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fiJi/H, m OjuJCtuS 



FORMS AND ORIGIN 


OF 



LIFE, SPECIES AND 
NEOPLASMS 

BY 

CHARLES FREDERICK KNIGHT, 

M.D. 

Formerly Lecturer on Systematic and Practical 



JOHN CURRIE, 16 Teviot Place 




1912 


S I XPEN C E. W ET 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2016 


https://archive.org/details/b22480614 


A STUDY AND RESEARCH 


ON THE 

FORMS AND ORIGIN OF LIFE, 
SPECIES AND NEOPLASMS 


BY 

CHARLES FREDERICK KNIGHT, M.D. 

Formerly Lecturer on Systematic and Practical 
Pathology and Bacteriology 



JOHN CURRIE, 1 6 TEVIOT PLACE 


1912 


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A STUDY AND RESEARCH ON 
THE FORMS AND ORIGIN 
OF LIFE, SPECIES AND 
NEOPLASMS. 


Origin of Life and Species. 

The fertilising agents in animals are 
called spermatozoa and the fluid in which 
they exist the seminal fluid. These agents 
have the power of giving the new animal 
resemblances and peculiarities which may 
be perpetuated through generations ; the 
corresponding fluid in plants is called 
fovilla or pollina. What is the actual 
fertilizing agent in this fluid ? are there 
analagous bodies in it to spermatozoa ? 

Spermine, which is now produced in 
the laboratory under various names, 
stimulates the physiological activity of 
organs and tissues, and has a rejuvenating 


3 


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effect ; injected into a young tree in spring, 
growth becomes more vigorous. 

Does “fovilla,” which is consumed in 
large quantities by herbivora, stimulate 
their organs and improve nutrition ? and 
does this account for their great muscular 
strength ? 

What becomes of the myriads of ova 
daily escaping unfertilised into marine 
plasma (sea-water) ? Doubtless the majority 
perish, but some may be fertilised by the 
spermatozoa of other animals and new 
forms of life may then be developed ; we 
know that one animal’s spermatozoa can 
fertilise the ova of other animals and give 
rise to forms of life different to the original 
two forms from which they sprang. 

What is true in the animal kingdom is 
equally true in the vegetable kingdom ; 
and one can prove that the pollina of 
one form of plant life can fertilise a different 
form and thus produce a new species — in 
some cases capable of reproducing itself. 


5 


in others not. Now comes the fascinating- 
problem : Can an animal fertilizing fluid, 
fertilize a vegetable form ? and is the 
converse also true ? 

From experiments carried out by the 
writer, the answer must be in the positive. 

Opportunities for further research do 
not at present offer themselves to the 
author of this article, but some problems 
of life” and “lines of thought” are 
suggested by him for the “Beit” fellows 
and others engaged in “ research ” work : — 

1. What is the ultimate fate of the 

ova which are liberated from 
animals and plants ? 

2. By interchange they produce other 

species ; but what are the exact 
conditions which govern these 
changes ? 

3. Why does sex depend on the amount 

of food supplied to the embryo ? 
A queen bee may be produced 
artificially by cutting away the 


6 


adjacent cells at the side of a 
honey comb. The workers or 
barren (?) females, at once enlarge 
the cells and supply more food ; 
if the embyro is not more than 
three days old, a young queen is 
the result ; if the same experiment 
is performed in the centre of the 
comb, the cells are enlarged to 
some extent, and the embyro 
developes into a drone or male 
bee, but if the cell be left alone a 
“worker” bee is developed. 

Again, an unfertilised (?) worker, 
in the absence of a queen, some- 
times lays eggs, which, however, 
only produce drones, and cannot, 
at anyrate with our present 
knowledge, be converted into 
queens. This raises the question : 
Can a condition of fertilisation be 
handed down from one animal to 
another, i.e ., can an animal with 


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fertilised ova give origin to another 
animal possessed of ova which are 
fertilised at birth ? As in this case 
the barren bee produces fertilised 
eggs without copula ; but an 
experiment might be made by 
feeding bees without a queen, 
with candy or syrup containing 
some form of spermine. 

4. Why is one fertilisation in the cases 

of a queen bee sufficient for life? 

5. Is conception possible without 

copula ? 

6. Can a blood-borne body, as spermine 

or other fertilising agent, fertilise 
an ovum in its follicle ? or, can 
an ovum be fertilised by injection 
of a fertilising agent into an ovary ? 

7. Why is the act of copula long in 

flies, dogs, etc., and short in 
mammalia, bees, etc. 

8. What are the curious “ant-like” 

bodies developed when human 


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sperms are placed on a warm slide 
under a microscope in a medium 
of soap suds ? 

9. What is the source of bacteria ? 

10. Has the rod shape of the nucleus 

and its staining properties any 
relation to bacilli ? i.e., are bacilli 
the escaped nuclei of cells ? 

11. What is the fate of the nuclei 

of plant cells contained in the 
cells of leaves which have fallen * 
decomposed in the ground ? How 
do plants grow from leaves which 
lie on the ground (begonias) ? 

12. Can these plant nuclei fertilise 

animal ova, or can an animal 
sperm fertilise a plant ? 

Bacteria, flies, aphis, and other forms 
of life may be destroyed by “quassine.” 

If the environment of bacteria be 
changed, the form and reactions of 
bacteria also change. 

A neoplasm is the development of a 


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“resten,” or in the case of carcinoma 
and sarcoma, an example of “cell 
perversion,” i. e . , the cells have “ run riot, 
in manifestations of their malignity.” 

The activity of cells depends on the 
tissue in which they are placed ; cartilage 
cells are grouped and held captive by a 
matrix in which they are encapsuled, but 
if they escape, as in cases of arthritis 
deformans, they become “ demons of 
destruction,” and their phagocytic and 
osteoclastic character at once becomes 
evident. 

Carcinoma can be produced at will by 
X-rays, and tumours may be digested by 
the enzymes found in the alimentary canal; 
formerlypepsine was used to digest tumours, 
and more recently, on Beard’s suggestion, 
trypsin has been used as a “ resolvent ” 
agent in cases of carcinoma ; in mice it 
seems to digest carcinomata. 


IO 


The Soul and Human Aura. 

It has recently been stated that an aura 
leaves the body when death takes place, 
but an aura is common to all forms of life, 
and by its existence animals recognise 
other animals ; this is the key to the 
so-called instinct of bloocl-hounds. 

This aura is certainly not the soul. 

Instinct, Mind and Soul. 

Instinct is defined as the guidance of an 
animal, independently of reason ; animals 
who possess a mind, act chiefly by a 
process of reasoning, but no man can 
define the soul. 

What is the “ language of eyes ” ? 

How does one person know instinctively 
what another desires ? 

Can there be one mind and two bodies ? 

The soul has a voluntary power for 
good or evil, and has charge of a machine 
of which it can make good or bad use, but 


the machine may break down early (early 
death). 

The ■“ black ” angels may be those who 
have done their duty to the body badly, 
and their residence may be called “Hell 
they may be liberated, and influence other 
angels for good or evil. The “white” 
angels are those who have performed 
their duties to the body well. 

Many people believe that the soul may 
pass into other forms of life, and is 
therefore in existence in other animals 
besides man ; this is one of the great 
attractions of Buddhism.