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https://archive.org/details/annualreportfore00albe_1 


This  publication  is  available  at  no  charge  from: 

Public  Information,  Education  and  Outreach 
Programs  Centre 

Main  Floor,  Great  West  Life  Building 
9920  - 108  Street 
Edmonton,  Alberta  T5K  2M4 

To  download  a copy  of  this  report  visit  the  Sustainable 
Resource  Development's  Forest  Health  Web  Site  at: 
www.srd.gov.ab.ca/forests/health/publications/reports 


This  report  has  been  printed  on  recycled  paper. 


Copyright  © Her  Majesty  the  Queen  in  Right  of 
Alberta,  2006 

ISSN  1480-5685  (printed  version) 

ISSN  1499-1713  (online  version) 

Printed  September  2006 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Table  of  Contents 


Acknowledgements  1 

Executive  Summary  3 

Introduction 5 

Forest  Pest  Conditions  in  2006  7 

Forest  Insect  Pests 7 

Conifer  Pests 7 

Defoliators 7 

Spruce  Budworm,  Choristoneura  fumiferana  (Clemens)  7 

Western  Spruce  Budworm,  Choristoneura  occidentalis  (Freeman)  14 

Yellowheaded  Spruce  Sawfly,  Pikonema  alaskensis  (Rohwer) 15 

Bark  Beetles 15 

Mountain  Pine  Beetle,  Dendroctonus ponderosae  (Hopkins)  15 

Broadleaf  Pests  19 

Major  Aspen  Defoliators 19 

Minor  Insect  Pests 25 

Diseases  and  Disorders  26 

Urban  Forest  Pests 27 

Insect  Pests 27 

Diseases  and  Disorders  28 

Pest  Management  Programs  29 

Mountain  Pine  Beetle  Management  Program 29 

Education  and  Awareness 29 

Prevention 29 

Programs  to  Control  Mountain  Pine  Beetle  Populations 29 

Forest  Invasive  Alien  Plants 33 

Provincial 33 

Regional 34 

Forecast  on  Major  Forest  Pest  Conditions  in  2007  in  Alberta 39 

Spruce  Budworm  39 

Mountain  Pine  Beetle 43 

Aspen  Defoliators 45 

Exotic  Pests  46 

General  Education,  Increased  Awareness  and  Training 47 

Research  and  Development 48 

References  49 

Appendixes 50 

Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  ii 


Table  of  Contents 


Figures 

1.  Number  of  hectares  annually  defoliated  by  the  spruce  budworm  and  hectares  annually 

sprayed  to  control  spruce  budworm  infestations  in  Alberta,  1987  - 2006 7 

2.  Spatial  distribution  of  aerially  visible  spruce  budworm  defoliation  on  forested  lands 

surveyed  in  Alberta  in  2005 8 

3.  Spatial  distribution  of  aerially  visible  spruce  budworm  defoliation  on  forested  lands 

surveyed  in  Alberta  in  2006 9 

4.  Gross  number  of  spruce  budworm-defoliated  hectares  by  severity  categories  in  areas 

north  of  latitude  58°  N in  the  Waterways  Area  of  Alberta,  2003-2006 11 

5.  Net  number  of  spruce  budworm-defoliated  hectares  by  severity  categories  in  areas 

south  of  latitude  58°  N in  northeastern  Alberta,  2003-2006 12 

6.  Net  number  of  budworm-defoliated  hectares  by  severity  categories  in  northwestern 

Alberta,  2003-2006 13 

7.  Presence/absence  of  mountain  pine  beetle  hits  on  pheromone-baited  trees  in 

monitoring  plots  located  in  Alberta,  2005 16 

8.  Locations  of  suspected  mountain  pine  beetle-killed  trees  detected  during  aerial 

surveys  carried  out  in  Alberta  in  the  fall  of  2006 17 

8a.  Locations  of  suspected  mountain  pine  beetle-killed  trees  detected  during  aerial 

surveys  carried  out  in  Alberta  in  the  fall  of  2005 18 

9.  Spatial  distribution  of  aerially  visible  insect  pest-caused  aspen  defoliation 

surveyed  in  Alberta,  2006 19 

10.  Comparison  of  the  gross  number  of  insect  pest-defoliated  hectares  of  aspen 

by  severity  categories  in  northeastern  Alberta,  2003-2006 21 

11.  Comparison  of  the  gross  number  of  insect  pest-defoliated  hectares  of  aspen 

by  severity  categories  in  northwestern  Alberta,  2002-2006 23 

12.  Comparison  of  the  gross  number  of  insect  pest-defoliated  hectares  of  aspen 

by  severity  categories  in  southwestern  Alberta,  2002-2006 24 

13.  Forecast  on  the  risk  of  new  spruce  budworm  outbreaks  occurring  in  2007,  based  on  the 

number  of  male  moths  captured  in  pheromone-baited  traps  in  Alberta  in  2006 39 

14.  Comparison  of  2006  vs.  2007  forecasts  on  the  risk  of  spruce  budworm  outbreaks 

occurring  in  northeastern  Alberta 40 

15.  Preliminary  estimates  of  the  extent  of  infestation  following  a huge  mountain  pine 

beetle  influx  into  northern  Alberta  in  the  summer  of  2006 43 

16.  Forest  tent  caterpillar  male  moth  catches  in  pheromone-baited  traps  deployed  in 

northwestern  Alberta,  1999-2006 45 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  iii 


Table  of  Contents 


Tables 

1.  The  extent  (hectares)  of  spruce  budworm  defoliation  by  severity  categories 

in  Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006 10 

2.  The  extent  of  spruce  budworm  defoliation  by  severity  categories  in  northeastern 

Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006 11 

3.  The  extent  of  spruce  budworm  defoliation  by  severity  categories  in  northwestern 

Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006 13 

4.  Mountain  pine  beetle  attacks  on  pheromone-baited  trees  located  in  monitoring 

plots  in  Alberta,  2005  15 

5.  The  extent  (hectares)  of  forest  insect-caused  aspen  defoliation  by  severity 

categories  in  Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006  20 

6.  The  extent  of  forest  insect  pest-caused  aspen  defoliation  by  severity  categories 

in  northeastern  Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006  21 

7.  The  extent  of  forest  insect  pest-caused  aspen  defoliation  by  severity  categories 

in  northwestern  Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006  22 

8.  Results  of  the  ground  surveys  carried  out  to  detect  mountain  pine  beetle-attacked 

trees  on  forested  provincial  Crown  land  in  Alberta,  September  2005  to  August  2006  30 

9.  The  number  of  mountain  pine  beetle-attacked  trees  cut  and  burned  during  control 

operations  on  forested  provincial  Crown  land  in  Alberta,  September  2005  to  August  2006  32 

10.  Summary  results  of  the  spruce  budworm  male  moth  surveys  carried  out  by  using 

pheromone-baited  traps  in  northeastern  Alberta,  2006  40 

11.  Summary  results  of  the  spruce  budworm  male  moth  surveys  carried  out  by  using 

pheromone-baited  traps  in  northwestern  Alberta,  2006  41 

12.  Summary  results  of  the  spruce  budworm  male  moth  surveys  carried  out  by  using 

pheromone-baited  traps  in  southwestern  Alberta,  2006  42 

13.  Mountain  pine  beetle  attacks  in  pheromone-baited  plots  in  Alberta,  2006  42 

Appendixes 

Appendix  I - Forest  Areas  of  Alberta,  December  2006  50 

Appendix  II  - Information  on  Operational  Use  of  Pheromones  in  Alberta,  2006  51 

Appendix  III  - Invasive  Plant  Species  that  Commonly  Occurred  in  2006  on  Forested 

Crown  Land  in  Alberta  52 


Forest  Heaith  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  iv 


Acknowledgements 


Sunil  Ranasinghe,  Forest  Entomologist,  compiled  this 
report  based  on  reports  submitted  by  the  Forest 
Health  Officers  (Mike  Maximchuk,  Tom  Flutchison, 
Christie  Ward,  Brooks  Florne  and  Mike  Undershultz); 
Forest  Officer,  Cypress  Hills  Inter-Provincial  Park  (Les 
Weekes);  Coordinator,  STOPDED  Society  (Janet  Feddes- 
Calpas)  and  Biological  Sciences  Technicians  (Mike 
Jenkins  and  M.  Wartenbe)  of  Community  Services  of 
the  City  of  Edmonton. 


Survey  Data  and  Maps 


Support  and/or  participation  in  the  2006  Forest 

Health  Program  by  the  following  individuals  and 

organizations  is  gratefully  acknowledged: 

Mountain  Pine  Beetle  Management  Program 

• Staff  of  the  Forestry  Division,  Lands  Division  and 
Fish  and  Wildlife  Division  of  Alberta  Sustainable 
Resource  Development  and  Department  of 
Tourism,  Parks,  Recreation  and  Culture; 

• Hinton  Wood  Products  (Weldwood),  Weyerhaeuser 
Canada  Ltd.  and  Alberta  Newsprint  Company 

Northwest  Forest  Health  Program 

• Tolko  Industries  - High  Level,  Manning 
Diversified  Forest  Products; 

• Geoff  Atkinson,  Craig  Brown,  Danny  Brown,  Mark 
Feser,  Natalie  Henneberry,  David  Johnson,  William 
Lesiuk,  Dave  Poschailo  and  Cheryl  Tchir 

Northeast  Forest  Health  Program 

• Dave  Fox  (Alpac  Forest  Products  Inc.)  and  Jeff 
Scammel  (Millar  Western  Forest  Products  Ltd.) 

• Gennie  Alojas,  Ed  Barnett,  Kali  Hennessey,  Dave 
Moseley,  Gunnilla  Nilsson,  Marty  Robillard  and 
Steven  Stryde 


• Roger  Brett  of  Northern  Forestry  Centre,  Canadian 
Forest  Service,  and  Gary  Roke,  Pacific  Forestry 
Centre  of  Canadian  Forest  Service, 

• Christine  Kominek  and  Aaron  McGill  (Forest 
Health  Section,  Sustainable  Resource 
Development) 

Report  Review 

• Anina  Hundsdoerfer  and  Deanna  McCullogh 
(Forestry  Division,  Sustainable  Resource 
Development) 

Report  Design  and  Publishing 

• Gwen  Edge  (Communications,  Sustainable 
Resource  Development) 

Report  Photos 

• Hideji  Ono,  Steven  Stryde,  Mike  Maximchuk,  Tom 
Hutchison,  Daniel  Lux,  Erica  Lee,  Brian  Allen, 
Mike  Undershultz,  Marian  Jones,  Herb  Cerezke, 
Karen  Wirtanen,  Chris  Saunders  and  Alberta 
Agriculture  and  Food 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  1 


Page  2 


This  annual  report  contains  information  on  forest 
insect  pests,  diseases  and  alien  invasive  plants 
monitored  on  forested  Crown  land  of  Alberta  in  2006. 
Reported  here  are  the  details  of  pest  infestation 
surveys;  forest  pest  and  invasive  plant  management 
programs;  and  forest  health  training,  increased 
awareness,  and  research  and  development  carried 
under  the  Sustainable  Resource  Development's  Forest 
Health  Program  in  2006. 


Below  is  a summary  of  the  extent  of  major  forest  pest 
infestations  surveyed  in  2006: 


Pest  Species 

Extent  of 
Infestation 

Spruce  budworm 

21,183  ha  of  net  area  and 
15,588  ha  gross  area 

Mountain  pine  beetle 

13,856  trees  attacked 
(August  2006  - July  2006) 
Estimated  over  million 
trees  attacked 
(Aug./Sept.  2006) 

Aspen  defoliators 

5,851,155  ha  of  gross  area 

Spruce  budworm  defoliation  on  forested  Crown  land 
increased  from  an  estimated  13,389  hectares  in  2005 
to  36,771  hectares  in  2006.  The  severity  of 
defoliation  also  increased  during  this  period.  In 
2006,  the  western  spruce  budworm  again  defoliated 
Douglas  fir  stands  in  the  Porcupine  Hills  in  southern 
Alberta. 

The  yellowheaded  spruce  sawfly  defoliated  spruce 
plantations  growing  on  reclaimed  oil  and  gas  sites  in 
northeast  Alberta.  In  addition,  this  pest  defoliated 
white  spruce  in  Cypress  Hills  Inter-Provincial  Park  and 
in  the  City  of  Edmonton. 


The  forest  tent  caterpillar-caused  defoliation  was 
scattered  over  a gross  area  of  about  five  million 
hectares,  mainly  in  northwest  Alberta.  Compared  to 
2005,  the  large  aspen  tortrix-caused  defoliation 
significantly  decreased  in  2006  but  was  still 
persistent  in  southern  Alberta.  In  2006,  aspen  two- 
leaf  tier  was  less  widespread  than  in  2005  in 
northeast  Alberta.  No  gypsy  moths  were  trapped  in 
2006  in  pheromone-baited  traps  deployed  by 
Sustainable  Resource  Development  on  behalf  of  the 
Canadian  Food  Inspection  Agency. 


A spruce  needle  rust  infection  was  reported  over 
white  spruce  stands  in  the  Foothills  Area,  including 
Switzer  Provincial  Park.  Snow  storms  caused 
substantial  damage  to  forest  stands  in  Cypress  Hills 
Inter-Provincial  Park. 


Between  2005  fall  and  2006  summer,  aerial  and 
ground  surveyors  detected  mountain  pine  beetle 
activity  in  Bow  Valley,  Crowsnest  Pass,  Cypress  Hills 
Inter-Provincial  Park,  Kakwa  Wildland  Provincial  Park 
and  surrounding  area,  Oldman  River,  Spray  Lakes  and 
Willmore  Wilderness  Park.  Infestations  also  occurred 
in  Banff  and  Jasper  national  parks.  A major  influx  of 
mountain  pine  beetles  into  Alberta  in  the  summer  of 
2006  exponentially  increased  the  infestations  that 
could  result  in  over  a million  trees  infested. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  3 


Executive  Summary 


Several  species  of  defoliators  and  bark  beetles 
affected  the  urban  forest  in  Edmonton.  The  smaller 
European  elm  bark  beetles  (SEEBB),  a vector  of  Dutch 
elm  disease  (DED),  continued  to  be  trapped  in  the 
province  in  2006.  In  spite  of  this  Alberta  remained 
free  of  DED.  However,  a similar  vascular  wilt  disease 
affected  elm  trees  in  the  City  of  Edmonton. 

Edmonton  also  lost  many  ash  trees  due  to  drought. 

Under  the  mountain  pine  beetle  management 
program,  the  Forest  Management  Branch  Directive 
2006-06  prohibiting  importation  of  pine  wood  and 
wood  products  with  bark  was  developed  and 
implemented  as  a preventive  measure.  The  Forest 
Health  Officers  conducted  several  information 
sessions  to  increase  the  public's  awareness  of 
mountain  pine  beetle.  Under  this  management 
program  carried  out  from  2005  September  through 
2006  August  12,938  infested  pines  were  removed 
from  forested  Crown  land,  provincial  parks  and 
wilderness  areas. 

As  a member  of  an  interdepartmental  invasive  alien 
species  working  group.  Sustainable  Resource 
Development  continued  to  develop  a risk 
management  framework  on  invasive  species. 
Regionally,  increased  education  and  awareness, 
detection  and  control  programs  received  priority 
under  invasive  plant  species  management  programs. 

A huge  influx  of  mountain  pine  beetles  from  British 
Columbia  into  Alberta  occurred  in  2006  summer  and 
will  result  in  a massive  increase  in  the  number  of 
faders  in  northern  Alberta  in  2007.  The  rate  of  spread 
of  the  beetle  infestation  will  vary  in  different  parts 
of  the  province.  Based  on  the  pheromone  trap 
catches  in  2006,  new  spruce  budworm  infestations 
are  expected  in  northeast  Alberta  in  2007;  similarly, 
a two-year  cycle  budworm  outbreak  is  expected  in 
southwest  Alberta  in  2008.  The  forest  tent  caterpillar 
infestations  are  expected  to  spread  further  into 
northeast  Alberta  in  2007. 


The  Forest  Health  Section  published  an  annual  report 
and  a quarterly  newsletter  to  increase  forest  health 
awareness.  The  Forest  Health  Section  organized  the 
10th  annual  Integrated  Forest  Pest  Management 
Forum  and  participated  in  the  14th  Alberta/British 
Columbia  Intermountain  Forest  Health  Workshop.  The 
forest  health  web  site  was  regularly  updated. 

In  2006,  the  Forest  Health  Section  supported  several 
research  projects  on  mountain  pine  beetle  detection, 
impacts  and  management. 


Page  4 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


This  is  a report  on  forest  insect  and  disease  pests, 
and  invasive  alien  plants  (weeds)  monitored  on 
forested  Crown  land  in  Alberta  in  2006.  This  report 
contains  historical  trends,  pest  conditions  in  2006 
and  forecasts  on  occurrence  of  major  forest  pest 
infestations  in  2007.  The  details  of  forest  pest 
management  programs  carried  out  in  2006  are  also 
reported  here.  In  addition,  this  report  presents 
information  on  Forest  Health  programs  carried  out  to 
increase  awareness,  provide  training,  conduct  field 
research  and  develop  technology. 

Tree  health  on  forested  Crown  land  is  within  the 
mandate  of  Sustainable  Resource  Development.  This 
mandate  is  carried  out  by  effective  detection  and 
monitoring  of  forest  pests,  and  by  implementing  pest 
management  strategies  that  promote  forest 
sustainability  and  recognize  joint  responsibility  with 
forest  industry.  The  forest  health  program  of  Alberta 
is  administered  and  coordinated  by  the  provincial 
headquarters  of  Sustainable  Resource  Development. 

In  2006,  the  Forest  Health  Officers  managed 
operational  aspects  of  forest  health  programs.  The 
Forest  Areas1  (Appendix  I)  delivered  these  programs. 


In  this  report  the  details  of  the  mountain  pine  beetle 
management  program  are  reported  on  a "beetle  year" 
basis,  i.e.,  beginning  soon  after  the  beetle  flights  in 

2005  summer  and  ending  with  the  beetle  flight  in 

2006  summer.  These  program  details  include  the 
results  of  the  pheromone-based  monitoring  program, 
aerial  overview  surveys  carried  out  in  2005  and  2006, 
ground  surveys  in  2005  and  the  resulting  beetle 
management  program  that  was  carried  out  through 
the  winter  and  spring/early  summer  of  2006.  This 
approach  enables  us  to  report  on  events  related  to 
the  same  generation  of  beetles. 

However,  results  of  the  2006  pheromone-based 
monitoring  program  are  briefly  discussed  in  relation 
to  forecasts  on  mountain  pine  beetle  occurrence  in 
2007. 


Managing  tree  health  issues  on  national  parks  and 
native  Indian  reserves  in  the  province  is  a federal 
responsibility.  Tree  health  in  provincial  parks  and 
protected  areas  is  within  the  mandate  of  the 
Department  of  Tourism,  Parks,  Recreation  and  Culture. 
The  municipal  governments,  private  landowners  and 
Metis  settlements  look  after  tree  health  on  their 
respective  lands. 


Many  other  forest  pests,  beside  those  major  forest 
pests  reported  here,  affect  forested  Crown  land  in 
Alberta.  These  include  major  insect  pests  such  as 
terminal  weevils,  other  defoliators,  other  bark  beetles 
and  the  root  collar  weevil  that  are  known  to  affect 
forest  trees  in  the  province.  Diseases  such  as  the 
lodgepole  pine  dwarf  mistletoe,  rusts,  cankers,  stem 
rots  and  root  rots  also  affect  forest  trees.  However, 
the  details  on  these  pests  are  reported  in  this 
document  only  if  they  were  monitored  in  2006. 


1 In  April  2006,  the  administration  units  of  Sustainable  Resource  Development  were  re-named  following  a re-organization.  In  this 
report,  the  names  and  boundaries  of  the  new  administration  units  (Appendix  I)  are  used. 


Forest  Heatth  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  5 


Introduction 


The  surveys  reported  in  this  document  were 
conducted  for  operational  purposes  over  the  forested 
Crown  land  and  do  not  cover  the  entire  forested 
provincial  land  base.  Although  every  effort  is  made  to 
ensure  that  information  reported  in  this  document  is 
accurate  and  complete,  its  integrity  is  not 
guaranteed.2 


2 This  information  is  made  available  for  personal  use  and  not  intended  for  commercial  use.  Written  permission  must  be  obtained  from 
the  Manager,  Forest  Health  Section  prior  to  using  this  information  in  any  format  in  a publication  (telephone  (780)  427-8474  or 
facsimile  (780)  427-0084). 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  6 


Forest  Pest  Conditions  in 


Forest  Insect  Pests 

Conifer  Pests 

Defoliators 

Spruce  Budworm 

Choristoneura  fumiferana  (Clemens) 


Public  Lands 

Forested  Crown  Land 


The  spruce  budworm  outbreak  in  Alberta  reached  a 
peak  in  1995  and  collapsed  in  2004  in  most  of  the 
areas  (Figure  1).  By  the  time  the  outbreak  collapsed, 
relatively  large-scale  tree  kill  was  observed  in 
unsprayed  spruce  stands  that  were  severely  defoliated 
for  eight  or  more  consecutive  years.  Remnants  of  this 
outbreak  still  persist  in  northern  Alberta. 


□ Area  Sprayed  DArea  Defoliated 


Year 

Figure  1 

Number  of  hectares  annually  defoliated  by  the  spruce  budworm  and  hectares  annually  sprayed  to  control  spruce 
budworm  infestations  in  Alberta,  1987  - 2006. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  7 


Conifer  Pests 


Defoliators 


The  occurrence,  extent  and  severity  of  spruce 
budworm  defoliation  are  recorded  annually  by  using 
fixed  wing  aircraft  to  carry  out  aerial  surveys. 
Defoliation  is  recorded  either  digitally  by  using  a map 
loaded  onto  a tablet  personal  computer  linked  to  a 
global  positioning  system  or  manually  by  using  hard 
copies  of  1:250,000  scale  maps.  The  surveyors  record 
severity  of  spruce  budworm  defoliation  either  as 
moderate  (35-70%)  or  as  severe  (>70%)  (Ranasinghe 
and  Kominek,  1999). 


In  2006,  spruce  budworm  defoliated  an  estimated 
36,771  hectares,  an  increase  of  165%  compared  to 
the  total  area  defoliated  in  2005.  This  area  includes 
21,183  hectares  of  net  defoliation  and  15,588 
hectares  of  gross  defoliation.  Defoliation  was  severe 
over  3901  hectares  and  moderate  over  17,282 
hectares  of  net  area;  defoliation  was  severe  over 
3220  hectares  and  moderate  over  12,368  hectares  of 
gross  area.  The  changes  in  extent  and  severity  of 
spruce  budworm  defoliation  between  2005  and  2006 
are  illustrated  on  Figures  2 and  3 respectively,  and  on 
Table  1. 


Figure  2 

Spatial  distribution  of  aerially  visible  spruce  budworm  defoliation  on  forested  land  surveyed  in  Alberta  in  2005. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  8 


Conifer  Pests 


Defoliators 


Moderate 


Figure  3 

Spatial  distribution  of  aerially  visible  spruce  budworm  defoliation  on  forested  land  surveyed  in 
Alberta  in  2006. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  9 


C o n i f e r Pests 


Defoliators 


Table  1 

The  extent  (hectares)  of  spruce  budworm  defoliation  by  severity  categories  in  Alberta3,  2005  vs.  2006 


Moderate 

2005 

Severe 

Total 

Moderate 

2006 

Severe 

Total 

Netb 

6636 

3384 

10,020 

17,282 

3901 

21,183 

Grossc 

3495 

374 

3869 

12,368 

3220 

15,588 

Total 

10,131 

3758 

13,889 

29,650 

7121 

36,771 

Changed 

100% 

100% 

100% 

292% 

189% 

265% 

a Extent  of  defoliation  reported  from  forested  Crown  land  surveyed;  national  parks  excluded 
b Extent  of  defoliation  reported  from  inventoried  forest  land 
c Extent  of  defoliation  reported  from  non-inventoried  forest  land 
d Comparison  of  2005  vs.  2006  total  under  each  severity  category 


Northeast  Alberta 

A Forest  Health  Assistant  (Marty  Robillard)  and  a 
survey  contractor  (Howard  Gates)  carried  out  aerial 
overview  surveys  along  the  major  river  drainages  on 
July  18th  and  19th,  2006.  The  surveyors  used  a fixed 
wing  aircraft  (Cessna  206).  The  Forest  Health 
Supervising  Technician,  Northern  Forestry  Centre, 
Canadian  Forest  Service,  Natural  Resources  Canada 
(Roger  Brett)  surveyed  budworm  defoliation  over 
Wood  Buffalo  National  Park.  The  combined  results  of 
these  surveys  are  shown  in  Figure  3. 

Overall,  spruce  budworm  defoliated  area  in  this 
region  decreased  by  8%  compared  to  the  area 
defoliated  in  2005  (Table  2). 

In  the  non-inventoried  area  of  this  region  (north  of 
58°  N latitude)  no  defoliation  was  observed 
compared  to  2318  hectares  defoliated  in  2005.  See 
page  14  for  details  of  budworm  defoliation  in  Wood 
Buffalo  National  Park. 


In  the  inventoried  area  of  this  region  (south  of  the 
latitude  58°  N),  spruce  budworm  defoliated  5016 
hectares  in  2006.  This  is  an  increase  of  217%, 
compared  to  the  net  area  defoliated  in  2005 
(Table  2). 

The  extent  and  severity  of  spruce  budworm 
defoliation  during  2003-2006  in  areas  north  of  58°  N 
are  shown  in  Figure  4.  Spruce  budworm  defoliated 
area  north  of  58°  N drastically  declined  since  2003; 
there  was  no  visible  budworm  defoliation  in  this  area 
in  2006. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  10 


Conifer  Pests 


Defoliators 


Table  2 

The  extent  of  spruce  budworm  defoliation  by  severity  categories  in  northeastern  Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006 


Defoliated  Area 

Extent  of  Defoliation  (hectares) 

Moderate 

2005 

Severe 

Total 

Moderate 

2006 

Severe 

Total 

Change0 

North  of  Lat  58°  Na 

1944 

374 

2318 

0 

0 

0 

- 

South  of  Lat  58°  Na 

1551 

0 

1551 

0 

0 

0 

-■ 

b 

1580 

0 

1580 

3974 

1042 

5016 

217% 

Totals 

5075 

374 

5449 

3974 

1042 

5016 

-8% 

a gross  area  (non-inventoried  forest  land) 
b net  area  (inventoried  forest  land) 
c percent  change  of  total  from  2005  to  2006 


CO 


CD 

is 

u 

CD 

m 


D Moderate  D Severe 


35000 

30000 

25000 

20000 

15000 

10000 

5000 

0 


Figure  4 

Gross  number  of  spruce  budworm-defoliated  hectares  by  severity  categories  in  areas  north  of  latitude  58°  N in 
the  Waterways  Area  of  Alberta,  2003-2006. 


Forest  Heaith  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  11 


Conifer  Pests 


Defoliators 


18000 

16000 

14000 

«/»  12000 
QJ 

S ioooo 
= 8000 
6000 
4000 
2000 
0 

Figure  5 

Net  number  of  spruce  budworm-defoliated  hectares  by  severity  categories  in  areas  south  of  latitude  58°  N in 
northeastern  Alberta,  2003-2006. 


□ Moderate  D Severe 


2003  2004  2005  2006 

Year 


In  contrast,  a consistent  decline  of  the  extent  and 
severity  of  defoliation  was  observed  in  areas  south  of 
latitude  58°  N from  2003  until  2005.  In  2006,  in  the 
non-inventoried  area  there  was  no  budworm 
defoliation.  In  the  inventoried  area,  there  was  a 
substantial  increase  in  the  area  defoliated  (Table  2). 

Northwest  Alberta 

The  Forest  Health  Officer,  Mike  Maximchuk,  carried 
out  aerial  overview  surveys  between  July  24th  and 
August  16th,  2006  to  record  the  extent  and  severity 
of  spruce  budworm  defoliation  over  the  Lesser  Slave, 
Peace  and  Upper  Hay  areas.  The  extent  of  defoliation 
was  recorded  digitally  by  using  maps  loaded  on  to  a 
tablet  personal  computer  linked  with  a global 
positioning  system  (GPS).  A fixed-wing  aircraft 
(Cessna  210)  was  used  for  this  survey. 

Figure  3 shows  the  results  of  this  survey.  The  spruce 
budworm  defoliated  an  estimated  net  area  of  16  167 
hectares  in  this  region  in  2006.  This  is  a 91.6% 
increase  compared  to  the  8440  hectares  defoliated  in 
2005  (Table  3).  In  the  Lesser  Slave  Area,  an 


estimated  7824  hectares  were  defoliated  near 
Chipewyan  Lake,  Little  Buffalo  Lake  and  Brintnell 
Lake.  This  is  a drastic  28-fold  increase  compared  to 
the  268  hectares  defoliated  in  this  area  in  2005.  Of 
this  total  area  7248  hectares  (92.6%)  had  moderate 
defoliation  and  576  hectares  (7.4%)  had  severe 
defoliation.  No  defoliation  was  observed  in  the  Peace 
Area.  In  the  Upper  Hay  Area,  8343  hectares  were 
defoliated.  Compared  to  the  8172  hectares  defoliated 
in  2005  this  is  only  a slight  increase  (2.1%  ). 
Defoliation  in  this  area  was  found  mainly  along  the 
Peace  River  from  the  confluence  with  Wabasca  River 
to  the  border  of  Wood  Buffalo  National  Park. 

Relatively  small  defoliated  areas  were  found  along  the 
Mikkwa  River,  northeast  of  Loon  River  and  near  the 
Meander  River  northwest  of  High  Level.  Defoliation 
was  moderate  over  6060  hectares  (72.6%)  and  severe 
over  2283  hectares  (27.4%). 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  12 


Conifer  Pests 


Defoliators 


Table  3 

The  extent  of  spruce  budworm  defoliation  by  severity  categories  in  northwestern  Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006 

Forest  Area  Net  Defoliation  (hectares) 


2005 

2006 

Moderate  Severe 

Total 

Moderate  Severe 

Total 

Change3 

Lesser  Slave 

268 

0 

268 

7248 

576 

7824 

2819% 

Upper  Hay 

4788 

3384 

8172 

6060 

2283 

8343 

2.1% 

Total 

5056 

3384 

8440 

13,308 

2859 

16,167 

91.6% 

a percent  changes  of  defoliated  area  totals  between  2005  and  2006 


18000 
16000 
14000 

on  12000 
CD 

5 ioooo 
^ 8000 
6000 
4000 
2000 
0 

Figure  6 

Net  number  of  budworm-defoliated  hectares  by  severity  categories  in  northwestern  Alberta,  2003-2006. 


Figure  6 shows  that  spruce  budworm  populations 
collapsed  in  this  region  in  2005.  Flowever,  in  2006 
the  defoliated  area  nearly  doubled  that  of  2005.  This 
is  due  to  a nearly  30-fold  increase  in  the  extent  of 
defoliation  in  the  Lesser  Slave  Area.  The  extent  of 
defoliation  in  the  Upper  Hay  Area  in  2006  remained 
about  the  same  as  in  2005.  The  continued  use  of 
pheromone-baited  traps  to  monitor  moth  population 
levels  in  "hot  spots"  of  this  region  is  recommended. 


Southwest  Alberta 

There  were  no  reports  of  spruce  budworm  defoliation 
in  this  region  in  2006. 

Provincial  Parks  and  Protected  Areas 

Cypress  Hills  Inter-Provincial  Park 

Extensive,  moderate  and  severe  spruce  budworm 
defoliation  was  observed  in  the  southwest  area  of  the 


Forest  Heatth  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  13 


Conifer  Pests 


Defoliators 


park  including  Elkwater  east,  Reesor  Lake  area.  Battle 
Creek  and  Storm  coulee.  The  extent  of  this 
infestation  was  not  estimated.  (Weekes,  2006). 

Federal  Lands 

Wood  Buffalo  National  Park 

On  July  26th,  2006  the  Supervising  Forest  Health 
Technician,  Northern  Forestry  Centre,  Canadian  Forest 
Service  (Roger  Brett)  carried  out  an  aerial  overview 
survey  of  spruce  budworm  defoliation  in  Wood  Buffalo 
National  Park  (WBNP).  This  survey  was  carried  out 
under  sunny  and  clear  weather  conditions  in  the 
north  and  a low  cloud  ceiling  with  scattered  showers 
in  the  south  of  WBNP.  In  2006,  the  west  border  area 
south  of  the  Peace  River  and  the  east  border  area 
south  of  the  Peace  River  and  Athabasca  River 
confluence  were  added  to  the  regular  survey  area.  A 
fixed-wing  aircraft  (Cessna  206)  was  used  for  this 
survey. 

Figure  3 shows  the  results  of  this  survey.  The  extent 
of  gross  defoliated  area  within  the  park  (excluding 
defoliation  completely  located  in  the  Northwest 
Territories)  was  33,591  hectares.  Moderate  defoliation 
was  scattered  over  a gross  area  of  33,548  hectares 
while  severe  defoliation  was  confined  to  a small 
patch  of  43  hectares. 

The  resident  spruce  budworm  population  has  all  but 
collapsed  in  the  north  end  of  the  park,  especially 
along  the  Sass  and  Preble  creeks.  Little  Buffalo  River, 
Salt  Mountain,  Fort  Smith  and  Fort  Fitzgerald  areas. 

In  this  area  of  the  park  only  a few  scattered  pockets 
of  defoliation  remained,  representing  a decrease  of 
over  90%  in  area  compared  to  the  area  defoliated  in 
2005.  Several  large  wildfires  that  occurred  in  the 
north  end  in  recent  years  may  have  removed  host 
material,  thus  contributing  to  the  decline  of  budworm 
populations. 

Moderate  defoliation  was  mapped  sporadically  along 
the  Athabasca  River  and  was  concentrated  near  the 


Peace  River  confluence  and  over  the  area  between 
the  Peace  River  and  Lake  Claire.  Moderate  defoliation 
was  also  concentrated  along  the  Peace  River  from  Big 
Slough  west  to  the  park  border,  south  of  the  Peace 
River  along  the  west  park  border  by  Ruis  Lake  and  in 
the  Merryweather  Lake  area  where  defoliation  has 
been  severe  in  recent  years.  Only  three  small  pockets 
of  moderate  defoliation  were  observed  along  the 
Athabasca  River  in  the  southeast  corner  of  the  park. 

Some  new  areas  with  defoliation  detected  in  2006 
may  have  pre-existed  because  these  areas  were  not 
surveyed  before.  Detection  of  these  areas  somewhat 
subdued  a significant  decrease  in  defoliated  area  in 
2006. 

Municipal  Lands 

In  the  past  few  years,  the  Municipality  of  Wood 
Buffalo  has  had  an  ongoing  severe  spruce  budworm 
infestation  in  Fort  McMurray.  However,  this 
defoliation  has  not  been  aerially  surveyed3.  In  2006, 
some  areas  of  the  municipality  with  severe  spruce 
budworm  defoliation  were  sprayed  with  a formulation 
of  Bacillus  thuhngiensis  var.  kurstaki  (Btk). 

Western  Spruce  Budworm 

Choristoneura  occidentalis  (Freeman) 

The  western  spruce  budworm  caused  moderate 
defoliation  of  Douglas-fir  stands  in  the  Porcupine 
Hills  area  of 
Alberta.  This 
defoliation  h 
not  been 
surveyed.  In 
2006,  plots 
were 

established  t 
monitor  the 
progress  of  t 
infestation. 


3 Stephen  Rice,  Municipality  of  Wood  Buffalo,  personal  communication 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  14 


Conifer  Pests 


Bark  Beetles 


Yellowheaded  Spruce  Sawfly 
Pikonema  alaskensis  (Rohwer) 

The  yellowheaded 
spruce  sawfly 
(YHSS) 
continued  to 
defoliate 
young  white 
spruce 
growing  on 
reclaimed  oil 
and  gas  lands 
near  Fort  McMurray, 

Cold  Lake  and  Bonnyville 
in  northeastern  Alberta.  The  infestation  levels  were 
relatively  lower  compared  to  those  in  2005  although 
no  insecticides  were  sprayed  to  control  these 
infestations. 

A perennial  yellowheaded  spruce  sawfly  infestation  in 
Cypress  Hills  Inter-Provincial  Park  continued  to 
damage  some  ornamental  white  spruce  at  the 
townsite  and  near  Elkwater  Lake. 

Yellowheaded  spruce  sawfly  populations  continued  to 
infest  a large  number  of  white  spruce  trees 
throughout  the  City  of  Edmonton.  In  2006,  the  pest 
management  operations  staff  treated  about  4400 
YHSS-infested  trees  in  the  city. 


Bark  Beetles 

Mountain  Pine  Beetle 

Dendroctonus  ponderosae  (Hopkins) 

Public  Lands 

Provincial  Crown  Land 

2005  Surveys 4 Carried  Out  by  Using  Pheromone 
Baits  to  Detect  Mountain  Pine  Beetle  Incidence 

Prior  to  the  mountain  pine  beetle  flight  in  2005, 
ground  plots  were  established  to  detect  presence  of 
beetles  in  uninfested,  high-risk  lodgepole  pine  stands 
in  southwestern  Alberta.  Three  mature  lodgepole 
pines  per  plot  were  baited  with 
two-component  aggregation  pheromone  baits  (Phero 
Tech  Inc.,  British  Columbia).  The  results  of  this 
survey  are  shown  in  Table  4 and  Figure  7. 

Table  4 

Mountain  pine  beetle  attacks  on  pheromone-baited 
trees  in  monitoring  plots  in  Alberta,  2005 


Forest  Area 

No.  of  plots 

Attacks/ 

tree 

Spill-over 

Attacks5 

Total 

Attacked 

Smoky 

5 

3 

1 - 100 

Southern 

Rockies 

10 

7 

1 - 75 

0 

Clearwater 

6 

1 

5 - 18 

1 

Foothills 

14 

4 

1 - 218 

0 

4 Refer  p.  42  for  "Forecast  on  Major  Forest  Pests " for  2006  survey  results 

5 Number  of  attacked  trees  located  outside  of  the  monitoring  plot 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  15 


Conifer  Pests 


Bark  Beetles 


Northwest  Alberta 

Five  mountain  pine  beetle 
pheromone-baited  plots  were 
established  in  the  Smoky  Area.  At 
three  of  these  plots  baited  trees 
were  attacked  by  the  mountain 
pine  beetle  (Figure  7).  Beetle 
attack  was  successful  in  producing 
progeny  in  plot  3 (54.7982°  N - 
119.7061°  W).  Baited-trees  at  the 
other  two  plots  had  galleries  but 
no  progeny. 

Southwest  Alberta 

Southern  Rockies  and  Clearwater 
Areas 

In  2005,  seven  out  of  10  baited- 
sites  in  the  Southern  Rockies  Area 
had  mountain  pine  beetle  attacks. 
Compared  to  2004  results,  attack 
levels  were  moderate  (1-75  per 
tree)  in  these  plots.  No  spill-over 
attacks  were  found.  Six  sites  were 
baited  in  the  Clearwater  Area;  one 
was  attacked.  Attack  levels  were 
relatively  low  (5-18  attacks  per 
tree)  and  were  similar  to  those 
found  in  2004.  There  was  one 
spillover  attack  at  plot  2. 


Foothills  Area  Figure  ^ 

Presence/absence  of  mountain  pine  beetle  hits  on  pheromone- 
Four  out  of  fourteen  sites  with  pheromone-  baited  trees  in  monitoring  plots  located  in  Alberta,  2005. 
baited  trees  had  mountain  pine  beetle  attacks. 

At  one  site  (plot  no.  2)  attack  levels  were  high  (over  Cypress  Hills  Inter-Provincial  Park6 
200  attacks  on  one  tree).  The  other  three  plots  had 

low  to  moderate  levels  of  attacks  (1  - 130  per  tree).  Pheromone-baited  trees  at  15  out  of  18  sites  had 

mountain  pine  beetle  hits.  These  results  indicated 
more  widespread  beetle  activity,  the  highest  since 
1986.  Flowever,  only  29  trees  were  attacked  by 
beetles  at  these  sites.  Most  of  the  attacks  were 


6 Based  on  a report  submitted  by  Les  Weekes,  Park  Forest  Officer,  Cypress  Hills  Inter-Provincial  Park,  Cypress  Hills,  Alberta 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  16 


Conifer  Pests 


Bark  Beetles 


unsuccessful  in  producing 
progenies.  Most  attacks  occurred 
near  Graburn,  Storm  and  Nine  Mile 
Creek  areas  in  the  south-eastern 
part  of  the  park.  Only  nine  infested 
trees  were  removed;  the  others  had 
light  attacks  that  were  treated  at 
the  time  of  bait  collection. 

2006  Aerial  Surveys7 

Aerial  Overview  Surveys  are  carried 
out  on  mature,  beetle-prone  pine 
stands  based  on  mountain  pine 
beetle  activity  on  pheromone- 
baited  trees,  other  known 
mountain  pine  beetle  activities  in 
the  area  and  existing  mountain 
pine  beetle  populations.  This  is  a 
general  survey  leading  to  heli-GPS 
surveys  and  ground  surveys  to 
detect  mountain  pine  beetle- 
infested  trees.  These  surveys  are 
usually  carried  out  in  early  to  mid- 
August  by  using  rotary-wing 
aircraft.  Either  a digital  map 
loaded  onto  a tablet  personal 
computer  linked  with  a global 
positioning  system  or  a hard  copy 
of  a map  (1:250  000  or  finer)  is 
used  to  record  the  flight  lines, 
estimated  number  of  faders  and 
their  distribution. 


Forest  Health  Officers  and  a private 
contractor  carried  out  2006  aerial 
surveys  over  forested  areas  with  high  mountain  pine 
beetle  risk.  These  surveys  covered  mature  pine  forest 
along  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Rockies  extending 
from  Kakwa  Wildland  Provincial  Park  Provincial  Park  in 
the  north  to  the  United  States  border  in  the  south. 
Figure  8 illustrates  the  results  of  these  surveys. 


Locations  of  suspected  mountain  pine  beetle-killed  trees  detected 
during  aerial  surveys  carried  out  in  Alberta  in  the  fall  of  2006. 


Compared  to  the  results  of  the  2005  survey  (Figure 
8a),  in  2006  the  distribution  of  suspected  mountain 
pine  beetle-caused  faders  increased  significantly  in 
the  Smoky  Area  (Figure  8).  In  Willmore  Wilderness 
Park,  high  incidence  of  faders  were  observed  along 


7 Refer  to  Section  under  "Mountain  Pine  Beetle  Management  Program"  for  details  of  2006  mountain  pine  beetle  ground  surveys  on 
forested  Crown  land 


Forest  Heatth  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  17 


Conifer  Pests 


Bark  Beetles 


the  Upper  Sheep  Creek,  Pauline 
Creek,  Beaverdam  Creek  and 
Meadowland  Creek.  Spotty 
incidence  of  faders  was  observed 
along  Fetherstonhaugh  Creek, 
Muddywater  River,  Jackpine  River, 
Smoky  River  and  Sheep  Creek 
drainages  and  along  the  edges  of 
the  areas  burned  in  a wildfire  in 
2006.  In  Kakwa  Wildland  Provincial 
Park  the  faders  were  widespread.  In 
the  Weyerhaeuser  Forest 
Management  Agreement  Area  faders 
were  distributed  over  a wide  area 
extending  slightly  north  of  Wapiti 
River  in  the  north  and  slightly  east 
of  Highway  40  in  the  east,  as 
depicted  in  Figure  8. 

In  southwestern  Alberta,  the 
distribution  of  suspected  mountain 
pine  beetle-caused  faders  in  2006 
was  higher  than  in  2005  (Figures  8 
and  8a).  The  Provincial  Parks  of 
Bow  Valley,  Spray  Lakes  and  Peter 
Lougheeed,  as  well  as  areas  along 
the  Old  Man  River  and  Crowsnest 
Pass,  had  faders  symptomatic  of 
mountain  pine  beetle  infestations. 
No  faders  were  detected  during 
aerial  overview  surveys  in  the 
Clearwater  Area  in  2006. 

Ground  Surveys 


Refer  to  Section  under  "Mountain  Pine 
Beetle  Management  Program"  for  details  of  2006 
mountain  pine  beetle  ground  surveys  on  forested 
Crown  land. 


Figure  8a 

Locations  of  suspected  mountain  pine  beetle-killed  trees  detected 
during  aerial  surveys  carried  out  in  Alberta  in  the  fall  of  2005. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  18 


Broadleaf  Pests 


Defoliators 


Broadleaf  Pests 

Major  Aspen  Defoliators 

Aerial  overview  surveys  are  carried 
out  to  estimate  the  extent  and 
severity  of  insect  pest-caused 
aspen  defoliation  over  forested 
Crown  land.  Fixed  wing  aircraft 
are  used  in  these  surveys.  Either 
digital  maps  loaded  on  to  a tablet 
personal  computer  linked  with  a 
global  positioning  system  or  hard 
copies  of  1:250,000  scale  maps 
are  used  to  record  the  extent  and 
severity  of  defoliation  observed 
during  these  surveys.  The 
surveyors  categorize  aspen 
defoliation  as  light  (<35%), 
moderate  (35-70%)  or  severe 
(>70%).  The  results  of  these 
surveys  are  shown  in  Figure  9. 
Table  6 compares  the  extent  of 
aspen  defoliation  in  2005  and 
2006. 


Spatial  distribution  of  aerially  visible  insect  pest-caused  aspen  defoliation 
surveyed  in  Alberta,  2006. 


Forest  Heatth  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  19 


Broadleaf  Pests 


Defoliators 


Table  5 

The  extent  (hectares)  of  forest  insect  pest-caused  aspen  defoliation  by  severity  categories  in 
Alberta3,  2005  vs.  2006 


Region 

Gross  area  of  defoliation  (ha) 

1 

Light 

2005 

Moderate 

Severe 

Light 

2006 

Moderate 

Severe 

Northeast 

2753 

5035 

40,173 

161,508 

28,859 

279,555 

Northwest 

379,271 

287,944 

2,061,360 

18,027 

4,329,260 

631,992 

Southwest 

16,347 

7442 

18,062 

258,924 

108,943 

34,088 

Total 

2,818,387 

5,851,155 

a National  and  provincial  parks  excluded 


In  2006,  the  total  gross  area  in  forested  Crown  land 
with  aspen  defoliation  was  over  5.8  million  hectares 
(Table  6).  This  is  a 107%  increase  from  the  area  with 
gross  defoliation  in  2005.  The  forest  tent  caterpillar 
(Matocosoma  disstria  Hubner)  was  the  predominant 
defoliator  of  aspen  in  2006.  Defoliation  primarily 
caused  by  the  tent  caterpillar  was  scattered  over 
5,193,325  hectares,  accounting  for  88.8%  of  all 
aspen  defoliation  in  the  surveyed  area.  Compared  to 
2005,  the  large  aspen  tortrix  ( C.  conflictana  (Walker) 
populations  further  declined  in  2006,  limiting  their 
defoliation  to  401,011  hectares  (6.9%).  The  aspen 
leaf  ro  lie  r ( Pseudecenterra  Oregon  an  a ( Wa  Isi  n g h a m ) , 
was  a major  defoliator  in  2006  with  its  defoliation 
occurring  over  256,818  hectares  (4.3%). 

Northeast  Alberta 

The  Forest  Health  Officer  (Tom  Hutchison)  and  a 
Survey  Contractor  (Howard  Gates)  carried  out  aerial 
overview  surveys  on  July  11-14,  2006  out  of  Fort 
McMurray;  Forest  Health  Technicians  (Marty  Robillard 
and  Rudy  Markgraf  ) carried  out  an  aerial  overview 
survey  on  July  20,  2006  out  of  Athabasca.  A fixed 
wing  aircraft  (Cessna  206)  was  used  for  these 
surveys. 


The  results  of  these  surveys  are  shown  in  Figure  9. 
Compared  to  2005,  there  was  a dramatic,  nearly  10- 
fold  increase  in  area  with  aspen  defoliation  in  this 
region  in  2006  (Table  6).  The  forest  tent  caterpillar 
damage  accounted  for  all  the  defoliated  area 
observed  during  the  aerial  surveys.  However,  during 
ground  truthing  minor  defoliation  by  aspen  leafroller 
and  aspen  twoleaf  tier  {Enargia  decolor  (Walker)  was 
observed  at  several  locations.  One  small  patch  of 
aspen  defoliation  near  Amadou  Lake  was  attributed 
to  the  large  aspen  tortrix. 

The  changes  in  the  extent  and  severity  of  aspen 
defoliation  in  this  region  from  2003-2006  are  shown 
in  Figure  10.  This  figure  illustrates  the  collapse  of 
defoliation  in  2004,  which  coincided  with  the  decline 
of  large  aspen  tortrix  populations.  The  increase  in 
aspen  defoliation  in  2005  in  this  region  was 
attributed  to  the  rise  of  forest  tent  caterpillar 
populations. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  20 


Broadleaf  Pests 


Defoliators 


Table  6 

The  extent  of  forest  insect-pest  caused  aspen  defoliation  by  severity  categories  in  northeastern 
Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006 


Area 

Gross  area  of  defoliation  (ha) 

Light 

2005 

Moderate 

Severe 

Light 

2006 

Moderate 

Severe 

Lac  La  Biche 

2299 

0 

4954 

0 

913 

46,549 

Waterways 

454 

5035 

35,219 

161,508 

27,946 

233,066 

Total 

2753 

5035 

40,173 

161,508 

28,859 

279,555 

Total 

47,961 

469,922 

□ Light  11  Moderate  E3  Severe 


Figure  10 

Comparison  of  the  gross  number  of  insect  pest-defoliated  hectares  of  aspen  by  severity  categories  in 
northeastern  Alberta,  2003-2006. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  21 


Broadleaf  Pests 


Defoliators 


Northwest  Alberta 

Between  June  19th  to  July  14th,  2006  the  Forest 
Health  Officer  used  a Cessna  210  fixed-wing  aircraft 
to  carry  out  aerial  overview  surveys  to  digitally  map 
aspen  defoliation  in  this  region.  Digital  maps  of  the 
survey  areas  loaded  onto  a tablet  personal  computer 
linked  with  a global  positioning  system  unit  were 
used  for  these  surveys.  The  results  of  these  surveys 
are  shown  in  Figure  9. 

Insect  pest-caused  aspen  defoliation  was  scattered 
over  an  estimated  4,979,279  hectares  in  this  region. 
Most  (86.9%)  of  this  defoliation  was  of  moderate 
intensity;  12.7%  was  severe  and  0.4 % was  light.  The 
forest  tent  caterpillar  was  the  predominant  aspen 
defoliator  in  this  region  in  2006.  The  forest  tent 
caterpillar-caused  defoliation  was  spread  over  an 
estimated  4,723,403  hectares.  Most  (86.4%)  of  this 
defoliation  was  moderate;  13.4%  was  severe  and 
0.2 % was  light.  Forest  tent  caterpillar  defoliation  was 
found  in  Lesser  Slave,  Peace  and  Upper  Hay  areas. 

The  aspen  leafroller  was  the  other  noticeable 
defoliator  in  this  region  in  2006.  The  aspen  leafroller 
defoliation  was  scattered  over  255,876  hectares  in 


Lesser  Slave  and  Smoky  areas.  Nearly  all  (97%)  of 
this  defoliation  was  moderate  and  the  remaining  3% 
was  light.  The  extent  and  severity  of  2005  vs.  2006 
aspen  defoliation  in  this  region  are  shown  in  Table  7. 

Compared  to  2005,  the  gross  area  of  aspen 
defoliation  increased  by  82%  in  2006.  Most  of  this 
increase  was  in  moderately  defoliated  area;  the 
extents  of  light  defoliation  as  well  as  of  severe 
defoliation  decreased  in  2006. 

In  this  region,  the  Upper  Hay  Area  had  the  largest 
aspen  defoliation  extending  over  3,849,553  hectares; 
this  is  about  double  the  extent  of  defoliation  in 
2005.  This  forest  tent  caterpillar-caused  defoliation 
mainly  extended  from  the  British  Columbia  border  in 
the  west  to  the  Caribou  Mountains  in  the  east,  along 
the  Chinchaga  River  in  the  south  and  along  the  Steen 
River  in  the  north.  Most  of  this  defoliation  was 
moderate  (Table  7).  In  the  Lesser  Slave  Area,  the  tent 
caterpillar-defoliated  gross  area  increased  from 
505,382  hectares  in  2005  to  683,  900  hectares  in 
2006  making  it  the  dominant  defoliator;  defoliation 
was  severe  from  Wabasca  in  the  south  to  Chipweyan 
Lake  in  the  north  and  from  Teepee  Lake  in  the  west 


Table  7 

The  extent  of  forest  insect-pest  caused  aspen  defoliation  by  severity  categories  in  northwestern 
Alberta,  2005  vs.  2006 


Forest  Area 

Gross  area  of  defoliation  (ha) 

Light 

2005 

Moderate 

Severe 

Light 

2006 

Moderate 

Severe 

Lesser  Slave 

3405 

5108 

500,274 

10,271 

261,034 

631,992 

Smoky 

223,596 

0 

0 

7757 

28,723 

0 

Peace 

20,919 

60,557 

0 

0 

189,950 

0 

Upper  Hay 

131,351 

222,279 

1,561,086 

0 

3,849,553 

0 

Total 

379,271 

286,944 

2,061,360 

18,027 

4,329,260 

631,992 

Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  22 


Broadleaf  Pests 


Defoliators 


to  Little  Buffalo  Lake  in  the  east.  The  aspen  leafroller 
defoliation  was  found  over  an  area  of  219,397 
hectares.  This  defoliation  was  recorded  over  a 
relatively  large  area  south  of  Lesser  Slave  Lake  and 
two  small  areas  north  of  Grande  Prairie;  numerous 
small  pockets  of  defoliation  found  south  of  Grande 
Prairie  were  not  recorded  because  of  their  small  size 
and  light  defoliation.  The  large  aspen  tortrix 
population  in  this  area  collapsed  in  2006.  In  the 
Smoky  Area,  the  aspen  leafroller  defoliation  was 
scattered  over  an  estimated  36,479  hectares;  most 
(79%)  of  this  defoliation  was  moderate  and  21%  was 
light.  In  this  area,  the  large  aspen  tortrix  defoliation 
was  scattered  over  223,596  hectares  in  2005  but  this 
population  collapsed  in  2006.  In  the  Peace  Area,  the 
forest  tent  caterpillar  defoliation  increased  133% 
from  2005  to  2006  to  reach  189,950  hectares;  all  of 
this  defoliation  was  moderate. 

The  extent  of  2002-2006  aspen  defoliation  by 
severity  categories  in  Northwestern  Alberta  is  shown 
in  Figure  11. 


This  figure  shows  a rise  of  aspen  defoliation  in  2002- 
2003.  This  defoliation  was  caused  by  the  large  aspen 
tortrix.  It  collapsed  in  2004  and  in  2005  it  was 
replaced  by  forest  tent  caterpillar  defoliation  that 
expanded  exponentially  in  2006. 


4500000 

4000000 

3500000 

3000000 

2500000 

2000000 

1500000 

1000000 

500000 

0 


H Light  □ Moderate  O Severe 


Year 


Figure  11 

Comparison  of  the  gross  number  of  insect  pest-defoliated  hectares  of  aspen  by  severity  categories  in 
northwestern  Alberta,  2002-2006. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  23 


Broadleaf  Pests 


Defoliators 


Southwest  Alberta 

Aspen  defoliation,  almost  all  caused  by  the  large 
aspen  tortrix,  was  scattered  over  an  estimated 
401,953  hectares  throughout  this  region  (Figure  9). 
This  is  a dramatic  increase  compared  to  41,851 
hectares  of  aspen  defoliation  that  occurred  in  this 
region  in  2005.  This  included  942  hectares  defoliated 
by  the  aspen  leaf  roller. 

In  Southern  Rockies  and  Clearwater  areas,  the  Forest 
Health  Technicians  (Bart  McAnally  and  Rupert 
Flewison)  together  with  a contractor  carried  out  the 
aerial  overview  surveys.  A Navajo  fixed-wing  aircraft 
was  used  for  the  surveys  carried  out  on  June  26-27, 
2006.  They  used  digital  maps  loaded  onto  a tablet 
personal  computer  linked  to  a global  positioning 
system  to  record  survey  data.  In  the  Southern 
Rockies  Area  moderate  defoliation  caused  by  the  large 
aspen  tortrix  was  scattered  over  an  estimated  90,043 
hectares.  In  the  Clearwater  Area  the  large  aspen 
tortrix  defoliation  was  recorded  over  an  estimated 
73,229  hectares.  Defoliation  was  light  over  32,950 
hectares  (45%),  moderate  over  6191  hectares  (8%) 
and  severe  over  34,088  hectares  (47%). 


In  Foothills  and  Woodlands  areas,  the  Forest  Health 
Technician  together  with  a contractor  used  a fixed- 
wing  aircraft  to  survey  aspen  defoliation  during  the 
first  week  of  July,  2006.  Digital  maps  loaded  onto  a 
tablet  personal  computer  that  is  linked  to  a global 
positioning  system  were  used  to  record  the  extent 
and  severity  of  defoliation.  In  this  area,  large  aspen 
tortrix  defoliation  occurred  over  an  estimated  28,621 
hectares.  Defoliation  was  light  over  3006  hectares 
(11%)  and  moderate  over  25,615  hectares  (89%).  In 
the  Woodlands  Area  large  aspen  tortrix  defoliation 
occurred  over  an  estimated  209,117  hectares.  This 
defoliation  was  light  over  132,923  hectares  (64%) 
and  moderate  over  76,194  hectares  (36%).  In 
addition,  the  aspen  leaf  roller  possibly  defoliated 
another  942  hectares  in  this  area. 

Figure  12  shows  build  up  and  decline  of  large  aspen 
tortrix  populations  that  collapsed  in  2004.  Although 
some  forest  tent  caterpillar  activity  was  observed,  the 
anticipated  outbreak  did  not  materialize  in  2006  in 
this  region.  Instead  it  appears  that  the  large  aspen 
tortrix  populations  increased  in  southwest  Alberta. 


0 Light  0 Moderate  □ Severe 


Figure  12 

Comparison  of  the  gross  number  of  insect  pest-defoliated  hectares  of  aspen  by  severity  categories  in 
southwestern  Alberta,  2002-2006. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  24 


Minor  Insect  Pests 


Wood  Buffalo  National  Park 

On  July  26th,  2006  the  Supervising  Forest  Health 
Technician,  Northern  Forestry  Centre,  Canadian  Forest 
Service  (Roger  Brett)  carried  out  an  aerial  overview 
survey  to  map  aspen  defoliation  on  Wood  Buffalo 
National  Park.  Although  aspen  defoliation  was 
mapped  throughout  the  park,  it  was  most  readily 
observed  along  Highway  5 and  Peace  Point  Road 
(Figure  9).  Large  areas  of  aspen  defoliation  were 
mapped  along  the  Peace  River  west  of  Peace  Point. 
Aspen  defoliation  observed  was  attributed  mostly  to 
a complex  of  the  large  aspen  tortrix  and  the  aspen 
serpentine  leaf  miner  (Phyllocnistis  populielta 
Chambers).  However,  aspen  defoliation  along  the 
Peace  River  and  in  the  area  south  of  the  Peace  River 
by  the  west  border  may  have  been  caused  by  the 
forest  tent  caterpillar.  Although  constraints  on 
accessibility  and  time  availability  prevented  ground 
truthing  at  all  locations,  the  aspen  serpentine 
leafminer  was  observed  on  the  ground  along 
Highway  5 at  the  north  end  of  the  park. 

Minor  Insect  Pests 

Willow  Leafminer 

Micrurapteryx  salicifoliella  (Chambers) 

Extensive  areas  of 
willow  with  willow 
leafminer  damage 
were  observed 
in 

northeastern 
Alberta. 

Willow  dieback 
was  evident  in 
the  areas  north 
of  Wandering  River 
and  in 
Area. 


Ash  Leaf  Cone  Roller 

Caloptilia  fraxinella  (Ely) 

The  ash  leaf  cone  roller 
infested  some  ash 
trees  around 
Athabasca, 

Wandering 
River  and  Fort 
McMurray  in 
Northeast 
Alberta.  The 
range  of  this 
pest  appears  to  be 
increasing  within  the 
region. 

Aspen  Two-leaf  Tier 

Enargia  decolor  (Walker) 

Some  aspen  two-leaf  tier  damage  was  reported  from 
the  Woodlands  Area  but  this  was  not  surveyed  in 
detail.  Aspen  two-leaf  tier  moths  were  found  in  forest 
tent  caterpillar  pheromone-baited  traps  deployed  in 
northeastern  Alberta. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  25 


Diseases  and  Disorders 


Diseases  and  Disorders 

Diseases 

Many  diseases  affect  forest  trees  in  Alberta.  Needle 
casts  and  rusts,  dwarf  mistletoe,  stem  cankers  and 
rusts,  stem  and  root  decay  caused  by  fungi,  cone 
rusts,  seedling  diseases,  leaf  rusts  and  blights  are 
among  the  common  diseases  of  forest  trees.  This 
report  contains  details  on  those  diseases  that  were 
monitored  in  2006. 

Spruce  Needle  Rust 

(Chrysomyxa  sp.) 

In  southwestern  Alberta,  a heavy  infection  caused  by 
spruce  needle  rust  was  observed  in  early  summer  in 
the  western  section  of  Foothills  Area  and  south  of 
Hinton  in  southwestern  Alberta.  White  spruce  in 
Switzer  Provincial  Park  and  further  east  were  hit  hard 
by  this  infection. 


Disorders 

Snow  Damage 

Snow  storms  in  the  fall  caused  substantial  damage  to 
ornamental  hybrid  poplars  in  Elkwater  in  the  Cypress 
Hills  Interprovincial  Park.  These  storms  also  damaged 
aspen,  lodgepole  pine  and  white  spruce  found  along 
the  north-facing  edges  of  many  forest  stands  of  the 
park. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  26 


Urban  Forest  Pests 


Urban  Forest  Pests8 

Insect  Pests 

Conifer  Pests 

Foliage  Pests 

Yellowheaded  spruce  sawfly 

(Pikonema  alaskensis  (Rohwer) 

The  yellowheaded 
spruce  sawfly 
(YHSS) 
populations 
continued  to 
increase  in 
2006  and 
defoliated  a 
large  number  of 
white  spruce 
throughout  the  City 
of  Edmonton.  In  2006, 
the  pest  management  operations  staff  sprayed 
approximately  4400  YHSS-infested  trees  in  the  City  of 
Edmonton.  In  addition,  Orthene®  was  injected  into 
329  infested  trees  to  control  this  pest  problem. 

Spruce  Spider  Mite 

( Oligonychus  ununguis  (Jacobi) 

Many  white  spruce  in  Edmonton  were  infested  by  the 
spruce  spider  mite.  Even  some  spruce  trees  infested 
by  the  yellowheaded  spruce  sawfly  were  attacked  by 
these  mites. 

Broadleaf  Trees 

Defoliators 

Numbers  of  the  satin  moth,  Leucoma  saiicis  (L.) 
appeared  to  have  leveled  off  in  2006.  An  increase  in 
the  parasitoid  wasp,  Cotesio  sp.,  has  kept  the  satin 
moth  population  at  bay.  Populations  of  the  apple 
maggot,  Rhogotetis pomoneUa  (Walsh)  appear  to  be 


spreading  in  the  Edmonton  area  but  this  is  still 
considered  to  be  a minor  pest  causing  cosmetic 
damage.  No  gypsy  moths,  Lymantria  dispar  (L.),  were 
caught  in  pheromone-baited  traps  set  up  at  various 
strategic  locations  around  the  city,  in  conjunction 
with  the  Canadian  Food  Inspection  Agency  (CFIA). 
Bruce  spanworm  ( Operophtera  bruceata  (Hulst) 
populations  increased  in  the  outskirts  of  the  city.  Few 
forest  tent  caterpillar  larvae  were  found  in  the  city 
but  these  did  not  cause  noticeable  defoliation. 
Defoliation  on  Manitoba  maples  by  the  larger 
boxelder  leafroller,  Archips  negundana  (Dyar), 
expanded  along  the  river  valley.  Several  hundred 
maples  were  severely  defoliated  but  re-foliated  within 
weeks  of  peak  defoliation.  The  populations  of  the 
forest  tent  caterpillar,  fall  cankerworm  (> Alsophila 
pometaria  (Harr.),  and  amber-marked  birch  leafminer 
{Profenusa  thompsoni  (Konow)  also  increased  slightly. 
In  addition,  another  species  of  birch  leafminer 
{Scolloneura  viand)  has  been  reported  in  the 
Edmonton  area  by  the  Canadian  Forest  Service.  Signs 
of  parasitism  have  already  been  observed  on  this 
leafminer.  The  spiny  ash  sawfly,  Euparophoro parka 
(Cress.),  increased  in  numbers  compared  to  those  in 
2005.  This  pest  was  invariably  found  on  ash  trees 
infested  by  the  ash  plant  bug  {Tropidosteptes  sp.) 
and  the  ash  leaf  cone  roller  ( Coloptilia  fraxinella 
(Ely).  The  ash  leaf  cone  roller  was  widespread  in  the 
city.  Nearly  all  the  leaves  on  some  ash  trees  were 
affected  by  this  pest.  An  unidentified  Apanteies  sp. 
parasitized  from  20%  to  90%  of  this  caterpillar  larvae 
in  various  neighbourhoods.  The  oblique  banded 
leafroller,  ( C.  rosaceana  (Harr.)  occurred  in  high 
numbers  on  ash  trees  at  a few  locations.  Several 
boulevard  trees  in  downtown  Edmonton  had 
significant  defoliation  and  leafroller  larvae  dangling 
on  silk  threads  caused  some  public  concern. 


Based  on  an  unpublished  report  by  M.  Jenkins  and  M.  Wartenbe  of  the  City  of  Edmonton 


Forest  Heatth  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  27 


Urban  Forest  Pests 


Sucking  Insects 

The  European  elm  scale,  Gossyparia  spuria  (Mod.),  has 
become  established  in  the  city,  especially  on  young 
elms.  The  oyster  scale  ( Lepidosaaphes  sp.) 
populations  crashed  in  2006.  The  ash  plant  bug 
( Tropidosteptes  amoneus  (Reuter)  populations 
exploded  in  2006  causing  considerable  damage 
including  leaf  drop  on  a large  number  of  ash  trees. 
This  infestation  further  stressed  out  ash  trees  making 
them  more  prone  to  other  pests.  The  populations  of 
the  cottony  psyllid,  Psyllopsis  discrepans,  made  a 
major  comeback  attacking  almost  every  black  ash  in 
the  city.  Over  2000  black  ash  were  injected  with 
either  Confidor®  (Imidacloprid)  or  Orthene® 
(Acephate)  to  control  this  pest  and  other  pests 
attacking  ash  trees.  The  lace  bugs  were  found  on 
Saskatoon  and  Mayday  but  caused  minimum  damage. 
The  European  fruit  lecanium  ( Porthenolecanium  corni 
Bouche)  numbers  rose  in  the  city.  These  scales  attack 
ash  trees  distressed  due  to  other  pest  attacks.  Few 
ash  trees  were  infested  with  wooly  ash  aphid  and  ash 
leafcurl  aphids  ( Prociphilus  fraxinifolli).  The  clumped 
pseudo-galls  of  these  insects  have  considerable 
amount  of  honeydew  making  them  a potential 
nuisance  species.  Trounce®  (a  mix  of  insecticidal  soap 
and  pyrethrins)  was  ineffective  in  controlling  these 
pests  within  galls. 

Bark  Beetles  and  Weevils 

In  Edmonton,  five  smaller  European  elm  bark  beetles 
(Scolytus  multistriatus,  (Marsh.)  were  captured  at  5 
out  of  84  sites  with  panel  and  funnel  traps.  Though 
higher  compared  to  the  single  beetle  trapped  in  2005 
this  still  is  a low  beetle  catch.  The  western  ash  bark 
beetle,  Hytesinus  californicus  (Swaine),  continued  to 
be  active  on  dead  branches  of  ash  trees.  The  beetle- 
killed  ash  trees  have  been  chipped  and  used  as 
mulch.  Experiments  have  shown  that  at  least  95%  of 
these  beetles  in  chipped  ash  bolts  are  killed,  making 


ash  chips  safe  for  mulching.  The  pine  engraver,  Ips 
/?//7/(Say),  and  other  native  bark  beetles  were  found 
in  several  dead  pine  trees  in  the  city;  however,  there 
were  no  mountain  pine  beetles  in  these  dead  pines. 

Diseases  and  Disorders 

Forty-seven  new  cases  of  the  fungal  wilt  disease, 
Dothiorella  ulmi,  were  confirmed  in  Edmonton  in 
20069;  many  of  these  trees  were  too  dry  to  be 
sampled  and  cultured  to  confirm  disease  incidence. 
Twelve  diseased  large  elms  with  over  50%  decline  of 
the  living  canopy  were  slated  for  removal  in  2006. 

In  spite  of  a relatively  wet  year,  the  soil  moisture 
deficit  continued  and  the  city  lost  more  trees  due  to 
drought  conditions  that  prevailed  in  the  previous 
years.  Ash  trees  in  particular  were  hit  hard  in  2006. 
To  date  the  city  has  lost  a few  thousand  trees  due  to 
drought. 

Dutch  Elm  Disease10 

Alberta  still  remains  free  of  Dutch  elm  disease  in 
spite  of  continued  capturing  of  its  vectors  (smaller 
European  elm  bark  beetle)  in  traps  set  up  at  many 
locations  in  the  province. 


9 Confirmed  by  Dr.  J.P.  Tewari,  University  of  Alberta 

10  Based  on  an  unpublished  report  by  Janet  Feddes-Calpas  of  ST0PDED  Society 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  28 


Pest  Management  Programs 


Mountain  Pine  Beetle  Management 
Piogram 

The  mountain  pine  beetle  infestations  in  the  province 
were  managed  under  a comprehensive  program  that 
was  undertaken  in  2005/06.  This  program  included 
education  and  awareness,  prevention,  monitoring, 
surveying,  assessment  and  control  operations.  These 
operations  aimed  at  controlling  the  current  mountain 
pine  beetle  populations  and  reducing  the  risk  of 
future  infestations. 

Education  and  Awareness 

Southern  Rockies  and  Clearwater  Areas 

Christie  Ward,  Forest  Health  Officer,  made  several 
presentations  to  wide  ranging  organizations  that 
included  forest  industry,  municipalities.  Rotary  Clubs, 
Environmental  Groups,  wildland  firefighters  and 
Woodlot  Association.  She  organized  tours  and 
provided  updates  to  local  media,  and  staffed 
information  booths  at  trade  shows. 


Resource  Development,  British  Columbia  Ministry  of 
Forests,  Forest  Industry,  Municipalities  and  Alberta 
Tourism,  Parks,  Recreation  and  Culture.  The  Bow 
Valley  Task  Group  had  representatives  from  Banff 
National  Park,  Alberta  Tourism,  Parks,  Recreation  and 
Culture,  Sustainable  Resource  Development,  Canmore 
Town,  and  private  developers.  These  groups  discussed 
mountain  pine  beetle  spread  and  control  strategies 
on  adjacent  land  bases. 

Assessment  and  Control  Operations 
(Beetle-Focused  Strategy) 

Public  Lands 


Provincial  Crown  Land 


Prevention 


Northwest  Alberta 


Under  the  Forest  Management  Directive  2006-06  that 
came  into  effect  on  November  28,  2006  prior 
ministerial  approval  is  needed  to  import  conifer  logs 
or  other  forest  products  with  attached  bark  into  the 
province.  This  directive  supersedes  previous 
ministerial  order  issued  on  March  24,  2005  under  the 
authority  of  Alberta  Forests  Act,  RSA  2000  c.  F-22 
prohibiting  transportation  of  pine  logs  or  pine 
products  with  bark  attached,  within  Alberta. 

Southern  Rockies  and  Clearwater  Areas 

The  Forest  Health  Officer  organized  two  local 
mountain  pine  beetle  control  task  groups  to  discuss 
beetle  spread  and  control.  The  Crowsnest  Task  Group 
was  composed  of  representatives  from  Sustainable 


Smoky  Area  (NW1) 

Ground  Surveys 

During  regular  ground  surveys  carried  out  between 
October  18-26,  2005,  crews  surveyed  165  sites  and 
detected  284  attacked  trees  at  126  sites.  Most  of 
these  trees  were  found  in  Kakwa  Wildland  Provincial 
Park  and  16  trees  were  found  on  Weyerhaeuser  Forest 
Management  Area;  the  green  to  red  ratio  was  0.84. 
Another  17  beetle-attacked  trees  were  detected 
during  control  operations  (Table  8).  In  addition,  the 
crews  detected  51  trees  with  lodgepole  pine  beetle; 

9 trees  with  Ips  beetle;  33  trees  with  other  damage 
agents  and  10  trees  with  pitched  out  mountain  pine 
beetle. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  29 


Pest  Management  Programs 


Table  8 

Results  of  the  ground  surveys  to  detect  mountain  pine  beetle-attacked  trees  on  forested  provincial  Crown  land 
in  Alberta,  September  2005  to  August  2006 


Location 

Type  of  Land 

No.  of  Attacked  Trees  Detected9 
During  Ground  Survey  During  Control 

SW1 

Bow  Valley 

Crown  Land 

336 

2 

Old  Man  River 

Crown  Land 

101 

1 

Crowsnest/Castle 

Crown  Land 

1116 

82 

Spray  Lakes 

Crown  Land 

868 

3 

Peter  Lougheed 

Provincial  Park 

17 

0 

SW3 

Willmore  Wilderness 

Provincial  Park 

10,722 

307 

NW1 

Kakwa  Wildland 

Provincial  Park 

284 

17 

Total 

13,444 

412 

SW  1 = Southern  Rockies;  SW2  = Clearwater;  SW3  = Foothills;  NW1  = Smoky 
a No.  includes  both  red  and  green  trees  detected 


Cut  and  Burn  Infested  Trees 

The  control  crews  cut  and  burned  295  infested  trees 
in  the  Smoky  Area. 

Southwest  Alberta 

Southern  Rockies  and  Clearwater  Areas 

2005/06  Ground  Surveys 

Ground  surveys  were  based  on  the  results  of  aerial 
overview  surveys.  Four  contractors  carried  out 
transect  and  concentric  surveys  to  detect  currently 
infested  trees. 

On  provincial  Crown  land  attacked  trees  were  found  in 
Bow  Valley,  Old  Man  River  drainage,  Crowsnest/Castle 
and  Spray  Lakes  areas  (Table  8). 

Spray  Lakes:  Between  November  1,  2005  to 
January  31,  2006  an  average  of  six  surveyors  carried 
out  transect  surveys  over  two  transect  areas  covering 


1600  hectares  at  the  south  end  of  the  Spray  Lakes 
Reservoir.  They  detected  638  trees  with  current 
attack  and  230  trees  with  old  attacks.  Another  three 
attacked  trees  were  detected  during  the  control 
operations. 

Bow  Valley:  Between  January  21  to  February  28, 

2006,  six  contracted  surveyors  carried  out  seven 
transect  surveys  covering  1200  hectares  in  Bow 
Valley.  Upon  detection  of  additional  red  trees, 
concentric  surveys  were  carried  out  over  Skogan's 
Pass  at  the  east  end  of  the  Bow  Valley  Provincial 
Park.  The  survey  crews  detected  225  current  attacks 
and  111  old  attacks.  Another  two  attacked  trees  were 
detected  during  the  control  operations. 

Oldman  River:  Between  January  3-14,  2006  a two- 
person  contract  crew  detected  101  attacked  trees. 
Another  attacked  tree  was  detected  during  the 
control  operations. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  30 


Pest  Management  Programs 


Peter  Lougheed  Park:  Seventeen  attacked  trees  were 
detected  in  Peter  Lougheed  Provincial  Park. 

In  Southern  Rockies  Area,  altogether  1405  sites  were 
surveyed;  2438  mountain  pine  beetle-infested  trees 
were  detected  at  1379  sites  during  regular  surveys; 
another  88  trees  were  detected  during  control 
operations  for  a total  of  2526  attacked  trees 
(Table  8). 

Foothills  Area 

2005/06  Ground  Surveys 

Seasonal  crews  made  up  of  Sustainable  Resource 
Development  staff  and  contractors  ground  surveyed 
Willmore  Wilderness  Park  and  the  Forest  Management 
Units  E8  and  E10  from  October  17,  2005  to  June  15, 
2006.  At  its  peak  21  persons  were  involved  in  these 
surveys.  These  crews  transect-surveyed  drainages  on 
the  north  side  of  Upper  Sheep  Creek,  Pauline  Creek, 
Beaverdam  Creek  and  Meadowland  Creek  where  attack 
incidence  was  high.  The  crews  concentric-surveyed 
other  areas  of  Sheep  Creek  drainage  and  drainages  of 
Jackpine  River,  Smoky  River  and  Fetherstonhaugh/ 
Muddywater  River  that  had  spotty  attacks. 

These  crews  surveyed  2667  sites  and  detected  10,722 
mountain  pine  beetle-attacked  trees  during  regular 
ground  surveys.  Another  307  attacked  trees  were 
detected  during  beetle  control  operations  bringing 
the  total  number  of  trees  attacked  to  11,029 
(Table  8). 

Cut  and  Burn  Infested  Trees 

The  number  of  beetle-attacked  trees  that  were 
controlled  during  the  control  operations  is  shown  in 
Table  9.  Under  the  control  program,  12,938  mountain 
pine  beetle-infested  trees  were  treated  at  4172  sites 
between  September  2005  and  August  2006.  The 
details  of  this  program  are  given  below. 


Foothills  Area 

In  Willmore  Wilderness  Park,  10,534  infested  trees 
were  treated  during  control  operations. 


Southern  Rockies  and 
Clearwater  Areas: 


Between 
January  15- 
March  30, 

2006, 

employees  of 
Sustainable 
Resource 
Development  cut 
and  burned  current 
mountain  pine  beetle-attacked  trees.  A level  two 
Incident  Command  Team  organized  the  cut  and  burn 
control  action  carried  out  by  about  30  personnel  and 
audited  the  control  action.  Altogether  2109  infested 
trees  were  treated  in  this  area  (Table  9). 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  31 


Pest  Management  Programs 


Table  9 

The  number  of  mountain  pine  beetle  -attacked  trees  cut  and  burned  during  control  operations  on  forested 
provincial  Crown  land  in  Alberta,  September  2005  to  August  2006 


Location 

Type  of  Land 

Number  of  Sites 

Number  of  Trees  Controlled 

SWl-2 

Bow  Valley 

Crown  Land 

247 

242 

Old  Man  River 

Crown  Land 

48 

92 

Crowsnest/Castle 

Crown  Land 

597 

1117 

Spray  Lakes 

Crown  Land 

470 

642 

Peter  Lougheed 

Provincial  Park 

17 

16 

SW3 

Willmore  Wilderness 

Provincial  Park 

2667 

10,534 

NW1 

Kakwa  Wildland 

Provincial  Park 

126 

295 

Total 

4,172 

12,938 

SW  1 = Southern  Rockies;  SW2  = Clearwater;  SW3  = Foothills;  NW1  = Smoky 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  32 


Invasive  plants  are  characteristically  adaptable  and 
aggressive  with  high  reproductive  capacity.  Their 
vigour  combined  with  lack  of  natural  enemies  often 
lead  to  outbreak  populations.  Invasive  plants  have 
the  ability  to  out-compete  native  and  other  desired 
vegetation.  These  plants  can  reduce  forage 
production,  impede  the  successful  reclamation  of 
disturbed  sites,  delay  forest  succession,  reduce  plant 
species  richness  and  alter  wildlife  habitat. 

Sustainable  Resource  Development's  goal  is  to 
minimize  social,  economic,  and  environmental  threats 
and  impacts  of  invasive  plant  species  to  Alberta's 
natural  forests,  rangeland  and  fish  and  wildlife 
resources. 

Piovincial 


In  2006,  most  of  the  Working  Group's  effort  was 
directed  toward  the  development  of  the  Invasive 
Alien  Species  (IAS)  Risk  Assessment  Tool.  The  first 
version  of  the  tool  was  completed  this  year  and  it 
was  subsequently  peer  reviewed.  Based  on  this 
feedback  the  development  of  the  tool  appears  to  be 
moving  in  the  right  direction.  Plans  for  2007  will 
include  further  refinements  of  the  tool  and  a peer 
review  workshop. 


Invasive  Alien  Species  Working  Group 

In  2006,  the  Interdepartmental  Invasive  Alien 
Species  Working  Group  (Working  Group),  established 
in  2005,  continued  to  work  under  the  direction  of  the 
Alberta  Biodiversity  Steering  Committee  to: 

a)  Coordinate,  align  and,  where  possible,  consolidate 
Government  of  Alberta  legislation,  policies, 
programs,  communications  and  partnerships 
towards  addressing  the  impacts  of  invasive  alien 
species. 

b)  Develop  a risk  management  framework  and 
assessment  tool  to  minimize  the  impacts  of 
Alberta's  current  and  potential  invasive  alien 
species. 

c)  Provide  advice  and  support  towards  the 
Government  of  Alberta's  implementation  of  the 
National  Invasive  Alien  Species  Strategy  and 
action  plans,  and  other  related  federal 
legislation,  policies,  and  programs. 


Education,  Awareness  and  Co-operative 
Initiatives 

One  significant  education  and  awareness  initiative 
completed  this  year  was  the  printing  of  invasive 
plant  awareness  signs.  Each  sign  measures 
approximately  60  cm  x 120  cm,  and  features  a suite 
of  three  invasive  plant  species  of  concern  to  a 
specific  area  in  Alberta.  The  sign  also  lists  a number 
of  tips  to  help  stop  the  spread  of  invasive  plants. 
Installation  of  the  signs  began  in  2006  and  will 
continue  in  the  spring  of  2007.  To  obtain  the  graphic 
template  of  the  sign  for  reproduction,  contact  the 
Forest  Health  Section  in  Edmonton. 

Sustainable  Resource  Development  also  continued  to 
contribute  to  the  initiatives  of  the  Alberta  Invasive 
Plants  Council  (AIPC).  In  September  2006,  the  AIPC 
hosted  North  American  Weed  Management  Association 
Conference  and  Trade  Show  in  Calgary.  A capacity 
crowd  of  240  registrants  enjoyed  presentations  by 
speakers  from  across  Canada  and  the  United  States. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  33 


Forest  Invasive  Alien  Plants 


Regional 

Northeast  Alberta 

Invasive  plants  continued  to  be  of  major  concern 
throughout  most  areas  in  Northeast  Alberta. 

Growing  conditions  were  excellent  throughout  the 
season  over  most  of  Northeast  Alberta.  Spring  arrived 
earlier  than  normal.  Many  invasive  plant  species  were 
flowering  by  early  June  and  the  majority  matured 
earlier  than  normal. 

The  Northeast  Invasive  Plant  Strategy  continued  to 
evolve  based  on  strategy  adopted  in  2001.  As  in  the 
previous  three  years,  the  ultimate  goals  in  2006  were 
to  reduce  invasive  plant  populations  and  restore 
healthy,  native  plant  communities. 

Education,  Awareness  and  Co-operative 
Initiatives 

Education  and  awareness  remained  the  top  priority  to 
bring  the  issue  of  invasive  plants  to  the  forefront. 
Whenever  opportunities  arose,  either  formal  or 
informal  sessions  were  conducted  where  information 
was  shared  and  publications  were  distributed. 

In  a Regional  Weed  Management  Working  Group 
session  conducted  in  Athabasca  information  was 
presented  dealing  with  both  current  and  potential 
noxious  weeds.  An  overview  of  the  2005  weed 
program  results  was  also  presented.  The  working 
groups  shared  information  and  promoted  cooperative 
weed  management.  Through  continued  effort  these 
groups  should  generate  more  interest  as  invasive 
species  awareness  increases  and  underlying  threat  of 
invasive  plants  becomes  apparent. 

When  Sustainable  Resource  Development  employees 
conduct  weed  inventories,  they  met  with  company 
field  workers  to  discuss  noxious  weeds  and  their 
control.  This  approach  was  positively  received  and 
allowed  to  develop  rapport  between  government  and 
industry.  According  to  various  resource  company 
employees,  this  technique  was  very  effective  at  the 
local  level.  This  same  approach  was  also  used  with 
persons  involved  in  recreational  activities  (campers. 


off-highway  vehicle 
operators, 
fishermen  etc.) 
to  increase 
knowledge  on 
weed  issues 
both  at  a 
local  and  a 
province-wide 
scale. 

All  inquiries  from  the 
public  were  handled 
appropriately  either  over  the  telephone  or  over  the 
counter.  The  staff  of  Sustainable  Resource 
Development  identified  samples  of  weed  species  as 
requested  by  residents  and  co-workers. 

One  weed  awareness  sign  was  erected  near  the  south 
gate  of  the  Cold  Lake  Air  Weapons  Range.  This  is  the 
first  of  20  signs  that  will  be  placed  at  strategic 
locations  in  2007. 

Surveys 

The  first  priority  was  to  survey  forested  Crown  lands 
that  are  not  currently  under  disposition.  There  was 
some  follow-up  surveying  on  previously  known 
infestations,  and  inventories  of  Crown  lands  not 
currently  held  under  disposition,  land  use 
dispositions,  and  timber  dispositions.  In  addition, 
emphasis  was  placed  on  conducting  inventories  on 
areas  where  tall  buttercup  was  known  to  thrive. 
Surveys  were  undertaken  along  some  lakeshores  in 
the  region,  within  the  Cold  Lake  Air  Weapons  Range 
and  the  Richardson  Backcountry. 

These  surveys  will  guide  the  future  control  programs 
and  help  to  facilitate  forthcoming  cooperative  weed 
control  ventures. 

Out  of  217  sites  inventoried  in  2006,  180  were 
located  within  the  Lac  La  Biche  Area  (NE1),  whereas 
37  were  within  the  Waterways  Area  (NE2).  Out  of  the 
sites  inventoried,  197  (91%)  had  noxious  weed 
infestations  (in  comparison  to  87%  in  2005,  62%  in 
2004,  72%  in  2003  and  62%  in  2002). 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  34 


Forest  Invasive  Alien  Plants 


Of  the  noxious  weeds  sites,  61%  had  trace,  13%  low, 
14%  moderate  and  12%  high  level  of  infestation. 
Corresponding  percentages  in  2005  were  48%,  28%, 
15%  and  9%  respectively. 


mainly  the  primary  and  secondary  highways  and 
access  roads  into  areas  used  by  a multitude  of  users. 

Control 


On  the  197  sites  with  weeds,  38  (19%)  had  multiple 
weed  species.  In  total,  230  species  reports  were 
recorded. 


Frequency  of  weed  species  inventoried,  in  order  from 
highest  to  lowest: 


• Tall  buttercup 

(< Ranunculus  acris)  28.3% 

• Perennial  sow  thistle 
{Sonchus  arvensis ) 24.3% 

• Scentless  chamomile 
{Matricaria  maritime!)  23.5 % 

• Canada  thistle 

(i Cirsium  arvense ) 11.7% 

• Common  tansy 

( Tanacetum  vulgare)  8.7% 

• Oxeye  daisy 

{Chrysanthemum  teucanthemum ) 2.2% 


• White  cockle 

{Lychnis  alba)  1.3% 


Regionally,  Canada 
thistle,  oxeye 
daisy  and  tall 
buttercup 
were  found  in 
the  southern 
part  (Lac  La 
Biche  Area)  of 
the  region 
where  the 
frequency  of  their 
occurrence  has  remained 
about  same  in  the  past  three  years. 


Perennial  sow  thistle  surveys  were  limited  to  main 
access  roads  even  though  it  was  present  throughout 
much  of  the  region.  These  access  roads  include 


At  45  locations  different  invasive  species  (primarily 
scentless  chamomile  but  including  common  tansy, 
oxeye  daisy,  tall  buttercup,  and  white  cockle)  were 
either  hand-picked  or  dug  out.  These  infestations 
were  controlled  regardless  of  the  disposition  holder. 
Three  larger  scentless  chamomile  infestations  (1000 
square  meters  or  more)  on  unoccupied  Crown  land 
were  hand-picked.  All  weeds  collected  by  the 
Sustainable  Resource  Development  staff  were  burned 
at  the  Athabasca  waste  transfer  site. 

Scentless  chamomile  was  handpicked  numerous  times 
at  the  Athabasca  Sustainable  Resource  Development 
warehouse  compound  but  eventually  these  invasive 
plants  were  controlled  by  spraying  a herbicide. 

Numerous  locations  where  the  disposition  holder  had 
been  verbally  notified  about  weed  inventory  in  2005 
were  rechecked  in  2006.  In  all  but  one  location 
control  measures  had  been  taken,  generally  with 
reasonable  success.  It  was  encouraging  to  see  that 
some  major  disposition  holders  were  developing  and 
implementing  more  pro-active  programs. 

Northwest  Alberta 

The  Inasive  Plant  Management  Program  in  Northwest 
Alberta  was  expanded  in  2006  to  include  a 
comprehensive  survey  of  the  Lesser  Slave  Area  in 
addition  to  Smoky,  Upper  Hay  and  Peace  areas.  The 
primary  objective  of  the  program  was  to  detect 
restricted  and  noxious  weeds  and  notify  stakeholders 
if  their  dispositions  contained  invasive  plants. 
Secondly,  the  program  focused  on  re-inspections  to 
ensure  stakeholder  compliance  to  weed  notifications 
from  the  previous  year. 

Education,  Awareness  and  Co-operative 
Initiatives 

Several  invasive  plant  identification  and  control 
courses  were  held  throughout  the  Peace  Area  in  the 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  35 


Forest  Invasive  Alien  Plants 


spring  of  2006.  Every  invasive  plant  surveyor  hired  by 
Sustainable  Resource  Development  attended  at  least 
one  of  these  courses.  At  the  beginning  of  the  field 
season  these  surveyors  were  briefed  about  the 
season's  goals  and  direction  by  the  Forest  Health 
Officer  and  the  Technician.  To  increase  public 
awareness  Smoky,  Upper  Hay  and  Peace  areas  posted 
invasive  plant  awareness  signs  at  various  high  traffic 
points. 

Surveys  and  Control 

From  mid-June  until  the  end  of  August,  within  each 
Area,  one  or  more  seasonal  staff  members  conducted 
invasive  plant  surveys. 

Within  the  Slave  Lake  Area  160  sites  were  surveyed. 
The  most  prevalent  species  was  perennial  sow  thistle 
found  on  137  (86%)  sites,  followed  closely  by  Canada 
thistle  on  122  (76%)  sites.  Other  species  found 
included  scentless  chamomile  and  cleavers.  Multiple 
species  were  found  on  119  (74%)  sites,  and  10  (6%) 
sites  did  not  contain  any  invasive  plants. 

Within  the  Smoky  Area  270  sites  were  surveyed,  of 
which  70  were  re-inspections;  184  (68%)  of  these 
sites  were  clean.  Canada  thistle  and  scentless 
chamomile  were  the  most  prevalent  species  found. 

The  surveyors  also  found  few  perennial  sow-thistle, 
common  tansy,  toadflax,  tall  buttercup  and  oxeye 
daisy.  Of  the  86  sites  with  weeds  50  were  treated  in 
the  current  season.  Weeds  were  hand-picked  at  19 
sites  that  had  less  than  5 plants.  Sustainable 
Resource  Development  was  responsible  for  rive  sites 
and  stakeholders  were  responsible  for  12  sites. 

Companies  in  the  Smoky  Area  comply  on  average  93% 
of  the  time  to  first  time  inspections.  Communications 
between  the  invasive  plant  surveyor,  stakeholders  and 
Municipal  Districts  were  among  the  best  in  the  Peace 
Area.  This  Area  also  successfully  managed  three 
spraying  contracts,  including  one  on  a Sustainable 
Resource  Development  gravel  pit  and  another  on  a 
revoked  grazing  lease. 


Within  the  Upper  Hay 
Area,  494  site: 
were  surveyed 
of  which  127 
were  re- 
inspections 
and  92  (20%) 
were  clean. 

The  most 
prevalent 
was  perennial 
thistle,  which 
abundant  at  over  half  the  sites  surveyed.  Other 
species  found  included  scentless  chamomile,  Canada 
thistle,  common  tansy  and  common  toadflax. 
Company  response  to  inspection  was  very  mixed  in 
this  area,  which  may  be  due  in  part  to  the  rate  at 
which  dispositions  change  hands  and  the  level  of 
enforcement. 

A biological  control  study  was  initiated  in  the  Upper 
Hay  and  Peace  areas  to  study  the  northern  survival 
and  effectiveness  of  two  potential  control  agents  on 
scentless  chamomile.  Scentless  chamomile  gall 
midges  were  released  in  mid-August  at  four  different 
locations  with  an  abundance  of  flowering  scentless 
chamomile  plants:  a site  off  Hwy  58  near  Chinchaga 
River;  a Lease  of  Occupation  (LOC)  south  of  Rainbow 
Lake;  a Mineral  Surface  Lease  (MSL)  in  Seal  Lake  and 
a private  farm  near  Keg  River.  In  mid-September 
scentless  chamomile  weevils  were  released  in  the 
same  areas.  These  insects  are  expected  to  reduce 
scentless  chamomile  growth  and  seed  dispersal  in 
following  years.  Sustainable  Resource  Development 
will  monitor  dispersal  and  survival  of  these  insects. 

Within  the  Peace  Area,  Forest  Officers  also 
participated  in  some  surveys  and  completed  re- 
inspections. Most  of  the  initial  inspections  focused 
on  the  Municipal  District  of  Clear  Hills  and  Seal  Lake. 
Altogether  271  sites  were  surveyed,  of  which  110 
were  re-inspections  and  110  (41%)  were  clean.  The 
most  prevalent  species  was  perennial  sow-thistle, 
followed  by  Canada  thistle  and  scentless  chamomile. 
Common  tansy  was  found  at  one  location. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  36 


Forest  Invasive  Alien  Plants 


Municipality  involvement  with  invasive  plant  surveys 
in  the  green  zone  of  the  Peace  Area  was  quite  strong. 
In  Northern  Sunrise  County,  approximately  75%  of  all 
sites  surveyed  by  the  county  were  clean.  Many  clean 
sites  were  also  found  in  the  Municipal  District  of 
Northern  Lights  although  complete  survey  details  are 
still  unavailable.  Staff  shortages  in  the  Municipal 
District  of  Clear  Hills  restricted  survey  activity  in 
2006,  but  they  work  with  Sustainable  Resource 
Development  to  ensure  that  an  effective  program  will 
be  in  place  in  2007. 

Southwest  Alberta 

Southern  Rockies  and  Clearwater  Areas 

A very  warm  growing  season  accompanied  by  regular 
rainfalls  created  optimum  germination  and  growing 
conditions  in  2006.  Some  infestations  previously 
believed  to  be  nearly  controlled  re-established  in 
2006. 

Education,  Awareness  and  Co-operative 
Initiatives 

Fifteen  invasive  plant  signs  were  erected  at 
recreational  staging  areas  in  2006.  Other  invasive 
plant  managing  agencies  were  very  impressed  with 
the  signs  and  some  have  purchased  signs  for  their 
areas. 

Co-operative  weed  management  continues  to  be  the 
first  priority  in  the  Clearwater  and  Southern  Rockies 
areas  where  leaseholder  participation  has  been  high. 
The  Rig  Street  Co-operative  west  of  Sundre  expanded 
eastward  this  year  with  control  work  completed  over 
a very  large  area.  Spray  Lake  Sawmills  co-operatively 
managed  weeds  in  the  Boggy  Lake  area  together  with 
a grazing  lease  holder  and  Fortis.  The  Municipal 
District  of  Ranchland,  which  does  the  control  work 
within  their  district  by  way  of  a Memorandum  of 
Understanding  with  Sustainable  Resource 
Development,  achieved  some  co-operative  control 
work  with  other  leaseholders  in  the  south. 


Surveys  and  Control 

New  infestations  of  wild  caraway  continue  to  pop  up 
along  the  east  slopes.  A common  pathway  for  this 
plant  is  hay  brought  in  by  backcountry  horseback 
riders.  A number  of  riders  were  approached  at  staging 
areas  to  discuss  this  issue.  Many  were  aware  of  the 
problems  caused  by  'dirty'  hay  and  had  brought  in 
processed  feeds. 

The  field  scabious  infestation  of  the  Jumping 
Pound/Sibbald  area  looked  worse  in  some  spots  and 
better  in  others  compared  to  2005  infestation.  For 
the  past  few  years  Tordon  and  Transline  have  been 
used  exclusively,  but  this  season  a 2,4-D/Banvel  mix 
and  the  new  herbicide  Milestone  were  tried  out.  The 
2,4-D/Banvel  mix  seemed  to  work  well  on  rosettes 
but  not  as  well  on  the  bolting  plants.  The  plants 
treated  with  Milestone  curled  and  finished  blooming, 
but  it  is  hoped  that  the  seeds  will  not  be  viable. 
Efficacy  of  these  two  treatments  will  be  determined 
next  season. 

Blueweed,  common  toadflax,  oxeye  daisy  and  tall 
buttercup  infestations  were  widespread  in  the 
Crowsnest  Pass.  These  weeds  were  found  infesting 
nearly  any  spot  without  trees,  regardless  of  how  little 
traffic  occurred  in  the  area. 

Weed  containment  continued  to  be  the  focus  in  the 
Castle  area.  Oxeye  daisy,  blueweed  and  common 
toadflax  were  widespread  throughout  this  multiple 
use  area.  The  fire  guards  of  the  Lost  Creek  Fire  have 
become  the  southern  control  boundary  of  this 
containment.  While 
many  of  these 
guards  have 
become 
infested, 
others  are 
well 

vegetated 
are  free  of 
weeds. 


Forest  Heatth  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  37 


Forest  Invasive  Alien  Plants 


Weed  control  in  the  Beaver  Creek  area  of  the 
southern  Porcupine  Hills  continued  to  improve.  The 
hound's  tongue  population  was  slowly  decreasing 
along  with  other  weeds  in  the  area.  However,  many 
new  hound's  tongue  sites  appeared  farther  north  and 
this  plant  is  also  creeping  into  the  north  side  of  the 
Pass  via  infested  grazing  leases.  Removing  the  seed 
stalks  has  proven  to  be  an  effective  method  to 
control  this  weed. 

Foothills  Area 

The  goal  of  2006  Foothills  Invasive  Plants  Program 
was  to  control  the  spread  of  noxious  and  restricted 
weeds  in  the  green  zone. 

Education,  Awareness  and  Co-operative 
Initiatives 

A number  of  invasive  plant  information  signs  were 
put  up  at  information  kiosks  at  the  heads  of  multi- 
use trails.  These  trails  experience  heavy  horse  and  All 
Terrain  Vehicle  traffic.  The  remainder  of  these  signs 
will  be  installed  in  the  spring  of  2007. 

Invasive  plant  pamphlets  were  distributed  to  the 
public  by  office  and  field  staff  in  the  Foothills  Area. 
Pamphlet  boxes  at  Whitehorse  Creek,  Berland  River 
Recreation  Area,  Rock  Lake  Staging  Area,  Sulphur 
Gates  and  Emerald  Lake  were  also  stocked. 

A well  received  invasive  plant  presentation  was 
delivered  to  Talisman  Energy  Inc.  construction 
consultants. 

Surveys  and  Control 

In  total  27  sites  were  inspected  in  the  2006  season. 
Most  of  these  inspections  were  in  the  vicinity  of 
Highway  40  south. 

Five  infestation  notification  letters  were  sent  out  to 
disposition  holders  in  2006.  These  letters  notified 
stakeholders  of  the  infestation  and  asked  them  to 
take  control  actions  in  a timely  manner. 

Peppers  Lake,  Old  Rehn  Mill,  Gregg  Cabin  and  the 
Entwistle  Gravel  Pit  sites  in  the  Foothills  Area  were 
treated  with  herbicide  to  control  invasive  plants. 


Woodlands 

The  Woodlands 
Area  invasive 
plant  program 
began  in  June 
and  was 
completed  in 
late  August, 

2006.  The  bulk 
of  the  program 
was  involved 

inventorying  noxious  weed 
sites  and  contacting  land  occupants  for  notices  to 
control. 

Education,  Awareness  and  Co-operative 
Initiatives 

Co-operative  control  initiatives  were  undertaken 
either  by  Burlington  Resources  or  ConocoPhillips  and 
Millar  Western  Forest  Products.  Companies  appeared 
more  willing  to  conduct  control  action  if  their 
neighbours  were  controlling  weeds  as  well. 

Sustainable  Resource  Development  facilitated  this  co- 
operation by  providing,  with  permission,  the 
locations  that  were  sprayed. 

Surveys  and  Control 

The  focus  of  weed  monitoring  and  inventory  in  the 
Woodlands  Area  was  on  dispositions  held  by  the  oil 
and  gas  and  forestry  industries.  Weed  inspections 
were  conducted  in  conjunction  with  operational 
inspections  on  various  types  of  dispositions.  Sixty 
sites  were  inspected.  If  weeds  were  found,  the 
disposition  holders  were  contacted. 

There  was  a large  infestation  of  scentless  chamomile 
in  the  Chickadee/Baseline  Lake  area  and  some  tall 
buttercup  infestations  in  the  Groat  Creek  area. 
Common  tansy  and  Canada  thistle  were  also 
discovered  on  two  islands  in  the  Athabasca  River.  In 
July  2006,  the  Junior  Forest  Rangers  picked  56  large 
garbage  bags  of  weeds  on  the  larger  island  in  one 
day.  In  addition,  the  Junior  Forest  Rangers  picked 
and  bagged  all  the  Canada  thistle  in  the  Arboretum 
of  the  Huestis  Demonstration  Forest. 

Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  38 


Spruce  Budworm 

Multi-Pher  I®  traps  (Le  Group  Biocontrole,  Quebec) 
baited  with  female  budworm  sex  pheromone  lures 
(Phero  Tech  Inc.,  British  Columbia)  were  used  to 
monitor  male  spruce  budworm  moth  populations  in 
high  budworm-risk  forest  stands.  The  average  count 
of  male  moths  was  used  to  predict  the  potential  risk 
of  new  spruce  budworm  outbreaks  occurring  in  these 
stands  in  2007.  These  procedures  are  described  in  the 
"Spruce  budworm  Management  Guide"  (Ranasinghe 
and  Kominek,  1998). 

Figure  13  shows  the  provincial  outlook  on  risk  of  new 
outbreaks  occurring  in  2007.  A detailed  analysis  of 
the  data  is  given  below. 

Northeast  Alberta 

The  results  of  the  survey  are  summarized  in  Table  10. 


Figure  13 

A Moderate 

TnkPeter  Ik 

lugheep  l 

?p 

Forecast  on  the  risk  of  new  spruce  budworm 
outbreaks  occurring  in  2007,  based  on  the 
number  of  male  moths  captured  in  pheromone- 
baited  traps  in  Alberta  in  2006. 

O Low 

0 50  100  200 

1  1 1 

i V 

kesfS 

Kilometres 

'jP  National  Pc 

irk  i 

Pheromone  Survey 
Survey  Rating 


Montana  (USA) 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  39 


Forecast  in  2007 


Table  10 

Summary  results  of  the  spruce  budworm  male  moth  surveys  carried  out  by  using  pheromone-baited  traps  in 
northeastern  Alberta,  2006 

Area  Risk  of  New  Outbreaks  Occurring  in  2007 

Low  Moderate  High 


Plots 

Moths/trap 

Plots 

Moths/trap 

Plots 

Moths/trap 

Lac  La  Biche 

12  (44%) 

55-467 

13  (48%) 

614-1517 

2 (7%) 

2871-3343 

Waterways 

3 (14%) 

130-316 

8 (36%) 

527-1875 

11  (50%) 

2047-6127 

In  the  Lac  La  Biche  Area  (NE1),  28  plots  were  established;  one  plot  was  inactive.  The  overall  risk  of  new  spruce 
budworm  outbreaks  occurring  in  2007  is  low  to  moderate  in  this  area. 

In  the  Waterways  Area  (NE2),  the  overall  risk  of  new  outbreaks  occurring  in  2007  still  remains  moderate  to 
high.  Aerially  visible  defoliation  is  likely  to  occur  in  the  near  future  at  four  plot  locations  where  the  average 
trap  catches  exceeded  4000  moths  per  trap. 


□ 2006  □ 2007 


Figure  14 

Comparison  of  2006  vs.  2007  forecasts  on  the  risk  of  new  spruce  budworm  outbreaks  occurring 
in  northeastern  Alberta. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  40 


Forecast  in  2007 


Northwest  Alberta 

In  this  region,  128  pheromone-baited  plots  were 
established  in  2006  in  co-operation  with  Tolko 
Industries-High  Level  (50  plots)  and  Manning 
Diversified  Forest  Products  (11  plots).  Two  out  of  the 
128  plots  were  inactive. 


The  results  of  this  survey  are  shown  in  Figure  13  and 
Table  11.  The  overall  risk  of  new  outbreaks  occurring 
in  this  region  in  2007  is  low.  The  risk  of  new 
outbreaks  occurring  was  low  in  98  (78%)  plots, 
moderate  in  27  (21%)  plots  and  high  in  1 (1%)  plot. 
The  breakdown  of  the  number  of  plots  in  each  risk 
category  in  the  Smoky,  Lesser  Slave,  Peace  and  the 
Upper  Hay  areas  is  shown  in  Table  11. 


Table  11 

Summary  results  of  the  spruce  budworm  male  moth  surveys  carried  out  by  using  pheromone-baited  traps  in 
northwestern  Alberta,  2006 


Area 

Risk  of  New  Outbreaks  Occurring  in  2007 

Low 

Plots 

Moths/trap 

Moderate 

Plots  Moths/trap 

High 

Plots  Moths/trap 

Smoky 

8 (89%) 

4-379 

1 (11%) 

620 

0 

0 

Lesser  Slave 

8 (80%) 

58-457 

2 (20%) 

811-826 

0 

0 

Peace 

20  (100%) 

13-326 

0 

0 

0 

0 

Upper  Hay 

62  (71%) 

15-475 

24  (28%) 

515-1891 

1 (1%) 

2534 

Southwest  Alberta 


Thirty  plots  with  pheromone-baited  traps  were  set  up 
as  follows  in  this  region  in  2006:  Southern  Rockies 
Area  (8);  Clearwater  Area  (6);  Foothills  Area  (11)  and 
Woodlands  Area  (5).  The  trap  catches  in  this  region 
are  shown  in  Figure  13  and  in  Table  12.  As  predicted, 
there  were  relatively  high  trap  catches  in  some  plots 
in  this  region  in  2006.  The  risk  of  an  outbreak 
occurring  in  2007  is  low  because  most  of  these  plots 
with  high  catches  are  infested  with  the  two-year 
cycle  spruce  budworm,  C.  biennis  Free.  High  trap 
catches  of  two-year  cycle  budworm  are  expected  in 
even  years  and  low  trap  catches  are  expected  in  odd 
years.  Thus,  low  budworm  numbers  resulting  in  low 
risk  of  new  outbreaks  are  expected  in  2007.  The  risk 
of  new  outbreaks  occurring  in  2008  is  moderate  to 
high  in  one  plot  located  in  the  Clearwater  Area. 


This  plot  had  almost  3000  moths  per  trap  (Table  12) 
Outbreak  risk  is  low-moderate  in  the  Southern 
Rockies  and  Foothills  areas;  risk  is  nil-low  in  the 
Woodlands  Area. 


Page  41 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Forecast  in  2007 


Table  12 

Summary  results  of  the  spruce  budworm  male  moth  surveys  carried  out  by  using  pheromone-baited  traps  in 
southwestern  Alberta,  2006 

Area  Risk  of  New  Outbreaks  Occurring  in  2007 


Nil/Low 

Plots  Moths/trap 

Moderate 

Plots  Moths/trap 

High 

Plots 

Moths/trap 

Southern  Rockies 

3 (38%) 

91-449 

5 (63%) 

563-1250 

0 

0 

Clearwater 

2 (33%) 

204-213 

3 (50%) 

525-771 

1 (17%) 

2764 

Foothills 

8 (73%) 

26-391 

3 (27%) 

621-1194 

0 

0 

Woodlands 

1 (20%) 

0 

4 (80%) 

66-121 

0 

0 

Mountain  Pine  Beetle 

Public  Lands 

Provincial  Crown  Land 

2006  Surveys  Carried  Out  by  Using  Pheromone 
Baits  to  Detect  Mountain  Pine  Beetle 
Incidence 

Prior  to  the  mountain  pine  beetle  flight  in  2006, 
ground  plots  were  established  to  detect  presence  of 
beetles  in  un-infested,  high-risk  lodgepole  pine 
stands.  Each  of  three  mature  lodgepole  pines  per  plot 
was  baited  with  a two-component  aggregation 
pheromone  bait  (Phero  Tech  Inc.,  British  Columbia). 

The  results  of  this  survey  are  shown  in  Table  13. 

Table  13 

Mountain  pine  beetle  attacks  in  pheromone-baited  plots  in  Alberta,  2006 


Area 

No.  of  plots 
Total  Attacked 

Attacks/tree 

Spill-over  attacks11 

Smoky 

17 

17 

1-150 

0 

Southern  Rockies 

10 

7 

1-15 

1 

Clearwater 

6 

2 

2-69 

0 

Foothills 

87 

16 

1-45 

0 

11  Number  of  attacked  trees  located  outside  of  the  monitoring  plot. 


Except  in 
Smoky  Area,  the 
attack  levels  were 
relatively  low.  Based  on 
these  results  more  widespread  beetle  attacks  could 
have  been  expected  in  the  Smoky  Area  in  2007. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  42 


Forecast  in  2007 


In  the  summer  of  2006  there 
was  a huge  influx  of  mountain 
pine  beetles  from  British 
Columbia  into  northern  Alberta. 
These  beetles  got  scattered  over 
a wide  area  extending  from  the 
British  Columbia-Alberta  border 
to  as  far  east  as  Slave  Lake  and 
as  far  north  as  Rainbow  Lake 
(Figure  15).  This  will  result  in  a 
huge  increase  in  the  number  of 
faders  in  these  areas  in  2007. 

This  is  the  first  time  mountain 
pine  beetle  has  ever  attacked 
pines  in  most  of  this  part  of  the 
province.  This  will  make 
detection  of  green  attack 
difficult  in  2007  winter  through 
spring  because  faders  will  not 
appear  till  2007  summer.  The 
mountain  pine  beetle  numbers, 
especially  along  the  fringe  of 
this  attack,  are  forecasted  to  be 
low  thus  resulting  in  many  strip 
attacks.  This  will  pose  an 
additional  challenge  in  detecting 
these  new  attacks.  Combined 
with  the  availability  of 
susceptible  hosts  and  continued 
beetle  pressure  from  adjoining 
areas  on  the  British  Columbia 
side  of  the  border,  more  new 
mountain  pine  beetle 
infestations  are  expected  to 
occur  in  2007  in  southern 
Alberta. 


fM  ■ . ■ '£  ' ’ ^ 


Aerial  Survey  2006 


Montana  (USA) 


Individual  red  trees 
(MPB  to  be  confirmed) 


Note:  Jasper  National  Park  aerial  survey  data  supplied  by 
Parks  Canada.  British  Columbia  aerial  survey  data  supplied 
by  BC  Ministry  of  Forests  and  Range 


Estimated  MPB  Flight  Line 


05  25  0 100  150  200 

Kilometres 


Figure  15 

Preliminary  estimates  of  the  extent  of  infestation  following  a huge 
mountain  pine  beetle  influx  into  northern  Alberta  in  the  summer  of  2006 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  43 


Aspen  Defoliators 


Aspen  Defoliators 

Forest  Tent  Caterpillar 

Forest  tent  caterpillar  moth  populations  in 
northwestern  Alberta  were  monitored  by  using 
Unitraps®  baited  with  pheromone  lures  (Phero  Tech 
Inc.,  British  Columbia).  The  annual  mean  trap  catches 
in  monitoring  plots  during  the  past  seven  years  are 
shown  in  Figure  16.  These  results  indicate  an  upward 
trend  in  male  moth  catches  during  the  past  three 
years  corresponding  to  the  increase  in  the  extent  of 
forest  tent  caterpillar  defoliated  area.  This  increasing 


trend,  however,  was  not  apparent  in  the  years 
preceding  the  onset  of  current  outbreak  in  2004;  in 
fact,  there  was  a declining  trend  of  trap  catches  in 
the  preceding  years  (Figure  16).  In  2006,  there  was 
some  reduction  in  the  intensity  of  forest  tent 
caterpillar  defoliation  in  northwestern  Alberta.  This 
may  indicate  action  by  the  natural  enemies  of  this 
pest.  If  this  trend  continues  further  reduction  in 
defoliation  can  be  expected  in  2007.  Flowever,  the 
forest  tent  caterpillar  infestations  are  expected  to 
increase  in  extent  and  intensity  in  northeastern 
Alberta  in  2007. 


1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006 


Year 

Figure  16 

Forest  tent  caterpillar  male  moth  catches  in  pheromone-baited  traps  deployed  in  northwestern 
Alberta,  1999-2006 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  44 


Exotic  Pests 

Gypsy  Moth 

The  Forestry  Division  of  the  Sustainable  Resource 
Development  set  up  74  traps  scattered  over  the 
forested  Crown  land  of  the  province  as  a part  of  the 
annual  survey  conducted  by  the  Canadian  Food 
Inspection  Agency  (CFIA).  Delta  traps  baited  with 
Dispalure®  were  used  for  this  survey.  No  gypsy  moths 
were  found  in  these  traps.  Therefore  there  is  no  risk 
of  gypsy  moth  incidence  at  these  74  trap  locations  in 
2007. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  46 


Provincial 

Provincial  Integrated  Forest  Pest 
Management  Forum 


The  tenth  annual  Integrated  Forest  Pest  Management 
Forum  was  held  on  November  7,  2006  at  the  Northern 
Forestry  Centre,  Canadian  Forest  Service,  Natural 
Resources  Canada  in  Edmonton.  The  proceedings 
included  updates  of  forest  pest  conditions  and  forest 
health  research  in  the  province.  Dr.  Lorraine 
Maclauchlan,  Forest  Entomologist,  British  Columbia 
Forest  Service,  Southern  Interior  Region,  Kamloops, 
British  Columbia  delivered  the  keynote  address 
entitled  "Pleading  East:  Tales  of  Flow  the  West  Was 
Won  - Insight  from  British  Columbia  on  the  changing 
dynamics,  impacts  and  management  challenges  posed 
by  the  mountain  pine  beetle."  The  proceedings  of 
this  forum  are  posted  on  the  website  at: 
www.srd.gov.ab.ca/forests/health/cooperators/ 
pestmanagement 

Forest  Health  Web  Site 


14th  Annual  Alberta/ British  Columbia 
Intermountain  Forest  Health  Workshop 

Parks  Canada  hosted  this  annual  workshop  held  on 
April  19-21,  2006  at  Radium  Plot  Springs  in  British 
Columbia.  The  objective  of  this  workshop  was  to 
provide  a forum  for  provincial  and  federal  agencies 
involved  in  forestry  and  industry  to  share  and  discuss 
primary  forest  health  monitoring,  research, 
management  initiatives  and/or  issues  of  concern 
along  the  Alberta/British  Columbia  border.  Topics 
included  insect  and  disease  concerns  as  well  as  those 
of  invasive  plants.  The  proceedings  of  this  workshop 
are  available  at  the  website: 
http://abbc.cricketworks.com 


The  internal  and  external  forest  health  web  sites  were 
regularly  updated.  The  updates  included  forest  health 
conditions  and  maps;  Bugs  and  Diseases  newsletter; 
annual  report;  Integrated  Forest  Pest  Management 
Forum  proceedings  and  forest  health  survey  data.  In 
addition  to  the  regular  updates,  the  Ministerial  Order 
prohibiting  importation  of  pine  with  bark,  news 
releases,  updates  on  mountain  pine  beetle  operations 
in  Willmore  Wilderness  Park  and  Bow  Valley  were 
included.  Legislation  and  info  sheets  on  invasive 
plants,  and  guidelines  on  pesticide,  bark  beetle 
pheromone  and  biological  control  use  also  were 
posted  on  this  website.  The  external  web  site  address 
is:  www.srd.gov.ab.ca/forests/health/default 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  47 


In  2006,  Alberta  Sustainable  Resource  Development 
supported  a number  of  mountain  pine  beetle-related 
research  projects.  These  included  preparing  a 
synopsis  of  research  that  has  been  conducted,  is 
ongoing  or  planned  on  the  impact  of  the  mountain 
pine  beetle  on  caribou;  an  ongoing  two-year  study 
to  find  potential  overwintering  survival  of  beetle  life 
stages  in  wood  waste  generated  in  processing  of 
infested  wood,  and  the  use  of  composting  in 
controlling  these  life  stages;  feasibility  of  using  snow 
cache  to  extend  the  deck  life  of  beetle-infested 
wood;  use  of  synoptic  weather  monitoring,  aerial 
sampling,  radar  and  sodar  measurements  to  track 
long-distance  beetle  dispersal;  and,  impact  of 
mountain  pine  beetle  outbreaks  and  application  of 
beetle  mitigating  tactics  on  grizzly  bears. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  48 


Anon.  2005.  Mountain  pine  beetle  management 
guide.  Alberta  Sustainable  Resource  Development, 
Public  Lands  and  Forests  Division,  Forest  Management 
Branch,  Forest  Health  Section,  Edmonton  AB.  Pub. 

No.  T/062. 


Jenkins,  M.  and  Wartenbe,  M.  2006.  Summary  of 
observations  on  urban  forest  pests  in  Edmonton, 
2006.  Unpublished  report.  Community  Services,  City 
of  Edmonton,  AB. 

Ranasinghe,  S.K.  and  Kominek,  C.  1998.  Spruce 
budworm  management  guide.  A revisable  manual. 
Alberta  Environmental  Protection,  Forest  Health 
Branch,  Edmonton,  AB. 

Ranasinghe,  S.K.  and  Kominek,  C.  1999.  Forest 
health  aerial  survey  manual.  A revisable  manual. 
Alberta  Environment,  Forest  Health  Branch, 
Edmonton,  AB. 

Weekes,  L.  2006.  Forest  health  summary  report  for 
Cypress  Hills  Inter-Provincial  Park,  Unpublished 
report. 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  49 


Appendix  I 

Forest  Areas  of  Alberta, 
December  2006 


SRD  Area  Boundaries 
SRD  Provincial  Headquarters  "At 
SRD  Area  Headquarters  Q 

Services  Available: 

Fish  and  Wildlife  # 

Lands 

Forestry  # 

Produced  by  Resource  Information  Management  Branch,  Finance  & Administration 
Base  Map  Data  Provided  by  Spatial  Data  Warehouse  Ltd. 

January  12,  2007 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Appendices 


Appendix  II 

INFORMATION  ON  OPERATIONAL  USE  OF  PHEROMONES  IN  ALRERTA,  2006 

FOREST  TENT  CATERPILLAR 


Chemical  component(s): 
Lure  type: 

Trap  type: 

Pheromone  source: 

GYPSY  MOTH 
Chemical  component(s): 
Lure  type: 

Trap: 

Pheromone  source: 

MOUNTAIN  PINE  BEETLE 
Chemical  component(s): 
Lure  type: 

Trap: 

Pheromone  source: 

SPRUCE  BUDWORM 
Chemical  component(s): 
Lure  type: 

Trap  type: 

Pheromone  source: 


Z5,  E7  - dodecadienal 
Flexlure® 

Uni-trap® 

Phero  Tech  Inc.,  Delta,  British  Columbia 


(+)cis-7,  8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane 
Disparlure® 

Delta  sticky  trap 

Trece  Inc.,  Salinas,  California  (purchased  and  distributed  by 
Canadian  Food  Inspection  Agency) 

trans-verbenol,  exo-brevicomin 
Pre-packed  tree-bait 
not  applicable 

Phero  Tech  Inc.,  Delta,  British  Columbia 


95%  E-ll-tetradecenal,  5%  Z-ll-tetradecenal 
Plastic  lure 
Multi-Pher  I® 

Phero  Tech  Inc.,  Delta,  British  Columbia 


Forest  Health  Annual  Report  2006 


Page  51 


Appendices 


Appendix  III 

Names  of  Invasive  Plant  Species  that  Commonly  Occurred  in  2006  on  forested  Crown  land  in 
Alberta 

Common  Name  Scientific  Name 

Bull  thistle Cirsium  vulgare  (Savi.)  Ten. 

Canada  thistle Cirsium  arvense  (L.)  Scop. 

Common  tansy Tanacetum  vulgare  L. 

Toadflax Linaria  vulgaris  Hill. 

Field  scabious Knautia  arvensis  (L.)  Duby 

Hound's  tongue Cynoglossum  officinale  L. 

Nodding  thistle Carduus  nutans  L. 

Orange  hawkweed Hieracium  aurantiacum  (L.) 

Oxeye  daisy Chrysanthemum  leucanthemum  L. 

Perennial  sow  thistle Sonchus  arvensis  L. 

Scentless  chamomile Matricaria  perforata  Merat. 

Tall  buttercup Ranunculus  acris  L. 

White  cockle Silene  alba  (Mill.)  E.  H.  L.  Krause 

Wild  caraway Carum  carvi  L. 


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