Skip to main content

Full text of "The balsam groves of the Grandfather mountain : a tale of the western North Carolina mountains : together with information relating to the section and its hotels, also a table showing the height of important mountains, etc."

See other formats



iS y^" ^^ 



This book may be kept out one month unless a recall 
notice is sent to you. It must be brought to the North 
Carolina Collection (in Wilson Library) for renewal. 


Form No. A-369 







John L. Sanders 

c. 2 



















Copyright, 1892, by Shepherd M. Dugger. 

Printed by J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia. 










As the firm foundation of a house is less at- 
tractive than the painted columns and modillions 
which it sup2:>orts, so the first chapter of our 
story is the stratum of understanding that under- 
lies a more beautiful fabric of knowledge. It 
locates the scenes in Western North Carolina, 
on the great evergreen Grandfather Mountain, 
whose highest point is the everlasting corner- 
stone of three counties, Watauga, Caldwell, and 

The object of the author has been to supply 
the great need of a book that would introduce 
to the outside world a section of country which, 
until recently, has been almost unknown and 
obscure, but nevertheless is rich in soil, replete 
with iron ore, and with fine forests of valuable 
trees, checkered with rapid, flowing streams of 
limpid water, decked with a thousand hills, 
fortressed with ponderous mountains tall and 
rugged, and pictured with wild and varied land- 

The writer was cradled in the loving arms of 

i* 5 


maternal toil in one of the first rude log cabins 
constructed in the morning and evening shadows 
of the beautiful mountains with which he has 
grown up in love, and every scene described is 
as familiar to him as w^ere the blooming vines 
in which the humming-birds nestled around the 
home of his childhood. 

'' The Balsam Groves of the Grandfather 
Mountain" is a story founded on facts. The 
roads, streams, fountains, places, mountains, and 
distances are real ; the picture of the character 
Rollingbumb will be hailed with delight by 
thousands of mountaineers, who will recognize 
it as the likeness of a familiar friend ; the de- 
scription of the Salmer estate on the banks of 
the Linville will touch to tears a prominent 
gentleman now residing in the city of Richmond, 
Virginia ; and the genuine name William West 
Skiles will thrill the hearts of many a North 

" The Western Gate- way to the Highlands," 
following the story, is as fair a representation of 
truth as the writer could possibly formulate ; and 
" The Hotels in the Land of the Sky" is intended 
to be such an unerring guide to health- and pleas- 
ure-seekers that strangers will not be disappointed 
when they visit the scenes. 

The search for the body of Rev. Elisha 


Mitchell, D.D., having been written by Hon. 
Z. B. Vance, needs no comment. 

For the ^' Journal of Andre Michaux" and its 
introduction, we are indebted to the American 
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. 

Three of the poems, viz., " The Land of the 
Sky,'' "The Iron Horse is Coming," and 
" Boone," have been furnished by our esteemed 
friend, "The Bard of the Highlands;" while 
" The Ballad of the Beech" has fallen from the 
euphonious quill of " Chuckey Joe," our estima- 
ble former associate from the city of Baltimore, 

The table of North Carolina elevations has 
been collected from heights ascertained and pub- 
lished by State and United States officials. 

In the ample field which our little volume 
discloses, the most luxuriant rambler may range 
at large, visiting streams and mountains in end- 
less variety and extent, and, after his boldest 
excursions, he can only wing his way in imagi- 
nation among the splendid objects that are still 
before him. 

The Author. 



Will you come to Grandfather, " The Land of the 

Where a banquet of glory is spread for the eye, 
Where scenes of enchantment enravish the soul, 
And reason to rapture surrenders control. 

Where the mountains do rear their summits above 
The storm and the cloud, to the regions of love; 
Where waters go dashing down rocky declines. 
And the hills are covered with evergreen vines. 

Where boastino; musicians are wont to retire 

When the bird of the mountain tunes his sweet lyre, 

And lends to his melody wings that can fly, 

To scatter his song through " The Land of the Sky." 

Where fountains are gushing from every hill-side. 
All sparkling and cold as a health-giving tide ; 
An elixir of life more tempting to sip 
Than the cup that presses the Bacchanal's lip. 

Where the air is freighted with sweetest perfume 
Wafted from the flower when full in its bloom, 
And the breezes that float o'er mountain's tall peak 
Give back the invalid the rose to his cheek ? 



Ye seekers of pleasure, oppressed by the heat, 
Come to this region, 'tis a pleasant retreat ; 
Ye ones that are feeble, why linger and die. 
Come up to this beautiful " Land of the Sky." 

By a. M. D., the Bard of the Highlands. 


CHAPTERS I.— T. pages 

The Balsam Groves of the Grandfather Mountain — A Story in 
Five Brief Chapters, associating the Quaint and Uncultured 
Pioneer Mountaineers with the Eefined and Learned of the 
City 13-93 


The Western Gate- Way to the Highlands — The Cranberry 
Railroad — The Yale of the Watauga — Andrew Johnson — 
Thomas A. R. Nelson — The Heroes of King's Mountain — 
William G. Brownlow — Andrew Jackson — The Taylor 
Brothers, Bob and Alf — Landen C. Haynes — The Stem- 
Winder — The Doe River Gorge — Roan Mountain Station 
and Cloudland Hotel — The Cranberry Iron-Mines — The 
Future of Elizabeth town — A Railroad Poem 94-107 


The Hotels in the Land of the Sky— Elk Park— Banner Elk 
— Cranberry Hotel — The Cranberry Mines — Linville — Hax- 
lan P. Kelsey's Nursery of Wild Flowers, Forest Trees, etc. 
— Eseeola Inn — The Yonahlossee Road, the Grandest Drive 
in the South — Grandfather Hotel — ShuU's Mills — Blowing 
Rock, the Popular Summer Resort on the Crest of the Blue 
Ridge — Boone (the Highest Court-House in North Caro- 
lina) described in Elegant Yerse — Yalle Crucis (Yale of 
the Cross) 108-143 


The Journal of Andre Michaux, the French Naturalist, who 
travelled in the Mountains of North Carolina in July and 
August, 1794, gathering Shrubs, Seeds, and Plants for the 




Koyal Gardens of Paris — A Brief Sketch of his Life — An Ex- 
tract from his Diary, including his Journey to Black Moun- 
tain, Roan, Yellow, Grandfather, Hawk-bill, Table Rock, 
etc., together with the Names of the Plants he collected: 
highly Entertaining to all Persons interested in the History 
of Botanical Discovery in America 144-160 

A Dictionary or Altitudes showing the Heights of Im- 
portant Places and Mountains in Western North Carolina 
and East Tennessee 161-174 


The Search for the Body of Rev. Elisha Mitchell, D.D., 
written by Hon. Z. B. Vance — A Dispute between Dr. 
Mitchell and Hon. T. L. Clingman as to which of the Two 
Gentlemen had been First to determine the Altitude of the 
Highest Peak East of the Mississippi River — Dr. Mitchell 
resolves to settle the Matter by a Second Measurement and 
the AflSdavits of his Former Guides — He is Lost on Black 
Mountain — A Ten Days' Search by the Good Citizens — 
The Body found in a Pool of Water — Its Removal, Inter- 
ment, etc 175-187 






A lowly thatched cottage in humble attire, 
With chimney adaub and a broad open fire ; 
A string for its latch-key, three strangers within. 
And far away moved from the city's loud din. 

The lay of my land and tlie lays of my story 
are commingled in the zigzag windings of moun- 
tain topograj^liy. 

The general direction of the Blue Ridge is 
from northeast to southwest, but on a sublime 
spot in North Carolina it swerves and runs north 
for the distance of three miles, and then turns 
again by an acute angle towards its terminus in 
the cotton-fields of Alabama. 

The intelligent reader will now understand 
that the part of the Blue Ridge generally spoken 
of as the " South Side" here faces the west, and 

2 13 


wliat would otherwise have beeu the " Western 
Slope" of the great water-shed catches the 
golden gleams of the rising sun. 

This digression in the backbone of the Appa- 
lachians is also characterized by a deep saddle- 
like depression called "Linville Gap," in the 
centre of which the forest is now broken by a 
verdant meadow about a half a mile in length 
from east to west, and half as broad. 

The pommel of this elegant land-saddle, rising 
to the south, forms the beautiful dome of Grand- 
father Mountain, five thousand nine hundred and 
ninety-six feet above the foam of the sea ; while 
the rear of the equestrian fixture rises into the 
less elevated but equally pleasing heights of Dun- 
vegan, culminating in twin towers of stone man- 
tled with ivy and plumed with ferns. 

From the beautiful green turf on the eastern 
declivity of the mead referred to gushes and 
trickles the first streamlets of the Watauga, 
which, being of the Indian vernacular, is said 
by some to mean " Beautiful River," by others, 
" River of Islands," and by still others, *' River 
of Reeds." 

On the western slope of the sweet-sodded 
meadow, and not more than a stone's cast from 
the sparkling source of the Watauga, rises the 
rippling river of Linville, which took its name 


from a family of that nomenclature who once 
occupied its banks. 

The Cherokee name for Linville is Eseeola; 
and, while those conversant with Indian lore 
have not defined the word, it probably had its 
origin in the great cataract of that stream, now 
designated as '"Linville Falls." 

These two crystal rivers are so kindred at 
their sources that each could easily be turned 
into the other by a ditch ; and yet they flow in 
opposite directions and retreat into different 
climes, — the Linville passing through the min- 
gled waters of the Catawba, the Wateree, and the 
Santee to the Atlantic Ocean, while the Watauga 
finds its way through the channels of the Hol- 
ston, the Tennessee, the Ohio, and the Mississipj)i 
to the Gulf of Mexico. 

The Watauga, as it rushes and dallies to the 
northeast, rumbles and tumbles over ledges and 
boulders, under boughs of laurel and pine, re- 
ceiving its pellucid tributaries from the green 
glades of the Grandfather on the right, and 
from the Ginseng and Crawley region, in the 
foot-hills of Dunvegan, on the left. At the end 
of three precipitous miles from its rise, its united 
torrents have lost their leapings and blended 
into a sweetly murmuring stream that splits in 
twain a gradually widening valley, at the upper 


end of which once lived a man by the name of 
Tom Toddy, who obtained his bread by hus- 
bandry, and his meat from the spoils of his gun. 
His lone log cabin stood on the left bank of 
the " Beautiful River," leaving space between 
for a narrow yard and the dim road outside. 

One lovely evening in the month of July, 1860, 
when Sol was shooting his last golden arrows 
across the mountain-tops from his rosy couch 
beyond the horizon, two men and a lady, well 
mounted on good steeds, called for admittance at 
this humble cottage. 

Mr. Toddy knew the older gentleman to be 
the " Good" William West Skiles, an Episcopa- 
lian clergyman who kept a school at Valle Crucis 
(Vale of the Cross), ten miles below on the 

Of the two whose faces were not familiar in 
that quarter, the gentleman was Mr. Leather- 
shine, who had been expelled from an institution 
of learning in the eastern part of the State, and 
afterwards received by Mr. Skiles at Valle 
Crucis, because it was supposed that in that 
sequestered spot there was no land for the 
culture of wild oats. 

The beautiful young lady, Miss Lidie Meaks, 
was one of the faculty of St. Mary's School, in 
the city of Raleigh. She was a medium-sized, 


elegant figure, wearing a neatly fitted travelling 
dress of black alpaca. Her raven black hair, 
copious both in length and volume and figured 
like a deep river rippled by the wind, was parted 
in the centre and combed smoothly down, orna- 
menting her pink temples with a flowing tracery 
that passed round to its modillion windings on 
a graceful crown. Her mouth was set with 
pearls adorned with elastic rubies and tuned 
with minstrel lays, while her nose gracefully 
concealed its own umbrage, and her eyes im- 
parted a radiant glow to the azure of the sky. 
Jewels of plain gold were about her ears and 
her tapering strawberry hands, and a golden 
chain, attached to a timekeeper of the same 
material, sparkled on an elegantly rounded 
bosom that was destined to be pushed forward 
by sighs, as the reader will in due time observe. 
Modest, benevolent, and mild in manners, she 
was probably the fairest of North Carolina's 

The host received his three guests with the 
words, " We are poor, but you are welcome to 
such as we have." When they had dismounted 
and come near the door, Mrs. Toddy apologized 
for the size and inconvenience of the domicile by 
saying, " Come in, if you can get in." But Mr. 
Skiles, knowing the embarrassment that strange 

b 2* 


company brings upon the culinary labors of a 
one-room cabin, replied that they would enjoy 
the breezes of the yard, and view the entrancing 
beauties of the great evergreen Grandfather, to 
whose lofty sum mitt they were going on the 

In plain view, on the northern slope of the 
mountain, was the upright, stupendous profile 
of a man carved in rock and plumed with ferns, 
and in the furrows of his face, worn by the 
lapse of time, clung and crept the most beautiful 
flowers and vines. Pointing towards this figure 
with his cane, the minister said, '^ See the old 
man of the mountains; when that is silvered 
with frost or blanched with snow it has the ap- 
pearance of great age, and hence the pioneers 
called it the Grandfather, and the mountain of 
which it is a part Grandfather Mountain." 

"Between the old man and the high top," 
said Miss Meaks, " is a beautiful green tower, as 
if supported within by a column of stone." 

"Methinks," replied the clergyman, "that is 
called the Haystack, from its marked resem- 
blance to a mound of hay." 

The dame, who was preparing supper over 
the open fire within, was listening with awe to 
the high-flown conversation without, and, as she 
drew a shovelful of glowing coals from beneath 


the forestick to put under the oven of bread, 
she muttered, " I don't know how to cook for 
* big-bugs.' I've got nothin' fit for Equality/ 
and I wish they'd a-stayed at home." 

At this instant the attention of the party was 
attracted by a passing hunter, by the name of 
Rollingbumb, who, having some business with 
Mr. Toddy, stepped into the yard with a great 
wild turkey swung under his arm by a withe, 
which, passing diagonally up his breast, formed a 
cross with the leathern strap of his shot-pouch 
that hung on the other side. He was a square- 
shouldered man, six feet tall, with a long firelock 
rifle on his shoulder, while from beneath his 
buckskin moccasins peeped some blades of grass, 
as if to complain of being ill-used. His face 
was round, with great facilities for a beard, 
though, like Julius Caesar, he never wore one. 
His high forehead was half obscured by a brim- 
less coon-skin cap, having the beautifully ringed 
tail of the animal attached to the hinder part, 
where it hung down his back, and rolled to and 
fro at the will of a gentle breeze. He wore a 
Turkey-red blouse, in native parlance, "hunt- 
ing-shirt," the same being drawn close about 
him by the long corners, which were tied to- 
gether in front just below the waistband of his 
homespun pants. Such was the development of 


hair about his chest and shoulders, that it grew 
up and hung out over his shirt-collar in black 
l^rofusion like a fringe. This feature of his 
person was so significant that a deaf-mute, who 
made himself understood by motioning, told that 
RoUingbumb had killed a bear, by indicating 
that it was done by the man with a hairy neck. 

Mr. Skiles approached the hunter and asked 
to see his game, whereupon he placed his thumb 
under the withe and, passing it quickly over his 
cap, laid the great bird on the ground. The 
minister examined the graceful beard, which was 
twelve inches in length ; the lady, spreading to 
full width the tail, found it ornamented with a 
border which, in the arrangement and brilliancy 
of its colors, was like a miniature rainbow ; but 
Leathershine examined the shot which had en- 
tered one side and passed out on the other. 

RoUingbumb, who lived but a mile farther 
down the Watauga, now equipped himself to 
continue his journey homeward; but, before 
taking leave, he said pleasantly, in his rude 
dialect, " Strangers, what mout yer names be ?'* 
Leathershine, speaking quickly for the party, 
said in reply, " They mout be Jones, or they 
mout be Smith, or they mout be Vance." E,oll- 
ingbumb, being a man of native intelligence, 
and therefore understanding the import of the 


sarcasm, turned his hawk eyes upon the critic 
and said, in a firm voice, **I*m an unlearnt 
man ; but if you fool with me, sir, 111 knock 
you as flat as a pancake." 

Mr. Skiles, being mortified at the conduct of 
his student, took the hunter by the hand and 
expressed regrets, both for himself and Miss 
Meaks, that he had been thus insulted, while 
Leathershine sat upon a stump and looked " like 
the boy the calf ran over." 

A few moments later, supper being-announced, 
Mr. Toddy sat at the head of the table and his 
wife at the opposite extremity of the small but 
hospitable board, with her back towards the 
fireplace, which was in the east end of the 
cabin. The two more distinguished guests occu- 
pied the side next the open door, while Leather- 
shine, seated in front of them, cast " a lean and 
hungry look" on the bear meat before him. 

After a blessing had been asked, the host said, 
" Help yourselves ;" and the hostess, in her course 
of apologies for the plain repast and the rude 
table furniture, said, "Poor folks have poor 
ways." The minister assured them that they 
should ever be thankful to the Master for such 
as their table afforded ; and, indeed, he was right, 
for, in addition to the flesh of Bruin, it contained 
corn-bread, milk, butter, Irish potatoes, green 


corn, and that choice variety of honey gathered 
from the linden tree. 

While the evening meal was being enjoyed 
with a hearty relish, the children, three in 
number, — George, ten years old, with his younger 
brother and sister, — waited by the fire, and sang in 
perfect harmony the beautiful lines below, which 
their mother had often sung to them as a lullaby. 
From the best information we can gather, these 
ancient stanzas were composed in " Merry Eng- 
land," and transmitted, through successive gen- 
erations, from British soldiers who were captured 
during the war for independence, and settled in 
the new republic after the terms of peace were 

A sitting one cold winter's nigbt, 

A drinking of sweet wine, 
A courting of that pretty little Miss 

That stole that heart of mine. 

She is like some pink or rose 

That blooms in the month of June, 

Or like some musical instrument 
That is newly put in tune. 

Oh, fare you well, my dearest dear, 

Oh, fare you well for a while ; 
I go away, but I'll come back again, 

If I go ten thousand miles. 


Oh, who will shoe my feet, my dear, 

And who will glove my hands ? 
Or who will kiss my ruby lips, 

When you're in foreign lands ? 

Your brother will shoe your feet, my dear, 
Your mother will glove your hands ; 

And I will kiss your ruby lips 
When I return again. 

Oh, don't you see that turtle-dove 

A flying from vine to vine ? 
A mourning the loss of its own true love, 

As I shall mourn for mine. 

In due time Mrs. Toddy replenished the dishes 
with warm food, and, before reoccupying her seat 
at the table, she set the ovens away from the 
fire, shovelled up the dead coals with which the 
supper had been cooked and threw them behind 
the back log, just prior to sweeping the hearth. 

Subsequently the guests, together with the 
family, formed a social circle around the blazing 
logs, which were not uncomfortable, and yet not 
needed, except to light the conversation, in a 
domicile where lamps were not a part of the 

Some inquiries, made by the strangers, about 
the fauna of the country led the host to relate 
rare hunting tales of his own experience, of 
which we will give only one, as follows : He 


said that several years previous to that time, 
while spending a night in the woods of the 
Grandfather, he used a venison ham for a pillow, 
first placing some dry leaves between it and his 
head to protect his cheek from the raw flesh. 
When the gloom of midnight had mantled his 
couch of moss in darkness and Somnus scarcely 
lifted his chest with breathing, he was ousted 
by sharp claws passing over his bald scalp. As he 
sprang to his feet and grabbed his gun, a panther, 
that had now stolen his pillow, screamed forth 
the signal of a victorious departure. 

It was now time to retire, and the house con- 
tained but three beds, all of which were in one 
room, the only room, and generally occupied by 
the family. But in those days the ladies con- 
structed temporary bed-chambers by taking two 
large curtains, each about the size of a counter- 
pane, and either hanging them from the joists 
or supporting them on frames, one along the 
side of the bed, and the other at right angles to 
it across the foot. These were generally made 
of large-flowered calico, and decorated with such 
ruffles and laces as the wealth and skill of the 
times could employ. 

Such luxuriant sleeping fixtures, however, 
could be afforded only by the "bon-tons" of 
log-house society, who were sometimes classed 


by their jealous inferiors among the "big- 

Mrs. Toddy was not a "bon-ton," but sbe 
rendered one bed private, nevertheless, by hang- 
ing up two quilts in the manner that curtains 
were hung by those who could afford them. 

This sleeping apartment, in the northwest 
corner of the cabin, was occupied by four per- 
sons, — Miss Meaks and her hostess at the head, 
and the two younger children, with their feet in 
the opposite direction, at the foot. This eco- 
nomical mode of sleeping, by which the taper- 
ing ends of human anatomy are fitted together 
like the teeth of a shark, is still practised in 
some remote neighborhoods around Grandfather 
Mountain. • 

Another bed, opposite the first, though not so 
close in the corner, was on a poorly tenoned 'stead, 
which sent its old-fashioned turned posts up to 
an extraordinary height, and, being loose in its 
mortise joints, had twice wrecked with its occu- 
pants and fallen side wise onto the floor. For 
this reason a low bed, that was trundled endways 
from beneath the one that was concealed by the 
curtains, was prepared for Mr. Skiles and his 
student. But when the minister was apprized 
of the arrangement, he evaded the young man 
by inviting Mr. Toddy to share his bed, saying 

B 3 


that he wanted to tell his friends that he had 
slept with a hunter whose midnight pillow had 
been stolen by a panther. 

This kind and complimentary invitation being 
accepted, the original sleeping plan was disor- 
ganized, and Leathershine slept on the perilous 
bedstead with little George Toddy. 

An hour later, when a stray splinter about the 
smouldering fire caught ablaze and cast a glim- 
.mering light upon the log joists above, the sleep- 
less dame was soliloquizing about the hazardous 
bed. '' If Mr. Toddy had slept with George," 
thought she, "he would have turned himself 
cautiously on the mattress, and thus saved the 
'stead from falling ; but now it would be most 
sure to tumble with the young man, in which 
event he would think that the cabin had been 
overturned by an earthquake, while iier own 
chum and the bed-fellow of her husband would 
leap from their slumber in fright." 




The skies with luminaries shine, 

Yet seven thunders roar; 
Fatality her works design, 

Through cycles evermore. 

When George Toddy awoke in the morning, 
the sweet-scented breakfast was cooking in the 
ovens over the glowing coals on the hearth, and 
the great wood fire was sweetly roaring to the 
strong suction of the flue above. 

The little birds carolling from the trees had 
invited the minister from the couch of his morn- 
ing dreams; and he had gone from the house 
to view the safii'on streamers from the rising 
sun, or to see the speckled beauties through the 
crystal waters of the Watauga, or to give the 
lady of the cottage room and ease of mind. 

The young lady, who was now dressing behind 
the curtain quilts, soon emerged and washed in 
the wooden basin on the block outside the door, 
wiped on the flaxen towel by the inside of the 
threshold, smoothed her hair with the horn 
comb, and, careful to ask for nothing that the 


cabin might not afford, she only inquired where 
she would be least in the way, and then took a 
seat in the corner. 

It was now past George's time to be up, but 
he had been dreadino; to crawl over his new and 
sleepy partner who was in front. The head of 
the bed which they occupied was towards the 
fire, and the door opened back against it. Be- 
tween the foot-board and the wall beyond was a 
space of about three feet, which gave room for 
a tub that sat in the corner. 

At length Leathershine awoke and, rubbing 
his hollow eyes, gave a sleepy groan. On his 
elbow he raised himself and looked wonderingly 
at Miss Meaks, who kept her eyes steadily on 
the cooking. He now put on his " studying- 
cap" to solve the mystery of secret dressing 
under the one-room government, and the aper- 
ture behind the foot-board was selected as a 
place where that task might be successfully per- 
formed, provided he could land himself safely 
into it. So, leaving one cover on George, he 
rolled the rest up lengthwise on the front railing, 
leaving between a kind of trough, in which he 
lay full length on his back. Pressing his heels 
firmly against the straw mattress, and lifting his 
body with his hands, he drew himself forward, 
his knees going upward like a measuring-worm 


passing over a pair of trousers. One more 
measure and his long legs dangled across and 
beyond the foot-board. 

While in this attitude, George discovered in 
the lower part of the under-garment that clothed 
the upper half of his person a large round hole, 
that seemed to have been made by an accidental 
fire in the laundry. 

Leathershine was now in a position to pass 
safely over into the place by the tub where he 
could dress in seclusion ; but when, in the zenith 
of his leap, his quick motion, exhilarated by 
high hopes of success, threw the hole over the 
bed-post, and as he kicked and dangled in the 
air, the bed wrecked, and all went thundering 
collaterally down to the floor. 

Miss Meaks and Mrs. Toddy, thinking that a 
tree had fallen on the house, turned quickly and 
saw Leathershine sprawling on his face with his 
palms extended. Mrs. Toddy, being conversant 
with log-cabin etiquette, ran out at the door, and 
Miss Meaks, catching on to the style, followed 
her example. 

" Halloo, here !" exclaimed Leathershine,'' is 
that the kind of chinch dens you sleep on?" 
said he, referring to the wreck. 

" Help me set up the bed," said George, and, 
after he had repeated the appeal, the young man 




reluctantly assisted in replacing it upon its legs. 
The two now passed out of the door, and as they 
went towards the laughing river to wash in that 
clear, passing medium the ladies were re-entering 
the threshold of the cabin ; and when they came 
near the hearth they discovered that the shock, 
created by the fall of the bed, had thrown from 
the chinks above the fire a number of articles, 
of which the pegging-awl was in the skillet of 
gravy, the hammer in the pan of cabbage, and 
the old man's last, being the mould of a very 
large foot, had broken through the lid into the 
oven of bread. Also, a lot of falling shoe-pegs 
had showered so thickly into the gravy and the 
cabbage that it was impossible to determine 
which one of those articles of food contained 
the greatest number of the wooden fastenings. 

When the breakfast-table was ready to be oc- 
cupied, the coffee-pot, which alone had escaped, 
the wreck unharmed, sat on the floor beside Mrs. 
Toddy, who reached down and took it by the 
handle whenever the cups were to be refilled. 
At the close of the repast, each person had left 
on his plate a nice little pile of pegs which he 
had picked from his teeth while masticating fried 
cabbage or bread overspread with gravy. 

The host now took his firelock rifle from the 
rack, picked his flint, poured fresh powder in the 


pan, and then, placing the long hunting-piece 
upon his shoulder, started to guide his guests on 
the grand climb. While the flowers were yet 
cool with the dews of night and the long shad- 
ows of the morning were falling towards the west, 
the horses were being tied to the trees at the 
place where Grandfather Hotel now stands near 
Linville Gap. 

Here their way was to the left by a rising foot- 
path, which was overlmng with drooping violets 
and shaded with spreading boughs from ever- 
green and deciduous trees. Three beauteous 
miles through umbrageous leaves and fragrant 
wilds would take them to where morn casts her 
first queenly robe upon the mountain-top and 
Sol withdraws the last rosy curtain from the 
frowning rocks to his ocean bed. 

When they had overcome two-thirds of the 
precipitous clamber, they came to a little bench- 
like spot of earth which was clothed with ferns, 
mosses, mitchella, and oxyria, and supj)orting a 
mixed growth of black spruce {Abies nigra) and 
balsam [Abies Fraseri), whose matted branches 
form a beautiful green canopy. 

Looking east from this point, the old man of 
the mountains presents a bold and imposing fig- 
ure, which in the magnitude and perfection of 
his features is superior to the Sphinx of the 


Nubian Desert, and always entrances tlie be- 
holder into dreams of wonder and admiration. 
While Miss Meaks was admiring this mysterious 
profile, Leathershine offered her a large rhododen- 
dron bloom, which she received and fastened on 
her bosom with a pin. The young man, deeming 
that she wore it strictly for the sake of the 
giver, was seized with a sudden emotion which 
seemed to have no hope of reciprocation from a 
lady who was so far his superior both in intel- 
lectual and moral development. 

The party now continuing their journey were 
soon confronted by a high, steep rock, which 
seemed to cross their way like a wall through 
which there is no entrance. At its base, how- 
ever, the track turned to the right, and passing 
round by ascending curves and zigzags continued 
its course towards the toj). 

About midway up the cliff is an overhang like 
a cornice, below which the rock is perpendicular, 
but above this it retreats with the pitch of a 
Gothic roof. At the top of the upper half, 
rhododendrons annually hang out their scarlet 
florescent garments in gay profusion ; but from 
the multiple crevices in the perpendicular part 
below grow beautiful grasses, ferns, and wild 
flowers, always kept green and moist by a little 
water escaping from above. 


(from a Photograph by Nat. W. Taylor, Elk Park, N. C.) 

Page 32. 


From the base of tliis cliff gushes and sparkles 
the coldest perennial spring, isolated from per- 
petual snow, in the United States. Its highest 
temperature is 42°, and half a pint from its 
unpolluted channel quenches the greatest thirst 
created by an exhaustive climb. 

Our acquaintances were resting at this foun- 
tain, and, having no cup, they were drinking from 
a concave piece of bark pealed from an oval 
knot on a tree, when they saw two men ap- 
proaching along the path by which they had 
ascended. The eyes of the unknown persons 
were steadily fixed upon the ground, for between 
the rocks of this particular place are numerous 
holes and crevices so dangerous to careless feet 
that every step requires investigation. 

As they came into a spot of sunshine which 
fell through a narrow vista in the trees, the 
younger and better dressed of the two turned his 
eyes upward to see what part of the sky was 
then occupied by the glorious orb, when Miss 
Meaks discovered in his face what she thought 
to be the familiar features of a long-lost friend. 
The beautiful rhododendron bloom that em- 
bossed her bosom now rose and fell with a deep 
sigh that pushed forward the elegantly rounded 
prospect behind it ; but when his brow returned 
to the shade of his brim, she doubted her im- 


pression, and said in silent soliloquy : " Impossi- 
ble that he who knows not my love could be 
here. No more shall my heart leap and my lips 
tremble to the deceitful refraction of light in 
woods like these. The warm palm I once re- 
fused will never return, alas ! to reclaim me from 
my folly. Farewell, good-by, my Charlie; I 
shall never see you again until I drink the water 
of Lethe, and return from the Elysian fields not 
knowing that I ever did you wrong !" 

The aj)proaching couple had now come to a 
curve in the path which placed between them 
and the seated party the lap of a fallen tree 
and a little cluster of mountain maple, through 
whose tangled brush only glimpses of their 
movino; forms could be seen. The one who was 
guiding the other now said, in a voice distinctly 
audible to those who were listening near, " The 
spring is under the big mossy rock before us." 

" Ah !" rejoined the traveller, " when we get 
there, I will drink to her I once loved, but now 
only remember ; and if the water is as icy cold 
as you say, it will be a most suitable beverage 
for the occasion ; for then I will say, ' Here is 
to that cold heart that drove me wandering from 
my country ; that stole the sweet sleep from my 
midnight pillow and gave me for it insomnia; 
the heart that charged me with all the flattery 


belonging to the untrue of my sex ; and wliile 
this portion from the living fount of Grand- 
father shall quench the last smouldering spark 
of love for her that lingers in my bosom, may 
some messenger of the gods bear her the news 
that Charlie was true.' " 




The rocks that brave the blasts of time 

Without a pulse or motion, 
Support the forms, reflect the sounds, 

That tell the heart's commotion. 

The words that close tlie previous chapter 
were understood by none of those at the spring 
save one, and she had changed her position to 
conceal some gracious drops that stole down 
over two roses that had thrice flourished and 
faded in a few brief moments. After the 
stranger had expatiated upon the destitution of 
his heart as set forth in the promised health, he 
hummed a love-tune, advanced rapidly, and 
suddenly emerged from behind the bramble not 
more than a rod from Miss Meaks. Here he 
raised his eyes, and drew back with shadows of 
confidence and doubt displacing each other upon 
his face as he tried to determine whether the 
form before him was really the object of his 
love, or her apparition. Observing on her part 
an inclination to rise, he advanced with an ex- 
tended hand, and expressed his pleasure and 


surprise in a manner that could be appreciated 
only when accompanied by his noble person and 

He was a tall, commanding man, with a grace- 
fully flowing moustache, aquiline nose, evenly 
set teeth, mobile chin, high forehead, and the 
elongated corners of his dark-brown eyes 
stretched away under dark brows around fair 
temples, from which beautiful black hair re- 
treated above his ears. 

The words that Miss Meaks uttered in return 
for his were only of that social cast which is 
characterized by the meeting of friends, but 
their confiding tone and feeling delivery in- 
spired new confidence in his " heart's attorney ,'' 
and added fresh fuel to that smouldering spark 
which no draught could ever have extinguished. 

Introductions now went round, revealing the 
fact that the arrivals were Mr. Charlie Clipper- 
steel and his guide, Mr. Wiseman, the latter 
being from the foot of the great Koan, some 
twenty miles to the west. They had camped 
the previous night about two miles from the 
source of the Linville, on the banks of that 
stream, where they had left their blankets and 
a light tent. 

The six persons now united at the spring 
were within the border of one of the most beau- 



tiful, tlie most bewildering, and the most ex- 
tended evergreen forests in the whole South. 
Here the tall and densely growing balsam and 
S23ruce extend their branches in united clusters 
that support the snows of winter and exclude 
the rays of the summer sun. Beneath these are 
many ancient trunks of fallen trees which are 
completely concealed, and only revealed by a 
soft, deep, bright, yellowish green moss growing 
over them and following their shapes. Up 
through this rich carpet, from their roots in the 
decaying wood, grow delicate ferns and young 
balsams of a fern's height and higher that wave 
and tremble to feeble breezes that stray off from 
the stronger ones that moan in the trees above. 
This robe of green not only mantles the old logs, 
but spreads its soft covering unbroken from one 
object to another, hugging the spreading bases 
of the trees, and clothing the rising rocks and 
sticks that help to form the extending landscape. 
This lovely scene extends up and over the moun- 
tain, broken only by great cliffs equally beauti- 
ful in the flowers of their crags, until it covers 
an area as large as the city of New York. 
Such were the exquisite beauties along the wind- 
ing step-way by which our acquaintances were 
about to continue their ascent. 

Mr. Skiles and the two country gentlemen 


now led the way, bat were met and detained by 
a most wonderful man, while the three younger 
persons still lingered at the spring, where 
Leathershine was puffing with jealousy and 
whiffling around like a " fice in high rye/' The 
reunited lovers gave him no recognition, and, 
observing that his " cake was dough," he joined 
the minister and the guides, who were enter- 
tained some distance away by what seemed to 
be a resurrected giant of prehistoric ages. 

When Clippersteel observed that those in 
front were about to advance, he said : " Miss 
Lidie, I offer you my hand, as in the days of 
yore, to help you up the rocks and steps of a 
path which, my guide informs me, leads through 
flowery beds and mossy dales like these." 

" I accept your offer with thanks, Mr. Charlie ; 
but you are not ready to go : you have not 
drunk the health you promised," she said, hand- 
ing him the concave bark with a smile. 

" Pardon me, my friend," said he ; " it cost me 
four years in a foreign land to travel to the frigid 
zone of my heart, where the snows tliat ended 
the summer of love were lighted only by the 
flitting meteors of the borealis race. But your 
unexpected presence here to-day, which I could 
not avoid, has placed that icy region again un- 
der the burning sun of the tro|)ics. Already the 


snows have gone, and their place is occupied by 
the water lily, perfumed with the spices and the 
cloves and spreading its sweet petals upon my 
bosom. How can you drive such love as mine 
from its mortal habitation and leave my bosom 
empty with all but wondering pain ? My heart 
is thirsty, and you are its living fountain. Let 
me drink and water a desert that will soon flour- 
ish with the green bay-tree and the balm of 

" O God,'' she cried, " pardon the weakness of 
woman," and burying her face in his bosom, her 
lachrymal lakes overflowed and anointed his gar- 
ments with drops that were to him the myrrh of 
the soul. " It is pursuit," she said, " and not 
possession, that man enjoys, and now therefore 
the tender regard you have for me is ready to 
be cremated upon the pyre of my broken spirit, 
and nothing but an urn of ashes left to its mem- 

"Never," replied Charlie, "never until God 
himself is buried, and the dark marble of ob- 
livion erected for his tombstone, shall my per- 
son or my angel forsake fair Lidie Meaks." 

When Clippersteel had thus vowed his eternal 
love and his lady had confessed her devotion, 
their friends had gone far out of sight up the 
mountain. The gorgon who had lately met 


them and excited their curiosity was a native by 
the name of Skipper John Potter. He was 
exercising the occupation of gathering balsam 
of fir, which, being a much valued medicine, I 
will acquaint the reader with its production, as 
follows : The resin of the balsam tree {Abies 
Fraseri) is carried in the bark, and, when this 
becomes overcharged with the aromatic substance, 
it deposits its surplus just beneath the surface in 
small protuberances called blisters, because they 
resemble little bladders caused by fire or over- 
work upon the hands. These vary in size from 
a mere pimple to a bulk as large as a com- 
mon marble, and the balsam is collected by 
tapping the larger ones at the bottom with a 
knife, and bringing a pressure to bear upon 
the top, while the thick fluid runs slowly from 
the incision and goes down into a little tin 
vessel, whose lip is firmly pressed against the 
bark below. 

All over Grandfather is a scattered growth of 
black spruce {Abies nigra) which the natives 
call tamarack. It is so much like the more 
abundant balsam that casual observers pass them 
for one and the same ; but the resin of the 
spruce is carried partly in the wood; is not 
medicinal, and does not blister the bark. Also, 
the needles of the foliage are flat and of a yel- 



lowish-green cast, while those of the balsam are 
round and emerald. 

Skipper John Potter was a large man, six feet 
and a half tall, and his feet, which were always 
bare in summer, were huge and long in propor- 
tion. His big bony toes when fairly spread by 
his weight were connected near their base by red 
membranes like those of a web-footed fowl. The 
garments of his person consisted of white home- 
woven linen pants a span shorter than his legs ; 
a shirt of like material, with a broad turn-down 
collar, and a home-spun jean coat of a very 
short cut, as if made for the convenience of 
wading high water or to overtop the weeds of 
the forest. A retreating chin, a head flat on top 
and sheltered by a hat plaited of rye straw, 
characterized his upper extremity. His long, 
straight back was always leaned forward from a 
starting-point at his hips. He had evenly set 
teeth ; and when he laughed, his mouth spread to 
his ears; while two good-humored streaks, one 
extending from each corner of the great vocal 
orifice, passed round and met on the back of his 
head. When he talked, it seemed that the thun- 
ders had been endowed with the powers of speech. 
He was too wise for a fool and too ignorant to 
create an offence. His knowledge was so limited 
that the lack of it was by him unmissed. He 


often misunderstood the meaning of words, and 
when he attempted to reproduce one that he had 
heard a superior use, he generally missed it en- 
tirely and got one of similar sound. For in- 
stance, when he heard John Smith say that he 
was going to have his land transferred, he told 
Tom Jones that John Smith was going to have 
his land transmogrified. 

Those whose admiration had been excited by 
Skipper John had prevailed on him to go with 
them on the journey ; and as they toiled up the 
mountain, while Clippersteel and Miss Meaks 
were yet behind, Mr. Skiles placed his hands 
upon his hips and, leaning against a tree, ex- 
claimed : " Oh, my spine !" when Skipper, 
embracing the opportunity to recommend his 
medicine, said in tones of thunder : " Ef you'll 
take a dost or two of my balsam, you'll have no 

The happy couple behind overtook those in 
front at a cliff called Harmon's Kock, because it 
gave shelter to Maiden Harmon, a res|)ectable 
citizen of Sugar Grove, when on his annual trips 
to Grandfather to replenish his brain with in- 
spiration and gather balsam for family physic 
through the ensuing year. From this point, a 
five minutes' walk took them to the top, where 
the radius of the entrancing panorama is led on 


by mountains, and hills, and vales, and streams, 
and crags, and ravines, until, like the stars that 
form the milky way, they lose their identity 
and blend into a circle of ethereal blue. So ex- 
tended was the view on that beautiful day that 
the heavens lost their concave form, and stretched 
away over blue domes and fading valleys to a 
horizon in the dim distance of the inseparable 
land and sky. The beautiful clouds, the ships 
of the ethereal sea, in whose electric berths the 
giant thunders were sleeping, now sailed only 
mountain high over the valleys, presenting a 
side view to the tourists ; and, as they caught the 
rays of the sun in their rigging or allowed his 
beams to pass through between them to the 
beautiful earth below, the landscape was leop- 
ardized for miles around with a moving robe of 
light and shadow. 

While the party was admiring the exquisite 
beauties of the scene, Clippersteel asked the 
more intelligent of his hearers if they had ever 
heard of the interesting diary kept by Andre 
Michaux when, in the eighteenth century, he 
journeyed in the Highlands of North Carolina. 
Both Mr. Skiles and Miss Meaks, and even our 
acquaintance, Leathershine, answered that they 
knew nothing either of that journal or its author. 

" Andre Michaux," said Clippersteel, " was sent 


to this country in 1785 by the royal government 
of France to collect seeds, shrubs, and trees for the 
royal gardens ; and at that time seems to have 
had an earnest loyalty. But after the French 
revolution broke out he evidently became a very 
zealous republican, a true Frenchman, as will ap- 
pear from his ardent language upon the spot now 
occupied by ourselves ; for thus reads a portion of 
the journal," said he, producing a memorandum 

'' ' 1794. August 26.— Started for Grandfathei 
Mountain, the most elevated of all those which 
form the chain of the Alleghanies and the Ap- 

" ' 1794. August 27.— Eeached the foot of the 
hio;hest mountain. 

" ' 1794. August 28. — Climbed as far as the 

'' ' 1794. August 29. — Continued my herbori- 

" ' 1794. August 30. — Climbed to the summit 
of the highest mountain of all North America, and 
with my companion and guide sang the hymn 
of the Marseillaise, and cried, *' Long live America 
and the Eepublic of the French! Long live 
Liberty! etc."'"* 

" But was he not mistaken as to the highest 
mountain ?" inquired Mr. Skiles, profoundly. 

* See an extract from the journal, beginning on p. 152. 


" Indeed, he was in honest error, for the range 
of the E-ockies was not known to him ; and in 
those days, when the unknown heights of the 
North Carolina mountains were compared by the 
effect of their environments upon the aesthetic 
mind, or by the length of the rivers that trickle 
from their feet, Grandfather was conceded to be 
fair Luna's nearest neighbor and friend. In 
truth, there can be no better proof of its surpass- 
ing beauty, to-day, than the fact that a man of 
Michaux's taste gave vent to his greatest enthu- 
siasm upon its summit ; for he had travelled in 
Persia ; he had seen the Alps, under whose frowns 
Caesar battled with the Gauls ; he had journeyed 
from the White Mountains of New Hampshire 
to the Blacks in North Carolina, and his eyes 
had been cultured to the flowers of the king's 

Just at this instant a buffeting breeze lifted 
Skipper's light hat from his crown and gave him 
a lively southward race for its recovery; and 
every time that one of his big feet went forward, 
the heel of the other flew up behind and hit him 
on the hip, while his great hands were extended 
forward in pursuit of the structure of cereal 

Our two lovers, Lidie and her Charlie, now 
descended the northern slope of the mountain a 


short distance to an immense cliff, and occupied 
one of the four or five natural steps that round 
off to the dangerous brink. This perpendicular 
rock, which faces the west, is about four hun- 
dred feet high, and in its crags grow ferns, an 
wild pinks, and on its brow clusters and blooms 
the little evergreen shrub, Leiophyllum buxi- 

Here Lidie found in the recent resignation of 
her heart visions of roses blooming about the 
door of her future mansion, with humming-birds 
nestling in the vines, and the voice of him she 
loved falling upon her ears like apples of gold 
in the acoustic halls of peace. And how changed 
seemed the fortunes of him by her side, who 
tut an hour ago was whirling in the storm that 
had blown him to despair. Yet all in his bosom 
was not peace. Even the narrow rulings of 
destiny gave him pain, for, had he not been de- 
layed by the rains of a single day, he would 
never have won the diadem of his soul. " O 
great Jehovah," thought he, " can my happiness 
be real, or am I dreaming? If I am in the 
deceitful arms of Morpheus, may I never awake 
to sustain the regrets of my fancy ; or, if I have 
fallen from some high cliff, where, bleeding with 
unconscious wounds, my dying hour is sweetened 
with these visions, may that hour last, and the 


red current flow throughout the countless ages of 

His muse was here broken by a gentle female 
voice that said, " What cold wave of silence is 
passing over your brain ?" 

" I was tracing the wilds through which I 
came," was the reply. 

These words were the prelude to a low, sweet, 
musical conversation, ornamented with smiles 
and softened by the tenderest emotions of the 
human heart. 

No one to eavesdrop was near, and the trem- 
bling ferns could never blab the touching story ; 
but the envying Echo, who steals the pathos from 
all sweet words and returns only the hollow 
bones of speech, deserves our notice. 

" She was a nymph, but only now a sound, 
Yet of her tono-ue no other use was found 
Than now she has, which never could be more 
Than to repeat what she had heard before. 

" This change impatient Juno's anger wrought, 
Who, when her Jove she o'er the mountains sought, 
Was oft by Echo's tedious tales misled. 
Till the shy nymphs to caves and grottos fled. 

" Her flesh consumes and moulders with despair, 
And all her body's juice is turned to air ; 
So wondrous are the effects of restless pain. 
That nothing but her voice and bones remain. 


"Nay, even the very bones at last are gone, 
And metamorphosed to a thoughtless stone ; 
Yet still the voice does in the woods survive; 
The form's departed, but the sound's alive." 

Those conversant with mythology will re- 
member that " Echo by chance met Narcissus in 
the woods, and so admired his beauty that she 
fell in love with him, courted and embraced 
him ; but he broke away from her arms and fled. 
Narcissus afterwards fell so deeply in love with 
his own beauty that the love of himself proved 
his ruin. His thirst led him to a fountain, 
whose waters were clear and bright as silver ; 
and when he stooped to drink he saw his own 
image, and gazed at it, insomuch that he fell 
passionately in love with it. He continued a 
long time admiring this beloved picture-; but at 
length the unhappy creature perceived that the 
torture he suffered was from the love of his own 

" 'My love does vainly on myself return, 
And fans the cruel flame with which I burn ; 
The thing desir'd I still about me bore, 
And too much plenty has confirm'd me poor. 
Oh, that I from my much-lov'd self could go; 
A strange request, yet would to God 'twere so.' 

"In a word, the power of love was greater 
than he could resist, so that by degrees he 

c d 5 


wasted away and consumed, and at last, by the 
favor of the gods, was turned into a daffodil, a 
flower called by his own name." 

The hapless ghost of Echo now lurked in the 
solid face of a cliff that was neighbor to the one 
occupied by our lovers, and, envying them be- 
cause she were not Lidie and Charlie her long 
lost Narcissus, she mimicked their conversation 
as follows : 

'* Down in yonder lonesome woods is a flowery 
bed of green, where I am soon to be tried by the 
ordeal of forbearance. Already on that sacred 
spot nature's tear-drops are falling thick and 
fast ; for, in presence of those on yonder height, 
how can I give thee the cold * good-by' that they 
will expect, or the w^arm * adieu' they would not 
understand ? Oh, gracious Pan, thou god of the 
beautiful woods, conceal thy uncomely form by 
the spring on our return ; blow the sweet melody 
of thy cithern through the trees and entertain 
our companions till we pass on to that solemn 
shade. There, under the sighing pines on a 
mossy carpet kneeling, I will lay the blue- veined 
violets of confidence on the roses of my true- 
love's promise, and, binding them with the ten- 
drils of the woodbine, will leave her to join 
her friends in that lonely dell and my guide 
to overtake me by the brook of Klonteska." 


" Not SO, Charlie ; if you depart so soon from 
the paths I travel, your vows and your actions 
will not seem to flow in the same gentle stream." 

" Pardon me, my dear Lidie ; my words to you 
have always been tuned to the emotions of my 
heart, and there is no discord in the sweet chime 
of faith and feeling which I now enjoy. Fain 
would I have withheld my j)i'omise to meet a 
comrade traveller on the great Koan to-mor- 
row, could I have foretold the events of to-day. 
But the cause of my delay, sent in a note by my 
guide, will obtain his pardon, for, on the night 
before we clambered together the eternal snows 
of Mont Blanc, I dropped into the ventricles of 
his sympathizing heart the secret of my wan- 
derings. When we beheld the wild flowers 
growing so near the glacier {iner de glace) that 
they leaned their almost frozen corollas against 
the accumulated ice and snow of ages, I said, 
^ These delicate blossoms are sickly from the low 
temperature which the glacier imparts ; and as 
they woo in vain this congealed mass to melt and 
warm them into a brighter existence, even so did 
I implore the angel of my joys to enter the gate- 
ajar of my heart and give me a life of bliss by 
her side.' Only yesterday he knew that the 
sweet home of love once in my bosom, where all 
the happy dreams of life had been cherished, 


was but an empty urn, from whose future every 
hope of joy on earth had vanished." 

*^ Oh, speak not thus, Charlie ; disturb not the 
clear, sweetly flowing river of the present by 
turning in a troubled current from the stream 
of memory." 

Here the conversation was broken by the re- 
mainder of the party arriving from the top, and 
as Mr. Skiles neared the awe-inspiring brink he 
drew back and exclaimed, *' Oh, what a danger- 
ous abyss !" Whereupon Skipper John informed 
them " that Rollingbumb once killed a bear on 
top of that ' abscess,' and, tumbling him over the 
brink, all of his bones were broken by the fall." 

All were soon seated upon the rock, where they 
looked well to the west, and, while talking of the 
many attractive objects in that direction, they 
determined that, as Mr. Skiles was out on a 
week's vacation, they would continue their jour- 
ney to Linville Falls, which are from Linville 
Gap about eighteen miles. 

From the base of the great ]3recipice which they 
occupied the mountain continues its descent by 
steep declivities, and so precipitous are they that 
a person might stand at many points and grasp 
the topmost branches of trees that have their 
roots in crags far below. A bewildering mile 
this rugged green extends, and then scatters and 


terminates in tlie deciduous trees of a fertile 
slope that leads down to tlie Linville Valley. Here 
the landscape is dotted with the conical tops 
of giant hemlocks [Abies Canadensis) towering 
above and spreading beneath, so as to partly 
obstruct the view of the intervening birch and 
completely obscure the undergrowing rhododen- 

Through this tangled mass lay the first j&ve 
miles of the narrow road soon to be travelled by 
the party on their way to the beautiful cataract. 

Retracing their steps to the top, Chppersteel 
gave his guide a liberal sum to start, without 
further delay, to the Roan with an appropriate 
note to his friend. 

They now turned upon their heels and took a 
last glance at the dim and distant outline that 
once bounded the vision of Michaux, who had 
long since passed to silence and pathetic dust in 
far-off Madagascar. 

To the southwest of Grandfather, the great 
Blacks — the highest American mountains east of 
the Mississippi — present themselves in a line of 
blue domes at right angles to the vision, and often 
support the clouds that empty their liquid burdens 
or gather new lading upon their lofty crests. 
The renowned Mitchell's Peak is the highest of 
this group, and on its summit the Rev. Elisha 



Mitchell, D.D., is buried ; and whether the virgin 
snows mantle his grave with their trackless 
iin defiles, or seolian breezes whisper between it 
and smiling moons, or the serene sunshine steals 
the noontide zephyr from the umbrageous firs, 
or the great storm king anchors his sable ship 
of gloom upon it, and turns loose the guns of 
thunder from its fiery portals, he sleeps the same 
under the sod of eternal fame.* 

From the top of Grandfather almost the 
entire northwest is crossed by the long line of 
the Clinch Range, through whose depressions, in 
beautiful autumn weather, glimpses can be seen 
of the more distant mountains in Kentucky and 
West Virginia. 

To the northeast is White Top, on which 
three States — North Carolina, Virginia, and 
Tennessee — corner and join. It is a massive 
oval mountain, showing the side view of an 
oblong bald, with a background of evergreen on 
land slightly more elevated than that denuded 
of trees. 

The most distant mountain seen in the east is 
the dim Pilate in Stokes County, North Carolina. 
It culminates in a hazy tower of stone, which in 

* Beginning on page 176 is a full account of his death, 
written by Hon. Z. B. Yance. 


shape and proportion, as presented by the visual 
angle, is like a large gravestone set in the top 
of an Indian mound or a knoll. 

Midst the cotton-fields of South Carolina rises 
to view the immortal King's Mountain, on whose 
summit, October 7, 1780, the gallant Ameri- 
cans, under Colonels Campbell and Sevier, killed 
and captured the entire British command under 

Near the south end of the Blacks, the beholder 
observes the bald of Hickory-Nut Gap, three 
miles beyond which is Bound Knob Hotel, 
where the already beautiful scenery is greatly 
enhanced by the most intricate railroad contriv- 
ance in the South. 

The reader will understand that I have men- 
tioned only a few of 

A thousand mountains and a million hills, 
With intervening rivers and rills, 
And tints that blue and clouds that fly, 
Within the scope o' the natural eye. 

Our acquaintances, having completed the pan- 
orama a second time, now turned their backs 
upon the summit with such parting compliments 
as "Good-by, Grandfather !" "Farewell, ye sweet 
groves ! I will love you when I am far away." 
Arriving at the spring, the concave bark, full 


to the brim, was circulated with free polite- 
ness ; aud Clippersteel, being the last to drink, 
raised it to his lips and said, ^' Here is to De 
Leon, who searched for this * fountain of youth,' 
which he never found; may his soul be at 
peace and the sympathies of all mankind with 
his memory." 

They soon descended to Linville Gap, and, 
after an appropriate parting with the guide from 
the Watauga, Mr. Skiles said to Mr. CUpper- 
steel, *' Get on my horse ; we will ride and 
walk alternately, and neither of us- will be tired 
at night." The person thus addressed declined 
at first to set the devout man on foot, but be- 
ing assured by him that he would not be dis- 
comfited by the change, the offer was accepted. 
Mr. Skiles, however, was prevailed on to ride 
first, and Leathershine having hastened to 
mount Miss Meaks, as if he owned that right 
by previous attendance, all went down the merry 

Miss Meaks ventured to ride by Mr. Skiles, 
but Leathershine was so goaded with jeal- 
ousy, and so anxious to get the advantage of 
his formidable rival, that every time the nar- 
rowness of the road crowded them into sinde 
file, he pressed his horse in by hers and ten- 
dered his undying love. In vain did she use 


silent contempt, in vain she changed the conver- 

'' Please, Mr. Clippersteel," said she, " lead 
my horse over this difficult road." Delighted 
at the opportunity to be of service, he took the 
rein, when Leathershine, being close by the 
lady's side, placed his open hand beside his 
mouth, as if to turn the full force of his breath 
upon the object of his love, and leaning quite 
over whispered in her ear. 

" Get up and ride, Mr. Clippersteel," said the 
minister, alighting from his steed. 

Charlie first conducted Miss Meaks's horse a 
little to the front, Leathershine being immedi- 
ately on the opposite side, and then, stepping 
back to Mr. Skiles's steed, })laced his foot in the 

Leathershine, seeing that he was about to be 
superseded by one who seemed to be in more 
popular favor, took Miss Meaks's horse by the 
rein, and giving his ankle a twist spurred him 
in the side, at the same time hurrying his own, 
and the two went in a sweeping gallop around a 
curve of the road. 

" Thar," roared Skipper, " he's got yer gal an' 
gone with 'ur." 

As Clippersteel lit in the saddle, he heard his 
intended say, " Let loose my rein. What do you 


mean?" and being impelled by a sudden feeling 
of rescue and revenge, he gave the horse a thud 
with his spurless heel, and went thundering down 
the road like a tornado, leaving the minister and 
Skipper in the desolated country behind. 





In verse I'll not disclose what did betide, — 

The scene's too varied, wild, and warm, and wide. 

From the dome of Grandfather, a high arm 
leads off, south of west and parallel with the 
Linville, for the distance of two miles, and then 
drops abruptly down into a deep pass called 
Grandmother Gap, beyond which rises Grand- 
mother Mountain, the queen-consort of the 
reigning Grandfather. 

Along the centre of this elegant spur is a suc- 
cession of three beautiful cones, which are only 
a few feet lower than the highest point and rear 
their gray crests through dark mantles of rho- 
dodendron and firs. 

In the year 1890, a Baltimore bard, who signs 
his name " Chuckey Joe," named one of these 
peaks — the one nearest the main top — " Yonah- 
lossee," which, in the language of the Cherokee 
Indians, means " Passing bear." This name was 
suggested by the fact that bruin's favorite trail 


crosses the great mountain, througli the depres- 
sion, between this height and the next one to- 
wards the southwest. 

In the fall of the year, when Rollingbumb did 
much trapping for bear in this pass, he made his 
head-quarters down in the deciduous woods, on 
the northern slope of the mountain, in a rock 
cavern which had been formed by a large slab 
of stone sliding down over a cliff and leaning 
up against it, leaving beneath a long chamber 
with a triangular opening at each extremity. 
When this was occupied by the hunter, he closed 
the three-cornered thresholds by building a blaz- 
ing fire in one and suspending the skins of 
wild beasts in the other. 

The rock that formed the shelter, and also the 
cliff that extended from either end of the cavern, 
were grown over with mosses and lichens, while 
clinging here and there in the crevices were 
beautiful ferns, orchids, and wild pinks. 

Only a few rods away, the east end of the 
cliff led down to a hollow, in which great 
bowlders, that had come down from higher alti- 
tudes, were piled one upon another. Some of 
these were carpeted with a soft moss, and the re- 
mainder had on top of them an accumulation 
of soil that supported wild turnip, dog-tusk 
violets, beth, mandrake, leeks, ferns, seneca, 


spikenard, angelica, ginseng, wild-gooseberry 
bushes, and many otlier plants and shrubs that 
flourished and bloomed in the most brilliant 

Beneath this rich robe and the bowlders which 
it mantled was a subterranean brook, whose in- 
visible falls and cascades rumbled like " muffled 
drums," as their waters passed on to some crystal 
outburst below. 

When Rollingbumb passed out from between 
the adamantine walls of his sylvan chamber and 
concealed his gigantic steel-traps beneath the 
leaves and moss of bruin's passway, the grabs at 
the ends of the chains were not fastened to im- 
movable objects, as might be supposed, because, 
in that event, a monstrous bear, when captured, 
would have been better able to extricate him- 
self than when the great sharp-fanged transitory 
prison was allowed to move to the bent of every 
overpowering exertion of its captive. 

When bruin suddenly finds his paw in steel 
shackles, against w^hich all his weapons of car- 
nivorous warfare are powerless, he invariably 
turns at right angles from his trail, and seldom 
goes more than two or three rods before the 
grabs become intangled, as seen in the cut, and 
he comes to an abrupt halt. But after biting off 
all the shrubbery within the length of his cable, 


and turning everything around him topsy-turvy, 
he generally disengages himself, and then, snort- 
ing with rage and jingling his metallic fetters, he 
continues his clumsy flight, making signs that 
can be followed as readily as the path of a whirl- 
wind, until the grabs catch under a root or over 
a bough, and he is hindered as before. 

Thus clambering through his painful and pro- 
voking prison bounds, he seldom gets more than 
a fourth of a mile from his trail, when the 
hunter, going to his traps and finding one of them 
missing, follows it up, and slays poor bruin in 
the manner illustrated. 

On the opposite side of the Linville from the 
Grandfather is the spring-flowered and autum- 
nal tinted Flat-Top Mountain, which also runs 
parallel with that beautiful stream, and has a 
splendid pinnacle west of the centre. It is 
noted for its fertile soil, for the abundance and 
variety of its wild herbs, and for its beautiful 
groves of oak, chestnut, sugar-maple, and other 
deciduous trees. 

The last scene of our story occurred at the 
point where a line would pass if drawn from 
the top of Yonahlossee, through the valley of 
the Linville, to the pinnacle of the Flat-Top. 

The party had passed the place where Clipper- 
steel and his guide had camped the night before, 


and Skipper, liaving been paid to carry tlie tent 
and blankets, had tliem rolled up and laid on his 
shoulder. The minister gazed after the flying 
steeds with a dumfounded face, while Skipper 
stood by, w^ith an obelisk of mud on the big toe- 
nail of his left foot, and said in an ecstatic voice, 
that might have been heard by the man in the 
moon, " I'll bet ye a gill of balsam ag'inst a dol- 
lar that them fellers '11 fight over that gal, yit." 

When Clippersteel passed round the curve 
behind which his true love and her captor had 
gone, he saw them going at full speed, so far 
down a long stretch of road that the laurel hang- 
ings seemed to crowd in almost to its closing. 
In his hot pursuit, he snatched a branch from a 
rhododendron and, larruping the horse with the 
broad leaves, the animal leaped forward with 
increased alacrity ; and Leathershine, observing 
that the management of two horses was un- 
equally matched against the skill and speed of 
a single rider, dropped the rein, and, continuing 
his flight, was soon lost to view under the over- 
hanging boughs of the forest road. 

Lidie Meaks was an expert in the overland 
accomplishment of horseback riding, and would 
have prevented this equestrian tornado, but 
Leathershine getting the horses under speed 
before she apprehended his intentions, all her 


skill was required to keep the saddle and evade 
the lowering boughs. 

When Leathershine dropped the rein, she 
checked the speed of the horse and caracoled in 
the road, but her spirits were borne down with 
fear lest her Charlie would believe that the fires 
of jealousy burning upon the youngster's heart 
had been blown by the bellows of her own 
bosom. Guided, however, by a clear conscience, 
she galloped towards her champion, and when 
she met him each saw on the other's face spots 
of sunshine and shadow, like those produced on 
a harvest-field by the passage of broken clouds. 
Comprehending her fears and knowing her in- 
nocence, Charlie said, in a tranquil voice, *' Be of 
good cheer, my dear Lidie, for in the game of 
snatch we are often taken by the one we least 

"Thank you," she said, panting for breath 
and regaining a smile; "and believe me," she 
continued, " I never saw that fellow until a week 
ago ; and although he seemed to be fond of my 
company, I never thought of his presuming to 
claim my regard until this hour, during which 
he has kept my horse crowded into the woods 
and my ears inflated with wind." 

" Had not the coward fled," said Clippersteel, " I 
would have tested the thickness of his cranium." 


" Let me implore you," answered Lidie, " for 
the sake of the good man whose pupil he is, that 
you treat him as beneath your notice, and I will 
stay beyond his ken." 

" Hello," shouted Skipper, arriving Avith the 
tent on his shoulder and the pyramid of mud on 
his toe-nail ; " you've got yer gal back, I see." 

Lidie turned her head to conceal the humor- 
ous expression which the remark created upon 
her visage ; and Charlie answered him with a 
look that was half laughter. 

Mr. Skiles now inquired after his student, and, 
being informed of his flight, he said, solemnly 
and reverently, " I have often j)rayed God to 
gather his wild oats into the garner of repent- 

After Clippersteel had apologized to the clergy- 
man for driving his horse through the nimble 
storm of passion's fleet despair, the journey was 
continued, and, though the fugitive was often 
looked for, onlv the tracks of his horse were seen. 

Close beside them and often crossins; their 
way was the rippling river of Linville, singing 
its song of joy to the youthful Linville Valley, 
or murmuring its sweet story to the myriads of 
speckled beauties that played on its sparkling 
sands. Here it is that the angler casts his rod 
over the home of the piscatorial tribe and brings 


forth his elegant prize, fluttering his finny prat- 
tle against the rhododendron boughs that hang 
like green -spangled awnings over the glassy 

Late in the afternoon, when the green leaves 
were rustled by a bracing zephyr, the dim high- 
way — so little used that it was partly grown 
over with wild herbs — was leading the party 
through a forest of large trees with but little 
underoTOwth. Here was a lone rhododendron 
blooming at the foot of a tall oak, yonder a 
cluster of azalia that fired the forest with its 
flaming flora. 

Suddenly they came to a fence, and going 
straight forward, while the road turned to the 
left, they passed through a gate into a broad, 
beautiful meadow, which was divided into two 
nearly equal parts by the pathway that led 
through it before them. To the left of this 
little meadow passage the mead rolled its green 
sward gently down to the Linville Kiver, beyond 
which was a hill of laurel and pine that led up 
by steeps and land-saddles that wove them- 
selves into a more distant prospect of elegant 

On the opposite side of the grassy track was 
a cosey carpet of horizontal turf that led back 
to a hill of equal green, which, being a part of 


the same enclosure, swept down and blended 
into the level that terminated its descent. 

Directly before them, and about the centre 
of the large enclosure, arose, as if by magic, an 
elegant white mansion. Of its two fronts, one 
overlooked the rolling sward that divided it 
from the river on the south, while the other 
caught in the modillions of its Corinthian entab- 
lature the first kisses of the rising sun. 

Surroundino- it was a commodious vard, en- 
closed by a picket fence of such low structure 
that it gave almost a complete view of the pinks, 
roses, and other perennial blossoms that adorned 
the within. 

Two gravelled walks, one leading from each 
front through the beautiful flowers, terminated 
at as many gates, of wdiich the one on the east 
stood ajar to receive those who were about to 
enter its portal. 

This was the residence of Colonel Salmer,* a 
gentleman of fortune, who had swapj)ed the song 
of the mockino'-bird in South Carolina for the 

* During the war between the States, this mansion 
was burned by Colonel Kirk's men when on their raid 
to Camp Yance. The property is now owned and occu- 
pied by Geo. E. Watkins, formerly of the U. S. Navy, 
who has built an elegant dwelling near the spot where 
the first one stood. 


nesting place of the snow-bird in the beautiful 
land of the sky. 

From a window within, tlie lord of the man- 
sion recognized Mr. Skiles as the shepherd of 
the little flock to which he belonged, and, going 
out to meet him, received his hand with a cordial 
clasp. The Colonel was then introduced to Mr. 
Clippersteel and Miss Meaks, while Skipper 
John looked upon the formality with surprise, 
and evidently believed it to be some angelic per- 
formance, the sanctity of whose mysteries none 
but those in close communion with the Deity 
could understand. 

An inquiry about Leathershine being now in 
order, it was ascertained that he had been there 
an hour before, but, having learned through 
Colonel Salmer that a Mr. Franklin lived near 
the falls, he had gone thither to spend the night. 

The arrivals were now conducted to seats in 
the south 23ortico, which commanded an elegant 
view of many objects, the least comely of them 
all being the dim road; for here I may say that, 
from where we saw it last, it led down to where 
the fence made a right angle, and then turning 
between that enclosing structure and the river 
continued thus until it passed the house. 

Skipper being helped to a chair leaned his 
stupendous form against one of the supporting 


columns that stood nearest the steps. His great 
wide mouth swung open like a fly-trap made of 
two clap-boards, and his knees extended quite 
up to the sides of his flat head, while resting on 
a round of the chair below were two massive feet, 
whose hard bottoms, seared by long and severe 
exposure, bade everlasting defiance to the chest- 
nut-burr and the thorn. 

The landlord, thinking that he had seen him 
before, scrutinized him with a curious eye, and 
only wondered what manner of man had been 
brought to his house ; but when his light-hearted 
wife tripped through the hall and burst into his 
presence, she drew back like an unarmed man 
meeting a grizzly on the great solitudes of the 
West. Her eyes twinkled beneath a scowl as 
she scanned him with a recovering glance. She 
then advanced with shy steps, and gave the 
minister her hand and received an introduction 
to his friends. 

By this time Clippersteel had perceived that a 
rusty j^air of number sixteen feet, supporting a 
form of proportionate size and bearing, would be 
unwelcome visitors between the lily-white sheets 
of * Mrs. Salmer's sleeping apartments ; and as 
soon as he could politely excuse himself he pre- 
pared his tent-bearer a resting-place by spreading 
the tent below the house, by the laughing river. 


Wlien Clipper had placed Skipper securely in 
the little pavilion and returned to the portico, 
Mr. Skiles and Miss Meaks had been conducted 
to their rooms, and Mrs. Salmer had withdrawn 
to the culinary department. But the Colonel, 
remaining in what Skipper called the '' porti- 
kiazer,*' invited his returning guest to a seat, and 
asked him how he liked the country. 

" It is beautiful indeed," was the answer ; " and 
what estimate would you set upon it, if a hun- 
dred farms in this valley were prepared and 
occupied like yours ?" 

'' It would be the Eden of the world, sir, and 
the pittance for which the land could now be 
bought would scarcely be recognized in the esti- 
mation of its value." 

" I concur in your opinion ; and I venture to 
say further, that the fifteen miles of country that 
I have seen this evening, embracing yonder 
stream from here to its source, is worth more for 
the real comforts of life than ten times its area 
elsewhere in the most fertile fields of the South." 

" Experience has taught me that your position 
is true, and, while my friends call it monkish in 
me to have withdrawn from the allurements of 
city life to this tranquillizing retreat, I answer 
them with the following beautiful story of Cin- 
cinnatus : 


" When that model of Roman genius and integ- 
rity had received a letter from the senate, asking 
him, for the sake of the republic, to return to 
the dictatorship, which he had resigned, he re- 
plied as follows : 

" ' If you could see the nice cabbage that I have 
planted to-day, you would never say republic to 
me again.' In like manner I say to my friends, 
' If you were to drink from the cool, pellucid water 
of my spring ; feast on the rich milk from the 
fat cattle that graze my fields ; breathe the sweet 
air from the Balsam Groves of the Grandfather, 
and view their glorious aspect, and see the red 
roses that have taken the place of blanched lilies 
on the cheeks of my wife and darling boyj you 
would never say city to me again.' " 

The spring of which the Colonel spoke was 
reached by a diagonal path passing through and 
beyond the front yard to the right, Avhere the 
smoothness of the landscape was broken by some 
,rocks that jutted from the slope, and seemed to 
wall the subterranean channel through which 
the little stream came from some higher source. 
Here was the dairy, which was made of hewn 
logs neatly joined together and painted white. 
Its form was that of an oblong square. The 
plates crowning the side walls and the roof sup- 
ported by them, passed over and beyond the end 


wall next the hill, forming an extended gable 
that sheltered both the spring and the entrance 
to the little edifice. 

Large slabs of stone walled in the crystal 
fountain, and extended their collateral joinings 
on the side towards the approach, forming a seat 
for two persons. 

After a delicious supper of savory dishes, its 
elegant serving by the accomplished landlady, 
the sending of a portion of the same to Skipper, 
who lived in the tent, and the interesting and 
varied conversation participated in during the 
consumption of the repast, Clippersteel and his 
beloved went down to the spring and occupied 
the seat above referred to. 

The tiny streamlet, trickling from its source 
through the apartments of the dairy, chirped 
like young birds claiming their mother's pro- 
tection at night, as Clippersteel said to his in- 
tended, "Look towards those willows by the 
rippling stream ; see how the glow-worms and 
fire-flies streak and spangle the twilight." 

"I was just asking myself," she replied, 
" whether or not our lives would end so beauti- 
fully as the closing of this day." 

."Only those who live after us can tell the 
solution of that problem. Useful lives and 
beautiful days often have endings quite different 


from the zeniths of their glory ; and the changes 
that take place in the skies of a single clay may 
elegantly illustrate the human career. For in- 
stance, I have seen the sun burn his way through 
twelve hours of ethereal blue, and then set in a 
cloud that soon obscured the sky with darkness 
and gloom, and the red lightning, darting its 
fiery shuttle through the loom of thunder, wove 
a curtain that mantled the earth in terror and 
death. Then I have seen days that were dark and 
dreary, when the bellowing thunder drove the 
wild beast to his shelter in the rocks, and the 
pelting rain thrown by the angry hand of the 
storm demolished the crops of the land and left 
the sinewy hands of toil empty with hunger and 
pain. Then the clouds drifted away, and Sol 
impressed his good-night kisses upon the moun- 
tain-tops in token that he would rise from a 
saffron bed on the morrow. Again, there has 
been many a succession of beautiful days accom- 
panied by as many glorious eves, when Venus 
and the moon, contesting for the prize of beauty, 
hung their golden scale in the west to weigh the 
admiration that each received from the world, 
and the chestnut sunshine that painted the 
blooming fields was broken only by gentle 
showers, that struck not the earth with madness, 
but gave it a warm kiss, from whose loving 


impress there sprang up a beautiful robe of 

" Wliat a 23rofusion of beautiful words you 
utter, Charlie. You have painted three pictures 
of human life from the cradle to the grave. 
May our lot be neither the first nor the second, 
but let it be like the continuation of beautiful 
days. May our lives be a season of perpetual 
sunshine to the heart, when the mind neither 
reverts to tire past nor reaches to the future, but 
is content with the pleasures of the present; 
and if tears must come, may they fall in the 
prepared soil and ripen the fruits of the soul ; 
and at the end we will not contest for the prize, 
but will be content to share alike the glories of 
the world to come." 

" You have a tenderness about you, my dear 
Lidie, and a nobleness of heart which I never 
heard expressed before. Your sweet words, drop- 
ping like vocal roses from the gardens of lan- 
guage, heighten, if possible, the joy of the 
thought that you are soon to be mine. Your 
silvery accents, to which the trickling streamlet 
beside us plays a sweet accompaniment, tell me 
to rob life no longer of the bliss for which I 
sigh ; and now, as you have no parents' consent 
to obtain, no sisters to invite, but only a lone 
brother far in the West, I propose that our 


nuptials be performed at the great falls, to- 

Lidie, remaining silent for a time, heaved a 
sigh, and then said, " I fear that Prudence would 
censure my acceptance, for I am in the far-off 
mountains, without a wedding garment, or even 
a few friends to celebrate the occasion." 

" The foaming falls will lend you from their 
white spray a queenly robe, the benign woods 
will deck it with flowers more gorgeous than the 
artist can paint, and the harmonious melody 
produced by the combined musical agents of 
flood and forest will do honor to the occasion.'' 




The falls that pour their foaming floods, 

And set the wind in motion, 
That wave the boughs and flaunt the carls 

On heads of true devotion, 
Could they but sing the song of pain 

That's mingled in my story. 
Their name would fill the vaulted skies, 

And be enrolled in glory. 

The beautiful homestead depicted in the last 
chapter is now in Mitchell County, but at the 
time of our story it was in the county of Wa- 
tauga, and more than twenty miles from the 
court-house. However, it w^as only eight miles 
south of a place that was and is called the " Old 
Field of Toe," a muster-ground in use before 
the war, where lived a magistrate who was depu- 
tized to issue marriage licenses. 

When Clippersteel had conducted his lady in 
out of the night air from the seat by the spring, 
he consulted the landlord for a few moments, 
after which he wrote a note to the justice, enclos- 


ing a license-fee, and then passed out and down 
towards the tent. 

As he tripped down through the lawn with 
the peert and nimble spirit of Hymen playing 
in his bosom, he sang the following lines : 

Lovely Emma, sweet Emma, 

Would you think it unkind. 
If I were to sit by you 

And tell you my mind ? 
My mind is to marry, 

And never to part ; 
The first time I saw you 

You wounded my heart. 


Oh, her breath smells as sweet 

As the dew on the vine ; 
God bless you, lovely Emma, 

I wish you were mine. 

He was now near the little white pavilion, 
where Skipper's deep slumbers Avere betokened 
by the loud, nocturnal winding of his nasal horn. 
His peculiar errand, and the feeling engen- 
dered by it, had intensified that inherited super- 
stition which dwells even in the bosom of the 
wise. Forms of fear gathered in the quiet 
willows bv the stream, and the nasal voice of 
Skipper sounded like groans from some cavern 



of the earth in which the bones of dead men 
were mouldering. 

" On the lawny sands and shelves 
Trip the peert fairies and the da2:)per elves." 

Witli his heart slightly unnerved and danc- 
ing to the music of Hymen's lute, Clippersteel 
bounded into the tent and stirred the snoring 
man from his lethargy. 

" Have you ever been to the * Old Fields of 
Toe' ? " inquired he. 

"Yes, sar," answered Skipper, pressing the 
knuckles of his front fingers against his eyes; 
"I went thar to the big balluginary " (bat- 
talion) " muster." 

It was now agreed between Clipper and Skip- 
per that, if the latter should have the license in 
the tent by daylight on the morrow, he was to 
receive, as a partial compensation, enough money 
to buy him a new fur hat, which in those days 
meant a high stiff hat, plushed with fur on the 
outside, and having a crown flat on top. 

This was the style of masculine head-gear that 
a gentleman had on when a jester accosted him 
with the following interrogation : 

" Halloo, stranger ; are your cows all dead ? " 

" No, sir," replied the man ; " and why do 
you ask that question ? " 



" Why, sir/' replied the merry-Andrew, " I see 
that you have your wife's churn on your head." 

In case of a successful trip on the part of 
Skipper, he was to receive, also, sufficient money 
to purchase himself a pair of boots, of which the 
fronts were to be red, from the tops down nearly 
to the ankles. 

Skipper was soon plodding his way through 
the valleys and over the heights, and, as the 
moping owl complained to the fair moon that 
rolled up the eastern sky, he meditated upon the 
future as follows : " I'll stick a feather from the 
red rooster's tail in my fur hat, and put my red- 
topped boots on the outside of my pants, and go 
to see Peggy Sigemore, and Betz Kite, who 
kicked me and called me an old balsam climber, 
will wish that she had me for a beau." 

As these happy thoughts of sudden distinction 
passed through his mind, he was so transported 
with joy that he answered the hoot of the owl with 
the following hymn, which he sang to long metre : 

" The squir'l he has a bushy tail, 
The possum's tail is bare, 
A rabbit has no tail at all, 
But a little bit-a-bunch of hair. 

" The raccoon up the chestnut-tree, 
The possum in the holler, 
A purty gal at our house. 
As fat as she can waller." 


Next morning, when twilight still spread her 
dusky pinions over the land, and the moon, hang- 
ing just above the western horizon, cast a pale 
glare on the saffron-gild from the sun, Clipper- 
steel re-entered the tent, where his precursor, 
having returned, was again wrapped in the re- 
storing arms of Morpheus. In his right hand, 
which rested on his brow, was the marriage 
document, while around one of his great toes, 
at the other extremity of his long person, was 
a bandage of green leaves tied on with a string of 
hickory bark and bloodied from a wound within. 
Seeing that all was well, he left the man for an 
hour to his peaceful slumbers, and then returned 
with a waiter heavy laden with hot coffee and 
wholesome food, and as he entered the tent 
Skipper arose, and, extending his hand, said : 

" I got 'um, goody ; her's yer licengers." 

" And here," said Clippersteel, ^' is your 
money," passing him a handful of silver dollars. 
Skipper smiled behind his ears, and his short 
coat danced up and down to the roaring chuckle 
that inflated his ribs. 

*' Did a snake bite your toe ?" inquired Clipper- 

" No, sar," replied Skipper ; " I stump' the 
nail off 'en it," and, putting his hand in his pant's 
pocket, he drew out the great bloody toe armor, 


and, handing it to Clippersteel, said, " Thar it is. 
I'll give ye that to remember who brought yer 

" Thank you. Skipper," was the reply ; " it is 
a nice souvenir, and I shall ever keep it among 
my most valued treasures." Skipper thought 
that he had never before heard a toe-nail called 
a " susandear," but, not doubting the authentic- 
ity of the word, he adopted it into his vocabu- 
lary, and ever afterwards applied the name to 
toe-nails that had been knocked off by accident. 

The blue sky that adorned the wedding-day 
was decked w^ith a bright sun that had risen a 
few degrees above the horizon when the party 
filed through the gate, by the tent, and turned 
down the murmurins: stream. Ridino; in front 
was the lone Mr. Skiles. Next in order was the 
bride and groom, the latter occupying a horse 
procured from a Mr. Dellinger, who was neigh- 
bor to the host and hostess. Third in rank was 
Mrs. Salmer and the Colonel, who were mounted 
on two splendid bays from their own stalls, while 
the rear was brought up by a servant riding a 
long-eared donkey and bearing on his arm a 
large basket of lunch. 

Skipper, who had gone in advance, was so elated 
by his connection with the affair that he told 
every yeoman he met by the way what was 


going to take place at the falls ; and these early 
settlers, whose amusements were few and far be- 
tween, looking upon the outdoor wedding as a 
public affair, dropped their ploughs and hoes in 
the fields, and putting on their best garments 
went towards the scene. 

In consequence of the above, Mr. Skiles soon 
found an equestrian partner in the person of a 
Mr. Buchanan, who had quit the irksome mono- 
tone of his plough for the exhilarating pastime 
of nuptial festivities. 

Before the equestrians reached the falls, 
Skipper, whom they had jDassed on the way, had 
gathered to his side a company of twenty persons 
or more, made uj) of both sexes, in about equal 
numbers. The women wore homespun dresses, 
which they had made for themselves, by carding, 
spinning, and weaving the fleece of the sheep, 
and, finally, cutting and fitting the fabric to their 
persons. Their head-gear consisted of plain 
calico bonnets, while their waists and bosoms were 
set about with fillets of red ribbon that flaunted 
to the gales of the woods. 

Each man was armed with his long fire- 
lock rifle, which, when stood upon its breech, 
extended from the soles of his feet to the 
crown of his head. These were carried as a 
means of killino; the abundant deer and other 


game that frequently crossed the roads and 

In the party was a moustaehed man, middle- 
aged and handsome, by the name of Clark, who 
seemed to have descended from some professional 
family that had strayed into the far-off mountains 
and retrograded from their former learning and 

Beside him was his daughter. Miss Ada, a 
blooming girl of sweet sixteen, whose form was 
cast in neat proportion's mould. Her queenly 
hands, tapering and fair as the lily, were 
gloved with a pair of red mits of her own knit- 
ting, which exposed the ends of the fingers and 
the first joints of the thumbs. 

Her golden hair was like a shower of primrose 
petals falling, and her cheeks were finished with 
the artistic touches of Aurora's rosy hand. Her 
eyes were like the corolla leaves of the blue- 
veined violet, her nose was a posy to her face, 
and her pearly teeth sparkled with nectarean 
dew. " She was a flower born to blush unseen 
and waste its sweetness on the desert air." 

In those days it was customary for a gentleman 
to propose his escort to a lady in the following 
manner. Walking up to her side, he said, " Do 
you love chicken ?" which nowadays would be 
equivalent to asking if she were a Methodist. 


If she answered " Yes," he then presented his 
arm with the words, " Have a wing," whereupon 
she put her arm through his. But if the answer 
was " No," he was refused, or, in the parlance of 
the times, she had " kicked" him. Such scenes 
usually occurred in large crowds that were going 
the distance of ten miles or more, to or from 
church, on the Sabbath day, and the fellow who 
got " kicked" was always greatly derided by 
most of those who witnessed the chagrin of his 

On the present occasion, when all were bound 
for the falls, a fellow, with the blood-red top-knot 
of an imperial woodpecker in his hat-band, 
stepped up to the side of Miss Ada; bijt just as 
he would have propounded the Methodist ques- 
tion, her father gave him a disapproving glance, 
by which his heart failed him, and he passed on 
to the side of a bunty girl with a flaxen head and 
a frisky air, and, looking her in the face with a 
grin, he said, *' Aggie, do you love chicken ?" 

*' I don't love roosters," was the pert reply. 

The answer beino; new and thorou^'hlv orio-inal, 
the fellow was for a time completely dumfounded 
for something to say, but finally he got his mouth 
off, and said, " Will you let one walk with you 
to the wed'en ?" 

" Yes, if he don't crow too loud," she replied. 


Page 85. 


The heterogeneous gathering was now on the 
west bank of the river, at the top of the cataract, 
where the stream passed transversely over a 
saddle of rock, and dropping off, at the lower 
skirt, fell the height of a tall tree into a pool of 
matchless depth and beauty. But since that time 
the ledge has broken down, so that the water 
leaps and cascades alternately through a curved 
and partly concealed grove, and finally termi- 
nates in a clear fall of only about thirty feet, as 
seen in the cut. 

The pool, however,, which is about fifty yards 
wide and twice as long, with the corners slightly 
rounded, has lost none of its original beauty, 
unless it is in the diminished magnitude of the 
white breakers that rufile its dark bosom. The 
long way of this beautiful lake is at right 
angles to the fall, and its outlet is through a 
narrow channel at the east end. 

The party, having satiated their sesthetic 
vision from the top, now started for a landing at 
the bottom, and there never was a wilder way 
than theirs. The little track wound, and still 
winds, through and under laurel and ivy, around 
and over cliffs, and then turns down a slope of 
forty-five degrees, and runs as straight as a gun- 
barrel for the distance of fifty yards. This 
visible section of the path, canopied by the 



lapping boiighs of the rhododendron and calmia, 
is crossed by many rocks and tree roots, which, 
having been divested of soil by clambering feet, 
look like the rounds of a long ladder leading 
down to the subterranean falls and glittering 
stalactites of a cave. At the foot of this shaded 
vista, the way turning down the stream to the 
right passes up into and down through crevices, 
where the overhanging rocks, being of the Meth- 
odist persuasion, sprinkle the heads of the pass- 
ers-by with clean water. And, indeed, it seems 
quite thoughtful in these stones to prepare the 
traveller at this point for death, because the next 
fifty yards of his path are the most dangerous 
that the writer has witnessed in all North Carolina. 
Here the south side of the pool is bounded by 
a perpendicular rock that walls an unknown 
depth of water, and then rises from ten to thirty 
feet above its surface ; and we do not exaggerate 
in the least, when we say that the track is on 
the very brink of this ledge, and in some places 
barely w^ide enougli for the feet. The fears of 
the tourist are to some extent removed by the 
laurel hangings above and a fringe of light 
vegetation on the brow of the rock below, but 
the latter would not support the weight of a 
falling babe, and the former might be missed by 
the clutch of one who had lost his footing. If 


ever a lady tumbles over this precipice, she will 
most probably be lost, and a gentleman could 
save himself only by good swimming. 

Our wedding party, now quadrupled by the 
country people, followed this hazardous track 
to where it spreads into a bench of rock about 
as wide as the floor of a bedroom and several 
times as long. If we imagine this seat occupied 
by a giant of suitable size, his calves will rest 
against the perpendicular wall of the pool and 
his feet will be washed by its breakers. Before 
him, the white torrent pours down into the boil- 
ing pot, while immediately on the right of the 
foaming cataract rises a great ledge of stone, 
from whose summit a Niagara leaper might 
make a most beautiful dive into the pool, one 
hundred feet below. 

This ledge is only the upper end of a long 
w^all that extends down the stream and rears its 
battlements in front of a low oval knob, in the 
rear of which is a scattered growth of dead 
and living pine, with scarcely anything beneath 
except short bunches of calmia. 

The back of our imaginary giant is supported 
by the smooth face of a cliff" about thirty feet 
high, which breaks at the top into a succession 
of ivy-mantled crags that rise almost perpen- 
dicularly for several hundred feet, to where they 


are crowned with a grove of Carolina pine [Abies 
Caroliniana). While these crags are exceed- 
ingly beautiful in elevation, they are also equally 
picturesque in their longitudinal extension far 
down the stream, where the rocks rear their gray 
crests above their evergreen mantles, and, with 
their surroundings, blend into a scene as wild 
and varied as can be woven of the warp and 
woof of mystery and repose. 

The country gentlemen, having leaned their 
rifles against the cliflP, stood with their women 
folks, anxiously awaiting the expected event. 
In due time the bride and groom, attended by 
Colonel and Mrs. Salmer, were arrayed for mar- 

Their backs were in the neighborhood of the 
guns, while their faces were towards the great 
pouring column, wliose white wings and boiling 
pedestal sent forth a breeze that set all the near 
flora and other equally movable objects in 
motion, — bush, weed, and flower, as well as 
ribbons, tresses, whiskers, and moustaches, and 
even the leaves of the minister's book were all 
dancing to the wind of the falls. As Mr. Skiles 
composed the fluttering pages beneath his thumbs, 
he drew so near and spoke so loud, in order to be 
heard above the roar of the waters, that his 
manner, elsewhere, would have been suitable 


only to those who were partially deaf. The 
charming bride, with dove-like eyes, looked 
steadily upon the minister ; and, as he proceeded 
with the beautiful Episcopal service, there never 
was a bliss more wild and warm and boundless 
than that which thrilled her heart. " If any 
man," said the clergyman, ^' can show just cause 
why they may not lawfully be joined together, 
let him now speak or else hereafter forever hold 
his peace." 

To the great surprise of all present, a sneer- 
ing voice, on a different key from the thunder- 
ing of the falls, was heard to say, " I object." 
This came from none other than Leathershine, 
who had resolved to avenge his defeat by vexing 
the occasion with this obnoxious objection, based, 
as we shall see, upon an odious falsehood ; and, 
the better to accomplish his design, he had con- 
cealed himself in the green of the steeps, so as 
to appear at a time when the groom could not 
contravene his purpose nor do him violence. 

" What is the ground of your objection ?" 
inquired the minister. 

" She is engaged to me" w^as the reply. 

No one can describe the trembling pallor that 
seized the person of poor Lidie Meaks. With 
eyes full of overflowing fondness, she looked upon 
him she loved, as if to say, " I am innocent." 



Her chin dropped upon the flowers that adorned 
her bosom ; every nerve and muscle of her frame 
lost its energy, and she sank at the feet of the 
groom, not in the fashion of one who falls under 
the influence of excessive excitement, but like 
a pure woman borne down by the weight of a 
calumny perpetrated upon a warm life that no 
sin had ever tarnished. 

The copious pool, so near the fainting bride, 
was yet so far that not a drop of its pellucid 
contents could be had with which to bathe her 

But the groom quickly produced from his 
pocket a little bottle of brandy, which he 
carried, as a precaution, in case of accidents, 
and spreading a portion of its contents over her 
pallid face, the signs of restoration soon became 
apparent. The country folks had gathered 
round like the p)eople of a city rushing to the 
scene of an accident, when those at disadvantage 
look over the shoulders of those in front to get 
a view of the within. 

By this time Leathershine had run down the 
lake, and was ascending the heights at a point 
below, when Clippersteel, darting through the 
crowd, snatched a rifle from its leaning-place, 
and was aiming a shot that would have de- 
spatched the retreating coward, had not Mr. 


Clark grabbed the muzzle of the gun and borne 
it downward until he had gone out of sight. 

A few minutes later the infamous dude 
mounted his horse, and, riding directly to 
Valle Crucis, packed his trunk and fled before 
Mr. Skiles had returned. 

The tumult was now ended ; the bride was 
able to sit upon a shawl which had been offered 
by a good mountain matron ; and an hour later 
the marriage service was closed with the follow- 
ing prayer : 

^' O eternal God, creator and preserver of all 
mankind, giver of all spiritual grace, the author 
of everlasting life, send thy blessing upon these 
thy servants, this man and this w^oman, whom 
we bless in thy name ; that, as Isaac and Re- 
becca lived, faithfully together, so these persons 
may surely perform and keep the vow and 
covenant betwixt them made (whereof this ring 
given and received is a token and j^ledge), and 
may ever remain in perfect love and peace to- 
gether, and live according to thy laws, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." 

Hanging on a limb, at the top of the cataract, 
was the basket of lunch, and those for whose 
comfort it had been prepared, now climbing in 
single file for its rich morsels, w^ere followed by 
the riflemen, with their ruddy consorts and lasses. 


As the mountaineers were departing for their 
homes, Mr. Clark and his daughter accepted a 
cordial invitation from Mrs. Salmer to take kmch. 

The dinner was taken to a convenient spot, 
where a number of large rocks laid round in 
circular form, and spread within their circumfer- 
ence on the cloths in which it had been folded. 

Skipper, having now remained with his older 
friends, looked on from a distance, as if uncertain 
as to how near the food his welcome extended ; 
but when Clippersteel observed his doubtful atti- 
tude, he took him by the arm and seated him on 
a bowlder, suitable to his size, within the circle. 
His valuable service to Mr. Clippersteel and the 
wound ujion his great toe having elicited general 
sympathy, Mrs. Salmer helped him to the first 
round, as she did the rest, and then bade all wait 
on themselves. 

Under the cloths, in the corner nearest to 
Skipper, was a flat rock that so pressed its 
bosom against the white covering as to form a 
neat little elevation, which was occupied by a 
large, highly-flavored cake, of a rich, yellowish 
cast, the same being cut from the centre to every 
second or third convolution that ornamented its 

When Skipper had quickly gulped down 
what had been given him, he took a piece of 


cake, when Mrs. Salmer, looking upon him 
with a degree of allowance, thought, " Poor, 
ignorant fellow doesn't know which end of the 
meal to begin at." 

The Adam's-apple on Skipper's neck had 
not played up and down more than twice, when 
he seized a second piece of the rich composition, 
and then a third ; and the lady in charge, be- 
coming alarmed lest none should be left for the 
rest, laid a drum-stick on a biscuit, and said, — 

"Here, Mr. Potter" (calling his surname), 
" have this nice chicken and biscuit." 

^'Oh, no," said he; "eat that yerself; this 
punkin bread's good enough fur me." 

Those who had previously suppressed their 
hilarity at Skipper's mistakes were now unable 
to conceal their glee, and all burst into such 
explosions of laughter that great mouthfuls of 
masticated bread and butter flew against the 
surrounding rocks like showers of shot from a 

Mr. Clippersteel settled with his lovely wife 
in the city of Paleigh, where he had formerly 
resided, and the murmurs heard in that family 
were like the voice of a sunlit tide embracing 
the tinted shells of the shore in love. 





The East Tennessee and "Western North Caro- 
lina Railroad, which is more generally known as 
the Cranberry Kailroad, leads through one of the 
most unique and beautiful regions in America. 
The first ten miles of this admirable narrow 
gauge, extending from Johnson City, Tennessee, 
to Elizabeth town of the same State, lies through 
the broad, fertile valley of the lower Watauga, 
a country productive in men so eloquent as to 
convert the very language of common life into 

It was in and around this favored spot that 
Andrew Johnson, though born in North Caro- 
lina, began that political career that crowned 
him with the garlands of the nation. 

Here was born and reared Thomas A. R. 
Nelson, the able jurist, who, soon after the late 
rebellion, wrote the prophetic poem on East Ten- 
nessee beginning with the following beautiful 
lines : 



East Tennessee ! secluded land 

Of gentle hills and mountains grand, 

Where healthful breezes ever blow, 

And coolest springs and rivers flow ; 

AYhere yellow wheat and waving corn 

Are liberal poured from plenty's horn, — 

Land of the valley and the glen. 

Of lovely maids and stalwart men ; 

Thy gorgeous sunsets well may vie. 

In splendor, with Italian sky ; 

For, gayest colors deck the clouds. 

As night the dying sun enshrouds. 

And heaven itself doth wild enfold 

Its drapery of blue and gold. 

And, pillowed in the rosy air. 

The seraphs well might gather there. 

And, in the rainbow-tinted west, 

Be lulled by their own songs to rest ! 

Thy bracing winter, genial spring. 
The ruddy glow of rapture bring ; 
Thy summer's mild and grateful heat. 
From sweltering suns gives cool retreat ; 
While frosty autumn, full of health, 
Fills crib and barn Avith grainy wealth. 
And challenges the earth to dress 
Its leaves in richer loveliness ! 

Enchanting land, where nature showers 
Her fairest fruits and gaudiest flowers; 
Where stately forests wide expand, 
Inviting the industrious hand, 


And all the searching eye can view 
Is beautiful and useful, too ; 
Who knows thee well, is sure to love, 
Where'er his wandering footsteps rove, 
And backward ever turns to thee, 
With fond, regretful memory. 
Feeling his heart impatient burn k 

Among thy mountains to return ! < 

In this fertile valley Colonels Shelby and 
Sevier collected and marshalled the troops with 
which they joined Colonel Campbell, of Vir- 
ginia, in winning the glorious victory over the 
British at King's Mountain. 

Here William G. Brownlow, the Fio^htino: 
Pastor, preached, and at the same time ran a 
forge and a casting-furnace on the Doe Biver, 
only a few miles above its confluence with the 
Watauga, just below Elizabethtown. 

At his forge the blacksmiths purchased a 
good quality of wrought-iron, from which they 
made the hoes, harrows, and ploughs of the 
times ; and from his furnace, which was simply 
a primeval manufactory of cooking utensils, the 
ladies obtained the long-legged black iron pots 
that ornamented the broad, anti-stove hearth- 
stones of East Tennessee homes. 

On the left bank of the Doe Kiver, within 

the corporate limits of Elizabethtown, is an his- 
toric sycamore that is destined to catch the eye 















and receive the touch of thousands of American 
citizens. Its branches are as flourishing as the 
State in whose soil it grows, and its leaves are 
fashioned to the patterns of the dallying nooks 
in the rippling stream, to whose joyful song 
they dance and tremble. Its beautiful bark, 
always brightly spotted by the partial dropping 
of its annual incrustations, looks as though it 
were mantled in the robes of the leopard. Even 
its parting boughs seem to have been passed 
through the cased arms of skins from the car- 
nivorous beast. 

Beneath the umbrageous foliage of this beauti- 
ful tree, within the mirthful sound of the laugh- 
ing Doe River, where every breeze was sweet 
with the odor of neighboring cedars, Andrew 
Jackson (Old Hickory) , the royal hater of John 
Quincy Adams, held the first Supreme Court ever 
convened in the great Commonwealth of Ten- 

Three miles below the place of the great 

soldier's sylvan court were born and raised the 

Taylor brothers, Bob and Alf, who, being rival 

nominees for Governor of Tennessee in 1886, 

reproduced " The War of the Bed and White 

Boses." In this political unique, Bob proved 

to be of the House of York, even for a second 

term, and the House of Lancaster, though de- 
^ g 9 


feated for the gubernatorial chair, has since been 
twice elected to Congress. 

I cannot better continue my description of 
the Watauga Valley than by quoting the mag- 
nanimous oration which Landen C. Haynes, the 
maternal uncle of the Taylor brothers, delivered 
under the following circumstances : 

At a grand banquet given to members of the 
bench and bar, during a session of the Supreme 
Court, held in Jackson, Tennessee, soon after the 
war between the States, General N. B. Forest 
arose and said : " Gentlemen, I propose the health 
of the eloquent attorney from East Tennessee" 
(turning to Haynes), " a country sometimes called 
the God- forsaken." 

Mr. Haynes responded as follows : 

"Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, — I plead 
guilty to the soft impeachment. I was born in 
East Tennessee, on the banks of the Watauga, 
which in the Indian vernacular means beautiful 
river, and a beautiful river it is. I have stood 
upon its banks in my childhood and looked 
down through its glassy waters, and have seen 
a heaven below, and then looked uj) and beheld 
a heaven above, reflecting, like two vast mirrors, 
each in the other its moons and planets and 
trembling stars. 

" Away from its banks of rock and cliff, hem- 














lock and laurel, pine and cedar, stretches a vale 
back to the distant mountains as beautiful and 
as exquisite as any in Italy or Switzerland. 

" There stand the great Unaka, the great Roan, 
the great Blacks, and the great Smoky Moun- 
tains, among the loftiest in America, on whose 
summits the clouds gather of their own accord, 
even on the brightest day. There I have seen 
the great spirit of the storm after noontide go 
and take his evening nap in his pavilion of 
darkness and of clouds. 

" I have then seen him aroused at midnight 
as a giant refreshed by slumber and cover the 
heavens with gloom and darkness, have seen 
him awake the tempest and let loose the red 
lightnings that ran along the mountain-tops for 
a thousand miles swifter than an eagle's flight in 

" Then I have seen them stand up and dance, 
like angels of light in the clouds, to the music 
of that grand organ of nature, whose keys seemed 
to have been touched by the fingers of the 
Divinity, in the hall of eternity that responded 
in notes of thunder resounding through the 

"Then I have seen the darkness drift away 
beyond the horizon, and the morn get up from 
her saffron bed like a queen, put on her robes 


of liglit, come forth from her palace in the sun, 
and * stand tiptoe on the misty mountain-top/ 
and while Night fled before her glorious face 
to his bedchamber at the pole she lighted the 
green vale and beautiful river, where I was 
born and played in childhood, with a smile of 

"Oh, beautiful land of the mountains with 
thy sun-painted cliffs, how can I ever forget 
thee !'' 

Mr. Haynes had a countenance as broad and 
brilliant as the land of his birth, and a voice as 
sweet and musical as Watauga's murmuring tide. 
If he had lived in the days of Greek or 
Koman triumph, and had displayed his silver- 
tongued eloquence at the foot of Helicon or in 
the valley of the Tiber, his countrymen would 
have dropped a wreath of glory upon his brow 
and proclaimed him first of the nation. 

It is most probable that he had never seen 
the great evergreen Grandfather, through whose 
ferny filters trickle the first sparkling stream- 
lets of the pellucid river that he immortalized, 
for if he had ever beheld its beautiful clouds 
shedding their vernal showers upon the myriads 
of speckled beauties in the Watauga, the Elk, 
and the Linville, or " looping their wind-swung 
folds" around the giant arms of the majestic 


balsams high on the mountain-top, he would 
have set it as a gem in the exquisite eulogy on 
his native land. 

The passenger-train that curls its column of 
smoke through and beyond the beautiful vales 
of the Watauga is called by the quaint but 
appropriate nomenclature of the stem-winder, 
because, in winding the many graceful curves 
of the road where brooks pouring down over 
the rocks throw spray in at the windows, and 
the passing gales blossom with the sweet odors 
of the woods, it bears a marked resemblance to 
the tempered steel of a time-keeper in playing 
its part within the glittering gold and among 
the intricate movements of the best jewelled 
stem-winder in the pocket of the millionaire. 

Six miles above Elizabethtown, the stem- 
winder stops at Allentown, a handsome station, 
where the " Spring Lake Inn" and the Hampton 
Hotel are situated beside a clear and unusually 
voluminous limestone spring, which is the nearest 
calcareous neighbor to the free-stone fountains 
of the Highlands. 

One mile beyond Allentown, the iron steed 
dashes through one of the five tunnels on the 
line, and bursts into a grand canyon called the 
Gorge. Here the Doe Eiver, a rumbling, tum- 
bling, rollicking, frolicking stream, in dancing and 



dallying along tlie countless ages of time, has 
cut its way down through the Azoic rocks to 
the depth of a tliousand feet, and so nearly 
perpendicular are the walls on either side that 
a suspension bridge could be constructed, with 
usual decorum, across the chasm at the top. 
Through this unique and beautiful gate-way to 
the Highlands of Western North Carolina, the 
road-bed has been prepared, for the distance of 
four miles, by cutting a niche out of the rocks, 
about fifty feet above the river, on the left 
bank ; and as the stem-winder " wheels its dron- 
ing flight" through crag and canyon, by rushing 
ra]3ids and foaming falls, through bracing air 
and views sublime, it passes by great towers and 
walls, and temples, and cathedrals, and castles 
" of stone, ornamented with spires and domes and 
turrets and battlements, and enriched with a 
profusion of wild pinks that grow in the crevices 
and impart a glowing harmony to the gray 
columns and 23ilasters and obelisks and pinnacles 
and porticos of stone behind them. Passing 
this colossal structure of Nature's masonry, the 
stem-winder follows the rumbling waters of the 
Doe to Roan Mountain station and hotel, which 
are connected by a hack line and a telephone 
with Cloudland Hotel, twelve miles away on the 
bald of the great E-oan Mountain. 

(from a Photogras>h by Nat. W. Taylor, Elk Park, N. C.) 

Page I02. 


Leaving the banks of the Doe, the train winds 
through the alternating valleys and ravines of 
Shell Creek, crossing the State line and con- 
tinuing two miles beyond to its terminus, where 
the Cranberry Iron and Coal Co. are operating 
the greatest mine of magnetic iron ore this side of 
cold, piney Sweden. Such are the agencies that 
have driven the crouching panther from the 
Highlands, and the rhododendron blooms that 
waved over his lair now drop their crimson 23etals 
upon the heads of fair men and maidens who sit 
beneath the shades and woo the sweet flowers to 
the rescue of their love-stricken hearts. 

Returning to the banks of the Watauga, we 
call attention to the fact that the Bristol, Eliza- 
bethtown, and North Carolina Kailroad will soon 
be completed to the last-named town, which 
renowned and historic spot has recently been 
purchased as the site for a co-operative manu- 
facturing city. Among its owners are a num- 
ber of the wealthiest and most influential gentle- 
men in America, who look forward to the early 
extension of railroads from Elizabethtown and 
Johnson City, across the Blue Bidge, to connect 
with the Bichmond and Danville system and 
other lines of the Atlantic slope. 

The completion of the unfinished link in 
the Charleston, Cincinnati, and Chicago between 


Johnson City, Tennessee, and Marion, North 
Carolina, is anticipated with impatient interest ; 
and the Cranberry narrow gauge is on the eve 
of being extended across the fertile Valley of 
the Linville, and then along beneath the frown- 
ing rocks of the Grandfather to Lenoir ; while 
the Co-operative Town Company dwell with 
especial emphasis upon the continuation of the 
Bristol, Elizabethtown, and North Carolina up 
the Watauga Valley, through the region of 
Mountain City, to the top of the great water- 
shed, and thence down to the present terminus 
of the Yadkin Valley road at Wilkesboro. 

With implicit faith in the early building of one 
or all of these connections, our friend, the Bard 
of the Highland, has presented us with the fol- 
lowing beautiful production of his genius : 


There's news on the wind, 'tis wafted from the shore 

Like a faint voice from the ocean's mighty roar; 

The iron horse is coming, oh, tell it once more. 

On the Atlantic coast the iron horse will start, 

And dash through the mountains like a winged dart ; 

Throufi^h the old ISTorth State and the State of Tennessee 

The iron horse will travel and travel in glee. 

Yes, the iron horse is coming, and that's good news ; 

It will cure hard times and drive away the blues. 


Awake from your slumbers, ye good mountaineers, 
You'll hear the mighty whistle in two or three years ; 
Ring the bells of welcome, let your cheers go round. 
Our wealth will come forth, our wealth is in the ground. 

What a resurrection of ores to the sight ; 
And our gems will sparkle like stars of the night. 
And joy will kindle in the good farmer's eye 
When he can buy so cheap and can sell so high. 
His cabbage, potatoes, his turnips and fruits. 
His bacon, beef, butter and milk from his brutes, 
His cider and wine, and his crout in his kegs, 
His honey and feathers and poultry and eggs, 
And everything he grows, his grain and his hay, 
Will bring good prices, and prices that will pay ; 
And everything he buys from a railroad store 
Will come much lower than he ever bought before : 
His clothing and coffee, his sugar and flour, 
Will all testify to the iron horse's power. 
And all the day long, through the hot summer days, 
While out in the field, 'neath the sun's burning rays. 
The farmer will whistle the iron horse's praise. 
And in front of his door the bird in her bower 
Will tune her sweet lays to the iron horse's power; 
How the merchant will smile when the railroad comes 
And brings cheaper goods to his customers' homes; 
When he gets connected with the business world, 
He'll hang out his sign like a flag unfurled : 
" Come one and all, great and small, rich and poor, 
Everything is first-class in my railroad store." 
And the laboring man, the abused of the earth, 
By cheap labor kept poor, and poor from his birth, 
The only man that knows what money is worth. 
Can rejoice when he hears the iron horse neigh : 


" One dollar instead of fifty cents a day." 

The iron horse is coming, he's a steed that's fleet, 

He'll trample hard times 'neath his great iron feet. 

Methiiiks I hear the train dashing o'er the plain, 

Eoaring and thundering like the mighty main. 

On through Carolina's undulating hills, 

Xow through the deep cuts and now along the fills, 

Across each swamp and river by trestle or bridge. 

And on to the foot-hills of the great Blue Eidge, 

And panting and climbing and leaping its spurs, 

And fretting and foaming in his cast-iron gears. 

And snorting and groaning his burden to bear, 

And prancing and puffing and snuffing the air. 

At length he reaches the top of the mountain. 

And slakes his thirst in a cold crystal fountain ; 

Nor ever did steed of iron or of flesh 

Quaff water from a stream more cooling and fresh ; 

Nor ever did hills that echoed to thunder, 

Present more romance and grandeur and wonder. 

On dashes the steed as fast as a pigeon 

Through a rugged, rich, and beautiful region ; 

And the passengers glance with wonder-bleared eye 

At the hill-strewn landscapes, as backward they fly, 

That deck so profusely this land of the sky. 

The steed dashes on with thrilling locomotion, 

Piling up mountains 'tween him and the ocean ; 

And the breath from his nostrils rolls back on the air, 

And hangs like a cloud quite pensively there. 

Or shoots up a column all curling and black. 

That winds like a serpent far over the track. 

On dashes the steed as fast as he can run. 

His head-light gleaming like the noonday sun. 

Through forests unmeasured, trees without number, 

Millions of trees made a-purpose for lumber. 


And now the iron wheels clank and clatter and roar 

And press the rich beds of East Tennessee ore. 

In the county of Johnson, where the steed now runs, 

The hills are swollen with millions of tons. 

What wealth has slept since the dawn of creation, 

Awaiting the hand of this generation! 

Awake from your slumbers, ye good mountaineers, 

You'll hear the mighty whistle in two or three years ', 

Eing the bells of welcome, let your cheers go round, 

Our wealth will come forth, our wealth is in the ground. 









The Highest Standard of Passenger Service. 
Through Trains, Quick Time, and Sure Connections 




The Scenery in the Mountains of Western North Carolina is 
Unsurpassed. Highest Peaks east of the Rocky Mountains. They 
have a Ruggedness and Grandeur not possessed by any other 
Mountains in the Eastern States. 


The Greatest Summer and Winter 


to be found in the Union are in this section of 

Ample Hotel Accommodations and every Convenience and Luxury 
are to be had at the Various Resorts along the Lines of the RICH- 
MOND AND DANVILLE RAILROAD, and are easily reached. 




The Great V/ashington and South-Western Vestibuled Limited 
is the Most Magnificent Train, and via the SHORTEST ROUTE 

See that your Tickets read via the 


For full information in regard to Schedules, Maps, Time-Tables, 
etc., apply to any Agent of the System, or address 



W. H. GREEN, G.A/., SOL. HAAS, T.M., 






One mile below Cranberry on the narrow- 
gauge is the thriving town of Elk Park, where 
scores of health- and pleasure-seekers dismount 
from the iron horse. Here comfortable board 
can be had at the Banner House, the Bowers 
House, or the Walsh Hotel, for one dollar a day, 
with reasonable reductions for longer periods. 
But if more costly fare is desired it will be found 
at the elegant cottage of Nat. W. Taylor, brother 
to Robert L. Taylor, ex-governor of Tennessee. 
This gentleman not only keej)s first-class ac- 
commodations, but, being a professional artist and 
photographer, he invites his guest to patronage 
in that line, and offers for sale a stock of beauti- 
ful views photographed from the most interesting 
mountain objects. 

Two miles south of Elk Park is the summit 
of Hump Mountain, five thousand five hundred 
and forty-one feet above the level of the sea, 


while the same distance north of the town the 
beautiful Falls of Elk have a clear leap of sixty- 
three feet into a deep, seething caldron. 

Eight miles northeast from our present rail- 
road landing, by way of a new and beautiful 
mountain road, is, — 

Fair Banner Elk, tlie Highland flower, 
With warbling birds in many a bower, 
And valleys sweet with new mown hay, 
And pastured hills where cattle lay. 

Its laughing cascades foaming white. 
Its speckled trout in- waters bright ; 
O'er dallying pools and dancing nooks 
The sportsman plies the feathered hooks. 

Here are no hotels, but at the farm-house of 
Mrs. Patsey H. Witmore, the combined store- 
house and dwelling of R. L. Lowe, Esq., and at 
the author's Shonnyhaw cottage, tourists are in- 
vited to spring beds, and to tables heavily laden 
with such food as roasted mutton, yeast bread, 
biscuits and corn bread, unskimmed sweet milk, 
and sour milk just from the churn, coffee, fried 
or boiled swine's ham, buckwheat cakes and 
maple syrup, fresh butter, chicken and eggs, 
vegetables, honey, jellies, jams, preserves, pickles, 
speckled trout, and, last of all, turnip salad, of 
which the Irishman said " that he had come all 


the way from ' Auld Ireland/ just to eat broad 
grass like a cow." 

For board on Banner Elk tlie terms are one 
<lollar a day, six dollars a week, and twenty 
dollars a month. 

Standing around this sequestered valley in re- 
posing grandeur, and representing the corners 
of a triangle, are three mountain princes, viz., 
the Hanging E-ock, the Sugar, and the Beech, all 
of which are more than five thousand feet above 
the level of the sea. 

The overtopping Beech is crowned with an 
imposing pinnacle, w^hich, being cleft in the cen- 
tre, presents a double front, of which one side is 
called the Boc's Egg, because it is supposed to 
resemble the egg of the roc, the monstrous bird 
of Arabian mythology. 

Looking half a mile west from this hard- 
shelled production of the mythical species, the 
tall Bider's Bock rises before the observer, and 
presents him with the exquisite picture of a 
horse and rider embroidered of ferns and lichens 
upon its face. 

The entire mountain, with his cliffs and pinna- 
cles, faces the south, and ever casts his adamant- 
ine smile upon the emerald valley of Banner 
Elk and its tributary, shy Shonnyhaw ; while, 
looking still beyond through the vista between 


the Sugar and the Hanging Rock, he beholds 
the great evergreen Grandfather bulging his 
cap of clouds to the sun. 

From the very summit of the Beech, the land 
sloping northward was rendered bald in 1890 
by the use of two axes, of which one was wielded 
by the writer of this little volume, while the 
other was manned by a Baltimore bard, who 
signs his name " Chuckey Joe." 

The spot thus divested of trees is grown over 
with an indigenous grass of such a profuse and 
lustrous green that the sight-seer can scarcely 
refrain from lying down and rolling on the cosey 
carpet beneath him. 

So majestic are the rocks of the Beech, and 
so glorious the panorama which they command, 
that Chuckey Joe, who named the Bider's Bock 
and the Boc's Egg, and assisted in creating the 
Bald of the Beech, has seen fit to poetize as 
follows : 



{The little ''Bald'' was born August 23, 1890.) 

That I'm as " old as the hills,'' every one must confess ; 
Being a " mountain," you see, I could hardly be less; 
But, somehow, yonder " Grandfather," say what I will, 
In spite of my " ages," " gets the age on me,"still. 
A 10* 


Yet we grew up together : when the Record begins, 
Some score thousand years back, we were brothers and 

twins ; 
He stuck to the " Blue Ridge," and I to the " Stone ;" 
And if he claims the "Linville," why the "Elk" is my 


True legions of " Low-landers" pray at Ms shrine, 
Whilst only rare Ramblers offer incense at mine ; 
Yet these " Summer-ers" claim to be civilized folk 
With Vi passion for "peaks," but that's surely a joke; 
For if "culture" they long for in fact, not in fun, — 
Let them note, — I've ten farms to the Grandfather's one; 
And if corn, clover, and cabbages, buckwheat and beans, 
Ain't "culture," just explain what the hull of it means? 

But as I said sooner, "Inconsistency's cheap!" 

If you've ever been too oV d yourself — don't laugh at sheep. 

You-uns claim culture, and polish, and taste, and sich 

" stuff," 
Yet you worship the " G-randad" for being a "rough." 
I can't for the life of me (and my life is long), 
See why the " Grandfather" should have the whole 

Lauding " Him" to the skies, whilst the " Beech," though 

In Brotherhood with him, seems almost forgotten. 

I've been puzzling my pate ('tis no soft one, you bet !), 
Why the " G. F.," you see, should become such a pet ; 
No doubt " Kelsey's curves" up his slopes air big help, 
But if he is a " lion," the " Big Beech" is no whelp. 
If he has his " Balsams," I have samples as good 
As on Yonahlossee's top ever have stood ; 


And Ms " Knuckles" could never knock down my " Eoc's 

Kor his " Raven Rock" lower my " Rider" one peg. 

That a Mountain his own " faults" should oft overlook 

Is quite logical (vid. any Geo-logical book) ; 

Nor could you expect any " Bump" of my size 

To " lie low" when even " The Hump," humps Ms-self 

for the prize. 
I can play a " hlxiff game" as my " pinnacles" tell, 
An& fifty -five hundred feet is (I swear it) a " swell ;" 
But what sot me back when the "Boss Bumps" were 

Was, they thought me a mere " Boy" because I warn't 

" bald." 

There are acres of much bigger halds, say the Finical, 
But I'm sure you'd discover " fine points" on my " Pin- 
nacle ;" 
Gray crags, with a few laurel clumps, or an ash ; 
And belted round these, like an emerald sash, 
A greensward, where my choicest " Rhododendron 

Can flaunt their fair flowers to the sun and the sky : 
And "Rain-roosts" I have, too; — jow could hardly find 

better ones 
To keep dry your " dry goods" if you woii't all be 
"wetter 'uns." 

IsTow I hope you-uns Hll visit my lately born " Bald :" 
It 'tain't like the " Blood Camp's," a mere " fire scall'd," 
Nor like "the Humps" "deadening." 

Though thickening, you saw 
Leagues of leafage from "Poga" to shy "Shonnyhaw" 


In woodlands extending ; just — drop up ; let your eyes 
See my bonny bare " Bald" spread itself to the skies, 
Like a garden from Eden just recently snatched, 
And with all of the " latest improvements attached." 


See ! from " cloud-land's" white walls on the dark " Eainy 

To where the "Black's" "Mitchell" as monarch en- 
throne ; 
Nay, further, — to where " Craggy's" far tilted crest, 
And dim " Yeates" and domed " Ogle" shine pale in the 

From " Chimney-top" over fair Tennessee's lines 
To where " White Top's" long " bald" like a scimitar 

shines ; 
From " Iron," less distant, rising softly by inches 
Beyond Abingdon look where the gate of the " Clinch" 

From the "Snake" and the "Elk," and the "Bluff's" 

dimmer blue, 
To " Blowing Eock's" crags, and Boone almost in view I 
Mark the " Devil's Claw" under the bold " Hanging 


And the " Cloven Cliff's" crags, that seem almost to 

The " OrRANDFATHER," jutting up Under his "Nose." 

(Ah! when he "catches cold," you can look out for 

Then see "Flat Top," "Sugar's" bluff, and the "Nee- 
dles" not far. 

And the "Table's" dark cliff and the "Hawkbill's" 
dim scar. • 


Tender's "Jonas' Bald Ground," and the "North Cove" 

slopes there 
With his marble cliffs under the wild, "Winding Stair." 
Far distant, lifting southward his faded blue cap. 
See "Old Bald," once the "Shaky" of "Hickory-Nut 

Gap ;" 
Nay, — even beyond these, blue as some distant Zion, 
Mark " Saludas" soft slopes 'neath the blue tent of 

" Tryon." 
From the "Clinch" to where " Chuckey" and "Tennes- 
see" meet, 
There lies a broad, beautiful world at your feet ; 
Extending from where eastward rises "Pilot's" dim crest 
To the " CuMBERLANDs" fading afar in the west. 
No fairer land surely than this, where the hills 
Are feathered with forests and braided with rills ! 
See ! under us " Shonnyhaw" dances and dallies. 
And " Elk" in white arms holds a score of my valleys. 
Oh, come ! from my laurel-crown'd throne, feast your eyes 
On the greenest of lands, 'neath the bluest of skies! 
Where " Enohla's" white cascades flash out like a mist, 
There are blooms to be cull'd — there are maids to be 

kissed : 
And " Banner's Elk" bravely and broadly extends 
A summery Welcome to hosts of warm friends . 

Chuckey Joe. 


BY THE "pathfinder." 

Seenoyahs, or the Mountains of Night, are "The 

The Great Estetoe Mountain is in the Vulgate^ " Bright's 



Ej^unayrock (Panther Skin, Tusc.) is White Top, 

YoNAHLOssEE (the Passing Bear) is the Grandfather 

Yanassa (Bnffalo) is the Iron Mountain Eange, long 
and unlovely. 

The Wahaw are the South Mountains, south of Mor- 
ganton. North Carolina. 

Chotah is the " Bluff of the Peak" or Cloven Cliff. 

"Wanteska (Level Land) is Flat Top of Linville. 

Kullahsayja (Sugar) is Sugar Mountain of Banner's 
Elk, North Carolina. 

Zehleeka is the French Broad Eiver. 

Yonawayah (Bear Paw) is the Hanging Eock of Ban- 
ner's Elk. 

Klonteska (Pheasant) is Big Beech of Banner's Elk. 

The Sakonegas (Blue) is the Blue Eidge Eange. 

Skolanetta is the Hump, near Cranberry, North Caro- 

Ottaray is the Cherokee (now obsolete) name of old for 
their Highlands in North Carolina. 

The EsEEOLA Mountains, follow the left bank of the 
Linville Eiver, south of Linville City, ending with 
Short Off, below the Table. 

Chuckey Joe. 


Between Elk Park and tlie Cranberry mines 
the stem-winder stops to let passengers oflf at 
the Cranberry Hotel, a perfect gem of a house, 
which Mr. Wallace Hahn, the proprietor, keeps 
in the style of a delightful country home. 


Along its approaches and around its copious 
verandas the most beautiful flowers are clumped 
and clustered upon a verdant lawn, while the 
commodious apartments within are furnished 
with every modern convenience, and the dining- 
hall is rich with the aromatic contents of plenty's 

At the mines you can get a square meal for 
fifty cents, and a day's board and lodging for one 
dollar and fifty cents, at the Mitchell House. 

Persons who stop at Cranberry to see the inex- 
haustible deposit of magnetic ore and its sur- 
rounding objects of interest, will lose the jewel 
of their sojourn if they fail to visit Colonel C. 
H. Nimson's Bellevue farm, three miles distant, 
on top of Fork Mountain, where the si^lendor of 
the prospect is all that the name suggests, — 

"And harmless shepherds tune their pipes to love, 
And Amaryllis sounds in ev'ry grove." 


Mr. S. T. Kelsey, the general manager of the 
Linville Improvement Co., is at once a philoso- 
pher and engineer, a botanist and a scholar. 
His neatly-proportioned person is a little smaller 
than that of the average man, and from beneath 
his brim peeps, in cunning brilliancy, a pair of 


small, keen, penetrating, expressive blue eyes, 
which everybody takes for black until they are 
otherwise informed. 

His long beard, that would do honor to the 
days of Moses, falling gracefully upon his bosom, 
is clean and white as the snow. His hair is of a 
solid, rich, glossy cream color, while a few black 
streamers in his moustache, interspersing the 
white, are his only souvenir filaments of middle 

These hoary locks, on a head of only sixty 
summers, evince a life of the most stirring ac- 
tivity both in body and mind, and still he pos- 
sesses the sprightliness and energy of the most 
enterprising man of thirty. 

This gentleman has placed such a sterling 
stamp upon his section of the country by laying 
out and building the most elegant drives in the 
Highlands, that Chuckey Joe has passed upon 
him the most magnanimous pun we ever heard, 
— he calls him " The Colossus of Rhodes." 

One of Mr. Kelsey's roads, leading from Cran- 
berry, twelve miles eastward, to Linville, is util- 
ized by a daily hack from the latter place, and, 
as the wheels drone along and you have your 
fish-basket on your back and your spouse by 
your side, the old road, which the new one often 
crosses, looks like the deserted trail of a savage 


tribe that had fled before civilization to an unmo- 
lested hunting-ground. 

Six miles on the way you come to the " Old 
Fields of Toe/' an ante-rebellion muster-ground, 
where you cross the Toe River. The name Toe, 
as here applied, originated as follows : 

Estetoe, a chief's daughter, was engaged to a 
young man of the tribe, and, when her father 
objected to the marriage, she drowned herself in 
the clear stream, which the Indians afterwards 
called by her name ; but the whites, being too 
lazy to hinge their tongues upon the silvery 
accents, changed the euphonious word to Toe, 
which can mean no more than one of those 
miserable corn-bearing extremities that had all 
the rhetoric frozen out of them before the dis- 
covery of Columbus. 

Leaving the banks of the Estetoe, four miles 
further takes you to Montezuma, the " preacher's 
Mecca," where the sacred dust of a revolutionary 
soldier, whose name was Gragg, sleeps in the 
town cemetery ; and Mr. John Carpenter will 
give you a square dinner, an oblong supper, a 
good bed, and a breakfast fashioned after any 
geometrical figure within the annals of the 
higher mathematics, all for one dollar. 

Two miles beyond Montezuma you roll into 

Linville, where Mr. Thomas F. Parker, Presi- 

V n 


dent of the Liuville Improvement Co., has 
a number of elegant cottages, whose exquisite 
paintings and architectural designs thoroughly 
compensate the beautiful forest for that part of 
its destruction which gives them room. 

But the most commodious building in the 
town is Eseeola Inn, a chimney-topped, shingle- 
gabled, and verandad edifice, where the summer 
nights are rendered comfortable by the blazing 
logs of many open fire-places, and the days are 
cheerful with a health-giving tide of sweet air 
that floats through the balanced windows and 
gives '^ back the invalid the rose to his cheek." 
O23j)osite the oflSce on the first floor is a large 
music-room, which is beautifully finished in 
native hard woods, lighted with brilHant chan- 
deliers, ornamented with a sweet-toned piano, 
and, having a floor as hard as lignumvitae and 
as slick as a peeled onion, furnishes the finest 
facilities for tripping the fantastic toe. 

When your feet have grown tired of waltzing, 
Morpheus folds you in his peaceful arms and 
lays you where the ease of s|)ring-beds and the 
soft touches of downy pillows give the weary 

Three thousand years ago Solomon said : 
" There is nothing new under the sun ;" but if 
he could come back to this world and engage 






board at Eseeola Inn, lie would find that some- 
thing new has been invented ; for he could hol- 
low " halloo" in a telej^hone and receive an 
answer from a social-minded fellow in the tele- 
phone ofl&ce over at Cranberry, and he could 
chalk his cue and try his luck on a billiard- 
ball, like which no rotary object ever revolu- 
tionized across a rectangular game-table in the 
city of Jerusalem. 

This splendid building has hot and cold baths, 
smoking and reception rooms, broad stairways 
of easy ascent, carpeted rooms and hall-ways, 
marble-topped office counters, extensive piazzas 
for promenades, and a beautiful dining-room, 
whose sumptuary ingatherings are guaranteed 
by the proprietors to be equal, if not superior, 
to those of any other house in the mountains 
of North Carolina. 

Such is the variety and flavor of the food that, 
when you place your foot on the threshold of the 
masticating department, your nasal proboscis is 
greeted with the aroma of roasted mutton or 
beef, and the alimentary pupils of your orbicular 
instruments are fixed upon large slabs of comb 
honey, consisting of the gathered sweets from 
mountain flowers, and rivalling in delicacy the 
nectar of the gods. 

Among the delicious dishes of Eseeola's tables 


is pure maple syrup, manufactured from maple 
orchards on the Company's lands, and those 
popular mountain batter-cakes, made from that 
peculiarly-shaped grain, about which a lady re- 
cently interrogated a gentleman, as follows : 

" Kind sir," said she, " do you know how 
buckwheat came into this country ?" 

" No, madam," replied the man ; " but I will 
thank you for any information you may give me 
on that point." 

" Well, sir," said the lady, " I will tell you. 
It came into this country three-cornered." 

Mr. James T. Skiles, former popular man- 
ager of Luray Inn, Virginia, solicits patron- 
age at Eseeola, at the rates of two dollars a 
day, ten dollars a week, and thirty-two dollars a 

An object of great attraction, only one mile 
from Linville, is Mr. Harlan P. Kelsey's ex- 
pansive nursery of native ornamental plants, 
shrubs, and trees, and when you visit this mani- 
fold collection from the universal garden of 
nature, you will be surprised that our American 
parks, cemeteries, and lawns have been stuffed 
with costly foreign importations, while the beau- 
tiful orchids, ferns, blooming vines, flowering 
shrubs, perennial herbs, aquatic and bog plants, 
and evergreen and deciduous trees of the South- 



Page 125. 


ern Alleghany Mountains have, until recently, 
been almost entirely excluded. 

From this beautiful plantation of shrubs, 
plants, and infant trees, Mr. George H. Vander- 
bilt has purchased thousands of the hardy orna- 
mentals that adorn his masfnificent estate near 
Asheville; while gardens and boulevards in 
England, Germany, Holland, Ireland, Italy, 
Belgium, and other foreign countries, are now 
variegated with American flora from this new 
and highly commendable enterprise upon the 
banks of the jubilant Linville. 

Mr. E. S. Eand has truthfully said : " We do 
not api^reciate our American flora, and have 
shut our eyes to the richness that lies all around 
us. In England, a crowning glory of horticult- 
ural exhibition is the show of American plants ; 
and we in America don't know what they are." 

Twelve miles down the stream, from Eseeola, 
passing tlie Highland Nursery and the beauti- 
ful farm and mansion of George R. Watkins, is 
Linville Falls, where comfortable board can be 
had at the house of Mr. Theodore Franklin at 
twenty-five cents a meal, or one dollar a day. 


From Linville, it is twenty miles east to Blow- 
ing Kock, which is not only one of the most 



popular summer resorts in the Soutli, but also 
a handsome town, two miles long, on the very 
crest of the Blue Kidge ; and if more of the 
buildings were painted white, it would be a 
modern Alba Longa. 

Mr. 8. T. Kelsey, the Colossus of Rhodes, 
has recently connected these two places by the 
grandest drive in the State, which, being chiselled 
out of the rocks along the south side of the 
Grandfather Mountain, cost multiplied thousands 
of dollars. Its finish is as smooth as the rim of 
a chariot- wheel, while the region through which it 
passes is as rugged as if Vulcan's mighty anvils 
had been thrown from the throttle of a volcano 
and lodged on the mountain-side. High up the 
imposing crags the eye is directed into great 
dark holes and hollows that Sol's rays have 
never penetrated ; but in the ojDposite direction, 
the expansive view is extended far into the blue 
haze of the sunny South. 

About midway between Blowing Rock and 
Linville, where the daily hack from the latter 
place crosses Green Mountain Creek, a beau- 
tiful fall, twelve feet high, is so close on the 
upper side as to throw spray upon the dry- 
goods of the passers-by, while immediately 
below the road, the stream has a leap that is 
more than twice as high as the first, and 


















equally enhanced in the other features of its 

Five miles from Linville, and just above the ele- 
gant highway where it is crossed by a tumbling 
creek, is the Leaning Bock, about one hundred 
feet high, consisting of three truncated blocks 
of stone set one upon another, the first tapering 
gradually upward from its broad, square base to 
fit the bottom of the second, and the top of the 
second being patterned in like manner to the 
bottom of the third. Up and down through the 
centre of the crowning section is a rent, and at 
the point where its lower extremity touches the 
top of the middle division is a little soil formed 
by the mixture of lodged leaves and disintegrated 
rock, and supporting a flourishing bnnch of rho- 
dodendron, which, in July, hangs out its scarlet 
flora like a beautiful bouquet upon the bosom of 
a Colossus. 

The great Appian Way, leading from Rome by 
way of Naples to Brundusium, was j)i'obably 
not more interesting than the Yonahlossee Boad. 
Statins called that ancient thoroughfare the Be- 
gina Viarum, which, being of the Latin tongue, 
means Queen of Boads. It was projected and 
partly built, B.C. 312, by Appius Claudius, the 
author of the famous dictum, " Every one is the 
architect of his own fortune." Its width was 


from fourteen to eighteen feet, and the large, 
well-fitted stones with which it was laid looked 
up through the flying wheels of Titus's chariot 
and saw Vesuvius shoot his fires at the stars and 
pour down the cinders under which Pompeii 
slept for two thousand years in the peaceful 
arms of the dead. 

High over the E-egina Viarum were the in- 
verted images of ships reflected from the fluo- 
rescent waters of the Mediterranean, and sailing 
on the fleecy waves of the sky. Even the 
beautiful islands of that sea were apparently 
inverted above the horizon, presenting the ob- 
server with the tinted images of trees with their 
tops downward, mountains projecting from the 
sky, fat cattle grazing upon the verdure of the 
heavens, and the contending armies of diflerent 
nations and creeds intrenching themselves in the 

Such were the wonders of earth, sea, and sky 
as seen from the ^^ Queen of Roads ;" such the 
exquisite glimpses from which Cicero caught the 
glorious inspiration that filled Home with elo- 
quence, and the world with classic recollections. 
But with the fall of the Western Empire, the 
E-egina Viarum went to decay, and, during the 
many centuries that have since elapsed, the 
Yonahlossee Eoad, around tlie south side of 


the great evergreen Grandfather, is one of the 
few public highways that have again associated 
the ease and elegance of travel with the most 
ecstatic delights of the mind and heart. 

Three miles from Linville, that beautiful 
branch of the Yonahlosse, designated in the 
*^ Ballad of the Beech" as " Kelsey's Curves," 
turns to the left, and winds back and forth up 
crags and through huckleberry balds, the dis- 
tance of one and a half miles to the hard 
knuckles of the great Grandfather, which being 
at the end of one of his uplifted arms is often 
gloved in a cloud. 

From this beautiful view, a foot-way leads 
eastward, more than a mile, to the highest peak 
of the mountain, where it will be met, at an 
early day, by a splendid bridle-path constructed 
from a favorable point on the Yonahlossee Road. 
Four miles from Linville, and one mile be- 
yond the bifurcation of Kelsey's Curves with 
the main line, the " Alpen Way" branch, two 
miles in length, turns to the right and, cross- 
ing Beacon Heights, continues to the summit of 
Grandmother Mountain, which we have hereto- 
fore called the Queen Consort of the reigning 

The Princess, Beacon Heights, standing near 
the king and queen, extends to each a hand of 


filial love, and ever looks upon the father with 
tearful eyes, like a Christian daughter endeavor- 
ing to persuade her hard-hearted parent to re- 
pentance. But the queen, having despaired of 
softening the immovable monarch, glances at his 
frowns with resignation, and directs the attention 
of her guests to the beautiful wardrobe of the 
princess, and invites them to the horticultural 
displays of her own royal gardens. 

The two beautiful roads which we have men- 
tioned as departing from the Yonahlossee, the 
one to the left and the other to the right, are 
like twin sisters straying from their mother, by 
her consent, and returning with myriads of 
flowers to adorn the maternal palace of love. 

From these splendid drives, which have been 
built at greater cost than any others of the same 
length in the South, aged persons, and those 
otherwise unable to endure the fatigue of climb- 
ing, can sit in the carriage, at elevations of over 
five thousand feet above the level of the sea, and 
enjoy as fine views as any region in the eastern 
half of America affords. 

Chuckey Joe, in " The Ballad of the Beech," 
calls a shelving rock a "rain-roost," because 
under these persons often perch themselves in 
times of rain. On the fifteen-thousand-acre 
tract of mountain land, owned and improved by 


the Linville Improvement Company, there is a 
number of delightful "rain-roosts/' and where 
nature left, too long a distance between any two 
of them, it has been divided by a rustic shelter, 
as a protection against the hazard of sudden 

Those who have been ducked by the aid of a 
cloud instead of a minister, can readily realize 
the great comfort that these sheds must add to a 
summer resort, for it has been no uncommon 
thing, in Western North Carolina, to see a party 
come in from a mountain clamber as wet as 
drowned rats, with their garments flapped about 
them, and their persons so stooped over, to con- 
ceal their faces from view until they could get 
to their rooms, that it was impossible for an 
observer to tell which end of an individual was 

At Linville, where the august drive along the 
side of the Grandfather is met by the beautiful 
road from Cranberry, the Western Carolina 
Stage-Coach Company have, among their many 
handsome conveyances, an elegant Concord stage 
called the Awahili, which, being of the Indian 
vernacular, means Eagle ; and when this is drawn 
back and forth, along the Yonahlosse Road, by 
six splendid bays prancing between ornamental 
mazes of laurel and pine, passing mirthful falls 


and crossing streams like "liquid silver/' the 
passengers are met by new and beautiful objects 
of entertainment at every revolution, of the fly- 
ing wheels that bear them onward to the sump- 
tuous entertainments of Blowing Rock, or to the 
cheerful accommodations of Eseeola's brilliant 

In winter, the snowfall at Linville is lighter 
and more gentle, and the climate less cold and 
damp, than that of the Northern States; in 
spring, the blooming dog-wood and service trees 
hang out their white curtains as flags of truce 
in a green tasselled army of innumerable trees ; 
in summer, leagues of the most beautiful leafage 
that ever waved to ^olian breezes stretch across 
and far beyond the company's broad estate, and 
in autumn, the monarch of gentle decay walks 
through the land with a many colored garment, 
robbing the leaves of their verdure and painting 
on them a thousand tints more brilliant than the 
Tyrian dye; while to these beauties of nature 
the company have added all art and enterprise 
in order to induce pleasure- and health-seekers 
to purchase homes of peace and gladness within 
their beautiful domain. 

All around this infant metropolis of the High- 
lands are flowers for the botanist, rocks for the 
geologist, trout for the angler, landscapes for the 








artist, sublimity for tlie poet, recreation for the 
tired business man, invigoration for the weak, 
ease for the okl, and for the young, beautiful 
retreats, where Cupid wields the subduing power 
of his golden dart and sends his victims into the 
royal presence of Hymen, presiding beneath his 
crown of sweet marjoram. 


From Linville to Blowing Rock there is a 
choice of ways. If you want to take it leisurely 
and catch trout as you go, you will loiter 
up the stream, for the distance of four miles, 
to Linville Gap, where a beautifully pinnacled 
mountain on the left is Dunvegan, which 
Chuckey Joe, in "The Ballad of the Beech," 
calls " Cloven Cliffs." 

It is now less than a mile down the gurgling 
brooks of the Watauga to Grandfather Hotel 
and post-office, a white house nestling so near 
the evergreens that the sweet odor of the 
balsams is wafted in at the doors, and, sweeping 
through the commodious hall-ways, cures hay- 
fever and bronchitis, and prolongs the lives of 

About fifty yards in front of the building, at 
the foot of a declivity, flows the prattling infant 
Watauga, teeming with speckled beauties, and 



altliough most of them, at this point, are too 
small for the osier basket, yet plenty of nice 
ones are found, only a mile below, where crystal 
tributaries have swollen the stream. 

Along the opposite bank, from the hotel, is a 
narrow strip of bottom, about twenty yards wide, 
from whose farther side rises a precipitous hill, 
so profusely grown over with rhododendron, that 
in the blooming season, from about June 20 to 
August 10, it presents the veranda-sitting tourist 
with a perfect wilderness of the gayest flowers. 

This is the blooming base of the great ever- 
green Grandfather, whose highest j)oint, only 
three miles away, and just a few degrees south 
of the zenith, is reached by a winding path that 
passes by the coldest perennial spring, isolated 
from perpetual snow, in the United States ; its 
highest temj^erature being only forty-two de- 

The neighborhood of Banner Elk, which is 
five miles northwest, is reached by a rough road 
that is being made better, while one mile in the 
rear of the hotel Dunvegan rears its head so 
high as to obscure the North star, and can be 
surmounted only by an almost pathless clamber 
through its rocky defiles. 

All mountain ramblers concede that Grand- 
father Hotel is a well-kept house, in a most 


delightful spot, and watered by the best spring 
in the Highlands. 

It is said that a drummer once dined at a 
hotel where the dinner was brought to him in 
side plates, and, after he had eaten it all up, he 
said to the waiter, " Well, I have enjoyed your 
samples very much, so you will please bring in 
the dinner." But Mr. J. Ervin Calloway, the 
proprietor of Grandfather, and his good wife 
Josephine, do not bring the meals in mussel- 
shell dishes ; they put plenty of roasted mutton, 
smothered chicken, buckwheat cakes and maple 
syru]3, unskimmed milk and lots of other good 
things, in capacious vessels on the table, and then 
tell you that " fingers were made before forks, and, 
that if you would rather use them than the tri- 
pronged instrument, to just crack your whip." 

All classes of persons, except those in search 
of gayety, can spend a week or a month as 
pleasantly at Grandfather as at any other house 
in the mountains, and will get as much for the 
price, which is fifty cents for single meals, one 
dollar and a quarter a day, seven dollars a week, 
and twenty-five dollars a month. 


shull's mills. 

From Grandfather, your objective point is 
Shull's Mills, six miles down the Watauga, and 


as you travel along a good road between bloom- 
ing buckwheat on one side, and waving corn on 
the other, you pass the village of Foscoe, where 
birds of good omen have always flitted through 
the skies of William H. Calloway, and arrive at 
your destination, where J. C. Shull, Esq., who 
has a splendid wife and two charming daughters, 
and lives in a nice unpainted farm-house, sur- 
rounded by a grassy lawn, will give you nice 
country board at fifty cents a day, three dollars 
a week, or ten dollars a month. 

Around Esquire Shull's, in the Watauga and 
its tributaries, is good trout fishing ; and it was 
here that a man, who thought himself wise, once 
said to a lad, who was casting his line upon the 
waters, "Adolescens, art thou trying to decoy 
the piscatorial tribe with a bicurved barb on 
which thou hast affixed a dainty allurement ?" 
" No, sir," replied the lad ; " I'm fishing." 
At ShuU's Mills, the tourist leaves the banks 
of the beautiful Watauga and winds the rising 
curves of a turnpike-road for the distance of 
seven miles to Blowing Kock, where all classes 
of board, from comfortable to fancy, can be had 
at pro rata prices; and prancing steeds and 
flying phaetons are always ready at the stables 
of Henkels and Craig, or at those of Abernethy 
and Yance. 


From Blowing Rock, a turnpike-road leads 
twenty miles down the south side of the Blue 
Bidge to Lenoir, the terminus of the Chester 
and Lenoir narrow-gauge railroad, which con- 
nects with the Western North Carolina at 
Hickory, the Carolina Central at Lincolnton, the 
Piedmont air-line at Gastonia, and the Charles- 
ton, Cincinnati and Chicago at Yorkville. 

The same gentlemen who keep liveries at Blow- 
ing Bock have at Lenoir also splendid stables for 
the immediate accommodation of those who are 
skyward bound. 


Eight miles north of Blowing Bock and con- 
nected with it by a good road is Boone, the 
county-seat of Watauga, where board that is 
good enough for a king can be had at W. L. 
Bryan's Hotel, or at the hotel of T. J. Coffey 
and Brothers, at the rates of twenty-five cents 
for single meals, one dollar a day, six dollars a 
week, and twenty dollars a month. 

In a bottom, not far from the court-house, 
Daniel Boone, for whom the place is named, once 
had a cabin, and the pile of stones that still 
marks the place of his chimney, together with 
the location and name of the town, has furnished 


the "Bard of the Highlands" with sufficient 
material for the following elegant poem : — 


Among Watauga's fertile hills, 

Where music flows from crystal rills, 

And health is victor o'er disease, 

And vigor lurks in ev'ry breeze, 

And all the forests and the fields 

A growth of richest verdure yields, 

And fruits and flowers profusely grow ; 

A land where milk and honey flow. 

Mountains promiscuous, heaped and piled. 

And landscapes wrapt in grandeur wild, 

And beauty lingers all around 

And reigns in majesty profound. 

Within this mountain solitude 

There stands a village, small and rude. 

Hard by the base of Howard's Knob, 

A mountain prince, a proud nabob, 

Whose rocky bluffs forever frown 

With dread severeness on the town. 

As independent, bold, and free 

As promontory on the sea. 

This mountain wears a look austere. 

But should excite no hate or fear ; 

He has a mission, noble, grand, 

Born more to serve than to command ; 

And owns a mission more to shield 

Than arbitrary power to wield ; 

He courts our rapture and delight, 

And not suspicion or our fright. 


So many blessings from him flow, 
"We crown him friend and not a foe ; 
He guards the town as kind and mild 
As the fond mother guards her child ; 
And when the town is wrapt in sleep, 
His nightly vigils faithful keep, 
And holds communion with the stars, 
And talks with Yenus and with Mars, 
And fain would shield from ev'ry harm. 
He checks the fury of the storm, 
And tempts the thunderbolt to lurch 
And spare the steeple of the church. 
And waste all its electric fires 
On his defiant rock}^ spires ; 
And all may quench their raging thirst 
Where fountains from his bosom burst. 
And roll through various gorges down 
And waters furnish for the town. 
This mountain sage is old in age 
And has a fame for hist'ry's page ; 
He is as old as Eden's lawn, 
And he beheld Creation's dawn. 
Man's life is like the flower or grass, 
But he lives on while ages pass ; 
A thousand years ago he saw 
The planets roll with perfect law. 
And on his head the stars did shed 
Their light, and, from her Eastern bed. 
The moon rose up and made her bow, 
And smiled the same as she does now. 
He notes the actions of mankind. 
Whether for good or bad inclined ; 
He saw depart a savage race, 
And saw another take its place. 


A hundred years or more ago 
The Indian bent his deadly bow, 
The well-aimed arrow quickly sped, 
A deer did bound and then was dead. 
No village then, no glittering spires. 
The stars looked down on Indian fires ; 
No golden fields, no Sabbath bells, 
The hills echoed with savage yells, 
The red man owned the vast domain 
From mountain crag to fertile plain ; 
He thought his title was in fee, 
And oh, how happy, wild, and free ! 
Eut stop, O savage ! stop and think ; 
You're standing on destruction's brink; 
Let all your hopes be turned to fears 
And deep despair instead of cheers. 
" The die is cast," your fate is sealed \ 
"What dreadful foe is that concealed 
In yonder copse? with flashing eyes 
And heart that knows no compromise ; 
With such a bold, determined look 
That death he could undaunted brook; 
An iron purpose that fairly mocks 
A thousand savage tomahawks. 
Oh, savage, now thy woe bewail. 
For Daniel Boone is on thy trail, 
A hero, grand, immortal, brave. 
Whose fame grows brighter from the grave. 
A hardy yeoman, warrior bold, 
Enduring heat, defying cold. 
Before whose awe-inspiring tread 
The savage further westward fled 
Towards the sunset's russet glow, 
To bend again his deadly bow ; 


A woodsman, artful, cunning, keen, 
A foe could see, himself unseen, 
And win a battle in retreat. 
And brinoj out victory from defeat. 
Nor Eoman arm was e'er so strong, 
Nor Spartan valor set in song, 
That could eclipse our hero grand 
Who gave us this, our Switzerland. 
This John the Baptist sought a place 
For the great Anglo-Saxon race ; 
And soon the land was occupied 
By civilization's rushing tide. 
What meed of praise could be too great 
Our hero's name to celebrate ? 
What honors could our race confer 
Too great for such a pioneer ? 
What village would not, boasting, claim 
To wear the mighty hero's name ? 
And such is ours, 'mid babbling rills. 
Among Watauga's fertile hills. 
Where crags and stars communicate 
The highest court-house in the State. 
What sacred memories hover 'round 
This solitary spot of ground. 
Where stood the flue of Daniel's tent ; 
A pile of stones, now heaped and blent, 
Some of them taken rough, unhewn, 
That laid the corner-stone of Boone, 
And others, from the ashes swept, 
Are now by relic-seekers kept ; 
And still a mound of stones remain 
Upon a richly-studded plain. 



Seven miles west of Boone, eight miles east 
of Banner Elk, and twelve miles northwest of 
Blowing Bock is Valle Crucis (Vale of the 
Cross), where there is bass-fishing in the Wa- 
tauga, and the Mary Etta Falls of Dutch Creek 
have a leap of eighty feet into a foaming pool, 
that is bordered with an evergreen selvage of 
laurel and pine. 

At this place, the hospitable H. Taylor and 
his descendants have built handsome estates on 
the ruins of Valle Crucis Abbey, which flour- 
ished under Bishop Ives in about 1845, and fell 
with his apostasy to Bome in 1852. 

The name, Valle Crucis, is said to have been 
suggested by the fact that two mountain tribu- 
taries, flowing towards each other and emptying 
into Dutch Creek below the falls, form a cross 
with that crystal stream, in the centre of the 
beautiful valley where the Abbey was located. 

A large rustic arm-chair, made and occupied 
by the devout William West Skiles during his 
missionary work at Valle Crucis, now sits in the 
front piazza of Mr. C. D. Taylor, and shoots up 
its fabric of rhododendron and calmia boughs 
in the most beautiful style of the Gothic archi- 


The very best rural board can be had at Valle 
Crucis, at reasonable country prices, with D. F. 
Baird, Sheriff of Watauga County, who lives in 
a commodious white house, where the air without 
blossoms with the odor of plenty's horn, and 
the within is adorned with a cheerful wife and 
three rose-lipped daughters of joy. 





[The following sketch of the history of Andre Mi- 
chaux's career is condensed from the memoir prepared 
by Professor Charles S. Sargent, of Brooklyn, Massachu- 
setts, as an introduction to the journal published by the 
American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia.] 

The younger Michaux, in tlie year 1824, 
presented to the American Philosophical Society 
the manuscript diary kept by his father during 
his travels in America. The first parts had 
been unfortunately lost in the wreck of the 
vessel in which Michaux returned to France 
from America, and no record is jDreserved of his 
travels in this country from the time of his 
arrival in New York in October, 1785, until his 
first visit to South Carolina in 1787. 

The first notice of the journal which appeared 
in this country is found in a paper, by Professor 
Asa Gray, entitled " Notes of a Botanical Ex- 
cursion to the Mountains of North Carolina,'' 
published in the American Journal of Science, 
in 1841. This brief extract, together with a 


more detailed account of tliose parts of Micliaux's 
document which relate to Canada, published in 
1863, by the Abbe Ovide Brunet, directed the 
attention of botanists to this record of the travels 
of one of the most interesting and picturesque 
figures in the annals of botanical discovery in 
America, and for many years the feeling has 
existed among them that the journal which fur- 
nishes an important chapter in the history of 
the development of American botany should be 
published. The American Philosophical So- 
ciety having shared in these views, a copy of the 
manuscript has been placed in my hands for 
publication. It is now printed as Michaux 
wrote it, by the light of his lonely camp-fires, 
during brief moments snatched from short hours 
of repose, in the midst of hardships and often 
surrounded with dangers. The character of the 
man appears in this record of his daily life, and 
any attempt to correct or extend his words would 
destroy their individuality and diminish the his- 
torical value of his diary. 

The journal is something more than a mere 
diary of travel and botanical discovery. The 
information which it contains in regard to vari- 
ous plants first detected by Michaux is valuable 
even now, and his remarks upon the condition 
of the remote settlements which he visited in the 

Q k 13 


course of his wonderings are interesting and 
often amusing. They record the impressions of 
a man of unusual intelligence — a traveller in 
many lands, who had learned by long practice to 
use his eyes to good advantage, and to write 
down only what he saw. 

He was the first botanist who ever travelled 
extensively in this country, although it must not 
be forgotten that John and William Bartram, 
his predecessors by several years in the same 
field, did much to prepare the way for his wider 
and more detailed explorations. The first con- 
nected and systematic work upon the flora of 
North America was based largely upon his col- 
lections, and bears the impress of his name, 
while it was by his efforts that many American 
plants were first made known in the gardens of 

Michaux was born at Salory, in the neighbor- 
hood of Versailles, on March 7, 1746, and early 
became interested in the cultivation and study 
of plants. He left Paris, in 1782, for Aleppo 
and Bagdad, and, after travelling extensively 
and mastering the Persian language, he returned 
to Paris early in 1785, bringing with him a 
valuable herbarium, and a large collection of 

At this time the French government was 


anxious to introduce into the royal plantations 
the most valuable trees of ea>stern North America, 
and Michaux was selected for this undertaking. 
He was instructed to explore the territory of the 
United States, to gather seeds of trees, shrubs, 
and other plants, and to establish a nursery near 
New York for their reception, and afterwards 
to send them to France, where they were to be 
planted in the Park of Rambouillet. He was 
directed also to send game birds from America, 
with a view to their introduction into the plan- 
tations of American trees. 

Michaux, accompanied by his son, then fifteen 
years old, arrived in New York in October, 1785. 
Here, during two years, he made his principal 
residence, established a nursery, of which all 
trace has how disappeared, and making a num- 
ber of short botanical journeys into New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and Maryland. The fruits of 
these preliminary explorations, including twelve 
boxes of seeds, five thousand seedling trees, and 
a number of live partridges, were sent to Paris 
at the end of the first year. 

Michaux's first visit to South Carolina was 
made in SejDtember, 1786. He found Charleston 
a more suitable place for his nurseries, and made 
that city his headquarters during the rest of his 
stay in America. Michaux's journeys in this 


country after his establishment in Charleston, 
coyer the territory of North America from 
Hudson's Bay to Indian Hiver, in Florida, and 
from the Bahama Islands to the banks of the 
Mississippi Kiver. 

In 1788 he was called upon by the minister 
of the French Republic, lately arrived in New 
York, to proceed to Kentucky, to execute some 
business growing out of the relations between 
France and Spain with regard to the transfer 
of Louisiana. This political journey, and a 
second made into the far West, occupied long 
intervals of Michaux's time, covering a period 
of about seven years, at the end of which he 
returned finally to Charleston in the spring of 
1796. His nurseries were in a most flourishing 
condition ; they were stocked with the rarest 
American plants collected during years of labor 
and hardship ; and with many of those plants 
of the old world which Michaux was first to 
introduce into the United States. The tallow 
tree {Stillingia sebifera), now often cultivated 
and somewhat naturalized in the Southern States, 
and the beautiful Albizzia Julibrissin, were first 
planted in the United States by him. He first 
taught the settlers in the Alleghany Mountains 
the value of the Ginseng, and showed them how 
to prepare it for the Chinese market, — a service 


wliicli gained for him a membersliip in the ex- 
ckisive Agricultural Society of Charleston. 

His movements for several years had been 
impeded and the success of his journeys inter- 
fered with by the lack of financial support from 
the French government, and Michaux found, on 
his return to South Carolina, that his resources 
were entirely exhausted. An obscure botanical 
traveller, almost forgotten in a distant land, had 
little hope of recognition from Paris during the 
closing years of the last century, and it was now 
evident that he could depend no longer on sup- 
jDort and assistance from France. He deter- 
mined, therefore, rather than sell the trees which 
he longed to see flourishing on French soil, to 
return to Paris. 

Michaux sailed from Charleston on the 13th 
of August, 1796. The voyage was tempestuous ; 
and on the 18th of September the vessel was 
wrecked on the coast of Holland, where the 
crew and passengers, worn out by exposure and 
fatigue, would have perished but for the assist- 
ance of the inhabitants of the little village of 
Egmont. Michaux fastened himself to a piece 
of plank, and was finally washed ashore uncon- 
scious, and more dead than alive. His baggage 
was lost; but his precious packages of plants, 
which were stored in the hold of the vessel, were 



saved, though saturated with salt water. He 
remained in Egmont for several weeks, to regain 
his strength and to dry and rearrange his plants, 
and did not reach Paris until January. He was 
received with great distinction and kindness by 
the botanists of the Museum, but a bitter disap- 
pointment awaited him. An insignificant num- 
ber only of the six thousand trees which he had 
sent to France during the eleven years he had 
passed in America remained alive. The storms 
of the Kevolution and of the Empire had swept 
thi'ough the nurseries of Rambouillet, and Mi- 
chaux's American trees were destroyed or hope- 
lessly scattered. 

This was the greatest disappointment of his 
life, but he was not discouraged. His longings 
were to return to America, but the French gov- 
ernment would not supply the necessary means, 
and on the IStli of October, 1800, he sailed-, 
with Baudin on his voyage of discovery to New 
Holland; and on the 19th of February, tliQ^^ 
following year, the expedition reached the Isle 
of France. Here, after a stay of six months, 
in which Michaux made his first acquaintance ^ 
with the vegetation of the real tropics, he left ^ 
the party for the purpose of exploring the island 
of Madagascar, which seemed to offer , a ;niore ; 
useful field than New Holland for his labors. -£, 


He landed on the east coast, and at once set 
about laying out a garden, in which he hoped to 
establish, provisionally, the plants he intended 
to bring back from his journeys in the interior. 
Impatient of the delays caused by the indolence 
of the natives he had employed to prepare the 
ground, Michaux, in spite of the warnings of 
persons familiar with the danger of exposure 
and over-exertion under a tropical sun, insisted 
upon working himself day after day. He was 
soon prostrated with fever, but his vigorous 
constitution and indomitable will enabled him 
to resist the attack, and his health being partly 
restored at the end of four months, he was ready 
to start for the mountains. His preparations 
were all made, but on the eve of his departure, 
late in November, 1802, he was attacked again 
with fever and died suddenly. He was only 
fifty-six years old, still in the prime of life, and 
possessed of all his powers when his useful 
career was thus suddenly brought to an end. 




MICHAUX. — Translated. 

[The Journal of Andre Michaux from the time he 
passed Charlotte, on his way to the mountains of 
Western North Carolina, until he returned to Charles- 
ton, from which point he had started.] 

July 22. — Passed tlirough Charlotte in Meck- 
lenburg. Red clay soil; quartz rocks; clear 
waters formerly : the waters have the color of 
dead leaves or dry tobacco. Vegetation, red- 
oaks, black-oaks, and white-oaks, etc. Actea 
spicata. . . . Slept six miles from Tuck-a-Segee 

July 23. — Passed through Ben Smith, twenty 
miles from Charlotte. Two or three miles before 
arriving there saw the Magnolia tomentoso-glauca 
fol. cordatis longiorib. Slept six miles from B. 

July 24. — Passed through Lincoln and dined 
with Beinhart. Calamus aromaticus. Slept at 
the old shoemaker's. 

July 25. — Came to Henry Watner, now Bob- 

July 26. — Arrived at Morgan ton, Burke Court- 
House, thirty miles from Bobertson. Frutex 
Calycantha facies, etc. 


July 27. — Stayed at Morgan ton on account of 
the rain and sw,ollen creeks which could not be 
passed except by swimming. 

July 28. — Remained at Morganton. 

July 29. — Left Morganton, and slept at John 
Rutherford's, near whose house I went over a 
bridge across Muddy Creek. 

July 30. — Came back into the usual road, 
which leads to Turkey Cove, and arrived at the 
house of a man named Ainsworth. 

July 31.^ — Herborized on the Linville high 
mountains, southeast of Ainsworth's residence; 
and on the rocks and mountains denuded of trees 
collected a little shrub {Leiophyllum buxifolium), 

August 1. — Herborized on mountains of very 
rich soil, situated to the northeast. Measured a 
tulip-tree twenty-three French feet in circum- 

August 2. — Herborized towards the mountains 
to the northward. 

August 3. — Herborized among Cyperoides and 
other aquatic plants. 

August 4. — Prepared for the journey to the 
Black Mountain. 

August 5. — Deferred the journey on account 
of the lack of provisions. 

August 6. — Set out and reached the place 
called Crab-tree. 


August 7. — Herborized on the mountains in 
vicinity of Crab-tree. 

August 8. — Herborized. 

August 9. — Continued my lierborizations. 

August 10. — Arrived at the foot of Black 

August 11. — Arrived on the side of Black 

Mountain. (Among the plants collected he 
names " fox-grapes, fruit good to eat.") 

August 12. — Returned from the mountain. 

August 13. — Arrived at the house of Mr. 

August 14. — A thick fog made it difficult to 
explore the high mountains. Herborized in the 
valleys. ^ " 

August 15. — Bain. 

August 16. — Journeyed towards the Yellow 
Mountain and Bonn (Boan) Mountain. Beached 
Towe (Toe) Biver, Bright's Settlement. The 
principal inhabitants of this place are Davinport, 
Wiseman. Collected herbs : Azalea coccinea, 
lutea, flava, alba, and rosea ; all these varieties 
of the Azalea nudiflora are found in this re- 

August 17. — Agreed with a hunter (Davin- 
port) to go to the mountains. 

August 18. — Herborized and described several 


August 19. — Started to go towards the high 

August 20. — Herborized in the mountains. 

August 21. — Keached the summit of E-oun 
(Roan) Mountain ; found in abundance a small 
shrub with boxwood-like leaves which I formerly 
designated as Leiophyllum buxifolium, but the 
capsule of which has three cells and opens at 
the top.* 

August 22.— Reached the summit of the Yel- 
low Mountain. 

August 23. — Returned to Davinport's house. 

August 24. — Put my collections in order. 

August 25. — Rain. 

^t^yt«5^26l^ Started for Grandfather Moun- 
tain, the most elevated of all those which form 
the chain of the Alleghanies and the Appala- 

August 27. — Reached the foot of the highest 

August 28. — Climbed as far as the rocks. 

August 29. — Continued my herborizations. 

August 30. — Climbed to the summit of the 
highest mountain of all North America, and. 

* It is strange that Michaux did not mention the 
abundance of this shrub growing on the bare rocks of 
Grandfather Mountain. 


with my companion and guide, sang the Mar- 
seillaise Hymn, and cried, '^ Long live America 
and the French Republic ! long live Liberty ! 
etc." Le 30 3Ionte au sommet de la plus haute 
montagne de toute VAm. Sept. et avec mon com- 
pagnon Guide, chante Vhymne des Marseillois et 
crie Vive VAmerique et la Repuhliq. Frangaise, 
Vive la Liherte, etc., etc. 

August 31. — Rain all day. Stayed in camp. 

September 1. — Came back to the house of my 
guide Davinj)ort. 

September 2. — Rain. Herborized. 

September, 3. — Arranged my collections. 

September 4. — The same work. 

September 5. — Started for Table Mount. 

September 6. — Visited the cliffs of the moun- 
tain Hock-bill (Hawk-bill) and of Table Moun- 
tain. These mountains are very barren, and 
the new shrub {Leiophyllum) is the only rare 
plant found there. It is there in abundance. 
Slept at a distance of six miles, at Park's. 

September 7. — Started for Burke Court-House 
or Morgan ton. Slept at the house of General 
MacDowal. Saw near his house Spirea tomen- 
tosa in abundance. From Burke to John 
Wagely's house, about twelve miles. From John 

Wagely's to Thomas Young's, . From 

Thomas Young's to Davinport's, eight miles. 


September 8. — Arrived at Burke Court-House 
or Morgaiiton. Visited Colonel Avery and 
stayed at his house. 

September 9. — Started in the evening from 
Morganton ; slept three miles distant from it. 
Met an inhabitant of Stateborough, Mr. Atkin- 
son, who invited me to his house. 

September 10. — Reached Robertson, thirty 
miles from Morganton. 

September 11. — SlejDt at Reinhart's, Lincoln 
Court-House, fifteen miles from Robertson. 

September 12. — Started for Yadkin River and 
Salsbury. Slept at Catawba Spring, eighteen 
miles from Lincoln. 

September 13. — Went to Betty's Ford on the 
Catawba River, twenty miles from Lincoln. 
Slept at a farm eight miles before coming to 
Salsbury, where the three roads from Phila- 
delphia, from Charleston, and from Kentucky 

September 14. — Passed through Salsbury, a 
town of better appearance than the other towns 
of North Carolina. Fifty miles from Lincoln to 
Salsbury. Continued my way to Fayetteville ; 
crossed Yadkin River and slept fourteen miles 
from Salsebury. 

September 15. — Passed several creeks and low, 
but very stony hills. 



September 16. — Part of the road very stony. 
Saw the MagnoL acuminata florib. luteis : Collin- 
sonia tuberosa. Came then upon sandy ground. 
Slept at the house of Martin, store-kee23er. 

September 17. — Continued my way across the 

September 18. — Keached a place six miles from 
Fayetteville. Lost my two horses. 

September 19 and 20. — Employed these two 
days in searching for my horses. 

September 21. — Found one of the two and . . . 

September 22. — Arrived again at Fayetteville, 
formerly Cross Creek. The river Cape Fear 
flows past that town. Saw in my herborizations 
swamps which surround the town. Cupressus 
disticha, thyoides, often together. 

September 23. — Started from Fayetteville after 
having had the satisfaction to read the news, 
arrived the evening before, from Philadelphia, 
concerning the glorious victories of the Re- 
public. Slept at the house of the old (?) Mac- 
Cay, fifteen miles from Fayetteville on the road 
from Salisbury. 

September 24. — Took the road from Charles- 
ton on the left and passed Drowned Creek at 
MacLawchland bridge. But the more direct 
route from Fayetteville to Charleston is by way 
of Widow Campbell Bridge, forty (?) miles from 


Fayetteville. From Widow Camj^bell Bridge to 
Gum Swamp, ten miles from the line that sepa- 
rates North Carolina and South Carolina. 

September 25. — Passed through Gum Swamp 
and slept eight miles from Fayetteville. Saw 
the Cupressus thyoides and the Cupressus disticha 
in several swamps. Saw the Andromeda Wil- 
mingt. in abundance in all the swamps. Liquid- 
ambar peregrinum, etc. Two miles from Gum 
Swamp we reach South Carolina. 

September 26. — Passed through Long Bluff, 
a small hamlet, two miles south of the river Big 
Pedee, seventy-four miles from Fayett-eville. 

September 27. — Passed through Black Swamp, 
twenty-two miles from Long Bluff. Col. Benton, 
twelve miles from L. Bluff. Black Creek, ten 
miles from L. Bl. Jefferis Creek ten miles from 
L. Bl. 

September 28. — Passed Lynches Creek, forty 
miles from L. Bl. 

September 29. — Passed Black Biver, thirty 
miles from Lynch Creek. A certain Lorry 
keeps the ferry of Black Biver. 

September 30. — Arrived at Maurice Ferry, on 
the Santee Eiver, fifteen miles from Black River, 
and twenty miles from Monk's Corner. The 
passage of the ferry was dangerous, and I was 
obliged to go to Lenew Ferry. It is twenty-five 


miles from Maurice Ferry to Lenew or Lenew's 

October 1. — Left Lenew's Ferry and passed 
tlirougli Strawberry's Ferry, twenty-jfive miles 
from Lenew's Ferry, and twenty-eight miles 
from Charleston. Reached the dwelling-house 
near Ten M. House. 

October 2. — Left for Charleston. 



(above the level of the sea) 





Blowing Eock, highest town in the State 4.090 

Boone, highest Court-House in the State 3,250 

Grandfather Hotel and Post-Office, nearest to sum- 
mit of Grandfather Mountain 4,050 

Yalle Crucis, neighborhood and Post-Office 2,726 

ShuU's Mills, neighborhood and Post-Office 2,917 

Cook's Gap, of the Blue Eidge 3,307 

Banner Elk. 

Post-Office 3,900 

Beech Mountain 5,541 

Hanging Eock 5,224 

Sugar Mountain, Mitchell County 5,228 

Grandfather Mountain. 

Watauga, Mitchell, and Caldwell Counties.. 5,987 
Dunvegan, bluff of Eough Enough Eidge, near 

Grandfather 4,924 

I 14* 



Howard's Knob, overlooking Boone 4,451 

Bald of Eich Mountain. 5,300 

Sugarloaf. 4,606 

Snake Mountain 5,594 

Elk Knob 5,574 

Pine Orchard Mountain, near Elk Knob 4,800 

Eiddle's Knob, near Elk Knob 4,800 

Flat-Top, near Blowing Eock 4,537 


Elk Park 3,250 

Hump Mountain, near Elk Park 5,541 

Cranberry Property. 

Iron furnace 3,165 

Hotel 3,228 

Bellevue Farm, on top of Fork Mountain... 4,650 
Cranberry Gap, between Cranberry Creek 

and Toe (Est^toe) Eiver 3,650 

Toe (Estetoe) Eiver, at Old Fields of Toe 3,650 

Miller Gap, Blue Eidge 3,733 

Montezuma 3,950 

LiNviLLE Falls 

Sugar Mountain, near the Watauga line and 

overlooking Banner Elk 5,228 

LiNviLLE Property. 

Eseeola Inn 3,800 

Eighteen miles of Yonahlossee Eoad, be- 
tween Linville and Blowing Eock, from 

4,000 to 5,000 

Beacon Heights 4,650 

Grandmother Mountain 4,764 

Grandmother Gap 4,191 




Linville Gap, Blue Eidge, head of Watauga 

and Linville Elvers 4,100 

McCanless Gap, Blue Eidge, between Ban- 
ner Elk and Linville 4,191 

Beech Knob 5,067 

Flat-Top Mountain 5,026 

Grandfather Mountain 5,987 


Jefferson Court-House 2,940 

Negro Mountain 4,597 

Mulatto Mountain,..., 4,687 

Three-Top Mountain 4,950 

Paddy Mountain 4,300 

Phoenix Mountain 4,673 

Bluff Mountain.... 5,060 

Peak Mountain 5,100 

"White-Top Mountain, across the Yirginia line 5,678 


Wilksboro Court-House 1,043 

Little Grandfather Mountain 3,783 

Tompkins's Knob 4,055 

Deep Gap, of the Blue Eidge 3,105 


Lenoir Court-House 1,185 

Patterson's factory ! 1,279 

Hibriten Mountain, near Lenoir 2,242 




Morganton Court-House 1,184 

Linville Mountain, south end 3,766 

Short-Off Mountain, north summit 3,105 

Table Rock Mountain 3,918 

Hawksbill Mountain 4,090 




Junction of Flat Creek with Swannanoa Eiver.... 2,250 

Joseph Stepp's house 2,368 

Burnett's house 2,423 

Lower Mountain house, Jesse Stepp's floor of 

piazza 2,770 

W. Patton's cabins, end of carriage road 3,244 

Resting Place, brook behind last log-cabin 3,955 

Upper Mountain, house 5,246 

Ascending to Toe River Gap, passage, main branch 

above Stepp's 3,902 


Toe River Gap, between Potato Top and High 

Pinnacle...... 5,188 

High Pinnacle, of Blue Ridge 5,701 

Rocky Knob's south peak 5,306 

Big Spring, on Rocky Knob 5,080 

Gray Beard 5,448 


Big Craggy 6,090 

Bull's Head.....* 5,935 

Craggy Pinnacle 5,945 




Potato Top 6,393 

Mt. Mitchell 6,582 

Mt. Gibbs 6,591 

Stepp's Gap, the cabin 6,103 

Mt. Hallback, or Sugarloaf. 6,403 

Black Dome, or Mitchell's high peak 6,707 

Dome Gap 6,352 

Balsam Cone, Guyot of State maps 6,671 

Hairy Bear 6,610 

Bear Gap 6,234 

Black Brother, Sandoz of State maps 6,619 

Cat-tail Peak 6,611 

Eocky Trail Gap 6,382 

Dear Mount, North Point 6,233 

Long Eidge, South Point 6,208 

Middle Point. 6,259 

NorthPoint 6,248 

Bowlen's Pyramid, North End 6,348 


Blackstock's Knob 6,380 

Yeates's Knob 5,975 


Green Ponds, at Tom Wilson's highest house 3,222 

Tom Wilson's new house 3,110 

Wheeler's, opposite Big Ivy Gap 2,942 

Cat-tail Fork,junction with Caney Eiver 2.873 

Sandofor Gap, or Low Gap, summit of road 3,176 

Burnsville, Court-House Square .., 2,840 

Green Mountain, near Burnsville, highest point... 4,340 




Summit of the road from Burnsville to Toe 

Eiver 3,139 

Toe Eiver Ford, on the road from Burnsville to 

Eoan Mountai n 2,131 

Baily'sfarm 2,379 

Brigg's house, foot of the Eoan Mountain, valley 

of Little Eock Creek .'.... 2,757 

Yellow Spot, above Brigg's 5,158 

Bright's Yellow 5,440 

Little Yellow Mount, highest 5,196 

The Cold Spring, summit of Eoan 6,132 

Grassy Eidge Ball, northeast continuation of 

Eoan Mountain 6,230 

Eoan High Bluff. 6,296 

Eoan High Knob 6,313 


South Toe Eiver Ford 2,532 

Toe Eiver Ford, near Autrev's 2.547 

North Toe Eiver Ford, below Childsville 2,652 

Blue Eidge, head of Brushy Creek 3,425 

Linville Eiver Ford, below head of Brushy 

Creek 3,297 

Linville Eiver, at Pierey's 3,607 

Head-waters of Ivinville and Watauga Eiver, foot 

of Grandfather Mountain 4,100 

Grandfather Mountain, summit , 5,987 

Watauga Eiver, at Shull's mill-pond ^ 2,917 

Taylorsville, Tennessee 2,395 

Whitetop, Yirginia 5,530 




Sampson's Gap 4,130 

Egypt Cove, at Proffit's 3,320 

Wolf's Camp Gap 4,359 

Bald Mountain, summit 5,550 


Dillingham's house, below Yeates's Knob, or Big 

Butte 2,568 

Junction of the three forks 2,276 

Solomon Carter's house 2,215 

Stocksville, at Black Stock's 2,216 

Mouth of Ivy River, by railroad survey 1,684 


Asheville Court-House 2,250 

Sulphur Springs, the spring 2.092 

Hominy Cove, at Solomon Davies's 2,542 

Little West Pisgah 4,724 

Great Pisgah 5,757 


Forks of Pigeon, at Colonel Cathey's 2,701 

East fork of Pigeon, at Captain T. Lenoir's 2,855 

Waynesville Court-House 3,756 

Sulphur Spring, Richland Yalley, at James R. G. 

Love's 2,716 

Mr. Hill's farm, on Crab Tree Creek 2,714 

Crab Tree Creek, below Hill's 2,524 

Cold Mountain 6,063 




Bichland, between Eichland Creek and the west 

fork of Pigeon Creek, and at E. Medford's 2,938 

E. Medford's farm, foot of Lickston's Mountain... 3,000 

Lickston Mountain 5,707 

Deep Pigeon Gap 4,907 

Cold Spring Mountain 5,915 

Double Spring Mountain 6,380 

Eichland Balsam, or Cancy Fork Balsam Divide... 6,425 

Chimney Top 6,234 

Spruce Eidge Top 6,076 

Lone Balsam 5,898 

Old Bald 5,786 


Westener Bald, north peak 5,414 

Pinnacle 5,692 

SCOTt'S creek and low CREEK. 

Enos Plott's farm, north foot of chain 3,002 

Old Field Mountain 5,100 

Huckleberry Knob 5,484 

Enos Plott's Balsam, first Balsam, north end 6,097 

Jones's Balsam, north point 6,223 

South end 6,055 

Eock Stand Knob 6,002 

Brother Plott 6,246 

Amos Plott's Balsam, or Great Divide 6,278 

EockyFace 6,031 

White Eock Eidge 5,528 

Black Eock 5,815 



Panther Knob 5,359 

Perry Knob 5,026 


Love's saw-mill 2,911 

Maclure's farm 3,285 

Eoad Gap, head of Scott's Creek 3.357 

John Brown's farm 3,049 

Bryson's farm 2,173 

John Love's farm 2,226 

Webster Court-House 2,203 


Tuckaseege Eiver, mill, below "Webster, near the 

road to Quallatown , 2,004 

Junction of Savannah Creek 2,001 

Junction of Scott's Creek 1,977 

Quallatown, main store 1,979 

Soco Eiver, ford to Oconaluftee 1,990 

Soco Gap, road summit 4.341 

Amos Plott's farm, on Pigeon 3,084 

Oconaluftee Eiver, junction, Bradley Fork 2,203 

Eobert Collins's highest house 2,500 

Junction of Eaven's and Straight Fork 2,476 

Junction of Bunch's Creek 2,379 


The Pillar, head of Straight Fork of Oconaluftee 

Eiver 6,255 

Thermometer Knob 6,157 

Eaven's Knob 6,230 

H 15 



Tricorner Knob 6,188 

Mt. Guyot, so named by Mr. Buckley, in common. 6,636 

Mt. Henry 6,373 

Mt. Alexander 6,447 

South Peak 6,299 

The True Brother, highest or central peak 5,907 

Thunder Knob 5,682 

Laurel Peak 5,922 

Eeinhardt Gap 5,220 

Top of Eichland Eidge 5,492 

Indian Gap 5,317 

Peck's Peak 6,232 

Mt. Ocoana 6,135 

Eighthand, or New Gap 5,096 

Mt. Mingus 5,694 


Central Peak, or Mt. Lecompte 6,612 

West Peak, or Mt. Curtis 6,568 

North Peak, or Mt. Stafford 6,535 

Cross Knob 5,921 

Neighbor 5,771 

Master Knob 6,013 

Tomahawk Gap 5,450 

Alum Cave 4,971 

Alum Cave Creek, junction with Little Pigeon 
Eiver 1 3,848 


Eoad Gap 5,271 

Mt. Collins 6,188 

Collins'sGap 5,720 

Mt. Love 6,443 



Clingman's Dome 6,660 

Mt. Buckley 6,599 

Chimney Knob ;... 5,588 

Big Stone Mountain 5,614 

Big Cherry Gap 4,838 

Corner Knob 5,246 

Forney Eidge Peak 5,087 

Snaky Mountain 5,195 

Thunderhead Mountain 5,520 

Eagletop 5,433 

Spence Cabin 4,910 

Turkey Knob 4,740 

Opossum Gap 3,840 

North Bald 4,711 

The Great Bald's central peak 4,922 

South Peak 4,708 

Tennessee Eiver, at Hardin's. 899 

Hill House Mountain, summit road to Montvale 

Springs 2,452 

Montvale Springs, Tennessee 1,293 

Marshall Court-House, Madison County 1,647 

Warm Springs, " " 1,325 

Bear Wallow Mountain, " " 4,638 

Panel Eock Station, Tennessee line 1,264 


Franklin Court-House, Macon County 2,241 

Burning Town Bald, " " 5,103 

Eocky Bald, " " 5,822 

Toketah, " " 5,373 

Wayah, " " 5,492 

Albert, " " 5,254 

Pickens's Nose, " " 4,910 



Henderson ville Court-House, Henderson County.. 2,167 
Bear Wallow Mountain, " " 4,233 

Bear Wallow Gap, " " 3,465 

Bald Mountain (or Pinnacle), " *' 3,834 

Miller Mountain, " " 3,889 

Sugarloaf Mountain, « " 3,973 

Columbus Court-House, Polk County 1,145 

Tryon Mountain, " « 3,237 

Tryon Station, « " 764 

Brevard Court-House, Transylvania County 2,195 

Hymen's Knob, " " 6,084 

Devil's Court-House, " " 6,049 

Cassar's Head, South Carolina 3,223 

Pinnacle, " " • 5,555 

Hayesville Court-House, Clay County 

Tusquitta Bald, " " 5,314 

Medlock Bald, " « 5,258 

Standing Indian (Mountain) " " 5,495 

Chunky Gal " " « 4,985 

Eobinsville Court-House, Graham County 

Joanna Bald, . « " 4,743 

McDaniel Bald, " « ....r. 4,653 

Tatham's Gap, " « 3,639 

Cheowah, maximum, " " 4,996 

Murphy Court-House, Cherokee County 1,614 

Winfrey Gap, « " 3,493 

Peak, « « 3,937 

Knoahetah Mountain " « 4,498 



Highest summit east of the Mississippi, Mitchell's 

Peak, in North Carolina 6,707 

Highest mountain in New England, Mount Wash- 
ington, in New Hampshire 6,286 

Difference 421 

Among the peaks jointly possessed by Western North 
Carolina and East Tennessee there are twenty-three 
which surpass Mount Washington in height. In ad- 
dition to these, there are twenty-three other mountains 
which exceed six thousand feet, but fall short of Mount 
Washington ; and there are still seventy-nine others 
which exceed five thousand feet, many of them closely 
approximating six thousand. 

Area of North Carolina, 52,286 square miles. 

Land surface, 48,666 square miles. 

Water surface, 3,620 square miles. 

Northern boundary, eastern end, lat. 36° 33' 15''. 

Easternmost point, Chlckamicomico, long. 75° 27' 12". 

Southernmost point. Smith's Island, lat. 33° 49' 55". 

Western boundary, long. 18° 42' 20". 

Extreme length, 503^ miles. 

Extreme breadth, 187^ miles. 

Length of coast line, 314 miles. 

Latitude of Ealeigh, 35° 47'. 

Longitude of Ealeigh, 78° 38' 5". 

Longitude of Ealeigh, from Washington, 1° 37' 57". 

Altitude of Ealeigh, 365 feet. 

Average elevation of State, 640 feet. 

Population, in 1890, 1,617,947. 

Number of counties, 96. 




The variation in 1875 (and 1825) was 3° west in Curri- 
tuck ; 3° east in Cherokee. 

The zero left Eoanoke Island, its eastern limit, in 
1790 ; passed Newbern in 1850, Ealeigh in 1870, Fay- 
etteville in 1875, Greensboro in 1880. 

The variation increases west 3 J minutes a year. 
Direction of magnetic meridian N. 23° W. Motion west 
five miles a year. 




Elisha Mitchell, D.D., was born in Wash- 
ington, Litchfield County, Connecticut, on the 
19th of August, 1793. 

He graduated at Yale College in 1813, was 
appointed to the chair of mathematics in the 
University of North Carolina in 1817, and, after 
rendering thirty-nine and a half years of the 
most valuable service in the scientific depart- 
ments of that institution, he perished the 27th of 
June, 1857, in the sixty-fourth year of his age, 
and was buried in Asheville the 10th of the 
following July. " But at the earnest solicitation 
of many friends, and especially of the mountain 
men of Yancey, his family allowed his body to 
be removed and deposited on the top of Mt. 
Mitchell. This was done on the 16th of June, 
1858. There he shall rest till the judgment 


day in a mausoleum such as no other man has 
ever had. Keared by the hands of Omnipo- 
tence, it was assigned to him by those to whom 
it was given thus to express their esteem, and it 
was consecrated by the lips of eloquence warmed 
by affection, amidst the rites of our holy re- 
ligion. Before him lies the North Carolina he 
loved so well and served so faithfully. From 
his lofty couch its hills and valleys melt into its 
plains as they stretch away to the shores of the 
eastern ocean, whence the dawn of the last day 
stealing quietly westward, as it lights the moun- 
tain-tops first, shall awake him earliest to hear 
the greeting of 

* Well done, good and faithful servant J " 


(From the Asheville Spectator.) 

Messrs. Editors, — Having spent a week at the scene 
of this memorable calamity, in search of the body of Dr. 
Mitchell, and assisting in its removal after it was found, I 
have been requested by sundry citizens to give to the 
public a sketch of the deplorable event. In accord- 
ance with their request, I now take my pen to give you 
all I know of the accident, which has caused so much 
sorrowful excitement in this region, and which I doubt 
not will unnerve the public feeling to its centre through- 
out the State when the sad tidings shall be generally 


It is known to all who have felt interested in our 
State geography, that there lately sprung up a dispute 
between the Hon. T. L. Clingman and Dr. Mitchell, in 
regard to one of the high peaks of the Black Mountain 
put down in Cook's map as Mt. Clingman. The former 
alleging that he was first to measure and ascertain its 
superior height to any other point on the range, and 
the latter gentleman asserting that he was on that same 
peak and measured it in the year 1844. After several 
letters, pro and con, through the newspapers, Dr. Mit- 
chell announced last fall his intention of visiting the 
mountains again for the purpose of remeasuring the 
peak in dispute, taking the statements of some gentle- 
men who had acted as his guides on his former visits, 
etc. Sometime since, about the middle of June, I think, 
he came up, in company with his son Chas. A. Mitchell, 
his daughter, and a servant boy, established his head- 
quarters at Jesse Stepp's, at the foot of the mountain, 
and began the laborious task of ascertaining the height 
of the highest peak by an instrumental survey, which, 
as the former admeasurements were only barometrical, 
would fix its altitude with perfect accuracy. He had 
proceeded with his work near two weeks, and had 
reached to some quarter of a mile above Mr. Wm. Pat- 
ton's Mountain House, by Saturday evening, half-past 
two o'clock, the 27th of June, at which time he quit 
work and told his son that he was going to cross the 
mountain to the settlement on Caney Eiver for the pur- 
pose of seeing Mr. Thomas Wilson, Wm. Kiddle, and I 
believe another Mr. Wilson, who had guided him up to 
the top on a former visit. He promised to return to 
the Mountain House on Monday at noon. There was 
no one with him. This was the last time he was ever 
seen alive. On Monday his son repaired to the Moun- 


tain House to meet liis father, but he did not come. 
Tuesday the same thing occurred, and though consider- 
able uneasiness was felt for his safety, yet there were 
so many ways to account for his delay that it was 
scarcely thought necessary to alarm the neighborhood ; 
but when "Wednesday night came and brought no token 
of him, his son and Mr. John Stepp immediately started 
on Thursday morning to Caney River in search of him. 
On arriving at Mr. Thos. Wilson's, what was their aston- 
ishment and dismay to learn that he had neither been 
seen nor heard of in that settlement ! They immediately 
returned to Mr. Stepps, the alarm was given, and before 
sundown on Friday evening companies of the hardy 
mountaineers from the North Fork of the Swannanoa 
were on their way up the mountain. The writer, hap- 
pening to be present on a visit to the Black, joined the 
first company that went up. About eighteen persons 
camped at the Mountain House that evening, and con- 
tinued accessions were made to our party during the 
night, by the good citizens of that neighborhood, who 
turned out at the call of humanity as fast as they heard 
the alarm, some from their fields, some from working 
on the road, and all without a moment's hesitation. 
Early on Saturday morning our party under the com- 
mand of Mr. Fred. Burnett and his sons, all experienced 
hunters, and Jesse Stepp and others who were familiar 
with the mountains, struck out for the main top, and 
began the search by scouring the woods on the left 
hand or Canej' River side of the trail that runs along 
the top. We continued on this way to the highest peak 
without discovering any traces whatever of his passage, 
when our company became so scattered into small par- 
ties that no further systematic search couid be made 
that day. But directly in our rear as we came up the 


mountain was Mr. Eld ridge Burnett with some more of 
his neighbors, who had come from their houses that 
morning; and hearing a report that Dr. Mitchell had 
expressed his intention of striking a bee-line from the 
top for the settements without following the blazed trail 
way to Caney River, they searched for signs in that 
direction, and soon found a trail in the soft moss and 
fern that was believed to have been made by him, and 
followed it until it came to the first fork of Caney, 
where it was lost. Nothing doubting but they were on 
his track, and that he had continued down the stream, 
they went several miles along the beat of the river, 
over inconceivably rough and dangerous ground, until 
dark, when they threw themselves upon the earth and 
rested till morning. Mr. Stepp, Mr. Fred. Burnett and 
others made their way to Wilson's on Caney River to 
join the company that was coming up from the Yancey 
side, and the writer and many others returned, gloomy 
and disappointed to the Mountain House. Thus ended 
the first day's search. During almost the entire day 
the rain had poured down steadily, the air was cold and 
chilling, the thermometer indicating about forty-four 
degrees at noon, whilst the heavy clouds wrapped the 
whole mountain in such a dense fog that it was impos- 
sible to see any distance before us. It seemed as if the 
genii of those vast mountain solitudes were angered at 
our unwonted intrusion, and had invoked the Storm- 
God to enshroud in deeper gloom the sad and mysterious 
fate of their noble victim. 

Sabbath morning came, but its holy stillness and sa- 
cred associations were all unregarded, and the party 
camping in the Mountain House, now largely augmented 
by constant arrivals from the settlements, plunged again 
into the gloomy forest of gigantic firs, and filing through 


the dark and deep gorges struck far down into the wilds 
of Caney Elver. Mr. Eldridge Burnett's party returned 
about two o'clock, bringing no tidings and seeing no 
further trace whatever of the wanderer's footsteps. 
Still later in the dav Messrs. Fred. Burnett and Jesse 
Stepp and party returned with some twelve or fifteen 
of the citizens of Caney Eiver, having traversed a large 
scope of country and finding still no trace of the lost 
one. The rain still continued to pour down, and the 
gloomy and ill-omened fog still continued to wrap the 
mountain's brow in its rayless and opaque shroud. Just 
before dark the remaining party came in, unsuccessful, 
tired, hungry, and soaking with water. A general gloom 
now overspread the countenances of all, as the awful 
and almost undeniable fact was proclaimed that Dr. 
Mitchell was surely dead, and our only object in making 
the search would be to rescue his mortal remains from 
the wild beasts and give them Christian sepulture! Jt 
could not be possible, we thought, that he was alive, for 
cold, and hunger, and fatigue, if nothing worse had 
happened to him, would ere this have destroyed him. 
Alas! we reasoned too well. By this time the alarm 
had spread far and near, and many citizens of Asheville 
and other parts of the country were flocking to the 
mountains to assist in the search for one so universally 
beloved and respected. On Monday the company num- 
bered some sixty men. New routes were projected, new 
ground of search proposed, and the hunt conducted 
throughout the day with renewed energy and determi- 
nation, but still without avail. On Tuesday the com- 
pany of Buncombe men separated into three squads 
and took different routes, whilst Mr. Thomas Wilson 
and his neighbors from Caney Eiver, took a still more 
distant route, by going to the top of the highest peak 


and searchirifi: down towards the Cat-tail fork of the 
river. They were led to take this route by the sugges- 
tion of Mr. Wilson, that Dr. jVIitchell had gone up that 
way in his visit to the high peak in 1844, and that per- 
haps be had undertaken to go down by the same route. 
They accordinglj' struck out for that point, and turning 
to the left to strike down the mountain in the prairie 
near the top, at the very spot where it is alleged that 
the Doctor entered it thirteen years ago, they instantly 
perceived the impression of feet upon the yielding turf, 
pointing down the mountain in the direction indicated 
of his former route. After tracing it some distance with 
that unerring woodcraft which is so wonderful to all 
but the close observing hunter, they became convinced 
that it was his trail and sent a messenger back some 
five miles to inform the Buncombe men, and telling them 
to hurry on as fast as they could. The writer wiih Mr. 
Charles Mitchell and many others were in a deep valley 
on the head-waters of another fork of the river, when 
the blast of a horn and the firing of guns on a distant 
peak, made us aware that some discovery was made. 
Hurrying with breathless haste up the steep mountain 
side in the direction of the guns we soon came up and 
found the greater part of our company watching for us, 
with the news that the Yancey company were upon the 
trail we had been so earnestly seeking so many days. 
After a brief consultation, two or three of our party 
returned to the Mountain House for provisions, and the 
balance of us started as fast as we could travel along the 
main top towards our Yancey friends, and reached the 
high peak just before dark. Here we camped in a small 
cabin built by Mr. Jesse Stepp, ate a hasty supper and 
threw ourselves upon the floor, without covering, to 




About one o'clock in the night, just as the writer was 
about closing his eyes in troubled and uneasy slumber, 
a loud halloo was heard from the high bluif that loomg 
over the cabin.- It was answered from within, and in a 
moment every sleeper was upon his feet. Mr. Jesse 
Stepp, Capt. Eobert Patton and others, then came down 
and told us that the body was found. Mournfully then 
indeed those hardy sons of the mountain seated them- 
selves around the smouldering cabin-fire, and on the 
trunks of the fallen firs, and then, in the light of a 
glorious full moon, whose rays pencilled the dark damp 
forest with liquid silver, seven thousand feet above the 
tide-washed sands of the Atlantic, the melancholy tale 
was told. Many a heart was stilled with sadness as the 
awful truth was disclosed, and many a rough face glit- 
tered with a tear in the refulgent moonlight as it looked 
upon the marble pallor and statue-stillness of the stricken 
and bereaved son, and thought of those far away whom 
this sudden evil would so deeply afflict. 

It was as they expected. The deceased had under- 
taken to go the same route to the settlements which he 
had formerly gone. They traced him rapidly down 
the precipices of the mountain, until they reached the 
stream (the Cat-tail fork), found his traces going down 
it — following on a hundred yards or so, they came to a 
rushing cataract some forty feet high, saw his footprints 
trying to climb around the edge of the yawning preci- 
pice, saw the moss torn up by the outstretched hand, 
and then — the solid, impressionless granite refused to 
tell more of his fate. But clambering hastily to the 
bottom of the roaring abyss, they found a basin worn 
out of the solid rock by the frenzied torrent, at least 
fourteen feet deep, filled with clear and crystal waters 
cold and pure as the winter snow that generates them. 


At the bottom of this basin, quietly reposing, with out- 
stretched arms, lay the mortal remains of the Eov. 
Elisha Mitchell, D.D., the good, the great, the wise, the 
simple-minded, the pure of heart, the instructor of 
youth, the disciple of knowledge and the preacher of 
Christianity I Oh what friend to science and virtue, 
what youth among all the thousands that have listened 
to his teachings, what friend that has ever taken him 
by the hand, can think of this wild and awful scene 
unmoved by the humanity of tears ! can think of those 
gigantic pyramidal firs, whose interlocking branches 
shut out the light of heaven, the many-hued rhododen- 
drons that freight the air with their perfume and lean 
weepingly over the waters, that crystal stream leaping 
down the great granites and hastening from the majestic 
presence of the mighty peak above, whilst in the deep 
pool below, where the weary waters rest but a single 
moment, lies the inanimate body of his dear friend and 
preceptor, apparently listening to the mighty requiem 
of the cataract! Truly "Man knoweth not his time, 
and the sons of men are entrapped in the evil, when it 
cometh suddenly upon them." 

Upon consultation it was thought best to let the body 
remain in the water until all arrangements were com- 
pleted for its removal and interment ; judging rightly 
that the cold and pure waters would better preserve it, 
than it could be kept in any other way. At daylight a 
number of hands went to cutting out a trail from the 
top of the mountain to where the body lay, a distance 
of three miles, whilst others went -to Asheville to make 
the necessary arrangements. Word was also sent to the 
coroner of Yancey, and to the citizens generally to come 
and assist us in raising the body on Wednesday morning. 
At that time a large number of persons assembled at 


Mr. Jesse Stepp's and set out for the spot, bearing the 
coflSn upon our shoulders up the dreary steeps. We 
had gone near ten miles in this way and had just turned 
down from the high peak towards the river, when we 
were met by Mr. Coroner Ayers, and about fifty of the 
citizens of Yancey, coming up with the body. They 
had got impatient at our delay, and enveloping the body 
in a sheet and fastening it securely upon a long pole, 
laid it upon the shoulders of ten men and started up the 
mountain. And now became manifest the strenscth and 
hardihood of those noble mountaineers. For three miles 
above them the precipitous granites and steep mountain 
sides forbade almost the ascent of an unincumbered man, 
which was rendered doubly difficult by great trunks of 
trees, and the thick and tangled laurel which blocked 
up the way. The load was near two hundred and fifty 
pounds and only two men could carry at once. But 
nothing daunted by the fearful exertion before them, 
they step boldly up the way, fresh hands stepped in 
every few moments, all struggling without intermission 
and eager to assist in the work of humanity. Anon 
they would come to a place at which it was impossible 
for the bearers to proceed, and then they would form a 
line by taking each other's hands, the uppermost man 
grasping a tree and with shouts of encouragement heave 
up by main strength. In this way, after indescribably 
toiling for some hours, they reached the spot. Here was 
aiforded another instance of the great affection and re- 
gard in which the deceased was held by all. These bold 
and hardy men desired to have the body buried there, 
and contended for it long and earnestly. The}- said 
that he had first made known the superior height of 
their glorious mountain and noised their fame almost 
throughout the Union, that he had died whilst contend- 


ing for his right to that loftiest of all the Atlantic moun- 
tains, on which we then stood, and they desired to place 
his remains right there, and at no other spot. It would 
indeed have been an appropriate resting-place for him, 
and greatly was it wished for by the whole country, 
before its being told them that his family wanted his 
remains brought down. The}^ reluctantly yielded, and 
the Buncombe men proceeded to bring the body slowly 
down the valley of the Swannanoa. Before leaving the 
top, the writer took down the names of all present, and 
will ask you to publish them to the world, as men who 
have done honor to our common humanity by their 
generous and disinterested conduct on this melancholy 
occasion. I am no flatterer, Messrs. Editors, but I must 
confess that the labor which these mountain men ex- 
pended and the sacrifice they so willingly and cheerfully 
made, is worthy of all praise and admiration. May God 
reward their kindness. I feel sure, the numerous friends 
and pupils of the dear deceased would rather read the 
list of these men's names than the " ayes and nays" of 
any Congressional vote that has been recorded in many 
a day. 


Nathaniel B. Eay, I. M. Broyles, Joseph Shephard, 
Washington Broyles, Henry Wheeler, Thomas Wilson, 
Jas. M. Eay, D. W. Burleson, G-. B. Silvers, J. O. Griffith, 
E. Williams, A. D. Allen, A. L. Eay, Thomas D. Wilson, 
E. A. Pyatt, D. W. Howard, W. M. Astin, James H. 
Eiddle, Dr. W. Crumley, G. D. Eay, Burton Austin, 
James Allen, Henry Eay, T. L. Eandolph, John Mc- 
Peters, W. B. Creasman, S. J. Nanney, Samuel Eay, E. 
W. Boren, Eev. W. C. Bowman, J. W. Bailey, Thomas 
Silvers, Jr., Thomas Calloway, Henry Allen, J. L. Gibbs, 



Jesse Eay, James Hensley, Eobert Eiddle, W. D. Wil- 
liams, J. D. Young, William Eolen, G-. W. Wilson, John 
Eogers, James Allen, Jr., J. W. Ayres, J. F. Presnell, 
E. A. Eumple, W. J. Hensley, D. H. Silvers, E. Don 
Wilson, Jas. Calloway. 


S. C. Lambert, William Burnett, E. H. Burnett, E. J. 
Fortune, Ephraim Glass, J. H. Bartlett, B. F. Fortune, 
A. !N". Alexander, James Gaines, J. E. Ellison, John F. 
Bartlett, F. F. Bartlett, Elijah Kearly, E. Clayton, A. 
Burgin, Jesse Stepp, D. F. Summey, T. J. Corpning, 
Harris Ellison, T. B. Boyd, A. J. Linsdey, Joshua Stepp, 
William Powers, E. P. Lambert, Tisdale Stepp, Daniel 
Burnett, Thaddeus C. Coleman, A. F. Harris, W. C. For- 
tune, Fletcher Fortune, Capt. Eobert Patton, Cooper, 
servant of Wm. Patton, John, servant of Fletcher For- 
tune, Esq. 

A. J. Emerson, Chatham County, A. E. Ehodes, Jones 
County, H. H. Young, and Moses Dent, Franklin County ; 
all students of Wake Forest College. 

This list does not comprise all who assisted in the 
search, as, much to my regret, I did not take a list of 
any but those present at the removal of the body. I 
believe, however, that the names of all are recorded 
on the register of Mr. Patton's Mountain House, 
where the friends of Dr. Mitchell can see them when 
they visit (as I have no doubt many will) the scene of 
his death. 

This ends my brief sketch of this melancholy aifair. 
As to my eulogy upon Dr. Mitchell's character I feel 
myself unequal to the task. I trust that it will be ap- 
propriately pronounced by some one of his learned and 


devoted fellow laborers of the University. My feeble 
pen could add nothing to his moral and intellectual 
stature. I will only say that I loved him as sincerely 
as any one in the State. I am gratified to be able to 
state that unusual kindness and respect was exhibited 
by every citizen of the country throughout the whole 

Yours truly, 

Z. B. Yance. 





sam Groifes of tie Graaitlier iooiitaiii 

And hundreds of other showy varieties of our 
beautiful and hardy NATIVE ORNAMEN= 
FLOWERING PLANTS for our readers' 
Lawns, Parks, Drives, and Gardens. 


Linville, North Carolina, 

{In ike Southern A lleghanies, at an altitude of nearly 4000 feet, in Mitchell Co.), 


Note First. — We are the original and largest 

Nursery of Hardy Native Ornamentals exclusively, in this 
country, supplying, as we do, the National Arboretums of mnny 
Foreign Coi;ntries, as well as Parks, Cemeteries, Nurseries, 
Gardens, and Private Grounds in America. 

Second* — Hotels will be given Special Rates. 

I wish to be in correspondence with every Hotel Proprietor or 
Manager in North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia having 
grounds to beautify. We can help you. (See Third notice.) 

Xliird, — Our Seven Years' experience enables 

us to be of Practical Service to you, if you believe in 
artistic and attractive lawns and grounds — whether Public or 
Private. Streets, Yards, Drives, Back-grounds, Stone- 
works, Trellises, Verandas, Fences, can as easily be beauti- 
ful and attractive as bare and unsightly, and at minimum 

I^ourtll. — What Highlands Nursery Grows : — 

Deciduous and Evergreen Trees, Flowering Shrubs, Her- 
baceous Perennials, Vines, Orchids, Ferns, Aquatics; 
Rhododendrons, Azaleas, Kalmias, Dogwoods, Stuartias, 
Hollies, Magnolias, Maples, Chionanthus, Hypericums, 
Yuccas, Shortia, Dicentras, Trilliums, Clematis, Sarrace- 
nias, etc., etc. 

Kifltli. — Catalogues Free. Descriptive Retail, 

Wholesale, and Special Offers for large Planters. Liberal 
Discounts. Write us for any information. 

Sixtli. — Don't neglect writing us at once. Visit- 
ors at Linville are cordially invited to inspect the Nursery, 
where we take pleasure in showing you our large collection of 



North Carolina. 


In the heart of the beautiful Grandfather Mountain region, 3807 

feet above sea, has 





On its grounds, removed from the Inn, are 





NOBLE ROADS penetrate for many miles, unrivalled scenery, 
and rugged mountain climbs invite the more venturesome. 

Here, added to delightful coolness, is freedom from mosquitoes 
and black-flies. TROUT in all the streams. 



For Illustrated Circular, address 

E. P. HOLCOMBE, Secretary, 

LiNviLLE, Mitchell County, N. C. 

(See illustration facing page 122.)