts  Valley  were  this  year  elected  to  the 
Legislatvire.  Granger  was  April  18th  formed  from  Grove  as  West  Grove. 
Wirt  was  erected  from  Friendship  and  Bolivar. 

1839.  Asgil  S.  Dudley  ox:)ened  the  first  store  in  Fillmore,  and  Zebina 
Dickinson  and  Olivier  Ackerman  settled  in  Willing.  March  6th  the  name  of 
the  town  of  West  Grove  was  changed  to  Granger.  Work  on  the  Genesee 
Valley  Canal  had  been  put  under  contract,  and  work  was  being  actively  pros- 
ecuted, furnishing  opportunities  for  many  to  w^ork  with  teams  and  other- 
wise, thus  earning  money  to  help  them  over  the  hard  places.  A  great  in- 
flux of  foreigners,  mostly  Irish,  occurred  about  this  time,  the  inducement 
being  the  "public  works."  The  First  M.  E.  Church  of  Andover  organized 
with  11  members  by  Rev.  Samuel  Nichols.  Benjamin  Burlingame  was 
chairman  of  the  board  of  supervisors,  Isaac  G.  Freeman  clerk,  Elias  HuU, 
Ithamar  Smith,  Reuben  Weed,  Samuel  C.  Wilson  and  Abner  Adams  county 
superintendents  of  the  poor.  A  motion  to  remove  the  county  treasurer,  A. 
C.  Hull,  was  carried  by  one  majority.  Ransom  Lloyd  was  then  appointed 
county  treasurer  and  his  bail  fixed  at  $40,000.  The  stock  of  the  county  in 
the  New  York  and  Erie  Turnpike  was  sold  to  Hon.  P.  Church,  for  $200. 
A  panther  bounty  of  $2.50  and  on  9  wolves  at  $5  were  paid  for.  First  compli- 
mentary resolution  to  chairman  on  record  was  x^assed  by  the  board. 

1840.  This  decade  closes  with  increasing  prosj^erity.  Work  had  been 
commenced  on  the  Erie  Railroad  and  the  Genesee  VaUey  Canal.     Mills  were 

98  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

being  erected,  and  lumber  manufactured  in  large  quantities,  which  sought 
markets  by  way  of  Olean*  and  the  Allegany  river,  Hornellsville  and  the 
Cohocton,  and  Mt.  Morris  and  the  Genesee  Valley  and  Erie  canals.  A  better 
class  of  buildings  of  all  kinds  was  observable,  and  people  were  becoming 
contented  and  happy.  This  year  was  distinguished  by  the  great  presidential 
campaign,  in  which  ' '  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler  too ' '  and  many  other  songs  were 
sung  and  which  actually  wafted  Gen.  William  Henry  Harrison  into  the  presi- 
dential chair  on  a  tidal  wave  of  campaign  melody,  over  Martin  Van  Buren 
the  Democratic  candidate.  This  tabulated  statement  from  the  records  of 
the  board  of  supervisors,  shows  the  valuation  of  the  real  and  personal  prop- 
erty of  the  several  towns:  Angelica,  personal  $12,866,  real  and  personal 
$204,866;  Almond,  $5,325,  $200,325;  Allen,  $300,  $114,300;  Alfred,  $9,374, 
$179,374;   Andover,  $205,  $116,205;   Amity,  $3,034,  $221,034;  Belfast,  $720, 

$140,720;    Birdsall, ,  $90,000;    Bolivar,  $1,813,  $81,813;  Burns,  $11,230, 

$119,230;  Caneadea,  $2,330,  $169,330;  Centerville,  $11,440,  $171,440; 
Clarksville,  $276,  $72,276;  Cuba,  $2,235.  $172,235;  Eagle,  $1,700,  $131,700; 
Friendship,  $6,910,  $146,910;  Genesee,  $650,  $82,650;  Grove,  $180,  $88,180; 
Granger,  $2,525,  $134,525;  Hume,  $6,450,  $251,450;  Independence,  $1,900, 
$166,900;  New  Hudson,  $1,000,  $128,000;  Nunda,  $33,134,  $383,134;  Ossian, 
$6,033,  $126,033;  Portage,  $13,500,  $383,500;  Pike,  $23,140,  $345,140; 
Rushford,  $19,784,  $219,784;  Scio,  $389,  $250,389;  West  Almond,  $4,376, 
$101,376;  Wirt,  $3,175,  $118,175.  There  were  30  towns  represented  on  the 
board  of  supervisors.  W.  Hicks  was  elected  chairman  and  Wm.  P.  Angel 
was  chosen  clerk.  Alexander  S.  Diven's  bill  as  District  Attorney  was 
$371.72.  Reuben  Weed,  Abner  Adams,  Jonathan  Smith,  Sam'l  C.  Wilson  and 
Henry  Stevens  were  elected  county  superintendents  of  the  poor.  H.  W. 
Bullock  attended  the  board  and  furnished  fuel  and  lights  for  119.  The  com- 
mittee to  visit  the  poorhouse  reported  57  inmates,  number  received  during 
the  year  84,  and  the  average  number  of  inmates  42. 


FIFTH   DECADE. — 1841-1850. 

T1[HEN  this  decade  opened  the  county  presented  a  lively  and  prosperous 
VV  spectacle.  Work  on  the  Genesee  Valley  canal  and  the  Erie  railroad 
was  being  pushed  rapidly  forward,  the  great  number  of  common  laborers, 
workmen  and  artisans  employed  made  a  good  home-market  for  the  surplus 
products  of  the  farms,  and,  besides,  many  farmers  availed  themselves  of  the 
opportunity  to  employ  their  teams  upon  the  public  works,  for  which  they 
received  a  fair  renumeration,  thus  helping  them  out  in  their  payments  upon 

Fifth  Decade— 1841-1850.  99 

their  places.     Money  was  reasonably  plenty,   and  it  was  a  time  of  quite 
general  prosperity. 

1841.  Thirty  towns  were  represented  ujion  the  board  of  supervisors 
this  year.  Samuel  Russell  was  chosen  chairman,  and  Samuel  Van  Wickle 
clerk.  A  change  was  made  in  the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  the  com- 
mon schools.  The  old  office  of  town  inspector  of  common  schools  was  abol- 
ished and  deputy  superintendents  of  common  schools  were  elected,  one  for 
the  northern  and  one  for  the  southern  district.  Wm.  C.  Kenyon  was  chosen 
for  the  southern,  and  Abraham  Burgess  for  the  northern  district.  The 
superintendents  of  the  poor  elected  this  year  were  Joshua  Vincent,  Tarbell 
Gordon.  John  Powers,  Nathaniel  Olney,  and  Alvin  Burr.  The  whole  amount 
of  taxes  spread  upon  the  county  this  year  was  |110,623.07.  Lorenzo  Dana 
and  Horace  Hunt  were  elected  to  the  assembly.  Alexander  S.  Diven  was 
elected  district  attorney.  The  account  of  Wilkes  Angel,  the  retiring  district 
attorney,  was  audited  at  ^316.63. 

On  the  6th  of  October,  1841,  a  meeting  was  held  at  the  court  house  at 
Angelica,  at  which  the  Allegany  County  Agricultural  Society  was  organized 
with  the  following  officers :  President,  Wm.  G.  Angel;  vice-presidents,  John 
Ayers,  George  Lockhart.  Orra  Stillman,  James  Wilson,  Jr.,  Andrew  Baker, 
Wm.  Van  Campen,  Stephen  Wilson,  Jr.,  John  Boles,  Martin  Butts,  Stephen 
Mundy.  Rodman  Freeborn.  Wm.  A.  Stacy,  Edward  H.  Johnson,  Peter  Leroy, 
David  T.  Hamilton,  Josiah  Utter,  Isaac  Van  Nostrand,  John  White,  Jabez 
Burdick.  Luther  Couch,  Samuel  C.  Clark,  John  Seaver,  Asa  K.  Allen,  Jacob 
Clendening,  John  Jones.  James  Perlnns,  James  McCall,  Abraham  Middaugh, 
Jesse  R.  Gibbs,  and  Jonah  French;  recording  secretary,  A.  S.  Diven;  corre- 
sponding secretary.  Ransom  Lloyd;  treasurer,  Alvin  Burr;  board  of  mana- 
gers. Vial  Thomas,  Stephen  Woodruff,  Charles  Maxson,  Brice  Carr,  Hiram 
Harmon,  John  Simons,  William  Brown,  James  Matthews,  Eli  Lasure,  Noah 
Smith,  Elias  Smith,  Levi  Latham,  Wm.  Duncan,  Moses  Parsons,  Stephen 
Wing.  Hollis  Scott,  Samuel  Jones.  Reuben  Weed,  Hiram  Wilson,  Oliver  M. 
Russel,  Samuel  S.  White,  Calvin  B.  Lawrence,  Isaac  Andrews,  Joshua 
Rathbun.  Moses  Smith,  A.  P.  Messenger,  Abram  J.  Lyon,  William  Knight, 
John  Lockhart,  and  Daniel  Willard.  The  society  thus  formed  still  exists. 
It  has  had  its  seasons  of  prosperity  and  adversity,  as  with  all  such  institu- 
tions, has  grounds  well  adapted  for  its  purposes,  and  holds  a  fair  every 
year  at  Angelica. 

1842.  Work  on  the  Genesee  Valley  canal  and  Erie  railroad  was  sus- 
pended this  year;  on  the  former  owing  to  a  change  in  the  state  administra- 
tion, and  policy  regarding  the  prosecution  of  public  works;  and  on  the  latter 
on  account  of  "hard  times"  to  obtain  money  for  its  prosecution.  This 
made  our  people  feel  sad,  and  though  their  hopes  were  not  entirely  blasted 
their  hearts  were  made  sick.  Thirty  towns  were  this  year  represented 
upon  the  board  of  supervisors;  Wm.  Hicks  was  made  chairman,  and  Lewis 
D.  Simons  clerk.  Abraham  Burgess  was  allowed  $327.50  for  services  as 
deputy  superintendent  of  common  schools,  Wm.  C.  Kenyon  $106,  and  L.  H. 

100  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Maxson  |72;  the  two  latter  for  the  southern  district.  The  whole  amount  of 
taxes  levied  in  the  county  this  year  was  $15,317.98.  The  propagation  of  silk 
worms  and  the  jDroduction  of  silk  it  would  seem  was  receiving  some  atten- 
tion at  this  time,  judging  from  this  quotation  from  the  proceedings  of  the 
board  of  supervisors:  "The  certificate  of  Jonathan E.  Parmalee and Ephraim 
Smith  having  been  presented  to  the  board  by  which  it  appears  that  Otis 
Ward  has  raised  9  15-16  pounds  silk  cocoons,  and  Arad  French  25i  pounds; 
on  motion,  resolved  that  the  amount  specified  in  said  certificate  be  allowed, 
and  that  the  treasurer  of  the  county  of  Allegany  pay  to  the  bearer  thereof 
15  cents  for  each  pound  of  cocoons  above  mentioned."  Samuel  C.  Wilson 
was  elected  county  treasurer,  and  Hiram  Wilson  and  Ralph  C.  Spencer  were 
elected  deputy  superintendents  of  common  schools.  Bids  for  the  county 
printing  were  received,  that  of  E.  C.  Palmer  for  $25  and  that  of  Purdy 
&  Horton  for  $24.75,  the  latter  was  awarded  the  work.  Number  of 
paupers  in  the  county  poorhouse,  47;  smallest  number  at  any  time  during 
the  year  33. 

The  proceedings  of  the  board  of  supervisors  for  1843  are  missing. 
Samuel  C.  Wilson  was  appointed  first  judge  this  year. 

1844.  The  number  of  towns  was  still  30,  and  Robert  Flint  was  made 
chairman  and  Samuel  Van  Wickle  clerk  of  the  board  of  supervisors;  Andrews 
A.  Norton,  Ephraim  Smith,  John  Powers,  Norman  Howes  and  Ithamar 
Smith  were  elected  superintendents  of  the  poor.  District  attorneys  Wilkes 
Angel  and  M.  B.  Champlain  were  allowed  claims,  the  former  $105.41,  the 
latter  $195.75.  Alfred  Lockhart  was  elected  treasurer,  Ralph  C.  Spencer 
and  J.  J.  Rockafellow  deputy  superintendents  of  common  schools,  the  former 
being  allowed  $483,  and  the  latter  $308,  for  services  the  past  year.  The 
number  of  paupers  in  the  county  poorhouse  at  time  of  visitation  was  34. 
David  Brown's  bill  for  wood,  lights  and  attendance,  during  session  of  the 
board  was  $15.  Dennis  B.  Chapin  from  the  southern  and  Samuel  Blodgett 
from  the  northern  district  were  chosen  pupils  to  attend  the  state  normal 
school  at  Albany,  the  first  in  the  county.  Martin  Grover  of  Angelica,  then 
known  to  many  as  the  "  ragged  lawyer,"  was  elected  to  Congress,  the  dis- 
trict comprising  the  counties  of  Allegany  and  Steuben.  Nathaniel  Coe  of 
Nunda  and  John  G.  Collins  of  Angelica  were  elected  to  the  assembly.  Sam- 
uel C.  Wilson  was  appointed  surrogate. 

1845.  In  1845  Horace  Hunt  was  chosen  chairman  of  the  board  of  super- 
visors, and  Samuel  Van  Wickle  clerk.  A  claim  for  bounty  on  ten  pounds  of 
silk  cocoons  at  $1.50  was  allowed,  the  last  appearance  upon  the  records  of 
that  industry.  Candles  and  sperm  oil  were  still  used  for  illuminating  pur- 
poses, and  Sheriff  Brown  was  directed  to  purchase  "four  pairs  of  snuffers, 
and  shovel  and  tongs  for  use  in  the  court  house."  Postage  was  still  very 
high;  in  an  account  of  A.  Lockhart,  an  item  "Postage  on  letter  from  Utica, 
19  cents  "  appears.  A  bounty  of  $30  was  allowed  for  two  wolves  killed,  the 
state  also  paying  $10.  This  is  the  last  mention  of  wolves  in  the  proceedings 
of  the  board  of  supervisors.     It  is  perhaps  proper  and  is  certainly  interest- 

Fifth  Decade.— 1841-1850.  101 

ing  to  note  that  in  the  27  years  of  which  we  have  the  data,  1.255  wolves  and 
panthers  were  reported  and  "  certilied  to  "  as  having  been  killed;  for  which 
bounties  aggregating  >pl9,496  were  paid  by  the  county  and  state,  not  includ- 
ing town  bounties.  From  the  organization  of  the  county,  or  rather  from 
1808,  the  time  of  the  first  possible  meeting  of  the  board  of  supervisors,  there 
are  10  years  for  which  no  data  can  be  found.  Now,  if  the  ten  years  for  which 
the  accounts  are  missing,  were  up  to  the  average  of  those  accounted  for, 
there  must  have  been  as  many  as  1,746  wolves  and  panthers  killed,  from 
1808  to  1845  inclusive,  at  a  cost  to  state  and  county  of  $26,679.70.  The  records 
reveal  nothing  as  to  bounties  on  bears,  but  panthers  were  included  in  and 
rated  the  same  as  wolves,  oi^y  3  however  were  reported.  This  of  course 
indicates  that  panthers  were  not  frequently  found,  and  that  bears,  if  some- 
what numerous,  were  not  aggressive  or  troublesome.  Nathaniel  Coe  and 
John  G.  Collins  were  re-elected  to  the  assembly.  Marshall  B.  Champlain 
was  appointed  district  attorney. 

1846.  At  the  general  state  election,  Nov.  4,  1845,  a  convention  was 
ordered  for  the  purpose  of  framing  a  new  Constitution.  The  vote  stood 
"For  a  convention,"  213,257;  "No  convention,"  33,860.  Accordingly  the 
Legislature  passed  an  act  calling  the  convention  to  meet  at  Albany,  June  1, 
1846,  when  the  convention  met  and  performed  its  labor  so  as  to  adjourn 
on  the  9th  of  October,  submitting  the  new  constitution  to  the  people  at  the 
general  election  held  Nov,  3,  1846,  when  it  was  adopted  by  the  folio  wing  vote: 
Amended  constitution,  "Yes,"  221,525;  amended  constitution,  "No,"  92,436. 
Allegany  county  was  represented  in  the  convention  by  William  G.  Angel 
and  Calvin  T.  Chamberlain.  Mr.  Angel  was  a  leading  and  influential  mem- 
ber, delivering  a  speech  on  "  the  qualifications  and  duties  of  the  executive  " 
which  was  not  excelled  by  any  speech  made  on  that  subject  in  the  conven- 
tion. To  quote  L.  B.  Proctor  in  his  "Lives  of  Eminent  Lawyers  of  New 
York:  "  "  His  speeches  on  the  apportionment,  on  the  election  and  tenure  of 
office  of  the  Legislature — on  the  judiciary  articles — on  the  canals  and  finan- 
ces, and  on  the  rights  of  married  women,  were  fertile  with  practical,  use- 
ful and  liberal  suggestions,  and  furnished  the  convention  with  a  fund  of 
valuable  information,  which  greatly  aided  the  members  in  their  delibera- 
tions." Grover  Leavins  and  Samuel  Russell  were  elected  to  the  assembly. 
Martin  Butts  was  elected  county  clerk,  and  Joshua  Rathbun  sheriff.  This 
year  the  towns  of  Eagle,  Pike,  Portage  and  Nunda  were,  against  the  strong 
remonstrance  of  the  rest  of  the  county,  set  off  to  Wyoming  and  Livingston 
counties.  Early  this  year  war  with  Mexico  commenced,  owing  to  the 
annexation  of  Texas  by  the  United  States.  Volunteers  were  called  for  and 
all  troops  necessary  for  its  prosecution  were  obtained  by  voluntary  enlist- 
ment. A  number  went  from  Allegany,  enlisting  at  Buffalo,  the  nearest 
recruiting  station,  but  no  company  was  organized  here.  The  effect  of  the 
war,   which  lasted  some  two  years,  was  hardly  perceptible  in  this  section. 

1847.  Ever  since  the  abandonment  of  the  public  works  in  1842  the  peo- 
ple had  been  unceasing  in  their  efforts  to  effect  a  resumption.     Timber  which 

102  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

had  been  gotten  out  for  the  structures,  and  in  many  cases  the  half  finished 
bridges,  waste- weirs,  etc.,  were  decaying,  and  along  the  line  of  the  canal 
damages  were  paid  to  contractors,  enough  it  was  declared  in  some  instan- 
ces to  have  completed  the  work;  but  in  1847  people  began  to  think  that  work 
would  soon  be  resumed;  the  conviction  had  good  effect,  and  even  the  despair- 
ing indulged  hope.  Only  26  towns  were  represented  on  the  board  of  super- 
visors. Anson  Congdon  of  Clarksville  was  chosen  chairman,  and  A.  B.  Hull 
clerk.  At  the  first  session  on  the  second  day  Hull  was  removed  and  Joseph 
W.  Stewart  elected;  a  very  strange  procedure  to  say  the  least!  John 
Wheeler  of  Granger  and  William  Cobb  of  Independence  were  elected  to  the 
assembly.  William  G.  Angel  was  elected  county  judge,  and  Lucien  P.  Weth- 
erby  district  attorney. 

1848.  Work  was  resumed  upon  the  Genesee  Valley  canal  and  about  the 
same  time  upon  the  Erie  railroad,  and  a  general  revival  in  all  business  lines 
soon  followed.  Orville  Boardman  of  Rushford  and  Erastus  H.  Willard  of 
Friendship  were  sent  to  the  Legislature. 

1849.  Anthony  T.  Wood  of  Ossian  and  Joseph  Corey  were  elected  to  the 
assembly,  John  J.  Rockafellow  county  clerk,  Joab  B.  Hughes  sheriff. 

1850.  The  population  of  the  county  was  37,808,  some  3,000  less  than 
that  of  1840,  but  when  the  before  mentioned  loss  of  four  towns  is  taken  into 
account  an  actual  gain  in  the  26  towns  remaining  is  found.  Emery  E.  Nor- 
ton and  Anson  Congdon  were  elected  to  the  assembly,  and  Augustus  L. 
Davidson  elected  district  attorney.  The  decade  closed  with  lively  prosecu- 
tion of  public  works,  and  good  prospects  for  the  early  completion  of  both 
canal  and  railroad. 


SIXTH  DECADE. — 1851-1860. 

IN  1851  two  events  of  great  importance  to  AUegany  occurred:  the 
opening  for  navigation  of  the  Genesee  VaUey  canal  to  Oramel,  and  the 
completion  of  the  Erie  railroad.  Enterprises  of  all  kinds  were  greatly  stim- 
ulated, lumbering  especially,  and  the  woods  rang  as  never  before  with  the 
sound  of  the  woodman's  axe  and  the  rallying  cries  of  the  noisy  teamsters. 
Great  numbers  of  sawmills  were  built,  many  of  them  driven  by  steam  power. 
The  forests  disappeared  rapidly,  and  were  remarkably  soon  succeeded  by 
cleared  fields  and  comfortable  homes.  Industry  in  whatever  channel  di- 
rected was  reasonably  rewarded,  cattle  were  raised  quite  extensively,  sheep 
in  large  numbers  covered  our  hills  and  the  people  were  happy  and  contented. 
John  Wheeler  of  Granger  and  John  R.  Hartshorn  of  Alfred  were  elected  to 

Fifth  Decade.— 1841-1850, 


A  L  Leg  A  NY, 

I  N 

Cou  Nry 

V^YO  h/1 1  NtJ        C.  O  U  NTY 1-/V  I  N  q  STg/V 

0  SS'A  N. 


104  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

the  Assembly.  Lucien  P.  Wetherby  was  elected  county  judge.  Robert 
Norton  from  Connecticut  began  the  manufacture  of  pine-apple  cheese  at 
Rushford,  April  1,  1851,  the  first  made  in  the  state. 

1852.  In  the  autumn  of  this  year,  Asahel  N.  Cole  started  a  newspaper 
at  Belfast,  the  Genesee  Valley  Free  Press,  its  original  purpose  and  design  being 
to  supply  the  Free  Soil  Democrats  with  an  organ,  turning  out,  however,  to 
be  the  first  Republican  paper  in  the  county,  if  not  indeed  of  the  state  and 
nation.  Its  fearless  and  pronounced  position  in  politics,  its  boldness  in  the  proc- 
lamation of  its  doctrines,  together  with  the  fact  of  Mr.  Cole's  connection 
with,  and  being  a  ruling  spirit  in,  the  first  Republican  Convention  ever 
held,  which  convened  in  the  old  court  house  at  Angelica,  October  17,  1854, 
gave  to  Mr.  Cole  the  rightful  claim  in  the  minds  of  many  to  the  paternity  of 
the  Republican  party,  and  so  the  old  court  house  is  looked  upon  by  ardent 
partisans  as  the  veritable  birthplace  of  their  party.  1852  was  the  last  year 
in  which  the  Whigs  presented  a  candidate  for  the  Presidency,  Gen.  Winfield 
Scott  being  their  standard  bearer,  and  Gen.  Franklin  Pierce  of  New  Hamp- 
shire, the  candidate  of  the  Democrats.  General  Scott  was  badly  beaten. 
It  may  be  safely  stated  that  1852  marked  the  advent  of  the  mowing  machine, 
that  wonderful  invention  which  has  wrought  such  a  revolution  in  farmwork 
during  "haying  time."  Marshall  B.  Champlain  and  Emulous  Townsend 
were  elected  to  the  Legislature. 

About  1853  was  inaugurated  a  crusade  against  the  pine  stumi3s  covering 
a  large  area  of  the  newly  cleared  land,  making  the  cultivation  of  such  lands, 
which  are  nearly  always  rich  and  productive,  very  difficult  and  laborious, 
not  to  say  provoking.  Stump-pulling  machines  were  largly  employed,  and 
miles  and  miles  of  stump  fences  (in  their  day  considered  very  desirable, 
though  now  they  are  considered  a  nuisance)  were  made. 

The  year  1854  was  perhaps  more  distinguished  in  a  political  way  than 
in  any  other,  as  it  was  the  year  in  which  the  Republican  party  first  placed  a 
state  and  county  ticket  in  the  field.  Lucien  B.  Johnson  and  Lucius  S.  May 
were  elected  to  the  Assembly. 

1855.  As  early  as  1855  the  project  of  removing  the  county  seat  to  some 
point  on  the  line  of  the  Erie  railroad  began  to  be  talked  of.  The  dilapidated 
condition  of  the  old  buildings,  and  the  great  change  in  routes  and  modes  of 
travel,  brought  about  by  the  railroad,  were  the  reasons  assigned  by  those 
who  advocated  the  change.  Dairying  as  an  industry  was  receiving  consider- 
able attention.  Rushford,  Centerville,  Almond,  Alfred  and  Independence 
were  foremost  in  the  manufacture  of  butter  and  cheese,  which  found  a  ready 
market,  and  were  now  shipped  by  rail  and  canal,  instead  of  being  hauled  by 
teams  to  Rochester  and  Buffalo.  Quite  a  variety  as  to  quality  was  offered 
and  some  particular  makes  became  famous  and  were  eagerly  sought  for. 
Woolen  factories  at  Rushford,  Almond,  Angelica,  and  Friendship  turned  out 
large  quantities  of  cloth  and  yarn.  "Shoddy"  was  as  yet  unknown,  and 
the  memory  of  those  "  sheep's  grays  "  and  finer  finished  fabrics  and  flannels 
is  still  cherished  by  the  older  ones.     Flax,  which  years  before  and  for  a  long 

Sixth  Decade.— 1851-1860.  105 

time  had  been  raised  by  almost  every  farmer,  had  become  neglected  and 
but  little  produced.  Isaac  Hampton  of  Ossian  and  Alexander  H.  Main  were 
sent  to  the  Assembly.  Wm.  B.  Alley  was  elected  county  clerk.  John  G. 
Collins  county  judge,  Samuel  C.  Cotton  sheriff. 

A  state  census  was  taken  this  year,  and,  as  it  occurred  so  nearly  a  half 
century  after  the  county  was  organized  and  active  settlement  began,  we 
will  draw  quite  freely  from  its  figures  and  statements,  and  so  enable  the 
reader  to  institute  comparisons,  and  study  the  growth  and  the  decline  of 
the  various  industries.  In  1855  the  six  largest  towns  in  the  county,  in  order 
of  population,  were  Scio  3,184,  Amity  2,655,  Caneadea  2.400,  Belfast  2,130, 
Cuba  2,116,  and  Hume  2,094.  There  were  181  colored  people  in  the  county. 
The  classification  of  the  inhabitants  by  occupations  showed  9  agents,  1  agri- 
cultural imx:)lement  maker,  9  apothecaries  and  druggists.  1  artificial-tiower 
maker,  1  axe-maker.  2  bakers,  4  bankers,  7  barbers,  2  basket-makers,  242 
blacksmiths,  1  boarding-house  keeper,  5  boat-builders,  27  boatmen  and 
watermen,  4  boiler-makers,  1  brewer  and  distiller,  16  butchers,  59  cabinet- 
makers, 377  carpenters,  2  book-sellers  and  stationers,  1  drayman,  1  caulker, 
4  civil  engineers,  107  clerks,  copyists  and  accountants,  80  clergymen,  1  clock- 
maker  and  repairer,  18  clothiers,  93  coach  and  wagon  makers,  3  collectors^ 
12  contractors,  6  cooks,  52  coopers,  7,364  farmers,  1  fireman,  2  forwarders, 
4  f urnacemen,  1  gambler,  8  gardeners  and  florists,  5  gate-keepers,  49  grocers, 
9  gunsmiths,  4  hardware  dealers,  7  hat  and  cap  makers,  66  hotel  and  inn 
keepers,  5  inspectors,  5  jewelers,  88  joiners,  892  laborers,  52  lawyers,  1 
lecturer,  1  lime-burner,  9  livery-stable  keepers,  326  lumbermen  and  dealers, 
82  masons,  plasterers  and  brick-layers,  28  machinists,  15  manufacturers,  184 
merchants,  59  millers,  64  milliners,  47  millwrights,  6  moulders,  21  musi. 
cians,  9  music  teachers,  1  nurseryman,  7  ostlers,  2  overseers  and  superin. 
tendents,  39  painters,  glaziers  and  varnishers,  2  paper-makers,  3  pattern- 
makers, 19  peddlers,  4  photographers,  85  physicians,  1  pilot,  2  post-masters, 
23  printers,  4  produce  dealers,  1  professor,  3"  sailors  and  mariners,  2  sale- 
ratus-makers,  176  sawyers,  1  sculptor,  1  sexton,  22  shingle-makers,  3  specu- 
lators, 1  spinner,  2  stage  proprietors,  11  stone  and  marble  cutters,  61  stu- 
dents, 1  surveyor,  156  tailors,  74  tanners,  curriers  and  leather  dealers,  171 
teachers,  43  teamsters,  4  telegraph  operators,  20  tinsmiths,  24  weavers,  12 
wheelwrights,  1  woodcutter  and  1  wooldealer.  20  insane  people  were  re- 
ported, 13  stone  dwellings,  29  brick,  6,287  framed  and  966  log  houses,  806  of 
all  other  kinds  of  houses. 

Of  improved  lands  there  were  280,863  acres,  and  304, 209^  acres  of  un- 
improved lands.  Cash  value  of  farms  $12,352,363,  and  stock  was  valued  at 
$2,081,738;  tools  and  farming  implements  $575,936.  The  acreage  of  some  of 
the  leading  crops  was  returned  as  follows:  71,276  acres  of  meadow,  6,594^ 
acres  of  spring  wheat,  6,964^  acres  of  winter  wheat,  and  82,929  bushels 
harvested.  Of  oats  there  were  34.845  acres,  665,490  bushels.  6,800i  acres 
of  corn  were  planted  and  189,5884^  bushels  harvested;  potatoes  3,057:^  acres 
yielding  206,258  bushels.     Of  maple  sugar  332,260  pounds  were  made  and 

106  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

3,490  gallons  of  maple  syrup,  103  gallons  of  wine;  68,998  pounds  of  honey 
and  3,321i  pounds  of  beeswax,  one  bushel  of  clover  seed  was  raised  valued 
at  $7,  neat  cattle,  not  including  oxen  and  cows,  24,931.  There  were  3,392 
working  oxen,  and  19.009  cows  were  milked;  while  2,550  cattle  were  killed 
for  beef,  and  1,700,775  pounds  of  butter  and  1,044,978  pounds  of  cheese  were 
made,  and  10,803  gallons  of  milk  sold.  There  were  11,223  horses,  36  mules, 
13,148  swine.  Of  sheep  there  were  104,799.  80,416  fleeces  were  shorn  and 
272,622i  pounds  of  wool  sold.  The  value  of  poultry  sold  was  $7,819,  and  of 
eggs  sold  $11,218.  3,095i  yards  of  fullcloth  was  made,  and  14,476  yards  of 
flannel,  4,053^  yards  of  linen  cloth,  and  9.337f  yards  of  "  cotton-and-mixed  " 
cloth.  Two  pairs  of  gloves  were  reported  valued  at  $1;  322  jDairs  of  mittens 
valued  at  $174;  211  hats  $61,  and  2,746  pairs  socks  were  made,  worth  $936. 

A  rake  factory  was  then  in  operation  in  Rushford,  two  asheries  were  re- 
ported, both  in  Centerville.  Rushford  also  had  a  bakery,  reporting  an 
output  of  $24,000  in  value.  Matches  were  made  at  Belmont,  the  number  of 
employees  being  20,  and  saleratus  was  made  in  New  Hudson.  Angelica,  Bel- 
fast and  Rushford  manufactured  sash,  doors  and  blinds.  23  gristmills 
were  reported.  The  only  planing-mills  reported  were  at  Scio  and  Amity. 
There  were  183  sawmills,  of  which  19  were  in  Amity,  20  in  Ossian,  24  in  Scio 
and  8  in  Genesee.  29  shingle  factories,  23  boot  and  shoe  manufactories, 
four  of  them  in  Hume,  employing  13  men.  17  tanneries  were  reported,  and 
a  clothing  manufactory  at  Almond  employing  132  men.  There  were  21 
churches  with  a  total  average  attendance  of  2,060.  Schoolhouses  were  re- 
ported, 246  framed,  10  log,  1  plank  and  1  stone,  "  very  poor  "33,  "  very  good  " 
4.  Six  newspapers  were  reported,  one  at  Almond,  two  at  Angelica,  one  at 
Oramel,  one  at  Cuba  and  one  at  Wellsville. 

1856.  Save  only  the  spirited  presidential  contest  of  this  year,  in  which 
the  Republicans  placed  their  tirst  national  ticket  in  the  field,  no  event  of  un- 
usual importance  occurred.  The  town  of  Ward  was  this  year  erected  from 
portions  of  Alfred  and  Amity,  since  then  no  new  town  has  been  formed. 
The  board  of  supervisors  organized  by  electing  Martin  Butts  chairman  and 
Charles  Horton  clerk.  The  assessed  valuation  of  real  estate  was  $8,951,669, 
of  personal  property  $804,067.  The  total  amount  of  taxes  spread  was  $51,  - 
114.34.  Wm.  M.  Smith  and  James  T.  Cameron  were  elected  to  the  as" 
sembly.     Hamilton  Ward  was  chosen  district  attorney. 

1857.  The  subject  of  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  was  revived  with 
increased  and  increasing  interest,  and  the  grand  jury  presented  a  condem- 
nation of  the  public  buildings.  A  monetary  panic  during  the  later  months 
of  the  year  caused  a  general  depression  in  business  and  Allegany  suffered 
with  the  rest  of  the  country.  The  board  of  supervisors  again  made  choice 
of  Martin  Butts  for  chairman,  and  Charles  Horton  for  clerk.  The  assessed 
valuation  of  real  estate  was  $8,518,085,  of  personal  property  $861,869.  Total 
amount  of  taxes  $62,245.97.  John  M.  Hammond  of  Hume  and  Wm.  F.  Jones 
of  Wellsville  were  elected  to  the  assembly. 

1858.  The  fight  on  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  was  now  on  in  dead 

Sixth  Decade.— 1851-1860.  107 

earnest,  being  precipitated  and  intensified,  by  the  alleged  action  of  what  was 
called  the  "  Angelica  Regency  "  in  exacting  of  a  certain  aspirant  for  senato- 
rial honors  certain  promises  or  pledges  which  he  deemetl  inconsistent  with 
his  sense  of  honor  and  propriety.  His  refusal  to  comply  with  their  wishes, 
made  political  enemies  of  the  so-called  "regency"  (in  these  days,  "ring'' 
or  "organization "'  w^ould  be  the  word.)  who  declared  that  he  should  never 
go  to  the  senate  and  his  nomination  was  defeated,  but  it  aroused  a  feeling 
with  his  friends,  which  added  to  the  desire  from  purely  legitimate  business 
reasons  of  those  situated  along  the  line  of  the  Erie  railroad,  succeeded  in 
securing  the  passage  of  an  act  appointing  three  commissoners  to  designate 
some  place  on  the  line  of  the  Erie  railroad  to  which  the  county  seat  should 
be  removed.  In  May.  1858,  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  this  act, 
the  commissioners  located  the  county  seat  at  Belmont,  and  immediately  the 
necessary  proceedings  were  taken  to  secure  the  early  erection  of  the  new 
county  buildings.  The  board  of  supervisors  this  year  made  choice  of  John 
M.  Hammond  for  chairman  and  Asahel  N.  Cole  clerk.  The  assessed  valu- 
ation of  real  and  personal  property  was  $9,005,907,  but  the  records  do  not 
reveal  the  amount  of  the  taxes.  Alfred  Lockhart  of  Angelica  and  William 
Cobb  of  Spring  Mills  were  elected  to  the  legislature.  John  W.  Eldridge  was 
elected  county  clerk,  and  Henry  Brown  sheriff. 

1859.  This  year  was  a  busy  one  in  Belmont.  The  new  county  build- 
ings were  erected  by  Mr.  C.  S.  Whitney  and  the  contract  required  them  to 
be  ready  for  occupation,  the  court  house  at  least,  by  the  time  of  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  board  of  supervisors.  .$20,000  was  appropriated  for  the 
buildings,  and  the  money  loaned  on  the  credit  of  the  county.  As  the  annual 
election  approached,  it  became  apparent  that  Angelica  was  not  going  to  give 
up  the  light  altogether,  notwithstanding  the  new  county  buildings,  and  Dr. 
Wm.  M.  Smith  and  Darwin  E.  Maxson  were  elected  to  the  assembly.  Early 
in  June  occurred  a  very  severe  frost,  and  just  one  week  later  another.  These 
were  extremely  disastrous  to  grass  and  grain,  and  the  forests  put  on  the 
appearance  of  autumn,  many  trees  being  killed.  The  board  of  supervisors 
again  made  choice  of  John  Hammond  for  chairman  and  A.  N.  Cole  for  clerk. 
The  total  valuation  of  real  and  personal  property  as  returned  by  the  asses- 
sors was  $8,583,045,  and  the  amount  of  taxes  raised  in  the  county  was  $44,- 
355.05.  This  was  the  first  session  in  the  new  court  house,  and  Chairman 
Hammond  made  an  appropriate  speech  on  the  subject  and  occasion  which 
was  printed  in  the  proceedings. 

1860.  Soon  after  the  organization  of  the  Legislature  of  1860,  Wm.  M. 
Smith,  the  member  from  the  northern  district,  ottered  a  bill  entitled  "An 
act  to  divide  the  county  of  Allegany  into  two  jury  districts,  and  provide  for 
holding  court  in  and  for  said  county  alternately  in  each  of  said  districts," 
and,  much  to  the  surprise  of  large  numbers  of  our  people,  it  passed  the 
assembly  in  due  season.  This  was  made  the  occasion  for  calling  an  extra 
session  of  the  board  of  supervisors,  which  convened  at  Belmont  on  the  27th 
of  March.     On  the  eighth  ballot  John  M.  Hammond  was  again  chosen  chair- 

108  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

man  and  on  the  fifth  ballot  J.  F.  Olney  was  chosen  clerk.  The  board  passed 
a  preamble  and  several  resolutions  (vote  21  to  8)  expressing  surprise  at  the 
passage  of  the  bill  through  the  assembly  (which  it  declared  must  have  been 
deceived)  and  esjDecially  requested  the  senator  from  this  district  (Hon. 
David  H.  Abell)  to  oppose  to  the  extent  of  his  ability  its  passage  through  the 
senate.  The  bill  however  passed  that  body  and  became  a  law.  This  involved 
the  repair  and  reconstruction  of  the  old  court  house  at  Angelica,  and  the 
new  jail  at  Belmont  was  in  some  way  declared  to  be  unsafe  for  the  detention 
of  prisoners,  which  made  more  repairs  necessary  for  the  old  jail  at  Angelica, 
which  was  fitted  up  in  such  a  way  as  to  serve  the  purpose  very  well  until 
Jan.  1,  1895,  when  the  new  jail  at  Belmont  was  occupied.  In  conformity  to 
the  provisions  of  the  law,  the  courts  were  held  alternately  at  Belmont  and 
Angelica  until  1892. 

By  law  the  courts  are  now  held  at  Belmont;  the  old  court  house  and  jail 
at  Angelica  have  been  sold,  a  new  jail  at  Belmont  constructed,  and,  now, 
notwithstanding  a  case  is  in  the  courts  to  test  the  legality  of  late  proceed- 
ings, it  is  quite  generally  conceded  that  the  county-seat  question  is  relegated 
to  the  rubbish  pile  of  the  past.  It  is  hoped  that  it  may  be  so.  While  it  was 
unsettled  it  engendered  discord,  created  ill-feeling,  and,  in  various  ways, 
contributed  to  a  condition  of  unrest,  apprehension  and  alarm.  The  old  court 
house  and  jail  at  Angelica  were  sold,  Jan.  5,  1895,  for  $855  to  a  syndicate  who 
will  hold  the  property  untifcthe  town  of  Angelica  purchases  it. 

The  year  1860  was  also  made  ever  memorable  by  the  great  historic 
presidential  campaign  which  resulted  in  the  election  of  Abraham  Lincoln 
to  the  Presidency.  Great  excitement  prevailed,  and  Allegany  was  no  excep- 
tion, for  it  was  stirred  to  its  remotest  borders  and  shook,  as  never  before,  to 
its  very  center.  The  board  of  supervisors  at  their  annual  meeting  continued 
the  ofiices  of  the  chairman,  J.  M.  Hammond,  and  clerk,  J.  P.  Olney,  elected 
at  the  special  session  the  previous  March.  The  amount  of  taxes  laid  upon 
the  county  this  year  was  ifl56,603.38,  and  the  total  amount  of  real  and  per- 
sonal property,  as  returned  by  the  assessors,  was  $8,421,078.  Wilkes  Angel 
and  Lucius  S.  May  were  elected  to  the  Legislature.  In  territorial  extent 
and  division  into  towns  Allegany  is  the  same  now  as  at  the  close  of  this  dec- 
ade, so  the  map  which  accompanies  these  pages,  is  the  last  in  the  series  used 
to  illustrate  the  growth  of  the  county. 

Immediately  after  the  election,  the  people  of  the  Southern  states 
began  to  take  steps  towards  putting  into  execution  the  threats  of  seces- 
sion which  they  had  been  making  throughout  the  campaign,  and,  on 
the  20th  of  December,  the  Convention  of  South  Carolina,  called  for  the  pur- 
pose, without  a  dissenting  vote  (Yeas  169)  passed  an  "Ordinance  of  Seces- 
sion." Other  states  soon  followed  its  example.  The  die  was  cast  and  anap- 
to  arms  was  the  inevitable  result.  The  curtain  of  this  decade  is  rung  down 
amid  the  gloomiest  of  forebodings,  those  of  " grim-visaged  war." 

Sixth  Decade— 1851-1860. 


A    L  L  E  Q  A  N  Y, 

I  N 

J.%  60. 

A   1^   O     AS    AT      P   Fi,  £L  "S  £.  rsl  T. 

\A/  Y  0  M  \  N  q     COUNTY        LI  V  I  N  q  5  -no  /y 

O  u  /VT-y. 

110  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 


SEVENTH   DECADE. — 1861-1870. 

"  Ah  !  then  and  there  was  hurrying  to  and  fro. 
And  gathering  tears,  and  tremblings  of  distress, 
And  there  was  mounting  in  hot  haste,  the  steed, 
The  mustering  squadron,  and  the  clattering  car, 
Went  pouring  forward  with  impetuous  speed, 
And  swiftly  forming  in  the  ranks  of  war." 

I'^HIS  decade  was  ushered  in  with  most  intense  excitement  amidst  the 
gloomiest  of  prospects.  South  Carolina  had  seceded  on  the  20th  of 
December,  1860.  Prom  January  10th  to  18th  Plorida,  Alabama  and  Georgia 
passed  ordinances  of  secession  in  rapid  succession,  some  unanimously, 
others  with  but  slight  opposition.  On  the  4th  of  March  Abraham  Lincoln 
was  inaugurated  President  of  the  United  States,  not,  however  without  great 
apprehension  for  his  safety.  Events  important,  historic  and  exciting  in  the 
extreme,  hurried  on  apace,  and  at  4.20  in  the  morning  of  April  12th  fire  was 
opened  upon  Port  Sumter  in  Charleston  harbor,  occupied  by  Major  Ander- 
son and  a  small  detachment  of  Pederal  troops.  With  the  rapidity  of  light- 
ning the  news  was  flashed  to  the  remotest  borders  of  the  land.  Impromptu 
meetings  were  held,  orators  with  impassioned  eloquence  appealed  to  the 
multitudes,  the  poet  attuned  his  lyre  to  the  new  conditions,  and  the  clergy 
gave  expression  of  loyal  sympathy  for  the  cause  of  the  Union.  On  Monday 
morning,  April  15th,  the  public  journals  displayed,  conspicuously,  the  proc- 
lamation of  the  President  in  which  he  called  forth  the  militia  of  the  several 
states  to  the  number  of  75,000,  "in  order  to  suppress  said  combinations, 
and  cause  the  laws  to  be  duly  exercised."  An  extra  session  of  Congress  was 
called  by  the  same  proclamation. 

New  York  was  one  of  the  first  of  the  states  to  answer  to  the  call  of  the 
President,  and  Allegany  was  one  of  the  foremost  of  its  counties  in  sending 
on  men.  Capt.  C.  C.  Gardiner,  of  Angelica,  was  first  to  respond  with  Com- 
pany I  of  the  27th  Regiment.  The  men  were  so  impatient  to  be  mustered 
into  the  service,  that  a  special  messenger  was  sent  to  Albany  to  get  the 
company  accepted  for  two  years  under  the  state  auspices.  In  all  there  were 
two  maximum  regiments  of  men  from  Allegany  who  entered  the  army,  and 
the  state,  answering  to  the  several  calls,  before  the  war  closed  sent  464,156 
men  to  the  front.  A  good  account  is  given  in  the  history  of  Allegany  county 
published  in  1879  of  the  men  sent  from  the  county,  of  the  regiments  they 
formed  and  helped  to  form,  and  the  part  they  bore  in  the  field,  but  that 
account  omitted  entirely  to  speak  of  occurrences  and  events  at  home,  of  the 
part  the  "stay-at-homes"  bore  during  those  tragic  years.     It  is  well  per- 

Seventh  Decade. — 1861-1870.  Ill 

haps,  to  devote  some  space  in  these  pages  to  that  interesting  subject,  and, 
incidentally,  to  show  something  of  the  great  contribution  of  money  which 
the  jieople  at  home  laid  upon  the  altar  of  their  country,  of  the  aid  and  com- 
fort they  afforded  to  the  soldiers  in  the  field,  and  of  the  various  sacrifices  in 
many  ways  made  for  the  preservation  of  the  Union. 

The  scene  which  our  county  presented  after  the  breaking  out  of  the 
Rebellion  defies  description.  Middle-aged  men  ''left  plow"  in  furrow," 
young  men  their  classes  in  college,  seminary  and  academy,  and,  enrolling 
themselves,  hastened  quickly  to  the  place  of  rendezvous,  while  mothers, 
wives  and  sisters  busied  themselves,  tearfully  and  loyally,  in  making  hurried 
preparations  for  their  departure.  Later,  in  every  town  and  almost  every 
hamlet,  the  ladies  would  gather  to  scrape  lint,  make  bandages  and  in  various 
ways  arrange  means  for  alleviating  the  sufferings  of  the  sick  and  wounded, 
and  contribute  to  their  comfort  in  field  and  hospital.  War  meetings  were 
held,  patriotic  and  inflammatory  speeches  made,  and  under  the  excitement 
which  they  wrought  many  enlistments  were  made;  in  some  cases  all  the 
able-bodied  male  members  of  a  family  of  sufficient  age  being  accepted. 

At  first  enlistments  were  made  from  purely  patriotic  motives  and 
Impulses,  as  nothing  above  regular  soldiers"  pay  was  offered,  and  that  was 
too  meagre  and  insignificant  to  furnish  any  inducement  for  going  into  the 
ranks.  After  the  bullet-riddled,  mangled  forms  of  dear  ones  were  sent 
home  in  boxes  after  the  battle  of  Bull  Run  and  other  early  actions,  or 
reported  buried  on  the  battle  field,  taken  prisoner  or  missing,  the  awful 
and  stern  reality  of  war  was  made  painfully  obvious.  The  glamour,  the 
poetry  of  war  had  vanished.  Men  paused  and  staggered  under  the  almost 
bewildering  conditions,  and  it  became  necessary,  as  call  succeeded  call,  to 
offer  "  bounties  "  in  order  to  stimulate  enlistments  and  fill  the  quotas  of  the 
several  towns.  And  so  it  came  to  pass  that  a  strife  arose  between  the  towns 
as  to  which  should  offer  the  largest  bounty.  The  avarice  of  the  people  was 
appealed  to,  and  men  as  a  rule  enlisted  for  the  largest  bounties  they  could 
obtain,  while  those  at  home  held  themselves  in  readiness  to  raise  the  neces- 
sary money,  temporarily  advancing  it,  in  many  instances,  and  waiting  for 
the  towns  to  re-emburse  them.  To  meet  the  exigency,  the  Government 
issued  money,  which,  from  the  color  of  the  paper  used,  was  called  "  Green- 
backs." Currency  was  plenty  and  prices  of  all  kinds  of  products,  of  farms 
and  manufactories,  rose  to  marvelous  figures.  Merchandise  advanced  so 
rapidly  that  it  was  said  to  take  most  of  the  time  of  the  merchants  to  mark 
up  their  goods  to  keep  pace  with  prices  at  the  wholesaling  stores,  and  during 
the  years  from  1861  to  1864  the  more  reckless  a  merchant  was  in  buying  the 
more  money  he  would  make.  Gold  went  up  to  .^2.97,  wiieat  touched  about  $3 
per  bushel  and  wool  reached  one  dollar  per  pound. 

Many  were  the  trips  fathers,  mothers,  brothers  and  sisters  made  "to 
the  front "  to  care  for  the  sick  and  wounded,  and  many  were  the  boxes  of 
provisions,  clothing  and  supplies  of  various  kinds,  and,  especiallj^  during 
the  days  of  Christmas  time,  sent  to  the  "boys  in  blue"  in  field,  camp  and 

112  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

hospital.  It  detracts  not  one  iota  from  the  glory  of  those  who  did  service  in 
the  army,  to  concede  that  the  "  stay-at-homes  "  had  a  part  to  play  also,  and 
that  they  played  it  well  in  the  great  drama  being  enacted,  wherein  the  stage 
was  the  United  States,  the  auditorium  the  world,  the  auditors  all  mankind. 
It  is  safe  to  say,  and  to  the  glory  of  Allegany  be  it  said,  that  no  county  in  the 
state  sent  more  men  in  proportion  to  population,  and  no  state  was  repre- 
sented by  better  soldiers  in  the  field,  or  braver  ones  in  action.  It  would 
require  pages  to  indite  the  names  of  those  who  were  distinguished  for  heroic 
deeds  and  actions,  and  the  list  could  then  only  be  closed  with  invidious  dis- 
tinctions, so  many  did  nobly  and  so  few  did  not. 

The  war  record  of  Allegany  is  one  to  which  her  people  can  well  "  point 
with  pride. ' '  The  Twenty-Third  regiment,  organized  at  Elmira,  May  16, 
1861,  contained  in  Company  B,  recruited  at  Cuba  by  Capt.  M.  M.  Loyden, 
the  first  instaUment  of  Allegany's  contribution  to  the  army.  Other  parts  of 
the  regiment  were  three  companies  from  Steuben,  two  each  from  Tioga  and 
Chemung,  and  one  each  from  Cortland  and  Schuyler  counties.  This  regi- 
ment had  an  honorable  career  and  was  in  many  distinguished  engagements, 
among  them  Rappahannock  Station,  Sulphur  Springs,  Gainesville,  Manassas 
Plains,  Second  Bull  Run,  Chantilly,  South  Mountain,  Antietam,  and  Fred- 

The  Twenty- Seventh  regiment  was  organized  at  Elmira,  May  21,  1864, 
and  made  up  mainly  from  companies  recruited  in  Westchester,  Wayne, 
Broome,  Monroe,  Livingston,  Wyoming  and  Orleans  counties.  A  company 
of  about  75  men  under  Capt.  Curtis  C.  Gardiner  was  recruited  in  this  county 
and  taken  into  this  regiment,  which  did  good  service,  and  had  an  honorable 

The  Ninety-Third  regiment.  Company  E  of  this  regiment  was  recruited 
mainly  in  Amity,  Scio,  Belfast,  Caneadea,  Wellsville  and  Independence,  the 
recruiting  being  principally  in  charge  of  A.  J.  McNett,  Esq.,  of  Belmont,  in 
September,  1861.  McNett  was  soon  after  appointed  captain.  He  proved  a 
most  gallant  and  patriotic  officer,  was  severely  wounded  in  service  and  was 
brevetted  colonel  before  being  mustered  out. 

Allegany  was  represented  in  the  Fifth  New  York  Cavalry  by  60  men  in 
Company  E  and  16  men  in  Company  F.  The  regiment  was  also  known  as 
the  ' '  First  Ira  Harris  Guard. ' '  This  organization  was  in  many  engagements, 
and  was  noted  for  bravery  in  action. 

The  Eighty-Fifth  regiment  was  more  than  half  made  up  by  Alleganians 
the  rest  coming  from  Cattaraugus,  Seneca,  and  Ontario  counties.     Among 
the  many  memorable  battles  in  which  this  regiment  took  part  were  Fair 
Oaks,  Mechanicsville,  Gaine's  Mills,  Malvern  Hill,  Goldsborough  and  Ply- 

The  Eighty-Sixth  regiment,  N.  Y.  Volunteers,  had  about  40  men  from 
Allegany  in  Companies  H,  B  and  D,  while  the  Sixth-Fourth  regiment,  organ- 
ized in  Cattaraugus  county,  contained  two  companies  from  Allegany,  Com- 

Seventh  Decade.— 1861-1870.  113 

pany  D,  with  83  men,  under  Capt.  Philip  Lake,  and  Company  G  under  Capt. 
J.  S.  Pittinger,  also  with  83  men. 

The  Sixth  Cavalry,  or  Second  Ira  Harris  Guard,  contained  35  men  from 
Allegany,  forming  part  of  Company  I. 

A  few  men  from  Allegany  were  in  the  Twelfth  Cavalry  or  Third  Ira 
Harris  Guard,  and  a  contingent  of  Alleganians  (from  30  to  40  men)  found  a 
place  in  the  Second  Mounted  Rifles.  In  the  First  Veteran  Cavalry,  were 
found  a  few  Alleganians;  in  the  Fifth  Artillery  27  men,  and  81  men  was  its, 
contribution  to  the  Thirteenth  Artillery. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Thirtieth  regiment,  better  known  as  the  First 
N.  Y.  Dragoons,  whose  record  was  exceptionally  brilliant,  was  enlisted 
largely  from  Allegany.  All  of  Companies  C,  E,  F,  G,  H,  and  I,  and  stiU 
others  in  Companies  A,  D,  and  K  were  from  this  county. 

The  One  Hundred  Thirty-sixth  regiment.  The  war  record  of  this  organ- 
ization is  one  to  be  proud  of.  The  regiment  was  with  Sherman  in  his 
"  March  to  the  Sea;  "  with  Howard  at  Gettysburg,  where  it  formed  a  part  of 
the  heroic  host  that  held  the  stone  wall  at  the  crest  of  Cemetery  Hill  when 
Pickett  made  his  tremendous  onslaught  through  the  wheatfield;  it  was  among 
the  intrepid  and  daring  forces  that  stormed  Lookout  Mountain  and  fought 
the  battle  "Above  the  Clouds  "  and  planted  the  Stars  and  Stripes  above  the 
mists,  where  the  army  in  the  valley  below  saw  and  cheered  the  flag;  it  was. 
also  at  Atlanta,  and  it  marched  to  the  relief  of  Burnside  at  the  siege  of  Knox- 
ville,  many  of  the  men  walking  in  their  bare  feet  over  frozen  ground.  At 
the  battle  of  Peach-tree  Creek  the  regiment  three  times  recaptured  a  battle- 
flag  after  fighting  of  the  most  desperate  character.  This  flag  is  now  among 
the  war  trophies  at  the  Military  Museum  in  Albany. 

Two  companies  from  Allegany  found  places  in  the  189th,  and  Company 
C  and  E  of  the  194th  were  also  composed  of  Alleganians,  while  Allegany  con- 
tributed fragments  of  the  179th,  184th,  160th,  104th,  188th,  78th,  81st.  154th, 
and  161st  regiments  of  N.  Y.  Infantry;  16th  Pa.  Cavalry,  67th  Pa.  Infantry, 
12th  and  13th  Wisconsin  regiments. 

The  glorious  part  that  Allegany  took  in  the  great  War  for  the  Union, 
was  treated  so  exhaustively  in  the  "History  of  Allegany  County  "  published 
in  1879,  that  we  deem  it  best  in  this  work  to  go  but  briefly  over  the  ground 
so  familiar  to  (or  at  least  which  should  be  so  familiar  to)  all  Alleganians. 

1861.  Wilkes  Angel  was  chosen  chairman  and  David  R.  Stillman  clerk 
of  the  board  of  supervisors.  The  real  estate  in  the  county  was  assessed  at 
$7,330,750,  and  the  jjersonal  property  at  $754,257.  The  amount  of  taxes 
spread  upon  the  county  was  $50,835.72.  Alvah  E.  Cruttenden  and  Edward 
D.  Loveridge  were  elected  to  the  assembly,  Geo,  W.  Green  was  elected 
county  clerk,  and  Edward  S.  Bruce  sherifl'.  Gov.  Morgan  appointed  Hon. 
Martin  Grover,  Wilkes  Angel  and  Marshall  B.  Champlain  "  WarCommittee  " 
for  Allegany  county. 

1862.  S.  L.  Davidson  was  made  chairman  and  D.  R.  StiUman  clerk  of 
the  board  of  supervisors.     The  record  of  the  annual  session  alludes  to  an 

114  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

extra  session  on  the  27th  of  August,  but  no  account  of  the  proceedings 
appear.  It  is  strongly  probable  that  it  was  called  to  provide  means  to  pay 
for  recruits.  At  this  session  there  was  a  committee  on  the  "volunteer 
bounty  fund,"  which  made  a  report  showing  that  bounty  orders  to  the 
amount  of  $26,823.27  had  been  issued.  Real  estate  in  the  county  was  asses- 
sed at  17,217,741,  and  personal  property  at  |832,881.  The  amount  of  taxes 
this  year  was  $61,521.48,  Edward  D.  Loveridge  and  Alvah  E.  Cruttenden 
were  elected  to  the  Legislature,  and  Hamilton  Ward  was  elected  district 

1863.  S.  L.  Davidson  was  chosen  chairman,  and  Wm.  T.  Barnes  clerk 
of  the  board  of  supervisors.  The  county  judge  and  surrogate's  salary  was 
advanced  to  $1,250.  The  real  estate  was  assessed  at  17,174,942,  and  i3ersonal 
property  at  $705,183;  whole  amount  of  taxes  $71,387.58.  Every  town  in  the 
county  had  its  "war  committee, "  to  which  was  entrusted  the  business  of 
making  arrangement  or  provision  for  bounties,  and  the  board  of  supervisors 
had  a  "  Committee  on  the  Volunteer  Bounty  Fund,"  which  made  a  report, 
showing  that  the  towns  had  taken  bounty  orders  in  amounts  as  follows: 
Alfred  $450,  Allen  $750,  Almond  $1,400,  Amity  $950,  Angehca  $1,250,  Alma 
$100,  Andover  $600,  Belfast  $1,250,  Birdsall  $50,  Burns  $2,500,  Caneadea 
$2,700,  Centerville  $1,150,  Clarksville  $320,  Cuba  $884.50,  Friendship  $100 
Granger  $700,  Grove  $675,  Hume  $2,900,  Independence  $300,  Rushford  $1,350, 
Scio  $300,  Ward  1175,  Wellsville  $2,720,  Willing  $600,  and  Wirt  $1,475.  Boh- 
var,  Genesee,  New  Hudson  and  West  Almond  had  not  as  yet  used  a  bounty 
order.  Interest  had  occurred  on  these  orders  to  the  amount  of  $873.73, 
making  the  total  so  far  to  be  raised,  $26,823.27. 

1864.  In  July  or  August,  Robert  Morrow,  Charles  Benjamin  and  H.  K. 
Stebbins,  having  completed  the  necessary  building  and  equipments,  put  in 
operation  the  first  cheese  factory  in  Allegany  county,  selling  out  on  the  4th 
of  the  next  November  to  Charles  J.  Elmer,  who  still  conducts  the  business 
in  the  old  factory.  The  board  of  supervisors  organized  by  again  choosing 
S.  L.  Davidson  chairman  and  Wm.  T.  Barnes  clerk.  The  county  treasurer 
was  required  to  give  bonds  in  the  sum  of  $100,000.  The  board  appointed 
Dr.  John  Norton  a  committee  to  investigate  the  condition  of  the  county  poor- 
house.  He  made  a  report  showing  a  bad  condition  of  things  existing  there. 
Amount  of  real  estate  this  year  was  $7,389,066,  and  personal  property  $764,- 
210.  Charles  M.  Crandall  of  Belfast  and  Albon  H.  Lewis  of  Bolivar  were 
elected  to  the  assembly,  and  John  T.  Wright  was  elected  sheriff.  From  a 
report  of  the  "  Committee  on  Military  Bounty,"  it  is  learned  that  there  was 
to  be  collected  in  that  year,  $46,763.73  applicable  to  the  payment  of  bounty 
orders,  and  that  the  "  whole  amount  to  be  collected,  due  March  1,  1864,"  was 

1865.  This  year  Silas  Richardson  was  made  chairman  of  the  board  of 
supervisors,  and  Wm.  T.  Barnes  v/as  again  chosen  clerk.  The  pay  of  the 
clerk  and  his  assistant  was  raised  to  $225,  and  $175  added  for  making  out 
bounty  orders.     It  appeared  from  the  report  of  the .  county  treasurer  that 

Seventh  Decade— 1861-1870.  115 

the  sum  of  $264,159.57  had  been  paid  on  bounty  orders.  Value  of  real  estate 
this  year  was  $7,485,809,  and  of  personal  jDroperty,  $824,379.  The  amount  of 
county  and  state  tax  was  $71,156.66  and  the  amount  to  be  spread  upon  the 
towns  for  bounty  purposes  was  $170,251.88.  Though  these  sums  were  enor- 
mous, the  people  probably  never  paid  a  tax  with  less  difficulty,  owing  to  the 
inflated  price  for  everything  which  the  farmer  or  manufacturer  had  for  sale. 
Wm.  "Wilson  and  Albon  H.  Lewis  were  sent  to  the  Legislature,  and  James  S. 
Green  was  elected  district  attorney. 

1866.  Wm.  E  Hammond  was  made  chairman  of  the  board  of  supervis- 
ors and  David  R.  Stillman  clerk.  The  assessed  valuation  of  real  estate  was 
$7,480,330  and  of  personal  property  $840,126.  Allegany,  by  a  new  appor- 
tionment, was  reduced  to  one  member  of  assembly,  and  Charles  M.  Cran- 
dall  of  Belfast  was  returned.  The  amount  received  for  bounty  purposes, 
as  appears  by  the  report  of  the  committee  to  settle  with  the  county  treas- 
urer, was  $197,841.36,  and  the  amount  paid  out  was  $201,558.30.  The  total 
amount  of  taxes  to  be  raised  was  $68,982.36.  Further  than  appears  in  the 
report  of  the  committee  to  settle  with  the  county  treasurer,  no  mention 
is  made  in  the  proceedings  of  any  matters  concerning  war  expenses. 

1867.  The  board  of  supervisors  organized  by  electing  C.  W.  Woodworth 
chairman,  David  R.  Stillman  clerk.  This  was  the  first  year  in  which  an 
•'exhibit,"  showing  the  supervisors,  assessed  and  equalized  valuations, 
number  of  acres,  value  per  acre,  ratio,  tax,  etc.,  of  each  town,  was  printed 
on  separate  sheets  for  distribution,  and  posting  in  public  places.  The 
assessed  valuation  of  real  estate  was  $7,507,914,  and  of  personal  property 
$930,559.  The  amount  of  tax  spread  was  $88,665.99.  Silas  Richardson  of 
Belmont  was  elected  to  the  assembly  and  Wm.  H.  H.  Russell  chosen  county 

1868.  Messrs.  Woodworth  and  Stillman  were  again  elected  to  the  sev- 
eral positions  of  chairman  and  clerk  of  the  board.  Real  estate  in  the  county 
was  assessed  at  $7,590,384,  and  personal  $926,868,  and  the  total  tax  was  $114,- 
341.38.  Silas  Richardson  was  re-elected  to  the  assembly  and  Rufus  Scott 
district  attorney. 

1869.  Washington  Moses  of  Granger  was  made  chairman  of  the  board 
of  supervisors,  and  David  R.  Stillman  clerk,  with  Geo.  A.  Green  assistant 
clerk.  The  value  of  real  estate  was  $7,677,912,  and  of  personal  property, 
$860,121.  The  amount  of  taxes  raised  in  the  county  was  $102,790.40.  Charles 
N.  Flenagin  was  elected  to  the  assembly. 

1870.  The  board  of  sui^ervisors  made  choice  of  A.  J.  Wellmanfor  chair- 
man, and  D.  R.  Stillman  was  again  chosen  clerk.  The  salary  of  the  district 
attorney  was  advanced  to  $800,  that  of  county  judge  and  surrogate  to  $1,750. 
The  amount  of  the  assessed  valuation  of  real  estate  was  $7,719,894,  that  of 
personal,  $839,673,  and  the  amount  of  taxes  spread  upon  the  several  rolls, 
was  $131,001.49.  Charles  N.  Flenagin  was  reelected  to  the  Legislature. 
April  9th  the  "  Rochester,  Nunda  and  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  "  was 

116  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

organized  for  the  construction  of  a  railway  from  Mt.  Morris  to  Amity.  In 
support  of  the  project  the  town  of  Birdsall  bonded  for  $20,000,  and  Angelica, 
for  $60,000.     The  population  of  the  county  was  40,814. 



HAVING,  it  is  hoped,  with  a  reasonable  degree  of  minuteness  of  detail^ 
consecutively  traced  the  history  of  Allegany  from  the  time  of  its  first 
settlement  in  1795  to  a  period  clearly  within  the  memory  of  people  of  middle 
age,  interest  in  a  further  relation  in  detail  is  materially  lessened  from  the 
fact  of  the  familiarity  of  our  people  with  the  events  and  incidents  of  so  recent 
occurrence;  and  so,  with  a  brief  glance  only  at  the  leading  events  and  occur- 
rences of  the  last  twenty-five  years,  we  will  precede  the  sjDecial  chapters  by 
a  tabulated  statement,  giving  in  a  nutshell  the  progress  of  that  material 
prosperity  which  has  distinguished  the  county  during  the  closing  period 
of  the  first  hundred  years  of  its  existence. 

Early  in  the  seventies  the  prosecution  of  railroad  projects,  which  had 
just  commenced  when  our  last  chapter  closed,  was  continued.  The  Belmont 
and  Buffalo,  with  a  projected  route  from  Belmont,  following  down  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Genesee  river  through  the  towns  of  Angelica,  Belfast,  Can- 
eadea,  Hume  and  Pike,  and  connecting  with  the  Erie  at  or  near  Silver  Springs, 
being  among  the  first  to  be  projected.  Some  of  the  towns  along  the  route 
of  this  proposed  road  have  reason  to  remember  it,  from  having  bonded  in 
aid  of  the  enterprise.  It  has  never  been  completed,  although  some  work 
was  done  along  the  line.  A  narrow-gauge  road  from  Angelica  through 
Friendship,  Wirt,  Bolivar,  Genesee,  and  on  to  Olean,  was  built,  and  run  for 
a  while,  but  at  present  for  the  most  part  of  the  way  it  has  been  abandoned. 
Angelica  made  a  noble  fight  for  a  road  and  is  now  the  southern  terminus  of 
the  C.  N.  Y.  &  W.  road,  doing  a  moderate  business,  with  connections  with 
the  Erie  and  other  roads  at  Hornellsville.  Rushford  for  a  short  time  had 
the  benefit  of  a  narrow  gauge  road,  which  ran  from  Cuba  to  Attica,  but  this 
had  to  succumb  to  adverse  conditions  and  lack  of  sufficient  patronage.  The 
Western  New  York  and  Philadelj)hia  railway,  constructed  in  1882,  along  the 
abandoned  Genesee  Valley  canal,  is  still  running  and  doing  a  fair  business, 
and  is  a  great  convenience  to  the  people  along  and  near  its  route.  A  road 
from  Angelica  to  the  last  named  road,  at  a  point  about  one  mile  south  of 
Belfast,  was  constructed  and  ran  for  a  while  during  the  eighties,  but  has. 
been  abandoned.  The  river  towns  from  Wellsville  down  are  expectant  of 
an  early  continuation  of  the  Buffalo  and  Susquehanna  system  from  Wells- 

Later  Developments,  Progress,  Etc.  117 

ville  to  connect  the  W.  N.  Y.  &  P.  railway  with  the  last  named  road  at  or 

near  Belfast. 

The  development  of  oil  territory  in  Allegany  has  been  accomplished 

during  the  last  twenty-five  years,  adding  largely  to  the  business,  wealth  and 

population  of  the  southwestern  part  of  the  county.     Towns  have  arisen  like 

magic  and  gone  down  as  quickly;  but  during  1895  a  revival  of  that  industry 

is  noticeable,  owing  to  the  advance  in  the  price  of  oil.     Even  with  the  falling 

off  of  labor  in  the  oil  field,  the  population  of  the  county  has  shown  a  steady 

increase.     The  census  of  1880  showing  41,810  and  that  of  1890  43,240. 

Aside  from  the  oil  industry  the  dairy  business  and  the  raising  of  hay 
are  the  two  leading  industries  of  Allegany.  The  Cuba  cheese  market  ranks 
third  in  the  state  of  New  York,  and  third  in  the  United  States.  Early  in  the 
seventies  iron  bridges  began  to  make  their  appearance,  the  first  one  put  up 
being  at  Mills  Mills,  in  Hume.  So  fast  have  they  supplanted  the  wooden 
structures,  that  now  they  are  in  a  decided  majority.  In  a  few  years,  proba- 
bly by  1900,  not  a  wooden  bridge  of  any  pretension  as  to  size  will  be  found 
in  the  county.  Nearly  twenty  good  bridges  now  span  the  Genesee  river, 
niore  than  half  of  them  being  of  iron. 

The  old  county  poorhouse  buildings,  were  at  the  commencement 
of  the  period  now  under  consideration  in  need  of  constant  and  extensive 
repairs  and  alterations  to  meet  the  requirements  of  proper  classification  and 
care  of  the  inmates,  and  which  were  at  the  best  illy  planned  to  meet  the 
demands  of  intelligent  administration,  or  to  comply  with  the  exactions  of 
this  progressive  age  in  treatment  of  the  poor,  so  it  was  determined  to  re- 
place the  old  structures  with  new  buildings,  and  in  1883  they  were  con- 
structed. The  new  structures  are  built  after  plans  approved  by  the  state 
board  of  charities,  and  especially  by  Hon.  Wm.  P.  Letchworth,  the  distin- 
guished philanthropist,  whose  interest  in  and  labors  for  the  improvement  of 
the  condition  of  the  unfortunate  wards  of  the  state  and  nation  have  given 
him  a  world  wide  fame,  at  that  time  president  of  the  board.  They  are  tasty, 
commodious,  and  comfortable.  Heated  by  steam  as  they  are,  the  tempera- 
ture is  easily  kept  uniform,  and  at  any  desired  degree.  The  grounds  im- 
mediately about  the  buildings  are  pleasant  and  very  tidily  kept.  The  insti- 
tution is  now  one  of  which  Allegany  may  justly  feel  proud,  as  it  ranks 
second  to  none  among  counties  of  its  population  and  class  in  the  state.. 

In  numerous  instances  several  small  farms  are  merged  in  one  large  one, 
this  being  the  case  in  all  of  the  toAvns.  The  old  structures  put  up  in  the 
days  of  early  settlement  are  few  and  growing  less  in  number.  Occasionally 
in  riding  over  the  country  one  will  observe  the  feature  so  impressed  upon 
the  mind  of  Mr.  E.  M.  Wilson,  of  Belfast,  when  he  so  gracefully  and  truth- 
fully wrote: 

"  Hard  by  some  aged  apple  tree, 

Or  where  the  live-forever  grows, 
A  mound  of  earth  and  stones  we  see, 
Where  once  the  settler's  cabin  rose." 

But  a  few  more  years  will  pass  and  these,  too,  the  last  visible  evidences, 
save  the  cleared  fields,  of  early  occupation,  will  have  disappeared. 

118  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

The  log  school-houses  years  ago  disappeared,  and  have  been  replaced 
with  the  neat  and  tasty  framed  structures,  now  so  common  all  over  our 
county,  and  so,  also,  of  the  old  log  houses  of  the  pioneer  period,  not  more 
than  half-a-dozen  of  them  all  told  are  left  in  the  county  and  tenanted. 

Among  the  many  Alleganians  who  have  become  distinguished,  may 
with  propriety  be  mentioned  the  following:  Jonathan  Allen,  D.  D.,  Ph.  D.> 
for  many  years  president  of  Alfred  University,  and  Prof.  Wm.  C.  Kenyon, 
who  preceded  Dr.  Allen  as  the  head  of  that  pioneer  academic  and  collegiate 
institution,  both  teachers  of  a  very  high  order  of  excellence.  Hon.  Martin 
Grover,  the  gifted  lawyer,  judge,  and  statesman,  who  served  one  term  in 
Congress,  was  promoted  to  the  supreme  court  bench,  and  made  a  member 
of  the  Court  of  Appeals  of  New  York.  Marshall  B.  Champlain,  the  eloquent 
advocate,  state  legislator,  and  attorney  general.  Prof.  Wm.  H.  Pitt,  the 
profound  scholar  and  distinguished  scientist,  for  many  years  connected 
with  the  public  schools  of  Biiifalo.  Prof.  James  Baxter,  the  founder  of  the 
"Baxter  Institute  of  Music"  started  in  1853,  the  pioneer  of  its  class  of 
schools  in  the  United  States;  Dr.  H.  R.  Palmer,  the  eminent  musical  director, 
composer  and  publisher;  Senator  Henry  M.  Teller  of  Colorado,  who  has 
also  been  U.  S.  Secretary  of  the  Interior,  and  his  brother  Willard,  a  distin- 
guished lawyer  and  successful  business  man  of  Denver;  Philip  H.  Welch, 
of  Angelica,  who  became  greatly  distinguished  in  the  world  of  letters  as  a 
briUiant  humorist  and  master  of  sarcasm.  Wm.  G.  Angel,  the  county's  first 
elected  judge,  an  able  jurist  and  statesman,  as  noted  for  being  the  head  of  a 
family  of  lawyers,  as  was  Dr.  '  Lyman  Beecher  for  furnishing  so  many 
pulpits  with  masterful  briUiant  preachers.  Madame  Alberti,  a  native  of 
Alfred,  and  a  daughter  of  President  Allen,  the  celebrated  elocutionist,  now 
of  New  York  City,  who  is  almost  peerless  in  her  art.  Dr.  Daniel  Lewis  of 
New  York,  chairman  of  the  state  board  of  health;  Dr.  T.  H.  Norton  of  the 
Cincinnati  University,  a  Rushford  boy,  upon  whom  the  University  of  Heidel- 
berg conferred  the  degree  of  Ph.  D.  '' snmma  cum  IcmcW  (a  "Doctor  of 
Philosophy  with  highest  praise"),  the  highest  degree  in  the  gift  of  the  great 
universities  of  the  world.  But  a  short  time  since  his  aJma  mater,  Hamilton 
College,  bestowed  upon  him  the  degree  of  Sc.  D.  (Doctor  of  Science),  the 
second  time  it  had  conferred  the  degree  in  its  existence  of  eighty-three 
years.  It  is  said  that  one  of  the  nations  of  Europe  having  confidentially 
asked  our  cabinet  at  Washington  to  name  the  best  man  to  become  the  head 
of  the  scientific  department  of  a  new  government  university,  the  late  Secre- 
tary Gresham  sent  the  name  of  Dr.  T.  H.  Norton.  Norvin  Green  and  Wm. 
Orton,  presidents  of  the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company,  must  also  be 
mentioned.  As  athletics  is  receiving  more  and  more  attention  in  our  col- 
leges and  universities,  it  may  not  be  out  of  place  to  refer  to  William  Muldoon 
of  Belfast,  in  certain  styles  the  champion  wrestler  of  the  world,  and  Ed. 
Atherton,  his  pupil,  a  probably  successful  aspirant  for  the  middle-weight 

Later  Developments,  Progress,  Etc. 


wrestling-  championship  of  tho  world.  In  pioneer  days  the  names  of  Judge 
Philip  Church,  Clark  Crandall  and  Major  Moses  Van  Cami^en.  stand  for  the 
high  qualities  demanded  in  those  times.  Many  more  might  with  equal 
propriety  be  named,  and  then  some  equally  worthy  would  be  left  unnoticed. 

Allegany  may  "  point  with  pride  "'  to  such  a  list.  Her  representatives 
are  in  every  state,  and  in  foreign  countries.  Her  sons  adorn  the  bench, 
grace  the  pulpit,  are  successful  in  business,  achieve  distinction  in  scientific 
pursuits  and  ornament  all  the  learned  professions,  as  well  as  grace  the 
humbler  walks  of  life,  and  her  daughters  are  found  to  be  worthy,  womanly 
sisters  of  such  noble  brothers,  acquitting  themselves  with  credit  in  the  do- 
mesticity of  the  home,  in  the  business  office,  on  the  lecture  platform,  in  the 
pulpit  and  in  the  world  of  letters,  and  they  are  known  and  honored  in  many 

Statement  showing  the  assessed  valuation  of  Real  and  Personal  estate  in  Allegany  county 
from  1 87 1  to  1894  inclusive,  also  the  amount  of  taxes  collected  in  the  coun-y  for  the  same  time^ 
exclusive  of  school,  road  and  municipal  taxts. 








$    795,001 









144,860.  10 




i4i,cx)2  72 




148.071. 17 















1,167,  '  12 











14,093. 7513 








15,024  361 





1. 3 19.953 






































Making  the  handsome  showing  of    $3,453,867.56 

A  glance  at  the  tax  column  of  this  statement,  may  serve  to  impress 
upon  our  people  an  idea  of  their  importance,  financially  considered,  and  the 
total  amount  of  taxes  paid,  may  prove  indeed  a  surx3rise  to  many  of  the 
readers  of  this  chapter,  as  much  so,  perhaps,  as  it  was  to  the  writer  wh  en 
he  tabulated  and  footed  them. 

Banks  and  Banking.  Perhaps  no  other  department  of  business  is  so 
much  in  touch  with  the  financial  condition  of  a  section  of  country  as  that  of 
banking,  and  here  Allegany's  record  is  shown  to  be  an  eminently  favorable 
one.  Beyond  a  doubt  the  first  bank  in  the  county  was  a  branch  of  the  Erie 
County  Bank  of  Buffalo  which  must  have  been  established  in  the  thirties. 
It  was  not  long  in  existence,  possibly  the  panic  times  of  1837  had  something 
to  do  with  the  closing  of  its  doors.  For  a  long  x)eriod  from  1832,  when  it  was 
founded,   the  lumbermen  of  Allegany  had  to  rely  on  the  Steuben  County 

120  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Bank,  of  Bath,  of  which  Gen.  John  Magee  was  the  controlHng  spirit,  for  the 
necessary  funds  to  carry  on  their  operations  until  the  annual  rafting  and 
sale  of  their  products  was  consummated  in  the  Ohio  and  Mississipj^i  valleys. 
The  influence  and  assistance  of  this  great  monetary  institution  was  felt  not 
only  in  Steuben  and  Allegany,  but  largely  in  Cattaraugus  and  Chautauqua 
counties.  Fifty  years  ago  there  was  not  a  banking  institution  of  any  conse- 
quence in  the  county.  D'Autremont's  private  bank  at  Angelica,  with 
Green's  private  bank  at  Cuba,  and  possibly  one  or  two  others,  were  all  Alle- 
gany apparently  needed  at  even  a  later  day.  The  financial  progress  will  be 
perhaps  shown  better  by  the  banks  now  doing  business  than  in  any  other 
way  and  we  consequently  give  a  list  of  them.  The  First  National  Bank  of 
Friendship  was  the  first  to  organize  under  the  National  Banking  Law,  on 
February  1,  1864.  The  National  Banks  as  given  by  the  Bankers^  Register  of 
July,  1894,  are:  Cuba  National  Bank,  $100,000  capital,  $50,000  surplus,  $5,700 
undivided  profits,  $160,000  average  deposits;  First  National  Bank,  Cuba, 
$50,000  capital,  $50,000  surplus,  $5,000  undivided  profits,  $100,000  deposits; 
Pirst  National  Bank,  Friendship,  $75,000  capital,  $50,000  surplus,  $3,000 
undivided  profits,  $170,000  deposits;  Citizen's  National  Bank,  'Friendship, 
$50,000  capital,  $10,000  surplus,  $9,000  undivided  profits,  $90,000  deposits; 
First  National  Bank,  Wellsville,  $100,000  capital,  $30,000  surplus,  $15,000 
undivided  profits,  $280,000  deposits;  Citizen's  National  Bank,  Wellsville, 
just  organizing.  The  State  Banks  are:  The  University  Bank,  Alfred,  $25,000 
capital;  Andover  State  Bank,  $25,000  ca^Dital;  Bank  of  Angelica,  $25,000 
capital,  $4,000  surplus,  $1,000  undivided  profits,  $50,000  deposits;  State  Bank 
of  Belmont,  $25,000  capital,  $5,000  surplus,  $3,200  undivided  profits,  $75,000 
deposits;  State  Bank  of  Bohvar,  $30,000  capital,  $1,200  surplus,  $66,000 
deposits;  State  Bank  of  Fillmore,  $25,000  capital,  $8,000  surplus,  $2,000 
undivided  profits,  $100,000  deposits.  Private  banks  as  follows:  A.  M.  Bur- 
rows, Andover;  Bank  of  Belfast,  $15,000  capital,  $8,000  surplus,  $1,900 
undivided  profits,  $85,000  deposits;  C.  G.  Anderson  &  Son,  Belmont;  Can- 
aseraga  Banking  Co.,  $15,000  capital,  $2,000  surplus,  $1,623  undivided  profits, 
$40,000  deposits;  M.  C.  Mulkin,  Friendship;  Wells  Bros.,  Hume;  Stacy  & 
Kendall,  Rushford;  Elias  Harris,  Scio. 

In  politics  Allegany  was,  previous  to  the  formation  of  the  Republican 
party,  one  of  the  strongholds  of  the  Whigs.  Since  1854  it  has  been  one  of 
the  strongest  Republican  counties  in  the  state,  rolling  up  such  majorities 
for  the  candidates  of  that  party,  as  led  either  Horace  Greeley  or  A.  N.  Cole 
to  name  it  "  Grand  Old  Allegany,  "  a  title  which  it  has  for  a  long  time 
borne;  and  now  claims  as  eminently  applicable  in  other  and  broader  senses. 
,  The  centennial  county  officers  are.  S.  McArthur  Norton,  County  Judge; 
Geo.  H.  Swift,  Sheriff;  Jas.  R.  Hodnett,  Under  Sheriff;  George  A.  Green, 
Clerk;  T.  S.  .Tefft,  Deputy  Clerk;  Charles  H.  Brown,  District  Attorney; 
Charles  Ricker,  Treasurer;  F.  H.  Bluestone,  school  commissioner  1st  dis- 
trict; Stephen  Pollard,  school  commissioner  2d  district;  Hon.  Fred.  A.  Rob- 
bins,  Member  of  Assembly. 

Travel  and  Transportation.  121 



"  Behold  that  clumsy  careless  craft, 
Upon  this  narrow  highland  stream, 
Fettered  with  rocks,  and  fallen  trees 
That  in  its  channel  lie, 
And  zigzag  as  the  lightning's  track 
Athwart  the  midnight  sky. 
With  poles  and  ropes  and  dauntless  hearts, 
From  morn  till  evening  gray. 

They  force  their  tiny  ship  along  its  winding  way, 
See  I  now  she's  fast  upon  some  rift  or  tree  ! 
Hark  !  hear  the  captain's  '  Altogether  now,  heo  he!  ' 
And  she  rises  as  by  magic  power. 
And  hastens  on  the  long  expected  hour." 

"  Allegany's  pioneers  were  men  of  push  and  pluck 
Who  came  to  win,  but  not  by  chance  or  luck ; 
And  when  they  sought  but  found  no  way. 
They  carved  out  one  without  delay." 

OUR  pioneers  as  they  pressed  their  way  into  the  primitive  forests  of  Alle- 
gany found  "  a  hard  road  to  travel,"  if  indeed  they  found  any  road  at 
all.  Following  the  course  in  some  instances  of  the  larger  streams,  poling 
and  pushing  flatboats  loaded  with  their  effects,  while  the  oxen  and  horses 
(if  any)  and  perhaps  a  cow  and  a  jjig  or  two.  were  in  some  way  driven  along 
the  banks,  they  made  very  slow  progress;  and  when  they  came  to  the  later- 
al stream  up  which  they  were  to  make  their  way  the  progress  was  still 
slower.  Plunging  through  the  stream  here,  stopping  there  to  widen  out 
the  almost  complete  road  which  for  a  short  distance  bordered  the  creek  on 
one  side,  while  the  other  presented  perhaps  a  perpendicular  wall  of  rock; 
now  resorting  to  the  axe  and  oxen  to  clear  the  way.  (which  permits  no  de- 
viation there,)  of  the  huge  trunk  of  some  prostrate  tree,  then  again  pausing 
their  march  to  corduroy  some  brief  distance  of  unavoidable  swale,  crossing 
again  the  stream,  or  following  for  a  distance  its  stony  bed,  halting  to  pre- 
pare the  midday  meal  of  the  plainest  description,  partaken  of,  however,  with 
a  relish  sharpened  by  their  toilsome  march;  then,  when  the  day's  march  is 
done,  i^reparing  the  rude  camp  in  the  depths  of  the  wilderness,  the  night 
made  hideous  perhaps  by  prowling  wolves,  who  had  scented,  and  were  fol- 
lowing their  tracks  to  disturb  their  slumbers  by  their  howling  chorusses. 

This  is  no  exaggeration,  only  the  story,  only  the  experience  of  many  of 
the  early  settlers  in  Allegany.  And  when  the  work  of  felling  a  few  trees 
and  preparing  a  rude  cabin  was  accomplished,  and  they  stopped  for  a 
moment  to  survey  the  situation,  and  consider  the  full  scope  of  its  meaning, 
of  its  possibilities,  of  the  years  of  toil  and  hardship  which  lay  before  them, 

122  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

they  were  confronted  with  a  problem  of  immense  importance,  and  which 
imperatively  demanded  a  solution,  and  which,  the  sooner  it  was  solved  the 
better  itwouldbe  for  them.  Looking  behind  them  there  was  thelongand  tedious 
journey  just  accomplished,  with  hardships  innumerable,  and  here  they  were 
so  far  from  their  old  home  and  friends,  with  only  a  scanty  invoice  of  the  bare 
necessities  of  life;  while  around  and  about  them  the  illimitable  forest, 
covered  with  a  wonderful  growth  of  timber,  must  needs  be  felled  and 
cleared  away,  and  the  ground  prepared  for  crops.  This  process  must  con- 
sume long  years,  and  involve  a  great  amount  of  hard  labor. 

It  was  a  forecast  well  calculated  to  tax  to  their  utmost  the  bravery  and 
enterprise  of  the  most  resolute.  No  wonder  that  our  pioneers  should  ad- 
dress themselves  to  the  solution  of  the  problem  of  transportation  with 
energy  and  zeal.  ''Necessity  is  the  mother  of  invention  "  and  "  where  there 
is  a  will  there  is  a  way."  These  adages  were  most  beautifully  illustrated 
in  the  efforts  to  open  communications  with  the  older  settlements,  and  markets 
of  the  seaboard.  Wagon  roads  were  first  thought  of,  and  stages  the  most 
aristocratic  conveyance  the  most  sanguine  allowed  themselves  to  dream  of. 
One  of  the  first  roads  constructed  was  the  one  from  Hornellsville  to  Olean 
described  in  another  chapter.  The  most  penetrating  minds  could  see  no 
other  outlet  to  the  seacoast  and  it  was  set  forth  in  the  advertisement  wiiich 
Capt.  Church  published  when  he  placed  his  tract  upon  the  market.  This 
says : 

"This  Tract  of  Land  contains  100,000  acres,  and  is  situated  on  the  Genesee  River,  22 
miles  south  of  Williamsbur.s^h,  100  east  of  Presque  Isle,  8  north  of  the  Pennsylvania  line,  and 
16  west  of  the  navigable  waters  of  the  Susquehannah.  *  *  *  The  proposed  State  Road 
from  Catskill  to  Presque  Isle  and  New  Connecticut  is  now  opened  as  far  as  this  tract,  upon 
which  a  settlement  was  made  in  October,  1802  (Angelica),  since  when  a  store  has  been  estab- 
lished, "  etc. 

As  early  as  1803  some  settlements  had  been  made  in  Caneadea,  and  a 
road  opened  down  the  river  from  where  the  road  before  spoken  of  struck 
the  river,  to  the  settlements.  It  was  from  this  road  that  the  first  road 
leading  over  to  Friendship  from  the  river  to  the  Tucker  place  was  made  in 
1806.  At  what  we  now  call  the  Transit  bridge  a  road  was  opened  from  this 
river  road  to  Franklinville  in  1805,  pursuing  a  very  direct  course  to  the 
Ischua,  crossing  White  and  Black  and  Oil  creeks.  It  was  known  as  the 
"  Ischua  road,"  and  has  long  since  been  abandoned.  The  Holland  Land 
Company  early  o^jened  a  road  from  Leicester  to  Olean  Point,  which  came  to 
be  called  the  "Allegany  road."  This  entered  the  county  at  the  northeast 
corner  of  Centerville,  passed  through  that  town  to  Rushford,  thence  on  the 
valley  road  to  Oil  creek  and  Olean.  A  branch  left  this  road  at  the  center  of  Cen- 
terville passing  out  of  the  county  at  Fairview.  A  road  of  the  rudest  possible 
character  passed  up  the  river  from  the  extreme  northern  limits  of  the 
county  substantially  following  the  Indian  trail  to  Caneadea.  As  early  as 
1809  a  road  of  the  simplest  and  roughest  kind  was  opened  from  Angelica  to 
Olean,  but  it  was  almost  impassable  except  in  winter.     In  1819  a  commis- 

Travel  and  Transportation.  123 

sion  consisting-  of  Moses  Van  Campen,  Joseph  Ellicott,  Robert  Trouj),  Charles 
Carroll.  Philip  Church,  Dugald  Cameron,  Seymour  Bouton,  Sylvanus  Rus- 
sell and  William  Higgins  was  appointed  to  lay  out  a  road  from  Angelica  by 
way  of  Van  Campen's  Creek  to  Hamilton  (Olean).  The  '-Bath  and  Olean 
Turnpike  "'  was  soon  after  constructed  substantially  covering  the  road 
already  referred  to.  and,  with  a  small  state  appropriation,  was  speedily  com- 
pleted and  opened  as  a  toll-road.  Over  this  road  passed  a  great  amount  of 
travel  from  the  east  and  southeast  to  Olean. 

While  these  enterprises  were  being  prosecuted,  there  were  other  forces 
at  work  destined  to  work  a  revolution  in  transportation.  In  1807  Jesse 
Hawley  discussed  in  the  Ontario  Messeufjer  over  the  signature  of  Hercules, 
the  feasibility,  propriety  and  practical  importance  of  a  canal  to  connect  Lake 
Erie  with  the  Hudson.  Public  attention  was  drawn  to  the  project,  and  meet- 
ings were  held  along  the  route  of  the  proposed  "  commercial  artery."  The 
legislature  was  bes'eiged  wibh  petitions  asking  state  aid  for  the  enterprise; 
surveys  were  authorized,  the  work  was  put  under  contract,  and  in  1826  the 
completion  of  the  Erie  canal  was  celebrated  with  imposing  ceremonies.  This 
canal  turned  the  tide  of  travel  from  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore  to  Roches- 
ter and  York  Landing,  bringing  the  settlers  of  Allegany  considerably  nearer 
to  the  base  of  supplies,  and  affording  a  nearer  and  more  stable  market  for 
their  products.  If  a  country  so  remote  from  the  Erie  canal  could  be  bene- 
fited so  much  as  Allegany  seemed  to  be,  the  reasoning  was  conclusive  that 
a  canal  through  her  territory,  emptying  into  her  lai?  the  stores  and  supplies 
her  people  so  much  needed,  and  bearing  upon  its  bosom  to  the  seaboard  her 
tall  pines  and  sturdy  oaks,  would  greatly  enhance  the  value  of  her  forests 
and  promote  the  material  interests  of  her  people.  And  so  the  matter  was 
talked  up,  and  after  a  while  meetings  were  held  to  discuss  the  possibility, 
feasibility,  practicability  and  commercial  and  financial  importance  of  a  canal 
connecting  the  Erie  canal  and  the  waters  of  the  Allegany.  It  is  claimed 
that  the  first  meeting  where  the  project  was  publicly  discussed  was  held  at 
Cuba;  that  John  Griftin,  Daniel  Raymond,  Simeon  C.  Moore,  Calvin  T.  Cham- 
berlain and  Samuel  Morgan,  and  others  from  Allegany  and  Cattaraugus 
counties  attended.  At  what  date  the  meeting  was  held  I  have  been  unable 
to  ascertain.  Judge  Church  doubtless  was  present,  for  he  was  one  of  the 
earliest  promoters  of  the  enterprise,  although  it  should  be  mentioned  that 
he  favored  the  construction  of  a  railroad  instead  of  a  canal.  In  this  he  was 
overruled,  but  the  sequel  proves  his  sagacity  and  wonderful  foresight. 

As  early  as  1827  Governor  Clinton  recommended  a  survey  of  the  Gene- 
see Valley  to  ascertain  the  difference  of  elevation,  the  structures  necessary 
to  build,  and  obstacles  to  be  overcome  in  constructing  a  canal.  In  1828  a 
survey  was  made  under  the  direction  of  Judge  Geddes,  whose  rej^ort  demon- 
strated the  feasibility  of  the  scheme;  but  the  public  did  not  seem  ready  to 
embark  the  state  in  the  enterprise.  Revolutions  do  not  go  backward,  neither 
do  projects  for  internal  improvements.  What  had  already  been  done  had 
enlisted  public  attention.     Enterprising  and  speculative  men  were  encour- 

124  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

aged  thereby  to  visit  the  region  which  the  proposed  canal  was  to  traverse, 
and  to  view  the  prodigious  growth  of  the  vast  forests  on  either  side  of  the 
upper  Genesee,  survey  the  rich  flats  along  its  course,  and  form  opinions  as 
to  the  importance  of  the  canal  to  this  region.  And  so,  at  last,  after  some 
had  even  despaired  of  success  ever  crowning  their  efforts,  the  work  of 
years  of  toil  in  bringing  the  matter  before  the  public  brought  forth  good 
fruit  in  1834  when  an  act  was  passed  authorizing  a  more  complete  survey  of 
the  proposed  route,  which  was  made  under  the  direction  of  J.  C.  Mills,  and, 
in  May,  1836,  an  act  was  passed  authorizing  the  construction  of  the  Genesee 
Vahey  canal.  The  work  was  at  once  put  under  contract,  and  in  1837  active 
operations  commenced.  Such  scenes  of  activity  as  were  soon  presented 
along  the  line  of  the  proposed  canal,  were  never  before  witnessed  in  Alle- 
gany. Contractors,  sub-contractors,  foremen,  bosses,  engineers,  put  in 
their  appearance.  Hundreds  of  Irishmen  fresh  from  the  "old  sod,"  Ger- 
mans from  "faderland,"  and  brawny  laddies  from  the  land  of  Burns  and 
Ossian,  were  all  seen  along  the  line  in  quest  of  work.  Shanties  went  n-p, 
blacksmith  shops,  public  houses  (generally  of  quite  rude  construction); 
quarries  were  opened  to  procure  stone  for  aqueducts,  locks  and  bridge 
abutments.  Everywhere  was  life  and  activity,  money  was  plenty,  and  a 
good  market  right  at  our  doors  was  opened  for  all  the  farmer  had  to  spare, 
making  better  times  than  have  perhaps  ever  been  experienced  here  before 
or  since.  Fifty-two  miles  were  completed  as  early  as  1840.  bringing  Dans- 
ville  and  Mt.  Morris  into  close  connection  with  Rochester  and  the  Erie 

In  1842,  owing  to  a  change  in  the  state  administration,  work  was  sus- 
pended, and  for  a  few  years  dull  times  followed.  The  half -completed  bridges, 
locks  and  aqueducts,  the  partially-excavated  ditches  and  lock-pits,  and  here 
and  there  a  section  substantially  finished,  caused  the  line  of  the  abandoned 
works  to  present  a  strange  appearance,  and  covered  the  faces  of  many  of 
our  people  with  dismay  and  apprehension.  In  1847  or  8  however,  work  was 
resumed,  after  paying  large  amounts  in  damages  to  contractors,  in  some 
cases  (it  has  been  estimated)  enough  to  have  completed  the  work,  and  in 
1851  the  canal  was  finished  to  Oramel.  The  work  was  finished  to  Belfast  in 
1853.  to  Rockville  in  1854,  and  to  Olean  in  1856.  It  passed  through  Hume, 
Caneadea.  Belfast,  New  Hudson  and  Cuba,  and  was  mainly  used  for  the 
transportation  of  lumber  and  shingles  from  Allegany  and  Cattaraugus  coun- 
ties. Soon  after  its  opening  to  Oramel  a  packet-boat,  the  •'  Frances,"  made 
regular  trips  from  Mt.  Morris  and  return;  but  it  did  not  prove  a  joaying 
investment,  and  was  soon  abandoned.  Too  much  time  had  to  be  spent  in 
passing  the  locks,  and  so  the  stages  soon  had  it  all  their  own  way  again. 
This  canal  was  not  a  paying  investment  of  itself,  yet  it  contributed  to  largely 
swell  the  receipts  of  the  Erie  canal,  and  aidfed  in  converting  the  pine  forests 
of  Allegany  into  improved  farms,  and  enriched  its  people.  Considering  the 
fact  that  the  people  of  Allegany  had  been  taxed  for  years  for  the  construc- 
tion and  support  of  the  Erie  canal,  while  the  benefits  received  were  in  com- 

Travel  and  Transportation.  125 

parison  quite  trilling,  it  was  perhaps  only  evening  up  things  to  tax  other 
portions  of  the  state  for  the  construction  and  maintenance  of  this  lateral 
canal,  which  was,  in  the  fall  of  1878,  abandoned  to  give  way  to  the  Buffalo, 
New  York  and  Philadelphia  railroad. 

New  York  and  Erie  Railroad.  About  the  time  the  practicability  of 
railroads  became  an  established  fact,  and  even  before,  the  visions  of  water 
communication  with  Baltimore,  began  to  vanish  like  the  cloud  phantoms  of 
a  dream,  the  outlet  to  which  the  settlers  of  southern  and  central  Allegany 
had  looked  for  their  surplus  products  began  to  close,  for  when  compared 
with  the  great  artificial  waterway,  "  Clinton's  Ditch,"  as  the  Erie  canal  was 
called  by  some,  it  was  soon  relegated  to  the  rear.  The  Erie  canal  had  been 
completed,  and  put  into  successful  operation.  Its  effect  was  soon  felt  and 
seen  in  the  thriving  villages  and  cities,  which,  magic-like,  sprang  into  exist- 
ence along  its  line,  in  the  beautifully  improved  farms,  which  spread  for 
miles  in  either  direction,  the  great  impetus  which  was  given  to  agricultural 
pursuits  and  industries,  the  building  up  of  new  enterprises  and  a  generally 
improved  condition  of  things  social  as  well  as  material.  Then  came  the  con- 
struction of  railways  in  the  valleys  of  the  Mohawk  and  Hudson,  pushing  on 
toward  Buffalo,  increasing  the  facilities  and  lessening  the  tedium  of  travel, 
infusing  more  ardor,  more  life  and  animation  to  the  people.  During  all 
these  long  years  the  people  of  the  southern  tier  of  counties,  taxed  for  the 
construction  and  maintenance  of  the  Erie  canal,  from  which  they  received 
no  apparent  benefit,  were  groaning  under  what  they  considered  unjust  bur- 
dens, a  real  load  of  oppression,  and  the  illusions  of  former  years,  in  the  way 
of  schemes  for  "down  river  navigation,"  having  been  dissipated,  had  be- 
come restive  and  discouraged.  Their  immense  pine  forests  were  still 
standing,  deer  were  still  roaming  its  vast  solitudes,  and  bears  and  wolves 
were  yet  undisturbed  except  by  the  enterprising  hunter.  Their  eyes  were 
strained  with  eagerness  to  discern  some  way  of  solving  this  great  question 
which  laid  so  near  and  affected  so  directly  their  material  interests.  It  was 
a  time  for  men  of  genius,  of  sagacity,  of  discernment  and  enterprise  to  come 
to  the  front.  Nor  did  they  long  have  to  wait.  Among  the  first  in  this  part 
of  the  state  to  appreciate  the  importance  of  a  railroad  were  Judge  Philip 
Church,  of  Belvidere,  and  F.  S.  Martin,  of  Olean.  It  was  at  the  suggestion 
of  Judge  Church  that  the  call  for  the  first  public  meeting  for  the  promotion 
of  the  enterprise  was  held.  This  met  at  the  courthouse  in  Angelica  on  the 
25th  day  of  October,  1831. 

Judge  Church  presided  at  this  meeting,  and  Asa  Allen  and  Daniel  Mc- 
Henry  were  the  secretaries.  Resolations  strongly  favoring  the  enterprise 
were  adopted,  and  a  committee  consisting  of  Hon.  Philip  Church,  Gen.  S.  S. 
Haight,  J.  B.  Cooley,  Ransom  Lloyd  and  John  Collins  was  appointed,  and 
instructed  to  enter  into  communication  with  the  people  of  the  other  coun- 
ties interested,  and  a  delegation  was  appointed  to  attend  a  railroad  conven- 
tion, to  be  held  at  Owego  in  December.  A  committee  of  three  from  each 
town  was  appointed  to  confer  with  the  committee  on  correspondence,  circu- 

126  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

late  petitions,  and  do  any  other  acts  considered  important  to  the  furtherance 
of  the  enterprise.  The  town  committees  were:  Angelica,  Andrews  A.  Nor- 
ton, Charles  Davenport,  Ithamar  Smith;  Almond,  Stephen  Major,  Jesse 
Angel,  Hiram  Palmer;  Alfred,  John  B.  Collins,  Samuel  Russell,  Joseph  Good- 
rich; Andover,  Sidney  Frisbee,  Sheldon  Brewster,  Elijah  Hunt;  Amity,  A.  E. 
Parker,  B.  G-.  Crandall,  John  Simons;  Allen,  James  Wilson.  J.  W.  Stewart, 
Chester  Roach;  Burns,  William  Welch,  H.  Halliday,  J.  H.  Boy  land;  Birdsall, 
J.  B.  Welch,  J.  Whitman,  A.  C.  Hull;  Belfast,  S.  Wilson,  E.  Reynolds.  R. 
Renwick;  Bolivar,  L.  Leonard,  T.  Richardson,  L.  Evans;  Cuba.  John  Griffin, 
John  Bell,  H.  Brasted;  Centerville,  O.  Pell.  B.  Bryan,  William  Freeman; 
Caneadea,  A.  Burr,  E.  Burbank,  James  Caldwell;  Eagle,  J.  Grover,  J.  Wart, 
J.  Wing;  Friendship,  S.  King,  William  Colwell,  E.  Griswold;  Grove,  J.  S. 
Wright,  E.  Smith,  J.  Van  Ostrand;  Genesee,  J.  S.  Crandall.  B.  Maxson, 
Hiram  Wilson;  Hmne,  S.  H.  Pratt,  C.  G.  Ingham,  C.  Mather;  Haight,  T.  Mc- 
Elhney,  William  Andrews,  J.  Westfall;  Independence,  Q.  S.  White.  Samuel 
Maxwell,  S.  Leonard;  RusTford,  M.  McCall,  A.  J.  Lyon.  Lyon  J.  Young;  Scio, 
J.  Middaugh,  B.  Palmer,  Asa  Parks. 

Quite  a  number  of  meetings  were  held  at  the  larger  places  along  the 
line  of  the  proposed  railroad,  and  public  feeling  in  the  southern  counties 
was  wrought  up  to  a  high  pitch  of  excitement.  The  legislature  v/as  flooded 
with  petitions  from  the  people  in  the  Southern  Tier,  and  every  inducement 
which  could  be  brought  to  bear  upon  the  members  of  both  houses  was 
resorted  to,  which  resulted  in  the  passage  of  an  act  of  incorporation  April 
24,  1832  which  was  amended  April  19,  1833. 

On  the  9th  of  August.  1833,  a  board  of  directors  was  elected.  A  pre- 
liminary survey  had  been  made  in  1832  by  DeWitt  Clinton,  Jr.,  under  direc- 
tion of  the  state  authorities.  In  1834,  by  direction  of  the  Governor,  Benja- 
min Wright,  assisted  by  James  Seymour-and  Charles  EUiott,  surveyed  the 
route,  beginning  the  work  May  22d,  and  finishing  it  late  in  the  fall.  A  re- 
organization of  the  company  was  effected  in  1835,  and  the  forty  miles  west 
from  Piermont,  N.  J.,  opposite  New  York  city,  was  placed  under  contract. 
The  state  was  appealed  to  for  aid,  and  in  1836  the  comptroller  was  directed 
to  issue  i^3, 000,000  of  state  stock  and  take  a  lien  on  the  road  to  that  amount. 
It  was  indeed  an  immense  undertaking.  The  difficulties  encountered  in  its 
construction  seemed  at  times  almost  insurmountable.  The  faint  hearted 
despaired,  the  brave  and  determined  summoned  more  courage,  and  put  forth 
still  greater  efforts.  The  commercial  revulsions  and  financial  disturbances 
of  1837  had  a  depressing  effect  in  retarding  the  prosecution  of  the  work,  if 
not  entirely  arresting  it. 

A  renewal  however,  of  popular  meetings  or  conventions  along  the  line 
was  inaugurated,  at  which  the  propriety  and  justice  of  the  state  assuming 
control  and  paying  the  expense  of  building  the  road  was  urged  with  no  little 
show  of  reason  and  plausibility.  One  of  the  most  notable  of  these  was  held 
at  Cuba,  Feb.  1,  1839.  It  was  composed  of  delegates  from  Allegany,  Living- 
ston and  Cattaraugus  counties.     The  late  General  Micah  Brooks  of  Living- 

Travel  and  Transportation.  127 

ston  county,  ever  awake  to  the  social  and  material  improvements  of  the  age, 
was  early  in  his  enlistment  in  the  cause  of  the  people  of  the  Southern 
Tier,  attended  the  Cuba  convention  and  was  called  to  preside.  Judge  Alson 
Leavenworth  of  Cattaraugus,  Hon.  John  Griffin  and  Gen.  C.  T.  Chamber- 
lain of  Allegany,  were  vice-presidents,  and  John  G.  Collins  of  Allegany  and 
F.  S.  Martin  of  Cattaraugus  were  secretaries,  105  delegates  took  seats  in 
the  convention.  In  addition  to  the  remarks  of  General  Brooks  upon  assum- 
ing the  chair  the  convention  was  addressed  by  Hon.  J.  Griffin,  C.  T.  Cham- 
berlain, F.  S.  Martin,  D.  C.  Woodcock,  S.  M.  Russell,  A.Leavenworth,  J.  G. 
Collins,  L.  Brooks  and  D.  C.  Bryan.  Of  the  entire  number  whose  names 
occur  in  the  printed  proceedings  of  this  important  meeting,  it  is  safe  to  say, 
after  careful  inquiry,  that  only  one  survives,  Hon.  S.  M.  Russell  of  Cuba. 
The  proceedings  of  this  convention  were  published  by  the  Olcan  Times  of 
Feb.  9,  1839,  and  General  Brooks'  address  appeared  in  an  "extra"  of  the 
Livingston  county  EeinMican  of  February  28th. 

For  the  purpose  of  conveying  to  the  reader  a  correct  impression  of  the 
condition  of  carrying  trade  at  that  time  we  give  a  few  extracts  from  this 
address  of  Gen.  Brooks. 

The  growing  demand  for  increased  facilities  for  transportation  is  attracting  attention 
The  Erie  canal,  the  pride  of  the  state,  is  not  sufficient  to  supply  the  margin  of  the  upper  lakes, 
and  any  attempt  to  increase  its  dimensions  cannot  satisfy  the  demands  of  the  west.  As  evi- 
dence of  this  fact,  I  will  call  your  attention  to  an  extract  from  the  Detroit  Free  Press  of  May 
9,  1837.  "  If  the  merchants  of  Baltimore  and  Philadelphia  do  not  see  the  importance  of  mak- 
ing energetic  efforts  to  establish  a  railroad  communication  between  their  own  cities  and  Cleve- 
land, they  must  be  blind  and  dull  indeed  to  their  own  interests."  Thus  we  see  the  people  of 
Michigan  calling  to  the  cities  and  states  of  the  south  to  extend  their  railroads  to  the  shores  of 
the  lakes,  while  we  also  see  a  rapid  transit  of  goods  and  merchandise  by  way  of  Philadelphia 
and  Pittsburgh  to  Cleveland,  from  the  nth  of  February,  1837,  to  the  27th  of  May,  near  three 
months  before  any  departure  from  the  Erie  canal  by  way  of  Buffalo.  *  *  *  The  amount  of 
goods  shipped  from  Philadelphia  by  Pittsburgh  to  Cleveland  may  be  estimated  in  S(  me  degree 
by  the  tonnage  of  Cleveland  in  the  navigation  of  the  lakes  being  greater  than  that  of  Buffalo. 
The  indifference  of  the  state  of  New  York  to  any  other  channel  of  communication  seems  to 
have  attracted  the  notice  of  other  states.  The  Baltimore  Res^/ster  in  1836,  uses  this  language: 
"  The  state  of  New  York  seems  not  to  have  profited  by  her  own  experience,  and  has  made  no 
effort  to  secure  to  herself  the  commerce  of  the  valley  of  the  Ohio,  and  when  Baltimore  and 
Philadelphia  shall  have  extended  their  works  to  Pittsburgh,  New  York  can  never  regain  the 
trade  of  the  western  states."  Has  the  city  of  New  York  no  interest  in  an  easy  access  to  the 
forests  of  this  state  ?  Has  the  southern  tier  of  counties  no  claim  upon  the  distribution  of  justice 
of  the  state  in  extending  to  them  the  facilities  of  an  intercourse  with  the  city  of  New  York, 
while  our  northern  brethren  are  so  highly  favored  }  To  perfect  our  system  of  internal  improve- 
ments, and  to  place  the  state  of  New  York  in  that  commanding  attitude  which  she  has  the 
power  to  assume,  it  will  be  necessary  to  improve  the  Allegany  river,  which,  connected  with  the 
Genesee  Valley  Canal  and  the  New  York  and  Erie  Railroad,  will  open  to  us  the  boundless  val- 
leys of  the  western  states.  Here  we  see  the  Allegany,  a  branch  of  the  Western  waters,  far 
extended  into  the  interior  of  our  state,  as  a  stretched-out  arm,  inviting  the  eastern  states  to  its 
downward  current,  through  the  center  of  that  extensive  region  which  will  soon  hold  the  balance 
of  power  in  the  Union,  and  which  the  census  of  1850  may  transfer  the  seat  of  government 
from  Washington  to  Cincinnati.     Look  at  the  valley  of  the  Ohio,  and  what  do  we  behold  }     See 

128  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Pittsburgh  with  her  50,000  inhabitants,  building  in  one  year  and  navigating  on  the  Ohio  forty- 
six  steamboats,  a  number  greater  than  floats  upon  the  upper  lakes,  while  Cincinnati,  in  one 
one  year  built  thirty- eight.  The  whole  number  built  on  the  Ohio  being  eighty-five  in  one  year, 
and  in  all  other  parts  of  the  United  States  only  forty-nine.  The  daily  arrival  of  steamboats  at 
Cincinnati  being  about  ten  in  number  during  the  most  part  of  the  summer.  When  we  look  at 
the  merchandise  of  Cincinnati,  we  see  her  made  a  depository  of  the  manufacturers  of  the  east- 
ern states.  Carriages,  harness,  shoes  and  fabrics  of  every  description  being  sent  from  Boston 
and  New  York  by  way  of  the  Atlantic,  Florida  Cape  and  the  up-stream  navigation  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, to  the  Ohio  valley,  while  by  this  channel  of  the  Allegany  may  be  had  more  easy  and 
safe  access,  with  half  the  expense.  Cotton  may  be  obtained  at  Pittsburgh  cheaper  than  at  New 
York,  and  here  may  a  greater  reward  be  given  to  the  laborer  than  can  be  given  in  the  New 
England  states,  and  when  we  have  the  assurance  of  the  war  department  thai  the  Allegany  may 
be  so  improved  for  half  a  million  of  dollars,  as  to  render  it  navigable  to  Olean  for  steamboats 
of  100  tons,  have  we  no  inducement  to  ask  from  Congress  that  appropriation.?  When  the  dis- 
tributive justice  of  the  state  shall  be  fully  extended  to  us,  then,  placed  as  you  are  at  the  source 
of  the  principal  streams,  through  their  gentle  current  may  descend  to  every  part  of  the  Union 
the  products  of  your  industry.  Then  will  the  depressed  condition  of  this  section  be  changed, 
and  this  territory  become  elevated  to  an  equality  with  the  most  favored  portions  of  the  state, 
and  never,  until  these  objects  can  be  affected,  shall  the  duties  we  owe  to  ourselves  and  to  pos- 
terity be  fully  discharged. 

In  1842,  yielding  to  adverse  circumstances  and  conditions,  work  was 
suspended,  as  was  the  case  with  most  projects  for  internal  improvements. 
In  1849  active  operations  were  resumed  with  a  maturity  of  judgment  and 
engineering  skiU,  and  pushed  with  remarkable  energy  all  along  the  line  to 
its  completion  in  1851.  New  routes  were  in  some  places  adopted,  even  after 
a  large  outlay  of  work,  as  in  Almond,  in  the  interest  of  better  grades  and 
easier  and  better  operation.  In  the  prosecution  of  the  work  a  large  quantity 
of  rails  were  transported  by  wagons  from  Mt.  Morris  to  Cuba  and  other 
points,  a  thing  which  in  the  light  of  modern  railroad  construction  would  not 
be  entertained  for  a  moment.  As  the  completion  of  the  great  work  drew 
near  the  excitement  along  the  route  was  intense.  The  public  mind  was 
wrought  up  to  such  a  degree  that  nothing  short  of  a  celebration  commensu- 
rate to  the  importance  of  the  event  could  be  thought  of. 

Most  elaborate  preparations  were  made.  An  excursion  train  left  Pier- 
mont  to  make  the  entire  length  of  the  road.  Among  the  invited  guests  were 
President  Fillmore,  Daniel  Webster,  John  J.  Crittenden  and  other  national 
celebrities.  The  coaches  were  profusely  decorated,  and  nearly  every  place, 
however  obscure,  or  hamlet-like  in  its  pretensions,  was  approached  amid 
the  roar  of  cannon,  with  flags  flying  and  banners  streaming,  while  bands  of 
music  gave  expression  to  the  people's  joy.  Music  and  dancing,  banquets 
and  speeches,  were  the  order  of  the  day.  And  who  can  feel  to  blame  them? 
They  were  really  celebrating  their  liberation  from  a  long  bondage.  That 
triumphal  excursion  train  was  the  "  proclamation  of  emancipation"  which 
conferred  the  freedom  of  the  world  upon  the  people  of  the  Southern  Tier, 
and  well  might  they  rejoice  ! 

When  the  train  arrived  at  Belvidere  it  was  hailed  with  rapture  by  an 
immense  throng.     Judge  Phihp  Church  presented  a  large  flag  upon  which 

Travel  and  Transportation.  129 

was  represented  on  engine  drawing  a  large  cannon  and  sheaves  of  wheat  in 
an  open  car;  an  Indian  in  ambush,  with  a  look  of  surprise  upon  his  features 
and  his  bow  and  arrows  apparently  falling  from  his  grasp;  also  a  startled 
deer  running  away.     Beneath  was  this  inscription: 



Where  the  fierce  redman  trod  his  pathless  way, 

In  search  precarious,  daily  food  to  slay  ; 

Or  hid  in  ambush,  sprung  upon  his  foe, 

Striking  unseen  the  unexpected  blow  ; 

Now  Steam,  resistless,  spreads  his  fiery  wings  ; 

Where  want  depresses,  wished  for  plenty  springs ; 

Or  ponderous  weapons  to  our  border  draws  ; 

Or  writes  on  ocean  waves  Columbia's  laws. 

Boast  not,  proud  white  man,  in  arts  of  peace  and  war, 

Look  up  to  Heaven,  and  see  how  small  you  are  !  " 

At  Cuba  a  great  crowd  cheered  the  train  as  it  slowed  up  at  the  station. 
President  Fillmore,  after  the  applause  had  somewhat  subsided,  said.  "  Much 
has  lately  been  said  about  the  annexation  of  Cuba.  I  should  think  from  the 
great  crowd  of  ladies  and  children  present  that  Cuba  had  already  been  an- 
nexed." John  J.  Crittenden  then  spoke  a  few  words  and  the  signal  was 
given  for  starting,  whereupon  a  number  of  railroad  men,  among  whom  I 
understand  was  David  Kirkpatrick,  threw  a  lot  of  ties  across  the  track,  thus 
protesting  most  emi:)hatically  against  any  further  progress  of  the  train  un- 
til the  great  and  only  Daniel  Webster  had  been  heard  from.  Mr.  Webster 
appeared  and  amid  vociferous  cheering  "assured  the  jieople  of  Cuba  that 
this  was  peaceable  invasion."  The  embargo  was  then  removed  and  the 
train  again  started  on  its  triumphal  march.  (It  has  been  claimed  that  Mr. 
Webster  upon  that  occasion  was  in  a  certain  sense  almost  "too  full  for 

During  the  building  of  the  road  great  trouble  was  experienced  from 
riotous  demonstrations,  especially  in  the  vicinity  of  Cuba.  A  steam  ex- 
cavator was  put  in  operation.  This  excited  the  ire  of  the  shovelers  as  it 
did  the  work  of  many  men.  Its  destruction  was  threatened,  and  to  save  it 
from  the  mob  a  guard  was  placed  over  it.  On  one  occasion  the  military  were 
called  out.  and  a  cannon  was  loaded  and  placed  to  command  the  entire  main 
street  of  the  village,  and  by  such  means  the  disturbance  was  quelled. 

Buffalo  could  not  rest  satisfied  without  tapping  this  great  western 
thoroughfare,  and  had  for  years  been  scheming  for  that  purpose  by  encourag- 
ing the  organization  of  the  ^  Attica  and  Hornellsville  Railroad  Company, 
which  was  incorporated  May  14,  1845,  with  a  capital  of  1750,000.  April  11, 
1849,  it  procured  an  extension  of  time  for  completion  and  an  act  was  passed 
April  19,  1851,  allowing  other  roads  to  take  stock.  The  capital  was  increased, 
and  the  corporation  was  allowed  to  purchase  the  Buffalo  and  Rochester 
railroad  from  Attica  to  Buffalo,  and  to  change  its  name  to  Buifalo  and  New 
York  City  railroad.     The  construction  of  this  road  involved  a  large  outlay 

130  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

in  spanning  the  chasm  of  the  Genesee  at  Portage,  which  was  done  by  con- 
structing a  wooden  bridge  800  feet  long  and  nearly  250  feet  high.*  This 
road,  which  forms  a  part  of  the  Buffalo  division  of  the  Erie  railway  system, 
enters  our  county  in  Grove,  and  passing  southeasterly  leaves  our  borders 
a  little  south  of  the  middle  of  the  east  line  of  Burns. 

In  1878  the  Genesee  Valley  canal  was  abandoned  by  the  state,  and  soon 
after  a  company  was  formed  which  purchased  from  the  state  authorities  the 
banks,  prism  and  structures  of  the  canal.  Work  was  commenced  on  a  rail- 
road along  its  course  and  prosecuted  with  such  dispatch  as  to  enable  the 
road  to  be  soon  opened  for  business.  It  has  proved  of  great  benefit  to  the 
people  and  places  along  its  route,  and  is  now  a  part  of  the  Western  New 
York  and  Pennsylvania  system. 

Various  other  railroad  projects  have  been  started  with  as  various  suc- 
cesses, and  surveys  almost  beyond  number  have  been  made  to  demonstrate 
the  practicability  of  different  routes.  The  Rochester,  Nunda  and  Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad  Company  was  organized  April  9,  1870,  the  termini  of  the  road 
designed  to  be  constructed  being  Mt.  Morris  and  Belmont,  with  connections 
which  would  reach  the  oil  and  coal  fields  of  Pennsylvania.  The  towns  along 
its  proposed  route  were  appealed  to  for  help,  and  Birdsall  bonded  for  $20,- 
000  and  Angelica  for  $65,000.  In  1872  a  corporation  was  organized  to  con- 
struct a  road  from  the  southern  terminus  of  this  road  to  a  point  upon  the 
southern  line  of  the  state  near  Mill  Grove  in  Cattaraugus  county,  and,  two 
days  later,  another  company,  which  took  the  name  of  ' '  the  Northern  Ex- 
tension of  the  Rochester,  Nunda  and  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company,"  was 
organized,  with  the  object  of  constructing  and  operating  a  road  from  Mt. 
Morris  to  Rochester.  OnMarch  12, 1872,  these  corporations  were  merged  in  one 
company  under  the  corporate  name  of  "  Rochester.  Nunda  and  Pennsylvania 
Railroad  Company."  In  Pennsylvania  "  The  Northern  Navigation  and  Rail- 
road Company  was  organized  to  build  a  road  from  Reynolds  ville  to  Mill  Grove. 
On  the  6th  of  June,  1872,  this  company  was  absorbed  by  the  Rochester,  Nunda 
and  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company,  and  the  road  was  to  be  continued 
southerly  to  form  one  continuous  road  through  Monroe,  Livingston,  Alle- 
gany and  Cattaraugus  counties,  and  McKean,  Elk,  Cameron,  Jefferson  and 
Clearfield  counties  in  Pennsylvania  to  Brookville.  This  company,  January  1, 
1873,  executed  bonds  bearing  seven  per  cent  interest  to  the  amount  of  $4,- 
050,000,  and  to  secure  the  payments  of  the  bonds  and  interest  gave  a  mort- 
gage. The  company  had  previously  to  this  secured  stock  subscriptions  to  the 
amount  of  $1,085,000,  $645,000  of  which  were  town  and  city  subscriptions, 
and  $525,000  had  been  collected.  Work  had  been  commenced,  and  with 
material  furnished  had  cost  about  $1,000,000,  and  payments  to  the  amount 
of  $925,000  had  been  made,  $525,000  in  cash  from  subscriptions  and  $400,000 
in  stock  of  the  company  taken  at  par  by  contractors  for  work  done  and  ma- 
terial furnished.     Owing  to  a  depressed  condition  of  business  and  finance 

*  This  was  the  largest  structure   of  the  kind  in  the  world.     It  has  since  been  burned  and  replaced  by   a 
gigantic  iron  bridge. 

Travel  and  Transportatk^n.  131 

the  bonds  did  not  meet  with  ready  sale,  and  the  company  in  order  to  insure 
traffic  for  the  road,  by  Alfred  Lockhart  its  president,  on  the  25th  of  Decem- 
ber, 1873,  purchased  about  5,000  acres  of  coal  and  timber  land  in  Pennsylva- 
nia. The  grading  of  the  road  from  Mt.  Morris  to  Belvidere  had  been  mostly 
finished,  when,  under  a  decree  of  foreclosure  of  the  mortgage  held  by  the 
Union  Trust  Company  on  so  much  of  the  road  as  was  located  in  this  state, 
it  was  sold  at  Nunda,  May  7,  1877,  to  Frank  D.  Lake  of  Nunda  for  |5,000. 
Since  that  time  several  re-organizations  have  been  effected,  and  its  history 
has  been  one  of  alternate  prosperity  and  adversity,  and  to-day,  as  a  result, 
a  line  of  railroad  is  running  from  Angelica  to  Hornellsville,  known  as  the 
Central  New  York  and  Western.  For  a  while  a  connecting  link  from  the 
line  of  this  road  at  Angelica  to  the  W.  N.  Y.  &  P.  railway  about  a  mile  south 
of  Belfast  station,  was  operated,  and  a  narrow-gauge  road  from  Angelica, 
crossing  the  Genesee  a  little  way  above  the  Transit  bridge,  to  Friendship, 
Nile,  Bolivar,  and  on  through  Genesee  to  Olean.  a  part  of  this  route  being 
the  same  as  was  later  covered  by  the  Bolivar,  Eldred  and  Cuba  narrow- 
gauge  railroad  which  was  chartered.  May  11,  1881,  to  run  from  Cuba  to  Lit- 
tle Genesee,  and  built  its  chief  division  from  Wellsville,  through  Alma  and 
Bolivar  to  Ceres,  24  miles.  This  company  had  58.25  miles  of  track,  and  the 
road  did  good  work  for  a  few  years,  but  trade  languishing  with  the  decline 
of  oil,  it  was  abandoned  in  1893. 

The  Wellsville,  Coudersport  and  Pine  Creek  railroad,  chartered  Nov.  14, 
1881,  was  capitalized  at  .^100.000,  and  built  about  twelve  miles  of  road  south- 
easterly from  Wellsville  into  Pennsylvania.  It  was  sold  for  $110,000  in 
September,  1895,  to  F.  H.  and  C.  W.  Goodyear,  the  great  lumber  operators, 
to  form  a  link  of  their  Buffalo  and  Susquehanna  railroad  system  (see  Wells- 

The  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  railroad  chartered  in  1895,  is  an  east- 
ern extension  of  the  Olean,  Oswayo  and  Coudersport  railroad,  and  crosses 
the  southeastern  corner  of  the  county,  from  Genesee,  Pa.,  through  Cryder 
creek  valley  to  Whitesville  and  Steuben  county. 

The  Tonawanda  Valley  and  Cuba  railroad,  from  Attica,  through  Arcade, 
Sandusky  and  Rushford  to  Cuba,  was  begun  in  May,  1881,  and  an  excursion 
train  was  run.  July  1,  1882,  from  Rushford  to  Cuba.  The  road  was  in  oper- 
ation only  a  few  years,  and  the  portion  traversing  this  county  is  entirely 
abandoned  (see  Rushford). 

Some  other  railroads  are  proposed  and  their  construction  seriously  con- 
templated. One  from  Belmont  to  Belfast,  following  the  route  of  the  Bel- 
mont and  Buffalo  railroad  which  was  graded  for  a  part  of  the  way  through 
the  towns  of  Amity,  Angelica,  Belfast,  Caneadea  and  Hume,  by  a  company 
which  was  organized  in  the  winter  of  1871,  the  work  being  suspended,  and 
portions  of  the  road  sold  to  satisfy  judgments.  Several  towns  have  reason 
to  remember  the  B.  &  B.  railroad  company — having  bonded  to  aid  in  its 

At  the  present  time  Allegany  is  well  supplied  with  railroad  facilities, 

132  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

and  her  public  highways  are  being  rapidly  improved.  The  grand  old  town 
of  Alfred,  the  seat  of  the  first  academic  institution  of  the  county,  as  well  as 
its  only  University,  has  this  year  put  in  a  macadamized  road  from  the  vil- 
lage to  the  station,  a  distance  of  nearly  two  miles.  This  is  the  first  road  of 
the  kind  in  the  county.  "  Good  roads  ''  is  now  the  watchword,  and  they  are 
imperatively  demanded  not  only  by  people  who  ride  in  fine  carriages,  or 
astride  the  bicycle  visit  with  the  speed  of  winged  messengers  every  part  of 
our  county,  but  by  the  farmer  as  well,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  hauling  of 
large  and  paying  loads  of  produce  to  the  nearest  railroad  station.  Public 
attention  is  aroused  and  points  to  better  roads,  and  the  best  minds  of  the 
age  are  at  work  on  vehicles  with  electric  or  other  motors;  and  possibly  be- 
fore this  book  is  delivered  to  its  subscribers  an  enterprising  Allegany  car- 
riage maker  will  introduce  one  of  the  horseless  carriages  upon  our  roads. 
And  so  it  goes  !  The  one  continuous  mud  hole  of  the  pioneers'  day  has  dried 
up  and  disappeared;  1795  has  given  way  to  1895,  the  modern  "  Conklin  "  or 
"  Milburn  "  wagon  has  succeeded  the  drag;  the  stylish  coupe  the  heavy  old 
linchpin  style  of  lumber  wagon;  the  Portland  cutter  the  oxsled,  and  the  end 
is  not  yet ! 



BY    CHARLES    BUTTS,      ESQ. 

HOW  were  the  hills  and  valleys  of  our  county  formed  ?  Whence  came  the 
stones  filled  with  casts  of  the  animals  and  plants  which  lived  in  the 
ocean  waters  or  along  those  ancient  shores?  How  came  they  in  their  pres- 
ent places?  These  are  questions  of  the  inquiring  mind  to  which  the  geolo- 
gist seeks  the  answer.  The  rocks  are  written  over  with  the  fascinating  tales 
of  other  days  which  tell  the  wonderful  story  of  the  earth  and  its  inhabitants. 
Many,  many  ages  ago,  a  vast  thickness  of  rocks  was  formed.  The  most 
ancient  rocks  known  are  crystalline,  like  granite.  They  are  found  over  large 
areas  in  Canada,  but  in  smaller  areas  in  other  parts  of  the  world,  and  are 
supposed  to  underlie  the  sedimentary  rocks.  From  the  Canadian  area  an- 
other large  area  once  extended  southwestward  parallel  to  the  Appalachian 
mountains  and  east  of  them.  These  rocks  are  known  as  the  Archaean  sys- 
tem and  the  time  during  which  they  were  formed,  as  the  Archsean  era. 

Partially  enclosed  by  the  two  areas  of  Archaean  rocks  mentioned  and 

♦The  writer  would  hereby  express  his  thanks  to  that  eminent  geologist,  Prof.  W.  H.  Pitts,  for  his  careful 
revision  of  this  chapter. 

Geology  and  Physical  Geography.  133 

extending  indefinitely  southward  and  westward  lay  the  great  interior  paleo- 
zoic sea.  The  filling  up  of  this  sea  by  sediment  brought  down  by  the  rivers 
of  the  Archsean  land  now  began.  Living  beings  for  the  first  time  appear 
in  abundance  and  with  their  appearance  the  Paleozoic  era  of  geological  time 
began.  For  an  immensely  long  time  during  which  the  shoreline  was  pushed 
far  out  into  the  interior  sea,  only  invertebrates,  the  lowest  division  of  the 
animal  kingdom,  existed.  Brachiopods,  trilobites,  gigantic  molluscs,  and 
delicate  corals  swarmed  in  the  waters.  This  time  is  known  as  the  Silurian 
Age,  or  Age  of  Invertebrates  and  in  it  most  of  the  rocks  of  the  northern 
part  of  our  state  were  deposited.  With  the  appearance  of  fishes,  belonging 
to  the  vertebrates,  to  which  man  also  belongs,  the  Silurian  Age  ends  and  the 
Devonian  Age  begins.  During  this  age,  the  ancient  shorehne  was  pushed 
still  farther  south  and  west,  and  the  rocks  of  our  county  were  formed. 
Gigantic  fishes  reigned  in  the  waters,  and  land  plants,  allied  to  the  pines  and 
other  conifers,  first  appeared.  The  Carboniferous  Age  succeeded  the  Devo- 
nian. It  was  in  this  age  that  the  coal  of  the  eastern  states  was  formed.  The 
first  land  animals  also  appeared.  This  age  with  the  Paleozoic  era  was  ended 
lay  a  great  revolution  in  which  the  Appalachian  mountains  were  thrown  up 
and  the  eastern  part  of  the  United  States  raised  into  dry  land.  The  Paleo- 
zoic Era  was  now  followed  by  the  Mesozoic  Era,  the  era  of  middle  life.  It 
comprises  one  age,  the  Age  of  Reptiles.  The  largest  animals  that^  ever  ex- 
isted upon  the  earth  lived  in  this  age.  Huge  reptiles,  100  feet  long  and  20 
feet  high,  lived  upon  the  land  and  strange  lizard-like  monsters  inhabited  the 
waters.  The  bones  of  many  of  these  strange  creatures  have  been  found  in 
the  rocks  of  Wyoming  and  Colorado  and  are  now  in  the  museum  of  Yale 
College.  Birds  and  marsupials  appeared,  also  modern  land-plants.  Many 
of  the  genera  and  even  a  few  of  the  species  of  our  common  forest-trees  are 
found.  With  the  appearance  of  an  entirely  new  class  of  animals,  the  mam- 
mal, the  Mesozoic  Era  ends  and  theCenezoicEra,  with  its  one  age,  the  Age  of 
Mammals,  was  introduced.  All*the  genera  of  our  familiar  animals  made 
their  appearance,  and  many  gigantic  forms,  now  extinct,  existed.  Many  of 
these  left  their  bones  in  the  morasses  and  lake  mud,  which,  hardening  into 
rock,  preserved  them  for  the  investigator  of  the  i3resent  day.  In  the  Qua- 
ternary period  of  this  age  great  glaciers,  streams  and  sheets  of  flowing  ice 
came  creeping  down  from  the  Canadian  highlands  and  covered  a  large  part 
of  the  northern  United  States.  With  the  close  of  the  glacial  epoch,  man 
appears  and  the  history  of  the  earth  is  nearly  complete. 

The  sketch  of  historical  geology  has  been  given  to  show  the  age  of  the 
rock  formations  of  our  county  and  their  place  in  the  general  scheme  of  classi- 
fication of  the  formation  of  the  earth's  crust.  They  belong  mainly  to  the 
latter  part  of  the  Devonian  Age  but  along  the  southern  margin  of  the  county 
some  carboniferous  rocks  are  found.  The  materials  of  which  they  are  com- 
posed came,  possibly,  from  the  more  ancient  land  to  the  north  and  east, 
being  carried  into  the  sea  by  rivers  and  gradually  accumulating  as  sediment 
on  the  gently- sloping  bottom.     These  subsequently  hardened  into  rock,  and, 

134  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

by  a  series  of  movements  which  culminated  in  the  great  upheaval  at  the  end 
of  the  Paleozoic  Era,  by  which  the  Appalachian  mountains  were  formed, 
were  elevated  to  their  present  position.  By  this  elevation  the  divides  which 
traverse  the  county  were  formed,  and  the  direction  of  the  drainage,  form- 
erly south  and  west,  w^as  completely  reversed,  being  now  mainly  north  and 
east.  No  sooner  did  the  rocks  appear  above  the  waters  than  frosts  and 
chemical  forces  of  decomposition  attacked  the  surface,  disintegrating  it 
into  soil;  the  rains  descended  and  the  waters,  laden  with  the  finer  elements 
of  the  soil,  gathered  into  streams,  which  now  hold  their  ancient  courses,  and 
have  eroded  their  valleys  out  of  the  rocks,  left  the  hills  between,  and  borne 
away  the  eroded  material.  As  the  result  of  the  combined  action  of  these 
forces  during  the  enormous  lapse  of  time  since  this  region  became  dry  land, 
probably  thousands  of  feet  of  solid  rock  have  been  removed  from  above  our 
highest  hill  tops. 

The  waters  of  the  sea  at  the  time  of  the  depositing  of  our  rocks,  swarmed 
with  life.  Brachiopods  were  especially  abundant.  As  these  died  their 
shells  accumulated  upon  the  bottom  in  immense  numbers,  were  mixed  with 
the  sediment  and  the  mass  was  afterward  consolidated  into  a  very 
hard  impure  sandstone.  Many  beds  of  this  exist  from  a  few  inches  to  two 
or  three  feet  thick  and  are  composed  almost  entirely  of  the  shells  of  spirifera 
disjuncta,  a  world-wide  species,  being  found  in  England,  France,  and  in  the 
distant  Himalaya  mountains.  This  characteristic  rock  may  be  seen  at  almost 
any  outcropping  of  strata  in  the  county,  and  is  the  source  of  the  shell  rock  so 
abundant  on  the  surface.  Thus  for  ages  before  the  surface  of  Allegany 
county  appeared  as  now,  the  work  of  erosion  went  on  undisturbed,  then,  in 
comparative  recent  times,  came  the  glacial  epoch  with  its  cold  and  ice.  A 
vast  sheet  of  ice  descended  from  the  north,  and  sweeping  over  this  state 
gradually  overspread  large  areas.  Streams  of  ice  first  filled  the  valleys  of 
this  county  and  by  their  grinding  action  cut  down  the  summits  of  the  divide 
between  the  north  and  south  flowing  streams,  thus  forming  the  passes 
between  Alfred  and  Andover,  Friendship  and  Cuba,  Cuba  and  Black  Creek, 
the  east  and  west  notches  near  Richburg,  etc.  There  is  strong  evidence 
that  these  passes  were  thus  formed. 

Slowly  the  ice  rose  until  it  covered  all  but  the  highest  hilltops  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  county.  By  its  action  the  hills  were  smoothed  and 
rounded  off,  the  surface  rocks  were  ground  into  clay,  mud,  sand  and  large 
fragments  and  the  whole  intermixed  composed  the  tenacious,  impervious 
"hard-pan,"  which  extends  widely  over  the  county  except  where  it  has 
been  covered  by  later  deposits.  In  many  places  the  few  inches  of  soil  over- 
lying the  hard-jjan  were  formed  by  atmospheric  agencies  and  by  vegetation. 
The  ice  also  brought  from  the  far  north  immense  quantities  of  sand,  gravel, 
boulders  of  limestone,  granite,  gneiss,  quartzite  and  other  rocks.  These, 
rounded  and  polished  in  their  transportation,  are  often  found  in  the  county, 
but  most  of  the  material  or  "drift  "  was  deposited  along  the  melting  mar- 
gin of  the  ice-sheet.     The  mounds  and  conical  hills  at  Alfred  Station  and 

Geology  and  Physical  Geography.  135 

northvv^ard  to  Almond  and  westward  throug-h  West  Almond  to  Pkilips  Creek 
are  notable  examples  of  glaciation.  Smaller  deposits  exist  at  other  locali- 
ties in  the  county,  and  probably  all  gravel  and  rounded  boulder  deposits  at 
any  considerable  height  above  the  streams  are  of  glacial  origin.  Before  the 
glacial  epoch,  the  valleys  were  probably  deeper  and  narrower  than  now. 
During  that  epoch  and  subsequently  they  were  filled  to  their  present  high 
terrace  levels  by  glacial  detritus  and  material  washed  from  the  adjacent  hills 
Thus  were  formed  the  broad  valley  fiats  which  surpass  in  fertility  the  in- 
clined uplands  and  summits  of  the  hills.  Some  of  the  valleys  whose  streams 
flow  northward  are  partially  filled  by  deep  deposits  of  clay.  T'he  terra-cotta 
clay  at  Alfred,  the  clay  in  the  valley  of  Knight's  Creek,  and  that  said  to 
exist  in  the  valley  of  Van  Campen's  Creek  below  Friendship,  are  examples. 
These  clays  were  doubtless  deposited  in  still  waters,  probably  by  lakes 
formed  by  ice-dams  across  the  valleys.  As  the  streams  again  began  to  flow 
after  the  ice  disappeared  from  these  valleys,  they  were  in  many  places 
turned  from  their  ancient  courses  and  compelled  to  cut  new  channels  out  of 
solid  rock.  This  is  well  shown  by  the  Genesee  at  Portage.  Its  old  channel 
was  completely  filled  in  the  glacial  epoch,  and  it  has  since  cut  out  of  the  rock 
a  new  one  several  miles  long  and  300  feet  deep.  The  same  thing  is  shown  on  a 
smaller  scale  at  Belmont  where  the  river  has  cut  a  gorge  of  considerable 
depth  and  is  still  cutting  it  deeper  in  the  rock.  Vandermark's  Creek  near 
Scio,  Van  Campen's  Creek  near  Belvidere,  and  Caneadea  Creek  near  Rush- 
ford  are  other  examples  of  such  displacement. 

The  strata  of  the  county  dip  slightly  toward  the  south  and  southwest,  so 
that  each  formation  overlaps  the  one  below  it  as  shingles  overlap  on  a  roof. 
The  angle  of  dip  averages  hardly  one  degree.  On  the  northern  margin  of 
the  county  is  the  Portage  sandstone,  so  called  because  it  is  well  shown  in 
the  gorge  at  Portage.  The  upper  layers  of  these  strata  are  also  exposed  at 
the  falls  of  the  Canaseraga  in  Burns,  and  the  line  of  their  northern  out-crop 
is  marked  by  other  cascades  and  by  escarpments.  Near  the  southern  limits 
of  Centerville,  Hume,  Grove,  and  Burns,  the  Portage  sandstone  passes 
beneath  the  rocks  of  the  Chemung  group  and  underlies  them  throughout 
the  rest  of  the  county.  It  is  probably  in  this  rock  that  the  oil  sands  of  the 
county  are  found. 

The  rest  of  the  county,  except  the  hilltops  in  the  southern  part,  lies  in 
the  Chemung  formation.  This  name  is  given  to  these  rocks  because  they 
are  extensively  exposed  along  the  Chemung  river.  Increasing  in  thickness 
from  north  to  south  with  the  dip  they  reach  a  thickness  of  1,500  feet  in 
southern  Allegany.  They  consist  mostly  of  thin-bedded  sandstones,  many 
of  them  highly  argillaceous,  alternating  with  layers  of  clay  shale  and  are- 
naceous shale  of  all  thicknesses,  from  less  than  an  inch  up  to  30  or  40  feet. 
Two  strata  of  sandstone  from  10  to  20  feet  thick-are  pierced  in  drilhngfor  oil. 
A  thick  stratum  of  very  pure  clay  shale  is  exposed  at  Alfred  Station.  The 
shales  are  generally  green  but  change  to  brown  on  exposure.  The  sand- 
stones contain  mica  also  iron  pyrites  and  oxide  of  manganese  by  which  they 

136  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

are  often  ^jscolored.  The  general  character  of  the  Chemung  rocks  may  be 
seen  at  any  of  the  many  exposures  in  the  county.  Perhaps  one  of  the  best 
is  in  Caneadea  Creek  in  Rushford  and  Caneadea.  Others  are  at  Rockville 
on  Black  Creek  and  on  White  Creek  in  Belfast,  at  Angelica,  at  Belmont,  on 
Vandermark's  Creek  near  Scio,  at  "the  ledges  "  in  Almond,  and  at  several 
points  in  Alfred  and  in  Independence. 

Except  in  the  southern  j)art  of  the  county  the  rocks  of  this  group  are 
highly  fossiliferous.  Besides  spirifera  disjuncfa,  there  are  many  species  of 
brachiopods,  many  species  of  lamelli  branchs,  a  few  species  of  orthoceratites 
and  some  sea-weeds.  Some  of  the  rocks  contain  scattered  joints  and  frag- 
ments of  crinoid  stems  with  their  radiating  structure.  But  the  rarest  and 
most  beautiful  fossils  found  are  the  several  species  of  dictyophyton,  a  genus 
of  reticulated  fossil  sponges  allied  to  the  glass  sponges  of  the  present  day, 
of  which  the  beautiful  euplectella  is  an  example.  These  are  found  only  in 
the  Chemung  rocks,  and  are  perhaps  in  greater  abundance  in  Allegany 
county  than  elsewhere.  They  have  been  found  in  Alfred,  Almond.  Wellsville, 
Genesee,  Clarksville,  Friendship,  Wirt,  and  probably  in  most  other  towns. 
It  was  largely  through  the  discoveries  and  efforts  of  the  late  President 
Allen,  of  Professor  Larkin,  and  of  E.  B.  Hall,  of  WeUsville,  that  these 
fossils  were  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  scientific  world. 

The  high  hill-tops  in  southern  Allegany  are  capped  with  a  red  soil, 
which  entirely  disappears  lower  down  the  side.  The  rocks  from  which  this 
red  soil  is  derived  belong  to  a  different  formation  from  the  Chemung  rocks 
which  underlie  them.  They  belong  to  the  Catskill  Group,  a  name  given 
because  of  their  great  development  in  the  region  of  the  Catskill  mountains 
where  they  are  3,000  feet  thick.  They  thin  out  westward  and  are  not  men- 
tioned as  occurring  west  of  this  county.  It  is  thought  they  are  the  equiva- 
lent in  America  of  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  of  England  and  Scotland.  The 
northern  limit  of  the  red  soil  seems  to  be  near  a  line  drawn  from  the  north- 
ern border  of  Cuba  to  the  south  of  Andover  village.  Probably  none  of  the 
rock  now  remains  in  situ  as  far  north  as  this,  its  former  extension  being 
indicated  by  the  red  soil  into  which  it  has  been  disintegrated.  The  exact 
limits  of  the  formation  have  not  been  determined.  It  is  said  that  the  rock 
may  be  seen  in  places  at  Spring  Mills  in  Independence  and  near  Wellsville 
on  the  Genesee.  The  Portage,  Chemung  and  Catskill  formations  belong  to 
the  Devonian  Age. 

At  several  points  in  the  county  are  immense  masses  of  coarse  conglom- 
erate. These  exist  in  great  numbers  and  of  large  size  at  Rock  City  on  the 
top  of  a  high  hill  in  Genesee,  about  three  miles  from  the  state  line  There 
is  also  a  group  near  Petrolia  in  Scio.  Many  of  those  at  Genesee  are  from 
25  to  30  feet  high,  and  their  bases  cover  several  square  rods.  Smaller 
fragments  are  found  at  other  points.  These  interesting  rocks  are  mainly 
composed  of  white  quartzite  pebbles  (from  the  size  of  a  goose-egg  down  to 
that  of  a  pea)  imbedded  in  a  ground  mass  of  coarse  sand  of  the  same  mate- 
rial, the  whole  cemented  together  by  iron  or  other  cementing  substance  and 

Geology  and  Physical  Geography.  137 

by  pressure.  A  few  black  pebbles  also  occur.  The  rock  was  used  for  mill- 
stones in  the  early  days  of  settlement.  The  formation  to  which  these  iso- 
lated masses  belong,  and  of  which  they  are  fragments  that  have  escaped  de- 
struction in  the  general  course  of  denudation,  is  probably  of  the  Carbonifer- 
ous Age  and  is  the  last  formed  rock  of  the  county.  It  outcrops,  south  of 
Olean  as  Olean  Rock  City,  and  this,  as  a  solid  stratum,  once  extended  north- 
wardly over  our  county.  Another  outcropping  is  at  Panama  in  Chautauqua 
county,  where  it  is  called  the  Panama  Conglomerate.  It  extends  south  to 
West  Virginia,  west  to  the  Mississippi,  and  underlies  the  coal  fields  of  Penn- 
sylvania. It  is  known  to  the  drillers  of  the  southern  Pennsylvania  oil 
regions  as  the  "  second  mountain  sand  pebblerock  "  and  Sharon  conglome- 
rate; to  the  drillers  of  the  northern  field  as  the  Olean  conglomerate.  A 
similar  rock  underlies  the  coal  fields  of  England  and  Scotland  where  it  is 
called  "  pudding  stone  "or  "  millstone  grit."  The  material  of  this  very  ex- 
tensive formation  was  derived  from  an  ancient  stratum  of  quartzite  of  vast 
extent  situated  somewhere  in  the  Archean  area  to  the  north  or  east.  Into 
the  swift-fiowing  rivers  of  that  remote  age  fragments  of  the  ancient  rock 
were  borne  by  the  mountain  streams,  then  rolled  onward  by  their  currents 
for  all  the  many  miles  of  their  course,  rounded  into  pebbles  and  ground  into 
sand,  and,  at  last,  deposited  along  the  shores  of  the  vast  sea  that  for  untold 
ages  rolled  over  the  great  central  plain.  So  the  geological  and  topographical 
features  of  Allegany  county  have  been  produced  by  the  same  slow-acting 
forces  of  nature  that  we  may  see  in  operation  daily.  ^ 

Of  the  mineral  wealth  of  the  county  little  need  be  said.  The  production 
of  oil  and  natural  gas  is  a  leading  industry  in  the  southwestern  part,  and  an 
extensive  field  is  being  developed  in  Andover  and  Indei^endence.  The 
laminated  sandstone  makes  a  good  quality  of  flagging  where  it  can  be  found 
of  sufficient  uniformity  of  thickness,  and  is  quarried  to  some  extent  at  Scio, 
Friendship,  and  in  Centerville.  Building  stones  suitable  for  coarse  mason- 
ry are  plentiful,  but  their  coarseness  and  liability  to  be  stained  by  oxids  of 
iron  and  manganese  makes  them  unfit  for  ornamental  use.  The  argillaceous 
sand  stone,  on  account  of  its  hardness,  would  make  a  good  material  for  road- 
making.  The  clays  already  mentioned  furnish  abundant  material  for  brick 
and  tile.  This  has  been  used  to  some  extent  for  roofing  tile  and  ornamental 
terra-cotta  by  the  Celadon  Terra  Cotta  Works  at  Alfred,  but  its  use  has  been 
abandoned  for  that  of  shale.  The  extensive  deposits  of  aluminous  shale  are 
excej^t  the  oil  rock,  probably  the  most  valuable  source  of  mineral  wealth  in 
the  county  on  account  of  the  superior  quality  of  bi'ick  and  tile  made  from 
them.  The  Celadon  Terra  Cotta  Works  are  using  shale  entirely  for  their 
roofing  tile,  and  these  are  pronounced  by  competent  judges  to  be  supe- 
rior in  appearance  and  equal  in  quality  to  any  American  or  imported 
make.  It  seems  probable  that  the  shale  of  other  parts  of  the  county  may 
prove  equally  valuable  and  become  a  basis  of  extensive  industries. 

Physical  Geography.  Allegany  lies  upon  the  backs  of  the  dividing 
ridges  between  the  St.  Lawrence  drainage  basin  on  the  north  and  that  of  the 

138  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Mississippi  on  the  southwest  and  that  of  the  Susquehanna  on  the  east. 
These  ridges  are  really  northwestern  outliers  of  the  Appalachian  mountains, 
and  form  a  plateau,  from  2,200  to  2,500  feet  above  the  sea,  deeply  furrowed 
by  the  streams  which  traverse  it.  The  surface  is  beautifully  diversified  by 
hill  and  valley,  field  and  forest.  Any  of  the  higher  hilltops  commands  a 
magnificent  landscape;  the  wooded  crests  roll  away  in  the  distance  like  bil- 
lows of  a  mighty  sea.  Many  a  picturesque  and  charming  vale  nestles  among 
the  hills,  a  constant  source  of  pleasure  to  the  lover  of  landscape  beauty.  The 
highest  points  reach  an  altitude  of  2,500  feet,  the  general  level  of  the  table 
land  is  about  2,200  feet.  The  altitude  of  the  valleys  is  well  shown  by  the 
height  of  the  railroad  stations  as  follows:  Erie  Railway:  Almond  1,421  feet, 
Alfred  1,637,  Tiptop  Summit  1,783,  Andover  1,653,  Wellsville  1,511,  Scio 
1,462,  Belmont  1,399,  Belvidere  1,344,  Friendship  1,539,  Cuba  Summit  1,699, 
Cuba  1,541.  W.  N.  Y.  &  P.  R.  R.:  Cuba  1,490,  Black  Creek  1,490,  Rockville 
1,421,  Belfast  1,312.6,  Oramel  1,264.5,  Caneadea  1,238,  Houghton  1,209,  Fill- 
more 1,192,  Rossburg  1,154.5. 

The  eastern  divide  enters  the  southeastern  part  of  Alfred,  and,  passing 
northeast,  leaves  the  county  in  Burns;  the  western  divide  enters  the  county 
in  Alma  and.  following  a  northwestern  direction,  passes  out  of  Allegany  in 
New  Hudson.  So  all  of  Genesee  and  part  of  Cuba,  Clarksville,  Bolivar. 
Alma,  New  Hudson  and  Wirt  are  drained  by  the  Allegany;  Grove,  Almond, 
and  parts  of  Alfred,  Allen,  West  Almond  and  Burns  are  drained  by  the 
Canisteo,  and  the  rest  of  the  county  by  the  Genesee,  which,  rising  in  the 
northern  part  of  Pennsylvania,  near  the  source  of  the  Allegany,  fiows 
northerly  across  the  county  through  a  broad  and  fertile  valley  which  it  has 
cut  at  about  1,000  feet  below  the  crests  of  the  divides.  It  collects  the  waters 
of  the  greater  part  of  the  county  and  carries  them  northward  over  its  beau- 
tiful falls  to  turn  the  mill-wheels  of  Rochester  and  discharges  them  into 
lake  Ontario  at  Charlotte.  It  is  an  anomaly  among  the  rivers  of  this  region 
in  flowing  northward  while  the  others  heading  near  it  flow  easterly  and 
southwesterly.  It  drains  a  wedge-shaped  area  of  the  St.  Lawrence  basin  which 
is  thrust  deeply  in  between  those  of  the  Mississippi  and  Susquehanna.  The 
Genesee  is  now  cutting  into  the  detritus  that  fills  its  old  channel,  as  is  shown 
by  the  gorge  and  terraces  at  Belmont,  the  terraces  marking  a  former  higher 
level.  The  preceding  list  of  altitudes  indicates  that  the  fall  from  Wellsville 
to  Rossburg  is  356  feet,  hence  the  river  has  a  torrential  current.  Along  its 
course  once  passed  the  Genesee  Valley  canal,  fed  by  the  waters  of  Allegany 
from  the  reservoir  at  Cuba.  The  Rochester  Chamber  of  Commerce  has 
made  strenuous  efforts  to  obtain  legislation  to  control  the  Cuba  reservoir  in 
the  interests  of  their  city  so  that  the  flow  of  the  water  northward  may  be  at 
their  command,  so  important  to  the  business  interests  of  Rochester  are 
regarded  the  waters  of  "  Old  Allegany's  "  hills. 

Another  noticeable  feature  in  the  topography  is  the  general  parallelism 
of  the  secondary  streams.  A  glance  at  a  county  map  will  show  this.  It  is 
particularly  the  case  with  those  flowing  into  the  Genesee.     Their  general 

Geology  and  Physical  Geography.  139 

courses  are  invariably  northeast  and  southwest.  This  fact  is  due  to  the 
relations  of  the  streams  to  the  divides,  the  streams  assuming  a  direction  at 
right  angles  to  the  directions  of  their  crests. 

The  passes  through  the  divides  become  striking  features  when  com- 
pared with  the  high  summits  that  sei:)arate  the  headwaters  of  streams 
adjacent  to  those  that  rise  in  the  passes.  The  way  that  they  are  cut  down  is 
shown  by  the  remarkable  fact  that  in  times  of  freshets  fish  can  pass  from 
one  drainage  basin  to  another  through  the  streams  that  head  in  some  of  them. 
Thus  trout  can  pass  back  and  forth  between  the  headwaters  of  Oil  and  Can- 
eadea  creeks  in  New  Hudson,  and  so  pass  to  and  from  the  Mississippi  and 
St.  Lawrence  basins.  The  same  is  true  of  Vandermark  and  McHenry 
Valley  creeks  at  Five  Corners  summit  in  Alfred,  between  the  St.  Lawrence 
and  Susquehanna  basins.  These  passes  are  of  the  utmost  utility  in  the 
construction  of  railroads,  saving  them  hundreds  of  feet  of  rise  and  a  very 
high  grade. 

The  county  is  abundantly  watered  by  rains  and  snows  that  supply  co- 
pious springs  that  issue  from  the  hills  along  the  outcropping  of  some  imper- 
vious stratum  of  rock  or  clay  that  prevents  the  further  descent  of  the  water 
into  the  earth.  The  springs  contain  a  considerable  amount  of  mineral  matter 
in  solution.  Carbonate  of  lime,  dissolved  from  the  shells  in  the  rocks  and 
giving  the  water  its  hardness,  is  almost  universally  present.  Sulphur 
springs  are  found  in  Alfred,  Almond  and  Angelica.  Other  springs  and  wells 
at  Alfred  show  the  presence  of  sulphates  of  iron  and  magnesium.  The 
celebrated  oil  spring  at  Cuba  has  been  known  to  whites  since  1629. 

As  in  the  study  of  human  society  the  past  is  the  key  to  the  joresent  so  it 
is  in  the  study  of  physical  geography.  The  dominant  physical  features  of 
the  earth  have  originated  in  movements  that  occurred  in  distant  periods  of 
the  past,  and  the  minor  features  have  been  carved  out  by  the  unceasing- 
action  of  Nature's  forces  throughout  unnumbered  ages.  And  these  silent, 
unobserved,  yet  resistless  forces  are  still  at  work.  The  continents  are  being 
carried,  particle  by  particle,  into  the  seas.  Nothing  terrestrial  is  perma- 
nent; all  is  transitory,  and  the  physical  geography  of  the  present  will  not  be 
the  i^hysical  geography  of  the  future. 

"  Since  first  the  sunlight  spread  itself  o'er  earth, 
Since  chaos  gave  a  thousand  systems  birth, 
Since  first  the  morning  stars  together  sung, 
Since  first  this  globe  was  on  its  axis  swung, 
Untiling  change,  with  ever  moving  hand, 
Has  waved  o'er  earth  its  more  than  magic  wand." 

140  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 



BY    PROF.    F.    S.    PLACE,    A.    B.,    B.    D. 

TOPOGRAPHY.  The  topographical  features  of  the  county  are  varied. 
The  valley  flats,  deep  valleys,  and,  in  many  parts,  the  broad  level 
uplands,  all  unite  to  form  a  diversified  and  pleasing  landscape.  The  i^rinci- 
pal  topographical  feature  of  the  county  is  the  divide  between  the  St.  Law- 
rence, Atlantic  and  Mississippi  river-systems.  The  northeastern  part 
belongs  to  the  Atlantic  system,  the  southwesfern  part  to  the  Mississippi, 
and  the  central  to  the  St.  Lawrence  system.  The  highest  summit  on  the 
Erie  railroad,  at  Tiptop  in  Alfred  is  1,783  feet  above  tide  water,  and  the  gen- 
eral level  of  the  divide  is  800  feet  higher.  The  county  thus  lies  in  the  line  of 
greatest  elevation  between  the  Appalachian  mountains  and  the  Mississippi 
river.  This  fact  probably  accounts  for  the  large  precipitation  of  moisture 
which  it  enjoys,  and  which  makes  it  so  well  adapted  to  grazing  and  dairying. 
To  this  fact  is  also  due  in  great  measure  the  copious  and  abundant  springs 
with  which  the  county  is  blessed.  Another  interesting  feature  connected 
with  the  divide  is  the  deep  notches,  or  passes,  through  it  in  various  places. 
Among  the  notable  ones  are  those  on  the  line  of  the  Erie  railroad  at  Tiptop 
in  Alfred,  and  the  summit  between  Friendship  and  Cuba.  Others  are  the 
East  and  West  notches  near  Richburg,  the  summit  between  Oil  and  Black 
Creeks,  and  the  notch  through  the  local  divide  between  Haskell  Creek  and 
the  branch  of  Oil  Creek  flowing  north. 

Climate.  The  annual  rain-fall,  including  melted  snow,  as  observed  at 
Alfred  was  in  1890,  46.26  inches;  1891,  33.13;  1892,  34.73;  1893,  43.37;  1894, 
42.76.  The  average  yearly  temperature  was  at  Alfred  in  1890,  44.5  degrees; 
1891,  45.5;  1892,  43.0;  1893.  42.6;  1894,  46.0.  At  Angelica  the  average  of  the 
annual  mean  temperatures  for  eleven  years  was  44.2  degrees  and  the  average 
annual  precipitation  for  seven  years  38.21  inches.  This  yearly  average  is 
obtained  in  this  manner:  The  temperature  at  7  a.  m.,  2  p.  m.,  and  twice  the 
temperature  at  9  p.  m.  are  added;  this  sum  divided  by  four  gives  the  daily 
average;  the  sum  of  the  daily  averages  for  the  month  divided  by  the  number 
of  days  in  the  month  gives  the  monthly  average;  the  sum  of  the  monthly 
averages  divided  by  twelve  gives  the  yearly  average,  which,  it  will  be 
observed,  is  nearly  the  same  from  year  to  year. 

The  opening  of  spring  as  indicated  by  the  arrival  of  the  bluebird,  cliff 
swallow  (eaves  swallow)  and  Baltimore  oriole  was  at  Alfred  as  follows: 
Bluebird,  1885,  Mar.  30;  1886,  Mar.  15;  1887,  Mar.  14;  1889,  Mar.  14;  1891, 
Mar.  12;  1892,  Feb.  25;  1893,  Mar.  14;  1894,  Mar.  5;  Cliff  Swallow,  1885,  May 

*Many  thanks  are  due  to  friends  throughout  the  county  for  assistance  and  information. 

Natural  History.  141 

28;  1886,  May  13;  1889,  May  5;  1891,  May  14;  1892,  May  5;  1893,  May  8;  1894, 
May  1;  Baltimore  Oriole,  1885,  May  5;  1886,  Apr.  28;  1887,  May  2;  1889, 
May  6;  1891,  May  3;  1892,  May  3;  1893,  May  2. 

Ani)nal'^.  No  authentic  list  of  the  mammals  of  the  county  has  ever  been 
made,  so  far  as  can  be  ascertained;  neither  of  the  rei^tiles,  fishes  nor  insects. 
The  large  game  animals  were  killed  or  driven  out  many  years  ago.  Accord- 
ing to  the  best  information  which  could  be  obtained  the  following  are  the 
dates  on  which  some  of  them  were  last  seen  in  the  county:  panther,  1850, 
reported  from  Granger;  wolf,  1856,  in  the  south  part  of  the  county;  bear, 
1885,  killed  on  Knight's  Creek,  Scio,  by  David  Allen;  deer,  1881,  Independ- 
ence; wildcat,  1894,  in  Willing. 

Foxes  have  held  their  own  remarkably  well  through  all  the  settling  and 
clearing  up  of  the  country;  most  sportsmen  think  them  as  abundant  now  as 
ever.  The  hare  or  white  rabbit  has  nearly  disappeared,  a  few  still  remain- 
ing in  various  parts  of  the  county,  while  the  gray  rabbit,  which  came  in  from 
the  west  or  south  about  1875  or  1880,  has  become  plentiful,  often  appearing 
about  the  farmhouses  and  in  village  gardens.  In  the  winter  of  1892-93  a 
Virginia  opossum  was  caught  in  Elm  Valley;  it  was  brought  to  Alfred  and 
after  a  few  months'  confinement  escaped.  There  are  still  a  few  otter  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  county. 

Ravens  which  were  once  common  here  are  now  rarely  seen,  the  last 
reported  was  from  Elm  Valley  in  1893.  Another  bird  familiar  to  our  fathers 
was  the  pileated  woodpecker,  or  as  it  was  frequently  caUed  logcock  or  wood- 
cock, the  largest  of  the  woodpecker  family  excepting  only  the  ivory  bill  of 
Florida.  It  is  now  rare  even  in  the  more  heavily-timbered  sections.  Quail 
have  almost  disappeared.  Ruffed  grouse,  better  known  as  partridge,  still 
breed  freely  wherever  timber  and  underbrush  are  found.  Wild  pigeons 
(passenger  pigeon)  which  in  the  early  history  of  the  country  were  said  to 
darken  the  sky  with  their  flight,  and  were  shot  and  netted  by  dozens  and 
scores  as  late  as  the  early  seventies,  are  now  found  occasionally,  usually  a 
few  pairs  together.  Most  observers  believe  that  our  common  birds  are 
decreasing  in  numbers  while  crows  are  on  the  increase.  This  is  not  a  coin- 
cidence. Crows  are  well  known  to  be  most  cunning  and  persistent  in  rob- 
bing birds' nests  of  both  eggs  and  young.  This  bad  habit,  together  with 
the  mischief  which  they  do  to  crops,  especially  corn,  and  to  flocks  of  young 
turkeys  and  chickens,  brings  wpon  the  black  rascals  the  just  condemnation 
of  every  lover  of  our  feathered  songsters.  Our  hawks  and  owls,  though 
preying  occasionally  upon  poultry  and  game,  undoubtedly  do  more  good  than 
harm,  for  they  destroy  mice,  moles,  and  insects  in  large  numbers.  Even 
our  largest  hawks  feed  extensively  on  beetles  and  grasshopj^ers.  The 
sharpshinned  hawk  however  is  an  exception,  preferring  small  birds,  such 
as  warblers  and  sparrows,  which  it  captures  with  much  adroitness.  The 
English  sparrow  appeared  in  the  county  in  1874,  and,  though  in  some  parts 
of  the  United  States  it  does  much  damage  to  grain  and  small  fruits,  it  does 

142  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

little  harm  here,  acting  rather  as  a  scavenger,  picking  up  the  waste  grain 
and  crumbs  about  the  streets. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  our  birds  observed,  with  few  exceptions,  in  the 
vicinity  of  Alfred.  The  numbers  preceding  the  names  correspond  to  the 
American  Ornithologists'  Union's  Check-list  of  North  American  Birds, 
revised  (1895).  The  names  of  birds  know^n  to  nest  in  the  county  are  followed 
by  the  letter  n. 

3  Horned  Grebe,  6  Pied-billed  Grebe,  y  Loon,  6o  Bonaparte's  Gull,  131  Hooded  Mergan- 
ser, 133  Black  Duck,  135  Gad  wall,  143  Pintail,  144  Wood  Duck,  153  Buffi  e-head,  154  Old-squaw, 
190  American  Bittern,  194  Great  Blue  Heron,  200  Little  Blue  Heron,  201  Green  Heron,  202 
Black-crowned  Night  Heron,  206  Sandhill  Crane,  212  Virginia  Rail,  219  Florida  Gallinule,  221 
American  Coot,  228  American  Woodcock  ;/,  230  Wilson's  Snipe,  256  Solitary  Sandpiper,  263  Spot- 
ted Sandpiper  «,27i  Golden  Plover.  273  Killdeer,  289  Bob-white,  300  Ruffed  Grouse  ;/,  315  Passen- 
ger Pigeon,  316  Mourning  Dove,  331  Marsh  Hawk,  332  Sharp-shinned  Hawk  n,  333  Cooper's 
Hawk  n,  337  Red-tailed  Hawk  «,339  Red-shouldered  Hawk  ^,347  American  Rough-legged  Hawk, 
352  Bald  Eagle,  357  Pigeon  Hawk,  360  American  Sparrow  Hawk  n,  364  American  Osprey,  366 
American  Long-eared  Owl,  367  Short-eared  Owl,  368  Barred  Owl  n,  375  Saw-whet  Owl,  373 
Screech  Owl  ;/,  375  Great  Horned  Owl  n,  376  Snowy  Owl,  387  Yellow-billed  Cuckoo  ;/,  388 
Black-billed  Cuckoo  ;/,  390  Belted  Kingfisher  fi,  393  Hairy  Woodpecker  ;/,  394  Downy  Wood- 
pecker ;/,  402  Yellow-bellied  Sapsucker,  405  Pileated  Woodpecker,  406  Red-headed  Wood- 
pecker ;?,  409  Red-bellied  Woodpecker,  412  Flicker;/,  417  Whip-poor-will,  420  Night  Hawk, 
423  Chimney  Swift  n,  428  Ruby-throated  Hummingbird  /;,  444  Kingbird  n,  452  Crested  Fly- 
catcher ;/,  456  Phebe  n,  461  Woodpewee  «.  463  Yellow-bellied  Flycatcher,  467  Least  Flycatcher 
;/,  474  Horned  Lark  n,  477  Blue  Jay,  486  American  Raven,  488  American  Crow  ;/,  494  Bobo- 
link n,  495  Cowbird  fi,  498  Red -winged  Blackbird  n,  501  Meadow  Lark  ;/,  507  Baltimore  Oriole 
n,  511  Purple  Grackle  n.  515  Pine  Grosbeak,  517  Purple  Finch  n,  521  American  Crossbill,  529 
American  Goldfinch  n,  534  Snowflake,  540  Vesper  Sparrow  n,  542a  Savanna  Sparrow  n,  554 
White-crowned  Sparrow,  558  White-throated  Sparrow,  559  Tree  Sparrow,  560  Chipping  Spar- 
row n,  563  Field  Sparrow  n,  567  Slate-colored  Junco  n,  573  Black-throated  Sparrow,  581  Song 
Sparrow  n,  583  Lincoln's  Sparrow,  584  Swamp  Sparrow,  585  Fox  Sparrow,  587  Towhee  ;/,  593 
Cardinal,  595  Rose-breasted  Grosbeak  n,  598  Indigo  Bunting  n,  608  Scarlet  Tanager  ;/,  612 
Cliff  Swallow  n,  613  Barn  Swallow  n,  616  Bank  Swallow  «,  617  Rough -winged  Swallow,  619 
Cedar  Waxwing  n,  621  Northern  Shrike,  624  Red-eyed  Vireo  n,  626  Philadelphia  Vireo,  627 
Warbling  Vireo,  628  Yellow-throated  Vireo,  629  Blue-headed  Vireo,  636  Black  and  White  Warb- 
ler ;/,  645  Nashville  Warbler,  648  Parula  Warbler,  652  Yellow  Warbler  n,  654  Black-throated 
Blue  Warbler,  655  Myrtle  Warbler,  657  Magnolia  Warbler,  659  Chestnut-sided  Warbler  n,  660 
Bay-breasted  Warbler,  661  Black-poll  Warbler,  667  Black-throated  Green  Warbler  n,  671 
Pine  Warbler,  672  Palm  Warbler,  674  Oven-bird  ;/,  675  Water  Thrush,  679  Mourning  Warbler. 
681  Maryland  Yellowthroat  n,  686  Canadian  Warbler,  687  American  Redstart  n,  704  Catbird  n, 
705  Brown  Thrasher  n,  721  House  Wren  n,  722  Winter  Wren,  726  Brown  Creeper,  727  White- 
breasted  Nuthatch  n,  728  Red-breasted  Nuthatch,  735  Chickadee  n,  748  Golden-crowned 
Kinglet,  749  Ruby-crowned  Kinglet,  755  Wood  Thrush,  756  Wilson's  Thrush  n,  758a  Olive- 
backed  Thrush,  759b  Hermit  Thrush  n,  761   American    Robin  //,  766  Bluebird  n,  English 

Sparrow  n. 

Brook-trout  in  small  numbers  are  still  found  in  most  of  the  streams 
which  do  not  dry  up  during  the  summer;  but  all  our  brooks  have  failed  very 
much  in  twenty  years.  No  fish  will  be  found  equal  to  the  speckled  beauty, 
either  for  sport  or  in  flavor,  though  such  a  fish  as  the  carp  is  easily  bred  and 

Natural  History.  143 

furnishes  more  food  with  little  care.     The  carp  were  introduced  into  Ando- 
ver  pond  a  few  years  ago  and  appear  to  have  done  very  well  there. 

The  rattlesnakes,  of  which  our  grandmothers  used  to  tell  us,  have 
practically  disappeared;  the  only  place  from  which  any  are  reported  is  the 
town  of  Grove.  The  Colorado  potato-beetle,  which  filled  our  hearts  with 
dismay  on  its  arrival  in  1871,  though  promptly  met  with  fatal  doses  of  Paris 
green,  steadily  increased  for  many  years.  There  is  good  evidence  that  it 
has  reached  a  maximum  and  begun  to  decline.  One  of  its  natural  enemies, 
the  lady-bug,  which  in  both  adult  and  larval  stages  feeds  on  potato-beetles' 
eggs,  was  unusually  abundant  in  the  potato  fields  during  the  summer  of 
1894.  Our  fields  are  commonly  infested  with  five  species  of  grasshopper, 
three  of  crickets,  and,  in  sandy,  or  gravelly  localities,  two  species  of  locusts. 
These  grass-eating  insects  rarely  become  so  numerous  as  to  do  much  dam- 
age; but  in  the  summer  of  1894  the  reverse  was  true.  The  summer  of  1893 
was  dry  and  the  following  winter  warm;  this,  together  with  the  early  drouth 
of  1894,  furnished  favorable  conditions  for  grasshopper  development.  Past- 
ures were  much  injured;  many  fields  of  oats  were  cut  before  fruiting  to 
save  them  for  fodder;  the  border  rows  in  the  potato  fields  were  reduced  to 
bare  stalks;  and  many  gardens  were  stripped  of  cabbages,  turnips,  beans, 
and  other  vegetables.  Turkeys  and  other  poultry  were  no  match  for  the 
rustling  hordes  that  rose  in  clouds  before  them;  and,  being  soon  gorged 
with  their  favorite  food,  were  of  little  service  in  checking  the  insects. 

The  diversity  of  our  topography  is  the  source  of  a  varied  plant  life. 
More  than  500  species  of  native  plants  have  been  classified  at  Alfred,  and 
the  same  locality  furnishes  many  more.  The  list  could  be  largely  increased 
by  a  study  of  other  parts  of  the  county,  especially  the  river  flats.  Since  the 
introduction  of  white  daisies  no  plant  so  hurtful  to  agricultural  interests  has 
appeared  as  the  orange  hawkweed  (Hieracium  aurantiacum)  also  called 
"paint-brush."  It  is  said  to  have  been  first  planted  as  a  garden  flower  in 
Independence  in  1861.  It  has  now  completely  overspread  many  fields  in 
that  town,  and  most  of  the  farmers,  after  a  constant  and  tiresome  fight  with 
salt,  hoes  and  other  means,  have  given  up  the  struggle.  It  ran  wild  from  a 
flower  garden  in  Alfred  at  a  somewhat  later  date  and  has  a  firm  foothold  in 
some  parts  of  the  town.  It  is  said  to  have  first  appeared  in  Scio  in  1893. 
Ragweed,  (Ambrosia  artemisiaefolia)  whicli  appeared  only  a  few  years  ago. 
will  probably  give  no  particular  trouble,  since  it  is  confined  mostly  to  waste 
ground  and  unseeded  stubble,  and  is,  moreover,  of  much  smaller  growth 
here  than  elsewhere  in  the  United  States. 

In  closing  this  brief  and  hurried  review  of  our  natural  history  permit 
the  statement  that,  incomplete  as  it  is,  considerable  care  has  been  taken  to 
make  it  reliable  as  far  as  it  goes.  Would  it  not  be  well  for  all  lovers  of  the 
natural  sciences  to  co-operate  in  collecting  and  recording  present  knowledge 
which  shall  be  the  history  of  the  future? 

144  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 




The  writer  is  indebted  for  valuable  information  used  in  this  chapter  to  "The  Mineral 
Resources  of  the  United  States,"  "  Report  on  New  York  State  Mining  Exhibit  at  the 
Colunnbian  Exposition,  Chicago,  1892,"  the  files  of  the  Oil  City  Derrick,  The  Petroleum  Age, 
and  The  Wellsville  Reporter,  to  an  exhaustive  paper,  "  Petroleum  in  New  York  State,"  read  by 
Prof.  Charles  A.  Ashburner  before  the  American  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers  in  1887,  to  Mr. 
W.  F.  Thomas  of  Bolivar,  Mr.  Riley  Allen  of  AUentown,  Col.  Rufus  Scott  of  Wellsville,  and 
other   authorities.     To  Prof.  James  G.  Hall,  State  Geologist,    especial  acknowledgement  is  due. 

THE  oil-bearing  rock  beneath  the  surface  of  this  county  has  produced 
^30,000,000  worth  of  petroleum  since  the  completion  of  the  famous  Trian- 
gle Well  No.  1  in  June,  1879.  It  is  not  probable  that  the  sum  total  of  all  Alle- 
gany's other  productions  during  the  past  15  years  more  than  equal  in  value 
this  one  remarkable  mineral  resource.  Its  discovery  within  our  borders 
has  been  the  cause  of  the  circulation  of  a  fabulous  amount  of  wealth  and  the 
realization  of  an  immense  profit.  The  industry  has  added  also  to  the  fame  of 
the  county,  for  the  Allegany  oil  field  has  the  distinction  of  being  the  richest, 
and,  with  one  exception,  the  only  one  in  the  great  Empire  State.  The  palmy 
and  exciting  days  of  the  field's  history  have  now  long  since  passed  away. 
The  wells,  however,  have  such  a  remarkable  longevity,  that,  although  the 
amount  of  new  production  is  small,  the  pool  pours  out  2.000  barrels  daily, 
worth  now  $1,000,000  a  year,  and  will  produce  in  paying  quantities  for  a 
decade  or  more  to  come. 

Up  to  Dec.  1,  1895,  there  have  been  5,500  wells  drilled,  3,500  of  which 
are  now  producing  a  daily  average  of  55-100  barrels  each.  Old  Triangle  No. 
1,  the  first  good  well  struck  in  the  field,  now  sixteen  years  old,  is  doing  a 
good  one-third  of  a  barrel.  It  is  owned  by  Macken  &  Breckenridge.  New 
wells  in  the  Waugh  and  Porter  and  Alma  pools  are  proving  to  be  from  3  to  8 
barrel  producers.  In  1882  there  were  many  weUs  doing  a  hundred  barrels 
daily.  In  July  of  that  year  the  field's  daily  average  pipe  line  runs  were 
24,000  barrels  and  the  year's  daily  average  was  17,000  barrels.  In  1883  the 
average  daily  production  fell  to  about  13,000  barrels;  in  1884  to  about  9,500, 
in  1885  to  7,000,  in  1886  to  5,600,  and  so  on  in  decreasing  ratio  until  the  pres- 
ent average  of  2,000  barrels  was  reached.  This  wiU  undoubtedly  be  main- 
tained for  some  time  for  the  recent  advance  in  the  market  price  of  petroleu  m 
to  $1.25  and  over  has  stimulated  drilling,  and  led  to  an  increased  production 
from  old  wells,  which  are  being  overhauled  and  more  carefully  handled. 
Producers  who  have  made  a  careful  study  of  the  decline  in  production  fr,om 
old  wells  maintain  that  on  the  average  it  is  hardly  over  1-16  yearly.     There 

Oil  and  Gas.  145 

are  many  wells  in  the  field  that  have  each  produced  10,000  barrels  of  oil,  and 
are  still  valuable  property.  Though  the  richest  parts  of  the  field,  lying  in 
the  towns  of  Bohvar,  Wirt,  Alma,  Scio,  Clarksville  and  Genesee,  has  been 
more  or  less  thoroughly  developed,  there  remains  much  valuable  undrilled 
territory  in  South  Alma,  South  Bolivar  and  other  sections. 

It  is  worthy  to  note  in  connection  with  the  history  of  the  Allegany  oil 
field  that  the  first  discovery  of  petroleum  in  America  was  that  of  the  Seneca 
oil  spring,  at  Cuba  in  this  county,  by  Roche-d 'Allien,  a  French  Jesuit,  July 
18,  1627.  The  location  of  the  spring  was  noted  on  a  map  published  fifty 
years  later,  being  designated  by  the  words  Fontaine  de  hitume.  Vanuxem, 
in  his  Report  of  1837  refers  to  this  spring,  and  Dr.  Beck,  in  his  "  Report  on 
the  Mineralogy  of  New  York,"  published  in  1842,  describes  it. 

Geology  and  Geography  of  the  Field. — The  richest  oil  rocks  have 
always  been  found  in  the  Devonian  strata,  which  produces  our  Allegany  oil. 
Whenever  rocks  have  been  found  to  contain  oil  in  commercial  quantity,  they 
are  more  or  less  porous,  and  lie  in  a  comparatively  horizontal  position, 
seldom  having  a  large  dip.     Ample  facts  have  been  gathered  to  prove  that 
petroleum  is  a  product  of  a  slov/  destructive  distillation  of  organic  remains, 
both  animal  and  vegetable,  which  were  buried  in  the  sediment  at  the  time 
that  the  rock-making  materials  were  deposited  in  water  basins.     The  sand 
and  limestone  beds  in  which  the  oil  is  now  found,  contained  some  of  the 
organic  remains  from  which  the  oil  has  been  formed,  but  probably  the  bulk 
of  the  oilhascome  from  the  organic  remains  buried  in  associated  strata,  and  the 
porous  beds  in  which  the  oil  is  found  act  merely  as  reservoirs  to  hold  the 
oil.     These  porous  beds  are  found  to  exist  in  restricted  areas;    this  fact 
gave  rise  to  the  areas  in  which  oil  is  found  being  designated  as  pools.     In 
some  districts  these  pools  are  very   small  and  numerous.     This  field  might 
be  described  as  consisting  of  five  minor,  and  one  large  dumbbell-shaped  x^ool 
which  extends  northeast  and  southwest  a  distance  of  10  miles,  and  varies  in 
width  from  3  to  5  miles.     In  this  pool  the  sand  differs  more  or  less,  and  some 
large  and    some  small  wells    are  obtained.      About  the    borders  of    this 
pool  proper,  and  extending  in  some  directions  a  considerable  distance,  the 
producing  district  has  been  quite  peculiarly  developed.     The  field  may  be 
divided  into:  1.    Large  pool;  2.    Alma;  3.    Alma  P.  O.;  4.    Clarksville   and 
Nile;  5.  Andover;  6.  Waugh  and  Porter  in  South  Bolivar. 

1.  Large  Pool. — This  oldest  and  richest  portion  of  the  field  lies  in 
Bohvar,  Richburg,  Wirt,  Alma,  Allentown,  Scio,  Genesee,  and  Clarksville. 
The  first  successful  drilling  in  the  county  was  done  on  lot  4  Scio,  and  on 
the  adjoining  lots  in  Alma  in  the  far  northeastern  edge  of  this  district. 
The  wells  between  Richburg  and  Bohvar  lie  in  the  center,  and  those  at 
Rock  City  in  Genesee  at  the  southwest  edge  of  the  pool.  The  depth  of 
drilling  ranges  from  1,200  to  1,800  feet  with  from  25  to  60  feet  of  oil  rock. 

2.  Alma. — Turning  northeast  and  southwest,  this  pool  covers  perhaps  30 
lots  in  Alma.  It  is  directly  connected  by  light  territory  to  the  large  pool 
No.  1.     It  is  known  to  producers  as  the  106  or   South  Alma  district,   though 

146  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y.     - 

this  lot  lies  in  its  northern  edge.  The  drilling  varies  in  depth  from  1,100  to 
1,300  feet.  From  15  to  30  feet  of  sand  are  found.  It  has  been  estimated 
that  the  pool  now  produces  about  150  barrels  of  oil  daily.  Good  gas  territory 
has  been  developed  to  the  southwest. 

3.  Alma  Post  Office. — The  few  small  wells  in  this  district  are  separated 
by  a  dry  streak  from  the  Alma  pool  proper.  Only  from  10  to  20  feet  of  sand 
is  found  at  a  depth  of  from  800  to  1,500  feet. 

4.  Clarksville  and  Nile. — These  pools  have  been  described  by  Mr.  D. 
A.  Van  Ingen  as  follows:  "Clarksville  and  Nile  pools  are  only  about  one- 
half  a  mile  apart  and  can  almost  be  considered  as  one,  in  spite  of  the  dry 
streak  between.  The  former  covers  15  lots  in  the  towns  of  Clarksville  and 
Wirt,  and  the  latter  6  lots  in  the  northern  part  of  Wirt.  Clarksville  was 
first  drilled  in  1883,  while  Nile  dates  one  year  earlier.  The  wells  are  from 
1,000  to  1.500  feet  deep,  and  yielded  when  first  '  shot '  from  5  to  25 
barrels  a  day,  but  are  now  producing  only  about  half  a  barrel.  The  oil  sand 
is  thicker  in  Clarksville  than  in  Nile.     Gas  pressure  is  light." 

5.  Andover. — The  Mutual  Gas  Company  of  Andover,  in  its  search  for 
natural  gas  in  1889,  discovered  oil  in  paying  quantities  in  this  district,  which 
lies  in  Greenwood,  Steuben  county,  as  well  as  in  Andover.  It  is  a  better  gas 
than  oil  field,  though  the  pool  is  now  producing  50  barrels  of  petroleum 
daily.     The  depth  of  wells  varies  from  800  to  1,300  feet. 

6.  Waugh  and  Porter. — This  district  now  covers  seven  lots  in  South 
Bolivar,  and  is  particularly  interesting  because  of  the  character  of  the  oil 
and  oil-bearing  rock  there  found.  The  first  well  was  the  old  Waugh  and 
Porter,  from  which  the  pool  and  its  characteristic  sand  is  named.  This  was 
completed  June  27,  1881,  on  lot  34.  Gas  was  found  from  1,300  to  1,318  feet 
deep;  slate  from  1,318  to  1,330;  oil  rock,  mixed,  1,330  to  1.345;  rich  oil  rock, 
1,350  to  1,375.  The  oil-bearing  rock  and  the  oil  discovered  were  of  an 
entirely  different  nature  than  the  sand  and  oil  found  in  all  other  parts  of  the 
field,  and  known  as  the  "  Richburg."  The  rock  was  also  discovered  below 
where  the  ' '  Richburg  ' '  should  have  been.  This  gave  rise  to  much  inter 
esting  discussion  and  to  a  hope  (entertained  to  this  day)  of  finding  in  other 
parts  of  the  field  a  sand  similar  to  the  Waugh  and  Porter,  beneath  the  Rich- 
burg. Scientific  theorists,  members  of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey, 
ardently  combatted  this  conclusion,  and  proved  to  their  own  satisfaction 
that  the  "Waugh  and  Porter"  w^as  the  same  as  the  "Richburg"  sand, 
which  all  agree  is  like  the  Bradford,  Pa.,  sand.  Practical  experience,  how- 
ever, has  demonstrated  dift'erently.  In  tlT.e  Transit  Oil  Company's  No.  7,  as 
weU  as  in  other  wells  on  lot  26,  two  distinctly  different  oil  sands  have  been 
found,  averaging  a  distance  of  185  feet  apart.  The  u^^per  one  is  the  "  Rich- 
burg "  sand,  producing  the  dark-green  petroleum.  The  lower  one  is  the 
Waugh  and  Porter,  producing  the  characteristic  amber  oil,  so  transparent 
that  print  may  be  read  through  it.  Colonel  Ruf us  Scott  has  kindly  furnished 
the  following  record  of  the  Transit  Oil  Co.'s  last  well  on  lot  26,  South  Bolivar: 
"Top  of  the  Richburg  sand   1,307  feet  from  surface;  bottom  of  Richburg 

Oil  and  Gas.  147 

sand  1,318;  gas  from  1.426  to  1.475;  top  of  Waiigh  and  Porter  sand  1,475, 
bottom  of  tirst  strata  1.485,  slate  to  1,493,  mixed  sand  and  shell  to  1,520; 
lower  strata  Waugh  and  Porter  rich  oil  sand  1,520  to  1.537;  well  finished  at 
1,555.  Completed  Sept.  3,  1895,  and  produced  naturally  to  Nov.  11,  when 
it  was  torpedoed.  '■  The  Transit  Company  have  "  shot  "  several  wells  in  both 
the  Richburg  and  Waugh  and  Porter  sands.  The  Waugh  and  Porter  sand 
bears  a  striking  resemblance  to  the  Ormsby,  Pa.,  oil-bearing  rock,  which  is 
like  that  of  the  Kane,  Pa.,  region.  It  may  be  that  the  South  Bolivar  pool  is 
a  northeasterly  outcrop  of  the  Ormsby  rock. 

The  hard,  homogenous  character  of  the  Allegany,  called  also  Richburg 
sand,  gives  rise  to  the  remarkable  longevity  of  production  already  noted. 
Thirty  w^ells  on  the  Reed  farm  in  Bolivar  have  already  produced  $1,000,000 
w^orth  of  oil  and  will  no  doubt  continue  to  produce  for  ten  years  to  come. 
Riley  Allen  has  8  wells  at  Allentown.  drilled  12  years  ago,  that  produced 
2,000  barrels  of  oil  last  year.  The  old  Waugh  and  Porter  weU,  14  years  old, 
now  the  property  of  the  Transit  Oil  Co.,  is  a  valuable  producing  well  to-day. 

A  representative  section  of  the  rocks  of  the  field  is  alforded  by  the  fol- 
lowing accurate  record  of  O.  P.  Taylor's  Triangle  Well,  No.  1,  lot  4,  Scio: 


Well  mouth  above  ocean  in  feet 

1.  Clay,  sand  and  gravel lOO  to 

2.  Dark  gray  shale 30  to    130== 

3.  White  sandstone  and  shale 40  to    170= 

4.  Red  shale  and  sandstone 15  to    185— 

5.  Chocolate   shale 5  to    190= 

6.  Red  sandstone  and  shale 16  to    206= 

7.  Chocolate  shale  and  sandstone 4  to    210= 

8.  Gray  sandstone  containing  water 8  to    218= 

9.  Gray  sandstone 12  to    230= 

10.  Red  sandstone 6  to    236= 

11.  Gray  slate 30  to    266= 

12.  Gray  shale 14  to    280= 

13.  White  shale  and  sandstone 3  to    283= 

14.  Gray  shale 4  to    287= 

15.  Gray  sandstone 4  to    291= 

16.  Dark  gray  sandstone 7  to    298= 

1 7.  Gray  slate 30  to    328= 

18    Light  gray  shale 20  to    348= 

19.  Gray  slate  containing  sand  shales 21  to    369= 

20.  Light  gray  slate 79  to    448= 

21.  Gray  shale,  containing  fragments  of  fossils 4  to    452= 

22.  Soft  gray  slate 31  to    483= 

23.  Argillaceous  sandstone 22  to    505= 

24.  Gray  shale 3°  to    535°°" 

25.  Gray  shale  containing  fragments  of  fossils 4  to    539= 

26.  Red  shale i  to    540= 

27.  Gray  slate 52  to    592= 

28.  Gray  shale  containing  fossil  remains 4  to    596= 

29.  Gray  slate 21  to    617= 

30.  Gray  shale,  containing  fossil  remains i  to    6iS=i207 

31.  Soft  gray  shale 47  to    665=1160 

32.  Gray  sandstone 40  to    705=1120 

33.  Dark  gray  shale  and  slate 80  to    785=1040 

34.  Gray  slate,  containing  fragments  of  fossils 61  to    846=  979 

35.  Gray  sandy  shale,  containing  fragments  of  fossils 9  to    855=  970 

36.  Gray  shale 120  to    975=  850 

37.  Gray  sandstone  containing  oil  and  salt  vi'ater 20  to    995=  830 

38.  Gray  shale 114  to  1109=   716 

39.  Soft  gray  sandstone,  top  of  oil  sand 17  to  1 126=  699 

40.  Harder  gray  sandstone 17  to  1143=  682 

41.  Soft  gray  sandstone,  bottom  of  oil  sand 10  to  1 153=  672 

42.  Gray  shale  and  slate 24  to  1 1 77=  648 

Total  depth  of  well 1177  feet. 







148  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

The  top  of  this  well  is  625  feet  below  the  bottom  of  the  Olean  conglome- 
rate, making  the  distance  between  the  top  of  the  Allegany  oil- sand  in  this 
well  and  the  Olean  conglomerate  1734  feet.  The  lower  525  feet  of  this  inter- 
val of  625  feet  is  occupied  by  gray  shale  and  slate  and  sandstone;  above  this 
occurs  the  sub-Olean  conglomerate,  which  is  the  middle  member  of  the 
Pocono  sandstone,  ranges  from  30  to  40  feet  thick,  and  occurs  immediately 
below  the  gray  shale  representing  the  upper  part  of  the  Pocono  sandstone, 
and  the  red  shale  representing  the  Mauch  Chunk  red  shale.  (An  outcrop 
of  the  sub-Olean  conglomerate  may  be  seen  facing  the  Genesee  river  a 
mile  and  a  half  north  of  WeUsville;  and  another  outcrop,  also  facing  the 
Genesee,  exists  6  miles  south  of  WeUsville). 

Refining  Petroleum. — The  preparation  of  refined  products  from 
petroleum  may  be  thus  briefly  described:  The  crude  oil  as  it  comes  from  the 
wells  is  subjected  first  to  a  process  of  distillation  in  large  iron  stills.  The 
most  volatile  products  of  the  oil  pass  off  first  in  the  form  of  vapor,  which 
condenses  by  passing  through  coils  of  iron  pipe  surrounded  by  cold  water; 
from  these  pipes  are  collected  the  naptha,  benzine  and  other  products. 
After  these  lighter  products  come  from  the  still,  the  burning  oil  or  kerosene 
next  passes  off;  this  illuminating  oil  is  subsequently  followed  by  the  heavier 
lubricating  oils  containing  paraffine;  there  remains  in  the  iron  still,  finally,  a. 
small  residuum  composed  principally  of  tar  and  coke.  The  special  distillate 
known  as  kerosene,  which  is  designed  for  illuminating  oil,  is  then  subjected 
to  the  action  of  sulphuric  acid,  which  removes  the  odor  and  color  which  it 
possesses  and  also  destroys  the  smell  of  the  small  amount  of  tar  which  it 
sometimes  contains.  The  oil  is  then  treated  with  caustic  soda  in  order  to 
neutralize  the  last  traces  of  the  acid;  it  is  then  frequently  subjected  to  a 
higher  temperature  in  order  to  expel  a  small  percentage  of  benzine  which  it 
often  contains,  the  removal  of  which  makes  the  kerosene  a  safer  illuminant. 
Thus  prepared  it  is  known  as  the  kerosene  oil  of  commerce.  The  details  of 
the  process  of  refining  vary,  not  only  on  account  of  the  composition  of  the 
crude  oil  which  is  treated,  but  also  from  the  character  of  the  special  product 
which  it  is  desired  to  manufacture.  Although  the  ordinary  kerosene  oil  of 
commerce  is  the  principal  product  which  is  manufactured  out  of  petroleum, 
yet  the  multitude  of  similar  products  which  are  used  in  the  industrial  arts 
require  that  the  details  of  the  general  process  of  refining  shall  be  modified 
to  meet  special  wants  of  the  consumer. 

Development  of  the  Field. — No  active  search  was  made  for  oil  until 
after  Colonel  Drake's  discovery  of  it  in  paying  quantites  at  Titusville,  Pa.,  in 
1859.  In  1862  a  well  was  drilled  at  Bradford,  Pa.,  but  a  few  miles  south  of 
the  state  line.  Subsequently  several  wells  were  drilled  in  this  state  north 
of  Bradford.  Explorations  were  then  made  in  an  unsystematic  way  in  this 
county.  The  first  well  of  which  we  have  any  record  was  drilled  at  Independ- 
ence in  1865  by  a  stock  company,  and  a  slight  showing  of  oil  and  gas  was 
obtained  in  a  thin  sandstone  about  300  feet  above  what  afterwards  proved  to 
be  the  Allegany  oil  rock.     The  next  well  was  drilled  a  year  or  two  later  by 

Oil  and  Gas.  149 

Tadder  &  Co..  with  similar  results.  In  1878  two  other  wells  were  put  down 
in  Independence.  The  discovery  of  oil  in  commercial  quantities  in  the  Brad- 
ford district  in  1874,  and  its  active  development,  which  commenced  in  the 
latter  part  of  1875,  stimulated  drilling  in  the  entire  surrounding  region.  In 
September,  1877,  the  Honeoye  or  Alma  well,  on  lot  No.  26,  South  Alma  town- 
ship, familiarly  known  as  the  "  old  wildcat, "  because  of  the  stuffed  animal 
of  that  species  that  adorned  the  top  of  its  derrick,  was  commenced  by  the 
WeUsville  and  Alma  Oil  Company.  It  was  iinished  in  November  by  the 
pioneer  contractor  and  driller  Ben  Thomas,  to  whose  activity  and  faith  in  the 
eventual  discovery  of  "paying"  oil  in  Allegany  is  due  much  credit.  This 
weU  was  drilled  1,800  feet  deep,  cost  $4,000,  and  proved  a  failure.  At  a 
depth  of  500  feet  considerable  gas  was  found,  which  ultimately  took  fire  and 
burned  the  derrick.  At  1,000  feet  a  small  amount  of  oil  was  obtained.  A 
^'shot"  failed  to  increase  the  yield,  and  the  weU  was  finally  abandoned. 
This  well  demonstrated  the  existence  of  an  oil-bearing  rock,  and  encouraged 
the  immediate  drilling  of  another  well,  on  lot  118,  South  Alma,  known  as 
"Pikeville  No.  1,"  which  was  completed  in  November,  1878.  This,  like  the 
Honeoye  w^ell,  was  driUed  by  Ben  Thomas.  It  was  located  by  James  Thorn- 
ton, A.  A.  Howard,  T.  F.  Fisher,  Ed.  Gale,  and  George  Howard,  aU  of  WeUs- 
ville. James  Thornton  paid  for  building  the  derrick  and  contracted  the  drill- 
ing with  Thomas.  Before  the  weU  was  completed  stock  was  sold  in  the 
venture  by  the  organization  of  the  "Bottom  DoUar  Oil  Company."  Mr.  O. 
P.  Taylor  "  bought  in  "  at  this  time.  The  oil  rock  was  struck  at  a  depth  of 
1,028  feet.  It  consisted  of  two  beds  18  feet  thick,  separated  by  7  feet  of 
slate.  By  proper  pumping  the  well  would  have  been  good  for  from  3  to  5 
barrels  a  day.  This  yield  was  not  then  considered  enough  to  pay,  and  the 
well  was  abandoned.  On  three  sides  of  this  old  location  wells  are  now  being 
pumped  daily. 

In  January,  1879,  O.  P.  Taylor  completed  the  Wycoff  well,  northeast  of 
"Pikeville  No.  1."  It  was  situated  on  the  north  middle  of  lot  36,  Alma.  It 
had  a  showing  of  oil  sand,  but  no  oil,  and  was  thought  to  demonstrate  that 
oil  would  be  found  between  the  Honeoye  and  Pikeville  w^eUs.  The  next  ven- 
ture was  Taylor's  celebrated  "Triangle  No.  1,"  completed  June  12,  1879,  on 
the  Crandall  farm,  lot  No.  4,  Scio.  27  feet  of  superior  oil  rock  was  found, 
and,  after  being  shot,  the  well  filled  up  in  an  hour  with  700  feet  of  oil,  and 
proved  to  be  the  first  flowing  weU  struck  in  the  county.  TheElmira  Gazette 
of  June  21,  1879,  published  this  news  item  from  WeUsville:  "There  is  no 
disguising  the  fact  that  oil  has  been  found  here  and  that  in  paying  quantities. 
'  Triangle  Well '  is  located  four  and  a  half  miles  southwest  from  WeUsville. 
It  was  jiut  down  and  is  owned  by  O.  P.  Taylor.  The  well  was  commenced 
April  17th.  At  985  feet  a  small  salt  water  vein  was  found.  At  1,109  feet  the 
oil-bearing  sand  was  reached,  and  passed  at  1,153  feet.  The  drill  stopped  at 
1,177.  Thursday,  June  12th,  the  well  was  '  torpedoed  '  with  a  twenty-quart 
shot  of  glycerine,  when  the  oil  was  sent  from  thirty  to  fifty  feet  over  the 
derrick;  later  with  an  eight-quart  shot,  when  the  hole  fiUed  with  800  feet  of 

150  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

oil.  Saturday  came  the  flow,  since  which  time  there  has  flowed  between 
eight  and  ten  barrels  per  day.  The  well  is  certainly  a  '  gusher, '  and  as  I 
stood  in  the  derrick  yesterday  watching  the  flow  it  came  with  force  enough 
to  make  things  tremble.  Sunday  brought  a  crowd.  The  place  was  named 
'  Triangle  City. '  Four  lager  beer  stands  were  started,  and  the  population 
numbered  several  hundred.  Of  course  Wellsville  is  excited,  and  every  man 
sees  a  fortune  '  staring  him  in  the  face. '  The  town  is  filling  up  with 
strangers.  Letters,  telegrams  and  inquiries  are  pouring  in.  Look  out  for 
a  great  big  city  at  Wellsville  !  "  An  exhaustive  and  accurate  record  of  the 
geologic  strata  through  which  this  well  was  drilled  may  be  found  in  this 
chapter  under  the  heading  "  Geology  of  Petroleum." 

In  the  fall  of  1879  the  Longabaugh  "dry  hole  "  was  completed,  400  rods 
north  of  "Triangle  No.  1."  The  Brimmer  Brook  well,  put  down  about  the 
same  time,  by  James  Thornton,  Hiram  Coats,  O.  P.  Taylor  and  A.  S.  Brown, 
was  also  a  "duster."  These  failures  stopped  further  drilling  toward  the 
north  In  the  winter  of  1879-80  Mr.  Taylor  completed  a  weU  on  the  Williams 
lot  200  rods  east  of  "Triangle  No.  1."  It  was  considered  a  failure.  Early 
in  1880  the  well  known  "  Shoff  "  well  south  of  Pikeville  was  completed  by  the 
veteran  Ben.  Thomas,  and  proved  a  good  producer.  Taylor's  "Triangle  No. 
2,"  on  lot  4,  Scio,  was  800  feet  south  of  No.  1.  and  320  feet  west  of  a  line  from 
Sholf  to  No.  1.  It  showed  a  good  depth  of  oil  rock  and  proved  to  be  a  ten- 
barrel  well.  Mr.  Taylor,  who  up  to  this  time  had  experienced  the  greatest 
of  difticulty  in  obtaining  financial  aid,  now  easily  obtained  the  funds  neces- 
sary to  drill  "Triangle  No.  3. "  This  he  located  2,500  feet  south  of  No.  1.  It 
was  finished  July  4,  1880,  and  produced  301  barrels  the  first  month.  That 
Allegany  had  a  rich  field  was  now  no  longer  doubted  by  the  Bradford  oil 
men,  who  had  been  making  all  sorts  of  fun  of  the  bold  "wildcatters."  Oil 
scouts  and  producers  literally  jioured  into  Wellsville;  which  was  then  the 
oil  country's  base  of  supplies. 

The  discovery,  however,  of  the  extension  of  the  field  to  the  south  by  the 
completion  of  the  old  "  Richburg  gusher  "  in  1881,  made  oil  towns  of  Rich- 
burg  and  Bolivar.  This  well  was  drilled  by  Riley  Allen,  O.  P.  Taylor, 
Crandall  Lester,  A.  B.  Cottrell  and  several  others.  It  was  located  on  the 
Reading  farm,  lot  33,  Wirt,  and  was  completed  April  28,  1881.  At  a  depth 
of  1,280  feet  20  feet  of  sand  was  found,  and  the  well  produced  80  barrels  the 
first  day.  It  was  the  key  to  the  field.  In  a  few  weeks  Taylor  became  a 
rich  man,  but  lost  the  most  of  his  means  in  speculations  on  the  market. 
Before  his  death  however  he  had  again  amassed  considerable  property. 

In  January,  1881,  before  the  Richburg  strike,  the  McBride  well  came  in 
on  lot  18,  Alma.  Sixty  feet  of  superior  sand  was  found,  and  surrounding 
property  sold  immediately  for  from  $100  to  |200  an  acre.  Leases  were 
taken  at  one-quarter  royalty.  The  Duke  and  Norton  wells  on  lots  22  and 
23,  Alma,  completed  about  this  time, were  good  producers.  The  develop- 
ment of  the  Campbell  well  on  lot  16  and  other  wells  in  Bohvar  was  followed 
by  the  rapid  drilling  of  hundreds  of  holes  over  Alma,  Bohvar,  Wirt  and  Scio. 

Oil  and  Gas.  151 

Many  ventures  were  dry,  but  the  heart  of  the  field  was  soon  found  and  a 
feverish  excitement  ensued.  Thousands  of  dollars  were  made  and  lost  in  a 
day.  A  year  before  the  Standard  Oil  Company  had  definitely  decided  it  prof- 
itable to  pipe-line  the  Allegany  field,  a  careful  estimate  placed  the  crude  oil 
already  produecd  at  10,000  barrels.  Much  of  this  had  gone  to  waste,  but  at 
least  6,000  barrels  was  in  storage  in  wooden  tanks.  At  this  time  there  was 
a  decided  vividness  about  the  oil  country  life.  The  element  of  uncertainty 
attending  the  production  of  oil  led  to  the  keenest  comx^etition  imaginable. 
This  gave  rise  to  the  occupation  of  "  oil  scouting,"  and  in  this  vocation  was 
the  ceaseless  energy,  sharp  competition,  nervous  haste,  acute  perception, 
and  bold  daring  execution  of  the  whole  industry  typified.  During  these 
palmy  days  of  scouting,  when  every  important  well  was  made  a  mystery,  there 
were  many  exciting  adventures  encountered  by  the  scouts  in  their  midnight 
work.  Guards  were  sometimes  lonely  in  the  still  watches  of  the  night  and 
amused  themselves  by  firing  their  rifles,  muskets  or  revolvers  in  a  promiscu- 
ous manner,  not  calculated  to  encourage  scouts  j)rowling  in  the  vicinity. 

In  the  summer  of  1880  a  settlement,  near  the  then  famous  Triangle 
wells,  began  to  rapidly  build  up  and  was  named  Triangle  City.  The  Wells- 
ville  Reporter  of  March  17,  1881,  had  the  following  relative  to  changing  the 
name  of  this  lively  oil  town: 

"  Triangle  City  is  no  more,  The  soft  greasy,  good-natured  name  of  Petrolia  has  been  sub- 
stituted for  the  merry,  jingling  musical  name  of  Triangle.  '  Triangle  City,'  though  yet  young, 
was  famous.  It  had  already  worn  metropolitan  airs  and  made  positive  record.  The  rousing 
cheer,  the  turkey  raffles,  the  duel,  the  battle  of  the  soiled  doves,  these  and  many  other  incidents, 
rich  and  rare,  must  be  laid  in  one  common  grave.  They  formed  the  sharp  points  in  the  angles 
of  'Triangle  '  history,  and  'Triangle  '  is  dead.  All  this  trouble  comes  of  the  necessity  of  a  post 
office,  and  that  there  is  already  a  '  Triangle  '  in  the  state.  Goodbye,  '  Triangle;'  Welcome 

Allentown,  in  Alma,  built  up  more  rapidly  and  substantially  than  Pe- 
trolia. For  five  years  it  was  a  typical  oil  town,  rough  and  ready.  Its  natur- 
ally beautiful  situation  in  a  fine  farming  country,  and  the  staying  qualities 
of  the  oil  production  bringing  wealth  to  its  citizens,  will  leave  a  nice  com- 
munity at  Allentown  after  the  oil  is  gone. 

Richburg  typifies  all  the  "  ups  and  'downs  of  oildom."  Its  rise  and  fall 
have  been  thus  well  described  by  an  Allegany  county  journalist  in  The 
Buffalo  Express  : 

"On  Apfil  26,  1881,  Richburg  was  a  quiet  little  viUage  of  perhaps  150 
I)eople,  and  was  connected  with  the  outside  world  by  a  stage  line.  Within  a 
few  months  it  was  one  of  the  liveliest  oil  towns  in  the  country,  and  boasted  of  a 
population  of  nearly  8,000,  recruited  from  the  four  points  of  the  compass. 
Stores,  hotels,  machine  shops,  saloons,  bagnios,  dance-houses  and  gambling 
dens  sprung  up  as  if  by  magic.  For  several  weeks  after  the  tide  set  in, 
sleeping  apartments  indoors  could  not  be  secured  at  any  price,  and  many 
a  night  several  hundred  of  Richburg's  floating  population  slept  on  benches 
under  the  maple  trees  in  the  village  park,  in  many  cases  on  the  bare  ground. 

152  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

One  old  oil  man  remembers  paying  a  dollar  for  the  privilege  of  sleeping  on  a 
billiard  table  over  night,  and  another  paid  half  as  much  for  the  privilege  of 
sleeping  in  a  bar-room  chair.  At  this  time  Richburg  boasted  of  two  banks, 
and  a  morning  and  evening  newspaper.  The  Oil  Echo,  a  morning  paper 
edited  by  P.  C.  Boyle,  now  editor  of  the  Oil  Gitu  Derrick,  was  printed  on  a 
three-revolution  Hoe  press  and  possessed  a  valuable  news  franchise.  The 
first  month's  freight  receipts  when  the  Allegany  Central  railroad  was  com- 
pleted as  far  as  Richburg,  amounted  to  $12,000,  and  a  box-car  served  as  a 
depot  for  some  time.  The  Bradford,  Eldred  &  Cuba  railroad*  built  a  spur 
from  Bolivar  up  the  valley  to  Richburg  and  ran  trains  both  ways  every  half 
hour.  For  a  long  time  the  spur  averaged  700  passengers  daily.  Rent  for 
building  lots  quickly  jumped  up  and  $500  a  year  rent  for  a  20-foot  front  lot 
on  Main  street  was  not  regarded  as  extortionate.  In  fact,  the  lot  owner 
could  name  his  own  price.  Everybody  was  '  oil  crazy. '  Oil  wells  were 
drilled  in  village  gardens  and  in  door-yards.  Even  the  church  people  became 
afflicted  with  the  popular  craze.  One  of  the  leading  ministers  speculated  in 
oil  on  week  days  and  preached  powerful  sermons  on  Sunday,  and  no  one 
chided  him.  A  well  was  finally  drilled  on  a  parsonage  lot.  and  oil  was  struck, 
but  the  venture  was  not  a  profitable  one  and  the  trustees  decided  that  it  was 
not  best  to  invest  church  funds  in  that  kind  of  a  gamble.  Richburg  had  a 
fine  system  of  water  works,  an  electric  fire-alarm  system,  an  elegant  brick 
church,  a  fine  opera  house,  and  at  one  time  a  street-car  line  was  strongly 
talked  of.  Liquor  was  sold  at  100  different  places,  and  prostitutes  occupied 
over  40  buildings.  In  one  instance  the  village  gristmill  was  purchased  and 
converted  into  a  bagnio.  The  finest  attractions  were  nightly  seen  at  the 
opera  house  and  money  flowed  like  water.  But  the  boom  was  not  to  last 
forever.  In  May,  1882,  the  news  of  the  big  gusher  at  Cherry  Grove  carried 
the  floating  population  away  with  a  rush  and  few  of  them  ever  returned. 
This  was  the  beginning  of  the  end  of  Richburg's  greatness.  Bolivar,  a  little 
hamlet  a  mile  further  down  the  valley,  began  to  boom  in  earnest  early  in 
1882,  and  gradually  superseded  Richburg  as  the  metropolis  of  the  Allegany 
field.  Fires  swept  away  some  of  Richburg's  noted  buildings,  and  many 
others  were  torn  down  and  moved  to  adjacent  villages.  Pine  buildings  that 
cost  thousands  of  dollars  went  for  a  mere  song.  To-day  Richburg  is  deso- 
late and  almost  deserted,  and  in  a  few  years  it  will  appear  very  much  as  it 
did  before  the  oil  boom  came.  The  population  at  present  is^less  than  400. 
An  elegant  church  and  a  fine  academy  building  are  the  only  noted  relics  of 
its  former  greatness.  The  opera  house  in  which  operatic  stars  once  shone 
so  brightly  is  now  used  as  a  cheese  factory,  and  the  railroads  have  given 
way  to  a  stage  line. " 

In  1882  Bolivar  was  booming.     It  however  had  a  more  solid  foundation 

*The  Bradford,  Eldred  and  Cuba  railroad  company  built  a  narrow  gauge  system  through  the  oil  regions 
in  1882.  The  road  extended  from  Wellsville,  through  Petrolia  and  Allentown  to  Bolivar  and  thence  to 
Eldred  where  it  connected  with  the  Bradford,  Bordell  and  Kinzua  railroad.  A  branch  connected  Cuba  with 
Bolivar.     The  road  was  used  just  ten  years  and  in  1892  the  iron  was  taken  up. 

Oil  and  Gas.  153 

than  Richburg",  and  is  to-day  a  prosperous  community.     In  the  days   of  the 
"gushers  ""  5,000  x>eople  called  Bolivar  their  temporary  home.     In  January,  . 
1882,  it  had   no  bank.     Within  four  months  an  institution,  established  by 
Olean  capitalists,  had  deposits  exceeding  $250,000.     Like  Richburg  the  town 
had  its  '•  decidedly  tough  '"  element. 

There  are  hundreds  of  weUs  in  this  oil  field  whose  name  and  fame  were 
once  on  every  tongue.  It  wiU  be  sufticient  in  this  sketch  to  say  that  after 
the  first  dozen  wells  already  mentioned  were  completed  that  the  large  pool 
was  developed  within  a  very  short  time.  The  Boyle  well,  struck  in  June, 
1881,  in  Bolivar,  started  off  at  200  barrels  a  day.  In  1882  the  field  produced 
6,519,000  barrels  of  petroleum.  Two  weUs  on  the  Reed  and  Garthwait  farms 
in  Bolivar  started  off  at  400  barrels  each  a  day.  These  were  the  largest 
producers  ever  drilled  in  the  field.  They  are  both  still  being  pumped. 
From  the  summer  of  1882  the  field's  production  steadily  declined.  Its 
first  big  ' '  set  back  ' '  was  the  striking  of  the  Cherry  Grove,  Pa. ,  gusher  in 
May,  1882,  which  dropped  the  market  to  49  cents  a  barrel.  Many  Alleg'any 
producers  "went  to  the  wall."  The  Cherry  Grove  wells,  however,  lasted 
but  a  short  time,  and  within  a  year  the  market  went  back  to  81.  The  follow- 
ing tables  of  daily  average  pipe  line  runs,  yearly  runs  and  number  of  wells 
completed  each  year  up  to  1889  will  be  found  decidedly  interesting: 


1882.  1883.  18S4.  18S5.  18S6.  18S7.  i888.  1889. 

January 7,222  14,106  11,018  7.44-2  6,235  4.920  2,620  3,254 

February 9,512  13. '54  12,025  7,696  6,361  4,949  3,413  2.830 

March 14.760  12,619  ii.777  7.342  6,545  4.9^4  3.214  3485 

April 17,622  13,742  12,261  7,738  6,895  5,055  3,306  3,294 

May 19.522  13.793  12,193  IA'^1  6,535  5,224  3.595  3.385 

June 22,765  13.499  ".672  7,680  6,981  5.034  3.703  3.520 

July 23,884  12,381  11,114  7,363  6,802  4,843  3,252  3,474 

August 20,814  12,743  10,384  7,102  6,333  4,629  3,360  3,525 

September 16,387  12,358  9,989  6,647  6,035  4,451  2,935  3,056 

October 19,964  12,757  8,802  7,081  5,885  4,494  2,688  3,171 

November 16,993  12,232  8,642  6,667  5,260  2,803  3,226  3,319 

December 14,020  11,752  8,193  6,738  5,072  3,305  3,329  3,309 

The  estimated  production  of  the  Allegany  field  since  its  inception  is 

shown  in  the  apj)ended  table.     Tlie  pipe  line  runs  have  been  expanded  to 

some  extent  to  make  allowances  for  oil  that  does  not  appear  on  the  books  of 

the  pipe  line  companies. 

1880 5,000 

1881 600,000 

1882 6,450,000 

i8|83 4,800,000 

1884 4,000,000 

1885 2,800,000 

1886 2,300,000 

1887 1,700,000 

1888 1,200,000 

1889 1,250,000 

Total 25, 105,000 

The  number  of  wells  drilled  in  the  Allegany  field  as  shown  by  the  pub- 
lished records  has  been  as  follows: 

Wells  completed  to  clos»  of  i88o 8 

in  1881 618 

"  "  1882 1,605 


History  of  Allegany  County,  N   Y. 

Wells  completed  in  1883 1,270 




Total 5,046 

The  market  price  per  42-gallon  barrel  of  crude  oil  has  always  varied 
considerable  from  month  to  month  and  from  year  to  year.  The  following- 
table  affords  an  interesting  study: 

Monthly  and  yearly  average  prices  0/  pipe-line  certificates  0/  crude  petroleutn  at  ivells. 






























1. 00 

1. 00 

















1. 00 

















3- 50 











9  50 











































2. 62 14 
































5 -So 











3  15 





































2. 12K 





1-42  34^ 


I  20 


1. 00 















1. 17 









1. 13 








































1. 14 


1. 01 





1. 19 





















1. 00 
































1. 14 





1. 01 







1. 1234 






I. II 










0  723? 

0  74K 
























































0  891^ 














I  043^ 





0  90 















0.71  IX 


















0  55 




















It  will  be  noted  that  the  average  price  of  petroleum  in  1893  was  in  excess 
of  the  average  price  of  1892,  which,  with  the  exception  of  1861,  was  the  low- 
est in  the  history  of  the  trade.  The  nearest  approaches,  with  the  exception 
noted,  to  the  price  in  1891,  were  in  1892,  when  the  average  price  was  67  cents 
a  barrel,  and  in  1887.  when  the  average  price  was  66f  cents  a  barrel.  The 
low  average  in  1893  was  due  to  the  low  price  of  the  early  part  of  the  year 
and  the  prices  from  May  to  September.  The  last  three  months  of  the  year 
shov/  a  material  increase  in  prices,  the  average  for  December  being  78^  cents 
a  barrel.  This  increase  continued  in  1894,  the  average  for  the  year  being 
about  85  cents.  Early  in  1895  the  market  began  to  boom,  reaching  in  the 
spring  the  highest  point  touched  in  over  20  years.  The  price  at  $2.60  a  bar- 
rel was  not  long  maintained,  however,  and  by  summer  time  the  Standard 

Oil  and  Gas.  155 

bought  at  $1.25  which  remahied  the  quotation  for  six  months.  In  Novem- 
ber however,  the  price  went  up  again  to  $1.33  and  over. 

Early  in  1895  the  Standard  Oil  Company  made  a  revolutionary  change 
in  its  method  of  buying  oil  at  the  speculative  prices  of  the  exchanges.  There 
are  now  two  markets  for  our  oil,  the  price  which  the  Standard  offers  j^ro- 
ducers.  and  the  quotations  on  the  floors  of  the  speculative  exchanges.  These 
markets  do  not  differ  a  great  deal,  for  the  speculators  dare  not  go  far  in  ad- 
vance of  the  Standard's  price.  This  trust  has  such  a  monopoly  of  the  oil 
business  that  it  absolutely  controls  the  price  irrespective  of  the  law  of  sup- 
ply and  demand  which  would  send  oil  booming  to  $3  a  barrel  at  least.  At 
present  (November,  1895,)  the  Standard  offers  $1.33  and  the  exchanges  $1.42 
a  barrel. 

Among  the  representative  producers  of  oil  in  this  field  have  been:  Asher 
W.  Miner.  George  V.  Porman,  McCalmont  Oil  Company,  Hazelwood  Oil  Com- 
pany, Willett's  Oil  Company,  Duke  and  Norton  Company,  Sawyer  Bros,  of 
AUentown.  who  own  the  only  refinery  in  the  county;  Schofield  Company, 
Anchor  Oil  Company.  Hochsteter  and  Shirley,  Scott  and  PuUer.  Macken  and 
Breckenridge  of  the  East  End  Company,  Thornton  and  Brown.  Johnson  and 
Pittenger.  William  McBride,  John  Haymaker,  Charles  Conroy,  Pranchot 
Company,  Duke  and  Raydure.  Anderson  Bros.,  L.  S.  Anderson  and  others. 
At  present  E.  C.  and  J.  B.  Bradley,  the  officers  of  the  Empire  Gas  and  Puel 
Company,  are  the  largest  producers  in  the  field.  The  East  End  Company, 
the  Norton  Company,  Hochsteter  and  Shirley  and  Riley  Allen  are  also  large 
producers.  Mrs.  O.  P.  Taylor  and  Wm.  O.  and  Charles,  sons  of  the  pioneer, 
possess  valuable  oil  properties.  To  the  indefatigable  efforts  of  O.  P.  Taylor, 
a  biographical  sketch  of  whom  appears  elsewhere,  was  due  the  discovery  of 
oil  in  AUegany  in  commercial  quantities.  He  was,  in  the  early  days,  a  large 

Leasing.- — The  owners  of  the  soil  possess  the  oil  right  as  well  as  the 
surface  of  their  lands.  Producers  have  two  methods  of  dealing  with  these 
owners.  One  is  to  buy  the  property  outright,  surface  and  all.  Sometimes, 
however,  owners  are  loth  to  part  with  their  land,  and  the  producer  leases  the 
privilege  of  operating  for  oil  by  contracting  to  give  the  owner  a  certain  per- 
centage of  the  production.  This  royalty  runs  from  1-16  to  i  of  the  produc- 
tion. There  are  original  owners,  now  in  the  field,  who  have  amassed  fortunes 
from  their  royalties. 

Methods  of  Production. — Petroleum  has  been  produced  in  America 
exclusively  by  artesian  wells.  In  Japan  the  practice,  even  up  to  the  present 
time,  has  been  to  dig  vertical  shafts  from  four  to  six  feet  wide  to  depths  as 
great  as  1,000  feet.  The  operation  of  drilling  was  once  very  expensive;  now 
a  well  can  be  drilled  at  one-tenth  the  cost  and  in  one-tenth  the  time  that  was 
required  in  the  early  days  at  Titusville. 

Drilling. — The  present  process  of  drilling  in  this  field  may  be  thus 
briefly  described:  Over  the  point  where  the  well  is  to  be  drilled  a  derrick  or 
rig  72  feet  high  is  erected,  forming  a  square  at  the  base,  20  feet  on  the  sides, 

156  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

and  verging  toward  the  top  to  a  square,  having  an  inside  dimension  along  the 
sides  of  2  feet  10  inches.  On  the  top  of  the  derrick  is  placed  a  crown  pulley, 
over  which  the  cable  or  drill  rope  plays.  The  end  of  the  rope  inside  the 
derrick  is  attached  to  a  string  of  tools  which  measure  about  55  feet  in  length 
and  which  weigh  about  1,900  pounds.  The  other  end  of  the  rope  is  attached 
to  a  horizontal  shaft,  upon  which  it  is  wound  and  unwound  at  will.  The 
power  is  supplied  by  a  15  to  25  H.  P.  engine  and  a  20  H.  P.  boiler  through  a 
rubber  belt  which  passes  over  the  large  "bull  wheel,"  which  is  itself 
attached  to  the  end  of  the  horizontal  shaft.  Directly  over  the  hole  to  be 
drilled  is  placed  one  end  of  the  "walking-beam,"  generally  26  feet  in  length. 
This  rests  near  its  center  on  a  heavy  post  13  feet  high,  known  as  the  "  Samp- 
son post. ' '  Before  drilling  the  upper  part  of  the  hole  is  dug  by  a  spade,  then 
the  process  known  as  "  spudding  "  is  followed  for  a  short  distance,  by  mak- 
ing fast  the  rope  to  which  the  tools  are  attached  to  one  end  of  the  walking- 
beam.  This  beam  is  so  operated  by  steam  power  as  to  successively  raise 
and  drop  the  tools,  which  pound  the  rock  into  fine  fragments.  After  every 
five  feet  of  drilling  the  tools  are  raised  out  of  the  hole  and  the  broken  debris 
with  the  water  are  taken  out  by  a  bailer  or  sand  pump,  an  iron  tube  about  20 
feet  long,  at  the  bottom  of  which  is  a  valve  so  made  that  it  opens  when  the 
bailer  touches  the  bottom  of  the  hole  and  closes  when  it  is  lifted  off.  The 
cost  of  drilling  a  well  in  this  field  is  now  about  $1,500.  Ten  years  ago  it  cost 
$2,000  or  over.  The  depth  of  wells  depends  upon  the  relative  position  of  the 
surface  of  the  earth  to  the  oil  sand.  In  this  county  it  averages  perhaps 
1,300  feet.  When. a  well  first  strikes  the  oil  rock  its  depth  is  accurately 
measured.  It  is  measured  again  when  it  has  been  drilled  to  the  bottom  of 
the  oil-bearing  rock,  the  depth  of  which  will  average  in  this  field  about  20 
feet.  Beneath  this  a  "  pocket  "  10  to  15  feet  deep  is  usually  drilled.  Some 
operators  however  do  not  follow  this  custom,  but  drill  only  through  the 

Torpedoing  or  Shooting. — The  exploding  of  nitroglycerine  in  a  well, 
popularly  known  as  "shooting,"  has  always  been  an  interesting  process. 
From  40  to  100  quarts  are  used,  costing  as  many  dollars.  In  1882  a  40  quart 
"  shot  ''  cost  $140.  Glycerine  handling  is  a  hazardous  occupation.  In  this 
field  alone  many  "  shooters  "  have  lost  their  lives,  and  hair  breadth  escapes 
from  frightful  deaths  are  related  by  all  veterans  in  the  business.  Wells  are 
"  shot  "  in  order  to  break  or  crack  the  oil  bearing  rock  so  that  it  may  pro- 
duce petroleum  the  more  readily. 

The  usual  process  of  "  shooting  "  is  to  pour  the  glycerine  into  long  tin 
tubes,  which  are  lowered  into  the  hole  and  exploded  by  dropping  into  the 
well  a  triangularly-flanged  piece  of  iron  weighing  about  10  pounds,  known 
as  the  "go-devil,"  which  strikes  a  percussion  cap  on  the  top  of  the  upper 
glycerine  shell.  The  glycerine  shells  are  placed  in  the  well  only  through 
the  oil  rock,  that  is  if  the  wells  have  25  feet  of  oil  rock  and  a  12  foot  pocket, 
an  empty  tin  tube  12  feet  long  is  attached  to  the  bottom  of  the  first  glycerine 
shells  in  order  to  raise  it  to  a  level  with  the  oil  sand.     The  few  producers 

Oil  and  Gas.  157 

who  do  not  drill  below  the  oil  sand  use  a  "  dump  shot, "  lowering- the  ex- 
plosive into  the  hole  by  the  bailer.  Col.  W.  A.  Meyers  of  Bolivar  is  the 
pioneer  glycerine  man  of  the  Allegany  field.  He  claims  the  honor  of  mak- 
ing the  first  pound  ever  exploded  in  a  well.  In  1869  he  had  a  factory  at 
Titusville  where  at  first  he  mixed  the  explosive  in  earthen  crocks.  After- 
wards he  invented  a  machine  which  turned  out  400  cans  a  day.  In  1882  he 
was  manufacturing  5.000  pounds  of  glycerine  daily  at  Bolivar.  Glycerine  is 
generally  transported  to  the  well  in  gallon  cans  in  a  specially  arranged  spring 
wagon,  over  rough  roads,  and,  quite  likely,  drawn  by  a  team  of  fractious 
horses  driven  by  the  careless  "  shooters."  With  quantities  to  suit  the  de- 
mand of  the  well  owners  these  wagons  are  driven  into  every  corner  of  the 
country  where  oil  is  produced  or  wells  drilled.  It  is  not  unusual  for  an  order 
for  a  "shot  "to  be  received  from  a  distance  of  100  miles,  and  often  the 
"fiend  "will  start  and  travel  night  and  da}^  over  rough  and  smooth  high- 
ways, and  will  arrive  on  time  or  kill  a  team  in  the  attempt.  Within  two 
years  two  Allegany  men  have  lost  their  lives  in  this  labor.  Their  places 
were  easily  and  immediately  filled. 

Pumping  and  Disposing  of  the  Oil. — In  the  early  days  of  this  field's 
history,  a  large  number  of  wells,  after  being  "  shot  "  produced  oil  naturally, 
that  is  they  flowed  periodically.  This  was  caused  by  the  gas  pressure, 
which  soon  diminished.  It  was  found  necessary  then  to  pump  the  wells. 
This  is  done  by  a  lift  jmnip  working  by  means  of  "sucker  rods  "  through 
the  2  inch  iron  tubing  which  is  put  into  the  hole  from  top  to  bottom.  The 
5f  inch  casing  is  outside  the  tubing,  and  reaches  only  deep  enough  (300  feet 
on  the  average)  to  shut  off  the  water,  which  naturally  flows  into  the  wells 
from  the  upper  walls  of  the  hole.  Every  lease  is  furnished  with  one  or 
more  wooden  receiving  tanks  of  100  or  250  barrels  capacity.  Into  these  the 
oil  is  pumped  from  the  wells.  When  these  tanks  are  filled  the  "pumper  " 
sends  for  the  United  Pipe  Line  Company's  "ganger,"  who  measures  the 
number  of  feet  and  inches  of  oil  in  the  tanks,  and  "  runs  "  it  into  the  Stand- 
ard Oil  Company's  pipe  lines,  which  are  connected  with  all  tanks  in  the  field. 
There  is  no  choice  in  the  disposition  of  the  oil,  nor  but  one  way  to  disj^ose  of 
it.  The  Standard  Oil  Company  has  the  only  pijDe  lines  in  the  county.  As 
soon  as  the  ganger  "  runs  "  a  tank  of  oil,  he  reports  to  the  pipe-line  office, 
and  the  owner  is  credited  with  the  oil  "run."  He  may  keep  the  oil  any 
length  of  time  he  desires  by  paying  storage  to  the  pipe-line  company.  He 
may  sell  at  any  time  to  any  buyer  or  to  the  Standard  Oil  Company,  which 
always  stands  ready  to  pay  cash  at  the  "  market  "  price,  which  means  its 
own  figures.  In  this  field  the  Standard  has  several  minor  storage  and  pump 
stations,  from  which  the  oil  is  forced  to  the  large  station  3  miles  east  of 
Wells ville,  where  there  are  seventy  35.000  barrel  oil  tanks,  affording  a  stor- 
age capacity  of  2,450,000  barrels.  From  here  the  oil  is  forced  through  a  6 
inch  line,  of  which  the  company  has  two  running  side  by  side,  to  Cameron 
Mills,  and  thence,  through  several  stations,  to  refineries  at  Bayoune,  N.  J. 

The  x^i'ocess  of  jDumping  one  well  has  been  briefly  noticed.     After  a 

158  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

lease  or  oil  farm  has  been  thoroughly  drilled,  with  a  well  on  perhaps  every 

5  acres,  the  wells  may  be  rigged  together  for  pumping  in  different  ways. 
The  old  method  was  by  an  engine  at  each  well  and  one  steam  boiler  for  from 

6  to  20  wells.  Steam  lines  ran  from  the  boiler,  which  was  centrally  located, 
to  each  engine.  This  method,  with  a  combination  of  make-shifts,  in  still 
much  in  use.  Riley  Allen,  the  veteran  producer,  has  among  his  employees 
one  man  who  pumps  40  wells.  In  one  instance  he  uses  one  boiler  for  30 
wells.  When  an  engine  is  not  used  for  each  well,  surface  rods,  arranged  to 
pull  back  and  forth,  are  employed. 

Natural  Gas. — Gas  in  greater  or  less  quantity  is  always  found  with 
petroleum,  but  petroleum  does  not  always  occur  with  gas.  For  the  early 
field  operations  for  oil  sufficient  gas  was  found  to  flow  the  wells  and  also  to 
furnish  fuel  for  the  drilling  of  additional  wells.  The  oil  wells  in  the  vicinity 
of  Allentown  produced  such  a  quantity  of  gas  that,  in  1882,  the  Empire  Gas 
Company  laid  lines  from  them  to  furnish  Wellsville  with  fuel  and  light. 
The  villages  of  Allentown,  Richburg  and  Bolivar  were  also  supplied  by  this 
company.  These  Allentown  gas  wells  supplied  200  boilers  at  drilling  wells 
in  1882,  and,  being  otherwise  improvidently  handled,  showed  signs  of  ex- 
hustion  in  1888.  In  1889  the  Empire  Gas  and  Fuel  Company  laid  lines  to  the 
strong  gas  wells  which  the  firm  had  developed  in  Oswayo  and  Sharon  town- 
ships. Potter  county.  Pa.  These  wells,  now  23  in  number,  lie  just  across 
the  state  line,  12  to  14  miles  from  Wellsville.  They  produce  no  oil,  but 
adequately  meet  all  the  present  gas  demands  of  Wellsville  and  the  other 
villages  supplied.  The  company  owns  a  large  amount  of  undrilled  territory 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  wells  now  producing,  and  will  be  able  to  supply  fuel 
and  illuminating  gas  to  its  consumers  for  25  years  to  come.  The  drilling  in 
this  gas  region  varies  from  1,400  to  1,600  feet.  From  30  to  90  feet  of  sand  is 
found.     The  rock  pressure  is  250  pounds. 

The  richest  gas  territory  in  Allegany  county  lies  in  Clarksville  and  Wirt 
where  there  are  now  80  producing  gas  wells.  The  Cuba  Gas  Company,  or- 
ganized in  1884,  obtains  its  supply  from  these  towns.  The  Allegany  Gas 
Company,  supplying  Friendship  and  Belmont,  also  has  its  wells  in  Clarks- 
ville and  Wirt.  The  Mutual  Gas  Company  supplies  Andover,  Greenwood 
and  Wliitesville.  Its  gas  comes  from  the  Andover  oil  and  gas  pool.  In  all 
nine  Allegany  villages  burn  natural  gas  including  the  three  largest  towns.  In 
winter  probably  8,000  stoves  in  Allegany  flush  with  the  glow  of  the  most 
luxurious  fuel  which  Providence  has  provided.  In  WellsviUe,  with  its  800 
to  1,000  consumers,  only  15  meters  are  used.  In  Cuba  one-third  the  con- 
sumers use  meters. 

The  Empire  Gas  and  Fuel  Company's  rates  are: 

Cook  stoves  by  the  year $33-oo 

"                 "      month  in  summer 2.50 

"                 "                 "      winter 3.50 

Heating  stoves  by  the  month  in  summer i.oo 

"             "                       '•     winter 3.50 

Lights                "                      "     dwellings 25 

"                     "                      "     stores 30 

Agriculture.  159 

Rates  are  arranged  according  to  size  of  rooms  heated,  and  yearly  rates  on 
heating  stoves  may  be  thus  obtained.  When  metered  the  company  charge 
22  cents  per  thousand  cubic  feet. 

To  estimate  the  worth  of  the  gas  produced  in  the  Allegany  field  is  im- 
possible. That  it  aggregates  a  great  sum  all  agree.  In  drilling  the  5,500 
wells  scattered  over  the  field  as  well  as  in  pumping  them,  the  gas  supply 
has  saved  an  immense  outlay  for  fuel.  Gas  has  been  carelessly  wasted  and 
in  enormous  quantities.  Wells  have  been  left  open,  and  gas  lines  from 
pumping  wells  are  usually  very  heedlessly  looked  after.  In  the  years  to 
come  producers  and  other  consumers  of  natural  gas  will  realize  that  every 
foot  taken  from  a  well  just  so  much  diminishes  the  supply.  It  is  by  no 
means  inexhaustible. 



BY    A.    W.    LITCHARD,    ESQ. 

IT  is  not  only  a  fitting  thing  but  a  high  privilege  that  we  enjoy  to-day  as  far  in - 
ers  interested  in  the  cultivation  of  the  soil  and  the  development  of  the 
agricultural  resources,  to  be  permitted  to  stand  on  this  elevation  and  over- 
look and  briefly  review  the  progress  made,  the  privations  endured,  the  vic- 
tories won  during  a  century  of  time  by  those  who  by  their  sturdy  manhood 
and  womanhood  made  our  county  what  it  is  in  an  agricultural  point  of  view, 
one  of  the  most  prosperous  in  the  Empire  State.  Born  in  poverty  with  a 
cold  and  frosty  climate,  with  the  land  covered  with  heavy  timber,  with  no 
near  market  for  their  limited  products,  the  pioneers  had  a  cheerless  outlook. 
Yet  despite  all  discouragements  our  county  has  steadily  grown  from  a  small 
clearing  on  Dike's  creek  in  Wellsville  in  1795,  to  a  county  covered  over  with 
productive  farms  and  such  comfortable  homes  as  are  seldom  seen  in  any 
country.  It  is  a  fact  that  should  not  be  overlooked  or  forgotten,  that  the 
first  farmer  who  located  in  this  county  was  a  person  of  culture  and  of  prac- 
tical ability.  He  could  build  a  mill,  tan  leather,  make  shoes  for  his  children, 
do  his  own  blacksmithing,  and,  at  the  same  time,  establish  that  which  was 
more  valuable  than  all  the  rest,  a  good  character.  Such  a  man  was  Nathan- 
ael  Dike. 

Very  little  progress  was  made  by  the  settlers  in  the  way  of  farming  for 
the  first  quarter  of  the  century.  Sparse  settlements  were  made  here  and 
there  in  different  sections.     The  year  1816  was  a  trying  one  for  the  pioneers. 

*  Paper  read  at  Wellsville  Centennial,  1895. 

160  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

It  was  known  for  many  years  as  the  "  Allegany  county  famine, "  and  if  it  had 
not  been  for  the  liberality  of  Gen.  William  A.  Mills,  of  Mt.  Morris,  who  fur- 
nished the  settlers  with  wheat  arid  corn  (in  many  instances  without  compen- 
sation), many  would  have  suffered  severely  if  they  had  not  perished  with 
hunger.  The  chief  sources  of  revenue  to  the  settlers  were  lumber,  shingles 
and  maple  sugar.  The  lumber  in  order  to  find  a  market  had  to  be  drawn  to 
Cuylerville,  Canisteo,  Dansville,  and  often  as  far  as  Rochester.  One  source 
of  revenue  to  the  people  was  going  north  each  year  to  assist  the  farmers  in 
the  lower  Genesee  Valley  to  harvest  the  wheat.  Large  companies  of  men 
could  be  seen  every  year  carrying  rakes  and  cradles  on  their  shoulders, 
migrating  to  that  better  country  to  earn  something  to  carry  their  families 
through  the  winter  up  in  this  poor  county.  Among  these  yearly  travelers 
was  a  young  man,  good-looking  and  ambitious,  who  has  since  made  a  repu- 
tation and  built  up  for  himself  a  character  which  commands  the  respect  and 
admiration,  not  only  of  the  people  of  Allegany  but  of  the  entire  nation,  H.  M. 
Teller,  United  States  Senator. 

To  say  that  the  early  settlers  of  Allegany  county  were  poor  is  putting 
the  facts  mildly.  Many  were  of  New  England  stock,  intelligent,  industrious 
and  possessed  of  those  qualities  of  character  which  always  overcome  opposi- 
tion and  win  success.  No  county  in  the  state  was  regarded  so  unfavorable 
and  uninviting  as  this  one  we  to-day  call  our  own.  Well  do  I  remember 
when  my  father  and  mother  bade  good-bye  to  their  well-to-do  friends  in 
Livingston  county  where  plenty  abounded,  and  took  their  four  children  and 
came  up  into  poor  Allegany  to  build  up  a  home  where  only  $400  was  required 
to  buy  a  farm. 

In  1841  the  Genesee  Valley  canal  was  completed  to  Mt.  Morris,  and  in 
1851  the  Erie  railroad  was  comj)leted  from  Hornellsville  to  Dunkirk.  With 
these  permanent  advantages  in  the  way  of  better  markets  new  hopes  dawned 
upon  the  people,  and  agricultural  development  took  on  new  life.  The  ad- 
vancement made  during  the  next  25  years  was  marked  and  permanent 
The  farmers  paid  less  attention  to  lumbering  and  more  to  the  clearing  of  the 
land,  raising  better  stock  and  making  their  homes  more  comfortable  in  every 
way.  As  the  years  sped  on  changes  came.  Carding  mills  took  the  place  of 
hand  carding  and  home  weaving.  Little  was  had  by  the  rural  people  that 
the  farm  did  not  furnish.  They  had  oxen  for  work,  cows  for  the  dairy,  sheep 
for  clothing.  Threshing  grain  by  flails  was  abandoned.  The  old  wooden 
plow  was  laid  aside  and  a  better  one  jiut  in  its  place.  The  sun-dial  and  horn 
announcing  the  time  of  day  or  warning  the  settlers  against  danger  that  their 
stock  might  be  protected  became  a  thing  of  the  past.  The  town  clock  and 
the  whistle  of  the  locomotive  spoke  surely  of  better  markets  and  better 
times.  So  did  the  mowing  machine  in  the  field,  the  sewing  machine  in  the 
house.  The  ox  team  for  farm  work  and  church  going  on  Sunday  was  super- 
seded by  well-bred  horses  and  comfortable  conveyances.  Development  of 
intelligence  through  agricultural  progress,  the  improvement  of  the  farm 

Agriculture.  161 

home,  and  a  higher  social  position  of  the  farmer's  family  marked  a  new  era 
in  agricultural  development. 

Agricultural  Resources. — Butter  and  cheese  have  been  in  the  past, 
and  will,  I  doubt  not,  be  in  the  future  our  farmer's  chief  sources  of  revenue. 
In  an  early  day  the  dairy  interest  was  neglected.  Up  to  1844  our  cheese 
and  butter  product  was  small.  There  were  no  cheese  or  butter  factories, 
the  work  was  all  done  on  the  farm.  In  1845  the  whole  number  of  milch 
cows  in  the  county  was  16,517.  The  number  of  pounds  of  butter  manufac- 
tured was  1,268,960;  pounds  of  cheese  manufactured  same  year  806,014. 
Alfred  made  204,600;  Independence  108,530;  Rushford  106,755;  CenterviUe 
57,910.  All  the  other  towns  fell  below  50,000  pounds.  Four  leading  farmers 
that  year  in  Rushford,  Talcott,  McKinney,  Slocum  and  Kendall,  sold  and 
delivered  to  Cuylerville  (then  the  head  of  the  Genesee  canal)  four  tons  of 
cheese  for  which  they  received  4^  and  5  cents  per  pound.  The  first  pine 
apple  cheese  made  in  this  state  was  made  in  Rushford.  The  patent  was 
issued  in  1808  and  bears  the  signature  of  James  Madison.  Now  after  fifty 
years  we  note  the  advancement  made.  In  1892  we  had  80  cheese  factories, 
and  the  total  amount  made  was  8,538,800  pounds.  The  increase  in  the  but- 
ter product  was  less  by  far  than  cheese.  Among  the  extensive  dealers  in 
cheese  we  mention  only  two  of  the  leading  firms:  Ackerly  &  Sill  of  Cuba 
and  Wm.  C.  Burdick  &  Co.  of  Alfred.  These  firms  alone  do  a  business  of  over 
$800,000  a  year.  No  county  in  the  state  sustains  a  better  reputation  for  fine 
butter  and  cheese  than  Allegany.  We  have  a  home  market  that  ranks  with 
the  best  and  in  point  of  value  stands  third  in  the  United  States. 

Dairy  Cattle. — Well  may  the  people  of  our  county  feel  proud  of  the 
advancement  made  along  the  line  of  breeding  fine  dairy  cattle.  And  I  here 
desire  to  mention  some  who  by  energy  and  means  have  contributed  to 
this  result.  Judge  Philip  Church  of  Belvidere  was  the  pioneer  in  good 
breeding,  both  in  cattle  and  sheep,  and  the  value  of  his  example  upon  the 
people  in  an  early  day  in  this  direction  was  of  great  value.  His  favorite 
breed  was  the  Durhams  or  Short  Horns.  Among  others  we  find  WiUiam 
Simpson  of  the  New  York  Stock  Farm  of  New  Hudson.  L.  D,  Stowell  of 
Black  Creek,  D.  B.  Wliipple  of  Cuba,  Amsden  Brothers  of  Cuba,  Jerry 
Clark  of  Andover,  William  G.  Tucker  of  Elm  VaUey,  the  late  Daniel  Gardner 
of  Angelica,  Joel  Carr  of  Almond,  Joseph  Lockhart  of  Almond,  Richard 
Charles  of  Angelica,  David  Norton  of  Friendship,  H.  Vanderhoof  of  Belmont, 
L.  C.  Drew  of  Cuba,  J.  E.  Middaugh  of  Scio,  Cobb  Brothers  of  Independ- 
ence and  S.  S.  Carr  of  Almond.  The  principal  breeds  bred  by  them  were 
the  Jerseys.  Holsteins,  Short  Horns,  Ayrshires  and  Guernseys,  and  among 
these  herds  in  this  county  are  as  fine  dairy  cattle  as  can  be  found  anywhere. 

Horses.— While  the  advancement  along  the  line  of  breeding  fine  horses, 
especially  for  draft  and  farm  purposes,  has  not  been  what  we  might  wish  or 
expect,  yet  among  those  who  have  taken  an  interest  in  this  direction  and 
have  done  what  they  could  toward  bettering  our  condition,  I  will  mention  a 
few:  Judson  Clark  of  Elmira,  formerly  of  Scio,  WiUiam   Simpson  of  Neve 

162  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Hudson,  the  late  Daniel  Bennett  of  Canaseraga,  Elliott  &  Kingsbury  of 
Friendship,  E.  A.  Cottrell  of  Andover  and  Cobb  Brothers  of  Independence. 

Sheep. — Allegany  county  has  never  been  so  distinctively  devoted  to 
sheep  husbandry  as  the  counties  north  of  us.  Yet  our  farmers  have  by  no 
means  been  indifferent  to  this  branch  of  farming.  But  it  is  a  fact  to  be  re- 
gretted that  while  we  are  making  progress  in  every  other  line  of  practical 
husbandry,  the  sheep,  one  of  the  noblest  of  animals,  is  being  sorely  neglect- 
ed. Much  of  our  land  is  rough  and  better  adapted  to  sheep  raising  than 
for  any  other  purpose.  Yet  for  various  reasons,  known  or  unknown, 
some  legitimate  and  some  foolish  and  unbusiness  like,  our  resources  in  this 
direction  have  been  largely  cut  off,  and  this  valuable  industry  well  nigh 

Hay. — One  source  of  revenue  to  our  farmers  has  been  the  selling  of  hay. 
Whether  this  practice  will  be  so  much  continued  in  the  future  as  in  the  past 
we  are  not  able  to  say.  It  certainly  will  not  be  during  1895.  Selling  hay 
as  a  general  thing  is  disastrous  to  good  farming,  and  for  our  agricultural 
advancement  it  would  be  well  if  the  practice  was  discontinued. 

Maple  Sugar. — In  mentioning  our  resources  we  must  not  forget  the 
sweetest  of  them  all,  maple  sugar.  Not  only  in  an  early  day  did  the  pioneers 
derive  much  help  from  this  source,  but  even  now  we  would  be  reluctant  to 
part  with  this  branch  of  farming,  especially  when  we  produce  600,000  pounds 
in  a  single  year  as  has  been  the  case  in  the  past. 

Potatoes. — While  our  county  has  not  until  recently  been  regarded 
favorably  as  regards  potato  culture,  yet  it  is  fast  coming  to  the  front  in 
that  line  of  farming.  This  is  due  largely  to  the  fact  that  potatoes  have  been 
the  best  paying  crop  raised  on  the  farm  for  twenty  years,  and  the  only  crop 
that  has  steadily  increased  in  quality  and  price.  In  1894  and  1895  there 
was  sold  and  shipped  out  of  the  county  over  500,000  bushels. 

There  are  other  resources  that  might  be  mentioned  but  time  will  not 
permit,  and  as  we  bid  good-bye  to  the  first  century  and  begin  the  active 
duties  of  the  second,  the  question  naturally  arises,  "What  will  the  future 
be  to  us  as  farmers  ?  "  We  have  many  natural  advantages.  The  sweetest 
of  grasses,  the  purest  of  water  and  that  in  abundance,  a  healthy  climate, 
natural  gas  and  oil  for  fuel  and  light,  and  with  a  people  intelligent,  industri- 
ous, we  ought  to  strive  to  make  our  calling  what  God  intended  it  should  be, 
the  noblest  and  most  desired  of  all  vocations,  and  as  we  to-day  enjoy  in  many 
ways  the  fruits  of  the  labor  and  toil  of  the  noble  men  and  women  that  have 
been  x>rominent  all  along  the  past  century,  so  may  we  strive  to  do  well  our 
part,  ever  remembering  that  true  nobihty  lies  not  for  what  you  do  for  your- 
self but  what  you  do  for  others. 

Our  Public  Schools.  163 



BY    SAMUEL    A.    EAHLEY,    ESQ. 

I  ASSUME  the  duties  assigned  to  me,  l^nowing  well  that  others  are  better 
prepared  to  do  justice  to  the  subject  than  myself.  Still  I  will  submit  a 
few  facts  as  I  have  learned  them  from  others  or  recall  them  to  mind. 
Almond  furnished  the  first  school,  taught  by  Joseph  A.  Rathbun,  1802;f 
Angelica  the  second,  1804;  Amity,  1810;  Wellsville,  1811;  Scio,  1819.  I  think 
schools  were  established  in  all  the  towns  as  early  as  1825.  The  first  news- 
paper was  published  at  Angelica  in  1820.  These  schools  were  supported  by 
private  subscriptions.  The  people  of  each  neighborhood  would  look  about 
for  some  young  lady  among  them  to  take  charge  of  a  few  scholars  and  teach 
them  to  read,  write,  spell  and  perhaps  cipher  as  far  as  division.  For  the 
winter  a  man  was  secured  who  could  assist  the  young  men  in  mathematics 
as  far  as  the  Rule  of  Three  or  Interest.  The  following  are  some  of  the  sub- 
scriptions: "  I  give  one  bushel  of  Indian  corn  and  one  cord  of  wood  to  Robert 
Reed  for  teaching  my  two  boys  three  months. "  Another:  "  I  give  one  bushel 
of  wheat,  one  quarter  of  beef  and  three  bushels  of  buckwheat  for  my  four 
childrens'  schooling  this  winter  (1824).  Districts  were  soon  formed.  The 
state  became  interested  in  the  schools,  giving  some  little  aid,  as  you  will  see 
by  these  receipts  for  public  money.  1831,  "Received  of  Samuel  Van 
Campen.  Commissioner  of  Schools,  $12.36,  District  No.  2,  Scio,  Middaugh 
Hill,  Philip  McCutchen,  trustee. "  Another:  "  1830,  Joseph  Davis,  trustee, 
$7.30."  Report  of  school  district  No.  4,  Amity,  1831:  Whole  number  of 
families  in  district  9;  Number  in  the  school  6;  Refused  by  teacher  one. 
Benjamin  Luther,  district  clerk. 

Prom  this  time  three  inspectors  were  elected  in  each  town  to  look  after 
the  schools  and  examine  teachers.  Trustees  hired  the  teachers  paying  them 
the  public  money  and  the  balance  by  rate  bill.  My  friend.  Ex-commissioner 
Renwick,  well  remembers  the  logs  drawn  to  the  schoolhouse  for  the  boys  to 
prepare  for  the  fire  during  recess.  Every  boy  was  required  to  assist.  I 
have  heard  this  quoted:  "  '  He  that  will  thrive  must  either  hold  or  drive. '  If 
you  cannot  chop,  you  must  either  sj)lit  or  pile  the  wood."  Christmas  was  a 
great  day.  The  boys  would  arrive  at  the  schoolhouse  in  advance  of  the 
teacher,  and  upon  his  arrival  would  be  demanded  a  "forfeit"  or  "treat." 
I  well  remember  the  first  term  I  attended  school.  The  boys  captured  the 
schoolhouse  before  daylight  on  Christmas  morning,  barricaded  the  door  and 

*A  paper  read  at  the  fiftieth  annual  meeting  of  the  Teachers'  Association  of  the  Southern  District  of 
Allegany  Co.,  held  at  Friendship  in  Feb.,  1893,  when  Mr.  Earley  was  teaching  his  yad  term  of  school,  is  the 
basis  of  this  chapter. 

+  Mr.  Rathbun  received  the  first  deed  of  land  for  a  farm  on  record  in  the  county. 

164  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

windows.  Upon  the  arrival  of  the  teacher  he  was  ordered  to  take  the  water 
pail  and  bring  from  the  distillery,  just  across  the  road,  a  pail  of  whiskey, 
which  he  did  with  pleasure,  distributing  it  judiciously  no  doubt.  The  girls 
returned  home,  while  the  boys  and  teacher  held  high  carnival  through  the 
day.  It  was  the  first  real  circus  I  ever  attended.  All  went  merry  as  a 
marriage  bell.  The  next  day  the  teacher's  hair  pulled  and  woe  to  any  pupil 
who  by  chance  came  within  his  vision  from  the  wrong  side.  Some  half-dozen 
water-beech  whips,  from  four  to  eight  feet  long,  were  brought  in  and  secreted 
under  the  floor,  but  at  an  opportune  moment  were  brought  forth,  thrust 
under  the  forestick  in  the  fireplace,  withdrawn,  and  twisted  under  the 
teacher's  huge  foot,  thus  made  ready  for  use.  Some  of  the  larger  boys  were 
then  called  to  the  front,  they  politely  removing  their  coats.  I  took  a  com- 
manding position  back  of  a  large  splint  broom  in  the  corner  behind  the  door. 
Solomon  was  the  first  victim.  The  whip  was  applied  longitudinally,  trans- 
versely and  horizontally  until  debris  filled  the  air.  As  soon  as  the  storm  was 
over  and  the  skies  brightened  so  I  could  see  my  way  clear  I  sought  home, 
"  sweet  home  "  (without  making  my  bow  or  waiting  to  bid  the  teacher 
"  Good  afternoon  "  as  was  the  custom)  where  I  remained  for  the  remainder 
of  the  term,  satisfied  that  there  was  no  place  like  home.  The  breaking  down 
of  doors  and  smoking-out  process  I  will  not  attempt  to  describe. 

At  this  time  the  school  houses  were  constructed  of  logs,  with  a  large 
chimney  of  stone,  while  the  jamb  furnished  a  good  seat  for  an  unruly  boy. 
The  desks  were  placed  around  the  outside  of  the  room.  A  dunce  block  was 
placed  in  the  corner,  where  refractory  pupils  wearing  the  "fools'  cap"  were 
made  the  laughing-stock  of  the  school.  The  first  half  hour  in  the  morning 
the  teacher  was  employed  in  making  or  mending  the  quill  pens  for  the  day. 
Cobb's  or  Webster's  spelling-books  were  the  only  books  used  for  reading  by 
the  smaller  scholars,  until  they  were  ready  to  read  in  the  English  Reader, 
American  Manual,  or  Hale's  History.  Murray's,  Kirkham's  and  Brown's 
grammars  were  in  some  of  the  schools  at  this  time,  1830  to  1838.  Daboll's 
Arithmetic  and  Morse's  Geography  were  also  in  use.* 

In  1840  a  new  era  dawned  upon  the  educational  interests  of  Allegany 
county.  Prof.  Loomis  opened  what  was  called  the  Angelica  Academy  with 
success.  Alfred  University  was  established  in  1838  with  Prof.  William  C. 
Kenyon  as  its  principal.  He  was  a  very  active,  energetic  and  able  instruct- 
or. Teachers  with  improved  methods  were  soon  furnished  from  this  institu- 
tion. The  board  of  supervisors  in  1841  elected  Wm.  C.  Kenyon  and  Abra- 
ham Burgess  "deputy  superintendents  of  common  schools."  From  this 
time  state,  county  and  town  superintendents  were  chosen.  All  this  time 
the  secretary  of  state  had  supervision  of  all  schools,  receiving  about  $700 
per  annum.  Prof.  Kenyon  was  long  county  superintendent.  He  was  to 
education  what  John  Marshall  was  to  the  judiciary  of  the  United  States. 
He  visited  nearly  every  school  in  the  county,  called  the  inhabitants  together 

*  In  1836,  Lyman  Lovell,  from  Vermont,  taught  a  very  superior  select   school  at  Centerville  Centre,  hav- 
ing from  30  to  35  pupils. — j.  s.  M. 

Our  Public  Schools.  165 

in  the  evening,  and,  in  his  hicid  manner,  portrayed  the  advantages  of  a 
thorough  education.  He  breathed  into  them  "  the  breath  of  life  and  they 
became  living  souls."  The  fire  was  kindled.  A  teachers'  meeting  was 
called  at  Friendship  in  December,  1843.  A  preliminary  organization  was 
effected  which  resulted  in  the  permanent  organization  of  the  Teachers'  As- 
sociation in  September,  1844.  The  prime  movers  of  this  association  were 
Gurdon  Evans,  Horace  H.  Nye,  afterwards  doctor,  Dr.  C.  R.  Earley.  Cyrus 
Mver,  Jerome  Harrison,  Betsy  Harrison,  Mina  LeSuer  (Marvin),  Susan 
Crandall  (Larkin),  Charles  Willard,  Cyrus  Cotton,  W.  H.  Crandall,  John 
Wells  and  many  others.  The  following  is  a  copy  of  a  certificate  of  member- 
ship issued  to  Charles  R.  Earley  at  that  time: 

"  Friendship,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  27,  1S44. 
This  is  to  certify  that  Charles  R.  Earley  is  a  member  of  the  Teachers'  Association  of  the  Southern  As- 
sembly disirict,  of  the  county  of  Allegany,  N.  Y.  H.  H.  Nye,  President. 
G.  Evans.  Secretary." 

The  Albany  Normal  school  was  opened  in  the  same  year  (1844)  with  an 
instructor  second  to  none,  Prof.  Page.*  This  was  the  year  the  telegraph 
was  first  used,  and  I  think  the  State  Association  was  organized  the  year 
following  (1845).  The  National  Association  was  organized  in  Philadelphia  by 
Horace  Mann,  Samuel  Randall  and  others.  The  institute,  which  was  a 
powerful  auxiliary,  was  then  organized,  with  first-class  conductors,  such 
as  Salem  Town,  Chas.  Sanders  and  others.  Town  associations  were  after- 
wards held  twice  a  month  at  which  all  teachers  were  expected  to  take  part. 
You  can  easily  see  that  with  institutes  of  two  weeks  with  two  associations 
in  each  year,  together  with  the  town  associations,  many  opportunities  were 
furnished  for  improvement.  Davies'  Arithmetic,  Charles  Sanders'  graded 
series  of  readers,  Colburn's  Intellectual  Arithmetic.  Town's  Analysis,  Olney's 
Geography  and  Prof.  Kenyon's  Grammar  (which  contained  an  excellent 
system  of  analysis)  were  adopted  as  text  books,  all  of  which  combined  to 
give  our  schools  an  impetus  heretofore  unknown.  Compensation  of  teachers 
advanced  from  ^12  to  $18  per  month  for  gentlemen  and  from  $1  to  $3  per 
week  for  ladies,  and  board  with  the  scholars.  New  schoolhouses  were  built, 
the  dunce  block  was  exchanged  for  blackboards,  and  the  fools'  cap  gave 
place  to  chalk  and  maps.  Alfred  University  has,  from  its  inception,  ren- 
dered great  aid  to  our  public  schools  by  furnishing  them  with  able  teachers. 
"  The  first  class  was  graduated  there  in  1844,  and  numbered  20  members — 
11  gentlemen  and  9  ladies,  among  them,  Jonathan  Allen,  Sayles,  Pickett 
and  Evans,  among  the  ladies  were  the  future  wives  of  President  Kenyon, 
President  Allen,  and  Professor  Sayles.  Subsequent  classes  have  varied  in 
size  from  four  or  five,  to  twenty-five  or  thirty.  The  largest  being  in  1887, 
when,  counting  graduates  in  music,  art,  the  business  department  and  theol- 
ogy, as  well  as  regular  college  graduates,  the  class  numbered  51  members. 

*  About  1843  or  4  J.  W.  Earle,  a  graduate  of  the  Vermont  University,  opened  a  school  at  Centerville, 
which  was  the  best  in  all  that  part  of  the  county  up  to  that  time.  Mr.  Earle  was  a  very  competent  teacher, 
and  his  patronage  was  extensive,  pupils  coming  from  Pike,  Portage,  Nunda,  Hume,  Rushford  and  Cattaraugus 
county. — J.  s.  M. 

166  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

The  whole  number  of  graduates  is  about  630,  making  an  average  of  over 
twelve  a  year  since  the  first  class  was  graduated  in  1844.  Besides  those 
who  have  graduated,  the  institution  has  given  instruction  in  partial  courses, 
without  graduation,  to  nearly  20,000  young  men  and  women.  Many  of  these 
students  were  from  families  which  had  not  the  means  to  send  their  children 
away  to  school  and  they  must  have  remained  without  such  opportunities  had 
not  Alfred  given  them  encouragement  in  their  poverty,  and  given  many  of 
them  some  opportunity  to  help  themselves."  Teachers  came  from  Alfred 
with  new  inspirations,  new  ideas.  Among  them  were  Prof.  Picketts,  Prof. 
Larkin,  Prof.  Bean,  D.  A.  Ford,  Dr.  MilfordCrandall,  the  late  Hiram  Dimick, 
Miss  Mehssa  Applebee  (Mrs.  S.  A.  Earley),  Prof.  James  Marvin,  Ex-Com- 
missioner W.  D.  Renwick,  E.  W.  Johnson,  afterwards  town  superintendent, 
and  Dennis  Chapin  from  Albany  Normal  School  equipped  with  the  very 
best  methods.  I  was  a  pupil  of  his  on  his  return  in  1845.  I  never  saw  his 
superior  to  simplify  mathematics.  There  were  other  noted  teachers  too 
numerous  to  mention  but  none  the  less  worthy.* 

The  office  of  county  superintendent  was  filled  by  Prof.  W.  C.  Kenyon, 
John  J.  Rockafellow,  Hiram  Wilson  (an  uncle  of  Mrs.  Geo.  W.  Fries  of  Friend- 
ship)and  Hugh  M.  Severance,  who  knew  moreabout  estimating  contract  labor 
on  the  Genesee  Valley  canal  than  of  supervision  of  schools.  The  office  of 
county  superintendent  was  abolished  early  in  1856,  and  that  of  town  superin- 
tendent was  soon  afterwards  done  away  with  and  the  present  system 

I  will  relate  a  little  incident  that  occurred  in  a  school  not  far  away.  A 
town  superintendent,  a  dignified  old  gentleman,  was  visiting  the  school.  A 
young  lady  was  analyzing  a  sentence  from  Kenyon's  grammar,  calling  a 
phrase  "a  prepositive,  substantive  modifier."  The  old  gentleman  ex- 
claimed: "What!  a  preposterous,  substantial  mortifierV  What  is  that'::'" 
As  soon  as  the  teacher  could  recover  her  equilibrium  she  exjilained  that  it 
was  a  prepositional  phrase  modifying  a  noun  which  was  entirely  satis- 

Friendship,  Richburg,  Belfast  and  Rushford  built  academies.  At 
Friendship,  Prof.  J.  Hatch  and  Prof.  Prosper  Miller  v,^ere  principals,  both 
able  instructors.  Richburg,  with  Prof.  Bixby  and  Prof.  Badger  had  also 
excellent  teachers.  The  day  of  teaching  the  letters  abstractly  had  passed. 
Later,  about  1866,  the  word  and  the  sentence  method  was  introduced.  I 
think  it  was  under  the  management  and  during  the  first  term  of  Ex-Com- 
missioner W.  D.  Renwick,  who  had  no  superior  as  commissioner  in  this  or 
adjoining  counties.  Examination  of  teachers  in  civil  government  was  intro- 
duced during  his  second  term,  1874.  About  this  time  there  was  another 
advance  in  teachers'  wages,  which  brought  other  good  workers  to  our  aid, 
such  as  Prof.  Lewis  and  his  accomplished  wife,  also  Prof.  Freeborn,  and 

*  Abial  L.  Cook,  a  graduate  of  the  Albany  Normal  School,  taught  the  Hume  Union  School  in  1848  and 
9.  He  was  followed  by  C.  F.  Wallace.  Both  were  superior  teachers,  and  gave  the  school  an  impetus,  which 
has  been  plain'y  discernible  ever  since. — j.  s.  M. 

Our  Public  Schools.  167 

Prof.  Blakeslee  who  took  his  place  among  the  older  teachers  which  he  filled 
long-  and  well.  Prof.  Burdick  and  wife  came  among  us  later.  The  first 
graded  school  in  the  state  was  at  Mt.  Morris  in  1835.  Prof.  Lewis  was  the 
first  to  grade  a  school  in  this  county.  He  and  his  wife  were  highly  esteemed 
by  the  profession.  President  Allen  of  Alfred  University  never  lost  an 
oi)portunity  to  lend  a  helping  hand  to  a  struggling  pupil  and  send  him  on  his 
way  rejoicing.  No  pupil  was  turned  away  from  that  institution  because  he 
was  out  of  money.  Institute  conductors,  Johnnot,  Buckham,  DeGraff  and 
Dr.  Armstrong  of  Predonia,  gave  the  teachers  of  Allegany  county  the 
credit  of  being  in  advance  of  any  other  rural  county  or  state.  The  old  log 
schoolhouses  have  been  replaced  with  magnificent  structures  furnished  with 
all  the  modern  equipage.  The  school  year  has  been  materially  lengthened. 
The  telegraph  has  been  extended  from  one  short  line  from  Baltimore  to 
Washington.  30  miles,  in  1844,  to  100,000  miles  in  1892,  affording  instantaneous 
communication  with  the  whole  civilized  world.  We  have  a  telephone  in 
every  business  place.  Electricity  is  furnishing  motor  power  for  machinery 
as  weU  as  propeUing  our  street  cars  and  lighting  our  cities  and  towns.  Rail- 
roads have  increased  in  the  United  States  from  about  1,000  miles  to  216,149 
miles  in  the  last  48  years.  Rapid  strides  are  being  made  by  the  manufactur- 
ing interests  of  the  country,  one  man  of  to-day  doing  the  work  of  100  men  of 
forty  years  ago. 

The  first  apportionments  of  school  moneys  to  the  county  from  the  state 
were:  1813,  $58.86;  1815,  $100.33;  1816,  $190.98.  The  county  clerk's  office 
has  been  searched  without  avail  for  any  evidence  of  its  receipt  or  distribu- 
tion, and  only  when  the  treasurer's  records  were  examined  was  a  voucher 
found  under  this  head:  "March  1st,  1816,  Moses  Van  Campen,  treasurer 
of  the  county  of  Allegany,  in  account  current  with  Allegany  county,  N.  Y., 
under  the  common  school  account.  Dr.  to  New  York  draft  on  state  treas- 
urer of  this  date  for  quota  of  school  fund  for  1816  appropriated  by  the  clerk 
of  the  board  as  follows:  Alfred,  $26.52;  Angelica,  |32.14;  Caneadea,  0000; 
Rushford,  $53.52;  Friendship,  0000;  Nunda,  $63.16;  Ossian,  $15.64;  total 
$190.98."  I  have  exhausted  in  vain  all  means  to  obtain  the  first  appropria- 
tion, besides  conferring  with  state  treasurer,  secretary  of  state,  comptroller 
and  superintendent  of  public  instruction.  From  these  I  have  received 
answers  as  follows: 

State  of  New  York,  ) 

Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  • 

Superintendent's  office.      ) 

Albany,  N.  Y.,  May  lo,  1895. 
S.  A.  Earley,  Esq., 

Wellsville,  Allegany  Co..  N.  Y. 
Dear  Sir: — Replying  to  your  letter  of  the  loth  inst.,  the  following  information  requested 
is  respectfully  submitted.  The  date  and  the  amount  of  the  first  apportionment  of  school  money 
to  Allegany  county  since  the  establishment  of  this  department  in  1854,  was  in  January,  1855, 
when  there  was  apportioned  for  teachers'  wages  $17,108.28  and  for  libraries  $679.84,  making 
a  total  of  $17,788.12.  based  upon  reports  made  for  the  preceding  school  year  which  ended  July 

168  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

I,  1854.  The  whole  number  of  log  schoolhouses  in  the  state  as  reported  to  ihis  depaninent  for 
1894,  was  31.  The  whole  number  of  children  of  school  age  1,932,325.  The  whole  number 
attendmg  school  1,124,998.  The  average  daily  attendance  721,063,  and  the  whole  number  of 
teachers  employed  32.929.  The  estimated  per  cent  of  increase  cannot  be  given  as  no  reports 
have  been  made  to  the  department  since  the  Compulsory  Act  went  into  effect  on  the  first  of 
January  last.  Respectfully  yours,        Charles  R.  Skinner,  State  Superindendent. 

The  State  Treasurer's  office  under  date  of  May  23,  1895,  writes,  "The 
apportionment  of  school  moneys  of  the  date  that  you  seek  is,  as  I  think,  a 
record  of  the  comptroller's  department  only.  Would  suggest  that  you 
write  to  that  office  for  information."  The  Secretary  of  State's  office  under 
same  date,  writes:  "  In  answer  to  your  communication  of  the  ^Ist  instant, 
I  regret  to  inform  you  that  I  am  unable  to  comply  with  your  request,  as  the 
Secretary  of  State  has  not  the  information  asked  for  at  his  disposal.  The 
Superintendents  of  Public  Instruction  or  Regents  of  Universities  should 
have  the  record  desired. " 

Only  five  of  the  seven  towns  receiving  the  1816  school  money  are  now  in 
Allegany  county.  The  whole  money  charged  to  the  treasurer  was  $1,070.59 
for  all  purposes.  The  total  amount  collected  and  paid  by  the  state  in  1815 
for  all  school  purposes  was  $104,099.  The  first  act  establishing  free  schools 
was  passed  in  1812.  The  first  superintendent  of  common  schools  was  Gideon 
Hawley  of  Saratoga  appointed  in  1813,  who  rendered  great  service  to  the 
state  and  declared  the  first  distribution  of  public  money  in  1813.  After  a 
time  the  office  of  state  superintendent  was  abolished  and  the  secretary  of 
state  performed  the  duties.  In  1829  a  law  was  passed  authorizing  rate  bills. 
January  15,  1833,  John  A.  Dix  was  appointed  secretary  of  state  and  had 
charge  of  the  public  schools.  He  continued  in  office  until  1839.  During  this 
time  a  certain  sum  "was  set  aside  from  the  literary  fund  for  the  several 
academies  of  the  state  to  establish  and  conduct  teachers'  classes,  that  com- 
petent teachers  might  be  furnished  to  the  several  districts  of  the  state." 
This  law  induced  many  localities  to  build  academies  and  conduct  teachers' 
classes.  In  1836  the  deposit  of  the  surplus  fund  of  the  United  States,  with 
a  sum  equal  to  this  income  which  was  to  be  raised  by  tax,  was  appropriated 
to  academies.  This  made  a  total  of  $200,000,  making  these  institutions  far 
more  efficient  for  educating  school  teachers.  In  1841  the  Legislature  passed 
an  act  providing  for  the  appointment  of  a  county  superintendent  of  common 
schools.  This  occurred  under  Spencer's  administration  as  superintendent 
of  public  instruction.  S.  S.  RandaU,  deputy  superintendent  (afterwards 
superintendent),  carried  this  law  into  effect.  In  1843  the  office  of  town 
superintendent  was  created. 

May  7,  1844,  the  act  was  passed  creating  the  first  normal  school  in  the 
state,  located  at  Albany.  $9,600  was  appropriated.  A  building  was  rented, 
and  David  P.  Page  of  Newburyport,  Mass.,  was  secured  as  principal,  who 
conducted  the  school  with  superior  ability  and  skiU  until  January  1,  1848. 
He  died,  leaving  as  his  monument  not  only  421  superior  teachers  engaged  in 
the  district  schools  of  the  state,  but  also  his  admirable  course  of  lectures  on 

Our  Public  Schools.  169 

the  Theory  and  Practice  of  Teaching  dehvered  before   the   school.     Every 
teacher  should  possess  this  book. 

In  1847  the  office  of  county  superintendent  elected  by  the  people  was 
created.  In  1847  also  a  law  passed  authorizing  the  organization  of  teachers' 
institutes  on  application  of  a  majority  of  town  superintendents  of  any  county 
in  the  state.  A  town  institute  was  held  at  Ithaca,  April  4,  1843.  Salem 
Town  and  James  Thompson  conducted  it,  and  they  were  considered  the 
prime  movers  of  the  State  Institute  in  1847.  In  1894  110  institutes  were 
held  in  the  state,  at  which  15.430  teachers  were  instructed.  Thus  the 
institutes  have  grown  from  one  town  institute  at  Ithaca  in  1843  to  110  in 

RusHFORD  Academy. — In  1851  was  raised  $2,500  to  build  the  academy 
at  Rushford,  incorporated  March  4,  1852.*  The  officers  in  charge  were: 
Board  of  Trustees:  B.  T.  Hapgood,  John  Holmes,  Israel  Thompson,  Titus 
Bartlett,  Wm.  Merryfield.  Robt.  Norton,  Jas.  Gordon,  2d,  Isaac  Stone, 
Washington  White,  Sampson  Hardy.  Chas.  Benjamin,  J.  G.  Osborne,  Oliver 
D.  Benjamin,  Wm.  Gordon.  Alonzo  H.  Damon.  President,  B.  T.  Hapgood; 
Secretary  and  Treasurer,  Robt.  Norton;  Correspoyiding  Secretary,  Dr.  Wm. 
McCall;  Librarian,  Ira  Sayles.  Board  of  Instruction:  Principal,  Ira  Sayles, 
A.  M.;  Male  assistant,  W.  W.  Bean;  Female  assistant.  Miss  E.  Frances  Post; 
Assistant  teacher  in  French,  Mrs.  S.  C.  Sayles.  This  institution  did  effec- 
tive work  and  contributed  very  much  to  the  high  standard  of  morals  of  that 
town,  and  greatly  advanced  public  education  in  northwestern  Allegany.  A 
union  school  with  5  teachers  takes  its  place  at  present.  It  was  changed 
from  an  academy  to  union  school  in  1867. 

RiCHBURG  Academy. — Erected  in  1848  at  an  expense  of  $3,000.  The 
members  of  lirst  board  of  trustees  were:  Alvan  Richardson,  Samuel  S. 
Carter,  Samuel  Sherman,  Pliny  Evans,  Hollis  Newton,  Alvan  Richardson, 
Jr.  Prof.  Bixby  and  wife,  first  instructors,  were  followed  by  Prof.  Badgley 
and  Henry  L.  Jones,  and  the  academy  is  now  succeeded  by  the  Richburg 
union  school  with  3  teachers,  jDrincipal  F.  L.  Peckham. 

Friendship  Academy. — Friendship  academy  opened  about  1848  with 
Jeremiah  Hatch  as  principal,  and  W.  D.  Renwick  assistant,  followed  by 
Prof.  Miller.  The  work  done  by  this  academy  was  of  a  high  order  and  con- 
tributed much  to  the  growth  of  the  town.  A  union  school  conducted  by 
Prof.  T.  H.  Armstrong,  principal,  with  8  assistants  supplies  its  place,  and  it 
is  second  to  none  in  the  county  for  efficient  work. 

Wellsville. — The  Wellsville  union  school  building  in  Dist.  No.  1  is  a 
magnificent  structure,  costing  about  $30,000,  and  with  all  the  equipage  of 
modern  times.  Twelve  teachers  are  employed.  Prof.  Craig  being  principal. 
He  is  assisted  by  a  corps  of  teachers  second  to  none  in  the  county.  All 
have  combined  to  elevate  this  school  to  its  high  standard  of  usefulness. 
Prof.  C.  M.  Harding  conducted  this  school  for  a  number  of  years,  and  to  his 
genial  nature,  deportment,  energy  and  personal  magnetism  is  largely  due 

*  The  building:  was  built  in  1851  at  an  expense  in  all  of  nearly  $5,000.  — j.  s.  M. 

170  History  of  Allegany  County,  N   Y. 

its  success.  Prof.  J.  M.  Reed,  of  Wells ville  union  school  No.  2,  and  his 
assistants  are  doing  creditable  work  and  building  up  the  school. 

Some  of  the  teachers  of  note  have  been:  W.  D.  Renwick,  of  Friendship, 
commenced  teaching  in  1846  for  $13  per  month  at  Haskell  Flats  and  boarded 
with  the  scholars.  He  taught  at  Portville,  Cattaraugus  county,  and  at 
Friendshij)  for  $30  per  month  as  assistant  principal  of  Friendship  academy 
in  1851,  and  there  received  a  state  certificate.  He  taught  at  Belmont  from 
1859  to  1861;  conducted  a  school  at  Scio  in  the  new  house  two  years  with 
success  and  satisfaction  to  all.  Elected  school  commissioner  in  1863  he 
served  to  1866,  and  was  re-elected  in  1872.  This  position  he  filled  with  honor 
to  himself  and  profit  to  the  people.  In  aU  his  work  he  was  energetic, 
thorough,  original  and  practical.  He  has  taught  72  terms  in  all,  including 
several  terms  of  select  schools.  Mrs.  Abigail  A.  (Maxson)  Allen  was  the 
first  woman  in  this  county  that  demanded  and  received  adequate  pay  for 
teaching.  In  1814  she  demanded  |20  per  month  and  received  it.  Jonathan 
AUen,  afterwards  her  husband,  received  at  the  same  time  $15  per  month. 
Washington  Steenrod,  Steven  Wilson,  Hiram  Wilson,  Davis  Browning,  Shel- 
don Stanton,  Edward  Wightman.  Cyrus  Cotton.  Sr..  Francis  Norton,  the 
late  Judge  Green,  Miss  Lucy  Willard,  Sally  Simons,  Elmira  Allen,  Robert 
Reed,  Randall  Reed  (afterwards  doctor)  were  of  our  best  teachers.  Among 
later  teachers  mention  should  be  made  of  Prof.  Mills,  one  of  our  best  teach- 
ers. He  is  now  teaching  in  the  Geneseo  Normal  school,  with  credit  to  the 
institution.  Prof.  Water  bury  served  long  and  well  in  the  county  and  in  the 
same  normal  school.  Prof.  Crissey  of  Belmont  union  school  did  excellent 
work  in  that  school.  Its  present  high  standing  is  in  a  great  measure  due 
to  his  personal  efforts.  Prof.  Armstrong  of  Friendship  is  doing  superior 
work.  The  institution  is  worthy  of  the  patronage  it  receives.  Prof.  A.  J. 
Glennie  of  Bolivar  is  doing  well  and  is  esteemed  by  all  connected  with  the 
school.  The  veteran  teacher  Prof.  A.  D.  Howe  has  conducted  the  Whites- 
viUe  union  school  with  great  abihty  for  a  number  of  years. 

There  are  now  in  existence  13  union  schools  in  this  county  with  77  teach- 
ers as  follows:  Alfred  4,  Andover  6,  Wellsville  No.  1,  12,  Wellsville  No  2,  3, 
Belfast  5,  Whitesville  3,  Belmont  7,  Friendship  9.  Cuba  8,  Bolivar  7,  Rich- 
burg  3,  Canaseraga  5,  Rushford  5.  The  number  of  teachers  employed  in 
teaching  at  the  same  time  in  1894  was  330.  The  result  of  the  teachers'  ex- 
amination for  the  year  ending  March,  1895,  in  2  districts  of  Allegany  county 
is  as  follows:  June,  60  examined,  20  passed;  August,  85  examined,  29 
passed;  September,  38  examined,  18  passed;  October.  83  examined,  32 
passed;  January,  105  examined,  14  3d  grade,  13  2d  grade;  March.  74  ex- 
amined, 21  3d  grade,  13  2d  grade,  1  1st  grade;  April,  45  examined,  12  1st 
grade,  4  3d  grade,  2  2d  grade.  Eight  first-grade  certificates  have  been 
granted  since  1890,  356  second  grade,  and  403  third  grade. 

The  state  "  compulsory  attendance  "  act  took  effect  January  1,  1895.  In 
May  I  endeavored  to  ascertain  its  effect,  and  wrote  to  the  principals  of  the 
various  union  schools  for  the  approximate  increase  in  attendance.  I  received 

Our  Public  Schools.  171 

ten  answers  from  whicli  I  quote.  Prof.  Craig  of  Wellsville  No.  1,  said,  "no 
change."  Prof.  B.  B.  Brown  of  Andover  said  "about  three  per  cent." 
Prof.  A.  Hebding  of  Alfred  says  '  •  no  noticeable  increase  with  the  exception 
of  two  boys  who  liked  to  play  truant."  Prof.  A.  D.  Howe  of  Whitesville  says 
"attendance  since  January  1st  has  increased  about  two  per  cent.  I  do  not 
knov/  as  the  law  caused  it."  Prof.  J.  Crissey  of  Belmont  wrote,  "the  com- 
pulsory education  law  has  probably  increased  the  attendance  here  ten  per 
cent."  Prof.  P.  L.  Peckham,  Richburg.  writes,  "my  school  has  increased 
in  numbers  but  a  very  little,  because  the  law  has  not  been  enforced  as  it 
should  have  been."  Prof.  T.  H.  Armstrong,  Friendship,  says  "probably 
from  one  to  two  per  cent."  Prof.  H.  A.  Adams  of  Canaseraga  writes  "no 
perceiDtible  increase. "  Prof.  P.  W.  Gray.  Belfast,  says  "increase  onlj^  one 
and  three-fifths  par  cent."  Prof.  J.  M.  Reed,  Brooklyn  Union  School  (No. 
2),  Wellsville,  "  In  a  total  registration  of  152  there  is  an  increase  of  ten.  A 
marked  result  of  the  law  has  been  increased  regularity  of  attendance  of  for- 
mer irregular  scholars.  Another  result  has  been  the  strengthening  of  the 
teacher's  authority  in  making  the  pupils  to  resjiect  the  office  of  teachers." 
The  school  money  appropriated  in  1895  to  the  county,  was: 

Commissioner  District  No.   i $  18,440.58 

Commissioner  District  No.  2 ; 22,053.89 —   $  40,494.47 

District  No.  i,  collected  by  tax 21,372.79 

District  No.  2,  collected  by  tax 43, 707. 77 —        65,080. 56 

Total  for  common  schools $105,575.03 

Literary  Fund 15,983.99 

Total  for  all  purposes $121,559.02 

The  number  of  teachers  teaching  at  the  same  time  was  333.  Number 
of  children  of  school  age  11,997.  Number  of  children  in  the  school  some 
time  during  the  year  9,649.  Not  in  school  at  all  2,348.  Average  attendance 
6.097,  less  than  51  per  cent. 

There  are  two  parochial  schools  in  the  county,  both  in  Wellsville.  The 
Roman  Catholic  school  with  three  teachers  under  the  supervision  of  Sister 
Borgia,  has  180  scholars.  The  German  American  Lutheran  school  has  103 
enrolled  pupils,  from  six  to  fourteen  years  of  age.  The  English  branches 
taught  are  reading,  si)elling,  penmanship,  arithmetic,  geography.  United 
States  history.  Prof.  H.  A.  Laewen  is  principal.  Miss  Ottilie  Sievers  and 
Rev.  George  Buch  assistants. 

The  cost  of  the  eleven  State  Normal  Schools  for  1894  was  >t^352, 190.33. 
The  contrast  of  distribution  is  great  between  1816  and  1895.  In  1816  only 
1112.18  came  to  what  is  now  Allegany,  if78.80  going  to  Nunda  and  Ossian. 
The  county  collected  an  equal  sum,  which  made  a  total  of  JS224.36.  In  1895 
the  total  is  $105,575.03,  and,  including  the  literary  fund,  §121,559.02.  The 
32.000  teachers  now  engaged  in  teaching  in  the  state  are  paid  §11.000.880. 
The  training  classes  number  100,  and  cost  §217.740.  This  county  has  teach- 
ers' training  classes  at  Alfred  University,  at  the  Genesee  Valley  Seminary 
and  Union  School,  at  Wilsons  Academy  Angelica,  at  Belmont  Union  School, 
at  Friendship  Union  School,  and  at  Wellsville,  costing  the  state  §1,829. 

172  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Upon  the  whole  we  now  have  as  good  a  class  of  teachers  as  any  county 
in  the  state;  the  union  schools  are  well  supplied  with  normal  teachers,  yet 
we  have  some  imi:)erfections,  and,  even  at  the  expense  of  criticism,  I  will 
say  that  we  have  too  much  crowding  for  regent's  examination  and  too  little 
concentration;  too  much  Greek  before  the  foundation  is  substantially  laid 
for  a  good  English  American  business  education.  Develop  the  whole  man 
symmetrically,  and  the  whole  structure  will  be  as  enduring  as  the  rock  of 
ages.  Embellish  and  beautify  the  fabric  as  much  as  you  please,  but  do  not 
neglect  the  foundation.  This  beautiful  structure  of  ours,  our  system  of 
education,  must  be  adjusted  by  skilled  workmen,  or  the  whole  fabric  may 
be  impaired.  Like  a  beautiful  bouquet  of  flowers,  the  imperfections  must  be 
removed  by  a  competent  and  delicate  hand,  or  the  beauty  of  the  whole  will 
be  destroyed.  While  our  public  schools  formerly  instructed  about  68  per 
cent,  of  the  children  of  school  age,  the  average  attendance  of  the  state  now 
is  only  about  58  per  cent,  of  its  2,000,000  children.  If  the  decrease  contin- 
ues it  will  not  be  long  until  more  than  one-half  of  the  children  of  school  age 
will  be  educated  in  private  schools  or  in  the  streets.  We  may  excuse  it  as 
we  will,  yet  the  stubborn  fact  exists  and  calls  for  remedy;  our  compulsory 
educational  law  alone  will  not  do  away  with  it.  Notwithstanding  the  normal 
schools  of  this  state  have  increased  in  number  from  1  to  11,  and  our  colleges 
to  15  or  16,  and  with  all  our  academies  and  a  graded  school  in  every  hamlet, 
yet  about  42  per  cent,  of  the  children  of  school  age  are  now  out  of  school. 
I  think  we  have  in  the  United  States  197  normal  schools,  with  about  45,000 
pupils,  and  only  about  6,000  who  are  taking  a  business  course  and  4,000  a 
special  course.  We  must  make  one  grand  effort  to  win  back  the  pupils  of 
the  private  schools  and  gather  in  the  non-attendants  from  the  highways  and 
byways.  If  we  are  good  teachers  to-day,  let  us  be  better  to-morrow.  We 
live  in  an  age  of  unparalleled  development.  Industrial  schools  are  to  be 
established  aU  over  this  land  with  competent  instructors  who  will  receive 
large  salaries.  Will  you  be  of  their  number?  There  is  no  such  thing  as  a 
state  of  rest  in  this  work.     You  are  advancing  or  retrograding. 

In  conclusion  I  will  say,  let  us  continue  to  labor,  earnestly  incessantly 
and  honestly.  "Whatsoever  our  hands  find  to  do,  do  it  with  our  might." 
"Rest  not,  haste  not,''  advance  all  along  the  line,  allow  no  subject  to  lose  its 
place  for  another,  but  keep  each  in  its  proper  j)lace  until  every  American 
son  and  daughter  shall  have  a  good  American  Business  Education.  Run 
the  whole  race  and  run  so  that  we  may  win.  You  must  not  allow  yourselves 
to  stumble  over  some  Greek  roots  and  fall  by  the  way.  When  it  shall  be 
ours  to  join  the  silent  majority,  may  those  who  are  left  behind  cry  out  with 
one  voice:  "'Well  done,  good  and  faithful  servant.'  You  have  done  your 
duty  according  to  the  abihty  given,  the  world  is  the  better  for  you  having 
lived  in  it,"  and  as  we  cross  the  Mystic  River,  we  shaU  see  upon  the  other 
side  those  who  have  gone  before  beckoning  us  on.  Yes,  they  will  be  the 
first  to  take  us  by  the  hand  and  welcome  us. 

Alfred  University.  173 



BY    REV.    LEWIS    A.    PLATTS,      L).    D. 


vj  GREATNESS  THRUST  UPON  THEM."  The  first  two  members  of  this 
aphorism  strikingly  describe  the  manner  by  which  the  great  institiitions  of 
learning  in  this  country  have  become  what  they  are.  A  few  among  the 
newer  ones,  like  Cornell  in  New  York,  Leland  Stanford  in  California,  and 
the  Chicago  University,  are  constituted  great;  the  vast  gifts  of  money  by 
which  they  are  founded  giving  them  buildings,  appliances  and  faculties 
which  enable  them  to  organize  departments  and  open  classes  at  full  size  and 
strength,  at  the  very  beginning.  They  are  born  great.  Others,  like  Yale, 
Harvard,  Columbia,  etc.,  were  content  to  begin  in  a  humbler  way,  and  multi- 
ply facilities  and  strengthen  faculties  as  the  demands  of  patrons  made  these 
things  necessary  and  funds  in  the  hands  of  trustees  made  them  possible. 
They  have  attained  greatness.  But  the  majority  of  men,  even  of  those  filling 
important  places  and  doing  honorable  work  in  the  world,  are  in  no  sense 
great.  In  like  manner  the  hosts  of  institutions  which  bless  our  state  and 
nation  are  in  no  sense  great,  save  as,  in  spite  of  the  poverty  of  their 
resources,  they  have  trained,  inspired  and  fitted  for  honorable  and  useful 
work  multitudes  of  men  and  women. 

It  is  cause  for  congratulation  that,  comparatively  early  in  the  century 
which  has  marked  the  settlement  and  growth  of  Allegany  county,  one  of 
these  humbler  institutions  of  higher  learning  found  its  home  in  the  primeval 
forests  that  covered  our  hiUs  and  valleys.  Alfred  University  was  the  off- 
spring of  that  sturdy  valor  which  made  homes  out  of  wild  wastes,  and  which, 
while  felling  forests  and  building  homes,  longed  for  that  mastery  of  mind 
and  heart  which  makes  men  and  women.  Many  of  the  people  who  settled  in 
and  about  Alfred  came  directly,  and  others  by  only  one  or  two  removes,  from 
homes  of  culture  in  New  England,  and  they  were  not  content  to  rear  their 
children  with  no  better  opportunities  for  an  education  than  were  afforded 
by  the  meager  common  schools  of  that  early  day.  One  of  the  first  efforts  in 
the  direction  of  a  better  training  was  the  organizing  in  1834  or  5  of  an  even- 
ing school  for  the  purpose  of  teaching  the  rudiments  of  vocal  music.  The 
organizer  and  teacher  of  this  school  was  Maxson  Stillman.  who  still  lives  in 
Alfred,  having  reached  his  9Gth  year.  A  little  later,  when  the  academy  was 
organized,  and,  later  still,  when  the  university  organi2;ation  was  effected,  Mr. 
Stillman  was  made  a  trustee,  in  which  capacity  he  served  until  the  annual 
meeting  in  1893. 

In  1836,  Bethuel  C.  Church,  a  young  man  who  had  enjoyed  better  educa- 
tional advantages  than  most  young  men  of  his  time,  organized  and  taught,  in 

174  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

the  chamber  of  a  dweUing-house,  a  select  school.  Among  the  pupils  in  this 
school,  and  the  youngest  of  the  number,  was  Jonathan  Allen,  a  man  since 
become  famous  in  the  annals  of  Alfred  University.  During  the  next  two  or 
three  years,  this  school  began  to  be  called  an  academy;  of  which  James  R. 
Irish,  a  student  from  Union  College  at  Schenectady,  N.  Y.,  was  principal. 
Mr.  Irish  was  also  a  minister  of  the  gospel,  and  the  pastor  of  the  church  in 
the  village.  Finding  the  work  of  both  school  and  church  too  great  for  him, 
and  preferring  to  continue  in  the  latter,  he  wrote  to  a  fellow  student  at  Union 
College,  and  besought  him  to  come  to  Alfred  ^nd  take  charge  of  the  young 
and  promising  academy.  In  the  summer  of  1839  he  came,  making  the 
journey  to  Dansville  by  canal  packet,  and  the  remainder  of  the  distance  on 
foot,  much  of  the  way  through  unbroken  forests.  Thus  was  introduced  to 
the  scenes  of  his  future  life  work.  Prof.  William  C.  Kenyon.  He  was  a  man 
of  slight,  nervous  body,  bright,  keen  intellect,  and  an  indomitable  will.  For 
the  student  of  honest  endeavor,  however  dull,  he  had  large  patience  and 
helpfulness.  But  he  hated  shams  and  pretences;  and  woe  betide  the  student 
who  tried  to  shirk  his  duties. 

Prof.  Kenyon  began  at  once  to  call  in  students.  He  gave  lectures  about 
the  county  on  the  subject  of  education,  showing  its  importance  in  the  various 
walks  of  life,  awakening  in  the  minds  and  hearts  of  young  people  a  desire 
for  learning  and  urging  parents  to  give  their  children  an  education  as  the 
best  outfit  for  life's  w^ork.  Wherever  he  went  there  was  an  educational 
revival.  With  his  profound  convictions,  ardent  nature  and  unbounded 
"genius  for  hard  work,''  it  could  not  have  been  otherwise.  He  visited 
families  for  similar  purposes  and  with  similar  results.  Students  came  to 
the  academy,  came  fired  with  noble  ambitions,  came  from  homes  meagerly 
furnished  with  even  the  comforts  of  life.  In  some  cases  the  boys  and  girls 
were  sorely  needed  at  home  to  help  develop  the  farm  and  sujjport  the  family. 
In  many  cases  all  that  the  parents  could  do  was  to  let  the  children  go.  If 
they  gave  them  their  time,  and  perhaps  a  change  of  clothing,  the  boys  and 
girls  must  do  the  rest.  A  young  man  in  New  England  wrote  to  Professor 
Kenyon,  asking  if  there  were  any  way  at  Alfred  by  which  a  boy  not  afraid  of 
hard  work,  fired  with  an  ambition  for  an  education,  but  almost  penniless, 
could  take  a  course  of  study.  Professor  Kenyon  replied  by  return  mail: 
"Come  on,  young  man.  There  is  room  here  for  lots  of  just  such  boys  as 
you. "  He  came  and  worked  his  way  through  the  entire  course.  That  young 
man  was  Darwin  E.  Maxson.  subsequently  well  known  as  a  working  factor 
in  Alfred,  and  throughout  the  county.  That  quick,  warm  sympathy  of 
Professor  Kenyon  with  poor,  but  ambitious  young  people,  has  been  a  char- 
acteristic feature  of  this  institution.  Hundreds  of  young  people  have, 
through  this,  been  helped  in  gaining  an  education,  and  through  it  have 
gained  power  for  usefulness  in  the  world,  who  would  never  have  arisen  above 
the  common  level  but  for  such  timely  sympathy  and  aid. 

Though  thus  begun  in  1836,  the  formal  act  of  incorporation  and  organi- 
zation as  an  academy  did  not  take  place  until  Jan.  31,  1843.     In  June,  1844. 



Dedicated  October,  1882.  Cost  $28,000. 

Containing  University  Library  Reading  Room,  Lecture  Room,  Art  Room, 

Departments  of  Natural  History  and  Industrial  Mechanics. 

176  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

the  academy  graduated  its  first  class,  consisting  of  20 — eleven  gentlemen 
and  nine  ladies.  At  the  head  of  this  list  we  again  find  the  name  of  Jonathan 
Allen.  In  the  same  list,  also,  are  the  names  of  three  other  men  who  have 
since  been  professors  in  the  school:  Ira  Sayles,  Daniel  D.  Pickett,  and 
Gurdon  Evans.  Among  the  ladies  are  those  who  are  best  known  as  the 
wives  of  Professors  Kenyon,  Allen  and  Sayles. 

During  the  second  year  of  the  select  school  it  moved  out  of  the  chamber- 
room  into  a  small  frame  building  erected  by  the  people  of  Alfred  in  the  cen- 
tral part  of  the  village  for  its  better  accommodation.  Between  1840  and 
1850  the  grounds  were  procured  on  the  western  slope  of  the  hill  in  the  south- 
eastern part  of  the  village,  which  now  constitute  the  upper  part  of  the  Uni- 
versity campus,  and  three  commodious  buildings  were  erected.  These  were 
the  Middle  Building,  which  furnished  homes  for  the  families  of  several  of 
the  professors,  and  contained  the  general  boarding  hall,  in  the  later  years 
the  home  of  President  Allen.  The  second  was  the  North  Hall,  used 
chiefiy  as  a  dormitory  for  the  gentlemen;  since  sold  to  the  trustees  of  the 
village  public- school,  and,  after  some  years  of  service  in  that  capacity,  sold 
to  a  private  party  and  fitted  up  for  a  hotel.  Near  the  original  site  of  this 
building  now  stands  the  Steinheim.  The  third  of  these  buildings  was  the 
South  Hall,  used  mainly  as  a  dormitory  for  ladies.  This  building  was 
burned  in  1858,  and  upon  its  site  has  since  been  erected  the  astronomical 
observatory  now  in  use.  A  fourth  building,  the  Chapel,  was  erected  near 
these  in  1852.  This  still  stands,  containing  Chapel  Hall,  the  office,  reci- 
tation rooms,  and  the  young  men's  lyceum  rooms. 

To  acquire  these  grounds,  erect  and  equip  these  buildings,  while  pro- 
viding instruction  for  all  the  various  departments  of  such  a  school,  pay 
teachers'  salaries,  current  expenses,  etc.,  with  no  wealthy  patrons,  no 
endowments,  and  tuitions  adjusted  to  the  possibilities  of  students  largely 
dependent  upon  their  own  resources  for  their  education,  was  a  task  which 
would  have  appalled  hearts  less  brave  and  determined  than  those  who  had 
given  themselves  to  this  noble  work.  $10,000  had  been  borrowed  to  pur- 
chase the  grounds  and  to  begin  the  work  of  building,  and  the  citizens  of 
Alfred  and  vicinity  and  other  friends  of  the  work  had  done  what  they  could, 
some  in  "  day's  works,"  some  in  material,  and  some  in  money  to  aid  in  the 
erection  of  'the  buildings.  It  was,  however,  still  a  work  of  self-sacrifice  on 
the  part  of  those  engaged  in  the  management  and  instructional  work  of  the 
school  to  keep  the  machinery  running  and  avoid  further  debt. 

It  was  during  this  rapidly  growing  period  that  the  seven  professors, 
then  engaged  in  the  school,  entered  into  a  voluntary  contract  with  each  other 
that  they  would  remain  with  the  institution  for  a  period  of  seven  years,  and 
that  no  one  of  them  should  receive  from  the  institution  as  compensation  for 
his  labor  anything  more  than  barely  enough  to  meet  the  actual  necessities 
of  himself  and  family  for  food,  clothing  and  shelter.  It  was  further  agreed 
that  each  one  should  keep  a  strict  account  of  all  that  he  received,  and  at  the 
end  of  the  seven  years,  if  there  should  be  any  "  surplus  "  it  should  be  divided 

Alfred  University.  177 

among  them  in  an  inverse  proportion  to  the  amount  which  each  should  have 
already  received.  One  of  the  seven  gave  up  the  contract  at  the  end  of  the 
fifth  year,  another  at  the  end  of  the  sixth,  the  other  five  completed  it.  One 
of  the  seven  distinctly  remembers  that  his  receipts  for  some  years  were  less 
than  ?t^800,  and  it  is  safe  to  estimate  that  the  average  income  of  the  several 
parties  to  the  contract  for  the  entire  period  was  not  much,  if  any,  above  that 
amount.  Whether  any  of  them  were  made  rich  by  the  final  distribution  of 
the  *' surplus  "  the  records  fail  to  show.  During  this  period  they  gave  a 
mighty  impetus  to  the  school,  and  sent  out  as  graduates  more  than  100 
young  men  and  w^omen  well  trained  for  life's  work,  besides  giving  help  and 
inspiration  to  a  much  larger  number,  who,  for  various  causes,  could  not 
complete  the  full  course.  It  will  be  worth  while  to  pass  the  names  of  this 
unique  covenant-band  down  to  future  generations.  They  are  Principal 
William  C.  Kenyon.  and  Professors  Jonathan  Allen,  Darwin  E.  Maxson, 
Darius  R.  Ford,  Daniel  D.  Pickett,  James  Marvin  and  Ira  Sayles.  In  the 
catalogues  of  this  time,  after  the  name  of  Professor  Kenyon  as  principal,  the 
names  of  all  the  others  appear  as  "  associate  principals;  "  showing  that,  not 
only  in  the  matter  of  compensation,  but  in  the  matter  of  work  and  respon- 
sibility, they  were  disposed,  as  far  as  possible,  to  share  equally  the  burdens. 

About  the  time  of  the  building  of  the  chapel  there  began  to  be  a  strong 
feeling  among  the  friends  and  patrons  of  the  school,  as  well  as  on  the  part 
of  those  having  the  work  in  charge,  that  the  institution  must  assume  the 
powers  and  responsibilities  of  a  college  if  it  would  fill  successfully  the  place 
in  the  educational  system  of  the  state  which  the  good  work  already  done  had 
made  for  it.  Almost  simultaneously  with  the  growth  of  this  feeling,  the  Sev- 
enth-day Baptists,  under  whose  labors  and  management,  largely,  the  school 
had  been  established  and  maintained,  were  coming  to  the  conviction  that 
they  must  found  and  maintain,  at  some  convenient  and  suitable  place,  a 
seminary  for  theological  instruction  and  training.  After  due  deliberation, 
Alfred  was  chosen  as  the  place  at  which  to  locate  the  seminary.  Thus  it 
was  that  the  applications  for  a  college  charter  and  for  a  seminary  organization 
were  presented  to  the  Legislature  at  Albany  by  the  same  jDarties  and  at  the 
same  time. 

Under  these  circumstances,  and  by  advice  of  the  state  officials,  a  uni- 
versity charter  was  drawn  up,  by  the  provisions  of  which,  under  the  same 
board  of  management,  the  academic  work  could  be  continued,  the  work  of 
the  coUege  could  be  assumed,  and  the  seminary  privileges  could  be  enjoyed. 
The  bill  granting  such  a  charter  passed  both  branches  of  the  Legislature 
and  received  the  signature  of  Governor  King,  March  28,  1858,  and,  on  the 
14th  of  April  the  University  was  organized  by  the  appointment  of  the.  re- 
quired board  of  trustees.  William  C.  Kenyon,  principal  of  the  academy, 
was  unanimously  chosen  president,  and  the  faculty  of  the  academy  were  also 
made  professors  in  the  college  department  with  several  "adjunct  profes- 
sors" and  teachers.  The  old  academic  organiziation  was  kept  up  until  its 
property  and  general  business  matters  could  be  transferred  to  the  new 

178  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

organization,  when  it  ex|)ired,  having  finished,  its  work  as  a  separate  organ- 
ization. The  Theological  Department  was  organized  a  little  later,  and  com- 
plete courses  in  Music,  Art,  Industrial  Mechanics  and  Business  have  since 
been  established,  the  last  having  been  discontinued. 

Professor  Kenyon  continued  in  the  active  work  of  the  presidency  until 
1865,  when  failing  health  comj^elled  him  to  ask  for  a  vacation  in  the  hope  of 
regaining  strength  for  the  work  he  so  much  loved.  In  the  mean  time  his 
first  wife.  Melissa  Ward,  "  Mother  Kenyon,"  as  the  students  affectionately 
caUed  her,  had  died,  and  President  Kenyon  had  married  Mrs.  Ida  P.  Sallan 
Long.  After  passing  some  months  traveling  in  Missouri  and  other  parts 
of  this  country  they  went  to  England  and  the  Continent;  but,  failing  to  find 
relief  from  his  increasing  malady,  started  homeward.  Reaching  Paris  and 
London,  he  arranged  to  spend  a  few  weeks  with  friends  in  the  latter  city. 
Here  he  grew  rapidly  worse,  and,  in  June,  1867,  his  work  being  finished,  he 
entered  into  rest,  in  the  56th  year  of  his  age.  His  body  was  brought  home 
and  buried  beside  the  remains  of  his  first  wife  in  Schenectady.  His  second 
wife,  who  survives  him,  his  faithful  attendant  in  all  his  later  labors,  and  in 
this  anxious  quest  for  health,  most  lovingly  carried  out  his  last  wishes  re- 
specting the  disposition  of  his  mortal  remains.  Mrs.  Kenyon  returned  to 
Alfred  where  she  became  Professor  of  the  Modern  Languages,  in  which 
capacity  she  labored  most  earnestly  and  successfully  until  the  close  of  the 
school  year  of  1894. 

Professor  Jonathan  Allen  was.  in  the  minds  of  the  trustees,  almost  the 
only  possible  candidate  for  the  vacant  presidency.  His  profound  and  ver- 
satile scholarship,  his  lofty  ideals,  his  catholic  spirit,  his  sympathy  with  am- 
bitious and  struggling  youth,  and  his  long  familiarity  with  the  peculiar  mis- 
sion and  work  of  the  University,  together  with  his  self-sacrificing  spirit  in 
its  behalf,  combined  to  qualify  him  in  an  eminent  degree  for  the  position. 
He  was  accordingly  unanimously  called  to  it.  Greatly  as  he  longed  for  re- 
lease from  responsibility  and  care  in  order  that  he  might  devote  himself  to 
uninterrupted  study,  he  accepted  the  greater  responsibility  and  care.  For 
twenty-five  years  he  performed  the  duties  of  his  holy  office  with  such  fidelity 
and  success  as  proved  that  the  trustees  made  no  mistake  when  they  threw 
the  mantle  which  fell  from  the  ascending  Kenyon  upon  his  broad  and  manly 
shoulders.  During  several  years  before  the  end  came,  it  was  manifest  that 
President  Allen  was  failing  in  health,  but  he  finished  the  work  of  the  school 
year  ending  June,  1892.  At  the  opening  of  the  fall  term  he  was  not  able  to 
resume  his  duties,  and  September  21st  of  that  year  he  died,  at  70  years  of 
age.  In  accordance  with  his  well-known  wish  his  body  was  cremated  and 
his  ashes  were  placed  in  an  old  Greek  vase,  a  choice  relic  in  the  Steinheim, 
and  so  laid  away  among  the  classic  remains  of  the  long  ages  agone,  among 
which  he  had  found  so  great  delight. 

After  prolonged  deliberation,  the  trustees  gave  a  unanimous  call  to  the 
Rev.  A.  E.  Main  of  Ashaway,  R.  I.,  to  the  vacant  presidency.  Mr.  Main  was 
a  graduate  of  Rochester  University  and  Theological  Seminary,  had  been  a 

179  Alfred  University. 

successful  pastor,  and  was  the  able  secretary  and  general  manager  of  the 
Seventh-day  Baptist  Missionary  Society- — home  and  foreign.  He  accepted 
the  call  and  entered  upon  his  work  at  the  opening  of  the  spring  term  of  1893. 
Meanwhile  the  aifairs  of  the  University  were  most  acceptably  administered 
by  Professor  A.  B.  Kenyon  as  President  «tZ  interim.  Through  a  failure  on 
the  part  of  the  trustees  and  President  Main  to  mutually  understand  each 
others'  spirit,  aims  and  methods,  this  choice  did  not  prove  so  fortunate  as 
all  had  hoped,  and  after  nearly  two  years,  it  was  deemed  best  by  both  parties 
to  dissolve  the  contract.  Accordingly.  President  Main's  resignation  was 
presented  and  accepted,  and  he  closed  his  labors  with  the  school  year  end- 
ing June  20,  1895. 

At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  trustees.  June  18.  1895,  the  Rev.  Boothe 
Colwell  Davis  was  unanimously  chosen  president.  He  accepted  the  position 
and  entered  upon  the  duties  of  the  office  at  the  opening  of  the  school  year 
beginning  September  10,  1895.  Thus  far  his  w^ork  is  most  satisfactory,  and 
gives  promise  of  continued  success  and  prosperity.  Mr.  Davis  is  still  a 
young  man,  having  large  sympathies  with  young  people,  entering,  with  the 
spirit  of  youth,  into  their  hopes  and  plans  in  a  way  to  encourage  and  help 
those  who  need  encouragement  and  help,  and  to  inspire  all  with  noble  aims 
and  lofty  ambitions.  He  graduated  from  Alfred  University  with  the  class 
of  1890,  and  after  spending  three  years  at  Yale  University,  partly  in  the 
divinity  school  and  partly  in  other  work,  became  the  pastor  of  the  First 
Alfred  Church,  in  which  capacity  he  continued  to  serve  until  chosen  presi- 
dent of  Alfred  University,  as  before  mentioned. 

The  limits  of  this  article  forbid  further  details  respecting  the  personal 
history  and  work  of  those  who  have  toiled  and  sacrificed  for  the  establish- 
ment and  upbuilding  of  the  school  with  devotion  equal  to  those  who  have 
been  its  chosen  leaders,  though  their  ability  and  efficiency  have  been  less 
conspicuous.  The  list,  including  both  men  and  women,  is  too  long  to  admit 
of  even  the  mention  of  their  names.  Not  fewer  than  eighty  persons,  during 
the  fifty-nine  years  of  the  institution's  history,  besides  those,  who,  from 
time  to  time,  have  been  employed  as  tutors,  have  been  on  the  faculty's  lists. 
Doctor  Thomas  R.  Williams,  who  for  21  years  devoted  himself  to  the  build- 
ing up  of  the  Theological  Department,  deserves  to  be  ranked  by  the  side  of 
the  noble  presidents  who  toiled  so  long  and  sacrificed  so  freely  for  the  inter- 
ests of  the  University.  He  was  seconded  in  this  department  by  other  able 
and  devoted  men. 

The  present  faculty  numbers  eighteen  members,  of  whom  six  are  ladies 
and  twelve  are  gentlemen.  Among  these,  four  have  been  on  the  staff  for 
more  than  20  years  each,  the  time  of  service  of  the  others  varying  from 
one  to  ten  years.  Of  the  large  number  who  have  been  professors  in  the 
University,  many  are  now  filling  similar  positions  in  other  institutions. 
Among  these  are  Professor  William  A.  Rogers,  for  ten  years  assistant  in 
the  Cambridge  Observatory,  now  professor  of  Physics  and  Astronomy  in 
Colby  University,   Waterville,  Me.;    Miss  Elvira  E.  Kenyon,   principal  of 

180  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Young  Ladies'  Seminary,  Plainfield,  N.  J.;  Professor  R.  A.  Waterbury,  of 
the  State  Normal  School  at  Geneseo;  Professor  Geo.  Scott,  professor  of 
Latin  in  Otterbein  University,  Ohio;  Professor  Alfred  A.  Titsworth,  pro- 
fessor of  Graphics  and  Mathematics,  Rutgers  College,  New  Brunswick, 
N.  J.,  and  others  who  are  equally  honored  in  the  institutions  where  they 
now  labor. 

The  graduates  and  old  students  of  the  University  are  to  be  found  in 
every  state  in  the  Union,  and  some  are  in  foreign  countries.  They  are  to 
be  found  in  all  honorable  callings.  They  are  members  of  legislatures,  state 
and  national,  supreme  court  judges,  lawyers,  ministers,  missionaries  to  for- 
eign countries,  physicians,  teachers,  merchants,  farmers,  mechanics,  etc. 
The  whole  number  of  graduates  is  over  500,  while  the  number  of  students 
receiving  instruction  for  less  than  a  full  course  is  not  less  than  10,000. 

The  present  facilities  for  the  work  of  the  University,  besides  the  grounds 
and  buildings  mentioned  in  this  article  under  the  account  of  the  academy, 
are  a  Ladies'  Boarding-hall,  with  accommodations 'for  one  hundred  students, 
built  in  1859;  the  Kenyon  Memorial  Hall,  erected  to  the  memory  of  President 
Kenyon  and  dedicated  in  1882;  a  small  frame  building  popularly  known  as 
the  "Gothic,"  bought  about  1885,  used  for  recitation  rooms,  and  the  Stein- 
heim.  In  the  Kenyon  Memorial  Hall  are  rooms  and  equipments  for  the 
department  of  Industrial  Mechanics  and  of  the  Fine  Arts — lecture  rooms, 
museums  and  work  rooms  for  the  department  of  Natural  History — the 
Library,  numbering  10,000  volumes,  and  a  reading  room  furnished  with 
current  periodical  literature,  including  the  great  dailies,  weeklies,  and 
monthly  and  quarterly  magazines  of  literature,  science  and  religion. 

The  Steinheim  is  an  unique  building  of  native  rocks  and  woods.  Of  the 
rocks  there  are  in  the  walls  of  the  building  between  seven  and  eight  thou- 
sand different  specimens,  gathered  chiefly  from  the  hills  and  brooks  in  the 
immediate  vicinity;  of  the  woods  there  are  in  the  finish  of  the  interior  sev- 
eral hundred  varieties,  both  foreign  and  native.  The  coUections  within 
number  about  30,000  specimens,  gathered  from  all  over  the  world  and  rang- 
ing through  almost  every  subject  of  interest  to  the  student  of  nature  and 

The  endowments  of  which  Alfred  University  is  now  the  beneficiary 
amount  to  about  $180,000.  These  funds  are  held  and  managed  in  part  only 
by  the  trustees,  more  than  two-thirds  of  the  sum  being  in  the  hands  of  cer- 
tain organizations  of  the  nature  of  trust  companies,  the  income  only  being 
paid  by  them  to  the  University.  Recent  donations  will  bring  the  aggregate 
up  to  about  $265,000;  of  these  later  gifts  the  school  does  not  yet  receive  the 
income.  Among  those  who  have  generously  come  to  the  assistance  of  the 
University  in  this  substantial  way  are  its  Alumni,  who,  through  an  associa- 
tion organized  in  1886,  have  undertaken  to  endow  the  chair  of  the  president. 
This  endowment  has  been  named,  in  honor  of  the  first  and  second  presidents, 
the  Kenyon-Allen  Endowment  Fund.  To  afford  all  old  students  an  oppor- 
tunity to  share  in  this  labor  of  love,  subscriptions  have  been  received  from 



Alfred  University.  181 

one  dollar  upwards,  the  entire  sum  being  now  about  $7,000.  The  value  of 
the  grounds,  buildings,  apparatus,  laboratories,  museums,  libraries  and 
other  property,  together  with  the  total  endowment,  may  be  safely  estimated 
at  $400,000.  Wliile  these  figures  are  small  when  compared  with  those  of  the 
great  universities,  they  give  assurance  of  permanence  and  increase  of 

It,  perhaps,  does  not  need  to  be  said  that  the  chief  factor  in  the  working 
force  of  Alfred  University  is  the  class-room,  with  all  that  it  implies  of  effi- 
ciency and  zeal  on  the  part  of  those  who  shape  its  work,  aided  by  all  the  facili- 
ties which  the  institution  possesses.  This  work  carries  the  student,  in 
steady  day-by-day  and  year-by-year  drill,  through  full  courses  in  Literature 
ancient  and  modern — English  and  foreign.  Mathematics,  the  Sciences,  Phi- 
losophy, the  Arts,  etc.  From  its  earliest  work  onward  the  institution  has 
exercised  scrupulous  care  for  the  bodily  health  as  well  as  for  the  intellect- 
ual training  of  its  students,  while  in  the  routine  of  daily  study  and  recita- 
tion the  students  have  been  acquiring  knowledge  and  with  it  discipline  of 
mind.  The  four  Lyceums,  which  were  early  formed  among  the  students,  have 
afforded  excellent  training  in  the  art  of  imparting  to  others  what  has  been 
acquired  by  their  weeldy  sessions  for  extemj)oraneous  debates,  the  reading 
of  original  essays  and  other  literary  exercises. 

Any  sketch  of  Alfred  University  would  be  incomplete  without  at  least  a 
brief  mention  of  the  influences  and  forces  which  help  to  shape  the  life  and 
character  of  students  outside  of  classroom  and  kindred  work.  "While  it  has 
always  been  the  aim  of  the  institution  to  keep  its  courses  of  study  up  to  the 
normal  standards  of  such  courses  in  all  first  class  institutions,  and,  while  it 
has  always  striven  to  make  its  instruction  of  the  highest  value  to  the  stu- 
dent, it  has  also  sought  to  give  them  high  ideals  of  life  and  to  inspire  them 
with  the  laudable  ambition  to  reach  the  highest  degree  of  personal  excellence. 
To  this  end,  religious  instruction,  which,  while  it  respects  the  rights  of  in- 
dividual opinions  and  conscience,  gives  dignity,  worth  and  power  to  per- 
sonal character,  has  been  imparted  in  daily  chapel  exercises,  in  religious 
services  for  and  by  the  students,  and  by  the  general  religious  atmosphere 
of  the  community.  The  voluntary  Christian  associations  among  the  students 
have  contributed  largely  to  the  creation  of  such  a  religious  atmosphere  in 
the  school,  and  has  put  the  students  in  touch  with  the  religious  life  of  stu- 
dents in  other  schools  throughout  the  state. 

Alfred  University  has  filled  an  unique  i^lace  in  the  educational  work  of 
the  state.  She  numbers  among  her  sons  and  daughters  not  only  the  hun- 
dreds who  have  won  her  diplomas,  but  also  the  thousands  who  have  entered 
her  halls  and  taken  so  much  of  the  instruction  she  had  to  impart,  of  the 
inspiration  she  could  give  during  such  lengths  of  time  as  the  necessities  of 
other  labor  or  the  pinchings  of  poverty  would  permit  them  to  stay.  Her 
blessings  have  followed  them  to  the  ends  of  the  earth.  Such  an  institution 
could  not  be  other  than  a  blessing  to  the  county,  state  and  nation  in  which 
it  is  located.     Glorying  in  her  past,  strong  in  her  present  and  confident  in 

182  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

her  future,  she  takes  her  place  among  the  factors  which,  during  the  century 
noAV  closing,  have  wrought  mightily  for  the  development,  intellectually, 
socially  and  religiously,  as  well  as  materially,  of  Allegany  county;  and  she 
takes  a  just  pride  in  the  good  work  which  Allegany's  sons  have  been  doing 
throughout  the  world,  for  Allegany's  sons,  are,  in  very  large  measure,, 
sons  of  Alfred. 

William  Colgrove  Kenyon.* — It  has  been  given  to  no  man  to  exert,, 
directly  and  indirectly,  a  greater,  or  more  far-reaching  influence  for  good 
upon  the  character  of  the  population  of  Allegany  county  and  of  Western  New 
York,  than  to  William  Colgrove  Kenyon,  founder  of  Alfred  Academy  and 
Alfred  University.  A  history  of  Allegany  county  which  should  fail  to  give 
a  record  of  his  work  and  to  convey  to  future  generations  the  lessons  and  the 
inspiration  of  his  life  and  his  work  would  be  conspicuously  defective.  The 
citizen  who  develops  the  material  resources,  who  organizes  the  commerce, 
or  makes,  or  administers  wisely,  the  laws  of  his  country  is  worthy  of  honor; 
but  he  who,  as  a  teacher,  conveys  to  his  fellowmen  the  torch  of  truth  and  by 
his  own  i3ure  life  inspires  those  with  whom  he  comes  in  contact  with  the 
love  of  truth,  kindles  a  fire,  the  effects  of  which  are  beyond  calculation,  and 
deserves  the  homage  of  all  men  as  the  instrument  of  divine  power.  It  was 
from  the  most  humble  source,  and  mainly  amid  the  most  simple  surround- 
ings, that  William  C.  Kenyon  came  and  wrought.  He  was  born  in  poverty, 
of  almost  unknown  parentage,  on  the  barren  plains  of  Richmondtown,  Rhode 
Island,  October  23,  1812.  At  the  age  of  five  years  he  was  bound  to  a  guar- 
dian and  experienced  the  severity  and  ungraciousness  then  attaching  to  the 
life  of  a  ward.  When  he  became  old  enough  he  was  "hired  out  "  summers 
to  neighboring  farmers,  and  in  winter  he  was  put  out  to  board  and  got  such 
schooling  as  he  might,  doing  "chores"  night  and  morning,  and  working 
one  day  in  a  week  for  his  board  while  attending  the  district  school.  One 
who  knew  him  when  thirteen,  wrote:  "His  form  was  slender,  slightly 
clothed,  and  his  countenance  careworn.  No  one  made  of  him  a  companion 
or  thought  of  doing  so;  he  appeared  melancholy  and  heart-stricken,  said  little 
to  any  one  and  exhibited  no  anxiety  to  engage  in  the  sports  that  delighted 
other  children.  He  was  not  a  scholar.  Books  had  no  charm  for  him.  He 
could  read  only  the  easiest  lessons,  and  utterly  failed  in  spelling.'"  At  this 
age  he  fortunately  found  a  temporary  home  in  a  Christian  family,  and  fell 
under  the  care  of  a  teacher  who  treated  him  with  kindness  and  inspired  him 
with  confidence  that  he  might  become  a  scholar.  With  new  hope  came  new 
life;  latent  abilities  and  energies  were  developed,  and  he  became  possessed 
of  a  determination  to  acquire  an  education.  If  his  intellectual  powers  were 
only  moderate,  his  habits  of  labor  and  his  relentless  will  supphed  the  deficit, 

*  By  Silas  C.  Burdick,  Esq. 

Oi-L   "It 

Alfred  University.  183 

and  the  vigorous  use  of  his  faculties  resulted  in  growth  and  strength. 
When  at  work  on  the  farm  he  kept  a  book  handy  that  all  odd  spells  might  be 
improved.  When  about  nineteen  he  bought  his  time  of  his  guardian  giving 
his  note  which  was  paid  by  funds  earned  by  teaching.  He  became  a 
machinist  and  prepared  for  college  while  working  at  this  trade.  In  1836  he 
entered  Union  College  and  paid  his  way  by  working  at  his  trade  and  by 
teaching.  Leaving  college  in  his  junior  year,  he  came  to  Alfred  in  1839  to 
become  the  principal  of  the  infant  Alfred  Academy,  where,  while  teaching, 
he  carried  his  college  studies  to  comj^letion  and  received  the  degree  of 
Master  of  Arts.  His  was  only  a  temporary  engagement  at  Alfred  as  he  had 
planned  to  give  his  life  to  foreign  mission  work;  but,  devoting  himself  to 
his  present  work,  and  surrounding  himself  with  able  assistants,  he  soon 
found  the  little  school  planted  in  an  obscure  country  community,  becoming 
one  of  the  chief  educational  institutions  of  Western  New  York.  The  plans 
of  his  life  were  changed,  and  to  found  an  academy,  a  college,  an  university, 
became  his  ambition.  To  this  work  he  gave  his  life  and  strength  without 
reserve.  A  most  rare  combination  of  qualities  made  up  the  mature  char- 
acter of  President  Kenyon,  and  assured  his  success.  Chief  among  these 
were  honesty,  sincerity  and  love  for  his  fellowmen.  While  always,  at  heart, 
as  gentle  and  playful  as  a  child,  he  was  most  intensely  in  earnest,  and  his 
personal  magnetism  made  him  a  natural  master.  Promi^t  and  energetic  in 
all  his  ways,  he  set  things  astir  and  awakened  new  life,  often  sharp  opj^osi- 
tion,  wherever  he  went.  To  dullness  and  laziness  and  all  dishonesty  and 
shiftlessness  he  was  a  bitter  foe.  No  delinquent  failed  to  receive  a  prompt 
and  stinging  rebuke;  but  the  shaft  always  lodged  in  the  fault;  the  unmis- 
takable honesty  and  faithfulness  of  the  motive  carried  healing  to  the 
wounded  spirit,  and  the  sufferer  was  sure  to  be  greeted  with  a  polite  touch 
of  the  hat  and  a  cordial  recognition  at  the  next  meeting.  Though  radical 
and  uncompromising  in  his  own  views,  the  fullest  freedom  of  opinion  was 
accorded  to  others.  Though  polished  and  urbane  in  his  bearing,  the  uncouth 
rustic  was  always  put  at  ease  in  his  presence  and  made  to  feel  himself  a 
peer.  No  one  could  live  near  him  and  retain  a  sense  of  inherent  degradation 
in  labor,  for  to  work  early  and  late  to  the  full  limit  of  his  ability  was  the  law 
of  his  life.  Alfred  was  always  the  school  of  the  poor.  Its  doors  have  stood 
wide  open  to  any  and  all  who  had  the  ability  and  disposition  to  work  their 
way.  So  President  Kenyon,  from  beginning  to  end,  waged  a  fierce  battle 
with  financial  difficulties.  His  own  necessities  were  always  the  last  to  be 
provided  for.  He  desired  and  expected  to  spend  his  days  and  to  die  in  the 
harness.  Though  often  invited  to  other  fields  of  labor  affording  larger 
financial  remuneration,  he  chose  to  hold  to  the  work  he  had  undertaken,  and 
seemed  to  take  no  thought  of  the  needs  of  declining  years.  He  lived, 
expended  his  energies  for  others,  and,  having  crowded  the  labors  of  many 
ordinary  lives  into  one  short  one,  he  died  June,  1867.  in  his  56th  year.  His 
beloved  University  was  then  so  far  established  that  its  perpetual  existence 
and  usefulness  were  assured.     His  enduring  monument  is  in  its  existence 

184  History  of  Allegany  County,  N   Y. 

and  in  the  thousands  of  hves  that  have  been  made  purer,  stronger,  brighter, 
and  in  every  way  better  by  the  intense  glow  of  liis  life. 

President  Jonathan  Allen,  Ph.D.,  D.D.,  LL.D.,*  was  born  in  Al- 
fred, N.  Y.,  January  26,  1823.  In  this  rugged  region,  where  unremitting 
toil  was  the  birth-right  of  every  boy,  he  grew  to  six  feet,  erect,  broad-shoul- 
dered, a  perfect  specimen  of  physical  manhood.  Prom  his  New  England 
parents  he  inherited  a  love  of  knowledge  for  its  own  sake.  His  father,  a 
stern,  upright  man,  was  a  teacher  and  leader  in  the  community.  His  moth- 
er, possessing  abundant  common-sense,  was  also  endowed  with  quick 
perceptive  faculties  and  a  fine  poetic  temperament.  These  parents  thus 
gave  to  their  son  an  inheritance  rich  in  all  that  goes  to  make  the  true  wealth 
of  a  great  character.  Being  naturally  religious,  he  became  a  member  of  the 
church  at  the  age  of  twelve.  At  thirteen  he  was  one  of  the  number  to  make 
up  the  first  select  school  in  the  town  of  Alfred.  (This  was  taught  by  B.  C. 
Church.)  At  seventeen  he  began  teaching,  taking  charge  of  his  first  district 
school.  This  was  in  a  neighborhood  where  it  was  the  pride  of  the  "  toughs" 
to  have  two  or  three  successive  teachers  each  winter.  They  had  but  one 
that  winter.  In  1842,  when  Jonathan  was  nineteen,  his  parents  re- 
moved to  the  then  western  wilderness  of  Wisconsin.  Here  for  two  years 
he  spent  his  summers  either  in  surveying  or  in  working  on  his  father's 
farm.  He  taught  school  during  the  winters  and  became  known  at  that  early 
age  as  the  best  teacher  in  Rock  county.  At  twenty-one  he  found  himself  in 
possession  of  enough  money  (which  he  had  accumulated)  to  either  "  take  up  " 
a  quarter-section  of  land  near  his  parents,  or  to  return  to  Alfred  to  go  on 
with  his  education.  Knowing  that  it  was  the  earnest  wish  of  his  parents 
to  have  their  children  settle  near  them,  it  was  no  small  struggle  for  a  duti- 
ful young  man  to  decide  to  obtain  a  higher  education.  This  he  did,  however, 
and  took  the  first  boat  that  came  down  the  lakes  in  the  spring.  His  former 
teachers,  B.  C.  Church  and  James  R.  Irish,  had  given  him  a  thirst  for  ad- 
vancement, but  it  was  Prof.  Wm.  C.  Kenyon  who  stirred  his  young  soul  to 
its  core,  and  gave  him  confidence  in  himself  and  in  his  future.  Mr.  Allen 
early  became  a  tutor  in  the  Academy  at  Alfred,  and  was  enabled  by  this 
means  to  pay  most  of  his  expenses  while  pursuing  his  studies.  Sometimes, 
when  his  funds  were  low,  he  would  teach  a  term  in  some  near  district  for 
the  winter.  Having  finished  his  academic  course  of  study  in  1844,  Mr. 
Allen  did  not  wait  long  before  deciding  to  enter  Oberlin  College.  One  of 
the  principal  reasons  for  this  choice  was  the  strong  religious  influences 
centering  there.  During  the  busy  years  of  his  coUege  life,  he  never  lost 
his  interest  in  Alfred.  A  close  correspondence  was  kept  up  with  Professor 
Kenyon  regarding  plans  for  the  future  development  of  the  incipient  Uni- 
versity. Indeed,  Mr.  Allen  fully  pledged  himself  to  help  work  out  these 
plans,  and  received  from  Prof.  Kenyon  a  letter  of  gratitude,  which  was  a 
most  fitting  exponent  of  that  earnest,  true  man.  While  in  Oberlin  Mr. 
Allen  was  asked  to  take  charge  of  a  new  academy  in  Milton,  Wis.,  (his  home), 

*  Contributed  by  Mrs.  A.  A.  Allen. 

Alfred  University.  185 

but  this  he  was  not  tempted  to  accept,  as  his  pledge  to  work  for  Alfred  had 
not  been  taken  without  much  serious  thought.  When  he  returned  to  Alfred 
he  remained  faithful  to  his  post  there,  never  heeding  positions  of  honor  or 
highly-paid  service  that  were  so  many  times  offered  him.  In  1849  a  syndi- 
cate of  live,  besides  Professors  Kenyon  and  Sayles,  was  formed  with  this 
strange  pledge  from  each,  to  work  five  years  at  a  salary  of  $400,  and  to  give 
their  entire  time  and  all  the  surplus  funds  to  the  growth  of  the  school.  This 
action  gave  a  marked  impulse  which  was  felt  in  all  the  departments.  The 
special  work  of  Alfred  Academy  then  was  the  training  of  teachers  for  the 
district  schools,  and  more  than  150  young  men  and  women  went  out  each 
year  as  teachers  for  district  schools  in  Allegany  and  surrounding  counties. 
Many  also  became  teachers  in  the  higher  schools  and  academies  that  were 
then  being  formed.  (We  are  not  now  writing  the  history  of  Alfred  Univer- 
sity. We  are  simply  following  one  man  as  a  factor  in  its  development. ) 
President  Allen  was  a  born  radical.  In  the  societies,  in  the  church,  and  in 
secular  work  he  was  a  leader  in  all  the  reform  questions  of  the  day.  Dr. 
D.  R.  Ford  has  said  that  the  secret  of  his  power  in  directing  the  varied  inter- 
ests for  the  general  growth  of  the  University,  lay  in  his  tact  and  originality 
as  an  organizer.  In  Alfred,  July  12,  1849,  Mr.  Allen  was  married  to  Miss 
Abigail  A.  Maxson,  the  precei)tress,  and  through  the  rest  of  his  life  they 
were  co-workers  in  the  busy  lives  they  were  called  upon  to  lead.  In  1854 
he  was  appointed  general  agent  for  the  Educational  Society  to  secure  funds 
for  the  endowment  of  a  theological  department  in  the  school.  Though 
spending  only  his  vacations  in  this  work,  more  than  $20,000  were  secured 
during  the  first  year.  The  winter  of  1856-7  Mr.  Allen  spent  in  Albany  in 
the  interests  of  the  University  charter.  During  this  interval  he  continued 
the  study  of  law  in  the  Albany  Law  School,  was  examined  and  admitted  to 
the  bar  of  the  state.  In  1864  he  was  ordained  by  the  general  conference  to' 
the  Gospel  ministry.  This  was  done  with  especial  reference  to  his  being  at 
the  head  of  the  theological  department  of  the  Institution.  His  sermons, 
lectures,  and  chax3el  talks  bore  the  mark  of  research  into  many  new  fields 
of  thought,  and  were  most  carefully  prepared,  though  he  seldom  wrote  them 
out  fully,  preferring  to  speak  directly  to  his  audience  as  he  would  teach  a 
class.  During  his  more  than  fifty  years  of  teaching  his  work  embraced 
most  of  the  studies  in  the  college  curriculum.  He  taught  at  different  times, 
mathematics,  history,  civics,  the  natural  sciences,  literature,  rhetoric,  elo- 
cution, Latin,  Hebrew,  metaphysics,  and  theology.  To  him  teaching  never 
became  a  humdrum  business.  Each  pupil  seemed  a  sacred  trust,  one  to  be 
helped  in  developing  the  very  best  that  was  in  his  nature.  Mr.  Allen  was 
called  to  till  the  president's  place  in  the  University  in  1866,  after  the  death 
of  President  Kenyon.  In  1869  he  received  from  the  Regents  of  the  State 
of  New  York  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy,  in  1874  from  the  University 
of  Kansas  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity,  and  in  1886  from  Alfred  Uni- 
versity the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws.  As  Doctor  Platts  has  said,  "AU 
these  honors  came  to  him  entirely  unsolicited  and  unexpected.     They  were 

186  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

the  spontaneous  expression  of  the  high  regard  that  these  institutions  held 
for  hiin  as  a  profound  scholar,  as  an  experienced  educator,  as  a  Christian 
gentleman."  As  the  head  of  the  University,  no  detail  of  the  work  was  too 
insignificant  to  receive  personal  attention,  The  grounds,  buildings,  and 
the  health,  as  well  as  the  moral  and  intellectual  development  of  each  student 
received  his  special  care.  The  co-educational  system  was  considered  of 
great  value  in  giving  home-like  surroundings  to  the  students  and  in  remov- 
ing false  views  of  the  relations  of  men  and  women  in  their  after  lives.  Be- 
lieving that  the  influence  of  delightful  surroundings  had  great  power  in 
forming  the  tastes,  manners  and  morals,  indeed  the  whole  character  of  the 
young.  Mr.  Allen  spared  no  pains  and  gave  much  time  and  means  to  make 
the  grounds  the  finest  possible  exponent  of  nature  and  art,  so  that  they 
might  impart  life,  health  and  strength  to  all.  He  was  specially  fond  of  the 
natural  sciences,  and,  in  order  to  make  a  home  for  his  private  cabinet  and 
a  place  in  which  he  might  study  in  his  old  age,  he  built  Steinheim.  The 
w^alls  of  this  building  mal^e,  of  themselves,  a  rare  geological  cabinet  of  over 
7,000  kinds  of  rock.  The  interior  is  a  collection  of  native  and  foreign  woods 
of  many  hundred  varieties,  while  the  various  coins,  implements,  and  other 
things  make  up  more  than  25.000  specimens.  These  have  been  collected 
from  all  parts  of  the  w^orld  and  many  of  them  cannot  be  duplicated.  As  the 
years  wore  on,  Mr.  Allen's  arduous  labors  as  president  and  trustee  of  the 
University  began  to  tell  seriously  upon  his  health.  His  friends,  seeing 
this,  persuaded  him  to  accept  (in  the  spring  of  1H82)  the  generous  offer  of 
Mr.  Charles  Potter,  of  Plainfield,  N.  J.,  to  be  his  guest  on  a  European  tour. 
A  most  congenial  companyof  four  fast  friends  was  formed  for  this  journey. 
These  were  besides  himself,  Mr.  Charles  Potter,  Mr.  Geo.  H.  Babcock,  and 
Rev.  A.  H.  Lewis.  In  early  autumn  they  returned,  refreshed  and  in- 
'vigorated  in  body  and  mind.  Mr.  Allen's  friends  think  that  this  trip  abroad 
added  years  to  his  life.  He  brought  many  interesting  specimens  to  Stein- 
heim, and  entered  with  more  enthusiasm  than  ever  into  his  home  w^ork. 
Every  department  of  the  University  continued  to  advance,  though  there 
was  much  need  of  more  funds  to  carry  out  the  many  new  plans  to  success- 
ful completion,  and  the  constant  strain  for  years  of  making  one  dollar  do 
the  work  of  ten,  the  continued  effort  to  "make  bricks  without  straw," 
again  began  to  tell  upon  his  vigor.  In  1891  Judge  N.  M.  Hubbard  of  Cedar 
Rapids,  Iowa,  made  us  his  guests,  taking  us  to  the  Pacific  coast,  through 
the  National  Park  and  many  more  of  the  "wonder  lands  "  of  our  country. 
It  was  a  delightful  t]'ip,  and  we  both  returned  with  renewed  life.  Mr. 
Allen,  though  then  nearly  seventy  years  of  age,  felt  that  he  was  doing  his 
best  work.  He  gave  up  no  part  of  it,  but  added  much  that  seemed  to  re- 
quire his  special  care.  He  often  quoted,  when  advised  to  give  the  labor 
into  other  hands,  the  remark  of  John  Quincy  Adams,  "  An  old  man  has  no 
time  to  rest."  He  prayed  to  die  in  the  harness,  and  his  prayer  was 
ANSWERED.  His  will-power  seemed  to  conquer  most  of  the  w^eaknesses  of 
the  flesh,  and  his  mind  was  never  more  clear  than  on  September  1st,  1892. 

Alfred  University.  187 

When  our  old  family  physician.  Dr.  E.  C.  Green,  told  him  he  ought  not  to  go 
to  the  chapel  to  begin  the  year's  work,  he  seemed  to  know  the  end  was 
near.  He  continued,  however,  busy  in  correcting  the  proofs  of  his  last 
sermon,  and  in  directing  the  work  for  the  one  who  had  taken  his  classes. 
On  the  morning  of  the  21st  of  September,  1892.  those  who  stood  near  him 
showed  upon  their  faces  their  deep  sympathy  Avith  his  suifering.  "I  am 
happy,"  he  said,  "  v/hy  cannot  you  be  soy"  These  were  his  last  words.  In 
a  few"  moments  he  had  passed  beyond  mortal  ken,  and  when  those  who 
stood  by  looked  at  the  dear  face  for  the  sign  of  "  peace,"  they  saw,  instead, 
a  glorious  joy.  Judge  Hubbard  writes:  "  President  Allen,  during  his  fifty 
years  as  professor  and  teacher,  came  into  personal  acquaintance  with  10,- 
000  young  men  and  women  of  more  than  ordinary  intellect.  He  made  as 
profound  an  impression  upon  them  as  did  Plato  or  Aristotle  upon  their 
pupils.  These  10,000  have  gone  into  all  the  earth,  and  other  tens  of  thou- 
sands follow,  and  all  bear  the  impress,  to  some  extent  at  least,  of  the  intel- 
lect, the  goodness,  the  greatness  of  this  great  teacher.  And  thus  it  is  that 
his  influence  goes  on  in  an  ever-widening  and  never-ending  path  to  bless,  to 
cheer,  to  purify,  to  elevate.  His  immortality  is  like  himself  when  with  us 
here,  modest,  charitable,  unselfish,  sweet,  all-pervading  and  altogether 
blessed.     May  w^e  all  live  as  he  lived,  teach  as  he  taught,  and  die  as  he  died. " 

FACULTY — 1895-6. 

Rev.  Boothe  Colwell  Davis.  M.A.,  B.D.,  was  born  near  Jane 
Lew,  W.  Va..  July  12.  1863.  He  is  the  eldest  son  of  Rev.  Samuel  D.  and 
Elizabeth  Randolph  Davis,  still  living  at  Jane  Lew.  His  district  school 
education  was  supplemented  by  one  year  in  the  Fairmont  (W.  Va.)  State 
Normal  School.  He  then  taught  four  years  in  the  public  schools  of  West 
Virginia.  In  September.  1885.  he  became  a  student  at  Alfred  University. 
In  1890  he  graduated  in  the  classical  course,  and  in  the  fall  entered  Yale 
University  to  pursue  a  course  in  divinity.  In  June,  1892,  he  received  a  call 
to  the  pastorate  of  the  First  Alfred  Church.  The  call  was  accepted  to  begin 
his  labors  Sept.  1,  1892,  with  leave  of  absence  to  complete  his  course  in 
divinity  in  Yale  University,  where  he  was  graduated.  May  17,  1893.  May 
18,  1893.  he  married  Miss  Estelle  W..  daughter  of  John  B.  and  Josephine 
Crandall  Hoffman  of  Shiloh,  N.  J.,  and  June  1st  they -came  to  Alfred. 
They  have  one  child,  Stanton  Hoffman,  born  Aug.  31,  1894.  In  June,  1895, 
Mr.  Davis  was  unanimously  elected  president  of  Alfred  University. 

Edward  M.  Tomlinson. — The  Greek  department  of  Alfred  University 
is  most  satisfactorily  conducted  by  Professor  Edward  M.  Tomlinson,  whose 
thorough  preparation  for  and  complete  devotion  to  his  work,  afford  the 
student  a  rare  opportunity  for  accxuiring  proficiency  in  Greek  scholarship. 
Mr.  Tomlinson,  son  of  Dr.  George  and  Phebe  (Mulford)  Tomlinson,  was  born 
at  Roadstown,  Cumberland  county,  N.  J,,  October  22,  1842.  After  attending 
for  a  short  time  the  public  school  of  his  native  village,   he  entered  Union 

188  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Academy  at  Shiloh,  N.  J.,  and  was  a  student  in  that  institution  during  the 
principalship  of  Wm.  C.  Whitford,  C.  R.  Burdick,  Wm.  A.  Rogers,  Chas.  H. 
Thompson,  and  George  E.  Tomhnson.  He  was  graduated  at  Bucknell  Uni- 
versity, Lewisburg,  Pa.,  in  1867.  The  same  year  he  was  called  to  the  pro- 
fessorship of  Greek  in  Alfred  University,  and  occupied  this  position  for  four 
years.  During  the  year  1870-71  he  served  also  as  professor  of  Latin.  Early 
in  1872  he  went  abroad,  where  he  remained  about  two  years  and  a  half,  the 
most  of  this  time  being  devoted  to  study  at  the  Universities  of  Berlin  and 
Leipsic.  After  his  return  he  taught  for  a  time  in  Germantown  Academy, 
Philadelphia.  In  1881  he  returned  to  Alfred  University  as  professor  of 
Greek  and  this  position  he  still  holds.  Mr.  Tomlinson  married,  March  12, 
1884,  Miss  Mary  E.,  daughter  of  Rev.  Thomas  B.  Brown,  of  Little  Genesee, 
N.  Y.  Their  home  on  Terrace  Avenue  is  notable  for  its  cozy  appointments, 
its  well  stocked  and  well  chosen  libraries  and  its  genuine  hospitality. 

Henry  Clarke  Coon,  M  D.,  Professor  of  Physics  and  Chemistry  in 
Alfred  University,  was  born  in  West  Edmeston,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  28,  1828.  His 
Scotch  ancestors  came  to  New  England,  from  thereto  Otsego  county  amongits 
first  settlers.  His  father,  a  farmer,  gave  him  a  good  common  school  educa- 
tion. He  attended  DeRuyter  Institute  and  Alfred  University,  was  gradu- 
ated in  the  Classical  Course  in  1868.  He  received  the  degree  of  A.  M.  in  1871 
and  of  Ph.  D.  in  1891.  He  graduated  in  medicine  at  the  New  York  Homeo- 
pathic Medical  College  in  1872,  and  the  same  year,  was  elected  professor  of 
Physical  Science  in  Alfred  University.  He  married  L.  Elvira  Stillman  of 
Alfred,  Nov.  21,  1851.  She  died  April  21,  1879.  He  was  again  mar- 
ried to  Mary  E.  Hill,  Dec.  6,  1880.  While  he  has  practiced  medicine  consid- 
erably, yet  his  life  work  has  been  mostly  teaching,  and  he  has  helped  many 
yonng  men  to  commence  their  studies  in  medicine  and  also  in  other  profes- 
sions. He  was  ordained  deacon  of  the  First  Alfred  Seventh-day  Baptist 
Church,  Aug.  30,  1879.  He  is  a  member  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homeo- 
pathy, The  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  The 
American  Chemical  and  Microcospical  Societies,  and  the  Institute  of  Civics, 
which  help  to  keep  him  in  touch  with  the  advanced  thought  of  the  day  in 
these  lines  of  work. 

Lewis  A.  Platts,  D.D.— Doctor  Platts  is  a  native  of  the  state  of  Ohio, 
having  been  born  at  Chapman's  Creek  in  that  state.  His  ancestry,  partic- 
ularly in  the  maternal  line,  has  been  especially  prolific  of  ministers  of  the 
gospel.  Dr.  Platts  in  early  youth  entered  Milton  Academy  and  literally 
worked  his  way  through,  earning  every  dollar  of  his  expenses.  Entering 
Alfred  University  in  the  Junior  Class,  he  was  graduated  two  years  later, 
after  which  he  studied  three  years  in  the  Union  Theological  Seminary  of 
New  York,  receiving  with  its  diploma  special  commendation  for  proficiency 
in  scholarship.  He  was  ordained  to  the  gospel  ministry  in  1866,  and  has 
served  as  pastor  of  the  Seventh-day  Baptist  churches  at  Nile,  N.  Y.,  New 
Market,  N.  J.,  and  Westerly,  R.  I.  In  1882  he  became  editor  of  the  Sabbath 
Recorder,  the  denominational  paper  of  the  Seventh-day  Baptists,  published 

Alfred  University.  189 

at  Alfred,  which  position  he  ably  filled  for  ten  years.  In  1892  he  was  elected 
to  the  professorship  of  Church  History  and  Homiletics  in  the  Theological 
Department  of  Alfred  University,  where  he  still  labors.  In  the  fall  of  1893, 
upon  the  reorganization  of  the  Department  of  English  Literature,  he  was 
made  professor  of  that  department  also.  In  addition  to  his  regular  work, 
Doctor  Platts  has  done  much  preaching  service  during  a  large  part  of  the 
time  and  has  frequently  responded  to  calls  for  funeral  services  and  public 
addresses.  He  was  married  at  the  age  of  twenty-four  to  Miss  Emma  Tefft, 
.of  Almond,  N.  Y.,  who  has  continued  throughout  to  be  his  sympathetic  and 
devoted  co-laborer. 

Lester  C.  Rogers,  A.M. — Professor  of  the  Charles  Potter  Professor- 
ship of  History  and  Civics.  This  department  was  endowed  in  1888  by 
Charles  Potter,  Esq.,  of  Plaintield,  N.  J.,  who  has  always  been  a  staunch 
friend  of  and  liberal  donor  to  Alfred  University,  as  well  as  to  other  benev- 
olent institutions  and  enterprises.  Professor  Rogers  was  born  in  Water- 
ford,  Conn.,  in  1829,  and  is  a  descendant  in  the  tenth  generation  of  the 
martyr  John  Rogers.  He  prejDared  for  college  at  DeRuyter  Institute  and 
Alfred  Academy,  entered  the  Sophomore  class  of  WiDiams  College  in  1853, 
where  he  was  a  classmate  of  President  Garfield,  graduated  with  honor  in 
1856,  and  received  the  degree  of  A.  M.  in  1859;  entered  Rutgers  Theological 
Seminary,  New  Brunswick,  N.  J.,  September,  1859,  and  graduated  in  1860. 
He  was  married  to  Miss  Josephine  Wilcox,  preceptress  of  DeRuyter  Acad- 
emy in  1857;  was  ordained  to  the  gospel  ministry  in  1858  and  has  been  pastor 
of  the  churches  at  New  Market,  N.  J.,  Brookfield,  N.  Y.,  Milton,  Wis.,  Harts- 
ville  and  Alfred  Station,  N.  Y.  He  also  served  the  Seventh-day  Bai^tist 
Missionary  Society  from  1875  to  1877.  In  the  war  of  the  rebellion  he  was 
chaplain  of  the  29th  N.  Y.  Regt.  U.  S.  Volunteers. 

Alpheus  B.  Kenyon,  A.m.,  Professor  of  Mathematics,  was  born  at 
Potter  Hill,  R.  I.,  Aug.  2,  1850.  and  spent  his  boyhood  at  Mystic,  Conn.  He 
received  his  early  education  in  the  public  schools  of  Mystic  and  Hope  Valley, 
R.  I.;  spent  three  summers  working  in  the  shipyard,  and  later  learned  the 
trade  of  house  carpenter.  In  the  fall  of  1868  he  entered  the  Academic  De- 
partment of  Alfred  University;  taught  school  three  winters  in  Smethport, 
Pa.,  and  Little  Genesee,  N.  Y.,  and  was  graduated  from  the  University  in 
1874,  receiving  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Science.  Having  taken  special 
work  in  draughting,  mechanics  and  kindred  subjects,  he  received  the  degree 
of  Master  of  Science  in  1877.  Professor  Kenyon  was  elected  to  the  chair  of 
Industrial  Mechanics  in  1872,  but  did  not  begin  his  work  until  the  fall  of 
1874,  when  he  was  also  called  to  the  chair  of  Mathematics.  He  continued  in 
charge  of  both  departments  on  the  salary  of  one  for  ten  years,  when  Profes- 
sor A.  A.  Titsworth  was  elected  to  the  chair  of  Industrial  Mechanics,  which 
he  held  for  two  years.  After  that  time  Professor  Kenyon  was  again  in 
charge  of  both  departments  for  two  years.  In  the  winter  of  1887  he  received 
a  furlough  from  Alfred  University,  and  did  post-graduate  work  in  Cornell 
University,  studying  mathematics  and   methods.      Professor  Kenyon  has 

190  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

served  during  several  years  as  secretary  of  the  faculty  and  has  held  the 
office  of  registrar  since  1891;  served  as  acting  president  of  the  University 
after  the  death  of  President  Allen  until  the  duties  of  the  office  was  assumed 
by  President  Main  in  April,  1893.  He  married  Miss  M.  Viola,  daughter  of 
Martin  W.  Babcock,  in  1873. 

Amelia  E.  Stillman,  A.M.,  Professor  of  Art,  was  born  in  Alfred, 
March  20,  1834,  and  was  educated  in  the  district  school  and  in  Alfred 
Academy,  receiving  the  degree  Laureate  of  Arts  in  1853.  She  received  her 
earliest  instruction  in  art  of  Mrs.  A.  A.  Allen.  In  1869  she  studied  art  in 
Chicago,  111.,  and  in  1870-71  taught  painting  in  the  public  schools  of  Hor- 
nellsviUe,  N.  Y.,-also  in  the  select  school  of  Miss  Kingsley.  In  February, 
1872,  she  became  associated  with  Mrs.  Allen  in  the  Art  Department  of 
Alfred  University,  in  which  she  has  continued  until  the  present  time.  Miss 
Stillman  spent  the  fall  and  winter  of  1886-7  in  study  at  the  Corcoran  Art 
Gallery  at  Washington,  D.  C,  and  the  spring  and  summer  of  1883  at  the 
Metropolitan  Museum  in  Boston,  Mass.  In  1881  she  studied  with  L.  W. 
and  R.  Wiles  at  Leroy,  N.  Y. 

Charles  M.  Post,  A.M.,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  Professor  of  Natural  History, 
is  second  son  of  Doctor  George  Post  and  Mary,  daughter  of  Judge  Clark 
Crandall,  the  first  settler  of  the  town  of  Alfred.  He  was  born  in  Chicago, 
111.,  in  1864,  and  educated  in  Milton  College,  Wis.,  and  Alfred  University, 
having  graduated  from  the  latter  in  1886.  He  received  the  degree  of  A.  M. 
in  1887,  that  of  Ph.  D.  in  1889,  and  the  degree  of  M.  D.  from  the  College  of 
Physicians  and  Surgeons,  of  Chicago,  111.,  in  1892.  He  assumed  the  chair 
of  Natural  History  in  Alfred  University  in  1892,  and  was  elected  University 
physician  in  1893.  He  married,  in  1888,  Dolly,  second  daughter  of  Dr.  D. 
E.  Maxson. 

F.  S.  Place,  A.B.,  B.D.,  Professor  of  Industrial  Mechanics,  son  of  Rev. 
Alvin  A.  and  Ruth  (Sherman)  Place,  was  born  in  Wirt,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  15,  1858, 
and  lived  from  infancy  until  he  was  seventeen  at  Nile.  He  entered  Alfred 
University  in  1875,  where,  with  interruptions,  he  studied  for  ten  years.  He 
received  the  degree  of  A.  B.  in  1882,  and  that  of  B.  D.  in  1885.  In  1888  he 
was  called  to  the  chair  of  Industrial  Mechanics  in  Alfred  University,  having 
served  as  tutor  for  two  years.  He  is  now  in  charge  of  Mechanics  and 
Astronomy.     Prof.  Place  married  Martha  Bur  dick  of  Ward  in  1882. 

Earl  P.  Saunders,  A.M.,  Professor  in  Preparatory  and  Normal  De- 
partment, a  native  of  Genesee  county,  N.  Y.,  born  in  1856,  worked  his  way 
through  Alfred  University,  from  which  he  graduated  in  the  classical  course 
in  1880.  After  taking  one  year  of  Theology  in  Alfred  he  spent  two  years  in 
Union  Theological  Seminary  in  New  York  city.  He  has  been  pastor  of  the 
Seventh-day  Baptist  churches  of  New  Market,  N.  J.,  and  New  York  city, 
has  been  principal  of  the  graded  school  at  Ashaway,  R.  I.,  and  of  the  Pleas- 
ant Street  grammar  school  at  Westerly.  He  served  the  American  Sabbath 
Tract  Society  as  business  manager  of  its  publishing  house  at  Alfred  lor 
four  years.     He  has  ably  performed  the  duties  of  his  present  position  since 

Alfred  University.  191 

the  fall  of  1893.  He  was  married  to  Miss  Carrie  Briggs  of  Ashaway,  R.  I., 
in  1882. 

Inez  R.  Maxson,  A.M.,  Professor  in  Preparatory  and  Normal  Depart- 
ment, is  a  native  of  Rodman,  Jefferson  county,  N.  Y.  She  received  the  rudi- 
ments of  her  education  in  district  schools  and  entered  Alfred  University  in 
1870,  from  which  she  was  graduated  four  years  later.  Since  her  graduation 
she  taught  in  Berlin,  N.  Y. ,  one  year,  and  from  1878  to  1883  in  New  Rochelle, 
N.  Y.  In  1885  she  began  teaching  in  the  prej^aratory  and  normal  depart- 
ment of  Alfred  University.  In  1891  Miss  Maxson  received  a  furlough  of 
one  year  which  she  spent  in  the  State  Normal  School  at  Albany,  N.  Y. ,  grad- 
uating at  the  end  of  the  year  and  receiving  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Peda- 
gogy. She  then  returned  to  Alfred  and  resumed  her  work  in  the  Prepara- 
tory and  Normal  Department. 

Martha  B.  Saunders,  Professor  of  Modern  Languages,  is  a  native  of 
Providence,  R.  I.  She  spent  a  year  and  a  half  in  school  at  Alfred  at  a  very 
early  age,  but  while  yet  a  child  accompanied  her  parents,  who  were  sent  as 
missionaries,  to  Palestine,  where  they  remained  six  or  seven  years,  residing 
mainly  in  Jaffa.  This  cosmopolitan  city,  the  seaport  of  Jerusalem,  made  a 
knowledge  of  many  languages  a  necessity.  Miss  Saunders  received  here 
the  best  instruction  from  native  teachers.  Her  father  becoming  connected 
with  the  consular  service,  Doctor  John  W.  Gorham,  who  was  then  United 
States  Consul  at  Jerusalem,  became  a  member  of  the  family.  Dr.  Gorham, 
who  was  an  American,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  College,  and  who  had  spent 
many  years  in  study  and  the  practice  of  medicine  in  Paris  and  Rome,  was  a 
most  accomplished  linguist.  Owing  to  failing  health  he  became  a  perma- 
nent attache  of  this  family,  and  Miss  Saunders's  constant  tutor.  He  re- 
turned with  them  to  their  former  home  in  Westerly,  R.  I.,  where  he  gave 
private  and  public  instruction  in  the  modern  languages.  Miss  Saunders 
spent  a  year  in  the  Seward  Institute  at  Florida,  N.  Y.,  and  later  three  years 
in  the  private  school  of  Miss  Brace,  where  she  enjoyed  many  of  the  privileges 
of  Yale  University,  and  from  which  school  she  was  graduated.  Returning 
to  Westerly  she  took  up  the  labors  which  Dr.  Gorham  had  been  compelled 
to  relinquish,  and  after  his  death  went  to  Germany  in  the  fall  of  1893,  to 
perfect  her  knowledge  of  the  German  and  French  languages.  She  located 
in  Berlin  where  she  took  private  lessons  of  Frau  Hempel,  and  attended 
her  lectures  on  history  and  literature,  living  in  a  "  pension, ' "  where  only 
German  was  spoken.  Leaving  Germany  in  the  spring  of  1894  she  traveled 
for  five  months  through  Europe,  spending  some  time  in  Paris  and  London, 
and  arriving  in  America  in  time  to  commence  her  work  at  Alfred  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  school  year  of  1894-5. 

William  C.  Whitford,  A.M.,  Professor  of  Biblical  Languages  and 
Literature,  is  a  native  of  Madison  county,  N.  Y.,  and  was  born  Jan.  31,  1865. 
He  received  his  early  education  and  prepared  for  college  in  Brookfield 
Academy.  In  1882  he  entered  Colgate  University,  from  which  he  was  grad- 
uated with  honor  in  1886,  after  which  he  served  three  years  as  cashier  of 

192  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

the  Banking  House  of  Calvin  Whitford,  his  father,  in  Brookfield.  Feehng 
it  to  be  his  duty  to  enter  the  gospel  ministry  he  entered  Union  Theological 
Seminary,  from  which  he  was  graduated  in  1892.  He  accepted  at  once  a 
call  from  the  Seventh-day  Baptist  Church  of  Berlin,  N.  Y.,  to  become  its 
pastor,  having  served  that  church  as  supply  during  part  of  the  time  spent 
in  the  Theological  Seminary.  He  was  married,  in  1892,  to  Miss  Jessie  Briggs, 
of  Ashaway,  R.  I.,  a  graduate  of  Alfred  University,  and  in  the  fall  of  the 
same  year  accepted  a  call  to  the  chair  of  Biblical  Languages  and  Literature 
in  Alfred  University. 

F.  A.  J.  Waldron,  A.m.,  Professor  of  Latin,  was  born  in  Springfield, 
111.,  Sept.  17,  1862,  and  educated  in  the  public  schools  of  that  city,  graduat- 
ing from  the  Springfield  High  School  in  1879.  He  removed  to  Philadelphia 
and  'later  to  Chester,  Pa. ,  and  for  a  time  engaged  in  mission  work  in  New 
York  city.  He  graduated  from  the  University  of  Rochester  in  1886  and 
from  the  Rochester  Theological  Seminary  in  1893.  One  year  during  his 
studies  in  Rochester  he  taught  in  Jackson  College,  Miss.,  and  was  called  to 
his  present  position  in  1893. 

George  Wesley  Hill,  Professor  of  Elocution  and  Physical  Culture, 
was  born  in  Victor,  Ontario  Co.,  N.  Y.,  in  December,  1866.  He  secured  his 
early  education  at  the  Victor  public  school  and  at  Genesee  Wesleyan  Semi- 
nary, Lima,  N.  Y. ,  graduating  from  the  latter  institution  in  1888.  He  then 
attended  the  School  of  Oratory  at  Boston,  Mass.,  from  which  he  graduated 
in  1890.  Mr.  Hill  adopted  teaching  as  a  profession  and  accepted  a  position 
as  instructor  in  the  Conservatory  of  Music  at  Lincoln,  Neb.,  where  he  re- 
mained two  years.  Wishing  to  live  in  the  East  he  was  admitted  as  instruc- 
tor in  Elocution  and  the  English  branches  at  the  Military  Academy  at  Peeks- 
kill-on-the-Hudson,  teaching  at  said  academy  until  he  was  called  to  the  Pro- 
fessorship of  Elocution  and  Physical  Culture  in  Alfred  University. 

Mrs.  Mary  E.  B.  Main,  Professor  of  Music,  was  born  in  Painesville, 
Ohio,  and  moved  to  Adams,  N.  Y.,  when  a  child.  She  received  her  early 
musical  training  in  Adams  from  local  teachers,  and  at  the  Adams  Centre 
Institute;  graduated  at  Bellville  Normal  Music  School  under  Prof.  A.  N. 
Johnson  and  studied  music  later  with  L.  O.  Emerson  and  Carl  Zerhan.  She 
took  a  course  at  Utica  Conservatory  and  studied  voice  culture  with  Prof. 
Tower  of  Towers  College  of  Music,  New  York,  and  Prof.  Howard,  author  of 
the  Howard  Voice  Method;  graduated  in  Vocal  Normal  Music  with  Prof .  J. 
T.  Roberts,  of  Utica,  and  taught  music  in  Oswego,  Schenectady,  Watertown 
and  Adams,  N.  Y. 

Bibliography  of  the  County  Newspapers.  193 




'^PHE  history  of  the  press  of  Allegany  county  would,  if  it  could  be  accurately 
1  followed  from  the  first  pUper  printed  within  its  boundaries  to  the  pres- 
ent time,  giving-  the  changes  in  ownership  and  editorial  management,  form 
one  of  the  most  interesting  chapters  in  the  county's  history;  but  data  at 
hand  is  too  meager  to  enable  us  to  give  more  than  a  mere  outline  of  the  more 
noted  of  them.  Many  have  come  into  existence,  flourished  for  a  short  time, 
died  and  been  forgotten,  while  others  have  become  household  companions 
from  one  generation  to  another,  giving  their  readers  a  complete  history,  not 
only  of  the  happenings  in  the  towns  where  they  were  printed,  but  also  of  the 
county,  state  and  nation.  In  preparing  this  chapter  it  is  impossible  to  trace 
aU  the  changes  made  in  the  names  of  publications,  or  their  migrations  from 
town  to  town  or  the  merging  of  one  into  another.  We  have  however  followed 
them  as  closely  as  possible,  though  in  many  cases  the  exact  dates  of  these 
changes  have  been  lost  in  the  dust  of  years.  This  chapter  is  appropriately 
opened  by  an  account  of  the  first  paper  printed  in  its  territory. 

Tlie  Allegany  Republican,  which  first  went  to  press  in  Angelica  in  Octo- 
ber, 1820,  and  was  owned  and  edited  by  Franklin  Cowdery,  who  continued 
it  for  two  years  when  he  suspended  its  i3ublication.  In  1827  The  Angelica 
Republican  took  its  place,  and  was  conducted  by  Samuel  P.  Hall  until  1832, 
when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  B.  F.  Smead  with  the  name  changed  to 
The  Angelica  RepiMican  and  Fanner  s  and  Mechanic's  Press.  During  1832 
it  was  sold  to  Peter  Cherry,  who  changed  its  name  to  The  Allegany  Republi- 
can and  Internal  Improvenient  Advocate.  Mr.  Cherry  continued  its  publica- 
tion for  a  trifle  over  four  years,  agaiii  changing  its  name  in  1836  to  The  An- 
gelica, Republican  and  Allegany  Whig,  soon  after  this  selling  it  to  Wm.  P. 
Angel,  when  its  title  was  changed  to  The  Angelica^  Reporter  and  Allegany  Re- 
publican under  which  name  it  had  run  but  a  short  time  when  it  was  pur- 
chased by  Samuel  C.  Wilson  who  issued  it  as  The  Angelica  Reporter  nntil  1856. 
Mr.  Wilson  sold  the  paper  to  Horace  E.  Purdy  and  Charles  Horton  in  1841, 
and.  in  1844,  Mr.  Purdy  retired,  leaving  Mr.  Horton  sole  proprietor.  In 
1856  Mr.  Horton  purchased  'The  Advocate  and  Whig  (a  jiaper  started  at  Cuba 
as  The  Advocate  in  1842  by  Erastus  S.  Palmer  who  sold  it  to  Elray  &  Churchill, 
who,  in  turn,  sold  to  Peter  S.  Norris,  who  transferred  it  to  W.  H.  &  C.  M. 
Beecher.  It  was  consolidated  with  the  Cuba  Whig  in  1852  forming  The  Advo- 
cate and  Wiig)  and  consolidated  it  with  The  Angelica  Reporter  under  the  name 
of  The  Angelica  Reporter  and  Angelica  Advocate  and  Whig.  Some  years  later 
Geo.  W.  Dickinson  purchased  the  paper  and  soon  after  moved  the  plant  to 

194  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Belmont  where  the  paper  was  pubhshed  until  1874  when  it  was  purchased  and 
moved  to  Wellsville  and  united  with  The  Wellsville  Times  by  the  stock  com- 
pany owning-  the  latter,  under  the  name  of  The  Allegany  County  Reporter.  In 
1876,  Enos  W.  Barnes  purchased  a  controlling  interest  in  the  stock,  and  took 
entire  charge  of  the  paper  until  his  death  in  1888,  when  it  was  continued  by 
Mrs.  Enos  W.  Barnes,  assisted  by  her  sons  E.  Wiliard  and  Charles  H.,  who 
now  publish  it  as  a  semi- weekly,  and  also  publish  The  Wellsvile  Daily  Reporter, 
founded  by  E.  W.  Barnes  in  1880,  the  only  daily  paper  in  the  county. 

After  the  removal  of  the  original  Angeliai  Republican  from  Angelica  in 
1870,  there  was  a  time  when  that  village  was  without  a  paper,  but,  in  Decem- 
ber, 1871,  Mr.  P.  S.  Norris  revived  the  name  of  the  Angelica  Republican  in  a 
new  paper  established  there,  of  which  he  issued  the  first,  Dec.  22,  1871.  He 
continued  the  publication  until  August,  1875,  when  A.  W.  Phillips  &  Co. 
became  owners.  They,  after  a  few  months,  sold  to  Clark  &  McLaughlin, 
who  were  burned  out  and  soon  thereafter  gave  up  its  publication.  Early  in 
1876,  H.  C.  Scott,  who  started  The  Canaseraga  Times  at  Canaseraga  in  1873, 
moved  the  plant  to  Angelica  and  started  a  paper,  adopting  for  its  title  the 
old  established  name  of  Angelica  Republican.  This  journal  was  sold  to  L.  G. 
Raymond  in  1879,  and  still  continues  to  be  published  by  him. 

The  Repiiblican  Aegis  and  Allegany  Democrat  was  the  second  paper  pub- 
lished at  Angelica  and  in  the  county,  having  come  into  existence  in  1830. 

The  Genesee  Valley  Free  Press  first  apj)ears  as  an  occasional  publication  at 
Belfast  in  1852,  where  it  was  printed  and  edited  by  A.  N.  Cole  until  early  in 
1853,  when  he  moved  it  to  Wellsville  and  issued  it  from  that  place  regularly 
each  week  until  1865  when  he  sold  it  to  Pisk  &  Pish  and  its  name  was  changed 
to  The  Wellsville  Free  Press.  In  1870  Charles  M.  Beecher  purchased  the  busi- 
ness and  conducted  it  until  1875.  The  Genesee  Valley  Free  Press  was  revived 
by  its  founder  at  Belmont  in  1877,  in  an  office  purchased  from  The  Alleganian 
by  his  son,  A.  P.  Cole,  who  became  the  publisher  of  The  Free  Press  and  The 
Genesee  Valley  Farmer,  (which  formed  a  part  of  the  weeldy  publication  occu- 
pying one  page  under  the  above  head).  This  paper  was  discontinued  and 
the  plant  sold  in  1881. 

Tlie  Cuba  Patriot  was  first  published  at  Cuba  in  1862  by  Stebbins  &  Bur- 
dick  as  a  Republican  paper.  Burdick  soon  sold  his  interest  to  W.  J.  Carrier, 
who.  after  one  year,  withdrew  from  the  firm,  and  P.  G.  Stebbins  continued 
sole  owner  until  1865  when  Mr.  Carrier  again  became  a  partner,  but  only 
for  a  brief  period,  for,  in  November,  1865,  Mr.  Stebbins  was  again  its  sole 
proprietor,  and  a  month  later  the  firm  was  changed  to  Stebbins  &  Pratt.  In 
August,  1866,  Mr.  Pratt  retired  and  Mr.  Stebbins  continued  alone  until  1869 
when  he  sold  one-half  interest  to  C.  P.  Meloy.  In  March  following  Meloy 
sold  his  interest  to  C.  L.  Shepard.  In  October,  1872,  The  Patriot  was  sold  to 
The  Cuba  Herald  Association,  its  name  changed  to  The  Cuba  Herald,  which 
was  placed  under  the  editorial  management  of  James  A.  M'Kibbin.  About 
Jan.  1,  1875,  it  was  sold  to  E.  S.  Barnard,  who  associated  Mr.  Stebbins  with 
him  as  associate  editor  and  changed  the  name  back  to  Tlie  Patriot.     Mr. 

Bibliography  of  the  County  Newspapers.  195 

Barnard  died  in  March,  1875,  and  Mr.  Stebbins  again  bought  the  paper  and 
conducted  it  until  IHISO  when  he  sold  to  Miles  A.  Davis,  who  edited  it  one 
year  when  it  again  came  into  possession  of  its  founder,  who  published  it 
until  his  death.  In  1883  W.  J.  Beecher  and  W.  J.  Glenn  became  proprietors. 
In  January,  1887,  Mr.  Beecher  retired,  leaving  the  firm  name  W.  J.  Glenn 
&  Co.  Stanley  C.  Swift  purchased  the  Patriot  in  April,  1891,  and  sold  it  to 
H.  Moulton  &  Co.,  in  July,  1892.  W.  J.  Glenn  &  Co.,  its  present  proprietors, 
took  possession  again  in  April,  1893. 

The  Allegany  Democrat  was  founded  at  Wellsville  in  1876  as  an  exponent 
of  Democracy  by  Myron  E.  Eddy  and  Charles  F.  White.  In  December,  1872, 
Mr.  Eddy  retired,  and  Mr.  White  continued  alone  until  August,  1874,  when 
he  sold  the  property  to  W.  W.  Nichols.  A.  E.  Cowles  purchased  a  one-half 
Interest.  June  11,  1882,  and  the  firm  of  Nichols  &  Cowles  appeared  as  pub- 
lishers until  P^eb.  2,  1887,  when  A.  E.  Cowles  purchased  the  entire  business 
and  continues  to  publish  the  Democrat. 

The  FrionUliip  lierjl.ster  was  first  printed  in  Friendship  by  J.  J.  Barker 
Dec.  30,  1869,  and  was  sold  by  him  to  R.  R.  Helme  in  1871,  in  1888  Mr. 
Helme  sold  to  Geo.  W.  Fries,  the  present  p.ropretor. 

The  Genesee  VaUeij  Post  was  first  issued  in  1881  as  a  Prohibition  paper  by 
James  E.  Norton,  who  purchased  the  printing  material  formerly  used  by 
the  Free  Press,  and  soon  after  secured  the  services  of  V.  A.  Willard  as  editor. 
Later  the  plant  was  sold  to  The  Post  Publishing  Co.,  V.  A.  Willard  continu- 
ing the  editorial  management  until  1895,  when  the  paper  was  moved  to  Cuba 
and  is  now  edited  by  John  F.  Coad. 

The  Belmont  Weekly  Dispatch,  a  Republican  paper,  was  established  at 
Belmont  in  1889  by  R.  R.  and  F.  B.  Helme.  In  November,  1892,  it  was  sold 
to  W.  M.  Barnum.  In  March,  1893,  Wm.  E.  Smith  bought  out  Mr.  Barnum 
and  two  weeks  later  Roger  Stillman  took  a  one-half  interset.  In  January, 
1895,  Mr.  Smith  retired,  and  the  firm  became  C.  L.  Stillman  &  Co.,  who  now 
publish  it. 

The  Angelica  Every  Week  was  started  in  Angelica  as  the  organ  of  the 
Angelica  and  county  organizations  of  the  W.  C.  T.  U.,  in  1884  by  Mrs.  M.  L. 
Rumpff,  and  has  been  successfully  continued  by  her  as  an  independent 

The  Andover  Neius  was  first  printed  in  1887  by  H.  S.  Norris  and  Geo.  L. 
Tucker,  Jr.  Mr.  Tucker  retired  at  the  end  of  the  first  year  and  Mr.  Norris 
has  since  conducted  the  paper  alone. 

The  liushford  Spectatoi'  was  founded  in  1878.  In  1883  it  was  edited  by 
Frank  B.  Smith  and  later  passed  into  the  hands  of  W.  F.  Benjamin,  its  pres- 
ent editor  and  proprietor. 

The  Northern  Allegany  Observer  was  started  in  1880,  and  is  now  owned  by 
Judson  Howden. 

The  Spirit  of  Reform  was  started  in  Belmont  a  few  years  ago,  in  the  in- 
terest of  the  Peoples'  party  by  Scott  &  Osencup.  In  1893  Geo.  A.  Scott 
purchased  his  partner's  interest  and  published  the  paper  until  1894  when  he 

196  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

sold  to  Victor  Allen  who  soon  after,  in  1895,  moved  the  paper  to  Richburg, 
and  later  disposed  of  it  to  M.  C.  Wescott  who  now  conducts  it. 

The  Hume  Enterprise  was  first  printed  in  1885  at  Hume  village.  It  has 
changed  hands  several  times  and  is  now  owned  and  edited  by  E.  W.  O'Hara. 

Tlie  Almond  Era  was  started  in  1887  by  S.  H.  Jennings  at  Almond;  it  is 
Populistic  in  politics.  Mr.  Jennings  changed  its  name  in  1894  to  Tlte  True 

The  WhifesviUe  News  was  founded,  April  3,  1895,  by  L.  J.  Fortner  and 
La  Burt  Davis  as  an  independent  (non-partisan)  newspaper. 

Among  the  papers  which  have  been  published  in  the  county  in  time  past 
but  have  suspended  publication  and  left  no  successors,  are: 

The  Almond  Herald  founded  in  1853  and  published  one  year  by  R.  Denton. 

The  Allegany  Sentinel,  published  in  Almond  by  Melvin  Hyde  and  Isaac 
Bush  from  1854  to  1856. 

The  American  Banner,  printed  at  Cuba  from  1855  to  1857,  by  Hatch  & 
Pratt,  was  sold  in  1857  to  Cyrus  Pratt  and  M.  B.  Champlain,  and  its  name 
changed  to  The  Southern  Tier.     It  lived  only  a  few  years. 

The  Allegany  County  Advocate;  founded  at  Angelica  in  1868  by  P.  S.  Nor- 
ris,  lived  one  year. 

The  BejmMican  Aegis  and  Allegaiiy  Democrat,  published  in  Angelica  in 
1830,  continued  but  a  short  time. 

The  Allegany  Gazette,  printed  at  Angelica  in  1840. 

The  Andover  Advertiser,  founded  at  Andover  by  E.  S.  Barnard  in  1868, 
existed  about  2  years. 

Tlie  Friendship  Chronicle,  printed  at  Friendship  in  1881  by  J.  W.  Hen- 
drick,  was  soon  discontinued. 

The  Neiv  Democratic  Era,  started  at  Cuba  by  W.  J.  Carrier  in  1865,  was 
consolidated  with  The  Patriot  the  same  year. 

The  WellsviUe  Times  was  established  at  Wellsville  in  1872  by  Geo.  Howe, 
Benton  C.  Rude  being  its  editor.     It  was  merged  in  the  lieporter  in  1874. 

Tlie  Almond  CJironicle  was  suspended  in  1895,  having  been  published 
about  one  year. 

Tlie  Bolivar  Sundaij  Leader*  was  launched  in  November  in  1881,  by  Well- 
ington, Nash  &  Anderson.  It  was  a  sprightly  6-column  quarto  and  for  a 
time  prospered,  but  it  never  outgrew  a  Washington  hand  press.  Wlien  the 
oil  boom  began  to  decline  Wellington  became  sole  proprietor  and  continued 
its  publication  until  1890,  when  it  was  sold  to  a  Populist  stock  company,  who 
installed  C.  M.  Mason  as  editor.  The  name  was  changed  to  Alliance  Leader. 
Mason  was  a  theorist,  not  a  practical  newspaper  man,  and  from  the  day  of 
change  the  paper  steadily  "lost  money."  In  1891  the  plant  was  moved  to 
Belmont  where  publication  continued  a  few  months.  When  the  stock 
holders  ceased  to  "loosen,"  the  paper  suspended.     F.  R.  Wellington  is  now 

*  We  are  indebted  to  Brother  J.  P.  Herrick  of  the  Bolivar  Breeze  for  the  following  bibliography  of  the 
papers  of  the  southern  towns. 

Bibliography  of  the  County  Newspapers.  197 

in  business  in  Taconia.  E.  A.  Anderson  is  a  Methodist  minister,  and  Nash 
has  e:one  from  the  oil  regions. 

The  first  issue  of  TIte  OH  Echo  appeared  at  Richburg  on  tlie  morning  of 
January  18,  1882.  It  was  a  seven-column  folio,  published  by  a  stock  com- 
pany, with  P.  C.  Boyle,  now  of  the  Oil  City  Derrick,  as  editor  and  manager. 
It  was  printed  on  a  two-revolution  Hoe  press,  and  enjoyed  a  news  franchise. 
The  Echo  was  conducted  in  a  fearless  manner  and  had  a  good  circulation. 
The  office  was  burned  in  May,  1882,  shortly  after  the  Cherry  Grove  "  boom  " 
began  to  depopulate  Richburg  and  no  further  issues  were  made. 

The  Elchburg  Weekhj  Era  was  launched  in  November,  1881,  by  S.  H. 
Jennings,  at  present  publisher  of  the  The  Almond  Neiu  Era.  It  was  soon 
made  a  daily  with  S.  J.  Small  business  manager.  Tlie  Era  was  continued 
several  months  but  it  never  proved  a  success  financially.  Mr.  Small  finally 
bought  the  plant  and  issued  The  Sunday  JRacqiiet,  which  lived  but  a  short 

The  initial  number  of  the  Bolivar  Breeze  appeared  on  Saturday,  August 
29,  1891.  The  Alliance  Leader  had  been  moved  to  Belmont  and  Bolivar  needed 
a  newspaper.  The  editor  and  proprietor  was  J.  P.  Herrick,  of  the  Ceres  Mail. 
The  Breeze  at  once  struck  the  popular  fancy  and  proved  remunerative  from 
the  start.  It  has  one  of  the  most  completely  equipped  plants  in  the  county, 
and  enjoys  a  very  liberal  patronage.  The  paper  does  not  dabble  in  politics, 
is  independent,  and  aims  to  excel  as  a  local  and  county  newspaper. 

The  first  printing  office  in  Alfred  was  established  in  1859  by  J.  E.  B.  and 
Wm.  P.  Maxson,  who  published  T'he  Neio  Era.  a  weekly  local  newspaper. 

In  1872.  the  Sabbath  Recorder,  the  organ  of  the  Seventh-day  Baptist 
denomination,  was  issued  in  Alfred  in  July  of  that  year.  It  was  the  prop- 
erty of  the  American  Sabbath  Tract  Society,  and  was  in  the  28th  year  of  its 
existence.  The  plant,  during  its  stay  here,  until  the  close  of  1894,  grew 
to  immense  proportions,  the  office  issuing  very  many  other  publications, 
weekly,  monthly  and  quarterly,  among  them  the  Outlook,  Peculiar  Pecyple, 
Eelxiing  Hand,  etc.,  sending  through  the  mail,  yearly,  tons  upon  tons  of  read- 
ing matter.  They  also  printed  for  Alfred  University  The  Alfred  Student  and 
The  Alfred  University,  both  of  w^hich  have  ceased  to  exist.  During  these 
years  the  editors  were,  Rev.  N.  V.  Hull,  Rev.  Stephen  Burdick,  Rev.  L.  A. 
Platts  and  Rev.  L.  E.  Livermore,  and  the  business  managers,  David  R.  Still- 
man,  Rev.  L.  A.  Platts.  Rev.  Earl  P.  Saunders  and  John  P.  Mosher.  At  the 
close  of  1894,  the  Publishing  House  was  transferred  to  Plainfield,  N.  J. 

In  1883  it  was  planned  by  F.  A.  Crumb,  Bert  Sherman,  L.  W.  Niles, 
John  P.  Mosher  and  John  M.  Mosher.  employed  in  the  Publishing  House  at 
Alfred,  to  start  a  weekly  local  newspaper,  non-partisan  in  politics,  and  Jan- 
uary 1,  1884,  the  first  number  of  the  Alfred  Snn  was  issued,  with  John  M. 
Mosher  editor,  and  John  P.  Mosher  business  manager,  without  remunera- 
tion. The  composition  and  press  work  were  done  at  the  Publishing  House  at 
the  actual  cost.  It  was  run  under  this  management  one  year,  when  three 
of  the  stockholders  retired,  leaving  it  in  the  hands  of  P.  A.  Crumb  and  L.  W. 

198  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Niles,  the  latter  soon  buying  out  the  former.  Shortly  thereafter,  Mr.  Crumb 
purchased  the  entire  plant  of  Mr.  Niles,  and  carried  it  alone  until  the  close 
of  the  year,  when  he  sold  out  to  Rev.  L.  E.  Livermore,  who  purchased 
material,  and,  with  the  help  of  one  or  two  others,  issued  the  paper  for  tw^o 
years,  when  he,  being  called  to  a  pastorate  of  a  church  in  New  Jersey,  sold 
to  his  son-in-law,  W.  H.  Satterlee,  who  carried  on  the  business  for  two  years 
more,  when  several  of  the  young  men  in  town  thought  best  to  have  a  Repub- 
lican paper  in  our  midst,  and  they,  forming  a  stock  company,  purchased  the 
plant,  and  issued  their  first  number  under  the  new  regime  Jan.  1,  1890,  with 
John  M.  Mosher  editor  and  business  manager,  and  Jno.  J.  Merrill  assistant 
editor.  On  the  first  of  January,  1895,  the  stockholders  of  the  Sun  Associa- 
tion purchased  material  for  a  job  ofdce  and  moved  into  the  building  known 
as  the  Publishing  House,  enlarging  the  Sun,  and  appointing  John  M.  Mosher 
and  Frank  A.  Crumb  editors  and  managers.  At  the  beginning  of  1896, 
Frank  A.  Crumb  and  Frank  S.  Whitford,  having  purchased  a  controlling 
interest  in  the  stock  of  the  Association,  assumed  the  management  thereof. 
The  Alfred  Sun  to-day  is  recognized  as  one  of  the  leading  Republican  papers 
of  Allegany  county. 

Our  Sabbath  Visitor  is  a  weekly  Sabbath-school  paper,  and  is  published 
by  E.  S.  Bliss.     It  is  now  in  its  fourteenth  year. 

The  University  Bulletin,  a  paper  published  qiiarterly  by  Alfred  Univer- 
sity, was  commenced  in  1895.  The  printing  is  being  done  at  the  office  of 
the  Alfred  Sun. 

The  Arena,  a  paper  devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  Farmers'  Alliance^ 
was  issued  from  the  ofiice  of  E.  S.  Bliss,  Alfred,  in  1889.  On  account  of 
the  lack  of  patronage  but  a  few  numbers  were  printed. 

Mr.  Frank  S.  Miller,  proprietor  of  the  Ganaseraga  Times,  sends  us  this 
concerning  his  paper:  "  In  1872  H.  C.  Scott  established  the  Times,  and  con- 
ducted it  until  1877.  He  was  succeeded  as  owner  and  publisher  by  W.  H. 
Barnum,  who  continued  in  the  business  until  April  1,  1885,  when  I  purchased 
the  entire  plant  and  have  since  been  publisher." 

The  Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union.  199 


THE   woman's   christian    TEMPERANCE   UNION. 

BY    MISS    MARY    E.    BOWLER. 

SOME  sayings  haunt  us,  and  since  we  have  undertali:en  to  choose  out  and 
set  in  order  those  things  concerning  this  great  organization  which 
shall  be  just  and  adequate  as  history,  there  are  three:  "Histories  are  strange 
things,"  "Whoever  writes  history  writes  himself  a  liar, "  and  "The  begin- 
nings of  all  things  are  small,"  which  we  feel  sure  we  shall  be  able  to  verify. 
The  "Woman's  Crusade."  inaugurated  in  our  neighboring  county  of 
Chautauqua  at  Predonia,  Dec.  15,  1873,  and  of  which  the  Woman's  Christian 
Temperance  Union  was  the  outgrowth  (the  first  one  being  organized  there 
one  week  from  that  day,  Dec.  22,  1873),  did  not.  to  our  knowledge,  take  root 
in  our  county.  At  the  convention  called  in  Syracuse,  Oct.  14,  1874,  where 
the  state  organization  was  etfected,  Allegany  county  was  represented  by 
Mrs.  B.  C.  Rude  of  Wellsville,  her  name  appearing  as  chaii-man  of  a  com- 
mittee to  draft  a  memorial  to  President  Grant  and  Governor  Dix.  Whether 
any  efforts  were  made  in  the  meantime  to  organize  the  county  Union,  we 
do  not  know,  but  not  till  nearly  five  years  later,  at  Friendship,  in  July, 
1879,  was  it  accomplished.  At  a  temperance  convention  (they  were  held  by 
men  in  those  days)  held  in  the  old  academy  at  Friendship,  July,  1879,  Mrs. 
B.  C.  Rude  asked  all  women  who  were  interested  to  meet  her  at  a  stated 
time  in  one  of  the  recitation  rooms.  25  or  30  responded.  After  explaining 
the  object  and  methods  of  the  organization,  and  urging  its  benefits  as  she 
could  so  well  do,  remarks  were  made  by  othei's,  and  a  motion  to  organize 
prevailed.  A  paper  was  circulated  for  names  of  those  who  would  become 
members,  but  it  was  not  preserved,  and  the  minutes  of  the  meeting  were 
not  entered  in  the  secretary's  book.  Mrs.  Helen  M.  Barker  of  Friend- 
ship was  chosen  president,  and  Mrs.  V.  A.  Willard  of  Belmont  secretary, 
neither  of  whom  were  present.  Four  women  paid  the  fee  of  fifty  cents  and 
their  names  are  on  the  book  in  the  treasurer's  account.  They  are  Mrs. 
James  Smith,  Mrs.  John  Briggs,  Mrs.  John  McKee  and  Mrs.  D.  C.  Willard 
to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  the  account  of  tlie  organization. 

The  first  meeting  was  called  in  connection  with  a  temperance  convention 
held  at  Andover,  January  28,  1880.  15  names  were  added  to  the  member- 
ship. Articles  of  constitution  were  presented  by  Mrs.  B.  C.  Rude,  and 
adopted  with  the  amendment  to  Art.  1,  "that  the  payment  of  fifty  cents 
should  not  be  requisite  for  membership, "  which  was  reconsidered  at  the 
next  meeting,  and  the  constitution  adopted  as  it  now  stands.  It  was  known 
as  the  Allegany  County  Woman's  Temperance  Union.  The  officers  were  to 
be  as  follows:  President,  vice  president,  secretary  and  executive  committee 

200  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

of  five,  and  one  honorary  vice  president  from  each  town  in  the  county,  who 
should  act  as  corresponding  secretary  of  that  town,  sohcit  members  from 
their  several  towns  and  at  once  take  steps  for  the  formation  of  unions  to  act  in 
co-operation  with  and  subordinate  to  the  county  union.  The  first  ex- 
ecutive committee  was  Mrs.  H.  M.  Barker  of  Friendship,  Mrs.  B.  C.  Rude 
of  Wellsville,  Mrs.  N.  V.  Hull  of  Alfred  Centre,  Mrs.  A.  Coit  of  Wellsville 
and  Mrs.  V.  A.  Willard  of  Belmont.  The  organization  was  now  fully  accom- 
plished and  the  next  meeting  was  called  at  Friendship,  July  20,  1880,  where 
eleven  towns  were  rejiresented  by  delegates  though  as  yet  there  were  no 
local  organizations. 

In  the  light  of  the  sixteen  years  that  have  since  passed  with  their 
evolutions  on  the  temperance  question,  it  is  interesting  to  read  some  of  the 
first  resolutions  adopted  by  them,  especially  as  we  are  so  often  told  that  we 
have  turned  aside  from  the  work  we  were  organized  to  do:  ''  Besolved,  That 
we  as  women  must  ever  use  our  utmost  efforts  and  influence  to  induce  our 
husbands,  sons  and  brothers  to  enforce  more  rigorously  the  laws  already 
made,  and  to  enact  laws  still  more  stringent  to  protect  society  against  the 
terrible  evils  of  intemperance."  ''Whereas,  the  license  law  already  in  ex- 
istence sends  forth  a  desolating  scourge  into  the  land  to  waste  and  destroy; 
therefore.  Resolved,  That  we  use  our  utmost  endeavors  to  introduce  in  its 
stead  a  prohibitory  law,  which  shall  strike  at  the  root  of  this  great  evil  and 
seek  to  exterminate  it  at  once  and  forever  from  our  fair  land.  We  earnestly 
recommend  that  young  men  band  themselves  together  in  the  formation  of 
anti-treat-societies."  "  We  recommend  the  use  of  unfermented  wines  for 
sacramental  purposes,  and,  further,  that  in  all  total  abstinence  pledges 
cider  be  included."  "We  renew  our  entreaties  that  our  husbands  and 
brothers  abandon  the  use  of  tobacco,  and  unite  their  influence  with  ours 
against  it. ' ' 

These  declarations  show  women  intelligent,  moral,  broad  and  brave, 
who  fearlessly  took  their  stand  and  have  steadfastly  held  their  place  in  the 
extreme  advance  line  of  this  unpopular  cause.  We  may  not  even  tell  their 
names;  the  great  majority  are  unknown  to  the  world,  but  we  know  that 
because  of  them  the  work  prospered,  and,  because  of  the  work,  they  were 
made  better. 

But  to  return,  Mrs.  N.  V.  Hull  and  Mrs.  H.  M.  Barker  were  appointed 
organizers,  later,  Mrs.  J.  B.  Bradley,  and  when  the  young  women's  work  was 
taken  up.  Miss  Emma  A.  Ross  was  superintendent  and  organizer.  Through 
their  efforts,  aided  by  lecturers  who  have  visited  the  county  from  time  to 
time,  every  town  of  the  county  but  three  has  had  an  organization.  Some 
unions  were  established  that  only  had  a  name  to  live,  and  other  unions  (be- 
cause the  members  were  now  at  school,  now  teaching,  or  called  from  home 
for  other  reasons)  have  disbanded,  still  the  interest  has  never  languished. 
The  first  "local"  was  organized  in  Cuba,  October  26,  1880,  and  from  that 
time  organization  went  steadily  forward.  Since  1886  an  excess  of  500  mem- 
bers has  entitled  us  to  a  representation  in  the  National  conventions.     Few 

The  Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union.  201 

counties  in  the  nation  were  as  little  atfected  as  ours  by  the  sifting  process 
the  organization  jjassed  through  in  1889.  35  conventions  have  been  held 
where  different  phases  and  plans  of  work  were  discussed,  reports  made  and 
a  mass  meeting,  addressed  by  some  speaker  of  note,  has  inspired  the 
workers  with  added  interest  and  zeal,  and  given  to  the  public  the  broad 
principles  and  outlook  of  the  W.  C.  T.  U..  and  what  they  deemed  to  be  the 
urgent  need  of  tlie  hour. 

Departments  taken  up  by  the  county,  are  Evangelistic;  Prison  and  Jail; 
Social  Purity  and  Mothers'  meetings;  Juvenile;  Sabbath  School;  Soldiers 
and  Sailors;  Scientific  Temperance  Instruction;  Narcotics;  Franchise; 
Health  and  Non-Alcoholics;  Literature;  Press  Work;  Young  Women's 
Work;  Fair  Work.  Effective  labor  has  been  done  along  all  of  these  lines. 
The  organization  became  auxiliary  to  the  state  at  the  annual  meeting  held 
in  Wellsville  in  1882,  took  the  name  W.  C.  T.  U.,  and,  since  that  time,  the 
money  raised  for  all  purposes  by  local  unions,  as  reported,  amounts  to  $16,- 
514,  but  reports  are  never  complete,  and  it  is  safe  to  say  a  much  larger 
amount  than  that  has  been  used  in  the  work. 

In  this  sketch  little  can  be  said  of  the  workers.  We  append  tabulated 
statistics,  names  of  oflicers,  superintendents,  etc.,  for  reference  in  con- 
densed and  convenient  form,  and  we  would  gladly  add  the  name  of  every 
woman  who  has  kej^t  warm  in  her  heart  an  interest  in  this  work  for  human- 
ity. They  are  the  Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union.  They 
have  traveled  innumerable  miles  through  heat  and  cold  with  petitions,  be- 
seiged  assembly  and  senate  with  letters,  pleaded  with  school  boards  and 
teachers  for  more  thorough  teaching  of  the  effects  of  alcohol  and  narcotics, 
put  literature  on  ship  board  (Allegany  has  4  libraries  out),  held  services 
continuously  in  jails,  and  alms  houses,  and  in  every  way  made  possible  the 
accomplished  work  of  the  W.  C.  T.  U.     To  them  be  all  honor. 

But  a  word  is  due  the  five  women  who  have  stood  as  our  leaders.  In 
having  such  leaders  we  have  been  signally  favored.  The  readers  of  the 
future  will  look  with  interest  on  the  features  of  those  who  in  time  of  stress 
bore  heavy  burdens  to  advance  this  good  cause.  Mrs.  Barker  is  now  treas- 
urer of  the  National  organization  at  Chicago.  Mrs.  Rude  is  now  of  Duluth, 
Minn.,  and  Mrs.  Potter  of  Oakland,  Cal.  Mrs.  J.  B.  Bradley  of  Bolivar,  has 
been  a  standard  bearer  ever  since  she  came  into  the  county  in  1882.  Liv- 
ing in  an  ••  oil  town,"  where  C(mditions  are  peculiar,  the  population  continu- 
ally changing,  the  union  under  her  leadership  has  bravely  held  its  numbers 
in  members,  and  no  less  than  five  women  who  have  gone  out  from  there  are 
now  presidents  of  unions  in  difi'erent  parts  of  the  county.  Mrs.  Willard's 
work  speaks  for  her.  For  fifteen  of  the  sixteen  years  of  the  organization 
she  has  been  a  member  of  the  executive  committee  and  for  twelve  years  of 
that  time  its  president.  To  her  efforts  is  largely  due  the  uncompromising 
attitude  on  all  essential  points,  the  unity  of  purpose  and  harmony  of  efl'ort 
that  has  made  this  one  of  the  strongest  county  organizations  in  the  state. 
Whatever  work  the  state  has  accomplished  in  legislation  or  other  effort,  Ai- 

202  History  op  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

legany  has  given  her  full  share.  The  greatest  work  we  have  done  may  not 
be  written  in  history,  it  is  on  the  hearts  of  the  workers  and  on  the  lives  of 
those  they  have  influenced;  for  "Wherever  there  is  a  wrong  to  right,  an  evil 
to  attack  or  a  hand  to  help,  there  will  you  find  a  woman  with  a  white  ribbon 
on  her  breast." 

Officers  of  Allegany  County  W.  C.  T.  U.  from  1879  to  1895.  Presidents: 
Mrs.  H.  M.  Barker,  1879-1880;  Mrs.  B.  C.  Rude,  1880-1881;  Mrs.  E.  J. 
Potter,  1881-1882;  Mrs.  Mary  L.  Willard,  1882-1884;  Mrs.  J.  B.  Bradley, 
1884-1885;  Mrs.  Mary  L.  Willard,  1885-1895.  Vice  Presidents:  Mrs.  H.  M. 
Barker,  1880-1881;  Mrs.  W.  Wesler,  1881-1882;  Mrs.  L.  A.  HuU,  1882-1884; 
Mrs.  E.  M.  Steele,  1884-1885;  Mrs.  J.  B.  Bradley,  1885-1887;  Miss  Emma  A. 
Ross,  1887-1892;  Mrs.  G.  W.  Fries,  1892-1894;  Mrs.  A.  M.  Taylor.  1894-1895. 
Corresponding  Secretaries,  and  Treasurers:  Mrs.  Mary  L.  Willard,  1879- 
1882;  Miss  Emma  A.  Ross,  1882-1885;  Miss  Mary  E.  Bowler,  1885-1886; 
Mrs.  L.  A.  Hull,  1886-resigned;  Mrs.  Chas.  StiUman,  Feb.,  1887-1889;  Cor- 
responding Secretaries,  Mrs.  J.  Hendricks,  1889-resigned;  Miss  Mary  E. 
Bowler.  Aug.,  1889-1895.  Recording  Secretaries,  Mrs.  J.  R.  Freeland, 
1882-1884;  Mrs.  D.  V.  Scott,  1884-1885;  Mrs.  S.  M.  Bhss,  1885-1888;  Miss 
Mary.  E.  Bowler,  1888-1889;  Mrs.  A.  M.  Taylor,  1889-1894;  Miss  Emma  A. 
Ross,  1894-1895.  Treasurer,  Mrs.  Helen  A.  Richardson,  1889-1895.  County 
officers,  1895:  President,  Mrs.  Mary  L.  Willard,  Belmont;  Vice  President, 
Mrs.  A.  M.  Taylor.  Rushford;  Corresponding  Secretary,  Miss  Mary  E. 
Bowler,  Little  Genesee;  Recording  Secretary,  Miss  Emma  Ross,  Wellsville; 
Treasurer.  Mrs.  Helen  Richardson,  Belmont.  Department  superintendents, 
Soldiers  and  Sailors,  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Allen,  Friendship;  Social  Purity  and 
Mothers'  Meetings,  Mrs.  A.  A.  Allen,  Alfred;  Narcotics,  Miss  Mary  E. 
.  Bowler,  Little  Genesee;  Scientific  Temperance,  Mrs.  J.  B.  Bradley,  Boli- 
var; Evangehstic,  Mrs.  A.  M.  Taylor.  Rushford;  Franchise,  Mrs.  Mary  B. 
Miller,  Andover;  Prison  and  Jail,  Mrs.  J.  W.  Bartlett,  Belmont;  Health  and 
Non-Alcohohcs,  Mrs.  M.  B.  Burdick,  Alfred;  Juvenile,  Mrs.  K.  M,  Kavert, 
Belfast;  Literature,  Mrs.  L.  E.  Clark.  Houghton;  Press  Work,  Mrs.  Mary 
A.  Minard,  Fillmore;  Cuba  Camp  Secretary,  Mrs.  J.  M.  Barnes,  Cuba. 

List  of  Unions  with  date  of  organization:  Cuba,  Oct.  26,  1880;  Little 
Genesee,  Nov.  18,  1880;  Nile,  Feb.  8,  1881;  Friendship,  Jan.,  1882;  Scio,  Feb. 
15,  1882;  Belmont,  Feb.,  1882;  Alfred  Centre,  Feb.  20,  1882;  Andover,  March 
1,1882;  Richburg,  March  2,  1882;  Independence,  July,  1882;  Rushford,  Nov. 
30,  1882— Oct.  27,  1887;  Almond,  March,  1883— Jan.  24,  1895;  Angehca,  April 
28,  1883;  Belfast,  Oct.,  1883;  Bolivar,  Dec.  6,  1883;  Ceres,  April  19,  1884; 
West  Almond,  July  2,  1884;  Whitesville,  Nov.,  1884;  Canaseraga,  June,  1885; 
Allentown,  June  15,  1885;  Stannard's  Corners.  1885;  Birdsall,  No.  1,  1885; 
Birdsah,  No.  2,  1885;  Caneadea,  1885;  West  Clarksville,  1886;  Honeoye, 
1887;  Shongo,  1887;  Houghton,  May  17,  1887;  Fihmore,  June  8,  1888;  Black 
Creek,  Aug.  8,  1888;  Hume,  Nov.  16,  1889. 

Y  Unions  have  been  established  at  Bohvar,  1886;  Cuba,  1887;  Ceres, 
Scio,  Wellsville  and  Allentown,  1888;  Belfast,  1889. 


MRS.    H.    M.    BARKER 

MRS.    M.    L.    WILLARD. 

MRS.    E.    J.    POTTER. 

MRS.    N.    S.    BRADLEY. 

The  Allegany  County  Sunday-School  Association.  203 

Conventions  held  and  speakers:  Andover,  Jan.  28,  1880;  Friendship, 
July,  20,  1880,  Mrs.  B.  C.  Rude;  Cuba,  Feb.  2,  1881,  Mrs.  Letitia  Yeomans; 
Andover.  Nov.  15.  1881.  Mrs.  Lillie  Devereaux  Blake;  Scio,  Feb.  15,  1882, 
Mrs.  Mary  T.  Burt;  Wells ville.  July  12.  1882,  Mrs.  Letitia  Yeomans;  Rich- 
burg-,  Oct.  18,  1882,  Mrs.  Louise  Rounds;  Alfred  Centre,  Feb.  21,  1883,  Miss 
NarcissaE.  White;  Nile.  July  11.  1888.  Mrs.  L.  M.  Stoddard;  Rushford,  Oct. 
3,  1883,  Miss  Narcissa  E.  White;  Almond,  Feb.  6,  1884,  Mrs.  D.  V.  Scott; 
Angehca,  July  9,  1884,  Rev.  Mr.  Coit;  Little  Genesee,  Oct.  8,  1884,  Miss 
NarcissaE.  White;  Alfred.  Feb.  11.  1885.  Mrs.  Mary  T.  Burt;  Bolivar,  July 
30,  18S5.  Mrs.  Mary  T.  Lathrop;  Scio.  Feb.  17,  1886.  Mrs.  Emily  McLaugh- 
lin; Belmont,  July  28,  1886,  Mrs.  R.  A.  Emmons;  Allentown,  Feb.  1,  18h7, 
Mrs.  Mary  A.  Woodbridge;  Andover,  July  13,  1887,  Miss  Narcissa  E.  White; 
Belfast,  Feb.  1,  1888,  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Woodbridge;  Ceres,  July  10,  1888,  Mrs. 
Helen  L.  Bullock;  Wellsville,  Jan.  30,  1889,  Mrs.  Ella  A.  Boole;  FiUmore, 
July  24,  1889,  Mrs.  Clara  C.  Hoffman;  Friendship.  Jan.  29,  1890,  Mrs.  Mary 
A.  Woodbridge;  Angelica.  July  23,  1890,  Mrs.  Louise  Rounds;  Almond.  Jan. 
28,  1891,  Mrs.  Ella  A.  Boole;  Bolivar,  July  29,  1891,  Mrs.  Mary  T.  Lathrop; 
Alfred  Centre,  Jan.  27,  1892,  Rev.  Anna  H.  Shaw;  Rushford,  July  26.  1892, 
Mrs.  Marion  Baxter;  Scio.  Jan.  25,  1893,  Mrs.  Lytie  P.  Davies;  Belfast,  July 
26,  1893,  Carrie  Lane  Chapman;  Richburg,  Jan.  24,  1894,  Mrs.  Mary  J. 
Weaver;  Fillmore,  July  17,  1894,  Rev.  Henrietta  Moore;  Belmont,  Jan.  23, 
1895,  Mrs.  Ella  A.  Boole;  Almond.  July  24,  1895,  Mrs.  H.  M.  Barker. 

The  Allegany  County  Sunday -School  Association. — No  records 
showing  how  long  the  Association  has  been  in  existence  or  of  its  earlier 
work  are  in  the  hands  of  the  present  officers.  The  object  of  the  association 
as  set  forth  in  its  constitution  is  ••  by  union  and  concert  of  action  to  improve 
the  character  and  efficiency  of  the  Sunday-school  work,  and  extend  its  intiu- 
ence  to  every  part  of  the  county."  The  21st  annual  convention  of  the  asso- 
ciation in  its  present  form  was  held  in  the  M.  E.  church  at  Wellsville  on  the 
14th  and  15th  of  May,  1895.  At  this  meeting  the  county  secretary's  report 
of  work  for  1894  showed  that  73  schools  in  the  county  had  made  reports  of 
their  work,  showing-  these  totals:  number  of  officers  and  teachers  957.  pupils 
7,661,  average  attendance  3,815.  number  of  conversions  342,  amount  of  con- 
tributions $3,276. 18.  The  present  officers  of  the  Association  are:  Rev.  James 
A.  Miller,  Ph.D.,  Angehca,  president;  R.  D.  Bebee,  Spring  MiBs,  Fred  R. 
Pratt,  Short  Tract,  R.  L.  Andrus,  Bolivar.  Rev.  B.  C.  Davis,  Alfred,  Charles 
E.  Davis,  Wellsville,  Charles  Cochran,  Andover,  Charles  Ingham,  Hume, 
vice  presidents;  Clinton  H.  Miner.  Cuba,  corresponding  secretary;  W.  J. 
Richardson,  Belmont,  treasurer;  Miss  Mary  E.  Fuller,  Cuba,  recording 
secretary;  Miss  Estella  Cole,  Friendship,  women's  mission  secretary. 

204  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.   Y. 

Federation  of  Women's  Clubs. — The  first  meeting  of  the  Executive 
Board  of  the  Allegany  County  Federation  of  Women's  Literary  Clubs  and 
Societies  occurred  at  the  library  building  in  Belmont,  Sept.  11,  1895.  The 
members  of  the  board  present  were:  President.  Mrs.  Hamilton  Ward,  Beh 
mont;  1st  vice  president,  Mrs.  F.  B.  Church,  Wellsville;  2d  vice  president, 
Mrs.  F.  B.  Keeney,  Belvidere;  secretary,  Mrs.  F.  L.  Charles,  Cuba:  treasurer, 
Mrs.  S.  M.  Norton,  Friendship;  alternates,  Mrs,  Rice,  Friendship  and  Mrs. 
L.  A.  Platts  of  Alfred.  The  invitation  to  hold  the  annual  meeting  in  Wells- 
ville, as  guests  of  the  Monday  Club,  was  accepted,  and  a  program  arranged 
for  that  occasion.  The  preparatory  sessions  to  this  annual  meeting  of  the 
Federation  were  enthusiastically  attended  and  great  interest  was  manifested. 
Allegany  may  be  proud  of  this  organization  since  she  has  the  iirst  County 
Federation  of  Literary  Clubs  and  Societies  organized  in  the  state,  and  it  was 
the  first  one  received  into  the  State  Federation  and  also  the  General  Federa- 
tion. All  women's  clubs  in  the  county  that  have  been  organized  at  least  one 
year,  and  are  existing  for  the  purix)ses  of  culture  and  intelligence,  are  eligi- 
ble. Application  for  membership  shall  be  made  to  the  president  or  secre- 
tary at  least  two  weeks  before  the  annual  meeting,  and  shall  be  accompanied 
by  a  copy  of  its  constitution  and  by-laws,  a  sketch  of  the  work  of  the  club, 
its  membership,  etc.  The  first  annual  meeting  was  held  at  Wellsville,  Oct. 
23,  1895.  It  was  largely  attended.  Mrs.  Hamilton  Ward  of  Belmont,  Mrs. 
F.  L.  Charles  of  Cuba.  Mrs.  Frank  B.  Church  and  Mrs.  Nora  E.  Darling  of 
WeUsville,  represented  the  Allegany  Federation  at  the  first  annual  meeting 
of  the  New  York  State  Federation  held  at  Brooklyn,  Nov.  20,  1895.  Here 
Mrs.  Hamilton  Ward,  the  honored  president  of  our  County  Federation  was 
elected  a  vice  president  of  the  State  Federation. 

A  Political  Equality  county  organization  was  effected  at  Belmont, 
Jan.  23,  1895,  with  Mrs.  Ida  K.  Church  of  Wellsville,  president;  Mrs.  Eliza 
B.  Fries  of  Friendship,  -Ist  'vice  president;  Miss  Mary  E.  Bowler  of  Lit- 
tle Genesee,  2d  vice  president;  Mrs.  Sara  W.  Freeland  of  Wellsville,  secre- 
ary;  Mrs.  Mary  B.  Miller  of  Andover,  treasurer.  The  first  annual  meeting 
(suffrage  convention)  was  held  at  Andover,  Dec.  5.  1895,  where  these  officers 
were  .elected:  President,  Mrs.  Ida  K.  Church,  Wellsville;  vice  president, 
Mrs.  Eliza  B.  Fries,  Friendship;  recording  secretary,  Mrs.  Sara  W.  Free- 
land,  Wellsville;  corresponding  secretary,  Mrs.  Abigail  A.  Allen,  Alfred; 
treasurer,  Mrs.  A.  M.  Burrows,  Andover;  auditors.  Miss  Fannie  Lewis. 
Wellsville,  Mrs.  Hendricks,  Andover;  honorary  vice  presidents.  Mrs.  Brad 
ley,  Andover,  and  Mrs.  Allen,  Alfred. 

Prominent   Organizations.  205 


prominent  organizations. 

THE  Allegany  County  G.  A.  R.  Association. — At  the  state  capital  at 
Springfield,  111.,  July  12,  1866,  was  organized,  the  Grand  Army  of  the 
Republic.  The  objects  of  the  organization,  which  is  composed  of  those  who 
were  oflicers  and  private  soldiers  in  the  late  civil  war,  are  the  fostering  of 
fraternal  relations,  and  the  keeping  alive  the  zeal  of  patriotism,  and  devotion 
to  our  country,  mutual  support  and  assistance,  clothing  the  naked  and  feed- 
ing the  hungry,  furnishing  employment  to  destitute  sick  and  wounded  com- 
rades and  caring  for  the  widows  and  orphans  of  the  gallant  dead.  While  it 
wisely  claims  to  abstain  from  political  and  partisan  action,  it  has,  as  an 
organization,  taken  an  active  part  in  public  matters  affecting  their  general 
interests,  notably,  to  secure  increased  pensions  for  many  deserving  classes, 
and  to  remove  conceded  obstacles  to  a  fair  construction  of  the  application  of 
pension  legislation.  The  organization  is  National,  Departmental  and  by 
Posts.  In  the  department  of  New  York  in  1894,  there  were  070  posts,  with 
a  membership  of  39,909. 

January  15th,  1891,  33  delegates,  from  the  different  posts  in  the  county, 
assembled  at  Cuba,  and  organized  the  Allegany  County  G.  A.  R.  Asso- 
ciation, with  the  following  officers:  President,  P.  G.  Mayhew,  Angelica;  1st 
vice  president,  A.  M.  Boyd,  Wells ville;  2d  vice  president,  L.  A.  Krusen, 
Stannards  Corners;  secretary,  C.  H.  Miner,  Cuba;  treasurer,  W.  Kelly,  Bel- 
fast; O.  D.,  P.  C.  Soule,  M.  D.,  Wiscoy.  The  objects  of  the  association  are 
in  accord  with  the  national  organization,  and  also  to  effect  unity  of  purpose 
and  action  by  the  posts  of  the  county.  Twelve  posts  were  represented  at 
this  first  meeting.  The  next  meeting  was  held  in  Wells  ville.  May  14th, 
1891,  and  the  same  year  the  association  met  at  Cuba,  on  the  grounds  of  the 
Temperance  Camp  Meeting,  and  the  meeting  was  called  the  •■  campfire  "  of 
the  Association.     The  attendance  was  large. 

The  second  annual  meeting  was  held  at  the  court  house  in  Angelica, 
December  31st,  1891.  13  posts  were  represented  with  31  delegates,  and  the 
officers  elected  were,  President  P.  G.  Mayhew,  Angelica;  1st  vice  president, 
A.  M.  Boyd,  Wellsville;  2d  vice  president,  A.  B.  Cottrell.  Bolivar;  secretary, 
R.  H.  Grady,  Cuba;  treasurer,  E.  O'Malley,  Cuba;  O.  D.,  J.  E.  Middaugh, 
Scio.  The  Association  met  next  at  Alfred,  February  25th,  1892,  10  posts 
being  represented  by  33  delegates.  The  next  annual  meeting  was  held  at 
Belmont,  December  30th,  1892,  36  delegates  being  present  from  14  posts, 
and  choice  of  officers  was  made  as  follows:  President.  A.  M.  Boyd,  Wells- 
ville; 1st  vice  president,  J.  W.  Marsh,  Alfred;  2d  vice  president,  L.  Burdick, 
Nile;  secretary,  R.  H.  Grady,  Cuba;  treasurer,  E.  GMalley,  Cuba;  O.  D., 
Robert  R.  Seely,  Belfast;  chaplain,  W.  B.  Wagoner,  Cuba.     Aug.  11th.  1893, 

206  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

a  campfire  was  enjoyed  at  Friendship.  The  third  annual  meetino-  was  held 
at  Belmont,  December  28th,  1893,  at  which  were  elected:  President,  J.  W. 
Marsh,  Alfred;  1st  vice  president,  L.  Burdick,  Nile;  2d  vice  president,  Geo. 
A.  Gseen,  Belmont;  secretary,  R.  H.  Grady,  Cuba;  treasurer.  E.  O'Malley, 
Cuba;  chaplain,  T.  C.  Carrier;  O.  D.,  A.  H.  Waters,  Belmont.  9  posts  were 
represented  with  26  delegates.  At  the  spring  meeting  at  Andover,  April 
26th,  1894,  11  posts  were  represented  with  25  delegates.  A  campfire  was 
held  Aug.  17th,  1894,  at  Belfast. 

The  fourth  annual  meeting  was  held  at  Belmont,  December  13th,  1894, 
at  which  11  posts  were  represented,  27  delegates  being  present.  These  offi- 
cers were  elected:  President,  J.  W.  Marsh;  1st  vice  president,  L.  Burdick; 
2d  vice  president,  R.  R.  Seeley;  secretary,  R.  H.  Grady;  treasurer,  E. 
O'Malley;  chaplain,  A.  L.  Halbert;  O.  D.,  A.  H.  Waters.  The  campfire  held 
at  Belmont,  Oct.  3,  1895,  was  a  very  pleasant  meeting.  Hon.  Seymour  Dex- 
ter of  Elmira,  addressed  the  large  gathering  with  a  most  pertinent,  able 
and  patriotic  speech. 

At  the  fifth  annual  meeting  held  at  Belmont,  December  19th,  1895,  the 
following  officers  were  elected;  President.  Captain  R.  R.  Seeley,  Belfast; 
1st  vice  president,  E.  O'Malley,  Cuba;  2d  vice  president,  R.  Tremain,  Wells- 
ville;  secretary,  R.  H.  Grady,  Cuba;  treasurer,  Thos.  S.  Tetft,  Belmont;  O. 
D.,  A.  H.  Waters,  Belmont;  chaplain,  A.  L.  Halbert,  Belmont. 

At  present  there  are  16  posts  in  the  county,  and  their  numbers,  names 
and  locations  are  as  follows:  No.  86,  A.  K.  Thorji  Post.  Belfast;  183,  Stephen 
T.  Bartle  Post,  Cuba;  195,  Revere  Post.  Belmont;  237,  Burnside  Post, 
Wiscoy;  241,  Hatch  Post,  Friendship;  247,  H.  C.  Gardner  Post,  Bolivar;  249, 
Cassius  Maxson  Post,  Richburg;  261.  Hakes  Post,  Scio;  296,  S.  H.  Weed 
Post,  Canaseraga;  332,  Wesley  Rolfe  Post,  Stannards  Corners;  333,  Sawyer 
Post,  WhitesviUe;  336,  Dexter  Post,  Wellsville;  428,  B.  Frank  Maxson  Post, 
Alfred;  481,  Edward  Seaman  Post,  Andover;  502,  Wilbur  Haver  Post,  An- 
gelica; 603,  A.  &  I.  Van  Nostrand  Post,  Short  Tract. 

Woman's  Relief  Corps. — An  auxiliary  to  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Re- 
public, Woman's  Relief  Corps  have  been  organized  in  many  if  not  all  of  the 
counties  of  the  state.  The  county  of  Allegany  is  not  backward  in  this  move- 
ment, as  by  the  following  list  of  names  and  presidents  of  corps,  it  appears 
that  12  out  of  the  16  i3osts  of  the  county  have  their  auxiliary  organizations. 
No.  19,  Dexter,  Wellsville,  Rosella  H.  Boyd;  49,  Stephen  T.  Bartle,  Cuba, 
Eunice  Thompson;  54,  H.  C.  Gardner,  Bolivar,  Etta  Dunning;  67,  Sawyer,  ^ 
WhitesviUe,  Augusta  Forsyth;  68,  Cassius  Maxson,  Richburg,  Mary  R. 
King;  69,  Wesley  Rolfe,  Stannards  Corners,  Vina  L.  Krusen;  90,  Hatch, 
Friendship,  Eliza  Benjamin;  95,  Wilbur  Haver,  Angehca,  Mary  O.  Blanch- 
ard;  155,  Ed.  Seaman,  Andover,  Frances  Boyd;  161,  B.  Frank  Maxson, 
Alfred,  DeEtte  Place;  169,  O.  &  I.  Van  Nostrand,  Short  Tract,  Hattie  E. 
Hall;  173,  A.  K.  Thorp,  Belfast,  Jennie  A.  Babcock. 

Prominent  Organizations.  207 

Farmers'  Alliance  and  Industrial  Union. — The  first  organiza- 
tion of  this  character  in  the  state  was  organized  at  Richburg.  April  3,  1890. 
The  next  was  formed  at  Inavale,  also  in  Wirt,  April  17,  1890,  by  D.  Frank 
Allen  the  state  organizer.  June  3,  1890,  a  temporary  organization  of  the 
county  was  formed  at  Friendship  with  13  Sub-Alliances.  July  8,  1890,  the 
permanent  organization  of  the  county  was  perfected  with  these  officers: 
S.  L.  Stanton,  president;  J.  D.  Rogers,  vice  president;  George  A.  Scott, 
secretary;  D.  C.  Millis,  treasurer;  Dennis  Barnes,  lecturer.  Through  the 
efforts  of  Mr.  Allen,  assisted  by  secretary  Scott,  the  order  was  established 
in  every  town  of  the  county  by  the  spring  of  1891,  when  there  were  80  Sub- 
Alliances,  with  more  than  5,000  members.  The  county  has  ever  since  re- 
tained its  place  as  the  banner  county  of  the  state  in  Alliance  work.  Several 
co-operative  stores  have  been  established  by  the  order,  which  has  been  the 
means  of  saving  thousands  of  dollars  to  its  members.  Several  halls  have 
been  built,  notably  Sherman  Alliance,  No.  2.  Hall,  at  Inavale,  which,  together 
with  the  sheds  and  other  property,  is  valued  at  upwards  of  $1,000.  Much 
benefit  has  been  derived  from  the  social  and  educational  features  of  this 
order,  as  no  other  organization  has  ever  attained  so  great  a  membership  or 
reached  the  same  class  of  people.  Present  officers  of  the  County  Alliance 
are:  John  C.  Powers,  president;  S.  L.  Stanton,  vice  president;  M.  C.  West- 
cott,  secretary  and  treasurer;  D.  F.  Allen,  lecturer. 

The  Allegany  County  Farmers'  Club. — Owing  to  the  loss  of  the 
records  of  this  club  uj)  to  two  years  ago,  this  account  can  not  be  given  as 
much  in  detail  and  particulars,  as  might  be  desired.  From  information 
gained  from  Mr.  A.  W.  Litchard  and  one  or  two  others,  we  learn  this: 

It  was  organized  in  February,  1883,  at  the  court  house  in  Angelica.  The 
attendance  was  not  large,  but  energetic,  wide-awake,  enterprising  elements 
were  present  and  well  represented.  Mr.  Hiram  Karr  of  West  Almond  was 
elected  its  first  president,  and  Joseph  H.  Rutherford  of  Angelica  its  first  sec- 
retary. Meetings  were  held  during  the  year  at  different  places,  and  con- 
siderable interest  awakened.  In  1884,  William  Weaver  of  Angelica  was 
made  president,  and  the  membership  of  the  club  considerably  increased. 
Mrs.  M.  L.  Rumpff  of  Angelica  was  this  year,  or  the  next,  made  secretary, 
and  published  the  proceedings  regularly  in  her  paper,  Every  Week,  which 
became  an  organ  of  the  society,  and  continued  as  such  for  six  or  seven  years, 
during  her  incumbency  of  the  oftice.  She  was  succeeded  by  J.  F.  Coad  of 
Cuba,  and  Mr.  Charles  Stillman  of  Alfred,  the  present  secretary,  succeeded 
Mr.  Coad  about  1893.  In  1885  David  H.  Norton  of  Friendship,  was  elected 
president,  and  the  interest  in  the  meetings  kept  on  increasing.  In  1886,  W. 
D.  Renwick  of  Friendship  was  president,  and  in  1887,  Wm.  McClumpha,  also 
of  Friendship.  In  1888  Almanzo  W.  Litchard  of  Rushford  was  elected 
president,  and  has  been  re-elected  every  year  since.  Meetings  are  held 
every  month,  most  of  the  towns  in  the  county  being  visited.  Great  interest 
had  been  worked  up,  and  the  meetings  are  well  attended.     The  membership 

208  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

is  now  over  1,000.  A  number  of  farmers'  institutes  have  been  held,  which 
have  been  well  attended,  instruction  being  given  by  lectures,  illustrated  and 
otherwise,  by  expert  scientists  employed  by  the  state.  The  information 
imparted  has  been  of  a  practical  nature,  and  of  great  advantage.  It  would 
be  difficult  to  properly  estimate  the  value  the  club  has  been  to  the  agricul- 
turists of  the  county.  Its  president,  Mr.  A.  W.  Litchard,  has  lately  been 
designated  as  an  instructor  at  the  institutes,  and  in  point  of  intelligence  and 
solid  worth  the  membership  of  this  club  is  excelled  by  none  in  the  state. 
During  the  presidency  of  Mr.  Norton,  the  late  A.  N.  Cole  extended  a  formal 
invitation  to  this  club  and  the  Elmira  Farmers'  Club,  to  visit  him  at  his  Home 
on  the  Hillside  at  Wellsville,  during  the  strawberry  season.  The  invitation 
was  accepted  and  the  two  clubs  visited  Mr.  Cole,  feasted  on  strawberries 
and  cream,  and  experienced  a  royal  good  time  generally.  This  was  a  great 
advertisement  for  the  club  and  helped  largely  to  direct  public  attention  to 
its  proceedings.  At  the  present  time  the  discussions  are  published  in  full 
regularly  in  many  of  our  county  papers,  and  are  very  instructive  and  use- 
ful. The  club  has  been  a  grand  success.  "  May  its  shadow  never  grow 
less!  " 

The  Allegany  County  Farmers'  Co-operative  Insurance  Com- 
pany was  organized  in  April,  1887,  with  A.  W.  Miner,  of  Friendship,  presi- 
dent, L.  M.  Wait,  of  Friendship,  treasurer,  and  J.  H.  Rutherford,  of  Angelica, 
secretary.  Mr.  Rutherford  has  been  the  secretary  from  organization. 
President  Miner  was  succeeded  in  turn  by  Herman  Rice,  and  A.  W.  Litchard, 
the  present  incumbent,  and  Mr.  Wait  has  been  continued  treasurer.  The 
company  is  now  insuring  the  property  of  its  members  to  the  extent  of 
$5,000,000.  The  directors  are  A.  W.  Litchard,  Rushford;  Charles  F.  Moul- 
ton,  Cuba;  Lorenzo  M.  Wait,  Friendship;  James  L.  Crittenden,  Whitesville; 
John  E.  Middaugh,  Scio;  R.  Emmet  Middaugh,  Friendship;  Walter  L.  Rew, 
Friendship;  Alonzo  H.  Hooker,  Angelica;  R.  J.  Brockett,  Angelica;  E.  D. 
Barry,  Almond;  Wm.  E.  Pierson.  Fillmore;  Ebenezer  S.  Bartlett.  Belfast; 
J.  B.  Sayres,  Black  Creek;  Will  H.  Langworthy,  Alfred;  Joseph  H.  Ruther- 
ford, Angelica. 

The  Allegany  County  Historical  Society. — Pursuant  to  notice 
published  in  the  county  papers,  these  gentlemen  assembled  at  the  office  of 
(then)  Judge-elect  S.  M.  Norton  in  Friendship,  December  6,  1889,  for  the 
purpose  of  organizing  a  county  historical  society:  Richard  Church,  J.  S. 
Minard,  W.  D.  Renwick,  Evander  E.  Hyde.  Stephen  Pollard,  J.  P.  Rice,  Prof. 
John  P.  Slocum,  L.  M.  Wait,  Herman  Rice,  Elmer  E.  Peterson.  W.  N.  Ren- 
wick, S.  M.  Norton  and  Geo.  W.  Fries.  S.  M.  Norton  was  made  temporary 
chairman,  and  W.  N.  Renwick  temporary  secretary.  J.  S.  Minard  moved 
that  the  secretary  read  the  constitution  and  by-laws  of  the  Buffalo  Historical 
Society,  for  information  and  suggestions  sought  for.  It  was  carried.  A 
motion  made  by  Herman  Rice,  that  J.  S.  Minard  be  made  president  of  the 

Prominent  Organizations.  209 

permanent  organization,  was  seconded  by  W.  D.  Renwick  and  carried.  Mr. 
Minard  took  the  chair,  thanking  the  meeting  for  the  honor  conferred  upon 
him.  A  motion  of  Major  Church  that  George  W.  Fries  be  made  permanent 
corresponding  and  recording  secretary  was  carried.  Mr.  Herman  Rice  was 
elected  treasurer  and  Richard  Church  first  vice-president.  President 
Minard  then  appointed  a  committee  of  three,  John  P.  Slocum  of  AngeHca, 
Stephen  Polland  of  Wellsville,  and  W.  D.  Renwick  of  Friendship,  to  draft 
and  report  a  constitution  and  by-laws.  The  committee  on  constitution  and 
by-laws  were  instructed  to  make  the  call  and  name  the  time  and  place  of  the 
next  meeting  for  some  time  in  January,  1890,  and  the  meeting  adjourned. 

The  next  meeting  was  held  on  the  8th  of  January,  1890,  at  the  office  of 
D.  P.  Richardson  in  Angelica.  The  committee  reported  a  constitution  and 
by-laws  which  were  adopted,  and  a  general  discussion  of  objects  to  be  sought 
and  methods  to  be  pursued,  was  had,  much  interest  being  manifested.  In 
the  evening  a  public  meeting  was  held  at  the  courthouse,  and  the  Hon.  Nor- 
man Seymour  of  Mt.  Morris,  delivered  an  address  appropriate  to  the  occa- 
sion, and  president  Jno.  S.  Minard  delivered  his  inaugural  address.  These 
were  published  in  the  Friendship  Register,  and  the  latter  one  in  the  Northern. 
Allegany  Observer  at  Fillmore.  The  meeting  was  regarded  as  a  success, 
though  it  was  not  largely  attended.  No  more  meetings  of  the  society  were 
held  until  the  near  approach  of  the  centennial  of  the  settlement  of  Allegany 
county  infused  zeal  into  some  of  its  members.  It  was  thought  by  many 
that  the  Centennial,  if  celebrated,  would  stimulate  to  life  and  activity  the 
Historical  Society,  while  others  holding  to  the  same  views,  also  considered 
that  the  celebration  should  be  conducted  under  the  auspices  of  the  society. 
And  so,  a  call  being  published  in  the  county  papers  to  that  effect,  a  meeting 
was  held  at  the  courthouse  in  Belmont,  in  October,  1894,  at  which  the  matter 
was  brought  up.  This  meeting  was  well  attended.  A  delegation  of  the 
ladies  of  the  Belmont  Literary  and  Historical  Society  was  present,  and, 
through  Mrs.  Hamilton  Ward,  its  president,  very  graciously  offered  the 
Historical  Society  the  use  of  its  hall  for  meetings  and  a  room  in  which  to 
keep  relics,  curios,  etc.  This  offer  was  as  thankfully  accepted,  as  it  was 
graciously  made.  The  celebration  of  the  centennial  of  Allegany's  settlement 
was  taken  up,  and  the  idea  being  generally  entertained  that  such  a  celebra- 
tion should  be  held  under  the  auspices  of  the  society,  the  president  was 
directed  to  appoint  a  committee  of  five  to  name  the  time  and  place  for  such 
celebration.  This  meeting  was  very  pleasantly  entertained  by  the  reading 
of  interesting  papers  written  by  Dr.  E.  E.  Hyde,  on  "Early  Times  in  and 
around  Belmont,"  and  by  Mr.  H.  D.  Kingsbury,  ex-president  of  the  Livings- 
ton County  Historical  Society,  on  Historical  Societies. 

In  January,  1895,  the  annual  meeting  of  the  society  was  held  at  Ward 
Hall,  Belmont,  when  the  old  officers  were  re-elected  except  treasurer,  and 
W.  J.  Richardson  of  Belmont,  elected  treasurer  in  place  of  Herman  Rice, 
deceased.  At  the  evening  session,  a  public  meeting,  the  secretary  read  a 
paper  written  by  S.  A.  Earley,  Esq.,  of  Wellsville,  on  "Our  Early  Schools," 

210  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

and  the  president  read  a  paper  on  ' '  The  Caneadea  Reservation  and  some 
Indians  of  the  Upper  Genesee." 

No  meetings  have  since  been  held.  Quite  a  number  of  presents  have 
been  made  to  the  society  in  the  way  of  historical  relics,  and  a  good  nucleus 
of  a  valuable  museum  has  been  made.  The  present  officers  are  Jno.  S. 
Minard,  Fillmore,  president;  Richard  Church,  New  York  City,  vice  presi- 
dent; Geo.  W.  Fries,  Friendship,  corresponding  and  recording  secretary; 
W.  J.  Richardson,  Belmont,  treasurer,  and  Stephen  PoUand,  Belmont, 



FROM  the  days  of  Hippocrates  the  j^ractice  of  medicine  has  been  consid- 
ered useful  and  honorable,  and  classed  with  the  learned  professions. 
To  be  a  successful  practitioner  of  the  "healing  art  "  calls  into  exercise  the 
keenest  faculties  and  most  commendable  attributes  of  human  nature. 
Especially  is  this  true  of  the  doctor  in  a  new  country.  Remote  from  the 
centers  of  civilization  and  of  civilizing  influences,  his  neighbors  in  some  in- 
stances the  rude  Indians  who  lingered  in  the  reservations,  in  others  the 
venturesome,  though  as  a  rule  shiftless,  squatters,  who,  in  many  cases, 
preceded  the  advent  of  the  earliest  permanent  settler,  his  nearest  contem- 
porary in  the  profession  dwelling  quite  likely  75  to  100  miles  away,  and  that 
distance  mostly  covered  by  unbroken  wilderness,  depending  upon  malarial 
conditions,  and  diseases  peculiar  to  new  countries  to  furnish  him  with 
patients  from  families  widely  scattered  and  homes  which  could  boast  of 
nothing  over  and  above  the  absolute  necessities  of  life,  the  pioneer  jjhysician 
of  Allegany  had  certainly  a  hard  time  of  it.  That  man,  according  to  all 
accounts,  was  Dr.  Ebenezer  Hyde,  who,  born  in  1777,  studied  medicine  with 
his  cousin,  Zenas  Hyde,  at  New  Marlboro,  Mass.,  graduating  about  1795.  He 
came  here  in  1801,  and  settled  with  his  family  at  Belvidere  in  1805.  He  had 
an  extended  practice  for  40  years,  and  was,  until  1831,  the  only  physician  in 
Amity.  He  died  in  1858,  his  wife  in  1854.  His  commodious  log  house  was 
the  first  hotel  of  the  town,  and  was  the  home  of  the  pioneers.  He  has  many 
descendants  in  this  county.  Some  of  the  Indians  on  the  Caneadea  Reserva- 
tion were  his  best  j)aying  patrons,  for  it  is  a  fact  that  for  some  years  the 
Indians  had  more  money  than  the  whites. 

It  is  perhaps  proper  to  state  right  here  that  the  Senecas  had  their 
"medicine  men."  Shongo  {Gah-nee- son-go)  was  one  and  Mohawk  another, 
and  while,  after  the  coming  and  settlement  of  the  first  white  physician,  the 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  211 

Indians  in  some  instances  sought  medical  advice  and  treatment  of  the  pale- 
faced  doctor,  it  is  equally  true  that  some  of  the  whites  consulted  "Dr." 
Shongo  and  "Dr."  Mohawk.  Persons  are  living  who  have  known  of  Mo- 
hawk's visit  to  Friendship  to  see  a  sick  man,  he  going  twenty  miles  from  his 
residence  in  Hume.  To  give  a  slight  idea  of  the  rude  and  primitive  methods 
of  treatment  of  these  "  Indian  doctors  "  this  incident  is  related.  A  settler 
received  an  injury  on  his  back  which  resulted  in  a  bad  sore.  Some  friends 
persuaded  him  to  go  to  Shongo  lor  help.  He  did  so.  Shongo  was  found. 
A  number  of  people  were  present.  Assuming  a  profoundly  wise  look  Shongo 
ordered  the  clothing  removed  from  the  back  of  the  patient  and  closely  ex- 
amined the  sore.  Quickly  gathering  some  dry  punk- wood,  he  ordered  the 
man  to  lie  face  down  on  the  ground.  Then,  rubbing  the  punk- wood  in  his 
hands  directly  over  the  sore,  he  soon  covered  it  with  the  dry  powder.  Or- 
dering a  strong  man  to  each  hand  and  foot,  and  telling  them  to  "hold  him 
strong,"  with  steel  and  flint  he  ignited  the  jDunk  which  immediately  took 
fire  and  made  it  extremely  uncomfortable  for  the  patient.  He  yelled  and 
screamed  in  a  frightful  manner,  trying  his  best  to  wrench  himself  from  the 
relentless  grasp  of  the  men  who,  obeying  Shongo's  orders  to  "hold  him! 
hold  him!  "  uttered  in  tones  of  thunder,  did  indeed  hold  him  as  in  a  vise. 
When  the  punk  was  consumed  the  man  was  allowed  to  rise,  then  Shongo 
blew  away  the  fine  ashes  from  the  sore,  re-examined  it,  and  with  an  air  of 
triumph  said,  in  effect,  "I  can  cure  burns.  "  He  then  gave  something  to 
apply  to  the  sore  and  it  was  soon  healed. 

On  some  visits  to  distant  patients  Dr.  Hyde  was  accompanied  by  an  In- 
dian guide.  At  other  times  he  carried  an  axe  with  which  to  "  browse  "  his 
horse  and  "  spot  "  trees  to  guide  his  way  back,  and  often,  detained  by  storms 
and  swollen  streams,  he  was  forced  to  spend  the  night  in  the  woods  on  beds 
improvised  from  hemlock  boughs.  The  Genesee  and  its  tributaries  were 
great  hindrances  to  the  early  physicians.  No  bridges  had  been  constructed 
and  "fording"  and  the  canoe  in  summer,  and  the  ice  in  winter  were  the 
only  means  of  crossing  the  streams.  The  usual  mode  of  travel  was  on  horse- 
back, with  saddlebags  containing  a  small  stock  of  medicine  thrown  over  the 
doctor's  saddle.  These  remedies  were  few  in  number.  Rhubarb,  jalap, 
calomel,  salts,  were  the  stajjles  and  were  greatly  depended  upon.  Emetics 
were  frequently  given,  and  bloodletting  often  resorted  to.  The  inevitable 
turnkey  was  always  at  hand,  and  the  lance  for  bleeding  in  the  vest  pocket, 
and  it  has  been  truly  said  that  "•  the  instruments  used  in  surgical  operations, 
were  often  obtained  from  the  chest  of  a  carpenter  or  manufactured  by  the 
nearest  blacksmith."  "The  distance  from  the  centers  of  medical  knowl- 
edge and  their  infrequent  opportunities  for  consultation  comjielled  them  to 
rely  almost  wholly  upon  their  own  resources,"  and  so,  of  necessity,  they 
were  men  of  great  self  reliance,  and  ax)t  in  emergencies. 

For  some  years  Dr.  Hyde  had  the  entire  ride  of  a  large  extent  of  country, 
his  visits  extending  as  far  north  as  Wyoming  county  and  south  into  Penn- 
sylvania.    In  1809  he  opened  his  large  log  house  (on  the  site  of  the  residence 

212  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

of  S.  H.  Whitcomb,  Esq.)  as  a  public  house,  it  being  on  the  line  of  travel  to 
the  great  West,  the  route  of  the  famous  turnpike.  Dr.  E.  E.  Hyde  is 
authority  for  the  statement  that  over  100  horses,  and  a  corresponding  num- 
ber of  men,  women,  children,  wagons  and  carts  loaded  with  household  goods, 
etc.,  have  been  entertained  at  once. 

About  1812  or  13  Dr.  Hyde  was  informed  that  Dr.  Dyer  Strong  had 
settled  in  Rushford,  (then  Caneadea)  and,  not  far  from  the  same  time,  that 
Dr.  and  Rev.  Jabez  Spicer  had  "hung  out  his  shingle  "  in  Andover,  (then 
Alfred).  In  1822  Dr.  Gilbert  B.  Champlain  settled  in  Cuba,  and  in  1823  Dr. 
Joseph  Balcom  established  himself  at  Hume,  and  a  little  later  Dr.  Seth  H. 
Pratt,  in  Hume  also.  As  early  as  this,  too,  had  Dr.  Charles  D.  Robinson 
begun  practice  in  Almond,  and  in  1825  Drs.  Anthony  Barney,  Jonas  Well- 
man  and  Richard  Charles  had  located  respectively  in  Independence,  Bolivar 
and  Angelica.  And  thus  it  came  to  pass  that  Dr.  Hyde  at  last  had  profess- 
ional neighbors.  When  great  emergencies  are  to  be  met  and  great  questions 
solved  God  sends  the  men  fitted  to  meet  and  solve  them.  And  so  when  a 
new  country  is  being  settled  a  hardy  robust  stalwart  class  of  doctors  are 
required,  and  in  our  case  the  requisition  was  promptly  honored  by  the 
appearance  of  the  stalwart  pioneers  just  named.  It  is  doubtful  if  ever  a 
new  country  was  supplied  with  better  physicians  than  was  Allegany  county. 
They  were  an  honor  to  their  profession,  a  boon  to  the  afdicted,  and  their 
posterity  point  with  just  pride  to  their  records  and  careers. 

The  diseases  peculiar  to  the  new  country  were  largely  fevers  caused  by 
the  malaria  evolved  in  "clearing"  of  land  and  consequent  exposure  of 
swales  and  marshes  to  evaporation.  Along  the  Genesee  river  fever  and 
ague  were  quite  prevalent.  Many  cases  of  goitre  were  found  along  the 
river.  Indeed  Elisha  Johnson,  a  very  observing  man,  who  in  1807  was 
employed  to  subdivide  the  Cottringer  Tract,  speaks  of  the  Indians  and  some 
of  the  few  white  squatters  as  being  afflicted  with  "swelled  necks,"  which 
he  ascribes  to  the  "atmospherical  conditions."  Very  much  shade  and  but 
little  exposure  to  sunlight,  a  very  crooked  stream  with  a  proportionately 
large  expanse  of  water  surface,  made  heavy  and  lasting  fogs.  Under  such 
conditions  sickness  prevailed  and  many  found  a  grave.  By  the  time  the 
Genesee  Valley  canal  was  completed,  say  from  1840  to  1845,  ague  and  its 
accompanying  fever  had  measurably  disappeared,  but,  upon  the  completion 
and  opening  of  the  canal,  this  disease  re-appeared,  and  for  a  while  was  again 
quite  prevalent  for  some  time.  It  again  appeared  in  quite  a  number  of  cases 
when  the  canal  was  "  bottomed  out  "  about  1850.  A  case  of  fever  and  ague 
is  now  seldom  met  with. 

During  the  last  half  century  the  medical  profession  of  Allegany  has 
been  represented  by  a  multitude  of  practitioners,  many  of  whom  will  only 
be  remembered  by  name,  while  others  have  been  so  thoroughly  identified 
with  the  growth  and  progress  of  our  county,  and  been  so  devoted  to  the 
successful  practice  of  their  chosen  profession  as  to  become  a  part  and  parcel 
of  its  history.     Among  these,  Drs.  Stephen  Maxson,  Calvin  Allen,   H.  H. 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  213 

Nye,  John  R.  Hartshorn,  Wm.  M.  Smith,  H.  H.  Lyman,  Wm.  A.  Stacy, 
Archibald  Morris,  John  H.  and  Chas.  W.  Saunders,  C.  M.  Crandall,  A.  E. 
Willard.  It  is  presumed  that  other  names  should  be  added;  the  reader  may 
supply  them.  The  profession  of  medicine  in  Allegany  still  has  "  bright  and 
shining  lights  ' '  who  rank  in  point  of  ability  and  proficiency  fully  up  to  the 
attainments  of  those  of  our  sister  counties. 

Allegany  County  Medical  Society. — It  is  a  matter  of  regret  that 
the  records  of  the  original  Allegany  County  Medical  Society  have  not  been 
preserved.  If  tire  has  not  consumed  them  they  may  yet  be  found  in  some 
dusty  old  attic  among  the  cobwebs  and  accumulated  dust  of  three-fourths 
of  a  century,  long  after  this  work  has  gone  to  press  and  all  chance  of  profit- 
ing by  the  lights  they  would  doubtless  reveal  has  gone  forever.  Dr.  A.  E. 
Willard,  the  secretary  of  the  present  organization,  has  none  of  its  records 
nor  is  he  able  to  afford  any  information  concerning  it,  and  so  the  personal 
recollections  of  the  late  Dr.  Stephen  Maxson  of  Cuba,  which  were  relied 
upon  by  the  historians  of  1879,  afford  the  only  glimpse  we  are  able  to  get 
of  the  old  society.  He  says  that  an  Allegany  County  Medical  Society  existed 
as  early  as  1827,  and  Dr.  Richard  Charles  was  then  its  president,  and  Dr. 
Jonas  Wellman  of  Friendship  secretary.  On  its  membership  list  were  found 
the  names  of  Drs.  Lorenzo  Dana,  Jonas  Wellman  and  Asa  Lu  Davidson  of 
Frienship,  Dr.  G.  B.  Champlain  of  Cuba,  Dr.  John  T.  Hyde  of  Amity,  Dr. 
Wm.  A.  Stacy  of  Centerville,  Dr.  S.  H.  Pratt  of  Hume,  Drs.  CoUins  and 
Cady  of  Alfred,  Dr.  Horatio  Smith  of  Rushford,  Dr.  Gilmore  of  Nunda,  Drs. 
Minard  and  Capron  of  Pike.  Drs.  Gregg  and  Faucet  of  Angelica,  Dr.  Wm. 
Smith  of  Rushford,  Dr.  Bell  of  Alfred  and  Dr.  Stephen  Maxson  of  Cuba 
were  later  members.  Among  those  who  served  as  president  were.  Dr. 
Richard  Charles,  Dr.  Enoch  K.  Maxson,  Dr.  G.  B.  Champlain,  Dr.  Lorenzo 
Dana  and  Dr.  Stephen  Maxson. 

The  organization  of  the  present  society  occurred  at  a  meeting  held  at 
the  Charles  Hotel  in  Angelica,  June  15,  1854,  and  attended  by  Richard 
Charles,  Archibald  Morris,  H.  H.  Nye,  Brayton  Babcock,  Charles  D.  Robin- 
son, Norman  N.  Smith,  W.  Byrns,  E.  M.  Alba,  H.  H.  Lyman,  Matthias  Bur- 
ton, John  H.  Saunders,  CM.  Crandall,  G.N.  King,  William  B.  Alley,  A.  B. 
Stewart,  J.  W.  Black,  WiUiam  M.  McCall.  Dr.  McCall  presided  and  Dr. 
Alley  was  secretary.  Drs.  Richard  Charles  and  E.  M.  Alba  were  apjiointed 
to  draft  a  constitution  and  by-laws  and  the  meeting  adjourned  to  the  11th 
of  July,  1854,  when  the  constitution  and  by-laws  were  reported  and  adopted, 
and  Dr.  Richard  Charles  elected  president.  Dr.  E.  M.  Alba,  secretary,  Dr. 
C  M.  CrandaU,  treasurer,  and  Dr.  W.  Byrns,  librarian.  Hon.  Lucien  P. 
Wetherby  was  elected  attorney  and  Drs.  A.  Morris,  H.  H.  Nye,  C.  D.  Robin- 
son, and  N.  M.  Smith  named  as  censors.  Drs.  William  B.  Alley,  B.  Bab- 
cock, G.  N.  King,  J.  H.  Saunders  and  E.  M.  Alba,  were  appointed  to  prepare 
a  "fee  bill."  At  the  next  meeting  (at  Phillips ville,  in  September,  1854,)  the 
following  was  adopted : 

214  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Whereas  all  kinds  of  produce  and  property  necessary  for  the  use  of  our  families  and  prose- 
cution of  our  business  have  advanced  very  much  in  price  during  the  last  few  years,  and  where- 
as, a  corresponding  advancement  has  taken  place  in  all  kinds  of  labor,  it  is  deemed  just  and 
proper  for  this  society  to  make  a  corresponding  advance  in  the  price  of  their  services;  more 
especially  as  the  present  prices  are  far  below  those  of  adjoining  counties;  therefore,  Resolved, 
That  this  society  adopt  the  following  fee  bill  to  take  effect  immediately: 

Day  visits  in  village,  50  to  75  cents;  day  visits  over  i  and  under  2  miles,  $1;  travel  fees  every  additional 
mile,  25  cents,  (night  visits  add  100  per  cent.);  Consultation  visits,  (travel  fees  extra)  $2  to  $5;  Detention  per 
hour,  25  to  50  cents;  Prescription  and  medicine  in  office  common  case,  50  cents;  Obstetric  fees,  natural  labor 
not  over  twelve  hours  duration,  $5,  (over  3  miles  from  home  travel  fees  extra);  When  arriving  afterbirth  of 
child  and  before  expulsion  of  placenta,  $4;  When  arriving  after  delivery  complete,  $2.50;  Instrumental  labor 
and  turning,  $10;  Consultation,  $5  to  $10. 

Surgical  Fees. — Reducing  fracture  of  thigh  bone,  $10  to  $20;  All  other  fractures  or  dislocations,  $5  to 
$10;  Subsequent  dressings,  $1  to  $3;  Amputation  of  thigh  or  leg,  $25  to  $100;  Amputation  of  arm  or  fore- 
arm, $20  to  $25,  All  other  amputations,  $5  to  $10,  Ligation  of  arteries,  $5  to  $50;  Trephining,  $10  to  $25; 
Operation  for  strabismus,  $5  to  $15;  Excising  both  tonsils,  $5;  Paracentesis  abdomen,  $5;  Paracentesis  thoracis, 
$10;  Operation  for  cure  of  hydrocele,  $5;  Reducing  strangulated  hernia  by  toxis,  $2  to  $5;  Reducing  strangu- 
lated hernia  by  cutting,  $25;  Larynxotomy  and  traucheotomy,  $15;  Amputation  of  breast,  $25;  Castration, 
$15;  Extizpating  tumors,  $2  to  $25;  Removing  hemorrhoids,  $5  to  $10;  Rhinoplastic  operation,  $5  to  $50; 
Lithotomy,  $50;  Club  foot,  $5  to  $50;  Consulting  surgical  cases,  (traveling  fees  extra)  $3  to  $10;  Assisting  in 
surgical  operation,  $5  to  15:  Introducing  catheter,  $1  to  $2;  Dressing  wound  in  office,  50  cents  to  $5;  Cupping 
50  cents  to  $1;  Leeching,  $1  to  $2;  Venesection,  25  cents;  Extracting  tooth,  25  cents;  Opening  abscess,  25 
cents  to  $2;  Prescription  and  medicine  in  venereal  cases  (always  in  advance)  $2  to  $5. 

"At  the  March  (1855)  meeting  held  at  the  Charles  Hotel  Angelica,  Dr. 
William  B.  Alley  delivered  an  address  on  the  'Prosperity  and  position  of 
the  medical  profession  in  Allegany  county, '  Dr.  Crandall  related  an  interest- 
ing case  of  rupture  of  the  uterus,  Dr.  Alba  spoke  of  a  case  of  monstrosity, 
and  Pres.  Charles  delivered  his  annual  address,  subject,  'Quackery.'  The 
June  meeting  in  1858  seems  to  have  been  a  veritable  '  red-letter '  day.  It 
was  held  at  the  residence  of  Dr.  Wm.  B.  Alley  in  Angelica,  Drs.  Alba,  Alley, 
Burton,  Crandall,  Davidson,  Nye,  Morris,  Pearse,  Parker,  Purple,  Smith, 
Sabin  and  Wylie  with  their  wives  were  present.  The  president  read  an 
address,  and  after  dinner  a  variety  of  toasts  and  speeches  were  oifered  and 
made  by  Drs.  Crandall,  Morris.  Nye,  Smith,  Burr  and  others.  Dr.  Smith 
exhibited  a  very  interesting  pathological  specimen  of  diseased  stomach." 
These  extracts  from  the  "proceedings  "  have  been  made  to  give  an  idea  of 
its  purpose  and  work. 

Meetings  of  the  society  were  held  quite  regularly.  Belmont,  Belvidere, 
Friendship  and  Wellsville,  besides  Angelica,  being  visited.  From  June, 
1859,  to  March,  1864,  there  appears  no  record  of  meetings.  At  the  latter 
time  a  special  meeting  was  held  at  Belvidere,  steps  taken  towards  a  revision 
of  the  fee  bill;  and  from  that  time  (March,  1861,)  a  sort  of  Rip  VanWinkle 
sleep  seems  to  have  come  over  the  society  and  its  members,  which  lasted 
until  Jan.  15,  1873,  when  a  special  meeting  was  held  at  Belmont.  The  record 
of  this  meeting  speaks  of  "President  O.  T.  Stacy  in  the  chair."  Evidently 
some  records  have  been  lost.  From  1873  the  organization  has  been  kept  up, 
and,  judging  from  the  records,  a  good  degree  of  interest  excited  and  main- 
tained. Delegates  are  chosen  to  represent  the  society  at  the  meetings  of 
the  State  Medical  Society  held  in  Albany  every  winter. 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  215 

The  presidents  have  been:  Drs.  Richard  Charles,  1854-4;  C.  M.  Crandall. 
1856-7;  Archibald  Morris,  1858-9;  O.  T.  Stacy,  1872;  Wm.  M.  Smith,  1873; 
Stephen  Maxson,  1874;  H.  P.  Saunders,  1875;  J.  H.  Saunders,  1876;  E.  H. 
WiUard,  1877;  C.  W.  Saunders,  1878;  W.  W.  Crandall,  1879;  J.  L.  Cutler, 
1880;  H.  H.  Nye,  1881;  Otis  Allen,  1882;  G.  C.  McNett,  1883;  W.W.  Crandall, 
1884;  M.  B.  Titus,  1885;  M.  E.  VanDuzen,  1886;  G.  H.  Witter,  1887;  H.  A. 
Place;  1888;  F.  C.  Davie,  1889;  Mark  Shepard,  1890;  C.  C.  Deming,  1891; 
H.  A.  Barney,  1892;  J.  W.  Coller,  1893;  Geo.  E.  Burdick,  1894;  H.  E.  Cooley, 
1895.  The  secretaries  have  been:  Drs.  E.  M.  Alba,  1854-59;  C.  W.  Saun- 
ders. 1873;  F,  J.  Baker,  1874-76;  O.  L.  Barney,  1877-79;  A.  E.  Willard.  1880- 
95.  The  treasurers  have  been:  Drs.  C.  M.  Crandall,  1854-5;  Archibald 
Morris,  1856-7;  Wm.  B.  AUey,  1858-9;  H.  P.  Saunders,  1873;  F.  J.  Baker, 
1874-6.  From  1876  the  offices  of  treasurer  and  secretary  have  been  held  by 
the  same  person.  The  attorneys  have  been:  Lucien  P  Wetherby,  1854-5; 
Green  &  Kendall,  1856-7;  Z.  A.  KendaD,  1858;  D.  P.  Richardson,  1873-79; 
S.  M.  Norton,  1880-1;  C.  A.  Farnam,  1882;  F.  A.  Robbins.  1883;  F.  B.  Church, 
1884-88;  S.  M.  Norton,  1889;  Joseph  F.  Rice,  1890-95. 

The  society  at  present,  as  it  has  in  the  past,  includes  in  its  membership 
the  wide-awake,  enterprising,  up-to-date  practioners  of  the  county.  The 
members  are:  Otis  Allen  Cuba,  H.  A.  Barney  Belmont,  C.  R.  Bowen  Almond, 
George  E.  Burdick  Alfred  Station,  J.  W.  Coller  Wellsville,  F.  E.  Comstock 
Andover,  Mrs.  A.  M.  Congdon  Cuba,  H.  E.  Cooley  Angelica,  W.  W.  Crandall 
Wellsville.  A.  J.  Remington  Whitesville,  Dorr  Cutler  Bolivar,  J.  L.  Cutler 
Bolivar,  F.  C.  Davie  Oneonta,  C.  C.  Deming  Friendship,  H.  F.  GiUette  Cuba, 
S.  W.  Green  Richburg,  W.  I.  Hewitt  Clean,  O.  N.  Latham  Bohvar,  G.  C.  Mc- 
Nett Bath,  Charles  W.  O'Donnell  Andover,  H.  A.  Place  Ceres,  H.  P.  Saun- 
ders Alfred,  Mark  Sheppard  Alfred,  F.  N.  Smith  Allentown,  William  M. 
Smith  (Angelica)  New  York,  C.  R.  Spencer  Angelica,  O.  T.  Stacy  Rochester, 
T.  S.  Thomas  Cuba,  M.  B.  Titus  Whitesville,  W.  F.  Wells  Rushford,  J.  P. 
Bixby  Rushford,  A.  E.  Willard  Friendship,  G.  H.  Witter  Wellsville,  C.  N. 
Hammond  Angelica,  W.  G.  Mortimer  Cuba,  Fred  T.  Koyle  Wellsville,  E.  W. 
Ayers  Richburg,  O.  E.  Burdick  Little  Genesee. 

Amity. — Dr.  Ebenezer  Hyde  was  the  first  physician.  Succeeding  him 
came  Drs.  Gorham,  E.  A.  Potter,  Andrews,  Erastus  Willard,  Randall  Reed 
(who  had  many  students  and  doubtless  a  large  practice),  A.  B.  Case,  Ben- 
jamin and  John  Norton,  E.  E.  Hyde.  Archibald  Morris,  C.  G.Anderson, 
Andrew  Stout.  Francis  N.  Smith,  Charles  H.  Sharp,  A.  L.  Simons  and  wife, 
Dr.  Brooks,  James  Hewitt,  H.  A.  Barney,  George  McNett  and  others.  E. 
E.  Crandall  (physio  medico),  I.  P.  Truman,  W.  K.  Paul,  W.  J.  Hardy  have 
practiced  homeopathic  and  C.  B.  Newton  has  used  botanic  remedies.* 

Benjamin  Norton,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  1819,  at  Easton,  N.  Y.,  was 
graduated  from  Castleton,  Vt.,  Medical  College,  and  practiced  medicine 
over  40  years  in  Belmont.    He  held  various  offices,  was  county  physician  15 

*  For  above  list  we  are  indebted  to  Dr.  E.  E.  Hyde. 

216  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

years,  supervisor  and  postmaster  at  Belmont  from  1890  till  his  death,  Oct. 
3,  1893. 

John  Norton,  M.  D.,  son  of  Francis,  was  born  in  Sandy  Hill,  Washington 
Co.,  Sept.  8, 1827.  In  1832  his  father  moved  to  Allegany  county,  and  settled  at 
Amity.  John  Norton,  after  attendance  at  common  schools,  received  the 
advantages  of  Alfred  University,  then  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Randall 
Reed  of  Amity.  He  was  graduated  at  Cleveland  (Ohio)  Medical  College  in 
1851  and  settled  first  at  Hinsdale,  Catt.  Co.  In  1854  he  located  at  Belmont 
where  he  died  in  1887.  He  married  Caroline,  daughter  of  William  Van 
Campen,  who  survives  him. 

Ebenezer  E.  Hyde,  M.  D.,  youngest  son  of  Dr.  Ebenezer  the  pioneer, 
was  born  May  7,  1814,  in  Amity.  He  read  medicine  with  Dr.  Richard 
Charles  and  Dr.  James  D.  Norton,  attended  lectures  at  Castleton,  Vt., 
and  in  1850  located  as  a  physician  in  Scio.  For  20  years  he  enjoyed  a 
large  practice,  then  failing  health  induced  him  to  return  to  Amity  where  he 
gave  little  attention  to  medical  practice.  He  married  a  daughter  of  Ebenezer 
Norton.  Among  his  children  are  James  M.,  clerk  of  the  surrogate's  court 
since  1890. 

Archibald  Morris,  M.  D.,  son  of  Archibald  Morris,  Esq.,  was  born  in 
Scipio,  Cayuga  Co.,  May  7,  1819.  His  attention  was  attracted  when  but  a 
youth  to  the  brilliant  private  school  conducted  at  Howard,  Steuben  Co.,  from 
1833  by  that  distinguished  surgeon  Abijah  B.  Case,  M.  D.,  and  he  became  a 
student  there,  concluding  his  studies,  however,  and  graduating  as  M.  D.  at 
Castleton,  Vt.  In  1843  he  commenced  medical  practice  in  Burns  in  connec- 
tion with  Dr.  Robinson,  still  diligently  pursuing  his  studies.  About  1844  he 
located  in  Belmont  and  became  known  as  an  able  and  most  successful  physi- 
cian, acquiring  an  extended  practice.  He  was  connected  with  various  medi- 
cal organizations,  and  was  at  one  time  president  of  the  Allegany  County 
Medical  Society.  He  married  a  daughter  of  Alvan  E.  Parker,  of  Belmont, 
and  is  survived  by  his  widow,  her  children  and  grandchildren.  He  died  in 
Belmont,  January  26,  1866. 

Charles  G.  Anderson,  M.  D.,  was  born  at  Newfield,  Tompkins  Co.,  April 
5,  1834.  Educated  at  Ithaca  Academy  and  Alfred  University,  he  was  grad- 
uated from  Geneva  Medical  College  in  1860,  and  located  in  Granger.  He 
was  in  practice  there  and  at  Wellsville  until  1879  when  he  estabhshed  him- 
self in  Belmont,  his  present  residence.  In  1860  Dr.  Anderson  married  Alzina 
M.  Haskins  of  Granger.  Their  son,  James  H.,  born  1863,  is  a  druggist  in 
Belmont  in  company  with  his  father.  Dr.  Anderson  is  a  member  of  the 
Allegany  Co.  Medical  Society. 

Edward  E.  Crandall,  M.  D.,  born  in  Chenango  Co.,  N.  Y.,  in  1829.  (His 
father  Asa  settled  in  Ward  in  1833.)  He  enhsted  in  Co.  I,  85th  Regt.,  and 
served  11  months  as  a  soldier  in  the  civil  war.  He  graduated  from  Cincin- 
nati Medical  College  June  21,  1875,  and  located  at  Belmont  in  1882. 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  217 

Lorenzo  E.  Norton  was  born  in  Belmont  in  1848,  a  graduate  from  Belle- 
vue  College  in  1873,  practiced  a  short  time  in  Belmont,  and  removed  to 

Herbert  A.  Barney,  M.  D.,  son  of  Alvin  C.  Barney,  was  born  in  West 
Union,  N.  Y.,  December  1,  1865.  He  was  educated  at  Alfred  University  and 
at  the  University  of  Michigan,  and  received  his  degree  of  M.  D.  from  the 
Long  Island  College  Hospital.  March  9,  1888.  After  spending  some  time  in 
the  hospitals  of  Brooklyn  and  New  York,  he  located  in  Belmont  where  he 
has  since  practiced  his  profession.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Allegany  County 
Medical  Society  and  has  twice  been  elected  to  the  office  of  Coroner.  In  1888 
he  married  Susie  Evelyn,  daughter  of  Daniel  Ayers  of  Syracuse. 

William  J.  Hardy,  M.  D.,  born  October  22,  1861,  in  New  Germantown,  N. 
J.,  graduated  at  N.  Y.  Homeopathic  Medical  College  and  Hospital  in  April, 
1889,  and  located  in  Belmont,  June  10.  1889. 

Angelica. — When  Capt.  Philip  Church  made  his  settlement  at  Angelica 
the  nearest  physician  was  Doctor  Niles  away  off  in  Steaben  county,  probably 
at  Bath.  So  he  brought  along  a  medicine  chest,  and  a  copy  of  "  Buchan's 
Family  Medicine,"  and,  occasionally  after  sjjecial  reading,  he  would  deal  out 
remedies  to  his  afflicted  neighbors.  But  the  settlement  of  Dr.  Ebenezer 
Hyde  at  Belvidere  in  1804  knocked  out  the  captain's  medicine  chest.  He  of 
course  was  the  first  doctor  who  visited  patients  in  the  town.  It  is  said  that 
Dr.  Ellis,  whoever  he  may  have  been,  was  the  first  physician  who  made  a 
permanent  settlement  here.  Quite  likely  there  were  others  who  practiced 
in  Angelica  from  the  time  of  Dr.  Ellis  until  the  coming  of  Dr.  Charles,  but  it 
has  not  been  revealed  to  the  writer  who  they  were,  except  that  one  was  Dr. 
Southwick,  the  son-in-law  of  Major  Van  Campen. 

The  settlement  of  Dr.  Richard  Charles  in  Angelica  in  1825  marked  an 
era  in  the  history  of  the  medical  profession  in  the  county.  He  was  so  long, 
so  generally  and  so  favorably  known  by  the  many  Alleganians  to  whom  he 
became  endeared  by  numberless  acts  of  kindness,  professionally  and  other- 
wise, that  an  extended  sketch  will  be  given.  It  is  said  that  in  hundreds  of 
cases  he  made  long  journeys  to  visit  families  of  poor  pioneers,  without  the 
hope  of  fee  or  reward.  His  ears  were  never  deaf  to  the  appeals  of  the  suffer- 
ing, nor  his  eyes  closed  to  the  visible  wants  of  his  fellow  .men.  For  nearly 
half  a  century  he  was  a  successful  practitioner,  and  an  ornament  to  the  pro- 
fession. Had  he  been  less  liberal  and  kind  hearted  he  might  have  amassed 
great  Avealth.  His  generous  impulses  prompted  him  to  extend  his  aid  and 
influence  in  support  of  those  whom  he  deemed  his  friends,  and  twice  he  was 
compelled  to  commence  tlie  world  anew,  his  means  becoming  exhausted  in 
the  payment  of  demands  not  his  own,  for  which  he  had  become  holden.  It 
was  a  satisfaction  to  his  friends  to  know  that,  notwithstanding  these  reverses, 
his  declining  years  were  blessed  with  a  competence.  He  was  one  of  the 
founders,  always  a  communicant,  and  for  a  long  time  a  vestryman  and 
warden  of  St.  Paul's  Church  at  Angelica.     His  death  left  a  greatvoid  in  the 

218  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

ranks  of  the  profession.  "  Dr.  Richard  Charles,  M.  D.*  was  a  native  of  Bel- 
fast, Ireland,  born  May  24.  1800.  He  received  his  professional  education  at 
the  medical  departments  of  Dublin,  Glasgow  and  New  York  City  universities 
he  took  the  deg-ree  of  Doctor  of  Medicine  at  Glasgow,  and  his  attendance  at 
lectures  in  New  York  city  was  for  the  purpose  of  studying  the  idiom  of 
diseases  in  this  country,  as  well  as  to  acquire  the  practice  adapted  to  their 
treatment.  He  had  experience  in  hospital  practice  before  coming  to  this 
country.  He  was  surgeon  of  the  vessel  that  brought  him  to  Quebec  in  1821. 
From  Quebec  he  came  to  Buffalo  where  he  was  taken  sick  with  a  protracted 
and  dangerous  fever,  and,  upon  his  recovery,  he  settled  in  Almond,  and 
practiced  in  company  with  Dr.  Burnham  and  afterwards  with  Dr.  Asal  E. 
Davidson.  After  three  years  passed  in  these  co-partnerships,  he  removed  to 
Angelica  in  1825.  and  took  the  practice  of  Dr.  South  wick.  He  remained  in 
Angelica  until  his  death  in  1863  at  63  years  of  age.  From  the  superiority  of 
his  professional  acquirements  he  gained  a  large  and  extended  practice,  often 
being  caUed  to  Buffalo  to  treat  difficult  cases  of  disease,  and  as  far  east  as 
Elmira  and  Bath  and  to  other  neighboring  and  distant  places  in  Western  New 
York.  His  superior  education  and  professional  skill  was  a  generally 
acknowledged  fact.  In  his  addresses  and  manners  he  was  a  typical  gentle- 
man of  the  old  school.  He  was  a  courageous  and  truthful  practitioner,  and 
had  the  admiration  and  confidence  of  his  patients,  as  well  as  of  the  general 
public.  He  was  a  strong  adherent  of  the  code  of  ethics  governing  the  moral 
conduct  of  his  confreres  to  each  other  and  to  their  patients,  thereby  main- 
taining a  high  standard  for  the  scientific  and  philanthropic  profession.  He 
was  a  member  of  New  York  State  Medical  Society.  He  experienced  the 
trials  common  to  the  near  pioneer  period  of  Western  New  York,  but,  with  a 
strong  physique  and  determined  purj^ose,  he  was  equal  to  the  hard  labor  and 
dangers  besetting  men  in  that  period  of  primitive  forests,  when  the  road- 
ways admitted  of  transportation  on  horseback  only.  He  lived  to  see  his 
adopted  county  of  Allegany  one  of  the  foremost  grazing  counties  in  the  state 
and  an  influential  power  in  state  and  general  politics,  with  several  academies 
and  a  university  of  learning,  dying  at  Angelica,  April  24,  1863." 

Dr.  Charles  D.  Robinson  practiced  for  a  while  in  Angelica  removing  to 
Almond  about  1847-  He  was  an  accomplished  physician,  afterward  settling 
in  Hornellsville,  where  he  died. 

Drs.  Wallace  and  Bell  were  early  physicians.  Dr.  Wm.  S.  Todd,  home- 
opathist,  was  in  practice  here  many  years,  and  held  in  high  esteem  by 
many  people.  Drs.  N.  M.  Smith,  John  Charles  and  Dr.  Bemus  later  came, 
and  Drs.  Wm.  B.  AUey  and  E.  M.  Alba  were  here  as  long  ago  as  1854-5.  Dr. 
Alley  was  elected  county  clerk  in  1855,  and  he  died  in  Nunda  a  few  years 
ago,  where  he  had  later  been  in  practice.  Dr.  Alba  was  a  bright,  energetic 
young  man,  who  removed  to  Pennsylvania.  Soon  after  the  death  of  Dr 
Charles,  Dr.  Wm.  M.  Smith  came  to  Angehca. 

*  By  J.  S.  Jamison,  M.  D. 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  219 

William  M.  Smith,  M.  D..  was  born  in  Paterson,  N.  J.,  July  18,  1825. 
His  father  removed  to  Granger  in  1830  and  William,  after  graduating  at 
"the  peoples  college"  attended  the  old  Middlebury  Academy  and  the 
Genesee  Wesleyan  Seminary  at  Lima,  N.  Y.  He  taught  school  several 
terms,  read  medicine  in  Massachusetts  and  graduatedat  Castleton,  Vt.,  Med- 
ical College  in  1840.  He  began  practice  at  Short  Tract,  but  in  five  years  re- 
moved to  Cayuga  county,  remaining  two  years,  then  returned  to  Short  Tract. 
He  was  chosen  supervisor  of  Granger  in  1850.  and  in  November,  1850,  was 
elected  to  the  Assembly  and  was  again  elected  in  1859.  He  was  a  delegate 
to  the  Republican  National  Convention  of  1800,  and  in  1801  he  recruited  a 
company  which  became  Company  E.  of  the  85th  N.  Y.  He  was  commis- 
sioned surgeon  of  the  85th,  with  rank  from  Oct.  1,  1801,  served  with  the 
Army  of  the-Potomac  during  McClellan's  campaign,  and  May  2,  1803,  was  ap- 
pointed by  the  president  to  the  regular  army  service.  Imperative  duties  at 
home  however  compelled  him  to  decline  the  appointment  and  resign  his 
commission.  Upon  his  return  he  removed  to  Angelica  where  he  engaged  in 
an  extensive  practice.  January  1,  1873,  he  was  commissioned  surgeon  gen- 
eral, with  the  rank  of  brigadier  general,  on  the  staif  of  Gov.  Dix.  March  24, 
1880,  he  was  appointed  by  Gov.  A.  B.  Cornell,  health  officer  of  the  port  of 
New  York,  which  position  he  filled  with  great  credit  and  for  a  longer  term 
than  any  other  incumbent,  holding  the  office  for  12  years.  He  is  now  resid- 
ing in  Brooklyn. 

Dr.  A.  W.  Smith  a  brother  of  Dr.  Wm.  M.,  was  one  of  his  immediate 
successors.  A  Dr.  Van  Dusen  soon  after  practiced  for  a  while,  and  a  Dr. 
Mitchell,  homeopathist,  also  Dr.  W.  K.  Paul  of  the  same  school. 

Dr.  William  S.  Todd  was  born  in  Hyde  Park,  Dutchess  county,  July  12, 
1819.  He  studied  medicine  with  Drs.  Coan  and  Bolton  of  Ovid.  He  was 
graduated  at  Hobart  Medical  College,  Geneva,  N.  Y. ,  in  1849.  He  practiced 
his  profession  in  Angelica  and  died  July  20,  1887.  Myron  A.  Todd.  M.  D. , 
son  of  Dr.  William  and  Prances  M.  Todd,  was  born  in  Ovid,  Feb.  11,  1847. 
He  studied  medicine  with  his  father,  was  graduated  from  the  Homeopathic 
Hospital  College  at  Cleveland,  Ohio,  in  1870.  He  married  Annie  Ackerland, 
of  Titusville,  Pa.,  and  now  practices  at  Bradford,  Pa. 

Benjamin  C.  Wakely,  M.  D. ,  son  of  H.  H.  Wakely,  was  born  March  7, 
1854.  He  was  educated  at  Genesee  Valley  Seminary,  Belfast,  and  Ten 
Broeck  Academy,  Franklinville,  and  at  Buffalo  University  Medical  College, 
where  he  was  graduated  in  1870,  and  located  that  year  in  Angelica,  where  he 
was  in  practice  until  1891,  when  he  removed  to  Hornellsville.- 

About  1878-80  came  Dr.  Frank  C.  Davie,  who  was  born  in  Bolivar  in 
1850,  and  graduated  June  22,  1870,  from  the  Long  Island  Medical  College 
Hospital,  previously  studying  and  graduating  in  medicine  at  the  University 
of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor.  Dr.  Davie  had  a  good  practice,  but  two  or  three 
years  ago  removed  to  Oneonta. 

220  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

The  three  resident  physicians  of  AngeUca  at  present  are  comparatively 
young  men,  well  equipped  for  their  j^rofessional  work,  they  are: 

C.  R.  Spencer,  M.  D.,  who  was  born  in  Yates  county,  in  1861,  re- 
ceived his  education  at  the  common  schools  and  Genesee  Wesleyan  Seminary 
at  Lima.  He  attended  lectures  at  the  medical  department  of  the  University 
at  Buffalo,  from  which  he  graduated  in  1891.  and  soon  after  located  at  An- 
gelica, where  he  has  been  physician  to  the  county  almshouse. 

C.  N.  Hammond,  M.  D.,  was  born  at  Leroy,  Pa.,  August  17.  1848,  of  Eng- 
lish and  Scotch-Irish  extraction.  The  celebrated  Dr.  Wm.  A.  Hammond  is 
a  member  of  the  same  large  family.  Educated  at  the  village  school,  he  be- 
gan teaching  at  18  and  taught  for  13  terms.  He  studied  medicine  later  while 
he  was  a  travelling  salesman,  attended  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Sur- 
geons of  Baltimore,  finishing  at  the  University  of  New  York  in  1887.  He  is 
now  vice  president  of  the  Allegany  County  Medical  Society. 

Halsey  E.  Cooley,  M.  D,,  was  born  in  East  Fayette,  Seneca  county, 
June  3,  1867.  He  took  an  academic  course  and  read  medicine  at  Geneva, 
and  with  Dr.  F.  D.  Pierce  at  Union  Springs,  and  graduated  from  the  med- 
ical department  of  the  University  of  Buffalo,  March  24,  1891.  He  began 
practice  in  Belfast  and  settled  in  Angelica  in  1894. 

Andover. — It  is  said  that  Rev.  Jabez  Spicer  who  was  also  a  physician, 
was  the  first  to  practice  medicine  here.  The  exact  date  of  his  settlement 
is  not  known,  but  it  must  have  been  very  early.  This  is  related  of  him: 
Receiving  an  urgent  call  to  visit  a  patient,  just  as  he  was  beginning  his 
usual  Sunday  sermon  he  announced  that  the  meeting  would  stand  adjourned 
for  two  hours,  and  "straddling"  his  horse  he  went  several  miles,  visited 
his  patient,  returned  and  resumed  the  services  where  they  had  been  dropped. 
Succeeding  Dr.  Spicer  came  Dr.  Joel  French,  and  Thaddeus  Baker,  M.  D., 
was  the  third. 

Thaddeus  Baker,  M.  D.  (son  of  Thaddeus  Baker,)  was  born  in  Poultney, 
Rutland  Co.,  Vt.,  1806,  and  came  with  his  father  to  Andover  in  1807.  Mr. 
Baker,  Sen. ,  located  400  acres  of  land  where  the  village  of  Andover  now 
stands,  and  resided  till  his  death,  in  1845,  where  Dr.  Baker  always  lived. 
Dr.  Baker  was  justice  of  the  peace  sixteen  years  and  several  years  school 
inspector  and  town  clerk.  In  1835  he  married  Miss  Sarah  Spicer,  of  Ando- 
ver.    He  was  a  physician  for  50  years. 

Dr.  John  J.  Harmon  was  the  next.  John  J.  Harmon,  M.  D. ,  was  born 
May  6,  1817,  in  Almond.  He  attended  Alfred  University  and  studied  medi- 
cine with  Drs.  Hartshorn -and  Rider.  He  was  graduated  from  the  Geneva 
Medical  College  in  1844,  and  located  in  Andover.  He  married  Eliza  A.  Clark 
of  Geneseo.  He  practised  fifteen  years  and  then  relinquished  practice. 
He  was  supervisor  of  Andover  for  several  terms.  He  died  June  18.  1884. 
Of  their  7  children,  ail  but  2,  Ahce  (Mrs.  C.  N.  Dolson  of  Hornellsville)  and 
Miles  of  Andover,  died  in  infancy.     Mrs.  Harmondied  in  the  spring  of  1895. 

Dr.  Harmon  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  W.  W.  Crandall,  who,  after  a  few 
years  of  extensive  and  successful  practice,  removed  to  WellsviUe.  In  1872-3, 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  221 

Dr.  Daniel  Lewis,  now  of  New  York,  and  president  of  the  State  Board  of 
Health,  was  associated  with  Dr.  Crandall. 

Next  was  Edwin  M.  Stillman,  M.  D. ,  son  of  Daniel  P.,  who  was  born  in 
Almond,  Dec.  12,  1841.  He  attended  school  at  Alfred  University,  studied 
medicine  with  Dr.  C.  D.  Robinson  and  Dr.  W.  W.  Crandall  in  Andover  and 
was  graduated  from  the  Buffalo  Medical  College  in  1865.  He  practiced  his 
profession  6  months  in  his  native  town,  then  came  to  Andover  and 
was  with  Dr.  W.  W.  Crandall  4  years,  then  practiced  6  years  and  a  half  in 
Alfred.  In  the  fall  of  1874,  he  returned  to  Andover  where  he  has  been  in 
practice,  and  since  1879  has  been  in  the  drug  business.  He  is  a  member  of 
the  County  Medical  Society,  and  is  licensed  by  the  State  Board  of  Pharmacy. 
Dr.  Stillman  was  postmaster  of  Andover  3  years,  and  town  clerk  two  terms. 
He  married  Eliza,  daughter  of  Menzo  Bundy,  and  has  one  child,  Ada  M. ,  the 
wife  of  A.  B.  Richardson. 

Albert  Durand,  M.  D.,  located  at  Andover  in  1855.  He  was  surgeon  of 
141st  N.  Y.  S.  V.     He  died  in  1871. 

Norton  P.  Brainard,  M.  D..  son  of  Smith  Brainard,  was  born  June  14, 
1850,  attended  Richburg  Academy,  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  W.  W.  Cran- 
dall, was  graduated  from  the  medical  department  of  the  University  of  New 
York  city  in  1877,  and  commenced  practice  at  Andover,  where  he  is  now 
located,  in  1877. 

Francis  E.  Comstock,  M.  D.,  son  of  Martin  L.  Comstock,  was  born  in 
Andover,  Sept.  3,  1860.  He  studied  with  Dr.  N.  P.  Brainard  and  was  grad- 
uated from  the  University  of  New  York  and  practiced  3  years  in  Andover. 
He  passed  the  year  1886  in  the  London  (Eng.)  Hospital,  then  returned  to 
Andover  and  in  1891  took  apost-graduate course  at  Philadelphia,  and  has  since 
practiced  in  Andover.  In  1885,  Dr.  Comstock  received  a  diploma  from  the 
State  Pharmaceutical  Association.  He  is  a  member  of  the  County  Medical 
Society,  and  Hornellsville  Medical  and  Surgical  Association,  and  of  the  lodge 
of  F.  &  A.  M.,  No.  558.  Dr.  Comstock  married  in  1883,  Olive  A.,  a  daughter 
of  Smith  Brown  of  Wirt.  Their  children  were.  Rock  L.  and  Mildred.  Dr. 
Comstock  married  second.  Miss  Sarah  E.,  daughter  of  Samuel  F.  Hanks  of 
WeUsville,  Nov.  27,  1895. 

C.  W.  O'Donnell,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Andover,  Nov.  18,  1860.  He  at- 
tended Andover  Union  School,  Alfred  University,  and  in  1884  was  graduated 
from  the  University  of  New  York,  and  took  a  post  graduate  course  at  the 
New  York  Polytechnic  Institute  in  1890.  He  is  a  member  of  the  County 
Medical  Society,  and  Hornellsville  Medical  Association.  In  1884  he  formed 
a  partnership  with  Dr.  W.  W.  Crandall  and  was  3  years  a  student  with  him, 
and  practiced  nearly  3  years  as  his  x^artner.  Dr.  O'Donnell  is  a  member  of 
the  lodge  of  F.  &  A.  M.,  No.  558. 

Alfred. — John  Bowen  CoUins  was  the  third  son  of  Stephen  and  Edith 
(Whaley)  Collins,  and  grandson  of  John  and  Mehitabel  Bowen  Collins.  Rhode 
Island  Quakers.  He  was  born  in  Brookfield,  Madison  county,  July  30,  1794. 
With  money  earned    by  teaching,  at  an  early  age   he  entered  the  near- 

222  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

est  academy,  where  he  acquired  the  rudiments  of  Latin,  algebra,  natural 
philosophy,  and  astromony.  He  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Eli  S.  Bailey  of 
Brookfield,  married  Catharine  Burdick  in  1816,  and  removed  to  Alfred  in 
1820,  settling  at  Alfred  Station.  Dr.  CoUins  was  the  first  to  acquire  a  med- 
ical practice  in  the  town,  and  as  long  as  he  lived  he  was  the  leading  physi- 
cian of  the  section;  his  practice  extending  over  a  large  territory.  Although 
his  work  was  done  among  the  earliest  settlers,  all  of  whom  were  poor,  he 
was  prompt  to  respond  to  every  call;  the  question  of  remuneration  being  the 
last  one  considered;  yet,  besides  rearing  and  educating  a  large  family,  he 
acquired  a  fair  competence.  Dr.  Collins  was  not  only  the  chief  physician 
but  a  leader  in  the  affairs  of  the  town  and  county.  A  promoter  of  the-  first 
district  schools  of  the  town,  and,  for  many  years,  school  inspector.  In  1831 
he,  with  Judge  Clark  Crandall  and  Joseph  Goodrich,  represented  the  town 
of  Alfred  in  a  movement  which  originated  in  Allegany  county  for  the  build- 
ing of  the  Erie  Railway.  In  the  years  1832  and  1833  he  represented  his 
county  in  the  state  legislature.  He  was  one  of  the  organizers  of  Alfred 
Academy  and  a  member  of  its  first  board  of  trustees.  He  was  the  first  to 
deliver  a  temperance  lecture  in  Alfred,  and  organized  its  first  temperance 
society.  A  man  of  large  frame,  rugged  features,  stern  of  mien,  yet  gentle 
in  spirit,  he  had  a  passionfor  literature  and  all  learning,  andwasa  good  writer 
not  only  of  prose  but  also  of  verse.  He  died  suddenly,  August  27,  1851, 
universally  respected  and  deeply  mourned.  His  sons  are  Prof.  John 
Collins  of  Dalton,  Ga.,  AmosB.,  Esq.,  and  Lorenzo  D.  of  Alfred,  and  William  of 
Missouri.  His  eldest  daughter,  Amorilla,  became  the  wife  of  Dr.  Daniel 
Babcock,  and  the  youngest,  Theresa,  married  Dr.  Henry  Oviatt,  both  of 

Dr.  John  R.  Hartshorn  was  born  in  Lebanon,  Madison  county,  in  Au- 
gust, 1813,  and  was  graduated  from  Fairfield  Medical  College  in  1834.  In 
1835  he  came  here  and  formed  a  partnership  with  Dr.  John  B.  Collins. 
After  the  death  of  Dr.  Collins  he  was  for  many  years  the  leading  physician 
of  the  town,  with  an  extensive  and  lucrative  practice.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  legislature  in  1852,  and  supervisor  of  Alfred  in  1855.  He  was  a  trustee 
of  Alfred  Academy  and  University  from  1841  until  1871.  In  later  life  he  en- 
gaged successfully  in  real  estate  speculations.  He  married,  first,  Sophia, 
daughter  of  Samuel  White  of  Whitesville,  and  second,  Mrs.  Lura  A.  Spencer 
Van  Buskirk  of  Alfred.     He  died  in  Alfred  June  12,  1871. 

William  M.  Truman,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Preston,  Chenango  county.  May 
21,  1813.  He  began  the  study  of  medicine  when  sixteen,  and  received  his 
diploma  from  the  Fairfield  Medical  College  on  his  21st  birthday.  In  the 
same  year  he  married  Miss  Huldah  L.  Babcock  of  Scott.  He  practiced  first 
at  Otselic,  afterwards  at  Scott,  and  in  1840  removed  to  Richburg, 
and  from  there  in  1862  to  Alfred.  Dr.  Truman  at  first  was  a  partner  of 
Dr.  Hartshorn,  but  for  many  years  carried  on  his  practice  alone.  In  his 
later  years  he  divided  the  business  of  the  town  chiefly  with  Dr.  H.  P. 
Saunders.     For  nine  years  he  was  coroner.     He  died  in  1885. 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  223 

Dr.  Elisha  C.  Green  was  born  in  Lebanon,  Conn.,  in  1817.  His  parents 
removed  to  Friendship  in  1832.  He  received  his  education  in  the  common 
schools,  and  jmssed  four  years  in  the  study  of  medicine  with  Dr.  Jonas 
Wellman,  and  in  1838  attended  the  Berkshire  Medical  Institution.  He  re- 
ceived a  diploma  from  the  Allegany  County  Medical  Association  in  1839,  and 
then  jDracticed  with  Dr.  Wellman  a  short  time.  After  about  12  years  prac- 
tice out  of  the  state,  he  located  at  Alfred  Station  in  1851  and  has  been  in 
successful  practice  since.  During  the  44  years  in  Alfred  he  has  not  lost  a 
day  by  reason  of  ill  health,  or  failed  to  respond  to  a  professional  call. 

Henry  P.  Saunders,  M.  D.,  son  of  Clark  Saunders,  was  born  in  Wester- 
ly, R.  I.,  November  24,  1821.  He  w^as  educated  at  the  common  schools,  then 
studied  medicine  with  Dr.  W.  H.  Wilbur,  of  North  Providence,  and  was 
graduated  from  the  University  of  New  York  City  in  1852.  In  1853  he  locat- 
ed at  Little  Genesee,  and  after  a  residence  there  of  3  years  he  settled  at  Al- 
fred Centre,  where  he  has  since  practiced  his  profession.  He  married  Mary 
A.  Crandall,  and  has  4  children. 

Mark  Sheppard,  M.  D.,  the  son  of  William  T.  and  Abigail  Davis  Shep- 
pard,  was  born  at  Shiloh,  N.  J.,  March  14,  1838.  He  was  educated  at  Shiloh, 
DeRuyter,  and  Alfred  Academy.  He  w^ent  to  Kansas  in  1856  to  engage  in 
the  struggle  against  the  "  Border  Ruffians,''  and  later  returned  to  Alfred. 
In  1861  he  enlisted  in  the  23d  Regiment,  and  served  one  year.  Resuming 
his  studies  in  the  University,  he  w^as  graduated  in  1863.  He  then  taught 
some  years,  and  engaged  in  the  book  and  stationary  business  at  Alfred.  In 
1878  he  graduated  from  the  Medical  Dei3artment  of  the  University  of  the 
City  of  New  York,  and  has  since  practiced  medicine  in  Alfred.  During 
several  years  he  was  a  trustee  of  Alfred  University,  and  part  of  the  time 
secretary  of  the  board.  He  married,  first,  Mary  E.  Coon,  second,  Edna  L, 

Henry  Clark  Coon,  A.  M.,  M.  D.,  (see  Alfred  University.) 
Dr.  Irving  Truman,   nephew  of  W.  M.  Truman,   was  in  practice  for 
a  while.     He  is  now  located  at  Hornellsville. 

George  E.  Burdick,  M.  D.,  son  of  Rev.  Stephen  Burdick,  was  born 
Nov.  23,  1863,  in  Leonardsville.  He  was  educated  at  Alfred  University, 
where  he  was  graduated.  Ph.  B.  and  C.  E.,  in  1886.  He  studied  medicine 
with  Dr.  Sheppard  of  Alfred  and  Dr.  S.  Carr  Maxson  of  Utica,  and  was 
graduated  from  the  University  of  New  York  in  1887,  and  in  1888  he  located 
at  Lawn  Ridge,  lU.  In  1892  he  came  to  Alfred  Station.  Dr.  Burdick  carries 
the  honor  of  president  of  the  County  Medical  Society.  He  was  elected 
coroner  in  1895.     He  married  Nora  J.  Brown. 

Alma  was  one  of  the  last  towns  to  be  settled,  and  its  proximity  to  Wells- 
viUe,  which  has  always  been  weU  supplied  with  physicians,  has  evidently 
discouraged  the  settlement  of  resident  physicians.  A.  W.  Kahle,  M.  D., 
now  of  Lima,  Ohio,  was  located  here  about  six  years. 

224  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Frank  N.  Smith,  M.  D.,  son  of  Orlin  Smith,  was  born  in  Belmont,  April 
23,  1829.  He  attended  school  at  Alfred  University  and  in  1852  went  to 
Keokuk,  Iowa,  where  he  read  medicine,  and  in  1856  was  graduated  from  the 
Iowa  Medical  College  and  commenced  practice  at  Fort  Madison,  where  he 
received  the  appointment  of  physician  to  the  Iowa  Penitentiary.  He  served 
in  the  Civil  War  as  surgeon  in  the  148th  Illinois  regiment  with  rank  of  major, 
and  was  honorably  mustered  out  at  the  close  of  the  war.  He  was  then 
located  for  a  short  time  at  Peoria,  then  returned  to  Belmont  where  he  prac- 
ticed several  years,  and  established  himself  in  Allentown  about  1884.  In 
1856  he  married  Lucy  W.  Peck  of  Lowell,  Mass.  Of  their  6  children,  4  sur- 
vive. Dr.  Smith  is  a  member  of  the  Allegany  County  Medical  Society  and 
has  been  a  contributor  to  medical  publications.  He  is  a  Free  Mason,  an 
Odd  Fellow,  belongs  to  the  A.  O.  U.  W..  has  been  twice  a  representative  of 
its  Grand  Lodge,  and  is  a  member  of  the  Knights  of  Labor. 

Almond. — A.  L.  Dawson  was  said  to  .be  the  first  physician  who  lived  in 
Almond,  although  Dr.  Pease,  who  lived  between  Almond  and  Karr  Valley, 
was  one  of  the  first.  He  afterwards  moved  to  Friendship.  Asa  Lee  David- 
son was  one  of  the  next  physicians,  and  was  a  very  prominent  man.  He  was 
elected  the  seventh  supervisor  of  the  town  and  he  was  also  member  of 
assembly  for  Allegany  county.  Dr.  Davidson  sold  out  to  Dr.  Charles  and 
also  moved  to  Friendship.  Dr.  Charles  moved  to  Angelica  and  died  there 
eminent  in  his  profession.  Dr.  Reed  succeeded  Dr.  Charles  and  then  came 
Dr.  A.  L.  Cady,  a  graduate  of  Yale  College  and  a  most  prominent  physician. 
He  built  the  house  now  occupied  by  Sylvanus  Young,  was  nominated  for 
Congress  in  1844,  on  the  Whig  (Burney)  ticket,  ran  against  Martin  Grover 
and  was  defeated  by  a  small  majority.  He  was  an  eminent  advocate  of  tem- 
perance at  an  early  day  and  a  strong  anti-slavery  man.  He  died  in  1846. 
Dr.  Charles  D.  Robinson  came  from  the  eastern  part  of  the  state,  settled  in 
Angelica  first,  moved  to  Burns,  and  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Cady,  came  to  Al- 
mond in  1847,  and  in  1849  was  elected  state  senator  from  Allegany  and 
Wyoming  counties.  Dr.  Robinson  moved  to  Hornellsville  and  died  about 
1874.  Dr.  William  B.  Alley  lived  and  practiced  here  about  the  same  time 
with  Dr.  Robinson.  Dr.  J.  W.  Black  next  practiced  in  Almond.  He  was 
supervisor  several  terms,  moved  to  Bath  and  died  a  few  years  ago.  Dr. 
Hagadorn  married  the  daughter  of  J.  M.  Wetherby,  practiced  medicine  here 
a  few  years  and  now  is  practicing  near  Buffalo.  Dr.  Zachariah  Dildine  was 
born  at  Hornellsville  and  came  to  Almond  about  1878.  About  1883  he  sold 
to  Dr.  Bowen,  moved  West  and  died  a.  few  years  ago.  He  \vas  a  surgeon  in 
the  army.  Dr.  T.  H.  Lamonte  was  here  for  a  number  of  years.  He  sold  his 
practice  to  Dr.  William  C.  Benjamin  and  now  lives  near  Dansville.  Dr.  L. 
D.  Farnum,  born  in  West  Almond  about  1831,  graduated  at  the  Castleton, 
Vermont  Medical  College.  He  practiced  medicine  in  West  Almond  and  Bel- 
mont, and  has  lived  and  practiced  medicine  in  Almond  for  the  last  twenty 
years.  Dr.  William  C.  Benjamin,  born  in  Almond  in  1859,  graduated  from 
the  University  Medical  College  of  New  York  city,  March  8,  1887,  has  prac- 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  225 

ticed  medicine  in  Almond  about  eight  years.  He  has  been  supervisor  of 
the  town  two  terms. 

Chauncey  R.  Bowen.  M.  D.,  son  of  Thomas  Bowen,  was  born  in  vSouth 
Dansville,  Steuben  Co.,  March  4,  1858.  He  was  educated  at  the  common 
schools  and  Rogersville  Union  Seminary.  He  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  C. 
M.  Ackley,  attended  the  University  of  Bviffalo,  and  was  graduated  from  the 
medical  department  in  1882,  when  he  established  himself  as  a  physician  at 
Fremont  Centre.  He  settled  at  Almond  in  1884,  and  has  since  been  in  prac- 
tice there.  Dr.  Bowen  is  aanember  of  the  Medical  and  Surgical  Association 
at  Hornellsville,  was  president  of  the  society  in  1898  and  1894,  and  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Board  of  Pension  Examiners  which  meets  at  Wellsville.  In  1884 
he  married  Ella,  daughter  of  Darius  White  of  Hornellsville,  and  has  three 
children,  Cecil,  Byron  W.  and  Lucile  M. 

Belfast. — Early  physicians  here  were  Drs.  Davis  and  James  D.  Norton. 
Dr.  E.  E.  Hyde  was  at  Belfast  for  a  time.  In  1848  Dr.  John  H.  Saunders, 
who  had  been  two  years  at  Burrville  in  Caneadea  located  in  Belfast,  and  was 
in  practice  there  the  rest  of  his  life.  Since  his  settlement  in  town  the  sub- 
ject will  be  completely  covered  by  the  following  sketches: 

Dr.  John  Hanford  Saunders  was  born  in  Norwalk,  Conn.,  Nov.  6,  1820. 
His  father  removed  to  Pranklinville,  N.  Y.,  in  1821.  John  H.  attended 
Sx^ringville  Academy,  read  medicine  there  with  Dr.  Emmons,  and  later  with 
his  uncle  Dr.  William  Smith  of  Rushford.  attended  Geneva  Medical  College, 
later  graduating  from  the  Medical  Department  of  the  University  of  New 
York.  Soon  after  receiving  his  degree  he  located  in  Burrville  in  1846.  In 
1848  he  removed  to  Belfast  and  made  there  his  permanent  home.  About 
1865  he  married  Miss  Annie  Westbrook  of  Caneadea,  who  died  in  April,  1873, 
leaving  two  daughters,  Mrs.  Edwin  E.  Grady  of  Elmira,  and  Mrs.  Charles 
A.  Ackerly  of  Cuba.  He  married,  second,  Mrs  Robert  Smith  of  Cuba,  a 
daughter  of  William  W.  Windsor.  Dr.  John  H.  Saunders  was  skillful,  intel- 
ligent, exercised  a  sound  judgment  and  was  full  of  care  for  his  patients.  He 
was  in  touch  with  all  improvements  in  practice,  in  remedies,  and  methods. 
If  in  fact  he  was  not  "  the  first  by  whom  the  new  was  tried,"  he  certainly 
"  was  not  the  last  to  throw  the  old  aside."  He  was  greatly  interested  in  the 
State  Medical  Society,  and  it  was  while  in  Albany  as  a  Allegany  delegate  to 
the  annual  meeting  of  that  society  that  he  contracted  the  cold  which  ended 
fatally  in  typhoid  pneumonia,  Feb.  24.  1883. 

Charles  M.  Crandall,  M.  D.,  was  son  of  Benjamin  G.  Crandall  and  grand- 
son of  Samuel  Van  Campen  of  Amity.  He  was  reared  by  the  latter,  and  by 
his  own  exertions  acquired  a  medical  education  and  was  graduated  from 
Castleton  (Vt.)  Medical  dAlege  in  1850.  He  began  practice  at  once  in  Bel- 
fast, and  in  1854  married  a  daughter  of  Alvah  Wood  of  Independence.  He 
soon  attained  prominence  as  a  i)hysician,  and,  after  being  treasurer  and 
president  of  the  County  Medical  Society,  he  was  frequently  a  delegate  to 
the  State  Medical  Society,  and  in  1859  was  elected  a  permanent  member  of 
that  body.     He  was  chosen  supervisor  of  Belfast  in  1859  and  1860,  and  was 

226  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.   Y. 

ardently  in  favor  of  the  cause  of  the  Union,  giving  his  services  as  a  surgeon 
for  some  months  in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac.  In  October,  1862,  he  was 
made  examining  surgeon  for  Allegany  county.  Through  resolutions  of  his 
introduced  to  the  State  Medical  Society  the  state  legislature  passed  special 
laws  and  made  liberal  appropriations  for  the  care  of  sick  and  wounded  sol- 
diers "at  the  front."  In  1864  he  was  for  some  time  in  attendance  in  Louis- 
viUe  and  Nashville  hospitals,  and  was  "unanimously"  chosen  surgeon  of 
the  141st  N.  Y.,  but  as  he  was  then  representing  the  First  District  of  his 
county  in  the  assembly,  and  had  been  re-nominated,  he  declined  this  honor. 
He  was  re-elected  to  the  assembly  in  1865,  and  in  1866  chosen  to  represent 
the  whole  county  of  Allegany.  He  was  an  influential  legislator  and  import- 
ant enactments  owed  existence  to  him.  In  1865  he  was  "  military  agent  " 
of  the  state  and  "  visiting  agent  of  military  hospitals. "  Among  other  offices 
filled  by  him  were  tmstee  of  the  Binghamton  Inebriate  Asylum,  and  State 
Commissioner  of  Public  Charities.  His  death,  which  occurred  Oct.  4,  1867, 
was  felt  as  a  public  calamity.  His  son,  Floyd  M.,  is  a  physician  of  New 
York  city. 

Charles  W.  Saunders,  M.  D.,  son  of  Harvey  and  Sallie  (Hanford)  Saun- 
ders, was  born  in  Franklin ville,  N.  Y.,  June  27,  1833.  He  was  educated  at 
Rushford  Academy  and  Chamberlain  Institute,  Randolph,  his  medical  edu- 
cation being  at  the  University  of  New  York,  where  he  graduated  in  1857, 
the  "honor  man  "  of  his  class.  He  located  at  Belfast,  acquired  a  large  and 
lucrative  practice,  was  a  life-long  member  of  the  County  Medical  Society, 
a  leading  physician  of  Western  New  York,  and  a  member  of  the  board  of 
curators  of  the  University  of  Buffalo  for  many  years.  He  was  one  of  the 
promoters  of  the  Genesee  Valley  Seminary  and  for  years  an  active  member 
of  the  board  of  trustees.  With  his  brother  he  was  owner  of  a  large  mercan- 
tile establishment,  and  a  stockholder  and  vice  president  of  the  Bank  of  Bel- 
fast. Republican  in  politics  he  was  14  years  supervisor  of  Belfast.  He  was 
one  of  the  first  appointed  pension  examiners,  which  post  he  filled  with  credit 
from  the  close  of  the  Rebellion  until  his  death,  Jan.  7,  1891.  He  married, 
first,  Nettie,  daughter  of  Col.  John  Renwick,  of  Warsaw,  who  died  in  1865; 
second,  in  October,  1870,  EHza  Armstrong  of  Oramel.  Their  children  are: 
Catharine,  preceptress  of  Park  Place  School,  Elmira,  and  Frederic  Charles. 

William  S.  Todd,  M.  D.,  son  of  Dr.  W.  S.  Todd,  was  born  April  12.  1851, 
in  Angelica,  studied  medicine  with  his  father,  in  1876  was  graduated  from 
the  Cleveland,  Ohio,  Homeopathic  Hospital  College  and  located  in  Belfast, 
where  he  is  now  in  practice.  He  married  Julia,  daughter  of  James  and 
Polly  Hooker,  of  Angelica.     Children,  Nellie  A.  and  George  H. 

Joseph  H.  Chamberlain,  M.  D.,  son  of  Calvin  Tibbetts  Chamberlain,  2d, 
was  born  in  1858.  He  was  graduated  from  the  New  York  Homeopathic  Col- 
lege in  1878,  and  from  the  University  of  New  York  in  1879.  He  has  prac- 
ticed   in    Belfast  since  1884,    and    in  1893  was  made  pension  examiner. 

Eugene  E.  Caswell,  M,  D.,  son  of  Charles  CasweU,  was  born  Aug.  6, 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  227 

1870,  in  Ischua.  His  father  was  a  farmer  and  Eugene  lived  on  a  farm  until 
he  was  17  years  of  age.  In  1890  he  was  graduated  from  Cuba  Union  School 
and  taught  school  one  year.  In  1894  he  was  graduated  from  the  medical 
department  of  the  University  of  Buffalo  and  established  himself  as  a  physi- 
cian here.  He  is  a  member  of  Cuba  Lodge,  No.  306,  P.  &  A.  M. ,  of  K.  O.  T. 
M.  Tent,  No.  47,  of  Belfast,  is  its  medical  examiner,  also  medical  examiner 
for  the  New  York  Life  Insurance  Co.,  and  for  the  Massachusetts  Mutual,  is 
health  officer  of  the  village  of  Belfast,  and  a  member  of  the  Allegany  County 
Medical  Society. 

Clark  M.  Pord,  M.   D..  was  born  in  Belfast  in  1862,  studied  medicine 
with  Dr.  Willis  E.  Hunt  of  Utica,  in  1888  was  graduated  from  the  University 
of  New  York  City,  and  has  since  been  in  practice  in  thatcity 

Bolivar. — Dr.  William  Thomas,  the  first  physician  of  Bolivar,  early 
located  at  Richburg  when  that  place  was  in  Bolivar.  He  moved  to  Mt. 
Morris,  and  by  an  accidental  discharge  of  his  gun  while  hunting  lost  the 
sight  of  both  eyes,  but  kept  up  his  practice  when  totally  bhnd.  The  first 
physician  of  the  present  town  of  Bolivar  was  a  Dr.  Lyman  who  came  about 
1831  and  practiced  some  years.  Dr.  Warren  Wellman  came  about  1836,  was 
here  some  years.  Dr.  E.  C.  Poole  was  here  in  the  thirties.  In  1840  he  built 
a  house  on  Main  St.  A  Dr.  Burdick  was  here  for  a  year.  Dr.  Samuel 
Sturges  was  here  in  practice  for  several  years. 

Joseph  L.  Cutler,  M.  D.,  was  born  Pebruary  15,  1829,  at  Moravia,  N.  Y. 
He  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Cyrus  Powers  and  was  graduated  from  the 
University  of  New  York  City  in  1850,  and  located  in  Bolivar  the  same  year, 
where  he  has  since  practiced.  In  March,  1863,  he  was  commissioned  assist- 
ant surgeon  of  the  134th  Regiment,  was  with  the  regiment  10  months,  and 
acted  as  surgeon  most  of  the  time.  He  was  pension  examiner  8  years, 
resigning  in  1894.  He  has  made  a  specialty  of  surgery,  and  was  in  the  drug 
business  for  8  years.  Dr.  Cutler  has  been  thrice  elected  supervisor  of  Boli- 
var, and  twice  town  superintendent  of  schools.  In  1849,  he  married  Janet, 
daughter  of  Jeremiah  Mellen  of  Moravia.  Their  children  were  Mary  A. 
(Mrs.  George  Parker)  and  Pannie  (Mrs.  J.  E.  Partridge)  The  doctor  married 
for  his  second  wife.  Harriet  Cleveland,  of  Borodino.  They  had  a  daughter, 
Janet,  who  died  ini  very  early  life.  Dr.  Cutler  is  a  member  of  Macedonia 
Lodge,  P.  &  A.  M.  No.  258. 

Dr.  Dorr  Cutler  was  born  at  Moravia,  Aug.  29,  1836.  He  studied  medi- 
cine with  his  brother  Joseph  L.,  was  graduated  from  the  University  of  New 
York  in  1869.  In  1870  he  located  at  Ceres  where  he  practiced  four  years 
and  a  half  when  he  returned  to  Bolivar  where  he  has  since  practiced. 

Ora  N.  Latham,  M.  D.,  son  of  Rev.  Joseph  Latham,  was  born  Aug.  6, 
1855,  at  Porter.  He  attended  school  at  Ten  Broeck  Academy  of  Pranklin- 
ville,  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  H.  D.  Walker,  and  March,  1882,  was  grad- 
uated from  the  Maryland  University  and  School  of  Medicine,  and  located  at 
Bolivar,  where  he  has  pursued  his  profession.  In  1887  he  married  Lizzie 
Weiler  of  Bolivar.      They  have  2  children,   Joseph  and  Karl  Henry.     Dr. 

228  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Latham  has  been  appointed  health  officer  several  times,  is  a  member  of 
Allegany  County  Medical  Society,  of  Franklin ville  Lodge,  No.  626  F.  &  A.  M., 
also  of  Bolivar  Chapter,  and  St.  Johns  Commandery  of  Olean. 

Charles  F.  Hoffman,  M.  D.  James  Hoffman  was  born  in  Peterboro  in 
1826.  He  was  a  second  cousin  of  Gerritt  Smith.  He  married  Mary  Curtis 
of  Cazenovia.  About  1850  he  settled  in  Belmont  and  engaged  in  farming. 
Of  his  4  children.  2  are  living,  Carrie  A.  and  Charles  F.  James  Hoffman 
died  Feb.  8,  1888,  his  wife,  March  15,  1891.  Charles  F.  Hoffman,  M.  D.,  son 
of  James  and  Mary  (Curtis)  Hoffman,  was  born  in  Belmont,  July  31,  1860. 
He  was  educated  at  Alfred  University,  and  was  graduated  from  the  Univer- 
sity of  New  York  in  1881,  and  in  1885  from  the  College  of  Physicians  and 
Surgeons.  He  then  jjassed  4  years  professionally  at  the  New  York  City 
Insane  Asylum  and  9  months  at  the  Charity  Hospital.  In  1891  he  located  at 
Bolivar,  where  he  has  since  practised.  In  1891  he  married  Mira  Green  of 
Wellsville.     They  have  two  sons,  Charles  Curtis  and  James  Percy. 

Burns. — Doubtless  the  local  historian  of  Burns  has  been  able  to  deter- 
mine who  was  the  pioneer  physician  of  this  town,  but  as  yet  it  is  not  revealed 
to  the  writer  by  any  printed  record  or  facts  gathered  during  the  recent  in- 
quiry for  data  for  this  chapter  who  should  be  awarded  that  distinguished 
honor.  The  few  accompaning  sketches  are  all  that  we  have  concerning 
the  doctors  of  the  town. 

WiUiam  H.  Harris,  M.  D.,  was  born  June  15,  1832,  in  Sparta,  N.  Y.  He 
studied  medicine  with  Drs.  Prior  and  Dominick,  and  in  1879,  was  graduated 
from  the  American  Medical  College  of  Cincinnati.  Aug.  27,  1862,  he  enlisted 
in  Co.  B.  136th  New  York,  and  May  28,  1863,  he  joined  the  regular  army  as 
hospital  steward,  and  was  discharged  May  3,  1866.  He  was  five  years  com- 
mander of  Seth  H.  Weed  Post,  No.  296,  G.  A.  R.  He  estabhshed  the  Cana- 
saraga  Advertiser  and  published  it  several  years.  He  has  been  justice  of  the 
X^eace  for  four  years,  and  a  pension  attorney  since  1887. 

James  G.  A.  Davies,  M.  D.,  of  Canaseraga,  born  April  16,  1838,  at  Blaen- 
porth,  Co.  Cardigan,  Great  Britain,  landed  in  the  United  States,  March  1, 
1870.     His  academic  record  published  in  1866  in  the  British  directories  is: 

"  Educated  at  Glynarthen  School  and  Adpar  Academy,  up  to  1857;  Lampeter  Grammar  School,  1857—8; 
Examiner's  Prize  (second  class),  June,  1857;  Head  Master's  Prize  (first  class),  Easter,  1858;  the  Bishop  of  St. 
David's  Prize  (first  class),  June,  1858;  St.  David's  College,  October,  1858— June,  1861;  Simonburn  Scholar, 
October,  igsS;  Phillips  Scholar,  February,  1859;  Senior  Scholar,  February,  i860:  History  Prize,  June,  i86o- 
B.  A.,  June,  186=;." 

His  record  in  the  United  States  Medical  and  Surgical  Register  of  1893,  is: 

"  A.  B.  St.  David's  College,  1H65;  A.  M.  Hobart  College,  1873;  M.  D.  of  various  institutions  in  the 
United  States,  1876-7—1882-3;  M.  D.  British,  1878.  Indorsed  in  New  York.  1883;  Phar.  D.,  British,  1878; 
Phar.  Licence,  New  York,  1888;  Author  of  works  on  Archaeology,  Music  and  the  Antiquities  of  Med- 

Dr.  Davies  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  at  the  age  of  15,  and  has 
continued  in  his  devotion  to  that  science  to  the  present  time.  He  was  Sec- 
ond Master  of  Lampeter  Grammar  School  during  his  stay  there;  Classical 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  229 

Master  of  Hoddesdon  Grammar  School  near  London,  in  1866;  Vice-Principal 
of  West  Kent  College,  London,  1873-4;  Professor  of  Chemistry  at  the  Medi- 
cal College,  Lewiston.  Me.,  1882-3;  Professor  of  Anatomy  and  Physiology 
at  the  Medical  and  Surgical  College  of  New  Jersey,  1888-9.  In  the  medical 
curriculum  he  studied  three  years  under  a  preceptor,  and  four  terms  under 
a  faculty.  In  1871  was  conferred  on  him  the  title  {nom-de-plume)  of  Ap-Ke- 
dora,  according  to  the  ancient  custom  of  the  Druids.  This  was  superseded 
in  1871  by  the  title  of  Goravar,  which  in  1877  became  Goi^avar  Amerig.  Prom 
the  latter  date,  the  latter  title  has  been  incorporated  in  his  name  by  the 
initials  G.  A. 

Oscar  S.  Pratt  born  in  Burdette,  N.  Y.,  in  1836,  studied  medicine  in 
Onondaga  county,  was  graduated  from  the  University  of  Buifalo  in  1871.  He 
located  in  Canaseraga  in  1875.  He  was  twice  coroner  of  Livingston  county, 
and  2  terms  in  this  county. 

Albert  T.  Bacon,  M.  D.,  son  of  Theodore  S.  and  Lucinda  (Dunning)  Ba- 
con, was  born  in  the  town  of  Burns,  Jan.  22,  1855.  He  was  educated  at  the 
common  schools,  Rogersville  Seminary  and  the  University  of  Buifalo,  from 
the  medical  dejDartment  of  which  he  was  graduated,  and  soon  opened  an 
office  in  Canaseraga  and  has  also  kept  a  drug  store.  He  has  been  supervi- 
sor of  Burns  three  times  and  three  times  elected  coroner.  He  married 
Elizabeth  Francis  Love  of  Rochester  in  1880;  childred:  living,  Lloyd,  Lester 
Faulkner,  Bessie;  dead,  Clifford,  aged  2  years  and  6  months. 

Caneadea. — On  the  authority  of  Amos  R.  Smith,  Esq.,  it  is  stated  that 
the  first  physician  to  practice  here  was  Dr.  Ebenezer  Hyde,  and  that  he 
boarded  with  Major  Burr  at  Burrville.  Tliis  was  in  1838-39.  Mr.  Smith 
says  he  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  Gilmore  about  1840,  who  did  not  stay  long,  and 
in  all  probability  was  the  same  one  who  for  awhile  was  located  in  Ellicott- 
ville,  where  he  was  known  as  "  the  almanac  maker,"  from  his  making  cal- 
culations for  almanacs.  He  was  of  a  scientific  turn  of  mind,  and  was  at  one 
time  at  Warsaw.  In  1841  Dr.  Porter  settled  in  town.  He  once  performed 
an  operation,  removing  a  goitre  from  the  neck  of  a  daughter  of  Rev.  Ziba 
Huft".  from  the  effects  of  which  she  died.  Dr.  Porter  was  indicted  and  tried 
for  malpractice.  It  was  proven  that  the  patient  removed  the  bandage  in  the 
absence  of  the  doctor  and  bled  to  death,  so  he  was  acquitted.  Dr.  John  H. 
Saunders  located  at  Burrville  in  1846.  He  soon  removed  to  Belfast. 
Dr.  Pulling,  a  brother  of  lawyer  David  J.,  was  at  Oramel  for  a  while  about 
1850.  He  was  a  brother-in-law  of  A.  P.  Laning.  After  he  left  the  town  had 
no  physician  for  several  years.  Dr.  J.  B.  Miller  from  Alexander,  Genesee 
Co.,  came  about  1874  or  5,  remaining  some  ten  or  twelve  years,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Dr.  A.  H.  Lyman,  about  1886  or  7,  who  remained  until  1892. 

J.  C.  Earle,  M.  D.,  graduated  from  the  medical  department  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Buffalo  in  1883,  soon  after  was  in  practice  at  Oramel,  later  at 
Rochester,  then  at  Olean,  and  is  now  at  Belmont. 

In  1891  Dr.  Erly  H.  Madison  from  New  Hudson,  located  in  Oramel,  where 
he  is  in  practice.     He  was  born  in  New  Hudson,  Oct.  29,  1869,  educated  in 

230  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

the  common  schools  and  Houghton  Seminary,  and  graduated  from  the  medi- 
cal department  of  the  University  of  Buffalo  in  1891. 

Centekville. — The  precise  time  at  which  Dr.  Calvin  Cass  came  to 
Centerville  cannot  be  determined.  He  however  preceded  Dr.  Wm.  A.  Stacy 
who  came  in  1828.  The  fact  of  his  being  the  first  resident  physician  is  thought 
to  be  undisputed.  Nothing  is  told  of  him  by  which  he  has  been  remembered 
by  our  immediate  predecessors,  yet  all  the  same  he  was  the  pioneer  physi- 
cian of  Centerville.     Dr.  Weld  succeeded  Dr.  Cass. 

Dr.  Wm.  A.  Stacy,  a  native  of  Rochester,  Vermont,  settled  here  about 
1828,  and  his  practice  covered  thirty  years.  He  received  his  diploma  from 
Castleton  Medical  College,  Vermont,  and  settled  in  Boston,  Erie  county,  but 
soon  removed  to  Centerville,  where  he  practiced  until  1856,  when  he  removed 
to  Rushford,  where  he  died.  He  had  an  extensive  practice,  was  a  man  of 
ability,  successful  in  practice,  and  possessed  high  social  qualities. 

A  Dr.  Stewart  was  here  from  1840  to  1845.  Dr.  John  Stacy  succeeded 
Wm.  A.  So  far  it  is  believed  the  physicians  of  Centerville  were  all  "  regu- 
lars." Then  came  one  Kibbe,  a  "  botanical  "or  "  eclectic, "  and  one  Haskins, 
William  Ware  and  Crang.  Some  of  whom,  if  not  all,  were  regarded  as 
"  irregular  "  by  the  profession.  Dr.  Porter  Hanks,  who  read  medicine  with 
Dr.  H.  H.  Lyman  of  Hume  and  graduated  from  the  medical  department  of 
the  University  of  Buffalo,  practiced  here  for  a  few  years,  then  removed  to 
Wellsville  and  from  thence  to  Florida.  He  married  Maria,  daughter  of  E.  E. 
Harding,  Esq.,  of  Hume.  Of  Dr.  Wm.  Boddy  who  succeeded  Dr.  Hanks  no 
particulars  have  been  gathered . 

Dr.  Elbert  I.  Pish  came  next.  He  was  born  in  Hume  in  1853;  educated 
at  the  district  schools  in  Centerville,  Olean  academy  and  Pike  seminary.  In 
1875  he  commenced  medical  study  with  Dr.  A.  B.  Stewart  of  Hume,  attended 
lectures  at  the  Cincinnati  Eclectic  Medical  Institute,  and  soon  after  began 
practice  in  Centerville.  In  1879  he  removed  to  West  Valley,  Cattaraugus 

Dr.  Lucius  G.  Waterman,  the  only  physician  here  at  present,  was  born 
in  China  (now  Arcade)  in  1849;  educated  at  the  University  of  Suffield,  Conn., 
read  medicine  with  Dr.  Lusk  of  Eagle,  and  was  graduated  from  the  medical 
department  of  the  University  of  Buffalo  in  1883.  He  has  been  in  Centerville 
since  1878. 

Cuba. — Dr.  Gilbert  B.  Champlain  was  the  first  physician  of  any  note 
who  located  permanently,  and  practiced  in  Cuba.  This  was  in  1822.  A  Dr. 
Sprague  came  not  long  after.  Dr.  Enos  Palmer  settled  in  1830,  followed 
by  Dr.  Stephen  Maxson  in  1833.  Dr.  HoUenbeck  from  Albany  appeared  soon 
after,  remaining  only  a  short  time.  A  Dr.  Thomas  came  about  1834,  and 
Dr.  C.  J.  Reynolds  began  practice  in  1836.  The  old  doctors,  Champlain,  Max- 
son  and  Reynolds,  held  on  pretty  well,  and  judging  from  the  record  Cuba 
was  not  the  best  place  in  the  world  for  a  young  practitioner  to  locate.  Pre- 
vious to  1868  Drs.  J.  J.  Ashley,  Forbes,  and  Alfred  Griffin  had  secured  a 
foothold  in  this  stronghold  of  strong  doctors.     Dr.  Seneca  Allen  settled  here 

Medical  Societies  and  Ph^  sicians.  231 

in  1868,  Dr.  Otis  AUen  in  1872,  and  Dr.  John  C.  Young  in  1873.  In  1879  there 
were  also  reported  in  Cuba,  Drs.  Learned  and  J.  B.  Hatch.  In  1881,  Dr.  H. 
F.  Gillette  made  his  appearance,  and  then  for  a  while  there  was  no  importation 
of  medical  talent.  In  1890  began  another  influx  of  medical  men,  with  Dr.  H. 
M.  Champney,  followed  by  Drs.  W.  T.  Mortimer  and  T.  S.  Thomas  in  1894, 
and  Dr.  William  O.  Congdon  in  1895.  Cuba  has  always  had  a  high  order  of 
professional  talent  among  her  physicians.  The  fame  of  Drs.  Champlain 
and  Maxson  extended  over  a  good  part  of  Western  New  York. 

In  1845  Dr.  Gilbert  B.  Champlain  erected  a  wooden  building  of  consid- 
erable size  near  a  mineral  spring  east  of  his  residence,  which  he  intended 
rather  as  a  resort  for  pleasure-seekers  than  a  sanitarium.  R.  B.  Gleason, 
M.  D.,  of  the  Elmira  water-cure,  conducted  this  as  a  water-cure  for  two 
years.  He  was  followed  in  succession  by  one  Hayes,  a  Dr.  Perry,  who  took 
as  a  partner  a  Dr.  Acorn.  Two  years  after  they  assumed  management  the 
building  burned.  Perry  soon  went  away,  but  Acorn  remained  and  "hung 
out  his  shingle  "  as  an  "  eclectic  "  physician.  After  four  or  five  years  he 
removed  to  the  oil  country. 

Gilbert  B.  Champlain,  M.  D.,  was  a  lineal  descendant  of  the  discoverer  of 
Lake  Champlain.  He  was  born  at  New  London,  Conn.,  Jan.  27,  1792.  At 
the  age  of  20  he  received  a  diploma  as  physician  and  surgeon,  and  two  years 
later  was  appointed  surgeon's  mate  in  the  25th  regiment  of  the  first  brigade 
of  infantry  of  the  United  States  army.  He  was  in  active  service  upon  the 
frontier  in  the  war  of  1812,  and  was  present  at  the  battles  of  Chippewa  and 
Lundy's  Lane,  and  the  sortie  of  Fort  Erie.  He  settled  in  Cuba  in  1822,  and 
had  an  extensive  practice,  gaining  a  wide  reputation  as  a  skillful  physician. 
He  was  an  earnest  temperance  advocate,  and  was  an  active  member  of  the 
Sons  of  Temperance.     He  died  in  Cuba  of  cholera,  Sept.  1,  1852. 

Dr.  Enos  Palmer  was  born  in  Bennington,  Vt.,  March  18,  1805,  studied 
medicine  at  Auburn,  N.  Y.,  came  to  Cuba  in  1830,  soon  established  a  drug 
store  and  practiced  till  nearly  up  to  the  time  of  his  death,  March  1,  1860. 

Stephen  Maxson,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Hopkinton,  R.  I.,  in  1810.  He 
came  to  this  county  when  seventeen,  and  the  next  year  became  a  student  of 
Dr.  Champlain.  He  later  studied  with  Dr.  Valentine  Mott  in  New  York 
city  and  was  graduated  in  1832.  He  was  resident  physician  at  the  Chambers 
street  cholera  hospital  during  the  fearful  scourge  of  cholera  which  visited 
that  city.  In  1832-3  he  returned  to  Cuba,  became  a  partner  of  Dr.  Cham- 
plain and  soon  married  his  daughter.  In  1853  he  was  made  inspector  of  med 
icine  in  the  New  York  custom  house.  He  entered  the  army  as  surgeon  in 
1862,  and  was  in  service  during  the  war.  He  was  a  successful  practictioner 
and  skillful  surgeon  and  was  long  the  oldest  member  of  the  County  Medical 
Society,  and  filled  all  its  offices.      He  was  killed  by  a  railroad  train  at  Cuba. 

Dr.  C.  J.  Reynolds  was  born  July  6,  1806.  In  1826  he  moved  to  Granger, 
and  soon  after  to  Cuba.  He  attended  the  Castleton  Medical  College,  Ver- 
mont, in  1834-35,  and  was  practicing  in  Cuba  as  late  as  1878. 

J.  J.  Ashley,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Richmond,  Ohio,  May  6,  1830.     He  was 

232  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

a  wellknown  physician  and  surgeon,  and  was  in  1863  appointed  examining 
surgeon  in  his  district  for  the  enrollment  and  draft  of  soldiers. 

Seneca  Allen,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Black  Creek,  New  Hudson,  April  23, 
1840.  His  father,  Dr.  Calvin  L.,  came  to  that  place  in  1835  and  died  June 
9,  1872.  Dr.  Seneca  Allen  was  graduated  from  the  Buffalo  Medical  College  in 
1868.  In  1861  he  enlisted,  was  commissioned  captain  of  Co.  F,  85th  N.  Y. 
Vols.,  and  served  until  March  26,  1865,  when  he  was  paroled  from  Libby 
Prison.  April  20.  1864  he  was  taken  prisoner  at  Plymouth,  N.  C,  and  con- 
fined at  Andersonville,  Macon,  Savannah,  Charleston.  Columbia,  Augusta, 
Charlotte,  Payette ville,  and  Raleigh,  N.  C,  and  in  Libby  Prison.  Imme- 
diately after  graduating  Dr.  Allen  came  to  Cuba,  where  he  practiced  until 
his  death  Nov.  14,  1893,  conducting  also  a  drug  business  with  his  brother. 
Dr.  Otis  Allen.  Dr.  Allen  was  commissioned  lieutenant  colonel  when  in 
service  but  as  he  was  a  prisoner  he  was  never  mustered  in  command.  He 
was  a  member  of  St.  Johns  Commandery,  No.  24,  K.  T..  of  Olean.  March 
14,  1866,  he  married  Hannah  M.,  daughter  of  Rev.  C.  D.  Swift  of  Belfast. 

Otis  AUen,  M.  D.,  son  of  Dr.  Calvin  L.  and  Minerva  (Rogers)  Allen,  was 
born  in  New  Hudson,  Oct.  13,  1838.  He  studied  medicine  with  his  father 
and  attended  the  Buffalo  Medical  College,  and  was  graduated  in  February, 
1871,  He  practiced  in  New  Hudson  a  year  and  in  1872  came  to  Cuba.  He 
has  been  county  coroner. 

John  C.  Young,  M.  D.,  (Buffalo,  1871),  M.  R.  C.  S.  (England,  1892),  L.  R. 
C.  P.  and  L.  M.  (Edinburgh,  1893),  now  of  Elmira,  was  born  in  Little  Genesee 
in  1845,  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  C.  H.  Bartlett  of  Olean,  and  received  the- 
degree  of  M.  D.  from  the  University  of  Buffalo  in  1871.  H'3  married  in  1873 
Miss  Comstockof  Portville.  They  have  two  living  children.  Dr.  Young  in 
18731ocated  in  Cubawherohe  practiced  until  the  autumn  of  1894.  He  Vv^as  coro- 
ner of  this  county  for  two  terms.  Since  1878  he  has  passed  three  and  a  half 
years  in  Europe,  where  for  three  years  he  was  connected  with  The  Children's 
Hospital  and  Hospital  for  Diseases  of  the  Skin  in  London.  He  received  a 
degree  in  "Science,  Letters  and  Art,"  and  subsequently  the  diploma  of 
Member  of  the  (England)  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  England.  He  was  then 
made  senior  assistant  surgeon  to  the  Hospital  for  Diseases  of  Women,  and 
for  six  months  was  connected  with  the  Royal  Infirmary  of  Edinburgh. 
While  there  he  received  two  diplomas  from  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians 
of  Edinburgh,  one  a  special  diploma  for  proficiency  and  merit  in  midwifery, 
the  first  ever  granted  by  that  institution  to  an  American.  He  has  been  a 
member  of  Cattaraugus  County  Medical  Society,  Allegany  County  Medical 
Society,  now  a  member  of  the  Chemung  County  Medical  Society  and  the 
Elmira  Academy  of  Medicine.  At  the  trial  of  Henry  Hendricks  in  this 
county  for  the  murder  of  his  wife.  Dr.  Young  pointed  out  by  diagrams  and 
casts  that  the  wounds  on  the  prisoner  must  have  been  self-inflicted.  That 
very  important  fact  was  the  connecting  link  in  the  chain  of  evidence.  The 
honors  conferred  upon  Dr.  Young  fall  to  the  lot  of  very  few,  and  so  far  as 
known  he  is  the  only  physician  born  in  Allegany  that  ever  received  them. 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  233 

Dr.  Young  was  a  ruling  elder  of  the  Presbyterian  church  of  Cuba  for  twenty- 

Dr.  Herbert  Fremont  Gillette,  son  of  Theodore  D.  and  Emily  J.  (Jud- 
son)  Gillette,  was  born  March  18,  1856,  at  Prattsburgh,  Steuben  county. 
After  attending  Franklin  Academy  and  teaching  school  3  years  he  com- 
menced studying  medicine  in  1875  with  Dr.  W.  G.  Wixon  of  Italy,  and  in 
1880  began  practice  at  West  Bloomfield  under  county  license.  In  February, 
1881,  he  graduated  at  Buffalo.  In  October,  1881,  he  located  in  Cuba  and  has 
built  up  a  fine  practice.  Dr.  Gillette  has  been  an  active  worker  in  the  Re- 
publican party,  was  county  coroner  two  terms,  health  officer  of  Cuba  vil- 
lage, is  a  member  (and  was  secretary  several  years)  of  Cuba  Lodge,  No.  306, 
F.  &  A.  M.,  and  is  an  active  member  of  the  County  Medical  Society.  He 
married  June  14,  1883,  Mary  S.,  daughter  of  Emmett  Taylor  of  Dundee, 
N.  Y.  They  had  one  child,  Arthur  Taylor  Gillette.  Mrs.  Gillette  died  July 
25,  1885.  and  Sept.  2.  1886,  the  doctor  married  Ahce  C.  daughter  of  Levi 
Robie  of  Bath.  Dr.  Gillette  Avas  appointed,  Aug.  26,  1892,  a  member  of  the 
first  board  of  pension  examiners  appointed  in  Allegany  county,  and  he  was 
made  secretary.  In  1894  he  took  a  post-graduate  course  at  the  Polyclinic 
Hospital  in  New  York  city. 

Horace  M.  Champney,  M.  D..  son  of  Horace  A.  and  Emily  (Marion) 
Champney.  was  born  at  Minerva.  N.  Y.,  March  10,  1864.  He  was  graduated 
from  Long  Island  College  Hospital  in  June,  1885,  and  after  a  few  years' 
l^ractice  came  to  Cuba  in  1890,  remaining  but  a  few  years. 

W.  G.  Mortimer,  M..  D.,  was  born  in  New  York  city  where  he  was  grad- 
uated from  the  University  of  New  York  city  in  1883.  He  is  a  specialist  in 
surgery.     He  located  in  Cuba  in  June,  1894. 

T.  S.  Thomas,  M.  D.,  studied  with  Dr.  A.  E.  Willard  and  was  graduated 
from  the  Buftalo  University  of  Medicine  in  1882.  After  remaining  at  Black 
Creek,  until  1892,  in  1894  he  came  to  Cuba,  and  formed  a  partnership  with 
Dr.  Otis  Allen  as  Allen  &  Thomas  in  the  drug  store  and  practice  of  medicine. 
He  has  been  coroner  six  years. 

William  O.  Congdon,  M.  D.,  son  of  Anson,  was  born  in  Clarksville,  April 
10,  1849.  He  was  educated  at  Friendship  Academy,  studied  medicine  at  the 
University  of  Buftalo,  and  was  graduated  from  the  American  Eclectic  Medi- 
cal College  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  June  5,  1895,  and  is  now  in  practice  in  Cuba. 
In  1870  he  married  Amanda  M.  McDougal  and  has  one  child,  Roscoe.  Mrs. 
Congdon  was  graduated  from  the  medical  department  of  the  University  of 
Buffalo  in  1892  and  has  since  practiced  in  Cuba. 

Friendship. — The  old,  tried  and  reliable  medical  practitioner  wins  our 
esteem  and  love,  and  it  is  well  that  the  memory  of  such  men  should  be 
cherished  in  the  history  of  the  county  where  their  laborious  lives  were 
passed.  Timothy  Pease,  M.  D.,  one  of  this  class  was  born  in  revolutionary 
days  in  Bristol,  R.  I.,  in  1774,  and  died  in  Friendship  in  the  fifties.  He  was 
a  graduate  of  Yale  College,  and  made  a  specialty  of  surgery.  He  was  the 
first  physician  of  this  town,  coming  here  when  the  country  was  a  wilder- 

234  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

ness,  and  had  a  large  practice  extending  many  miles.  His  daughters,  Mrs. 
Francis  Graves,  and  Mrs.  Rev.  Nathaniel  Hammond,  widows,  reside  in 
FriendshijD.  (See  history  of  town.)  Dr.  Dana  was  another  of  the  old-time 

Dr.  Jonas  Wellman  was  born  Oct.  29,  1799,  at  Brookline,  Vt.,  was  gradu- 
ated as  M.  D.  at  Berkshire  (Mass.)  Medical  College  in  1826,  and  married 
Keziah  Joslyn,  Feb.  27,  1827,  at  Bolivar.  He  soon  thereafter  located  at 
Friendship  as  a  physician  and  surgeon,  and  won  an  extensive  practice  which 
he  retained  until  failing  health  caused  him  to  retire  from  the  profession. 
For  a  time  he  was  in  mercantile  trade  at  Friendship  with  his  brothers, 
Warren  and  Arba.  During  the  last  years  of  his  life  he  suffered  greatly 
from  disease  brought  on  by  his  extensive  rides  and  arduous  labors  in  his 
profession.  He  died  March  31,  1844.  His  children  were  Mary  J.  (Mrs.  I. 
G.  LeSeur),  Washington  I.,  Minerva  (Mrs.  David  Wentworth),  Warren  W., 
Abijah  J.,  Jonas  G.,  Laura  M.  (Mrs.  David  Barber). 

Dr.  Brayton  Babcock  w^as  born  at  Leyden,  Mass.,  Oct.  31,  1814.  He 
came  to  Friendship  about  1840  and  practiced  here  and  was  one  of  the 
leading  physicians  in  Allegany  county  many  years.  He  married  first  Eunice 
Smith,  second  Julia  D.  Major  of  Hornellsville.  Dr.  Babcock  died  in  Friend- 
ship in  1887. 

E.  H.  Willard,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Brattleboro,  Vt.,  in  1808,  graduated 
from  the  Medical  College  at  Castle  ton,  Vt.,  about  1835,  his  studies  being 
pursued  with  Dr.  Dana  of  Friendship.  He  began  his  practice  in  Philipsville 
(Belmont)  and  removed  to  Friendship  in  1841-2,  continuing  his  practice 
there  until  his  death  in  July,  1886.     He  was  member  of  assembly  in  1849. 

A.  E.  Willard,  M.  D.,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  Cuba  in  1831, 
received  a  common  school  and  academic  education,  read  medicine  with  his 
father,  and  graduated  from  the  medical  department  of  the  University  of 
Buffalo  in  1864.  He  practiced  a  year  in  Friendship  with  his  father,  then 
removed  to  Hinsdale,  where  he  remained  until  1872;  since  then  he  has  prac- 
ticed in  Friendship. 

W.  I.  Hewitt,  M.  D..  oldest  son  of  John  W.  and  Adaline  (Paine)  Hewitt, 
was  born  in  Sherman,  Aug.  21,  1848.  In  1877  he  went  to  the  American 
Health  College  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  and  graduated  therefrom  in  1889.  He 
also  graduated  from  the  Medical  Department  of  Niagara  University  of  Buf- 
falo. With  the  exception  of  5  years  practice  in  South  Dakota  previous  to 
1884.  he  practiced  his  profession  in  Friendship  until  1894  when  he  removed 
to  Olean,  where  he  still  resides.  Dr.  Hewitt  is  a  successful  physician  giv- 
ing sjiecial  attention  to  chronic  diseases  and  employs  electricity  from  a 
medical  standpoint  in  the  treatment  of  such.  He  was  elected  coroner  for 
McPherson  county,  Dakota,  when  residing  there.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Allegany  County  Medical  Society  and  was  appointed  physician  to  the  board 
of  health  in  1893.  The  doctor  married  Frances  V.  Clarke  of  Friendship, 
July  1,  1869.  She  died  in  Olean  in  1894.  Their  only  son  bears  the  name  of 
Irving  Paine  Hewitt.     The  doctor  is  a  Universalist. 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  235 

John  W.  Hewitt,  son  of  Lott  and  Mary  (Levant)  Hewitt,  was  born  April 
30,  18:20,  in  Connecticut.  In  1826  his  jiarents  came  to  Sherman,  Chautauqua 
county.  In  1846  John  W.  married  Adeline,  daughter  of  Rev.  Linus  Paine 
of  Sherman.     In  1865  they  came  to  Friendship  where  they  still  reside. 

Bemsley  Williamson,  M.  D.,  son  of  John  D.  and  .Betsey  M.  (Smith) 
Williamson,  was  born  at  Bath,  June  21,  1851.  He  was  educated  at  the  pub- 
lic schools  of  B:ith  and  Haverling  Academy.  He  studied  medicine  4  years 
with  Dr.  B.  F.  Grant,  and  was  graduated  from  Cleveland  Homeopathic  Hos- 
pital College  (now  Cleveland  University  of  Medicine  and  Surgery)  in  1876, 
and  also  took  a  special  course  there  in  1878,  and  attended  medical  lectures 
in  New  York,  Philadelphia  and  Chicago.  In  1876  he  commenced  practice  in 
Prattsburgh.  remained  there  until  July,  1881,  when  he  came  to  Friendship 
where  he  is  now  in  practice  as  physician  and  surgeon.  He  was  one  of  the 
organizers  of  the  Allegany  County  Homeopathic  Medical  Society,  and  was 
the  first  secretary  and  treasurer,  was  once  vice  president  and  treasurer 
of  Steuben  County  Homeopathic  Medical  Society,  and  is  a  member  of  the 
New  York  State  Homeopathic  Society,  the  Homeo]3athic  Medical  Society 
of  Western  New  York  and  the  Southern  Tier  Homeopathic  Medical  Asso 
elation.  Dr.  Williamson  married  in  1881,  Catharine,  daughter  of  Aaron 
and  Sophronia  Pinney.  They  have  one  son,  William  Hann  The  family 
are  members  of  the  First  Baptist  Church  of  Friendship. 

Charles  C.  Deming,  M.  D.,  son  of  Lyman  and  Cynthia  Deming,  was  born 
in  Andover  in  1844.  In  1863  he  enlisted  and  served  2  years.  In  1869  he 
was  graduated  from  the  University  of  New  York  and  has  practiced  here 
since.     He  is  a  member  of  the  Allegany  County  Medical  Society. 

Genesee, — Evidently  the  people  of  this  town  have  been  supphed  with 
medical  treatment  by  the  physicians  of  neighboring  towns.  It  is  easily 
reached  by  the  doctors  of  Bolivar,  Portville,  Cuba  and  Olean,  and  few  physi- 
cians have  ever  located  here, 

H,  A.  Place,  M.  D..  was  born  in  Alfred  in  1850,  attended  Alfred  Univer- 
sity and  was  graduated  from  the  University  of  New  York  in  1878  and  com- 
menced practice  at  Ceres,  Pa.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Allegany  Medical 
Society  and  has  been  president  of  the  society. 

Ormond  E.  Burdick.  M.  D.,  son  of  Benjamin  P.,  was  born  October  21, 
1850,  in  Genesee.  He  attended  school  at  Alfred  University  and  studied 
medicine  with  Dr.  H,  A,  Place  of  Ceres.  In  1892  he  was  graduated  from  the 
University  of  New  York  and  has  since  practiced  his  profession  at  Ceres  and 
at  Little  Genesee  where  he  now  resides. 

Dr.  W.  S.  Hamilton  came  to  Genesee  in  1883,  and  established  an  opium 
cure  and  carried  on  the  business  until  his  death  in  1886,  when  his  son,  Dr. 
Eugene  Hamilton,  conducted  it  until  1891,  then  removed  to  Baltimore, 

Hume, — Joseph  Balcom  born  in  Providence,  R.  I.,  was  the  pioneer  phy- 
sician of  Hume,  settling  here  in  1823.  He  came  from  New  Berlin,  Chenango 
Co.,    where  he  had  secured   an  enviable  reputation  in  the  practice  of  the 

236  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

"  healing-  art."  Dr.  Simeon  Cajun,  who  came  to  Pike  in  1817,  was  then  the 
nearest  physician.  Dr.  Balcom  had  for  many  years  an  extensive  practice 
and  died  in  1851  aged  81.  He  was  considered  a  man  of  more  than  ordinary 
abihty,  of  sound  judgment  and  a  well-read  physician. 

Dr.  Seth  H.  Pratt  came  after  Dr.  Balcom.  He  was  born  in  Northampton, 
Mass.,  in  1796,  was  a  graduate  of  Hamilton  College  and  died  in  1846.  He 
married  a  daughter  of  Dr.  Balcom,  and  from  1830  to  1845  was  very  promi- 
nent not  only  as  a  physician,  but  in  town,  county  and  public  affairs.  He  was 
supervisor  of  Hume  from  1833  to  1837  inclusive,  and  in  1838  and  1839  was 
member  of  assembly.  He  was  a  good  speaker.  His  children  were:  VaDelia 
Ette  Van  Bergen,  Eleximina  McCleen,  Harden  DeValson,  Augusta  Ann, 
Lycurgus  DeCoster,  Abigail  Alcidena,  Marie  Antoinette. 

Before  Dr.  Pratt  left  Hume  a  Dr.  Randall  was  a  while  in  practice,  and  a 
Dr.  Morse  came  from  somewhere  east  and  removed  to  Bath.  Dr.  Emerson 
early  in  the  forties  was  here  for  a  short  time,  perhaps  identical  with  Isaac 
B.  Emerson  early  in  Franklinville. 

About  1847  or  8  Dr.  Isaac  Minard  left  Pike,  where  he  had  settled  in  1831, 
and  located  in  Hume  village.  He  was  for  a  while  at  Fillmore.  He  was 
appointed  postmaster  while  at  Hume.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Castleton  Med- 
ical College,  Vermont.  He  soon  returned  to  Pike,  where  he  died  in  1875.  He 
was  a  successful  physician  and  had  an  extensive  practice.  He  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  first  County  Medical  Society.  Dr.  Morse  was  in  Hume  for  a  while, 
removing  to  Bath.  Dr.  L.  B.  Johnson  was  in  Hume  as  late  as  1850,  after- 
ward went  west.  Dr.  Baker  also  for  a  short  time  early  in  the  fifties  after- 
wards in  Bradford.  Dr.  E.  A.  Finn  was  located  at  Fillmore  for  a  short  time 
about  1850. 

Dr.  H.  H.  Lyman  of  Puritan  ancestry,  was  born  in  Hume  Feb.  17, 
1827.  His  grandfather  was  a  physician  in  Wilbraham,  Mass.,  whence  his 
father,  Henry  D.  Lyman,  came  in  1820  to  Rochester,  and  worked  on  the  first 
Erie  canal  acqueduct  over  the  Genesee  river  which  was  built  of  brick.  In 
1824  he  came  to  Portage,  then  Nunda,  where  he  married  in  1825  Sophia, 
daughter  of  Capt.  Ira  Buckman,  a  Revolutionary  soldier.  Children:  Phebe 
A.,  Henry  H.,  Charles  P.,  Ira,  Edwin,  George  and  Martin  Van  Buren.  Henry 
H.  attended  Alfred  Academy  from  1845  to  1848,  and  attended  lectures  in  the 
medical  department  of  the  University  of  New  York  in  1850  and  1851.  (His 
work  in  New  York  was  interrupted  by  the  death  of  a  brother.)  That  institu- 
tion gave  him  a  license  to  practice.  He  settled  at  once  in  Hume,  and  in  1860 
received  his  M.  D.  at  Buffalo  University.  Now,  in  his  45th  year  of  profess- 
ional work,  no  other  physician  in  the  county  has  so  long  a  record.  He  mar- 
ried, in  1852,  Cornelia  C,  daughter  of  Warren  Cowing  of  Hume.  Children: 
Jennie  M.  (Mrs.  George  W.  Harding  of  Hume),  Almon  H.,  Valentine  Mott,  a 
commercial  traveler,  and  Mary  E.,  a  teacher  in  Illinois.  Dr.  Lyman  belongs 
to  the  County  Medical  Society,  and  is  surgeon  for  the  W.  N.  Y.  &  P.  railroad. 
He  was  master  of  Pike  Lodge  F.  &  A.  M.  11  years,  and  High  Priest  of 
Wyoming  Chapter  12  years. 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  237 

Wlien  Dr.  Lyman  settled  in  Hume  he  found  there  Dr.  A.  B.  Stewart, 
then  a  young  man  possessed  of  man}^  quahfications  necessary  to  a  success- 
ful physician,  but  who  had  received  no  diploma.  His  natural  adaptation  and 
tact  however  in  the  minds  of  many  more  than  made  up  for  lack  of  certificate 
from  medical  school,  and  he  had  for  twenty-five  or  thirty  years  quite  an 
extensive  practice,  and  some  years  before  his  death,  which  occurred  early 
in  the  eighties,  obtained  the  degree  of  M.  D.  "  Blanche  Stewart, "  as  he 
was  familiarly  called,  will  long  be  remembered.  He  and  Dr.  Lyman  if  not 
associated  in  business  practiced  together  for  many  years. 

Dr.  Nathan  Haskins  was  located  at  Fillmore  about  1850.  and  practiced 
for  a  few  years.     He  was  a  Irind  of  botanical  physician,  not  a  '■  regular." 

About  1859  or  60  Dr.  David  L.  Barrows  located  at  Fillmore  coming 
directly  from  Rochester.  He  was  a  well-read  and  well-qualified  physician 
and  remained  ten  or  twelve  years. 

Charles  M.  Stewart.  M.  D..  son  of  Dr.  A.  B.  Stewart,  was  born  in  Hume 
April  19.  1850.  He  read  medicine  with  Dr.  H.  H.  Ljmian  and  with 
his  father,  and  was  graduated  from  the  medical  department  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Buffalo,  in  the  spring  of  1^^71.  With  the  exception  of  two  years  at 
Belfast,  and  a  year  or  two  in  Buffalo,  in  a  '"Keeley  sanitarium. ""  he  has  prac- 
ticed in  Hume. 

Charles  J.  Tucker.  M.  D.,  born  in  Caneadea  in  1859.  graduated  at  Buffalo 
in  1883.  soon  settled  in  Fillmore.  In  a  short  time  removed  to  Batavia.  and  a 
year  or  two  later  returned  to  Fillmore.     He  is  now  in  Topeka,  Kan. 

Arthur  B.  Harding.  M.  D.,  was  born  at  Hume  June  7.  1859,  educated  in 
the  village  school  and  at  the  medical  department  of  the  University  of  Buffalo. 
from  which  he  graduated  Feb.  26,  1884.  After  practicing  a  while  in  Hume 
he  removed  to  Castile,  where  he  now  has  an  extensiA^e  ride.  His  brother, 
Dr.  John  Harding,  the  writer  thinks  practiced  a  short  time  in  Hume  before 
removing  to  Perry  where  he  is  now. 

Almond  H.  Lyman,  M.  D..  son  of  Dr.  H.  H.  and  Cornelia  (Cowing)  Lyman, 
was  born  in  Hume  April  9.  1861.  He  attended  the  village  school  at  Hume, 
and  the  Geneseo  Normal  School.  He  read  medicine  with  his  father,  and  was 
graduated  from  the  medical  department  of  the  University  of  Buffalo  in  1884. 
Soon  after  he  was  resident  physician  to  the  Erie  county  jail,  and  was  elected 
by  the  Erie  county  board  of  supervisors  physician  to  the  penitentiary  in  the 
faU  of  1884.  He  has  practiced  in  Hume,  Caneadea  and  in  Fillmore,  where  he 
is  now  located.  He  passed  the  fall  and  winter  of  1894  and  5  in  Philadelphia 
at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  receiving  there  the  degree  of  M.  D.  In 
1893  he  was  elected  supervisor  of  Hume  on  the  Democratic  ticket.  He  was 
two  years  master  of  Lodge  359  F.  &  A.  M.  and  belongs  to  Genesee  River 
Chapter  No.  152,  R.  A.  M.  and  DeMolay  commandery  No.  22  K.  T.  He  mar- 
ried Miss  Josie  Whalen  of  Caneadea. 

Perrie  C.  Soule,  M.  D.,  has  been  in  practice  in  Rossburg  since  1880.  See 
extended  sketch  in  town  history  of  Hume. 

238         ■  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Ralph  White,  son  of  Alexander,  read  medicine  with  Dr.  Gish,  was  grad- 
uated from  the  Cleveland  Homeopathic  College,  practiced  at  Hume  a 
short  time,  and  died  there  in  1884. 

Francis  J.  Redmond,  M.  D.,  of  Fillmore,  was  born  in  Mt.  Morris  Jan  1, 
1866,  son  of  Peter  and  Catharine  (Van  Middlesworth)  Redmond,  whose  chil- 
dren were:  Edney,  Harriet,  Francis  J.  and  Alida.  Francis  attended  Geneseo 
Normal  School,  and  was  a  graduate  of  the  Nunda  union  graded  school.  He 
read  medicine  with  Drs.  Preston  of  Dansville,  Hill  of  Dalton,  and  Harding  of 
Nunda,  and  attended  lectures  at  the  Cincinnati  Eclectic  Medical  Institute, 
where  he  received  his  degree  of  M.  D.  in  1891.  After  a  few  month's  prac- 
tice at  Dalton  with  Dr.  Hill,  he  settled  in  Fillmore  in  1892.  April  25,  1892, 
he  married  Mrs.  Marian  (Lyon)  Spring,  daughter  of  P.  D.  Lyon  of  Nunda. 
Mrs.  Redmond  has  one  child,  Myra  Blanch,  by  her  first  husband  Lee  T. 
Spring  of  Franklinville. 

Granger. — With  occasional  visits  from  Dr.  Parmalee  of  Hunts  Hollow 
(then  called  Hog  Hollow)  and  Dr.  Charles  of  Angelica,  the  pioneers  of  Granger 
succeeded  in  getting  along  tolerably  well.  If  afflicted  with  toothache,  they 
usually  resorted  to  Capt.  Isaac  Van  Nostrand,  who  had  a  pair  of  turnkeys 
and  in  pulling  teeth  was  considered  "expert."  He  also  had  a  lancet  and 
practiced  venesection,  many  of  the  people  believing  in  being  bled  regularly 
once  a  year  and  attended  to  that  as  regularly  as  in  taking  the  customary 
dose  of  "picra  "  on  Sunday  morning.  It  is  positively  asserted  that  given 
the  age  of  a  person  when  first  bled,  one  could  tell  to  a  year  the  age  of  many 
people  by  inspecting  the  arm  and  counting  the  scars.  Dr.  Reuben  H.  Smith 
was  the  first  practicing  physician.  He  was  a  native  of  Massachusetts  and 
came  to  Granger  about  1830.  In  connection  with  his  practice  he  did  some 
surveying.  He  was  a  man  of  a  hardy  constitution,  well  fitted  for  the  arduous 
duties  of  the  pioneer  country  doctor,  and  is  still  pleasantly  remembered  by 
the  older  inhabitants. 

Succeeding  Dr.  Reuben  H.  Smith  came  Dr.  Gray,  who  settled  on  the 
state  road.  Dr.  Wm.  M.  Smith  was  the  next.  He  was  a  son  of  Dr.  Reuben 
H.  He  began  practice  at  Short  Tract,  about  1826,  and  later  removed  to 
Angelica.  Dr.  Matthew  Burton  came  about  the  same  time  as  Dr.  W.  M. 
Smith.  Opinion  is  divided  as  to  which  settled  first.  Dr.  Wm.  H.  DeCamp 
began  practice  on  the  state  road  not  far  from  1850.  Dr.  Daniels  also  settled 
on  the  state  road.  Dr.  Wallace  Byrns  practiced  for  a  while  in  this  town, 
and  then  Dr.  Wm.  Fenno.  Dr.  Charles  G.  Anderson  was  at  Short  Tract  for 
a  while.  Dr.  Myron  Miller  practiced  for  several  years  at  Short  Tract,  and 
after  him  came  Drs.  E.  H.  Hungerford,  Peck  and  Hamilton.  Andrew  W. 
Smith,  a  brother  of  Dr.  Wm.  M.,  after  practicing  at  Angelica  settled  here 
about  1882-3,  and  practiced  nearly  ten  years.  He  died  abroad  some  time  in 
1884.  Dr.  Cyrus  Haskins  at  one  time  practiced  in  Granger  and  Dr.  C.  A. 
Doolittle,  for  a  short  time  only,  in  1895. 

Dr.  George  St.  John  is  the  only  resident  physician  at  this  time.  He  was 
born  in  Middletown,  N.  Y.,  in  1841.     He  read  medicine  in  1863  with  Dr.  C. 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  239 

G.  Anderson  and  was  graduated  at  the  medical  department  of  the  University 
of  Buifalo  in  1866.  He  first  settled  in  Yorkshire,  Cattaraugus  Co.,  practiced 
in  Canasaraga  from  1871  to  1890,  and  since  then  in  Granger. 

Independence. — The  writer  has  discovered  no  record  of  the  settlement 
of  any  physician  prior  to  Dr.  Anthony  Barney  who  was  born  in  Bristol  Co., 
Mass.,  in  1801.  He  studied  medicine  at  Fairfield  Medical  College,  and,  in- 
March,  1825,  located  at  Green's  Corners,  where  for  over  fifty  years  he  was  a 
successful  practitioner.  He  was  two  years  supervisor  of  his  town  and  was 
brigade  surgeon  under  the  old  state  militia  laws. 

JohnH.  Clark,  M.D.,  son  of  Peleg,  was  born  March  30,  1827,  and  in  1856 
became  a  student  of  Dr.  O.  Barnes  of  Wellsville  and  was  also  with  Dr.  Purple. 
He  attended  Buffalo  Medical  College,  and  in  1859  commenced  medical  prac- 
tice at  Westfield,  Pa.,  and  in  Dec,  1860,  located  at  Hallsport.  In  1862  he  en- 
listed in  Co.  I.  160th  New  York  Vols.,  ancl  was  discharged  in  1864  for  disa- 
bility. He  was  graduated  from  Buffalo  Medical  College  in  1875.  Prom  1871 
to  1876  he  was  at  Canaseraga.  Allegany  Co.,  and  Wyoming,  Wyoming  Co.,  as 
a  practicing  physician.  Since  then  he  has  been  in  practice  in  Pulmer  VaUey. 
August  14,  1853,  he  married  Zeruviah  Pulmer.  Children,  Manfred,  Herbert 
G.,  Clarence  E.     Is  a  member  of  Rolph  Post,  G.  A.  R. 

J.  G.  Horton,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Herkimer  county  in  1837;  came  to 
Whites ville  in  1843;  in  1846  graduated  from  the  Castleton,  Vt.,  Medical  Col- 
lege and  began"practice  at  his  home  in  Whites  ville.  From  1854  to  1862  he 
was  in  California.  He  served  one  year  as  surgeon  in  the  189th  N.  Y.,  and 
has  acted  as  pension  examiner  for  several  years. 

Dr.  George  H.  Bennett,  born  in  Bath  in  1818,  began  practice  at  Whites- 
ville  in  1860. 

Asher  J.  Remington,  M.  D.,  born  Nov.  27,  1853,  at  Ashford,  Cattaraugus 
Co.,  studied  with  Dr.  J.  L.  Cutler  of  Bolivar,  in  1882  was  graduated  from  the 
Buffalo  University  of  Medicine,  commenced  practice  at  Shingle  House,  Pa., 
and  in  1886  located  at  Whites  ville. 

Eugene  B.  Burdick,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Wirt  Aug.  30,  1856,  graduated 
at  Friendship  Academy  June  17,  1880,  and  received  his  diploma  from  the 
Medical  DejDartment  of  the  University  of  New  York.  March  8,  1886,  and  be- 
gan practice  at  Whitesville.     In  July,  1887,  he  removed  to  Olean. 

Milton  B.  Titus,  M.  D.,  son  of  Dr.  Lewis  F.  and  Lois  R.  (Smith)  Titus, 
was  born  April  9,  1858,  in  Croton,  Delaware  Co.  He  graduated  at  Corning 
Free  Academy  in  1876,  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  John  Mitchell  at  Addison, 
was  graduated  from  the  University  of  the  City  of  New  York  in  1881,  and  lo- 
cated for  practice  at  Allentown.  In  1888  he  removed  to  Whitesville,  where 
he  is  in  practice.  He  married  in  1882,  Jessie,  daughter  of  George  and  Han- 
nah Palmer  Weed  Sheffield,  has  one  son  George  B.  Dr.  Titus  was  coroner 
in  1884  and  1885,  and  in  1885  president  of  the  Allegany  Co.  Medical  Society. 

Rushford. — In  all  probability  Dr.  Dyer  Strong,  who  was  elected  super- 
visor upon  the  organization  of  the  town  in  1816,  was  the  first  practicing 
physician  in  town.     That  he  was  there  some  years  before  1816,  follows  from 

240  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

his  election.  Nothing  more  is  learned  of  him.  In  succession,  as  near  as  the 
oldest  inhabitants  can  remember  and  place  them,  came  Drs.  Horatio  Smith, 
Wm.  M.  Smith  about  1840,  whose  practice  in  Caneadea  was  quite  extensive. 
Wm.  McCall,  H.  H.  Smith,  Dr.  Stewart,  Wm.  J.  Burr,  L.  B.  Johnson,  John 
Pitts  and  James  M.  Ward,  Jesse  P.  Bixby  came  in  1853.  He  was  born  in 
Mt.  Holly  Vt.,  in  1822,  graduated  at  Castleton  Medical  College,  Vt.,  in  1852 
and  the  next  year  settled  in  Rushford  where  he  is  still  in  practice.  Dr.  Wm. 
A.  Stacy  settled  in  Rushford  in  1856  or  7. 

Dr.  Orrin  T.  Stacy  is  next  on  the  list.  He  was  a  son  of  Dr.  Wm.  A.  and 
was  born  in  Centerville  in  1835.  He  was  a  student  at  Rushford  Academy, 
taught  school,  read  medicine,  receiving  his  diploma  from  the  Buffalo  Medi- 
cal College  in  1860  and  settled  in  Rushford,  where  he  was  a  physician  until 
1885,  when  he  removed  to  Rochester.  He  represented  Allegany  in  the  As- 
sembly for  two  terms.     (See  sketcfi  in  Rushford.) 

Dr.  John  P.  Colegrove  practiced  in  Rushford  along  in  the  sixties  for  four 
or  five  years.  He  was  born  in  Hornellsville,  April  19,  1833,  and  educated  at 
Alfred  University.  He  pursued  his  medical  studies  under  his  uncle.  Dr. 
James  Pitts,  and  at  the  College  of  Medicine  and  Surgery  at  Cincinnati  and 
practiced  in  Ohio.  In  1866  removed  to  Clearwater,  Minn.  In  1874  he  took 
lectures  at  Buffalo,  graduating  there  Feb.  23,  1875.  He  has  since  practiced 
at  Salamanca.  Dr.  James  Pitts,  was  in  Rushford  for  a  while.  Dr.  Wm.  B. 
Alley  was  settled  in  Rushford  about  1847.  He  was  afterward  county  clerk, 
practiced  in  Angelica  and  later  at  Nunda,  where  he  died  a  few  years  ago. 
Dr.  Robert  Y.  Charles  practiced  in  Rushford  for  a  few  years.  Dr.  Burt 
Grover  was  here  also  for  a  time. 

Wm.  Fletcher  Wells  came  to  Rushford  about  1880-81;  read  medicine  with 
Dr.  O.  T,  Stacy  and  was  graduated  from  the  medical  department  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Buffalo  in  1883,  and  immediately  commenced  practice  in  Rush- 
ford where  he  is  now.     (See  sketch  in  Rushford.) 

Charles  Oakley  Sayres,  the  youngest  physician  and  last  to  locate  in 
town,  was  born  in  New  Hudson  in  1869.  He  was  brought  up  on  a  farm,  edu. 
cated  at  the  common  schools,  and  Geneseo  Normal  School,  read  medicine 
with  Dr.  E.  B.  Burdick  of  Olean  and  graduated  at  Buffalo  in  1892,  and  soon 
after  settled  in  Rushford  his  present  residence. 

New  Hudson. — This  town  was  especially  favored  in  having  had  for 
many  years  as  one  of  its  residents  the  able  and  distinguished  physician 
Calvin  L.  Allen,  M.  D. ,  who,  except  a  few  years  residence  in  Hume  during  the 
forties,  made  his  home  here  from  an  early  date  until  his  death  sometime  in 
the  seventies.  He  stood  high  in  medical  circles  and  societies,  had  many  stu- 
dents who  became  leading  physicians,  among  them  his  sons,  Seneca  and  Otis 
of  Cuba.  Dr.  Allen  had  an  extensive  practice  and  was  of  prominence  in  civil 
as  well  as  in  medical  aifairs.  No  one  has  since  filled  his  place  as  an  "all 
around  ' '  man,  physician  and  legislator.  Was  the  first  physician  locating  at 
Black  Creek  Corners,  it  is  thought  early  in  the  thirties.  He  was  born  in 
Surrey,  Mass.,  and  was  graduated  from  the  Casteleton  Medical  College,  Vt., 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  241 

but  information  as  to  the  date  of  either  events,  is  wanting.  Practicing  a 
few  years  in  New  Hudson,  he  went  to  Hume  where  he  remained  5  years, 
and  then  returned  to  New  Hudson,  resuming  his  practice  there  and  continu- 
ing until  his  death  in  June,  1875.  He  held  the  office  of  supervisor  of  New 
Hudson.  He  married  Minerva  Rogers,  and  had  two  children.  Dr.  Otis 
Allen  of  Cuba  and  Dr.  Seneca  Allen,  deceased,  of  same  place.  He  had  an 
extensive  practice,  which  covered  a  large  territory,  and  is  well,  and  favor- 
ably remembered  by  all  the  older  long  resident  people  of  that  part  of  the 

Dr.  Austin  Taylor,  on  the  authority  of  Mr.  H.  P.  Ricker,  was  the  next, 
but  particulars  as  to  him  are  lacking,  as  also  of  Dr.  Harry  Taylor.  Dr.  Ens- 
worth  is  another  of  whom  also  no  sketch  has  been  received,  and  Dr.  Thomas, 
who  practiced  at  Black  Creek  a  short  time,  will  be  found  under  head  of 
Cuba,  where  he  is  associated  in  business  and  practice  with  Dr.  Otis  Allen. 

Scio. — The  early  settlers  resorted  to  roots  and  herbs  for  the  relief  of 
diseases  common  to  all  households,  sometimes  seeking  aid  of  a  wandering 
Indian  or  squaw,  in  more  severe  or  surgical  cases  trusting  to  Angelica  and 
Belmont  physicians.  In  1850  Dr.  Ebenezer  E.  Hyde  located  here  (see  Amity) 
and  in  185'4  Dr.  J.  A.  Stephenson. 

James  A.  Stephenson,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  London,  England,  in  1828. 
His  father,  Dr.  John  Stephenson,  was  surgeon  in  the  British  army.  James 
studied  with  his  father,  passed  4  years  at  the  Madras  Medical  College  and 
was  graduated  therefrom  in  1850.  He  then  went  board  ship  as  a  surgeon 
and  remained  4  years.  In  1854  he  settled  at  Scio  where  he  has  since  prac- 
ticed his  profession.  He  is  a  member  of  the  County  Medical  Society,  an 
Original  Fellow  of  the  State  Medical  Association,  and  has  held  the  office  of 
supervisor.  He  married  Emma  L.  Luther  in  1860,  and  has  3  children,  Mrs. 
Fred  Howe,  Mrs.  Bert  Wilkins  and  James  A. 

Thomas  F.  Major,  M.  D.,  was  born  inHornellsvillein  1851.  He  attended 
school  at  Almond  Academy  and  Alfred  University,  and  was  graduated  from 
the  medical  department  of  the  University  of  Buffalo  in  1874.  After  1  year's 
practice  in  Hornellsville  with  Dr.  N.  Sweet,  he  located  in  Scio  in  1875,  and 
has  continued  there  as  a  physician  with  the  exception  of  4  years  in  Michi- 
gan. The  doctor  makes  a  specialty  of  surgery  and  was  pension  examiner 
for  2  years.  He  married  Ina  White,  who  died  May  19,  1893.  He  has  one 
son,  Charlie.  Dec.  12,  1894,  Dr.  Major  married  Miss  Laura  J.  Barnard  of 
Buffalo.  A  Democrat  he  was  elected  supervisor  in  Scio  in  1885,  overcoming 
a  normal  Republican  majority  of  90. 

West  Almond.— Sandwiched  in  between  Angelica  and  old  Almond, 
which  places  have  been  well  supplied  with  physicians,  this  town  has  not 
held  out  many  inducements  for  physicians  to  settle.  Dr.  Orange  Sabin 
came  here  a  good  many  years  ago,  and  still  remains,  though  an  aged  man. 
He  was  born  in  Stephentown,  Rensselaer  county,  in  1808.  He  began  the 
study  of  medicine  in  Pittstown,  N.  Y.,  with  Dr.  L.  H.  T.  Maxson.     After 

242  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y.  • 

graduating  he  attended  lectures  at  Pittsfield,  Mass.,  and  then  came  to  West 

Grove. — Grove  has  not  been  much  of  a  town  for  doctors,  the  medical 
business  being  done  principally  by  Nunda  and  Short  Tract  physicians.  W. 
D.  Clark,  M.  D.,  settled  at  Swains  in  1878.  He  came  from  Castile,  his  native 
place  being  Leicester,  Livingston  county.  He  was  engaged  in  mercantile 
business  in  Grove  and  had  a  good  practice. 

Clarksville  is  so  located  that  the  physicians  of  Cuba  and  Olean  have 
attended  to  the  need  of  its  people.  I  cannot  learn  of  any  physician  ever 
being  a  resident  of  Allen  or  Birdsall. 

Wellsville.— Dr.  George  B.  Jones  is  said  to  be  the  first  to  jjractice 
medicine  in  this  town,  locating  in  1832.  He  was  followed  by  Doctors  Bab- 
cock,  Purple,  Whitney  (first  homeopathist),  M.  Macken,  Pelton,  Merriam, 
Allen,  Doty,  Truman,  Gena,  Randall  Reed,  Arvis  A.  Elliott,  L.  A.  Penny, 
Gish,  H.  H.  Nye,  Van  Antwerp,  Witter,  Hanks,  Coller,  Crandall  and  Koyle, 
in  the  order  named  as  near  as  those  who  are  acquainted  with  the  succession 
can  give  it. 

Horace  H.  Nye,  M.  D.,  born  in  1820,  came  with  his  father,  Benjamin  B. 
Nye,  to  Genesee  in  1830.  In  1840  he  attended  Alfred  University  where  he 
was  graduated  in  1844.  He  there  first  met  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  George 
King,  Esq.,  of  Bath,  whom  he  married  in  1856.  Commencing  the  study  of 
medicine  with  Dr.  Hartshorn  of  Alfred,  he  was  graduated  as  M.  D.  at  the 
Cleveland  Medical  College,  Ohio,  in  1849.  He  practiced  in  Alfred  and  Al- 
mond until  1855,  when  he  located  in  Wellsville,  and  until  his  death,  Aug.  28, 
1892,  was  a  leading  practitioner  and  successful  business  man.  He  was 
prominent  in  medical  councils  and  societies,  in  local  matters  and  in  his 
(Republican)  political  party.  He  was  at  one  time  president  of  Wellsville 
village.  "  Under  a  cold  exterior  he  carried  a  warm  heart  for  his  patients  and 
friends,  and  a  sympathizing  nature  for  those  deserving  symjjathy. "  He 
was  an  active,  bold  and -indefatigable  worker  in  all  the  fields  he  entered.  He 
had  an  adopted  son,  George  Marion  Nye,  now  a  practicing  physician  of 

Hon.  William  Wells  Crandall,  M.  D.,  youngest  son  of  Ezekiel  was 
born  in  Genesee,  March  23,  1828,  educated  at  Alfred  and  Brown  Uni- 
versities and  was  a  teacher  in  the  public  schools  of  Rhode' Island  for  several 
years.  He  read  medicine  with  Dr.  H.  P.  Saunders  of  Alfred,  and  was  grad- 
uated from  the  University  of  New  York  in  1858,  and  also  from  the  New 
York  Opthalmic  Hospital.  He  practiced  28  years  in  Andover  and  came  to 
Wellsville  in  1886.  He  has  been  member  of  the  Elmira  and  the  Hornells- 
ville  Academies  of  Medicine,  is  member  of  AUegany  County  Medical  Society, 
and  of  the  New  York  State  Medical  Society,  of  which  he  was  made  a  perma- 
nent member  in  1881,  and  vice  president  in  1891.  He  was  elected  member 
of  assembly  in  1872  and  1873.  Dr.  CrandaU  married  Euphemia  Potter, 
daughter  of  Ehsha.  Their  only  child  Susie  M.  is  married  to  Stetson  A. 
Sherman  of  Eau  Claire,  Wis.     Dr.  Crandall's  father,  Major  Ezekiel  Crandall, 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  243 

was  a  native  of  Rhode  Island,  who  held  the  office  of  major  in  the  war  of  1812, 
and  in  1825  came  to  Genesee,  bought  150  acres  of  wild  land  where  he  built 
a  log  house,  cleared  a  farm  and  was  also  a  lumberman.  His  wife  was  Susan 
Wells.     They  had  7  children. 

Porter  Hanks,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Center ville,  in  1834,  studied  medicine 
at  Rushford.  He  was  graduated  from  the  University  of  Buffalo  in  1860. 
He  has  practiced  in  Centerville,  and  various  places,  and  is  now  located  in 

Merritt  H.  Macken,  M.  D.,  born  in  Ontario  county  in  1840,  came  to  WeUs- 
ville in  1853.  In  1858  he  entered  the  drug  store  of  E.  B.  Hall  as  a  clerk  and 
studied  medicine  with  Dr.  H.  H.  Nye.  He  attended  lectures  at  Bellevue 
New  York  City,  and  was  graduatedt  here  in  March,  1865,  and  soon  began 
practice  in  WeUsville  where  he  is  now  located. 

George  H.  Witter,  M.  D.,  is  a  son  of  Daniel  P.  and  Betsey  (Foster)  Witter, 
and  was  born  at  Willing.  He  acquired  his  medical  education  at  the  College 
of  Physicians  and  Surgeons.  Baltimore,  Md. ,  and  received  his  degree  of  M. 
D.  in  1885,  when  he  established  himself  at  WeUsville,  where  he  has  a  success- 
ful practice.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Allegany  County  Medical  Society  of 
which  he  is  an  ex-j)resident,  of  Hornellsville  Medical  and  Surgical  Associa- 
tion, and  of  the  New  York  State  Medical  Society.  Dr.  Witter  married  Maud 
Bingham  in  July,  1889,  and  has  a  daughter  Grace.  He  has  represented 
WeUsville  for  several  years  on  the  board  of  supervisors. 

Jasper  W.  CoUer,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Cuba  Sept.  24,  1852.  He  descends 
from  Reuben  CoUer,  an  Englishman,  whose  son  John  was  born  in  1775  in 
New  Jersey.  John  came  to  Cuba  in  June,  1829,  with  wife  Hannah  Rynearson, 
born  in  1780  in  New  Jersey,  articled  150  acres  in  the  s.  w.  corner  of  lot  9 
Holland  Purchase,  made  a  permanent  home,  and  died  February,  1860,  aged 
85,  on  the  two  acre  lot  first  cleared  by  him  where  he  built  his  log  house.  His 
wife  died  about  1850.  They  were  Free-will  Baptists.  Their  children  were 
Isaac  R..  Rachel  (Mrs.  John  Belcher),  Hannah  (Mrs.  U.  McKinster),  James 
Van  N.  and  William.  The  latter,  born  in  Susquehanna  county,  Pa.,  Oct.  25, 
1816,  died  in  Cuba  in  1888,  married  Angeline  German,  born  at  Ovid,  N.  Y., 
May  16,  1821,  died  in  Cuba  in  January,  1881.  Their  children  were  George 
W.  (deceased)  and  Jasper  W.  Jasper  W.  CoUer  graduated  at  the  head  of  his 
class  at  Friendship  academy  in  June,  1875,  married  Aug.  26, 1875,  Ardo  Ette, 
daughter  of  WiUiam  and  Almira  Gardiner  of  Nile,  passed  some  years  teach- 
ing schools  in  Wirt,  Belvidere,  Richburg  and  Angelica.  In  1877  he  began  to 
study  medicine  with  C.  C.  Deming,  M.  D.,  of  Friendship  and  was  graduated 
from  Long  Island  College  Hospital,  Brooklyn,  June  23,  1880,  and  located  as  a 
physician  in  WeUsville,  Sept.  6,  1880.  He  bought  a  house  and  lot  on  Mill 
St.  in  1888  which  has  since  been  his  residence  and  office.  Mrs.  CoUer  was 
educated  at  Alfred  University  and  Milton,  Wis.,  College  and  was  a  success- 
ful teacher. 

Frederick  T.  Koyle,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Athens,  Ont.,  Jan.  12,  1860.  He 
received  his  medical  degree  at  Kingston,  Ont. ,  in  1882,   and  practiced  13 

244  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

years  in  Minnesota.  He  established  himself  at  Wellsville  in  May,  1895.  He 
belongs  to  the  State  Medical  Association  of  Minnesota,  and  the  Allegany 
County  Medical  Association. 

Charles  E.  Wilcox,  M.  D.,  son  of  Clark  Wilcox,  read  medicine  with  Dr. 
C.  L.  Gish.  He  was  graduated  from  the  New  York  Homeopathic  College  in 
1889  and  located  at  Scottsville  where  he  practiced  for  a  year  and  died. 

Dr.  John  M.  Gena,  botanic  physician,  was  born  in  Germany  Sept,  29, 
1808,  studied  and  practiced  medicine  in  the  German  schools  before  he  came 
to  this  country  in  1839.     In  1866  he  located  in  Wellsville. 

Charles  L.  Gish,  M.  D.,  born  in  Pennsylvania  in  1852,  was  graduated  in 
1874  from  the  Bennett  Medical  College  of  Chicago.  Practiced  4  years  in  Wis  - 
consin,  located  in  Wellsville  in  1878.     He  is  a  homeopathist. 

Wirt. — Wedged  in  between  Friendship  on  the  north,  and  Bolivar  on  the 
south,  with  Wellsville  on  the  east,  this  town  has  not  been  sought  by  young 
physicians  in  quest  of  places  to  locate.  It  has  managed  to  get  along  very 
weU  however.  We  give  a  sketch  of  the  physician  most  identified  with  the 

Sheffield  W.  Greene,  M.  D.,  son  of  Rev.  John  Greene,  was  born 
in  Hopkinton,  R.  I.,  July  15,  1814.  In  1825  his  father,  a  minister  of  the  Sev- 
enth Day  Baptist  faith,  brought  his  family  to  Friendship  where  he  preached 
some  years.  Dr.  Greene  read  medicine  with  Dr.  J.  C.  Sibley,  attended 
Geneva  Medical  College  in  1845  and  6,  and,  after  being  a  partner  of  Dr.  L. 
Whitney  at  Glean  for  a  year,  he  came  to  Little  Genesee  and  soon  to  Richburg 
where  he  lived  seven  years,  then  afterashort  residence  inPennsylvaniahe  en- 
listed, in  1863, inCo.  D.  15th  N.  Y.  Cav.,  and  January  1, 1864,  was  commissioned 
assistant  surgeon  of  the  147th  N.  Y.  Inf  t.  He  w^as  acting  surgeon  of  the  reg- 
iment during  the  Appomattox  campaign.  After  the  war  he  came  to  Frank. 
linville  but  soon  made  his  home  in  Wellsville  where  he  lived  until  1893,  the 
time  of  his  coming  to  Richburg  his  present  home.  He  married  in  1837 
Keziah  Noble.  They  have  had  five  children.  The  doctor  for  40  years  has 
given  arduous  and  unspared  labors  for  the  relief  of  human  suffering,  and 
can  look  back  along  an  honest  and  diligent  life  wdth  a  consciousness  of  doing 
well  all  duties  falling  to  his  lot. 

Willing. — Quite  distinctively  a  rural  township  Willing  has  not  encour- 
aged to  any  great  extent  the  settlement  of  the  disciples  of  Galen  and  Hippoc- 
rates. It  is  a  "healthy  "  town,  and  then  Wellsville  is  conveniently  access- 
able.     We  can  only  mention  Drs.  Barney  and  Elliott. 

Orville  L.  Barney,  M.  D.,  son  of  Dr.  Anthony  Barney,  born  in  Independ- 
ence, March  28,  1843,  after  two  years'  attendance  at  Alfred  University,  en- 
hsted  in  1861  in  Co.  C.  85th  N.  Y.  Vols.,  and  served  until  July  26,  1862.  He 
then  studied  medicine  with  his  father,  was  a  student  of  the  medical  depart- 
ment of  the  University  of  the  City  of  New  York  in  1873,  4  and  5,  was  gradu- 
ated there  in  1865  and  located  in  Shongo. 

Arvis  A.  Elliott,  M.  D.,  son  of  Luman  B.  and  Eliza  (Adams)  Elliott,  was 
born  June  17,   1846  in  West  Almond.      He  attended  Alfred  University, 

Medical  Societies  and  Physicians.  245 

studied  medicine  with  Dr.  C.  G.  Anderson  of  Belmont,  was  graduated  from 
Cleveland  Medical  College,  Ohio,  in  the  class  of  lb79  and  located  in  Shongo 
in  October,  1879,  where  he  has  since  resided. 

Homeopathy  in  Allegany*  has  had  a  constantly  increasing  patronage 
since  about  1850.  and  each  of  the  larger  towns  have  generally  had  from  one 
to  three  regularly  qualified  practitioners,  each  of  whom  have  a  good  share 
of  the  voluntary  compliment  from  the  people  as  well  as  the  appointments  to 
offices  of  trust  at  the  hands  of  local  authorities.  In  1883  a  society  was  formed 
regularly  incorporated  under  the  laws  of  the  state,  known  as  the  "Homeo- 
pathic Medical  Society  of  Allegany  County."  The  first  meeting  was  called 
at  the  ofice  of  Dr.  B.  Williamson  in  Friendship,  where  committees  were  ap- 
jDointed  to  frame  a  constitution  and  by  laws.  A  second  meeting  was  held  at 
the  court  house  in  Belmont  to  effect  a  permanent  'organization,  at  which  time 
Dr.  I.  P.  Truman  was  elected  president  and  Dr.  B.  Williamson  secretary 
and  treasurer,— also  a  vice  president,  "  Board  of  Censors,"  and  delegates  to 
the  state  and  other  meetings  were  chosen.  With  eleven  members  quarterly 
meetings  were  held  alternately  at  towns  in  the  county  for  three  or  four 
years  when,  without  apparent  cause,  the  meetings  not  being  well  attended, 
the  society  ceased  to  be  known  and  no  meeting  has  been  held  for  at  least  five 
years.  The  records  and  all  papers  (of  which  there  were  many)  were  burned 
together  with  the  office  and  contents,  including  library  of  the  secretary. 
The  record  of  organization  is  in  the  county  clerk's  office.  It  is  expected  that 
the  society  will  soon  revive. 

Among  the  earliest  homeopaths  to  attain  prominence  were  Dr.  Pelton  of 
Wellsville,  about  1850  to  60,  and  also  Dr.  W.  S.  Todd  of  Angelica,  who  was 
graduated  from  Hobart  College,  Geneva,  in  1849,  and  located  in  Angelica  the 
same  year.  After  a  few  years  of  practice,  he  made  public  announcement  by 
a  hand-bill,  that  he  should  thereafter  follow  the  homeopathic  methods  in  his 
practice,  which  he  did  do  until  his  death,  July,  26,  1887.  A  remarkable  in- 
cident occurred  at  his  death  bed,  he  being  aware  of  his  condition  announced 
his  own  dissolution.  With  his  finger  on  his  pulse,  when  the  heart  ceased  to 
beat,  he  clearly  said,  "  It  has  ceased  to  beat,"  and  was  dead. 

Dr.  Hilon  Doty  located  in  WellsviUe  some  time  in  the  seventies,  well  ad- 
vanced in  years.  He  had  attained  some  prominence  with  the  physicians 
throughout  the  state,  having  conducted  a  hospital  for  mental  invalids  on 
homeopathy  principles  at  MargaretviUe,  N.  Y.  He  died  in  Wellsville  after 
two  or  three  years'  residence  there.  Some  have  said,  with  some  degree  of 
probability,  that  out  of  his  suggestion  grew  the  great  Middletown  hospital 
for  the  insane.  There  is  evidence  of  the  work  of  homeopathic  practitioners 
in  nearly  every  town  of  the  county  before  1860.  Most  of  whom  were  not 
known  to  the  writer. 

We  give  a  partial  list  of  those  known  to  have  practiced  homeopathy  in 
the  county.     Aiigelica,  Drs.  Wm.   S.  Todd,  M.  A.  Todd,  Wm.   S.  Todd,  Jr., 

*  Contributed  by  Bemsley  Williamson,  M.   D. 

246  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.   Y. 

Harvey,  W.  K.  Paul,  E.  C.  Cutler,  E.  B.  Guile;  Alfred,  H.  C.  Coon;  BelmonU 
I.  P.  Truman,  L.  A.  Simons,  F.  C.  Hardy;  Belfast,  W.  S.  Todd,  Chamberlain; 
Cuba,  Learned,  Acomb;  Friendship,  Stillman  Potter,  Washington  Irving 
Wellman.  Bemsley  Williamson;  Bichburg,  Cheesman;  WellsviUe,  Pelton,  Whit- 
ney and  partner,  C.  L.  Gish,  Hilon  Doty.  There  have  been  many  more  in 
the  county  whose  names  are  not  at  hand  at  this  writing. 

The  Allegany  County  Dental  Society. — October  15,  1894,  Drs.  G. 
Whipple,  Cuba;  P.  W.  Warner,  Angehca;  W.  L.  Smith,  Friendship;  B.  W. 
Alexander,  Cuba;  E.  V.  Sheerar,  Percy  Green,  and  F.  H.  Ellsworth,  Wells- 
viUe, and  W.  W.  Coon  of  Alfred,  met  at  Dr.  Whipple's  office  to  organize  The 
Allegany  County  Dental  Society,  for  the  purpose,  as  is  set  forth  in  the  by- 
laws adopted,  "  of  scientific,  professional,  business  and  social  betterment." 
These  officers  were  elected  for  the  first  year:  President,  Dr.  G.  Whipple; 
Vice  President,  Dr.  F.  W.Warner;  Secretary,  Dr.  W.  W.  Coon;  Treasurer, 
Dr.  W.  L.  Smith.  The  by-laws  provide  a  business  committee  appointed  by 
the  president  to  look  after  all  matters  pertaining  to  the  success  of  the  soci- 
ety's meetings  which  occur  quarterly.  This  committee  for  the  first  year 
consisted  of  Drs.  E.  V.  Sheerar  (chairman),  F.  H.  Ellsworth,  and  V.  W. 



THE  first  "  court  of  general  sessions  of  the  peace,"  which  was  held  at  the 
house  of  Evart  Van  Wickle  in  Angelica,  was  an  event  of  much  import- 
ance to  the  people  of  the  new  county.  By  the  act  of  April  7,  1806,  forming 
the  county  of  Allegany,  it  was  provided  that  ''  a  court  should  be  held  on  the 
2d  day  of  June,  1807,  at  such  place  in  the  village  of  Angelica  as  should  be 
designated  by  the  sheriff. ' '  For  some  reason,  however,  probably  owing  to 
delay  in  perfecting  the  organization  or  in  securing  the  appointment  of  the 
officers  and  judges  of  the  court,  the  session  was  deferred  until  November 
10th.  The  following  constituted  this  pioneer  court:  Moses  Van  Campen  and 
Evart  Van  Wickle  "Esqrs."  judges,  and  Joseph  Taylor  and  William  Higgins 
'•Esqrs."  assistant  justices.  They  were  all  appointed  by  Gov.  Morgan 
Lewis.  The  institution  of  this  court  was  hailed  with  great  delight  and  satis- 
faction by  the  sparse  population,  as  it  obviated  the  necessity  of  long  journeys 
to  Batavia  over  bad  roads,  as  had  been  the  case  since  1802.  Before  that  time 
the  pioneers  were  compelled  to  go  to  Canandaigua,  to  sit  as  jurors,  as  wit- 
nesses, or  to  conduct  all  litigation,  however  trivial,  to  which  they  might  be 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  247 

The  composition  of  that  first  court  of  our  county  was  in  some  respects 
remarli:able.  The  leading  figure  was  Major  Moses  Van  Campen,  a  noted 
border  man  of  the  revolution,  a  famous  scout  and  Indian  fighter  of  New  York 
and  Pennsylvania,  and  a  surveyor  of  no  mean  attainments.  Evart  Van 
Wickle,  the  agent  of  Philip  Church  in  the  transaction  of  his  extensive  land 
sales,  a  fine  scholar  and  a  competent  surveyor,  was  jDrobably  next  in  import- 
ance. Of  Joseph  Taylor  and  William  Higgins  the  writer  has  been  able  to 
learn  but  little,  but  their  names  so  frequently  occur  in  the  record  of  early 
business  and  legal  transactions,  that  they  must  have  been  men  considerably 
above  the  average  Allegany  citizen  in  judgment  and  intelligence.  Van  Cam- 
pen  and  Van  Wickle  were  certainly  men  of  much  more  than  ordinary  ability, 
possessing  extensive  acquaintance  and  great  experience  in  affairs,  and  so 
brought  to  the  discharge  of  their  duties  some,  at  least,  of  the  qualities  so 
essential  in  a  judge.  Another  feature  of  this  primitive  court,  which  perhaps 
is  worthy  of  notice,  is  the  fact  that  two  of  its  members  were  keepers  of 
public  houses  and  dispensers  of  ardent  spirits,  something  which  would 
hardly  conform  to  the  exacting  requirements  of  modern  ethics. 

The  record  says  "  court  opened  by  usual  proclamation.  Grand  Jurors 
sworn.  James  Wliiting  foreman.  Reuben  Riggs,  George  Otto,  William 
Barney,  Timothy  Hyde,  John  Irwin,  Wm.  L.  Heydon,  Elice  Pierce,  William 
Wilson,  Elisha  Strong,  Benjamin  V.  Pelt,  John  Higgins,  Moses  Johnson, 
Ransom  Higgins,  Benj.  Chambers,  Christian  Burns,  Elish  Chamberlain, 
Philo  Ingraham,  Nathaniel  Reynolds,  Ezra  Bacon,  Asahel  FranMin,  Sanders 
Rogers.  John  Freeman,  Augustus  D'Autremont.  Grand  Jury  charged  by 
his  honor  Judge  Van  Campen  and  retired.  Court  adjourned  until  1  o'clock 
P.  M."  As  no  charges  were  preferred  the  jurors  were  the  next  day  dis- 
charged by  the  court.  The  only  business  transacted  at  this  term  of  court 
was  to  order  a  seal  in  the  following  words:  ''  The  Court  further  orders  that 
the  Clerk,  as  soon  as  convenient,  and  before  the  next  session  of  this  court, 
cause  to  be  made  a  plain  Coper  or  Brass  seal,  with  the  County  round  the 
edges,  and  on  the  face  an  Anchor  engraved."  The  quotation  is  literal,  both 
as  to  spelling  and  capitals.  We  are  left  in  doubt  as  to  who  the  clerk  of  this 
court  was,  the  records  not  revealing  his  name,  though  it  was  probably  Jacob 
S.  Holt,  the  first  county  clerk.  This  court  "adjourned  to  the  second  Tues- 
day of  June  next." 

At  the  next  session,  in  June  1808,  was  tried  the  first  case  in  the  county. 
"  The  People  vs.  Abraham  Baker."  For  what  offense  this  man  Baker  was 
tried,  does  not  by  the  record  appear.  The  records  for  the  first  year  or  two 
are  sadly  deficient  in  detail,  in  many  cases  not  giving  even  the  offense  for 
which  parties  were  indicted.  At  this  term  "Daniel  Abbit  and  Frederick 
Cavort,  grand  jurors  who  did  not  answer  nor  give  sufficient  excuse,  were 
fined  $2.50  each. "'  At  the  January  term,  1809,  it  appears  that  "  Mr.  Clark  " 
was  district  attorney,  the  first  mention  of  that  important  official  in  the 
records.  Up  to  1809  the  records  fail  to  show  for  what  offenses  indictments 
were  found. 

248  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

Court  of  General  Sessions  op  the  Peace  and  Court  of  Common 
Pleas. — These  courts  were  composed  of  judges  and  assistant  judges,  the 
number  in  the  various  counties  differing  widely.  By  an  act  passed  March 
27.  1818,  the  office  of  assistant  judge  was  abohshed,  and  the  number  of  judges 
was  hmited  to  five,  including  the  "  first  judge. "  The  court  of  common  pleas 
was  continued  from  1817  to  July,  1847,  when,  by  the  adoption  of  the  constitu- 
tion of  1846,  it  was  abolished  and  the  county  court  took  its  place.  The  court 
of  common  pleas  was  evidently  a  popular  court  with  the  people;  indeed  it  was, 
so  to  speak,  "the  people's  court,"  its  members  being  selected  from  the 
body  of  the  people.  Its  jurisdiction  in  original  and  appellate  cases  was 
ample.  The  terms  were  limited  by  statute  to  five  days,  and  judgments  could 
not  be  entered  in  vacation.  All  the  parties,  witnesses  and  attorneys  were 
thus  required  to  remain  until  their  business  was  done,  and  so  "going  to 
court  "  attained  the  magnitude  of  an  event,  as  well  as  an  important  matter 
of  business. 

The  court  of  general  sessions  of  the  peace  had  jurisdiction  in  criminal 
cases,  but  not  in  capital  crimes.  It  had  a  grand  jury,  and  when  indictments 
were  found  for  the  graver  offences,  they  were  sent  to  the  Oyer  and  Terminer 
for  trial.  The  composition  of  these  two  courts  was  the  same,  and  usually  a 
session  or  sessions  of  both  courts  was  held  at  the  same  term.  Following  are 
the  names  of  those  who  from  time  to  time  down  to  1847,  helped  to  constitute 
these  two  courts,  with  the  year  of  their  first  appearance  as  a  member  of  the 
court:  Moses  Van  Campen,  Evart  Van  Wickle,  Joseph  Taylor,  and  William 
Higgins,  1808;  Thaddeus  Bennett,  Alexander  V.  P.  Mills,  Tarbell  Whitney, 
John  T.  Hyde,  and  George  Renwick,  1808;  Benjamin  Riggs,  Jedadiah  Nobles, 
Philip  Church,  and  Thatcher  Hyde,  1809;  John  Higgins,  Matthew  McHenry, 
Elisha  Mills,  Loring  Francis,  and  Thomas  Dole.  1810;  Eli  Griffith  and 
Richard  W.  Porter,  1811;  William  Brown  and  Thaddeus  Baker,  1812;  Sylva- 
nus  Merriman,  1813;  Clark  Crandall  and  Jacob  Griftith,  1815;  Samuel  Van 
Campen  and  Crandall  Burnett,  1816;  James  McCall  and  Alexander  D'Autre- 
mont,  1817;  Philip  Langdon,  Cromwell  Bennett  and  Asa  Coon,  1818;  L.  L. 
Littlejohn,  1819;  Isaac  Sanford  and  Benjamin  Blanchard,  1820;  John  Grifiin, 
1821;  Roswell  W.  Knight,  1822;  Vial  Thomas,  1823;  Anson  Hinman,  1825; 
Amos  Thatcher,  1826;  Zephaniah  Z.  Caswell  and  George  Williams,  1828; 
Samuel  S.  Haight,  1829;  Josiah  Utter,  1830;  Asa  S.  Allen,  1831;  A.  C.  Hull, 
D.  L.  Gilman  and  Alvin  Burr,  1833;  Jeremiah  B.  Willard,  Horace  Abbott  and 
Calvin  T.  Chamberlain,  1834;  John  Collins,  Wittel  Larrabee,  D.  L.  Gibson  and 
Elijah  Horton,  1835;  Samuel  C.  Wilson,  1837;  Ransom  Lloyd  and  Wm.  Hicks, 
1838;  Abram  J.  Lyon,  1840.  The  "first  judges"  covering  this  period  of 
time  (with  the  date  of  their  appointment)  were:  Philip  Church,  June  8,  1807; 
John  Grifiin,  January  24,  1823;  Andrew  C.  Holt,  April  26,  1838;  Ransom 
Lloyd,  April  18,  1838;  Samuel  C.  Wilson,  April  18,  1843.  The  members  of 
these  courts  held  their  offices  by  appointment. 

Surrogate's  Court.— When  Allegany  county  was  organized,  and  from 
that  time  down  to  the  adoption  of  the  constitution  of  1846,  surrogates  were 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  249 

appointed,  at  first  and  until  1822  by  the  council  of  appointment,  and  from 
1822  to  1847  by  the  governor  and  senate.  During-  the  first  period  the 
appointments  were  for  such  a  term  as  suited  the  pleasure  of  the  appointing 
power,  but  during  the  latter  for  a  term  of  four  years.  An  appeal  lay  from 
their  decisions  during  the  first  period  to  the  judge  of  the  court  of  i:>robates 
of  the  state,  during  the  second  period  to  the  chancellor.  Luke  Goodspeed 
was  the  first  surrogate  of  the  county,  his  appointment  bearing  date  April  7, 
1807.  He  resided  at  Angelica  and  had,  during  the  time  Angelica  (and  for 
that  matter  all  Allegany)  formed  a  part  of  Genesee  county,  represented  the 
town  on  the  Genesee  county  board  of  supervisors.  Farther  than  that  the 
writer  can  say  nothing  of  him  save  that  he  held  the  oflice  for  over  five  years, 
when  Alexander  D'Autremont  was  appointed,  June  6,  1812.  Mr.  D'Autre- 
mont  was  a  Frenchman  who  came  to  Angelica  in  1806.  He  was  soon  engaged 
in  business,  at  one  time  keeping  a  public  house.  He  was  also  an  early  mer- 
chant. His  term  was  short,  as  his  successor  Daniel  Lawrence  was  appointed 
March  23,  1813.  Mr.  Lawrence,  of  whom  the  most  the  writer  has  been  able 
to  learn  is  that  he  was  an  early  lawyer,  held  the  office  for  two  years,  and 
stepped  aside  for  Ebenezer  Hyde,  who  was  appointed  April  8,  1815.  Dr. 
Hyde  probably  found  that  the  duties  of  surrogate  did  not  exactly  comport 
with  the  practice  of  medicine,  or  it  may  be  that  some  political  '"pull  "  soon 
excused  him  from  the  discharge  of  the  surrogate's  duties,  for  the  record 
shows  Samuel  Southworth  to  have  taken  the  oath  as  surrogate  June  13,  1815, 
and  Zephaniah  Z.  Caswell  was  "  ai^pointed  "  on  the  27th  of  June  of  the  same 
year.  Mr.  Caswell's  term  was  a  long  one,  holding  the  oflice  nearly  16  years. 
He  was  one  of  the  pioneer  lawyers,  and  his  name  occurs  quite  frequently  on 
the  court  records.  He  was  also  clerk  of  the  board  of  supervisors  for  one  or 
more  terms.  SamuelC.  Wilson  was  appointed  April  12, 1831,  and  held  the  office 
till  his  successor,  John  G.  Collins,  was  appointed  January  24,  1840. "''  Mr.  Col- 
lins was  siicceeded  February  14,  1844,  by  Mr.  Wilson  who  was  again  appointed 
and  continued  to  discharge  its  duties  until,  under  the  constitution  of  1846, 
William  G.  Angel  was  elected  county  judge  in  June,  1847,  and,  by  the  pro- 
visions of  the  new  constitution,  assumed  also  the  duties  of  the  surrogate. 
No  need  exists  for  tracing  the  history  of  the  surrogate's  court  further,  as 
from  the  administration  of  Judge  Angel  the  duties  of  the  two  offices  have 
been  discharged  by  the  same  person. 

County  and  Surrogates'  Court  and  Judges. — The  constitution  of 
1846  made  provision  for  the  election  in  each  of  the  counties  of  one  county 
judge  "  who  shall  hold  his  office  for  four  years."  In  addition  to  holding  the 
county  courts  he  was  required  to  discharge  the  duties  of  the  office  of  surro- 
gate, except  in  counties  whose  population  exceeded  40,000.  With  two  justices 
of  the  peace  to  be  elected  as  the  legislature  should  prescribe,  he  was  auth- 

*  Samuel  C.  Wilson  was  born  in  Montrose,  Susquehanna  Co. ,  Penn.,  April  lo,  1803.  From  1836-7  to 
1841  he  was  editor  of  the  Angelica  Reporter  and  Allegany  Republican.  He  was  surrogate  from  1831  to  1840, 
and  from  1844  to  1847,  and  was  judge  of  the  court  of  common  pleas  for  several  years  ending  with  the  second 
constitution.     Belfast  was  his  residence  for  many  years  and  he  died  there  about  ten  )ears  ago. 

250  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

orized  to  hold  courts  of  sessions.  The  justices  of  the  peace  elected  for  this 
office  were  called  justices  of  sessions.  The  legislature  was  also  authorized 
to  confer  upon  the  county  judge  equity  jurisdiction  in  special  cases.  In  1869 
the  term  of  the  ofQce  of  county  judge  was  extended  to  six  years  by  an  amend- 
ment of  the  constitution,  and  the  jurisdiction  of  the  court  in  all  actions  where 
the  defendant  was  a  resident  of  the  county  was  limited  to  cases  wherein  the 
damages  claimed  did  not  exceed  $1,000  (since  made  $2,000).  The  civil  busi- 
ness of  the  county  court  is  principally  confined  to  cases  on  appeal  from  jus- 
tices' courts,  quite  a  share  of  the  criminal  business  being  transacted  at  the 
oyer  and  terminer.  By  the  constitution  of  1846  county  judges,  as  well  as 
all  other  judges,  were  made  elective  by  the  people.  The  first  man  to  be 
invested  with  that  ofiice  by  the  voice  of  the  people  of  Allegany  was  William 
G.  Angel,  elected  in  June,  1847.  He  was  for  years  a  leading  and  especially 
marked  character  in  Allegany. 

Hon.  William  G.  Angel  was  born  on  Block  Island,  July  17,  1790.  His 
ancestry  emigrated  from  Warwick,  England.  They  belonged  to  the  Society 
of  Friends,  and  accompanied  Roger  Williams  to  Rhode  Island.  When  he 
was  two  years  of  age  his  father  removed  to  Richfield,  Otsego  county.  His 
eldest  sister  taught  him  the  alphabet.  At  an  early  age  he  paid  in  work  on  a 
farm  for  a  |2  share  in  a  circulating  library,  and,  book  in  pocket,  pursued 
his  study  of  the  classics  seated  on  the  plowbeam,  while  the  team  was  resting. 
In  1807  and  8,  by  dint  of  the  strictest  economy,  he  was  enabled  to  attend  a 
grammar  school  taught  by  Dr.  Buckingham,  a  Yale  College  graduate.  In 
1809  he  entered  the  employ,  and  very  soon  after  the  office  of  William  Dowse, 
Esq. ,  of  Cooperstown.  In  1817  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  in  1821  elected 
surrogate  of  Otsego  county,  in  1824  elected  to  congress  as  a  Democrat,  and 
was  continued  in  congress,  his  last  election  being  in"  1830.  In  1833  he 
removed  to  Hammondsport.  Martin  Grover,  who  had  been  his  student  at 
Cooperstown,  came  with  him  to  Hammondsport,  was  admitted  to  the  bar, 
and  located  in  Angelica.  In  1835  Grover  succeeded  in  persuading  his  pre- 
ceptor to  remove  to  Angelica,  where  the  law  office  of  Angel  and  Grover  was 
at  once  opened,  which  partnership  continued  until  1843,  when  he  took  as 
partner  his  son  Wilkes.  In  1846  Mr.  Angel  was  elected  to  the  constitutional 
convention,  in  Avhich  he  bore  a  conspicuous  and  very  useful  part,  and  in  1847 
became  the  first  elected  county  judge  of  Allegany.  He  held  the  office  until 
January  1,  1852.  His  death  occurred  August  13,  1858,  at  his  home  in 
Angelica.  He  was  a  well-read  man  of  extensive  information,  thoroughly 
honest  in  the  discharge  of  all  his  duties.  During  his  active  professional  and 
official  life  he  was  more  generally  known  throughout  the  county  than  any 
other  man,  and  none  was  held  in  higher  esteem. 

Lucien  P.  Wetherby  was  the  successor  of  Judge  Angel,  being  elected 
in  November,  1851.  Judge  Wetherby  read  law  with  Angel  and  Grover  be- 
ginning about  1842.  After  his  admission  to  the  bar  he  was  for  a  while  a 
partner  with  Emery  E.  Norton,  and  when  Gen.  Diven  left  for  Elmira  he 
succeeded  to  his  business.     He  was  the  first  district  attorney  elected  after 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  251 

the  adoption  of  the  constitution  of  1846,  being  chosen  in  June.  1847.  Mr. 
Wetherby  had  a  good  practice,  but  removed  to  Hudson.  Wis.,  in  1856,  and 
the  people  of  that  state  elected  him  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

Tlie  next  county  judge  was  Hon.  John  G.  Collins,  who  was  of  English 
descent  and  born  at  Geneva,  April  24,  1809.  He  was  educated  at  Hobart 
College,  a  classmate  of  Horatio  Seymour  and  Silas  Wright.  He  came  with 
his  father  to  Angelica  in  1825.  Reading  law  with  Judge  Welles  of  Penn 
Yan,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  and  at  once  commenced  x^ractice.  He  dis- 
charged the  office  of  surrogate  of  Allegany  from  1840  to  1844,  and  in  1845 
and  1846,  was  elected  member  of  the  assembly.  He  was  elected  county 
judge  in  November,  1855,  serving  one  term  of  four  years-  He  died  April 
20,  1877. 

Succeeding  John  G.  Collins  came  Hon.  Wolcott  Hatch  who  was  elected 
in  November,  1H59.  Judge  Hatch  was  born  in  Norwich,  Vt.,  in  1811,  and 
came  to  Cuba  in  this  county  in  1834,  where  he  engaged  in  the  practice  of 
law,  soon  being  elected  justice  of  the  peace,  which  office  he  held  for  a  long 
time.  He  was  elected  county  judge  and  surrogate  in  1859,  and  was  three 
times  re-elected,  to  say  which  is  better  than  a  page  of  fulsome  flattery.  He 
died  at  his  residence  in  Belmont  October  6,  1878. 

Hon.  James  S.  Green  succeeded  Judge  Hatch,  being  elected  in  1870.  He 
was  twice  re-elected.  He  was  born  in  Jerusalem,  Yates  county,  December 
3,  1823.  He  settled  in  Angelica  in  1846,  and  was  soon  after  elected  justice  of 
the  peace.  He  was  also  school  commissioner  for  the  northern  district.  His 
death  occurred  at  Angelica  September  20,  1882.  This  occasioned  a  vacancy 
in  the  office  which  was  supplied  by  the  Governor  appointing  Harlan  J.  Swift 
of  Cuba  to  fill  out  the  term  until  the  next  January.* 

Hon.  Clarence  A.  Parnum  of  Wells ville  was  born  in  the  village  of  Wells- 
ville,  N.  Y.,  October  7,  1850.  In  April,  1862,  he  moved  with  his  parents  to 
Michigan,  and  lived  with  them  upon  a  farm  until  October,  1870.  October  7, 
1870,  he  returned  to  Wellsville,  where  his  residence  has  since  been.  His 
school  days  were  passed  in  the  district  schools  except  a  short  period  while 
at  the  Michigan  State  Normal  School  at  Ypsilanti,  Mich.,  in  1869-70.  From 
October  10,  1870.  to  January  15,  1872,  he  was  a  clerk  and  book-keeper  in  the 
store  of  W.  E.  Stewart  &  Co.  (clothiers)  of  Wellsville.  In  January,  1872.  he 
entered  the  law  office  of  Wm.  P.  Jones,  Esq.,  of  Wellsville,  as  clerk  and  stu- 
dent, and  was  admitted  to  practice  in  all  the  courts  of  the  state  at  the  Roch- 
ester General  Term  held  in  April,  1875.  He  at  once  commenced  practice  as 
a  lawyer  at  WeUsville  and  remained  alone  until  February,  1876,  when  he 
formed  a  partnership  with  Henry  L.  Jones.  January,  1881,  this  partnership 
was  dissolved,  and  Judge  Parnum  has  since  had  no  i3artner.  January  24, 1883, 
he  was  appointed  county  judge  and  surrogate  of  Allegany  county  by  Govern- 
or Cleveland  to  fill  a  vacancy.  In  the  fall  of  1883  he  received  the  nomina- 
tion from  the  Democratic  party  for  the  same  office  and  was  elected  in  Novem- 

*  Mr.  Swift  took  the  oath  of   office  October  12,  1882. 

252  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

ber  for  a  term  of  6  years  commencing  January  1,  1884.  The  vote  was  for 
Swift,  Republican,  3,062;  Jones,  Prohibition.  1,147;  Farnnm.  Democrat, 
5,049.  He  performed  the  duties  of  his  office  as  surrogate  and  county  judge 
until  January  1,  1890. 

Hon.  Sheridan  McArthur  Norton  succeeded  Judge  Farnum.  He  was 
born  in  Belmont,  May  1,  1848.  His  father,  Joseph  B.  Norton,  was  a  native 
of  this  state,  born  in  1800,  settled  in  Belmont  in  1831,  and  died  in  Friend- 
ship in  1882.  His  mother.  Prudence  A.  Hall,  was  born  in  New  Hamj)shire 
in  1807,  of  good  old  Puritan  stock,  and  is  still  living.  Sheridan  McArthur 
was  the  fifth  child  in  a  family  of  six  children,  all  of  whom  are  living.  His 
first  seventeen  years  were  passed  on  a  farm.  He  then  began  varying  his 
work  and  disciplining  his  mind  by  judicious  study,  reading  and  teaching 
school,  and  before  he  was  twenty-one  he  was  made  president  of  the  Allegany 
County  Teachers'  Association,  an  event  over  which  he  was  probably  more 
elated  than  any  other  circumstance  of  his  deservedly  successful  career.  In 
1871  he  made  choice  of  the  law  as  his  profession  and  commenced  his  studies 
with  Judge  James  S.  Green  and  Hon.  D.  P.  Richardson  at  Angelica.  Com- 
pleting his  legal  education  with  Hon.  Hamilton  Ward  and  General  Rufus 
Scott  at  Belmont,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  January,  1874.  He  immedi- 
ately began  practice  in  Friendship  and  soon  acquired  a  valuable  clientage,  ob- 
taining an  extended  reputation  for  advising  settlement  of  disputes  and  keep- 
ing his  clients  from  litigation,  but  winning  their  cases  when  necessary  to  be 
tried.  He  was  popular  as  a  referee,  and  from  the  time  of  his  admission  to 
the  bar  until  the  present  has  had  an  extensive  business  in  hearing  references. 
In  1879-80  and  81  he  was  supervisor  of  Friendship,  and  for  the  last  two 
years  was  chairman  of  the  board.  He  has  been  president  of  the  Citizens 
National  Bank  of  Friendship  from  its  organization  in  1882,  was  for  a  number 
years  member  and  president  of  the  board  of  education,  has  always  taken 
great  interest  in  town  and  county  affairs,  although  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession claims  his  principal  attention.  He  owns  and  personally  superin- 
tends a  fine  farm  in  Friendship,  to  which  he  turns  for  relief  from  the  ex- 
hausting labors  of  his  law  business.  He  was  interested  in  the  first  Rich- 
burg  oil  well,  and  during  the  period  of  the  oil  development  in  Richburg  and 
vicinity  he  paid  much  attention  to  it,  being  interested  in  many  of  the  large 
operations,  and  he  showed  rare  good  judgment  in  withdrawing  at  the  right 
time.  He  also  evinced  a  commendable  spirit  of  enterprise  in  active  work 
toward  the  building  of  the  railroad  from  Friendship  to  Bolivar  during  that 
period,  being  one  of  the  directors  and  active  managers,  and  again  showed 
sound  judgment  in  stepping  out  of  that  enterprise  at  the  right  time.  In 
1880  Mr.  Norton  married  Mae,  youngest  daughter  of  the  late  Gen.  George 
W.  Robinson.  They  have  one  son,  George  Robinson  Norton.  In  1889  Mr. 
Norton  was  elected  county  judge,  and  since  that  time  he  has  faithfully  dis- 
charged the  duties  of  that  office,  and  of  the  surrogate's  court  of  the  county. 
His  decisions  are  characterized  by  strict  integrity  and  judicial  fairness.  His 
thorough  knowledge  of  the  law  enables  him  to  determine  correctly  those 

^-  -  ^s>-5^^ 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  253 

intricate  questions  which  challenge  the  abilities  of  the  most  learned  judges, 
as  instanced  in  his  decision  in  the  notable  Miner  will  case,  which,  under  the 
advice  of  some  of  our  most  able  lawyers  and  ex-judges,  was  carried  to  the 
Court  of  Appeals,  which  sustained  Judge  Norton's  decision.  In  the  fall  of 
1895  he  presided  for  Judge  Nash  at  Geneseo  during  the  protracted  and 
fiercely-contested  Father  Flaherty  case,  winning  many  expressions  of  ap- 
proval and  admiration  for  his  judicial  cax)acity  and  acquirements.  Judge 
Norton  is  a  pleasant,  forcible  and -entertaining  speaker,  and  is  in  great  de- 
mand to  address  societies  of  various  kinds,  for  Fourth  of  July  and  Decora- 
tion Day  efforts,  etc.     In  November,  1895,  he  was  re-elected  county  judge. 

District  Attorneys. — The  office  of  district  attorney  was  erected  by 
act  of  April  4,  1801,  and  the  state  was  divided  into  seven  districts.  What  is 
now  Allegany  was  in  the  seventh  district.  On  the  21st  of  April,  1818,  a  law 
was  passed  making  each  county  a  separate  district.  Under  the  law  and  ap- 
portionment of  1801,  William  Stuart,  1802,  Daniel  W.  Lewis,  1810,  Vincent 
Matthews,  1813,  and  Daniel  Cruger,  1815,  appeared  as  district  attorneys  in 
the  courts  in  this  county.  It  would  also  seem  from  the  record  that  these 
offices  had  power  to  appoint  a  substitute  as  a  "  Mr.  Clark  "  appeared  as  that 
officer  at  the  June  term,  1809,  and,  at  the  January  term,  1813,  of  General 
Sessions  of  the  Peace,  "  Mr.  Clark  appeared  in  behalf  of  Mr.  Stuart,  district 
attorney."  It  seems  also  that  the  court  had  the  power  to  appoint  a  district 
attorney  in  certain  cases,  as,  at  the  October  term,  1818,  "T.  H.  Porter  was 
appointed  by  the  court  "  and  in  February,  1819,  Henry  Wells  "  for  the  time 
being  was  the  district  attorney."  Under  the  law  of  1818,  and  up  to  the  adop- 
tion of  the  constitution  of  1846,  these  persons  were  appointed  to  this  office: 
James  Cochran  April  17,  1820,  Samuel  S.  Haight  November  13,  1820,  John 
Cook  1827,  George  Miles  1836,  Alexander  S.  Diven,  1841,  though  by  the 
records  he  appears  to  have  acted  in  that  ca^Dacity  as  early  as  June,  1837, 
Wilkes  Angel,  1843,  Marshall  B.  Champlain,  1845.  Since  the  office  became 
elective  the  succession  has  been:  Lucien  P.  Wetherby  elected  in  June,  1847; 
Augustus  L.  Davison  elected  in  November,  1850;  William  A.  Stewart  1853; 
Hamilton  Ward  1856;  Milo  H.  Wygant  1859;  Hamilton  Ward  1862;  James  S. 
Green  1868;  Rufus  Scott  1871;  C.  N.  Flenagin  1874;  O.  A.  Fuller  1883;  C.  H. 
Brown  (^Dresent  incumbent)  1889. 

The  Circuit  and  Supreme  Court  Judges  who  have  from  time  to  time 
held  court  in  this  country,  form  a  list  of  names  of  which  any  state,  nation,  or 
government  might  well  be  proud.  In  general  they  have  been  men  of  great 
legal  acquirements,  possessing  minds  of  a  superior  order,  as  well  as  of 
great  integrity  of  character  and  wisdom  of  judgment,  and  so  have  adorned 
the  bench  by  their  ability  and  added  luster  to  the  judicial  urmine  by 
their  decisions.  In  some  instances  they  have  been  promoted  to  higher  po- 
sitions by  the  franchises  of  their  fellow  citizens. 

Judge  Joseph  C.  Yates  appears  by  the  record  of  the  Oyer  and  Terminer 
to  have  been  the  first  holding  court  at  Angelica,  the  session  being  opened 

254  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

June  13,  1815.  Associated  with  him  in  constituting  this  court  were  Moses 
Van  Campen  and  Thomas  Dale.  It  was  the  only  court  at  which  Judge  Yates 
presided  in  this  county.  He  was  born  in  Schenectady  in  1768  and  died 
there  in  1837.  He  gained  great  eminence  as  a  lawyer,  and  was  a  judge  of  the 
supreme  court  from.  1803  till  1822.  He  helped  to  found  Union  College  in 
1795;  was  mayor  of  Schenectady  in  1798;  state  senator  in  1806-7,  and  gover- 
nor of  the  state  in  1823-24,  then  retired  to  private  life. 

From  1815  to  1819  the  records  do  not  show  any  courts  of  oyer  and 
terminer  or  circuit  courts  to  have  been  held.  In  June  of  the  latter  year 
Hon.  John  Wood  worth  presided  at  oyer  and  terminer,  associated  with 
Philip  Church,  Moses  Van  Campen  and  Clark  Crandall.  Judge  Woodworth 
was  a  leading  Albany  lawyer  and  was  appointed  supreme  court  justice  in 
1819.  L.  B.  Proctor,  in  his  "Lives  of  Eminent  Lawyers  of  New  York",  says 
of  him,  that  "distinguished  for  his  profundity  of  learning  and  judicial  ac- 
complishments he  was  one  of  those  who  gave  to  the  old  supreme  court  that 
eminence  which  commanded  the  respect  of  the  nation." 

June  12, 1820,  "  Hon.  Ambrose  Spencer  Chief  Justice,  with  Philip  Church, 
Moses  Van  Campen,  Thomas  Dole  and  Clark  Crandall,  Judges"  (quoted  from 
the  record)  held  a  court  of  oyer  and  terminer.  At  this  court  the  celebrated 
case  of  The  People  ve.  Medad  McKay  was  tried.  Daniel  Cruger  was  ap- 
pointed district  attorney,  but  some  how  the  case  was  brought  on  "on  motion 
of  John  A.  Collier,  Esq.,  who  prosecuted  for  the  people.  A  protracted  trial 
followed  during  which  23  witnesses  for  the  people  and  4  for  the  prisoner 
were  sworn.  In  the  usual  order  of  things  the  jury  "  returned  into  court  and 
say  they  find  the  prisoner  guilty."  McKay  was  charged  with  murder,  pois- 
oning his  wife.  Immediately  after  this  trial  which  ended  with  sentence  ' '  to 
be  hanged  "  being  pronounced  by  the  court,  it  was  discovered  that  the 
venire  which  the  officer  used  in  summoning  the  jury  was  minus  the  seal  of 
the  court.  Stay  of  execution  was  secured,  the  matter  was  carried  to  a 
higher  court,  to  which  meantime  Judge  Spencer  had  been  appointed,  and  that 
court,  by  its  opinion  given  by  Judge  Spencer  in  which  all  concurred,  ordered 
a  new  trial  which  was  had  at  the  June  term,  1821,  Wm.  W.  VanNess  being  the 
circuit  judge,  Philip  Church  first  judge  and  Moses  Van  Campen  and  Thomas 
Dole  judges."*  On  this  trial,  which  was  also  quite  protracted,  the  jury  re- 
turned a  verdict  of  "  not  guilty." 

Judge  Ambrose  Spencer  was  born  in  Salisbury,  Conn.,  December  18, 
1765,  and  died  at  Lyons,  N.  Y.,  March  i3,  1848.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Har- 
vard, studied  law  and  commenced  practice  in  Hudson,  N.  Y.  In  1793  he  was 
a  member  of  the  state  assembly  and  from  1795  for  seven  years  was  a  state 
senator.  In  1802  he  was  appointed  attorney  general,  in  1804  made  a  justice 
of  the  supreme  court  and  in  1819  chief  justice.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
constitutional  convention  of  1821.     Resigning  the  office  of  chief  justice  he  re- 

*This  was  the  only  court  Judge  Van  Ness  held  in  this  county. 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  255 

sumed  his  law  practice  at  Albany  in  1823.      He  was  mayor  of  Albany  for 
some  years,  and  represented  the  Albany  district  in  congress. 

Of  Judge  Wm.  W.  VanNess  the  writer  has  been  able  to  learn  but  little. 
He  was  a  contemporary  of  Daniel  Cady,  Thomas  Addis  Emmett  and  D.  C. 
Golden,  all  eminent  judges  and  lawyers,  and  his  name  used  in  connection 
with  them  by  Mr.  Proctor  is  a  good  guarantee  of  his  ability  and  prominence. 

The  next  jtidge  to  hold  circuit  or  oyer  and  terminer  court  at  Angelica 
was  Wm.  B.  Rochester,  who  presided  at  the  July  term,  1823.  Judge 
Rochester  had  lately  taken  up  his  residence  at  Angelica.  He  presided 
at  all  the  circuits  and  oyer  and  terminer  terms  held  at  Angelica  in  1823, 
182'!  and  1825,  and  presided  at  the  February  term  1824,  with  John  Griffin, 
Thomas  Dole,  Clark  Crandall,  Vial  Thomas  and  Sylvanus  Merriman  as 
associates.     At  this  term  occurred  the  trial  of  David  D.  How  for  murder. 

Judge  Wm.  B.  Rochester  was  born  at  Hagerstown,  Md.,  January  29, 
1789,  the  eldest  child  of  Col.  Nathaniel  Rochester,  the  founder  of  the  city  of 
Rochester.  In  1808  he  with  his  father's  family  located  at  Dansville.  Livings- 
ton county.  He  was  graduated  at  Charlotte  Hall,  Md.,  and  studied  law  with 
his  uncle  Judge  Adam  Beatty  in  Marysville.  Ky. ,  and  with  Henry  Clay  at 
Lexington,  Ky.  In  1818  he  was  elected  to  the  legislature  from  Steuben 
county,  was  presidential  elector  for  James  Monroe  in  1821,  and  a  member  of 
the  XVII.  congress.  In  1823,  possibly  in  1822,  he  made  his  home  in  Angelica, 
and  in  1823  was  appointed  judge  of  the  8th  circuit.  He  made  the  welcoming 
speech  at  Rochester  on  the  occasion  of  La  Fayette's  visit  in  1825.  In  1826 
he  was  the  "  Bucktail  "  candidate  for  governor,  but  was  defeated  by  DeWitt 
Clinton,  the  vote  standing  Clinton  99,785,  Rochester  96,135.  Pres.  John 
Adams  appointed  him  secretary  of  legation  to  the  congress  of  the  North 
and  South  American  States  proposed  to  be  held  at  Panama,  and  in  1827  was 
appointed  charge'  cV  affaires  to  the  Federation  of  Central  America.  In  1828  a 
branch  of  the  Bank  of  the  United  States  was  established  at  Buffalo,  and 
Judge  Rochester  was  appointed  its  president  and  held  the  position  until  the 
bank  was  abolished.  In  1837  he  went  to  Pensacola,  Pla.,  where  he  became 
president  of  the  Bank  of  Pensacola,  and  director  of  the  Alabama.  Georgia 
and  Florida  railroad.  In  June,  1838,  he  embarked  on  the  steamer  Pulaski  to 
return  north.  When  off  the  North  Carolina  coast  one  of  her  boilers  exploded 
and  the  vessel  was  lost.  The  boat  in  which  Judge  Rochester  sought  the 
shore  was  capsized  and  he  was  drowned  only  a  few  rods  from  land. 

At  the  January  term,  1826,  Judge  John  Birdsall  made  his  first  appear- 
ance as  presiding  judge,  the  other  judges  being  Anson  Hinman,  Vial  Thomas 
and  Sylvanus  Merriman.  From  this  time  until,  and  including  the  May 
term,  1828,  no  other  circuit  judge  held  court  in  the  country.  The  writer 
has  been  able  to  get  but  little  information  of  Judge  Birdsall  but  concludes, 
from  the  fact  that  one  of  our  towns  is  named  after  him,  that  he  was  fully  up 
to  the  average,  in  popularity  with  the  people  at  least. 

Addison  Gardiner  was  the  next  circuit  judge  who  visited  Allegany  to 
hold  court,  appearing  first  at  the  October  term  1829,  and  holding  all  the  courts 

256  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

with  one  exception  till  and  including  the  March  term,  1836.  At  his  tirst 
term  S.  S.  Haight  and  Anson  Hinman  were  the  associates.  Judge  Gardi- 
ner began  law  practice  in  Rochester  in  1822,  and  was  the  first  justice  of  the 
peace  there.  He  was  twice  elected  lieutenant  governor,  was  district  attor- 
ney for  Monroe  county,  and  ex-offlcio  vice  chancellor.  On  the  organization  of 
the  court  of  appeals  in  1847  he  was  elected  one  of  the  judges,  served  one 
term  of  eight  years  and  declined  a  re-nomination.  He  died  in  Rochester  in 
1883.  He  was  regarded  as  an  able  and  impartial  judge  who  was  greatly  re- 
spected by  bar  and  clientage,  and  the  older  members  of  the  bar  remember 
with  what  delight  the  lawyers,  who  were  old  when  they  were  young,  spoke 
his  name  and  recalled  his  memory. 

From  the  October  term,  1831,  to  the  March  term,  1833,  there  appears  no 
record  of  courts  of  oyer  terminer,  which  must  be  taken  as  evidence  either 
of  a  paucity  of  crime  highly  creditable  to  our  people,  or  of  carelessness  on 
the  part  of  the  county  clerk.  Hon.  Charles  H.  Ruggles  presided  at  the 
September  term,  1836.  Of  him  the  writer  has  been  unable  to  inform  him- 
self.     It  was  his  only  appearance  as  a  judge  in  Allegany  county. 

Hon.  Daniel  Mosely  presided  at  the  September  term  1836.  The  local 
judges  were  Andrew  C.  Hull,  John  Collins  and  Calvin  T.  Chamberlain.  The 
writer  has  not  learned  anything  about  Judge  Mosely  only  that  he  was  ap- 
pointed a  special  prosecuting  officer  in  the  case  of  the  abduction  of  Morgan 
in  1826,  and  held  the  position  until  1829,  when  he  was  jDromoted  to  be  circuit 
judge.     He  presided  at  only  one  term  in  Allegany. 

The  next  in  order  comes  Robert  Monell,  who  held  the  July  term,  1837. 
The  local  or  county  judges  at  this  term  were  Andrew  C.  Hull,  John  Collins 
and  Josiah  Utter.  Judge  Monell  held  all  the  courts  (circuit  and  oyer  and 
terminer)  down  to  1844,  He  was  a  Chenango  county  man,  for  a  part  of  his 
life  at  least  having  represented  that  county  in  the  state  legislature,  was  a 
man  of  great  legal  attainments,  distinguished  for  fairness  of  judgment  and 
impartial  decisions,  also  a  man  of  high  social  qualities,  enjoying  immensely 
a  good  story  or  a  joke  on  occasions  of  relaxation  from  business.  The  circuit 
court  records  say  that  Bowen  Whiting  held  the  October,  1844,  circuit  court, 
and  Monell  appears  by  the  records  to  have  presided  at  the  oyer  and  termi- 
ner at  the  same  term.  This  is  the  only  appearance  of  Judge  Whiting  in 
Allegany  courts  as  justice. 

Philo  Gridley  was  the  next  circuit  judge  who  appeared,  holding  a  term 
October,  1845,  and  also  presiding  at  the  oyer  and  terminer.  At  the  June, 
1846,  Judge  Hiram  Gray  appeared,  presided  at  oyer  and  terminer,  with  S. 
C.  Wilson,  WiUiam  Hicks,  Jazaniah  Emerson  and  George  B.  Jones,  associates. 
He  held  courts  through  1846-7.  He  was  an  Elmira  man,  but  more  than  this 
the  writer  has  not  learned. 

Hon.  Richard  P.  Marvin  appeared  at  the  January  term,  1848,  being  the 
first  of  the  circuit  judges  elected  under  the  new  constitution  to  hold  court 
here.  Up  to  this  time  the  judges  ihad  all  been  appointed  by  the  governor 
and  senate.     From  this  time  down  to  the  November  term,  1870,  Judge  Mar- 

Courts  and  Lawyers. 

vin  frequently  held  courts  here.  At  the  oyer  and  terminer  in  1848  his 
associates  were  Wm.  G.  Angel,  Wolcott  Hatch,  Robert  H.  Renwick,  and 
during  the  long  time  in  which  he  administered  justice  in  Allegany  he  became 
quite  familiar  with  our  people.  He  was  born  in  Fairfield,  Herkimer  county, 
December  23,  1803.  He  worked  on  a  farm  until  he  was  19  years  old,  he 
taught  a  district  school  to  obtain  the  means  to  complete  his  legal  studies, 
which  he  for  a  while  pursued  under  the  renowned  Mark  H.  Sibley,  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  of  the  supreme  court  in  1829,  and  ten  years  later,  on  mo- 
tion of  Daniel  Webster,  was  admitted  as  attorney  and  counsellor  in  the  su- 
preme court  of  the  United  States.  He  was  one  of  the  early  promoters  of 
the  Erie  railroad,  addressing  in  1831  the  first  public  meeting  held  in  its  be 
half.  In  1835  he  was  elected  to  the  legislature,  and  in  1836  to  congress  and 
re-elected  in  1838.  He  was  a  warm  friend  and  supporter  of  Henry  Clay  in 
1844.  In  1846  was  a  member  of  the  constitutional  convention,  and  in  1847 
was  the  first  one  nominated  at  the  judicial  convention  at  Buffalo  for  justice 
of  the  suj^reme  court,  for  the  Eighth  Judicial  District,  under  the  new 
order.  Horace  Greeley  who  was  opposed  to  the  elective  system  for  judges 
said.  ''It  was  no  wonder  that  the  Eighth  District  favored  it,  when  it  had 
such  pure  and  able  judges  as  Marvin,  and  his  associates,"  and  "  that  the 
Eighth  Judicial  District  had  the  ablest  judges  in  the  state."  Mr.  Marvin 
held  the  position  24  years,  and  was  regarded  by  the  public  and  by  suitors  at 
law  as  one  of  the  ablest  and  best  equipped  of  judges  in  a  district  especially 
noted  for  the  high  character  of  its  judiciary.     He  died  January  11,  1892. 

Hon.  James  Mullett's  first  appearance  to  hold  court  in  Allegany  was  in 
August,  1848.  At  the  oyer  and  terminer  Wm.  G.  Angel  as  county  judge  and 
John  Wheeler  and  W.  H.  King  as  justices  of  sessions  were  associated  with 
him.  Judge  MuUett  continued  for  five  years  to  visit  Allegany  as  a  circuit 
judge.  He  had  few  advantages  of  schools,  and  late  in  life  began  to  study 
law.  But  his  industry  and  ability  were  more  than  an  offset  for  his  lack  of 
early  opportunity.  By  persistent  study  he  acquired  the  power  of  exx)ress- 
ing  himself  in  strong,  original  and  vv^ell-chosen  language.  He  was  also 
celebrated  for  his  great  fund  of  wit,  and  his  skill  at  repartee.  He  was  re- 
garded as  one  of  the  soundest  judges  of  the  Eighth  Judicial  District.  He 
removed  to  Buffalo  in  1843.  He  represented  Chautauqua  county  in  the 
assembly,  1823-4,  and  was  appointed  district  attorney  of  that  county  in  1826. 

The  record  says  that  in  December,  1848,  a  "  General  term  of  supreme 
court,  and  special  term  of  supreme  court  and  suj^reme  court  in  equity," 
was  held  at  the  court  house  in  Angelica  by  Samuel  L.  Selden,  one  of  the 
justices  of  the  supreme  court.  A  court  of  oyer  and  terminer  was  also  then 
held,  Wolcott  Hatch  and  John  Wheeler  being  the  justices  of  sessions,  at 
which  John  Allen  was  tried  for  stealing  horses  from  the  Seneca  Indians  on 
.  their  reservation  near  Buft'alo.  Allen  was  sent  to  state  prison  for  four 
years,  and  thus  was  broken  up  a  confederacy  of  horse  thieves  and  gamblers 
which  had  for  some  years  infested  northwestern  Allegany.     It  was  a  nota- 

258  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

ble  trial,  Lucien  P.  Wetherby  was  the  district  attorney,  and  M.  B.  Champ- 
lain  and  Martin  Grover  defended  Allen.  This  was  the  only  time  Judge 
Selden  held  court  here.  He  was  a  remarkable  man,  "  his  own  architect. " 
He -resided  in  Rochester,  was  elected  first  judge  of  the  court  of  common 
pleas  of  Monroe  county  in  1831,  was  clerk  of  the  Eighth  Chancery  Circuit, 
elected  justice  of  the  supreme  court  in  1847,  and  in  1856  of  the  court  of 
appeals.  It  is  said  of  him  ''  that  he  was  elected  to  both  of  the  latter  offices 
before  he  had  appeared  at  the  bar  of  either  courts." 

Hon.  Moses  Taggart  of  Batavia  was  the  next  in  order  of  appearance, 
at  the  January  term,  1849.  The  record  omits  stating  who  were  associated 
with  him  as  justices  of  sessions.  Mr.  Taggart,  though  perhaps  not  as 
brilliant  as  some  of  the  other  judges,  was  a  man  of  good  knowledge  of  law, 
and  his  decisions  were  sound  and  very  seldom  disturbed  by  appeals. 

Hon.  Seth  E.  SiU  came  next  to  Angelica,  holding  the  September,  1849, 
term.  He  was  born  in  Saratoga  county  in  1809,  finished  his  legal  education 
in  the  office  of  Thomas  T.  Sherwood,  Buffalo,  and  was  admitted  in  1836.  He 
was  one  of  the  many  judges  elected  in  1847,  and  died  in  1851.  He  was  known 
and  esteemed  throughout  the  state  as  a  learned  and  able  jurist,  and  distin- 
guished for  his  unblemished  and  unbending  integrity. 

The  December  term,  1850,  was  held  by  Hon.  James  G.  Hoyt.  At  the 
oyer  and  terminer  Wm.  G.  Angel  county  judge  and  Henry  Stevens  and  A. 
A.  Norton  justices  of  sessions,  were  associated  with  him.  Judge  Hoyt  was 
in  every  sense  a  self-made  man,  winning  his  way  step  by  step  from  one 
position  to  another  with  great  professional  learning  and  eminent  ability. 
He  was  particularly  distinguished  for  his  uniform  courtesy,  his  purity  of 
life,  and  entire  conscientiousness  in  the  discharge  of  official  duties.  He  died 
in  Buffalo  in  1863. 

Hon.  Levi  F.  Bowen  presided  at  the  December  term,  1853.  Wm.  H. 
King  and  Hiram  Boorn  were  associated  in  the  oyer  and  terminer.  Bowen 
held  courts  here  until  1856. 

At  the  March  term,  1854,  Hon.  Richard  F.  Green  presided,  Wm.  H. 
King  and  Levi  Foster  being  the  justices  of  sessions.  This  and  the  July 
term,  1854,  were  the  only  courts  at  which  he  presided  in  the  county. 

Hon.  Benjamin  F.  Green  presided  at  the  July  term  of  1855.  Reuben 
Weed  and  Chas.  W.  Wood  worth  were  his  associates  in  the  oyer  and  termi- 
ner. Mr.  Green  held  courts  here  until  and  including  the  July  term,  1858. 
He  lived  at  Fredonia,  was  elected  justice  of  the  supreme  court  in  1853,  and 
died  in  1860.  He  was  a  man  of  eminent  ability  as  a  lawyer,  and  a  high  order 
of  excellence  as  a  judge. 

Hon.  Noah  Davis  first  appeared  at  the  Allegany  courts  at  the  March 
term,  1858.  E.  E.  Harding  and  J.  W.  Deuel  were  his  associates  in  the  oyer 
and  terminer.  His  last  appearance  was  at  the  September  term,  1867.  He 
was  one  of  the  ablest  judges  who  ever  held  court  in  Allegany,  and  for  that 
matter  in  the  state.  He  later  removed  to  New  York  City  and  his  abilities 
as  a  judge  have  been  properly  recognized  in  the  American  metropolis. 

^^sfe      ^»®>»^ 

c^  ytM^^-tyy^ 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  259 

Hon.  Martin  Grover  was  the  next  in  order,  holding-  his  first  term  in 
December,  lb5b.  He  continued  to  hold  courts  in  Allegany  until  about  1870. 
He  was  born  in  Hartwick,  Otsego  county,  in  1811.  His  father  was  a  farmer 
of  limited  means,  but  possessed  of  great  energy  of  character  and  a  man  of 
the  strictest  integrity,  traits  which  the  son  inherited  in  a  marked  degree. 
He  had  advantage  only  of  an  academic  course  of  study,  not  having  the  means 
required  to  take  a  college  course.  He  had  however  qualities  which  greatly 
compensated  for  his  lack  of  scholastic  acquirements,  and  forcibly  illustrated 
the  saying  of  Gibbon,  that  a  liberal  education  was  but  little  avail,  except  to 
him  who  did  not  need  it.  While  engaged  in  teaching  he  pursued  the  study 
of  law  with  the  Hon.  Wm.  G.  Angel,  and  he  accompanied  him  to  Hammonds- 
port,  there  completed  his  studies  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  Locating 
in  Angelica,  he  soon  induced'Mr.  Angel  to  come  thither  and  the  well-remem- 
bered law  firm  of  Angel  &  Grover  was  established.  Mr.  Grover's  rare 
qualities  of  mind,  his  wonderful  perceptive  faculties,  blended  with  a  marvel- 
lous memory  and  untiring  industry,  soon  gave  him  a  commanding  position 
at  the  bar  of  Western  New  York.  As  a  public  speaker  he  was  earnest,  im- 
pressive, singularly  apt  in  his  presentation,  and  strong  in  his  statements  of 
facts  or  propositions.  His  language  was  plain,  it  might  be  said  blunt,  and 
his  peculiar  voice,  tuned  to  a  high  key,  which  once  heard  was  never  forgot- 
ten, penetrated  to  the  remotest  parts  of  his  audience  on  occasions  of  political 
meetings,  and.  combined  with  rare  ingenuity,  was  sure  to  make  an  abiding 
impression  on  a  jury.  His  careless  habits  of  dress,  which  it  has  been  said 
was  more  from  lack  of  means  over  and  above  his  expenses  and  the  sum  he 
felt  constrained  to  put  into  books  than  from  slovenly  propensities,  gained 
for  him  in  the  early  years  of  his  practice  the  sobriquet  of  "  the  ragged  law- 
yer, "  or  "  the  ragged  lawyer  from  Allegany, ' "  and  it  has  also  been  claimed 
that  this  appellation  actually  contributed  to  his  fame  as  a  lawyer,  as  an  ad- 
vocate and  as  a  political  speaker.  Mr.  Grover  was  a  Democrat  until  1848, 
when  he  took  part  in  the  famous  Buffalo  convention.  He  was  elected  to  con- 
gress in  1844,  and  took  an  active  part  in  discussing  the  questions  relating  to 
slavery  extension,  supporting  Hon.  David  Wilmot  in  his  advocacy  of  the 
"Wilmot  proviso."  In  1852  he  supported  Franklin  Pierce  for  the  x^resi- 
dency,  was  found  in  the  Republican  party  upon  its  formation  in  1854,  where 
he  continued  until  about  1863,  when  he  allied  himself  again  with  the  Demo- 
crats, and  remained  with  them  thereafter.  In  1857  a  vacancy  occurring  on 
the  bench  of  the  supreme  court,  occasioned  by  the  death  of  Judge  Sill,  he 
was  appointed  to  the  place,  and,  in  1859.  was  elected  to  the  same  office.  In 
1870  he  was  elected  one  of  the  justices  of  the  court  of  appeals,  and  was  con- 
tinued in  that  position  until  his  death  in  1875.  He  was  one  of  the  ablest 
jurists  of  the  court,  and  discharged  the  duties  of  the  position  with  dignity, 
dispatch,  fidelity  and  honor.  In  1845  he  married  Miss  Emily  Whitmore,  a 
niece  of  Hon.  Wm.  G.  Angel,  who  survived  him  eighteen  years.  They  had 
no  children. 

In  this  connection  we  introduce  the  foUowing  from  Hon.  Wm.  F.  Jones: 

260  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

"When  I  came  to  Allegany  in  1852  I  think  the  lawyers  who  frequented  the 
bar  at  Angelica  were  perhaps  the  ablest,  taken  as  a  whole,  of  any  in  its  his- 
tory .  Martin  Grover  was  then  in  his  prime,  and.  it  was  before  he  went  upon 
the  bench.  A.  P.  Laning  and  Marshall  B.  Champlain  were  among  the 
younger,  but  shining  lights,  and  then  the  circuits  were  regularly  attended 
by  Luther  C.  Peck  of  Nunda,  William  Barnes  of  Bath,  and  Diven,  Hathaway 
and  Woods  of  Elmira;  a  strong  array  for  untried  aspirants  like  Hamilton 
Ward  and  myself  to  meet.  By  the  way  I  was  a  delegate  to  the  judicial  con- 
vention held  at  Buffalo  which  gave  Martin  Grover  his  nomination  for 
supreme  court  judge,  and  we  had  a  lively  time  of  it.  The  Erie  county  dele- 
gation was  solid  against  him,  objecting  to  his  want  of  dignity  in  demeanor 
and  careless  habits  of  dress,  and  made  some  hot  speeches  on  the  subject, 
saying  that  Grover 's  '  slouch  hat,  calf  boots  and  homespun  pants  '  were  not 
compatible  with  judicial  dignity.  I  had  to  talk  for  Allegany.  I  said  that 
the  plain  people  up  our  way  cared  more  about  the  quality  of  a  man's  brains 
than  they  did  about  the  style  of  his  hat  or  cut  of  his  pants,  and  if  they  would 
give  us  Martin  Grover  for  judge,  we  should  all  know  that  we  had  one  man 
with  a  judicial  capacity  and  we  would  take  the  risk  of  dress  reform,  and 
even  if  reform  did  not  follow,  Avhenever  they  saw  the  judge  enter  the  Erie 
county  court  house  under  his  old  slouch  hat  they  might  console  themselves 
with  the  comforting  reflection  that  it  covered  more  brains  than  any  '  shining 
silk '  in  Buffalo.  Grover  was  nominated  and  my  prediction  was,  I  think, 
fully  verified." 

In  the  order  of  first  appearance  Hon.  Henry  Wells  was  next,  holding  the 
October  term,  1862.  Wolcott  Hatch  county  judge,  and  Freeman  Atwood  and 
John  F.  Olney  were  the  associates  in  the  oyer  and  terminer.  Judge  Henry 
Wells  was  born  at  Kinderhook,  October  13, 1794.  He  studied  law  with  Gen. 
Vincent  Matthews  at  Bath,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  the  same  class 
with  the  late  Hon.  John  B.  Skinner.  In  October,  1824,  he  was  appointed 
district  attorney  for  Steuben  county,  in  1847  was  elected  justice  of  the 
supreme  court  for  the  Seventh  District,  the  duties  of  which  he  discharged 
for  nearly  21  years.  His  decisions  were  distinguished  by  clearness,  steadi- 
ness, justice  and  right,  deriving  their  strength  from  that  fairness,  rectitude 
and  simplicity  which  entered  so  largely  into  his  personality.  He  died  at 
Penn  Yan,  March  7,  1868. 

Hon.  Charles  Daniels.  In  answer  to  a  request  for  a  sketch,  or  data  for 
one.  Judge  Daniels  wrote  a  long  and  exceedingly  interesting  letter,  which 
wiU  be  placed  in  the  archives  of  the  Allegany  County  Histoi'ical  Society. 
From  this  letter  the  following  sketch  is  drawn,  which  covers  his  occupation 
of  the  bench  of  the  supreme  court.  He  was  first  elected  in  November,  1863, 
and  Governor  Seymour  appointed  him  to  fill  out  the  term  of  the  Hon.  James 
G.  Hoyt,  deceased.  The  last  year  of  his  first  term  he  was  in  the  court  of 
appeals.  In  1869  he  was  elected  for  another  term  of  eight  years,  and  then 
he  was  elected  without  a  contestant  for  a  term  of  fourteen  years.  During 
the  last  year  of  this  term  the  objection  was  made  that  his  age  would  not  per- 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  261 

mit  him  to  hold  the  office  for  another  full  term,  and  he  might  after  that,  if 
again  elected,  be  entitled  to  draw  the  salary  without  rendering  any  service. 
This  resulted  in  a  contest  for  the  office,  and  he  declined  to  be  a  candidate. 
He  served  as  judge  over  28  years.  In  1892  he  was  elected  to  congress  for 
the  Thirty-third  District,  receiving  a  plurality  of  about  5,000  votes,  and  in 
1894  was  re-elected  by  a  plurality  of  about  12,000  votes.  During  his  judicial 
career  he  never  failed  to  hold  all  courts  assigned  to  him,  except  when  he 
was  appointed  to  hold  extraordinary  courts  in  other  parts  of  the  state.  That 
was  the  case  in  the  trial  of  Greenfield  in  Syracuse  for  killing  his  wife,  which 
consumed  more  than  six  weeks'  time.  He  also  presided  in  New  York  City 
in  the  celebrated  trial  of  Senator  Genet,  one  of  the  Tweed  Ring,  for  obtain- 
ing money  on  false  vouchers  for  materials  for  the  Harlem  court  house. 
Genet  was  convicted,  but  was  permitted  to  escape.  After  being  a  wanderer 
for  over  a  year  Genet  gave  himself  up,  and  his  case  was  taken  to  the  supreme 
court  and  court  of  appeals,  and  the  verdict  affirmed.  He  was  then  sentenced 
to  the  penitentiary  for  nearly  a  year,  and  to  pay  a  fine  of  .^10,000,  being  the 
amount  he  had  obtained,  with  interest.  He  suffered  the  imprisonment  and 
paid  the  fine,  which  it  is  believed  was  the  only  money  refunded  on  the  con- 
viction of  the  members  of  the  infamous  "Tweed  Ring. "'  Judge  Daniels  also 
wrote  the  decision  affirming  the  order  to  hold  Tweed  to  bail,  in  a  suit  brought 
to  recover  money  appropriated  by  him.  That  decision  was  affirmed  by  the 
court  of  ai^i^eals,  and  resulted  in  the  detention  of  Tweed  in  prison  until  his 
death.  Judge  Daniels  was  by  assignments  of  the  different  governors  a 
member  of  the  appellate  division  of  the  supreme  court  in  New  York  City  for 
20  years,  holding  at  least  four  terms  of  that  court  each  year.  The  period 
covered  by  his  judicial  career  was  one  of  constant  labor  and  responsibility, 
and  gained  for  him  great  eminence  as  a  judge  and  placed  him  on  the  list  of 
distinguished  self-made  men.  Judge  Daniels  says:  "It  has  been  my  lot 
from  boyhood  to  employ  my  time  in  unremitting  labor,  and  the  present 
forms  no  exception  in  my  favor.  My  schooling  was  less  than  a  year,  and 
what  was  afterwards  acquired  resulted  from  persistent  study,  during 
short  intervals  devoted  to  manual  labor  on  farms  and  in  mechanical  ]mr- 

Hon.  George  Barker  was  next,  holding  the  October  term,  1868,  Anson  C. 
Hall  and  Merritt  B.  Dake  were  justices  of  sessions.  He  was  born  in  Venice, 
Cayuga  Co.,  November  6,  1823,  studied  law  with  David  Wright,  Esq.,  of 
Auburn,  and  located  in  Fredonia  in  January.  1848.  just  after  his  admission 
to  the  bar.  In  1853  he  was  elected  district  attorney  for  Chautauqua  county, 
serving  one  term.  Again  elected  in  1862,  he  soon  resigned  on  account  of  his 
large  practice.  In  1867  he  was  a  member  of  the  constitutional  convention 
and  was  the  same  year  elected  justice  of  the  supreme  court  for  the  Eighth 
Judicial  District,  without  opposition.  In  1875  he  was  again  elected  for  a  term 
of  14  years,  a  large  part  of  this  term  he  was  a  member  of  the  general  term 
for  the  Fourth  Judicial  Department  and  for  the  last  years  was  its  presiding 
judge.      He  was  a  member  of  the  constitutional  commission  to  propose 

262  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.   Y. 

amendments  to  the  judicial  article  of  the  constitution.  He  is  now  enjoying- 
a  well-earned  and  happy  retirement.  His  long  service  on  the  bench  has 
made  him  known  as  one  of  our  most  able  and  distinguished  jurists. 

Hon.  George  D.  Lament  held  his  first  term  in  Allegany  in  February, 
1869.  Washington  Moses  and  Merritt  B.  Dake  were  the  justices  of  sessions. 
For  five  or  six  years  Judge  Lament  as  often  as  any  other  of  the  judges  held 
circuits  in  Allegany. 

The  records  show  Hon.  David  Rumsey  as  holding  court  in  February, 
1875,  the  only  term  which  it  appears  he  held  here.  He  had  previously  been 
a  member  of  congress,  and  was  a  man  very  highly  esteemed,  not  only  as  a 
lawyer  and  judge  but  as  a  citizen.  As  he  was  a  resident  of  Bath,  in  another 
judicial  district,  he  was  no  doubt  sent  to  hold  this  term  in  some  emergency. 

Hon.  Wm.  H.  Henderson  was  the  next  judge  in  order  of  appearance, 
holding  the  June  term,  1876.  John  T.  Wright  and  Stephen  Thomas  were 
justices  of  sessions.  The  records  show  no  other  term  held  by  Judge  Hender- 
son. He  is  still  living  at  Randolph,  Cattaraugus  county.  He  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  1852,  having  studied  with  Alexander  Sheldon  and  Joseph  E. 
Weeden,  of  Randolph.  He  was  appointed  by  Governor  Tilden  to  serve  in 
place  of  Hon.  George  D.  Lament,  deceased,  in  1876,  and  the  same  year  was 
nominated  by  the  Democrats  for  a  full  term,  but  was  defeated  by  Albert 
Haight.  His  legal  ability  and  general  worth  as  a  citizen  are  fully  recognized 
by  the  people  of  Western  New  York. 

As  it  is  thought  all  other  judges  who  have  held  courts  in  this  county 
are  (with  one  exception)  now  living,  their  names  only  will  (as  a  general  thing) 
be  given  and  the  time  of  their  first  appearance.  Our  people  meet  them  from 
time  to  time  in  various  capacities  and  have  their  own  opinions  in  regard  to 
them.  It  is  safe  however  to  say  that  the  reputation  of  the  judges  of  the 
Eighth  Judicial  District  is  fully  up  to  the  average  of  other  districts  of  the 
state  in  learning  and  ability,  and  in  possession  of  all  the  necessary  qualities 
for  an  exalted  judiciary. 

Hon.  Albert  Haight  of  Buffalo  held  his  first  term  in  Allegany  in  June, 
1877.  Hon.  Loran  L.  Lewis,  another  Buffalo  man,  first  appeared  in  October, 
1883.  Hon.  Henry  A.  Childs  held  the  June  term,  1884.  He  is  a  resident  of 
Albion,  Orleans  county.  Hon.  Thomas  Corlett,  (deceased)  held  his  first 
court  here  in  January,  1885.  He  had  formerly  lived  in  Attica,  but  was  re- 
siding in  Buffalo  when  he  died.  Hon.  John  S.  Lambert,  a  Chautauqua  man, 
held  his  first  court  in  Allegany  in  January,  1890.  Hon.  Hamilton  Ward 
appeared  first  in  June,  1892. 

Judge  Hamilton  Ward  was  born  in  Salisbury,  Herkimer  county,  July  3, 
1829.  In  1849  he  entered  the  law  office  of  A.  &  W.  P.  Konkle,  of  Elmira.  as  a 
student  and  applied  himself  with  such  assiduity  that  he  was  admitted  to  the 
bar  in  1851.  In  September,  1851,  he  settled  in  Belmont  and  soon  took  a  prom- 
inent position  in  the  Allegany  bar.  In  1856  he  was  elected  district  attorney 
and  again  elected  in  1862.  In  1864  he  was  elected  to  congress,  and  was 
twice  re-elected,  serving  six  years  continuously,  during  a  very  important 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  263 

period  in  the  administration  of  the  government.  In  congress  he  was  a 
member  of  the  committee  on  claims,  of  the  committee  on  reconstruction  and 
of  the  committee  appointed  to  impeach  President  Johnson.  For  a  few  years 
subsequent  to  1871  he  devoted  himself  entirely  to  the  j^ractice  of  law  and 
was  considered  as  one  of  the  most  successful  lawyers  of  the  state.  In  1879 
he  was  elected  attorney  general  of  the  state,  and  May.  1891.  he  was  appointed 
to  fill  the  vacancy  on  the  bench  of  the  supreme  court  made  by  the  death  of 
Judge  Thomas  Corlett.  In  the  fall  of  1891  he  was  elected  justice  of  the 
supreme  court,  which  high  office  he  now  holds,  discharging  its  duties  with 
ability  of  a  high  order.  While  in  practice  he  was  connected  with  many  of 
the  important  cases  in  Western  New  York,  among  them  that  of  The  People 
vs.  Hendryx  for  the  murder  of  his  wife.  He  was  the  successful  attorney  in 
the  Angelica  andCaneadea  railroad  bond  cases,  in  the  great  Whitney  divorce 
case  and  in  other  hotly  contested  causes.  While  attorney  general  he  was  as- 
signed by  the  governor  to  prosecute  Barney  Hughes  for  the  murder  of  W. 
J.  Hadley,  a  distinguished  criminal  law^yer  of  Albany.  The  case  •  attracted 
state-wide  attention,  and  Mr.  Ward's  summing  up  was  very  highly  com- 
mended. As  a  member  of  the  capitol  commission  he  caused  to  be  abrogated 
a  contract  for  the  purchase  of  granite  at  a  saving  to  the  state  of  $200,000.  He 
was  appointed  by  Gov.  Hill  a  member  of  the  commission  to  revise  the  con- 
stitution, and  was  one  of  those  who  opposed  the  final  action  of  the  commis- 
sion, which  resulted  in  its  rejection  by  the  legislature. 

Although  Judge  Hatch  has  not  held  any  terms  of  court  in  Allegany  as 
yet,  he  is  one  of  our  own  sons,  and  as  we  expect  that  he  will  visit  us  in  his 
judicial  capacity,  we  take  pleasure  in  giving  a  sketch  of  him  here.  Hon. 
Edward  W.  Hatch,  one  of  the  justices  of  the  supreme  court  of  this  state,  was 
born  in  Friendship,  November  26,  1852.  His  father,  Jeremiah  Hatch,  a  de- 
scendant of  Capt.  Jeremiah  Hatch  who  served  in  the  Revolutionary  War,  was 
educated  at  Middlebury  College,  Vt. ,  became  a  tutor  inNewberne,  N.  C,  and 
subsequently  was  principal  of  Friendship  Academy.  In  1856  Judge  Hatch's 
father  became  canal  collector  on  the  Genesee  Valley  Canal,  and  read  law  in 
the  office  of  A.  P.  Laning.  At  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  he  raised  a  com- 
pany and  went  out  as  captain  in  the  130th  N.  Y.,  and  died  of  disease  at  Suf- 
folk, Va.,  in  December,  1862.  Judge  Hatch's  mother  was  a  daughter  of  Sid- 
ney Rigdon.  After  the  death  of  Captain  Hatch  the  family  removed  to 
Friendship,  where  Judge  Hatch  attended  the  Academy  in  the  autumn  and 
winter  months,  until  he  was  sixteen  years  old.  He  then  learned  the  black- 
smith trade,  working  at  it  in  this  county,  and  in  the  lumber  woods  of  Penn- 
sylvania, and  at  Attica,  Wyoming  county,  until  December,  1872.  During  all 
these  years,  however,  he  had  a  latent  ambition  to  become  a  lawyer.  An  op- 
portunity came  in  1872,  when  he  began  to  read  law  in  the  office  of  Hon. 
Andrew  J.  Lorish,  the  present  county  judge  of  Wyoming  county,  then  post- 
master at  Attica,  and  at  the  same  time  he  was  made  a  clerk  in  the  postoffice. 
In  1874  he  came  to  Buffalo,  and  entered  the  law  office  of  Corlett  &  Tabor, 
the  former  of  whom  afterw^ards  became  a  justice  of  the  supreme  court  and 

264  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y. 

the  latter  attorney  general  of  the  state.  This  firm  dissolved  in  1875,  Judge 
Hatch  remaining  with  Judge  Corlett  until  admitted  to  the  bar  in  June,  1876. 
He  then  practiced  law  alone  until  1878,  when  he  formed  a  partnership  with 
his  former  preceptor,  Judge  Corlett,  which  continued  until  the  latter  went 
upon  the  bench  in  1883.  In  1880  and  1883  Judge  Hatch  was  nominated  by 
acclamation  by  the  Republican  party  for  the  office  of  district  attorney  of 
Erie  county,  and  was  elected  each  time  by  a  large  vote.  In  January,  1884,  he 
entered  the  firm  thereafter  known  as  Box,  Hatch  &  Norton  and  there  contin- 
ued until  January,  1887,  when  he  was  elected  one  of  the  judges  of  the  superior 
court  of  Buffalo,  a  court  having  equal  jurisdiction  with  the  supreme  court 
of  the  state.  The  superior  court  of  Buffalo  was  abolished  on  December  31, 
1895,  and  its  judges  were  transferred  into  the  supreme  court  for  the  re- 
mainder of  their  terms.  Judge  Hatch  had  still  five  years  to  serve,  but  in 
the  autumn  of  1894  he  was  unanimously  nominated  as  a  supreme  court 
justice  in  the  Eighth  Judicial  District  embracing  the  counties  of  Western 
New  York,  for  the  full  fourteen  year  term,  and  elected  by  a  large  and  flatter- 
ing vote,  whereupon  he  formally  resigned  as  judge  of  the  superior  court  for 
the  unexpired  term.  All  of  his  promotions  have  been  the  result  of  increas- 
ing majorities.  As  a  lawyer  in  private  practice,  as  district  attorney  and  on 
the  bench.  Judge  Hatch  has  been  conspicuous  for  his  ability,  industry,  per- 
sistence, courage,  sound  judgment  and  high  sense  of  honor.  He  has  also,  at 
all  times,  taken  an  active  interest  in  public  affairs  and  reforms,  is  at  present 
a  member  of  the  faculty  of  the  Buifalo  Law  School,  and  lectures  frequently 
in  Buffalo  and  elsewhere  on  social,  ethical  and  economic  subjects.  Though 
still  comparatively  a  young  man  his  progress  has  been  rapid,  but  based  on 
unflagging  energy,  honest  endeavor  and  substantial  merit.  By  appointment 
of  Governor  Morton  he  is  now  a  member  of  the  appellate  court  of  the  sec- 
ond division, 

Hon.  Manley  C.  Green  held  the  June  term,  1894,  and  the  June  term,  1895, 
Vv^as  held  by  Hon.  Alfred  Spring. 

Judge  Spring  was  born  at  Franklin ville,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  19,  1851,  son  of 
Hon.  Samuel  S.  Spring.  He  was  educated  at  Ten  Broeck  Free  Academy, 
graduating  in  June,  1870.  Reading  law  with  his  father,  he  was  admitted  to 
practice  in  October,  1875,  and  in  1879  was  elected  surrogate  of  Cattaraugus 
county,  holding  by  re-election  the  office  12  years  and  with  decided  ability. 
He  has  since  been  in  practice  in  Franklinville  with  his  brother  George  C, 
until  in  the  beginning  of  1895  he  was  appointed  justice  of  the  supreme  court 
to  fill  the  existing  vacancy,  and  in  November  following  was  elected  to  the 
same  iDosition. 

QuAJNT  Records  and  Notable  Trials. — The  first  indictment  by  a 
grand  jury  in  Allegany  county  was  found  at  the  June  term,  1809,  and  David 
Sanford,  presumably  of  Caneadea,  was  the  party  indicted.  The  offense 
charged  was  assault  and  battery,  but  the  record  does  not  show  upon  whom. 
He  was  tried  at  that  term  and  ''found  not  guilty.  "     Another  and  similar  in- 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  265 

dictment  was  found  against  him.  upon  which  he  was  tried,  found  guilty  and 
lined  ^5.  Stephen  Waterman  for  a  like  offense  was  fined  Jf^lO.  By  scanning 
the  records  it  would  seem  that  from  1H09  to  1H2')  assault  and  battery  was 
epidemic  with  our  population,  the  instances  of  indictments  for  that  offense 
being  almost  innumerable.  Many  when  tried  were  found  not  guilty,  and 
where  convicted  the  lines  ran  from  -^1  to  '^2o,  the  latter  sum  of  course  im- 
posed in  aggravated  cases.  The  hrst  trial  for  grand  larceny  was  at  the 
October  term,  1809.  Ebenezer  Slawson  being  tried  and  found  not  guilty,  the 
jui-y  not  leaving  their  seats.  At  the  October  term,  1810,  Daniel  Graham  was 
tried  and  found  "guilty  of  the  felony  whereof  he  stands  indicted,  and  so  say 
they  all."  He  was  '•  committed  to  states  prison  for  four  years."  For  what 
crime  he  was  punished  does  not  appear,  but  Mr.  Graham  enjoys  the  distinc- 
tion of  being  the  first  representative  of  Allegany  county  in  the  state  prison. 
At  the  June  term,  1811,  Jasher  Clark  was  indicted  for  "intent  to  murder,' 
Ammi  Holt  for  forgery  and  Ebenezer  Griffith  for  libel.  Mr.  G.  was  tried  at 
the  next  term,  found  guilty  and  fined  5^20,  At  the  June  term,  1814,  the 
record  reveals  this. 

The  People  (^  Indicted  for  felony 

eu       *  '  TV/,        -ii        C  Pleads  euilty 

Sherman  Manville      )  ^       ■' 

tried  and  "  the  jury  return  to  the  bar  and  find  him  not  guilty." 
At  the  October  term,  1818,  John  Radley  and  Jotham  CamiDbell  were  in- 
dicted for  horse-racing.     At  the  October  term,  1819,  Medad  McKay  was  in- 
dicted for  murder  in  poisoning  his  wife.     This  was  the  first  of  its  kind  in 
the  county.     But  as  the  years  pass  the  catalogue  of  crime  increases. 

At  the  February  term,  1824,  David  D.  How  was  indicted  for  the  murder 
of  Othello  Church  on  December  30,  1823,  by  a  grand  jury  which  consisted  of 
Moses  Van  Camioen,  foreman,  William  Bennett,  Elijah  Osgood,  Wm.  Gray, 
Hiram  Gray,  Eleazar  Burbank,  Freeman  S.  Wilson,  Charles  Swift,  Horatio 
Smith,  Levi  Benjamin,  Matthew  P.  Cady,  Daniel  Woods,  Solomon  Chamber- 
lain, Nathaniel  H.  Fordice,  Walter  Bennett,  Azel  Fitch,  Ebenezer  Pettis, 
Stephen  Merrils,  John  Hammond  and  Jeremiah  Fuller.  On  the  4th  and  5th 
of  February  How  was  tried  by  a  jury  consisting  of  Daniel  Scott,  Isaac  Smith, 
Amasa  Hall,  Peter  Bacon,  William  Rose,  Luke  Maxon,  George  G.  Patterson, 
Joseph  Haynes,  Ephraim  Rowley,  Joseph  H.  Root,  Simon  Williams 
and  Horace  Whitney.  The  court  was  held  in  a  room  over  the  first  jail 
which  stood  on  the  site  of  the  present  Catholic  church  in  Angelica. 
Samuel  S.  Haight  was  the  district  attorney.  He  was  assisted  by  John  C. 
Spencer,  son  of  Judge  Ambrose  Spencer,  (to  whom  the  court  ordered 
the  payment  of  it^lOO  or  his  services),  and  Daniel  Cruger.  For  the  prisoner 
appeared  Fletcher  M.  Haight,  Alvin  Burr  and  Felix  Tracy.  Forty-one 
witnesses  were  sworn  on  the  part  of  the  people,  and  fifteen  for  the  defense. 

William  B.  Rochester  was  the  circuit  judge  and  associated  with  him 
were  John  Griffin,  Thos.  Dole,  Clark  Crandall,  Vial  Thomas  and  Sylvanus 
Merriman,  judges.     Great  interest  was  manifested  in  the  case,  and  during 

266  History  of  Allegany  County,  N.  Y 

the  trial,  which  was  ably  conducted  on  both  sides,  a  military  guard  was 
stationed  around  the  jail.  Public  sympathy  was  largely  in  favor  of  the  pris- 
oner. The  jury  rendered  a  verdict  of  guilty  and  How  immediately  confessed 
his  guilt.  He  was  sentenced  to  be  hung  on  the  third  Friday  of  the  following 
March.  So  much  sympathy  for  How  was  expressed  by  the  people  that  the 
authorities  placed  a  guard  about  the  jail  and  the  house  of  Sheriff  Wilson  for 
several  days  previous  to  the  execution,  fearing  that  an  attempt  might  be 
made  to  rescue  him.  How  was  publicly  executed  as  the  sentence  directed, 
and  people  came  to  witness  the  execution  from  Cayuga,  Steuben,  Livingston, 
Genesee  and  Cattiiraugus  counties  and  from  Potter  county.  Pa.  Half  a 
hundred  Indians  from  the  reservation  at  Caneadea  were  present.  The  gal- 
lows stood  just  west  of  where  the  Charles  Hotel  now  stands.  No  other  exe- 
cution in  this  county  has  excited  anything  like  the  degree  of  interest  that 
prevailed  on  this  memorable  occasion. 

At  the  May  term,  1827,  Henry  W.  Tracy  was  indicted  for  "  Blasphema." 
He  was  tried  and  the  court  imposed  a  fine  of  $25,  defendant  to  stand 
committed  until  paid.  There  must  have  been  some  violent  and  extravagant 
language  used  in  those  days,  for  at  the  May  term  of  oyer  and  terminer,  1830, 
Gilbert  B.  Champlain  was  indicted  for  blasphemy. 

The  record-maker  for  the  September  term,  1834,  opens  his  account  thus: 
"  At  a  court  of  oyer  and  terminer  *  *  *  Present  Adison  Great  Judge  " 
etc.  Judge  Addison  Gardiner  presided.  As  late  as  October,  1838,  "court 
adjourned  to  house  kept  by  Warner  Hastings,  in  Angelica,"  for  what  reason 
is  not  stated;  perhaps  some  repairs  to  the  court  house  were  in  progress. 

At  the  June  term,  1840,  Robert  Monell  circuit  judge,  presiding,  Patrick 
Brien  was  indicted  for  murder,  arraigned,  pleaded  not  guilty  and  demanded 
trial  and  was  released  on  $500  bail,  but  nothing  further  appears  concerning 
the  case.  At  the  same  term  William  Casey  was  indicted  for  murder,  pleaded 
not  guilty,  was  tried,  convicted  of  manslaughter  and  sentenced  to  four  years 
in  state  prison.  James  Welch  and  Michael  Linch  were  the  same  year 
indicted  for  kilhng  Patrick  Linch,  but  the  records  do  not  show  a  trial. 
Patrick  Kelly  was  indicted  in  October,  1841,  for  the  murder  of  his  wife  at 
Andover.  He  was  tried  at  the  next  June  term,  Hon.  Robert  Monell  presid- 
ing. Hon.  Wilkes  Angel  appeared  for  the  people,  and  William  G.  Angel  and 
Martin  Grover  for  the  defendant.  The  case  was  submitted,  and,  after  the 
jury  had  been  out  a  short  time,  the  judge  sent  for  them,  and  asked  them  if 
they  had  agreed  upon  a  verdict.  They  answered  "no,"  and  he  promptly 
discharged  them.  The  case  had  been  made  much  stronger  against  the  pris- 
oner than  was  expected,  and  the  judge  took  this  way  of  forewarning  the 
counsel  for  the  prisoner.  Another  trial  was  had,  a  more  vigorous  defense 
was  interposed  and  a  verdict  of  acquittal  resulted.  Henry  Sheffield  was 
tried  in  June,  1842,  before  Judge  Monell  for  killing  Wm.  Boyle  of  Amity, 
convicted  of  manslaughter  in  the  third  degree,  and  sent  to  state  prison  for 
two  years. 

The  years  during  which  the  construction  of  the  Erie  railroad  and  the 

Courts  and  Lawyers.  267 

Genesee  Valley  canal  was  prosecuted  afforded  more  than  the  average  num- 
ber of  cases  of  homicide,  though  but  one  conviction  was  secured,  that  of 
Matthew  Carrigan  for  shooting  David  Romer.  He  was  indicted  in  April, 
1851.  and  tried  before  Hon.  Richard  P.  Marvin  the  June  following,  and  was 
executed  in  due  time.  Lewis  Stanch  in  July,  1854,  was  indicted  for  poison- 
ing Samuel  Lentz.  tried  in  March,  1855,  and  acquitted.  Erastus  Smith  was 
indicted  for  the  murder  of  Martin  Van  Buren,  and  w