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International Journal of Current Research and Review 

Scopus’ Research Article 

: Children Coping with Stress During Lockdown 

Vijay Kumar’, Nishu Chawla2, Shipra Gupta’, Jigisha Aanad* 
eat Healthcare Professor, Department of Physics, Graphic Era Hill University, Dehardun, Uttrakhand, India; *A. P., Department of Professional Com- 

Sci. Journal Impact munication, Graphic Era Hill University, Dehardun, Uttrakhand, India; *Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Graphic Era Hill 
Factor: 6.1 (2018) 
ICV: 90.90 (2018) 

Uttarakhand, India. 



Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having an intense effect on all aspects of society, includ- 
ing mental health and physical health. A major adverse consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to be increased social 
isolation and loneliness which are strongly associated with anxiety and depression. Tracking loneliness and intervening early 
are important priorities. Crucially, reducing sustained feelings of loneliness, and promoting belongingness are candidate mecha- 
nisms to protect against self-harm and emotional problems. Social and physical distancing has abruptly interrupted many social 
opportunities important to physical and psychological health. 

University, Dehardun, Uttrakhand, India; ‘Department of Biotechnology, Graphic Era (Deemed to be University), Dehradun, 

Method: In this study, 2140 children of different categories (gender, age, education, region, and location) have participated. The 
questionnaires depend upon the argument tendency, depressive order, adverse mental problem symptoms, behavioural health 
symptoms, and anxiety disorder. 

Results: It is observed that children face anxiety, depressive disorder, argument tendency and show adverse mental problem 
symptoms, behavioural health symptoms, and COVID-19 related trauma and stressor-related disorder. 

Conclusion: The present paper also deals with how the parents can help the children coping with stress during this COVID-19. 
Key Words: Coronavirus COVID-19, Children Coping, Depressive disorder, Anxiety disorder, Argument tendency 

INTRODUCTION adults throughout. Therefore notable and trusted adults, par- 
ents, close relatives, teachers play a vital role in helping the 

Stress is a natural emotion or a feeling of not being able to children out in understanding their needs, desires and mini- 
cope with demands and circumstances. It is a destructive and mizing their anxiety and fear*. 

weakening force. It is very important to manage stress or 
else it can be fatal. In an inadequate and inconstant world, 
such as ours, it is impossible to avoid stress. However, being 
vigilant to the effects of stress may help the children manage 
more effectively. Elements in our life that cause stress are 
known as ‘stressors’. Stress influences one’s mental well be- 
ing. Mentally healthy children are better able to meet life’s 
challenges. They are also better learners and have stronger 
relationships'”. Some stress can even lead to serious con- 
sequences, because of long-running trouble. One should 
indeed learn how to deal with the difficult times and pro- 
gress, as adversities and sufferings are a part of life. Never- 
theless, while that process of acquiring knowledge through 
our thoughts, experiences, and senses is in progress, children 
depend on sympathetic and empathetic relationships from 

Literature Review 

Children are more likely to be experiencing the same symp- 
toms of fright, worry, impatience as experienced by adults 
during this pandemic time of COVID 19. Even the research- 
ers agree that sticking to a regular schedule is key, even 
when you are at home all day. Parents need to tell their chil- 
dren what importance of keeping some structure holds. For 
example, getting up, good nutrition, proper rest, going to bed 
around the same time every day is very important. These 
things can help children to cope with stress. Spending qual- 
ity time with children is equally essential and will serve the 
purpose of understanding the children and building good and 
harmonious relations with them, especially if they have had 

Corresponding Author: 

Dr. Shipra Gupta, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Graphic Era Hill University, Dehardun, Uttrakhand, India. 

ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print) ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online) 
Received: 24.07.2020 Revised: 22.08.2020 Accepted: 3.09.2020 Published: 22.09.2020 

Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 12+ Issue 18 + September 2020 

Kumar et al.: Children coping with stress during lockdown 

a stressful day. Talking with their children, knowing their is- 
sues and requirements will let their children come closer to 
them. The coronavirus disease has deeply affected life around 
the globe. Solitary confinement, contact restrictions, and 
economic shutdown impose a complete change to the psy- 
chosocial environment in affected countries**. These steps 
have the possibilities to intimidate the emotional instability 
of kids and youngsters notability. Nonetheless, the health cri- 
sis can lead to good time or chances for self-development 
and emotional bonding that family members have towards 
one another, drawbacks may outrank these advantages. Ap- 
prehension, absence of social interaction and minimize op- 
tions for stress regulation are the main concerns. “Spare time 
activities have been restricted. In most countries, children 
have not been permitted to use regular playgrounds”. Collec- 
tive activities are restricted and sports clubs are closed. 

Children at this time need extra love and affection”. So the 
responsibility of parents has become more and they need to 
respond to their child’s reactions in a supportive way, listen- 
ing to their concerns and trying and keeping children close 
to them and Family and avoid departing children and their 
caretakers to the extent possible. If disconnection takes place 
(e.g. medication) make sure regular contact (through phone). 
Provide information about what has happened, disclose what 
is going on, and give a clear picture to them as to what has 
happened, and how to reduce the extent of being infected by 
the disease. Children are given extra care and attention dur- 
ing the challenging periods. 

Children are spending their maximum time of theirs online. 
School, assignments, chats and many more- even music 
lessons, and other extracurricular activities are being con- 
ducted online- everything has shifted online. “Staying con- 
nected with children helps them to lessen the impact of this 
COVID-19 which is spread worldwide and encourage them 
to keep going in their lives. At the same time, it is a big chal- 
lenge for parents. How can you have the best that the entire 
internet has to offer while minimizing harm? It is not easy to 
have an equilibrium when undergoing a health emergency 
like COVID-19%!°, 

There are various ways parents can help to keep their chil- 
dren safe online. 

Children hope to enter into an honest dialogue that looks at 
the problems. It is the moral duty of parents to be supportive 
and kind in knowing their children’s problems and to try to 
solve them by interacting with them. Parents always need to 
be very cautious if their child seems to be distressed and reti- 
cent with electronic activities or if they are undergoing any 
kind of harassment by sending or posting mean messages, 
usually anonymously". 

Parents should make use of the latest multimedia to safe- 
guard them. Make it sure that your youngster is using the 

updated application and the privacy settings are on. For little 
children, appliances likewise content filter, as well as secure 
search, can assist digital experience constructive”. 

Generate chances for your youth to possess a positive and 
safe digital association. 

Helping kids deal with stress during lockdown is very im- 
portant. However isolation, physical, and social distancing 
are the new normal, it has led to enormous physical and psy- 
chological pressure on the kids. Closures of schools have re- 
stricted the movement of children and they are enforced to 
stay at home with their adults and caretakers who are already 
exhausted and fatigued. Children who are in confinement or 
segregated or maybe away from adult administration may 
also intensify protection risks. “Children with disorders may 
suffer from stronger consequences of the in-progress wide- 
spread disease. They might have severe discomfort, anguish, 
or worry as they have less control over themselves than other 
people. The same case is with children with physical, psy- 
chological, or mental limitations. They may need extra atten- 
tion, more clarifications about the prevailing circumstances, 
and more sympathy and other productive reinforcement of 
messages. Devote time with them, care about their needs. So 
that they show their active participation in all activities!*4. 
Youth bearing anxiety and pain is quite natural during in 
progress pandemic like COVID-19. Being frightened about 
their health and the health and the health of their dearest ones 
can be massive and cause strong emotions. In today’s era 
of the information age, children also acquire different kind 
of information and news from various online platforms and 
digital media, of which some may be genuine and some may 
be unreal as well as causing stress and fright and this may 
increase when they are not able to go out and spend their 
leisure time with friends or attend the school where they can 
interact freely. Parents and caretakers should act sensibly 
when it comes to rumours and unreliable information. Par- 
ents should be extra attentive in dealing with such things so 
that their children do not face the consequences of it!>:!°. 

It is very important for parents to be happy for only happy 
parents can create a happy generation. Parents who remain 
stress-free can teach their children to lead a stress-free life. 
Children don’t like talking to parents who are always under 
stress. Some the reasons for parents being stressed out are 
that some parents always carry the burden of their past in- 
cidents and make their present suffer because of which the 
children are not able to communicate freely with their parents 
as they (parents) devote much of their time recalling their 
past and not able to communicate well with their children 
and the result is seen in the formed gap between them, speak- 
ing authoritatively with their children and not understanding 
their point, constantly finding mistakes in their children and 
shouting and demeaning them and not accepting their mis- 
takes in front of the children, having high expectations from 

mr 1s Sn E ipsa 
Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 12 + Issue 18 + September 2020 

Kumar et al.: Children coping with stress during lockdown 

their children without realizing that their children to have 
some expectations. So parents need to introspect themselves 
and know where they are lacking and what can be done for 
self-improvement for building a better relationship with their 


COVID-19, coronavirus pandemic has been associated with 
the mental health of the children. Due to the pandemic, the 
children were at home. They could not go out for sports, for 
attending coaching classes, for attending classes in school. It 
becomes a reason for adverse mental or behavioural health 
conditions, anxiety disorder, and trauma-related disorder. In 
this manuscript, 2140 children are selected for this study. 

Statistical Analysis 


The selection has been done in such a way that the students 
of all categories are included in this study. In this study, stu- 
dents of various age groups, different schools, various class- 
es, and children from hostels are selected. The children are 
also selected which belong to a poor family and rich family. 
This study has been done for the lockdown period i.e., from 
1 to 30 April 2020. The children are also taken from different 
states of India for this study. The argument tendency, depres- 
sive disorder, COVID-19-related Trauma, and Stressor-relat- 
ed disorder, adverse mental problem symptoms, behavioural 
health symptoms, anxiety disorder have been discussed with 
the children. The classification of children is done concern- 
ing gender, age groups, school boards, education, region 
(state or national), rural and urban. 

Table 1: Respondent characteristics of outcomes of mental health, increased substance use to cope stress of 

who completed 
surveys from1 

Characteristics Argument 


to 30 April 2020 


children related to COVID-19 pandemic-India, 1 to 30 April 2020 



health symp- 



All respondents 2140 (100) 870 (41.58) 795.5 (3717) 657 (30.70) 540.5 (25.25) 648.5 (30.30) 538.5 (25.16) 

Male 1013 (47.3) 910 (42.5) 978 (45-7) 729 (34.06) 591 (27.61) 832 (38.8) 690 (32.2) 
Female 727 (33-9) 706 (33) 613 (28.6) 585 (27.3) 490 (22.89) 465 (21.72) 387 (18.08) 
Not respondents 400 (18.6) 524 (24.48) 549 (25.65) 826 (38.59) 1059 (49.48) 843 (39.39) 1063 (49.67) 
Age groups 

6 to 10 years 373 (17-4) 178 (8.31) 78 (3.64) 59 (2.75) 93 (4.34) 376 (17.57) 240 (11.21) 
10 to 15 years 487 (22.75) 374 (17.47) 197 (9.20) 290 (13.55) 194 (9.06) 267 (12.47) 170 (7.94) 
15 to 20 years 603 (28.17) 477 (22.28) 386 (18.03) 376 (17.57) 248 (11.58) 476 (22.24) 492 (22.99) 
20 to 25 years 525 (24.5) 592 (27.66) 467 (21.82) 456 (21.3) 433 (19.29) 530 (24.76) 480 (22.42) 
Not respondents 152 (7.10) 519 (24.25) 1012 (47.28) 959 (44.81) 774 (36.16) 491 (22.94) 758 (35.42) 
Students from different schools 

State level schools 758 (3.4) 832 (38.8) 378 (17.6) 458 (21.4) 419 (19.5) 497 (23.2) 482 (22.5) 

Central level 996 (46.54) 967 (45.1) 795 (37.1) 676 (31.58) 528 (24.6) 518 (24.2) 587 (27.4) 
schools students 

Not respondents 386 (18) 341 (15.9) 967 (45.18) 1006 (47) 1193 (55.74) 1125 (52.57 1071 (50) 

1 to 5" class stu- 167 (7.8) 132 (6.16) 56 (2.61) 89 (4.15) 67 (3.13) 290 (13.55) 294 (13.73) 

6" to 8 class 579 (27) 403 (18.83) 189 (8.83) 190 (8.87) 274 (12.8) 195 (9.11) 380 (17.75) 

9" to 10" class 613 (28.6) 367 (17.14) 276 (12.89) 297 (13.87) 392 (18.31) 299 (13.97) 472 (22.05) 


169 Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 12 « Issue 18 + September 2020 

Kumar et al.: Children coping with stress during lockdown 

Table 1: (Continued) 

who completed 

Characteristics Argument 


surveys from1 
to 30 April 2020 


health symp- 



n™ and 12" class 525 (24.5) 617 (28.8) 689 (32.19) 739 (34-53) 598 (27.94) 378 (17.66) 368 (17.19) 

Not respondents 256 (11.9) 519 (24.25) 930 (43.45) 825 (38.55) 809 (37.8) 978 (45-7) 626 (29.25) 

Northeast 494 (23) 547 (25.56) 478 (22.33) 389 (1817) 294 (13.73) 376 (17.5) 384 (17.94) 
Mideast 345 (16.12) 309 (14.43) 397 (18.55) 473 (22.10) 378 (17.66) 270 (12.6) 284 (13.27) 
South 507 (23.69) 207 (9.67) 490 (22.89) 391 (18.27) 485 (22.66) 482 (22.5) 502 (23.45) 
West 654 (30.14) 738 (34-48) 673 (31.44) 693 (32.38) 190 (8.87) 520 (24.29) 481 (22.47) 
Not respondents 140 (6.5) 339 (15.84) 102 (4.76) 194 (9.06) 793 (37.05) 492 (22.99) 489 (22.85) 
Rural-Urban classification 

Rural 833 (38.9) 913 (42.6) 837 (391) 290 (13.55) 389 (18.1) 490 (22.89) 395 (18.45) 
Urban 965 (45) 1045 (48.8) 943 (44) 792 (37) 278 (12.99) 582 (27.19) 581 (27.14) 
Not respondents 342 (15.98) 182 (8.5) 360 (16.82) 1058 (49.43) 1473 (68.8) 1068 (49.9) 1164 (54.39) 

# Trauma and Stressor related disorder 


Out of 2140 children, 47.3% boys, 33.9% of girls have given 
responses. In this lockdown period, people and children are 
not able to move out of the house. Due to this, the behaviour 
of children was changed. The behaviour and health were ob- 
served during this lockdown period. Table 1 represents that 
42.5% and 33% argument tendency have been increased in 
boys and girls while no effect was observed in 24.48% chil- 
dren in this period. The depressive disorder has been shown 
by 45.7% in boys, 28.6% in girls while 25.65% shown no 
such type of effect. 34.06% boys, 27.3% of girls were ob- 
served COVID-19 related trauma and stressor-related disor- 
der and no effect was observed in 38.59% children. During 
the lockdown, children were facing a mental pressure of this 
pandemic. Adverse mental problem was shown by 27.17% 
boys, 22.89% girls, and no effect was shown by 49.48% of 
children. Behavioural health symptoms were found in 38.8% 
boys, 21.72% girls and no symptoms were found in 39.39% 
children. 32.2% boys and 18.08% of girls were observed by 
an anxiety disorder and 49.67% were observed no effect. 

Different types of symptoms are observed during this period. 
Behavioural health symptoms were shown by 17.57% chil- 
dren and COVID-19 related TSRD shown by only 2.75 % 
children (6 to 10 years). When a survey was done on stu- 
dents aged between 10 to 15 years, it was found that 7.94% 
children were suffering a problem of anxiety disorder and 
17.47% of children were increased the tendency of argu- 
ment. In 15 to 20 years children, adverse mental problem 
symptoms were found in 11.58% and anxiety disorder was 
found in 22.99% of children. 19.29% and 24.76% of chil- 

dren (20 to 25 years age group) were suffering the problem 
of adverse mental symptoms and behavioural health prob- 
lems, respectively. Children were also divided into another 
category i.e., education system. In this system, one category 
was taken in which students were selected from the State 
(Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, M. P., Punjab, Haryana) Board, 
etc. and the second category was selected from the national 
board (CBSE, ISC, etc.). It was observed that in state-level 
students, 17.6% were facing and 23.2% were facing Behav- 
ioral health symptoms. In National board students, 24.2% 
were facing Behavioral health symptoms and 37.1% were 
facing the problem of depressive disorder. As per the analy- 
sis done on the students of various classes, the students from 
1“ to 10" class standard were suffering the same problem. 
The anxiety disorder problem was suffered by the maximum 
students and the dispersive disorder problem was faced by 
some percentage of students. 

The children from the north-east, mid-east, south, and west 
were also selected for this study. The children of all sides 
were also facing the above-mentioned problem. It was ob- 
served that 13.73% of children were found adverse mental 
health symptoms and 25.56% of children were facing the 
problem of argument tendency from the north-east side. 
12.6% and 22.1% of children of the mid-east side were fac- 
ing Behavioral health symptoms and COVID-19 related 
TSRD problems, respectively. In the south side, 9.67% of 
children have started argument tendency and in 23.45% of 
children were found anxiety disorder. In 8.87% of children 
were found suffering from adverse mental problem symp- 
toms and in 34.48% of children, the argument tendencies 
were increased in the south side. Table 2 shows that (17.9%- 

Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 12 - Issue 18 - September 2020 

Kumar et al.: Children coping with stress during lockdown 

25.6%) children accepted that they knew COVID-19 was 
responsible to increase argument tendency, depressive disor- 
der, TSRD, adverse mental problem symptoms, behavioural 
health symptoms, and anxiety disorder. (19.9%-27.3%) 
children did not accept that COVID-19 was responsible for 
the above-given problems. (26.3%-31.1%) children knew 
that prehistory heart patients may become severe during 
this pandemic. (19.5%-33.2%) children were not aware of 
that. The pandemic may create trouble for prehistory lung 
patients. (29.3%-37.2%) children were accepted for that and 
(28.9%-38.4%) were not known about this. (32.5%-41.2%) 
children agreed that coronavirus may become harmful for 
diabetic patients and (37.4%-48.31%) children did not agree 

with this assumption. (16.3%-42.3%) children accepted that 
the pandemic period may be harmful to high blood pressure 
patient while (29.5%-38.2%) children did not agree for that. 
(20.7%-29.4%) children have given their consent that kid- 
ney patients may be in danger while (14.4%-38.5%) did not 
agree with this assumption. The people who were affected 
by the diseases of the abdomen may be in trouble in the pan- 
demic. (14.1%-31.8%) children were accepted for that while 
(25.2%-49.3%) were not agreed on that. (15.2%-29.4%) 
children were assumed that pandemic will produce mental 
pressure to the people while (26.3%-38.5%) were not satis- 
fied with this assumption. 

Table 2: Respondent characteristics of outcomes of mental health, increased substance use to cope stress of 

children related to COVID-19 pandemic-India, 1 to 30 April 2020 

Characteristics Respondents who Argument Depressive TSRD Adverse Behavioural Anxiety 

completed surveys tendency disorder mental health symp- disorder 

from 1 to 30 April 2020 problem toms 
eZ) symptoms 

Someone who knew about the symptoms of COVID-19 
Yes 486 (22.7) 548 (25.6) 466 (21.8) 383 (17-9) 437 (20.4) 419 (19.6) 494 (23.1) 
No 1654 (77.3) 462 (21.6) 584 (27.3) 554 (25.9) 426 (19.9) 477 (22.3) 531 (24.8) 
Undertreatment for previously diagnosed problems (Heart) 
Yes 644 (30.1) 631 (29.5) 614 (28.7) 666 (311) 584 (27.3) 563 (26.3) 576 (26.9) 
No 584 (27.3) 417 (19.5) 484 (22.6) 627 (29.3) 710 (33.2) 687 (32.1) 623 (29.1) 
Undertreatment for previously diagnosed problems (Lungs) 
Yes 747 (34-9) 670 (31.3) 740 (34.6) 627 (29.3) 755 (35-3) 785 (36.7) 796 (37.2) 
No 426 (19.9) 708 (33.1) 822 (38.4) 805 (37.6) 725 (33.9) 668 (31.2) 618 (28.9) 
Undertreatment for previously diagnosed problems (Sugar) 
Yes 839 (39.2) 826 (38.6) 882 (41.2) 798 (37-3) 777 (36.3) 858 (40.1) 695 (32.5) 
No 758 (35.4) 415 (19.4) 1012 (47.3) 969 (45.3) 948 (44.3) 801 (37.4) 1034 (48.31) 
Undertreatment for previously diagnosed problems (High Blood Pressure) 
Yes 884 (41.3) 905 (42.3) 865 (40.4) 805 (37.6) 629 (29.4) 349 (16.3) 826 (38.6) 
No 537 (25.1) 629 (29.4) 674 (31.5) 732 (34.2) 817 (38.2) 758 (35-4) 631 (29.5) 
Undertreatment for previously diagnosed problems (kidney) 
Yes 862 (40.3) 989 (46.2) 629 (29.4) 586 (27.4) 608 (28.4) 554 (25.9) 443 (20.7) 
No 672 (31.4) 1226 (57.3) 653 (30.5) 824 (38.5) 370 (17.3) 308 (14.4) 681 (31.8) 
Undertreatment for previously diagnosed problems (abdomen) 
Yes 839 (39.2) 1226 (57.3) 653 (30.5) 349 (16.3) 845 (39.5) 302 (14.1) 681 (31.8) 
No 434 (20.3) 1464 (68.4) 1055 (49.3) 586 (27.4) 862 (40.3) 539 (25.2) 918 (42.9) 
Undertreatment for previously diagnosed problems (Mental Stress) 
Yes 601 (28.1) 989 (46.2) 629 (29.4) 582 (27.2) 437 (20.4) 325 (15.2) 490 (22.9) 
No 839 (39.2) 798 (37.3) 824 (38.5) 820 (38.3) 674 (31.5) 563 (26.3) 708 (33.1) 

71 Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 12 + Issue 18 + September 2020 

Kumar et al.: Children coping with stress during lockdown 


In this study of 2140 children, we found that pandemic had 
produced many severe problems in the whole world. The 
lockdown period due to the pandemic produced many types 
of different problems. The children, who moved here and 
there, have become prisoners in their homes. It produced 
many types of biological and mental problems in children. 
In this manuscript, it is observed that in children’s argu- 
ment tendency was increased. The other problems which the 
parents were feeling are anxiety disorder, depressive disor- 
der, adverse mental problem symptoms, behavioural health 
symptoms, and COVID-19 related Trauma and Stressor re- 
lated disorder. The COVID-19 pandemic is potentially cata- 
strophic for many children around the world. Its impact risks 
unravelling global progress across several of the Sustainable 
Development Goals for children, putting already ambitious 
targets out of sight. Put simply, we cannot afford to let this 
happen. It is suggested to the people that in this type of sce- 
nario, the children feel mental pressure so the parents should 
be interactive with their kids. 

Acknowledgement: Authors of this manuscript are grateful 
to the management of Graphic Era Hill University Dehra- 
dun who provides us with all necessary facility for this study 
and also grateful to all the children and their parents who 
are seriously involved in this study. Authors are grateful to 
the researchers whose article are cited and references in this 
manuscript. The authors are also grateful to the editors of this 
journal for providing necessary guidelines for publication of 
this study. 

Conflict of interest: None 

Financial support: None 


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