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Loc. Cooker y K -5 KIR 1911 

Cat KIRKLA1 ® ( John ) Vol. 1 















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This work differs from any other hitherto offered to the trades it is intended 
to serve, in its scope and in the manner of treatment. The ideal aimed at was 
to make it a faithful record of all that is known and all that is necessary in 
connection with the businesses of baking, confectionery, and catering, with the 
qualification that the latter is considered only so far as it may be a branch or 
department of the business of a baker and confectioner. The technical matter, 
it is hoped, will be helpful to workers in all departments, while the business hints 
may serve the purposes of those intending to start in business, and of those 
already firmly established who may desire to alter their methods. In a work of 
this magnitude there is plenty of room for faults, and I am conscious of much 
that might be improved; but it has been entirely gratifying to note that as each 
volume has been issued the subscribers have been pleased with the work, and have' 
generously indicated their satisfaction and assisted with their criticism. 

The staff of specialist contributors is probably as strong as any possible at the 
moment. Each is an expert in his own department, and can speak with authority 
as one with extensive practical experience of the matter with which he deals. 
To give continuity and similarity of treatment to the whole work the contributions 
of the different writers have not been isolated, but their share may be broadly 
indicated. Mr. H. W. Lee, who has had a very extensive English and continental 
experience, and is teacher of confectionery at the National School of Bakery 
and Confectionery, London, has contributed the greater part of the matter on 
Confectionery, Sweets, &c. The chapter on Marzipan Work and the coloured 
plates illustrating it are contributed by Mr. Edwin Schur of Putney, who is 
acknowledged on all hands to be one of our cleverest confectioners and the most 
accomplished decorative artist in sugar and marzipan work in the kingdom. The 
chapters on Figure and Art Piping (with coloured plate) and the Restaurant 
Kitchen are the work of Mr. F. Russell of Liverpool. The former subject Mi-. 
Russell has made particularly his own. Most of the cookeiy recipes and notes 
on the restaurant were contributed by Mr. Charles Aldridge, who has had an 
extensive English, foreign, and colonial experience in hotel, restaurant, and club 
kitchens. The late Mr. Graham, of St. John’s Wood, London, contributed the 
greater part of the notes on outside catering. The chapters on Dutch and some 
other Continental breads were prepared by Mr. Pieter W. Jedeloo, who is the 
technical manager of one of the largest bread, cake, and rusk factories in 
Holland. Mr. Edwin J. Watkins, F.C.S., who is a practical analyst and works 
chemist to a leading London firm, and has specialized in bakery chemistry, has 
contributed important matter on analysis, essences, fats, sugars, malts, &c. Mr. 

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G. Strother Wright, F.C.A., F.S.A.A., who has a specially extensive experience 
as a bakery auditor, is responsible for the chapter dealing with a system of book- 
keeping for bakers, confectioners, &c. There are several tables and forms and a 
partial system of accounts in the chapters relating to a baking factory business 
which are not part of Mr. Wright’s system, but the principles underlying these 
do not materially differ from those enunciated by Mr. Wright. The matter on 
flour markets and notes on some Continental breads are the work of Mr. Arthur 
Barker, one of the leading market experts in the United Kingdom. The contri- 
butions of the editor mostly relate to breadmaking. 

The arrangement of the different sections of the work has been adopted with 
a view to keeping allied subjects together, although it has been occasionally impos- 
sible to avoid a break between parts that seem to have a close connection. The 
copious index and the tables of contents will, however, obviate any inconvenience 
that might arise from this, and will make the work easily available as a book of 

I have to acknowledge with sincere thanks the valuable assistance I have 
received from many leading men in the trade, amongst whom I might mention 
Mr. A. L. Johnston, Wimbledon; Mr. C. Paul, Streatham; Mr. R. Kirkland, 
Liverpool; Mr. T. Stevens, Cardiff; and Mr. H. Matthews, Plymouth. For the 
loan of blocks and for special information I should like to acknowledge indebted- 
ness to Joseph Baker & Sons, Ltd., London; Werner, Pfleiderer, & Perkins, Ltd., 
Peterborough; Sumerling & Co., London; Richmond Gas Stove and Meter Co., 
Ltd., Warrington; Cox & Son, Birmingham; C. Hawkins, Ltd., Worcester; 
Thomas Melvin & Sons, Ltd., Glasgow; T. H. Tonge, Pendleton, Manchester; 
Belhaven Engineering and Motors, Ltd., Wishaw; Frederick Sage & Co., Ltd., 
London; National Cash Register Co., Ltd., London; Baird & Tatlock (London), 
Ltd.; A. Gallenkamp & Co., Ltd., London; Mr. Dempsey, Belfast; and others. 






Chapter I. Bread in Ancient Times 1 

Discovery of Leaven— Hosea and the Baker — Pompeian Bakeries — Bakers’ College 
or Guild at Rome — Social Status of Roman Bakers— Probable Meaning of Strict 
Regulations — The First Bolters — Yeast Cakes and their Use — Roman Barley Bread 
—Pliny’s Theory of Fermentation — Wheat Yield and Blending — Saving Salt — 
Brewers’ Yeast used in Gaul and Spain — Forty Days’ Wheat without Bran — Rule 
for Water Absorption and Yield — Hard and Soft Wheats — Varieties of Roman 
Bread — Influence of Peace on Bread-making — Public Bakeries in Rome' — Jupiter 
Pistor — Marcus Aurelius on Bread — Bakers with Ancient Reputations — Archestratus 
on Good Bakers — Varieties of Ancient Bread — Early Crusty Loaves — New Wheat 
Loaves — Tall Loaves with Tops — Praising White Bread — A Famous Athenian Baker 
— Thearion’s Bakery and Bread — Rhodian Rolls — Cyprian Bread — Pan Loaves — 

Bread with Fat — Materials used in Bread — Notes on Kinds of Fermentation — Fancy 
Breads — The God of Great Bread — First Author on Bread-making. 

Chapter II. Assize and Bread Laws 11 

First Assize Laws — Bakers’ Charges — Wages in 1266 — Charges in 1298 — Kinds of 
Bread in Henry Ill’s Reign — Early Assize Trials — Bakers’ Allowance in 1495 — 
Bakers’ Allowance in 1592 — Fresh Trials of Wheat by Experts — Outentownies or 
Country Bakers’ Allowances — The Stratford Bakers and their Long Carts — Bread 
Riots at Mile End — Bakers’ Protest against New Bill, 1648 — Soft Dough Bakers — 
Charter of Bakers’ Company — Bakers’ Allowance on Flour instead of Wheat — Bakers 
and Sumptuary Laws — Only Bakers allowed to Trade — Lawful Bread — Prices of 
Ancient Bread — Wholesale Prices — Horse Bread — No Spice or Fancy Bread — Foreign 
Bakers’ Prices — Glasgow Bakers’ Rights— Glasgow Assize, 1560 — “Priced Bread” — 
Weights of Peck, Quartern, &c. — Assize Bread — Advantages of Different Systems — 
Present Methods of Selling Bread- — Faults of Assize Laws — Glasgow Council on 
Assize of Bread, 1801 — Abolition of Fixed Weights of Bread — Stale Bread Act, 

1800 — Yield of Flour, 1791 — Bakers’ Punishments — Tricky Bakers, 1327 — Old 

Chapter III. Bakers’ Guilds, Companies, and Corporations - - 23 

Early Bakers’ Guilds — Special Powers in Elizabeth’s Charter — Bakers must Sell in 
Market — Oath of Bakers’ Company — Bakers’ Company and City Corporation — Rela- 
tive Importance of White and Brown Bread Bakers — Small Influence of Company — 
Company preventing “Corners” — Stores of Grain — Great Scarcity in 1512 — Powers of 
Bakers’ Company — Bakers’ Appeal — Present Condition of Company — Renewed Life in 

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Trade — Present Income and its Uses — Incorporated Trades of Scotland — Aberdeen 
Bakers — Glasgow Bakers and Battle of Langside — Pawky Matthew Fawside — Wealth 
of Glasgow Bakers — First Steam Engine in Mill — Present Societies — Protective Work 
of Societies — Restrictive Work of Society — Educational Work of Societies — Bakery 
Schools and Classes — Influence of Exhibition — Trade Press. 



Chapter IV. Wheat and Other Cereals: Nature and Properties 29 

Botanical Position of Cereals — Grains are Fruits — Chemical Constituents of Cereals — 
Relative Position of Cereals as Foods — Wheat — Parts of Wheat Grain — Skins of 
Wheat — Structure and Composition of Germ — Germination of Wheat — Structure of 
Endosperm — Proteids of Wheat — Relation of Gliadin to Glutenin — Composition of 
Wheat Berry — Indigestibility of Bran — Rye — Structure and Character of Rye — 

Gluten of Rye — Barley — Structure of Barley — Composition of Barley — Oats — Struc- 
ture of Oats— Maize — Preparations of Maize Flour — Rice — Buckwheat— Millet. 

Chapter V. The Diseases of Wheat, Flour, and Bread 38 

Diseases in Grain — Diseases in Flour — Corn Moth — Wheat -flour Moth — Corn 
Weevils — Rice Weevil — Flour Beetle — Ear Cockle or Purples — Bunt or Stinking 
Rust — Rust or Corn Mildew — Smut — Ergot — Cockroaches — Silver-fishes — Flour Mite 
or Acarus — Bacteria of Sourness — Bacillus lactis — Bacillus butyricus — Mycoderma 
Aceti — Bleeding Bread — Rope — Moulds in Bread. 

Chapter VI. The Composition and Properties of Flour - - 46 

Character of Flour — Chemical Compounds in Flour — Physical Properties of Gluten — 
Condition of Gluten in Bread — Chemical Composition of Gluten — Nature of Glutenin 
and Gliadin — Soluble Proteids of Flour — Relation of Soluble and Insoluble Proteids — 
Softening Action of Soluble Proteids and Acids on Gluten- — How Gluten exists in 
Flour — Sugar in Flour — Flavour of Bread not due to Sugar — Cause of Colour or 
Bloom on Bread — Amyloids in Flour — Moisture in Flour — Influence of Moisture 
upon Gluten — Fat in Flour — Ash of Flour. 

Chapter VII. Old and New Methods of Flour-making - - - 50 

Method of Grinding with Stones — General Effects of Stone Grinding — Colour and 
Flavour of Stone-milled Flour — Keeping Quality of Flour — “ Dressed ” Seconds — 

Roller Milling — “Break” Flour — “High” and “Low” Ground Flour — Granula- 
tion — Low Ground Flour — “ Straight Run ” — “ Patent ” Grade — Baker’s Grade — 

Short and Long Patents — Standard Brand — Local Systems of Grading — London 
System of Grading — Provincial Methods of Grading — Reasons for Whiteness of 
Roller Flour — Relation of Colour and Strength — Flavour of Flour and Bread — 
Unripe and Over-ripe Dough — Keeping Qualities of Roller Flour — Changes and 
Acidity of Flour. 

Chapter VIII. The Characters of the World’s Wheats and Flours 55 

Properties of Wheat in Grist — Definitions of Hard, Soft, &c., Flour — Stability of 
Flour — Different Kinds of Softness — Scotch Wheat Flour — English Wheat Flour — 

Special Flavour of English Wheat Flour — French Flour — Belgian and German Flour 
— Hungarian Flour — Effects of Hungarian Flour in Bread — English-milled and 
Hungarian Compared — Australian Wheat and Flour — Adelaide Flour — Melbourne 
Flour — Sydney Flour— General Character of Australian Flour — Causes of Cheapness 




Canadian Flour. — Indian Wheat Flour — Kurrachee Wheat — Calcutta Wheat — 

Bakers’ Troubles with Indian Wheat Flours — Russian Wheat and Flour — Effects 
of Rye in Wheat Flour — Argentine Wheat and Flour— American Wheat and Flour 
— Minnesota Flours — Early American Roller Flours — Strong Flours in Scotch Bread 
— Kansas Flour — Illinois Flour — Ohio Flour — British -milled Flour — Large Millers 
supplant American Flour — Distinguishing Character of Special Flours — Salvation of 
the Small Mills. 

Chapter IX. The Bleaching of Flour 63 

Possible Changes of Grade by Bleaching — Bleaching Gases — Mechanical Part of 
Bleaching — Claims for Bleaching— Bakers’ Suspicions of Bleaching — Chemical and 
other Changes in Bleached Flour — Theories of Bleaching — Changes in Colour of 
Gluten — Effects on Bread of Bleached Flour — Bleaching Low Grades — Supposed 
Sterilizing Effects of Bleaching — Does Flour require to be Sterilized ? — Proof of 
Keeping Qualities Difficult — Possible Danger of Sterilizing — Commercial Bleaching 
Moderate — Effects on Fermentation — Tests on Gluten of Bleached and Unbleached 
Flour — Stability Tests on Bleached Flour. 

Chapter X. The Mixing and Blending of Flour - - - 68 

Glutens in Mixed Flours — Practical Experience of Flour Mixtures — Effects following 
Bad Mixing — Should Flours be Mixed some time before Use? — Storing and Mixing 
Bins — Blending without Special Bins. 

Chapter XI. The Testing and Judging of Flour - - - - 69 

Colour as Indicator of Quality — Bloom of Flour — Conditions altering Relative Colours 
— Pekar’s Test — Crude Gluten— Estimate of Water in Dough — Value of Average 
Estimation — Calculating Yield from Water Content — Loss in Weight of Dough in 
Bulk — Determination of Wet Gluten — Mode of Preparing Wet Gluten for Weighing 
— Relation of Wet to Dry Gluten — Determination of Dry Gluten — Drying Gluten 
at High Temperatures — General Averages of Dry Gluten in Flour — Quality and 
Stability of Gluten — Standards for Comparative Purposes — Causes of Variable 
Results — Comparative and Record Tests — General Range of Flour Elasticity — Limits 
of Elasticity Test — Baking Tests — Materials and Conditions for Small Baking Test — 

Use of Gluten Determinations in Baking Tests — Points of a Loaf : Bulk and Shape 
— Colour and Bloom of Crust — Colour and Pile of Crumb — Texture and its Cause — 

Sheen or Sparkle in Crumb — Moisture in Bread — Cause of Flavour — Gradations of 
Flavour to Sourness— Testing for Flavour — Summary and Record of Flour Tests. 


Chapter XII. Compressed Yeast for the Use of Bakers - - 80 

Nature of Yeast — Why classed as a Plant — Essentials in Yeast Food — Yeast Bud- 
ding — Spore Formation — Functions of Spores — Conditions of Spore Formation — 
Spontaneous Fermentation — Conditions of Yeast Budding — Why Sugar is not a 
sufficient Food — Conditions of Maximum Yeast Growth — Commercial Yeast — Con- 
ditions of Manufacture — Pure and Mixed Yeast — Effects of Starch mixed with Yeast 
— Dried Yeast — Keeping Properties of Fresh Yeast— Expedients for Keeping Yeast 
— Signs of Decay in Yeast — Changes in Softened Yeast. 

Chapter XIII. Easy Methods of Testing Yeast 84 

Colour and General Appearance — Rough Test with Sugar Solution — Why Yeast rises 
in Solution — Ferment Test for Yeast — Temperature for Test Ferments — Weight of 
Gas Production from Sugar Solution — Test by Gas Collection — Mode of Setting 
Apparatus — Use of Gas-regulator — Absorption of Gas by Water — -Why Sugar Solu- 
tion is used for Test — Precautions in Tests — Standard Quantities for Tests — Tests 
for Yeast Foods or Stimulants and Yeast Deterrents. 




Chapter XIV. Soluble Ferments or Enzymes 88 

Yeast excretes Enzymes — General Properties and Purpose of Enzymes — Composition 
and Functions of Enzymes— Effects of Temperature on Enzymes — Action of Chemical 
Agents on Enzymes — Effects of Essences and Ethers on Enzymes and on Yeast — 

Action of Borax — Method of Enzymic Action — Diastases — Diastase of Malt — En- 
zymes active in Growing Grain — Hydrolysis of Starch — Action of Maltose on Diastase 
— Enzymes of Bran, Germ, Rye, and Flour — Action of Yeast Enzymes on Starch — 

Action of Dilute Acids on Starch — Invertase of Yeast — Action of Dilute Acids on 
Boiling Sugar— Action of Enzymes on Proteids — Latest Theory of Fermentation. 

Chapter XV. The Fermentation of Flour 93 

What is Fermentation of Dough? — Does Yeast increase in Dough? — Insoluble and 
Soluble Solid Matter — State of Liquid and Condition of Yeast in Dough — Spaces in 
Dough — Reason for Kneading — Difference between Stiff Dough and Sponge — Move- 
ments in a Thin Ferment — Yeast Growth in Ferment, Sponge, and Dough Compared 
— What produces Bulk in Bread — Proteids in Flour assist Yeast — Changes in 
Gluten of Flour — Acids in Dough — Physical Changes in Dough — Conditions of 
Unripe, Ripe, and Over-ripe Bread — Does Gluten soften Wholly or in Part? 


Chapter XVI. Long-process Straight Doughs 96 

Twelve-hours Dough: Limits of Straight-dough System — Stiffness of Long Straight 
Doughs— Flavour and Bulk of Bread — Quantities for Twelve-hours Dough — Are 
Long Doughs economical ?— Moistness of Breads compared — Long Doughs often 
Unripe — Causes of Unripeness — Temperature of Dough — Rough Temperature Cal- 
culations — Another Method of Calculation — Finding the “Major Factor” — Influence 
of Heat of Atmosphere — Influence of Quantity of Yeast in maintaining Temperature 
— Experiment the only Basis of System— One Cause of Holes in Bread — Acid Matter 
probably Useful — Good Dough-making — Time required to make Dough by Hand — 
Definition of Length of Process — “ Cutting Back ” and Kneading — Time to Stand on 

Eight-hours Dough: Use of Glucose in Dough— Mode of Using Glucose — Eight- 
hours Dough for Crusty Bread — Difficulty with Long Straight Doughs. 

Six-hours Dough: Quantities for Six-hours Dough — Malt for Flavour — Method of 
Using Malt Flour with Best Effect — Six-hours Dough. 

Chapter XVII. Short-process Straight Doughs 101 

Five-hours Dough. 

Four-hours Dough. 

Three-hours Dough. 

Two-hours Dough : Hazard with very Short Doughs — Exhausted Dough. 

One-hour Dough : Shortest System. 

Chapter XVIII. Exhibition Bread 103 

Small Doughs most suitable — Mode of Handling Dough — Cause of Fine Texture — 

When Moulding should be done — “ Topping ” and “ Bashing ” — “ Proving ” — Proving 
on Dry Cloths — Points of Brightness in Coburgs — Exhibition “ Tin ” Bread — Shorter 
Dough Process — Close Band around Tin Loaf — Black Tins better than Clear — 
Crumby Batch Loaves — How to handle a Small Lot of Crumby Bread — Baking with 
Upsets — Moulding Batch Bread — Baking Bread — Effects of Excessive Steam on 
Bread — Small Batches baked alone — Expedients to prevent Twisting — Oven Door 
open — Protecting Loaves singly — Exhibition Boxes — Effects of Notching. 



, Page 

Chapter XIX. Crusty Loaves: Names, Shapes, and Methods of 

Handling ----- 108 

Cottage Loaves — Small Tops — Proving Parts separately — Cause of Streaks in Cottage 
Loaves — Bashing that Spoils — Method of Moulding, &c. — To prevent Twisting in 
Oven — Effects of Low and High Crown in Oven — London Brick Loaf — Coburg 
Loaf — Manner of Proving — Not baked close together— Collas or Collar — No Crease 
in Centre necessary— Tin or Pan Loaves — Scotch Tins and Under Tins — Effects of 
Over-proving — Split Coburg or French Loaf — Home-made Crusty Bread — Crumby 

Chapter XX. Sponge and Dough System with Pressed Yeast - 114 

Advent of Pressed Yeast — Use of Sponge in Bread-making — Sponge and Leaven 
compared — Ripening Effects of Sponge— Difference in Bread from Sponge and 
Straight Dough — Preference for Straight Doughs — Long Sponges — Quantities for 
Twelve-hours Sponge — Sponge Dropping — Signs of Readiness — Danger of Relying 
on the Drop only — Making Dough with Sponge — Purpose of Sugar in Dough — 
Breaking Sponge — Sponge-breaking not needed with Machines — Ten-hours Sponge 
— Reason for Long Sponges in Scotland and Ireland— Eight-hours Sponge — Soft 
Sponge — Short -sponge Methods — Ratio of Yeast in Sponge and Dough— Yeast 
Management for Straight Dough — Scotch and Irish Methods of Bread-making — 
Half-sponge to stand Thirteen Hours — Dough-making and Manipulation — Setting 
in Peel and Draw-plate Ovens — Scotch Bakers and Compressed Yeast — Sponges with 
Parisian or Compound Barm — West of Scotland Methods — Making Quarter-sponge 
— Quantities for Quarter-sponge — Time Sponge lies — Excessive Length of Sponge 
Period — Batter Sponge — How to deal with Sponge in very Cold Weather — Condition 
of Quarter when ready — Quick Fermentation of Sponge — Method with Compressed 

Chapter XXI. Ferment, Sponge, and Dough 122 

Ferment, Sponge, and Dough — Brewers’ Yeast and Potatoes — Making Sponge with 
Ferment — Purpose of Ferment and Sponge — Careless Practices of the Bakery — 
Potatoes still used — Old-fashioned West-End Method — Faith in Potatoes. 

Chapter XXII. Wholemeal, Bran, and Brown Breads - - - 124 

Natural Meal — Superiority of White Flour as Food — Use of Coarse Meal — Softened 
Wheat Bread — Graham Bread — Wallaceite Bread — Decorticated Meal — Special 
Wheat and Grinding — Germ in Meal — Germ Breads— The Public and Brown Breads 
— Proprietary Special Breads — Plain Brown Bread with Coarse Meal— Moulding and 
Proving — Fine Meal — Addition of Malt Flour — Long-process Wholemeal Bread — 
Wholemeal with Sponge — Wholemeal with Powder — Oaten Wheatmeal Bread — 

Malted Brown Bread — Use of Malt Decoction — Quantities for Dough — Ingredients 
in Malt which affect Bread — Malt Extract — Malt Extract Bread — Malt Flour — 

Quick Method of making Malt Paste — Fresh Germ Bread — Hovis Bread — Preparation 
of Germ — Method of Dough-making — Texture of Hovis — How to improve Texture — 

Daren Bread — Special Meal for Cakes, &c. — Brown Biscuits — Wholemeal Biscuits — 
Oatmeal Biscuits — Rye Bread — Paste for Glazing— Spiced Rye Bread- — Keeping 
Properties of Rye Bread — Proprietary Patent Breads — Carr’s Malt Bread — Veda 
Bread — Bran Bread. 


Chapter XXIII. Manufacture of Home-made Barms and Yeast - 138 

Malt and Hop Barm — Variations in Manufacture— Old Method — Old Mistakes — 

Salt does not harden Water — Modem Practice — Stocking or Storing Barm — Keeping 
Barm — Signs of Readiness — Why the Liquid Part of Barm is used — Strength of 
Barm is in Yeast — Variations in Strength — Why Bakers should not make Barm — 
Quantity of Barm per Sack — Straight Dough with Barm. 




Chapter XXIV. Flour Barms 141 

Parisian and Virgin Barms — Old Method for Flour Barm — New Method for Virgin 
Barm — Quantity of Barm in Batch — Parisian Flour Barm: Modem Method — Pre- 
paring new Barm Stock — Old Method for Parisian — Ferment with Scalded Flour — 

Why Virgin Barm ferments — What changes the Scalded Flour — Effects of Virgin 
on Bread — Sugar of Flour unaltered by Scalding — Change in Gluten — Acid Germs 
in Flour and Malt — Prevention of Lumps or Knots in Barm — Why Stirring must be 
quick — “Spontaneous” Yeast or Barm — Old Form of Potato Barm — Quantities in 
“Spon” — Making Fresh Stock — -Mode of using “Spon” — Cooking Flour — Germ-laden 
Atmosphere— Maltese and Spanish Barm or Leaven — Barm of Malt, Rye, and Flour 
— Enzymes in Rye — Old Method : Malt, Rye, Potatoes — Theory of Barm-making — 

Action of Enzymes — Danger in overheating Malt — Barm- and Yeast-making com- 
pared — Action of Enzymes increased with Temperature — General Features of Barm- 
making — Why Barms are weak — Use of Hops — Acid-producing Bacteria in Barms— 

Why Barm is used in Australia. 




Interior of High-class Confectioner’s Shop ( Coloured ) - Frontispiece 

Former Presidents, National Association of Master Bakers - 24 

Francis Tonsley, J.P. William Callard, C.C. 

John Hicks. E. W. Bowkett. 

Micro-photographs of Sections of the Wheat Grain - - 30 

Drawing of Wheat Berry, showing Parts 32 

Micro-photographs of Various Starches 36 

Micro-photographs of Yeast and Acid-producing Germs - - 44 

Former Presidents, Scottish Association of Master Bakers - 70 

William Curr. John Brown. 

D. D. Martin, J.P. John Gibb. 

Stages in Fermentation of Crusty Loaf - 96 

Prize Cottage Loaf - - - 106 

Types of English Crusty Bread ( Coloured ) - 108 

Types of English Tin Bread ( Coloured ) - - •• - - 112 

Types of Scotch and Irish Loaves - - - - 114 

Brown and Rye Breads 128 

Directors of the Bakery and Allied Trades Exhibition - 140 

A. W. Last. 
W. E. Aylwin. 

Fred C. Finch. 
H. S. Rogers. 







The word “bread” occurs in many places in the Old Testament, but it 
does not always signify exactly the same thing. In the early part of its 
history bread was probably nothing more than bannocks of bruised grain; 
in the latter part it referred to bread fermented with leaven. The dis- 
covery of the leaven process was probably made by accident, and made 
comparatively early, because in Eastern countries a mixture of Discovery 
meal and water only would start to ferment if forgotten for of Leaven, 
one day, and the difference in the bread baked from dough in this condition 
and that from dough newly made could not long escape observation. 

All the evidence scattered through literature of the processes of bread- 
making as first practised, indicates that it was a purely domestic industry, 
conducted, both as to preparing the grain and making the bread, by the 
females of the households. In the larger households, such as the establish- 
ments of kings, the specialization of the baker’s duties would be a necessity. 
This we find was the case in the courts of the Pharaohs. The fact that 
the baker who obtained such unenviable notoriety in the time of Joseph 
( Genesis , xl) was the chief baker indicates that there must have been 
others. By the time the Israelites had settled in Egypt the leaven process 
had evidently become universal, since only the hurry of the departure from 
Egypt prevented their bread being leavened as usual — “and the people took 
their dough before it was leavened, their kneading-troughs being bound up 
in their clothes upon their shoulders ” ( Exodus , xii. 34). The troughs, from 
their size, were evidently only domestic utensils. 

Amongst a people so clever as the Jews there is little doubt that 
baking became afterwards developed as a trade, and the leaven process was 
thoroughly understood. In Hosea vii there is evidence that the baker had 
ceased to be a mere domestic, and the same evidence points to Hosea and 
the fact that baking as carried on at that time was in its the Baker - 
essential features quite like the baking as practised but a few years ago, 
with long processes and the use of small quantities of barm or leaven. 

VOL. I. 1 j 



In one of the exhortations of the prophet the people are compared to “an 
oven heated by the baker, who ceaseth from raising after lie hath kneaded 
the dough, until it be leavened. . . . They have made ready their heart 
like an oven, whiles they lie in wait: their baker sleepeth all the night; 
in the morning it burneth as a flaming fire. . . . Ephraim is a cake not 
turned.” With our present knowledge it is easy to discern in this simile 
the kind of bakers they had in Samaria about 750 B.c. The prophet 
Hosea seems to have had an intimate knowledge, amongst other things, 
of the baker’s methods and his ways. 

The ruins of Pompeii and other buried cities have furnished evidence of 
the kind of bakeries existing when these cities were in their gloiy. These 
Pompeian bakeries were in some cases part of the domestic establishments 
Bakeries. 0 f the rich, but there were also public bakeries, in which the 
bread of the poorer people was brought to be baked, or from which they 
could obtain ready-baked supplies. In Rome’s strenuous times baking of 
bread was a domestic affair, the work of women; but after the war with 
Perseus, the last king of Macedonia (168 B.C.), some bakers were brought 
from Macedonia, probably as captives, but they were evidently admitted 
as freemen, and from then the industry started as a distinct profession. 
Bakers’ College Along with the Macedonian bakers a number of freedmen 
or Guild at were put to work as assistants, and the whole craft was in- 
corporated in one body called a college — Collegium Pistorum 
— from which neither the bakers nor their children were allowed to with- 
draw. It should be pointed out that such colleges were little more than 
trade guilds common to all developed trades. They held their effects in 
common, and could not dispose of any part of them. Each bakehouse had 
a patron, who was its superintendent, and the patrons elected one of their 
number each year, who superintended all the rest, and had the care of the 
college. The position of the brotherhood was high in affairs of state, for 
one of their representatives was elected to a seat in the Senate. 

The bakers in Rome at this period were held in high repute, and were 
endowed with extensive privileges. Tluy were the only craftsmen who 
were freemen of the city, all other trades being conducted by slaves. Each 
baker had his shop or bakehouse, and they were distributed into fourteen 
Social Status of regions of the city. They were excused from guardianships 
Roman Bakers. an( j other offices, which might divert their attention from 
their employment. To preserve honour and integrity amongst the mem- 
bers, they were expressly prohibited from having any connection with 
comedians and gladiators, and from attending the exhibitions at the 
amphitheatre, so that they might not be contaminated with the vices of 
the ordinary populace. It is too much to suppose that all these regula- 
Probabie tions as to the personal conduct of the Roman bakers 

Meaning of Strict were made with no purpose but the moral elevation of 
Regulations. the trade; their purpose was probably rather to keep the 

bakers, if possible, from being used as agents in the plots and counterplots 
which permeated the whole life of Rome at that period. When the poison 



cup was so handy as a means of removing inconvenient friends, and when 
lives were so little regarded, it was highly important that bakers should be 
kept out of the poison plots; otherwise bread, especially of the fancy sorts, 
might have become a better and safer vehicle for conveying poison than 
wine, and no man would be safe. Instead of bakers being highly honoured 
by the strict regulations, these must have been extremely irksome. Bakers 
were really made a sort of social eunuchs, that they might be free from 
suspicion of tampering with the bread, particularly with that of the rich 
and powerful. 

It may be interesting to quote from Pliny’s Natural History as to the 
time bakers were first established in Rome, the materials they used, the 
methods they followed, and the kinds of bread they made. This author 
says: — “ There were no bakers in Rome till the war with King Perseus, 
more than 500 years after the building of this city. The ancient Romans 
used to make their own bread, it being an occupation which belonged to 
the women, as we see the case in many nations even at the present day 
(about 70 A.D.). We have the fact well ascertained that the cooks in 
those days were in the habit of making the bread for persons of affluence, 
while the name of pistor was only given to the person who pounded the 
spelt. In those times they had no cooks in the number of their slaves, but 
used to hire them for the occasion from the market. 

“ The Gauls were the first to employ the bolter that is made of 
horse-hair, while the people of Spain made their sieves and meal- p irst 
dressers of flax, and the Egyptians of papyrus and rushes.” Bolters. 

The account given of the special preparation of leaven or yeast cakes is 
particularly interesting: — “ Millet is more particularly employed in making 
leaven, and if kneaded with must (from wine tubs) it will keep a whole 
year. The same is done, too, with the wheat bran of the best quality. It 
is kneaded with white must three days old, and then dried in the sun, 
after which it is made into small cakes. When required for making bread, 
these cakes are first soaked in water, and then boiled with Yeast Cakes 
the finest spelt flour, after which the whole is mixed up and their Use - 
with the meal: and it is generally thought that this is the best method of 
making bread. The Greeks have established the rule, that for the rnodius 
(a little over a peck of 14 lb.) of meal, 8 oz. of leaven is enough. These 
kinds of loaves (yeast cakes), however, can only be made at the time of 
vintage; but there is another leaven, which may be prepared with barley 
and water at any time it may happen to be required. It is first made up 
into cakes of 2 lb. in weight, and these are then baked on a hot hearth, 
or else in an earthen dish upon hot ashes and charcoal, being left till 
they turn of a reddish-brown. When this is done the cakes are shut 
close in a vessel until they turn quite sour. When wanted for leaven 
they are steeped in water first.” 

“ When barley bread used to be made it was leavened with the meal of 
the fitch, or else the chickling-vetch, the proportion being 2 lb. of leaven to 
two and a half modii (21 pk.) of barley meal. At the present day, however, 



Saving Salt. 

the leaven is prepared from the meal that is used for making the bread. 
For this purpose some of the meal is kneaded before adding the salt, and 
Roman Barley is then boiled to the consistence of porridge, and left till it 
Bread. begins to turn sour. In most cases, however, they do not 

warm it at all, but only make use of a little of the dough that has been 
kept from the day before.” 

“ It is very evident”, continues this author, “that the principle which 
causes the dough to rise is of an acid nature, and it is equally evident 
Pliny’s Theory that those persons who are dieted on fermented bread 
of Fermentation. are stronger in body. Among the ancients, too, it was 
generally thought that the heavier wheat was the more wholesome.” 
Flour or wheat blending seems to have been considered of much im- 
portance amongst Roman bakers, and they, like the moderns, had a keen 
wheat Yield appreciation of a high yield. Those who think the craze for 
and Blending. w hite bread is quite a modern weakness will note that colour 
was one of the main tests for quality in wheat and in bread in Pliny’s time. 
Thus: “The wheat of Cyprus is swarthy, and produces a dark bread, for 
which reason it is generally mixed with the white wheat of Alexandria, the 
mixture yielding 25 lb. of bread to the modius of grain 

“ To knead the meal with sea-water, as is mostly done in the maritime 
districts, for the purpose of saving the salt, is extremely per- 
nicious. There is nothing, in fact, which will more readily 
predispose the human body to disease.” 

“ In Gaul and Spain, where they make a drink (beer) by steeping 
corn, . . . they employ the foam which thickens on the surface as a 
Brewers’ Yeast leaven; hence it is that the bread in these countries is lighter 
used in Gaul than that made elsewhere.” This was not the only dis- 
and Spam. tinction possessed by Gallic bread, for it seems that it was 
made there from a kind of spelt to which was given the name of “ brace 
“ It has a grain of remarkable whiteness, and yields nearly 4 lb. more bread 
to the modius than any other kind of spelt.” 

Bread was made from millet, which, we are told, swells much in the 
baking, and weighs so heavy that “ a modius of millet yields 60 lb. weight 
of bread”. A kind of wheat grown in Thrace is stated to have ripened 
Forty Days’ f° rt y da y s after sowing. to weigh very heavy, and to produce 
Wheat Without no bran. The heaviness of wheat and the bread produce 
were considered of much importance. On these matters 
Pliny writes: — “ We find it as a rule, universally established by nature, 
that in every kind of commissariat bread that is made, the bread exceeds 
Rule for Water the weight of the grain by one-third; and in the same 
Absorption and way, it is generally considered, the best kind of wheat is 
that which in kneading will absorb one congius (slightly 
under 6 pt.) of water to the modius of wheat. There are several kinds 
ol wheat which, when used by themselves, give an additional weight to 
this: the Balearis wheat, for instance, which to a modius of grain yields 

35 lb. weight of bread. Others, 


will only 

give this additional 



weight by being mixed with other kinds. The Cyprian wheat and the 
Alexandrian, for example, which, if used by themselves, yield no more 
than 20 lb. to the modius. The wheat of Thebais, in Egypt, Hard and Soft 
yields 25 lb. weight of bread.” wheats. 

In Rome they had many sorts of bread, the names of which, like the 
names of our own sorts, were names of association rather than of descrip- 
tion. It is interesting to have this point definitely settled, varieties of 
“ Some kinds,” writes this author, “ we find, receive their Roman Bread, 
names from the dishes with which they are eaten — the ‘ oyster bread ’, 
for instance; others, again, for their peculiar delicacy — the 1 artolaganus ’ 
or ‘cake bread’, for example; and others from the expedition with which 
they are prepared, such as the ‘ speusticus ’ or ‘ hurry ’ bread. Others 
receive their name from the peculiar method of baking them, such as 
* oven bread ‘ tin bread ’, and ‘ mould bread ’. It is not very long since 
we had a bread introduced from Parthia, known as ‘ water bread ’ from 
a method of kneading it, of di’awing out the dough by the aid of water, 
a process which renders it remarkabl}’’ light and full of holes like a sponge. 
Some call this ‘ Parthian Bi’ead ’. The excellence of the finest kinds of 
bread depends principally on the goodness of the wheat and i n fl uence G f 
the fineness of the bolter. Some persons knead the dough Peace on 
with eggs or milk, and butter even has been employed for Biead - makin &- 
the purpose by nations that have had leisure to cultivate the arts of 
peace, and to give their attention to the art of making pastry.” 

“ Picenum still maintains its ancient reputation for making the bread 
which it was the first to invent, Alica being the grain employed. The 
flour is kept in soak for nine days, and is kneaded on the tenth, with 
raisin juice, in the shape of long rolls, after which it is baked in an oven 
in earthen pots till they break. This bread, however, is never eaten till it 
has been well .soaked, which is mostly done in milk mixed with honey.” 

It is more than probable that the technical details given by this author 
are incorrect — some of them certainly are; but they are near enough the 
truth to indicate that a good many of the methods still in use were prac- 
tised by the bakers of Rome about the beginning of the first century. 
Brewers’ yeast, leaven, yeast cakes, are still in common use in different 
countries. The “ water bread ” of Parthia seems to have been identical 
with that now made in Portugal and, in a lesser degree, in Holland, and 
parts of Germany and France. The flour barms of Scotland, made from 
scalded flour, had their forerunners in the bakeries of Rome. 

In the degenerate days of Rome the bakers must have been busy as 
well as powerful; for, according to Gibbon, in the fifth century, “for the 
convenience of the lazy plebeians, the monthly distributions p u bii c Bakeries 
of corn were converted into a daily allowance of bread; a in Rome, 
great number of ovens were constructed and maintained at the public 
expense; and at the appointed hour, each citizen, who was furnished with 
a ticket, ascended the flight of steps which had been assigned to his 
peculiar quarter or division, and i-eceived, either as a gift or at a very 



low price, a loaf of bread of the weight of three pounds for the use of his 
family.” Scarcity of corn, and therefore of bread, was one of the constant 
troubles and dangers of Roman government. 

Ovid mentions a peculiar purpose to which on one occasion the Romans 
put loaves of bread. When Rome was besieged by the Gauls, the soldiers, 
stationed on the Tarpeian Hill threw down loaves of bread, 
Jupiter istor. ^ indicate that they had abundance of provisions, whereas 
they were really on the point of surrendering through famine. As this 
expedient was supposed to be adopted on the advice of Jupiter, the latter 
was given the surname of Pistor, signifying balcer. 

There is plenty of evidence scattered through classical literature that 
bread was treated with more than ordinary respect, and its merits were 
Marcus Aurelius not beneath the notice of the highest. In the Meditations 
on Bread. of Marcus Aurelius there is the following interesting and 

subtle reference to a point about bread that even now is worthy of notice: 
“It is worth while to observe that the least thing that happens naturally 
to things natural has something in itself that is pleasing and delightful. 
Thus, for example, there are cracks and little breaks on the surface of a 
loaf, which, though never intended by the baker, have a sort of agreeable- 
ness in them which invites the appetite.” We still value the “cracks and 
little breaks”, and take pains to ensure that if they do not appear 
naturally they shall be made to appear by artificial means. 

Our greatest fund of knowledge with regard to the bread and bakers 
of ancient times is found in a work entitled Deipnosopliistai by the Egyptian 
Bakers with Ancient grammarian and philosopher Athenmus, who flourished 
Reputations. early in the third century a.d. He says that the best 

bakers were from Phoenicia or Lydia, and the best makers of bread from 
Cappadocia. He quotes from a lost poem by Archestratus, who writes: — 

on Good 

“ Take care and keep a Lydian in thy house, 

Or an all-wise Phoenician, who shall know 
Your inmost thoughts, and each day shall devise 
New forms to please your mind and do your bidding 

Evidently the ancients were much like the moderns, and appreciated fi'om 
time to time “ something new ” in the bread line. 

Athenseus gives a list of the kinds of bread common in his time and 
of those mentioned in the works of previous writers and poets. There 
Varieties of were leavened and unleavened loaves; those made from 
Ancient Bread, the best wheaten flour; loaves made of groats; some made 
of remnants, and these the author says were more digestible than loaves 
made of the best flour. “ Remnants ” was evidently a kind of coarse flour 
or meal left after the fine flour had been sifted from the ground wheat- 
meal, and it is interesting to note that thus early the idea was prevalent 
that the offal is the more nutritious part of the berry. There were loaves 
made of rye, and some made of acorns, and some of millet. The groats 
referred to were oaten groats, for our author says “ groats are not made of 
barley ”. 



A kind of loaf called “ Ipnites ”, or the oven loaf, received its name from 
the peculiar way in which it was baked and washed over. 

Evidently these were crusty loaves, and may have been Loave^. rUSty 
glazed. Timocles is quoted as writing: — 

“ And seeing there a tray before me full 
Of smoking oven loaves, I took and ate them ”. 

Another sort, called the “hearth loaf”, was evidently enticing enough also 
to invoke the praise of the ancient author, who wrote: — 

“ I took the hot hearth loaves, how could I help it? 

And dipped them in sweet sauce, and then I ate them”. 

Loaves called “ Collabi ” were made from young wheat: 

“ Here I come, bearing in my hands the offspring New Wheat 

Of three months’ wheat, hot, doughy Collabi, Loaves. 

Mixed with the milk of the grass-feeding cow ”. 

There was bread mixed with cheese, called “Tyron”. Some coarse sort 
was made large and named “Cilicians”: 

“And he went forth and bought some loaves; not nice 
Clean rolls, but dirty, large Cilicians ”. 

One sort called “Nastus”, which was a large loaf of leavened bread, was 
evidently a pleasant-smelling loaf, of which Nicostratus says: — 

“ Such was the size, 0 master, of the Nastus, 

A large white loaf. It was so deep; its top 

Rose like a tower quite above its basket; Tall Loaves 

Its smell, when that the top was lifted up, with Tops. 

Rose up, a fragrance not unmixed with honey, 

Most grateful to our nostrils, still being hot.” 

From this description the Nastus was evidently a loaf made in two 
parts, like a modern cottage loaf, proved in a basket and baked in a pan; 
and the reference to honey is evidently more an attempt to indicate an 
odour by comparing it with one well known, than a proof that honey was 
one of the ingredients, since it is described as large and white. 

Archestratus, quoted above, seems to have been quite an authority on 
bread and bakers: 

“ First, my dear Moschus, will I celebrate 
The bounteous gifts of Ceres the fair-haired, 

And cherish these my sayings in thy heart. Praising White 

Take these most excellent things, the well-made cake Bread. 

Of fruitful barley, in fair Lesbos grown, 

On the circumfluous hill of Eresus; 

Whiter than driven snow, if it be true 
That these are loaves such as the gods do eat, 

Which Mercury their steward buys for them. 



Good is the bread in seven-gated Thebes, 

In Thasos, and in many other cities, 

But all compared with these would seem but husks 
And worthless refuse. Be you sure of this. 

Seek, too, the round Thessalian roll, the which 
A maid’s fair hand has kneaded, which the natives 
Crimmatias call, though others Chondrinus. 

Nor let the Tegean son of finest flour, 

The fine Encrypliias, be all unpraised. 

Athens, Minerva’s famous city, sends 
The best of loaves to market, food for men ; 

There is besides Erythra, known for grapes, 

Nor less for a white loaf in shapely pan, 

Carefully moulded, white and beautiful, 

A tempting dish for hungry guests at supper.” 

The appreciation of good bread was a point of culture among the 
ancients, and between the various cities and towns the keenest rivalry 
A famous Athenian seems to have existed as to which produced the best 
Baker. bread, and the same rivalry in the matter of quality 

existed among the individual bakers. Athens, among the cities, claimed 
the premier position for good bread, and the name of its greatest baker, 
Thearion, has been handed down through the ages in the writings of more 
than one author. Plato speaks of him as pre-eminently one who skilfully 
provides for the body, while Athens and Thearion are thus praised by 
Antiphanes : — 

“ For how could any man of noble birth 
Ever come forth from this luxurious house, 

Thearion’s Seeing these fair-complexioned wheaten loaves 

Bakery and Filling the oven in such quick succession, 

rea ' And seeing them devise fresh forms from moulds, 

The work of Attic hands, well trained by wise 
Thearion, to honour holy festivals ”. 

And Aristophanes says in reference to the same baker: — 

“ I come now, having left the baker’s shop, 

The seat of good Thearion’s pains and ovens”. 

But Athens was not allowed the palm for good bread without dispute. 
Lynceus sings the praises of the Rhodian Rolls: “While they” (the 
Rhodian Athenians) “ talk a great deal about their bread which is to be 
Rolls. g 0 t the market, the Rhodians, at the beginning and middle of 
dinner, put loaves on the table which are not at all inferior to them; 
but when they are given over eating and are satisfied, then they intro- 
duce a most agreeable dish which is called the hearth loaf, the best of all 
loaves; which is made of sweet things, and compounded so as to be very 
soft; and it is made up with such an admirable harmony of all the 
ingredients as to have a most excellent effect; so that often a man who is 
drunk becomes sober again, and in the same way a man who has just eaten 
is made hungry again by eating of it.” 



Cyprus had a reputation for good bread. Eubulus says: 

“ ’T is a hard thing, beholding Cyprian loaves, 

To ride by carelessly, for like a magnet 
They do attract the hungry passengers 

There were loaves for occasions and for purposes. Aristophanes men- 
tions a kind called “ Cribanites ”, or the pan loaf. A woman 
is introduced selling bread, who complains that her loaves Pan Loaves ' 
have been taken from her by those who have got rid of the effects of 
their old age: 

“ My hot loaves, my son, 

My nice pan loaves, 

So white, so hot 

A loaf of very large size, called “Achseinas”, was made by the women 
who celebrated the festival of Thesmophoria, and was sold in the streets 
by men, whose cry was: “Eat a large Achseinas, full of fat”. Bread with 
Some Sicilian bread made of sycamine was credited with the Fat - 
property of making those who ate it lose their hair and become bald. 
Another sort is said to have had “ every possible good quality, for it gives 
a felicitous and wholesome juice, and is good for the stomach, and is 
digestible and agrees with everyone, for it never clogs the bowels, and 
never relaxes them too much”. 

There seems to have been a great variety of materials from which bread 
was made, and the following contemporaneous estimate of their relative 
nutritive properties, quoted by Athenasus, is interesting: — Materials used 
“ Loaves made of wheat are by far more nutritious, and by in Bread> 
far more digestible than those made of barley, and are in every respect 
superior to them; and the next best are those which are made of similago; 
and next to those come the loaves made of sifted flour; and next to them 
those which are made of unsifted meal 

Another authority quoted by the same writer says: “Loaves made 
of similago are superior to those made of groats, and next those made of 
groats, then those made of sifted flour. But the rolls made of bran give 
a much less wholesome juice . . . All bread is more digestible when eaten 
hot than eaten cold, and affords a pleasanter and more wholesome juice; 
nevertheless hot bread is apt to cause flatulence, though it is not the less 
digestible for that; while cold bread is filling and indigestible. But bread 
which is very stale and cold is less nutritious, and is apt to cause constipa- 
tion of the bowels, and affords a very unpleasant juice.” 

From these details of the digestive properties of bread it would seem 
that the loaves were really loaves, and not cakes or biscuits; that is, they 
contained a considerable proportion of soft crumb. 

In Athenaeus several curious and interesting technical details of manu- 
facture are given. Thus of one kind of loaf he says: “ If Notes on Kinds 
you make it with hard leaven, it will be bright and nice, so of Fermentation, 
that it may be eaten dry; but if it be made with a looser leaven, it will be 

VOL. i. 2 





Fancy Breads. 

light but not bright. But the loaf which is made in a pan, and that which 
is made in an oven, require a softer kind of leaven. And among the Greeks 
there is a kind of bread which is called tender, being made up with a little 
milk and oil, and a fair quantity of salt; and one must make the dough for 
this bread loose. This kind of loaf is called the Cappadocian, since tender 
bread is made in the greatest quantity in Cappadocia. . . . [This] is the 
best bread made in Syria, because it can be eaten hot, and it is like a 
flower. But there is another loaf . . . made like a mushroom, and the 
kneading trough is plastered with poppies smeared over the bottom of it 
on which the dough is placed, and by this expedient it is 
prevented from sticking to the trough while the leaven 
is mixed in. But when it is put in the oven, then some groats are spread 
under on a tile, and then the bread is put on it, and it gets a most beautiful 
colour like cheese which has been smoked. There is also a kind of bread 
called Strepticias, which is made up with a little milk, and pepper and a 
little oil is added, and sometimes suet is substituted. And a little wine 
and pepper and milk, and a little oil or sometimes suet is employed in 
making the cake called Artolaganum. But for making the cakes called 
Capuridia tracta you mix the same ingredients that you do for bread, and 
the difference is in the baking.” It is difficult to understand the use of 
poppies to prevent dough sticking to the trough, but it was probably a 
decoction of poppies that was used, as water alone is still used on the 
Continent for this purpose. The cakes mentioned in the last paragraph 
were evidently dough cakes, and this description shows that a clear 
distinction between cake and bread was recognized, and that the varieties 
of loaves mentioned are not merely names of different sorts of cake, as 
has been suggested. There are many references to cake, generally cheese 
cakes, and the ingredients used in their manufacture seem to have been 
milk, honey, cheese, eggs, and oil, with pepper and aniseed principally, 
as spices. 

One great point about bread and bakers in the ancient civilizations was 
the respect in which they were held. Their standards of excellence were 
The God of the same as ours: “white and tempting” were the usual and 
Great Bread. poetic terms in which bread was spoken of. Bread was dedi- 
cated to, and placed in the temple of the god Saturn for everyone to eat 
that pleased. In one of the cities of Boeotia statues were erected to Mega- 
First Author on lartus, the god or goddess of Great Bread. Probably the 
Bread-makmg. fj rs t author on bread-making, at least the first of whom 
there is any record, was Chrysippus of Tyana, a city of Cappadocia, who 
wrote a Treatise on the Art of Bread-making about 240 B.C. 





The practice of government in the early history of England was to 
regulate the price of nearly everything. There were assize laws to fix the 
prices of meat, of clothing, of bread, and of ale. Only the latter First Assize 
two remained to within what may be called modern times, the Laws. 

Bread Assize being in fact abolished as late as 1822. In the early English 
period there were constantly recurring periods of famine, due to excessive 
rains, droughts, or frosts, and those in authority, knowing that famine was 
an almost certain precursor of rebellion on the part of poor people, were 
willing to use all the powers at their command to prevent the price of bread 
becoming too high. The earliest authentic mention of laws regulating the 
price of bread relates to those passed in the reign of King John (1202), 
although, as mentioned by Adam Smith, in reviving the law for the assize 
of bread and ale, Henry III refers to it in the preamble as a law which had 
been made in the time of his progenitors, “ sometime kings of England”; 
and Smith concludes that the law was therefore first passed in the reign of 
Henry II, and that it may even have been as old as the Conquest. Not 
only did the law fix the price of bread, but it also strictly allocated that 
price between cost of material and an allowance for several necessary 
charges to the baker. Thus in 1266 the assize law allowed the Bakers’ 
baker only 12 pence for each quarter of wheat he made into Charges, 
bread, allocated as follows: — For three servants, 4 hd.; for two lads, 1 d.; for 
salt, \d.; for yeast, bd.; for candle, \d.; for wood, 2d.; for his boutell 
(bolting), \d. The records do not indicate how the other 2f d. are made up, 
but the baker was also allowed two loaves and the bran for his advantage, 
and these were evidently valued at that amount. The allowances seem 
very small, but this is owing to the much greater value of money wages 
in those early days. According to Fleetwood, the wages of master in I266 - 
carpenters about this time were 2d. per day, whilst ordinary carpenters 
obtained only 1 \d. As bakers’ wages always have been somewhat lower 
than those of carpenters, owing to the outdoor work of the latter and 
their dependence on the weather, it seems that the rate fixed for bakers 
was not unduly low. In the reign of Edward I the allowance to charges 
the master baker was raised to 13 pence, made up as follows:— In I2 9 8 - 
For growt and fuming, 3d.; for wood, 3d.; for the journeyman, 3 id., for 
the two pages, 1 \d.; for salt, ^d. ; for yeast, ^d. ; foi’ candles, bd., for his ty 
dogge, hd. The growt and fuming had evidently something to do with 
the grinding of the wheat, and as there is nothing in this list relating to 
boltinc, as in some of the others, it was probably included with the cost of 

According to the law made in the 51st year of the reign of Henry III, 
the kinds of bread allowed to be made were halfpenny and penny cocket. 



made of the second -priced wheat, halfpenny and penny wheaten, and 
penny household. The relative values of the several kinds of bread seem 
... , , „ .to have been that three halfpenny-worths of white bread 

in Henry Ill’s should always weigh one pennyworth or wheaten bread, 
Reign ‘ and one pennyworth of household bread should weigh two 

pennyworths of white bread. The wheaten bread was therefore two-thirds 
the value of the finest, and the household half the value of the finest. 

In fixing the price of bread, the standard by which the jury of mayor 
and aldermen was guided was in its way quite scientific, and had all the 
Early Assize appearance of fairness. Trials were made by bakers of the 
Trials. yield of bread from the flour of several sorts of wheat then in 

the market, and the yield obtained from such trials was the basis of calcula- 
tion for fixing the price at which the baker must sell. These trials were 
only made at long intervals, and evidently with great care and precision. 
Joseph Powell, who was clerk of the markets in London in 1592, thus 
describes two such trials: — “ First there was a trial made in the year of our 
Lord 1311, which is now 303 years past [the description was written in 
1614], of 3 quarters of wheat, viz.: 1 quarter of best wheat, 1 quarter of 
second wheat, and 1 quarter of third wheat, and these three quarters were 
made into divers and several sorts of bread, as it appeareth by record in 
the Guild Hall of London. They which made the same trials were sworn 
for the true doing thereof before the Lord Mayor of London for the time 
being.” The next trial was in the eighth year of Henry VIII (1517), and 
therefore 206 years after the other. This was made, “ by the commandment 
of the King’s Counsells, of one quarter of wheat, and it was made 2 parts 
into wheaten bread, 1 part into white bread, and the 4th part into household 
bread. This was in the time of Sir Wm. Butler, then Lord Mayor of 
London, and it is entered into the Guild Hall in the paper journal. The 
which sorts and kinds of bread have thus continued unto this day [1614], 
and that the bakers at this time do bake and retail more wheaten bread 
than ever before they have done.” 

By an Act of 1495, “ Every baker should be allowed 2s. for all manner 
of charges in baking a quarter of wheat, over and above the second price 
Bakers’ Allow- of wheat in the market by which he ought to size his bread, 
ance m 1495. w hich 2s. was allowed in this manner. When wheat was 
12s. the quarter, the baker should bake after 14s. the quartei-, and at 14s. 
he should have 16s.” 

The 2s. per quarter of wheat was allocated as follows: — Furnace and 
wood, 6c?.; the miller, 4 c?.; two journeymen and two pages, 5c?.; salt, yeast, 
candles, and sack bands, 2c?.; himself, his house, his wife, his horse, his cat, 
and his dog, 7c?.; and the bran to his advantage. In 1592 (34 Eliz.) the 
Bakers’ Allow- baker’s allowance was raised to 6s. 10c?., allocated as fol- 
ance m 1592. lows: — Fuel, 6c?.; two journeymen and two apprentices, 
Is. 8c?.; yeast, Is.; salt and candles, 4c?.; himself, his wife, children, and 
house, 2s.; the miller’s toll, Is. 4c?. This allowance was, however, reduced 
again to 6s., and to 4s. in the case of those who made only the coarser kinds 



of bread, and it so remained off and on till about 1636, although, while the 
practice of settling the price of bread seems to have been rigidly adhered 
to, this was done without any definite understanding as to the clear allow- 
ance to the baker, and the allowances made intermittently varied a good 
deal. On this account the Joseph Powell already alluded to refers specifi- 
cally to the omission of the baker’s allowance in the general regulations, 
and, as clerk of the markets, makes fresh trials of the yield Fresh Trials 
from wheat “ taken in divers counties in England, not only in of Wheat by 
the view of mine own eyes, but also in the presence of expert Experts ' 
skilful men learned in the law, having great and deep knowledge in the 
assaying of bread”; and the result of these trials was that the bakers in 
cities, boroughs, and corporate towns, where three sorts of bread, viz. white, 
wheaten, and household, were made and sold, were allowed 6s. per quarter 
of wheat above the second price of wheat in the market, while “ all in- 
habiting bakers, out of cities, boroughs, and towns, or within outentownies or 
those where but two of the sorts of bread, viz. white and Country Bakers’ 
household, are usually made ”, were allowed only 4s. per Allowances - 
quarter of wheat baked into bread. This discrimination against country 
districts was based on the principle that they had less charges for rent and 
taxes than those in the towns. Another form in which an effort was made 
to balance the burdens of the town and country bakers was to force those 
who took their bread for sale into the town markets, to weigh their loaves 
heavier than those of the town bakers for the same price. At one time 
the bread supply of London almost wholly depended on that brought in 
by the bakers of Stratford (in Essex) in “long carts”. The Stratford 
These carts evidently came in a long procession, and men- Bakers and their 
tion is made of one occasion of scarcity in 1527 when the Lon& Carts - 
mobs attacked the bread carts on their way from Stratford to London at 
Mile End, and they had to be rescued by the lord mayor and sheriffs. The 
Stratford bakers sold their bread along Cheapside and elsewhere. Their 
loaves were heavier than those of the London bakers, who, Bread Riots 
according to Herbert, in his History of the Livery Companies, at Mlle End - 
settled in Bread Street ward, that they might be near the market of St. 
Michael-le-Querne. Stow says that the Stratford bakers left serving the 
City about 1568, and in his own time Bread Street was no longer the haunt 
of bread-sellers, but was “ wholly inhabited by rich merchants ”. 

The bakers were not rich, either as individuals or as a corporation, and 
they seem to have been rather oppressed by the authorities through the 
assize laws. Several instances are recorded in which they Beers’ Protest 
reached a state of rebellion, or at least of strong protest, against New 
About 1648 there was a petition presented by the Bakers’ ’ * ' 

Company against a bill brought before Parliament setting the Assize of 
Bread. By this bill the lord mayor and aldermen were to be given power 
to allow the baker such profits as they thought fit; but the protest lugu- 
briously continues, “ which of late they have not allowed them any ”. 
Protest was made against a stipulation, evidently new, that the baker’s 



name should be marked on every loaf. This was stated to be impossible, 
the plea being “That bread is now made much lighter and finer than 
heretofore, and the dough is made so weak that no impression, or at least 
Soft Dough not so many distinct impressions or marks can lie or continue, 
Bakers - . . . the heat of the oven swells the dough to that degree that 
the several impressions run into one another The bakers protested also 
against a stipulation proposed in this new bill, that power to fix the price 
of bread, and to search and weigh it, should be given to any one alderman 
or justice, contending that under the old law of Henry III they were 
entitled to the verdict of a jury of “12 lawful men ” for this purpose; but 
they further contended that by a charter granted in the eleventh year of 
Charter Elizabeth the power to “govern and correct all freemen and 
of Bakers’ foreigners using the Trade of Bakers”, was given to the master 
Company. an( j war( j ens 0 f the Bakers’ Company, and that therefore the 
transfer of this power to magistrates and justices was a direct infringement 
of their just rights. In this appeal it is definitely stated that the bakers 
“ for 40 years past, as settled by the mayor and court of aldermen ”, had 
been allowed 12s. per quarter of wheat “for their charges, pains, and liveli- 
hoods”; there had evidently, therefore, been a considerable increase in the 
allowance made shortly after 1592, of which the definite allocation has 
been given. This allowance seems to have been altered very frequently, 
which fact may account in some degree for the sudden rise from 6s. to 12s. 
recorded above. In the eighth year of Anne (1710) the money allowance 
was fixed at 12s. per quarter of wheat. About this time the condition 
Bakers’ Allowance un d er which the trade was conducted seems to have 
on Flour instead altered, in the direction of bakers becoming buyers of 
flour and not of wheat, for the law stipulates that the 
“ allowance ” is given as so much per sack of flour instead of per quarter of 
wheat. In the time of George III this allowance was raised from 11s. 8 d., 
to which in the interval it had evidently fallen, to 14s. lrZ. per sack of flour. 

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries it was not the price of bread 
only that was regulated by statute, but the kinds of bread and the mate- 
Bakers and r ’ a ^ s ^ rom which they should be made were also governed by 
Sumptuary enactments. People who were poor and common were only 
allowed to eat poor and common bread. At one time brewers 
were strong competitors with bakers for wheat brought to market, and 
Parliament had frequently to interfere and decree that other grain than 
wheat should be used for beer-making. No better idea of the trade 
restrictions which prevailed during this time can be given than by quoting 
at some length from Powell’s direction, which was in a way an official 
document, he being, as already noticed, clerk of the markets and therefore 
Only Bakers t ^ e official principally concerned with the administration of the 
Allowed regulations. Stripped of their legal phraseology, and in modern 
spelling, the instructions were as follows: — “First, that no 
manner of person or persons shall keep a common bakehouse in cities 
(bakers’ shops were not yet an institution) and corporate towns, but such 



persons as have been apprenticed into the same mystery, or brought up 
therein for a space of seven years, or be otherwise skilled in the good 
making and true sizing of all sorts of bread, and shall put his own proper 
mark and seal upon all sorts of his man’s bread.” (The expression “ man’s 
bread ” was used to distinguish it from “ horse bread ”, which was also sold.) 

“ Item. — That no bakers or other person do make, bake, utter, and sell 
any kinds and sorts of bread, but such which the statutes and ancient 

ordinances of the realm do allow them. That is to say, they may bake 

and sell simnell bread, wastel, white, wheaten, household, and Lawful 
horse bread, and none other kinds.” Bread. 

“ Item. — They may make and bake farthing white bread, halfpenny 
white, penny white; halfpenny wheaten, penny wheaten, penny horse bread, 
and twopenny horse bread, and none of greater size, upon pain of for- 
feiture unto poor people of such great bread as they or any of Prices of 

them shall make to sell of greater size (the time of Christmas Ancient 

always excepted).” Bread. 

“ Item. — They shall not make and sell to any inholder or vitaler either 
in man’s bread or in horse’s bread (which shall retail the same), but 
only thirteen pennyworth for twelvepence, without any pound- wholesale 
age or other advantage.” Prices. 

“ Item. — They shall size and deliver into vitalers and inholders horse 
bread, but 3 loaves for a penny and XIII pennyworth for XII pence as 
aforesaid, every one of the same 3 loaves weighing the full weight Horse 
of a penny white loaf, whether wheat is good cheap or dear.” Bread. 

“ Item. — That no bakers, &c., that at any time or times hereafter make, 
utter, or sell by retail, within or without their houses, unto any of the 
Queen’s [Eliz.] subjects any spice cakes, buns, biscuits, or No Spice or 
other spice bread (being bread out of size and not by law Fanc y Bread, 
allowed), except it be at burials, or on Friday before Easter, or at Christ- 
mas, upon pain of forfeiture of all such spiced bread to the poor.” 

“ Item. — Whereas there are in cities and corporate towns common bakers 
using the mystery of baking, there are within the same towns the foreign 
bakers that come into the market with their breads to be sold, who Foreig . n 
shall only bring with them such kinds and sorts of bread as the Bakers’ 
laws and ordinances do allow to be made and sold as aforesaid: Pnces - 
they shall keep and observe this order in the weight of their breads, 
because the foreigners do not bear and pay within the cities and towns 
such Scot and Lot as the bakers within the same towns do. 1st. The 
foreigners’ halfpenny white loaves shall weigh half an ounce more to every 
loaf than the halfpenny loaves of the bakers of the same towns do, then- 
penny loaves shall weigh an ounce more, their halfpenny wheaten 1 oz. 
more, their penny wheaten 2 oz. more, their penny household 2 oz. more, 
and their twopenny household 4 oz. more.” 

These regulations were applicable not to London only, but to all cities 
and corporate towns in England. Although the laws in Scotland at this 
time differed in many respects from the English, the town councils exercised 



a sharp control over traders. There Ss still in the ’possession of the In- 
Giasgow corporation of Bakers of Glasgow the original Act of Council 
Bakers’ granted in favour of the bakers in 1556, which is as follows: — 
Rights. “Item. — It is statute by ye provost, baillies, and counsell, that 

ye baxteris of Glasgow, sail in all times cumming, haif three mercat dayes 
in ye oulk for bringing of their breid to the Croce (Cross). They are to 
say Moninday Weddensday and Fry day. And at (that) nayne outten- 
towneris (strangers) breid be sauled at ye said mercat croce but upon ye 
samyn three days. And it sail not be lesum to nayne traweller that brings 
breid to the mercat to sell ye samyn to nayne outtentowneris man in laides 
(loads), crieles (baskets), nor half crieles jumgit ye gedder (in heaps) quhile 
the inhabitants of the towne be first servit, and XII houris struken, and 
that na man of man sell the breid that is brocht to the towne bot the 
bringar of the same allanerlie (alone), and that na traweller bring breid to 
ye towne to sell but IHId breid and twa- penny breid, and that this be 
observit in all poyntis under the pane of escheting of the breid to ye seller 
that sellis outtentowneris breid befoir XII houris, and VUId to the trone 
(the weighing machine at the Cross). And that the Dekin of the baxteris 
under ye bailies serlc (search), seek, and cause ye samyn to be observit. 

(Signed) Andw. Hogan.” 

According to another edict of the Town Council about the same period, 
which allowed “ unfreemen ” to sell their wares in the High Street between 
8 and 2 o’clock, “tappers of linnen and woolen goods” were allowed to stand 
till the evening, “but unfreemen who sell white bread (were) to keep the 
hours appointed ” (finish at XII houris). 

From this Act of Council it would seem that so far as the Glasgow 
and West of Scotland bakers were concerned, the kinds of bread made were 
Glasgow already settled by custom as two-pound and one-pound loaves. 
Assize, 1560. This is confirmed by a copy of the assize regulation set in 
September 30th, 1560. “And ordainit, by ye provost, baillies and hail 
counsell, yat ye four penny laif (supposed to be Scots money) was thretty- 
twa ounces, and ye twa penny laif saxteen ounces, and yat the samyn be 
gud and sufficient stuffe”; and seemingly the only kind of bread allowed 
was that known at a later period as “assize bread”, to distinguish it from 
another sort regulated in a different way and called “priced bread”. 

In Glasgow and other towns in Scotland the magistrates were allowed 
to exact from the bakers what were called “ multer ” or “ ladle ” dues for all 
flour baked within the Royalty, this tax amounting to one eighty-fourth 
part of the whole price. This was an ancient right of corporations, but it 
evidently needed periodic renewal, for in 1636, while King Charles I was at 
Newmarket, he granted a charter to the magistrates of Glasgow confirming 
their right to levy this tax. Their power did not, however, extend ta 
bakers outside the bounds, and it was a matter of sore complaint to Glasgow 
bakers at the beginning of last century, that certain Bread Societies, on the 
co-operative principle, which had sprung up all over Scotland, and of which 



one or two still exist, were free from “multer” dues because, as a rule, their 
bakehouses were outside the boundaries. 

Under the assize laws from 1709 there were two distinct systems of 
selling bread allowed. The baker was not permitted to adopt both 
systems at once, but had to make a definite choice, by which he << priced 
was afterwards bound, as to how he would sell his bread. There Bread -” 
were two assize tables set, one for what was called “ priced bread ”, the 
other for “ assize bread ”. The quality or kind of bread was the same for 
both tables, but the manner of grading the several sizes, and the manner 
of allowing for alterations in the price were different. “ Priced bread ” was 
sold by denomination, as peck, half-peck, quarter-peck or quartern, and 
half-quarter-peck or half-quartern. The peck loaf weighed 17 lb. G oz., 
and the others in proportion, so that the quai’tern and weights of Peck, 
half-quartern loaves, instead of weighing 4 lb. and 2 lb., Q uartem > &c. 
as usually assumed, weighed respectively 4 lb. 5£ oz. and 2 lb. 2f oz. In 
cases where half-quartern loaves were allowed to be made, they were to be 
half a farthing higher than the price given in the table, if it should happen 
that the table price would split the farthing. Whatever the market price 
of flour, “priced bread” remained always the same weights for the respec- 
tive denominations, the money price only being altered to suit the market 
fluctuations in flour. 

What was known as “ assize bread ” under the old laws, was distin- 
guished from “ priced bread ” by the fact of its weight being changed in 
accordance with fluctuations in the wheat and flour markets. . . „ 

Assi7P Rrpsfl 

It was sold in “ penny ”, “ twopenny ”, “ sixpenny ”, “ twelve- 
penny ”, and “ eighteenpenny ” loaves. As the price of flour rose or fell, the 
weights of these several sizes could be altered in exactly the same propor- 
tion, by deducting or adding the number of drams or ounces of dough 
which would be the equivalent of the alteration in the market price of 
flour. By this method very small alterations in price of flour could be 
exactly allowed for, whereas, by the other system, as no alteration less 
than a farthing was possible, that being the smallest coin, therefore flour 
had to rise or fall in price by nearly 4s. before the altera- Advantages of 
tion in the price of flour could be properly met by an Different Systems, 
alteration in the price of bread. It is curious and interesting to note that 
both systems still obtain in different countries and even in different parts 
of Great Britain. In London and the greater part of England the “ priced 
bread ” is the general rule, although recently the stress of competition has 
caused a return in some part to the assize system of altering weight rather 
than price. In Scotland and Ireland, although the “priced” system is 
adhered to in the case of the ordinary or household bread, the “assize” 
system is followed with regard to all so-called “ fancy ” breads, which form 
no inconsiderable part of the whole. In a good many districts in the North 
of England alterations are still made on the assize plan. Present Methods 
In the Australian Colonies the system is rigidly followed of Selling Bread, 
of fixing the weights of loaves. In America, on the other hand, the more 

Vol. x. 3 



on Assize of 
Bread, 1801. 

mobile method of changing the weights and keeping the price constant has 
been adopted. 

The main purpose of the Assize Laws was to cheapen bread, but they 
sometimes produced effects quite opposite. They did not give the satis- 
Fauits of faction to the public which some who desire their renewal 
Assize Laws. aeem to think, and they created constant trouble with the 
bakers, who complained loudly of the unfair and sometimes corrupt manner 
in which they were administered. They were quite discredited before they 
were abolished, and in a great many cases they fell into disuse. Here is 
an extract from the records of the City of Glasgow, dated 29th January, 
1801: “The magistrates and council, being satisfied for some time prior 
to setting the last assize, that it would be for the benefit of the community 
Glasgow Council ^ no asslze was set. and having considered the Act which 
was passed during the last session of Parliament known 
by the name of the ‘ Stale Bread Act ’, for regulating the 
assize and baking of wheaten bread, resolved to discontinue (at least for 
a time) the practice of fixing an assize of bread within the City and liber- 
ties thereof, and to leave it to the bakers to furnish bread to the inhabitants 
at such prices as they can afford; with the condition and declaration that 
the weights of the loaves furnished by the bakers shall be the same that 
they used to be when the assize of bread was fixed by the magistrates.” 
The interesting point about this extract is its concern for fixed weights 
while allowing the baker full liberty as to price. Some twentj^-one years 
Abolition of Fixed later Parliament by an Act abolished the regulations fix- 
Weights of Bread. } n g weights of loaves, and allowed the baker not only to 
fix the price of his bread but “ to make it of any size and weight he thinks 
fit ”, the only reservation being that he must sell it by weight. The same 
Act stipulated that for two years after the passing of the Act bread must 
not, under a penalty, be sold by denomination, as peck, half-peck, quartern, 
and half-quartern. Evidently a two years’ embargo was not sufficient to 
destroy the old denominations, as these names are still in common use as 
designations of loaves, even in preference to the names of the avoii'dupois 
weights which the 1822 Act sought to introduce 

The “Stale Bread Act”, passed in 1800 in consequence of a great scarcity, 
and referred to above , 1 stipulated that no baker should under a penalty sell 
Stale Bread his bread baken till it was 24 hours old, and the statute also 
Act, 1800. insisted that only a small quantity of the bran was to be taken 
out of the grist, and that the ordinary loaves were to be made from the 
rough meal thus produced. The Act, however, was only administered for 
a few months. 

It is interesting to note that an Act 31 George II (1791) fixed the 
amount of bread to be considered as the equivalent of a quarter of wheat 
Yield of at 365 lb., or 91 j four-pound loaves, and the same Act stipu- 
Fiour, 1791 . l a ted that in fixing the price of bread magistrates were to 

1 Wheat was 75s. and 80s. per boll, and the 2 cl. loaf at this date was weighed at 7\ oz. in dough, and 
the bakers stopped altogether making halfpenny rolls. 



consider 20 peck loaves, or 80 quarterns, as the yield from a sack (280 lb.) 
of flour (about 87 four-pound loaves). Considering the soft nature of the 
home-grown wheat this estimate was probably not much under the actual 

For offences against the Assize Laws bakers had to submit to fines, 
imprisonment, and other indignities, such as being fixed in the pillory or 
whipped at the cart’s tail. As early as the reign of Edward I, Bakers’ 

1298, there are records of fines inflicted on bakers for short- Punishments, 
weight bread, and in 1310 a case is recorded in which a number of bakeresses 
who plied their trade at Stratford, and sent their bread to London in long- 
carts, were had up for short weight, but as the bread was stale they were 
let off with a caution, but had to sell their stale halfpenny loaves at three 
for a penny. In 1327 an ingenious fraud was discovered as having been 
perpetrated by several bakers and bakeresses. The public at this time 
took their dough to the common bakehouse to bake, but the proprietors 
had a secret hole or holes made in the moulding boards, and as the “ baking” 
was duly placed on the board one of the baker’s family was Tricky 
secret 1 .}'- and successful^ pinching piece after piece from the Bakers . J 327- 
lumps “for the good of the establishment”. The culprits being caught, the 
men were placed in the pillory with a quantity of dough hung round their 
necks, while the bakeresses were committed to Newgate. In later times 
fines from fid. to as much as 5s. per ounce were inflicted on bakers who 
gave short weight, the fines going in some cases partly to the common 
informer and the overseers of the parish where the offence was committed. 
This allocation of fines is still part of the regulations under which bread 
is now sold, although it is doubtful if they are thus distributed. The 
Bakers’ Company had power to levy fines for a good many faults on 
brethren in the trade. The baker’s punishment seems in the past to have 
been nicely graduated to the quality of his offence. In Henry Ill’s time 
if his farthing loaf was an ounce short he was fined, but if beyond that 
deficiency he was to be set in the pillory without the option of a fine, 
and if he offended often even in smaller degree the pillory was again his 
punishment. In the time of Edward I he could retain his freedom by 
paying a fine if his farthing loaf was only an ounce and a half short, but 
if more the pillory was his fate. By an order of The Privy Council made 
in the time of James I the “Clerk of the Market or the Mayor, Baliffe or 
the officers of cities, Corporate Townes and Liberties, or by the Master and 
Wardens of the Company of Bakers of London ”, were empowered to seize 
“ all unlawful bread ”, and distribute it “ to poore prisoners and other poore 
people”. If anyone sold musty meal he was fined for the first offence, lost 
his meal for the second, was put in the pillory for the third, and drummed 
out of the town for the fourth. The same order of Council says, “ it is a 
common practice with many, if not most, bakers, to slice or cut their stale 
white bread into sippets, and being well steeped and mollified in water, to 
intermix and knead the same together with their wheaten dow, to the 
great abuse and scandall of their Mysterie, and the wrong of his Majesties 



subjects”. The offending bakers are warned not to do this, but to make 
all their bread “all of new stuffe and pure”. In a sermon published in 
1631 the bakers and their servants are given very bad characters. They 
are called “Sophisticating Kneaders”, and told they give short weight. 
They are accused among other things of deluding the searching magistrate 
by “supplying your shops with a few loaves of competent assize; while in 
your inward Roomes, or secretly behind, a numerous weight wanting batch 
lies ready to be uttered in his absence (while in your sleeve you laugh at 
him), unless the same before his coming bee sent forth to your confederate 
customers”. The baker’s men were accused of sticking copper coins into 
their light weight bread when they saw the bread examiner approaching. 

The following interesting set of woodcuts is reproduced from the old 
work by John Powell, already referred to, and shows in a rough way the 
stages of bread manufacture then prevailing, which in some respects 
differed very little from methods common not so many years ago. The 
attachment of the couplet to each picture was quite in keeping with the 
spirit of the age, although it is to be feared that precept and practice were 
not always in perfect agreement: — 

12 3 4 

Selling or Measuring Sifting Meal Adding Salt to Sponge Weighing Pieces op 
Wheat Dough 

He that giveth measure It maketh a poor man Look well to thy season Be just with thy weights ; 

God blesseth with treasure. To sell flour for bran. With cunning and reason. God plague false sleights. 


5 6 7 Setting on Peel to 

Moulding Loaves Notching Docking Loaves place in Oven 

God blesseth true labour Be still quick and kind, Prick not at thy pleasure. Be watchful and wise 

With plenty and favour. Reward thou shalt find. But in true honest measure. In goodness to rise. 

The second series of thirteen woodcuts is reproduced from a work 
called Artachthos, by John Penkethman, published originally in 1638 and 
republished in 1748. 




All services that to the Baker’s Trade 
Or inysterie belong, be here displaid, 

Which rny rude Arts in order shall recount, 
And those in number to thirteen amount, 

Being (how ere such Tradesmen used to coozen 
Tn their scale measure) just a Baker’s dozen. 

First 1 Boulting, - Seasoning, 3 Casting up, and 4 Braking, 
5 Breaking out dowe, next G Weighing, or weight making 
(Which last is rarely seene), then some doe 7 Mould; 

This 8 Cuts, that 9 Seales and Sets up, yet behold 

The seasoner 10 Heating, or with Barin fires 
Preparing the oven as the case requires; 

One carrying up, the Heeter peeleth on 
And playes the 11 Setter, who ’s no sooner gone 



But the hot mouth is 12 Stopt, so to remaine 
Untill the setter 13 drawes all forth againe. 

Thus bakers make and to perfection bring, 
No less to serve the Beggar than the King, 
All sorts of Bread, which being handled well, 
All other food and Cates doth farre excell. 

Let Butchers, Poultrers, Fishmongers contend 
Each in his own trade, in what he can Defend, 
Though Flesh, Fish, Whitemeat, all in fitting season, 
Nourish the body, being used with reason, 

Yet no man can deny (to end the strife) 
Bread is worth all, being the staff of life. 

With the exception of the “boulting”, which is now an affair only of 
the miller, the “ braking ” (an operation now performed by rollers), and the 
“stopping” up of the oven after the batch is set, the processes of baking 
300 years ago were evidently very much like those followed to-day. There 
has been a good deal of difference, however*, in the terms used. We still 
speak of “ setting ”, but not of “ seasoning ”, which was evidently concerned 


with adding the salt; for “casting up” we simply say kneading, for 
“sealing” we say bashing, and for “cutting” we use the term notching. 
The method of “casting dough”, or breaking off pieces of dough with the 
hand on the edge of the table without the use of a knife or scraper, is still 
in use in some parts of the south of Ireland. But it is well within the 
memory of bakers not very old, that the processes here depicted in picture 
and verse might serve for an exact description of the operations in use 
when they were young. The writer has “braked” many a batch on a 
“brake” of the pattern shown in picture 5, only that it was fixed in a 
corner and was fan-shaped; while “stopping” all round the oven door or 
“ back ” with clay was the usual practice in all bakehouses witli ovens of 
the old “pot” type. The number references in the text do not correspond 
throughout with the numbers on the cuts, but the mistakes are those of 
the seventeenth-century author. 




Bakers’ Guilds were in existence as early as the time of Henry II, about 
1155, but were, like the other trade guilds, only associations of traders 
bound together for the common benefit of the craft, their Early Bakers’ 
aim being to prevent those who had not qualified by appren- Guilds - 
ticeship and subsequent membership of the Company from trading within 
cities and corporate towns in which guilds were generally established. 
This power was not bestowed on the guilds at their birth, but, according 
to Norton, was acquired by the payment of large bribes to needy princes in 
return for the concession of monopoly of the particular trade to which the 
guild belonged. The Incorporation of the White Bread Bakers did not 
take place till 1307 in Edward Ill’s reign, while the Brown Bread Bakers, 
who for a time had a separate existence, were granted their charter in 
1621 by James I. 

The White Bread Bakers had a new charter granted to them in 1498 
by Henry VII, and had this confirmed to them, probably in each case for 
a handsome consideration, by all the other Tudor special Powers in 
sovereigns. In the charter granted by Queen Eliza- Elizabeth’s Charter, 
beth it appears the bakers first acquired powers to exercise full legal 
control over the trade, for when in the reign of James I it was pro- 
posed to pass a bill granting power to the mayor and aldermen to set the 
assize of bread and to make orders for its observance all on their own 
authority, the Bakers’ Company protested that this power “is contrary and 
destructive to the Charter granted to the Corporation of the Bakers of 
London so long ago as the 11th year of the reign of the late Queen Eliza- 



beth, by which the master and wardens of the said Company have authority 
to govern and correct all freemen and foreigners using the said trade 
within the City of London, and likewise have power to search and punish 
all offences concerning all kinds of bread within the City of London and 
suburbs and 2 miles round (Westminster excepted), and to take to the use 
of the Company all fines and amercements taxed on any offender, so that 
such Charter granted in consideration of charge and expense and payment 
of Scot and Lot will be rendered wholly unto the Company.” 

Stow mentions that in 1302, by an Act of Edward I the bakers of 
London were ordered to sell no bread in their shops or houses, but in the 
Bakers Must open market at Bread Street, and that the Bakers’ Company 
Sell in Market, should have “four hall motes (or courts) in the year, at four 
several terms, to determine of enormities belonging to the said Company”. 
The nature of the service which the Bakers’ and other companies were 
supposed to render to the trade and to the public may be gathered from 
the oath administered to the master and wardens, as follows: — “Ye shall 
swere that ye shall wele and treuly ov’see the Craft of Bakers whereof ye 
be chosen wardens for the year. And all the goode reules, ordyn’ces of the 
Oath of Bakers’ same craft that have been approved here be the court, and 
Company. noon other, ye shall kepe and doo to be kept. And all the 

defautes that ye fynde in the same ci - aft if don to the Chamberleyn of y’ 
Citie for the tyine being ye shall wele and treuly p’ceute. Sparyng noo man 
for favour, ne grevyng noo p’sone for hate. Extorcion no wrong under 
colour of your office ye shall no doo, neither to noo thing that shall be 
agenst the state, peas, and people of our sovereign Lord the King, or to 
the Citie ye shall not concente, but for the time that ye shall be in office 
in all things that shall belongyng with the same craft after the lawes and 
franchoses of the seide citie will and lawfully ye shal have you. So help 
you God and all seyntes, &c.” There is not much evidence to show how 
well the governors of the Company lived up to their obligations with 
regard to the “ Citie ”, but they took good care of their own privileges, 
as witnessed by the number of protests, appeals, and petitions which 
were published by the Company. 

In early Plantagenet times the whole of the Trading Companies had 
to have their officers sworn in before the mayor and sheriffs of the City, 
Bakers’ Company an< ^ they were entitled or forced to send two of their 
and City liverymen to the Court of Common Hall, which is now 

Corporation. only called together for the purpose of electing the Lord 

Mayor and sheriffs of the City, but at one time performed the much 
more important functions of finding money or men for war operations, 
or devising means for definite action, or for the protection of the City 
in times of crises. 

The general functions of the Company, or Companies, were to look 
strictly after the conduct of their own members. There were two Com- 
panies, — one, the White Bread Bakers, being much the more important, 
and the Brown Bread Bakers, who retained a separate existence, but 


Francis Tonsley, J.P., born in Northampton in 1856, was 
educated at the Grammar School there. He worked as an appren- 
tice confectioner with his father, and, at the death of the latter 
took over the business at Sheep Street, afterwards, however, buying 
the oldest confectionery and pie business in Northampton. Mr. 
Tonsley was a Town Councillor for fifteen years, Mayor in 1898, 
Governor of the Technical Schools Hospital and Charities, and is 
now Alderman and Justice of Peace. He was President of the 
National Association in 1902 and 1903, and presided at the 
opening of the National Bakery School in 1902. 

William Callard was born in 1844 at Torquay, where his 
father was in business as a baker. He is a member of Devonshire 
County Council and Torquay Borough Council. Very early in 
the life of the National Association of Master Bakers he took a 
leading part in its business, and was elected President in 1905. 

JOHN Hicks, born at Wavertree, Liverpool, in 1847, succeeded 
h!*; father as a miller, corn-dealer, and baker in 1874. The whole 
trade in Liverpool have abounding faith in Mr. Hicks. He was 
made President of the National Association of Master Bakers in 

E. W. Bowkett was born at Ledbury, Herefordshire, in 1846. 
He started in business in Birmingham in 1868, and soon began 
to take an active part in public affairs, being elected to the 
Board of Guardians in 1876, and to the City Council in 1882. 
He was made Alderman in 1894 and Justice of the Peace in 
1901. He was the “my friend Alderman Bowkett” of a famous 
speech on Tariff Reform, when Mr. Chamberlain exhibited two 
loaves supposed to represent the Free Trade and Tariff Reform 
sizes. Mr. Bowkett was President of the National Association of 
Master Bakers in 1904, and Chairman of the Executive for the 
succeeding three years. He died in 1907. 

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without incorporation, till 1622, but the latter seemed too weak to 

continue as a separate company, and seem to have Relative importance 

again been joined with the White Bread Bakers of White and 

. , j. i , Brown Bread Bakers, 

some tlnrty-hv^e years later. 

The powers of the Company, which were in the nature of a monopoly 
— so long, at least, as they were nb'e to prevent others than bakers 
trading as such — came direct from the Crown, and their Relation to 
concession was really in payment of loans or gifts to the the Crown - 
sovereign of the time, those kings or queens with the greatest needs 
being most willing to confer the largest powers. The Governing Charter 
of the Bakers’ Company (2 James II) contains a power enabling the 
King, by order of the Privy-council, to amove the master, wardens, 
and assistants, or clerk of the Company. This was no new claim, for 
in 1507 (22 Henry VII) we find that the by-laws of the Company were 
rectified by the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, and the Chief 
Justice of the King’s Bench; and in 1622 (19 James I) the by-laws of 
the mystery of Brown Bread Bakers (who are united with the White 
Bread Bakers in the Governing Charter of James I) were settled under 
the hands of the Lord Keeper and the Chief Justice of the Court of 
King’s Bench and Common Pleas. 

Although the Bakers’ Company dates its original charter and its 
existence some seven hundred years back, it has never been classed 
amongst the twelve great companies, which include the small influence 
Tailors, Mercers, Grocers, &c. The Bakers’ Company has of Company, 
been variously allocated a position, which, according to Stow, means 
only its place of precedence at the Lord Mayor’s feasts, as the eighteenth 
company, but Stow assigns its position as the twenty -fifth company, 
although Herbert gives its position in 1509 as fifteenth. In any case, 
there is evidence amounting to proof that the authorities did not regard 
it as a great company, either in the matter of funds or power. In 1355, 
when the City Chamberlain required money from the various guilds, the 
Bakers’ is not amongst the list of those who paid. In the reign of 
Edward III, when the Grocers, Brewers, Mercers, &c., sent six repre- 
sentatives each to the Common Council, the Bakers’ Company only 
appointed two. In 1629 the White Bread Bakers were assessed in a 
City levy for £25, 16s., while the Brown Bread Bakers only paid £4, 6s. 
In 1665 the Companies were called upon by the Lord Mayor to assist 
in defeating the designs of coal merchants who at- Company Pre- 
tempted to “engross” all sea-borne coal coming into venting “ Corners 
London, and so raise its price when the demand was greatest. To 
defeat this purpose each of the trading companies was required to keep 
in store a quantity of coal proportionate to its wealth. The Grocers on 
this occasion were required to keep 675 chaldron, while the levy on 
the White Bread Bakers was only 45 and on the Brown Bread Bakers 
12 chaldron. This seems to have been a regular method of taking pre- 
cautions against scarcity. The City authorities frequently called upon 

VOL. I. a 



all the Companies to provide corn, which was stored in great granaries, 
Stores of the principal of which were at Bridgehouse and Leadenhall. 
Grain. “The wardens of the Bakers were admonished to make diligent 
labour and means for some competent provision of wheate, and subse- 
quently delivered in an account of all the meal in store or bargaine 
provided by them and the Stratforde bakers.” Stow tells of a time 
when there was a scarcity of wheat so great that, “ when the carts of 
Stratford came laden with bread to the City, as they had been accus- 
tomed, there was such press about them, that one man was ready to 
Great Scarcity destroy another in striving to be served for their money”, 
in 1512 . q’i 1 i s W as i n 1512, but the mayor of that day, one Roger 

Achley, was a man of energy and resource, for he “made such provision 
of wheat, that the bakers, both of London and Stratford, were weary of 
taking it up, and were forced to take up much more than they would, 
and for the rest the Mayor laid out the money and stored the wheat in 
Leadenhall, and other garners of the City”. From this it is evident 
that the Bakers’ Company was not allowed privileges without responsi- 

It has probably never been a part of the rights of the Company to 
set the price of bread, although, as already noticed, it was entrusted 
Powers of with powers of search and supervision over the trade 

Bakers’ Company. w ith regard to price and weight after the assize was 

duly set by the mayor and aldermen, or by the magistrates in counties. 
The Bakers do not seem to have exercised this supervision with the 
strictness which those in higher authority thought necessary, or else the 
latter were jealous of fines going into the funds of the Bakers’ Company 
rather than into the coders of the City courts, for the Company gradually 
lost its powers, and about the year 1730 we find the Bakers appealing 
to be heard before the Bar of the House of Commons 
Bakers Appeal. a g a j ns ^. scan t consideration they received from the 

magistrates, and against those magistrates setting the assize without 
consulting the Bakers’ Company. Their right to be so heard was un- 
doubted, and is distinctly stated in the Bread Act, 3 Geo. I: “Before any 

Right to reduction is made in the Assize of Bread by the Court of Lord 
be Heard. Mayor and Aldermen, &c., a copy of the prices delivered in 
by the head weigher for the City for the time being, shall be left at 
the Common Hall of the Bakers’ Company, for the space of 12 hours 
before any such reduction, to the intent that the said Company shall 
have opportunity to be heard thereupon before the Court”. 

The abolition of the assize of bread in the Act of 1822 took away 
the occupation of the Bakers’ Company, and until quite recently it 
Present Condition drifted further and further away from the trade to 
of Company. which it belongs, neglecting all its functions, but re- 

taining the funds for the comfort and benefit of those who happened 
to be on its livery. Although the majority of the livery and the wardens 
have now no connection with the trade, there has, within the hist dozen 



years or so, been a return of interest in the old institution, and quite a 
number of well-to-do bakers have taken up the freedom of the Company 
by purchase, and now the retired bakers form a considerable proportion 
of the court and the commonalty. The Company has also renewed its 
interest to some extent in the trade by presenting gold and Renewed Life 
bronze medals for competition at the annual Bakers’ and in Trade- 
Confectioners’ Exhibition, and by presenting the freedom of the Company 
to the successful students in bread and confectionery at the National 
Bakery School, Borough Polytechnic Institute, London. The income of 
the Bakers’ Company does not exceed £2000 per annum. Part of this 
money is from charitable bequests of former freemen, and Present income 
the Company has still a good many pensioners who are and lts Uses - 
benefited from those funds. Like the other City companies, the Bakers’ 
Company spends a good portion of its income on dinners for its members. 
The presentation of the medals, alluded to above, takes place each year at 
the Common Hall of the Company, when the trade is invited. Although 
reference has only been made to the Bakers’ Company of London, the 
conditions as to powers and privileges of other incorporations of the 
trade, so far as the administration of assize laws was concerned, were 
much alike in all the cities and corporate towns of England. 

The Incorporated Trades, as the}' are called in Scotland, had much 
the same kind of powers over craftsmen as the guilds and companies 
had in England. They fined those who broke their incorporated Trades 
rules, enforced apprenticeship, debarred any but trades- of Scotland, 
men from entering the business, and kept watch and ward over both the 
honesty and the morals of their members. Like their English brethren 
they acquired property, and grew rich by its natural accumulation. The 
richest Incorporations of Bakers in Scotland are those of Aberdeen and 
Glasgow. The former was fortunate enough to own a large piece of land 
which was adapted for a graveyard, and the income from this and other 
sources now enables the Incorporation to dispense a good . , , „ , 

* ” Aberdeen Hikers 

deal of assistance amongst “ decaied ” tradesmen, and also 
to entertain on a lavish scale those who are not decayed. The Glasgow 
Incorporation of Bakers is probably even richer, and it acquired the 
greater part of its property in a manner slightly more heroic. In 1568, 
just before the battle of Langside, the army under Regent Murray, which 
opposed that of Queen Mary, was quartered near Glasgow. On this 
occasion the bakers of Glasgow were required to provide an extraordinary 
supply of bread for the troops. The flour supply was not sufficient for 
such an emergency, but the bakers, by uncommon exer- Glasgow Bakers 
tions in bruising and bolting the grain, not only in the and Battle of 
mills but also in their own houses, accomplished the task, Lan g sld e- 
and, in consequence, gave great satisfaction to the Regent. The latter 
being completely successful at Langside, remembered on his return to 
Glasgow the service of the bakers, and at a public thanksgiving he 
thanked the council and the incorporated trades, particularly the bakers, 



for the service they had rendered him, and asked if there was anything 
he could do in return. The bakers were at the moment fortunate in 

, having a deacon who could rise to the occasion in the pex-son of 

Pawky o 

Matthew Mr. Matthew Fawside. He informed Regent Murray that the 
Fawside. k a j, ers w j 1Q } iat j serv ed him so well were the victims of the 
taxmen of the Partick and other mills, who exacted exorbitant multures, 
which greatly affected the price of bread to the community, and if he, the 
Regent, would give the Incorporation of Bakers a grant of Partick Mill, 
which belonged to the Crown, it would be acknowledged as a public 
benefit. The oration, we are informed, had the desired effect, and the 
Regent instantly gave the corporation a grant of the mill and certain 
Wealth of lands connected with it. The bakers built a new mill 

Glasgow Bakers. on ^} ie s it,e 0 f the old one in 1664. The old mill was 
known as the Archbishop’s Mill, but the new one was named the Bun- 
house Mill, from the Bun and “Yill” house which stood at the gate. 
In the gable of the new mill a stone was inserted, with the inscription 
M — 1568 — F, in ho tour of the doughty Deacon Fawside. In 1771 the 
Bakers bought from the Town Council of Glasgow another mill at Clay- 
slaps, and one interesting point about this mill is that it was almost, if 
First Steam not quite, the first flour mill in the kingdom to have a 
Engine m Mill, steam engine, which was of 32 horse-power and was con- 
sidered a wonder. In 1895 the Incorporation of Bakers sold the Bun- 
house Mill and adjacent lands to Glasgow Corporation for a sum of 
£50,000, so that the funds for charitable and other purposes are con- 

None of the ancient guilds or incorporations now identify themselves 
closely with the trade. The general interests of bakers are at present 
Present looked after by voluntary associations, some local, some national. 
Societies. Qf the i ar g e associations the London Master Bakers’ Protection 
Society, which has a membership of about 1500, is the oldest, having been 
started in 1866. The National Association of Bakers and Confectioners, 
which concerns itself with the whole trade of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and has a membership of about 5500, was started in 1888, its original 
home being Birmingham. The Scottish Association of Master Bakers, 
started in 1891, has a membership of over 2000, and was an offshoot of 
the National, its originators being seceders from the latter. All the large 
associations have done good work in watching over the interests of the 
trade in the matter of legislation and restrictive by-laws of local authori- 
ties. On one occasion, in 1896, the National Association was instrumental 
Protective Work in preventing harassing regulations regarding the weigh- 
of Societies. ing G f bread being inserted in the Weights and Measures 
Act of that year. In 1906, in conjunction with the London Master Bakers’ 
Protection Society and a syndicate of West End London bakers, the 
National Association opposed successfully an attempt of the London 
County Council to reintroduce fixed weights for bread. Within the last 
few years an association called the South Wales Federation, consisting 



of local associations, has acquired great strength in the district which 
gives it its name. It deals principally with the price question, and uses 
its corporate power to keep down underselling, by secur- Restrictive Work 
ing the assistance of millers and by preventing, as far of Society, 
as possible, those who undersell from obtaining flour supplies. The 
National Association has, with the assistance of the London Protection 
Society and the Borough Polytechnic Institute, done a good deal for trade 
education within the last eight years. The National Educational Work 
Bakery School was started as a private venture by Mr. of Societies. 

John Blandy, but was taken over by the National Association of Bakers, 
and is now managed by the latter body most successfully. On somewhat 
similar lines a bakery school has been started in Glasgow by the Glasgow 
and West of Scotland Technical College, in which the Bakery Schools 
Scottish Association of Master Bakers and the Scottish and Classes, 
trade generally have rendered valuable financial help. In addition there 
are local trade classes in many parts of the country. 

Probably the greatest educational institution which the baking and 
catering trade has is the Annual Exhibition held at the Agricultural Hall, 
London, every September. Every baker in the kingdom who influence of 
can spare the time and money endeavours to get to London Exhibition, 
for this event. Bakery engineers make strenuous efforts to have their 
latest machinery on show, merchants strive to produce their best wares 
here, whilst the bakers themselves spare no efforts to produce the best 
that skill and patience can accomplish for competition for the various valu- 
able prizes and trophies here offered. This exhibition has probably induced 
greater changes and greater activity in the baking and allied trades than 
anything else. The baking, confectionery, and catering trades are supplied 
with a trade press enterprising beyond the ordinary, and its 

r 3 d c P j* 0 2 § 

educatidnal influence is enormous. There are no less than 
four weekly, three monthly, and one quarterly journal specially devoted to 
these trades, besides several others concerned more particularly with cook- 
ing and hotel work. 



According to the botanical system, all the cereals belong to the order 
of Grasses. Whether they have been evolved from the primitive or wild 
grasses by cultivation, or are distinct species, is, however, a 3 otanical 
question still involved in some doubt. Like most of the wild Position of 
grasses, the cereals are hermaphrodite, that is to say, the same Cereals - 
blossom bears both male and female elements, though often one or the 
other is abortive. 

In the grass tribe the germ, as the young plant is called, is always 



provided with a store of nutritive material, to ensure its support during the 
period of germination, and it is in this accumulation of reserve substance 
that man finds an abundant supply of food. Externally the cereal grains 
closely resemble seeds, but a closer examination shows them to be true 
fruits. Each grain consists of a fruit-leaf with its edges rolled over and 
grown together, the furrow which runs the length of the grain being the 
line of joint; this is well marked in the wheat berry. 

The fruit consists of two important parts: the first, called the endo- 
sperm, with its coatings, comprises about 98'5 per cent of the entire grain; 
Grains are the second, the germ or embryo plant, makes up the remaining 
Fruits. 1-5 per cent of the grain. The germ is embedded upon the base 
of the endosperm, on the dorsal side. A detailed account of the anatomy 
of the cereal grains will be given when dealing with wheat, which may be 
considered as typical of the group. 

All the principal nutritive substances are found in the cereals, though 
the proportions vary slightly in the different members. The greatest varia- 
Chemicai tions in chemical properties are found in the. proteids; it is 
Constituents probable, however, that the nutritive properties are about 
of Cereals. equal. The total amount of proteids varies in the cereals 
from 10 to 12 per cent, but it should be noted that the whole of the 
combined nitrogen is not present in the form of proteids, a certain amount, 
especially during germination, existing in organic ammonia compounds or 

The chief carbohydrate in all cereals is starch; between 65 and 80 
per cent of the whole grain is made up of this substance. Sugars, dextrin, 
and gums are also met with in small quantity, whilst many different kinds 
of cellulose go to form the various protective coats. Fat is present only in 
small quantity, and the cereals cannot be regarded as being in any way 
valuable sources of this important food stuff. The quantity varies con- 
siderabty in the different members of the group, being most abundant in 
oats, and least so in rice. In this respect we find a curious parallel in the 
animal world, the greatest supply of fat occurring in those living in cold 
climes, whilst in warmer latitudes the quantity is relatively low. The 
mineral matter in cereals consists principally of the phosphates of lime and 
potash. Organic salts are present in very small amounts. 

The general composition of the cereals varies between the following 
limits : — 


Proteids (nitrogenous matter) 

Carbohydrates (starch, sugars, gums) 

Fats ... 

Insoluble fibre 
Mineral matters 

10 -12 per cent. 
10 -12 „ 

65 -75 
0 - 5 - 8 
2-4 „ 

0 - 5 - 2 „ 

Relative Position The f 0 ^ 0w i n g table will show at a glance the relative 
of Cereals richness of each of the cereals in the important food 

as Foods. principles: — 


: !_ .. ., L . 4 









Mineral Matters. 



















\\ heat 












Wheat (Ger. Weizen ; Fr. Bid), Triticum vulgare. — This is by far the 
most important cereal in this country, it being estimated that 6 bushels per 
head is consumed by the population every year. Although the staple grain 
of the Western races, wheat must nevertheless be placed second to rice in 
point of numbers supported by it, for rice is the staple food of the people 
of China and Japan, and is also a leading food crop in India. 

By reason of the marked physical characters of certain of its proteid 
constituents wheat is pre-eminently the cereal of the bread baker, and a 
close study of the anatomical and chemical structure of the wheat berry is 
necessary in order to understand the processes by which the many grades 
of flour required in practical work are produced. If a grain of wheat is 
carefully cut into two by passing the blade of a knife through the furrow, 
it will be seen, upon examining the cut surfaces, that the grain consists 
roughly of three different parts. Upon the outside is a thin yellowish to 
brown skin, completely surrounding the chalk-like material p ar ts of 
that forms the bulk of the corn. At one end, embedded in Wheat Gram, 
a small recess, a small bright yellow body will also be noticed. Now, 
if a very thin slice is removed from one of these surfaces, and, after 
mounting in water, examined under a microscope furnished with £ and 
£ powers, the following parts may be recognized by careful searching (see 
Plate, Sections of Wheat Grain). 

Magnified by the £th power, the skin will be seen to consist of several 
layers differing only slightly in structure. In all there are five of these 
skins, but it will be found somewhat difficult at first to differen- skins of 
tiate them clearly in the section. By soaking a grain in water Wheat, 
for some hours the different skins can be easily stripped off; they may then 
be examined separately. Another method consists in boiling a little bran 
with dilute acid for a few minutes, then collecting the finer particles and 
mounting them. 


The first three coats constitute the coarse skin or bran, the outermost 
being the epidermis or cuticle. The epicarp and endocarp, forming the 
next two layers, are composed of reticulated cells. It should be noted that 
the cells of the epicarp run in the direction of the length of the grain and 
are coarse in structure, whilst those of the endocarp are finer and more 
delicate and run transversely. 

Immediately beneath the endocarp is the very thin skin called the 
episperm, or testa, or sometimes the hyaline coat. This skin is the true 



envelope of the grain, and in it is found the colouring matter which marks 
the corn as belonging to the white or the red wheats. The structure of the 
testa differs from that of the previous coats in the shape of its cells, which 
are long and narrow, with rounded or loop-like ends. 

The next series of cells is called the aleuroue or cereaiin layer, and, 
although usually considered as belonging to the bran, it strictly forms part 
of the endosperm. In the wheat berry there is only one row of aleurone 
cells; in shape they are almost square when seen in transverse section, 
and polygonal in surface view, somewhat like the cells in a honeycomb. 
These cells are packed with proteid and fatty matter. At one time they 
were thought to be the seat of the gluten, and for many years they were 
called the gluten cells. The material in these cells has now been shown 
to consist of oil globules and amorphous proteid, so that the term aleurone 
is now also a misnomer. The proteids in this layer exert a considerable 
and undesirable influence upon the dough during fermentation, and for this 
x-eason the miller tries to exclude them from the flour. The aleurone layer, 
therefore, is removed as far as possible with the offals. 

The germ, a complex and beautiful structure, will amply repay a very 
close study. The cells are small and of a pale-yellow colour. There is no 
structure and s ^ arc ^ i n them, the chemical compounds present being chiefly 
Composition proteids and fat. When viewed with a low power (1 in.) 
of Germ. the outline of the young plant may be seen strongly marked. 

The germ consists of three distinct parts (see Plate, Drawing of Wheat 
Berry): (a) the 'plumule consists of the undeveloped leaves of the future 
plant; ( b ) the radicle is the root centre, the primitive root bulb being quite 
distinct; (c) the third part is called the scutellum, and comprises the series 
of slightly elongated cells lying next to the endosperm. The scutellum 
performs the important function during germination of conveying the 
nutritive materials of the endosperm to the young plant. Those cells of 
the scutellum in immediate contact with the endosperm are sometimes 
called the epithelial cells, and it is in these that the active agents (enzymes) 
are formed which transform the starch and proteids of the endosperm into 
soluble matters capable of absorption by the growing plant. 

The chemical changes which wheat undergoes in the process of ger- 
mination consist in rendering both starch and proteid soluble; consequently 
Germination flour which is made from germinated wheat does not pro- 
of Wheat. duce bulky, good-coloured bread. Before grinding, sprouted 
wheat can be detected microscopically by examining the germ, which will 
be found to contain starch if germination has commenced. When flour has 
to be examined for this change, the amount of soluble matter present should 
be noted, and if more than 5 per cent is found, the flour must be regarded 
with suspicion. It is sometimes possible to detect sprouting by the micro- 
scope. Examine a water-mounted sample of the flour with a high-power 
lens, when the starch grains will appear as if scored over by a tiny worm. 
This appearance is due to erosion of the cell walls of the starch grain by 
the enzyme cytase. The process of malting wheat and barley consists 




in starting the grain to germinate under artificial conditions; during 
this process considerable quantities of diastase are secreted, and some of 
the starch is also rendered soluble. When these changes have proceeded 
far enough, the maltster arrests further action by drying the grain in 

The endosperm contains the whole of the materials which are of 
importance to the baker. When highly magnified, it will be seen to 
consist of numerous large cells of net-like form, in which structure of 
starch grains are tightly packed, the whole endosperm being Endosperm, 
thus divided up into compartments. The walls of these compartments are 
built up of a very delicate thin cellulose; it is this material which forms 
the “fluff” of the dust-settling rooms in flour mills. In addition to starch 
the endosperm cells contain both soluble and insoluble proteids, sugars, and 
salts; it is not possible, however, actually to see these other constituents, 
but it is probable that they are deposited in the form of fine powder upon 
the starch grains and in the spaces between them. 

The proteids consist partly of soluble albumen and globulin, of which 
there is only a small percentage in wheat, the l'emainder being insoluble 
proteid or gluten. The insoluble proteids of cereals have been p ro teids of 
separated by means of alcohol into two constituents called Wheat - 
glutenin and gliadin, and it is believed that this latter body gives to 
gluten its characteristic properties. 

The following table, published by Fleurent in Gomptes Rendus, 
1901, shows the ratio which these two substances bear to Relation of 
one another in the insoluble proteids of the common cereals. Gliadin to 
It will be noted that in wheat the gliadin amounts to about Glutemn - 
two-thirds of the total, and in no other case does it reach so much as 


Insoluble Pro- 
per cent. 

Consisting of 





6 to 14 





















13 00 


The gluten appears to be distributed throughout the whole endosperm, 
though in a decreasing proportion towards the centre, for it is found that 
the best roller patents which are made from the heart of the endosperm 
generally possess less gluten than lower-grade flours, such as bakers or 
straight grades, which contain much flour made from the outer portions 
of the endosperm. 

The starch grains in wheat are round or slightly oval in shape, and 

VOL. i. 5 



vary in diameter from 035 to 039 mm. Rings are indistinct, and the 
hilum, which is a tiny dot near the centre, cannot always be seen. (See 
Plate, Starches.) 

The relative proportions of the different parts to the whole berry are 
usually given thus: — 

Endosperm ... ... ... ... ... 85'0 

Bran ... ... ... ... ... ... 135 

Germ ... ... ... ... ... ... 1*5 


The following table, compiled from a number of analyses, shows the 
chemical composition and proportions of the component parts of the wheat 
berry : — 

tion of 
















Cuticle 1 

E pi carp V 










Endocarp j 





— - 





Aleurone layer 



































These results show clearly that the great bulk of food materials lies in 
the endosperm. The bran coatings are relatively rich in cellulose, lignin, 
indigestibility &c., bodies which are practically indigestible. It must also 
of Bran. b e remembered that simple chemical analysis cannot give any 

adequate idea of the degree of digestibility. The results of direct digestive 
experiments have demonstrated the fact that the nitrogenous matter of the 
bran (with which the aleurone layer is usually included) is only absorbed 
to a very slight extent in the alimentary tract. The germ, although 
undoubtedly rich in fat and proteid, is present in such small quantity 
that the total addition to the nutritive value resulting from its inclusion 
in the flour would be almost inappreciable. On the other hand, by reason 
of its large amount of fat and active proteids, the germ speedily becomes 
rancid, and imparts bad flavour to the flour. 

Wheat, irrespective of its source, is of fairly constant chemical com- 
position. Tire chief differences noticeable are found between the spring 
or summer and the winter wheats, these names being given to those crops 
obtained from seed sown in spring and autumn respectively. 

The following averages are given by J. Konig as the results of many 
hundreds of analyses of wheats grown in all quarters of the globe: — 


3 C 

Origin of Samples. 









England ... 

13 3. 












1 -55 

France ... 

13 3 





1 -66 





























N. America (504 analyses) 

13 3 






All Countries (948 analyses) ... 






1 -77 

Winter Wheats ... 

13 3 






Summer Wheats 







Rye (Ger. Roggen ; Fr. Seigle), Secale cereale. — Rye ranks second only 
to wheat as a bread-making grain. Its inferiority to wheat in this respect 
is due to the smaller quantity and the different character Structure and 
of its gluten, with the correspondingly larger amount of Character 
soluble proteids. This deficiency of gluten, coupled with an of Rye ' 
increased diastasic activity resulting from the large amounts of soluble 
proteid, has the effect of rendering bread made from rye flour close, 
damp, and poor in volume, perhaps also imparting its slightly sour taste. 

Rye bread is largely used in Russia, Germany, Austria, and other Con- 
tinental countries. In digestibility the finer varieties are probably equal 
to wheaten bread, but the coarser kinds, e.g. pumpernickel, owing to a less 
careful milling of the flour, contain much bran, and are more indigestible. 
It is estimated that 42 per cent of the proteids of pumpernickel escape 

Rye is similar in structure to wheat, but the individual grains are 
narrower and of darker colour. This difference enables rye to be separated 
from wheat by screening with a sieve having narrow slits, too small for 
wheat, but large enough for rye to pass through. The hairs of rye grains 
are longer and less regular than those of wheat. Rye starch is similar in 
shape to wheaten, but a trifle larger, on the average varying from ’039 to 
•052 mm. Many of the largest starch grains often show a curious triangular 
fissure radiating from the hilum. Rye is peculiarly liable to the fungus 
disease Ergot (see p. 41). 

The limits of variation in the composition of rye are as follows:-— 



















1- 83 

2- 24 


Gluten can only be washed out of rye flour with difficulty. The colour 
of the wet gluten is dirty grey, and it softens much quicker than wheat 



gluten. The dark colour of rye bread is doubtless in part due to this 

poor colour of the gluten, although rye flour is not milled 
Gluten of Rye. £ , % . , -, T , • , 

tor the purpose ot securing whiteness. It is only a 

“ straight 


Barley (Ger. Gerste ; Fr. Orge), Hordeum vulgare. — This grain differs 
from both wheat and rye in that it is closely invested by its chaff, for which 
Structure reason it is classed with the spelts. The spelts, sometimes called 
of Barley, ^he chaffy wheats, are now of but small importance, though at 
one time they formed the leading cereal of ancient Egypt, Greece, and 
Rome. The principal difference between them and the common varieties 
of wheat now cultivated is found in the fact that the threshed grain is not 
naked, as is the case with wheat and rye, but remains enveloped in its husk 
like oats and barley. In barley, the aleurone layer consists of four rows 
of cells, instead of the single one in wheat and rye. Like rye, it is deficient 
in gluten, only small quantities of which can be obtained by washing. 

The starch of barley is similar in shape to that of wheat and rye, and 
is slightly smaller than wheat starch, the large grains being about '026 mm. 
in diameter. (See Plate, Starches.) 

At one time barley was a good deal used in England for bread-making, 
mixed with wheat flour and rye, and it is still extensively employed in 
the north of Europe. Since the middle of the last century, however, its use 
has steadily declined in favour of wheat. 

The limits of variation in the composition of barley are given in the 
Composition following table, where it will be noted that the cellulose and 
of Barley. salts are both high compared with wheat: — 






















Oats (Ger. Hafev, Fr. Avoine), Avena sativa. — Like barley, this grain 
belongs to the spelts. The husk of oats is very adherent to the grain, and 
Structure it is necessary to kiln the oats in order to divest the grain of it. 
of Oats. Oats are very rich in proteids, but as they do not form gluten, 
this cereal is quite unsuitable for bread-making. 

The starch of oats is characteristic, and enables it to be I'eadily recog- 
nized. The starch grains are polygonal in shape, and exist in aggregates 
of two or moi'e, forming rounded or elliptical bodies. The individual 
grains are very small, - 004 mm. being the average size. 

The average composition of oats is given below: — 





















Maize (Ger. Metis ; Fr. Mais), Zea Mays. — Maize is not largely used as 
a human food in Europe, but in America and South Africa it is the staple 
food of the labouring and coloured people. During the potato famine it 
was largely imported into Ireland, where bread was made from it by using- 
baking powder. It is deficient in gluten, but palatable though dark- 
coloured bread can be obtained from it if it is mixed with Preparations of 
some wheaten flour. Maize is usually made into cakes, such Maize Flour, 
as the Johnny cakes of America. There are many special preparations of 
maize flour in commerce, most of them being sold under fancy names. In 
these flours the nutritive properties of the maize are greatly reduced, 
because in preparing the cereal for market the fat and proteid are washed 
out by alkalies, in order to obtain a better -looking and more neutral - 
flavoured product. Such flours are indeed little else than starch. 

The starch of maize is similar in shape to oat starch, but larger. It 
does not form into aggregates. Maize starch feels gritty, owing to the 
slight angularity of its grains. In size, maize starch varies from '02 to 
•03 mm. Many of the largest grains exhibit a star-shaped fissure radiating 
from the hilum. (See Plate, Starches.) 

The average composition of good maize is as follows: — 














Rice (Ger. Reis] Fr. Riz ), Oryza sativa. — Rice is cultivated mainly in 
tropical countries. It is the poorest of all cereals in fats and Composition 
proteids, and the richest in carbohydrates. On account of of Rice - 
its great deficiency in proteids, it is not possible to make bread of any 
kind from it. 

Rice starch (see Plate, Starches) is faceted, the grains being very 
small and closely packed together. The largest grains measure ’0066 mm., 
and show a distinct hilum in the centre. Rice has the following mean 
composition: — 








Unhulled rice.... 







Hulled rice 







Buckwheat (Ger. Buchweizen ; Fr. Sarrasin), Polygonum Fagopyrum. 
Millet (Ger. Hirse; Fr. Millet), Panicum miliaceum, P. italicum. 
Although not used in this country, buckwheat is often eaten in Con- 
tinental countries, and millet is largely grown for food in India, South 
Africa, and China, where it is made into bread. Buckwheat cakes were 
at one time a foodstuff of the English labouring classes. The starch grains 



of buckwheat are very similar in shape and size to those of rice, but they 
tend to form irregular aggregates, like oaten starch. Millet starch is like 
wheat starch in general appearance. 

The composition of these cereals is as follows: — 






















Millet bread is equal in nutritive properties to wheaten. 



From the earliest stages of its existence wheat, in common with all the 
cultivated cereals, is subject to the attacks of many enemies, both vegetable 
Diseases and animal. During the time that it is growing, the most for- 
m Gram. ni idable foes of wheat are to be found in certain diseases due 
to the growth of different species of fungi in or upon the grain. Many 
animal parasites also attack the corn at this stage. 

When the grain is harvested and stored, the animal parasites become 
perhaps the chief source of loss. The ova deposited by moths upon the 
ears while growing germinate during storage of the threshed grain, and 
the larvae thus formed prey upon the corn. At the same time certain new 
varieties of animal parasite gain access to the grain from the storehouse or 
granary, where they are practically normal denizens. Although many of 
these pests are of foreign origin, they may now be truly called cosmo- 
politan; for, like the Danish rat, they have been transported to every 
corner of the globe by the operations of commerce. 

When made into flour, the corn is rendered slightly less suitable for 
the development and multiplication of such parasites, though on the other 
hand it affords a better medium for the growth of fungi, and also under 
certain conditions of bacteria. 

Even when the flour is manufactured into bread, the whole of the 
dangers introduced at the growing stage are not disposed of, for it has 
Diseases been shown quite recently that the spores of some of the bacteria 
in Flour. found } n the soil can resist the action of the heat applied during 
baking sufficiently long to enable them to develop later in the bread if 
the conditions are favourable. 

Of the animal forms which attack growing wheat little need be said 
here, since in most cases their ravages do not affect the resulting flout’, 
except to limit its quantity. 



Those creatures which deposit their ova upon the growing ears are 
often productive of great loss during storage; they belong to the Lepidoptera 
or moths. The larva or caterpillar, and sometimes even the moth itself, 
may be found in old samples of flour. 

The Corn Wolf Moth ( Tinea granella ). — This is a small moth, about 
13 mm. across the spread wings, and 5 5 mm. in length. The front wings 
are silvery mottled, and the back ones grey. The larva is Corn Moth 
about 9 mm. long, of a light buff colour, with a grey horny 
head. It is furnished with six feet and eight prolegs, and the body is 
covered with hairs. It spins a fine web-like cocoon. 

The Wheat-flour Moth ( Ephestia Iciihniella ). — This moth is larger, 
being about 20 mm. across the wings. The upper wings are of a pale grey 
with dark markings, the under wings being semi-transparent. The larva 
is 15 mm. long when full grown, of a pale flesh colour, with head of 
yellowish -brown. It spins a web that sometimes causes considerable 

trouble in the mill, by felting the flour and causing clogging. 

More destructive to the whole corn, however, are the Coleoptera, or 
beetles and weevils. These creatures may be well termed the corn-dealer’s 
pest, for they inhabit the wheat kernels during the larval state, corn 
eating out the whole interior, and afterwards boring their way Weevils, 
through the husk. There are many varieties, but the most important are 
the corn weevils, Galandra ( Sitophilus ) granaria and Apion frumenta- 

Galandra ( Sitophilus ) granaria is the most dangerous. It is about 
4 mm. long, of a black or dark-brown colour. The elytra (wing cases) are 
rounded at the ends, and dotted or striped. The head is furnished with 
a long, slender, trunk-like mandible. The larva is white, with a brown 
head, and without legs. The creature hibernates in the crevices of floors 
and walls of corn stores. 

Apion frumentarium is a beetle of a yellow-red colour. 

Galandra oryzce is a small weevil about 5 mm. in length. It may be 
recognized by four red spots upon the otherwise black 
wing cases. This weevil has been introduced from India 
in wheat cargoes. As its specific name implies, it is the rice weevil. 

The Flour Beetle ( Tenebrio molitor ). — This beetle measures from 14 
to 18 mm. It is of a pitch-black to brown colour. The wing cases are 
flattened, rounded at the ends, and dotted or striped. The beetle may be 
distinguished from the weevils by the long, slender antennae of eleven 
joints. The larva of this beetle is the common meal-worm. It is of a 
shining yellow colour, the body very hard and smooth, having six legs. 

All these beetles greatly dislike light. The beetles and their larvae 
can be readily separated from flour by sifting, but the ova will remain. 
Utensils and bins in which infested flour has been stored 
should be scalded out in order to exterminate the ova Flour Beetle - 
before putting in fresh flour. There is no definite evidence that these 
creatures affect the food value of the flour, apart from the loss of weight 



sustained. Flour which has become infested is certainly of inferior bread- 
making quality, and has a harsh taste; but since the development of large 
numbers of these insects is generally a sign of age in the flour, it is quite 
possible that the inferiority is due to obscure chemical changes in the 
gluten, & c., brought about by the long storage. 

Ear Cockle, Purples, or Peppercorn (Tylenchus tritici). — This 
peculiarly offensive disease is caused by a nematode or eel-worm. If a 
Ear Cockle growing spikelet of affected corn is examined, it will be 
or Purples. no ted that many of the kernels have been replaced by small 
dark-green to black balls like peppercorns. On cutting such a ball open 
a cottony mass will be seen inside, which, if moistened with water and 
examined microscopically, is seen to consist of masses of tiny transparent 
worms, about 20 mm. in length and very thin with pointed ends. They 
are sometimes called vibriones. These worms are sexless, and pass one 
stage of their existence in the wheat cockle. Upon transfer to the soil, 
they attack the roots of the young wheat, piercing the tissues and feed- 
ing upon the juices of the plant. They here grow to maturity and pair, 
lay their eggs, and then die. The eggs again yield the sexless worms, 
which migrate to the ear, forming fresh cockles. These worms have a 
wonderful power of resistance to extremes of heat and cold; they have 
been known to preserve their vitality after being dried for twenty-one 
years. They may be frozen or heated to 52° C. (125° F.) several times 
without being killed. 

The galls may be easily removed, since, owing to their difference in 
size and shape from wheat kernels, they pass readily through sieves 
which retain the wheat. It is stated that flour made from such wheat 
is decidedly injurious to both man and animal. 

The dietetic properties of flour are greatly injured by the various 
cryptogamic plants or fungi which attack the wheat during its growth. 
These plants comprise the different forms of smut, ergot, bacteria, algm, 
yeasts, &c. Flour infected with these parasites is frequentty very offensive 
in smell and taste, and in most cases totally unfit for use as food. 

Bunt, Stinking Rust ( Tilletia caries). — This disease is practically 
confined to wheat. It is difficult to recognize in the growing corn, but the 
Bunt or threshed kernels are seen to be small, with a dull greenish 

stinking Rust. l us tre. Upon crushing a grain between the fingers a dark 
powder is found to fill it. The powder feels greasy, and has a disgusting 
fish-like odour. If a portion is viewed microscopically, it is found to 
consist of numerous dark-brown spores, ’016 to '02 mm. in diameter, or 
nearly the size of a wheat starch grain. The cell wall is studded with 
a number of tiny spines and the surface reticulated. It has been calcu- 
lated that a grain of wheat can contain 4,000,000 spores. 

Bunted wheat is used by millers, but only sparingly in mixings, 
because of the bad colour and odour which it imparts to the resulting 
flour. Some millers think that small quantities of such wheat increase 
the strength of flour, but no evidence is forthcoming in support of 



this view. Whilst it is difficult to truce actual epidemics to its use, 
there is strong reason for believing that it may set up diarrhoea. On 
the other hand, fowls fed exclusively upon such wheat have not suffered 
in any way. There can be no doubt that it would be better to dispose 
of such wheat as fodder, rather than risk the possible consequences of 
usinof it for the manufacture of human food. 

Rust, Corn Mildew ( Uredo rubigo vera, and Uredo linearis). — The 
rusts are the most widely spread of all cereal diseases, the loss of crops 
due to them sometimes reaching from 50 to 75 per cent. Rust or 
Botanists group these diseases together under the head of Corn Mlldew - 
the Uredinese. The disease in all cases has two stages in wheat, known 
respectively as Rust and Puccinia. In the first or Rust stage, small 
pustules of a reddish colour are seen upon the stems and leaves of the 
plant. These in time disappear, and are replaced with black patches. The 
pustule is caused by the growth of the sori or spore heads under the 
integument, which is thus forced up into a small bleb; this finally ruptures 

and allows of the escape of the spores. The spore of the Rust stage is 

small, round, and black; it gives rise to the second or Puccinia stage, 

which in its turn produces a form of double spore (teleutospore) with 

pointed end. Rust is now known to be a disease communicated to wheal 
from barberry bushes, upon which this fungus passes a third stage of its 
existence, and forms resting spores which germinate only after some 
months, producing the Rust stage in the grasses. There are two kinds of 
Rust with their respective Puccinia; they are known as Spring Rust 
( Uredo rubigo vera) and Summer Rust ( Uredo linearis). Recent re- 
searches bearing upon Mendel’s theory of heredity have shown that the 
liability to this disease is inherited, and, therefore, that selection of re- 
sistant varieties offers a prospect of stamping this disease out. 

Smut ( Ustilago carbo) is also a very common disease of wheat, and 
in bad cases as much as one-third of the crop may be destroyed. Smut 
appears to attack the plant at the root, thence passing upwards 
into the ears, which become covered with a sooty deposit consist- mu ’ 
ing of the spores. These spores are very small, about '005 mm., quite 
round, and perfectly smooth, dark-brown in colour. They are capable 
of reproduction by budding, and in this they closely resemble the yeasts. 
The disease is common to a large number of grasses, and its spores may 
often be found in flour in small number. Smut has no smell, but if 
smutted wheat is used in large quantity the colour of the flour suffers. 
Experiments in feeding smutted wheat to animals have had no injurious 
results. Nothing is known of its effects upon the human system, but it is 
said to impart a disagreeable flavour to bread if present in large quantity. 

Ergot ( Glaviceps purpurea). — Dietetically this is by far the most 
dangerous of the cereal diseases. Ergots are small, blackish, cucumber- 
like excrescences, which may be sometimes seen growing from the 
ripening ears of rye, and, less frequently, wheat, barley, &c. An Ergot - 
ergot is really the sclerotium or hard mycelium of the fungus Claviceps 



purpurea. When cut, the interior of an ergot is seen to be white or 
pinkish with dark-purple veinings; it has a faint camphor-like odour, 
and bitter, nauseous taste. Its thick-walled cells are filled with a dark 
viscid oil. If kept upon damp soil ergots germinate, giving rise to a 
true fungoid growth of hyphae, upon which fine purple heads appear. The 
surface of each head has numerous little sacs in it, which, when examined 
in section, are seen to be packed with long, narrow, glittering spores. In 
June, when rye and other grasses are in bloom, these spores are ejected 
in thousands, and some find a resting-place in the flowering grasses, where 
they give rise to fresh ergots. Ergots retain their vitality two years. 

When taken in any quantity, ergot gives rise to serious disease, gan- 
grene of the extremities being its worst form. It also causes severe 
muscular contractions; in small animals this contraction is sometimes so 
violent as to cause death of itself. It is used in medicine by reason of 
this property. Ergotism has been rare in Britain, but on the Continent 
it was at one time quite common. It was computed some yeai*s ago that 
in France fully one-fourth of the rye used by the poorer classes for bread- 
making was ergotized, and no attempt was made to separate it. Upon 
no account should ergotized flour be used in the preparation of food for 
human consumption. 

Flour is subject to one or two pests which are practically confined to 
the bakehouse. Of these the cockroaches are perhaps the worst. The 
commonest forms are Blatta germanica and Periplaneta 
orientalis, the latter the common cockroach or so-called black 
beetle. These creatures are nocturnal and dread light. They have long, 
flat, oval bodies, and are of a brown to black colour. Blatta germanica 
is 11 mm. long, with two black bands on a broad scutellum. The antennae 
are as long as the body. It has been displaced in many places by the 
larger Periplaneta orientalis, which is 26 mm. long, and of a chestnut 
colour, with rusty-coloured wings. Blatta americana is the largest of all 
these pests, being 30 to 40 mm. long, and of a shining rust-brown colour. 
It is frequently imported with flour. 

Another pest in many bakehouses is the so-called silver-fish (Lepisnma 
saceharina), an insect belonging to the group of Thysanura or Bristle- 
tails. It is a very small, active creature, with slender, 
silvery, shining body. There are two beautiful brush-like 
appendages to the tail. Another species of the same group of insects, 
called Tkermophila furnorum, frequently infests bakehouse ovens. 

The extermination of these pests is a perpetual problem to the baker, 
and all sorts of pi'oprietary remedies are adopted with scant success. The 
success which has attended the introduction of bacterial cultures, capable 
of producing epidemic disease among rats and mice, encourages the hope 
that further investigation by the bacteriologist will enable these equally 
repulsive creatures to be similarly eradicated. 

The Flour Mite is Tyroglyphus siro, sometimes known as A carus 
farince. The presence of this parasite is always a sign that the flour is 





unfit for use as food. The mite has a small egg-shaped body, whitish in 
colour. It has eight legs of a reddish colour. Flour which is infested 
becomes brownish and specky. If preserved in a bottle, the Flour Mite 
sides of the flour next the glass will be found covered with fine or Acarus - 
lines radiating in all directions, these being the channels burrowed in the 
flour by the insect. The flour will usually be found to smell musty. The 
insect can be seen with a small magnifying glass, but its ova need a micro- 
scope for their detection. Even if such flour has been blended with sound 
flour, the microscope will reveal the debris of dead insects and the ova. 

Mould fungi do not attack flour until it has become damp and is quite 
beyond use. Very old damp flour often develops white moulds, which 
are members of the Oidium group. The flour smells strongly, often like 

The commonest bread disease is undoubtedly sourness. It has been 
shown that this sourness is due to excessive development of acetic, lactic, 
and butyric bacteria (see Plate, Yeast, &C.). These organisms Bacteria of 
are always present in yeast, barm, and leaven. In normal Sourness, 
fermentations they do no harm; indeed it is possible that they perform a 
useful function by assisting in producing flavour, and modifying to some 
extent the glutinous portion of the dough. It is only when the conditions 
become unfavourable to yeast, either by alterations in temperature or by 
pushing fermentation too far, that the odour or taste of the products of these 
bacteria becomes pronounced, and the bread is sour. 

Bacillus lactis (see Plate, Yeast, &c.). — This term is now used to cover 
a large group of organisms, all of which possess the property of producing 
lactic acid. It has been estimated that at least 100 different bac- Bacillus 
teria possess this power. Lactic acid organisms produce appreciable lactis. 
quantities of acid only at high temperatures. The bacteria are most active 
at temperatures between 35° and 42° C. (95° to 107° F.). When the amount 
of free acid present reaches 2 per cent the further growth of these organisms 
ceases. Lactic acid germs do not form spores, and are consequently readily 
killed by pasteurizing or at the temperature of baking ovens. 

Bacillus butyricus (see Plate, Yeast, &c.). — Many organisms possess 
the property of producing butyric acid among other substances. The best- 
known member of the group is the Clostridium butyricum of Bacillus 
Prazmowski. Pasteur was the first to show that butyric fermen- butyricus. 
tation took place in two stages, the first being the production of lactic acid 
by its specific organism, and the second stage consisting in the conversion 
of the lactic into butyric acid by butyric organisms. These organisms are 
mostly anaerobic, that is, they flourish only in the absence of free oxygen. 
Indeed, air is sufficient to paralyse their action. Some of them, however, 
are capable of existing in the presence of air, though in depressed activity; 
they are consequently called facultative anaerobes. 

The butyric bacilli flourish best at 40° C. (104° F.). They form spores 
which resist boiling temperatures for several minutes. Some of them 
possess the power of dissolving cellulose and may therefore attack starch. 



Mycoderma Aceti (see Plate, Yeast, &c.). — In Hour and mixed with 
yeast there may be small quantities of germs which produce acetic acid 
from alcohol. These cells are extremely minute, and are generally joined 
together in the form of curved rods or chains. They grow by fission, that 
is, the full-grown cell divides across and forms two or more cells, which 
do the same when they grow to maturity. It performs its functions under 
conditions somewhat similar to those of yeast, the range of temperatures 
being between 62° and 88° F. 

Many other species of bacteria have been isolated from dough during 
fermentation, but as no specific disease has been clearly traced to them, 
it is not necessary to make more than passing reference to them. 

Bread when it has left the oven, and especially while it is still in the 
very moist condition, is an exceptionally good medium for the fixation 
of floating germs. Bread, however, being usually faintly acid, does not 
afford a suitable food for the sustenance of many of the bacteria, and 
consequently we find that the chief diseases of bread are fungi. There are 
one or two important exceptions which must be considered here. 

In late summer and early autumn bread which has been cut is some- 
times noticed to become covered with tiny red spots like drops of blood. 

The disease, which is commoner in some districts than 
Bleeding Bread, was times called the Miracle of the Bleed- 

ing Host, the Bloody Sweat, &c., and it has certainly at times furnished 
condemnatory evidence in witchcraft cases. The researches of scientists have 
shown that these drops are the colonies of a bacterium. The organism has 
been named Bacterium prodigiosuvi by Ehrenberg. It grows well on moist 
potatoes, bread, and all starchy substances. It is a short bacterium, actively 
mobile in young cultures, and secretes a reddish colouring matter. It 
grows best at ordinary temperatures, and at blood heat produces no pigment. 
It is stated that the proteins of the bacterium are poisonous, so that bread 
infected with the growth had better not be eaten. The organism does 
not form spores, and it is therefore probable that the disease arises from 
exposure to air in which the germs are floating. 

Rope.— This, perhaps, to the baker is the most important of bread 
diseases, because of the great loss it entails and the extreme difficulty 
experienced in eradicating it. The disease usually shows itself in 
R ° pe ' bread during autumnal weather when the air is very moist. It 
appears about twelve hours after the loaf has left the oven, as small brown 
spots in the crumb, which gradually spread and become moist and slimy, so 
that the mass is pasty, as though saturated with syrup. The material can 
be drawn out in threads; hence the name rope. Bread attacked with the 
disease acquires an intensely disagreeable smell and is totalty unfit for food. 
The temperatures at which the disease spreads most quickly are 25° to 
40° C. (77° to 104° F.); at the same time moisture must be present. It has 
recently been shown by a series of careful experiments that this disease 
is due to a bacillus which is occasionally present in flour. The bacillus 
is a short sporing organism, which is commonly found in the soil; owing 










to the frequency with which it attacks potato crops it has been called 
the Potato Bacillus, its bacteriological name being Bacillus mesentericus 
(Fliigge). The bacillus attaches itself to the wheat skins, and in milling is 
detached and passes into the flour produced. The spores are extremely 
resistant to high temperatures; they withstand boiling for more than an 
hour, so that when present in flour the}^ cannot be destroyed by baking. 

Even when the bacillus is present in flour the disease does not always 
appear in the bread, for the conditions necessary to its development may 
not prevail. In addition to high temperature and moisture it is found 
that the bread must be neutral or nearly so. Now usually bread has a 
faintly acid reaction, which no doubt is sometimes sufficient to protect from 
the bacillus. That slight acidity will prevent the growth of the organism 
has been clearly shown by Watkins ( Journ . Soc. Chem. Ind., 1906, p. 350). 

The disease called rope in cake is doubtless due to the same organism, 
and it has been asserted that in fruit cakes the disease does not appear, 
whilst plain cake made from the same flour becomes quite ropy. The 
explanation of this is to be found in the currants, which are markedly acid 
in reaction, and thus protect the cake made with them from the bacillus. 

Flour is not sterile; on the contrary, it usually contains a large and 
varied assortment of bacteria, mould spores, &c. A series of experiments 
carried out by the writer with a high-grade patent flour very Moulds in 
carefully cleaned, revealed the fact that 1 gm. of the flour con- Bread, 
tained some 30,400 bacterial organisms with 7 mould spores. Most of these 
organisms were common to air and water and would be killed at the 
temperature of the baking oven, and it is very doubtful whether the mould 
spores would escape destruction. The probability is that when moulds 
develop in bread it is from spores deposited upon cut surfaces from the air. 
The common moulds are green, brown, or black in colour. The colour is 
due to the spore-bearing heads, which differ in the various species. Each 
of these heads carries immense numbers of spores, which when ripe are 
distributed in a fine cloud into the air. These spores float upon water 
owing to fat contained in the cell wall, and therefore in all cases where it 
is desired to exterminate mould the only agent of real value is fire. All 
mouldy material should be burned, and dough troughs and other utensils 
should be well singed with a Bunsen flame. 

The following are the common moulds: Mucor onucedo forms a white 
growth with dark-brown or black spore heads; Penicilliium glaucum is the 
familiar sage-green mould so frequently found on stale bread; Aspergillus 
niger is a common black mould often attacking bread; O'idium aurantiacum 
is the name given to the red bread fungus which produces an orange-red 
growth throughout the bread. 

Moulds flourish on bread because of its faintly acid nature, and, as 
already noted, bacteria as a rule do not establish themselves, for the same 
reason, a faintly alkaline reaction suiting them best. 





We speak of flour as of poor or of good quality without attaching any 
definite meaning to either term. It is more correct to speak simply of the 
Character character of flour, making no comparison of its quality, since 
of Flour, quality is generally determined by the method by which it is 
manipulated in making into bread. The character of flour is primarily 
dependent on the nature of the wheat from which it is made, then on the 
care exercised by the miller, then on the method of milling. 

From whatever source flour comes its chemical composition varies 
within very narrow limits. It is not, in a chemical sense, a compound, but 
Chemical Com- is a mixture of several compounds in varying proportions, 
pounds in Flour. Thus all flour contains starch, sometimes to the extent of 
66 lb. in every 100 lb. of flour; and since starch is a dry substance consist- 
ing of multitudes of small round cells with no connecting substance between, 
therefore those flours above the normal in percentage of starch, are not by 
themselves good flours for bread-making, but make small close loaves. 

Next to starch, in point of quantity in flour, is the gluten. Physically 
this is a tough, slightly elastic substance, either grey or yellowish-brown in 
Physical Pro- colour. As it is insoluble in water and in the saliva of 
perties of Gluten. the m outh, it has no distinctive taste when washed from 
floui\ When heated at a low temperature (about 212° to 260° F.) it 
softens and spreads out, gradually becoming tough, and ultimately dry 
and hard as the heat is continued. If subjected to a higher temperature 
(from 350° to 440° F.), it puffs up into a round ball, hard and brittle, 
owing to a skin or crust being formed on the outside; but, as the steam is 
generated by the heat within the piece of gluten, it expands the skin before 
the latter sets hard. When a piece of gluten is boiled in water, it does not 
appreciably expand but sets into a very tough but. inelastic grey substance. 
This is similar to the condition of the gluten in the interior of a baked loaf, 
Condition of only' that it is then set in fine threads or meshes, with the 
Gluten m Bread, starch, &c., between. When gluten is carefully air-dried 
at a low temperature it becomes brittle and glossy like gelatine or glue, 
and may be ground into a fine powder. On being treated with water this 
powder has all the properties of gluten as originally washed from flour. 
It is in this way that gluten flour is made. When a piece of dough is 
fermented for some time and the gluten then washed out, this gluten will 
be found much paler than that from the same flour before being fermented. 

Chemically, gluten is a mixture of two (or more) very complicated 
compounds, both belonging to the series called albumins or proteids, of 
Chemical Com- which white of egg is the most characteristic example, 
position of Gluten. These compounds are called respectively gliadin and 
glutenin. Mann 1 gives the composition of wheat gluten as gliadin, mucidin, 

1 Chemistry of Proteids, p. 71. 



glutin-fibrin, and glutin-casein, the last three really corresponding to what is 
otherwise called glutenin. There is not much known about the distinctive 
properties of these two substances, owing to the extreme difficulty in separ- 
ating them in a condition of purity; nor is there much definitely known as 
to the manner in which they are combined to form gluten — whether the 
union is merely physical, in which case each substance would retain its own 
properties, and the properties of gluten would be the sum of those of the 
components, or whether the union is chemical, in which case the properties 
of gluten would be distinctive and persistent and different from the 
properties of its parts. Hitherto the former idea has been generally 

Glutenin is supposed to be an albuminoid substance that possesses 
stability, is not readily softened by water, nor dissolved by dilute alcohols. 
It is supposed to form the stable part of gluten. Glutenin Nature of 
is, however, soluble in dilute acids and alkalies. Gliadin is Glutenin 
the compound which is credited with giving gluten its property and Ghadm ' 
of elasticity. It differs from glutenin in that it softens under the influence 
of distilled water, and dissolves when treated with dilute acids or alcohols. 
It has been suggested that, since glutenin and gliadin have such distinctive 
properties, and since the proportion in which these exist in gluten varies, 
the character of any gluten is due solely to the proportion in which these 
substances enter into its composition. This theory is simple and almost 
obvious, but doubts have been raised by some investigators as to its sound- 
ness. As, however, the tests on which the objections are based were in 
the nature of rough baking tests only, these objections cannot be accepted 
as establishing anything definite. 

There is in flour proteid matter of another kind, usually called soluble 
proteids. This is composed also of several albumins of much the same 
chemical composition as gluten and white of egg, but with soluble Proteids 
physical properties more like the latter. The albumins of Flour - 
referred to are called globulin, albumen, and protose. These are soluble 
in water, and possess, amongst other properties, those of affecting the 
gluten of flour, and, to a slight extent, of changing soluble starch into 
sugar (see Chapter XIV). 

That there is some intimate relation between the gluten (insoluble 
proteids) of flour and these soluble proteids there can be no doubt. 
Flour from wheat that has been sprouted contains Relation of Soluble 
a much larger proportion of the latter than the and insoluble Proteids. 
flour from sound wheat, and as thei’e is no increase in the total quantity 
of proteid matter in the wheat when it starts growing, the soluble evidently 
increases at the expense of the insoluble. When there is a large quantity 
of soluble proteid matter in wheat the flour from it is invariably soft, 
owing either to the action of these proteids on 0 r . 

l i , 1 . Softening Action of 

gluten, or to that of the enzymes which are active Soluble Proteids and 

during seed growth. On the other hand, when gluten Acids on Gluten - 

in the course of fermentation of dough becomes partly soluble, it seems 



Sugar in Flour. 

then to acquire properties not unlike those of the soluble proteids of the 
original flour. An alternative suggestion, to account for the softening 
action of a sponge on the gluten at dough stage, is that it is the result 
of the formation of a certain quantity of acid in the sponge. There may 
be in wheat, as it ages, or in flour under the same conditions, a gradual 
change from soluble to insoluble proteids, as there is, in the case of grow- 
ing grain, from insoluble to soluble. 

The question has been raised whether gluten, as such, is really present 
in the grain, or whether it is only formed at the time of wetting the flour 
How Gluten to make dough; but the point is not of importance in a 
Exists in Flour, practical sense, as the gluten never fails to act when dough 
is made. The probability really is that gluten, as well as the soluble pro- 
teids, is in the form of impalpable powder mixed intimately with the 
starch cells. 

In flour there is a quantity of natural sugar which has the composition 
and properties of cane sugar. It is this sugar on which the yeast in dough 
acts, and from which all the gas produced is obtained. The 
total quantity of sugar in flour varies considerably with the 
kind and grade, but is not above from 1 to P5 per cent of the total weight, 
or, roughly, from 2f to 4 lb. per sack of flour. If this were all fermented, 
and about half its weight produced in the form of gas, it would occupy a 
space at ordinary atmospheric pressure and temperature of about 15 cu. ft.; 
so that there is evidently sufficient gas capable of being formed to produce 
all the expansion of bulk in dough and in the loaves with which we are 
familiar. Experimentally, 10 gm. of sugar will produce about 82 cu. in. of 
gas when fermented with yeast. 

From the fact of sugar being sweet, it has been suggested that the 
flavour of bread is due to the sugar it contains; but if this were so, the 
Flavour of Bread bread fermented least, or not at all, would be the best- 
not due to Sugar, flavoured, and fermented bread would be deficient in 
flavour, since much of the sugar is entirely destroyed during the fermenting 
process. The facts, however, are quite the other way. Bread fermented 
insufficiently or not at all is nearly tasteless, whilst fermented bread has 
a pleasant, sweet, but by no means sugary flavour, which increases or 
improves up to a certain stage, and, past that, begins to decline, until 
ultimately it disappears, and other less pleasant flavours predominate. 
Since the flavour improves as the quantity of sugar diminishes, while a 
softening change is concurrently taking place in the gluten, the latter 
change has evidently a greater effect in producing flavour in bread than 
the sugar of the flour. Flavour is really produced by the blending of the 
flavours of the products resulting from fermentation. 

Sugar has probably much to do with producing bloom or colour on 
the crust of loaves, since that disappears entirely when the whole of 
Cause of Colour or the sugar is fermented out of the dough. The con- 
Bioom on Bread. dition of the gluten is, however, of importance here 
also, for dough that is over-ripe will not colour properly, even if sugar 



has been mixed with it, and in dough that is unripe there is generally 
a rough reddish tinge about the crust not due to the presence of sugar. 

According to some authorities there are, in flour, besides the substances 
already named, compounds akin to starch called amyloids. These are 
said to be of a highly viscous nature, and have been called Amyloids 
vegetable gums. The quantity is given as from 2 to 3 per cent. in Flour - 
Professor Hall, of Rothamsted, is the authority for this statement, but 
it is extremely doubtful if it would be borne out by analysis of roller- 
milled flours. In the filtrate from roller flour there is no trace of any 
substance giving starch reaction, nor anything akin to dextrin. 

Although flour seems an extremely dry substance, it always contains 
a greater or less quantity of water. There is no rule regulating the 
quantity, and it is not settled in what condition, or in what Moisture in 
constituent, it is present, but as starch is a good absorbent of Flour - 
moisture, the water probably exists in flour principally within the starch 
cells, a hypothesis supported by the fact that soft floui's generally contain 
a slightly higher proportion of both water and starch. The quantity of 
moisture in flour does not determine either the flour’s strength or the 
amount of water it will require to make dough. The character of the 
gluten is the determining factor in both those cases. The starch of flour 
is so good an absorbent of water that when flour is kept for some time in 
a moist atmosphere it will actually gain in weight, while it will lose weight 
again if kept in a dry atmosphere. The water driven off in the latter 
circumstances is evidently, however, only the superficial moisture, and to 
drive it all off requires dx-ying for a good many houi-s at a temperature 
of about 212° F. 

Whether the water in flour has any influence upon its gluten has ixot 
been definitely determined; but it has been found that certain i nfluence of 
wheats yielding flour of a “runny” nature make much more Moisture 
stable floui’s when they have been washed, and when pre- upon Gluten ' 
sumably some of the moisture has permeated to the flour, than when they 
have been cleaned and milled quite dry. 

There is a small proportion of fat or oil in flour, a greater quaixtity in 
stone-milled than in that made on rollers, and moi’e in the low grades 
of the latter than in the patent. In any gi-ade of roller p ^ 
flour the propox-tion does not exceed 1 per cent, and in the 
patent gx-ades it is a good deal less. When separated, the oil of flour is a 
pale-yellowish liquid without any taste or smell. In some discussions oxx 
floux’-bleaching recently, M. Fleurent, a French chemist, attempted to show 
that the whitening effect on the flour is really due to the decolorizatioxx 
of its fat. The proofs, however, were far from convincing, and the pi’ob- 
abilities are all against such a hypothesis. The slight colour of the oil, 
and the smallness of the qxxantity contained in such a lax-ge proportion of 
a solid powder like floui’, can have no appreciable effect on the colour of 
flour in any case. An investigation by the writer into the effects of 
bleaching on flour showed rather that the gluten was the substance which 


VOL. i. 



had been changed in colour, generally from a yellowish tint to grey, while 
the starch was not in any way affected. Since gluten is present in nearly 
twelve times the proportion of the oil, and its colour is much more pro- 
nounced, whilst it exists in a state of division more suitable for mixing in 
a powder like flour and influencing its colour, the change in gluten explains 
the effect of bleaching better than a change in the fat. 

The mineral matter of flour consists principally of phosphates of cal- 
cium, magnesium, and potassium, with traces of the phosphate and sulphate 
of alumina. These have no appreciable effect on the fermen- 
tation of flour; but so far as they are soluble, they may serve 
to supply yeast with the mineral matter it requires for producing new 
yeast cells. The mineral matter also gives stability to the gluten, and 
renders it less liable to become soft and “ runny 

Ash of Flour. 



The very oldest method of pounding or bruising wheat between two 
stones, or with one stone in the hollow of another, is not much different 
Method of from the method of grinding by stones in a proper mill. In 

Grinding both cases the bottom stone is stationary, and a rubbing or 

with Stones. s h ear ; n g movement of the top stone is the effective motion. 
In a stone mill the stones for grinding are circular, and are usually built 
up of pieces with iron bands round them. The bottom or bed stone is 
fixed, the top stone or runner is nicely balanced on an iron spindle, so 
that it may be raised or lowered, making the space between it and the 
bed stone as small or as wide as desired. Both stones are cut or corru- 
gated in radial lines, so that when the top stone is running the wheat 
between it and the bed is sheared or scraped rather than bruised. The 
wheat to be ground enters by a hole in the centre of the runner, and is 
carried out towards the periphery, leaving the mill in the form of meal 
by an aperture round the outside of the bed. By raising or lowering the 
runner the meal can be made as coarse or as fine as desired. 

The points about stone milling which have a special effect on the flour 
are: (1) that the grinding or pulverizing of the wheat is performed all at 
General Effects of one operation, and that the only product is wheat meal, 
Stone Grinding. which contains all the constituents of the wheat mixed 
together; (2) that the grinding operation heats the meal. To obtain white 
flour from this meal it is sifted or bolted through sieves of varying mesh, 
the finest, which separates the fine flour, being made of strong silk. In 
grinding, the stones pulverize some of the outer parts of the wheat so 
small that they pass through the finest silks along with the white flour. 
These minute pieces of bran, germ, &c., are imperceptible individually, but 



Colour and 
Flavour of Stone- 
milled Flour. 

tend in the aggregate to make the white flour darker. As the inner coat 
of the bran and the germ of wheat possess, as already noticed, the property 
of slightly softening the gluten of flour, and as the germ particularly 
contains a good deal of oily matter, with at the same time an appreciable 
flavour, so flour containing these particles is much less stable, specially 
when newly ground, than roller flour, and it does not 
keep so well as the latter; but when new and sound it 
has a more pronounced sweet, or at least wheaty flavour. 

Some of this flavour is probably due, not so much to the presence of 
flavouring particles in the flour itself, as to the fact that when the meal 
was in a heated condition in the stones the essential oil or flavouring- 
extract of germ was absorbed by the white flour then in contact, and was 
retained by the latter when the flavouring agents had been separated out; 
for flour is an excellent absorbent of flavours of all sorts that are volatile. 

Reference has been made to the keeping qualities of stone-milled flour. 
When it is quite new it is comparatively soft, and if used for bread-making 
in this state it requires an extra quantity of salt. Its stability Keep j ng 
improves as it is kept, until when old it makes very tough Quality of 
dough that stands fermenting well; but as strength increases Flour ' 
flavour declines, and old stone flour acquires a decidedly old taste, which 
in bad cases is like mustiness. It generally also becomes very lumpy. In 
days when all milling was done by stones and all transport was by sailing- 
ships, American flour would not keep during the passage, although it was 
reputed to have better keeping properties than that milled in Britain, 
owing, it seems, to the practice which prevailed in America of cooling the 
meal as it came from the stones before bagging; whilst in British mills the 
meal was directly filled into sacks from the millstones. It should be 
noticed that the flour obtained from stones is necessarily all of one grade. 
The comparatively fine stuff separated from bran makes a sort “Dressed” 
of coarse flour of a brown colour and a sweet taste, which in old Seconds, 
times was sometimes “ redressed ”, sold as “ dressed ” seconds, and used as 
part of flour for cheap bread or for ship biscuit. Stone mills are not in 
much use now for flour-making, but are still required for whole meal and 
for grinding cattle feeding-stuffs. Recently, however, on account of the 
agitation of so-called food reformers, there has been a good deal of stone- 
milled flour used for special “ farm house ” bread, sold by bakers, strange to 
say, at more or less fancy prices. 

Roller milling is conducted on nearly the opposite principle from 
stone milling. Instead of grinding the whole wheat into meal, and then 
separating the fine from the coarse by sieves, the process 
is rather one of reduction, by which the central part of 
the berry, the endosperm, is separated in bulk, as it were, from the 
coarser and darker bran, & c., and only when the fine part is quite free 
from offal of all kinds is it made into flour. A roller mill consists of 
series of pairs of rolls, usually corrugated diagonally, and geared to run 
at different speeds. This gives a cutting or shearing action. The first 

Roller Milling. 



“ Break” Flour. 


fclw pairs of rolls are called break rolls, because their purpose is to break 
up the wheat into small pellets. In this operation a certain amount of 
Hour is made. This is called “ break ” flour, and is of a comparatively 
dark colour, owing to its being mixed with small particles 
of offal which cannot be separated. These particles, there- 
fore, form part of the lower-grade flour. The bran may have a certain 
amount of tine flour adhering to it after it is separated. This is cleaned 
off in a machine for the purpose, and also forms part of the low-grade 
flour. The little pellets of endosperm, after being thus cleaned from 
everything that would tend to darken the flour, are called semolina, 
and in this state are ground into fine flour on smooth rolls. This flour 
may be granular, and is then said to be high ground, because the rolls 
“High "and “Low” are kept some distance apart; or it may be soft and 
Ground Flour. smooth, if the rolls are kept very close together. 

When roller milling was first introduced, the fashion was to make all 
flour granular, especially that containing a large proportion of hard, 
strong wheat. From the nature of the wheat, probably more than because 
of the method of milling, granular flour came to be regarded by bakers 
as very strong, but as flours from soft wheats came to be 
ground in the same way, granular flours lost their reputa- 
tion for strength. Now the fashion has quite changed, and even the 
strongest and hardest of wheats are low ground, and yield soft- feeling 
Low Ground flours. Granular flours seem to take more time to hydrate 
Flour. i n dough, and, accordingly, longer to ferment; but, except 

for this, granulation produces no appreciable result in the bread. 

Roller-milled flour can be made in a single grade, containing the whole 
of the fine flour from the wheat, which may be 70 per cent of its total 
weight. In this case the flour is called straight. On the 
Straight un. 0 {q iei . j ian d > it may be made in two or even three grades. 

If there are two grades, they may be called patent and baker's, the 
t ” G d £ormer composing some 40 per cent of the total weight 
of wheat, the latter 30 per cent, making 70 per cent 
in all. The term bakers is not applied because this grade is specially 
used by bakers, and on account of the false impression liable to be created 
by the name the term clear has been suggested as a substitute. If there 
is a third grade, the lowest may be cheap, dark, and poor. 
Within the last few years the terms first patent and second 
patent, commonly used at one time, have given place to the terms short 
patent and long patent, the former denoting the higher class and dearer 
Short and flour, the latter the poorer and cheaper. A flour composed of 
Long Patents. 50 or even 00 per cent of the total weight of wheat might be 
classed as a long patent, one composed of 30 to 40 per cent would be a short 
patent. Millers, however, are not very precise in the manner in which 
they use the terms denoting their grades of flour, and what one miller 
calls a patent may not be anything like the qualit}'’ of another miller’s 
patent, so that to be told a flour is a: patent gives no indication of its 

Baker's Grade. 



character. There is no standard by which they can be judged, although 
competition amongst the large millers at home and in America has created 
a sort of unofficial standard, and, as each is endeavouring to sur- standard 
pass the others in quality, this standard has now become very Brand- 
high; hut the flour is not sold according to grade, but under proprietary 
brands. Each of the large millers makes several grades of flour and sells 
them under different brands. 

Besides the general system of grading already referred to, there are 
local sj'stems which are more or less arbitrary. Thus in London the 
terms Town Whites and Town Households are used to Local Systems 
designate the highest and second qualities of flour re- of Grading - 
spectively, and Country Whites for the highest quality of flour made 
by country millers who sell in the London market. The term whites 
is in some cases synonymous with patent ; in other cases it corresponds 
to a straight, minus the low grade from a very high-class mixture 
of wheat, or, in other words, what has been called a London System 
long patent. Households are generally straight - run of Grading, 
flours from a cheaper wheat mixture than that used for whites. The 
writer appealed to a miller of authority in London as to whether there 
is any fixed rule by which London millers grade their flours, and the 
following interesting reply was received: — “There is no system what- 
ever by which millers arrive at the grades of their flour, nor is any 
fixed method possible. We English millers get our supplies from all 
parts of the world, and the quality of the wheats varies so much that 
it reflects the greatest credit upon our technical knowledge and careful 
handling that the qualities of our flour vary so little. We have not 
only a multitude of sorts of wheat to deal with, varying continually in 
supply and commercial value, but in addition have to deal with variations 
caused by different climatic conditions year by year at harvest time. 
Under the circumstances a miller has to make the best use of whatever 
current conditions may be in the manufacture of the various grades. 
Household and whites, for instance, may sometimes be straight - run 
flour, sometimes they are not, and I do not think it possible to arrive 
at any rule beyond this, that the very highest qualities cannot be 
straight-run flours, for the best-quality wheat the world produces would 
not make straight-run flour of good enough quality. Several millers 
— London and provincial — make flour exclusively from the strongest 
wheats, and as we have good reasons for believing that our milling 
methods and technical knowledge are, to state the case mildly, not in- 
ferior to the Americans, bakers of a patriotic turn of mind should see 
what English millers can do for them as regards strong flour.” It is 
evident from this that every miller is a law to himself in the Provincial 
matter of grading. In provincial districts the names used for Methods 
the different grades of flour are different, but do not, except of Gradin g- 
in their respective localities, convey any very clear indication of the 
values of the flour. Thus Supers and Extra Sixers represent the 



highest grades in some localities, while Fines is the name used for the 
lowest. In Somerset and the west of England the term Toppings is 
used for a kind of dressed seconds, which is still partly used in making 
what is called Home-made or Farmhouse bread. Here and there old- 
fashioned distinctions are still retained, such as lied Tie, Blue Tie, 
Leather Tie, &c., the distinguishing marks being twine of the colours 
named, or else a small tag of leather. Such distinctions are, of course, 
quite arbitrary. Millers who sell flour all over the kingdom distinguish 
their different grades by registered brands. 

Roller-milled flour is, even when straight-grade, much whiter in colour 
than stone-milled, owing to the absence of dark particles of offal. But 
Reasons for the ver y g l 'eat improvement in colour of flour that has been 
Whiteness effected since the advent of roller milling is not entirely due 
of Roller Flour. ^is cause> but ^o the muc h greater care now exercised 
in thoroughly cleaning the wheat before it enters the mill at all. In the 
old days this particular operation, except for the removal of foreign 
grains and other matter, was not much regarded, but now washing and 
scouring occupy as important a position in the whole milling operation 
as the grinding and purifying of the products. The result is that even 
the low-grade flours, if somewhat dark, from the presence of particles 
of the darker portions of the grain, are still clean. The whitest roller 
Relation of Colour flour from any grist is not necessarily the strongest, 
and Strength. owing to the fact that, while gluten is distributed 

throughout the grain, it is supposed to exist in slightly greater pro- 
portion near the outside than at the centre, which is more starchy, and 
forms a goodly portion of the whiter highest-grade flour. It is on this 
account that a straight grade or a long patent, although both darker, 
may be a little stronger than a top patent. This rule, however, is not 

The flavour of roller flour can hardly be called a flavour at all. This 
is very much due to the physical effect on the palate of the dry starch 
Flavour of Flour and insoluble gluten; but when the flour is fermented 
and Bread. j n b^ad, and when the gluten is rendered more or less 

soluble, it then readily mixes with the saliva and acquires a pleasant 
taste. It will generally be found that the high-grade flours have the 
most delicate flavour, the lower grades giving the sensation of coarseness. 
This effect is probably in great part a physical sensation, rather than a 
distinctive difference in taste. Nearly the same differences in flavour 
are noticeable in bread made from the same flour, if, in one case, it has 
Unripe and been unripe in dough, while in the other case it is ripe 

Over-ripe Dough, enough. Other differences noticed in bread made from 
over-ripe dough are due to real differences in flavour, because of the 
accumulation of the products of yeast and other fermentations within 
the dough. 

If kept in a cool dry atmosphere, there is hardly any limit to the 
keeping qualities of roller-milled flour. The higher grades contain nothing 



liable to change. Unlike stone-milled flour, roller-milled flour does not 
present such a difference in working properties between new flour and 
old. All that age does is to bleach the flour slightly, Keeping Qualities 
and, if it has been kept in a dry place, to cause it to of Roller Flour - 
absorb more water at dough-making. If kept in a store badly ventilated, 
and under the constant pressure of bags piled up on it, flour will gradually 
deteriorate, becoming lumpy and sometimes sour, particularly if it has 
been stored new or in a damp state. But, under normal circumstances, 
flour keeps without any appreciable change in its general character for 
at least a year. Several explanations of the causes of gradual changes 
in flour have been offered, but they are all more or less in the nature 
of surmises, without direct proof. These changes have changes ana 
been ascribed to the action of the so-called soluble ferments Acidlt y of Flour, 
or enzymes, which are supposed to exist in nearly all organic living sub- 
stances like grain. These, it is suggested, produce a dissolution of, 
principally, the proteids, which re-form into other compounds, some of 
them of an acid nature. It has also been suggested that there is in all 
flour a quantity of ordinary acid - producing germs, such as lactic and 
acetic, and that these perform their characteristic actions very slowly in 
dry flour, gradually producing sourness. There is the third purely 
chemical theory, that proteids, being extremely complex compounds, are 
also unstable, and that they slowly break down and form new compounds 
less complex. The first or third of these suggestions may contain the 
proper explanation, such evidence as there is being against the interven- 
tion of organized acid ferments. Professor Hall recently stated that the 
acids in sound flour are not lactic and acetic, but a small quantity of acid 
potassium phosphate, which behaves both as acid and as alkali, according 
to the indicator selected. The presence of an acid substance of this nature 
may be quite normal, and not indicative of any change whatever in flour. 



British millers use wheat from nearly all parts of the world in pro- 
ducing their flour, and just as these wheats vary in charactei’, so does 
the proportion of each used in any grist alter the character Properties of 
of the flour produced. To get at the reason, therefore, for wheat in Grist, 
the distinctive characters of flour, it is necessary to study the characters of 
wheats. For our purpose it is better to speak of wheat only in terms of 
the kind of flour that would be produced from it if milled alone. In 
practice there is not now much single-wheat flour made. As it will be 
necessary to use such terms as hard and soft, strong and weak, as applied 
to flour, it will be better to define exactly in what sense these terms are 



employed. It lias been suggested that strength should mean the pro- 
perty of making a bulky loaf, but as the bulkiness of the loaf is much 
Definitions of more dependent on the mode of manipulation by the 
Hard, Soft, &c., baker than on the properties of the Hour, this does not 
Flour ' answer all the requirements of a definition. But, since all 

admittedly strong flours require to be fermented for a much longer time 
than those that are soft to produce bulky bread, this property of resistance 
to fermentation, with a given quantity of yeast, may be accepted as the 
Stability of indication of strength. True, strength implies also stability, 
Flour. which means the property of keeping shape in dough without 

running flat. The strong flours show their gradations of weakening really 
in this direction of “ runniness ”. The word soft as applied to flour is also 
Different Kinds subject to qualifications. Thus there is soft flour of a dead 
of Softness. 0 r putty-like character: it is quite stable, but is inelastic 
and non-resistent to the action of fermentation, and will make shapely but 
not bulky bread. Other flours, again, that are called soft are essentially 
“runny”, will not resist fermentation, and will produce small and flat 
loaves. There are, of course, all degrees of strength and of weakness 
between these extremes. 

There can hardly be said to be such a thing as Scotch flour, but flour 
made from Scotch wheat is very soft, with a putty-like softness. It is 
Scotch quite unsuitable for making white bread of any bulk by 

wheat Flour, j tself, but may be used in goods raised by chemicals, or in 
water biscuits. The same wheat, however, makes excellent whole meal. 
In some districts in Scotland, notably in Haddingtonshire, an excellent 
flour for all sorts of biscuits, shortbread, &c., is prepared wholly from 
local wheat. 

English wheat varies very much in character in different localities. 
The strongest varieties are those grown in Lincolnshire and some parts 
English of Cambridgeshire, while Herefordshire grows soft sorts. 

Wheat Flour. Strength is not so much a desideratum with English farmers 
as a good yield and long straw, but if the strongest English wheats belong 
to soft sorts, they contain from 8 to 10 per cent of dry gluten, and in most 
cases have a tendency to be runny. Flour from this wheat is credited 
with a special flavour, but it is a debatable point whether this is due 
merely to the imputation which it gained in the old stone-mill days. In 
Special Flavour an y case > there is nothing harsh about the gluten of this 
of English flour, and, mixed with stronger sorts, it makes excellent 

Wheat Flour. bread. Flour wholly from English wheat is not suitable 
for making the kind of bread people now like; it is, however, specially 
excellent for scone work and for cakes that do not contain a large quantity 
of fruit. Goods of this sort, made with English wheat flour, have and 
retain the very desirable softness which it is the aim of the baker or 
confectioner to produce. 

French flour, or at least the French flour with which we are familiar, 
is in character not unlike English. It is also much more suitable for 



biscuit and hot-plate work than for bread. Imports of French hour 
to this country, except in the case of one or two brands which have 
nearly half a century’s reputation for biscuit work, are _ , 

not regular, but depend on the character rather than the 
quantity of the French harvest. On occasions when the home wheat is 
specially soft, owing to excessive rains or such conditions, the best flour 
French millers can make from it is too soft for the bakers, and in such 
circumstances the millers are allowed to import hard wheat duty - free, 
if they export an equivalent quantity of flour against it. They keep 
the product of the imported hard wheat for mixing for the local trade, 
and export an equivalent quantity of soft flour to us. It seldom contains 
more than 8 or 9 per cent of dry gluten. Since the equivalent as fixed 
by the Customs is really less than the hard wheat it represents would 
produce, the arrangement pays the French miller, and makes him willing 
to let us have the flour at less than its proper value rather than lose his 
market. The French flours we get are usually straight grade. 

Now and again small quantities of flour are imported here from 
Germany and Belgium, and these are also rather soft, but still stronger 
than French. They are bread-making flours, that may serve Belgian and 
for mixing, but as in Belgium particularly, a good deal of German Flour 
foreign wheat is imported, there is nothing characteristically national about 
these flours. They contain from 9 to 10 per cent of dry gluten. 

Amongst continental flours in our markets the most important is that 
from Austria-Hungary. This is sometimes called by bakers Vienna flour, 
but the milling centre from which the bulk of it comes is 
Budapest. This flour varies in character, but it is the top 
grades that have made the reputation of the whole. It is not strong flour 
in the same sense that, say, Minneapolis flour is strong, yet it absorbs a large 
quantity of water, and requires a good deal of fermentation to mature it 
properly. It does not contain an excessive quantity of dry gluten, for, 
while some lots may have 11 per cent, the writer has had experience of 
several samples of excellent flour of this class with 9 or 10 per cent, and 
one lot as low as 6 - 7 per cent, yet even the last sample was excellent flour. 
Its gluten is not tough, but yellow and elastic, and belongs to the stable or 
even stogy class of glutens rather than to the “ runny ” sort. Hungarian 
flour does not by itself make large bread, but it usually produces a fine 
texture, a pleasant yellowish colour, and a bright sheen in the crumb of the 
loaf in which it is used, and a golden bloom on the crust. Effects of 
These characteristics are due as much probably to the Hungarian Flour 
extreme care exercised in milling, as to the character of in Bread> 
the wheat, although the world acknowledges that there are no better 
heats. On account of their reputation they have been used as seed wheafs 
in some of the American states, notably Kansas, and in Australia and New 
Zealand, but the character seems to change after two or three years under 
different conditions of soil and climate. The top grades of Hungarian flour 
are always two or three shillings above the highest made in English mills, 

Hungarian Flour. 



Adelaide Flour. 

and a good many bakers, who have a kind of religious faith in this flour, 
English-milled consider it impossible to make best bread without a pro- 
and Hungarian portion in their mixture. It is doubtful if they really get 
Compared. value for their money, for, although Hungarian is still 

excellent flour, British millers have made such strides in the skill with 
which they select wheats, and in the perfection of their processes, that 
some of their flours have all the qualities of Hungarian without its defects, 
and at a lower price. 

When British millers can obtain Australian wheat at a reasonable price 
they are always willing to compete for its possession. It yields a high 
Australian Wheat percentage of flour of moderate strength and good colour 
and Flour. an( } flavour. But a good deal of flour is now shipped 

from Australian mills direct. Its character depends much on the region 
from which it comes. The best variety for use by British bakers is that 
from South Australia, the port of shipment being Adelaide. This is the 
strongest native Australian flour. It is generally long-patent grade. It 
is white and strong enough to make bulky bread by itself, and contains 
from 9 to 11 per cent of dry gluten of a quality fairly stable. The supplies 
from Adelaide are steady in the seasons, owing to the fact 
that there are several mills at this port which have made 
a speciality of export trade. Victorian wheat and flour is of a milder 
nature than that of South Australia. Victorian flour is shipped at Geelong 
or Melbourne, and although these two ports are only some 40 miles apart, 
the flour differs considerably in strength and general properties. That from 
Geelong mills is as a rule stronger than that from Melbourne, because 
of the different sources from which the respective millers secure their 
wheat supplies. Victorian flour is inclined to be a little runny, yet, by 
„ „ _ proper treatment, it can be made to produce bulky bread 

Melbourne Flour. r ... n r . J 

of nice flavour and with good keeping properties. As with 
some other flours that have this tendency to soften much after being made 
into dough, best results are not obtained by making the dough stiff, but 
by keeping it moderately soft and kneading well. The flour received here 
from New South Wales was a few years ago stronger than other Aus- 
tralian, although the native wheat is actually weaker. The explanation 
of this seeming paradox is that Sydney millers, having virtually free ports 
for wheat, were in the habit of mixing some strong American 
with the soft native sorts, whereas in the other states, owing 
to high tariffs, millers had to depend wholly on native supplies. The 
equalization of duties under the Commonwealth Act, at the beginning of 
the present century, destroyed the advantage thus possessed by New South 
Wales. As a general rule Australian flours are stronger than those milled 
wholly from English wheats, but with something of the same mildness. 
General Character In brightness and bloom, and in the subtle property we 
of Australian Flour. ca fl flavour, they are not unlike Hungarian, while, 
under the influence of fermentation, they can best be compared with the 
hard winter wheat of Kansas. Australian flours contain from 9 to 11 per 

Sydney Flour. 



Canadian Flour. 

cent of dry gluten. The imports to this country are not steady, but vary 
with the economic condition of the Commonwealth. Should the harvest 
be very large and prices for wheat xuile low, then farmers are anxious to 
export as much wheat as possible, and millers to export as causes of 
much Hour, so as to reduce local supplies and raise prices in Cheapness, 
the home markets. This, and the need for immediate cash, which the 
banks will generally advance on bills of lading, causes a good deal of 
Australian dour to be sent to the English markets on consignment, and 
to be sold here at a price actually less than that obtained at its source. 

Canadian wheat is not all of one quality or character. That from the 
wheat-delds of Manitoba is extremely strong, belonging as a rule to the 
variety called Hard Fife. Flour made wholly from this 
class of wheat may contain as much as 15 per cent of dry 
gluten, of a tough and very stable character. This type of dour requires 
to be fermented for a considerable time, even apart from the quantity of 
yeast used, for the gluten seems to resist the softening action called 
“ ripening ”, and to remain tough longer than any of the dours hitherto 
mentioned; but when the dough fx-om this dour is well fei - mented, the 
bi'ead pi-oduced will be vexy lai-ge axxd not dedcient either in davour or 
keeping qualities. Flour of this class is seldom used for bx-ead-making by 
itself, but in a mixture with softer dours. Hard Canadian wheats now 
dnd their way in considerable quantities across the Amex-ican frontiei*, 
and are milled by American millers and sent here as Amex-ican doux\ 
The product of the Canadian mills impoi'ted into our markets is not so 
sti'ong as the charactei'istic American from Minneapolis. It is milled from 
milder mixtux’es of wheat, and is really more suitable for the short-system 
doughs which now obtain amongst the majority of our bakers. Our own 
millers use a large quantity of Canadian wheat, when supplies are within 
their reach, as the basis of stx'ength in their dours. 

Amongst bakers Indian wheats have the bad reputation of making 
dour which seems strong, inasmuch as it takes much water to make dough, 
but gives or softens a great deal when it stands. Yet British Indian Wheat 
millers, who cex-tainly know their business, buy this class of Flour- 
wheat in large quantity. The fact is that there ax-e many varieties of 
Indian wheats, but two distinctive sorts are principally used by British 
millers. One sort, generally called Kurrachee, is moderately strong, and, 
although its dour is inclined to soften a little in dough, it has some compen- 
sation in giving a high yield. The writer has had the opportunity on 
several occasions of cax-efully testing dour milled solely 
from this type of wheat, and there was no difficulty in Kurrachee Wheat - 
pi’oducing a moderate-sized loaf from it. The greatest defects in the loaf 
were a cex-tain harshness of crumb and absence of davour, and a roughness 
and want of bloom on the crust, which modidcations in the process of 
fermentation seemed incapable of removing. The other 
variety of Indian wheat largely used by our millers is sold ea ‘ 

as Calcutta, and in several grades. This wheat is much less stable than the 



other, and in flour by itself makes very flat bread, with a harsh crumb 
and either a brittle or a tough crust, according to the state of the dough. 
These wheats are, of course, used by our millers solely on account of their 
cheapness. They are not really deteriorating factors, so long as sufficient 
wheat of a stable character is also used in the mixture. The only danger 
is that, in the stress of competition, there may be a tendency to increase 
gradually the proportion of this class of wheat in the grist, in the hope that 
Bakers’ Troubles baker will not know; but when the latter finds his 

witn Indian dough soft and sticky when it should be tough and stable, 

and his loaves when proving becoming flat instead of 
standing up boldly, then he knows there is something wrong with his flour. 
As Indian is one of the good class wheats which possesses this tendency in its 
flour to runniness in the most pronounced degree, this may be a favourable 
point at which to note that, while this defect is evidently in the gluten of 
the flour, there is no knowledge yet available as to the cause, but it is 
characteristic of the glutens of several other wheats. The miller’s complaint 
against Indian wheat is the large quantity of dirt mixed with it, but as it 
is the special care of our millers to remove this dirt entirely it in no way 
influences the character of the flour. 

Of foreign wheats, that most largely used by our home millers is from 
South Russia. This is strong wheat, and being more moderate in price 
Russian Wheat than wheat of the same character from America, it supplies 
and Flour. a ver y suitable basis of strength in our flours. Very little 

Russian flour is now imported into this country, but some years ago the 
quantity shipped from Odessa was considerable. This, which contained 
nothing but Russian wheat, was patent-grade flour containing from 10 to 
12 per cent of dry gluten. It was strong flour, in the sense that it required 
to be well fermented to ripen, but it also showed a tendency to soften very 
much after making into dough. This flour was not harsh and hard in 
working, but produced bread of very nice flavour. A common defect was 
that it was not infrequently tainted with the odour of tar, evidently from 
contact on shipboard. Russian wheat as used by our millers sometimes 
produces flour with a tendency to runniness, and in this case the 
explanation has been offered that it is caused by a small proportion of 
Effects of Rye in rye grains being mixed with the wheat. These rye 
Wheat Flour. grains are extremely difficult to separate from the wheat 
by the ordinary machines. The proteids of rye, or what stands for its 
gluten, have an excessive degrading or softening action on the gluten of 
wheat flour. This may be a satisfactory explanation of the softness of 
Russian wheat flour in some cases, but there is probably some other physical 
or chemical cause, inherent in the gluten itself, which has not yet been 
discovered. In the seasons 1904-5, when American and other hard 
wheats were so scarce, our millers had to rely almost exclusively on Russian 
for strength, and bakers will remember how difficult it was to obtain flour 
with the necessary stability to produce bold crusty bread. 

When Russian wheat is scarce and dear, resort is had to Argentine as 



a substitute. This also is a comparatively strong wheat — not so strong as 
Russian or Minnesota, but a passable substitute. There is Argentine Wheat 
a small supply at intermittent intervals of flour from and Flour - 
Argentina, but this is not of very high class, owing perhaps rather to care- 
less milling than to the quality of wheat used. It lacks stability, and can 
be used in bread-making only along with stronger flour. 

American wheats as used by our millers are either of the very hard 
sorts from Minnesota and Dakota, or the weak white wheats from the 
Western States. The first of these is used for strength, American Wheat 
the latter principally for colour. Of all foreign flours and Flour - 
bakers are most familiar with American, because it has been longest in 
our markets as the direct competitor of our home -milled flour. At one 
time, up to some thirty years ago, the bulk of this flour was brought 
here in barrels, each barrel containing 180 lb.; but on account of the 
numerous breakages, the difficulty in handling, the cost of the barrels 
themselves, and the excessive space in proportion to weight they occupied 
in ships’ holds, the use of barrels has almost ceased, except small quantities 
used for supplying ships’ stores, and jute and cotton bags, generally 
140-lb. sizes, have taken their place. The American flour best known in 
England, and in fact all over the United Kingdom, is that from very 
hard wheats milled in Minneapolis district. This is Minnesota F1 
without exception the strongest flour in our market — is, 
in fact, too strong for use by itself in making bread, except when the 
process is a long one with sponge and dough. This class of flour is 
generally spoken of as being made from single wheats, but it is more 
correct to speak of it as being from wheats of single type. When these 
hard flours first reached our markets as roller-mill products, they were 
much stronger than at present. The patents were shorter than they 
are now, whilst the second and lower grades were much Early American 
stronger. At that time some of those flours contained Roller Flours, 
as much as 16 per cent of dry gluten, and that of extreme stability. 
As a rule, this flour now contains from 11 to 13 per cent, but much less 
tough than formerly. This change has been brought about, probably to 
suit the requirements of the British market, by the millers using some 
softer varieties of wheats in their mixture. As already noticed in con- 
nection with Canadian, this kind of flour resists the softening asrents that 
are present in fermenting dough, and it requires to be very well fermented 
before it loses the excessive toughness and harshness which is character- 
istic, and acquires the elasticity and softness necessary to produce nice 
bread. But if this kind of flour is properly ripened in dough, it produces 
very bulky bread. It is not usual, even in those places where long pro- 
cesses are adopted, to use this type of flour by itself; strong Flours in 
although in Scotland it forms, either as American- Scotch Bread, 
milled flour, or as the product of Scottish mills from the same kind of 
wheat, the greater portion of the mixture for batch bread. In America, 
where it is very largely used alone, its extreme hardness and tough- 


ness are tempered by the addition of fat in one or another form in the 

Within the last twenty years or so there has been a gradually increas- 
ing quantity of flour imported here from the state of Kansas. This 
belongs also to the strong -flour class, but with the same 

Kansas Flour. . . ° a . . . . , 

kind of strength as Russian rather than with that of 
Minnesota. The patent grades of this flour may have from 10 to 13 per 
cent of dry gluten, but of a kind rather unstable. The dough made from 
Kansas flour, even if doughed quite stiff, softens quickly as fermentation 
proceeds, and has a tendency to be slightly runny. Yet, in spite of this, 
the flour requires to be well fermented to bring out its excellences, and 
better results are obtained with rather slack than with tight doughs. The 
flour of this type imported varies a good deal in character, some being 
quite stable, other lots very soft and runny. Flour from the adjoining 
state of Nebraska is of much the same nature as Kansas, but if anything 
a little softer. 

From Illinois we receive a good deal of soft winter-wheat flour. This 
is essentially a biscuit and cake flour, although as part of the batch mixture 
Illinois Flour a ^ on & W1 th stronger sorts it produces beautiful bread, soft and 
silky in crumb, and with a good flavour. This flour contains 
from 8 to 10 per cent of dry gluten. It is not used in very large quantity 
in England, but in Scotland and Ireland it is the favourite for all sorts of 
goods aerated with chemicals, and for those baked on hot plates, as well as 
for hand-made biscuits. 

The softest varieties of flour which we receive from America are those 
from Ohio and neighbouring states. These are very white and soft, with a 
Ohio Flour so ^ness like putty. They are not suitable for bread by them- 
selves, although quite stable, for the bread baked from such 
flour alone would be very small and close, probably with large cracks on 
the side of the crust. Where girdle scones are made at home this kind of 
flour is very suitable, as it is also for boiled puddings. In Scotland it flnds 
much favour amongst grocers because of its whiteness and cheapness, and 
because it is suitable for the purposes required by their customers. Flour 
of this class may contain from 7 to 9 per cent of dry gluten. 

British-milled flour, 1 as already indicated, is always made from a mixture 
of wheats, the flour itself being designed to suit local rather than universal 
British-milled requirements. This was particularly the case some twelve or 
Flour - fourteen years ago, when millers, as a rule, were content with 

a local reputation and a trade within easy reach of their mills. There have 
since sprung up several proprietary and company concerns on a very large 
scale, which undertake to supply bakers in any part of the United Kingdom. 
As the flour from these mills has, in general competition, taken the place 

i It may be interesting to note here that the use of foreign wheats by British millers is not a new 
custom nor one resulting only from free trade. In an old work on Bread-making, published in Glasgow 
in 1830, the following are given as the sources from which a good deal of the wheat supplies were 
obtained : Poland, Prussia, Russia, Germany, Zealand, Coast of Barbary, Black Sea Shores, North 
America, Spain. 



of top-grade American without wholly or even considerably supplanting 
that of local millers, the tendency amongst all the large port Large Millers 
millers referred to is to make a strong flour, which con- Supplant 
tains from 10 5 to 1L5 per cent of dry gluten. As these American Flour - 
mills compete with one another, the strength of all of them tends to uni- 
formity. Of four or five of the Hours from such sources with which the 
writer is acquainted, it is quite possible to distinguish be- Distinguishing 
tween one flour and another by certain characters which Character of 
each has. One such flour has a creamy yellow tinge and is s P ecial F ours ' 
mild in its manner of working, but yet stable and strong; another flour is 
slightly stronger, but is harsher and tougher and produces a larger loaf, hut 
not with the same silky texture as the other. One of the flours with a 
good reputation and a large sale is softer than the two already alluded to, 
but is of very white colour, and just strong enough to make a fair-sized 
crusty loaf by itself, but it is more suitable for tin bread, salvation of the 
There seemed to be a danger at one time that these large SmaI1 Mills, 
milling concerns would quite crush out the smaller mills, but, by improving 
their processes and by adopting efficient machinery, the latter have not 
only saved their position, but in very many cases bettered it; and it is now 
quite a common experience to find that the flour from a small local mill is 
better in all respects, from the baker’s point of view, than that from the 
large port mills, and lower in price. In districts where wheat is still grown 
the inland millers more readily obtain supplies, and the presence of this 
English wheat in their grists is not without influence in giving to their 
flour that mildness which bakers desire. Some of the best flour is still 
made in small mills. Considering the difficulties of wheat supply, the 
quality and uniformity of the British-milled flours are remarkable, and on 
this account many bakers, who a few years ago used a large proportion of 
American patents in their bread mixtures, now use none. 



Patent or highest grade flour is, compared with other grades, the 
whitest and also the dearest, and anything that the miller can do to 
transfer some flour from the lower-priced second grade Possible Changes of 
to the higher grade, without appearing to reduce the Grade by Bleaching, 
quality of the latter, looks like an advantage to him. As colour is the 
rough test by which bakers judge of the grade of flour, so the temptation 
to whiten his flour is very strong on the miller. Within some three or four 
years various patents have been taken out for whitening flour by chemical 
means. The flour, after it is made in the usual ivay, is mechanically 
mixed for a few minutes with gases, which have the effect of removing its 



Bleaching Gases. 

yellow colour and increasing the appearance of whiteness. The exact 
composition of these gases has not been accurately determined, but there 
are several that can effect the purpose without injuring the flour in smell 
or flavour. Those that have been adopted on a com- 
mercial scale for this purpose are oxygen in the very 
active form of ozone, and the several oxides of nitrogen, principally peroxide 
of nitrogen (NO.,). These gases may be prepared in the usual chemical 
way, or by the action of an electric discharge on the gases (oxygen and 
nitrogen) which compose the atmosphere; but however the bleaching gases 
are produced, their general effect on the flour is the same. The mechanical 
part of the bleaching process is simple enough. The flour, after being milled 
and purified, is carried through a cylinder by means of a “conveyor”, 
Mechanical Part which has an opening out or separating action, as well as 
of Bleaching. that of pushing the flour along. The cylinder is fixed in 
a horizontal or slightly inclined position. While the flour is being con- 
veyed through this machine, the gases already mentioned are thoroughly 
mixed with it. The flour and bleaching gases are in contact for only one 
or two minutes, and the supply of gas is regulated by a stopcock, according 
to the amount of bleaching wanted — a greater supply for a full bleach, a 
smaller quantity for mild effect. Exactly the same effects can be produced 
without any machine, by simply shaking some of the bleaching gas with 
flour in a wide-mouthed bottle. Except whitening it, the process does not 
produce any effect on the flour pronounced enough to be distinguished by 
ordinary observation; there is no special smell, nor any difference in taste 
as compared with the same flour unbleached. In the case of flour treated 
with ozone, there is a characteristic odour due to impurities in the gas, 
but this soon disappears. 

The patentees of bleaching processes are not content to claim only that 
the flour is whitened, but assert that it is improved in somewhat the same 
Claims for way as by ageing; that it increases the yield of bread by causing 
Bleaching, tlie flour to absorb more water. On the other hand, the induce- 
ment held out to the miller to use the process is that it makes best flour 
from wheats not otherwise suitable for that purpose; and that from any 
given grist it will make a long patent as good flour as a short patent in the 
ordinary way. This latter contention is not intended for the baker; it means 
that the miller can sell him a flour at a price above its value without his 
knowing it. But a claim of this kind errs in not taking note of all that 
Bakers’ Sus- g oes ma ke up the characters of different flours, or of 

picions of different grades of flour. There is a good deal more differ- 

Bleaching. e nce between the grades of flour than mere colour, and the 
baker soon realizes that something is wrong, even if he cannot quite tell 
what it is, when he uses a second-grade product and compares it with the 

Chemical and Other results obtained when using a patent. 

Changes in Bleached There is undoubtedly a slight chemical change in 
Flour ‘ flour that has been bleached, but as the process is 

not in commercial operations carried to extremes, ordinary chemical 



methods of investigation do not readily discover what that change is. 
Some authorities suggest that the process is one of nitration; that 
one or other component of the flour actually receives an augmentation 
of nitrogen from the bleaching gases when these are oxides of nitrogen. 
Others contend that the bleaching is a process of true oxidation; Theories of 
that the substance bleached in the flour has a greater affinity Bleaching, 
for the oxygen in the oxide of nitrogen gas than the nitrogen with which 
it was previously combined, and so the transfer takes place. One French 
chemist, M. Fleurent, considers that the bleaching is merely the result of 
the oil of the flour being changed from a pale yellow to a nearly colourless 
substance. Considering- how small an influence the colour of the fat in 
flour can have on the whole material, since the flour is a powder and not a 
substance through which fat or oil can be uniformly diffused as it might 
through a liquid, and considering that a patent grade of flour may not 
contain more than - 5 to 1 per cent of fat, this explanation of the effects 
of bleaching seems unsatisfactory. But since the substance in flour 
which has the greatest influence in affecting its colour is the changes in 
gluten, and as this and not the starch is the constituent really Colour of 
changed in colour by bleaching, the change in colour of the Gluten - 
whole flour may be ascribed to the effects of the bleaching gases on its 
gluten. Bleaching does not make crude gluten as washed from flour 
whiter, but actually makes it darker. It changes the tinge really from 
yellowish or brownish to quite grey, which in very extreme cases of 
bleaching may appear quite black. The whitening effect on the flour due 
to this change in colour of the gluten is optically the same sort as that 
produced when a small quantity of blue is added to a yellowish-white 
substance to whiten it. There is no change whatever in the colour of the 
pure starch of flour when bleached. The colour of Effects on Bread 
bleached flour is chalky white. In bread it produces of Bleached Flour, 
a crumb with the same characteristic whiteness as the flour, and the crust 
of the loaf inclines to be dull and greyish rather than bright yellowish- 
brown. The advocates of bleaching plead that its justification is the 
demand of the public for very white bread; but while the public do 
prefer white in preference to dark bread, there is no evidence that it 
raises any objection to bread with a creamy-white tint, or even that it 
does not prefer this tint to a chalky white. It is important to notice that 
bleaching does not make low-grade flours white, but changes Bleaching 
them from brownish to dirty grey, so that it is not useful in Low Grades, 
supplying the public demand for whiter bread in the case of those who 
can only afford dark bread; while amongst those who can afford the best, 
there is no demand for greater whiteness. 

It has been stated that bleaching not only whitens flour, but also dries 
and sterilizes it. The supposed drying process is not due to the heat of 
the bleaching gases, for there is a special arrangement supposed Sterilizing 
for cooling these before use, but is supposed to be due Effects of Bleaching, 
to the gases in some way utilizing the moisture of the flour in the chemical 

VOL. i. 9 



reaction that actually occurs. It is evident, however, that the abstraction 
or utilizing of the moisture of the flour during bleaching, and the use of an 
extra quantity of water afterwards to make dough, would be no actual 
gain, as the increase in relative weight at dough would only compensate 
for decrease in weight of flour after bleaching. This contention assumes 
that the process does realty dry the flour; but as the result of many experi- 
ments the present writer has not found that there is any difference in the 
quantity of moisture in bleached and in unbleached flour, nor in the 
amount of water required to make a dough. Such difference as there is 
rather points to the dough from the bleached flour being softer and less 
stable than that which the same quantity of water and unbleached flour 
would make. 

There is realty more than a suspicion that, with regard to both moisture 
and sterilizing, the supposed effects on flour are deduced wholly from theo- 
Does Flour retical considerations which do not fit the facts of the case. 
Require to There is no proof that flour, especially the higher grades, 
be sterilized? con ta,i ns disease or foreign germs in any appreciable quan- 
tity, or that those present produce serious changes in flour as kept under 
normal conditions. In any case, there is no difficulty in keeping flour 
sweet and almost without change for a long period, so that, apart from 
the fact that it would require a period of one or two years to demonstrate 
the different keeping qualities of bleached and unbleached flours, there 
seems to be no sufficient reason for sterilizing flour at all, even if it could 
Proof of Keeping be easily done without affecting it otherwise. If the 
Qualities Difficult, proof of the sterilizing effects of bleaching is to depend 
on resistance to mould in the loaf produced from it, then it has only to be 
pointed out that the germs of mould are not necessarily, not probably, 
present in the flour at all, but may be introduced from many other sources, 
either while the loaf is in the dough stage, or afterwards while in bread. 
If it is suggested that bleaching sterilizes flour so that it resists the action 
Possible Danger germs afterwards, then this property would be more 
of sterilizing. harmful than beneficial. Not only does yeast ferment 
some of the soluble matter of flour, but there are other germs, as well as 
enzymes, which are essential factors in bread fermentation, and anything 
likely to harden the flour against their respective actions is not, or at least 
may not be, an improvement. 

It has already been noticed that bleaching, as performed commercially, 
is not allowed to proceed to an excessive degree. The colour is only 
Commercial sightly changed, and, physically and chemically there is not 
Bleaching much difference between the bleached and the unbleached 
flours; so small a difference, in fact, as not to be distinguished 
in ordinary bakehouse methods. To discover the effects of bleaching, it 
is therefore necessary to take a case in which the process has been carried 
to the full but not really excessive extent, to note the effect, and to deduce 
from the results obtained the probable lesser effects following less action 
of the gas. A series of experiments conducted in these circumstances with 



care showed that while the bleached flour fermented quicker and the dough 
was ripe sooner than the unbleached, the former was sticky Effects on 
and unstable as compared with the latter. In washing Fermentation, 
glutens from the respective flours the quantities obtained were as follows: 






per cent. 

10 6 per cent. 
... 10-85 

... 10-95 

Tests on Gluten 
of Bleached and 
Unbleached Flour. 


5 , . . . 

... 11-45 


,, • • • 

... 10-4 



... 10-85 

Although these results vary in individual cases, the quantity of dry gluten 
is in each case greater in the unbleached sample than in the bleached, and 
the averages, which are taken from enough samples practically to eliminate 
the errors of experiment, show that the difference is appreciable. 1 his 
would seem to indicate that bleaching reduces the quantity of insoluble 
proteids (gluten) in flour, which is not inconsistent with even an increase 
in total nitrogen, as suggested by some chemists, but would merely indi- 
cate that the oxides of nitrogen had changed some of the proteids from 
the insoluble to the soluble state; and, as bakers know, this change, prior 
to the fermenting process, is not favourable to strength and stability in 
the flour, and is more likely to produce dough that is soft, or even runny, 
and that will not bear overmuch fermentation. This stability Tests 
last point was demonstrated in a positive way by on Bleached Flour, 
means of small ferments in graduated cylinders. The stability of the 
flour is measured by the height to which the ferment rises in the 
cylinder before it breaks. The following were the results obtained in 
three cases: — 



240 C.C. 

245 „ 

263 „ 

238 „ 

260 „ 

Average, 241 „ 

262 „ 

The bleached flours were less able to withstand the action of the yeast, 
& c., in the ferments, and dropped sooner, although in each case both sorts 
of flour were kept under exactly the same conditions of temperature, 
&c. These results are unfavourable to bleaching, from the baker’s point 
of view, and show that it deteriorates the quality of flour in several 
respects for bread-making purposes. The trouble likely to beset the baker 
is that owing to varying degrees of treatment on the flour it may be 
affected for the worse while the cause may not be very apparent. The 
process has been already extensively adopted both in this country and 
in America, but it may be only a passing expedient, as it is quite 
certain that the best flour does not need it, and is not improved by 



being treated, while the change effected on lower grades does not 
improve them as flour for bakers’ purposes. 



It is the common experience of all bakers that flours vary with regard 
to the time they require to ripen in dough. For this reason very strong or 
Glutens in hard flours are invariably used in sponge when the sponge 
Mixed Flours. an d dough system is followed. On the strength of this, the 
idea has somehow been adopted by bakers that in a mixture of hard and 
soft flours each kind retains its individual character in spite of the proxi- 
mity of the other sorts, and that, while the softer flours ripen first, the 
hard remain unripe, or at least ripen more slowly. There is no evidence 
Practical P rac ^ ce i n favour of such a view, and even on theoretical 

Experience of considerations it is hardly tenable. Assuming that gluten 
Flour Mixtures. - g p resen fc j n fl our ag an impalpable powder, then as that of 

the soft flour mixes with that of the hard, the one modifies the character 
of the other, and the mixture when wetted has properties unlike either of 
its components, but has really become a true blend of the two. It is not 
necessary to assume that the glutens blend chemically and form a new 
compound. The supposition that the physical characters of each are 
modified by those of the other is quite sufficient to account for all the 
observed facts in connection with flour-blending. But while mixed flours 
Effects following ferment with uniformity throughout, if thoroughly mixed 
Bad Mixing. in the dry state, the same flours made into dough without 
previous mixing are likely to ferment with varying intensity in different 
parts, and to seem more or less patchy. On this account flour made up 
of several kinds should always be well mixed dry. In the absence of 
any other mixing apparatus this can be done by the arms, if the work 
is done by hand; or if dough is made by machine, then a few turns 
before adding any liquor will effectively blend the flours. 

The point is often discussed whether flours ought to be mixed together 
for some time before use. If flours are very much alike in character, there 
Should Flours be n0 g rea ^ advantage so far as their properties are con- 
Mixed some Time cerned, but if they are widely different in character- 
before Use? Qne or more ver y so ft an d the others hard — then it is 

better that they should be mixed a few days before use. For this pur- 
pose there are in some bakeries large bins of a capacity of fifty or sixty 

Storing and 

sacks of flour. The flour is sifted into these and mixed, 

Mixing Bins. an d f s drawn off into the doughing machine as required, the 
latter generally having an automatic weigher fixed above it, so as to 
weigh accurately and register the amount for each batch. Where no 



bins are in use the general practice is to blend the flour and re-sack 
the mixture in convenient weights for use. This plan is convenient and 
economical, but to secure uniformity of the mixture either a mixing 
bin is required or a blending machine, in which the proportion of each 
kind in a sack of the mixture can be accurately measured. Where space 
is a consideration, this is about the most convenient Blending without 
system of blending that can be adopted. Sifting prior Special Bins, 
to blending is an aid to the closer and better admixture of the flour 
particles, and should be done where possible. It seems necessary that in 
any case sifting or re-sifting should always immediately precede dough- 
making. However careful people may be, there are occasions when 
foreign matter, more or less objectionable, does get into the flour, such as 
pieces of string, fluff off the bags, or, on occasions, even a dried mouse. 
Of course, such things should on no account be allowed to get into the 
bread. These sifting and blending operations take time and labour, but 
are well repaid by the improvement and uniformity of results. 



The colour of flour is not by itself a safe indicator of its quality, and, 
since bleaching has been adopted by millers, it is less so than ever: but as 
good colour is generally collateral with high grade, an estimate Co i our as 
of colour is the easiest method of judging flour in a rough indicator of 
way. One great drawback is that there are no quite satis- Q uaht y- 
factory standards with which the various grades of colour can be com- 
pared and the gradations of shades recorded in figures. The best recording 
instrument of this kind is Lovibond’s tintometer, but, besides being an 
expensive instrument, the comparisons between flour and the tinted slips 
of the apparatus are not quite defined, owing to the difficulty of arti- 
ficially obtaining the subtle something about the colour of flour we call 
bloom. This bloom is best seen when the flour is placed in Bloom of 
a little loose heap. The usual method of testing flour for colour Flour, 
is to press it flat on a piece of cardboard or wood. For pressing, a 
piece of plate glass is a convenient instrument. As two or three flours 
are usually compared at once, a small quantity of each is placed on the 
board in a long strip and gently pressed flat with the ivory flour-tester or 
“slick”, then each lot pushed close to its neighbour so as to show no 
division between the different kinds. The whole are then altogether 

m c”' 

pressed evenly with the piece of glass, the pressure being Conditions 
downward and forward. The relative colours of the Altering Relative 
flours are very well seen by this method, but its cor- Colours - 
rectness depends on the slips of flour being all thick enough not to be 



transparent, on their being as nearly as possible all the same size, on the 
line dividing them being not too pronounced, and on the nature of the 
light in which they are looked at. Direct sunlight is not suitable, and it is 
necessary to look at the flours from two or three directions to be quite 
certain that the differences in colour are real. 

What is called Pekar’s Test consists simply in taking the piece of 

wood with the strips of flour on it and gently dipping it, in a slanting 

direction, into some clean cold water. The surface of the 
Pekar’s Test • • • • 

flour is wetted, and while in this state, any dark specks 

which might not be visible when the flour is dry are readily seen. The 

wetted flour is then allowed to dry and is examined again. The colour 

Fig. 1.— Chemical Balance. 

Crude Gluten. 

of the dried surface is supposed to correspond very nearly to the colour 
of the bread which the respective flours would produce. Pekar’s test for 
colour does at least show slight differences which could not be distinguished 
by the dry method. 

The next and probably the most important operation in flour-testing, 
is to find the quantity of gluten contained in the flour. Gluten is 
insoluble in cold water, and can be readily obtained from a 
piece of dough by washing out the starch and soluble 
matters, leaving the crude gluten as a tough, yellowish-grey mass in the 
hand. Besides gluten proper, this tough substance contains the greater 
part of the oil of the flour, and unless very well washed also contains 
a small quantity of starch. 

If the exact proportion of crude gluten is to be ascertained, the flour 
must first be carefully weighed on a chemical balance (fig. 1). A convenient 
quantity to take for the purpose is 20 gm. of flour. This is placed 


William Curr, of Paisley, was born at Stonehouse, Lanark- 
shire, in 1853. He is a trained baker who has raised himself to 
his present position by energy and skill. He takes a great deal 
of interest in all trade concerns, and amongst other things is 
an ardent bowler. He was appointed President of the Scottish 
Association of Master Bakers in 1906. 

JOHN Brown, born at Kilmarnock in 1845, after serving an 
apprenticeship, worked as journeyman and as foreman, until he 
started on his own account in Kilmarnock in 1881. He was 
amongst the first in Scotland to use and to advocate compressed 
yeast in ordinary Scotch batch bread. He has taken a special 
interest in the work of technical education, and in all Association 
work in connection with the trade in Ayrshire. He was appointed 
President of the Scottish Association of Master Bakers in 1905. 

David D. Martin, J.P., was born, the son of a master baker, in 
East Calder, Midlothian, in 1853. He started a new business in 
Harthill, Linlithgow, but moved in 1878 to Edinburgh, where he 
now does a large wholesale trade amongst grocers. He is a 
member of both the National and the Scottish Association of 
Master Bakers. He was early on the Executive of the latter, and 
was elected President in 1904. Mr. Martin takes an active interest 
in public affairs, and was elected on the Town Council in 1899, 
and created a Justice of the Peace in 1900. 

John Gibb, Dunbar, was born at Duns in Berwickshire in 
1835. He was apprenticed to his father as a baker, and started 
on his own account near Edinburgh, but in 1863 moved to 
Dunbar. He entered the Town Council in 1886, was Burgh 
Treasurer, then Bailie, and ultimately Provost in 1899, holding 
the latter office for six years. He is also a member of the Parish 
Council and the School Board. Mr. Gibb was President of the 
Scottish Association of Master Bakers in 1902. 












in a small shallow porcelain basin, about 4 in. diameter, and about 
10 c.c. of water (weighing roughly 10 gm.) run on to it from a 
Graduated burette. This flour and water are then made into dough, 
the mixing being done with a piece of stout glass rod or sealed tube, 
or with a stiff bone or horn spatula. The mixing must be done 
thoroughly, without the Hour being touched by hand. When thoroughly 
mixed the dough should be about the stiffness of that for English cottage 
bread. This dough is transferred to the balance, care being taken 
to clean every particle from the basin in which it has been made (a 
small artists’ palette is a suitable instrument for this purpose), and weighed. 
The object of weighing the dough is to ascertain how much Estimate 
water has been used in making it; for although the quantity of Water in 
was measured from a burette, there is some difficulty in read- Dough ' 
ing this quite accurately, and as it is from the quantity of water that is 

Fig. 2.— Gram Weights. 

in this little piece of dough that the yield of bread from the flour can be 
calculated, the extremest accuracy is necessary; hence it is better to weigh 
the dough and, by deducting the weight of flour, get the actual weight of 
water used. As there is some difficulty in judging accurately whether the 
small dough is of the right stiffness, and as the calcula- value of Average 
tion for yield depends on this being correct, it is better, Estimation, 
if time will allow, to make two, or even three, of those small doughs, 
and the error in one estimation may then correct the error in another, 
and so the mean of the two or three will be about correct. The weight 
of the small piece of dough having been ascertained, the yield of bread 
from it is calculated in the following manner. Suppose the dough Aveighs 
305 gm. Subtract from this the weight of flour used, 20 calculating 
gm.; and the remainder, 105 gm., is the weight of water. Yield from 
As the ratio of water to flour is thus ascertained, it is no Water Content, 
longer necessary to deal with grams, for the same ratio will obtain if the 
quantities are pounds, or hundredweights, or any other weight. Thus, if 



20 gm. of flour takes 10 5 gm. of water to make dough of a certain stiffness, 
then 20 lb. of the same flour will require 10 5 lb. of water to make dough 
of a like consistency. It is easy, therefore, to calculate how much water 
would be required to make a whole sack (280 lb.) of the same flour into a 


like dough. The amount is -%q X 10'5 = 147 lb. From this the total 
weight of dough produced can be ascertained, thus: — 












1 ) 

But it is not possible to ferment this dough for some hours and then scale 
it into 2-lb. loaves without losing some weight. This loss varies, but a 
Loss in Weight fair estimate is about 12 lb., thus leaving only 419 lb. 
of Dough in Bulk. f or actual distribution. The weight of a 2-lb. loaf in 
dough is 2 lb. 3 oz., so if 419 lb. is divided into pieces for 2-lb. loaves (the 
loss in weighing has been already allowed for), there would be 191 such 
loaves and a few ounces over. This would be the equivalent of 951- 
quarterns (4-lb. loaves). If dough were made much lighter, as for tin 
bread, the yield would of course be a little greater. When this method of 
calculating the yield of bread is employed regularly it is best to prepare 
a table of reference, so that, given the water absorption, the yield of bread 
can be seen at a glance. Thus, if ratio of water to flour were — 



Yield would be 

20 ..., 

... 10-5 .... 

191 2-lb. loaves 

20 .... 

... 11 

... 194-7 

20 .... 

... 11-5 .... 

... 197-9 

and so on, a difference of 5 of a gm. in a dough with 20 gm. of flour 
making a difference of fully three 2-lb. loaves in a sack of flour. 

The small piece of dough which forms the basis of the above calcula- 
tion also serves for gluten estimation. After being weighed, it is returned 
Determination to the basin in which it was made and covered with water, 
of Wet Gluten. anc j allowed to lie in the water for half an hour. At the 
end of that period the washing may begin. The most convenient manner 
of doing this is to use a clean basin of about 1 quart capacity. This is 
filled to about 1 in. from the brim, and the hand, with the small piece of 
dough in the palm, is immersed in the water, and the dough teased out and 
manipulated with the other hand. The water will soon become milky- 
white, and the gluten at first is rather soft. The water in the basin is 
carefully decanted, being allowed to pass over the edge of the basin in a 
very thin stream. This precaution is to prevent the loss of tiny particles 
of gluten which may have passed through the fingers while washing was 
proceeding. These little pieces will all be found in the basin after the 



water has been poured off. This process of washing and decanting is re- 
peated about four times, using clean cold water on each occasion. When 
the water in which the gluten is washed i-emains quite clear after the 
washing, then the gluten may be considered clean and free from starch. 
It is then weighed in the wet state, but to get anything like reliable results 
erreat care is needed. If more water is left in the wet gluten than is re- 
quired to hydrate it, then obviously to this extent it is water that is being 
weighed and not gluten. The preliminary operation to Mode of Prepar _ 
weighing is therefore to press out as much of the water ing Wet Gluten 
as possible. When it is ready for weighing, it will be for Wei & hin S- 
found that the gluten sticks very tenaciously to the fingers, or, in fact, to 
anything of an absorbent nature that it touches. As long as it is over- wet 
it will not stick, but is easily handled. To press the surplus water out, it 
is necessary to rub vigorously between the palms of the hands, drying the 
hands on a towel between the rubbing and pressing operations, for it is 
important to get the excess water from the centre as well as the outside of 
the gluten. When it becomes sticky all over, it should be smartly trans- 
ferred to the pan of the balance and weighed. As this is the amount of 
wet gluten obtained from 20 gm. of flour, then the amount in 100, or the 
percentage, will be found by multiplying by 5, since 100 is 5 times 20. 
On account of the difficulty of expressing the water to always exactly the 
same degree, it is better to wash the gluten from two or three small doughs 
from each kind of flour, and take the mean of the three weighings; the 
result thus obtained is likely to be fairly accurate. The weight of wet 
gluten is usually stated in percentages. There is a definite relation between 
the quantity of wet gluten and the quantity of dry; the Relation of Wet 
latter is roughly estimated as being one-third of the former, to Dr y Gluten - 
or, in other words, it is assumed that dry gluten takes twice its own weight 
of water to hydrate it. The dry gluten is therefore found from the weight 
of the wet by dividing the latter by 3. Some use the factor 275 as the 
divisor, but in either case the result can only be a rough estimate, owing 
to the uncertainty as to whether or not all the excess water has been 
pressed out. On this account dry gluten should only be ascertained in 
this way when time will not permit of its being dried properly. 

To dry gluten it should be placed on a small piece of tin whose surface 
has been rubbed over with oil, which is afterwards cleaned off. The tin is 
accurately weighed, and placed in a small drying oven (fig. 3), Determination 
the temperature of which is kept constantly at 212° F. The of Dr y Glut en. 
gluten will first soften and run out more or less flat; then it will toughen 
and ultimately harden. When it has become quite hard, it may be weighed 
and again placed in the oven. It may be reweighed at intervals of one 
hour, and when it ceases to lose weight — when two successive weighings 
are alike — its weight may be taken as that of dry gluten. Drying in this 
manner at a low temperature takes a very long time, as much probably as 
36 hours. Fairly accurate comparative results may, however, be obtained 
by drying in an ordinary baker’s oven at a much higher temperature, say 

VOL. 1. 10 



360° to 380° F. The method is the same as in the other case, and the test 
for the completion of the drying process is also the same. In this case the 
Drying Gluten g luten will not soften and run out, but will spring up into 
at High a light round ball. It must not be assumed, however, that 

Temperatures. t q e s j ze an( j lightness of this ball of gluten are the measure 

Fig. 3.— Drying Oven 

of its strength or quality, for two pieces of the same gluten may have quite 
a different appearance when dried in this way. If one is placed in the oven 
immediately it is washed, while the other is allowed to lie some time, the 
latter will spring more, and become lighter than the former; but even this 
l’ule does not always hold. The glutens of very tough flours do not become 
very large unless allowed to lie some time after washing, whilst those of 
milder and softer flours spring better. When the gluten is thoroughly 



dried, its weight is taken as that of true dry crude gluten, and, as before, 
if multiplied by 5 (assuming 20 gm. of flo ir to have been used), the 
answer is the percentage of dry gluten. As the drying process is purely 
mechanical and does not depend on the personal factor, it is much more 
reliable as an estimate of gluten in flour than the wet-gluten determination. 
While drying in a baker’s oven in variable temperature is not, from a 
scientific point of view, so reliable as drying in the steady low temperature 
of a water oven, yet comparative results as between one flour and another 
can be thus obtained on which dependence can be placed. As a general 
rule, flours containing from 105 to 110 per cent of dry General Averages 
gluten are most suitable for bread-making, not because of Dry Gluten 
the quantity is so material, but because wheats which in Flour - 
produce flours containing this quantity are also those which contain gluten 
of the requisite strength, and are yet mild enough for this purpose. 

To ascertain the quality of gluten in respect of stability and elasticity, 
various methods have been proposed which deal with the gluten itself 
after it has been washed from the flour, but much more reliable Q ua i ity and 
results are obtained by using the flour itself for the test, since Stability of 
the gluten is the only thing in it which gives the flour stability Gluten - 
and elasticity. For this purpose the flour to be tested is made into a thin 
ferment, with a small quantity 7 of yeast and water, and fer- 
mented in a graduated glass cylinder (fig. 4) at a steady tem- 
perature. When the gluten of the flour is stretched by the 
evolved gas to its utmost extent, it breaks, and the ferment 
drops. The distance through which it has risen in the 
cylinder, from the point at which it started to that at which 
it drops, is taken as the indicator representing the elasticity^ 
of the gluten. It is also to some extent, but not absolutely, 
a measure of the flour’s stability, for while soft glutens 
are less resistant to the action of the yeast, &c., yet the 
strong flours are not long enough in contact to be seriously 
affected, but will break and drop before those that are 
much softer but more elastic. To ensure that the tem- 
perature is kept uniform, it is necessary to keep the cylinders in a water 
bath while fermenting. The test is only a comparative one, and to make 
accurate comparisons between flours it is necessary to adopt a standard 
width of cylinder for all tests, to use always the same quantities of 
materials, and to adopt a standard temperature at which to work all fer- 
ments. The writer has found that a cylinder of 1£ in. Standards for 
internal diameter, and about 550 c.c. capacity, answers the Comparative 
purpose of this test very well. The ferment consists of 1 oz. Pur P oses - 
(28'35 gm.) flour and oz. (42 '52 c.c.) water, and J oz. or 7 gm. yeast. 
The yeast is dissolved in the water in a small basin, and the flour then 
added and stirred with a spatula, or the blade of a table-knife, until it is 
quite smooth. The degree of mixing is of much importance. The mixture 
must not contain lumps, or the elasticity of the ferment will be reduced, 

Fig. 4.— Graduated 



and it must not be stirred too much, or the elasticity will be considerably 
increased, for it is one of the peculiarities of gluten that it becomes more 
Causes of Vari- elastic the more it is stretched. When the small ferment is 
able Results. properly mixed, it is carefully transferred to the cylinder, 
and the point it stands at is noted. The cylinder is then placed in the water 
bath, which should be kept at a temperature about 90° F. It would be 
better if the temperature of the water used to make the different ferments 
were also 90° F., but, in practice, there is much difficulty in ensuring that 
Comparative and each is at exactly the same temperature, owing to the 
Record Tests. small quantity used and the possible variations in loss. 
For this reason it is better to make the ferments with water at or near 
the temperature of the air for the time being. All the lots made at once 
are then certain to be at the same temperature, and stand equal chances in 
the water bath of rising in temperature at the same rate. But if it is 
proposed to keep a record of results, the ferments must all be made about 
the same temperature, say 75° F., as this is not very much removed from 
ordinary temperature in either summer or winter in a warm room. The 
time taken to rise in the cylinders depends mostly on the yeast; yet, when 
two or more lots are being fermented together, the time is a factor of some 
importance, indicating to some extent whether the flour is one that ferments 
quickly or slowly, for there is a good deal of difference between them in 
this respect. When the ferment is at its maximum height it breaks and 
drops, leaving its mark on the cylinder, so that it can be noted at any time. 
In a cylinder of the size given, with the quantities of materials stated, the 
General Range of flour with the highest elasticity will rise through about 
Flour Elasticity. 260-280 c.c., whilst one with the lowest may not rise more 
than 150-160. This test is reliable only for certain types of flour. Hard 
flours are not elastic until acted upon for some time by yeast and its pro- 
Limits of Elas- ducts; consequently hard flours drop sooner in the cylinders 
ticity Test. than their strength would lead us to anticipate. But for 

all flours with mild glutens up to about 11 per cent the test is a good 
indicator of their strength; and if strong flours are contrasted only 
with those of the same class and nature, it indicates their comparative 

As a concluding and confirming part of the other tests on a sample of 
flour the actual baking test should be performed. When, as sometimes 
happens, it is not possible to obtain more than about 8 oz. 
of the flour to be examined, there is some difficulty in baking 
it in the ordinary way; yet this can be done quite successfully if the small 
piece of dough can be kept in an incubator, or even in an ordinary prover 
if the temperature is equable. By paying careful attention to this dough, 
all its peculiarities can be noticed as well in the small piece as in a large 
one. A much more convenient quantity of flour for a 
baking sample is 5 lb. With this should be used 1 oz. 
of yeast, 1 oz. salt, and 1 quart (24 b.) water, at a tem- 
perature of 100°-104° F., according to the season. A comparatively high 

Baking Tests. 

Materials and Con- 
ditions for Small 
Baking Test. 


1 1 

temperature is necessary for such a small dough, because of its cooling 
rapidly while making. The yeast is dissolved, or, at least, thoroughly 
mixed with the water, then the salt, and the dough is mixed straight off, 
care being taken not to make any scrap and to mix thoroughly. The 
mixture is placed in a clean enamelled basin, and covered with a dry cloth, 
with damp one on top of that, or, failing this, wrapped up in a clean sack, 
a cotton one for choice, and placed in a drawer or in a prover where the 
temperature is equable and is as nearly as possible about 80° F. The dough 
itself, when first made, should be at 82°-84° F., and during fermentation 
the temperature will increase in the first hour or so in the centre to about 
86°-88° F. In any case, it must be kept well away from draughts and 
prevented from skinning. When it has lain for one hour it is kneaded, 
and the same operation repeated each half hour, till the dough has lain 
24-3 hours from the time it was made. If the previous Use of Gluten 
tests for quantity and quality of gluten have indicated that Determinations 
the flour belongs to a soft variety, the shorter period men- in Baking Tests - 
tioned, or even less, would be sufficient, whilst if the previous tests have 
shown the flour to be of a strong, hard nature, the longer period would be 
necessary to ripen the dough properly. When the dough is ready, it is 
scaled and handed up or moulded into loaves. Coburg shape (see Plate VI, 
No. 4) is best for crusty, if such a small lot is made, and one loaf may be 
moulded into a tin. The crusty loaf will require about 25-30 minutes to 
prove, and the tin with a dough so stiff' as this about 45 minutes. They 
are then baked in the usual way. 

The points to notice about the bread when baked are: — (1) Bulk and 
shape; (2) Colour and bloom of crust; (3) Colour and pile of crumb; (4) 
Texture and sheen of crumb; (5) Flavour and moistness. Points of a Loaf: 
The bulk of a loaf made under the above conditions will Bulk and Sha P e - 
depend almost wholly on the nature of the flour. If it is inclined to be 
stogy, the loaf will have a small bound appearance, probably with cracks in 
the side, but will otherwise be quite shapely — will, indeed, come from the oven 
nearly the same shape as it went in. If the flour inclines to be runny, the 
loaf will be flat on bottom and slightly flat on top. If the loaf is bulk}', 
and has its corners rounded at bottom, and the cuts on top opened out wide, 
with the centre well bulged up, then the flour may be considered of high 
quality as far as strength is concerned. 

The colour and bloom of a loaf do not depend wholly on the nature of 
the flour, but to some extent on the yeast, and principally on the extent to 
which the flour has been changed during fermentation, colour and 
Should the loaf have a yellowish-brown colour, with a fine Bloom of Crust, 
crust, and look bright, then it may be inferred that the time allowed has been 
just right, and that the flour was strong enough to stand fermenting to that 
extent, the brightness and fineness also indicating that it is of high grade. 
On the other hand, should it be dull and reddish and rough, the colour would 
indicate that it had not been fermented enough, and the roughness that it 
belongs to a low-grade class. If the loaf is pale and dull and bound-like in 



appearance, this shows that it has been fermented too much, and that the 
flour is not strong enough to bear so much. 

Colour and pile of crumb depend partly on the colour of flour used, and 
partly on the extent to which it is fermented. It is quite possible to make 
Colour and a loaf with the crumb greenish-yellow from a flour that is 
Pile of Crumb, quite white, but this appearance is the result of the dough 
having been much under-ripe; on the other hand, from a white flour the 
crumb of loaf may be a dull, bleached-looking white, the result of the dough 
being over-ripe. Accordingly, if a loaf has a bright colour, such as would 
be expected from the colour of the flour used, it has been fermented to the 
right degree. This test must, however, be considered in conjunction with 
the others. It is the gluten of the flour which thus changes colour during 
fermentation: it is really bleached. The “pile”, by which is meant the 
smoothness and silkiness of the crumb when cut, is the result of the manner 
in which dough is manipulated, but a nice pile cannot be produced with 
dough that is either under- or over-ripe, for in the one case it is tough, in 
the other crumbly. 

Texture is by some confused with pile. What is called texture really 
refers to the condition of vesicularity. If the tiny holes, or vesicles, in the 
Texture and crumb of a loaf are small, all one size, and evenly distributed, 
its Cause. we ca p the texture fine] if they vary in size, or if they are 
small in one part and large in another, or if amongst the small ones there 
are several very large, then the texture is called bad or coarse. Texture is 
made in the dough stage by plenty of kneading. In a piece of dough 
moulded up and baked without any kneading whatever, the crumb of loaf 
will be open in texture, not unlike a honeycomb, but the more frequently it 
is kneaded the smaller the vesicles become. It is much easier to make a 
fine texture with strong, stable flour than with soft and weak, and easier 
with high gi’ade than with low. Sheen in the crumb of loaf can only be 
Sheen or produced with high-grade flours; bread from low-grade flours. 
Sparkle however even the texture may be, has always a dull appearance, 
in Crumb, qq ie ^ansparency 0 f the crumb of a loaf made from patent-grade 
flour has something to do with the appearance of this sheen, which is a sort 
of sparkle reflected from the sides and bottoms of the tiny holes in the 
crumb. It only shows in bread that is fermented just enough, and not in 
that either over- or under-ripe. 

It is a mistake to think that the moistness of a loaf depends wholly on 
the quantity of water it contains. One that seems quite dry in eating may 
Moisture in contain as much water, or even more, than one that eats moist. 
Bread. The difference in the sensation on the palate is due to the con- 

dition of the gluten in the bread. If this has been sufficiently ripened in 
dough, the bread will seem soft and moist; if it is either under- or over- ripe, 
it will seem dry, but the sensation of dryness arises from a diffei’ent cause 
in the two cases. In the first case the bread is dry because of the toughness 
of the crumb and the difficulty with which it mixes with the saliva to form 
a bolus in the mouth. The absence of flavour is due to the insolubility of 



those parts which possess flavour, and the sensation imparted to the palate 
is much like that produced by fine shavings or bran. When the dough has 
been over-ripe, the sensation of dryness is still caused by the diffi- cause of 
culty in getting the bread in the mouth to mix with saliva and Flavour, 
form a continuous paste; it is crumbly, and will not stick together. The 
flavour of bread is in some degree dependent on its moistness, and some 
people have in fact a difficulty in distinguishing between the physical 
sensation due to the latter and flavour proper, which can only be produced 
by the soluble substances in bread. It is not certain what constituent of 
bread really produces flavour, but it evidently depends in some degree on 
the change that has occurred in the gluten during fermentation, though 
also on the modifying effects of the alcohol and acids pro- Gradations of 
duced at the same time. Bread flavour is, in fact, a blend of Flavour to 
many flavours. It reaches its maximum sweetness when a Sourness - 
certain amount of acid has been formed; but the continued production of 
acid, as fermentation is allowed to proceed, gradually masks, and ultimately 
quite hides, the flavour due to the flour alone, and then sourness pre- 
dominates. It is usual to try the flavour of bread by smell, but this is an 
effective test only when the bread is quite new and at the moment Testing for 
of cutting. In conjunction with smelling it should always be a Flavour, 
rule to chew a small piece of the crumb of the loaf for some time, and note 
the flavour while chewing as well as after the bread is swallowed. 

The above tests for flour, singly and in conjunction, should produce 
sufficient and reliable data for estimating all the properties that concern 
the baker. For the purpose of comparing flours on a uni- Summary and 
form system and standard it is necessary to adopt a definite Record of 
form in which to state the points, thus: — 

Flour Tests. 

Name or Brand. 




Wet Gluten. 

Dry Gluten. 



Colour would be given in figures, using as the standard some well- 
known flour of which a supply could always be had. Both wet and dry 
gluten would be given in percentages, elasticity in figures obtained as 
already described. The column for remarks would contain notes as to any 
peculiarity in behaviour of the flour in dough, and the kind of bread pro- 
duced from it. A record of this kind is extremely useful for reference. 





It is not proposed here to enter into a thorough scientific exami- 
nation of yeast, but it is essential that some of its peculiarities should be 
explained if its working in dough is to be understood. In a subsequent 
part of the work chapters will be devoted to the various sorts of home- 
made barms still much in use in Scotland, Ireland, and in several of our 
colonies, and the methods of using them ; but the general description of yeast 
as a plant, and its properties, which are common to all kinds of barms, will 
be best given as preliminary to the description of the almost universally 
used compressed distillers’ yeast. 

Yeast in a biological sense occupies a position midway between the 
animal and the vegetable kingdom. It consists of minute cells, with 
Nature of walls composed of fine cellulose, and interior contents consisting 
Yeast - principally of living matter called protoplasm. It is on account 

of its cell wall being composed of cellulose, and because of a property it 
possesses of producing protoplasm from an organic salt of ammonia, that 
Why classed yeast has been classified in the vegetable 
as a Plant. kingdom — as a plant. It must always con- 

tain water, and, as its substance is essentially albu- 
minous, the material on which it lives must contain 
albumin, or some substance from which the yeast can 
produce this, if it is to i*eproduce new yeast cells. 

Sugar or some substance capable of being changed to 
Essentials in sugar must also form part of its food, the 
Yeast Food, theory being that the yeast breaks up 
sugar in order to obtain a supply of oxygen, which 
seems essential to its life, and that when the equili- 
brium of the sugar molecule is destroyed, it is re-formed 
in the interior of the yeast cell into two compounds, alcohol and carbon 
dioxide, with minute quantities of succinic acid, glycerin, &c. Without 
proceeding to details at present it may be said that yeast uses sugar for a 
function somewhat similar to respiration, and it uses albumin or proteids 
for reproductive material. Yeast can reproduce itself (see Plate, Yeast, &c.) 

in two distinct ways, by budding and by spondation. When 
it is in a medium containing sufficient food of the proper 
kind, it reproduces itself by budding. The cell enlarges at one end, forming 
a protuberance, and this contracts at the part nearest the parent, forming 
a neck which ultimately closes, and the bud then starts a separate existence, 
producing buds of its own, although still adhering to the older cell. In this 
Spore way a branched formation of cells may be produced, but the 

Formation. more common form is in pairs or clusters of three or four cells. 
The conditions under which spores (fig. 5) are formed are entirely different. 

Fig. 5. — Yeast Spores 

From E. L. Trouessart's 
Microbes. Ferments, and 
Moulds, by permission of 
Messrs. Kegan Paul, 
Trench, Triibner, & Co. 

Yeast Budding. 



Spores are formed inside the yeast cell, and consist of the living matter 
concentrated into small particles, which are capable of living by them- 
selves. It is supposed that a part of the protoplasm called a nucleus 
is the seed or essential part of a yeast spore. The contents of a yeast 
cell may be formed into two, three, or four spores. These appear first as 
spots of greater density than the rest of the cell; then they assume a 
round shape, and ultimately acquire a covering or skin of their own. 
The skin of the cell containing them then breaks, and the spores are set 
free. In the spore stage they do not perform the functions of ferments. 
They are inert, but capable of retaining their vitality for a long Functions 
time, probably for years, and when placed in a suitable medium of s P° re s. 
they are again changed in form and become actual buds, reproducing more 
buds and fermenting in the ordinary way. Spores not only live longer, but 
withstand greater degrees of heat or cold than yeast cells without damage. 

Spores are formed only from young and vigorous cells kept in a moist 
condition and quite deprived of all nourishment. They are not easily pro- 
duced artificially, but the most approved method is to wash conditions 
some fresh yeast over the surface of a piece of plaster of Paris of Spore 
which is surrounded with clean distilled water. If old cells are Formation, 
placed under such conditions, they simply decay. Whilst yeast cells in suit- 
able conditions grow very quickly, spores are only formed very slowly, the 
time, according to Schiitzenberger, being from two to fourteen days. As 
spores re-form cells only very slowly, it will be seen that spores take no 
part in bread fermentation. In the case, however, of barms Spontaneous 
which are allowed to start fermenting spontaneously, it is Fermentation, 
more than probable that they are first inoculated with yeast spores rather 
than with buds, for the presence of the former in the air is undoubted. 

The budding of yeast depends on the nature of the solution in which it 
is placed. In a solution containing sugar only, while it produces a large 
quantity of gas, it cannot produce an equivalent quantity of conditions of 
new yeast cells, because there is no nitrogen in sugar, and Veast Budding, 
as albumin, which is the basis of protoplasm, contains a proportion of nitro- 
gen, therefore in a sugar solution the only buds a yeast cell can produce 
must be supplied with their protoplasm from the material of Why Sugar 
the parent cell, causing the exhaustion and ultimate death is not a 
of the latter. The condition under which it has been found sufficient Food, 
that yeast grows to the greatest extent is when there is only a moderate 
quantity of sugar present, when the solution contains the conditions of 
necessary mineral matter, and albuminoids in the form of Maximum 
peptones, which is the only form that yeast can easily assimi- Yeast Growt h- 
late, and when the liquid is impregnated with free oxygen (ordinary air). 

We speak loosely about bakers’ yeast being distillers’, but the manu- 
facturers of yeast are only distillers incidentally. It is impossible to 
prepare yeast without at the same time producing spirit, and Commercial 
to prevent loss this spirit must be distilled from the liquid Yeast, 
after the yeast is removed. In a distillery, where the manufacture of spirit 

Vol. L 




is the prime consideration, there is no desire to make more fresh yeast than 
is necessary for the production of spirit, at the same time that the maxi- 
mum quantity of spirit is wanted. To secure this end the solutions consist 
very largely of sugars or other material that is readily changed to sugar, 
such as boiled starch, with albuminoid matter sufficient only to keep the 
yeast strong and vigorous, and in this case the absence of air in the liquid 
Conditions of is an advantage. But when yeast is the prime product of the 
Manufacture, factory, and spirit merely a by-product, then the wort or 
solution in which it is grown is made much richer in peptones, and has air 
pumped into it while the fermentation is proceeding. By this alteration 
the quantity of new yeast is increased to five or six times the amount that 
would be produced in an ordinary spirit distillery. This improvement of 
the process has made pressed yeast much cheaper than it was some twenty 
years ago, and the extraordinary care exercised in its manufacture has 
resulted in a product of great purity and uniform quality. 

At one time, as a means of cheapening yeast, a quantity of starch was 
mixed with it before pressing. This, in some cases, was honestly sold as 
Pure and mixed, at a lower price than pure. The admixture of 
Mixed Yeast, starch was credited with improving the keeping qualities of 
the yeast. It has even been suggested that the addition of starch may 
actually increase the quantity of yeast cells in a given weight of the mix- 
ture, since the dry starch replaces not the yeast but some of the water 
surrounding it. The experiments on which this opinion is based fail to 
convince, because there is no proof that the pure and the mixed yeasts dried 
Effects of in eac h case were the same yeasts, and that they had been 
Starch mixed pressed to just the same extent. The addition of starch 
with Yeast. ma kes it possible to press yeast somewhat drier, but this is 

really a doubtful benefit. In any case the practice of using starch is now 
almost given up in this country and in Continental factories that supply 
our market, but is still common in America. It has been found that it is 
easy to press yeast by itself quite dry enough, and that the pure article 
keeps really better than the mixed. The peculiarity of the pressed yeast 
now used by bakers is that it is quick-working and has plenty of vitality. 
These properties have been intensified by selection and by the kind of 
medium used and the conditions employed for the yeast growth. 

Many attempts have been made to prepare yeast in a perfectly dry 
state, so that it might be kept for an indefinite period, but the success 
attending these efforts has been very small. The best results 
hitherto obtained in this direction have been with yeast calces. 
These consist of a large proportion of yeast mixed with fine corn or barley 
meal, cut into round biscuits about £ in. thick, and then very carefully sun- 
dried. Similar sorts of cakes were known and in use in this country quite 
a hundred years ago . 1 They are still manufactured in America, and are in 
use in places where it is impossible to obtain a supply of fresh yeast. These 

i Yeast cakes were in use by bakers in Rome at the beginning of the first century. See Chap. I, 
page 3. 

Dried Yeast. 



yeast cakes start fermenting very slowly, and probably their vitality has 
been retained by spores rather than dried buds. They require to be used in 
a sponge which must stand several hours, generally overnight, before dough 
is made. They are really only suitable for domestic use. 

Pressed yeast is usually packed in canvas bags, unless bakers are sup- 
plied near the factory, in which case it is made up in oblong blocks wrapped 
in paper. If kept in a cool place in the original canvas bag, Keepin g Pro _ 
the yeast is in good condition to use for about ten or twelve perties of 
days in winter and five or six days in summer. The com- Fresh Yeast - 
mon plan to keep it fresh is to dip the bag with the yeast in clean cold 
water, once or even twice a day, and then place it between two boards with 
weights on the top one, or in a small pi’ess not unlike a letter-press. An- 
other expedient to assist keeping which is more efficacious Expedients for 
than that just mentioned, and which is particularly suitable Kee P in g Yeast, 
for small lots, is to remove the yeast from its original covering and press it 
firmly in an earthenware jar. The jar is then kept in another vessel of 
water and covered with a damp cloth, the ends of which are allowed to 
touch the water. If this is kept in a moderately cool place, the yeast, even 
in summer, keeps quite sound for a week or eight days. Yeast must not be 
allowed to freeze, but it can be reduced to nearly the freezing-point without 
hurt. The writer on one occasion kept some yeast at a temperature of 
40° F. for twenty-eight days, and it was quite fit for use at the end of 
that time, but was showing signs of softening. 

When a piece of yeast is kept in a warm, dry situation, it becomes white 
and crumbly, and in the centre of the mass it is quite hot. This heat is the 
effect of chemical action going on in the yeast. This is signs of Decay 
really a sort of incipient fermentation by which the yeast in Yeast - 
changes the composition of its own substance. Whenever this starts, the 
yeast loses strength as a ferment very qiiickly, and if used for bread-making 
the quantity must be much increased. When it has acquired an old or 
a cheesy smell, it is better not to use the yeast at all. If yeast is kept in 
a warm, moist place, instead of becoming white, dry, and hot, it becomes 
brown and soft, ultimately acquiring a bad smell, and, of course, it is not 
then fit to use. According to Schiitzenberger, softening of changes in 
yeast is not directly due to putrefaction: “It grows soft Softened Yeast, 
and converts its protoplasm and a part of its contents into soluble principles, 
among which M. B4champ distinguished leucine and tyrosine, a soluble 
albuminous substance coagulable by heat, a ferment producing change, 
a gummy substance, phosphates, and acetic acid; these are accompanied 
by the production of alcohol and carbon dioxide as well as by the disengage- 
ment of pure nitrogen ”. Whenever yeast shows the appearance of soften- 
ing, it is useless as a fermenting agent for bread and should not be used. 





As occasions are always arising when it is necessary to judge of the 
character of a yeast before using it in quantity, it will be well to describe 
Colour and here one or two simple marks and signs by which 

General Appearance. SU p er i or ma y be distinguished from inferior quality. 
The colour of yeast is not now a good indicator of its character, but may 
only show the nature of the material in which it has been grown. Thus, 
when much rye has been used in the wort, the yeast is yellowish in colour, 
whilst if maize has been the principal ingredient, the yeast is paler. That 
in which starch has been mixed before pressing is greyish and more friable 
than the pure. If brewers’ yeast has been mixed with distillers’, the 
mixture is more or less brown and tastes slightly bitter. Good yeast should 
feel tough and springy, and when broken should show a clean fracture and 
should break with a snapping sound. It should smell somewhat acid, like 
apples, and should be practically tasteless. 

The fermenting strength of yeast may be roughly tested by the follow- 
ing method. Into half a pint of water dissolve half an ounce of sugar. 
Rough Test with Any sort of sugar will serve, so long as all the tests be- 
Sugar Solution. tween which comparisons are made are done with the 
same kind and quantity. This solution, or a part of it, is poured into an 
ordinary glass tumblex - , its temperature being 90° F. Half an ounce of the 
yeast to be tested is then weighed and moulded into a round ball: this is 
dropped into the solution, and will at once fall to the bottom. In a few 
minutes it will rise to the surface. The fermentative strength of the yeast 
is indicated by the time it takes to rise in the solution; the strongest comes 
up quickest, and the weakest will come up last. As the success of the test 
depends on the density of the solution, it is necessary that the water should 
be measured and the sugar weighed accurately, and the tempex-ature pro- 
perly regulated. When one test has been carefully made with a yeast of 
known sti'ength and the time it takes to rise noted, then this may be 
adopted as the standai'd, and in all subsequent tests the yeasts compared 
with this and classified as quicker or slower accoi-ding to the time they 
take to rise to the surface. 

The explanation of the rising of the yeast in this way is very simple. 
The solution contains sugar, and the yeast, on the outside of the ball into 
Why Yeast rises which it has been formed, breaks up the sugar into alcohol 
m Solution. anc j carbon dioxide. The latter gas adheres in little bubbles 
to the ball of yeast, and when there is a sufficient number of them, they 
act like so many little bladders, which cari-y the yeast ball to the surface. 
Yeast, therefore, which acts on the sugar quickest, is that which will fii'st 
produce the requisite number of gas bubbles to lift it to the surface. The 
value of the test is dependent also on the dryness of the yeast. A ti*ue 



comparison can only be made between yeasts containing about the same 
quantity of moisture. A yeast may be too dry to stick together in a ball 
at all, or, if it does, too light to sink in the solution. In a case like this 
it is necessary first to mix the yeast with a small quantity of water, until 
it has acquired consistency sufficient to allow it to adhere, then to weigh 

the quantity from this mixed piece, and proceed 
in the way described above. The test is an old 
one, and gives only rough results. 

A more reliable way of testing the speed at 
which a yeast works is by the use of a small 
ferment in the graduated cylinders Ferment Test 
already described for testing elas- for ^ east - 
ticity of flour (fig. 6); but in this case the in- 
dicator of strength is not the dropping point of 
the ferment, but the distance through which it 
will rise in a given time — twenty minutes is a 
convenient period. The ferment may consist of 
the same quantities of materials as already given 
for flour- testing, viz.: 1 oz. flour, li oz. water, 
and \ oz. yeast. This is made up smoothly in a 
small basin and transferred to the cylinder. The 
flour paste retains the gas produced, and rises 
in exact proportion to the quantity of that gas. 
The reading has to be taken before the ferment 
drops, and as there is not much danger of its 
dropping or even of much gas escaping within twenty minutes, that time 
is convenient to fix for a standard. In this test it is important that the 
materials should be accurately weighed, and the temperature nicely regu- 
lated so as to be the same for each sample. The temperature of all fer- 
ments between which comparison is to be made should be alike, whether 
the tests are made several at a time or singly Temperature for 
at different times. As a standard temperature Test Ferments. 
90° F. may be selected. To obtain this temperature the water 
used for making the ferment itself should be about 96° F. The 
ferments are placed in a water bath and maintained at a tem- 
perature of 90° F. while they are under observation. This test, 
if carefully performed, is very reliable, and does not require 
the use of any expensive apparatus. 

For results to be tabulated for reference, the best test as to 
yeast strength is obtained by fermenting a given weight of 
yeast in a simple sugar solution of known density, and W eight of Gas 
weighing or measuring the quantity of gas produced. Production from 
There is a small piece of apparatus called a yeast bottle Sugar Solutlon - 
(fig. 7) adapted for this purpose, if the weight of the gas is to be ascer- 
tained. About 50 c.c. of water are taken and 5 gm. of sugar thoroughly 
dissolved in it; in this 1 gm. of yeast is diffused, and the whole liquid 

Fig. 7.— Yeast 

Fig. 6. —Cylinders in Water Bath 



then transferred to the yeast bottle, which is fitted with a rubber cork. 
The bottle and its contents are then accurately weighed on the balance. 
It may be re weighed every hour, the loss in weight each time being the 
weight of gas which has escaped, for there is an open tube through which 
the gas escapes as it is formed. The bottles — it is usual to make two tests 
at once — should be kept at a constant temperature of say 90° F. while 
fermentation is proceeding. To give good results this test must be per- 
formed with great accuracy, owing to the small quantity of yeast used 
and the very slight differences between the weighings. The results are 

Fig. 8.— Yeast-testing Apparatus 

obtained in fractions of a gram, and one result can easily be compared 
with another, while it is easy to calculate the volume of gas corresponding 
to any given weight, if comparison is wanted between a result thus 
obtained and one in which the gas has been directly measured by volume. 

The latter method is simpler and on the whole more accurate. The 
necessary apparatus (fig. 8) is not elaborate or costly, and requires no special 
Test by Gas skill for its manipulation. It consists of two baths, C and D, 
Collection. one on an i ron stand tall enough to allow a Bunsen burner to 
be placed underneath. This bath has a false bottom extending to within 
half an inch of each end, and two hanging shelves on which to place the 
bottles with the fermenting liquid. The purpose of the false bottom is to 
prevent the hot water from rising directly above the Bunsen burner, and 
impinging at once on the bottoms of the fermenting bottles. The false 
bottom forces this heated water to make its way to the ends of the bath 



before it reaches the bulk of the water at all. Convection currents are 
thus set up, which make the heat of the water uniform. The fermenting 
bottles, E, B, are placed on shelves which are immersed in the water, so 
that their contents are kept practically at the same temperature when 
there are two or more bottles. The fermenting bottles are ordinary wide- 
mouthed ones fitted with rubber corks with one hole in each, through 
which a piece of glass tubing is passed. This tube is connected by 
rubber tubing to one end of a glass T-piece. The other arm of the 
T-piece has another short length of rubber tubing, closed with a plug of 
glass rod. The stalk of the T-piece is passed through a rubber cork in 
the gas - collecting cylinder, A. This is a long jar with no bottom, 
graduated in cubic centimetres or cubic inches. As the jars are about 
2b in. in diameter, the latter graduation is more serviceable. 
When the apparatus is arranged, the sugar Mode of Setting 
solution with yeast is placed in the fer- Apparatus, 
menting bottles and the corks all made secure. The appa- 
ratus is then exhausted by withdrawing the glass plug 
from the rubber tube, and sucking the air out of the 
cylinders one at a time. The latter stand in the second 
bath, which is filled with water or brine, and as they are 
exhausted of air and the atmospheric pressure removed, 
the water rises in the cylinders. It can be stopped at 
any desired point by replacing the glass plug. When it 
is to be set the water is pulled up till it stands at the 
mark 0 on the cylinder. The Bunsen burner is lighted 
if necessary, and the temperature of the water in the 
bath regulated with the aid of a thermometer, so that it 
keeps at about 90° F. If fermentation is to proceed for a 
long time, and it is inconvenient to watch it constantly, 
there is a piece of apparatus called a gas-regulator (fig. 9), use of Gas- 
whicli will automatically keep the temperature uniform. This regulator, 
instrument, which is filled with mercury, is partly immersed in the water 
in the bath. The gas supply has to pass through this apparatus before it 
gets to the Bunsen burner which heats the water. By means of a small 
screw the level of the mercury in the regulator can be so arranged that a 
rise of one or two degrees in the heat of the water above the temperature 
desired will expand the mercury so as partially to close the aperture 
through which the gas passes, and so reduce the size of the Bunsen flame, 
and bring the temperature of the water back again. As soon as fermen- 
tation starts, and the gas given off has a pressure equal to that of the 
atmosphere, it passes over into the collecting cylinders, and the water 
recedes as the gas enters. The amount of gas produced is therefore 
measured by the marks on the side of the cylinder. As pure water readily 
absorbs carbon dioxide gas, which is evolved by yeast, this Absorption of 
in some measure falsifies the record, but as the rate of Gas b y Water - 
absorption is practically constant, it does not affect the comparison as 

Fig. 9.— Gas- 



Solution is 
used for Test 

between one time and another. But the slight error due to this cause can 
be removed by using in the bath containing the collecting cylinder a salt 
brine instead of pure water, as the former does not to any extent absorb 
carbon dioxide. 

It has been already pointed out that sugar, while essential to the growth 
of yeast, is not a complete yeast food, and it may seem improper to use 
Why Sugar sugar only as an indicator of the fermentative strength of 
yeast. Its suitability consists in its comparative simplicity 
and stability, and in the fact that the yeast which is most 
active in breaking up sugar is also, other things being equal, the one 
possessing the greatest vigour as a fex-ment; but fermentation of sugar and 
yeast development in other ways ai-e not interdependent functions. When 
tests are to be made with sugar only, it is important that all those compared 
Precautions should be done with one kind of sugar. The density of the 
in Tests. solution should be ascertained, and care should be exercised 
in weighing the sugar and yeast and measuring the watei*. As the bottles 
in which fermentation takes place are much larger thaix the yeast bottles 
intended for weighing mentioned above, a larger quantity of solution can 
be used and a larger sample of yeast tested at once, and in this way the 
eri-or of experiment is minimized. A convenient quantity to use in each 
Standard Quan- bottle is 300 c.c. of water, in which is dissolved 10 gm. 
titles for Tests. 0 f sugar. In this quantity 7 gm. of yeast is diffused, and 
then the apparatus is fixed up as described. Readings are, with these quan- 
tities of materials, best taken every half-hour, and, for accui’acy, it is better 
to readjust the apparatus so that the water starts each time from 0. 

The same apparatus can be used to show the effects of yeast on flour, 
or the effects which any kind of yeast food or deterrent might have. It is 
Tests for Yeast usual to do two tests at once either as duplicates or 

Foods or Stimulants for comparison, but as the bath will hold four bottles, 
and Yeast Deterrents. ^hat number 0 f tests can be done at once with the 

certainty that the conditions in each bottle are the same. If care is taken 
in weighing materials and in keeping the temperature of the water bath 
uniform, the results obtained by this apparatus are very reliable. It may 
be obtained complete, except the gas -regulator, for about 21s. 



Yeast is an organized body, that is, it has a definite structui’e, and if 
this structure is destroyed it ceases to perform the function of a ferment. 
Yeast excretes Rut in addition to its action as a ferment, }^east exci*etes 
Enzymes. certain soluble substances which possess the property of 

changing certain organic substances into new compounds. Not only does 




yeast contain such agents, but they are also contained in many vegetable 
and animal organs, their purpose being generally to prepare nourishment 
for the different organs or tissues in a form in which it can be assimilated. 
Thus in growing grain there is a substance of this kind capable of changing 
starch into a form of sugar suitable for the nourishment Genera i p rope rties 
of the plant. Yeast contains one which changes cane and Purpose of 
sugar into a form of glucose, and another which changes Enz y mes - 
proteids into peptones. In animals there are some in the saliva, in the 
juices of the stomach, in the liver, and elsewhere, effecting changes in the 
substance of the food to render it suitable for the body. In older works 
these agents were called zymases or soluble ferments ; the more modern 
name is enzymes. They have no organized structure. On the general 
properties of soluble ferments Schiitzenberger says 1 : “They are all derived 
directly from living organisms, in the midst of which they composition and 
originate. . . . The specific characters have not been com- Functions of 
municated to any artificial organic substance. We are, there- Enz y mes - 
fore, compelled to believe that this specific character is a consequence of the 
origin of soluble ferments. Their composition resembles that of albuminoid 
substances; in fact, they contain carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen. 
But the analogy will go no further. When we have eliminated by proper 
processes the albuminoid substances which always accompany ‘soluble 
ferments’ in their first solutions, we find that the product, though it 
preserves all its chemical activity, no longer shows the general reactions 
of albuminoid substances. . . . The activity of ‘soluble ferments’ depends 
on the temperature, like that of organic ferments. In general terms we 
may say that it increases with the temperature up to a certain limit, 
beyond which it undergoes a rapid depression till it ceases Eff f 
altogether. This limit varies with the natui’e of the ferment; Temperature 
it is always under 100° C. (212° F.), and is found to be higher on Enz y mes - 
than that of organic ferments. The action of chemical agents on ‘soluble 
ferments ’ is also not quite to be compared with that Action of Chemical 
exerted on organic ferments. Thus M. P. Bert has A & ents on Enzymes, 
observed that compressed oxygen destroys the latter ferment (yeast) after 
a longer or shorter interval, while ‘ soluble ferments ’ are not modified in 
their activity. M. Bouchardat has observed that certain substances which 
are antagonistic to alcoholic fermentation have no influence on the effects 
of diastase, such as prussic acid, the mercurial salts, alcohol, ether, chloro- 
form, and certain essences (cloves, turpentine, lemon, Effects of Essences 
mustard, &c.). Citric and tartaric acids, which only and Ethers on Enzymes 
slightly interfere with alcoholic fermentation, com- and on Yeast - 
pletely destroy the activity of diastase. Dumas found that a solution of 
borax coagulates beer yeast; the supernatant liquid has lost the property of 
altering cane sugar; it also neutralizes the action of the water of yeast on 
saccharose. If sweetened water and the water of yeast are placed in one 
tube, and sweetened water with the water of yeast and a solution of borax 

1 Schiitzenberger on Fermentation , pp. 273-277. 

VOL. 1. 




in the other, the first will soon, show signs of alteration, while the second 
will show none. Analogous effects are observed with synaptase, or ernul- 
sin, diastase, and myrosin. All these soluble ferments cease to act from 
, „ the moment they are placed in contact with a solution of 

Action of Borax. , 1 

borax. 11ns salt appears, then, to have a specific action 
in destroying the activity of all soluble ferments. We have seen, on the 
contrary, that yeast, placed in contact for three days with a saturated 
solution of borax, is able still to set up alcoholic fermentation. Borax 
may, therefore, like compressed oxygen, serve as a differentiating character 
of soluble and organic ferments. . . . Soluble ferments are able to act on 
Method of various classes of compounds, but the mode of action is 

Enzymic Action. generally the same. There is a more or less simple 
splitting up, accompanied by a hydration. The nature of this splitting 
up is always conformed to the peculiar constitution of the compound, and 
may be explained, in most cases, by chemical processes in which the direct 
or indirect intervention of a living organism cannot be brought in. Thus 
starch is resolved by hydration into maltose and dextrin, and this in its 
turn is converted into glucose as well under the influence of diastase as 
by being boiled with a dilute acid (sulphuric acid). The ‘alterative’ 
ferment hydrates a molecule of saccharose and converts it into two 
molecules of glucose; dilute acids behave in the same manner.” 

There is a large number of enzymes which have been carefully studied 

within recent years, but our concern is only with a few included in the class 

_ called diastases, which have the property of changing starch 

Diastases. . ’ , r 1 J .. ? ° 

into glucose, and to which class the enzyme called xnvcrtase ot 

yeast also properly belongs. The other class is called 'proteolytic , and 

possesses the property of changing albuminoids or proteids into peptones 

or similar products. 

Diastase is the enzyme peculiar to malt, and its characteristic action 
is to change gelatinized starch into maltose and dextrin, and if the maltose 
Diastase is removed as it is formed, the whole of the starch can ultimately 
of Malt. b e c h an g e( ] into sugar. The name diastase has been applied to 
all bodies capable of effecting this change in starch, whatever their source. 
The study of malt diastase virtually includes the study of all of them, 
although their action differs considerably in intensity. 

Malt diastase is secreted when the barley starts to grow. It is not 
itself capable of breaking or dissolving the skins of the starch cells, but 
Enzymes Active while the grain is growing there is supposed to be 

in Growing Grain, another enzyme, called cytase, which is capable of doing 
this; the diastase can then act on the contents in the manner described. 
Diastase increases in activity according to the temperature, the maximum 
effect being produced about 160°-165° F. Its effectiveness is destroyed 
by boiling. The diastase is not involved in the new compounds formed 
by its action on starch, but seems to perform its work, as some assert, 
by a so-called catalytic or vibratory action, or, according to the theory 
now proposed, by radiant energy. But it is sufficient to know that, as 



the diastase is not used up in doing this work, a small quantity with 
time is capable of transforming a large quantity of starch. Hydrolysis 
The chemical equation showing the change from starch to dex- of Starch - 
trin and maltose is as follows: — 

3 C c H 10 O 5 + H 2 0 = C 6 H 10 O 5 + C 12 H 22 O u 

Starch. Water. Dextrin. Maltose. 

By experiment it has been found that, if a very small quantity of diastase 
is used, the colour which starch always shows when mixed with iodine 
will disappear when about one -quarter of the liquid has been changed 
to sugar. The addition of more diastase causes the Action of Maltose 
change to proceed until half of the starch has been on Diastase, 
changed to sugar, but the change stops there unless something is done 
to remove the sugar already formed. This is most easily done by ferment- 
ing it by yeast, after which the diastase present is able to continue its 
action until the whole of the dextrin formed at the first operation is 
completely changed to maltose, or, as some authorities assert, to glucose 
(C 6 H 12 0 6 ). 

There is an enzyme with diastasic properties in wheat germ and in 
the cerealin of bran, and it is suggested that the same property is also 
possessed by the soluble albuminoids of rye, and to a Enzymes of 
much less degree by the soluble albuminoids of wheat Bran, Germ, 
flour. According to Jago, 1 the diastasic properties of the Rye ’ and Flour - 
soluble proteids of flour are very weak, but, in conjunction with yeast, 
are capable of considerable activity in changing gelatinized starch to 
sugar. Amongst the enzymes excreted by yeast itself there is one 
credited with slight diastasic properties, but the evidence on the point is 
not pronounced. In any case it may be accepted that yeast does not, 
as asserted in some books, change the starch of flour Action of Yeast 
into sugar and then ferment the sugar thus formed. Enzymes on Starch. 
Diastase acts only very slightly, if at all, on unburst starch, but its action 
is rapid on boiled starch, or on that rendered soluble. The change from 
starch to glucose can be effected without the aid of Action of Dilute 
diastase by boiling the starch for a long time with a Acids on Starch, 
dilute solution of sulphuric acid. This is the method by which glucose 
is prepared on a commercial scale. 

Invertase is the enzyme excreted by yeast, capable of changing cane 
sugar into invert sugar, which consists of a mixture ^ ^ f y t 

of glucose and levulose, both fermentable sugars, but 
the former much more readily than the latter. The equation expressing 
the change is as follows: — 

C 12 H 22 O u + H.,0 = C 6 H 12 0 6 + C 6 H 12 0 6 

Cane Sugar. Water. Glucose. Levulose. 

It will be noted that the chemical composition of the two products of the 
change is the same. They may be distinguished by the facts that glucose 

1 Science and Art of Bread-making, pp. 218, 219. 



crystallizes more readily than the other, which remains in the state of 
syrup, and that glucose ferments more easily. The greatest distinction, 
however, relates to their different effects when examined with polarized 
light. Glucose rotates the rays of light to the right, whilst levulose 
rotates them to the left. The mixture of the two is called invert sugar. 
Action of Levulose is the uncrystallizable sugar of acid fruits. The 

Dilute Acids on same products are formed from cane sugar by boiling with 
Boiling Sugar. ver y dilute acid. It is to produce some invert sugar that 
sugar -boilers, when making fondant and certain kinds of sweets, use a 
quantity of lemon juice or other acid, to prevent the mixture graining 
before it can be worked up. It is worthy of note that the change in 
cane sugar in the solution containing yeast is external to the yeast cell, 
and occurs before the sugar can be fermented into alcohol and carbon 
dioxide. Thus, if yeast is mixed with a sugar solution, and in a few 
minutes the solution is tested with Fehling’s solution, it is found that 
much of the cane sugar has been changed to glucose. As already noted, 
this action of the invertase of yeast is preliminary to the fermentation 
proper, for cane sugar is not fermentable until it is thus changed. The 
change occurs through cane sugar, under the influence of the enzyme, 
taking another molecule of water into its constitution. The same thing 
has to occur in the case of maltose sugar or lactose (sugar of milk) before 
they can be fermented. A process almost similar takes place in the case 
Action of Enzymes of albuminoid substances. These cannot be assimilated 
on Proteids. by yeast in the natural condition, but require digesting 

or altering into a soluble condition like peptone. Yeast contains an enzyme 
capable of effecting this change, which is supposed to be similar to trypsin 
(one of the enzymes contained in the digesting juices of the stomach). The 
difficulty attending the study of the different enzymes is that they are not 
readily separated from each other, but, as with those of yeast, the enzymes 
excreted are probably mixed together, so that one possesses the properties 
of several. The trend of scientific thought with regard to the enzymes of 
yeast is towards showing that the whole fermentation process, including 
Latest Theory the breaking up of sugar into alcohol, is the work of 
of Fermentation, special enzymes, the last operation being performed by 
an enzyme within the cell itself, but virtually independent of the life of 
the cell, since sugar can be broken up in this way by this special enzyme 
when separated from the yeast proper. In a practical sense, however, the 
matter is not important, since the production of yeast is easy and safe, and 
its use efficient for the purposes of the baker; and the production of a liquid 
or powder capable of producing the same results in dough would not make 
matters any easier for the baker. 





The fermentation of flour is rather a loose phrase, because much the 
greater part of flour is not affected in any way whatever by the action 
of yeast. Fermentation of dough is fermentation only of What is 
the very small quantity of sugar which it contains (1 to T5 Fermentation 
per cent), with changes of a digestive kind in one or two of Dough ‘ 
of its other constituents. The sugar of the flour, and any other soluble 
matter it contains, are taken into solution by the water used in making 
dough. The invertase of yeast changes the sugar in solution into invert 
sugar, and yeast breaks this up into alcohol, carbon dioxide, and a small 
proportion of succinic acid and glycerine. At the same time, some of 
the soluble proteids of the flour are changed to peptones, &c., and are 
absorbed by yeast, along with some of the mineral matter of the flour, 
to replenish the waste occasioned by yeast producing new cells. It will 
be seen, therefore, that the soluble constituents of flour supply all that 
is necessary for yeast nourishment and growth. 

There has been some controversy on the point as to whether yeast does 
actually increase in dough. Since an extremely small quantity, if given 
sufficient time, is capable of fermenting or of aerating Does Yeast in- 
a very large mass of dough, and as the fermentation crease in Dough? 
at the end of the process is much more active than at the beginning, 
there is no reasonable explanation but the progressive increase of yeast 
originally mixed in the dough. Against this hypothesis it has been 
pointed out 1 that a medium containing 14 per cent of solid matter is 
most favourable for yeast growth, whilst in one with a concentration of 
36 per cent there is no reproduction, and as dough contains a much larger 
quantit t y of solid matter than this, therefore there can be no production 
of new yeast. It is sufficient to point out that the solid matter contained 
in the concentx'ated medium x'eferi’ed to is evidently that which has eone 

V ~ 

into solution, whilst the solid matter which constitutes the Inso i ub i e and 
greater part of dough is not in solution, and does not affect Soluble 
the action of yeast at all, except in so far as it hinders the Solld Matter - 
movement of yeast cells from one part to anothei’. Dix*ect experiments have 
also shown that even in dough stiffer than is generally used for bread there 
is a very considerable increase in the quantity of yeast during fermenta- 
tion. A moment’s consideration will show that there is nothing extra- 
ordinary about yeast gi-owth in dough. The liquid part of the dough, 
containing all the yeast food, remains in dough as liquid; State of Liquid 
some of it goes to hydrate the gluten, some remains to and Condition of 
encase the starch cells with films of water, containing Yeast ln Dough- 
yeast cells. Gluten in dough is in the condition of strings or fibi’es; the 

1 Briant, National A ssociation Review, September, 1891, p. 259. 



Spaces in Dough. 

starch cells are definite and solid. It is important to note that capillary 
attraction will cause the water to cling to the solid starch and along the 
fibres of gluten. 

While at the beginning of fermentation the particles that constitute 
dough are comparatively close, yet dough is even then not dense, and 
in the interstices between the round starch cells there is 
plenty of room for the much smaller yeast cells. When 
these start producing gas and expanding the dough, then space may well 
be abundant. As the water of the dough contains all that is necessary for 
yeast growth, there is, therefore, nothing to hinder that growth taking 
place. But in dough each yeast cell is practically confined to one very 
Reason for limited area, and as, for the reason already stated, there is 
Kneading, probably not a flow of moisture from one part to another, 
each cell is confined for sustenance to the liquid in its vicinity, and can 
only reach that a little farther away by means of the buds which it 
creates. It is on this account that fermentation of dough seems practically 
to stop after a time, but starts vigorously again if the dough is well 
kneaded. In the one case the yeast, by creating gas, has pushed the source 
of gas production away from it; in the second case this has by kneading 
been brought back to contact. This is the case in a stiff dough, and to 
Difference be- a ^ ess ex ^ en f also i n a slack one. The conditions are 

tween Stiff Dough different in a thin sponge and in a thin ferment. When 
and Sponge. a S p 0 nge is aerated to a moderate extent it drops, and 

is then in the same state as a dough after kneading — the yeast is brought 
back to contact with its food. The greater quantity of liquor in a sponge 
is likely to create a slight movement of the liquid as the sponge expands. 
In a thin ferment the movement of the liquid gives rise to regular currents. 
The heat of fermentation near the bottom causes the liquid there to rise to 
Movements in a the surface, and so the yeast, being carried along, is kept 
Thin Ferment. a ]j time in contact with its nourishment, and, on this 

account, probably increases at a greater rate in a moderately thin ferment 
than in a sponge, and more in a sponge than in a stiff dough. This is the 
explanation of the effectiveness of making a ferment with a small quantity 
Yeast Growth in of Y east > enlarging that to the consistency of a sponge. 

Ferment, Sponge, and ultimately making the latter into a dough. By 

and Dough Compared. me thod and by that of sponge and dough only, a 

small quantity of yeast added at the first stage becomes a large quantity 
at the last, and hence, when the loaves are moulded, they prove quickly, 
and grow bulky in the oven. 

Bulk of bread depends largely, although not wholly, on the quantity of 
What produces gas produced, and the latter on the quantity of yeast and 
Bulk in Bread. fermentable sugar present. The growth of yeast in dough 
is less dependent on the sugar in the solution than on the albuminoid 
Proteids in Flour matter available for food. It has been already pointed 
assist Yeast. 0 ut ^hat yeast, by means of an enzyme, can itself prepare 
albuminoids for assimilation as food. This process also goes on while dough 



is fermenting. It is probably from the soluble albuminoids that yeast first 
obtains its supply of necessary albuminous food, but while dough is under- 
going fermentation there is a change of the nature of peptonizing also 
occurring in the insoluble proteids of flour (gluten). There changes in 
is not sufficient evidence yet available to show whether Gluten of Flour, 
the change in gluten is the result of the action of the enzymes of yeast, or 
whether it is due to the action of acids. Either cause might produce the 
effects noticed, or both in conjunction. 

The formation of acid in dough can be accounted for by the minute 

quantity normally produced by yeast itself, and by the action of lactic and 

acetic germs which may be in small number amongst the . , . „ 

•in -ii ip i-iii Acids in Dough, 

yeast, in the flour, or m the dough, from contact with old 

dough or utensils in which they may have been allowed to generate. That 

yeast has much to do with the change in gluten seems probable, when it is 

remembered that before it can proceed to the proper degree of softness it is 

necessary to ferment the dough for a long period with a small quantity 

of yeast, or if a short period only is allowed, then the proportion of yeast 

must be very much greater. 

The change in gluten is shown by certain physical changes in the 
dough. At first it is tough and comparatively inelastic. The elasticity 
increases as fermentation proceeds to the point called ripe, p hys i ca i 
which there is no definite method of measuring, but which is Changes 
apparent to the practical baker. Beyond this it loses its elas- in Dough ' 
ticity, and breaks quite short when pulled. Gluten gradually changes 
colour during fermentation, from yellow to grey. These three states cor- 
respond to the respective states in bread: (1) When it is tough, both crust 
and crumb are devoid of flavour; the latter becomes readily dry, and has a 
greenish-yellow colour; (2) when the crumb of the loaf is conditions of 
tenacious, but soft and easily masticated, has a pleasant Unripe, Ripe, and 
sweet flavour, and retains its moistness till the second ° ver - n P e Bread, 
day, with a creamy-white colour; (3) when the crust of the loaf acquires a 
pale colour and is hard, bhe crumb being of a bleached-white or greyish 
colour, dry and crumbly, quite flavourless, or else with a tendency to 
sourness. The texture and shape of bread improve in proportion as the 
gluten is properly ripened. 

Gluten undergoing this change gradually loses its property of in- 
solubility and becomes soluble. It is a nice point whether all the gluten 
is softened to an increasing extent while the fermentation „ , 

is proceeding, or whether succeeding small portions are soften Wholly 
affected so as to become entirely soluble while the remainder or in Part? 
of the gluten is insoluble as at first. The former view is most probable, 
and best explains observed phenomena. Experiments bear this out. 





Twelve-Hours Dough 

Very few flours will bear to be fermented in straight dough for twelve 
hours, counting from the time dough is made till it is thrown out on the 
Limits of Straight- table to be weighed into loaves. The reason is, of 
Dough System. course, that the gluten softens very much in that time, 
and in the case of soft flours will reach the stage of shortness bakers call 
rotten. To make allowance for the softening effects in any case, it is 
Stiffness of Long always necessary to make long-process doughs very stiff 
Straight Doughs. — so stiff that when cut over in the trough the cut 
surface will stand quite rigid without slipping, almost like a hard biscuit 
dough. When this comes to be worked up at the end of the period 
mentioned, it will be found soft and pliable enough, with a good deal of 
Flavour and elasticity still remaining, and will produce a bulky loaf 
Bulk of Bread, but with a flavour not unlike that of a loaf made on the 
sponge system. For a dough of this kind the following quantities should 
be used: 280 lb. flour (a strong flour, or a mixture containing 11 per cent 

Quantities for of dl T g luten )< 6 oz - y east > 4 2 saltj 6 oz. sugar, 13 gal. 
Twelve-Hours (130 lb.) water of a temperature to make dough about 
Dough. 7£j° -p. The quantity of salt here given is more than is 

generally required; but this quantity, or in some cases i lb. more, helps 
to prevent the gluten of the flour from becoming too much degraded. The 
quantity of water will produce tight dough, and this may seem un- 
Are Long Doughs economical, as the yield will be comparatively small. This 
Economical? is compensated for to some extent by the small quantity 

of yeast used. The loss is not so great in any case as may at first sight 
appear, for loaves from dough of this type will not lose so much weight 
in the oven, nor so much after leaving the oven, as will those made from 
much slacker dough on a short process. The bread will actually eat 
Moistness of moister after it is a day old than will that from soft 

Breads compared, dough, not so much because of the quantity of water it 
contains, as because of the state of the gluten. The temperature here 
given is comparatively high, yet it is necessary in fermenting dough, even 
for a long period, to ensure that its temperature is high enough to allow 
Long Doughs the yeast to continue working at a slow but steady rate. It 
often unripe. happens not infrequently that the temperature is kept too 
low, the purpose being to make it work very slowly, so that the dough 
may not be over-ripe; but the opposite extreme may be reached, and the 
dough be much under-ripe, because the yeast has been nearly stagnant all 
the time. This may readily occur if the temperature of the dough is kept 
under 70° F., unless the bakery is very hot while the dough is standing. 










The unripeness is the result of two causes. The original yeast used does 
not produce either enough gas or sufficient softening effect on causes of 
the gluten of the flour, and it does not create sufficient new Unripeness, 
yeast to make fermentation active at the stage at which activity is 
specially desired, viz. when the loaves are proving after moulding, and 
before placing in the oven, as well as for some time after. In the case of 
crusty loaves, such dough produces those that are small and unshapely, 
very close in centre, more open at top and bottom, but usually drawn 
into large holes at the top. The Plate Stages in Fermentation of 
Crusty Loaf shows loaves at increasing stages of ripeness, the last 
being just right. 

The temperature stated is that of the dough when finished making; 
and as this is the first description of dough-making, it is necessary to give 
an easy method of at least roughly ascertaining the tempera- Temperature 
ture the dough is likely to be from the temperature of the of Dough, 
water used, as water is the only factor the baker has readily under control 
in this operation. The simplest method, and one easily remembered, is to 
double the temperature you require the dough to be, and Rough Tempera- 
subtract from that the temperature of the flour; the ture Calculations, 
answer will be the temperature required for the water. Thus, in the 
dough given above the temperature wanted is 76° F. Suppose at the same 
time that the temperature of the flour is 66° F.; then the necessary 
temperature of the water would be found thus: 2 x 76 or 152 — 66 
= 86. Accordingly, to obtain dough at 76° in such circumstances, we 
should use water at 86° F. The method is not always accurate, but is 
roughly so. 

Depending on the same principles, there is another method of arriving 
at the temperature necessary for the water by the use of a fixed factor. 
This factor is first obtained by experiment in this manner. Another Method 
On several occasions careful note is taken of the respective of Calculation, 
temperatures of flour, water, and the air of the bakery. If on those occa- 
sions the resultant bread turned out quite satisfactory, these temperatures 
are added together, and this becomes the fixed or major Finding the 
factor, the correctness of which dominates the whole “Major Factor”, 
calculation. Thus, in the example just given the temperature of the flour 
was 66°, of the water 86°, of the air of the bakehouse, say 68°. Assuming 
that these conditions produced satisfactory bread, then they might be used 
for finding the fixed factor thus: 66 + 86 + 68 = 220. As long as the 
twelve-hours dough system was in use this figure would be kept always in 
mind. On any occasion on which it was required to find the necessary 
temperature of water for dough the two other lesser factors would be 
added together, and their sum subtracted from the fixed factor; the result 
would be the necessary temperature of the water. Thus, suppose the flour 
had fallen to 60° F., and the temperature of the bakery to 62°, then the 
sum of these, 60 + 62 = 122, is subtracted from the fixed factor 220, 
leaving 98° as the temperature of the water. 





In a long process it is necessary to take note in this way of the tem- 
perature of the air of the bakery, since it has such an influence on the 
influence temperature of the dough while it is lying in the trough, 

of Heat of generally during night, because with such a small quantity 

Atmosphere. Q £ y eas j. £p e chemical energy generated within the dough is 
not sufficient to make up for the loss of heat to the air. But when a 
short process with a large quantity of yeast is adopted, considerable heat 
Influence of Quantity is generated, and the dough is such a short time in 
of Yeast in maintain- the trough that the cooling effect of the air on the 
mg Temperature. dough is not very pronounced, even when the differ- 

ence in temperature between them is several degrees. In the latter cir- 
cumstances, therefore, the temperature of the air may be disregarded, and 
the fixed factor is then made up only of the temperatures of the flour 
and the water. Reverting again to the example given, the fixed factor 
in this case would be 66 + 86 = 152. To find, then, the necessary 
temperature of the water for dough on any day, it is only necessary 
to subtract the temperature of the flour on that day from the fixed 
factor, and the remainder will be temperature of the water. Thus, if the 
flour had fallen to 60°, as already suggested, then the water should be 
152 — 60 = 92° F. It must be understood that these figures are not 
Experiment the only given as those that should be adopted, but are merety 
Basis of System. examples to show how this system works. In eveiy 
case the fixed factors should be found in the manner shown, and may 
differ considerably for different bakeries. 

Six ounces is a very small quantity of yeast to be used in such a large 
mass of dough, and it can only do the work efficiently if it is very evenly 
One Cause m i xe d- To ensure this, it must first be carefully broken down 
of Holes in a small quantity of water, and then thoroughly mixed in the 
m Bread. whole water. Holes in bread may be caused by little pellets 
of yeast which have not been broken down. The addition of the small 
Acid Matter quantity of sugar here given is helpful in the production 

probably useful. G f gas. As the proportion of acid-producing bacteria is 
probably greater in this dough than in a short-process one, these assist in 
its ripening. 

When dough is hand-made, the essential thing is to prevent the for- 
mation of scrap. This is attained by drawing in the whole of the flour 
Good Dough- necessary, and shaking up well before actually making dough, 
making. A s dough is very tight, it requires, while making, to be cut in 
small pieces, from one end of the trough to the other, at least three times. 
Should there be any scrap left, it is better to moisten it with water and 
make it into a soft dough before mixing with the batch. To make a dough 
of this size and this kind a man will take about forty-five minutes, but 
Time required a mac ^ine could do the work equally well in ten or twelve 
to make Dough minutes. The time allowed for dough to lie is from the 
by Hand. time it is made to that when it is thrown out on the table 

to scale, and the assumption is that about one and three-quarters to two 



hours will be sufficient time for the bread to be finished baking, so that 
what is here called a twelve-hours process is fourteen hours if the time is 
counted from the time of dough-making till baking is finished. Definitjon 
As the manipulation and baking of loaves will occupy a short of Length 
time where a large staff" is employed, and a comparatively long of Process - 
time where one man has all to do, it is evidently necessary to let the dough 
lie a little longer in the trough in one case, and a shorter time in the other. 
The twelve hours here given may be taken as the mean time. With those 
reservations, it is assumed that the dough will be thrown out on the table 
for scaling in twelve hours; but it would probably not be ripe enough then 
if it had not been kneaded at least once, or, better, twice while it had been 
standing. When it has been lying altogether ten hours, it should be cut in 
pieces and turned from one end of the trough to the other, « cutting Back” 
and well kneaded. The kneading operation should be and Kneading, 
repeated in another hour’s time; but dough need not be cut back, only 
well kneaded, and four sides folded up. Machine-made dough ought not 
to require cutting back at all, but it requires kneading like the other. 

Long processes are most suitable for crumby bread. When dough is 
scaled, it should be “ handed up ”, preferably into boxes. The time occupied 
in weighing, especially where only a small staff is employed, is Time to 

sufficient to allow the loaves to stand at this stage, so that as Stand on 

soon as weighing is completed, moulding should be started at Board - 
once. After moulding, it is best to allow ten or fifteen minutes to elapse 
before “setting” in the oven, especially if the loaves are close packed and 
crumby. Such a long system is not very suitable for crusty loaves, as 
they incline to flatten out while proving. Bread baked on this system has 
a flavour characteristic of that made on the long systems of Scotland and 

Eight-Hours Dough 

For a dough to stand eight hours in trough the following ingredients 
may be used: 280 lb. medium strong flour, 11 oz. yeast, 4 lb. salt, 12 oz. 
sugar or glucose, 13i gal. water. The precautions suggested Eight-Hours 
in dealing with twelve-hours dough apply with equal force Dough, 
to one intended to stand eight hours. This also requires to be stiff and 
well made. The quantity of salt is still a little above the quantity used in 
a short-process dough, because of the softening of the gluten. 

Glucose, here suggested as an alternative to sugar, can be obtained in 
either the liquid or the solid form. On account of the stickiness of the 
former, and the consequent trouble in handling, solid Use of Glucose 
glucose, known commercially as “Buffalo Chips”, is more in Dough, 
suitable for bakers’ use. It can be weighed in quantity for each batch, 
and then dissolved. It does not readily dissolve in cold water; but if 
placed in a measured quantity of cold water, and then placed in the oven 
or over a stove, it readily dissolves to a clear yellowish liquid, which, when 
cooled, can be mixed with water for dough in the usual way. 



Glucose is a little cheaper than sugar, and is more effective in starting 
a vigorous fermentation and in giving the bread a nice bloom. When a 
Mo de of long process is followed, it is better to use sugar or glucose 

using Glucose. than malt extract or malt flour. Both the latter sub- 

stances are dearer than the former, and they rather intensify the soften- 
ing effects on gluten. Any flavour which they may impart to the bread is 
effectively masked by the blending of other flavours generated during fer- 
mentation. The dough requires to be cut back when it has lain seven hours, 
and it is thrown out and scaled in one hour more. It is then worked up 
in the way already described for the longer process. This dough is quite 
Fight-Hours suitable for upstanding crusty bread, for although it proves 

Dough for quickly on the board, it is still tough and stable, and pro- 

Crusty Bread. q uces plump bulky bread if the flour has itself been stable 
— say, containing about 11 per cent of dry gluten. The main difficulty 
about making bread by a process of this length is, in the case of over- 
night doughs, that the man who makes it has to be at the bakery at 
Difficulty with a h° ur > say 9 P m o an d again at 4 a.m., thus seriously 
Long Straight interfering with his leisure and rest. In the case of doughs 
Doughs. standing in the daytime, it could only be suitable for the 

last batch, and this would occupy too much trough space during the day. 
Otherwise, excellent bread, which keeps moist, can be made on this system. 

Six-Hours Dough 

For a dough to stand six hours in the trough use the following quan- 
tities: 280 lb. flour of medium strength, 1 lb. yeast, 3f lb. salt, 8 oz. malt 
Quantities for flour or malt extract, 13f gal. water. This dough will 

Six-Hours Dough. not be quite so stiff as the last, and as the softening 
effect will not be so excessive, the quantity of salt is reduced by 4 oz. 
There is no yeast food actually needed beyond that naturally in the flour, 
but, especially in short-process doughs, it is usual to add saccharine matter 
of some kind to quicken fermentation and to increase bloom on loaves or to 
improve flavour. For this latter purpose malt, or some mixture of which it 
forms a large proportion, is generally used; and as malt extracts are rather 
nasty to handle, besides being liable to adulteration with 
ordinary glucose, malt flour is the better substance to 
use. Although this is darker than flour, it does not appreciably darken 
bread. It may be used by simply mixing with the liquor for dough, but 
in this way the minimum effect of its use is obtained in the matter both 
of diastasis and of flavour. To enhance the effects without using more of 
. the malt flour, it should fh*st be mixed with some scalded 
Malt Flour with flour or scalded corn flour. For a one-sack batch 1 lb. ot 

best Effect. scalded flour may be used. It is first mixed into a thick 

smooth paste with about 3 pints of lukewarm water, then about 5 pints of 
boiling water are added, and the whole stirred vigorously. The boiling water 
should be added 1 pint at a time, stirring well after each addition to prevent 

Malt for Flavour. 



lumps forming. When finished, this mixture will be a thin paste, rather 
brown in colour, and at a temperature of about 180° F. When it has 
cooled to 170° F., the malt flour or malt extract is thoroughly mixed with it, 
and the whole allowed to stand for about an hour till its temperature falls 
to 100° F. This quantity will be found quite sufficient for a sack batch to 
stand six hours in dough, and will hasten fermentation and increase the 
yield of bread, besides giving a pronounced malty flavour. The method 
may be followed whenever malt flour or malt extract is used. It pro- 
duces maximum effects with the smallest quantity of material. 

A six-hours dough may be regarded as the longest of the short-process 
methods. It is suitable for use in those situations where dough is made, 
say, at ten o’clock at night, and work starts at four in the six- Hours 
morning; or it is convenient where a dough may be wanted Dough, 
for second or third batch, and is made first thing in the morning. By this 
method very sweet and bulky bread is obtained with the natural flavour 
of fermented flour, unaltered by the other flavours produced by bacteria. 
This dough requires to be cut back and kneaded about an hour before 
scaling, and should also have proof knocked out of it immediately before 
being taken from the trough. The loaves require no special treatment on 
the board. If the system is intended for crumby bread, it is desii’able to 
use 4 lb. salt, and to take dough half an hour sooner, as the loaves con- 
tinue working longer after setting in the oven than crusty sorts; if 
allowed the longer time, and given full proof before setting, they are 
likely to be dry and crumbly. 



Five- Hours Dough 

For dough to stand five hours in trough the following may be used: 
280 lb. flour, 3£ lb. salt, 1^ lb. yeast, 12 oz. malt flour or malt extract, 
14 gal. water. The temperature of the water should be such Five-Hours 
as would make dough 80° when finished. This dough would Dough, 
be about normal stiffness for crusty bread, containing half its weight of 
water to flour used. Dough softens considerably while lying, but recovers 
its toughness and stability on kneading. It is better to be cut back and 
well kneaded about three hours after making, and again kneaded well just 
before scaling. The quantity of salt used is also normal, and should not 
be reduced, whatever process is followed, for its influence as a flavouring 
agent, apart from its steadying effect on fermentation, is at its best when 
3£ lb. per sack is used. Malt flour and malt extract are best used in the 
manner described for six-hours dough. 



Four-Hours Dough 

Although six hours has been mentioned as the longest of the short pro- 
cesses, a dough standing four hours is the longest that is usually called 

A dough to stand four hours in the trough should consist of the follow- 
ing: 280 lb. flour, li lb. yeast, 12 oz. malt flour or malt extract, 31 lb. salt, 
Four-Hours 14 gal. water. The temperature of the water should be such as 
Dough. would make dough of 80° F. when finished. With the quantity 

of yeast used, the temperature of the dough will rise during the first two 
hours of fermentation to about 86°, and will recede again to 80° when the 
dough is about ready. This process is that generally adopted in large 
bakeries where doughs are made in the evening just before general work 
starts, the dough-making being done by a special man who begins a few 
houi’s before the others, and makes doughs to be taken in succession at 
regular intervals. The dough should be cut back and well kneaded about 
one hour before scaling. As the dough is under observation and control 
all the time fermentation is proceeding, the system lends itself to great 
regulai’ity, if eveiy process is conducted with care and the thermometer is 
in constant use. Bi'ead thus produced is sweet and moist and of fair bulk. 
It works quickly on the board, and requires no waiting between scaling 
and moulding, although, to obtain bulk it is better to allow a few minutes 
between moulding and setting in the oven, unless the staff is very small, 
when it inquires to be dealt with at once. 

Three-Hours Dough 

For a dough to stand three hours the ingredients should be as follows: 
280 lb. floui', If lb. yeast, 1 lb. malt flour or malt extract, &c., 14 gal. water, 
Three-Hours lb. salt. The temperature of the dough in this case when 
Dough. finished should be about 82° F. It will l’ise during the fii’st 

hour and a half to about 88° F., and will fall again to 82°. It is kneaded 
oxxe hour before scaling. The loaves prove quickly on the board, and only 
requix'e a few minutes after moulding before setting. Modei’ately bulky 
and sweet bread may be made by this method, and it has usually a 
very nice bloom. The comparatively lai’ge quaxxtity of yeast makes it 
xxecessary to handle the dough sxnartly; otherwise there is danger of the 
bread becoming crumbly and dxy. 

Two-Hours Dough 

Two hours is about the minimum tixne in which dough may lie in the 
trough to produce satisfactory bread on a commercial scale. There is no 
Hazard with very difficulty in making excellent bread on even a shorter 
short Doughs. system, but the large quantity of yeast necessary works 
so quickly, that, unless a large staff is employed to handle the loaves, 



there is much irregularity amongst them. For a dough to stand two hours 
in trough the following quantities are used: 280 lb. flour, 2£ lb. yeast, 
3£ lb. salt, 1 lb. malt flour or malt extract, 14 gal. water. The tempera- 
ture of the water should be such as to make the dough 82° F. when 
finished. This will rise to a little over 88° in the centre of the dough 
during the first hour, and recede again to about 82°. The dough should 
be cut back and well kneaded after it has lain one hour, and Exhausted 
proof knocked out of it before scaling. The latter operation Dou & h - 
should be done only if the dough is slightly under-ripe, as, with one con- 
taining so much yeast, there is a danger of its being exhausted, and 
although seemingly lively enough, it fails to attain any bulk either on the 
board or in the oven if it is knocked back when in this condition. 

One-Hour Dough 

Shortest System. 

As already noted, this time is really too short for a commercial dough, 
but occasions do arise when it is necessary to make a batch of bread in 
a hurry. Then the following quantities may be used for a 
dough to stand in the trough one hour: 280 lb. flour, 4 lb. 
yeast, 3£ lb. salt, 1^ lb. malt flour or malt extract, 14 gal. water. If the 
bread is to be crusty, it is not safe to make dough any slacker than this 
quantity of water will make it; otherwise it gets rather out of hand before 
it can all be worked up. In this case, even more than in the last, there is a 
danger of the dough becoming exhausted, and producing small and unsatis- 
factory loaves in consequence. The yeast keeps working even after the 
bread is placed in the oven, and to make allowance for this, it is better 
to take the dough rather “ green ” than over-ripe. The temperature of 
the dough when finished should not be above 80° F. The bread when 
baked is sweet and bright-looking, but in many cases, for the reason 
stated, viz., the exhaustion of the dough, complaints are made that it 
becomes quickly dry. Bakers who have not before used so much yeast 
in dough are sometimes afraid that the bread will be yeasty in taste, but 
this is not the case. Loaves from this dough are best baked in a com- 
paratively warm oven, say about 450° F. One peculiarity is that when cut 
this bread eats short like cake, especially when one day old. 



It has become so much the fashion for bakers in all parts of the 
kingdom to enter for exhibition competitions in London and elsewhere, 
that it seems necessary here to include a description of the methods whereby 
the best results for competition bread may be obtained. As loaves for this 



purpose have generally to be made along with a batch of ordinary bread, 
it is more convenient to make small rather than large quantities of dough. 
Small Doughs The former can be weighed and moulded in a few minutes, 

most suitable. so that a p the loaves prove in about the same length of 

time, and they do not seriously interfere with the working of the ordinary 
bread; but if large lots are made the work of the bakery is disorganized, 
and the large quantity of yeast in the dough causes the loaves to prove so 
quickly, that the first may be overproved while the last is not proved enough. 
For a very small batch, then, the following quantities may be used: 10 lb. 
flour (high-class English patent), 2 oz. yeast, 2 oz. salt, 1£ oz. malt flour, 
44-5 lb. water. The temperature of the water should be such as to make the 
dough when finished 82° F. Dough is made straight off, and with as much 
expedition as possible, to prevent its cooling overmuch. The dough should 
be very well made, without scrap. A matter of great importance is to keep 
it in a situation the temperature of which is about the same as the tem- 
Mode of Hand- perature of the dough itself. If it can be obtained, the best 

ling Dough. thing in which to keep the dough is an enamelled basin. 

A dry cloth should cover the dough, with a damp one on the top of it. The 
dough should lie just one hour, and then be thoroughly kneaded, if neces- 
sary being cut in small pieces, and each kneaded separately for the first 
time. It is then allowed to lie for a half-hour, and again kneaded, all in 
one piece this time, folding the four sides in, and knocking the proof quite 
out of it during the operation. The kneading process is repeated at inter- 
vals of half an hour until the dough has lain for three hours from the time 
the yeast was mixed. It should then be in condition for scaling. 

The kneading operation is probably the most impox-tant of all as a 
means of obtaining a fine texture. The progi’ess of texture-making can 
Cause of Fine be easily seen in the dough, if it is cut after kneading with 
Texture. a s h ar p knife. If the bi-ead will be holey, those holes will 

already be apparent in the dough; if the texture is fine in the dough, it 
will be fine in the bi’ead; if the texture is not thoroughly made at the 
dough stage, it is not possible to make it in moulding, especially in round 
shapes. If fine texture is made by kneading, moulding can be very gentle. 
When the loaves are weighed, they should be “ handed ” or “ balled ” up, 
and allowed to lie in this condition for about ten minutes, until the spring 
has left the dough; othex-wise the skin will crack badly at moulding. 
When a large batch is being handled, it is not necessary to wait at all 
between handing up and moulding, as the operation itself occxxpies suffi- 
cient time to allow the first of the loaves to be ready for moulding by the 
time the last are handed up. The mistake is frequently made of allowing 
when Moulding too much time at this stage, with the result that a quite 
should be done, lively dough may make very disappointing bi'ead. Dough 
with this large quantity of yeast is fermented nearly enough while ixx 
trough, the time the loaves take to prove being just sufficient to complete 
the ripening process. But if loaves stand a long time between scaling and 
moulding, they are ripe enough before being moulded at all, the dough is 



almost exhausted, and after moulding it refuses to prove properly, and 
the loaves come from the oven small and close. 

When loaves are moulded they should be topped at once if for crusty 
cottages, but not bashed until they have recovered from moulding. This 
may not take more than about four or five minutes. “Topping” and 
The loaves should then be firmly and steadily pressed with “ Bashing”, 
the heel of the hand, and then indented in the centre with three fingers 
and the thumb, held in the form of a plug. Care should be taken that 
the loaf is standing quite straight and upright when bashed, and that the top 
and bottom are in proper position. Proof should then be allowed to proceed 
at a temperature as nearly as possible the same as that of the t< Proving „ 
loaves themselves, and should take from forty-five to sixty 
minutes. If proving can be done in close boxes or drawers, where there is 
no draught, and consequently no danger of skinning, it is not necessary or 
advisable to put any covering whatever on them; but as this is not always 
possible, it is best, when proving has to be done in the open, to cover with 
a piece of fine dry cloth, and on top of that a wet piece. When loaves are 
of the Coburg type (Plate English Crusty Bread, fig. 4), they may be 
very conveniently proved upside down on dry cotton cloths, on which no 
dust whatever is required. The skin next the cloth keeps fine Proving on 
and moist in this case, and as the loaf is turned over before Dr y cloths - 
being cut, this fine skin is uppermost in the oven. Coburgs do not require 
to be proved quite so much as cottages. They should be cut and placed in 
the oven before full proof; then they spread out better. Points of Bright- 
and the fresh dough, springing in the centre, gives them ness in Coburgs, 
the bright look, produced by the different shades of colour of crust, which 
is so desirable. 

If the exhibition bread is for “tins” (Plate English Crusty Bread, 
fig. 6), then the same quantities of materials, except in the case of water, 
may be used. The water should be at least half the weight Exhibition 
of flour. This, with sufficient proof after moulding, will give “ Tin ” Bread - 
an even texture of crumb, but to obtain a desirable brightness, it is better 
to use 5^ lb. of water to 10 lb. of flour. In all respects the same care should 
be exercised in making and kneading dough as in the case of crusty loaves. 
Although the same proportion of yeast may be used as in the former case, 
it is better to start scaling at the end of two and a half shorter Dough 
hours from the time of dough-making, instead of three Process, 
hours. The purpose of this is to allow for a better proof in tins than 
in the case of cottages, which is possible without damage to shape, as the 
tin confines. In ordinary circumstances, tin loaves made on this method 
will require about one hour to prove, the condition being that the tem- 
perature of the situation is as nearly as possible the same as that of 
the interior of the loaf. If it is warmer, there is danger close Band 
of the loaf being too open all over, and probably around Tin Loaf, 
crumbly; if it is colder, the loaf is likely to have a band of close texture 
of greater or less thickness all round the sides, and to be much more open 

VOL. i. 14 



in the centre. Tins should be well greased on the sides, not only to pre- 
vent the loaves sticking — which requires very little grease — but to assist 
in giving them a nice bloom on the sides. For the same purpose black 
steel pans are much more effective than tinned ones, the reflective properties 
Black Tins of the latter preventing the heat from baking the crust 

better than Clear. g0 re adily. On this account loaves baked in clear tins 
have often a soft pale crust, whilst those in dark tins have a nice bloom and 
are crisp. This result can be obtained to some extent also with clear tins, 
after they have been in use for some time and have become dull, or even 
when quite new if the outside of the tin is well painted over with lampblack 
before use. To prevent tin loaves cracking on top after being drawn from 
the oven, the expedient may be adopted of slightly greasing the tops of the 
loaves with a little melted lard, or, better still, with fine oil. 

The dough used for tin bread will serve very well for crumby loaves 
for exhibition purposes. In this case, however, 5 lb. of water would be the 
Crumby proper quantity to use with 10 lb. of flour, and, to obtain 

Batch Loaves. a n j ce pil e 0 n the loaves, it is better to use 2£ oz. of salt 
instead of 2 oz. These loaves may, like the cottages, stand three hours in 
dough before scaling, receiving, of course, the same amount of kneading. 
They need not lie between handing up and moulding any longer than 
is necessary to allow the dough to lose its toughness. It is a mistake to set 
even crumby loaves without allowing them some proof, although it may not 
be for more than, say, twenty minutes, for this class of bread continues to 
prove in the oven for a longer time than crusty loaves. 

In most cases there is difficulty in getting crumby loaves for exhibition 
purposes, because few bakers now make large batches of that sort. If they 
How to handle are baked on a ^ n > outside loaves incline to be higher 
a Small Lot of on the inside than on that next the “upset”, and the latter 
Crumby Bread. a j go ^raws ^fie biside loaves attached to it over towards 
the side, thus spoiling the square and upright appearance which such 
loaves should have. If a baking sheet must be used, it is really better 
to place only three loaves across rather than four, and to allow each 
sufficient space longways, that it may be quite square, for if the 
loaves are set too close, they are necessarily also high, and the drawn- 
over appearance is intensified. But a much better plan than baking in 
Baking this way is to make a square about the centre of the oven 

with Upsets, with wood upsets, 5 in. high, and about 1^ in. thick. This 
square may be about 2£ ft. long, and the same wide, internal measure- 
ment. The upsets can be supported on the outside by bricks, and may 
be greased and floured, or else well chalked on their inside surfaces. 
This space will hold six rows of six loaves, and if they are set neatly, 
the inside ones should be good specimens, and will be all the better for 
Moulding being baked directly on the oven bottom. When moulding 
Batch Bread. this bind 0 f bread, the top and the bottom of the loaf should 
be of exactly the same size, but some bakers make the top part slightty 
the larger of the two. They should be proved in boxes, and each loaf 





greased with melted lard round the sides, docked on top, and washed over 
with a little milk. They are all the better for washing over with milk 
a second time just before setting in the oven, then with water or a little 
oil when drawn. 

The critical operation in making exhibition bread is that of baking, 
particularly in the case of “ crusty cottages When only a small batch 
is made, as here suggested, it is best to have the loaves ready 
so that they may be baked with an ordinary batch, and in Bakin & Bread ' 
a position in the oven where the heat is equable. They are then protected 
by the other loaves from excessive heat in any one direction, and the at- 
mosphere of the oven is also quickly filled with steam, thus producing an 
ideal condition for the perfect baking of the loaves. But the mistake is 
not infrequently made of turning an excess of steam from a boiler into an 
oven full of cottage bread, with the result that the tops are E ff ects Q f Ex _ 
unduly softened and flatten out; then, when a crust is formed, cessive Steam 
there is a sharp ring all round the top part of the loaf, which on Bread ' 
is objectionable. It is not always possible to get these small trial batches 
ready with the ordinary batch. Recourse has then to be had to expedients 
that produce conditions somewhat similar to those which obtain under ordi- 
nary work. When a very small quantity of crusty cottage bread is placed 
in the oven by itself, the tendency is for the crust to form very quickly on 
the top, and generally on the sides nearest the greatest small Batches 
sources of heat; this, too, before the loaves nearly stop baked alone - 
growing. The crusted part remains rigid, while the soft parts continue 
stretching, with the result that the loaves are frequently twisted very 
much to one side, and internally contain holes, especially under a crust 
that has been formed very quickly. Under such circumstances, therefore, 
it is usual to protect small batches in one way or another. The simplest 
expedient is to make a square in the oven, of size sufficient Expedients to 
to hold the number of loaves in the batch, with loaf pans, P revent Twisting, 
filled with wet sawdust — this is better than water only; then set the loaves 
neatly in this square, and, if the oven is hot on top, place a sheet of thick 
brown paper on the top of the loaves. This can easily be done with the 
peel after the loaves are set. As the loaves soon dry on the outside, there 
is no danger of the brown paper sticking; and it has no repressive weight, 
but is a comparatively efficient non-conductor. It is carried along with the 
loaves as they spring, and should be removed as soon as they have grown 
to the full height and are set. This can easily be done with the peel, or 
a more convenient way is to have a piece of string attached to the paper, 
with which it can be drawn off and out of the oven when necessary. These 
expedients protect the loaves effectively, and allow them to spring at a 
gentle and steady rate, keeping them straight, if they were in that condition 
before being placed in the oven. 

Instead of using paper to cover the tops in this way, it is Door 

effective, still using the tins with sawdust, to bake the loaves 
for the first fifteen minutes or so with the oven door open, and keeping 



them as near the front as possible. Another plan, instead of protecting 
all the loaves in a small batch, is to protect each one singly. This is easily 
done by making a collar about 6 in. deep, and, say, 7 in. in diameter, 
of brown paper, and covering the top with another piece. Each loaf is 
Protecting covered with one of these paper boxes, which must be re- 
Loaves singly. m0V ed shortly before the loaves are quite finished baking, 
so as to allow them to take some colour. An expedient of this sort is, of 
course, only possible when a few loaves are being baked in an empty oven 
by themselves. When they are baked along with a large batch, the same 
protection is afforded by merely placing a sheet of thick brown paper on 
the top of those which are intended for exhibition purposes. 

There has recently been placed on the market a deep steel box with 
cover for the purpose of baking crusty cottage loaves, so as to ensure that 
Exhibition the tops will not be twisted over. This box ensures the same 
Boxes. kind of protection from heat as the brown paper, but, on account 
of the better conductivity of iron, the loaves become quite baked within the 
box, the crusts acquiring their proper colour, and as the steam is not 
allowed to escape, they also become glazed; but while this is an advantage 
in the matter of appearance, it causes the crusts to become soft and tough 
when the loaves are a few hours old. To remedy this fault it is necessary, 
when the baking is done in such a box, to finish for the last ten minutes 
with the lid off. 

As a simple expedient for keeping the tops of cottages straight when 
baking is done in the ordinary way, “ notching ” is usually resorted to. 
Effects of The efficacy of this is due to the inside of the notches remaining 
Notching. so f^ ) anc i allowing expansion of the top laterally, instead of the 
gas being imprisoned with the hard crust and forcing the top to expand 
only vertically. When “ tin ” loaves are intended for exhibition purposes, 
they should be slacker in dough than cottages, and proved only to about 
three-quarters of the size they are wanted to be. Then they should be 
baked as wide apart as possible, or, at least, wide enough to allow the heat 
to get well at the sides of each. The oven should not, however, be above 
440° F.; if more, the tops of the tins should be protected with brown paper 
in the manner already suggested for cottages. In an oven at this tempera- 
ture fermentation continues for some time in the oven; hence the advis- 
ability of getting them in before being proved to their utmost, to prevent 



Hitherto only straight doughs of long and short processes have been 
dealt with, and, as those processes are most convenient for crusty loaves, it 
will be well at this point to indicate a few points of importance regarding 
names, shapes, and method of handling. 


1. Crusty Cottage. 

2. Crusty Brick. 

3. Twist or Collas. 

4. Coburg. 

5. Small-top Cottage. 

6. Tin. 


.3-. r.:JO'> V.’sJttO .1 

iii'Wii- • 





Small Tops. 

In all English-speaking countries where crusty loaves are made there 
is a certain agreement as to what is a cottage loaf, the English cottage 
(Plate English Crusty Bread, fig. 1) being generally accepted cottage 
as the standard in this matter, but the method of manipulation Loaves - 
varies in each district. In London the practice is to make the top of 
the cottage about one half the size of the bottom part, and in most cases 
“closings” of both parts are placed downwards, although some prefer to 
place both closings together in the centre of the loaf. This is always done 
in a characteristic London loaf called a small top (Plate Eng- 
lish Crusty Bread, fig. 5), which is moulded lightly, in cones 
or flour, and the closings of the bottom part of the loaf are intended to 
open out and show cracks on the upper surface of the bottom part when 
baking in the oven, the top being exceedingly small, say about one-fourth 
the size of the bottom. When loaves are newly moulded, in the case of 
ordinary cottage, the tops should be at once placed in position on the 
bottoms. This is not always done; some bakers think they Proving Parts 
get better results by proving the parts separately, then separately, 
topping and bashing just before they are set in the oven. The trouble 
arising from this method is that the parts may become skinned, or even 
unduly cooled; then at the point where they subsequently come together 
there is very likely to be a dark-coloured streak of much closer texture 
than the remainder of the crumb. The same fault may be found if the 
parts have been proved in too thick a layer of cones, which adheres, and in 
this case the streak will have a leathery toughness that is very unpleasant. 
If a broad, dark band appeal’s in the centre of a cottage loaf, this is not 
infrequently caused by the loaf being insufficiently baked Cause of 
when drawn from the oven and sagging into closer texture Streaks in 
afterwards. Some bakers do not allow any appreciable Cottage Loaves, 
proof on the loaves after moulding, but start at once to set in the oven, 
the general practice being for one man to continue moulding while another 
man, as soon as a sufficient start is made with the moulding, sets in the 
oven. By this method each loaf after moulding does not stand more than 
about three minutes until it is in the oven. When this is done, the loaf, 
before being placed on peel, is bashed right down, sometimes with the 
whole fist. The result of such treatment is that the loaf is quite close, 
almost pudding-like in the centre, but open in texture for about Bashing 
| in. from the bottom, and again for about to 2 in. from the that s P 0lls - 
top. The latter part has a drawn-like appearance, with several irregular 
holes near the sides. This excessive bashing is found to be necessary, when 
loaves are set so quickly after moulding, to prevent the tops being thrown 
quite oft' but its effect otherwise is very unsatisfactory. 

The most effective way of dealing with cottage loaves is to top them 
immediately the two parts are moulded. They should be allowed to stand 
for two minutes or so, till the toughness caused by mould- Method of 
ing has left the dough, and then bashed, first pressed Moulding, &c. 
firmly but not roughly with the heel of the hand, then indented in the 



centre with three lingers and the thumb held in the form of a plug. The 
loaves should then be placed in dusted boxes to prove, and should, if 
possible, be allowed about twenty minutes after moulding before being 
set in the oven. Loaves treated in this way do not require any bashing 
just before setting; it will generally be found quite sufficient to just 
perforate the centre with the two forefingers or the thumb before placing 
on the peel or the draw-plate. If only two men are moulding a batch of 
one sack size, it is not necessary to wait any time after moulding is finished 
before starting to set, because by the time the last loaf is moulded the 
first one has acquired considerable proof; indeed, it may easily happen that 
the first moulded may have enough proof before the whole of the moulding 
is done, in which case it would be proper to start setting before the mould- 
ing is finished. 

To prevent loaves twisting over in the oven, the greatest care has to be 
exercised in setting them so that all the loaves are about the same distance 
To prevent a P ai ‘f- When the crown of the oven is very hot, it may be 
Twisting expedient to leave the oven door open for ten minutes till the 
loaves are sprung nearly enough, and this will help to keep 
them straight. This advice may seem strange to bakers generally, as the 
invariable practice is to shut the oven door at once, almost in haste, as soon 
as the bread is in; yet in the case of an oven too hot on top, it is efficacious 
for the purpose named, although it necessarily results in the loss of more 
heat than if the oven door were shut at once. When customers are not 
averse to having cottage loaves a little crumby on the sides, they may be 
allowed to touch one way when set, generally at the sides rather than at 
front and back. This expedient produces the double advantage of retaining 
moisture better, and therefore increasing the yield of bread, and also of 
Effects of Low keeping the loaves straight. It is easier to keep cottages 
and High quite straight in a low than in a high crown oven, and 

Crown in Oven. a i mos k impossible to keep them shapely in an oven with 
crown so high as in the Scotch type. The explanation seems to be that, 
as radiant heat proceeds in straight lines only from its source, the loaves 
in the low-crown oven receive rays only on the top of the top crust, and 
the exposed top of the bottom crust, the sides of the top crust remaining 
soft and yielding for some little time, allowing gradual and even ex- 
pansion upward, as the interior of the loaf expands by heat from the 
bottom and the top. But in an oven with a high crown, which is arched, 
the heat rays, coming still in straight lines, but at different angles, bake 
or crust the sides of the top part of cottages as quickly as they crust the 
extreme top, with the result that no part yields, and the top of the loaf 
is lifted all in one piece and perhaps nearly separated from the bottom. 
The type of cottage loaf called small top (Plate English Crusty Bread, 
fig. 5) is not intended to be so light as the other, and is generally set in a 
rather colder oven without any appreciable proof. 

The loaf called a brick in London (Plate English Crusty Bread, fig. 2) 
is something like an elongated cottage. Like the latter it is made in two 



parts, the top one very much smaller than the bottom. Instead of being 
moulded round, those parts are rolled up as firmly as possible, finished with 
the closings upwards. Both closings are then turned downwards, London 
and the parts well pressed together, especially in the centre, Brick Loaf - 
with the hand. The details of handling and proving are in all respects 
similar to those suggested for cottages. When placing on peel for setting, 
two fingers are pressed in the top of the loaf. These loaves are set in the 
oven, end to end, touching at the ends if desired, and this arrangement 
serves, as in the case of cottages, to keep them straight. Those that are 
batched at the sides are distinguished as sister bricks. But this type of 
loaf is not the only one called brick. In some cases — in parts of Ireland, 
for instance — loaves are made nearly of this shape, but packed close in the 
oven; this sort is variously called a brick, or a crumbie brick, according 
to the locality where it is made. 

The loaf known generally as Coburg (Plate English Crusty Bread, 
fig. 4) in London, is called a cake loaf in Somerset, and a skull in the south 
of Ireland. There is no rule in such matters, so that names Coburg Loaf 
have only local, and sometimes very restricted meaning. 

This sort of loaf, when nicely made, is very showy, and yet requires very 
little labour. It is simply rolled up in the same way as when handing up, 
and then proved either closing downwards on a dusted board, or on a dry 
cloth with closing upwards. The latter method has the advantage where 
there are draughts in the bakery; it enables a nice soft moist Manner of 
skin to be retained on the top of the loaves, which gives a bright Provin g- 
appearance when baked. In spite of the ease with which Coburgs are 
made, they not infrequently have a dull, poor, pinched appearance, because 
of the neglect of a few simple details. They are very often not cut nearly 
deep enough, with the result that the cut hardly, shows. They should be 
cut deeply, with a very sharp knife (a shoemaker’s knife is an excellent 
tool for this purpose and should be kept exclusively for it). Their pinched 
appearance is generally due to their being set too close Not baked 
together in the oven; they keep each other from spreading close together, 
out, and so must spring upwards. This loaf should not be cut till it is 
about to be set in the oven, and should not be allowed full proof before 
cutting, or it will flatten out instead of spreading and springing, and 

showing a nice bright surface. 

The loaf called sometimes collar , collas, and sometimes plait (Plate 
English Crusty Bread, fig. 3), is also very showy when nicely made. 
After a piece large enough has been broken off from the whole collas or 
piece constituting the loaf, the remainder should be balled up Collar - 
firmly and allowed to stand, preferably upside down, while the plait is 
being made; the latter should always be made a little shorter than the 
loaf is intended to be. When the plait is finished, the other piece of dough 
is taken, closings upwards, and the proof well kneaded out of it, then gently 
but firmly rolled up, keeping the ends sharp and the middle slacker but 
still firm, the shape being obtained rather by pressing the dough with both 



hands from the two ends to the centre of the loaf than by making the 
centre loose. It should be finished with a straight closing, which should 
be exactly in the centre. The loaf is then flattened out by pressing on 
it, and is turned over, and the plait stretched along the centre of the top 
and fastened by pressing with the thumbs to the two ends. The mistake 
No Crease * s f re( l uent ty made of pressing a crease along the centre of the 
in Centre top of the loaf with the side of the hand, forming a sort of 

necessary. gutter in which the plait lies. This is not only unnecessary 
but harmful. By adopting the other method suggested, the loaf has a 
much bolder and nicer appearance, and the plait being shorter than the 
loaf, lies quite close to the latter, owing to its being stretched. During 
baking the loaf will crack, either at one or at both sides of the plait 
The ideal loaf should have a crack at both sides. The crack or cracks 
always appear, because the plait protects the dough in the centre, and 
prevents it from crusting, so that this part continues expanding after the 
remainder of the crust is hard; hence the crack. 

Tin loaves of the ordinary type (Plate English Crusty Bread, fig. 6), 
that is, each baked in a separate tin, are usually moulded two at a time. 
Tin or Pan one in each hand. They should first be handed up in the 
Loaves. ordinary way, then rolled up twice. Failure to mould them 
firmly often results in moulding holes in the centre or near the sides, while 
a band or close-textured part all round the tin, with an open texture in 
the centre, is due to the loaves being placed in cold tins, or proved in a 
situation where the temperature is less than that of the interior of the 
loaves. Wherever convenient, tin loaves are always more satisfactory when 
proved in a prover, although that should not be too hot. What are called 
Scotch Tins Scotch tins are baked in long iron boxes with sliding lids, 
and Under Tins. an d are Better for sandwich bread than those baked on 
flat sheets with bread pans placed over them ; the latter are usually called 
under tins (Plate English Tin Bread, No. 5). As a rule, Scotch pan 
loaves cannot be moulded two at a time. They are, for one thing, too 
long, and cannot be made firm and shapely enough to break with a straight 
smooth face unless moulded singly. The operation of moulding these loaves 
cannot easily be described, but consists essentially in pounding all the gas 
already generated in the dough well out of it, and preventing all chance 
of large vesicles in the dough, then in forming this toughened and 
solidified mass into an oblong shape with quite straight ends. These are 
generally baked four in a pan, and to ensure that they separate with a 
smooth face each loaf is greased on the ends before being placed in the tin. 
These require to be proved until they come up to about H in. from the 
lid; then when baking they will touch the lid and be therefore flat on 
all four sides. In connection with this type of loaf two things particu- 
larly have to be guarded against. The dough must not be allowed to 
Effects of become too ripe before moulding, or the subsequent proving 
Over-proving. w ip be very sluggish and the loaves will be quite crumbly, if 
not sour. Even if the dough is taken “young” or only ripe enough for 


1. Cut Tin. 

2. Split Tin. 

3. Oval Tin. 

4. Cut Oval Tin. 

5. Under Tin. 

6. Long Plain Tin. 

7. Long Cut Tin. 

8. Split Long Tin. 

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this purpose, they must not be allowed excessive proof; otherwise they run 
into each other and are most unsightly, one loaf having a great cavity 
in one end into which a protuberance from the next loaf fits. 

There are several other forms of crusty bread made in addition to those 
desci’ibed. One of the best is known generally as a split Coburg (Plate 
Scotch and Irish Loaves). This shape is made in small split Coburg or 
quantities in several parts of the country, but in Victoria, French Loaf. 
Australia, it constitutes the standard loaf. It is moulded in the same way 
as an ordinary Coburg, and after it has lost a little of its toughness, a deep 
crease is made and widened out with a rolling pin. The two halves thus 
formed but not separated are placed together, and the loaf turned over and 
proved upside down on a cloth, the latter being folded in such a way as to 
form partitions of cloth between the individual loaves. When set in the 
oven the crease opens out, and the loaves look rather nice. If the dough is 
“ green ” or “ young ” when moulded, it may be necessary to grease the 
crease of the loaf slightly when the crease is newly made; otherwise it 
may be closed and refuse to open in the oven. If the dough is quite ready, 
there is no need to use any grease. Like cut Coburgs, these loaves require 
space in the oven to open out. They may be set quite close at the ends 
without hurt, but must have space between rows to allow the crease to open. 

Crusty bread of the home-made or farmhouse type is generally made 
round, sometimes docked on top with a biscuit docker. The same class of 
bread is at times made long without any marks on the top Home-made 
whatever. These loaves crack on the side as they expand Crusty Bread, 
in the oven. In Somersetshire this shape of loaf is called a brick, whilst 
one with an open cut along the centre is a cut brick. The same shape, 
but with a number of cuts diagonally across the top, egg-glazed and well 
proved, is called a German long loaf. In Yorkshire, bread is made in 
round flat loaves proved very light and called bread cakes. 

Crumby loaves made from straight doughs are quite as satisfactory 
in appearance as those made from sponge and dough; but if the straight 
dough is a short-process one, then, to get a soft pile on the crumby 
bread, it is generally necessary to use at least 4 lb. of salt per Loaves, 
sack of flour; and to make the loaves separate easily in the oven, it is 
better to follow the Scotch practice and grease all the sides of loaves 
after they are moulded when placed in boxes. The great difference be- 
tween crusty and crumby loaves is that while the former spring in the 
oven very quickly, and are soon crusted over, and stop growing, the latter 
spring slowly, and the yeast continues working in them for a considerable 
time in the oven. On this account loaves intended to be crumby should be 
set with much less proof than crusty ones, and, as a rule, the dough should 
be softer. For crumby bread a system of four and a half hours from 
dough-making to setting in the oven gives excellent results. Scotch and 
Irish loaves (see the Plate) are quite satisfactory by this method. 

VOL. 1. 







It is noticeable on all occasions when revolution in processes takes 
place in connection with any business, that there are always some who 
Advent of cling to the old, not infrequently retaining the parts that 
Pressed Yeast. are non-essential and changing those that are essential. 
The sponge system of bread-making was more or less of a necessity when 
slow-working brewers’ yeast or home-made barm was in use, but with 
the advent of quick- working pressed distillers’ yeast the necessity dis- 
appeared; yet many bakers still consider that it is impossible to make 
bulky sweet bread by any other method than the old-fashioned. The 
Use of Sponge use °f a sponge is to create a sort of seed bed for the 
in Bread-making, growth of yeast, or to make a veiy small quantity 
of yeast perform a large amount of work. By means of a sponge, 
and with plenty of time, it is possible to ferment a sack of flour as 
effectively with 4 oz. of yeast as if 4 lb. had been used: not that the 
smaller amount can by any means be made to do the work of the 
larger, but that the former, if sown in a proper medium and allowed 
sufficient time, really becomes the larger quantity, and does the work 

The principles involved in the use of a sponge are identical with those 
that apply when leaven is in use. It is not only that the sponge, when 
Sponge made into dough with more water and flour, contains many 

and Leaven times the quantity of yeast that was originally mixed with 
compared. ^| ie ma t e rial of the sponge — the flour — has also changed 

its character, and its gluten has a softening effect on the gluten of the 
flour used in making dough. In addition, there are certain products of 
Ripening Effects the fermentation of the flour of the sponge, notably the 
of Sponge. acid matters, which also accelerate the ripening of the sub- 

sequent dough. It is not, therefore, a mere growth of yeast which accounts 
for the behaviour of dough made from a sponge, or that accounts for the 
character of the bread so made. Making all allowances for prejudice, 
Difference in Bread ^ * s cer t a i n that there is a marked difference between 
from Sponge and bread made on the straight -dough system and that 
straight Dough. mac [e from sponge, when both have occupied the 
same time, although this difference is less marked when both systems 
have been long ones. It is not wholly prejudice which ascribes greater 
bulk and softness to bread made on the sponge system. These qualities 
are really pronounced enough to leave no doubt. But even if this is 
Preference for granted, the sponge system has so many drawbacks and 
Straight Doughs, the straight-dough system so many advantages, that the 
latter is to be preferred, especially as there is no real barrier by its use 




( 12 ) 




Long Sponges. 

Sponge Dropping. 

to making bread quite bulky and soft enough for all ordinary require- 
ments. It is, however, in some cases a matter of convenience to have a 
sponge or dough standing overnight, and then, all things considered, the 
long-sponge gives safer if not better results than the long-dough system. 
If a sponge has to lie a long time — and a twelve-hours limit 
is about the maximum — it should be larger in proportion 
to the total quantity of flour used, and should be made stiffer than one to 
lie a much shorter time; otherwise there is a danger of its becoming quite 
degraded, so far as its gluten is concerned, and its yeast food exhausted, 
with the consequent weakening of the yeast. 

For a sponge to stand twelve hours the following ingredients may be 
used for a batch consisting of one sack flour: flour, 120 lb.; distillers’ yeast, 
6 oz.; salt, 6 oz.; water, 65 lb., or gal., at a temperature Q uant ities for 
sufficient to make sponge of 76° F. This sponge, virtually Twelve-Hours 
a soft dough, should be well made and toughened by knead- s P on £ e - 
ing. In the time specified it will have risen in the tub or trough and 
dropped once, and will have come up a second time, and should then be 
ready for making into dough. 

As this is the first mention of sponge “ dropping ”, it may serve a 
good purpose to explain its significance, and to dispel the notion generally 
held by bakers that it is, in all circumstances, a true 
and infallible sign that the sponge is ready. A sponge 
drops because the tension of the gluten of the flour of which it is composed 
is no longer able to sustain the pressure of the expanding gas within. 
This breaking of the gluten depends on quite a number of things. It 
depends on the amount of gas produced by the yeast, which, in turn, is a 
rough measure of the yeast’s energy and of the quantity of new yeast 
formed, and to this extent it is also a measure of the readiness of the yeast 
for its subsequent work in dough. But dropping of sponge is also 
determined by the toughness and stability of the flour used, as well as 
by the stiffness of the sponge or the proportion of flour to water in it, for 
it is evident that a sponge made of soft flour will not so long retain the 
gas produced as will a strong, tough flour, nor will a slack sponge stand 
so long before dropping as one that is comparatively stiff The signi- 
ficance of all this is that dropping is only a safe sign of readiness as 
between sponges containing the same kind and quantity of signs of 
flour, and fermented under identical conditions ; hence the Readiness, 
necessity for the greatest care in keeping to correct quantities at all 
times. If a standard sponge is made with strong flour, and it is ripe 
only when it has dropped, then if the same sponge were made with soft 
flour, it might drop and yet be not nearly ready, because a smaller quan- 
tity of gas was sufficient to break it, and in the time taken only a 
smaller quantity of new yeast had been formed. On the D anger 0 f 
other hand, if the standard sponge were of soft flour, one Relying on the 
with strong flour might be actually riper before it dropped Dro P only - 
than the standard one after it had dropped, and the former, in con- 



sequence of the greater increase of yeast which had been formed, would 
produce the more active fermentation at the dough stage. 

When the sponge, for which quantities have been given, is to be made 
into dough, it will require, besides the 160 lb. of flour remaining of the 
Making Dough sack, about 74 gal. of water if for crusty cottage bread, 8 
with Sponge. gal. if for flat shapes, and 8 £ gal. if for tins. In addition, 
3 lb. 2 oz. of salt should be used, and 1 lb. of sugar, or glucose. The small 
quantity of salt added to the sponge has been in no way altered by fermen- 
tation, although it serves to steady the process, so that the total salt per 
sack of flour is 3^ lb. If the whole flour were made into straight dough, to 
stand so long it would be advisable to use £ lb. or even 1 lb. more salt. 
The temperature of the water should be such as to make dough about 82° F. 
Purpose when finished. Sugar, or other gas-producing yeast food here 
of Sugar in suggested, is for the purpose of increasing the speed of yeast 
Dough. action at the time when most effective in producing bulky bread, 
viz., after the loaves are moulded and when newly set in the oven. If 
the dough is to be made by hand, the most important operation is breaking 

Breaki g Sponge s P on £ e - This consists in breaking the sponge so thor- 
oughly amongst the water that the whole becomes a 
milky fluid in which no particles of sponge are left. Failure to do this 
properly often results in very irregular and holey bread. If the dough 
is machine-made, breaking sponge amongst the water is not a necessary 
Sponge-breaking preliminary operation. The machine is quite capable of 
not needed with thoroughly mixing flour, sponge, and water, when all are 
Machines. added together, and even better in that way than if 

sponge and water are first mixed, for, when the former becomes broken 
into small pieces, these slide round the arms of the machine and refuse 
to be broken further or to mix; but this is prevented when all the ingre- 
dients are mixed at once. When the dough is well made, it will require 
to lie in the trough for about one hour, and be then cut back and well 
kneaded. It must then be allowed from half to three-quarters of an hour 
more before being kneaded again, and thrown out to be scaled. The 
remainder of the operation need not differ in any way from that already 
described for straight doughs. 

For a ten-hours sponge use 120 lb. flour, 9 oz. yeast, 6 oz. salt, 65 lb. or 
64 gal. water at a temperature sufficient to make sponge 76° when finished. 
Ten- Hours This sponge will be dropped about 4 or 5 in. at the end of ten 
Sponge hours. Make dough then with 160 lb. flour, 3 lb. 4 oz. salt, 
1 lb. sugar, and 74 gal. water if for crusty bread, but 4 gal. more if for 
crumby or tins. This dough would be ready for scaling in one to one and 
a half hours after making. 

Sponges of this length are not common except in Scotland and Ireland, 
Reason for Long anc * they are used principally because of the interval they 
Sponges in Scot- allow between the end of one day’s work and the begin- 
land and Ireland. n j n g 0 f {.p e nex ^ J n England, and particularly in London, 

a sponge standing from six to eight hours is more favoured, but this entails 


the attendance in the bakery of one or more men at some time about mid- 
way between successive days’ work, thus making the work, or at least the 
mental strain of it, never-ending for someone. 

For an eight-hours sponge the ingredients might be the same as above, 
except that 12 to 14 oz. of yeast would be required. The sponge would be 
broken up in the morning in the usual way, adding as before, Eight-Hours 
for a one-sack batch, 3^ lb. of salt and 1 lb. sugar or glucose. Sponge. 

The dough in this case would be ready for scaling in two hours from the 
time of making, having been cut back and kneaded once in that time. 

Instead of making sponge so tight as this, good results are obtained 
by making a much larger and softer sponge. For eight hours use the 
following: G gal. water, 10 oz. yeast, | lb. salt, and 100 lb. gponge 

flour — the strongest in the mixture should be used at this 
stage. This sponge will be much more easily broken up when it comes to 
the dough stage. For dough the remainder of the sack of flour, 180 lb., 
is used; with 1 lb. sugar, glucose, or malt flour; 3 lb. salt; and 8 to 84 gal. 
water. When the dough is well made it is allowed to lie from one to 
one and a half houi’, is then cut back and kneaded and given another 
half-hour in the trough, when it is ready for scaling. 

Still shorter sponge methods are now used by those who believe in 
sponges. Of these methods the following may be given as an example 
from which excellent results are produced. A thin sponge Short-Sponge 
or ferment is made with 25 lb. flour and 24 gal. water at Methods. 

100° F., 1 lb. yeast, and £ lb. sugar; no salt. This stands for about one 
and a half hour, and is then made into dough with 255 lb. flour (constitut- 
ing altogether one sack), 12 gal. water at a temperature sufficient to make 
dough 80° F. when finished, and 3£ lb. salt. This dough stands one hour, 
and is then cut back and well kneaded. In from forty to forty-five minutes 
more it is ready for scaling and working up in the usual way. The 
quantity of yeast used here is a little less than would be necessary if dough 
had been made straight away, the soft sponge or ferment at Ratio of Ye ast 
the first stage increasing yeast growth to a greater extent in Sponge and 
than if yeast were working only in straight, stiff dough. Dough ' 

When a sponge is to lie only such a short time as here given, it should 
never be made stiff’ and yet is better when thick enough to be past the 
watery state, so that the starch of the flour should not fall to the bottom. 

There is very little difference between this kind of sponge, except in the 
slight difference of time, and the sort which should always be prepared as 
a preliminary to making straight dough. Even when Y east Management 
dough is to be made right off, the yeast should first be for Straight Dough, 
weighed, and then mixed with about 1 gal. water about 90° F., and say 5 lb. 
flour, and any yeast food it is intended to use. While the flour is being- 
sifted, the salt weighed, and the water prepared, the yeast is not only in- 
creasing in quantity, but is preparing its own food and becoming what may 
be called acclimatized to its new condition in a flour medium; and accord- 
ingly, when the dough is mixed, the fermentation starts vigorously at once. 



A sponge system for long periods lias already been given, and this may 
be used for Scotch or Irish bread with good results. But, as already 
Scotch and mentioned, as much as 5£ to 6 lb. of salt is needed to 

Irish Methods of secure the necessary pile on the loaves. The Scotch and 
Bread-making. Irish methods as generally followed vary a good deal from 
that given. On the east coast of Scotland generally, the system followed 
is that of half -sponge, the half, or nearly the half, of the total water 
required to make dough being used at that stage. There is, however, 
great latitude exercised by individual bakers as to the amount of liquor- 
used in sponge, as well as in the stiffness the half -sponge is made. In 
some cases it is made soft and tough, in others as stiff as an ordinary 
dough. Within limits the soft sponge produces the clearer loaf and gives 
much less trouble, particularly if the dough is to be hand-made. If the 
dough is machine-made the point is not of so much importance. For a 
Half-Sponge to half-sponge to stand thirteen hours the following may be 
stand Thirteen used. 6 gal. of water at 90° F. has 1 lb. salt dissolved in 
it, and then 5 oz. compressed yeast is thoroughly mixed. 
In the trough there is about 100 lb. flour. Into a bay made with this 
flour the liquor as above is poured, and the whole smartly made into a soft 
dough, which is worked and flapped over and over so as to make it as 
tough as possible, and also well pinched till it becomes quite clear and 
smooth without being sticky. It can then, with slight dusting, be easily 
handled, and is thoroughly well kneaded, which has the effect of increasing 
its toughness. It is then lifted in pieces and dropped into a deep tub, 
which has been thoroughly scalded, and well dusted with cones inside, 
so that the sponge may more easily slip out of the tub into the trough or 
machine in the morning. This sponge will rise and fall once and come 
up a second time. In the morning, if the dough is hand-made, the sponge 
Dough-making is broken up in the remaining water required for dough, 
and Manipulation, about 9 gal., which should be at a temperature that will 
make dough about 78° F., and with it is mixed from to 4 lb. salt and 
£ lb. sugar or other yeast food. If the dough is made in a machine, the 
flour, the sponge, and the water may all be tipped in together, the water, 
of course, having salt, &c., already dissolved in it before mixing starts, 
and the whole thoroughly incorporated. As already noticed, long ex- 
perience has proved that this method is quicker and more effective for 
proper mixing than any method of first breaking up the sponge in liquor 
alone. When the dough is well made and clear, it is pinned up in the 
trough and allowed to stand about one and a half hour. It is then cut 
back and well kneaded, and given about three-quarters more in the trough, 
when it should be ready for scaling. The loaves are handed up into boxes 
dusted with cones, and are allowed about fifteen or twenty minutes’ proof 
at that stage, when they are ready for moulding. When moulded they are 
again packed tightly into boxes, all the sides and ends being greased with 
melted lard, with the exception of the contiguous sides of loaves intended 
to adhere to each other. They are then docked on top, and washed over 


either with milk or with water. In this state they are allowed to lie 
some fifteen or twenty minutes more to prove, and are then run or set in 
the oven in pairs, except, of course, where draw-plate ovens are in use, 
when they are set two rows or courses at once, from long Setting in Peel 
boards, the width of the oven, on which they are placed and Draw-plate 
when newly moulded. The loaves are set quite close ° vens - 
together on all sides and spring to a height of about 6 in. As heat can 
only get directly at them on top and bottom, a batch may occupy from 
one and a half to two and a quarter hours to bake, according to the 
heat of the oven. 

Bakers in Scotland have not yet adopted compressed yeast to any 
great extent for their plain bread, but a good many are now using it 
for pan bread and fancy sorts, and its progress towards uni- Scotch Bakers 
versal use is becoming more rapid. When Parisian Barm and Compressed 
(see Chapter XXIV, p. 142) is used, the procedure does not Yeast - 
materially differ from that just described, the quantity of barm necessary 
being about H Scotch pint, or, roughly, £ gal. If sponges with Parisian 
compound or patent barm (see Chapter XXIII, p. 138) or Compound Barm, 
is used, the quantity necessary, if the barm is strong, would be about 1£ 
Scotch pint, or about 5 pints imperial. 

In the West of Scotland the usual custom is to make bread in three 
stages, viz., quarter- sponge, batter sponge, and dough. The first of these 
is comparatively small, consisting roughly of about one- West of Scotland 
quarter of the total liquor required for dough, but Methods, 
generally less. This would be for a sack batch, say, 3 gal. water. The 
temperature varies with the season of the year, but should always be 
high enough to make the sponge, when finished, from 74° to 78° F., the 
former for summer, the latter for winter months; for in the cold season, 
although the temperature outside may be very low, that, as a rule, in 
the bakehouse is purposely kept high, and the sponges at that period 
are also given extra protection with sacks. Quarter-sponges are always 
kept in tubs, although the practice differs as to whether they are actually 
made in tubs or on the table. If the former method is Making Quarter- 
followed, the sponge is first Avell stirred with one hand Sponge, 
until it becomes too thick to stir longer; both hands are then used, and 
the sponge is pinched from the sides of the tub to the centre, and 
flapped over repeatedly until it becomes very tough. It is then emptied 
from the tub on to the table or trough, the tub is scraped clean and well 
dusted, and the sponge is further kneaded and folded to toughen it 
more, after which it is returned to the dry-dusted tub, which is well 
covered and, in winter, placed in a warm situation in the bakehouse, 
where it will not be disturbed, or, if in the heat of summer, placed in 
as cool a situation as possible, even at times in the open air, with only 
sufficient covering to prevent its becoming skinned. This kind of sponge 
is always made soft. For the quantity of liquor given above, 3 gal., not 
more than 45 lb. of flour would be used, and 2 quarts or 5 lb. barm. 



This would generally be strong flour, but no great stress is laid on 
Quantities for that point, although really soft flour is never used. 

Quarter-Sponge. About 8 oz. of salt is used at this stage. The time the 

sponge is allowed to lie is not fixed by any universal standard, but each 
bakehouse has rules of its own in this matter. In some cases it may 
stand sixteen hours before being again touched, but thirteen to fourteen 
Time Sponge hours is the usual period. In a case within the writer’s 
lies. knowledge, when the master baker had scruples about Sunday 

labour, even for work of this kind, the quarter -sponge was made about 
nine o’clock on Saturday night and not touched again until five o’clock on 
Excessive Length Monday morning, thus standing about thirty-two hours, 
of Sponge Period. qq le re sultant bread, while no improvement on that made 
by the usual method, showed no serious defects except smallness. In 
abnormal circumstances like this ordinary ripe barm was not used, but 
some that was new and immature, and therefore contained a smaller 
quantity of yeast cells than usual, so that some part of the long period 
during which the sponge was working was really occupied in producing 
yeast cells to do the subsequent work of fermenting the dough, which 
in ordinary circumstances would have been included in the quantity used 
at the beginning. 

The second operation, however long the sponge has stood, is to make it 
into a batter sponge with more water and flour. It is ready for this stage 
if it has risen twice and dropped 3 or 4 in. in the quarter- 
tub. The batter sponge is always made in a tub of large 
capacity, because it is thin and expands a great deal. In factories the 
stirring of this sponge is done by a machine (fig. 10), which consists of a 
long spindle with arms nearly the length of the radius of the tub. This 
spindle is part of the machine, which is generally fixed to the wall of the 
bakehouse, but it is made to slide down into the tub, which is placed under- 
neath, and the end of the spindle fits into a socket fixed in the bottom of 
the tub. In small bakeries the stirring has to be done by hand, or rather 
by the arm. For a sack batch this sponge requires about 11 gal. of water, 
or, virtually, all the remainder after that already in the quarter, except 
about f gal. to be used to rinse down the inside of the large tub after 
the sponge is emptied into the trough, the rinsings constituting part of the 
liquor used for dough-making. The quantity of flour used is roughly 
110 lb., and of salt at this stage 2 lb. Water for this sponge is compara- 
tively hot in winter-time. It may even be too hot for it to be safe to 
empty sponge in, and the expedient has then to be adopted of stirring a 
How to Deal with quantity of cold flour into the water after the salt, but 
before adding the quarter. As a rule the temperature 
of this batter sponge when finished is from 82° to 84° F. 
Quarter -sponge and water have first to be broken up very thoroughly, 
until the whole becomes a milky fluid, the quarter having really dissolved, 
so far as its gluten is concerned, in the water. This state of solubility is 
the effect of the cumulative action of yeast, and of the acids produced 

Batter Sponge. 

Sponge in very 
Cold Weather. 

VOL. I. 

fig. lu.— Sponge-stirmig .Vauliine 




during fermentation of the quarter. If, instead of dissolving, the quarter 
is very tough, and breaks up only into stringy pieces, then it has not been 
Condition of enough fermented, or as usually expressed, “ wrought ” 

Quarter when ready. or « ripened ” sufficiently. Should this be the case, 
the second sponge should, if possible, be made a little warmer; but a better 
plan is to add a quantity of pressed yeast, or, failing that, of barm at this 
stage, to make up for the deficient quantity which has been produced in 
the quarter. When the stirring is finished, the top part of the tub is 
neatly scraped down to the edge of the body of the sponge, so that any 
drop of the latter may be noticed. Almost as soon as stirring is finished, 
bubbles of gas begin to appear on the surface, and fermentation proceeds veiy 
rapidly. In from one to one and a half hour this sponge will be ready, the 
Quick Fermenta- general sign being that it has “turned”, as shown by a crease 
tion of Sponge. j n the centre. It is then emptied into the trough, which has 
the remaining flour banked up at each end, the salt (3 lb.) being weighed 
and placed in the centre of the “ bay ” thus formed. The tub is well 
scraped down, and rinsed out with about f gal. of the water reserved for 
that purpose, the temperature of this water being regulated according to 
the readiness or otherwise of the sponge — colder if too ready, hotter if not 
quite ready. The rinsings are also poured into the trough if the dough 
is hand-made, and the whole is mixed together, care being taken that the 
salt is thoroughly dissolved. When the dough is well made and clear, it is 
“ pinned ” up and allowed to lie from one to one and a half hour, then cut 
back and kneaded. It is then left in the trough for about three-quarters 
of an hour more, after which it is weighed, handed up, moulded, and set in 
the oven in the usual way, with intervals of about twenty minutes between 
handing up and moulding or “chaffing”, and between moulding and “setting”, 
or, to use the Scotch word, “ running ” in oven. 

This method of bread-making can be adopted with compressed yeast, the 
details being followed in every particulai', except that the quantity of 
Method with pressed distillers’ yeast necessary in the sponge would 

Compressed Yeast. no t b e more than 5 oz. Whatever kind of yeast is used, 
however, this method is not suitable for crusty loaves of the English cottage 
type. These, if made from dough of this kind, unless it is very stiff, soften 
in the oven and flatten out, a tough skin being produced. 



The English equivalent of the Scotch method of quartering is the 
Ferment, Sponge, method of ferment, sponge, and dough. This system is 
and Dough. now nearly discontinued. Brewers’ thick yeast or patent 

barm is genei’ally used, but compressed distillers’ may be used if con- 



venient. With brewers’ yeast the quantities and method for a one-sack 
batch are as follows. From S to 12 lb. of potatoes are steamed, gener- 
ally in an ordinary iron pot in the oven, about 2 quarts of water being 
sufficient to do this in 1£ hour. These potatoes, when done, are well 
mashed and 3 lb. flour added, about 1 gal. more hot water about 180° F. 
is poured on, and the whole thoroughly stirred. Another gallon of cold 
water is then added to reduce the temperature to about Brewers’ Yeast 
80° F., 3 lb. more raw flour is then stirred in, care being taken and Potat oes. 
to prevent lumps. This is then stocked with 2k pints brewers’ yeast, and 
covered up with a sack in the tub. In about 5 hours it will have risen and 
dropped twice, and will be ready for making into sponge. This is invari- 
ably made in one end of the trough in which the whole of the flour for the 
batch is already “pitched”. For sponge, 6 gal. of water at a temperature 
sufficient to make dough about 78° is used, and 1 lb. salt. Making Sponge 
This ferment is made quite soft and tough. In 6 hours it WIth Ferment, 
will be dropped and ready for making into dough. For that purpose 
6 to 7 gal. of water at a temperature to make dough 78° F. is used, accord- 
ing to whether dough is wanted for crusty or crumby loaves; 2£ to 3 lb. 
salt is added at this stage, but it is not usual to add sugar or other yeast 
food when this method is followed. The dough is ready for scaling in about 
2 hours, but half an hour at least before throwing out it should be cut back 
and well kneaded. The loaves, after scaling, are dealt with in the usual 

This process of bread-making is old-fashioned, and was suitable for the 
time when slow-working liquid yeasts or barms were in use, as the ferment 
is really a medium for the growth of new yeast, and Purpose of Ferment 
the baker is really his own yeast-manufacturer. Excel- and Sponge, 
lent bread can be made in this way, if care is exercised, but in the ordinary 
course when the method was common it not infrequently produced sourness, 
while holes and irregular texture were constant troubles. The former of 
these defects arose principally from the careless way in which ferments 
were treated. Although from 5 to 6 hours was the nominal time for 
ferment to stand, it was quite a common thing to leave Careless Practices 
it for hours afterwards before making up into sponge, of the Baker y- 
with the result that souring ferments were allowed to grow to an excessive 
degree. Potatoes mashed in their skins, as was the invariable practice, are 
productive of sourness very quickly. Holes are usually caused in bread 
made on this system by the sponge not being properly broken when the 
dough is made. 

There are still many bakers who believe in the use of potatoes, in spite 
of their dirt and trouble, but the method followed is in two instead of three 
stages — either sponge and dough or ferment and dough. Dis- Potatoes 
tillers’ pressed yeast is now generally used. The following is sti11 Used, 
the process adopted in a leading West- End London bakery. 16 lbs. of 
sound potatoes are well washed and cooked in an iron pot, with a close 
lid, in the oven. Only 2 quarts of water is used, and the potatoes are 



sufficiently cooked in hour. They are then mashed along with 4 lb. 
of flour, and 3 gal. of nearly boiling water added, and the whole is well 
stirred. With this 17 gal. more water is used, at a temperature to make 
the whole 84° F. With this is dissolved 4 lb. of yeast, and the tub contain- 
Oid-fashioned big the whole liquor covered with a sack. In H hour it 

West-End Method. w jj} turn and will then be ready to use. This is sufficient 
for two sacks of flour. At dough-making 7 to 8 gal. more water is used, with 
6 lb. salt. The dough when made should be about 80° F. when the bakery 
is at, say 66° F.; the temperature of dough is made less should the bakery 
be warmer. When the dough has been made 1 hour, it is cut back and 
kneaded, and afterwards allowed hour in the trough before scaling. 
The mode of manipulation is then identical with that followed on other 
systems. Bread made thus is usually sweet, not over-bulky, and has 
a rich bloom. The greatest danger with such a large quantity of yeast 
is that the loaves may become dry and crumbly, if anything occurs to 
keep the dough a little longer on the way than usual. 

A supreme faith in potatoes as a bread-improver induces some bakers 
to use them even in short-system straight doughs, the idea being that they 
Faith in keep bread moist, but in this respect they are no more effective 
Potatoes, than ordinary flour or starch scalded. Moistness in bread made 
with potatoes, on a system consisting of two or three stages, probably owes 
more to the system and the condition of the gluten of the flour which it 
produces than to anything special in the constituents of the potatoes. 




There is a sentimental as well as a dietetic value attached to the use of 
wholemeal bread. The writer remembers an old lady customer who, in 
Natural ordering brown bread, insisted that it should be from meal just 
Meal - as God made it. This request was made without the least sus- 
picion of irreverence, and it really indicates the spirit which actuates a 
great many people who are users of and advocates for wholemeal bread. 
They imagine that as the wheat grows naturally so it was intended for 
the food of man, and that to take any of the parts away is really an act 
in the nature of a sin. The baker need have no quarrel with the reasons 
which induce his customers to prefer one kind of bread to another. So 
long as the trade is profitable, his business is to supply exactly what is 
required. There may be, in the parts of wheat eliminated from the whole- 
Superiority of White meal, a greater proportion of mineral matter in the 
Flour as Food. form of phosphates than in white flour itself, but the 

nature of bran renders those useless as food to human beings, and in 



consequence of the large proportion of comparatively insoluble cellulose 
which the branny part of wholemeal contains, the proportion of proteid 
matter (gluten, &c.), which is the flesh-forming constituent of wheat, is 
really greater, weight for weight, in white flour than in wholemeal. 

At one time, the practice was very common with bakers of mixing 
a few handfuls of bran with white flour, and calling the bread made from 
it wholemeal. This practice is now quite discontinued, unless use of 
bran bread is specially asked for, and genuine wholemeal is Coarse Meal, 
used. For a long time the favourite meal was coarsely ground, in some 
cases more like broken wheat than meal, but this is not now much in use, 
although for securing a pleasant wheaty flavour in bread, or for promoting 
digestion in cases where the organs are sluggish, this coarse meal, if 
properly made into bread, is to be preferred to that ground very fine. 
Several patents have been taken out for making wheat into bread without 
any preliminary grinding whatever. The principal expedient in some of 
these processes was to soak the wheat for a time in water Softened Wheat 
until it became quite soft, when it was forced through fine Bread- 
apertures until it formed a kind of thick paste or mush, which was then 
made into dough and partly fermented with yeast. The sticky, pasty 
nature of the softened wheat made the bread so produced very close and 
heavy, although not without a pleasant flavour. Much advertising of the 
high dietetic value of this kind of bread failed, however, to retain the 
favour of the public, who really like their bread, whether brown or white, 
to be light and easy to chew. 

What is known as Graham bread (see Plate Vienna Fancy Bread — V, 
Nos. 2, 8), after an American doctor of that name, is made somewhat in this 
way, although the reference above is not to that, but to a more Graham 
recent German pi'ocess. Graham bread is made by soaking bruised Bread, 
wheat in lukewarm water sufficient to make it into soft dough. This 
dough is divided at once into pieces the size required for loaves, generally 
1 lb., and these, when moulded, are allowed to rest for 3 or 4 hours; they 
are then baked in an oven about 400° F., and will require from 1 to 
li hour. No yeast is used, yet the loaves spring a little, owing to the 
expansion of the water and steam which has been imprisoned in the soaked 

A sect called the Wallaceites, who believe that yeast is the cause of 
several diseases, on that account use no yeast in their bread, which is also 
made of entire wheatmeal. Their ordinary bread, since they use Wallaceite 
no other aerating agent, is close and heavy; but in the higher- Bread, 
priced article eggs are used, although the egg bread is not what an ordi- 
nary person would call light. 

The present practice is to make what is called decorticated meal, that 
is, wholemeal from which the outer skins of the bran have been removed. 
Some millers, to ensure that the customers who object to Decorticated 
coarse bran lose nothing by its rejection, replace its weight Meal, 
in the wholemeal which they prepare by adding an equal weight of fine 




offal, sometimes called “ middlings ” and sometimes “ pollard The meal 
so prepared is almost like a very coarse brown flour. It can be used by 
itself for making comparatively light bread, but, as indicated hereafter, the 
writer prefers to increase slightly the quantity of white flour it contains. 
Many millers make a speciality of wholemeal, and, when this is the case, 
there are stones dressed specially in the mill for grinding meal only, and 
particular wheats, generally of superior quality but soft, are kept for this 
Special wheats product. This very particular care on the part of millers 
and Grinding. j n preparing meal has had a great deal to do with the 
much greater favour with which brown breads are now received by the 
public. At one time bakers were afraid of wholemeal. It was considered 
almost impossible to make it into bread, without having it either very solid 
or very sour, especially if yeast was used as the aerating agent. The prob- 
able cause of this constant trouble was that millers at one time considered 
any sort of wheat good enough for wholemeal, and as the product was 
naturally brown, took no pains in cleaning wheat to be used for this pur- 
pose. The modern idea, as just indicated, is to take quite as much care in 
the selection and preparation of the wheat for wholemeal as for that to be 
made into the finest white flour. 

Wholemeal contains the germ of the wheat, as well as all the other 

parts that might be classed as offal, but germ itself has constituents so high 

„ . , in nutrient value, and has, withal, so sweet and pleasant 

Germ in Meal. ... . , . . 

a flavour, that it is now very largely used along with white 

flour in a number of patent breads, such as Hovis, Daren, Cytos, Wando, 
&c. For these breads the germ of wheat is very carefully separated and 
mixed in the proportion of about 75 per cent of white flour with 25 per 
cent of pure germ, to make the prepared meals. Pure germ, if kept in 
a cool dry place, remains quite sound and sweet for almost any length 
of time, at least quite safely for one year, but when mixed with white 
flour it quickly becomes either musty or rancid to smell and taste, owing 
to the unstable nature of the oily matter, of which germ contains a higher 
Germ Breads P r 0 P 0 l 'ti°n than any other part of the wheat. In consequence 
of this instability when mixed, all those germ meals have 
about 5 lb. of salt per sack also mixed in the meal, as a means of pre- 
venting deterioration in the manner described. Those patent germ meals, 
therefore, have no salt used with them when made into dough. Like 
wholemeal, these meals absorb a great deal of water, and are usually made 
soft in dough, with a considerable quantity of yeast, so that the process 
is quick, one of the objects being to increase the yield of bread, but a 
The Public and quick process in this case also, as in that of wholemeal. 
Brown Breads. re tains the natural flavour of the meal. The trade in brown 
breads is not nearly so regular as that in white. It depends a good deal 
on sentiment, and although the flavour of the several sorts is characteristic 
in each case, and people like these breads for a time, their fancy is liable to 
constant change, preferring now one sort and now another. 

In addition to what may be called natural brown breads several 



varieties are made in which malt meal or malt flour or malt extracts 
are used to improve the flavour, and, ostensibly, to help Proprietary 
digestion. Another class contains meal prepared from Special Breads, 
wheat that has been itself malted. Rye in some cases forms part of 
the mixture for brown bread, but its use is confined almost wholly to 
continental countries. It was at one time in much more common use in 
this country, and is still to be found in isolated cases. 

Weigh 6 lb. coarse meal and 2 lb. fine flour, and mix well together. 
Make into straight dough, using 2 oz. salt, 1 oz. sugar, 2 oz. lard, 2 oz. 
yeast, and 2 quarts and £ pint water at 102° F. The pi a i n Brown Bread 
lard should be rubbed into the meal in the usual way, Wlth Coarse Meal, 
whilst the salt and the sugar are dissolved in the water, and the yeast 
is also thoroughly mixed in the water. There is no danger of injuring 
the yeast by water at this temperature, as some bakers fear, for the 
cooling effects of the yeast itself, as well as those of the salt and sugar, 
are sufficient to reduce the temperature of the water well below the danger 
point. When the dough is made, it should be quite clear and free from 
scraps, and should be toughened by thorough mixing. It should be kept 
in a basin covered up, and in a situation where the temperature is con- 
stant between 80° and 90° F. In such circumstances the dough will be 
ready for scaling and moulding in exactly one hour, but before scaling 
it should be well kneaded. When moulding, whether to be Moulding and 
baked under covers or in open tins, it gives the loaves a nice Proving, 
coarse appearance which satisfies the ideas of those who prefer this kind of 
bread if it is moulded or rolled in coarse broken wheat or meal. The 
loaves should stand, covered up again, in a moderately warm place for 
from 40 to 50 minutes, when they should be ready for the oven. Small 
sizes, each loaf weighing 1 lb., will bake in 35 minutes in an oven at 
a temperature of 430° F.; the larger size, weighing If lb. or 2 lb., will 
bake in 55 to GO minutes. As coarse meal is generally “straight run” 
and contains the whole of the bran, it does not by itself produce bulky 
bread; hence the addition of 25 per cent of white flour, which assists to 
that end. There are many customers, however, who prefer their whole- 
meal bread quite close and small. For such customers the process followed 
should be exactly as described, only the white flour is replaced by 2 lb. 
additional meal. This method of working gives a meal loaf that retains 
the proper wheaty flavour, and if care is taken that it does not become 
over-proved, it will be neither holey nor crumbly. 

Within the last dozen years or so much finer meal has gradually 
come into favour. These meals were for some time described as decor- 
ticated, because of the removal of the coarse b’an. The 
bran is still in great part removed, but this description for me Mea1- 
the meal is seldom used now. These meals are ground quite fine, almost 
resembling in appearance very dark coarse flour. With such meal it is 
not necessary to use any white flour at all, but as there is difficulty in 
getting the bread quite bulky enough with meal only, 7 lb. of meal and 



1 lb. of flour make an excellent mixture. The quantities of materials 
and the method of procedure may be exactly as already described for 
coarse meal, and a most satisfactory loaf may be thus produced. 'With 
flue meal 3 oz. of malt flour to 8 lb. of meal may be used with ad- 
• Addition of vantage. This quantity just makes its presence felt, without 
Malt Flour, making the flavour of malt too pronounced or the bread too 
sweet; and it also assists in giving the loaves a rich colour and bloom. 
To remedy the complaint so frequently made regarding brown bread, that 
it becomes dry and chaffy when stale, the addition of 3 oz. ordinary golden 
syrup to the dough, in place of the sugar in the mixture given, is helpful. 

It is quite a common practice of the bakery to make brown bread over- 
night. This method will produce quite large-looking loaves, but they are 
Long-process almost wholly devoid of flavour, or, more frequently, have 

Wholemeal Bread. a decided twang of sourness ; on this account, if for no 
other reason, the short system is much to be preferred. 

The old-fashioned method of making brown bread was to prepare a 
white sponge, into which the meal was doughed when ready. This is not 
Wholemeal a good plan. Besides causing a larger addition than necessary 
with Sponge. 0 f white flour, there is the ever-present danger of the com- 
paratively white sponge not being smoothly mixed with the meal, resulting 
in the bread being patchy or streaky. 

Fine meal is sometimes aerated with soda and cream of tartar instead 
of with yeast. For this purpose 1 oz. of bicarbonate of soda and 2 oz. of 
Wholemeal cream of tartar should be used for every 5 lb. of meal. If 
with Powder, possible, the liquor used — 1 quart and \ pint to 5 lb. meal — 
should be half milk half water, or, better still, all milk. With this 
quantity 3 oz. of sugar and 5 oz. of lard effect a great improvement. 
Some meals may require as much as 3 pints of water or milk. This sort 
of bread is better made of rather soft dough, as it only needs handling 
once, and it can be readily moulded in dry meal before being placed 
in tins. 

A nutritious and very palatable brown bread is made by using a 
mixture of half fine oatmeal and half wholemeal, with which is thoroughly 
Oaten wheat- mixed 1 oz. of soda and oz. of cream of tartar for every 
meal Bread. 5 lb. 0 f the mixed meal used. About 4 oz. of lard is rubbed 
into the meal, and a rather soft dough made with 1 quart and 1 pint milk 
and 4 oz. golden syrup. This kind of bread should be baked in a cool 
oven, say about 400° F. 

Of the methods of using malt in malted brown bread the simplest is to 
add 2 oz. of malt flour for each pound of meal used, and then ferment it 
Malted Brown m the way already described for plain wholemeal, using, of 
Bread - course, the same proportions of white flour and other ingre 

dients as there given. This produces a moderately good result in the 
matter of malt flavour and bloom, but does not retain its moistness in the 
same way as malted bread prepared by other methods. 

The following method of preparing malt bread was introduced about 







1875 by Pooley and by Oliver, the bread being sold as Pooley’s or 
Olivers brown bread ; but the originality of the process Use of Malt 
has long been matter of dispute. Without keeping strictly Decoction, 
to the quantities given in either case, the following method and quan- 
tities may be accepted as making very palatable bread. One pound 
of ground malt is made into a paste with about 1£ pint of water, 
and placed in a stoneware jar. This jar in turn is placed in an iron 
pot with a lid, containing sufficient water to come up to about 2 in. 
from the top of the jar. This apparatus is then placed in the oven, 
generally after the bread for the day has all been baked, and allowed 
to remain there for 5 or 6 hours. During this time a good deal of 
the water will evaporate, and it may require replenishing in the outer 
pot; otherwise there is a danger that the malt in the inner jar may 
become dry, in which case it will burn and be spoiled. The process 
intended is to cook the malt by stewing at the temperature of boiling 
water for a considerable period. This prolonged boiling entirely destroys 
the diastasic properties of the malt, so that, except for the ingredients it 
already contains, it has no chemical effect upon the materials of the 
dough at the subsequent stages of bread-making. This method of pre- 
paring the malt decoction is somewhat primitive, but is effective for the 
end desired, nor is it an inconvenient method for the ordinary routine 
work of the bakery. In many cases where old-fashioned ovens are in 
use, it is considered necessary while the bread is baking to keep a pot 
of water in the oven to compensate for the loss of steam through cracks 
in the brickwork. In such cases the malt pot serves the double purpose 
of prepai’ing malt for brown bread and also of supplying an atmosphere of 
steam in which to bake the white. When the malt is thus prepared it 
may be cooled either by standing, if that is convenient, or by mixing 
with the cooler water necessary for making dough. The quantity of malt 
specified will be sufficient to use with 8 lb. meal and 2 lb. flour. Quantities 
This has 8 oz. lard well rubbed into it. Straight dough is for Dough- 
made with 3 oz. yeast, 2£ oz. salt, 1 oz. bicarbonate of soda and oz. 
cream of tartar, and 54 pints water, including that in the malt paste. 
The dough is allowed to stand covered up in a warm place for an hour 
and well kneaded, then scaled off in, say, 1-lb. pieces, cut on top, and 
baked under covers (Plate Brown and Rye Breads, fig. 1). The loaves 
will require from 45 to 60 minutes to prove, and must not be baked in 
a very hot oven; otherwise they take too much colour. The principal 
ingredients which this malt decoction brings to the bread are the sugars 
of malt — glucose and maltose — as well as a considerable quantity of dex- 
trin, and some starch much boiled, but not changed. The sugars keep the 
bread very moist, but rather hinder than help the fermenta- i n g re dients in 
tion; hence the necessity for a comparatively long proof. As Malt which 
already noticed, the malt, by prolonged boiling, has lost all affect Bread - 
its effect on the starch of the meal while baking, but it contains sufficient 
sugar of its own to make the bread sweet, whilst the malty flavour is 

VOL. I. 1 7 



Malt Extract. 

very pronounced. This kind of bread, when properly made, has a ready 
sale, and customers keep to it with fair constancy. 

A more scientific method of preparing malt brown bread is by the use 
of malt extract. This is prepared in vacuum pans from crushed malt, in 
the form of a thick syrup. The malt decoction in this case 
being boiled and concentrated at a temperature much below 
that of boiling water, and below that at which its diastase is destroyed, 
that diastase remains active, and, being in a concentrated form, is capable 
of changing gelatinized starch into sugar. For bread of this kind the 
following method may be followed. lb. of flour is mixed into a paste 
Malt Extract with 3£ pints of water at 170° F., care being taken to 
Bread - prevent lumps. Into this paste $ lb. of pure malt extract, 

or at least one of standard diastasic strength, is stirred, and the paste 
thus made is allowed to stand about two hours in a warm place, or 
until such time as its temperature has cooled to about 100° F. A 
straight dough is then made with 6 lb. wholemeal and 2 lb. white flour, 
into which has been thoroughly mixed 1 oz. bicarbonate of soda and 2 oz. 
cream of tartar; 2 oz. lard is well rubbed into the meal and dough made 
straight off with the paste already prepared, 2 oz. salt and 3 oz. yeast. 
This dough is then allowed to stand for about one hour, when it is 
kneaded and scaled off — for small sizes in 1-lb. pieces, and for large sizes 
in pieces weighing 1 lb. 12 oz. Loaves are at once moulded oval, and 
placed on clean baking sheets, which do not require greasing, but may 
be slightly dusted with meal (Plate Brown and Rye Breads, fig. 2). The 
tops of the loaves should be slightly cut, and covers then neatly placed over 
them. One cover should be allowed to stand, open end upwards, while the 
loaves are proving, so as to judge accurately when they have had sufficient. 
If kept in a moderately warm place they should be ready for the oven in 
from thirty to forty minutes. On account of the chemicals contained in the 
meal, these loaves do not require so much proof as ordinary wholemeal: 
about 1^ in. from the top of the cover that has been left mouth upward 
is usually quite sufficient to make the loaves fill the covers properly, so as 
to be flat and nicely coloured on the top, with the top edge only rounded 
and paler in colour than the remainder of the top. There is, of course, no 
need to use the oval covers usually associated with malt bread, but ordi- 
nary oblong open tins may be used instead, and a good many customers 
really prefer these. In this case, as the tins do not themselves supply 
a guide as to when the loaves are sufficiently proved, care has to be taken 
that they are not allowed to over-prove; otherwise they are likely to have 
a large hole in the centre or else under the top crust, and will probably be 
crumbly and wanting in flavour. The use of soda and cream of tartar 
in this and the preceding mixture is to assist in aerating the bread in a 
reasonable time, since a large quantity of malt extract as well as the pre- 
liminary paste made with flour, part of which has its starch gelatinized, 
prevents the yeast from working actively. With the addition of the 
chemicals a smaller proof is required before the bread is set in the 



oven, and yet the maximum bulk and lightness are obtained. But these 
chemicals are not absolutely necessary; only if not used it is advisable 
slightly to increase the quantity of yeast. 

Owing to the large quantity of sugar in this bread — in the malt extract 
used as well as that produced by the action of its diastase — it requires to 
be thoroughly baked, yet not in a hot oven, or there is a danger of its 
being dark-crusted before the centre is done. In an oven at 430° F. the 
1-lb. size will bake in about thirty-five minutes, whilst the larger size will 
require from fifty to sixty minutes. Bread made in this way is somewhat 
sweet, but has a pleasant malty taste. This is, of course, due to the flavour 
of the comparatively large quantity of malt extract used, and this flavour 
is intensified by the maltose sugar produced in small quantity from such 
of the starch as has been burst in the paste made in the preliminary 
process. This sugar indicates its presence in the dough by a very slight 
stickiness. But, in addition, as the diastase of the extract continues active 
for some time after the bread is in the oven, a small quantity of maltose is 
probably also formed there. 

Malt flour is now sold to bakers for using either in white or brown 
bi'eads. The method of using in brown is similar to that already ex- 
plained under the title of Oliver’s Brown Bread. Malt flour, M 
being fine, is better suited than malt meal for this purpose. 

It not only does with much less stewing as a preliminary opei’ation, but, 
being free from husks, can be better mixed in the bread without betraying 
itself as a foreign substance, and, weight for weight, it of course gives 
a greater flavour. For malted brown bread made with malt flour use 

1 lb. malt meal for each 10 lb. of prepared meal — 8 lb. wholemeal and 

2 lb. flour — required. The malt flour may be stewed in the oven in the 

manner already described, or if that method is inconvenient, Q uick Method 
it may be stewed over a stove in a double pan, the outer of making Malt 
one containing water, for about half an hour, being well Paste ‘ 
stirred while on the stove. The flour is made into a thick paste, placed 
in the inner pan, and then boiled as described. The use of the outer 
pan with water is to prevent the malt from sticking to the bottom and 
burning. Its temperature, by the use of such an appliance, does not rise 
above the temperature of boiling water. When the stewing process is 
completed, the malt paste is cooled down, either by standing or by the 
addition of cold water, to 100° F. A straight dough is then made with 

8 lb. wholemeal and 2 lb. fine flour, with which is incorporated 1 oz. 

of soda and 14 oz. cream of tartar, and into which 2 oz. of lard or other 
fat has been rubbed; 2£ oz. of salt and 3 oz. of yeast are thoroughly 
mixed in the bay with 2 quarts water, besides that used for the malt paste. 
This dough, when made, is allowed to stand in a warm place for one 
hour, after which it is kneaded, scaled off, and moulded into tins or under 
covers similar to those generally used for malt bread. One cover should 
be left mouth upwards to note the extent of proof. As there are chemical 
aerating agents in this dough, the loaves should be proved up to about 



11 in. from the top of the open tin; otherwise they will not completely fill 
the tins, and will look poor in consequence. This method of making malt 
bread gives very satisfactory results in the matter both of flavour and 

A note has been already made about the constitution and properties 
of wheat germ. It may be obtained from those millers who take pains 
Fresh Germ to separate it in a pure state — some millers simply run it in 
Bread. along with the bran and offal — as some do when there is any 

demand amongst their customers. The following ingredients and quan- 
tities are used for germ bread: Fine flour, 6 lb.; germ, 2 lb.; yeast, 
3 oz.; salt, 2 oz. There is no need for either extra fat or sugar, as the 
germ is itself oily and sweet. These ingredients are made into a soft 
dough with 2 quarts and J pint water at about 104° F. The dough, made 
tough by mixing, is allowed to lie about twenty minutes, after which it 
is well kneaded, and weighed into small oblong tins about 7 or 8 oz. in 
Id. size. These will require about forty to forty-five minutes to prove, 
and, if small size, will bake in about thirty minutes in an oven at 
430° F. This bread will be lighter and brighter in colour than that 
made from the meals with registered names which also contain wheat 

Amongst this latter class of breads the oldest form and best known 

is Hovis. This name is formed from homo, man, and vis, force, 
Ho s Bread anc ^’ course > gi yes no indication of the composition of 
the meal or bread. It was, when first introduced, simply 
called Germ bread, but as this title could not be registered, and might 
therefore be used by anyone, the name Hovis was adopted. In this 
case the wheat germ is used in about the same proportions as given 
above for germ bread, but in Hovis the germ is subjected to a prelimi- 
nary heating or roasting process befox-e being mixed with white flour. 
Preparation For Hovis, the following quantities and method may be 
of Germ. adopted: Hovis prepared meal, 8 lb.; yeast, 3 oz.; water, 
2 quarts and 1 pint at 106° F. No salt is required, because, for reasons 
stated above, it is already mixed amongst the meal. The dough is very 
thoroughly mixed and toughened and then allowed to rest for about twenty 
minutes, after which it is again kneaded, and then weighed into tins. 
These, kept in a moderately warm place free from draughts, will prove 
Method of to within £ in. of the top of the tins in from 30 to 40 

Dough-making, minutes. They ai’e then baked in an oven about 440° F. 
Small sizes will bake in 25 minutes; 2d. sizes will l-equii-e fx’om 30 to 
35 minutes; and 3 d. sizes, weighing about If lb., will require from 
40 to 50 minutes. This method is not identical with that usually followed, 
and considerably different from that given in the instructions by the 
firm supplying the meal, but the writer has found it gives most satis- 
factory results in textux-e and ixx flavoui'. In the instructions supplied, 
the water used is much hotter thaxx this, and the loaves are weighed aixd 
placed in tins almost as soon as the dough is made. From this two sex-ioixs 



faults very frequently follow. The texture of the bread is very open and 
honeycomb-like, and it is tough and deficient in flavour. These results 
are caused by the yeast remaining wholly in one spot in the Texture of 
dough, as the loaves cannot be kneaded a second time after Hovis. 
they are placed in tins. On the other hand, by the method suggested 
above, the second kneading increases very much the number of threads 
of gluten in the dough, renders it more ductile and makes its threads 
much finer, and increases the number and therefore reduces the size 
of all the vesicles of the dough, thus giving a much finer texture. To 
this end even more than one kneading is advantageous, if only short 
intervals are allowed between them, and in any case How to improve 
the dough with this proportion of yeast should not lie Texture, 
longer than half an hour before scaling; otherwise there is a loss of 
flavour. Some bakers, acting on instructions received, make the dough 
so soft that that they cannot handle it without adopting the continental 
custom of keeping the hands wet by dipping them into water while scaling 
off and handling the pieces. This is distinctly awkward, and the resultant 
bread is not as well flavoured as that made from dough stiff* enough to 
handle in the ordinary way. 

Daren bread is in all respects so much like Hovis that the instruc- 
tions given for the latter are equally applicable to the former, or, indeed, 

to all meals in which germ forms a considerable part. 

° r Daren Bread. 

Within the last year or two an effort has been made to 
use these meals, minus the salt, for cakes, gingerbread, and ordinary currant 
bread, but their popularity for these purposes does not in- special Meal 
crease, nor is it likely to, as, except for biscuits, they are not for Cakes, &c. 
well adapted for such uses, and the taste of these meals is no enhancement 
to such goods made from white flour. 

An excellent cheap biscuit can, however, be made either by using fresh 
germ or any of the other meals mentioned, although fresh germ gives the 
best results on account of the absence of salt, unless, of course, the Brown 
meal with the registered name is obtained specially for such a Biscuits, 
purpose without salt. The quantities are as follows: 8 lb. white flour, 
2 1 lb. fresh germ, 1 lb. 14 oz. lard, or If lb. vegetable fat, If lb. sugar. In 
the white flour before mixing with germ, 2 oz. bicarbonate of soda and 
4 oz. cream of tartar are mixed and sifted twice. The dough is made with 
3 pints of milk, either fresh milk or butter milk. This dough is “ pinned ” 
out in small pieces at a time in sheets about £ in. in thickness, and cut 
with a l'ound, oval, or oblong cutter as desired, but for plain goods of 
this description plain cutters are preferable to those with crimped edges. 
The table should be dusted as required, not with flour but with wholemeal. 
The tins do not require greasing, but must be thoroughly cleaned. These 
biscuits should be baked in a warm oven — about 440° F. They are crisp 
and very nice-flavoured biscuits and sell well. Wholemeal 

Exactly the same mixture is suitable for making whole- Biscuits, 
meal biscuits, only there is no fine flour mixed with the meal in that case. 



Rye Bread. 

The very best mixture for this class of biscuit consists of half oatmeal 
(medium cut) and half wholemeal, the other ingredients in dough as 
Oatmeal above, only that a little more milk is required when oatmeal is 
Biscuits. use( l. When several sorts of brown biscuits ax-e made, it is a 
convenient ari'angement to have each distinctive kind cut a different shape 
from the othei’s to save confusion. 

Amongst brown bi'eads that made from i-ye maj^ be classed, although 
the sort now referred to is brown on the outside only and greyish in crumb. 

There is not much of this kind of bread demanded in this 
country, except by some German and Russian Jews (see Plate 
Brown and Rye Breads, fig. 3). It is not like the black bread of Germany 
or the Dutch i-ye bi'ead (see Plate Dutch Bread). The following quan- 
tities and methods will be found to give good x-esults. Rye flour and 
wheat flour are mixed together in equal proportions, and of this mixture 
5 lb. is weighed. This is made into dough with 1 quart water at 104° F., 
1 oz. salt, and 1| oz. yeast. The dough is allowed to lie one hour and is 
well kneaded, then at the end of another half hour it is kneaded again, and 
weighed into pieces of the size required. The loaves are genei’ally either 
1 lb. or 1J lb. They are moulded round or oval or long, and allowed 
to prove either on cloths upside down or on dusted boards and covered 
over with cloths. This dough will be quite firm, and the loaves will 
require from 1 hour to 1| hour to prove, and will then not be veiy bulky. 
Paste for When ready for the oven, they are thickly smeared over with 
Glazing. a p as te made by scalding 1| oz. of coi’nflour in 1 pint of boiling 
water. The oven should not be above 420° F. When the loaves are neai'ly 
baked they are di’awn to the mouth of the oven, and washed over a second 
time with the starch paste and returned to the oven to drj^. The l-esult of 
this second application of paste is to give the bi’ead a veiy dark highly- 
glazed crust, which, howevei’, is usually rather tough. The texture of the 
crumb of this bread is very close, but the bread is sweet, and to those who 
acquire a taste for it is satisfactoiy. It keeps moist for quite a week. To 
those unfamiliar with the taste of rye it is not particularly enticing. Made 
in the way described, it does not acquire the decidedly sour taste so charac- 
tei'istic of rye bread made by the leaven process or fi*om a long sponge, but 
it has a mawkish sweetness which soon becomes nauseous. This kind of 
bread when made for special customers is genei’ally sold at 3d. for 
about 1\ lb. 

Another sort of rye bread which usually contained a small quantity of 
spice was common as a kind of cheap gingei’bi’ead in Scotland many years 
Spiced Rye ago, and may still be found in isolated places. A modern 
Bread. method with yeast is as follows (see Plate Brown and Rye 
Breads, fig. 4). Make straight dough with 24 lb. rye flour and 24 lb. 
white flour, 1 oz. salt, 4 oz. golden syrup, 2 oz. yeast, 4 oz. mixed spice, 
and 1 quart and 1 gill water at 104° F. The syrup is mixed with the 
water in bay, then salt, then yeast is added, and straight dough made. 
This is allowed to l’est in a warm place for an hour and then well kneaded. 



It is weighed and moulded at once into tins, as the dough is comparatively 
soft. Owing to the syrup these loaves prove rather slowly. In about 
1 hour or 1^ hour they will be ready for the oven, which should be rather 
cool. This kind of bread is very palatable and finds a Keeping Properties 
ready sale for a time, although customers ultimately of R y e Bread - 
become tired of it.„ One characteristic it does show much like ginger- 
bread: it should not be eaten new, as it keeps soft and moist for a long 
time according to the moisture in the atmosphere, becoming soft whenever 
the air is the least damp. The old-fashioned method of making this bread 
was to bake it in large blocks weighing about 6 lb. each, but for modern 
requirements it is better to make it in small loaves and sell as a speciality, 
charging of course a special price. 

Several of the sorts of brown bread mentioned above are proprietary 
articles, and the names under which they are sold are registered trade 
marks, which cannot be used except b}^ authority of the Proprietary Patent 
proprietors, and the use of the registered names otherwise, Breads, 
even if the bread is identical with that to which the name applies, renders 
the user liable to a penalty. While therefore Hovis and Daren bread 
cannot be sold except by the leave of the proprietors of the respective 
meals, there is nothing to hinder any baker from making germ bread in 
the manner described above, and selling it, either as germ bread, or under 
any special name he may choose. The same thing is true of brown breads 
prepared with a proportion of malt meal, flour, or extract. These substances 
can be used in any manner and in any quantities, but the bread produced 
can only be sold under a registered name by the sanction of the proprietor 
of that name. This caution is necessary because some bakers think if they 
use the same ingredients as those in a “ patent ” bread, that they may sell 
it under the name the patentee has registered. On the other hand, some 
are afraid to make fancy brown breads of their own, because of a fear of 
infringing some other patent. Only the registered name is really protected, 
and the conditions attached to the name, but neither process nor ingredients 
carry any exclusive rights. In the case of some proprietary breads, such 
for instance as Bermaline, the patentees are particular that the bread sold 
under their title must contain all the ingredients stated in their process, 
and in the proper proportions. To this end the proprietors send out 
instructions to bakers who desire to make their bread, the condition beinir 


that all the ingredients are purchased from this firm. At one time the 
wholemeal semolina and malt extract used in the manufacture of Bermaline 
bread were sold separately, the baker being instructed to mix the chemicals 
in the meal in certain proportions. Owing, however, to carelessness in the 
bakery, the ingredients were often mixed in anything but their proper 
proportions, with the result that great variations in the bread, as made by 
different bakers, were destroying the reputation of Bermaline as it should 
be made. To remove this trouble the proprietors do not now send out the 
ingredients separately, but prepare and mix the meals in their proper 
proportions, adding also the chemicals, and supplying a malt extract of 



standard quality to use according to the instructions. The process is much 
like that given above for malt bread, but, as already stated, it must be 
made from materials supplied by the Bermaline firm; otherwise the name 
cannot be used. 

Quite a number of large millers now prepare special meals for bread 
with registered names. In a good many cases these meals are mixtures of 
white flour and wheat germ only; in others the meal contains a quantit}' 
of malt flour, either from barley malt or from malted wheat itself. The 
actual contents are kept as much as possible secret. Some of these special 
breads are worthy of note because of their pleasant flavour, although their 
process of manufacture is difficult. Two such breads are Carrs Malt and 
Carr’s Malt Veda. When the former was first introduced to the trade a 
Bread. considerable quantity of syrup was given in the instructions as 

one of the necessary ingredients, and a good many bakers who took up the 
license to make this bread found it impossible to bake it. The syrup, or 
the greater part of it, is now left out of the mixture, so that the bread can 
be easily made in the ordinary way. The writer has found the simplest 
plan, to obtain best results, is to use 1 oz. yeast to each 3 lb. meal and let 
the dough, made rather firm, stand three-quarters of an hour, then knead 
well and mould. The tins for this bread have no bottoms, but are oval 
rings with the name embossed on the side. The loaves are cut on top. 
They take about half an hour to prove, and are then baked in an oven 
about 360° F. for 1£ to 2 hours. The special point about this sort of bread 
is its malty flavour, and its keeping qualities. 

The other bread mentioned above, Veda, is made from a special meal 
consisting of about two-thirds white flour and one-third Veda meal. The 
Ved Bread P ro P 1- i e fc° rs > meeting the same difficulty as mentioned above 
with regard to Bermaline, tried the method of sending out the 
meal and flour already mixed, but discovered that the bread prepared from 
such mixture had not the pronounced flavour of that made by the original 
process. This consists in making a strong sponge with, say, 4 lb. flour, 2 
quarts water, and 3 oz. yeast. This would rise and turn in about 45 minutes, 
when it is made into dough with 6 lb. flour, 1 pint water, 3 lb. pure Veda 
meal, and oz. salt. The dough is allowed to lie about an hour, then well 
kneaded, weighed, and moulded into tins. Another method is to make 
the white dough first, either by sponge as above described, or by straight 
dough process, using the same ingredients; then when the dough is nearly 
ready for scaling, to work in the Veda meal, and then scale and hand up, 
allowing to lie some time before moulding into tins. Another plan is to 
make dough with all ingredients as described, then to re-knead it in the 
machine — if the quantity is large enough — and after allowing the dough to 
recover, to mould into tins. The loaves are then allowed to prove in the 
usual way, until they are nearly level with the top of the tins, and are 
baked in an oven at 320° F. for about 3 hours. The variety of methods 
for making this bread are the result of efforts made by different bakers to 
overcome the difficulties which arise. The great trouble is to secure an 



oven cold enough, that can be used for such a long period as 3 hours. The 
best plan is to have the bread ready for the oven after all the other work 
of the day is finished, then to appoint someone to take it out at the stated 
time^-at the end of 3 hours. The time of baking must be judged by the 
clock, because the loaves, whether baked or not, have a rather thick crust 
and are hard, while the centre may be still soft and sticky, so that its 
readiness cannot be judged by ordinary bakehouse signs. The thickness 
and hardness of crust at the sides may be reduced by allowing the loaves 
to bake close together, so that baking is done by top and bottom heat only 
The softness of the interior is more difficult to overcome. This is of course 
due to the excessive action of the diastase in the Veda meal, which changes 
so much of the starch of the flour into sugar during baking that the interior 
of the loaf becomes extremely difficult to dry. On this account, even when 
the loaves are properly baked, this bread is never cut for use till it is at 
least 24 hours old. Bakers have not taken up agencies for this sort of 
bread with the same freedom as in the case of some others, owing solely to 
the difficulties in manufacture; yet when it is made with care it is probably 
the best flavoured of all the proprietary breads now oji the market, and 
those who are able to make it successfully find that it sells well as a 
speciality. These loaves are baked in ordinary oblong tins, in 1 lb. or 14 
lb. sizes, with the registered name embossed on the sides. 

A note was made above about bran bread, which is still ordered by 
doctors in cases of dyspepsia or chronic indigestion. This bread may be 
made a good deal lighter than ordinary brown and be rather 
nice to eat. The following method may be followed. Make Bran Bread ' 
straight dough with 8 lb. fine flour, 2 lb. clean bran, 4 oz. lard, 3 oz. sugar, 
3 oz. yeast, and 2 quarts 1 pint water at 104° F. This dough will be 
moderately soft. Allow to lie one hour, then knead thoroughly, and knead 
again in another half-hour. The dough should then be ready for scaling 
into 2-lb. pieces. Instead of baking these in single tins, four may be placed 
in a large round tin about 14 inches in diameter with a lid. The loaves 
are well greased on the sides so as to allow them to separate easily when 
baked. These are allowed to prove until about one inch from the top of 
the tin — this should take 30-35 minutes — and then baked with the lid on. 
The loaves will then be of the same thickness throughout but triangular in 
shape, rounded on one side and straight on two others. This shape makes 
a distinction from ordinary brown bread, and finds favour with customers. 







Mention has been frequently made in preceding chapters of home-made 
barms and their use, and it may be convenient to deal with them here, 
Malt and especially as there are still many places, in tropical and sub- 
Hop Barm, tropical countries, where one or other sort must be used. Of 
home-made barms the easiest to prepare, and probably the most reliable, is 
that made from malt and hops. This barm is given different names in 
different localities. In Scotland, where it was at one time universally 
used, it is known as “compound” or “comp” barm, while in London the 
term used is “ patent ”. The method of manufacture and quantities of 
materials vary almost with the number of bakers who make it, but there 
is general agreement on the main points. As a matter of historical interest, 
Variations in and as showing how persistently a trade keeps to its methods 
Manufacture. f or vei y long periods, the description of this process of barm- 
making, as given by a baker who published a work on the subject in 1830, 
may be inserted before the method still in use, which really differs very little. 
Under the title of artificial malt yeast this author writes: “Take 5 gal. of 
soft water, adding 2|- or 3 oz. of hops, or 1£ oz. of pounded gentian-root, or 
Old Method twopenceworth. of red sage; let either of these boil for 20 
minutes or £ hour slowly, and cool this down to 170° or 180° F. 
according to the state of the malt, then take 5 lb. of rough ground malt, 
and mash it with this liquor for 2 hours, and then press out the grains 
with your hands, or with a screw press made for the purpose, and when your 
wort is cooled down to 65° or 70° according to the state of the weather, 
add two or more quarts of artificial yeast (from a previous making, similar 
to that now described), along with 3 oz. of salt and 1 lb. of fine flour, and 
let the whole fermentation go on till it has completely ceased working, 
when it is ready for use. This yeast, like all other artificial yeasts of the 
kind, is often better the second day than the first, and this may be accounted 
for by the circumstance of the fermentation not having completely ceased. 
Some are in the habit of fermenting their grains along with their yeast, 
but it is by no means a good plan, because they are very apt to get into 
an acetous or sour fermentation, instead of a vinous or sweet 
fermentation, which is much preferable. It is a common 
practice with many bakers to put the salt into the boiler along with the 
water and the hops. Now, can there be anything more inconsistent or 
absurd? for they have no sooner got the softest water they can procure 
for this purpose, than they will immediately clap in a parcel of salt, which 
will of course render it hard, soft water being universally approved of, 
as being best adapted for all manner of brewing whatever. By no means 
cool your hop liquor down with cold water, which I have known some 
people do: it has a tendency to bring the whole into a raw state. Always 
use your thermometer as a guide in making your yeast.” 

Old Mistakes. 


This process would, of course, make good barm still, only the tempera- 
ture for storing is 6° to 8° too low to obtain a vigorous fermentation. 
Boiling salt with the hops and water does not increase salt does not 
the hardness of the water, as we now use the word, but harden Water, 
it has the same effect in barm-making, inasmuch as it reduces the solvent 
action of the water on the malt, and the wort will in consequence contain 

less extractive matter. 

The common practice as now used is as follows. From 2 to 3 oz. of 
hops is boiled for about 10 minutes in 5 gal. of water. After stirring, and 
when the hops have sunk to the bottom of the boiler or pan, it is Modem 
allowed to cool to 170° F. When this temperature is reached, Practice. 
14 lb. of crushed malt is stirred into the hop liquor, until all is properly 
wetted. It is then covered up and kept in a warm place, where the heat 
will remain from 140° to 150° F. for about 4 hours. The liquor is then 
strained from the grains, the latter being well pressed between the hands, 
or in a proper press for the purpose. This liquid is the barm proper, and 
only requires to be stocked with yeast. The quantity of barm from a 
previous making necessary for this purpose is about 3 pt., stocking or 
or, roughly, 3f lb. The temperature of the barm after Storing Barm, 
storing should be about 74° F. in summer and 80° F. in winter. When 
stored oi stocked it should be well stirred and aerated, as this starts 
fermentation quickly, and aids the production of new yeast. If the barm 
is wanted in a hurry no salt should be used at the time of storing, but 
in the ordinary course the addition of 4 oz. of salt to this quantity will 
steady fermentation, and prevent exhaustion and subsequent sourness. 

The next point is to make provision for keeping the barm warm and as 
regular in temperature as possible. During the first four or five hours the 
temperature will actually increase, owing to the extreme Keeping Barm 
fermentative activity of the yeast cells, and as it is important 
that this chemical activity should not be reduced, care has to be taken that 
the tub is kept in a moderately warm place in cold weather, or, otherwise, 
that it is well protected to conserve the heat generated within. As fermen- 
tation proceeds, the yeast cells increase in number, and, for a time, form a 
seething mass within the liquid, and a thick scum on the top; but as the 
process continues, the gravity of the liquid becomes less, and the gas- 
producing activities of the yeast cells slower, and as the cells themselves 
minus the gas bubbles which adhere to them are heavier than the liquid 
in which they have been working, they gradually sink to the bottom, 
forming a layer there, and the top and liquid underneath signs of 
become comparatively clear. When this clearness begins to Readiness, 
show as small white bubbles through the dark scum which up to a certain 
stage covers the top, this is roughly a sign of readiness, although appear- 
ances depend a great deal on the kind of malt used. In any case barm 
is not ready for use until it has been fermenting roughly for about twenty 
hours. Some bakers do not use the thin top liquor, but, as long as the 
barm is new and fresh, it is as well to stir the whole together, and use the 



total liquor. The liquor itself is not of assistance in the fermentation of 
Why the Liquid dough, except for the ripening or softening action 

Part of Barm is used, which the acid matter it contains may have on the 
gluten of flour, and, in the case of that from which j^east foods, saccharine 
and proteid, have not been exhausted, in continuing to supply these to 
stimulate and quicken yeast activity. The main point to notice, however, 
is that the quantity of liquor used is not the determining factor in the 
amount of fermentation which will result, but only the quantity of yeast 
cells which the liquor actually contains. Thus the same measure of liquid, 
Strength of Barm if highly nutritious for yeast, may contain many more 
is in Yeast. cells than a thin and innutritious liquid, while for either 

kind of liquid a difference of a few hours in its age may make a consider- 
able difference in its fermentative strength, as yeast keeps on growing in 
quantity the longer it is working in a suitable medium. From these con- 
Variations siderations it will be evident that variations may readily arise 
m strength. j n the strength of barm, and still greater variations in the 
results of dough fermentation which it produces, and these variations may 
be difficult to control or even to explain. 

There may be in cases a sti'ong sentimental reason for the baker to 
continue making and using his home-made barm, but, except in circum- 
Why Bakers should stances already alluded to, where factory-prepared yeast 
not make Barm. cannot be obtained, it is i*eally an unwise policy. The 
baker has so many other operations to attend to, which require constant 
watchfulness and regulation by the clock, that he is well rid of barm- 
making, which is the most important and critical of all his work. It is 
not, as sometimes suggested, a question of the want of scientific knowledge 
on the part of the baker, or of superior knowledge on the part of the yeast 
manufacturer, but only that in the yeast factory the prime purpose is the 
proper care of the yeast, and everything is made to subserve that end, 
whilst in a bakery, important as barm -making is, its various stages have 
to wait on the more immediate necessity of getting the daily supply of 
bread right, and in consequence may be partly neglected. This is the 
case particularly in small bakehouses, where the man who looks after the 
barm is also the working baker. In large establishments, where one man 
may have barm-making alone as his special duty, the work can be done 
much more satisfactorily, but its use even then is not so safe as compressed 
yeast, for, within limits, the number of yeast cells in a given weight of the 
latter is always alike, whilst the number in a given measure of the liquid 
may vary considerably. Amongst liquid barms, that made from malt and 
hops is probably more satisfactory than any other, and gives least trouble 
in its manufacture. 

The quantity to be used in a quarter or half sponge has been already 
indicated, as from 3 to 4 or 5 imperial pints per sack of flour, according to 
Quantity of the strength of yeast and the time it has to stand, but 

Barm per Sack. the same barm gives satisfactory results with straight 
dough. The best period to allow a straight dough to lie is about eight 


ARTHUR W. Last was born in 1862 at Ipswich. He was inden- 
tured as an apprentice in the office of the Ipswich Journal , and 
afterwards was appointed to the staff of the Birmingham Daily 
Dost. He is now Editor of the National Association Review , 
which, under his guidance, has developed from a quarterly to a 
monthly, and then to a weekly journal. He was the first per- 
manent Secretary of the National Association, to which position 
he was appointed in 1894. He is a director of the Trades, 
Markets, and Exhibitions Limited. 

Fred. C. Finch was born, the son of a baker, at Tiverton in 
Devon in 1855. He early took an interest in journalism and trade 
organization, and was appointed Editor of the Baker’s Record 
and Secretary of the London Master Bakers’ Protection Society. 
Under his care the Baker's Record has become an excellent trade 
journal and a valuable commercial property. Mr. Finch is a 
Director of the Trades, Markets, and Exhibitions Limited. 

Walter Edgar Aylwin was born in Australia in 1856, and 
has lived in England since childhood. He was for some time in 
the wool trade, and subsequently established the well-known busi- 
ness of Aylwin and Co., Canned Goods Brokers. In conjunction 
with several other commercial men in 1893 he started the Bakers’ 
and Confectioners’ Exhibition, which, along with the Grocery 
Exhibition, ultimately became the property of the Trades, Markets, 
and Exhibitions Limited, of which Mr. Aylwin is Managing 

Herbert Scofield Rogers is Assistant-Manager and Secre- 
tary of the Trades, Markets, and Exhibitions Limited. Mr. Rogers 
was born in 1876, and was educated privately and at London Uni- 
versity. He had two and a half years’ training as an electrical 
engineer, but gave up that business when he became Secretary of 
the Exhibitions in 1S95. 












hours. The quantity of barm of the above strength to clear the dough in 
this time is about 3 or even 4 quarts, the temperature of the dough being 
not above 78° F, For the first two or three hours the dough seems very 
sluggish, but it comes on very vigorously afterwards. It should be well 
kneaded, if possible, at the end of six hours. The resultant straight Dough 
bread is not bulky, but is quite clear and of pleasant with Barm, 
flavour, the crust having also a nice bloom. With such barm the writer 
on one or two occasions has had to make small quantities of bread in about 
three hours from start to finish. By using sufficient yeast, keeping the 
dough warm, and kneading frequently, no difficulty was experienced, and 
the bread was of good volume and excellent appearance, only with the 
least suspicion of a barmy flavour. 



Flour is frequently used as one of the ingredients of the barm described 
in the foregoing chapter, but the tenn flour barm is generally confined 
to that in which flour forms the principal ingredient, as- in Parisian and 
the kinds called “Parisian” and “Virgin”, which are used Vir £ in Barms, 
so extensively in Scotland, and are modified forms of compound and leaven 
respectively. It has been repeatedly suggested that the mode of preparing 
flour barm was originally introduced into Scotland from France, and, 
considering the close relations which formerly existed between the two 
nations, this is quite possible; yet it is more than doubtful if there was 
ever any formal introduction of the barm, and there is certainly no direct 
evidence on the point. 

The old author already quoted from, who published a work in 1830, 
was quite familiar with the flour barm we now call Virgin, and thus 
explains its introduction: — “About thirty-five years ago old Method for 
(about 1794), when brewers’ yeast or barm could only Flour Barm, 
be obtained by chicane and bribery, and when that which was so obtained 
was often unfit to use, the bakers had prodigious difficulties to struggle 
with, now happily unknown. Necessity, the mother of invention, at 
length led them to think of a substitute, which they termed ‘ferment’, 
for making which the following was the recipe:— Take 5 gal. of water, 
along with 3 or 4 oz. of hops, and boil for half an hour, then strain the 
boiling hop liquor into a cask, over about 8 lb. of fine flour, which beat 
up properly into a thick paste or batter, which tastes very sweet. Allow 
it to remain until it becomes almost cold, then add a small quantity of 
brewers’ yeast the first time (but itself afterwards), and set it fermenting, 
and after it has ceased working, use it in setting sponges. I have often 
set it going of its own accord, without any stock of itself, or any yeast 



or barm whatever. ... I have often seen a good-looking, passable loaf 
made from it, but it had when coming out of the oven a rank dis- 
agreeable smell, which went away as it cooled.” 

Virgin barm is still extensively used, particularly in the west of 
Scotland. Some makers use hops, but the majority confine themselves 
New Method for to scalded and raw flour only. The following description 
Virgin Barm. 0 f th e method of making and using Virgin barm is by 

Mr. Jas. Howie, Kilmarnock, and was published in the Baker and Con- 
fectioner as part of a lecture at the Ayrshire bread-making classes. “ The 
barm is made three times a week, 14 lb. of flour in each scald, and the mode 
of procedure is as follows. The scalding-tub is first thoroughly warmed 
with boiling water; with the 14 lb. of flour, 4 (Scotch) pints (about 18 lb.) at 
120° F. is stirred and made into a tough batter. To this is added 1 pint 
(44 lb.) of boiling water at a time, until 6 pints (27 lb., about 2f gal.) 
altogether is used. As each pint of water is added, the batter is stirred 
very vigorously with a long stick, so that every particle of the flour 
becomes gelatinized. It is then put out of the way in a place where 
the temperature is between 70° and 80° F., till the next day, when it is 
stored by adding 2 lb. more flour and 2 Scotch pints of old barm, and it 
is again stirred vigorously with the hand to thoroughly mix the newly- 
added flour. It is then covered up and allowed to lie till the next day, 
during which time it will rise and fall twice before it finally clears oft’ 
and is ready for using, the whole process from start to finish occupying 
about fifty hours. Soft flours are most suitable for barm of this type. . . . 
In making bread with this kind of barm a little less yeast than usual 
Quantity of is employed — about 4£ lb. per sack. To a batch of 20 doz. 
Barm in Batch. l oaV es (1^ sack) a 5-pint ‘quarter’ (about 2J gal.) is allowed, 
with 4 oz. salt and 2 pints (nearly a gallon) of barm. This is ‘set’ at four 
o’clock in the afternoon at a temperature of 90° (water), the bakehouse 
being about 68° F. It is generally about its height at ten o’clock at 
night, and at five o’clock in the morning it is just turned. The half- 
sponge is then set with water at 90°, and in two hours it is ready to 
lift. After it is doughed it is allowed to lie about forty-five minutes, 
when it is weighed off and got into the oven at ten o’clock, and is 
drawn at twelve — the whole process occupying exactly twenty hours.” 
This may be taken as the regular method in dealing with this barm, the 
times between being filled up with preparing the small goods and biscuits 
which form a part of the routine work in nearly all Scotch bakehouses. 

The barm called Parisian differs from Virgin in having a quantity of 
malt decoction in its composition as well as scalded flour, while it differs 
Parisian Flour Barm: from compound in having scalded flour as well as 

Modern Method. malt. The following description of Parisian, by Mr. 
Thomas Blair, Dairy, Ayrshire, is also quoted from the Baker and Con- 
fectioner. “ Put 4 Scotch pints of boiling water into a small tub or pail, 
and when it has cooled down to 170° F. stir into it 6 lb. of crushed malt, 
and cover it up, say, at nine o’clock in the morning, and let it stand till 



three o’clock into the afternoon. Into a pot or boiler run 8 Scotch pints 
of water, and boil this, having 1 oz. of hops in a small muslin bag in 
the boiler. The malt in the tub is then strained from the liquor through 
a brass sieve. About Scotch pints of boiling water is then added to 

the malt liquor to bring it up to 130° F. (in winter 140°), then into this 
32 lb. of barm flour is mixed and made into a stiff batter. When the 
other water is boiling, one man must dip out the water while another 
stirs the batter; put in 1 pint and stir hard, 2 and 3 and keep stirring, 
then 5 half-pints, stirring hard all the time. This should make the ‘scald’ 
right. It should be thick, changed in colour (brownish), and have a sweet 
taste. It should not get more water, it will become thin enough as it stands. 
Allow this paste to lie till next morning, and ‘store’ at 79° or 80° F. 
with li Scotch pint of good barm, but no raw flour; let it stand till next 
morning. It should have risen 6 or 8 in. in the tub and fallen again. 
Divide it then into three large jars and keep cool. It is ready for 
sponging two days after it is made. Two pints (nearly 1 gal.) barm 
and about 3 gal. water for quarter-sponge for 1 sack flour.” 

Mr. Blair gives some details of how he succeeds in curing faults from 
time to time. He says: “This barm may keep good for months (not 
one lot, but consecutive makings), but there is always a Preparing New 
tendency to get sharp to the taste, or, in other words, get Barm Stock, 
a little ‘ hard ’ wrought. Whenever I notice this, before I ‘ store ’ the 
next making I run off 3 Scotch pints of the liquor, then store and set this 
aside for six or eight hours, then pour it in cautiously without stirring, 
and let it stand the usual time. I have never found this to fail in 
sweetening and improving and putting vigour into it. I have occasionally 
made a new ‘store’ as follows: — When your barm is ready for storing, 
run off 2 Scotch pints into a small jar. Store the remainder of the barm 
as usual. Into the 2 pints set apart stir 12 oz. of raw flour and 12 oz. of 
sugar, and set away in a cosy place for twenty-four hours, then give it 
a good beat up with your hand and allow to lie covered up for another 
forty-eight hours, when it will be ready for ‘storing’ the next lot of 
barm, but, if not sure of it, add £ pint of barm to it and it will be right. 
. . . I would suggest that hops be always used in your barm summer 
and winter; it does not so readily become acid. The flour for barm 
ought to be changed occasionally, strengthening it with about half-strong 
flour. In hot weather it should always be kept in a cool place; otherwise 
it can hardly be kept right. It should not be cooled down with cold 
water, and should not be fermented too warm.” 

It is curious and interesting that the old author already referred to 
had also anticipated this kind of barm; so the present method, which 
has been common in Scotland for only some fifty years or old Method 
less, was but a revival of an older method, which is practically for Parisian, 
still as effective, and may therefore be given with advantage. It was 
called “ artificial yeast of malt, hops, and flour ”, and was made as follows. 
“Boil 3 oz. of hops in 3 gal. of water over a slow fire for half an hour, 



then let it cool down to 165° F. Pour it over 2 lb. of ground malt, and 
let it stand for three hours, occasionally squeezing it with the hand. 
Strain the liquor off', and have ready 3 lb. of fine flour which has been 
previously scalded with gal. of boiling water, and 3 oz. of common 
salt; mix the whole together, and when cooled down to 70° or 80°, 
according to the weather, add 2 quarts of yeast from a previous making, 
or other artificial yeast, and let the whole fermentation go on till it 
has completely ceased working, when it is ready for use. To quarter- 
sponge with this yeast for a 12-gal. batch, take 2 gal. of boiling water, 
Ferment with and scald 2 lb. of fine flour with it; and, when at 100°, set it 
Scalded Flour. p re tty thick with flour and 1 quart of yeast, and after it has 
dropped set your full sponge. Take, then, 9 gal. more water at 100°, 
adding your salt and quarter-sponge with the usual quantity of flour, 
and, when dropped, make dough, taking up 1 or 2 gal. of cold water 
and the salt you require; give it an hour or more proof in dough, then 
scale off and lay them up, &c.” This yeast contains a larger proportion 
of malt and less scalded flour than the more modern kind, but the 
principle on which it ferments is the same, while the fact that the malt 
decoction is not treated with the boiling water with which the flour is 
scalded leaves it much more active as a diastasic agent, and the addition 
of scalded flour in the first sponge supplies the diastase of the malt 
with plenty of material from which to prepare yeast food. The writer 
has tried this yeast, and found it px-oduce an exceptionally nice-flavoured 
and bulky loaf. 

In the case of Virgin barm made with flour only, the explanation of 
its mode of working is not so simple, or apparent, as in the case of the 
Why Virgin other flour barm in which malt is used. There is a small 
Barm ferments, quantity of raw flour added to the barm after it is cooled, 
or, in the case of that which is stocked, when the old barm is added, and it 
has been suggested that this flour, or the soluble proteids which it contains, 
has the power of changing the gelatinized starch of the scalded flour into 
fermentable sugar, but experiments undertaken specially to discover how 
far this is true demonstrate that the soluble extract of flour is almost 
without any appreciable effect on gelatinized starch. It is possible that 
the acids produced during the fermentation of flour barms may assist in 
What changes changing the gelatinized starch of flour. The soluble 
the Scalded Flour, portion of the flour actually scalded is, of course, in- 
effective as an alterative agent, even if in ordinary circumstances it may 
possess slight properties of this kind, for it has been coagulated by heat. 
In Virgin barm to which stock has been added there may be already 
some enzymes which can change starch, since the extract of ordinary 
yeast is credited with this property to a slight degree. However the 
change is produced, it does occur in Virgin barm, the evidence of which 
is the thinning down of the barm from the thick jelly-like paste when 
newly made; but in this barm the change is not nearly so complete as 
in the case of Parisian, or other flour barm, in which malt is used. 



In Virgin, even when ready for use, a good deal of the starch still 
remains as starch, although it is changed from the gelatinized to the 
soluble condition — a transformation readily brought about Effects of Virgin 
by the intervention of acids only. The presence of this on Bread - 
soluble starch has probably a good deal to do with the softness and 
slightly raw taste which is characteristic of bread made with this kind 
of barm. It should be remembered that in the natural sugar and other 
constituents of flour, not affected by scalding, there is nutriment for a 
very considerable growth of new yeast, apart from the sugar obtained 
from changed starch. It has been already pointed out sugar of Flour 
in the remarks on yeast growth (Chap. XII) that a sugar unaltered 
solution is not the best medium in which to cultivate by Scaldin s- 
yeast, but one in which there is soluble proteid matter and free oxygen 
(or roughly, air). In a flour barm of the Virgin kind, the gluten which 
was in the flour is ultimately dissolved, and yeast growth may be going 
on rapidly, although there may not be excessive gas production, as in a 
medium containing much sugar. In Parisian barm there is, change ir 
of course, an abundance of both sugar and proteid matter in Gluten, 
the malt, while the diastase of the latter changes practically all the starch 
of the flour that has been gelatinized into fermentable sugar, by slow 
stages, the first operation being to change it partly into dextrin and 
maltose, but as the latter is fermented out by the yeast, to further 
change the dextrin also. Exactly the same process goes on in the case 
of the barm described from the old method. As already noticed, there 
is in all these flour barms a quantity of acid normally produced. The 
germs producing these acids may be inoculated by means Acid Germs in 
of the raw flour used in one case, and by the malt in F1 °ur and Malt, 
the others, for it is well known that the husks of malt, as well as the 
outer coatings of all grains, do harbour germs of one kind and another, 
ready to produce their characteristic acid products when placed in a 
medium suitable for their growth and reproduction. These acids can 
dissolve proteids, and aid considerably in ripening the gluten of flour 
when mixed in dough. 

In preparing flour barms the first care is to prevent lumps forming. 
This end is attained by thoroughly mixing all the flour and a quantity 
of the water into a tough batter, the water used for the p rev ention of 
purpose being about 120° F., so that the batter itself Lumps or 
may not be so cold as to reduce the boiling water below Knots m Barm - 
the point at which it will effectively scald the flour. In those barms 
containing malt, it may seem a strange proceeding to mix the malt 
liquor with the flour before adding the boiling water, since the active 
principle of malt — diastase — by which the subsequent change of starch 
into sugar is produced is virtually destroyed at a temperature above 
170° F. But safety lies in the heat-reducing properties why Stirring 
of the batter first made, and in the speed with which must be quick, 
this batter and the boiling water are mixed together at the stirring 

V’OL. I. 19 



operation. If the heat of the scald when newly made is tested it will be 
found to be very little, if any, above 170° or 180° F. Improper stirring 
may readily spoil this kind of flour barm by destroying the diastase of 
the malt. 

In the Australian Colonies, New Zealand, and South Africa, where 
compressed yeast is not yet manufactured, a form of potato yeast or 
“ Spontaneous ” barm is in use, which, in the first instance at least, is 
Yeast or Barm, allowed to start fermenting without any stock being 
added, and on this account the barm is called “ Spontaneous ”, or, for 
short, “Spoil”. This seems also to be a revival of an old method, 
probably taken to the Colonies in the early days by some baker from 
old Form of the old country. Here is the old recipe. 1 “Boil 2 oz. of 
Potato Barm. } 10 p S i n 2 gal. of water, and then have ready 10 lb. of mealy 
potatoes which have been properly washed and boiled, mash them down 
with their skins, and, adding your hop liquor, &c., all together, put 
the whole aside, covered up. When at 70°, add about 2 quarts of yeast and 
2 lb. of fine flour, and let the whole fermentation go on; some also add 
a quantity of sugar. When it has completely ceased working, put the 
whole through a sieve or drainer, and then use it at pleasure. This is 
a strong yeast; 1| quart will bake a sack of flour. You may either quarter 
or half sponge with it, and it produces a sweet, fine-flavoured loaf of 

The following is the method and quantities used generally in making 
the so-called “spontaneous” yeast at present in favour in the colonies 
Quantities mentioned. One and a half pound of hops are boiled in 16 gal. 
in “Spon”. 0 f wa ter; and while this is preparing, 56 lb. of sound potatoes 
are washed and boiled or steamed until properly cooked. When done, they 
are thoroughly mashed, and the hop liquor poured on to them. When 
this has been allowed to stand covered up for some time, 14 lb. of sugar 
crystals (in this country called coffee crystals, but in Australia called 
brewers’ crystals), 12 lb. of flour which has been baked and sifted, and 4 lb. 
salt are added. When the whole mixture has cooled to about 76° F., 2 lb. 
of bran is stirred in, and the barm is then kept covered up until it starts 
fermenting of itself, which it does very quickly; in fact, it is ready for use 
in sponges or doughs in thirty-six hours from the time when it was made. 
It is usual to add about 2 quarts of old barm as stock for this quantity; and 
when thus stocked, the barm drops in about twelve hours, and is ready for 
use in about two or three hours more. It is a regular practice by careful 
bakers to reserve some of the plain mash after everything is in except stock, 
Making and to place this aside in a clean jar in a situation where it 
Fresh Stock. w pi no t p, e disturbed. This ferments with a good head “ spon- 
taneously ”, and may be used after about thirty-six hours as a stock for 
a brewing of fresh yeast. This barm may be used for sponges, but the 
general practice is to make straight doughs standing in trough for about 
eight hours. For the first two or three hours after dough is made it seems 

1 From work published 1830. Author’s name not known. 



Cooking Flour. 

quite clay-like and dead, but it afterwards ferments with vigour, and the 
ultimate loaf is of full volume and good flavour. The dough Mode of 
is the better for a good kneading before being thrown using “ Spon 
out to scale. 

The manipulation of the loaves does not materially differ from the 
methods followed when other kinds of barm are used. For one sack of 
flour about 1| gal. of this barm is required. Here, as in the flour barms, 
there is a good deal of scalded starch — from potatoes in this case — which is 
ultimately changed into sugar. The diastasic agent here, however, is not 
malt, but probably the cerealin cells of the bran used. The large quantity 
of sugar supplies an abundance of that material for the yeast to ferment, 
while the flour, potatoes, and bran supply enough proteids and mineral 
matter for abundant yeast growth. The purpose of cooking the flour used 
is not very obvious. If sufficiently cooked, some of it may 
be changed into dextrin; otherwise, the flour will be less 
ready to form into small lumps than if it were added raw. It is interesting 
to note that while about thirty-six hours is a sufficient time for barm of 
this sort to mature spontaneously ready for use, the same sort of liquid 
will not have reached the state of maturity in the ordinary Germ-laden 
conditions prevailing in this country in less than forty-eight Atmosphere, 
to fifty hours. The only explanation is that the air of subtropical 
countries contains a larger quantity of germs (probably spores) suitable 
for the inoculation of a wort of this sort than ours, which germs would 
also of course be in greater abundance on the added bran. 

In Malta, and many parts of Spain and Portugal, a kind of batter or 
barm is used which is made as follows. 4 oz. best hops are boiled with 
3 gal. water for about twenty minutes. When the water is Maltese and 
still boiling, it is poured, after the hop leaves are strained Spanish Barm 
from it, on to 12£ lb. strong patent flour placed in a tub, and or Leaven ‘ 
stirred vigorously with a stick until it forms a firm batter or dough. This 
is then turned out on to a clean board or slab. When cold, 2 lb. of batter 
from a previous making is thoroughly mixed in the mass, or 4 oz. of pressed 
yeast may be used the first time. The stock is rubbed in till the paste is 
quite smooth, and it is then filled into a jar, cleaned and scalded, which is 
kept for the purpose. This paste is kept at a moderate temperature — from 
76° to 78° F. — for about thirty -six hours, and at the end of that period it is 
kept in a cooler place for future use. It will keep good for a week in cool 
weather, and for three or four days in summer. For a 280-lb. sack of 
flour 3 lb. of batter yeast is required with a sponge -and -dough system, 
occupying until the dough is ready for scaling about fourteen hours. This 
kind of barm differs little from flour barm of the Virgin kind, except in its 
thickness; it is simply a variety of leaven. There is, especially in very hot 
weather, a good deal of trouble in handling this kind of barm to obtain 
sweet bread; it has a tendency to become sour very readily. 

The following is a very strong barm, with much better keeping qualities 
than the ordinary. 6 lb. of malt flour or meal and 6 lb. of rye flour are 



mixed together and made into a soft dough with 2 gal. of water at 120° F. 
Barm of Malt, This dough is then scalded with 4 gal. of boiling water. 

Rye, and Flour. This thick paste is allowed to lie for about eighteen 
hours, gradually cooling. Four gallons more boiling water is then added, 
and well stirred in. This addition should raise the temperature to 160° F. 
Twelve pounds of crushed malt is mixed in it, and the mixture allowed to 
stand an hour, when another 3 gal. boiling water is added. The purpose of 
this last addition is simply to maintain the temperature between ] 50 " and 
160°. This water will raise it to 154°. It is then allowed to stand for 
seven hours. Before the seven hours expire, boil 3 oz. of hops in 3 gal. of 
water for about thirty minutes. Add this, when strained at the end of 
seven hours, to the wort already prepared. The whole is then strained and 
cooled to about 90° F. in winter. Two gallons of stock from a previous 
making is added, and at the same time 2 lb. more rye flour in the raw 
state. The barm will be ready for use in about forty-eight hours from 
the time it was started. It may be used for a straight dough to lie in 
trough about ten hours, 1 gal. of barm being used; or it is suitable for 
half or quarter sponge in the usual way. If the former is to stand 
eleven hours, 3 quarts of barm will suffice; about the same amount is 
used for a quarter-sponge to stand the same time, only sponged a few 
degrees colder. 

This barm is really a mixture of compound barm and Parisian. The 
addition of rye instead of wheat flour really increases the quantity of pro- 
Enzymes teid matter possessing enzymic properties, for rye has to a slight 
in Rye. degree the power of changing gelatinized starch to sugar, and 
to an even greater degree a peptonizing effect on proteids. The addition 
of hops to the worts, after the latter have been lying for some time, is to 
prevent the formation of bacteria. The malt used supplies an ideal 
medium for the growth, and rye is only slightly inferior to malt for the 
same purpose. When stock is added, 8 oz. of salt may be stirred in at 
the same time, the purpose being to steady fermentation further and 
prevent exhaustion. The recipe and method for this barm were given to 
the writer by Mr. D. M'Peak, of Ballymoney, Ireland, who had used it 
successfully for a long time; and the writer tested some samples of the 
barm three weeks old, and found it still sweet and healthy and capable of 
vigorous fermentation of dough. 

The following is the old method of making barm with a mixture of 
malt, rye, and potatoes. Boil 3 oz. of hops with 5 gal. of soft water till 
Old Method- the hops sink, then cool it to 170° F., and stir in 4 lb. of 
Malt, Rye, ground malt and 4 lb. of rye flour. Let this “mash” for 
three hours; then press the grains from the liquor through a 
fine sieve. Have ready 4 lb. of sound potatoes, washed and steamed, or 
boiled. Break these up, skins and all, and pour the malt-rye liquor 
amongst them, and stir well. When properly mixed, the wort should be 
strained from the potato skins. When cooled to 78°, add 2 quarts of the 
same yeast from a previous making, or other stock like brewers’ yeast, and 



at the same time 3 oz. of salt. Let this ferment in the usual way until the 
top of the liquor becomes clear, when it is ready for use. This makes 
strong barm, and about 2 quarts is sufficient for a sack (280 lb.) of flour, 
if made on the half- or the quarter-sponge system. 

The different materials and methods used in making barms and yeasts 
are really only varying means of obtaining food and stimulant for yeast 
growth. If scalded starch is used, either from wheat flour, Theory of 
or rye, or barley, or potatoes, there is always an enzyme also Barm-making, 
provided, for the purpose of changing that starch — which is not itself fer- 
mentable — into a form of sugar which is fermentable, such as maltose or 
glucose. These enzymes are present in malt, in rye, in the cerealin coats 
of bran, in the soluble proteids of white flour, in wheat germs, and even in 
yeast itself. The purpose, therefore, of adding quantities of these respec- 
tive substances to the barm mash is quite obvious; they are Action of 
converting substances, for preparing the worts for effective yeast Enzymes, 
nutrition, as well as, of course, supplying the material to be converted. In 
the case of yeast itself it supplies the living matter. Malt in some form 
or other is the usual enzymic agent— diastase; and as this is coagulable 
at about 170° F., and is therefore ineffective for its work if kept for long 
at that temperature, hence the instructions in all cases to Danger in 

cool to that temperature before adding the malt. There is an overheating 

apparent exception in the case of flour barm containing malt, Malt - 
as that is treated with boiling water after being mixed with flour; but, as 
already explained, damage is prevented by the comparatively cold dough 
cooling the boiling water, while mixing, down to about 170° F. The sole 
object in making liquid barms is to grow a large crop of yeast from a small 
quantity of seed, and this object is best attained by supplying a medium 
rich in proteid matter and in sugar, or at least in some substance capable 
of being changed into sugar. 

It has been already pointed out that yeast-manufacturers, besides 
supplying a medium highly nutritious for yeast, also impregnate the 
liquid with free oxygen, while the proportion of sugar Barm _ and 
material is reduced. This is found to be the ideal con- Yeast-making 
dition for the maximum yield of yeast, while the minimum Com P ared - 
quantity of sugar is broken down and a smaller proportion of alcohol pro- 
duced. The process in barm-making analogous to this aeration is when 
barm is stirred at intervals, or, as in the manufacture of Parisian, when 
the barm is poured several times from one tub to another. 

The interval allowed when malt is being mashed in water, before the 
grains are strained from the liquid, is to secure as much as possible of the 
soluble extract, while the injunction to maintain the mash at a high 
temperature while it is standing is to allow for the conversion, by the 
action of the diastase of the malt, of as much as pos- Action of Enzymes 
sible of the starchy part of the grain which had not increased with 
already been converted into sugar during the process Tem P erature - 
of malting. Diastase, like other enzymes, performs its functions at a rate 



varying with the temperature, in the same way as yeast does, only the 
temperature at which the maximum result is obtained from diastase (about 
150° F.) is much beyond the limit at which the organized yeast cell is even 
able to live (about 130° F.). 

In every case of barm-making there are several common features. The 
saccharine matter is supplied in the form partly of sugar and partly of 
General Features starch which had been previously gelatinized, and there 
of Barm-making. i s an enzyme in one form or another used to convert this 
starch to sugar. In malt the unconverted starch grains have already 
their skins burst through the action of an enzyme called cytase, which 
possesses a solvent action on the cellulose skins of starch, but seems to be 
active only while the grain is growing. Then the diastase in the mash 
completes the starch conversion into sugar. In Parisian barm the scalding 
operation gelatinizes the starch of the flour; then the malt present converts 
it into fermentable sugar and dextrin. In Virgin the starch is again 
gelatinized as a preliminary operation; but here the only enzyme present 
is the soluble proteid of flour, and it is to supply this that raw flour is 
added when the “ scald ” is cold. In cases where a quantity of stock is 
also added, the yeast that the stock contains will, of course, be a factor in 
assisting the change of some at least of the starch into sugar. But in this 
particular type of barm the acids which are invariably formed may convert 
the gelatinized starch into soluble starch, and a good deal of this probably 
why Barms remains as soluble starch only, while yeast growth takes place 
are weak. on tq ie strength of the natural sugar of flour, the part of the 
gelatinized starch actually converted, and the proteid matter of the flour, 
which is also changed to peptone by the action of acid or by another 
enzyme in the barm. Changes like these would account for the com- 
parative weakness of this type of barm and the necessity for using a 
larger quantity, and they would also explain the mildness with which it 
works in dough, the soft clay-like feel the dough has when moulding, and 
the characteristic soft bread it produces. 

In the case of the so-called spontaneous yeast described, the steamed 
or boiled potatoes supply gelatinized starch, the flour supplies the principal 
part of the proteids, while the cerealin of bran contains the enzyme which 
may convert the potato starch into sugar and dextrin. But in this barm 
the added sugar is amply sufficient to supply all the sugar required by 
the yeast, even if none of the potato starch is changed past the condition 
of soluble starch. 

In all the malt-flour and potato-barm recipes given except one a small 
quantity of hops is given as one of the essential ingredients. The purpose 
Use of Hops * s P reveu t the t°° active growth of acid-producing germs 
without seriously hindering the action of the yeast, but it is 
doubtful if hops are nearly so effective to this end as some suppose. Hop 
liquor does retard the fermentative activity of yeast even in a sugar solu- 
tion, but it can hardly be added to barm for this purpose, and the grounds 
on which it is said to be specially deterrent to the action of bacteria and 



germs other than yeast, while giving, as it were, a free pass to the latter, 
do not seem well established. The probability is that their use in barm on 
the part of bakers is a concession to custom as established by brewers, from 
whom the method of barm-making was first obtained as a modification of 
the beer-making process. The brewer does not, however, use hops for the 
same purpose as the baker. He uses them partly for flavour, and partly in 
order that their tannin may have an astringent effect on the proteid matter 
in the wort from which the beer is made, and so make it easier to clear and 
brighten. In any case, however, hops, like salt, do produce a steadying 
action on yeast fermentation, even if they do not prevent the action at the 
same time of acid-producing bacteria, although it is likely that they have 
the same slowing action on these germs as on yeast. So far as hops retard 
the action of yeast, this is probably in part due to the astringent effect of 
their tannin on the yeast food in the medium in which it is growing, whether 
this is a malt wort or a mixture of flour and water, whilst the bactericidal 
properties of hops are probably due to the essential oil which they contain 
in considerable quantity. It is this oil that produces the pleasant odour 
from hops. The intensity of the odour serves in its turn as an indication 
of the value of the hops. A few pods are gently rubbed between the palms 
of the hands; then the hops are removed, and the odour from the hands 
ascertained by making a cavity between them, and placing the nose at the 

The presence of acid-producing bacteria is a normal condition in all 
barms, and the idea that, for bread-making purposes at least, it is desirable 
to eliminate those entirely is now discarded. There is Acid-producing 
no doubt whatever that the acid-producing germs and Bactena in Barms, 
the acid which they produce perform important functions in the subsequent 
processes of bread-making, but while this is so, these germs and that acid 
must bear only a small proportion to the yeast present, and it is found 
that even with the greatest care in barm-making there are enough acid- 
producing germs in the mixture, while carelessness increases the proportion, 
so that it becomes excessive, with very bad results. The most fruitful 
cause of this excess is probably the use of badly cleaned utensils. Oak 
tubs are the best kind of vessels to use for storing the barm. These should 
be very thoroughly scalded every time they are emptied, as well as when 
about to be filled with new barm. If the tubs have to stand empty for 
some time, they should be exposed to fresh air, which has the effect of 
thoroughly sweetening them, as some kinds of bacteria are destroyed by 
this means. When the tubs seem to be saturated with acid they should be 
well coated inside and out with lime wash, or if that is not easily secured, 
then with a strong salt brine. In either case, if this is done, the tubs should 
be scrubbed with cold water to remove the salt or the lime, then thoroughly 
scalded before use. It goes without saying that to ensure regularity in 
the strength and quality of the barm, whatever its kind, the thermometer 
should always be used, and while correct weights of materials should be 
made, it is as well also to take the specific gravity of the worts by an 



hydrometer, as all malts do not give equal densities for equal weights, and 
it is the density of the wort that really matters. 

It may seem almost superfluous to devote so much space to the con- 
sideration of home-made barms; but, apart from the knowledge to be 
.... „ obtained by the details of manufacture and the distinctive 

Why Barm J . . 

is used in properties of the different ingredients, there is still a wide 

Australia. g e i<q ^ i s 0 f the greatest practical importance to be 

able to make barm successfully. Bakers on ships require this skill; in all 
tropical and subtropical countries these barms are still in regular use; and 
in most of these cases this condition is likely to remain unless some dis- 
covery is made which will ensure yeast keeping in very hot weather and 
being transported by rail for long distances. The continent of Australia, 
for instance, is still too sparsely populated to make it possible for yeast to 
be manufactured on a large scale for distribution over the whole continent 
from one centre, and the trade of any one populous centre would hardly be 
sufficient to keep even a small factory going. The same thing is true of 
India, Africa, and Central Asia. Moreover, the use of home-made barms is 
still predominant in Scotland, and in a few cases in the north of Ireland. 
In some parts of rural England, where there are no convenient railway 
facilities, barm of the compound or patent sort is still in use. There is a 
certain completeness about the skill of the baker, which involves the whole 
operation from the beginning of barm-making to the baking of the loaf, 
that makes his work an all-absorbing, almost a religious obligation, and it 
has an effect on the character which makes the baker practically a slave 
to his calling. This was even more apparent in the old days, when a baker 
hardly ever occupied himself in any public or personal work outside his 
own business as a baker. 



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