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Antique furniture in Suffield, Con 




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Antique Furniture 

IN SUFFIELD- CONNECTICUT 

1670-1835 






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Antique 
Furniture 

IN SUFFIELD 

CONNECTICUT 

167O-1835 



By CHARLES S. <BISSELL 



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PUBLISHED BY 

The Connecticut Historical Society and 
The Nuffield Historical Society 

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COPYRIGHT I956 BY THE CONNECTICUT HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



CONTENTS 



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Frontispiece vi 

INTRODUCTION i 



EARLY SUFFIELD 5 

FINE HOUSES — FINE FURNITURE 8 

SUFFIELD FURNITURE AND THE CABINETMAKERS 1 1 

"PILGRIM" TYPE FURNITURE AND ITS MAKERS 14 

FURNITURE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 18 

OTHER CARPENTERS AND JOINERS- 
PRIOR TO JOHN FITCH PARSONS 23 

JOHN FITCH PARSONS — CABINETMAKER 31 

CAPTAIN GEORGE NORTON AND HIS FAMILY 34 

JOSEPH PEASE — WITH EXCERPTS FROM HIS RECORDS 41 

RELATIVE PRICES 48 

NOTES ON THE PLATES 51 

THE PLATES 57 

APPENDIX 113 

Plates No. 56-60 114 

Excerpts from John Fitch Parsons' Account Book 119 

"The Pool" 123 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 125 

INDEX 126 



[ ix ] 



Introduction 






$$>##### NUMBER of years ago it occurred to me that it might 
U be added protection, insurancewise, if I were to pho- 
tograph some of the pieces of antique furniture we 
<& had in our home. At least, it might save a lot of argu- 
&<&<&<&<%><&<& ment with the insurance adjuster in case of loss for 
one reason or another. Such losses can and do happen. 

The house was upset for days with cameras and floodlights, but 
the net result was worth all the trouble because I then had a record, 
in both black and white and color slides, which could be filed away 
in a safe place. 

Things have a way of going beyond the original bounds, and that 
is what happened in this case. It seemed foolish not to expand the 
project to include other desirable antiques owned in Suffield so that 
there would be a record of those pieces as well, and also to record 
as much information about each piece as could be found, particularly 
as to family ownership and the cabinetmaker. The project was to be 
confined to just those items which have come down from one genera- 
tion to another in Suffield families. 

At the beginning, there was some question in my mind as to how 
my fellow townspeople would receive the idea of having their family 
heirlooms photographed, but all seemed very much interested and 
gave us complete cooperation. They have been wonderful and I 
appreciate it. 

Sources for research included not only all the many account 
books, diaries and journals but also the long lists of estate inventories, 
wills and land records. It was only by means of these records that we 
have been able to compile the rather formidable list of furniture- 

[ i J 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



makers in Suffield from 1670 through the period of our best known 
cabinetmaker of the early 1800's — John Fitch Parsons. 

Something should be said about a few of the items found within 
the bounds of our town which shed light on early life in this vicinity. 

Back in the dark ages, prehistoric animals roamed through 
Suffield, as they did through much of the Connecticut valley. A few 
years ago, it occurred to me that I should like to own a prehistoric 
animal track like those found farther north along the Connecticut 
River, from Holyoke to Northampton. I happened to mention this 
to a good friend of mine who lived near the bank of Stony Brook on 
the Boston Neck Road in Suffield; and much to my amazement, he 
showed me several sandstone slabs with very clear tracks. He told 
me that he had walked up and down the brook splitting the out- 
cropping of sandstone for just such tracks. One day he took me with 
him and we split rock until we were worn out, but we had no luck 
that day. 

The first human beings here were probably a pre-Algonquin 
people, who were succeeded by an Algonquin Indian tribe. From 
all available information, it seems that this particular location was 
set aside by the Indians for hunting and fishing. There is no evidence 
that there was ever a permanent village here; but the Indians must 
have spent a lot of time shooting arrows about the place, for it has 
been very fertile ground for the finding of arrowheads, spearheads, 
adzes, and other Indian relics. Several fine stone bowls have also 
been found here, indicating that there must have been temporary 
encampments here when the shad were running or when fishing on the 
Congamuck Ponds. 

So I have come to the conclusion that one can find most anything 
he is looking for in this town — if he knows where to look for it. 
When I wanted a millstone for the garden, I asked a workman here 
in town, who had roamed the town all his life, if he knew where I 
could get such a stone. His reply was startling: "Sure, but I will 
have to have your permission first, and how many do you want?" 
There were several of them at the bottom of the old "swimmin hole" 
in the brook back of my own house. He hauled out three dandies. 

It has been interesting as well as educational to read so much 
about the everyday life of those who lived here so long ago, and at 



[ 2 ] 



INTRODUCTION 



times I feel that I know many of them personally. I have a deep 
admiration for them. In fact, it has been difficult for me, at times, 
to stick to the subject of furniture and not become sidetracked by 
some of the more amusing and, perhaps, more interesting activities 
of our ancestors. 

This record is presented for what it may be worth, with the hope 
that it may encourage others to do similar research in the many other 
small rural towns of New England where so much early furniture 
was made. 

C. S. B. 



[ 3 ] 



Early Suffield 



$$$$<§>$& HE history of the settlement of Suffield and the sue- 
J£f I ^^ ceeding years from 1670 to 1747, while the town was 



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<§> still under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, has been 
so amply covered in Hezekiah S. Sheldon's Suffield 
#€*€*&€*$# Historical Collections, published in 1879, that I shall 
give no more than the briefest outline of the earliest days of the town, 
so that the reader may know something of when and how there hap- 
pened to be a town called Suffield, Connecticut. 

Major John Pynchon of Springfield was, probably, the one man 
who had more than any other to do with the town's settlement, for it 
was he who bought up the large tract of land from the Indians in what 
was first called Stoney River, then Southfield, and finally Suffield. 
The vicinity of Suffield, with its ample water power for the small 
industries of those days, was well known to many at that time. For 
twenty years or more before, a road had been laid out, straggling up 
from Windsor and dividing into two branches in what is now Suffield 
— one branch going westward to Woronoco or Westfield and one 
branch to Springfield. 

It was in May, 1670, that a petition for a new town was made to 
the General Court of Massachusetts. This petition was granted by 
the Magistrates but was denied by the Deputies. On October 12th, 
1670 both branches of the General Court finally confirmed the grant 
of a plantation "six miles square on the west side of the Connecticott 
toward Windsor." Later it was somewhat enlarged. 

Early rumor had it that the Grantors did not look with as much 
favor upon Stoney River as upon some other locations and that they 
did not encourage the most desirable applicants to settle there. Be 

[ 5 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



that as it may, the records do not suggest that the first settlers of 
Suffield were a worthless lot; far from it. 

The next few years saw some of the land cleared and houses built, 
and Major Pynchon, who always had an eye for business, constructed 
a sawmill and a corn mill. But the year 1675 brought news that King 
Philip and his boys were on the warpath; and it scared the daylights 
out of everyone here, and justly so. They abandoned the town, bury- 
ing their treasures in the ground or in wells, and went to the security 
of Springfield for the next two years. 

This proved to be a wise move, for the Indians burned the town, 
along with four other towns nearby. Major Pynchon lost both his 
mills. Two years later, however, in 1677, all but two of the original 
group of settlers returned and things started to hum again. 

From then on, these folks struggled to carve a living out of the 
wilderness. They raised cattle and sheep, when the bears or wolves 
did not get them first. They built sawmills, corn mills, fulling mills, 
and iron works all along the banks of Stony Brook. Food was plenti- 
ful as hunting and fishing were excellent, particularly in the spring 
when the salmon and shad were running. 

Suffield grew and prospered; its land was fertile and its people 
worked hard. They raised quantities of wheat, corn, and flax; their 
apple trees began to bear and they built cider mills and brandy 
"stills." Cider, brandy, and metheglin were made and consumed in 
great quantities in those days, even the church and the ministers being 
good customers. 

Generally speaking, Suffield has always been a prosperous com- 
munity and its menfolks good businessmen. Every now and then, 
however, a group of them would think that "the grass was greener 
in another pasture" and would try some new venture. When they did 
this, they usually lost out. For example, Thaddeus Leavitt and Joseph 
Pease both went into the shipping business and had their own boats 
built for the West Indies trade. Leavitt's was the brig Mercury built 
in Windsor, but Pease had his built in Suffield. Both of these men 
found out, to their sorrow, that shipping was not for them. Others 
thought they saw "a killing" to be made in western lands and invested 
heavily in the Western Reserve and in western New York State. 
Many of them died broke. 



[ 6 ] 



EARLY SUFFIELD 



The raising of tobacco and the manufacturing of cigars followed; 
and this industry proved well suited to the community, the first cigar 
factory in the United States being located here. Tobacco has been 
the business of many of the well-to-do families in Suffield for many 
years. Now, that industry has been fading for several years and may 
take its place along with Suffield's other lost industries. Who knows? 

Perhaps the most dramatic growth and decline of industry in 
Suffield occurred in the field of papermaking. 

This began in about the year 1800 when the first of two mills was 
established. These were the Franklin Mill and the Eagle Mill. The 
latter of these enjoyed the distinction in American paper history of 
having been the first American mill to make paper for use by the 
United States Government, in 1820. Otherwise, both mills had very 
checkered careers lasting through most of the nineteenth century and 
both were eventually destroyed by fire and never rebuilt. 



[ 7 ] 



^^li^lim^ 



Fine Jfouses - Fine J^urniture 



I 



^^^#€*T is natural to question how and why there was so much fine 
^ old furniture in such a small community as Suffield, and 
# perhaps it might be well answered by considering some of 
^ the houses lived in by eighteenth-century residents. The 
3^##& same thing probably held true in those days as does today, 
that a family who could afford a nice house also wanted comparable 
furnishings. Maybe they were not as easily acquired and paid for then 
as now, with the modern time payment plans; but they, nevertheless, 
did acquire nice things to live with. 

Located at the south end of the Village Green is the largest of 
all the old houses, generally known as The Hatheway Place. It rep- 
resents three periods of construction, early eighteenth, mid-eighteenth, 
and late eighteenth century, and contains a total of twenty-two rooms. 

Oliver Phelps, a man of much wealth, was responsible for the last 
addition, the north wing, which was built in 1795. The beauty of the 
carved mantels and door casings and the French wallpapers, all 
done under the guiding hand of Asher Benjamin, called for nothing 
but the finest of furnishings (Plate No. 52). 

Ashel Hatheway bought the place from Phelps in 1802; and he, 
too, was a man of wealth. It is easy to conceive the quantity of fine 
things these two families must have had. Yet, today, there are only 
a couple of pieces of furniture known to have come down in the 
Hatheway family and none in the Phelps family. 

The Joseph Pease house, 1760, was another establishment which 
housed many choice pieces in its day (Plate No. 55). Although this 
house was torn down in 1902 and very little, if any, of the Pease 
furniture can now be identified, we do have Joseph Pease's account 
book, which lists several articles ordered from Eliphelet Chapin 
(Plate No. 58), the cabinetmaker of East Windsor. This might have 

[ 8 ] 



FINE HOUSES — FINE FURNITURE 



set a standard of quality for the Pease furnishings; if so, then this 
house also was something to wonder at. 

THE GAY MANSION 

The "Gay Mansion," located a few rods north of Day Avenue on 
the east side of High Street, now commonly called "Main Street," 
was built in 1795 by Ebenezer King and is one of the finest examples 
of the builder's art of that period. 

Until the death of the last Suffield member of the Gay family, 
Mrs. Elise Ailing, the furnishings probably remained more or less 
as they were in the early days. I recall them very clearly because, 
when a boy, I spent a great deal of time there with Mrs. Ailing. She 
had lived in France at one period of her life and spoke French 
fluently. This was a godsend to me, as I was having trouble with my 
French in school and needed her help and plenty of it. 

It was undoubtedly this association with her and the fine old 
things in the house which generated my first real interest in antiques. 
She always insisted that I sit in the green Windsor chair, with the 
large writing arm and the little drawer under the seat. When we 
finished the French lesson, she would often tell me about various 
things in the house — perhaps the stencil on the wall or some portrait 
of an ancestor. There were several of these stiff old portraits in the 
house; and to my boyish eyes they were horrible. 

In the dining room was a Hepplewhite type sideboard of cherry 
with curly maple legs, attributed to Fitch Parsons. But the real 
prize was the set of six Queen Anne style chairs with Spanish 
feet. A Burnap clock stood in the south entryway, and a lovely set 
of Chippendale chairs lined the walls of the main central hall. The 
stairway to the chambers above was enclosed and was not in evidence 
in the hallway at all. The bedrooms had all the late eighteenth-century 
atmosphere one could wish for, even to the original heavy brocade 
or chintz drapes at the window and canopies on the beds. 

It is sickening to recall these fine things and realize that the entire 
contents of the house could have been bought for the sum of only 
$2500. No one in town had that much, however, to "blow in" on 
antiques; so it was all put up at auction and sold. Very little of it 
remained in Suffield, I am sorry to say; and that is an example of 

[ 9 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



what has happened to much of our fine antique furniture. This was in 
1916 and some of the older dealers still speak of the auction with awe. 
See Plates Nos. 53, 54. 

THE GAY MANSE 

The Gay Manse, 1742, is not to be confused with The Gay Man- 
sion, as they represent two different periods. The Manse is located 
almost across the Green from where the Pease house stood and was 
built by the Rev. Ebenezer Gay. The place was owned and lived in 
by members of the Gay family until a comparatively recent date, 
when it was acquired by the Suffield Academy for use as the Head- 
master's House (Plate No. 51). 

The furnishings remained about the same up to the final sale and 
probably looked much the same as when the early "Devines" lived 
there. The last of the family to reside there was Miss Mary Gay Rob- 
inson, who certainly fitted into the picture admirably. Upon her 
death, they removed no less than nine petticoats from her body. 
Quaint, to say the least. 

With the passing of Miss Robinson, the house was dismantled; 
and the many fine antiques, including a Hepplewhite style sideboard, 
probably by Parsons, were removed from Suffield by heirs. 

As a matter of fact, Suffield was pretty well built up by 1750, 
particularly High Street; but, of course, many of those old houses 
have long since burned or have otherwise been destroyed. It is 
pleasing to note, however, the great number of eighteenth-century 
houses which still stand and are representative of what must have 
been a period of gracious living. 

Some of these other houses certainly should be mentioned even 
though they are tucked away on the side roads and difficult for the 
stranger in town to find. It is these houses and the families who lived in 
them that complete the picture of a very prosperous eighteenth- 
century community: the Daniel Spencer house on Prospect Street, 
built in 1743 and still owned by the Spencer family; the William 
King house on North Street, built in 1750; the Luther Loomis Place, 
raised April 29, 1790; the Daniel Remington house on Hill Street, 
built in 1750; the Jonathan Sheldon Place on Sheldon Street, built 
in 1723 ; and more than fifty others, all worthy examples. 

[ io ] 






Nuffield Furniture 

AND THE CABINETMAKERS 



$$$$$$€> LIST of early Suffield furniture must necessarily be 

€* /% €* incomplete. The greater part of the furniture listed 
# / m # in old Suffield inventories has scattered to the four 
<g>-<L ^-^> winds over the last hundred years. Some of it has 
*3>&€*&€^# rotted in old attics and cellars, some been broken up 
for firewood, much of it has been discarded for more modern pieces 
and perhaps sold to the itinerant "picker," and some of it is still treas- 
ured by families who have long since left Suffield. So much has gone 
that some sort of record of the remaining pieces seemed warranted. 
This record includes only those pieces which have come down in 
Suffield families, most of which I believe to have been made in Suf- 
field or vicinity. 

Perhaps the only justification for publishing this record is the 
hope that it may encourage others in New England towns to do like- 
wise and thereby learn more about the obscure country cabinetmaker, 
who made so much really good furniture — particularly in the eight- 
eenth century. 

The Suffield Probate records and old inventories are very com- 
plete, although to find them, one must go to Northampton, Massa- 
chusetts for records up to 1747, then to Hartford up to about 1815, 
and finally to our own Town Court for the rest. Also, fortunately, we 
have an unusual wealth of material in the Kent Memorial Library: 
Account Books, Diaries, including one incomplete Account Book of 
a truly good cabinetmaker — John Fitch Parsons. He was a real crafts- 
man. Fifty or more other Account Books of a general nature, common 
to the eighteenth century, of merchant, farmer and trader, were avail- 

[ ii ] 



SUFFIELD ■ CONNECTICUT 



able and produced the names of many others who probably made 
furniture as a side line, depending upon their ability and the joiner's 
and carpenter's tools they possessed. Of course, in those days, rural 
citizens exchanged very little cash. Accounts were balanced by the 
two parties getting together, perhaps once a year, on a cold winter's 
evening, each with his own book of accounts, and "squaring up." 
Usually the cash difference was quite small. Looking over these ac- 
counts, I was amazed at the versatility of these country folk. They 
could turn their hand to many trades, such as weaving, shoemaking 
and tanning, hat making, cloth dressing, blacksmithing, brick mak- 
ing; and with few exceptions, they were all farmers. Others traded 
in indigo and merchandise; and almost every one, it seems, had a 
cider mill or made brandy. Then, too, there was the chap who was 
handy with tools and could turn out a table or a bedstead or a coffin. 

Those who made more furniture than others were usually house 
builders by trade. They had the tools and were accustomed to work- 
ing with wood. Sometimes the only clue we have as to who were car- 
penters, joiners, dish turners, or chairmakers is in the Land Records, 
where they were designated as such or in their inventories, where 
joiner's and carpenter's tools are listed. Joseph Howard and John 
McMorran were two of the house builders who also made furniture; 
and their Account Books are most informative, particularly about 
the various things they made for some of the Suffield houses now 
standing — such as cornices, door and window cases, window caps, 
and turned pillars. 

Naturally, I had hoped to be able to identify certain pieces of 
furniture as being made by some one craftsman, but that is virtually 
impossible. On the other hand, there is recorded so much furniture 
made in Suffield during the eighteenth century that it is possible to 
make some pretty good guesses as to the probable cabinetmaker. I 
think these guesses may be a lot closer to the truth than many of the 
antiques advertised as "attributed to so and so." 

Some of the pieces illustrated here were definitely made outside 
of Suffield, but these are quite easily identified as the handiwork of 
the Chapin school of East Windsor or some one of the Hartford or 
Springfield cabinetmakers. 

The first furniture makers of Suffield worked in yellow and white 



[ 12 ] 



SUFFIELD FURNITURE 



pine, oak, ash, maple and walnut. Suffield was settled early enough 
to have produced a few pieces of the "Pilgrim type furniture," one 
or two of which are still in existence. Following this period, the 
workmen, prior to Parsons, adhered closely to the Queen Anne style 
and worked chiefly in cherry wood. It is my belief that this Queen 
Anne style was popular in the rural areas for a great many years, 
possibly during the last three quarters of the eighteenth century up 
to about 1790. I suppose this was because most of these occasional 
furniture makers were not particularly interested in new styles and 
also because they had little or no contact with the professional cabinet- 
maker outside. They knew one style and stuck to it. Then Parsons 
introduced a new style to Suffield, Hepplewhite, using inlay, some 
mahogany and much maple, both plain and curly. Later, he worked 
in the Empire style. For a period of nearly thirty years most of the 
Suffield-made furniture came from his shop, and excellent furniture 
it was too. He must have had good training under a fine craftsman; 
but sorry to say, there is no record to indicate with whom he might 
have worked. 



[ i3 ] 



t^?^(^^S<>y^^S^y^^S^^^.?S^i/^-.tS' 



i^L^SZ 



" Pilgrim" Type Furniture 



AND ITS tMAKE^S 



$#$##&# HE only furniture of this type to come down in the 
#> %> same Suffield family to the present generation was 

^ ^ in the Norton and Sikes families. Captain George 

^ m a Norton, one of the original settlers of Suffield, died 
€*€*#<&€>## in 1696. His inventory, filed in Northampton, lists 
one chest with drawers. This is, without doubt, the five-legged chest 
on frame shown in Plate No. 5. Captain Norton may very possibly 
have been the maker of this chest, as he had all the joiner's tools 
necessary and far more than the ordinary person had at that time. 
The "greate chair," shown in Plate No. 1, may also have been by his 
hand. In 1695, the Town engaged Captain George Norton and 
Richard Austin, who was definitely known to be a millwright and 
joiner, to make all the windows for the minister's house, at eighteen 
pence per light, the Town agreeing to pay for the same in provisions 
and flax. A further account of the furniture in the Norton family 
will be found in a subsequent chapter. 

In the Sikes family, there have come down a Carver type chair 
and a box of the type now known as "Bible boxes," and a footstool. Al- 
though Victory Sikes had carpenter's tools, neither he nor Jonathan 
Sikes, who owned all three pieces, was designated as a "joiner" in 
the Land Records. Therefore it is probably not possible to attribute 
the chair and stool to them (Plate No. 2). However, the crudely 
gouge-carved "square box," as it is listed in Jonathan Sikes' inventory, 
may easily have been made by him or his father (Plate No. 9). 

There are two so-called Hadley chests in Suffield. The first (Plate 
No. 3) is the Thankfull Taylor chest, which has been given con- 

[ 14 ] 



"PILGRIM" TYPE FURNITURE 



siderable publicity as one of the outstanding examples of the Hadley 
type chest (C. F. Luther, The Hadley Chest, No. 99). This chest 
is one of the very few examples to have the full name carved on the 
front instead of the usual initials. The following account was written 
by Mr. W. J. Hickmott, St., whose son, Mr. W. J. Hickmott, Jr., 
left the chest to the Suffield Historical Society in his will. 

HISTORY OF THE THANKFULL TAYLOR CHEST 

"The following is from records of W. J. Hickmott Sr., supported 
by letters in envelope tacked to the inside of the chest. 

"On September 16th, 1889, went with Mr. Welch to Suffield, 
Conn, to look at this chest. Found it in the attic of a small one and 
a half story house where lived Mr. F. S. Remington, a man then 78 
years of age and the great, great grandson of Thankful L. Taylor, 
for whom the chest was made, her name and date being carved on 
the front, 'Thankful L Taylor,* February the 18th. 1701.' 

"Mr. Remington said that the chest was made by Thankful L. 
Taylor's father, a cripple, and that it was made with the most primi- 
tive tools, principally a jackknife for the carving and the ordinary 
simple tools usually found among the people of that period. 

"The front of the chest is Sycamore, the top Pine, and the ends 
of Pine and Oak. It is all original except the mouldings of the front 
panels and the drawer knobs. Mr. Remington said that he had written 
to his daughter in Philadelphia asking her if she wanted to keep the 
chest and she replied that she did not. 

"I bought the chest for $40.00 and moved it to Hartford and 
just about broke up the family. The top was somewhat scarred, and 
there was a coat of red paint over all, and my good wife wondered 
if I were going to put it in the house. After our getting off the paint 
and oiling the chest two or three times, it looked better to her but 
she still was doubtful as to what the neighbors would think as I 
worked away at it in the yard. However, opinions changed with the 
years and now it is one of our choicest pieces. It is a source of gratifi- 
cation that Mr. Luke Vincent Lockwood thought it good enough to 
illustrate it in his book, 'Colonial Furniture in America.' 



* The confusion in the name Thankful L. Taylor and Thankfull Taylor was, without doubt, due 
to the manner in which the name was carved on the chest. The keyhole comes between the two 
"L's" so that it was erroneously assumed to be Thankful L. 

[ 15 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



"I will add that the Hon. William L Loomis wrote me on April 
18, 1900, an interesting letter, to be found in the chest, giving some 
of the facts about it. Loomis was Town Clerk of Suffield." 

The above was written by W. J. Hickmott, Sr., about 1907, and 
is part of a book he was compiling but never finished. A receipt for 
$40.00 signed by F. S. Remington is attached to the chest. 

Like so many legends, the one about this having been made by 
Thankful L. Taylor's father, Samuel of Suffield, with a jackknife, 
cannot be true because he died September 7th, 1689, and the chest 
is dated February 18th, 1701. After his death, her mother married 
Thomas Copley, Sr. of Suffield on May 25th, 1693. Copley was a 
carpenter but there is little possibility that he made the chest for his 
stepdaughter. However, I prefer the following probability: namely, 
that the chest was not made for Thankful L. Taylor of Suffield, 
daughter of Samuel Taylor, but for one Thankfull Taylor, daughter 
of John Taylor of Hadley and Mary Selden. This Thankfull was 
born in 1680 and married Nathaniel Warner of Suffield, May 10th, 
1710, as his second wife. Their daughter, Thankfull W r arner, was 
born May 31st, 1711, and married Jonathan Remington, Jr. Novem- 
ber 5th, 1735, son of Jonathan, Sr. and Sarah Hovey Remington. 
So there is a direct connection of this Thankfull Taylor of Hadley 
with the Remington family, whereas there is no connection at all 
of Thankful L. Taylor, daughter of Samuel, with the Remington 
family, so far as I know. Furthermore, the dates would suggest that 
the chest was made for Thankfull's twenty-first birthday. 

The other Hadley chest (Plate No. 4) is identified only as the 
"H N Chest," because to date nothing more is known of its early 
history or ownership. Dr. Horace Fuller, M.D., of Hartford bought 
the chest in Suffield about the turn of the century — around 1900. 

Of course, it is always interesting to make guesses in a case like this. 
First, we assume that the chest was made for a young girl, whose 
maiden name would be represented by the initials "H N." A search 
of the Records suggests some one of the Noble family. This family 
was in Westfield in the earliest times, but the name occurs also in 
Suffield only a little later. When Dr. Fuller bought the chest, he 
was apparently told that it came from the Merritt family who lived 

[ 16 ] 



"PILGRIM" TYPE FURNITURE 



in one of the hill towns west of Northampton. We find in this a very 
possible connection with the Noble family, for one of the Nobles — 
whether of Suffield or Westfield, we do not know — married a Merritt 
of Blandford, Massachusetts. 

Although there is no possibility that either of these two Hadley 
type chests was made in Suffield, they can certainly be classed as 
Suffield furniture by adoption. 

Another piece of early furniture closely allied to the Hadley 
chests, is the Bible box shown in Plate No. 8. The origin of this box 
is very obscure. We know only that it was discarded from a house 
owned for years by the Nelson family, who were allied by marriage 
with the Younglove, Noble, and Dewey families. In later years, 
the house had many owners, any one of whom may have been the 
owner of the box. This box, which is made of oak, has the strap carv- 
ing similar to that on Hadley chests; but there has also been some 
attempt to carve the two large flowers in the round. 



[ 17 1 






Juirniture 

OF THE 8IGHTEENTH C^NTURT 



$$&&$#$ ROM the evidence of the numerous account books in 
€* i # ^ e Kent Memorial Library, it would appear that Lt. 



F 



& 1~~^ J Eliphalet King, his brother, Capt. Ashbel King, and 
^ m $£ Joseph Howard produced the lion's share of furni- 

$$$$$$$ ture made in Suffield from 1760 to 1790. Who made 
the bulk of it before that is hard to say, as there are so few account 
books available for the first half of the eighteenth century. There 
are many possibilities, as may be seen from the list of joiners and 
carpenters on page 23. There are certainly many pieces that ante- 
date the King and Howard period. 

JOSEPH HOWARD, MASTER BUILDER 

The first record we can find of Joseph Howard in Suffield ap- 
pears on the Town Records of 1780, when he was deeded by Jacob 
Hatheway "1/4 part in the sawmill standing on the west bank of the 
Brook, near my House, where the old Iron Works dam formerly 
stood . . . with liberty to erect a shop on the bank of the brook above 
said sawmill dam." It is quite possible that Howard was the grand- 
son of James Haward, or Hayward, who was in Suffield in 1704 
and lived in this same vicinity. He and his family subsequently 
moved to New Jersey. 

A reference to Joseph Howard is found in a communication sent 
by the Hon. Samuel H. Huntington of Hartford, to Daniel W. 
Norton, President of the Suffield Bi-Centennial Celebration in 1870. 
Mr. Huntington refers to the visits of General Washington to Suffield, 
in part, as follows: "On another occasion when Gen. Washington 
was passing through this town, he stopped, and with others went up 

[ 18 ] 



FURNITURE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

into the belfry in the steeple of the Congregational Church on the hill 
(Plates No. 56 and 57), just built with its beautiful spire by Master 
Howard of Suffield." There is further reference to the erection of 
the church found in the Thaddeus Leavitt Journal. On June 15th, 
1786, we find this entry: "This day returned from Boston, after a 
worrisome journey in the stage; also was raised the Belfry of the 
Meeting House." On July 18th, he notes "Raised ye spire to ye 
belfry this day. No man hurt." On July 22nd— "This day the 'Viene' 
was put on the spire of ye new steeple by Capt. Ashbel King." 

Hezekiah S. Sheldon, the author of the Suffield Historical Collec- 
tions, remembered this church and as a young man recalled when it 
was torn down. He said it was a very beautiful church, and he could 
never understand why it was demolished to be replaced by such a 
homely structure as the one now being used as a freight station on 
the railroad. Until two field sketches, done by John Warner Barber, 
came to light recently, there were no known pictures of this church. 
These sketches (Plates No. 56 and 57), now in the Connecticut His- 
torical Society, show the church facing north and beside it, well out 
in the green, the third Suffield schoolhouse, built in 1797. This school- 
house, which was later moved to the site of the present Town Hall and 
unfortunately burned some years later, had a stately cupola crowned 
with a gilded weathercock. It also had a fine Palladian window over 
the central entrance. This and the fine church building must have 
been quite impressive. I have gone into detail regarding the church 
because it is the real evidence that Joseph Howard was worthy of 
the title "Master Howard." As a builder, he was a master craftsman. 

Howard was born in 1736 and died in 1810 at the age of 74. He 
married Hannah Dewey, daughter of David and Hannah (Hall) 
Dewey. His account book, in the local library, begins in 1783 and is 
most informative. He was then 47 years of age, so it is safe to assume 
that there were previous accounts, now lost. This account book 
shows that he made a quantity of furniture, along with his work as 
a builder; and he being the fine craftsman that he was, his furniture 
was probably of similar quality. It is also safe to assume that he was 
working prior to the Revolution — possibly as early as 1760, although 
not in Suffield. 

In addition to being a master builder, it is interesting to note, 

[ 19 ] 



SUFFIELD ■ CONNECTICUT 



he must also have been an architect and draftsman. In 1792, the 
account book shows a charge to David Tod for "drawing a cornice 
for your house." Elsewhere there is an entry for drafting a bridge for 
West Windsor. In 1794, he billed Ebenezer Sheldon for "drafting 
a Meaton Hous." This was, without doubt, the second church of the 
West Suffield Congregational Society, built the following year, 1795. 
Numerous people are listed as going to him to "larn the art of build- 
ing," among them, Capt. Ashbel King. In King's case, however, 
Howard writes "to laming of you the art of bilding in part." Appar- 
ently Ashbel King was something of a builder in his own right, as 
was his brother, Lt. Eliphalet King. 

The furniture listed in Howard's accounts consists chiefly of bed- 
steads and small tables, probably candlestands, judging from the 
number of entries for turned posts for stand tables. Aside from the 
furniture, the account book is chiefly of interest because it definitely 
dates the building of several outstanding houses in Suffield, namely 
those of Timothy Swan, Timothy Phelps, David Tod and the 
famous north wing of the Abraham Burbank house, frequently re- 
ferred to as the Hatheway place. 

It has always been an accepted fact that this wing was built under 
the ownership of Asahel Hatheway, but the account book proves 
that this is not correct. Oliver Phelps, the great land speculator, 
owned this house from 1788 until 1802; and it was he who had the 
north wing added; and Howard was the builder. The rare beauty 
of the detail in the mantelpieces, cornices and door cases is further 
accounted for in the papers left by Phelps, which show that Asher 
Benjamin was the architect. Benjamin was considered one of the 
finest country architects of his day. Benjamin also designed a very 
elaborate fence to extend across the entire front of the Phelps prop- 
erty. His scale drawing of one of the fence posts is in the Kent Me- 
morial Library in Suffield. 

LT. ELIPHALET AND CAPT. ASHBEL KING 

Eliphalet King was born in Suffield, February 6th, 1743 and 
died in West Springfield, August 29th, 1821. He married (1) Mary 
Remington, November 3rd, 1768, and (2) Silence Rumrill, October 
2nd, 1788. 



[ 20 ] 



FURNITURE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

He was a builder by trade, but also made a considerable amount 
of furniture. No account books kept by either of the Kings have yet 
come to light, but there is plenty of evidence in the books of other 
people that he was not only a fine builder but also a real craftsman 
in woodworking. The fine detail in the corner cupboard (Plate No. 
45) of his own house, built just prior to his marriage — 1765, shows 
his ability. There is also a similar cupboard (Plate No. 46) in the 
Alexander King house, built a year earlier. As early as 1770, we 
find where he bought cherry boards, glue and a glue pot. These items 
could only have been used for cabinetwork. Then came the war, 
which found King at Bunker Hill, June 17th, 1775, and with Bene- 
dict Arnold against Quebec from September to December of that 
same year. It was at Quebec that he lost his gun. He was commis- 
sioned 2nd Lieutenant, January 1st, 1776, and was in the battle of 
Long Island, in which his conduct was such that he was promoted 
to 1st Lieutenant in September, 1776. Later he captured a British 
musket which he carried in several battles, even though he also carried 
the sword of an officer. It is recorded that he treasured this musket, 
possibly for two reasons: first, because he captured it, and second, 
because he considered it fair compensation for the one he lost at 
Quebec. In addition to all of this he found time to have a family of 
sixteen children. He must have been quite a person. 

King's cabinetwork was well diversified. Accounts of many towns- 
people show such items as a square cherry table, a half dozen black 
chairs, seven chairs, a tighboard, a small writing table, and numer- 
ous other articles. There was even a washing machine. The list of 
furniture, which covers scattered items in several different account 
books, is quite imposing. If we could uncover some of his personal 
accounts, I am sure they would be very interesting from the cabinet- 
maker's standpoint. 

Captain Ashbel King, born in 1747, was a few years younger than 
his brother, Eliphalet. Living next door to each other, they probably 
worked together; in any event, they both made furniture. When 
Captain Ashbel died in 1810, his inventory listed one half of a joiner's 
shop. Captain Ashbel was more the builder and carpenter, for the 
same account books do not show nearly as many articles of furniture 
made by him as were made by his brother. He "larned the art of 

[ 21 ] 



SUFFIELD ■ CONNECTICUT 



bilding in part" from Joseph Howard and appears to have worked 
with him on the new church. It was King who set the weather vane on 
the belfry in 1786. In 1788, he set the glasses in the steeple and spent 
thirteen and a half days repairing the windows. In 1780, Captain Ash- 
bel King made a medicine and bookcase for Dr. Appollos King. It 
was probably one of the secretaries with the numerous small, square 
drawers below the desk, which were used for storing herbs and other 
raw materials of the doctor's profession. Fitch Parsons made one for 
a Dr. Currier, and charged it in his account book, as a "medicine and 
bookcase." I have always thought that a similar piece belonging to 
my great-grandfather, Dr. Asaph L. Bissell, and now in my posses- 
sion, was the one originally made for Dr. Currier. Aside from this 
rather ambitious piece, most of the furniture shown to have been 
made by Captain Ashbel consisted of stand tables and candlestands. 

JOHN MC MORRAN, MILLWRIGHT 
AND CABINETMAKER 

John McMorran was born in 1727 in Windsor, where he lived 
until 1757. He served from there in the French and Indian War, but 
from Suffield in the Revolutionary War. He made a great deal of 
furniture from about 1755 to 1758, but almost all of it seems to have 
been for Windsor people, except for several bedsteads. Therefore 
whether we are justified in calling him a cabinetmaker of Suffield 
may be considered doubtful. The items that his account book lists 
would rate him as a better than ordinary cabinetmaker, for there 
are stands, tables, bedsteads, sway-back chairs, great chairs, slat-back 
chairs, common chairs, chests, and chests of drawers, and a "cou- 
berd." By the time he moved to Suffield, which was about 1757, he 
seems to have given up his cabinetmaking to devote himself wholly 
to mill work. We find him furnishing much building material — 
boards, planks, slitwork for window casing, window caps, spouts and 
shingles — to Suffield builders, among whom were John Lewis, Eber 
Phelps, Ebenezer Granger and John Dewey. He died in 1812. 



[ 22 ] 



Other (Carpenters and Joiners 

PRIOR TO JOHN FITCH "PARSONS 



$$$$$$$ LTHOUGH furniture is our main subject, the follow- 
& /m €> ]n ° ^ st mc l u des not on ^y those specifically termed as 
# /_% $£ "joiners" but also carpenters, housewrights, turners 
ai ^-<g> °f dishes, chairmakers and wheelwrights. The list is 
&€«€>€*€«#€* taken from Land Records, Diaries and Probate Rec- 
ords and is not, of course, a complete list of everyone who could or 
did make some sort of furniture. For instance, almost anyone could 
make the crude "hired man's bed" commonly used in early times and 
even what we know as "pencil-post beds." Also if a man was a wheel- 
wright, he could certainly turn posts and stretchers for chairs; and 
if he could make a chaise, he could probably make any sort of furni- 
ture he needed for his household use. 

This list is in alphabetical order for easier reference and the 
period over which these men worked, in most cases, is no later than 
the early 1800's — or to about the end of John Fitch Parsons' time — 
but in some cases, it overlaps slightly. 

Austin, Aaron. Housewright. b. 1804, d. 1887. 

Austin, Anthony, d. 1733. Often repaired the schoolhouse and 
church pews. 

Austin, Dr. Nathaniel, b. 1678, d. 1760. Called "Dish Turner" 
in 1710. Was also part owner of a sawmill. 

Austin, Richard, b. 1666, d. 1733. It was either he or his son, 
Richard Austin, Jr., b. 1688, d. 1761, who was known as a "Car- 
penter" in 1707, 1709, and 1720 and as a "Joyner" in 1746. 

[ 23 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



Beckwith, William. In Suffield about 1799, when he married a 
local girl, Michal Granger. He built a house here which is still 
standing and a few years later advertised it for sale with a joiner's 
shop. He was possibly a wheelwright. 

[George Bradley of Suffield, and Forest Barker of Suffield and 
Southwick, worked on local houses about 1803. Also Eli Birge.] 

Burbank, John, Sr. Came to Suffield in 1680. He was employed 
by Major Pynchon in building. He died in 1729. His son, John 
Burbank, Jr. was known as "Carpenter" and to him, his father left 
his carpenter tools, as John, Jr. did to his son, John, 3rd. 

Burbank, Joseph King. b. 1772. Called "Joiner." 

Burlesson, Ebenezer. b. about 1710, son of Fearnot Burlesson. 

Called "joiner" in 1734. Left Suffield about 1745. 
Burlesson, Fearnot. b. 1679, d. 1732. Had carpenter's and 

joiner's tools in his inventory. 

Copley, Thomas, Sr. Was in Suffield in 1683. d. 1712. His in- 
ventory listed carpenter's tools, a mill saw, and key. 

Coy, Josiah, of West Suffield. Was here in 1796. d. 1823. He was 

a carpenter and joiner. He also made chests in 1797. 
Devotion, John. In 1724 he made the first pews for the church. 

Dewey, John. b. 1747, d. 1807. Maker of sleighs and wagons. 
Made "6 dining chears" for Elijah and Martin Sheldon in 1790, 
and in 1791 made a stand table, a case of drawers, and a rule-joint 
table. He also turned bedposts and made tools. 

Ensign, Charles. Was a housewright in the early 1800's. 

Fowler, Julius, b. 1786, d. 1862. Was a housewright. 

Fuller, Joseph, b. 1685 in Ipswich, Mass. Was a soldier under 
Capt. Turner in the Falls Fight. Was in Suffield in 1714. He died 
in 1744. He was called "Carpenter." 

Graham, Isaac King, son of Rev. John Graham. Was principally 
a painter but did carpentry work and painted chests. 

Granger, Abner. b. 1735. Made 6 chairs and a table. 

Granger, Bildad. b. 1741, d. 1780. Made a bedstead, trundlebed 
and a child's coffin. 

Granger, Ebenezer, son of Bildad. b. 1771, d. 1803 at Hartford. 
He was probably a housewright or carpenter. In 1796, he adver- 
tised for 3 or 4 journeymen at the joinering business. In 1797, in 



[ 24 ] 



OTHER CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

the Joseph Pease accounts, we find where he is charged for board- 
ing the joiners for \3y 2 weeks. He was probably the builder em- 
ployed to build the school shown in Plates No. S6 and 57. 

Granger, George, b. 1658, son of Capt. Launcelot Granger, d. in 
Simsbury. He was listed as "Carpenter" in 1708. 

Granger, Capt. John. d. 1791. Called "House Carpenter" in 
1743. 

Halliday, Isaac, b. 1719, d. 1784, and Jacob Halliday, b. 1719, 
d. 1784, sons of Samuel Halliday. Were called "Dish Turners" in 
1744. 

Harmon, Benjamin, b. 1711, d. 1795. A carpenter. 

Harmon, Joseph, b. 1715, d. 1762. His inventory listed turning 

tools. 
Harmon, Lt. Samuel, brother of Benjamin, b. 1699, d. 1755. A 

carpenter and housewright. 

Hastings, Rev. Joseph. He was here in 1725. d. 1785. He was 
a "joyner" by trade but was also the pastor of the first Baptist 
church to be established in Hartford County. 
There was a highboy once owned in town which was supposed to 
have been made by the Rev. Hastings. He might well be the one 
who made the early cherry desks on frame, and secretaries also. 

Hatheway, Lucius, carpenter and housewright. Worked here in 
1814 and probably earlier, d. 1858. 

Hatheway, Shubael. b. 1767, d. 1850. Housewright. 

Higgins, Gaylor. Made a chest of drawers. 

Hitchcock, Capt. Aaron, b. Springfield 1705, d. Suffield 1808. 
By trade he was a joiner and also a tavernkeeper. He fought at 
the Siege of Louisburg and left a small journal concerning it. He 
was Suffield's Town Clerk for many years. His inventory listed 
a "chest of Joyner's tools." 

Ingram, Carlos, of West Suffield. Listed as a joiner, d. 1840. 

Kellogg, Joseph, b. 1691, d. 1751. He was a soldier. He was 
taken prisoner by the Indians and lived with them for many years. 
He and one of his sisters became interpreters. His inventory listed 
carpenter's tools. 

King, Ashbel. See account on page 20. 

King, Eliphalet. See account on page 20. 

[ 25 ] 



SUFFIELD ■ CONNECTICUT 



King, Gideon, b. 1747, d. in Genesee 1798. He was a housewright. 

King, Isaac B. b. 1801, d. 1870. His inventory listed "one half 
of a joiner's shop." He was probably a chaise maker with his 
brother, Zeno King. 

King, John, son of Capt. Thaddeus. b. 1777, d. 1835. He was a 
joiner and carpenter. A chest of his joiner's tools is preserved in 
Suffield by the Suffield Historical Society. It is quite complete even 
to the extension candle holder. 

King, Zeno. b. 1776, d. 1815. He was a chaise maker. Later his 
chaise shop was moved up to High St. and stood until lately in the 
rear of Albert Goodrich's house. 

Lane, Samuel, Jr. b. 1709, d. 1750. His inventory listed many 
carpenter's tools. 

Latham, Amos. House carpenter in the early 1800's. 

Leavitt, Capt. Asaph, b. 1695, d. 1774. He was called "Car- 
penter" in 1721. 

Leavitt, John. b. 1724, d. 1798. His inventory lists "a chest of 
joiner's tools." It also lists one Compass chair and one cherry 
framed chair. What the term "Compass" means is hard to tell but 
it might refer either to what we call "a roundabout chair" or a 
chair with a shaped seat. His son, Thaddeus Leavitt, b. 1750, 
d. 1813, burned his name on the Commode chair shown in Plate 
No. 13. This might be the one listed in John's estate as a cherry 
framed chair. Compare this with the armchair shown beside it. 
It is conceivable that both chairs were made by the same hand and 
we have a fairly good reason to suspect that they were made by 
John Leavitt. An account book shows that he also made a chest 
and a "B. G. stand." What the latter refers to, we do not know. 
He bought 100 brass nails & desk trimmings in 1775. 

Lewis, Ens. John. b. 1746, d. 1823. Was a house carpenter of 
some note. It is probable that he did some work with Joseph 
Howard. 

Lewis, Warren. Was a joiner in the middle 1800's. 

Loomis, Capt. Reuben. He was from Windsor but lived in Suf- 
field for a while, d. in Windsor 1795. He was a carpenter. 

Marshall, Edmund, d. in Suffield 1734. He was called "Ship 
Carpenter." His inventory lists carpenter's tools. 



[ 26 ] 



OTHER CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

Marshall, John. d. in Suffield about 1755. His inventory lists 
"turning tools and a shop." 

McMorran, John. See account on page 22. 

Middleton, William, of West Suffield. d. in Suffield 1820. He is 
listed as a carpenter. Made a bed for Gideon King in 1790. 

Mighel, John, son of Thomas of Rowley. He was here in 1681 
and left in 1704. He was called "Dish Turner." 

Mighel, Thomas. He was here as a settler. He was also called 
"Dish Turner." When Samuel Sewall of Boston passed through 
Suffield, he mentions in his diary that there was a dish turning mill 
on Stoney Brook in Suffield. The Mighels were the probable pro- 
prietors of the mill he saw. 

Norton, George. See page 34. 

Parsons, John Fitch. See account on page 31. 

Pease, William, b. 1772. He was a carpenter and is said to have 
made a desk. 

Pomeroy, Capt. Isaac, b. 1745, d. 1804. He and his brother, 
Josiah Pomeroy, b. 1743, were carpenters. Many carpenter's tools 
are listed in both inventories. 

Pritchett, William, d. 1697. He was here in 1683. He was son 
of William Pritchett of Lynn and Brookfield. Many carpenter's 
tools were listed in his inventory. 

Ruggles, Joseph, son of Rev. Benj. Ruggles. He was in Suffield 
for a time. In 1723 he was referred to as "joiner." 

Segar, Joseph. Here as a settler, d. in Suffield in 1740. He is re- 
ferred to in Land Records as "Chairmaker." 

Sikes, Thaddeus. b. 1775, d. 1853. He was probably a carriage 
maker and wheelright. 

Sikes. Many of the Sikes family were carpenters and housewrights. 
Jesse and Elam might be named. 

Sikes, Victory. See account on pages 14 and 51. He was here in 
1682, and d. 1708. His inventory listed carpenter's tools. 

Smith, Edward, Sr., son of Hugh of Rowley. He was here in 1685 
and d. here after 1731. In 1704 he is named "Carpenter." 

Smith, Ichabod. b. 1670. In 1700 he was listed as "Carpenter" 
but his trade seems to have been that of wheelwright. 

[ 27 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



Spencer, William, d. 1745. He was listed as "Chairmaker" in 
1724 in the Land Records. 

Stiles, Israel. Was listed as a carpenter about 1814. 

Wiggins, Josias, of West Suffield, was a carpenter. He is credited 
with "3 days joinering at the school house" in 1787. He also made 
a cradle. 

Woolworth, Elijah, b. 1748. In 1772 he made a round table 
and bottomed a chair for Victory Sikes. 

Worcester or Wooster, Nathaniel. He was here in 1729. He 
died in Suffield about 1756. His inventory listed carpenter's tools 
and a half of a sawmill. 

Yeomans, John. He was in Suffield briefly about 1726, when he 
was listed in the Land Records as a "Joiner." 

Younglove, Samuel, b. 1696, son of Rev. John Younglove. He 
was called "Dish Turner" in 1704. Died after 1730. 

AARON AND ELIPHELET CHAPIN 

A great deal has been written about the Chapins of Connecticut 
and the beautiful furniture attributed to them. Notwithstanding all 
of the research prompted by both the desirability and unique style 
of these pieces, only two can be positively authenticated. They are 
the Robbins sideboard owned by the Wadsworth Atheneum and 
a very plain secretary owned by The Connecticut Historical Society, 
both made by Aaron Chapin. It is said that correspondence exists 
which might authenticate one highboy as made by Eliphelet, but 
such correspondence has never been made available for study. An- 
other highboy, owned in East Windsor, Eliphelet's home town, has 
come down in the same family for generations; and tradition attrib- 
utes that piece to him. 

Wallace Nutting points out in the third volume of his Furniture 
Treasury that he probably picked up many of his ideas from those 
able Philadelphia craftsmen and developed his own unique style 
from them. It is also thought that Aaron, who was as fine a workman 
as his brother, copied the style of Eliphelet with slight variations in 
detail. These variations have been noted by studies made of several 
pieces generally accepted as being of the Chapin school. It is, of 



[ 28 ] 



OTHER CARPENTERS AND JOINERS 

course, unfortunate that more authoritative statements can not be 
made; but until something new turns up to substantiate the current 
beliefs, not much more can be said. 

Whereas the foregoing presents the situation as it exists today, 
further research may, and I hope it will, bring to light something 
which will positively authenticate some piece of furniture as having 
been made by Eliphelet Chapin. We know that there was such a man 
in East Windsor who was a cabinetmaker* and that he had received 
his training in Philadelphia. We also know that there is furniture 
with certain characteristics and beauty of detail which set it apart 
from other furniture made in this vicinity. All of which poses the 
question: "If he didn't make it, who did?" 

There is little doubt in my mind that most of the pieces, so long 
attributed to Eliphelet Chapin, were actually made by him and that 
some time the necessary proof will be found. 

The secretary (Plate No. 23) was a Nutting favorite and he refers 
to it in his third volume as "the finest specimen now known of this 
Chapin's work." There is also an element of mystery about Mr. 
Nutting's illustration of the secretary in his book as he used a line 
drawing instead of his customary photograph. It is known that he 
took several photographs of the piece, but perhaps these were not 
satisfactory and he felt that the other medium would be more ac- 
curate; or possibly he intended using only line drawings in the third 
volume anyway. 

The history of the secretary is quite well known. It came down 
in the family descendants of Ashel Hatheway until the last of that 
family, Miss Louise Hatheway, died in 1910. A few years after her 
death, one of the heirs moved to California and took the piece out 
there; but it did not stay for long, as Mrs. Emma J. Fuller of Suf- 
field bought it and had it shipped back to Suffield, where it has been 
ever since. 

There might be some question whether or not Ashel Hatheway 
was the first owner of the secretary even though there is nothing in 
the record to indicate otherwise. It is just possible that Oliver Phelps, 
who was the man of wealth who sold his beautiful home in 1802 to 



* See Plate No. 58 for entries in Joseph Pease's Account Book relating to Eliphelet Chapin. 

[ 2 9 ] 



SUFFIELD • COXXECTICUT 



Ashel Hatheway, was the original owner and found the piece too 
large to move out to New York State, so perhaps sold it with the 
house to Hatheway. 

The construction of the interior of the desk is a fabulous maze 
of secret drawers and compartments which calls for considerable 
ingenuity to find them all. It must have been the product of many 
a sleepless night for a very crafty craftsman, and the secrets will have 
to be passed on down from one generation to the next just as they prob- 
ably have been passed since it was made. 



[ 30 ] 



John Fitch Larsons 

C J BINE TMAKE^ 



€*#€*€*€*$# ARSONS' account book was found years ago in an old 

■S ! B €* snec ^ on ^ e l° cat i° n °f ms workshop. It was in the 
B— ^ # possession of Frank H. Sikes for many years and was 
^ A <§> left by him, upon his death in 1949, to the Kent 
$#$&$$$ Memorial Library. The shop was located on the west 
side of what was then called "Crooked Lane," now Mapleton Avenue, 
in Suffield, in the vicinity of Dunn's Corner, where the road over 
the river to Thompsonville turns off. Little is known of Parsons' 
early life or with whom he may have worked to become such a fine 
craftsman. It is probable that he served an apprenticeship with one 
of the masters in some nearby town. He was born in Suffield April 
12th, 1775, son of Ebenezer and Anne (Fitch) Parsons, who were 
married September 16th, 1772. 

John Fitch Parsons married Clarissa Hovey on November 11th, 
1804. Three children were born to them — Fanny in 1805, Ralph in 
1807, and Ebenezer in 1810. 

Parsons' account book shows the first entry as of September 1804, 
but he may have been at work earlier as many pages are missing. 
Then, too, there may have been an earlier book of accounts. The 
accounts close in 1825. He sold his home in Suffield in 1835; and 
as there is no record of his death in Suffield, it is presumed that he 
left Suffield at that time. 

Typical of this locality, he worked almost entirely in pine and 
cherry wood. To name all the many items of furniture that he made 
would be boring to the reader. Suffice it to mention some of the more 
unusual pieces. There were the larger articles such as all types of 

[ 3i 1 



SUFFIELD ■ CONNECTICUT 



tables and candlestands, sideboards, clock cases, bureaus, secretaries, 
bedsteads, press bedsteads and turn-up beds and bookcases. Then we 
find articles ranging in price from seventy-five cents to nine dollars, 
such as coffins, a clothes horse, carriage seat, safe cupboard, fireboard, 
a pitch pipe, wagons, breadtub, crickets, frame for a portrait, rockers 
for chairs, clothes chest, boot trees, rolling pins, chests and a tavern 
sign. There are entries for "trimming" a desk or a bureau, meaning 
that he put brasses on the pieces. For a doctor he made a "meddison 
& bookcase." In the accounts, a Pembroke table is called a "Pirn- 
broke" table; a washstand, a "wash hand stand" and a breakfast table, 
a "breakfirst table." 

Often nowadays, we find a piece of antique furniture which ap- 
pears to have been altered in some manner and we are apt to blame 
the dealer — in some cases, perhaps justly so; but Parsons did some 
altering back in his day. In 1808, he charged Hezekiah Huntington 
for "altering a case of drawers into a beaurow and table." This un- 
doubtedly was an exaggerated job of alteration; but as he notes other 
similar jobs, it might account for some of the unexplained oddities 
in antiques today. 

He bought his lumber here and there, in comparatively small 
quantities — 390 feet of cherry at five fifty per hundred; 430 feet of 
cherry boards at eight dollars per hundred; 50 feet of butternut 
boards at a dollar; 400 feet pine boards at four dollars and forty 
cents; 600 feet pine boards at five dollars and forty cents; 30 feet of 
maple boards at forty five cents and so forth. He made a number of 
pieces of curly maple and a few of mahogany, but there are no records 
of the purchase of such lumber. 

From all of the various accounts in his book, we should expect 
to be able to authenticate numerous pieces about town, but we are 
able to do so with only four. He did not label or sign any piece known. 
In 1807, Parsons' book shows that he made, for Ebenezer King, a 
sideboard, in 1808, a candlestand and in 1809, a pair of end tables 
(Plates No. 38 and 40). There were many other pieces of furniture 
listed in Mr. King's account, but these four have come down in the 
same family, by direct descent to Samuel Reid Spencer, the great- 
great-grandson of Ebenezer King. These, fortunately, are examples 
of his finer pieces and show the quality of his craftsmanship. The 



[ 32 ] 



JOHN FITCH PARSONS 



proportions are excellent and the whalebone inlay work on the side- 
board, though simple, is very well done. The dovetails and general 
construction are of the best quality. There are, of course, other pieces 
in town which are so typical of his work that there can be little 
doubt as to the maker. Even so, this does not authenticate them. We 
can say, however, that the piece is "attributed" to Parsons with some 
certainty because we are here limited to furniture in one small town 
and to one cabinetmaker working at that particular period in that 
town. 

Fitch Parsons, as he was usually called, had an irregular scale 
of prices, such as, sideboards — $50; bureaus — $17.50 to $25, the 
more expensive one being of mahogany; pair of end tables — $14; 
card table — $13; secretary — $30; clock cases from $7 to $20; and 
in one instance, he showed a charge for a clock and case at $53.33. 
The prices of tables varied according to size, from $1.75 for a candle- 
stand to $6 for a Pembroke and $10 for a table of breakfast size. 
Coffins ranged from $1 to $10 depending on the size and the quality 
of the wood used. He would put a light of glass in the coffin, if de- 
sired, for a total charge of $12. The charges for alterations and repairs 
were very moderate; at least they certainly appear so by comparison 
with such charges today. A few of them were : repairing a table — .60 ; 
a stove — .12; putting a handle in an "umbrill" — .50; repairing a 
fiddle — .25; varnishing chairs — $2.50; altering a case of drawers — 
$3 ; repairing 3 candlestands, with 2 pillars and 3 legs — $2.25. 

See Appendix — Plate No. 60 and pages 1 19-122. 



[ 33 ] 



Qaptain Qeorge ^h(orton 

AND HIS FAMILY 



$#$$$$# APTAIN Norton was born in Salem, March 28th, 
& ^ 1a 1641, removed to Ipswich, and then to Suffield in 
# I €* 1674. He died November 15th, 1696. He was a free- 

$§> ^^_^ ,§> man in 1681, innkeeper, selectman, and was generally 
<S><&<8>#$#<& prominent in the town affairs. His estate was pro- 
bated at Northampton, as were all the Suffield estates at that time, 
because until 1747 the town was a part of Massachusetts. The in- 
ventory of his estate is interesting because of the joiner's tools listed, 
as follows: "squares, compasses, a tenant saw, a hand saw, adz, wain- 
scot plow, 8 planes, 4 chissells, holdfast, 6 augurs, chalkline, 2 jointers, 
5 spear plane irons, 2 files, sett marking irons, grindstone, 2 froos, a 
plow board, cressing plane, 2 hamers, 2 gimlets, an inkhorn, spec- 
tacles, gagers, drawing knife and 2 pair bands." Quite an array of 
tools for that early period, unless the owner was something of a joiner 
by trade. It would appear that Capt. Norton was just that when not 
otherwise occupied by more important duties. 

From Captain George on down through the ages, generation after 
generation of Nortons saved their cherished possessions and rarely, 
if ever, threw anything away, although the branch of the family that 
stayed in Suffield moved from house to house several times over 
a period of nearly three hundred years. The last family homestead 
is located on High Street (Main Street) and was built in 1814 around 
a much older house of the Spencers, by Daniel Norton, a man of 
some means (Plate No. 50). 

The last male descendant, John Pease Norton, died July 15th, 
1952. He was a Yale man and taught economics there for several 

[ 34 ] 



CAPTAIN GEORGE NORTON AND FAMILY 

years. His knowledge of that subject, however, never improved his 
own personal finances. So it was in 1939 that I received a note from 
him which led to one of those fantastic antique "finds," which all 
collectors hope for some day, but rarely ever realize. John needed 
money, cash money, and had finally, if reluctantly, decided to dispose 
of some of his family heirlooms. I believe that he had sold some 
family pewter before this, but little, if any, furniture. His note told 
me that, as I had asked him to let me know if he ever decided to sell 
the Gideon Granger chairs, he was now willing to entertain an offer 
for these chairs in writing. Inasmuch as I had never heard of nor 
seen said Granger chairs, I chuckled to myself with the thought that 
John had confused me with someone else, but maybe it was just one 
of his subtle "economic" ways of approach. Anyway, I wasted no 
time in going up to see him and confessed that as I did not believe 
that I had ever seen the chairs, I would like to do so before commit- 
ting myself to any offer. 

"Up attic" we went and goose bumps began coming out all over 
me at what I saw — an attic crammed full of ancestral belongings. 
I was led to a large crate full of chairs, carefully bound with old 
newspapers. John told me that these chairs had been so segregated 
and packed in order to be kept together, so their identity would not 
be lost. They had belonged to Gideon Granger, Jr. of Suffield, who 
was postmaster general under President Jefferson and one of Suffield's 
most prominent citizens. 

The attic was dark, but I had brought along a small flashlight; 
so I examined the chairs as well as I could without taking them out 
of the crate. I saw the cherry wood, the duck feet, both the transition 
and the saddlebacks and the large bulbous turnings on the front 
stretchers; that was sufficient for me to know that I wanted them — 
four of one type and three of another. I had hoped that they would 
be a set, all alike (Plate No. 12). 

Then John led me to the other side of the attic, where a closet 
had been built with a padlock on the door. This he opened to show 
me another set of chairs, which he said he might also consider selling. 
It was a set of seven Sheraton fancy chairs, painted yellow — six side 
chairs and one rocker, all in perfect condition, even to the old glaze 
on the rush seats. They had been parlor chairs and rarely, if ever, 

[ 35 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



used (Plate No. 48). Frankly, I paid little attention to them or 
to John, for what I saw in the corner of that closet held me frozen 
in my tracks. I thought at first that my eyes were playing tricks. I 
said nothing but casually cast my flashlight up and down the front 
of a five-legged chest with drawers on frame, still in its old red paint 
— tear drop brasses — and all apparently complete. Then I got down 
on my knees and threw the light on the underside, thick with cob- 
webs. Meanwhile, John continued his lecture on the yellow chairs 
with the green vine decorations. All I could say was, "John, I would 
like the chairs and this chest of drawers, if you want to sell them." 

We closed and locked the door and headed for the stairs, passing 
the old chimney, which stood out several feet from the north wall 
of the house. My flashlight was shooting here and there, picking up 
an old bedpost or trunk and then, back of the chimney, partially 
hidden by some old blinds, my flash fell on the William & Mary leg 
of another highboy — this one with six legs, the red paint and the 
tear drop brasses. Again, trying to be casual, I said I would like that 
chest of drawers also, but almost choked doing so. On the way out 
of the house, John told me to write him, making an offer for the 
chairs and the other pieces separately, "as the Granger chairs were 
very valuable." By that time, I had almost forgotten about the chairs 
after seeing those two very early highboys. 

I simply had to have those pieces and knew I wouldn't sleep until 
I did, so I sat down and wrote John as requested, took it up to the 
postoffice for mailing and waited. I worried for fear that he might 
change his mind or even that the house might burn down. But his 
reply was prompt and favorable, and I lost no time in getting the two 
sets of chairs and the two chests out of the house. 

The red paint on the two highboys was in such bad condition 
from old stains, that we decided that it would have to be removed. 
Much to my surprise, on the five-legged highboy we found the 
original coat of black under the red — a sort of lampblack rubbed 
into the wood. On the six-legged piece, two of the ball feet were gone 
and also a couple of brasses — all of which we replaced. There was 
nothing missing from the five-legged piece, except three brasses. 

In a short time, John was in the selling mood again and once more 
I received a penned note from him saying he had decided to sell an- 



[ 36 ] 



CAPTAIN GEORGE NORTON AND FAMILY 

other set of chairs — this time, Chippendale style ladder-back, a bonnet 
top chest-on-chest, a grandfather clock and a three part Queen Anne 
type secretary — all cherry. From these pieces we can be sure that 
some member of the Norton family had a taste for nice things. 

Still later, the attic produced a portrait done in the late eighteenth 
century of a forbidding looking man — probably none other than 
Daniel Norton (Plate No. 49). It was in tough shape, but expert 
restoration has made it an interesting example of early American art. 
The house later produced two tavern tables, two pine chests of 
drawers, and several early slat-back chairs. There were also two fine 
Chippendale mirrors and other things too numerous to mention. But 
there was also the barn. Struggling up to the loft through the massed 
debris of wagons, cartons full of odds and ends and old newspapers, 
we found the floor littered with broken Windsor chairs — mostly 
beyond repair — the lion's share of a Carver type chair (Plate No. 
1), all tied together, and last but not least, a small size Butterfly 
table (Plate No. 10). The oak frame and butternut top of this table 
were turned upside down, the leaves turned up to form sort of a box 
wherein were the nicely turned stretchers and one wing. A year later, 
the other wing was found ; so when restored, the table was almost 
complete except for what the worms had devoured. It would be nice 
to think that this table might once have been used in George Norton's 
tavern; but, as it does not show that kind of wear, it was probably 
thought too choice for use in such a place. 

The Carver type chair (Plate No. 1) is probably one of the 
"greate chairs" listed in Capt. George's inventory of 1696. It was al- 
most beyond restoration both from worm damage as well as the happy 
thought someone (probably John) had had of pulling it apart, so 
that it could all be neatly tied up like kindling wood, to save space. 
The four posts are of maple, but the rest is ash. The two front posts 
have the remains of what appear to be candle sockets, but they are 
pretty well chewed up. An original finish of black was found under 
the old red paint, just as on the five-legged highboy. Whereas it is 
possible that the chair was brought from Ipswich in 1676 when 
Norton moved to Suffield, it is more likely that he made it in Suffield, 
as well as the five-legged highboy and the Butterfly table ; that is, if, 
from the evidence of his tools, we accept him as a joiner of some 

[ 37 ] 



SUFFIELD ■ CONNECTICUT 



ability. All three pieces can certainly be dated within his lifetime. 

The six-legged highboy (Plate No. 6) is, of course, later than 
1696; but it is still a very early piece and carries evidence that it 
was made at the same joiner's bench; however, the cabinet work- 
manship is not as crude. A variety of woods was used in this piece — 
whitewood, pine, cherry and linden. The same woods, except for 
linden, were used in the five-legged piece. The shapes of mouldings 
and the bevels of the dovetails further indicate that the two pieces 
are related. If these two pieces were made by the same hand, he had 
learned easier and more practical methods by the time he made the 
six-legged highboy. This is particularly true of the manner of putting 
legs and stretchers together. On the earlier highboy, the four corner 
legs and ball feet were turned in one piece and fitted into the pine- 
wood stretchers by a dovetail cutout. The center leg was also turned 
in one piece; but from the stretcher to the floor, it takes the form of 
a long dowel, the ball foot having a hole chiseled through its center 
for the dowel. The ball was then held firmly in place by wedges 
driven up from the bottom. On the six-legged highboy, the legs are 
turned down to the stretcher and the ball feet are doweled up through 
burned holes in the stretchers into the legs. 

It is possible that the five-legged highboy could be the "chest with 
drawers" listed in Capt. George Norton's inventory for it is just 
that — a chest with drawers on a frame. Also the date of this piece 
is certainly prior to his death. 

DANIEL NORTON 

Daniel Norton, great-grandson of Capt. George, was born Sep- 
tember 13th, 1751. He was a man of wealth and undoubtedly was 
responsible for a great deal of the fine household furniture of a later 
period, which came down in the Norton family. Judged from the 
portrait, he must have been a rather dour individual and a hard- 
headed Yankee. He left an account book which was well kept up 
to the time of his death. It was he who purchased the tall clock 
(Plate No. 30) from David Ellsworth of Windsor in 1793, for the 
total sum of ten pounds, six of which were credited to him for one 
silver watch (Plate No. 59) . It is the only clock known bearing Ells- 
worth's name, although he is listed in clock books as being able to turn 



[ 38 ] 



CAPTAIN GEORGE NORTON AND FAMILY 

his hand to most anything. He was a brother of Justice Oliver Ells- 
worth. 

The Ellsworths of Windsor were long associated with Suffield, 
by marriage. George Norton, Jr., grandfather of Daniel, married 
Widow Martha (Ellsworth) Stiles in 1717; and later David Ells- 
worth's father, David, Sr., married Jemima Leavitt of Suffield in 
1740. David, Jr., the clockmaker, was a contemporary of Daniel 
Burnap, the more famous clockmaker of East Windsor and Andover. 
There is a great similarity between the works housed in the Ellsworth 
clock and works made by Burnap. However, they are definitely not 
identical. Burnap, according to his account book (CHS), charged 
a standard price of ten pounds or $30 for a clock, the case being 
additional. A great many of his cases were made by Simeon Loomis 
of Windsor and ranged in price from three pounds ten shillings to 
five pounds. One case was made for Capt. Ellsworth in 1790 for 
the cheaper price and was probably similar to that illustrated in 
Plate No. 34, which is so like most of the Burnap clocks — plain, 
simple and without inlay and not to be compared with the case on 
the Ellsworth clock. 

There is no entry in Burnap's accounts to indicate that he ever 
sold Ellsworth any clockworks or parts. The case on the Ellsworth 
clock is so beautifully designed with the delicate inlay and so different 
from the usual run of Burnap clock cases that it would appear to 
have been a special job. One of the most unusual features of this case 
is the treatment of the little side windows of the hood. Instead of 
the conventional glass, green silk was used, which was stitched to a 
small wooden frame made specifically for that purpose, even to the 
holes properly spaced for the thread (Plate No. 32). The price 
Daniel Norton paid for this clock would indicate that he bought 
only the works and, of course, the engraved dial, from Ellsworth. 
The case, then, was probably made by some superior cabinetmaker, 
such as Chapin of E. Windsor or Parsons of Suffield. 

Another fine piece of furniture which came from the Norton 
house is the Queen Anne style secretary ( Plate No. 21 ) . This antedates 
Daniel Norton. It is unusual for its 3324-inch width, its two candle 
drawers with carved shells, which serve as supports for the lid when 
open, and for the cornice moulding on the bonnet top, which is 

[ 39 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



returned and connected, so as to form a niche for the center finial. 
Beneath the two candle drawers is an empty space, which was prob- 
ably intended for a secret compartment of some kind, but never 
finished as such. More than the usual or necessary number of hand 
wrought nails were used in the construction of the base; this sug- 
gests the w r ork of an apprentice, who may have just hammered them 
in "when the old master wasn't lookin'." Many things contribute to 
the belief that this secretary and others were made here in Suffield. 
Plate No. 22 shows another secretary owned in town, which was 
without doubt made by the same hand. Then, too, the presence of 
several desks on frame, all having the same characteristics, would 
indicate that there was a local cabinetmaker working in Suffield, prior 
to 1750. He may not have been a cabinetmaker full time, but probably 
a carpenter by trade. Whoever he was, he had a flair for designing 
and building good furniture. The Rev. Joseph Hastings might be 
responsible, or John Leavitt. 



[ 40 ] 






Joseph ^ease 

WITH 8XCERPTS FROM JfIS T^ECORDS 



$#$$$ OSEPH Pease's grandfather, Capt. John Pease, came 
Jj ^ J& from Salem, Massachusetts to Enfield with his brother, 
$ J. & Robert, in 1679. For one winter, before they brought 
A «^ <& their families there, they lived in a cave on the river bank. 
<&«&#<&*# Capt. John obtained a pretty good estate for the times 
and a fair character. His grandson recorded that he had a great 
natural ingenuity and invention in business, which his said grandson 
seems to have inherited. Capt. John was captain of the Train Band 
and also kept a Public House of Entertainment for many years. Of 
his father, Joseph Pease, Sr., all we know is what his son recorded 
in his journal, as follows: "My father was of cheerful temp., a lively 
wit, and solid penetrating judgment not much engaged after the 
world ; When he was about 47 years old he had a fit of falling sick- 
ness he fell by the side of the team he was driving and the cart wheel 
went over his hips, heavy loaden with boards he never was well to 
business afterwards. He had several more fits from time to time till 
his reason was much impaired. He grew exceedingly fretful, his 
memory grew treacherous, he would forget things that were and 
remember those that never were, as his judgment decays his tena- 
tiousness of it increase — would be most out of humour with his 
nearest and best friends, would often get out of his bed in the dead 
of the night in the coldest weather — said that was not his house, nor 
his family — would walk around about half a mile (somebody, most 
commonly myself, to follow him) then he would go to bed and lie 
a while and get up again." 

Joseph Pease was born on August 10th, 1728, son of Joseph, 

[ 4i ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



Sr. and Mary (Spencer) Pease. He moved to Suffield on October 
22nd, 1750, and lived for a while with Capt. Asaph Leavitt, where 
he worked at shoemaking from 1750 to 1752. He writes "hired a 
horse of Joshua Austin to ride to Enfield which soon after died for 
which cost me one years work." On July 28, 1756, Joseph married 
Mindwell King. He was more or less of a Jack-of-all-trades, owned 
a distillery and a sawmill, and was a merchant and trader of sorts. 
He accumulated a large property and built himself a fine house about 
1760-65. This house was unfortunately torn down some years ago 
"to afford more lawn for the Connecticut Literary Institute." In the 
inventory of his estate at the time of his death in 1794, there were 
listed a joiner's lathe, chisels, and other carpenter's tools. He also 
owned a clock and a riding chair. 

The following excerpts from the Journal are of general interest. 

1753 Living with General (Phinehas) Lyman — built him a vessel. 

1755 Sept. moved to Suffield, set up trading in Gen'l Lyman's shop. 

1773 May 7 — Dan Rowe's child had dung fork stuck in his head 
so that the brains came out — is yet lively and plays. 

19th — Dan Rowe's child died. 

1773 July 5 went to Middletown carried my wife stayed 4 days 
Aug 11 went to Middletown stayed till (13th) 

Aug 16 went to Windsor sold our schooner (to John Welles) 
Nov 2 went to Middletown stayed til Friday 
Nov 30 went to Middletown — south Windsor 

1774 Apr 5 went to Middletown stayed 2 nights 

June 1 This day the Harbour of Boston blocked up 

" 22 great troubles in the country respecting acts of Par- 
liament to block up Boston Harbour & to alter the government 
of the Province. Gov. Gage had a large army fleet in Boston 
to enforce them, the people thro the land resolute not to 
comply. 

1774 July 4 Had a town meeting an acct of the acts of Parliament 
blocking up the Harbour of Boston — adjourned to Monday 
11th. 

July 5 Went to Middletown 



[ 42 ] 



JOSEPH PEASE 



Sept. 4 Sunday we had an alarm by an acct that the Regulars 
were firing upon the town of Boston. 120 got ready to march 
to their help : it was a mistake & we did not set out but many 
thousand did — had it been true there would 100,000 assembled 
at and near Boston. 

5th A Congress from all the Colonies meet at Phila to con- 
sult the Public affairs all the counsellors appointed by the 
King and all other officers in Boston Govt compelled to resign 
their commissions or flee to Boston or the Castle under Gage's 
protection no Tory dare show his head in the country. 

General Lyman died Sept. 10, 1774. 

28th The Grand Congress rise having agreed to a non im- 
port the first of Dec. next — non exportation first of Sept. 
1775 and now consumption to enforce the whole & many 
other resolves. 

1775 Apr. 12th This day 1200 of the Regulars under the com- 
mand of Colin Smith marched out of Boston to Lexington there 
fired upon our men killed 8 and woulded many without any 
provocation — from there to Concord, burnt and destroyed 
stores & cannon etc. fired upon & killed 2 of our men who 
returned the fire and killed 2 and wounded many 4 of which 
died, soon 150 of our men drove them back to Lexington 
where they met Lord Perry with 1500 men and 2 field pieces 
which gave a check to our men but they soon attacked them 
with the utmost resolution being about 400 drove the whole 
body of regulars to Charlestown — killed about 200 and 
wounded many — took 60 or 70 prisoners. Killed of our men 
38 of which 15 killed in battle the rest murdered — A general 
alarm throught the country: I went to the place 23rd. 

1775 May 1st Ticonderoga taken by Colin Easton and Colin 
Allen 

" 29th Our men had a skirmish with a party of Regulars 
at Crab Island near Weymouth where they came for cattle & 
Hay but were drove off without any and 8 of them killed. 
May 27th Our men had a skirmish with the Regulars on 
Hog & Noddles Islands — burned an armed schooner of 12 
four lbs. & 6 swivels — took all the guns and many other things 
out & brot away and killed and brot away all their horses 



[ 43 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



cattle and sheep without the loss of one man altho surrounded 
with ships of war & boats who kept a constant fire at them 
and attacked them by land — kill many Regulars, supposed 200. 

1775 June 1st Augustin (his son) marched for Boston a soldier 
in Capt. Hanchet's company (Capt. Oliver Hanchet of Suf- 
field, who went with Arnold on the march to Quebec) 

June 17th A great fight between 1500 of our men and 5000 
Regulars in Charlestown — our men obliged to leave their en- 
trenchments with the loss of about 40 men killed and 30 taken. 
Many worthy officers among them and many wounded and 
killed & wounded about 1500 Regulars. Our men were much 
distressed by cannon for 4 ships & 4 or 5 floating batteries. 

June 22nd. Received a letter from Augustin of the 20th in- 
formed that he was in the battle and escaped unhurt. 

July 9th. Had news that Augustin was very sick at Roxbury 
Camp. I set out that night went as far as Springfield. 

July 11th. Got to Augustin at Brookline — he is better, he 

had a swelled throat or sort of Quinsey called there a Horse 

Distemper find all our men well — warmer. Had a battle at 

Long Island on 13 Thursday night — Moses Huxley (of Suf- 

field) was killed by a cannon shot 12th it pass through his 

breast on the neck. 

Friday 14th, Set out for home with Augustin, he is better. 

Got home Monday 17th 10' clock AM. 

Sat. 15th. My house was broke open and robbed of about 

90 dollars in silver and 7 40 bills & 2 10/ bills and about 

15/ small bills & 14p of copper. 

July 29th. Augustin set out for the Camp — got down well. 

1786 Dec. River so froze that sleighs got from Hadley Falls to 
Saybrook on the river over the falls. 

1789 Apr. 10th. E Sperry ketched a salmon the 6th. Pidgeons 
have been exceeding thick a fortnight past — now gone. 

Nov. 19th. Newton the stone cutter's wife died. 

1790 May 1st. Catch great plenty Salmon in pot nets — more than 
for many years past. 

May 26th. Catch great plenty of salmon in sanes 4:5 or 
6 wt. in a day in one net. 



[ 44 ] 



JOSEPH PEASE 



From JOSEPH PEASE' ACCOUNT BOOK 

The following entries from the Joseph Pease Account Book are 
of especial interest because of those relating particularly to the famed 
cabinetmaker of East Windsor, Eliphelet Chapin. Very few, if any, 
such entries have heretofore been found. 



July 1789 Eliph* Chapin East Windsor 
1328 feet of boards at 40 
1300 feet " " " 50 



Dr 



May 1789 



Apr 1789 



March 1789 



March 1789 



Eliph 1 Chapin East Windsor Cr 

by 1 Tea Server 5/9 by wine 2/ 
Enos Doolittle Hartford Cr 

by mending hinge for clock by 1 set 
nickles for chaise harness 13/3 

Enos Doolittle Dr 

to 2019 feet seasoned boards d. at 

Hartford at 50/ 

130 feet 

shingles 

Enos Doolittle Hartford Cr 

by mending Gad Taylor's watch 2/6 
Enos Doolittle Hartford Dr 

to 1 M feet Boards to him at Hartford 
last fall 45/ 

Cr by cleaning and mending my watch 6/ 
by cleaning another for Baseth 3/ 
by mending my clock wheel 2/ 

Timo Peck Middletown Dr 

to 1 oz 14 gr silver left with him last 
fall 11/6 

Cr by 1 pr silver buckles for me with 

the flukes and tongues the making 7/ 

by one pr for Mind with flukes & Tongues 
making 8/ 



2. 13. 

3. 5. 

5. 18. 



5. 1. 

3. 6 
9. 

5. 13. 6 



[ 45 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



July 1789 



Jan. 1790 



July 1789 Enos Doolittle Hartford Cr 

by 8 Corner plates for Chaise 10/ 

July 1789 Eliph 4 Chapin East Windsor Dr 

To 2000 feet Sq r Edg d Bords Some Defect- 
ive worth 33/ per M 
To 2000 Shingles at 18/ 
To 2000 feet Clabords at 50/ 
To 3000 Shingles at 18/ Did To Jacob 

Norton of Hartford by your Request 

Jacob Norton Hartford Dr 

7000 feet Refuse bord Sound but waivey 

To 600 feet Choice do at 50/ pick* out 
by himself 

Enos Doolittle Hartford Cr 

by 2 Brass Candlesticks 10/ 
by 1 sett Sley Bells 8/ 
by mending tea Kettle 3/6 

Eliphalet Chapin East Windsor Dr 

To an order from Jacob Norton 

he accepted 

To toe cloth 

Cr by 1 Bureau 

by 1 Tea Table 

by 1 Chest upon Chest 

by 6 chairs at 21/ & bottoming 2/ 

Drake Windsor Cr 

by making 1 pr Hand Irons 
by Two pr Tongs 
by 2 Shovels 
by 1 Grid Iron 

Enos Doolittle Hartford 

by cleaning my Watch 3/ 

Oliver's sometime past perhaps not set down 

Dec. 1790 Enos Doolittle Hartford Cr 

by f Sett Sley Buckles 12/ 
by 1 Sett Sleigh Bells 6/ 



Jan. 1790 



Jan. 1790 



Oct. 1790 



Cr 

He mended 



3. 



4. 5. 

1. 13. 

12. 0. 

6. 18. 

1. 15. 
18. 
12. 

7. 








6 
2 





[ 46 ] 



JOSEPH PEASE 



Feb. 1791 Enos Doolittle Hartford Cr 
by mending Royal's Watch 4/6 

Feb. 1791 Eliphalet Chapin East Windsor Dr 

To I44y 2 lb Cheese at 5 d 3. 0. 

To 34y 2 lb Tallow at 7 d 1. 0. 

D d him at Esq. Fred k Ellsworths E Windsor 

Aug. 1791 Enos Doolittle Hartford Cr 

By Sett Harnes Buckles 12/ 

Dec. 1791 Enos Doolittle Hartford Cr 

by 2 Setts of Sleigh Bells 

1792 From My Log Book 

Eliph* Chapin Enfield Dr 

to 5 logs for Shingles 
June 21, 1791 agree" to Give 6875 
Shingles for the whole 

Jan. 1792 Dorson Drake Windsor Cr 

by Ironing a Dutch Sleigh 3. 6. 2 

by Ironing English Sleigh 3. 5. 5 

Feb. 1792 Lt. Eliphalet King Cr 

by 1 Sleigh frame & Box 60/ 

Dr to plank for the sides 2/ 

July 1792 Lt. Eliphalet King Dr 

To 412 feet Choice Clear Bords at 6/ 1. 4. 8 

To 320 feet Bord at 3/ 9. 7 

To 160 ft. do at 2/ 3. 4 

Nov. 1792 Lt. Eliphalet King Cr 

by 1 Chest 1 Table & 6 Chairs 

all 3. 12. 6 D d Abigail Cushman 

See Plate No. 58. 



[ 47 ] 



'Relative ^Prices 






T 






^#<8MMj!>HE question has been asked many times, no doubt, as 
to whether or not there is any yardstick of comparison 
for the prices paid for eighteenth-century furniture 
with present-day costs of making similar furniture. It 
fe €* poses quite a problem to figure this out with any 
degree of accuracy. The following thoughts are certainly subject to 
question, but they may serve as an answer until a more accurate 
formula is found. 

The most natural avenue of approach would be by way of the 
monetary values then and now, but any research will show how 
utterly impossible that is, particularly when we consider the fluctu- 
ating currency of those days, to say nothing of the questionable value 
of the present-day dollar. They had real inflation during the Revolu- 
tion when the Continental money became practically worthless, as 
the following scale of values found in an old Suffield account book 
shows. 
1777 Sept. 

Oct. 



N 



ov. 



<< 



Dec. 



«( 



1st. 


$100 


1778 Jan. 1st. 


$152 


1779 Jan. 


1st. 


$742 


15th. 


104 


Feb. 1st. 


167 


Feb. 


1st. 


868 


1st. 


109 


Mar. 1st. 


186 


Mar. 


1st. 


1000 


15th. 


115 


Apr. 1st. 


214 


Apr. 


1st. 


1104 


1st. 


121 


May 1st. 


230 








15th. 


127 


June 1st. 


265 








1st. 


133 


July 1st. 


303 








15th. 


139 


Aug. 1st. 
Sept. 1st. 
Oct. 1st. 
Nov. 1st. 
Dec. 1st. 


348 
400 
464 
545 
634 









[ 48 ] 



RELATIVE PRICES 



There was lawful money and unlawful money and hard money 
of most any nationality, but probably the most common medium of 
exchange was produce of any kind used for barter. It is not possible 
to figure today's monetary value of something which was paid for by 
a few yards of cloth, a bushel of rye, or a barrel of cider. 

The more logical method of approach would seem to be through 
the hours of labor necessary for a skilled cabinetmaker to produce 
a certain given piece of furniture, taking into consideration all the 
known variables. Probably the most important of these variables 
would be the allowance of time for the use of the power tools of 
today. We would want two or more pieces authenticated as to 
maker, the date made and the price charged. It would also be desir- 
able to compare the prices charged by more than one cabinetmaker. 

Two such pieces are available for study, namely, the Parsons side- 
board made in Suffield in 1807 and the Aaron Chapin sideboard made 
in Hartford in 1804. The Chapin piece cost $68 and is made of ma- 
hogany with quite heavy inlay, while the Parsons sideboard is of 
cherry wood with more delicate inlay and cost $50. Both pieces were 
made by topflight craftsmen, one in the country and the other in a 
large community. It is obvious why the Chapin piece cost more 
than the other. 

Our next step should be to find out from two cabinetmakers of to- 
day how long, in their opinion, it would take them to reproduce a side- 
board of equal quality to those made by Chapin and Parsons. Two 
such cabinetmakers working in Hartford have been most helpful in 
trying to work out this problem. It so happens that one of these, the 
Nathan Margolis Shop owned and operated by Harold Margolis, 
has reproduced the Chapin sideboard and has the timecards on it. 
The other, Paul Koda, is a fine custom cabinetmaker of long stand- 
ing and reputation, thoroughly schooled in the old-time tools and 
methods of work as well as the modern. 

The Margolis cards indicate that two hundred and eighty (280) 
hours were needed to reproduce the Chapin sideboard and this in- 
cluded the use of modern power tools. The modern workweek being 
40 hours, this represents seven weeks' work for one man — or 35 full 
days of eight hours each. 

In 1791, Joseph Howard, a Suffield cabinetmaker, charged six 



[ 49 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



shillings per day for his own time and three to four shillings per day 
for his boys. In 1797, wages had gone up to eight shillings for Howard 
and five for the boys. In 1809 Parsons charged 85 cents for a day's 
work. So, at this point, taking the accepted rate of exchange (local) 
at the rate of three dollars to the pound, Joseph Howard was receiv- 
ing about one dollar per day and Parsons got less on a later date. 

Assuming that the cabinetmaker in those days worked longer 
hours per day which would offset some of the time saved by power 
tools, we might safely still grant him 25 to 35 per cent more time 
than the thirty-five days taken by the modern cabinetmaker, which 
means that we should figure on a basis of a little over forty-five days 
at possibly 75 cents average per day for the old-time cabinetmaker 
with cheap apprentice help. 

This would account for a wage cost on the Parsons sideboard of 
$33.75, to which we must still add the cost of materials which might 
easily have amounted to $16.25 including the hardware. This is 
certainly close enough to the $50 charged by Parsons for his side- 
board. 

The additional cost of the Robbins sideboard made by Chapin in 
Hartford ($68) can easily be justified by the fact that wages were 
probably a bit higher in the city and also by the fact that mahogany 
was more expensive in those days, just as it is today. The reproduction 
of this sideboard was priced at $1500, being a figure arrived at by 
figuring the 280 hours at $5 per hour, which included not only labor 
but overhead and profit and adding $100 for materials. 

The yardstick, therefore, for a modern, custom-made reproduc- 
tion of an antique of known cost would be about thirty times the 
cost of a similar piece made in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth 
century. 



[ 5o ] 



^A(otes on the Elates 



Plate 1. The Carver type chair came down in the family of George 
Norton and is quite different in appearance from the one which belonged in 
the Sikes family. The Sikes chair, No. 2, is well turned and suggests the 
work of a good chairmaker — if not Victory Sikes, father of Jonathan, who 
we know had carpenter's tools, then perhaps one of the earliest chairmakers 
of Suffield, William Spencer or Joseph Segar — whereas the Norton chair 
is crude with very little turning and suggests rather the work of a novice, 
probably Capt. George Norton himself. 

Plate 2. The turned stool also is from the Jonathan Sikes family, 
and dates from about the turn of the eighteenth century. The stretchers are 
of oak, with fine sausage turnings. The crudely gouge-carved box, No. 9, is 
another heirloom of the Sikes family. The box itself is well made — the 
sides being of oak and the top and bottom of pine. The carver started his 
scroll design on the right-hand side of the front, but found as he went 
along that he would not have enough space to complete four scrolls, there- 
fore each successive one is slightly smaller than the preceding one. 

Finding these three articles of seventeenth- or early eighteenth-century 
origin in the same family, and in a family who were not acquisitive as were 
the Nortons, rather goes to prove that all three were made by someone in 
the family and probably by Victory Sikes, the settler. 

Plate 3, (see page 14) ; 4, (see page 15) ; 5, (see page 16) ; and 6, 
(see page 38). 

Plate 7. A six-legged highboy of walnut veneer supposed to have 
belonged in the Joseph Pease family, but there is no proof of such owner- 
ship. The piece indicates extensive restoration. 

Plate 8. See page 17. 

Plate 9. A grouping of several items from different families. The 
Chippendale mirror was the property of Lt. William King, whose house 

[ 5i ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



still stands in Suffield. On its back is written in old script "David & George 
Merils and for Mr. William King Jr. Suffield." Lt. King died in 1792 
and the mirror descended to his daughter, Lucy, who married Daniel 
Norton. It was found in the Norton house. 

The two bannister back chairs were bought at the auction of furniture 
from the Gay Mansion, and came down in that family from William Gay. 

Plate 1 1. This walnut Queen Anne chair is one of a numbered set, but 
is the only one of the set to be found. The chair came down in the Sheldon 
family and was probably made in this vicinity. 

Plate 12. Chairs made for Gideon Granger, who was a prominent 
lawyer in Suffield and later Postmaster General under President Jefferson. 
There are three of the saddleback type and four of the transition style; 
undoubtedly there were more of each, originally. 

Although there is a great similarity in the two chairs, it is not thought 
that they were made by the same cabinetmaker. One style might have been 
made by Eliphalet King and the other by Ashbel King, both of whom 
probably worked together in the same shop. They were probably made 
following the Revolution, maybe as late as 1790, and are good examples 
of how the rural cabinetmaker adhered to the Queen Anne style. 

Plate 13. Another example of two chairs with similar characteristics 
to the preceding chairs. The commode chair came down in the Leavitt 
family, and the transition armchair in the Norton family. Here again, we 
can attribute them to the Kings. 

Plate 14. A fine example of the Queen Anne couch, which originally 
belonged to Captain Josiah King. His house still stands on the west side 
of High Street north of the Center. The couch went to his sister Rhoda, 
who married Consider Williston, the saddlemaker of the Revolutionary 
period; thence down to his great-granddaughter, Harriet Williston Strong. 

Plate 15. Except for the Dutch feet, this tea table is very much like 
the succeeding one with Spanish feet. It was in the Gay Mansion at the 
time of the famous auction and was sold at that time, so we can assume 
that it came down in the Gay family. 

Plate 16. A very early tea table which might be dated in the first 
quarter of the eighteenth century. The legs are of birch, the apron and top 
of cherry, and the moulding is of walnut, cherry and birch. The boxed slot 
for the candle slides is of hard pine which would indicate a very early 

[ 52 ] 



NOTES ON THE PLATES 



piece. Whether or not the other tea table is so constructed we do not 
know — it probably is. 

Plate 17. A very fine Queen Anne type lowboy about which we know 
very little. The legs are of curly maple and the rest probably cherry. As 
to its family ownership, we know that it came from the Latham family 
who lived on Latham Lane, but theirs was not one of the old Suffield 
families, so even if it has been owned in town for a long time it may not 
have originated here. 

Plate 18. A very early Spanish foot highboy with a wide band of inlay 
outlining the apron and a moulding drawer at the top. So far as is known, 
it is of cherry wood but the peculiar style of the Spanish feet seems to relate 
it to the tea table (Plate 15). If so, then other woods most likely were 
used also. It is known to have come down from Hezekiah Spencer and is 
still owned in that family. 

Plate 19. The looking glass was given as a wedding present to Cap- 
tain Joseph Fuller and Mary King June 30, 1796. 

Plate 20. The pine settle was in the Norton family, and so far as is 
known was one of their early possessions. It now belongs to the Suffield 
Historical Society. 

Plates 21 and 22. See pages 39 and 40. 

Plate 23. See page 29. 

Plate 24. This desk on frame differs very little from others which are 
illustrated herein; it is made of apple wood instead of the usual cherry 
wood. It originally belonged in the Remington family. 

Plate 25. The legs and frame are a little higher on this cherry desk 
than on the others, otherwise it follows much the same pattern. It belonged 
in the Sheldon family and was probably made in Suffield. 

Plate 26. Another cherry desk on frame so typical of those found in 
Suffield. It is an heirloom of the Fuller family. 

Plate 27. This desk is of a later period and of larger size than the pre- 
ceding ones. It was in the Norton family, but the engraved initials on the 
brass keyhole cover (AR) would suggest that it was originally made for 
a person other than a Norton. 

There are very few names of that period beginning with "AR," such 
as Asa Rising, Aretus Rising and Amasa Rumrill. The last name appears 
to be the most logical — for one reason, that he did work for Daniel Norton ; 

[ 53 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



in fact Norton's account book shows that he had a desk painted by Rumrill. 
Another point of interest is that Rumrill's sister married Eliphalet King 
as his second wife, which would point very strongly to the belief that King 
made the desk for Rumrill. 

Plate 28. One of Joseph Pease's sons, probably William, is supposed 
to have made this desk. It is rather crude in appearance as compared with 
those made elsewhere in town. It undoubtedly was a noble effort on his part. 

Plate 29. The cherry chest-on-chest came from the Norton family but 
it does not in any way resemble the usual Suffield type of work. It therefore 
probably is the work of a Springfield or Hartford cabinetmaker. 

Plates 30, 31, 32. See text page 38. 

Plate 33. This clock was originally owned by Asa Pomeroy of Suffield, 
who died in 1846, aged 71 years. He bought the clock for forty silver 
dollars. The movement was made by Osborne Bros., Birmingham, England. 
The case is of cherry wood, inlaid with whalebone and satinwood. 

The use of whalebone on any Suffield piece of furniture leads us to the 
belief that it was made by Parsons; he used whalebone inlay on the authen- 
ticated sideboard (Plate 38). 

Plate 34. The clocks made by Daniel Burnap, East Windsor, have 
always been popular in this vicinity. He records in his account book 
(C.H.S.) the sale of four clockworks to Timothy Swan of Suffield all at 
one time. This clock is quite typical of Burnap clocks; the movement is 
brass and the case is cherry, probably made by Simeon Loomis of Windsor, 
who made so many cases for Burnap. 

The clock originally belonged to Thaddeus Granger, then to his daughter 
Maria, who married Chauncey Pomeroy, thence to their daughter Cornelia 
Jane, wife of Matthew T. Newton. 

Plate 35. Tall Clock, by Moses Wing of Windsor. The case is cherry 
and the dial engraved apparently by D. Porter, whose name also appears 
on the dial in an obscure place. The clock was brought to Suffield by Mary 
Jane Denslow Hatheway of Windsor Locks, in 1857. 

Plates 36 and 37. Tall Clock. Most important by reason of the fact 
that it was made by Simeon Smith of Suffield in 1801. Smith has never 
before been listed as a clockmaker, nor do we know of another example 
of his work. The case is cherry, the dial is brass with simple engraving, and 
the works are of brass. 

[ 54 ] 



NOTES ON THE PLATES 



Simeon Smith was born August 29, 1774 in Suffield. He married Chloe 
Smith May 8, 1798 and he died February 23, 1826. 

Plate 38. See page 32. 

Plate 39. See page 32. 

Plate 40. See page 32. 

Plate 41. This secretary desk belonged to Dr. Asaph L. Bissell, for 
whom Parsons made numerous pieces of furniture, according to his ac- 
count book. Whereas there is no mention of a secretary made for the 
Doctor, it might have been made originally for someone else and so 
charged, all of which makes it impossible to authenticate. The piece does 
have so much of the Parsons style that we feel safe in attributing it to him. 

Plate 42. Bureau. This piece was bought at auction in 1904 for about 
$60 from the estate of Benjamin Phelon on Ratley Road, Suffield. It is 
interesting for several reasons; first, because it is reverse-serpentine, then 
the lovely inlay work, and last because of its large size. Benjamin Phelon 
(the early spelling was Pheland) married Loraine Sheldon in 1848, so 
this may have been a Sheldon family piece, originally. 

Plate 43. This type of bed, with the high slender posts, is sometimes 
called "pencil-post" but this is probably of recent use; it should be called 
a high-post bed. There is little known of the history of this bed other than 
the fact that it was found in a shed in West Suffield along with several 
other beds. It probably belonged to one of the old families in that part 
of town. 

Plate 44. These Chippendale style chairs each represent a set of six, 
both sets coming originally from the estate of Daniel Norton. Upon his 
death, a list of household goods was made out for his widow and another 
list for his daughter. Each list shows a set of six cherry chairs, and there is 
no doubt that Mrs. Norton took the larger chairs with the slip seats, while 
the daughter Lucy was given the smaller chairs with upholstered seats, 
probably because they seemed more suitable for a young girl. 

The chairs appear to have been made by the same cabinetmaker, either 
Eliphalet King or Joseph Howard. 

Plates 45 and 46. See page 21. 

Plate 47. A Windsor chair with this shaped back is certainly unusual 
if not unique, and there is perhaps a good reason for its being so. It would 
appear that the chairmaker tried to create a suggestion of the Chippendale 

[ 55 1 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



by putting the double bend in the top of the back, and we are told that to 
do this must have been more of a job than he thought it would be. It is 
thought that after making this one chair he decided that it just wasn't 
worth the effort to make another. 



Plate 48. See text page 35. 



[ 56 ] 






v^ar la or "mar "mar "mar "mar "mar "mar "mar "mw 

H, 



THE "PLATES 



WS£ ^"^ ^"5^ ^£"5^ ^"S^ ^sr ^ ^"^ ^r ^ ^"5^ « 

r*\BL JR 50. jR jn. jR jo. jR jo. jR JO- jR JO. jR jo. jR so. 







PLATE I - NORTON CHAIR, 17TH C. 



[ 58 ] 




PLATE 2 - SIKES CHAIR AND TURNED STOOL, I 7TH C. 



[ 59 ] 








PLATE 3 - HADLEY TYPE CHEST, 17OI 



[ 60 ] 




PLATE 4 - HADLEY TYPE CHEST, C. I 700 



[ 6l ] 




PLATE 5 -FIVE-LEGGED CHEST WITH DRAWERS, LATE 17TH C. 



[ 62 ] 




PLATE 6 - SIX-LEGGED HIGHBOY, C. 170O 



[ 63 ] 




PLATE 7 - SIX-LEGGED HIGHBOY. WALNUT, C. 171O 



[ 64 ] 




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[ 6 5 ] 




PLATE 9 -A GROUPING OF EARLY PIECES 



[ 66 ] 




PLATE IO- BUTTERFLY TABLE WITH TURNED STRETCHERS, 17TH C. 



[ 67 ] 




PLATE II -WALNUT QUEEN ANNE STYLE CHAIR, EARLY 18TH C. 



[ 68 ] 




X 

cc 
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[ 69 ] 
















[ ?o ] 




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PL, 



[ 71 ] 




PLATE 15 -CHERRY TEA TABLE, 1725-50 



[ 72 ] 




PLATE 16-TEA TABLE, SPANISH FEET, 1725-50 



[ 73 ] 




PLATE 17 -CHERRY AND CURLY MAPLE LOWBOY, C. I75O 



[ 74 ] 




PLATE l8- INLAID HIGHBOY, MOULDING DRAWER, C. 1725-1750 



[ 75 ] 




PLATE 19 — MAHOGANY LOOKING GLASS, MID-18TH C. 



[ 76 ] 




PLATE 20- PINE SETTLE, EARLY I 8TH C. 



[ 77 ] 




PLATE 21 -CHERRY SECRETARY, IN THREE PARTS, 1725-50 



[ 73 ] 




PLATE 22 -CHERRY SECRETARY, IN THREE PARTS, I725-5O 



[ 79 ] 




PLATE 23-CHAPIN STYLE SECRETARY, C. 179O 



[ SO ] 




PLATE 24-FRUITWOOD DESK ON FRAME, 1725-50 



[ 81 ] 



2^^652- 




I 



PLATE 25 -CHERRY DESK OX FRAME, I725-5O 



[ 82 ] 




PLATE 26 -CHERRY DESK ON FRAME, 1725-50 



[ 83 ] 




PLATE 27 -CHERRY DESK, C. 179O 



[ 84 ] 




PLATE 28 -CHERRY DESK, C. 180O 



[ 85 ] 




PLATE 29 - CHERRY CHEST-OX-CHEST, C. I 790 



[ 36 ] 






^Jk/ 






y/ i 



\ 



■if 1/ 



PLATE 30 - DAVID ELLSWORTH TALL CLOCK, I 793 



[ 87 ] 



v^£r*-~ * 



( v ^ 







^v 



8 ^ 



WIKDSQR 




PLATE 31 -DIAL OF THE ELLSWORTH CLOCK 



[ 88 ] 




i 



PLATE 32 - FRAME FOR SILK WINDOWS IN THE ELLSWORTH CLOCK 

(c. 3x9 inches) 



[ 89 ] 




PLATE 33 -TALL CLOCK, C. I 79O 



[ 90 ] 




PLATE 34 -TALL CLOCK BY DANIEL BURNAP, C. I 790 

[ 91 ] 





PLATE 35 - MOSES WING TALL CLOCK, I 79O 



[ 92 ] 




iwgfv A {'d), 





^ 





PLATE 36 - DIAL OF CLOCK BY SIMEON SMITH, SUFFIELD, C. 179O 



[ 93 ] 






PLATE 37 -TALL CLOCK BY SIMEON SMITH, SUFFIELD, C. I 790 



[ 94 ] 




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[ 95 ] 










PLATE 39 - SIDEBOARD ATTRIBUTED TO PARSONS, C. I 8oO 



[ 96 ] 




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[ 97 ] 




PLATE 41 -MAHOGANY SECRETARY, PROBABLY BY PARSONS, C. 1800 



[ 98 ] 




PLATE 42 -CHEST OF DRAWERS, C. I79O 



[ 99 ] 




PLATE 43 - PENCIL-POST BED, MAPLE, C. I75O 



[ IOO ] 





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PLATE 45 - CORNER CUPBOARD, ELIPHALET KING HOUSE, I 765 



[ I02 ] 




PLATE 46 - CORNER CUPBOARD, ALEXANDER KING HOUSE, I 764 



[ 103 ] 




PLATE 47 -WINDSOR CHAIR, POSSIBLY UNIQUE, LATE I 8TH C. 



[ 104 ] 




PLATE 48 - FANCY CHAIR, SET OF SEVEN, EARLY I9TH C. 



[ I05 ] 




PLATE 49 - 18TH-CENTURY PORTRAIT, PROBABLY DANIEL NORTON 



[ 106 ] 




[ io7 ] 




PLATE 51 -THE GAY MANSE, I 742 



[ 108 ] 




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[ I09 ] 





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PLATE 53 -THE GAY MANSION, C. 1 795 



[ no ] 





PLATE 54 -ROOMS IN THE GAY MANSION 



[ HI ] 





PLATE 55 -THE JOSEPH PEASE HOUSE, 1760 



[ 112 ] 



ar ~as sr m ar its iff ~us iff tit iff tt> iff as w "W iff os iff ~R£ iff "tti iff "ttf iff ttf 



Appendix 



I. PLATES NO. 56-60 

II. EXCERPTS FROM 

JOHN FITCH PARSONS' ACCOUNT BOOK 

III. "THE POOL" 



TO. JR JR. JR. JR. JR JR. JR JR. JR JR. JR JR. JR JR. JR JR. JR JR. JR JR. JR JR. JR JR. JR 




[ H4 ] 







[ H5 ] 



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PLATE 58 - FROM THE JOSEPH PEASE ACCOUNT BOOK 

[ H6 ] 



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PLATE 59 - FROM THE DANIEL NORTON ACCOUNT BOOK 



[ »7 ] 






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PLATE 6o - FROM THE JOHN FITCH PARSONS ACCOUNT BOOK 



[ »8 ] 



APPENDIX 



EXCERPTS FROM 



JOHN FITCH PARSONS' ACCOUNT BOOK 



The following selected accounts from Parsons' Account Book are 
printed to show the scope of his work. The Account Book itself is 
available at the Kent Memorial Library in Suffield. 



Aug 






1803 




Jonah King 




To 


a cutting box 1.25 


May 






1810 




Gideon Granger (Postmaster General) 




To 


a Side board 50. — 




ti 


" high post bedstid 12. — 




11 


" pare of nife boxes 12. — 




II 


boxing work 5. — 




u 


delivering the above work to New Haven 10. — 




89.— 


Sept 






1804 




Gad Taylor 



To honing 2 rasors 

To a set of waggin boxes 

" " burow 

" " dining table 
changing tables 
To weaving 13 yards of cloath 

1807 Frederick Taylor 
To a little chair 

cane 

pine table 
cherry table 

1808 " " close horse 
safe cubbord 
turnup bedstid 



0.12s 

1.50 

17.50 

7.— 

.50 

1.8 



0.34 
0.50 

2.— 
3.— 

3.— 
2.25 
3.50 



[ ii9 ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 



1809 


<( 


" clockcase 


7.— 




u 


" iireboard 


.50 




<( 


weaving 16 yards cloath 


1.34 




To 


putting a handle on a chopping nife 


.06 


1810 


II 


making a carriage seat 


.25 


1811 




Books 

John Dewey 


12.33 


1808 


To 


a beaurow delivered to John Luis 


12.— 


1809 


(i 


" beaurow & dining table delivered to John Luis 


19.— 


1810 


(< 


" sideboard 


50.— 




U 


" jointer 


1.— 




II 


" clock case delivered to Doct. Peas 


16.67 


1811 


II 


" shuttle 


.50 




II 


too shad 


.25 




(( 


my waggin to hampton 


2.— 




(( 


a press bedstid for Shadrick Trumble 


3.50 




11 


" pare of tables 


16.— 




II 


" bedstid cherry 


9.— 




II 


" bedstid common 


2.— 




II 


" stand 


2.— 




(( 


" harness for a carriage 


45.— 




II 


platid work for carriage 


15.— 




II 


flackseed 


.42 




II 


a butment on carriage 


10.— 




II 


order on Kellogue K. Kent 
Samuel King 


14.— 


1809 


To 


a field bedstid 


7.— 






" one horse waggin 


50.— 


1810 




my waggin to Westfield 


.50 






reparing a table 


.33 


1818 




a small coffin 


1.— 


1819 




" small coffin 


1.25 


1821 




2 bedstids 


4.— 






reparing a table 


.75 






reparing a table 


.69 



[ 120 ] 



APPENDIX 






reparing a stand 
a bedstid 



1809 



1810 



1811 
1812 



Contra 



A stone pot 



a 



By 






too stone jugs 

300 ft. of boards at 1 1 pr thousand 

400 ft. of pine boards 

100 ft. of clear stef boards 

3 thousand shingles 

370 feet of boards 

pine boards 

pine plank 

600 feet of pine boards at 9 dollars pr thousand 

2 thousand of shingle 

164 feet of pine boards 

252 pine boards 

boards and plank 

2500 shingle at 2.5 cents pr thousand 



1813 



Seth Parsons 

To an order on Dr Currier 
a dining table 
one barrel of cider 

Cash 
Cash 

3 brooms & a spade handle 

putting boards in your house 

a breakfirst table 

" bedsted 

putting a handle on a hoe & hammer 

a kitching table 

" toilet table 

" side board 

account on Israel Spencer 

a stand table 

" field bedsted 

" churn dasher 



.12 

2.— 

.50 
.25 
.42 
3.30 
4.40 
1.60 
8.— 
3.84 
2.9 
2.50 
5.40 
5.— 
1.80 
3.00 
7.68 
6.25 



16.— 

7.50 
.83 

17.— 
10.— 

.50 

.50 

5.50 

2.— 

.18 

2.— 

1.50 

50.— 

3.50 

3.— 

5.50 

.25 



[ i2i ] 



SUFFIELD • CONNECTICUT 





Contra 


1810 


By cash 




" Cash 




" cash 




To order on Butlers Store 


1812 


By cash 




" cash 


1813 


" three hundred of hay 




By cash 



6.— 

5.— 
5.— 
3.08 

5.— 
7.— 

.25 
.25 



Asahel Hathaway 

1810 To altering a case of draws into too beaurows 3.50 
putting on locks and repares .50 

three locks .34 

a little chair .38 

" pare of crickets 1. — 

1812 " reparing a bedstid & three chairs and wash stand .87 

a crick bedstid 1.33 

1815 " reparing a spinning head .08 

a coffin 2.25 
reparing a crick bedstid .75 

1829 " a coffin 8.— 

" box .50 



[ 122 ] 



APPENDIX 



''The Tool 



99 



Connecticut Journal, June 24, 1795 
From the Connecticut Courant 

Mess'rs PRINTERS 

A MINERAL SPRING has lately been discovered 
in Suffield, Hartford County, State of Connecticut, the drinking of 
said water is almost a certain cure for the Gravel, or an inflammation 
which hinders the free circulation of the urine. It has cured a great 
number, and has not failed in any instance where it has been strictly 
attended to. The subscriber can by experience testify to the above 
. . . Many also have found immediate relief for pain in the head, 
sore eyes, breaking out in the head and face, salt rheum, etc. It is 
likely there will soon be convenience for plunging. For further 
information apply to Alexander King, Esq. in Suffield, Physician, 
or to Mr. Uriah Austin, who owns said Spring. 

THOMAS NOBLE 



In 1807, Ebenezer King, Jr. began buying up land in the vicinity 
of this Mineral Spring. He and his brother Fidilio finally bought 
twenty acres from Uriah Austin which included the Spring or 
"Pool," as it was later called. 

Judging from the advertisements and testimonials, the water was 
considered to have valuable medicinal qualities which should attract 
a clientele suffering from various complaints. King, therefore, built 
a large three-story house with two wings to serve as a hotel where 
the public could stay in comfort near the Spring. 

Mr. King also wanted the furnishings of the house to be in keep- 
ing, and had many items of furniture made by the Suffield cabinet- 
maker, John Fitch Parsons. These articles are described in an earlier 
chapter as being the only pieces authenticated as being made by 
Parsons — particularly the sideboard, end tables and candlestand. 

[ 123 ] 



SUFFIELD ■ CONNECTICUT 



Apparently, Ebenezer King lived at "The Pool" until his death 
in 1824, but had leased the property to Timothy Phelps, who acted 
as manager of the Spa. The following advertisement would indicate 
this. 

SUFFIELD MINERAL SPRING 

The subscriber respectfully informs his friends and the public 
at large, that he purposes to continue at this stand the approaching 
season — The liberal encouragement given, and the universal satis- 
faction expressed by ladies and gentlemen from Boston, New 
York, Providence and many of the principal towns in Connecticut, 
induce him to extend and improve his accommodations, and to 
assure the public, that he will omit no expense or exertion neces- 
sary to render the place inviting and satisfactory to genteel com- 
pany. For salubrity of air, the situation is not exceeded by any in 
the United States. To those who honored him with their company 
in his first attempts the last season he refers with confidence, and 
solicits further patronage. — The superior qualities and salutary 
effect of these waters in the dropsey, gravel, scorbutic and other 
complaints, are too well known to require minute description. 
Among a multitude of other certificates which might be offered, 
those only of the late Chief Justice of the United States, Mr. 
Ellsworth, and Dr. Cogswell of Hartford are subjoined. 

Suffield, April 10, 1811. 

TIMOTHY PHELPS 

Ebenezer King died and the property went to his daughter Ara- 
bella by inheritance. Thereafter, the whole enterprise was something 
of a failure as a Spa. She and her second husband, Deacon Reuben 
Granger, later conducted a boys' school there, but it would appear 
that this venture also was a failure. 

The Pool house stood until about 1909 when it burned to the 
ground. The Spring itself remains as a rather dirty sulphurous water 
hole, and it is easily understandable why the natives in the early 
days referred to it as "Squaw water." 



[ 124 ] 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

My sincere thanks are more than due the following individuals and organ- 
izations for their help and cooperation in assisting me with this record: 



Mr. Newton C. Brainard 

Mr. James Brewster, Librarian 
Connecticut State Library 

Mrs. Henry M. Clark, Jr. 

Mrs. John Collins 

Connecticut Historical Society 
and staff 

Mrs. Carrie Crane 

Mr. John M. K. Davis 

Mrs. Frances Edwards 

Mrs. Charles Fuller 

Mr. William S. Fuller 

Mr. Thompson R. Harlow, 

Director Connecticut Historical 
Society 

Mr. Allerton Hickmott 

Mrs. Harold Holcombe 

Mrs. Jennie H. Holloway 

The Kent Memorial Library 
and staff 



Mr. Paul Koda 

Mr. Karl C. Kulle 

Mr. Harold Margolis 

Mr. Edward A. Pease 

Miss Edna Pomeroy 

The Probate Court at Hartford 

The Probate Court at 

Northampton, Massachusetts 

The Probate Court at Suffield 

Mr. Harold N. Remington, 
Town Clerk, Suffield 

Mrs. Sherburn Rockwell 

Mr. C. Luther Spencer 

Mr. Samuel Reid Spencer 

The Suffield Academy 

Suffield Historical Society 

Mr. Damon F. Sutton 

Mr. Everett C. Willson 



Photography : Arrow Commercial Photo Service; Roger Loomis 



[ 125 ] 



I^CDEX 



Account Books, n 

Howard, Joseph, 12, 19 

McMorran, John, 12 

Norton, Daniel, 38, 54; ill. 117 

Parsons, John Fitch, 31; ill. 118, 119-122 

Pease, Joseph, 45-47; ill. 116 

Ailing, Mrs. Elsie, 9 

Austin, Richard, 14; Uriah, 123 

Barber, John Warner, 19; ill. 114, 115 
Bed, pencil-post, 55; ill. 100 
Benjamin, Asher, 8, 20 
Bissell, Dr. Asaph L., 22, 54 
Boxes: 

Bible, 14, 17 ; ill. 65 

Carved, 51 ; ill. 66 
Burbank, Abraham, 20 
Burnap, Daniel, 9, 39, 54; ill. 91 

Candlestands, 22, 32; ill. 97 
Carpenters. See list on pages 23-28 
Carver. See Chairs 
Chairs: 

Armchair, 52 ; ill. 70 

Carver type, 14, 37, 51; ill. 58 

Chippendale style, 9, 37, 55; ill. 101 

Commode, 52; ill. 70 

Granger, 35, 36, 52; ill. 69 

Queen Anne style, 9, 52; ill. 68, 69 , 

Rocker, 35 

Sheraton style, 35; ill. 105 

Sikes, 14, 51 ; ill. 59 

Sway back, 22 

Windsor, 9, 37, 55; ill. 104 
Chapin — Aaron, 28, 49; Eliphelet, 8, 28-30, 

39, 80 
Chests: 

Bonnet top, 37 

Cherry chest-on-chest, 54; ill. 86 

Five-legged, 14, 36; ill. 62 

Hadley, 14-17; ill. 6o, 61 

H-N, 16, 17; ill. 61 

Reverse serpentine, 55; ill. 99 

Thankfull Taylor, 14, 15; ill. 60 
Chippendale style: 

Chairs, 9, 37, 55, 56; ill. 101 

Looking glasses, 37, 51, 53; ill. 66, 76 
Church, Congregational, 19, 20, 22; ill. 114, 

"5 

Clocks: Burnap, Daniel, 39, 54; ill. 91 

Ellsworth, David, 38, 39; ill. 87, 88, 89 

Parsons, 54 

Smith, Simeon. 54; ill. 93, 94 

Tall, 54; ill. 90 

Wing, Moses, 54; ill. 92 
Copley, Sr., Thomas, 16 



Couch, Queen Anne style, 52; ill. 71 

Cupboards: 

Alexander King House, 21 ; ill. 103 
Eliphalet King House, 21; ill. 102 

Desks, 53, 54; ill. 81, 82, 83, 84, 85 
Dewey — David, 19; Hannah, 19; John, 22 

Ellsworth — David, 38; ill. 87, 88, 89; Justice 

Oliver, 39 
Empire style, 13 
End tables, 32; ill. 97 

Fuller — family, 53; Mrs. Emma J., 29; Dr. 
Horace, 16 

Gay — Rev. Ebenezer, 10; William, 52 

Gay Manse, 10; ill. 108 

Gay Mansion, 9, 52; ill. no— m 

Granger — Ebenezer, 22; Gideon, Jr., 35, 52, 

ill. 69; Maria, 54; Reuben, 124; Thad- 

deus, 54 

Hadley chests, 14, 16 ; ill. 60, 61 

Hastings, Rev. Joseph, 40 

Hatheway — Ashel, 8, 20, 29, 30; Jacob, 18; 

Louise, 29; Mary Jane Denslow, 54 
Hatheway Place, 8, 20; ill. 109 
Hepplewhite style, 13; sideboard, 9, 10 
Hickmott— W. J., Jr., 15; W. J., Sr., 15 
Highboys: 

Chapin, Eliphelet, 28 

Five-legged, 14, 36; ill. 62 

Inlaid, 53 ; ill. 75 

Six-legged, 38, 15; ill. 63, 64 
Houses: 

Burbank, Abraham, 20 

Gay Manse, 10; ill. 108 

Gay Mansion, 9, 52; ill. no— in 

Hatheway Place, 8; ill. 109 

King, Capt. Josiah, 52 

King, William, 10 

Loomis, Luther, 10 

Norton, Daniel, 34; ill. 107 

Pease, Joseph, 8, 42; ill. 112 

Phelps, Oliver, 8, 20, 29 

Phelps, Timothy, 20 

Pool, The, 123-124 

Remington, Daniel, 10 

Sheldon, Jonathan, 10 

Spencer, Daniel, 10 

Swan, Timothy, 20 

Tod, David, 20 
Hovey — Clarissa, 31; Ebenezer, 31; Fanny, 

31 ; Ralph, 31 
Howard, Joseph, n, 12, 18, 19, 21, 49, 50, 55 
Huntington — Hezekiah, 32; Samuel H., 18 



[ 127 ] 



IXDEX 



Joiners. See list on pages 23-28 
Journals — Pease, Joseph, 42-44; Leavitt, 
Thaddeus, 19 

King — Alexander, 123; Dr. Appollos, 21, 52; 
Arabella, 124; Ashbel, 18-22, 52; Eben- 
ezer, Jr., 9, 123-124; Eliphalet, 18, 20, 
21, 52, 54, 55 ; Fidilio, 123 ; Capt. Josiah, 
52; Lucy, 52; Mindwell, 42; Rhoda, 
52 ; William, 10, 51, 52 

Koda, Paul, 49 

Latham family, 53 

Leavitt — Capt. Asaph, 42; Jemima, 39; John, 
40, 52; Thaddeus, 19 

Lewis, John, 22 

Lockwood, Luke Vincent, 15 

Loomis — Luther, 10; Simeon, 54; Hon. Wil- 
liam L., 16 

Lowboy, 53 ; ill. 74 

Margolis, Howard, 49 
McMorran, John, 11, 12, 22 
Mirrors, 37, 51; ill. 66, 76 

Newton, Mathew T., 54 

Norton — family, 51, 52, 53, 54; Daniel, 34, 
37—39, 54, 55, ill. 106, 107, 117; Daniel 
W., 18 ; Capt. George, 14, 34, 37-39, 5 1 ," 
John Pease, 34, 52 

Nutting, Wallace, 28 

Paper Mills, 8 

Parsons, John Fitch, 2, 9, 10, 11, 13, 22, 31, 

39, 54, 55; J"- 95-98, 118, 119-122, 123 
Pease — John, 41 ; Joseph, 41-47, 51, 54. ill. 

112, 116; Joseph, Sr., 41, 51; Mary 

(Spencer), 42; William, 54 
Pembroke table, 32, 33 
Phelon, Benjamin, 55 
Phelps — Eber, 22; Oliver, 8, 20, 29; Timothy, 

20, 124 
Pilgrim type furniture, 13, 14-17 
Plates, Notes on the, 51-56 
Pomeroy — Asa, 54; Chauncey, 54; Cornelia 

Jane, 54 
"Pool, The." See Spring, Mineral 
Prices, 16, 32, 33, 39, 45-47, 48-50, 1 19-122 
Pynchon, Major John, 5, 6 

Queen Anne style, 13, 52 
Chairs, 9, 52, 68^ 69 
Couch, 52, 71 
Secretary, 39-40; ill. 78 

Remington — family, 53; Daniel, 10; F. S., 
15; Jonathan, Sr., 16; Mary, 20; Sarah 
Hovey, 16 
Rising — Aretus, 53 ; Asa, 53 
Rumrill — Amasa, 53, 54; Silence, 20 

School House, 19; ill. 114-115 
Secretaries: 

Bookcase, 22 

Chapin type, 29, 30; ill. 80 



Cherry, ill. 79 

Parsons, 55 ; ill. 98 

Plain, 28 

Queen Anne style, 37, 39, 40; ill. 78 
Segar, Joseph, 51 
Selden, Mary, 16 
Settle, Pine, early, 77 

Sheldon — family, 52, 53, 55; Ebenezer, 20; 
Hezekiah. S., 5, 19; Jonathan, 10; 
Loraine, 55 
Sheraton style chairs, 35; ill. 105 
Sideboards: 

Chapin, 28, 49 

Hepplewhite style, 9, 10 

Parsons, 32, 33, 49; ill. 95, 96 

Robbins, 28, 50 
Sikes chair, 51 ; ill. 59 

Sikes — Frank H., 31; Jonathan, 14, 51; Vic- 
tory, 14, 51 
Smith, Simeon, 54, 55; ill. 93, 94 
Spencer — Daniel, 10; Hezekiah, 53; Samuel 

Reid, 32 ; William, 51 
Spring, Mineral, 123 

Stands — Parsons, 32, ill. 97; Ashbel King, 22 
Stiles, Widow Martha, 39 
Stool, 14, 51 ; ill. 59 
Strong, Harriet Williston, 52 
Suffield: 

Academy, 10, 108 

Bi-Centennial, 18 

Carpenters and Joiners, 23-28 

Early history, 2, 5—7, 34 

Early records, n 

Furniture, n-13, et seqq. 

Historical Society, 53 

Houses, 8-10 

Library, Kent Memorial, 11, 18 

Mineral Spring, 123-124 

Papermaking, 7 

Tobacco, 7 
Suffield Historical Collections, 5, 19 
Swan, Timothy, 20 

Tables: 

Butterfly, 37; ill. 67 

End, 32 ; ill. 97 

Pembroke, 32, 33 

Stand, 22, 32 ; ill. 97 

Tea, cherry, 52; ill. 72 

Tea, Spanish feet, 53; ill. 73 
Taylor — Samuel, 16; Thankful L., 15, 16 
Taylor, Thankful!, 14, 15, 16 
Tod, David, 20 
Tools, 34, 42 

Warner, Nathaniel, 16 

Warner, Thankfull, 16 

Washington, Gen. George, 18 

Williston, Consider, 52 

Windsor style chairs, 9, 37, 55; ill. 104 

Wing, Moses, 54; ill. 92 

Woods, 12, 13, 21, 32, 37, 38, 51-55 



[ 128 ] 



ar ia ar iff ar ~ttf ar "W "Of ar its ttr "afar "ut ar Ttf ar "ttf 

Seven Hundred and Fifty Copies of this Book, 
Designed by Robert L. Dothard, 

have been Produced by 

Connecticut Printers, Incorporated. 

The Type is Caslon, 

the Halftone Paper is Cumberland Dull, 

the Text and Of set Paper is Colophon. 

The Binding is by Russell Rutter Company. 

■%^"%^"%^"%^"%^"%^"%^"%^"%^"'%^ 

Jtt. Jk. yX. Jm. 5*L Jr. S*l_ Jft 5«, Jtt 5*1. Jtt 5*1. S*L 5H. Jtt 5tL Jk. 511. Stt 




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