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INTRODUCTION. 



The following work will, at present, be limited 
to the investigation of Tumours, Scrofulous Affec- 
tions, and Inflammation of the Liver. 

The structure of the Liver is impaired in differ- 
ent modes by these diseases, for Tumours are 
chiefly injurious to it by their unlimited powers of 
growth or multiplication; but Inflammation simply 
disorganizes ihe Liver by obliterating its structure. 
Hence the ultimate state of the former, is the utmost 
degree of enlargement which is compatible with life ; 
of the latter, rather a reduction of bulk, but an in- 
crease of solidity. Scrofula only proves destructive 
to the structure of organs when its Tubercles in- 
flame : the disorganizing effect of this disease upon 
the Liver is therefore analogous to that of Inflamma- 
tion. 

B 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

These Changes of Structure will be illustrated 
by Coloured Engravings, so highly finished as to 
present faithful pictures of the morbid appear- 
ances. The anatomical character and symptoms of 
the diseases, accompanied with a series of Cases, 
will be given, and the Particular Cases from which 
the drawings have been made will most commonly 
be selected. 

Morbid Anatomy, considered only as a part of 
natural history, is an interesting study ; but it con- 
duces to a more important end, when, by a combi- 
nation of the histories of cases with the representa- 
tions of the corresponding morbid appearances, it 
affords a standard of comparison and an instrument 
of research to the younger members of the profession. 
The author was forcibly impressed with the im- 
portance of this combination, on comparing the 
opposite methods of two distinguished writers on 
this subject — Morgagni and Baillie. But besides 
yielding a knowledge of the palpable forms of disease, 
this method, if diligently and fully pursued, is 



INTRODUCTION. 



capable of putting to the test the powers of medi- 
cine, and of preventing the multiplication of error 
by partial observation. Thus the contrast of the 
incurable with the curable forms of disease may be 
applied to a practical purpose of the greatest utility, 
when, by the conjoined labours of the profession, 
the characters and symptoms of diseases shall be 
farther developed, and nosology shall receive 
the last improvement of which it admits. 



4 



DEFINITIONS. 



TuMORES.* Swellings, either circumscribed or diffused, gene- 
rally differing in structure from the natural textures of the 
affected organs, and increasing in bulk by an inherent growth. 

Tuber A. -f Tumours of a cellular structure and fungous nature, 
producing, in general, remarkable elevations on the surfaces of 
the affected parts. 

TuBERA Circumscripta.^ Tubera determinate in their figure, 
and limited in their seat chiefly to the liver. 

Tubera Diffusa. Tubera indeterminate in their figure, dif- 
fused through the affected organ, or dispersed in many textures 
of the body. 

* The word Tumour, in its medical sense, is very indefinite, importing simply increased bulk ; for 
thus Morgagni uses it, when he treats of diseases both of the liver and spleen under the common head 
of tumour and pain of the hypochondria. Thus also it is more extensively applied by Linnaeus, Vogel, 
and Cullen. But its meaning, in this work, is nearly restricted by the above definition to that sense in 
which it has been lately employed in surgery : viz. to " such swellings as arise from some new produc- 
tion, which made no part of the original composition of the body." Mr. Abernethy's Surgical 

Observations on the Classification of Tumours, p. 6. Edit. 1804. 

•f Sauvages and Sagar have constituted Tubera an order of their class Cachexiae ; but they both use 
this term only in the sense of protuberances, by no means intending to express the nature of the 
diseases, for they have arranged under it the most dissimilar genera. 

J Synonym. — Tiie Large White Tubercle of the Liver. — Dr. Baillie. 

Morbid Anatomy : chap. IX. p. 217. 3d. edition. 
Engravings, 5thFasc. PI. III. Fig. 2, 3. 

It is with extreme reluctance and diffidence that the author ventures to propose another name for 
this disease, but the epithets " large white" are not characteristic, being common to both species, 
and belong indeed in a more remarkable degree to Species II. It seemed to him also objectionable 
to apply the term. Tubercles, indifferently to these large tumours, to certain irregularities of surface 
produced by chronic inflammation, and to scrofula. 



ORDER I. TUMORES 



I. TUBERA. 

Numerous Tumours in the Liver, approximating in cha» 
racter, and evidently allied in kind, are arranged under this 
simple generical term, which is selected, because it not only 
expresses the diagnostic sign, that chiefly serves to distinguish 
them from other diseases, but also indicates their fungous nature. ■ 
To one species of these tumours, termed, in this work, 
Tubera Circumscripta, the liver seems to be principally subject ; 
but by the other species, named Tubera Diffusa, the various 
textures of the body are as liable to be infested as the liver 
itself. 

I. TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 

Character. Their colour inclines to a yellowish white, they 
elevate the peritoneal tunic of the liver, and their projecting 
surfaces, slightly variegated with red vessels, deviate from a 
regular swell by a peculiar indentation at or near their centres, 
which are perfectly white and opaque. They vary much in size, 



6 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 



which depends on the duration of each Tuber ; for at its first ap- 
pearance it is very minute, but during its growth it assumes ' 
the character above described, and at its maturity exceeds an inch 
in its diameter. They adhere intimately to the liver, and their figure 
is well defined. In the interstices of the Tubera, the liver is paler 
and more flabby, its cohesion is weaker than natural, and slight 
effusions of blood are sometimes found. They commonly remain 
distinct at the surface of the liver, but internally they ultimately 
coalesce, and form immense morbid masses which pervade its 
substance. The patient often lives until the mass occupies the 
greatest part of the abdomen, and the natural structure of the 
liver is nearly supplanted. They possess so close a cellular 
structure, that the section of them, at first view, appears solid 
and inorganic ; but on the edge of the knife, by which they have 
been dissevered, an opaque white fluid, of the consistence of 
cream, is left, and a fresh portion of this fluid is gathered on it 
at each time that it is repassed over the surface of the section. 
Their cellular structure becomes more apparent after long mace- 
ration. 

Symptoms. The patient suffers pain in the region of the 
liver, languor, loss of appetite, and cough ; but until the liver, 
by the growth of the Tubera, descends below the hypochondria, 
a distinct judgment of the case cannot be formed : then the func- 
tions of the alimentary canal are more impaired, the body wastes, 
and the enlargement of the liver, its hardness and remarkable 
irregularity of surface, may be distinguished through the 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 



7 



parietes of the abdomen. In the advanced stage the patient is 
distressed by its enormous bulk, the respiration is oppressed, the 
bowels are prone to diarrhoea. Neither jaundice nor serous effu- 
sion into the peritoneum are symptomatic of this disease : they 
may be conjoined, but it is an accidental circumstance, rather than 
a necessary consequence. 

CASE I. 

Mr.W., at the age of sixty years, complained of languor, loss 
of appetite, pain in the region of the hver, and cough. Of these 
symptoms the two first long preceded the direct signs of hepatic 
disease. For twelve years he had eaten sparingly, and his beve- 
rage had been porter, or, occasionally, a little wine ; but in his 
youth he had been less temperate. During the last twelve months 
he had always gone to bed immediately after dinner, complaining 
of great languor. For many years he had been subject to frequent 
fits of gout, which usually lasted six or eight weeks. He had 
been accustomed to use spice freely, and to take large doses of 
guaiacum and opium in tincture. 

It was in April, 1805, that the distinct symptoms of hepatic 
disease appeared ; but, disregarding them, he continued to pur- 
sue his mercantile concerns until September. On the tenth of 
that month he sought medical aid. His symptoms, at that time, 
were the following : great fulness, and dull pain of the right side, 
much increased by pressure on the epigastrium ; considerable 
hardness and irregularity of the epigastric, right umbilical, and 



8 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 



iliac regions ; difficult respiration, cough, and expectoration of a 
viscid mucus ; inability of lying in the horizontal posture ; frequent 
pulse, pale urine, torpid bowels. 

He was first purged with neutral salts in an infusion of senna, 
and then directed to take a grain of the submuriate of mercury 
night and morning. His bowels being too much affected by the 
internal use of mercury, it was omitted, and, in its stead, half a 
drachm of the strong mercurial ointment was rubbed in every 
night. His mouth became sore in a week. Although his pain and 
dyspnoea were somewhat relieved, his strength decreased. At the 
end of a fortnight his urine deposited a lateritious sediment, and 
his stools were thin, fetid, clay-coloured, and numerous. The 
acetate of potash in an infusion of gentian, and subsequently the 
decoction of cinchona with an opiate at night, were prescribed. 
In this state, and under this treatment, he continued three weeks 
longer. A large blister was then applied to the region of the 
liver, and a drachm of the sulphate of magnesia in a decoction of 
taraxacum was given to him thrice a day. The increased fre- 
quency of evacuation from his bowels forbade the continuance of 
this medicine. It was changed for the chalk mixture with aro- 
matic confection ; but the diarrhoea continued, and was now 
accompanied with enfeebled pulse, frequent cough, dyspnoea, 
oedematous swellings of the lower extremities, brown tongue, 
aphthae, singultus, and at the end of another week, being the sixth 
from his confinement, he died. 

This patient had been under the care of an experienced 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 



9 



surgeon and apothecary, and was also subsequently attended 
by an eminent physician. The author was requested to conduct 
the examination of the body. 

Inspection on the 55th of October, 1805, thirty-eight hours 
after death. 

External appearances. The body was emaciated, the abdo- 
men tumid, and irregular to the touch on the right side, the skin 
sallow, but not jaundiced. 

Abdomen. The liver, on account of its prodigious size, 
and the previous history of the case, first attracted our attention. 
The right lobe occupied the whole of the right hypochondriac and 
iliac regions, and covered the right kidney ; and its edge, which 
is usually seen just within the margin of the ribs, rested in the 
hollow of the right ilium. The left lobe spread over the stomach 
and touched the spleen, but was not enlarged in proportion to 
the right : its surface was almost free from preternatural adhe- 
sions, but the right lobe adhered extensively to the peritoneum 
lining the diaphragm, which was pressed upwards so consider- 
ably, as very much to diminish the capacity of the right side 
of the thorax. Numerous Tubera, of a yellowish white 
colour, appeared on each lobe, projecting a little from the sur- 
face of the liver except at their centres, which were commonly 
depressed: many were distinct, and of various sizes, others were 
confluent and formed extensive morbid masses. From the 
dissevered surfaces of the Tubera a whitish fluid, as thick as 
cream, could be scraped: indeed, the tumours consisted of this 

C 



io 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 



matter, contained in a close cellular structure, which readily broke 
down under pressure. Although many sections were made, yet 
few vessels appeared in the Tubera : in the interstices the liver 
was paler than natural, flabby, and easily torn by a slight pressure 
of the finger. In a few of these interstices slight effusions of 
blood were seen. The gall-bladder contained a small quantity of 
high coloured bile, and five gall-stones, of which the largest 
weighed four scruples. The common duct was much enlarged, 
and its capsule thickened. The alimentary canal was carefully 
examined. The inner coat of the oesophagus was darker than 
natural. A portion of the left extremity of the stomach, near the 
cardia, larger than a crown piece, was reduced to a thickened, 
white, pulpy mass, its natural structure being completely de- 
stroyed. Its circumference was extremely red, but the florid 
colour extended only over the left extremity of the stomach. 
To the peritoneal tunic of the stomach, directly opposite to this 
altered portion of the mucous and muscular coats, a small scir- 
rhous tumour adhered. The intestines had a natural appearance, 
but the mesentery and meso-colon were uniformly thickened. 
The spleen was not enlarged, its peritoneal tunic was here and 
there thickened with patches of lymph, and partially adhered. 
The kidneys were small and unusually soft. A very inconsider- 
able quantity of serum, not exceeding eight ounces, was effused 
into the cavity of the peritoneum. 

Thorax. The heart and lungs were perfectly natural in 
their structure. There were partial adhesions of each pleura, but 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 11 

these had not recently taken place. About four ounces of serum 
were collected in the cavities of the chest. 

CASE 11. 

Mr. D., aged thirty-nine years, a man of large stature, for- 
merly a wine-cooper, latterly a publican, had been, for many 
years, the subject of irregular gout, which had finally made him 
lame in the feet, and had occasioned some of the usual depositions 
about the joints of the fingers. To the same disease, improperly 
perhaps, had been imputed severe paroxysms of pain in the epi- 
gastric region, which recurred at irregular intervals. To relieve 
these pains he had usually taken a warm purgative tincture. His 
earlier habits had been intemperate, but of late he had been more 
moderate in the use of fermented liquors. At the close of the 
year 1810, he became more indisposed, and attributed his symp- 
toms to cold. He was affected with cough, and uneasy sensations 
in the epigastric, and right hypochondriac regions. On the 
28th of March, 1811, the physician who was consulted, care- 
fully examined the naked abdomen, the patient being placed in a 
horizontal posture. The liver projected into the umbilical 
region. The whole space of the abdominal parietes, which is 
between the umbilicus and the margin of the thorax, was tumid 
and hard, presenting a surface irregular from Tubera, which could 
be distinctly felt under the integuments. The patient positively 
affirmed, that he had noticed the enlargement only six weeks 
before this period. He had cough and dyspnoea, but not in a 



12. 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 



greater degree than it was fair to impute to the great bulk of the 
liver; his pulse was natural, his appetite defective, his bowels 
rather torpid. There was no obstruction to the circulation 
of blood through the liver, for there was no effusion into 
the peritoneum, nor to the flow of bile, for the skin and urine 
were not in the slightest degree jaundiced. Very little was at- 
tempted by medicine, except to regulate the bowels by rhubarb, 
and to allay pain or procure sleep by opium. In the month of 
April he still attended to his business, and was strong enough to 
go up and down two pair of stairs without assistance. On the 
3 1st of May he was seized with a suppression of urine, which was 
removed by a full dose of opium. Early in June a recurrence of 
this affection, in a slighter degree, yielded to the same remedy. 
In this month serum was effused into the peritoneum. The 
quantity was inconsiderable, but this superficial interposition of 
a fluid between the peritoneal tunic of the liver and the other 
peritoneal surfaces, so much diminished the uneasy sensations which 
he had before felt, that the opiate was now less indicated to relieve 
pain, than to control a diarrhoea under which he began to 
suffer. The enlargement of the liver had been progressive, and 
the gibbous edges of its right and left lobes were, at this time, felt 
much below the umbilicus. Now the functions of the alimentary 
canal were badly performed : his tongue was red and glossy, and 
his appetite failed. His pulse became frequent, his dyspnoea and 
cough increased, he expectorated thickened mucus, sweated pro- 
fusely, wasted rapidly, and was incapable of helping himself. In 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 



15 



this state he lingered through the latter end of June, and died on 
the 5th of July, 1811. 

The body was examined on the following day. 

Abdomen. The liver occupied the hypochondriac, epigastric, 
and umbilical regions. A line drawn across the anterior superior 
spinous processes of the ilia would have defined its extent, so 
that, a few convolutions of the small intestines in the hypogastric 
region excepted, the diseased liver alone appeared after the 
section of the abdominal parietes had been completed. The liver 
was removed. Its surfaces were covered with Tubera: more 
than fifty were counted on its concave surface, and on its convex 
surface there was a still greater number. All these tumours 
had the same character, (see Plate I.) viz. a circular margin, ele- 
vated, firm, and white, with a depressed and very white centre, 
resembling a cicatrix. The only deviation from this character 
was occasioned by a coalescing of two Tubera, by which their 
figure was changed to an irregular oval. Besides these mature 
Tubera, a countless number of them in their incipient state ap- 
peared in all directions. Sections of the liver exposed the bodies 
of these tumours, which were of various sizes, and were readily 
distinguished from the natural structure by their yellowish white 
colour. From their cut surfaces a thick fluid could be scraped. The 
hepatic artery was enlarged, the vena portse and venae hepa- 
ticas were natural, the hepatic duct was dilated, and tinged 
yellow, the cystic duct was contracted, the gall-bladder was elon- 
gated, and contained a litde bile. The mucous coat of the 



14 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 



Stomach, and of some portions of the intestinal canal, had an 
erythematous, but no where an ulcerated appearance. The faeces 
were of a pale yellow colour. The spleen was simply enlarged 
to four times its natural size. In the pelvis of the left kidney a 
small calculus rested. The quantity of serum effused into the 
' peritoneum was very inconsiderable. 

Thorax. The structure of the lungs and heart was perfectly 
natural. The internal coat of the aorta was of a dark red colour ; 
an appearance after death, which has been confounded with inflam- 
mation. 

These cases are offered as good examples of the Tubera Cir- 
cumscripta. I have met with only one variety, differing chiefly 
in the size and consistence of the Tubera, which were smaller 
and firmer. 

This disease has been named by Dr. Baillie, the large white 
Tubercle of the Liver, and of its nature he offers the following 
opinion : "It resembles more the ordinary appearance of scirrhus 
" in other parts of the body. In one or two instances of it, how- 
" ever, I have observed a thick sort of pus, resembling very 
' ' much the pus from a scrofulous sore ; and therefore I am rather 
" disposed to think that this tubercle may be of a scrofulous 
" nature." 

I have the record of two cases of this disease in which the 
mesenteric glands were scrofulous. But notwithstanding this 
evidence, and the very high authority to which I have referred, 
I am inclined to believe that the nature of scrofula is essentially 



TUBERA DIFFUSA. 



15 



different from that of the Tubera Circumscripta, although the 
former may sometimes be conjoined with the latter, as it evidently 
is with other diseases. 

This opinion is formed from the following circumstances : 
First, the Tubera Circumscripta are distinctly alhed to the 
Tubera Diffusa, which unquestionably fall under the tribe of 
fungous diseases. 

Secondly, the Tubera Circumscripta differ from the Tuber- 
cula Strumosa in their character and termination. To enter far- 
ther into this subject would anticipate the character of the scro- 
fulous Tubercle of the Liver, which will be described in a 
subsequent part of this work. 

II. TUBERA DIFFUSA. 

Character. These tumours not only pervade the substance 
of the liver in a distinct or in a confluent form, but also appear 
at its surface, elevating more or less its peritoneal tunic. They 
rise from the surface of the liver with a more gradual and uniform 
swell than the Tubera Circumscripta, and are, in different sub- 
jects, of various figures, sizes, colours, and consistence, often 
pulpy. No texture seems to escape the ravages of this fungus. 
It appears indifferently in all the viscera, in the cellular mem- 
brane, and even in the bones. 

Symptoms. These vary in proportion to the varied seats of 
the disease: the diagnosis, therefore, must depend on one of 
the circumstances from which its name is derived, viz. its 
dispersion through many textures of the body. But when this 



16 



TUBERA DIFFUSA. 



disease affects the liver in particular, then the symptoms will not 
materially vary from those which accompany the Tubera Circum- 
scripta. 

In considering the varieties of this disease, which are many, it 
has been found difficult to mark the species ; but as they all agree 
in the co-existence of Tubera in different textures, it seemed less 
objectionable, in treating of the diseases of the liver, to select 
that form which is not only remarkable for its magnitude, but for 
its greater similitude to the Tubera Circumscripta. 

CASE III. 

A male adult was affected, in the autumn of 1809, with 
cough and diarrhoea, to which, after several weeks, succeeded an 
enlarged abdomen, depending partly on serous effusion into the 
peritoneum, but chiefly on the size of the liver, which descended 
below the umbilicus. Symptoms of hydrothorax supervened, and 
he died in the course of six months after the distention of the 
abdomen had commenced. 

The case was treated by the internal and external use of mer- 
cury, by the nitric acid, by purgatives, by blisters, and finally 
by palliatives. 

Dissection. The liver was tuberous, and enormously en- 
larged. The mucous coat of the stomach was affected with the 
same disease. Serum was effused into the peritoneum. The 
right pleura adhered. The pericardium and left pleura con- 
tained a serous effusion. These were the only morbid appear- 
ances 



TUBERA DIFFUSA. 17 

For the above concise report I am indebted to a physician who 
observed the case, and conducted the dissection. He also did me 
the favour to send, for my examination, the Hver and stomach. 
The weight of the Hver exceeded fifteen pounds, and this remark- 
able increase of bulk depended on the growth of Tuber a, which 
differed from the Tubera Circumscripta in the following circum- 
stances. They were less numerous, for on the concave surface of 
the liver their number did not exceed twelve ; they were as minute 
at their beginning, but at their maturity, considerably larger, their 
diameters being then rather more than three inches ; at no period 
of their growth were they externally indented, but, on the con- 
trary, they rose from the liver with a gentle and uniform swell, 
each being either round or oval ; their external surfaces had a 
motley appearance, their white colour mingling with the brown 
colour of the liver, but a section (Fig. 1. Plate II.) displayed 
the appearance of the Tubera distinct from the substance of the 
liver, on which they seemed continually to encroach, and to ap- 
proximate to each other by waving margins ; their texture was 
coarser, but it yielded a similar whitish fluid. The vessels of 
the liver were not thickened, neither did the trunks of the artery, 
veins, or duct, present any thing worthy of remark. The gall- 
bladder and cystic duct were much elongated, and the former 
contained some bile of a yellow colour. From the mucous coat 
of the stomach, near the cardia, a cluster of Tubera grew, and 
projected into its cavity ; but the disease in this organ was more 
incipient, did not interrupt the course of the alimentary matters, 

D 



18 



TUBERA DIFFUSA. 



and, being connected with such extensive hepatic disease, was 
not suspected. 

The Tubera Diffusa are, in general, more speedily fatal than the 
Tubera Circumscripta, because many organs are, at the same time, 
oppressed by their growth. The chief character of this species, 
its dispersion through various textures, is strikingly illustrated by 
the following case, in which the liver, as far as a judgment could 
be formed from the relative size of the Tubera in the different 
textures, seemed to be the last organ affected: indeed, instances 
of this disease are not unfrequent, in which the liver is altogether 
free from Tubera, whilst other viscera are infested with them. 
The case also serves to shew the varying character of the symp- 
toms which belong to this species. 

CASE IV. 

October 29th, 1808, — Diggins, a chimney-sweeper, aged 
twenty-eight years, was visited by a physician, who noted the 
following symptoms : violent pain of the head greatly aggravated 
by the slightest motion, pulse 144, white tongue, nausea, slight 
cough. His sufferings were, doubtless, severe ; for whenever 
he moved, he cried out vehemently, and grasped his forehead 
and occiput. Independently of motion, an exacerbation 
of pain took place in the afternoon, about three o'clock, and 
continued several hours. He had been ill one month. He 
was directed to take two grains of the submuriate of mercury 



TUBERA DIFFUSA. 



19 



every night, and lialf an ounce of the sulphate of magnesia every 
morning. November 1st. The medicine had purged him free- 
ly, but there was no amendment. The periodical returns of 
pain suggested a trial of the cinchona : it was freely given in sub- 
stance. 5th. Pain of the head extreme, frequent vomiting, pulse 
96 : the bark was omitted, a large blister was applied to the 
scalp, two grains of the submuriate of mercury were given 
night and morning, and occasionally a draught with rhubarb 
and sulphate of potash. 7th. The blister had acted but slight- 
ly, the vomiting had ceased, pain more moderate, pulse 
84 : the mercury began to affect him, and he complained 
of pain in his jaws. 9th. Slight and occasional delirium, te- 
nesmus : four grains of the submuriate of mercury were 
daily continued, and the aperient draught occasionally. 1 Ith. 
Mouth very sore. 13th. Pain of the head insufferable and 
incessant : thirty-five drops of tincture of opium were given 
every night. 19th. Pulse 72: the opiate procured some sleep 
and respite from pain. As the mercurial action afforded no 
benefit, and he refused all nourishment in consequence of 
the soreness of his mouth, the mercury was discontinued. 21st. 
Bowels torpid, scarcely any nourishment taken : the opiate was 
omitted, and a solution of manna in an infusion of senna ordered. 
23d. Pulse 72, pain at times as urgent as ever, bowels open, 
debility great. 24th. A blister was applied to the neck. 30th. 
Pain of the head less violent, bowels open, occasional convulsion, 
hands bent towards the fore-arm ; he had taken, for the last few 
days, three grains of the mercurial pill with one grain of opium, 
night and morning, and fifteen drops of antimonial wine with 



20 



TUBERA DIFFUSA. 



ten drops of tincture of opium, in a diluted solution of the acetate 
of ammonia, every six hours. December 5th. Pain of the head 
less, eyes suffused, delirium increased, pulse 120, urine and 
faeces passed under him, but with consciousness of their discharge: 
he was directed to take six grains of the mercurial pill with one 
grain of opium every night only, and ten drops of the tincture of 
digitalis in a diluted solution of the acetate of ammonia every six 
hours. 9th. He continued to decline from the 5th, without any 
other remarkable symptoms than those above mentioned, and 
died on this day. 

December 12th. The body was examined. 

Head. In the medulla of the left hemisphere of the cerebrum, 
there was a Tuber somewhat larger than a pigeon's egg. It was 
excessively vascular, of the colour of the cortical part of the brain, 
and thereby readily distinguished from the medullary, being also 
softer than it. In the posterior part of the same hemisphere a 
smaller tumour of the same kind was observed. Tubera had 
existed in the corpora striata, and very extensively in the cere- 
bellum ; but sections of these parts discovered little besides nume- 
rous red vessels nearly bare from the dissolution of the Tubera, 
of which the boundaries were distinctly marked by the firmness 
of the surrounding parts. The colour of the pulpy contents of 
these last mentioned tumours was scarcely to be distinguished from 
that of the medulla: indeed, a gentleman present supposed that the 
brain had suppurated in these parts, but the appearance seemed to 
be the result of a dissolution of the Tubera. The ventricles were 
filled with a limpid fluid, and a greater number of red vessels 
than usual appeared on the investing membrane. 



TUBERA DIFFUSA. 



2,1 



Neck. Under the left angle of the inferior maxillary bone, a 
large Tuber occupied the seat of a lymphatic gland. 

Thorax. The right bronchial glands were much diseased, 
and one of them formed the nucleus of an immensely large Tuber, 
which in character very closely resembled that of Fig. I. Plate II. 
Surrounding this morbid growth the lung had inflamed, and nu- 
merous small vomicae had formed : the pleura adhered extensively 
and intimately. The heart and left lung were not diseased. 

Abdomen. In the liver there was a single Tuber, which in 
structure resembled that in the lung. To the adipose tunic of the 
left kidney, a Tuber, of eight inches in circumference, was at- 
tached. It much resembled brain in appearance, and seemed to 
correspond in vascularity with the Tubera discovered in the brain, 
but its texture was much firmer than theirs. The stomach and 
intestines, the spleen, pancreas, and kidneys were not diseased. 

The investigation of Disease by Anatomy not only improves 
the diagnostic part of medicine by connecting, as far as it can be 
done, the sign with the morbid change, but it also improves the 
therapeutic, by gradually separating curable from incurable disease, 
or by indicating the stage at which the former is converted into 
the latter. It is therefore one important use of Morbid Anatomy, 
to point out the boundaries beyond which it is not only unavailing, 
but injurious for art to interfere, except to diminish suffering. I 
venture to oppose this truth to the reverse practice, apparently 
founded on a maxim, that if an organ be subject to many obscure 
diseases, of which one, or more, can be cured, but the others are 
incurable, then all should be treated like the curable disease. 



22 



TUBERA DIFFUSA. 



Patients suffering under the diseases above described are not, as 
far as I have observed, benefited by the operation of mercury. 
Few medical men now^ attempt to cure by these means Tumours, 
in the restricted sense of that word, at or near the surface of the 
body ; but it is more especially true that such efforts prove alto- 
gether fruitless when directed to the cure either of the Tubera Cir- 
cumscripta or Diffusa ; for by the time that the most careful ex- 
aminer can distinguish them, the progress of the disease has been 
already so considerable, that the mercurial action tends only to 
exhaust powers, which art will subsequently in vain attempt to 
restore. 

On a review of the method of treating Cases I. III. and IV., it 
appears that too much was done by ineffectual efforts to cure ; 
but in Case II., a palliative plan, the result of a more correct 
diagnosis of the disease, was adopted from the commencement of 
the treatment. Thus medicine effected in this case all that was 
possible ; it clearly diminished, but did not inflict any suffer- 
ing. The erythema of the mucous membranes of the mouth 
and alimentary canal, and the diarrhoea which probably depend- 
ed on it, instead of being hurried on in a distressing degree, 
were certainly retarded and moderated. This view of the sub- 
ject is not derogatory ; for the perfection of medicine consists, 
not in vain attempts to do more than nature permits, but in 
promptly and effectually applying its healing powers to those 
diseases which are curable, and in soothing those which are 
incurable. 



TUBERA CIRCUMSCRIPTA. 



23 



PLATE I. 

This plate represents a section of the liver described in Case 
II., and at one view illustrates the external appearance, and the 
internal structure of the Tubera Circumscripta. They are seen 
of various sizes from their incipient to their mature state. The 
posterior outline of the Figure displays remarkably well the mar- 
ginal elevation of the Tubera, whilst the anterior part of it as 
strikingly shews the central depression of a white colour, which 
is characteristic of this species. Their external circular form, 
excepting where two Tubera have coalesced, and the manner in 
which they also coalesce internally, gradually supplanting the na- 
tural structure of the liver, are likewise accurately given. 



24 



TUBERA DIFFUSA. 



PLATE II. 

This plate represents two forms of the Tubera Diffusa, which, 
in internal character, approach the nearest to that of the Tubera 
Circumscripta. 

FIG. L 

Is coloured after a painting of a thin section of the recent 
liver, described in Case III. This Figure displays the luxu- 
riance of the Tubera Diffusa. A section of two of the tu- 
mours in different stages, and of part of a third, shews the manner 
of their growth and encroachment on the natural structure. Their 
coarser texture is represented by the darker touches on the white 
ground, which is the actual colour of the Tubera. 

FIG. II. 

Represents the first variety of the Tubera Diffusa, differing 
somewhat in its size, texture, and configuration. The description 
of the case will be given in the next number, which will treat of 
the varieties of the Tubera Diffusa. 



APPENDIX. 



ARTICLE 1. 

- Two Methods of forming an Elliptic Curve. 
FIRST METHOD. PI. i. 
CONSTRUCTION. 

Having dra\\5« the transverse and conjugate diameters, TRandC N, bisecting each other 
at right angles in O, take the semi-transverse TO {= O R) in your compasses, and make that 
a sinical radius on the sector, i.e. open the sector till the brass centres on each limb at 90 
degrees on the line of Sines, exactly correspond with the radius in your compasses. The sector 
remaining thus adjusted, take parallel distances from the Sines as often as you please, and apply 
them each way from O on the transverse diameter; which in the figure was done at every 10 
degrees : but the oftener and the better. Through the several points, thereby found, draw 
parallels to the conjugate diameter, as a 10, b 20, &c. — This done, take the semi-conjugate C O 
(=:0N) in your compasses, and make that a sinical radius, as before directed. The sector 
remaining thus adjusted, take parallel distances from the sines according to the several parallels 
before taken, and apply them upward and downward from the transverse diameter upon the 
parallels (before drawn) to the conjugate. Thus, for instance, as the former parallels in the 
figure were taken at every 10 degrees, therefore these parallel distances were taken in the same 
order, by applying the parallels of SC^, 70*^, &c. upward and downward from the transverse oq 
the parallel lines before drawn on each side of the conjugate, which determined the several 
distances 10 a, 20 b, &c. and at the same time the several points a, b, &c. — Lastly, run a pen or 
pencil carefully through the several points so found, and you have the true elliptic curve 
required: — the very operation of which, proves to a demonstration, that the more parallels you 
take, the more true will be the result of the operation. 

SECOND iViETIIOD. PLi, 

Construction. — Draw your assumed transverse and conjugate diameters, c e and b S 
bisecting each other at right angles in a, lig. 2. Next, take a narrow label of paper, parchment 
wood, or ivory, &c. having a fiducial edge. — See fg. 3. On this fiducial edge mark oft" with a 
pencil, for a scale, from one end, as from B, the semi-conjugate b a {= a d) and the semi- 
transverse c a (== a e) respectively, as B C, B T. Then, to form one quarter of the elliptic 
curve, for instance c d, apply the fiducial etlge of the label in such manner that T B correspond 
with « e. Afterwards, move the label gradually in the direction from c towards d, but Avith this 
precaution, viz. as you so move the laliel, take care that C also move uniformly on the semi- 
transverse CO, and that T do the like on the semi- conjugate 6 a; i.e. by continually touching 
those lines respectively. — The final result of this motion will be such, that B C will correspond 
also with a d. In moving the label, as thus directed, make marks or dots with a pencil at B, as 
often as you please (the oftener and the better) ; which marks, being carefully joined one to 



3 



APPENDIX. 



another, will form the elliptic curve of that quarter. This process being properly attended to» 
the formation of the curves of the other quarters will be easily elfected, and the whole ellipse 
will be thereby obtained. 

The two preceding methods being less frequently to be met with, it was adjudged proper to 
insert them here. — For another excellent method of constructing an ellipsis by the compasses, 
by the aid of its foci, see Hutton, Bonnycastle, and other mathematical tcriters on the conic sections. 

These methods (the first excepted) are upon the same principle as the operation by means 
of two centres and a string, or by means of the instrument usually termed the Trammel but 
are obviously preferable to either of them for the present purpose. 



ARTICLE 2. 



To prepare a Scale of Modules and Minutes, for any given height of a Letter. 

FIRST METHOD. PI. i. 

Upon a right line, drawn sufficiently long, apply the height of the intended letter, as from 
1 to 6, fig. 4. This distance being divided into (5 equal parts, term the same, for distinction. 
Modules. Then subdivide one of those modules into 6 other equal parts, and term the same, 
for the like reason. Minutes; and the scale is ready for use. ' 



SECOND METHOD. PI. i. 

Draw an equilateral triangle on pasteboard, box, ivory, &c. in height higher than any such 
letter can reasonably be supposed to be required to be made. Divide the base line thereof into 
6 equal parts, from each of which draw Imes meeting each other in the vertex or opposite angle. 
Again, subdivide one of those equal parts, which is nearest to one of the outer limbs of the 
triangle, into the like number of equal parts or subdivisions; from each of which draw lines, 
(but smaller and fainter than the former) to the vertex, as before. Hence the strong lines, or 
grand divisions, are Modules, and the fainter or smaller ones, are Minutes, 

Then, to adapt this scale for use, take in the compasses the height of the intended letter, 
and apply the same across the triangle in a direction parallel to the base, moving the compasses 
upward and downward till the points exactly correspond with the tv.o inclining legs of the 
triangle; as a, h. — Lastly, through those two points of contact draw, with a pencil, a line 
parallel to the base, as a 6; and a temporary scale is obtained for present use. — See fig. 5. 

Since it may be expected that some reasons should be given for the adoption, into this work, 
of the terms Modules and Minutes, as denominations of dimension, with their respective divisions ; 
the reader is respectfully desired to consult Stephanus, Lyttteion, Ainsioorth, and other lexico- 
graphers, under the words Model, Minute, Modulus, Minutum and Momentum: and JohnsoUf. 
Cyclopced. Brit, and other English Dictionaries, under the words iJJode/, Module, and Minute , where 
H h'e will find reasons for concluding that 

•Model (according to JoAnion and others) or Module, (according to the Ci/chp^d. Brit, and 
the treatises on Modern Architecture} is a certain measure adopted by architects and others, sometimes, 
at pleasure, and sometimes by assuming the diameter or semi diameter of the bottom of n column, 
for regulating the proportions of the other parts: or, a Afant/ard by which any thing is measured:— 
And that the term 

Minute is variously used. — Hoiologists understand thereby one sixtieth part of an hour; 
mathematicians and geographers, one sixtieth part of a degree : — Notaries, a brief memorandum of a» 
Agreement ; and the same term (or Minutum) has also been used to represent one half of a Farthing ; 
and likewise also a small space, of time or otherwise. Architects also have divided their Module 
or Diameter, into smaller divisions termed minutes, by dividing such module sometimes into 60, 
and sometimes Into 30 equal parts, at pleasure. Vignola divides his module ^which i&a ssmi-diameter) 



APPENDIX. 



5 



into 12 and 18 minutes or parts; and M. ParrauU reduces the module to a third part, to detcimiiie 
the several parts without a traction. 

Hence, whatever construction a person from an association of ideas peculiar to liis profession, or 
favourite branch of study, may put upon the term winnte ; it is evident that tlie same signifies a 
■less division or part of an integer, in comparison with its perfect vniti/ or whole; consequently, much 
less can it have a reference to any one pecM/i«r Humler (as 60 for instance) rather than aiuither, but 
according to its variously adopted use. — Indeed thi; Klymology of the word holds out merely the 
idea of a less part than some other thing, with which it stands compire.l. 

ViTRUViDS, (according to Mr. W. Nevvtoii's translation, B. 111. Ch, i.) argues thus. — " The 
" measures, whicli are necessarily used in all works, are also derived from the merabers of the 
<' human body ; as the digit, the palm, the foot, and the cubit; these are divided into the perfect 
" number, wliich the Greeks call Telion; for the ancients btlieved the perfect numijer to be that 
"which is called ten; because «e« is the number of the fingers of the hands ; yro/H the digit, the 
" pahn was invented ; and from the palm, the foot. 

" Also as nature has formed ten fingers to the hands, Plato esteemed that number perfect ; decads 
" beiug produced by unitie.s, which the greeks call Monades.: Advancing to eleven, or twelve, th« 
" numbers hp.cnme imperfect, till they arrive at the next decad; for, unities are the constituent parts 
of that number. 

" Tiie matheniat'cians, on the contrary, argue that the perfect number is that called A«.r; because 
according to their princii)les, it has six proportional divisions. Thus one is the sextant (l-6th) two 
" the trient [\\; three, is the semis [\); four, the Bes (|), which is called Dimoiron; five, the 
Quintarius (5-6ths) called Pentamoiron; six the nmnher perfect. 

"Moreover, the foot of a man is the sixth part of his height; — ^^because therefore, six times 
" the measure of the foot, terminates the height of the body, they establish it as the perfect 
" nianber." 

The above ingenious translator inserts a note at the foot of the pag*, as follows. " If the beauty* 
" or agreeable etfect resulting from the composition or configuration of a work, principally depends 
" on the proportion and symmetry of its parts (as in my opinion it does), and if cny one num!)er 
" can be said to be better adapted to produce that proportion and symmetry than another, it musfc 
" be that, the integral parts of which are best suited to all the possible^ or, at least, proper 
" proportions that may be used in any work. The number six has, in this respect, the preference to 
•« ail?/ other; not from any suppositious or imaginary virtue, but for useful and positive power. For, 
" thi!* number, being formed by the union of the radices of the duple and triple numbers, viz. 2 
" ai;d 3, (which being multiplied together, make 6); it naturally becomes most easily resolvable 
" into any other number, whether duple or triple; and consequently is the most capable of agreeing 
" with all proportions of what kind soever. — It may also be observed, that the ratio of all the 
" jHHsicfl/ co?icorf?A' are within the compass of a sixth; and the ratio, arising from the multiplication 
" of all their numerators and denominators, is in its lo.vestterm, as 1 to 6. — Neither can the senses 
" distinguish with facility, a less than a sixth; the 6th, iOth, and 12th, are easy to be distinguished, 
" only by reason of their comparison with the 4th, 5th, and Gth." The same translator also 
adds, in his notes on Chap. 1, B. 1, as follows; " There is great reason to believe that the same 
" proportions, which are so pleasiisg to the ear, will also please the eye, when applied to visible 
" objects. For, nature acts by the easiest and simplest means, and never varies the cause to produce 
"the same effect, when the same cause will answer the end. In colours also, nature uses the sam6 
"cause, and the same eifect arises: their harmony consisting in the same proportions as prevail in 
" musical tones. Why not therefore in figures, since the only difference between this and the case 
"of musical tones is, that the sensation of the proportions are conveyed to the perceiver by another 
" conductor, (i. e.) another sensei It may not therefore be wholly without reason to suppose, that 
" the same proportions will have the same effect on either sense (the eye, as well as the ear;) in 
*• figures, as well as in sounds and colours. It may be observed, that the musical concords are most 
*' pleasing and harmonious coiuparatively, as their proportions are the simplest, cor.iposed of the' 
" lowest numbers, and easiesfto be distinguished; as for example, the octave, which is as 1 is to 2, 
" is a more perfect concord than the fifth, which is as 2 to 3 ; and that the last is more perfect than 
" the fourth, which is as 3 to 4, &c. This observation then may serve as a hint to induce us (in 
" case of using the musical proportions in architecture, or in any regular objects) to prefer the- 
" simplest that tvill serve the purpose.'' See also Newton's Musical Proportions, Smith's HarmonicSf 
and Morris's Lectures on Architecture. 

Under all the circumstances, therefore, the author of these sheets conceiving himself to be 
fully warranted in adopting the simplest scale of proportion poss-ible, for constructing the Roman 
Capital Letters; and moreover, finding that in a well-proportioned letter, six times the width of the 
narrow stem equals the width of the broad stem, (excepting the bottom curve of B) and six times the 
width of the broad stem constitutes the height of the letter; was thereby induced to prefer a scal& 
divided seximally, to one divided decimally or otherwise, for the sake of avoiding fractions as much 
as possible. \A hich end (jexcept in a very few instances, peculiar to the elliptic curves in certain 
letters) has been completely efiected by such seximal scale, as to all the purposes .of the preseut 
iWork. 



4 



APPENDIX. 



As to the adoption of Modules and Minutes, as terms of division, (which might, with equal 
propriety, have been termed Diameters and Parts) with ^ and <' as their respective marks on the 
jjlates; the same was done, partly to avoid expeuce in engraving, by adopting Primes and Seconds, 
as being the bimplest marks; and partly because the author conceived those terms to be the most 
expressive of his divisions. See also Stewarfs Antiquities of Athens^ where feet are marked ' an(J 
inches or parts 



ARTICLE 3. 



The extreme Breadth of each Capital Letter, exclusive of its JExter. Hor. Surriphs^ 





4 


5 




N 

5 


3 




V 

4 


4 


U 


4 




Tj \ Top . . 
^ {boL. 


3 


5 




5 






6 


] 




4 
8 




4 


U 




1 






4 








5 


1 


J 


3 


4 


Q 


6 


51 


X j Top . . 
^ 1 Bot. . . 


4 


5 
Oh 


D 


5 


2 


K pop-. 
^ I Bot. . . 


4 




jTop.. 
I Bot. . . 


4 




5 


p y Top . . 

^ |Bot... 


3 


41 
o 


4 


5 


S 




4 


4 


4 


2 


3 


4i 


y fTop.. 

^ iBot. .. 


4 


H 


3 


4J 




5 


5 




6 


5 























ARTICLE 4. 

Proportions of the External and Internal Horizontal Surriphs^ 







Ext. 


lut. 


To. 




Ext. 


Int. 


To. 






Ext. 


Int. 


To. 




Ext. 


Int. 


To 




Ext. 


Int. 








> 










\> 




I . 






\\ 






4i 






u 




\\ 








3 , 


h 


9 


F 5 Top. 


4^ 






• • • « • 


41 


4 1 


9 


rvi 


4^ 


9 


41 


4i 


9 


B. 


^Top. 


4'- 






^ jBot. 


51 






J . 




4! 


41 
^2 


9 


N 


4| 


4t 


9 


V 


3i 


5i 


9 




' 1:1 ot. 


5 






F 


4i 


41 


9 


K . 




31 


5k 


9 


p 


4| 


4| 


9 j 


w 


4 


5 


9 


D 


^Top. 








G Bot. 


4 


4 






Top. 


41 


H 


9 


R 


4| 


4i 




X 


^ 


5i 


9 




1 };ot. 


' 4 






1" 




4| 


9 




Bot. 


5J 






T 


44 


4| 


9 ! 


Y 


31 


5i 


9 





































1 











ARTICLE 5. 



The Radii of the Curve-Lines in Horizontal Surriphs. 





Exi 


i.-t. 


To 




Ext. 


Int 


To 




Ext. 


!ut. 


To. 








Ext. 


Int. 






Ext. 


Int. 


To. 




ExI 


Int. 


To. 


A 

'■\ 


Tops 


ol 
-2 


8 


E 1 


V 

Top 3 
Bot. 4 


\\ 
4 


\\ 
8 


I 

J 


3 

3 


3 
3 








\ 


3 

Left 5 1 


3 


\^ 


R 

r 


3 


3 




X 


6 


2 


n 

8 


D ^ 


Bot. 4 

Top 3 

BoL4 


4 

4 


8 


F 
G 
H 


3 

Bot. 3 

3 


3 




K 

-\ 


6i 
Top 3 
Bol. 4 


li 

3 
4 


8 




V 




3 

Lefts 

3 


3 
3 




u 

V 


3 

1 

1 Jj 

, I 

^^4- 


3 

: 2i 


8 
8 


Hence it ajjpi ^ifs, 
with a few txccp. 
u- -i.'J.th't these R 3. 
On /t'Tm ''^emselv^s 
ir M rlirc. . i3';«rf. j 



APPENDIX, S 

ARTICLE 0. 



Proportionate Height or Length of the Perpendicular Surriphs with their Curves^ 



^ y Upper 
1 .ower 
' To ) 

E Mid. 
Bot. 

^ |Mid, 
G Top 




• > eight, or 
Length 


Radii of 
pro, Curves. 


L Bot. 

g f Upper 
Lower 
T (eacli) 

Z ^ ^^'PP*"" 
\ Lower 


Coinineiice • om 


Heieht, or 
Length. 


Radii of 
pro.Curves. 


Top Line. 


jt. Lnji'. 


Top Line. 


Bot. Line. 


\\ 
1 

from centre 

: 

from centrei 
1 


1 

iup i(iowi, 

: 

|up iJown) 


i li 

1 5k 
1 1 
1 5f 
1 2i 
1 1 
1 5 
1 4i 


Ext. If 
Ext. ]§ 
Int. 5 
Int. 4 each 
Int. 7 
Int. 5 
Int. 4 eacli 
Ext. 1| 


>\ 
1 


1 


\ II 
1 21 
1 2 
1 31 
I 1 
1 I 
1 2i 


II 

Int. 7 
Ext. 1 
Ext. 11 
Int. 5 
Int. 5 
Int. 7 


N. B In lliis Article the R^tdii of the prop >rti:>nate Curves 
sirt: ai'tt!' tlicir rt^pec 've 1 eiigths. 



ARTICLE 7. 

To determine the true places of the Centres of the Curves of Surriphs, horizontal and 
perpendicular, with their respective constructions or formations. 



L HORIZOxNTAL SURRIPHS^ 

I. When the Stem of the Letter is Perpendicular. 

Rule. — Having, by right lines, continued or produced the outer and inner limbs of the 
stems to the topandbo'tom Imes, setoff", to the right or left-hand upon the top line or the 
bottom line, as the case may require, the respective length of the surripli (Art, 4,) wanting | a 
mimite; and at the distance of I min, helotv the top line, or aboi-e the bottom line, as the case may 
also require, draw an indefinite right line parallel thereto, for the breadth, and thereon also 
setoff", in like manner as before, the same leng;h; and round off the end by a semi-circle of 

I rai;i in radius, which wilt complete the full length of the surriph, as in Art. 4. ^Text, from 

the point or place of junction of such parallel line with the outer or inner limb of the stem 
of the letter (accordingly as the surriph's place requires) set off, each way, (viz. upon the 
parallel, and also upon such respective mner or outer limb) the respective radius of the 
requisite curve (Art. 5) ; which will form two sides of a square: which square (when completed), 
will, by its fiaihin% corner, fix the requ'site centre. — Hence, such requisite curve wiit, when 
the stem is perpendicular, form aa exact quadrant or fourth-part of a circle. — See the letters of 
exemplification i and G. 



2. IVhen the Stetn is ina bevil or inclining direction. 



Rule. — Procsed exactly as in the preceeding rule, as to the length, breadth, and roundin'y 
off the end; till the iMoper curve be required to be constructed. Concetnino- which proper 
curve, let it be remarked that Uie same wUl exceed or fall short of a quadrant^ or fourth part 



6 



APPENDIX. 



of a circle, in proportion to tlie inclination of the bevil stem (i. e. in proportion to its departure 
from a perpendicular direction with the top or bottom line) ; for which n^a'^on the plainest 
rule for determining the proper centre of such curve will be as follows : where, note, that it 
relates to the bevil stems only 

At the distance specified in the following table, laid oft' along the surriph's inner pa -allel, 
from the extreme verge of the small curve at the rounded-end, form a perpendicular to that 
parallel, (upward or downward, accordingly as sucli sun iph hapoens to be) and on that per- 
pendicular lay oft" the tabular radius (Art. 5) corres})onding t( such suruph, and the proper 
centre is in mediately had: with which radius and centre describe the curve from the point 
of junction of the same parallel and perpendicular, to the adjoining limb of the bevil stem, and 
the surriph is completed. 

N. B. '1 he bevil stems with horizontal surriphs, are peculiar to the letters A, K, M, N, V, 
W, X, and Y. — The places of the perpendiculars, for finding the proper centres Qf the curves of 
which, appear as under. 



Perpendicular distance from rounded ends of horizontal Surriphs of bevil Stems. 



For the Letters 


From round ends of th( 
Exter. Sur.| Inter. Sur. 




2 
_1 

a 

1* 

_i 

z 
_l 

5 

Left-hand. 
_l 

2 


U 

_1 

Risrht-haiu. 




Tops at the left-hand of broad bevil stems ^ 







II. PERPENDICULAR SURRIPHS. 

These are peculiar to the letters E, F, L, T, G, and S ; of which the three last 
■mentioned are irregular, and the rest regular. 

1. Regular. 

Rule. — Having protracted out the full horizontal width of the letter, adjust the perpsB.:. 
dicular height and commencemeijt of the surriph according to its respective proportions and 
properties, as contained in Art. 6. — Next, set oft", inwardly, 1 min. for its breadth, and draw a 
faint line parallel to its face or length, and of the same dimension therewith, and round oft" the 
ends with f a min. radius, taken inwardly from the aforesaid length. — Then, for its proper curve, 
proceed as follows ; — Produce, or lengthen out, the inner limb of the adjoining horizontal stem 
of the letter by a faint line, till it join the imier parallel of the surriph, and from the point or 
place of junction set oft", each way (viz. upon the parallel, and also upon the inner limb) the 
respective radius of the required curve (Art. 6), which will form two sides of a square, to be 
finally proceeded with as before directed, under the 1st rule for horizontal surriphs. See 
top surriph of Z. 

2. Irregulak. 

. C. — The two surriphs of this letter are formed by first finding (Art. 6) the places where 
their perpendicular faces will coramence, upward or downward ; and thereon applying their 



I 



h 

\ 

\ 



APPENDIX. 



7 



leng'ths (per Art. 6) and drawing inner parallels thereto, of the like length, at the distance »f 

I min. for the breadth, and rounding off the ends as in the last preceding rule. — N'ext, lengthen 
out the outer limbs of the surriphs respectively (viz, that of the upper to the top line, and 
that of the lower to the bottom line) and trom tl>e points or places of their respective junction 
with the top or bottom line, set oft', on the top or bottom line (as the case may require) 2 min. 
towards the left-hand, as at d (see upper surriph of letter of exemplification), which point d 
join to the centre of the letter, as a d. — Lastly, from the top or bottom of the surriph (as the 
case may be) draw a line, parallel to such respective top or bottom line, cutting the diagonal 
a dm c : which will fix the respective centres for the required curves, the radii of which ar& 

II min. per Art. 6. 

G. — Proceed in like manner as for the upper surriph of C. 

S. — Having found, by Art. 6, the respective places of the commencement of its surriphs 
from the top and bottom lines, form the perpendicular faces, and parallels at 1 min. distance 
inwardly, making each of them in length, as at Art. (>, and round off the ends in such manner 
that the top of the upper surriph commence 1 min. below the top line, and the bottom of the 
lower one commence 1 min. above the bottom line. Then, at the distance of § a min. from 
the upper end of the upper surriph, and the lower end of the lower one, respectively draw 
lines perpendicularly to the inner parallels, on which set oft' 1 min. on the upper, and 11 min, 
on the lower, which will fix the centres for the outer curves. — See letter of excmplUlcatiov. 



ARTICLE 8. 



The Tension, of the angular Letters, expressed in Degrees hy the Chords. 





Deg. 




Deg. 




Deg. 




Deg. 




Deg. 




1 

Deg. 


A 


43 


K 


Top 45 
Bot. 39 


M 
N 


mid. 44 

each 40§ 


V 

w 


39 


X 
Y 


each 71 
.... 60 


Z 


Top 58 1 

Bot. 58 1 j 
il 



ARTICLE 9. 



The Application of the Conic Sections, so far as they relate to the present Worlc, 

The letter A, as has been already observed, having in general been adopted as the first 
letter in the alphabets of all languages; and having been already considered as the ground of all 
the angular ones ; we shall in this article consider it as generating the true proportions and 
harmonic beauties of the curved ones. 

In order to this, we must consider it, not only as disincumbered from its middle horizontal 
stem, but also from the thickness or breadth of its other stems, so as to leave it in its native or 
parental triangle, whence it was originally formed; and which, by revolving round its own 
axis or centre, will form a perfect cone. 

Now, it is well known that a cone, being cut by a section passing through its vertex and 
any part of the base, forms a triangle ; and if cut parallel to its base, a circle. Again, if it be 
cut by a section obliquely through both its sides, such section is a true ellipsis. If cut parallel 
to one of its sides, the section becomes a parabola ; and if an ungula of one of its sides he cut off 
by a line parallel to the perpendicular running from the vertex to the base, it is an hyperbola^ 

H 



8 



APPENDIX. 



Though these sections form no inconsiderable part of the higher geometry, and areof suclii 
frequent use in the new astronou)y, the motion of projectiles, Sec. yet the ellipsis alone, at 
present, comes under our immediate notice; it being the only one applicable to the present 
subject, yet indispensably necessary for obtaining the due proportionate shapes of certain curves 
contained in the curvilineal letters. 

In defming any branch, however, of the conic sections, Des Cartes and most of the later 
writers have rendered tlieir description, nature and properties more easy of conception, by 
considering them as drawn on a plane or equicrural triangle, rather than a« arising by sections 
of the cone itself. For which reason the like method has been adopted here. — See plate 2. 

In vi'hich /o-. the sides a b and a c are equal to the two sides of the letter A in the accom- 
panying alphabets, and b c equal to its tension or width at the bottom. The eight, diagonal Or 
bevil lines, cl c, f g, &c. are the respective places of the eight sections, Vv^hich give the respective 
transverse diameters of the different ellipses, from the curves of which certain capital letters of 
the Roman alphabet of necessity derive no small portion of their shape and beauty. These 
letters (besides the C, D, G, O, Q, which are severally defined and explained in their respective 
places) are B, P, R; which, if duly considered, do evidently contain eight several elliptic curves, 
and may consequently be formed by the like number of sections. 

For, if the triangle be considered as a solid cone, as a sugar-loaf or other piece of solid 
matter, and the same be cut by oblique sections through its sides at the several places marked 
d e, f g, &c. true ellipses will be obtained by the several sections; the transverse diameters of 
which will be the said lines c, f g, &c. and their respective conjugate ones will be the respective 
lines cutting the aforesaid lines d e, f g, &c. exactly in the middle at right angles (i. e. perpendi- 
cular) thereto, from the side of the cone nearest the eye to the opposite or back part of the 
same: which conjugates, if the fig. be considered as a solid body, it is impossible to represent on 
a plate; and which, for that reason, were purposely omitted. 

But, without making further elementary remarks or tresspassing upon the reader's time by 
an elaborate description of the process by which the tig. was constructed, it is purposed merely 
to subjoin the foUowmg summary rule, whereby to obtain ihe true lengths of each transverse 
diameter, answerable to the required height of any of the aforesaid curvilineal letters. 

Rule. — Having adjusted a scale of modules and minutes, per Art. 2, according to the 
intended height of the letter, make the legs a b and a c, each equal to the sides of an A of that 
height, and the base b c equal to its tension at the bottom. Next, from a towards 6 setoff, in 
minutes, 13f, 135, 14|, '25i, 27|. 30, 30a, 301 ; and from a towards c again set off', in minutes, 
15, 19, 201, 201,22, 2'2\, 23, 23|; respectively Join these points respectively by diagonal or 
bcvil lines, in tlie order in which they successively fall, and the several transverse diameters., 
will be thereby obtained, as under. 



111 fig. 


Trans. Diani. 


Outer Curves. 




Co-.ij. Di.atn. 


/ m 

n 0 

P 9 
rs 


20 i 

-'10 

ooi 
--5 


Upper of B 
R 
P 

Lower of B 


2 H ^ n " 

^ " 2 

— i/I ^ .-^ 

1 1 11 ^ 
p f 


18 

18| 






Inner Curves. 




de 

fs 

h i 
J I' 


v\ 

loi 

16 

1C| 
17i 


Upper of B 
R 
P 

Lower of B 


:S i. | ill 

5 a a< s. 7-. 


13 
14i 



Hence it appears, by inspecting the above table, that the top part'of the letter R contains- 
medium-curves (ornearly soy between the curves of the rest of the above letters; which conse- 
quently bear a middle proportion (or nearly, so) to the same, i. e. the external one to the external 
ones of the rest, and the 'mttrnal one to their internal ones. On v/hich account, by sundry trials 
a Iso, as well as by a d o':" the conic sections as above, ic was found that an ellipsis of 18 min. 
{ (;ouj. diam.) by 201 mm. (trans, diam.) gave a proper curve for the outer curve of R ; and that 



APPENDIX. 



9 



anotherof 16 min.|trans. diam.) bylSmin. (conj. diam.) did the like for the inner one thereof. 
Whence proportions were obtained, as follows, for finding the unknown diameters by a very 
easy process, which, though it be not a truly mathematical way of proceedure, was nevertheless 
found to be so near the truth, as to preclude all necessity of more abstruse calculation. 

By the process aforegoing and by inspecting the several curves in the letters of exemplifica- 
tion (B and P) the conj. diameters of the outer ones, viz. B (upper and lower) IGf min. and 
191 min. and P 18| minutes ; and also the trans, diameters of the inner ones, viz. B (upper and 
lower) 15| min. and 171 min. and P 101 minutes; are constructively given. Therefore, to find 
their contrary diameters, say. 



Conj. of R Trans, of R. 

If i8 : 20 . 5 (= 201) : 



\ 



For the outer. 

Gonj. Trans. 

IS . 8333 (= 16|.) : 19 . 2 {■- 

19 . 5 (= liH) : 22 . 2 ( = 

18 . 3 381) : 21 . 07(= 



m) for Top7 
22}) for Bot. ^• 
21tV nearly) for P. 



Trans, of R. Conj. of R. 
K 16 : 13 : 



For the inner. 



Trans. 



15 
17 
16 



5 ( = 
3 ( = 



151) 
lU) 
161) 



Conj,. 

12.6 ( = 
14 . 22 ( = 
18.4 (= 



121) for Top. . 
for Bot./°* 



I4i-) 
13f) 



for P. 



Hence, the several diameters being thus obtained to a sufficient degree of exactness, their 
respective curves are easily formed by Art. 1. 

Finally, by way of closing this article, it may not be improper to add, or rather to repeat, 
that these curves are obtained by cutting their entire ellipses exactly into two equal segments or 
parts, through their respective diameters ; viz. those for the owier curves through the conjugate, 
and those for the inner ones through the transverse : and that, in each pair of curves, (when used 
together) the semi-transverse of the outer, and the semi-conjugate of the inner, do fall exactly 
upon the same horizontal line, subtending perpendicularly from the inner limb of the perpendi- 
cular stem oi the letter to the extreme verge of the curves. — Wherefore, such extreme verge 
being first found, it will only remain to lay off inwardly therefrom, one half of its proper 
diameter, in order thereat to erect a perpendicular, on which to lay off" the lohole of its contrary 
diameter, as in the consti uctions of B, P, R, has already been shewn.- 



Tliuinsou and WriglUson, Prinleis, 
BiriuiugbaiUi 



Monuments, Tombs and Gravestones, elegantiy executed by W. Hollins, Architect, 
Statuary and Mason, at his Marble Yard and Show Rooms, Great Hampton-street, Birmingham. 

N. B. Approved Likenesses modelled in Wax. — Architecture, Perspective, &c, taught. 

By whom likewise, now are in a state of forwardness for the Press, the two following 
Works : 

1. The British Standard of the Small Roman Alphabet, after the same manner as that of the 
Eoman Capital Letters. 

2. A Collection of Engravings from original Designs of sundry Monuments and Tombs^ 
by him executed and erected, together with their Epitaphs or Inscriptions; some of which are 
the Productions of the Pens of the Rev. Dr. Parr and other first-rate Characters of classical 
celebrity : with English Translations of those in a foreign Language,