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I.    . 




239  WEST  39th  ST.,  NEW  YORK 




Advertising  Methods  for  Religious  Propaganda, 


Americanization  Boom,   340. 
"Americanism,"    581. 
Americanism,  To   Insure,  339. 
Americanization,    Means  of,    340. 
Americanizing  the  Plague  Spots,   79. 
Architect  and   the   Government,    181. 
Architect    and    Organization    by    Glenn    Brown, 


Architect  and   Public   Service,    15. 
Architectural    Education,    47. 
Architectural  Exhibition,  A   Tri-City,   761. 
Architecture,  Bernard  Shaw  on,  248. 
Architecture,    Good,    A    Commercial    Asset,   461. 
Architecture,    Popularizing,   279. 
Architecture,    Regional    Style   of,    151. 

— B— 

I'.illhoard,  Case  Against  the,  218. 

Billboard    Nuisance,    Joseph    Pennell    Sketches, 


Uilllwards,  761. 

Block  Party  Methods,  Extending,  309. 
Building    Material    Quotations,    Instability    of, 


Carillons   as   War   Material,   279. 

Civic  Untidiness,   182. 

Competitions,   Matter  of,   762. 

Contracts,    Forms    of    Construction,    247. 

Convention  and  State   Societies,  611. 

Craftsmanship,       Retarding      Development 

American.    433.  , 

Convention,    A.    I.    A.    Second    Day's    Proceed- 
ings, 643. 

Figures  refer  to  text  pages 
— E— 

Education,      Nationalization     of     Architectural, 

Education,  Report  of  Committee  on,   643. 

— F— 

Farm  Building,  Developing  the,  248. 
Farmer's    Home    Life    Studied,    727. 
Framing  Pictures,  492. 
Frozen  Credits,  680. 

— G— 

General    Wood     on     Roosevelt    and     the     Fine 

Arts,  727. 
Gold  Medal  of  Honor  or  Architectural  League, 


Hotel  Life,  Tendency  Toward,    182. 

Housing  Commission,  State  of  New  York,  Re- 
port of,  462. 

Housing  Corporation  Replies  to  Senatorial 
Criticism,  181. 

Housing   Shortage,   819. 

— I— 

Industrial   Art,   Progress  in   American,   339. 
Inter-Professional  Relation,   16. 

— K— 

'•Kidding"   Themselves,   519. 

Labor,   Dilution   of,   491. 
I  abor  Plays  at  Cross  Purposes,  548. 
Landmarks,   Passing  of,  280. 
Lesson  From  a  Tragedy,  48. 
Ixindon,  Remodeling,  581. 
Lumber,  Price  of,  820. 

— M— 

Mnli.r     Truck     as     Solution     of     Tian.spcirlation 
Problem,    817. 

— o— 

Official  Denial,  Need  for,  727. 
Old  Order  Changeth,  547. 
Opportunity,  the   Architect's,    111. 
Organizing  for  Efficiency,    15. 
Originality,  A  Plea  for,  79. 


Profiteering   in    Labor,    582. 
Protest,   A   Mild,   80. 

— R— 

Rents,    High,    As    Affecting    Building    in    New 

York,    371. 
Report   of   National    Commission   of   Fine    Arts, 


— s— 

Seeing  Things,    461. 

Service  A   Contributing   Factor   to    High    ('HXN, 


Simplification,    491. 

Stabilization  of  Labor  ami    Mak-rials,   370. 
State   Societies,    Model    Constitution    for,   48. 

— T— 

Temporary   Beauty,   370. 

Trade  Unions,  Reaction  in,  217. 

— w— 

Walled  Towns,  310. 

Wisconsin   Sets  a  Good  Example,  519. 


Albany      City      Hall      Alterations.        Ogden      & 
Gander,   809.  .    ,, 

American    Institute  of   Architects,    Annual   Con- 
vention, 601,  633,  674,  681,  694. 

Anti-LitU-r    P.ureau    Summarizes   Activities,   « 

Architect     and     the     Government.       By     Glen 
Brown,    169. 

Architect  and  Organization.     By  Glenn  Brown, 


Irchiteci    and    th*    Post-War    Committee:      By 

Glenn    I'.rown.    299. 
Architect     and      Public      Service.        By     Glen 

I'.rown.    1. 

Architect,    the    Public's   Faith    in    the.    37. 
Architects    and     the     Public.       By     1-rancis    b. 

Swales,    359. 

Figures  refer  to  text  pages 

Architectural    Departments,    Uniform    Business 

Organization   of   Public,   39. 
Architectural   League  Exhibition  m  New  York, 

Architectural   Relations,   Debate   at  Convention, 


Maher,  335,  555. 

aer,         ,         . 

A  L.  Brockway,  35. 
Art  After  the  War,  306. 
Art,  Monastic,  430. 

—  B— 

Babel,   Towers   of,    521. 

li.anx   Arts  Institute  of  Design,   117,   183,  647, 


Belgian    Reconstruction,    818. 
Berne,    City    of    Mediaeval    Fountain    Statues, 


Billboards,  "Other  Side"  of,  8J4. 
Birmingham,     England,     Housing     Competition, 

I!    I. 

Bloomington,    III.,    Victory    Square    and    Civic 
Center.      Edward    H.    Bennett    Sr   \Vm.    E.    Par- 

~nns.     Architects.    4(11. 

I1,., ..inn    Museum   Buys  Colonial   House,   120. 
I'.uildinK    Injured    by    Cleaning    Acids.    KJ3. 
Buil'ling.    A    Secret   of    Bad,    14. 
Bush   Building  as  a   Commercial   Museum,   735. 
Bush    Terminal    Building   in    London.      Helmle 

&   Corbett,  New  York,   Architects,   4"7. 

Ism  \ 





Chicago    Annual    Architectural    Exhibition.    719, 

...  Paper.  Paris  Ha*  A,  254. 
Church  Design.  Modernizing,  431. 
Church,  The  English  Pans.  Hy  Altert  C. 

Phclps,  425. 

City   Plans.  Types  of.     By  John  Nolen.  213. 
City    Planning    Progress,    Public    Opinion    and. 

By  John  Nolen,  275. 
Civic  Centers  in  New  England.     By  Oliver  H. 

Howe,  M.  D.,  173. 
Civic  Forum  for  New  York  City,   10. 
Client,   Best  Sort  of,  277.  . 

Concrete,    Its  Use   and   Abuse.      By    Irving   K. 

Pond,    177.  nil. 

Contract.    The    Emergency.      By    Major    Ralph 

H.    Case,   489,   522. 
Contract,    Some    Advantages   of    the    Fixed-Fee. 

By  F.  A.  Wells.  237. 

Construction  legislation   in  Congress,   338. 
Craftsmen,   For    Better  Education   of,    149. 

— D— 

Delaware  School   Buildings.     James  O.  Betelle. 

Architect,  751. 
Duluth  Architects  Aid  Low  Cost  Housing,  432. 

— E— 

Egyptian  Art,  Revival  Contemplated  by  Dec- 
orators, 252.  - 

Electric  Distributing  Station.  Boston,  Mass. 
Bigelow  &  Wadsworth.  Architects,  653. 

Engineers    Effect    National    Federation,    792. 

— F— 

Fabrics,  American,   for  Home   Decoration,   368. 

Factory   Design   in   England,    116. 

Federal  Prison,  Atlanta,  Ga.  Eames  &  Young, 
Architects,  697 

Foreign    Language    Newspaper,    816. 

Foundations  of  Classic  Architecture.  By  Wil- 
liam H.  Goodyear,  269 

France,  Reconstruction  of  Devastated.  By 
Ralph  Fanning,  781. 

France     Evolves     National     Planning     Scheme, 

French  'Planning  Reports,  Two   Recent,   404. 

— G— 

Game,    Playing   the,    791. 
Gardens  on   the  Roof,  736. 

Georgian  House.  John  Russell  Pope,  Archi- 
tect, 5. 



— A— 

— H— 

Heating  a  Building  with   Waste  Air,  821. 

Hotels,    New   York's  Large   Need   for,   369. 

Housing    Brevities,    817. 

II.. using  Corporation  Replies  to  Senatorial 
Criticism.  343. 

Homing  Problem  and  Earth  Masonry.  By 
Thi  mas  Crane  Young,  467. 

Housing,  Teach  School  Children  to  Appre- 
ciate, 403. 

— I— 

Industrial   Art   Survey  Inaugurated,   6. 

Industry  and  Education,  Alliance  Between 
(Mass.  Inst.  Tech.),  13. 

Institute,   Supreme   Position  of  the,   679. 

Interprofessional  Relation,  Conference  at  Con- 
vention. Addresses  of  Dr.  Ebersole  and 
Thomas  R.  Kimball,  674. 


Japan's  Housing  Troubles,   337 
"Joseph  McGinniss.     By  C.  H.  Blackall,  543. 
furisdictional  Awards,  National  Board  of.     By 
E.   J.    Russell,    429. 

Academy  in  Rome  Asks  Funds,  286. 
\cronautical    Exposition,   New  York,   125. 
Aeronautical   Research   in   England,   494. 
Aircraft   Fusion   fn   Great  Britain,  494. 
Airplane   to   San    Francisco,   470. 
Air  Traffic,  Cities  Prepare  for  Future.  495. 
Alabama  Architects  Elect  Officials,  285. 
Albany's  Building   Situation   is  Tense,    347. 
Alcohol,    Real   Uses   of   Wood,   251. 
Aldrich.  Thomas   Bailey,   Home   Sold,   86. 
Alloy,    Valuable,   Produced,   83. 
American    Association    of    Engineers    on    Trade 

Unions,    17. 
A.    I.    A.    Fifty-third    Convention    Announced, 

American    Students   Going    to    French    Univer- 
sities, 24. 

ArcheoKogists  Excavate   Palace   of   Edward   the 
Confessor,    586. 

Architects   Ask   House   Investigation,   51. 

Architects'   Building  for   Chicago,   190. 

Architects    Reduce    Rates   to   Encourage    Build- 
ing,  283. 

Architects,   Registration  of,  223. 

Architects  Seek  Uniform  Building  Code,  Wash. 
State.    53. 

Arcli  Urban  Deformity,  620. 

Archit< '  t-,'     \V-rk    More    Pressing    than     Jury 

Architects,    Would    Bar    American,    493. 

Architectural     Courses     at     Columbia,     Spring, 

Architectural  League  Exhibit,  Deferred,  255. 
iiectural   1'ress,  Value  of.  84. 
itcctural    Kegisttation    Boards,    Council   of, 

Architectural,     Avery    Library    of,    at    Colum- 
bia.  190. 

Architecture.   Business   of:    American   Ambassa- 
dor to  England   Speaks  of.  122. 

Landscape  Architect,  Relation  Between,  and 
Architect.  .  By  William  Pitkin,  Jr.,  327, 

Landscape  Architecture,  Volume  in  Prepara- 
tion, 541. 

Law  as  to  Architectural  Practice.  By  John 
Simpson,  74,  700,  736,  766  790 

ledge  Stone   House.     By  E.   Sidney  Wills,   67. 

London,   Notes    from,  453,    730. 

— N— 

Natatoriums.      By    Edwin    H.    Wood,    281. 
Natural   Influences   in   Building,   49. 
New   York's  Housing  Shortage,   791. 

— P— 

Peking,  The   Violet  City,   344. 

Persian  Art,   733. 

Planning,  Charm  of  Natural,  253. 

Polk,    Willis,    An    Address  by,    733. 

Pompeian   Wall    Painting,    583. 

Preble  County  Court  House,  Eaton,  Ohio.     H. 

H      Hiestand    and     Richards,     McCarty     & 

Bulford,    Architects,    511. 

Prehistoric    City,    Preserving,    822. 
Presumption  and    Proof,  408. 
Prison,    Psychiatric   Classification   in.    By    Lewis 
F.    Pilcher,    97. 

— R— 

Robert     Bacon     House.       John     Russell     Pope, 

•  Architect,    397. 

Roosevelt  and  the   Fine  Arts.     By  Major   Gen- 
eral  Leonard   Wood,  715. 
Rotch  Travelling  Scholarship,  537. 


School  Buildings,  Delaware.  James  0.  Be- 
telle, Architect,  751,  785. 

Sears,  Roebuck  &  Co.,  Philadelphia  Plant  of. 
George  C.  Nimmons  &  Co.,  Architects.  8. 

Sing  Sing  Prison,  Clinic  Building  at.  By  Wal- 
ter B.  James,  M.  D.,  107. 

Specification  Clauses.  By  Francis  W.  Grant, 
303,  732. 

Spuytcn  Duyvil,  House  at.  Titus  de  Bobula, 
Architect,  667. 

Stadium  on  the  Lake  Front,  Chicago,  Compe- 
tition for,  205,  241. 

Stage  Design  in  Communal  Buildings.  By 
George  M.  P.  Baird,  507,  549. 

Standardization  and  the  A.  I.  A.,  578. 

Standardized  House,  Artistic  Development  of, 

— T— 

Trimstnne  and  Building  Ornaments.  By  Adolph 
Schilling,  483. 

— u— 

Unsanitary    Housing    As    Affected    by    Political 

Elements,    50. 
Uruguay   Has  Large  Building  Program,   734. 

— W— 

Water  Power,  Wasted,  794. 

Wingdale  Prison  Site.  By  Lewis  F.  Pilcher, 

— Y— 

Yellowstone  Park  Menaced  by  Commercial 
Purposes,  699. 

— Z— 

Zoning  Helps  Real  Estate  and  Business.  By 
Herbert  S.  Swan,  216. 


Figures  refer  to  text  pages 

Architecture,   Shaw  on,   257. 

Argentina's   Building  Program,   526. 

Art  Associations  Build  Home,   795. 

Art  and  Science  in  Engineering,  524. 

Art  Board  Urged  to  Judge  Buildings,  439. 

Art   Education,  Modern,  828. 

Art    in    Every   Home,    18. 

Art  of  Old  World,  Exhibit  at  Boston  Museum, 

Art,  Rare  Works  Found  in  Unexpected  Places, 


Art  in  the  New  Russia,  345. 
Art  Students'   I-eague   Competition,   256. 
Art  Treasures  Discovered  in  Poor  House,  588. 
Art.   Why   Not  Buy   American,   256. 
Artificial    Daylight,    51. 
Artistic    Designs    in    Industry,    523. 
Artists'   Guild    in    Paris*  493. 
Artist   Rejects  $200.000,   439. 
Attic    Rooms    to    Relieve    Housing    Congestion, 

Australia,  Modern  Home  Equipment  for,  53. 

— B— 

Bahai  Temple  Plans  Explained  at  Museum,  83. 

Baruch  Sees  Drop  in  Prices  at  Hand,  379. 

Bathing  Was  a  Crime,  When,  829. 

Beaux-Arts   Architects'    Pageant,    437. 

Beaux    Arts   Post   Established,    378. 

Beaux  Arts  Post,  469. 

Belgium,    Building   Materials   High    in,    703. 

I M  shun  to  Build  Workers'   Homes,  24,   52. 

Belgium  Quarries  During  the  War,   314. 

Belgium,  Trade  with,   158. 

Biltmore,  Town  of,  Sold,  471. 

Books   for  All,   588. 

Boston,   Mutilating  Historic,  223. 

n    Plans  Memorial,  346. 
Brazil,   Pantheon   for,    191. 

Brazil   Plans   New    Capital    in    Interior    of    Re- 
public. 83. 
Brick   Design   Competition,   Awards  in,   437. 

Bridge,   Biggest  Bascule,  655. 

Bridge   Building,  Architectural   Aspects  of,  438. 

Bridge    Designs,    Denmark    Offers    Prizes    for, 

Bridgeport    Chamber  Attacks    Smoke   Nuisance, 

Britain    Proposes    Subsidy    to     Solve    Housing 

Problem,    23. 

British  Garden  City  Scheme,  703. 
British   Railway's  Leader  Warns  People,   346. 
Brooklyn  Chapter  to  Make  Special  Awards,   17. 
Brooklyn    Chapter   Meets,    409. 
Brumidi    Paintings,    Discovery    of,    251. 
Brussels  Fair,   158. 
Build    on   City    Owned    Land,    Request    $2,000,- 

000  to,  738. 

Build,  Why  It  Costs  to,   346. 
Building  Commissions  in  New  York  State,  225. 
Building  Conditions  in    Salvador,   557. 
Building    Guild,    701. 

Building  Heights,  Chicago  Regulates,   768. 
Building,   Home   Loan   Banks  and   Tax   Exemp- 
tion  to    Aid,    438. 

Building  Material,  Age-Old,   283. 

Building  Material  Still  "Non-Essential,"  557. 

Building  in  Milan,  347. 

Building   Operations    in    1919,    620. 

Buildings,  Public,  525. 

Building   Trades  Wages   in    Middle   West,    469. 

"Bungalow"  in  Bengalese,  524. 

Bungalows,    620. 

Burnham  Library  Open  at  Chicago  Art  Insti- 
tute, 523. 

Business    Art    Criticized,    471. 

Buy    Homes   or    Have    to    Move,    411. 

— C— 

California  Land  Settlement  Scheme  Favorably 
Progressing,  191. 

Camouflage,  704. 

Canada  Places  Time  Limit  on  Soldiers'  Appli- 
cations for  Retraining,  85. 



JA.NTAKY    TO   JUNE,   1920 



Carillon,   World's  Most   Famous,   586. 
Cathedral    Again   Postponed.   Work  on,   283. 
Cement   Sacks,    Keep   at  Work,   470. 
Ceramics,    221. 

Chateau  of  Louis  XV  Damaged  by  Fire,  15. 
Chicago    Architects    Have    Lectures    on    Furni- 

ture,   84. 
Chicago    Architects    Prepare     for    Annual     Ex- 

hibit.   409. 

Chicago's  Architectural    Transformation,    51. 
Chicago  Art   Institute   Extends  Work,   525. 
Chicago's  Building  Plan,   524. 
Chicago      Contractors      Encounter      Difficulties, 


Chicago   Goes  Tenting,   703. 
Chicago  Home   Building,   Financing  of,   444. 
Chicago     Improvements     Approved     for     South 

Park,   346. 
Chicago   Loop    District   Hopes   to    Revise   Build- 

ing Code,   380. 
Chicago  Needs   Houses,    158. 
Children    and    Apartment    Houses,    587. 
Cliristiania,    Building    Material    Exhibition    at, 


City    Planning    in    a    Nutshell,    438. 
City  Planning,   Real,   440. 
Civic      Association,      Annual      Convention      of 

American.  472. 

Clothing  Workers'  House  in  New  York,  589. 
Como   Island    for   Artists,   828 
Competition    for    Architects'    Certificate,    Penn- 

sylvania, 20,  85. 
Competition     for     Capitol     Building,     Nebraska, 

Competition    for    Cover    Design,    Chicago    Ex- 

Competition  for  Milwaukee  County  General 
Hospital,  411.  _ 

Competition  for  Remodeling  New  York  Tene- 
ment Block,  497.  • 

Conference    on    Concrete    Housing,    20. 

Co-operative  Building  Plan,  Forty  Million  Dol- 
lars in,  738. 

Co-operative   Plan  at  M.    I.   T.,   825. 

Corcoran    Prize   Awards,   81. 

Craftsmen  Form  School,  52. 

Credit   Expansion   or   Production,   318. 

Cubist  Painting,  Inventor  of,   Dead,   190. 

—  D— 

Dewey's    Former    Home    Turned    Into     Store, 


Draftsmen,  Government  Needs,  225. 
Duluth  Art  Association  Active,  437. 
Dwellings  Rebuilt,  Called  "Birth  Control 

Houses,"  525. 

Edison's   Eight   Hour    Day,   769. 
Educating  Through   Play,  346. 
Electric  Drill  Cuts  Labor  Cost    701. 
Electric    Wiring,    Importance  of   Ample,   5-0. 
England-France   Channel  Tunnel,  740. 

InfSand   Baling  with    Housing   Shortage     285 
England's    Building    Program    Provides    Work 

for  Million.   493. 

England's  Disabled  Service  Men    379. 
England   Gripped  by   Housing  Shortage,   378 
England's    Unemployment    Insurance    Bill,    585. 
English  Names  for   English  Streets    794. 
Eskimo  Home,  The  Comfortable,   315 
Exchange   Rates  and   Material   P"0*5'^^,,.,,., 
Exposition    Building,   Permanent   for   Furniture 

Trade,    588. 

—  F— 

Farm   Buildings,   Improving,    191. 
Farm   Houses,   Better,   Being  Erected,   285. 
Farmhouse    Buildings,   Model,    526 
Farm  Movement  Noted,  Back  to  the,  20 
Farm  Woodlands,  Prohtable  Use  of    559 
Farmer's    Relation    to    Our    National    Well 

ing,    317. 
Fed±gC±  ^Ho'usfn'g,    Chicago    Women 

FedeVaTl^sefve  Banks,   Buildings  for,    22. 
Federal    Reserve    System    Reports   on    Financial 

Situation,    87. 
Pine^  S^New  Yoik,  Burned    19 

Flats,  'First  in  America,  377. 
Flv,  To  Kill  the  House-,  739. 
Foreign  Trade  Convention  to  be  held  i 

Francisco,    20. 

Foreign    Trade    Service,    313.  „ 

Forest    Engineers   for   India   Make    1 

FouT'Policies,    For   Better    Administration    of, 

Forests,'  Roads  in  the   National,  469. 

:  of  Wood,  471. 

— G— 

Garden   City  for   South  London,  54. 

Garden   of   Inspiration,    380. 

Germany  Must  Refuse  $5,000,000  for  Art,   558. 

Glasgow      Foresaw      Housing      Shortage      and 

Planned  Ahead,  557. 
Glasgow's   Municipal  Housing,  702. 
Glass,    Safety    First    in,    828. 
Glass  Shortage  Induced  by   Motor  Cars,  740. 
Government    Patronage,   55. 
Grand   Central   Palace,  To   Alter,   739. 
Greece,    Fine   Arts  of,   Exhibited,  283. 
Greece  Imports  Houses,   124. 
Greek  Architecture  in  the  Age  of  Pericles,  381. 
Green   Timber,   Durability   of,   345. 

— H— 

Hambidge's  Measurements,   496. 

Health   Cabinet,   559. 

Health      More      Important      than      Picturesque 

Landscape,    189. 
Health    Service,    703. 
Heat  Energy  from  Air  a  Possibility,  25. 
Highway    Construction,    Extended    Interest    in, 


Historic  Home  of  Dr.   Priestley  Honored,   347. 
Historic   New   Orleans  Building   for   Sale,    411. 
Holland  Buys  Art,  588. 
Home  Building  Bill  in  Congress,   588. 
Home  Building,  State  Aid  Advocated  for,  441. 
Hongkong  Constructed  in  Tiers,  84. 
Hospital   and  Institutional   Planning,   655. 
Hospitals,  Municipalization  of,  Advocated,   221. 
Hotel  as  an  Industrial  City,  New  York,   380. 
Hotel  Property,  Guests  Buy,  738. 
House  Boats  and  High  Rents,  589 
House   Building   Must   Increase,    Why,    380. 
House     Shortage     Drives     People     from     New 

York,    494. 
Housing   Body,    Sherman    Protest   Bill   to    End, 


Housing  Conditions  in   New  York,   470. 
Housing  Conditions  in  New  /ealand,  4t>9. 
Housing  Notes  from  Various  Cities,  654. 
Housing   Plans   in   Chicago,    559 
Housing   Plans  in   Paterson,   N.  ).,   411. 
Housing  Problem  Acute  in  Berlin,  557 
II, nixing    Shortage   and    Fire    Hazard,   621. 

Illinois   Bulletin   Discusses  Journeymen   Plumb- 
Illinois5' Chapter,   Sculptors  Meet   with,   255. 
Illinois    Chapter    Meeting,    471. 
Illinois  Society  Meets,  345. 
Immigration    Policies   Discussed,   495 
Immigration   To-day,    Character   of,   590. 
Increased    Production    Convention,   318. 
Independent  Art   Exhibit,   437. 
Indian  as  an  Artist,   586.  .         e. 

Indiana   Limestone   Quarrymcn   Reorganize,    53. 
Industrial  Art,  To  Revive,  495 

!±SS!  £  W^syha  iff 

Industrial  Construction   Revived  in  South,  411. 


Jade,  438. 

— JV— • 

Kansas  Chapter,   A.   I.   A.,    124. 

— L— 

Labor    Board   for   New    York    State,    P 

labor  Plentiful  on  Coast,  85. 
Tator   Shortage  in  England,   410. 
Landscape   Architects    Meet,   82. 
Landscape,  Making  Use  of    471. 


London   May   Have   Housing  Comniillir.  _'•!. 
Lumber    Association     Formed.    Ameni-an,    37t. 
Luminous    House    Numlicrs,    702. 

— M— 

Mail  rid    to    be    Improved,    621. 

Maintenance    Men,   441. 

Marne  Statue  to  France,  Americans  to  Do- 
nate, 52. 

Material  Handling  Machinery  Manufacturers 
Association  Meets,  158. 

Memorial   Designs,  Competition   for,   192. 

Memorial  Trees  to  be  Planted  on  Arbor  Pay, 

Michigan  Architects  Elect  Officers,   190. 

Midget    Furniture    for    Museums,    439. 

Minneapolis  Architects  Have  New  Itiiildii.K, 

Minneapolis    Architects    Form    Society,    5 J.I. 

Mooring  Towers,  for  Dirigibles.  Britain  in 
Use,  381. 

Mosque  in  the  Agra  Fort,    19. 

Motion  Picture  Producers  Recognize  Archi- 
tect^ 157. 

Mound    Builders'    Homes    Sacrificed,    768. 

Movies  Teach    Process  of   Home   Owning,   348. 

Museum   for  Designers,  826. 

— N— 

National  Federation  of  Construction  Indus- 
tries Presents  Plea  to  Congress,  17. 

National  Foreign  Trade  Convention,  Chambers 
Pledge  Aid  to,  84. 

National  Housing  Commission  Requested  by 
American  Institute  Architects,  82. 

National   World  War   Memorial,  84. 

Navy   Program   for    1921,    20. 

Nebraska  Chapter  Meets,  126. 

Negro  and  Americanization,  284. 

Negro  State  on  the  Rio  Grande,   123. 

New  York  Lists  City-Owned  Land  Available 
for  Housing,  441. 

New  York  Names  Housing  Committee,  703. 

New    York    Organizes   Housing   Drive,    769. 

New  York  Society  of  Architects  Meets,  52. 
345,  472,  585,  701. 

New  York's  Smallest  Newspaper,   20. 

New  York  State  Association  of  Architects 
Holds  First  Annual  Meeting,  156. 

Niagara  Gorge,  New  York  to  Take  Possession 
of,  472. 

Office  Buildings,   Dearth  of,  in  London,   587. 
Office    Space    in    Many    Cities,    Quotations    on, 


Ohio    Builders   Urge    Fire    Prevention,    192. 
Organization    Needed    in    Housing,   284. 
Orient    Needs    Development,    655. 

— P— 

Paint    and    Iron,    Removal    of,    from    Iron    ami 

Steel,   739. 

Paint   Instead  of  Wallpaper,   826. 
Painter's    Art    Exhibits    New    Orleans'    Beauty, 


Palace,  Desecrating  a,  121. 
Paris  Building  for  World   Buyers,   223. 
Paris  Gets  Back  Ancient  Art  Windows,  23. 
Paris  Housing  Shortage,  84. 
Paris    to    Construct   Homes   for    Workers,    656. 
Paris,     Project    for    Making,    World's    Center, 

Pennell's   New   Book   on   Etchers  and    Etching. 


Pennsylvania   Architects  Must   Register,   23. 
Pennsylvania     University     Opens      Fine     Arts 

School,  795. 
Philadelphia     Condemns     Historic     Residences, 

Philippines,   House    Shortage   in,    826. 

Picture    Bought    for    Song    May    be    Priceless, 


Picture    Post   Card,    189. 
Pilcher.      Receives      Medal      of      Merit,      State 

Architect,  654. 
Planning    Commissions,    Three,    in    I  ity, 

Potte'r^'Designs  in  Great  Britain  Improve.  125. 
Pratt  Institute  Exhibits  Evening  Work,   258. 
Profiteers  After   Mark  Twain's  House,  796. 
Pueblo,   Ruins  of  Ancient,  Uncovered,   440. 

— R— 

Railroad  Transportation,   Production   in,   655. 
Red  Cross  Sanitary  Survey  in  Eastern  Europe, 

Registration     of     Architects     in     Pennsylvania, 


Remodeling  in   New  YorkM93. 
Rewarch    Council    Elects  Officers    826. 
Roads,   Good,    Past   and   Future,    797. 
RomaA  de  la  Rose  Scripts  Found,  225. 



JANUARY   TO  JUNE,   1920 

Koine,   Important   Building   Program  at,    191. 
It's    Birthplace,    Restore,    122. 

Kcxiserelt  Road  of  Ri-membrance  Proposed, 

Kdtch  Traveling  Scholarship,  Announcement, 

Kotch   Traveling  Scholarship,  654. 

Rug  Made  a  Drapery  by  National  Etiquette, 

Rugs,  Oriental,  and  American  Floor  Cover- 
ings. 257. 

Rugs,    Serbians  Again   Making,    19. 

— s— 

School  of  Design  and  Liberal  Arts  Opened, 

School    Posters   Educate    the    Country,    124. 

Scotland  Home  of  First  Skyscrapers,  704. 

Sculptor,  American,  is  Honored  by  Helgium. 

Sculptor's    War   Loss   in   Germany,    284. 

Seattle    Architects    Hold    Exhibit,    256. 

Senate    to    Investigate    Housing   Crisis,    702. 

Service,    Must    Have,    702. 

Signboards,  Old   English,  827. 

Slums,   Prize  Offer  to   End,  23. 

Skyscrapers,  American,  Replace  Dickens 
Slums.  221. 

Snow,  Melted,  Harms  Roads,  590. 

Southern    California   Architects  Meet,   81. 

Southern  California  Chapter,  Monthly  Meet- 
ing. 157. 

Spain    Introduces   the    Skyscraper,    225. 

Spain  Solving  Farm  I.abor  Shortage,  767. 

Spurns  $5,000,000  Offer,   Orpen,   346. 

St.    Gi-rvais,    Restoring   of,    377. 



Stadiums,   Municipal,   656. 

Stanford   White's  House   Bought   by   Y.   W.    C. 

A.,    559. 

Stanford  White,   In  Memory  of,   524. 
State    Aid    in    Building    Houses    Urged,    123. 
Steel   Bars,    Standardizing.   233. 
Steel,  New  High-Speed,   Invented,    159. 
Stock    Exchange,    Proposed    Addition,    in    New 

York.    314. 

Stonehenge  to  be  Protected,  495. 
Stout     Institute,     Wisconsin,     Industri 


ial     Arts, 


Strasbourg  Cathedral,  To  Strengthen,    190. 
Streets  Same  Width  as  in    1620,  85. 
Sweden  Amplifies  Educational   Methods,   158. 
S  \\tiK-n,    Impressions    of,    589. 
Swedish-American    Paintings    in    Sweden,    285. 
Swedish    Housing   Scheme,    346. 

— T— 

Tapestries,   American-Made,   437. 

Tapestries  Returned  to   Mantua,   53. 

Tasmania    Has    Housing    Problem,    125. 

Tax  to  Restrict   Building,  «27. 

Temple    of    Peace    Proposed    for    Los    Angeles, 


Tenants,    New    Laws    Protect,    25. 
Texas    Campaign    for    Gvic  'Beauty,    558. 
Theatre  Buildings,    Double    Deck,    827. 
Times  Square,"  585. 
Tree   Seeds  for  Europe,  191. 
Trees,   Male  and    Female,  470. 
Trees,   Street,   189. 

Tunnels,  New  York's  New  East  River,   348. 
Tuscany,   Rehabilitating,  225. 

— U— 

Uruguay     Announces     International      Archilec 
tural    Competition,    85. 


Valparaiso,    Building   in,    157. 
Vamlerlip's   Speech   to  Economic   Club,    128. 
Ventilation,    School,   in    Chicago,   379. 
Virginia   Accepts  Rare   Paintings,   284. 

— w— 

Walls   Have   Ears,   Why,   53. 

War  Memorial    Plans   Crude,   620. 

War   Memorials,    Bishop  to   Approve,  225. 

Warsaw,   to   Modernize,    767. 

Water,   High   Cost  of  Wasting,   314. 

Water  Tanks,   Sightly,    126. 

Wcstinghouse    Employes,    Insurance    Given    to, 


Westminster,   Important   Improvements   in,   410. 
Wisconsin's   Housing  Plan,   377. 
Women   Painters,   Address,   81. 
Wooden  Houses  in  England,   189,  257. 

— X— 

X-ray   Being   Used   on    Old    Masters,    740. 

— z— 

Zoning    Rule,    Simple,    122. 
Zoning   Setbacks  as  Gardens,   829. 


Figures  refer  to  text  pages 


Ackerman,   Frederick: — 

Mediaeval  Guilds  and  Labor  Unions,  153. 
Arnold.  G.   L.   H.:— 

Factory  Stairs  and  Stairways,   129,  161. 

— B— 

Baird,  George  M.  P.: — 

State    Design    in    Communal    Buildings,    507, 

Bellman.    Lawrence    S. : — 

Architectural    Engineering,    311. 
Bctelle,    James    O. : — 

School    Buildings    for    Delaware,    751,    785. 
Blackall,   C.   H.:— 

Architectural   Engineering,    342. 

Joseph  McGinniss,  543. 
Kobula,  Titus  de: — 

I  louse  at  Spuylen  Duyvil,  New  York,  667. 
Brockway,    A.    L. : — 

New    York    State    Department    of    Architec- 
ture,  35- 
ilrown,  Glenn : — 

The  Architect  and  Public  Service,  1. 

The  Architect  and  the  Government,   169. 

The  Architect  and   the   Post-War  Committee 

The  Architect  and  Organization,  393. 
Itutler.   F.   C.:— 

Foreign    Language    Newspaper.    816. 

— C— 

.lajor  Ralph  H.:— 
The    Emergency    Contract,    489,    522. 
Cheney,    Charles    H.:— 

Building  Ann-  Ordinance  of  Portland     Ore 

Clay,    Wharton:— 

Work    of    Trade    Associations,    563. 
! .    Frank    Irving: — 
Mory,    451. 

— E— 

X    Young: — 

VI, HIM.  <^u.,  697. 

Fanning,  .Ralph: — 

Kr.  .instruction   nf    IK-vaslatrd    France,    781. 

Forster,    Henry    W.  :  — 

Fire   Protection   for  Schools,  264,   289,   323. 

Gardner,  Henry  A.:  — 

Waterproof    Glues,    265. 

Spray   Painting,   Practicability  of,   801. 
Goodyear,    William    H.:  — 

Foundations  of  Classic  Architecture,   269. 
Grant,   Francis   W.  :  — 

Specification    Clauses,    303,   732. 

—  H— 

H.  H.  Hiestand  and  Richards,  McCarty  &  Bui- 

ford:  —  » 

Preble    County    Court    House,    Eaton,    Ohio, 

Holsman,   Henry   K.:  — 

Swartwout's    Opinion    on    Competitions,    153. 

Expense   of    Estimating,    475 
Howe,    Oliver    H.:  — 

Ciric  Centers  in   New  England,    173. 

—  K— 

Kimhall,    Allen    Holmes:  — 

Architectural    Engineer,    375 
Knowles,   Wm,   W.:— 

Sub-Station  at  Flushing,  L.  I.,   195 
Knowlton,    Lynn    O.  :  — 

Architectural  Engineering,  342. 
Kohn,    Robert    D.  :  —  • 

Architectural  Engineering,   312. 

F.evitan,    Benjamin    W.: — 

Unique     Institutional     Building.     Blackwell's 
Wand,  415. 


James,    Walter    B. : — • 

Clinic   Building  at   Sing   Sing   Prison,    107. 

— M— 

Maln-r.    George    W.:— 

An    Indigenous  Architecture,  .135,  555. 

Marshall,   R.   C,   Jr.:— 

Practical    Economics    Secured    by    Standardi- 
zation   of   Construction    Specifications,    165. 
McGrath,    George    Bangs: — 

Story  of  Limestone,  319. 
Mueller,    O.    N. : — 

Architectural    Engineering,    312. 

— N— 
Nichols,   George  B.: — 

Mechanical    Equipment   of    Wingdale    Prison. 

Nolen,  John: — 

Public   Opinion   and   City   Planning   Progress, 

Types   of   City   Plans,   213 
Nolan,   Thomas: — 

Architectural    Engineer,    375. 

— O— 

Ogden    &    Gander: — 
Albany  City  Hall,   809. 

— P— 

Perrot,    Emile    G. : — 

Architectural    Engineering,    3-11 
Phelps,    Albert    C. : — 

English    Parish    Church,    425 
Pilcher,    Lewis   F. : — 

Psychiatric  Classification   in   Prison,   97. 

The  Wingdale  Prison  Site,   114. 
Pitkin,    William:— 

Relation     Between     the     Architect     and     the 

Landscape    Architect,    327,    363 
Polk,    Willis:— 

Architectural     Engineer,     375. 
Pond,    Irving  K. : — 

Concrete,    Its   Use   and    Abuse,    177 
Pone.  John   Russell:— 

Robert  Bacon  House,  397. 

— R— 

Russell,    E.    J.:— 

National     Board    of     Jurisdictiimal     Awards," 

— S— 

Schilling,  Adolf: — 

Trimstone  and  Building  Ornaments,  483. 



JANUARY   TO   JUNE,   1920 



Simpson,    John: — 

Law  as  to  Architectural   Practice,   74. 

Steele,    Wm.  :— 

Designing    the    I>ow    Cost    House,    375. 
Swales,     Francis    S. : — 

Architects  and   the    Public,   359. 
Swan,    Herbert    S.: — 

How    Zoning    Helps    Real    Estate    and    Busi- 
ness, 216. 
Swanson,   W.    R.: — 

l"ni<|ue   Construction 

Reinforced  Concrete, 

Tucker,  William  C.:— 

Isolated    Sewage    Disposal    System,    529. 

— W— 

Waddell,    J.    A.   L.  :— 

Payment    for    Estimating,    155. 
Wells,   F.   A.:— 

Fixed-Fee    Contract,    237. 
Wgntworth,    Franklin    H. : — 

Correct  Building  of  Chimneys  and  Flues,  95. 
Whitney,    Albert    W. : — 

Safety   Education   in   Public    Schools,   297. 

Wills,    E.    Sidney: — 

The    Ledge   Stone   House,   67. 
Wood,    Edwin    H.:— 

Natatoriums,    281. 
Wood,   Major  General   Leonard: — 

Roosevelt  and  the  Fine  Arts,  715. 

Yardley,    R.   W.:  — 

Architectural    Engineer,    27. 
Young,   Thomas  Crane: — 

Housing   Problem  and    Earth    Masonry,   467. 


Figures  refer  to  iexi  pages 

Architectural  Engineer.  By  Allen  II.  Kimball, 
Willis  Polk,  Thomas  Nolan,  375. 

Architectural  Engineering.  By  Emile  G.  Perrot, 
C.  H.  Blackall.  Lynn  O.  Knowlton,  342. 

Architectural     Engineering.       By     Lawrence    S. 

Bellman,   O.   N.   Mueller,   Robert    D.   Kohn, 

Competitions,     Swart  wont's     Opinion     on.       By 

Henry  K.   Holsman,  153. 
Designing   the    Low    Cost    House.      By    William 

Stecle,  375. 

Guilds,  Mediaeval,  and  f  Labor  Unions.  By 
Frederick  Ackerman,  153. 

Payment  for  Estimating.  By  J.  A.  L.  Wad- 
dell,  155. 


Figures  refer  to  text  pages 

American  Concrete  Institute,  Annual  Conven- 
tion, 385. 

American  Society  Mechanical  Engineers,  An- 
nual Meeting,  135. 

Architectural  Engineer.     By  R.  W.  Yardley,  27. 

Automatic  Sprinkler  System  for  Hot  Water 
Heating,  625. 

Balance,  The,  629. 

Bibliography  on  Chemical  and  Engineering 
Laboratories,  295. 

British  Housing  Schemes  on  Town  Planning 
Lines,  423. 

Building  Code  Suggested  by  Lumber  Organiza- 
tion, 423. 

Bureau   of   Standards,    U.    S.,   268. 

Cement,   Effect   of   Storage,   839. 

Checking  Details  and  Superintending  Construc- 
tion, 356. 

Chimneys  and  Flues,  Correct  Building  of.  By 
Franklin  H.  Wentworth,  95. 

Civil   Service  Examinations,   U.   S.,  424. 

Clocks,  Historically  and  Architecturally  Con- 
sidered, 445,  499. 

Cold   Storage  Rooms,  450. 

Common  Brick  Manufacturers  Convene,  232. 

Concrete  House  Construction,  National  Con- 
ference. 229. 

Concrete,  Unique  Construction  in  Reinforced. 
By  W.  R.  Swanson,  30. 

Construction  Division,  U.  S.  A.,  168,  204,  294, 

Contract  Forms,  Formulating  Improved,  749. 

Double  Concrete  Walls  in   Grain   Elevator,   569. 

Electric  Arc  Welding  for  Structural  Steel 
Framing,  707. 

Elevator  Storehouse,  Blackwells  Island.  Xew 
York.  By  Benjamin  W.  Levitan,  Archi- 
tect, 415. 

Engineering   Council,    266,   450,    808. 

Engineering   Notes,    136,    296,    632. 

Estimating,  Expense  of.  By  Henry  K.  Hols- 
man, 475. 

Factory  Stairs  and  Stairways.  By  G.  L.  H. 
Arnold,  129,  161. 

Fire  Protection  for  Schools.  By  Henry  W. 
Forster,  264,  289,  323. 

Flagpole,  Simple  Support  for  Skyscraper's,  358. 

Forest    Products    laboratory    Decennial,    805. 

Foundations,  294. 

Foundations,  Their  Selection,  Design  and  Con- 
struction, 533. 

Fuel,  New  Development  in  Liquid,  532. 

Glues,  Waterproof.     By  Henry  A.  Gardner,  265. 

Gypsum  as  a   Building  Material,  235. 

Heating    and    Ventilating   Engineers    Meet,    231. 

Hollow    Tile,    Proposed    Code    for,    806. 

Hoover   President  of   Mining   Engineers,   233. 

Hydrated  Lime  in  Concrete,  34,  780. 

Illuminating  Design,  Fundamental  Principles 
of,  261,  479,  833. 

Industrial  Safety  Codes,  Second  Conference, 

Isolated  Sewage  Disposal  System.  By  William 
C.  Tucker,  529. 

Lime,   34. 

Limestone,  Story  of.  By  George  Bangs  Mc- 
Grath,  319. 

Long  Span  Concrete  Arches  Used  in  Garage, 

Moving  a  Chicago  Building,  662. 

National    Board   of  Jurisdictional   Awards,    748. 

National    Federation    of    Engineers,    807. 

National  Fire  Protection  Association,   536,   840. 

National  Public  Works  Convention,  94. 

Niagara  Falls  Power  Plant,  423. 

Pittsburgh    City-County    Building,    267. 

Plastering  Specifications  Needed,   134. 

Protective  Metallic  Coatings  for  Rustproofing, 

Public   Convenience   Stations,    Need    for,   773. 

Public  Works,   Department  of,  666. 

Public  Works  vs.   Public  Waste,  482. 

Reinforcing   Bars,   Available   Sizes  of,   630. 

Research    Graduate  Assistantships,    168. 

Safety  Education  for  Engineers,  452. 

Safety    Education    in    the    Public    Schools.      By 

Albert  W.   Whitney,   297. 
Safety  Engineering,   777. 
Schoolhouse   Construction    and    Fire   Protection, 

Schoolhouse,  the  One-Story.      By  Frank   Irving 

Cooper,  451. 
Spray    Painting,    Practicability    of.      By    Henry 

A.    Gardner,    801. 
Stadium,    Seattle,    806. 

Standard    Specifications    for    Concrete,    234. 
Standardization    of    Construction    Specifications. 

By    R.    C.    Marshall,   Jr.,    165. 
Steel,   Experiments  on,  779. 
Sub-Station     at     Flushing,     L.     I.       Wm.     W. 

Knowles,    Architect,    195. 
Successful    Building    in    Stucco,    69,    386,    593, 


Sulphur  in  Coat,  Forms  of,  236. 
Temporary   Roofs  for  Fireproof  Buildings,  351. 
Trade    Associations,    Work    of.       By    Wharton 

Clay,  563. 

Uruguay,  Construction  in,   630. 
Vibration   in    Structures,    164. 
War  to  Peace,   From,  776. 
Westinghouse       Opportunities       for       Technical 

Graduates,  423. 
Winjrdale    Prison,    New    York.      By    George    B. 

Nichols,   57. 
Zoning      Ordinance      of      Portland,      Ore.      By 

Charles   H.    Cheney,    659. 
Zoning  Regulations,  Modifications  in  New  York, 


Reinforced   Concrete    Handbook,    164. 
Structural    Drafting,    392. 
Estimating   Concrete    Buildings,   392. 
Electric   Lighting,  392. 


Figures  refer  to  text  pages 

Architectural    Drawing   Plates,   392. 
Modern    Farm    Buildings,   450. 
HenilrkVs    Commercial    Register,    450. 
Retaining  Walls,  570. 

How    to    Use    Cement     for    Concrete    Construc- 
tion, 570. 

Turnpikes  of   New  England,   704. 
American  Civil   Engineers'  Hand  Book,  704. 



JANUARY   TO   JUNE,   1920 


Figures  refer  to  the  number  of  the  issue,  not  to  the  text  pages 

Bennett  &  Parsons: — 

Stadium,  Chicago,  2304. 
Benedict,  J.   B.: — 

Tames    II.    Brown    Building,    Denver,    Colo., 


BiKi-low  &   Wadsworth: — 
Electric    Illuminating  Station,    Boston,   Mass., 


Bodker,  Albert  Joseph: — 
House  of  George  W.  Olmstead,  Ludlow,  Pa., 

Coolidge  &  Hodgdon: — 

Stadium   in    Chicago,   2305. 
Davis  &  Kramer: — 

Stadium  in  Chicago,  2305. 
Delano  &  Aldrich  : — 

Houses   at    Syosset,    L.    I.,    and    Oyster    Bay, 
L.   I.,  Gold  Medal  of  Honor  Award,  2311. 
Gilbert,  Cass: — 

Chapel,    Hotchkiss    School,    Lakeville,    Conn., 


Theological  Seminary,  Oberlin,  Ohio.  2314. 
Atlantic  Refining  Co.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  2314. 
Goodwin,  Bullard  &  Woolsey : — 

House    of    Wharton    Poor,    Flushing,    L.     I., 

House     at      Hartford,      Conn.      Architectural 

League    Exhibition,    2302. 
Gregory,  Julius: — 

House  of  C.  E.  Chambers,   Riverdale,  N.   Y.f 

Architectural   League  Exhibition,  2302. 
Guilbert  &  Betelle:— 

Schools  for  the  State  of  Delaware,  2321,  2322. 
Iliestand,  H.  H.,  and  Richards,  McCarty  &  Bui- 

Prehle    County    Court     House,    Eaton,    Ohio, 

Hiss  &  Weekes:— 

House  of  H.  R.  Rea,  Sewickley,  Pa.,  2317. 
Hoffman,    F.    Burrall: — 

Interior    of    House,    2323. 

Hnlahird    &    Roche:— 

Stadium   in    Chicago,    2304. 
Hunt,  Jarvis: — 

Stadium  in  Chicago,  2306. 
Jackson,   A.   J.: — 

House  at  Oceanic,   N.  J.,  2303. 
Jackson,  John  F. : — - 

Alterations.  House  of  Edward  M.  Hale,   Pas- 

saic,   N.  J.,   2317. 
MacLaren   &  Hetherington: — • 

Roman    Catholic    Chapel,    Colorado    Springs, 

Colo..  2318. 
James,   Thomas  M. : — 

Warren      Institution      for      Savings,      Boston, 

Mass.,  2320. 
Marshall  &  Fox: — 

Stadium  in  Chicago,  2306. 
McGinniss,  Joseph: — 

Italian  Scenes  from  Sketches  by,  2315. 
Newkirk,   Clement: — 

House  of  Richard  U.   Sherman,  Utica,  N.  Y. 

House  of  W.    W.    Nichols,   Rochester,    N.   Y. 

Wm.    Pitkin,   Landscape  Architect,   2308. 
Ogden    &   Gander: — 

Albany    City    Hall    Alterations,    2323. 
Pilcher,  Lewis  F. : — 

Sing  Sing  Prison,  New  York,  2299. 
Pitkin,   Wm.,   Landscape  Architect: — 

Newkirk,    Clement    R.,    Architect, 

Hnuse    of    Richard    U.    Sherman,    Utica,    N. 
Y.,  2308. 

House  of  W.   W.   Nichols,   Rochester,  N.   Y., 

Pope,  John  Russell: — 

House   of   J.    Randolph    Robinson,    Westbury, 
L.  I.,  2298. 

House   of    Robert    L.    Bacon,    Jr.,    Westbury, 

L.  I.,  2310. 
Purdon,   James: — - 

House    of    E.    M.    Richards,    West    Newton, 
Mass.,  2312. 

House    of    Mrs.    P.    H.     Lombard,    Pocasset, 
Mass.,   2320. 

House  of  George  Crompton,   Pocasset,   Mass., 

House  of  Robert  Cushman,  Brookline,  Mass., 

House  of  Gifford  Simonds,  Fitchburg,   Mass., 

House  of  George  L.  Osborn,  Brookline,  Mass., 

House  of  Chester  S.  Hardy,  Fitchburg,  Mass., 

House   of   Dr.    Martin    B.    Dill,    Newton    Cen- 
ter, 2307. 
Searle  &   Searle: — 

Brantham  Village  Hall,  Essex.  England,  2.101. 

Factory  Group,   British   Xylonite  Co.,  2301. 
Spratt  &  Ralph: — 

Hart    House,    University    of    Toronto,    Cana- 
da, 2313. 
Taylor  &   Levi: — 

House   Interior,    New   York,    2323. 
Thomas,   Charles  E. : — 

High   School,   Durango,   Colorado,  2313. 
Ziegler,  Carl  A.: — 

House  of  Robert  M.  Hogue, 

House  of  C.   M.   Brown, 

House  of  John  D.  Mcllhenny. 

House    of    Franklin    Baker,    all    Germantnu  n. 
Phila.,   Pa.,   2300. 


Figures  refer  to  the,  number  of  the  issue,  not  to  the  text  pages 

AdminiHtratire   and    Governmental 

Brantham  Village  Hall,  Essex,  England.   Searle 

&    Searle.  Architects,   2301. 
Capitol    Building    of    the    League    of    Nations. 

Twelfth     Paris     Prize,     Society    of     Beaux 

Arts.   Architects,   2301. 
City   Hall    Alterations,   Albany,    N.    Y.      Ogden 

&    Gander,    Architects,    2323. 
Preble  County   Court  House,   Eaton,   Ohio.     H. 

H.     Iliestand    and     Richards,     McCarty    & 

Bujford,  Architects,   2314. 

Sing  Sing  Prison,  New  York.     Lewis  F.   Pilch- 
er, Architect,  2299. 


Chapel,  Hotchkiss  School,  Lakeville,  Conn.  Cass 

Gilbert,  Architect,  2314. 
Roman  Catholic  Chapel,  Colorado  Springs,  Colo. 

MacLaren  &  Hetherington.  Architects,  2318. 
Theological     Seminary,     Oberlin,     Ohio.       Cass 

Gilbert,  Architect,  2314. 


Hart    House,    University    of    Toronto,    Canada. 

Spratt  &  Ralph,  Architects,  2313. 
High    School,    Durango,    Colorado.      Charles    E. 

Thomas,   Architect,   2313. 
Schools  for  the  State  of  Delaware.     Guilbert  & 

Betelle,  Architects,  2321,  2322. 


House    of    J.     Randolph     Robinson,    Westbury, 

L.  I.,  2298. 

General  View,  Sing  Sing  Prison,  2299 
Puerta  de   Santiago,   Segovia,  2300. 
Altar   of   the  Church   of    San   Nicolas,    Burgos, 

Architectural     League    of    New    York,     Detail, 

-h  Armor,  Period  of  Charles  V,  2303 
iiy  Gate,  Cordoba,  2304. 
Altar  in  Cathedral.  Granada,  2305. 
Tin-   City   Cut,.    Cordoba.  2306. 
La    Cubola.    Palermo,    2307. 

Altar  of  Santa  Lucia  in  Cathedral,  Avila,  2308 
A    Patio  in    Cordoba.   2309. 
Leaning  Tower   of   Saragossa,   2310. 

Interior  of  St.  Mark's,  Venice,  2311. 
Church  of  St.   Maria  dei  Frari,  Venice,  2312. 
Nave  of  the  Carmelite  Church,  Venice,  2313. 
Mnseo  Civico,  Venice,  2314. 
Venice,  Sketch  by  Joseph  McGinniss,  2315. 
Detail  of  Window  and  Gable,  Venice,  23-16. 
Library  of  Venice,  2317. 
Palazzo  Uguccioni,  Florence.  2318. 
Cathedral   of   Murano,  near   Venice.   2319. 
Church  of  the  Saviour,  Venice,  2320. 
Grand  Canal.  Venice.  2321. 

Silver  Custodia  in  Cathedral   of  Cordoba,  2322. 
Church    of     Santa     Maria     dei     Frau,     Venice, 


Atlantic    Refining    Co.,    Philadelphia,    Pa.      Cass 

Gilbert,  Architect,  2314. 
Kdison    Electric    Illuminating    Station,    Boston, 

Mass.      Bigelow    &    Wadsworth,    Architects, 

Factory    Grouo,    British    Xylonite    Co.,    London, 

Eng.      Searle  &   Searle,  Architects,   2301. 
James   H.    Brown    Building,    Denver,    Colo.      J. 

P..   Benedict,  Architect,  2316. 


Stadium  on  the  Lakefront,  Chicago.  Holabird 
&  Roche,  Bennett  &  Parsons.  Davis  & 
Kramer,  Coolidge  &  Hodgdon.  Jarvis  Hunt, 
Marshall  &  Fox,  2304,  2305,  2306. 

Warren  Institution  for  Savings,  Boston,  Mass. 
Thomas  M.  James,  Architect,  2320. 


House   of   Robert    L.    Bacon,    Jr.,    Westbury,    L. 

I.     John  Russell  Pope,  Architect,  2310. 
House    of    Franklin    Baker,     Germantown,     Pa 

Carl  A.  Ziegler,  Architect,  2300. 
House  of  C.  M.  Brown,  Germantown,  Pa.    Carl 

A  Ziegler,  Architect,  2300. 
ll"iise    of    George    Crompton,    Pocasset,    Mass. 

James  Purdon.  Mass.,  2317. 
House    of    Robert    Cushman,    Brookline.    Mass. 

Tames  Purdon,  Architect,  2309. 
llnuse   of  Dr.   Martin   S.    Dill,   Newton    Center, 

Mass.     James   Purdon,   Architect,   2307. 

House  of  Edward  M.  Hale,  Passaic,  N.  J. 
John  F.  Jackson,  Architect,  2317. 

House  of  Chester  S.  Hardy,  Fitchburg,  Mass. 
James  Purdon,  Architect,  2307. 

House  of  Rc-bert  M.  Hogue,  Germantown,  Pa. 
Carl  A.  Ziegler,  Architect,  2300. 

House  of  Mrs.  P.  H.  Lombard,  Pocasset,  Mass. 
James  Purdon.  Architect,  2320. 

House  of  Tohn  D.  Mcllhenny,  Germantown,  Pa. 
Carl  A.  Ziegler,  Architect,  2300. 

House  of  W.  W.  Nichols,  Rochester,  N.  Y. 
Clement  R.  Newkirk,  Architect.  Wm.  Pit- 
kin,  Landscape  Architect,  2308. 

House  of  George  W.  Olmstead,  Ludlow,  Pa. 
Albert  Joseph  Bodker,  2312. 

House  of  George  L.  Osborn,  Brookline,  Mass. 
James  Purdon,  Architect,  2307. 

House  of  Wharton  Poor,  Flushing,  L.  I.  Good- 
win, Bullard  &  Woolsey,  Architects.  2303. 

House  of  H.  R.  Rea,  Sewickley,  Pa.  Hiss  & 
Weekes,  Architects,  2317. 

House  of  E.  M.  Richards,  West  Newton,  Mass. 
James  Purdon,  Architect,  2312. 

House  of  T.  Randolph  Robinson,  Westbury.  L. 
I.  John  Russell  Pope,  Architect,  2298. 

House  of  Richard  U.  Sherman,  Utica,  N.  Y. 
Clement  R.  Newkirk,  Architect.  Wm.  Pit- 
kin,  Jr.,  Landscape  Architect,  2308. 

House  of  Gifford  L.  Simonds,  Fitchburg,  Mass. 
James  Purdon,  Architect,  2309. 

House  at  Hartford.  Conn.  Goodwin.  Bullard 
&  Woolsey.  Architects.  Architectural  League 
Exhibition,  2302. 

House  at  Oceanic.  New  Jersey.  A.  L.  Tackson, 
Architect,  2303. 

Houses  at  Syosset,  L.  L,  and  Oyster  Bay.  L.  I. 
P.y  Delano  &  Aldrich.  Gold  Medal  of 
Honor  Award.  2311. 

House  Interior,  New  York.  F.  Burrall  Hoff- 
man. Architect,  2323.  Taylor  S:  Levi 
Architects.  2323. 

Standardized  Artistic  Houses.  George  Gilbert. 
Mott  B.  Schmidt,  R.  W.  Bristol,  Archi- 
tects, 2316. 

Architectural  League  Exhibition  in  New  York. 
House  of  C.  E.  Chambers.  Riverdale,  N 
Y.  Julius  Gregory,  Architect,  2302. 




JANUARY   TO   JUNE,   1920 


Figures  refer  to  the  number  of  the  issue,  not  to  the  text  payes 

Colorado — 

Colorado    Springs: — 

Roman     Catholic     Chapel.        Macl.aren     & 

Hetherington,    Architects,    2318. 
1  >c-nver: — 

Tames    H.    Brown    Building.      J.    B.    Bene- 
dict,   Architect,    2316. 
Durango: — 

High  School.  Charles  E.  Thomas,  Archi- 
tect, 2313. 

Connecticut — 

Hartford: — 

House    by    Goodwin,    Billiard    &    Woolsey, 

Architects,    2302. 
I.akeville: — 

Chapel,  Hotchkiss  School.  Cass  Gilbert, 
Architect,  2314. 

Illinois — 

Chicago: — 


Holabird  &  Roche  and  Bennett  &  Parsons, 
Architects,  2304. 

Davis  &  Kramer  and  Coolidge  &  Hodg- 
don,  Architects,  23(15. 

Jarvis  Hunt  and  Marshall  &  Fox,  Archi- 
tects, 2306. 

Massachusetts — 

Boston: — • 

Warren  Institution  for  Savings.  Thomas 
M.  James,  Architect,  2320. 

Flectric    Illuminating    Station.      Bigelow    & 

Wadsworth,  Architects,  2318. 
Brookline: — 

House  of  Robert  Cushman.  James  Pur- 
don,  Architect,  2309. 

House   of   George  L.    Osborn.     James   Pur- 
don,   Architect,   2307. 

House  of  Gifford  L.  Simonds.  James 
Purdon,  Architect,  2309. 

House  of  Chester  S.  Hardy.  James  Pur- 
don,  Architect,  2307. 

Newton: — 

House    of    E.    M.    Richards.      James    Pur- 
don,   Architect,    2312. 
Newton    Center: — • 

House  of  Dr.  Martin  B.  Dill.     James  Pur- 
don,  Architect,   2307. 
Pocasset : — 

House    of    Mrs.    P.    IT.    Lombard.      James 

Purdon,  Architect.  2320. 
House    of   George    Crompton.      James    Pur- 
don,   Architect,    2317. 

New  Jersey — 

Montclair: — 

Edward     Russ     Memorial     Dormitory,     and 
others     in     Delaware    and     New     Jersey. 
Guilbert     &     Betelle,      Architects,     2321, 
Oceanic: — 

House    by    A.    J.    Jackson,    Architect,    2303. 
Passaic: — 

House  of  Edward  M.  Hale.  John  F.  Jack- 
son, Architect,  2317. 

New    York — 

Albany,    N.    Y.  :— 

City    Hall    Alterations.      Ogden    &    Gander, 

Architects.     2323. 
Flushing,    L.    I.:— 

House    of   Wharton    Poor.      Goodwin,    Bui- 
lard  &   Woolsey,   Architects,   2303. 
New   York,   N.   Y.:— 

Interior    of    Residences.      J.    Burrall    Hoff- 
man.   Architect,    2323.      Taylor    &    Levi, 
Architects,    2323. 
Ovster    Bay,    L.    L: — 

House   by    Delano   &    Aldrich,    Gold    Medal 

of    Honor    Award,    2311. 

House    of    C.    E.    Chambers.      Julius    Greg- 
ory,   Architect,    2302. 
Rochester : — 

House  of  W.  W.  Nichols.  Clement  R. 
Newkirk,  Architect.  Wm.  Pitkink, 
Landscape  Architect,  2308. 

Sing   Sing:— 

Sing     Sing     Prison.       Lewis     F.     Pilcher, 

Architect.    2299. 
Syosset,    L.    L: — 

Ilnuse    by   Delano    &    Aldrich,    Gold    Medal 

of    Honor    Award,    2311. 

House   of    Richard   U.    Sherman.      Clement 
R.     Newkirk,     Architect.       Wm.     Pitkin, 
landscape    Architect,    2308. 
Westbury,    L.    L: — 

House    of    Robert    L.     Bacon,    Jr.      John 

Russell  Pope,  Architect,  2310. 
Long    Island,    Westbury: — 

House    of    T.     Randolph     Robinson.      John 
Russell    Pope,    Architect,    2298. 

Eaton: — 

Preble    County   Court  House.     II.   H.   Hie- 
stand  and  Richards,  McCarty  &  Bulford, 
Architects,    2314. 

Theological       Seminary.         Cass       Gilbert, 
Architect,    2314. 

Pennsylvania — 

Ludlow : — 

House    of    George    W.    Olmstcad.       Albert 

Joseph    Bodker,    Architect,   2312. 
Philadelphia: — 

Atlantic      Refining      Co.         Cass      Gilbert, 

Architect,    2314. 
Philadelphia,    Germantown: — 
Houses      of      Robert      M.      Hogue,      C.      M. 

Brown,     Tohn     D.     Mcllhenny,     Franklin 

Baker.     Carl   A.  Ziegler,  Architect,  2300. 
Sewickley : — 

House    of    H.    R.    Rea. 
Architects,    2317. 

Hiss    &    Weekes, 

Canada — 

Toronto: — 

dart      House,      University      of      Toronto. 
Spratt  &  Ralph,  Architects,  2313. 


"7    ro 



,.s  ., 







The  American  Architect 

Specification  Manual  for  1920 

THE  American  Architect  Specification  Manual,  edition  of 
1920,  is  now  being  prepared,  and  will  be  ready  for  dis- 
tribution early  in  August. 

We  publish  this  volume  as  a  service  rendered  to  the  profession 
which  supports  our  publication,  and  copies  of  the  Manual 
will  be  supplied  (until  the  stock  is  distributed)  free  of  charge 
to  all  practicing  architects  sending  us  requests  on  their  office 
stationery.  Many  requests  for  the  iqio  edition  have  already 
reached  us,  and  we  suggest  that  promptness  in  forwarding 
these  requests  is  desirable  in  order  to  ensure  the  volume  be- 
ing received  before  the  stock  is  exhausted. 

We  take  this  opportunity  to  express  appreciation  of  the  cor- 
dial welcome  given  the  iqiq  Manual.  This  edition,  the  first 
of  the  annual  series  which  we  intend  to  publish,  was  supplied 
to  more  than  3,000  architects  in  America,  and  has  proved 
itself  of  practical  value  in  their  preparation  of  specifications, 
as  evidenced  by  hundreds  of  letters  received  by  us  from  archi- 
tectural offices  heartily  commending  the  work 

The  iqio  edition  will  be  of  greater  size  and  importance  than 
its  predecessor,  and  will  contain  more  than  170  specifications 
of  standard  building  materials  and  processes.  These  specifi- 
cations embody  in  condensed  language  the  result  of  many 
years  of  experience  of  hundreds  of  experts  in  the  use  of  the 
materials  and  methods  specified 

The    American    Architect 







NUMBER  2298 

The  Architect  and  Public  Service 

By  GLENN  BROWN,  F.  A.  I.  A 

NO  profession  has  a  right  to  existence  unless 
it  serves  the  people. 
The  architect  as  chief  builder  (archi- 
tection),  for  satisfactory  and  efficient  service,  must 
have  the  mentality  to  plan  and  design,  the  capacity 
to  construct,  with  a  knowledge  of  materials  and 
stresses,  and  the  ability  to  manage  varied  business 
operations.  If  we  glance  back  through  history, 
or  consider  the  great  men  of  our  own  times,  we 
find  that  those  whose  work  stands  as  an  inspiration 
to  the  public  had  these  fundamental  qualities. 

The  public,  to  satisfy  its  needs,  requires  good 
planners  to  obtain  the  most  economical  and  efficient 
grouping  of  the  utilities  and  aesthetics,  good  design- 
ers to  present  a  harmonious  artistic  composition 
to  please  the  eye,  good  constructors  to  secure  safe 
and  durable  structures,  good  business  men  to  con- 
serve money  and  prevent  financial  or  managerial 

The  .chief  builder  (architect)  in  planning  con- 
siders the  arrangement  of  space,  the  character  of 
structural  features,  the  cost  of  products,  and  com- 
bines and  harmonizes  the  utilitarian  and  artistic 
elements  of  the  structure. 

With  these  fundamental  functions  under  one  con- 
trol, efficiently  administered,  the  client  is  pleased, 
the  public  is  served  and  the  architect  is  rendered 
a  dominant  and  useful  factor.  With  the  control 
divided  into  separate  forces  with  no  dominant  in- 
fluence, and  any  of  the  elements  inefficiently  ex- 
ecuted, the  client  is  displeased,  the  public  loses  and 
the  architect  becomes  a  minor  factor  in  producing 

It  may  be  useful  to  trace  the  trend  of  the  archi- 
tects of  our  day  and  see  how  they  have  fulfilled 
their  duty,  and  what  right  they  have  to  survive 
as  a  profession. 

We  had  from  colonial  days  to  the  Civil  War 
practitioners — first  in  the  East,  then  in  the  far  South 
and  on  the  Pacific  Coast — who  zealously  cultivated 
small  spots  in  a  vast  arid  desert. 

Organization  of  these  men  appealed  to  many  as 

"This  is  the  first  of  a  series  of  articles  by  Glenn  Brown  on  Archi- 
tecture in  the  United  States,  past  and  present.  The  second  article 
will  appear  in  an  early  issue. 

a.  solution  of  what  was  the  greatest  public  good  and 
the  surest  professional  advance. 

The  American  Institute  of  Architects,  founded 
in  1857,  was  the  first  practical  organization  of  the 
profession  to  attain  better  construction,  more  ef- 
ficient business  methods  and  higher  ideals  in  plan 
and  design.  The  founders  hoped  to  combine  the 
efforts  of  all  capable  practitioners,  quality  and  ca- 
pacity being  the  important  element,  to  raise  the 
standard  of  the  least  efficient  and  make  the  profes- 
sion an  efficient  and  useful  instrument  in  the  public 

While  the  progress  of  the  Institute  was  slow  in 
attaining  its  ends  and  it  was  found  difficult  to  arouse 
either  public  or  professional  interest,  the  high 
standing  of  its  presidents,  like  Richard  Upjohn, 
Thomas  U.  Walter,  Richard  M.  Hunt,  George  B. 
Post,  as  well  as  of  the  directorate  and  members, 
gave  the  Institute  standing  and  influence.  The 
unselfish  and  indefatigable  labors  of  secretaries  like 
A.  J.  Bloor  and  Alfred  Stone  kept  the  organization 
together  and  increased  its  scope  and  efficiency. 

During  my  service  as  secretary,  1899  to  1914, 
the  Institute  grew  rapidly  as  an  acknowledged  and 
weighty  factor  in  the  public  service,  _ because  of 
the  national  character,  capacity  and  business  acumen 
of  the  presidents  under  whom  I  served,  like  Henry 
Van  Brunt,  Robert  S.  Peabody,  Charles  F.  McKim, 
W.  S.  Eames,  Cass  Gilbert,  I.  K.  Pond,  and  from 
the  high  standing  of  its  directors  who  with  rare 
exceptions  were  men  appreciated  nationally  for 
their  work  in  plan  and  design,  construction  and 
business  capacity.  The  broad  acquaintance  of  the 
presidents  with  men  of  affairs,  officials,  the  prom- 
inent in  literature  and  art  and  social  life,  was  used 
without  stint  in  efforts  to  secure  the  best  results 
in  the  Fine  Arts.  Conventions  and  board  meetings 
were  arranged  to  secure  public  and  official  atten- 
tion. During  Robert  S.  Peabody's  administration 
a  convention  was  held,  during  the  Session  of  Con- 
gress, devoted  to  the  development  of  Washington 
City,  at  which  numerous  schemes  and  papers  were 
presented  by  prominent  men;  the  first  important 
discussion  of  city  planning.  These  papers  and  dis- 

Copyright,    1920,    The   Architectural  &   Building  Press,    (Inc.) 


cussions  so  impressed  Congress  that  the  Senate 
appointed  the  Park  Commission,  and  their  report 
was  hailed  by  laymen  and  experts  in  this  country 
and  Europe  as  a  great  solution  of  the  problem. 

A  notable  example  of  the  power  of  social  prestige 
was  illustrated  in  the  celebrated  McKim  dinner,  so 
called  because  Charles  F.  McKim  organized  and 
managed  the  affair  to  the  most  trivial  detail.  Start- 
ing six  months  before  the  occasion,  McKim,  by  his 
personal  charm  and  magnetism,  enthused,  I  was 
about  to  say  hypnotized,  many  prominent  men, 
among  them  Nicholas  Murray  Butler  and  Elihu 
Root,  inducing  them  to  spread  the  information  that 
the  leaders  of  industry,  government  science  and 
literature  should  meet  and  take  practical  steps  to 
advance  the  Fine  Arts.  Every  phase  of  the 
country's  interests  was  to  be  represented  by  the 
man  at  the  top.  The  dinner  was  such  a  success 
that  to-day,  some  fifteen  years  after  the  event,  it 
is  spoken  of  as  the  most  notable  event  of  the  kind 
ever  held  in  Washington.  Seventy-five  leading 
men  were  at  the  head  table,  among  whom  may  be 
mentioned  Theodore  Roosevelt,  President  of  the 
United  States ;  John  Hay,  Secretary  of  State ; 
Elihu  Root,  Secretary  of  War;  Joseph  Cannon, 
Speaker  of  the  House;  Senator  Wetmore,  Chair- 
man Library  Committee ;  Jusserand,  Ambassador 
of  France ;  Cardinal  Gibbons,  Prelate  of  the  Church 
of  Rome ;  Bishop  Satterlee,  of  the  Episcopal  Dio- 
cese of  Washington ;  Admiral  Dewey,  the  Navy ; 
Gen.  Chaffee,  Chief  of  Staff,  the  Army;  J.  Pier- 
pont  Morgan,  Financier ;  Justice  Harlan,  Judiciary ; 
Henry  Walters,  Art  Collector ;  Augustus  Saint 
Gaudens,  Sculptor ;  John  LaFarge,  Painter ;  Charles 
Dana  Gibson,  Illustrator ;  Simon  Newcomb,  Sci- 
entist. This  dinner  resulted  in  contributions  of 
six  hundred  thousand  dollars  for  the  American 
Academy  in  Rome. 

Cass  Gilbert,  during  his  administration,  organized 
a  notable  event  in  the  memorial  meeting  to  Augustus 
Saint  Gaudens.  In  the  Corcoran  Gallery  of  Art 
was  assembled,  attractively  installed,  one  hundred 
and  fifty  pieces  of  sculpture  by  Augustus  Saint 
Gaudens.  Each  ambassador  at  the  time  in  Wash- 
ington was  invited  and  participated  in  a  tribute  to 
the  world-known  artist.  Roosevelt,  President  of 
the  United  States,  and  Elihu  Root.  Secretary  of 
State,  gave  well-considered  and  glowing  tributes  to 
the  American  arlist.  while  Jusserand  claimed  him 
for  his  French  ancestry,  and  Bryce  for  his  Irish 
nativity.  This  exhibition,  transferred  to  Pittsburgh, 
Chicago  and  Indianapolis,  gave  over  500,000  vis- 
itors the  opportunity  of  seeing  and  appreciating 
tin-  work  of  the  greatest  modern  sculptor. 

Through  my  work  as  Secretary  of  the  Public 
Art  League  of  the  United  States  and  intimate  as- 

sociation with  Richard  Watson  Gilder  as  President, 
my  ambition  had  been  fired  with  a  desire  to  secure 
for  the  public  the  highest  types  of  the  Fine  Arts 
produced  by  our  artists,  sculptors,  painters  and 
architects,  so  that  our  people  might  enjoy  their 
beauty  and  be  mentally  ennobled  by  a  growing  ap- 
preciation of  the  Fine  Arts. 

1  was  in  this  frame  of  mind  when  the  oppor- 
tunity was  offered  of  becoming  Secretary  of  The 
American  Institute  of  Architects.  I  accepted,  en- 
thused with  the  idea  of  combining  the  force  of 
all  believers  in  the  elevation  and  refinement  result- 
ing from  a  knowledge  of  the  Fine  Arts.  I  felt 
that  we  could  use  the  Association  as  a  powerful 
machine,  use  it  for  the  betterment  of  the  architect, 
use  it  for  the  improvement  of  architecture,  use  it 
for  the  advancement  of  the  Fine  Arts,  use  it  in 
the  public  service. 

In  1900  this  machinery  was  isolated  in  one  plant. 
The  time  we  felt  had  come  for  additional  ma- 
chinery and  new  branch  plants  under  the  central 
control.  With  care,  thought  and  the  strenuous 
work  of  many,  the  branch  plants  were  established. 
We  might  compare  the  operating  base  to  a  great 
electric  machine  charged  with  dynamic  force,  con- 
nected by  wires  with  all  the  states  of  the  Union, 
with  currents  reaching  across  the  ocean. 

The  superintendent  in  charge  touched  a  button 
on  one  system  and  three  hundred  allied  art  so- 
cieties, many  patriotic,  business  and  literary  asso- 
ciations, responded  in  an  output  for  the  benefit  of 
the  public. 

He  touched  a  button  on  another  branch  when 
newspapers  and  magazines  responded  in  editorials, 
descriptive  articles  and  news  items  in  favor  of  the 
Fine  Arts. 

He  touched  a  button  on  yet  another  system  and 
able,  influental  men  from  all  sections  of  the  United 
States  gave  of  their  time  and  capacity  to  the  public 

He  sent  a  call  from  the  central  office  when  the 
thousand  members  of  the  Institute  responded  with 
vim  and  energy,  upholding  their  ideals  in  art. 

The  operating  plant,  designed  with  love  and  zeal, 
upon  a  foundation  of  disinterested  motives  and 
high  ideals  for  the  public  good,  with  justice  and 
right  for  its  footing,  was  erected  on  the  bed-rock 
of  public  confidence. 

The  success  of  a  plant  is  shown  in  the  character 
of  its  output,  and  in  the  opinions  of  thoughtful 
men  as  to  the  value  of  its  operations. 

This  Institute  plant  produced,  without  mention- 
ing many  minor  products : 

The  purchase  of  the  Octagon,  giving  the  Asso- 
ciation for  the  first  time  a  fixed  and  national  abid- 
ing place. 


It  stopped  crude  and  destructive  additions  to  the 
White  House,  which  led  to  the  charming  restor- 
ation of  this  architectural  monument  and  historic 
mansion  by  McKim.  Mead  &  White. 

It  secured  a  Park  Commission  on  the  develop- 
ment of  Washington,  whose  well-considered  and 
important  report  has  been  a  moral  force  in  the 
growth  of  the  Nation's  Capital — and  an  inspira- 
tion to  other  cities  and  towns  throughout  the 
United  States. 

It  secured  a  National  Arts  Commission  which 
has  proved  its  public  worth  by  maintaining  high 
ideals  in  sculpture,  painting,  landscape  and  archi- 

It  secured  the  National  Charter  for  the  American 
Academy  in  Rome,  placing  this  post-graduate 
school  for  our  brightest  young  sculptors,  painters 
and  architects,  to  which  it  hoped  to  add  musicians, 
on  a  par  with  the  art  schools  of  other  countries. 

It  conferred  the  Gold  Medal  of  the  Institute  on 
Ashton  Webb,  Charles  F.  McKim,  Geo.  B.  Post, 
J.  L.  Pascal ;  making  the  presentations  occasions 
for  national  and  international  tributes  to  the  Fine 

It  organized  and  held  the  memorial  meeting  to 
Augustus  Saint  Gaudens,  making  it  an  interna- 
tional tribute  to  the  greatest  modern  sculptor  and 
giving  hundreds  of  thousands  the  opportunity  to 
view  his  works  grouped  together. 

It  placed  competitions  on  an  improved  basis,  so 
that  the  public  have  secured  better  results. 

It  prevented  the  location  of  the  Agricultural 
Building  where  it  would  have  destroyed  the  vista 
between  the  Capitol  and  the  Washington  Monu- 
ment, and  secured  its  location  according  to  the 
Park  plans. 

It  prevented  the  location  of  the  Grant  Memorial 
where  it  would  have  marred  the  charming  view 
of  the  White  House  from  the  south  and  secured 
its  location  on  the  site  recommended  by  the  Park 

It  prevented  the  execution  of  crude  designs  for 
the  office  buildings  of  the  House  of  Represen- 
tatives and  the  U.  S.  Senate  and  additions  to  the 
U.  S.  Capitol,  thus  securing  the  dignified  and  ef- 
fective Congressional  office  buildings  designed  by 
Carrere  and  Hastings. 

It  prevented  the  narrowing  of  the  building  line 
on  the  Mall  to  600  feet,  and  secured  through  the 
Senate  and  Theodore  Roosevelt  a  900- foot  park 
width,  as  designed  by  the  Park  Commission. 

It  prevented  the  location  of  the  Lincoln  Me- 
morial, as  an  addendum  to  the  railway  station,  as 
an  entrance  to  the  Soldiers'  Home,  as  an  attraction 
on  Sixteenth  Street  hill,  and  its  dissipation  into  an 
ordinary  highway  to  Gettysburg,  and  secured  its 

location  after  twelve  years  of  effort  on  the  site 
so  wisely  selected  for  it  by  the  Park  Commission 
where  we  see  it  nearing  completion  from  the  de- 
signs of  Henry  Bacon  in  all  its  simplicity  and 
dignity  as  a  part  of  the  great  composition  in  the 
development  of  the  city. 

It  is  interesting  to  know  what  other  people  think 
of  our  efforts  and  I  am  pleased  to  quote  the  opinion 
of  a  number  of  prominent  men  who  were  in  posi- 
tion to  judge  of  the  results. 

Thomas   Nelson   Page,  author  and  ambassador : 

"I  have  often  wondered  at  the  influence  which 
the  Washington  office  of  the  Institute  had  in  pub- 
lic matters,  though  I  could  see  well  enough  that 
it  had  been  attained  through  the  recognition  on 
the  part  of  the  public  of  the  unselfish  devotion  of 
the  officers  of  the  Institute  to  the  public  weal." 

Robert  Lincoln  O'Brien,  editor  Boston  Herald; 
ten  years  correspondent  in  Washington  for  Boston 
and  other  cities : 

"I  have  always  found  that  the  Institute  has 
possessed  the  confidence  of  the  community  through 
its  advocacy  of  disinterested  ideals  for  the  ad- 
vancement of  the  Fine  Arts,  and  by  reason  of  this 
confidence  of  the  public  the  Institute's  ideals  to  a 
surprisingly  large  extent  materialized  into  realities. 

"Its  management  must  have  been  most  efficient 
to  secure  these  successes. 

"It  has  had  continuous  opposition  from  some  of 
the  most  astute  politicians,  but  it  has  to  a  notable 
degree  made  its  opinions  prevail." 

Francis  E.  Leupp,  author,  newspaper  corre- 
spondent; resident  of  Washington  for  more  than 
a  quarter  of  a  century : 

"My  memory  goes  back  to  a  time  when  whoever 
had  the  ordering  of  a  piece  of  work  ordered  it  to 
suit  his  own  fancy.  *  *  *  *  The  result  of  this  con- 
fusion is  nowhere  more  obvious  than  in  the  earlier 
growth  of  Washington  *  *  *  *  due  to  its  long  lack 
of  definite  aim. 

"To  the  Institute  we  owe  the  change  in  all  this 
and  the  evolution  of  a  plan  which  has  received 
the  commendation  of  experts  of  all  nationalities. 
*  *  *  *  Its  influence  has  radiated  to  all  parts  of  the 
United  States.  *  *  *  *  In  the  country  at  large  the 
capital  was  almost  unknown  except  as  a  quiet  place 
where  the  President  lived  and  Congress  held  its 
sessions.  Consequently  with  the  adoption  of  Wash- 
ington as  the  Institute's  headquarters  *  *  *  the  tide 
of  travel  began  to  flow  Washingtonward :  the  wak- 
ing up  of  the  city  had  attracted  universal  attention 
and  the  first  inquiry  of  most  visitors  concerned  the 
scheme  of  improvement  they  had  been  reading 
about  in  the  newspapers. 

"The  significance  of  all  this  was  soon  made  mani- 
fest in  the  attitude  of  Congress.  *  *  *  *  From  this 


center,  the  Octagon,  went  out  streams  of  influence 
which  produced  a  new  era  in  the  appreciation  of 
the  Fine  Arts  all  over  the  country.  *  *  *  *  Public 
and  domestic  architecture  made  great  strides  *  *  * 
and  the  country  became  wholesomely  critical  where 
it  had  formerly  been  indifferent.  *  *  *  *  The  new 
impulse  to  artistic  discrimination  is  traceable  more 
to  the  Institute's  work  and  the  wise  way  in  which 
it  has  been  organized  and  managed  than  to  any 
other  cause." 

Hon.  Lynden  Evans,  member  of  Congress  from 
Illinois,  who  successfully  managed  the  fight  on  the 
floor  of  the  House  of  Representatives  which  pre- 
vented the  transfer  of  the  appropriation  for  the 
Lincoln  Memorial  in  Washington  to  a  Gettysburg 
highway : 

"I  have  just  been  putting  away  and  classifying 
my  papers  and  documents  acquired  during  my 
service  in  Congress  and  I  have  much  interest  in 
preserving  those  relating  to  the  Lincoln  Memorial. 
I  wish  to  express  to  you  my  appreciation  as  the  one 
in  charge  on  the  floor  of  the  House  on  its  passage 
of  the  great  work  which  the  American  Institute  of 
Architects  performed,  and  the  country  owes  a  debt 
of  gratitude  to  you  which  will  never  be  adequately 
appreciated  until  the  Memorial  is  finished.  Appre- 
ciation for  such  work  is  very  often  left  unex- 
pressed, and  that  moves  me  to  say  to  you  and  your 
associates  that  I  believe  we  could  not  have  carried 
the  Memorial  without  your  aid." 

James  Bryce,  M.O.,  Ambassador  of  Great 
Britain : 

"My  sympathy  is  so  much  engaged  in  your  work 
that  I  have  not  liked  to  decline  the  labor.  Best 
wishes  for  the  success  of  your  efforts." 

Hon.  Elihu  Root: 

"I  have  a  high  opinion  of  the  usefulness  of  the 

The  vital  fluid  that  gave  life  to  the  central  plant 
of  Institute  operations  was  the  unselfish  zeal,  busi- 

ness-like intelligence  and  personal  magnetism  of 
its  officers  and  directorate. 

The  ramifying  wires  from  central  did  not  vi- 
brate with  life  from  card  and  filing  systems,  they 
responded  to  the  fluid  of  personal  zeal  and  mental 

A  superintendent,  ignorant  of  the  various  func- 
tions, not  comprehending  the  many  adjustments, 
unfamiliar  with  the  nicely  fitted  parts,  not  knowing 
the  ramifications  of  the  wires  could  easily  scrap  the 
plant  and  make  worthless  the  whole  operating  base. 

Having  laid  a  solid  foundation  based  upon  pub- 
lic confidence,  it  would  appear  easy  to  erect  a  super- 
structure enlightening  the  public  and  ennobling 
the  architect. 

Is  such  a  structure  in  progress  with  a  fair  pros- 
pect of  fulfilling  the  ideals  of  the  profession  and 
the  needs  of  the  public  ? 

From  documents  I  receive  from  the  Institute 
and  from  conversations  I  have  had  with  architects 
I  conclude  few  are  optimistic.  We  hear  of  the  lack 
of  vision  of  officials,  the  commercial  spirit  of  the 
layman,  the  aggressive  spirit  of  the  engineer  and 
the  managing  zeal  of  the  builder.  It  will  at  least 
be  interesting  and  possibly  profitable  to  analyze 
the  reasons  leading  to  this  pessimism.  This  I  pro- 
pose to  do  in  several  articles,  making  an  effort  to 
discover  whether  the  architect,  the  official,  the 
engineer  or  the  builder  is  to  blame  for  this  condi- 

We  know  that  when  the  architect  executes  his 
work  efficiently  the  public  is  served  by  the  prod- 
uct in  buildings,  bridges,  monuments  and  land- 
scape more  effectively  and  advantageously  than  it 
can  be  served  by  any  other  profession  or  combi- 
nation of  professions. 

Therefore,  it  is  our  duty  as  a  profession  to 
thoughtfully  consider  and  fearlessly  rectify  any 
conditions  touching  toward  the  public  losing  the 
benefit  attained  by  the  service  of  the  architect. 

The  Georgian  House 

With  Special  Reference  to  the  House  of  J.  Randolph  Robinson,  Esq., 
at  Westbury,  Long  Island,  Illustrated  in  This  Issue 

JOHN  RUSSELL  POPE,  Architect 

IN  Burton's  IV it  and  Hmnor,  a  book  long  out  of 
print  and  becoming  so  rare  as  to  attract  collec- 
tors, a  certain  garrulous  old  lady,  of  the  Mrs. 
Malaprop  type,  is  said  to  have  once  asked  Dean 
Swift  if  he  would  have  "condiments"  in  his  tea.   To 
which  the  worthy  Dean  replied,  "Pepper  and  salt, 
madam,  but  no  mustard." 

This  anecdote  suggesting  a  misuse  of  words  re- 
minds us  of  the  misuse  among  laymen,  and  it  is  sad 
to  record,  of  some  architects,  of  the  word,  Colonial. 

The  main  reason  why  people  simply  say  "Colo- 
nial," when  they  mean  Georgian,  is  perhaps  that 
this  correct  and  stately  type  is  more  closely  identi- 
fied with  our  Colonial  history  than  any  other. 

The  Georgian  period  of  architecture  in  the  Colo- 
nies saw  the  erection  of  many  buildings  that  are  of 
the  highest  historic  interest  and  of  the  best  archi- 
tectural character.  The  names  of  many  of  these 
Georgian  buildings  will  at  once  suggest  themselves 
to  the  architectural  reader  as  he  will  also  recall  the 



As  a  rule,  in  applying  this  word  to  a  type  of  archi- 
tecture it  is  meant  to  describe  the  Georgian.  So 
why  not  say  Georgian,  if  that  is  what  is  meant.  Or, 
if  reference  is  had  to  the  various  and  distinct  types 
of  architecture  that  marked  our  building  during  the 
Colonial  period,  give  to  each  its  proper  prefix.  For 
example,  we  have  the  Georgian,  or  English  Colonial, 
along  our  Atlantic  seaboard  and  on  the  shores  of 
the  James  River.  There  is  the  Dutch  Colonial  in 
New  York  and  nearby  New  Jersey ;  the  French,  the 
Spanish  and  the  Swedish  Colonial,  each  in  those 
localities  where  groups  of  emigres  from  Europe  at 
one  time  or  another  settled  in  our  Colonies. 

many  fine  examples  of  Early  Georgian  domestic 
architecture  in  this  country.  Undoubtedly,  there  is 
a  certain  refinement  and  suggestion  of  culture  about 
the  well-designed  Georgian  house,  and  it  is  equally 
true  that  in  the  development  of  design  and  the  best 
exposition  of  the  Georgian  house  no  architects 
abroad  have  excelled  the  work  of  men  in  this 
country  who  competently  have  studied  this  type. 

The  house  of  Mr.  J.  Randolph  Robinson,  de- 
signed by  John  Russell  Pope,  and  illustrated  in  this 
issue,  presents  a  good  example  of  the  Georgian 
house  of  moderate  cost. 

In  this  country  to-day  even  our  rich  men  do  not 


belong  to  an  idle  class  such  as  is  perhaps  common 
in  Europe.  Every  man  will  have  his  business  activ- 
ities, those  absorbing  and  often  nerve-racking  em- 
ployments that  make  it  necessary  that  at  certain 
times  he  shall  find  a  haven  of  rest,  recreation  and 
recuperation.  It  is  this  condition  as  surrounding 
a  largely  augmented  class  that  is  resulting  in  the 
creation  in  suburban  locations  of  many  small  but 
at  the  same  time  dignified  houses.  It  is  easy  to  imag- 
ine the  solace  one  might  find  among  surroundings 
so  well  designed  and  carried  to  execution  as  is  this 
house  by  Mr.  Pope. 

Inside  and  out  there  is  to  be  seen  reminiscence  of 
the  best  expressed  Georgian.  The  house  is,  as  are 
all  Georgian  houses  equally  well  designed,  one  to 
live  in  where  contentment  and  those  quiet  hours  so 
necessary  to  busy  men  and  women  may  be  enjoyed 
to  the  utmost. 

There  is  a  certain  patriotism  in  the  Georgian 
house.  It  suggests  our  early  struggle  for  independ- 

ence, it  brings  to  mind  the  stirring  scenes  of  our 
revolutionary  period.  Particularly  is  this  true  of  the 
extant,  well-preserved  examples  of  this  period. 
One  may  close  one's  eyes  and  with  but  little  stretch 
of  imagination  people  one  of  these  old  houses  with 
the  folk  of  the  period.  The  candle-lighted  rooms, 
the  gleaming  white  panelled  walls,  the  mahogany 
rich  in  contrast.  Or,  to  the  sound  of  music  see  the 
stately  ladies  in  panniered  gowns,  with  powdered 
hair  and  "patches,"  sedately  walking  through  the 
measures  of  Sir  Roger  de  Coverly,  with  the  beau 
of  the  period. 

Certainly  the  Georgian  is  a  patriotic  type.  There 
may  be  differences  of  opinion  among  some  as  to 
whether  or  not  it  is  the  most  desirable  style  for  our 
country  estates.  Everyone  may  have  his  prefer- 
ence. We  shall  not  quarrel  with  him,  but  if  we 
may  spend  the  end  of  a  busy  life  in  a  Georgian 
house,  embowered  with  elms,  quiet,  dignified,  beau- 
tiful, we  shall  be  happy,  come  what  may. 

Industrial  Art  Survey  Inaugurated 

THE  National  Society  for  Vocational  Edu- 
cation reports  that  as  a  result  of  present  con- 
ditions in  the  field  of  industrial  art  brought 
about    by   the    war   an   industrial    art   survey   has 
been  determined  upon  by  that  organization  under 
the  direction  of  Prof.  Chas.  R.  Richards  of  Cooper 
Union,  to  begin  in  January.    It  will  cover  the  whole 
country   and   will  be   supplemented  by   studies   of 
methods  and  results  in  European  art  schools. 

The  purpose  of  the  Survey  will  be  to  bring  to- 
gether the  art  schools  and  the  manufacturers  in  a 
common  program  for  the  training  of  American 

The  results  of  the  European  War  have  produced 
a  profound  effect  upon  the  art  industries  of  the 
United  States,  states  the  report.  The  borrowing 
and  adaptation  of  designs,  as  well  as  the  importa- 
tion of  great  quantities  of  artistic  merchandise, 
was  practically  brought  to  a  standstill  at  the  begin- 
ning of  hostilities.  Since  that  time  American  in- 
dustries producing  commodities  into  which  the 
element  of  art  enters  in  an  important  way  have 
been  forced  to  find  in  this  country  designers  cap- 
able of  developing  the  necessary  ideas  and  motives. 
Some  few  establishments  marked  by  unusual  en- 

ergy and  breadth  of  vision  have  made  extraor- 
dinary advances  in  artistic  achievements  and  have 
rendered  themselves  independent  of  European  as- 
sistance. The  great  majority  of  American  em- 
ployers, however,  have  not  reached  that  point  and 
are  still  greatly  in  need  of  trained  designers. 

The  central  feature  of  the  survey  will  be  a 
study  of  the  conditions  under  which  designs  are 
developed  for  commercial  practice,  the  require- 
ments under  which  the  designer  works,  and  the 
qualities  and  training  necessary  for  successful 
work  in  design.  Among  the  industries  to  be 
studied  are  the  costume  trades,  textiles,  printing, 
jewelry,  silverware,  wall  paper,  lighting  fixtures, 
ceramics,  furniture  and  interior  decoration. 

An  important  feature  will  be  an  advisory  com- 
mittee of  persons  prominent  in  art  industries  who 
are  counted  upon  to  render  material  assistance  in 
shaping  the  policies  and  scope  of  the  survey.  In 
addition,  strong  committees  will  be  organized  in 
each  trade  division  to  co-operate  and  advise  as  to 
the  conduct  of  field  studies. 

A  study  will  also  be  made  of  the  extent  to  which 
American  art  schools  are  functioning  in  the  train- 
ing of  designers  for  industries. 





The  Philadelphia  Plant  of  Sears, 
Roebuck  &  Co. 

GEORGE  C.  NIMMONS  &  Co.,  Architects 

THE  product  of  an  architectural  organization 
is  the  plan,  specification,  the  interpretation 
thereof  and  the  supervision  of  construction. 
These  are  the  essential  directions  to  the  contractor. 
The  true  function  of  this  product  is  to  direct  the 
completion  of  a  structure  in  a  way  that  will  make 
it  adequate  for  the  needs  of  occupancy.  That  is 
the  essential.  The  cost  and  artistic  appearance  thus 
become  of  secondary  importance.  The  needs  of 
the  occupant  must  be  served  first,  that  interest 
dominates  and  is  not  directly  affected  by  factors 
other  than  utility. 

The  artistic  design  is  that  factor  which  princi- 
pally affects  the  public  and  the  adjoining  properties. 
The  importance  and  value  of  this  element  of  the 
design  is  not  to  be  overlooked  and  owners  are  be- 
coming thoroughly  appreciative  of  its  value.  It 
is  assumed  that  an  architectural  organization  is 
operated  for  a  monetary  profit  as  well  as  artistic 
achievement,  both  essential  to  a  complete  success. 
It  then  follows  that  the  cost  of  the  product  is  an 
important  element  to  be  considered.  Many  things 
affect  this  cost.  The  attitude  of  the  organization 
toward  the  relative  importance  of  the  purely  pro- 
fessional and  the  business  phases  of  its  practice 
influence  the  cost  of  production.  To  secure  the 
proper  balance  between  these  two  is  one  of  the 
most  important  problems  that  confront  the  man- 
agement of  such  an  organization.  It  is  known  that 
such  products  of  the  finest  quality,  both  artistic 
and  utilitarian,  are  produced  at  a  satisfactory  cost 
and  because  of  an  efficient  and  well-balanced  or- 

An  interesting  example  of  efficient  architectural 
production  is  one  recently  accomplished  by  George 
C.  Nimmons  &  Co.  in  planning  the  new  Philadelphia 
plant  for  Sears,  Roebuck  &  Co.  It  is  true  that 
Mr.  Nimmons  had  the  experience  of  planning  the 
Chicago,  Kansas  City  and  Seattle  plants  for  that 
company  which  was  naturally  an  aid  in  the  present 

The  general  requirements  of  the  first  units  to  be 
erected  and  their  relation  to  the  completed  project 
were  determined  by  consultation  with  the  owners, 
and.  the  i/i6-inch  preliminary  sketch  plans  agreed 
upon.  The  location  of  the  plant  on  the  Northeast 
Boulevard  made  it  imperative  that  the  structure  be 
an  artistic  as  well  as  a  utilitarian  success.  That 
the  first  factor  was  properly  taken  care  of  is  evi- 

denced by  the  approval  of  the  plans  by  the  Phila- 
delphia Art  Jury  before  they  were  submitted  to  the 
city  building  department  for  permits  to  construct. 

The  buildings  are  located  on  a  tract  of  land  of 
about  forty  acres,  which  is  located  at  the  turn  in 
the  direction  of  the  boulevard.  This  is  a  most 
advantageous  location,  as  the  structure  appears  to 
be  at  the  apparent  termination  of  the  street.  The 
location  of  the  buildings  under  construction  and 
the  proposed  future  buildings  is  shown  on  the  plat 
plan.  The  railroad  tracks  and  adjoining  streets 
are  also  shown.  The  buildings  set  back  from  the 
boulevard  a  distance  of  about  150  feet  to  allow  for 
lawns  and  landscape  effects,  and  at  the  same  time 
adding  to  the  apparent  width  of  the  boulevard  at 
that  place. 

The  mercantile  building  has  a  frontage  of  360 
feet,  with  a  depth  of  440  feet,  nine  stories  and  base- 
ment, except  the  tower  of  fourteen  stories  in 
height.  The  administration  building  has  a  front- 
age of  481  feet  with  depths  of  75,  81  and  145 
feet.  The  two-story  and  basement  portion  ad- 
joining the  merchandise  building  has  a  frontage  of 
120  feet,  and  the  balance,  with  a  frontage  of  301 
feet,  is  six  stories  and  basement  in  height.  In 
this  two-story  portion  are  located  the  kitchen,  caf- 
eterias and  dining  rooms  for  the  employees  and 
officers  of  the  company,  the  balance  being  used 
for  administrative  and  executive  offices.  In  the 
tower  of  the  merchandise  building  are  located  the 
water  tanks  for  the  sprinkler  system  and  the  house 
service.  The  power  house  is  located  at  the  rear, 
as  shown  on  the  plat  plan. 

The  buildings  under  construction  cover  a  ground 
area  of  4.87  acres,  the  floors  having  an  area  of 
48  acres.  The  buildings  are  of  reinforced  concrete 
construction,  the  walls  faced  with  dark  red  brick 
of  varying  shades,  with  trim  of  gray-colored  terra 
cotta.  The  architectural  treatment  is  in  a  style 
that  in  recent  years  has  been  termed  industrial 
gothic.  The  foregoing  description  and  the  illus- 
trations giye  an  indication  of  the  extent  and  char- 
acter of  the  work  involved  in  the  preparation  of 
the  plans.  The  mechanical  equipment  of  the  plant 
is  designed  by  Martin  C.  Schwab,  Consulting  En- 

The  order  for  the  preparation  of  the  working 
drawings,  made  in  ink  on  tracing  cloth,  was  given 

(Concluded    on   page    13) 






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The  Civic  Forum  for  New  York  City 

AT  the  beginning  of  the  settlement  of  America, 
300  years  ago,  the  first  building  which  the 
founders  of  the  Plymouth  Colony  set  them- 
selves to  erect  was  a  "Common  House",  as  they 
called  it :  a  place  where  they  could  meet  to  discuss, 
arrange  and  enjoy  their  communal  life.    The  rough 
structure  of  logs  suited  the  life  of  people  who  had 
come  to  live  in  a  wilderness;  not  that  it  was  in- 


tentionaHy  so  suited,  but  they  built  the  best  they 
knew.  The  building's  service  was  from  our  point 
of  view  threefold :  a  church,  a  government  house, 
and  a  social  center  for  their  community.  The  three- 
fold usage  became  traditional,  perhaps  the  first 
purely  American  architectural  tradition,  and  one 
which  still  exists  in  its  purity  in  our  small  villages. 

In  the  expanding  communities  with  their  compli- 
cation of  social  life,  the  governmental  function  of 
the  "Common  House"  was,  for  political  reasons, 
removed  to  more  impressive  buildings ;  the  religious 
function  developed  churches  (in  New  England  tra- 
ditionally called  "Meeting  Houses")  ;  and  the  social 
center  completely  disappeared  so  far  as  a  traditional 
building  is  concerned,  for  the  casual  political  dis- 
cussion of  the  citizens  seemed  not  to  require  a 
place  of  its  own.  It  was  carried  on  wherever  men 
met  informally.  The  population  was  small  and 
everyone  knew  everyone  else  in  the  community, 
knew  his  life  and  what  it  stood  for,  knew  what  he 
thought  with  a  knowledge  kept  up  to  date  by  con- 
stant association. 

But  soon,  as  a  result  of  mechanical  invention, 
our  people  began  to  move  about  the  country,  and 
while  the  dangers  of  parochialism  were  being  ob- 

literated in  the  very  nick  of  time — though  with 
not  soon  sufficient  success  as  yet  to  avoid  a  Civil 
War — this  ease  of  transportation  brought  new  dif- 
ficulties. Every  community  received  from  else- 
where in  America  or  from  Europe  newcomers  in 
increasing  numbers  who  did  not  enter  informally 
into  active  discussion  of  the  community's  affairs 
and  these  newcomers  were  thereby  losing  one  of 
the  qualities  of  our  democracy. 

One  day  each  year  all  men  were  equal  at  the 
ballot  box.  Yet  there  must  have  been  a  vague  ap- 
prehension that  there  was  somewhere  a  social  lack. 
Perhaps  that  is  why  the  "lyceum"  appeared  at  that 
time.  But  the  "lyceum,"  after  starting  as  an  ethical 
movement,  became  literary  amd  transcendental 
rather  than  practical,  and  there  gradually  came 
throughout  that  period  a  decadence  of  general  in- 
terest in  politics.  Eventually  the  lycea  were  trans- 
formed into  theatres  and  libraries. 

Continuously  in  response  to  increasing  economic 
demand  the  people  came  and  worked  and  lived. 
We  talk  of  a  "melting  pot"  but  there  was  no  "melt- 
ing pot."  Economically  the  newcomers  were 
absorbed;  they  gave  their  labor  and  received  their 
pay ;  but  politically  they  existed  only  in  the  scheme 
of  some  professional  politician  as  did  most  of  the 
rest  of  our  people — and  the  incoming  Europeans 
knew  nothing  better.  There  was  no  special  ma- 
chinery for  knitting  these  people  together  or  intro- 
ducing them  into  our  communities  and  thanks  are 


due  to  our  system  of  free  education  that  we  are 
not  much  worse  off  than  we  are. 
•Of    late   we   have   tried   settlement   houses   and 







w  * 

§  a 







night  schools.  While  these  may  be  very  well  in 
their  way,  they  are  beside  the  point.  They  educate 
but  they  do  not  amalgamate.  They  are  not  demo- 
cratic. It  becomes  increasingly  evident  that  our 


social  structure  has  developed  and  is  •  developing 
the  conscious  need  of  buildings  which  shall  be  con- 
secrated to  the  informal  civil  life  of  all  its  members. 
We  are  all  interested  in  our  politics  to- 
day and  are  beginning  to  realize  that 
they  are  an  every-day  affair  and  not  a 
business  to  be  disposed  of  once  and  for 
all  by  primaries  and  elections.  We  may 
be  a  little  excited  by  the  discovery  and 
we  may  talk  of  the  danger  of  revolu- 
tions and  anarchy.  But  there  are  no 
dangers  except  the  one  that  part  of  our 
people  shall  not  know  what  some  other 
part  is  talking  about,  for  we  speak  in 
many  languages  of  ideas  remote  and 
not  yet  related.  It  is  a  simple  necessity 
that  these  be  brought  together,  under- 
stood and  related ;  to  accomplish  this  is 
our  obvious  duty.  The  buildings  in 
which  this  knitting  together  takes  place 
will  be  lasting  monuments  to  our  pur- 
pose. In  such  buildings  we  shall  talk 
things  over  quietly  and  at  ease.  What 
we  don't  want,  we  will  discard;  what 
we  need,  we  will  keep  for  legislation. 

Elaborate  capitols  marked  but  one 
phase  of  our  understanding  of  the  sys- 
tem by  which  we  are  governed.  More 
modest  structures  will  represent  the 
realization  that  this  is  not  only  a  gov- 
ernment "for  the  people"  but  "by  the 
people."  Our  radicals  may  romantically 
call  this  a  revolution  in  our  government 

if  they  choose — but  it  isn't.  The  revolution  was  in 
1620  or  1776. 

One  way  our  people  mean  to  express  this  under- 
standing of  their  responsibility  for  their  govern- 
ment— and  this  now  seems  to  be  one  of  the  most 
distinctive  features  of  the  period  of  political  con- 
sciousness now  dawning — is  through  what  has 
been  popularly  known  for  the  past  ten  years  as 
the  "civic  forum''.  The  "civic  forum"  is  not  a  new 
or  radical  notion,  it  is  not  revolutionary,  but  is 
rather  an  institution  founded  on  what  undoubtedly 
is  one  of  the  earliest  traditions  of  our  society : 
freedom  of  speech  at  a  proper  time  and  place.  Ten 
years  ago  the  traditional  open  meeting  received 
strong  impetus  and  nowadays  there  are  thousands 
of  such  meetings  being  held  in  churches  or  within 
the  confined  areas  of  school  houses.  The  movement 
has  become  so  developed  that  its  housing  needs  are 
becoming  more  clearly  defined.  In  the  issue  of 
THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  for  October  7th  there 
were  published  plans  for  civic  centers  which  meet 
the  demands  of  the  towns  and  smaller  cities.  The 
illustrations  accompanying  this  article  present  the 
means  by  which  architects  propose  to  meet  the  sit- 
uation in  New  York. 

The  League  of  Political  Education  in  that  city, 




as  a  part  of  its  effort  toward  developing  our  po- 
litical standards,  has  decided  to  build  an  auditorium 
"where  law-abiding  citizens  may  get  together  and 
really  have  a  chance  to  discuss  their  common  in- 
terests.'' They  have  placed  the  problem  of  ex- 
pressing the  idea  in  a  building  into  the  hands  of 
McKim,  Mead  &  White. 

Ease  of  access  for  the  city's  population  is  an  es- 
sential of  such  a  building.  The  site  in  New  York 
is  accordingly  on  Forty-third  Street  between  Sixth 
and  Seventh  Avenues,  within  a  block  of  Times 
Square — the  center  of  the  city's  transportation 

The  first  four  floors  of  the  building  are  to  be  an 
auditorium  appropriate  to  serious  public  meetings, 
with  walls  of  artificial  stone  in  soft,  warm  colors 
and  with  a  small  platform  under  a  simple  proscen- 
ium arch.  There  is  to  be  one  balcony  but  no 
boxes,  the  room  seating  in  all  about  1,700  people. 
There  are  wide  aisles  and  comfortable  seats  but 
no  posts  or  supports  to  obstruct  the  view.  The 
lighting  is  indirect.  The  swinging  doors  at  the 
beginning  of  each  aisle  are  calculated  to  attain 
quiet  and  repose.  The  general  feeling  of  the  room 
approaches  the  Greek  in  its  simplicity. 

The  floor  above,  which  corresponds  to  a  fifth 
floor,  will  be  used  for  the  offices  of  the  donors — 
the  League  of  Political  Education — and  its  allied 
organizations :  the  Civic  Forum  and  the  Economic 
Club.  On  this  floor  there  is  also  to  be  space  for  a 
library  to  contain  10,000  books.  The  sixth  floor 
and  the  galleries  on  the  roof  are  to  be  arranged 
as  quarters  for  a  proposed  social  club  of  men  and 

Mr.  Theodore  Roosevelt,  Jr.,  laid  the  corner- 
stone of  this  new  civic  auditorium  on  January 
241)1,  and  it  is  expected  that  the  building  will  com- 
mence its  important  work  of  public  service  during 
the  coming  summer. 

The  Philadephia  Plant  of  Sears, 
Roebuck  &  Co. 

(Continued  from  ('age  8) 

on  August  25,  1919,  and  they  were  completed, 
ready  for  estimates,  on  September  16.  This  covers 
a  period  of  twenty-three  days,  which  included 
three  Sundays  and  one  holiday,  Labor  Day.  There 
were  nineteen  working  days  consumed  in  the  prep- 
aration of  the  complete  scale  drawings  and  speci- 

Such  a  production  would  be  impossible  in  a  vast 
majority  of  architectural  organizations.  It  can 
only  be  accomplished  in  an  organization  that  is 
properly  balanced  in  all  its  parts  and  which  is  ani- 
mated with  a  certain  esprit  de  corps,  which  is 

necessary  for  such  achievements  as  this.  A  ban- 
quet and  theatre  party  was  given  to  all  the  members 
of  the  organization  to  celebrate  the  success  of  the 

Alliance  Between  Industry  and 

THE  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology, 
Cambridge,  Mass.,  is  just  beginning  to  ap- 
proach the  industries  of  the  country  with  a 
plan   of   co-operation   which,    while  it   has   for   its 
immediate  objective  the  raising  of   funds  to  pro- 
vide more  nearly  adequate  salaries  for  the  members 
of  its  instructing  staff,  is  not  only  almost  revolu- 
tionary   in   character,   but    is   bound   to   have    far- 
reaching  effects  on  the  educational  and  industrial 
structure  of  the  nation. 

Briefly  stated,  the  Technology  Plan  of  Educa- 
tion, as  it  is  called,  consists  in  the  various  indus- 
tries retaining  the  Institute  in  a  consultant  capac- 
ity, on  an  annual  salary  basis.  In  return  for  the 
fee,  Technology  agrees  to  permit  the  corporations 
so  retaining  her  to  make  use  of  the  Institute's  ex- 
tensive library,  files  and  plant,  and  to  consult  with 
the  members  of  her  staff  and  faculty  on  problems 
pertaining  immediately  to  the  business  of  the  com- 
pany. In  addition,  the  Institute  will  place  at  the 
disposal  of  these  industries  a  record  of  the  quali- 
fications, experiences  and  special  knowledge  of  her 
Alumni  which  is  likely  to  be  of  value  to  them,  will 
advise  and  assist  the  various  companies  in  obtain- 
ing information  as  to  where  special  knowledge  and 
experience  in  any  given  subject  may  be  obtained, 
and  will  give  them  the  first  opportunity  of  securing 
the  services  of  "Tech1'  men. 

Like  many  another  idea,  humble  in  its  begin- 
nings, the  Technology  Plan  may  run  to  lengths  far 
beyond  its  original  scope.  It  is  a  perfectly  logical 
conclusion,  for  instance,  that  ultimately  Technology 
would  be  retained  by  the  majority  of  larger  cor- 
porations just  as  they  now  retain  great  lawyers  or 
great  engineers.  In  return  for  the  retainer  fee, 
they  would  receive  the  potential  value  of  the  name 
and  reputation  of  the  Institute  with  its  great  plant 
and  laboratories,  its  library — one  of  the  most  fa- 
mous of  its  kind  in  the  country — the  services  of  its 
instructing  staff  and  the  benefit  of  the  advice  of 
the  experts  in  various  fields  of  engineering  who 
are  among  its  Alumni.  In  thesis  work  investiga- 
tions by  undergraduates,  preference  would  be  given 
problems  which  confronted  the  corporations  and 
concerns  that  retained  the  Institute. 

Carried  to  its  conclusion,  the  Technology  Plan 
would  make  of  M.  I.  T.  the  greatest  consulting 
body  in  the  world,  since  its  range  would  cover 


practically  every  field  of  technical  research  and  it 
would  follow  that  since  the  great  corporations  of 
the  country  retained  Technology  as  a  consultant, 
the  great  experts  of  the  country  would  ultimately 
be  members  of  its  instructing  staff.  In  other  words, 
Industry  would,  in  a  sense,  come  to  Technology, 
instead  of  the  instructing  staff  and  students  going  to 
Industry  as  they  do  now  in  certain  cases. 

It  is,  therefore,  quite  likely  that  a  new  relation- 
ship between  Technology  and  the  industrial  or- 
ganization of  the  country  will  grow  out  of  the 
Technology  Plan.  American  industry  has  long 
been  in  need  of  a  clearing  house  of  scientific 
knowledge.  The  unparalleled  resources  of  M.  I.  T. 
are  to  be  placed  more  than  ever  at  the  command 
of  the  nation's  business,  and  what  the  step  will 
mean  for  the  development  of  American  enter- 
prises in  every  field  of  endeavor  can  scarcely  be 
overestimated.  The  position  the  United  States  is 
to  hold  in  the  commerce  of  the  world  will  depend 
in  a  large  measure  upon  the  degree  to  which  science 
is  applied  to  the  process  of  production  and  it  is 
the  technically  trained  man  who  will  meet  and 
solve  the  problems  of  international  competition. 

Fears  that  the  Technology  Plan  may  conflict  with 
the  work  of  the  private  consulting  engineer  are 
answered  by  the  obvious  fact  that  the  great  ma- 
jority of  the  problems  submitted  to  the  Institute 
are  beyond  the  scope  of  the  private  engineer  or 

A  Secret  of  Bad  Building 

A  CORRESPONDENT  of  The  Times  of 
London,  says :  "Anyone  who  has  been 
engaged  in  drawing  and  measuring  a 
mansion,  say  of  the  seventeenth  or  eighteenth  cen- 
tury, must  have  been  struck  by  the  opulent  scale 
and  proportion  of  its  details  as  compared  with  the 
most  costly  building  of  the  same  class  erected  in 
the  present  day.  Yet  the  difference  may  be  traced 
rather  to  a  system  than  to  any  conscious  intention 
on  the  part  of  architects,  builders,  and  clients.  In 
a  word,  the  present-day  building  is  erected  'by  con- 
tract' ;  the  seventeenth-century  building  was  not. 

"Where  first  the  idea  took  possession  of  the  mi, id 
of  the  building  owner  that  he  must  know  the  exact 
cost  of  his  building  in  advance  and  obtain  a  legal 
contract  for  the  carrying  out  of  it  for  a  specified 
sum,  the  building  contractor,  of  course,  for  the 

protection  of  his  own  pocket,  must  know  exactly 
what  amount  of  each  material  used  in  the  building 
he  had  to  supply ;  hence  arose  the  operation  called 
'taking  out  the  quantities.'  In  the  first  instance 
this  quantity-taking  was  done  by  the  builder  at 
his  own  cost,  as  a  means  of  self-protection.  But 
the  time  came  when  the  builders,  as  a  class,  re- 
belled against  this  tax  on  their  time,  and  required 
the  'quantities'  to  be  supplied  to  them  at  the  cost 
of  the  building  owner.  Hence  arose  the  separate 
profession  of  the  'Quantity  Surveyor.'  Now  on 
top  of  all  this  comes  the  desire  of  the  building 
owner  to  get  his  building  as  cheap  as  possible ;  so 
the  quantities  are  supplied  to  a  selected  number  of 
builders,  who  are  invited  to  state  respectively  for 
what  sum  they  will  carry  out  the  building,  and 
(unless  there  has  been  a  special  caveat — 'the  lowest 
tender  not  necessarily  accepted')  he  who  will  do 
it  cheapest  is  selected,  with  the  result  sometimes 
that  the  selected  builder  leaves  himself  so  narrow 
a  margin  for  profit  as  to  be  under  a  painful  temp- 
tation to  scamp  the  workmanship  in  some  way  not 
too  obvious  to  the  eagle  eye  of  the  architect. 

"Thus  architecture,  which  should  be  a  great  and 
noble  art  for  the  embellishment  and  pride  of  cities, 
and  carried  out  with  that  object  pre-eminently,  is 
reduced  to  a  kind  of  business  of  getting  a  present- 
able result  at  the  least  possible  cost,  and  in  general, 
it  may  be  added,  in  the  shortest  possible  time,  for 
in  too  many  cases  (in  town  architecture  especially) 
a  new  building  is  regarded  by  its  promoters  not  as 
architecture  but  simply  as  'property' ;  on  which 
money  has  been  expended,  and  which  must  be  hur- 
ried up  in  order  to  make  money  returns  out  of  it 
as  early  as  possible.  An  essentially  commercial 
generation  may  argue  that  this  is  the  only  logical, 
reasonable,  and  business-like  method  of  procedure. 
It  may  be  business,  but  it  is  not  architecture.  Not 
on  such  a  system  will  arise  such  a  civic  architecture 
as  will  leave  'no  complaining  in  our  streets.'  No 
great  architecture  ever  has  been  or  ever  will  be 
produced  on  the  basis  of  building  as  fast  and  as 
cheaply  as  possible." 

To  the  foregoing,  printed  in  The  Architect,  of 
London,  the  editors  add  the  following  note: 

With  much  of  this,  many  builders  and  most 
architects  will  be  in  complete  agreement;  but  the 
unduly  heavy  scantlings  used  in  the  seventeenth 
and  eighteenth  centuries  were  consequent  on  a  very 
rudimentary  knowledge  of  stresses. 

m  OR  nmranraR  R  R  ran  E  n  maaamn 

In  order  to  supply  our  readers  with  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment  appearing 
in  issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of  actual  rather 
than  stated  date  of  publication. 

The  Architect  and  Public  Service 

O  profession  has  a  right  to  existence  unless 
it  serves  the  people."  Thus  writes  Glenn 
Brown  in  the  opening  sentence  of  his  series  on 
"The  Architect  and  Public  Service"  printed  in  this 
issue.  While  this  contention  is  not  new,  it  is  par- 
ticularly important  at  this  time  that  it  receive  the 
emphasis  of  repetition. 

It  is  unfortunately  true  that  in  certain  ranks 
of  professionalism  this  important  fact  has  been 
lost  sight  of  and  professional  service  has  very 
largely  degenerated  into  a  selfish  forwarding  of 
the  professional  advancement  regardless  of  the 
public  welfare.  Just  whether  or  not  these  con- 
ditions exist  in  the  profession  of  architecture  will 
be  left  for  Mr.  Brown  to  make  clear  in  his  articles. 
Certainly,  by  reason  of  long  and  faithful  service 
to  the  profession  and  by  the  high  rank  he  has  at- 
tained among  architects,  no  man  is  more  com- 
petent than  he  to  discuss  the  subject. 

MR.  BROWN  will  consider  the  contributory 
causes  which  during  later  years  have  re- 
sulted in  largely  'bringing  about  a  very  decided 
change  in  professionalism.  He  will  not  claim  to 
have  first  discovered  that  the  profession  of  archi- 
tecture, in  common  with  other  professions,  has 
been  traveling  strange  and  devious  paths.  That 
knowledge  has  been  brought  home  to  professional 
men  in  all  ranks  throughout  the  country  and  has 
resulted  in  an  inter-professional  conference  re- 
cently held  in  Detroit  which  will  undoubtedly  be 
the  means  of  effecting  some  very  necessary  re- 

Just  how  far  and  how  valuably  the  profession 
of  architecture  may  serve  the  public  has  been  made 
very  plain  by  Mr.  Brown  in  his  series  recently 
printed  in  this  journal,  "Roosevelt  and  the  Fine 
Arts."  So  thoroughly  was  organized  architecture 
serving  the  public  that  it  had  no  difficulty  in  secur- 
ing the  indorsement  and  support  of  a  National  Ad- 

ministration in  carrying  forward  its  well-formed 
ideals  for  the  architectural  advancement  of  this 
country.  Does  the  present  attitude  of  organized 
architecture  command  in  equal  measure  that  same 
support  and  is  it  doing  anything  to  earn  it? 

Those  who  indignantly  repel  the  statement  that 
architecture  is  in  any  sense  a  business,  who  stoutly 
claim  it  is  all  an  art,  will  need  to  mold  their  actions 
on  the  lines  of  those  whose  influence  and  abilities 
at  one  time  put  architecture  on  the  highest  artistic 
plane  it  has  ever  occupied  in  this  country. 

We  have  much  to  learn  in  the  profession  of 
architecture  as  to  just  what  it  means  to  serve  the 
public.  It  is  believed  that  Mr.  Brown's  series  will 
very  thoroughly  point  out  the  only  road  on  which 
we  may  safely  travel. 

Organizing  for  Efficiency 

DURING  the  progress  of  the  war  comment 
was  many  times  made  in  these  pages  as  to 
specific  instances  where  architects'  offices  had  in 
unusually  short  periods  of  time  prepared  the  plans 
and  specifications  for  large  and  often  complicated 
buildings.  These  references  were  made  with  a  view 
to  demonstrating  that  in  all  architectural  offices  suf- 
ficiently large  to  handle  big  operations,  the  organ- 
ization had  been  and  was  then  so  very  well  main- 
tained that  no  sudden  influx  of  business,  no  un- 
usual demand,  could  disarrange  their  smooth  func- 

In  this  issue  there  is  illustrated,  with  an  accom- 
panying brief  article  of  description,  the  Phila- 
delphia plant  of  a  large  Chicago  corporation,  de- 
signed by  George  C.  Nimmons  &  Co. 

We  note  that  from  the  placing  of  the  commis- 
sion by  the  client  to  the  delivery  of  the  plans  and 
specifications  by  the  architect  there  elapsed  a  period 
of  but  nineteen  working  days.  Reference  to  the 
drawings  and  illustrations  will  enable  the  technical 
reader  to  understand  just  what  was  accomplished 
in  this  brief  period. 


We  believe  it  will  be  conceded  that  nowhere  in 
the  world  could  a  better  record  be  made,  and  we 
further  believe  that  this  combination  of  speed  and 
efficiency  is  now  generally  recognized  as  a  dominat- 
ing characteristic  of  a  result  when  American  archi- 
tects and  engineers  unite  to  produce  that  result. 

The  Inter-Professional  Relation 

THE  importance  of  engineering,  structural  and 
mechanical  elements  in  building  construction 
is  becoming  more  pronounced  with  each  passing  day. 
How  best  to  co-ordinate  the  engineering  with  the 
many  other  elements  of  architecture,  in  producing 
plans  and  specifications,  is  a  problem  that  demands 
the  serious  thought  of  architects  at  this  time.  As 
the  magnitude  of  building  projects  becomes  greater 
with  the  multiplicity  of  details,  this  demand  will 
become  more  insistent. 

That  engineering  and  architectural  designing  are  of 
relatively  equal  importance  in  the  practice  of  archi- 
tecture, is  very  clearly  established  in  the  article  by 
Mr.  Yardley  printed  in  this  issue  of  THE  AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT.  He  also  suggests  a  way  in  which  the 
co-ordination  of  these  things  is  successfully  ac- 
complished and  in  addition  outlines  the  training  and 
qualities  necessary  to  produce  an  architectural  en- 
gineer. In  discussing  such  an  engineer  he  clearly 
defines  his  duties  and  responsibilities  and  makes  it 
patent  to  the  reader  that  the  technical  curriculum 
of  the  day  is  lacking.  This  is  probably  due  to  lack 

of  appreciation  of  the  need  for  this  particular  train- 
ing on  the  part  of  technical  educators.  The  educa- 
tional effort  has  apparently  been  concentrated  on 
training  specialists.  These  specialists  are  neces- 
sary, but  the  need  of  the  more  broadly  trained 
architectural  engineer  is  as  great.  The  recent  dis- 
cussions concerning  a  broader  training  of  architects 
and  engineers  in  general  cultural  topics  has  borne 
fruit  and  men  of  these  professions  are  aware  of 
the  needs. 

Owing  to  the  vast  number  of  engineering  factors 
entering  into  building  construction,  greater  in  ex- 
tent than  in  any  other  construction  work,  the  archi- 
tectural engineer,  who  is  responsible  for  all  of 
them,  must  have  the  broadest  and  most  liberal  tech- 
nical training  and  in  addition  thereto  a  comprehen- 
sive cultural  training.  The  road  which  leads 
to  competency  is  a  most  arduous  one  and  it 
should  not  be  entered  upon  lightly.  There  should 
be  some  method  by  which  students  not  qualified  for 
this  work  might  be  prevented  from  engaging  in  the 
study.  This  is  a  thing  that  must  be  worked  out 
by  each  technical  school  as  best  it  can.  This  is  one 
of  the  most  vital  matters  that  concerns  the  edu- 
cator to-day. 

When  the  Post- War  Committee  considers  the 
question  of  scholastic  training  for  architects  it  can 
very  profitably  consider  also  the  training  of  archi- 
tectural engineers.  Their  work  is  so  allied  that  the 
consideration  of  the  first  alone  would  be  most  un- 


(Courtesy  of  U.  Knoedler  &  Co.) 


VOL.  cxvii  xo.  2298  THE     AMERICAN     ARCHITECT  JANUARY  7,  1920 



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['LATE    5 


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VOL.  CXVII,  NO.  2298 



JANUARY  7,   1920 



Current    N  e  ws 

Happenings  and  Comment  in  the  Fields  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

In  order  to  supply  our  readers  with  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment 
appearing  in  issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of 
actual  rather  than  stated  date  of  publication. 

Brooklyn  Chapter  to  Make  Special 

The  Brooklyn  Chapter  of  the  American  Institute  of 
Architects  passed  a  resolution  at  a  meeting  of  the  Chapter 
held  to  give  a  certificate  of  merit  to  the  owners  and 
architects  responsible  for  the  best  designs  in  the  construc- 
tion of  buildings,  store  fronts  and  architectural  operations 
constructed  during  the  year  1919  and  every  year  there- 

The  Chapter  is  doing  this  to  stimulate  artistic  designing 
for  buildings  throughout  the  borough  and,  knowing  that 
the  profession  has  suffered  considerably  during  the  war, 
believes  that  this  is  the  best  way  possible  to  arouse  more 
interest  among  the  architects  of  Brooklyn. 

A  committee  of  three  members  of  the  Chapter  appointed 
by  the  president  will  inspect  and  report  on  the  artistic 
qualifications  and  merits  of  the  buildings  and  designs  and 
report  their  findings  to  the  Chapter  as  a  whole. 

The  certificate  of  merit  will  be  given  in  recognition  of 
Brooklyn  Chapter  members  for  work  done.  Any  member 
of  other  Chapters  may  receive  a  certificate  of  merit  on  the 
same  basis  and  conditions  as  the  Brooklyn  Chapter  mem- 
bers. By  unanimous  vote  of  the  Brooklyn  Chapter  any 
other  architect  may  be  awarded  a  certificate  of  merit  for 
meritorious  and  artistic  building  operations  in  Brooklyn. 

Every  certificate  of  merit  is  to  be  given  without  preju- 
dice and  strictly  on  the  artistic  merits  of  the  design,  pro- 
portions and  general  results. 

National  Federation  of  Construction 
Industries  Presents  Plea  to  Congress 

"To  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  of  the 
United  States  of  America,  in  Congress  Assembled : 

Your  petitioners  respectfully  represent  that  they  are  an 
association  of  persons  and  national  and  local  organizations 
concerned  as  manufacturers  or  contractors  or  otherwise 
in  the  building  or  construction  industry  of  the  United 

That  the  present  condition  of  shortage  in  building  and 
structures  has  been  largely  brought  about  through  the  cur- 
tailment of  the  construction  industry  by  the  Government 
during  the  war. 

That  the  tendency  of  the  Federal  Reserve  System,  ad- 
mirable in  its  general  effect  upon  the  business  of  the 
country,  has  been  to  promote  the  use  of  capital  upon  short 
term  loans,  made  through  national  and  other  banks. 

That  the  attraction  of  capital  to  such  loans  has  drawn 
capital  away  from  long  term  loans  based  upon  mortgage 
on  real  estate. 

That  the  erection  of  the  required  dwellings  and  manu- 
facturing buildings,  by  increasing  the  plant  facilities  of 
the  United  States,  will  tend  to  increase  production  and 
decrease  prices. 

That  there  is  a  need  at  the  present  time  in  the  United 
States  for  from  600,000  to  1,000,000  new  dwellings  as 
homes  for  workmen  and  others  and  of  many  other  build- 
ings for  business  and  other  purposes,  which  constitute 
cumulated  requirements  caused  by  the  nearly  complete  ces- 
sation during  the  war  of  building  for  other  than  war  pur- 

That  the  preference  created  by  the  Federal  Reserve  Law 
for  the  investment  of  capital  in  commercial  discounts  and 
other  like  forms  of  investment  has  resulted  in  withdrawing 
large  sums  of  money  from  availability  for  loans  on  build- 
ing and  real  estate,  and  has  thus  greatly  hindered  the 
construction  industry  and  increased  the  difficulty  attendant 
upon  the  restoration  of  normal  conditions  in  the  construc- 
tion industry. 

After  careful  consideration  of  the  situation,  as  above 
outlined,  the  National  Federation  of  Construction  Indus- 
tries is  convinced  that  a  comprehensive  study  should  be 
made  of :  The  sources  of  capital  available  for  home  and 
other  building  purposes,  the  recent  withdrawal  of  capital 
from  long  term  mortgages  on  real  estate,  the  causes  of 
such  action,  the  unfortunate  results  to  the  construction  in- 
dustry and  to  those  who  desire  to  own  and  occupy  build- 
ings for  production  or  for  dwelling  purposes,  and  the  pos- 
sibility of  legislative  correction  of  the  evils  unintention- 
ally created  by  otherwise  beneficial  legislative  action. 

The  National  Federation  of  Construction  Industries 
therefore  respectfully  memorializes  the  Congress  of  the 
United  States  that  a  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on 
Banking  and  Currency  of  the  Senate  and  Ways  and  Means 
of  the  House  of  Representatives,  or  a  joint  committee  of 
both  Houses  of  Congress,  be  appointed  to  make  an  in- 
vestigation of  the  matters  above  outlined,  to  the  end  that 
there  may  be  developed  a  modern  system  of  long  terra 
banking,  complementing,  but  not  conflicting  with,  the  Fed- 
eral Reserve  System,  so  that  the  nation's  wealth  may  be 
more  completely  mobilized  both  for  times  of  peace  and  for 
times  of  emergency,  and  so  that  national  development  may 
be  promoted  during  the  period  of  reconstruction. 

ERNEST  T.  TRIGG,  President. 

The   American   Association  of   En- 
gineers on  Trade-Unionism 

In  the  present  state  of  industrial  unrest  the  board  of 
directors  of  the  American  Association  of  Engineers  has 
considered  it  desirable  to  make  a  statement  defining  the 
position  of  the  Association.  This  statement  follows: 

The  American  Association  of  Engineers  is  an  incor- 
porated organization  responsible  for  its  acts. 

The  engineer  is  the  medium  through  which  both  capital 
and  labor  are  used  in  production  and  in  industrial  de- 
velopment. The  aim  of  the  profession  is  to  advance  civil- 
ization and  render  the  highest  service  to  society.  Except 
when  their  acts  further  this  aim,  it  is  an  advocate  of 
neither  capital  nor  labor. 


Production  should  be  increased — not  limited.  The  pro- 
fession cannot  support  strikes  or  lockouts  or  any  other 
methods  that  may  benefit  any  class  at  the  expense  of  the 
nation  as  a  whole.  They  are  unsound  and  must  inevitably 
lead  to  economic  disaster.  The  law  for  supply  and  demand 
for  men  or  material  must  ultimately  prevail.  Attempts 
may  be  made  to  limit  the  supply  of  either,  but  looking 
toward  the  upbuilding  of  civilization  we  believe  rather 
in  increasing  the  demand  through  the  promotion  of  legiti- 
mate enterprises. 

Rewards  should  be  according  to  ability,  initiative  and 
constructive  effort.  Men  are  not  equal  in  these  respects. 
Each  man  should  be  encouraged  to  do  his  utmost  and  be 
given  compensation  according  to  ability  and  will  to  increase 
production  and  to  achieve  large  results. 

The  engineer,  as  an  educated  professional  man,  believes 
in  basing  his  claims  for  proper  and  just  reward  for  his 
services  upon  the  justice  of  the  facts  presented,  upon 
enlightenment  of  public  opinion,  upon  loyalty  between  em- 
ployer and  employee,  and  upon  the  underlying  funda- 
mental desire  of  the  great  majority  to  do  what  is  fair  and 
right  when  the  merits  of  the  case  in  question  are  clearly 
presented  and  demonstrated.  We  believe  in  organized  rep- 
resentation for  the  correction  of  wrong,  the  advancement 
of  the  profession  and  service  to  the  public,  but  are  opposed 
to  methods  inconsistent  with  the  dignity  of  the  profession 
and  which  would  lessen  public  confidence. 

Famous  Chateau  of  Louis  the  15th 
Damaged  by  Fire 

The  famous  and  magnificent  chateau  built  by  Louis  the 
Fifteenth  at  Compiegne  ha,s  been  damaged  by  fire.  Dur- 
ing the  war  this  great  pile  had  been  turned  to  many  uses. 
Those  who  knew  it  when  Foch  was  installed  in  a  neigh- 
boring building,  will  recall  the  curious  spectacle  of  the 
interior,  where  many  of  the  services  of  general  headquar- 
ters were  quartered.  Fortunately,  few  of  the  art  treas- 
ures had  been  put  back  in  places  in  the  part  of  the  chateau 
which  has  most  suffered.  It  is  mainly  masses  of  records  of 
the  ministry  of  reconstruction  which  have  been  destroyed. 
Nevertheless  the  damage  is  estimated  at  more  than  two  mil- 
lion francs. 

The  fire  started  on  the  first  story  of  the  chateau  and 
soon  spread  to  the  second  floor,  where  it  gutted  two  of  the 
finest  rooms  in  the  palace,  the  Salle  Du  Conseil  and  the 
Emperor's  (Napoleon  III)  room. 

There  was  a  fine  ceiling  in  the  Emperor's  room  by 
Girodet,  representing  the  figures  of  war,  force,  justice  and 
eloquence.  This  has  been  destroyed,  as  have  the  wall 
paintings  and  fine  woodwork  which  decorated  the  Salle  Du 
Conseil  has  also  been  burnt  out,  but  fortunately  the  flames 
were  stopped  before  they  reached  the  Emperor's  library, 
which  has  even  a  finer  ceiling  by  Girodet.  The  roof  and  in- 
terior of  the  left  wing  has  been  very  largely  destroyed: 

Building     Material     Exhibition     at 

A  cablegram  from  Consul  General  Marion  Letcher  at 
Christiania,  Norway,  states  that  there  will  be  a  building 
material  exhibition  from  April  19  to  May  3  at  Christiania 
held  under  the  auspices  of  the  Norwegian  Housing  and 
Town  Planning  Association.  Among  the  materials  to  be 
shown  are  those  necessary  in  erecting  residences,  such  as 
ceiling  and  wall  materials,  flooring,  tiling  for  interiors  and 

for  roofs,  heating  and  sanitary  equipment  of  all  kinds, 
electrical  equipment  for  heating  and  for  domestic  power. 
Ready  made  buildings  will  also  be  exhibited. 

American  concerns  are  invited  to  take  part  and  invita- 
tions have  been  issued  to  the  manufacturers  of  other  coun- 

Applications  for  space  may  be  sent  to  the  American  consul 
general  at  Christiania  to  be  transmitted  to  the  proper  au- 
thorities, but  the  consul  general  cannot  assume  any  re- 
sponsibility for  obtaining  such  space.  The  space  is  limited. 
The  rate  of  exhibitors,  payable  in  advance,  is  55  crowns 
for  each  square  meter,  but  a  refund  will  be  made  if  any 
funds  remain  at  the  close  of  the  exhibit.  No  space  may  be 
secured  after  Feb.  15.  The  allotments  of  space  is  in  the 
hands  of  the  committee,  both  as  to  the  amount  of  space 
and  the  location. 

Fire  Losses  in  the  United  States  and 

The  Journal  of  Commerce  (New  York)  prints  the  fol- 
lowing table  of  fire  losses  in  the  United  States  and  Can- 
ada by  years  since  1879 : 

1919 $269,000,775       1898 $119,650,500 

1918 317,014,385      1897 110,319,650 

IQI? 267,273,140      1896 115,655,500 

1916 231,442,995      1895 129,835,700 

1915 182,836,200       1894 128,246,400 

I9M 235,591,350      1993 156,445375 

1913 224,728,350      1892 151,516,000 

1912 225,320,900      1891 143,764,000 

1911 234,337,250      1890 108,893,700 

1910 234,470,650      1889 123,046,800 

1909 203,649,200       1888 110,885,600 

1908 ; . . .  238,562,250     1887 120,283,000 

1907 215,671,250     1886 104,924,700 

1906 459,710,000     1885 102,818,700 

1905 175,193,800     1884 110,108,600 

1004 252,554,050      1883 110,149,000 

1003 156,195,700      1882 84,505,000 

1902 149,260,850      1881 81,280,000 

1901 164,347,450      1880 74,643,400 

1900 163,362,250      1879 77,703,700 

1899 136,773,200 

Total  for  41  years $7,031,066,820 

The  losses  for  December  were  $27,366,500,  to  be  com- 
pared with  $41,737,750  for  December,  1918,  and  $26,360,- 
,300  for  December,  1917. 

A   Special  Exhibition  of  Reproduc- 
tions Selected  by  a  Jury 
of  Experts 

That  any  great  organization  should  undertake  a  coun- 
try-wide campaign  under  the  slogan  "Art  in  Every  Home" 
is  a  novelty  in  American  life.  Yet  under  this  significant 
motto  The  American  Federation  of  Arts,  a  national  or- 
ganization with  225  chapters  (some  of  which  number  as 
many  as  800  members),  and  thousands  of  individual  mem- 
bers in  all  parts  of  the  country,  has  grouped  a  series  of 
efforts  for  the  improvement  of  American  home  furnish- 
ings. It  has  just  announced  an  exhibition  of  prints  in 
color  and  photographs  suitable  for  home  decoration.  The 
prints  in  question  have  been  selected  by  a  jury  of  experts. 
Every  taste  and  fancy  of  the  individual  may  be  satisfied  in 
this  exhibition :  history,  mythology,  chivalry,  love,  the 
home,  childhood,  music,  patriotism,  nature  in  all  forms, 
figure  landscape  and  sea  subjects,  in  fact  subjects  eminent- 



ly  suitable  for  any  home  are  there,  and  at  a  figure  within 
reach  of  every  purse.  Some  300  subjects  will  be  shown,  the 
great  majority  of  them  being  by  American  artists.  There 
will  also  be  a  small  group  of  foreign  subjects,  as  well  as 
a  number  of  reproductions  of  famous  paintings  by  old 

There  is  also  an  exceptionally  good  series  of  photo- 
graphs, among  them  a  selection  from  paintings  in  the 
Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art,  published  by  the  museum  as 
part  of  its  extensive  educational  work. 

The  exhibition  will  be  held  at  the  Sage  Foundation 
Building,  130  East  Twenty-second  Street,  Jan.  II  to  25. 
There  will  be  no  charge  for  admission. 

This  exhibition  will  form  one  of  a  number  sent  on  tour 
throughout  the  country  by  The  American  Federation  of 
Arts,  thirty  exhibitions  of  paintings,  prints,  crafts,  war 
memorials,  architecture,  etc.,  etc.,  being  on  the  road  all  the 
time,  each  being  shown  in  a  different  city  each  month,  thus 
reaching  some  360  cities  each  year. 

The  present  exhibition  of  prints  for  home  decoration  is 
the  first  step  in  a  country-wide  campaign  which  will  ulti- 
mately embrace  many  other  aspects  of  home  decoration, 
such  as  textiles,  pottery,  etc. 

Bridgeport  Chamber  Attacks  Some 

The  Smoke  Abatement  Commission  of  the  Bridgeport: 
Chamber  of  Commerce  sent  the  following  letter  to  the 
major  coal  users  in  Bridgeport  in  an  effort  not  only  to 
solve  the  smoke  problem,  but  to  relieve  the  shortage  of 


As  a  big  user  of  coal  you  have  a  primary  interest  in 
smoke  abatement,  and  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  is 
anxious  that  this  problem  be  tackled  by  those  who  are 
at  once  interested  and  informed. 

The  question  of  smoke  pollution,  with  its  consequent 
effect  upon  health,  cleanliness  and  fog,  has  occupied  many 
municipalities'  attention,  sometimes  resulting  in  stringent 
smoke  nuisance  laws,  which  are  difficult  to  meet  and  usually 
costly  in  the  enforced  alteration  of  equipment. 

Furthermore,  the  fuel  situation  is  not  in  a  satisfactory 
state,  as  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  prices  have  not  gone 
down  from  their  war-time  level,  and  in  all  probability  will 
rise  still  further. 

The  improvement  of  efficiency,  which  is  necessarily  the 
result  of  proper  smoke  elimination,  will  naturally  help  to 
relieve  the  situation  in  shortage  of  fuel,  much  along  the 
same  lines  as  those  so  successfully  pursued  by  the  local 
Fuel  Administration  Committees. 

The  Chamber  of  Commerce  believes  that,  following  the 
example  of  Pittsburgh,  much  can  be  done  by  the  manu- 
facturers to  save  their  own  money  and  anticipate  the 
possibility  of  undesirable  smoke  restriction  laws. 

We  are  confident  the  enclosed  outline  will  suggest  a 
reasonable  approach  to  the  problem,  and  that  you  will  be 
glad  to  join  with  the  other  major  industries  of  the  city 
in  its  solution. — Very  truly, 


Seward  B.  Price, 
Executive  Secretary. 

A  questionnaire  covering  the  operation  of  steam  boiler 
plants  accompanied  the  letter,  as  well  as  the  outline  re- 
ferred to,  which  is  entitled  "Outline  of  Proposed  Organ- 
ization and  Work  of  a  Smoke  Commission."  The  Bridge- 

port Chamber  of  Commerce  will  be  glad  to  supply  copies 
of  the  questionnaire  and  outline  to  any  who  may  inquire 
for  them. 

The  Smoke  Abatement  Commission  includes  thirty 
power  engineers,  who  are  undertaking  the  work  of  smoke 
abatement  in  the  Bridgeport  district  in  a  most  thorough 
manner.  The  Chamber's  industrial  engineer  has  specialized 
in  combustion  and  is  well  qualified  to  lead  the  movement. 

The  Mosque  in  the  Agra  Fort 

Among  the  most  beautiful  of  Shah  Jahan's  sculptured 
monuments  is  the  Pearl  Mosque  at  Agra,  states  Gertrude 
Emerson  in  Asia.  The  entrance  gateway  of  red  sandstone 
contrasts  effectively  with  the  interior  of  white  and  blue- 
veined  marble.  An  inscription  in  letters  of  black  marble 
slates  that  this  mosque  may  be  likened  to  a  precious  pearl, 
for  no  other  mosque  is  similarly  lined  with  marble.  The 
Indian  influence  upon  Mohammedan  architecture  of  this 
period  is  evidenced  in  the  lotus  petal  cap  decorating  the 
domes  and  in  the  purely  Hindu  tinials,  legitimate  Moham- 
medan mosques  bearing  instead  the  simple  spire  with  the 
star  and  crescent.  The  foliated  arches  come  from  a  Bud- 
dhist source,  symbolizing  the  lotus  leaf-shaped  aura  around 
the  body  of  Gautama.  The  pointed  upper  foliation  is 
derived  from  the  shape  of  the  leaf  of  the  bodhi  or  pipul 
tree,  under  which  Gautama  attained  to  enlightenment  and 
Buddahood,  and  is  commonly  used  in  Buddhist  idolatry 
to  indicate  the  nimbus  around  the  head.  The  master 
builders  of  Mogul  days  were  chiefly  Indians  from  Bengal, 
and  since  they  were  artists  and  artisans  rather  than  me- 
chanical workmen,  much  of  the  inspiration  of  the  archi- 
tecture of  this  period  must  be  credited  to  them. 

Fire  Destroys  New  York's  Fine^Arts 

A  fire,  the  origin  of  which  is  attributed  to  a  short  cir- 
cuit of  electric  wires,  totally  wrecked  the  Vanderbilt  Gal- 
•leries  and  the  Fine  Arts  building,  215  West  Fifty-seventh 
street,  in  this  city,  on  the  morning  of  January  30.  The 
exhibition  of  the  Architectural  League  of  New  York  had 
been  completed  in  all  its  details  and  was  ready  for  the 
opening  ceremonies  of  the  evening.  It  was  completely 
destroyed.  Full  particulars  of  this  most  regrettable  hap- 
pening, together  with  complete  description  and  illustration 
of  the  exhibition  will  appear  in  a  later  issue  of  THE 

Serbians  Again  Making  Rugs 

Once  more  Serbians  are  taking  up  the  making  of  rugs 
and  tapestries,  which  was  one  of  their  principal  occupa- 
tions before  the  war.  Serbian  rugs  have  ever  been  noted 
for  the  richness  of  their  color  and  design  as  well  as  the 
durability  of  their  dyes.  Though  the  country  has  suffered 
much  from  its  seven  years  of  warfare  and  pillage,  the 
knowledge  of  weaving  and  dyeing  has  been  preserved. 

Serbian  women  have  organized  a  school  of  weaving  and 
here  they  work  almost  entirely  at  hand  looms.  Red  Cross 
workers,  who  by  feeding  and  clothing  the  suffering  popu- 
lation helped  them  to  re-establish  their  normal  occupa- 
tions, are  bringing  back  samples  of  rugs  and  tapestries 
to  this  country.  In  making  a  market  for  the  Serbian 
wares  the  Red  Cross  Commission  is  fulfilling  its  object, 
which  includes  not  only  the  performance  of  relief  work, 
but  the  establishment  of  means  whereby  future  relief  will 
be  unnecessary. 


Competition  for  Design  for  Archi- 
tects' Certificate,  State  of 

The  board  of  examiners  of  architects  in  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania  propose  to  hold  a  competition  for  the  pur- 
pose of  securing  a  design  for  a  certificate  of  registration. 

All  architects,  draftsmen  or  other  designers  are  eligible 
to  compete.  Designs  must  be  delivered  to  the  secretary 
of  the  commission,  M.  I.  Kast,  222  Market  Street,  Harris- 
burg,  Pa.,  on  or  before  April  I,  1920.  The  first  prize  will 
be  $200,  second  prize  $100.  Competition  program  may 
be  had  on  application  to  the  secretary.  The  State  Board 
of  Examiners  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  is  composed 
as  follows:  John  Hall  Rankin,  president;  M.  I.  Kast,  sec- 
retary; Clarence  W.  Brazer,  Edward  Stotz  and  Edward 
H.  Davis. 

Back  to  the  Farm  Movement  Noted 

According  to  a  report  just  issued  by  the  Vocational 
Summary  it  appears  that  the  back  to  the  farm  move- 
ment has  started  in  earnest. 

The  report  states  that  19,859  pupils  over  the  country 
were  enrolled  in  agricultural  subjects  in  vocational  schools 
during  1918  and  1919. 

The  report  further  states  that  this  is  an  increase  of 
4442  students  being  trained  in  this  subject.  It  is  interest- 
ing to  note  that  this  is  only  the  second  year  in  which 
practical  instruction  of  this  sort  has  been  within  reach 
of  the  average  child  of  school  age. 

The  Bureau  of  the  Census  approximates  an  increase  of 
one  million  farms  in  the  United  States  during  the  last 
ten  years.  This  increase,  together  with  the  increase  of 
scientifically  trained  men  to  operate  them,  will  secure 
the  future  of  agricultural  America. 

Foreign  Trade  Convention  to  Be  Held 
in  San  Francisco 

Notices  have  been  received  from  the  National  Foreign 
Trade  Council,  New  York,  of  the  Seventh  National  For- 
eign Trade  Convention  which  is  to  be  held  in  San  Fran- 
cisco on  May  12  to  15,  1920.  Emphasis  is  placed  on  the 
fact  that  this  will  be  the  Council's  "First  World's  Con- 
ference of  American  Foreign  Traders,"  and  preparations 
are  being  made  to  welcome  a  large  number  of  American 
traders  living  and  doing  business  abroad. 

In  the  plans  of  the  convention  provision  is  made  for  a 
series  of  group  sessions,  whereby  the  interests  of  each 
country  will  be  discussed  and  promoted. 

This  annual  convention  of  the  National  Foreign  Trade 
Council  is  a  real  business  conference,  planned  and  di- 
rected on  a  business  schedule.  When  a  trader  signifies 
his  intention  of  attending  the  convention  he  is  invited,  in 
advance  of  the  meeting  itself,  to  state  the  problem  of 
foreign  trade  confronting  his  business.  His  problem  then 
is  given  to  the  organizer  of  a  special  group  session,  or  to 
special  trade  advisors,  in  advance  of  the  meeting.  The 
result  is  that  the  question  is  discussed  from  all  angles  by 
the  foremost  specialists  in  the  field,  and  it  remains  for  the 
person  interested  to  profit  by  the  concrete  answer. 

For  further  information  on  the  subject  of  the  conven- 
tion, all  interested  parties  can  write  to  Mr.  O.  K.  Davis, 
Secretary,  National  Foreign  Trade  Council,  I  Hanover 
Square,  New  York  City. 

New  York's  Smallest  Newspaper 

The  recent  appearance  of  what  boasts  to  be  New  York's 
smallest  newspaper  has  brought  forth  from  Governor  Al- 
fred E.  Smith  the  comment: 

"While  this  may  be  the  smallest  newspaper  published 
in  New  York  City,  the  work  it  represents  is  most  im- 

Better  Times,  as  the  paper  is  called,  is  being  published 
in  the  interest  of  the  United  Neighborhood  Houses  of 
New  York,  70  Fifth  avenue.  Its  diminutive  pages,  measur- 
ing only  four  by  six  inches,  are  filled  with  news  and  com- 
ment on  what  is  being  done  in  this  city  to  promote  com- 
munity progress. 

Of  the  activities  with  which  the  tiny  journal  concerns 
itself  Gov.  Smith  said: 

"I  have  been  personally  acquainted  with  the  work  of  the 
neighborhood  houses  for  many  years  and  understand  the 
great  good  which  they  accomplish.  I  am  heartily  in  favor 
of  all  its  work  and  activities  and  trust  that  Better  Times 
will  have  a  prosperous  career  in  making  known  to  the 
public  more  generally  the  activities  of  the  United  Neigh- 
borhood Houses." 

The  first  regular  issue  of  Better  Times  is  now  occupying 
a  conspicuous  place  on  newsstands  all  over  the  city.  Exactly 
like  a  metropolitan  daily  in  form,  only  about  a  thirtieth 
the  size,  it  has  attracted  much  attention. 

Better  Times  will  be  issued  monthly  and  will  contain 
contributions  from  some  of  the  city's  leading  newspaper 
men  and  artists.  George  J.  Hecht,  formerly  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Public  Information,  is  the  editor. 

U.  S.  Navy  Program  for  1921 

Three  first-line  ships,  two  battleships,  one  battle  cruiser 
and  twenty-five  other  vessels,  some  of  which  are  of  a  new 
type  developed  during  the  war,  comprise  the  program  of 
naval  construction  for  the  United  States  Navy  for  1921 
as  recommended  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  by  the 
Navy  General  Board.  The  Board  also  recommends  an 
appropriation  of  $27,000,000  for  aircraft  production  and 
experimentation.  The  report  adds :  "Unless  a  limitation 
in  the  size  of  armaments  is  reached  by  international  agree- 
ment through  the  League  of  Nations,  the  General  Board 
believes  that  the  policy  of  the  United  States  upon  which  its 
building  program  is  formulated  should  be  continued." 

Conference  on  Concrete  Housing 

Modern  practice  in  the  execution  of  concrete  housing 
projects  will  be  one  of  the  chief  topics  for  consideration 
at  the  National  Conference  on  Concrete  House  Construc- 
tion, which  is  to  be  held  at  the  Auditorium  Hotel  in  Chi- 
cago on  Feb.  17,  18  and  19.  During  the  same  week  the 
annual  meetings  of  the  American  Concrete  Institute,  the 
Concrete  Products  Association,  the  Concrete  Block 
Machinery  Association  and  the  American  Concrete  Pipe 
Association  will  be  held  at  the  same  hotel,  so  that  an 
opportunity  is  offered  each  visitor  for  attendance  at  the 
sessions  of  most  interest  to  him  in  the  several  conven- 

The  purpose  of  the  conference  is  twofold:  First,  to 
consider  the  housing  problem  in  the  United  States  and 
Canada;  second,  to  present,  crystallize  and  make  available 
information  regarding  the  most  modern  practice  in  the 
construction  of  concrete  houses  and  concrete  housing 
projects.  Every  phase  of  the  housing  problem  will  be 


News  from  Various  Sources 

France  prohibits  the  exportation  and  re-exportation  of 
roofing  slate  and  of  tiles,  as  follows :  Common  tiles  not 
pressed  and  without  flanges,  mechanical  or  interlocking 
tiles  and  accessory  roofing  materials. 

*  *     * 

Construction  is  progressing  on  the  new  Wolverine  Hotel 
in  Detroit.  This  building  will  be  seventeen  stories  high 
and  will  include  500  rooms.  The  announced  cost  of  the 
project  is  $2,000,000.  It  is  expected  the  hotel  will  be  com- 
pleted by  August,  1920. 

*  *     * 

Twenty-five  deserters  who  reached  Switzerland  during 
the  war  have  formed  a  unique  league,  the  object  of  which 
is  stated  by  its  founders  to  be  "defense  of  our  interests." 
The  members  are  chiefly  from  the  Central  Powers,  none 
being  American  or  British. 

*  *    * 

Wisconsin  farm  crops  in  1919  had  a  total  value  of 
$395,752,000,  according  to  Joseph  A.  Becker  of  the  Wiscon- 
sin crop  reporting  service.  This  is  4  per  cent  greater  than 
1918  and  treble  the  value  of  crops  in  1909.  The  acreage  in- 
creased 1.3  per  cent  over  1918. 

*  *    * 

The  London  Daily  Mail  claims  to  know  that  James 
Henry  Thomas  and  the  other  leaders  of  the  National 
Union  of  Railway  Men,  having  accepted  the  government 
offer  with  respect  to  the  demands  of  the  men,  will  resign 
rather  than  lead  a  strike  on  this  issue. 

*  *    * 

Great  Britain  is  rapidly  converting  her  wartime  exten- 
sions in  manufacturing  plants  to  commercial  uses,  particu- 
larly in  locomotives  and  railway  equipment.  Much  of  this 
extension  is  being  turned  to  the  supplying  of  equipment 
needs,  Europe,  as  a  whole,  being  heavily  in  need  of  this 
sort  of  manufacture. 

*  *     * 

With  the  acceptance  of  House  amendments,  the  Senate 
has  completed  the  adoption  of  a  bill  providing  for  the 
appointment  of  a  commission  to  pass  upon  the  practicability 
and  to  devise  plans  for  the  construction  of  a  public  bridge 
over  the  Niagara  River,  near  Buffalo,  N.  Y.  The  bill  now 
goes  to  the  President. 

*  *     * 

A  customs  union  between  Canada,  British  West  Indies 
and  British  Guiana,  such  as  has  produced  such  good  results 
for  the  United  States,  Porto  Rico  and  the  Philippines,  was 
recently  advocated  before  Cabinet  Ministers  and  Members 
of  Parliament  at  the  Canadian  Club  luncheon  by  T.  B. 
MacAulay,  president  of  Sun  Life  Assurance  Company. 

*  *     * 

Coal  production  amounted  to  544,263,000  tons  in  1919, 
compared  with  678,212,000  tons  in  1918,  preliminary  esti- 
mates announced  recently  by  the  Geological  Survey  show. 
Bituminous  production  was  458,063,000  tons,  compared  with 
579.386,ooo  in  1918.  Pennsylvania  anthracite  production 
was  86,200,000  tons,  compared  with  98,826,000  tin  1918. 

*  *     * 

The  entire  war  debt  of  America  will  be  wiped  out  in  a 
comparatively  few  years  on  the  present  basis  of  Govern- 
ment receipts  and  expenditures.  The  total  national  debt 
on  Dec.  31,  1918,  was  $25,837,000,000,  a  reduction  in  only 
four  months  of  almost  $760,000,000.  The  floating  debt  at 
the  end  of  the  year  was  only  a  little  more  than  $3,500,000,- 
ooo,  and  less  than  half  of  this  must  be  funded.  This  will 
be  taken  up  in  the  next  few  months,  in  the  opinion  of 
the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury. 

Little  progress  has  been  made  in  house  building  in  Lon- 
don, which  continues  to  be  one  of  Britain's  greatest  eco- 
nomic problems.  The  Government  is  now  about  to  offer 
a  subsidy  of  £150  (nominally  $750)  per  house  to  private 
builders,  but  the  proposal  has  not  created  much  enthusiasm. 
Treasury  now  proposes  to  empower  local  authorities  to 
issue  5%  per  cent  bonds,  from  £5  up,  free  of  income  tax 
up  to  £500. 

*  *     * 

The  distinction  of  being  the  largest  lumber  and  other 
wood  products  manufacturing  town  of  its  size  in  the 
United  States  is  claimed  for  Lufkin,  Tex.  It  is  shown 
by  figures  just  compiled  that  during  1919  approximately 
$6,000,000  worth  of  lumber  was  shipped  from  there.  Ac- 
cording to  these  figures  the  business  done  by  local  lumber 
mills  in  1919  represents  an  increase  of  from  15  to  22  per 

cent  over  that  of  1918. 

*  *     * 

Leading  Chicago  bankers  and  other  business  men  inter- 
viewed criticised  the  Government  for  excessive  and  in- 
equitable taxation,  particularly  the  excess-profits  tax,  which, 
they  say,  is  the  main  contributing  factor  in  the  present  high 
cost  of  living.  Suggestions  for  a  substitute  include  a  con- 
sumption tax,  lifting  of  the  virtual  money  embargo  to 
Europe,  so  American  business  may  profit  by  a  more  equable 
money  exchange,  and  various  means  of  taxation. 

*  *    * 

The  Norwegian  budget  for  1918-19  contained  an  item  of 
22,250,000  crowns  ($5,963,000),  to  be  expended  by  the 
Government  in  the  development  of  water  power,  in  addi- 
tion to  1,000,000  crowns  ($268,000),  appropriated  under 
special  acts.  The  corresponding  appropriation  in  the 
budget  for  the  present  fiscal  year  is  considerably  larger, 
totaling  29,972,000  crowns  ($8,032,496).  It  is  expected 
that  the  appropriation  for  the  same  purpose  in  the  budget 
for  the  year  1920-21  will  amount  to  20,000,000  crowns 


*  *     * 

In  his  instructions  to  the  prefects  of  the  ten  devastated 
departments,  M.  Tardieu  said :  "France  was  able  in  a  few 
months  to  create  out  of  practically  nothing  those  .var  fac- 
tories which  made  victory  possible.  The  same  methods 
are  to  be  applied  to  solve  the  problem  of  reconstruction. 
As  soon  as  the  list  of  the  industrial  machinery  necessary 
to  our  work  will  have  been  established  by  your  reports, 
I  am  resolved  to  take  the  necessary  measures  to  assure  its 
immediate  supply  and  to  set  all  to  work,  so  that  by  spring 
the  period  of  the  realization  of  our  work  will  start  as  fully 
as  it  should." 

*     *     * 

One  of  the  largest  ship  and  armament  building  com- 
panies in  Great  Britain  has  converted  an  extensive  shell 
plant  into  locomotive  shops. 

The  conversion  of  this  plant,  which  had  manufactured 
14,500,000  shells  during  the  war,  and  the  production  of  its 
first  main  line  locomotive  were  accomplished  within  a 
year  from  the  armistice. 

The  same  company  has  transformed  one  of  its  gun  and 
gun  carriage  shops  into  marine  engine  works,  turned  an- 
other war-material  shop  into  an  iron  foundry,  diverted 
gun  forces  to  the  production  of  marine  shafting,  altered 
armor  plate  mills  to  manufacture  ship  and  locomotive 
plates,  re-arranged  its  shipyards  so  that  their  greatest 
output  is  now  merchant  instead  of  war  craft,  acquired  an 
electrical  works  for  building  its  own  power  machinery, 
and  also  expanding  in  the  construction  of  pumping  en- 
gines, cranes,  dock  gates  and  similar  output. 




The  Sanoma  Corp.  and  C.  K.  Sanborn  Corp.  now  have 
quarters  at  149  Broadway,  Xew  York. 

E.  M.  Wood,  architect,  Alma,  Mich.,  has  removed  his 
office  to  519  Oakland  Building,  Lansing,  Mich. 

W.  E.  Hulse  Company,  architects,  have  opened  a  branch 
office  at  210  Masonic  Building,  Des  Moines,  Iowa. 

New  firm  of  architects,  McDowell  &  Greasly,  have 
opened  offices  at  207  Iowa  Building,  Des  Moines,  Iowa. 

Osgood  &  Osgood,  architects,  Herald  Building,  Grand 
Rapids,  Mich.,  moved  to  Monument  Square  Building. 

A.  L.  O'Brion,  architect,  is  just  starting  in  business  and 
has  opened  an  office  at  819  Shipley  Street,  Wilmington, 

M.  G.  Lepley,  architect,  Colorado  Building,  Washington, 
D.  C.,  has  moved  to  500  Bond  Building,  Washington, 
D.  C. 

Price  lists,  catalogs  and  manufacturers'  samples  are 
desired  by  F.  Worthington  of  253  Totowa  Avenue,  Pater- 
son,  N.  J. 

Frank  W.  Hunt  has  moved  his  office  from  Springfield, 
Mo.,  to  410  Commerce  Building,  Miami,  Okla.  Catalogs 
are  desired. 

H.  H.  Warwick,  architect,  Colorado  Building,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  has  moved  to  743  Munsey  Building,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C. 

Keffer  &  Jones  of  the  Hubbell  Building,  Des  Moines, 
Iowa,  have  moved  into  larger  quarters  at  204  Masonic 
Temple,  Des  Moines. 

E.  E.  Fairweather  has  moved  his  offices  to  &1A  Cham- 
bers Street,  Cleburne,  Texas,  and  desires  manufacturers' 
price  lists,   samples,   etc. 

Irving  R.  Brown  has  opened  an  office  for  architectural 
practice  at  552  Franklin  Avenue,  Nutley,  N.  J.,  and  desires 
building  material  samples  and  catalogs. 

Harold  Tatum,  architect,  is  now  located  at  1216  Wash- 
ington Street,  Columbia,  South  Carolina.  He  desires  to 
receives  manufacturers'  samples  and  catalogs. 

F.  T.  Uzell  of  Philadelphia,  has  discontinued  the  prac- 
tice of   architecture   and   his   business   will   be   carried   on 
by  Mr.  Andrew  C.  Borzner,  717  Walnut  Street,  Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Eugene  T.  Benham  and  William  J.  Richards  announce 

that   they  have   opened   offices   at   214  East   State   Street, 

Columbus,   Ohio,   for   the   practice   of  architecture.     Cat- 
alogs are  desired. 

The  Osborn  Engineering  Co.  of  Cleveland,  Ohio, 
incorporated  for  almost  thirty  years  as  consulting 
engineers,  has  recently  organized  a  department  of  archi- 
tecture and  is  offering  professional  services  in  that  field. 

John  P.  Krempel  and  Walter  E.  Erkes,  architects  and 
engineers  of 'Los  Angeles,  will  move  their  offices  from  the 
Henne  Building  to  suite  538-539  Bradbury  Building.  The 
new  offices  are  being  remodeled  and  will  be  occupied  by 
November  I. 

Engineer  Ellis  W.  Taylor  has  returned  to  Los  Angeles 
after  service  in  the  United  States  Navy  for  the  past  two 
and  one-half  years.  He  is  now  associated  with  his 
brother,  Architect  Edward  C.  Taylor,  with  offies  at  607 
Merritt  Building. 

WEN.  Hunter,  1306  Chamber  of  Commerce  Building, 
and  Xiels  C.  Sorenson,  500  Congress  Building,  Detroit, 
Mich.,  have  combined  their  offices  to  engage  in  archi- 
tectural practice  at  1306-1307  Chamber  of  Commerce.  The 
firm  will  specialize  in  ecclesiastical  and  institutional 

Waggaman  &  Ray,  architects,  formerly  of  1742  M 
Street,  N.  W.,  Washington,  D.  C.,  have  moved  to  1147 
Connecticut  Avenue,  X.  W.,  Washington,  D.  C.,  and  John 
M.  Donn  has  opened  a  new  office  at  1147  Connecticut 
Avenue,  Washington,  D.  C.  His  office  was  closed  during 
the  war. 

Buildings  for  Federal  Reserve  Banks 

(By  special  correspondence  to  The  American  Architect) 
WASHINGTON,  D.  C.— The  National  Lumber  Manufac- 
turers' Association  took  exception  to  the  views  of  the 
Federal  Reserve  Board  on  building  operations,  as  ex- 
pressed in  a  public  statement  recently.  The  Board  had  is- 
sued orders  to  member  banks  to  postpone  new  construction 
because  of  high  prices.  The  organized  lumber  manufac- 
turers pointed  out  the  harmful  effect  that  such  a  statement 
would  have  on  the  entire  construction  industry. 

Governor  Harding's  reply,  explaining  the  attitude  of  the 
Board  toward  construction  at  present  prices,  reads :  "The 
Federal  Reserve  Board  does  not  assume  to  be  able  to  make 
a  forecast  of  the  future,  but  in  view  of  high  construction 
costs,  which  now  confront  all  who  are  engaged  in  building 
operations,  the  Board  feels  that  it  will  be  helpful  in  the 
present  situation  if  the  Federal  Reserve  Banks,  which  can 
manage  to  get  along  with  their  present  accommodations 
for  some  time  longer,  give  way  to  building  operations  of  a 
more  urgent  character  and  avoid  competing  for  labor  and 
materials  with  those  who  are  compelled  to  build,  regardless 
of  conditions. 

"Considerable  interest  has  been  manifested  in  the  build- 
ing trades  over  the  proposed  building  operations  of  the 
Federal  Reserve  Banks,  and  in  order  that  the  Board's 
reasons  for  postponing  new  construction  might  be  gener- 
ally known,  this  statement  to  the  press  is  made.  The  state- 
ment was  not  intended  as  advice  to  the  general  public 
to  check  building  operations,  as  the  Board  believes  that 
under  present  conditions  the  problem  confronting  those 
contemplating  building  operations  is  one  to  be  solved  by 
each  individual  for  himself,  and  the  urgency  of  the  case 
will,  no  doubt,  be  the  deciding  factor  in  most  instances, 
except  where  it  is  believed  that  costs  are  going  still  higer." 

Financing  Rural  Settlers 

(By  special  correspondence  to  The  American  Architect) 
WASHINGTON,  D.  C. — The  Senate  Committee  on  Public 
Lands  has  reported  back  favorably  the  Senate  bill,  pro- 
viding for  extension  of  rural  homes.  The  bill  has  been 
placed  on  the  calendar.  It  will  probably  be  brought  before 
the  Senate  within  a  few  weeks. 

The  measure  authorizes  the  use  of  the  Reclamation 
Service  in  the  development  of  reclamation  projects  to  be 
entirey  financed  by  private  capital  or  by  the  sale  of  local 
district  bonds,  and  is  applicable  to  all  sections  of  the 

The  Department  of  Interior,  which  is  the  sponsor  for 
the  bill,  believes  that  under  its  operations  settlers  will  be 
able  to  effect  savings  equaling  as  much  as  one-half  and 
more  of  the  prices  they  ordinariy  pay  for  small  rural 



Britain    Proposes    Subsidy    to    Solve 
Housing  Problem 

The  housing  problem  in  Britain  is  taxing  the  government 
for  an  acceptable  solution.  Plans  for  500,000  new  houses 
have  failed,  for  only  a  few  score  homes  have  actually  been 
completed  since  the  armistice.  Foundations  for  but  3400 
more  have  been  laid.  A  plan  put  forward  provides  a  gov- 
ernment subsidy  for  builders  not  exceeding  £150  a  house. 
Commenting  on  this  proposed  policy  a  political  writer 

"Everybody  may  get  this  grant,  provided  he  produces 
the  house.  And  this  grant  is  intended,  as  the  Prime  Minis- 
ter put  it,  to  bridge  the  gulf  between  present  prices  and 
permanent  prices.  A  very  nice  way,  too,  of  putting  it. 
Also,  bricklayers  are  to  be  appealed  to  to  lay  more  bricks 
per  hour,  and  in  addition  municipalities  are  to  appeal  to 
local  patriotism  for  money  for  housing  loans. 

"But  nothing  was  said  about  the  probable  return.  At 
present  a  workingman's  official  house  seems  to  cost  from 
about  £750  upward.  A  rent  of  5s.  or  7s.  6d.  is  the  highest 
you  can  expect,  said  Lord  Hugh  Cecil,  speaking  of  the 
rural  districts,  and  that  rent  would  leave  a  deficit  of  some 
£40  a  year  on  the  house.  The  deficit  might  be  less  in 
urban  districts;  it  would  be  a  good  deal  less  if  bricklayers 
laid  up  to  the  pre-war  standard,  realizing  that  they  were 
building  their  own  houses.  But  the  chance  of  a  profit 
would  seem  to  depend  on  so  many  houses  being  built 
that  the  price  of  materials  would  fall.  But  the  same 
causes  would  bring  down  rents. 

"Every  one  must  hope  that  the  government  plan  will 
work,  but  the  finance  of  the  whole  scheme  is  very  vague 
and  sketchy,  and  the  House  doubts  whether  it  will  pro- 
duce the  required  houses.  There  was  a  great  deal  of  ob- 
jection to  the  subsidy.  Some  who  welcomed  the  new  re- 
liance on  private  enterprise  thought  that  advances  at  a 
low  rate  of  interest  would  be  preferable  to  subsidies. 
Criticism  was  for  the  most  part  destructive,  but  every 
one  realized  that  a  solution  of  this  problem  lay  at  the  root 
of  nearly  all  projects  of  social  reconstruction.  "Mr.  Lloyd 
George  has  never  done  a  better  piece  of  exposition  than 
that  with  which  he  opened  his  speech.  But  it  is  a  painful 
fact,  emphasized  by  several  speakers,  that  we  are  now, 
twelve  months  after  the  armistice,  no  further  advanced 
than  we  could  and  should  have  been  when  the  armistice 
was  concluded." 

Prize  Offer  to  End  Slums 

Prizes  aggregating  $6000  have  been  offered  by  Vincent 
Astor,  Alfred  E.  Marling,  president  of  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce,  and  the  New  York  Foundation  in  a  competition 
having  for  its  purpose  the  ultimate  destruction  of  all  the 
slums  in  \ew  York  City.  The  New  York  State  Recon- 
struction Commission  announced  that  this  means  had  been 
taken  of  stimulating  the  architects  and  builders  of  the  city 
to  devise  means  to  remove  the  conditions  which  had  been 
revealed  in  the  survey  of  the  congested  quarters  conducted 
by  the  commission  last  spring.  The  competition  has  been 
made  possible  by  the  co-operation  of  the  Joint  Legislative 
Committee  on  Housing,  of  which  Senator  Charles  C.  Lock- 
wood  is  chairman. 

According  to  Clarence  S.  Stein,  secretary  of  the  Housing 
Committee  of  the  Reconstruction  Commission,  there  are 
more  than  400,000  apartments  in  "old-law"  tenements,  the 
dwelling  places  of  2,000,000  Xew  Yorkers,  which  are  not 
fit  to  be  called  homes.  The  building  of  400,000  homes 
would  be  a  colossal  task  at  a  time  when  new  walls  were 

never  so  expensive.  The  problem  is  to  use  the  old  shell 
and  make  it  into  a  well-planned,  sanitary,  light  place,  fit 
for  habitation.  Large-scale  plans  have  been  drawn  of  a 
characteristic  block  on  the  lower  east  side,  showing  every 
wall,  door,  window,  plumbing  fixture,  court  shaft  and  yard. 
The  competitors  are  to  make  drawings  showing  how  this 
block  may  be  altered  to  bring  it  up  to  present-day  stand- 

A  primary  condition  of  the  contest  is  that  such  altera- 
tions must  be  commercially  possible.  The  contestants  must 
prove  to  the  landlords  that  the  rebuilt  houses  will  more 
than  repay  the  Cost  of  repairs  in  decreased  number  of 
vacancies  and  the  returns  which  will  be  paid  willingly  for 
better  accommodations. 

According  to  the  statistics  gathered  by  the  commission 
between  February,  1909,  and  March,  1919,  there  were  58,552 
"old-law"  tenements  torn  down.  At  this  rate,  it  would 
take  a  hundred  years  before  they  would  all  disappear.  Of 
982,926  apartments  in  New  York  City  in  1919,  more  than 
half,  or  587,851,  were  "old-law"  tenements,  erected  before 
the  law  of  1901  was  passed,  thus  placing  60  per  cent,  of 
the  apartments  of  the  city  in  a  class  below  the  standard 
fixed  nineteen  years  ago. 

The  competition  committee  will  consist  of  Burt  L.  Fen- 
ner,  Robert  Kohn,  Andrew  Thomas  and  Mr.  Stein.  The 
judges  will  include  the  members  of  the  competition  com- 
mittee and  Frank  Mann,  tenement  house  commissioner; 
Alfred  E.  Marling,  Senator  Charles  C.  Lockwood,  Senator 
John  J.  Dunnigan,  Alexander  M.  Bing  and  Allan  Robin- 
son. There  will  be  eleven  prizes,  including  two  firsts  of 
equal  value. 

Ancient  Art  Windows  Restored  to 

The  valuable  and  ancient  stained-glass  windows  of  the 
Paris  churches  that  were  removed  to  places  of  safety  dur- 
ing the  bombardment  of  the  capital  by  German  long-range 
guns  are  being  rapidly  replaced. 

The  wonderful  mediaeval  glass  of  Notre  Dame  and  the 
Sainte-Chapelle  has  already  been  returned,  and  now  the 
windows  of  five  other  old  churches,  Saint-Gervais,  Saint- 
Severin,  Saint-Merry,  Saint-Etienne  du  Mont  and  Saint- 
Germain  1'Auxerrois,  are  to  be  put  back.  These  are  all 
very  fine  specimens  of  Renaissance  art. 

The  windows  of  only  one  of  the  old  Paris  churches  were 
seriously  damaged  by  the  war,  those  of  Saint-Denis,  which 
were  partly  shattered  by  the  explosion  at  Courneuve. 

Pennsylvania   Law  Compels  Archi- 
tects to  Register 

An  enactment  of  the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  signed 
by  the  Governor  provided  for  the  examination  and  regis- 
tration of  architects  by  a  State  Board  of  Examiners,  to 
consist  of  five  architects,  each  of  whom  must  have  had 
ten  years'  or  more  experience  in  active  practice.  They 
serve  for  a  period  of  five  years  with  a  per  diem  allowance 
for  expenses  for  meetings  and  examinations. 

All  persons  not  engaged  in  the  practice  of  architecture 
or  known  as  architects  at  the  time  of  the  passage  of  this 
act  must  submit  to  examination  and  be  registered  by  the 
Board  of  Examiners  before  being  allowed  to  practice. 
The  board  may  accept  as  sufficient  evidence  of  competence 
a  diploma  from  an  architectural  school  and  a  statement 
that  the  architect  has  had  three  years'  satisfactory  expe- 
rience with  a  reputable  firm  of  architects.  The  board 


may  also  accept  a  certificate  of  registration  from  another 
state  or  country  having  similar  requirements. 

Holders  of  certificates  issued  by  the  board  are  required 
to  sign  all  drawings  "Registered  Architect."  The  act  does 
not  prevent  other  persons  from  filing  plans  for  building 
permits,  but  it  does  prevent  such  persons  from  using  the 
title  "Architect"  in  any  form.  Violations  of  the  law  are 
punishable  by  fines  or  imprisonment. 

Belgium  to  Build  Workers'  Homes 

The  Belgian  Government  has  decided  to  allocate  100,000,- 
OOO  francs  in  1920  for  building  workmen's  houses,  states  a 
foreign  correspondent  of  the  New  York  Sun.  This  money 
will  be  lent  to  the  local  authorities  or  approved  building 
societies  at  2  per  cent  for  twenty  years,  at  the  end  of 
which  time  a  new  agreement  will  be  entered  into. 

The  conditions  are  that  no  loan  may  exceed  half  the 
cost  of  the  building  or  a  maximum  of  6,000  francs  and 
the  rent  charged  must  not  amount  to  more  than  4  per  cent 
of  the  total  cost  of  building. 

It  is  officially  calculated  that  the  cost  of  building  in  the 
devastated  areas  will  be  about  10,000  francs  a  house.  A 
garden  city  of  100  houses  in  Roulers  was  begun  Sept.  21 
and  is  to  be  finished  in  120  working  days. 

Building  Conditions  in  Italy 

Among  other  proposals  to  stimulate  building  in  Italy, 
it  has  been  suggested,  says  the  Trade  Commissioner  at 
Rome,  that  under  certain  conditions  new  buildings  should 
be  exempted  from  taxation  for  a  period  of  15  years 
for  dwellings  for  the  better,  class  and  20  years  in  the  case 
of  tenements.  Previous  to  1914  building  companies  and 
individuals  in  Rome  constructed  from  10,000  to  14,000 
rooms  per  year,  which,  however,  were  barely  sufficient  to 
take  care  of  the  normal  development  of  the  city.  During 
the  war  of  course  private  building  operations  practically 
ceased  and  since  the  armistice  little  has  been  done.  The 
great  building  institutions  have  suspended  new  construc- 
tion for  the  reason  that  the  increased  cost  of  materials 
and  the  higher  wages  which  must  be  paid  to  workmen  do 
not  permit  their  stockholders  to  derive  a  reasonable  profit. 
Private  builders,  according  to  the  Trade  Commissioner, 
are  in  the  same  position  and  are  doing  nothing.  In  all 
the  principal  Italian  centers  of  population  the  shortage 
of  housing  accommodations  is  acute  and  strenuous  efforts 
are  being  made  to  stimulate  action  in  order  that  relief  may 
be  afforded. 

London  May  Have  Housing  Com- 

Mr.  Aldridge,  secretary  of  the  National  Housing  and 
Town-Planning  Council,  speaking  at  a  meeting  in  connec- 
tion with  the  housing  and  town-planning  exhibition  at 
Whitechapel  Art  Gallery,  London,  England,  said  that  the 
Housing  and  Town-Planning  Council  was  so  convinced  of 
the  gravity  of  the  London  slum  problem  that  it  was  pro- 
posed, following  on  a  conference  of  all  the  local  authori- 
ties of  Greater  London,  to  be  held  early  in  December,  to 
set  up  a  special  committee  for  the  purpose  of  submitting 
to  the  people  of  London  a  comprehensive  housing  and 
town-planning  policy  dealing  not  only  with  the  slums,  but 
also  with  the  development  of  the  suburbs  and  the  evolu- 
tion of  new  transit  faciities  and  kindred  questions. 

Housing  reformers,  Mr.  Aldridge  said,  were  agreed  that 

the  minimum  standard  of  a  proper  family  home  was  that 
of  a  five-roomed  house,  with  bath  and  an  ample  garden 
standing  in  an  estate  properly  planned.  The  slums  of 
London,  he  declared,  must  not  be  patched  up,  but  must  be 
made  to  disappear.  It  might  take  20  years,  but  if  any 
element  of  slum  property  owning  barred  the  way  to  the 
local  authorities,  he  hoped  Londoners  would  apply  the 
dictum  of  Lord  Fisher  and  "sack  the  lot." 

Factories  should  not  be  at  the  great  centers,  but  along 
the  river,  and  the  great  trunk  lines  should  be  on  the  out- 
skirts of  London.  He  hoped  any  endeavor  to  increase  the 
number  of  tenement  dwellings  near  the  center  of  London 
would  be  steadfastly  opposed. 


Francis  Hatch  Kimball,  born  in  Kennebunk,  Me.,  in 
1845,  died  recently  after  a  noteworthy  career  in  archi- 
tecture. He  is  said  to  have  been  first  to  use  the  caisson 
system  of  foundation  for  the  erection  of  buildings  and 
was  called  the  father  of  the  skyscraper.  At  the  time 
of  his  death  he  was  associated  with  George  K.  Thompson 
in  New  York,  with  whom  he  planned  the  City  Investing 
Building,  Garrick  Theatre,  Manhattan  Life,  Trust  Com- 
pany of  America  Building,  U.  S.  Realty  and  Adams  Ex- 
press Co.  buildings.  He  was  a  particularly  successful  ex- 
ponent of  Gothic  architecture  in  this  country. 

American  Students  Going  to  French 

This  year  is  likely  to  see  a  great  influx  of  American 
students  to  French  universities,  in  the  opinion  of  H.  S. 
Krans,  secretary  of  the  American  University  Union  in 
Europe.  Mr.  Krans's  new  Paris  headquarters,  facing  the 
Luxembourg  Gardens,  are  being  fitted  up  to  receive  and 
advise  seekers  after  knowledge  overseas. 

Founded  shortly  after  America's  entrance  in  the  war, 
by  fifteen  of  the  leading  American  universities  and  col- 
leges, the  Union  now  has  thirty-three  American  learned 
institutions  on  its  membership  list,  including  Harvard, 
Yale,  Columbia,  Johns  Hopkins,  Princeton  and  other  lead- 
ing universities  and  colleges  throughout  the  United  States. 

"Paris  is  destined  to  become  the  brain  of  the  world," 
said  Mr.  Krans  to  a  correspondent  of  the  Associated  Press. 
"German  universities  will  be  largely  avoided  by  Americans. 
Dogged  determination  was  shown  by  one  young  New 
York  student  who  arrived  here  with  the  problem  how  to 
board  and  live  on  6  francs  a  day.  Through  the  medium 
of  the  Union,  a  French  landlady  gave  him  a  small  room 
for  2  francs  a  day.  The  young  man  cooks  his  own  meals, 
and  is  'passing  rich'  on  4  francs  a  day." 

French  teachers  and  students  are  constant  and  eager 
inquirers  at  the  Union's  Paris  home.  Many  of  them  are 
anxious  to  take  a  course  of  studies  in  the  United  States. 
Fourteen  French  students  are  already  studying  in  Ameri- 
can universities  on  free  scholarships  from  a  fund  col- 
lected by  6000  American  students  in  recognition  of  the  hos- 
pitality extended  to  them  by  French  universities  during 
the  war. 

The  Society  for  American  Fellowships  in  French  uni- 
versities is  planning  to  send  twenty  Americans  each  year 
to  the  Sorbonne  and  other  French  seats  of  learning;  nor 
will  the  Alsatian  University  of  Strasburg  be  neglected. 
Twenty-five  scholarships  for  American  girls  in  France 
are  already  filled. 


For  French  National  Expansion 

There  has  been  created,  under  official  decree  signed  by 
the  President  of  the  Republic,  a  new  bureau  to  be  known 
as  the  Office  Central  d'Expansion  Nationale,  the  object 
of  which  is  the  propagation  in  France  and  abroad  of  eco- 
nomic, artistic,  scientific  and  linguistic  initiative. 

The  creation  of  this  special  office  has  in  view  a  co- 
ordination of  efforts  in  the  various  fields  designated,  as 
regards  both  governmental  and  private  enterprises,  through 
a  central  bureau,  instead  of  passing,  as  heretofore,  through 
different  ministries.  This  service  is  to  be  attached  to 
that  of  the  presidency  of  the  Council.  Too  much  time  and 
effort  were  formerly  lost  through  lack  of  harmony  be- 
tween the  different  bureaus. 

New  Laws  Protect  Tenants 

A  law  making  it  a  crime  for  a  landlord  or  his  agent  not 
to  supply  heat,  light,  and  other  service  specified  in  a  lease, 
with  penalty  of  imprisonment  for  not  more  than  a  year 
or  a  $1,000  fine,  is  proposed  in  the  report  of  the  Lockwood 
Housing  and  Anti-Profiteering  Committee,  Albany,  N.  Y. 
The  committee  also  favors  a  law  placing  the  burden  of 
proof  on  a  landlord  or  his  agent  when  he  seeks  to  break 
a  lease  on  the  ground  that  the  tenant  is  undesirable. 

Heat  Energy  from  Air  a  Possibility 

Heat  energy  of  the 
fuel  for  all  purposes, 
of  Philadelphia  read 
American  Association 
St.  Louis.  He  urged 
to  bring  about  means 
relieve  coal  oppressed 

atmosphere  is  sufficient  to  replace 
according  to  a  paper  H.  H.  Platt 
at  the  recent  convention  of  the 
for  the  Advancement  of  Science  in 
the  scientists  to  use  their  energies 
of  "abstracting  this  fuel  so  as  to 

Sherman  Protests  Bill  to  End  Hous- 
ing Body 

L.  K.  Sherman,  president  of  the  United  States  Housing 
Corporation,  has  written  to  Chairman  Fernald  of  the  Sen- 
ate Committee  on  Public  Buildings  and  Grounds,  protest- 
ing against  the  pending  bill  to  abolish  immediately  the 
housing  corporation.  Mr.  Sherman  expressed  the  belief 
that  the  corporation  should  be  permitted  to  proceed  with 
the  sale  of  housing  projects  so  that  it  may,  on  June  30, 
1920,  turn  over  its  affairs  in  an  orderly  manner  to  its  suc- 

Weekly  Review  of  Construction  Field 

Comment  on  General  Condition  of  Economics  with  Reports  of  Special 

Correspondents  in  Prominent  Regional  Centers,  Late 

Quotations  in  Building  Material  Field 

THE  reports  from  the  various  special  correspondents  in 
regional  centers,  as  well  as  the  quotations  on  building 
materials,  printed  in  this  issue,  are  not  of  January  7th,  but 
are  current  with  the  present  date  of  writing,  February  ist. 

PERHAPS  the  most  serious  complication  in  the  build- 
ing situation  in  this  country  is  the  difficulty  of  secur- 
ing materials.  In  the  current  issue  of  the  Illinois  Society 
of  Architects'  Monthly  Bulletin,  Mr.  F.  E.  Davidson,  edi- 
tor, after  a  careful  survey  sums  up  present  conditions  as 
follows : 

At  present,  it  is  impossible  to  determine,  not  only  what  a 
building  should  cost,  but  to  even  estimate  what  it  may  cost. 
Nor  is  it  possible  under  present  conditions  for  any  contrac- 
tor to  be  assured  of  his  ability  to  complete  any  work  in 
time  or  according  to  a  pre-arranged  schedule. 

The  shortage  of  materials,  the  scarcity  of  transportation 
facilities,  the  present  intolerable  mismanagement  of  the 
railroad  systems,  the  loafing  of  labor,  the  unholy  demands 
of  business  agents,  the  profiteering  by  organized  interests 
•  controlling  building  supplies,  all  tend  to  stack  the  cards 
for  and  against  the  owner  and  architect  in  the  game  of 
securing  100  per  cent  of  building  output  for  ever  225  per 
cent  of  cost. 

Probably  one  of  the  chief  causes  for  this  situation  is  the 
present  shortcomings  and  future  uncertainty  in  our  trans- 
portation system.  A  telegram  from  the  Cleveland  Cham- 
ber of  Commerce  to  its  Senators  in  Washington  reads : 
"Industrial  production  is  being  curtailed  here  as  a  result 
of  the  shortage  of  box  cars.  Manufacturers  and  business 
men  point  to  the  vital  need  for  immediate  increase  in  the 
locomotive  and  car  supply  if  trade  is  not  to  be  hampered, 

unemployment  result  and  the  country  generally  suffer." 
It  is  already  suffering  and  has  been  since  last  August, 
when  the  railroad  shopmen  struck.  Bank  credits  are  ab- 
sorbed in  moving  crops  which  cannot  be  moved.  Side 
tracks  are  full  of  cars  out  of  repair. 

Carriers,  which  are  due  to  be  returned  to  private  owner- 
ship, are  earning  only  fractions  of  the  net  income  guar- 
anteed by  the  Government.  If  the  Government  continues 
its  support  at  the  present  rate  and  the  situation  continues 
to  drag  along,  there  is  no  relief  in  sight  for  our  needs  of 
the  present  and  of  the  immediate  future. 

THE  increase  of  carriers'  expenses  has  been  enor- 
mous, the  increase  of  the  freight  rates  has  been  com- 
paratively slight.  That  good  and  generous  father  to  us  all — 
the  Government — pays  the  difference.  It  is  worthy  of  re- 
mark that  the  sharpest  increase  in  commodity  costs  was  late 
in  the  year  1915.  There  was  no  material  increase  in  rates 
until  August,  1917.  From  that  time  the  increase  in  com- 
modity prices  was  very  gradual.  The  average  commodity 
value  of  a  ton  of  freight  in  1919  has  been  $119,  as  com- 
pared with  $56  in  1914.  The  average  freight  charge  has 
been  $2.80  as  against  $2.00  in  1914.  The  increase  in  the 
cost  of  the  average  ton  has  been  $63,  while  the  increase 
in  freight  charges  has  been  80  cents.  Considering,  there- 
fore, the  tremendous  increases  which  the  railroads  have 
had  to  pay  for  wages,  they  naturally  expect  that  with  the 
end  of  Government  regime  they  will  be  given  some  relief. 

This,  it  is  believed,  is  what  the  carriers  want,  and  that  it 
is  the  trend  of  business  everywhere  to  stand  on  its  own 
feet,  and  that  that  is  what  the  peope  want. 

With    this    transportation    muddle    satisfactorily    settled 


and  the  factories  relieved  of  uncertainty  as  to  securing 
supplies  and  shipping  their  product,  the  occasion,  at  least, 
for  shortage  and  in  some  cases  absolute  want  of  material 
will  be  alleviated. 

The  impossibility  of  securing  dependable  quotations  of 
prices  is  another  matter.  There  is  first  the  continual  in- 
crease of  costs  for  manufacturers'  labor.  So  much  has 
been  said  and  written  on  this  subject  that  we  are  still  in 
a  turmoil  and  still  hot,  but  nothing  in  the  way  of  a  solu- 
tion which  is  constructive  and  stabilizing,  has  been  offered, 
except  the  Board  of  Jurisdictional  Award. 

There  is  a  reduction  in  the  number  of  strikes  and  a 
realization  by  the  working  men  that  the  problem  is  not  the 
simple  matter  of  demand  as  they  had  evidently  grown  to 
believe.  There  are  tangible  evidences  of  a  co-operation 
between  the  managers  and  the  more  sober  element  of  labor 
in  England  and  on  the  Continent  which  will  doubtless  be 
reflected  to  this  country. 

Another  cause  of  hysterical  prices  is  the  intense  specu- 
lation which  runs  through  our  whole  financial  fabric  as 
a  natural  result  of  its  inflation.  The  Federal  Exchange 
Banks  have  made  one  or  two  ineffectual  attempts  to  cope 
with  this  evil.  They  are  now  ready  to  start  upon  a 
broader  policy  which  »s  being  discussed  at  a  conference 
in  Chicago. 

And  another  cause,  perhaps  the  most  forceful  of  all,  is 
so  obvious  that  it  seems  unnecessary  to  mention  it:  the 
unprecedented  demand. 

Figuring  the  cost  of  the  total  building  during  1919  in 
the  States  east  of  the  Missouri  and  north  of  the  Ohio 
rivers  reported  to  the  F.  W.  Dodge  Co.  at  $2,500,000,000, 
their  Mr.  Miller  estimates  the  1920  contracts  will  aggregate 

(By  special  correspondence  to  The  American  Architect) 


Perhaps  the  one  big  thing  of  interest  in  the  archi- 
tectural field  in  Chicago  just  now,  aside  from  the  in- 
crease in  building,  is  the  work  of  the  zoning  committees. 
Discussion  of  the  zoning  plan  for  Chicago  has  been  under 
way  ever  since  the  visit  here  in  December  of  Chairman 
Bassett  of  the  New  York  Zoning  Commission.  It  is  ex- 
pected that  reports  will  be  made  public  shortly. 

One  of  the  committees  whose  report  will  be  submitted 
to  the  city  authorities  in  the  near  future  represents  the 
local  architects'  organization. 

The  plan  which  at  present  seems  to  be  attracting  most 
attention  and  which  is  under  consideration  by  the  City 
Council  provides  for  a  commission  of  eighteen  members. 
to  be  made  up  of  representatives  of  the  city  administra- 
tion, city  council  and  citizens  generally.  It  is  proposed  to 
make  a  wide  survey  of  the  entire  city  to  determine  the 
future  need  of  Chicago  in  an  industrial  and  residential 
way  and  to  determine  the  best  character  of  development 
in  the  various  zones  to  be  agreed  upon.  The  work  has 
been  fostered  by  the  Chicago  Plan  Commission  for  some 

As  to  the  building  situation:    Local   architects  express 

themselves   as   satisfied   that   prices   of   building   materials 

have  about  reached  their  peak.     Labor  is  scarce,  however, 

the  prediction  is  made  that  there  will  be  a  very  slow 

reduction  in  price  levels  for  the  next  two  or  three  years 

probably  longer,  in  both  later  and  materials. 

The  labor  situation  in  the  building  industry  promises  a 

lition  of  greater  stability  during  the  coming  year    be- 

e   of  the  organized   dealings  between   employers   and 

employees  with   full  recognition  of  the  term  contract  and 

itration  principles.     Statistics  show  that  95  per  cent  of 

ic  number  of  strikes  and  75  per  cent  of  the  days  of  idle- 

•   building  trades   have  occurred   through   con-  between  wage  earners  themselves,  as  to  which 

should  do  the  work.     Only  5  per  cent  of  the  strikes 

on  questions  between  employer  and  employee 

(By  special  correspondence  to  The  American  Architect) 


Source  of  supply  and  delivery  of  materials  on  hand 
are  the  most  serious  difficulties  which  the  architect 
and  building  contractor  have  to  face  in  this  section. 
Prices  in  practically  all  commodities  are  steadily 
rising  and  there  is  constant  pressure  being  brought  to  bear' 
on  the  prospective  builder  in  regard  to  the  advisability  of 
not  putting  off  work  any  longer.  Even  at  the  present  time 
it  is  necessary  to  place  orders  considerably  in  advance  of 
the  time  they  are  needed,  and  the  number  of  large  con- 
tracts looming  up  for  the  downtown  section  of  San 
Francisco  leads  the  contractor  to  believe  that  the  situation 
will  not  be  improved  upon  for  several  months  at  least. 
The  demand  arising  from  the  proposed  erection  of  several 
large  office  buildings,  together  with  the  growing  amount 
of  smaller  commercial  structures  which  are  planned  for 
early  1920  building,  and  the  hundreds  of  residences  of  all 
types,  is  bound  to  keep  somewhat  ahead  of  the  supply,  ac- 
cording to  the  opinions  expressed  by  the  leading  builders 
of  the  State. 

Long-term  loans  of  large  amount  are  offered  here  in 
San  Francisco  in  order  to  encourage  the  reconstruction 
period  to  the  greatest  possible  extent,  with  the  argument 
of  advancing  prices  ever  kept  before  the  public. 

High  rents  and  scarcity  of  proper  housing  facilities  in 
the  city  districts  are  stimulating  suburban  real  estate 
activities  and  from  the  outlying  regions  of  this  city  come 
reports  of  constantly  increasing  construction  work. 

Both  brick  and  clay  material  manufacturers  and  lumber 
men  state  that  they  are  behind  on  production.  Lumber 
mills  in  this  State  kept  the  1919  season  open  as  long  as 
possible  and  are  planning  to  commence  operations  earlier 
than  ever  this  year. 

(By  special  correspondence  to  The  American  Architect) 


The  fir  lumber  market  and  the  car  supply  are  synony- 
mous. Responding  to  urgent  pleas  of  manufacturers 
in  this  territory,  the  car  service  department  has  been 
ordering  cars  west,  and  there  are  to-day  more  cars 
on  the  transcontinental  lines  bound  for  the  lumber  terri- 
tory than  at  any  time  for  a  year.  Plenty  of  cars  mean 
not  only  a  halt  in  the  upward  tendency  of  the  lumber 
market,  but  a  probable  decline. 

The  mills  hold  unfilled  orders  for  the  Eastern  and  Middle 
Western  building  trade  for  12,000  carloads.  Should  the 
supply  of  cars  jump  to  80  per  cent  of  normal,  as  has  been 
promised  by  the  car  service  department  of  the  railroad 
.  administration,  the  market  will  ease.  It  is  the  history  and 
philosophy  of  the  fir  lumber  trade  that  where  cars  are 
being  supplied  for  loading  with  reasonable  promptness, 
and  volume  manufacturers  become  uneasy  and  some  of 
the  big  mills  cut  prices.  During  the  past  week  the  car 
supply  has  increased  perceptibly,  and  this  fact  alone  has 
tended  to  check  down  the  speedy  and  arbitrary  strength  in 
quotations.  In  their  telegram  to  Washington  for  relief, 
the  mills  placed  the  responsibility  for  the  high  lumber 
market  on  the  car  service  department.  Obviously  prices 
must  fall  when  the  car  supply  increases  and  the  mills  are 
able  to  make  shipments. 


Department  of  Architectural 


The  Architectural  Engineer 

Being  a  Discussion  of  the  Inter-Professional  Relations  of  the  Architect,  the 
Architectural  Engineer  and  the  Engineer 

By  R.  \V.  YARDLEY,  A.  I.  A.,  Mem.  A.  S.  M.  E* 

AT  the  conclusion  of  an  address  given  by  the 
writer  to  a  class  of  engineering  students,  the 
following  question  was  asked  evidently  in  a  face- 
tious spirit:  "If  I  understand  you  correctly,  all  that 
is  necessary  to  prepare  oneself  to  bs  an  architec- 
tural engineer  is  to  complete  courses  of  study  in 
civil,  mechanical  and  electrical  engineering  in  some 
approved  university ;  then  to  spend  a  couple  of 
years  with  a  firm  of  reinforced  concrete  engineers, 
a  like  period  in  the  drafting  room  of  a  structural 
engineer,  likewise  with  a  firm  specializing  in  the 
design  of  heating,  ventilating  or  power  plants,  and 
some  time  devoted  to  superintending  all  these  kinds 
of  work.  After  one  has  completed  such  a  program 
of  work,  would  he  properly  qualify  as  an  archi- 
tectural engineer?"  After  the  laughter  had  sub- 
sided the  reply  was  made  that  he  might  qualify 
provided  he  did  not  specialize  too  much  in  any  one 
branch  and  if  during  his  spare  time  he  worked 
in  an  architectural  office. 

This  question  brings  up  several  interesting  phases 
of  the  subject  of  architectural  engineering,  and 
architects  may  well  ask,  what  is  an  architectural 
engineer,  what  are  his  necessary  qualifications  and 
duties,  and  is  he  necessary  to  the  practice  of  archi- 
tecture? \Ye  will  consider  these  questions  in  the 
reverse  order. 

It  is  not  intended  to  reopen  the  controversy  con- 
cerning the  action  of  the  Government  in  calling 
the  engineering  fraternity  to  control  the  major  por- 
tion of  its  construction  activities  during  the  war, 
but  is  it  not  probable  that  this  was  due  largely  to  an 
impression  that  had  been  fostered  by  the  architects 
themselves?  For  many  years  past  the  architect  has 
taken  every  opportunity,  and  justly  so,  to  empha- 
size the  idea  in  the  minds  of  the  public  that  the 
work  of  the  architect  is  that  of  an  artist  and  de- 
signer and  that  it  is  not  that  of  an  engineer  or  a 

•Of    Perkin§,    Fellows    and    Hamilton,    Architects,    Chicago. 

constructor.  Construction  has  not  been  entirely 
sacrificed  by  architects,  but  many  have  looked  upon 
it  as  a  necessary  evil  that  should  be  concealed  as 
much  as  possible.  The  constructional  and  mechani- 
cal parts  of  a  building  can  nearly  always  be  de- 
signed so  as  to  provide  for  the  needs  of  almost 
every  conceivable  condition  that  may  be  imposed, , 
and  it  is  this  quality  of  the  adaptability  of  engi- 
neering work  that  causes  many  architects  to  design 
without  considering  the  structural  and  mechanical 

Art  is  not  the  work  of  the  engineer,  and  it  is 
entirely  proper  that  architectural  design  should  be 
first  and  engineering  second,  but  only  within  limita- 
tions in  each  which  will  not  cause  either  poor  archi- 
tecture or  bad  engineering. 

A  study  of  many  prominent  buildings  in  this 
country  discloses  the  fact  that  the  fundamental 
principles  of  architecture  are  violated  in  that  the 
exterior  design  in  no  way  expresses  the  plan,  be- 
cause the  plan  has  been  arranged  with  a  view  to 
utility  and  construction  and  the  exterior  considered 
only  as  a  problem  in  pure  design.  The  discrepancy 
between  design  and  construction  is  often  so  patent, 
even  to  laymen,  that  a  building  is  considered  as 
having  something  wrong  with  it  and  its  value  is 
greatly  decreased  on  this  account. 

The  great  advances  made  in  the  art  of  building 
within  the  past  thirty  years  have  made  it  impossible 
for  the  architect  to  produce  a  complete  design  un- 
aided. An  inspection  of  the  plans  used  for  the 
construction  of  the  greatest  buildings  erected  be- 
fore that  period  of  time  are  a  revelation  as  to  the 
limited  needs  of  structural  and  mechanical  knowl- 
edge. At  that  time  the  architect  who  was  an 
artist  was  entirely  self-sufficient  and  the  influence 
of  that  condition  has  been  unconsciously  encouraged 
among  architects  until  this  day.  As  improvements 
in  steel  and  concrete  construction,  plumbing,  heat- 
ing, ventilation  and  electrical  work  developed,  the 



designing  of  these  things  was  done  largely  by  con- 
tractors. This  often  by  the  wish  and  consent  of 
the  owner  who  did  not  then  consider  it  within  the 
legitimate  scope  of  the  architect's  work.  But  at  the 
present  time  it  is  impossible  for  the  architect  to 
evade  the  intimate  contact  and  the  responsibility  for 
these  rather  prosaic  and  often  troublesome  features 
of  buildings.  Although  often  questioning  the 
architect's  knowledge  of  these  things,  the  owner 
requires  that  the  architect  assume  full  responsibility 
for  every  item  included  in  the  structure.  This 
situation  compels  the  architect  to  give  serious  con- 
sideration to  all  the  engineering  elements  of 

This  forces  the  consideration  of  the  need,  quali- 
fications and  duties  of  the  architectural  engineer. 
The  matter  of  engineering  for  architects  is  usually 
handled  in  two  ways,  one  of  which  is  entirely 
proper  and  the  other  unwarranted.  The  first 
method  is  by  employing  several  engineering  organ- 
izations which  specialize  in  each  of  the  various 
branches  of  engineering  work  entering  into  the 
building.  For  this  service  they  are  paid  a  commis- 
sion by  the  architect  which  is  deducted  from  his 
already  too  small  commission.  In  rare  instances 
they  are  paid  by  the  client,  but  this  arrangement  is 
apt  to  be  construed  as  a  tacit  admission  of  in- 
ability on  the  part  of  the  architect  and  often  results 
in  at  first  a  loss  of  prestige  and  later  in  the  entire 
work  being  turned  over  to  the  engineers.  There  is 
an  objection  to  this  method  of  employing  engineer- 
ing service,  admitting  each  specialist  to  be  com- 
petent, in  that  their  work  must  lack  a  certain  co- 
ordination. Each  specialist  engineer  is  concerned 
primarily  with  his  own  devices  and  too  often  a 
state  of  irrelation  exists  among  the  engineering 
parts  which  is  detrimental  to  the  structure.  As 
these  specialists  often  have  their  individual  organ- 
izations, located  at  distant  points  with  relation  to 
each  other  and  to  the  architect,  it  is  apparent  that 
this  element  alone  is  a  great  obstacle  to  the  method. 
Another  similar  method,  which  is  above  criticism, 
is  to  have  an  adequate  engineering  organization  as 
a  part  of  the  architects'  forces,  which  will  be  dis- 
cussed later. 

The  second  usual  method,  an  unwarranted  and 
indefensible  one,  is  fo  secure  engineering  services 
from  contractors  and  owners  of  patented  articles 
or  systems  of  construction  without  cost  to  the 
architect.  In  this  case  the  engineering  service  is 
usually  paid  for  through  the  awarding  of  contracts 
to  those  who  have  furnished  the  services  to  the 
architect.  Aside  from  the  ethics,  this  places  the 
architect  in  the  position  of  being  often  compelled 
to  use  work  of  wrong  type  and  of  unnecessary 
expense  for  which  the  owner  usually  pays  an  ex- 
cessive price.  The  evils  incident  to  this  method  of 

procedure  are  too  apparent  to  need  discussion  and 
it  is  not  countenanced  by  reputable  architects  and 
engineers.  • 

The  ideal  method  of  handling  engineering  work 
in  an  architect's  office  is  to  have  an  engineering  de- 
partment. An  engineering  corps  which  will  render 
complete  service  to  the  architect,  as  a  part  of  his 
organization,  consists  of  a  structural  engineer,  who 
is  competent  to  design  all  types  of  steel  construction 
and  make  shop  details  for  them  if  necessary,  a  con- 
crete engineer  capable  of  designing  and  making 
complete  drawings  for  reinforced  concrete  work, 
including  steel  lists  and  details;  and  one  or  more 
mechanical  engineers,  including  those  competent  to 
design  heating  and  ventilating  systems,  power 
plants,  all  phases  of  electrical  work  entering  into 
building  work,  water  supply,  plumbing,  sewerage, 
and  sewerage  disposal  systems.  Such  an  organiza- 
tion is  larger  than  is  required  by  firms  not  design- 
ing public  buildings,  large  institutions,  office  build- 
ings, and  other  major  projects.  The  average  archi- 
tect whose  practice  is  limited  to  the  usual  com- 
mercial and  residential  commissions  can  use  a  much 
smaller  force  with  satisfactory  results.  This  is 
accomplished  by  employing  men  who  are  reason- 
ably competent  in  several  of  the  branches  enu- 
merated above. 

The  average  architect  is  alive  to  the  need  for  such 
a  service  within  his  own  organization  as  is  evi- 
denced by  the  present  demand  for  engineering 
draftsmen  in  architects'  offices.  The  members  of 
such  a  corps  have  been  referred  to  as  engineers. 
They  are  in  a  strict  sense  merely  engineering  drafts- 
men, and  such  an  organization,  without  a  competent 
architectural  engineer  in  charge,  may  be  as  disad- 
Tantageous  to  the  architect  as  is  the  turning  over  of 
the  structural  and  mechanical  work  to  a  number  of 
independent  specialized  engineering  organizations. 
In  order  to  handle  such  an  organization  there  must 
be  an  architectural  engineer.  What,  then,  con- 
stitutes this  necessary  architectural  engineer?  The 
architectural  engineer  must  be  an  especially  trained 
engineer  who  has  prepared  himself  so  as  compe- 
tently to  direct  such  an  organization,  co-ordinating 
the  work  of  the  various  expert  engineers  and  en- 
gineering draftsmen  with  that  of  the  architectural 
designers  so  that  the  completed  project  will  be  a 
harmoniously  developed  structure. 

In  order  to  do  this  he  must  be  able  to  decide 
competently  on  the  type  of  construction  best 
adopted  for  the  use  and  for  the  architectural  design 
of  the  structure,  considering  the  relative  cost  of 
all  the  types  that  could  be  used.  Such  decisions 
must  also  be  made  in  relation  to  every  branch  of 
the  mechanical  and  sanitary  equipment  and  made 
during  the  preliminary  stages  of  the  work.  To 
render  competently  this  service  he  must  be  well 



grounded  in  the  essentials  of  all  the  engineering 
factors  entering  into  building  construction,  know 
the  relative  costs  of  the  various  methods  and  de- 
vices in  use,  be  able  to  differentiate  between  the 
initial  costs  and  those  included  in  operative  costs 
so  as  to  secure  ultimate  economy,  and  be  able  to 
prepare  the  drawings  for  each  branch  in  a  manner 
suitable  for  the  use  of  the  contractor  figuring  the 
work,  the  shop  getting  out  the  materials  and  the 
mechanic  .  installing  the  work  in  the  structure. 
Above  all,  he  must  avoid  the  too  common  practice 
of  attempting  to  compel  an  article,  apparatus  or 
system  of  construction  to  function  in  a  manner  for 
which  it  was  not  intended. 

To  illustrate  the  necessity  for  different  designs 
for  similar  problems,  the  writer  would  cite  a  re- 
cent instance  in  his  ofrice  where,  within  three 
months'  time,  the  requirements  of  different  commis- 
sions required  not  less  than  seven  different  types 
of  steam  heating  and  ventilating  systems.  Among 
these  were  the  so-called  split  system  of  heating  and 
ventilating,  single  duct,  trunk  line,  re-circulating, 
and  straight  gravity  systems  of  ventilation  and 
gravity,  vapor  and  vacuum  systems  of  heating  with 
various  kinds  of  distributing  systems  of  piping. 
All  these  different  types  were  used  in  important 
public  works  and  were  required  owing  to  differ- 
ences in  conditions.  The  requirements  of  various 
structural  problems,  during  the  same  period,  re- 
quired the  designing  of  steel  frame  buildings  with 
tile  arches,  "mushroom"  systems,  combination  tile 
and  concrete  constructions,  and  "tin  pan"  and 
ordinary  slab  types  of  concrete  construction,  as 
well  as  several  slow-burning  designs  and  ordinary 
wood  construction.  It  is  only  by  considering  every 
phase  of  each  problem  that  a  logical  decision  can 
be  rendered  as  to  the  proper  engineering  for  any 
structure  and  to  do  so  the  architectural  engineer 
must  be  familiar  with  all  the  elements  embraced 
in  each  type,  as  well  as  the  comparative  costs  and 
current  market  conditions. 

Had  the  average  architect,  who  does  not  take 
engineers  seriously,  been  confronted  with  these 
problems  it  is  very  probable  that  he  would  have 
employed  some  types  of  heating  systems  and  con- 
structions that  had  proved  themselves  reasonably 
satisfactory  in  previously  executed  works,  rather 
than  have  made  an  intimate  and  intelligent  study 
of  each  particular  project.  Under  these  conditions 
the  client,  and  indirectly  the  architect,  would  event- 
ually suffer  in  loss,  in  effectiveness  and  economy. 

The  architectural  engineer  of  a  prominent  New 
York  ofrice  recently  stated  to  the  writer  that  dur- 
ing a  period  of  several  months  he  found  it  neces- 
sary to  employ  eight  different  types  of  construction 
on  various  work  in  order  to  comply  with  the  varied 
conditions  imposed  by  architectural  design,  econ- 

omical considerations  and  different  building  codes. 
All  these  designs  were  made  by  the  engineering 
force  in  his  office  under  the  direction  of  this  archi- 
tectural engineer,  the  work  was  constructed  in 
record  time  and  without  any  difficulties  or  con- 
troversies and  with  practically  no  extras. 

The  advantages  of  the  services  of  the  archi- 
tectural engineer  to  the  architect  are  self-evident. 
Through  his  study  the  too  common  discrepancies 
between  architectural  design  and  construction  and 
in  the  requirements  of  the  many  types  of  mechanical 
apparatus  and  the  provisions  made  for  accommo- 
dating them  are  avoided.  This  is  accomplished  be- 
cause the  architectural  engineer  has  a  clear  and 
reasonably  correct  measurement  of  the  requirements 
of  each  factor  before  the  final  layouts  are  estab- 
lished. This  not  only  reduces  the  work  of  pre- 
paring drawings  but  also  eliminates  the  countless 
changes  and  alterations  made  "at  the  job''  due  to 
the  necessity  of  accommodating  some  unforeseen 
condition  which  was  ignored  in  the  design,  or  the 
engineering  or  the  construction,  which  is  such  a 
prolific  cause  of  the  objectionable  "extra." 

In  addition  to  his  technical  ability  as  an  engineer 
the  architectural  engineer  must  be  a  practical,  hard- 
headed  but  broad-minded  business  man.  He  must 
be  so  well  fortified  by  a  knowledge  of  costs  and 
engineering  values  that  a  contractor  will  not  be  able 
to  make  substitutions  or  use  alternate  constructions 
of  less  value  than  originally  contracted  for.  Unless 
the  contract  values  are  so  safeguarded  the  architect 
suffers  in  the  opinion  of  the  client.  In  other  words 
the  architectural  engineer  must  be  a  combination 
of  an  expert  engineer  capable  of  working  in  every 
branch  of  engineering  entering  into  a  building,  an 
able  executive  and  a  fair  and  square,  thorough- 
going and  practical  business  man. 

There  are  those  who  doubt  if  there  are  engineers 
capable  of  fulfilling  the  requirements  as  outlined 
above.  The  fact  that  a  number  of  men  are  now 
successfully  managing  such  work  is  evidence  of  the 
fact  that  they  exist,  and  they  are  to-day  recognized 
as  leaders  in  the  engineering  profession.  They  will 
undoubtedly  not  only  continue  as  leaders  but 
will  be  found  capable  of  handling  additional 
branches  of  engineering  should  it  develop  that  any 
more  are  required  in  connection  with  this  work. 

As  building  operations  and  needs  increase  and 
develop,  architectural  practice  must  develop  apace. 
When  it  develops,  the  broad-minded  architect  will 
realize  that  an  expert  executive  co-ordinating  en- 
gineer is  as  essential  a  part  of  his  organization  as 
is  the  designer  and  there  will  be  a  demand  for 
capable  men  for  the  work.  It  is  certain  that  the 
successful  architect  of  the  future  will  have  to  im- 
press on  his  clientele  that  he  is  not  only  a  picture- 
maker,  but  is  entirely  capable  of  handling  all  en- 



gineering  problems  as  well,  and  the  architectural 
engineer  with  his  staff  in  an  architect's  organiza- 
tion is  his  only  means  of  retaining  complete  control 
of  his  commissions.  When  the  public  becomes 
aware  of  the  fact  that  any  architect  is  capable  and 
expert,  through  his  organization,  in  all  things  per- 
taining to  the  work  entrusted  to  him,  there  will  be 
no  need  of  argument  or  discussion  as  to  the  archi- 
tect being  ignored  by  his  client  in  favor  of  the  en- 
gineer. Then  the  architect  will  have  assumed  his 
rightful  position  as  the  one  in  entire  and  responsible 
charge  of  building  operations. 

There  has  been  a  demand  for  competent  archi- 
tectural engineers  for  some  time  and  it  is  increasing 
at  the  present  time.  The  manager  of  one  of  the 
largest  companies  in  this  country,  having  to  do 
with  the  securing  of  assistants  for  engineers  and 
architects,  recently  stated  that  it  was  practically 
impossible  to  secure  architectural  engineers  or 
engineering  draftsmen,  since  those  capable  of  do- 
ing this  work  either  become  members  or  associates 
with  large  architectural  firms  or  engage  in  prac- 
tice as  consulting  engineers  doing  specialized 

branches  of  engineering  for  architects.  A  number 
of  colleges  and  universities  have  courses  of  archi- 
tectural engineering  but  they  seem  to  be  unable  to 
interest  students  in  this  course  which  is  probably 
due  to  the  desire  on  the  part  of  the  average  student 
to  specialize  in  one  phase  of  engineering.  This  ap- 
parently requires  much  less  hard  preparation  and 
promises  more  ready  returns.  An  architectural  en- 
gineer must  practically  specialize  in  several  branches 
of  engineering  and  be  firmly  grounded  in  others  as 
well,  and  this  does  not  seem  alluring  to  those  who 
endeavor  to  seek  comparatively  easy  success 
through  specializing  in  one  branch. 

As  there  are  real  doctors  who  have  a  broad  and 
competent  knowledge  of  the  human  body  and  its 
ills,  so  there  are  real  lawyers  who  have  a  thorough 
understanding  of  all  phases  of  jurisprudence.  There 
are  also  those  in  vast  numbers  who  are  simply  doc- 
tors and  lawyers  and  specialists.  And  again  there 
are  those  who  are  simply  engineers  and  specialists. 
Perhaps  the  facetious  student  quoted  at  the  be- 
ginning of  this  article  was  unconsciously  correct  in 
the  inclusiveness  of  his  question. 

Unique  Construction  in  Reinforced  Concrete 

B\  W.  R.  SWANSON 

DURING  the  years  since  reinforced  concrete 
was  first  introduced  into  building  construction 
in  this  country,  this  type  has  been  gaining  numer- 
ous advocates  due  to  its  many  peculiar  advantages 
over  other  types  of  construction.  Chief  among 
these  is  its  adaptability  to  meet  varied  conditions, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  it  is  placed  in  a  plastic  state. 

A  condition  was  recently  encountered  in  con- 
nection with  the  alteration  and  extension  of  a  fire- 
proof storage  warehouse  in  Chicago,  which  called 
for  the  use  of  unusual  construction. 

The  addition  to  the  original  building  which  fronts 
on  Lawrence  Avenue  is  50  ft.  wide  by  50  ft.  deep 
and  extends  the  building  through  to  a  narrow  alley 
at  the  rear.  Certain  conditions  imposed  by  reason 
of  the  size  of  building  lot,  the  nature  of  the  owner's 
business  and  the  width  of  the  alley  to  which  the 
building  was  extended  required  a  peculiar  arrange- 
ment of  the  columns  as  shown  on  the  plan.  The 
owner  desired  to  use  the  greater  part  of  the  first 
story  as  a  shipping  court,  and  particularly  to  be 
able  to  back  his  large  moving  trucks  to  the  eleva- 
tor, located  in  the  old  building  and  approximately 
50  ft.  back  from  the  alley  line. 

Since  this  alley  is  but  12  ft.  wide,  being  one  of 

the  narrowest  in  Chicago,  and  also  on  account  of 
the  fact  that  the  building  lot  has  a  frontage  of 
but  50  ft.  on  the  alley,  it  was  practically  impossible 
to  place  any  intervening  columns  along  the  alley 
line.  The  location  of  even  one  column  at  the  center 
of  the  50  foot  width  was  out  of  the  question,  since 
a  truck  would  not  then  have  had  a  sufficient  turn- 
ing radius  to  permit  its  backing  up  into  the  build- 
After  taking  into  consideration  the  various  fac- 
tors involved  and  the  necessary  turning  radius  re- 
quired for  trucks  of  the  size  which  would  enter  the 
building,  it  was  found  that  if  the  columns  were 
spaced  as  shown  on  the  plan,  namely  set  back  8 
feet  6  inches  from  the  alley  line,  a  sufficient  turn- 
ing space  would  then  be  provided  for  all  necessary 

Had  the  wall  of  the  building  been  set  back  this 
distance  (8  feet  6  inches)  from  the  alley  line,  the 
owner  would  have  lost  a  valuable  amount  of  space, 
viz:  8  feet  6  inches  by  50  feet  on  all  the  floors 
above  the  first,  and  since  the  building  is  five  sto- 
ries high,  this  would  have  entailed  a  serious  loss 
in  the  amount  of  storage  space  possible  of  rental. 
Therefore,  it  was  most  desirable  to  provide  some 


71  '•-• x'      •• 









type  of  construction  which  would  permit  the  nec- 
essary spacing  of  the  first  columns  and  at  the  same 
time  allow  the  wall  to  come  out  to  the  alley  line 
above  the  first  story,  in  order  to  utilize  the  full 
area  of  the  lot. 

While  the  interior  construction  was  designed  of 
the  reinforced  flat  slab  type,  yet  a  cantilever  slab 
design  which  was  at  first  considered  proved  to  be 
impracticable  and  it  was  subsequently  decided  to  use 

and  lower  chord  members  of  the  truss,  had  in  ad- 
dition to  the  direct  stresses  also  to  be  designed  for 
bending  between  the  panel  points  for  the  reason 
that  the  floor  slabs  of  both  the  second  and  third 
floors  bring  a  uniform  load  along  the  entire  length 
of  the  upper  and  lower  chords. 

In  working  out  this  design,  very  careful  consid- 
eration was  given  not  only  to  the  design  proper,  but 
also  to  the  detailing  of  the  reinforcing  steel  in  or- 


a  reinforced  concrete  truss  as  shown.  It  will  be 
noted  that  there  are  two  necessary  openings  in  the 
alley  wall  of  the  second  story,  one  being  a  corridor 
window  and  the  other  a  fire  escape  door.  For  this 
reason  it  was  not  possible  to  use  reinforced  con- 
crete girder  construction.  In  addition,  these  open- 
ings due  to  their  unsymmetrical  location  further 
complicated  the  problem  because  it  was  thus  neces- 
sary to  design  the  trass  with  unequal  panels.  Nat- 
urally the  height  of  this  truss  was  limited  between 
the  second  and  third  floor  levels,  and  the  upper 

der  that  each  individual  bar,  stirrup,  etc.,  should  be 
of  the  proper  length  and  fit  in  its  proper  location. 
Special  supporting  chairs  were  designed  to  accu- 
rately support  the  steel  in  a  correct  position  and 
also  to  insure  that  proper  bond  would  be  obtained 
between  the  concrete  and  steel. 

While  it  is  not  necessary  to  go  into  any  detailed 
description  as  to  the  actual  working  out  of  the  truss 
design,  the  calculation  of  the  stresses,  etc.,  a  study 
of  the  stress  diagram  and  drawings  reproduced  in 
connection  with  this  article  will  show  that  such 


analysis  of  the  stress  and  design  of  the  members 
followed  as  closely  as  possible  to  standard  engi- 
neering practice. 

rived  at  by  adopting  the  deep  beam  type  of  foot- 
ing which  is  capable  of  simple  analysis.  This  de- 
sign .is  clearly  shown  on  the  foundation  plan.  The 

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Due  to  the  heavy  load  brought  upon  the  end  col-  footings   for  the  balance  of  the  columns  are  also 

umns  carrying  this   reinforced  concrete  truss,  the  of  an  interesting  nature  since  the  building,  except 

design  of  such  columns  and  the  footings  presented  for  the  truss  condition  at  one  end,  is  an  exterior 

an  additional  problem.    The  solution  of  this  was  ar-  wall  bearing  one  and  the  loads  are  brought  down 



and  carried  on  continuous  reinforced  concrete 
sprandrels  of  the  height  of  the  basement  walls. 
The  reaction  of  these  spandrels  are  carried  by  the 
combined  footings  shown  on  the  foundation  plan, 
the  analysis  of  .whose  stresses  are  readily  obtained 
since  they  follow  out  the  usual  engineering  prac- 



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tices  in  connection  with  the  design  of  combined 

The  completed  work  is  shown  in  the  photograph, 
and  the  enlarged  building  is  now  being  used  to  the 
entire  satisfaction  of  the  owner. 

The  architect  for  this  building  was  S.  H.  Dun- 
ford  of  the  present  Chicago  firm  of  Moores  and 
Dunford.  The  engineering  work  was  performed 
by  the  Flat  Slab  Engineering  Co.,  of  Chicago. 

U.  S.  Bureau  of  Standards  Investigat- 
ing Effect  of  Hydrated  Lime 
in  Concrete 

A  CCURATELY  to  determine  the  effect  which 
./V.  lime  has  on  concrete  is  an  intricate  proposi- 
tion; there  is  so  much  more  to  the  question  than 
was  supposed  when  the  investigational  work  was 
started  a  few  years  ago.  The  main  point  is,  of 
course,  does  hydrated  lime  produce  an  increase  in 
the  compressive  strength  of  concrete?  This  whole 
question  of  the  development  of  strength  in  concrete 
as  a  general  proposition  finally  has  been  run  down 

after  years  of  close  study  by  prominent  investi- 
gators to  a  point  where  it  is  now  definitely  estab- 
lished that  the  strength  of  concrete  depends  to  a 
very  large  extent  upon  the  quantity  of  water  used 
during  the  process  of  mixing  and  placing.  This 
is  true  whether  hydrated  lime  is  used  or  not.  The 
length  of  time  of  mixing,  quantity  of  cement,  etc., 
are  factors,  which,  of  course,  must  be  taken  into 
consideration  and  controlled  in  making  tests,  but 
as  mentioned,  the  quantity  of  water  is  the  real  big 

Another  important  factor  which  must  be  taken 
into  consideration  in  conjunction  with  the  devel- 
opment of  strength  is  the  workability  of  the  con- 
crete. These  two  subjects  must  go  hand  in  hand 
and  be  developed  together,  as  it  appears  now  that 
the  effect  of  lime  on  workability  will  determine  the 
future  action  on  this  subject. 

It  is  now  known  that  by  using  smaller  quantities 
of  water  the  strength  of  concrete  is  increased,  also 
when  water  is  used  in  quantities  which  produce 
high  compressive  strengths  the  concrete  is  not  suf- 
ficiently workable  and  cannot  be  placed  without 
excessive  labor  charges.  This  is  a  practical  condi- 
tion which  must  be  met,  consequently  the  larger 
and  excessive  quantities  of  water  are  used  in  field 
work.  If  the  lime  introduces  into  the  mixture  a 
degree  of  workability  which  permits  the  concrete 
to  be  placed  with  smaller  quantities  of  water,  then 
the  ultimate  strength  will  be  automatically  in- 

Up  to  the  present  time  there  has  not  been  de- 
veloped a  method  for  accurately  measuring  the 
workability  of  concrete  mixtures.  This  is  the  prob- 
lem upon  which  the  Bureau  of  Standards  is  now 
working  and  it  seems  likely  that  it  will  be  developed 
in  the  near  future. 

Random  Notes  on  Lime 

A  representation  of  the  Dutch  Lime  Manufac- 
turers' Association,  recently  visited  this  country  to 
secure  information  relative  to  the  uses  and  appli- 
cations of  burnt  lime  products  as  developed  in  the 
United  States.  They  made  a  special  study  of  mod- 
ern methods  of  manufacturing  and  handling  lime, 
with  a  view  to  improving  the  Dutch  lime  industry 
so  that  it  may  be  better  prepared  to  meet  the 
problems  presented  by  the  present  reconstruction 

The  commission  put  itself  in  touch  with  the  staff 
of  the  National  Lime  Association,  through  which 
an  itinerary  was  arranged  that  enabled  them  to 
visit  several  of  the  most  up-to-date  plants  in  this 
country  and  to  examine  various  types  of  kilns,  hy- 
drators,  automatic  handling  devices  and  other 
means  of  modern  lime  production  and  distribution. 


;  •<  m  ?S?.Ei:WM.n  H.!!, 



Volume  CXVIl 

Founded  1876 
WEDNESDAY,  JANUARY  14,   1920 

Number  2299 



NEW   YORK.     By  A.  L.   Brockway,   F.   A.   I.   A.     .         .         .         .         .         .         .35 

THE  PUBLIC'S  FAITH  IN  THE  ARCHITECT        .........          37 


STATE  DEPARTMENTS  OF  ARCHITECTURE        .........          42 

EDITORIAL  COMMENT         ........         .....       47 

NATURAL  INFLUENCES  IN  BUILDING         ..........          49 


CURRENT    NEWS        .............          51 

WEEKLY   REVIEW    OF   THE    CONSTRUCTION    FIELD     ........       55 


GENERAL  VIEW,  SING  SING  PRISON.     (Frontispiece) 

SING  SING  PRISON,  NEW  YORK.     Lewis  F.  Pilcher,  State  Architect.     (8  plates.) 

Department  of  Arcliilectwal  Engineering 


By    George    B.    Nichols          .         .         .         .         .      '  .         -         .         .         •         •          57 

Published  Every  Wednesday  by 

No.   243    West   Thirty-ninth    Street,    New   York 


President      and      Treasurer 



Engineering   Editor 


Board    of    Directors 

H.    J.    REDFIELD 

H.    M.    SWETLAND 




Western   Editor 

G.    E.    SLY 

CHICAGO,   Mailers  Building,   Page   A.   Robinson,   Western   Manager 

CLEVELAND,    Guardian    Bldg.  SAN    FRANCISCO,    320    Market    St. 

Subscriptions    in    the    United    States    and    Possessions,    Mexico    and    Cuba,    Ten    Dollars.    Other    Countries, 

Twelve    Dollars.       Single     Copies     (Regular     Issues),     25     Cents. 

tiMMraMi  fSBa^MEBZaiMMMMi^i^jlgg^lj^j^!^^ 


Vol.  CXVII,  No.  2299 




Introducing  Jasper,  the  concrete  finishing  expert — 




Jasper  Says: — 

Jasperite,  discovered  during  the 
war  by  tube  mill  men  when  they 
couldn't  get  Belgian  and  Danish 
imported  flints,  has  been  made 
available  for  floor  topping. 

Jasperite  is  pure  quartz;  is  4  times 
as  hard  as  ordinary  granite;  has  a 
wearing  surface  15  times  that  of 

Crushing  strength  of  Jasperite  is 
47,000  pounds. 

French  co-efficient  of  Jasperite  is 

Jasperite  forms  an  unbreakable 
bond  with  cement. 

Jasperite  is  94  per  cent  pure  silica. 

Let  us  send  you  full  particulars 
about  JASPERITE  and  its  use.. 



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The  Department  of  Architecture 

and  the  State  Architect  of  the  State  of  New  York 

By  A.  L.  BROCKWAY,  F.A.I.A. 

THE  Post-War  Committee  of  the  American 
Institute  of  Architects  could  have  saved 
itself  a  good  deal  of  speculation  and  at  the 
same  time  have  conserved  a  goodly  amount  of 
paper,  if  it  had  met  at  Albany,  New  York,  early  in 
its  existence  and  had  there  examined  and  .made  it- 
self familiar  with  the  Department  of  Architecture 
and  the  State  Architect,  Lewis  F.  Pilcher,  LL.D. 
It  is,  in  fact,  a  most  refreshing  sight  amid  the 
ream*  of  paper  covered  with  suggestions  as  to  what 
the  architect  could  and  should  do  as  a  professional 
man,  to  find  that  the  State  Architect  of  New  York 
has  been  doing,  not  writing ;  has  been  accomplish- 
ing, not  telling,  the  things  that  ought  to  be  done. 

The  war  showed  us  up  as  a  profession  in  a  way 
we  all  regret.  Aside  from  the  splendid  list — all 
too  short — of  those  who  were  given  a  chance  in 
the  housing  work,  in  some  of  the  cantonments,  in 
camouflage  work — the  great  mass  of  the  profes- 
sion found,  when  it  came  to  trying  to  offer  its 
services  to  our  Government,  that  it  was  the  engi- 
neer who  was  apparently  wanted,  and  the  archi- 
tect had  short  shrift. 

Personally,  I  think  we  have  ourselves,  in  very 
large  measure,  to  thank  for  this  attitude.  We  failed 
to  realize  what  the  public  expected  of  us,  and  we 
failed  in  making  any  effort  to  let  the  public  know 
just  what  service  we  expected  ourselves  to  render 
to  them.  This  was  true  both  before  and  during 
the  war. 

There  had  been,  of  course,  local  exceptions,  such 
as  certain  publicity  work  at  Milwaukee,  at  Minne- 
apolis and  in  central  New  York  State  by  the  Cen- 
tral New  York  Chapter  of  the  American  Institute  of 
Architects.  Being  familiar  with  and  having  as- 
sisted in  this  campaign  in  central  New  York,  of 
trying  by  paid  newspaper  advertising  and  the  ac- 

companying unpaid  news  and  editorial  comment 
furnished  by  the  papers  themselves,  to  give  to  the 
public  a  clear  presentation  of  what  the  professional 
service  of  an  architect  really  was,  and  noting  the 
effect  which  this  advertising  had  in  our  own  com- 
munity, and,  in  fact,  in  other  and  distant  com- 
munities, we  felt  impelled  to  submit  it  to  the  annual 
convention  of  the  Institute.  This  was  done  at 
Washington,  I  think,  in  1916.  Some  of  it  was 
published  by  the  Architectural  Review  in  Novem- 
ber, 1916.  I  have  never  heard  a  criticism  as  to 
the  character  of  the  professional  service  which  was 
there  outlined  as  being  what  the  architect  should 
render  to  his  client.  The  convention  gave  it  a  deaf 
ear,  on  the  ground  that  the  definition  was  ideal,  but 
that  architects  were  not,  like  a  certain  brand  of 
soap,  9944/100  per  cent  pure  and,  to  quote  another 
well-known  New  York  City  architect:  "I  thought 
we  were  a  body  of  professional  men."  Had  the 
Institute  been  able  at  that  time  to  see  itself  as  the 
Public  saw  it,  and  had  it  undertaken  to  put  it- 
self in  harmony  with  the  perfectly  evident  trend 
of  great  economic  and  sociological  forces,  it  would 
not  now  be  picking  itself  up  after  a  knock-down 
blow  and  be  looking  around  more  or  less  dazedly 
and  wondering  what  had  happened.  Now  that  the 
horse  is  stolen,  we  lock  the  barn  door.  And  so 
the  Post- War  Committee  puts  our  profession  on  the 
witness  stand  to  testify  in  its  own  behalf. 

Now  the  fact  is  that  beyond  all  question  there 
were  here  and  there  large  numbers  of  individual 
architects  who  were  doing  exactly  what  this  pub- 
licity outlined.  They  are  doing  so  to-day.  Their 
deeds  and  their  work  were  bearing  witness  to  what 
constituted  the  professional  service  of  the  archi- 
tect. But  the  results  of  these  individual  efforts 
lacked  the  force  and  strength  of  united  effort.  Like 

Copyright,   1920.   The  Architectural  &  Building  Press   (.Inc.) 


a  beacon  light  in  this  mist  of  professional  endeavor 
stood  the  work  of  the  State  Architect  of  New  York 
and  has  continued  to  this  day  on  and  along  exactly 
the  lines  that  were  presented  to  the  public  in  this 
advertising  done  by  the  Central  New  York  Chapter. 
Knowing  this  department  and  its  head  intimately 
as  I  have  since  its  reorganization  in  1913,  I  feel  it 
a  moral  obligation  to  see  that  the  work  done  there 
is  presented  to  the  profession.    The  Institute  mem- 
bers in   New  York   State,  aside   from  the  Central 
New  York  Chapter,  have  taken  very  little  interest 
in  its  work,  and  it  is  time  they  began  to  realize  the 
service  which  has  been  rendered  to  our  profession. 
This  service  results  from  the  fact  that  Mr.  Pilcher 
has  kept  always  before  him  an  ideal  of  citizenship 
and  professional  service  whose  sole  object  was  re- 
sponsibility and  duty  to  the  State.     His  official  acts 
have  demonstrated  the  proposition  of  professional 
service  not  only  as  outlined  in  the  publicity  cam- 
paign mentioned,  but  in  many  other  ways.  And  think 
of  his  problem.  Appointed  by  Governor  Sulzer  (D)  ; 
reappointed  by  Governor  Glynn  (D)  ;  reappointed 
by  Governor  Whitman  (R)  ;  and  just  now  again  re- 
appointed   by   Governor   Smith    (D).      New   York 
State  is  his  client,  consisting  of  well  over  one  hun- 
dred   individual   commissions,   boards,   committees, 
heads    of    departments,    etc.,    many    of    them    with 
shifting   personnels.     The   work   covers    hospitals, 
charitable    institutions,    prisons,    armories,    normal 
schools,  educational,  public  buildings,  regulative  and 
general.    There  is  a  State  Hospital  Commission  and 
fourteen  State   Hospitals   for  the  Insane.     There 
is  a  State  Board  of  Charities  and  seventeen  insti- 
tutions for  the  feeble-minded.     Each  of  these  has 
its  own  local  board  of  managers  and  its  superin- 
tendent.   Then  there  is  the  Prison  Commission  and 
the  Superintendent  of  Prisons.     Also  the  Hospital 
Development  Commission  and  the  Commission  on 
New  Prisons,  of  both  of  which  the  State  Architect 
was  made  a  member.    There  are  also  the  Trustees 
of  Public  Buildings,  namely,  the  Governor,  Lieut. - 
Governor,  and  the  Speaker  of  the  Assembly,  who 
have  charge  of  the  Capitol  at  Albany  and  all  public 
buildings  owned  by  the  State  in  Albany,  or  rented 
for  various  departments.     The  largest  part  of  the 
work  of  the  Trustees  of   Public  Buildings   is  de- 
pendent entirely  upon  the  State  Architect,  and  he 
is  relied  upon  absolutely   for  its  successful  prose- 
cution.    In  the  preparation  of  the  State's  Budget 
of  appropriations  for  building  construction  of  every 
character,  which  work  is  done  by  legislative  com- 
mittees and  by  the  Governor,  the  State  Architect 
is  relied  upon  absolutely.     That  is  so  because  the 
quality  of  professional  service  he  has  rendered  has 

been  so  sane,  so  carefully  prepared  upon  scientific, 
economic,  utilitarian  and  aesthetic  grounds  that  the 
men  upon  whom  rests  the  responsibility  of  gov- 
ernment know  by  experience  that  his  judgment  i? 
to  be  relied  upon  and  is  their  safeguard.  That 
work  is  preliminary  to  legislation  and  appropria- 
tion. Out  of  a  prison  condition  in  this  State  which 
was  a  scandal  and  a  disgrace  the  Commission  on 
New  Prisons  has  developed  a  program  of  prison 
construction  and  management  based  upon  the  most 
advanced  scientific  and  sociologic  knowledge  and 
data  available.  Here  the  prison  inmate  is  subjected 
to  the  most  exhaustive  observation  and  study,  al- 
most a  laboratory  process,  in  order  to  determine 
whether  his  criminal  acts  are  due  to  disease,  sub- 
normality  which  may  be  corrected,  or  to  criminal 
characteristics  inherited  or  due  to  environment. 
Sing  Sing  is  being  rebuilt  as  a  great  receiving, 
scientifically  equipped  institution,  where  classifica- 
tion will  take  place.  This  may  be  a  matter  of 
months ;  but  before  the  prisoner  is  finally  located 
where  he  belongs,  every  means  will  be  exhausted 
for  his  reclamation.  The  architecture  of  this  in- 
stitution and  of  Wingdale,  also  under  way,  is  note- 
worthy for  its  psychological  effect  upon  the  prisoner 
and  both  institutions  form  architectural  groups  of 
imposing  merit  in  composition  and  design. 

The  same  general  statement  can  be  made  of 
the  Hospital  Development  Commission.  In  the 
development  of  both  of  the  programs.  Mr.  Pilcher 
has  been  a  close  student  and  enthusiastic  co-operator 
with  public-spirited  men,  the  scientific  man,  the  so- 
ciologist, the  physician,  and  has  enabled  them  to 
accomplish  in  practical  buildings  all  of  their  ideas 
and  at  the  same  time  to  help  and  guide  these  ef- 
forts. He  has  placed  the  architect  in  exactly  the 
place  of  importance  and  necessity  that  we  profes- 
sional men  know  he  should  have,  and  he  has  con- 
vinced the  layman,  both  public  official  and  private 
individual,  of  that  fact,  so  that  they  have  the 
highest  respect  and  regard  for  the  architect.  In 
fact — and  this  I  can  supplement  by  knowledge 
which  I  have  and  which  I  cannot  now  make  public 
—I  believe  he  has  done  more  to  advance  the  posi- 
tion of  architecture  as  one  of  the  fine  arts  and  as 
a  profession  than  our  American  Institute  of  Archi- 
tects has  done  in  recent  years. 

1  herefore,  I  will  submit  in  evidence  as  "Ex- 
hibit A,"  the  Department  of  Architecture  at  Albany 
and  the  State  Architect.  I  have  no  fear  of  not 
winning  my  case.  Some  later  articles  will  go  ex- 
haustively into  the  details  of  organization  of  the 
department,  showing  the  machinery  in  full  opera- 
tion and  working  under  high  pressure  as  it  has  been 


for  the  last  five  or  six  years.  In  this  introductory 
paper  I  have  confined  myself  mostly  to  the  larger 
aspects  of  the  work  of  the  department  and  of  the 
personality  of  the  State  Architect  himself,  who  is 
responsible  for  the  present  organization  and  its  ef- 
fective work.  From  what  I  have  written,  one  can 
appreciate  why  the  Department  of  Architecture  oc- 
cupies a  unique  position  in  the  big  organization  of 
departments,  commissions,  legislative  committees, 
trustees  and  individuals  which  make  up  the  Govern- 
mental machinery  of  this  State.  At  present  writing 
work  under  contract  and  in  preparation  amounts  to 
sixteen  million  dollars.  Mr.  Pilcher,  by  his  strong 

personality,  his  high  ideal  of  professional  service, 
his  proven  strong  executive  ability,  his  high  qual- 
ity of  technical  education  and  preparation,  has  ren- 
dered service  of  such  high  quality  that  he  has  cre- 
ated a  deep-seated  respect  for  architecture  and  the 
advice  and  counsel  of  an  architect  in  the  minds  of 
the  men  making  up  all  these  different  Governmental 
agencies.  The  profession  of  architecture  through 
his  work  enjoys  a  standing  with  the  Government 
of  New  York  State  which  is  in  strong  contrast 
with  that  of  the  Supervising  Architect's  Office  or 
even  of  the  profession  itself  with  the  Federal  Gov- 

The  Public's  Faith  in  the  Architect 

His  Integrity  Never  a  Matter  of  Debate 

IT  has  been  said  that  the  architect  is  trusted  to  a 
greater  extent  than  the  physician  is  trusted — 
because  the  former  is  trusted  with  the  expendi- 
ture of  large  sums  of  money.  This  spending  is 
seldom  or  never  questioned  by  the  client,  says 
Building  Review.  Continuing,  it  adds: 

However  this  may  be,  the  point  is  that  architects 
enjoy  the  highest  confidence  of  the  public,  when  it 
concerns  the  decisions  regulating  expenditures  or 
selection  of  materials  or  specialties  that  are  to  go 
into  a  structure.  The  architect's  integrity  is  seldom 
or  never  a  matter  of  debate.  He  is  taken  at  his  own 
valuation,  as  that  of  an  absolutely  disinterested 
party  whenever  the  money  part  of  a  building  is 
concerned.  The  only  question  that  may  ever  have 
been  raised  against  him  was  that  in  some  of  his 
designs  he  has  aimed  to  create  prestige  and  glory  for 
himself  rather  than  to  produce  a  building  best 
suited  to  the  owner's  needs. 

But  as  to  his  say-so  regarding  just  what  was  to 
go  into  the  work,  or  the  amounts  to  be  spent,  his 
word  is  taken  to  be  final,  and  his  approval  is 
acquiesced -in  with  little  or  no  questioning  as  to  his 
motives.  He  is  not  suspected  of  having  ulterior  or 
mercenary  motives  guiding  him  in  the  selection  or 
naming  of  certain  materials  or  equipment. 

The  high  standing,  well  earned  by  the  architec- 
tural profession  by  its  past  acts  and  proved  and 
tested  by  long  years,  is  a  precious  asset  that  must 
not  be  lightly  ignored.  In  anything  that  is  done  by 
the  profession  in  the  future  to  further  adjust  itself 
to  world  changes  and  conditions,  its  integrity  as  a 

just  arbiter  between  interested  parties,  its  honor 
built  upon  disregard  for  selfish  profit  from  the 
operations  which  it  supervises,  must  be  maintained. 

It  is  the  bedrock  upon  which  the  foundations  of 
the  whole  architectural  professional  structure  rests. 
No  profession,  no  organization,  can  desire  a  finer 
basis  upon  which  to  establish  itself.  And  such  a 
basis  cannot  be  acquired  overnight.  Taints  cannot 
be  eradicated  in  one  generation.  Reputations  for 
character  such  as  are  enjoyed  by  architects  are  the 
cumulative  products  of  generations  of  honorable 
acts  on  the  part  of  the  architects  themselves. 

All  honor  to  those  of  the  past  who  helped  sustain 
this  high  integrity !  The  profession  to-day,  in  the 
swirl  of  world  changes,  is  beset  on  every  side  by 
temptations  to  do  as  others  seem  to  be  doing.  Its 
traditional  slowness,  its  traditional  unwillingness  to 
depart  from  custom,  mayhap,  is  the  reason  for  the 
profession's  proceeding  so  cautiously  along  the  road 
to-day,  to  find  its  way  out  under  the  new  set  of 
world  conditions  which  it  is  facing. 

The  unique  glory  of  the  architect  rests  not  alone 
in  his  practical  work  for  humanity,  the  betterment 
of  living  conditions  and  surroundings,  in  the  crea- 
tion of  objects  of  beauty  which  further  lead  to  the 
higher  inspiration  of  the  rest  of  his  fellow-men,  and 
which  lead,  too,  to  an  encouragement  of  men  to 
continue  their  efforts  toward  higher  things.  The 
architect's  glory  is  due  in  part  to  these  things,  but, 
after  all,  his  highest  honor  is  that  which  is  awarded 
him  universally — in  America  at  least — of  that  of 
being  an  honest  man,  incorruptible. 




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»  •* 


Uniform  Business  Organization  of  Public 
Architectural  Departments 

THE  educational  value  of  architecture  in  the 
construction  of  public  buildings  and  the 
consequent  care  and  improvement  of  de- 
pendents is  of  an  importance  equal  to  any  existing 
in  professional  or  scientific  fields.  The  layout  of  an 
institution  and  grouping  of  its  buildings,  the  design 
and  arrangement  of  each  building  to  co-operate  in 
every  way  with  scientific  classification  requirements, 
together  with  an  harmonious  and  simple  beauty  that 
helps  to  eliminate  from  the  minds  of  inmates  the 
fact  that  they  are  patients,  would  make  of  an  archi- 
tect an  assistant  physician  in  the  reclamation  of  the 
State's  dependents. 

The  Administrative 




Construction  and  Inspection 

Blue  Print  and  Plan  File 

All  information  and  data  of  whatever  kind  passes 
through  the  Executive  Bureau,  and,  after  a  complete 
record  is  made  of  its  receipt  and  contents,  together 
with  its  ultimate  destination,  goes  into  the  Admin- 
istrative Bureau,  which  consists  of  the  State  Archi- 
tect and  his  Executive  Deputy,  and  from  there  is 
distributed  to  the  various  bureaus  for  attention. 


One  of  the  first  steps  toward  this  end  is  the  or- 
ganization in  every  State  of  a  Department  of  Archi- 
tecture having  absolute  jurisdiction  over  all  State 
construction,  and  following,  so  far  as  possible,  a 
scheme  for  the  complete  development  of  the  needs 
and  resources  not  only  of  the  State  in  its  entirety, 
but,  in  co-operating  with  other  States,  to  develop  the 
resources  of  the  entire  country  that  the  best  results 
may  obtain. 

The  first  essential  of  such  a  department  is  an 
efficient  business  organization,  which  because  of  the 
artistic  temperamental  equation  has  been  somewhat 
lacking  in  the  past  in  the  architectural  profession. 
Following  is  a  short  resume  of  such  an  organization, 
which  has  proven  its  high  grade  of  efficiency  in  the 
State  of  New  York: 

The  department  is  divided  into  six  bureaus: 

The  work  of  the  Executive  Bureau  includes  all 
recording  of  data,  checking  of  appropriations  and 
accounts,  tabulation  of  bids,  preparation  and  follow- 
ing up  of  execution  of  contracts  and  bonds,  purchase 
of  supplies,  accounting,  clerical  and  stenographic 
work,  filing,  outgoing  mail  and  general  messenger 
service- — in  general,  all  the  executive  clerical  work 
necessary  for  the  administration  of  the  department. 

To  the  bureau  of  design  are  referred  all  requests 
for  appropriations  for  the  preparation  of  prelimin- 
ary construction  sketches  and  estimates  upon  which 
the  amounts  of  appropriations  requested  in  the 
budget  are  based ;  all  requests  for  plans  and  speci- 
fications after  appropriations  have  been  granted ; 
the  checking  of  construction  bids  received,  with 
preliminary  estimates  made ;  the  preparation  and 
estimating  of  all  plans  and  specifications  for  work 



done  under  the  Special  Fund  Estimate  system ;  the 
preparation  of  working  drawings  after  award  of 
contract,  and  the  checking  and  estimating  of  all 
changes,  additions  or  omissions  necessary  in  their 
final  analysis. 

The  head  of  this  bureau  is  a  deputy  designated 
as  the  Assistant  State  Architect,  who  has  as  his 
assistants  a  Chief  of  Institutional  Design,  and  a 
Chief  Draftsman,  who,  in  their  turn,  each  have 
under  their  immediate  supervision  a  corps  of  de- 
signers and  draftsmen,  structural  engineers,  speci- 
fication writers  and  tracers ;  the  draftsmen  and  de- 
signers being  divided  into  five  groups — the  Hos- 
pitals for  Insane,  Charitable  Institutions,  Prisons, 
Education  and  Miscellaneous,  each  group  being 
under  the  immediate  direction  of  an  assistant  di- 
rectly responsible  to  the  Assistant  State  Architect. 

To  the  Engineering  Bureau  are  referred  all  re- 
quests for  appropriations  pertaining  to  heating, 
lighting  and  plumbing  and  all  engineering  work  in 
connection  with  power  plants,  water  supply  and 
sewage  disposal  plants,  for  preliminary  sketches  and 
estimates  upon  which  the  final  amounts  appropriated 
in  the  budget  are  based ;  all  requests  for  plans  and 
specifications,  after  appropriations  have  been 
granted ;  the  checking  of  engineering  bids  received 
with  the  preliminary  estimates  made ;  the  prepara- 
tion and  estimating  of  all  plans  and  specifications 
for  engineering  work  done  under  the  Special  Fund 
Estimate  system ;  the  preparation  of  working  draw- 
ings after  contract  is  awarded,  and  the  checking 
and  estimating  of  all  changes,  additions  or  omissions 
necessary  in  their  final  analysis. 

The  head  of  this  bureau  is  a  deputy  designated 
as  Chief  Engineer  and  has  as  his  first  assistant  an 
assistant  Chief,  who  has  general  supervision  of  the 
mechanical  draftsmen  and  special  charge  of  the 
heating  and  ventilating  engineering  group ;  the  two 
other  groups  being  the  sanitary  and  electrical  di- 
visions, each  in  direct  charge  of  an  engineer  work- 
ing under  the  supervision  of  the  Chief  Engineer  and 
his  first  assistant. 

In  connection  with  the  Bureau  of  Design  and 
Bureau  of  Engineering  is  a  special  library  of  Archi- 
tectural and  Mechanical  books  and  magazines  for 
ready  reference  and  reading.  Study  in  all  archi- 
tectural and  engineering  lines,  outside  of  regular 
office  hours,  is  encouraged,  and  any  employees  in- 
terested are  at  all  times  given  personal  attention 
and  help  by  the  Bureau  Chief.  The  Assistant  State 
Architect,  a  Beaux. Arts  graduate,  established  an 
Atelier  and  acted  as  its  patron  several  years  pre- 
vious to  the  outbreak  of  the  war.  \Yhen  he  left 
for  service  abroad,  several  of  the  men  in  attendance 
at  the  Atelier  had  passed  examinations  qualifying 
them  to  carry  on  the  work.  This  gives  the  young 

men  of  the  department  an  opportunity  for  study, 
which,  coupled  with  their  daily  employment  giving 
them  the  further  opportunity  of  immediately  prac- 
tically applying  the  results  of  their  study,  qualifies 
them  not  only  for  rapid  advancement  in  their  chosen 
profession,  but  greatly  increases  the  efficiency  of 
the  bureau  and  grade  of  workmanship  performed. 

To  the  bureau  of  inspection  are  referred  all  mat- 
ters in  connection  with  work  after  contracts  have 
been  awarded.  This  bureau  is  in  charge  of  a 
Chief  Inspector,  who  has  as  his  assistants  a  corps  of 
Superintendents  of  Construction,  Engineers  and 
Engineering  Inspectors,  who  are  located  in  different 
parts  of  the  State,  traveling  about  among  a  small 
segregated  group  of  the  Institutions,  supervising 
and  inspecting  contracts  as  they  progress ;  or,  in 
cases  of  many  or  large  contracts  at  any  one  institu- 
tion, being  temporarily  assigned  to  that  particular 
institution.  All  requests  for  payments  made  by  con- 
tractors are  checked  and  approved  by  these  local 
superintendents  and  engineering  inspectors,  before 
being  finally  checked  and  passed  by  the  Chief  In- 

The  Blue  Print  and  Plan  File  Bureau  serves  the 
needs  and  demands  of  all  the  Bureaus  in  the  depart- 
ment. The  electric  blue  printing  machine,  with 
washers  and  drying  equipment,  has  a  capacity  of 
about  six  thousand  feet  of  blue  printing  per  day. 

The  original  tracings  of  all  projects  are  placed  in 
long  metal  tubes  for  final  filing,  thus  preserving 
them  for  future  reference. 

This  Bureau  is  in  charge  of  a  Chief  Blue  Printer 
who  has  as  his  assistants  an  expert  blue  printer  and 
photographer  and  two  Junior  Clerks. 

Two  secretaries  complete  the  personnel  of  the  De- 
partment, the  work  of  each  being  under  the  direct 
supervision  of  the  Administrative  Bureau. 

A  branch  office  has  been  established  in  New  York 
City  to  provide  for  better  facilities  in  handling  work 
at  institutions  in  the  Metropolitan  district,  central- 
izing the  administrative  force  nearer  the  field  of 
operation,  and  so  enabling  the  State  Architect  to 
keep  in  closer  personal  touch  with  these  large  proj- 
ects. The  permanent  personnel  of  this  branch  of- 
fice consists  of  two  Confidential  Assistants  with  such 
other  assignments  as  are  from  time  to  time  deemed 

A  resume  of  the  above  will  show  that  all  work 
handled  by  the  department  passes  through  the  Ad- 
ministrative Bureau,  is  from  there  distributed  to 
the  various  bureaus  and  by  the  bureau  heads  to 
their  various  subdivisions  for  attention,  passing  back 
to  the  Administrative  Bureau  through  the  same 
channels  and  there  finally  checked  by  the  State 
Architect  or  his  Executive  Deputy,  before  being  sent 
out  of  the  department.  This  subordination  of  one 



part  to  another  and  the  orderly  intercommunication 
of  the  various  bureaus  is  a  salutary  restraint  on  the 
development  of  the  unessential  and  tends  to  elim- 
inate all  duplication  of  work  or  effort. 

Such  an  orderly  and  efficient  organization,  guided 
by  the  keen  mind,  broad  sympathies  and  true  artistic 
perception  of  the  man  at  its  head,  cannot  but  result 
in  an  architectural  production  worthy  of  the  most 
careful  studv  and  emulation. 

ment  of  the  so-called  artistic  side  of  the  profession, 
has  been  very  slow  in  recognizing  and  meeting  these 
conditions.  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT,  through 
knowledge  gained  by  a  personal  inspection  of  the 
New  York  State  Department,  has  been  much  im- 
pressed with  its  organization,  which  seems  to  have 
combined  to  a  remarkably  harmonious  degree 
the  practical,  scientific  and  artistic  sides  of  the  pro- 
fession, crystallizing  all  its  possibilities  for  the  high- 

Approval    -    Board    or   Commission 

Request  for  Plane  and 
Specif icationt. 

Approval!  I 

Advertising  and 
Receipt  of 

Award  of  Contract     | 


Working  Drawings  I [  Inspection 


The  world,  in  its  course,  has  reached  a  period  of 
such  large  problems  and  undertakings,  modern 
science  has  so  welded  together  its  most  remote  cor- 
ners that  an  entire  readjustment  of  values  must  be 
made,  and  no  problem  should  be  considered  without 
giving  full  value  to  its  effect  upon  the  world  at 
large.  This  fact  has  been  felt  and  largely  dis- 
counted in  the  industrial  and  commercial  world, 
but  the  architectural  profession,  because  of  its  here- 
tofore peculiar  lack  of  close  relationship  to  the  prac- 
tical activities  of  life  on  account  of  an  over-develop- 

est  type  of  service  into  a  tangible  working  organ- 
ization. Uniformity,  harmony,  education,  utility, 
economy  and  scientific  co-ordination,  in  equal  parts, 
should  be  the  ingredients  put  into  every  project 
undertaken  by  an  architect  on  public  buildings,  and 
this  can  only  be  accomplished  through  a  co-operation 
which  must  be  obtained  by  the  establishment  of  uni- 
form architectural  departments  in  all  States,  and  the 
fundamentals  of  the  organization  of  such  depart- 
ments might  well  be  based  upon  the  present  organ- 
ization of  the  New  York  State  Department. 


State  Departments  of  Architecture 

Their  Correct  Organization  and  Efficient  Functioning  a  Logical  Solution  of  Many 

National  Architectural  Problems 

IT  has  become  more  and  more  recognized  in  the 
architectural  profession,  and,  it  might  be 
added,  all  professions  that  aim  toward  the  cre- 
ation of  physical  beauty,  that  one  of  the  essentials 
to  such  beauty  is  harmonious  uniformity.  Such 
recognition,  in  architecture,  has  resulted  in  efforts 
at  "Standardization."  Certain  buildings  have  been 
standardized,  and  from  their  architecture  their  pur- 
pose is  easily  recognized,  such  as  armories,  schools, 
churches ;  or,  we  recognize  a  certain  type  of  archi- 
tecture, and  wherever  or  whenever  seen,  that  type 
is  associated  with  the  period  and  country  in  which 
it  originated.  While  European  countries  have-recog- 
nized the  value  of  standardization,  within  certain 
limits,  our  own  Government  has  been  too  busy  fur- 
nishing buildings  to  keep  pace  with  its  phenomenal 
growth  in  business  and  population,  to  stop  and  sur- 
vey its  work,  or  take  the  necessary  time  to  lay  out 
a  comprehensive  scheme  of  uniform  standardization. 
Owing  to  the  vast  areas  covered,  the  great  dif- 
ference in  climatic  and  topographic  conditions,  it  is 
manifestly  impossible  to  standardize,  under  one  plan, 
the  public  architecture  of  the  entire  country.  It 
would  seem,  however,  not  only  possible,  but  most 
desirable,  that  uniform  localities  or  regional  districts 
be  standardized,  meeting  in  each  section  the  peculiar 
requirements  of  that  region. 

The  Federal  Government  at  present,  while  recog- 
nizing but  one  Supervising  Architect,  has  many  ar- 
chitectural bureaus,  each  making  its  own  plans  and 
building  its  own  buildings,  regardless  of  the  proj- 
ects of  any  other  bureau.  This  has  resulted  in  a 
heterogeneous  mass  of  Government  buildings 
throughout  the  country,  each  embodying  the  ideas 
and  conceptions  of  its  special  architect,  but  totally 
disregarding  the  architecture  of  any  other  buildings 
in  the  vicinity,  or  buildings  in  other  parts  of  the 
country  used  for  the  same  purpose.  This  has  also 
been  true,  to  some  extent,  in  both  State  and  Munic- 
ipal architecture. 

The  large  majority  of  States  in  the  Union  have 
a  State  Architect,  or  Department  of  Architecture, 
for  the  designing  and  construction  of  State  institu- 
tions or  improvements.  In  many  States  these  De- 
partments are  comparatively  new  and  therefore  in 
their  infancy  of  organization.  Some  States,  par- 
ticularly New  York  State,  have  gone  far  toward 
standardizing  plans  and  specifications  for  the  vari- 
ous types  of  construction.  As  the  Federal  build- 

ings are  located  within  the  various  States,  and  must 
necessarily  form  a  part  of  the  architecture  of  that 
State,  would  it  not  be  feasible,  instead  of  the  numer- 
ous bureaus  now  existing  in  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment that  the  one  now  recognized  Supervising 
Architect  have  for  his  advisory  board  the  State 
Architects  of  every  State  in  the  Union,  each  State 
Architect  to  survey  and  advise  upon  the  designs  of 
the  Federal  buildings  to  be  erected  in  his  particular 
State ;  the  same  co-operation  of  survey  and  advice 
to  exist  between  the  State  Department  and  Munici- 
palities ? 

This  would  result  in  both  Federal  and  Municipal 
architecture  conforming  to  an  harmonious  degree  to 
the  standards  established  for  each  particular  State 
or  regional  district.  If  then  the  various  States 
would,  through  the  forming  of  a  National  Society, 
in  conventional  consultations  plan  their  methods 
and  principal  features  of  standardization,  uniform- 
ity would  result,  not  only  pleasing  to  the  eye  but 
of  the  highest  economical  efficiency.  How  many 
architects  make  a  special  point  of  the  use  of  native 
material  in  construction  work  in  each  particular  lo- 
cality or  region?  How  many,  in  designing  build- 
ings, take  into  consideration  the  atmosphere  of  the 
locality  as  well  as  climatic  and  topographic  condi- 
tions? The  forefathers  of  our  country  of  necessity 
made  use  of  only  native  materials,  and  while  the 
structures  are  crude,  their  durability  and  utility  are 
unquestioned,  and,  because  of  their  peculiar  fitness 
for  the  purposes  for  which  they  were  built,  they 
were  artistic  in  the  truest  sense. 

The  economic  and  artistic  uses  of  such  materials 
have  been  recognized  throughout  Europe,  with  a 
resultant  harmonious  beauty,  making  the  buildings 
seem  a  very  part  of  their  environment,  while  at 
the  same  time  reducing  their  cost  by  a  large  per- 
centage, and  the  peasant's  cottage  is  as  beautiful 
and  appropriate  in  its  setting  as  the  artistic  and  ex- 
pensive villa  with  its  wonderful  treasures  of  art  and 

But  in  England,  or  any  other  of  the  European 
countries,  the  areas  to  be  considered  are  very  lim- 
ited compared  with  the  extent  of  our  own  country, 
and  the  problems  confronted  here  can  only  be  solved 
by  the  highest  type  of  co-operation  between  the 
Federal  and  Municipal  Governments,  with  the  State 

The  Department  of  Architecture  of  the  State  of 



New  York  has  solved,  to  a  large  degree,  many  of 
these  problems.  Its  origin  in  1883  was  the  appoint- 
ment, by  the  Governor,  of  a  Capitol  Commissioner, 
principally  to  complete  the  construction  of  the  pres- 
ent Capitol.  This  Capitol  Commissioner  continued 
in  office  as  State  Architect  by  Chapter  566,  Laws 
1899.  Previous  to  the  appointment  of  the  first  State 
Architect,  and  for  some  years  after,  the  majority 
of  buildings  at  the  State  Institutions  were  designed 
by  architects  employed  sometimes  for  a  particular 
building  only,  sometimes  for  the  partial  develop- 
ment of  an  institution,  while  all  the  buildings  of 
large  magnitude  were  designed  through  competi- 
tion, the  State  Architect  functioning  in  a  supervis- 
ory and  auditing  capacity  only,  after  the  contracts 
were  awarded.  This  practice  left  little  opportunity 
for  the  State  Architect  to  develop  his  own  ideas  or 
obtain  any  uniformity  of  construction  through  a 
general  plan  of  development.  This  method  has 
gradually  been  eliminated  and  the  present  Depart- 
ment of  Architecture  was  established  by  Chapter 
III  of  the  Laws  of  1914.  This  has  gradually  grown 
into  a  Department  whose  wide  scope  and  splendid 
efficiency  is  beginning  to  be  recognized  throughout 
the  United  States  and  Canada.  Within  the  past 
year  one  of  its  designs  was  sent  to  South  America, 
through  Dr.  McCoy  of  the  Hygienic  Laboratory  at 
Washington,  D.  C,  at  the  request  of  the  Bolivian 
Government,  while  but  recently  it  was  visited  by  a 
Commission  from  Japan  upon  its  representation  as 
one  of  the  most  efficiently  organized  Architectural 
Departments  in  the  country. 

Inheriting,  as  it  must,  a  collection  of  buildings  at 
the  various  institutions  built  with  no  comprehensive 
scheme  for  the  complete  development  of  any  one  of 
the  institutions,  and  with  but  few  of  these  buildings 
designed  by  the  same  architect,  it  has  been  a  most 
difficult  problem  gradually  to  evolve  an  harmonious 
continuity  and  uniformity  that  would  at  the  same 
time  comply  with  the  needs  and  demands  of  modern 
science  and  research.  Architecture  has,  in  the  past, 
been  considered  an  art.  In  these  modern  days  it  is 
not  only  necessary  for  an  architect  to  be  an  artist, 
but  in  order  to  be  successful  in  public  work,  his 
designs  must  combine  art,  science,  education,  hu- 
manitarianism,  economy,  business  and  utility.  This 
composite  ability  is  rarely  found  in  one  man,  but 
when  such  a  man  is  found,  he  should  be  given  the 
greatest  possible  freedom,  as  well  as  co-operation, 
in  the  carrying  out  of  his  ideas. 

Into  the  administration  of  any  public  office  will 
always  enter  a  certain  element  of  political  ex- 
igencies. In  all  purely  professional  or  technical  de- 
partments this  should  be  eliminated  if  the  best  re- 
sults are  to  be  obtained.  A  truly  professional  or 
technical  man  is  never  a  politician.  The  character- 

istics and  temperament  necessary  for  the  making  of 
a  good  politician  are  entirely  at  variance  with  the 
qualifications  necessary  for  the  highest  type  of  pro- 
fessional man.  The  often  unfair  criticisms  that  are 
leveled  at  politics  and  politicians  in  general  have 
tended  to  keep  out  of  public  office  many  men  of  ab- 
solute integrity  and  high  professional  ability.  It 
has  therefore,  in  the  past,  been  necessary  in  many 
instances  to  be  content  with  men  of  mediocre  abil- 
ity as  the  heads  of  public  professional  and  technical 
departments.  Our  country,  our  States,  our  cities 
need  men  of  the  highest  type  at  the  head  of  the 
various  departments,  and  every  possible  inducement 
should  be  offered  them  to  accept  such  appointments. 
It  is  only  through  men  who  are  big  enough  to  give 
absolutely  altruistic  service  that  order  and  harmony 
can  hope  to  be  created  out  of  the  present  architec- 
tural chaos. 

The  efforts  of  the  Department  of  Architecture  of 
the  State  of  New  York,  toward  an  humanitarian 
cure  rather  than  a  permanent  punishment  or  incar- 
ceration, have  resulted  in  a  scientific  classification  in 
the  layout  of  institutions  and  the  construction  of 
their  buildings  that  will  be  a  long  step  toward  the 
solving  of  problems  in  connection  with  all  humanity 
coming  within  the  scope  of  correctional,  curative  or 
educational  institutions.  The  one  great  aim  of  the 
department  has  been  so  to  correlate  the  construction 
at  all  institutions  that  their  work  may  be  carried  on 
in  co-operation  with  all  other  institutions  through- 
out the  State.  This  can  only  be  accomplished  by 
the  gradual  working  out  and  adoption  of  a  compre- 
hensive plan  encompassing  through  scientific  classi- 
fication the  resultant  humanitarian  benefits,  and  this 
plan  should  be  strictly  adhered  to  during  the  years 
necessarily  required  for  its  accomplishment  in  spite 
of  changing  politics.  Such  a  plan  necessitates,  of 
course,  the  co-operation  of  the  best  scientists,  physi- 
cians, surgeons,  penologists,  etc.,  together  with  a 
large  amount  of  good,  hard,  common,  business  sense. 

The  administrative  policy  of  the  New  York  State 
Department  has  been  gradually  to  clear  away  the 
more  or  less  worthless  accumulation  of  past  genera- 
tions, and  evolve  out  of  a  conglomerate  chaos  a 
comprehensive  plan  so  correlating  the  whole  that  the 
best  results  might  be  obtained  in  the  most  economi- 
cal manner.  To  this  end  a  thorough  survey  of  each 
institution  has  been  made  so  that  upon  a  request  for 
a  new  improvement,  the  department  might  not  only 
be  able  to  furnish  the  institution  with  an  intelligent 
preliminary  sketch  and  estimate  covering  its  require- 
ments, but  could  also  advise  as  to  the  desirability  of 
the  improvement  requested.  Requests  by  institu- 
tional heads  are  usually  made  with  a  view  to  the  de- 
velopment of  that  particular  institution,  whereas  the 
best  result  can  only  be  obtained  by  developing  each 



institution  with  a  full  knowledge  of  its  relation  to 
all  other  institutions  of  the  State,  and  so  correlating 
its  growth  and  improvement  as  best  to  serve  a  com- 
plete plan  for  the  care  of  all  needy  humanity  in 
that  State. 

The  Hospital  Development  Commission,  created 
by  Chapter  238  of  the  Laws  of  1917,  drew  into  the 
field  of  operation  men  of  Jie  highest  professional 
type,  and  the  State  Architect,  as  a  member  of  that 
Commission,  and  through  his  work  with  the  Com- 
mission on  New  Prisons  of  the  State  of  New  York, 
the  National  Prison  Association,  The  American 
Prison  Association,  The  National  Commission  on 
Prisons  and  Prison  Industries,  the  National  Com- 
mittee on  Mental  Hygiene,  the  State  Charities  Aid 
Society,  the  American  Academy  of  Medicine,  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects,  the  Heating  and 
Ventilating  Engineering  Society,  The  Illuminating 
Engineering  Society,  and  the  National  Guard  of  the 
State  of  New  York,  which  placed  its  Generals  at 
his  disposal  for  advice  and  counsel,  has  commanded 
the  advice  and  co-operation  of  the  best  professional 
men  in  the  country.  The  plans  are  formulated, 
and  if  the  opportunity  for  their  complete  accom- 
plishment is  guaranteed,  will  be  as  far-reaching  as 
the  end  of  all  suffering  humanity. 

In  order  competently  to  carry  out  plans  of  such 
wide  scope  and  magnitude  it  is  absolutely  necessary 
to  have  an  executive  and  business  organization  of 
the  highest  efficiency.  The  New  York  State  De- 
partment of  Architecture  has  attained  this  efficiency 
to  a  remarkable  degree  and  a  brief  outline  of  its 
method  of  functioning  is  given  below : 

When  an  institution,  or  its  representative  in  the 
form  of  a  Commission  or  Board,  decides  upon  the 
necessity  of  an  improvement,  its  requirements  are 
transmitted  to  the  Department  of  Architecture,  with 
a  request  for  a  preliminary  survey  and  sketch,  upon 
which  an  estimate  of  the  amount  necessary  for  the 
desired  project  is  based.  This  sketch  and  estimate 
is  an  assurance  to  the  Budget  Committees  and  the 
Legislature  that  the  improvement  desired  can,  under 
normal  conditions,  be  accomplished  within  the 
amount  requested,  thus  reducing  the  disadvantage 
of  having  money  appropriated  lying  idle  because  it 
is  not  sufficient  for  the  purpose  for  which  appropri- 

The  preliminary  sketch  and  an  approximate  esti- 
mate made  by  the  Department  are  returned  to  the 
institution  or  its  representative  and  by  them  in- 
cluded in  their  requests  to  the  Legislature.  These 
requests  are  checked  and  analyzed  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Architecture,  preliminary  to  the  hearings 
held  by  the  Executive  and  Legislative  Budget  Com- 
mittees in  co-operation  with  the  Department  of 
Architecture  prior  to  the  final  development  of  the 
Budget  Bill  for  submission  to  the  Legislature. 

The  appropriation  being  granted,  preliminary 
plans  and  specifications  are  prepared.  After  the 
plans  and  specifications  have  been  approved  by  the 
various  Boards,  Commissions  or  other  State  repre- 
sentatives having  jurisdiction,  the  work  is  publicly 
advertised  and,  upon  their  request,  plans  and  speci- 
fications sent  to  contractors  for  bidding.  Fifty 
copies  of  specifications  are  always  printed,  thirty- 
five  bound  for  immediate  use,  the  remainder  held  in 
reserve.  In  large  projects  one  hundred  specifica- 
tions are  printed,  fifty  bound  for  immediate  use. 
The  average  number  of  plans  and  specifications  sent 
out  for  bidding  for  each  of  the  four  branches  of  a 
construction  contract,  involving  the  expenditure  oi 
about  one  hundred  thousand  dollars,  is  between 
thirty  and  thirty-five.  This  involves  approximately  - 
nine  thousand  feet  of  blue  printing  before  bids  are 

Bids  are  received  by  the  Board  or  Commission 
representing  the  State.  They  are  then  sent  to  the 
Department  of  Architecture  for  tabulation,  check- 
ing and  recommendation  as  to  the  fairness  of  the 
bid  in  comparison  with  the  estimate  made  by  the 
Department.  Upon  the  receipt  of  a  resolution  from 
the  Board  or  Commission  awarding  such  contracts, 
the  Comptroller's  copy  of  contract  covering  each 
branch  of  the  work  is  prepared  and  sent  to  the 
Comptroller  for  checking  and  approval  as  to  funds 
available  for  the  purpose.  Upon  the  receipt  of  such 
approval,  an  official  Notice  of'  Award,  authorizing 
the  contractor  to  begin  work,  is  issued  by  the  De- 
partment of  Architecture,  and  contracts  and  bonds 
prepared  for  final  execution. 

Bonds  in  the  sum  of  50  per  cent  of  the  amount  of 
contracts  are  required  covering  State  work.  In  the 
past,  the  failure  of  the  State  to  require  a  bond  with 
a  performance  clause,  and  strictly  to  enforce  same, 
allowed  contractors  of  mediocre  ability  and  ques- 
tionable reputation  to  figure  on  State  work  and 
often  obtain  contracts.  However,  the  form  now  in 
use'  and  established  by  the  present  Department  of 
Architecture  guarantees  the  strict  performance  of 
all  work  by  the  bonding  company  in  case  of  default 
of  the  contractor  and  this  has  eliminated  from  State 
work  all  but  reliable  contractors,  the  requirements 
of  the  bonding  companies  making  it  possible  for 
only  contractors  of  good  repute  to  qualify.  The 
work  performed  under  these  conditions  is,  there- 
fore, of  the  best  quality  obtainable,  the  contractors, 
like  all  good  workmen,  taking  a  personal  pride  and 
interest  in  carrying  out,  to  the  best  of  their  ability, 
the  State  Architect's  desires  as  expressed  by  the 
plans  and  specifications,  which  co-operation  natur- 
ally results  in  a  building  of  the  highest  type. 

A  copy  of  the  Official  Notice  of  Award  of  Con- 
tract is  sent  to  the  various  bureaus  of  the  Depart- 



merit,  which  is  their  authority  to  begin  the  work  of 
supervision  and  a  Superintendent  of  Construction 
is  detailed  to  cover  the  work.     A  detailed  estimate 
is  required  from  the  contractor,  showing  the  pro- 
portion of  his  bid  on  the  various  items  of  work  in- 
volved.   This  estimate  is  used  as  a  basis  for  grant- 
ing payments  as  the  work  progresses.     The  Super- 
intendent of  Construction  is  supplied  with  a  copy  of 
the  contract  and  bond,  containing  a  copy  of  speci- 
fications, detailed  plans  and  working  drawings,  de- 
tailed estimate  and  copies  of  all  letters,  instructions 
or  transactions  of  any  kind  between  the  State  and 
the  Contractor.     Deviations  from  the  specifications, 
whether  involving  additions  or  deductions,  are  sub- 
mitted  to   the   Board  or   Commission   representing 
the  State,  checked  by  the  Department  of  Architec- 
ture as  to  their  structural  value,  and  a  written  or- 
der, designated  as  an  "Order  on  Contract"  issued 
covering  same.    This  order  clearly  defines  the  devi- 
ation made  from  the  specification,   and  a  copy  of 
same  is  sent  to  the  State  Comptroller,  the  Board  or 
Commission  representing  the  State,  the  Contractor, 
the  Superintendent  of  Construction  in  charge  of  the 
work,  the  Inspection  Bureau  of  the  Department,  and 
one   copy   attached   to    the   Department's   executed 
copy  of  the  contract.     Applications   for  payments 
are  made  on  blanks  furnished  by  the  Department 
and  contain  an  affidavit  of  the  contractor  as  well  as 
an  affidavit  by  the  local  Superintendent  of  Construc- 
tion that  the  payment  requested  is  just  and  due  the 
contractor  according  to  contract  provisions  cover- 
ing payments.     These  applications  are  checked  by 
the  Chief  Inspector  and  certificates  of  payment  pre- 
pared in  the  accounting  bureau.    Monthly  payments 
of  85  per  cent  of  work  or  materials  incorporated  in 
the  building  are  provided  for  in  contracts.  When  the 
work  is  reported  completed  by  the  contractor,  and 
application   for  final   payment  made,   a   special  in- 
spection is  made  by  the  Chief  Inspector,  or  in  engi- 
neering work  by  the  Chief  Engineer.    The  applica- 
tion is  then  submitted  to  the  Commission  or  Board 
representing  the  State,  for  their  approval  and  state- 
ment as  to  any  loss  or  damage  suffered  by  the  State 
because  of  violations  or  delays  by  the  contractor. 
Upon  the  affidavit  of  the  Chief  Inspector  that  the 
work  has  been  properly  completed,  and  a  resolu- 
tion  from  the   Board  or  Commission   representing 
the  State  approving  same,  final  certificate  is  issued 
and  ;sent  to  the  Comptroller  for  payment. 

Contractors  are  required  to  file  policies  of  fire  in- 
surance covering  all  payments  on  work,,  excluding 
underground  work  and  excavations,  foundations, 
etc.,  up  to  the  first  floor  tier  beams.  These  policies 
are  retained  by  the  Department  of  Architecture  un- 
til final  certificate  is  issued  or  the  building  is  oc- 
cupied by  the  State. 

The  Comptroller  being  the  financial  agent  of  the 
State,  certificates  are  sent  to  him  for  payment  and 
check  sent  by  him  direct  to  the  contractor. 

The  clerical  work  involved  in  each  transaction  of 
this  kind  is,  of  course,  enormous.  In  connection 
with  the  preparation  of  working  details,  additional 
blue  printing  of  approximately  seven  thousand  feet 
is  required  for  each  contract,  making  the  total  . 
amount  of  blue  printing  necessary  for  each  project 
as  described  above  approximately  sixteen  thousand 
feet.  Nine  copies  of  contracts  and  bonds  are  pre- 
pared for  each  branch  of  the  work,  making  neces- 
sary the  preparation  of  seventy-two  original  forms 
in  connection  with  the  award  of  each  construction 
contract.  It  is  necessary  to  prepare  eight  copies 
of  each  certificate  or  contract  order  issued  to  file 
for  reference  and  accounting  purposes  with  the 
various  Boards,  Commissions  and  Department  Bu- 
reaus interested.  One  hundred  and  sixty-six  con- 
tracts were  issued  by  the  Department  during  the 
first  ten  months  of  the  present  year,  aggregating  ap- 
proximately $7,000,000,  while  plans  and  specifica- 
tions for  an  additional  $9,000,000  are  in  course  of 
preparation.  During  the  month  of  June  the  Blue 
Print  and  Plan  File  Bureau-  averaged  eight  thou- 
sand feet  of  blue  printing  a  day,  at  an  expense  of 
$1,200  for  blue  print  paper  during  that  month. 

The  incoming  mail,  averaging  upward  of  two 
hundred  letters  a  day,  is  opened  and  read  by  an 
assistant  in  general  charge  of  the  clerical  and  ad- 
ministrative force  of  the  Department,  stamped  re- 
ceived, numbered  consecutively  and  referred  to  the 
various  bureau  heads  having  jurisdiction  over  the 
subject-matter  of  the  letter.  Before  being  dis- 
tributed to  these  various  bureau  heads  all  mail  of 
every  kind  is  recorded  in  a  letter  record  book  show- 
ing the  consecutive  number  of  the  letter,  institu- 
tion, from  whom  the  letter  is  received,  a  short 
synopsis  of  its  contents  and  to  whom  referred.  This 
record  enables  the  department  at  all  times  readily  to 
trace  all  mail  received. 

Separate  files  are  kept  for  each  institution,  com- 
mission or  special  project,  together  with  a  letter 
press  book  covering  same.  This  requires  separate 
letters  covering  work  at  each  institution,  both  in- 
coming and  outgoing.  All  outgoing  mail,  whether 
letters,  reports  or  blue  prints,  is  sent  to  the  private 
office  for  signature  by  the  State  Architect  or  his 
authorized  deputy.  A  letter  press  copy  of  all  letters 
and  reports  is  made  while  a  carbon  copy  of  the 
letter  is  attached  to  the  one  answered,  for  filing. 

A  "follow  up"  system  has  been  instituted,  under 

which  all  queries  not  finally  disposed  of  are  placed 

in  a  separate  file,  with  a  small  card  index  on  the 

desk  of  each  Bureau  head,  for  ready  reference. 

An  account  is  kept  covering  each  contract,  show- 



ing  the  money  appropriated,  the  amount  mortgaged 
for  each  branch  of  the  work  contracted  for,  all  con- 
tract orders  issued,  and  all  certificates  issued.  This 
account  is  closed  when  final  certificate  is  issued,  and 
any  small  remaining  balance  lapses  by  law.  Should 
a  balance  be  re-appropriated  for  another  purpose, 
a  new  account  is  opened. 

When  a  project  is  undertaken  by  an  Institution, 
to  be  done  wholly  or  in  part  by  inmate  labor,  plans 
and  specifications  are  prepared  by  the  Department 
of  Architecture  the  same  as  though  the  work  was 
to  be  advertised  for  competitive  bidding.  An  esti- 
mate of  required  quantities  is  made  and  prices  ob- 
tained by  the  Institution,  together  with  a  detailed 
estimate  of  outside  labor  required,  if  any.  The  work 
under  these  estimates  is  checked  by  the  department 
as  to  quantities  and  manner  of  execution,  and  is 
known  as  the  Special  Fund  Estimate  System. 

It  must  be  conceded  from  the  foregoing  that  the 
organization  of  the  Department  of  Architecture  of 
the  State  of  New  York  has  been  developed  to  a 
very  high  grade  of  efficiency  and  is  worthy  of  emu- 
lation, and  the  beneficial  suggestions  to  be  derived 
from  its  organization  should  be  placed  at  the  dis- 
posal .of  all  other  Architectural  Departments 
throughout  the  country,  whether  Federal,  State  or 

Certainly  the  accomplishment  of  the  plan  as  out- 
lined would  be  far  reaching  enough  to  stretch  over 

our  entire  country,  and  finally  encompass  the  world. 
And  should  not  the  man  who  has  been  foremost  in 
its  development  and  adoption,  in  whose  virile  brain 
it  first  originated,  be  given  the  highest  type  of  co- 
operation by  all  men,  be  they  architects  or  not  ? 
The  young  men  of  our  country  have  just  passed 
through  the  acid  test  of  war,  cheerfully  giving  their 
all  that  an  ideal  should  survive.  Shall  the  profes- 
sional men  of  this  country  do  less  than  give  their 
best  thought  and  active  co-operation  toward  the  de- 
velopment of  an  Architecture  that  will  be  the  high- 
est art  ever  accomplished,  in  that  it  will  serve  hu- 
manity to  the  utmost  ?  This  will  be  characterized  by 
some  as  being  too  idealistic  and  its  suggestions 
therefore  incapable  of  being  carried  out.  Architec- 
ture is  ideals  expressed  in  stone  and  concrete,  and  to 
hitch  your  ideals  to  a  star  is  none  too  high  for  the 
real  architect,  who  desires  to  make  his  profession 
one  of  the  highest  arts  rather  than  one  of  commer- 
cial exploitation. 

The    dreamer    lives    forever, 
The  toiler  dies  in  a  day, 

but  the  dreams  of  the  dreamer  must  be  based  on 
rational,  structural  philosophy,  with  a  rock  founda- 
tion firmly  imbedded  in  the  needs  of  the  world. 
All  creative  art  is  the  result  of  some  one's  dream, 
but  unless  that  dream  be  put  in  concrete  form  and 
meets  in  some  way  the  needs  of  humanity  it  is  of 
no  inherent  value. 






Architectural  Education 

T  T  NDOUBTEDLY  the  causes  underlying  the 
V_J  expression  of  dissatisfaction  as  to  present 
conditions  in  architectural  practice  can  be  traced 
directly  to  faulty  educational  methods ;  the  Post- 
War  Committee  has  in  its  reports  practically  con- 
ceded this.  The  correct  form  of  educational  method 
as  affecting  inter-professional  relations  has  been 
seriously  considered  by  the  committee  appointed  at 
the  recent  conference  in  Detroit.  There  was  unanim- 
ity of  opinion  announced  at  the  Nashville  Con- 
vention as  to  the  pressing  need  for  a  drastic  revision, 
one  that  would  be  the  result  of  the  labors  of  archi- 
tects in  practice  and  not  of  those  who  are  so  deeply 
immersed  in  the  present  system  as  to  be  firm  in  the 
belief  that  present  methods  are,  if  not  absolutely 
correct,  the  only  methods  which  can  be  con- 

Many  members  of  the  Institute  have  placed  them- 
selves squarely  on  record  as  not  content  with 
present  methods  of  architectural  education.  The 
Board  of  the  Illinois  Chapter  much  more  than  a 
year  ago  presented  a  comprehensive  report  on  this 
important  subject.  This  report  contained  the 
essence  of  a  plan  that  was  very  generally  approved 
and  would  seem  to  be  worthy  of  careful  consider- 
ation in  the  evolution  of  any  revision.  Other  re- 
ports, also  carefully  prepared,  are  available.  Why 
then  longer  delay  action?  Why  continue  to  agree 
that  there  is  need  for  revision — why  not  revise? 

WHATEVER  conclusions  are  reached  cannot 
be  secured  in  formal  meetings,  nor  can  it  be 
expected  that  the  Post-War  Committee  with  all  the 
many  important  matters  that  now  engage  it  can  give 
this  subject  the  full  measure  of  time  to  which  it  is 
entitled.  If  education  affects  the  inter-professional 
relation  then  the  revision  will  not  only  be  necessary 
as  to  the  curricula  of  architectural  schools,  but  it 
will  also  be  necessary  to  give  careful  consideration 
to  that  part  of  the  education  of  those  in  many  re- 
lated fields  which  meet  the  wide  and  diverse  extent 
of  architectural  practice. 

All  of  the  professions  have  many  things  in  com- 
mon and  all  of  them  during  the  past  five  years  have 
undergone  many  changes  in  their  methods  of 
practice.  The  barriers  that  at  one  time  kept  each 
profession  isolated  either  have  been  swept  aside  or 
so  lowered  as  to  become  practically  non-existent. 

The  Committee  of  the  Inter-Professional  Con- 
ference to  consider  the  fields  in  which  co-operation 
would  be  helpful  recognized  in  the  housing  move- 
ment an  important  instance.  In  such  cases  there  is 
needed  the  technical  knowledge  of  architects,  en- 
gineers, sanitation  experts,  landscape  gardeners  and 
the  legal  profession.  Problems  of  housing  or  town- 
planning  engage  at  one  time  or  another  the  services 
of  men  in  all  these  professions  as  well  as  groups 
of  workers  whose  labors  closely  touch  on  each  one 
of  these. 

IT  is  undoubtedly  the  opinion  of  the  men  in  the 
profession  who  have  given  most  thoughtful  con- 
sideration to  this  important  question  of  architectural 
education  that  present  methods  too  largely  accen- 
tuate the  value  of  class-room  work  and  are  not 
sufficiently  cognizant  of  the  practical  out-of-door 
examples  which  lie  at  hand  awaiting  exposition, 
and  the  students  therefore  do  not  realize  the  appli- 
cation of  the  profession  which  they  are  studying. 

It  happened  that  by  the  extraordinary  circum- 
stances of  its  environment  the  "University  of 
Beaume"  of  the  A.  E.  F.  was  compelled  to  work  out 
different  methods.  There  were  no  class-rooms  and 
the  students  therefore  were  put  to  work  out-of-doors 
measuring  and  dissecting  buildings.  They  learned 
more  in  six  months  about  how  a  building  was  put 
together  than  they  could  possibly  have  done  in 
twice  the  length  of  time  spent  sitting  in  a  class- 

In  our  colleges  a  great  deal  of  attention  has  been 
paid  to  the  development  of  college  spirit.  Each 
youth  becomes  firmly  imbued  with  the  idea  that 
there  is  no  university  but  his  alma  mater.  Do  the 
universities  hope  by  this  method  to  increase  their 
prestige  and  attendance? 



OUT  of  this  grows  a  pronounced  snobbishness 
of  each  alumni  for  the  others,  of  each  pro- 
fession for  the  others— which  does  not  speak  well 
for  the  cultural  effects  of  education  as  it  to-day 
exists.  If  culture  means  a  perception  of  the  relative 
forces  of  civilization,  it  makes  a  poor  start  when  it 
accepts  the  idea  that  all  professions  but  its  own  are 

The  architectural  student  must  be  taught  the  rela- 
tion of  his  own  calling  in  present-day  society.  His 
education  must  be  based  upon  the  essentially  prac- 
tical things  which  he  needs  to  know  in  the  practice 
of  his  profession.  And  there  may  be  eliminated 
many  of  the  non-essentials,  as  our  universities  are 
eliminating  from  their  other  departments  courses 
which  for  more  than  a  hundred  years  have  been 
considered  essential.  It  should  rest  with  experi- 
enced practitioners  to  decide  what  the  essentials 
and  what  the  non-essentials  are. 

Model  Constitution  for  State  Societies 

THE  Committee  on  State  Societies  of  the  Post- 
War  Committee  on  Architectural  Practice  per- 
formed a  very  valuable  service  and  took  a  long  step 
in  advance  when  it  drafted  and  made  public  a  model 
constitution  and  by-laws  to  aid  in  the  formation  of 
State  Societies  of  Architects.  Thrs  action  on  the  part 
of  this  committee  lays  the  basis  of  a  very  firm 
foundation  in  the  formation  of  State  Societies.  It 
insures  the  co-ordination  of  effort.  It  secures  the 
community  of  interest  and  solidity  of  purpose  of  all 
the  Societies  that  shall  be  formed  in  the  future.  And 
it  would  be  well  if  present  Societies  in  various  States 
working  under  entirely  dissimilar  constitutions  and 
by-laws  would  substitute  the  present  model  form  for 
those  that  are  now  in  operation. 

This  action  of  the  Post-War  Committee  is  exactly 
in  line  with  the  policy  that  has  been  from  time  to 
time  urged  by  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  not  only 
in  the  formation  of  State  Societies  but  in  the  codifi- 
cation of  State  laws  as  affecting  registration  for 
architectural  practice. 

There  are  no  good  reasons  why  there  should  be 
basically  any  difference  between  the  laws  in  various 
States,  with  certain  very  unimportant  exceptions. 
If  the  American  Institute  of  Architects  had  pro- 
ceeded, when  registration  first  became  a  debatable 
question,  in  the  same  manner  as  has  the  Post-War 
Committee's  special  committee,  much  of  the  confu- 
sion that  now  exists  would  have  been  obviated  and 

it  is  logical  to  believe  that  the  smooth  working  of 
these  matters  in  the  various  States  would  have 
caused  the  passage  of  laws  in  many  States  where 
such  laws  do  not  at  present  exist. 

Referring  to  the  model  constitution  prepared  by 
the  Committee  on  State  Societies,  a  careful  reading 
fails  to  disclose  any  very  serious  omissions  or  any- 
thing that  could  be  adversely  criticized.  It  presents 
a  clean-cut,  well-considered  working  platform  for 
the  State  Societies.  In  most  localities  men  are  too 
busy  to  give  this  intricate  matter  the  careful  con- 
sideration that  it  deserves  and  it  is  for  this  reason 
that  State  Societies  have  not  been  more  generally 
organized.  With  the  constitution  and  by-laws  fitted 
exactly  to  their  requirements,  groups  of  men  in  all 
the  various  States  where  State  Societies  do  not  now 
exist  may  confidently,  fully  and  speedily  organize 
for  the  best  interests  and  advancement  of  the  pro- 
fession'as  the  most  arduous  part  of  their  work  has 
been  performed  for  them  by  this  very  efficient  com- 

The  Lesson  From  a  Tragedy 

THE  "Sun  and  New  York  Herald"  in  a  recent 
issue  and  under  the  above  heading  comments 
editorially  on  the  tragedy  that  was  enacted  in  a 
New  York  house  where  a  woman  prominent  in 
society  and  her  two  children  were  smothered  to 
death  as  the  result  of  a  fire  caused  by  an  over- 
heated furnace.  It  further  comments  on  the  fact 
that  it  was  a  singular  coincidence  that  on  the  day 
of  this  accident  the  Committee  of  Fire  Prevention 
of  the  New  York  Chapter  of  the  American  Institute 
of  Architects  issued  through  its  Chairman,  William 
O.  Ludlow,  a  warning  against  the  dangers  of  im- 
properly managed  heating  apparatus. 

It  is  astonishing  with  all  the  supposedly  efficient 
fire  prevention  methods  in  New  York  City  and  the 
service  of  inspection  that  the  taxpayer  has  the 
right  to  believe  is  being  made,  that  a  furnace  in  a 
pretentious  house  in  a  dignified  residence  of  the 
city  should  be  so  improperly  located  and  protected 
as  to  set  fire  to  the  building. 

Possibly  this  lamentable  accident  will  rouse  the 
authorities  to  activity  and  strict  precaution,  but  it 
is  unfortunate  that  it  should  be  necessary,  as  it  has 
been  equally  unfortunate  in  the  past,  to  sacrifice 
human  life  to  awaken  in  the  public  mind  the  senti- 
ment that  will  enforce  a  better  compliance  with  fire 
prevention  rules. 


Natural  Influences  in  Building 

The  Problem  of  the  Country  House  and  the  Only  True  Method  of  Its 

Successful  Solution 

SINCE  building  is  necessarily  a  creative  art, 
writes  M.  H.  Baillie-Scott  in  The  Architects' 
Journal  of  London,  and  since  houses  take 
their  places  in  the  midst  of  fields  and  trees  as  man's 
contribution  to  the  beauty  of  the  world  of  Nature. 
it  follows  that  some  sympathetic  knowledge  of  this 
natural  world  is  desirable  for  those  who  would 
build  in  the  right  way.  The  old  home  fitted  into 
its  place  in  the  country  which  it  adorned  mainly 
because  its  creators  were  permeated  with  country 
influences,  and  were  themselves  almost  as  much  a 
part  of  their  natural  surroundings  as  the  old  home 
was.  Their  ways  were  Nature's  ways,  their 
thoughts  and  conceptions  were  akin  to  hers,  and 
so  it  followed  that  they  created,  quite  naturally, 
without  any  art  education  in  schools  and  museums, 
without  attending  lectures  or  ruling  lines  on  draw- 
ing boards,  these  old  houses  which  we  find  it  now 
so  difficult  even  to  imitate  successfully.  The  same 
processes  of  civilization  which  have  made  man  arti- 
ficial instead  of  natural  in  his  conceptions  and  ideas 
have  also  made  of  the  modern  country  house  a  blot 
on  the  landscape  and  a  deplorable  desecration  of 
sylvan  solitudes.  It  seems  essential  then  that  those 
who  build  in  the  country  should  study  not  building 
alone  but  Nature  also.  It  will  be  found  that  the 
-trees  and  flowers  all  have  their  lessons  for  the 
builder,  and  that  we  can  learn  something  more  from 
them  than  from  any  books.  The  first  thing  we 
have  to  observe  in  all  natural  creations  is  that 
beauty  is  always  intimately  associated  with  prac- 
tical functions.  Nothing  is  too  exquisite  for  its 
uses,  and  all  forms  are  the  inevitable  result  of  the 
nice  adjustment  of  means  to  ends.  Here  we  find 
at  once  the  same  great  principle  which  underlies 
the  old  buildings,  and  which  is  so  painfully  absent 
from  modern  work  in  which  art  is  so  often  sup- 
posed to  be  a  matter  quite  apart  from  the  utilities. 
We  hear  nowadays  of  what  is  called  pure  art, 
existing  for  beauty  alone  without  any  vulgar  taint 
of  usefulness.  We  shall  find  no  precedent  in 
Nature  for  pure  art,  and  even  in  the  human  form 
function  is  still  the  paramount  fact.  The  leaves 
of  the  trees  we  shall  find  are  but  after  all  the  lungs 
of  an  organism,  and  the  tremulous  movement  of 
the  foliage  of  the  poplar  is  not  merely  for  our  de- 
light, but  is  a  contrivance  for  the  prosaic  purpose 
of  keeping  these  lungs  free  from  dust.  In  the 
flowers  the  brilliance  of  the  corolla  is  but  the  guid- 
ing signal  for  the  fertilizing  bee.  and  as  such  may 

be  compared  to  the  brightness  of  the  modern  hoard- 
ing. It  is  a  natural  example  of  the  uses  of  adver- 
tisement. In  other  cases  color  of  the  greatest  beauty 
is  used  for  the  opposite  purpose  of  concealment, 
and  the  strange  markings  in  feathers  and  furs  of 
birds  and  beasts  are  devised  for  the  same  object 
which  leads  us  in  stress  of  war  to  paint  our  gun- 
carriages  with  the  variegated  tints  of  the  post-im- 
pression picture.  These  two  opposing  principles 
of  advertisement  and  concealment  give  us  the  con- 
trasts and  harmonies  which  make  up  so  much  of  the 
beauty  of  Nature.  Another  noticeable  quality  in 
Nature  is  its  infinite  variety  combined  with  ap- 
proximate similarity.  No  two  nightingales  pour 
forth  exactly  the  same  song.  No  two  blades  of 
grass  cut  the  April  air  with  exactly  the  same  curve. 
Of  all  the  millions  of  human  beings  on  the  earth 
no  two  are  exactly  alike.  Each  has  his  individual- 
ity and  its  peculiar  differences  in  form  and  char- 
acter. Similarity  is  always  only  approximate,  and 
apparent  uniformity  is  in  reality  coupled  with  con- 
stant individual  variation. 

The  application  of  these  natural  principles  may 
lead  us  in  building  a  country  home  to  introduce  the 
principle  of  protective  coloring  to  bring  its  walls 
and  roof  into  harmony  with  its  surroundings,  and 
this  seems  particularly  desirable  in  the  case  of 
houses  surrounded  by  woodlands,  or  at  least  such 
materials  may  be  used  as  Nature  will  color  in  her 
own  way. 

It  will  also  follow  that  all  the  bricks  and  tiles 
used  should,  though  apparently  similar,  have  slight 
individual  differences  in  form  and  color,  and  the 
same  principle  may  well  be  applied  throughout  the 
whole  construction  in  a  thousand  ways,  and  this 
need  not  be  a  difficult  matter.  In  fact  it  is  the 
natural  result  of  human  hand-work  where  the  eye 
is  the  only  guide  without  mechanical  aids.  Let  us 
take  for  example  the  turned  balusters  to  an  old 
staircase.  They  look  as  if  they  are  all  the  same 
pattern  and  as  if  they  are  all  exactly  the  same  dis- 
tance apart,  but  as  a  matter  of  fact  they  have  the 
same  infinite  variety  as  the  grass  blades  in  the 
meadow.  No  unnecessary  trouble  has  been  taken 
to  destroy  this  variety  by  exact  mechanical  accu- 
racy. But  the  modern  mechanically-trained  work- 
man is  at  great  pains  to  destroy  all  this  subtle  vari- 
ety, and  so  his  work  is  a  lifeless  and  entirely 
uninteresting  thing.  Or  if  we  consider  the  plans  of 
old  houses  we  shall  find  that  the  same  general  ar- 


rangement  of  rooms  is  used  again  and  again.  Cer- 
tain localities  had  very  often  certain  standard 
plans.  But  in  spite  of  this  general  uniformity  each 
house  had  its  difference.  Each  was  individual.  The 
modern  builder  on  the  other  hand  reproduces  his 
stock  plans  with  exact  mechanical  regularity,  al- 
though variation  in  his  case  would  not  help  us 
much,  because  it  would  be  variations  in  different 
shades  of  ugliness. 

If  we  take  a  wider  view  of  the  natural  world 
and  consider  the  sun  and  moon  and  the  stars  in 
their  courses  we  shall  find  how  the  old  builders 
without  scientific  knowledge  of  what  we  now  call 
the  solar  system,  yet  instinctively  divined  and 
demonstrated  in  their  work  those  cosmic  laws  of 
which  they  had  no  conscious  knowledge.  All  these 
works  of  man  fashioned  under  the  guiding  influ- 
ence of  natural  law  became  a  microcosm  of  the  solar 
system.  Each  had  its  focal  point,  its  sun  which 
either  as  the  altar  in  the  church  or  the  fire-place 
in  the  hall  was  the  dominant  note  in  the  conception. 
For  the  great  mystery  of  building  lies  in  this.  We 
take  brick  and  wood  and  stone,  all  things  which 
seem  dead  in  themselves,  and  in  arranging  them  in 
certain  ways  they  acquire  life  and  meaning.  They 
seem  to  speak  to  us.  The  house  so  created,  com- 
pounded of  dull  inanimate  materials,  takes  to  itself 
a  personality.  It  may  be  full  of  charm  and  depth 
and  earnestness  of  appeal.  It  may  be  shallow  and 
frivolous,  or  cold  and  forbidding.  But  some  such 
measure  of  life  it  has  achieved.  The  charm  begins 
to  work  with  the  putting  of  one  brick  upon  an- 
other. For  no  work  of  this  kind  can  be  done  with- 
out demonstration  of  the  laws  of  the  world.  As  in 
allegories  and  fables  truths  of  deepest  import  are 
captured  and  fixed,  and  so  brought  within  the 
range  of  our  understanding;  so  building  is  a  kind 
of  allegory  which  may  bear  witness  to  the  same 
great  principles  as  those  on  which  the  universe  is 
planned.  Truly  it  is  no  small  matter,  this  building 
art.  Not  a  fit  subject  for  mere  commercial  specula- 
tion, or  to  be  practiced  as  a  dull  mechanical  trade. 
It  is  something  more,  too,  than  a  dilettantism  con- 
cerned with  revivals  and  renaissances  and  re- 
chauffes, or  any  resurrection-pies  of  any  sort.  No 
learning  or  erudition  will  suffice  to  build  rightly.  It 
is  more  important  to  be  a  certain  kind  of  person 
than  to  know  a  certain  number  of  things.  A  knowl- 
edge too  diffused  cripples  the  creative  initiative  of 
the  mind,  which  should  be  a  clear,  unclouded 
mirror  and  an  instrument  sensitively  aware  of  all 
the  influences  of  Nature,  and  in  tune  with  those 
great  truths  of  the  world  which  it  is  the  function 
of  building  as  an  art  to  express  and  confirm. 

Unsanitary  Housing  as  Affected  by 
Political  Elements 

A  terse  analysis  of  the  relation  between  housing 
and  politics  was  recently  made  by  Dr.  James  Ford 
of  Harvard  University  and  is  here  presented.  Dr. 
Ford  appeared  before  the  recent  meeting  of  the 
Committee  on  Public  Buildings  and  Grounds  of  the 
House  of  Representatives  in  Washington.  It  was 
in  the  course  of  a  hearing  on  the  creation  of  a 
bureau  of  housing  and  living  conditions  in  the  De- 
partment of  Labor  that  this  clear  summary  was 
given.  Dr.  Ford  said : 

"I  have  a  statement  here  from  the  1910  census 
indicating  that  there  were  20,255,000  families  in  the 
United  States,  of  whom  10,697,000,  or  more  than 
50  per  cent,  were  living  in  rented  houses.  I  think 
there  is  an  element  of  very  real  danger  in  this 
condition.  Over  half  of  our  population  living  in 
rented  houses !  They  are  virtually  nomads ;  they 
have  no  stake  in  the  community.  A  man  is  not  a 
good  citizen  unless  he  can  vote  conservatively  and 
safely  on  such  matters  as  public  appropriations.  No 
man  is  so  safe  a  voter  until  he  understands  business 
principles,  understands  the  problems  which  face  the 
city.  He  does  not  understand  those  problems,  or  is 
not  much  interested  in  them,  as  a  rule,  until  he  has 
a  financial  stake  in  the  community.  I  have  found  in 
my  own  city,  fortunately,  perhaps,  that  a  consider- 
able number  of  our  tenement  house  and  apartment 
house  dwellers  do  not  vote.  They  do  not  stay  in 
any  one  place.  They  move  from  one  suburb  of  a 
city  to  another.  That  might  be  fortunate,  but  still 
it  is  unwholesome  to  have  any  element  in  the  com- 
munity which  is  not  working  for  the  general  public 
advantage,  and  these  men  do  not  work  for  the 
general  public  advantage. 

"Those  who  do  vote  are  persons  who  have  lost 
all  interest  in  good  conservative  and  constructive 
public  action,  and  the  Bolshevist  element  is  recruited 
from  this  group. 

"On  the  other  hand,  there  are  complaints  of  rent 
profiteering,  bitter  complaints,  which  are  a  source  of 
discontent,  and  yet  property-owning  interests  claim 
that  they  cannot  build  houses  to  rent  at  a  profit 
under  present  prices  of  materials  and  labor.  It 
seems  to  me  that  this  is  a  matter  of  such  vital 
importance  that  it  should  be  studied  by  a  disinter- 
ested agency  to  find  out  what  constitutes  rent 
profiteering,  what  is  a  proper  return  to  invested 
capital,  and  what  kind  of  houses  can  be  constructed 
that  can  be  rented  at  a  profit  to  skilled  workmen 
and  to  unskilled  workmen." 




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Current    News 

Happenings  and  Comment  in  the  Fields  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

In  order  to  supply  our  readers  with  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment  appearing  in 
issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of  actual  rather 
than  stated  date  of  publication. 

Chicago's  Architectural 

Is  Chicago  developing  a  distinctive  architecture  of  its 
own?  Is  the  new  City  Plan  for  which  the  Chicago  Plan 
Commission  has  been  working  for  years  going  to  result 
in  an  individual  style  of  municipal  architecture  to  be  found 
nowhere  else  in  America?  Is  Chicago,  the  original  home 
of  the  modern  "skyscraper",  destined  to  have  its  skyline 
changed?  Are  beauty  and  utility  to  go  hand  in  hand  in  the 
new  scheme?  It  would  seem  so. 

The  transformation,  if  it  may  be  so  described,  has  begun 
along  the  lake  front — Michigan  Boulevard — with  the  com- 
pletion of  the  Field  Museum,  a  structure  which  with  its 
immediate  environs  represents  an  investment  of  probably 
$12,000,000.  Recently,  when  the  city  council  passed  an  or- 
dinance providing  for  the  proposed  lake  front  parkway 
improvement  to  cost  $160,000,000,  it  was  stipulated  that  the 
new  railway  passenger  station  of  the  Illinois  Central  and 
Michigan  Central  railroads  must  conform  in  architectural 
design  and  finish  to  the  museum  building  which  will  oc- 
cupy the  site  nearby.  As  one  architect  expressed  it, 
architectural  harmony  would  not  permit  the  station  to 
"swear  at  the  Museum." 

Then  the  South  Park  Commissioners,  who  exercise 
jurisdiction  over  Chicago's  famous  Grant  Park,  decided  to 
construct  an  immense  Stadium  south  of  the  station  and 
museum  buildings  and  in  order  to  harmonize  this  group 
the  same  adaptation  of  Grecian  lines  was  ordered  carried 
out.  This  stadium  will  in  future  years  become  the  center 
of  Chicago's  municipal  playground,  where  athletic  events 
will  be  held  and  where  it  is  hoped  the  international  Olympic 
games  will  be  staged  in  the  not  distant  future. 

But  this  is  only  one  phase  of  the  enormous  municipal 
improvements  under  way.  Connecting  the  lake  front  de- 
velopment there  is  now  being  completed  a  system  of  park- 
ways to  reach  out  into  the  western  section,  passing  through 
the  business  section,  which  already  is  beginning  to  reflect 
the  new  idea  of  city  planning.  And  within  a  few  blocks 
of  the  Grant  Park  group  is  Chicago's  new  Union  Station, 
now  being  built  at  a  cost  of  more  than  $65,000,000.  This 
station,  together  with  the  recently  built  Northwestern 
Railroad  Station,  and  the  proposed  new  Post  Office  Build- 
ing, to  cover  the  two  blocks  between,  form  another  group 
harmonizing  in  their  architectural  lines  with  the  lake 
front  group.  Again,  no  "swearing"  is  to  be  permitted  be- 
tween these  two  groups. 

Within  the  last  few  weeks  there  has  crystallized  along 
the  North  Shore  of  Chicago's  lake  front,  along  an  exten- 
sion of  the  Michigan  Avenue  parking,  a  definite  program 
on  the  part  of  the  property  owners  to  censor  the  char- 
acter of  buildings  to  be  erected  in  that  section  in  order 
that  the  architectural  harmony  of  the  entire  lake  front  may 
not  be  destroyed.  In  this  program  the  architects  interested 
in  the  Chicago  Plan  have  agreed,  with  the  result  that  the 

entire  north  side,  from  the  "loop"  to  the  Lake  Shore  Drive, 
is  to  be  built  up  in  the  future  with  a  definite  idea  in  view — 
to  preserve  the  architectural  beauty  of  Chicago's  lake  front 
and  future  skyline. 

The  present  program  is  to  take  into  consideration  the 
present  Municipal  Pier  as  a  part  of  the  scheme — as  has 
always  been  in  the  minds  of  members  of  the  Chicago  Plan 
Commission.  What  the  ultimate  result  of  the  present  ten- 
dency will  be;  whether  it  will  actually  bring  about  a  dis- 
tinctive Chicago  architecture  in  the  broad  sense,  is,  of 
course,  a  matter  of  conjecture.  Yet  there  are  architects  of 
vision  here  who  see  this  probability. 

In  the  meantime,  the  city  is  working  forward  in  its 
zoning  scheme  on  a  broad  plan,  this  zoning  to  fit  in  the 
general  plan  for  a  more  beautiful  as  well  as  efficient  city. 

Architects  Ask  House  Investigation 

In  view  of  the  continued  shortage  of  housing  accommo- 
dations throughout  the  country  President  Wilson's  Indus- 
trial Conference  has  been  asked  to  make  a  thorough  in- 
vestigation of  the  situation.  Declaring  that  in  New  York 
City  alone  more  than  30,000  new  dwelling  places  are  imme- 
diately required,  the  American  Institute  of  Architects  has 
called  attention  to  the  crisis  in  a  letter  to  all  members  of 
Congress.  The  Institute  says  in  part : 

"The  causes  for  this  condition  are  no  doubt  many  and 
various.  They  relate  to  the  war,  to  the  cost  of  buildings, 
to  wages,  rents,  land  and  build'ing  speculations,  and,  inci- 
dentally, to  the  whole  fabric  of  our  industrial  system. 
The  house  and  home  are  an  indissoluble  part  of  the  na- 
tional fabric.  They  cannot  be  isolated  and  studied  as 
detached  symptoms.  They  must  be  considered  as  a  part 
of  the  whole  problem,  and  we  believe  the  Government 
of  the  United  States  should  at  once  take  steps  toward 
making  a  complete  and  'impartial  investigation  into  the 
problem  of  adequate  shelter  for  its  increasing  population." 

Artificial  Daylight  Practically 

Achieved  by  New  British 


A  Tight  has  been  perfected  in  Great  Britain  which  is  un- 
derstood far  to  surpass  any  existing  arrangement  of  arti- 
ficial light,  and  to  be  the  closest  approximation  to  actual 
daylight  ever  accomplished. 

The  apparatus  consists  of  a  high-power  electric  light 
bulb,  fitted  with  a  cup-shaped  opaque  reflector,  the  silvered 
'inner  side  of  which  reflects  the  light  against  a  parasol- 
shaped  screen  placed  above  the  light.  The  screen  is  lined 
with  small  patches  of  different  colors,  arranged  according 
to  a  formula  worked  out  empirically  by  Mr.  Sheringham, 



the  inventor,  and  carefully  tested  and  perfected  in  the  opti- 
cal engineering  department  o<f  the  Imperial  College  of 
Science  and  Technology. 

The  light  thrown  down  from  the  screen  is  said  to  show 
colors  almost  as  well  as  in  full  daylight.  A  test  was  made 
with  such  articles  as  colored  wools,  Chinese  enamels,  pas- 
tels and  color  prints,  each  being  subjected  successively  to 
daylight,  ordinary  electric  light  and  the  new  Sheringham 
light.  Under  the  new  light  delicate  yellows  were  quite 
distinct,  indigo  blues  were  blue,  cobalts  had  their  full  value, 
and  violets  lost  the  reddish  shade  which  they  display  in 
electric  light. 

New  York  Society  of  Architects  Meets 

The  monthly  meeting  of  the  above  organization  took 
place  on  Tuesday,  January  20th,  at  the  Society's  head- 
quarters, United  Engineering  Societies  Building,  29  West 
39th  Street,  New  York  City,  President  James  Riely  Gor- 
don in  the  chair.  There  was  a  good  attendance  of  mem- 
bers. The  matter,  of  the  formation  of  a  Junior  League 
in  affiliation  with  the  Society,  which  has  been  under  con- 
sideration for  some  time  past,  was  discussed  and  it  was 
finally  decided  to  have  a  conference  with  other  architec- 
tural organizations  regarding  the  Union  of  Draftsmen. 
A  committee  of  five  members  was  appointed  to  repre- 
sent the  Society. 

The  bill  giving  the  Board  of  Appeals  power  to  sub- 
poena witnesses  was  then  discussed.  Opposition  to  this 
bill  in  its  present  form  developed  and  it  was  finally  ordered 
that  the  Senate  Cities  Committee  be  notified  that  the  So- 
ciety is  opposed  to  the  bill  and  desires  public  hearing  on 
the  same. 

Belgium  to  Erect  Workmen's  Homes 

The  Belgian  Government  has  decided  to  allocate  $20,- 
000.000  in  1920  for  building  workmen's  houses.  This  money 
will  be  loaned  to  the  local  authorities  on  approved  building 
societies  at  2  per  cent  for  20  years,  at  the  end  of  which 
time  a  new  loan  will  be  entered  into. 

The  conditions  are  that  no  loan  may  exceed  half  the 
cost  of  the  building,  or  a  maximum  of  $1,200,  and  the  rent 
charge  must  not  amount  to  more  than  4  per  cent  of  the 
total  cost  of  building. 

It  is  officially  calculated  that  the  cost  of  building  in  the 
devastated  areas  will  be  about  $2.000  a  house.  A  garden 
city  of  100  houses  at  Roulers  has  been  begun. 

Americans  to  Donate  Marne  Statue 
to  France 

In  commemoration  of  the  victorious  stand  of  the  French 
on  the  River  Marne  in  1914.  a  colossal  stone  statue,  one 
f  the  largest  of  the  world's  sculptures,  will  be  placed 
there  by  American  children,  according  to  plans  announced 
recently  by  Thomas  W.  Lament,  of  J.  P.  Morgan  &  Co., 
Chairman  of  a  committee  of  representative  Americans  who 
have  the  project  in  hand. 

The   exact   location   of   the   statue   has   not   been   deter- 
mined, but   it  will  be  at  a   spot   near  the  little   town   of 
leaux.  which   formed  the  high- water  mark   of   the   Ger- 
man advance  in  1914.     Marshal  Joffre  and  Marshal  Foch 
<    upon    the   exact    location.      The    erection    of    the 
memorial  has  received  the  official  sanction  of  the  French 
I  "overnment. 
Frederick  MacMonnies  has  been  selected  as  the  sculptor. 

It  is  expected  the  monument  will  cost  $250,000,  which  will 
be  raised  by  a  free-will  offering  of  citizens  in  all  parts  of 
the  country. 

Craftsmen  Form  School 

As  an  educational  extension  of  its  work,  the  National 
Society  of  Craftsmen  has  established  at  535  Lexington 
Avenue,  New  York  City,  "The  School  of  Craftsmen," 
under  the  direction  of  Mr.  C.  Scapecchi.  The  prospectus  of 
the  new  school,  written  by  Mr.  Scapecchi,  explains  the 
interesting  educational  idea  in  back  of  the  school : 

"In  olden  times  when  the  Arts  and  Crafts  were  more 
appreciated  and  Art  manifestations  were  a  result  of  love 
for  beauty  and  aesthetic  conception  was  intense  and  multi- 
form, Schools  of  Art  were  unknown. 

"The  craft's  master  in  his  own  bottega  was  the  teacher 
of  his  own  discipoli  to  whom  he  was  prodigal  of  advice 
and  instruction,  thoroughly  preparing  his  pupils  for  their 
vocational  craft.  Drawing,  as  well  as  practical  work, 
materials  and  proper  tools  were  at  the  disposal  of  future 
craft's  masters  and  each  one  felt  himself  free  to  develop 
his  individuality.  This  was  the  way  to  form  and  build 
the  real  artist  or  craftsman  in  the  old  days;  and  when 
the  National  Society  of  Craftsmen  decided  to  start  an 
educational  extension  to  be  called  The  School  of  Crafts- 
men, and  bestowed  upon  me  the  great  honor  of  being 
chairman,  they  conceived  the  idea  to  run  the  School  on 
a  practical  system  of  instruction.  . 

"Voluntarily  a  group  of  distinguished  craftsmen  of  wide 
experience  joined  in  the  pleasant  attempt  to  materialize 
the  idea  and  in  this  prospectus  book  every  one  of  them 
is  given  the  definition  of  their  craft  related  with  the  Indus- 
try. Though  the  world's  war  has  brought  sorrow  and 
sadness  to  the  various  nations  engaged,  it  has  revealed  to 
us  many  useful  things  of  which  America  should  take  ad- 
vantage. It  is  almost  the  duty  of  this  country  to  pre- 
pare its  own  artists  and  craftsmen  and  to  create  artistic 
taste  where  it  is  not.  It  is  very  commendable  to  have 
placement  offices,  but  it  is  of  a  more  tangible  success  if 
you  prepare  the  students  to  face  the  situation  created  for 
them  by  the  newly  acquired  position.  Because  there  is 
a  step,  a  big  one,  between  the  Art  School  and  the  manufac- 
turers' need. 

"The  creation  of  a  practical  school  is  imperative;  the 
students  should  know  the  secret  of  how  to  do  well  and 
build  their  own  artistic  education  through  a  period  of 
apprenticeship  as  in  the  case  of  our  school,  and  such  a 
gradual  education  would  be  accomplished  with  the  fre- 
quency of  courses. 

"Schools  like  ours  will  create  in  the  near  future  a  new 
form  of  institution.  The  Factory  School,  the  ideal  insti- 
tute where  the  students  of  limited  financial  resources  can 
obtain  instruction  on  their  vocational  craft  and  acquire  the 
practical  knowledge  while  they  would  be  self-supporting. 
It  is  a  dream  of  the  future,  but  I  wish  this  country  would 
build  many  Factory  Schools  so  as  to  be  able  to  meet  the 
need  of  architects,  decorators  and  manufacturers.  Too 
much  energy  and  power  are  dissipated  to-day  and  are 
working  apart,  therefore  the  beauty  of  an  idea  sometimes 
gets  lost  or  is  not  generally  appreciated." 

Chairman  of  the  School  of  Craftsmen. 

Among  the  patrons  and  patronesses  of  the  new  school 
are  the  following:  Mrs.  John  \Y.  Alexander,  Mr.  John- 
Quincy  Adams,  Mr.  Arthur  S.  Allen,  Mrs.  Herman  B. 
Baruch,  Mrs.  Charles  W.  Cooper,  Mrs.  Cleveland  H.  Dodge, 
Mrs.  Wm.  Henry  Fox,  Mr.  Francesco  Paola  Fino- 
chiaro,  Mrs.  Charles  Dana  Gibson.  Dr.  James  P.  Haney, 



Mir.  William  Laurel  Harris,  Mrs.  Ripley  H'itchcock,  Miss 
Susan  Johnson,  Mr.  Frederic  \V.  Keough,  Mr.  E.  N. 
Khouri.  Mrs.  Charles  R.  Lamb,  Mrs.  Philip  Lydig,  Mrs. 
Howard  Manslie.d,  Mrs.  Henry  Mottet.  Mrs.  Walter  Scott 
Perry.  Mrs.  Mary  Hall  Page,  Mrs.  Charles  P.  Richards, 
Mr.  Eric  K.  Rossiter,  Dr.  W.  L.  Russell.  Mrs.  Henry 
Watrous,  Mrs.  M.  C.  Ripley  Weisse,  and  M'iss  Irene  Weir. 

Washington    State    Architects    Seek 
Uniform  Building  Code  Legislation 

Members  of  the  Washington  State  Society  of  Architects 
at  their  January  meeting  went  on  record  in  favor  of  a 
state  law  creating  a  commission  to  draft  a  state  building 
code  to  standardize  the  requirements  for  the  respective 
classes  of  buildings. 

Edgar  Blair,  Julius  A.  Zittel  and  Harry  H.  James  were 
appointed  to  serve  on  a  committee  to  prepare  a  draft  O'f 
the  act  proposed  and  to  take  the  matter  up  at  the  next 
session  of  the  Legislature. 

Standardization  and  simplification  of  the  building  laws 
in  the  larger  cities  of  the  state  would  be  desirable,  the 
architects  declare,  as  present  city  building  codes  vary 
widely.  There  also  is  a  need,  they  say,  for  a  building  code 
for  the  smaller  cities  of  the  state  which  could  be  made 
to  reduce  their  fire  risk. 

Modern  Home  Equipment 
for  Australia 

Following  a  recommendation  of  a  new  working  stand- 
ard for  domestic  servants  and  the  consideration  of  con- 
ditions which  tend  to  make  domestic  service  in  Australia 
distasteful,  a  largly  attended  meeting  of  women  in  the 
Sydney  Town  Hall  a  short  time  ago,  decided  to  ap- 
peal to  the  Institute  of  Architects  for  more  attention,  in 
the  designing  of  homes  and  flat  buildings,  to  the  domestic 
working  side  of  them.  One  speaker  declared  that  if  she 
had  her  way  she  would  make  every  architect  serve  six 
months  in  a  kitchen  before  he  was  deemed  competent  to 
plan  that  department  of  a  house.  There  is  widespread 
interest  here  in.  the  labor  and  space-saving  features  lately 
developed  ifi  the  planning  and  building  of  homes  and  apart- 
ments in  the  United  States;  first  of  all,  in  the  design — the 
arrangement  of  rooms ;  the  special  attention  paid  to  the 
needs  of  the  housewife,  her  comfort  and  ease;  then  the 
planning  of  built-in  closets,  sideboards,  kitchen  and  bath 
cabinets,  wall-beds,  etc..  which  not  only  save  space  and 
provide  many  conveniences,  but  render  unnecessary  the 
purchase  of  considerable  furniture. 

Sydney  officials  have  received  numerous  inquiries 
from  Australian  property  owners  for  information  con- 
cerning the  design  and  construction  of  American  homes 
and  apartments  and  their  interior  labor  and  space-saving 
arrangement,  and  would  be  glad  to  hear  from  American 
architects,  builders  and  manufacturers  of  household  fit- 
tings willing  to  forward  descriptive  matter  for  distribution. 
Lists  of  architects,  plumbers  and  builders  of  Sydney 
( copies  of  which  may  be  obtained  from  the  Bureau  of 
Foreign  and  Domestic  Commerce  or  its  district  and  co- 
operative offices  upon  referring  to  FE — 23002.  FE — 23003, 
FE— 23004,  respectively)  are  transmitted  in  order  to  make 
it  possible  for  American  designers  and  manufacturers  of 
labor-saving  household  appliances  to  get  in  direct  touch 
with  them  and  possibly  work  out  a  comprehensive  plan  of 
co-operation  whereby  the  introduction  of  these  fittings 
might  be  increased. 

Reorganization  of   Indiana    Lime- 
stone Quarrymen's  Association 

The  Indiana  Limestone  Quarrymen's  Association,  with 
headquarters  at  Bedford,  Indiana,  in  anticipation  of  a  year 
of  unprecedented  building,  has  recently  been  reorganized 
and  expanded  with  a  view  to  increasing  its  facilities  for 
serving  the  architectural  profession. 

The  Association  maintains  a  staff  of  field  representatives 
who.  unhampered  by  the  bias  of  salesmen,  are  able  to 
render  valuable  help  in  the  solution  of  problems  connected 
with  their  industry. 

French  Art  Passes  to  Other  Lands 

As  the  result  of  the  ruinous  rate  of  exchange  France 
is  being  robbed  to  a  frightful  extent  of  her  art  treasures. 

Rich  foreigners,  especially  Americans,  Spanish,  Argen- 
tinians and  Brazilians,  are  said  to  be  flocking  to  Paris, 
changing  their  native  currency  into  French  francs,  doubling 
the'ir  original  amount  as  a  consequence,  and  then  buying 
up  everything  that  is  available  in  an  art  and  antique  line. 
The  cost  to  them  is  of  course  just  half  what  it  would  be 
were  the  rates  of  exchange  normal. 

Paintings,  statuary,  old  engravings,  rare  books,  Sevres 
vases,  and  in  fact  just  about  everything  in  the  art  line 
that  France  considers  a  "heritage  of  French  civilization," 
is  rapidly  becoming  an  acquisition  by  some  civilization 
that  did  not  produce  it. 

While  in  many  instances  the  state  'is  given  the  oppor- 
tunity to  buy  these  things  before  they  pass  into  the  hands 
of  foreigners.  France  has  too  many  war  debts  on  her 
hand  at  the  present  time  to  think  of  buying  art  treasures. 

Why  "Walls  Have  Ears." 

"Walls  have  ears,''  the  cautious  say.  This  expression 
originated  with  a  courtier  of  the  days  when  Marie  Medici 
sat  upon  the  throne  of  France,  writes  a  correspondent. 
The  queen  was  a  suspicious  woman  and  the  troublous 
times  in  which  she  lived  probably  made  her  more  appre- 
hensive than  she  otherwise  would  have  been.  Her  fear 
of  the  plots  and  plotters  led  to  installation  in  the  Louvre 
of  a  system  somewhat  like  our  modern  dictagraph.  This 
consisted  of  numerous  tubes  running  from  one  rocm  to 
another,  which  were  called  "auriclaires."  These  were  sup- 
plemented by  hollow  passageways  in  which  the  queen  or 
her  agents  might  listen  to  a  conversation  beyond  the  wall. 
A  writer  of  her  time  records  that  a  follower  of  the  court 
to  whom  he  was  talking  one  day  in  the  Louvre  suddenly 
halted  and  with  finger  to  lips  reminded  him  that  "walls 
have  ears." 

Tapestries  Returned  to  Mantua 

Mantua— famous  for  'its  Renaissance  and  for  the  part 
it  played  in  the  struggles  between  the  dukes  of  Mantua 
and  Gonzaga— has  regained  its  celebrated  tapestries,  lost 
when  the  city  was  ceded  to  Austria. 

Xine  in  number,  done  from  paintings  by  Raphael  and 
inspired  by  and  illustrating  the  lives  of  St.  Peter  and 
St.  Paul,  these  wonderful  masterpieces  of  the  tapestry- 
maker's  art  are  so  precious  that  a  sonnet  was  dedicated 
by  Eugisto  Callides  to  Signora  Antonia  Carre-Lovenzini, 
who  repaired  them.  The  tapestries  are  now  on  exhibi- 
tion in  the  galleries  of  the  Ducal  Palace,  whence  the 



tapestries  were  taken.  Since  their  return,  the  palace  has 
become  the  scene  of  brisk  battle  between  the  critics, 
one  faction  declaring  them  to  be  out  of  harmony  with 
the  severity  and  coldness  of  the  architectural  setting, 
another  hoJding  that  the  neo-classicism  of  the  palace  gives 
the  tapestries  their  best  effectiveness  as  rich  and  vivid 
designs  in  color. 

Garden  City  for  South  London 

A  garden  city  near  Grove  Park  railway  station,  costing 
about  £4,320,000,  is  the  joint  proposal  of  the  Deptford, 
Bermondsey,  and  Lewisham  councils  to  meet  the  over- 
crowding in  South  London.  They  contemplate  the  acqui- 
sition of  about  450  acres  belonging  to  Lord  Northbrook 
on  the  Bromley  Road  at  Catford,  and  to  put  up  5,400 
houses  costing  £800  each.  It  is  estimated  that  the  pur- 
chase of  the  land  will  mean  an  additional  £250,000. 


H.  Robert  Diehl  and  Samuel  N.  Vance  have  opened 
offices  in  the  Virginia  Carolina  Building,  Norfolk,  Va., 
for  the  practice  of  architecture  and  engineering  under  the 
firm  name  of  Diehl  &  Vance.  Mr.  Diehl  has  been  engaged 
in  the  practice  of  architecture  in  Norfolk  for  a  number  of 
years  and  Mr.  Vance  has  been  connected  with  the  firm 
of  Anderson  &  Christie,  Engineers,  Charlotte,  N.  C,  for 
the  past  six  years. 

W.  D.  Tunstall  and  Millard  F.  Arrington  have  recently 
opened  offices  in  the  National  Bank  of  Commerce  Build- 
ing, Norfolk,  Va.,  for  the  practice  of  architecture  and  en- 
gineering under  the  firm  name  of  Tunstall  &  Arrington. 

Sharove,  Friedman  &  Krieger,  architects  and  engineers, 
have  opened  offices  at  307  Berger  Building,  Pittsburgh,  Pa., 
and  desire  catalogues  and  samples  for  building  material 

David  A.  Lown  has  severed  connections  with  the  firm  of 
Schoeppel  &  Hardy  and  has  opened  an  architectural  office 
at  Room  218  Central  Trust  Building,  San  Antonio,  Tex. 
Literature  and  samples  from  manufacturers  are  desired. 

George  W.  Backhoff,  George  Elwood  Jones  and  J.  Fred- 
erick Cook  announce  the  formation  of  a  co-partnership 
for  the  general  practice  of  architecture  under  the  firm  name 
of  Backoff,  Jones  &  Cook,  with  offices  in  the  Union  Build- 
ing, 9-15  Clinton  street,  Newark,  N.  J. 

Frederick  Law  Olmsted  received  a  medal  from  the 
American  Society  of  Landscape  Architects  at  its  recent 
annual  meeting  at  the  Architectural  League,  215  West  Fifty 
seventh  street.  The  award  was  in  recognition  of  his  serv- 
ices in  city  planning.  Mr.  Law  was  also  re-elected  presi- 
dent of  the  society  for  the  ensuing  year. 

Scott  &  Prescott,  architects,  William  O.  Prescott,  R.  A., 
and  David  Cairns  Scott,  R.A.,  have  announced  their  re- 
moval to  a  larger  studio  at  34  East  Twenty-third  street. 
During  the  war  Scott  &  Prescott  were  architects  for  the 
Army  Hospital  for  shell-shock  patients,  the  Soldiers'  and 
Sailors'  Club  of  New  York,  the  recreation  building  for  the 
Navy  Aviation  Camp  at  Montauk  Point,  L.  I.,  and  the 
Navy  Post  Office. 

Benton  &  Benton,  of  Wilson,  North  Carolina,  have 
opened  a  new  office  at  Richmond,  Va.,  Room  606,  Times 
Dispatch  Building.  L.  T.  Bengtson,  in  charge. 

News  From  Various  Sources 

Announced  that  world's  greatest  radio  station,  with 
aerials  swung  upon  eight  900  feet  steel  towers,  was  com- 
pleted at  Bordeaux  by  United  States  and  will  be  in  opera- 
tion next  Spring. 

*  *       * 

The  United  States  paid  $222.129,292  in  pensions  to  624,427 
persons  last  year.  The  largest  number  of  persons  ever  on 
the  Federal  pension  roll  was  999,446  in  1902  and  the  total 
amount  paid  to  them  was  $137,502,267. 

*  *      * 

Senate,  January  14,  confirmed  District  of  Columbia  Rent 
Commission.  Action  of  Senate  turns  over  to  Commission 
thousands  of  rent  controversies  between  tenants  and  land- 
lords for  consideration  and  decision. 

*  *       * 

Representatives  of  Negro  race  advocated  before  House 
Judiciary  Committee,  January  15,  establishment  of  a  sep- 
arate State  under  protectorate  of  United  States  for  seg- 
regation of  Nation's  Negro  population. 

*  *      * 

Senate,  January  15,  passed  Water  Power  Development 
bill,  different  in  some  respects  from  measure  adopted  by 
House  in  July,  but  following  in  general  way  same  bill 
that  has  been  before  Congress  in  one  form  or  another  for 
past  ten  years. 

*  *      * 

Bureau  of  Memorial  Buildings  issued  four  bulletins  in 
Community  Buildings  as  War  Memorials  series.  Titles : 
A  Living  Memorial ;  Existing  Community  Houses ;  Exist- 
ing Public  Auditoriums ;  Provisions  for  Art,  Music  and 
Drama  in  Memorial  Buildings. 

*  *       * 

H.  L.  Kerwin,  Director  of  Conciliation,  states  that 
United  States  entered  New  Year  with  fewer  pending  in- 
dustrial disputes  than  at  any  time  during  last  three  years, 
according  to  reports  from  Department's  conciliators  in 
the  35  great  industrial  centers  of  country. 

*  *      * 

Charleston,  W.  Va.,  announces  that  housing  conditions 
in  and  around  that  city  have  become  so  acute  that  a  cor- 
poration, with  a  capital  of  $500,000,  has  been  formed  by 
the  Chambers  of  Commerce  of  Charleston-  and  St.  Albans 
to  provide  homes  for  1,500  additional  Federal  employees. 

*  *      * 

Senate,  January  26,  passed  Kenyon  Americanization  bill, 
which  would  require  all  citizens  of  United  States  of  16  to 
21  years  of  age,  not  mentally  or  physically  disqualified, 
and  all  alien  residents  between  ages  of  16  and  45,  who  can- 
not speak,  read  or  write  English,  to  attend  school  not  less 
than  200  hours  a  year. 

*  *      * 

Office  of  Chief  of  Staff  announces  that  second  session  of 
conference  of  Army  Staff  Officers,  which  is  being  held  at 
Washington,  met  January  13,  with  Major  General  W.  G. 
Haan  presiding.  A  tentative  detailed  and  comprehensive 
War  Department  plan  for  reserve  officers'  training  camps 
was  explained  to  assembled  officers  by  specialist  from  War 
Plans  Branch  of  General  Staff. 

*  *      * 

Associated  Press  announces  from  New  York  that  all 
building  records  in  territory  north  of  the  Ohio  and  east 
of  the  Missouri  rivers  will  be  broken  in  1919,  according 
to  statistics  made  public,  December  14,  which  shows  that 
contracts  totaling  $2.332,902,000  were  awarded  for  11 
months  ending  December  1,  1919,  or  $700,973,000  more  than 
in  the  corresponding  period  last  year,  the  previous  high 


Weekly  Review  of  Construction  Field 

Comment  on  General  Conditions  of  Economics  With  Reports  of  Special  Correspond- 
ents in  Prominent  Regional  Centers 

Government  Patronage 

The  dictum  of  ex-Secretary  Glass  upon  the  question  of 
our  governmental  relation  to  the  international  financial 
situation  has  received  the  most  serious  attention  not  only 
in  the  almost  bankrupt  nations  of  Europe,  whom  some  of 
our  financiers  believe  were  addressed  somewhat  too 
abruptly,  but  in  this  country  as  well.  It  is  a  statement 
which  indicates  a  change  in  the  tendency  of  affairs  of  a 
fundamental  character.  We,  being  the  creditor  nation, 
were  forced  to  take  the  lead  in  the  matter. 

It  is  not  an  isolated  opinion,  but  stands  in  harmony  with 
Mr.  Hoover's  objection  made  months  ago  to  our  pro- 
posed extension  of  efforts  for  European  relief.  And  al- 
most simultaneously  with  Mr.  Glass*  statement  that  the 
Government  must  "get  out  of  banking  and  trade,"  six  na- 
tional farmers'  organizations  have  memorialized  Congress : 
"the  attempt  to  thwart  natural  economic  laws  by  legisla- 
tion is  useless ;"  and  with  commendable  enthusiasm  they 
assert  that  there  is  nothing  wrong  with  the  country.  Surely 
it  is  not  one  isolated  view,  nor  is  it  limited  to  international 

The  alternative  of  governmental  support  of  individuals, 
of  industries,  of  finance  which  has  existed  in  Europe  since 
the  war  and  toward  which  we  were  drifting,  is  work.  It 
was  so  stated  by  Mr.  Hoover,  by  Mr.  Glass  and  by  the 
farmers.  It  will  be  so  believed  by  every  man  whose  com- 
mon-sense has  not  become  perverted  by  dreams  of  social- 
ized Utopias. 

With  the  withdrawal  of  government  patronage,  the 
phrase  "more  production"  must  become  popularized  and  be 
put  into  practice.  People  generally  may  not  look  back 
over  the  past  few  years  with  a  realization  that  this  unpro- 
ductive period  in  the  army  or  navy  was  so  much  reduction 
of  capital  and  of  available  supplies  of  material.  They 
will,  however  (being  led)  set  to  work  unanimously  re- 
building that  capital.  This  is  the  reconstruction  of  which 
we  have  talked. 

There  are  objections  to  this  tendency.  There  is  an  or- 
ganized movement  among  speculators  against  the  contrac- 
tion of  credit,  which  they  associate  with  the  Federal 
Banks'  reduction  of  reserves.  It  is  possible  that  the  objec- 
tions are  well  founded  and  that  some  very  serious  diffi- 
culties will  be  encountered  before  the  present  attempts  of 
the  Government  to  withdraw  its  support  of  the  inflation 
have  become  accomplished. 

The  general  direction,  however,  is  clear :  a  reduction  of 
governmental  patronage  and  an  increase  in  production. 
Whether  the  economies  which  accompany  this  deflation  will 
be  voluntary  or  enforced  depends  upon  the  adaptability 
of  our  national  temperament.  The  speculators  will  surely 
be  quick  to  adapt  themselves  and  although  there  is  at 
present  a  great  uneasiness  among  manufacturers,  they 
have  the  least  to  fear.  The  eventual  result  must  be  a 
stabilizing  rather  than  reduction  of  prices  and  a  more 
freely  moving  supply  of  manufactured  material.  Our  neg- 
lected, our  growing  needs  are  far  beyond  their  capacity  to 

Governmental   patronage  of   the  building  trade,   if   it   is 

to  be  escaped,  will  be  avoided  by  a  narrow  margin;  for 
there  is  nowadays  among  the  public-spirited  an  enthusiasm 
for  bulk  housing  ideas  which  is  rapidly  mounting  to 
hysteria.  The  schemes  and  ideas  cover  acres  of  news- 
paper space  and  drip  from  the  mouths  of  politicians. 

No  architect  would  deny  the  facts:  that  an  adequate 
housing  for  our  population  is  essential ;  none  but  has 
observed  that  the  available  space  was  falling  far  behind 
the  increases  in  demand.  It  has  also  been  easy  to  ob- 
serve that  those  people  who  depend  upon  someone  else 
to  supply  month  by  month  their  home  with  a  roof  had 
difficulty  in  finding  one  last  Fall,  or  that  those  whose 
rents  were  advanced  along  with  the  prices  of  everything 
else  have  started  a  hue  and  cry  for  Government  inter- 
vention, for  legislation,  and  for  municipal  building  pro- 

These  various  substitutes  for  building  are  all  on  the  way. 
They  have  not  and  doubtless  will  not  have  the  slightest 
effect  upon  the  space  available  for  housing.  The  con- 
struction industry  continues  to  build  with  as  much  speed 
as  the  supply  of  materials  and  the  weather  permit.  So 
far  as  progress  of  building  is  concerned,  it  goes  as  fast 
as  it  may.  There  is  nothing  to  be  gained  by  stimulating 
it  from  behind  or  dragging  it  on.  It  is,  in  fact,  most  pro,b- 
able  that  with  the  political  negation  of  the  natural  laws  of 
supply  and  demand  the  work  would  not  be  permitted  to 
follow  its  free  course  and  would  instead  over-develop  in 
some  phase  where  the  need  is  least  urgent. 

The  worst  effect  of  this  public  attitude  and  of  the  de- 
flation is  the  possibility  of  a  stoppage  of  industrial  con- 
struction by  the  dominance  of  housing,  hotel  and  apart- 
ment building.  Considering  the  present  inability  of  fac- 
tories to  keep  abreast  of  the  demands,  this  one-sided  de- 
velopment would  be  most  unfortunate  when  it  hampered  an 
increase  of  production. 

At  present,  however,  the  difficult  transportation  situation 
still  has  a  most  powerful  influence  upon  the  production. 
Its  effect  has  been  so  pervasive  that  months  will  elapse 
before  it  will  be  possible  to  eliminate  consideration  of  this 

The  steel  mills,  for  example,  are  seriously  hampered  by 
lack  of  fuel.  Tracing  back  a  step  farther :  the  coke  ovens 
are  being  supplied  with  but  from  30  to  40  per  cent  of  the 
cars  required.  Coke  is  piled  up  as  high  as  the  plants 
themselves  and  banking  of  the  ovens  seems  inevitable. 

As  the  car  shortage  impedes  the  supplying  of  steel  mills 
with  raw  materials,  so  does  it  impede  the  shipment  of 
their  output  to  the  fabricators. 

From  the  standpoint  of  the  railroad  officials,  the  out- 
look is  not  encouraging.  The  shortage  is  a  fundamental 
one  and  to  be  overcome  only  by  construction  and  rehabili- 
tation of  the  rolling  stock.  Moreover,  February  is  one  of 
the  hardest  months  on  freight  movement. 

Therefore,  although  the  manufacturers  in  every  depart- 
ment of  the  building  materials  industry  are  making  great 
efforts  to  relieve  the  present  famine,  it  seems  impossible 
to  hope  for  any  sudden  change  of  the  present  situation 
or  any  great  recessions  of  prices  for  months  to  come. 
Undoubtedly  the  increasing  demands  will  keep  pace  with 



whatever  may   be  accomplished   in   facilitating  transporta- 
tion and  increasing  supplies  of  materials. 

(By  Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 


With  the  lumber  market  on  the  incline  and  steel  ex- 
tremely difficult  to  get  hold  of,  architects  and  builders  in 
the  Pacific  Coast  section  are  facing  a  material  shortage 
which  has  been  accentuated  this  year  by  the  continuation 
of  building  through  the  winter  months  to  a  degree  not  ex- 
perienced for  many  years. 

The  need  for  houses  has  resulted  in  a  demand  for 
materials  which  cannot  be  filled  under  present  production 
conditions.  From  all  the  lumber  yards  in  this  vicinity 
come  reports  of  tinder-supply  with  no  indication  of  prices 
dropping  until  the  let-up  on  orders  comes  and  that  is  not 
expected  for  many  months. 

Brick  manufacturers  are  in  a  similar  position.  With 
production  practically  ceased  for  the  usual  winter  shut- 
down, it  is  said  to  be  impossible  to  fill  all  orders,  and  it 
is  admitted  by  more  than  one  dealer  in  clay  building  ma- 
terials that  the  situation  promises  to  become  really  acute 
before  the  reopening  of  the  plants  this  spring. 

In  regard  to  the  steel  question  at  the  present  time,  it 
is  stated  by  local  firms  that  stock  is  badly  depleted. 
Some  sizes  of  construction  steel  cannot  be  secured  here  at 
all  and  the  specifications  of  an  order,  of  necessity,  greatly 
influence  both  the  price  and  the  actual  filling  of  it.  Ex- 
porters find  it  very  hard  to  place  business  and  are  dis- 
covering that  the  demand  for  steel  can  only  be  met  by 
placing  their  orders  far  in  advance — and  then  taking  a 
chance  on  the  orders  being  filled. 

Architects  report  that  their  offices  are  full  of  plans  and 
the  consensus  of  opinion  is  that  1920  will  carry  as  much 
or  more  building  activity  as  the  year  previous. 

Building  commitments  for  this  city  are  centered  on  new 
business  buildings  in  the  retail  shopping  and  manufacturing 
districts  and  in  dwellings  of  $5,000  and  up  and  homes 
costing  $15,000  to  $25,000.  For  some  inexplicable  reason 
the  apartment  house  idea  is  dormant.  Some  of  the  jobbing 
trade  ascribe  it  to  the  stringent  so-called  "rent  hog''  ordi- 
nance passed  by  the  city  council  this  winter  in  response  to 
public  clamor  which  requires  all  owners  or  agents  to  main- 
tain a  fixed  degree  of  heat  through  the  cold  season  on 
penalty  of  arrest,  imprisonment  or  fine.  There  have  been 
several  prosecutions  under  this  law. 

Jobbers  declare  they  cannot  raise  the  price  of  brick  and 
meet  the  situation,  and  are  standing  off  of  7  cents  each 
which  they  would  require  if  quotations  were  to  be  ad- 
vanced. The  price  of  fire  brick  is  $60  at  the  warehouse, 
against  $45  in  carload  lots  a  year  ago. 

Reinforcing  bars  have  advanced  15  cents  per  cwt  on  base 

Prices  of  home*  for  sale  are  advancing  rapidly.  This 
has  been  brought  about  through  the  concession  to  probable 
rising  costs  of  all  building  materials. 

(By  Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE: — The  quotations  on  all  building  materials 
in  this  territory  continue  to  ascend,  but  this  fact  does 
not  seem  to  check  the  zeal  of  investors  in  contracting 
ahead  for  all  items  that  enter  into  the  season's  projects. 

The  most  serious  aspect  of  the  situation  is  the  delay 
in  arrival  of  material?  from  the  East  due  to  the  car  short- 
age and,  as  it  is  believed  here,  reactions  from  the  steel 
strike.  Lumber  is  higher,  the  mills  accepting  only  the 

higher  grades  of  finishing  stock  which  pay  the  largest 
profits.  The  coastwise  water  rates  between  California 
and  Puget  Sound,  under  which  the  Nevada  plaster  used 
so  generally  in  this  territory  has  been  traveling,  have  been 
advanced  85  per  cent  in  60  days,  compelling  material 
corporations  to  use  the  all-rail  routes.  This  is  gradually 
stiffening  quotations.  Claybourn  fire  brick,  imported  in 
large  quantities  from  British  Columbia,  is  costing  job- 
bers $2.50  per  1000  more  money  than  a  week  ago,  and 
enquiries  have  now  centered  round  Troy,  Idaho,  where 
a  price  differential  can  be  secured. 

There  has  been  a  slight  easing  off  in  the  supply  of 
cultivator  steel  which  has  been  scarce  through  the  last  30 
days.  Jobbers  report  their  ability  .to  resume  quotations. 

(By  Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 


Birmingham  reports  many  new  buildings  projected. 
Among  the  number  several  apartment  houses,  a  new  hotel 
and  half  dozen  store  buildings.  "The  Dulion '  Apart- 
ments, a  seven-story  fireproof  building  on  the  corner  of 
Eleventh  avenue  and  Twenty-first  street  South  was  com- 
menced this  week.  The  approximate  cost  of  this  build- 
ing is  $300,000.00.  It  is  also  rumored  that  the  Loew  thea- 
trical interests  will  build  a  new  theater  here  this  year,  with 
a  seating  capacity  of  2500.  A  contract  for  two  mercantile 
houses  was  let  to-day  and  it  is  claimed  in  real  estate 
circles  that  many  more  are  now  under  negotiation.  The 
demand  for  business  houses  continues  strong.  It  is  stated 
upon  reliable  authority  that  large  Eastern  hotel  oper- 
ators are  seriously  considering  Birmingham  with  a  view 
of  constructing  a  600-room  commercial  hotel. 

As  spring  approaches,  many  inquiries  are  made  regard- 
ing home  building  and  there  seems  a  probability  that  this 
year  will  break  all  previous  records  for  residence  con- 

The  price  of  building  material  shows  no  signs  of  imme- 
diate decline :  in  fact,  it  is  believed  that  there  will  be 
further  advance  as  the  urgent  need  for  buildings  increases. 

The  output  of  lumber  will  have  to  be  increased  by  south- 
ern mills  if  they  are  to  meet  the  pressing  demands  of 
the  country  upon  this  source  of  supply.  The  labor  ques- 
tion is  materially  affecting  this  situation,  likewise  the  mat- 
ter of  transportation — car  shortage  being  reported  from 
many  points.  January  weather  conditions  have  seriously 
retarded  logging  operations.  Many  lumber  sections  are 
poorly  provided  with  roads  upon  which  logs  can  be  hauled 
in  bad  weather.  Extensive  road  building  now  planned  for 
1920  will  relieve  this  trouble  to  some  extent  and  permit 
the  use  of  heavy  trucks  where  now  it  its  practically  im- 
possible to  utilize  them  for  that  purpose. 

(By  Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO: — Architect  Chas.  Herrick  Hammond,  presi- 
dent of  the  Illinois  Society  of  Architects,  is  predicting  a 
serious  condition  in  the  building  situation  in  the  near  future 
unless  something  is  done  to  relieve  the  shortage  in  some 
lines  of  material  as  well  as  in  labor.  He  points  out  that 
the  shortage,  particularly  in  glass  and  in  steel  sashes, 
has  already  caused  delays  in  many  of  the  improvements 
in  the  Chicago  district.  The  lack  of  production,  due  to 
labor  conditions  and  congestion  in  transportation,  are  'he 
principal  causes  at  this  time.  Mr.  Hammond  predicts  that 
present  high  prices  of  materials  will  continue  for  at  least 
two  years  longer. 


Department  of  Architectural 


Features  of  the  Mechanical  Equipment  of 
the  Wingdale,  N.  Y.,  Prison  Buildings 

LEWIS  F.  PILCHER,  New  York  Stale  Architect 

FOR  a  number  of  years  the  State  of  New  York 
has  had  numerous  commissions  and  depart- 
ments studying  the  problem  of  the  proper  housing 
of  State  dependents,  particularly  that  division 
housed  in  the  State's  prisons.  The  outcome  of 
these  studies  has  been  the  development  of  two 
State  prisons,  one  being  constructed  at  Wingdale, 
to  be  known  as  the  Wingdale  Prison,  and  the 
other  to  be  a  new  prison  at  Sing  Sing. 

In  the  development  of  a  State  institution  it  has 
been  found  by  experience  that  at  least  forty  per 
cent  of  the  total  cost  of  the  institution  is  required 
for  the  mechanical  dependencies  of  said  institution. 
In  the  majority  of  cases  in  institutional  planning 
these  items  have  been  somewhat  ignored,  making 
it  necessary,  during  the  life  of  the  institution,  com- 
pletely to  remodel  the  system  installed,  and  never 
having  a  completely  balanced  unit.  This  is  par- 
ticularly noticeable  in  the  central  heating  plants  in 
most  of  the  State  institutions,  the  original  design 
for  which  was  not  adapted  for  the  final  institution, 
making  it  necessary  from  time  to  time  completely 
to  remodel  the  central  plant  as  the  institution  in- 
creased in  size. 

For  the  past  six  years  the  State  Architect,  Lewis 
F.  Filcher,  has  required  that  his  Engineering  De- 
partment accumulate  such  data  as  was  available  in 
all  of  the  State  institutions  so  that  in  the  planning 
of  Wingdale  Prison  this  data  would  be  utilized, 
and  the  institutional  mechanical  equipment  would, 
as  nearly  as  possible,  meet  the  wants  for  which 
each  particular  item  was  to  be  installed.  It  is  be- 
lieved that  the  buildings  now  under  construction 
will  fulfill  these  requirements  to  a  great  extent. 

In  the  selection  of  the  site  for  any  institution  one 
of  the  first  problems  that  arises,  which  should  be 
thoroughly  investigated  before  the  purchase  of 

*  Chief    Engineer.   X.    Y.    State   Department   of   Architecture. 

land,  is  that  the  site  has  available  a  suitable  and 
sufficient  water  supply  and  that  the  sewage  from 
the  institution  can  be  discharged  into  certain  creeks 
or  rivers  without  detriment  to  the  surrounding 
communities,  and  that  no  objections  or  injunctions 
will  be  raised  by  surrounding  property  owners.  It 
has  been  found  in  a  large  number  of  cases  that 
objections  by  property  owners  have  raised  senti- 
ment to  such  a  pitch  that  it  was  impracticable  to 
proceed  with  the  development  of  an  institution. 

At  Wingdale  these  two  points  were  carefully 
considered  by  the  State  Health  Department  and  by 
numerous  experts  employed  by  the  State.  The 
water  supply  is  to  be  taken  from  impounded  water 
held  back  by  a  large  dam  to  be  constructed  on  the 
upper  portion  of  the  property,  from  whence  the 
water  will  be  delivered  to  mechanical  water  filters  at 
the  site  of  the  dam,  and  from  thence  the  water  will 
be  piped  to  the  institution,  delivering  to  same  by 
gravity.  The  sewage  from  the  institution  will  be 
delivered  to  a  trunk  sewer  which  will  lead  to  a 
sewage  disposal  plant  consisting  of  screen  cham- 
bers, Imhoff  settling  tanks,  sand  filters  and  chlorin- 
ating apparatus,  from  whence  the  purified  effluent 
will  be  discharged  into  a  nearby  creek  on  the 

The  base  of  the  design  has  been  planned  for  an 
ultimate  population  of  fifteen  hundred  prisoners, 
although  the  equipment  at  the  present  time  is  for 
a  much  smaller  number.  In  the  heating  of  an  in- 
stitution of  this  size  there  still  appears  to  be  a 
considerable  difference  of  opinion  existing  regard- 
ing individual,  isolated  heating  plants  and  central- 
ized heating  plants.  It  may  be  possible  to  find 
certain  institutions  with  moderately  sized  groups, 
heated  from  a  group  central  plant,  where  each  boiler 
plant  is  of  sufficient  size  so  that  fairly  economical 
operation  may  be  maintained.  These  cases,  how- 
ever, rarely,  if  ever,  exist,  as  these  small  isolated 



plants  are  unable  carefully  to  study  the  problem 
of  combustion,  etc.,  so  as  to  produce  a  high  ef- 
ficiency. It  is  also  unwarranted  to  stokerize  such 
boilers  on  account  of  their  size,  thereby  eliminating 
in  most  cases  the  use  of  soft  coal  on  account  of 
its  objectionable  smoke  with  hand  firing;  so  that 
in  practically  all  cases  the  boiler  plant  efficiency, 
obtained  from  a  number  of  isolated  plants,  is  far 
below  one  centralized  heating  plant  under  the  direc- 
tion of  one  high  class  engineer. 

The  amount  of  labor,  also,  can  be  materially 
reduced  by  one  centralized  heating  and  lighting 
plant,  and  all  waste  of  steam  can  be  brought  to  a 
minimum.  It  is  also  possible,  in  prison  construc- 
tion, by  having  a  centralized  plant,  to  have  all  of 
the  operating  labor  done  by  inmates  with  the  ex- 
ception of  one  chief  engineer  and  an  assistant  on 
each  watch. 

In  the  location  of  a  power  house  the  same  should 
be  situated  in  close  proximity  to  the  railroad  so 
that  the  coal  can  be  delivered  as  nearly  as  possible 
to  the  firing  space  in  front  of  the  boilers.  The 
plant  should  also  be  located  as  nearly  central  to 
the  group  of  buildings  as  practicable,  making  it 
possible  to  radiate  from  same  to  all  of  the  groups 
by  the  shortest  heating  lines.  Quite  often  in  cen- 
tralized plants  the  location  of  the  power  house 
has  to  be  varied  from  the  above  position  on  account 
of  the  architectural  surroundings. 

In  the  heating  of  institutions  a  large  amount  of 
discussion  has  been  carried  on  over  a  period  of 
ten  years,  in  respect  to  the  proper  heating  medium 
for  group  heating,  whether  the  same  shall  be  by 
steam  (either  gravity  or  vacuum)  or  by  forced  hot 

After  going  over  all  of  the  literature  and  vari- 
ous plants  installed  throughout  this  country  and 
abroad,  the  writer  is  convinced  that  any  one  of 
the  above  heating  mediums  or  methods  can  be  suc- 
cessfully undertaken  at  any  institution. 

There  are  certain  groupings  of  buildings  and 
methods  of  administration  which  have  a  material 
bearing  upon  which  system  should  be  selected. 
The  main  point  to  decide  is  which  system  is  the 
cheapest  to  operate  during  the  life  of  the  insti- 
tution, including  yearly  charges  on  original  cost, 
maintenance  and  yearly  depreciation.  One  of  the 
main  considerations  in  central  heating  is  that  the 
system  must  be  as  simple  as  possible,  and  if  a 
steam  system  is  selected,  all  traps  and  moving 
mechanism  must  be  accessible,  positive  in  their 
operation  and  easily  inspected. 

Each  of  these  systems  has  developed  a  certain 
number  of  advocates,  and  the  writer  is  surprised 
to  note  the  various  arguments  and  discussions  ad- 
vanced, a  large  number  of  which  are  not  based  on 

actual  operating  facts  and  fundamental,  established 
values.  Any  statement  made  that  all  types  of  in- 
stitutions can  be  heated  more  successfully  by  one 
system  alone  is  incorrect. 

After  going  over  the  entire  lay-out  of  the  prison 
at  Wingdale  it  appeared,  on  account  of  certain 
fundamental  designs  and  conditions  of  administra- 
tion, that  a  vacuum  system  of  heating  was  prefer- 
able for  Wingdale  Prison.  It  would,  however, 
have  been  possible  to  have  heated  this  institution 
successfully  by  forced  hot  water,  but  the  selection 
in  system  can  only  be  arrived  at  after  a  careful 
balance  of  all  the  factors  surrounding  the  institu- 
tion in  question. 

There  is  one  point  that  the  writer  wishes  to 
bring  out  in  favor  of  a  hot  water  system  which 
is  that  the  deterioration  of  the  piping  system  is 
undoubtedly  a  minimum  on  account  of  the  same 
water  being  kept  continuously  in  the  piping,  thereby 
reducing  to  a  minimum  the  amount  of  activity  of 
the  water  on  the  inner  surface  of  the  piping  system. 
This,  it  is  found,  is  a  large  factor  in  the  up-keep 
of  various  institutional  plants,  as  it  appears  that 
steam  piping  systems  have  to  be  renewed  in  a 
large  number  of  localities  at  least  once  in  about 
thirty  years,  and  in  a  great  many  cases  the  return 
steam  lines  in  a  shorter  period.  This,  of  course,  is 
dependent  on  the  character  of  the  water  encoun- 
tered and  its  activity,  and  the  amount  of  make  up 
water  required  to  take  care  of  the  losses  in  the 
institution.  In  a  majority  of  steam  systems  it  is 
found  that  the  amount  of  make  up  water  is  sur- 
prisingly large.  The  writer  believes,  however,  that 
if  the  institutions  throughout  the  State  would  study 
this  phase  of  the  work  more,  these  losses  could  be 
materially  reduced,  thereby  prolonging  the  life  of 
their  heating  distribution  systems  and  equipment, 
and  also  reducing  the  annual  coal  consumption. 
The  central  heating  and  lighting  plant  for  Wing- 
dale  Prison  consists  of  two  main  rooms,  namely, 
a  boiler  room  and  an  engine  and  pump  room.  In 
the  boiler  room  are  located  four  150  hp.  return 
tubular  boilers  with  reserve  space  for  two  ad- 
ditional boilers  of  equal  capacity,  the  present  boilers 
being  furnished  by  the  Ames  Iron  Works. 

Various  opinions  have  been  raised  regarding  the 
type  of  boilers  which  should  be  installed.  Of 
course,  no  hard  and  fast  rule  can  be  set,  but  in 
general  central  heating  plants  should  consist  of 
at  least  four  units.  If,  therefore,  the  plant  is  less 
than  1000  total  hp.  it  would  make  the  units  ap- 
proximately 250  hp.  each,  and  this  is  a  small  sized 
boiler  to  adopt  for  the  water  tube  type.  This  would 
have  a  tendency,  therefore,  for  plants  under  1000 
total  hp.  to  have  boilers  of  the  fire  tube  type.  Plants 
of  this  kind  are  in  general  not  warranted  in  install- 



ing  overhead  coal  bunkers  and  coal  and  ash  con- 
veyors, as  with  the  moderate  amount  of  coal  used 
and  with  sufficient  prison  labor  the  coal  and  ash 
can  be  handled  direct  from  wheelbarrows  or  four- 
wheel  coal  cars  with  side  dump.  There  is,  however, 
considerable  to  be  said  regarding  the  installation 
of  simple,  mechanical  stokers,  even  in  plants  of 

prisoners  operating  the  plant  can  be  completely 
under  the  control  and  observation  of  the  engineer 
or  guard.  Two  additional  small  rooms  were  pro- 
vided, one  for  general  storage  of  supplies,  and  an 
engineer's  office  for  the  keeping  of  all  records, 
etc.  In  the  engine  room  provision  has  been  made 
for  the  installation  of  four  direct  connected  A. 

Y^nr  ......1: 

..  !3fc~--,'--r  ^ 



this  size,  with  plenty  of  labor,  so  as  to  reduce  the 
smoke  nuisance  and  make  the  boilers  as  efficient 
as  possible.  In  this  plant,  however,  no  stokers  have 
been  provided  at  the  present  time.  Undoubtedly 
these  will  be  installed  at  some  future  date. 

The   engine   and   pump   room,   for  prison   work, 
should  be  combined  in  one  large  room  so  that  all 

C.  2,300  volt  3-phase  engine-driven  generating 
units  with  direct  connected  exciters,  together  with 
main  switch  board.  At  the  present  time  two  gen- 
erators, one  being  50  K.  V.  A.  and  the  other 
-5  K.  V.  A.,  are  being  installed,  space  being  pro- 
vided for  two  future  units  of  equal  capacity,  the 
units  being  arranged  with  cylinder  heads  facing 



each  other,  thereby  making  a  large  open  space  in 
the  center  for  the  desk  of  the  operating  engineer. 
In  the  pump  room  are  located  the  boiler  feed 
pumps,  open  feed  water  heater,  vacuum  heating 
pumps,  auxiliary  feed  water  tank,  vacuum  return 
tank,  with  numerous  traps,  etc.  All  of  the  feed 



^~  — -_*_ '-_- Nl 

water  to  the  boilers  will  be  delivered  through  a  V 
notch  meter  indicating  the  flow  and  also  provided 
with  a  recording  mechanism  so  that  the  total 
amount  of  water  fed  to  the  boilers  for  any  period 
can  be  determined,  making  it  possible  to  definitely 
know  each  day  the  amount  of  water  evaporated 
per  pound  of  coal,  or  the  efficiency  of  the  plant. 

So  as  to  fully  utilize  the  exhaust  steam  from  the 
engines  during  the  summer  and  to  properly  control 
the  temperature  from  one  central  point,  a  central 
hot  water  heating  system  was  installed  in  the  pump 
room  with  distributing  mains  to  the  various  build- 
ings for  domestic  hot  water  service,  thereby  placing 
same  directly  under  the  control  of  the  chief  en- 
gineer. This  plant  consists  of  two  domestic  hot 
water  heaters,  water  tube  type,  each  with  a  capacity 
of  5000  gallons  per  hour,  together  with  a  storage 
tank  of  700  gallons.  From  the  storage  tank  the 
domestic  hot  water  is  supplied  to  the  buildings, 
from  each  of  which  is  a  small  return  circulating 
line,  the  circulation  being  kept  up  by  two  motor- 
driven  centrifugal  pumps  located  in  the  pump  room. 

From  the  power  house  there  is  installed,  under- 
ground, in  tile  conduit  the  following  service  lines: 
one  low  pressure  heating  main  to  utilize  the  exhaust 
steam  from  the  engines ;  one  vacuum  return  line ; 
one  medium  pressure  steam  main  for  cooking  and 
sterilizing  purposes,  which  will  be  run  at  approxi- 
mately 40  pounds ;  one  medium  pressure  return 
line ;  one  domestic  hot  water  line  and  one  domestic 
circulating  line.  Sufficient  expansion  chambers  are 
installed  along  the  above  lines.  At  each  building 
the  domestic  hot  water  and  circulating  lines  are 
cross  connected,  and  no  circulating  line  is  run 
inside  the  building  as  it  is  believed  that  there  will 
be  sufficient  draw  to  keep  the  domestic  hot  water 
warm  up  to  the  fixtures  without  undue  waste. 

At  this  prison  two  types  of  cell  blocks  are  being 
built,  one  known  as  an  Interlocking  Building,  in 
which  there  are  day  and  dormitory  rooms  on  each 
floor  with  a  certain  number  of  outside  cells.  The 
day  and  dormitory  rooms  are  to  be  heated  by  direct 
radiators  and  also  to  be  furnished  with  forced 
ventilation.  The  outside  cells  are  to  be  heated  by 
forced  hot  air  rising  through  vertical  ducts  and 
distributed  in  a  horizontal  air  duct  in  front  of  the 
cells,  with  openings  above  each  cell  door.  This 
has  the  advantage  of  eliminating  all  radiators  in 
the  cells,  and  also  provides  a  good  circulation  of 



The  inside  cell  block  building  is  heated  by  direct 
radiators  located  along  the  outside  walls  and  at 
the  level  of  the  lower  tier  of  cells.  From  each 
cell,  however,  there  is  a  vertical  tile  duct  leading 
to  a  horizontal  exhaust  duct  running  the  length  of 
the  attic,  which  duct  is  connected  to  a  motor-driven 




PUMP  CM/-* 







exhaust  fan,  thereby  drawing  fresh  air  from  the 
space  in  front  of  the  cell  through  the  cell  door 
into  the  cell,  and  exhausting  from  the  cell  in  the 
above-mentioned  flue.  It  can,  therefore,  be  seen 
that  the  amount  of  air  entering  each  cell  is  directly 
under  the  control  of  the  employees  of  the  prison. 
( )nc  of  the  unique  features  in  the  sanitary  work 

building  will  be  supplied  with  the  usual  toilet  and 
locker  rooms.  In  the  basement  of  the  interlocking 
building  and  cell  block  building  are  large  shower 
rooms,  tile  walls,  with  sufficient  shower  heads  run- 
ning along  two  sides  of  the  room,  each  side  being 
controlled  by  a  mixing  valve  under  the  direct  con- 
trol of  the  guard  and  near  the  entrance  door. 


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ea.      —  "  •    • 
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r  TH-EV  -  PWVP  -  toon— 

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SKCT10NS-(  KXTKAI.    IIKATIXC    AM)    l.KIHTlXci    I'l.AXT— WIXI  ;l)AI,K     1'KISli'X.    XK\V    YORK 

and  conforming  with  modern  practice  is  that  each 
cell  is  provided  with  a  separate  toilet  and  lavatory 
with  push  button  valve  control,  the  valves  being 
located  in  a  V-shaped  pipe  chamber  running  ver- 
tically and  located  between  adjacent  cells  so  that 
one  pipe  riser  serves  two  cells  on  each  floor. 
The  day  and  dormitory  rooms  in  the  interlocking 

Considerable  discussion  arose  whether  it  was  neces- 
sary to  have  partitions  between  the  shower  heads, 
and  it  was  decided  that  this  was  not  advantageous 
to  the  proper  administration  of  a  prison. 

The  mess  hall  has  been  provided  with  three  re- 
frigerating rooms  cooled  by  an  isolated  refrigera- 
tion plant,  motor  driven,  located  in  the  basement. 



of  sufficient  capacity  also  to  make  a  certain  amount  Therefore,  all  mechanical  equipment  should  he  of 

of  cake  ice.  the  best. 

All  of  the  cooking  will  he  done  by  steam  as  expe-  While  it  is  not  possible  in  an  article  such  as  this 

rience  has  demonstrated  this  to  be  the  most  satis-  to  describe  in  any  great  detail  the  features  entering 

factory  method  in  an  institution  of  this  nature.  into  the  design  and  installation  of  the  mechanical 

The  main  feature  to  be  considered  in  the  median-  equipment  of  all  the  various  prison  buildings,  it  is 

ical  installation  of  a  prison  is  that  all  equipment  used  felt  that  the  matter  presented  is  sufficient  to  convey 

(JNK    lll.OWKK    TO    R-KN1SII    FKKSII    AIR    F<>1<    82   CKLLS 

must  he  simple,  rucked  and  Ion-lived.     It  should  the  salient  points  to  be  considered, 

also  be  taken  into  consideration  that  this  class  of  The  drawings  accompanying  this  article  ,  lustrate 

building  is  generallv  constructed   for  over  a  hun-  various  phases  of  the  heating,  lighting  and  plumbing 

dred  years'  service  and  there  is  no  reason  why  the  equipment    of    several    of    the    buildings,    and    are 

type    now    being    erected    should    not    last    longer,  worthy  of  careful  t 





.^-^Mppp^ -$&£_!  '-u—  -Hfrte- 

»••*.  "i  "  •  V  "\ 


Showing  detail   of  construction  of  cells.     A  reinforced  concrete  partition  between  each  cell,  brick  exterior  walls 
and  brick  pipe  shaft  wall.     All  windows  are  heavily  barred. 










:*:    M     5      -    @ 





Fresh  Air  to   Each  Individual   Cell 



ML     - 









The  Ledge  Stone  House* 


MUCH  has  been  written  about  the  beauty 
and  adaptability  of  the  ledge  rock  of 
Philadelphia  and  vicinity  and  its  influence 
upon  architectural  design  in  that  locality,  partic- 
ularly in  its  relation  to  house  building.  This  in- 
fluence may  be  traced  from  the  early  Colonial  days 
down  to  the  present  day,  but  perhaps  the  most 
clever  handling  of  this  material  has  been  accom- 
plished during  the  past  ten  years,  as  exhibited  in  the 
work  of  Duhring,  Okie  &  Ziegler,  E.  B.  Gilchrist, 
Mellor  &  Meigs,  and  Robert  R.  McGoodwin. 

"Illustrated  by  a  group  of  houses  at  Cermantown,  Philadelphia,  Pa.. 
by  Duhring,  Okie  &  Ziegler.  Architects,  executed  under  the  personal 
direction  of  Carl  A.  Ziegler. 

Ralph  Adams  Cram,  in  aii  article  on  "The 
Promise  of  American  House  Building,"  says, 
"There  may  be  those  that  find  our  official  architec- 
ture artificial  and  verbose,  our  churches  eclectic, 
reactionary  and  archaeological,  our  schools  either 
illiterate  or  damned  by  intensive  (and  offensive) 
efficiency,  our  municipal  monsters,  such  as  shops 
and  hotels  and  office  buildings,  menaced  on  the  one 
hand  by  the  Scylla  of  anarchic  individualism  plus 
an  intemperate  logic,  on  the  other  by  the  Charybdis 
of  inherited  but  unaccommodating  'orders' — I  do 
not  know.  But  if  there  are  such,  the  picking  and 
stealing  fingers  of  criticism  are  withheld  from  the 

Copyright  1920,  The  Architectural  &  livildimj  Press  (7iir.) 


whole  category  of  house  building."  This  statement 
is  particularly  applicable  to  house  building  in  Phila- 
delphia, and  much  of  the  beauty  of  these  houses 
may  be  attributed  to  the  successful  use  of  the  long, 
flat,  micaceous  stone  which  is  found  in  stratified 


form  close  to  the  soil  in  that  vicinity,  and  may  be 
easily  pried  out  with  a  crowbar  or  wedge  in  long, 
flat  pieces. 

It  is  quite  common  in  Germantown  to  obtain  suf- 
ficient stone  from  the  cellar  excavation  to  erect  the 
entire  building,  which  fact  explains  the  very  low 
cost  of  the  many .  interesting  houses  in  German- 
town,  where  stone  houses  are  less  expensive  to 
build  than  either  brick  or  tile. 

The  houses  illustrating  this  article  are  by 
Duhring,  Okie  &  Ziegler,  Architects,  designed  and 
erected  under  the  personal  direction  of  Carl  A. 
Ziegler,  whose  home  is  in  the  center  of  the  German- 
town  district,  in  close  proximity  to  the  houses 
shown  and  the  quarries  from  which  the  stone  was 
taken.  It  is  an  unusual  privilege  for  an  architect 
to  live  in  such  intimate  connection  with  his  work, 
where  the  quarrying  of  the  material  and  the  erec- 
tion of  the  building  is  really  one  operation,  and  the 
homelike  character  of  these  houses  was  no  doubt 

greatly  influenced  by  this  fact.  I  can  recall  the 
statement  made  by  one  of  the  newspaper  critics  in 
writing  of  the  League  Exhibition  in  New  York  a 
few  years  ago,  when  he  naively  said  that,  "Duhring, 
Okie  &  Ziegler's  houses  are  reminiscent  of  home." 

The  houses  of  Rufus  W.  Scott,  Clarence  M. 
Brown,  and  Robert  M.  Hogue  show  the  ledge  rock 
laid  up  in  the  Colonial  manner,  with  wide,  white 
pointing  following  the  natural  outline  of  the  stones, 
so  different  from  the  thin,  hard,  white  lines  of 
"patent  plaster,"  used  by  the  operative  builder  in 
that  vicinity,  who  with  great  ingenuity  has  devised 
a  stock  plan  which,  when  painted  white,  is  adver- 
tised as  Colonial  after  the  best  traditions,  and  when 
stained  a  reddish  brown,  is  a  gem  of  the  Eliza- 
bethan Period. 

No  attempt  is  made  to  give  the  stones  in  these 
houses  a  dressed  level  bed,  but  great  care  is  used 
to  have  the  stone  laid  horizontal  with  natural  ends. 
The  texture  of  the  surface  of  the  wall  depends 
upon  the  ruggedness  of  the  rock  face,  and  the  width, 
texture  and  color  of  the  pointing.  The  photographs 
do  not  show  the  wonderful'  color  effect  of  these 
walls.  The  blue  vein  of  the  rock  is  carefully  avoided 
for  face  work,  although  it  is  a  harder  stone  than 
the  gray,  and  particularly  adapted  to  foundation 
work.  The  face  stone  varies  in  color  from  a  silvery 
gray  showing  a  great  deal  of  mica,  to  rich  brown- 
ish tones  caused  by  the  cleaving  of  the  rock  along 
the  seams,  which  gives  a  fine  weathered  effect.  Mr. 




Ziegler  calls  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  Italian 
masons  who  do  most  of  the  mason  work  in  this 
vicinity  soon  acquire  the  ability  to  select  proper 
color  combinations,  and  show  great  interest  in 
properly  placing  the  large  and  small  stones  in  the 
walls,  which  may  seem  a  very  simple  matter,  but 
in  reality  can  only  be  done  effectively  by  those  hav- 
ing a  true  art  sense,  and  a  proper  appreciation  of 
the  material  they  are  using. 

The    detail    of    the    house    of  Mr.  Clarence  M. 

analyzing  this  house,  and  he  suggested  that   I  call 
it  'Transitional,"  if  it  must  have  a  name. 

To  my  mind  one  of  the  most  charming  things 
about  this  house  is  the  introduction  of  features 
quite  foreign  to  the  traditional  Colonial  forms.  The 
pergola  which  serves  as  a  dining  terrace,  recalls 
very  delightfully  the  well  known  pergola  of  the 
Capuchini  Convent  at  Amain ;  yet  how  well  it  fits 
into  the  picture!  The  walls  of  this  house  are  laid 
up  of  rough  stone,  but  with  very  little  rock  face. 


Brown  is  a  'particularly  fine  example  of  the  use  of 
larger  stones  at  the  corners  forming  natural  quoins, 
which  tie  the  walls  together  in  an  informal  and 
practical  manner,  and  give  the  impression  of  stabil- 
ity and  true  craftsmanship  so  sadly  lacking  in  most 
building  structures  to-day. 

Much  stone  is  being  shipped  from  Germantown 
to  other  sections  of  the  country,  but  the  art  of  lay- 
ing it  up  in  this  interesting  manner  is  not  yet 
generally  understood. 

In  the  house  of  Mr.  Franklin  Raker  we  have  a 
very  interesting  example  studied  from  the  Dutch 
Colonial  type.  I  asked  Mr.  Ziegler's  assistance  in 

The  joints  between  the  stones  are  filled  flush  with 
a  mortar  made  of  screened  Jersey  gravel  to  give 
it  a  fairly  rough  texture,  the  whole  is  then  given 
two  coats  of  Government  whitewash  such  as  is 
used  on  our  lighthouses,  and  after  a  year  of  weath- 
ering the  walls  have  a  texture  very  similar  to 
some  of  the  old  walls  about  Naples.  The  addition 
of  a  few  face  stones  here  and  there  adds  to  the 
charm.  What  a  contrast  to  the  ordinary  un- 
imaginative stucco  walls  we  see  so  much  of! 

I  think  the  term,  "Glorified  Pennsylvania  Farm- 
houses," describes  this  group  of  Colonial  houses 
better  than  any  phrase  I  can  think  of. 



In  the  English  house  of  Mr.  John  D.  Mcllhenny 
we  find  the  (jermantown  ledge  stone  put  to  another 
use.  Here  it  supplants  the  limestone  commonly 
used  for  cut  stone  in  this  vicinity.  I  have  never 
seen  another  case  of  this  stone  being  pierced,  as 


shown  on  the  stone  balcony  of  this  building.  It 
required  courage  to  use  so  soft  and  porous  a  stone 
for  this  purpose,  and  I  understand  the  masons  ob- 
jected to  making  the  attempt,  but  the  result  has 
amply  justified  the  designer's  faith  in  the  material: 
for  the  soft,  weathered  effect  of  this  balcony  and 
the  cut  stone  forming  the  heads  and  jambs  of  the 
doors  and  windows  recalls  the  texture  which  we 
admire  so  much  in  the  old  mansions  of  England. 

The  building  is  a  fireproof  structure,  and  was 
designed  to  house  Mr.  Mcllhenny's  wonderful  col- 
lection of  pictures,  furniture  and  rugs.  It  has  been 
done  in  an  informal  manner,  which  is  such  a  pleas- 
ant contrast  to  the  usual  "Art  Gallery"  attached  to 
so  many  of  our  large  American  homes,  where  the 
treasures  of  art  are  treated  as  exotic  things,  and 
are  not  brought  into  intimate  connection  with  the 

family  life.  The  restraint  exhibited  in  the  design- 
ing of  the  interior  is  worthy  of  comment.  It  is 
seldom  that  the  collection  itself  is  permitted  to 
form  an  architectural  feature  of  the  building, 
but  it  is  evident  in  this  house  that  the  architect 
was  principally  interested  in  furnishing  a  back- 
ground that  would  best  harmonize  with  the  objects 
that  were  not  to  be  exhibited,  but  really  to  form  a 
part  of  the  building.  What  a  contrast  to  the  man- 
ner in  which  the  craftsmanship  of  bygone  years  is 
exhibited  in  some  of  our  Museums,  where  the 
classic  lettering  over  the  entrance  would  be  more 
descriptive  if  it  were  spelt,  "Morgue" !  Art  is  not 
a  dead  issue,  and  it  really  requires  very  little 
imagination  to  hear  the  thud  of  the  mallet,  as  we 
contemplate  the  craftsmanship  exhibited  in  a  vigor- 
ous bit  of  mediaeval  sculpture  where  every  tool 
mark  stands  out  as  clearly  as  in  the  day  when,  in- 
spired by  a  religious  devotion,  the  blow  was  struck. 
It  is  to  be  hoped  that  Mr.  Mcllhenny's  example 
may  find  many  followers,  and  that  we  may  find  more 
specimens  of  truly  great  art  brought  into  closer  con- 
tact with  our  daily  life.  It  is  only  through  intimate 
contact  with  really  fine  art  that  we  can  comprehend 
its  true  message,  which  is  to  all  people,  and  not  by 
treating  it  as  an  exotic  thing,  to  be  taught  in 
"finishing  schools"  for  young  ladies,  as  a  subject  for 
light  conversation.  It  is  a  sad  fact  that  one  may 
finish  a  full  college  course'  in  this  country  without 




having  devoted  one  hour  to  the  study  of  Fine  Arts. 
It  was  not  so  in  the  early  days  of  our  history 
when  our  forefathers  were  face  to  face  with  the 
stern  realities  of  life.  Their  problems  were  solved 
by  straight  thinking  and  hard  work,  and  this  fact 
is  faithfully  recorded  in  their  architecture.  From 

the  manuscripts  of  Washington  and  Jefferson  and 
many  less  prominent  men  of  the  period  we  learn 
that  the  study  of  architecture  and  the  kindred  arts 
was  part  of  the  education  of  every  intelligent  man. 
As  a  result  we  fail  to  find  examples  of  illiterate 
buildings  recording  the  history  of  that  period. 



The  Law  as  to  Architectural  Practice 

Construction  of  Contracts  as  to  Amount  of  Architect's 



EVEN  where  there  is  a  definite  written  con- 
tract as  to  the  amount  to  be  paid  an  architect 
for  his  services,  it  does  not  follow  that  this 
is  an  absolute  assurance  against  disputes  and  liti- 
gation on  the  subject,  though  there  is  no  doubt  that 
a  written  contract,  properly  drawn,  is  much  prefer- 
able to  allowing  the  matter  of  compensation  to  rest 
upon  quantum  meruit  or  the  reasonable  value  of  the 
architect's  services.  The  present  article  is  concerned 
solely  with  cases  where  the  courts  have  been  called 
upon  to  construe  definite  written  contracts,  for  a 
specified  compensation,  usually  on  a  percentage 
basis,  where  claims  have  been  made  and  disputed 
as  to  what  the  wording  of  the  contract,  as  apparent- 
ly contemplated  by  the  parties  at  the  time  of 
execution,  includes.  In  such  cases  the  cardinal  rule  is 
that  the  parties  will  be  held  strictly  to  the  terms  of 
their  contract  where  that  is  clear  and  unambiguous. 
That  disputes  may  arise  upon  contracts  which  are 
apparently  clear  and  unambiguous,  however,  is  well 
evidenced  by  a  very  recent  case,  where  the  contract 
stipulated  for  "a  commission  of  5  per  cent,  of  the 
cost  of  the  work,"  and  no  less  than  four  disputed 
claims  arose  after  completion  of  the  work  as  to 
what  these  words  included. 

An  architect  wrote  a  bank  as  follows:  ''I  pro- 
pose and  agree  to  furnish  the  plans,  specifications, 
and  detailed  drawings  necessary  to  erect  your  build- 
ing, including  supervision  of  the  work,  preparing  of 
contracts,  and  the  usual  and  customary  services  of 
an  architect,  for  a  commission  of  5  per  cent,  upon 
the  cost  of  the  work,  exclusive  of  the  interior  equip- 
ment of  the  vaults  and  wood  furniture,  rugs  and 
draperies."  This  proposition  was  accepted  by  the 
bank,  which  made  a  contract  for  the  erection  of  the 
building  at  a  price  of  $59,000,  $1,000  more  than  the 
architect  estimated  it  would  cost.  This  contract  was 
prepared  by  the  architect,  and  contained  a  clause 
providing  that  all  questions  in  dispute  should  be  de- 
termined by  him.  As  the  work  proceeded  changes 
were  made  in  details.  These  changes  required  re- 
vised drawings,  which  were  prepared  by  the  ar- 
chitect as  required.  In  this  way  the  cost  of  the 
building  was  gradually  increased  until  it  amounted 
to  $114,880.87.  The  specifications,  which  were  also 
prepared  by  the  architect,  contained  this  provision : 

"All  old  material  to  become  the  property  of  the 
contractor,  and  may  be  used  in  the  new  work  upon 
the  approval  of  the  architect."  The  architect  was 
paid  without  question  5  per  cent,  on  the  total  cost 
of  the  building.  He  sued  to  recover  additional 
amounts  as  follows :  First,  a  claim  for  services  for 
preparing  revised  drawings ;  second,  for  services  as 
an  arbitrator  under  the  clause  in  the  contract  re- 
quiring him,  as  an  architect,  to  settle  all  disputes ; 
third,  an  additional  commission  on  the  value  of  the 
material  in  the  old  building  which  was  given  the 
contractor  to  be  used  by  him  in  the  new  building ; 
fourth,  a  claim  for  compensation  because  there  was 
delay  in  the  construction  of  the  new  building,  the 
original  date  fixed  in  the  contract  being  February. 
1914,  when  in  fact  the  structure  was  not  completed 
until  October,  1914. 

In  affirming  a  judgment  for  the  defendant,  the 
Pennsylvania  Supreme  Court,  Osterling  v.  First 
National  Bank  (1918),  105  Atl.  633,  dealt  with 
these  items  as  follows : 

As  to  the  first  item  of  the  claim,  the  architect 
"proposed  and  agreed  to  furnish  all  necessary  plans 
and  specifications  to  erect  the  building."  This  was 
held  to  contemplate  not  only  the  plans  which  he  had 
already  prepared,  but  to  include  any  and  "all"  plans 
which  in  the  process  of  erection  might  be  called  for. 
As  an  architect  he  was  doubtless  familiar  with  the 
fact  that  most  owners  in  the  course  of  building 
make  changes  in  both  plans  and  specifications,  and 
he  was  fairly  to  be  presumed  to  have  contemplated 
that  when  he  stated  that  the  cost  would  be  $58,000. 
If  he  regarded  the  work  of  preparing  the  drawings 
as  work  outside  of  the  contract,  he  should  not  have 
accepted  the  percentage  on  the  total  cost,  $114,000. 
He  could  not  claim  both  the  percentage  on  the  total 
cost  and  extra  compensation  for  preparing  the 
drawings,  which  increased  the  total  cost,  but  he 
must  be  held  to  his  contract,  which  was  clearly 

It  was  held  that  he  was  not  entitled  to  extra  com- 
pensation for  his  services  as  an  arbitrator  in  a  dis- 
pute between  the  owner  and  the  contractor,  as  this 
was  included  in  his  contract  obligation  to  perform 
"the  usual  and  customary  services  of  an  architect." 

The  third  item  was  also  held  dependent  upon  the 



contract,  and  not  allowed.  By  a  clause  in  the  speci- 
fications the  material  in  the  old  building;  became  the 
property  of  the  contractor,  but  leave  was  given  to 
him  to  use  it  in  the  new  building  or  so  much  of  it 
as  was  suitable  therefor  under  the  architect's  ap- 
proval. The  architect  offered  to  prove  that  its  value 
was  $25,000.  When  he  made  his  offer  he  knew 
that  the  old  material  was  in  existence,  and  that  it 
was  to  be  used  by  the  contractor.  With  this  knowl- 
edge, in  his  own  contract,  he  fixed  his  commission 
at  5  per  cent  of  the  "cost  of  the  work."  Obviously, 
the  court  said,  neither  he  nor  the  bank  contemplated 
a  commission  on  an  additional  sum  of  $25,000,  nor 
did  the  value  of  the  old  building  material  enter  into 
the  calculation  at  all.  If  he  had  said  that  he  was 
to  be  paid  a  commission  on  the  cost  of  the  work, 
plus  the  value  of  the  old  material,  there  would  have 
been  a  basis  for  his  claim. 

The  claim  for  compensation  for  delay  was  also 
held  to  be  without  merit.  The  contract  under  which 
he  claimed  fixed  no  time  within  which  his  services 
were  to  be  completed.  The  building  actually  cost 
almost  double  the  amount  originally  contemplated, 
and  his  commissions  were  correspondingly  in- 
creased. "This,"  the  court  said,  "was  adequate  com- 
pensation for  the  delay  incident  to  the  construction 
of  the  enlarged  building,  but  this  is  not  the  reason 
for  our  refusal  to  allow  his  claim.  He  was  not  en- 
titled to  make  it  under  the  contract  which  he  him- 
self prepared." 

Other  cases  in  various  jurisdictions  illustrate  this 
principle.  Thus,  a  county  employed  a  contractor 
to  build  a  courthouse  according  to  plans  and  speci- 
fications furnished  by  architects,  the  work  to  be  com- 
pleted December  15,  1884,  the  contract  providing 
that  any  charges  by  the  architects  for  supervising 
the  work  after  the  time  for  completion  on  account 
of  the  contractor's  failure  to  complete  should  be 
deducted  from  the  amount  of  the  contract.  The 
architects,  familiar  with  the  terms  of  this  contract, 
agreed  to  superintend  the  work  for  $700.  The 
first  contractor  abandoned  the  work,  and  it  was  let 
to  another.  The  second  refused  to  insert  the  pro- 
vision as  to  the  completion  by  December  15,  1884, 
and  the  work  was  not  completed  until  August,  1885. 
The  architects  sued  the  county  to  recover  for  extra 
services  in  superintending  after  December  15,  1884. 
It  was  held  they  could  not  recover,  since  their  con- 
tract was  without  limit  or  conditions  as  to  time,  and 
all  the  county  was  obliged  to  do  was  to  have  the 
work  done  within  a  reasonable  time.  —  McDonald 
v.  Whitley  County  (1887),  8  Ky.  L.  Rep.  874. 

A  written  offer  was  made  to  prepare  plans  and 
specifications  of  a  building  for  3  per  cent  on  the 
total  cost  and  supervise  the  construction  for  il/2 
per  cent.  It  was  accepted  in  the  following  terms : 

"Payments  to  be  made  on  monthly  estimates.  Ac- 
cepted, conditioned  upon  this  agreement  terminat- 
ing in  twenty-four  months  from  June  i,  1896,"  to 
which  the  architect  signified  his  agreement  in  writ- 
ing. It  was  held  that  the  agreement  clearly  con- 
templated payments  each  month  of  3  per  cent  upon 
the  estimated  cost  of  each  month's  work,  and  the 
architect  could  not  recover  in  the  absence  of  any 
monthly  estimates  having  been  made,  or  of  any  fact 
entitling  him  to  payment  upon  this  construction  of 
the  contract.  Of  course,  if  the  action  of  the  owner 
in  postponing  the  .work  until  June  I,  1918,  so  as  to 
avoid  the  contract,  could  be  traced  to  bad  faith,  it 
is  probable  that  such  delay  would  found  an  action 
for  damages  for  breach  of  the  contract. 

When  the  action  began,  the  plaintiff  had  com- 
pleted the  plans  and  specifications.  He  relied  upon 
a  custom  entitling  architects,  under  contracts  of  this 
general  nature,  upon  such  completion,  to  2  per  cent 
of  the  total  estimated  cost  of  the  work.  It  was  held 
that  evidence  of  such  a  custom  was  in  direct  con- 
flict with  the  written  agreement  of  the  parties,  and 
the  latter  must  govern.  As  the  contract  was  free 
from  ambiguity,  evidence  of  conversations  preceding 
and  accompanying  its  execution  as  to  the  time  of 
payment  analogous  to  the  custom,  was  also  held  in- 
advisable.— Davis  v.  New  York  Steam  Co.  (1898), 
33  N.  Y.  App.  Div.  401. 

A  contract  fixed  the  architect's  compensation  at 
2l/2  per  cent  of  the  cost  of  the  proposed  courthouse 
building  for  the  plans  and  specifications,  and  2^/2 
per  cent  additional  for  supervising  the  erection 
thereof,  but  provided  that  "should  contract  for 
building  not  be  let,"  the  architect  was  to  receive 
"$i,ooo  only  for  plans  and  specifications,  same  to 
be  applied  as  part  payment  in  the  event  of  the  build- 
ing going  ahead  at  some  future  time."  The  county 
afterwards  completed  a  courthouse  on  other  plans 
and  specifications  accepted  after  advertisement.  It 
was  held  that  the  contract  was  clear  and  unambigu- 
ous and  parol  evidence  was  inadmissible  to  show 
that  "the  building"  did  not  mean  any  courthouse 
building  the  county  might  afterwards  erect,  but  only 
such  as  might  be  erected  according  to  the  plaintiff's 
plans  and  specifications,  and  the  county  was  not 
liable  in  excess  of  the  $1,000. — Gauntt  v.  Chehalis 
County  (1913),  72  Wash.  106,  129  Pac.  815. 

A  contract  stipulated  for  21/-  per  cent  of  the  esti- 
mated contract  price  for  the  plans  and  specifications 
and  2l/2  per  cent  of  the  actual  construction  cost  for 
supervision.  It  was  held  the  architects  were  entitled 
to  5  per  cent  on  work  completed,  plus  2l/2  per  cent 
on  buildings  never  constructed,  but  for  which  they 
furnished  plans  and  specifications.  -  -  Spencer  v. 
New  York  (1917),  179  N.  Y.  App.  Div.  69,  166  N. 
Y.  Supp.  177. 



Where  the  evidence  showed  an  express  contract 
of  employment  as  architect  of  a  building  for  a  speci- 
fied percentage  of  the  cost  it  was  held  that  an  addi- 
tional charge  for  providing  a  superintendent  tor  the 
worked  was  unwarranted  —  Espert  v.  Ahlschlager, 
(1905),  117  111.  App.  484. 

The  owner  cannot  read  into  the  contract  condi- 
tions which  it  does  not  contain.     An  architect  was 
employed    under    an    express    contract    to    prepare 
plans  and  specifications  for  a  building,  which  were 
accepted  and  submitted  to  contractors.     The  price 
was  expressly  agreed  upon,  and  was  to  be  3^2  per 
cent  of  the  estimated  cost,  $70,000.     The  lowest 
bid  offered   was  $69,800.     The   owner  refused  to 
build  and  also  refused  to  pay  the  architect  any  com- 
pensation for  his  services,  a  defense  that  only  1^4 
per  cent  was  to  be  paid  if  the  owner  should  not 
build,  and  that  the  plans  were  defective  and  discon- 
formed  to  city  ordinances  were  held  not  supported 
by  the  evidence  and  the  architect  was  allowed  to  re- 
cover.— Vaky  v.  Phelps  (Tex.  1917),  194  S.VV.  601. 
An  early  case,  often  cited,  illustrating  this  prin- 
ciple is  Chicago  v.  Tilley  (1880),  103  U.  S.  146. 
A  city  and  a  county  made  an  agreement  for  the 
erection  of  a  city  hall  for  their  joint  use,  whose 
general  exterior  design  should  be  of  uniform  char- 
acter and  appearance,  one  half  to  be  built  by  the 
city,  at  its  own  expense,  and  the  other  by  the  county. 
The  county  had  previously  appointed  its  own  archi- 
tect.   The  city  appointed  the  plaintiff  as  its  archi- 
tect, and  he  prepared  plans  and  specifications  for 
the  city's  part  of  the  building.    These  did  not  har- 
monize with  the  plans  and  specifications  prepared 
by  the  county's  architect,  and  the  city  refused  to  ac- 
cept the  plaintiff's  services  in  supervising  the  erec- 
tion of  the  building.     The  trial  court  held  that  he 
was  entitled  to  compensation  at  the  rate  for  which 
he  was  to  do  the  whole  work  under  the  contract 
for  drawing  the  plans  and  specifications  and  super- 
intendence.   On  appeal  the  city  claimed  that  the  ar- 
chitect's contract  was  not  only  to  prepare  the  neces- 
sary plans  and  specifications  for  the  city's  portion 
of  the  building,  but  to  obtain  the  approval  and  adop- 
tion of  his  plans  by  the  Board  of  County  Commis- 
sioners.   The  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States 
held  that  this  was  not  the  meaning  of  the  contract. 
The  city  could  not  reasonably  expect  any  architect 
to  give  his  time  and  labor  in  devising  plans  for  a 
building  on  the  condition  that  he  was  to  receive  no 
compensation  unless  he  procured  the  assent  to  his 
plans  of  another  body  of  fifteen  persons,  which  had 
employed  its  own  architect  to  devise  plans  for  the 
same  building.     No  prudent  man  would  agree  to 
such  a  contract.    It  seemed  to  the  court  reasonably 
clear  from  the  contract  itself,  and  the  circumstances 
under  which  it  was  made,  that  the  city  took  the  risk 

of  securing  the  agreement  of  the  county  to  some 
mutually  acceptable  plan. 

The  terms  of  the  contract  may  be  clear  as  to  the 
commission  to  be  paid,  but  there  may  be  a  dispute 
as  to  what  amount  it  is  to  be  computed  upon.  Let- 
ters constituting  a  contract  showed  clearly  that  the 
architect  was  to  be  paid  5  per  cent  on  the  total 
cost  of  materials  and  labor  furnished  for  the  con- 
struction of  a  tomb.  The  evidence  showed  that 
while  the  parties  might  have  originally  contem- 
plated a  $70,000  tomb,  they  subsequently  agreed  on 
plans  for  a  $40,000  tomb,  and  the  plans  actually  pre- 
pared and  accepted  were  for  a  tomb  not  to  exceed 
in  cost  $40,000,  the  actual  cost  of  the  tomb  as 
erected.  It  was  held  error  to  permit  the  architect 
to  recover  commissions  for  plans  of  a  tomb  which 
was  to  cost  $70,000.  -  Osterling  v.  Carpenter 
(1911),  230  Pa.  153,  79  Atl.  405. 

An  owner  agreed  to  pay  2^2  per  cent  upon  the 
estimated  cost  of  the  buildings,  but  there  was  noth- 
ing in  the  contract  to  show  what  that  was.  It  was 
held  that  estimated  cost  meant  the  reasonable  cost  of 
buildings  erected  in  accordance  with  the  plans  and 
specifications,  and  not  necessarily  the  amount  of 
some  actual  estimate  agreed  upon  by  the  parties, 
nor  an  estimate  or  bid  accepted  by  the  owner. 
Therefore,  estimates  and  bids  by  builders,  which  the 
architect  had  obtained  for  the  owner  in  pursuance 
of  the  contract,  were  admissible  in  evidence  to  show 
what  the  estimated  cost  was,  although  the  bids  had 
not  been  accepted.  —  Lambert  v.  Sanford  (1887), 
55  Conn.  437. 

In  an  action  by  an  architect  to  recover  under  a 
contract  entitling  him  to  a  percentage  on  the  cost 
of  a  building,  expert  evidence  is  admissible  to  show 
what  the  cost  of  such  a  building  would  be  where 
the  actual  cost  is  capable  of  proof.  Israels  v.  Mac- 
donald  (1907),  123  N.  Y.  App.  Div.  63,  107  N.  Y. 
Supp.  826. 

If  a  contract  is  made  to  superintend  the  construc- 
tion of  a  building  for  a  specified  lump  sum,  and  the 
owner  during  the  progress  of  the  work  makes 
changes  requiring  a  longer  time  to  complete  the 
building  than  was  originally  contemplated,  entailing 
extra  work  upon  the  superintendent,  the  latter  can 
recover  compensation  therefor,  though  the  owner 
acted  in  bona  fide  in  making  the  changes.  The 
superintendent  need  not,  in  such  a  case,  give  the 
owner  notice  that  he  expects  additional  compensa- 
tion for  such  additional  service.  Smith  v.  Bruyere 
(Tex.  1912),  152  S.  W.  813.  So,  where  it  would 
have  taken  only  eight  or  nine  months  to  perform 
the  work  as  originally  planned  and  specified,  where- 
as it  required  eighteen  to  nineteen  months  because 
of  alterations,  reasonable  compensation  could  be  re- 
covered for  extra  services  in  superintending  the 



building  and  additional  improvements,  if  such  extra 
services  were  not  provided  for  by  the  superintend- 
ent's contract.  -  Shear  v.  Bruyere  (Tex.  1916), 
187  S.  W.  243. 

Similarly  it  was  held  in  Baker  v.  Pulitzer  Pub. 
Co.  (1903),  103  Mo.  App.  54,  77  S.  W.  585,  that 
where  architects,  in  addition  to  the  work  which  they 
had  contracted  to  do  for  a  fixed  price,  do  other 
work  for  the  owner,  they  may  recover  the  reason- 
able value  of  such  extra  work,  provided  it  was  or- 
dered by  the  owner  to  be  done,  or  he  had  promised 
to  pay  for  it. 

But  it  appears  that  an  architect  would  not  be  en- 
titled to  recover  an  additional  percentage  to  the 
contract  5  per  cent  on  a  recovery  had  by  the  con- 
tractor against  the  owner  for  damages  caused  by  a 
delay  in  the  work  whereby  the  contractor  was 
obliged  to  pay  an  advanced  price  for  materials,  the 
delay  entailing  on  the  architect  no  extra  expense,  or 
damage. — Boiler  v.  New  York  (1907),  117  N.  Y. 
App.  Div.  458,  102  N.  Y.  Supp.  729. 

An  order  by  an  owner  who  changes  his  mind  as 
to  the  kind  of  building  he  wants,  necessitating  en- 
tirely new  plans,  accepted  by  the  architect,  makes 
an  entirely  new  contract,  and  both  sets  of  plans 
must  be  paid  for.  An  architect  agreed  in  writing 
with  an  owner  to  make  the  plans  and  specifications 
for  a  proposed  building  and  superintend  its  con- 
struction for  a  stipulated  price.  After  accepting 
the  plans  and  specifications  made,  the  owner  aban- 
doned the  idea  of  erecting  the  building  in  accord- 
ance therewith,  and  ordered  the  architect  to  make 
new  plans  for  an  entirely  different  structure,  which 
he  did.  The  accepted  order  for  the  second  set  of 
plans  constituted  a  new  contract  which  had  no  re- 
lation to  the  work  done  under  the  written  contract, 
and  the  architect  was  entitled  to  compensation  for 
the  second  set  in  addition  to  the  price  agreed  upon 
in  the  written  contract. — Fitzgerald  v.  Walsh 
(1900),  107  Wis.  92. — Hand  v.  Agen  (1897),  96 
Wis.  493.  Such  work  cannot  be  said  to  be  in  the 
contemplation  of  the  parties  when  the  original  con- 
tract was  made.  There  was  no  meeting  of  minds  on 
the  subject.  In  such  circumstances  an  implied 
promise  arises  to  pay  for  the  extra  or  independent 
work,  in  the  absence  of  anything  in  the  contract  to 
the  contrary. 

On  the  same  principle,  where  an  architect  em- 
ployed to  draw  plans  for  a  building,  the  cost  of 
which  will  not  exceed  a  specified  sum,  submits  plans 
and  specifications  in  compliance  with  the  agreement, 
he  cannot  be  deprived  of  his  compensation  by  th? 
owner's  action  in  insisting  upon  various  additions 
and  embellishments  not  contemplated  when  the  con- 
tract was  entered  into.- — Diboll  v.  Grunewald,  7  La. 
Ann.  59  (Orleans,  1910). 

An  even  stranger  case  illustrating  this  principle  is 
the  following :  A  contract  by  a  county  with  an  ar- 
chitect for  plans  and  specifications  for  a  courthouse 
and  superintendence  provided  the  cost  should  not 
exceed  $100,000,  and  if  the  bids  should  exceed  that 
limit,  or  the  county  require  changes  of  the  plans  or 
new  plans,  the  architect  should  furnish  these  with- 
out additional  expense.  The  contract  provided  the 
architect  should  receive  5  per  cent  of  the  actual 
cost  of  the  completed  building.  The  architect  did 
prepare  plans  as  contracted  for,  but  after  acceptance 
the  county  made  changes  requiring  a  building  cost- 
ing $149,603.  It  was  held  that,  though  the  con- 
tract was  badly  drawn,  and  apparently  contained 
inconsistencies,  the  architect  was  entitled  thereunder 
to  his  commission  on  the  total  cost  of  the  building. 
— \Veatherbogg  v.  Board  (1901),  158  Ind.  14,  62 
X.  E.  477. 

Changes  made  in  the  plans  of  a  building  so  that 
it  would  contain  more  stores  and  produce  a  greater 
rental  made  at  the  request  of  the  owners  and  after 
the  contract  for  erection  under  the  original  plans 
had  been  entered  into,  are  extras  for  which  the  ar- 
chitect may  recover  additional  compensation. — 
Johnson  v.  O'Neill  (1914),  181  Mich.  326. 


A  contract  for  architect's  services  may  be  several 
or  entire.  A  party  to  an  entire  contract  who  has 
partly  performed  it  and  subsequently  abandons  the 
further  performance  according  to  its  stipulations, 
voluntarily  and  without  fault  on  the  part  of  the 
other  party  or  his  consent  thereto,  can  recover  noth- 
ing for  such  part  performance.  Where  an  archi- 
tect is  employed  to  prepare  plans  and  specifications 
for  and  to  superintend  the  construction  of  a  build- 
ing at  a  compensation  of  5  per  cent  of  the  contract 
price  of  the  building,  that  is  an  entire  contract,  and 
if  the  architect  afterwards  sues,  alleging  only  the 
drawing  of  the  plans  and  specifications,  without  al- 
leging any  excuse  for  the  failure  to  superintend  the 
erection  of  the  building,  there  can  be  no  recovery. 
— Spalding  County  v.  Chamberlin  (1908),  130  Ga. 
649,  61  S.  E.  533. 

But  if,  after  such  a  breach  of  the  contract  by  the 
architect,  the  owner  not  only  retains  the  plans  and 
specifications,  but  puts  them  to  his  own  use,  this 
is  equivalent  to  an  election  to  abide  by  the  terms 
of  the  original  contract,  and  he  thereafter  holds 
the  plans  under  these  terms.  Even  when  work  to  be 
performed  under  an  entire  and  indivisible  contract 
has  not  been  done  according  to  its  precise  terms, 
still,  if  the  service  is  received,  and  is  of  benefit  to 
the  owner,  he  is  liable  for  the  value  of  the  service 
rendered,  and  the  architect  may  recover  such  value 
in  a  suit  on  a  quantum  meriiit. — Collins  v.  Frazier 
(Ga.  1919),  98  S.  E.  188. 



An  architect  contracted  with  a  board  for  plans 
and  specifications  of  a  building-  and  its  superintend- 
ence for  "5  per  cent  on  the  cost  of  construction." 
He  completed  the  plans  and  specifications  and  super- 
intended the  work  until  he  was,  legally,  discharged. 
He  was  held  entitled  to  recover  the  contract  price 
for  his  plans  and  specifications  and  his  services  as 
superintendent  up  to  the  time  of  his  discharge,  and 
the  value  of  his  plans  and  specifications  for  that 
portion  of  the  work  which  he  did  not  superintend, 
on  a  quantum  mertiit.  The  contract  afforded  no 
data  by  which  the  relative  value  of  the  plans,  etc., 
as  distinguished  from  superintendence,  could  be 
ascertained.  Shipman  v.  State  (1877),  42  \Yis. 
377.  In  Hand  v.  Agen,  supra,  there  was  proof  that 
where  the  total  percentage  contracted  for  was  4  per 
cent  of  the  cost,  the  proportion  applicable  to 
preparation  of  plans,  etc.,  was  2^2  per  cent. 

Architects  were  employed  by  owners  to  prepare 
the  plans,  specifications,  etc.,  and  oversee  the  con- 
struction of  a  building  in  consideration  of  4  per 
cent  of  the  cost.  The  architects  had  reduced  the 
terms  negotiated  for  from  5  per  cent  to  4  per  cent 
actuated  by  the  fact  that  their  employment  was  to 
extend  to  the  interior  decorations.  When  consider- 
able work  had  been  done  under  the  contract,  but 
little  of  it  on  the  interior  decorations,  the  owners 
wrote  the  architects  they  had  concluded  to  do  the 
interior  decoration  work  themselves.  Six  weeks 

later  the  architects  ceased  work.  It  was  held  they 
were  not  entitled  to  recover  for  work  on  the  interior 
decorations  during  that  six  weeks,  unless  it  was 
done  by  the  owner's  request.  The  contract  was  an 
entire  contract.  The  owner  could  repudiate  it  in 
part,  and  order  such  part  of  the  work  not  to  be  done. 
But  in  such  case,  the  architects  could  either  treat 
the  repudiation  of  the  part  as  a  breach  of  the  entire 
contract,  and  discontinue  all  work,  or  could  waive 
the  breach  as  to  all  other  parts  of  the  work  not 
contained  in  the  part  repudiated,  by  continuing  the 
work. — De  Prosse  v.  Royal  Eagle,  etc.,  Co.  (1902), 
135  Cal.  408,  67  Pac.  502. 

When  a  contract  provides  for  separate  items  and 
the  price  is  apportioned  to  each  item,  it  is  severable, 
and  the  architect  may  recover  for  one  item,  though 
he  may  not  recover  for  other  items.  An  example 
of  such  an  agreement  is  the  following :  An  agree- 
ment to  furnish  complete  working  drawings  and 
specifications,  and  also  to  supervise  the  construction 
of  the  building,  for  a  fee  of  5  per  cent  of  the  cost 
thereof  for  all  services  as  architects,  providing  that 
"one-fifth  of  this  fee  is  payable  upon  the  acceptance 
of  the  preliminary  sketches,  balance  two-fifths  ad- 
ditional upon  the  completion  of  the  aforesaid  work- 
ing drawings  and  specifications,  and  the  remaining 
two-fifths  of  the  fee  to  be  payable  pro  rata  with 
the  architect's  certificates  as  issued.'' — Audubon 
Bldg.  Co.  v.  Andrews  (1911),  187  Fed.  254. 


maasammtmsm  m 

/»  order  to  supply  our  readers  with  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment 
appearing  in  issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of 
actual  rather  than  stated  date  of  publication. 

Americanizing  the  Plague  Spots 

THOSE  who  are  interested  in  the  better  Ameri- 
canization of  our  alien  population  will  be 
gratified  to  learn  that  it  is  proposed  to  Americanize 
the  oriental  section  in  New  York  City,  commonly 
known  as  Chinatown.  This  section,  for  a  long 
time  maintained  a  certain  theatrical  as]>ect  and 
in  many  instances  not  historically  correct,  has  been 
the  Mecca  for  out  of  town  visitors  and  a  lucrative 
spot  toward  which  the  sight-seeing  cars  have  taken 
thousands  yearly.  While  its  outward  aspect  has 
possessed  a  certain  attractiveness,  beneath  the  sur- 
face there  is  always  to  be  found  such  squalor  and 
depravity  as  to  make  Chinatown  notorious  in  our 
criminal  court  records. 

At  last  there  arises  a  movement  to  "clean  up'' 
this  section.'  Such  work  should  not  be  confined  to 
this  special  location.  There  are  "ghettos'"  and 
"quarters"'  equally  plague  spots  and  where  our  own 
tongue  is  rarely  spoken. 

One  thing  the  war  has  very  thoroughly  taught 
and  that  is  the  need  of  encouraging  every  move- 
ment seeking  to  better  Americanization.  \Ve  shall 
never  be  the  solidly  united  people  necessary  to  the 
formation  of  a  great  national  spirit  until  all  these 
locations  in  every  city  in  the  United  States  where 
aliens  congregate  and  where  the  language  and  daily 
habits  are  but  a  transplantation  from  some  foreign 
country,  are  cleaned  and  the  broad  light  of  our 
American  ideals  permitted  to  penetrate. 

A  Plea  for  Originality 

CAKKFUL  examination  of  the  design  submit- 
ted in  recent  important  architectural  competi- 
tions again  suggest  the  query :  Is  architecture  as 
practiced  both  an  art  and  a  business  or  is  it  entirely 
a  business  and  have  we  been  deluding  ourselves  and 
the  public  in  claiming  that  art  was  an  important 
attribute  ? 

Those  who  successfully  practice  any  art  must 
originate  and  create  the  beautiful.  This  being  true, 

and  undoubtedly  it  is,  the  copyist  can  never  hope 
successfully  to  become  an  artist.  In  fact,  the  more 
he  copies  the  further  will  he  be  from  the  attain- 
ment of  artist  rank. 

In  the  many  competitive  architectural  designs 
that  have  been  submitted  in  recent  important  com- 
petitions, who  could  find  any  trac^  of  originality 
except  in  plan,  or  more  than  a  most  indifferent 
appropriation  of  motives,  which  have  been  so  many 
times  and  so  poorly  appropriated  as  to  show  the 
utmost  disrespect  for  the  classic  original?  This 
utter  lack  of  originality  is  not  new,  there  is  no 
sudden  decadence  in  original  motive.  The  habit  is 
as  old  as  the  history  of  competitions  in  this  country 
and  the  record  is  indelibly  stamped  in  the  facades 
of  most  of  the  monumental. buildings  in  the  United 

If  architects  are  to  be  seriously  taken  as  artists 
as  well  as  business  men  they  must  comply  with  the 
simple  test  that  all  artists  successfully  pass.  They 
must  originate.  They  must  show  that  they  can 
stand  alone,  that  they  have  passed  the  childish  stage 
when  with  uncertain  steps  they  pursued  the  way  of 
their  profession.  We  have  a  surfeit  of  classic 
precedent  in  this  country. 

IT  would  seem  that  we  might  at  least  expect  to 
see  some  evidences  of  originality  emanate  from 
the  offices  of  those  who  scorn  to  be  classed  as  busi- 
ness men.     Unfortunately,  however,  that  is  usually - 
not  the  case. 

There  has  been  much  talk  as  to  a  national  type 
and  it  has  been  patriotically  declared  that  we  should 
produce  one.  No  time  has  offered  greater  oppor- 
tunities than  the  present  for  the  practice  of  origi- 
nality and  the  attainment  of  a  national  type. 

Architects  will  say  they  can  indulge  in  no  luxury 
of  leisure  that  would  enable  them  to  evolve  a  type, 
(hat  clients  are  insistent  for  speed.  So  they  are, 
but  the  commission  that  will  later  come,  from  what 
source  no  one  may  know,  is  not  insistent  for  speed 
and  an  architect  may  cherish  a  day-dream  even 



while  engaged  in  hackneyed  effort,  evolving  a  mo- 
tive that  will  be  the  child  of  his  brain,  an  original 
creation,  and  a  thing  of  beauty.  That  is  what  the 
salon  is  for. 

Architecture  is  a  business.  It  is  also  an  art 
which  will  have  to  be  practiced  just  as  any  other 
art.  The  profession  cannot  successfully  claim 
that  the  art  of  architecture  is  the  embodiment 
in  modern  buildings  of  elements  of  design  that  are 
exact  replicas  of  classical  examples.  Architects 
must  approach  the  same  originality  in  conception 
of  design  as  do  the  painter  and  the  sculptor. 

A  recent  program  for  a  large  competition  was 
notable  as  it  suggested  the  style  of  design  that  the 
competitors  should  follow.  Such  a  program  simply 
encourages  a  continuance  of  copying.  Would  it 
not  be  worth  while  to  try  the  experiment  of  stating 
in  a  competition  program  that  the  jury  will  largely 
favor  designs  that  show  departure  from  precedent 
and  are  not  at  once  indicative  to  the  trained  ob- 
server of  any  one  of  a  dozen  buildings  scattered  all 
over  Europe,  every  detail  of  which  was  fully  mem- 
orized by  architeciural  students  before  graduation. 

A  Mild  Protest 

THE  writings  of  "Aero"  in  the  department  of 
Architectural  Causerie  in  The  Architects' 
Journal  of  London  have  many  times  been  com- 
mended in  these  pages,  and  often  quoted.  The  ma- 
ture thought  expressed,  and  a  disposition  to  give 
credit  to  American  architects  and  their  work  were 
noted  with  appreciation,  and  received  with  pleasure. 
But,  just  now  we  are  disposed  hesitatingly  to  reject 
the  opinions  of  this  man,  especially  when  we  read 
what  is  undoubtedly  meant  to  describe  an  actual 

This  is  what  "Aero"  sets  down : 

"It  was  in  Kingsway,  three  days  ago,  that  I  stood 
by  the  hoarding  enclosing  the  Aldwych  site,  beyond 
which  you  may  see  the  north  front  of  Somerset 
House  as  drawn  on  the  cover  of  the  Journal.  As  I 
stood  waiting  for  a  friendly  taxi-driver  to  carry  me 
to  Westminster  a  stranger  approached  and  talked 
in  a  cheery  manner.  Needless  to  say,  he  was  a 
New  Yorker.  'You  don't  mind  me  speaking  to 
you,'  was  his  opening  remark.  'I  am  a  stranger 
to  London ;  in  fact,  I  am  an  American  architect 
looking  around  at  your  old  buildings.'  'This  is  in- 
deed fortunate.'  was  my  reply ;  'I  also  take  an  in- 
terest in  architecture,  and  just  now  I  am  wonder- 
ing what  kind  of  building  it  is  that  a  fellow  citizen 
of  yours  intends  to  place  on  this  open  site  after 
the  weeds  have  been  destroyed.'  'Gee.  you  don't 

say.'  'I  do,  and,  furthermore,  there  is  a  rumor 
to  the  effect  that  this  enterprising  artist  has  been 
studying  the  noble  building  opposite,  designed  by 
Sir  William  Chambers,  with  a  view  to  emulating  the 
character  and  detail.' 

"My  acquaintance  asked  me  to  enlarge  on  the 
fact,  which  I  did,  pointing  out  how  difficult  it  was 
for  London  architects  to  obtain  commissions  of  this 
nature  either  in  the  metropolis  or  in  any  of  the 
provincial  towns,  especially  the  latter,  where 
opinion  favors  the  employment  of  local  talent. 
Further,  I  asked  my  chance  friend,  who  seemed  to 
be  sympathetic,  if  New  Yorkers  would  countenance 
a  Briton  building  a  replica  of  the  old  Town  Hall 
in  New  York  in  proximity  to  the  existing  building. 
His  reply  was  emphatic.  'There  would  be  some 
talk  before  that  took  place ;  we  just  love  you  Eng- 
lish, but  we  don't  want  you  fooling  around  with 
your  tarnation  boxes  of  bricks  in  our  land.' 
'Those  are  my  sentiments,  exactly ;  we  don't  mind 
you  Americans  exploiting  the  very  gentlemanly 
style  our  great-great-grandfathers  took  over  to 
America,  but  when  you  come  back  here  to  set  up 
a  rival  establishment  outside  the  windows  of  what 
was  the  front  of  our  first  Royal  Academy  we  feel 
tempted  to  ask  Sir  Oliver  Lodge  to  communicate 
forthwith  with  the  shade  of  the  austere  Sir  Wil- 
liam.' We  exchanged  cards,  shook  hands,  and  de- 
parted, my  American  friend  to  the  Soane  Museum 
and  I  to  Tothill  Street.'' 

THE  whole  thing  smacks  of  Martin  Chuzzlewit. 
It  is  too  reminiscent  of  Dickens,  too  far  fetched 
in  its  phrasing  to  be  exact.  It  is  to  be  noted  that 
"we  (the  writer  and  a  certain  American  architect) 
exchanged  cards,  shook  hands  and  departed."  This 
would  seem  to  put  the  stamp  of  actuality  on  the 
interview,  but  we  are  yet  doubtful. 

Does  the  American  architect  of  to-day,  traveling 
in  England,  use  the  vernacular  of  the  poorly  edu- 
cated ?  Does  he  reply  to  an  unusual  statement,  "Gee, 
you  don't  say?"  Does  he  say  "tarnation  boxes  of 
bricks,"  etc?  We  have  lived  among  architects  in 
this  country  for  many  years,  we  have  intimately 
known  them,  but  we  have  never  experienced  this 
sort  of  conversation,  nor  have  we  heard  the  word 
"tarnation"'  seriously  used,  except  in  books  now 
almost  out  of  print.  We  have  found  the  architect 
in  this  country  fully  up  to  the  high  average  of 
professionally  bred  men,  and  we  are,  therefore, 
led  mildly  yet  firmly  to  protest  against  such  mis- 
representation of  American  architects  as  set  down 
in  this  interview. 






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C  urren  t  News 

Happenings  and  Comment  in  the  Fields  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

In  order  to  supply  our  readers  -with  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment  appearing  in 
issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of  actual  rather 
than  stated  date  of  publication. 

Corcoran  Prize  Awards 

The  prizes  which  have  been  awarded  to  the  Seventh  Ex- 
hibition of  Contemporary  American  Oil  Paintings,  held  re- 
cently in  the  Corcoran  Gallery,  Washington,  D.  C.,  are  as 
follows : 

First  W.  A.  Clark  Prize  of  $2,000  (accompanied  by  the 
Corcoran  Gold  Medal)  to  Frank  W.  Benson  for  his  "The 
Open  Window."  Second  W.  A.  Clark  Prize  of  $1,500  (ac- 
companied by  the  Corcoran  Silver  Medal)  to  Charles  H. 
Davis  for  his  "Sunny  Hillside."  Third  W.  A.  Clark  Prize 
of  $1,000  (accompanied  by  the  Corcoran  Bronze  Medal)  to 
Edward  F.  Rook  for  his  "Peonies."  Fourth  W.  A.  Clark 
Prize  of  $500  (accompanied  by  the  Corcoran  honorable 
mention  certificate)  to  William  S.  Robinson  for  his  "Oc- 
i  tober." 

The  jury  on  awards  consisted  of  Mr.  Willard  L.  Met- 
calf,  New  York,  chairman;  and  Daniel  Garber,  Philadel- 
phia ;  Richard  E.  Miller,  Paris  and  St.  Louis ;  Lawton 
Parker,  New  York,  and  Charles  H.  Woodbury,  Boston. 

Southern  California  Architects  Meet 

The  one  hundred  and  thirty-first  regular  meeting  of  the 
Southern  California  Chapter,  A.  I.  A.,  was  held  at  the 
City  Club,  December  II,  H.  M.  Patterson  presiding  and 
nineteen  members  present. 

As  guests  there  were  present:  Mr.  Mickeljohn,  J.  C. 
Hillman.  Walter  S.  Davis,  and  John  Bowler. 

Upon  the  suggestion  of  A.  F.  Rosenheim,  the  business 
of  the  evening  was  postponed  in  honor  of  the  guests,  and 
the  president  introduced  Mr.  Mickeljohn,  who  spoke  very 
interestingly  and  at  length  upon  the  life  and  political  con- 
ditions in  Mexico  as  have  existed  in  the  past  five  years. 
Following  this  the  minutes  of  the  i3Oth  meeting  were  read 
and  approved. 

Under  "Committee  Reports,"  Mr.  Withey  of  the  City 
Planning  Committee,  stated  that  there  had  been  held  two 
conferences  of  the  City  Planning  Committees  of  the  Cham- 
ber of  Commerce,  Municipal  League,  City  Club,  City  Plan- 
ning Association,  Southern  California  Chapter  and  other 
societies,  together  with  the  members  of  the  City  Council, 
and  as  a  result  resolutions  had  been  sent  and  requests  made 
upon  the  council  to  appoint  a  commission  of  fifty  to  take 
up  city  planning. 

Mr.  Rosenheim  of  the  Special  Committee  appointed  at 
the  October  meeting  rendered  a  report  on  the  work  per- 
formed in  the  last  month  relative  to  the  program  for 
selecting  meritorious  architectural  work  in  the  city.  After 
a  general  discussion  it  was  moved,  seconded  and  passed 
that  the  Chapter  indorse  the  program  and  that  the  com- 
mittee proceed  with  its  plan  as  called  for  by  the  program, 
reporting  at  the  next  meeting  the  amounts  of  such  funds 
as  will  be  necessary  for  the  undertaking. 

Upon  the  Secretary  calling  attention  of  the  members  that 
at  this  time  delegates  should  be  chosen  for  the  next  In- 

stitute Convention,  it  was  moved,  seconded  and  carried 
that  the  selection  of  delegates  be  postponed  until  it  has 
been  learned  definitely  when  and  where  the  convention  for 
1920  will  be  held. 

Under    "Communications"    the    following    were    read : 

From  E.  C.  Kemper,  executive  secretary  of  the  Institute, 
relative  to  the  Institute  desiring  to  foster  public  sentiment 
in  favor  of  the  creation  of  a  Department  of  Public  Works. 
Said  letter  was  accompanied  by  a  circular  giving  details  of 
this  plan.  Letter  was  ordered  filed. 

From  E.  C.  Kemper,  as  to  the  progress  of  the  Post-War 
Committee,  inclosing  report.  Same  was  ordered  filed. 

From  Charles  Whitaker,  editor  of  the  Journal,  stating 
that  he  would  be  visiting  Los  Angeles  on  or  near  the  2ist 
of  January,  and  desired  a  meeting  of  the  Chapter  at  that 
time.  It  was  moved  and  duly  voted  that  the  president  and 
secretary  make  arrangements  for  this  meeting. 

Annual  election  of  officers  being  the  next  item  on  the 
program,  the  secretary  read  the  report  of  the  Nominating 
Committee  made  at  the  last  meeting.  There  being  no  other 
nominations  made,  it  was  moved,  seconded  and  passed 
that  the  secretary  cast  the  ballot.  Whereupon  the  president 
declared  the  following  officers  elected  to  office :  G.  E. 
Bergstrom,  president;  H.  F.  Withey,  vice-president;  R.  G. 
Hubby,  secretary;  August  Wackerbarth,  treasurer;  A.  M. 
Edelman,  member  of  the  Executive  Committee. 

The  secretary  reported  an  invitation  given  by  the  Wash- 
ington Iron  Works  to  the  Chapter  to  visit  its  manufac- 
turing plant,  and  it  was  voted  that  the  next  regular  meet- 
ing be  held  there.  H.  F.  WITHEY,  Secretary. 

Address  Women  Painters 

At  the  recent  dinner  of  the  National  Association  of 
Women  Painters  and  Sculptors  at  the  Architectural 
League,  the  speakers  were  H.  Van  Buren  Magonigle,  past 
president  of  the  League  and  also  of  the  American  Academy 
at  Rome,  and  Captain  Ernest  Peixotto,  one  of  the  eight 
artists  who  made  the  official  war  paintings  for  this  coun- 
try and  who  was  one  of  the  directors  of  the  American 
School  of  Art  of  the  A.  E.  F.  at  Bellevue,  France. 

Mr.  Magonigle  spoke  of  mural  paintings  from  an  archi- 
tect's point  of  view,  and  said  the  paintings  must  have  cer- 
tain architectural  characteristics  to  harmonize  with  the 
architectural  surroundings,  and  that  a  broad  line  of  study 
was  needed  for  the  mural  painter  to  obtain  the  necessary 
understanding  for  the  work.  Captain  Peixotto,  in  de- 
scribing the  work  of  the  American  students  at  Bellevue, 
said  that  the  A.  E.  F.  men  were  given  a  broad  point  of 
view,  as  sculptors,  painters  and  architects  were  obliged 
to  take  in  all  the  lectures,  each  learning  something  of  the 
other's  work. 

"Poor  boys,  they  had  no  redress ;  they  were  all  sol- 
diers," said  Captain  Peixotto.  "It  was  squad  right,  and 
off  they  went  to  the  lectures.  Later  they  appreciated  the 
benefit  they  gained." 



Seeks  Site  for  Lincoln  Statue 

WASHINGTON,  D.  C,  Jan.  17—  For  once  in  its  history 
Washington  has  no  place  for  a  work  of  art.  Where 
to  place  the  monument  of  Lincoln,  which  was  erected  in 
1869  by  popular  subscription,  is  a  problem  the  solution 
of  which  had  led  to  a  lively  controversy.  The  statue, 
it  seems,  is  out  of  artistic  proportions  and  out  of  a  site, 
for  its  removal  has  been  authorized  and  delayed. 

The  old  courthouse  of  the  District  of  Columbia  which 
was  lacking  in  artistic  merit  was  remodeled  last  year. 
The  work  now  being  completed,  Col.  Clarence  S.  Ridley, 
in  charge  of  public  buildings  and  grounds,  finds  that  the 
statue  is  not  in  harmony  with  the  architectural  beauty 
on  account  of  its  present  location  and  general  design. 
The  base  of  the  pedestal  is  six  feet  from  the  sidewalk 
and  the  statue  is  thirty  feet  higher.  Furthermore,  it  is 
out  of  line  with  the  center  of  the  courthouse. 

Citizens  of  Moline,  111.,  have  heard  of  the  controversy. 
In  reply,  they  have  petitioned  Congress  to  permit  the 
removal  to  that  place  for  sentimental  reasons.  Lincoln 
is  reported  to  have  practiced  law  in  Moline.  In  connec- 
tion with  the  transfer,  the  Washington  Society  of  Oldest 
Inhabitants  has  questioned  the  right  of  Congress  to  donate 
and  transfer  a  statue  erected  by  popular  subscription  by 
the  residents  of  the  District  of  Columbia. 

The  suggestion  has  been  made  that  the  statue  be  placed 
at  one  of  the  approaches  to  the  new  Lincoln  Memorial; 
in  the  Botanic  Garden,  near  the  incomplete  Grant  monu- 
ment; along  the  boulevard  in  the  rear  of  the  Washington 
monument,  or  in  the  public  parks.  The  American  Forestry 
Association  wants  the  statue  placed  at  the  end  of  the 
Speedway  facing  the  South  Potomac  and  surrounded  by 

Annual      Meeting     of      Landscape 

A.  D.  Taylor  of  Cleveland,  O.,  was  elected  president 
of  the  Mid-West  Chapter,  American  Society  of  Land- 
scape Architects,  at  the  annual  meeting  in  Hotel  Statler. 
Other  officers  chosen  are :  Frank  Burton  of  Chicago,  vice- 
president;  Professor  F.  N.  Evans,  University  of  Illinois, 
secretary-treasurer;  T.  Glenn  Phillips,  Detroit,  trustee. 
Revision  of  the  by-laws  and  constitution  and  matters  con- 
cerning ethics  were  discussed.  O.  C.  Simonds,  retiring 
president,  read  several  chapters  from  his  forthcoming 
book,  "Landscape  Gardening."  R.  H.  Wilcox,  Detroit 
architect,  spoke  briefly  on  his  contemplated  trip  to  Europe 
and  studies  at  the  Academy  of  Rome,  provided  by  the 
Charles  Eliot  scholarship,  which  Mr.  Wilcox  won.  Mr. 
Phillips,  consultant  to  the  city  plan  commission,  reviewed 
the  commission's  work  in  this  city. 

Request  for  National  Housing 

(By  special  correspondence  to  The  American  Architect) 
WASHINGTON,  D.  C. — The  American  Institute  of  Archi- 
tects has  addressed  a  letter  to  members  of  Congress  and 
national  civic  bodies  urging  the  appointment  of  a  commis- 
sion to  study  the  housing  situation  of  the  nation. 

The  letter  submitted  to  the  President's  Industrial  Con- 
ference, now  in  session  here,  reads : 

"The  question  of  living  conditions  is  seriously  engaging 
the  peoples  of  every  civilized  nation.  In  the  United  States, 
as  elsewhere,  the  problem  has  been  forcing  itself  upon 

public  attention  for  many  years,  and  even  before  the  war, 
the  measure  of  its  gravity  was  steadily  increasing.  To-day, 
due  to  the  impact  of  factors  strikingly  emphasized  by  the 
five  years  of  war,  this  nation  finds  itself  confronted  with 
problems  of  the  greatest  perplexity,  every  phase  of  which 
may  be  said  to  relate  to  living  conditions. 

"The  house,  and  the  home,  must  be  accepted  as  the  base 
around  which  the  problem  revolves.  No  solution  of  our 
industrial  unrest  can  be  possible  until  the  primary  requisite 
of  shelter  is  acknowledged  as  a  crucial  factor.  In  principle, 
it  may  perhaps  be  said,  without  fear  of  contradiction,  that 
we  are  faced  with  a  shortage  in  dwelling-places  of  formid- 
able proportions.  Likewise  it  may  also  be  said  that  no 
satisfactory  plans  for  meeting  this  shortage  have  as  yet 
been  advanced. 

"No  figures  are  at  present  available  to  indicate  the 
measure  of  the  need  for  new  dwellings.  In  New  York  City 
alone  it  has  been  computed  by  careful  survey  that  no  less 
than  30,000  new  dwelling-places  are  needed  to  care  for 
the  present  shortage.  Almost  without  exception,  every 
great  city  reflects  a  like  condition. 

"The  causes  for  this  condition  are  no  doubt  many  and 
various.  They  relate  to  the  war,  to  the  cost  of  building, 
to  wages,  rents,  land  and  building  speculation,  and,  in- 
cidentally, to  the  whole  fabric  of  our  industrial  system. 
The  house  and  the  home  are  an  indissoluble  part  of  the 
National  fabric.  They  cannot  be  isolated  and  studied  as 
detached  symptoms.  They  must  be  considered  as  a  part 
of  the  whole  problem,  and  we  believe  that  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  States  should  at  once  take  steps  toward 
the  making  of  a  complete  and  impartial  investigation  into 
the  problem  of  providing  adequate  shelter  for. its  increasing 

"A  vast  field  of  experience,  as  developed  in  other  coun- 
tries, lies-  ready  for  cultivation.  The  advances  made  by 
other  peoples,  as  expressed  in  such  recent  legislative 
enactments  as  the  English  Housing  Act  of  1919,  the 
Canadian  Act  of  1919,  the  Saskatchewan  Act  of  1919,  the 
proposed  New  Zealand  Act,  together  with  the  exhaustive 
studies  and  reports  issued  by  these  and  other  countries, 
provide  a  large  amount  of  information  which  is  vital  to 
any  clear  conception  of  the  magnitude  of  the  problem. 
By  combining  the  experience  of  other  nations  with  that 
gained  in  our  own  country  through  the  work  done  by  the 
Government  itself,  as  a  war  measure,  we  believe  that  there 
can  be  constructed  a  comprehensive  report  which  will 
deal  with  the  problem  in  an  adequate  and  intelligent  man- 
ner and  which  will  be  of  infinite  value  to  the  hundreds  of 
perplexed  communities  that  are  now  seeking  information 
and  light. 

"Such  a  report,  to  be  of  any  value,  must  be  made  by  a 
group  of  men  and  women  qualified  to  deal  with  the  facts 
in  a  fearless  and  straightforward  manner,  for  it  is  only 
through  an  impartial  presentation  of  all  the  evidence  that 
there  may  be  gained  any  broad  national  understanding  of 
the  extent  of  the  problem  and  the  principles  involved. 
We  do,  therefore,  urge  upon  your  consideration  the  crea- 
tion of  a  competent  agency  for  the  making  of  this  sorely 
needed  study.  Various  bills  introduced  into  the  last  Con- 
gress indicate  that  the  need  for  governmental  action  has 
already  been  felt,  but  action,  to  be  most  useful  to  the 
people  of  the  United  States,  should  not  longer  be  delayed. 
"For  this  pressing  problem  of  housing  we  bespeak  your 
earnest  consideration,  and  we  shall  be  glad  to  present 
evidence  in  support  of  our  contentions  if  you  so  desire. 

"Very  truly  yours, 

By  order  of  The  Board  of  Directors,  American  Institute 
of  Architects. 



Bahai  Temple  Plans  Explained  at 

Faculty  and  students  of  the  department  of  architecture, 
Syracuse  University,  went  to 'the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts, 
Library  Building,  and  heard  a  lecture  by  Charles  Mason 
Remey  of  Washington,  D.  C.,  on  the  architectural  prob- 
lems of  Bahai  Temple,  to  be  erected  in  Chicago. 

He  spoke  of  the  influence  of  religion  upon  civilization 
and  architecture,  stating  that  each  style  of  architecture 
had  been  evolved  and  developed  in  the  temple  or  religious 
edifice  of  an  age  of  civilization. 

He  also  spoke  of  the  coming  universal  style  of  archi- 
tecture eventually  to  be  developed  in  the  great  temples 
of  universal  religion,  which  will  be  erected  as  the  peoples 
of  all  religions,  nations  and  races  come  together,  uniting 
in  one  great  world  religion  and  civilization.  The  lecturer 
said  this  unity  will  prove  to  be  the  true  solution  of  the 
present  struggle  and  difficulties  between  the  different  races, 
religions,  nations  and  classes. 

"Many  people  have  had  the  vision  of  a  great  universal 
temple  in  which  peoples  of  all  races,  sects  and  religions, 
would  come  together  for  worship,"  said  Mr.  Remey. 
"Now  the  people  interested  in  the  Bahai  movement,  for 
religious  unity  and  brotherhood,  have  arisen  to  erect  such 
a  temple. 

"The  temple  proper,  a  polygonal  building  surmounted 
by  a  dome  in  the  of  a  park,  will  accommodate  the 
worshipers  and  be  a  place  for  reading,  meditation  and 
prayer.  This  temple  will  be  the  central  feature  of  a 
group  of  buildings  housing  auxiliary,  philanthropic  and 
charitable  institutions,  such  as  a  hospital  with  a  free  dis- 
pensary, an  orphan  asylum,  a  home  for  the  aged,  a  home 
for  incurables,  schools  of  various  types  and  a  university, 
all  of  which  group  of  buildings  will  form  a  great  insti- 
tutional center,  uniting  religion  and  practical  service  to 

A  Valuable  Alloy  Produced 

A  metal  lighter  than  any  yet  known,  and  as  strong  as 
or  stronger  than  steel,  has  for  years  been  the  dream  of 
many,  and  every  now  and  then  rumors  are  circulated  to 
the  effect  that  at  last  it  has  been  discovered.  The  advan- 
tages which  such  a  metal  would  have,  especially  for  air- 
craft, remarks  the  Scientific  American,  are  obvious,  but 
unfortunately  it  is  generally  found  on  investigation  that 
there  is  a  "snag"  somewhere. 

The  latest  report  to  be  circulated  relates  to  a  new  mag- 
nesium alloy  said  to  have  been  discovered  by  a  metal 
company  of  Montreal,  Canada.  The  new  alloy,  it  is  stated, 
is  only  two-thirds  the  weight  of  aluminum  and  is  "as 
strong  as  steel."  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  some  of  the  quali- 
ties attributed  to  the  new  alloy  may,  on  closer  examination, 
be  substantiated. 

French  Remodel  Hotels 

The  National  Chamber  of  Hotel  Keepers  has  begun 
an  active  campaign  to  make  French  hotels  attractive  to 
Americans,  writes  a  correspondent.  American  ideas  are 
being  sought  through  an  agent  of  the  chamber  in  the 
United  States.  A  series  of  articles  for  hotel  men  is  being 
published  by  the  organization's  official  paper.  The  neces- 
sity of  modern  toilet  conveniences,  honest  treatment,  and 
otherwise  conforming  to  the  standards  of  the  United 
States  are  emphasized. 

Cleanliness  is  given  the  most  attention  by  the  chamber's 
agent  in  the  United  States,  and  he  cites  conditions  in  some 
of  the  French  hotels  that  would  be  surprising  to  an  Amer- 
ican. He  recommends  the  use  of  white  or  light  paint  to 
prevent  the  gloominess  of  interiors,  greater  illumination, 
recognition  of  the  bathtub  from  the  American  point  of 
view,  removal  of  various  unsanitary  quarters  from  near 
the  kitchen,  elimination  of  little  service  charges  and  other 

The  hotel  men  are  cautioned  by  the  correspondent 
against  "a  veritable  organization  to  boost  prices"  which 
he  said  had  been  reported  to  him.  Otherwise,  he  rea- 
soned, returning  travelers  would  spread  the  bad  news  and 
"we  would  thus  lose  the  chance  we  no',  have  to  make 
enormous  profits." 

To  prevent  such  overcharging,  a  government  agency 
is  obtaining  pledges  from  hotels  to  charge  only  posted 
rates  to  tourists  directed  to  them  through  the  government's 
international  publicity  campaign  to  attract  visitors. 

Brazil  Plans  New  Capital  in  Interior 
of  Republic 

Transfer  of  the  Federal  capital  from  Rio  de  Janeiro 
to  the  high  plateau  lands  in  the  State  of  Goyaz  in  the 
interior  of  Brazil,  within  five  or  six  years,  is  the  aim 
of  a  project  introduced  in  the  Federal  Senate.  The 
Brazilian  constitution  already  provides  for  the  transfer 
and  the  present  measure  is  intended  to  hasten  the  move. 

The  measure  gives  two  months  from  the  date  of  signa- 
ture of  the  proposed  law  for  the  world-wide  publication 
of  the~  plans,  six  months  for  the  reception  of  competitive 
proposals  and  five  years  from  the  signing  of  contracts 
for  the  completion  of  the  new  capital.  The  successful 
bidder  will  enjoy  20  years  monopoly  of  water,  drainage, 
lighting,  telephonic  and  urban  traffic  services  in  the  new 

The  plan  contemplates  a  modern  city  with  all  the  latest 
improvements  and  hygienic  installations,  built  in  accord- 
ance with  approved  town-planning  ideas,  with  a  govern- 
ment house,  a  national  congress  building,  a  palace  of  jus- 
tice, public  department  buildings,  schools,  libraries,  thea- 
ters, a  penitentiary,  hospital,  barracks,  markets,  post  offices, 
telegraph  and  telephone  offices,  etc. 

No  estimate  is  made  in  the  measure  as  to  the  cost. 

Flanders'  Mud  Used  to  Build  Winter 

Flanders'  mud,  the  bane  of  all  armies  operating  in  Bel- 
gium, is  of  some  use  after  all,  according  to  reports  from 
Roulers,  Belgium. 

Lime  is  practically  unobtainable  in  Belgium  to-day  and 
in  many  of  the  ruined  villages  the  refugees  are  laying 
stones  and  bricks  with  mud  for  temporary  shelter  against 
winter.  Others  fill  the  chinks  in  their  chimneys  and  walls 
with  it,  and  altogether  it  is  becoming  as  much  of  a  com- 
fort to  the  refugees  as  it  was  a  handicap  to  the  soldiers 
who  lived  in  it  for  months. 

At  Dixmude  the  mayor  divides  his  time  between  public 
affairs  weighing  out  coal,  distributing  supplies  and  clean- 
ing mortar  off  old  bricks  frolB^the  ruins  of  his  house. 
He  is  laying  these  in  mud,  too,  for  his  winter's  shelter. 
His  example  is  being  widely  followed  in  Dixmude  and 
surrounding  villages,  and  Flanders'  mud  is  playing  an  im- 
portant part  in  the  making  of  temporary  homes  until  new 
materials  can  be  obtained  in  the  spring. 


Replica  of  Historic  French  Structure 
Planned  for  San  Francisco 

A  donation  of  $320,000  has  been  offered  by  A.  B. 
Spreckels  and  Alma  Spreckels,  his  wife,  to  the  San  Fran- 
cisco Park  Commission  for  the  erection  of  a  building  to 
be  devoted  to  art  treasures  in  Alta  Plaza,  at  Jackson, 
Scott,  Clay  and  Steiner  streets.  It  is  given  as  a  consid- 
eration of  beautification  and  patriotism  and  to  promote 
useful  ends  and  will -be  dedicated  as  a  memorial  to  the 
American  soldiers  and  sailors  who  died  in  the  world  war 
and  to  the  purposes  of  art  and  culture  in  San  Francisco 
and  to  coming  generations. 

The  building  is  designed  as  a  complete  reproduction  of 
the  celebrated  Palace  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  at  Paris,  one 
of  the  architectural  glories  of  Europe.  The  structure  will 
probably  be  called  "The  California  Palace  of  the  Legion 
of  Honor."  It  will  be  a  one-story  building,  with  part 
basement,  will  include  a  court  of  honor  and  will  occupy 
an  area  of  175  by  200  feet. 

The  materials  will  be  reinforced  concrete,  faced  with 

Henry  Guillaume,  architect  of  the  French  building  at 
the  1915  exposition,  is  the  designer,  assisted  by  George 
Applegarth,  of  this  city.  On  its  completion  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Spreckels  will  provide  a  nucleus  of  art  contents  by  giving 
many  pieces  of  sculpture  and  paintings  by  the  famous 
artists  of  the  world. 

Paris  Housing  Shortage 

Although  approximately  300,000  persons  desire  to  rent 
apartments  and  are  living  in  hotels  and  lodgings  in  Paris, 
little  building  is  going  on,  according  to  the  Era  Nouvelle, 
a  recently  established  newspaper.  Virtually  all  the  con- 
struction work  in  progress,  it  is  said,  is  confined  to  moving 
picture  houses,  stores  and  sheds. 

When  the  war  began  there  were  about  1000  buildings 
being  erected  and  most  of  these  were  left  unfinished.  In 
1915  work  on  130  was  commenced  while  in  1916  ground 
was  broken  for  200.  During  the  year  since  the  armistice 
was  signed  only  51  structures  have  been  started.  In  build- 
ing trades  circles  it  is  said  that  lack  of  labor  and  materials 
and  high  prices  have  precluded  extensive  developments. 

Chicago  Architects   Have  Lectures 
on  Furniture 

Period  furniture  has  become  such  an  important  feature 
in  the  work  of  the  architects  that  the  Illinois  Chapter  of 
the  American  Institute  of  Architects  has  arranged  for  a 
series  of  illustrated  lectures,  the  first  to  be  given  on  Tues- 
day evening,  Feb.  10,  at  the  Chicago  Art  Institute  when 
English  furniture  decoration  will  be  discussed.  Later,  Ital- 
ian furniture  will  be  discussed  to  be  followed  by  lectures 
on  other  period  decorations.  Director  Eggers  of  the  Chi- 
cago Art  Institute  will  also  speak  on  the  Interpendence  of 
Arts,  and  Miss  Belle  Walker,  a  local  sculptress,  will  discuss 
Sculpture  and  Its  Relation  to  Architecture. 

National  W«rld  War  Memorial 

(By  special  correspondence  to  The  American  Architect) 
WASHINGTON,  D.  C— Congress  will  be  asked  to  author- 
ize the  erection  of  a  national  memorial  building  to  honor 
the  men  and  women  of  America  who  died  in  the  World 

War.  This  action  was  proposed  this  week  at  a  meeting 
of  the  officers  and  representatives  of  Army,  Marine  and 
Navy  and  welfare  organizations. 

In  order  to  support  the  proposed  movement,  steps  are 
under  way  to  create  a  national  memorial  association.  It  is 
proposed  to  have  Franklin  D'Olier,  national  commander 
of  the  American  Legion,  act  as  chairman.  The  executive 
board  for  the  Army  consists  of  Major-Generals  Leonard 
Wood,  James  G.  Harbord  and  Charles  P.  Summerall. 

It  has  not  been  determined  whether  Congress  should  be 
called  upon  for  a  special  appropriation  or  raise  the  fund 
by  popular  subscription. 

Chambers   Pledge  Aid  to   National 
Foreign  Trade  Convention 

Local  chambers  of  commerce  in  all  parts  of  the  coun- 
try are  taking  an  active  interest  in  the  plans  for  securing 
delegates  to  the  Seventh  National  Foreign  Trade  Conven- 
tion, which  will  be  held  at  San  Francisco,  May  12-15, 
1920,  under  the  auspices  of  the  National  Foreign  Trade 
Council,  the  chairman  of  which  is  James  A.  Farrell,  presi- 
dent of  the  United"  States  Steel  Corporation. 

So  that  the  American'  business  men  may  obtain  first 
hand  information  regarding  the  market  conditions  in  for- 
eign countries,  the  Council  has  invited  special  trade  ad- 
visers from  the  leading  nations  of  Australia,  the  Far  East 
and  South  America.  The  services  of  these  trade  advisers 
will,  of  course,  be  offered  to  the  convention  delegates  as  a 
part  of  the  regular  convention  program. 

Information  is  being  furnished  by  O.  K.  Davis,  secretary 
National  Foreign  Trade  Council,  No.  I  Hanover  Square, 
New  York  City. 

Hongkong  Constructed  in  Tiers 

Hongkong  is  built  in  three  stories  after  the  fashion  of 
a  Chinese  pagoda,  states  an  exchange.  There,  however, 
the  resemblance  to  a  temple  ends.  For  Hongkong  is  a 
mecca  of  trade,  a  stronghold  of  Anglo-Saxon  society  and 
a  packing  box  in  which  Chinese  and  other  varieties  of 
orientals  are  squeezed  so  tightly  that  they  seem  perpetually 
out  of  breath  and  used  to  it. 

This  three-layer  system  of  municipal  architecture,  which 
should  be  an  extremely  lucky  arrangement  according  to 
Chinese  superstition,  is  made  possible  by  a  hillside  rising 
near  the  harbor.  Up  this  hillside  the  city  seems  to  have 
backed  steadily  until  it  reached  the  crest,  where  it  stopped 
without  attempting  to  progress  down  the  other  side. 

The  Value  of  the  Architectural  Press 

The  practice  of  architecture  is  undergoing  a  change  since 
the  war,  in  the  opinion  of  Architect  Albert  Saxe. 

"The  general  public  is  at  last  awakening  to  the  value  of 
architecture  to  a  community,"  he  said,  in  discussing  what  he 
believes  is  a  new  interest  in  the  arts.  "I  have  been  im- 
pressed with  the  fact  many  times  recently  that  the  public 
is  acquiring  a  new  interest  in  what  architecture  really 
means  in  their  lives.  The  practice  of  architecture  is  the 
most  comprehensive  of  all  professions,  including  as  it  does 
all  phases  of  engineering  as  well  as  the  arts.  To  my  mind 
this  means  that  America  is  developing  a  love  for  the  beau- 
tiful in  architecture  which  will  require  that  future  public 
and  private  improvements  must  express  something  more 
than  mere  utility.  And  this  has  come  about  in  no  small 
degree  through  the  efforts  of  our  architectural  publications." 



Width  of  Streets  Same  as  in  1620 

One  thing  remains  as  primitive  in  1920  as  in  1620  in 
lower  Manhattan ;  the  width  of  streets  which,  notwith- 
standing that  two-story  buildings  have  been  superseded 
by  those  of  thirty-two,  forty-two,  or  fifty-two  stories, 
still  retain  in  many  instances  the  narrow,  inadequate  vehi- 
cular and  sidewalk  accommodations.  In  order  to  facili- 
tate the  movements  of  pedestrians  and  save  time  and 
money,  to  say  nothing  of  aggravation,  all  pedestrians 
should  use  the  right  of  way  known  to  vehicle  traffic. 
"Keep  to  the  right"  should  be  made  mandatory  by  the 
traffic  policeman. 

Industrial  Art  School  Formed 

The  Silk  Association  of  America  has  recently  urged 
the  establishment  of  industrial  art  schools  to  promote  a 
high  degree  of  development  in  industrial  art  in  relation 
to  commerce  and  the  general  welfare  of  the  country. 
The  association  points  out  that  it  is  doing  its  part  in  this 
great  work  through  exhibits,  competitive  prize  offers  and 
other  methods  of  education,  in  order  that  artistic  talent 
may  be  encouraged  and  stimulated  and  that  all  influences 
may  be  fostered  for  the  advancement  of  public  taste. 

The  association  recognizes  the  demand  for  well-trained 
designers  and  craftsmen  in  industry,  shows  that  the  de- 
mand is  increasing  and  points  out  that  the  supply  has 
been  inadequately  met  through  lack  of  proper  facilities 
for  training. 

The  establishment  of  such  schools,  in  the  opinion  of 
the  association,  would  fill  a  long-felt  want  in  silk  and  other 
artistic  industries  and  would  afford  an  opportunity  of 
putting  American  finished  products  on  an  equal  footing 
with  other  nations. 

Labor  Plentiful  on  Coast 

(By  special  correspondence  to  The  American  Architect) 
SEATTLE  :  Conditions  here  are  satisfactory  for  an  active 
building  season.  Labor  is  plentiful,  and  building  labor 
generally  is  now  being  employed  on  the  American  or  open- 
shop  plan  as  the  result  of  the  failure  of  the  strike  of  the 
Allied  Building  Trades. 

Election,  of  officers  of  the  Washington  Chapter  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects  was  held  here  this  week. 
The  following  were  chosen :  President,  Charles  Alden, 
Seattle ;  vice-president  for  Tacoma,  George  Gove ;  vice- 
president  for  Spokane,  L.  L.  Rand ;  vice-president  for 
Seattle,  Harlan  Thomas ;  secretary,  F.  A.  Naramore, 
Seattle ;  treasurer,  E.  G.  Park,  Seattle. 

Competition  for  Architects' 

HARRISBURG,  Jan.  17. — The  new  Board  of  Examiners 
of  Architects  named  a  few  months  ago  by  Governor 
Sproul  has  called  'upon  all  the  architects  of  Pennsylvania 
to  enter  a  competition  for  the  designing  of  the  certificates 
to  be  issued  by  the  commonwealth  to  architects  under  the 
registration  contemplated  by  the  act  of  1919. 

M.  I.  Kast,  of  this  city,  secretary  of  the  board,  says 
the  idea  is  to  get  a  design  "of  a  character  and  artistic 
quality  worthy  of  the  profession."  All  architects  and  de- 
signers have  been  made  eligible  to  compete,  and  the  board 
has  obtained  the  following  architects  to  act  as  a  jury : 
L.  C.  C.  Zantzinger,  Philadelphia;  Edgar  V.  Seeler,  Phil- 

adelphia; Paul  P.  Cret,  Philadelphia;  Reinhardt  Demp- 
wolf,  York,  and  Frederick  A.  Russel,  Pittsburgh.  The 
designs  must  be  anonymous.  However,  the  name  of  the 
person  submitting  the  design  should  be  placed  in  a  plain 
envelope.  There  are  two  prizes,  one  of  $200  and  one  of 
$100.  Designs  must  be  filed  with  Mr.  Kast  on  or  before 
April  I. 

Pennell's  New  Book  on  Etchers  and 

A  book  of  the  keenest  interest  to  all  lovers  and  col- 
lectors of  etchings  and  of  value  to  any  lover  of  pic- 
tures by  reason  of  its  fine  reproduction  of  many  of  the 
greatest  etchings  by  Whistler,  Rembrandt,  Merryon  and 
Dueveneck,  is  "Etchers  and  Etching"  by  Joseph  Pennell 
(Macmillan,  X.  Y.).  The  book  is  a  large  quarto  with 
paper  good  enough  for  its  illustrations  and  with  a  clear 
and  elegant  typography  worthy  of  its  treasures  of  illus- 

Canada  Places  Time  Limit  on  Sol- 
diers' Applications  for  Retraining 

Canada  is  advising  her  disabled  soldiers  to  apply  for 
vocational  training  before  February  I,  1920.  After  that 
time  only  men  who  are  still  in  hospitals  may  apply  and 
they  are  given  only  three  months  after  their  discharge 
to  file  application  for  retraining. 

The  United  States  Government  is  not  acting  so  hastily. 
The  Federal  Board  for  Vocational  Education  has  given, 
and  is  giving,  nation  wide  publicity  to  the  retraining  of 
our  disabled  service  men.  Not  satisfied  with  that,  the 
Government  is  doing  all  in  its  power  to  persuade  every 
disabled  man  to  take  retraining  whether  he  desires  it 
or  not. 

Canada  announces  8000  already  trained  and  10,000  still 
in  training.  The  Federal  Board  for  Vocational  Education 
announces  more  than  21,000  men  now  in  training  and, 
before  the  opportunity  to  apply  for  this  training  is  closed, 
at  least  25,000  more  applications  are  expected. 

Uruguay  Announces  International 
Architectural  Competition 

Architects  of  the  United  States  will  be  interested  to 
learn  of  the  international  contest  just  announced  for  plans 
for  the  construction  of  a  convalescent  sanitorium  to  be 
erected  at  Montevideo,  Uruguay.  The  National  Charity 
and  Welfare  Association  of  that  city  has  set  June  30,  1920, 
as  the  prescribed  date  for  the  submission  of  tentative  archi- 
tectural designs. 

The  sanitorium  is  the  bequest  of  Gustavo  Saint  Bois. 
It  is  to  be  situated  on  a  tract  of  land  owned  by  the  asso- 
ciation at  Melilla,  Department  of  Montevideo,  and  is  to  be 
devoted  exclusively  to  the  cure  of  convalescents  under 
medical  care.  Patients  suffering  from  rapidly  developing 
or  chronic  diseases  or  from  tuberculosis  will  not  be  ad- 
mitted. Convalescents  of  both  sexes  and  children  over  the 
age  of  seven  are  eligible  and  it  is  desired  that  the  buildings 
for  the  use  of  men  shall  be  as  separate  from  those  for 
women  and  children  as  is  consistent  with  efficient  adminis- 
tration. It  is  desirable  that  space  be  allowed  for  the  ac- 
commodation of  from  150  to  200  persons  in  each  section. 

Special   attention    must   be   paid    to   ventilation    so    that 


there  may  be  a  constant  change  of  air  day  and  night,  and 
to  provision  for  hygiene,  baths,  etc.  A  large  dining  room, 
proportionate  kitchen  and  pantries,  reading  rooms,  ward- 
robes and  annexes  for  the  Sisters  of  Charity  (chapels, 
etc.)  must  be  suitably  arranged.  A  separate  administra- 
tion building,  affording  easy  access  to  other  buildings,  and 
one  for  the  examination  of  entering  and  resident  patients, 
which  shall  contain  space  for  a  free  clinic,  are  required. 
Isolation  wards  with  complete  equipment  for  patients  who 
may  contract  contagious  diseases  are  necessary  for  each 
dormitory.  A  suitable  building  must  also  be  designed 
for  helio-therapy  treatment  with  covered  courts  (patios) 
or  protected  spaces  for  use  on  rainy  days. 

The  designs  should  be  plain  but  attractive  and  the  com- 
bined cost  of  the  building  should  not  exceed  300,000  pesos 
(Uruguayan  peso=$i.O4  U.  S.).  Each  design  must  be 

The  contest  will  consist  of  two  grades,  the  first  will  be 
a  general  competition,  and  the  second  a  contest  between 
those  whose  plans  were  found  acceptable  in  the  first.  A 
jury  composed  of  the  director  of  the  Board  of  Charity 
and  Welfare  Association  and  five  architects  will  decide  on 
the  merits  of  the  submitted  plans  and  prizes  will  be 
awarded  in  both  grades.  Details  as  to  the  plans  and  other 
features  of  the  competition  may  be  had  from  the  Uru- 
guayan Legation  at  Washington,  D.  C. 

Norway's  Housing  Exhibition 

(By  special  correspondence  to  The  American  Architect) 

WASHINGTON,  D.  C. — American  manufacturers  of  build- 
ing material  have  been  advised  of  the  Norwegian  Housing 
and  Town  Planning  Association's  invitation  to  participate 
in  the  national  exhibition  at  Christiania,  April  19  to  May  3. 
Applications  for  space  are  now  being  sent  to  the  American 
Consul  General,  Marion  Letcher.  Already  certain  American 
firms  have  shipped  ready-made  homes  for  the  exposition. 

Thomas  Bailey  Aldrich  Home  Sold 

Mrs.  Mathilda  Hoyt  of  New  York  has  sold  her  estate 
on  Washington  Street,  Canton,  consisting  of  a  large 
Colonial  house,  garage  and  three  acres  of  land,  to  John 
H.  Bissell  of  Keokuk,  Iowa.  The  house  is  more  than 
one  hundred  years  old  and  at  one  time  was  the  home  of 
Thomas  Bailey  Aldrich,  the  well-known  writer. 


F.  S.  Montgomery,  for  the  past  six  years  advertising 
manager,  National  Metal  Molding  Co.,  Pittsburgh,  and 
prior  to  that  for  several  years  district  manager  in  charge 
of  the  Atlanta  office  of  the  same  company,  tendered  his 
resignation,  which  took  effect  Dec.  31.  He  is  now  asso- 
ciated with  the  Ivan  B.  Nordhem  Co.,  New  York  City.  Mr 
Montgomery's  successor  has  not  been  announced. 

After  a  two  months'  extended  tour  of  the  important 
cities  of  the  East,  studying  types  of  new  buildings  by  per- 
sonal observation,  Andrew  C.  P.  Willatzen,  architect,  has 
returned  to  Seattle.  Wash.,  where  he  has  practiced  his  pro- 
fession for  the  past  twelve  years.  Included  in  the  itin- 
erary of  Mr.  Willatzen  were  the  following  points,  Chicago. 
New  York.  Philadelphia,  Boston,  Washington,  D.  C.,  Kan 
sas  City,  St.  Louis,  Savannah  and  New  Orleans. 

News  from  Various  Sources 

The  list  of  war  criminals  to  be  demanded  by  the  Allies 
for  trial  has  been  considerably  revised  and  reduced  from 
the  originally  proposed  1,200  to  about  300,  according  to 

the  Daily  Mail. 

*  *    * 

OTTAWA,  ONTARIO. — For  the  twelve  months  ending  Nov. 
30  there  were  114,768  immigrants  entered  Canada.  Of 
these  54,641  came  from  the  British  Isles  and  52,141  from 

the  United  States. 

*  *    * 

San  Francisco  won  the  Democratic  National  Conven- 
tion for  1920  on  the  first  ballot  of  the  National  Committee 
sitting  in  its  quadrennial  session.  The  convention  will  be 
called  to  order  at  noon  June  28. 

*  *    * 

United   States   Bureau   of   Standards   tests   have   shown 
that   concrete   made   with    coarse   gravel   withstands   heat 
with  less  danger  of  disintegration  if  protected  by  a  coating 
of  cement  an  inch  thick  reinforced  with  wire  mesh. 
*        #        # 

Dispatches  from  France  state  that  the  entire  road 
construction  program  in  that  country  will  cost  nearly  two 
billion  francs,  which,  it  is  estimated,  will  give  France  a 
road  system  superior  to  the  one  she  had  before  the  war. 

*  *    * 

Senator  John  J.  Dunnigan,  Democrat,  of  New  York  State 
Legislature,  has  proposed  a  bill  authorizing  cities  to  create 
dwelling  house  commissions,  acquire  lands  and  erect  houses 
to  be  rented  at  cost.  It  was  referred  to  the  Cities  Com- 

*  *    * 

The  gigantic  Vickers  airplane  "Vigilant,"  with  which 
the  Royal  Air  Force  has  been  experimenting  secretly,  car- 
ries loo  passengers  or  their  equivalent  in  an  enormous 
number  of  bombs  and  has  six  engines  which  develop  4,000 
horse-power.  The  airplanes  have  an  extraordinary  wing 

*  *    * 

COLUMBUS,  OHIO. — The  State  Board  of  Administration 
has  made  an  offer  of  $75,000  for  the  land  and  $150,000  for 
buildings  at  Ancor,  near  Cincinnati,  where  a  Government 
nitrate  plant  was  started  during  the  war  There  are  500 
acres  of  land  with  improvements.  It  is  proposed  to  locate 

one  of  the  State  institutions  on  the  tract. 

*  *     * 

By  way  of  relieving  the  housing  situation  in  X'ew  South 
Wales,  a  contract  was  made  with  America  to  erect  concrete 
houses,  with  a  guarantee  to  turn  out  a  cottage  a  week  for 
every  50  ordered.  The  cost  of  these  houses  is  estimated 
at  $2,187  on  $243  worth  of  land,  which  would  render  the 

homes  within  the  means  of  the  workingman. 

*  *     * 

High  wage  demands  of  garment  industry  workers  were 
blamed  for  the  "almost  prohibitive  prices  of  ready-to-wear 
goods"  before  the  committee  which  Gov.  Smith  of  New 
York  recently  named  to  investigate  the  differences  between 
the  employers  and  employees  in  the  garment  industry, 
when  the  committee  held  the  first  hearing  in  the  City  Hall 

*  *     * 

Two  large  theatres,  chiefly  for  the  presentation  of  mov- 
ing pictures,  are  contemplated  for  Melbourne,  and  the  serv- 
ices of  the  best  known  American  theatre  architects  en- 
gageS  for  their  construction  and  equipment,  which  is  to 
comprise  all  the  newest  features  from  the  home  of  the 
moving  picture — America.  The  costs  of  these  two  build- 
ings are  estimated  at  $2,430.000  and  $1.458,000. 



Weekly  Review  of  Construction  Field 

Comment  on  General  Condition  of  Economics  with  Reports  of  Special  Correspondents 

in  Prominent  Regional  Centers 

Federal  Reserve  System  Reports  on  Financial  Situation 

'T'HE  banks  of  the  Federal  Reserve  have  made  a  review 
•*-  of  the  business  and  financial  conditions  for  January, 
in  which  they  find  heavier  trade  demands  and  greater 
properity  than  has  before  been  known,  but  the  review  calls 
particular  attention  to  the  shortened  lending  power  and 
uneasy  credit  situation. 

As  relating  to  the  labor  situation,  this  review  is  most 
encouraging.  It  states :  "There  has  been  an  evident  im- 
provement in  general  labor  conditions  during  the  month. 
In  the  East  and  North  employment  is  reported  as  being 
full,  and  labor  is  said  to  be  in  a  more  contented  mood 
than  for  some  time  past.  High  wages  and  generally 
satisfactory  conditions  of  employment  are  given  as  the 
reasons  for  this  improvement.  At  some  manufacturing 
centers  efforts  are  made  to  increase  wages  on  the  ground 
that  higher  living  costs  make  them  necessary,  but  this 
argument  in  behalf  of  higher  wages  is  apparently  losing 
its  force,  employers  feeling  that  the  strong  demand  for 
luxuries  indicates  that  there  is  a  large  surplus  of  buying 
power  in  the  hands  of  consumers." 


THE  report  states  that  the  production  of  the  iron  and 
steel  industry  has  reached  high  record  levels.  The 
mills,  however,  are  far  behind  their  contracts  and  the 
fabricators  are  so  heavily  sold  that  they  are  not  able  to 
quote  for  definite  deliveries.  The  demands  are  phenom- 
enal :  for  new  plants  and  power  companies  in  this  country, 
for  office  and  apartment  buildings  in  Japan,  for  rails  in 
Siam,  for  the  government's  housing  projects  in  Rome,  etc., 

An  announcement  from  the  Iron  and  Steel  Trade  of  the 
North  of  England  shows  a  situation  like  our  own.  The 
capacity  for  production  has  been  doubled  since  1914,  but 
there  are  80,000  tons  of  finished  steel. lying  at  the  works. 
If  the  railways  could  take  away  the  output  the  production 
which  is  now  below  that  af  1914  could  be  enormously  in- 

This  does  not  indicate  reduced  prices.  And  with  the 
steel  there  follows  to  a  greater  or  less  extent  the  demand 
and  prices  of  everything  else  in  building  supplies.  The 
price  fabric  in  the  building  field  represents  more  closely 
the  result  of  supply  on  demand  than  do  the  ranges  in  other 


GRAIN,  cotton,  stocks  and  money  values  may  quickly 
react  to  the  demoralized  condition  of  foreign  ex- 
change; but  the  objection  of  Europeans  to  paying  high 
prices  for  dollars  with  which  to  purchase  American  goods 
will  have — if  any  effect — that  of  the  remotest  sympathy 
upon  the  markets  of  American  building  materials.  In  the 
first  place,  if  the  Europeans  need  our  steel,  it  is  a  raw 
material,  and  representing  as  it  does  an  investment  of 
capital  rather  than  an  expenditure  for  current  consumption 
— -they  would  purchase  at  any  price  they  can  possibly  pay. 
In  the  second  place,  the  internal  requirements  for  building 
are  what  might  be  called  an  accumulated  demand ;  if  our 

requirements  for  bread  of  last  year  were  not  fully  satisfied 
we  have  to  a  certain  extent  gotten  over  it.  We  have  not 
accumulated  an  added  need,  as  we  have  for  apartment 
houses  and  factories.  In  the  third  place,  the  markets  are 
much  less  speculative  than  those  suffering  depression 
through  liquidation — if  indeed  they  be  speculative  at  all. 
And  so,  although  the  prices  for  building  materials  must 
ultimately  feel  the  effect  of  so  general  a  disturbance,  the 
relations  between  the  cause  and  such  an  effect  are  so 
remote  and  involved  that  by  the  time  they  become  evident 
they  will  have  a  hardening,  reassuring  effect  rather  than  a 
debasing  one. 


THE  foreign  exchange  situation,  which  is  at  present  so 
much  in  the  public  eye,  is  more  a  matter  of  finance, 
than  of  economics,  but  it  has  its  ultimate  effect  upon  our 
local  markets.  With  the  high  value  of  the  dollar  as  it 
exists  at  present  in  Europe,  it  will  be  natural  for  the 
Europeans  to  reduce  to  as  low  a  level  as  possible  their 
purchases  in  this  country  and  to  sell  as  much  as  possible 
in  order  to  acquire  these  abnormally  valued  dollars.  And 
while,  as  is  emphasized  in  the  newspapers,  this'  will  rapidly 
lower  the  value  of  our  exchange  from  its  present  fantastic 
height,  it  will  also  increase  the  quantity  of  goods  available 
for  sale  in  this  country  and  prices  will  naturally  fall. 

This  does  not  happen  over-night,  and  the  long  and  wide- 
spread anticipation  of  such  reductions  in  prices  (which  may 
prove  to  be  disappointingly  slight)  gives  the  elasticity  by 
which  our  markets  will  reach  such  a  consummation  with- 
out shock. 

With  the  more  even  balance  of  exchange  and  of  the 
prices  paid  for  supplies  between  this  country  and  Europe 
it  follows  that  in  order  for  our  products  to  be  able  to 
compete  with  those  of  other  nations  the  factor  of  labor 
costs  must  also  to  some  extent  parallel  theirs.  If  it  does 
not  there  will  be  an  influx  of  foreign  labor  which  will 
bring  them  down.  Indeed,  it  is  a  question  whether  such 
a  fundamental  law  could  be  denied  its  action. 


THE  foreign  exchange  situation,  however  interesting  it 
may  be  in  its  many  ramifications,  is  as  yet  remote 
from  the  field  of  practical  economics  in  this  country,  and 
it  is  particularly  remote  from  the  construction  industry. 
But  uneasiness  is  infectious.  It  spreads  through  the  stock 
exchanges  and  the  produce  exchanges ;  gossip  becomes 
more  and  more  fictitious  until  it  becomes  a  mighty  hubbub. 
Borrowing  trouble  is  all  very  well  in  Wall  Street,  where 
they  will  borrow  anything  they  can  get  their  hands  on, 
but  it  is  out  of  place  among  those  who  are  handling  actual 
materials  and  developing  them  into  actual  wealth. 

If  a  man  needs  to  be  uneasy  about  something,  let  him 
fear  that  our  industries  will  relax  their  present  efforts 
to  keep  abreast  of  the  demands.  Everywhere,  all  over  the 
world,  more  goods  are  needed,  or — which  amounts  to  the 
same  thing — a  distribution  of  the  goods  which  are  already 
available  or  being  made  available.  Tilbury  docks  are 


blockaded,  and  so  are  the  grain  elevators  of  America ; 
people  are  starving  in  Austria  and  shelterless  in  many  of 
our  American  cities.  Foreign  trade  doesn't  balance  so 
easily  as  foreign  exchange,  but  it  balances,  nevertheless. 
The  consumers'  needs  which  "are  apparent  everywhere 
must  be  filled  if  we  are  to  rebuild  our  commercial  fabric. 
The  time  may  be  ripe  for  retrenchment  in  speculation 
and  luxuries,  but  it  is  no  time  for  conservatism  among 
those  who  manufacture,  deal  in,  or  supply  such  an  essential 
as  the  roofs  which  cover  us.  They  know  it.  They  realize 
there  is  no  way  to  go  but  ahead,  and  at  full  speed.  When 
a  fellow  crawled  up  out  of  the  trenches  a  couple  of  years 
ago  and  got  a  good  look  at  no-man's  land,  he  knew  at 
once  that  there  was  only  one  way  to  go,  and  that  was 
toward  Berlin,  and  he  went.  It  is  possible  that  our  indus- 
tries are  going  to  get  into  a  similar  situation  (the  word 
"panic"  is  being  mentioned  in  hushed  tones),  but  if  they 
do  get  out  into  a  "no-man's  land"  they  will  do  just  the 
same  thing :  they  will  go  ahead — and  for  the  same  reason — 
that  there  is  nowhere  else  to  go.  A  man  may  feel  "yellow," 
but  he  goes  just  the  same. 


IN  its  review  of  conditions,  the  Federal  Reserve  Bank 
gives  a  canvass  of  the  important  factors  as  they  appear 
to  the  several  districts.  Of  these  we  give  the  following 
resume : 

District  No.  I  says:  "never  in  the  histcry  of  the  mercan- 
tile life  of  New  England  was  Christmas  trade  so  enormous 
and  never  was  purchasing  power  exercised  with  such  ex- 
travagance," but  "in  spite  of  the  orgy  of  spending,  the 
people  of  New  England  have  put  into  its  savings  institu- 
tions during  -the  last  year  approximately  $190,000,000. 
There  is  no  reason  to  become  pessimistic  with  respect  to 
existing  conditions." 

District  No.  3  reports :  "manufacturing  business  con- 
tinues in  large  volume."  The  retail  trade  is  "in  excess 
of  last  January.  The  stores  report  difficulty  in  procur- 
ing supplies,  due  to  heavy  demand.  Collections  are  excel- 
lent and  cash  payments  comprise  a  large  part  of  total 
receipts."  (This  is  Philadelphia.) 

District  No.  4  (Cleveland)  says:  that  the  present  de- 
mands for  manufactured  products  have  not  reached  the 
zenith  and  that  foreign  trade  is  rapidly  developing. 

District  No.  5  (Richmond)  :  "The  end  of  the  year 
brings  a  repetition  of  the  reports  of  unprecedented  pros- 
perity. Farmers,  merchants,  manufacturers  and  bankers 
have  all  had  record  years.  Collections  were  never  better 
and  many  old  accounts  have  been  liquidated." 

District  No.  6  (Atlanta)  says :  "the  public  mind  is  giv- 
ing more  thought  to  the  economic  situation.  There  has 
been  little  if  any  slackening  in  the  wholesale  cr  retail 
trade  during  January.  All  lines  report  very  limited  stocks 
on  hand  and  new  supplies  difficult  to  obtain." 

District  No.  7  (Chicago)  :  "The  demand  for  commodi- 
ties outruns  any  possibility  of  providing  a  supply.  The 
general  volume  of  business  in  the  Middle  West  continues 
at  a  high  level.  Farming  communities  continue  to  enjoy 
the  prosperity  which  has  resulted  from  several  years  of 
very  high  prices.  Nevertheless  there  is  running  through 
the  banking  mind  the  thought  that  this  country  cannot 
long  continue  the  extraordinary  volume  of  foreign  ex- 
ports, while  there  has  been  a  rather  liberal  use  of  credits 
in  all  lines." 

District  No.  8  (St.  Louis)  says  that  "the  holiday  trade 
was  in  many  instances  unprecedented,  while  prices  con- 
tinued high.  Demand  for  money  is  at  record  levels  and 
collections  good." 

District  No.  9  (Minneapolis)  reports  "there  is  sufficient 
work  for  all  who  care  to  work.  Factories  are  running 
full  time  and  booking  all  the  orders  they  can  fill.  There 
is  a  continuous  demand  for  larger  supply  of  skilled  labor." 

District  No.  10  (Kansas  City)  says  that  1919  was  a 
record  year  for  business  effort  and  that  at  the  opening  of 
the  new  year  the  business  situation  continues  active.  The 
tremendous  buying  power  of  the  people  has  continued. 

District  No.  12  (San  Francisco)  reports  no  strikes  or 
labor  disturbances  are  in  progress,  that  bank  clearings 
have  increased.  Retail  trade  continues  active,  averaging  45 
per  cent  greater  than  in  December,  1919,  and  there  is  a 
strong  demand  for  all  c'asses  of  products. 

"The  housing  situation  in  the  Middle  West  continues 
to  be  fundamentally  important,"  says  the  statement  of  the 
Federal  Reserve  Board.  "In  the  Kansas  City  district  the 
year  1919  recorded  an  increase  of  130  per  cent  over  1918, 
the  estimated  cost  of  new  buildings  amounting  to  more 
than  $64,000,000.  In  district  No.  i  the  period  of  building 
postponement  has  apparently  been  passed,  immediate  ne- 
cessities being  of  such  urgent  character  that  they  must  be 
met.  It  is  predicted  that  the  current  year  will  break  all 
records.  Certain  classes  of  materials,  however,  seem  to 
be  absolutely  impossible  to  deliver.  In  the  Philadelphia 
district  a  good  volume  of  demand  for  many  classes  of  ma- 
terials is  reported.  Stocks  of  lumber  on  hand  are  scanty. 
In  Chicago  the  structural  trades  are  operating  at  one-half 
normal  speed  owing  to  inability  to  obtain  structural  steel. 
Prohibitive  prices  and  extreme  scarcity  control  the  brick 
situation.  In  Atlanta  district  the  demand  for  lumber  is  in 
excess  of  the  supply  and  prices  continue  very  high.  Taking 
the  country  as  a  whole,  the  characteristics  of  the  situation 
are  extremely  strong  demand  for  building  materials,  par- 
ticularly for  lumber,  and  very  low  stocks,  coupled  with 
unfavorable  transportation  conditions  which  have  prevented 
deliveries.  Early  spring  building  operations  will  be  corre- 
spondingly difficult. 

This  doesn't  look  as  though  we  were  up  against  it,  or 
that  it  was  time  to  hibernate.  It  looks,  rather,  as  though 
everybody  had  got  to  get  into  the  game  and  dig. 


Department  of  Architectural 






Successful  Building  in  Stucco 

IV . — Wood  Lath  on  Frame  Wall  Construction 

STUCCO  on  wood  lath  applied  to  balloon  fram- 
ing is  a  well  known  type  of  construction  and 
has  been  in  use  for  many  years.    The  effect 
of  metal  lath  on  its  continued  use  is  problematical. 
At  the  outset  it  was  claimed  by  some  that  the  in- 
troduction of  metal  lath  would  cause  the  gradual 
elimination   of    wood   lath    for  exterior  use.     The 
facts  have  not  sustained  this  contention. 

To-day  the  use  of  wood  lath  as  a  base  for  stucco 
is  strongly  advocated  by  some  and  as  strongly 
condemned  by  others.  Economy  forms  one  of  the 
important  factors  in  its  use.  Because  of  the  lack 
of  definite  information,  it  does  not  seem  good  pol- 

icy unconditionally  to  condemn  the  use  of  wood 
lath  for  this  purpose.  Several  details  of  construc- 
tion are  pointed  out. and  illustrated  in  this  article, 
which,  if  carefully  observed,  will  tend  to  reduce 
the  probability  of  unsatisfactory  results. 

The  wood  lath  most  generally  used  for  stucco 
work  is  identical  with  that  employed  for  interior 
plastering.  Conditions  to  which  this  material  is 
subjected  when  used  as  a  base  for  exterior  stucco 
are  more  severe  than  when  employed  in  interior 
work.  The  fact  that  wood  lath  has  proven  satisfac- 
tory in  the  latter  case  is  no  criterion  by  which  one 
may  accurately  judge  its  fitness  for  exterior  use. 



Well  seasoned  wood  although  possessing  a  slight 
moisture  content,  is  still  capable  of  absorbing  con- 
siderable water.  Therefore  after  the  applica- 
tion of  cement  stucco,  water  will  be  absorbed  by 
the  wood  lath.  This  will  cause  a  volumetric  change 
in  the  lath,  commonly  termed  swelling.  Such 
swelling  is  not  always  the  direct  cause  of  the  stucco 
cracking,  since  this  is  usually  in  a  plastic  state 
when  swelling  occurs. 

During  the  process  of  setting,  the  combination 
of  water  and  cement  results  in  chemical  action  and 
much  of  the  water  in  the  original  mix  takes  a 
crystaline  form,  known  as  water  of  crystallization. 




If  the  stucco  mix  is  stiff  (a  dry  mix),  practically 
all  the  water  used  in  mixing  is  taken  up  by  this 
chemical  process  and  the  wood  lath  may  even  yield 
some  of  the  moisture  previously  absorbed.  On 
the  other  hand  when  wet  mixes  are  used,  there 
is  an  excess  of  water  and  the  lath  remains  damp 
for  a  considerable  period  after  the  stucco  has  set. 
This  excess  water  must  be  gotten  rid  of  by  evap- 
oration. When  hot  weather  prevails  the  stucco  dries 
out,  the  wood  lath  shrinks,  twists,  and  causes  the 
stucco  to  crack.  In  order  to  avoid  swelling  of  the 
lath  after  the  stucco  has  been  placed,  it  is  advisable 
to  spray  the  lath  prior  to  applying  the  first  plaster 

coat.  The  lath  should  not  be  saturated  so  that 
water  remains  standing  on  the  surface.  Only  an 
amount  which  can  be  readily  absorbed  should  be 
used.  The  tendency  is  to  use  an  excess. 

A  weak  point  and  one  where  cracks  are  especi- 
ally liable  to  occur  exists  at  each  corner  of  the 
building.  Here  there  is  a  shrinking  away  in  two 
directions  at  right  angles  to  each  other.  The 
remedy  requires  that  the  corner  posts  of  the  tim- 
ber frame  be  chamfered  and  a  vertical  strip  of 
metal  lath  .  at  least  six  inches  wide  lapping  the 
ends  of  the  wood  lath  be  wrapped  around  each  cor- 
ner post.  This  is  illustrated  on  page  91. 

In  most  cases  it  is  not  practicable  to  provide 
just  sufficient  water  in  the  stucco  mix  for  setting 
purposes,  since  such  a  mixture  would  be  too  dry 
to  be  workable.  Hence,  the  problem  of  reducing 
the  liability  of  cracks  from  wood  shrinkage  has,, 
during  recent  years,  received  considerable  atten- 
tion and  careful  study. 

Investigations  indicate  that  the  use  of  a  nar- 
rower lath  laid  with  wider  keying  space  and  more 
firmly  nailed  to  the  furring  strips  will  produce 
better  results  with  a  cement  stucco.  A  keying 
space  between  the  lath  at  least  one-half  inch  wide 
is  recommended. 

The  use  of  an  integral  water-proofing  material 
in  the  final  cost  is  to  be  advocated,  provided  the 
material  used  is  one  manufactured  by  a  reputable 
concern  and  has  real  merit.  The  durability  of 
the  construction  will  be  increased  by  reducing  the 
absorption  of  moisture  by  the  stucco.  In  fact  the 
durability  of  stucco,  irrespective  of  the  base,  de- 
pends largely  on  this  point. 

In  an  endeavor  to  provide  a  better  form  of  con- 
struction when  wood  lath  is  used,  buildings  have 
been  built  with  the  lath  arranged  lattice  fashion^ 
So  far  as  can  be  judged  at  this  time,  this  arrange- 
ment is  not  advisable.  The  results  reported  by  the 
Bureau  of  Standards,  Washington,  I>.  C.,  so  far 
as  they  relate  to  test  panels  with  stucco  on  wood 
lath,  show  that  nearly  all  such  test  panels  developed 
large  cracks.  The  tests  indicate  that  counter  lath- 
ing (in  which  the  laths  are  applied  lattice  fashion), 
produces  no  more  satisfactory  results  than  plain 
lathing.  As  this  latter  construction  is  considerably 
more  expensive,  and  without  special  merit  to  com- 
pensate for  the  increased  cost,  there  seems  to  be  no- 
good  reason  for  further  specifying  it. 

The  wood  frame  of  the  building  should  be  built 
as  described  in  Article  III,  published  in  the  issue 
of  December  17.  1919.  After  the  application  of 
the  sheathing  boards,  the  weather-proof  paper 
should  be  placed  and  over  this  i"  x  2"  furring 
strips,  set  vertically  and  spaced  12  inches  on  cen- 
ters should  be  nailed.  The  wood  lath  are  then  laid" 



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horizontally  and  nailed  to  the  furring  strips,  break- 
ing joints  vertically  every  twelfth  lath.  Each  lath 
should  be  nailed  at  every  furring  strip  with  4d. 
nails.  The  proper  nailing  of  the  lath  is  most  im- 
portant. In  nailing  the  furring  strips,  6d.  nails 
driven  not  over  8  inches  apart  are  necessary.  At 
the  corners  the  metal  lath  previously  recommended, 
must  be  firmly  stapled  over  the  wood  lath  with 
\l/4  inch  by  14  gage  galvanized  staples. 

While  pointing  out  the  precautions  to  be  taken 
when  wood  lath  is  used,  the  writer  believes  that 
Portland  cement  stucco  on  ordinary  wood  lath  is 
not  a  wise  investment.  Much  better  and  more  per- 

nailed  directly  to  the  studding.  This,  of  course, 
materially  reduces  the  cost.  When  such  material 
is  applied  directly  to  the  studding,  the  lath  should 
be  placed  horizontally,  and  the  vertical  joints 
broken  every  four  feet;  if  used  with  sheathing 
laid  horizontally,  the  lath  should  then  be  placed 
vertically,  unless  attached  to  furring  strips  over 
the  sheathing.  A  safe  rule  to  follow  is  to  lay  the 
lath  at  right  angles  to  the  under  surface  on  which 
it  is  nailed. 

While  the  subject  of  the  magnesite  stucco  will 
be  fully  treated  in  a  subsequent  article,  it  is  advis- 
able at  this  point  to  state  that  in  many  of  the  struc- 




manent  results  can  be  obtained  by  the  use  of  metal 
lath  applied  as  recommended  in  the  previous  article. 

In  treating  this  subject,  cognizance  must  be  taken 
of  that  type  of  construction  now  becoming  quite 
popular,  in  which  dovetailed  wood  lath  is  backed 
up  by  a  weather-proof  membraneous  material,  in- 
tegral with  the  construction.  The  lath  is  cut  in 
four  foot  lengths  and  the  material  shipped  in  rolls. 

In  such  form  it  is  easy  to  handle  and  after  de- 
livery can  be  conveniently  applied  to  the  timber 
frame  work.  It  is  believed  that  a  more  substantial 
structure  results  when  sheathing  boards  are  in- 
corporated in  this  type  of  construction,  but  many 
buildings  have  been  erected  utilizing  such  material 

tures  in  which  wood  lath  has  been  used  with  entire 
success,  the  over  coating  was  composed  of  magne- 
site stucco.  No  water,  but  a  liquid  chemical  is 
used  in  mixing  this  material  for  application  and 
it  adheres  firmly  to  the  wood.  Ordinary  lath  laid 
with  a  keying  space  of  only  J/jj  inch  appears  to 
give  good  results.  Due  to  its  toughness  and  non- 
freezing  qualities,  the  danger  of  cracking,  even 
when  applied  in  cold  weather,  is  remote.  On  some 
of  the  governmental  housing  developments  mag- 
nesite stucco  was  placed  at  temperatures  consider- 
ably below  zero,  and  no  cracking  occurred. 

The  argument  in  favor  of  wood  lath  as  a  base 
for    stucco    is    mainly    economy    of    construction. 



Those  against  its  use  are  its  liability  to  crack  and 
its  lack  of  fire  resistance.  A  wide  field  still  exists 
for  its  use,  and  with  proper  precautions  fairly  sat- 
isfactory results  should  be  attained. 

Many  architects  and  builders  have  found  the 
combination  of  wood  lath  (or  wood  lath  mounted 
on  weather-proof  backing),  and  magnesite  stucco 


to  give  entirely  satisfactory  results,  at  the  same 
time  permitting  greater  economy  than  could  be  ob- 
tained with  other  forms  of  construction.  As  al- 
ready stated,  this  type  has  been  used  in  many 
large  housing  developments,  and  so  far  as  can 
be  observed  at  the  present  time,  no  serious  defects 
are  evident. 

Further  investigation  will  no  doubt  reveal  that 
additional  modifications  and  improvements  in  pres- 
ent methods  of  construction  are  necessary  to  the 
end  that  stucco  on  wood  lath  may  be  used  with  con- 
dence  where,  due  to  existing  conditions,  such  a 
type  of  construction  is  deemed  advisable. 

Protective  Metallic  Coatings  for  the 
Rustproofing  of  Iron  and  Steel 

UNDER  the  above  tile  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of 
Standards  have  issued  circular  No.  80,  which 
gives  the  results  of  exhaustive  study  relative  to  the 
corrosion  of  iron  and  steel  and  the  relative  values 
of  various  materials  used  for  forming  metallic  coat- 
ings to  protect  the  base  metal  from  corrosion. 

Among  the  various  types  of  coatings  treated  in 
this  paper  are  zinc,  aluminum,  tin,  lead,  and  their 
alloys,  copper,  nickel,  cobalt  and  brass.  The  vari- 

ous methods  of  application  of  the  coatings  and 
their  relative  merits  are  described,  as  well  as  the 
preparation  of  the  surface  before  the  application 
of  such  coatings. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  paper  eight  recom- 
mendations are  given  which  are  worthy  of  careful 
note.  These  are  as  follows : 

1.  Zinc  coatings  should  be  given  preference  over 
all  others  when  the  object  of   the  coating  is  pro- 
tection against  corrosion  only.. 

2.  For  general    use   on   large,   smooth    surfaces, 
sheets,  rods,  wires,  pipes,  etc.,  the  hot-dipped  zinc 
coatings  are  entirely  satisfacory,  although  some  of 
the   other   processes   are   more   economical    in   the 
amount  of  zinc  used.     On  articles  which  must  be 
sharply  bent  or  shaped,  too  heavy  coatings  of  this 
hot-dipped  type  should  not  be  used  on  account  of 
the  tendency   of   the  coating   to   flake   off   at  such 

3.  One  ounce  of  zinc  per  square  foot  of  surface 
exposed  (0.0x317  inch  thickness)  may  be  considered 
as  satisfactory  for  most  purposes,  but  less  may  be 
sufficient  if  evenly  distributed. 

4.  Of  the  different  types  of  zinc  coatings  the  hot 
dipped  and  sherardized  are  not  to  be  recommended 
for  hardened  and  tempered  steels   (springs,  etc.)  : 
the  plated   zinc  and  the  sherardized  coatings  are 
1>oth  recommended  for  accurately  machined  parts : 
the  "spray"'  coatings  are  valuable  for  large  or  com- 
plex parts  which  must  be  coated  in  situ  or  after 

5.  For  indoor  and  to  a  limited  extent  outdoor 
use,  for  parts  which  are  so  placed  as  to  be  easily 
inspected  and  which  are  kept  well  oiled,  other  coat- 
ings   than    zinc    ( e.g.,    the    oxide   and    other   black 
finishes)  may  be  used.   For  severe  services  zinc  only 
should  be  depended  upon. 

6.  In  general,  nothing  is  gained,  from  the  stand- 
point of  resistance  to  corrosion,  by  first  coating  an 
article   with  copper,   or  a  similar  metal,  and  then 
finishing  with  zinc.     If  a  zinc  coating  is  to  have  a 
black  finish,  black  nickel  may  be  used  as  a  finish. 

7.  The  use  of  oil,  and  like   substances,  on  any- 
type   of   coating   is    to   be   strongly   recommended. 
The  life  of  zinc  coatings,  particularly  those  of  a 
porous  character,  may  be  prolonged  almost  indefi- 
nitely by  periodically  oiling  them. 

8.  The  time  required  for  the  appearance  of  rust 
on  zinc-coated  articles  when  exposed  to  salt  spray 
may  in  a  general  way  be  taken  as  an  indication  of 
whether  or  not  the  coating  is  satisfactory  for  out- 
door exposure,  e.g. — 24  hours,  unsatisfactory ;  48 
to  72  hours,  satisfactory  for  mild  exposure,  and  96 
to  144  hours,  satisfactory  for  severe  exposure. 

Copies  of  this  circular  may  be  obtained  without 
charge  upon  application  to  the  Superintendent  of 
Documents,  Washington,  D.  C. 



Second    Convention,    National   Public    Works    Department 

Association,  Washington,  D.  C.,  January 

13  and  14,  1920 

DELEGATES  to  the  recent  convention  of 
the  National  Public  Works  Association 
left  here  with  full  realization  of  the  gi- 
gantic task  that  confronts  proponents  of  the  plan 
to  create  a  new  Federal  department.  For  the 
most  significant  development  of  the  conference 
was  the  acknowledgment  that  the  time  was  not 
ripe  to  urge  the  immediate  enactment  of  the  Jones- 
Keavis  bill.  It  was  tactfully  admitted  that  organ- 
ized architects,  engineers  and  contractors  could 
not  immediately  successfully  push  the  measure 
through  Congress.  Rather  than  being  discouraged, 
however,  those  interested  are  more  determined  than 
ever  to  accomplish  this  much  needed  governmental 

That  the  majority  of  congressmen  have  little  or 
no  knowledge  of  the  tremendous  effect  of  such  a 
measure  has  been  definitely  determined.  The  del- 
egates devoted  considerable  time  to  a  personal 
canvass  of  their  representatives  at  the  Capitol. 
Comparative  reports  showed  that  the  legislators 
were  generally  open  to  argument.  They  claimed 
that  their  constituents  must  have  a  word  to  say  in 
the  matter.  It  was  at  the  conclusion  of  these  inter- 
views that  the  delegates  knew  that  their  obvious 
task  of  enlisting  outside  help  was  no  easy  one. 

The  direct  outcome  of  these  enlightening  visits 
to  the  Capitol  was  the  passage  of  a  resolution  ad- 
mitting civic  and  industrial  organizations  to  par- 
ticipate in  the  movement.  Furthermore,  it  was 
decided  to  make  the  National  Public  Works  De- 
partment Association  permanent  for  the  purpose 
of  conducting  nation-wide  propaganda  in  behalf 
of  the  proposed  bill. 

There  were  95  delegates  at  the  conference  held 
at  the  Hotel  Willard,  Jan.  13-14,  representing 
societies  with  an  aggregate  membership  (elim- 
inating obvious  duplications),  of  90,000.  The 
American  Institute  of  Architects  had  four  repre- 
sentatives: E.  J.  Russell  of  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  member 
of  committee  on  resolutions :  E.  W.  Dorm,  Jr.,  of 
this  city,  member  of  committee  on  text  of  bill ; 
Waddy  B.  Wood  of  this  city,  member  of  commit- 
tee on  new  organizations  and  E.  C.  Kemper,  execu- 
tive secretary  of  the  A.  I.  A.  M.  O.  Leighton, 
chairman  of  the  executive  committee  on  the  Na- 
tional Public  Works  Department  Association, 
presided  at  the  meetings.  He  discussed  the  neces- 
sity for  co-ordination  of  various  government 
bureaus  for  economv  and  efficiencv. 

Congressman  C.  Frank  Reavis,  one  of  the  au- 
thors of  the  bill,  declared  that  the  Government  of 
the  United  States  was  the  worst  managed  busi- 
ness in  the  world.  He  pointed  out  the  advantages 
of  the  proposed  legislation  for  a  reorganization 
of  the  Department  of  the  Interior  into  a  Depart- 
ment of  Public  Works.  It  was  his  contention  that- 
great  savings  could  be  effected  with  a  specialized 
organization  to  do  all  the  technical  work  for 
the  Government,  thus  eliminating  competitive 
bureaus.  He  predicted  that  the  economies  under 
the  proposed  bill  would  amount  to  $250,000.000 

Gen.  R.  C.  Marshall,  chief,  construction  division, 
of  the  U.  S.  Army,  advocated  the  standardization 
of  all  specifications  covering  every  material  that 
enters  into  Federal  construction  projects.  The 
army  officer  claimed  that  the  adoption  of  standard 
specifications  and  centralized  control  over  all  pur- 
chases was  largely  responsible  for  the  remarkable 
success  of  his  division  during  the  war.  He  be- 
lieves a  Department  of  Public  Works  could  estab- 
lish a  standard  specification  in  Government  work 
which  would  insure  both,  safety  and  economy 
of  design.  This  address  will  appear  in  a  later 

Governor  Frank  O.  Lowden  of  Illinois  addressed 
a  paper  to  the  convention  outlining  his  efforts  to 
co-ordinate  state  departments  and  bureaus.  He 
grouped  several  independent  commissions  and 
other  state  organizations  under  one  head  known 
as  the  Department  of  Public  Works  and  Buildings. 
He  held  fast  to  the  theory  that  "it  is  individuals 
who  do  things,  and  not  boards  or  commissions." 
The  Governor  found  that  the  inauguration  of  a 
budget  system  for  the  state  worked  wonders.  For 
the  purpose  of  illustrating  the  savings  brought 
about  by  this  department,  Mr.  Lowden  stated  that 
the  general  property  tax  rate  for  state  purposes 
had  fallen  twenty  per  cent. 

Commenting  upon  the  proposed  transfer  of  vari- 
ous bureaus,  the  fate  of  the  bureau  of  education 
was  discussed  in  a  lively  fashion.  The  conference 
decided  to  let  Congress  handle  the  matter  in  its 
own  way  without  suggestion  from  the  supporters 
of  the  measure. 

A  digest  of  the  Jones-Reavis  bill  and  reasons 
for  the  proposals  have  been  prepared  in  pamphlet 
form  and  are  now  being  distributed  to  all  co- 
operating agencies. 



Correct  Building  of  Chimneys  and  Flues 


IN  connection  with  the  construction  of  chimneys, 
and  with  a  view  to  reducing  the  fire  hazard,  it 
is  urged  that  the  following  recommendations  be  ob- 
served in  chimney  and  flue  construction. 

Build  all  chimneys  from  the  ground  up.  None 
of  their  weight  should  be  carried  by  anything  ex- 
cept their  proper  foundations.  Foundations  should 
be  at  least  12  inches  wider  all  around  than  the  area 
of  the  chimney  and  be  started  well  below  the  frost 

No  chimney  should  be  started  or  built  upon  any 
floor  or  beam  of  wood.  When  a  chimney  is  to  be 
cut  off  below,  in  whole  or  part,  it  should  be  en- 
tirely supported  by  brick  or  stone  work,  or  steel 
construction,  properly  erected  from  the  ground  up. 
The  practice  of  supporting  chimneys  or  flues  on 
wooden  or  iron  brackets,  or  iron  stirrups,  however 
carefully  devised,  is  hazardous.  A  small  fire 
around  the  base  from  any  cause  may  drop  the  flue 
and  allow  draft  for  rapid  spread  of  fire. 

Build  all  chimneys  to  a  point  at  least  3  feet  above 
flat  roofs,  and  2  feet  above  the  ridge  of  peaked 

Under  no  circumstances  should  the  brick  work  of 
the  chimney  be  extended  out  over  the  roof  by  the 
projection  of  the  course  of  brick  nearest  to  it. 
Such  a  shoulder  or  overhanging  projection  will  in- 
evitably cause  cracks  in  the  chimney  in  case  the 
chimney  settles,  the  roof  in  such  event  lifting  the 
upper  portion  by  means  of  the  overhang,  or  shoul- 
der, and  causing  a  crack  at  the  most  dangerous  of 
all  places.  The  chimney  should  be  carried  up  of 
uniform  thickness  to  the  top,  copper  flashing  being 
relied  upon  to  prevent  leaks  at  the  joint  with  the 

Never  build  a  chimney  wall  less  than  eight  inches 
in  thickness,  and  use  only  cement  mortar  up  to  the 
first  floor  and  above  the  roof  line. 

Chimneys  with  but  4-inch  exterior  walls  are 
commonly  permitted,  and  if  lined  with  fire  clay  are 
reasonably  safe,  but  they  frequently  crack  and  are 
also  easily  chilled,  which  causes  a  bad  draft. 
Where  fireplaces  are  built  of  stone,  the  minimum 
thickness  of  the  wall  should  be  12  inches. 

The  upper  part  of  chimney  walls  may  be  only 
four  inches  in  thickness,  from  a  point  at  least  six 
inches  above  the  roof  to  the  top  of  chimney,  pro- 
vided the  chimney  be  capped  with  terra  cotta,  stone 

"Secretary,   National  Fire  Protection  Association. 

or  cement,  or  the  bricks  are  carefully  bonded  or 
anchored  together. 

The  best  coping  is  a  three-inch  bluestone,  and  it 
is  important  to  see  that  the  holes  cut  in  the  cap- 
stone correspond  in  size  with  the  flues,  otherwise 
shoulders  will  be  formed  and  the  draft  of  the  flue 
interfered  with. 

In  brick  buildings  the  walls  of  buildings  when 
not  less  than  13  inches  in  thickness  may  form  part 
of  chimney  or  flue.  In  no  case  should  a  chimney  or 
flue  be  corbeled  out  more  than  3  inches  from  the 
wall,  and  in  all  cases  the  corbeling  should  consist 
of  at  least  five  courses  of  brick.  Flues  in  party 
walls  should  not  extend  beyond  the  center  of  said 

Build  all  chimneys  large  enough  to  give  a  sep- 
arate flue  for  each  fire,  using  fire  clay  or  terra- 
cotta tile  linings  at  least  one  inch  in  thickness. 

The  fire  clay  lining  is  not  subject  to  disintegra- 
tion by  any  of  the  ordinary  flue  gases. 

The  lining  should  be  put  in  as  the  flue  is  con- 
structed, using  great  care  to  see  that  the  joints 
in  same  are  carefully  made. 

When  two  or  more  separate  flues  are  provided  in 
chimney,  the  division  walls  between  flues  may  be 
only  four  inches  in  thickness. 

Two  connections  to  a  single  flue  will  result  in 
fire  from  one  communicating  to  the  opening  of  the 
other,  and  thousands  of  fires  have  originated  in 
this  manner. 

Flues  in  throat  capacity  should  not  be  less  than 
eight  inches  square  on  the  inside,  and  for  fire- 
places in  which  wood  is  to  be  used  they  should  be 
eight  by  twelve  inches  (or  better,  12x12  inches)  in 
the  clear.  A  good  rule  is  to  make  the  flue  size 
not  less  than  one-tenth  the  area  of  the  fireplace 
opening.  Green  or  unseasoned  firewood  will  re- 
quire a  flue  of  this  size  to  insure  a  good  draft  and 
prevent  smoking.  The  furnace  flue  should  also 
be  not  less  than  eight  by  twelve  inches  in  any  case. 

Be  careful  to  see  that  the  flues  are  properly 
built.  Faults  cannot  be  remedied  afterwards.  All 
flues  should  be  as  nearly  vertical  as  possible. 

Masons  are  often  careless  about  lining  the  flue 
even  where  the  specifications  call  for  it,  and  are 
apt  to  omit  it  until  they  get  to  the  straight  part  of 
the  flue.  This  makes  the  flue  dangerous  at  its  hot- 
test point,  near  the  fireplace,  especially  if  it  be  sur- 
rounded by  onlv  four  inches  of  brickwork.  Make 



sure  that  the  flue  lining  is  carried  up  from  the 
throat  of  the  fireplace. 

Where  flue  linings  are  not  provided,  be  careful 
to  see  that  all  joints  are  struck  smooth  on  the  in- 
side, and  that  projections  of  bricks  or  mortar  are 
not  allowed,  and  also  that  no  pargeting  nor  plaster- 
ing of  the  inside  of  the  flue  is  permitted  under  any 
circumstances.  The  plastering  is  liable  to  fall 
afterward  under  the  influence  of  heat  and  rain,  and 
not  only  stop  up  the  flue,  but  tear  out  the  plaster 
between  the  joints  of  the  bricks.  The  flue  lining 
will  prove  the  cheapest  in  the  end,  for  it  will  main- 
tain a  smooth  throat  and  thus  discourage  nest- 
building  by  chimney  swallows. 

All  flues  in  every  building  should  be  properly 
cleaned  and  all  rubbish  removed,  and  the  flues  left 
smooth  on  the  inside  upon  the  completion  of  the 


beams  are  mortised  into  the  header.  Where  more 
than  three  tail  beams  are  framed  into  the  header, 
however,  it  should  be  supported  in  iron  stirrups 
by  which  the  weight  is  carried  on  the  trimmer 
beams  without  mortising  into  them  by  "tenon  and 
tusk"  joints,  which  sacrifice  material  and  carrying 
capacity.  In  this  way  the  floor  beams  are  free 
of  contact  with  chimney  flues.  All  hearths  should 
be  laid  on  trimmer  arches  of  brick  or  a  reinforced 
concrete  slab  carried  across  from  the  chimney 
breast  to  the  header  beam,  so  that  the  hearth  shall 

Do  not  run  floor  joists  or  other  woodwork  into 
chimneys  or  flues  nor  allow  wood  casing,  lathing 
or  furring  within  two  inches  of  chimneys.  All 
spaces  between  the  chimney  and  the  wooden  beams 
should  be  solidly  filled  with  mortar,  mineral  wool 
or  other  incombustible  material. 

Where  the  chimney  breast  over  the  fireplace  or 
mantel  is  furred  out  and  finished  with  lath  and 
plaster,  only  metal  lath  should  be  used.  If  the 
mantel  is  of  wood,  it  should  not  project  far  enough 
to  be  blistered  or  ignited.  Care  should  be  exer- 
cised in  its  selection. 

All  floor  timbers  should  be  "trimmed''  clear  of 
the  hearths  and  brick  work  of  the  chimney,  so  as 
not  to  be  in  contact  with  it  at  any  point. 

This  is  easily  secured  by  "header"'  beams,  car- 
ried in  front  of  the  fireplace  and  at  least  twenty 
inches  from  the  chimney  breast,  supported  by  the 
"trimmer"  beams,  which  enter  the  wall  on  each 
side  of  the  chimney,  as  shown  in  the  illustration. 
These  should  not  approach  the  side  of  the  chimney 
closer  than  four  inches.  The  intervening  "tail" 


not  rest  upon  or  near  wooden  beams  in  any  case. 
The  length  of  trimmer  arches  should  not  be  less 
than  the  width  of  the  chimney  breasts  nor  their 
width  less  than  20  inches  in  any  case  measured 
from  the  face  of  the  chimney  breasts. 

Line  fireplaces  with  fire  brick  or  cast  iron. 

When  a  heater  is  placed  in  a  fireplace,  the  hearth 
should  be  the  full  width  of  the  heater,  and  the 
mantels  should  be  non-combustible.  Fireplaces 
should  never  be  closed  with  a  wood  fireboard ; 
nor  should  a  wood  mantel  or  other  woodwork  be 
exposed  back  of  a  "summer  piece" ;  the  iron  work 
of  the  latter  should  be  placed  against  the  brick  or 
stone  work  of  the  fireplace. 






NUMBER  2301 

Psychiatric  Classification  in  Prison 

By  LEWIS  F.  PILCHER,  New  York  State  Architect 

COMMERCIAL  efficiency  is  determined  by 
the  use  of  the  by-products  of  manufacture. 
Prisoners  are  by-products  of  society. 

The  modern  enterprise  that  used  to  discard  as 
waste  the  by-products  of  its  plant  now  aims  to 
reduce  its  overhead  and  better  its  system  by  re- 
turning to  the  community  in  usable  form  that  which 
in  past  times  had  been  considered  as  lost  and  un- 
available material.  Is  it  not  true  that  the  criminal 
has  been  for  the  most  part  considered  in  the  past 
as  an  irreclaimable  waste  of  society,  his  progress 
toward  a  better  life  inhibited  by  being  held  in  the 
strait-jacket  of  strictly  materialistic  institutional 
management  and  maintenance?  As  in  the  case  of 
manufacturing  concerns  so  in  the  modern  penal  sys- 
tem, its  success  will  be  determined  by  the  economic 
use,  and  measured,  not  by  the  development  of  model 
prisoners  enchained  securely  behind  bastioned  walls, 
but  by  returning  to  society  decent  citizens. 

In  the  past  the  achievement  of  positive  human 
results  has  been  seemingly  impossible  to  obtain. 
The  chief  reason  for  this  failure  was  due  to  the 
inevitable  clash  between  institutional  and  political 
interests  that  always  arose  and  rendered  abortive 
the  many  attempts  that  have  been  made  to  treat 
successfully  the  complex  questions  of  crime  and 

Any  betterment  procedure  must  be  in  the  direc- 
tion of  individualization.  The  modern  prison,  peni- 
tentiary, jail  or  reformatory  should  embody  in  their 
respective  organizations  the  function  of  scientific 
study  of  the  individual  prisoner — and  this  should 
be  made  the  fundamental  element  of  the  entire  cor- 
rectional process. 

The  dynamic  unit  of  all  human  problems  is  the 
individual.  Modern  medical  science  makes  the  ap- 
praisal of  this  unit  possible  through  the  medium  of 
psychiatric  treatment  and  social  service  research. 
An  undertaking,  however,  which  is  really  conscious- 
ly intent  on  reclaiming  the  individual  prisoner  to 
the  limit  of  his  capacity  with  a  view  of  preventing 

future  returning  to  misbehavior,  would  be  ham- 
pered in  its  effects  if  it  were  to  concern  itself  solely 
with  the  native  endowments  of  the  individual  pris- 
oner. The  source  of  the  prisoner's  particular  being, 
life,  is  a  dynamic  process;  and  every  contact  the 
individual  makes  throughout  life  not  only  leaves 
its  impression  on  him,  but  shapes  his  mental  attitude 
toward  his  environment.  Thus,  it  is  obvious  that 
the  housing  problem,  touching  as  it  does  every  phase 
of  the  life  of  man,  is  of  fundamental  importance, 
for  the  environment  determines  through  the  influ- 
ence of  the  associative  imagery  of  the  inmate,  a 
control  of  his  conscious  acts  and  the  mechanization 
of  the  conscious  acts  of  the  prisoner  establishes  his 
habits.  The  manner  in  which  the  prisoner  has  been 
handled  in  the  past  has  unquestionably  been  respon- 
sible, if  not  for  the  great  amount  of  criminal  careers, 
certainly  for  the  confirming  of  the  individual  in  his 
life  of  crime.  The  character  and  kind  of  prison 
we  have  had.  in  the  past,  had  as  its  sole  aim  to 
achieve  mediaeval  security :  a  housing  condition 
crude  and  archaic  in  conception,  which  has  not 
helped  to  relieve  and  protect  society  against  the 
spirit  of  crime,  but  on  the  contrary  has  actually 
tended  to  its  increase. 

Here  in  New  York  City  the  municipality  protects 
the  interests  of  its  citizens  by  the  enactment  of 
a  structural  and  sanitary  code.  Structural  safety 
and  physical  security  and  health  are  provided  for 
all  classifications  of  human  activities  under  the  ma- 
turely established  provisions  of  that  code. 

Scientifically,  psychologically  and  practically  im- 
portant as  is  the  structural  side  of  this  great  prison 
problem,  I  have  yet  to  see  any  workmanlike  at- 
tempt to  establish  for  prison  planners  a  code,  so 
carefully  developed  and  yet  with  an  elasticity  to 
adapt  it  to  various  localities  and  climates,  to  the 
end  that  the  inhumanity  of  the  present  day,  1920, 
toward  prisoners  would  be  for  all  time  impossible. 

The  tremendous  security  and  help  that  such  a 
code  would  provide  for  the  development  of  state 

Copyright,   1920.  The  Architectural  &  Builttiiifj  Press  (Inc.) 




prisons  and  jails  and  reformatories  is  at  once  ap- 

The  complete  findings  of  a  competent  Code  Com- 
mittee would  be  the  average  of  the  experience  of  all 
penal  housing  problems  throughout  the  country  and 
should  be  determined  by  a  two-group  committee, 
acting  under  an  organization  of  national  scope.  In 
one  group  should  be  available  the  experience  and 
suggestion  of  the  leaders  in  penal  administration, 
medicine,  psychiatric,  industrial,  vocational,  educa- 
tional and  religious  activities.  The  second  group 
should  consist  of  a  small  number  of  architects,  engi- 
neers or  contractual  experts — men  who  have  actu- 
ally planned  and  structurally  executed  prison  build- 
ings and  whose  practical  experience  would  enable 
them  sympathetically  to  translate  into  constructive 
form  and  crystallize  the  theoretical  standards  re- 
commended by  the  sub-committee  on  strictly  scien- 
tific phases. 

As  it  is  an  admitted  fact  that  apperception  and 
interest  are  the  cardinal  principles  of  thought  foun- 
dation, it  may  be  seen  that  the  chance  of  improve- 
ment in  the  prisoner  will  vary  in  accordance  with 
the  thought  and  action  required  of  him.  In  order, 
therefore,  that  this  idea  may  be  efficiently  carried 
out,  the  prisoner,  immediately  on  commitment  to 
prison,  should  receive  the  benefit  of  an  expert  clin- 
ical examination  to  determine  through  his  mental 
and  economic  possibilities  what  branch  of  work 
he  should  follow  during  his  term  of  imprisonment 
to  insure  a  better  existence  and  a  chance  to  live  a 
decent  and  productive  life  after  discharge. 

The  new  Sing  Sing,  therefore,  has  been  planned 
as  a  Classification  and  Distributing  Prison,  from 
which  the  prisoner,  after  a  definite  determination 
has  been  made  of  his  mental,  physical  and  economic 
possibilities,  will  be  assigned  to  that  State  institu- 
tion best  suited  to  his  individual  demands.  For  ex- 
ample, if  it  be  found  that  a  prisoner  is  physically 
unsound,  he  will  be  sent  to  an  institution  where  he 
can  be  therapeutic-ally  bettered;  or,  if  mentally  de- 
ficient, to  an  institution  where  he  can  be  scientifi- 
cally treated,  and,  if  possible,  given  work  that  will 
enable  him  to  direct  his  minimal  capacity  so  as  to 
exempt  him  from  purely  custodial  care. 

The  construction  and  location  of  the  buildings  at 
Sing  Sing  mean  much  more;  therefore,  than  the 
mere  erection  of  a  scries  of  large  prison  buildings 
for  the  detention  of  those  who  have  violated  the 
laws  of  the  State.  It  will  exist  as  a  twentieth  cen- 
tury prison  elixir,  which  will  take  the  recrement  of 
society  and  so  purge  and  refine  it  that  the  result  will 
advance,  rather  than  retard,  the  onward  and  up- 
ward movement  of  humanity. 

In  order  fully  to  understand  the  problem  of  prison 
registration,  let  us  follow  the  course  taken  by  the 
convict  upon   his  arrival   at  the   Sing  Sing  of  the 
future:      Immediately    upon    entering    the    prison 
grounds,  the  Court  Officer  conducts  him  to  the  ar- 
rival   room    in    the    basement    of    the    Registration 
Building.    Here  he  is  turned  over  to  the  prison  au- 
thorities, who  take  and  receipt  for  his  personal  prop- 
erty and  clothes.     The  civilian  clothes  are  removed 
for   disinfection   and   storage.      He   is   then   led  to 
the  baths,  situated  across  the  hall  from  the  prop- 
erty   room.     After    being  thoroughly  bathed,    and 
subjected  to  a  hasty  medical  inspection,  clean  prison 
clothes  are  provided.    Then,  contagion  from  outside 
sources  having  been  removed,  the  prisoner  is  lodged 
in  a  classification  cell  on  the  first  floor,  to  await  his 
turn  for  examination  in  the  rooms  provided  for  that 
purpose  on  the  second  floor.     When  the  examiner 
is  ready  for  him,  he  is  taken  upstairs  to  be  photo- 
graphed, weighed,  finger-printed  and  generally  Ber- 
tillioned.  and  is  then  sent  across  the  hall  to  be  given 
a  preliminary  examination  for  the  determination  of 
his  general  physical  condition.    This  over,  he  is  led 
to  the  educational  examination  room,  where  facts 
concerning  his   birth,   occupation   and  general  his- 
tory are   recorded,   and  an   examination   conducted 
to  determine  both  the  extent  of  his  education  and 
his    occupational    skill.      Following    that    comes    a 
careful  mental  examination   in  which   the  findings 
of  those  just  preceding  are  fully  utilized.    As  a  re- 
sult of  these  different  examinations  his  first  classi- 
fication is  made,  subject  of  course  to  change  from 
examinations   to   be   conducted   later. 

Besides  containing  the  general  Administration 
Offices,  the  Bureau  of  Registration  and  the  Rec- 
ord Bureau  the  Registration  Building  will  include 
a  reception  room  where  prisoners  may  converse 
with  visiting  relatives  and  friends.  In  the  past 
this  problem  of  a  reception  room  for  the  visitors  to 
prisoners  was  a  difficult  one  for  prison  authorities, 
as  it  was  practically  impossible  while  allowing  pris- 
oners a  reasonable  amount  of  freedom  for  the  dis- 
cussion of  private  and  confidential  matters  to  pre- 
vent the  transfer  of  weapons,  liquors,  drugs  and 
implements  of  escape.  This  difficulty,  however,  we 
think,  has  now  been  successfully  solved  through  the 
following  arrangement :  Two  parts  of  a  large  room 
are  separated  by  two  wire  nettings,  so  placed  that 
they  form  an  enclosed  passage  six  feet  in  width, 
where  guards  can  be  stationed  to  prevent  any  at- 
tempt to  pass  articles  to  the  prisoners  without,  at 
the  same  time,  interfering  in  the  carrying  on  of  a 

Adjacent  to  the  Registration  Building,  and  on  the 
same  high  plateau  overlooking  the  Hudson,  is  the 
Temporary  Detention  Building  with  cell  rooms  on 




separate  floors,  so  arranged  as  to  place  the  pris- 
oners under  the  constant  supervision  of  the  clinical 
experts,  who  will  conduct  their  examinations  in  the 
adjoining  Clinic  Building. 

The  clinical  laboratory  was  developed  under  a 
medical  commission  composed  of :  Dr.  Walter  B. 
James,  President  of  the  New  York  Academy  of 
Medicine;  Dr.  Charles  W.  Pilgrim,  Chairman,  New 
York  State  Hospital  Commission;  Dr.  Thomas  W. 
Salmon,  Director  of  the  National  Committee  for 
Mental  Hygiene ;  Dr.  G.  H.  Kirby,  Director  of  the 
Psychiatric  Institute  of  the  State  of  New  York;  Dr. 


On  the  second  floor  is  a  quantitative  and  qualita- 
tive laboratory ;  a  museum,  a  recording  room,  a  li- 
brary and  lecture  rooms,  and  on  the  third  floor  are 
surgical  wards,  subdivided  for  major  and  minor  op- 
erative cases,  together  with  medical  wards,  so 
planned  as  to  have  ordinary  and  chronic  medical 
cases  in  separate  divisions.  The  hospital  is  to  be 
freely  used  for  detailed  observation  as  well  as  for 

The  fourth  floor  contains  a  complete  operating 
department  with  two  operating  rooms,  one  for  major 
and  the  other  for  minor  operations,  each  having 



Isham  G.  Harris,  Superintendent  of  the  Brooklyn 
State  Hospital ;  Dr.  Carlos  F.  MacDonald,  Alien- 
ist, and  Dr.  W.  F.  Brewer,  Surgeon.  Provision 
has  been  made  on  the  first  floor  for  a  modern  X-- 
ray apparatus  and  its  various  accessories ;  three 
rooms  for  the  physician  in  charge  of  the  venereal 
examinations ;  a  surgical  laboratory ;  rooms  fitted 
for  the  examinations  of  the  eye,  ear  and  throat,  psy- 
chiatric and  psychological  examining  room,  dental 
operating  room  and  laboratory,  and  a  laboratory  for 
the  use  of  the  staff  working  in  the  diagnosis  and  ex- 
amination rooms. 

separate  sterilization  facilities,  together  with  prepa- 
ration, etherizing  and  recovery  rooms,  while  the  re- 
mainder of  the  floor  is  given  up  to  rooms  for  the 
male  nurses  and  a  convalescent  solarium. 

In  addition  to  using  the  building  as  a  clinical  hos- 
pital for  the  housing  of  psychiatric  and  medical  re- 
quirements of  the  prison,  it  is  also  planned  to  use 
it  as  a  school  for  the  education  of  male  nurses,  a* 
it  is  found  that  efficiency  in  prison  nursing  is  di- 
rectly proportional  to  the  nurse's  understanding  of 
the  relation  of  scientific,  medical  and  psychiatric 






knowledge  to  the  peculiar  problems  of  a  prison  com- 

To  the  rear  of  the  plateau,  and  connected  by  ex- 
terior cell  block  buildings  with  the  structures  just 
considered,  two  housing  groups  have  been  planned 

tutions.  In  the  new  Classification  Prison  a  "day- 
room  space"  system  has  been  arranged  for  by  which 
each  prisoner  is  allowed  fifty  square  feet  of  sleep- 
ing space  in  the  dormitory  and  fifty  square  feet  of 
space  in  the  day-room.  Individual  lockers  will  be 



=>  50UTH     ELEVATION 



The    side    elevations    show    the    terracing    of    the    site  and  the  advantages  derived  from   the  differences 

in  levels 

and  constructed  in  accordance  with  the  interlock- 
ing dormitory  cell-room  type,  each  having  accom- 
modations for  three  hundred  prisoners. 

In  the  past  the  failure  of  all  dormitory  systems 
has  been  due  to  the  fact  that  no  provisions  were 
ever  made  for  what  is  technically  known  as  "day- 
room  space,"  which  is  as  necessary  in  prisons  as 
in  hospitals  for  the  insane,  or  in  charitable  insti- 

provided  for  each  prisoner,  as  it  has  been  deter- 
mined through  former  experiments  that  a  sense  of 
individual  responsibility  is  evoked  if  each  prisoner 
be  provided  with  a  separate  locker  for  the  safekeep- 
ing of  such  possessions  as  he  may  be  allowed  to 
have  during  his  incarceration. 

Experiments    to    determine    the    most    efficient 
method  of  guarding  dormitory  prisoners  have  dem- 
















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onstrated  the  impossibility  of  a  guard  stationed  on 
the  main  floor  of  a  dormitory  overseeing  all  parts 
of  the  room.  To  correct  this  difficulty  an  elevated 
mezzanine  guard  walk  has  been  planned  situated 
eight  feet  above  the  floor  proper,  and  permitting  an 
unobstructed  view  of  all  portions  of  the  dormitory. 

The  study  and  prac- 
tice of  mob  psychology 
has  demonstrated  that 
when  a  group  of  fifty 
men  are  continually 
together  there  arises 
an  inner  controlling 
group,  numbering 
from  seven  to  eight 
men,  this  number  de- 
creasing in  irregular 
steps  down  to  the  one 
man  who  dominates  a 
group  of  from  ten  to 
twelve.  Using  this 
fact  as  a  basis  for 
further  experiments. 
it  was  decided  that  a 
mean  between  these 
two  numbers,  twenty- 
seven,  resulted  in  the 
most  satisfactory 
group  arrangements, 
and  the  dormitory 
units  have  been  de- 
signed accordingly. 

The    interlocking 

dormitory      cell-room 
buildings   provide   the 
elasticity      of     classi- 
fication demanded  by 
the     more     advanced 
penological     ideals. 
Each  dormitory  build- 
ing will  be  three  stories  in  height,  and  will  have  two 
dormitory  units,  symmetrically  placed  on  each  floor, 
each  unit  consisting  of  a  day  room,  lavatory,  locker 
room,  and  dormitory  proper.     Access  to  the  dormi- 
tory floor  is  by  a  central   stairway,  while  the  cell 
room  floors  are  reached  from  intermediate  landings 
in  the  main  stairway. 


The  entire  Sing  Sing  project  includes  kitchens, 
dining  rooms,  library,  school,  vocational  shops,  rec- 
reation hall,  roads,  walks,  a  modern  sewage  plant, 
a  power  house  tc  heat  and  light  the  many  build- 
ings and  to  operate  the  industrial  plants,  and  a 
church  for  the  development  of  religious  and  com- 
munity ideals. 

In  addition  to  the 
proper  placing  and  co- 
ordination of  the 
structures  and  their 
component  parts,  and 
the  abolishment  of 
unsanitary  conditions 
in  the  interiors,  by  the 
architectural  treat- 
ment'of  buildings  and 
site,  a  great  step  for- 
ward has  been  taken 
in  the  creating  of  a 
proper  and  fitting  at- 
mosphere and  environ- 
ment. The  old  idea 
of  the  ugly,  heavy 
barred  and  broken 
walls,  which  produced 
the  dismal,  forsaken, 
isolated  and  jail-like 
appearance  of  former 
prisons,  has  been  dis- 
carded. In  their 
places  will  be  many- 
windowed,  substantial 
brick  structures,  ex- 
tending from  the  river 
to  the  plateau  in  the 
rear  of  the  elevated 
site,  in  dignified  and 
well-propor  t  i  o  n  e  d 

The  causes  which 
formerly  created  in 
prisoners  the  feeling 
of  being  entombed, 
useless  and  hopeless 
exiles  have  been  done 
away  with.  It  is  our 
hope  that  ideals  of  re- 
spectability, industry, 
efficiency  and  co-oper- 
ation will  arise  from  these  new  prison  conditions 
and  make  strong,  beneficial  and  lasting  impressions 
on  the  mind  of  each  prisoner. 

It  is  only  by  such  utilization  of  the  experiences 
in  allied  fields  and  their  thoughtful  application  to 
prison  conditions  that  progress  may  be  hoped  for 
in  solving  this  important  human  problem. 




The  Clinic  Building  at  the  New 
Sing  Sing  Prison 


IT  is  many  years  since  men  began  to  realize  that  and   the   disease   and   suffering   rate  has   markedly 

their  diseases  were  not  the   result  of  a  divine  diminished  and  is  still  diminishing, 

purpose,  and  so  they  have  attempted,  first,  to  To-day,  resignation  and  patient  submission  in  the 

understand  their  origin,  through  study  and  analy-  presence  of  disease  of  the  body  are  no  longer  vir- 


D  0  Wlli    8       1 0114 


A  typical  cell  front  with  locking  device  to  hold  doors  shut  while   the  guard   passes   down   the   walk,  locks   each 
cell   door   individually   with   key  and   feels  assured  while  he  is  doing  this  that  he  will  not  be  attacked 

sis,  and  then  from  these  to  discover  means  of  pre-  tues.  Mental  disease  has  only  more  recently  beer 
vention  and  cure.  As  a  result  of  these  efforts,  the  looked  at  from  this  same  viewpoint,  and  gratifying 
prolongation  of  human  life  has  more  than  doubled,  headway  is  being  made  in  this  direction.  The  world 



is   just   beginning   to    realize    that    misbehavior    or  that  is,  through  scientific  analysis  and  classification, 

anti-social  behavior  presents  to  society  a  problem  the  discovery  of  causes,  probably  very  complex,  and 

somewhat  similar   to  that   of   physical   and  mental  the  application   of   remedies,  probably  chiefly  pre- 

disease.  ventive,  and  based  upon  these  causes.  Only  in  this 

I    do   not   mean   that   misbehavior   is   necessarily  way  can  it  be  hoped  to  turn  this  costly  waste  prod- 

the  result  of  or  associated  with  disease,  either  phys-  uct  of  social  life  into  a  useful  by-product. 



A    MESS    HALL    WITH    IN- 




ical  or  mental,  although  this  is  often  the  case,  but  When  the  "Sage  Prison  Bill''  became  a  law,  pro- 
that  it  presents  an  analogous  problem  to  society,  viding  for  the  demolition  of  the  old  Sing  Sing  cell 
and  that  it  should  be  attacked  in  the  same  manner,  block  and  the  erection  there  of  a  new  study,  classi- 



fication  and  distributing  prison,  and  creating  the 
"State  Commission  on  New  Prisons,"  New  York 
State  committed  itself  to  a  new  and  more  intelligent 
policy  toward  its  offenders  and  toward  the  whole 
problem  of  misbehavior.  The  new  commission, 
commanded  to  carry  out  the  above  and  other  pro- 

committee  was  formed.  About  a  year  before  this, 
realizing  the  need  of  a  more  thorough  psychiatric 
study  of  criminals  along  the  lines  that  had  been 
followed  so  well  by  Dr.  Healy  at  the  Juvenile  De- 
tention Home  in  Chicago,  the  National  Committee 
had  placed  Dr.  Bernard  Glueck  in  Sing  Sing  Prison, 





THE     INMATES     OF     THE 



visions,  soon  found  itself  confronted  by  problems 
that  belonged  essentially  to  modern  medical  science, 
and  it  turned  to  the  "National  Committee  for  Men- 
tal Hygiene"  for  counsel,  and  an  advisory  medical 

with  the  consent  and  sympathy  of  the  Department 
of  Prisons,  to  carry  out  a  complete  mental  analysis 
of  all  new  admissions. 

The   results   of  Dr.    Glueck's   studies  have  been 



published  in  full  in  "Mental  Hygiene,"  and  else- 
where, and  form  a  valuable  foundation  for  the 
scientific  handling  of  the  mental  side  of  prisoners. 

The  commission  and  the  state  were  fortunate  in 
having  Mr.  Pilcher,  the  New  York  State  Architect, 
to  translate  these  ideals  into  actual  construction, 
and  now  the  completion  of  an  important  part  of 
the  plans,  including  the  Clinic  Building,  and,  most 
of  all,  the  final  assigning  of  the  contract  for  the 
erection,  insures  the  carrying  out  of  this  interesting 
and  important  project. 

Mr.  Pilcher  has  thrown  himself  into  the  under- 
taking with  singular  diligence  and  intelligence,  and 
has  entered  thoroughly  into  the  spirit  of  modern 
scientific  treatment  and  research. 

The  newest  and  most  original  feature  of  the  prison 
is  the  Clinic  Building,  in  which  the  study  and  classifi- 
cation of  the  prisoners  is  to  take  place,  and  in  which, 
as  well,  the  general  medical  and  surgical  work  of  the 
institution  will  be  carried  on.  It  provides  for  the  com- 
plete physical  and  mental  examination  of  every  in- 
mate. It  contains  the  hospital  wards,  dispensary,  op- 
erating rooms  and  laboratories  and  X-ray  plant,  and 

indeed,  it  corresponds  on  a  small  scale  to  the  hos- 
pital of  any  community,  but  differs  from  this  in  that 
it  assumes  that  the  whole  population  of  the  commu- 
nity may  be  abnormal,  and  therefore  requires  that 
every  member  of  it  shall  at  some  time  pass  through 
the  clinic  for  purposes  of  study  and  analysis.  For 
this  reason,  the  psychiatric  or  mental  division  of  the 
clinic  is  relatively  more  accentuated. 

It  requires  courage  to  attack  such  a  problem  as 
this,  an  attack  that  may  carry  us  into  troublesome 
social  fields.  It  seems  to  be  a  fact,  however,  that 
no  other  method  gives  promise  of  relieving  society 
of  any  considerable  part  of  this  burden  of  suffer- 
ing and  cost.  We  must  not  expect  ever  to  be  en- 
tirely rid  of  this  burden,  just  as  we  shall  never  be 
rid  of  the  burden  of  physical  and  mental  disease; 
but  just  as  science  has  diminished  and  is 
still  diminishing  these  latter,  so  we  have  rea- 
son to  believe  that  similar  scientific  methods,  prop- 
erly applied,  will  diminish  the  burden  of  anti-social 
behavior,  and  help  us  to  approach  the  irreducible 
minimum,  a  minimum  which  must  probably  always 
exist  in  a  human  world  like  ours,  but  a  minimum 
from  which  we  are  at  present  still  very  far. 



In  order  to  supply  our  readers  with  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment  appearing  in 
issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of  actual  rather 
than  stated  date  of  publication. 

The  Architect's  Opportunity 

AT  the  Hotel  Sherman  in  Chicago  on  March 
24  and  25  will  be  held  the  first  annual  meet- 
ing of  the  National  Federation  of  Construction  In- 
dustries. This  Federation  was  formed  for  the  pur- 
pose of  extending  construction  and  improving  con- 
ditions in  all  the  several  divisions  of  the  building 
field.  A  definite  attempt  will  be  made  to  promote 
a  closer  co-operation  between  architects,  engineers, 
contractors,  producers  and  distributors  of  materials, 
realtors,  financiers  and  other  construction  interests. 
It  is  also  desired  to  develop  and  preserve  satis- 
factory conditions  in  the  relationship  of  the  inter- 
dependent elements  in  the  industry  to  the  general 
public,  including  the  government,  labor  and  con- 
sumers. The  Federation  states  the  further  object 
of  serving  as  an  exchange  between  and  common 
meeting  place  for  associations  representing  special 
building  projects.  In  cases  of  common  interest  to 
the  different  branches  of  the  construction  field  in 
general,  the  Federation  proposes  to  take  the  initia- 
tive in  investigation,  policy,  propaganda,  legislation 
and  in  such  other  ways  as  will  advance  this  move- 
ment. A  united  organization  will,  it  is  hoped,  be 
developed,  which  will  mobilize  the  entire  strength 
and  experience  of  the  various  units. 

h  will  be  seen  from  what  has  been  set  forth  that 
tins  meeting  will  be  of  fundamental  importance  to 
everyone  engaged  in  any  aspect  of  construction. 
Invitations  to  be  present  are  extended  to  every  na- 
tional, regional  and  local  association,  and  to  archi- 
tects, engineers,  manufacturers  of  supplies  and  all 
allied  industries. 

HERE  is  presented  an  opportunity  for  archi- 
tects to  mingle  with  the  most  practical  repre- 
sentatives of  those  allied  industries  with  which  it  is 
to  their  interest  to  co-operate.  Here  at  the  first  an- 
nual meeting  of  a  vitally  important  and  influential 
organization,  the  architectural  profession  may  cre- 

ate a  precedent.  Its  members  may  so  participate 
in  the  proceedings  as  to  earn  recognition  among 
the  delegates  to  the  convention  as  the  earnest,  ca- 
pable, farsighted,  competent  group  of  men  that  its 
practitioners  have  been  striving,  and  with  increasing 
success,  to  demonstrate  themselves. 

Important  topics  will  be  discussed.  The  attitude 
of  architects  should,  for  both  personal  and  imper- 
sonal reasons,  not  be  omitted.  If  the  profession  is 
largely  represented  there  will  be  instilled  a  certain 
dignity  and  unanimity  into  the  meeting  that  must 
otherwise  be  lacking.  If  architects  desire  to  effect 
certain  reforms,  where  is  a  better  opportunity  af- 
forded than  in  such  a  congress,  before  an  open,  un- 
prejudiced body  of  men  with  only  professional 
ideals  before  them? 

It  is  therefore  urged  that  architects,  individually 
and  collectively,  avail  themselves  of  the  possibilities 
of  meeting  in  the  forthcoming  convention  of  the 
National  Federation  of  Construction  Industries,  of 
which  John  C.  Frazee,  Drexel  Building,  Philadel- 
phia, is  the  executive  secretary,  and  learn  how  far 
they  may  aid  in  the  attainment  of  those  very  pur- 
poses for  which  they  stand. 

Developing  the  Farm  Building 

TRAINERS  of  athletes  always  object  to  forms 
of  exercise  that  only  develop  the  body  locally. 
They  seek  to  build  up  first  the  entire  body,  later 
giving  such  attention  to  specific  exercises,  as  will 
increase  efficiency  in  the  direction  desired. 

In  the  development  of  a  nation  or  even  a  muni- 
cipality these  same  conditions  as  to  proper  growth 
along  proper  lines  obtain.  Possibly  there  is  too 
close  attention  to  the  development  of  cities  and  not 
enough  to  that  of  our  rural  communities.  And  this 
lack  of  interest  is  beginning  to  have  its  effect  on  the 
rural  communities  and  particularly  the  farming  sec- 
tions all  over  the  country. 

It  has  been  found  to  be  a  grave  mistake  to  infer 



that  the  farming  population  is  not  so  thoughtful  as 
are  .those  who  dwell  in  large  communities.  Recent 
inquiries  by  the  government  have  disclosed  that 
there  is  a  decided  feeling  of  unrest  among  the  farm- 
ers. It  has  been  proven  that  the  farmer  is  now 
prepared  to  assert  his  right  to  recognition  and  will 
not  longer  be  considered  as  a  group  outside  of  the 
real  activities  of  our  economic  and  political  lives. 

The  farmer  will  demand  recognition  as  a  large 
producer  and  manufacturer  and  he  will  not  much 
longer  patiently  allow  others  to  gamble  on  and  be- 
come wealthy  in  the  things  he  produces.  As  he 
grows  in  importance,  as  he  most  certainly  will,  he 
will  demand  for  himself  and  for  his  family  the 
same  opportunities  for  advancement  as  are  to  be 
availed  of  by  his  city-dwelling  brethren.  He  will 
insist  in  the  future  that  his  house,  his  farm  build- 
ings and  his  social  relations  be  fully  up  to  every 
American  standard,  and  knowing  that  these  may 
only  be  attained  with  money,  we  may  expect  to  feel 
the 'effects  of  a  movement  on  the  part  of  farmers 
toward  securing  for  themselves  a  greater  share  of 
the  profit  realized  on  their  product. 

It  will  not  be  wise  further  to  ignore  either  the 
farmer  or  the  dweller  in  rural  communities.  The 

American  Institute  of  Architects  has  been  quick  to 
endorse  and  at  times  enthusiastic  in  its  co-operation 
with  those  large  undertakings  that  affect  the  city. 
For  now  more  than  two  years  THE  AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT  has  urged  that  some  closer  attention  be 
paid  to  the  farmhouse  and  its  dependent  buildings. 
Owing  to  the  wide-awake  spirit  of  some  of  the 
Middle  Western  delegates  to  the  Nashville  Con- 
vention, a  resolution  appointing  a  sub-committee  on 
farm  buildings  was  passed  at  that  convention.  Noth- 
ing as  far  as  we  are  able  to  learn  has  come  out  of 
that  committee. 

Recently,  announcement  was  extensively  made  of 
a  proposed  conference  on  farm  buildings.  The 
committee  in  charge,  a  large  one,  did  not  contain 
the  name  of  a  single  architect.  THE  AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT  directed  attention  to  this  omission  and 
was  at  once  assured  that  an  architect  would  be 
added  to  the  committee. 

No  credit  may  be  taken  by  this  journal  for  the 
performance  of  a  simple  act  of  duty,  but  it  may  be 
asked  if  the  Institute  or  other  organized  bodies  of 
architects  may  not  be  considered  as  properly 
sharing  the  responsibility  of  conserving  the  rights 
of  architects  to  recognition. 




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The  Wingdale  Prison  Site 

By  LEWIS  F.  PILCHER,  New  York  State  Architect 

THE  more  advanced  of  the  modern  penolo- 
gists  are  rapidly  discarding  the  old  theory 
that  a  certain  humanity  and  kindliness 
should  be  eliminated  from  .society's  dealings  with 
its  less  responsible  citizens.  They  are  substituting 
in  its  place  the  idea  that  the  majority  of  criminals 
are  not  inherently  bad,  but,  lacking  the  idealistic 
principles  of  good  citizenship  which  result  from 
environment  and  education,  are  only  wayward. 

If  we  accept  this  new  theory,  and  make  negli- 
gible the  assumption  that  most  criminals  have 
inherited  a  tendency  toward  wrong-doing,  it  be- 
comes necessary  for  us  to  revise  many  of  our  ideas 
concerning  the  government,  discipline  and  housing 
of  prisoners,  and  to  acquire  an  impressionable 
quality  of  mind  susceptible  to  new  theories  and 
experiments  which  concern. the  welfare  and  ad- 
vancement of  our  less  fortunate  fellow  men. 

With  all  these  things  in  mind,  and  with  the 
desire  to  do  our  part  in  ameliorating  prison  gov- 
ernment, the  Commission  on  New  Prisons  has 
endeavored,  in  the  building  of  the  Wingdale 
Prison,  to  achieve  a  good  architectural  result  com- 
bined with  these  essential  reforms.  In  order  that 
these  aims  may  be  fully  understood,  I  shall 
attempt  to  explain  both  the  architectural  plan  of 
this  new  prison  and  the  reasons  for  selecting  a 
sloping  rather  than  a  level  topographical  site. 

if  one  surveys  the  history  of  civilization  and 
investigates  the  growth  and  final  results  of  the 
structural  plfe  of  either  religious  or  civil  com- 
munities, it  is  af'once  apparent  that  the  final  hous- 
ing scheme  of  any  given  settlement  is  determined 
by  the  topography  of  the  region  in  which  that 
settlement  is  located. 

For  example,  the  study  of  the  settlements  of 
antiquity  shows  that  the  higher  locations  were 
universally  chosen  as  the  sites  of  palaces  and 
temples,  and  that  where  the  configuration  of  land 
did  not  permit  of  such  natural  elevation,  mounds 
or  raised  crepidomas  were  constructed,  in  order 
that  by  means  of  the  terraced  elevations  a  distinc- 
tion might  be  made  between  the  different  degrees 
of  religious  prominence. 

That  the  Egyptians  who  inhabited  the  level 
areas  of  the  alluvial  Nile  appreciated  the  psycho- 
logical effect  of  such  terraced  elevation  is  shown 
by  the  architectural  arrangement  of  their  temples. 
To  emphasize  the  hieratic  mysteries,  the  worshiper 
was  led  from  a  pyloned  gateway  into  an  atrium 

with  a  pavement  slightly  graded  above  the  level 
of  the  dromos.  This  atrium,  open  as  it  was  to  the 
effects  of  the  brilliant  Egyptian  atmosphere, 
offered  a  subtle  psychic  preparation  for  that 
elation  of  soul  which  stimulated  the  novitiate  when, 
after  ascending  the  steps  on  the  far  side  of  the 
atrium,  he  entered  the  sombre  shadow  of  the 
hypostyle  hall.  This  elation  increased  in  many 
cases  to  a  religious  ecstasy  when  the  novitiate 
ascended  from  the  far  side  of  the  hypostyle  hall 
into  the  upper  region  where  the  esoteric  mysteries 
were  performed. 

A  simpler  expression  of  this  religious  construc- 
tive arrangement  may  be  seen  in  the  Temple  of 
Kohn.*  Here  the  priestcraft  developed  a  form  of 
temple  construction  which  crystallized  all  the  asso- 
ciative imagery  of  man  and  reflected  in  its  dif- 
ferent stages  of  elevation  of  the  various  sections 
the  relevant  distinctions  of  class  and  the  progress 
of  humanity  toward  its  idealistic  goal. 

Thus  in  the  low  grade  level  of  the  atrium  the 
light,  the  air,  and  freedom  of  movement  suggested 
that  lack  of  function  and  freedom  from  formal  life 
which  exists  among  the  multitudes ;  the  conscious 
effort  of  ascent  in  walking  from  the  atrium  to  the 
hypostyle  hall  suggested  the  difficulties  of  rising 
from  a  lower  to  a  higher  social  order,  while  the 
further  ascent  to  the  small,  calm  and  dimly  illumi- 
nated holy-of-holies  symbolized  the  fact  that  only 
through  struggle,  loneliness  and  pain  may  a  de- 
vout one  hope  to  attain  the  quiet  and  sublime 
dwelling  place  of  the  gods. 

When  the  Greeks  rose  to  intellectual  and  artistic 
position  they  evolved  the  Greek  form  of  temple, 
which  was  simply  an  Hellenic  translation,  through 
the  medium  of  the  Mosaic  temple,  of  the  Egyptian 
hieratic  imagery.  -  Perhaps  the  most  typical  of 
these  temples  is  the  great  marble  Parthenon  (438 
B.  C.)  which  was  reared  upon  a  three-stepped 
crepidoma,  a  worthy  stylobate  support,  a  marvelous 
peristyle,  reminiscent  of  the  open  air  atrium  of 
its  Egyptian  prototype.  Further  on,  and  beyond 
the  peripteros,  and  at  a  higher  level,  the  pronaos 
led  through  a  great  door  into  the  shrine  chamber 
of  Athena.  Thus  did  the  architects,  Ictinus  and 
Callicrates,  express  in  much  the  same  manner  as 
the  Egyptians  the  essence  of  crystallized  human 

In  the  flat  country  of  Mesopotamia  the  archi- 
tects built  lofty  zekkurats  in  order  to  provide  high 



substructures  for  the  crowning  ctlla  or  shrine,  and 
these  lofty,  temple-capped  pyramids  had  a  ma- 
terialistic as  well  as  a  spiritual  value  in  that  they 
helped  to  form  in  the  minds  of  the  people  an  ideal 
as  to  the  position  in  the  community  of  both  tem- 
poral and  spiritual  power. 

To  the  north,  at  Khorsabad,  a  city  of  Assyria, 
the  rulers  constructed,  as  part  of  the  great  wall, 
an  enormous  plateau.  This  artificial  mound,  tower- 
ing as  it  did  some  sixty  feet  above  the  level  of  the 
city,  was  used  as  a  place  of  residence  for  the  king 
and  his  court,  while  back  of  it,  and  so  high  that  it 
bathed  the  plateau  with  its  shadows,  was  con- 
structed the  many-stepped,  cella-crowned  temple  of 
the  priests.  Thus  religion  looked  down  upon 
royalty  and  royalty,  in  turn,  on  its  walled  city  with 
its  level  streets  and  multitudinous  inhabitants,  and 
thus  in  this  segregated  and  self-sufficient  community 
a  natural  and  unwitting  psychological  arrange- 
ment of  class  housing  was  worked  out  by  these 
early  architects. 

This  same  community  phenomenon  which  we 
have  noted  in  the  Orient  existed  at  the  same  time 
at  Mycenae,  Thyrns,  Argos,  Attica  and  Rome, — 
the  heights  being  always  occupied  by  the  rulers, 
the  foot-hills  by  the  nobles  and  the  adjacent 
plains  by  the  people. 

By  these  few  examples  taken  from  the  religious 
and  civil  architecture  of  early  civilization  I  have 
endeavored  to  show  that  class  distinction  tends  to 
express  itself  through  the  use  of  different  housing 
levels,  the  height  of  each  group  being  directly 
proportional  to  the  power  of  its  social  division, 
thus  giving  a  concrete  expression  to  the  theoretical 
grades  by  which  the  human  mind  differentiates  the 
social  status  of  the  people  who  comprise  any  given 

If  we  apply  this  rather  pragmatic  psychology  to 
the  problem  of  planning  a  new  prison,  we  find  it 
obvious  at  the  outset  that  a  prison  population 
forms,  together  with  its  dependencies,  a  complete 
segregated  community  and  therefore  presents 
few  phases  which  have  not  been  successfully  solved 
in  the  various  treatments  of  community  houses  in 
past  eras.  Bearing  in  mind  both  this  and  the 
psychological  principles  which  determine  the 
function  of  any  segregated  community,  it  becomes 

perfectly  clear  that  the  old  system  of  plotting  an 
entire  prison  plan  on  an  absolutely  level  piece  of 
ground  does  not  agree  with  either  the  teachings 
of  history  or  the  psychological  principles  which 
determine  the  site  of  community  housing,  and  it 
thus  becomes  manifest  that  if  we  are  to  plan  a 
prison  which  will  be  both  a  protection" and  a  benefit 
to  society  we  must  select  our  site  and  construct 
our  plans  with  the  idea  of  having  different  grades 
of  elevation  for  different,  degrees  of  social  emi- 

If.  remembering  this,  we  summon  practical  expe- 
rience to  our  a.kfwe  find  that  a  prison  -pbjiitlation 
divides  it  self- "naturally  into  three  major  divisions, 
two  of  which  are  composed  of  actual  inmates  and 
a  third  of  those  in  authority  over  them.  Tlte  first 
and  largest  of  these  groups  is  made  up  of  sub- 
normals and  general  recalcitrants  who  of  neces- 
sity must  work,  cat,  and  sleep  under  constant  and 
direct  supervision.  These  will  be  confined  in 
strong,  well-guarded  buildings  situated  within  a 
walled  enclosure  and  the  work  which  they  do 
will  l>e"  such  as  can-  be  efficiently  done  within,  the 
comparatively  small  space  to  which  they  are  re- 
st ric'ted. 

The  second  group,  composed  of  prisoners  who 
have  shown  themselves  worthy  of  trust,  will  be 
allowed  privileges  which  are  denied  the  first.  A 
concrete  expression  of  these  privileges  will  con- 
sist of  lodging  them  in  buildings  situated  on  a 
higher  level  and  with  no  enclosing  walls,  thus 
allowing  them  to  carry  on  dairying,  farming,  stone 
crushing  and  similar  industries. 

As  the  working  out  of  our  community  idea 
demands  that  the  governing  class  occupy  a  higher 
site  than  those  they  govern,  we  have  planned  an 
adjacent  but  higher  elevation  for  the  offices,  dwell- 
ings and  other  buildings  necessary  for  the  proper 
maintenance  of  a  model  prison. 

In  our  plan  for  the  new  Wingdale  Prison  we 
have  attempted  to  express  a  prison  which  will 
meet  the  scientific  and  historic  precedents  which 
we  have  at  our  command,  and  we  fully  believe  that 
our  plan  will  exert  as  beneficial  an  influence  on  our 
prisoners  as  did  the  noble  monuments  on  the 
Acropolis  at  Athens  on  the  humble  people  who 
constructed  their  mud-brick  houses  at  its  base. 






Factory  Design  in  England 

IX  this  issue  there  are  illustrated  a  number  of  the 
examples  of  the  work  of  Messrs.  S.  Cecil  Searle, 
A.  R.  I.  B.  A.  and  Norman  O.  Searle,  A.  R.  I. 
B.  A.,  who  form  the  architectural  firm  of  Searle  & 
Searle  of  London,  England. 

In  presenting  these  interesting  examples  of 
factory  construction  it  is  worth  while  to  comment 
on  the  fact  that  this  firm  has  a  history  dating  back 
for  more  than  eighty  years  and  the  present  members 
are  of  the  third  generation  of  its  founders. -While 
these  old  associations  are  by  no  means  rare  in 
England  they  are  almost  if  not  entirely  unknown 
in  the  United  States. 

There  undoubtedly  is  a  very  large  measure  of 
satisfaction  in  a  relationship  between  architect  and 
client,  one  that  has  been  preserved  from  generation 
to  generation.  In  some  instances  it  is  not  unusual  to 
find  that  there  has  been  a  close  relationship  be- 
tween architects  and  clients  extending  over  periods 
of  almost  forty  years.  In  the  case  of  some  of  the 
work  illustrated  in  this  issue,  the  architects  have 

joined  with  their  clients  at  the  very  beginning  of 
the  client's  business  career,  and  as  the  business  has 
prospered  they  have,  bit  by  bit,  unit  by  unit,  added 
to  the  buildings  required  until  vast  plants  covering 
large  areas  mark  the  co-operation  and  secure  the 
fulfillment  of  architectural  coherency  that  is  so 
marked  in  this  class  of  building  and  so  utterly  lack- 
ing in  similar  types  in  this  country. 

Such  very  favorable  relations  will  undoubtedly 
inspire  an  architect  to  his  very  best  efforts. 

An  interesting  feature  of  Messrs.  Searle  & 
Searle's  work  illustrated  is  the  Brantham  Village 
Hall.  We  need  a  building  of  this  type  in  every 
small  town  in  this  country.  Nothing  can  more 
encourage  a  true  commercial  spirit  than  the  avail- 
ability of  similar  buildings  as  a  place  where  towns- 
people may  meet  to  discuss  their  problems,  celebrate 
an  occasion  or  socially  mingle. 

The  architects,  in  very  kindly  placing  at  our  dis- 
posal this  group  of  interesting  work,  write  as  to  this 
hall  as  follows  : 


Vol.   CXVII,    No.   2301 




JANUARY  28,  1920 



The  Brantham  Village  Hall 

THIS    building   is    erected    in    the    village   of 
Brantham,  Suffolk,  to  the  designs  of  Messrs. 
Searle  &  Searle,  architects,  for  C.  P.  Mer- 
riam,  Esq.,  J.  P. 

Two  entrance  porches  give  direct  access  from 
the  road  to  the  hall,  the  size  of  which  is  24  feet  wide 
and  45  feet  long.  The  hall  is  well  lighted  at 
the  sides  and  north  end  by  large  windows  having 
steel  casements  and  lead  lights  in  diamond  panes. 
The  special  features  in  the  hall  are  the  massive  piers 
between  the  windows,  carried  out  in  light  red 
brindled  bricks  pointed  with  a  white  joint,  and  the 
roof,  which  is  constructed  with  open  timber  trusses 
with  curved  braces  to  collars  and  purlins,  oak  sole 
pieces  and  carved  brackets.  , 

At  the  south  end  there  is  a  raised  platform  3  feet 
above  the  floor  of  the  hall  and  approached  by  steps 
at  each  side. 

Cloak  rooms  and  lavatory  accommodation  for 
both  sexes  are  provided  as  shown  on  the  plan,  with 
a  connecting  corridor  at  the  back  of  the  platform. 
The  cloak  rooms  give  access  to  the  platform  and 
form  convenient  dressing  rooms  for  dramatic  enter- 
tainments. From  the  platform  level  a  staircase 
descends  to  a  side  entrance  to  the  road  and  to  the 
basement,  which  extends  under  the  whole  of  the 
southern  block,  and  contains  kitchen,  with  copper 

and  sink,  larder,  heating  and  fuel  chambers  and  a 
large  chair  store.  Convenient  openings  are  provided 
between  the  basement  under  the  platform  and  the 
main  hall,  to  allow  refreshments,  chairs,  etc.,  to  be 
passed  through. 

Heating  is  by  hot  water  in  4  in.  main  pipes 
carried  in  channels  with  open  gratings  in  the  floor 
of  the  hall,  and  by  radiators  in  the  porches,  cloak 
rooms,  etc.  The  main  boiler  is  in  the  basement. 
Lighting  is  by  electricity.  Footlights  are  provided 
for  the  platform. 

The  floor  of  the  hall  is  laid  with  narrow  yellow 
deal  tongued  batten  flooring  carried  on  floor  joists 
and  sleeper  walls.  The  floor  over  basement  is  of 
reinforced  concrete,  with  ideal  floor  to  platform  and 
cloak  rooms  and  granolithic  finish  to  lavatories, 
corridor,  etc. 

Seating  accommodation  is  by  chairs,  and  seats 
are  formed  between  the  windows.  These  lift  up  to 
form  lockers  in  which  can  be  kept  chess  boards, 
draughts  and  other  games. 

Externally  the  walls  are  faced  with  brindled  red 
bricks,  with  cement  plastered  gables  and  panels 
under  hall  windows.  Roofs  are  covered  with  sand- 
faced  hand-made  Suffolk  tiles. 

The  cost  of  the  building  amounted  to  just  over 













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Society  of  Beaux-Arts  Architects 

Official  Notification  of  Awards,  Judgment  of  November  24th,  1919,  Final  Competition 
for  the  12th  Paris  Prize  of  the  Society  of  Beaux-Arts  Architects 


The  Paris  Prize  Committee  proposes  as  subject 
of  this  Competition : 
"The  Capitol  Building  of  the  League  of  Nations." 

The  Committee  proposes  as  the  problem  of  this 
first  after-war  Paris  Prize  the  architectural  expres- 
sion of  the  ideal  of  the  League  of  Nations  as  it 
would  be  exemplified  in  a  building,  which  shall  be 
the  Capitol  of  this  League. 

For  the  purpose  of  the  program,  it  is  to  be  sup- 
posed that  the  League,  in  its  final  operative  form, 
consists  of : 

An  Executive  Council  of  nine  members ;  one 
appointed  by  each  of  the  five  great  Nations  and 
four  elected  by  the  Assembly  of  Delegates.  In  the 
Executive  Council  is  vested  the  Supreme  Executive 
authority  of  the  League.  It  meets  at  frequent  inter- 
vals and  is  analogous  in  its  functions  to  the  Eng- 
lish Cabinet  or  the  President  and  his  Cabinet  in  our 

An  Assembly  of  Delegates  of  150  members.  Each 
member  nation  of  the  League  appoints  three  dele- 
gates to  this  Assembly,  in  which  is  vested  the  legis- 
lative and  judicial  powers  of  the  League,  subject 
only  to  certain  veto  rights  of  the  Executive  Council. 
It  meets  at  stated  intervals  or  on  calls  of  the  Execu- 
tive Council,  and  is  somewhat  similar  to  our  Con- 
gress, the  English  House  of  Parliament  or  the 
French  Chambre  des  Deputies. 

The  Secretariat.  The  Secretariat  is  that  part  of 
the  machinery  of  the  League  which  has  for  its 
duties  the  keeping  of  all  its  records.  With  it  are 
filed  all  treaties,  agreements  and  records.  It  com- 
piles such  data  and  furnishes  such  information  as  it 
may  be  directed  to  do  by  the  Council  or  Assembly. 
At  its  head  is  the  Secretary  General,  a  permanent 
official  appointed  by  the  Executive  Council.  He 
also  acts  as  presiding  officer  of  the  Council  and  of 
the  Assembly.  This  department  would  have  a 
permanent  staff  of  300  or  400  members,  experts  and 
authorities,  besides  representatives  appointed  by 
various  nations  to  consider  general  subjects  or  Com- 
mittees appointed  by  the  Council  or  Assembly  to 
investigate  and  report  on  particular  branches  of 
their  legislative  or  judicial  work.  No  analogy  for 
this  department  is  apparent  in  our  Government.  Its 
head,  the  Secretary  General,  is  a  presiding  officer 
only,  without  power,  except  as  such  may  be  dele- 
gated to  him  by  the  Council  or  Assembly,  he,  in 
his  department  houses,  committees  or  conferences 

recording  their  findings  and  furnishing  them  in- 
formation. He  is  the  international  clearing  house 
for  information. 

This  may  be  considered  an  outline  of  those  func- 
tions which  it  is  proposed  to  house  in  the  main 
Capitol  Building  of  the  League  of  the  Nations. 

In  conformity  with  the  ideals  which  created  the 
League,  a  small  territory,  similar  to  the  District  of 
Columbia,  lias  been  internationalized ;  a  meeting 
place  of  all  nations  in  the  common  search  for  justice 
to  all,.  It  is  a  rolling  country  on  an  inland  lake. 
There  is  to  be  the  city  of  the  Nations,  with  its  na- 
tional embassies  or  offices,  with  its  international 
bureaus  or  departments  and  its  Capitol  Building  of 
the  League  of  the  Nations. 

The  main  building  only  is  the  subject  of  this 
problem,  and  in  it  are  to  be  housed  the  Executive 
Council,  the  Assembly  of  Delegates  and  the  Secre- 
tariat. Below  is  a  list  of  these  requirements  which 
are  obligatory.  This  list  is  not  intended  to  be 
inclusive  of  all.  What  additions  to  it,  how  arranged, 
or  in  what  setting  is  for  the  vision  and  imagination 
of  each  competitor  to  determine.  The  building 
houses  more  than  a  series  of  offices — it  houses  an 
ideal,  an  aspiration  of  mankind. 

(a)  Hall  of  the  Executive  Council. 

(b)  Suite  of  offices  for  each  member  of  Execu- 
tive Council. 

(c)  Hall  of  the  Assembly  of  Delegates. 

(d)  Suite  of  offices  of  Secretary  General. 

(e)  Twenty  or  thirty  Conference  or  Committee 
rooms,  of  which  two  or  three  should  be  of  suffi- 
cient size  to  admit  of  the  presence  of  the  public. 

(f)  Suites  of  offices   for   Secretariat   force. 

(g)  Archives  for  1.000.000  volumes. 

The  greatest  dimension  of  the  building  shall  not 
exceed  500 '-0". 

Jurv  of  Award:  Lloyd  Warren,  F.  A.  Godley, 
R.  M.  Hood,  L.  F.  Peck,  W.  S.  Wagner,  M.  J. 
Schiavoni  and  R.  H.  Dana,  Jr. 

Number  of  drawings  submitted:     6. 
Aivards : 

Paris  Prize  Winner  (1st  Medal)  :  E.  E.  Weihe, 
Atelier  A.  Brown,  Jr.,  S.  F.  A.  C.,  San  Francisco. 
Patrons:  Messrs.  A.  Brown,  Jr.,  H.  W.  Corbett 
and  M.  Prevot. 

Placed  Second  (1st  Medal)  :  D.  McLachlan  Jr., 
Atelier  Hirons,  N.  Y. 



•v ' 








*,•,»„*,•.,* — ^^-*^     •       n  ;1   ~izz3l5 



E.     E.    WEIHE, 
ATELIER    A.    BROWN',    JR. 







Placed  Third  (1st  Medal):  L.  Fentnor,  Atelier 
Wynkoop,  N.  Y. 

Placed  Fourth  (2nd  Medal)  :  A.  C.  Bieber, 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia. 

H.  C:  F.  M.  Hodgdson,  Atelier  Rebori,  Chicago 
Architectural  Club,  Chicago. 

H.  C. :  L.  Morgan,  Atelier  Hirons,  N.  Y. 

Boston  Museum  Buys  Colonial 

The  purchase  by  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine 
Arts  of  the  old  Jaffrey  house  in  Portsmouth,  N.  H., 
has  just  been  announced.  The  house  stands  on  a 
back  street  in  the  center  of  the  town.  It  has  been 
unoccupied  for  years  and  is  neglected  and  out  of 
repair.  Changes  have  been  made  in  the  building 
from  time  to  time  so  that  it  no  longer  presents  a 
typical  Colonial  exterior,  but  the  fine  old  paneling 
and  woodwork  inside  are  intact,  and  it  is  for  these 
that  the  Art  Museum  has  made  the  acquisition. 

The  interior  of  the  Jaffrey  house  is  to  be  stripped, 
and  in  so  doing  the  Art  Museum  will  be  performing 
a  service  in  preserving  for  posterity  the  architec- 
tural beauties  of  a  period  of  which  the  examples 
are  rapidly  vanishing. 

The  old  Jaffrey  house  in  Portsmouth  was  built 
about  1750,  that  especially  fine  period  of  Colonial 
architecture,  between  the  rather  rough  simplicity  of 
the  earliest  period  and  the  more  ornate  decoration 
of  1800.  The  house  has  a  wide  and  ample  entrance 
hall,  typical  of  the  period  and  similar  to  the  hall  of 
the  Wentworth  Gardner  house,  also  in  Portsmouth, 
which  was  purchased  a  few  months  ago  by  the 
Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art,  New  York.  The 
stairway  is  wide  and  easy,  with  fine  baluster  and 
hand-rail,  richly  turned  and  moulded.  A  paneled 
dado  of  painted  pine  with  the  characteristic  wide 
old  panels,  all  in  one  piece,  runs  around  the  hall. 
The  woodwork  is  all  in  excellent  condition,  and 
there  are  many  old  fittings,  such  as  hinges  and 
latches,  still  in  place. 

The  two  principal  rooms  on  the  main  floor  are 
paneled  across  the  fireplace  end,  and  have  a  paneled 
dado  around  the  other  three  sides  of  the  room. 
The  fireplace  openings  are  framed  in  Delft  tiles, 
painted  with  quaint  scenes  and  surrounded  by  a 
heavy  moulding.  Each  fireplace  is  flanked  by  fluted 
pilasters  with  Corinthian  capitals.  The  windows 
have  seats  and  deep  splayed  and  paneled  jambs.  In 
one  room  the  old  contemporary  wall  paper  is  espe- 
cially interesting  and  is  Chinese  in  design.  This, 
however,  is  badly  torn  and  out  of  repair,  and  it  is 
doubtful  if  any  of  it  can  be  preserved. 

The  dining  room  has  a  fine  corner  cupboard, 
reaching  from  floor  to  ceiling.  This  has  a  quaint 
pilaster  treatment  and  its  door  has  some  unusually 
beautiful  paneling  and  H  hinges.  The  interior  of 
the  cupboard  is  semi-circular  in  plan  and  has  scroll- 
edged  shelves  and  richly  carved  shell  top. 

All  over  the  house  there  is  a  great  deal  of  valuable 
miscellaneous  material  in  the  doors  and  windows, 
and  much  hardware  and  details  of  interest  and 
artistic  value. 

Architectural  Service  by  Airplane 

England  having  achieved  the  first  non-stop 
flight  across  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  she  may  now  add 
to  her  records  the  first  instance  where  an  architect 
has  answered  a  hurry  call  by  airplane.  Recording 
this  interesting  and  epoch-making  event,  the  Build- 
ing Nezvs  of  London  states  : 

"To  Mr.  Paul  Waterhouse  belongs  the  distinction 
of  being  probably  the  first  architect  in  this  country 
to  make  the  air  passage  from  London  across  the 
Channel  on  a  client's  behalf.  These  are  still  early 
days  for  such  professional  excursions,  and,  with  a 
view  to  recording  the  event,  Mr.  Waterhouse  was 
asked  for  brief  particulars  of  the  voyage.  He 
replies  in  the  current  Journal  of  the  Royal  Institute 
of  British  Architects :  'I  expect  there  are  other 
architects  who  have  had  occasion  to  fly  on  business, 
so  I  cannot  attach  much  importance  to  an  event 
which  in  any  case  will  shortly  become  commonplace. 
But  if  you  really  wish  to  put  on  record  the  fact  that 
architects,  like  other  men  of  business  or  of  art, 
can  enjoy  a  professional  journey  overhead,  the  facts 
are  these.  A  client  wanted  me  to  go  to  Paris  in 
quick  time  during  the  strike,  and  asked  me  if  I 
would  oblige  him  by  taking  the  upper  route.  I  very 
naturally  seized  the  opportunity,  and  went.  Houns- 
low  to  Le  Bourget  took  2  hours  55  minutes.  The 
journey  (in  a  De  Haviland  16  machine)  exceeds  for 
smoothness  and  tranquillity  any  locomotion  I  have 
ever  experienced,  though,  of  course,  it  is  noisy,  with 
a  perpetual  and  rather  restful  noise.  I  made  a  half- 
inch  scale  section  of  the  cabin  en  route.  I  also  slept! 
My  impressions  of  the  voyage  were,  I  suppose,  the 
same  as  those  of  most  "first-flighters,"  and  need  not 
be  communicated.  What  struck  me  most  were  the 
sight  of  the  Channel  as  looked  down  upon  from 
8000  feet — a  sight  to  which  I  can  attach  no  adjec- 
tive but  "poetic" — and  the  ancient  majesty  of 
France.  Abbeville  and  Beauvais  and  the  woods 
and  fields  between  them  were  things  not  of  to-day 
but  of  the  Middle  Ages.'  " 


Current   N  e  ws 

Happenings  and  Comments  in  the  Fields  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

In  order  to  supply  our  readers  with  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment 
apt-earing  in  issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of 
actual  rather  than  stated  date  of  publication. 

Philadelphia  Condemns  Historic 

Some  of  the  landmarks  of  Philadelphia,  historic  man- 
sions occupied  for  many  years  by  some  of  the  most  promi- 
nent citizens  of  the  city,  will  be  wiped  out  by  the  action 
of  Mayor  Smith  in  signing  the  ordinance  condemning 
the  block  between  Eighteenth  and  Nineteenth  and  Vine 
and  Wood  streets  for  Parkway  purposes,  comments  the 
Public  Ledger. 

There  are  more  than  a  score  of  houses  that  will  be  taken 
over  by  the  city  at  a  cost  of  more  than  $750,000.  One  of 
the  houses  was  the  home  of  General  George  G.  Meade, 
the  hero  of  Gettysburg,  and  others  have  been  in  the  pos- 
session of  prominent  Philadelphia  families  for  years. 

The  city  will  take  over  the  twelve  immense  houses  fac- 
ing Logan  Square  on  Vine  street  between  Eighteenth 
and  Nineteenth,  ten  smaller  houses  on  Eighteenth  and 
Nineteenth  and  an  equal  number  on  Pearl  and  Wood 
streets,  as  well  as  a  number  of  stables. 

The  value  of  the  houses  on  Vine  street  is  estimated  to 
be  from  $40.000  to  $60,000  apiece.  As  far  back  as  Civil 
War  days  they  were  the  scenes  of  sumptuous  entertain- 
ments, receptions  and  social  affairs  which  reached  a  climax 
during  the  year  of  the  great  sanitary  fair  in  Logan 

During  that  year  the  family  of  General  Meade,  who 
lived  in  the  four-story  brick  house  at  300  North  Eight- 
eenth street,  which  is  on  the  corner  of  Pearl,  entertained 
extensively.  After  his  return  as  the  victor  at  Gettys- 
burg, General  Meade  was  presented  with  another  fine 
house  by. the  citizens  of  Philadelphia. 

The  property  is  still  in  the  Meade  family,  being  re- 
corded at  the  present  time  in  the  name  of  Hannah  Meade. 

Another  interesting  property  to  be  taken  over  by  the  city 
is  the  home  for  cats  and  dogs,  maintained  for  years  in  the 
house  at  the  northeast  corner  of  Nineteenth  and  Pearl 
streets  by  Elizabeth  M.  Ogden.  The  properties  at  1813- 
15-17  Vine  street  belong  to  William  G.  Huey,  the  promi- 
nent broker  and  political  light,  who  was  formerly  a  mem- 
ber of  Common  Council  from  the  Fifteenth  ward.  He  was 
one  of  the  sponsors  of  the  Parkway  and  the  author  of  the 
Parkway  plan  known  to  Philadelphians  fifteen  years  ago 
as  the  "Huey  plan." 

The  Kates  family  owns  the  big  house  at  1801  Vine 
street,  which  is  in  the  names  of  Clarence  S.  and  Emily 
S.  Kates  and  Julia  D.  Hood.  The  Catholic  Archdiocese 
owns  the  property  at  1803  Vine  street. 

The  house  at  1811  Vine  street,  now  occupied  by  Dr. 
Thomas  E.  Eldridge,  was  formerly  the  home  of  D.  B. 
Martin,  head  of  the  great  abattoir  and  stockyard  industry 
on  the  west  bank  of  the  Schuylkill  river.  Amelia  Sellers, 
widow  of  William  G.  Sellers,  a  prominent  manufacturer, 
is  owner  of  the  house  at  1819  Vine  street. 

The  block  is  being  taken  by  the  city  in  advance  of  future 
Parkway  development  which  will  surround  the  great 

square  with  beautiful  public  buildings.  The  only  three  of 
these  buildings  now  constructed' are  the  Roman  Catholic 
Cathedral,  at  Eighteenth  and  Race;  the  Academy  of  Na- 
tional Science,  Nineteenth  and  Race  streets,  and  the  Wills 
Eye  Hospital,  on  Race  street,  between  Eighteenth  and 

West  of  the  Wills  Eye  Hospital  will  be  erected  the  per- 
manent home  of  the  anciently  established  Franklin  Institute 
of  the  Mechanic  Arts  and  Sciences,  while  on  the  western 
side  of  the  big  square  and  along  the  west  side  of  Twen- 
tieth street  will  be  the  buildings  of  the  Municipal  Court. 
These  will  stretch  from  Race  street  to  the  Parkway  line. 

On  the  north  side  of  Logan  Square  will  be  the  Free  Li- 
brary Building  along  Vine  street,  between  Nineteenth  and 

Inter-Allied  Housing  Congress 

Delegates  appointed  by  the  Governments  of  the  Allied 
countries  will  be  present  at  the  Inter-Allied  Housing  and 
Town  Planning  Congress  to  be  held  in  London  in  June 
next.  Among  the  subjects  to  be  discussed  will  be  na- 
tional post-war  housing  and  town  planning  policies,  the 
preparation  and  carrying  into  effect  of  national  pro- 
grammes to  secure  proper  housing  conditions,  standards 
of  building  construction,  and  national  and  regional  town- 
planning  developments.  The  congress  will  be  asked  to 
determine  the  minimum  accommodation  which  should  be 
provided  for  a  normal  working-class  family,  and  the  best 
courses  to  adopt  in  order  to  encourage  the  development 
of  new  methods  of  building  and  the  use  of  new  material. 
The  proceedings  will  occupy  nine  days,  and  special  trains 
will  be  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  delegates,  in  which 
they  will  travel,  to  inspect  the  progress  made  in  housing 
schemes  in  various  parts  of  the  country,  including  Birming- 
ham, Manchester  and  Bristol.  The  countries  and  colonies 
represented  will  include  Great  Britain,  France,  America, 
Belgium,  Italy.  Australia,  Canada,  New  Zealand,  India, 
Egypt,  South  Africa,  Serbia,  Greece,  Norway,  Sweden, 
Denmark,  Holland,  Switzerland,  Spain  and  the  neutral 
Republics  of  South  America.  The  congress  is  being  or- 
ganized by  the  National  Housing  and  Town  Planning 
Council,  acting  in  close  consultation  with  the  Ministry 
of  Health  and  other  departments  of  the  British  Gov- 

Desecrating  a  Palace 

The  mansion  of  the  late  Cornelius  Vanderbilt.  in  New 
York,  is  to  be  demolished  and  the  site  used  for  a  hotel. 
This  has  provoked  very  indignant  criticism  from  the  press 
in  all  sections  of  the  country.  The  Morning  Mercury  of 
New  Bedford,  Mass.,  describes  the  incident  thus : 

This  palace,  whose  imposing  exterior  has  thrilled  New 
York  men  and  women  since  its  erection  in  the  early  '90's, 
is  to  change  hands  and  eventually  in  its  place  is  to  rise  a 
structure  costing  perhaps  as  much  to  build,  but  for  another 



purpose.  The  building  that  will  replace  it  will  be  a  hotel. 
In  place  of  a  home  of  art  and  beauty  and  personal  interest 
that  has  reached  the  point  of  being  one  of  the  genuinely 
beautiful  places  of  the  greatest  city  in  the  world  there 
will  be  a  commercially  operated  building  which  will  earn 
for  its  owners  vast  amounts  of  money.  From  quiet  and 
unremunerative  beauty  to  hustling  money-making  commer- 
cialism—from a  work  of  art  to  a  cash-drawer  institution. 

It  required  a  year  and  one-half  for  the  construction 
of  the  Vanderbilt  home.  Cornelius  Vanderbilt,  the  builder, 
watched  its  erection  with  great  interest  and,  although 
when  first  completed  it  contained  only  slightly  more  than 
as  much  space  as  it  does  now,  he  declared  that  he  pro- 
posed to  make  of  it  his  own  idea  of  a  comfortable 
and  inspiring  home.  He  said  he  expected  to  make  it  as 
beautiful  and  as  important  from  an  artistic  standpoint  as 
any  home  in  the  world,  and  he  succeeded.  The  structure 
when  completed  commanded  the  admiration  of  architects 
and  designers  throughout  the  world. 

Standing  between  Fifty-seventh  and  Fifty-eighth  streets 
in  Fifth  avenue  and  about  a  half  block  to  the  westward, 
just  where  the  avenue  breaks  into  the  broad  plaza  to 
Central  Park,  where  since  the  Pulitzer  fountain  has  been 
erected,  it  ranked  for  beauty  of  architecture  alongside  of 
any  European  mansion  and  was  a  show  place  for  visitors 
to  the  city,  as  it  has  continued  to  be. 

In  1893,  when  additions  had  been  made,  it  was  said  the 
cost  was  something  like  $3,000,000.  This  figure  was  in- 
creased as  years  went  by.  George  B.  Post  &  Sons  made 
the  plans  for  the  structure. 

Standing  across  Fifth  Avenue  and  looking  up  at  the 
graceful  spires  and  roof  decorations  combined  with  the 
grand  expanse  of  the  building  one  recalls  pictures  con- 
jured up  in  the  mind  by  fairy  stories  in  other  years.  It 
is  admired  alike  for  its  perfect  workmanship  and  pleasing 
lines.  The  exterior  of  the  building  follows,  according  to 
architects,  the  general  style  of  the  'Chateau  de  Blois,  on  the 
Loire  River,  in  France,  while  inside  everything  conformed 
to  'Mr.  Vanderbilt  s  ideas  of  comfort  and  elegance. 

The  age  of  sentiment  thus  gives  way  to  the  age  of  com- 

Simple  Zoning  Rule 

City  zoning  to  prevent  business  encroachment  on  resi- 
dential sections  is  gaining  in  popularity.  Where  a  city 
is  already  well  built  up  it  is  more  difficult  to  put  the 
plan  into  operation,  but  it  is  not  impossible. 

Detroit  now  has  a  city  plan  commission  'investigating 
residential,  commercial  and  industrial  needs.  This  com- 
mission hopes  to  present  a  comprehensive  zoning  program 
next  spring.  In  the  meantime  it  has  put  into  operation 
a  wise  temporary  provision  for  the  protection  of  valued 
home  sections.  This  order  provides  that  when  60  per  cent 
or  more  of  the  frontage  in  any  particular  block  is  used 
exclusively  for  residential  purposes  it  shall  be  deemed  a 
residential  district  and  commercial  or  industrial  buildings 
or  uses  shall  be  banned.  This  seems  to  be  a  simple  and 
ready  means  of  checking  the  first  small  commercial  in- 
roads upon  residence  streets.  It  is  a  permanent 
protection  than  the  placing  of  building  restrictions  which 
are  in  effect  when  certain  lovely  homes  are  built,  but 
which  expire  eventually  and  let  in  the  business  block, 
store  or  factory. 

The  recognition,  rap'idly  becoming  general,  of  the  fact 
that  a  city  need  not  be  ugly  if  its  inhabitants  are  willing 
to  do  the  necessary  planning  to  make  it  beautiful,  is  a 
hopeful  sign.  It  is  such  recognition  which  is  speeding  up 
the  spread  of  city  planriing  and  zoning  programs  all  over 
the  country. 

Restore  Roosevelt's  Birthplace 

The  birthplace  of  Theodore  Roosevelt,  at  28  East 
Twentieth  street,  New  York,  is  to  be  restored  as  nearly  as 
p  ssible  to  its  condition  in  1858,  according  to  the  officials 
of  the  Women's  Roosevelt  Memorial  Association  follow- 
ing a  recent  conference  here  with  Theodate  Pope  (Mrs. 
John  W.  Riddle),  the  architect  having  the  plans  in  charge. 

An  adjoining  house  at  No.  26  has  also  been  purchased 
and  both  structures  will  be  remodeled  to  conform  to  the 
architecture  of  the  time  of  the  former  President's  birth. 
"i  hey  will  have  brownstone  fronts  and  mansard  roofs  and 
the  interior  of  No.  28  will  be  made  to  resemble  the  boy- 
hood home  of  the  great  American.  Old  mantels,  chan- 
deliers and  furniture  will  be  put  back  in  place  and  child- 
hrod  friends  of  the  Colonel  will  supervise  the  decorations. 

A  Rooseveltian  library,  consisting  of  his  books  of  rugged 
outdoor  life  and  Americanism  and  other  writings  and  pub- 
lished speeches,  will  be  placed  in  the  house  at  No.  26.  Many 
other  volumes  the  Colonel  liked  to  read  and  dealing  with 
many  phases  of  human  knowledge  will  be  placed  on  the 

According  to  the  architect's  plans,  the  top  floor  of  both 
houses  will  be  utilized  for  an  assembly  hall,  suitable  for 
gathering  of  Boy  Scouts,  Camp  Fire  Girls  or  similar  pa- 
triotic organizations.  When  completed  the  memorial  is  in- 
tended to  serve  as  an  institution  for.  the  development  of 
sturdy,  old-fashioned  Americanism. 

American  Ambassador  to  Britain 

Speaks  of  the  Business  of 


The  American  Ambassador  was  recently  the  guest  of 
the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects  at  a  reception 
held  in  their  Conduit  Street  galleries,  the  occasion  being 
the  president's  address  at  the  opening  of  the  new  session. 
There  was  an  unusually  large  gathering,  and  among  those 
present  were  many  of  the  most  prominent  members  of 
the  profession. 

In  his  address,  the  president  (John  W.  Simpson)  dealt 
with  the  many  and  varied  subjects  concerning  which  the 
architect,  if  he  would  be  efficient,  must  have  more  than  a 
casual  knowledge.  The  architect,  he  explained,  must  not 
only  be  endowed  with  the  ideals  of  the  artist,  but  must 
also  possess  the  qualities  of  a  sound  man  of  business ; 
he  must  not  consider  his  profession  as  a  thing  to  be 
Tightly  treated,  but  must  realize  that  he  has  an  important, 
vastly  important,  part  to  play  in  the  national  life,  a  part 
needing  his  most  minute  study  and  attention  and  the 
whole  of  his  efforts. 

He  impressed  his  hearers  with  the  necessity  for  plan 
in  every  undertaking  and  the  entire  subservience  of  dec- 
oration, for  this,  albeit  an  important  part  in  the  ultimate 
issue,  was,  he  declared,  by  no  means  the  necessity  it  had 
so  often  been  considered  in  the  past. 

In  proposing  a  vote  o<f  thanks  to  the  president  for  his 
address,  the  American  Ambassador,  Mr.  Davis,  began  with 
an  apology  for  his  position  as  layman,  explaining  that, 
even  as  a  lawyer,  "who  was  supposed  to  know  something 
of  everybody's  business."  he  could  not  rightly  say  he  had 
any  vast  knowledge  of  the  intricacies  of  the  architectural 
profession.  This  apologia,  if  such  it  may  be  termed,  was 
followed  by  a  most  masterly  summing-up  of  what  Mr. 
Davis  conceived  to  be  the  responsibilities  of  the  architect. 



He  was  an  historian,  for  it  was  the  language  of  architec- 
ture, unaided  by  spoken  words  and  dictionary,  which  told 
us  much  of  what  we  know  of  Nineveh  and  Babylon,  of 
the  Romans  and  the  Greeks;  and  it  would  be  the  work 
of  the  architects  of  to-day  which  would  express  the  life 
of  the  present  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  future. 

He  should  be  a  statesman,  because  it  was  architecture 
which  spoke  to  all  who  saw  it  and  explained,  or  should 
explain,  the  motive  of  its  existence,  and  lastly  he  should 
be  a  diplomatist,  and  in  expressing  the  best  and  highest 
qualities  of  his  employers  he  should  do  so  without  stint 
and  with  fullest  generosity. 

The  American  Ambassador  was  followed  by  Sir  Aston 
Webb,  president  of  the  Royal  Academy,  who,  speaking 
from  his  long  experience,  called  for  a  wider  and  broader 
outlook,  for  consideration  of  the  masses  of  a  design,  rather 
than  the  detail,  and  said  he  was  happy  to  see  this  spirit 
pervading  the  work  of  the  younger  men  more  and  more. 
He  reminded  his  hearers  that  the  grasp  of  this  problem 
was  an  outstanding  feature  of  the  work  of  the  architects 
of  America,  and  in  a  word  he  drew  attention  to  the 
value  of  constructive  criticism.  It  was  better,  he  sa'id, 
to  tell  the  young  men  what  you  like,  rather  than  what 
you  thought  was  bad — encouragement  being  worth  more 
than  anything  to  the  beginner. 

Among  .other  proposals  to  stimulate  building,  it  has 
been  suggested  that  under  certain  conditions  new  buildings 
should  be  exempted  from  taxation  for  a  period  of  fifteen 
years  in  the  case  of  dwellings  for  the  better  class,  and 
twenty  years  in  the  case  of  tenements. 

The  Housing  Problem  in  Italy 

In  all  the  principal  Italian  centers  of  population  the 
shortage  of  housing  accommodations  is  acute,  and  strenu- 
ous efforts  are  being  made  to  stimulate  action  in  order 
that  relief  may  be  afforded. 

At  Rome  conditions  are  even  worse  than  in  other  Italian 
cities.  According  to  the  census  of  1911,  the  city  contains 
79,441  dwelling  houses,  with  358,587  rooms.  While  ac- 
curate figures  showing  the  increase  in  the  number  of 
dwellings  since  that  time  are  not  available,  the  building 
permits  issued  by  the  municipality  cover  only  49,627  rooms, 
states  the  American  Contractor.  This  figure  would  rep- 
resent the  maximum  increase,  since  the  issuance  of  a  per- 
mit does  not  necessarily  mean  that  the  work  has  been 
carried  out.  With  the  increase  indicated  by  the  number 
of  building  permits  issued,  the  total  number  of  rooms 
at  the  present  time  would  be  408,214,  and  within  these 
rooms  a  population  of  at  least  700,000  must  be  housed. 

Owing  to  the  scarcity  of  accommodations  there  has  been 
an  active  speculation  in  living  quarters,  and  the  govern- 
ment has  found  it  necessary  to  prohibit  the  increase  of 
rents  and  has  made  obligatory  the  extension  of  leases 
which  may  have  expired  until  1921.  Particularly  serious 
is  the  position  of  those  occupying  furnished  rooms,  for 
which  measures  have  been  adopted  to  prevent  unreason- 
able increases  in  rates. 

Previous  to  1914  building  companies  and  individuals 
constructed  from  10,000  to  14,000  rooms  per  year,  which, 
however,  were  barely  sufficient  to  take  care  of  the  normal 
development  of  the  city.  During  the  war,  of  course. 
private  building  operations  practically  ceased,  and  since 
the  arm'istice  little  has  been  done  toward  a  resumption  of 
activity.  The  great  building  institutions,  for  instance, 
the  Institute  Romano  dei  Beni  Stabili  and  others,  have 
suspended  new  construction  for  the  reason  that  the  in- 
creased cost  of  materials  and  the  higher  wages  which 
must  be  paid  to  workmen  do  not  permit  their  stockholders 
to  derive  a  reasonable  profit.  Private  builders  are  in  the 
same  position  and  are  doing  nothing. 

A  Negro  State  on  the  Rio  Grande 

The  plan  outlined  by  Dr.  Moses  Madden  of  St.  Louis, 
before  the  House  Judiciary  Committee,  for  a  new  State 
on  the  Rio  Grande,  partly  from  territory  that  Texas  might 
be  willing  to  yield,  partly  from  country  that  Mexico 
might  cede,  to  be  inhabited  and  administered  exclusively 
by  negroes,  has  to  be  balanced  against  the  scheme  of  con- 
centration of  negroes  in  Liberia,  advocated  before  the 
same  committee  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  R.  D.  Jones  of  Phila- 
delphia. In  essence  one  is  as  un-American  as  the  other. 
The  Liberia  notion  seems  rather  more  workable. 

Most  of  the  negroes  in  this  country,  writes  the  Brooklyn 
Eagle,  even  in  Mississippi  and  Georgia  and  Arkansas, 
where  mob  law  is  at  its  worst,  do  not  want  to  go  to 
Africa  and  are  not  anxious  to  be  segregated  in  a  new 
State.  Nor  would  the  South  consent  to  such  segregation, 
for,  in  so  far  as  it  is  possible  to  judge  the  future  by 
the  past,  the  successful  raising  of  cotton  depends  on  the 
supply  of  negro  labor.  That  is  one  field,  almost  the  only 
field,  where  a  lifting  of  the  ban  on  Orientals  would  accom- 
plish little.  Chinese  coolies  have  been  tried  in  the  cotton 
fields  and  found  wanting. 

The  cleverest  agriculturist  on  earth  might  well  despair 
of  doing  much  in  the  Rio  Grande  country.  The  negroes 
are  not  clever,  not  advanced  in  their  methods.  In  bulk 
and  as  a  rule  they  are  always  good  natured,  fairly  indus- 
trious and  fitted  to  stand  the  climate  where  cotton  is 
raised.  There  are  full  Ethiopians,  half-Ethiopians,  quar- 
ter-Ethiopians and  near-whites  among  them.  Politicians 
are  not  lacking.  Let  them  have  a  state  by  themselves, 
even  if  there  were  a  stone  wall  a  hundred  feet  high  around 
it,  and  toilers  would  soon  get  down  to  the  starvation 
point,  while  those  who  had  saved  in  the  past  would  be 
exploited  by  shrewd  men  of  their  own  race.  The  last 
state  of  that  race  would  be  worse  than  the  first. 

No,  the  negro  wants  to  stay  where  he  is,  and  will  stay 
if  he  can  get  the  common  rights  of  a  human  being,  se- 
curity of  life  and  property,  jury  equality,  school  equality. 
Social  equality  he  is  willing  to  wait  for.  On  voting  equality 
he  is  not  insistent.  He  asks  little.  It  is  common  sense  for 
the  Southern  whites  to  muzzle  their  mobsters  and  keep 
their  cotton  pickers.  But  that  common  sense  is  the  most 
uncommon  kind  of  sense  is  proverbial. 

State  Aid  in  Building  Houses 
in  City  Urged 

At  a  discussion  of  the  housing  crisis  in  New  York  held 
by  the  City  Planning  Committee  at  the  City  Club,  No. 
55  West  Forty-fourth  street,  Clarence  S.  Stein,  Secretary 
of  the  Housing  Committee  of  Gov.  Smith's  Reconstruction 
Committee,  said  that  whereas  before  the  war,  21,500  apart- 
ments had  been  built  every  year,  last  year  only  1,500  were 

Thus,  Mr.  Stein  explained,  60,000  persons  were  left  in 
New  York  without  homes.  The  old  apartments,  many  of 
which,  he  said,  had  been  empty,  are  now  being  occupied  by 
people  accustomed  to  better  quarters,  but  unable  to  pay  the 
high  rents. 



Mr.  Stein  gave  two  remedies  for  the  situation — to  have 
the  State  either  go  into  the  purchase  and  holding  of  land 
for  dwelling  purposes  or  to  lend  its  credit  to  builders.  Mr. 
Stein  also  believes  that  there  should  be  definite  planning 
whereby  workers  in  an  industry,  for  example,  the  clothing 
workers,  should  have  their  place  of  employment  moved 
to  Long  Island  City,  where  housing  facilities  might  be  had. 

Agreeing  that  the  situation  in  the  city  was  very  bad, 
John  J.  Murphy,  former  Tenant  House  Inspector,  declared 
he  did  not  believe  in  State  assistance,  as  that  meant  State 
Socialism.  He  took  the  stand  that  the  State  could  not 
build  as  cheaply  as  the  man  who  was  looking  out  for  his 
own  interests. 

Walter  X.  Seligsburg,  of  the  Legislative  Committee,  said 
his  committee  had  been  considering  housing  bills  now  be- 
fore the  Legislature,  one  of  which  provides  for  exemption 
from  taxation  for  four  years. 

Kansas  City  Chapter  of  American 
Institute  of  Architects 

In  an  address  before  the  regular  monthly  meeting  of 
the  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  Chapter  of  the  American  Institute 
of  Architects,  for  January,  held  at  the  Savoy  Hotel,  Max 
Dunning,  of  Chicago,  chairman  of  the  Post-War  Com- 
mittee, acting  under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Insti- 
tute of  Architects,  explained  the  many  changes  made  by 
the  war  in  the  architectural  profession  and  the  work  of 
his  committee  in  the  readjustment. 

Mr.  Dunning  spoke  of  the  need  for  improvement  in 
the  quality  of  service  rendered  by  the  architect  and  his 
unselfish  co-operation  with  all  concerned  in  the  erection 
of  a  building.  In  closing  his  address,  Mr.  Dunning  urged 
that  each  architect  present  give  independent  study  to  the 
problems  of  reconstruction  and  co-operate  with  the  Post- 
War  Committee  in  meeting  the  changed  conditions. 

Three  Planning  Commissions 
in  One  City 

City-planning  problems  in  Pittsburgh  are  at  present 
being  dealt  with  by  three  different  bodies,  in  addition 
to  the  city  Department  of  Public  Works  and  the  county 
engineer's  office.  There  is  a  City  Planning  Commission 
of  nine  members,  appointed  by  the  mayor ;  a  County  Plan- 
ning Commission  of  some  twenty-five,  appointed  by  the 
county  commissioners ;  and  a  volunteer  Citizens'  Planning 
Commission,  which  has  recently  been  organized  and  has 
engaged  a  consulting  engineer  to  carry  on  its  studies. 
The  actual  official  authority  of  the  former  two  bodies 
is  small,  as  the  city  commission  has  no  other  definite 
authority  than  the  approval  of  lot  subdivisions,  and  the 
county  commission  is  purely  advisory,  on  subjects  re- 
ferred to  it  by  the  county  board.  The  citizens'  body  is 
entirely  unofficial  and  w'ill  presumably  aim  to  accomplish 
results  by  guiding  and  shaping  public  opinion. 

American  Sculptor  is  Honored 
by  Belgium 

The  fine  arts  class  of  the  Belgium  Academy  in  Brus- 
sels has  named  nineteen  foreign  associate  members.  They 
include  Frank  Brangwyn.  president  of  the  Royal  Society 
of  British  Art'ists ;  Tgnacio  Zuloaga,  Spanish  painter ; 
Daniel  Chester  French.  American  sculptor,  and  Ignace 
Jan  Paderewski,  the  famous  pianist  and  former  Polish 

Imported  Houses  for  Greece 

There  is  a  big  demand  in  Greece  for  houses  which  can 
be  taken  to  pieces,  removed,  and  reconstructed  at  will, 
and  a  Swedish  offer  has  been  received  offering  500  at 
prices  varying  from  1,150  to  3,600  krons  Swedish.  An 
American  firm  has  made  a  proposal  to  set  up  workshops 
in  Greece  at  a  cost  of  5,000,000f.  provided  they  receive 
orders  for  4,000  houses  consisting  of  two  rooms,  kitchen, 
and  accessories.  They  undertake  to  erect  from  100  to  200 
houses  per  day. 

School  of  Design  and  Liberal  Arts 

The  School  of  Design  and  Liberal  Arts  has  recently 
opened  its  new  studios  at  212  Central  Park  South  in  the 
building  occupied  by  the  American  Institute  of  Applied 
Music,  with  the  aim  of  permitting  the  student  to  create 
his  own  career  according  to  the  measure  of  his  talent  and 
individual  initiative.  In  co-operation  with  the  Art  Alli- 
ance of  America  students  are  brought  into  close  touch 
with  the  best  in  the  applied  and  industrial  arts.  A  large 
and  liberal  cultural  background  is  also  sought.  The  pur- 
pose of  this  school  is  to  give  a  sound  technical  founda- 
tion in  the  arts ;  to  develop  intellectual  breadth  through 
the  study  of  modern  history,  modern  literature  and  sci- 
ence, and  to  promote  American  citizenship  by  training 
artists  who  will  work  out  American  ideals  in  their  art. 

"The  new  education  in  the  new  America  must  stand  for 
keen  brains  and  skilled  hands.  These  are  not  casual  prod- 
ucts. They  are  the  result  of  training,  judgment  and  cre- 
ative energy.  Production  of  fine  arts  and  the  cultivation 
of  fine  taste  are  needed  to  restore  balance  to  life.  The 
artist's  contribution  is  one  of  peculiar  importance.  The 
art  future  of  America  depends  upon  the  intelligence,  the 
skill  and  the  vision  of  the  art  worker  to-day." 

Dr.  Felix  Adler  is  the  rector  of  the  new  school,  and 
Franklin  C.  Lewis  its  superintendent.  Other  members  of 
the  faculty  are:  Irene  Weir,  B.  F.  A.,  Yale;  George  R. 
Barse,  N.  A. ;  Elliott  Dangerfield,  N.  A. :  F.  Luis  Mora, 
N.  A. ;  Wood  Gaylor ;  Wm.  E.  Bohn,  Ph.D. ;  Ada  Rainey ; 
R.  C.  Willard,  M.  A.;  Genevieve  Joy;  Ruth  Eddy,  B.  S. ; 
Gertrude  D.  Ross;  Ann  Goldthwaite;  Arthur  E.  Baggs, 
M.  C.,  and  Mrs.  J.  I.  C.  Lindsley.  The  advisory  and  arts 
committee  'includes :  H.  W.  Watrous.  N.  A. ;  Royal  B.  Far- 
num.  George  L.  Hunter,  Walter  Ehrich,  Maximilian  Toch, 
Dr.  Max  Wallerstein,  Douglas  Volk,  N.  A.;  Jonas  Lie. 
N.  A. ;  Mrs.  Dorothea  W.  O'Hara,  Mrs.  Frances  Hellman, 
Mrs.  Felix  H.  Adler,  and  Mrs.  E.  F.  Oppenheimer. 

New  York  School  Posters  Educate 
the  Country 

Posters  made  in  the  high  schools  of  New  York  have, 
during  the  last  year,  been  traveling  all  over  the  country 
in  a  campaign  of  education.  They  were  originally  designed 
to  assist  the  Brooklyn  Committee  on  the  Prevention  of 
Tuberculosis  and  proved  so  valuable  in  their  local  use  that 
other  cities  sent  for  them.  The  contest  was  organized 
under  the  supervision  of  Dr.  James  P.  Haney,  Director 
of  Art  'in  the  High  Schools.  More  than  two  hundred 
posters  were  made  in  the  schools,  each  school  developing 
a  local  competition.  The  best  posters  from  the  twenty- 
five  high  schools  went  to  the  Art  Alliance,  where  they  were 
indeed  by  a  committee  headed  by  Mr.  Edwin  H.  Blash- 



Our  Shrinking  Forests 

Rough  estimates  in  the  World's  Work  put  the  original 
forest  area  of  the  United  States  at  850  million  acres  and 
the  present  forest  area  at  perhaps  550  million  acres.  But 
in  that  present  estimate  250  million  acres  are  partially  cut 
and  burned  over  and  100  million  are  so  severely  cut  and 
burned  that,  unless  supplemented  by  planting,  there  will 
be  no  succeeding  forest  of  commercial  value,  leaving 
about  200  million  acres  of  mature  and  merchantable  tim- 
ber, or  less  than  one-fourth  of  the  original  area. 

Improved  Pottery  Designs  in 
Great  Britain 

The  subject  of  pottery  design  is  receiving  much  atten- 
tion in  Great  Britain  at  present,  states  Trade  Commis- 
sioner Leonard  B.  Gary.  It  is  possible  that  this  move- 
ment has  been  influenced  by  a  pamphlet  recently  issued 
by  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Education,  urging  the 
importance  of  adequate  training  in  industrial  art  and 
asserting  that  America  must  turn  from  its  quantity  meth- 
ods and  put  the  country's  commerce  on  a  quality  basis. 
Reports  from  German  pottery  centers  are  to  the  effect  that 
German  potteries  also  are  going  in  for  high  quality  of  de- 
sign and  technique  as  opposed  to  the  cheap  wares  that 
formed  the  bulk  of  their  pre-war  manufactures. 

The  airplane  owes  its  development  principally  to  the 
war.  Since  hostilities  ceased,  however,  American  manu- 
facturers have  concentrated  their  efforts  on  planes  for 
pleasure,  sport  and  commercial  uses.  The  exhibits  will 
represent  all  producing  airplane  factories  in  the  United 
States.  Many  of  the  planes  are  already  assembled  and  in 
daily  flights.  Some  o>f  the  larger  ones  are  carrying  mail 
between  principal  cities.  Others  of  advanced  construction 
will  receive  trial  flights  a  few  weeks  before  the  exposition 
opens  on  March  6th. 

Many  of  the  models  have  comfortably  enclosed  cabins 
with  unbreakable  glass  windows.  They  seat  from  four  to 
twelve  passengers  in  chairs  as  luxuriously  appointed  as 
those  of  a  Pullman.  Noise  of  the  motors  is  deadened  and 
passengers  enjoy  a  flight  much  the  same  as  'if  they  were 
riding  in  an  observation  car  or  limousine  without  the 
wheels  touching  the  ground. 

Many  of  the  smaller  machines  are  of  the  limousine 
type,  accommodating  two  or  three  persons.  They  are,  of 
course,  much  more  expensive  both  in  initial  cost  and 
expense  of  operation.  Then  there  are  several  types  of 
sporting  machines,  a  majority  of  them  flying  boats. 

The  larger  planes  have  a  carrying  capacity  of  from 
three  to  six  thousand  pounds  and,  driven  by  three  or  four 
motors,  will  cover  half  the  distance  across  the  United 
States  in  a  single  flight.  The  cost  of  operating  airplanes 
has  been  reduced  during  the  last  year  •  from  the  almost 
prohibitive  figure  of  one  and  two  dollars  a  mile  until  now 
it  compares  favorably  with  motor  trucks  and  railroads. 

National  Etiquette  Makes  Rug 
a  Drapery 

Between  the  British  and  American  attitude  toward  the 
United  States  coat  of  arms  there  is  a  difference,  and  be- 
cause of  the  difference  a  rug  became  a  mural  drapery. 

The  rug,  in  which  is  woven  the  design  of  the  American 
eagle,  was  the  gift  of  the  British  Red  Cross  Society  and 
the  Order  of  St.  John,  and  was  intended  for  the  floor  of 
an  American  hospital  wh'ich  was  to  have  been  built  in 
London  on  a  site  chosen  by  King  George.  Building  plans 
were  abandoned  when  the  armistice  was  signed,  and  the 
rug  was  sent  to  Red  Cross  headquarters  in  Washington. 

Then  followed  the  difference  of  national  usage.  A 
ruling  of  the  headquarters  called  attention  to  the  fact 
that  in  America  it  is  bad  form  to  set  foot  on  the  national 
emblem  or  coat  of  arms,  and  held  that  the  rug  might  be 
used  for  decorative  purposes.  It  now  hangs  in  the  North- 
ern division  office  of  the  Red  Cross  in  Minneapolis. 

Aeronautical  Exposition,  New  York 

When  the  Manufacturers'  Aircraft  Association  holds  its 
Second  Annual  Aeronautical  Exposition  at  the  Seventy- 
first  Regiment  Armory,  34th  street  and  Park  avenue.  Xew 
York,  in  March,  the  public  will  have  an  opportunity 
to  see  what  American  designers  have  accomplished  in  de- 
veloping commercial  airplanes — planes  for  private  use,  for 
sporting  or  touring  purposes,  or  long-distance  transporta- 
tion of  freight  and  mail. 

Tasmania  Has  Its  Housing  Problem 

The  housing  problem,  which  has  become  an  acute  one 
all  the  world  over,  is  at  present  engaging  attention  in 
Tasmania,  comes  the  news  from  Hobart.  Rents  have  be- 
come exceedingly  high,  and  houses  are  not  to  be  had  for 
letting,  though  they  can  be  bought  at  inflated  prices. 

Hundreds  of  houses  are  being  built  and  estates  cut 
up  for  building  allotments,  but  tenants  are  secured  before 
the  foundations  are  'in.  The  scarcity  has  led  to  a  great 
deal  of  overcrowding  and  sub-letting  of  rooms,  and  resi- 
dential flats  are  now  becoming  part  of  the  architecture 
of  the  country. 

One  of  the  most  pressing  problems  has  been  to  find 
shelter  for  people  turned  out  of  buildings  condemned  by 
the  health  authorities.  This  has  led  to  the  municipal  au- 
thorities deciding  to  go  into  the  matter  of  building  homes 
for  these  people,  and  the  government  has  introduced  legis- 
lation into  Parliament  to  enable  the  government  to  build 
houses  on  the  hire-purchase  system  for  people  in  receipt 
of  not  more  than  £300  a  year.  As  a  start,  the  govern- 
ment is  to  spend  £70000  in  building  houses.  Three- 
roomed  houses  with  bathroom  are  to  be  let  at  10s.  a  week 
and  four-roomed  houses  at  12s.  It  is  estimated  that  the 
capital  mentioned  will  build  100  houses. 

The  total  cost  of  any  building  is  not  to  exceed  £700, 
including  land.  The  tenant  is  to  find  5  per  cent  of  the 
capital.  The  period  of  repayment  is  forty-two  years  for 
concrete,  brick,  or  stone,  and  thirty  years  for  houses 
built  of  Tasmanian  hardwood. 

In  addition,  2000  houses  are  being  built  for  returned 
soldiers  on  the  hire-purchase  system,  by  the  Repatriation 
Department,  and  industrial  concerns  are  also  assisting 
their  employees  to  become  their  own  landlords.  All  these 
schemes  in  combination  should,  therefore,  soon  appre- 
ciably ease  the  present  acute  situation. 



Nebraska  Chapter  Meets 

The  annual  meeting  and  dinner  of  the  Nebraska  Chapter, 
A.  I.  A.,  was  held  Tuesday,  January  20,  at  the  University 
club,  Omaha.  Edwin  H.  Brown,  of  the  firm  of  Hewitt  & 
Brown,  architects,  Minneapolis,  was  the  speaker  of  the 
evening.  Thomas  R.  Kimball  of  Omaha,  president  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects,  also  gave  a  short  address. 
The  officers  of  the  Nebraska  Chapter  are  as  follows :  Presi- 
dent, Alan  McDonald,  Omaha;  vice-president,  Ellery 
Davis,  Lincoln,  secretary-treasurer,  J.  D.  Sandham,  Omaha. 
The  above  officers,  with  Frederick  W.  Clarke  and  F.  A. 
Henninger  of  Omaha,  constitute  the  executive  committee. 

Sightly  Water  Tanks 

There  is  not  to  be  found  anything  much  more  unsightly 
than  huge  city  water  tanks  which  disfigure  so  many  of 
our  towns  and  cities.  Often  the  residential  sections  are 
made  unpleasing  by  these  necessary  tanks.  The  city  of 
Cincinnati  solved  the  problem  of  retaining  its  water  tanks 
in  a  residential  part  of  the  town  and  yet  transforming 
them  into  impressive  monuments  which  add  to  the  appear- 
ance of  the  district. 

The  steel  tanks  were  surrounded  by  a  concrete  shell, 
artistically  designed  so  that  the  hill  on  which  these  tanks 
stand  is  a  show  place  instead)  of  an  unsightly  spot  that 
one  tried  to  avoid  formerly. 

The  tanks  are  of  steel,  and  these  were  filled  with  water 
before  any  of  the  concrete  was  poured,  as  slight  changes 
might  take  place  otherwise  and  cause  the  concrete  to 
crack.  The  forms  for  the  first  setting  were  braced  to  the 
ground  and  supported  on  the  foundation,  but  the  difficulty 
began  when  the  forms  had  to  be  raised  for  the  second 
section  setting.  With  this  problem  settled,  however,  the 
work  went  on  without  any  trouble. 


A.  F.  Wysong,  Charles  W.  Tufts  and  Thomas  P.  Jones 
announce  the  opening  of  new  offices  at  408  Odd  Fellows 
Building,  Charleston,  W.  Va.  Catalogues  and  samples 

Morrison  £  Stemson,  architects  of  Spokane,  Wash., 
have  formed  a  partnership  and  will  practice  in  the  Sy- 
mons  Building,  that  city. 

Harry  Maurer,  architect,  Reading,  Pennsylvania,  has 
moved  offices  to  234  N.  Fifth  avenue. 

Walter  A.  Besecke,  architect,  formerly  with  the  firm  of 
Hoit,  Price  &  Barnes,  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  is  now  associated 
with  J.  C.  Sunderland,  313  Interstate  Building,  Kansas 
City,  Mo.,  forming  the  firm  of  Sunderland  &  Besecke. 

A.  V.  Capraro,  architect,  has  opened  new  office,  628 
Reaper  Block,  105  North  Clark  street,  Chicago. 

Win.  H.  Emory,  architect,  has  moved  his  office  to  615 
Munsey  Building,  Baltimore,  Md.  He  was  formerly  lo- 
cated at  11  E.  Lexington  street,  Baltimore,  Md. 

C.  Le  Roy  Kinport  and  C.  E.  Bell,  architects,  have 
affiliated  and  established  offices  at  909  Andrus  building. 
Minneapolis.  Mr.  Kinport  was  formerly  located  at  1046 
Andrus  building.  The  firm  will  be  known  as  Kinport  & 

News  From  Various  Sources 

Carnegie  Corporation  of  New  York  has  announced  its 
purpose  to  give  $5,000,000  for  use  of  National  Academy  of 
Sciences  and  National  Research  Council.  Understood  that 
a  portion  of  money  will  be  used  to  erect  at  Washington 
a  home  for  the  two  beneficiary  organizations.  Remainder 
will  be  placed  in  hands  of  Academy  to  be  used  as  per- 
manent endowment  for  National  Research  Council. 

*  *       * 

'  Belgian  structural  steel,  Canadian  brick  and  lumber 
from  Pacific  Coast  begin  to  loom  up  as  possible  agencies 
that  will  halt  higher  building  material  prices  in  most  of 
eastern  seaboard  cities. 

*  *       * 

American  Institute  of  Architects,  through  William  S. 
Parker,  Secretary,  has  asked  Industrial  Conference  to  con- 
sider methods  of  dealing  with  American  housing  situation, 
inasmuch  as  present  housing  shortage  is  regarded  by  In- 
stitute as  important  factor  in  industrial  unrest.  Institute 
suggests  that  housing  acts  of  other  countries  and  reports 
of  wartime  housing  activities  of  United  States  Government 
should  comprise  sound  basis  upon  which  Conference  may 

*  *      * 

Bradstreet  states  that  the  value  of  construction  at  151 
cities  last  year  was  $1.281,000,000,  three  times  that  of  1918 
and  80  per  cent  in  excess  of  that  of  1917,  while  20  per  cent 
in  excess  of  the  hitherto  record  year,  1916,  since  when, 
however,  values  of  building  material  have  gained  80  per 
cent  while  wages  have  in  some  cases  doubled.  Only  7 
cities  of  the  151  reporting  show  a  smaller  value  of  build- 
ing in  1919  than  in  1918. 

*  *      * 

Statistics  Branch,  General  Staff,  announces  that  dis- 
charged officers  and  men  of  U.  S.  Army  are  entitled  to 
free  hospital  treatment  for  sickness  or  disability  arising 
from  sickness  or  injury  incurred  in  line  of  duty  while  in 
service.  This  treatment  is  furnished  by  Bureau  of  War 
Risk  Insurance  through  U.  S.  Public  Health  Service.  To 
facilitate  handling  of  cases  country  has  been  divided  into 
districts.  Statement  gives  list  and  location  of  hospitals. 

*  *      * 

Announced  from  Winnipeg,  January  8,  that  the  housing 
commission  operating  under  city's  housing  plan  will  make 
a  loan  of  85  per  cent  of  net  cost  of  home.  A  first  mort- 
gage will  be  taken  on  property  for  20  years,  repayable  at 
rate  of  $7.13  a  month  for  each  $1,000  borrowed. 

*  *      * 

Herbert  Hoover  makes  the  declaration  that  "The  whole 
problem  of  Americanization  would  be  met  in  20  years  if 
nation  could  systematically  grapple  with  child  problem  and 
insure  proper  conditions  of  birth,  education  and  nutrition. 
In  order  to  accomplish  this,  the  conscience  of  every  sepa- 
rate community  must  be  developed." 

*  *      * 

Announced  from  Strasbourg  that  rapid  progress  is  being 
made  in  the  reconstruction  of  devastated  areas  in  Alsace 
and  Lorraine.  Stated  that  sum  expended  amounts  to  ap- 
proximately 150,000,000  francs. 

*  *      * 

Federal  Reserve  Board  has  advised  all  Federal  Reserve 
Banks  which  have  not  yet  begun  their  building  operations 
to  perfect  their  plans  in  detail,  but  to  postpone  for  the 
present  letting  contracts  for  construction.  A  careful  sur- 
vey of  building  conditions  has  demonstrated  fact  that 
building  materials  and  construction  costs  have  recently 
advanced  to  too  high  a  point  to  justfy  Board  in  author- 
izing building  at  this  time. 


Weekly  Review  of  Construction  Field 

Comment  on  General  Conditions  of  Economics  With  Reports  of  Special  Correspond- 
ents in  Prominent  Regional  Centers 

In  his  address  to  the  Boston  City  Club,  Mr.  C.  H. 
Blackall,  architect,  outlining  the  future  of  building,  indi- 
cated that  the  price  of  building  material  is  not  due  for 
an  immediate  slump.  After  the  past  four  years,  he  said, 
the  people  want  to  build  and  it  is  not  difficult  to  obtain 
the  money  to  begin  building  operations,  the  tendency  being 
toward  the  erection  of  commercial  buildings  rather  than 
homes.  Mr.  Blackall  predicted  the  largest  boom  the 
building  industry  has  ever  known. 

It  seems  evident  that  the  hesitation  in  carrying  forward 
building  projects  because  of  an  expectation  of  lower  prices 
and  cheaper  building  costs  is  now  at  an  end.  For  one 
thing,  it  is  found  that  there  is  a  generous  amount  of  vitally 
necessary  work  projected  which  will  go  ahead  regardless 
of  cost.  There  is  also  current  a  strong  body  of  opinion 
which  does  not  look  upon  present  conditions  as  inevitably 
resulting  in  a  business  depression  with  its  consequent  re- 
duction of  prices  of  building  material  and  of  labor  costs. 
They  hold  a  view  that  the  world-wide  inflation  has  de- 
creased the  value  of  currency  everywhere,  that  wages 
and  prices  merely  seem  high,  as  all  money  payments  are 
high.  Prices  have  doubled  since  1914  and  although  the 
lagging  in  the  increase  of  some  payments  behind  others 
produces  an  injustice  yet  it  gives  no  sound  reason  why  a 
man  should  hesitate  about  carrying  on  needed  work.  To 
do  so  would  be  to  make  a  great  mistake.  To  further 
retard  production  is  to  make  more  probable  an  actual  busi- 
ness depression  with  all  the  suffering  it  involves. 

Aside  from  the  actual  money  payments,  labor  costs 
have  been  alarmingly  high.  Part  of  this  was  due  to  the  • 
number  of  unskilled  workers  doing  skilled  work,  part  to 
the  nervous  demoralization  by  the  war,  part  to  shirking. 
But  a  leading  contractor  now  finds  that  these  costs  are 
coming  down  again.  He  says  his  men  are  turning  out  as 
much  work  in  an  hour  as  they  did  before  the  war  and 
in  many  cases  there  are  indications  of  improvement  over 
the  earlier  averages. 

When  such  reports  become  general  through  all  lines  of 
endeavor  we  shall  have  turned  in  the  right  direction. 
Until  then  we  can  only  look  back  upon  the  past  with 

At  the  conference  of  trust  companies  of  the  United 
States,  held  in  New  York,  Mr.  Sisson,  vice-president  of 
the  Guarantee  Trust  Co.  of  New  York,  gave  statistics  of 
our  under-production  during  1919  as  follows :  "There 
were  130  million  tons  less  of  bituminous  coal  mined  last 
year  than  in  1918;  there  were  12  million  tons  less  of  an- 
thracite coal  produced  than  in  1918;  9  million  tons  less 
of  steel  ingots ;  more  than  5  million  bales  less  of  cotton 
than  in  1914;  76  million  bushels  less  of  wheat  than  in 
1915;  140  million  bushels  less  of  corn  than  in  1917;  more 
than  900  million  pounds  less  of  copper  than  in  1918;  more 
than  10  million  dollars  less  of  gold  than  in  1918;  and 
more  than  4^  million  dollars  less  of  silver  than  in  1918." 

It  would  seem  that  our  prosperity  is  to  be  dangerously 
superficial  until  we  get  down  to  work. 

(By  Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

Chicago. — Building  contracts  for  January  in  the  Middle 
West,  while  not  equaling  the  monthly  average  of  1919, 
were  nevertheless  almost  twice  that  of  any  January  on  rec- 
ord. About  40  per  cent  was  for  industrial  buildings,  30  per 
cent  for  houses,  15  per  cent  for  public  works  and  15  per 
cent  for  business. 

There  seems  to  be  no  sign  of  reduced  buying  power 
and  such  limitation  as  is  shown  comes  from  physical  in- 
ability of  labor  and  railroads  to  keep  abreast  of  the  de- 
mands for  production  and  distribution.  The  leading  mail 
order  house  reports  a  gain  of  50^  per  cent  in  gross  sales 
over  January  of  last  year,  one-half  of  which  represents 
higher  prices.  Chicago  is  short  75,000  to  100,000  homes. 
On  May  1  there  will  be  rental  advances  of  from  20  to  50 
per  cent  in  addition  to  the  two  or  three  advances  which 
became  effective  during  the  past  two  or  three  years.  That 
rents  are  high  is  not  surprising;  so  is  everything  that 
goes  to  make  them  and  so  are  the  wages  out  of  which 
they  are  paid. 

There  is  no  slackening  in  the  demand  for  steel  products, 
especially  for  wire  and  nails,  the  buying  of  which  recently 
has  been  enormous.  This  is  not  considered  unusual, 
however,  as  the  season  is  now  on  when  jobbers  all  over 
the  country  place  orders  for  anticipated  requirements. 
Some  of  the  independent  makers  are  asking  and  receiving 
$1  or  more  over  the  price  of  $3.25  per  keg  asked  by  the 
American  Steel  &  Wire  Co.  But  this  latter  company  is 
still  holding  to  the  prices  agreed  upon  with  the  Industrial 
Board  in  Washington  in  March  of  last  year. 

Jobbers  in  various  sections  of  the  country  are  said  to 
have  been  receiving  on  small  lots  as  much  as  $5  per  keg 
over  the  leading  manufacturer's  price,  and  the  buyers 
have  shown  a  willingness  to  pay  whatever  is  asked  of 

Improvement  is  shown  in  the  market  for  structural 
shapes,  indicating  that  the  lull  in  buying  reported  a  week 
ago  was  only  temporary.  Urgent  inquiries  are  now  in 
the  market  for  early  deliveries  in  connection  with  build- 
ing operations  in  many  large  cities,  but  the  markets  are 
not  in  position  to  take  this  business  and  in  some  instances 
it  is  likely  that  the  inability  to  get  steel  will  delay  until 
late  Summer  operations  which  were  expected  to  start  in 
the  Spring. 

The  carpenters'  strike  and  lockout  of  last  Fall  delayed 
building  operations  and  held  up  construction  work  for 
months  until  the  wage  demand  of  $1.00  an  hpur  was 
granted.  Demand  has  now  been  made  by  thirty-three 
labor  unions  for  $1.25  instead  of  $1.00  an  hour. 

(By  Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

Seattle. — Increasing  difficulty  of  getting  tubular  steel 
products  from  the  East  was  the  outstanding  feature  of 
the  construction  market  this  week.  All  operators  report 
that  it  is  now  practically  impossible  to  secure  quotations 
for  spot  delivery  on  finished  steel  products,  and  the  only 
way  in  which  manufacturers  of  the  East  will  trade  is 



on  the  basis  of  June  firming  on  quotations  then  in  effect. 

The  situation  has  improved  as  to  pipe.  Eastern  mills 
say  frankly  that  they  cannot  contract  for  steel  products 
for  the  first  six  months  of  this  year,  but  that  all  orders 
must  be  subordinate  to  prices  that  will  be  quoted  at  the 
time  of  loading.  Larger  steel  parts  are  obtainable,  but 
the  line  of  demarkation  between  essential  building  and 
heavy  units  for  other  purposes  is  now  more  clearly  drawn. 

It  seems  to  have  been  necessary  for  the  mills  to  grow 
more  confidential  with  the  North  Coast  jobbing  trade  in 
formally  declining  orders  for  steel  building  hardware. 
They  have  advised  the  largest  interests  here  that  they 
are  unable  to  get  skilled  labor  for  finishing. 

Contractors,  in  view  of  price  and  delivery  difficulties, 
are  unwilling  to  bid  on  any  construction  job  that  has  to 
do  with  futures.  Materials  are  so  high  and  labor  in  so 
uncertain  a  state  that  bankruptcy  and  prosperity  are  but 
a  shade  apart.  No  guarantee  of  prices  is  possible,  and 
delays  in  completion  of  work  threaten  at  every  turn. 

Lumber  prices  have  advanced  $2  on  common  building 
sizes  and  $5  on  flooring,  ceiling  and  finish.  The  fir  mills 
are  accepting  only  such  new  business  as  carries  the  greatest 
profits,  as  they  have  unfilled  orders  for  400,000,000  feet, 
placed  as  long  ago  as  last  August,  and  are  unable  to 
get  more  than  30  per  cent  of  enough  cars  to  meet  their 
requirements.  There  seems  to  be  no  chance  for  a  break 
in  lumber  prices  at  this  time.  During  the  week  between 
fifty  and  sixty  wholesalers  arrived  in  person  on  the  fir 
lumber  market,  and  have  been  bidding  against  each  other 
for  building  stock.  The  Spring  buying  season  for  the 
East  is  on  and  stocks  are  depleted. 

There  is  a  fair  reserve  of  paints,  oils  and  lead.  Painters' 
cutlery,  due  to  the  condition  of  finished  steel  products, 
is  critical,  and  jobbers  are  "rationing"  what  they  have 
on  hand  among  the  retailers. 

The  plaster  and  cement  markets  are  firm. 

(By  Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

San  Francisco. — The  reappearance  of  a  law  which 
was  struck  from  the  California  Statutes  several  years, 
ago  in  regard  to  competitive  bids  from  architects  is  caus- 
ing extensive  discussion  among  local  architects.  The 
Board  of  Education  of  Sacramento,  Cal.,  capital  of  the 
State  in  which  the  law  was  repealed,  is  now  advertising 
for  competitive  bids  from  architects  for  the  preparation 
of  plans  for  school  buildings  which  are  to  be  erected 
under  a  bond  issue  and  which  will  cost  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  $2,000,000.  Also,  in  filing  a  bid,  each  archi- 
tect is  obliged  to  file  with  it  a  certified  check  for  $5000 
as  a  guaranty  that  he  will  comply  with  the  bid  if  re- 
quired to  do  so  by  the  Board. 

A  number  of  the  architects  are  wondering  if  compe- 
tency is  to  be  gauged  by  the  smallness  of  the  fee  asked 
for  the  preparation  of  the  plans  or  the  ability  to  put  up 
the  certified  check  for  $5000. 

No  particular  change  has  been  noted  in  the  material 
market  this  week  with  the  exception  of  a  general  upward 
trend  of  prices  on  lumber  and  steel.  The  steel  market 
continues  to  be  more  or  less  difficult,  with  orders  excep- 
tionally hard  to  fill  and  prices  higher  than  ever. 

(By  Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMF.RICAX  ARCHITECT) 

Boston : — Statistics  of  building  and  engineering  opera- 
tions in  Xew  England  show  that  contracts  were  awarded 
from  January  1  to  February  19th,  1920,  amounting  to 
$30,671.000.  or  an  increase  of  nearly  $22,000.000  over  the 
awards  of  the  corresponding  period  in  1919.  These  con- 
tracts are  not  confined  to  any  particular  type  of  structure 

but  are  general  in  scope — a  large  proportion  being  for 
commercial  purposes. 

Sales  of  real  estate  for  the  past  week  have  been  brisk 
but  little  construction  has  been  actually  started  because 
of  the  severe  weather  conditions. 

In  Hartford,  Conn.,  a  new  housing  corporation  with 
capital  stock  of  $1,500,000  has  just  been  formed.  It  is 
reported  that  this  organization  will  erect  between  950  and 
1,000  houses  of  the  one  and  two-family  type  for  that  city. 

Crippled  transportation  facilities,  both  rail  and  water, 
have  caused  an  acute  shortage  of  materials  and  of  coal. 
Several  manufacturing  plants  have  been  obliged  to 
close  down  temporarily  because  of  the  lack  of  coal.  The 
Shipping  Board,  however,  has  promised  relief  for  the 
coming  week. 

In  many  sections  the  idea  is  still  prevalent  that  prices 
of  materials  and  of  labor  will  be  less.  Therefore  building 
in  these  localities  is  still  hampered  and  is,  of  course,  prac- 
tically completed  so  far  as  design  is  concerned. 

(By  Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 
Albany : — A  bill  is  to  be  presented  in  the  legislature  by 
State  Senator  Dowliing  which  will  limit  rental  contracts  of 
buildings  used  for  residential  purposes  to  a  sum  which 
shall  be  not  more  than  10  per  cent  upon  the  actual  valu- 
ation. The  "actual  valuation"  will  be,  according  to  the 
bill,  "the  assessed  valuation  plus  20  per  cent."  The  bill  will 
provide  that  in  actions  upon  leases  the  landlord  must 
prove  that  his  contract  is  not  unlawful.  Any  excess  of 
rent  shall  be  recoverable  by  the  tenant.  It  will  be  allow- 
able, however,  for  the  landlord  to  assess  actual  increased 
costs  of  operation  or  maintenance,  including  taxes,  pro 
rata  among  his  tenants. 

Vanderlip's  Speech  to  the  Economic 

Mr.  Vanderlip,  in  his  speech  before  the  Economic  Club, 
expressed  the  belief  that  employers  should  make  no  effort 
to  reduce  wages  because  a  lowering  of  efficiency  in  Ameri- 
can factories  and  shops  might  result.  He  added  that 
every  effort  should  be  made  to  satisfy  American  labor,  as 
he  thought  that  the  most  effective  way  of  increasing 

"It  is  now  time  to  look  forward  to  constructive  policies," 
Mr.  Vanderlip  said.  "It  was  idle  to  propose  constructive 
policies  if  they  were  to  stand  on  a  foundation  of  sand,  a 
foundation  of  misconception,  ignorance,  and  prejudice. 
To  plan  such  a  policy  national  leadership  must  have  vision 
to  look  ahead.  There  is  a  need  for  a  vision  that  will 
enable  us  to  see  further  ahead  than  a  speculator  standing 
over  a  stock  ticker. 

"In  the  period  since  the  armistice  national  leadership 
has  failed.  When  there  was  extreme  need  for  co-ordi- 
nated and  co-operative  effort  in  this  country  we  have  seen 
the  Government  fritter  away  months  in  frivolous,  incon- 
sequential debate  and  in  the  play  of  partisan  antagonisms. 

"If  we  had  understood  the  full  import  of  this  world 
crisis  we  should  have  demanded  from  the  Administration 
intelligent  information  and  authoritative  leadership;  we 
should  have  demanded  of  Congress  that  the  men  who 
occupied  time  on  the  floors  of  both  houses  should  show 
some  comprehension  of  the  existing  facts  of  the  economic 
life  of  the  world.  We  should  have  demanded  of  financial 
leaders  evidence  of  an  understanding  of  America's  financial 
responsibility  to  act  in  the  direction  of  safeguarding  our 
credit  situation." 

Mr.  Vanderlip  said  he  was  not  pessimistic  about  the 
facts,  but  that  he  was  pessimistic  about  governmental  and 
national  b'indness  to  these  facts. 


Department  of  Architectural 


Factory  Stairs  and  Stairways' 

B\<  G.  L.  H.  ARNOLD 

While  this  article  relates  particularly  to  factory  stairs, 
yet  most  of  the  features  discussed  apply  with  almost  equal 
force  to  stairways  in  many  additional  types  of  buildings. 
A  careful  perusal  of  the  statistics  relating  to  accidents  due 
to  slipping  and  falls  brings  one  to  a  realization  that  what 
has  often  been  considered  of  minor  importance,  namely, 
the  detailed  design  of  stairways,  halls,  public  passageways 
and  similar  places,  is  the  cause  of  a  large  proportion  of 
both  serious  and  fatal  accidents.  The  design  of  the  stair- 
way should  be  given  a  place  of  prime  importance  in  the 
planning  of  every  building,  with  a  view  of  reducing  this  in- 
creasing casualty  list.— The  Editors,  The  American  Ar- 

IN  the  multi-story  factory  the  stairway  is  a  detail 
worth  much  more  than  passing  notice.  Bear 
in  mind  that  the  people  above  the  first  floor  are  de- 
pendent on  the  stairs  for  egress ;  that  four  times 
daily  the  stairs  are  crowded  by  people  in  a  hurry;, 
that  a  large  percentage  of  the  minor  accidents, 
many  of  the  serious  ones  and  many  panics  happen 
on  the  stairs. 

A  poorly  designed  stairway  may  be  an  effective 
way  to  spread  fires,  smoke  or  false  alarms,  and  is 
sure  to  be  a  disturber  of  the  heating  system.  A 
properly  designed  and  located  stairway  affords  not 
only  a  safe  and  convenient  means  of  entrance  and 
exit  but  also  the  handiest  and  most  effective  van- 
tage point  from  which  to  fight  fires  on  the  upper 
floors.  . 

In  solving  the  stairway  problem  consideration 
must  be  given  to :  (i)  number;  (2)  location;  (3) 
size;  (4)  type;  (5)  materials;  (6)  safety  treads; 
(7)  proportions;  (8)  landings;  (9)  handrails;  (10) 
enclosures;  (n)  lighting;  (12)  wear.  These  will  be 
considered  in  the  order  named. 


Where  building  codes  are  in  force  the  minimum 
number  of  stairways  permitted  is  usually  ample. 
Perhaps  the  most  usual  code  requirements  are  one 
stairway  plus  one  for  each  5000  sq.  ft.  of  lot  area. 

"Paper    presented    before    The    American    Society    of    Mechanical 

In  cases  where  the  code  provision'is  insufficient, 
and  where  there  is  no  code,  it  is  essential  to  con- 
sider: (a)  safety;  (b)  capacity;  (c)  convenience. 

Safety.  No  building  over  two  stories  in  height 
is  safe  with  less  than  two  stairways.  A  single  stair- 
way may  at  a  critical  moment  be  blocked  by  a  tem- 
porary disarrangement  of  stock  or  fixtures  on  the 
floor,  by  repairs  or  by  fire. 

Large  floors  require  an  increased  number  of  stairs 
even  if  but  few  people  occupy  the  floor.  As  the  dis- 
tance of  the  extreme  point  from  the  stairway  in- 
creases, so  do  the  chances  of  floor  barricades. 
Furthermore,  in  case  of  panic,  fire  or  other  accident 
the  time  required  to  walk  or  carry  an  injured  or 
fainting  person  100  ft.  or  more  may  be  enough  to 
produce  serious  results. 

Two  4-ft.  stairways  for  buildings  having  up  to 
20,000  sq.  ft.  of  floor  area,  with  one  additional  4-ft. 
stair  for  each  additional  10,000  sq.  ft.,  form  the  least 
number  that  it  is  prudent  to  use. 

If  the  building  is  liable  to  be  used  for  purposes 
which  may  permit  the  occupants  to  be  closely  spaced, 
the  number  should  be  increased  to  two  for  the  first 
12,000  sq.  ft.  plus  one  for  each  additional  6000  sq. 
ft.  At  least  one  and  preferably  all  of  the  stairways 
should  be  carried  to  the  roof. 

Capacity.  In  densely  populated  buildings  the 
number  of  stairways  must  be  increased  to  prevent 
dangerous  over-crowding  when  all  the  occupants 
try  to  leave  at  once.  In  such  cases  20  in.  in  width 
for  each  one  hundred  persons,  the  Boston  rule  for 
theater  exits,  is  high,  and  10  in.  to  14  in.  would  be 

Convenience.  Avoiding  the  disturbance  of  dis- 
cipline and  the  loss  of  time  caused  by  the  passage 
of  people  through  other  departments,  especial  ar- 
rangements on  one  or  more  floors,  the  need  of 
accommodating  the  building  to  the  shape  of  the 
plot,  the  location  of  exits,  and  the  advantageous 
subdivision  of  floors  among  different  tenants  or 
among  different  departments  of  the  same  tenant 
may  make  it  desirable  to  increase  the"  number.  No 



question  of  convenience  should  be  permitted  to 
cause  stairs  to  be  so  located  that  any  occupant  of  a 
factory  would  be  obliged  to  travel  over  100  ft.  to 
reach  an  exit. 


In  the  matter  of  location  many  items  should  be 
considered.  Every  stairway  should  communicate 
directly  with  an  exit  from  the  building.  The  stairs 




p-  Run  
Riser.-  -> 




should  be  distributed  with  a  fair  degree  of  uni- 
formity and  so  placed  as  to  reduce  as  much  as  pos- 
sible the  maximum  distance  to  be  traversed  to  reach 
an  exit.  On  each  floor  the  landing  should  be  so 
placed  that  lines  of  men  going  from  shop  to  locker 
room,  locker  room  to  stairs,  and  shop  to  stairs 
should  not  conflict. 

It  is  also  highly  desirable  to  avoid  obstructing 
the  foreman's  view  of  the  room.  When  practicable, 
the  separate  tower  or  wing  is  the  most  satisfactory 
location.  The  locker  and  toilet  rooms  and  the  ele- 
vator can  be  in  the  tower,  thus  leaving  the  main 
building  clear  of  obstructions  and  giving  the  fore- 
man an  unobstructed  view  of  the  room  and  permit- 
ting greater  freedom  in  the  floor  layout. 


A  clear  width  of  44  in.  to  48  in.  between  hand- 
rails will  allow  the  passage  of  two  lines  of  people 
at  once,  and  the  main  stairs  should  never  be  less 
than  this.  If  wider,  the  width  should  be  in  mul- 
tiples of  22  in.  to  24  in.,  the  number  of  handrails 
being  such  that  it  is  never  less  than  44  in.  nor  more 
than  48  in.  between  rails. 

Where  the  number  of  employees  is  large  it  is 
better  to  increase  the  number  of  4-ft.  stairs  than  to 
increase  the  width.  Even  when  the  number  of  em- 
ployees in  a  building  is  large,  only  one  floor,  as  a 
general  thing,  will  be  densely  populated.  This 
crowded  floor  is  as  likely  to  be  at  the  top  as  at  the 
bottom.  Therefore  it  is  the  usual  practice  to  make 

factory  stairways  of  constant  width  throughout 
their  entire  length. 

Occasionally  a  factory  building  must  be  designed 
to  accommodate  dense  population  on  two  or  more 
floors.  In  this  case  the  employees  from  the  upper 
floors  coming  down  at  the  full  capacity  of  the  stair- 
ways will  find  the  lower  flights  already  taxed  to  the 
utmost  and  serious  congestion  will  result.  The 
remedy  is  increased  width  for  the  lower  flights. 

Additional  stairways  from  the  lower  crowded 
floors  may  not  cure  the  trouble  because  in  the  ex- 
citement of  an  emergency,  when  free  and  quick 
egress  is  most  important,  the  occupants  of  the  lower 
floors  are  likely  to  rush  to  the  busiest  stairway  and 
leave  their  own  special  exit  unused.  Special  stairs, 
not  used  for  general  ingress  and  egress,  may  be  as 
narrow  as  20  in.  in  clear  width ;  they  may  be  steep 
(Fig.  2),  or,  if  not  much  used,  they  may  have 
winders  or  be  spiral. 


Except  for  special  cases  used  by  but  few  people 
for  intradepartment  shortcuts,  spiral  stairs  and 
winders  should  never  be  permitted  in  a  factory. 
Straight  runs  alone  are  permissible.  When  the 
story  height  exceeds  9  ft.  the  flights  should  be  cut 


and  intermediate  landings  used.  The  landings 
should  be  rectangular  and  the  flights  be  not  less 
than  three  risers  nor  more  than  9  ft.  high. 

The  intermediate  landing  is  of  little  use  if  the 
flights  are  in  line.  A  turn  at  the  landing  serves  to 
limit  a  fall.  A  i8o-deg.  turn  has  the  further 



7/g' 'Hardwood  Renewable 
Jnad  in  3Pi'eces 








advantage  of  reducing  the  floor  space  required.  In 
fact,  the  stairway  of  minimum  floor  area  (barring 
spirals)  has  a  landing  and  a  i8o-deg.  turn  every  4  ft. 
in  its  height. 


The  factory  stairs  are  usually  of  wood,  Fig.  3, 
cast   iron,  Fig.  4,   steel  or  steel  with  wood  tread, 


Fig.  5,  steel  with  cast-iron  tread,  Fig.  6,  steel  with 
stone  tread,  Fig.  7,  steel  with  concrete  tread,  Fig.  8, 
or  reinforced  concrete,  Fig.  9. 

The  wooden  stair  in  multi-story  factories  is  not 
good  practice.  It  is  combustible  and  unsanitary. 
In  buildings  of  mill  construction,  however,  espe- 
cially the  smaller  ones  when  not  over  four  stories 
in  height  and  sprinkled,  wood  may  be  acceptable. 
The  wood  must  be  smooth,  closely  jointed,  free 
from  beads  and  not  less  than  2  in.  thick,  making  a 
slow-burning  construction.  It  is  imperative  that 
the  wooden  stairs  be  enclosed  in  a  fireproof  well. 

The  saving  in  cost,  however,  over  a  non-com- 
bustible stairway  is  not  great  enough  to  warrant  the 
risk  except  in  special  cases.  Cast  iron  and  steel 
while  non-combustible,  are  not  fireproof.  Neverthe- 
less, they  are  permissible  when,  as  it  always  should 
be,  the  stairway  is  in  a  fireproof  enclosure,  since 
any  fire  hot  enough  to  weaken  the  metals  would 
render  the  stairway  impassable. 

Steel  channels  are  more  reliable  for  stringers  and, 
except  for  short  flights,  cheaper  than  cast  iron,  and 

are  more  generally  used.  Risers  are  usually  of 
angle  and  steel  plate  or  pressed  steel.  Treads, 
while  usually  of  cast  iron,  are  frequently  of  check- 
ered steel  plate,  wood,  slate  or  concrete. 

Cast  iron  and  steel  plate  wear  slippery,  and  hence 
they  are  dangerous  and  should  never  be  used  with- 
out some  sort  of  safety  tread. 

\Yood,  because  of  its  inflammability,  should  not 
be  used  except  as  a  safety  tread  over  a  solid  sub- 


tread.  Slate  does  not  wear  slippery,  but  it  is  more 
expensive.  It  must  be  backed  up  by  steel  plate,  and 
replacements  are  expensive. 

Concrete  as  a  tread  on  steel  stairs  has  no  special 
advantage.  The  steel  plate  under  tread  is  needed, 
as  it  is  for  wood  or  slate,  and  to  facilitate  casting 
the  steel  is  usually  carried  up  to  form  a  nosing. 
This  is  dangerous.  The  concrete  is  liable  to  crack 
off  or  wear  below  the  top  of  the  steel,  leaving  a  lip 
over  which  sooner  or  later  someone  will  trip  and 


Reinforced  concrete  makes  perhaps  the  most 
satisfactory  stair  if  properly  designed  and  built. 
There  should  be  a  good  filler  between  tread  and 
riser,  for  sanitary  reasons  at  least.  There  should 
be  a  nosing,  which  is  not  difficult  to  cast  if  made 
with  a  large  fillet. 




Steel,  cast  iron  and  concrete  wear  slippery  and 
so  become  dangerous.  Consequently  some  form  of 
safety  tread  must  be  used.  Safety  treads  are  made 
of:  (a)  lead;  (b)  abrasive  material;  (c)  a  com- 
bination of  the  two;  (d)  cork;  (e)  wood. 

Lead  Safety  Tread.  The  lead  safety  tread  is 
made  by  inserting  plugs  of  lead  in  pockets  in  a 
steel  frame,  Figs.  10,  n  and  12,  the  whole  being 
fastened  to  the  tread  proper  by  screws.  This  of 
course  wears  more  rapidly  than  cast  iron  or  steel 
but  does  not  become  slippery  and  has  no  affinity  for 
ice  or  snow.  It  is  easily  replaced  when  worn.  The 


chief  objections  to  it  are  that,  owing  to  the  grooves 
between  the  lead  plugs,  it  is  difficult  to  keep  clean, 
and  there  is  some  chance  for  a  heel  to  catch  in  the 

Abrasive  Safety  Tread.  The  abrasive  tread  is 
made  of  alundum  or  carborundum  cast  into  hard 
metal,  leaving  the  grit  projecting  slightly  above  the 
surface  of  the  metal,  Figs.  13  and  14.  The  abrasive 
is  also  imbedded  in  the  rounded  nosing  to  prevent 
slipping  on  the  edge  of  the  step. 

This  type  of  safety  tread  is  made  to  be  used  as 
the  complete  tread  as  well  as  the  renewable  safety 
tread  bolted  to  a  sub-tread.  It  is  also  made  as  a 
nosing,  this  form  being  especially  useful  on  con- 
crete stairs,  Fig.  15.  This  is  probably  the  most 
durable  tread  in  heavy  traffic.  It  is,  however,  hard 
and  noisy  and,  like  the  lead  tread,  it  is  difficult  to 
keep  entirely  clean.  There  is  also  a  chance  that 
the  grit  may  be  too  sharp,  and  instances  are  known 

where  the  shoe  has  been  gripped  so  firmly  as  to 
cause  a  fall. 

Combined  Lead  and  Abrasive  Safety  Tread.  A 
third  type  of  safety  tread  is  made  of  grains  of 
abrasive  in  a  lead  matrix,  the  whole  carried  on  a 


steel  plate.  It  is  made  either  grooved,  Fig.  16,  or 
flat,  Fig.  17,  and  with  the  anti-slip  surface  carried 
to  the  front  edge. 

The  flat  top  is  a  great  advantage,  as  it  makes  it 
possible  to  keep  the  stairs  clean.  For  outdoor  use 
it  shares  with  the  lead  tread  the  advantage  that 
snow  or  ice  do  not  adhere.  It  also  shares  with  the 
other  type  of  abrasive  tread  the  danger  of  too  acute 
a  grip. 


With  either  of  the  above  three  types  of  tread  it  is 
not  necessary  to  cover  the  entire  width  of  the  tread. 
If  the  front  edge  of  the  step  to  a  depth  of  3  in.  to 
$l/2  in.  is  protected  by  a  non-slipping  surface  the 
remainder  of  the  tread  only  needs  to  be  brought  up 
flush  with  the  safety  strip. 

Cork  Tread.  Cork  as  a  safety  tread  is  not  so 
well  known  nor  so  widely  used  as  it  deserves  to  be. 
It  is  impervious  to  almost  all  liquids  and  hence  is 
easily  kept  in  a  really  sanitary  condition.  It  is 



noiseless,  wears  surprisingly  well  and  is  the  pleasant- 
est  of  all  materials  on  which  to  walk. 

Unfortunately,  its  lack  of  strength  makes  it  neces- 
sary to  use  a  metal  or  wood  nosing,  Fig.  18.  This 
is  not  dangerous,  however,  because  owing  to  the 
elasticity  of  the  cork,  the  nosing  will  wear  ahead 
of  it. 


Where  stairs  are  liable  to  rough  usage,  as  by 
dragging  heavy  pieces  up  or  down,  the  cork  tile  is 
sometimes  used  with  a  nosing  having  a  lead  or 
abrasive  non-slip  surface,  Fig.  19. 

For  use  as  a  safety  tread  the  cork  is  compressed 
into  tiles  J/2  in.  thick  by  9  to  12  in.  square.  These 
are  cemented  to  the  sub-tread. 



Wood  Safety  Tread.    Except  under  the  heaviest 
traffic,  wood  makes  a  splendid  safety  tread.     Laid 

directly  on  top  of  a  solid  steel  or  concrete  base  and 
exposed  only  on  the  top  and  front  edge,  the  fire 
risk  is  practically  eliminated. 

Wood  offers   one  of  the  most  satisfactory  sur- 
faces to   step  on.      It  is   never   slippery  and   it  is 



cheap.    The  worst  objection  to  it  is  from  a  sanitary 
viewpoint  because  it  absorbs  expectoration. 

The  wood  should  be  either  oak,  maple  or  edge- 
grain  yellow  pine  to  wear  well,  the  last  named 
being  undoubtedly  the  longest  lived.  Each  tread 
should  be  made  in  three  pieces,  as  shown  in  Fig.  3. 
The  rear  strip  will  never  need  to  be  renewed  and  the 
center  strip  but  rarely. 

(To  be  continued.) 

Plastering  Specifications  Needed 

A  series  of  experiments  is  being  conducted  to 
determine  what  effect  the  use  of  lime  in  various 
building  materials  may  have  on  the  corrosion  of 
metal  with  which  the  material  may  come  in  con- 
tact. These  experiments  will  have  a  bearing  on  the 
use  of  lime  in  concrete. 

*       *       *       * 

The  subject  of  preparation  of  adequate  specifi- 
cations for  interior  wall  plastering  is  of  great  in- 
terest and  importance  to  both  architects,  builders 
and  the  public  in  general.  Owing  to  the  difficulties 
involved  in  the  preparation  of  these  specifications 
the  question  of  responsibility  for  them  has  been  a 
matter  of  serious  deliberation.  The  U.  S.  Bureau 
of  Standards  has  recently  been  assured  of  the  active 
support  of  the  American  Institute  of  Architects 
and  the  American  Society  for  Testing  Materials, 
and  will  proceed  with  the  work.  An  advisory  com- 
mittee has  been  appointed  by  the  Bureau  of 
Standards  to  assist  in  the  work,  and  it  will  get  down 
to  business  at  an  early  date. 



Annual    Meeting   of    the   American 
Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers 

THE  fortieth  annual  meeting  of  the  American 
Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers  was  held 
in  the  rooms  of  the  Society,  Engineering  Building, 
New  York  City,  December  2  to  5,  and  the  matters 
discussed  appealed  to  engineers  from  el'ery  section 
of  the  country.  The  attendance  exceeded  in  num- 
ber that  of  the  last  two  annual  meetings.  The 
program  for  the  meeting  follows : 

Tuesday,  December  2 — Opening  Day 
Registration  begins  on  Tuesday,  but  the  Council  and 
Local  Sections'  representatives  are  to  gather  on  Monday 
for  meetings,  and  on  Tuesday  for  a  conference  luncheon. 
On  Tuesday  evening  the  President's  Address  and  Recep- 

Wednesday  Morning,  December  3 — Business  Meeting 
On  Wednesday  morning  will  be  held  the  Annual  Busi- 
ness Meeting:  Discussion  of  the  Report  of  the  Aims  and 
Organization  Committee  and  of  the  Joint  Conference 
Committee  representing  the  Founder  Societies,  besides 
several  technical  reports,  including  the  Elevator  Code. 

Wednesday  Afternoon — Session  on  Appraisal  and 


On  Wednesday  afternoon  will  be  a  joint  session  with 
the  American  Society  of  Refrigerating  Engineers,  with 
papers  on  appraisal  and  valuation  methods,  including  both 
industrial  and  street  railway  appraisals. 

On  this  afternoon,  also,  is  the  Ladies'  Reception  and  Tea, 
which  has  invariably  proven  one  of  the  delightful  affairs 
of  the  meeting. 

Wednesday  Evening — Memorial  Session 
In  the  evening  the  Society  has  been  invited  to  partici- 
pate with  other  societies  in  a  commemoration  meeting  on 
the  work  of  the  famous  DeLamater  Iron  Works  and  of 
John  Ericsson,  the  machinery  of  whose  Monitor  was  built 
at  these  works. 

Thursday  Morning,  December  4 — Keynote  Session 

A  discussion  on  the  general  subject  of  the  Industrial 
Situation  in  Relation  to  Present  Conditions  will  be  held 
on  Thursday  morning,  with  the  following  papers  and 
addresses : 

Wage  Payment,  A.  L.  DeLeeuw,  Consulting  Engineer. 

Rights  of  Workers,  Frederick  P.  Fish,  chairman  Na- 
tional Industrial  Conference  Board. 

Systems  for  Mutual  Control  of  Industry,  William  L. 
Leiserson,  formerly  chief,  Division  of  Labor  Administra- 
tion, Working  Conditions  Service,  U.  S.  Department  of 

Profit  Sharing,  Ralph  E.  Heilman,  professor  of  eco- 
nomics and  social  science,  Northwestern  University. 

Thursday  Afternoon — General  Session 
General  session,  with  miscellaneous  technical  papers. 
Among  the  subjects  to  be  taken  up,  either  this  afternoon 
or  at  the  simultaneous  sessions  on  the  day  previous  or  on 
Friday,  will  be  internal  combustion  engines,  machine  de- 
sign power  plants  and  fuels  and  machine-shop  practice. 

Thursday  Evening — Reunion  and  Dance 
In  the  evening  there  will  be  the  usual  reunion  and  dance, 
preceded   by   a   lecture.     Friday   morning,    December   5 — 
Transportation  session. 

This  will  be  the  closing  session  of  the  meeting,  to  in- 
clude a  discussion  of  the  possibilities  of  locomotive  de- 
velopment and  of  motor  trucks. 

Second    Conference     on    Industrial 

Safety  Codes,  Washington,  D.  C., 

December  8  and  9,  1919 

'TpHE  second  conference  on  industrial  safety  codes,  ar- 
A  ranged  by  the  Bureau  of  Standards,  was  held  at  the 
offices  of  that  bureau,  Washington,  D.  C.,  Dec.  8  and  9, 
1919,  and  was  in  effect  a  continuation  of  the  first  meeting 
held  Jan.  15,  1919. 

In  the  absence  of  Dr.  Stratton,  director  of  the  Bureau  of 
Standards,  who  had  unexpectedly  been  called  upon  by  the 
acting  secretary  of  commerce  for  duties  that  had  taken 
him  out  of  Washington,  Dr.  Rosa  presided. 

In  opening  the  conference,  which  was  attended  by  about 
a  hundred  representatives  of  the  various  organizations  in- 
terested in  the  adoption  and  enforcement  of  safety  codes, 
Dr.  Rosa  restated  the  object  of  the  meeting  as  presented 
at  the  first  conference,  namely,  to  insure  cooperation  and 
comparison  of  notes  by  all  those  most  interested  in  safety 
work  and  securing  the  advice  and  cooperation  of  repre- 
sentatives of  the  many  engineering  organizations,  insurance 
associations,  commercial  organizations  and  State  and  mu- 
nicipal bodies  and  others  who  are  actively  interested  in 
this  work.  Invitations  to  attend  the  conference  .had  been 
issued  to  these  various  interested  parties  by  the  Bureau 
of  Standards. 

It  is  hoped  that  as  a  result  of  this  conference  work  will 
shortly  be  undertaken  for  the  formulation  and  develop- 
ment of  a  series  of  national  industrial  safety  codes  that 
can  be  generally  used  throughout  the  States  and  munici- 
palities of  the  country.  Dr.  Rosa  gave  briefly  the  report 
of  the  meeting  held  in  January  and  also  stated  the  principal 
events  that  had  occurred  since  then  as  far  as  the  particular 
question  of  safety  codes  was  concerned. 

Inasmuch  as  this  work  is  intimately  related  with  the 
adoption  of  various  standards,  the  organization  of  the 
American  Engineering  Standards  Committee  and  its  pro- 
posed reorganization  had  formed  one  of  the  topics  of  dis- 
cussion at  the  first  meeting.  Professor  Adams  was  called 
upon  to  report  on  the  reorganization  of  the  American 
Engineering  Standards  Committee  which  had  been  but  re- 
cently effected.  This  reorganization  necessitated  changing 
the  constitution  of  the  committee,  which  has  now  been 
modified  to  permit  of  additional  membership. 

Professor  Adams  mentioned  that  Dr.  P.  D.  Agnew  of 
the  Bureau  of  Standards  had  been  appointed  secretary  of 
the  committee  and  will  maintain  his  office  in  the  Engineer- 
ing Societies  Building,  New  York  City.  Due  to  the  press 
of  other  duties,  Dr.  Adams  has  been  compelled  to  resign 
the  chairmanship  of  the  committee,  and  Mr.  A.  A.  Steven- 
son, vice-president  of  the  Standard  Steel  Corporation,  has 
been  elected  chairman  to  succeed  him. 

Relative  to  the  matter  of  dues.  Professor  Adams  stated 
that  the  present  five  founder  societies  represented  and  the 
three  Government  departments,  i.  e.,  the  American  Society 
of  Civil  Engineers,  the  American  Society  of  Mechanical 
Engineers,  the  American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers, 
the  American  Institute  of  Mining  and  Metallurgical  Engi- 
neers, the  American  Society  for  Testing  Materials,  the  War 
Department,  the  Navy  Department  and  the  Department  of 
Commerce  (Bureau  of  Standards),  are  supposed  to  pay  a 
fee  of  $500  for  each  representative,  and  they  will  have  three 
representatives  each. 

The  American  Engineering  Standards  Committee  does 
not  prepare  any  standards  under  the  rules  of  procedure. 
The  Standards  Committee  appoints  a  sponsor  body  and  the 
sponsor  body  prepares  the  standards. 



Referring  to  the  need  of  such  standardization  work,  Pro- 
fessor Adams  pointed  out  that  in  the  single  matter  of 
.symbols  for  the  wiring  of  buildings  there  are  fourteen 
different  organizations,  each  with  a  complete  set  of  sym- 
bols. In  cases  like  this,  the  whole  purpose  is  to  reduce  these 
multitudinous  standards  to  a  single  satisfactory  standard. 

Dr.  Lloyd  of  the  Bureau  of  Standards  then  presented 
a  survey  of  the  many  subjects  now  covered  by  industrial 
safety  codes. 

At  the  afternoon  session  Dr.  W.  L.  Chancy  of  the 
Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  spoke  upon  the  subject  of 
survey  of  industrial  safety  codes.  He  stated  that  it  is  not 
the  function  of  this  bureau  either  to  produce  or  criticize 
safety  codes,  but  rather  to  check  up  results,  namely,  to 
find  out  what  is  the  actual  effect  of  putting  into  operation 
safety  codes. 

Mr.  Collett  spoke  on  behalf  of  the  American  Society  of 
Mechanical  Engineers  and  reviewed  the  standardization 
work  done  by  that  body. 

Mr.  W.  S.  Paine,  representing  Mr.  Van  Schaack  of  the 
Aetna  Life  Insurance  Co.,  recently  president  of  the  Na- 
tional Safety  Council,  said  in  part :  "Speaking  in  the  light 
of  our  experience  as  an  insurance  company  and  in  working 
on  safety  codes  with  engineering  committees,  industrial 
boards  and  commissions,  we  have  formed  the  belief  that 
no  one  organization  alone,  even  with  the  support  of  the 
law,  can  formulate  a  code  covering  any  one  of  the  numer- 
ous safety  subjects  in  such  a  way  as  to  be  generally  accept- 
able and  of  the  greatest  possible  service  to  all. 

"A  single  organization  ran  effectively  sponsor  a  code, 
but  it  will  obtain  practical  and  uniform  results  only  by 
giving  the  engineer,  the  manufacturer,  industrial  boards 
and  all  organizations  interested  an  opportunity  to  con- 
tribute their  criticisms  and  often  add  pertinent  and  valu- 
able information — in  fact,  to  take  a  real  part  in  the  making 
of  the  code." 

Mr.  Rausch  offered  the  following  resolution,  which  was 
later  adopted : 

"RESOLVED,  That  the  American  Engineering  Standards 
Committee  be  asked  to  request  the  International  Associa- 
tion of  Industrial  Accident  Boards  and  Commissions,  the 
Bureau  of  Standards  and  the  National  Safety  Council  to 
organize  a  joint  committee  on  safety  codes,  this  committee 
to  include  representatives  of  these  bodies ;  second,  that 
this  joint  committee  report  upon' the  safety  codes  required, 
giving  priority  of  consideration  to  the  codes  that  should 
be  taken  up  and  the  body  that  should  be  sponsor  for  them ; 
and,  third,  that  this  report  be  put  in  writing  and  placed 
not  later  than  February,  1920,  in  the  hands  of  the  American 
Engineering  and  Standards  Committee." 

Mr.  S.  J.  Williams,  secretary  and  chief  engineer  of  Na- 
tional Safety  Council,  in  discussing  the  proposal  of  Dr. 
Rosa  for  the  appointment  of  an  advisory  committee  to  the 
Bureau  of  Standards,  stated  that  to  formulate  these  stand- 
ards, so  that  they  will  be  accepted,  the  various  interests 
must  have  representation  and  not  merely  the  chance  to 
criticize  and  then  have  the  criticism  adopted  or  rejected 
in  a  further  executive  session  at  which  no  representation 
is  had. 

A  motion  to  the  effect  that  the  conference  indorse  the 
proposal  to  put  safety  standards  under  the  auspices  of  the 
American  Engineering  Standards  Committee,  as  now  or- 
ganized, was  unanimously  carried. 

At  an  informal  meeting  of  representatives  of  the  three 
organizations  named  in  the  resolution  adopted  plans  were 
made  for  organizing  the  general  advisory  committee  at 

once,  probably  arranging  for  a  meeting  in  January.  Before 
this  time  information  will  be  gathered  as  to  what  codes  are 
now  being  written  or  revised  in  the  various  States  and 
the  general  advisory  committee  will  probably  recommend 
that  these  subjects  be  given  first  attention.  This  commit- 
tee will  report  to  the  American  Engineering  Standards 
Committee  not  later  than  Feb.  I,  and  the  definite  assign- 
ment of  sponsorships  to  the  National  Safety  Council,  the 
Bureau  of  Standards  and  others  will  doubtless  follow. 

We  may,  therefore,  look  forward  with  reasonable  cer- 
tainty to  having  within  as  short  a  time  as  practicable  codes 
on  at  least  the  most  important  phases  of  safety,  provided 
by  representative  and  competent  committees,  and  worthy 
of  general  acceptance  by  State  and  other  authorities. 

Engineering  News  from  Europe 

Engineers    and    Architects    Co-operate    to    Revive 
Agriculture  in  Belgium 

Great  efforts  are  being  made  to  revive  agriculture  in 
Belgium.  Belgian  engineers  and  architects  helped  to  or- 
ganize an  important  exhibition  held  at  the  Palais  d'Egmont, 
Brussels,  in  September,  1919,  with  the  assistance  of  the 
Belgian  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  which  was  followed  by 
an  important  conference.  Agricultural  work  during  the 
war  was  dealt  with,  as  well  as  its  reconstruction.  Models 
and  plans  of  various  types  of'  farm  and  country  houses 
were  shown,  which  were  considered  suitable  to  improve 
and  revive  agriculture,  and  proper  drainage,  sewerage 
and  sanitation  were  also  dealt  with.  It  appears  that  during 
the  war  many  farmhouses  were  erected  and  farms  formed. 
Each  Belgian  Province  participated  in  the  exhibition. 

Belgian  Town  Planning  Information 

A  big  exhibition  is  being  organized  at  Liege,  Belgium, 
for  February,  1920,  by  the  Association  des  Architectes  de 
Liege,  U.  P.  A.  Lg.  (Belgium).  The  association  will 
exhibit  any  drawings,  models,  etc.,  illustrating  engineering, 
architectural  and  other  matters  in  connection  with  town 
planning  and  allied  subjects.  These  should  preferably 
show  planning  and  construction  suitable  for  Belgium. 
M.  A.  Snyers,  architecte  diplome,  president,  Association 
des  Architectes,  of  62  rue  Louvres,  Liege,  is  president  of 
the  exhibition,  while  the  general  secretary  is  M.  Maurice 
Legrand,  44  rue  Darches,  Liege.  A  similar  exhibition 
was  held  at  Brussels  during  September,  1919. 

In  regard  to  the  Liege  exhibition,  it  has  been  decided 
to  display  plans  showing  the  proposed  reconstruction  and 
remodeling  of  the  city  and  its  environs,  models  of  new 
bridges  to  be  constructed,  and  plans  and  models  of  various 
garden  cities  to  be  erected  on  the  outskirts. 

The  Organizing  Committee  reports  that  it  has  the  co- 
operation and  assistance  of  engineers,  surveyors,  etc., 
holding  official  posts,  and  burgomasters  of  the  adjoining 
towns.  Further,  the  committee  reports  that  it  has  been 
engaged  on  the  problem  of  the  reconstruction  of  Vise 
(where  the  German  armies  entered  Belgium),  during  the 
past  four  years,  and  has  had  the  assistance  of  MM. 
Jacquemin,  Ingenieur  des  Fonts  et  Chaussees,  and  Yer- 
cheval,  Ingenieur  des  Chemins  de  Fer  de  1'Etat. 

The  new  railway  track  constructed  by  the  Germans  in 
the  vicinity  is  to  be  preserved,  also  the  station  at  Vise, 
but  many  new  tracks  are  to  be  constructed  in  the  district, 
the  Metise  is  to  be  canalized,  and  a  number  of  bridges  are 
to  be  erected. 


i  ;i 






NUMBER  2302 



The  Architectural  League  Exhibition 

in  New  York 

A  Fire  and  Its  Lessons 

FROM  the  date  of  its  organization,  the  Archi- 
tectural League  of  New  York  has  been  a 
progressive  body.  Its  annual  exhibitions 
marked  the  high  point  in  shows  of  current  archi- 
tecture. It  has  always  been  abreast  of  the  times, 
and  it  has  guarded  as  a  duty,  every  good  phase 
of  architectural  practice.  The  Architectural  League 
of  New  York  was  among  the  first,  if  not  acutally 
the  first  organization  of  architects  to  realize  that  it 
was  a  duty  of  the  profession  not  only  to  exploit 
everything  that  was  good  in  architecture,  but  also 
to  take  under  its  care  all  those  many  phases  of  the 
arts  and  crafts  that  are  allied  to  architecture. 

In  doing  this  there  was  displayed  the  most  in- 
sistent and  the  most  dignified  manifestation  that 
the  architect  is  the"  master  builder  and  that  it  is 
under  his  patronage,  good  influence  and  guidance 
that  all  those  who  contribute  to  the  completed 
building  might  rightfully  look  for  support  and  en- 

couragement. With  these  high  ideals  always  in 
mind,  and  with  groups  of  men  working  harmoni- 
ously and  in  the  best  spirit  of  co-operation,  the 
exhibits  in  New  York  of  the  Architectural  League 
have  become  the  art  event  of  each  exhibition 

The  very  proper  attitude  of  those  who  have  di- 
rected the  course  of  the  League  has  inspired  con- 
fidence in  everyone  in  every  art  and  craft  that 
might  properly  submit  material  for  exhibition. 
And,  as  the  League's  exhibitions  had  reached  so 
high  a  plane  of  art  and  of  practical  work  in  the  arts, 
those  who  submitted  exhibits  felt  it  a  duty  to  send 
the  very  best  they  had.  Every  architect  took  from 
his  files  some  cherished  drawing,  some  irreplace- 
able example  of  his  work.  The  mural  painter,  who 
had  worked  hard  and  with  all  the  art  he  had  on 
some  decoration  that  meant  hours  of  patient  effort 
and  many  dollars  in  commission,  postponed  its  de- 

Copyright,  1920,  The  Architectural  &•  Building  Press  (Inc.) 


livery  that  he  might  first  send  it  to  the  League. 
Sculptors  sent  their  finished  marbles  or  casts  of 
heroic  size,  and  craftsmen  from  all  the  many 
branches  of  their  art  sent  potteries,  forged  steel 
and  iron,  stamped  leather  and  wonderfully  woven 
fabrics.  Each  one  sent  the  best  he  had.  They  knew 
that  nothing  less  would  be  fitting  for  so  fine  an 

This   is   set   down   to   indicate   the   high   artistic 
value  of  the  great  lot  of  things  that  the  League 

charred  fragments.  The  intense  heat  caused  the 
glass  skylighted  ceiling  to  splinter  and  crash  to  the 
floor,  bringing  with  it  three  of  the  four  walls  of 
the  Gallery.  The  ruin  was  complete,  the  loss  abso- 
lutely total. 

Standing  in  the  doorway  of  the  front  or  prac- 
tically undamaged  part  of  the  building,  that  occu- 
pied as  offices  by  the  various  societies  and  the  class 
rooms  of  the  Art  Students'  League,  an  indescriba- 
ble scene  of  wreck  and  ruin  was  presented.  One 


had  gathered  for  this  year's  exhibition.  Every- 
thing was  ready.  In  a  few  short  hours  the  formal 
dinner  that  opens  these  exhibitions  was  to  be  held, 
and  then — the  fire  came. 

At  about  10:30  on  the  morning  of  Friday,  Janu- 
ary 3Oth,  there  was  a  muffled  explosion  in  the 
northern  end  of  the  Vanderbilt  Gallery.  A  long 
blue-  flame  shot  out,  indicating  a  short  circuit  of 
the  electrical  wiring.  This  flame  leaping  to  the 
burlap-covered  walls,  spread  rapidly  to  every  part 
of  the  main  gallery  and  thence  to  the  smaller  gal- 
leries. In  the  short  space  of  an  hour  what  it  had 
taken  weeks  to  prepare  was  reduced  to  a  heap  of 

might  look  directly  out-of-doors  where  high  up  on 
the  surrounding  buildings,  firemen  were  silhou- 
etted, playing  great  streams  of  water  that  flowed 
in  turbid  streams  all  over  what  but  two  hours  be- 
fore was  a  .fairyland  of  color  and  form. 

Viewing  all  this,  the  thought  became  insistent  a? 
to  just  what  it  all  really  meant.  There  are  many 
points  of  view  that  might  be  considered,  the  first 
that  of  the  artists  who  had  created  all  the  many 
things  that  had  now  gone  up  in  flame  and 
smoke.  We  might,  if  you  like,  calculate  the  money 
value  of  anything.  We  could  take  the  sordid,  cold- 
blooded attitude  of  the  insurance  adjuster  who 



with  pencil  and  paper  tries  to  reach  a  total  that 
will  conservatively  state  the  money  loss.  But  he 
cannot,  and  no  one  can,  compute  the  loss  that  is 
experienced  by  any  of  the  many  men  who  had  put 
into  some  certain  creation  all  they  had  of  skill,  of 
love  for  their  art,  the  deep  and  abiding  satis- 
faction that  goes  with  the  creation  of  the  beautiful. 
These  things  that  are  lost  can  never  be  replaced. 
There  is  no  matrix  in  the  artist's  mind  that  lets 
him  duplicate  his  work.  But,  fortunately,  it  is 
such  happenings  that  develop  in  every  true  artist 
a  spirit  of  stubborn  resistance  to  the  very  fate  of 
things.  While  we  may  see  no  duplication  of  any  of 
the  things  this  fire  has  wiped  out,  there  will  spring, 

humiliation  and  one  is  prepared  to  read  in  the 
daily  press  of  other  and  much  smaller  cities  some 
comparisons  that  will  hurt  New  York's  artistic 

Had  there  been  any  other  place  in  New  York 
with  gallery  space,  it  is  safe  to  assume  that  the 
Architectural  League  would  in  twenty-four  hours 
have  set  about  the  assembling  of  a  new  exhibition 
and  that  there  would  not  occur  any  lapse  in  the 
exhibitions  annually  held  by  this  society.  The 
shame  of  it  is  that  there  is  no  such  place.  We  have 
wealth  enough  in  this  city,  and  we  have  had  men 
who  have  spent  large  sums  of  money  in  acquiring 
collections  which  they  have  finally  given  to  the  city, 



phoenix-like,  from  the  ashes,  a  determination  to 
excel,  and  in  this  determination,  this  indomitable 
spirit  that  is  the  very  fabric  of  true  art,  we  shall 
4'eap  richly  in  the  future  as  we  have  sown  richly 
in  the  past. 

A  further  thought  will  occur  to  the  man,  either 
professional  artist,  or  of  that  constantly  increasing 
group  of  men  who  love  art  for  art's  sake,  and  who 
do  what  they  can  to  encourage  its  progress.  The 
further  thought  will  be  that  with  the  destruction  of 
the  Vanderbilt  Galleries,  the  great  city  of  New 
York  with  its  millions  of  people  and  billions  of 
wealth  has  no  home  to-day  where  art  and  those 
who  create  it  might  find  shelter. 

The  thought  is  not  a  pleasant  one.  It  does  not 
bring  a  sense  of  civic  pride.  It  creates  a  feeling  of 



but  only  when  they  were  assured  it  would  be  prop- 
erly housed.  It  may  be  well  enough  to  gratify 
civic  pride  as  to  money  to  buy  old  Dutch  masters 
for  $300,000  apiece  and  house  them  in  a  Fifth 
Avenue  mansion.  But  we  in  the  United  States, 
we  who  have  the  true  spirit  of  nationalism  and 
who  want  to  see  this  country  not  only  first  as  a 
financial  power  but  also  as  the  art  center  of  the 
world,  have  small  sympathy  with  ostentation  that 
glorifies  an  art  which  is  dead  and  with  a  curious 
perversity  neglects  to  encourage  an  art  that  is  just 
coming  to  life. 

If  some  one  of  our  wealthy  men  would  buy  three 
hundred  American  paintings  at  a  thousand  dollars 
each,  and  if  some  other  would  provide  a  building 
sufficiently  large,  fire-proof  and  adequate  to  lodge 










X  5 

3  5  3 

—  —  * 

,  o"  u 

I— 1  rs  -t; 

J  £  H 

ffi  Hi  V 

^  ^  < 

<•  —! 

§  2  if 

M  JI  K 

w  a  f 

—  o 



3  I 

W  x 








all  of  our  Fine  Arts  Societies,  they  would  become 
public  benefactors  in  the  largest  sense. 

As  long  as  art  in  New  York  is  confronted  with 
the  present  difficult  conditions  as  to  an  adequate 
home  it  will  be  an  ill  wind  if  it  does  not  waft  to  the 
men  who  can  most  readily  lend  aid,  a  proper  sense 
of  the  duty  that  is  always  an  accompaniment  of 
large  wealth. 

The  art  societies  are  not  bankrupt.  In  fact 
many  of  them,  particularly  the  National  Academy, 
have  large  funds  with  which  to  join  successfully 
in  any  well-considered  Fine  Arts  building.  Such 
a  building  will  be  an  undertaking  of  great  magni- 
tude. It  will  need  to  provide  space  for  offices, 


meeting  or  club  rooms,  but  more  important  than 
all,  it  will  need  gallery  space  wherein  at  least  two 
large  exhibitions  may  at  the  same  time  be  held.  If 
it  is  made  accessible  to  all  the  people,  there  are 
enough  of  the  masterpieces  of  the  world  in  this 
country  to  afford  adequate  education  in  old  art. 
We  need  some  opportunities  to  study  and  encour- 
age our  American  artists.  It  is  a  pity  that  we 
have  to  burn  up  very  near  a  million  dollars  worth  of 
American  art  to  show  the  men  who  could,  if  they 
would,  help  in  these  matters,  how  fast  we  are 
growing.  Unless  some  arrangement  is  soon  per- 
fected, there  will  necessarily  be  a  postponement 
in  New  York  until  next  Fall  of  all  the  projected 
Spring  exhibitions. 

The  most  important  of  these  will  be  that  of  the 
National    Academy.       This    society    will    require 


greater  wall  space  than  any  other,  and  its  important 
position  as  the  leading  art  society  in  this  country 
and  the  high  class  of  its  exhibitions  demands  dig- 
nified surroundings.  This  exhibition  should  not 
lapse  because  of  this  fire.  There  is  ample  space, 
or  there  can  be  provided  ample  space  in  the  Met- 
ropolitan Museum,  and  it  is  there  that  the  Spring 
Academy  Exhibition  should  be  held. 

The  man   who  loved   New   York   and   who   has 




been  dead  these  ten  years,  would  if  he  came  to  life 
and  witnessed  an  exhibition  of  the  Academy  in 
the  Metropolitan  Museum,  doubt  the  accuracy  of  his 
eyesight.  How  he  had  hoped  and  hoped  for  years 
that  he  might  see  a  representative  collection  of 
American  pictures  in  America's  leading  art  mu- 
seum !  How  many  hours  had  he  in  life  spent  toiling 
through  galleries  hung  often  with  mediocre  foreign 
art,  and  with  many  a  so-called  old  master,  some 
of  doubtful  authenticity?  And  now,  here,  in  the 
museum,  was  to  be  seen  a  group  of  American  pic- 
tures proving  that  the  artist's  claim  for  recognition 
was  founded  on  good  art,  and  proving  that  it 

would  be  neither  tactful  nor  wise  in  the  future  to 
ignore  his  right  to  recognition. 

These  things  as  the  result  of  this  fire,  crowd  the 
minds  of  men  who  find  something  in  life  worth 
while  besides  the  frenzied  chase  of  the  dollar.  They 
hope  that  the  lesson  now  learned  at  so  much  cost 
will  prove  a  lasting  one.  Will  it?  We  must  pa- 
tiently wait  to  know. 

Dreaming  of  these  things,  and  many  will  sneer- 
ingly  say  they  are  dreams,  we  have  failed  to  say 
much  of  the  exhibition  of  the  League,  and  must 
now  set  out  to  do  so  which,  in  fact,  was  the  very 
thing  it  was  essayed  to  do  at  the  outset. 











The  Exhibition 

VIEWED  in  detail,  the  1920  Exhibition  of 
the  Architectural  League  of  New  York  came 
nearer  than  ever  before  to  what  it  aimed  to 
be,  an  exposition  of  contemporaneous  American  de- 
sign and  craftsmanship.  The  general  scheme  of  the 
exhibition  was  created  under  the  chairmanship  of 
Howard  Greenley.  It  contemplated  the  use  of  the 
South  or  entrance  gallery  for  distinctly  archi- 
tectural work,  while  the  Vanderbilt  gallery  was 
given  over  to  large  sized  sculpture  and  decorative 
material.  Along  the  four  walls  of  this  gallery, 
alcoves  were  formed,  and  these,  each  in  the  charge 
of  a  member  of  the  League,  were  made  as  beauti- 
ful as  it  was  possible  to  achieve.  Each  room  or 
alcove  was  complete  in  itself,  and  contained  all  the 
accessories  and  refinements  that  the  most  skillful 
craftsmen  could  produce  and  the  best  trained  ar- 
tistic taste  could  accomplish. 

Here  was  afforded  opportunity  to  attain  an  object 

that  they  had  undoubtedly  many  times  striven  for 
in  their  practice,  but  never  were  altogether  able 
to  achieve.  That  object  was  the  decoration  and 
arrangement  of  rooms  that  would  harmonize  in 
every  respect  to  period  styles  of  furniture,  decor- 
ation and  accessories.  We  know  the  vandalism  of 
the  newly  rich,  and  even  the  but  moderately  well- 
to-do.  Every  architect  has  had  horrible  evidence 
as  to  what  havoc  a  client  could  work  on  a  well 
designed  interior  when  accompanied  by  a  well- 
filled  purse  and  a  poorly  developed  sense  of  the 
fitness  of  things.  So  then,  the  men  who  set  about 
creating  these  alcoves,  in  transferring  so  many 
square  feet  of  space  into  a  beautiful  and  suggestive 
interior,  went  about  it  con  amore,  with  all  the 
heart,  enthusiasm  and  good  taste  they  could  com- 

It  is  a  great  pity  that  the  public  could  not  have 
seen  these  things.     Surely  the  public  needs  edu- 






eating  and  in  no  direction  more  seriously  than  that 
which  lets  its  architect  mind  his  own  business. 
Here  was  evidence  as  to  what  good  taste  based  on 
knowledge,  correct  training  and  a  properly  de- 
veloped artistic  sense  could  create.  Nor  must  it 
be  inferred  that  these  alcoves  had  appeal  to  but 
the  very  rich.  Color  is  color  as  form  is  form. 
So  that  we  may  have  the  most  beautiful  harmony 
of  color,  the  most  correct  interpretation  of  form, 
and  it  will  not  necessarily  be  so  expensive  as  to 
be  outside  of  the  reach  of  the  man  of  moderate 
means.  But  any  man  who  retains  an  architect  is 
not  wise  if  he  overrules  his  judgment.  These 
alcoves  would  have  served  to  make  the  impetuous 

client  pause  and  consider  if  it  would  not  be  better 
to  give  his  architect  his  own  way  as  long  as  he 
works  within  the  limit  of  the  appropriation. 

It  is  such  object  lessons  that  would  have  made 
this  a  valuable  exhibition  to  the  general  public  ex- 
actly in  the  same  way  that  previous  League  exhi- 
bitions have  served  to  preach  quiet  texts  in  the  art 
advancement  of  the  people. 

The  sculpture,  in  marble,  bronze  and  the  plaster 
cast,  was  a  beautiful  feature  of  the  Vanderbilt 
Gallery.  These  are  now  ruined,  and  will  represent 
a  very  decided  loss  to  the  sculptor's  art.  There 
were  examples  by  Daniel  Chester  French.  Herman 
A.  MacNeil,  A.  Stirling  Calder,  Mrs.  Whitney,  and 
others  whose  work  is  favorably  known  to  archi- 
tects. The  grouping  and  arrangement  was  carried 
out  with  admirable  skill.  In  fact  the  Vanderbilt 
Gallery  of  the  Fine  Arts  Building  had  never  before 
contained  so  much  of  good  art  so  well  displayed. 

The   South   Gallery,   while   lacking  in  the  spec- 


tacular  aspect  of  its  neighbor,  was  yet  the  very 
foundation  on  which  the  entire  exhibition  based 
its  right  to  existence.  This  was  the  gallery  of 
architectural  exhibits.  Conservative  ones,  or  those 




who  will  insist  they  are  conservative,  have  claimed 
there  was  a  decadence  in  the  purely  architectural 
exhibition  because  of  the  lack,  or  absence  of  purely 
architectural  drawings,  those  strictly  technical 
aspects  of  plan  and  section  and  elevation.  But  it 
is  to-day  acknowledged,  and  wisely  so,  we  believe, 
that  the  true  mission  of  the  correctly  promoted 
architectural  exhibition  is  the  education  of  the 

public  and  not  of  the  profession.  For  this  good 
reason,  those  in  charge  of  these  exhibitions  have 
encouraged  the  presentation  of  architectural  sub- 
jects by  means  of  well  taken  photographs,  either 
direct  or  enlarged.  The  result  is  satisfactory  and 
gives  the  casual  visitor  a  much  better  idea  of  the 
work  than  he  could  obtain  through  a  series  of 
technical  drawings  he  was  unable  to  comprehend. 




".  i' 


Of  course  there  were  finely  prepared  competition 
drawings  which  showed  the  skill  of  draftsmanship 
and  perhaps  accented  the  fact  that  our  recent  compe- 
titions have  not  been  the  means  of  bringing  out 
a  large  amount  of  originality  in  design.  During 
the  war,  many  men  served  long  and  faithfully  in 
the  arduous  work  of  the  Mousing  Division  of  the 

Government.  Men  who  for  years  had  success- 
fully planned  and  designed  our  most  pretentious 
country  and  city  houses,  placed  all  of  this  rare  ex- 
perience at  the  service  of  the  nation,  and  got  down 
to  the  problem  of  the  $1,200  house  "in  cargo  lots." 
Wherever  one  might  have  looked  through  this  archi- 
tectural exhibition  one  might  have  found  the  work 




of  these  men,  these  major  generals  of  architecture 
who  served  as  architectural  privates,  and  then  at- 
tain a  correct  idea  as  to  the  great  value  of  the 
services  of  these  men  in  the  development  of  the 
finest  ideals  of  housing  and  the  most  correct  way 
of  sheltering  our  laboring  population.  We  are 
to-day  before  all  the  world  in  the  development 
and  planning  of  the  country  house.  It  would 
be  a  revelation  if  all  of  the  good  stuff  that  cov- 
ered these  walls  could  be  reproduced  and  sent 
broadcast.  And  with  this  wonderful  development 
of  our  suburban  architecture,  who  will  doubt  that 
the  architects  are  at  the  same  time  teaching  the 
people  how  to  live  higher  and  better  lives.  Cer- 
tainly a  man  and  all  his  family  will  strive  for 
higher  ideals  in  a  well  designed  house  than  he  pos- 
sibly could  do  in  one  that  he  knew  lacked  every 
essential  of  good  architecture. . 

It  is  these  things  that  impressed  the  visitor  to  this 
last,  and  what  would  have  been  certainly  acclaimed 
as  the  League's  most  successful  attempt.  No  use 
to  mourn  a  loss  that  cannot  be  replaced.  But,  to 
indulge  a  prophecy — the  1921  exhibition  of  the 
Architectural  League  of  New  York  will  be  the 
greatest  and  most  complete  ever  held  in  this 

For  Better  Education  of  Craftsmen 

The  Industrial  Arts  Council  has  recently  been 
organized  to  develop  ways  and  means  for  establish- 
ing a  practical  method  of  educating  American  de- 
signers and  craftsmen.  At  the  first  meeting,  held 
February  loth,  in  New  York,  twenty-nine  indus- 
trial, art  and  educational  organizations  were  repre- 

sented by  delegates.  \Y.  Frank  Purdy  of  the  Gor- 
ham  Co.  was  elected  chairman  and  John  Clyde  Os- 
wald, editor  of  the  American  Printer,  vice-chair- 

The  organizations  represented  included :  Archi- 
tectural League  of  Xew  York,  Art  Alliance  of 
America,  Chamber  of  Commerce  of  the  State  of 
New  York,  Association  of  Commercial  Artists, 
National  Society  of  Craftsmen,  National  Society 
of  Decorative  Arts  and  Industries,  Association  of 
Manufacturers  of  Decorative  Furniture,  Society 
of  Interior  Decorators,  Monumental  Crafts  Asso- 
ciation, Municipal  Art  Society,  National  Arts  Club 
and  others. 

The  subject  for  discussion  was  "City,  State  and 
Federal  Interest  in  Industrial  Art  Education."  The 
speakers  included  William  T.  Bawden  of  the  Bureau 
of  Education  at  Washington,  Leon  P.  Winslow  of 
New  York  State  University,  and  James  P.  Haney, 
director  of  Art  in  the  City  High  Schools.  "We  are 
two  generations  behind  Europe  in  our  art  educa- 
tion," said  Dr.  Haney.  "The  present  situation  is 
that  we  have  an  unexpected  demand  for  talent ;  we 
have  gifted  young  people  but  there  are  few  oppor- 
tunities for  training.  The  economic  conditions  de- 
mand an  immediate  effort  to  supply  well-trained  de- 
signers and  craftsmen.  Manufacturers,  artists  and 
educators  must  unite  to  accomplish  this.  Mobilizing 
our  forces  is  necessary,  and  the  Industrial  Arts 
Council  can  do  much  to  bring  this  about.  Every 
manufacturer  should  feel  it  his  duty  and  his  privi- 
lege to  aid  this  movement."  Further  details  can  be 
secured  from  the  office  of  the  Council  at  10  East 
Forty-seventh  Street. 



In  order  to  supply  our  readers  with  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment 
appearing  in  issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of 
actual  rather  than  stated  date  of  publication. 

Joseph  Pennell  Sketches  the  Bill- 
board Nuisance 

rHE  American  Magazine  of  Art  in  its  Jan- 
uary issue  reproduces  a  series  of  sketches  by 
Joseph  Pennell  graphically  setting  forth  his  im- 
pressions of  the  ever-present  billboard.  These  pic- 
tures present  the  fact  that  billboards  have  now  be- 
come a  serious  menace  to  the  aspect  out-of-doors 
in  a  more  insistent  way  than  could  any  number  of 
well-written  words. 

They  show  that  there  can  be  no  picturesqueness 
of  view,  no  well-considered  civic  development  that 
is  safe  from  the  blatant  and  vulgar  intrusion  of 
these  signs.  And  they  also  prove  what  it  is  be- 
lieved will  eventually  serve  to  curtail  the  selfish 
activity  of  these  advertisers,  that  billboards  de- 
preciate property  to  a  greater  or  less  extent,  par- 
ticularly when  placed  within  city  limits. 

Mr.  Pennell,  writing  of  billboards  and  the  ap- 
parently large  increase  in  their  number,  attributes 
this  increase  to  the  fact  that  during  the  war  this 
Government  used  the  billboard  to  the  fullest  extent 
to  further  its  recruiting  service  and  its  various 
loan  "drives."  The  necessities  of  that  strenuous 
period  silenced  all  objections.  It  was  a  usual  sight 
to  see  billboards  fronting  monumental  buildings 
and  lining  the  most  aristocratic  thoroughfares. 
The  wily  promoters  of  billboard  enterprises  have 
been  keen  to  sense  the  advertising  value  of  such 
desirable  locations  and  have  in  many  instances  been 
able  to  continue  a  nuisance  that  was  only  originally 
tolerated  through  patriotic  patience. 

It  is  now  time  that  every  municipality  should  see 
to  it  that  billboards  are  restricted  in  their  placement 
and  that  such  locations  as  are  permitted  should  be 
decided  with  reference  to  their  damaging  effect 
on  neighboring  real  estate  values. 

The  large  number  of  people  that  form  the  travel- 
ing public  also  have  rights  and  privileges  in  the 
out-of-doors  that  the  promoters  of  billboards  con- 
stantly infringe.  To  the  person  who  likes  to  view 

the  open  country  from  motor  car  or  railroad  train 
or  more  slowly  while  afoot,  the  presence  of  these 
atrocious  signs  is  a  source  of  irritation  that  even 
the  most  patient  mind  cannot  restrain. 

Just  how  long  a  patient  and  much  suffering  pub- 
lic will  tolerate  this  sort  of  thing  cannot  be  foretold, 
but  it  seems  impossible  to  believe  that  the  rights  of 
many  should  be  so  seriously  infringed  by  the  sordid 
graspings  of  these  sign-board  promoters. 

In  fighting  to  make  the  world  safe  for  democracy 
was  not  a  principle  as  herein  involved  part  of  what 
we  fought  for  ? 

A  Regional  Style  of  Architecture 

IT  would  be  futile  to  strive  for  the  evolvement  of 
a  national  type  of  architecture  in  this  country. 
The  difficulties  are  too  well  known  to  require  any 
extended  recapitulation.  The  one  and  perhaps 
principal  retardant,  that  of  the  widely  varying 
climate,  is  in  itself  an  insurmountable  obstacle. 

But  it  is,  as  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  has 
many  times  contended,  quite  possible  to  create 
regional  types,  and  it  should  be  the  duty  of  de- 
signers everywhere  to  develop  such  types  as  far 
as  possible.  The  idea  of  regional  types  is  not  new. 
It  is  now  at  least  ten  years  since  certain  men  prom- 
inent in  the  Middle  West  set  about  the  creation 
of  original  types  of  architecture.  The  efforts  of 
these  men,  excepting  perhaps  those  of  Louis  H. 
Sullivan,  were  not  received  with  the  respect  and 
encouragement  that  might  later  have  led  to  better 
results.  Men  who  strive  for  originality  always 
have  to  confront  and  combat  the  criticism  of  those 
other  and  greater  numbers  who  are  content  to  fol- 
low precedent  straight  on  to  monotony  and  the 
realm  of  the  commonplace. 

Why  is  it  that  while  the  whole  country  is  agreed 
on  the  great  benefits  to  be  secured  from  an  abso- 
lute Americanization,  the  profession  of  archi- 
tecture should  as  a  critical  body  withhold  its  in- 
fluence and  deny  support  to  any  effort  to  Ameri- 


canizc  our  architecture?  Why  is  the  Institute  so 
neglectful  of  these  important  things?  THE  AMER- 
ICAN ARCHITECT  has  been  recently  directing  atten- 
tion to  certain  important  competitions  and  found 
occasion  to  deplore  the  absence  of  originality  of 
expression  in  any  one  of  the  six  designs  submitted. 
There  was  an  opportunity  for  some  brave  man 
with  an  open  mind  as  to  architectural  design  to 
have  submitted  something  that  contained  elements 
of  originality  and  the  suggestion  of  a  new  type. 
Undoubtedly  such  a  design  would  not  have  been 
seriously  considered,  but  undoubtedly  it  would 
have  given  inspiration  to  other  competitors  in  other 
competitions  and  led  the  professional  advisers  to 
a  more  open  mind  for  something  besides  "classical 

THIS  movement  toward  the  development  of 
regional  types  will  require  the  development  of 
a  new  men'.al  attitude  toward  architectural  design 
Men  in  the  profession  will  need  to  become  more 
tolerant,  more  recep'ive.  Architectural  journals 
will  also  need  to  show  a  freer  disposition  to  give 
space  to  the  exponents  of  this  new  movement. 

Here  again,  as  in  most  things  that  now  affect 
l he  future  development  and  logical  practice  of 
architecture  in  this  country,  looms  the  question  of 
education.  As  long  as  the  demonstrative  elements 
of  our  educational  methods  depend  on  century-old 
types  to  instill  new  knowledge  we  shall  continue 
to  copy  and  to  be  commonplace.  The  pedagogical 
rut  must  needs  be  filled  in  and  a  smooth  and  easily 
traveled  way  be  blazed  for  the  architectural  stu- 
dent of  the  future.  This  broad  path  can  only  be 
indicated  by  the  practical  element  of  the  profes- 
sion, and  it  is  safe  to  predict  that  any  future  edu- 
cational me'hods  that  are  not  originated  in  the 
working  ranks  of  architecture  will  achieve  nothing 
of  reform  and  only  serve  further  to  prolong  sys- 
tems now  known  to  be  obsolete. 

If  we  are  to  evolve  those  dis'.inc'.ive  regional 
types  that  are  possible  and  to  encourage  the  effort's 
of  the  men  who  will  strive  to  achieve  them,  the 
future  revision  of  architectural  education  must  be 
in  the  hands  of  that  practical  element,  who  by  long 
experience,  are  able  to  detect  the  germs  of  a  new 
and  better  standard  of  design,  one  that  will  Ameri- 
canize our  architectural  development. 















s  i 






D    K 





UJ      W 

r-.      .  1 

OS       .    H 










VOL.   CXVII,  NO.  2302 


FEBRUARY    4,    1920 



VOL.   CXVH.   NO.  2302 


FEBRUARY    4,    1920 



VOL.  cxvii.  NO.  2302  THE     AMERICAN     ARCHITECT  FEBRUARY  4,  1920 




VOL.   CXVII,   NO.  2302 


FEBRUARY    4,    1920 

••,          HOUSE  OF  C.  E.  CHAMBERS,  RIVEKDALE.  X.  V. 


VOL.  CXVII,  NO.  2302 


FEBRUARY    4,    1920 






VOL.   CXVII,  NO.  2302 


FEBRUARY    4,    1920 



VOL.   CXVII,  NO.  2302 


FEBRUARY    4,    1920 




VOL.   CXVII,  NO.  2302 


FEBRUARY    4,    1929 



Criticism  and  Comment 


I  am  writing  with  a  view  of  making  certain  com- 
ments upon  the  attitude  which  run  through  your 
issue  of  November  26th,  in  reference  to  ''labor." 
During  the  last  five  or  six  years  I  have  made  a 
very  thoughtful  study  of  the  subject,  particularly 
the  subject  of  Guild  organization,  and  I  cannot 
agree  with  Mr.  Hewlett's  report  either  as  to  its 
general  conclusions  or  as  to  his  statements  which 
have  to  do  with  the  organization  and  purposes  of 
the  Guilds.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  Guilds  exer- 
cised a  more  drastic  control  over  production  than 
unionism  has  ever  attempted  to  exercise;  and  the 
break  up  of  the  Guilds  was  due  more  largely  to  the 
gradual  break  down  of  control  than  perhaps  to 
any  other  condition.  The  Guilds  were  associated 
with  petty  trade  and  they  controlled  production. 
The  entrance  of  price  competition  and  the  contam- 
ination of  the  spirit  of  the  Guilds  by  this  institution 
was  what  occasioned  their  disappearance.  This, 
however,  is  rather  beside  the  point. 

What  I  would  call  your  attention  to  is  that 
throughout  this  issue  it  is  apparent  that  you  assume 
that  the  way  to  stimulate  production  is  to  force 
labor  to  accept  the  conditions  which  were  in  force 
in  pre-war  days.  Now  I  do  not  question  your  con- 
clusion if  this  can  be  accomplished,  but  in  my 
judgment  no  power  on  earth  can  force  the  prole- 
tariat back  into  a  position  in  which  it  is  not  to  ex- 
ercise a  far  greater  control  than  ever  before  over 
the  process  of  production.  This  is  the  outstanding 
fact  which  we  must  recogni.'e  in  our  study  of  re- 
cent history  and  in  the  development  of  our  new 
program  of  action. 

I  rate  your  editorial  comments  and  the  attitude 
of  the  Board  of  Directors  as  merely  talk  about  it. 
It  is  utterly  beside  the  point.  I  grant  that  un- 
doubtedly for  a  certain  length  of  time  business  en- 
terprise as  it  is  carried  on  through  its  system  of 
price  competition  may  be  able  to  hold  the  great 
proletariat  to  the  practice  of  the  past,  but  the  force 
will  accumulate  and  such  an  attitude  will  make  an 
overthrow  only  the  more  certain.  I  will  not  con- 
tinue this  argument,  but  I  would  suggest  that  if 
you  were  to  read  "Intellectuals  and  the  Wage 
Worker,"  by  Herbert  Elsworth  Cory,  published  by 
the  Sunwise  Turn,  53  East  44th  St.,  New  York,  you 
would  more  clearly  understand  what  I  am  driving 
at  and  more  accurately  grasp  the  nature  of  this 
movement  and  the  problem  we  are  facing. 

Throughout  this  issue  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHI- 
TECT there  runs  the  implied  suggestion  that  it^  is 
labor  which  is  exercising  sabotage.  Now  I  main- 

tain that  the  sabotage  which  is  exercised  by  labor 
is  but  a  part  of  the  sabotage  which  is  exercised 
by  the  modern  industrial  system  at  this  time.  It 
seems  to  me  that  if  you  study  carefully  the  Brit- 
ish situation  where  not  only  the  Government,  but 
the  contractors,  labor  and  everyone  seems  to 
be  ready  to  embark  upon  the  national  scheme  of 
home  building,  you  will  discover  that  the  only  fac- 
tor which  holds  up  the  operation  is  the  sabotage 
of  capital ;  that  is  to  say  the  building  program  is 
held  up  because  it  does  not  appear  that  under  the 
present  conditions  of  production  and  distribution, 
capital  can  be  guaranteed  a  sufficient  return  and 
a  sufficient  reward  in  the  line  of  increment  to  be 
derived  from  investments  on  houses.  Of  course 
you  may  not  rate  that  as  sabotage,  but  I  cannot 
differentiate  between  the  sabotage  of  labor  which 
stands  out  for  shorter  hours  and  higher  wages 
from  that  of  capital  which  stands  out  for  a  cer- 
tain interest  return  and  increment  of  value  to  be 
derived  from  investment.  At  the  present  juncture 
in  England  the  only  force  which  stalls  the  whole 
operation  is  the  withdrawal  of  capital. 

I  am  not  making  a  plea  necessarily  for  "labor" 
or  the  proletariat,  I  am  merely  suggesting  that  the 
attitude  which  is  now  being  so  generally  assumed 
toward  this  problem  will  get  us  nowhere.  The  at- 
titude is  not  that  of  a  scientific  investigation  into 
the  causes  which  have  made  for  the  conditions  of 
mal-adjustment.  We  take  it  for  granted  that  the 
only  solution  of  this  problem  is  to  return  to  the 
conditions  of  status  quo  ante.  I  maintain,  and 
I  have  all  history  to  back  me  up,  that  there  is  no 
such  thing  possible  as  the  return  to  the  conditions 
of  status  quo  ante.  On  the  whole  the  labor  move- 
ment revolves  around  the  idea  of  gaining  control 
over  the  process  of  production ;  and  the  problem  of 
those  who  rate  themselves  as  intellectuals  or  what 
not  is  to  take  recognition  of  this  fact  and  so  to  or- 
ganize their  program  as  to  avoid  an  overturn 
which  is  absolutely  certain  to  follow  if  we  con- 
tinue in  our  policy  of  attempting  to  suppress  this 


Replying  to  "An  Opinion  on  Competitions"  by 
Mr.  Egerton  Swartwout,  published  in  a  recent 
issue  of  an  architectural  magazine:  it  is  unfortun- 
ate that  the  writer  has  so  confused  the  subject  he 
debates  as  to  retard  a  practical  solution  of  the  dif- 
ficulties the  Institute  is  experiencing  in  its  en- 
deavors to  establish  a  working  code  of  ethics  or 



rules  that  accord  with  the  best  ethics  outside  the 
profession  and  in  accord  with  the  practical  nature 
of  the  functions  of  architects  in  general  society. 

Mr.  Swartwout  has,  perhaps  unconsciously, 
led  the  reader  to  the  inference  that  those  of  the 
Illinois  Chapter  who  proposed  to  revise  the  code 
on  competitions  so  as  to  eliminate  the  present  un- 
tenable and  really  impractical  definitions  of  a  com- 
petition, do  not  really  understand  what  the  code 
really  means,  or  were  not  in  any  way  cognizant 
of  the  conditions  which  led  to  the  adoption  of 
the  code  in  its  present  form. 

There  is,  apparently,  underlying  this  lengthy 
criticism  of  the  attitude  of  the  men  who  are  en- 
deavoring to  revise  the  code — not  the  program,  as 
erroneously  stated — an  endeavor  to  discredit  their 
motives  and  to  impugn  their  knowledge  of  the 
matter  and  the  correctness  of  their  sources  of  in- 

He  advances  the  opinion  that  if  architects  were 
paid  for  submitting  their  several  schemes  or 
sketches  for  the  solution  of  the  same  problem  "the 
Institute  would  forget  its  rules  of  fairness  (the 
model  program,  not  the  code),  and  allow  the  old 
scramble ;"  "that  a  client  who  cannot  afford  to 
pay  his  competitors  is  bound  by  certain  rules,  but 
the  richer  client  can  have  everything  his  own  way ;" 
but  he  hastens  to  credit  the  proposers  of  the  idea 
that  architects  should  be  paid  for  submitting 
sketches  when  no  formal  competition  is  instituted 
with  the  good  sense  that  "they  did  not  look  at  it  in 
that  way  at  all." 

It  is  hardly  likely  that  they  did,  for  in  practice 
if  a  poor  owner  could  not  afford  the  luxury  of 
two  or  more  architects  devising  schemes  for  his 
building  and  if  architects  would  not  submit  sketches 
without  adequate  pay  for  them  he  would  not  order 
or  receive  them,  whereas  the  rich  client  who  de- 
sires to  find  the  best  invention  for  the  solution  of 
his  problem  and  retain  the  right  of  being  his  own 
judge  of  what  he  wants  could  have  as  many 
minds  at  work  as  he  cared  to  pay  for  without  in 
any  way  stultifying  the  architect  or  asking  him 
to  violate  his  code  of  ethics. 

The  evils  cited  by  Mr.  Swartwout  as  having  at 
one  time  and  another  been  encountered  by  him  in 
his  early  experience  in  competitions  are  no  differ- 
ent from  those  experienced  by  many  others  to-day. 
These  could  be  avoided  by  the  simple  expedient 
proposed'  in  the  revision  of  the  code,  which  is, 
that  each  competitor  should  be  paid  for  the  work 
he  does  unless  he  enters  a  formal  unpaid  competi- 
tion. The  banker  would  not  have  asked  Mr. 
Swartwout  to  submit  sketches  to  show  his  inventive 
genius  for  the  solution  of  such  problems  when  he 
had  already  contracted  for  the  architectural  serv- 

ices with  other  architects  if  he  had  known  Mr. 
Swartwout  belonged  to  an  honorable  profession 
that  considered  it  unethical  to  think  out  a  scheme 
for  nothing,  unless,  perchance  he  thought  Mr. 
Swartwout  was  likely  to  suggest  something  so  val- 
uable that  he  could  afford  to  pay  for  both  archi- 
tects, which  might  have  been  the  case  had  the  cus- 
tom of  paying  for  services  rendered  been  estab- 
lished, but  which  Mr.  Swartwout  of  course  could 
not  have  inferred  under  the  present  prevailing 

The  fact  is  that  instances  can  be  shown  where, 
under  the  present  code,  not  less  than  five  repre- 
sentative older  Institute  architects  submit  sketches 
for  the  same  problem  without  an  agreement  or 
understanding  for  payment,  and  when  confronted 
by  the  Institute  code,  each  stands  on  the  alibi  that 
he  did  not  know  (in  fact  probably  could  not  know), 
that  the  same  owner  asked  in  the  same  manner 
other  architects  to  submit  sketches  for  the  same 
project.  Moreover,  they  can  all  take  cover  under 
the  provision  of  the  code  (also  proposed  by  the 
same  gentleman  of  the  same  Chapter  to  be  elim- 
inated), whereby  it  is  ethical  to  submit  sketches 
without  remuneration  where  personal  or  previous 
business  relations  warrant  it. 

The  contention  that  "the  principle  of  competi- 
tion has  been  inherent  in  architecture  since  the 
beginning"  is  to  state  a  cause  constructed  merely 
from  the  owner's  point  of  view.  This  point  of 
view  will,  and  unfortunately,  always  prevail.  A 
promise  based  on  what  men  have  or  have  not  done 
in  the  past  is  not  a  logical  one  to  argue  the  future, 
as  no  one  may  know  what  the  attitude  may  be  to- 
ward the  constantly  changing  present  conditions  as 
influencing  future  action. 

It  is  for  this  reason  that  a  direct  solution  of 
the  problem  of  competitions  is  not  correctly  pos- 
sible. There  can  be  no  definite  selection  of  an 
architect  as  representing  a  certain  definite  scheme, 
and  it  is  for  this  reason  that  competitions  of  one 
sort  or  another  will  always  be  the  resort  of  owners, 
particularly  when  the  problem  presented  requires 
adherence  to  specific  details  of  a  program.  No 
codes  or  rules  formulated  by  the  Institute  can  alter 
the  fact. 

Mr.  Swartwout  rightfully  admits  that  the  In- 
stitute "could  not  say  to  owners  they  must  conduct 
their  competition  along  certain  lines — that  would 
be  an  infringement  of  rights."  But  certainly  the 
Institute  can  fairly  help  to  establish  among  its 
members  such  common  principles  of  ethics  as  that 
the  owner  must  pay  each  man  for  the  effort  he 
makes,  or  if  not  willing  to  pay  each  competitor,  and 
the  architects  are  willing  to  gamble  on  who  gets 
the  pay,  they  can  withhold  their  participation  un- 



less  the  rules  of  the  competition  are  expressed  and 
the  gambling  conducted  on  a  fair  basis.  This,  as 
I  understand  it,  is  what  was  proposed  in  the  re- 
vision of  the  code  in  respect  to  competitions. 

Is  it  not  possible  that  the  men  who  made  a  cer- 
tain proposal  and  whom  Mr.  Swartwout  says  "mis- 
understood," "did  not  know,"  "did  not  consider 
the  matter  carefully,"  "were  dissatisfied  with  re- 
strictions," considered  all  of  these  matters  and 
realized  that  unless  the  Institute  abandons  the  un- 
tenable definition  of  its  prohibited  competitions  and 
eliminates  the  suggestion  that  schemes  and  sketches 
may  be  worked  out  by  its  members  without  remun- 
eration and  brings  its  code  of  so-called  ethics  into 
harmony  with  common  higher  standards  of  ethics 
and  makes  its  mandates  and  prohibitions  accord 
with  the  present  day  advanced  principles  of  service 
in  regard  to  the  servant  and  his  hire,  it  will  con- 
tinue to  repel  the  more  self-respecting  and  con- 
scientious architects  and  lose  whatever  of  good 
influence  and  respect  it  may  have  attained  among 
other  professions  and  businesses? 

It  has  long  been  realized  by  architects,  due  to 
actual  experience,  that  it  is  not  possible  to  practice 
the  code  as  to  competitions  just  as  it  is  written. 
Naturally,  in  view  of  this,  and  the  attitude  shown 
by  architects  in  this  connection,  the  public  logi- 
cally surmises  that  any  group  of  men  who  will  agree 
to  accept  such  and  such  a  code  and  then  continue 
to  violate  it,  are  lacking  in  respect  for  the  Insti- 
tute, are  equally  lacking  in  a  punctilious  regard 
for  agreements  with  one  another  and  to  put  it 
but  mildly,  have  a  perverted  sense  of  ordinary  pro- 
fessional honesty. 

The  Illinois  Chapter  did  not  make  any  sugges- 
tion or  recommendations  for  changing  the  Insti- 
tute form  of  competitions.  What  it  urged  was  a 
revision  of  the  code  as  applying  to  such  competi- 
tions. It  is  therefore  difficult  to  comprehend  why 
Mr.  Swartwout's  championship  of  competitions, 
a  field  in  which  he  has  most  successfully  engaged, 
should  have,  in  its  fervor,  led  him  to  overlook  the 
wisdom  of  a  revision  of  a  code  of  ethics,  which  in 
its  failure  to  safeguard  the  dignities  of  these  im- 
portant architectural  undertakings,  he  undoubtedly 
has  found  many  times  good  reason  for  dissatis- 

Chicago.  HENRY  K.  HOLSMAN. 


In  response  to  the  request  in  your  favor  of  the 
I7th  inst.,  I  take  pleasure  in  sending  you  my  opin- 
ion on  the  question  of  "Payment  for  Estimating," 
which  was  discussed  in  your  issue  of  September  24. 
It  is  my  belief  that  all  estimates  required  by  the 
projectors  of  enterprises  which  involve  engineering 

should  be  made  by  independent  and  unprejudiced 
engineers,  who  should  compute  more  or  less  accur- 
ately (according  to  the  desire  or  necessity  of  the 
projector  and  to  his  willingness  to  pay  adequate 
compensation  for  professional  services)  the  quan- 
tities of  all  materials  that  will  enter  into  the  con- 
struction, determine  by  careful  investigation  the 
unit  prices  therefore  which  will  probably  govern  at 
the  time  of  the  letting,  from  these,  as  data,  estimate 
the  cost  of  each  item,  sum  up  the  costs  thus  found, 
and  add  to  the  total  a  certain  percentage  thereof 
(generally  ten)  to  cover  engineering  and  contin- 
gencies. The  result  will  often  be  just  what  the  pro- 
jector requires ;  but  in  some  cases  there  should  be 
added  also  allowances  for  cost  of  organization, 
brokerage,  loss  by  selling  securities  below  par,  pro- 
moter's overhead  expenses,  and  interest  during  con- 

The  standing  of  the  engineer  who  makes  these 
computations  should  be  so  high  as  to  render  his 
estimate  just  as  reliable  as  that  of  any  contractor — 
in  fact  more  reliable ;  because  the  said  contractor 
would  be  giving  the  opinion  of  one  man  only — and 
of  an  interested  party  at  that — while  the  engineer 
would  aim,  in  determining  his  unit  prices  for  labor 
and  materials,  to  express  the  average  judgment  of 
several  reasonably  low  bidders.  Moreover,  he  could, 
if  he  should  see  fit,  report  the  probable  limits,  for 
low  but  responsible  bids,  above  and  below  his  esti- 
mated total.  In  calling  for  tenders,  the  specifica- 
tions should  be  as  full  and  complete  as  it  is  possible 
to  make  them,  giving  the  bidders  such  an  exhaustive 
statement  of  all  conditions,  that  the  expense  to 
which  they  need  be  put  in  tendering  would  be  a 
bagatelle.  Under  such  circumstances  the  bidders 
should  not  be  paid  anything  for  their  estimates. 

But  if  the  projector  is  not  willing  to  retain  a 
competent  engineer,  or  if  he  objects  to  trusting  en- 
tirely to  his  engineer's  judgment  in  estimating  the 
probable  total  cost,  he  can  submit  to  the  bidders 
specifications  of  a  very  general  character,  and  thus 
necessitate  for  each  one  of  them  an  investigation 
of  all  the  governing  conditions,  a  more-or-less-com- 
plete  design,  and  a  detailed  estimate  of  cost,  with 
profit  added  to  form  the  bid.  In  that  case  it  would 
be  only  just  and  proper  to  pay  each  bidder,  with 
the  possible  exception  of  the  successful  one,  a  fair 
amount  of  money  to  compensate  him  for  his  time 
and  cash  expenditure  in  preparing  the  bidding 

The  result  of  this  method  is  never  as  truly  satis- 
factory as  that  of  the  one  first  described,  although 
the  projector  may  think  it  is ;  and  it  is  sure  to  cost 
him  much  more,  because  the  work  will  have  been 
done  several  times  in  one  case  and  only  once  in  the 



The  preceding  statement  expresses  my  personal 
opinion  based  upon  a  large  professional  practice 
extending  over  a  period  of  forty-four  years,  with 
seven  of  them  devoted  mainly  to  the  contracting 

side  of  construction,  six  all  told  to  teaching  engi- 
neering, and  the  last  twenty-eight  entirely  to  private 

J.  A.  L.  WADDELL. 

Current    News 

Happenings  and  Comment  in  the  Fields  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

In  order  to  supply  our  readers  u'ith  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment  appearing  in 
issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of  actual  rather 
than  stated  date  of  publication. 

First   Annual    Meeting    New   York 
State  Association  of  Architects 

The  first  annual  meeting  of  the  New  York  State  Asso- 
ciation of  Architects  was  held  at  Rochester  on  Feb.  14. 
There  were  about  seventy-five  members  present. 

The  principal  topic  of  discussion  at  the  afternoon  ses- 
sion related  to  the  unionization  of  the  draughtsmen  em- 
ployed in  architects'  offices.  A  letter  was  read  from  the 
general  organizer  of  the  International  Federation  of  Tech- 
nical Engineers,  Architects  and  Draughtsmen  Union, 
which  is  affiliated  with  the  American  Federation  of  Labor, 
asking  that  the  New  York  State  Association  consider  the 
advisability  of  supporting  its  movement  for  the  unioniza- 
tion of  architects  and  draughtsmen. 

After  a  lengthy  discussion  it  was  moved  that  a  com- 
mittee be  appointed  to  confer  with  committees  of  other 
architects'  societies  and  with  associations  of  draughtsmen 
on  the  subject  of  unionization  of  draughtsmen.  This 
committee  will  report  back  to  the  association.  The  intent 
of  the  association  is  to  give  the  committee  an  opportunity 
to  discover  the  proposed  union  and  to  discover  whether 
such  unionization  is  intended  to  improve  the  conditions, 
opportunities  and  educational  advantages  of  architectural 
draughtsmen,  or  whether  it  is  being  formed  simply  to 
obtain  higher  wages. 

It  was  reported  to  the  meeting  that  the  Governor's  Re- 
construction Commission  was  about  to  report  a  recom- 
mendation for  constructive  housing  legislation  for  the 
state.  This  recommendation  may  include  a  clause  giving 
the  state  and  the  municipalities  power  to  issue  bonds  to 
provide  a  fund,  not  to  build  houses,  but  to  loan  money 
on  mortgage  security,  for  the  erection  of  houses  built  up 
to  a  standard  of  light,  air,  accommodations,  etc.,  to  be 
determined  by  the  state  and  municipal  housing  commis- 
sions. A  committee  was  appointed  to  do  everything  pos- 
sible to  further  this  end.  The  members  of  the  association 
were  heartily  in  approval  of  the  work  of  the  Reconstruc- 
tion Commission. 

A  lengthy  discussion  of  the  proposed  amendment  to  the 
bill  requiring  the  registration  of  architects  was  included  in 
the  afternoon  session.  The  matter  was  referred  to  the 
legislative  committee 

The  outline  of  the   scheme  of   the  city  planning  com- 

mission of  Syracuse  was  presented,  and  E.  S.  Gordon,  of 
Rochester,  talked  on  "School  Buildings  in  Rochester." 

The  subject  of  civic  war  memorials  was  taken  up  at  the 
session  following  the  dinner.  It  was  felt  that  more  care 
and  thought  should  be  put  into  the  erection  of  these 
memorials,  and  the  association  will  appoint  a  committee 
of  architects,  which  will  confer  with  any  communities 
that  propose  to  erect  these  memorials. 

The  scarcity  of  building  materials  and  the  general  high 
prices  was  another  topic  that  was  considered  by  the  asso- 
ciation, and  a  number  of  architects  from  various  parts 
of  the  State  told  of  conditions  in  their  different  com- 

In  conjunction  with  the  meeting  of  the  state  association 
a  meeting  of  the  Central  New  York  Chapter  of  the  Amer- 
ican Institute  of  Architects  was  held  at  1.30  o'clock.  This 
Chapter  includes  architects  from  Rochester,  Syracuse, 
Ithaca,  Rome,  Birmingham,  Utica  and  Elmira.  Prof. 
George  Young,  Jr.,  of  Cornell  University,  presided  in  the 
absence  of  Leon  Stern,  of  Rochester,  who  is  president  of 
the  Chapter.  Robert  D.  Kohn.  of  New  York,  made  a  brief 

There  have  been  a  number  of  local  architectural  socie- 
ties formed  in  the  cities  of  the  State  within  the  past  year 
or  so,  and  the  New  York  State  Association  is  on  record 
as  actively  fostering  the  formation  of  such  societies,  so 
that  the  architects  of  each  community  may  act  as  a  unit 
on  all  civic  matters  and  at  the  same  time  become  better 

The  next  issue  of  the  Bulletin  of  the  New  York  State 
Association  will  be  issued  by  the  Rochester  Society  of 
Architects,  with  John  W.  Viccery  as  editor,  the  later 
issues  to  be  made  up  by  the  architects  of  other  cities, 
Utica,  Albany,  etc. 

The  following  were  elected :  President,  Oman  H.  Waltz, 
of  Ithaca ;  first  vice-president,  Robert  D.  Kohn,  of  New 
York;  second  vice-president,  Edward  B.  Green,  of  Buffalo; 
third  vice-president,  Frank  H.  Quimby,  of  Brooklyn ;  sec- 
retary, Walter  G.  Frank,  of  Utica;  treasurer,  Harry  W. 
Greene,  of  Watertown ;  directors,  J.  Riley  Gordon,  of  New 
York ;  Frederick  L.  Ackerman,  of  New  York ;  Gordon  A. 
Wright,  of  Syracuse ;  Maurice  M.  Feustmann,  of  Saranac 
Lake ;  and  W.  P.  Bannister,  of  Brooklyn.  The  place  and 
date  of  next  meeting  were  settled  as  New  York  in  May. 



Monthly  Meeting   Southern 
California  Chapter 

The  one  hundred  and  thirty-second  regular  meeting  of 
the  Southern  California  Chapter  A.  I.  A.  was  held  Jan.  13. 
Retiring  president,  H.  M.  Patterson,  in  the  chair  and 
seventeen  members  present. 

The  guests  of  the  evening  were  the  honorary  members, 
Charles  V.  Lummis,  former  curator  of  Southwest  Mu- 
seum and  one-time  librarian  of  Los  Angeles  Public  Li- 
brary, and  John  W.  Mitchell,  attorney  and  art  student. 

A.  F.  Rosenheim,  chairman  of  the  committee  to  under- 
take the  selection  of  the  most  notable  examples  of  archi- 
tecture in  Los  Angeles  and  vicinity,  made  the  announce- 
ment that  the  selection  of  the  jury  to  judge  the  contest  had 
been  made  as  follows :  Charles  H.  Cheney,  city  planning 
consultant  of  San  Francisco;  Winsor  Soul,  architect, 
Santa  Barbara;  John  T.  Vawter,  architect,  San  Diego; 
John  VV.  Mitchell,  attorney  and  art  student;  John  A.  Corn- 
stock,  curator  of  Southwest  Museum,  Los  Angeles. 

The  architects  of  Los  Angeles  will  be  asked  to  make 
nominations  from  which  the  jury  will  make  its  selection. 
It  is  planned  to  have  the  jury  meet  the  latter  part  of 
February  to  make  selections  as  follows :  Ten  most  notable 
examples  of  architecture ;  three  most  notable  examples  of 
landscape  architecture;  two  most  notable  examples  of 
public  sculpture;  five  most  notable  examples  of  small  house 
architecture  costing  less  than  $5,000.  The  selection  to  be 
made  of  examples  within  a  twenty-mile  radius  of  the 
City  Hall. 

The  object  of  the  contest  is  to  arouse  interest  on  the 
part  of  the  public  in  what  really  constitutes  good  archi- 

On  retiring  from  the  presidency,  H.  M.  Patterson  re- 
viewed the  work  accomplished  in  the  chapter  during  the 
year.  He  outlined  the  improved  conditions  and  the  bright 
outlook  for  the  future  of  the  building  business  during  the 
coming  year,  bringing  larger  opportunity  and  obligation 
to  the  chapter. 

The  newly  elected  officers  for  the  coming  year  were 
installed  in  office  as  follows :  Edwin  Hergstrom,  presi- 
dent;  H.  F.  Withey,  vice-president;  R.  G.  Hubby,  secre- 
tary; August  Waskerbarth,  treasurer;  A.  M.  Edelman, 
member  of  the  executive  committee. 

Mr.  Bergstrom,  in  his  speech,  outlined  a  general  pro- 
gram for  the  activities  of  the  chapter  during  the  coming 

The  motion  was  carried  that  the  award  of  medals  be 
made  this  year  for  the  best  designed  and  constructed 
buildings  during  the  previous  year. 

Announcement  was  made  that  the  convention  will  be 
held  in  Washington  on  May  5,  6  and  7. 

The  following  nominations  were  made  for  delegates 
to  the  convention :  Octavius  Morgan,  Albert  C.  Martin, 
A.  F.  Rosenheim,  A.  M.  Edelman,  Robert  Farquhar,  A.  B. 
i,  Myron  Hunt  and  J.  E.  Allison. 

Building  in  Valparaiso 

The  municipality  of  Valparaiso  plans  to  construct 
municipal  lodging  houses  for  the  poor.  Bonds  are  to  be 
sold  to  finance  the  construction,  in  Valparaiso,  of  cheap 
but  sanitary  houses  for  workingmen.  The  Chamber  of 
Deputies  has  appropriated  2,290,000  pesos  to  complete  the 
building  for  the  School  of  Engineering  and  Architecture 
and  pesos  for  the  completion  of  the  structure  for 
the  course  of  Anatomy  in  the  School  of  Medicine.  One 
hundred  and  forty  thousand  pesos  have  been  allowed  for 

the  construction  of  the  Morgue  of  Santiago.  A  Museum 
of  History  is  to  be  built  and  an  architect  for  this  purpose 
is  to  be  chosen.  An  Industrial  School  for  Men  is  to  be 
established  in  Concepcion  and  the  Minister  of  Industry 
is  now  soliciting  a  site  for  this  project. 

New  Organization  Will  Encourage 

The  National  Laboratory  Foundation  for  the  Develop- 
ment of  American  Inventions  and  American  Industries  has 
been  founded  by  leading  inventors,  engineers,  financiers 
and  manufacturers  of  the  country.  The  institution's  pur- 
poses are  to  be  "philanthropic  in  character,  to  foster,  ail 
and  develop  the  idea  and  perfect  the  invention  regardless 
of  whether  the  inventor  be  rich  or  poor."  It  was  proposed 
to  found  an  endowed  institution  with  a  complete  modern 
research  laboratory,  machine  shop  and  research  and  patent 
library  and  with  a  suitable  corps  of  engineers,  chemists 
and  mechanics  in  charge. 

Motion  Picture  Producers  Recognize 

Efforts  of  Architects  in  the 


The  important  motion  picture  producers  are  fast  realiz- 
ing the  commercial  value  of  good  architecture  This  fact 
is  becoming  evident  in  the  recent  presentation  of  "fea- 
ture films"  Among  those  legends  which  announce  the 
various  people  who  shared  responsibility  in  the  production 
of  a  scenario,  it  is  becoming  customary  to  include  the 
name  of  the  architect  who  designed  the  exteriors  and 
planned  the  arrangement  and  decoration  of  rooms  which 
serve  as  a  background  for  the  story.  Architects  will  ap- 
preciate this  recognition  of  their  co-operation  in  these 

Irrigation  Reclaims  the  West 

Two  million  acres  of  worthless  desert  have  within  two 
decades  been  made  productive  by  government  irrigation. 
On  this  land,  it  is  learned,  there  are  now  housed  400,000 
persons.  The  present  value  of  crops  produced  in  the  re- 
claimed area  approximates  $70,000,000  annually. 

In  the  Reclamation  Record  for  December,  Arthur  P. 
Davis,  Director  and  Chief  Engineer  of  the  U.  S.  Reclama- 
tion Service,  Washington,  has  summarized  the  important 
results  of  this  vast  undertaking  as  affects  housing,  crops 
and  other  natural  and  artificial  resources.  He  says  in 
part  : 

"Since  1902  the  Reclamation  Service  has  constructed 
the  irrigation  system  to  supply  completely  1,780,000  acres 
of  land.  Also  the  capacious  storage  reservoirs  of  the 
Government  are  furnishing  a  supplemental  supply  of  stored 
water  to  a  million  additional  acres  in  other  projects,  or  a 
grand  total  of  2,780,000  acres. 

"On  the  Government-project  lands  are  40,000  families 
in  Independent  homes.  The  population  in  cities,  towns  and 
villages  in  these  Government  projects  has  been  increased 
by  an  equal  number  of  families.  That  is  to  say,  on  the 
1,780,000  acres  reclaimed  there  are  now  profitably  em- 
ployed and  satisfactorily  housed  400,000  people.  The  argu- 
ments for  increasing  and  making  permanent  the  nation's 
virility,  prosperity  and  growth  by  creating  more  homes 



of  this  kind  were  never  more  forcible  and  unanswerable 
than  just  now.  American  people  cannot  rightly  claim  to 
have  measured  up  to  their  opportunity  until  the  deserts 
of  the  West  and  the  unused  agricultural  lands  of  the 
balance  of  the  nation  have  been  replaced  by  vistas  of 
prosperous  farmsteads. 

"When  measured  by  the  yardstick  of  the  financier — the 
dollar — the  results  of  the  Reclamation  Service  activities 
are  interesting. 

"As  a  creator  of  wealth,  its  service  to  the  nation  and 
the  state  has  been  as  great  as  in  its  principal  task  of 
home-making.  Out  of  the  uninhabited  and  almost  worth- 
less desert  it  has  carved  an  empire  of  nearly  2,000,000 
acres,  intensively  cultivated,  and  producing  crops  whose 
annual  average  gross  returns  per  acre  are  about  double 
those  for  the  rest  of  the  country. 

"In  1902  an  acre  was  worth  $10.  To-day  it  is  worth 

Material  Handling  Machinery  Man- 
ufacturers' Association  Will 
Hold  Convention 

It  is  announced  that  a  convention  of  the  above-named 
organization  will  be  held  on  Feb.  26  and  27  at  the  Waldorf- 
Astoria  Hotel,  New  York.  Manufacturers  from  any  part 
of  the  country  are  invited,  and  especially  those  making 
overhead,  locomotive,  gantry  cranes,  hoists,  gravity  and 
power  conveyors,  industrial  trucks,  elevators,  and  all  forms 
of  equipment  and  supplies  used  in  the  construction  and 
operation  of  mechanical  machinery.  Papers  and  discus- 
sions will  be  an  important  feature.  Zenas  W.  Carter, 
35  West  Thirty-ninth  Street,  New  York,  secretary. 

Chicago  Needs  Houses 

Half  a  million  persons  in  Chicago  "are  living  like  pigs 
in  the  slum  districts"  to-day,  according  to  a  statement  to 
the  Association  of  Commerce  made  by  E.  J.  Rosenthal, 
head  of  the  Chicago  Housing  Association.  Housing  faci- 
lities in  the  city  are  inadequate,  he  said. 

"People  are  sleeping,  six,  eight  and  ten  in  a  room;  men, 
women  and  children,  many  of  them  not  even  related  to 
each  other,"  according  to  the  statement.  "Children  are 
playing  in  our  gutters  and  alleys." 

He  declared  "the  number  of  young  people  whose  down- 
fall is  due  wholly  to  the  dangerous  intimate  contact  into 
which  they  are  forced  by  lack  of  adequate  rooms  or  decent 
living  conditions"  was  astounding. 

The  Stout  Institute  (Menomonie, 
Wisconsin)  Apace  with  the  Times 

This  institute,  supported  by  the  progressive  State  of 
Wisconsin,  represents  an  investment  of  three-quarters  of 
a  million  dollars. 

The  school  is  wisely  organized  to  prepare  instructors 
for  the  industrial  arts  and  household  art  subjects.  For 
administrative  purposes  there  are  two  co-ordinated  de- 
partments each  taking  care  of  its  particular  problems. 

Every  course  has  been  organized  with  the  definite  pur- 
pose in  mind  of  preparing  teachers  who  shall  know  their 
subjects,  and  shall  be  able  to  teach  them.  They  will  also 
be  given  a  ground  work  which  will  stand  at  the  bottom 
of  the  ladder— upon  which  they  will  climb  to  a  better 

understanding,   and  an  appreciation   of  the  larger  aspects 
and  responsibility  of  their  work. 

While  the  officers  of  the  institute  cannot  guarantee  posi- 
tions to  students  upon  graduation,  they  do  everything  in 
their  power  to  assist  them  to  positions  they  seem  best 
qualified  to  til'.  The  entire  problem  is  solved  with  a 
human  touch  unequaled  in  most  of  the  institutes  with  the 
same  interests  in  view. 

Sweden  Amplifies  Educational 

Sweden  has  wisely  solved  the  problem  of  child  educa- 
tion, in  that  it  advocates  the  combined  technical  and  liberal 
system,  which  recognizes  the  cast  value  of  manual  instruc- 
tion together  with  the  usual  thorough  course — proving  the 
need,  on  the  part  of  the  child  of  some  actual  and  tangible 

They  are  taught  to  look  upon  this  phase  of  the  work 
that  they  do  as  useful  in  its  purpose  toward  the  com- 
munity in  th  ehands  of  a  clever  teacher.  The  work  is 
not  merely  vocational — as  would  first  appear — but  litera- 
ture, art  and  culture  play  an  important  part  in  the  gen- 
eral educational  scheme. 

Trade  with  Belgium 

Our  trade  with  Belgium  since  1900  has  aggregated  con- 
siderably over  $1,000,000,000,  of  which  more  than  one-third 
has  been  in  the  form  of  imports  from  that  country  and 
approximately  two-thirds  were  exports  thereto.  Our  prin- 
cipal imports  from  Belgium  in  normal  years,  according  to 
a  statement  by  the  National  City  Bank  of  New  York,  con- 
sisted of  diamonds,  India  rubber,  wool,  glass,  hides  of 
cattle,  manufactures  of  flax,  silk  yarns,  cotton  and  silk 
laces,  ivory,  nickel  ore  and  a  large  number  of  minor 
articles,  chiefly  manufactures.  Our  experts  to  that  coun- 
try in  1914,  the  latest  normal  year,  consisted  chiefly  of 
cotton,  wheat,  meats,  mineral  oils,  tobacco  and  lumber. 

Brussels  Fair 

The  Merchants'  Association  has  received  a  communi- 
cation from  the  American  Belgian  Chamber  of  Commerce 
in  Belgium,  inclosing  information  with  regard  to  the 
First  Annual  Commercial  Fair,  which  is  to  be  held  in 
Brussels  between  April  4  and  21,  1920. 

The  object  of  this  fair  is  to  establish  connections  be- 
tween producers  and  buyers,  the  fair  being  open  to  any 
manufactured  or  natural  product. 

The  sale  of  goods  is  prohibited  during  the  existence 
of  the  fair.  Participants  will  be  required  to  confine  them- 
selves to  the  registering  of  orders. 

Applications  for  admission  and  for  stands  should  be 
addressed  to  the  Committee  Managing  the  Commercial 
Fair,  Grand  Place  19,  Brussels.  Belgium.  All  applica- 
tions must  be  in  the  hands  of  the  committee  not  later  than 
February  I,  1920. 

The  American  Express  Company,  Foreign  Trade  De- 
partment, 65  Broadway,  New  York  City,  are  the  recognized 
agents  for  the  Brussels  Fair  for  1920.  Information,  ap- 
plication forms,  etc.,  may  be  obtained  from  the  American 
Express  Company,  which  will  also  have  charge  of  the 
forwarding  of  exhibits. 



New  High-Speed  Steel  Invented 

Metallurgical  and  scientific  circles  have  been  much 
interested  in  a  new  invention  of  high-speed  steel  due 
to  Dr.  J.  O.  Arnold,  professor  of  metallurgy  at  Sheffield 
University.  The  Defence-of-the-Realm  Act  prevented  him 
from  making  known  the  particulars,  hut  now  it  is  an- 
nounced that  the  British  Government's  embargo  has  been 

The  new  steel  is  said  to  possess  cutting  powers  far 
superior  to  those  of  any  high-speed  steel  known  hereto- 
fore. Dr.  Arnold,  in  1908,  obtained  wonderful  results 
by  the  addition  of.  vanadium  to  the  commonly  accepted 
formula.  He  finds  now  that  in  high-speed  steel  the  best 
results  can  be  obtained  from  molybdenum,  and  he  adds 
that  if  large  quantities  of  the  molybdenum*  can  be  found 
and  the  price  reduced,  tungsten  will  have  to  take  a  back 
seat,  because  6  per  cent  of  molybenum  will  replace  18 
per  cent  of  tungsten,  and  with  much  better  results. 

Molybdenum  is  a  comparatively  rare  alloy,  found 
chiefly  in  Canada.  The  current  market  price  is  10  shill- 
ings a  pound,  compared  with  2S.  ml.  for  tungsten. 


Frederick  Putnam  Platt  &  Bro.,  architects,  have  moved 
their  offices  to  680  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York. 

Eames  &  Young  announce  the  removal  of  their  offices 
to  Suite  1876,  Arcade  Building,  St.  Louis,  Mo. 

Glenn  Allen,  architect,  has  moved  to  the  Georges  Co. 
Building,  Market  and  Aurora  Streets,  Stockton,  Cal. 

Clapp  &  Glasgow  have  opened  offices  at  208  Crowdus 
Building,  Fort  Worth,  Tex.,  for  architectural  practice. 
Manufacturers'  samples  and  catalogues  are  desired. 

E.  H.  Blumenthal  has  opened  an  office  for  architectural 
practice  in  the  First  National  Bank  Building',  Albu- 
querque, New  Mexico.  Samples  and  catalogs  desired. 

Selligman  &  Edelsvard,  206  Pine  Street,  Pine  Bluff, 
Ark.,  have  dissolved  partnership.  G.  A.  Edelsvard  will 
continue  the  practice  of  architecture  under  his  own  name. 

James  E.  McLaughlin  announces  that  he  has  taken  into 
partnership  G.  Houston  Burr,  and  they  will  continue 
architectural  practice  under  the  firm  name  of  McLaugh- 
lin &  Burr,  88  Tremont  Street,  Boston. 

Weekly  Review  of  Construction  Field 

Comment  on  General  Condition  of  Economics  with  Reports  of  Special 

Correspondents  in  Prominent  Regional  Centers,  Late 

Quotations  in  Building  Material  Field 

THE  present  system  of  Federal  taxation  prevents  mort- 
gages from  entering  a  successful  competition  with 
tax-free  securities.  The  prospects  of  continued  demands 
for  materials  encourage  continuance  of  the  present  scales 
of  prices.  The  uncertainty  whether  even  these  prices  can 
be  maintained  and  need  not  be  advanced  places  the  con- 
tractor in  a  situation  where  he  must  protect  himself  with 
"cost-plus"  operations.  These,  with  the  loud-voiced  ob- 
jection to  increases  of  rent,  are  the  factors  which  make 
doubtful  ,any  enthusiastic  financial  support  toward  accom- 
plishments in  the  way  of  housing  relief  through  this  com- 
ing year. 

ON  the  other  hand — labor  promises  to  be  much  easier. 
The  present  outlook  of  long  and  steady  employment 
is  of  great  encouragement  to  the  men.  The  result  of 
abnormal  rates  in  foreign  exchange  begins  to  show  in 
cargoes  of  foodstuffs  from  Denmark  and  Holland.  After 
such  imports  attain  volume  the  high  cost  of  living  and  the 
demands  for  high  wages  to  support  the  high  cost  of  liv- 
ing are  bound  to  be  reduced  in  importance  as  factors  in 
our  labor  problems.  With  the  railroads  returning  to  pri- 
vate ownership  on  March  I  and  the  expectation  that 
transportation  difficulties  will  be  gradually  eliminated  by 
practised  hands,  the  optimists  of  the  building  field  hope 
that  the  stores  of  supplies  will  be  made  available  and 


THE  striking  exposition  of  how  important  to  the  price 
of  materials  is  their  dependence  upon  transportation 
has  been  one  of  the  many  salutary  lessons  the  World  War 
has   given   us.     An   overstock   of   lumber   on   the    Pacific 
Coast  or   steel   lying  at  the   mills   has  slight  effect   upon 

market  prices  or  the  paucity  of  materials  in  the  builder's 
hands.  We  had  often  used  the  words  "place  value"  but 
had  failed  fully  to  realize  how  important  a  support  to 
our  economic  structure  was  the  railroad.  Probably  the 
lesson  is  not  thoroughly  learned  even  now,  or  more  would 
be  said  about  equipment,  more  about  new  railroad  lines 
and  about  the  development  of  waterways,  and  less  of  the 
Government  guarantees  for  maintenance. 

After  the  experience  of  the  past  two  years,  no  one 
would  seriously  propose  that  the  railroads  should  be  run 
as  a  benevolent  institution.  We  have  had  enough  of  that. 
But  accent  seems  never  to  be  placed  upon  what  is  to  be 
done  in  the  way  of  transporting  and  distributing  mate- 
rials. It  is  discouraging  to  the  absolute  economist  that 
active  public  interest  in  the  railroads  comes  from  only  two 
points  of  view — the  Federation  of  Labor  and  Wall  Street. 
It  seems  to  be  a  process  of  dividing  the  profits,  with  some 
board  of  arbitration  acting  as  umpire.  If  the  Interstate 
Commerce  Commission  is  to  resume  its  old  role  of  um- 
pire in  the  division  of  economic  profits  between  the  rail- 
road and  the  shippers,  we  shall  have  the  system  complete 
so  far  as  money-making  potentialities  are  concerned.  But 
when  the  service  of  public  development  is  apparently  to 
go  on,  hit  or  miss,  without  benefit  of  an  umpire,  we  do 
not  directly  aim  to  achieve  the  much-talked-of  "produc- 
tion" or  the  distribution  of  the  materials  produced  to  the 
dealer  and  builder. 

The  return  of  railroads  to  private  ownership  is  not  a 
panacea  for  all  their  ills.  In  this  country's  achievement, 
forward-looking  railroad  officials  were  most  influential. 
But  they  worked  on  a  purely  competitive  basis  which  is 
not  now  possible.  It  is  strange,  if  not  ominous,  that 
there  is  public  interference  from  two  quarters  but  not 



from  die  particular  quarter  in  which  our  whole  economic  Both    in   die   lumber   and   steel   markets   die   architect 

life  is  interested :  die  matter  of  service  to  be  rendered.  finds  dealers  reluctant  to  give  quotations  except  for  imme- 

~\Vkh  competition  restored  and  all  ot  the  railroad  com-  diite    acceptance.      The    steel    situation    is    fraught   wkh 

names  fighting  to  hold  and  recover  busJnrm,"  says  one  of  more  ditncuhies  at  die  present  tome  dan  is  hnnbu,  k  be- 

die  daily  papers,  -conditions  from  die  viewpoint  of  die  ing  almost   nuporohlr  to  get   orders  of  any  size  filed 

public  win  be  greatly  improved."    It  goes  on:    'Railroad  within  a  reasonable  length  of  time,  wkh  prices  depending 

men  interviewed  admitted  dot  «-iHM»«  of  miles  of  freight  on  die  amount  of  die  order  and  dm  uaoud  only  front 

and   r*tw^E*i    train   sen  ice   have   been    saved   annually  day  to  day.     According  to  an  opiaiiai  expressed  by 

under  Government  operation:  bat,  k  was  declared,  das  of  die  leading  architects  of  das  cky, 

saving  has  been  more  don  offset  by  die  quantity  and  is  made  in  hte  steel  market  on  die  Pacific  Coast 

quality  of  die  service  performed."  which  one  may  pre-  die  next  momh  or  so,  die  shortage  wfll  affect  die  " 

same  k  was  intended  to  imply  was  poor.     It  would  be  program  for  iojo  to  no  smaU  extern, 

farther  argued  dm  diere  was  no  particular  incentive  to  Development  of  die  oodying  usid»mial  sections  of  So* 

make  great  effort  for  good  service  when  there  was  so  Francisco  and  dw  adjacent  sabmban  districts  " 

little  chance  of  a  man  profiting  by  k.  an  manwil  amount  of  work  in  local  arc" " 

PBOFrr  AXB  Pnoarcnox  dkative  of  a  continuation  of  die  ptcMj*.  volume  of  build- 
ing activity  for  some  time  to  come  in  sake  of  die  material 

film    i1  profit  does  not  furnish  die  chief  incentive.     It 
is  not  a  sfamlrr  particularly  air**™frfr   to  railroad 

is  practical  to  assame  that  men  wffl  »™~-rM.  less      sona«e  an    ""S    s*3*  °* 

ployees  or  sab-executives,    "it  applies   ahnoM  anywhere,  t*J  **«*•'  t~vn*mitme*  10  Tnr  America*  Architect) 

even  in  die  bunding  rndnsUi,  which  is  unfortunate  for  the  SEATTLE.  —  Increasing  dJikn'lj  of  getting  orders  fiOed  is 

schemes  of  idealists-  harassing  wholesalers  of  building  materials  in  die  North 

If  oar  most  uigint  economic  need  is  to  increase  pro-  Pacific  coast  tciikmy  in  firmmg  banning  commitments. 

dnctioii,  »s  seems  so  obvioasly  true,  die  mere  vague  appeal  \\  khdrawal  of  quotations  on  steel  products,  or  price  ad- 

is    going   to    M  i  innpfaa   httle  —  however    paswaijlflj    or  vances  have  been  of  almost  dauV  occurrence  4vm  ••^g  the 

poetically  die  plea  is  being  stated.    Radier.  each  man  mast  wltt     Xafl*  ordered  in  Aagnst  in  carload  lots,  accord- 

see  that  be  himself  B  going  to  get  somednng  out  of  h.  mg  to  ultgiaphic  advices  to  wholesalers,  have  jast  been 

It  is  much  easier  to  find  oat  diese  selfish  reasons  dan  loaded  *  Pittsburgh.     Tins  instance  can  be  repeated  m 

it  is  to  change  us  into  a  nation  of  philosophic  altruists-  ^  experience  of  practically  every  large  operator  in  das 

Capital   wfll   not  invest  in  buudiags  to  its  own  disad-  territorv. 

vantage:  die  money  wffl  move  naturally  into  More  profit-  The  advance  in  die  price  of  radiation  was  less  pro- 

able  securities.     In  order  to  meet  outside  competition,  k  noanced  don  was  expected  last  week,  jobbers  getting  only 

is   beneved  that   die   Lockwood   Conaaktee  of  die  Xew  a  6  per  cent  advance.    Plaster  moulding  is  $j  fc^fc** 

York  State  Senate  which  has  been  investigating  boosing  Wholesalers  have  been  able  to  absorb  dus  m  pan  dtroogh 

accoaanodations  win  propose  that  mortgage  holdings  be  the   favorable   all-rail  rate  granted  as  against   die  rafl- 

exempt  froat  taxation.  and-water  hanL    In  other  words,  die  all-rail  rate  k  lower 

The  baudmg  contractors  have  a  iKht  to  dieir  proot.  don  die  rafl  and  wjtei  dae  to  die  rapid  advance  in  coast- 

Yet  wkh  aU  her  "gent  mxessky  for  hous^  &gbind  ^ise  tonnage,  where  the  vessel  performs  die  long-distance 

as  a  -band  of  profiteers."    If  we  cannot  have  production  strengthening  factor  m  die  poster  market  was  the  advance 

•  khuat  die  stimulus  of  profit,  we  must  have  production.  m  jutes  to  ao  cents  each. 

and   increased  prodaction.  none  die  less.     The  quantity  There  has  been  a  factory  advance  m  corner  bead,  now 

aad  quality  of  die  production  is  die  vital  dung  and  k  does  seBing  at  6  cents  per  foot.    Plaster  board  is  3  cents  per 

not  seem  die  appropriate  time  to  prune  profits.  yard  aad  plaster  waU  board  is  ap  $3  per  MOO  ft.  to  $46 

In  his  address  to  die  Mining  and  Metallurgical  Engi-  delivered  first  zone.    Quotations  on  all  channel  iron  from 

neers.  Mr.  Hoover  said:    *We  are4npmg  dot  Congress  the  eastern  factories  were  withdrawn  dus  week  and  fac- 

wfll  find  a  solution  that  wul  be  an  advanced  step  toward  tories  have  notified  wholesalers  dot  they  wfll  not  firm 

die  combined  stimulation  of  die  initiative  of  die  owners.  orders  until  June  and  win  accept  only  on  die  basis  of  die 

the  efficiency  of  operation,  die  mlKlmrat  of  good-win  of  market  at  that  time. 

die   cmpln.ncsv  and  die  protection  of  die   public.     The  The  fir  lumber"  market  has  advanced  sharply.     There 

ptofckm  is  easy  to  state.     Its   solution  is  almost  over-  were  actual  sales  diroagh  die  week,  mill  basis,  of  Xo.  I 

•m.hring  in  complexity.     It  rrost  develop  wkh  expert-  vertical  grain  flooring  at  SOT.  Xo.  z  at  $04  and  Xo.  2  and 

ence.   step  by   step^-toward  a   real   wot  king   partnership  better  ceifing  at  S>&     Boards  and  shiplap  and  aD  uppers 

of  its  three  tfcawnli  *     While  these  words  were  applied  have  gone  $10  to  Si  J  higher,  while  common  ilimin  IIBI  is 

specifically  to  die  railroads,  they  may  weU  be  appfied  to  $4  over  prices  a  week  ago.    The  fir  mflb  of  die  West 

any  of  oar  great  industries  and  be  found  applicable  aad  Coast  district  hold  unfilled  orders  for  die  eastern  boDd- 

trae.  ing  trade,  extending  back  into  fast  fatt.  for  joajtncxoao  feet. 

Inabthty  to  get  more  dan  30  per  cent  of  the  icquiied 

(Br  sfftitl  cfrrfsf»mJfmcf  !•  Tkf  Amtrinm  ArcUtfct)  unmber  of  cars  for  loading  b  responsible  to  a  large  de- 


SAX  FRANCISCO.— Another  general  rise  of  Inmljir  prices          Xotwkbstanding  die  dauy  Jailniliimi  m  •uiiliaj'  mate- 

whkh  went  into  effect  daring  dv  fast  week,  wfll  make  rials.  aU  jabbers  and  wholesalers  are  able  to  report  tin* 

considerable  difference  in  die  architects'  and  contractors'  »-J"ft-g  plans  are  |iumi  iliac 

estimates.     However,  k  is  not  expected  dtat  any  decrease          The  A  mini!  for  homes  already  boat  mow  runs  to  : 

of  construction   work   wfll   resrfc.     In   fact,  die  inmiig  Snjoon,  bat  few  are  for  sale.    This  is 

to  be  one  of  die  Imiinl  in  many  years.  to-do  iateaUns  to 


Department  of  Architectural 


Factory  Stairs  and  Stairways 

By  G.  L.  H.  ARNOLD 

IN  the  opening  paragraphs  of  this  article,  pub- 
lished in  the  proceeding  issue,  it  was  stated 
that  in  solving  the  stairway  problem  consider- 
ation must  be  given  to  twelve  major  items.  Six 
of  these  have  been  already  considered  in  Part  I. 
Consideration  will  now  be  given  to  the  remaining 
six  items. 


Although  the  pitch  of  stairs  must  be  kept  within 
comparatively  narrow  limits  for  best  results,  still  it 
is  possible  to  make  a  safe  and  reasonably  comfort- 
able stair  at  almost  any  pitch  if  due  regard  is  paid 
to  the  relation  of  rise  to  length  of  run. 

The  natural  length  of  steps  decreases  rapidly  as 
the  grade  increases,  even  on  a  ramp  where  the  sur- 
face offers  equal  foothold  at  all  points.  Failure  to 
take  this  fact  into  consideration  results  in  a  stair 
which  is  awkward  and  tiresome,  with  a  pronounced 
tendency  to  produce  stumbling  and  falls. 

The  length  of  the  foot,  or  rather  of  the  shoe,  is 
not  an  important  factor.  For  one  thing,  the  actual 
length  of  the  tread  exceeds  the  run  by  the  amount 
of  the  nosing.  For  another,  practically  all  the  work 
of  ascending  and  descending  stairs  is  done  by  the 
ball  of  the  foot  (Fig.  20).  In  ascending  the  weight 
is  borne  on  the  ball  of  the  foot  in  the  middle  of  the 
step  while  the  heel  projects  in  the  air.  In  descend- 
ing, the  toe  projects,  the  weight  being  borne  on  the 
ball,  on  or  just  back  from,  the  edge  of  the  step,  the 
heel  barely  touching  the  step. 

For  adults,  making  the  length  of  the  run  (tread 
•exclusive  of  nosing)  plus  twice  the  rise  equal  to 
24  in.  to  J41  j  in.  can  be  relied  upon  to  give  satis- 
factory proportions.  By  this  rule  the  rungs  of  a 
ladder  should  have  a  12-in.  spacing,  which  is  the 
recognized  standard,  and  a  45-deg.  stair  would  have 
an  8-in.  rise  and  an  8-in.  run,  which  a  wide  ex- 
perience shows  to  be  entirely  satisfactory.  A  hori- 
zontal grating  would  have  a  24-in.  spacing,  which, 

'Paper    presented    before    The    American    Society    of    Mechanical 


although  a  trifle  short,  is  nevertheless  within  the 
bounds  of  practicability. 

In  factory  practice  the  tendency  is  to  make  the 
stairs  steep  in  order  to  save  room.  Observation  by 
several  people  over  a  period  of  years  and  under  a 
wide  variety  of  circumstances  confirms  the  opinion 
that  an  8-in.  rise  by  an  8-in.  run  is  the  steepest  stair 
practicable  for  general  use  and  that  7^-in.  rise 
by  9-in.  run  is  much  better.  Some  building  codes 
prescribe  7J/>  in.  as  the  maximum  height  of  rise. 
Although  7-in.  rise  by  lo-in  run  makes  probably  the 
easiest  of  all  stairs,  the  improvement  over  7^  in. 
by  9  in.  is  not  usually  worth  the  extra  floor  space 

Out-of-doors  stairs  or  steps  should  be  made  with 
only  6-in.  rise,  if  possible.  In  any  case,  the  rise  and 
run  must  be  uniform  throughout  the  entire  length 
of  the  stairway.  Otherwise,  falls  will  be  frequent. 


All  landings  should  be  rectangular  and  at  least  as 
deep  as  the  stairs  are  wide.  The  surface  should  be 
of  the  same  material  as  the  stair  treads.  Attempts 
to  save  room  by  cutting  off  corners  or  reducing  the 
size  of  landings,  or  by  the  introduction  of  winders 
or  straight  steps  invariably  result  in  accidents,  espe- 
cially when  the  stairs  are  crowded  and  every  one  is 
in  a  hurry. 


Each  line  of  people  on  the  stairway  should  have  a 
continuous,  firmly  supported  handrail  at  a  con- 
venient height  and  of  such  size  and  shape  as  to  be 
readily  and  securely  grasped.  The  material  may 
be  wood  or  metal.  If  of  metal,  the  rail  will  usually 
be  iron  or  occasionally  brass  pipe  and  of  iJ-4-in.  or 
i% -in.  iron-pipe  size.  The  Ij4  m-»  although  some- 
what small,  has  the  advantage  that  the  fittings  are 
more  generally  carried  in  stock.  Large  sizes  are 
used,  but  they  are  objectionable,  as  they  cannot  be 
grasped  securely  in  the  frantic  effort  to  recover 



from  a  misstep,  especially  by  a  person  with  small 

T-bars  and  special  rolled,  drawn  or  cast  handrail 
sections  are  frequently  used,  but,  except  for  the 
architectural  effect,  they  have  no  advantage  over 




A.XD     DESCEXOIXG     IS     CAR- 

the  cheap  and  homely  wrought-iron  pipe.  If  the 
rail  is  of  wood  it  should  be  of  oak,  ash  or  some 
other  non-splintering  hardwood :  never  yellow 
pine.  It  may  be  a  round  bar  not  less  than 
in.  in  diameter  nor  more  than  2^4  in.,  or 
it  may  be  one  of  the  stock  patterns  carried 
by  the  mills.  In  any  case  it  must  be  strongly 
supported  at  a  height  of  31  to  33  in.  above 
the  front  edge  of  the  step.  Around  the  land- 
ing the  height  should  be  36  in.  Often  stairs 
require  either  a  second  rail  at  half  height  or 
a  strong  wire  netting  between  stair  and  rail. 


Notwithstanding  the  fire  risk,  the  danger 
from  things  dropped  or  thrown,  the  chance- 
for  falls  and  the  increased  difficulty  of  heat- 
ing, open  stairways  are  frequently  found  in 
factories.  Every  stairway  should  be  en- 
closed in  a  fireproof  well.  In  many  cities  a 
wire  grill  is  permitted  between  stairs  and 
elevators  in  the  same  well.  A  solid  partition 
is  more  satisfactory  and  pays  for  the  extra 
room  and  expense.  Choice  of  material  will 
be  governed  by  the  same  considerations  as 
in  the  case  of  the  other  partitions.  The  space 

under  the  bottom  flight  must  be  left  open  and 
kept  clear  unless  tilled  up  solid  with  non-com- 
bustible material. 

If  the  stairs  extend  to  the  roof  the  enclosure 
should  be  carried  above  the  roof  in  the  form  of  a 
bulkhead  or  penthouse  high  enough  to  allow  a  door 
6  ft.  6  in.  to  7  ft.  in  height.  If  the  roof  flight  is  a 
ladder  or  a  very  steep  stair  the  penthouse  may  be 
replaced  by  a  scuttle,  or  better,  by  a  companion  as 
shown  in  Fig.  21.  The  door  or  scuttle  should  be 
hooked,  latched  or  bolted  in  such  a  way  that  at  any 
time  it  can  be  opened  readily  from  the  inside.  The 
roof  of  the  stair  well  should  be  a  skylight  with  a 
wire  netting  under  the  glass  to  catch  pieces  of  glass 
in  case  of  breakage. 

At  each  story  liberal  wire-glass  windows  with 
metal  frames  should  be  provided  so  that  the  whole 
shaft  shall  be  as  light  as  may  be  in  daylight.  The 
better  the  illumination  is  the  fewer  days  in  a  year 
will  artificial  light  be  required. 

All  stairway  openings  should  be  closed  with 
Underwriter  automatic  fire  doors  opening  with  the 
outgoing  current.  The  outside  doors  need  not  be 
fire  doors,  but  should  open  out.  Where  there  is 
much  traffic  the  fire  doors  may  be  supplemented  by 
glazed  double-acting  doors.  The  locks  on  all  these 
doors  should  be  such  that  under  no  circumstances 
can  a  person  be  locked  in. 

Care  should  be  exercised  to  locate  these  doors  so 
that  they  may  be  opened  without  risk  of  crowding 
some  one  off  the  landing  and  so  that  a  stream  of 
people  descending  cannot  prevent  them  from  being 
opened.  Fig.  22  illustrates  a  dangerous  location  of 
the  doors.  With  that  arrangement  a  person  descend- 
ing might  collide  with  the  edge  of  the  door,  or  if  this 




is  suddenly  opened  it  may  knock  someone  off  the      if  the  traffic  is  very  heavy.    On  wooden  stairs  or  on 
top  step.   In  Fig.  23  the  landing  is  too  narrow,  a  de-      metal   or   concrete   stairs   with   wooden   treads   the 

scending  crowd  interferes  with  the  opening  of  the 
door,  and  Fig.  26  illustrates  another  dangerous  loca- 
tion. The  distance  B  in  Figs.  24,  27  and  Fig.  28, 

tread  should  be  in  three  pieces.    This  will  minimize 
repair  bills. 

Mr.   F.   A.   Waldron,  during  the  years   1896  to 



FIG.  22.— DANGER- 








&  ~ 
vf\  - 

FIG.      23.-EFFECT 



FIG.      24.— WRONG 




FIG.    25.— PROPERLY 




FIG.      26.— WRONG 

FIG.  2-.— PROPER- 

page  164  should  be  not  less  than  the  width  of  the 
stairs,  and  distance  A  in  Fig.  25  should  be  at  least 

2    ft. 


In  the  artificial  illumination  of  the  shaft  brilliancy 
is  not  required,  but  thorough  distribution  is. 
A   light   should  be  placed   at  each   floor  and 
each  turn.  ,  The  lighting  should  be  in  dupli- 
cate.    Since  there  is  always  a  likelihood  of  a 
small  group  of  employees  being  in  the  place 
at   night   after  the   stair  lights  are  out.  it   is 
quite  necessary  to  reduce  to  a  minimum  the 
distance  one  must  grope  in  the  dark.     For  this  rea- 
son  the   electric   lights   should    have   double-acting 
switches  at  each  end  of  each  circuit  and  the  emer- 
gency lights,  whether  gas.  candle  or  lantern,  should 
be  so  placed  that  each  flight  can  be  lighted  on  the 

\\  KAR 

Steps,  subject  to  ascending  traffic  only,  wear  as 
shown  in  Fig.  29  at  A.  If  the  traffic  is  descending 
only,  the  wear  is  as  at  B.  If  subject  to  traffic  in 
both  directions,  the  wear  will  be  as  at  C. 

In  any  case  renewal  of  the  front  third  of  the 
tread  will  usually  restore  the  worn  step.  At  long 
intervals  the  middle  third  may  have  to  be  renewed 

1906,  at  the  Yale  &  Towne  Manufacturing  Co., 
made  extensive  experiments  on  wooden  tread?  con- 
structed in  three  pieces  as  described.  Hard  maple, 
on  account  of  its  superiority  for  flooring,  was  taken. 

Effect  of  Ascending 
Traffic  only 

E-ffec-t  of  Descending 
Traffic  only 

Effect  of  Traffic  in 
Both  Directions 

FIG.  29.  —  CHARAC- 

as  the  basis  of  comparison.  Mr.  Waldron's  method 
was  to  use  the  hard  maple  on  every  other  step,, 
putting  the  wood  on  trial  on  the  alternate  steps. 
Ordinary  yellow  pine  proved  to  be  very  short-lived. 



Edge-grain  yellow  pine,  on  the  other  hand,  proved 
to  be  by  far  the  most  durable,  outwearing  the  maple 
two  to  one. 

Where  safety  treads  3  in.  or  $*/>  in.  wide  are 


used,  practically  all  the  wear  will  come  on  the  safety 
tread,  and  only  this  will  need  renewal.  Cork  treads 
being  made  in  tiles  9  in.  to  12  in.  wide  by  the  depth 
of  the  tread,  it  is  necessary  in  case  of  wear  to  re- 
place only  those  tiles  which  are  worn. 

Arthur  Boniface  in  discussing-  the  foregoing- 
paper  stated  that  a  type  of  safety  tread  not  touched 
upon  was  one  in  which  alundum  tread  blocks  6  in. 
by  7 '4  in.  by  i  in.  thick  were  imbedded  in  a  con- 
crete stairway  at  the  time  of  its  pouring.  In  1914 
he  had  constructed  a  public  si'airway  of  this  kind 
to  care  for  a  daily  traffic  of  about  25,000  persons. 
After  nearly  four  years  of  service  test  the  alundum 
treads  showed  little  or  no  wear,  which  would  in- 
dicate that  renewals  would  be  unnecessary  during 
the  life  of  the  stairway.  They  presented  a  slip- 
proof  surface  at  all  times,  and  the  grip  on  the 
shoe,  while  positive,  was  no  so  pronounced  as  to 
hinder  the  momentum  of  the  body.  They  had  proved 
to  be  practically  noiseless,  easy  to  keep  clean,  and 
had  been  successfully  applied  also  to  stairways 
with  wood  treads,  as  well  as  to  skeleton  steel  stairs. 

Book  Review 

Useful    Data    on    Reinforced    Concrete    Buildings    for 
the  Designer  and  Estimator  by  the  Engineering  Staff  of 
tlie  Corrugated  Bar  Co.    Leather,  5x8  in.,  p  .p  216. 

Nothing  has  been  of  such  great  assistance  in 
saving  time  and  eliminating  tedious  computations 
for  the  steel  designer,  as  the  hand-books  issued  by 
the  various  steel  companies,  such  as  Carnegie, 
Cambria,  Bethlehem,  etc.  Since  the  advent  of  re- 
inforced concrete  construction,  designers  have  been, 
to  some  extent,  handicapped  due  to  the  lack  of  an 
analogous  compilation  of  tables,  data,  etc.,  deal- 
ing with  this  subject.  Various  engineering  organi- 
zations have,  independently,  accumulated  tables 

for  simplifying  their  designers'  work.  These 
however,  have  never  been  made  available  for 
public  use. 

In  the  book  here  reviewed,  an  attempt,  and  an 
apparently  successful  one,  has  been  made  to  pro- 
vide reinforced  concrete  designers  with  time-sav- 
ing data  similar  to  that  provided  by  the  structural 
steel  hand-books.  It  is  a  step  in  the  right  direction, 
and  gives  promise  of  further  future  development. 
Part  of  the  book  is  devoted  to  the  usual  list  of 
mathematical  tables  common  to  all  hand-books. 
The  major  portion,  however,  contains  tables  and 
diagrams  for  designing  purposes,  covering  fairly 
well  the  field  of  reinforced  concrete  construction. 

This  work  should  not  be  considered  in  any  way 
a  text  book  on  concrete  design,  but  in  the  hands 
of  the  experienced  designer,  will  prove  of  great 
value.  The  book  may  be  obtained  by  those  of  the 
engineering  profession  interested,  for  a  nominal 
price,  charged  to  cover  the  cost  of  printing,  etc. 

Definite    Information  on  Effects   of 
Vibration  in  Structures  Desired 

Four  years  ago  the  Aberthaw  Construction  Co. 
started  an  investigation  on  the  vibration  of  build- 
ings, particularly  manufacturing  buildings.  The 
stud}-  was  intended  to  cover  not  only  the  causes  of 
vibration  but  also  the  effects  on  the  structures,  on 
the  machinery  installed,  on  the  health  and  well-be- 
ing of  the  workers,  and  on  the  quantity  and  quality 
of  production. 

A  preliminary  report  was  published  in  the  fall 
of  1916;  but  our  entry  into  the  war,  and  the  many 
new  problems  which  that  brought,  put  a  summary 
stop  to  the  work.  It  is  now  being  taken  up  again 
with  the  idea  of  following  it  through  to  a  point 
where  a  complete  report  can  be  published.  The 
Aberthaw  Construction  Co.,  will  therefore  be  glad 
to  have  architects,  engineers,  and  others  having 
knowledge  of  the  subject,  or  having  had  specific 
experiences  which  would  throw  light  on  any  of  its 
phases,  communicate  with  the  company  at  27  School 
Street,  Boston. 

The  previous  work  on  this  problem  showed  a 
wide  diversity  of  opinion  on  some  of  its  angles. 
It  also  developed  that  there  is  very  little  quantita- 
tive information  extant  which  can  be  relied  upon 
as  giving  authoritative  data.  It  is  particularly  de- 
sired, therefore,  that  information  of  this  character, 
however  limited  in  its  application,  may  be  made 
available  for  the  study. 


Practical  Economics  Secured  by  Standard 
ization  of  Construction  Specifications* 

By  R.  C.  MARSHALL,  Jr., 
Brigadier  General  Q.  M.  C.,  in  charge  of  Construction  Division,  U.  S.  A. 

THERE  are  at  the  present  time  twenty-seven 
separate  and  distinct  Federal  agencies  en- 
gaged in  the  construction  of  public  build- 
ings. There  are  sixteen  separate  Government  de- 
partments building  roads,  and  nineteen,  which  in 
one  way  or  another,  have  to  do  with  hydraulics, 
river  and  harbor  work.  None  of  these  agencies  are 
co-ordinated.  The  standards  in  one  department  vary 
greatly  from  those  in  another,  and  the  methods 
employed  in  construction  and  the  detail  require- 
ments of  the  mass  of  specifications  emanating  from 
these  sixty-two  different  sources  are  too  complex, 
too  contradictory,  too  involved,  for  any  normal 
man  to  differentiate  between  them.  The  inevitable 
result  is  that  the  Government  pays  the  bill  in  loss 
of  time,  in  high  bids,  and  in  a  confusion  of  tongues 
worse  than  that  which  stopped  man's  most  am- 
bitious and  daring  building  scheme,  the  record  of 
which  may  be  found  in  the  eleventh  chapter  of 
Genesis.  The  Tower  of  Babel  might  never  have 
reached  high  heaven,  but  its  progress  chart  would 
have  at  least  shown  better  than  5  per  cent  if  that 
famous  confusion  over  the  specifications  had  never 

There  is  to-day  but  little  less  confusion  on  Gov- 
ernment work  than  that  which  existed  on  the  above 
mentioned  job,  and  out  of  this  condition  there  is 
gained  a  well-merited  prejudice  against  Govern- 
ment work  on  the  part  of  those  contractors  who 
are  accustomed  to  handle  construction  in  a  more 
direct  and  business-like  manner. 

It  is  fundamental  that  in  all  construction  work 
there  are  certain  elements  more  or  less  identical. 
Certainly  there  are  a  large  number  of  operations 
which  can  be  standardized,  and  which  should  not 
be  subject  to  the  whim  or  opinion  of  some  indi- 
vidual who,  for  reasons  of  his  own,  desires  to 
depart  from  the  fundamentals  of  common  practice. 
For  instance,  there  is  no  tenable  reason  why  a 
standard  specification  covering  the  quality  of 
cement,  or  of  stone,  or  of  roofing  material  should 
vary  materially  because  it  happens  to  be  required 
for  work  under  different  Government  depart- 
ments. There  should  be  no  basis  for  uncertainty 
in  the  mind  of  the  contractor  when  he  bids  upon  a 

"Extracts  from    an   address   before    the   second    convention    of    the 
National    Department    of    Public    Works    Association. 

specification  as  to  what  the  text  of  the  specification 
means,  and  yet,  because  of  the  varied  language  in 
which  even  the  most  commonplace  building  opera- 
tions are  described,  the  personal  equation  of  the 
engineers  in  the  many  offices  writing  the  specifi- 
cation necessarily  enters  very  largely  into  the  con- 
tractor's estimate  of  cost,  if  he  is  going  to  protect 
himself  against  such  a  varying  contingency.  A 
standard  specification,  whose  meaning  is  definite 
and  understood,  eliminates  the  expensive  hazard  of 
guess  work. 

The  most  remarkable  achievement  in  the  indus- 
trial history  of  this  country  is  the  outstanding  suc- 
cess made  by  Henry  Ford  in  standardizing  both 
design  and  shop  practice  so  that  a  single  model  of 
automobile  is  produced  at  a  price  so  far  below  his 
competitors  that  he  has  no  real  competition.  This 
is  more  remarkable  when  it  is  realized  that  it  is 
accomplished  with  a  wage  scale  as  much  above 
the  normal  as  the  selling  price  of  his  car  is  below, 
and  with  a  working  day  which  at  least  approaches 
the  Utopian  dream  advanced  by  the  coal  miners  in 
their  most  recent  strike  for  a  5-day  week.  It  is  not 
argued  that  all  automobiles  should  be  of  the  Ford 
type  but  there  is  a  lesson  for  the  engineering  and 
building  profession  and  for  the  Government  itself 
in  the  fact  that  by  the  standardization  of  design 
and  construction  methods  a  tremendous  increase 
to  output,  with  a  resulting  decrease  in  cost,  can  be 
obtained  with  no  sacrifice  in  the  utility  and  quality 
of  the  finished  product. 

The  importance  and  value  of  time,  which  is  the 
prime  thought  in  the  mind  of  a  business  man  pay- 
ing interest  on  unproductive  capital,  is  lost  sight 
of  on  Government  work.  Up  until  the  war  we 
were  accustomed  to  see  Government  projects  drag 
through  an  interminable  period.  Buildings  which 
would  be  completed  for  a  commercial  client  within 
six  months  or  a  year  required  two  or  three  years 
for  their  construction,  largely  because  of  the 
minutia  of  the  specifications  and  the  details  of 
procedure  which  had  to  be  satisfied  in  order  to  pass 
a  Government  inspector  and  secure  payment.  The 
constructor,  knowing  this,  was  forced  to  include 
in  his  bid  an  allowance  to  cover  possible  advances 
in  wages  and  material  costs  between  the  beginnings 
and  completion  of  his  work  and  the  overhead  of  his 



office,  it  sometimes  happens  that  appropriations 
authorized  for  certain  workt  become  totally  inade- 
quate before  the  job  is  well  under  way  and  either 
the  contractor  goes  broke  or  additional  appropria- 
tion involving  resubmission  to  Congress  is  neces- 
sary to  provide  the  necessary  funds  to  complete 
the  project.  Time  is  the  working  capital  of  both  the 
contractor  and  the  (Government.  For  every  extra 
day  of  delay  two  days  are  lost.  The  contractor 
loses  a  day's  profit  or  use  which  would  be  derived 
from  the  completed  job.  This  is  true  whether  the 
work  be  private  work  or  public  work,  for  just  so 
long  as  the  building  period  is  extended,  just  so 
long  will  the  invested  capital  be  deprived  of  its 
earning  power,  labor  rendered  unavailable  for 
other  jobs,  and  the  use  of  the  plant  deferred.  A 
standard  plan  and  specifications,  and  centralized 
control  of  the  work  through  a  single  department 
would  undoubtedly  save  both  time  and  money  for 
all  concerned. 

Any  idea  can  be  carried  to  absurd  proportions, 
and  no  man  of  common  sense  will  argue  that  spe- 
cifications and  design  should  be  so  standardized 
as  to  destroy  all  originality  or  prevent  improve- 
ment, but  there  is  a  sensible  course  between  those 
two  extremes  which  may  be  readily  attained.  To 
say  that  varied  operations  coming  under  Govern- 
ment control  are  not  capable  of  such  treatment  is 
to  use  an  argument  which  has  long  ago  been  proven 
fallacious.  It  was  not  so  many  years  past  that  the 
thought  of  fitting  a  man  with  anything  but  a  tailor- 
made  suit  was  scoffed  at,  and  not  many  years  be- 
fore that  it  was  thought  necessary  to  have  a  shoe- 
maker make  an  individual  pair  of  shoes  for  each 
customer,  and  yet  to-day  both  clothes  and  shoes 
are  almost  universally  made  on  standard  specifi- 
cations, and  the  world  is  both  well  clothed  and  well 
shod,  with  a  saving  in  both  time  and  cost  and  with 
increased  satisfaction  to  the  wearer.  The  same 
arguments  against  standardization  were  used  in 
connection  with  railroad  work.  The  arguments  for 
and  against  a  standard  gauge  track  would  fill  a 
book,  and  yet,  in  this  country  at  least,  we  have  at- 
tained a  standard  specification  for  almost  every 
element  of  railroad  construction,  so  that  rolling 
stock,  equipment,  and  structures  are  largely  inter- 

Standard  accounting  methods  have  been  estab- 
lished and  made  compulsory,  so  that  cost  records 
and  expenses  on  railroads,  electric  light,  telephone 
companies,  and  practically  every  public  utility  are 
now  comparable  on  the  same  basis  and  can  be  in- 
terpreted in  accordance  with  their  true  meaning. 

The  building  game  is  probably  the  oldest  of  all 
trades,  and  within  recent  years  many  of  its  major 
operations  have  been  standardized  greatly,  to  the 

advantage  of  the  profession.  There  are  now  stand- 
ard technical  specifications  for  cement,  steel,  lum- 
ber, fire  protection  apparatus,  roofing,  and  many 
other  elements,  which  have  b'een  compiled  under 
the  direction  of  Manufacturing  Associations  and 
of  the  National  Technical  Societies,  so  that  much 
of  the  confusion  and  the  many  technical  differences 
have  been  eliminated. 

If  Government  work  is  to  be  done  at  a  cost 
comparable  with  commercial  construction  the 
methods  of  handling  it  must  keep  pace  with  those 
in  commercial  life.  Due  to  the  war  and  the  con- 
ditions growing  out  of  it,  construction  work  has 
been  tremendously  complicated,  labor  is  restless 
and  demands  an  increase  in  wage,  generally  with  a 
decrease  in  production.  The  high  cost  of  ma- 
terials and  uncertainty  of  transportation  and  many 
other  elements  which  are  entirely  outside  of  the 
control  of  the  designer,  the  supervising  engineer, 
and  contractor,  all  tend  toward  an  increase  in  con- 
struction cost.  If  these  varied  elements  cannot  be 
controlled  the  one  remaining  factor  subject  to  con- 
trol is  the  standardization  of  plans,  specifications 
and  methods,  so  that  the  building  problem  is  sim- 
plified to  the  utmost  and  so  that  labor  by  the  con- 
stant repetition  of  construction  processes  becomes 
increasingly  familiar  with  the  best  and  most  ex- 
peditious field  methods. 

I  do  not  believe  that  there  is  any  immediate 
likelihood  that  these  conditions  will  change,  for 
there  is  a  present  shortage  of  from  six  to  ten 
million  common  laborers  in  this  country  due  to  the 
curtailing  of  immigration  during  the  war,  and  its 
diversion  into  the  channels  of  the  semi-skilled 
worker  by  reason  of  the  shortage  of  trained  men. 
Because  of  this  shortage  in  man  power,  with  its 
resulting  high  rate  of  wage  far  in  excess  of  any- 
thing heretofore  experienced,  every  possible  means 
must  be  employed  to  reduce  to  a  minimum  the  man 
hours  which  enter  into  a  building  project.  No 
more  certain  method  occurs  to  me  than  to  reduce 
the  tailor-made  feature  of  every  Government  job 
to  an  absolute  minimum  by  the  fullest  use  of 
standard  plans  and  specifications.  The  elimination 
of  competition  l>etween  the  Government  depart- 
ments, which  will  certainly  come  if  all  work  is 
placed  under  a  centralized  control,  the  discontent 
among  the  civilian  employees  now  so  apparent  in 
the  several  bureaus  because  of  the  varying  salaries 
paid  for  work  of  a  similar  character  as  well  as  the 
tremendous  money  advantage  which  might  be  de- 
rived through  a  centralized  purchasing  agency  for 
those  Government  materials,  such  as  cement,  steel. 
lumber,  iron  pipe,  plumbing  and  electric  fixtures, 
common  to  the  work  for  every  bureau  are  so  ap- 
parent as  to  need  no  comment. 

1 66 


These  generalities  ~'e  convincing  enough.  I 
cannot  think  of  this  subject  without  applying  the 
argument  to  the  va^t  amount  of  work  handled  by 
the  Construction  Division.  When  I  think  of  the 
delay,  the  extra  cost,  the  many  mistakes  and  the 
lack  of  co-ordination  which  might  have  resulted, 
had  the  589  jobs  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Con- 
struction Division  during  the  World  \Yar  been  at- 
tempted without  a  standardized  specification  and 
a  centralized  control,  I  know  that,  instead  of  their 
being  made  ready  for  service  ahead  of  schedule 
time,  as  many  of  them  were,  they  would  not  have 
been  finished  until  this  very  day. 

A  Department  of  Public  Works,  in  conference 
with  the  national  technical  societies,  could  estab- 
lish in  the  most  effective  manner  a  standard  speci- 
fication for  Government  work  which  would  insure 
both  safety  and  economy  of  design  and  the  results 
would  in  a  very  few  years  pay  a  thousand-fold 
return  on  the  investment. 

Only  a  great  war  such  as  we  have  just  been  en- 
gaged in  could  have  presented  the  opportunity  for 
the  testing  out  of  such  a  scheme  as  you  now  propose 
on  a  large  scale.  Up  until  this  time  the  proposal  to 
consolidate  under  a  single  head  the  many  construc- 
tion activities  of  our  Government  might  have  been 
stigmatized  as  visionary  and  impossible,  but  if  the 
experience  of  the  Construction  Division  has  proven 
any  one  thing,  it  is  this :  that  there  can  be  gathered 
together  in  a  single  organization  of  construction 
experts,  engineers,  architects  and  builders  who  are 
capable  of  playing  together  as  a  team  and  with  a 
minimum  amount  of  duplication,  completely  serve 
the  varied  requirements  of  any  and  all  bureaus, 
carrying  to  successful  completion  a  building  pro- 
gram of  any  size. 

In  this  unequalled  school,  I  have  learned  that 
the  economic  problem  with  which  this  country  is 
now  confronted  can  only  be  solved  through  the 
hearty  and  intelligent  co-operation  of  both  the 
Government  official  and  the  civilian  engineer  and 
contractor,  a.nd  by  intelligent  co-operation  with 
those  who  control  labor.  It  must  be  clone  on  the 
same  basis  as  commercial  work  and  not  under 
special  rules  which  penalize  the  public  Treasury 
to  the  detriment  of  all  concerned. 

There  must  be  a  new  basis  of  relationship  be- 
tween the  contractor  and  the  Government.  The 
Government  has  no  right  to  so  draw  its  contract 
or  so  specify  its  requirements  in  such  a  way  that 
the  financial  ruin  and  bankruptcy  of  the  contractor 
might  result.  There  is  an  old  engineering  maxim 
that  what  might  happen  will  happen.  It  is  unjust. 
it  is  inequitable,  it  is  uneconomic.  Neither  should 
its  specifications  be  capable  of  such  interpretation 
as  will  unduly  penalize  the  contractor  when  the 

letter  of  the  text  is  carried  out,  any  more  than 
should  the  interests  of  the  Government  suffer  if 
the  spirit  of  the  specification  is  fully  met. 

We    are    in    thorough    accord    with   the    funda- 
mental   idea   of    a   Department   of    Public   Works. 
We  naturally  believe  that  the  plan  of  organization 
that   we    worked   out   during   the    war   was   based 
upon  fundamentals  that  should  govern  in  any  large 
governmental  construction  department.     We  had  a 
number  of  clients  in  the  War  Department  quite  as 
large,  quite  as  set  on  their  own  purposes,  and  quite 
as  technical  in  their  requirements,  as  the  separate 
departments  of  the  Government  will  be  in  the  fu- 
ture.   The  fact  that  our  construction  program  ran 
twelve  hundred   million  dollars,   in  a  year  and   a 
half,  shows  that  the  amount  expended  would  be  as 
much  as  a   Department  of    Public    Works    could 
reasonably  expect  to  have  to  expend  in  times  of 
peace.     Further,   the  diversity  of   work  was,  per- 
haps, quite  as  great,  although  we  did  not  generally 
use   the   high   sounding  terms   of   hydraulic,   geo- 
graphic, geodetic,  or  reclamation.    To  me,  all  of  the 
energies,  the  thought  and  experience  of  this  coun- 
try within  its  own  continental  lines  during  the  past 
two  years  of  its  world  struggle  shall  have  been  in 
vain  unless  out  of  it  shall  grow  a  permanent  insti- 
tution solidifying  the  economic  relations  between 
the  Government  and  the  contractor,  which  will  per- 
mit the  vast  amount  of  governmental  construction 
work  now  in  prospect  to  be  handled  intelligently 
and  fairly  with  every  uncertain  element  reduced  to 
a  minimum.     I  shall  watch  with  deep  interest  the 
efforts  which  you  are  making  toward  the  co-ordina- 
tion  of   governmental  construction   work  under  a 
single  head.     Whenever  and  wherever  the  experi- 
ence of  the  Construction  Division  can  be  helpful 
to   you   or  your   officers,    I   now   place   it   at   your 

I  see  before  you  the  prospect  that  out  of  your 
efforts  there  shall  grow  a  powerful  agency  in  which 
the  intricate  problems  of  Government  construction 
work  will  find  intelligent  consideration  and  solu- 
tion. My  hopes  are  fervent  that  from  this  hall 
shall  go  forth  a  propaganda  that  will  help  make 
easy  the  solution  of  those  perilous  economic  ques- 
tions which  now  face  us  as  construction  men. 

The  trend  of  the  times  is  toward  simplication  of 
control.  If.  instead  of  sixty-two  separate  outfits, 
each  trying  to  do  more  or  less  the  same  thing, 
each  in  competition  with  the  other,  each  trespass- 
ing on  the  others'  sacred  prerogatives,  each  doing 
the  same  thing  differently,  some  better'than  others, 
some  as  best  they  can — if  all  of  these  activities  can 
be  centralized  under  a  single  control,  having  a 
definite  and  simplified  specification,  a  single  method 
of  accounting,  a  single  bureau  of  purchase,  a 



single  point  of  contact  available  to  that  unfortu- 
nate citizen  who  now  spends  days  and  weeks  chas- 
ing the  buck  from  one  Government  department  to 
another,  there  shall  have  been  accomplished  the 
most  constructive  step  in  the  history  of  Govern- 
ment work,  and  to  this  end  I  bid  you  God  speed. 

Activities  of  the  Construction 
Division,  U.  S.  A. 

THE  Construction  Division  of  the  United 
States  Army,  under  Brigadier-General  R.  C. 
Marshall,  Jr.,  was,  during  the  period  of  its 
greatest  activity  the  largest  construction  organi- 
zation that  ever  functioned  and  the  largest  em- 
ployer of  labor  in  the  history  of  this  country.  It 
had  at  the  time  of  the  armistice  more  than  200,000 
laborers  at  work  on  its  various  projects. 

One  of  the  most  important  functions  of  the  con- 
struction division  was  to  provide  for  the  tremendous 
expansion  of  the  hospital  accommodations  of  the 
country,  and  in  carrying  out  this  work  it  not  only 
built  new  buildings  of  a  temporary  or  permanent 
character  as  might  be  decided  on,  but  it  also  took 
over  a  number  of  hotels,  mercantile  buildings,  etc., 
and  altered  them  for  hospital  purposes;  in  all,  a 
total  of  294  hospitals,  accommodating  121,000  pa- 
tients, at  an  approximate  total  cost  of  $127,725,000, 
was  provided. 

In  general,  the  activities  of  the  construction  di- 
vision were  confined  to  this  side  of  the  Atlantic,  but 
as  a  notable  exception  it  must  be  stated  that  to  this 
division  was  assigned  the  duty  of  designing,  as- 
sembling and  finally  of  furnishing  the  personnel  for 
erecting  and  operating  the  huge  refrigerating  plants 
built  in  France  for  the  supply  of  the  army  at  the 

Greater  than  any  other  projects  in  importance  and 
perhaps  in  magnitude  were  the  embarkation  depots 
necessary  to  insure  the  rapid  and  systematic  supply 
of  troops  and  supplies  to  Europe.  This  work  in- 
cluded the  construction  not  only  of  tremendous  fire- 
proof warehouses,  but  also  of  wharves  and  docks. 
(See  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT,  issue  of  Nov. 
26,  1919,  for  description  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  and 
New  Orleans,  La.,  bases),  some  of  them  of  greater 
extent  than  any  heretofore  existing  in  this  country, 
and  the  construction  of  miles  of  railway  track  for 
the  handling  of  cars  and  freight  received  from  the 
various  interior  points  and  intended  for  shipment. 

Research  Graduate  Assistantships 

TO  assist  in  the  conduct  of  engineering  research 
and  to  extend  and  strengthen  the  field  of  its 
graduate  work   in   engineering,   the  University   of 
Illinois  maintains  fourteen  Research  Graduate  As- 

sistantships in  the  Engineering  Experiment  Station. 
Two  other  such  assistantships  have  been  estab- 
lished under  the  patronage  of  the  Illinois  ( las 
Association.  These  assistantships,  for  each  of  which 
there  is  an  annual  stipend  of  $500  and  freedom 
from  all  fees  except  the  matriculation  and  diploma 
fees,  are  open  to  graduates  of  approved  American 
and  foreign  universities  and  technical  schools  who 
are  prepared  to  undertake  graduate  study  in  engi- 
neering, physics,  or  applied  chemistry. 

An  appointment  to  the  position  of  Research  Grad- 
uate Assistant  is  made  and  must  be  accepted  for 
two  consecutive  college  years,  at  the  expiration  of 
which  period,  if  all  requirements  have  been  met,  the 
degree  of  Master  of  Science  will  be  conferred.  Not 
more  than  half  of  the  time  of  a  Research  Graduate 
Assistant  is  required  in  connection  with  the  work 
of  the  department  to  which  he  is  assigned,  the  re- 
mainder being  available  for  graduate  study. 

Nominations  to  these  positions,  accompanied  by 
assignments  to  special  departments  of  the  Engi- 
neering Experiment  Station,  are  made  from  appli- 
cations received  by  the  Director  of  the  Station  each 
year  not  later  than  the  first  day  of  March.  The 
nominations  are  made  by  the  Executive  Staff  of 
the  Station,  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  University.  Nominations  are  based 
upon  the  character,  scholastic  attainments,  and 
promise  of  success  in  the  principal  line  of  study  or 
research  to  which  the  candidate  proposes  to  devote 
himself.  Preference  is  given  those  applicants  who 
have  had  some  practical  engineering  experience  fol- 
lowing the  completion  of  their  undergraduate  work. 
Appointments  are  made  in  the  spring,  and  they  be- 
come effective  the  first  day  of  the  following  Sep- 
tember. Vacancies  may  be  filled  by  similar  nomi- 
nations and  appointments  at  other  times. 

The  Engineering  Experiment  Station,  an  organi- 
zation within  the  College  of  Engineering,  was  es- 
tablished in  1903  for  the  purpose  of  conducting 
investigations  in  the  various  branches  of  engineer- 
ing, and  for  the  study  of  problems  of  importance 
to  engineers  and  to  the  manufacturing  and  indus- 
trial interests  of  the  State  of  Illinois.  Research 
work  and  graduate  study  may  be  undertaken  in 
architecture,  architectural  engineering,  ceramic  en- 
gineering, chemistry,  civil  engineering,  electrical 
engineering,  mechanical  engineering,  mining  engi- 
neering, municipal  and  sanitary  engineering,  phys- 
ics, railway  engineering,  and  theoretical  and  applied 

The  work  of  the  Engineering  Experiment  Station 
is  closely  related  to  that  of  the  College  of  Engineer- 

Additional  information  may  be  obtained  by  ad- 
dressing The  Director,  Engineering  Experiment 
Station.  University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  Illinois. 

1 68 






VOL.  t  XVII 


NUMBER  2303 

The  Architect  and  the  Government 

By  GLENN  BROWN,  F.  A.  I.  A. 

THE  Government  officials  with  whom  the  ar- 
chitect has  to  deal,  whether  it  be  the  legis- 
lator, a  Cabinet  officer  or  a  bureau  chief,  are 
typical  citizens,  chosen  because  they  have  demon- 
strated in  some  line  their  capacity  and  fitness.  With 
few  exceptions  they  are  striving  to  secure  the  best 
results  for  their  masters,  the  people,  and  bow  grace- 
fully when  the  public  emphatically  expresses  an 
opinion.  They  follow  the  voice  of  their  constituents, 
rarely  attempting  to  guide  them  and  are  anxious 
to  secure  the  best  for  the  public. 

Their  experience  has  made  few  of  them  familiar 
with  the  fine  arts,  just  as  only  a  limited  number 
have  knowledge  of  great  financial  transactions  or 
engineering  schemes.  They  are  generally  open  to 
enlightenment ;  their  ambition  is  to  see  the  United 
States  progress,  become  the  leading  influence  for 
good  in  the  world  in  all  lines.  Show  them  or  im- 
press their  constituents  with  the  practical  impor- 
tance of  the  fine  arts  and  they  will  become  par- 

Government  work  in  the  fine  arts,  because  of 
its  usual  importance  and  magnitude,  will  exemplify 
and  measure  our  culture  and  enlightenment  to  fu- 
ture nations  and  generations.  With  our  future 
standing  at  stake  it  is  vital  to  our  good  reputa- 
tion to  secure  the  best  in  sculpture,  painting  and 
architecture  when  the  Government  is  the  client. 
There  is  no  dearth  of  talent,  for  we  have  indi- 
viduals practicing  each  of  the  arts  not  surpassed 
in  the  world.  The  important  factor  is  to  get  the 
Government  to  use  the  services  of  these  men  and 
we  need  not  fear  the  results. 

How  to  impress  the  people  and  the  official  with 
the  value  of  such  service  is  the  question. 

In  my  first  paper  I  explained  how  the  American 
Institute  of  Architects  accomplished  this  for  a  pe- 
riod of  twelve  years.  In  recent  years  the  organiza- 
tion, judging  from  convention  and  committee  re- 
ports, has  lost  the  public  confidence  and  failed  to 
impress  officials  with  the  value  of  its  service. 
This  became  conspicuously  manifest  during  the  war, 

but  the  seeds  of  distrust  and  disintegration  were 
planted  and  allowed  to  grow  some  years  before  the 
war  began. 

From  the  seed  of  disintegration  have  sprung  weeds 
choking  off  valuable  plants.  The  results  may  be 
seen  in  divided  and  multiplied  authority,  distrust  in 
the  capacity  of  architects  shown  in  selecting  outsid- 
ers for  important  offices,  and  delegating  independent 
authority  to  committees  and  individuals. 

The  case  of  Cass  Gilbert  illustrates  their  blight- 
ing effect.  Here  was  an  architect  whose  efficient 
service  is  lost  to  the  organization,  a  man  of  affairs, 
eminent  in  knowledge  of  construction,  brilliant  in 
plan  and  design,  upholding  to  his  personal  detri- 
ment the  strict  ethical  rules  and  giving  unstintingly 
of  his  talents  and  time  in  th2  public  service. 

For  many  years  I  was  intimate  with  and  appre- 
ciated his  value  to  the  profession  and  the  public 
as  shown  in  his  work  as  director  and  president  of 
the  Institute. 

He  stood  for  zeal  and  enthusiasm  in  public  serv- 
ice, justice  and  right  in  business,  the  highest  ideals 
in  art;  holding  to  the  big  things  and  wiping  aside 
the  exploitation  of  trivial  and  non-essential  things. 

No  one  did  more  than  he  to  give  the  Institute 
prestige,  or  secure  the  confidence  of  Government 
officials  by  his  intelligent  and  business-like  presenta- 
tion of  a  subject ;  by  his  diplomacy  and,  when  re- 
quired, by  his  aggressive  fighting  qualities.  How 
was  he  rewarded?  There  was  an  active  clique  in 
the  Society,  the  same  who  transferred  the  impor- 
tant offices  of  the  Institute  to  outsiders,  over- 
anxious to  guard  the  morals  of  others,  who  made  a 
personal  attack  on  Gilbert.  His  advice  was  ignored, 
his  wise  and  farsighted  policies  were  abandoned, 
his  attitude  was  misunderstood,  and  his  own  sacri- 
fices counted  for  nothing.  The  attack  came  to  noth- 
ing, but  left  a  deep  sense  of  disgust  and  injustice. 
This  snapping  at  Gilbert's  heels  continued,  but  he 
withstood  the  exasperating  personal  pricks  until 
methods  which  he  and  many  others  considered  cletri- 

C<>f\right    ;p.'0,    The    Architectural    &    Building    Press    (Inc.) 


mental  to  the  morale  of  the  profession  were  inaugu- 
rated, when  he  resigned. 

This  growth  from  the  seed  of  disintegration 
started  by  borrowing  from  the  reserve  fund  to  help 
pay  an  increase  of  some  $10,000  in  office  and  Jour- 
nal salaries.  It  seems  doubtful  from  a  statement 
by  the  treasurer  whether  three  thousand  of  this 
was  a  loan  or  a  gift  not  to  be  returned,  and  the 
auditors  fail  to  show  it  in  their  account  of  the 
reserve  fund. 

The  reserve  fund  was  started  by  Cass  Gilbert 
when  he  was  president,  with  the  idea  of  eventually 
providing  an  endowment  that  would  at  least  pay 
for  the  maintenance  of  The  Octagon  and  possibly 
the  office  expenses  of  the  Institute,  hoping  that  it 
would  finally  pay  all  expenses  and  put  the  Institute 
on  a  plane  with  the  National  Academy  of  Design. 
Gilbert  wrote  a  serious  letter  to  the  president,  T.  R. 
Kimball,  explaining  the  origin  and  purpose  of  the 
fund  and  objecting  to  its  dissipation  through  gift 
or  loan. 

The  following  discussion  occurred  at  the  Nash- 
ville Convention  on  the  subject : 

The  Chairman  (Mr.  Waid),  in  his  statement, 
said:  "It  is  a  satisfaction  to  have  a  letter  that 
has  come  to  my  knowledge,  addressed  to  President 
Kimball  from  Cass  Gilbert,  who  was  first  instru- 
mental in  establishing  this  fund.  The  letter  is  so 
long  that  unless  requested  I  believe  we  had  better 
not  take  time  to  read  it." 

Mr.  Pond:  "Is  it  along  the  same  line  in  favor 
of  withdrawing  from  the  fund  $10,000?" 

Mr.  Waid :  "This  does  not  touch  that  particu- 
lar point,  and  there  is  nothing  in  the  record  to 
prevent  the  Convention  withdrawing  the  money 
...  or  even  appropriating  it  outright.''  .  .  . 

Mr.  Du  Fais :  "Mr.  Gilbert  has  written  a  letter 
on  that  subject  to  the  president,  which,  I  believe, 
he  would  permit  me  to  read."  .  .  . 

The  Chairman  (Mr.  Waid)  :  "That  is  a  letter 
that  was  so  long  and  we  were  so  pressed  for 
time"  .  .  . 

Mr.  Du  Fais  finally  got  the  letter  before  the 
Convention ;  it  took  between  three  and  four  minutes 
to  read.  It  was  a  serious  letter,  giving  the  cause 
and  history  of  the  reserve  fund,  what  it  was  ex- 
pected to  accomplish  and  his  opposition  to  its  being 
used  for  current  expense.  After  further  discus- 
sion, the  resolution  was  carried  by  a  vote  of  83 
to  40,  receiving  two  votes  above  the  necessary  two- 
thirds  to  carry.  With  the  doubt  expressed  fre- 
quently on  the  floor  as  to  who  had  a  right  to  vote 
and  the  doubt  expressed  on  how  to  vote  proxies, 
one  cannot  help  wondering  if  it  legally  passed. 
Gilbert  and  other  members  who  had  been  fostering 
this  fund  were  shocked  at  the  growth  from  this 

weed    which    was    reaching    out    and    sapping    the 
strength  of  a  nobler  growth. 

The  weed  continued  its  rank  growth,  oozing  out 
poison  in  the  form  of  an  editorial,  easily  con- 
strued from  the  assertion,  "Every  vested  right  is 
in  reality  a  vested  wrong,"  as  a  bolsheviki  docu- 
ment, striking  at  the  fundamentals  of  our  Govern- 
ment. This  was  such  a  grave  offense,  placing  the 
organization  and  the  profession  in  such  a  false 
position  with  officials  and  the  people  that  Gilbert 
wrote  the  president,  demanding  the  writer  be  re- 
moved if  an  employee  of  the  Institute.  This  was 
answered  in  a  perfunctory  way  by  the  president. 
The  Board  in  Nashville  states :  "The  responsi- 
bility for  the  editorial  is  shared  by  the  president, 
the  committee  on  publication  and  the  editor.  Re- 
gardless of  whether  or  not  the  article  in  question 
expresses  the  opinion  of  the  Institute  and  without 
consideration  of  its  merits  or  demerits  .  .  .  the 
Board  believes  such  an  article  was  not  of  the  type 
which  should  be  published  in  the  Journal.  There- 
fore, the  Board  instructs  the  Committee  on  Publi- 
cation that  the  columns  of  the  Journal  should  (a 
weak  command)  not  be  devoted  to  matters  which 
may  become  the  subject  of  political  or  religious 

With  this  official  statement  that  the  president 
and  Board,  equally  with  the  editor,  were  respon- 
sible for  exploiting  such  principles,  Gilbert,  as  others 
have  done,  felt  that  he  was  unwilling  to  be  made 
a  party  to  such  pernicious  principles  through  mem- 
bership in  the  organization  and  resigned  about  the 
middle  of  May.  This  demonstrates  the  effect  of 
the  management  produced  by  the  influence  of  the 
non-professional  which  has  apparently  dominated 
the  professional  for  several  years. 

This  weed,  with  its  tangled  growth,  has  cut  the 
Institute  off  from  the  great  oak  whose  fame  had 
been  a  landmark  known  to  the  world  for  its  strength 
and  nobility,  whose  outspread  branches  had  shel- 
tered the  profession  in  storm  and  stress,  always 
standing  firmly  in  its  dignity  and  purity.  This  seed 
of  disintegration,  producing  divided  authority  and 
distrust  in  the  efficiency  of  its  own  members,  pro- 
duced the  resignation,  I  understand,  of  men  like 
Thomas  C.  Young,  of  Eames  &  Young,  St.  Louis, 
and  of  Breck  Trowbridge,  of  Trowbridge  &  Living- 
ston, New  York,  nationally  known  for  their  effi- 
ciency and  ability,  and  caused  m?ny  other  members 
of  standing  to  cease  participating  in  Society  affairs. 
From  the  seed,  of  intolerance,  insisting  on  rule 
and  regulation  for  the  conduct  both  of  the  profes- 
sion and  the  public,  have  grown  vines  strangling 
public  confidence. 

A  healthy  plant  had  sprung  from  the  public  con- 
fidence of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  in  the 
Institute's  management  and  ideals.  It  had  become 



the  custom  of  the  Secretary  to  call  in  the  officers 
of  the  Institute  for  advice  on  architecture  and  the 
other  fine  arts,  and  he  usually  followed  their  ad- 
vice. In  a  system  just  beginning  at  the  time  of 
taking  authority  from  the  official  staff  and  vesting 
it  in  regulating  committees,  a  large  committee  was 
empowered  to  confer  with  the  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury,  excluding  from  the  committee  all  who 
had  become  familiar  with  the  wants  of  officials. 
This  conference  was  on  competitions  and  the  re- 
lations between  the  Supervising  Architect's  Office 
and  the  private  practitioner.  The  delegation  made 
uncalled-for  demands  and  were  so  infatuated  with 
their  rules  and  regulations  that  they  were  intolerant 
of  suggestion. 

This  conference  was  the  last  opportunity  the  In- 
stitute had  to  exercise  its  influence  for  the  public 
good  through  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  as 
neither  its  officers  or  members  were  called  on  again. 
The  pendulum  swung  so  far  the  other  way  that 
when  the  last  supervising  architect  was  displaced 
a  lawyer  was  made  acting  supervising  architect. 
Although  several  years  have  passed  the  lawyer  still 
holds  the  office.  The  Assistant  Secretary,  after  ex- 
perience with  a  supposedly  inefficient  architect  and 
the  intolerance  of  Institute  advice,  believes,  al- 
though we  know  he  is  mistaken,  that  the  office 
can  be  managed  more  effectively  without  an  archi- 
tect. It  is  a  stinging  reprimand  to  the  profession, 
which  we  know  is  not  deserved.  Thus  this  lusty 
plant  of  confidence  has  been  sapped  and  killed  by 
the  weed  of  intolerance. 

From  the  seed  of  exclusiveness,  belief  that  archi- 
tects should  confine  their  efforts  to  the  artistic,  has 
sprung  a  rank  weed  with  hypnotic  influence,  con- 
vincing the  public  that  the  architect's  vision  is  in 
the  clouds  and  cannot  be  brought  down  to  common 
ordinary  mundane  affairs. 

What  might  have  been  the  disastrous  effects  of 
this  policy  is  illustrated  by  one  of  the  campaigns 
for  the  Lincoln  Memorial.  The  management  of 
the  Institute  instructed  (the  disintegration  had  be- 
gun) the  Secretary  to  confine  his  efforts  to  the 
importance  of  the  artistic  side  of  the  question  and 
to  ignore  the  practical  questions  involved  when  pre- 
senting the  case  for  final  decision  on  the  floor  of 
the  House  of  Representatives,  between  a  Memorial 
to  Lincoln  expressed  in  a  Public  Highway  to  Gettys- 
burg, and  the  classic  structure  shown  as  an  im- 
portant part  of  the  composition  of  the  Mall.  In 
the  face  of  instructions  to  the  contrary,  I  deter- 
mined to  show  the  practical  side  of  the  question,  as 
I  knew  the  majority  of  Congress,  just  as  a  majority 
of  the  people,  would  appreciate  more  clearly  the 
practical  questions  involved  than  they  would  the 

The  attorney  for  the  Automobile  and  Highway 

Associations  was  proposing  a  second  Appian  Way 
to  last  centuries,  making  very  impressive  propa- 
ganda to  enthuse  Congress  and  the  people.  I  in- 
vestigated the  construction  of  the  Appian  High- 
way and  made  an  estimate  of  what  a  similar  road- 
way would  cost  at  the  time.  This  was  before  1914, 
and  I  found  it  amounted  to  over  $300,000,000.  I 
secured  an  itemized  estimate  made  by  the  Engineer 
Corps,  U.  S.  A.,  for  a  memorial  boulevard  from 
Mt.  Vernon  to  Washington.  Taking  the  prices  in 
this  as  a  basis,  I  made  a  careful  itemized  estimate 
of  the  cost  of  a  similar  road  from  Washington  to 
Gettysburg.  This  boulevard  showed  the  lowest  ex- 
pression required  of  a  Memorial  Highway.  A 
tabulated  sheet  was  made  showing  the  cost  per  yard 
of  the  different  kinds  of  roadbed  and  surfacing, 
as  well  as  the  total  number  of  yards  required  to 
complete  the  project.  We  found  that  such  a  high- 
way would  cost  $20,000,000  and  take  $1,000,000  an- 
nually for  maintenance.  My  data  and  estimates 
were  submitted  to  Col.  W.  V.  Judson,  Eng.  Corp, 
U.  S.  A.,  who  had  constructed  the  fine  roads  in 
Porto  Rico  and  had  charge  of  the  streets  and 
highways  in  the  District  of  Columbia.  Colonel 
Judson  went  over  them  and  certified  to  their  ac- 
curacy before  the  Congressional  Committee.  Then 
Col.  A.  Y.  Worthington,  one  of  Washington's  most 
distinguished  lawyers,  agreed,  pro  bono  publico,  to 
take  the  practical  data,  the  artistic  considerations 
and  to  investigate  the  legal  side  and  manage  the 
case  before  the  Committee,  cross-questioning  the 
engineers  and  others  interested  in  the  highway.  He 
showed  up  plainly  the  $2,000,000  they  were  aiming 
to  get  would  build  a  poor  grade  macadamized  coun- 
try road  15  feet  wide  instead  of  a  cut-stone  Appian 
Way,  a  commonplace  memorial  belittling  the  name 
of  Lincoln.  This  data  before  the  Committee  was 
printed  and  presented  to  the  House  just  before  the 
question  was  brought  up  on  the  floor,  where  it  was 
handled  in  a  masterly  way  by  Representative  Lyn- 
den  Evans,  of  Chicago. 

I  was  told  by  the  attorney  for  the  other  side, 
representing  Highway  and  Automobile  Associations, 
that  we  won  on  the  practical  data,  handled  in  a 
competent  way  by  Colonel  Worthington  and  Rep- 
resentative Evans.  I  can  well  believe  this  to  be 
a  fact,  as  Senator  Elihu  Root  and  Representative 
Slayden,  of  the  Library  Committee,  both  believing 
in  our  side,  told  me  two  weeks  before  the  question 
came  up  in  the  House  and  before  our  data  was 
published  that  we  would  lose  out  in  the  House. 
This  shows  how  the  weed  of  exclusiveness  may  be 
killed  by  the  application  of  ordinary  common  sense. 
From  the  seed  of  shirking,  avoiding  the  perform- 
ance of  duty,  of  the  same  genus  as  the  weed  ex- 
clusiveness, springs  the  transfer  of  responsibility 
in  construction,  sanitation,  decoration  and  land- 



scape  These  weeds,  widely  disseminated,  have  poi- 
soned the  public  mind  with  the  idea  that  the  only 
function  of  the  architect  is  to  design  ornamental 
features  and  make  pretty  pictures,  which  the  public 
think  non-essential  or  trivial.  This  opinion  would 
be  just  if  that  was  the  only  way  in  which  an  ar- 
chitect made  himself  useful. 

During  war-times  the  profession  was  needed  m 
the  interest  of  the  public  as  no  class  was  as  well 
qualified  to  plan,  construct  and  economically  man- 
age building  operations  as  the  qualified  architect. 
But  the  weed  shirking  has  choked  public  confidence 
and  the  people  have  lost  the  benefit  of  efficient  ar- 
chitectural service. 

The  experience  of  one  architect  well  illustrates 
the  effects  of  this  growth.     He  was  an  architect  of 
long    practice    who    had    designed    machine    shops, 
bridges,  dwellings,  department  stores,  office  build- 
ings,   difficult    foundations    in    quicksands    and    in 
water,  landscape  and   roadways,   who  was  an  au- 
thority on  plumbing  and  heating  and  made  his  own 
structural    details,    computing    strains    on    trusses, 
arches,  retaining  walls,  and  who  personally  super- 
vised his  work.    This  architect  thought  his  services 
would  be   useful  in   war  work   and   was   eager  to 
have  a  hand  in  downing  the  bodies.     He  thought 
it  was  only  necessary  to  offer  his  services  and  that 
they  would  gladly  be  accepted.     After  many  inter- 
views  with   officials   in   the   War   Department,   the 
Navy  Department  and  Special  Boards  he  found  that 
he  was  not  wanted.    The  reason  in  every  case  was 
that  they  wanted  practical  men,  engineers  and  build- 
ers, and  turned  a  deaf  ear  to  any  explanation  as 
to   the  practical  efficiency   of   the   architect.     This 
architect  determined  to  stand  a  civil  service  exam- 
ination   for    superintendent    of    construction.      He 
filled  in  his  papers  as  instructed  and  had  the  en- 
dorsement   of    five    well-known    architects.     After 
about   three   months   a   notice   was    received    from 
the  Civil   Service  Commission,   stating,   "Your   ap- 
plication has  been  cancelled  for  lack  of  experience." 
This  seemed  so  ridiculous  to  an  architect  who  had 
been    actively    designing    and    superintending    all 
classes    of    construction    for    thirty    years    that   he 
went  with  fire  in  his  eye  to  the  Civil  Service  Com- 
missioner.    They  referred  him  to  one  of  the  ex- 

The  applicant   was   told  in  effect  that  they   did 
not   want   architects.     They   wanted   engineers,   as 

they  were  practical  men.     'I  hey   were  asked  if  the 
work  of  this  architect  was  not  practical  work.     The 
reply  was.  "We  all  know  an  architect  has  nothing 
to  d'o  with  the  structural  work  or  the  superintend- 
ence of  his  buildings.    He  only  makes  drawings  for 
the  ornamental  parts.     We  do  not  consider  the  en- 
dorsement of  architects  (all  the  endorsers  for  this 
candidate   were   prominent   architects)    as   they   do 
not  know  anything  about  these  practical  questions." 
Instead  of  appealing  this,  on  the  face  of  it,  unjust 
decision,    which    would    have    taken    four    or    five 
months  passing  through  the  various  boards,  the  ar- 
chitect determined  to  stand   for   four  similar  posi- 
tions, in  which  the  circular  stated  they  were  much 
in  need  of  capable  men :  one  wider  the  Army,  one 
under   the   Navy   and   one   at   large.      In   this  case 
he  swore  to  the  fact  that  he  designed  and  super- 
intended    his     structures,     enumerating     machine 
shops,  bridges  and  buildings  where  that  had  been 
the  case.     Instead  of  architects  to  endorse  him,  he 
got  structural  engineers,   railroad  engineers  and  a 
sanitary  engineer  who  knew  he  was  a  practical  man. 
After  several   months  he   received   a   rating — 85 
the  lowest  and  95  the  highest— on  these  three  ex- 
aminations.    The  lowest  rating  because  he  had  no 
degree  in  engineering. 

Although  his  name,  being  very  near  the  top,  was 
certified  to  the  officials  in  the  departments  wanting 
such  help,  nothing  \vas  heard  from  them  for  months, 
and  in  the  meantime  the  armistice  was  signed. 

The  officials  probably  selected  some  one  calling 
himself  engineer,  although  the  rating  may  have 
been  lower,  instead  of  the  applicant  calling  himself 
an  architect. 

This  case  clearly  shows  how  the  weed  of  shirk- 
ing responsibility  as  practiced  by  some  architects, 
but  never  tolerated  by  the  men  who  have  been  most 
successful  and  of  the  greatest  public  service,  has 
been  allowed  to  grow  where  it  is  fast  poisoning 
public  opinion  and  sapping  public  confidence. 

Let  us  as  individual  architects  and  the  Institute 
as  the  society  of  architects  root  up  the  weeds  that 
have  grown  in  rich  ground  and  replant  and  sedu- 
lously cultivate  useful  and  nourishing  plants. 

The  Post-War  Committee,  to  which  apparently 
everything  relating  to  the  Institute  and  the  indi- 
vidual practitioner  has  been  referred,  is  making  an 
effort  to  do  this  rooting  up  and  replanting. 

In  the  next  article  I  propose  to  treat  of  the  prob- 
lems which  they  have  had  under  discussion. 


Civic  Centers  in  New  England 

Ry  OLIVER  H.  HOWE,  M.D. 

MUCH  of  the  attractiveness  and  dignity 
of  our  \e\v  England  towns  consists  in 
the  possession  of  a  civic  center.  Guided 
to  it  by  the  white  spire  of  a  Colonial  church  or  by 
the  tasteful  and  dignified  tower  of  a  town  hall, 
we  find  a  green  with  trees  or  shrubbery,  about 
which  are  grouped  the  principal  public  buildings 
of  the  town.  We  immediately  feel  that  here  is 
expressed  the  true  personality  of  the  community. 
( )ther  towns  may  have  well-shaded  streets  and 
attractive  residences,  but  if  the  public  buildings 
are  scattered  along  a  main  street,  so  that  no  two 
of  them  can  be  seen  at  once,  we  seek  in  vain  for 
the  center  and  feel  that  a  civic  and  artistic  oppor- 
tunity has  been  lost. 

Such  a  center  should  be  at  or  near  the  center 
of  population  and  movement.  If  principal  streets 
radiate  from  it,  public  convenience  will  be  served 

properly  to  see  the  buildings  and  en- 
joy their  architecture,  for  if  placed 
close  to  a  narrow  street  or  obscured 
by  foliage  they  lose  much  of  their 
charm.  Moreover,  churches,  schools 
and  libraries  require  some  isolation  to 
secure  the  necessary  quiet. 

'ihe  several  buildings  of  the  group 
should  be  harmonious  in  architecture 
and  purpose,  should  face  properly 
with  relation  to  each  other  and  the  lo- 
cality should  be  free  from  unsightly 
construction.  Buildings  excellent  in 
themselves,  if  too  dissimilar  in  style 
or  material,  may  destroy  all  good  ef- 
fect by  unpleasant  contrast  It  is  un- 
wise to  place  beside  a  plain  Colonial 
building,  a  decorated  Gothic  or  Ro- 



and  the  situation  will  be  recognized  as  well  planned 
and  logical.  It  should  be  visible  from  the  main 
highway,  so  that  every  tourist  may  see  and  appre- 
ciate the  personality  of  the  town.  Sometimes,  as 
in  Warren,  Massachusetts,  the  civic  center  i« 
grouped  about  the  railroad  station  and  if  the  group 
be  attractive,  a  passing  glimpse  will  favorably  im- 
press the  traveler  by  train. 

A  civic  center  should  preferably  be  on  a  slight 
eminence,  so  as  to  give  dignity  to  the  buildings. 
Level  ground  is  less  advantageous,  although  often 
necessary.  A  hollow  is  always  disadvantageous, 
although  proper  treatment  may  redeem  it.  A  com- 
mon or  open  space  is  necessary  to  give  opportunity 

manesque  structure.  Instances  of  this  are  too 
numerous  to  mention.  Likewise  a  bright  yellow 
brick  building  may  seriously  intrude  in  a  group  of 
quiet,  low-toned  stone  or  red  brick  structures. 
Buildings  of  a  group  may  effectively  face  each 
other,  but  one  building  facing  in  the  opposite  direc- 
tion may  destroy  the  harmony  of  an  otherwise 
admirable  group. 

The  buildings  most  suitable  for  civic  centers  are 
town  halls,  churches,  libraries,  schools  or  academies, 
court  houses,  and  post-office  and  bank  buildings. 
Fire  department  and  police  headquarters  may  serve 
as  subsidiary  parts  of  the  group,  but  should  not  be 
placed  too  prominently.  An  attractive  hotel  will 


Tl I E     AM KR I CA X     A RC 1 1 1 TI-CT 

often  add  to  the  effectiveness  and  contribute  an  air 
of  hospitality  to  the  scene. 

To  form  a  pleasing-  combination,  one  building 
should  dominate  the  group.  It  may  be  a  massive 
town  hall,  or  perhaps  a  church  with  lofty  spire. 
Whatever  it  is,  the  chief  interest  should  there  be 
concentrated.  Spacious  grounds  give  the  proper 
distinction  to  such  a  building  and  its  tower  or  spire 
should  not  be  hidden  by  trees.  Residences  with 
tasteful  grounds  always  make  a  good  setting  for  a 
civic  center;  and  business  blocks,  if  of  good  archi- 


lecture  and  well  kept,  may  form  a  part  of  the  group. 
In  large  towns  and  cities  the  business  center  may 
more  properly  be  separated  by  a  little  space  from 
the  civic  center.  Unfortunately,  stores,  business 
blocks  and  factories  do  much  to  mar  civic  groups 
by  their  ugly  or  ill-assorted  architecture  and  their 
advertising  features.  A  civic  center  should  have 
repose  and  harmony  and  be  free  from  ugly  and 
distracting  elements.  If  a  common  or  park  is  in- 
cluded in  the  scheme,  such  open  space  should  have 
a  central  point  of  interest ;  either  a  fountain,  flag- 
pole or  memorial  of  some  kind,  or  perhaps  a  band- 
stand, if  tasteful  and  appropriate. 

A  study  of  the  different  types  of  civic  centers  in 
New  England  may  be  of  interest.  A  rectangular 
common  with  streets  radiating  from  it  and  the 
public  buildings  grouped  about  it  is  the  one  seen 
at  Foxborough,  Massachusetts.  The  public  library, 
hotel  and  three  churches  face  the  common  and  seven 
important  streets  radiate  from  it.  A  similar  ar- 
rangement with  rather  narrow  common  is  seen  at 
Concord,  Bridgewater  and  Shrewsbury,  Mass.,  and 
Woodstock,  Vt.  Such  an  open  space  corresponds 
in  position  with  the  market-place  seen  in  English 
towns,  of  which  Ripon  in  Yorkshire  furnishes  a 
good  example.  The  market-place,  however,  is  gen- 
erally paved  and  used  for  the  display  and  sale  of 
produce,  while  the  New  England  common  is  a  grass 
plot  beautified  with  trees  or  shrubbery. 

A  more  frequent  type  in  New  England  is  the 

long,  narrow  common  with  a  street  on  each  side  of 
it,  as  at  Amhersl,  Longmeadow  and  Cohasset,  Mass. 
Sometimes  the  street  is  in  the  middle  of  the  plot 
as  at  South  Hingham,  Mass.,  and  in  some  instances 
on  one  side  only,  as  at  Williamstovvn.  Mass.  Such 
commons  are  frequently  half  a  mile  or  more  long. 
The  widest  example  is  that  of  Hadley,  Mass.,  whose 
common  is  also  a  full  mile  in  length.  These  com- 
mons were  used  as  training  fields  in  Colonial  and 
revolutionary  times  and  again  recently  by  companies 
of  the  Massachusetts  State  Guard.  A  common  of 
this  type  is  admirably  suited  to  display  of  the  civic 
buildings  if  they  are  properly  placed  and  many 
beautiful  examples  are  found  in  New  England,  in- 
cluding Suffield  and  Enfield,  Conn.,  and  Stock- 
bridge,  Mass. 

Another  type  of  center  is  found  where  two  main 
roads  cross  each  other  at  right  angles.  If  both 
streets  are  wide  and  the  buildings  have  ample 
grounds,  this  type  may  be  very  attractive.  A  good 
example  is  found  in  Dedham,  Mass.,  the  county 
court  house  and  registry  building,  occupying  two 
corners  and  a  Colonial  church  with  its  green  a 
third  corner. 

Perhaps  the  most  generally  successful  form  of 
center  is  that  where  three  main  roads  meet.  Often 
a  triangular  common  is  found,  upon  which  a  Colo- 
nial meeting  house  or  some  other  public  building 
is  placed.  In  other  instances  the  common  is  an 
attractive  open  space.  If  no  common  exists,  the 
fork  of  the  road  offers  a  particularly  favorable  site 
for  a  building.  In  such  a  location  stands  the  city 
hall  of  Meriden,  Conn.  Occupying  the  brow  of  the 
hill,  it  is  in  full  view  for  a  half  mile  as  it  is 
approached  by  the  main  street.  With  the  public 


library,  high  school  and  three  churches  as  neigh- 
bors, all  combine  to  make  a  civic  center  of  which 
any  city  might  be  proud.  The  triangular  intersec- 
tion has  decided  advantages  over  the  cross  roads, 
for  it  is  less  formal  and  usually  gives  better  display 



of  its  buildings.  Examples  of  this  type  are  found 
in  \Yayland,  \\'rentham  and  East  Bridgewater, 
Mass.,  and  Jaffrey,  N.  H. 

A  similar  favorable  location  for  a  building  is 
found  when  one  main  street  meets  another  in  the 
form  of  a  T.  Trinity  Church,  New  York  has  such 
a  location  and  its  front  is  seen  to  good  advantage 
from  any  point  in  Wall  Street.  A  building  at  the 
higher  end  of  a  narrow  common  is  also  favorably 


placed,  as  for  instance  the  Academy  at  Bridgewater, 
Mass.,  and  a  Colonial  church  in  North  Attleboro, 

Where  the  center  must  be  on  one  straight  street 
without  prominent  intersections,  the  problem  is 
usually  more  difficult  and  seldom  reaches  so  happy 
a  result.  Narrowness  of  the  street  and  lack  of 
space  for  set-back  have  spoiled  the  effectiveness  of 
many  a  village  group.  An  admirable  solution  was 
reached  in  the  case  of  Lancaster,  Mass.,  whose  civic 
center  is  ideal  in  every  respect.  There  is  a  rec- 
tangular common  at  the  side  of  the  main  street  and 
about  this  are  a  fine  Colonial  church  designed  by 
Bulfinch,  a  public  library,  a  town  hall  and  a 
high  school.  The  magnificent  municipal  group  in 
Springfield,  Mass,  has  the  same  kind  of  plan.  Be- 
ginning, with  a  square  park  and  an  ancient  Colonial 
meeting  house,  the  city  has  built  a  city  government 
building,  an  auditorium  and  a  lofty  clock-tower. 
Across  the  park  is  a  fine  court  house  and  nearby  is 
the  fire  department  headquarters.  In  New  Haven, 
Connecticut,  the  ample  "green"  forms  an  effective 
setting  for  three  fine  churches,  offering  a  striking 
demonstration  of  the  importance  of  proper  spacing 
in  such  situations.  The  recent  erection  of  a  fine 
United  States  post-office  and  court  house  facing  the 
churches,  and  of  a  city  library  at  one  side,  are 
serving  to  evolve  for  New  Haven  a  civic  center  of 
noble  proportions.  Milton,  Mass.,  has  a  fine  civic 
group.  On  a  street  of  generous  width  are  a  town- 
hall  and  two  churches  and  parish  house,  while  in 
the  rear  are  the  high  school  and  fire  and  police 

headquarters.  Across  the  street  and  completing 
the  group  is  a  fine  public  library.  The  town  hall 
in  the  center,  standing  on  the  highest  ground, 
dominates  the  group,  being  flanked  by  a  church  on 
either  side.  These  buildings  are  set  back  from  the 
street  about  100  feet  and  have  ample  space  around 
them.  The  town  of  Leicester,  Mass.,  has  a  similar 
arrangement,  the  town  hall,  two  churches  and  high 
school  occupying  the  summit  of  the  high  hill  on 
which  the  town  is  built. 

It  is  not  desirable  that  every  town  should  develop 
a  civic  center  in  precisely  the  same  way — rather  the 
contrary.  Some  towns  have  important  natural 
features — a  lake  shore,  a  forest  background,  an 
attractive  knoll  or  a  rocky  eminence,  which  may 
guide  and  enhance  the  civic  arrangement  and  every 
advantage  should  be  taken  of  such  features,  for 
they  will  conduce  to  individual  charm  and  make  it 
appear  that  the  center  grew  there. 

Some  may  question  the  wisdom  of  so  much 
thought  upon  such  a  subject  as  this,  in  view  of  the 
fact  that  few  towns  can  be  planned  in  their  entirety 
and  that  most  communities  have  already  occupied 
their  land  in  such  a  way  that  changes  are  costly 
and  impracticable.  I  would  reply  that  many  towns 
which  I  knew  in  my  boyhood  have  since  added  im- 
portant public  buildings  and  developed  situations 
which  have  greatly  improved  them  as  civic  centers. 
Every  town  has  to  rebuild  more  or  less  as  time  goes 
on.  The  important  thing  is  to  see  that  such  rebuild- 


ing  is  wisely  done,  that  it  shall  be  fitting  and  appro- 
priate for  the  situation  involved,  that  it  shall  reflect 
credit  upon  the  town  possessing  it  and  that,  if  pos- 
sible, it  shall  enhance  the  beauty  and  significance 
of  the  structures  already  there.  Often  there  is  a 
choice  of  sites  for  a  new  building.  If  placed  with 
relation  to  the  civic  center,  it  will  enhance  the 
effectiveness  of  the  group,  while  if  remotely  placed, 
such  bond  of  unity  will  be  lost. 



Various  minor  and  less  expensive  changes  may 
materially  improve  a  town's  civic  center.  Widen- 
ing and  straightening-  of  streets,  planting  of  trees 
or  shrubbery,  removal  of  unsightly  buildings  or 
fences,  grading  and  improving  of  village  greens, 
opening  up  of  vistas,  the  addition  of  a  flagstaff  or 
fountain  or  the  denning  of  a  well-planned  arrange- 
ment of  paths ;  all  are  of  this  nature. 

We  are  not  careless  about  our  dress  or  manners, 
for  we  know   that  other  people  will  judge  us  by 
them.     In  the  same  way,  the  life  and  spirit  of  a 
town  arj  judged  by  the  character  and  appearance 
of   its  public  buildings  and  by  the  taste  displayed 
in  their  surroundings.     If  they  show  an  inviting 
aspect  to  the  world,  the 
stranger    will    say : 
"Here  is  the  abode  of 
an  intelligent  and  right- 
minded  community.    Its 
people  have  good  taste 
a  n  d     self-respect.       I 
would     like     to     know 
them     better."       Such 
good  opinion  as  this  is 
an     asset     for     every 
town.     It   is   not   only 
worthy  of  thought  and 
planning,    but    it     will 
justify  all  the  expense 
cf  its  attainment. 

\  city  or  large  town 
may  very  readily  have 
more  than  one  center. 

If  one  group  includes  the  town  hall,  court  house  and 
one  or  two  churches,  the  other  may  contain  school 
houses  and  library,  or  the  churches  may  form  a 
separate  group  if  desired. 

Each  group  should  be  large  and  important  enough 
to  be  effective.  Business  centers  in  towns  should 
also  receive  some  thought  and  care,  both  on  account 
of  convenience  and  of  creditable  appearance.  The 
buildings  should  harmonize  well  and  the  street  in- 
tersection should  be  of  ample  width  to  indicate  the 
importance  of  the  locality. 

A  town  that  possesses  a  common  or  an  ample  lot 
of  land  for  town  buildings,  although  bare  of  other 
attractions,  has  a  good  nucleus  for  further  improve- 
ment as  from  time  to  time  other  buildings  are 
needed.  Unfortunately  in  many  instances  public 
space  has  not  been  reserved  and  the  community  has 


become  closely  built  up.  There  is  frequently  diffi- 
culty in  obtaining  additional  land  for  public  UMJS. 
not  cniv  because  of  the  expense,  but  because  the 
owners  are  unwilling  to  sell.  Patient  waiting,  how- 
ever, will  sooner  or  later  develop  opportunities. 
I  know  an  instance  where  a  piece  of  property  was 
tenaciously  held  by  its  owner  for  thirty  years,  but 
the  time  arrived  when  he  was  desirous  to  sell. 
Citizens  grasped  the  opportunity,  by  combined 
effort  the  necessary  amount  was  contributed  and  the 
scheme  of  town  improvement  was  perfected.  The 
greatest  requisite  is  vision.  Some  public-minded 
individuals  must  look  into  the  future  and  see  the 
needs  and  possibilities  that  lie  there.  Everyone 

can  recognize  an  im- 
provement after  it  is 
made  and  many  say. 
"Why  did  we  not  do 
this  before?"  The  m:m 
that  can  see  a  transfor- 
mation before  it  is  un- 
folded and  can  patient- 
ly and  persistently 
work  for  its  accom- 
plishment is  the  man 
most  needed  in  town 
improvement  t  o-d  a  y. 
There  is  a  splendid 
field  for  village  im- 
provement societies. 
Stockbridge,  Mass., 
was  the  pioneer  in  this 
kind  of  work,  having 

formed  the  Laurel  Hill  Association  in  1841.  One 
can  readily  see  how  Stockbridge  has  been  steadily 
moulded  to  lines  of  beauty,  all  its  natural  attractions 
conserved  and  a  public  sentiment  created  that  con- 
stantly strives  for  the  best  things  and  insists  on  a 
high  standard  of  civic  life.  Any  town  may  easily 
have  an  improvement  association  provided  the  im- 
pulse to  form  one  is  present.  A  town  that  thus 
develops  and  improves  its  natural  situation  will  not 
only  maintain  a  high  degree  of  self-respect,  but 
will  be  recognized  as  a  community  of  high  ideals 
and  genuine  worth.  It  will  become  more  desirable 
as  a  place  of  residence  and  its  material  prosperity 
will  be  in  every  way  enhanced.  It  will  develop 
a  character  and  a  personality  which  will  reflect 
the  taste  and  the  public  spirit  of  its  citizens  and 
which  will  be  a  joy  to  all  who  behold  it. 


Concrete,  Its  Use  and  Abuse 

An  Address  Delivered  Before  the  National  Conference  on  Concrete  Housing, 

Held  in  Chicago,  February  17,  1920 

By  IRVING  K.  POND,  F.A.I. A. 
Past  President  of  the  American  Institute  of  Architects 

I  HAVE  written  so  much  abstractly  on  archi- 
tecture and  architectural  principles  that  it  is 
good  again  to  get  down  to  hard  and  fast  mat- 
ters and  fix  my  hypotheses  in  the  concrete.  I  say 
"again,"'  for  many  years  ago  as  chairman  of  the 
Committee  on  the  Allied  Arts  of  the  American  In- 
stitute of  Architects  I  was  the  author  of  a  widely 
circulated  report  from  that  Committee  dealing  with 
concrete  as  a  medium  of  architectural  expression. 
I  have  had  but  slight  occasion  to  put  into  practice 
the  theories  I  then  advanced,  but  I  have  continued 
to  ho'.d.  and  still  maintain  them. 

Since  that  time  the  use  of  concrete  in  building 
operations  has  grown  apace  and  enthusiasts  and 
specialists  have  arisen  to  scatter  their  words  and 
their  works  broadcast — sometimes,  though  not  al- 
ways, the  words  being  more  attractive  than  the 
works — sometimes  the  words  and  works  alike  bor- 
dering on  the  grammatically  atrocious — as,  for  in- 
stance, when  the  beauties  of  cast  rock-faced-con- 
crete  blocks  have  been  urged  and  the  monstrosities 
themselves  have  made  pitiable  what  otherwise  might 
have  been  semi-respectable  -structures — "semi," 
mind  you,  not  "wholly,"  respectable ;  for  the  taste 
which  could  advocate  and  incorporate  into  its  prod- 
uct such  base  imitations  could  not  create  or  fashion 
a  thoroughly  respectable  structure.  Some  two  years 
ago  while  acting  as  chairman  of  a  board  to  adjust, 
and  settle  perchance,  jurisdictional  differences  be- 
tween the  carpenters,  the  architectural  iron  workers 
and  the  sheet  metal  workers  of  Chicago,  I  sug- 
gested facetiously  that  the  fabricators  of  imitations 
should  be  penalized  by  giving  over  to  the  trades 
whose  products  were  imitated  the  erection  of  all 
such  imitations.  Thus  stone  masons  should  erect 
all  tin  fabrications  simulating  stone  cornices,  archi- 
traves or  entablatures,  and  do  plastering  where 
plaster  simulated  Caen-stone — one  might  put  it 
"con"-stone — on  walls  and  in  vaulted  ceilings.  My 
pleasantry  was  met  with  hearty  and  strenuous  dis- 
approbation— each  trade  wanted  to  tell  its  own  little 
lie  and  to  reap  the  benefits  which  each  felt  certain 
would  accrue  to  it  in  a  world  so  slightly  endowed 
with  the  elements  of  sincerity  or  of  good  taste. 

So  my  first  item  of  advice,  if  I  may  be  permitted 
to  offer  advice  to  a  body  of  men  interested  in  the 
development  or  handling  of  a  comparatively  new 

and  altogether  worthy  building  material,  is  to  treat 
the  product  with  respect,  to  shun  and  scorn  imita- 
tions, to  recognize  limitations,  which  attach  to  all 
materials,  as  well  as  to  all  men,  and  to  work  within 
those  limitations.  This  is  not  saying  that  because 
a  thing  has  been  done,  and  frequently  and  appro- 
priately done,  in  one  material  it  shall  not  be  done 
in  another  or  a  new  material  which  may  be  em- 
ployed with  equal  propriety ;  however,  the  new  ma- 
terial should  not  employ  forms  which  are  purely 
distinctive  of  the  old,  but  should  develop  forms 
which  inherent!}'  characterize  the  new. 

What  these  characteristic  forms  may  be  is  a 
subject  for  very  searching  study  and  analysis.  Pos- 
sibly through  synthesis  rather  than  analysis  will  the 
characteristic  forms  disclose  themselves.  So  was 
it  in  the  past  with  the  old  materials — so  probably 
will  it  be  with  the  new. 

NOW  concrete  is  a  material  which  lends  itself 
to  many  kinds  of  manipulation.  It  can  be 
cast,  poured,  pressed,  assembled  in  the  shop  or  on 
the  job ;  it  can  be  applied  in  liquid  or  in  solid  form 
to  the  work  immediately  in  hand.  So  many  are 
the  possible  methods  of  its  app'ication — such  a  di- 
versity of  means  may  be  employed  toward  its  legiti- 
mate ends  that  some  of  its  enthusiastic  sponsors  see 
in  it  a  panacea  for  structural  ills  and  possibly  for 
aesthetic  building  ills,  a  substitute  for  all  previous'y 
employed  building  materials — excepting,  possibly, 
door  hinges — and  a  perfect  end  in  itself.  There- 
fore, it  behooves  those  who  can  impartially  survey 
the  entire  field  to  offer  both  warning  and  encour- 
agement— encouragement  in  its  legitimate  use ; 
warning  against  its  too  free  employment,  especially 
where  other  materials  may  better  serve  the  condi- 
tions. The  economics  of  the  general  situation  favor 
concrete,  and  through  this  factor  alone  there  may 
arise  a  tendency  toward  its  too  general  employ- 
ment ;  toward  its  substitution  for  other  materials 
which,  though  perhaps  costing  more  in  mere  money, 
satisfy  the  senses  and  better  fulfill  geographic  and 
climatic  conditions.  The  cheapness  and  ease  of 
casting  a  flat  slab  of  concrete  has  led  certain  en- 
thusiasts to  advocate  the  general  adoption  of  a  flat 
slab  type  of  roof  in  any  and  all  parts  of  the  coun- 
try (and  ultimately  of  the  world).  It  is  advocated 



for  a  northern  climate  because  it  can  very  cheaply 
be  made  strong  enough  to  hold  a  load  of  snow  and 
ice.  But  that  is  not  what  a  roof  is  for — it  is  to 
shed  snow  and  ice.  The  flat  slab  roof  is  advocated 
for  a  southern  climate  because  the  overhang  for 
shade  is  so  cheaply  procured.  The  shade  is  desired, 
but  not  at  the  expense  of  ugliness  which  results 
from  unembellished  overhangs — and  concrete  em- 
bellishments are  expensive.  The  factors  of  ease 
and  economy  in  manufacturing  concrete  slabs, 
whether  to  be  applied  vertically  or  horizontally, 
contribute  to  a  "simplicity"  which  tends  toward 
stupidity  and  to  a  barrenness  which  begets  ugliness. 
Where  the  general  form  is  stupid  and  ugly  not 
much  in  the  way  of  reclamation  can  be  effected  by 
proportioning  of  windows  or  application  of  super- 
ficial ornament.  If  the  mass  is  interesting  and  ap- 
propriately conditioned,  geographically  and  cli- 
matically, slight  defects  in  details  will  not  too  se- 
riously challenge  the  taste,  but  an  ugly  mass  is 

In  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  learned  ones  will 
point  out  that  concrete  was  a  favorite  building  ma- 
terial with  the  ancient  Romans,  and  that  traces  of 
it  are  found  attaching  to  Greece,  Egypt  and  the 
ancient  Orient,  concrete  as  employed  by  modern 
Americans  is  a  new  material,  the  science  and  art 
relating  to  which  are  not  fully  developed.  Much 
has  been  done  to  satisfy  the  conditions  of  its  em- 
ployment— much  more  remains  to  be  done.  The 
newness  of  an  art,  or  the  suspected  newness  of  an 
art,  is  a  sufficient  cause  for  criticism  or  antagonism 
in  the  average  American  eye.  We  are  the  most 
conservative  people  as  regards  art  and  the  arts  on 
the  face  of  the  earth.  We  will  not  accept  materials 
and  methods  on  their  merits  and  attempt  to  develop 
their  intrinsic  qualities  or  worth.  Art  is  about  the 
only  line  along  which  we  are  conservative,  how- 
ever ;  that  is,  we  conserve  very  little  along  ma- 
terial lines — and  we  do  sling  dead  art  about  reck- 
lessly and  embalm  its  form  in  lasting  and  eternally 
reinforced  concrete  in  which  they  appear  more 
dead  than  heretofore  conceivable.  The  fact  that 
they  are  embalmed  in  a  vital  and  vigorous  material 
emphasizes  the  fact  of  death.  There  are  those  who 
claim  that  these  dead  forms  are  alive — but  only  to 
the  dead  do  the  dead  live !  Concrete  is  a  vital  ma- 
terial full  of  character — let  us  give  it  its  vital  forms. 

BECAUSE  concrete  has  for  so  long  a  time  been 
poured  into  moulds  or  forms,  and  because  of 
the  coarseness  of  its  ingredients,  one  of  which  was 
stone  which  could  go  through  a  two-inch  ring,  the 
earlier  designers,  and  I  fear  there  were  architects 
among  them,  coupled  in  their  minds  concrete  with 
crudity  and  coarseness  of  detail  and,  being  depend- 
ent upon  precedent,  and  knowing  not  where  else 

to  look,  fell  upon  the  crude  Spanish  detail  and 
broad  masses  of  the  early  Spanish  Missions  as  rep- 
resentative of  what  best  might  be  embalmed  in  con- 
crete, and  so  Spanish  missions  distorted  into  bunga- 
lows and  cottages  and  palaces  spread  like  a  rash 
over  the  face  of  the  country.  As  technical  and 
mechanical  difficulties  were  overcome  and  processes 
refined,  the  rash  itched  to  take  another  form  of 
disease  and  turned  into  a  classic  fever,  with  now 
and  then  a  touch  of  Gothic  "pains'"  noted  particu- 
larly in  the  traceries  on  solids  and  in  voids.  The 
fever  still  burns,  the  pains  still  grip.  Expensive 
forms  are  built  up  and  destroyed  to  produce  effects 
which  already,  ad  infinitum,  ad  nauseam,  have  been 
better  achieved  in  stone.  However,  this  is  not  al- 
ways to  be. 

The  waste  entailed  in  the  destruction  of  specially 
constructed  and  expensive  forms  has  become  ap- 
parent to  many  concrete  users  and  exploiters,  and 
their  efforts  to  prevent  the  consequent  loss,  espe- 
cially in  case  of  the  smaller  residences  and  the 
houses  with  which  this  conference  is  more  particu- 
larly concerning  itself,  has  introduced  an  element 
which  may  well  call  for  restraint  in  its  application. 
For  the  sake  of  economy,  forms  are  used  and  re- 
used in  close  proximity.  When  such  forms  are  not 
perfect  in  themselves  and  in  utmost  good  taste, 
monotony  in  repetition  becomes  deadly,  and  woe  is 
it  to  him  whom  cruel  fate  has  condemned  to  in- 
habit a  unit  in  an  environment  so  constituted.  Life 
and  joy  and  self-respect  must  be  absent  from  the 
dweller  amid  such  surroundings.  Even  where  the 
forms  are  charming  and  singly  in  good  taste,  repeti- 
tion robs  them  of  individuality  and  unfits  them  for 
occupancy  by  anyone  possessed  of  character  and 
personality.  Individuality  of  character  and  person- 
ality are  absolutely  necessary  in  the  units  which 
go  to  make  up  the  mass  of  a  civilized  and  self- 
respecting  society.  Consequently  another  injunc- 
tion, which  I  offer  by  way  of  advice,  is  to  avoid 
wastage  of  forms — but  even  more  to  avoid  the  mo- 
notony which  must  follow  the  unrestrained  em- 
ployment of  any  "motif,"  ugly  or  charming.  In- 
troduce spice  into  life  in  the  way  of  variety.  The 
principle  underlying  this  admonition  is  just  as  ap- 
plicable to  a  mill  town  as  it  is  to  the  most  highly 
developed  suburb.  In  point  of  fact,  little  or  no 
distinction  should  be  drawn  between  the  mill  town 
and  the  "swell"  suburb.  It  should  exist  possibly 
only  in  the  size  of  units;  it  should  not  exist  in  the 
expression  of  good  taste  and  mental  and  bodily 
comfort.  Perhaps  I  am  getting  ahead  of  the  age 
and  of  the  present  topic.  I  hope  not. 

In  spite  of  the  manifold  and  varied  means, 
methods,  processes,  applications,  manipulations, 
textures,  surfaces  and  colors  appertaining  to  the  use 
and  employment  of  concrete  as  a  medium  of  archi- 



tecttiral  expression  and  embodiment,  I  am  not  cer- 
tain that  I  should  advise  its  sole  and  unlimited 
agency  in  housing  the  activities  of  any  one  neigh- 
borhood or  community.  Indeed,  I  am  quite  cer- 
tain that  I  should  not  so  advise ;  and  this  not  alto- 
gerher  on  the  ground  of  a  needed  variety,  but  that 
there  are  other  materials  which  transcend  even  con- 
crete .  as  a  medium  of  certain  desired  expressions 
of  the  human  spirit  in  the  art  of  architecture.  And 
I  should  desire  to  see  no  community  curtailed  of, 
or  denied,  the  right  and  power  to  express  the  best 
that  is  in  it  in  the  materials  best  adapted  to  that 
expression.  Thus  marble,  granite,  iron,  bronze, 
brick,  slate,  each  one  possesses  inherent  qualities  or 
characteristics  not  translatable  into  concrete  even 
through  the  agency  of  base  and  artificial  imitation. 
In  the  matter  of  brick,  for  example,  there  is  scale 
to  the  unit  which  relates  the  mass  to  human  desire 
and  experience  in  an  intimacy  possible  with  no  other 
material,  while  in  natural  color  and  texture  the 
range  is  boundless.  But  even  with  all  that,  brick 
needs  other  materials  in  its  neighborhood  for  con- 
trast and  variety,  purple-green  of  slate,  soft  white 
of  stucco,  weathered  gray  of  timbers,  with  carvings 
and  turnings,  and  craftsmanship  which  cannot  be 
imparted  by  a  mould,  however  exquisitely  the  sur- 
face be  wrought  by  the  modeler's  hand. 

I  ASSUME  that  as  an  architect  I  am  expected 
to  say  that  the  only  way  to  make  concrete  an 
accredited  and  acceptable  building  material  adapted 
to  all  human  material  and  aesthetic  needs  is  to  have 
its  essence  filtered  through  the  alembic  of  the  ar- 
chitectural profession  or  its  representatives. 

If  you  wish  me  to  say  it,  of  course  I  will — with 
reservations.  Now  the  most  stupid  of  anachronisms 
are  perpetrated  by  so-called  architects  (they  really 
are  untutored  archaeologists  or,  rather,  grave-rob- 
bers), and  the  most  blatant  of  modernisms,  cut  off 
from  all  context  of  history,  have  emanated  from, 
again,  so-called  architects  (they  really  are  unlet- 
tered sentimentalists).  But  I  will  say  that  the 
possibilities  of  concrete  as  a  medium  of  aesthetic 
expression  in  building  may  best  be  apprehended 
by  a  sincere  architect,  with  knowledge  of  modern 
social  conditions  and  tendencies,  working  in  co- 
operation with  those  who  know  the  material  at 
first  hand  and  who  also  are  sincerely  working  to 
exploit  nothing  but  to  develop  the  latent  and  in- 
herent possibilities  of  a  worthy  material.  Such 
architects  exist,  such  material  men  exist.  They 
should  come  together.  It  should  be  a  function  of 
such  conferences  as  this  to  bring  them  together. 

I  must  say  one  word  here  as  to  what  should 
characterize  the  architect  in  whom  the  material  man 
and  the  public  may  well  place  their  confidence,  being 
assured  that  his  will  be  leadership — real  leadership 

and  not  selfish  and  autocratic  domination.  That 
architect  must  not  exploit  any  material  or  system, 
but  must  be  able  to  recognize  and  free  to  employ 
the  most  effective  and  appropriate  under  the  indi- 
vidual conditions.  He  must  sense  the  sociological, 
including  the  social,  ethical  and  aesthetic  tendencies 
of  his  time  so  as  to  aid  his  client  in  the  sympathetic 
expression  of  them,  curbing  wasteful,  demoralizing, 
disintegrating  tendencies,  and  aiding  toward  social 
unification ;  diagnosing  present  conditions  and  meet- 
ing the  situation  with  skill  and  clarity  of  vision  rather 
than  in  applying  formulae  learned  by  routine  in  the 
schools.  The  architect  should  think  in  advance  of 
the  public  and  see  the  goal  and  the  way  thereto 
more  clearly.  Pity  the  public  which  follows,  and 
condemn  the  architect  who  pursues  the  selfish  and 
blind  course. 

Now,  in  so  far  as  this  paper  constitutes  a  report 
to  be  discussed  or  otherwise  sent  to  oblivion  or 
laid  aside  for  future  reference,  which  amount  to 
about  the  same  thing,  its  elements  may  be  sum- 
marized and  augmented  as  follows : 


Concrete  has  a  character  of  its  own ;  there  is  no 
call  to  torture  it  into  imitations  of  stone,  wood, 
bronze  or  other  material.  Details  cast  in  moulds 
should  bear  the  plastic  touch  of  the  modeler  and 
not  the  chisel  marks  of  the  sculptor. 


Forms  suited  to  the  special  purpose  should  be 
used — and  forms  extravagant  of  labor  and  material 
should  be  avoided  and  should  be  employed  only 
where  duplication  can  be  accomplished  without 


Even  a  good  thing  ceases  to  be  a  good  thing 
when  used  in  excess,  and  two  concrete  houses  from 
the  same  forms,  placed  side  by  side,  is  an  excess — 
such  treatment  is  permissible  only  in  barracks  where 
men  are  in  uniform  and  drilled  into  the  same  line 
of  thought,  act  and  movement,  all  individuality 
being  eliminated. 


Flat  slab  roofs  may  at  times  and  in  places  be 
appropriate.  A  general  use  would  be  deadly  unless 
counteracted  by  features  the  initial  expense  of 
which  would  more  than  offset  the  element  of  econ- 
omy, which  alone  would  seem  to  call  for  a  wide 
prevalence  of  such  roofs. 


This  method  presents  advantages  in  certain  types 
of  structure.  The  appearance  of  mass  and  strength 
is  enhanced  by  monolithic  treatment.  Openings 
and  corners  can  be  characteristically  and  orna- 
mentally treated  at  slight  or  no  additional  expense. 



1  louses  pre-cast  from  monolithic  forms  and  trans- 
ported as  slabs  or  as  units  are  to  be  looked  upon 
with  suspicion  as  tending  to  create  types  and  gen- 
eral monotony. 


(a)  Units.     Concrete  blocks  laid  to  be  effective 
as  units  may  perform  a  legitimate  aesthetic  as  well 
as   structural   service.     Texture   and   color   can   be 
given  them.     Their  danger  lies  in  exaggerated  scale 
and  general  uniformity.     Stone  has  the  advantage 
of  lending  itself  to  cutting  and  fitting  in  length  and 
height   without   consequent    economic   waste.      The 
manufacture  of  concrete  blocks  should  be  studied 
with  variety  of  size  as  well  as  appropriate  scale  in 
mind.      Corners    and    angles    should    be    true,    and 
crude  and  rock-faced  surfaces  avoided. 

(b)  Backing   for  Stucco.     This   is   a   legitimate 
field   for  the  use  of   concrete  blocks.     Scale   need 
not  be  taken  into  account ;  neither  need  such  mat- 
ters as  sharpness  of  corners  and  angles  or  crudity 
of  surface.     Uneven  chipping  where  blocks  are  cut 
approximately  to  the  desired  outline  presents  no  ob- 
stacle  to   the   perfect   finish.      Surfaces   should   be 
svch  as  to  which  the  stucco  will  most  readily  adhere. 


In  a  letter  from  an  official  of  the  United  States 
Housing  Corporation  I  find  these  words :  "We 
were  satisfied  that  there  were  certain  types  which 
would  produce  a  good  practical  house  at  a  very 
moderate  cost,  but  it  appeared  to  us  that  this  cou'.d 
be  done  only  where  the  same  unit  was  repeated 
indefinitely,  and  our  belief  was  that  this  would 
produce  a  deadly  monotony."  As  to  the  monotony 
we  have  already  heard ;  as  to  the  cost  and  perma- 
nence or  durability,  let  me  say  that  there  may  be 
cases  where  permanent  houses  would  be  a  draw- 
back in  a  developing  community.  There  would  be 
very  little  salvage  in  a  wrecked  concrete  house, 
while  the  wrecking  would  entail  almost  as  much 
expense  as  the  constructing.  Unless  a  community 
is  well  "zoned,"  buildings  of  a  too  permanent 
nature  are  an  economic  waste,  even  though  the 
initial  cost  may  be  the  same  as  for  a  building  of 
less  permanent  character.  Where,  as  in  many  of 
our  communities,  change  is  the  order  of  the  day, 
well  constructed  buildings'  of  a  more  temporary  na- 

ture are  desirable.     Buildings  of  a  temporary  nature 
can  be  "fire  stopped"  and  made  safe  for  occupancy. 


In  the  letter  above  referred  to,  these  words  ap- 
pear :  "We  found  that  the  people  who  were  in- 
terested in  the  concrete  house  were,  almost  with- 
out exception,  trying  to  build  every  part  of  the 
house  in  concrete,  including  porches  and  all  the 
trim.''  This  would  seem  to  me  to  indicate  a  de- 
ficient sense  of  humor  on  the  part  of  the  people 
referred  to,  as  well  as  defective  vision.  I  will  grant 
that  the  designs  of  many  architects  who  never  in- 
tended to  make  a  joke  of  their  work  are  such  as 
to  be  readily  translated  into  concrete  and  would 
not  lose  in  the  process ;  but  a  concrete  man 
with  a  sense  of  fitness,  I'll  call  it  humor,  would 
not  deign  to  effect  the  translation.  I  must  still 
warn  the  enthusiast  against  excess ;  excess  of  imag- 
ination as  well  as  excess  in  material  means,  or  some 
of  them  may  wish  to  make  the  door  hinges  out  of 
concrete  after  all !  Fireproofness,  so  to  speak,  and 
permanence  are  good  qualities,  for  which  it  is  pos- 
sible at  times  to  pay  too  much. 


How  to  make  the  house  reasonably  fireproof, 
reasonably  durable,  reasonably  attractive  and  rea- 
sonably economical  in  cost  and  in  upkeep  presents 
a  series  of  problems  for  the  architect  and  the  con- 
crete expert.  As  an  architect,  I  shall  receive  the 
findings  of  the  concrete  expert  and  will  make  such 
application  of  the  methods  and  means  presented 
as  may  suit  the  particular  case.  I  will  even  present 
the  case  beforehand  to  the  expert — if  it  is  not 
already  covered — and  aid  him  in  his  solution.  I 
will  even  ask  him  now  to  present  types  of  floors 
in  structure  and  finish  which  are  durable,  eco- 
nomical and  appropriate  to  a  small  house.  I  will 
ask  the  same  concerning  the  roofs,  high-pitched, 
low-pitched  and  flat. 

There  are  many  problems  to  be  solved  in  con- 
nection with  the  design,  construction  and  location 
of  the  concrete  house,  and  I  congratulate  the  con- 
crete and  cement  interests  that  they  have  enlisted 
the  services  of  so  many  serious-minded  and  en- 
thusiastic men  in  the  quest  for  the  best  along  these 
lines.  I  hope  that  architects  of  vision  and  deep 
feeling  may  be  called  upon  to  co-operate. 


In  order  to  supple  our  readers  with  material  of  current  interest,  the  news  and  comment  appearing  in 
issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of  actual  rather 
than  stated  date  of  publication. 

The  Architect  and  the  Government 

JUST  how  to  impress  the  people  and  those  in  high 
position  in  the  Government  with  the  value  of  the 
architect's  services  is  further  discussed  by  Glenn 
Brown  in  the  second  of  a  series  printed  in  this  issue 
on  the  relations  of  the  architect. 

"\Yith  few  exceptions,"  writes  Mr.  Brown,  "pub- 
lic officials  are  striving  to  secure  the  best  results  for 
their  masters,  the  people,  and  bow  gracefully  when 
the  public  emphatically  expresses  an  opinion." 

The  present  attitude  of  the  Government  toward 
the  profession  of  architecture  is  compared  by  Mr. 
Brown  with  that  of  eight  to  twelve  years  ago  and 
an  analysis  is  made  of  the  present  attitude  of  the 
Institute  which  he  believes  fails  to  impress  on 
those  in  high  authority  the  real  status  of  the  archi- 
tect in  his  relationship  to  the  Government  or  to 
emphasize  his  right  to  leadership  in  all  building 

Every  member  of  the  profession  will  undoubtedly 
follow  this  discussion  through  its  various  phases  as 
presented  in  future  issues  with  increasing  interest. 
The  editors  invite  from  architects  the  fullest  ex- 
pression .of  opinion  on  these  important  matters. 

The  Reply  of  the  Housing  Corpora- 
tion to  Senatorial  Criticism 

THE  reply  of  the  United  States  Housing  Corpo- 
ration to  the  criticisms  of  the  Senate  Committee 
on  Public  Buildings  has  been  published.  It  refutes 
inaccuracies  of  statement  contained  in  the  Senate 
report  and  successfully  answers  the  charges  that 
have  emanated  through  a  superficial  knowledge  of 

It  is  necessary  to  bear  in  mind  that  all  of  the 
housing  operations  carried  forward  during  the  war 
were  not  conducted  by  the  Housing  Corporation.  As 
a  matter  of  fact,  there  were  in  all  six  agencies  or 

departments.  All  of  the  houses  built  by  these  de- 
partments for  industrial  workers  were  of  a  per- 
manent construction  and  of  modern  type.  The 
question  that  the  Housing  Corporation  asks,  in  its 
reply  is — was  this  construction  of  modern  and  per- 
manent type  wrong?  Should  the  Housing  Corpo- 
ration simply  have  erected  short-lived,  temporary 
shacks  to  serve  only  the  war's  emergencies?  It  is 
stated  that  the  loss  to  the  Government  in  dollars  and 
cents  will  be  about  the  same  in  both  types. 

A  material  salvage  loss  was  created  in  the  selling 
of  a  large  number  of  houses  and  at  a  material  in- 
crease over  previous  housing  costs.  The  temporary 
housing,  while  having  less  salvage  value,  is  com- 
pensated for  in  part  by  the  lower  cost  of  construc- 
tion. All  things  being  equal,  that  is  to  say,  if  the 
salvage  in  both  types  were  the  same,  the  Govern- 
ment has  secured  at  a  minimum  cost  the  very  de- 
cided advantage  of  having  created  a  decent  type  of 
American  industrial  housing. 

The  injustice  of  the  criticism  on  the  part  of  the 
Senate  Committee  lies  principally  in  the  omission 
to  take  this  very  important  factor  into  consideration. 
The  amount  of  work  that  was  successfully  accom- 
plished by  these  six  departments  and  the  groups  of 
competent  men  who  administered  them  is  of  a 
greater  value  than  is  generally  known.  The  Senate 
Committee  might  well  have  considered  these  things 
before  they  hastily  created  a  feeling  of  distrust 
toward  men  who  unselfishly  gave  the  best  they  had 
toward  working  out  this  splendid  result. 

Unfortunately,  just  what  large  measure  of  good 
result  was  secured,  just  how  great  the  advance  has 
been  in  the  development  of  industrial  housing,  is 
known  only  to  the  comparatively  few  who  came  in 
contact  with  these  things  during  the  war.  We 
need  an  appropriation  by  the  Government  that  will 
permit  the  widest  circulation  of  a  report  embodying 
these  things.  The  publication  of  a  meager  edition 
some  three  months  ago  barely  furnished  a  copy 
each  to  the  many  employes  of  these  departments. 



THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  has  received  scores 
of  letters  from  architects  complaining  that  appli- 
cation for  copies  of  these  reports  received  the  reply 
that  a  very  limited  edition  was  almost  immediately 
exhausted.  If  these  reports  could  be  at  once  re- 
printed and  made  available  to  that  large  number  of 
people  who  would  use  them,  curtailing  if  necessary 
as  a  matter  of  economy  many  senatorial  speeches 
circulated  by  millions — an  accurate  knowledge  of 
facts  would  be  obtained  and  the  censure  of  the 
Senate  Committee  proved  to  have  been  based  on 

The  report  of  the  Housing  Corporation  closes 
with  the  significant  statement :  "The  last  houses  in 
demand  by  the  tenants  or  the  prospective  house 
owners  have  been  the  cheap,  temporary  houses 
recommended  by  the  Senate  Committee's  report." 

The  Tendency  Toward  Hotel  Life 

THE  rapidly  increasing  number  of  apartment 
hotels  in  all  of  the  larger  cities  indicates  a  very 
radical  change  in  methods  of  living.  Buildings  of 
this  type,  which  are  subdivided  into  small  groups  of 
two  or  three  rooms  and  bath,  with  a  general  dining 
room  on  the  ground  floor  or.  in  some  instances,  on 
the  roof,  are  being  projected  in  large  numbers.  As 
an  investment  this  type  of  building  presents  attrac- 
tions. The  rents  which  are  asked  and  readily  paid 
would  ordinarily  secure  twice  the  floor  area  in  the 
usual  domestic  types. 

In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  learn  that  a 
large  apartment  hotel  on  Park  Avenue,  in  New 
York,  that  will  not  be  ready  for  occupancy  until 
next  October,  has  already  enough  'applications  to 
more  than  fill  its  apartments. 

The  hotel  dwelling  habit  is  largely  on  the  increase 
all  over  the  United  States  and  it  is  astonishing, 
says  the  proprietor  of  one  of  the  larger  hotels,  to 
note  the  present  tendency  to  secure  permanent  living 
quarters  in  these  buildings.  Investigations  show  that 
the  better  class  of  hotels  have  to-day  rented  to  per- 
manent dwellers  all  the  space  that  they  are  willing 
to  allow.  These  conditions  aggravate  the  shortage 
of  transient  hotel  accommodations  and  are  the  prin- 
cipal reason  for  the  many  new  hotels  now  being 

It  would  seem  that  the  allurements  of  a  home  do 
not  attract  that  class  of  people  who  are  able  to  pay 
the  high  prices  asked  for  permanent  hotel  accommo- 
dations and  that  the  dweller  in  cities  is  drifting 
toward  either  the  usual  type  of  hotel  or  else  the 
apartment  hotel,  which  is  slightly  less  expensive, 
because  of  its  less  complete  service. 

Civic  Untidiness 

A  BESETTING  sin  of  all  large  cities  is  that  of 
untidiness.  This  fault  has  two  aspects,  that 
of  the  individual  who  carelessly  strews  litter  and 
that  of  the  authorities  who  allow  disordered  condi- 
tions to  exist  and  often  become  acute. 

The  Merchants"  Association  of  Xew  York  has 
submitted  a  report  summarizing  its  activities  during 
the  months  from  January.  1919,  to  January  1st, 
1920.  This  summary  shows  a  comprehensive  range 
of  activities  and  discloses  conditions  of  slackness  in 
the  city  government  that  should  be  no  longer  per- 
mitted to  exist.  The  complaints  received  by  this 
bureau  have  been  tabulated  under  a  classified  head- 
ing. It  will  hurt  the  civic  pride  of  the  true  citizen 
to  learn  that  in  spite  of  a  heavy  tax  rate  which 
should  insure  the  most  perfect  public  service,  the 
majority  of  these  lapses  from  essential  tidiness  com- 
prise the  removal  of  garbage,  of  dead  animals, 
accumulated  rubbish,  and  in  many  instances  vio- 
lations of  public  decency.  As  naturally  will  be  in- 
ferred, the  most  flagrant  violations  occurred  in  the 
thickly  settled  districts  so  largely  populated  by  for- 
eigners. It  seems  difficult  to  secure  co-operation 
from  these  people  in  the  observance  of  simple  regu- 
lations or  in  the  use  of  receptacles  provided  to 
insure  tidiness.  Further,  it  is  made  subject  of  ex- 
tended comment  that  the  stores  of  these  districts 
are  so  slovenly  kept  as  to  become  not  only  eye-sores, 
but  to  create  unsanitary  conditions  and  a  menace 
to  health. 

These  matters  suggest  the  ever-present  problems 
of  Americanization.  It  is  in  that  direction  that  pre- 
vention of  a  city's  untidiness  lies.  Good  citizenship 
promotes  civic  pride.  The  quicker  we  set  to  work 
on  this  phase  of  Americanization  the  sooner  we  will 
attain  those  ideals  that  are  reasonably  looked  for  as 
fundamentally  essential. 



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Official  Notification  of  Awards — 
Judgment  of  December  16th,  1919 


The    Committee    on    Architecture   proposes    as    subject   of 
this  Competition : 


A  club  in  a  large  city  is  planning  a  new  entrance  motive 
for  its  Club  House.  As  the  club  house  is  situated  on  one 
of  the  main  avenues  of  the  city  it  is  the  purpose  of  the 
committee  in  charge  not  only  to  embellish  the  entrance  but 
to  provide  a  balcony  from  which  passing  parades  may  be 
reviewed.  The  main  floor  of  the  club  house  is  three  feet 
above  the  sidewalk.  The  face  of  the  building  is  set  ten 
feet  back  of  the  building  line,  but  the  entrance  motive  shall 
be  brought  out  to  this  line  and  shall  be  crowned  with  a 
balcony  entered  from  a  French  window  at  the  second  story. 
The  second  story  level  is  twenty-two  feet  above  the  main 

JURY  OF  AWARD:  R.  M.  Hood,  H.  R.  Sedgwick, 
E.  Gugler,  H.  M.  Woolsey,  Mr.  Ludlow,  J.  T.  Haneman 
and  C.  F.  Gould. 

Number  of  drawings  submitted — no. 

FIRST  MENTION  PLACED :— S.  Grille,  Atelier  Cor- 
bett-Gugler,  New  York ;  C.  Contreras  and  O.  Belts,  Co- 
lumbia University,  New  York ;  F.  J.  Brince,  Atelier 
Hirons,  New  Y'ork. 

FIRST  MENTION  :— C.  F.  Wright,  Boston,  Architec- 
tural Club,  Boston ;  M.  Marsh,  Columbia  University, 
New  York ;  W.  S.  Boice,  Atelier  Hirons,  New  York ; 
R.  Weber,  Thumb  Tack  Club,  Detroit;  L.  Hamilton,  Yale 
University,  School  of  Fine  Arts,  New  Haven. 

MENTION:— C.  B.  Bengtson,  M.  E.  Witmer  and  R. 
W.  Arnold,  Boston  Architectural  Club,  Boston ;  J.  C. 
McClymont,  Atelier  Brazer,  Chester ;  J.  P.  Bennett  and 
S.  Juster,  Atelier  Corbett-Gugler,  New  York ;  C.  H. 
Dornbusch,  A.  Oilman,  F.  W.  Brown,  H.  W.  Gill,  J.  M. 
Shaw,  F.  F.  Williams,  A.  K.  F.  Volmer,  M.  Grisez,  H.  J. 
Hoefener  and  K.  Sasagawa,  Columbia  University,  New 
York;  G.  E.  Tucker,  C.  A.  Lake,  L.  E.  Considine,  C.  J. 
Pellegrini,  C.  B.  Marks,  E.  H.  Hughes,  J.  O.  Cahill,  G.  D. 
Schoonover,  F.  O.  Rennison,  F.  P.  Kefalos,  A.  W.  Chester- 
man,  F.  H.  Floyd  and  I.  W.  Truxell,  Carnegie  Institute 
of  Technology,  Pittsburgh;  E.  J.  Rutledge  and  P.  F. 
Dowling,  Catholic  University,  Washington,  D.  C. ;  G.  S. 
Beach  and  J.  Schierhorn,  Chicago  Architectural  Club, 
Chicago;  A.  Wuchterl,  Atelier  DeGelleke,  Milwaukee; 
W.  P.  Sutherland,  Jr.,  Atelier  Gougner,  Newark;  C.  A. 
Smith,  Jr.,  George  Washington  University,  Washington, 
D.  C. ;  W.  A.  Schabel  and  E.  C.  Rising,  John  Huntington 
Polytechnic  Institute,  Cleveland ;  D.  W.  Earel,  Patron 
— R.  M.  Hood,  New  York;  O.  Colby,  A.  Gambell  and  R. 
G.  Clifford,  Portland  Architectural  Club,  Portland ;  H.  R 
Gamble,  R.  A.  Schwarter,  W.  L.  Gibb.  Jr.,  C.  E.  Maule 
and  J.  W.  Minick,  Pennsylvania  State  College,  State  Col- 
lege ;  E.  B.  Stanley  and  H.  A.  Martin.  Syracuse  University, 
Syracuse ;  W.  R.  Fisher,  W.  Kumme.  E.  S.  Young  and 

E.  A.  Beihl,  "T"  Square  Club,  Philadelphia;  L.  C.  Neil- 
son,  Atelier  Treganza,  Salt  Lake  City;  K.  B.  Niven,  Uni- 
versity of  Texas,  Austin ;  M.  W.  Gill,  Rosalie  Haas,  A.  A. 
Shay,  D.  A.  Seibert,  E.  A.  Gorpspe,  D.  P.  Thomas  and  E. 
Wendland,  Unversity  of  Washington,  Washington,  D.  C. ; 
H.  F.  Neville,  R.  R.  ilibbs  and  A.  E.  Evans,  University 
of  Kansas,  Lawrence;  M.  D.  Williams  and  C.  H.  Hin- 
man,  University  of  Minnesota,  Minneapolis ;  L.  Lentelli, 



Atelier  Wynkoop,  New  York ;  W.  Douglas,  C.  B.  Lewis, 
B.  S.  Georges,  D.  Weinstein  and  H.  S.  Kelly,  Yale  Uni- 
versity, School  of  the  Fine  Arts,  New  Haven. 


The   Committee    on    Architecture   proposes   as    subject    of 

this  Competition : 


An  Art  Lover  who  has  made  a  collection  of  paintings, 
statues   and   "cbjets   d'art''   is   planning   a   small    one-story 






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museum  to  house  his  treasures  on  his  suburban  estate  and 
has  chosen  as  a  site  a  location  at  the  high  end  of  his 
garden.  He  has  decided  that  the  building  shall  cover  not 
more  than  100  by  150  feet  of  ground,  but  he  has  not  de- 
termined whether  the  long  or  the  short  axis  shall  face  the 
garden.  For  his  larger  marble  and  some  bronze  statues 
he  wishes  a  loggia  or  a  terrace  court.  There  must  be  a 
gallery  or  hall  with  top  light  where  he  can  hang  his  paint- 
ings and  tapestries  and  provision  should  be  made  for  his 
ivories  and  small  bronzes.  He  wishes  one  small  room 
for  his  collection  of  coins  and  jewelry  and  he  must  have  a 
small  room  for  the  curator  who  will  watch  over  his  treas- 

The  subject  of  this  program  is  the  design  of  this  build- 

JURY  OF  AWARD:  F.  A.  Godley,  B.  VV.  Morris,  C. 
Collens,  J.  F.  Harbeson,  F.  C.  Hirons,  E.  V.  Meeks,  F.  B. 
Chapman  and  M.  Prevot. 

Number    of    drawings    submitted — 131. 


FIRST  MENTION  PLACED :— G.  W.  Trofast-Gillette 
and  W.  E.  Virrick,  Columbia  University,  New  York;  J. 
Lucchesi,  Atelier  Hirons,  New  York ;  A.  C.  Smith,  Yale 
University,  School  of  Fine  Arts,  New  Haven. 

FIRST  MENTION:— D.  R.  Everson,  Columbia  Uni- 
versity, New  York;  G.  N.  Pauly,  G.  H.  Goodwin,  R.  A. 
Fisher  and  T.  R.  Hinckley,  Carnegie  Institute  of  Tech- 
nology, Pittsburgh ;  H,  W.  Anderson,  Chicago  Architec- 
tural Club,  Chicago ;  D.  W.  Murphy,  Yale  University, 
School  of  Fine  Arts,  New  Haven. 

MENTION:— A.  H.  Gardner,  Boston  Architectural 
Club,  Boston;  Y.  Kasin,  H.  A.  Bergman,  G.  P.  Hritz,  G. 
Hacker,  W.  C.  Yanike,  S.  Oxhandler,  F  M.  Libby,  H.  J. 
R.  Barrett,  J.  Hill,  A.  T.  Terrell,  R.  E.  Hacker,  R.  H. 
Bickel,  R.  W.  Craton,  Jr.,  M.  R.  Dassett,  L.  T.  Obel,  H. 
R.  Kaplan,  A.  E.  Egerssy  and  G.  J.  Pfost,  Columbia 
University,  New  York ;  W.  A.  Voyce,  C.  Lek.  DePrefon- 
taine,  A.  K.  Sabine,  P.  R.  Working,  R.  Schmertz,  H.  T. 
Aspinwall,  R.  D.  Devaney,  W.  N.  Holmquist,  B.  A.  Pi- 
pinos,  S.  P.  Stewart,  J.  G.  Todd,  M.  E.  Green,  H.  W. 
Stone,  M.  C.  Drebin,  W  R.  Frampton,  L.  H.  Rank,  F. 
Highberger,  N.  P.  Rice,  E.  A.  Early,  B.  H.  Dierks,  R.  E. 
Dake,  A.  A.  Lewis,  K.  Snow,  A.  Herrman,  H.  A.  Wieland, 
L.  J.  Rockwell,  D.  H.  Oertel,  L.  Lashmit,  H.  C.  Brockman, 
C.  W.  Hunt,  M.  W.  Pohlmeyer  and  R.  M.  Crosby,  Carne- 
gie Institute  of  Technology,  Pittsburgh ;  L.  Wamnes,  Chi- 
cago Architectural  Club,  Chicago ;  L.  F.  Laporte  and  R. 
F.  Rabold,  Catholic  University,  Washington,  D.  C. :  G. 
W.  Green,  Atelier  Corbett-Gugler,  New  York ;  H.  Brad- 
ley and  A.  P.  Starr,  George  Washington  University, 
Washington,  D.  C. ;  P.  H.  Giddens,  G.  W.  Ramey,  Jr.. 
E.  R.  Merry,  W.  R.  Reece  and  H.  J.  Price,  Georgia 
School  of  Technology,  Atlanta;  M.  Jaeger,  Jr.,  Atelier 
Hirons,  New  York;  P.  Goodman,  Atelier  Licht,  New 
York ;  L.  F.  Fuller  and  B.  A.  Freeman,  Los  Angeles  Archi- 
tectural Club,  Los  Angeles ;  H.  Sweeny,  Jr.,  Pennsylvania 
State  College,  State  College;  J.  M.  Rowley,  E.  R.  De- 
Shaw,  G.  H.  Spohn  and  W.  R.  Shirley,  Syracuse  Uni- 
versity, Syracuse ;  P.  L.  Goldberg,  E.  C.  K.  Schmidt,  T.  R. 
Fahey  and  H.  R.  Leicht,  "T"  Square  Club,  Philadelphia; 
A.  H.  Corbett,  J.  L.  Skoog,  E.  W.  Grandstrand  and  Eliza- 
beth R.  Ayer,  University  of  Washington,  Seattle :  W.  M. 
Icenhower,  D.  K.  Frohwerk,  F.  L.  Fleming,  J.  W.  Daw- 
son,  G.  L.  Chandler,  J.  L.  Benson  and  S.  Bihr,  University 
of  Kansas,  Lawrence ;  T.  F.  Price,  Atelier  Wynkoop,  New 
York;  R.  B.  Thomas,  Yale  University,  School  of  Fine 
Arts,  New  Haven. 

H.  C. : — W.  J.  Perkins,  Carnegie  Institute  of  Tech- 
nology, Pittsburgh;  M.  Sillani,  Chicago  Architectural 
Club,  Chicago ;  L.  F.  Saxman  and  E.  Bircsak,  University 
of  Kansas,  Lawrence;  A.  H.  Goddard,  Atelier  Wynkoop, 
New  York. 


The  gift  of  Messrs.  Whitney  Warren  and  Lloyd  War- 
ren, offered  for  excellence  in  planning  a  group  of  build- 

FIRST    PRIZE— $50.00.       SECOND    PRIZE— $25.00. 

(For  conditions  governing  this  Prize  Competition,  see 
Circular  of  Information,  Article  VIII — Par.  2  and  3.) 


The    Committee   on    Architecture   proposes   as    subject   of 
this  Competition : 





The  purpose  of  this  school  is  to  furnish  instruction 
in  the  building  trades.  It  is  located  on  the  outskirts  of  a 
large  city,  on  a  lot  500  by  800  feet,  approximately  level, 
and  bounded  by  streets  of  equal  importance.  The  site  is 
on  a  street  car  line  and  near  a  railroad.  The  buildings 
to  be  erected  shall  be  of  utilitarian  type,  but  scholastic 
dignity  should  not  he  lacking,  for  the  school  not  only 
teaches  the  trades  but  requires  a  few  courses  in  general 

In  planning  the  buildings,  care  should  be  taken  that  the 
students  and  instructors  should  have  easy  access  to  the 
class  rooms  and  shops,  and  ample  provision  should  be  made 
for  the  delivery  at  the  shop  of  materials  that  will  be  used 
for  instruction  and  for  the  removal  of  worked  materials 






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and  rubbish.  It  should  also  be  borne  in  mind  that  while 
concentration  is  desirable,  light  and  air  are  of  prime  im- 
portance. While  for  the  purpose  of  defining  the  elements 
of  the  problem,  they  have  been  grouped  under  four  head- 
ings, it  is  not  the  intention  of  the  program  to  limit  the 
students  to  four  buildings  or  groups  of  buildings,  and 
perfect  liberty  should  be  exercised  in  combining  or  divid- 
ing the  elements  with  due  consideration  of  the  required 
circulation  for  men  and  for  materials.  The  bulk  of  the 
requirements  will  naturally  be  found  on  one  main  level,  but 
certain  ones,  particularly  in  the  Administration  and  Gen- 
eral Instructive  groups,  may  be  found  on  other  floors.  In 
any  case,  their  location  shall  be  plainly  indicated,  by  addi- 
tional plans  if  necessary. 

The  elements  are  as  follows : 

1.  The    Administration    group    shall    provide    a    Public 
Lobby,    Offices    for    the    President,    Secretary,    Dean    and 
Registrar    with    the    necessary    clerical     force,    an     Audi- 
torium  seating  about  800,   a   Small   Library  and   a   Small 
Trades   Museum,  with  an   Exhibition  Room   for  the  work 
of  the  students. 

2.  The  General  Instruction  group  shall  provide  a  Lec- 
ture Hall  to  seat  about  300,  three  or  four  Class  Rooms  and 
two  Drafting  Rooms. 

3.  The   Trades   group   shall   provide   six   shops   as    fol- 
lows : 

A  Foundry 

A  Machine    Shop 

A  Masonry   and    Brick    Laying    Shop 

A  Woodworking    Shop 

A  Sheet   Metal   Shop 

A  Plumbing   Shop 

An    Electrical    Shop 

Each  of  these  shops  shall  have  a  small  class  room,  an 
office  for  the  professor  in  charge  and  one  for  his  assist- 
ant, a  storage  room  and  a  locker  room  with  toilet  accom- 
modations ;  these  in  addition  to  the  main  shop  working 
space.  In  the  foundry  and  machine  shops  this  working 
space  shall  be  about  8000  sq.  ft.,  in  the  other  shops  about 
5000  sq.  ft.  Ample  height  shall  be  provided  in  all  shops 
for  the  character  of  work  to  be  done,  as  well  as  for  light 
and  ventilation. 

4.  A   power   plarU   and   small    service   building   shall    be 

One  or  more  courts  should  be  provided  to  serve  for 
service  and  as  spaces  where  small  sections  of  buildings 
might  be  erected  by  the  students. 

JURY  OF  AWARD:— F.  A.  Godley,  B.  W.  Morris, 
R.  M.  Hood,  C.  Collens,  B.  Delehanty,  J.  T.  Haneman 
and  F.  B.  Chapman. 

Number  of  drawings  submitted — ,58. 


PLACED  FIRST:— G.  D.  White,  Atelier  Denver, 

PLACED  SECOND:— E.  E.  Weihe,  Atelier  A.  Brown, 
Jr.,  S.  F.  A.  C.,  San  Francisco. 

PLACED  THIRD:— W.  F.  McCaughey,  University  of 
Illinois,  Urbana. 

PLACED  FOURTH:— J.  S.  Whitman,  Cornell  Univer- 
sity. Ithaca. 

PLACED  FIFTH:— G.  S.  Underwood,  Yale  University, 
School  of  Fine  Arts,  Xew  Haven. 

Civic  Beauty 

At  a  time  when  many  American  cities  were  yet 
lacking  in  the  fundamentals  of  safe,  healthy  and 
decent  conditions  of  community  life,  the  "city 

beautiful"  movement  began  to  strike  root,  and  soon 
after  sums  were  appropriated  for  aesthetic  objects 
which  must  have  struck  the  o'der  cities  of  the 
western  world  as  altogether  prodigal.  Now  that 
these  essential  services  are.  in  most  cases,  provided 
for  or  under  way  of  accomplishment,  the  movement 
apparently  is  suffering  a  set-back.  The  Surrey, 
discussing  this,  calls  attention  to  the  curious  fact 
that  at  the  recent  fifteenth  annual  convention  in 
Philadelphia  of  the  American  Civic  Association— 
which  has  always  represented  the  aesthetic  branch 
of  the  town  planning  and  improvement  movement- 
speaker  after  speaker  apologized  for  mentioning 
"beauty"  at  all  as  an  element  of  importance  in  com- 
munity life. 

The  reason,  of  course,  is  not  far  to  seek.  Too 
often  in  the  past  the  bcautification  of  our  cities  has 
been  on  the  principle  which  has  been  described  as 
Queen  Anne  in  front  and  Mary  Ann  at  the  back. 
The  ambitious  light  standards  in  Main  street  were 
balanced  by  a  complete  absence  of  any  standards  in 
rear  alleys  and  smaller  byways.  At  present  the 
tendency  seems  to  be  to  swing  too  far  in  the  other 
direction  and  to  demand  a  demonstrably  utilitarian 
and  ''paying''  reason  for  every  improvement. 

Unfortunately,  the  new  insistence  upon  the  prac- 
tical brings  its  own  exaggerations  and  pitfalls. 
These  were  evident,  for  instance,  when  the  architect 
of  America's  most  beautiful  war  town  deplored  the 
fact  that  the  population  was  not  made  up  exclu- 
sively of  one  category  of  workers  and  their  faniilies, 
or  when  the  provision  of  good  homes  for  work- 
people at  prices  within  their  means  was  held  up  by 
speaker  after  speaker  as  a  certain  panacea  for  social 
unrest.  As  at  many  other  gatherings  of  civic 
reformers,  one  also  heard  repeatedly  the  popular 
fallacy  that  the  problems  of  our  overgrown  cities 
can  be  solved  by  extending  these  still  further  in 
area  and  in  population. 

The  Civic  Association  convention  was  both  prac- 
tical and  inspiring,  however,  when  it  discussed  the 
topics  traditionally  near  to  the  heart  of  its  mem- 
bership. The  war  against  dirt  and  noise,  against 
the  disfigurement  of  town  and  country,  against  low- 
taste  in  public  and  commercial  recreation,  against 
anarchy  in  architecture,  still  needs  its  champions  and 
its  cohorts.  A  new  era,  marked  outwardly  by 
unrest  and  bitter  economic  strife,  but  inwardly  pos- 
sessed— for  all  the  sneers  of  cynics — by  high  ideals 
of  social  reformation,  must  find  expression  in  appro- 
priate environments.  The  war  memorial  movement, 
directed  into  desirable  channels  largely  by  the 
energy  of  this  association,  is  one  way.  Another  is 
the  application  to  the  modern  problems  of  city 
planning  and  zoning  of  the  imaginative  quality 
which  was  often  evident  in  the  discussions  at  this 







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VOL.  CXVII,  NO.  2303 

FKHKl'AkY    I  ],   19JI) 


VIX,    HL'I.I  AKll   &    \VOOISKY.    ARCHIl  KC1 S 


Current    News 

Happenings  and  Comment  in  the  Fields  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

In  order  to  supply  our  readers  with  material  of  current  interest,  the  wivs  and  comment 
appearing  in  issues  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  delayed  by  the  printers'  strike  will  be  as  of 
actual  rather  than  stated  date  of.  publication. 

Street  Trees 

Providing  shade  on  city  streets  is  as  much  a  municipal 
function  as  providing  lights  or  sidewalks  and  should 
therefore  be  cared  for  by  public  officials,  says  one  of  the 
horticulturists  of  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  in 
a  recent  bulletin  on  "Street  Trees."  Trees  on  well-shaded 
streets  not  only  contribute  enjoyment  but  health  by  tran- 
spiring moisture  and  producing  a  restful  effect  on  eyes 
and  nerves. 

Good  shade  trees  add  to  the  value  of  adjoining  properties. 
In  fact,  even  in  pictures,  a  house  with  trees  and  shrubbery 
will  attract  a  buyer  when  the  same  structure  without 
them  would  be  disregarded. 

Mixed  plantings  of  different  kinds  of  trees  are  not 
so  pleasing  and  effective  as  the  use  of  a  single  species  for 
considerable  distances.  On  the  other  hand  monotony  will 
result  if  the  same  species  is  used  for  an  entire  town  or 
section.  The  varieties  of  trees  suitable  for  city  planting 
are  not  many,  so  all  native  to  the  section  may  be  used, 
usually  assigning  one  variety  for  a  long  stretch  of  street. 
Street  trees  are  often  planted  too  close  together  for  the 
mature  tree  to  thrive,  a  common  practice  being  to  plant 
them  35  feet  apart  although  50  or  60  feet  would  be  ulti- 
mately a  better  distance. 

A  street  tree  must  have  healthy  foliage  that  withstands 
dust  and  smoke,  a  root  system  adapted  to  unusual  soil 
conditions,  restricted  feeding  area  and  root  pruning  where 
street  improvements  are  made.  In  the  smoky  heart  of  a 
city  the  ailanthus  or  tree  of  heaven  will  probably  thrive 
when  nearly  all  other  kinds  fail.  So  also  may  the  syca- 
more and  plane.  These  are  suitable  for  nearly  all  sections 
of  this  country.  The  maple  is  not  so  suitable  a  tree  for 
street  planting  as  many  suppose  because  it  is  not  suffi- 
ciently rugged  except  under  suburban  conditions. 

The  top  of  a  street  tree  should  lie  in  proportion  to  the 
width  of  the  street  on  which  it  stands,  and  should  be  of 
open  growth  without  being  too  spreading.  Narrow  streets 
should  be  planted  with  columnar  trees  like  the  Lombardy 
poplar,  or  sometimes  with  small  trees;  broad  streets  with 
spreading  trees  like  oaks  or  elms.  The  oak  is  designated 
as  best  for  nearly  every  section  of  the  country  because 
of  its  hardiness  and  beauty. 

The  planting  and  culture  of  street  trees  makes  up  a 
goodly  part  Of  this  interesting  bulletin. 

Wooden  Houses  in  England 

The  first  permanent  wooden  house  under  the  ww 
building  scheme  was  completed  and  occupied  near  Nor- 
wich, England,  the  last  of  November,  according  to  the 
American  Consul  at  London.  The  house  was  erected  by 
a  Norwich  firm  which  has  converted  its  aircraft  factory 
into  a  workshop  for  making  standardized  sections  for 
these  houses.  The  manufacturers  state  that  they  will  be 
able  to  turn  nut  s;mi'ar  houses  at  the  rate  of  50  per 

week.  1  he  total  cost,  providing  for  six  rooms,  is  about 
$3275  fat  normal  exchange)  and  such  houses  may  be 
completely  erected  within  one  month. 

Health  More  Important  Than  the 
Picturesque  Landscape 

The  old  oaken  bucket  that  hung  in  the  well  may  be 
dear  to  the  heart,  but  it's  dangerous  to  the  system,  writes 
Modern  Hospital. 

The  time-honored  wellsweep  and  windlass  were  one  of 
the  picturesque  features  of  the  typical  Polish  landscape — 
until  Polish  and  American  Red  Cross  sanitarians  at  the 
head  of  the  Polish  public  health  work  decreed  that  health 
was  more  important  than  landscapes.  Though  the  bub- 
bling spring  by  the  roadside  sounds  well  in  poetry  and  the 
maiden  drawing  water  from  an  old-fashioned  well  is 
pretty  in  pictures,  every  open  well  is  a  potential  epidemic 
breeder.  With  typhus  and  cholera  raging  throughout 
Poland,  these  wells  are  considered  by  the  health  authori- 
ties a  direct  means  of  contagion,  exposed  as  they  are  to 
all  sorts  of  contamination. 

The  American  Red  Crcjss  health  experts,  who  are  co-op- 
erating with  the  native  government  in  formulating  a  per- 
manent health  program,  have  discovered  substitutes  for 
the  old  wells.  In  the  supplies  abandoned  by  the  Germans 
when  they  were  forced  to  quit  the  country  were  found 
hundreds  of  pump  connections,  suction  joints  and  valves 
in  salvage  warehouses.  These  will  be  used  in  addition  to 
the  modern  wells  which  the  Americans  are  constructing 
in  several  towns. 

The  Picture  Post  Card 

A  valuable  idea  is  contained  in  the  suggestion  of 
Thomas  E.  Tallmadge,  of  the  architectural  firm  of  Tall- 
madge  &  Watson,  and  director  of  the  Municipal  Art 
League,  Chicago,  who  has  sent  the  following  notice  to 
members  of  that  organization: 

The  picture  post  card  has  long  been  secure  in  its  place, 
not  only  as  a  cheap  and  convenient  means  of  communi- 
cation, but  as  a  silent  educator  in  geography,  history  and 
art.  Very  little  consideration  has  been  given  the  pub- 
lication of  post  cards,  and  their  educational  possibilities 
have  not  been  appreciated.  The  result  has  been  that,  with 
few  exceptions  (such  as  the  beautiful  series  published 
under  the  direction  of  the  Art  Institute),  the  local  market 
has  been  flooded  with  cards  which  have  misrepresented 
our  beautiful  city  and  must  have  exercised  an  evil  effect 
on  the  artistic  perception  alike  of  the  purchasers  and  the 

The  Municipal  Art  League  believes  it  would  be  a  good 
work  to  direct  the  publication  of  a  worthy  series  of  cards 
of  Chicago  and  vicinity.  They  should  depict  the  most 
valuable  and  interesting  subjects  and  be  executed  in  the 



most  artistic  manner  possible.  To  this  end  members  of  the 
League  are  asked  to  send  a  list  of  subjects  or  photographs 
of  points  of  especial  historic  or  artistic  interest  or  of 
natural  beauty  with  which  they  are  acquainted  or  any 
similar  subjects  anywhere  in  or  near  the  city  which  it  is 
believed  have  been  neglected. 

The  ramifications  of  this  idea  are  of  course  extensive, 
and  if  it  were  generally  accepted  much  good  would  be  ac- 
complished in  bringing  the  dignities  of  art  before  the 

Farming  on  the  Desert 

More  than  200,000  persons  now  occupy  prosperous  homes 
in  what  were  American  deserts  and  produce  an  annual 
crop  worth  $100,000,000  from  lands  which  a  short  time  ago 
returned  nothing.  Director  Arthur  P.  Davis,  of  the  United 
States  Reclamation  Service,  Department  of  Interior,  says 
in  his  annual  report  that  the  progress  being  made  by  these 
communities  equals  that  of  the  most  prosperous  regions 
of  our  country. 

"During  the  present  year  the  service  is  in  position  to 
deliver  water  to  about  1.600,000  acres  of  irrigable  land, 
covered  by  crop  census,  of  which  about  1,120,000  acres  are 
now  being  irrigated,"  Mr.  Davis  says.  "Besides  this,  stor- 
age water  is  delivered  from  permanent  reservoirs  under 
special  contracts  to  about  950,000  acres  more.  The  projects 
that  have  been  undertaken  have  been  planned  to  provide 
for  an  area  of  about  3,200,000  acres. 

"Agriculture  in  the  arid  region  where  irrigation  is  fea- 
sible has  several  important  advantages  over  that  in  the 
humid  region.  The  soils  of  the  arid  region  by  the  nature 
of  the  case  have  generally  not  been  leached  of  their  min- 
eral plant  foods  as  have  those  in  the  humid  region  and 
they  are,  therefore,  much  richer  in  this  respect  on  the 
average  and  are  seldom  or  never  acid. 

Inventor  of  Cubist  Painting 
Found  Dead 

M.  Modigliani,  an  artist  who  claimed  to  have  invented 
cubist  painting,  was  found  dead  in  a  miserable  hovel  in 
the  Latin  quarter  of  Paris  a  week  ago.  He  used  to  fre- 
quent artist  cafes  dressed  in  trousers  with  the  legs  made 
of  different  materials. 

An  Architects'  Building  for  Chicago 

Chicago  architects  are  to  have  an  office  building  of  their 
own  in  the  near  future,  if  plans  now  under  way  are  suc- 
cessful. The  building  project  grew  out  of  the  recent 
membership  campaign  of  the  Western  Society  of  Engineers, 
which  has  added  to  its  roster  materially,  thus  increasing 
its  financial  stability.  Consequently,  when  the  local  archi- 
tects were  approached  on  the  subject  of  a  distinctive 
architects'  building,  which  would  house  not  only  archi- 
tects, but  engineers,  contractors  and  building  concerns  as 
well,  the  Illinois  Society  of  Architects,  of  which  Chas. 
Herrick  Hammond  is  president,  took  up  the  matter  and 
appointed  a  committee  to  aid  in  the  work.  D.  H.  Burnham 
was  chosen  as  chairman  of  the  committee  from  the  society. 

The  proposed  building  will  have  not  only  space  sufficient 
to  house  the  leading  architects'  offices  of  the  city,  but  will 
be  provided  with  club  rooms  and  meeting  rooms  for  the 
various  affiliated  societies  of  architecture  and  engineering. 
It  is  probable  that  a  bond  issue  will  be  floated  to  aid  in 
financing  the  structure  which  it  is  hoped  to  make  one  of 
the  finest  buildings  in  the  loop.  Several  locations  are 
under  consideration. 

Avery  Library  of  Architecture  at 
Columbia  University 

'I  he  largest  architectural  library  in  the  Western  Hemi- 
sphere, and  probably  the  second  or  third  largest  in  the 
world,  has  been  definitely  linked  with  the  School  of 
Architecture  of  Columbia  University  by  the  appointment 
of  William  B.  Dinsmoor  as  librarian  and  as  the  member 
of  the  instructing  staff  of  the  school. 

This  library,  consisting  of  25,000  volumes  relating  to 
architecture  and  the  allied  arts,  is  located  in  Avery  Hall 
on  the  Columbia  campus.  It  was  completed  in  1912  as  a 
memorial  of  the  late  Samuel  P.  Avery  and  of  his  son, 
the  late  Henry  P.  Avery. 

Although  the  School  of  Architecture  has  been  occupying 
three  floors  of  this  same  building,  and  has  been  in  con- 
stant contact  with  the  Avery  Library,  the  school  and  the 
library  have  been  distinct  departments  of  the  university. 
A  definite  connection  is  now  assured  by  the  appointment 
of  Mr.  Dinsmoor. 

Mr.  Dinsmoor  holds  a  degree  from  the  Architectural 
School  of  Harvard  University  and  has  specialized  in  the 
history  of  architecture  and  art.  He  is  the  author  of 
numerous  articles  and  books  on  this  subject  and  has  made 
extensive  archaeological  studies  in  Greece. 

1  he  Avery  Library  Building  makes  ample  provision  for 
drawing,  drafting  and  study.  Rooms  are  set  apart  for 
the  study  of  books  and  photographs  and  there  is  a  large 
exhibition  room  for  design  and  other  current  work.  The 
Architectural  Library  is  open  to  the  public  daily  from  9 
a.  m.  to  6  p.  m.  and  from  7  to  10  p.  m. 

Frequent  public  exhibitions  in  the  library  have  included 
the  collections  of  the  works  of  the  late  Belgian  sculptor, 
Meunier,  and  of  Gutzon  Borglum ;  the  late  J.  Pierpont 
Morgan's  collection  of  medixval  and  renaissance  manu- 
scripts ;  engravings  of  French  masters  of  the  seventeenth 
and  eighteenth  centuries ;  American  tapestries  and  furni- 
ture; prize  competition  works  in  architecture;  and  sculp- 
ture and  paintings  of  the  American  Academy  in  Rome. 

To  Strengthen  Strasbourg  Cathedral 

The  foundations  of  Strasbourg  Cathedral,  Alsace-Lor- 
raine, which  for  several  years  have  been  in  such  condition 
as  to  threaten  the  safety  of  the  building,  are  being  re- 
moved and  new  foundations  will  be  built.  The  Cathedral 
stands  on  oak  piles  driven  into  the  ground  and  in  recent 
years  these  have  begun  to  rot. 

Strong  reinforced  concrete  walls  are  being  built  on  either 
side  of  the  old  pile  foundation.  Hydraulic  jacks  will  be 
fitted  on  these  walls  to  support  the  weight  of  the  build- 
ing. Passages  will  be  pierced  between  the  concrete  walls 
to  permit  the  removal  of  the  old  foundations  and  the 
installation  of  the  new. 

Michigan  Architects  Elect  Officers 

The  Michigan  Architects'  Society  has  elected  the  fol- 
lowing officers : 

President,  Clarence  L.  Cowles,  Saginaw ;  first  vice-presi- 
dent, Alvin  E.  Hartley,  Detroit ;  second  vice-president, 
H.  L.  Madd,  Grand  Rapids;  third  vice-president,  J.  B. 
Churchill,  Lansing;  secretary,  Roy  L.  Barnes,  Detroit; 
treasurer,  H.  J.  Keough,  Detroit;  directors,  Gustav  Stef- 
fens,  Harry  Angel,  E.  A.  Schilling,  W.  G.  Malcomson, 
George  Haas  and  Richard  Marr,  all  of  Detroit;  Fred 
Beckissinger,  Saginaw,  and  A.  E.  Munger,  Bay  City. 



Improving  Farm  Buildings 

Just  now,  before  the  spring  sowing  season  is  on,  the 
farmer  can  well  plan  for  the  betterment  of  his  buildings, 
justly  comments  the  National  Lumber  Manufacturers' 
Association  of  Chicago.  The  loss  of  implements  from 
poor  housing  has  been  a  frequent  subject  for  agitation,  to 
say  nothing  of  the  loss  of  time  and  convenience  to  the 
farm  worker  who  has  to  use  rusty  and  ill-kept  machinery; 
the  inadequate  return  from  stock  which  are  poorly  shel- 
tered and  warmed  is  well  worth  .investigating ;  and  the 
discomfort  and  dissatisfaction  to  the  farmer,  his  family 
and  help  from  working  and  living  quarters  which  are  not 
modern,  convenient,  well-kept  and  commodious  is  a  con- 
dition that  can  be  remedied,  especially  now  that  the  farmer 
is  so  well  paid  for  his  produce. 

presented  to  these  countries  through  their  consuls,  thirty- 
five  million  tree  seeds.  The  bags  containing  these  seeds 
were  piled  on  Boston  Common  before  shipping  and  made 
a  mound  some  eight  feet  high  and  as  many  feet  square. 

.     Pantheon  for  Brazil 

Proposal  has  been  made  that  a  national  pantheon  for 
all  the  illustrious  personages  of  Brazil  should  be  erected 
there  in  connection  with  the  celebration  of  the  centenary 
of  Brazilian  independence  in  1922. 

Plans  for  this  100th  anniversary  which  have  been  sub- 
mitted to  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  would  cost  $12,500,000. 
They  include  an  exposition  of  fine  arts,  erection  of  a 
national  historical  museum,  and  composition  of  an  histori- 
cal opera  and  a  drama. 

The  scheme  also  provides  for  the  organization  of  a 
great  university.  Sports  will  be  one  feature  of  the  cele- 

It  is  proposed  to  hold  the  celebration  in  September. 
Brazil  separated  from  the  Kingdom  of  Portugal  and  was 
proclaimed  independent  by  Don  Pedro  I,  the  first  Em- 
peror of  Brazil,  September  22,  1822.  This  proclamation  took 
place  in  Sao  Paulo  and  it  is  proposed  to  erect  there  one 
of  the  finest  commemorative  monuments  in  the  new  world. 

Announcement  of  Examinations  for 
Rotch  Travelling  Scholarship 

The  Rotch  Travelling  Scholarship  on  account  of  war 
conditions  has  not  been  awarded  for  two  years,  but  will 
be  resumed  this  year.  Preliminary  examinations  will  be 
held  at  the  office  of  the  secretary,  C.  H.  Blackall,  20 
Beacon  Street,  Boston,  on  Monday  and  Tuesday,  April  12 
and  13,  1920,  at  9  a.  m.,  to  be  followed  by  the  sketch  for 
Competition  in  Design  on  Saturday,  April  17,  1920,  at  the 
Boston  Architectural  Club,  16  Somerset  Street.  The  suc- 
cessful candidate  will  receive  annually  for  two  years  an 
amount  which  it  is  hoped  will  not  be  less  than  $1400  per 
year  and  maybe  more,  depending  upon  the  funds,  this 
amount  to  be  expended  in  foreign  travel  and  study  during 
two  years  in  the  employ  of  a  practicing  architect  residing 
and  must  have  been  engaged  in  professional  work  for 
two  years  in  the  employ  of  a  practising  architect  residing 
in  Massachusetts.  Holders  of  a  degree  from  a  recognized 
architectural  school  may  present  their  certificates  in  lieu 
of  the  preliminary  examinations.  Candidates  are  requested 
to  register  at  the  office  of  the  secretary  as  long  before 
the  examinations  as  practicable. 

Important  Building  Program  at  Rome 

An  interesting  feature  of  the-  new  building  program  at 
Rome,  according  to  the  U.  S.  Trade  Commissioner  in 
that  city,  is  provision  for  the  immediate  erection  of  two 
entirely  new  suburbs  outside  of  the  present  city  limits 
and  for  these  suburbs  an  attractive  type  of  small  cottage 
has  been  selected  which  resembles  American  or  English 
design  more  than  Italian. 

One  of  the  new  "garden  cities"  as  they  are  called,  lo- 
cated east  of  Rome,  wi'll  have  sufficient  houses  to  accom- 
modate several  thousand  families.  More  than  2000  families, 
including  many  officials  and  employes  of  the  State  Rail- 
way Administration,  have  already  made  application  for 
accommodations.  Every  effort  will  be  made  to  render 
the  new  suburbs  as  attractive  and  complete  as  possible. 
Many  thousands  of  shade  trees  will  be  planted  and  schools, 
churches  and  other  public  buildings  will  be  erected  immedi- 
ately. Within  the  city  limits  an  extensive  building  pro- 
gram is  being  carried  out,  the  housing  problem  in  Rome 
having  reached  an  acute  stage  some  time  ago  and  many 
thousands  of  people  living  in  temporary  and  crowded 
quarters.  The  execution  of  the  program  has  been  en- 
trusted to  a  special  committee,  presided  over  by  an  Under- 
secretary of  the  Ministry  of  Industry,  Commerce  and 

Tree  Seeds  for  Europe 

To  reforest  the  devastated  areas  in  France  and  Belgium 
and  to  replace  the  British  forests  cut  down  for  war  pur- 
poses, the  American  Forestry  Association  has  formally 

California  Land  Settlement  Scheme 
Favorably  Progressing 

Although  but  little  more  than  a  year  old,  the  California 
State  Land  Settlement  at  Durham,  just  north  of  Sacra- 
mento, is  attracting  widespread  attention  as  the  first  set- 
tlement of  its  kind  in  the  country.  When  the  6219  acres 
were  purchased  by  the  state  in  1918,  mostly  from  Stanford 
University,  for  somewhat  over  a  half  million  dollars,  no 
landowner  had  lived  on  it  for  20  years.  To-day  120  fam- 
ilies live  in  their  own  homes  and  till  their  own  fields  and 
in  these  homes  are  more  than  200  children.  All  the  homes 
are  built  of  wood  and  are  mostly  in  bungalow  style;  22 
acres,  a  part  of  which  is  an  oak  grove,  have  been  set 
aside  for  a  community  center. 

Not  only  is  provision  made  for  farm  owners  but  it  is 
recognized  that  some  settlers  may  not  wish  to  have  the 
responsibility  of  owning  and  keeping  up  a  home,  but  may 
prefer  to  work  for  wages.  There  is  need  also  for  car- 
penters, blacksmiths,  etc.,  and  smaller  tracts  for  these 
wage-earners  have  been  allotted. 

Attention  has  been  especially  directed  to  the  movement 
because  of  its  being  an  attempt  to  solve  in  a  definite  way 
some  problems  of  rural  life.  In  1919  the  state  legislature 
appropriated  a  million  dollars  to  continue  the  settlement 
policy  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  next  area  purchased  will 
be  large  enough  to  provide  homes  for  250  settlers :  more 
than  twice  this  number  have  already  registered  as  appli- 
cants for  farms  or  farm  workers'  homes.  In  its  report  the 
Board  is  asking  to  hear  from  owners  or  others  interested 
as  to  where  suitable  land  may  be  purchased  for  other 

The  work  does  not  end  with  buying  land  and  selling 
it  to  settlers  on  favorable  terms :  it  promotes  a  strong 
community  spirit  and  he!ps  settlers  overcome  obstacles 
which  lack  of  capital  always  presents. 



Competition  lor  Memorial  Designs 

The  Memorial  Crafts  Institute,  a  society  of  designers, 
craftsmen  and  dealers  in  memorials  and  carved  stone,  is 
holding  a  competition  among  architects  and  others  inter- 
ested for  designs  for  a  small  public  memorial.  It  is  the 
purpose  of  the  exhibition  committee  to  create  a  more 
general  appreciation  of  the  architectural  possibilities  of 
cemetery  and  public  memorials.  There  will  be  three  prizes, 
of  $150,  $100  and  $50  respectively.  The  competition  wil! 
close  on  March  10.  Further  details  may  be  had  by  ad- 
dressing Ernest  S.  Seland,  56  Ninth  Avenue,  New  York 

Ohio  Builders  Urge  Fire  Prevention 

This  resolution  was  passed  by  the  Ohio  Builders'  Supply 
Association  at  the  convention  held  at  Columbus,  Ohio, 
January,  1920: 

WHEREAS,  The  housing  shortage  in  the  United  States 
to-day  creates  a  serious  situation,  and 

WHEREAS,  The  fire  losses  reported  in  1917  to  the  Na- 
tional Board  of  Fire  Underwriters  amounted  to  $66,166,420, 
in  232,021  residences ;  and 

WHEREAS,  The  cost  of  material  and  labor  is  constantly 
mounting  so  that  individual  losses  are  likely  to  be  greater 
year  by  year,  cutting  down  our  national  resources  to  a  tre- 
mendous extent,  and  aggravating  the  housing  situation  to 
an  unnecessary  degree; 

BE  IT  THEREFORE  RESOLVED,  That  this  Association  go  on 
record  as  to  the  necessity  of  giving  more  adequate  fire  pro- 
tection to  the  combustible  members  of  residences. 

BE  IT  FURTHER  RESOLVED,  That  each  member  of  this 
Association  be  advised  of  the  situation  and  be  requested 
to  advise  prospective  owners  of  the  situation  and  furnish 
full  information  as  to  the  best  available  methods  of  pro- 
tecting such  structures. 

News  from  Various  Sources 

The  Utica  Chapter  of  the  New  York  State  Association 

of  Architects  has  been  formed. 

*  *        * 

Many  new  fire  hazards  are  being  introduced  by  the  fuel 
shortage.  The  most  serious  of  these  arises  from  the  large 
amount  of  soft  coal  which  is  being  stored  in  the  basements 
of  dwellings,  apartment  houses  and  mercantile  buildings 

and  on  the  premises  of  factories. 

*  *        * 

Plans  for  the  reconstruction  of  Rheims,  prepared  by 
George  S.  Ford  of  New  York  City,  formerly  an  officer 
in  the  American  Red  Cross,  have  been  virtually  adopted 
by  the  Municipal  Council  of  that  City. 

They  affect  principally  the  damaged  districts  and  the 
Cathedral,  where  the  general  aspect  of  the  quaint  old 
thoroughfares  and  the  characteristic  ancient  architecture 
will  be  preserved. 

*  *        * 

Senate  provisions  authorizing  the  Secretary  of  War