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MESSRS. CLARK have pleasure in forwarding to their Sub- 
scribers the first issue of Fifth Year (Vols. 17 and 18 of the 
Series), viz., the Third (and last) Volume of Tertullian, and 
the Clementine Homilies and Apostolical Constitutions. 

The Series approaches completion ; and the Publishers are 
thankful for the support they have received, which they trust 
will be continued to the Series of the Works of St. Augustine, 
which will be commenced next year. 

There remain to be published — 

Lactantius, two vols, j 

The Completion of Origen contra Celsum ; 

Dionysius of Alexandria, and Gregory Thaumaturgus ; 

Arnobius ; 

And probably a Volume of Early Liturgies. 

These are all in progress, and no endeavour will be spared to 
publish them as rapidly as possible. It is hoped the Series will 
be completed in the course of 1871. 

It is requested that the Subscription for Fifth Year may be 
remitted as soon as possible. 

Edinburgh, 38, George Street, 
, November 1870. 




DOWN TO A.D. 325. 













H 1 1 L I E S. 




]hL IKSTilUTE CF ^T^ /:^/AL il'Jii^L^ 




Epistle of Peter 

to James, 


Epistle of Clement to James, ..... 6 

The Clementine Homilies — 

Homily l, . . . . . . .17 

Homily ii., 



Homily in., 


Homily iv., 


Homily v.. 

. 101 

Homily vi., 

. 115 

Homily vii., 

. 13a 

Homily viii., 

. 137 

Homily ix., 

. 149 

Homily x., 


Homily xi.. 


Homily xii., 


Homily xiiL, 


Homily xiv., 


Homily xv., 


Homily xvi., 


Homily xvii., . 


Homily xviii., . 


Homily xix., 


Homily xx., 




|E have already given an account of the Clementines 
in the Introductory Notice to the Recognitions. 
All that remains for us to do here, is to notice 
the principal editions of the Homilies. The first 
edition was published by Cotelerius in his collection of the 
Apostolic Fathers, from a manuscript in the Royal Library 
at Paris, the only manuscript of the work then known to 
exist. He derived assistance from an epitome of the work 
which he found in the same library. The text of Cotelerius 
was revised by Clericus in his edition of Cotelerius, but 
more carefully by Schwegler, Stuttgart 1847. The Paris 
MS. breaks off in the middle of the fourteenth chapter of the 
nineteenth book. 

In 1853 (Gottingen) Dressel published a new recension 
of the Homilies^ having found a complete manuscript of the 
twenty Homilies in the Ottobonian Library in Pome. In 
1859 (Leipzig) he published an edition of two Epitomes of 
the Homilies, — the one previously edited by Turnebus and 
Cotelerius being given more fully, and the other appearing 
for the first time. To these Epitomes were appended notes 
by Frederic \Yieseler on the Homilies. The last edition of 
the Clementines is by Paul de Lagarde (Leipzig, 1865), 
which has no new sources, is pretentiouSj but far from 


ETER to James, the lord and bishop of the holy 
churchj under the Father of all, through Jesus 
Christ, wishes peace always. 

Chap. i. — Doctrine of reserve. 

Knowing, my brother, your eager desire after that which 
is for the advantage of us all, I beg and beseech you not to 
communicate to any one of the Gentiles the books of mv 
preachings which I sent to you, nor to any one of our own 
tribe before trial ; but if any one has been proved and found 
worthy, then to commit them to him, after the manner in 
which Moses delivered [his books] to the Seventy who suc- 
ceeded to his chair. Wherefore also the fruit of that caution 
appears even till now. For his countrymen keep the same 
rule of monarchy and polity everywhere, being unable in 
any way to think otherwise, or to be led out of the way of 
the much-indicating Scriptures. For, according to the rule 
delivered to them, they endeavour to correct the discordances 
of the Scriptures, if any one, haply not knowing the traditions, 
is confounded at the various utterances of the prophets. 
Wherefore they charge no one to teach, unless he has first 
learned how the Scriptures must be used. And thus they 
have amongst them one God, one law, one hope. 

Chap. ii. — Misrepresentation of Peter s doctrine. 

In order, therefore, that the like may also happen to those 
among us as to these Seventy, give the books of my preachings 
to our brethren, with the like mystery of initiation, that they 





may indoctrinate those wlio wish to take part in teaching ; for 
if it be not so done, our word of truth will be rent into many 
opinions. And this I know, not as being a prophet, but as 
already seeing the beginning of this very evil. For some 
from among the Gentiles have rejected my legal preaching, 
attaching themselves to certain lawless and trifling preaching 
of the man who is my enemy. And these things some have 
attempted while I am still alive, to transform my words by 
certain various interpretations, in order to the dissolution of 
the law ; as though I also myself were of such a mind, but did 
not freely proclaim it, which God forbid ! For such a thing 
were to act in opposition to the law of God which was spoken 
by Moses, and was borne witness to by our Lord in respect 
of its eternal continuance ; for thus He spoke : " The heavens 
and the earth shall pass away, but one jot or one tittle shall 
in no wise pass from the law." ^ And this He has said, that 
all things might come to pass. But these men, professing, 
I know not how, to know my mind, undertake to explain my 
words, which they have heard of me, more intelligently than 
I who spoke them, telling their catechumens that this is my 
meaning, which indeed I never thought of. But if, while I 
am still alive, they dare thus to misrepresent me, how much 
more will those who shall come after me dare to do so ! 

Chap. hi. — Initiation, 

Therefore, that no such thing may happen, for this end 
I have prayed and besought you not to communicate the 
books of my preaching which I have sent you to any one, 
whether of our own nation or of another nation, before 
trial ; but if any one, having been tested, has been found 
worthy, then to hand them over to him, according to the 
initiation of Moses, by which he delivered [his books] to the 
Seventy who succeeded to his chair; in order that thus 
they may keep the faith, and everywhere deliver the rule of 
truth, explaining all things after our tradition ; lest being 
themselves dragged down by ignorance, being drawn into 
error by conjectures after their mind, they bring others into 
1 Mark xiii. 31 ; Matt. v. 18. 


the like pit of destruction. Now tlie things that seemed 
good to me, I have fairly pointed out to you ; and what seems 
good to you, do you, my lord, becomingly perform. Fare- 

Chap. iv. — An adjuration concerning the receivers of 

the hooh 

1. Therefore James, having read the epistle, sent for the 
elders ; and having read it to them, said : " Our Peter has 
strictly and becomingly charged us concerning the establish- 
ing of the truth, that we should not communicate the books 
of his preachings, which have been sent to us, to any one at 
random, but to one who is good and rehgious, and who 

(\ wishes to teach, and who is circumcised, and faithful. And 
these are not all to be committed to him at once ; that, if 
he be found injudicious in the first, the others may not be 
entrusted to him. Wherefore let him be proved not less than 

y^six years. And then according to the initiation of Moses, 
he [that is to deliver the books] should bring him to a river 
or a fountain, which is living water, where the regeneration 
of the righteous takes place, and should make him, not swear 
— for that is not lawful — but to stand by the water and ad- 
jure, as we ourselves, when we were regenerated, were made 
to do for the sake of not sinning. 

2. " And let him say : ' I take to witness heaven, earth, 
water, in which all things are comprehended, and in addition to 
all these, that air also which pervades all things, and without 
which I cannot breathe, that I shall always be obedient to 
him who gives me the books of the preachings ; and those 
same books which he may give me, I shall not communicate 
to any one in any way, either by writing them, or giving them 
in writing, or giving them to a writer, either myself or by 
another, or through any other initiation, or trick, or method, 
or by keeping them carelessly, or placing them before [any 
one], or granting him permission [to see them], or in any 
way or manner whatsoever communicating them to another ; 
unless I shall ascertain one to be worthy, as I myself have 
been judged, or even more so, and that after a probation of 



not less than six years ; but to one who is reh'gious and good, 
chosen to teach, as I have received them, so I will commit 
them, doing these things also according to the will of my 

3. " ^ But otherwise, though he were my son or my brother, 
or my friend, or otherwise in any way pertaining to me by 
kindred, if he be unworthy, that I will not vouchsafe the 
favour to him, as is not meet ; and I shall neither be terrified 
by plot nor mollified by gifts. But if even it should ever 
seem to me that the books of the preachings given to me are 
not true, I shall not so communicate them, but shall give them 
back. And when I go abroad, I shall carry them with me, 
whatever of them I happen to possess. But if I be not 
minded to carry them about with me, I shall not suffer them 
to be in my house, but shall deposit them with my bishop, 
having the same faith, and setting out from the same persons 
[as myself].^ But if it befall me to be sick, and in expecta- 
tion of death, and if I be childless, I shall act in the same 
manner. But if I die having a son who is not worthy, or not 
yet capable, I shall act in the same manner. For I shall 
deposit them with my bishop, in order that if my son, when 
he grows up, be worthy of the trust, he may give them to 
him as his father's bequest, according to the terms of this 

4. " ' And that I shall thus do, I ao;ain call to witness 
heaven, earth, water, in which all things are enveloped, and 
in addition to all these, the all-pervading air, without which 
I cannot breathe, that I shall always be obedient to him who 
giveth me these books of the preachings, and shall observe in 
all things as I have engaged, or even something more. To me, 
therefore, keeping this covenant, there shall be a part with the 
holy ones ; but to me doing anything contrary to what I have 
covenanted, may the universe be hostile to me, and the all- 
pervading ether, and the God who is over all, to vrhom none 
is superior, than whom none is greater. But if even I should 
come to the acknowledgment of another God, I now swear 

^ Unless the rccading be corrupt here, I suppose the reference must be 
to episcopal succession. 


by him also, be he or be he not, that I shall not do otherwise. 
And in addition to all these things, if I shall lie, I shall be 
accursed living and dying, and shall be punished with ever- 
lasting punishment.' 

" And after this, let him partake of bread and salt with 
him who commits them to him." 

Chap. v. — The adjuration accepted, 

James having thus spoken, the elders were in an agony of 
terror. Therefore James, perceiving that they were greatly 
afraid, said : " Hear me, brethren and fellow-servants. If we 
should give the books to all indiscriminately, and they should 
be corrupted by any daring men, or be perverted by interpre- 
tations, as you have heard that some have already done, it will 
remain even for those who really seek the truth, always to 
wander in error. Wherefore it is better that they should 
be with us, and that we should communicate them with all 
the fore-mentioned care to those who wish to live piously, 
and to save others. But if any one, after taking this adjura- 
tion, shall act otherwise, he shall with good reason incur 
eternal punishment. For why should not he who is the cause 
of the destruction of others not be destroyed himself ? " The 
elders, therefore, being pleased with the sentiments of James, 
exclaimed, " Blessed be He who, as foreseeing all things, has 
graciously appointed thee as our bishop;" and when they 
had said this, we all rose up, and prayed to the Father and 
God of all, to whom be glory for ever. Amen. 



ILEMENT to James, the lord/ and the bishop of 
bishops, who rules Jerusalem, the holy church 
of the Hebrews, and the churches everywhere 
excellently founded by the providence of God, 

with the elders and deacons, and the rest of the brethren, 

peace be always. 

Chap. i. — Peter s martyrdom. 

Be it known to you, my lord, that Simon, who, for the 
sake of the true faith, and the most sure foundation of his 
doctrine, was set apart to be the foundation of the church, and 
for this end was by Jesus Himself, with His truthful mouth, 
named Peter, the first-fruits of our Lord, the first of the 
apostles ; to whom first the Father revealed the Son ; whom 
the Christ, with good reason, blessed ; the called, and elect, 
and associate at table and in the journeyings [of Christ] ; the 
excellent and approved disciple, who, as being fittest of all, 
was commanded to enlighten the darker part of the world, 
namely the West, and was enabled to accomplish it, — and 
to what extent do I lengthen my discourse, not wishing to 
indicate what is sad, which yet of necessity, though reluc- 
tantly, I must tell you, — he himself, by reason of his im- 
mense love towards men, having come as far as Rome, clearly 
and publicly testifying, in opposition to the wicked one who 
withstood him, that there is to be a good King over all 
the world, while saving men by his God-inspired doctrine, 

^ More probably *' the Lord's brother." So it must have been in the 
text from which Rufinus translated. 


himself, by violence, exchanged this present existence for 

Chap. ii. — Ordination of Clement, 

But about that time, when he was about to die, the 
brethren being assembled together, he suddenly seized my 
hand, and rose up, and said in presence of the church : 
" Hear me, brethren and fellow-servants. Since, as I have 
been taught by the Lord and Teacher Jesus Christ, whose 
apostle I am, the day of my death is approaching, I lay hands 
upon this Clement as your bishop ; and to him I entrust my 
chair of discourse, even to him who has journeyed with me 
from the beginning to the end, and thus has heard all my 
homilies — who, in a word, having had a share in all my 
trials, has been found stedfast in the faith ; whom I have 
found, above all others, pious, philanthropic, pure, learned, 
chaste, good, upright, large-hearted, and striving generously 
to bear the ingratitude of some of the catechumens. Where- 
fore I communicate to him the power of binding and loosing, ''^ 
so that with respect to everything which he shall ordain in 
the earth, it shall be decreed in the heavens. For he shall k 
bind what ought to be bound, and loose what ought to be 
loosed, as knowing the rule of the church. Therefore hear 
him, as knowing that he who grieves the president of the ^ 
truth, sins against Christ, and offends the Father of all. 
Wherefore he shall not live ; and therefore it becomes him 
who presides to hold the place of a physician, and not to 
cherish the rage of an irrational beast." 

Chap. hi. — Nolo episcopari. 

While he thus spoke, I knelt to him, and entreated him, 
declining the honour and the authority of the chair. But he 
answered : " Concerning this matter do not ask me ; for it 
has seemed to me to be good that thus it be, and all the more 
if you decline it. For this chair has not need of a pre- 
sumptuous man, ambitious of occupying it, but of one pious 
in conduct and deeply skilled in the word [of God]. But show ^ 
me a better [than yourself], who has travelled more with 


me, and has heard more of my discourses, and has learned 
better the regulations of the church, and I shall not force you 
to do well against your will. But it will not be in your power 
to show me your superior ; for you are the choice first-fruits 
of the multitudes saved through me. However, consider this 
further, that if you do not undertake the administration of 
the church, through fear of the danger of sin, you may be 
sure that you sin more, when you have it in your power to 
help the godly, who are, as it were, at sea and in danger, 
and will not do so, providing only for your own interest, and 
not for the common advantaf^e of all. But that it behoves 
you altogether to undertake the danger, while I do not cease 
to ask it of you for the help of all, you well understand. 
The sooner, therefore, you consent, so much the sooner will 
you relieve me from anxiety. 

Chap. iv. — The recompense of the reward, 

" But I myself also, O Clement, know the griefs and 
anxieties, and dangers and reproaches, that are appointed you 
from the uninstructed multitudes ; and these you will be 
able to bear nobly, looking to the great reward of patience 
bestowed on you by God. But also consider this fairly with 
me : When has Christ need of your aid ? Now, when the 
wicked one has sworn war aojainst His bride ; or in the time 
to come, when He shall reign victorious, having no need of 
further help ? Is it not evident to any one who has even 
the least understanding, that it is now ? Therefore with all 
good-will hasten in the time of the present necessity to do 
battle on the side of this good King, whose character it is to 
give great rewards after victory. Therefore take the over- 
sight gladly ; and all the more in good time, because you 
have learned from me the administration of the church, for 
the safety of the brethren who have taken refuge with us. 

Chap. v. — A charge. 

" However, I wish, in the presence of all, to remind you, for 
the sake of all, of the thinijs belon^ine; to the administration. 
It becomes you, living without reproach, with the greatest 


earnestness to shake off all the cares of life, being neither a 
surety, nor an advocate, nor involved in any other secular 
business. For Christ does not wish to appoint you either 
a judge or an arbitrator in business, or negotiator of the 
secular affairs of the present life, lest, being confined to 
tlie present cares of men, you should not have leisure by the 
word of truth to separate the good among men from the bad. 
But let the disciples perform these offices to one another, and 
not withdraw [you] from the discourses which are able to 
save. For as it is wicked for you to undertake secular cares, 
and to omit the doing of w^hat you have been commanded to 
do, so it is sin for every layman, if they do not stand by one 
another even in secular necessities. And if all do not under- 
stand to take order that you be without care in respect of the 
things in which you ought to be, let them learn it from the 
deacons ; that you may have the care of the church always, 
in order both to your administering it well, and to your hold- 
inor forth the words of truth. 


Chap. vi. — The duty of a hisliop, 

" Now, if you were occupied with secular cares, you should 
deceive both yourself and your hearers. For not being able, 
on account of occupation, to point out the things that are 
advantageous, both you should be punished, as not having 
taught what was profitable, and they, not having learned, 
should perish by reason of ignorance. Wherefore do you 
indeed preside over them without occupation, so as to send 
forth seasonably the words that are able to save them ; and so 
let them listen to you, knowing that whatever the ambassador 
of the truth shall bind upon earth is bound also in heaven, 
and what he shall loose is loosed. But you shall bind what 
ought to be bound, and loose what ought to be loosed. And 
these, and such like, are the things that relate to you as 

Chap. vii. — Duties of preshyters. 

f "And with respect to the presbyters, take these [instructions]. 
Above all things, let them join the young betimes in marriage, 


anticipating the entanglements of youthful lusts. But neither 
let them neglect the marriage of those who are already old ; 
for lust is vigorous even in some old men. Lest, therefore, 
fornication find a place among you, and bring upon you a 
very pestilence, take precaution, and search, lest at any time 
the fire of adultery be secretly kindled among you. For 
j| adultery is a very terrible thing, even such that it holds the 
second place in respect of punishment, the first being assigned 
to those who are in error, even although they be chaste. 
Wherefore do you, as elders of the church, exercise the 
spouse of Christ to chastity (by the spouse I mean the body 
of the church) ; for if she be apprehended to be chaste by 
her royal Bridegroom, slie shall obtain the greatest honour ; 
and you, as wedding guests, shall receive great commenda- 
tion. But if she be caught having sinned, she herself indeed 
shall be cast out; and you shall suffer punishment, if at any 
time her sin has been through your negligence. 

Chap. viii. — " Do good unto alU^ 

" Wherefore above all things be careful about chastity ; for 
fornication has been marked out as a bitter thing in the 
estimation of God. But there are many forms of fornica- 
tion, as also Clement himself will explain to you. The first 
is adultery, that a man should not enjoy his own wife alone, 
or a woman not enjoy her own husband alone. If any one 
be chaste, he is able also to be philanthropic, on account of 
which he shall obtain eternal mercy. For as adultery is a 
great evil, so philanthropy is the greatest good. Wherefore 
love all your brethren with grave and compassionate eyes, 
performing to orphans the part of parents, to widows that 
of husbands, affording them sustenance with all kindliness, 
arranging marriages for those who are in their prime, and 
for those who are without a profession the means of necessary 
support through employment ; giving work to the artificer, / 
and alms to the incapable. 

Chap. ix. — " Let hrotlierly love conthmer 
^' But I know that ye will do these things if you fix love into 


your minds ; and for its entrance there is one only fit means, 
viz. the common partaking of food.^ Wherefore see to it that 
ye be frequently one another's guests, as ye are able, that 
you may not fail of it. For it is the cause of well-doing, 
and well-doing of salvation. Therefore all of you present 
your provisions in common to all your brethren in God, 
knowing that, giving temporal things, you shall receive eter- 
nal things. Much more feed the hungry, and give drink to 
the thirsty, and clothing to the naked ; visit the sick ; show- 
ing yourselves to those who are in prison, help them as ye 
are able, and receive strangers into your houses with all 
alacrity. However, not to speak in detail, philanthropy will 
teach you to do everything that is good, as misanthropy 
suggests ill-doing to those who will not be saved. 

Chap. x. — " Whatsoever tilings are honest^ 

" Let the brethren who have causes to be settled not be 
judged by the secular authorities; but let them by all means be 
reconciled by the elders of the church, yielding ready obedi- 
ence to them. Moreover, also, flee avarice, inasmuch as it is 
able, under pretext of temporal gain, to deprive you of eternal 
blessings. Carefully keep your balances, your measures, 
your weights, and the things belonging to your traffic, just. 
Be faithful with respect to your trusts. Moreover, you will 
persevere in doing these things, and things similar to these, 
until the end, if you have in your hearts an ineradicable remem- 
brance of the judgment that is from God. For who would 
sin, being persuaded that at the end of life there is a judg- 
ment appointed of the righteous God, who only now is long- 
suffering and good,^ that the good may in future enjoy for 
ever unspeakable blessings ; but the sinners being found as 
evil, shall obtain an eternity of unspeakable punishment. 
And, indeed, that these things are so, it would be reasonable +- 
to doubt, were it not that the Prophet of the truth has said 
and sworn that it shall be. 

1 Literally, " of salt." 

2 The common reading would give " who alone is now long-sufFering ; " 
but the change of a letter gives the reading which we have adopted. 


Chap. xi. — Doults to he satisfied. 

" Wherefore, being disciples of the true Prophet, laying 
aside double-mindedness, from which comes ill-doing, eagerly 
undertake well-doing. But if any of you doubt concerning 
the things which I have said are to be, let him confess it 
without shame, if he cares for his own soul, and he shall be 
satisfied by the president. But if he has believed rightly, 
let his conversation be with confidence, as fleeing from the 
great fire of condemnation, and entering into the eternal 
fTQod kingdom of God. 

Chap. xii. — Duties of deacons, 

" Moreover let the deacons of the church, going about with 
intelligence, be as eyes to the bishop, carefully inquiring into 
the doings of each member of the church, [ascertaining] who 
is about to sin, in order that, being arrested with admonition 
by the president, he may haply not accomplish the sin. Let 
them check the disorderly, that they may not desist from 
assembling to hear the discourses, so that they may be able 
to counteract by the word of truth those anxieties that fall 
upon the heart from every side, by means of worldly casual- 
ties and evil communications ; for if they long remain fallow, 
they become fuel for the fire. And let them learn who are 
suffering under bodily disease, and let them bring them to 
the notice of the multitude who do not know of them, that 
they may visit them, and supply their wants according to 
the judgment of the president. Yea, though they do this 
without his knowledge, they do nothing amiss. These things, 
then, and things like to these, let the deacons attend to. 

Chap. xiii. — Duties of catechists, 

" Let the catechists instruct, being first instructed ; for it is 
a work relatincr to the souls of men. For the teacher of the 
word must accommodate himself to the various judgments of 
the learners. The catechists must therefore be learned, and 
unblameable, of much experience, and approved, as you will 
know that Clement is, who is to be your instructor after me. 


For it were too much for me now to go into details. How- 
ever, if ye be of one mind, you shall be able to reach the 
haven of rest, where is the peaceful city of the great King. 

Chap. xiv. — Tlie vessel of the cliurcli. 

^' For the whole business of the church is like unto a great 
ship, bearing through a violent storm men who are of many 
places, and who desire to inhabit the city of the good king- 
dom. Let, therefore, God be your shipmaster ; and let the 
pilot be likened to Christ, the mate^ to the bishop, the sailors 
to the deacons, the midshipmen to the catechists, the multi- 
tude of the brethren to the passengers, the w^orld to the sea ; 
the foul winds to temptations, persecutions, and dangers; and 
all manner of afflictions to the waves ; the land winds and 
their squalls to the discourses of deceivers and false prophets ; 
the promontories and rugged rocks to the judges in high 
places threatening terrible things ; the meetings of two seas, 
and the wild places, to unreasonable men and those who 
doubt of the promises of truth. Let hypocrites be regarded 
as like to pirates. Moreover, account the strong whirlpool, 
and the Tartarean Charybdis, and murderous wrecks, and 
deadly founderings, to be nought but sins. In order, there- 
fore, that, sailing with a fair wind, you may safely reach the 
haven of the hoped-for city, pray so as to be heard. But 
prayers become audible by good deeds. 

Chap. xv. — Incidents of the voyage, 

" Let therefore the passengers remain quiet, sitting in their 
own places, lest by disorder they occasion rolling or careenins;. 
Let the midshipmen give heed to the fare. Let the deacons 
neglect nothing with which they are entrusted ; let the pres- 
byters, like sailors, studiously arrange what is needful for 
e^ch one. Let the bishop, as the mate, wakef ully ponder the 
w^ords of the pilot alone. Let Christ, even the Saviour, be 
loved as the pilot, and alone believed in the matters of which 
He speaks ; and let all pray to God for a prosperous voyage. 

^ It is impossible to translate these terms very accurately. I suppose 
the 'Trpapivg was rather the " bow-oarsman " in the galley. 


Let those sailing expect every tribulation, as travelling over 
a great and troubled sea, the world : sometimes, indeed, 
disheartened, persecuted, dispersed, hungry, thirsty, naked, 
hemmed in; and, again, sometimes united, congregated, at 
rest; but also sea-sick, giddy, vomiting, that is, confessing 
> sins, Hke disease-producing bile, — I mean the sins proceeding 
from bitterness, and the evils accumulated from disorderly 
lusts, by the confession of which, as by vomiting, you are 
relieved of your disease, attaining healthful safety by means 
of carefulness. 

Chap. xvi. — The hisJwp's labours and reward. 

" But know all of you that the bishop labours more than 
you all ; because each of you suffers his own affliction, but he 
his own and that of every one. Wherefore, O Clement, pre- 
side as a helper to every one according to your ability, being 
careful of the cares of all. Whence I know that in your 
undertaking the administration, I do not confer, but receive, a 
favour. But take courage and bear it generously, as know- 
ing that God will recompense you when you enter the haven 
of rest, the greatest of blessings, a reward that cannot be 
taken from you, in proportion as you have undertaken more 
labour for the safety of all. So that, if many of the brethren 
should hate you on account of your lofty righteousness, their 
hatred shall nothing hurt you, but the love of the righteous 
God shall greatly benefit you. Therefore endeavour to shake 
off the praise that arises from injustice, and to attain the 
profitable praise that is from Christ on account of righteous 

Chap. xyii. — The peoples duties. 

Having said this, and more than this, he looked again 
upon the multitude, and said : " And you also, my beloved 
brethren and fellow-servants, be subject to the president of 
the truth in all things, knowing this, that he who grieves 
him has not received Christ, with whose chair he has been 
entrusted ; and he who has not received Christ shall be re- 
garded as having despised the Father ; wherefore he shall be 


cast out of the good kingdom. On this account, endeavour 
to come to all the assemblies, lest as deserters you incur the 
charge of sin through the disheartening of your captain. 
Wherefore all of you think before all else of the things that 
relate to him, knowing this, that the wicked one, being the 
more hostile on account of every one of you, wars against him 
alone. Do you therefore strive to live in affection towards 
him, and in kindliness towards one another, and to obey him, 
in order that both he may be comforted and you may be 

Chap, xviii. — " As a heathen man and a publican^ 

" But some things also you ought of yourselves to consider, 
on account of his not being able to speak openly by reason of 
the plots. Such as : if he be hostile to any one, do not wait 
for his speaking ; and do not take part with that man, but 
prudently follow the bishop's will, being enemies to those to 
whom he is an enemy, and not conversing with those with 
whom he does not converse, in order that every one, desiring 
to have you all as his friends, may be reconciled to him and 
be saved, listening to his discourse. But if any one remain 
a friend of those to whom he is an enemy, and speak to 
those with whom he does not converse, he also himself is one 
of those who would waste the church. For, being with you 
in body, but not with you in judgment, he is against you ; 
and is much worse than the open enemies from without, since 
with seeming friendship he disperses those who are within." 

Chap. xix. — Installation of Clement. 

Having thus spoken, he laid his hands upon me in the pre- 
sence of all, and compelled me to sit in his own chair. And 
when I was seated, he immediately said to me : " I entreat 
you, in the presence of all the brethren here, that whensoever 
I depart from this life, as depart I must, you send to James 
the brother of the Lord a brief account of your reasonings 
from your boyhood, and how from the beginning until now 
you have journeyed with me, hearing the discourses preached 
by me in every city, and [seeing] my deeds. And then at the 


end you will not fail to inform him of the manner of my 
death, as I said before. For that event will not grieve him 
very much, when he knows that I piously went through what 
it behoved me to suffer. And he will get the greatest comfort 
when he learns, that not an unlearned man, or one ignorant 
of life-giving words, or not knowing the rule of the church, 
shall be entrusted Avith the chair of the teacher after me. 
For the discourse of a deceiver destroys the souls of the 
multitudes who hear." 

Chap. xx. — dementis obedience. 

Whence I, my lord James, having promised as I was ordered, 
have not failed to wTite in books by chapters the greater 
part of his discourses in every city, which have been already 
written to you, and sent by himself, as for a token ; and thus 
I despatched them to you, inscribing them Clements Epitome 
of the Popular Sermons of Peter, However, I shall begin to 
set them forth, as I was ordered. 



Chap. i. — Boyish questionings. 

CLEMENT, being a Koman citizen, even from 
my earliest youtli was able to live chastely, my 
mind from my boyhood drawing away the lust 
that was in me to dejection and distress. For I 
had a habit of reasoning — how originating I know not — 
making frequent cogitations concerning death : When I die, 
shall I neither exist, nor shall any one ever have any remem- 
brance of me, while boundless time bears all things of all 
men into forgetfulness ? and shall I then be without being, or 
acquaintance with those who are ; neither knowing nor being 
known, neither having been nor being ? And has the world 
ever been made ? and was there anything before it w^as made ? 
For if it has been always, it shall also continue to be ; but if 
it has been made, it shall also be dissolved. And after its 
dissolution, shall there ever be anything again, unless, perhaps, 
silence and forgetfulness ? Or perhaps something shall be 
which it is not possible now to conceive. 

Chap. ii. — Good out of evil. 

As I pondered without ceasing these and such like ques- 
tions — I know not whence arisino- — I had such bitter 2;rief, 
that, becoming pale, I wasted away; and, what was most 
terrible, if at any time I wished to drive away this meditation 
as unprofitable, my suffering became all the more severe ; and 
I grieved over this, not knowing that I had a fair inmate, 
even my thought, which was to be to me the cause of a blessed 



immortality, as I afterwards knew by experience, and gave 
thanks to God, the Lord of all. For it was by this thought, 
which at first afflicted me, that I was compelled to come to 
the search and the finding of things ; and then I pitied those 
whom at first, through ignorance, I ventured to call blessed. 

Chap. hi. — Perplexity. 

From my boyhood, then, being [involved] in such reason- 
ings, in order to learn something definite, I used to resort to the 
schools of the philosophers. But nought else did I see than 
the setting up and knocking down of doctrines, and strifes, 
and seeking for victory, and the arts of syllogisms, and the 
skiU of assumptions ; and sometimes one [opinion] prevailed, 
— as, for example, that the soul is immortal, and sometimes 
that it is mortal. If, therefore, at any time the doctrine pre- 
vailed that it is immortal, I was glad ; and when the doctrine 
prevailed that it is mortal, I was grieved. And again, I was 
the more disheartened because I could not establish either 
doctrine to my satisfaction. However, I perceived that the 
opinions on subjects under discussion are taken as true or false, 
according to their defenders, and do not appear as they really 
are. Perceiving, therefore, now' that the acceptance does not 
depend on the real nature of the subjects discussed, but that 
opinions are proved to be true or false according to ability of 
those who defend them, I was still more than ever at a loss in 
regard of things. Wherefore I groaned from the depth of 
my soul. For neither was I able to establish anything, nor 
could I shake off the consideration of such things, though, as 
I said before, I wished it. For although I frequently charged 
myself to be at peace, in some way or other thoughts on these 
subjects, accompanied with a feeling of pleasure, would come 
into my mind. 

Chap. iv. — More perplexity. 

And again, living in doubt, I said to myself, Wliy do T 
labour in vain, when the matter is clear, that if I lose exist- 
ence when I die, it is not fitting that I should distress myself 
now while I do exist ? Wherefore I shall reserve my grief 


till that [day], when, ceasing to exist, I shall not be affected 
with grief. But if I am to exist, what does it profit me now 
to distress myself gratuitously ? And immediately after this 
another reasoning assailed me ; for I said. Shall I not have 
something worse to suffer then than that which distresses me 
now, if I have not lived piously ; and shall I not be delivered 
over, according to the doctrines of some philosophers, to 
Pyriphlegethon and Tartarus, like Sisyphus, or Tityus, or 
Ixion, or Tantalus, and be punished for ever in Hades? 
But again I replied, saying : But there are no such things as 
these. Yet again I taid : But if there be? Therefore, said J 
I, since the matter is uncertain, the safer plan is for me ^ 
rather to live piously. But how shall I be able, for the sake 
of righteousness, to subdue bodily pleasures, looking, as I do, 
to an uncertain hope ? But I am neither fully persuaded 
what is that righteous thing that is pleasing to God, nor do I 
know whether the soul is immortal or mortal. Neither can 
I find any well-established doctrine, nor can I abstain from 
such debatings. 

Chap. v. — A resolution. 

What, then, am I to do, unless this? I shall go into 
Egypt, and I shall become friendly with the hierophants of 
the shrines, and with the prophets ; and I shall seek and find 
a magician, and persuade him with large bribes to effect the 
calling up of a soul, w^hich is called necromancy, as if I were 
going to inquire of it concerning some business. And the 
inquiry shall be for the purpose of learning whether the soul 
is immortal. But the answer of the soul that it is immortal 
shall not give me the knowledge from its speaking or my 
hearing, but only from its being seen ; so that, seeing it with 
my very eyes, I may have a self-sufficient and fit assurance, 
from the very fact of its appearing, that it exists; and never 
again shall the uncertain words of hearing be able to over- 
turn the things which the eyes have made their own. How- 
ever, I submitted this very plan to a certain companion who 
was a philosopher ; and he counselled me not to venture upon 
it, and that on many accounts. . " For if," said he, " the soul 


shall not listen to the mamcian, vou will live with an evil 
conscience, as havino; acted against the laws which forbid the 
doing of these things. But if it shall listen to him, then, 
besides your livinor T^'ith an evil conscience, I think that 
matters of piety will not be promoted to you on account of 
your making this attempt. For they say that the Deity is 
anirrv with those who disturb souls after their release from 
the body." ^ And I, when I heard this, became indeed more 
backward to -undertake such a thing, but I did not abandon 
my original plan ; but I was distressed, as being hindered in 
the execution of it. 

Chap. yi. — Tidings from Jadea. 

And, not to discuss such matters to you in a long speech, 
while I was occupied with such reasonings and doings, a 
certain report, taking its rise in the spring-time, in the 
reign of Tiberius Caesar, gradually grew everywhere, and 
ran through the world as truly the good tidings of God, 
beinfT unable to stifle the counsel of God in silence. There- 
fore it everywhere became greater and louder, saying that 
a certain One in Judea, beginning in the spring season, 
was preaching to the Jews the kingdom of the invisible 
God, and saying that whoever of them would reform his 
manner of living should enjoy it. And in order that He 
midit be believed that He uttered these thinn;s full of the 
Godhead, He wrouo;ht many wonderful miracles and sic^ns 
by His mere command, as having received power from God. 
For He made the deaf to hear, the blind to see, the lame to 
walk, raised up the bowed down, drove away every disease, 
put to flight every demon ; and even scabbed lepers, by only 
looking on Him from a distance, were sent away cured by 
Him ; and the dead, being brought to Him, were raised ; and 
there was nothinfj which He could not do. And as time 
advanced, so much the greater, through the arrival of more 
persons, and the stronger grew — I say not now the report, 
but — the trnth of tho thing ; for now at length there were 

I Tins rendering is from the text in the corresponding passage of the 
Epitome de gestis S. Petri. 


meetings in various places for consultation and inquiry as to 
who He might be that had appeared, and what was His purpose. 

Chap. vii. — The gospel in Rome. 

And then in the same year, in the autumn season, a certain 
one, standing in a public place, cried and said, '^ Men of Rome, 
hearken. The Son of God is come in Judea, proclaiming 
eternal life to all who will, if they shall live according to the 
counsel of the Father, wdio hath sent Him. Wherefore 
change your manner of life from the worse to the better, 
from things temporal to things eternal ; for know ye that 
there is one God, who is in heaven, whose world ye unright- 
eously dwell in before His righteous eyes. But if ye be 
changed, and live according to His counsel, then, being born 
into the other world, and becoming eternal, ye shall enjoy 
His unspeakable good things. But if ye be unbelieving, your 
souls, after the dissolution of the body, shall be thrown into 
the place of fire, where, being punished eternally, they shall 
repent of their unprofitable deeds. For every one, the term 
of repentance is the present life." I therefore, when I heard 
these things, was grieved, because no one among so great 
multitudes, hearing such an announcement, said : I shall go 
into Judea, that I may know if this man who tells us these 
things speaks the truth, that the Son of God has come into 
Judea, for the sake of a good and eternal hope, revealing the 
will of the Father who sent Him. For it is no small matter 
w^hich they say that He preaches : for He asserts that the souls 
of some, being [themselves] immortal, shall enjoy eternal good 
things ; and that those of others, being thrown into unquench- 
able fire, shall be punished for ever. 

Chap. viii. — Departure from Home. 

While I spoke thus concerning others, I also lectured 
myself, saying. Why do I blame others, being myself guilty 
of the very same crime of heedlessness ? But I shall hasten 
into Judea, having first arranged my affairs. And when I had 
thus made up my mind, there occurred a long time of delay, 
my worldly affairs being difficult to arrange. Therefore, 


meditating further on the nature of life, that bj involving-^ 
men in hope it lays snares for those who are making haste, 
yea, and how much time I had been robbed of while tossed 
by hopes, and that we men die while thus occupied, I left all 
my affairs as they were, and sped to Portus ; ^ and coming to 
the harbour, and being taken on board a ship, I was borne by 
adverse winds to Alexandria instead of Judea ; and being 
detained there by stress of weather, I consorted with the 
philosophers, and told them about the rumour and the sayings 
of him who had appeared in Rome. And they answered that 
indeed they knew nothing of him who had appeared in 
Rome; but concerning Him who was born in Judea, and 
who was said by the report to be the Son of God, they had 
heard from many who had come from thence, and had learned 
respecting all the wonderful things that He did with a word. 

Chap. ix. — Preaching of Barnabas, 

And when I said that I wished I could meet with some one 
of those who had seen Him, they immediately brought me to 
one, saying, " There is one here who not only is acquainted 
with Him, but is also of that country, a Hebrew, by name 
Barnabas, who says that he himself is one of His disciples ; 
and hereabouts he resides, and readily announces to those who 
will the terms of His promise." Then I went with them; and 
when I came, I stood listenincr to his words with the crowd 
that stood round him ; and I perceived that he was speaking 
truth not with dialectic art, but was setting forth simply and 
without preparation what he had heard and seen the mani- 
fested Son of God do and say. And even from the crowd 
who stood around him he produced many witnesses of the 
miracles and discourses which he narrated. 

Chap. X. — Cavils of the philosophers. 

But while the multitudes were favourably disposed towards 
the things that he so artlessly spoke, the philosophers, impelled 

1 For iK'TTT.oy.uv "Wieseler proposes lK-/,'hi7:70)u, "that deceiving by hopes 
it lays snares," etc. 

2 Portus, the port of Rome. One MS. reads Trovrov, " the sea." 


by their worldly learning, set upon laughing at him and 
making sport of him, upbraiding and reproaching him with 
excessive presumption, making use of the great armoury of 
syllogisms. But he set aside their babbling, and did not 
enter into their subtle questioning, but without embarrassment 
went on with what he was saying. And then one of them 
asked, Wherefore it was that a gnat, although it be so small, 
and has six feet, has wings also; while an elephant, the largest 
of beasts, is wingless, and has but four feet ? But he, after 
the question had been put, resuming his discourse, which had 
been interrupted, as though he had answered the question, 
resumed his original discourse, only making use of this pre- 
face after each interruption : " We have a commission only 
to tell you the words and the w^ondrous doings of Him who 
sent us ; and instead of logical demonstration, we present to 
you many witnesses from amongst yourselves who stand by, 
whose faces I remember, as living images. These sufficient 
testimonies it is left to your choice to submit to, or to dis- 
believe.-^ But I shall not cease to declare unto you what 
is for your profit ; for to be silent were to me a loss, and to 
disbelieve is ruin to you. But indeed I could give answers 
to your frivolous questions, if you asked them through love 
of truth. But the reason of the different structure of the 
gnat and the elephant it is not fitting to tell to those who are 
ignorant of the God of all." 

Chap. xi. — Clemenis zeal. 

When he said this, they all, as in concert, set up a shout 
of laughter, trying to silence him and put him out, as a bar- 
barous madman. But I, seeing this, and seized, I know not 
how, with enthusiasm, could no longer keep silence with 
righteous indignation, but boldly cried out, saying, " Well 
has God ordained that His counsel should be incapable of 
being received by you, foreseeing you to be unworthy, as 
appears manifestly to such of those w^ho are now present as 

^ We have here adopted a conjectural reading of Davis. The common 
text is thus translated: "whose faces I remember, and who as being 
living images are satisfactory testimonies. These it is left," etc. 


have minds capable of judging. For whereas now heralds 
of His counsel have been sent forth, not making a show of 
grammatical art, but setting forth His will in simple and 
inartificial words, so that whosoever hear can understand 
what is spoken, and not with any invidious feeling, as 
though unwilling to offer it to all ; you come here, and 
besides your not understanding what is for your advantage, 
to your own injury you laugh at the truth, which, to your 
condemnation, consorts with the barbarians, and which you 
will not entertain when it visits you, by reason of your 
wickedness and the plainness of its Avords, lest you be con- 
victed of being merely lovers of words, and not lovers of 
truth and lovers of wisdom. How loner -sviH you be learnino; 
to speak, who have not the power of speech?^ For many 
sayings of yours are not worth one word. AVhat, then, will 
your Grecian multitude say, being of one mind, if, as he 
says, there shall be a judgment? ^'Why, O God, didst Thou 
not proclaim to us Thy counsel ? " Shall you not, if you be 
thought worthy of an answer at all, be told this ? " I, know- 
ing before the foundation of the world all characters that 
were to be, acted towards each one by anticipation according 
to his deserts without making it known ; ' but wishing to give 
full assurance to those who have fled to me that this is so, and 
to explain why from the beginning, and in the first ages, I 
did not suffer my counsel to be publicly proclaimed; I now, in 
the end of the world," have sent heralds to proclaim my will, 
and they are insulted and flouted by those who will not be 
benefited, and who wilfully reject my friendship. Oh, great 
wrong ! The preachers are exposed to danger even to the 
loss of life,* and that by the men who are called to salvation. 

Chap. xii. — Clement's rehuhe of the people. 
" And this wrongful treatment of my heralds would have 

^ The Vatican MS. and Epit. have " the power of speaking well." 

2 Lit., ''I met each one beforehand secretly." The Latin has, ''unicui- 
que prsevius occurri." 

3 The Greek is /S/oy, "life." 

* The Paris MS. reads (pOoi/ov, "envy," instead of (^6uov, "murder." 


been against all from the beginning, if from the beginning 
the unworthy had been called to salvation. For that which 
is now done wrongfully by these men serves to the vindica- 
tion of my righteous foreknowledge, that it was well that I 
did not choose from the beginning to expose uselessly to 
public contempt the word which is worthy of honour ; but 
determined to suppress it, as being honourable, not indeed 
from those who were worthy from the beginning — for to 
them also I imparted it — but from those, and such as those, 
unworthy, as you see them to be, — those who hate me, and 
who will not love themselves. And now, give over laughing 
at this man, and hear me with respect to his announcement, 
or let any one of the hearers who pleases answer. And do 
not bark like vicious dogs, deafening with disorderly clamour 
the ears of those who would be saved, ye unrighteous and 
God-haters, and perverting the saving method to unbelief. 
How shall you be able to obtain pardon, who scorn him who 
is sent to speak to you of the Godhead of God? And this you 
do towards a man whom you ought to have received on ac- 
count of his good-will towards you, even if he did not speak 

Chap. xiii. — Clement instructed hy Barnahas. 

While I spake these words, and others to the same effect, 
there arose a great excitement among the crowd ; and some, 
as pitying Barnabas, sympathized with me ; but others, being 
senseless, terribly gnashed their teeth against me. But, as 
the evening had already come, I took Barnabas by the hand, 
and by force conducted him, against his will, to my lodging, 
and constrained him to remain there, lest some one might 
lay hands on him. And having spent several days, and 
instructed me briefly in the true doctrine, as well as he could 
in a few days, he said that he should hasten into Judea for 
the observance of the festival, and also because he wished for 
the future to consort with those of his own nation. 

Chap. xiv. — Departure of Barnahas. 
But it plainly appeared to me that he was disconcerted. 


For when I said to him, " Only set forth to me the words 
which you have heard of the Man who has appeared, and I 
will adorn them with my speech, and preach the counsel of 
God ; and if you do so, within a few days I will sail with 
you, for I greatly desire to go to the land of Judea, and 
perhaps I shall dwell with you all my life ;" — when he heard 
this, he answered : " If you wish to inquire into our affairs, 
and to learn what is for your advantage, sail with me at 
once. But if you will not, I shall now give you directions 
to my house, and that of those whom you wish [to meet], 
that when you choose to come you may find us. For I shall 
set out to-morrow for my home." And when I saw that he 
could not be prevailed upon, I went with him as far as the 
harbour ; and having learned of him the directions which he 
had promised to give me for finding the dwellings, I said to 
him, " Were it not that to-morrow I am to recover a debt 
that is due to me, I should straightway set sail with you. 
But I shall soon overtake you." And having said this, and 
having given him in charge to those who commanded the 
ship, I returned grieving, remembering him as an excellent 
and dear friend. 

Chap. xv. — Introduction to Peter, 

But having spent [some] days, and not having been able 
to recover the whole debt, for the sake of speed I neglected 
the balance, as being a hindrance, and myself also set sail 
for Judea, and in fifteen days arrived at Csesarea Stratonis. 
And when I had landed, and was seeking for a lodging, 
I learned that one named Peter, who was the most esteemed 
disciple of the Man who had appeared in Judea, and had done 
signs and wonders, was going to have a verbal controversy 
next day with Simon, a Samaritan of Gitthi. When I 
heard this, I begged to be shown his lodging ; and as soon 
as I learned it, I stood before the door. And those who 
were in the house, seeing me, discussed the question who I 
was, and whence I had come. And, behold, Barnabas came 
out; and as soon as he saw me he embraced me, rejoicing 
greatly, and weeping. And he took me by the hand, and 


conducted me to where Peter was, saying to me, " This is 
Peter, of whom I told you as being the greatest in the wis- 
dom of God, and I have spoken to him of you continually. 
Therefore enter freely,^ for I have told him your excellent 
qualities, without falsehood ; and, at the same time, have 
disclosed to him your intention, so that he himself also is 
desirous to see you. Therefore I offer him a great gift when 
by my hands I present you to him." Thus saying, he pre- 
sented me, and said, " This, O Peter, is Clement." 

Chap. xvi. — Peter s salutation. 

Then the blessed man, springing forward as soon as he 
heard my name, kissed me ; and making me sit down, 
straightway said, " You acted nobly in entertaining Barna- 
bas, a herald of the truth, to the honour of the living God, 
being magnanimously not ashamed, nor fearing the resent- 
ment of the rude multitude. Blessed shall yon be. For as 
you thus with all honour enteilained the ambassador of the 
truth, so also truth herself shall constitute you, who are a 
stranger, a citizen of her own city. And thus you shall 
greatly rejoice, because you have now lent a small favour ; 
I mean the kindness of good words. You shall be heir of 
blessings which are both eternal and cannot possibly be taken 
from you. And do not trouble yourself to detail to me your 
manner of life; for the veracious Barnabas has detailed to us 
everything relating to you, making favourable mention of 
you almost every day. And in order that I may tell to you 
briefly, as to a genuine friend, what is in hand, travel with 
us, unless anything hinders you, partaking of the words of 
truth which I am going to speak from city to city, as far as 
Rome itself. And if you wish [to say] anything, speak on." 

Chap. xvii. — Questions propounded. 

Then I set forth my purpose from the beginning, and how 
I had spent myself upon difficult questions, and all the things 

^ The text is corrupt. Dressel's reading is adopted in the text, being 
based on Rufinus's translation. Some conjecture, " as you will know of 
your own accord." 


that I disclosed to you at the outset, so that I need not write 
the same thinors aorain. Then I said, "I hold myself in readi- 
ness to journey ^Yith you ; for this, I know not how, I gladly 
wish. However, I wish first to be convinced concernincr the • 
truth, that I may know whether the soul is mortal or im- 
mortal ; and whether, if it is eternal, it is to be judged con- 
cerning the things which it hath done here. Also, whether 
there is anything that is righteous and well-pleasing to God ; 
and whether the world was made, and for what end it was 
made ; and whether it shall be dissolved; and if it shall be 
dissolved, whether it shall be made better, or shall not be at 
all." And not to mention them in detail, I said that I wished 
to learn these things, and things consequent upon these. And 
to this he answered: "I shall shortly convey to you, O Clement, 
the knowledge of the thincrs that are ; and even now listen. 

Chap, xviii. — Causes of ignorance. 

'' The will of God has been [kept] in obscurity in many 
ways. In the first place, there is evil instruction, wicked 
association, terrible society, unseemly discourses, wrongful 
prejudice. Thereby is error, then fearlessness, unbelief, 
fornication, covetousness, vainglory ; and ten thousand other 
such evils, filling the world as a quantity of smoke fills a 
house, have obscured the siHit of the men inhabitinfr the 
world, and have not suffered them to look up and become 
acquainted with God the Creator from the delineation [of 
Himself which He has given], and to know what is pleasing 
to Him. Wlierefore it behoves the lovers of trutli, crvinji 
out inwardly from their breasts, to call for aid, with truth- 
lovino; reason, that some one livini^ within the house^ which 
is filled with smoke may approach and open the door, so that 
the light of the sun which is without may be admitted into 
the house, and the smoke of the fire which is within may be 
driven out. 

Chap. xix. — Tlie true Propliet. 

" Now the Man who is the helper I call the true Prophet ; 
^ A conjectural reading, " being without the house," seems preferable. 


and He alone is able to enlighten the souls of men, so that 
with our own eyes we may be able to see the way of eternal 
salvation. But otherwise it is impossible, as you also know, 
since you said a little while ago that every doctrine is set 
up and pulled down, and the same is thought true or false, 
according to the power of him who advocates it ; so that doc- 
trines do not appear as they are, but take the appearance of 
beincp or not beincp truth or falsehood from those who advo- 
cate them. On this account the whole business of religion 
needed a true prophet, that he might tell us things that are, 
as thev are, and how we must believe concernino; all thin^-s. 
So that it is first necessary to test the prophet by every pro- 
phetic sign, and having ascertained that he is true, thereafter 
to believe him in everything, and not to sit in judgment upon 
his several sayings, but to receive them as certain, being ac- 
cepted indeed by seeming faith, yet by sure judgment. For by 
our initial proof, and by strict inquiry on every side, all things 
are received with right reason. Wherefore before all things 
it is necessary to seek after the true Prophet, because with- 
out Him it is impossible that any certainty can come to men." 

Chap. xx. — Peter s satisfaction ivitJi Clement. 

And, at the same time, he satisfied me by expounding to me 
who He is, and how He is found, and holding Him forth to 
me as truly to be found, showing that the truth is more mani- 
fest to the ear by the discourse of the prophet than things 
that are seen with the eye ; so that I was astonished, and 
wondered that no one sees those thino-s which are sought 
after by all, though they lie before him. However, having 
written this discourse concerning the Prophet by his order, 
he caused the volume to be despatched to you from Ca3sarea 
Stratonis, saying that he had a charge from you to send you his 
discourses and his acts year by year.-*- Thus, on the very first 

^ The text is probably corrupt or defective. As it stands, grammati- 
cally Peter writes tlie discourse and sends it, and yet " by liis order " 
must also apply to Peter, The Recognitions make Clement write the 
book and send it. The passage is deemed important, and is accordingly 
discussed in Schliemann, p. 83; Hilgenfeld, p. 37 ; and Uhlhorn, p. 101. 


day, beginning only concerning the prophet of the truth, he 
confirmed me in every respect; and then he spoke thusc 
"Henceforth give heed to the discussions that take place be- 
tween me and those on the other side ; and even if I come off 
at a disadvantage, I am not afraid of your ever doubting of 
the truth that has been delivered to you, knowing well that 
I seem to be beaten, but not the doctrine that has been 
delivered to us by the Prophet. However, I hope not to come 
off in our inquiries at a disadvantage with men who have 
understanding — ^I mean lovers of truth, w4io are able to know 
what discourses are specious, artificial, and pleasant, and what 
are unartificial and simple, trusting only to the truth [that is 
conveyed] through them." 

Chap. xxt. — Unalterable conviction, 

"When he had thus spoken, I answered : " Now do I thank 
God ; for as I wished to be convinced, so He has vouchsafed 
to me. However, so far as concerns me, be you so far with- 
out anxiety that I shall never doubt ; so much so, that if you 
yourself should ever wish to remove me from the prophetic 
doctrine, you should not be able, so well do I know what I 
have received. And do not think that it is a great thing 
that I promise you that I shall never doubt ; for neither I 
myself, nor any man who has heard your discourse concern- 
ing the Prophet, can ever doubt of the true doctrine, having 
first heard and understood what is the truth of the pro- 
phetic announcement. Wherefore have confidence in the 
God-willed dogma ; for every art of wickedness has been 
conquered. For against prophecy, neither arts of discourses, 
nor tricks of sophisms, nor syllogisms, nor any other con- 
trivance, can prevail anything ; that is, if he who has heard 
the true Prophet really is desirous of truth, and does not 
give heed to aught else under pretext of truth. So that, my 
lord Peter, be not disconcerted, as though you had presented 
the greatest good to a senseless person ; for you have pre- 
sented it to one sensible of the favour, and who cannot be 
seduced from the truth that has been committed to him. 
For I know that it is one of those things which one wishes 


to receive quickly, and not to attain slowly. Therefore I 
know that I should not despise, on account of the quickness 
[with which I have got it], what has been committed to me, 
what is incomparable, and what alone is safe." 

Chap. xxii. — Tlianksgiving, 

When I had thus spoken, Peter said : " I give thanks to 
God, both for your salvation and for my satisfaction. For I 
am truly pleased to know that you apprehend what is the 
greatness of prophecy. Since, then, as you say, if I myself 
should ever wish — which God forbid — to transfer you to 
another doctrine, I shall not be able to persuade you, begin 
from to-morrow to attend upon me in the discussions with 
the adversaries. And to-morrow I have one with Simon 
Magus." And having spoken thus, and he himself having 
partaken of food in private, he ordered me also to partake ; 
and having blessed the food, and having given thanks after 
being satisfied, and having given me an account of this 
matter, he went on to say : " May God grant you in all 
things to be made like unto me, and having been baptized, 
to partake of the same table with me." And having thus 
spoken, he enjoined me to go to rest; for now indeed my 
bodily nature demanded sleep. 


Chap. i. — Peter s attendants. 

THEREFORE the next clay, I Clement, awakinir 
from sleep before dawn, and learning that Peter 
^Yas astir, and was conversing with his attendants 
concerning the worship of God (there were six- 
teen of them, and I have thought good to set forth their 
names, as I subsequently learned them, that you may also 
know who they were. The first of them was Zaccheus, who 
was once a publican, and Sophonias his brother ; Joseph 
and his foster-brother Michaias ; also Thomas and EHezer 
the twins ; also -^neas and Lazarus the priests ; besides 
also Elisaeus, and Benjamin the son of Saphrus ; as also 
Rubilus and Zacharias the builders ; and Ananias and 
Haggaeus the Jamminians ; and Nicetas and Aquila the 
friends), — accordingly I went in and saluted him, and at 
his request sat down. 

Chap. ii. — A sound mind in a sound hody. 

And he, breaking off the discourse in which he was en- 
gaged, assured me, by way of apology, why he had not 
awakened me that I mlMit hear his discourses, assi^^ninix as 
the reason the discomfort of my voyage. As he wished this 
to be dispelled,^ he had suffered me to sleep. "For," said 
he, " whenever the soul is distracted concerning some bodily 
want, it does not properly approach the instructions that are 
presented to it. On this account I am not willing to con- 
verse, either with those who are greatly grieving through some 
calamity, or are immoderately angry, or are turned to the 
frenzy of love, or are suffering under bodily exhaustion, or are 
^ Literally, " to be boiled out of me." 


distressed with the cares of life, or are harassed with any other 
sufferings, whose soul, as I said, being downcast, and sympa- 
thizing with the suffering body, occupies also its own intelli- 
gence therewith. 

Chap. hi. — Forevjamed is forearmed. 

" And let it not be said, Is it not, then, proper to present 
comforts and admonitions to those who are in any bad case? 
To this I answer, that if, indeed, any one is able, let him 
present them ; but if not, let him bide his time. For I know^ 
that all things have their proper season. Wherefore it is 
proper to ply men with words which strengthen the soul in 
anticipation of evil ; so that, if at any time any evil comes 
upon them, the mind, being forearmed with the right argu- 
ment, may be able to bear up under that which befalls it : 
for then the mind knows in the crisis of the struo-ale to have 
recourse to him who succoured it by good counsel. 

Chap. iv. — A request. 

^^ However, I have learned, O Clement, how that in x\lex- 
andria Barnabas perfectly expounded to you the word respect- 
ing prophecy. Was it not so?" I answered, "Yes, and 
exceedino; well." Then Peter : " Therefore it is not neces- 
sary now to occupy with the instructions which you know, 
the time which may serve us for other instructions wliich 
you do not know." Then said I : " You have rightly said, 

Peter. But vouchsafe this to me, who purpose always to 
attend upon you, continuously to expound to me, a delighted 
hearer, the doctrine of the Prophet. For, apart from Him, as 

1 learned from Barnabas, it is impossible to learn the truth." 

Chap. y. — Excellence of the knoioledge of the true Propliet. 

And Peter, being greatly pleased with this, answered : 
"Already hath the rectifying process taken its end, as regards 
you, knowing as you do the greatness of the infallible 
prophecy, without which it is impossible for any one to 
receive that which is supremely profitable. For of many 

1 Eccles. iii. 1. 


and diverse blessings whicli are in the tilings which are or 
which may be, the most blessed of all — whether it be eternal 
life, or perpetual health, or a perfect understanding, or light, 
or joy, or immortality, or whatever else there is or that can be 
supremely good in the nature of things — cannot be possessed 
without first knowing things as they are ; and this knowledge 
cannot be otherwise obtained than by first becoming ac- 
quainted w^ith the Prophet of the truth. 

Chap. vi. — The true ProplieL 

" Now the Prophet of the truth is He who always knows 
all things — things past as they were, things present as they 
are, things future as they shall be ; sinless, merciful, alone 
entrusted w^ith the declaration of the truth. Read, and you 
shall find that those [w^ere deceived]^ who thought that they 
had found the truth of themselves. For this is peculiar to 
the Prophet, to declare the truth, even as it is peculiar to the 
sun to bring the day. Wherefore, as many as have even 
desired to know the truth, but have not had the good fortune 
to learn it from Him, have not found it, but have died seek- 
ing it. For how can he find the truth who seeks it from his 
own ignorance ? And even if he find it, he does not know 
it, and passes it by as if it were not. Nor yet shall he be 
able to obtain possession of the truth from another, who, in 
like manner, promises to him knowledge from ignorance ; 
excepting only the knowledge of morality and things of that 
sort, which can be known through reason, which affords to 
every one the knowledge that he ought not to wrong another, 
through his not wishing [himself] to be wronged. 

Chap. vii. — Unaided quest of truth profitless, 

*^ All therefore who ever souo;ht the truth, trustinfr to them- 
selves to be able to find it, fell into a snare. This is what 
both the philosophers of the Greeks, and the more intelligent 
of the barbarians, have suffered. For, applying themselves 
to things visible, they have given decisions by conjecture on 

^ ""Were deceived" is not in the text, but the sense demands that 
some such expression should be supplied. 


things not apparent, thinking that that was truth which at 
any time presented itself to them [as such]. For, like persons 
who know the truth, they, still seeking the truth, reject some 
of the suppositions that are presented to them, and lay hold 
of others, as if they knew, while they do not know, what things 
are true and what are false. And they dogmatize concerning 
truth, even those who are seeking after truth, not knowing 
that he who seeks truth cannot learn it from his own wander- 
ing. For not even, as I said, can he recognise her when she 
stands by him, since he is unacquainted with her. 

Chap. viii. — Test of truth. 

" And It IS by no means that which is true, but that which 
is pleasing, which persuades every one who seeks to learn from 
himself. Since, therefore, one thing is pleasing to one, and 
another to another, one thing prevails over one as truth, and 
another thino; over another. But the truth Is that which is 
approved by the Prophet, not that which is pleasant to each 
individual. For that which is one would be many, if the 
pleasing were the true ; which Is impossible. Wherefore also 
the Grecian philologers — rather than philosophers-^ — going 
about matters by conjectures, have dogmatized much and 
diversely, thinking that the apt sequence of hypotheses is 
truth, not knowing that when they have assigned to them- ^/ 
selves false beginnings, their conclusion has corresponded with ' 
the beginning. 

Chap. ix. — " The iveak things of the world.^^ 

" Whence a man ought to pass by all else, and commit 
himself to the Prophet of the truth alone. And we are all 
able to judge of Him, whether he is a prophet, even although 
w^e be wholly unlearned, and novices in sophisms, and un- 
skilled In geometry, and uninitiated in music. For God, as 
caring for all, has made the discovery concerning Himself 
easier to all, in order that neither the barbarians might be 
powerless, nor the Greeks unable to find Him. Therefore 
the discovery concerning Him is easy ; and thus it is : 

^ (pih-ohoyat^ ov (pt\6ao(poi^ "lovers of words, not lovers of wisdom." 


Chap. x. — Test of the prophet 

"If he is a Prophet, and is ahle to know how the world 
was made, and the things that are in it, and the things that 
shall be to the end, if He has foretold us anything, and we 
have ascertained that it has been perfectly accomplished, we 
easily believe that the things shall be v.-hich [He says] are to 
be, from the things that have been already ; we believe Him, 
I say, as not only knowing, but foreknowing. To whom then, 
however limited an understanding he may have, does it not 
appear, that it behoves us, with respect to the things that 
are pleasing to God, to believe beyond all others Him who 
bevond all men knows, even though He has not learned? 
Wherefore, if anv one sliould be unwillinir to concede the 
power of knowing the truth to such an one — I mean to Him 
Avho has foreknowledge tlu'ough the divinity of the Spirit 
that is in Him — conceding the power of knowing to any one 
else, is he not void of understanding, in conceding to him 
■who is no prophet, that power of knowing which he would 
not concede to the Prophet ? 

Crap. xi. — Ignorance, knowledge, foreknowledge, 

" Wherefore, before all things, we must test the Prophet 
with all judgment by means of the prophetic promise ; and 
havino; ascertained Him to l)e the Prophet, we must undoubt- 
ino;ly follow the other words of His teaching ; and having 
confidence concerning things hoped for, we must conduct our- 
selves according to the first judgment, knowing that He who 
tells us these things has not a nature to lie. AYherefore, if 
any of the things that are afterwards spoken by Him do not 
appear to us to be well spoken, we must know that it is not 
that it has been spoken amiss, but that it is that we have 
not conceived it aright. For ignorance does not riixhtly 
judge knowledge, and so neither is knowledge competent 
truly to judge foreknowledge; but foreknowledge affords 
knowledge to the ignorant. 


Chap. xii. — Doctrine of the true Prophet. 

" Hence, O beloved Clement, if you would know the things 
pertaining to God, you have to learn them from Him alone, "^ 
because He alone knows the truth. For if any one else 
knows anything, he has received it from Him or from His 
disciples. And this is His doctrine and true proclamation, 
that there is one God, whose work the world is ; who being 
altogether righteous, shall certainly at some time render to 
every one according tc his deeds. 

Chap. XIII. — Future reivards and punishments, 

"For there is every necessity, that he who says that God 
is by His nature righteous, should believe also that the 
souls of men are immortal : for where would be Plis justice, 
when some, having lived piously, have been evil-treated, and 
sometimes violently cut off, while others who have been 
wholly impious, and have indulged in luxurious living, 
have died the common death of men? Since therefore, 
without all contradiction, God who is good is also just. He 
shall not otherwise be known to be just, unless the soul after 
its separation from the body be immortal, so that the wicked 
man, being in hell,^ as having here received his good things, 
may there be punished for his sins ; and the good man, who 
has been punished here for his sins, may then, as in tho 
bosom of the righteous, be constituted an heir of good things. 
Since therefore God is righteous, it is fully evident to us 
that there is a judgment, and that souls are immortal. 

Chap. xiv. — Righteousness and unrighteousness. 

" But if any one, according to the opinion of this Simon the 
Samaritan, will not admit that God is just, to whom then 
can any one ascribe justice, or the possibility of it? For if 
the Root of all have it not, there is every necessity to think 
that it must be impossible to find it in human nature, whicli 
is, as it were, the fruit. And if it is to be found in man, how 
much more in God ! But if righteousness can be found no- 

^ Lit. Hades. 



where, neither in God nor in man, then neither can unri^ht- 
eousness. But there is such a thincf as riMiteousness, for 
unrighteousness takes its name from the existence of right- 
eousness ; for it is called unrighteousness, when righteousness 
is compared with it, and it is found to be opposite to it. 

Chap. xv. — Pairs» 

" Hence therefore God, teaching men with respect to the 
truth of existing things, being Himself one, has distinguished 
all principles into pairs and opposites,^ Himself being one 
and sole God from the beginning, having made heaven and 
earth, day and night, light and fire, sun and moon, life and 
death. But man alone amongst these He made self-control- 
ling, having a fitness to be either righteous or unrighteous. 
To him also he hath varied the figures of combinations, placing 
before him small things first, and great ones afterwards, such 
as the world and eternitv. But the world that now is, is 
temporary; that which shall be, is eternal. First is ignorance, 
then knowledfre. So also has He arranfjed the leaders 
of prophecy. For, since the present world is female, as a 
mother bringing forth the souls of her children, but the 
world to come is male, as a father receivinor his children 
[from their mother], therefore in this world there come a 
succession of prophets, as being sons of the world to come, 
and having knowledge of men. And if pious men had under- 
stood this mystery, they would never have gone astray, but 
even now they should have known that Simon, who now en- 
thralls all men, is a fellow-worker of error and deceit. Now, 
the doctrine of the prophetic rule is as follows. 

Chap. xvi. — Mans icays opposite to GocCs. 

" As in the ben;inninf' God, who is one, like a nVht hand 
and a left, made the heavens first and then the earth, so also 
He constituted all the combinations in order ; but upon men 
He no more does this, but varies all the combinations. For 
whereas from Him the greater things come first, and the 
inferior second, we find the opposite in men — the first worse, 
^ Literally, "twofoldly and oppositely." 


and the second superior. Therefore from Adam, who was 
made after the image of God, there sprang first the unright- 
eous Cain, and then the righteous Abel. Again, from him 
who amongst you is called Deucalion,^ two forms of spirits 
were sent forth, the impure namely, and the pure, first the 
black raven, and then the white dove. From Abraham also, 
the patriarchs of our nation, two firsts^ sprang-^Ishmael first, 
then Isaac, who was blessed of God. And from Isaac himself, 
in like manner, there were again two — Esau the profane, and 
Jacob the pious. So. first in birth, as the first born in the 
world, was the high priest [Aaron], then the lawgiver [Moses]. 

Chap. xvii. — First the ivorse, then the better, 

**In like manner, the combination with respect to Elias, 
which behoved to have come, has been willingly put off to 
another time, having determined to enjoy it conveniently 
hereafter.^ Wherefore, also, he who was among those born of 
woman came first ; then he who was among the sons of men 
came second. It were possible, following this order, to perceive 
to what series Simon belongs, who came before me to the Gen- 
tiles, and to which I belong who have come after him, and have 
come in upon him as light upon darkness, as knowledge upon 
ignorance, as healing upon disease. And thus, as the true 
Prophet has told us, a false prophet must first come from some 
deceiver ; and then, in like manner, after the removal of the 
holy place, the true gospel must be secretly sent abroad for 
the rectification of the heresies that shall be. After this, also, 
towards the end, Antichrist must first come, and then our 
Jesus must be revealed to be indeed the Christ ; and after 
this, the eternal light having sprung up, all the things of 
darkness must disappear. 

1 Noah. 

2 For " first " Wieseler conjectures "different," — two different persons, 
^ In this sentence the text is probahly corrupted. The general mean- 
ing seems to be, that he does not enter fully at present into the subject 
of Elias, or John the Baptist, the greatest of those born of woman, com- 
ing first, and Christ, the greatest among the sons of men, coming after, 
but that he will return to the subject on a fitting occasion. 


Chap, xyiit. — Mistake about Simon Magus, 

" Since, then, as I said, some men do not know the rule of 
combination, thence they do not know who is my precursor 
Simon. For if he were known, he would not be believed ; 
but now, not being known, he is improperly believed ; and 
thouirh his deeds are those of a hater, he is loved ; and thousjli 

O ' CI 

an enemy, he is received as a friend ; and though he be 
death, he is desired as a saviour ; and though fire, he is 
esteemed as light ; and though a deceiver, he is believed as a 
speaker of truth." 

Then I Clement, when I heard this, said, " Who then, I 
pray you, is this who is such a deceiver ? I should like to be 
informed." Then said Peter : " If you wish to learn, it is in 
your power to know it from those from whom I also got 
accurate information on all points respecting him. 

Chap. xtx. — Justa, a proselyte, 

" There is amongst us one Justa, a Syro-Phoenician, by 
race a Canaanite, whose daughter was oppressed with a griev- 
ous disease. And she came to our Lord, crying out, and 
entreatinfT that He would heal her daughter. But He, beinir 
asked also by us, said, ' It is not lawful to heal the Gentiles, 
who are like to doi^s on account of their usinij various^ meats 
and practices, while the table in the kingdom has been given 
to the sons of Israel.' But she. hearincr this, and beixirino: 
to partake like a dog of the crumbs that fall from this table, 
having changed what she was,^ by living like the sons of the 
kingdom, she obtained healing for her daughter, as she asked. 
For she bein^: a Gentile, and remainins; in the same course of 
life. He would not have healed had she remained a Gentile, 
;y on account of its not being lawful to heal her as a Gentile.^ 

^ For 'hiu(p6poig Duncker proposes dZiec(p6poi;, " meats witliout distinc- 

2 That is, having ceased to be a Gentile, by abstaining from forbidden 

^ There are several various readings in this sentence, and none of them 
can be strictly construed ; but the general sense is obvious. 


Chap. xx. — Divorced for the faith» 

" She, therefore, having taken up a manner of life accord- 
ing to the law, was, with the daughter who had been healed, 
driven out from her home by her husband, whose sentiments 
were opposed to ours. But she, being faithful to her engage- 
ments, and being in affluent circumstances, remained a widow 
herself, but gave her daughter in m-arriage to a certain man 
who was attached to the true faith, and who was poor. And, 
abstaining from marringe for the sake of her daughter, she 
bought two boys and educated them, and had them in place 
of sons. And they being educated from their boyhood with 
Simon Masjus, have learned all thinors concernino; him. For 
such was their friendship, that they were associated with him 
in all things in which he wished to unite with them. 

Chap. xxi. — Justas adopted sons, associates ivith Simon, 

" These men having fallen in with Zacclieus, who sojourned 
here, and having received the word of truth from him, and 
having repented of their former innovations, and immediately 
denouncing Simon as being privy with him in all things, as 
soon as I came to sojourn here, they came to me with their 
foster-mother, being presented to me by him [Zaccheus], and 
ever since they continue with me, enjoying instructions in the 
truth." When Peter had said this, he sent for them, and 
charged them that they should accurately relate to me all 
things concerning Simon. And they, having called God to 
witness that in nothing they would falsify, proceeded with 
the relation. 

Chap. xxii. — Doctrines of Simon, 

First Aquila began to speak in this wise: *' Listen, O dearest 
brother, that you may know accurately everything about this 
man, whose he is, and what, and whence ; and what the 
things are which he does, and how and why he does them. 
This Simon is the son of Antonlus and Rachel, a Samaritan 
by race, of the village of Gitthas, which is six schoeni distant 
from the city. He having disciplined himself greatly in Alex- 



andi'ia/ and being very powerful in magic, and being ambi- 
tious, wishes to be accounted a certain supreme power, greater 
even than the God who created the world. And sometimes 
intimating that he is Christ, he styles himself the Standing One. 
And this epithet he employs, as intimating that he shall always 
stand, and as not having any cause of corruption so that his 
body should fall. And he neither says that the God who 
created the world is the Supreme, nor does he believe that 
the dead will be raised. He rejects Jerusalem, and substitutes 
Mount Gerizzim for it. Instead of our Christ, he proclaims 
himself. The things of the law he explains by his own pre- 
sumption ; and he says, indeed, that there is to be a judg- 
ment, but he does not expect it. For if he were persuaded 
that he shall be judged by God, he would not dare be 
impious towards God Himself. Whence some not knowing 
that, using religion as a cloak, he spoils the things of the 
truth, and faithfully believing the hope and the judgment 
which in some way he says are to be, are ruined. 

Chap, xxiii. — Simon a disciple of tlte Baptist. 

" But that he came to deal with the doctrines of religion 
happened on this wise. There was one John, a day-baptist,^ 
who was also, according to the method of combination, the 
forerunner of our Lord Jesus ; and as the Lord had twelve 
apostles, bearing the number of the twelve months of the sun, 
so also he [John] had thirty chief men, fulfilling the monthly 
reckonino; of the moon, in which number was a certain woman 
called Helena, that not even this might be without a dispensa- 
tional significance. For a woman, being half a man, made 
up the imperfect number of the triacontad ; as also in the 
case of the moon, whose revolution does not make the com- 
plete course of the month. But of these thirty, the first and 
the most esteemed by John was Simon ; and the reason of 
. his not belns chief after the death of John was as follows : — 

1 The Vatican MS. adds, " which is in Egypt [or, on the Nile], in Greek 
^ ^ A day-baptist is taken to mean " one who baptizes every day." 


Chap. xxiv. — Electioneering stratagems. 

"He being absent in Egypt for the practice of magic, and 
John being killed, Dositheus desiring the leadership, falsely 
gave out that Simon was dead, and succeeded to the seat. 
But Simon, returning not long after, and strenuously hold- 
ing by the place as his own, when he met with Dositheus 
did not demand the place, knowing that a man who has 
attained power beyond his expectations cannot be removed 
from it. Wherefore with pretended friendship he gives 
himself for a while to the second place, under Dositheus. 
But taking his place after a few days among the thirty 
fellow-disciples, he began to malign Dositheus as not deliver- 
ing the instructions correctly. And this he said that he 
did, not through unwillingness to deliver them correctly, but 
through ignorance. And on one occasion, Dositheus, per- 
ceiving that this artful accusation of Simon was dissipating 
the opinion of him with respect to many, so that they did 
not think that he was the standino; one, came in a raoje to 
the usual place of meeting, and finding Simon, struck him 
with a staff. But it seemed to pass through the body of [ 
Simon as if he had been smoke. Thereupon Dositheus, j 
being confounded, said to him, ' If you are the standing 
one, I also will worship you.' Then Simon said that he 
was ; and Dositheus, knowing that he himself was not the 
standing one, fell down and worshipped ; and associating 
himself with the twenty-nine chiefs, he raised Simon to his 
own place of repute ; and thus, not many days after, Dosi- I 
theus himself, while he (Simon) stood, fell down and died. ^ 

Chap. xxv. — Simon^s deceit. 

" But Simon is going about in company with Helena, and 
even till now, as you see, is stirring up the people. And he 
says that he has brought down this Helena from the highest 
heavens to the world ; being queen, as the all-bearing being, 
and wisdom, for whose sake, says he, the Greeks and bar- 
barians fought, having before their eyes but an image of 


truth ; -^ for slie, who really is the truth, was then with the 
chiefest god. Moreover, by cunningly explaining certain 
things of this sort, made up from Grecian myths, he deceives 
many ; especially as he performs many signal marvels, so that 
if w^e did not know that he does these things by magic, we 
ourselves should also have been deceived. But whereas we 
were his fellow-labourers at the first, so long as he did such 
things without doing wrong to the interests of religion ; now 
that he has madly begun to attempt to deceive those who are 
reliiiious, we have withdrawn from him. 

Chap. xxvi. — His iciclcedness. 

"For he even began to commit murder, as himself disclosed 
to us, as a friend to friends, that, having separated the soul 
of a child from its own body by horrid incantations, as his 
assistant for the exhibition of anything that he pleased, and 
having drawn the likeness of the boy, he has it set up in the 
inner room where he sleeps, saying that he once formed the 
boy of air, by divine arts, and having painted his likeness, he 
gave him back again to the air. And he explains that he did 
the deed thus. He says that the first soul of man, being turned 
into the nature of heat, drew to itself, and sucked in the sur- 
rounding air, after the fashion of a gourd ;" and then that he 
changed it into water, when it was within the form of the 
spirit ; and he said that he changed into the nature of blood 
the air that was in it, which could not be poured out on 
account of the consistency of the spirit, and that he made the 
blood solidified into flesh ; then, the flesh being thus con- 
solidated, that he exhibited a man not [made] from earth, 
but from air. And thus, having persuaded himself that he 
was able to make a new [sort of] man, he said that he re- 
versed the chano;es, and ao;ain restored him to the air. And 
when he told this to others, he was believed ; but by us who 
were present at his ceremonies he was religiously disbelieved. 

^ "We have here an allusion to the tradition that it was only an image 
of Helen that was taken to Troy, and not the real Helen herself. 
2 AVhich was used by the ancients as cupping-glasses are now used. 


Wherefore we denounced his impieties, and withdrew from 

Chap, xxvii. — His promises. 

When Aquila had thus spoken, his brother Nicetas said : 
" It is necessary, O Clement our brother, for me to mention 
what has been left out by Aquila. For, in the first place, 
God is witness that we assisted him in no impious work, but 
that we looked on while he wrought ; and as loner as he did 
harmless things, and exhibited them, we were also pleased. 
But when, in order to deceive the godly, he said that he did, 
by means of godhead, the things that were done by magic, we 
no longer endured him, though he made us many promises, 
especially that our statues should be thought worthy of [a 
place in] the temple,'^ and that we should be thought to be 
gods, and should be worshipped by the multitude, and should 
be honoured by kings, and should be thought worthy of public 
honours, and enriched with boundless wealth. 

Chap, xxviii. — Fruitless counsel, 

" These things, and things reckoned greater than these, he 
promised us, on condition only that we should associate with 
him, and keep silence as to the wickedness of his undertak- 
ing, so that the scheme of his deceit might succeed. But 
still we would not consent, but even counselled him to desist 
from such madness, saying to him: 'We, O Simon, remember- 
ing our friendship towards you from our childhood, and out 
of affection for you, give you good counsel. Desist from this 
attempt. You cannot be a God. Fear Him who is really 
God. Know that you are a man, and that the time of your 
life is short; and though you should get great riches, or 
even become a kino;, few things accrue to the short time 
of your life for enjoyment, and things wickedly gotten soon 
flee away, and procure everlasting punishment for the adven- 
turer. Wherefore we counsel you to fear God, by whom 

^ The Vatican MS. and Epitome read, "tliat a shrine and statues should 
be erected in lionour of us." 


the soul of every one must be judged for the deeds that he 
hath done here.' 

Chap. xxix. — Immortality of the soul, 

" When he heard this he laughed ; and when we asked 
him why he laughed at us for giving him good counsel, he 
answered : ^ I laugh at your foolish supposition, because you 
believe that the soul of man is immortal.' Then I said : 
' We do not wonder, O Simon, at your attempting to deceive 
us, but we are confounded at the way in which you deceive 
even yourself. Tell me, O Simon, even if no one else has 
been fully convinced that the soul is immortal, at all events 
you and we [ought to be so] : you as having separated one 
from a human body, and conversed with it, and laid your 
commands upon it; and we as having been present, and 
heard your commands, and clearly witnessed [the performance 
of] what was ordered.' Then said Simon : ' I know what 
you mean ; but you know nothing of the matters concerning 
which you reason.' Then said Nicetas: ^If you know, speak; 
but if you do not know, do not suppose that we can be de- 
ceived by your saying that you know, and that we do not. 
For we are not so childish, that you can sow in us a shrewd 
suspicion that we should think that you know some unutter- 
able things, and so that you should take and hold us in sub- 
jection, by holding us in restraint through means of desire.' 

CllAP. XXX. — An argument. 

" Then Simon said : ^ I am aware that you know that I 
separated a soul from a human body ; but I know that you 
are ignorant that it is not the soul of the dead person that 
ministers to me, for it does not exist ; but a certain demon 
works, pretending to be the soul.' Then said Nicetas : 
^ Many incredible things we have heard in our lifetime, but 
aught more senseless than this speech we do not expect ever 
to hear. For if a demon pretends to be the soul of the dead 
person, what is the use of the soul at all, tiiat it should be 
separated from the body ? Were not we ourselves present, 
and heard you conjuring the soul from the body ? And how 


comes it that, when one Is conjured, another who is not con- 
jured obeys, as if it were frightened? And you yourself, 
when at any time we have asked you why the conferences 
sometimes cease, did not you say that the soul, having ful- 
filled the time upon earth which it was to have passed in 
the body, goes to Hades ? And you added, that the souls of 
those who commit suicide are not easily permitted to come, 
because, having gone home into Hades, they are guarded.' " 

Chap. xxxi. — A dilemma, 

Nicetas having thus spoken, Aquila himself in turn said : 
" This only should I wish to learn of you, Simon, whether 
it is the soul or whether it is a demon that is conjured : w^iat 
is it afraid of, that it does not despise the conjuration ? " 
Then Simon said : '^ It knows that it should suffer punish- 
ment if it were disobedient." Then said Aquila : " Therefore, 
if the soul comes when conjured, there is also a judgment. 
If, therefore, souls are immortal, assuredly there is also a 
judgment. As you say, then, that those which are conjured 
on wicked business are punished if they disobey, how are 
you not afraid to compel them, when those that are com- 
pelled are punished for disobedience ? For it is not wonder- 
ful that you do not already suffer for your doings, seeing the 
judgment has not yet come, when you are to suffer the 
penalty of those deeds which you have compelled others to 
do, and when that which has been done under compulsion 
shall be pardoned, as having been out of respect for the oath 
which led to the evil action." -^ And he hearing this was 
enraged, and threatened death to us if we did not keep silence 
as to his doings. 

Chap, xxxii. — Simon^s prodigies. 

Aquila having thus spoken, I Clement inquired : ^^ What, 
then, are the prodigies that he works ? " And they told me 
that he makes statues walk, and that he rolls himself on the 
fire, and is not burnt ; and sometimes he flies ; and he makes 

^ The Latin translates : "as having preferred the oath to the evil 


\ loaves of stones ; he becomes a serpent : lie transforms him- 
self into a goat ; he becomes two-faced ; he changes him- 

; self into gold ; he opens lockfast gates ; he melts iron ; at 

' banquets he produces images of all manner of forms. In 
his house he makes dishes be seen as borne of themselves to 
wait upon him, no bearers being seen. I wondered when I 

] heard them speak thus; but many bore witness that they 

( had been present, and had seen such things. 

Chap, xxxiii. — Doctrine of pairs. 

Those things having been thus spoken, the excellent Peter 
himself also proceeded to speak : '* You must perceive, 
brethren, the truth of the rule of conjunction, from which 
he who departs not cannot be misled. For since, as we 
have said, we see all things in pairs and contraries, and as 
the niijht is first, and then the dav ; and first iirnorance, then 
knowledixe ; first disease, then healincr, so the things of error 
come first into our life, then truth supervenes, as the physician 
upon the disease. Therefore straightway, when our God- 
loved nation was about to be ransomed from the oppression of 
the Egyptians, first diseases were produced by means of the 
rod turned into a serpent, which was given to Aaron, and then 
remedies were superinduced by the prayers of Moses. And 
now" also, when the Gentiles are abcut to be ransomed from 
the superstition with respect to idols, wickedness, which 
reigns over them, has by anticipation sent forth her ally like 
another serpent, even this Simon whom you see, who works 
wonders to astonish and deceive, not signs of healing to con- 
vert and save. Wherefore it behoves you also from the 
miracles that are done to judge the doers, what is the cha- 
racter of the performer, and what that of the deed. If he do 
unprofitable miracles, he is the agent of wickedness ; but if he 
do profitable things, he is a leader of goodness. 

Chap, xxxiv. — Useless and plulanthropic miracles, 

" Those, then, are useless signs, which you say that Simon 
did. But I say that the making statues walk, and rolling 
himself on burnini^ coals, and becominfj a dragon, and beino- 


changed into a goat, and flying in the air, and all such things, 
not being for the healing of man, are of a nature to deceive 
many. But the miracles of compassionate truth are philan- 
thropic, such as you have heard that the Lord did, and that 
I after Him accomplish by my prayers ; at which most of 
you have been present, some being freed from all kinds of 
diseases, and some from demons, some having their hands 
restored, and some their feet, some recovering their eyesight, 
and some their hearing, and whatever else a man can do, 
being of a philanthropic spirit." 

Chap. xxxv. — Discussion postponed. 

When Peter had thus spoken, towards dawn Zaccheus 
entered and saluted us, and said to Peter : " Simon puts off 
» , the inquiry till to-morrow ; for to-day is his Sabbath, which 
^ occurs at intervals of eleven days." To him Peter answered : 
" Say to Simon, Whenever thou wishest ; and know thou 
that we are always in readiness to meet thee, by divine pro- 
vidence, when thou desirest." And Zaccheus hearing this, 
went out to return the answer. 

Chap, xxxvi. — All for the best. 

But he (Peter) saw me disheartened, and asked the rea- 
son ; and being told that it proceeded from no cause but the 
postponement of the inquiry, he said : " He who has appre- 
hended that the world is regulated by the good providence of 
God, O beloved Clement, is not vexed by things howsoever 
occurring, considering that things take their course advan- 
tageously under the providence of the Ruler. Whence, 
knowing that He is just, and living with a good conscience, 
he knows how by right reason to shake off from his soul any 
annoyance that befalls him, because, when complete, it must 
come to some unknown good. Now then, let not Simon the 
magician's postponement of the inquiry grieve you ; for 
perhaps it has happened from the providence of God for 
your profit. Wherefore I shall not scruple to speak to you 
as being my special friend. 



Chap. XXXVII. — Spies in the enemy's camp, 

*^ Some of our people attend feignedly upon Simon as 
companions, as if they %Yere persuaded by his most atheistic 
error, in order that they may learn his purpose and disclose 
it to us, so that we may be able to encounter this terrible 
man on favourable terms. And now I have learned from 
them what arguments he is going to employ in the discussion. 
And knowing this, I give thanks to God on the one hand, 
and I congratulate you on the other, on the postponement of 
the discussion ; for you, being instructed by me before the 
discussion, of the arguments that are to be used by him for 
the destruction of the ignorant, will be able to listen with- 
out danger of falling. 

Chap, xxxviii. — Corruption of the law, 

" For the Scriptures have had joined to them many false- 
hoods against God on this account. The prophet Moses 
having by the order of God delivered the law, with the ex- 
planations, to certain chosen men, some seventy in number, 
in order that they also might instruct such of the people as 
chose, after a little the written law had added to it certain 
falsehoods contrary to the law of God,-^ who made the heaven 
and the earth, and all things in them ; the wicked one hav- 
ing dared to work this for some righteous purpose. And this 
took place in reason and judgment, that those might be con- 
victed who should dare to listen to the things written against 
God, and those who, through love towards Him, should not 
only disbelieve the things spoken against Him, but should not 
even endure to hear them at all, even if they should happen 
to be true, judging it much safer to incur danger with 
respect to religious faith, than to live with an evil conscience 
on account of blasphemous words. 

Chap, xxxix. — Tactics. 

" Simon, therefore, as I learn, intends to come into public, 
and to speak of those chapters against God that are added to 
^ The Vatican iis. reads : " against the only God." 


the Scriptures, for the sake of temptation, that he may seduce 
as many wretched ones as he can from the love of God. For 
we do not wish to say in public that these chapters are added 
to the Bible, since we should thereby perplex the unlearned 
multitudes, and so accomplish the purpose of this wicked 
Simon. For they not having yet the power of discerning, 
would flee from us as impious ; or, as if not only the blas- 
phemous chapters were false, they would even withdraw from 
the word. Wherefore we are under a necessity of assent- 
ing to the false chapters, and putting questions in return to 
him concerning them, to draw him into a strait, and to give 
in private an explanation of the chapters that are spoken 
against God to the well-disposed after a trial of their faith ; 
and of this there is but one way, and that a brief one. It is 

Chap. xl. — Preliminary instruction. 

" Everything that is spoken or written against God is 
false. But that we say this truly, not only for the sake of 
reputation, but for the sake of truth, I shall convince you 
when my discourse has proceeded a little further. Whence 
you, my most beloved Clement, ought not to be sorry at 
Simon's having interposed a day between this and the dis- 
cussion. For to-day, before the discussion, you shall be 
instructed concerning the chapters added to the Scriptures ; 
and then in the discussion concerning the only one and good 
God, the Maker also of the world, you ought not to be dis- 
tracted. But in the discussion you will even wonder how 
impious men, overlooking the multitudes of things that are 
spoken in the Scriptures for God, and looking at those that 
are spoken against Him, gladly bring these forward; and 
thus the hearers, by reason of ignorance, believing the things 
against God, become outcasts from His kingdom. Wherefore 
you, by advantage of the postponement, learning the mystery 
of the Scriptures, and gaining the [means of] not sinning 
against God, will incomparably rejoice." 


Chap. xli. — Ashing for information^ not contradiction. 

Then I Clement, hearing this, said : " Truly I rejoice, and 
I give thanks to God, who in all things doeth well. How- 
ever, he knows that I shall be able to think nothing other 
than that all things are for God. Wherefore do not suppose 
that I ask questions, as doubting the words concerning God,^ 
or those that are to be spoken, but rather that I may learn, 
and so be able myself to instruct another who is ingenuously 
willinfT to learn. Wherefore tell me what are the falsehoods 
added to the Scriptures, and how it comes that they are really 
false." Then Peter answered : " Even although you had not 
asked me, I should have gone on in order, and afforded you 
the exposition of these matters, as I promised. Learn, then, 
how the Scriptures misrepresent Him in many respects, that 
you may know when you happen upon them. 

Chap. xlii. — Rigid notions of God essential to JioUness, 

"But what I am going to tell you will be sufficient by way 
of example. But I do not think, my dear Clement, that any 
one who possesses ever so little love to God and ingenuous- 
ness, will be able to take in, or even to hear, the things that 
are spoken against Him. For how is it that he can have a 
monarchic ^ soul, and be holy, who supposes that there are 
many gods, and not one only ? But even if there be but one, 
who will cherish zeal to be holy, that finds Him in many 
defects, since he will hope that the Beginning of all things, 
by reason of the defects of his ov;n nature, will not visit the 
crimes of others ? 

Chap, xliii. — A priori argument on the divine attributes, 

" Wherefore, far be it from us to believe that the Lord of 
all, who made the heaven and the earth, and all things that 

^ The text has vtto, "by," which has been altered into vT^ip. Davis 
would read gov, "by you." 

2 Cotelerius doubts whether this expression means a soul ruhng over 
his body, or a soul disposed to favour monarchical rule. The former 
explanation seems to us the more probable. 


are In them, shares His government with others, or that He 
lies. For if He lies, then who speaks truth ? Or that He 
makes experiments as in ignorance ; for then who foreknows ? 
And if He dehberates, and changes His purpose, who is per- 
fect in understanding and permanent in design? If He envies, 
who is above rivah'y? If He hardens hearts, who makes 
wise ? If He makes bUnd and deaf, who has given sight and 
hearing ? If He commits pilfering, who administers justice ? 
If He mocks, who is sincere ? If He is weak, who is omni- 
potent ? If He is unjust, who is just ? If He makes evil 
things, who shall make good things ? If He does evil, who 
shall do good ? 

Chap. xliv. — The same continued, 

"But if He desires the fruitful hill,^ whose then are all 
things ? If He is false, who then is true ? If He dwells in a 
tabernacle, who is without bounds ? If He is fond of fat, and 
sacrifices, and offerings, and drink-offerings, who then is with- 
out need, and who is holy, and pure, and perfect? If He is 
pleased with candles and candlesticks, who then placed the 
luminaries in heaven ? If He dwells in shadow, and dark- 
ness, and storm, and smoke, who is the light that lightens the 
universe ? If He comes with trumpets, and shoutings, and 
darts, and arrows, who is the looked-for tranquillity of all ? 
If He loves war, who then wishes peace ? If He makes evil 
things, who makes good things ? If He is without affection, 
who is a lover of men ? If He is not faithful to His pro- 
mises, who shall be trusted ? If He loves the wicked, and 
adulterers, and murderers, who shall be a just judge? If 
He changes His mind, who is stedfast ? If He chooses evil 
men, who then takes the part of the good ? 

Chap. xlv. — How God is to he tJiouglit of, 

^^ Wherefore, Clement, my son, beware of thinking otherwise 
of God, than that He is the only God, and Lord, and Father, 
good and righteous, the Creator, long-suffering, merciful, the 
sustainer, the benefactor, ordaining love of men, counselling 

^ Wieseler considers this corrupt, and amends : "if He desires more." 


purity, immortal and making immortal, incomparable, dwell- 
ing in the souls of the good, that cannot be contained and 
yet is contained,-^ who has fixed the great world as a centre in 
space, who has spread out the heavens and solidified the earth, 
who has stored up the water, who has disposed the stars in 
the sky, who has made the fountains flow in the earth, has 
produced fruits, has raised up mountains, hath set bounds to 
the sea, has ordered winds and blasts, who by the spirit of 
counsel has kept safely the body comj)rehended in a bound- 
less sea. 

Chap. xlyi. — Judgment to come, 

" This is our Judge, to whom it behoves us to look, and to 
regulate our own souls, thinking all things in His favour, 
speaking well of Him, persuaded that by His long-suffering 
He brings to light the obstinacy of all, and is alone good. 
And He, at the end of all, shall sit as a just Judge upon 
every one of those who have attempted what they ought not." 

Chap, xlvii. — A pertinent question, 

Vf[\en I Clement heard this, I said, " Truly this is godli- 
ness ; truly this is piety." And again I said : " I would learn, 
therefore, why the Bible has written anything of this sort ? 
For I remember that you said that it was for the conviction 
of those who should dare to believe anything that was spoken 
against God. But since you permit us, we venture to ask, at 
your command : If any one, most beloved Peter, should 
choose to say to us, ' The Scriptures are true, although to you 
the things spoken against God seem to be false,^ how should 
we answer him ?" 

Chap, xlyiii. — A particular case. 

Then Peter answered : " You speak well in your inquiry ; 
for it will be for your safety. Therefore listen : Since there 
are many things that are spoken by the Scriptures against 

^ The Latin has here, "imperceptusetperceptus;" but Wieseler points 
out that xupovcAsuog has reference to God's dwelling in the souls of the 
good, and thus He is contained by them. 


God, as time presses on account of the evening, ask with 
respect to any one matter that you please, and I will explain 
it, showing that it is false, not only because it is spoken 
against God, but because it is really false." Then I answered : 
*' I wish to learn how, when the Scriptures say that God is 
ignorant, you can show that He knows ? " 

Chap. xlix. — Reductio ad ahsiirdum. 

Then Peter answered : " You have presented us with a 
matter that can easily be answered. However, listen, how 
God is ignorant of nothing, but even foreknows. But first 
answer me what I ask of you. He who wrote the Bible, and 
told how the world was made, and said that God does not 
foreknow, was he a man or not ?" Then I said : " He was a 
man." Then Peter answered : " How, then, was it possible 
for him, being a man, to know assuredly how the world w^as 
made, and that God does not foreknow ? " 

Chap. l. — A satisfactory ansiver. 

Then I, already perceiving the explanation, smiled, and 
said that he was a prophet. And Peter said ; " If, then, he 
was a prophet, being a man, he was ignorant of nothing, by 
reason of his having received foreknowledge from God ; how 
then, should He, who gave to man the gift of foreknowledge, 
being God, Himself be ignorant ?" And I said : " You have 
spoken rightly." Then Peter said : " Come with me one step 
further. It being acknowledged by us that God foreknows 
all things, there is everj^ necessity that the scriptures are 
false which say that He is ignorant, and those are true which 
say that He knows." Then said I : "It must needs be so." 

Chap. li. — WeigJi in the balance. 

Then Peter said : " If, therefore, some of the Scriptures are 
true and some false, with good reason said our Master, ^ Be 
ye good money-changers,'^ inasmuch as in the Scriptures there 

^ This is quoted three times in the Homilies as a saying of our Lord, 
viz. here and in Homily iii. chap. 1., and Homily xviii. chap. xx. It is 
probably taken from one of the apocryphal Gospels. In Homily xviii. 


are some true sayings and some spurious. And to those wlio 
err by reason of the false scriptures He fitly showed the 
cause of their error, saying, ^ Ye do therefore err, not knowing 
the true things of the Scriptures ; ^ for this reason ye are 
ignorant also of the power of God.' " Then said I : " [You 
have spoken] very excellently." 

Chap. lii. — Sins of the saints denied. 

Tlien Peter answered: "Assuredly, with good reason, I 
neither believe anything against God, nor against the just 
men recorded in the law, taking for granted that they are 
impious imaginations. For, as I am persuaded, neither was 
Adam a transgressor, who was fashioned by the hands of 
God ; nor was Noah drunken, who was found righteous 
above all the world ; " nor did Abraham live with three wives 
at once, who, on account of his sobriety, was thought worthy 
of a numerous posterity ; nor did Jacob associate with four 
— of whom two were sisters — who was the father of the twelve 
tribes, and who intimated the coming of the presence of our 
Master; nor was Moses a murderer, nor did he learn to judge 
from an idolatrous priest — he who set forth the law^ of God 
to all the w^orld, and for his right judgment has been testified 
to as a faithful steward. 

Chap. ltii. — Close of the conference, 

"But of these and such like things I shall afford you an 
explanation in due time. But for the rest, since, as you see, 
the evening has come upon us, let what has been said be 
enough for to-day. But wdienevcr you wish, and about 
whatever you wish, ask boldly of us, and we shall gladly 
explain it at once." Thus having spoken, he rose up. And 
then, having partaken of food, we turned to sleep, for tlie 
night had come upon us. 

chap. XX. the meaning is shown to be, that as it is the part of a money- 
changer to distinguish spurious coins from genuine, co it is the part of a 
Christian to distinguish false statements from true, 

^ A corruption of the texts, Matt. xxii. 29, Mark xii. 24. 

2 Gen. vii. 1. 


Chap. i. — Tlie morning of the discussion. 

WO days, therefore, having elapsed, and while the 
third was dawning, I Clement, and the rest of onr 
companions, being roused about the second cock- 
crowing, in order to the discussion with Simon, 
found the lamp still alight, and Peter kneeling in prayer. 
Therefore, having finished his supplication, and turning 
round, and seeing us in readiness to hear, he said : 

Chap. ii. — Simon s design, 

" I w^sli you to know that those who, according to our 
arrangement, associate with Simon that they may learn his 
intentions, and submit them to us, so that we may be able to 
cope with his variety of w^ickedness, these men have sent to 
me, and informed me that Simon to-day is, as he arranged, 
prepared to come before all, and show from the Scriptures 
that He wdio made the heaven and the earth, and all things 
in them, is not the Supreme God, but that there is another, 
unknown and supreme, as being in an unspeakable manner 
God of gods ; and that He sent two gods, one of whom is 
he who made the w'orld, and the other he who gave the law. 
And these things he contrives to say, that he may dissipate 
the right faith of those who would w^orship the one and only 
God who made heaven and earth. 

Chap. hi. — His object. 

" When 1 heard this, how was I not disheartened ! Where- 
fore I wished you also, my brethren, wdio associate with me, 
to know that I am beyond measure grieved in my soul, seeing 
the wicked one awake for the temptation of men, and men 



wholly indifferent about their own. salvation. For to those 
from amongst the Gentiles who were about being persuaded 
respecting the earthly images that they are no gods, he has 
contrived to bring in opinions of many other gods, in order 
that, if they cease from the polytheo-mania, they may be 
deceived to speak otherwise, and even worse [than they now 
do], against the sole government of God, so that they may 
not yet value the truths connected with that monarchy, and 
may never be able to obtain mercy. And for the sake of this 
attempt Simon comes to do battle with us, armed with the 
false chapters of the Scriptures. And what is more dread- 
ful, he is not afraid to doo^matize thus aecainst the true God 
from the prophets whom he does not [in fact] believe. 

Chap. iv. — Snares laid for the Gentiles. 

" And with us, indeed, who have had handed down from 
our forefathers the worship of the God who made all thirigs, 
and also the mystery of the books which are able to deceive, 
he will not prevail; but with those from amongst the Gentiles 
who have the polytheistic fancy bred in them, and who know 
not the falsehoods of the Scriptures, he will prevail much. 
And not only he ; but if any other shall recount to those from 
among the Gentiles any vain, dreamlike, richly set out story 
against God, he will be believed, because from their child- 
hood their minds are accustomed to take in things spoken 
against God. And few there shall be of them, as a few 
out of a multitude, who through ingenuousness shall not be 
willing so much as to hear an evil word against the God who 
made all things. And to these alone from amongst the Gen- 
tiles it shall be vouchsafed to be saved. Let not any one of 
you, therefore, altogether complain of Simon, or of any one 
else ; for nothing happens unjustly, since even the falsehoods 
of Scripture are with good reason presented for a test." 

Chap. y. — Use of errors. 

Then I Clement, hearing this, said : " How say you, my 
lord, that even the falsehoods of the Scriptures are set forth 
happily for the proof of men?" And he answered: "The false- 


hoods of the Scriptures have been permitted to be written 
for a certain righteous reason, at the demand of eviL And 
when I say happily, I mean this : In the account of God, 
the wicked one, not loving God less than the good one, is 
exceeded by the good in this one thing only, that he, not 
pardoning those who are impious on account of ignorance, 
through love towards that which is profound, desires the 
destruction of the impious ; but the good one desires to 
present them with a remedy. For the good one desires all 
to be healed by repentrnce, but saves those only who know 
God. But those who know Him not He does not heal : not 
that He does not wish to do so, but because it is not lawful 
to afford to those who, through want of judgment, are like to 
irrational animals, the good things wdiich have been prepared 
for the children of the kingdom. 

Chap. vi. — Purgatory and hell. 

" Such is the nature of the one and only God, w^ho made 
the world, and who created us, and who has given us all things, 
that as long as any one is within the limit of piety, and does 
not blaspheme His Holy Spirit, through His love towards him 
He brings the soul to Himself by reason of His love towards 
it. And although it be sinful, it is His nature to save it, 
after it has been suitably punished for the deeds it hath done. 
But if any one shall deny Him, or in any other way be guilty 
of impiety against Him, and then shall repent, he shall be 
punished indeed for the sins he hath committed against Him, 
but he shall be saved, because he turned and lived. And 
perhaps excessive piety and supplication shall even be de- 
livered from punishment, ignorance being admitted as a 
reason for the pardon of sin after repentance.-^ But those 
who do not repent shall be destroyed by the punishment of 
fire, even though in all other things they are most holy. But, 
as I said, at an appointed time a fifth ' part, being punished 
with eternal fire, shall be consumed. For they cannot endure 
for ever who have been impious against the one God. 

^ The text manifestly corrupt. 

2 Perhaps, rather, "the greater part." 


Chap. tit. — ^Mlat is impiety ? 

" But impiety against Him is, in the matter of religion, to 
die saying there is another God, whether superior or inferior, 
or in any way saying that there is one besides Him who really 
is. For He who truly is, is He whose form the body of man 
bears ; for whose sake the heaven and all the stars, thoucrh in 
their essence superior, submit to serve him who is in essence 
inferior, on account of the form of the Ruler. So much has 
God blessed man above all, in order that, loving the Bene- 
factor in proportion to the multitude of His benefits, by means 
of this love he may be saved for the world to come. 

Chap. viii. — Wiles of the devil, 

" Therefore the love of men towards God is sufncient for 
salvation. And this the wicked one knows ; and while we 
are hasteninfr to sow the love towards Him which makes im- 
mortal in the souls of those who from amonn; the Gentiles are 
ready to believe in the one and only God, this wicked one, 
havincT sufficient armour acrainst the if^norant for their de- 
struction, hastens to sow the supposition of many gods, or 
at least of one greater, in order that men, conceiving and 
being persuaded of what is not wisdom, may die, as in the 
crime of adulterv, and be cast out from His kinijdom. 

Chap. ix. — Uncertainty of the Scriptures, 

'- Worthy, therefore, of rejection is every one who is willing 
so much as to hear anything against the monarchy of God ; 
but if any one dares to hear anything against God, as trust- 
ing in the Scriptures, let him first of all consider with me that 
if any one, as he pleases, form a dogma agreeable to himself, 
and then carefully search the Scriptures, he will be able to 
produce many testimonies from them in favour of the dogma 
that he has formed. How, then, can confidence be placed in 
them against God, when what every man -vishes is found in 


Chap. x. — Simons intention, 

" Therefore Simon, who is going to discuss in public with 
us to-morrow, is bold against the monarchy of God, wishing 
to produce many statements from these Scriptures, to the 
effect that there are many gods, and a certain one who is not 
He who made this world, but who is superior to Him ; and, 
at the same time, he is going to offer many scriptural proofs. 
But we also can easily show many passages from them that 
He who made the wo'dd alone is God, and that there is 
none other besides Him. But if any one shall wish to speak 
otherwise, he also shall be able to produce proofs from them 
at his pleasure. For the Scriptures say all manner of things, 
that no one of those who inquire ungratefully may find the 
truth, but [simply] what he wishes to find, the truth being 
reserved for the grateful ; now gratitude is to preserve our 
love to Him who is the cause of our being. 

Chap. xi. — Distinction between prediction and ]jrophecy . 

" Whence it must before all things be known, that nowhere 
can truth be found unless from a prophet of truth. But He is 
a true Prophet, who always knows all things, and even the 
thoughts of all men, who is without sin, as being convinced 
respecting the judgment of God. Wherefore we ought not 
simply to consider respecting His foreknowledge, but whether 
His foreknowledge can stand, apart from other cause. For 
physicians predict certain things, having the pulse of the 
patient as matter submitted to them; and some predict by 
means of having fowls, and some by having sacrifices, and 
others by having many various matters submitted to them; 
yet these are not prophets. 

Chap. xii. — The same. 

" But if any one should say that the foreknowledge [shown] 
by these predictions is like to that foreknowledge which is 
really implanted, he were much deceived. For he only 
declares such things as being present, and that if he speaks 
truth. However, even these things are serviceable to me, for 


they establish that there is such a thing as foreknowledge. 
But the foreknowledge of the one true Prophet does not only 
know things present, but stretches out prophecy without limit 
as far as the world to come, and needs nothing for its inter- 
pretation, not prophesying darkly and ambiguously, so that 
the things spoken would need another prophet for the inter- 
pretation of them ; but clearly and simply, as our Master and 
Prophet, by the inborn and ever-flowing Spirit, always knew 
all things. 

Chap. xiii. — Prophetic knowledge constant. 

" Wherefore He confidently made statements respecting 
things that are to be — I mean sufferings, places, limits. For, 
being a faultless Prophet, and looking upon all things with the 
boundless eye of His soul. He knows hidden things. But if 
we should hold, as many do, that even the true Prophet, not 
always, but sometimes, w'hen He has the Spirit, and through 
it, foreknows, but when He has it not is ignorant, — if we 
should suppose thus, we should deceive ourselves and mislead 
others. For such a matter belongs to those w^ho are madly 
inspired by the spirit of disorder — to those who are drunken 
beside the altars, and are gorged with fat. 

Chap. xiv. — Prophetic spirit constant. 

" For if it were permitted to any one who will profess 
prophecy to have it believed in the cases in which he was 
found false, that then he had not the Holy Spirit of fore- 
knowledge, it will be difficult to convict him of beincr a 
false prophet ; for among the many things that he speaks, 
a few come to pass, and then he is believed to have the 
Spirit, although he speaks the first things last, and the last 
first; speaks of past events as future, and future as already 
past ; and also without sequence ; or things borrowed from 
others and altered, and some that are lessened, unformed, 
foolish, ambiguous, unseemly, obscure, proclaiming all un- 


Chap. xv. — Christ s lorophecies, 

" But our Master did not prophesy after this fashion ; but, 
as I have abeady said, being a prophet by an inborn and 
ever-flowing Spirit, and knowing all things at all times. He 
confidently set forth, plainly as I said before, sufferings, 
places, appointed times, manners, limits. Accordingly, there- 
fore, prophesying concerning the temple, He said : ' See ye 
these buildings ? Verily I say to you. There shall not be left 
here one stone upon another which shall not be taken away ; 
and this generation shall not pass until the destruction begin. 
For they shall come, and shall sit here, and shall besiege it, 
and shall slay your children here.'^ And in like manner He 
spoke in plain v^ords the things that were straightway to 
happen, which we can now see with our eyes, in order that 
the accomplishment might be among those to whom the vrord 
was spoken. For the Prophet of truth utters the word of 
proof in order to the faith of His hearers. 

Chap. xvi. — Doctrine of conjunction, 

" However, there are many proclaimers of error, having 
one chief, even the chief of wickedness, just as the Prophet 
of truth, being one, and being also the chief of piety, shall 
in His own times have as His prophets all who are found 
pure. But the chief cause of men being deceived is this, 
their not understanding beforehand the doctrine of conjunc- 
tion, v>^hich I shall not fail to expound to you in private 
every day, summarily; for it were too long to speak in detail. 
Be you therefore to me truth-loving judges of the things that 
are spoken. 

Chap. xvii. — Whether Adam had the Spirit, 

" But I shall begin the statement now. God having made 
all things, if any one will not allow to a man, fashioned by 
His hands, to have possessed His great and Holy Spirit of 
foreknowledge, how does not he greatly err who attributes it to 
another born of a spurious stock ! And I do not think that 
1 Matt. xxiv. 2, 34 ; Luke xix. 43. 


he ^Yill obtain pardon, though he be misled by spurious scrip- 
ture to think dreadful things against the Father of all. For 
he who insults the ima^e and the thincfs beloncrinc^ to the 
eternal Kins, has the sin reckoned as committed airainst Him 
in whose likeness the image was made. But then, says he, the 
Divine Spirit left him when he sinned. In that case [the 
Spirit] sinned along with him ; and how can he escape peril 
who says this? But perhaps he received the Spirit after he 
sinned. Then it is given to the unrighteous ; and where 
is justice ? But it was afforded to the just and the unjust. 
This were most unrighteous of all. Thus every falsehood, 
though it be aided by ten thousand reasonings, must receive 
its refutation, thouo;h after a lono; time. 

Chap, xviir. — Adam not ignorant, 

" Be not deceived. Our father was ignorant of nothing ; 
since, indeed, even the law publicly current, though charg- 
incr him with the crime of ignorance for the sake of the 
unworthy, sends to him those desirous of knowledge, saying, 
' Ask your father, and he will tell you ; your elders, and they 
will declare to you.'-^ This father, these elders ought to be 
inquired of. But you have not inquired whose is the time of 
the kingdom, and whose is the seat of prophecy, though He 
Himself points out Himself, saying, ' The scribes and the 
Pharisees sit in Moses' seat ; all things whatsoever they say 
to you, hear them.'' Hear them, He said, as entrusted with 
the key of the kingdom, which is knowledge, which alone can 
open the gate of life, through which alone is the entrance to 
eternal life. But truly, He says, they possess the key, but 
those wishing to enter they do not suffer to do so. 

Chap. xix. — Reign of Christ, 

" On this account, I say. Pie Himself, rising from His seat 
as a father for his children, proclaiming the things which 
from the beginning were delivered in secret to the worthy, 
extending mercy even to the Gentiles, and compassionating 
the souls of all, neglected His own kindred. For He, being 
^ Deut. xxxii. 7. ^ Matt. xxii. 2. 


thouglit worthy to be King of the world to come, [fights 
against ^] him who, by predestination, has usurped the king- 
dom that now is. And the thing which exceedingly grieved 
Him is tliis, that by those very persons for whom, as for 
sons, he did battle, He was assailed, on account of their igno- 
rance. And yet He loved even those who hated Him, and 
wept over the unbelieving, and blessed those who slandered 
Him, and prayed for those who were in enmity against Him.^ 
And not only did He do this as a father, but also taught His 
disciples to do the like, bearing themselves as towards brethren.^ 
This did our Father, this did our Prophet. This is reasonable, 
that He should be King over His children ; that by the affec- 
tion of a father towards his children, and the engrafted respect 
of children towards their father, eternal peace might be pro- 
duced. For when the good man reigneth, there is true joy 
amono; those who are ruled over, on account of him who rules. 

Chap. xx. — Christ the only Tvojyhet has appeared in different 


" But give heed to my first discourse of the truth. If any 
one do not allow the man fashioned by the hands of God to 
have had the Holy Spirit of Christ, how is he not guilty of the 
greatest impiety in allowing another born of an impure stock 
to have it ? But he would act most piously, if he should not 
allow to another to have it, but should say that he alone has 
it, who has changed his forms and his names from the begin- 
ning of the world, and so reappeared again and again in the 
world, until coming upon his own times, and being anointed 
with mercy for the works of God, he shall enjoy rest for 
ever. His honour it is to bear rule and lordship over all 
things, in air, earth, and waters. But in addition to these, 
himself having made man, he had breath, the indescribable 
garment of the soul, that he might be able to be immortal. 

Chap. xxi. — The eating of the forbidden fruit denied, 
" He himself being the only true prophet, fittingly gave 

^ From a conjectural reading by Neander. 

2 Matt, xxiii. 37 ; Luke xiii. 34 ; Luke xxiii. 34. ^ j^^tt. v. 44. 



names to each animal, according to the merits of its nature, 
as having made it. For if he gave a name to any one, that 
was also the name of that which was made, being given by 
him who made it.^ How, then, had he still need to partake of 
a tree, that he might know what is good and what is evil, if 
he was commanded not to eat of it? But this senseless men 
believe, who think that a reasonless beast was more powerful 
than the God who made these things. 

Chap. xxii. — Male and female. 

" But a companion was created along with him, a female 
nature, much differing from him, as quality from substance, 
as the moon from the sun, as fire from light. She, as a 
female ruling the present world as her like,^ was entrusted 
to be the first prophetess, announcing prophecy with all 
amongst those born of woman.^ But the other, as the son 
of man, being a male, prophesies better things to the world 
to come as a male. 

Chap, xxiii. — Tico kinds of prophecy, 

" Let us then understand that there are two kinds of pro- 
phecy:^ the one male; and let it be defined that the first, being 
the male, has been ranked after the other in the order of' 
advent ; but the second, being female, has been appointed to 
come first in the advent of the pairs. This second, there- 
fore, being amongst those born of woman, as the female 
superintendent of this present world, wishes to be thought 
masculine. Wherefore, stealing the seeds of the male, and 
sowing them with her own seeds of the flesh, she brings 
forth the fruits — that is, words — as wholly her own. And 
she promises that she will give the present earthly riches as 

^ Gen. ii. 20. 

2 That is, tlie present world is female, and is under the rule of the 
female ; the world to come is male, and is under the rule of the male. 

3 The allusion is to the fact that John the Baptist is called the greatest 
of those born of woman, while Christ is called the Son of man. 

* Literally, " Let there be to us two genuine prophecies." 


a dowry, wishing to change the slow for the swift, the small 
for the greater. 

Chap. xxiv. — TJie prophetess a misleader. 

" However, she, not only presuming to say and to hear that 
there are many gods, but also believing herself to be one, 
and in hope of being that which she had not a nature to be, 
and throwing away what she had, and as a female being in 
her courses at the offering of sacrifices, is stained with blood ; 
and then she pollutes those who touch her. But when she 
conceives and brings forth temporary kings, she stirs up 
wars, shedding much blood ; and those who desire to learn 
truth from her, by telling them all things contrary, and pre- 
senting many and various services, she keeps them always 
seeking and finding nothing, even until death. For from 
the beginning a cause of death lies upon blind men ; for she, 
prophesying deceit, and ambiguities, and obliquities, deceives 
those who believe her. 

Chap. xxv. — Cairis name and nature. 

*' Hence the ambiguous name which she gave to her first- 
born son, calling him Cain^ which has a capability of inter- 
pretation in two ways ; for it is interpreted both possession 
and envi/, as signifying that in the future he was to envy 
either a woman, or possessions, or the love of the parents to- 
wards her.-^ But if it be none of these, then it will befall 
him to be called the possession. For she possessed him first, 
which also was advantageous to him. For he was a murderer 
and a liar, and with his sins was not willing to be at peace 
with respect to the government. Moreover, those who came 
forth by succession from him were the first adulterers. And 
there were psalteries, and harps, and forgers of instruments 
of war. Wherefore also the prophecy of his descendants 
being full of adulterers and of psalteries, secretly by means 
of pleasures excites to wars. 

1 Qu. " towards Abel" ? 


Chap. xxvi. — AheVs name and nature. 

" But he who amongst the sons of men had prophecy innate 
to his soul as belonging to it, expressly, as being a male, 
indicating the hopes of the Avorld to come, called his own son 
Abel, which without any ambiguity is translated grief. For 
he assigns to his sons to grieve over their deceived brethren. 
He does not deceive them when he promises them comfort in 
the world to come. When he says that we must pray to one 
only God, he neither himself speaks of gods, nor does he 
believe another who speaks of them. He keeps the good 
which he has, and increases more and more. He hates sacri- 
fices, bloodshed, and libations ; he loves the chaste, the pure, 
the holy. He quenches the fire of altars, represses wars, 
teaches pious preachers wisdom, purges sins, sanctions mar- 
riage, approves temperance, leads all to chastity, makes men 
liberal, prescribes justice, seals those of them who are perfect, 
publishes the word of peace, prophesies explicitly, speaks 
decidedly, frequently makes mention of the eternal fire of 
punishment, constantly announces the kingdom of God, indi- 
cates heavenly riches, promises unfading glory, shows the 
remission of sins by works. , 

Chap, xxvii. — The prophet and the p>rophetess. 

" And what need is there to say more ? The male is 
wholly truth, the female wholly falsehood. But he who is 
born of the male and the female, in some things speaks truth, 
in some falsehood. For the female, surrounding the white 
seed of the male with her own blood, as with red fire, sustains 
her own w^eakness with the extraneous supports of bones, and, 
pleased with the temporary flower of flesh, and spoiling the 
strength of the judgment by short pleasures, leads the greater 
part into fornication, and thus deprives them of the coming 
■excellent Bridegroom. For every person is a bride, whenever, 
being sown with the true Prophet's whole word of truth, he 
is enlif;^htened in his understandinor. 


Chap, xxviii. — Spiritual adultery. 

" Wherefore, it is fitting to hear the one only Prophet of the 
truth, knowing that the word that is sown by another bear- 
ing the charge of fornication, is, as it were, cast out by the 
Bridegroom from His kingdom. But to those who know the 
mystery, death is also produced by spiritual adultery. For 
whenever the soul is sown by others, then it is forsaken by 
the Spirit, as guilty of fornication or adultery ; and so the 
living body, the life-givmg Spirit being withdraw^n, is dissolved 
into dust, and the rightful punishment of sin is suffered at 
the time of the judgment by the soul, after the dissolution of 
the body ; even as, among men, she w^ho is caught in adultery 
is first cast out from the house, and then afterwards is con- 
demned to punishment." 

Chap. xxix. — The signal given. 

While Peter was about to explain fully to us this mystic 
word, Zaccheus came, saying : " Now indeed, O Peter, is the 
time for you to go out and engage in the discussion ; for a 
great crowd awaits you, packed together in the court ; and in 
the midst of them stands Simon, like a war-chieftain attended 
by his spearmen." And Peter, hearing this, ordered me to 
withdraw for prayer, as not yet having received baptism for 
salvation, and then said to those who were already perfected : 
^' Let us rise and pray that God, by His unfailing mercies, 
may help me striving for the salvation of the men whom He 
has made." And having thus said, and having prayed, 
he went out into the uncovered portion of the court, which 
was a large space ; and there were many come together for 
the purpose of seeing him, his pre-eminence having made 
them more eagerly hasten to hear. 

Chap. xxx. — Apostolic salutation. 

Therefore, standing and seeing all the people gazing upon 
him in profound silence, and Simon the magician standing in 
the midst, he began to speak thus : " Peace be to all you who 
are in readiness to give your right hands to the truth of God, 


which, being His great and incomparable gift in the present 
^yorld, He who sent us, being an infallible Prophet of that 
which is supremely profitable, gave us in charge, by way of 
salutation before our words of instruction, to announce to 
you, in order that if there be any son of peace among you, 
peace may take hold of him through our teaching ; but if 
any of you will not receive it, then we, shaking off for a 
testimony the road-dust of our feet, which we have borne 
throuffh our toils, and brought to you that you may be saved, 
will go to the abodes and the cities of others.^ 

Chap. xxxi. — Faith in God. 

" And we tell you truly, it shall be more tolerable in the day 
of judgment to dwell in the land of Sodom and Gomorrha, 
than in the place of unbelief. In the first place, because 
you have not preserved of yourselves what is reasonable ; in 
the second place, because, hearing the things concerning us, 
you have not come to us ; and in the third place, because 
you have disbelieved us when we have come to you. Where- 
fore, being concerned for you, we pray of our own accord that 
our peace may come upon you. If therefore ye will have it, 
you must readily promise not to do injustice, and generously 
to bear wrong ; which the nature of man would not sustain, 
unless it first received the knowledge of that which is 
supremely profitable, which is to know the righteous nature 
of Him who is over all, that He defends and avenges those 
who are wronged, and does good for ever to the pious. 

Chap, xxxii. — Invitation, 

" Do you, therefore, as thankful servants of God, perceiving 
of yourselves what is reasonable, take upon you the manner 
of life that is pleasing to Him, that so, loving Him, and being 
loved of Him, you may enjoy good for ever. For to Him 
alone is it most possible to bestow it, who gave being to things 
that were not, who created the heavens, settled the earth, set 
bounds to the sea, stored up the things that are in Hades, 
and filled all places with air. 

1 Matt. X. 12 ; Mark vi. 11 ; Luke x. 5. 


Chap, xxxiii. — Works of creation. 

" He alone turned into the four contrary elements^ the one, 
first, simple substance. Thus combining them, He made of 
them myriads of compounds, that, being turned into oppo- 
site natures, and mingled, they might effect the pleasure of 
life from the combination of contraries. In like manner, He 
alone, having created races of angels and spirits by the^a^ of 
His will, peopled the heavens ; as also He decked the visible 
firmament with stars, to which also He assigned their paths 
and arranged their courses. He compacted the earth for the 
production of fruits. He set bounds to the sea, marking out 
a dwelling-place on the dry land.^ He stores up the things 
in Hades, designating it as the place of souls ; and He filled 
all places with air, that all living creatures might be able to 
breathe safely in order that they might live. 

Chap, xxxiv. — Extent of creation. 

" O the great hand of the wise God, which doeth all in all ! 
For a countless multitude of birds have been made by Him, 
and those various, differing in all respects from one another ; 
I mean in respect of their colours, beaks, talons, looks, senses, 
voices, and all else. And how many different species of 
plants, distinguished by boundless variety of colours, qualities, 
and scents ! And how many animals on the land and in the 
water, of which it were impossible to tell the figures, forms, 
habitats, colour, food, senses, natures, multitude ! Then also 
the multitude and height of mountains, the varieties of stones, 
awful caverns, fountains, rivers, marshes, seas, harbours, 
islands, forests, and all the inhabited world, and places unin- 
habited ! 

Chap. xxxv. — " These are a part of His ways.^^ 

" And how many things besides are unknown, having eluded 
the sagacity of men ! And of those that are within our 

^ This is rather a paraphrase than a strict translation. 
2 Various reading, " assigning it [the sea] as a habitation for aquatic 


comprehension, who of mankind knows the limit ? I mean, 
how the heaven rolls, how the stars are borne in their courses, 
and what forms they have, and the subsistence of their being,^ 
and what are their ethereal paths. And whence the blasts 
of winds are borne around, and have different energies ; 
whence the fountains ceaselessly spring, and the rivers, being 
ever flowing, run down into the sea, and neither is that 
[fountain] emptied whence they come, nor do they fill that 
[sea] whither they come ! How far reaches the unfathom- 
able depth of the boundless Tartarus I Upon what the heaven 
is upborne which encircles all ! How the clouds spring from 
air, and are absorbed into air ! What is the nature of thunder 
and lightning, snow, hail, mist, ice, storms, showers, hanging 
clouds ! And how He makes plants and animals ! And these 
things, with all accuracy, continually perfected in their count- 
less varieties ! . 

Chap, xxxvi. — Dominion over the creatures. 

" Therefore, if any one shall accurately scan the whole with 
reason, he shall find that God has made them for the sake of 
man. For shower? fall for the sake of fruits, that man may 
partake of them, and that animals maybe fed, that they may 
be useful to n:ien. And the sun shines, that he may turn the 
air into four seasons, and that each time may afford its 
peculiar service to man. And the fountains spring, that 
drink may be given to men. And, moreover, who is lord 
over the creatures, so far as is possible ? Is it not man, who 
has received wisdom to till the earth, to sail the sea ; to make 
fishes, birds, and beasts his prey ; to investigate the course of 
the stars, to mine the earth, to sail the sea, to build cities, 
to define kingdoms, to ordain laws, to execute justice, to 
know the invisible God, to be cognizant of the names of 
angels, to drive away demons, to endeavour to cure diseases 
by medicines, to find charms against poison-darting serpents, 
to understand antipathies ? 

^ Literally, " of their life," according to the idea prevalent of old, that 
the heavenly bodies were living creatures. 


Chap, xxxvii. — " Whom to Jcnoiu is life eternal^ 

But if thou art thankful, O man, understanding that God 
is thy benefactor in all things, thou mayest even be immortal, 
the thinrrs that are made for thee havincr continuance through 
thy gratitude. And now thou art able to become incorrupt- 
ible, if thou acknowledge Him whom thou didst not know, if 
thou love Him whom thou didst forsake, if thou pray to Him 
alone wlio is able to punish or to save thy body and soul. 
Wherefore, before all things, consider that no one shares His 
rule, no one has a name in common with Him — that is, is 
called God. For He alone is both called and is God. Nor 
is it lawful to think that there is any other, or to call any 
other by that name. And if any one should dare do so, 
eternal punishment of soul is his." 

Chap, xxxviii. — Simon's challenge. 

When Peter had thus spoken, Simon, at the outside of the 
crowd, cried aloud : " Why would you lie, and deceive the 
unlearned multitude standing around you, persuading them 
that it is unlawful to think that there are gods, and to call 
them so, when the books that are current am on 2 the Jews 
say that there are many gods ? And now I wish, in the 
presence of all, to discuss with you from these books on the 
necessity of thinking that there are gods ; first showing re- 
specting him whom you call God, that he is not the supreme 
and omnipotent [Being], inasmuch as he is without fore- 
knowledge, imperfect, needy, not good, and underlying many 
and innumerable grievous passions. Wherefore, when this 
has been shown from the Scriptures, as I say, it follows 
that there is another, not written of, foreknowing, perfect, 
without want, good, removed from all grievous passions. 
But he whom you call the Creator is subject to the opposite 

Chap, xxxix. — Defects ascribed to God. 

" Therefore also Adam, being made at first after his likeness, 
is created blind, and is said not to have knowledge of good or 


evil, and is found a transgressor, and is driven out of para- 
dise, and is punished ^yith death. In Uke manner also, he 
who made him, because he sees not in all places, says with 
reference to the overthrow of Sodom, ' Come, and let us go 
down, and see whether they do according to their cry which 
comes to me ; or if not, that I may know.' ^ Thus he shows 
himself ignorant. And in his saying respecting Adam, 
^ Let us drive him out, lest he put forth his hand and touch 
the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever;'" in saying lest 
he is icrnorant : and in drivincp him out lest he should eat and 
live for ever, he is also envious. And whereas it is written 
that "God^ repented that he had made man," this implies 
both repentance and ignorance. For this reflection is a view 
by which one, through ignorance, wishes to inquire into the 
result of the things which he wills, or it is the act of one 
repenting on account of the event not being according to his 
expectation. And whereas it is written, ' And the Lord 
smelled a scent of sweetness,' * it is the part of one in need ; 
and his being pleased with the fat of flesh is the part of one 
who is not good. But his tempting, as it is written, ' And 
God did tempt Abraham,' ^ is the part of one who is wicked, 
and who is ignorant of the issue of the experiment." 

Chap. xl. — Peter s answer. 

In like manner Simon, by taking many passages from the 
Scriptures, seemed to show that God is subject to every 
infirmity. And to this Peter said : " Does he who is evil, and 
wholly wicked, love to accuse himself in the things in which 
he sins ? Answer me this." Then said Simon : " He does 
not." Then said Peter : '' How, then, can God be evil and 
wicked, seeing that those evil things which have been com- 
monly written regarding Him, have been added by His own 
will !" Then said Simon : " It may be that the charge against 
Him is written by another power, and not according to His 
choice." Then said Peter : ^' Let us then, in the first place, 
inquire into this. If, indeed. He has of His own will accused 

1 Gen. xviii. 21. 2 Gen. iii. 22. » Gen. vi 6. 

* Gen. viii. 21. ^ Gen. xxii. 1. 


Himself, as you formerly acknowledged, then He is not 
wicked ; but if it is done by another power, it must be in- 
quired and investigated with all energy who hath subjected 
to all evils Him who alone is good." 

Chap. xli. — " Status qucestionisJ* 

Then said Simon : " You are manifestly avoiding the 
hearing of the charge from the Scriptures against your God." 
Then Peter : " You yourself appear to me to be doing this ; 
for he who avoids the order of inquiry, does not wish a true 
investigation to be made. Hence I, who proceed in an 
orderly manner, and wish that the writer should first be con- 
sidered, am manifestly desirous to walk in a straight path." 
Then Simon : "First confess that if the things written against 
the Creator are true, he is not above all, since, according 
to the Scriptures, he is subject to all evil ; then afterwards 
we shall inquire as to the writer." Then said Peter : " That 
I may not seem to speak against your w^ant of order through 
unwillingness to enter upon the investigation,^ I answer you. 
I say that if the things wTitten against God are true, they do 
not show that God is wicked." Then said Simon : " How 
can you maintain that ? " 

Chap. xlii. — Was Adam blind? 

Then said Peter : " Because things are written opposite to 
those sayings which speak evil of him ; wherefore neither the 
one nor the other can be confirmed." Then Simon : " How, 
then, is the truth to be ascertained, of those Scriptures that 
say he is evil, or of those that say he is good 1 " Then Peter : 
" Whatever sayings of the Scriptures are in harmony with 
the creation that was made by Him are true, but whatever 
are contrary to it are false." Then Simon said : " How can 
you show that the Scriptures contradict themselves ? " And 
Peter said : " You say that Adam was created blind, which 
was not so ; for He would not have pointed out the tree of 
the knowledge of good and evil to a blind man, and com- 

^ The text of this passage in all the editions is meaningless. It be- 
comes clear by a change of punctuation. 


manded liim not to taste of it." Then said Simon : " He 
meant that his mind was blind." Then Peter : " How could 
he be blind in respect of his mind, who, before tasting of the 
tree, in harmony with Him who made him, imposed appro- 
priate names on all the animals ? " Then Simon : " If Adam 
had foreknowledge, how did he not foreknow that the serpent 
would deceive his wife ? " Then Peter : " If Adam had not 
foreknowledge, how did he give names to the sons of men as 
they were born with reference to their future doings, calling 
the first Cain (which is interpreted ' envy'), who through 
envy killed his brother Abel (which is interpreted ' grief ') ; 
for his parents grieved over him, the first slain ? 

Chap, xliii. — God's forehiowledge. 

^^ But if Adam, being the work of God, had foreknowledge, 
much more the God who created him. And that is false 
which is written that God reflected, as if usino; reasonino^ on 
account of ignorance ; and that the Lord tempted Abraham, 
that He might know if he would endure it ; and that which 
is written, ^ Let us go down, and see if they are doing accord- 
ing to the cry of them which cometh to me ; and if not, that 
1 may know.' And, not to extend my discourse too far, 
whatever sayings ascribe ignorance to Him, or anything else 
that is evil, being upset by other sayings which afiirm the 
contrary, are proved to be false. But because He does indeed 
foreknow. He says to Abraham, ' Thou shalt assuredly know 
that thy seed shall be sojourners in a land that is not their 
own ; and they shall enslave them, and shall evil entreat them, 
and humble them four hundred years. But the nation to 
which they shall be in bondage will I judge, and after that 
they shall come out hither with much property ; but thou 
shalt depart to thy fathers with peace, being nourished in a 
good old age ; and in the fourth generation they shall return 
hither, for the sins of the Amorites are hitherto not filled up.'^ 

Chap. xliv. — God's decrees. 

*' But what ? Does not Moses pre-intimate the sins of the 

1 Gen. XV. 13-16. 


people, and predict their dispersion among the nations ? But 
if He gave foreknowledge to Moses, how can it be that He 
had it not Himself % But He has it. And if He has it, as 
we have also shown, it is an extravagant saying that He 
reflected, and that He repented, and that He went down to 
see, and whatever else of this sort. Whatsoever things being 
foreknown before they come to pass as about to befall, take 
issue by a wise economy, without repentance. 

Chap. xly. — Sacrifices, 

" But that He is not pleased with sacrifices, is shovv^n by this, 
that those who lusted after flesh were slain as soon as they 
tasted it, and were consigned to a tomb, so that it was called 
the grave of lusts.^ He then who at the first was displeased 
with the slaughtering of animals, not wishing them to be 
slain, did not ordain sacrifices as desiring them ; nor from the 
beginning did He require them. For neither are sacrifices 
accomplished without the slaughter of animals, nor can the 
first-fruits be presented. But how is it possible for Him to 
abide in darkness, and smoke, and storm (for this also is 
written), who created a pure heaven, and created the sun to 
give light to all, and assigned the invariable order of their 
revolutions to innumerable stars % Thus, O Simon, the hand- 
writing of God — I mean the heaven — shows the counsels of 
Him who made it to be pure and stable. 

Chap. xlvi. — DisjMragements of GocL 

'^ Thus the sayings accusatory of the God who made the 
heaven are both rendered void by the opposite sayings which 
are alongside of them, and are refuted by the creation. For 
they were not written by a prophetic hand. Wherefore 
also they appear opposite to the hand of God, who made all 
things." Then said Simon : " How can you show this ? " 

Chap, xlvii. — Foreknowledge of Moses. 

Then said Peter : " The law of God was given by Moses, 
without writing, to seventy wise men, to be handed down, 
^ That is, Kibroth-Hattaavali ; Num. xi. 34. 


that the government might be carried on by succession. But 
after that Moses was taken up, it %yas written by some one, 
but not by Moses. For in the law itself it is written, ' And 
Moses died ; and they buried him near the house of Phogor,^ 
and no one knows his sepulchre till this day.' But how could 
Moses write that Moses died? And whereas in the time 
after Moses, about 500 years or thereabouts, it is found lying 
in the temple which was built, and after about 500 years 
more it is carried away, and being burnt in the time of 
Nebuchadnezzar it is destroyed ; and thus being written after 
Moses, and often lost, even this shows the foreknowledge of 
Moses, because he, foreseeing its disappearance, did not write 
it ; but those who wrote it, being convicted of ignorance 
through their not foreseeing its disappearance, were not 

Chap, xlviii. — Test of truth. 

Then said Simon : " Since, as you say, we must understand 
the things concerning God by comparing them with the 
creation, how is it possible to recognise the other things in 
the law which are from the tradition of Moses, and are true, 
and are mixed up with these falsehoods ? " Then Peter said : 
" A certain verse has been recorded without controversy in 
the written law, according to the providence of God, so as to 
show clearly which of the things written are true and which 
are false." Then said Simon : " Which is that ? Show it us." 

Chap. xlix. — The true Prophet. 

Then Peter said : " I shall tell you forthwith. It is written 
in the first book of the law, towards the end : ' A ruler shall 
not fail from Judah, nor a leader from his thighs, until He 
come whose it is ; and He is the expectation of the nations.' ^ 
If, therefore, any one can apprehend Him who came after 
the failure of ruler and leader from Judah, and who was to 
be expected by the nations, he will be able by this verse 
to recognise Him as truly having come ; ^ and believing His 

^ Septuagint version of Deut. xxxiv. 8. 

2 Gen. xUx. 10. ^ From the amended reading of Davis. 


teaching, lie will know what of the Scriptures are true and 
what are false." Then said Simon : " I understand that you 
speak of your Jesus as Him who was prophesied of by the 
scripture. Therefore let it be granted that it is so. Tell 
us, then, how he taught you to discriminate the Scriptures." 

Chap. l. — His teaching concerning the Scriptures. 

Then Peter : " As to the mixture of truth with falsehood, I 
remember that on one occasion He, finding fault with the 
Sadducees, said, ' Wherefore ye do err, not knowing the true 
things of the Scriptures ; and on this account ye are ignorant 
of the power of God.' ^ But if He cast up to them that they 
knew not the true things of the Scriptures, it is manifest that 
there are false things in them. And also, inasmuch as He 
said, ' Be ye prudent money-changers,' ^ it is because there are 
genuine and spurious words. And whereas He said, ^ Where- 
fore do ye not perceive that which is reasonable in the Scrip- 
tures ? ' He makes the understanding of him stronger who 
voluntarily judges soundly. 

Chap. li. — His teaching concerning the laiu, 

" And His sending to the scribes and teachers of the exist- 
ing Scriptures, as to those who knew the true things of the law 
that then was, is well known. And also that He said, ' I am 
not come to destroy the law,'^ and yet that He appeared to be 
destroying it, is the part of one intimating that the things 
which He destroyed did not belong to the law. And His say- 
ing, ' The heaven and the earth shall pass away, but one jot 
or one tittle shall not pass from the law,' ^ intimated that the 
things which pass away before the heaven and the earth do 
not belong to the law in reality. 

Chap. lii. — Other sayings of Christ. 
" Since, then, while the heaven and the earth still stand, 

1 Matt. xxii. 29. 

2 This is frequently quoted as a saying of Christ. It is probably from 
one of the apocryphal gospels. 

3 Matt. V. 17. 4 Matt. v. 18. 


sacrifices heave passed away, and kingdoms, and prophecies 
among those who are born of woman, and such like, as not 
being ordinances of God; hence therefore He says, 'Every 
plant which the heavenly Father has not planted shall be 
rooted up.' ^ Wherefore He, being the true Prophet, said, ' I 
am the gate of life ;' he who entereth through me entereth 
into life,' there beino; no other teachincr able to save. Where- 
fore also He cried, and said, ' Come unto me, all who labour,'^ 
that is, who are seeking the truth, and not finding it ; and 
again, ' My sheep hear my voice ; '^ and elsewhere, ' Seek and 
find,' " since the truth does not lie on the surface. 

Chap. liii. — Other sayings of Christ. 

"But also a witnessing voice was heard from heaven, saying, 
^ This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased ; hear 
Him..'^ And in addition to this, willing to convict more fully 
-of error the prophets from whom they asserted that they had 
learned. He proclaimed that they died desiring the truth, but 
not having learned it, saying, ' Many prophets and kings 
desired to see what ye see, and to hear what you hear ; and 
verily I say to you, they neither saw nor heard.' ' Still further 
He said, ' I am he concerning whom Moses prophesied, say- 
ing, A Prophet shall the Lord our God raise unto you of 
your brethren, like unto me : Him hear in all things ; and 
whosoever will not hear that Prophet shall die.' ^ 

Chap. lit. — Other sayings. 

" Whence it is impossible without His teaching to attain 
to savincj truth, thoucrh one seek it for ever where the thinij 
that is sought is not. But it was, and is, in the word of our 
Jesus. Accordingly, He, knowing the true things of the 
law, said to the Sadducees, asking on what account Moses 
permitted to marry seven, ' Moses gave you commandments 
according to your hard-heartedness ; for from the beginning 

1 ^fatt. XV. 13. 2 John x. 9. ^ ;^[att. xi. 28. 

^ John x. 3. 5 ^xatt. vii. 7. « Matt. xvii. 5. 

7 Matt. xiii. 17 ; Luke x. 24. 

8 Deut. xviii. 15-19 ; Acts iii. 22, vii. 37. 


it was not so : for He who created man at first, made him 
male and female.' ^ 

Chap. lv. — Teaching of Christ, 

" But to those who think, as the Scriptures teach, that God 
swears, He said, ' Let your yea be yea, and nay, nay ; for 
what is more than these is of the evil one.' ^ And to those who 
say that Abraham and Isaac and Jacob are dead, He said, 
' God is not of the dead, but of the living.' ^ And to those 
who suppose that God tempts, as the Scriptures say. He said, 
' The tempter is the wicked one,'^ who also tempted Himself. 
To those who suppose that God does not foreknow, He said, 
' For your heavenly Father knoweth that ye need all these 
things before ye ask Him.'^ And to those who believe, as 
the Scriptures say, that He does not see all things. He said, 
' Pray in secret, and your Father, who seeth secret things, 
will reward you.' ^ 

Chap. lvi. — Teaching of Christ, 

" And to those who think that He is not good, as the Scrip- 
tures say. He said, ' From which of you shall his son ask bread, 
and he will give him a stone ; or shall ask a fish, and he will 
give him a serpent? If ye then, being evil, know to give 
good gifts to your children, how much more shall your 
heavenly Father give good things to those who ask Him, 
and to those who do His will V^ But to those who affirmed 
that He was in the temple. He said, ' Swear not by heaven, 
for it is God's throne; nor by the earth, for it is the footstool 
of His feet.'^ And to those who supposed that God is pleased 
with sacrifices. He said, ' God wishes mercy, and not sacri- 
fices ' ® — the knowledge of Himself, and not holocausts. 

1 Matt. xix. 8 ; Mark x. 5. 2 Matt. v. 37. 

s Matt. xxii. 32 ; Mark xii. 27 ; Luke xx. 38. 

* Perhaps Matt. xiii. 39. ^ Matt. vi. 8, 32. ^ Matt. vi. 6. 

7 Matt. vii. 9-11. 8 Matt. v. 34, 35. 

9 Matt ix. 13, xii. 7. 


Chap. lvii. — Teaching of Christ. 

" But to those who are persuaded that He is evil, as the 
Scriptures say, He said, ' Call not me good, for One [only] 
is good.' ^ And again, ^ Be ye good and merciful, as your 
Father in the heavens, who makes the sun rise on good 
and evil men, and brings rain upon just and unjust.' ^ But 
to those who were misled to imagine many gods, as the Scrip- 
tures say. He said, ^ Hear, O Israel ; the Lord your God is 
one Lord.' " ^ 

Chap, lviii. — Flight of Simon. 

Therefore Simon, perceiving that Peter was driving him 
to use the Scriptures as Jesus taught, was unwilling that 
the discussion should go into the doctrine concerning God, 
even although Peter had changed the discussion into question 
and answer, as Simon himself asked. However, the discus- 
sion occupied three days. And while the fourth was dawn- 
ing, he set off darkling as far as Tyre of Phoenicia. And 
not many days after, some of the precursors came and said to 
Peter : ^' Simon is doing great miracles in Tyre, and disturb- 
ing many of the people there ; and by many slanders he 
has made you to be hated." 

Chap. ijx. — Peter s resolution to follow. 

Peter, hearing this, on the following night assembled the 
multitude of hearers; and as soon as they were come together, 
he said : " While I am going forth to the nations which 
say that there are many gods, to teach and to preach that 
God is one, who made heaven and earth, and all things 
that are in them, in order that they may love Him and be 
saved, evil has anticipated me, and by the very law of con- 
junction has sent Simon before me, in order that these men, 
if they shall cease to say that there are many gods, disowning 
those upon earth that are called gods, may think that there 
are many gods in heaven ; so that, not feeling the excellency 

1 Matt. xix. 17 ; Mark x. 18 ; Luke xviii. 19. 

2 Matt. V. 44, 45. ^ Mark xii. 29. 


of the monarchy, they may perish with eternal punishment. 
And what is most dreadful, since true doctrine has incom- 
parable power, he forestalls me with slanders, and persuades 
them to this, not even at first to receive me ; lest he who is 
the slanderer be convicted of being himself in reality a devil, 
and the true doctrine be received and believed. Therefore 
I must quickly catch him up, lest the false accusation, 
through gaining time, wholly get hold of all men. 

Chap. lx. — Successor to be appointed. 

" Since, therefore, it is necessary to set apart some one 
instead of me to fill my place, let us all with one consent 
pray to God, that He would make manifest who amongst 
us is the best, that, sitting in the chair of Christ, he may 
piously rule His church. Who, then, shall be set apart *? 
For by the counsel of God that man is set forth as blessed, 
' whom his Lord shall appoint over the ministry of his fellow- 
servants, to give them their meat in their season, not thinking 
and saying in his heart. My Lord delayeth His coming, and 
who shall not begin to beat his fellow-servants, eating and 
drinking with harlots and drunkards. And the Lord of that 
servant shall come in an hour when he doth not look for 
Him, and in a day when he is not aware, and shall cut him 
in sunder, and shall assign his unfaithful part with the 
hypocrites.' ^ 

Chap. lxi. — Monarchy, 

^^But if any one of those present, being able to instruct 
the ignorance of men, shrink from it, thinking only of his 
own ease, let him expect to hear this sentence : ^ O wicked 
and slothful servant, thou oughtest to have given my money 
to the exchangers, and I at my coming should have got my 
own. Cast out the unprofitable servant into the outer dark- 
ness.' ^ And with good reason ; ' for,' says He, ^ it is thine, 
O man, to prove my words, as silver and money are proved 
among the exchangers.'^ Therefore the multitude of the 

1 Matt. xxiv. 45-50. 2 ji^fatt, ^y^ 27-30. 

® Probably from an apocryphal gospel. 


faithful ought to obej some one, that they may live in har- 
mony. For that which tends to the government of one 
person, in the form of monarchy, enables the subjects to 
enjoy peace by means of good order ; but in case of all, 
through desire of ruling, being unwilling to submit to one 
only, they must altogether fall by reason of division. 

Chap. lxii. — Obedience leads to peace, 

^'But, further, let the things that are happening before your 
eyes persuade you ; how wars are constantly arising through 
there being now many kings all over the earth. For each 
one holds the government of another as a pretext for war. 
But if one were universal superior, he, having no reason why 
he sliould make war, would have perpetual peace. In short, 
therefore, to those who are thought worthy of eternal life, 
God appoints one universal King in the world that shall then 
be, that by means of monarchy there may be unfailing peace. 
It behoves all, therefore, to follow some one as a leader, 
honourinaj him as the ima^e of God ; and it behoves the 
leader to be acquainted with the road that entereth into the 
holy city. 

Chap, lxiii. — ZaccJieus appointed. 

" But of those who are present, whom shall I choose but 
Zaccheus, to whom also the Lord went inland rested, judging 
him worthy to be saved?" And having said this, he laid his 
hand upon Zaccheus, who stood by, and forced him to sit 
down in his own chair. But Zaccheus, falling at his feet, 
begged that he would permit him to decline the rulership ; 
promising, at the same time, and saying, " Whatever it be- 
hoves the ruler to do, I will do ; only grant me not to have 
this name : for I am afraid of assuminsj the name of the 
rulership, for it teems with bitter envy and danger." 

Chap. lxiv. — The bishopric. 

Then Peter said : " If you are afraid of this, do not be 
called rulery but the appointed one, the Lord having permitted 

^ Luke xix. 5. 


jou to be so called, when He said, ^ Blessed is that man whom 
his Lord shall ai^point to the ministry of his fellow-servants.' ^ 
But if you wish it to be altogether unknown that you have 
authority of administration, you seem to me to be ignorant 
that the acknowledged authority of the president has great 
influence as regards the respect of the multitude. For every 
one obeys him who has received authority, having conscience 
as a great constraint. And are you not well aware that you 
are not to rule as the rulers of the nations, but as a servant 
ministering to them, as a father to the oppressed, visiting 
them as a physician, guarding them as a shepherd, — in short, 
taking all care for their salvation ? And do you think that 
I am not aware what labours I compel you to undertake, desir- 
ing you to be judged by multitudes whom it is impossible for 
any one to please. But it is most possible for him who does 
well to please God. Wherefore I entreat you to undertake it 
heartily, by God, by Christ, for the salvation of the brethren, 
for their ordering, and your own profit. 

Chap. lxv. — Nolo episcopavL 

" And consider this other thing, that in proportion as there 
is labour and danger in ruling the church of Christ, so much 
greater is the reward. And yet again the greater is also the 
punishment to him who can, and refuses. I wish, therefore, 
knowing that you are the best instructed of my attendants, 
to turn to account those noble powers of judging with which 
you have been entrusted by the Lord, in order that you may be 
saluted with the Well done, good and faith/ id servant, and not 
be found fault with, and declared liable to punishment, like 
him who hid the one talent. But if you will not be appointed 
a good guardian of the church, point out another in your 
stead, more learned and more faithful than yourself. But 
you cannot do this ; for you associated with the Lord, and 
witnessed His marvellous doings, and learned the administra- 
tion of the church, 

1 Luke xii. 42. 


Chap. lxvi. — Danger of disobedience. 

" And your work is to order what things are proper ; and 
that of the brethren is to submit, and not to disobey. There- 
fore submitting they shall be saved, but disobeying they shall 
be punished by the Lord, because the president is entrusted 
with the place of Christ. Wherefore, indeed, honour or 
contempt shown to the president is handed on to Christ, 
and from Christ to God. And this I have said, that these 
brethren may not be ignorant of the danger they incur by 
disobedience to you, because whosoever disobeys your orders, 
disobeys Christ ; and he who disobeys Christ offends God. 

Chap, lxvii. — Duties of church office-hearers. 

" It is necessary, therefore, that the church, as a city built 
upon a hill, have an order approved of God, and good govern- 
ment. In particular, let the bishop, as chief, be heard in the 
things which he speaks ; and let the elders give heed that 
the things ordered be done. Let the deacons, going about, 
look after the bodies and the souls of the brethren, and 
report to the bishop. Let all the rest of the brethren bear 
wrong patiently ; but if they wish judgment to be given 
concerning wrongs done to them, let them be reconciled in 
presence of the elders ; and let the elders report the recon- 
ciliation to the bishop. 

Chap, lxviii. — " Marriage always honourahleJ* 

" And let them inculcate marriage not only upon the 
young, but also upon those advanced in years, lest burning 
lust bring a plague upon the church by reason of whoredom 
or adultery. For, above every other sin, the wickedness of 
adultery is hated by God, because it not only destroys the j 
person himself who sins, but those also who eat and associate jK 
with him. For it is like the madness of a dog, because it 
has the nature of communicating its own madness. For the i 
sake of chastity, therefore, let not only the elders, but even ^ 
all, hasten to accomplish marriage. For the sin of him who 
commits adultery necessarily comes upon all. Therefore, to 


urge the brethren to be chaste, this is the first charity. For 
it is the healing of the soul. For the nourishment of the 
body is rest. 

Chap, lxix. — " Not forsaking the assembling of yourselves 


" But if you love your brethren, take nothing from them, 
but share with them such things as ye have. Feed the 
hungry; give drink to the thirsty; clothe the naked; visit 
the sick ; so far as you can, help those in prison ; receive 
strangers gladly into your own abodes ; hate no one. And 
how you must be pious, your own mind will teach you, judg- 
ing rightly. But before all else, if indeed I need say it to you, 
come together frequently, if it were every hour, especially 
on the appointed days of meeting. For if you do this, you 
are within a w^all of safety. For disorderliness is the begin- 
ning of perdition. Let no one therefore forsake the assembly 
on the ground of envy towards a brother. For if any one of 
you forsake the assembly, he shall be regarded as of those 
who scatter the church of Christ, and shall be cast out with 
adulterers. For as an adulterer, under the influence of the 
spirit that is in him, he separates himself on some pretext, 
and gives place to the wicked one against himself, — a sheep 
for the stealing, as one found outside the fold.^ 

Chap. lxx. — " Hear the bishop" 

. " However, hear your bishop, and do not weary of giving 
all honour to him ; knowing that, by showing it to him, it is 
borne to Christ, and from Christ it is borne to God ; and to 
him who offers it, is requited manifold.^ Honour, therefore, 
the throne of Christ. For you are commanded even to 
honour the chair of Moses, and that although they who 

^ There seems to be a corruption of the text here, but the general 
meaning is evident enough. 

2 There are several conjectural readings of this sentence. We have not 
exactly followed any one of them, but have ventured on a conjecture of 
our own. 


occupy it are accounted sinners.-^ And now I have said 
enough to you ; and I deem it superfluous to say to him how- 
he is to Hve unblameably, since he is an approved disciple of 
Him who taught me also. 

Chap. lxxi. — Various duties of Christians. 

" But, brethren, there are some things that you must not 
wait to hear, but must consider of yourselves what is reason- 
able. Zaccheus alone having given himself up wholly to 
labour for you, and needing sustenance, and not being able 
to attend to his own affairs, how can he procure necessary 
support ? Is it not reasonable that you are to take fore- 
thought for his living? not waiting for his asking you, for this is 
the part of a beggar. But he will rather die of hunger than 
submit to do this. And shall not you incur punishment, not 
considering that the workman is worthy of his hire ? And 
let no one say : Is, then, the word sold which was freely 
given ? Far be it. For if any one has the means of living, 
and takes anything, he sells the word ; but if he who has not 
takes support in order to live — as the Lord also took at supper 
and among His friends, having nothing, though He alone is 
the owner of all things — he sins not. Therefore suitably 
honour elders, catechists, useful deacons, widows who have 
lived well, orphans as children of the church. But wher- 
ever there is need of any provision for an emergency, con- 
tribute all tocrether. Be kind one to another, not shrinkin£f 
from the endurance of anything whatever for your own 

Chap, lxxii. — Ordination. 

And having thus spoken, he placed his hand upon Zac- 
cheus, saying, " O Thou Ruler and Lord of all. Father and 
God, do Thou guard the shepherd with the flock. Thou art 
the cause, Thou the power. We are that which is helped ; 
Thou the helper, the physician, the saviour, the wall, the life, 
the hope, the refuge, the joy, the expectation, the rest. In a 
word, Thou art all things to us. In order to the eternal 

^ Matt, xxiii. 2. 


attainment of salvation, do Thou co-operate, preserve, protect. 
Thou canst do all things. For Thou art the Ruler of rulers, 
the Lord of lords, the Governor of kings. Do Thou give 
power to the president to loose what ought to be loosed, to 
bind what ouscht to be bound. Do Thou make him wise. 
Do Thou, as by His name, protect the church of Thy Christ 
as a fair bride. For Thine is eternal glory. Praise to the 
Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost to all ages. Amen." 

Chap, lxxiii. — Baptisms. 

And having thus spoken, he afterwards said : " Whoever 
of you wish to be baptized, begin from to-morrow to fast, 
and have hands laid upon you day by day, and inquire about 
what matters you please. For I mean still to remain with 
you ten days." And after three days, having begun to baptize, 
he called me, and Aquila, and Nicetas, and said to us : '' As 
I am going to set out for Tyre after seven days, I wish you 
to go away this very day, and to lodge secretly with Bernice 
the Canaanite, the daughter of Justa, and to learn from her, 
and write accurately to me what Simon is about. For this 
is of great consequence to me, that I may prepare myself 
accordingly. Therefore depart straightway in peace." And 
leaving him baptizing, as he commanded, we preceded him to 
Tyre of Phoenicia. 


Chap. i. — Bemic^s hospitality, 

.HITS I Clement, departing from Caesarea Stra- 
tonis, together with Nicetas and Aquila, entered 
into Tyre of Phoenicia ; and according to the in- 
junction of Peter, who sent us, we lodged with 
Bernice, the daughter of Justa the Canaanitess. She re- 
ceived us most joyfully ; and striving with much honour 
towards me, and with affection towards Aquila and Nicetas, 
and speaking freely as a friend, through joy she treated us 
courteously, and hospitably urged us to take bodily refresh- 
ment. Perceiving, therefore, that she was endeavouring to 
impose a short delay upon us, I said : " You do well, indeed, 
to busy yourself in fulfilling the part of love ; but the fear 
of our God must take the precedence of this. For, having a 
combat on hand on behalf of many souls, we are afraid of 
preferring our own ease before their salvation. 

Chap. ii. — Simoris practices, 

" For we hear that Simon the magician, being worsted at 
Caesarea in the discussion with our lord JPeter, immediately 
hastened hither, and is doing much mischief. For he is 
slandering Peter, in opposition to truth, to all the adver- 
sarijes, and stealing away the souls of the multitude. For 
he being a magician, calls him a magician ; and he being a 
deceiver, proclaims him as a deceiver. And although in the 
discussions he was beaten in all points, and fled, yet he says 
that he was victorious ; and he constantly charges them that 
they ought not to listen to Peter, — as if, forsooth, he were 



anxious that they may not be fascinated by a terrible 

Chap. hi. — Object of the mission, 

" Therefore our lord Peter, having learned these things, 
has sent us to be investigators of the things that have been 
told him ; that if they be so, we may write to him and let 
him know, so that he may come and convict him face to face 
of the accusations that he has uttered against him. Since, 
therefore, danger on the part of many souls lies before us, on 
this account we must neglect bodily rest for a short time ; 
and we would learn truly from you who live here, whether 
the things which we have heard be true. Now tell us 

Chap. iv. — Simons doings. 

But Bernice, being asked, said : " These things are indeed 
as you have heard ; and I will tell you other things respecting 
this same Simon, which perhaps you do not know. For he 
astonishes the whole city every day, by making spectres and 
ghosts appear in the midst of the market-place ; and when 
he walks abroad, statues move, and many shadows go before 
him, which, he says, are souls of the dead. And many who 
attempted to prove him an impostor he speedily reconciled to 
him ; and afterwards, under pretence of a banquet, having 
slain an ox, and given them to eat of it, he infected them 
with various diseases, and subjected them to demons. And 
in a word, having injured many, and being supposed to be 
a god, he is both feared and honoured. 

Chap. v. — Discretion the better part of valour, 

" Wherefore I do not think that any one will be able to 
quench such a fire as has been kindled. For no one doubts 
his promises; but every one affirms that this is so. Wherefore, 
lest you should expose yourselves to danger, I advise you not 
to attempt anything against him until Peter come, who alone 
shall be able to resist such a power, being the most esteemed 
disciple of our Lord Jesus Christ. For so much do I fear 


this man, that if he had not elsewhere been vanquished in 
disputing with my lord Peter, I should counsel you to per- 
suade even Peter himself not to attempt to oppose Simon." 

Chap. vi. — Simon^s departure. 

Then I said : ^* If our lord Peter did not know that he 
himself alone can prevail against this power, he would not 
have sent us before him with orders to get information 
secretly concerning Simon, and to wTite to him." Then, as 
evening had come on, wx took supper,^ and went to sleep. 
But in the morning, one of Bernice's friends came and said 
that Simon had set sail for Sidon, and that he had left 
behind him Appion Pleistonices,^ — a man of Alexandria, a 
grammarian by profession, whom I knew as being a friend 
of my father ; and a certain astrologer, Annubion the Dios- 
politan, and Athenodorus the Athenian, attached to the doc- 
trine of Epicurus. And we, having learned these things 
concerning Simon, in the morning wrote and despatched a 
letter to Peter, and went to take a walk. 

Chap. vii. — Appion^ s salutation. 

And Appion met us, not only with the two companions 
just named, but with about thirty other men. And as soon 
as he saw me, he saluted and kissed me, and said, " This is 
Clement, of whose noble birth and liberal education I have 
often told you ; for he, being related to the family of Tibe- 
rius Caesar, and equipped with all Grecian learning, has been 
seduced by a certain barbarian called Peter to speak and act 
after the manner of the Jews. Wherefore I beg of you to 
strive toiiether with me for the settin^j of him ricrht. And 
in your presence I now ask him. Let him tell me, since he 
thinks that he has devoted himself to piety, whether he is 
not acting most impiously, in forsaking the customs of his 
country, and falling away to those of the barbarians." 

^ Literally, " partook of salt." 

2 This epithet means, "the conqueror of very many." Suidas makes 
Appion the son of Pleistonices. 


Chap. viii. — A challenge, 

I answered : " I accept, indeed, your kindly affection 
towards me, but I take exception to your ignorance. For 
your affection is kindly, because you wish me to continue in 
those [customs] which you consider to be good. But your 
inaccurate knowledge strives to lay a snare for me, under the 
guise of friendship." Then said Appion : '* Does it seem to 
you to be ignorance, that one should observe the customs of 
his fathers, and judge after the manner of the Greeks?" 
Then I answered : " It behoves one who desires to be pious 
not altoorether to observe the customs of his fathers ; but ta 
observe them if they be pious, and to shake them off if they 
be impious. For it is possible that one who is the son of an 
impious father, if he wishes to be pious, should not desire 
to follow the relioion of his father." ^ Then answered 
Appion : " What then ? Do you say that your father was 
a man of an evil life ? " Then said I : " He was not of an 
evil life, but of an evil opinion." Then Appion : " I should 
like to know what was his evil apprehension." Then said I r 
" Because he believed the false and wicked myths of the 
Greeks." Then Appion asked: "What are these false and 
evil myths of the Greeks ? " Then I said : " The wrong 
opinion concerning the gods, which, if you will bear with 
me, you shall hear, with those who are desirous to learn. 

Chap. ix. — Unworthy ends of philosophers, 

" Wherefore, before beginning our conversation, let us now" 
withdraw into some quieter place, and there I shall converse 
with you. And the reason why I wish to speak privately is 
this, because neither the multitude, nor even all the philo- 
sophers, approach honestly to the judgment of things as they 
are. For we know many, even of those who pride themselves 
on their philosophy, who are vainglorious, or who have put 
on the philosopher's robe for the sake of gain, and not for 
the sake of virtue itself ; and they, if they do not find that 

^ We have adopted tlie emendation of Wieseler, wlio reads asl2oia/nur: 
for asiiu(7/^xTcc. He also proposes Uet (habit) instead of aifiaaf^ciTi. The 
readings in the Mss. vary. 


for which they take to philosophy, turn to mockery. There- 
fore, on account of such as these, let us choose some place 
fit for private conference." 

Chap, x. — A cool retreat. 

And a certain one amongst them — a rich man, and pos- 
sessing a garden of evergreen plants^ — said : " Since it is very 
hot, let us retire for a little from the city to my gardens." 
Accordingly they went forth, and sat down in a place where 
there were pure streams of cool water, and a green shade of 
all sorts of trees. There I sat pleasantly, and the others 
round about me ; and they being silent, instead of a verbal 
request made to me, showed by their eager looks to me 
that they required the proof of my assertion. And therefore 
I proceeded to speak thus : 

Chap. xi. — Truth and custom. 

" There is a certain great difference, O men of Greece, 
between truth and custom. For truth is found when it is 
honestly sought ; but custom, w^iatsoever be the character of 
the custom received, whether true or false, is strengthened 
by itself without the exercise of judgment ; and he who has 
received it is neither pleased with it as being true, nor grieved 
with it as false. For such an one has believed not by judg- 
ment, but by prejudice, resting his own hope on the opinion 
of those who have lived before him on a mere peradventure. 
And it is not easy to cast off the ancestral garment, though 
it be shown to himself to be wholly foolish and ridiculous. 

Chap. xii. — Genesis. 

" Therefore I say that the whole learning of the Greeks is 
a most dreadful fabrication of a wicked demon. For they 
have introduced many gods of their own, and these wicked, 
and subject to all kinds of passion ; so that he who wishes to 
do the like things may not be ashamed, which belongs to a 

^ The text liere is corrupt. If we adopt Lobeck's emendation of 
'7:ct,<j into 'TTccfATr'kovGtoy^ the literal translation is, " possessing a 
property around him continually rich in leaves." 


man, having as an example the wicked and unquiet lives of 
the mythological gods. And through his not being ashamed, 
such an one affords no hope of his repenting. And others 
have introduced fate, which is called genesis, contrary to 
which no one can suffer or do anything. This, therefore, 
also is like to the first. For any one who thinks that no one 
has aught to do or suffer contrary to genesis easily falls into 
sin ; and having sinned, he does not repent of his impiety, 
holding it as his apology that he was borne on by genesis to 
do these things. And ps he cannot rectify genesis, he has no 
reason to be ashamed of the sins he commits. 

Chap. xiii. — Destiny. 

" And others introduce an unforeseeing destiny, as if all 
things revolved of their own accord, without the superintend- 
ence of any master. But thus to think these things is, as 
we have said, the most grievous of all opinions. For, as if 
there were no one superintending and fore-judging and dis- 
tributing to every one according to his deserving, they easily 
do everything as they can through fearlessness. Therefore 
those who have such opinions do not easily, or perhaps do not 
at all, live virtuously ; for they do not foresee the danger 
which might have the effect of converting them. But the 
doctrine of the barbarous Jews, as you call them, is most 
pious, introducing One as the Father and Creator of all this 
world, by nature good and righteous ; good, indeed, as par- 
doning sins to those who repent; but righteous, as visiting 
to every one after repentance according to the worthiness of 
his doings. 

Chap. xiv. — " Doctrine according to godliness.^' 

" This doctrine, even if it also be mythical, being pious, 
would not be without advantage for this life. For every 
one, in expectation of being judged by the all-seeing God, 
receives the greater impulse towards virtue. But if the doc- 
trine be also true, it withdraws him who has lived virtuously 
from eternal punishment, and endows him with eternal and 
unspeakable blessings from God. 


Chap. xv. — Wickedness of the gods, 

'' But I return to the foremost doctrine of the Greeks, that 
^vhich states in stories^ that there are gods many, and subject 
to all kinds of passions. And not to spend much time upon 
things that are clear, referring to the impious deeds of every 
one of those who are called gods, I could not tell all their 
amours : those of Zeus and Poseidon, of Pluto and Apollo, 
of Dionysus and Hercules, and of them all singly. And of 
these you are yourselves not ignorant, and have been taught 
their manners of life, being instructed in the Grecian learning, 
that, as competitors with the gods, you might do like things. 

Chap. xyi. — Wickedness of Jupiter, 

'* But I shall begin with the most royal Zeus, whose father 
Ivronos, having, as you say, devoured his own children, and 
having shorn off the members of his father Uranus with a 
sickle of adamant, showed to those who are zealous for the 
mysteries of the gods an example of piety towards parents 
and of love towards children. And Jupiter himself bound 
his own father, and imprisoned him in Tartarus ; and he also 
punishes the other gods.' And for those who wish to do 
things not to be spoken of, he begat Metis, and devoured 
her. But Metis was seed ; for it is impossible to devour a 
child. And for an excuse to abusers of themselves with 
mankind, he carries away Ganymedes. And as a helper of 
adulterers in their adultery, he is often found an adulterer. 
And to those who wish to commit incest with sisters, he sets 
the example in his intercourse with his sisters Hera and 
Demeter, and the heavenly Aphrodite, whom some call 
Dodona." And to those who wish to commit incest with their 
daughters, there is a wicked example from his story, in his 
committing incest with Persephone. But in myriads of 
instances he acted impiously, that by reason of his excessive 

^ f/.vdo'Xo'/ovauv. 

- "Wieseler proposes hlw^ instead of &iw<; ; and he punishes liis uncles 
also, as in vi. 2, 21. 

2 This is properly regarded as a mistake for Dione, or Didone, which is 
another form of the name Dione. 


wickedness the fable of his being a god might be received by 
impious men. 

Chap. xvit. — " Tlieir makers are like unto them." 

'^You would hold it reasonable for ignorant men to be 
moderately indignant at these fancies. But what must we 
say to the learned, some of whom, professing themselves to be 
grammarians and sophists, affirm that these acts are worthy 
of gods ? For, being themselves incontinent, they lay hold 
of this mythical pretext ; and as imitators of the gods/ they 
practise unseemly things with freedom. 

Chap, xviii. — Second nature. 

"On this account, they who live in the country sin much 
less than they do, not having been indoctrinated in those 
things in which they have been indoctrinated who dare do 
these things, having learned from evil instruction to be impious. 
For they who from their childhood learn letters by means of 
such fables, w^hile their soul is yet pliant, engraft the impious 
deeds of those who are called gods into their own minds ; 
w^hence, when they are grown up, they ripen fruit, like evil 
seeds cast into the soul. And what is worst of all, the rooted 
impurities cannot be easily cut down, when they are perceived 
to be bitter by them when they have attained to manhood. 
For every one is pleased to remain in those habits which he 
forms in childhood ; and thus, since custom is not much less 
powerful than nature, they become difficult to be converted 
to those good things which were not sown in their souls from 
the beginning. 

Chap. xix. — " Where ignorance is bliss J^ 

" Wherefore it behoves the young not to be satisfied with 
those corrupting lessons, and those who are in their prime 
should carefully avoid listening to the mythologies of the 
Greeks. For lessons about their gods are much w^orse than 
ignorance, as we have shown from the case of those dwelling 
in the country, who sin less through their not having been 
^ Lit. " of those who are superior or better." 


instructed by Greeks. Truly, such fables of theirs, and 
spectacles, and books, ought to be shunned, and if it were 
possible, even their cities. For those who are full of evil 
learning, even with their breath infect as with madness those 
who associate with them, with their own passions. And what is 
worst, whoever is most instructed among them, is so much the 
more turned from the judgment which is according to nature. 

Chap. xx. — False theories of pldlosopliers. 

" And some of those amongst them who even profess to be 
philosophers, assert that such sins are indifferent, and say that 
those who are indignant at such practices are senseless. For 
they say that such things are not sins by nature, but have 
been proscribed by laws made by wise men in early times, 
through their knowing that men, through the instability of 
their minds, being greatly agitated on these accounts, wage 
war with one another; for which reason, wise men have 
made laws to proscribe such things as sins. But this is a 
ridiculous supposition. For how can they be other than sins, 
which are the cause of tumults, and murders, and every con- 
fusion? For do not shortenings of life-^ and many more evils 
proceed from adultery ? 

Chap. xxi. — Evils of adultery. 

" But why, it is said, if a man is ignorant of his wife's being 
an adulteress, is he not indignant, enraged, distracted? why does 
he not make war ? Thus these things are not evil by nature, 
but the unreasonable opinion of men make them terrible. 
But I say, that even if these dreadful things do not occur, 
it is usual for a woman, through association with an adulterer, 
either to forsake her husband, or if she continue to live 
with him, to plot against him, or to bestow upon the adulterer 
the goods procured by the labour of her husband ; and hav- 
ing conceived by the adulterer while her husband is absent, 
to attempt the destruction of that which is in her womb, 
through shame of conviction, and so to become a child- 

■^ The Vatican MS. inserts here, " upturning of houses, magic practices, 
deceptions, perplexities." 


murderer ; or even, while destroying it, to be destroyed along 
■with it. But if while her husband is at home she conceives by 
the adulterer and bears a child, the child when he grows up 
does not know his father, and thinks that he is his father 
who is not ; and thus he who is not the father, at his death 
leaves his substance to the child of another. And how many 
other evils naturally spring from adultery ! And the secret 
evils we do not know. For as the mad dog destroys all that 
he touches, infecting them with the unseen madness, so also 
the hidden evil of adultery, though it be not known, effects 
the cutting off of posterity. 

Chap. xxii. — A, more excellent loay, 

"But let us pass over this now. But this we all know, that 
universally men are beyond measure enraged on account of 
it, that wars have been waged, that there have been over- 
throws of houses, and captures of cities, and myriads of other 
evils. On this account I betook myself to the holy God and 
law of the Jews, putting my faith in the well-assured conclu- 
sion that the law has been assigned by the righteous judg- 
ment of God, and that the soul must at some time receive 
according to the desert of its deeds." 

Chap, xxiii. — " Whither shall I go from Thy presence V 

When I had thus spoken, Appion broke in upon my dis- 
course. "What!" said he; "do not the laws of the Greeks 
also forbid w^ickedness, and punish adulterers ? " Then said I : 
" Then the gods of the Greeks, who acted contrary to the laws, 
deserve punishment. But how shall I be able to restrain 
myself, if I suppose that the gods themselves first practised 
all wickednesses as well as adultery, and did not suffer punish- 
ment ; whereas they ought the rather to have suffered, as not 
being slaves to lust ? But if they were subject to it, how 
were they gods?" Then Appion said : " Let us have in our 
eye not the gods, but the judges ; and looking to them, we 
shall be afraid to sin." Then I said : " This is not fitting, 
O Appion : for he who has his eye upon men will dare to 
sin, in hope of escaping detection ; but he who sets before his 


soul the all-seeing God, knowing that he cannot escape His 
notice; will refrain from sinning even in secret." 

Chap. xxiv. — Allegory. 

When Appion heard this, he said : " I knew, ever since I 
heard that you were consorting with Jew^s, that you had 
alienated your judgment. For it has been well said by some 
one, ' Evil communications corrupt good manners.' " Then 
saidi: "Therefore good communications correct evil manners." 
And Appion said : " To-day I am fully satisfied to have 
learned your position ; therefore I permitted you to speak 
first. But to-morrow, in this place, if it is agreeable to you, 
I will show, in the presence of these friends when they 
meet, that our gods are neither adulterers, nor murderers, 
nor corrupters of children, nor guilty of incest with sisters 
or daughters. But the ancients, ^Yishing that only lovers of 
learning should know the mysteries, veiled them with those 
fables of which you have spoken. For they speak physiologi- 
cally of boiling substance under the name of Zen, and of 
time under that of Kronos, and of the ever-flowing nature of 
water under that of Rhea. How^ever, as I have promised, I 
shall to-morrow exhibit the truth of things, explaining them 
one by one to you when you come together in the morning." 
In reply to this I said : " To-morrow^, as you have promised, 
so do. But now hear something in opposition to wdiat you 
are going to say. 

Chap. xxv. — An engagement for to-morrow. 

'^If the doings of the gods, being good, have been veiled with 
evil fables, the wickedness of him who w^ove the veil is shown 
to have been great, because he concealed noble things with 
evil narratives, that no one imitate them. But if they really 
did things impious, they ought, on the contrary, to have veiled 
them with good narratives, lest men, regarding them as their 
superiors, should set about sinning in like manner." As I spoke 
thus, those present were evidently beginning to be well-disposed 
towards the words spoken by me; for they repeatedly and 
earnestly asked me to come on the following day, and departed. 


Chap. i. — Appion does not appear. 
HE next day, therefore, in Tyre, as we had agreed, 

I came to the quiet place, and there I found the 
rest, with some others also. Then I saluted them. 
But as I did not see Appion, I asked the reason 
of his not being present; and some one said that he had 
been unwell ever since last evening. Then, when I said that 
it was reasonable that we should immediately set out to visit 
him, almost all begged me first to discourse to them, and that 
then we could go to see him. Therefore, as all were of one 
opinion, I proceeded to say : 

Chap. ii. — Clements previous hioivledge of Appion, 

"Yesterday, when I left this, O friends, I confess that, 
through much anxiety about the discussion that was to take 
place with Appion, I was not able to get any sleep. And 
while I was unable to sleep, I remembered a trick that I 
played upon him in Rome. It was this. From my boy- 
hood I Clement was a lover of truth, and a seeker of the 
things that are profitable for the soul, and spending my 
time in raising and refuting theories ; but being unable 
to find anything perfect, through distress of mind I fell 
sick. And while I w^as confined to bed Appion came to 
Kome, and being my father's friend, he lodged with me ; 
and hearing that I was in bed, he came to me, as being not 
unacquainted with medicine, and inquired the cause of my 
being in bed. But I, being aware that the man exceedingly 
hated the Jews, as also that he had written many books 
against them, and that he had formed a friendship with this 



Simon, not tlirougli desire of learning, but because he knew 
that he was a Samaritan and a hater of the Jews, and that 
he had come forth in opposition to the Jews, therefore he 
had formed an alliance with him, that he might learn some- 
thing from him against the Jews ; — 

Chap. hi. — Clements inch 

" I, knowing this before concerning Appion, as soon as he 
asked me the cause of my sickness, answered feignedly, that 
I was suffering and distressed in my mind after the manner 
of young men. And to this he said, ^ My son, speak freely 
as to a father: what is your soul's ailment?' And when I 
again groaned feignedly, as being ashamed to speak of love, 
by means of silence and down-looking I conveyed the im- 
pression of wdiat I wished to intimate. But he, being per- 
suaded that I w^as in love with a woman, said : ' There is 
nothing in life which does not admit of help. For indeed 
I myself, when I was young, being in love with a most 
accomplished woman, not only thought it impossible to ob- 
tain her, but did not even hope ever to address her. And 
yet, having fallen in with a certain Egj'ptian who was 
exceedingly well versed in magic, and having become his 
friend, I disclosed to him my love, and not only did he 
assist me in all that I wished, but, honouring me more 
bountifully, he hesitated not to teach me an incantation by 
means of which I obtained her ; and as soon as I had 
obtained her, by means of his secret instruction, being per- 
suaded by the liberality of my teacher, I was cured of love. 

Chap. iv. — Appion s undertaking, 

"'Whence, if you also suffer any such thing after the 
manner of men, use freedom with me witli all security ; for 
within seven days I shall put you fully in possession of her.' 
When I heard this, looking at the object I had in view, 
I said : ' Pardon me that I do not altogether believe in the 
existence of magic ; for I have already tried many who have 
made many promises, and have deceived me. However, 
your undertaking influences me, and leads me to hope. But 


when I think of the matter, I am afraid that the demons 
are somethnes not subject to the magicians with respect to 
the things that are commanded them.' 

Chap. v. — Theory of magic. 

" Then Appion said : ^ Admit that I know more of these 
things than you do. However, that you may not think 
that there is nothing in what you have heard from me in 
reference to what you have said, I will tell you how the 
demons are under ne-^essity to obey the magicians in the 
matters about which they are commanded. For as it is 
impossible for a soldier to contradict his general, and im- 
possible for the generals themselves to disobey the king — 
for if any one oppose those set over him, he is altogether 
deserving of punishment — so it is impossible for the demons 
not to serve the angels who are their generals ; and when they 
are adjured by them, they yield trembling, well knowing that 
if they disobey they shall be fully punished. But the angels 
also themselves, being adjured by the magicians in the name 
of their ruler, obey, lest, being found guilty of disobedience, 
they be destroyed. For unless all things that are living and 
rational foresaw vengeance from the ruler, confusion would 
ensue, all revolting against one another.' 

Chap. vi. — Scruples. 

'' Then said I : ^ Are those things correct, then, which are 
spoken by poets and philosophers, that in Hades the souls of 
the wicked are judged and punished for their attempts ; such 
as those of Ixion, and Tantalus, and Tityus, and Sisyphus, 
and the daughters of Danaus, and as many others as have 
been impious here ? And how, if these things are not so, is 
it possible that magic can subsist?' Then he having told me 
that these things are so in Hades, I asked him : ' Why are not 
we ourselves afraid of magic, being persuaded of the punish- 
ment in Hades for adultery ? For I do not admit that it is a 
righteous thing to compel to adultery a woman who is unwil- 
ling ; but if any one will engage to persuade her, I am ready 
for that, besides confessing my thanks.' 


Chap. vii. — A distinction with a difference, 

" Then Appion said: ^ Do you not think it is the same thinpf, 
whether you obtain her by magic, or by deceiving her with 
words ? ' Then said I : ' Not altoo-ether the same : for these 
differ widely from one another. For he who constrains an 
unwilling woman by the force of magic, subjects himself to 
the most terrible punishment, as having plotted against a 
chaste woman ; but he who persuades her with words, and 
puts the choice in her own power and will, does not force 
her. And I am of opinion, that he who has persuaded [a 
woman] will not suffer so great punishment as he who has 
forced her. Therefore, if you can persuade her, I shall be 
thankful to you when I have obtained her ; but otherwise, I 
had rather die than force her against her will.' 

Chap. viii. — Flattery or nia.fjic. 

'^Then Appion, being really puzzled, said: ^What am I to 
say to you? For at one time, as one perturbed with love, 
you pray to obtain her ; and anon, as if you loved her not, you 
make more account of your fear than your desire : and you 
think that if you can persuade her you shall be blameless, as 
without sin ; but obtaining her by the power of magic, you will 
incur punishment. But do you not know that it is the end 
of every action that is judged, the fact that it has been com- 
mitted, and that no account is made of the means by whicli 
it has been effected? And if you commit adultery, being 
enabled by magic, shall you be judged as having done 
wickedly ; and if by persuasion, shall you be absolved from 
sin in respect of the adultery ?' Then I said : * On account of 
my love, there is a necessity for me to choose one or other of 
the means that are available to procure the object of my love; 
and I shall choose, as far as possible, to cajole her rather 
than to use magic. But neither is it easy to persuade her by 
flattery, for the woman is very much of a pliilosopher.' 

Chap. ix. — A love-letter, 
" Then Appion said : ' I am all the more hopeful to be able 


to persuade her, as you wish, provided only we be able to 
converse with her.' ' That/ said I, ^ is impossible.' Then 
Appion asked if it were possible to send a letter to her. 
Then I said : * That indeed may be done.' Then Appion 
said : ' This very night I shall write a paper on encomiums of 
adultery, which you shall get from me and despatch to her; 
and I hope that she shall be persuaded, and consent.' Appion 
accordingly wrote the paper, and gave it to me; audi thought 
of it this very night, and I remembered that fortunately I 
have it by me, along w'th other papers which I carry about 
with me." Having thus spoken, I showed the paper to those 
who were present, and read it to them as they wished to hear 
it; and having read it, I said: ''This, O men, is the instruc- 
tion of the Greeks, affording a bountiful licence to sin with- 
out fear. The paper w^as as follows : 

Chap. x. — The lover to tlie beloved one. 

'•' Anonymously, on account of the laws of foolish men. 
At the bidding of Love, the first-born of all, salutation : I 
know that you are devoted to philosophy, and for the sake of 
virtue you affect the life of the noble. But who are nobler 
then the gods among all, and philosophers among men ? 
For these alone know what works are good or evil by nature, 
and what, not being so, are accounted so by the imposition of 
laws. Now, then, some have supposed that the action which 
is called adultery is evil, although it is in every respect good. 
For it is by the appointment of Eros for the increase of life. 
And Eros is the eldest of all the gods. For without Eros 
there can be no mingling or generation either of elements, or 
gods, or men, or irrational animals, or aught else. For we 
are all instruments of Eros. He, by means of us, is the 
fabricator of all that is begotten, the mind inhabiting our 
souls. Hence it is not when we ourselves wish it, but when 
we are ordered by him, that we desire to do his will. But if, 
while we desire according to his will, we attempt to restrain 
the desire for the sake of what is called chastity, what do we 
do but the greatest impiety, when we oppose the oldest of all 
gods and men ? 


Chap. xi. — " All undeanness with greediness. ^"^ 

" ^ But let all doors be opened to him, and let all baneful 
and arbitrary laws be set aside, wliicli have been ordained by 
fanatical men, who, under the power of senselessness, and 
not willing to understand what is reasonable, and, moreover, 
suspecting those wdio are called adulterers, are with good 
reason mocked with arbitrary laws by Zeus himself, through 
Minos and Rhadamanthus. For there is no restraining of 
Eros dwelling in our souls ; for the passion of lovers is not 
voluntary. Therefore Zeus himself, the giver of these laws, 
approached myriads of women ; and, according to some wise 
men, he sometimes had intercourse with human beings, as a 
benefactor for the production of children. But in the case of 
those to whom he knew^ that his beino; unknown would be a 
favour,^ he changed his form, in order that he might neither 
grieve them, nor seem to act in opposition to the laws given 
by himself. It becomes you, therefore, who are debaters of 
philosophy, for the sake of a good life, to imitate those who 
are acknowledged to be the nobler, who have had sexual 
intercourse ten thousand times. 

Chap. xii. — Jupiter s amours, 

" ' And not to spend the time to no purpose in giving more 
examples, I shall begin with mentioning some embraces of 
Zeus himself, the father of gods and men. For it is im- 
possible to mention all, on account of their multitude. Hear, 
therefore, the amours of this great Jupiter, which he con- 
cealed by changing his form, on account of the fanaticism 
of senseless men. For, in the first place, wishing to show 
to wise men that adultery is no sin, when he was going to 
marry, being, according to the multitude, knowingly an 
adulterer, in his first marriage, but not being so in reality, 
by means, as I said, of a seeming sin he accomplished a sin- 
less marriage." For he married his own sister Hera, assum- 

^ TVe have adopted the punctuation of AYiesclcr. 

* I have no doubt that this is the general meaning ; but the text is 
hopelessly corrupt. 


ing the likeness of a cuckoo's wing ; and of her were born 
Hebe and Ilithyia. For he gave birth to Metis without copu- 
lation with any one, as did also Hera to Vulcan. 

Chap. xiii. — Jupiter'' s amours continued, 

" ' Then he committed incest with his sister, who was born 
of Kronos and Thalasse, after the dismemberment of Kronos, 
and of whom were born Eros and Cypris, whom they call also 
Dodone. Then, in the likeness of a satyr, he had intercourse 
with Antiope the daughter of Nycteus, of whom were born 
Amphion and Zethus. And he embraced Alcmene, the wife 
of Amphitryon, in the form of her husband Amphitryon, 
of whom was born Hercules. And, changed into an eagle, 
he approached ^gina, the daughter of Asclepius, of whom 
^acus was born. And in the form of a bear he lay with 
Amalthea the daughter of Phocus ; and in a golden shower 
he fell upon Danae, the daughter of Acrisius, of whom sprang 
Perseus. He became wild as a lion to Callisto the daughter 
of Lycaon, and begat Arcus the second. And with Europa 
the daughter of Phoenix he had intercourse by means of a 
bull, of whom sprang Minos, and Hhadamanthus, and Sar- 
pedon ; and with Eurymedusa the daughter of Achelous, 
changing himself into an ant, of whom was born Myrmidon. 
With a nymph of Hersaeus, in the form of a vulture, from 
whom sprang the wise men of old in Sicily. He came to 
Juno the earth-born in Rhodes, and of her were born Pargseus, 
Kronius, Kytis. And he deflowered Ossia, taking the like- 
ness of her husband Phoenix, of whom Anchinous was born 
to him. Of Nemesis the daughter of Thestius, who is also 
thought to be Leda, he begot Helena, in the form of a swan 
or goose; and again, in the form of a star, he produced Castor 
and Polydeuces. With Lamia he was transformed into a 

Chap. xiv. — Jupiter s undisguised amours. 

"^In the likeness of a shepherd he made Mnemosyne mother 
of the Muses. Setting himself on fire, he married Semele, 
the daughter of Cadmus, of whom he begat Dionysus. In 


the likeness of a drao;on he deflowered his daucrhter Per- 
sephone, thought to be the wife of his brother Pluto. He 
had intercourse with many other women without undergoing 
any change in his form ; for the husbands had no ill-will to 
him as if it were a sin, but knew well that in associating 
with their wives he bountifully produced children for them, 
bestowincr upon them the Hermeses, the Apollos, the Dionysi, 
the Endymions, and others whom we have spoken of, most 
excellent in beauty through his fatherhood. 

Chap. xy. — Unnatural lusts. 

" ' And not to spend the time in an endless exposition, 
you will find numerous unions with Jupiter of all the gods. 
But senseless men call these doings of the gods adulteries ; 
even of those gods who did not refrain from the abuse of 
males as disgraceful, but who practised even this as seemly. 
For instance, Jupiter himself was in love with Ganymede ; 
Poseidon with Pelops ; Apollo with Cinyras, Zacyinthus, 
Hyacinthus, Phorbas, Hylas, Admetus, Cyparissus, Amyclas, 
Troilus, Branchus the Tymnsean, Parus the Potnian, Orpheus; 
Dionysus with Laonis, Ampelus, Hymxcngeus, Hermaphro- 
dites, Achilles ; Asclepius with Hippolytus, and Hephaestus 
with Peleus ; Pan with Daphnis ; Hermes with Perseus, 
Chrysas, Theseus, Odrysus ; Hercules with Abderus, Dryops, 
Jocastus, Philoctetes, Hylas, Polyphemus, Haemon, Chonus, 

Chap. xvi. — Praise of unchastity, 

" ' Thus have I in part set before you the amours of all the 
more noted gods, beloved, that you may know that fanaticism 
respecting this thing is confined to senseless men. There- 
fore they are mortal, and spend their lives sadly, because 
through their zeal they proclaim those things to be evil 
which the gods esteem as excellent. Therefore for the 
future you will be blessed, imitating the gods, and not men. 
For men, seeing you preserving that which is thought to 
be chastity, on account of what they themselves feel, praise 


you indeed, but do not help you. But the gods, seeing you 
like unto themselves, will both praise and help. 

Chap. xvii. — The constellations. 

" ^ For reckon to me how many mistresses they have re- 
warded, some of whom they have placed among the stars ; 
and of some they have blessed both the children and the asso- 
ciates. Thus Zeus made Callisto a constellation, called the 
Little Bear, which some also call the Dog's Tail. Poseidon also 
placed the dolphin in the sky for the sake of Amphitrlte; and 
he gave a place among the stars to Orion the son of Euryale, 
the daughter of Minos, for the sake of his mother Euryale. 
And Dionysus made a constellation of the crown of Ariadne, 
and Zeus invested the eagle which assisted him in the rape 
of Ganymede, and Ganymede himself with the honour of the 
Water-pourer. Also he honoured the bull for the sake of 
Europa ; and also having bestowed Castor, and Polydeuces, 
and Helena upon Leda, he made them stars. Also Perseus 
for the sake of Danae ; and Arcus for the sake of Callisto. 
The virgin who also is Dice, for the sake of Themis ; and 
Heracles for the sake of Alcmene. But I do not enlarge 
further ; for it were long to tell particularly how many others 
the gods have blessed for the sake of their many mistresses, 
in their intercourse with human beings, which senseless men 
repudiate as evil deeds, not knowing that pleasure is the great 
advantaf^e amono^ men. 

Chap, xviii. — The pldlosopliers advocates of adultery, 

" ^ But why ? Do not the celebrated philosophers extol 
pleasure, and have they not had intercourse with what women 
they would ? Of these the first was that teacher of Greece, 
of whom Phoebus himself said, " Of all men, Socrates is the 
wisest." Does not he teach that in a well-regulated state 
women should be common ? ^ and did he not conceal the fair 
Alcibiades under his philosopher's gown ? And the Socratic 
Antisthenes writes of the necessity of not abandoning what 
is called adultery. And even his disciple Diogenes, did not 
1 This from a marginal reading. 


he freelj associate with Lais, for the hire of carrying her on 
his shoulders in pubhc ? Does not Epicurus extol pleasure ? 
Did not Aristippus anoint himself with perfumes, and devote 
himself wholly to Aphrodite? Does not Zeno, intimating 
indifference, say that the deity pervades all things, that it 
may be known to the intelligent, that with whomsoever a man 
has intercourse, it is as with himself ; and that it is super- 
fluous to forbid what are called adulteries, or intercourse with 
mother, or daughter, or sister, or children. And Chrysippus, 
in his erotic epistles, makes mention of the statue in Argos, 
representing Hera and Zeus in an obscene position. 

Chap. xix. — Close of the love-letter. 

" ^ I know that to those uninitiated in the truth these things 
seem dreadful and most base ; but not so to the gods and the 
philosophers of the Greeks, nor to those initiated in the 
mysteries of Dionysus and Demeter. But above all these, 
not to waste time in speaking of the lives of all the gods, and 
all the philosophers, let the two chief be your marks — Zeus 
the greatest of the gods, and Socrates of philosophic men. 
And the other thmfrs which I have mentioned in this letter, 
understand and attend to, that you may not grieve your 
lover ; since, if you act contrarily to gods and heroes, you 
will be judged wicked, and will subject yourself to fitting 
punishment. But if you offer yourself to every lover, then, 
as an imitator of the gods, you shall receive benefits from 
them. For the rest, dearest one, remember what mysteries 
I have disclosed to you, and inform me bj letter of your 
choice. Fare thee well.' 

Chap. xx. — The use made of it, 

" I therefore, having received this billet from Appion, as 
though I were really going to send it to a beloved one, pre- 
tended as if she had written in answer to it ; and the next 
day, when Appion came, I gave him the reply, as if from her, 
as follows : 


Chap. xxi. — Ansiuer to Appioiis letter. 

" ' I wonder how, when you commend me for wisdom, you 
write to me as to a fool. For, wishing to persuade me to your 
passion, you make use of examples from the mythologies of 
the gods, that Eros is the eldest of all, as you sa}^, and above 
all gods and men, not being afraid to blaspheme, that you 
might corrupt my soul and insult my body. For Eros is 
not the leader of the gods, — he, I mean, who has to do with 
lusts. For if he lusts willingly, he is himself his own suffer- 
ing and punishment; and he who should suffer willingly could 
not be a god. But if against his will he lust for copulation, 
and, pervading our souls as through the members of our 
bodies, is borne into intermeddling with our minds, then he 
that impels him to love is greater than he. And again, he 
who impels him, being himself impelled by another desire, 
another greater than he is found impelling him. And thus 
we come to an endless succession of lovers,^ which is im- 
possible. Thus, neither is there an impeller nor an impelled ; 
but it is the lustful passion of the lover himself, which is 
increased by hope and diminished by despair. 

Chap. xxii. — Lying fables, 

" ' But those who will not subdue base lusts belie the gods, 
that, by representing the gods as first doing the things which 
they do, they may be set free from blame. For if those who 
are called gods committed adulteries for the sake of begetting 
children, and not through lasciviousness, why did they also 
debauch males? But it is said they complimented their 
mistresses by making them stars. Therefore before this were 
there no stars, until such time as, by reason of wantonness^ 
the heaven was adorned with stars by adulterers ? And how 
is it that the children of those who have been made stars are 
punished in Hades, — Atlas loaded, Tantalus tortured with 
thirst, Sisyphus pushing a stone, Tityus thrust through the 
bowels, Ixion continually rolled round a wheel ? How is it 
that these divine lovers made stars of the women whom they 
defiled, but gave no such grace to these ? 

^ I suspect it should rather be impellers, reading (pipoitrav for ipavray. 


Chap, xxiii. — The gods no gods, 

^' ' They were not gods, then, but representations of tyrants. 
For a certain tomb is shown among the Caucasian mountains, 
not in heaven, but in earth, as that of Kronus, a barbarous 
man and a devourer of children. Further, the tomb of the 
lascivious Zeus, so famed in story, who in like manner de- 
voured his own daughter Metis, is to be seen in Crete, and 
those of Pluto and Poseidon in the Acherusian lake ; and that 
of Helius in Astra, and of Selene in Carrse, of Hermes in 
Hermopolis, of Ares in Thrace, of Aphrodite in Cyprus, of 
Dionysus in Thebes, and of the rest in other places. At all 
events, the tombs are shown of those that I have named : for 
they were men, and in respect of these things, wicked men 
and magicians. For else they should not have become despots 
— I mean Zeus, renowned in story, and Dionysus — but that 
by changing their forms they prevailed over whom they 
pleased, for whatever pui'pose they designed. 

Chap. xxiv. — If a principle he goody carry it out. 

'* ^ But if we must emulate their lives, let us imitate not onlv 
their adulteries, but also their banquets. For Kronus de- 
voured his own children, and Zeus in like manner his own 
daughter. And what must I say? Pelops served as a supper 
for all the gods. Wherefore let us also, before unhal- 
lowed marriages, perpetrate a supper like that of the gods ; 
for thus the supper would be worthy of the marriages. 
But this you would never consent to; no more will I to 
adultery. Besides this, you threaten me with the anger of 
Eros as of a powerful god. Eros is not a god, as I conceive 
him, but a desire occurring from the temperament of the 
livino- creature in order to the perpetuation of life, according 
to the foresight of Him who worketh all things, that the 
whole race may not fail, but by reason of pleasure another 
may be produced out of the substance of one who shall die, 
springing forth by lawful marriage, that he may know to 
sustain his own father in old a^e. And this those born from 
adultery cannot do, not having the nature of affection towards 
those who have begotten them. 


Chap. xxv. — Better to marry than to hum, 

" ^ Since, therefore, the erotic desire occurs for the sake of 
continuation and legitimate increasing, as I have said, it be- 
hoves parents providing for the chastity of their children to 
anticipate the desire, by imbuing them with instruction by 
means of chaste books, and to accustom them beforehand by 
excellent discourses ; for custom is a second nature. And in 
addition to this, frequently to remind them of the punish- 
ments appointed by th'^ laws, that, using fear as a bridle, 
they may not run on in wicked pleasures. And it behoves 
them also, before the springing of the desire, to satisfy 
the natural passion of puberty by marriage, first persuading 
them not to look upon the beauty of another woman. 

Chap. xxvi. — Close of the ansiver, 

" ' For our mind, whenever it is impressed delightfully with 
the image of a beloved one, always seeing the form as in a 
mirror, is tormented by the recollection ; and if it do not 
obtain its desire, it contrives ways of obtaining it ; but if it 
do obtain it, it is rather increased, like fire having a supply 
of wood, and especially when there is no fear impressed 
upon the soul of the lover before the rise of passion. For 
as water extinguishes fire, so fear is the extinguisher of un- 
reasonable desire. Whence I, having learned from a cer- 
tain Jew both to understand and to do the things that are 
pleasing to God, am not to be entrapped into adultery by 
your lying fables. But may God help you in your wish and 
efforts to be chaste, and afford a remedy to your soul burning 
with love.' 

Chap, xxvii. — A reason for hatred, 

" When Appion heard the pretended answer, he said : ^ Is it 
without reason that I hate the Jews ? Here now some Jew 
has fallen in with her, and has converted her to his religion, 
and persuaded her to chastity, and it is henceforth impossible 
that she ever have intercourse with another man ; for these 
fellows, setting God before them as the universal inspector of 



actions, are extremely persistent in chastity, as being unable 
to be concealed from Him.' 

Chap, xxviii. — The hoax confessed. 

" When I heard this, I said to Appion : ' Now I shall confess 
the truth to you. I was not enamoured of the woman, or of 
any one else, my soul being exceedingly spent upon other de- 
sires, and upon the investigation of true doctrines. And till 
now, although I have examined many doctrines of philosophers, 
I have inclined to none of them, excepting only that of the 
Jews, — a certain merchant of theirs having sojourned here in 
Eome, sellincj linen clothes, and a fortunate meetinrj havins 
set simply before me the doctrine of the unity of God.' 

Chap. xxix. — Appion s resentment. 

" Then Appion, having heard from me the truth, with his 
unreasonable hatred of the Jews, and neither knowing nor 
wishing to know what their faith is, being senselessly angry, 
forthwith quitted Eome in silence. And as this is my first 
meeting with him since then, I naturally expect his anger in 
consequence. However, I shall ask him in your presence 
what he has to say concerning those who are called gods, 
whose lives, fabled to be filled with all passions, are constantly 
celebrated to the people, in order to their imitation ; while, 
besides their human passions, as I have said, their graves are 
also shown in different places." 

Chap. xxx. — A discussion promised. 

The others having heard these things from me, and de- 
siring to learn what would ensue, accompanied me to visit 
Appion. And we found him bathed, and sitting at a table 
furnished. Wherefore we inquired but little into the matter 
concerning the gods. But he, understanding, I suppose, our 
wish, promised that next day he would have something to 
say about the gods, and appointed to us the same place where 
he would converse with us. And we, as soon as he had pro- 
mised, thanked him, and departed, each one to his home. 


Chap. i. — Clement meets Appion, 

|ND on the third day, when I came with my friends 
to the appointed place in Tyre, I found Appion 
sitting between Anubion and Athenodorus, and 
waiting for us, along with many other learned 
men. But in no wise dismayed, I greeted them, and sat 
down opposite Appion. And in a little he began to speak : 

" I wish to start from the following point, and to come 
with all speed at once to the question. Before you, my son 
Clement, joined us, my friend Anubion here, and Atheno- 
dorus, who yesterday were among those who heard you 
discourse, were reporting to me what you said of the nume- 
rous false accusations I brought against the gods when I 
was visiting you in Rome, at the time you were shamming 
love, how I charged them with paederasty, lasciviousness, 
and numerous incests of all kinds. But, my son, you ought 
to have known that I was not in earnest when I wrote such 
things about the gods, but was concealing the truth, from 
my love to you. That truth, however, if it so please you, 
you may hear from me now. 

Chap. ii. — The myths are not to be taken literally, 

'' The wisest of the ancients, men who had by hard labour 
learned all truth, kept the path of knowledge hid from those 
who were unworthy and had no taste for lessons in divine 
things. For it is not really true that from Ouranos and his 
mother Ge were born twelve children, as the myth counts 
them : six sons, Okeanos, Koios, Krios, Hyperion, Japetos, 
Kronos ; and six daughters, Thea, Themis, Mnemosyne, De- 


meter, Tethys, and Rhea. Xor that Kronos, with the knife of 
adamant, mutilated his father Ouranos, as you say, and threw 
the part into the sea ; nor that Aphrodite sprang from the 
drops of blood which flowed from it ; nor that Kronos asso- 
ciated with Rhea, and devoured his first-begotten son Pluto, 
because a certain savincp of Prometheus led him to fear that 
a child born from him would wax stronger than himself, and 
spoil him of his kingdom ; nor that he devoured in the same 
way Poseidon, his second child ; nor that, when Zeus was 
born next, his mother Rhea concealed him, and when Kronos 
asked for him that he might devour him, gave him a stone 
instead ; nor that this, when it was devoured, pressed those 
who had been previously devoured, and forced them out, so 
that Pluto, who was devoured first, came out first, and after 
him Poseidon, and then Zeus ;^ nor that Zeus, as the story 
goes, preserved by the wit of his mother, ascended into 
heaven, and spoiled his father of the kingdom ; nor that he 
punished his father's brothers ; nor that he came down to 
lust after mortal women ; nor tliat he associated with his 
sisters, and daughters, and sisters-in-law, and was guilty of 
shameful paederasty ; nor that he devoured his daughter 
Metis, in order that from her he micrht make Athene be born 
out of his own brain (and from his thigh might bear Dio- 
nysos,^ who is said to have been rent in pieces by the Titans) ; 
nor that he held a feast at the marriage of Peleus and Thetis ; 
nor that he excluded Eris (discord) from the marriage ; nor 
that Eris on her part, thus dishonoured, contrived an occa- 
sion of quarrelling and discord among the feasters : nor that 
she took a golden apple from the gardens of the Hesperides, 
and wrote on it ' For the fair.' And then they fable how 
Hera, and Athena, and Aphrodite, found the apple, and 
quarrelling about it, came to Zeus ; and he did not decide it 
for them, but sent them by Hermes to the shepherd Paris, to 

^ The passage seems to be corrupt. 

- The common story about Dionysus is, that he ^vas the unborn son, 
not of Metis, but of Semele. Wieseler supposes that some words have 
fallen out, or that the latter part of the sentence is a careless interpo- 


be judged of tlieir beauty. But there was no sucli judging 
of the goddesses ; nor did Paris give the apple to Aphrodite ; 
nor did Aphrodite, being thus honoured, honour him in return, 
by giving him Helen to wife. For the honour bestowed by 
the goddess could never have furnished a pretext for a uni- 
versal war, and that to the ruin of him who was honoured, 
himself nearly related to the race of Aphrodite. But, my 
son, as I said, such stories have a peculiar and philosophical 
meaning, which can be allegorically set forth in such a way 
that you yourself would listen with wonder." And I said, 
" I beseech you not to torment me with delay." And he said, 
" Do not be afraid ; for I shall lose no time, but commence 
at once. 

Chap. hi. — Appion proceeds to interpret the myths. 

" There was once a time when nothing existed but chaos 
and a confused mixture of orderless elements, which were as 
yet simply heaped together. This nature testifies, and great 
men have been of opinion that it was so. Of these great 
men I shall bring forward to you him who excelled them all 
in wisdom, Homer, where he says, with a reference to the 
original confused mass, ' But may you all become water and 
earth ; ' ^ implying that from these all things had their origin, 
and that all things return to their first state, which is chaos, 
when the watery and earthy subtances are separated. And 
Hesiod in the Tlieogony says, ' Assuredly chaos was the very 
first to come into being.' ^ Now, by ' come into being,' he 
evidently means that chaos came into being, as having a 
beginning, and did not always exist, without beginning. 
And Orpheus likens chaos to an egg, in which was the con- 
fused mixture of the primordial elements. This chaos, which 
Orpheus calls an Qgg, is taken for granted by Hesiod, having 
a beginning, produced from infinite matter, and originated in 
the following way. 

Chap. iv. — Origin of chaos. 

^' This matter, of four kinds, and endowed with life, was 
1 Iliad, vii. 99. 2 l. 116. 


an entire infinite abyss, so to speak, in eternal stream, borne 
about without order, and forming every now and then count- 
less but ineffectual combinations (^Yhich therefore it dis- 
solved again from want of order) ; ripe indeed, but not able 
to be bound so as to generate a living creature. And once 
it chanced that this infinite sea, which was thus by its own 
nature driven about with a natural motion, flowed in an 
orderly manner from the same to the same (back on itself), 
like a whirlpool, mixing the substances in such a way that 
from each -^ there flowed down the middle of the universe (as 
in the funnel of a mould) precisely that which was most use- 
ful and suitable for the generation of a living creature. This 
was carried down by the all-carrying whirlpool, drew to itself 
the surrounding spirit, and having been so conceived that it 
was very fertile, formed a separate substance. For just as a 
bubble is usually formed in water, so everything round about 
contributed to the conception of this ball-like globe. Then 
there came forth to the light, after it had been conceived 
in itself, and was borne upwards by the divine spirit which 
surrounded it,^ perhaps the greatest thing ever born ; a piece 
of workmanship, so to speak, having life in it which had been 
conceived from that entire infinite abyss, in shape like an ^ggy 
and as swift as a bird. 

Chap. v. — Kronos and Rhea explained. 

'' Now you must think of Kronos as time {chronos\ and 
Rhea as the flowing (rheon) of the watery substance. For 
the whole body of matter was borne about for some time, 
before it brought forth, like an egg, the sphere-like, all- 
embracing heaven {ouranos), which at first was full of pro- 
ductive marrow, so that it was able to produce out of itself 
elements and colours of all sorts, while from the one substance 
and the one colour it produced all kinds of forms. For as a 
peacock's egg seems to have only one colour, while poten- 
tially it has in it all the colours of the animal that is to be, 

1 This is the emendation of Davisius. The Greek has si dKovarov ; the 
Latin, " mirum in raodum."' Wieseler suggests i'^uKouTiarou. 

2 This is Wieseler's emendation for " received.'' 


so tins living egg, conceived out of infinite matter, v^^lien 
set in motion by the underlying and ever-flowing matter, pro- 
duces many different forms. For within the circumference 
a certain living creature, which is both male and female, is 
formed by the skill of the indwelling divine spirit. This 
Orpheus calls Phanes, because when it appeared (phaneis) 
the universe shone forth from it, with the lustre of that most 
glorious of the elements, fire, perfected in moisture. Nor is 
this incredible, since in glowworms nature gives us to see a 
moist light. 

Chap. vi. — Phanes and Pluto. 

" This ^gg, then, which was the first substance, growing 
somewhat hot, was broken by the living creature within, and 
then there took shape and came forth something ; ^ such as 
Orpheus also speaks of, where he says, ' when the capacious 
egg was broken,' ^ etc. And so by the mighty power of that 
which appeared (phaneis) and came forth, the globe attained 
coherency, and maintained order, while it itself took its seat, 
as it were, on the summit of heaven, there in ineffable mys- 
tery diffusing light through endless ages. But the productive 
matter left inside the globe, separated the substances of all 
things. For first its lower part, just like dregs, sank down- 
wards of its own weight ; and this they called Pluto from 
its gravity, and weight, and great quantity (polu) of under- 
lying matter, styling it the king of Hades and the dead. 

Chap. vii. — Poseidon^ Zeus, and Metis. 

" When, then, they say that this primordial substance, 
although most filthy and rough, was devoured by Kronos, 
that is, time, this is to be understood in a physical sense, as 
meaning that it sank downwards. And the water which 
flowed together after this first sediment, and floated on the 

^ Wieseler corrects to " some such being," etc. ; and below, " of him 
who appeared," etc. ; and " he took his seat." 

2 The first word of this quotation gives no sense, and has been omitted 
in the translation. Lobeck suggests " at its prime ; " Hermann, " Hera- 
capeian ; " Duentzer, "ancient;" and Wieseler, "white." 


surface of the first substance, they called Poseidon. And then 
what remained, the purest and noblest of all, for it was trans- 
lucent fire, they called Zeus, from its glowing (zeousa) nature. 
Now since fire ascends, this was not swallowed, and made to 
descend by time or Kronos ; but, as I said, the fiery substance, 
since it has life in it, and naturally ascends, flew right up into 
the air, which from its purity is very intelligent. By his own 
proper heat, then, Zeus — that is, the glowing substance — 
draws up what is left in the underlying moisture, to wit, that 
very strong ^ and divine spirit which they called Metis. 

Chap. viii. — Pallas and Hem. 

" And this, when it had reached the summit of the aether, 
was devoured by it (moisture being mixed with heat, so to 
say) ; and causing in it that ceaseless palpitation, it begat 
intelligence, which they call Pallas from this palpitating 
(pallesthai). And this is artistic wisdom, by which the sethe- 
rial artificer wrought out the whole world. And from all- 
pervading Zeus, that is, from this very hot aether, air (aer) 
extends all the way to our earth ; and this they call Hera. 
Wherefore, because it has come below the aether, which is 
the purest substance (just as a woman, as regards purity, is 
inferior), when the two \Yere compared to see which was the 
better, she was rightly regarded as the sister of Zeus, in 
respect of her origin from the same substance, but as his 
spouse, as being inferior like a wife. 

Chap. ix. — Artemis. 

" And Ilera we understand to be a happy tempering 
of the atmosphere, and therefore she is very fruitful ; but 
Athena, as they call Pallas, was reckoned a virgin, because 
on account of the intense heat she could produce nothing. 
And in a similar fashion Artemis is explained : for her they 
take as the lowest depth of air, and so they called her a 
viriiin, because she could not bear any thin o; on account of 
the extreme cold. And that troubled and drunken com- 
position which arises from the upper and lower vapours 
^ The Paris MS. has " very fine." 


they called Dionysus, as troubling the intellect. And the 
water under the earth, which is in nature indeed one, but 
which flows through all the paths of earth, and is divided 
into many parts, they called Osiris, as being cut in pieces. 
And they understand Adonis as favourable seasons. Aphro- 
dite as coition and generation, Demeter as the earth, the 
Girl (Proserpine) as seeds; and Dionysus some understand as 
the vine. 

Chap. x. — All such stories are allegorical, 

"And I must ask you to think of all such stories as embody- 
ing some such allegory. Look on Apollo as the wandering 
Sun (joeri-polon), a son of Zeus, who was also called Mithras, 
as completing the period of a year. And these said transfor- 
mations of the all-pervading Zeus must be regarded as the 
numerous changes of the seasons, while his numberless wives 
you must understand to be years, or generations. For the 
power which proceeds from the sether and passes through the 
air unites with all the years and generations in turn, and 
continually varies them, and so produces or destroys the 
crops. And ripe fruits are called his children, the barrenness 
of some seasons being referred to unlawful unions." 

Chap. xi. — Clement has heard all this before» 

While Appion was allegorizing in this way, I became 
plunged in thought, and seemed not to be following what he 
was saying. So he interrupted his discourse, and said to me, 
" If you do not follow what I am saying, why should I speak 
at all?" And I answered, "Do not suppose that I do not 
understand what you say. I understand it thoroughly ; and 
that the more that this is not the first time I have heard it. 
And that you may know that I am not ignorant of these 
things, I shall epitomize what you have said, and supply in 
their order, as I have heard them from others, the allegorical 
interpretations of those stories you have omitted." And 
Appion said : " Do so." 


Chap. xii. — Epitome of Appion^s explanation. 

And I answered : " I shall not at present speak particu- 
larly of that living Qgg^ which was conceived by a happy 
combination out of infinite matter, and from which, when 
it was broken, the masculo-feminine Phanes leaped forth, as 
some say. I say little about all that, up to the point when 
this broken globe attained coherency, there being left in it 
some of its marrow-like matter ; and I shall briefly run over 
the description of what took place in it by the agency of this 
matter, with all that followed. For from Kronos and Rhea 
were born, as you say — that is, by time and matter — first 
Pluto, who represents the sediment which settled down ; and 
then Poseidon, the liquid substance in the middle,-^ which 
floated over the heavier body below ; and the third child — 
that is, Zeus — is the aether, and is highest of all. It was 
not devoured ; but as it is a fiery power, and naturally 
ascends, it flew up as with a bound to the very highest aether. 

Chap. xiii. — Kronos and Aphrodite, 

" And the bonds of Kronos are the binding together of 
heaven and earth, as I have heard others allegorizing ; and 
his mutilation is the separation and parting of the elements ; 
for they all were severed and separated, according to their 
respective natures, that each kind might be arranged by 
itself. And time no longer begets anything ; but the things 
which have been begotten of it, by a law of nature, produce 
their successors. And the Aphrodite who emerged from the 
sea is the fruitful substance which arises out of moisture, 
with which the warm spirit mixing, causes that sexual desire, 
and perfects the beauty of the world. 

Chap. xiv. — Peleus and TJietis^ Prometheus^ AchilleSy 
and Polyxena. 

'' And the marriage banquet, at which Zeus held the feast 
on the occasion of the marriage of the Nereid Thetis and 
the beautiful Peleus, has in it this allegory, — that you may 
^ This is "Wieseler's conjecture. 


know, Applon, that you are not the only one from whom I 
have heard this sort of thing. Tlie banquet, then, is the 
world, and the twelve are these heavenly props of the Fates,^ 
called the Zodiac. Prometheus is foresight (^prometheia), by 
which all things arose : Peleus is clay (pelos)^ namely, that 
which was collected'^ from the earth and mixed with Nereis, 
or water, to produce man ; and from the mixing of the two, 
i.e. water and earth, the first offspring was not begotten, but 
fashioned complete, and called Achilles, because he never 
put his lips (clieile) to the breast.^ Still in the bloom of life, 
he is slain by an arrow while desiring to have Polyxena, 
that is, something other than the truth, and foreign (xene) to 
it, death stealing on him through a wound in his foot. 

Chap. xv. — The judgment of Paris. 

"Then Hera, and Athena, and Aphrodite, and Eris, and 
the apple, and Hermes, and the judgment, and the shepherd, 
have some such hidden meaning as the following : — Hera is 
dignity ; Athena, manliness ; Aphrodite, pleasure ; Hermes, 
language, which interprets (liermeneutiJws) thought ; the 
shepherd Paris, unreasoned and brutish passion. Now if, 
in the prime of life, reason, that shepherd of the soul, is 
brutish, does not regard its own advantage, will have nothing 
to do with manliness and temperance, chooses only pleasure, 
and gives the prize to lust alone, bargaining that it is to 
receive in return from lust what may delight it, — he who 
thus judges incorrectly will choose pleasure to his own de- 
struction and that of his friends. And Eris is jealous spite ; 
and the golden apples of the Hesperides are perhaps riches, 
by which occasionally even temperate persons like Hera are 
seduced, and manly ones like Athena are made jealous, so 
that they do things which do not become them, and the 

^ The Latin takes "moira" in the sense of "district," and translates, 
" these props of the districts of the sky." 

2 This is Wieseler's conjecture for the reading of the mss., " con- 

^ This is Schwegler's restoration of the passage. Davisius proposes, 
" He is in the bloom of hfe, at which tune if any one desires," etc. 


soul's beauty like Aphrodite is destroyed under the guise 
of refinement. To speak briefly, in all men riches provoke 
evil discord. 

Chap. xvi. — Hercules. 

^^ And Hercules, who slew the serpent which led and 
guarded riches, is the true philosophical reason which, free 
from all wickedness, wanders all over the world, visiting 
the souls of men, and chastising all it meets, — namely, men 
like fierce lions, or timid stags, or savage boars, or multi- 
form hydras ; and so with all the other fabled labours of 
Hercules, they all have a hidden reference to moral valour. 
But these instances must suffice, for all our time would be 
insufficient if we were to go over each one. 

Chap. xvii. — They are hlameioorthy who invented such stories. 

" Now, since these things can be clearly, profitably, and 
without prejudice to piety, set forth in an open and straight- 
forward manner, I wonder you call those men sensible and 
wise who concealed them under crooked riddles, and overlaid 
them with filthy stories, and thus, as if impelled by an evil 
spirit, deceived almost all men. For either these things are 
not riddles, but real crimes of the gods, in which case they 
should not have been exposed to contempt, nor should these 
their deeds have been set before men at all as models ; or 
things falsely attributed to the gods Avere set forth in an alle- 
gory, and then, Appion, they whom you call wise erred, in 
that, by concealing under unworthy stories things in them- 
selves worthy, they led men to sin, and that not without 
dishonouring those whom they believed to be gods. 

Chap, xviii. — The same. 

" Wherefore do not suppose that they were wise men, but 
rather evil spirits, who could cover honourable actions with 
wicked stories, in order that they who wish to imitate their 
betters may emulate these deeds of so-called gods, which 
yesterday in my discourse I spoke so freely of, — -namely, 
their parricides, their murders of their children, their incests 


of all kinds, tlieir shameless adulteries and countless im- 
purities. The most impious of them are tliose who wish 
these stories to be believed, in order that they may not be 
ashamed when they do the like. If they had been disposed 
to act reverently, they ought, as I said a little ago, even if 
the gods really did the things which are sung of them, to 
have veiled their indecencies under more seemly stories, and 
not, on the contrary, as you say they did, when the deeds 
of the gods were honourable, clothed them in wicked and 
indecent forms, which, 3ven when interpreted, can only be 
understood by much labour; and when they were under- 
stood by some, they indeed got for their much toil the 
privilege of not being deceived, which they might have had 
without the toil, while they who were deceived were utterly 
ruined. (Those, however, who trace the allegories to a more 
honourable source I do not object to ; as, for instance, those 
who explain one allegory by saying that it was wisdom which 
sprang from the head of Zeus.) On the whole, it seems to 
me more probable that wicked men, robbing the gods of their 
honour, ventured to promulgate these insulting stories. 

Chap. xix. — None of these allegories are consistent. 

" Nor do we find the poetical allegory about any of the gods 
consistent with itself. To go no further than the fashioning 
of the universe, the poets now say that nature was the first 
cause of the whole creation, now that it was mind. For, say 
they, the first moving and mixing of the elements came from 
nature, but it was the foresight of mind which arranged them 
in order. Even when they assert that it was nature which 
fashioned the universe, being unable absolutely to demon- 
strate this on account of the traces of desim in the work, 
they inweave the foresight of mind in such a way that they 
are able to entrap even the wisest. But we say to them : If 
the world arose from self-moved nature, how did it ever take 
proportion and shape, which cannot come but from a super- 
intending wisdom, and can be comprehended only by know- 
ledge, which alone can trace such things ? If, on the other 
hand, it is by wisdom that all things subsist and maintain 


order, how can it be that those things arose from self-moved 
chance ? 

Chap. xx. — These gods were really wiched magicians. 

" Then those who chose to make dishonourable allegories of 
divine things — as, for instance, that Metis was devoured by 
Zeus — have fallen into a dilemma, because they did not see 
that they who in these stories about the gods indirectly taught 
physics, denied the very existence of the gods, resolving all 
kinds of gods into mere allegorical representations of the various 
substances of the universe. And so it is more likely that the 
gods these persons celebrate were some sort of wicked magi- 
cians, who were in reality wicked men, but by magic assumed 
different shapes, committed adulteries, and took away life, 
and thus to the men of old who did not understand masjic 
seemed to be gods by the things they did ; and the bodies and 
tombs of these men are to be seen in many towns. 

Chap. xxi. — Tlieir graves are still to be seen, 

'' For instance, as I have mentioned already, in the Cauca- 
sian mountains there is shown the tomb of a certain Kronos, a 
man, and a fierce monarch who slew his children. And the 
son of this man, called Zeus, became worse [than his father] ; 
and having by the power of magic been declared ruler of the 
universe, he committed many adulteries, and inflicted punish- 
ment on his father and uncles, and so died ; and the Cretans 
show his tomb. And in Mesopotamia there lie buried a cer- 
tain Helios at Atir, and a certain Selene at Carrhse. A 
certain Hermes, a man, lies buried in Egypt; Ares in Thrace; 
Aphrodite in Cyprus ; JEsculapius in Epidaurus ; and the 
tombs of many other such persons are to be seen. 

Chap. xxii. — Tlieir contemporaries, therefore^ did not look on 

them as gods, 

" Thus, to right thinking men, it is clear that they were 
admitted to be mortals. And their contemporaries, knowing 
that they were mortal, when they died paid them no more 
heed ; and it was leno-th of time which clothed them with 


the glory of gods. Nor need you wonder that they who 
lived in the times of ^sculapius and Hercules were deceived, 
or the contemporaries of Dionysus or any other of the men 
of that time, when even Hector in Ilium, and Achilles in 
the island of Leuce, are worshipped by the inhabitants of 
those places ; and the Opuntines worship Patroclus, and the 
Rhodians Alexander of Macedon. 

Chap, xxiii. — The Egyptians fay divine Jionours to a man. 

"Moreover, among the Egyptians even to the present day, 
a man is worshipped as a god before his death. And this 
truly is a small impiety, that the Egyptians give divine 
honours to a man in his lifetime ; but what is of all things 
most absurd is, that they worship birds and creeping things, 
and all kinds of beasts. For the mass of men neither think 
nor do anything with discretion. But look, I pray you, at 
what is most disgraceful of all : he who is with them the 
father of gods and men is said by them to have had inter- 
course with Leda ; and many of them set up in public a 
painting of this, writing above it the name Zeus. To punish 
this insult, I could wish that they would paint their own pre- 
sent king in such base embraces as they have dared to do 
with Zeus, and set it up in public, that from the anger of a 
temporary monarch, and him a mortal, they might learn to 
render honour where it is due. This I say to you, not as 
myself already knowing the true God ; but I am happy to 
say that even if I do not know who is God, I think I at least 
know clearly what God is. 

Chap. xxiv. — What is not God. 

" And first, then, the four original elements cannot be God, 
because they have a cause. Nor can that mixing be God, 
nor that compounding, nor that generating, nor that globe 
which surrounds the visible universe ; nor the dregs which 
flow together in Hades, nor the water which floats over them ; 
nor the fiery substance, nor the air which extends from it to 
our earth. For the four elements, if they lay outside one 
another, could not have been mixed together so as to gene- 


rate animal life without some great artificer. If they have 
always been united, even in this case they are fitted together 
by an artistic mind to what is requisite for the limbs and 
parts of animals, that they may be able to preserve their 
respective proportions, may have a clearly defined shape, and 
that all the inward parts may attain the fitting coherency. 
In the same way also the positions suitable for each are de- 
termined, and that very beautifully, by the artificer mind. 
To be brief, in all other things which a livincj creature must 
have, this great being of the world is in no respect wanting. 

Chap. xxv. — The universe is the product of mind, 

'^ Thus we are shut up to the supposition that there is an 
unbe2;otten artificer, who brought the elements toirether, if 
they were separate ; or, if they were together, artistically 
blended them so as to generate life, and perfected from all 
one work. For it cannot be that a work which is completely 
wise can be made without a mind which is greater than it. 
Nor will it do to say that love is the artificer of all things, or 
desire, or power, or any such thing. All these are liable to 
change, and transient in their very nature. Nor can that be 
God which is moved by another, much less what is altered 
by time and nature, and can be annihilated." 

Chap. xxvi. — Peter arrives from Ccesarea. 

While I was saying these things to Appion, Peter drew 
near from Csesarea, and in Tyre the people were flocking 
together, hurrying to meet him and unite in an expression 
of gratification at his visit. And Appion withdrew, accom- 
panied by Anubion and Athenodorus only ; but the rest of 
us hurried to meet Peter, and I was the first to greet him at 
the gate, and I led him towards the inn. When w^e ar- 
rived, we dismissed the people ; and when he deigned to ask 
what had taken place, I concealed nothing, but told him of 
Simon's slanders, and the monstrous shapes he had taken, 
and all the diseases he had sent after the sacrificial feast, 
and that some of the sick persons were still there in Tyre, 
while others had gone on with Simon to Sidon just as I 


arrived, hoping to be cured by him, but that I had heard 
that none of them had been cured by him. I also told 
Peter of the controversy I had had with Appion ; and he, 
from his love to me, and desiring to encourage me, praised 
and blessed me. Then, having supped, he betook himself 
to the rest the fatigues of his journey rendered so necessary. 


Chap. i. — Peter addresses the 'people. 

IND on the fourth dav of our stay in Tyre, Peter 
went out about daybreak, and there met him not 
a few of the dwellers round about, with very 
many of the inhabitants of Tyre itself, who cried 
out, and said, " God through you have mercy upon us, God 
through you heal us ! " And Peter stood on a high stone, 
that all might see him ; and having greeted them in a godly 
manner, thus began ; 

Chap. ii. — Reason of Simoris poioer. 

^^ God, who created the heavens and the whole universe, 
does not want occasion for the salvation of those who would 
be saved. Wherefore let no one, in seeming evils, rashly 
charge Him with unkindness to man. For men do not know 
the issue of those things which happen to them, nay, suspect 
that the result will be evil ; but God knows that they will 
turn out well. So is it in the case of Simon. He is a 
power of the left hand of God, and has authority to do 
harm to those who know not God, so that he has been able 
to involve you in diseases ; but by these very diseases, which 
have been permitted to come upon you by the good provi- 
dence of God, you, seeking and finding him who is able to 
cure, have been compelled to submit to the will of God on 
the occasion of the cure of the body, and to think of believ- 
ing, in order that in this way you may have your souls as 
well as your bodies in a healthy state. 


Chap. hi. — The remedy, 

" Now I have been told, that after he had sacrificed an ox 
he feasted you in the middle of the forum, and that you, being 
carried away with much wine, made friends with not only the 
evil demons, but their prince also, and that in this way the most 
of you were seized by these sicknesses, unwittingly drawing 
upon yourselves with your own hands the sword of destruc- 
tion. For the demons would never have had power over you, 
had not you first supped with their prince. For thus from 
the beginning was a law laid by God, the Creator of all 
things, on each of the two princes, him of the right hand and 
him of the left, that neither should have power over any one 
whom they might wish to benefit or to hurt, unless first he 
had sat down at the same table with them. As, then, when 
you partook of meat offered to idols, you became servants to 
the prince of evil, in like manner, if you cease from these 
things, and flee for refuge to God through the good Prince 
of His right hand, honouring Him w^ithout sacrifices, by doing 
whatsoever He wills, know of a truth that not only will your 
bodies be healed, but your souls also will become healthy. 
For He only, destroying with His left hand, can quicken with 
His right ; He only can both smite and raise the fallen. 

Chap. iv. — The golden rule, 

*^ Wherefore, as then ye were deceived by the forerunner 
Simon, and so became dead in your souls to God, and were 
smitten in your bodies ; so now, if you repent, as I said, and 
submit to those things which are well-pleasing to God, you 
may get new strength to your bodies, and recover your soul's 
health. And the things which are well-pleasing to God are 
these : to pray to Him, to ask from Him, recognising that 
He is the giver of all things, and gives with discriminating 
law ; to abstain from the table of devils, not to taste dead 
flesh, not to touch blood ; to be washed from all pollution ; and 
the rest in one word, — as the God-fearing Jews have heard, 


do you also hear, and be of one mind in many bodies ; let each 
man be minded to do to his neighbour those good things he 
wishes for himself. And you may all find out what is good, 
by holding some such conversation as the following with 
yourselves : You would not like to be murdered ; do not 
murder another man : you would not like your wife to be 
seduced by another ; do not you commit adultery : you would 
not like any of your things to be stolen from you ; steal 
nothing from another. And so understanding by yourselves 
what is reasonable, and doing it, you will become dear to 
God, and will obtain healing ; otherwise in the life which now 
is your bodies will be tormented, and in that which is to come 
your souls will be punished." 

Chap. v. — Peter departs for Sidon, 

After Peter had spent a few days in teaching them in this 
way, and in healing them, they were baptized. And after 
that,^ all sat down together in the market-places in sackcloth 
and ashes, grieving because of his other w^ondrous works, and 
repenting their former sins. And when they of Sidon heard it, 
they did likewise, and sent to beseech Peter, since they could 
not come themselves for their diseases. And Peter did not 
spend many days in Tyre ; but when he had instructed all its 
inhabitants, and freed them from all manners of diseases, 
and had founded a church, and set over it as bishop one of 
the elders who w^ere with him, he departed for Sidon. But 
when Simon heard that Peter was coming, he straightway 
fled to Beyrout with Appion and his friends. 

Chap. vi. — Peter in Sidon. 

And as Peter entered Sidon, they brought many in couches, 
and laid them before him. And he said to them : " Think 
not, I pray you, that I can do anything to heal you, who 

^ We have adopted Wieseler's emendation. The text may be trans- 
lated thus : " And after that, among his other -wondrous deeds, all the 
rest (who had not been baptized) sat down," etc. 


am a mortal man, myself subject to many evils. But I 
shall not refuse to show you the way in which you must be 
saved. For I have learned from the Prophet of truth the 
conditions fore-ordained of God before the foundation of the 
world ; that is to say, the evil deeds which if men do He has 
ordained that they shall be injured by the prince of evil, and 
in like manner the good deeds for which He has decreed 
that they who have believed in Him as their Physician shall 
have their bodies made whole, and their souls established in 

Chap. vii. — The two paths, 

" Knowing, then, these good and evil deeds, I make known 
unto you as it were two paths, and I shall show you by which 
travellers are lost and by which they are saved, being guided 
of God. The path of the lost, then, is broad and very smooth — 
it ruins them without troubling them ; but the path of the 
saved is narrow, rugged, and in the end it saves, not without 
much toil, those who have journeyed through it. And these 
two paths are presided over by unbelief and faith ; and these 
journey through the path of unbelief, those who have preferred 
pleasure, on account of which they have forgotten the day of 
judgment, doing that which is not pleasing to God, and not 
caring to save their souls by the word, and have not anxiously 
sought their own good. Truly they know not that the coun- 
sels of God are not like men's counsels ; for, in the first 
place. He knows the thoughts of all men, and all must give an 
account not only of their actions, but also of their thoughts. 
And their sin is much less who strive to understand well and 
fail, than that of those w^ho do not at all strive after good 
things. Because it has pleased God that he who errs in his 
knowledge of good, as men count errors, should be saved 
after being slightly punished. But they who have taken no 
care at all to know the better way, even though they may 
have done countless other good deeds, if they have not stood 
in the service He has Himself appointed, come under the 
charge of indifference, and are severely punished, and utterly 


Chap. viii. — The service of GocCs appointment 

" xA.nd this is the service He has appointed : To worship 
Him only, and trust only in the Prophet of truth, and to 
be baptized for the remission of sins, and thus by this pure 
baptism to be born again unto God by saving water ; to ab- 
stain from the table of devils, that is, from food offered to 
idols, from dead carcases, from animals which have been 
suffocated or caught by wild beasts, and from blood ; not to 
live any longer impurely ; to wash after intercourse ; that the 
women on their part should keep the law of purification ; that 
all should be sober-minded, given to good works, refraining 
from wronfT-doincr lookino; for eternal life from the all- 
powerful God, and asking with prayer and continual suppli- 
cation that they may win it." Such was Peter's counsel to 
the men of Sidon also. And in few days many repented 
and believed, and were healed. And Peter having founded 
a church, and set over it as bishop one of the elders who were 
with him, left Sidon. 

Chap. ix. — Simon attacks Peter, 

No sooner had he reached Beyrout than an earthquake took 
place ; and the multitude, running to Peter, said, " Help us, 
for v/e are afraid we shall all utterly perish." Then Simon 
ventured, along with Appion and Anubion and Athenodorus, 
and the rest of his companions, to cry out to the people against 
Peter in public : " Flee, friends, from this man ! he is a magi- 
cian ; trust us, he it was who caused this earthquake : he sent 
us these diseases to terrify us, as if he were God Himself." 
And many such false charges did Simon and his friends bring 
against Peter, as one who could do things above human power. 
But as soon as the people gave him a moment's quiet, Peter 
with surprising boldness gave a little laugh, and said, "Friends, 
I admit that I can do, God willing, what these men say ; and 
more than that, I am ready, if you do not believe wdiat I say, 
to overturn your city from top to bottom." 


CiiAP. X. — Simon is driven away. 

And the people were afraid, and promised to do whatever 
he should command. " Let none of you, then," said Peter, 
^^ either hold conversation with these sorcerers, or have any- 
thing to do wdth them." And as soon as the people heard 
this concise command, they took up sticks, and pursued them 
till they had driven them wholly out of the town. And they 
who were sick and possessed with devils came and cast them- 
selves at Peter's feet. And he seeing all this, and anxious 
to free them from their terror, said to them : 

Chap. xi. — The ivay of salvation, 

" Were I able to cause earthquakes, and do all that I wish, 
I assure you I would not destroy Simon and his friends 
(for not to destroy men am I sent), but would make him my 
friend, that he might no longer, by his slanders against my 
preaching the truth, hinder the salvation of many. But if 
you believe me, he himself is a magician ; he is a slanderer ; 
he is a minister of evil to them who know not the truth. 
Therefore he has power to bring diseases on sinners, having 
the sinners themselves to help him in his power over them. 
But I am a servant of God the Creator of all things, and a 
disciple of His Prophet who is at His right hand. Wherefore 
I, being His apostle, preach the truth : to serve a good man I 
drive away diseases, for I am His second messenger, since first 
the disease comes, but after that the healing. By that evil- 
working magician, then, you were stricken with disease be- 
cause you revolted from God. By me, if you believe on Him 
ye shall be cured ; and so having had experience that He is 
able, you may turn to good works, and have your souls saved." 

Chap. xii. — Peter goes to Byhlus and Tripolis, 

As he said these things, all fell on their knees before his 
feet. And he, Hfting up his hands to heaven, prayed to God, 


and healed tliem all by his simple prayer alone. And he 
remained not many days in Beyrout; but after he had 
accustomed many to the service of the one God, and had 
baptized them, and had set over them a bishop from the elders 
who were with him, he went to Byblus. And when he came 
there, and learned that Simon had not waited for them for a 
day, but had gone straightway to Tripolis, he remained there 
only a few days ; and after that he had healed not a few, 
and exercised them in the Scriptures, he followed in Simon's 
track to Tripolis, preferring to pursue him rather than flee 
from him. 


Chap. i. — Peters arrival at Tripolis, 

OW, as Peter was entering Tripolis, the people 
from Tyre and Siclon, Berytus and Byblas, who 
were eager^ to get instructionj and many from 
the neighbourhood, entered along with him ; and 
not least were there gatherings of the multitudes from the city 
itself wishing to see him. Therefore there met with us in the 
suburbs the brethren who had been sent forth by him to 
ascertain as well other particulars respecting the city, as the 
proceedings of Simon, and to come and explain them. They 
received him, and conducted him to the house of Maroones. 

Chap. ii. — Peter s thoughtfulness. 

But he, when he was at the very gate of his lodging, 
turned round, and promised to the multitudes that after the 
next day he would converse with them on the subject of 
religion. And when he had gone in, the forerunners assigned 
lodgings to those who had come with him. And the hosts 
and the entertainers did not fall short of the desire of those 
who sought hospitality. But Peter, knowing nothing of this, 
being asked by us to partake of food, said that he would not 
himself partake until those who had come with him were 
settled. And on our assuring him that this was already 
done, all having received them eagerly by reason of their 
affection towards him, so that those were grieved beyond 
measure who had no guests to entertain, — Peter hearing 
this, and being pleased with their eager philanthropy, blessed 
them and went out, and having bathed in the sea, partook of 
^ Lit. : more willing to learn [than the others]. 


food with tlie forerunners; and then, the evening having 
come, he slppt. 

Chap. hi. — A conversation interrupted. 

But awaking about the second cock-crowing, he found us 
astir. We were in all sixteen, viz. Peter himself, and I 
Clement, Nicetas and Aquila, and the twelve who bad pre- 
ceded us. Having therefore saluted us, he said, " To-daj, 
not being occupied with those without, we are free to be 
occupied with one another. Wherefore I shall tell you the 
things that happened after your departure from Tyre ; and 
do you minutely relate to me what have been the doings of 
Simon here." While, therefore, we were answering one 
another by narratives on either side, one of our friends 
entered, and announced to Peter that Simon, learning of his 
arrival, had set off for Syria, and that the multitudes, think- 
ing this one night to be like a year's time, and not able to 
wait for tlie appointment which he had made, were standing 
before the doors conversing with one another in knots and 
circles about the accusation brought by Simon, and how that, 
having raised their expectations, and promised that he would 
charge Peter when he came with many evils, he had fled by 
night when he knew of his arrival. " However," said he, 
'^ they are eager to hear you ; and I know not whence some 
rumour has reached them to the effect that you are going to 
address them to-day. In order, therefore, that they may not 
when they are very tired be dismissed without reason, you 
yourself know what it is proper for you to do." 

Chap. iv. — Many called. 

Then Peter, w^ondering at the eagerness of the multitudes, 
ansvrered, " You see, brethren, how the words of our Lord 
are manifestly fulfilled. For I remember His saying, * Many 
shall come from the east and from the west, the north and 
the south, and shall rechne on the bosoms- of Abraham, and 
Isaac, and Jacob.' ^ 'But many,' said He also, 'are called, 
but few chosen.'^ The coming, therefore, of these called 
1 Matt. viii. 11 ; Luke xiil 29. ^ ^att. xx. 16. 


ones is fulfilled. But inasmuch as it is not of themselves, 
but of God who has called them and caused them to come, 
on this account alone they have no reward, since it is not of 
themselves, but of Him who has wrought in them. But if, 
after being called, they do things that are excellent, for this 
is of themselves, then for this they shall have a reward. 

Chap. v. — Faith the gift of God. 

" For even the Hebrews who believe Moses, and do not 
observe the things spokv^n by him, are not saved, unless they 
observe the things that were spoken to them. For their 
believing Moses was not of their own will, but of God, who 
said to Moses, ' Behold, I come to thee in a pillar of cloud, 
that the people may hear me speaking to thee, and may be- 
lieve thee for ever.' "^ Since, therefore, both to the Hebrews 
and to those who are called from the Gentiles, believing in 
the teachers of truth is of God, while excellent actions are 
left to every one to do by his own judgment, the reward is 
righteously bestowed upon those who do welL For there 
would have been no need of Moses, or of the coming of 
Jesus, if of themselves they would have understood what is 
reasonable. Neither is there salvation in believing in teachers 
and callino; them lords. 

Chap. yi. — Concealment and revelation, 

" For on this account Jesus is concealed from the Jews, who 
have taken Moses as their teacher, and Moses is hidden from 
those who have believed Jesus. For, there being one teach- 
ing by botli, God accepts him who has believed either of 
these. But believing a teacher is for the sake of doing the 
things spoken by God. And that this is so our Lord Him- 
self says, ' I thank thee. Father of heaven and earth, because 
Thou hast concealed these things from the wise and elder, 
and hast revealed them to sucking babes.' ^ Thus God Him- 
self has concealed a teacher from some, as foreknowing what 
they ought to do, and has revealed him to others, wdio are 
ignorant what they ought to do. 

1 Ex. xix. 9. 2 ;^xatt. xi. 25. 


Chap. vii. — Moses and Christ, 

" Neither, therefore, are the Hebrews condemned on ac- 
count of their ignorance of Jesus, by reason of Him who has 
concealed Him, if, doing the things [commanded] by Closes, 
they do not hate Him whom they do not know. Neither are 
those from among the Gentiles condemned, who know not 
Moses on account of Him who hath concealed him, provided 
that these also, doing the things spoken by Jesus, do not hate 
Him whom they do not know. And some will not be profited 
by calling the teachers lords, but not doing the works of 
servants. For on this account our Jesus Himself said to 
one who often called Him Lord, but did none of the things 
which He prescribed, 'Why call ye me Lord, Lord, and 
do not the things which I say ?'^ For it is not saying that 
will profit any one, but doing. By all means, therefore, is 
there need of good works. Moreover, if any one has been 
thought worthy to recognise both as preaching one doctrine, 
that man has been counted rich in God, understanding both 
the old things as new in time, and the new things as old." 

Chap. yiii. — A large congregation. 

While Peter was thus speaking, the multitudes, as if they 
had been called by some one, entered into the place where 
Peter was. Then he, seeing a great multitude, like the 
smooth current of a river gently flowing towards him, said 
to Maroones, '^ Have you any place here that is better able 
to contain the crowd?"' Then Maroones conducted him to 
a garden-plot in the open air, and the multitudes followed. 
But Peter, standing upon a base of a statue which was not 
very high, as soon as he had saluted the multitude in pious 
fashion, knowing that many of the crowd that stood by were 
tormented with demons and many sufferings of long standing, 
and [hearing them] shrieking with lamentation, and falling 
down [before him] in supplication, rebuked them, and com- 
manded them to hold their peace ; and promising healing to 
them after the discourse, began to speak on this wise : — 

1 Matt vii. 21. 


Chap. ix. — " Vindicate the icays of God to menP 

" While beginning to discourse on the worship of God to 
those who are altogether ignorant of everything, and whose 
minds have been corrupted by the accusations of our adversary 
Simon, I have thought it necessary first of all to speak of the 
blamelessness of the God who hath made all things, starting 
from the occasion seasonably afforded by Him according to 
His providence, that it may be known how with good reason 
many are held by many demons, and subjected to strange 
sufferings, that in this the justice of God may appear ; and 
that those who through ignorance blame Him, now may learn 
by good speaking and well-doing what sentiments they ought 
to hold, and recall themselves from their previous accusation, 
assigning ignorance as the cause of their evil presumption, 
in order that they may be pardoned. 

Chap. X. — The original laiv, 

" But thus the matter stands. The only good God having 
made all things well, and having handed them over to man, 
who was made after His image, he who had been made 
breathing of the divinity of Him who made him, being a 
true prophet and knowing all things, for the honour of the 
Father who had given all things to him, and for the salvation 
of the sons born of him, as a genuine father preserving his 
affection towards the children born of him, and wishing; 
them, for their advantage, to love God and be loved of Him, 
showed them the way which leads to His friendship, teaching 
them by what deeds of men the one God and Lord of all is 
pleased ; and having exhibited to them the things that are 
pleasing to Him, appointed a perpetual law to all, which 
neither can be abrogated by enemies, nor is vitiated by any 
impious one, nor is concealed in any place, but which can be 
read by all. To them, therefore, by obedience to the law, all 
things were in abundance, — the fairest of fruits, fulness of 
years, freedom from grief and from disease, bestowed upon 
them without fear, with all salubrity of the air. 


Chap. xi. — Cause of the fall of man, 

"But thej, because they had at first no experience of 
evils, being insensible to the gift of good things, were 
turned to ingratitude by abundance of food and luxuries, 
so that they even thought that there is no Providence^ 
since they had not by previous labour got good things as 
the reward of righteousness, inasmuch as no one of them had 
fallen into any suffering or disease, or any other necessity ; 
so that, as is usual for men afflicted on account of wicked 
transgression, they should look about for the God who is able 
to heal them.^ But immediately after their despite, which 
proceeded from fearlessness and secure luxury, a certain just 
punishment met them, as following from a certain arranged 
harmony, removing from them good things as having hurt 
them, and introducing evil things instead, as advantageous. 

Chap. xii. — MefamorpJwses of the angels, 

" For of the spirits who inhabit the heaven, the angels who 
dwell in the lowest region, being grieved at the ingratitude 
of men to God, asked that they might come into the life of 
men, that, really becoming men, by more intercourse they 
might convict those who had acted ungratefully towards Him, 
and might subject every one to adequate punishment. When, 
therefore, their petition was granted, they metamorphosed 
themselves into every nature ; for, being of a more godlike 
substance, they are able easily to assume any form. So they 
became precious stones, and goodly pearl, and the most 
beauteous purple, and choice gold, and all matter that is held 
in most esteem. And they fell into the hands of some, and 
into the bosoms of others, and suffered themselves to be 
stolen by them. They also changed themselves into beasts 
and reptiles, and fishes and birds, and into whatsoever they 
pleased. These things also the poets among yourselves, by 
reason of fearlessness, sing, as they befell, attributing to one 
the many and diverse doings of all. 

^ The general meaning seems to bo as given ; but tlie text is un- 
doubtedly corrupt, and scarcely intelligible. 


Chap. xiii. — TJie fall of the angels, 

" But when, having assumed these forms, they convicted as 
covetous those who stole them, and changed themselves into 
the nature of men, in order that, living holily, and showing 
the possibility of so living, they might subject the ungrateful 
to punishment, yet having become in all respects men, they 
also partook of human lust, and being brought under its sub- 
jection they fell into cohabitation with women; and being 
involved with them, and sunk in defilement and altogether 
emptied of their first power, were unable to turn back to the 
first purity of their proper nature, their members turned 
away from their fiery substance '} for the fire itself, being 
extinguished by the weight of lust, [and changed] into flesh, 
they trode the impious path downward. For they them- 
selves, being fettered with the bonds of flesh, were con- 
strained and strongly bound ; wherefore they have no more 
been able to ascend into the heavens. 

Chap. xiv. — Tlieir discoveries. 

" For after the intercourse, being asked to show what they 
were before, and being no longer able to do so, on account of 
their being unable to do aught else after their defilement, yet 
wishing to please their mistresses, instead of themselves, they 
showed the bowels ^ of the earth ; I mean, the choice metals,* 
gold, brass, silver, iron, and the like, with all the most precious 
stones. And along with these charmed stones, they delivered 
the arts of the things pertaining to each, and imparted the 
discovery of magic, and taught astronomy, and the powers of 
roots, and whatever was impossible to be found out by the 
human mind; also the melting of gold and silver, and the 
like, and the various dyeing of garments. And all things, in 
short, which are for the adornment and delight of women, 
are the discoveries of these demons bound in fiesh. 

^ The text is somewliat obscure ; but the following sentence shows this 
to be the meaning of it. 
^ Literally, " the marrow." 
2 Literally, " the flowers of metals." 


Chap. xt. — The giants. 

'' But from their unhallowed intercourse spurious men 
sprang, much greater in stature than [ordinary] men, whom 
they afterwards called giants : not those dragon-footed giants 
who waged war against God, as those blasphemous myths of 
the Greeks do sing, but wild in manners, and greater than 
men in size, inasmuch as they were sprung of angels ; yet 
less than angels, as they were born of women. Therefore 
God, knowing that they were barbarized to brutality, and 
that the world was not sufficient to satisfy them (for it was 
created according to the proportion of men and human 
use), that they might not through want of food turn, con- 
trary to nature, to the eating of animals, and yet seem to 
be blameless, as having ventured upon this through neces- 
sity, the Almighty God rained manna upon them, suited to 
their various tastes ; and they enjoyed all that they would. 
But they, on account of their bastard nature, not being 
pleased with purity of food, longed only after the taste of 
blood. Wherefore they first tasted flesh. 

Chap. xvi. — Cannibalism, 

^' And the men who were with them there for the first time 
were eager to do the like. Thus, althouo-h we are born neither 
good nor bad, we become [one or the other] ; and having 
formed habits, we are with difficulty drawn from them. But 
when irrational animals fell short, these bastard men tasted 
also human flesh. For it was not a long step to the con- 
sumption of flesh like their own, having first tasted it in other 

Chap. xvii. — The flood. 

" But by the shedding of much blood, the pure air being 
defiled with impure vapour, and sickening those who breathed 
it, rendered them liable to diseases, so that thenceforth men 
died prematurely. But the earth being by these means 
greatly defiled, these first teemed with poison-darting and 
deadly creatures. All things, therefore, going from bad to 


worse, on account of these brutal demons, God wished to 
cast them away like an evil leaven, lest each generation from 
a wicked seed, being like to that before it, and equally impious, 
should empty the world to come of saved men. And for 
this purpose, having warned a certain righteous man, with 
his three sons, together with their wives and their children, 
to save themselves in an ark. He sent a deluge of water, that 
all being destroyed, the purified world might be handed over 
to him who was saved in the ark, in order to a second begin- 
ning of life. And thus it came to pass. 

Chap, xviii. — The laio to the survivors. 

" Since, therefore, the souls of the deceased giants were 
greater than human souls, inasmuch as they also excelled 
their bodies, they, as being a new race, were called also by a 
new name. And to those who survived in the world a law 
was prescribed of God through an angel, how they should 
live. For being bastards in race, of the fire of angels and 
the blood of women, and therefore liable to desire a certain 
race of their own, they were anticipated by a certain righteous 
law. For a certain angel was sent to them by God, declar- 
ing to them His will, and saying : 

Chap. xix. — The law to the giants or demons. 

^' ^ These things seem good to the all-seeing God, that you 
lord it over no man ; that you trouble no one, unless any one 
of his own accord subject himself to you, worshipping you, 
and sacrificing and pouring libations, and partaking of your 
table, or accomplishing aught else that they ought not, or 
shedding blood, or tasting dead flesh, or filling themselves 
with that which is torn of beasts, or that which is cut, or 
that which is strangled, or aught else that is unclean. But 
those who betake themselves to my law, you not only shall 
not touch, but shall also do honour to, and shall flee from, 
their presence. For whatsoever shall please them, being 
just, respecting you, that you shall be constrained to suffer. 
But if any of those who w^orship me go astray, either com- 
mitting adultery, or practising magic, or living impurely, or 



doing any other of the things which are not well-pleasing to 
me, then they will have to suffer something at your hands or 
those of others, according to my order. But upon them, 
when they repent, I, judging of their repentance, whether 
it he worthy of pardon or not, shall give sentence. These 
things, therefore, ye ought to remember and to do, well 
knowing that not even your thoughts shall be able to be 
concealed from Him.' 

Chap. xx. — Willing captives. 

" Having charged them to this effect, the angel departed. 
But you are still ignorant of this law, that every one who 
worships demons, or sacrifices to them, or partakes with them 
of their table, shall become subject to them and receive all 
punishment from them, as being under wicked lords. And 
you who, on account of ignorance of this [law], have been 
corrupted beside their altars,-^ and have been satiated with 
[food offered to] them, have come under their power, and 
do not know how you have been in every way injured in 
respect of your bodies. But you ought to know that the 
demons have no power over any one, unless first he be their 
table-companion ; since not even their chief can do anything 
contrary to the law imposed upon them by God, wherefore 
he has no power over any one w^ho does not worship him ; 
but neither can any one receive from them any of the things 
that he wishes, nor in anything be hurt by them, as you may 
learn from the followino; statement. 

Chap. xxi. — I^emptation of CJirist. 

" For once the king of the present time came to our King 
of rifrhteousness, usini^ no violence, for this w^as not in his 
power, but inducing and persuading, because the being per- 
suaded lies in the power of every one. Approaching him, 
therefore, as being king of things present, he said to the King 
of things future, ' All the kingdoms of the present world are 
subject to me ; also the gold and the silver and all the luxury 
of this world are under my power. Wherefore fall down 


and worship me, and I will give jou all these things.' And 
this he said, knowing that after He worshipped him he 
would have power also over Him, and thus would rob Him 
of the future glory and kingdom. But He, knowing all 
things, not only did not worship him, but would not receive 
aught of the things that were offered by him. For He 
pledged Himself with those that are His, to the effect that it 
is not lawful henceforth even to touch the things that are 
given over to him. Therefore He answered and said, ^ Thou 
shalt fear the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou 
serve.' ^ 

Chap. xxii. — The marriage supper. 

" However, the king of the impious, striving to bring over 
to his own counsel the King of the pious, and not being able, 
ceased his efforts, undertaking to persecute Him for the re- 
mainder of His life. But you, being ignorant of the fore- 
ordained law, are under his power through evil deeds. Where- 
fore you are polluted in body and soul, and in the present life 
you are tyrannized over by sufferings and demons, but in that 
which is to come you shall have your souls to be punished. 
And this not you alone suffer through ignorance, but also 
some of our nation, who by evil deeds having been brought 
under the power of the prince of wickedness, like persons 
invited to a supper by a father celebrating the marriage of his 
son, have not obeyed.^ But instead of those who through 
preoccupation disobeyed, the Father celebrating the marriage 
of his Son, has ordered us, through the Prophet of the truth, 
to come into the partings of the ways, that is, to you, and to 
invest you with the clean wedding-garment, which is baptism, 
which is for the remission of the sins done by you, and to 
bring the good to the supper of God by repentance, although 
at the first they were left out of the banquet. 

Chap, xxiii. — The assembly dismissed, 

^^ If, therefore, ye wish to be the vesture of the Divine 
Spirit, hasten first to put off your base presumption, which is 
^ Matt. iv. ; Luke iv. 2 [^f^tt. xxii. 


an unclean spirit and a foul garment. And this you cannot 
otherwise put off, than by being first baptized in good works. 
And thus being pure in body and in soul, you shall enjoy the 
future eternal kingdom. Therefore neither believe in idols, 
nor partake with them of the impure table, nor commit mur- 
der, nor adultery, nor hate those whom it is not right to hate, 
nor steal, nor set upon any evil deeds ; since, being deprived 
of the hope of future blessings in the present life, you shall 
be subjected to evil demons and terrible sufferings, and in 
the world to come you shall be punished with eternal fire. 
Now, then, what has been said is enough for to-day. For 
the rest, those of you who are afflicted with ailments remain 
for healing ; and of the others, you wdio please go in peace." 

Chap. xxiv. — The sick healed. 

When he had thus spoken, all of them remained, some in 
order to be healed, and others to see those who obtained 
cures. But Peter, only laying his hands upon them, and 
praying, healed them ; so that those wdio were straightaway 
cured were exceeding glad, and those who looked on exceed- 
ingly wondered, and blessed God, and believed with a firm 
hope, and w^ith those who had been healed departed to their 
own homes, having received a charge to meet early on the 
following day. And when they had gone, Peter remained 
there with his associates, and partook of food, and refreshed 
himself with sleep. 


^ W9 

Chap. i. — Peter s discourse resumed. 

HEREFOEE on the next day, Peter going out 
with his companions, and coming to the former 
place, and taking his stand, proceeded to say : 
" God having cut off by water all the impious 
men of old, having found one alone amongst them all that 
was pious, caused him to be saved in an ark, with his three 
sons and their wives. Whence may be perceived that it is 
His nature not to care for a multitude of wicked, nor to be 
indifferent to the salvation of one pious. Therefore the 
greatest impiety of all is forsaking the sole Lord of all, and 
worshipping many, who are no gods, as if they were gods. 

Chap. ii. — Monarchy and polyarchy. 

"If, therefore, while I expound and show you that this is 
the greatest sin, which is able to destroy you all, it occur to 
your mind that you are not destroyed, being great multitudes, 
you are deceived. For you have the example of the old 
world deluged. And yet their sin was much less than that 
which is chargeable against you. For they were wicked with 
respect to their equals, murdering or committing adultery. 
But you are wicked against the God of all, worshipping 
lifeless images instead of Him or along with Him, and attri- 
buting His divine name to every kind of senseless matter. 
In the first place, therefore, you are unfortunate in not know- 
ing the difference between monarchy and polyarchy — that 
monarchy, on the one hand, is productive of concord, but 
polyarchy is effective of wars. For unity does not fight with 



itself, but multitude has occasion of undertaking battle one 
against another. 

Chap. hi. — Family of Noe, 

" Therefore, straightway after the flood, Xoe continued 
to live three hundred and fifty years with the multitude of 
his descendants in concord, being a king according to the 
image of the one God. But after his death many of his 
descendants were ambitious of the kingdom, and being eager 
to reign, each one considered how it might be effected ; and 
one attempted it by war, another by deceit, another by per- 
suasion, and one in one way and another in another; one 
of whom was of the family of Ham, whose descendant was 
Mestren, from whom the tribes of the Egyptians and Baby- 
lonians and Persians were multiplied. 

Chap. iv. — Zoroaster. 

" Of this family there was born in due time a certain one, 
who took up with magical practices, by name Nebrod, who 
chose, giant-like, to devise things in opposition to God. Him 
the Greeks have called Zoroaster. He, after the deluge, being 
ambitious of sovereignty, and being a great magician, by 
magical arts compelled the world-guiding star of the wicked 
one who now rules, to the bestowal of the sovereignty [as a 
gift] from him. But he,^ being a prince, and having authority 
over him w^ho compelled him,^ wrathfully poured out the fire 
of the kingdom, that he might both bring to allegiance, and 
might punish him who at first constrained him. 

Chap. v. — Hero-worship, 

" Therefore the magician Nebrod, being destroyed by this 
lightning falling on earth from heaven, for this circumstance 
had his name changed to Zoroaster, on account of the living 
(J^waav) stream of the star (acrrepov) being poured upon him. 
But the unintellifrent amonn;st the men who then were, think- 
ino; that throuMi the love of God his soul had been sent for 

1 That is, I suppose, the wicked one. 

2 I suppose Nimrod, or Zoroaster- 


by llglitning, buried the remains of his body, and honoured 
his burial-place with a temple among the Persians, where 
the descent of the fire occurred, and worshipped him as a 
god. By this example also, others there bury those who die 
by lightning as beloved of God, and honour them with 
temples, and erect statues of the dead in their o^vn forms. 
Thence, in like manner, the rulers in different places were 
emulous [of like honour], and very many of them honoured 
the tombs of those who were beloved of them, though not 
dying by lightning, with temples and statues, and lighted up 
altars, and ordered them to be adored as gods. And long 
after, by the lapse of time, they were thought by posterity to 
be really gods. 

Chap. vi. — Fire-iuorsMp, 

**Thus, In this fashion, there ensued many partitions of 
the one original kingdom. The Persians, first taking coals 
from the lightning which fell from heaven, preserved them 
by ordinary fuel, and honouring the heavenly fire as a god, 
were honoured by the fire itself with the first kingdom, as its 
first worshippers. After them the Babylonians, stealing coals 
from the fire that was there, and conveying it safely to their 
own home, and worshipping it, they themselves also reigned 
in order. And the Egyptians, acting in like manner, and 
calling the fire in their own dialect PhtJiae, which is trans- 
lated Hephaistas or Osiris, he who first reigned amongst them 
is called by its name. Those also who reigned in different 
places, acting in this fashion, and making an image, and 
kindling altars in honour of fire, most of them were excluded 
from the kingdom. 

Chap. VII. — Sacrificial orgies. 

" But they did not cease to worship images, by reason of 
the evil intelligence of the magicians, who found excuses for 
them, which had power to constrain them to the foolish 
worship. For, establishing these things by magical cere- 
monies, they assigned them feasts from sacrifices, libations, 
flutes, and shoutings, by means of which senseless men, 


being deceived, and their kingdom being taken from them, 
yet did not desist from the worship that they had taken up 
with. To such an extent did they prefer error, on account 
of its pleasantness, before truth. Tliey also howl after their 
sacrificial surfeit, their soul from the depth, as it were by 
dreams, forewarning them of the punishment that is to befall 
such deeds of theirs. 

Ch^vp. VIII. — The best merchandise. 

" Many forms of worship, then, having passed away in the 
world, we come, bringing to you, as good merchantmen, the 
worship that has been handed down to us from our fathers, 
and preserved ; showing you, as it were, the seeds of plants, 
and placing them under your judgment and in your power. 
Choose that which seems good unto you. If, therefore, ye 
choose our wares, not only shall ye be able to escape demons, 
and the sufferings which are inflicted by demons, but your- 
selves also putting them to flight, and having them reduced 
to make supplication to you, shall for ever enjoy future 

Chap. ix. — How demons get power over men. 

" Since, on the other hand, you are oppressed by strange 
sufferings inflicted by demons, on your removal from the body 
you shall have your souls also punished for ever ; not indeed 
by God's inflicting vengeance, but because such is the judg- 
ment of evil deeds. For the demons, having power by means 
of the food given to them, are admitted into your bodies by 
your own hands ; and lying hid there for a long time, they 
become blended with your souls. And through the carelessness 
of those who think not, or even wish not, to help themselves, 
upon the dissolution of their bodies, their souls being united 
to the demon, are of necessity borne by it into whatever 
places it pleases. And what is most terrible of all, when at 
the end of all thinirs the demon is first consimicd to the 
purifying fire, the soul which is mixed with it is under the 
necessity of being horribly punished, and the demon of being 
pleased. For the soul, being made of light, and not capable 


of bearing the heterogeneous flame of fire, is tortured ; but 
the demon, being in the substance of his own kind, is greatly 
pleased, becoming the strong chain of the soul that he has 
swallowed up. 

Chap. x. — How they are to he expelled. 

" But the reason why the demons delight in entering into 
men's bodies is this. Being spirits, and having desires after 
meats and drinks, and sexual pleasures, but not being able 
to partake of these by reason of their being spirits, and 
wanting organs fitted for their enjoyment, they enter into 
the bodies of men, in order that, getting organs to minister 
to them, they may obtain the things that they wish, whether 
it be meat, by means of men's teeth, or sexual pleasure, by 
means of men's members. Hence, in order to the putting of 
demons to flight, the most useful help is abstinence, and 
fasting, and suffering of aflliction. For if they enter into 
men's bodies for the sake of sharing [pleasures], it is manifest 
that they are put to flight by suffering. But inasmuch as 
some,-^ being of a more malignant kind, remain by the body 
that is undergoing punishment, though they are punished 
with it, therefore it is needful to have recourse to God bv 
prayers and petitions, refraining from every occasion of im- 
purity, that the hand of God may touch him for his cure, as 
being pure and faithful. 

Chap. xi. — U7ihelief the deinoi'Hs stronghold. 

"But it is necessary in our prayers to acknowledge that we 
have had recourse to God, and to bear witness, not to the 
apathy, but to the slowness of the demon. For all things 
are done to the believer, nothing to the unbeliever. There- 
fore the demons themselves, knowing the amount of faith 
of those of whom they take possession, measure their stay 
proportionately. Wherefore they stay permanently with 
the unbelieving, tarry for a while with the weak in faith ; but 

^ The gender is here changed, but the sense shows tliat the reference 
is still to the demons. I suppose the author forgot that in the preceding 
sentences he liad written oo(.iu,oi^ig (masc.) and not ocayJvicc (neut.). 


TN'ith those who thoroughly believe, and who do good, they 
cannot remain even for a moment. For the soul being 
turned by faith, as it were, into the nature of water, quenches 
the demon as a spark of fire. The labour, therefore, of every 
one is to be solicitous about the putting to flight of his own 
demon. For, being mixed up with men's souls, they suggest 
fo every one's mind desires after what things they please, in 
order tliat he may neglect his salvation. 

Chap. xii. — Theory of disease, 

'•Whence many, not knowing how they are influenced, 
consent to the evil thoughts suggested by the demons, as if 
they were the reasoning of their own souls. Wherefore they 
become less active to come to those wdio are able to save 
them, and do not know that they themselves are held captive 
by the deceiving demons. Therefore the demons who lurk 
in their souls induce them to think that it is not a demon 
that is distressing them, but a bodily disease, such as some 
acrid matter, or bile, or phlegm, or excess of blood, or inflam- 
mation of a membrane, or something else. But even if this 
were so, the case would not be altered of its being a kind of 
demon. For the universal and earthly soul, which enters 
on account of all kinds of food, being taken to excess by over- 
much food, is itself united to the spirit, as being cognate, 
which is the soul of man ; and the material part of the food 
being united to the body, is left as a dreadful poison to it. 
"Wherefore in all respects moderation is excellent. 

Chap. xiii. — Deceits of the demons. 

'•' But some of the maleficent demons deceive in another 
way. For at first they do not even show their existence, in 
order that care may not be taken against them ; but in due 
time, by means of anger, love, or some other affection, they 
suddenly injure the body, by sword, or halter, or precipice, 
or something else, and at last bring to punishment the de- 
ceived souls of those who have been mixed up with them, as 
we said, withdrawing into the purifying fire. But others, 
who are deceived in another way, do not approach us, being 


seduced by the instigations of maleficent demons, as if they 
suffered these things at the hands of the gods themselves, 
on account of their neglect of them, and were able to recon- 
cile them by sacrifices, and that it is not needful to come to 
us, but rather to flee from and hate us. And at the same 
time "^ they hate and flee from those who have greater com- 
passion for them, and who follow after them in order to do 
good to them. 

Chap. xiv. — More tricks. 

" Therefore shunning and hating us they are deceived, not 
knowing how it happens that they devise things opposed to 
their health. For neither can we compel them against their 
will to incline towards health, since now we have no such 
power over them, nor are they able of themselves to under- 
stand the evil instigation of the demon ; for they know not 
whence these evil instigations are suggested to them. And 
these are they whom the demons affright, appearing in such 
forms as they please. And sometimes they prescribe reme- 
dies for those who are diseased, and thus they receive divine 
honours from those who have previously been deceiv^ed. And 
they conceal from many that they are demons, but not from 
us, who know their mystery, and why they do these things, 
changing themselves in dreams against those over whom they 
have power ; and w^hy they terrify some, and give oracular 
responses to others, and demand sacrifices from them, and 
command them to eat with them, that they may swallow up 
their souls. 

Chap. xv. — Test of idols, 

" For as dire serpents draw sparrows to them by their 
breath, so also these draw to their own will those who par- 
take of their table, being mixed up with their understanding 
by means of food and drink, changing themselves in dreams 
according to the forms of the images, that they may increase 
error. For the image is neither a living creature, nor has 
it a divine spirit, but the demon that appeared abused the 

^ Some read ovrog, thus. 


form.^ How many, in like manner, have been seen by 
others in dreams ; and when they have met one another 
when awake, and compared them witli what they saw in. 
their dream, they have not accorded : so that the dream is 
not a manifestation, but is either the production of a demon 
or of the soul, giving forms to present fears and desire. For 
the soul, being struck witli fear, conceives forms in dreams. 
But if you think that images, as being alive, can accomplish 
such things, place them on a beam accurately balanced, and 
place an equipoise in the other scale, then ask them to become 
either heavier or lighter ; and if this be done, then they are 
alive. But it does not so happen. But if it were so, this 
would not prove them to be gods. For this might be accom- 
plished by the finger of the demon. Even maggots move, 
yet they are not called gods. 

Chap. xvi. — Powers of the demons. 

" But that the soul of each man embodies the forms of 
demons after his own preconceptions, and that those who 
are called gods do not appear, is manifest from the fact that 
they do not appear to the Jews. But some one will sa}', 
How then do they give oracular responses, forecasting future 
things ? This also is false. But suppose it were true, this 
does not prove them to be gods ; for it does not follow, if 
anything prophesies, that it is a god. For pythons prophesy, 
yet they are cast out by us as demons, and put to flight. But 
some one will say. They work cures for some persons. It is 
false. But suppose it were true, this is no proof of Godhead ; 
for physicians also heal many, yet are not gods. But, says 
one, physicians do not completely heal those of whom they 
take charge, but these heal oracularly. But the demons know 
the remedies that are suited to each disease. AVherefore, 
being skilful physicians, and able to cure those diseases which 
can be cured by men, and also being prophets, and knowing 
when each disease is healed of itself, they so arrange their 

^ The meaning is : " the idols or images of the heathen deities are not 
living, but the demons adopt the forms of these images when they appear 
to men in dreams." 


remedies that they may gain the credit of producing the 


Chap. xvii. — Reasons lohy their deceits are not detected. 

" For why do they oracularly foretell cures after a long 
time ? And why, if they are almighty, do they not effect cures 
without administering any medicine ? And for wdiat reason 
do they prescribe remedies to some of those who pray to them, 
while to some, and it may be more suitable cases, they give no 
response ? Thus, whenever a cure is going to take place spon- 
taneously, they promise, in order that they may get the credit 
of the cure ; and others, having been sick, and having prayed, 
and having recovered spontaneously, attributed the cure to 
those whom they had invoked, and make offerings to them. 
Those, however, who, after praying, have failed, are not able 
to offer their sacrifices. But if the relatives of the dead, or 
any of their children, inquired into the losses, you w^ould 
find the failures to be more than the successes. But no 
one who has been taken in by them is willing to exhibit an 
accusation against them, through shame or fear ; but, on 
the other hand, they conceal the crimes which they believe 
them to be guilty of. 

Chap, xviii. — Projos of the system, 

" And how many also falsify the responses given and the 
cures effected by them, and confirm them with an oath ! And 
how many give themselves up to them for hire, undertaking 
falsely to suffer certain things, and thus proclaiming their 
suffering, and being restored by remedial means, they say that 
they oracularly promised them healing, in order that they may 
assign as the cause the senseless worship ! And how many 
of these things were formerly done by magical art, in the 
way of interpreting dreams, and divining! Yet in course 
of time these things have disappeared. And how many are 
there now, who, wishing to obtain such things, make use of 
charms ! However, though a thing be prophetical or healing, 
it is not dlvmc. 


Chap. xix. — Privileges of the baptized, 

"For God is almlglitj. For He is good and righteous, now 
long-suffering to all, that those who will, repenting of the evils 
which they have done, and living well, may receive a worthy 
reward in the day in which all things are judged. T\^here- 
fore now begin to obey God by reason of good knowledge, 
and to oppose your evil lusts and thoughts, that you may be 
able to recover the original saving worship which was com- 
mitted to humanity. For thus shall blessings straightway 
spring up to you, which, when you receive, you will thence- 
forth quit the trial of evils. But give thanks to the Giver ; 
being kings for ever of unspeakable good things, with the 
King of peace. But in the present life, washing in a flowing 
river, or fountain, or even in the sea, with the thrice-blessed 
invocation, you shall not only be able to drive away the spirits 
which lurk in you ; but yourselves no longer sinning, and 
undoubtlngly believing God, you shall drive out evil spirits 
and dire demons, with terrible diseases, from others. And 
sometimes they shall flee when you but look on them. For 
they know those who have given themselves up to God. 
Wherefore, honouring them, they flee affrighted, as you saw 
yesterday, how, when after the address I delayed praying 
for those who were suffering these maladies, through respect 
towards the worship they cried out, not being able to endure 
it for a short hour. 

Chap. xx. — " N'ot almost, hut altogether such as I amJ* 

" Do not then suppose that we do not fear demons on this 
account, that we are of a different nature [from you]. For 
we are of the same nature, but not of the same worship. 
Wherefore, being not only much but altogether superior 
to you, we do not grudge you becoming such [as we are] ; 
but, on the other hand, counsel you, knowing that all these 
[demons] beyond measure honour and fear those who are 
reconciled to God. 


Chap. XXI. — Tlie demons subject to the believer. 

" For, in like manner as the soldiers who are put under one 
of Caesar's captains know to honour him who has received 
authority on account of him who gave it, so that the com- 
manders say to this one, Come, and he comes, and to another, 
Go, and he goes ; so also he who has given himself to God, 
being faithful, is heard when he only speaks to demons and 
diseases ; and the demons give place, though they be much 
stronger than they who command them. For with unspeak- 
able power God subjects the mind of every one to whom He 
pleases. For as many captains, with whole camps and cities, 
fear Csesar, who is but a man, every one's heart being eager 
to honour the image of all ; ^ for by the will of God, all things 
being enslaved by fear, do not know the cause ; so also 
all disease-producing spirits, being awed in some natural way, 
honour and flee from him who has had recourse to God, and 
who carries ric^ht faith as His ima^e in his heart. 

Chap. xxii. — " Rather rejoice'' 

^^ But still, though all demons, with all diseases, flee before 
you, you are not to rejoice in this only, but in that, through 
grace, your names, as of the ever-living, are written in hea- 
ven. Thus also the Divine Holy Spirit rejoices, because 
man hath overcome death ; for the putting of the demons to 
flight makes for the safety of another. But this we say, not 
as denying that we ought to help others, but that we ought 
not to be inflated by this and neglect ourselves. It happens, 
also, that the demons flee before some wicked men by reason 
of the honoured name, and both he who expels the demon 
and he who witnesses it are deceived : he who expels him, 
as if he were honoured on account of righteousness, not 
knowing the wickedness of the demon. For he has at once 
honoured the name, and by his flight has brought the wicked 
man into a thought of his righteousness, and so deceived him 

^ I prefer here the common text to any of the proposed emendations, 
and suppose that the author represents Csesar, though but one man, as 
the image or personification of the whole empire. 


away from repentance. But the looker-on, associating with 
the expeller as a pious man, hastens to a like manner of life, 
and is ruined. Sometimes also they pretend to flee before 
adjurations not made in the name of God, that they may 
deceive men, and destroy them whom they will. 

Chap, xxiii. — TJie sick healed. 

^' This then we would have you know, that unless any one 
of his own accord give himself over as a slave to demons, as I 
said before, the demon has no power against him. Choosing, 
therefore, to worship one God, and refraining from the table 
of demons, and undertaking chastity with philanthropy and 
righteousness, and being baptized with the thrice-blessed in- 
vocation for the remission of sins, and devoting yourselves as 
much as you can to the perfection of purity, you can escape 
everlasting punishment, and be constituted heirs of eternal 

Having thus spoken, he ordered those to approach who 
were distressed with diseases ; and thus many approached, 
having come together through the experience of those who 
had been healed yesterday. And he having laid his hands 
upon them and prayed, and immediately healed them, and 
having charged them and the others to come earlier, he 
bathed and partook of food, and went to sleep. 



Chap. i. — The third day in Tripolis. 

jHEREFORE on the third day in Tripolis, Peter 
rose early and went into the garden, where there 
was a great water-reservoir, into which a full 
stream of water constantly flowed. There hav- 
ing bathed, and then having prayed, he sat down ; and per- 
ceiving us sitting around and eagerly observing him, as 
wishing to hear something from him, he said : 

Chap. ii. — Ignorance and error. 

" There seems to me to be a great difference between the 
ignorant and the erring. For the ignorant man seems to 
me to be like a man who does not wish to set out for a richly 
stored city, through his not knowing the excellent things that 
are there ; but the erring man to be like one who has learned 
indeed the good things that are in the city, but who has 
forsaken the highway in proceeding towards it, and so has 
wandered. Thus, therefore, it seems to me that there is a 
great difference between those who worship idols and those 
who are faulty in the worship of God. For they who worship 
idols are ignorant of eternal life, and therefore they do not 
desire it ; for what they do not know, they cannot love. 
But those who have chosen to worship one God, and who 
have learned of the eternal life given to the good, if they 
either believe or do anything 'different from what is pleasing 
to God, are like to those who have gone out from the city of 
punishment, and are desirous to come to the well-stored city, 
and on the road have strayed from the right path." 



Chap. hi. — Man the lord of all. 

While he was thus discoursing to us, there entered one of 
our people, who had been appointed to make the following 
announcement to him, and said : ^' My lord Peter, there are 
great multitudes standing before the doors." With his con- 
sent, therefore, a great multitude entered. Then he rose up, 
and stood on the basis, as he had done the day before ; and 
having saluted them in religious fashion, he said : *' God 
having formed the heaven and the earth, and having made 
all things in them, as the true Prophet has said to us, man, 
being made after the image and likeness of God, was 
appointed to be ruler and lord of things, I say, in air and 
earth and water, as may be known from the very fact that 
by his intelligence he brings down the creatures that are in 
the air, and brings up those that are in the deep, hunts those 
that are on the earth, and that although they are much 
greater in strength than he; I mean elephants, and lions, 
and such like. 

Chap. iv. — Faith and dutij. 

" While, therefore, he was righteous, he was also superior 
to all sufferings, as being unable by his immortal body to 
have any experience of pain ; but when he sinned, as I 
showed you yesterday and the day before, becoming as it 
were the servant of sin, he became subject to all sufferings, 
being by a righteous judgment deprived of all excellent 
things. For it was not reasonable, the Giver having been 
forsaken, that the gifts should remain with the ungrateful. 
Whence, of His abundant mercy, in order to our receiving, 
with the first, also future blessings, He sent His Prophet. 
And the Prophet has given in charge to us to tell you what 
you ought to think, and what to do. Choose, therefore ; and 
this is in your power. What, therefore, you ought to think 
is this, to worship the God who made all things ; whom if 
you receive in your minds, you shall receive from Him, 
along with the first excellent things, also the future eternal 


Chap. v. — The fear of God. 

" Therefore you shall be able to persuade yourselves with 
respect to the things that are profitable, if, like charmers, you 
say to the horrible serpent which lurks in your heart, ' The 
Lord God thou shalt fear, and Him alone thou shalt serve.' ^ 
On every account it is advantageous to fear Him alone, not as 
an unjust, but as a righteous God. For one fears an unjust 
being, lest he be wrongfully destroyed, but a righteous one, 
lest he be caught in sni and punished. You can therefore, 
by fear towards Him, be freed from many hurtful fears. 
For if you do not fear the one Lord and Maker of all, you 
shall bo the slaves of all evils to your own hurt, I mean of 
demons and diseases, and of everything that can in any way 
hurt you. 

Chap. vi. — Restoration of the divine image. 

" Therefore approach with confidence to God, you who at 
first were made to be rulers and lords of all things : ye who 
have His image in your bodies, have in like manner the like- 
ness of His judgment in your minds. Since, then, by acting 
like irrational animals, you have lost the soul of man from 
your soul, becoming like swine, you are the prey of demons. 
If, therefore, you receive the law of God, you become men. 
For it cannot be said to irrational animals, ^ Thou shalt not 
kill, thou shalt not commit adultery, thou shalt not steal,' 
and so forth. Therefore do not refuse, when invited, to 
return to your first nobility ; for it is possible, if ye be con- 
formed to God by good works. And being accounted to be 
sons by reason of your likeness to Him, you shall be re- 
instated as lords of all. 

Chap. vii. — Unprofitahleness of idols, 

*^ Begin, then, to divest yourselves of the injurious fear of 
vain idols, that you may escape unrighteous bondage. For 
they have become your masters, who even as servants are 
unprofitable to you. I speak of the material of the lifeless 

1 Matt. It. 10. 


images, which are of no use to you as far as service is con- 
cerned. For they neither hear nor see nor feel, nor can they 
be moved. For is there any one of you who would like to 
see as they see, and to hear as they hear, and to feel as they 
feel, and to be moved as they are ? God forbid that such 
a wrong should be done to any man bearing the image of 
God, though he have lost His likeness. 

Chap. viii. — No gods wJdch are made with hands. 

" Therefore reduce your gods of gold and silver, or any 
other material, to their original nature ; I mean into cups 
and basins and all other utensils, such as may be useful to 
you for service ; and those good things which were given you 
at first shall be able to be restored. But perhaps you will 
say. The laws of the emperors do not permit us to do this. 
You say well that it is the law, and not the power of the 
vain idols themselves, which is nothing. How, then, have 
ye regarded them as gods, w?io are avenged by human laws, 
guarded by dogs, kept by multitudes ? — and that if they are 
of gold, or silver, or brass. For those of wood or earthen- 
ware are preserved by their worthlessness, because no man 
desires to steal a wooden or earthenware god ! So that your 
gods are exposed to danger in proportion to the value of the 
material of which they are made. How, then, can they be 
gods, which are stolen, molten, weighed, guarded ? 

Chap. ix. — " Eyes have they^ hut they see not,^^ etc. 

" Oh the minds of wretched men, who fear things deader 
than dead men ! For I cannot call them even dead, which 
have never lived, unless they are the tombs of ancient men. 
For sometimes a person, visiting unknown places, does not 
know whether the temples which he sees are monuments of 
dead men, or w^hether they belong to the so-called gods ; but 
on inquiring and hearing that they belong to the gods, he 
worships, without being ashamed that if he had not learned 
on inquiring, he would have passed them by as the monument 
of a dead man, on account of the strictness of the resem- 
blance. However, it is not necessary that I should adduce 


much proof in regard to sucli superstition. For it is easy for 
any one who pleases to understand that it [an idol] is nothing, 
unless there be any one who does not see. However, now at 
least hear that it does not hear, and understand that it does 
not understand. For the hands of a man who is dead made 
it. If, then, the maker is dead, how can it be that that which 
was made by him shall not be dissolved ? Why, then, do you 
worship the work of a mortal which is altogether senseless ? 
whereas those who have reason do not worship animals, nor do 
they seek to propitiate the elements which have been made 
by God, — I mean the heaven, the sun, the moon, lightning, 
the sea, and all things in them, — rightly judging not to 
worship the things that He has made, but to reverence the 
[Maker and Sustainer of them. For in this they themselves 
also rejoice, that no one ascribes to them the honour that 
belongs to their Maker. 

Chap. x. — Idolatry a delusion of the serpent, 

^' For His alone is the excellent glory of being alone un- 
created, while all else is created. As, therefore, it is the 
prerogative of the uncreated to be God, so whatever is created 
is not God indeed. Before all things, therefore, you ought 
to consider the evil-working suggestion of the deceiving 
serpent that is in you, which seduces you by the promise 
of better reason, creeping from your brain to your spinal 
marrow, and setting great value upon deceiving you. 

Chap. xi. — Why the serpent tempts to sin. 

" For he knows the original law, that if he bring you to 
the persuasion of the so-called gods, so that you sin against 
the one good of monarchy, your overthrow becomes a gain 
to him. And that for this reason, because he being con- 
demned eats earth, he has power to eat him who through 
sin being dissolved into earth, has become earth, your souls 
going into his belly of fire. In order, therefore, that you 
may suffer these things, he suggests every thought to your 


Chap. xii. — Ignorantia neminem excusat, 

" For all the deceitful conceptions against the monarchy are 
sown in your mind by him to your hurt. First, that you may 
not hear the discourses of piety, and so drive away ignorance, 
which is the occasion of evils, he ensnares you by a pretence 
of knowledge, giving in the first instance, and using through- 
out this presumption, which is to think and to be unhappily 
advised, that if any one do not hear the word of piety, he is 
not subject to judgments. Wherefore also some, being thus 
deceived, are not willing to hear, that they may be ignorant, 
not knowing that ignorance is of itself a sufficient deadly 
drug. For if any one should take a deadly drug in ignor- 
ance, does he not die ? So naturally sins destroy the sinner, 
though he commit them in ignorance of what is right. 

Chap. xiii. — Condemnation of the ignorant. 

"But if judgment follows upon disobedience to instruction, 
much more shall God destroy those who will not undertake 
His w^orship. For he who will not learn, lest that should 
make him subject to judgment, is already judged as knowing, 
for he knew what he wdll not hear ; so that that imagination 
avails nothing as an apology in presence of the heart-knowing 
God. Wherefore avoid that cunning thought suggested by 
the serpent to your minds. But if any one end this life in 
real ignorance, this charge will lie against him, that, having 
lived so long, he did not know who was the bestower of the 
food supplied to him ; and as a senseless, and ungrateful, and 
very unworthy servant, he is rejected from the kingdom of 

' Chap. xiv. — Polytheistic illustration. 

" Again, the terrible serpent suggests this supposition to 
you, to think and to say that very thing which most of you 
do say ; viz.. We know that there is one Lord of all, but 
there also are gods. For in like manner as there is one 
Caesar, but he has under him procurators, proconsuls, pre- 
fects, commanders of thousands, and of hundreds, and of 
tens ; in the same way, there being one great God, as there 


is one Caesar, there also, after the manner of inferior powers, 
are gods, inferior indeed to Him, but ruling over us. Hear, 
therefore, ye who have been led away by this conception as 
by a terrible poison — I mean the evil conception of this 
illustration — that you may know what is good and what is 
evil. For you do not yet see it, nor do you look into the 
things that you utter. 

Chap. xv. — Its inconclusiveness. 

*^ For if you say that, after the manner of Csesar, God has 
subordinate powers — those, namely, which are called gods — 
you do not thus go by your illustration. For if you went by 
it, you must of necessity know that it is not lawful to give 
the name of Caesar to another, whether he be consul, or pre- 
fect, or captain, or any one else, and that he who gives such 
a name shall not live, and he who takes it shall be cut off. 
Thus, according to your own illustration, the name of God 
must not be given to another; and he who is tempted either 
to take or give it is destroyed. Now, if this insult of a man 
induces punishment, much more they who call others gods 
shall be subject to eternal punishment, as insulting God. 
And with good reason ; because you subject to all the insult 
that you can the name which it was committed to you to 
honour, in order to His monarchy. For GoD is not properly 
His name ; but you having in the meantime received it, insult 
what has been given you, that it may be accounted as done 
against the real name, according as you use that. But you 
subject it to every kind of insult. 

Chap. xvi. — Gods of the Egyptians, 

" Therefore you ringleaders among the Egyptians, boasting 
of meteorology, and promising to judge the natures of the 
stars, by reason of the evil opinion lurking in them, subjected 
that name to all manner of dishonour as far as in them lay. 
For some of them taught the worship of an ox called Apis, 
some that of a he-goat, some of a cat, some of a serpent ; yea, 
even of a fish, and of onions, and rumblings in the stomach/ 


and common sewers, and members of irrational animals, and 
to myriads of other base abominations [they gave the name 
of god]." 

Chap. xvii. — TJie Egyptians' defence of tlieir system. 

On Peter's saying this, the surrounding multitude laughed. 
Then Peter said to the laucrhino; multitude : " You lauffh at 
their proceedings, not knowing that you are yourselves much 
more objects of ridicule to them. But you laugh at one 
another's proceedings ; for, being led by evil custom into 
deceit, you do not see your own. But I admit that you have 
reason to laugh at the idols of the Egyptians, since they, 
being rational, worship irrational animals, and these alto- 
gether dying. But listen to what they say when they deride 
you. AYe, they say, though we worship dying creatures, yet 
still such as have once had life; but you reverence things that 
never lived. And in addition to this, they say, We wish to 
honour the form of the one God, but we cannot find out what 
it is, and so we choose to give honour to every form. And 
so, making some such statements as these, they think that 
they judge more rightly than you do. 

Chap, xviii. — Answer to the Egyptians. 

" Wherefore answer them thus : You lie, for you do not 
worship these things in honour of the true God, for then all 
of you would worship every form ; not as ye do. For those 
of you who suppose the onion to be the divinity, and those 
wdio worship rumblings in the stomach, contend with one 
another; and thus all in like manner preferring some one 
thing, revile those that are preferred by others. And with 
diverse judgments, one reverences one and another another 
of the limbs of the same animal. Moreover, those of them 
who still have a breath of rio;ht reason, beinir ashamed of the 
manifest baseness, attempt to drive these things into allegories, 
wishing by another vagary to establish their deadly error. 
But we should confute the allegories, if we were there, the 
foolish passion for which has prevailed to such an extent as to 
constitute a great disease of the understanding. For it is not 


necessary to appl}^ a plaster to a whole part of the body, but 
to a diseased part. Since then, you, by your laughing at 
the Egyptians, show that you are not affected with their 
disease, with respect to your own disease it were reasonable 
I should afford to you a present cure of your own malady. 

Chap. xix. — GocC s peculiar attribute, 

^^ He who would worship God ought before all things to 
know what alone is peculiar to the nature of God, which 
cannot pertain to anotner, that, looking at His peculiarity, 
and not finding it in any other, he may not be seduced into 
ascribing godhead to another. But this is peculiar to God, 
that He alone is, as the Maker of all, so also the best of all. 
That which makes is indeed superior in power to that which 
is made ; that which is boundless is superior in magnitude to 
that which is bounded : in respect of beauty, that which is 
comeliest ; in respect of happiness, that which is most blessed; 
in respect of understanding, that which is most perfect. And 
in like manner, in other respects. He has incomparably the 
pre-eminence. Since then, as I said, this very thing, viz. to 
be the best of all, is peculiar to God, and the all-comprehend- 
ing world was made by Him, none of the things made by 
Him can come into equal comparison with Him. 

Chap. xx. — Neither the world nor any of its parts can he God, 

" But the world, not being incomparable and unsurpassable, 
and altogether in all respects without defect, cannot be God. 
But if the whole world cannot be God, in respect of its 
having been made, how much more should not its parts be 
reasonably called God ; I mean the parts that are by you 
called gods, being made of gold and silver, brass and stone, 
or of any other material whatsoever ; and they constructed by 
mortal hand. However, let us further see how the terrible 
serpent through man's mouth poisons those who are seduced 
by his solicitations. 

Chap. xxi. — Idols not animated hy the Divine Spirit, 
" For many say, We do not worship the gold or the silver^ 


the wood or the stone, of the objects of our worship. For 
we also know that these are nothing but lifeless matter, and 
the art of mortal man. But the spirit that dwells in them, 
that we call God. Behold the immorality of those who 
speak thus ! For when that which appears is easily proved 
to be nothing, they have recourse to the invisible, as not 
being able to be convicted in respect of what is non-apparent. 
However, they agree with us in part, that one half of their 
images is not God, but senseless matter. It remains for 
them to show how we are to believe that these ima£!:es have a 
divine spirit. But they cannot prove to us that it is so, for 
it is not so ; and we do not believe them [when they say that 
they] have seen it. "\Ye shall afford them proofs that they 
have not a divine spirit, that lovers of truth, hearing the 
refutation of the thouglit that they are animated, may turn 
away from the hurtful delusion. 

Chap. xxii. — Confutation of idoI-icorsJiip. 

^' In the first place, indeed, if you worship them as being 
animated, why do you also worship the sepulchres of memor- 
able men of old, who confessedly had no divine spirit? Thus 
you do not at all speak truth respecting this. But if your 
objects of worship were really animated, they would move of 
themselves ; they would have a voice ; they would shake off 
the spiders that are on them ; they would thrust forth those 
that wish to surprise and to steal them ; they would easily 
capture those who pilfer the offerings. But now they do 
none of these tilings, but are guarded, like culprits, and espe- 
cially the more costly of them, as we have already said. But 
what ? Is it not so, that the rulers demand of you imposts 
and taxes on their account, as if you were greatly benefited 
by them ? But what ? Have they not often been taken as 
plunder by enemies, and been broken and scattered ? And 
do not the priests, more than the outside worshippers, carry 
off many of the offerings, thus acknowledging the uselessness 
of their worship ? 


Chap, xxiii. — Folly of idolatry, 

^^ Nay, it will be said ; but they are detected by their fore- 
sight. It is false ; for how many of them have not been 
detected ? And if on account of the capture of some it be 
said that they have power, it is a mistake. For of those who 
rob tombs, some are found out and some escape ; but it is not 
by the power of the dead that those who are apprehended are 
detected. And such ought to be our conclusion with respect 
to those who steal and pilfer the gods. But it will be said, 
The gods that are in them take no care of their images. 
Why, then, do you tend them, wiping them, and washing 
them, and scouring them, crowning them, and sacrificing to 
them ? Wherefore agree with me that you act altogether 
without right reason. For as you lament over the dead, so 
you sacrifice and make libations to your gods. 

Chap. xxiv. — Impotence of idols. 

" Nor yet is that in harmony with the illustration of Caesar, 
and of the powers under him, to call them administrators ; 
whereas you take all care of them, as I said, tending your 
images in every respect. For they, having no power, do 
nothing. Wherefore tell us what do they administer? what 
do they of that sort which rulers in different places do ? and 
what influence do they exert, as the stars of God ? Do they 
show anything like the sun, or do you light lamps before 
them ? Are they able to bring showers, as the clouds bring 
rain, — they which cannot even move themselves, unless men 
carry them ? Do they make the earth fruitful to your 
labours, these to whom you supply sacrifices ? Thus they 
can do nothing. 

Chap. xxv. — Servants hecome masters. 

" But if they were able to do something, you should not be 
right in calling them gods : for it is not right to call the 
elements gods, by which good things are supplied ; but only 
Him who ordereth them, to accomplish all things for our 
use, and who commandeth them to be serviceable to man, — 


Him alone we call God in propriety of speechj whose bene- 
ficence you do not perceive, but permit those elements to 
rule over you which have been assigned to you as your 
servants. And why should I speak of the elements, when 
you not only have made and do worship lifeless images, 
but deign to be subject to them in all respects as servants ? 
Wherefore, by reason of your erroneous judgments, you 
have become subject to demons. However, by acknowledg- 
ment of God Himself, by good deeds you can again become 
masters, and command the demons as slaves, and as sons of 
God be constituted heirs of the eternal kingdom." 

Chap. xxvi. — The sick healed. 

Having said this, he ordered the demoniacs, and those 
taken with diseases, to be brought to him ; and when they 
were brought, he laid his hands on them, and prayed, and 
dismissed them healed, reminding them and the rest of the 
multitude to attend upon him there every day that he 
should discourse. Then, when the others had withdrawn, 
Peter bathed in the reservoir that was there, with those who 
pleased ; and then ordering a table to be spread on the 
ground under the thick foliage of the trees, for the sake 
of shade, he ordered us each to recline, according to our 
w^orth ; and thus we partook of food. Therefore having 
blessed and having given thanks to God for tlie enjoyment, 
according to the accustomed faith of tlie Hebrews ; and 
there being still a long time before us, he permitted us to 
ask him questions about whatever we pleased ; and thus, 
though there were twenty of us putting questions to liim 
all round, he satisfied every one. And now evening having 
descended, we all went with him into the largest apartment 
of the lodging, and there we all slept. 


Chap. i. — Morning exercises, 

HEREFORE on the fourth day at Tripolls, Peter 
rising and finding us awake, saluted us and went 
out to the reservoir, that he mio-ht bathe and 
pray ; and we also did so after him. To us, 
therefore, when we had prayed together, and were set down 
before him, he gave a discourse touching the necessity of 
purity. And when thereafter it was day, he permitted the 
multitudes to enter. Then, when a great crowd had entered, 
he saluted them according to custom, and began to speak. 

Chap. ii. — '^ Giving all diligence^ 

" Inasmuch as, by long-continued neglect on your part, to 
your own injury, your mind has caused to sprout many hurt- 
ful conceptions about religion, and ye have become like land 
fallow by the carelessness of the husbandman, you need a 
long time for your purification, that your mind, receiving like 
good seed the true word that is imparted to you, may not 
choke it with evil cares, and render it unfruitful with respect 
to works that are able to save you. Wherefore it behoves 
those who are careful of their own salvation to hear more 
constantly, that their sins which have been long multiplying 
may, in the short time that remains, be matched with con- 
stant care for their purification. Since, therefore, no one 
knows the time of his end, hasten to pluck out the many 
thorns of your hearts ; but not by little and little, for then 
you cannot be purified, for you have been long fallow. 

Chap. hi. — " Behold what indignation.^'' 
"But not otherwise will you endure to undertake much 


care for your purification unless you be angry with yourselves^ 
and chastise yourselves for those things with which, as unpro- 
fitable servants, you have been ensnared, consenting to your 
evil lusts, that you may be able to let in your righteous 
indignation upon your mind, as fire upon a fallow field. If, 
therefore, ye have not righteous fire, I mean indignation, 
against evil lusts, learn from what good things ye have been 
seduced, and by whom ye have been deceived, and for what 
punishment ye are prepared ; and thus, your mind being sober, 
and kindled into indignation like fire by the teaching of Him 
who sent us, may be able to consume the evil things of lust. 
Believe me, that if you will, you can rectify all things. 

Chap. iv. — The golden rule, 

" Ye are the ima^e of the invisible God. Whence let not 
those who would be pious say that idols are images of God, 
and therefore that it is right to worship them. For the image 
of God is man. He who wishes to be pious towards God 
does good to man, because the body of man bears the image 
of God. But all do not as yet bear His likeness, but the pure 
mind of the good soul does. However, as we know that man 
was made after the image and after the likeness of God, we 
tell you to be pious towards him, that the favour may be 
accounted as done to God, whose image he is. Therefore it 
behoves you to give honour to the image of God, which is 
man — in this wise ; food to the hungry, drink to the thirsty, 
clothing to the naked, care to the sick, shelter to the stranger, 
and visiting him who is in prison, to help him as you can. 
And not to speak at length, whatever good things any one 
wishes for himself, so let him afford to another in need, and 
then a good reward can be reckoned to him as being pious 
towards the image of God. And by like reason, if he will 
not undertake to do these things, he shall be punished as 
neMectinfj the imasie. 

Chap. v. — Forasmuch as ye did it unto one of these. 

" Can it therefore be said that, for the sake of piety 
towards God, ye worship every form, while in all things ye 


injure man who is really the image of God, committing mur- 
der, adultery, stealing, and dishonouring him in many other 
respects ? But you ought not to do even one evil thing on 
account of which man is grieved. But now you do all things 
on account of which man is disheartened, for wrong is also 
distress. Wherefore you murder and spoil his goods, and 
whatever else you know which you would not receive from 
another. But you, being seduced by some malignant reptile 
to malice, by the suggestion of polytheistic doctrine, are 
impious towards the real image, w^hich is man, and think that 
ye are pious towards senseless things. 

Chap, VI. — Why God suffers objects of idolatry to subsist. 

"But some say, Unless He wished these things to be, they 
should not be, but He would take them away. But I say 
this shall assuredly be the case, when all shall show their pre- 
ference for Him, and thus there shall be a change of the 
present world. However, if you wished him to act thus, so 
that none of the things that are worshipped should subsist, 
tell me what of existing things you have not w^orshipped. 
Do not some of you worship the sun, and some the moon, 
and some water, and some the earth, and some the mountains, 
and some plants, and some seeds, and some also man, as in 
Egypt ? Therefore God must have suffered nothing, not 
even you, so that there should have been neither worshipped 
nor w^orshipper. Truly this is what the terrible serpent 
which lurks in you would have, and spares you not. But 
so it shall not be. For it is not the thing that is worshipped 
that sins ; for it suffers violence at the hands of him who will 
worship it. For though unjust judgment is passed by all 
men, yet not by God. For it is not just that the sufferer 
and the disposer receive the same punishment, unless he 
willingly receive the honour which belongs only to the Most 

Chap. vii. — " Let both grow together till the harvest^ 

" But it will be said that the worshippers themselves ought 
to be taken away by the true God, that others may not do it. 


But you are not wiser than God, that you should give Him 
counsel as one more prudent than He. He knows what He 
does ; for He is long-suffering to all who are in impiety, as 
a merciful and philanthropic father, knowing that impious 
men become pious. And of those very worshippers of base 
and senseless things, many becoming sober have ceased to 
w^orship these things and to sin, and many Greeks have been 
saved so as to pray to the true God. 

Chap. viii. — Liberty and necessity. 

^'But, you say, God ought to have made us at first so that 
we should not have thought at all of such things. You who 
say this do not know what is free-will, and how it is possible 
to be really good ; that he who is good by his own choice is 
really good; but he who is made good by another under 
necessity is not really good, because he is not w^hat he is by 
his own choice. Since therefore every one's freedom con- 
stitutes the true good, and shows the true evil, God has con- 
trived that friendship or hostility should be in each man by 
occasions. But no, it is said ; everything that we think He 
makes ns to think. Stop ! Why do you blaspheme more 
and more, in saying this ? For if we are under His influ- 
ence in all that we think, you say that He is the cause of 
fornications, lusts, avarice, and all blasphemy. Cease your 
evil-speaking, ye -who ought to speak well of Him, and 
to bestow all honour upon Him. And do not say that God 
does not claim any honour ; for if He Himself claims nothing, 
you ought to look to what is right, and to answer with thank- 
ful voice Him who does you good in all things. 

Chap. ix. — God a jealous God, 

" But, you say, we do better when we are thankful at once 
to Him and to all others. Now, when you say this, you do 
not know the plot that is formed against you. For as, when 
many physicians of no powder promise to cure one patient, one 
who is really able to cure him does not apply his remedy, 
considering that, if he should cure him, the others would get 
the credit ; so also God does not do you good, when He is 


asked along with many who can do nothing. What ! it will 
be said, is God enraged at this, if, when He cures, another 
gets the credit ? I answer : Although He be not indignant, 
at all events He will not be an accomplice in deceit ; for 
when He has conferred a benefit, the idol, which has done 
nothing, is credited with the power. But also I say to you, 
if he who crouches in adoration before senseless idols had not 
been injured naturally, perhaps He (God) would have en- 
dured even this. Wherefore watch ye that you may attain 
to a reasonable understandino; on the matter of salvation.^ 
For God being without want, neither Himself needs anything, 
nor receives hurt ; for it belongs to us to be profited or injured. 
For in like manner as Csesar is neither hurt when he is evil 
spoken of, nor profited when he is thanked, but safety accrues 
to the renderer of thanks, and ruin to the evil-speaker, so they 
who speak well of God indeed profit Him nothing, but save 
themselves ; and in like manner, those who blaspheme Him 
do not indeed injure Him, but themselves perish. 

Chap. x. — The creatures avenge GodCs cause. 

" But it will be said that the cases are not parallel between 
God and man ; and I admit that they are not parallel : for 
the punishment is greater to him who is guilty of impiety 
against the greater, and less to him who sins against the less. 
As, therefore, God is greatest of all, so he who is impious 
against Him shall endure greater punishment, as sinning 
against the greater ; not through His defending Himself with 
His own hand, but the whole creation being indignant at 
him, and naturally taking vengeance on him. For to the 
blasphemer the sun will not give his light, nor the earth her 
fruits, nor the fountain its water, nor in Hades shall he who 
is there constituted prince give rest to the soul ; since even 
now, while the constitution of the world subsists, the whole 
creation is indignant at him. Wherefore neither do [the 
clouds] afford sufficient rains, nor the earth fruits, whereby 
many perish ; yea, even the air itself, inflamed with anger, 

^ "We have adopted the reading of Codex 0. The reading in the others 
is corrupt. 



is turned to pestilential courses. However, whatsoever good 
things we enjoy, He of His mercy compels the creature to 
our benefits. Still, against you who dishonour the Maker of 
all, the whole creation is hostile. 

Chap. xi. — Immortality of the soul. 

" And though by the dissolution of the body you should 
escape punishment, how shall you be able by corruption to 
flee from your soul, which is incorruptible ? For the soul 
even of the wicked is immortal, for whom it were better not 
to have it incorruptible. For, being punished with endless 
torture under unquenchable fire, and never dying, it can re- 
ceive no end of its miseiy. But perhaps some one of you will 
say, ^ You terrify us, O Peter.' Teach us then how we can 
be silent [about these things, and yet] tell you things as they 
are, for not otherwise can we tell vou them. But if we should 
be silent, you should be ensnared by evils through ignor- 
ance. But if we speak, we are suspected of terrifying you 
with a false theory. How then shall we charm that wicked 
[serpent] that lurks in your [soul], and subtilely insinuates 
suspicions hostile to God, under the guise of love to God ? 
Be reconciled with yourselves ; for in order to your salvation 
recourse is to Him with well-doin^. Unreasonable lust in 
you is hostile to God, for by conceit of wisdom it strengthens 

Chap. xii. — Idols unprojltahle. 

" But others say, God does not care for us. This also is 
false. For if really He did not care. He would neither 
cause His sun to rise on the good and the evil, nor send His 
rain on the just and the unjust. But others say, We are 
more pious [than you], since we worship both him and 
images. I do not think, if one were to say to a king, ^ I 
give you an equal share of honour with that which I give 
to corpses and to worthless dung ' — I do not think that he 
would profit by it. But some one will say, Do you call our 
objects of worship dung? I say Yes, for you have made 
them useless to yourselves by setting them aside for worship, 


whereas their substance might perhaps have been serviceable 
for some other purpose, or for the purpose of manure. But 
now it is not useful even for this purpose, since you have 
changed its shape and worship it. And how do you say 
that you are more pious, you who are the most wicked of 
all, who deserve destruction of your souls by this very one 
incomparable sin, at the hands of Him who is true, if you 
abide in it ? For as if any son having received many bene- 
fits from his father, give to another, who is not his father, 
the honour that is due to his father, he is certainly dis- 
inherited; but if he live according to the judgment of his 
father, and so thanks him for his kindnesses, he is with good 
reason made the heir. 

Chap. xiir. — Ao^guments in favour of idolatry ansiuered, 

" But others say, We shall act impiously if we forsake 
the objects of worship handed down to us by our fathers ; 
for it is like the guarding of a deposit. But on this principle 
the son of a robber or a debauchee ought not to be sober 
and to choose the better part, lest he should act impiously, 
and sin by doing differently from his parents ! How foolish, 
then, are they who say, "We worship these things that we 
may not be troublesome to Him ; as if God were troubled 
by those who bless Him, and not troubled by those who 
ungratefully blaspheme Him. Why is it, then, that when 
there is a withholding of rain, you look only to heaven and 
pour out prayers and supplications ; and when you obtain 
it, you quickly forget? For when you have reaped your 
harvest or gathered your vintage, you distribute your first- 
fruits among those idols which are nothing, quickly forgetting 
God your benefactor; and thus you go into groves and 
temples, and offer sacrifices and feasts. Wherefore some of 
you say, These things have been excellently devised for the 
sake of good cheer and feasting. 

Chap. xiv. — Heathen orgies,' 

^^ Oh men without understanding ! Judge ye rightly of 
■what is said. For if it were necessary to give one's self to 


some pleasure for the refreshment of the body, whether were 
it better to do so among the rivers and woods and groves, 
where there are entertainments and conviviaUties and shady 
places, or where there is the madness of demons, and cuttings 
of hands, and emasculations, and fury and mania, and dis- 
hevelling of hair, and shoutings and enthusiasms and bowl- 
ings, and all those things which are done with hypocrisy for 
the confounding of the unthinking, when you offer your 
prescribed prayers and thanksgivings even to those who are 
deader than the dead ? 

Chap. xv. — Heatlien worsJnppers under the power of the 


" And why do ye take pleasure in these doings ? Since the 
serpent which lurks in you, which has sown in you fruitless 
lust, wdll not tell you, I shall speak and put it on record. 
Thus the case stands. According to the worship of God, 
the proclamation is made to be sober, to be chaste, to restrain 
passion, not to pilfer other men's goods, to live uprightly, 
moderately, fearlessly, gently ; rather to restrain one's self in 
necessities, than to supply his wants by wrongfully taking 
away the property of another. But with the so-called gods 
the reverse is done. And ye renounce some things [as done 
by you], in order to the admiration of [your] righteousness ; 
w^hereas, although you did all that you are commanded, 
ignorance w^ith respect to God is alone sufficient for your 
condemnation. But meeting together in the places which 
you have dedicated to them, you delight in making yourselves 
drunk, and you kindle your altars, of which the diffused 
odour throucrh its influence attracts the blind and deaf 
spirits to the place of their fumigation. And thus, of those 
who are present, some are filled with inspirations, and some 
with stranoje fiends, and some betake themselves to lascivious- 
ness, and some to theft and murder. For the exhalation of 
blood, and the libation of wine, satisfies even these unclean 
spirits, which lurk within you and cause you to take plea- 
sure in the things that are transacted there, and in dreams 
surround you with false phantasies, and punish you with 


myriads of diseases. For under the show of the so-called 
sacred victims you are filled with dire demons, which, cunningly 
concealing themselves, destroy you, so that you should not 
understand the plot that is laid for you. For, under the 
guise of some injury, or love, or anger, or grief, or strangling 
you with a rope, or drowning you, or throwing you from a 
precipice, or by suicide, or apoplexy, or some other disease, 
they deprive you of life. 

Chap. xvi. — All tilings ivork for good to them that love God. 

" But no one of us can suffer such a thing ; but they 
themselves are punished by us, when, having entered into any 
one, they entreat us that they may go out slowly. But some 
one will say perhaps, Even some of the worshippers of God 
fall under such sufferings. I say that that is impossible. For 
he is a worshipper of God, of whom I speak, who is truly 
pious, not one who is such only in name, but who really per- 
forms the deeds of the law that has been given him. If any 
one acts impiously, he is not pious ; in like manner as, if he 
who is of another tribe keeps the law, he is a Jew ; bat he 
who does not keep it is a Greek. For the Jew believes God 
and keeps the law, by which faith he removes also other 
sufferings, though like mountains and heavy .^ But he who 
keeps not the law is manifestly a deserter through not believ- 
ing God ; and thus as no Jew, but a sinner, he is on account 
of his sin brought into subjection to those sufferings which 
are ordained for the punishment of sinners. For, by the 
will of God prescribed at the beginning, punishment right- 
eously follows those who worship Him on account of trans- 
gressions ; and this is so, in order that, having reckoned with 
them by punishment for sin as for a debt, he may set forth 
those who have turned to Him pure in the universal judg- 
ment. For as the wicked here enjoy luxury to the loss of 
eternal blessings, so punishments are sent upon the Jews who 
transgress for a settlement of accounts, that, expiating their 
transgression here, they may there be set free from eternal 

^ Matt. xvii. 19. 


Chap. xvii. — Speaking the truth in love, 

" But you cannot speak thus ; for you do not believe that 
things are then as we say ; I mean, when there is a recom- 
pense for all. And on this account, you being ignorant of 
what is advantageous, are seduced by temporal pleasures 
from taking hold of eternal things. ^^Tierefore we attempt 
to make to you exhibitions of what is profitable, that, being 
convinced of the promises that belong to piety, you may by 
good deeds inherit with us the griefless world. Until then 
you know us, do not be angry with us, as if we spoke falsely 
of the good things which we desire for you. For the things 
which are regarded by us as true and good, these we have 
not scrupled to bring to you, but, on the contrary, have 
hastened to make you fellow-heirs of good things, which we 
have considered to be such. For thus it is necessary to 
speak to the unbelievers. But that we really speak the truth 
in what we say, you cannot know otherwise than by first 
listenin cr with love of the truth. 

Chap, xviii. — Charming of the serpent. 

"Wherefore, as to the matter in hand, although in ten 
thousand ways the serpent that lurks in you suggesting evil 
reasonings and hindrances, wishes to ensnare you, therefore 
so much the more ouc][ht ve to resist him, and to listen to us 
assiduously. For it behoves you, consulting, as having been 
grievously deceived, to know how he must be charmed. But 
in no other way is it possible. But by charming I mean the 
setting yourselves by reason in opposition to their evil coun- 
sels, remembering that by promise of knowledge he brought 
death into the world at the first. 

Chap. xix. — Not peace^ hut a sword, 

" Whence the Prophet of the truth, knowing that the world 
was much in error, and seeing it ranged on the side of evil, 
did not choose that there should be peace to it while it stood 
in error. So that till the end he sets himself against all those 
who are in concord with wickedness, setting [truth] over 


against error, sending as it were fire upon those who are 
sober, namely wrath against the seducer, which is hkened 
to a sword,^ and by holding forth the word he destroys igno- 
rance by knowledge, cutting, as it were, and separating the 
living from the dead. Therefore, while wickedness is being 
conquered by lawful knowledge, war has taken hold of all. 
For the submissive son is, for the sake of salvation, separated 
from the vmbelieving father, or the father from the son, or the 
mother from the daughter, or the daughter from the mother, 
and relatives from relatives, and friends from associates. 

Chap. xx. — What if it he already kindled'^ 

" And let not any one say. How is this just, that parents 
should be separated from their children, and children from 
their parents ? It is just, even entirely. For if they re- 
mained with them, and, after profiting them nothing, were 
also destroyed along wath them, how is it not just that he 
who wishes to be saved should be separated from him who 
will not, but who wishes to destroy him along with himself. 
Moreover, it is not those who judge better that wish to be 
separated, but they wish to stay with them, and to profit 
them by the exposition of better things ; and therefore the 
unbelievers, not wishing to hearken to them, make war 
against them, banishing, persecuting, hating them. But 
those who suffer these things, pitying those who are ensnared 
by ignorance, by the teaching of wisdom pray for those who 
contrive evil against them, having learned that ignorance is 
the cause of their sin. For the Teacher Himself, being 
nailed to [the cross], prayed to the Father that the sin of 
those who slew Him might be forgiven, saying, ^ Father, 
forgive them their sins, for they know not what they do.' ^ 
They also therefore, being imitators of the Teacher in their 
sufferings, pray for those who contrive them, as they have 
been taught. Therefore they are not separated as hating 
their parents, since they make constant prayers even for 
those who are neither parents nor relatives, but enemies, and 
strive to love them, as they have been commanded. 
1 Matt. X. 34. 2 Luke xxiii. 34. 


Chap. xxi. — " If I he a father, where is my fearV 

'' But tell me, how do you love your parents ? If, indeed, 
you do it as always regarding what is right, I congratulate 
you ; but if you love them as it happens, then not so, for 
then you may on a small occasion become their enemies. 
But if you love them intelligently, tell me, what are parents ? 
You will say they are the sources of our being. Why, then, 
do ye not love the [source of the] being of all things, if in- 
deed you have with right understanding elected to do this ? 
But you will now say again, we have not seen Him. Why, 
then, do ye not seek for Him, but worship senseless things ? 
But what ? If it were even difficult for you to know what 
God is, you cannot fail to know what is not God, so as to 
reason that God is not wood, nor stone, nor brass, nor any- 
thing else made of corruptible matter. 

Chap. xxii. — " The gods that have not made the heavens^ 

"For are not they graven with iron? And has not the 
graving iron been softened by fire? And is not the fire itself 
extinguished with water ? And has not the water its motion 
from the spirit ? And has not the spirit the beginning of its 
course from the God who hath made all things ? For thus said 
the prophet Moses : ' In the beginning God made the heaven 
and the earth. And the earth was unsightly, and unadorned ; 
and darkness was over the deep : and the Spirit of God was 
borne above the waters.' Which Spirit, at the bidding of 
God, as it were His hand, makes all things, dividing light 
from darkness, and after the invisible heaven spreading out 
the visible, that the places above might be inhabited by the 
angels of light, and those below by man, and all the creatures 
that were made for his use. 

Chap, xxiir. — '' To ichom much is given.^* 

" For on thy account, O man, God commanded the water to 
retire upon the face of the earth, that the earth might be able 
to brinop forth fruits for thee. And He made water-courses, 
that He might provide for thee fountains, and that river-beds 


might be disclosed, that animals might teem forth ; in a word, 
that He might furnish thee with all things. For is it not for 
thee that the winds blow, and the rains fall, and the seasons 
change for the production of fruits ? Moreover, it is for thee 
that the sun and moon, with the other heavenly bodies, ac- 
complish their risings and settings ; and rivers and pools, with 
all fountains, serve thee. Whence to thee, O senseless one, 
as the greater honour has been given, so for thee, ungrateful, 
the greater punishment by fire has been prepared, because 
thou wouldest not know Him whom it behoved thee before 
all things to know. 

Chap. xxiv. — " Born of water r 

"And now from inferior things learn the cause of all, 
reasoning that water makes all things, and water receives the 
production of its movement from sj^irit, and the spirit has its 
beginning from the God of all. And thus you ought to have 
reasoned, in order that by reason you might attain to God, 
that, knowing your origin, and being born again by the first- 
born water, you may be constituted heir of the parents who 
have begotten you to incorruption. 

Chap. xxv. — Good works to he well done, 

" Wherefore come readily, as a son to a father, that God 
may assign ignorance as the cause of your sins. But if after 
being called you will not, or delay, you shall be destroyed by 
the just judgment of God, not being willed, through your not 
willing. And do not think, though you were more pious than 
all the pious that ever were, but if you be unbaptized, that 
you shall ever obtain hope. For all the more, on this account, 
you shall endure the greater punishment, because you have 
done excellent works not excellently. For well-doing is ex- 
cellent when it is done as God has commanded. But if you 
will not be baptized according to His pleasure, you serve 
your own will and oppose His counsel. 

Chap. xxvi. — Baptism, 
" But perhaps some one will say, What does it contribute to 


piety to be baptized with water? In the first place, because 
you do that which is pleasing to God; and in the second 
place, being born again to God of water, by reason of fear 
you change your first generation, which is of lust, and thus you 
are able to obtain salvation. But otherwise it is impossible. 
For thus the prophet has sworn to us, saying, " Verily I say to 
you. Unless ye be regenerated by living water into the name 
of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, you shall not enter the king- 
dom of heaven.-'- Wherefore approach. For there is there 
something that is merciful from the beginning, borne upon 
the water, and rescues from the future punishment those 
who are baptized with the thrice-blessed invocation, offering 
as gifts to God the good deeds of the baptized whenever they 
are done after their baptism. Wherefore flee to the waters, 
for this alone can quench the violence of fires. He who will 
not now come to it still bears the spirit of strife, on account 
of which he will not approach the living water for his own 

Chap, xxvii. — All need baptism. 

^^ Therefore approach, be ye righteous or unrighteous. For 
if you are righteous, baptism alone is lacking in order to sal- 
vation. But if you are unrighteous, come to be baptized for 
the remission of the sins formerly committed in ignorance. 
And to the unrighteous man it remains that his well-doing 
after baptism be according to the proportion of his [previous] 
impiety. Wherefore, be ye righteous or unrighteous, hasten 
to be born to God, because delay brings danger, on account 
of the fore-appointment of death being unrevealed ; and show 
by well-doing your likeness to the Father, who begetteth you 
of water. As a lover of truth, honour the true God as your 
Father. But His honour is that you live as He, being right- 
eous, would have you live. And the will of the righteous 
One is that you do no wrong. But wrong is murder, 
hatred, envy, and such like ; and of these there are many 

^ Altered from John iii. 5. 


Chap, xxviii. — Purification. 

" However, it is necessary to add something to these things 
which has not community wath man, but is peculiar to the 
worship of God. I mean purification, not approaching to 
a man's own wife when she is in separation, for so the law of 
God commands. But what ? If purity be not added to the 
service of God, you would roll pleasantly like the dung-flies. 
Wherefore as man, having something more than the irrational 
animals, namely, rationality, purify your hearts from evil by 
heavenly reasoning, and wash your bodies in the bath. For 
purification according to the truth is not that the purity of 
the body precedes purification after the heart, but that purity 
follows goodness. For our Teacher also, [dealing with] 
certain of the Pharisees and Scribes among us, who are sepa- 
rated, and as Scribes know the matters of the law more than 
others, still He reproved them as hypocrites, because they 
cleansed only the things that appear to men, but omitted 
purity of heart and the things seen by God alone. 

Chap. xxix. — Outward and inward purity, 

'^Therefore He made use of this memorable expression, 
speaking the truth with respect to the hypocrites of them, 
not with respect to all. For to some He said that obedience 
was to be rendered, because they were entrusted with the 
chair of Moses. However, to the hypocrites he said, ' Woe 
to you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, for ye make clean 
the outside of the cup and the platter, but the inside is full 
of filth. Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first the inside of the 
cup and the platter, that their outsides may be clean also.' 
And truly : for when the mind is enlightened by knowledge, 
the disciple is able to be good, and thereupon purity follows ; 
for from the understanding within a good care of the body 
without is produced. As from negligence with respect to 
the body, care of the understanding cannot be produced, so 
the pure man can purify both that which is without and that 
which is within. And he who, purifying the things without, 


does it looking to tlie praise of men, and by the praise of 
those who look on, he has nothing from God, 

Chap. xxx. — '^ Wliatsoever things are pure^ 

" But who is there to whom it is not manifest that it is 
better not to have intercourse with a woman in her separa- 
tion, but purified and washed. And also after copulation it 
is proper to wash. But if you grudge to do this, recall to 
mind how you followed after the parts of purity when you 
served senseless idols ; and be ashamed that now, when it is 
necessary to attain, I say not more, but to attain the one and 
whole of purity, you are more slothful. Consider, therefore. 
Him who made you, and you will understand who He is that 
casts upon you this sluggishness with respect to purity. 

Chap. xxxi. — " What do ye more than others ? " 

" But some one of you will say. Must we then do whatso- 
ever things we did while we were idolaters ? I say to you, 
Not all things ; but whatsoever you did well, you must do 
now, and more : for whatsoever is well done in error hangs 
upon truth, as if anything be ill done in the truth it is from 
error. Receive, therefore, from all quarters the things that 
are your own, and not those that are another's, and do not 
say, If those who are in error do anything well we are not 
bound to do it. For, on this principle, if any one who wor- 
ships idols do not commit murder, we ought to commit 
murder, because he who is in error does not commit it. 


Chap, xxxii. — " To ivhoin much is given." 

" Xo ; but rather, if those wdio are in error do not kill, let 
us not be angry ; if he who is in error do not commit adul- 
tery, let us not lust even in the smallest degree ; if he who 
is in error loves him who loves him, let us love even those 
who hate us ; if he who is in error lends to those who have, 
let us [give] to those who have not. Unquestionably we 
ought — we who hope to inherit eternal life — to do better 
things than the good things that are done by those who 
know only the present life, knowing that if their works, being 


judged with ours in the day of judgment, be found equal in 
goodness, we shall have shame, and they perdition, having 
acted against themselves through error. And I say that we 
shall be put to shame on this account, because we have not 
done more than they, though w^e have known more than 
they. And if we shall be put to shame if we show well-doing 
equal to theirs, and no more, how much more if we show less 
than their w^ell-doing % 

Chap, xxxiii. — The queen of the south and the men of 


"But that indeed in the day of judgment the doings of those 
w^ho have known the truth are compared with the good deeds 
of those who have been in error, the unlying One Himself 
has taught us, saying to those who neglected to come and 
listen to Him, ' The queen of the south shall rise up with 
this generation, and shall condemn it ; because she came 
from the extremities of the earth to hear the wisdom of 
Solomon : and behold, a greater than Solomon is here,'^ and 
ye do not believe Him. And to those amongst the people 
who would not repent at His preaching He said, ' The men 
of Nineveh shall rise up with this generation and shall con- 
demn it, for they heard and repented on the preaching of 
Jonas : and behold, a greater is here, and no one believes.' ^ 
And thus, setting over against all their impiety those from 
among the Gentiles who have done [well], in order to con- 
demn those who, possessing the true religion, had not acted 
so well as those who were in error, he exhorted those having 
reason not only to do equally with the Gentiles whatsoever 
things are excellent, but more than they. And this speech 
has been suggested to me, taking occasion from the neces- 
sity of respecting the separation, and of washing after 
copulation, and of not denying such purity, though those 
who are in error do the same, since those who in error do 
well, without being saved, are for the condemnation of those 
w^ho are in the worship of God, [and do ill] ; because their 
1 Matt. xii. 42. 2 L^kg xi. 32. 


respect for purity is through error, and not through the wor- 
ship of the true Father and God of all." 

Chap, xxxiv. — Peter^s daily worL 

Having said this, he dismissed the multitudes ; and accord- 
ing to his custom, having partaken of food with those dearest 
to him, he went to rest. And thus doincp and discoui'sincr 
day by day, he strongly buttressed the law of God, chal- 
lenging the reputed gods with the reputed genesis, and 
arcjuincp that there is no automatism, but that the world is 
governed according to providence. 

Chap. xxxv. — '• Beware of false propJiets.''^ 

Then after three months were fulfilled, he ordered me to 
fast for several days, and then brought me to the fountains 
that are near to the sea, and baptized me as in ever-flowing 
water. Thus, therefore, when our brethren rejoiced at my 
God-gifted regeneration, not many days after he turned to 
the elders in presence of all the church, and charged them, 
saying : " Our Lord and Prophet, who hath sent us, declared 
to us that the wicked one, having disputed with Him forty 
days, and having prevailed nothing against Him, promised 
that he would send apostles from amongst his subjects, to 
deceive. Wherefore, above all, remember to shun apostle or 
teacher or prophet who does not first accurately compare 
his preaching with [that of] James, who was called the 
brother of my Lord, and to whom was entrusted to admini- 
ster the church of the Hebrews in Jerusalem, — and that even 
thouixh he come to you with witnesses;^ lest the wickedness 

CD *! ' 

which disputed forty days with the Lord, and prevailed nothing, 
should afterwards, like lightning falling from heaven upon 
the earth, send a preacher to your injury, as now he has sent 
Simon upon us, preaching, under pretence of the truth, in the 
name of the Lord, and sowing error. Wherefore He who 
liath sent us, said, ^ Many shall come to me in sheep's cloth- 

^ A conjectural reading, -which, seems probahle, is, Unless he come to 
you ^vith credentials, viz. from James. 


ing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. By their fruits 
je shall know them.'" 

Chap, xxxvi. — Fareiuell to TripoUs, 

Having spoken thus, he sent the harbingers into Antioch 
of Syria, bidding them expect him there forthwith. Then 
when they had gone, Peter having driven away diseases, 
sufferings, and demons from great multitudes who were per- 
suaded, and having baptized them in the fountains which are 
near to the sea, and having celebrated^ the eucharist, and 
having appointed Maroones, who had received him into his 
house, and was now perfected, as their bishop, and having 
set apart twelve elders, and having designated deacons, and 
arranged matters relating to widows, and having discoursed 
on the common good what was profitable for the ordering of 
the church, and having counselled them to obey the bishop 
Maroones, three months being now fulfilled, he bade those in 
Tripolis of Phoenicia farewell, and took his journey to Antioch 
of Sjria, all the people accompanying us with due honour. 
^ Literally, " having broken." 


Chap. i. — Two hands, 

HEREFORE starting from Tripolis of Phoenicia 
to go to Antiocli of Syria, on the same day we 
came to Orthasia, and there stayed. And on 
account of its being near the city which we had 
left, almost all having heard the preaching before, we stopped 
there only one day, and set out to Antaradus. And as there 
were many who journeyed with us, Peter, addressing Nicetus 
and Aquila, said, " Inasmuch as the great crowd of those who 
journey with us draws upon us no little envy as we enter city 
after city, I have thought that we must of necessity arrange, 
so that neither, on the one hand, these may be grieved at 
being prevented from accompanying us, nor, on the other 
hand, we, by being so conspicuous, may fall under the envy of 
the wicked.^ Wherefore I wish you, Nicetus and Aquila, to 
go before me in two separate bodies, and enter secretly into 
the Gentile cities. 

Chap. ii. — Love of preachers and their converts, 

" I know, indeed, that you are distressed at being told to 
do this, being separated from me by a space of two days. I 
would have you know, therefore, that we the persuaders 
love you the persuaded much more than you love us who 
have persuaded you. Therefore loving one another as we do 
by not unreasonably doing what we wish, let us provide, as 
much as in us lies, for safety. For I prefer, as you also 
know, [to go] into the more notable cities of the provinces, 
and to remain some days, and discourse. And for the pre- 
1 Literally, " of wickedness." 


sent lead the way into the neighbouring Laodicea, and, after 
two or three days, so far as it depends upon my choice, I 
shall overtake you. And do you alone receive me at the 
gates, on account of the confusion, that thus we may enter 
along with you without tumult. And thence, in like manner, 
after some days' stay, others in your stead will go forward by 
turns to the places beyond, preparing lodgings for us." 

Chap. hi. — Submission, 

When Peter had tiius spoken they were compelled to 
acquiesce, saying, ^' It does not altogether grieve us, my lord, 
to do this on account of its being your command ; in the 
first place, indeed, because you have been chosen by the pro- 
vidence of God, as being worthy to think and counsel well in 
all things ; and in addition to this, for the most part we 
shall be separated from you only for two days by the neces- 
sity of preceding you. And that were indeed a long time to 
be without sight of thee, O Peter, did we not consider that 
they will be more grieved who are sent much farther forward, 
being ordered to wait for thee longer in every city, distressed 
that they are longer deprived of the sight of thy longed-for 
countenance. And we, though not less distressed than they, 
make no opposition, because you order us to do it for profit." 
Thus, having spoken, they went forward, having it in charge 
that at the first stage they should address the accompanying 
multitude that they should enter the cities apart from one 

Chap. iv. — Clements joy. 

When, therefore, they had gone, I, Clement, rejoiced 
greatly that he had ordered me to remain with himself. Then 
I answered and said, '' I thank God that you have not sent 
me away as you have done the others, as I should have died 
of grief." But he said, '' But what? If there shall ever be 
any necessity that you be sent away for the sake of teach- 
ing, would you, on account of being separated for a little 
while from me, and that for an advantageous purpose, would 
you die for that ? Would you not rather impress upon 



yourself the duty of bearing the things that are arranged 
for you through necessity, and cheerfully submit? And do 
you not know that friends are present with one another in 
their memories, although they are separated bodily ; whereas 
some, being bodily present, wander from their friends in 
their souls, by reason of want of memory ? " 

Chap. y. — Clemen-Cs ojffice of sei^ice. 

Then I answered, " Do not think, my lord, that I should 
endure that grief foolishly, but with some good reason. For 
since I hold you, my lord, in place of all, father, mother, 
brothers, relatives, you who are the means through God of 
my having the saving truth, holding you in place of all, I 
have the greatest consolation. And in addition to this, being 
afraid of my natural youthful lust, I was concerned lest, 
being left by you (being but a young man, and having now 
such a resolution that it would be impossible to desert you 
without incurring the anger of God,)^ I should be overcome 
by lust. But since it is much better and safer for me to re- 
main w^ith you, when my mind is with good reason set upon 
venerating, therefore I pray that I may always remain with 
you. Moreover, I remember you saying in Cgesarea, ^ If 
any one wishes to journey with me, let him piously journey.' 
And by piously you meant, that those who are devoted to the 
worship of God should grieve no one in respect of God, such 
as by leaving parents, an attached wife, or any others.^ 
Whence I am in all respects a fitting fellow-traveller for you, 
to whom, if you would confer the greatest favour, you would 
allow to perform the functions of a servant." 

Chap. vi. — Peter^s frucjaliti/. 

Then Peter, hearing, smiled and said, " What think you, 
then, O Clement ? Do you not think that you are placed by 
very necessity in the position of my servant ? For who else 

^ Here the text is hopelessly corrupt, and the meaning can only be 
guessed at. 

2 I have ventured to make a very slight change on the reading here, 
so as to bring out -what I suppose to be the sense. 


shall take care of those many splendid tunics, with all my 
changes of rings and sandals ? And who shall make ready 
those pleasant and artistic dainties, which, being so various, 
need many skilful cooks, and all those things which are pro- 
cured with great eagerness, and are prepared for the appetite 
of effeminate men as for some great wild beast? However, 
such a choice has occurred to you, perhaps, without you 
understanding or knowing my manner of life, that I use 
only bread and olives, and rarely pot-herbs ; and that this is 
my only coat and cloaK which I wear ; and I have no need 
of any of them, nor of aught else : for even in these I 
abound. For my mind, seeing all the eternal good things 
that are there, regards none of the things that are here. 
However, I accept of your good will ; and I admire and com- 
mend you, for that you, a man of refined habits, have so 
easily submitted your manner of living to your necessities. 
For we, from our childhood, both I and Andrew, my brother, 
who is also my brother as respects God, not only being 
brought up in the condition of orphans, but also accustomed 
to labour through poverty and misfortune, easily bear the 
discomforts of our present journeys. Whence, if you would 
obey me, you would allow me, a working man, to fulfil the 
part of a servant to you." 

Chap. vii. — " Not to he ministered unto, hut to minister^ 

But I, when I heard this, fell a-trembling and weeping, 
that such a word should be spoken by a man to whom all the 
men of this generation are inferior in point of knowledge and 
piety. But he, seeing me weeping, asked the cause of my 
tears. Then I said, " In what have I sinned so that you have 
spoken to me such a word ? " Then Peter answered, " If it 
were wrong of me to speak of being your servant, you were 
first in fault in asking to be mine." Then I said, " The cases 
are not parallel ; for to do this indeed becomes me well ; but 
it is terrible for you, the herald of God, and who savest our 
souls, to do this to me." Then Peter answered, "I should agree 
with you, but that ^ our Lord, who came for the salvation of 
^ A negative particle seems to be dropped from the text» 


all the world, being alone noble above all, submitted to tlie 
condition of a servant, that He might persuade us not to be 
ashamed to perform the ministrations of servants to our 
brethren, however well-born we maj be." Then I said, " If 
I think to overcome you in argument, I am foolish. How- 
ever, I thank the providence of God, that 1 have been 
thought worthy to have you instead of parents." 

Chap. viii. — Family history. 

Then Peter inquired, "Are you really, then, alone in your 
family?" Then I answered, "There are indeed many and 
great men, being of the kindred of Coesar. Wherefore 
Caesar himself gave a wife of his own family to my father, 
who was his foster-brother ; and of her three sons of us were 
born, two before me, who were twins and very like each 
other, as my father told me. But I scarcely know either 
them or our mother, but bear about with me an obscure 
Image of them, as through dreams. Islj mother's name 
was Mattidin, and my father's, Faustin; and of my brothers 
one was called Faastinus, and the other Faustinianus. Then 
after I, their third son, was born, my mother saw a vision — 
so my father told me — [which told her,] that unless she im- 
mediately took away her twin sons, and left the city of Rome 
for exile for twelve years, she and they must die by an all- 
destructive fate. 

Chap. ix. — The lost ones. 

" Therefore my father, being fond of his children, supply- 
ing them suitably for the journey with male and female 
servants, put them on board ship, and sent them to Athens 
with her to be educated, and kept me alone of his sons with 
him for his comfort; and for this I am very thankful, that 
the vision had not ordered me also to depart with my mother 
from the city of Rome. Then, after the lapse of a year, my 
father sent money to them to Athens, and at the same time 
to learn how they did. But those who went on this errand 
did not return. And in the third year, my father being dis- 
tressed, sent others in like manner with supplies, and they 


returned in the fourth year with the tidings that they had 
seen neither my mother nor my brothers, nor had they ever 
arrived at Athens, nor had they found any trace of any one 
of those who set out with them. 

Chap. x. — The seeker lost, 

" Then my father, hearing this, and being stupefied with 
excessive grief, and not knowing where to go in quest of 
them, used to take me with him and go down to the harbour, 
and inquire of many where any one of them had seen or 
heard of a shipwreck four years ago. And one turned one 
place, and another another. Then he inquired whether they 
had seen the body of a woman with [two] children cast 
ashore. And when they told him that they had seen many 
corpses in many places, my father groaned at the informa- 
tion. But, with his bowels yearning, he asked unreasonable 
questions, that he might try to search so great an extent of 
sea. However, he was pardonable, because, through affection 
towards those whom he was seeking for, he fed on vain hopes. 
And at last, placing me under guardians, and leaving me at 
Home when I was twelve years old, he himself, weeping, went 
down to the harbour, and went on board ship, and set out upon 
the search. And from that day till this I have neither re- 
ceived a letter from him, nor do I know whether he be alive 
or dead. But I rather suspect that he is dead somewhere, 
either overcome by grief, or perished by shipwreck. And the 
proof of that is that it is now the twentieth year that I have 
heard no true intelligence concerning him." 

Chap. xt. — The ajflictions of the righteous. 

But Peter, hearing this, wept through sympathy, and 
immediately said to the gentlemen who were present : " If 
any w^orshipper of God had suffered these things, such as 
this man's father hath suffered, he would immediately have 
assigned the cause of it to be his worship of God, ascribing 
it to the wicked one. Thus also it is the lot of the wretched 
Gentiles to suffer ; and we worshippers of God know it not. 
But with good reason I call them wretched, because here 


they are ensnared, and the hope that is thine they obtain 
not. For those who in the worship of God suffer afflictions, 
suffer them for the expiation of their transgressions." 

Chap. xii. — A pleasure trip. 

When Peter had spoken thus, a certain one amongst us 
ventured to invite him, in the name of all, that next day, 
early in the morning, he should sail to Aradus, an island 
opposite, distant, I suppose, not quite thirty stadia, for the 
purpose of seeing two pillars of vine-wood that were there, 
and that were of very great girth. Therefore the indulgent 
Peter consented, saying, " When you leave the boat, do not 
go many of you together to see the things that you desire to 
see ; for 1 do not wish that the attention of the inhabitants 
should be turned to you." And so we sailed, and in short 
time arrived at the island. Then landing from the boat, 
we went to the place where the vine-wood pillars were, and 
alono; with them we looked at several of the works of Phidius. 

Chap. xiii. — A woman of a sorrowful spirit. 

But Peter alone did not think it worth while to look at 
the sifjhts that were there ; but noticinfr a certain woman 
sitting outside before the doors, begging constantly for her 
support, he said to her, " O woman, is any of your limbs 
defective, that you submit to such disgrace — I mean that of 
beo[fi;inor, — and do not rather work with the hands which God 
has given you, and procure your daily food?" But she, 
groaning, answered, " Would that I had hands able to work ! 
But now they retain only the form of hands, being dead 
and rendered useless by my gnawing of them." Then Peter 
asked her, " What is the cause of your suffering so terribly ?" 
And she answered, " Weakness of soul ; and nought else. 
For if I had the mind of a man, there was a precipice or 
a pool whence I should have thrown myself, and have been 
able to rest from my tormenting misfortunes." 

Chap. xiv. — Balm in Gilead, 
Then said Peter, " What then ? Do you suppose, O 


woman, that those who destroy themselves are freed from 
punishment ? Are not the souls of those who thus die 
punished with a worse punishment in Hades for their 
suicide?" But she said, "Would that I were persuaded 
that souls are really found alive in Hades; then I should 
love death, making light of the punishment, that I might 
see, were it but for an hour, my longed-for sons!" Then 
said Peter, " What is it that grieves you ? I should like to 
know, O woman. For if you inform me, in return for this 
favour, I shall satisfy you that souls live in Hades ; and 
instead of precipice or pool, I. shall give you a drug, that 
you may live and die without torment." 

CiiAP. XV. — The womaiiLS stoi^. 

Then the w^oman, not understanding what was spoken 
ambiguously, being pleased with the promise, began to speak 
thus : — " Were I to speak of my family and my country, I do 
not suppose that I should be able to persuade any one. But 
of what consequence is it to you to learn this, excepting only 
the reason why in my anguish I have deadened my hands by 
gnawing them ? Yet I shall give you an account of myself, 
so far as it is in your power to hear it. I, being very nobly 
born, by the arrangement of a certain man in authority, be- 
came the wife of a man who was related to him. And first 
I had twin sons, and afterwards another son. But my 
husband's brother, being thoroughly mad, was enamoured 
of wretched me, who exceedingly affected chastity. And 
I, wishing neither to consent to my lover nor to expose to 
my husband his brother's love of me, reasoned thus ; that I 
may neither defile myself by the commission of adultery 
nor disgrace my husband's bed, nor set brother at war with 
brother, nor subject the whole family, which is a great one, 
to the reproach of all, as I said. I reasoned that it was best 
for me to leave the city for some time with my twin children, 
until the impure love should cease of him who flattered me 
to my disgrace. The other son, however, I left with his 
father, to remain for a comfort to him. 


Chap. XVI. — The shipwrech 

" However, that matters might be thus arranged, I resolved 
to fabricate a dream, to the effect that some one stood by me 
by night, and thus spoke : ' O \Yoman, straightway leave the 
city with your twin children for some time, until I shall 
charge you to return hither again ; otherwise you forthwith 
shall die miserably, with your husband and all your children.' 
And so I did. For as soon as I told the false dream to my 
husband, he being alarmed, sent me off by ship to Athens 
with my two sons, and with slaves, maids, and abundance of 
money, to educate the boys, until, said he, it shall please the 
iiiver of the oracle that vou return to me. But, wretch that 
I am, while sailing with my children, I was driven by the fury 
of the winds into these regions, and the ship having gone to 
pieces in the night, I was wrecked. And all the rest having 
died, my unfortunate self alone was tossed by a great wave 
and cast upon a rock ; and while I sat upon it in my misery, 
I was prevented, by the hope of finding my children alive, 
from throwing myself into the deep then, when I could easily 
have done it, having my soul made drunk by the waves. 

Chap. xvii. — The fruitless search. 

" But when the day dawned, I shouted aloud, and howled 
miserably, and looked around, seeking for the dead bodies of 
my hapless children. Therefore the inhabitants took pity 
on me, and seeing me naked, they first clothed me and then 
sounded the deep, seeking for my children. And when they 
found nothing of what they sought, some of the hospitable 
women came to me to comfort me, and every one told her 
own misfortunes, that I might obtain comfort from the 
occurrences of similar misfortunes. But this only grieved 
me the more ; for I said that I was not so wicked that I 
could take comfort from the misfortunes of others. And so, 
when many of them asked me to accept their hospitality, a 
certain poor woman with much urgency constrained me to 
come into her cottage, saying to me, ' Take courage, woman, 
for my husband, who was a sailor, also died at sea, while ho 


was still in the bloom of his youth ; and ever since, though 
many have asked me in marriage, I have preferred living as 
a widow, regretting the loss of my husband. But we shall 
have in common whatever we can both earn with our hands.' 

Chap, xviii. — Trouble upon trouble. 

" And not to lengthen out unnecessary details, I went to 
live with her, on account of her love to her husband. And 
not long after, my hands were debilitated by my gnawing of 
them ; and the woman who had taken me in, being wholly 
seized by some malady, is confined in the house. Since then 
the former compassion of the woman has declined, and I and 
the woman of the house are both of us helpless. For a long 
time I have sat here, as you see, begging ; and whatever I 
get I convey to my fellow-sufferer for our support. Let this 
suffice about my affairs. For the rest, what hinders your ful- 
filling of your promise to give me the drug, that I may give 
it to her also, who desires to die ; and thus I also, as you said, 
shall be able to escape from life % " 

Chap. xix. — Evasions, 

While the woman thus spoke, Peter seemed to be in sus- 
pense on account of many reasonings. But I came up and 
said, ^' I have been going about seeking you for a long time. 
And now, what is in hand ?" But Peter ordered me to lead 
the way, and wait for him at the boat ; and because there was 
no gainsaying when he commanded, I did as I was ordered. 
But Peter, as he afterwards related the whole matter to me, 
being struck in his heart with some slight suspicion, inquired 
of the woman, saying, " Tell me, O woman, your family, and 
your city, and the names of your children, and presently I 
shall give you the drug." But she, being put under constraint, 
and not wishing to speak, yet being eager to obtain the drug, 
cunningly said one thing for another. And so she said that 
she was an Ephesian, and her husband a Sicilian; and in 
like manner she chanojed the names of the three children. 


Then Peter, supposing that she spoke the truth, said, " Alas! 
O woman, I thought that this day was to bring you great joy, 


suspecting that you are a certain person of whom I was 
thinking, and whose affairs I have heard and accurately 
know." But she adjured him, saying, " Tell me, I entreat 
of you, that I may know if there is among women any one 
more wretched than myself." 

Chap. xx. — Peter s account of the matter. 

Then Peter, not knowing that she had spoken falsely, 
through pity towards her, began to tell her the truth : " There 
is a certain young man in attendance upon me, thirsting 
after the discourses on religion, a Koman citizen, who told 
me how that, having a father and two twin brothers, he has 
lost sight of them all. For," says he, " my mother, as my 
father related to me, having seen a vision, left the city Rome 
for a time with her twin children, lest she should perish by 
an evil fate, and having gone away with them, she cannot 
be found ; and her husband, the young man's father, having 
^one in search of her, he also cannot be found." 

Chap. xxi. — A disclosure, 

"While Peter thus spoke, the woman, who had listened atten- 
tively, swooned away as if in stupor. But Peter approached 
her, and caught hold of her, and exhorted her to restrain her- 
self, persuading her to confess what was the matter with her. 
But she, being powerless in the rest of her body, as through 
intoxication, turned her [head] round, being able to sustain 
the greatness of the hoped-for joy, and rubbing her face : 
^' Where," said she, " is this youth ? " And he, now seeing 
through the whole affair, said, " Tell me first ; for otherwise 
you cannot see him." Then she earnestly said, " I am that 
youth's mother." Then said Peter, "What is his name?" 
And she said, " Clement." Then Peter said, " It is the 
same, and he it was that spoke to me a little while ago, whom 
I ordered to wait for me in the boat. And she, falHng at 
Peter's feet, entreated him to make haste to come to the boat." 
Then Peter, " If you will keep terms with me, I shall do so." 
Then she said, "I will do anything; only show me my only 
child. For I shall seem to see in him my two children who 


died here." Then Peter said, " When ye see him, be quiet, 
until we depart from the island." And she said, " I will." 

Chap. xxii. — The lost found. 

Peter, therefore, took her by the hand, and led her to the 
boat. But I, when I saw him leading the woman by the hand, 
laughed, and approaching, offered to lead her instead of him, 
to his honour. But as soon as I touched her hand, she gave 
a motherly shout, and embraced me violently, and eagerly 
kissed me as her son. But I, being ignorant of the whole 
affair, shook her off as a madwoman. But, through my 
respect for Peter, I checked myself. 

Chap, xxiii. — Reward of Iwspitality. 

But Peter said, " Alas ! What are you doing, my son 
Clement, shaking off your real mother ? " But I, when I 
heard this, w^ept, and falling down by my mother, who had 
fallen, I kissed her. For as soon as this was told me, I in 
some way recalled her appearance indistinctly. Then great 
crowds ran together to see the beggar woman, telling one 
another that her son had recognised her, and that he was a 
man of consideration. Then, when we would have straight- 
way left the island with my mother, she said to us, " My 
much longed-for son, it is right that I should bid farewell to 
the woman who entertained me, who, being poor and wholly 
debilitated, lies in the house." And Peter hearing this, and 
all the multitude who stood by, admired the good disposition 
of the woman. And immediately Peter ordered some persons 
to go and bring the woman on her couch. And as soon as 
the couch was brought and set down, Peter said, in the hear- 
ing of the w^hole multitude, " If I be a herald of the truth, in 
order to the faith of the bystanders, that they may know that 
there is one God, who made the world, let her straightway 
rise whole." And while Peter was still speaking, the woman 
arose healed, and fell down before Peter, and kissed her dear 
associate, and asked her what it all meant. Then she briefly 
detailed to her the whole business of the recognition, to the 
astonishment of the hearers. Then also my mother, seeing 


her hostess cured, entreated that she herself also might 
obtain healing. And his placing his hand upon her, cured 
her also. 

Chap. xxiv. — All well arranged. 

And then Peter havinsj discoursed concerninfj God and 
the service accorded to Him, he concluded as follows : '• If 
any one "svishes to learn these things accurately, let him come 
to Antioch, where I have resolved to remain some length of 
time, and learn the things that pertain to his salvation. For 
if you are familiar with leaving your country for the sake of 
trading or of warfare, and coming to far-off places, you 
should not be unwillincr to fjo three davs' iournev for the 
sake of eternal salvation." Then, after the address of Peter, 
I presented the woman who had been healed, in the presence 
of all the multitude, with a thousand drachmas, for her sup- 
port, giving her in charge to a certain good man, who was 
the chief man of the city, and who of his own accord joy- 
fully undertook the charge. Further, having distributed 
money amongst many other women, and thanked those who 
at any time had comforted my mother, 1 sailed away to 
Antaradus, along with my mother, and Peter, and the rest 
of our companions ; and thus we proceeded to our lodging. 

Chap. xxv. — Philanthropy and friendship. 

And when we were arrived and had partaken of food, and 
given thanks according to our custom, there being still time, 
I said to Peter : " My lord Peter, my mother has done a 
work of philanthropy in remembering the woman her hostess." 
And Peter answered, " Have you indeed, O Clement, thought 
truly that your mother did a work of philanthropy in respect 
of her treatment of the woman who took her in after her 
shipwreck, or have you spoken this word by way of greatly 
complimenting your mother? But if you spoke truly, and 
not by way of compliment, you seem to me not to know 
what the greatness of philanthropy is, which is affection 
towards any one whatever in respect of his being a man, 
apart from physical persuasion. But not even do I venture 


to call the hostess who received your mother after her ship- 
wreck, philanthropic ; for she was impelled by pity, and 
persuaded to become the benefactress of a woman who had 
been shipwrecked, who was grieving for her children, — a 
stranger, naked, destitute, and greatly deploring her misfor- 
tunes. When, therefore, she was in such circumstances, who 
that saw her, though he were impious, could but pity her? 
So that it does not seem to me that even the stranger-receiv- 
ing woman did a work of philanthropy, but to have been 
moved to assist her by pity for her innumerable misfortunes. 
And how much more is it true of your mother, that when 
she was in prosperous circumstances and requited her hostess, 
she did a deed, not of philanthropy, but of friendship ! for 
there is much difference between friendship and philanthropy, 
because friendship springs from requital. But philanthropy, 
apart from physical persuasion, loves and benefits every man 
as he is a man. If, therefore, while she pitied her hostess, 
she also pitied and did good to her enemies who have wronged 
her, she would be philanthropic ; but if, on one account she 
is friendly or hostile, and on another account is hostile or 
friendly, such an one is the friend or enemy of some quality, 
not of man as man." 

Chap. xxvi. — What is pldlanthropy ? 

Then I answered, " Do you not think, then, that even the 
stranger - receiver was philanthropic, who did good to a 
stranger whom she did not know?" Then Peter said, '^Com- 
passionate, indeed, I can call her, but I dare not call her 
philanthropic, just as I cannot call a mother philoteknic, for 
she is prevailed on to have an affection for them by her 
pangs, and by her rearing of them. As the lover also is grati- 
fied by the company and enjoyment of his mistress, and the 
friend by return of friendship, so also the compassionate man 
by misfortune. However the compassionate man is near to the 
philanthropic, in that he is impelled, apart from hunting after 
the receipt of anything, to do the kindness. But he is not yet 
philanthropic." Then I said, " By what deeds, then, can any 
one be philanthropic ? " And Peter answered, " Since I see 


that you are eager to hear -vvhat is the work of philanthropy, 
I shall not object to telling you. He is the philanthropic 
man who does good even to his enemies. And that it is so, 
listen : Philanthropy is masculo-feminine ; and the feminine 
part of it is called compassion^ and the male part is named 
love to our neighbour. But every man is neighbour to every 
man, and not merely this man or that ; for the good and the 
bad, the friend and the enemy, are alike men. It behoves, 
therefore, him who practises philanthropy to be an imitator of 
God, doing good to the righteous and the unrighteous, as 
God Himself vouchsafes His sun and His heavens to all in 
the present world. But if you will do good to the good, but not 
to the e^^l, or even will punish them, you undertake to do the 
work of a judge, you do not strive to hold by philanthropy.'*- 

Chap, xxyii. — Wlw can judge ? 

Then I said, '^ Then even God, who, as you teach us, is at 
some time to judge, is not philanthropic." Then said Peter, 
" You assert a contradiction ; for because He shall judge, on 
that very account He is philanthropic. For he who loves 
and compassionates those who have been wronged, avenges 
those who have wronged them." Then I said, " If, then, I also 
do good to the good, and punish the wrong-doers in respect 
of their injuring men, am I not philanthropic ?" And Peter 
answered, "If along with knowledge^ you had also authority to 
judge, you would do this rightly on account of your having 
received authority to judge those whom God made, and on 
account of your knowledge infallibly justifying some as the 
rifrhteous, and condemninrr some as unricfhteous." Then I 
said, " You have spoken rightly and truly ; for it is impossible 
for any one who has not knowledge to judge rightly. For 
sometimes some persons seem good, though they perpetrate 
wickedness in secret, and some good persons are conceived 
to be bad throuf^h the accusation of their enemies. But even 


^ The vrord repeatedly rendered knowledge and once omniscience in 
this passage, properly signifies foreknowledge. The argument shows 
clearly that it means omniscience, of which foreknowledge is the most 
signal manifestation. 


if one judges, having the power of torturing and examining, 
not even so should he altogether judge righteously. For 
some persons, being murderers, have sustained the tortures, 
and have come off as innocent ; while others, being innocent, 
have not been able to sustain the tortures, but have confessed 
falsely against themselves, and have been punished as guilty.'* 

Chap. XXVIII. — Difficulty of judging. 

Then said Peter, " These things are ordinary : now hear 
what is greater. Ther3 are some men whose sins or good 
deeds are partly their own, and partly those of others ; but 
it is right that each one be punished for his own sins, and 
rewarded for his own merits. But it is impossible for any 
one except a prophet, who alone has omniscience, to know 
with respect to the things that are done by any one, which 
are his own, and which are not ; for all are seen as done by 
him." Then I said, "I would learn how some of men's 
wrong-doings or right-doings are their own, and some belong 
to others." 

Chap. xxix. — Sufferings of the good. 

Then Peter answered, " The prophet of the truth has 
said, ' Good things must needs come, and blessed, said he, is 
he by whom they come ; in like manner evil things must 
needs come, but woe to him through whom they come.'^ 
But if evil things come by means of evil men, and good things 
are brought by good men, it must needs be in each man as 
his own to be either good or bad, and proceeding from what 
he has proposed, in order to the coming of the subsequent good 
or evil,^ which, being of his own choice, are not arranged by 
the providence of God to come from him. This being so, this 
is the judgment of God, that he who, as by a combat, comes 
through all misfortune and is found blameless, he is deemed 
worthy of eternal life ; for those who by their own will con- 
tinue in goodness, are tempted by those who continue in evil 
by their own will, being persecuted, hated, slandered, plotted 

^ An incorrect quotation from Matt, xviii., Luke xvii. 
2 This from a various reading. 


against, struck, cheated, accused, tortured, disgraced, — suffer- 
ing all these things by which it seems reasonable that they 
should be enraged and stirred up to vengeance. 

Chap. xxx. — Offences must come. 

"But the Master knowing that those who wrongfully do 
these things are guilty by means of their former sins, and 
that the spirit of wickedness works these things by means of 
the guilty, has counselled to compassionate men, as they are 
men, and as being the instruments of wickedness through 
sin ; [and this counsel] He has given to His disciples as claim- 
ing philanthropy, and, as much as in us lies, to absolve the 
wrong-doers from condemnation, that, as it were, the .tem- 
perate may help the drunken, by prayers, fastings, and bene- 
dictions, not resisting, not avenging, lest they should compel 
them to sin more. For when a person is condemned by any 
one to suffer, it is not reasonable for him to be angry with 
him by whose means the suffering comes ; for he ought to 
reason, that if he had not ill-used him, yet because he was to 
be ill-used, he must have suffered it by means of another. 
Why, then, should I be angry with the dispenser, when I was 
condemned at all events to suffer? But yet, further: if we 
do these same things to the evil on pretence of revenge, we 
who are good do the very things which the evil do, except- 
ing that they do them first, and we second ; and, as I said, we 
ought not to be angry, as knowing that in the providence of 
God, the evil punish the good. Those, therefore, who are 
bitter against their punishers, sin, as disdaining the messen- 
gers of God ; but those who honour them, and set them- 
selves in opposition to those who think to injure them,^ are 
pious towards God who has thus decreed." 

CiiAP. XXXI. — " Howheit, they meant it nct!^ 

To this I answered, ^' Those, therefore, who do wrong are 

not guilty, because they wrong the just by the judgment of 

God." Then Peter said, " They indeed sin greatly, for 

they have given themselves to sin. Wherefore knowing this, 

^ That is, I suppose, who render good for evil. 


[God] chooses from among tliem [some] to punish those who 
righteously repented of their former sins, that the evil things 
done by the just before their repentance may be remitted 
through this punishment. But to the wicked who punish 
and desire to ill-use them, and will not repent, it is permitted 
to ill-use the righteous for the filling up of their own punish- 
ment. For without the will of God, not even a sparrow can 
fall into a girn.^ Thus even the hairs of the righteous are 
numbered by God. 

Chap, xxxii. — The golden rule, 

" But he is rio;hteous who for the sake of what is reasonable 
fights with nature. For example, it is natural to all to love 
those who love them. But the righteous man tries also to 
love his enemies and to bless those who slander him, and even 
to pray for his enemies, and to compassionate those who do 
him wrong. Wherefore also he refrains from doing wrong, 
and blesses those who curse him, pardons those who strike 
him, and submits to those who persecute him, and salutes 
those w^ho do not salute him, shares such things as he has 
with those who have not, persuades him that is angry with 
him, conciliates his enemy, exhorts the disobedient, instructs 
the unbelieving, comforts the mourner ; being distressed, he 
endures ; being ungratefully treated, he is not angry. But 
having devoted himself to love his neighbour as himself, he 
is not afraid of poverty, but becomes poor by sharing his 
possessions with those who have none. But neither does he 
punish the sinner. For he who loves his neighbour as him- 
self, as he knows that when he has sinned he does not wish 
to be punished, so neither does he punish those wdio sin. 
And as he washes to be praised, and blessed, and honoured, 
and to have all his sins forgiven, thus he does to his neigh- 
bour, loving him as himself.^ In one word, what he wishes 
for himself, he wishes also for his neighbour. For this is the 
law of God and of the prophets f this is the doctrine of truth. 
And this perfect love towards every man is the male part of 
philanthropy, but the female part of it is compassion ; that 

1 See Luke xii. 6, 7. 2 ;^Xatt. xxii. 39. » Matt. vii. 12. 



is, to feed the hungry/ to give drink to the thirsty, to clothe 
the naked, to visit the sick, to take in the stranger, to show 
herself to, and help to the utmost of her power, him who is in 
prison, and, in short, to have compassion on him who is in 

Chap, xxxiii. — Fear and love. 

But I, hearing this, said : " These things, indeed, it is im- 
possible to do ; but to do good to enemies, bearing all their 
insolences, I do not think can possibly be in human nature." 
Then Peter answered: "You have said truly; for philan- 
thropy, being the cause of immortality, is given for much." 
Then I said, " How then is it possible to get it in the mind V 
Then Peter answered : " O beloved Clement, the way to get 
it is this : if any one be persuaded that enemies, ill-using 
for a time those whom they hate, become the cause to them 
of deliverances from eternal punishment ; and forthwith he 
will ardently love them as benefactors. But the way to get 
it, O dear Clement, is but one, which is the fear of God. 
For he who fears God cannot indeed from the first love his 
neighbour as himself ; for such an order does not occur to 
the soul. But by the fear of God he is able to do the things 
of those who love ; and thus, while he does the deeds of love, 
the bride Love is, as it were, brought to the bridegroom Fear, 
And thus this bride, bringing forth philanthropic thoughts, 
makes her possessor immortal, as an accurate image of God, 
which cannot be subject in its nature to corruption." Thus 
while he expounded to us the doctrine of philanthropy, the 
evening having set in, we turned to sleep. 

1 Matt. XXV. 35, 36. 


Chap. i. — Journey to Laodicea, 

OW at break of clay Peter entered, and said : 
" Clement, and his mother Mattidia, and my 
wife, must take their seats immediately on the 
waggon." And so they did straightway. And 
as we were hastening along the road to Balanaeas, my mother 
asked me how my father was ; and I said : " My father 
went in search of you, and of my twin brothers Faustinus 
and Faustinianus, and is now nowhere to be found. But I 
fancy he must have died long ago, either perishing by ship- 
wreck, or losing his way,^ or wasted away by grief." When 
she heard this, she burst into tears, and groaned through 
grief ; but the joy which she felt at finding me, mitigated 
in some degree the painfulness of her recollections. And so 
we all went down together to Balansese. And on the follow- 
ing day we went to Paltus, and from that to Gabala ; and 
on the next day we reached Laodicea. And, lo ! before the 
gates of the city Nicetas and Aquila met us, and embracing 
us, brought us to our lodging. Now Peter, seeing that the 
city was beautiful and great, said : " It is worth our while to 
stay here for some days ; for, generally speaking, a populous 
place is most capable of yielding us those whom w^e seek." ^ 
Nicetas and Aquila asked me who that strange woman was ; 
and I said : " My mother, whom God, through my lord 
Peter, has granted me to recognise." 

^ Cotelerius conjectured Gipuykurcc for aCpxT^surct — "being slain on 
our journey." 

2 The first Epitome explains "those whom we seek" as those who 
are worthy to share in Christ or in Christ's gospel. 



Chap. ii. — Peter relates to Nicetas and Aquila the Idstory 
of Clement and liis family. 

On my saying this, Peter gave them a summary account 
of all the incidents, — how, when they had gone on before, I 
Clement had explained to him my descent, the journey 
undertaken by my mother with her twin children on the 
false pretext of the dream ; and furthermore, the journey 
undertaken by my father in search of her ; and then how 
Peter himself, after hearing this, went into the island, met 
with the woman, saw her begging, and asked the reason of 
her so doincr; and then ascertained who she was, and her mode 
of life, and the feicjned dream, and the names of her children 
— that is, the name borne by me, who was left with my father, 
and the names of the twin children who travelled along with 
her, and who, she supposed, had perished in the deep. 

Chap. hi. — Recognition of Nicetas and Aquila. 

Now when this summary narrative had been given by 
Peter, Nicetas and Aquila in amazement said : " Is this 
indeed true, O Kuler and Lord of the universe, or is it a 
dream?" And Peter said: ^'Unless we are asleep, it cer- 
tainly is true." On this they waited for a little in deep 
meditation, and then said : '^ We are Faustinus and Faus- 
tinianus. From the commencement of your conversation 
we looked at each other, and conjectured much with regard 
to ourselves, whether what was said had reference to us or 
not ; for we reflected that many coincidences take place in 
life. Wherefore we remained silent while our hearts beat 
fast. But when you came to the end of your narrative, we 
saw clearly^ that your statements referred to us, and then 
we avowed wdio we were." And on saying this, bathed in 
tears, they rushed in to see their mother ; and although they 
found her asleep, they were yet anxious to embrace her. 
But Peter forbade them, saying : " Let me bring you and 
present you to your mother, lest she should, in consequence 

^ The text is somewhat doubtful. "We have given the meaning con- 
tained in the first Epitome. 


of her great and sudden joy, lose her reason, as she is slum- 
bering, and her spirit is held fast by sleep." 

Chap. iv. — The mother must not tahe food with her son. 
The reason stated. 

As soon as my mother had enough of sleep, she awoke, 
and Peter at once began first to talk to her of [true] piety, 
saying : " I wish you to know, O woman, the course of life 
involved in our religion.^ AVe worship one God, who made 
the world which you see ; and we keep His law, which has 
for its chief injunctions to worship Him alone, and to hallow 
His name, and to honour our parents, and to be chaste, and 
to live piously. In addition to this, we do not live with all 
indiscriminately ; nor do we take our food from the same 
table as Gentiles, inasmuch as we cannot eat aloncj with 
them, because they live impurely. But when we have per- 
suaded them to have true thoughts, and to follow a right 
course of action, and have baptized them with a thrice 
blessed invocation, then we dwell with them. For not even 
if it were our father, or mother, or wife, or child, or brother, 
or any other one having a claim by nature on our affection, 
can we venture to take our meals with him ; for our religion 
compels us to make a distinction. Do not, therefore, regard 
it as an insult if your son does not take his food along with 
you, until you come to have the same opinions and adopt the 
same course of conduct as he follows." 

Chap. y. — Mattidia wishes to he baptized. 

When she heard this, she said : ^' What, then, prevents me 
from being baptized this day ? for before I saw you I turned 
away from the so-called gods, induced by the thought that, 
though I sacrificed much to them almost every day, they did 
not aid me in my necessities. And with regard to adultery, 
what need I say ? for not even when I was rich was I be- 
trayed into this sin by luxury, and the poverty which suc- 
ceeded has been unable to force me into it, since I cling to 


my chastity as constituting the greatest beauty/ on account 
of which I fell into so great distress. But I do not at all 
imagine that you, my lord Peter, are ignorant that the 
greatest temptation^ arises when everything looks bright. 
And therefore, if I was chaste in my prosperity, I do not in 
my despondency give myself up to pleasures. Yea, indeed, 
you are not to suppose that my soul has now been freed from 
distress, although it has received some measure of consolation 
by the recognition of Clement. For the gloom which I feel 
in consequence of the loss of my two children rushes in upon 
me, and throws its shadow to some extent over my joy ; for 
I am grieved, not so much because they perished in the sea, 
but because they were destroyed, both soul and body, with- 
out possessing true^ piety towards God. Moreover, my 
husband, their father, as I have learned from Clement, went 
away in search of me and his sons, and for so many years 
has not been heard of ; and, without doubt, he must have 
died. For the miserable man, loving me as he did in chas- 
tity, was fond of his children ; and therefore the old man, 
deprived of all of us who were dear to him above everything 
else, died utterly broken-hearted." 

Chap. yi. — The sons reveal themselves to the mother. 

The sons, on hearing their mother thus speak, could no 
lonfrer, in obedience to the exhortation of Peter, restrain 
themselves, but rising up, they clasped her in their arms, 
showering down upon her tears and kisses. But she said : 
"What is the meanincr of this?" And Peter answered: 
" Courageously summon up your spirits, O woman, that you 
may enjoy your children; for these are Faustinus and Faus- 
tinianus, your sons, who, you said, had perished in the deep. 
For how they are alive, after they had in your opinion died 

^ One lis. and the first Epitome read, "as being the greatest bless- 

2 Lit., " desire." 

^ The Greek has, " apart from divine piety towards God." As 
Wieseler remarks, the epithet "divine" is corrupt. The meaning may 
be, " without having known the proper mode of worshipping God." 


on that most disastrous niglit, and how one of them now 
bears the name of Nicetas, and the other that of Aquila, 
they will themselves be able to tell you ; for we, as well as 
you, have yet to learn this." When Peter thus spoke, my 
mother fainted away through her excessive joy, and was like 
to die. But when we had revived her she sat up, and 
coming to herself, she said : '' Be so good, my darling chil- 
dren, as tell us what happened to you after that disastrous 

Chap. vii. — Nicetas tells what befell Mm, 

And Nicetas, who in future is to be called Faustinus, 
began to speak, " On that very night when, as you know, 
the ship went to pieces, we were taken up by some men, who 
did not fear to follow the profession of robbers on the deep. 
They placed us in a boat, and brought us along the coast, 
sometimes rowing and sometimes sending for provisions, and 
at length took us to Csesarea Stratonis,-"- and there tormented 
us by hunger, fear, and blows, that we might not reck- 
lessly disclose anything which they did not wish us to tell ; 
and, moreover, changing our names, they succeeded in sell- 
ing us. Now the woman who bought us was a proselyte of 
the Jews, an altogether worthy person, of the name of Justa. 
She adopted us as her own children, and zealously brought 
us up in all the learning of the Greeks. But we, becoming 
discreet with our years, were strongly attached to her religion, 
and we paid good heed to our culture, in order that, disputing 
with the other nations, we might be able to convince them 
of their error. We also made an accurate study of the doc- 
trines of the philosophers, especially the most atheistic, — I 

^ This clause, literally translated, is, "and sometimes impelling it with 
oars, they brought us along the land ; and sometimes sending for pro- 
visions, they conveyed us to Caesarea Stratonis." The Latin translator 
renders "to land," not "along the land." The passage assumes a dif- 
ferent form in the Eecognitions, the first Epitome, and the second Epi- 
tome ; and there is, no doubt, some corruption in the text. The text has 
'hccKpuQi/Toig^ which makes no sense. We have adopted the rendering 
given in the Recognitions. Various attempts have been made to amend 
the word. 


mean those of Epicurus and Pyrrho, — in order that we might 
be the better able to refute them. 

Chap. viii. — Nicetas like to be deceived hy Simon Magus. 

*' We were brought up along with one Simon, a magician ; 
and in consequence of our friendly intercourse with him, we 
were in danger of being led astray. Now there is a report 
in regard to some man, that, when he appears, the mass of 
those who have been pious are to live free from death and 
pain in his kingdom. This matter, however, mother, will 
be explained more fully at the proper time. But when we 
were going to be led astray by Simon, a friend of our lord 
Peter, by name Zacchgeus, came to us and warned us not to 
be led astray by the magician ; and when Peter came, he 
broufTht us to him that he mi^ht (Ave, us full information, 
and convince us in regard to those matters that related to 
piety. Wherefore we beseech you, mother, to partake of 
those blessings which have been vouchsafed to us, that we 
may unite around the same table ! •'• This, then, is the reason, 
mother, why you thought we were dead. On that disastrous 
niglit we had been taken up in the sea by pirates, but you 
supposed that we had perished." 

Chap. ix. — The mother legs haptism for herself and 

her hostess. 

"When Faustinus had said this, our mother fell down at 
Peter's feet, begging and entreating him to send for her and 
her hostess, and baptize them immediately, in order that, 
says she, not a single day may pass after the recovery of my 
children, without my taking food with them. When we 
united with our mother in making the same request, Peter 
said : " What can you imagine ? Am I alone heartless, so 
as not to wish that you should take your meals with your 
mother, baptizing her this very day? But yet it is incum- 
bent on her to fast one day before she be baptized. And it 
is only one day, because, in her simplicity, she said some- 
thinrr in her own behalf, which I looked on as a sufficient 

^ Lit., " that we may be able to partake of common salt and table." 


indication of her faith ; otherwise, her purification must have 
lasted many days." 

Chap. x. — Mattidia values baptism aright. 

And I said : " Tell us what it was that she said which 
made her faith manifest." And Peter said : " Her request 
that her hostess and benefactress should be baptized along 
with her. For she would not have besought this to be 
granted to her whom she loves, had she not herself first felt 
that baptism was a great gift. And for this reason I con- 
demn many that, after being baptized, and asserting that they 
have faith, they yet do nothing worthy of faith ; nor do they 
urge those whom they love — I mean their wives, or sons, or 
friends — to be baptized.^ For if they had believed that God 
grants eternal life with good works on the acceptance of 
baptism,^ they without delay would urge those whom they 
loved to be baptized. But some one of you will say, ' They 
do love them, and care for them.' That is nonsense. For 
do they not, most assuredly, when they see them sick, or led 
away along the road that ends in death, or enduring any 
other trial, lament over them and pity them ? So, if they 
believed that eternal fire awaits those who worship not God, 
they would not cease admonishing them, or being in deep 
distress for them as unbelievers, if they saw them disobedient, 
being fully assured that punishment awaits them. But now 
I shall send for the hostess, and question her as to whether 
she deliberately accepts the law which is proclaimed through 
us ;^ and so, according to her state of mind, shall we do what 
ought to be done. 

Chap. xi. — Mattidia has unintentionally fasted one day. 

^' But since your mother has real confidence in the efficacy 
of baptism,^ let her fast at least one day before her baptism." 

1 Lit., " to this." 

2 l^< ru ^ccTtTlay.cxnri ; lit., " on the condition of baptism." 

2 Lit., "the law which, is by means of us." But the Epitomes, and a 
various reading in Cotelerius, give " our law." 

* Lit., " since your mother is faithfully disposed in regard to baptism." 


But she swore : " During the two past clays, while I related to 
the wonian ^ all the events connected with the recop-nition, I 
could not, in consequence of my excessive joy, partake of food ; 
only yesterday I took a little water." Peter's wife bore testi- 
mony to her statement with an oath, saying : " In truth she 
did not taste anything." And Aquila, who must rather be 
called Faustinianus^ in future, said : ^' There is nothinor, there- 
fore, to prevent her being baptized." And Peter, smiling, 
replied : " But that is not a baptismal fast which has not taken 
place on account of the baptism itself." And Faustinus 
answered : ^' Perhaps God, not wishing to separate our mother 
a single day after our recognition from our table, has arranged 
beforehand the fast. For as she was chaste in the times of 
her ignorance, doing what the true religion inculcated,^ so 
even now perhaps God has arranged that she should fast one 
day before for the sake of the true baptism, that, from the 
first day of her recognising us, she might take her meals 
along with us." 

Chap. XII. — The difficulty solved. 

And Peter said : '^ Let not wickedness have dominion over 
us, finding a pretext in Providence and your affection for 
your mother ; but rather abide this day in your fast, and I 
shall join you in it, and to-morrow she will be baptized. And, 
besides, this hour of the day is not suitable for baptism." 
Then we all ao^reed that it should be so. 

Chap. xiii. — Peter on chastity. 

That same evening we all enjoyed the benefit of Peter's 
instruction. Taking occasion by what had happened to our 
mother, he showed us how the results of chastity are good, 
while those of adultery are disastrous, and naturally bring 
destruction on the whole race, if not speedily, at all events 
slowly. '' And to such an extent," he says, " do deeds of 

^ The second Epitome makes her the wife of Peter : a various reading 
mentions also her hostess. 

2 Dressel strangely prefers the reading " Faustinus." 
^ Lit., " doing what was becoming to the truth." 


chastity please God, that in this life He bestows some small 
favour on account of it, even on those who are in error ; for 
salvation in the other world is granted only to those who have 
been baptized on account of their trust "^ in Him, and who 
act chastely and righteously. This ye yourselves have seen 
in the case of your mother, that the results of chastity are in 
the end good. For perhaps she would have been cut off if 
she had committed adultery ; but God took pity on her for 
having behaved chastely, rescued her from the death that 
threatened her, and restored to her her lost children. 

Chap. xiv. — Peter^s speech continued, 

" But some one will say, ^ How many have perished on 
account of chastity ? ' Yes ; but it was because they did not 
perceive the danger. For the woman who perceives that she is 
in love with any one, or is beloved by any one, should imme- 
diately shun all association with him as she would shun a blaz- 
ing fire or a mad dog. And this is exactly what your mother 
did, for she really loved chastity as a blessing : wherefore she 
was preserved, and, along with you, obtained the full know- 
ledo;e of the everlastinc^ kino;dom. The woman who wishes 
to be chaste, ought to know that she is envied by wickedness, 
and that because of love many lie in wait for her. If, then, 
she remain holy through a stedfast persistence in chastity, 
she w'ill gain the victory over all temptations, and be saved ; 
whereas, even if she were to do all that is right, and yet 
should once commit the sin of adultery, she must be punished^ 
as said the prophet. 

Chap. xv. — Peter s speech continued. 

" The chaste wife, doing the will of God, is a good remi- 
niscence of His first creation ; for God, being one, created 
one woman for one man. She is also still more chaste if she 
does not forget her own creation, and has future punishment 
before her eyes, and is not ignorant of the loss of eternal 
blessings. The chaste woman takes pleasure in those who 
wish to be saved, and is a pious example to the pious, for she 

iLit., "hope." 


is the model of a good life. She who wishes to be chaste, 
cuts off all occasions for slander ; but if she be slandered as 
by an enemy, though affording him no pretext, she is blessed 
and avenged by God. The chaste woman longs for God, 
loves God, pleases God, glorifies God ; and to men she 
affords no occasion for slander. The chaste woman perfumes 
the church with her good reputation, and glorifies it by her 
piety. She is, moreover, the praise of her teachers, and a 
helper to them in their chastity.-^ 

Chap. xvi. — Peter s speech continued, 

" The chaste woman is adorned with the Son of God as 
with a bridegroom. She is clothed with holy light. Her 
beauty lies in a well-regulated soul ; and she is fragrant with 
ointment, even with a good reputation. She is arrayed in 
beautiful vesture, even in modesty. She wears about her 
precious pearls, even chaste words. And she is radiant, for^ 
her mind has been brilliantly lighted up. Into a beautiful 
mirror does she look, for she looks into God. Beautiful 
cosmetics^ does she use, namely, the fear of God, with which 
she admonishes her soul. Beautiful is the woman, not be- 
cause she has chains of gold on her,* but because she has 
been set free from transient lusts. The chaste woman is 
greatly desired by the great King ;^ she has been wooed, 
watched, and loved by Him. The chaste woman does not 
furnish occasions for being desired, except by her own hus- 
band. The chaste woman is grieved when she is desired by 
another. The chaste woman loves her husband from the 
heart, embraces, soothes, and pleases him, acts the slave to 
him, and is obedient to him in all things, except when she 
would be disobedient to God. For she who obeys God is 

^ The Greek is uvrolg ca^Ppouovai. The Latin translator and Lehmann 
(^Die Clementinischen Schri/tev, Gotha 1869) render, "to those who are 
chaste, i.e. love or practise chastity," as if the reading were to7; 

2 Lit., " when." ' 

" KoatAu — properly ornaments ; but here a peculiar meaning is evidently 

* Lit., " as being chained with gold." ^ Ps. xlv. IL 


without the aid of watchmen chaste in soul and pure in 

Chap. xvii. — Peter s speech continued, 

'■'• Foolish, therefore, is every husband who separates his wife 
from the fear of God ; for she who does not fear God is not 
afraid of her husband. If she fear not God, who sees what 
is invisible, how will she be chaste in her unseen choice ? ^ 
And how will she be chaste, who does not come to the 
assemblv to hear chaste- makinoj words? And how could she 
obtain admonition? And how will she be chaste W'ithout 
watchmen, if she be not informed in regard to the coming 
judgment of God, and if she be not fully assured that eternal 
punishment is the penalty for the slight pleasure ? Where- 
fore, on the other hand, compel her even against her will 
always to come to hear the chaste-making word, yea, coax 
her to do so. 

Chap, xviii. — Peter'' s speech continued, 

^' Much better is it if you will take her by the hand and 
come, in order that you yourself may become chaste ; for you 
will desire to become chaste, that you may experience the 
full fruition of a holy marriage, and you will not scruple, if 
you desire it, to become a father,^ to love your own children, 
and to be loved by your own children. He who wishes to 
have a chaste wife is also himself chaste, gives her what is 
due to a wife, takes his meals with her, keeps company with 
her, goes with her to the word that makes chaste, does not 
grieve her, does not rashly quarrel with her, does not make 
himself hateful to her, furnishes her with all the good things 
he can, and when he has them not, he makes up the deficiency 

^ " In her unseen choice " means, in what course of conduct she really 
prefers in her heart. This reading occurs in one MS, ; in the other MS. 
it is corrupt. Schwegler amended it into, " How shall she be chaste 
towards him who does not see [what is invisible] ? " and the emendation 
is adopted by Dressel. 

^ There seems to be some corruption in this clause. Literally it is, 
" and you will not scruple, if you love, I mean, to become a father." 


by caresses. The chaste wife does not expect to be caressed, 
recognises her husband as her lord, bears his poverty when 
he is poor, is hungry with him when he is hungry, travels 
with him when he travels, consoles him when he is grieved, 
and if she have a large -^ dowry, is subject to him as if she 
had nothing at all. But if the husband have a poor W'ife, 
let him reckon her chastity a great dowry. The chaste wife 
is temperate in her eating and drinking, in order that the 
weariness of the body, thus pampered, may not drag the soul 
down to unlawful desires. Moreover, she never assuredly 
remains alone with young men, and she suspects^ the old; 
she turns away from disorderly laughter, gives herself up to 
God alone ; she is not led astray ; she delights in listening to 
holy words, but turns away from those which are not spoken 
to produce chastity. 

Chap. xix. — Peter s speech ended. 

" God is my w^itness : one adultery is as bad as many 
murders ; and what is terrible in it is this, that the fearf ul- 
ness and impiety of its murders are not seen. For, when 
blood is shed, the dead body remains lying, and all are struck 
by the terrible nature of the occurrence. But the murders 
of the soul caused by adultery, though they are more fright- 
ful, yet, since they are not seen by men, do not make the 
daring a whit less eager in their impulse. Know, O man, 
whose breath it is that thou hast to keep thee in life, and 
thou shalt not wish that it be polluted. By adultery alone 
is the breath of God polluted. And therefore it drags him 
•who has polluted it into the fire ; for it hastens to deliver up 
hs insulter to everlasting punishment." 

Chap. xx. — Feter addresses Mattidia. 

While Peter was saying this, he saw the good and chaste 
Mattidia w^eeping for joy ; but thinking that she was grieved 
at having suffered so much in past times, he said : "" Take 

^ Lit., " larger" [than usual]. 

^ {fTTOTTiVii. The Latin translator and Lehmann render " respects " 
or " reveres." 


courage, O woman ; for while many have suffered many 
evils on account of adultery, you have suffered on account 
of chastity, and therefore you did not die. But if you had 
died, your soul would have been saved. You left your 
native city of Eome on account of chastity, but through it 
you found the truth, the diadem of the eternal kingdom. 
You underwent danger in the deep, but you did not die ; 
and even if you had died, the deep itself would have proved 
to you, dying on account of chastity, a baptism for the salva- 
tion of your souL Yoa were deprived of your children for 
a Httle ; but these, the true offspring of your husband, have 
been found in better circumstances. When starving, you 
begged for food, but you did not defile your body by forni- 
cation. You exposed your body to torture, but you saved 
your soul; you fled from the adulterer, that you might 
not defile the couch of your husband : but, on account of 
your chastity, God, who knows your flight, will fill up the 
place of your husband. Grieved and left desolate, you were 
for a short time deprived of husband and children, but all 
these you must have been deprived of, some time or other, 
by death, the preordained lot of man. But better is it that 
you were willingly deprived of them on account of chastity, 
than that you should have perished unwillingly after a time, 
simply on account of sins. 

Chap. xxi. — The same subject continued. 

"Much better is it, then, that your first circumstances 
should be distressing. For when this is the case, they do 
not so deeply grieve you, because you hope that they will 
pass away, and they yield joy through the expectation of 
better circumstances. But, above all, I wish you to know 
how much chastity is pleasing to God. The chaste woman 
is God's choice, God's good pleasure, God's glory, God's 
child. So great a blessing is chastity,^ that if there had not 
been a law that not even a righteous person should enter 
into the kingdom of God unbaptized, perhaps even the erring 

"^ "We have" adopted an emendation of "Wieseler's. The emendation is 
questionable ; but the sense is the best that can be got out of the words. 


Gentiles might have been saved solely on account of chastity. 
AYherefore I am exceedingly sorry for those erring ones 
who are chaste because they shrink from baptism — thus 
choosino" to be chaste without good hope. Wherefore they 
are not saved ; for the decree of God is clearly set down, 
that an unbaptized person cannot enter into His kingdom." 
When he said this, and much more, we turned to sleep. 


Chap. i. — Mattidia is baptized in the sea, 

ITCH earlier than usual Peter awoke, and came to 
us, and awaking us, said: "Let Faustinas and 
Faustinianus, along with Clement and the house- 
hold, accompany me, that we may go to some 
sheltered spot by the sea, and there be able to baptize her 
without attracting observation." Accordingly, when we had 
come to the sea-shore, he baptized her between some rocks, 
which supplied a place at once free from wind and dust.^ 
But we brothers, along with our brother and some others, 
retired because of the women and bathed, and coming again 
to the women, we took them along with us, and thus we 
went to a secret place and prayed. Then Peter, on account 
of the multitude, sent the women on before, ordering them 
to go to their lodging by another way, and he permitted us 
alone of the men to accompany our mother and the rest of 
the women.^ We went then to our lodging, and while 
waiting for Peter's arrival, we conversed with each other. 
Peter came several hours after, and breaking the bread for 
the eucharist,^ and putting salt upon it, he gave it first to 
our mother, and, after her, to us her sons. And thus we 
took food along with her, and blessed God. 

^ Lit., " tranquil and clean." 

2 "We have adopted an emendation of Schwegler's. The MSS. read 
cither "these" or " the same" for " the rest of." 

^ The words " for the eucharist" might be translated " after thanks- 
giving." But it is much the same which, for the eucharist is plainly- 
meant. The Epitomes have it : " taking the bread, giving thanks, 
blessing, and consecrating it, he gave it ; " but no mention is made of 


Chap. ii. — The reason of Peter^s lateness. 

Then, at length, Peter seeing that the multitude had 
entered, sat down, and bidding us sit down beside him, he 
related first of all why he had sent us on before him after 
the baptism, and why he himself had been late in returning. 
He said that the following was the reason : " At the time 
that you came up," ^ he says, " an old man, a workman, 
entered along wath you, concealing himself out of curiosity. 
He had watched us before, as he himself afterwards confessed, 
in order to see what we were doing when we entered into the 
sheltered place, and then he came out secretly and followed 
us. And coming up to me at a convenient place, and address- 
ing me, he said, ' For a long time 1 have been following you 
and wishing to talk with you, but I was afraid that you might 
be angry with me, as if I were instigated by curiosity ; but 
now I shall tell you, if you please, what I think is the truth.' 
And I replied, * Tell us what you think is good, and we shall 
approve your conduct, even should what you say not be really 
good, since w^ith a good purpose you have been anxious to 
state what you deem to be good.' 

Chap. hi. — The old man does not believe in God or Provi- 

" The old man began to speak as follows : ^ When I saw 
you after you had bathed in the sea retire into the secret 
place, I went up and secretly watched what might be your 
object in entering into a secret place, and when I saw you 
pray, I retired;^ but taking pity on you, I waited that I 
might speak with you when you came out, and prevail on 
you not to be led astray. For there is neither God nor pro- 
vidence ; but all things are subject to Genesis.^ Of this I 
am fully assured in consequence of what I have myself 

^ "We have adopted an emendation of "WieselerV. The text has, "at 

the time that you went away." 

2 TVieseler thinks that the reading should be : "I did not retire." 
^ Genesis is destiny determined by the stars which rule at each man's 



endured, having for a long time made a careful study of the 
science.^ Do not therefore be deceived, my child. For 
whether you pray or not, you must endure what is assigned 
to you by Genesis. For if prayers could have done anything 
or any good, I myself should now be in better circumstances. 
And now, unless my needy garments mislead you, you will 
not refuse to believe what I say. I was once in affluent 
circumstances ; I sacrificed much to the gods, I gave liberally 
to the needy ; and yet, though I prayed and acted piously, I 
was not able to escape my destiny.' And I said : ^ What 
are the calamities you have endured ? ' And he answered : 
' I need not tell you now ; perhaps at the end you shall 
learn Vv^ho I am, and who are my parents, and into what 
straitened circumstances I have fallen. But at present I 
wish you to become fully assured that everything is subject 
to Genesis.' 

Chap. iv. — Peter s arguments against Genesis, 

" And I said : ^ If all things are subject to Genesis, and 
you are fully convinced that this is the case, your thoughts 
and advice are contrary to your own opinion.^ For if it is 
impossible even to think in opposition to Genesis, why do you 
toil in vain, advising me to do what cannot be done ? Yea, 
moreover, even if Genesis subsists, do not make haste to pre- 
vail on me not to worship Him who is also Lord of the stars, 
by whose wish that a thing should not take place, that thing 
becomes an impossibility. For always that which is subject 
must obey that which rules. As far, however, as the worship 
of the common gods is concerned, that is superfluous, if 
Genesis has sway. For neither does anything happen con- 
trary to what seems good to fate, nor are they themselves 
able to do anything, since they are subject to their own uni- 
versal Genesis. If Genesis exists, there is this objection to 
it, that that which is not first has the rule ; or [in other 

^ [^a.6n(^oc,^ mathematical science specially, which was closely connected 
with astrology. 

^ Lit., " thinking you counsel what is contrary to yourself." 


words] the uncreated cannot be subject, for tlie uncreated, 
as being uncreated, has nothing that is older than itself.' ^ 

Chap. v. — Practical refutation of Genesis, 

^^ While we were thus talking, a great multitude gathered 
round us. And then I looked to the multitude, and said : 
^ I and my tribe have had handed down to us from our an- 
cestors the worship of God, and we have a commandment to 
give no heed to Genesis, I mean to the science of astrology ; 
and therefore I gave no attention to it. For this reason I 
have no skill in astrology, but I shall state that in which I 
have skill. Since I am unable to refute Genesis by an 
appeal to the science which relates to Genesis, I wish to 
prove in another way that the affairs [of this world] are 
managed by a providence, and that each one will receive 
reward or punishment according to his actions. Whether 
he shall do so now or hereafter, is a matter of no conse- 
quence to me ; all I affirm is, that each one without doubt 
will reap the fruit of his deeds. The proof that there is no 
Genesis is this. If any one of you present has been deprived 
of eyes, or has his hand maimed, or his foot lame, or some 
other part of the body wrong, and if it is utterly incurable, 
and entirely beyond the range of the medical profession, — a 
case, indeed, which not even the astrologers profess to cure, 
for no such cure has taken place within the lapse of a vast 
period, — yet I praying to God will cure it,^ although ^ it could 
never have been set right by Genesis. Since this is so, do 
not they sin who blaspheme the God that fashioned all 
things?' And the old man answered : ' Is it then blasphemy 
to say that all things are subject to Genesis ?' And I replied : 
^ Most certainly it is. For if all the sins of men, and all their 

^ The argument here is obscure. Probably what is intended is as fol- 
lows : Genesis means origination, coming into being. Origination can- 
not be the ruling power, for there must be something unoriginated 
which has given rise to the origination. The origination, therefore, as 
not being first, cannot have sway, and it must itself be subject to that 
which is unoriginated. 

2 "We have adopted the reading given in the two Epitomes. 

«Lit., "when." 


acts of impiety and licentiousness, owe their origin to the stars, 
and if the stars have been appointed by God to do this work, 
so as to be the efficient causes of all evils, then the sins of all 
are traced up to Him who placed Genesis ^ in the stars.' 

Chap. vi. — The old man opposes Ids personal experience to 
the argument of Peter, 

" And the old man answered : ^ You have spoken truly ,^ and 
yet, notwithstanding all your incomparable demonstration, 
I am prevented from yielding assent by my own personal 
knowledge. For I was an astrologer, and dwelt first at Rome ; 
and then forming a friendship with one who was of the 
family of Caesar, I ascertained accurately the genesis of him- 
self and his wife. And tracing their history, I find all the 
deeds actually accomplished in exact accordance with their 
genesis, and therefore I cannot yield to your argument. 
For the arrangement^ of her genesis was that which makes 
women commit adultery, fall in love with their own slaves, 
and perish abroad in the water. And this actually took 
place ; for she fell in love with her own slave, and not being 
able to bear the reproach, she fled with him, hurried to a 
foreign land, shared his bed, and perished in the sea.' 

Chap. vii. — The old man tells his story. 

" And I answered : * How then do you know that she who 
fled and took up her residence in a foreign land married the 
slave, and marrying him died?' And the old man said : ' I 
am quite sure that this is true, not indeed that she married 
him, for I did not know even that she fell in love with him ; 
»but after her departure, a brother of her husband's told me 
the whole story of her passion, and how he acted as an 
honourable man, and did not, as being his brother, wish to 
pollute his couch, and how she the wretched woman (for she 
is not blameable, inasmuch as she was compelled to do and 
suffer all this in consequence of Genesis) longed for him, and 

1 That is, the power of origination. 

2 One MS. adds " greatly," and an Epitome " great things." 

3 That is, the position of the stars at her birth. 


yet stood in awe of him and liis reproaches, and how she 
devised a dream, whether true or false I cannot tell ; for he 
stated that she said, " Some one in a vision stood by me, and 
ordered me to leave the city of the Romans immediately 
\\ith my children." But her husband being anxious that 
she should be saved with his sons, sent them immediately to 
Athens for their education, accompanied by their mother 
and slaves, while he kept the third and youngest son with 
himself, for he who gave the warning in the dream permitted 
this son to remain with his father. And when a long time 
had elapsed, during which^ he received no letters from her, he 
himself sent frequently to Athens, and at length took me, as 
the truest of all his friends, and went in search of her. And 
much did I exert mvself aloncr with him in the course of our 
travels with all eagerness ; for I remembered that, in the old 
times of his prosperity, he had given me a share of all he 
had, and loved me above all his friends. At length we set 
sail from Rome itself, and so we arrived in these parts of 
Syria, and we landed at Seleucia, and not many days after 
we had landed he died of a broken heart. But I came here, 
and have procured my livelihood from that day till this by 
the work of my hands.' 

Chap. yiii. — The old man gives information in regard to 
Fanstus the father of Clement. 

" When the old man had thus spoken, I knew from what he 
said that the old man who he stated had died, was no other 
than your father. I did not wish, however, to communicate 
your circumstances to him until I should confer with you. 
But I ascertained where his lodging was, and I pointed out 
mine to him ; and to make sure [that my conjecture was 
right], I put this one question to him : ^ What was the name 
of the old man?' And he said, ^Faustus.' ^And what 
were the names of his twin sons?' And he answered, 
^ Faustinus and Faustinianus.' ' What was the name of 
the third son?' He said, ^Clement.' ^ What was their 
mother's name?' He said, ^ Mattidia.' Accordingly, from 
^ We have inserted ug from the Epitomes. 


compassion, I slied tears along with him, and, dismissing the 
multitudes, I came to you, in order that I might take counsel 
with you after we had partaken of food^ together. But I 
did not wish to disclose the matter to you before we had 
partaken of food, lest perchance you should be overcome by 
sorrow, and continue sad on the day of baptism, when even 
angels rejoice." At these statements of Peter we all fell a 
weeping along with our mother. But he beholding us in tears, 
said : " Now let each one of you, through fear of God, bear 
bravely what has been said ; for certainly it w^as not to-day 
that your father died, but long ago, as you conjecturing said." 

Chap. ix. — Faustus himself appears. 

When Peter said this, our mother could no longer endure 
it, but cried out, " Alas ! my husband ! loving us, you died 
by your own decision,^ while we are still alive, see the light, 
and have just partaken of food." This one scream had not 
yet ceased, when, lo ! the old man came in, and at the same 
time wishing to inquire into the cause of the cry, he looked 
on the woman and said, '' What does this mean ? Whom do I 
see?" And going up to her, and looking at her, and being 
looked at more carefully, he embraced her. But they were 
like to die through the sudden joy, and wishing to speak to 
each other, they could not get the power in consequence of 
their unsatisfied joy, for they were seized with speechlessness. 
But not long after, our mother said to him : " I now have 
you, Faustus, in every way the dearest being to me. How 
then are you alive, when we heard a short time ago that you 
were dead *? But these are our sons, Faustinus, Faustinianus, 
and Clement." And when she said this, we all three fell on 
him, and kissed him, and in rather an indistinct way we re- 
called his form to our memory. 

Chap. x. — Faustus explains Ids narrative to Peter. 

Peter seeing this, said : '' Are you Faustus, the husband of 

iLit., "of salt." 

- Lit., "you died by a judgmeut ; " but it is thought that Kpiast is 


this woman, and the father of her children ? " And he said: 
^' I am." And Peter said : '' How, then, did you relate to me 
your own history as if it were another's ; telling me of your 
toils, and sorrow, and burial ? " And our father answered : 
'■'- Being of the family of Caesar, and not wishing to be dis- 
covered, I devised the narrative in another's name, in order that 
it might not be perceived who I was. For I knew that, if I 
were recognised, the governors in the place would learn this, 
and recall me to gratify Caesar, and would bestow upon me 
that former prosperity to which I had formerly bidden adieu 
with all the resolution I could summon. For I could not 
give myself up to a luxurious life when I had pronounced the 
strongest condemnation on myself, because 1 believed that I 
had been the cause of death to those who were loved by me."^ 

Chap. xi. — Discussion on Genesis. 

And Peter said : " You did this according to your resolu- 
tion. But in regard to Genesis, were you merely playing a 
part when you affirmed it, or were you in earnest in assert- 
ing that it existed ? " Our father said : " I will not speak 
falsely to you. I was in earnest when I maintained that 
Genesis existed. For I am not uninitiated in the science ; 
on the contrary, I associated with one who is the best of the 
astrologers, an Egyptian of the name of Annubion, who be- 
came my friend in the commencement of my travels, and 
disclosed to me the death of my wife and children." And 
Peter said : " Are you not now convinced by facts, that the 
doctrine of Genesis has no firm foundation ? " And my 
father answered : " I must lay before you all the ideas that 
occur to my mind, that listening to them I may understand 
your refutation of them.^ I know, indeed, that astrologers 
both make many mistakes, and frequently speak the truth. 

^ Lit., " Having judged the greatest things in regard to those who 
were loved by me, as having died." The text is doubtful ; for the first 
Epitome has something quite different. 

2 Here mss. and Epitomes differ in their readings. The text adopted 
seems a combination of two ideas: "that you may listen and refute 
them, and that I may thus learn the truth." 


I suspect, therefore, that they speak the truth so far as they 
are accurately acquainted with the science, and that their 
mistakes are the result of ignorance ; so that I conjecture 
that the science has a firm foundation, but that the astro- 
logers themselves speak what is false solely on account of 
ignorance, because they cannot know all things with abso- 
lute^ accuracy." And Peter answered : " Consider" whether 
their speaking of the truth is not accidental, and whether 
they do not make their declarations without knowing the 
matters accurately. For it must by all means happen that, 
when many prophecies are uttered, some of them should 
come true." And the old man said : " How, then, is it pos- 
sible to be fully convinced of this, whether the science of 
Genesis has a sure foundation or not ? " 

Chap. xii. — Clement tmdertalces the discussion. 

When both were silent, I said : " Since I know accurately 
the science, but our lord and our father are not in this con- 
dition, I should like if Annubion himself were here, to have 
a discussion with him in the presence of my father. For 
thus would the matter be able to become public, when one 
practically acquainted with the subject has held the discus- 
sion with one equally informed."^ And our father answered: 
" Where, then, is it possible to fall in with Annubion ? '* 
And Peter said : " In Antioch, for I learn that Simon Magus 
is there, whose inseparable companion Annubion is. When, 
then, we go there, if we come upon them, the discussion can 
take place." And so, when we had discussed many subjects, 
and rejoiced at the recognition and given thanks to God, 
evening came down upon us, and we turned to sleep. 

1 We have adopted the reading of Codex 0, 'ttuutu;. The other MS. 
reads, " that all cannot know all things accurately." 

2 The MSS. read oIttsxs, " hold back." The reading of the text is 
in an Epitome. 

3 Lit., " when artist has had discussion with fellow-artist." 


Chap. i. — Peter icishes to convert Faustus. 4 

T break of clay our father, \yith our mother and 
his three sons, entered the place where Peter 
was, and accosting him, sat down. Then we also 
did the same at his request ; and Peter looking 
at our father, said : " I am anxious that you should become 
of the same mind as your wife and children, in order that 
here you may live along with them, and in the other world,^ 
after the separation of the soul from the body, you will con- 
tinue to be with them free from sorrow. For does it not 
grieve you exceedingly that you should not associate with 
each other?" And my father said: "Most assuredly." 
And Peter said : " If, then, separation from each other 
here gives you pain, and if without doubt the penalty awaits 
you that after death you should not be with each other, how 
much greater will your grief be that you, a wise man, should be 
separated from your own family on account of your opinions? 
They, too, must^ feel the more distressed from the conscious- 
ness that eternal punishment awaits you because you entertain 
different opinions from theirs, and deny the established truth." ^ 

Chap. ii. — Reason for listening to Peter s arguments. 
Our father said : '• But it is not the case, my very dear 

^Lit., "there/' 

- We have inserted a Bs?, probably omitted on account of the pre- 
vious OS. 

^ The words are peculiar. Lit., " eternal punishment awaits you think- 
ing other things, through denial of the fixed dogma" Qinrov loyfiotro;). 
The Latin translator gives : " ob veri dograatis ncgationem." 



friend, that souls are punished in Hades, for the soul is dis- 
solved into air as soon as it leaves the body." And Peter 
said : '' Until we convince you in regard to this point, answer 
me, does it not appear to you that you are not grieved as 
having no faith in a [future] punishment, but they who have 
full faith in it must be vexed in regard to you?" And our 
father said : " You speak sense." And Peter said : " Why, 
then, will you not free them from the greatest grief they can 
have in regard to you by agreeing to their religion, not, I 
mean, through dread, but through kindly feeling, listening 
and judging about what is said by me, whether it be so or 
not ? and if the truth is as we state it, then here you will 
€njoy life with those who are dearest to you, and in the other 
world you will have rest with them ; but if, in examining the 
arguments, you show that what is stated by us is a fictitious 
story,^ you will thus be doing good service, for you will have 
your friends on your side, and you will put an end to their lean- 
ing upon false hopes, and you will free them from false fears." 

Chap. hi. — Obstacles to faith. 

And our father said : ^' There is evidently much reason 
in what you say." And Peter said : " What is it, then, tha t 
prevents you from coming to our faith? Tell me, that we 
may begin our discussion with it. For many are the hin- 
drances. The faithful are hindered by occupation with mer- 
chandise, or public business, or the cultivation of the soil, or 
cares, and such like ; the unbelievers, of whom you also are 
one, are hindered by ideas such as that the gods, which do 
not exist, really exist, or that all things are subject to Genesis, 
or chance,^ or that souls are mortal, or that our doctrines are 
false because there is no providence. 

Chap. iv. — Providence seen in the events of the life of Faustus 

and his family, 

" But I maintain, from what has happened to you, that all 
things are managed by the providence of God, and that your 
separation from your family for so many years was providen- 

^ [,<.v66v xivcc i/zsyo'^. 2 Properly, self-action. 


tlal ; ^ for since, if they bad been with you, they perbaps 
would not bave listened to tbe doctrines of the true religion, 
it was arranged that your children should travel w^ith their 
mother, should be shipwrecked, should be supposed to bave 
perished, and should be sold ; ^ moreover, that they should 
be educated in the learning of the Greeks, especially in the 
atheistic doctrines, in order that, as being acquainted with 
them, they might be the better able to refute them ; and in 
addition to this, that they should become attached to the true 
religion, and be enabled to be united with me, so as to help 
me in my preaching ; furthermore, that their brother Clement 
should meet in the same place, and that thus his mother 
should be recognised, and through her cure ^ should be fully 
convinced of the right w^orship of God ; * that after no long 
interval the twins should recognise and be recognised, and 
the other day should fall in with you, and that you should 
receive back your own. I do not think, then, that such a 
speedy filling in of circumstances, coming as it were from 
all quarters, so as to accomplish one design, could have hap- 
pened without the direction of Providence." 

Chap. y. — Difference between the true religion and pliilosophy , 

And our father began to say : '' Do not suppose, my dearest 
Peter, that I am not thinking of the doctrines preached by 
you. I was thinking of them. But during the past night, 
when Clement urged me earnestly to give in my adhesion to 
the truth preached by you, I at last answered, ' Why should 
I ? for what new commandment can any one give more than 
what the ancients urged us to obey ? ' And he, with a gentle 
smile, said, ^ There is a great difference, father, between 
the doctrines of the true religion and those of philosophy ; 
for the true religion receives its proof from prophecy, while 

^ "We have adopted a reading suggested by the second Epitome. 

2 The word d'Trpccuicct is corrupt. "We have adopted the emendation 
rrpua/;. The word is not given in the iis. 0, nor in the Epitomes. 

" vTTo dspxTTucc;, which Cotelerius transhites recuperata sanitate. 

* Lit., " convinced of the Godhead." '' Godhead" is omitted in the 


philosophyj furnishing us with beautiful sentences, seems to 
present its proofs from conjecture.' On saying this, he took 
an instance, and set before us the doctrine of philanthropy,^ 
which you had explained to him,^ which rather appeared to 
me to be very unjust. And I shall tell you how. He alleged 
that it was right to present to him who strikes you on the one 
cheek the other ^ also, and to give to him who takes away 
your cloak your tunic also, and to go two miles with him who 
compels you to go one, and such like." 

Chap. vi. — The love of man. 

And Peter answered ; " You have deemed unjust what is 
most just. If you are inclined, will you listen to me ? " 
And my father said: " With all my heart." And Peter said: 
" What is your opinion ? Suppose that there were two 
kings, enemies to each other, and having their countries cut 
off from each other ; and suppose that some one of the sub- 
jects of one of them were to be caught in the country of the 
other, and to incur the penalty of death on this account : now 
if he were let off from the punishment by receiving a blow 
instead of death, is it not plain that he who let him off is a 
lover of man ? " And our father said : ^' Most certainly." 
And Peter said : " Now suppose that this same person were 
to steal from some one something belonging to him or to 
another ; and if when caught he were to pay double, instead 
of suffering the punishment that was due to him, namely, 
paying four times the amount, and being also put to death, 
as having been caught in the territories of the enemy ; is it 

^ Or " love of man" in all its phases — kindliness, gentleness, humanity, 

2 Horn. xii. 25 ff. 

^ Matt. V. 39-41 ; Luke vi. 29. The -writer of the Homilies changes 
the word ;)(;jr&li'oe, " tunic," of the New Testament into fAoi,(p6piov^ which 
Suicer describes " a covering for the head, neck, and shoulders, used 
by women." Wieseler is in doubt whether the writer of the Homilies 
uses /^ct(p6piou as equivalent to xnuvcc, or whether he intentionally 
changed the word, for the person who lost both cloak and tunic would 
be naked altogether ; and this, the writer may have imagined, Christ 
would not have commanded. 


not your opinion that lie who accepts double, and lets him off 
from the penalty of death, is a lover of man ? " And our 
father said : " He certainly seems so." And Peter said : 
''- Why then ? Is it not the duty of him who is in the king- 
dom of another, and that, too, a hostile and wicked monarch, 
to be pleasing to alP for the sake of life, and when force is 
applied to him, to yield still more, to accost those who do 
not accost him, to reconcile enemies, not to quarrel with 
those who are angry, to give his own property freely to all 
who ask, and such like ? " And our father said : " He should 
with reason endure all things rather, if he prefers life to 

Chap. vii. — Tlie explanation of a parahle ; the present and 

the future life. 

And Peter ^ said : " Are not those, then, who you said re- 
ceived injustice, themselves transgressors, inasmuch as they 
are in the kingdom of the other, and is it not by overreach- 
ing that they have obtained all they possess ? while those 
who are thought to act unjustly are conferring a favour on 
each subject of the hostile kingdom, so far as they permit 
him to have property. For these possessions belong to those 
who have chosen the present.^ And they are so far kind as 
to permit the others to live. This, then, is the parable ; now 
listen to the actual truth. The prophet of the truth who 
appeared [on earth] taught us that the Maker and God of 
all gave two kingdoms to two,* good and evil ; granting to the 
evil the sovereignty over the present world along with law, 
so that he [it] should have the right to punish those who act 

iLit., "to flatter." 

2 The following words would be more appropriately put in the mouth 
of the father, as is done in fact by the Epitomes. Peter's address would 
commence, " And the parable is." The Epitomes differ much from each 
other and the text, and there seems to be confusion in the text. 

^ This sentence would be more appropriate in the explanation of the 

^ The Greek leaves it uncertain whether it is two persons or two 
things, — whether it is a good being and an evil being, or good and 
evil. Afterwards, a good being and an evil are distinctly introduced. 


unjustly ; but to the good He gave the eternal ^ age to come. 
But He made each man free with the power to give himself 
up to whatsoever he prefers, either to the present evil or the 
future good. Those men who choose the present have power 
to be rich, to revel in luxury, to indulge in pleasures, and to 
do whatever they can. For they will possess none of the 
future goods. But those who have determined to accept the 
blessings of the future reign have no right to regard as their 
own the things that are here, since they belong to a foreign 
king, with the exception only of water and bread, and those 
things procured with sweat to maintain life (for it is not 
lawful for them to commit suicide),^ and also one garment, 
for tliey are not permitted to go naked on account of the all- 
seeincT ^ Heaven. 


Chap. viii. — The 'present and the future, 

^^ If, then, you wish to have an accurate account of the 
matter, listen. Those of whom you said a little before that 
they receive injustice, rather act unjustly themselves ; for 
they who have chosen the future blessings, live along with the 
bad in the present world, having many enjoyments the same 
as the bad, — such as life itself, light, bread, water, clothing, 
and others of a like nature. But they who are thought by 
you to act unjustly, shall not live with the good men in* the 
coming age." And our father replied to this : " Now when 
you have convinced me that those who act unjustly suffer 
injustice themselves, while those who suffer injustice have by 
far the advantage, the whole affair seems to me still more 
the most unjust of transactions ; for those who seem to act 
unjustly grant many things to those who have chosen the 
future blessings, but those who seem to receive injustice do 
themselves commit injustice, because they do not give in the 
other world, to those who have given them blessings here, the 
same advantages v/hich these gave to them." And Peter 

^ The word dilio;, properly and strictly " eternal," is used. 

2 Lit., " to die willingly." 

3 We have adopted an obvious emendation, 'Trxurse. for iravTog. 
* "We have translated Schweder's emendation. He inserted h. 


said: "This is not unjust at all, because each one has the 
power to choose the present or the future goods, whether 
they be small or great. He who chooses by his own indivi- 
dual judgment and wish, receives no injustice, — I mean, not 
even should his choice rest on what is small, since the great 
lay within his choice, as in fact did also the small." And 
our father said : " You are right ; for it has been said by 
one of the wise men of the Greeks, ' The blame rests with 
those who chose — God is blameless.' ^ 

Chap. ix. — Possessions are transgressions, 

" Will you be so good as to explain this matter also ? I 
remember Clement saying to me, that we suffer injuries 
and afflictions for the forgiveness of our sins." Peter said : 
" This is quite correct. For we, who have chosen the future 
things, in so far as we possess more goods than these, whether 
they be clothing, or food or drink, or any other thing, possess 
sins, because we ought not to have anything, as I explained 
to you a little ago. To all of us possessions are sins."^ The 
deprivation of these, in whatever way it may take place, is 
the removal of sins." And our father said : *' That seems 
reasonable, as you explained that these were the two boun- 
dary lines of the two kings, and^ that it was in the power of 
each to choose whatever he wished of what was under their 
authority. But why are the afflictions sent, or* do we suffer 
them justly?" And Peter said : "Most justly ; for since the 
boundary line of the saved is, as I said, that no one should 
possess anything, but since many have many possessions, or 
in other words sins, for this reason the exceeding love of 
God sends afflictions on those who do not act in purity of 
heart, that on account of their having some measure of the 
love of God, they might, by temporary inflictions, be saved 
from eternal punishments." 

1 Plato, Rep. X. 617 E. 

2 One MS. inserts before this sentence : " For if in all of us possessions 
are wont to occasion sins in those who have them." 

2 We have adopted AYieseler's emendation of roc. into kolI. 
* "We have clianged il into jJ. 


Chap. x. — Poverty not necessarily righteous. 

And our father said : " How then is this ? Do we not 
see many impious men poor? Then do these belong to the 
saved on this account ? '' And Peter said : " Not at ail ; 
for that poverty is not acceptable which longs for what it 
ought not. So that some are rich as far as their choice goes, 
though poor in actual wealth, and they are punished because 
they desire to have more. But one is not unquestionably 
righteous because he happens to be poor. For he can be a 
beggar as far as actual wealth is concerned, but he may 
desire and even do what above everything he ought not to 
do. Thus he may worship idols, or be a blasphemer or 
fornicator, or he may live indiscriminately, or perjure him- 
self, or lie, or live the life of an unbeliever. But our teacher 
pronounced the faithful poor blessed '} and he did so, not 
because they had given anything, for they had nothing, but 
because they were not to be condemned, as having done no 
sin, simply because they gave no alms, because they had 
nothing to give." And our father said : ^* In good truth all 
seems to go right as far as the subject of discussion is con- 
cerned ; wherefore I have resolved to listen to the whole of 
your argument in regular order." 

Chap. xi. — Exposition of the true religion promised. 

And Peter said : '•* Since, then, you are eager henceforth to 
learn what relates to our religion, I ought to explain it in order, 
beginning with God Himself, and showing that we ought to 
call Him alone God, and that we ought neither to speak of the 
others as gods nor deem them such, and that he who acts con- 
trary to this will be punished eternally, as having shown the 
greatest impiety to Him who is the Lord of all." And saying 
this, he laid his hands on those who were vexed by afflictions, 
and were diseased, and possessed by demons ; and, praying, he 
healed them, and dismissed the multitudes. And then entering 
in this way, he partook of his usual food, and went to sleep. 

^ Matt. V. 3. The Epitomes run thus : " Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son 
of the living God, said." And then they quote the words of our Gospel. 



Chap. i. — Simon wishes to discuss with Peter the unity 

of God, 

'T break of day Peter went out, and reaching the 
place where he was wont to discourse, he saw a 
great muUitude assembled. At the very time 
when he was going to discourse, one of his 
deacons entered, and said : " Simon has come from Antioch, 
starting as soon as it was evening, having learned that you 
promised to speak on the unity ^ of God ; and he is ready, 
along with Athenodorus the Epicurean, to come to hear your 
speech, in order that he may publicly oppose all the argu- 
ments ever adduced by you for the unity of God." Just as 
the deacon said this, lo ! Simon himself entered, accompanied 
by Athenodorus and some other friends. And before Peter 
spoke at all, he took the first word, and said : 

Chap. ii. — The same subject continued. 

^' I heard that you promised yesterday to Faustus to prove 
this day, giving out your arguments in regular order, and 
bemnninfr with Him who is Lord of the universe, that we 
ought to say that He alone is God, and that we ought neither 
to say nor to think that there are other gods, because he 
that acts contrary to this will be punished eternally. But, 
above all, I am ivvXy amazed at your madness in hoping to 
convert a wise man, and one far advanced in years, to your 
state of m.ind. But you will not succeed in your designs ; 
and all the more that I am present, and can thoroughly refute 

^ The word properly signifies the "sole government or monarchy of 
God," It means that God alone is ruler. 



your false arguments. For perhaps, if I had not been pre- 
sent, the wise old man might have been led astray, because 
he has no critical acquaintance^ with the books publicly 
believed in amongst the Jews.^ At present I shall omit 
much, in order that I may the more speedily refute that 
which you have promised to prove. Wherefore begin to 
speak what you promised to say before us, who know the 
Scriptures. But if, fearing our refutation, you are unwilling 
to fulfil your promise in our presence, this of itself will be 
sufficient proof that you are wrong, because you did not ven- 
ture to speak in the presence of those who know the Scrip- 
tures. And now, wdiy should I wait till you tell me, when I 
have a most satisfactory witness of your promise in the old 
man who is present ? " And, saying this, he looked to my 
father, and said : ^' Tell me, most excellent of all men, is not 
this the man w^ho promised to prove to you to-day that God 
is one, and that we ought not to say or think that there is 
any other god, and that he who acts contrary to this will be 
punished eternally, as committing the most heinous sin ? Do 
you, then, refuse to reply to me ? " 

Chap. hi. — The mode of the discussion. 

And our father said : " Well might you have demanded 
testimony from me, Simon, if Peter had first denied [that he 
had made the promise]. But now I shall feel no shame in 
saying what I am bound to say. I think that you wish to 
enter on the discussion inflamed with anger. Now this is 
a state of mind in which it is improper for you to speak and 
for us to listen to you ; for we are no longer being helped on 
to the truth, but we are watching the progress of a contest. 
And now, having learned from Hellenic culture how those 
who seek [the truth] ought to act, I shall remind you. Let 

^ TOiu TTccpx ^lov^ocioi; ^yiuoai'cc TrBTnarsv/zhcou i3i/3iXa'j. The literal trans- 
lation, given in the text, means that the Jews as a community believed 
in these books as speaking the truth. Cotelerius translates : " the books 
which were publicly entrusted to the Jews." One MS. reads, 'TrsTrtara- 
fiivcju, which might mean, " deemed trustworthy among the Jews." 


each of you give an exposition of his own opinion/ and let 
the right of speech pass from the one to the other.^ For if 
Peter alone should wish to expound his thought, but you 
should be silent as to yours, it is possible that some argument 
adduced by you might crush both your and his opinion ; and 
both of yoUj though defeated by this argument, would not 
appear defeated, but only the one who expounded his opinion ; 
while he who did not expound his, though equally defeated, 
would not appear defeated, but would even be thought to 
have conquered." And Simon answered : " I will do as you 
say ; but I am afraid lest you do not turn out a truth-loving 
judge, as you have been already prejudiced by his argu- 

Chap. iv. — The prejudices of Faustus rather on the side of 
Simon than on that of Peter, 

Our father answered : ^' Do not compel me to agree with 
you without any exercise of my judgment in order that I 
may seem to be a truth-loving judge ; but if you wish me to 
tell you the truth, my prepossessions are rather on the side 
of your opinions." And Simon said : " How is this the 
case, when you do not know what my opinions are ? " And 
our father said : ^' It is easy to know this, and I will tell you 
how. You promised that you would convict Peter of error 
in maintaining the unity of God ; but if one undertakes to 
convict of error him who maintains the unity of God, it is 
perfectly plain that he, as being in the right,^ does not hold 
the same opinion. For if he holds the same opinion as the 
man who is thoroughly in error, then he himself is in error; but 
if he gives his proofs holding opposite opinions, then he is in 
the right. Not well * then do you assert that he who main- 

^ One MS. and an Epitome have : " And you must address your argu- 
ments to another who acts as judge." 

^ The words translated "error," -J/sva/acc^ and "to be in the right," 
u'hrtds'Jitv, are, properly rendered, "falsehood," and " to speak the truth." 

* The Mss. read : " not otherwise." The reading of the text is found 
in an Epitome. 


tains the unity of God is wrong, unless you believe that there 
are many gods. Now I maintain that there are many gods. 
Holding, therefore, the same opinion as you before the dis- 
cussion, I am prepossessed rather in your favour. For this 
reason you ought to have no anxiety in regard to me, but 
Peter ought, for I still hold opinions contrary to his. And 
so after your discussion I hope that, as a truth-loving judge, 
who has stripped himself of his prepossessions, I shall agree 
to that doctrine which gains the victory." When my father 
said this, a murmur of applause burst insensibly from the 
multitudes because my father had thus spoken. 

Chap, v.^ — Peter commences the discussion. 

Peter then said : '' I am ready to do as the umpire of our 
discussion has said ; and straightway without any delay I 
shall set forth my opinion in regard to God. I then assert 
that there is one God who made the heavens and the earth, 
and all things that are in them. And it is not right to say 
or to think that there is any other." And Simon said : 
" But I maintain that the Scriptures believed in amongst 
the Jews say that there are many gods, and that God is not 
angry at this, because He has Himself spoken of many gods 
in His Scriptures. 

Chap. vi. — Simon appeals to the Old Testament to prove that 

there are ma7iy gods, 

" For instance, in the very first words of the law, He evi- 
dently speaks of them as being like even unto Himself. For 
thus it is written, that, when the first man received a command- 
ment from God to eat of every tree that was in the garden,^ 
but not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, 
the serpent having persuaded them by means of the woman, 
through the promise that they would become gods, made 
them look up ; ^ and then, when they had thus looked up, 

^ TTupxhiaa, "paradise." Gen. ii. 16, 17. 

2 duoi.(i'Ki-^cx,i. It signifies either to look up, or to recover one's sight. 
Possibly the second meaning is the one intended here, corresponding to 
the words of our version : " Then your eyes shall be opened." 


God said,-^ ^ Behold, Adam is become as one of us/ When, 
then, the serpent said,^ * Ye shall be as gods/ he plainly 
speaks in the belief that gods exist ; all the more as God 
also added His testimony, saying, ' Behold, Adam is become 
as one of us.' The serpent, then, who said that there are 
many gods, did not speak falsely. Again, the scripture,^ 
* Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the rulers of thy 
people,' points out many gods vrhom it does not wish even 
to be cursed. But it is also somewhere else written,'* ' Did 
another god dare to enter and take him a nation from the 
midst of [another] nation, as did I the Lord God ? ' When 
He says, ' Did another God dare ? ' He speaks on the sup- 
position that other gods exist. And elsewhere : ^ ' Let the 
gods that have not made the heavens and the earth perish ; ' 
as if those who had made them were not to perish. And 
in another place, when it says,^ 'Take heed to thyself lest 
thou go and serve other gods whom thy fathers knew not,' 
it speaks as if other gods existed whom they were not to 
follow. And again : ^ ' The names of other gods shall not 
ascend upon thy lips.' Here it mentions many gods whose 
names it does not wish to be uttered. And again it is 
written,^ ^ Thy God is the Lord, He is God of gods.' And 
again : ^ ^ Who is like unto Thee, O Lord, among the gods?* 
And again :^^ ' God is Lord of gods.' And again i^^ 'God 
stood in the assembly of gods : He judgeth among the 
o-ods.' Wherefore I wonder how, when there are so manv 
passages in writing which testify that there are many gods, 
you have asserted that we ought neither to say nor to think 
that there are many. Finally, if you have anything to say 
a^rainst what has been spoken so distinctly, say it in the pre- 
sence of all." 

1 Gen. iii. 22. ^ Gen. iii. 5. ^ Ex. xxii. 28. 

* Deut. iv. 34. - ^ Jer. x. 11. ^ Deut. xiii. 6. 

7 Josh, xxiii. 7, Sept. « Deut. x. 17. 

» Ts. XXXV. 10, Ixxxvi. 8. ^^ Fs. 1. 1. ^^ Ps. Ixxxii. 1. 


Chap. vii. — Peter appeals to the Old Testament to prove the 

unity of God, 

And Peter said : " I shall reply briefly to what you have 
said. The law, which frequently speaks of gods, itself says 
to the Jewish multitude,^ ' Behold, the heaven of heavens is 
the Lord's thy God, with all that therein is ; ' implying that, 
even if there are gods, they are under Him, that is, under the 
God of the Jews. And again : ^ ' The Lord thy God, He is 
God in heaven above, and upon the earth beneath, and there 
is none other except Him.' And somewhere else the Scrip- 
ture says to the Jewish multitude,^ ' The Lord your God is 
God of gods;' so that, even if there are gods, they are under 
the God of the Jews. And somewhere else the Scripture says 
in regard to Him,* ^ God, the great and true, who regardeth 
not persons, nor taketh reward, He doth execute the judg- 
ment of the fatherless and widow.' The Scripture, in calling 
the God of the Jews great and true, and executing judg- 
ment, marked out the others as small, and not true. But 
also somewhere else the Scripture says,^ ^ As I live, saitli 
the Lord, there is no other God but me. I am the first, I am 
after this ; except me there is no God.' And again :^ * Thou 
shalt fear the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.' 
And again:^ ^Hear, O Israel, the Lord your God is one Lord.' 
And many passages besides seal with an oath that God is 
one, and except Him there is no God. "Whence I wonder 
how, when so many passages testify that there is one God, you 
say that there are many." 

Chap. viii. — Simon and Peter continue the discussion. 

And Simon said : ^' My original stipulation with you was 
that I should prove from the Scriptures that you were wrong 
in maintaining that we ought not to speak of many gods. 
Accordingly I adduced many written passages to show that 
the divine Scriptures themselves speak of many gods." And 

1 Deut. X. 14. 2 j)e^t. iv. 39. ^ D^ut. x. 17. 

* Deut. X. 17. •• Isa. xlix. 18, xlv. 21, xliv. G. 

« Deut. vi. 13. 7 Deut. vi. 4. 


Peter said : " Those very Scriptures wliicli speak of many 
gods, also exhorted us, saying, ' The names of other gods 
shall not ascend upon thy lips.'-"^ Thus, Simon, I did not 
speak contrary to what was written." And Simon said : " Do 
you, Peter, listen to what I have to say. You seem to me 
to sin in speaking against them,^ when the Scripture says,^ 
' Thou shalt not revile [the gods], nor curse the rulers of thy 
people.' " And Peter said : ^' I am not sinning, Simon, in 
pointing out their destruction according to the Scriptures ; 
for thus it is written : ^ ' Let the gods who did not make the 
heavens and the earth perish.' And He said thus, not as 
though some had made the heavens and were not to perish, 
as you interpreted the passage. For it is plainly declared 
that He who made them is one in the very first part of Scrip- 
ture : ^ ^ In the beginnincj God created the heaven and the 
earth.' And it did not say, Uhe gods.' And somewhere 
else it says,^ ' And the firmament showeth His handiw^ork.' 
And in another place it is written,'^ 'The heavens themselves 
shall perish, but Thou shalt remain for ever.' " 

Chap. ix. — Simon tries to show that the Scriptures contradict 


And Simon said : " I adduced clear passages from the 
Scriptures to prove that there are many gods ; and you, in 
reply, brought forward as many or more from the same 
Scriptures, showing that God is one, and He the God of the 
Jews. And when I said that we ought not to revile gods, 
you proceeded to show that He who created is one, because 
those who did not create will perish. And in reply to my 
assertion that we ought to maintain that there are gods, be- 
cause the Scriptures also say so, you showed that we ought 
not to utter their names, because the same Scripture tells us 
not to utter the names of other gods. Since, then, these very 

^ Josh, xxiii. 7 in the Septuagint. ^ Namely, the gods. 

2 Ex. xxii. 28. The MSS. omit kovg, though they insert it in the 
passage as quoted a little before this. One MS. reads "the ruler" 
with our version. 

4 Jer. X. 11. s Gen. i. 1. « Ps. xbc. 1. ' Ps. cii. 26, 27. * 


Scriptures say at one time that there are many gods, and at 
another that there is only one ; and sometimes that they 
ought not to be reviled, and at other times that they ought ; 
what conclusion ought we to come to in consequence of this, 
but that the Scriptures themselves lead us astray?" 

Chap. x. — Peter s explanation of the apparent contradictions 

of Scripture. 

And Peter said : ^' They do not lead astray, but convict 
and bring to light the evil disposition against God which 
lurks like a serpent in each one. For the Scriptures lie 
before each one like many divers types. Each one, then, 
has his own disposition like wax, and examining the Scrip- 
tures and finding everything in them, he moulds his idea of 
God according to his wish, laying upon them, as I said, his 
own disposition, wdiich is like wax. Since, then, each one 
finds in the Scriptures whatever opinion he wishes to have 
in regard to God, for this reason he [Simon] moulds from 
them the forms'^ of many gods, while we moulded the form 
of Plim who truly exists, comincr to the knowledge of the true 
type from our own shape.^ For assuredly the soul within 
us is clothed with His image for immortality. If I abandon 
the parent of this soul, it also will abandon me to just judg- 
ment, making known the injustice by the very act of daring ; ^ 
and as coming from one who is just, it will justly abandon 
me ; and so, as far as the soul is concerned, I shall, after 
punishment, be destroyed, having abandoned the help that 
comes from it. But if there is another [god], first let him 
put on another form, another shape, in order that by the new 
shape of the body I may recognise the new god. But if he 
should change the shape, does he thereby change the sub- 
stance of the soul ? But if he should change it also, then 
I am no longer myself, having become another both in shape 
and in substance. Let him, therefore, create others, if there 

2 Probably rc'h^'/iy.ccTi should be changed into opf^Yjf/.ccn^ or some such 
•vyord : making known that an act of injustice has been committed by 
taking its departure. 


is another. But there is not. For if there had been, he 
would have created. But since he has not created, then let 
him, as non-existent, leave him who is really existent.^ For 
he is nobody,^ except only in the opinion of Simon. I do 
not accept of any other god but Him alone who created me." 

Chap. xt. — Gen. i. 26 appealed to hy Simon, 

And Simon said : '' Since I see that you frequently speak 
of the God who created you, learn from me how you are 
impious even to Him. For there are evidently two who 
created, as the Scripture says :^ ^ And God said, Let us make 
man in our image, after our likeness.' Now ' let us make* 
implies two or more ; certainly not one only." 

Chap. xit. — Peter s eocplanation of the passage. 

And Peter answered : " One is He who said to His Wisdom, 
' Let us make man.' But His Wisdom* was that with which 
He Himself always rejoiced^ as with His own spirit. It is 
united as soul to God, but it is extended by Him, as hand, 
fashioning the universe. On this account, also, one man 
was made, and from him went forth also the female. And 
being a unity generlcally, it is yet a duality, for by expansion 
and contraction the unity is thought to be a duality. So 
that I act rightly in offering up all the honour to one God as 
to parents." And Simon said : " What then ? Even if the 
Scriptures say that there are other gods, will you not accept 
the opinion?" 

Chap. xiii. — Tlie contradictions of the Scriptures intended to 
try those who read them. 

And Peter answered : " If the Scriptures or prophets speak 

1 This might possibly he translated, "let him leave him who exists to 
him who exists ; " i.e. let him leave the real God to man, who really exists. 

2 Wieseler proposes, " for he exists to no one." ^ Gen. i. 26. 

* This is the only passage in the Homilies relating to the ao:piec. The 
text is in some parts corrupt. It is critically discussed by Uhlhorn, 
some of whose emendations are adopted by Dressel and translated here. 

« Prov. viii. 30. 


of gods, they do so to try those who hear. For thus it is 
written :-^ ^If there arise among you a prophet, giving signs 
and wonders, and that sign and wonder shall then come to 
pass, and he say to thee, Let us go after and worship other 
gods which thy fathers have not known, ye^ shall not hearken 
to the words of that prophet ; let thy hands be among the 
first to stone him. For he hath tried to turn thee from 
the Lord thy God. But if thou say in thy heart, How did 
he do that sign or wonder? thou shalt surely know that he 
who tried thee, tried thee to see if thou dost fear the Lord 
thy God.' The words * he who tried thee, tried thee,' have 
reference to the earliest times ; ^ but it appears to be other- 
wise after the removal to Babylon. For God, who knows all 
things, would not, as can be proved by many arguments, try 
in order that He Himself might know, for He foreknows all 
things. But, if you like, let us discuss this point, and I shall 
show that God foreknows. But it has been proved that the 
opinion is false that He does not know, and that this was 
written to try us. Thus we, Simon, can be led astray* 
neither by the Scriptures nor by any one else ; nor are we 
deceived into the admission of many gods, nor do we agree 
to any statement that is made against God. 

Chap. xiv. — Other beings called gods. 

" For we ourselves also know that angels are called gods by 
the Scriptures, — as, for instance, He who spake at the bush, 
and wrestled with Jacob, — and the name is likewise applied 
to Him who is born Emmanuel, and who is called the mi^htv 
God.^ Yea, even Moses became a god to Pharaoh, though 

1 Deut. xiii. 1 ff. 

2 The change from the singular to the plural is in the Greek. 

^ Lit., " But it had been said that he who tried, tried." The idea seems 
to be, Before the removal to Babylon true prophets tested the people 
by urging them to worship these gods ; but after that event false pro- 
phets arose who really wished to seduce the Jews from the worship of 
the true God. 

* Lit., "nor can we be made to stumble from the Scriptures nor by 
any one else [or anything else]." 

^ Isa. ix. 6. 


iu reality he was a man. The same is the case also with the 
idols of the Gentiles. But we have but one God, one who 
made creation and arranged the universe, whose Son is the 
Christ. Obeying Christ,-'- we learn to know what is false 
from the Scriptures. Moreover, being furnished by our an- 
cestors with the truths of the Scriptures, we know that there 
is only one who has made the heavens and the earth, the 
God of the Jews, and of all who choose to worship Him. 
Our fathers, with pious thought, setting down a fixed belief 
in Him as the true God, handed down this belief to us, that 
we may know that if anything is said against God, it is a 
falsehood. I shall add this remark over and above what I 
need say : If the case be not as I have said, then may I, and 
all who love the truth, incur danger in regard to the praise 
of the God who made us." 

Chap. xv. — Christ not God, hilt the Son of God, 

W^hen Simon heard this, he said : " Since you say that we 
ought not to believe even the prophet that gives signs and 
wonders if he say that there is another god, and that you 
know that he even incurs the penalty of death, therefore 
your teacher also was with reason cut off for having given 
sirrns and wonders." And Peter answered : " Our Lord 
neither asserted that there were gods except the Creator 
of all, nor did He proclaim Himself to be God, but He 
with reason pronounced blessed him who called Him the Son 
of that God who has arrano;ed the universe." And Simon 
answered: "Does it not seem to you, then, that he who 
comes from God is God ? " And Peter said : " Tell us how 
tliis is possible ; for we cannot affirm this, because we did not 
hear it from Him. 

Chap. xvi. — The unhegotten and the begotten necessaiily 
different from each other. 

" In addition to this, it is the peculiarity of the Father not 
to have been begotten, but of the Son to have been begotten ; 
but what is begotten cannot be compared with that which is 
^ Lit., " whom obeying :" the " -whom " might refer to God. 


unbegotten or self-begotten." And Simon said: ^'Is it not 
the same on account of its origin ? " ^ And Peter said : '^ Pie 
who is not the same in all respects as some one, cannot have 
all the same appellations applied to him as that person." And 
Simon said : "• This is to assert, not to prove." And Peter 
said : " Why, do you not see that if ^ the one happens to be 
self-begotten or unbegotten, they cannot be called the same ; 
nor can it be asserted of him who has been begotten that 
he is of the same substance as he is who has begotten him ? 
Learn this also : The bodies of men have immortal souls, 
which have been clothed with the breath of God ; and having 
come forth from God, they are of the same substance, but 
they are not gods. But if they are gods, then in this way 
the souls of all men, both those who have died, and those 
who are alive, and those who shall come into being, are gods. 
But if in a spirit of controversy you maintain that these also 
are gods, what great matter is it, then, for Christ to be called 
God ? for He has only what all have. 

Chap. xvii. — The nature of God. 

^^ We call Him God whose peculiar attributes cannot 
belong to the nature of any other ; for, as He is called the 
Unbounded because He is boundless on every side, it must of 
necessity be the case that it is no other one's peculiar attri- 
bute to be called unbounded, as another cannot in like manner 
be boundless. But if any one says that it is possible, he is 
wrong ; for two things boundless on every side cannot co- 
exist, for the one is bounded by the other. Thus it is in 
the nature^ of things that the unbegotten is one. But if he 
possesses a figure, even in this case the figure is one and in- 
comparable.* AVherefore He is called the Most High, be- 

^ The word yimaig, "arising, coming into being," is here used, not 
yhvYiai;, " begetting." The idea fully expressed is : "Is not that which 
is begotten identical in essence with that which begets it?" 

^ We have inserted si. The passage is amended in various ways ; this 
seems to be the simplest. 

2 Lit., " thus it is nature." 

^ We have adopted an emendation here. The text has: " Even thus 
the incomparable is one." 


cause, being higher than all, He has the universe subject to 

Chap, xviii. — The name of God. 

And Simon said : ^'Is this word ' God' His ineffable name, 
which all use, because you maintain so strongl}^ in regard to 
a name that it cannot be given to another?" And Peter 
said : '' I know that this is not His ineffable name, but one 
which is given by agreement among men ; but if you give 
it to another, you will also assign to this other that which is 
not used ; and that, too, deliberately .•'■ The name which is 
used is the forerunner of that which is not used. In this 
way insolence is attributed even to that which has not yet 
been spoken, just as honour paid to that which is known is 
handed on to that which has not yet been known." 

Chap. xix. — Tlie shape of God in man. 

And Simon said : '' I should like to know, Peter, if you 
really believe that the shape of man has been moulded after 
the shape of God."^ And Peter said : '• I am really quite 
certain, Simon, that this is the case." And Simon said : 
*' How can death dissolve the body, impressed as it has thus 
been with the greatest seal ?" And Peter said : ^' It is the 
shape of the just God. When, then, the body begins to act 
unjustly, the form which is in it takes to flight, and thus the 
body is dissolved, by the shape disappearing, in order that an 
unjust body may not have the shape of the just God. The 
dissolution, however, does not take place in regard to the 
seal, but in regard to the sealed body. But that which is 
sealed is not dissolved without Him who sealed it. And thus 
it is not permitted to die without judgment." And Simon 
said : ^^ What necessity was there to give the shape of such 
a being to man, who was raised from the earth?" And 
Peter said : " This was done because of the love of God, 
who made man. For while, as far as substance is concerned, 

^ "Wieseler proposes to join this clause mtli the followiDg: " And in 
point of choice the name which." 
2 Lit., "of that one, of Him." 


all things are superior to the flesh of man, — I mean the ether, 
the sun, the moon, the stars, the air, the water, the fire — in 
a word, all the other things which have been made for the 
service of man, — yet, though superior in substance, they 
willingly endure to serve the inferior in substance, because 
of the shape of the superior. For as they who honour the 
clay image of a king have paid honour to the king himself, 
whose shape the clay happens to have, so the whole creation 
with joy serves man, who is made from earth, looking to the 
honour thus paid to Gcd. 

Chap. xx. — The character of God. 

'' Behold, then, the character of that God to wdiom you, 
Simon, wish to persuade us to be ungrateful, and the earth 
continues to bear you, perhaps wishing to see who will ven- 
ture to entertain similar opinions to yours. For you w^ere 
the first to dare what no other dared : you were the first to 
utter what we first heard. We first and alone have seen 
the boundless long-suffering of God in bearing with such 
great impiety as yours, and that God no other than the 
Creator of the world, against whom you have dared to act 
impiously. And yet openings of the earth took not place, 
and fire was not sent down from heaven and went not forth 
to burn up men, and rain was not poured out,-^ and a multi- 
tude of beasts was not sent from the thickets, and upon us 
ourselves the destructive wrath of God did not begin to show 
itself, on account of one wdio sinned the sin, as it were, of 
spiritual adultery, which is worse than the carnal. For it is 
not God the Creator of heaven and earth that in former 
times punished sins, since now, when He is blasphemed in 
the highest degree, He would inflict the severest punish- 
ment.^ Bat, on the contrary, He is long-suffering, calls to 

-^ One MS. reads, " was not restrained." 

^ We have inserted «v, and suppose the sentence to be ironical. The 
meaning might be the same without civ. The text of Dressel is as fol- 
lows : " For is not He who then punished the sins God, Creator of 
heaven and earth ; since even now, being blasphemed in the highest 
degree, He punished it in the highest degree ? " 


repentance, having the arrows which end in the destruction 
of the impious laid up in His treasures, which He will dis- 
charge like living animals when He shall sit down to give 
judgment to those that are His.^ Wherefore let us fear the 
just God, whose shape the body of man bears for honour.'*' 

Chap. xxi. — Simon j^^'omises to appeal to the teaching of 
Christ, Peter dismisses the multitudes. 

When Peter said this, Simon answered : " Since I see you 
skilfully hinting that what is written in the books" against 
the framer^ [of the world] does not happen to be true, 
to-morrow I shall show, from the discourses of your teacher, 
that he asserted that the framer [of the world] was not the 
highest God." And when Simon said this, he went out. 
But Peter said to the assembled multitudes : " If Simon can 
do no other injury to us in regard to God, he at least pre- 
vents you from listening to the words that can purify the 
soul." On Peter saying this, much whispering arose amongst 
the crowds, saying, " What necessity is there for permitting 
him to come in here, and utter his blasphemies against God?" 
And Peter heard, and said, " AYould that the doctrines 
against God which are intended to try men"^ went no further 
than Simon ! For there will be, as the Lord said, false 
apostles,^ false prophets, heresies, desires for supremacy, who, 
as I conjecture, finding their beginning in Simon, who blas- 
phemes God, will work together in the assertion of the same 
opinions against God as those of Simon." And saying this 
with tears, he summoned the multitudes to him bv his hand ; 
and when they came, he laid his hands upon them and prayed, 
and then dismissed them, telling them to come at an earlier 
hour next day. Saying this, and groaning, he entered and 
went to sleep, without taking food. 

1 Cotelerius translates : " to His enemies." - i.e. the Scriptures. 

3 A distinction has to be made between the Creator, or maker out of 
nothing, and the framer, or fashioner, or Demiurge, Tvho puts the matter 
into shape. 

* Lit, " the word against Gol for the trial of men." 

^ Comp. Matt. xxiv. 24. 


Chap. i. — Simon comes to Peter. 

HE next day, therefore, as Peter was to hold a dis- 
cussion with Simon, he rose earlier than usual 
and prayed. On ceasing to pray, Zacchseus came 
in, and said : " Simon is seated without, discours- 
ing with ahout thirty of his own special followers." And 
Peter said : " Let him talk until the multitude assemble, and 
then let us begin the discussion in the following way. We 
shall hear all that has been said by him, and having fitted our 
reply to this, we shall go out and discourse." And assuredly 
so it happened. Zacchasus, therefore, went out, and not long 
after entered again, and communicated to Peter the discourse 
delivered by Simon against him.^ 

Chap. ii. — Simoiis speech against Peter. 

Now he said : " He accuses you, Peter, of being the ser- 
vant of wickedness, of having great powder in magic, and as 
charming the souls of men in a way worse than idolatry. 
To prove that you are a magician, he seemed to me to adduce 
the following evidence, saying : ^ I am conscious of this, that 
when I come to hold a discussion with him, I do not remem- 
ber a single word of what I have been meditating on by 
myself. For while he is discoursing, and my mind is engaged 
in recollecting what it is that I thought of saying on coming 
to a conference with him, I do not hear anything whatsoever 
of what he is saying. Now, since I do not experience this 
in the presence of any other than in his alone, is it not 
plain that I am under the influence of his magic ? And as 
^ The text has : " against Peter." 


to Ills doctrines being worse than those of idolatry, I can 
make that quite clear to any one who has understanding. 
For there is no other benefit than this, that the soul should 
be freed from images^ of every kind. For when the soul 
brings an image before its eye, it is bound by fear, and it 
pines away through anxiety lest it should suffer some cala- 
mity ; and being altered, it falls under the influence of a 
demon ; and being under his influence, it seems to the mass 
to be wise. 

Chap. hi. — Simoiis accusation of Peter. 

" 'Peter does this to you while promising to make you wise. 
For, under the pretext of proclaiming one God, he seems to 
free you from many lifeless images, which do not at all injure 
those who w^orship them, because they are seen by the eyes 
themselves to be made of stone, or brass, or gold, or of some 
other lifeless material. Wherefore the soul, because it knows 
that what is seen is nothing, cannot be spell-bound by fear in 
an equal degree by means of what is visible. But looking to 
a terrible God through the influence of deceptive teaching, it 
has all its natural foundations overturned. And I say this, 
not because I exhort you to worship images, but because 
Peter, seeming to free your souls from terrible images,^ drives 
mad the mind of each one of you by a more terrible image, 
introducing God in a shape, and that, too, a God extremely 
just, — an image which is accompanied by what is terrible and 
awful to the contemplative soul, by that which can entirely 
destroy the enerory of a sound mind. For the mind, when in 
the midst of such a storm, is like the depth stirred by a violent 
wind, perturbed and darkened. Wherefore, if he comes to 
benefit you, let him not, while seeming to dissolve your fears 
which gently proceed from lifeless shapes, introduce in their 
stead the terrible shape of God. But has God a shape? If 
He has. He possesses a figure. And if He has a figure, how 
is He not limited ? And if limited, He is in space. But if 
He is in space, He is less than the space which encloses Him. 
And if less than anything, how is He greater than all, or 

^ iihuT^av, idols. ^ ihau. 


superior to all, or the highest of all? This, theiij is the state 
of the case. 

Chap. iv. — It is asserted that Chrises teaching is different 

from Peter s. 

" ^ And that he does not really believe even the doctrines 
proclaimed by his teacher is evident, for he proclaims doctrines 
opposite to his. For he said to some one, as I learn/ '-' Call 
me not good, for the good is one." Now, in speaking of the 
good one, he no longer speaks of that just one,^ whom the 
Scriptures proclaim, who kills and makes alive, — kills those 
who sin, and makes alive those who live according to His 
will. But that he did not really call Him who is the framer 
of the world good, is plain to any one who can reflect. For 
the framer of the world was known to Adam whom He had 
made, and to Enoch who pleased Him, and to Noah who was 
seen to be just by Him ; likewise to Abraham, and Isaac, and 
Jacob ; also to Moses, and the people, and the whole world. 
But Jesus, the teacher of Peter himself, came and said,^ " No 
one knew the Father except the Son, as no one knoweth ^ even 
the Son except the Father, and those to whom the Son may 
wish to reveal Him." If, then, it was the Son himself who was 
present, it was from the time of his appearance that he began 
to reveal to those to whom he wished, Him who was unknown 
to all. And thus the Father was unknown to all who lived 
before him, and could not thus be He who was known to all. 

Chap. v. — Jesus inconsistent in his teaching, 

" ^ In saying this, Jesus is consistent not even with himself. 
For sometimes by other utterances, taken from the Scriptures, 
he presents God as being terrible and just, saying,^ " Fear 
not him who killeth the body, but can do nothing to the 
soul; but fear Him who is able to cast both body and soul into 
the geenna of fire. Yea, I say unto you, fear Him." But 

1 Matt. six. 17. 

2 The Gnostic distinction between the God who is just and the God 
who is good, is here insisted on. 

3 Matt. xi. 27. * One MS. reads, " saw." ^ Matt. x. 28. 


that he asserted that He is really to be feared as being a just 
God, to whom he says those who receive injustice cry, is 
shown in a parable of which he gives the interpretation, 
saying : ^ " If, then, the unjust judge did so, because he was 
continually entreated, how much more will the Father avenge 
those who cry to Him day and night? Or do you think 
that, because He bears long with them, He will not do it? 
Yea, I say to you, He will do it, and that speedily." Now 
he who speaks of God as an avenging and rewarding God, 
presents Him as naturally just, and not as good. Moreover 
he gives thanks to the Lord of heaven and earth.^ But if 
He is Lord of heaven and earth. He is acknowledged to be 
the framer of the world, and if framer, then He is just. 
When, therefore, he sometimes calls Him good and some- 
times just, he is not consistent with himself in this point. 
But his wise disciple maintained yesterday a third point, that 
real sight^ is more satisfactory than vision, not knowing that 
real sight can be human, but that vision confessedly proceeds 
from divinity.' 

Chap. yi. — Peter goes out to answer Simon, 

" These and such like were the statements, Peter, which 
Simon addressed to the multitudes while he stood outside ; 
and he seems to me to be disturbing the minds of the greater 
number. AYherefore go forth immediately, and by the 
power of truth break down his false statements." When 
Zacchseus said this, Peter prayed after his usual manner and 
went out, and standing in the place where he spoke the day 
before, and saluting the multitudes according to the custom 
enjoined by his religion, he began to speak as follows : " Our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who is the true prophet (as I shall prove 
conclusively at the proper time), made concise declarations in 
regard to those matters that relate to the truth, for these two 

1 Luke xviii. 6. ^ ;Matt. xi. 25. 

^ The Mss. read vApynciv^ "activit}'." Clcricus amended it into hup- 
yiictu^ which means, vision or sight in plain open day with one's own 
eyes, in opposition to the other word oVr^c-Zcc, vision in sleep, or ecstasy, 
or some similar unusual state. 


reasons : first, because He was in the habit of addressing the 
pious, who had knowledge enough to enable them to believe the 
opinions uttered by Him by way of declaration ; for His state- 
ments were not strange to their usual mode of thought ; and in 
the second place, because, having a limited time assigned Him 
for preaching, He did not employ the method of demonstra- 
tion in order that He might not spend all His limited time 
in arguments, for in this way it might happen that He would 
be fully occupied in giving the solutions of a few problems 
which might be understood by mental exertion, while He 
would not have given us to any great extent^ those state- 
ments which relate to the truth. Accordingly He stated any 
opinions He wished, as to a people who were able to under- 
stand Him, to whom we also belong, who, whenever we did 
not understand anything of what had been said by Him, — 
a thing which rarely happened, — inquired of Him privately, 
that nothing said by Him might be unintelligible to us. 

Chap. vii. — Man in the shape of God. 

" Knowing therefore that we knew all that was spoken 
by Him, and that we could supply the proofs, He sent us 
to the ignorant Gentiles to baptize them for remission of 
sins,^ and commanded us to teach them first. Of His com- 
mandments this is the first and great one, to fear the Lord 
God, and to serve Him only. But He meant us to fear 
that God whose angels they are who are the angels of the 
least of the faithful amongst us,^ and who stand in heaven 
continually beholding the face of the Father. For He has 
shape, and He has every limb primarily and solely for beauty's 
sake, and not for use. For He has not eyes that He may see 
with them ; for He sees on every side, since He is incompar- 
ably more brilliant in His body than the visual spirit which is 
in us, and He is more splendid than everything, so that in 
comparison with Him the light of the sun may be reckoned 
as darkness. Nor has He ears that He may hear ; for He 
hears, perceives, moves, energizes, acts on every side. But 
He has the most beautiful shape on account of man, that the 

^ Lit., "to a greater extent." ^ Matt, xxviii. 19. ^ Matt» xviii. 10. 


pure in heart^ may be able to see Him, that they may rejoice 
because they suffered. For He moulded man in His ovrn 
shape as in the grandest seal, in order that he may be the 
ruler and lord of all, and that all may be subject to him. 
Wherefore, judging that He is the universe, and that man 
is His image (for He is Himself invisible, but His image 
man is visible), the man who wishes to worship Him honours 
His visible image, which is man. Whatsoever therefore any 
one does to man, be it good or bad, is regarded as being done 
to Him. Wherefore the judgment which proceeds from 
Him shall go before, giving to every one according to his 
merits. For He avenges His own shape. 

Chap. yiii. — God^s figure: Simons ohjection ilierefrom 


^'But some one will say. If He has shape, then He has 
figure also, and is in space ; but if He is in space, and is, as 
being less, enclosed by it, how is He great above everything ? 
How can He be everywhere if He has figure ? The first re- 
mark I have to make to him who urges these objections is 
this : The Scriptures persuade us to have such sentiments and 
to believe such statements in regard to Him ; and we know 
that their declarations are true, for witness is borne to them 
by our Lord Jesus Christ, by whose orders we are bound to 
afford proofs to you that such is the case. But first I shall 
speak of space. The space of God is the non-existent, but 
God is that which exists. But that which is non-existent 
cannot be compared with that wdiich is existent. For how 
can space be existent? unless it be a second space, such as 
heaven, earth, water, air, and if there is any other body that 
fills up the vacuity, which is called vacuity on this account, 
that it is nothing. For 'nothing' is its more appropriate name. 
For what is that which is called vacuity but as it were a 
vessel which contains nothing, except the vessel itself ? But 
being vacuity, it is not itself space ; but space is that in which 
vacuity itself is, if indeed it is the vessel. For it must be the 
case that that which exists is in that which does not exist. 

1 Matt. v. 8. 


But by this which is non-existent I mean that which is called 
by some, space, which is nothing. But being nothing, how 
can it be compared with that which is, except by expressing 
the contrary, and saying that it is that which does not exist, 
^nd that that which does not exist is called space ? But even 
if it were something, there are many examples which I have 
at hand, but I shall content myself with one only, to show 
that that which encloses is not unquestionably superior to 
that which is enclosed. The sun is a circular figure, and is 
entirely enclosed by air, yet it lightens up the air, it warms it, 
it divides it ; and if the sun be away from it, it is enveloped 
in darkness ; and from whatsoever part of it the sun is re- 
moved, it becomes cold as if it were dead; but again it is 
illuminated by its rising, and when it has been warmed up 
by it, it is adorned with still greater beauty. And it does 
this by giving a share of itself, though it has its substance 
limited. What, then, is there to prevent God, as being the 
Framer and Lord of this and everything else, from possessing 
figure and shape and beauty, and having the communication 
of these qualities proceeding from Himself extended in- 
finitely ? 

Chap. ix. — God the centre or heart of the universe, 

^' One, then, is the God who truly exists, who presides in a 
superior shape, being the heart of that which is above and 
that which is below twice,^ which sends forth from Him as 
from a centre the life-giving and incorporeal power ; the 
whole universe with the stars and regions^ of the heaven, the 
air, the fire, and if anything else exists, is proved to be a sub- 
stance infinite in height, boundless in depth, immeasurable 
in breadth, extendin£j the life-mvino; and wise nature from 
Him over three infinites.^ It must be, therefore, that this 

^ The whole of this chapter is full of corruptions ; " twice" occurs in 
one MS. Various attempts have been made to amend the passage. 

2 An emendation. 

2 The text is corrupt. We have translated Itt ccTrslpovg rpug. Some 
think " three" should be omitted. The three infinites are in respect of 
height, depth, and breadth. 


infinite which proceeds from Him on every side exists,-^ 
having as its heart Him who is above all, and who thus 
possesses figure ; for wherever He be, He is as it were in 
the centre of the infinite, being the limit of the universe. 
And the extensions taking their rise with Him, possess the 
nature of six infinites ; of whom the one taking its rise 
with Him penetrates^ into the height above, another into 
the depth below, another to the right hand, another to the 
left, another in front, and another behind ; to whom He 
Himself, looking as to a number that is equal on every 
side,^ completes the world in six temporal intervals,* Himself 
being the rest,'^ and having the infinite age to come as His 
imaire, beincp the bemnnino; and the end. For in Him the 
six infinites end, and from Him they receive their extension 
to infinity. 

Chap. x. — The nature and shape of God. 

" This is the mystery of the hebdomad. For He Himself 
is the rest of the whole who grants Himself as a rest to those 
who imitate His greatness within their little measure. For 
He is alone, sometimes comprehensible, sometimes incom- 
prehensible, [sometimes limitable,^] sometimes illimitable, 
having extensions which proceed from Him into infinity. 
For thus He is comprehensible and incomprehensible, near 
and far, being here and there, as being the only existent one, 
and as giving a share of that mind which is infinite on every 
hand, in consequence of which souls breathe and possess 
life ;^ and if they be separated from the body and be found 
with a longing for Him, they are borne along into His 

^ As punctuated in Dressel, this reads, "that the infinite is the heart.'* 

2 The emendation of the transcriber of one of the MSS. 

3 This refers to the following mode of exhibiting the number : . . 
Avhere each side presents the number three. • • • 

■* The creation of the world in six days. 

^ The seventh day on which God rested, the type of the rest of the 
future age. See Epistle of Barnahas, c. xv. 

^ The words wathin brackets are inserted by conjecture. " Sometimes 
incomprehensible, sometimes illimitable," occur only in one MS. 

' We have adopted Wieseler's suggestions. 


bosorrij as in the winter time the mists of the mountains, 
attracted by the rays of the sun, are borne along Immortal^ 
to it. What affection ought therefore to arise within us if we 
gaze with our mind on His beautiful shape ! But otherwise 
it is absurd [to speak of beauty]. For beauty cannot exist 
apart from shape ; nor can one be attracted to the love of God, 
nor even deem that he can see Him, if God has no form. 

Chap. xi. — The fear of God, 

" But some who are strangers to the truth, and who give 
their energies to the service of evil, on pretext of glorifying 
God, say that He has no figure, in order that, being shapeless 
and formless, He may be visible to no one, so as not to be 
longed for. For the mind, not seeing the form of God, is 
empty of Him. But how can any one pray if he has no one 
to whom he may flee for refuge, on whom he may lean ? 
For if he meets with no resistance, he falls out into vacuity. 
Yea, says he, we ought not to fear God, but to love Him. I 
agree ; but the consciousness of having done well in each 
good act will accomplish this. Now well-doing proceeds from 
fearing. But fear, says he, strikes death into the soul. 
Nay, but I affirm that it does not strike death, but awakens 
the soul, and converts it. And perhaps the injunction not 
to fear God might be right, if we men did not fear many 
other things ; such, for instance, as plots against us by those 
who are like us, and wild beasts, serpents, diseases, sufferings, 
demons, and a thousand other ills. Let him, then, who asks 
us not to fear God, rescue us from these, that we may not 
fear them ; but if he cannot, why should he grudge that we 
should be delivered from a thousand fears by one fear, the 
fear of the Just One, and that it should be possible by a 
slight ^ faith In Him to remove a thousand afflictions from 
ourselves and otherSj and receive instead an exchange of 

1 This word is justly suspected. The passage is in other respects 

2 The word " slight" is not used in reference to the character of the 
faith, but to indicate that the act of faith is a small act compared with 
the results that flow from it. 


blessings, and that, doing no ill in consequence of fear of 
the God ^yho sees everything, we should continue in peace 
even in the present life. 

Chap. xii. — The fear and love of God, 

" Thus, then, grateful service to Him who is truly Lord, 
renders us free from service to all other masters.^ If, then, 
it is possible for any one to be free from sin without fearing 
God, let him not fear ; for under the influence of love to 
Him one cannot do what is displeasing to Him. For, on the 
one hand, it is written that we are to fear Him, and we have 
been commanded to love Him, in order that each of us may 
use that prescription which is suitable to his constitution. 
Fear Him, therefore, because He is just ; but whether you 
fear Him or love Him, sin not. And may it be the case that 
any one who fears Him shall be able to gain the victory 
over unlawful desires, shall not lust after what belongs to 
others, shall practise kindness, shall be sober, and act justly ! 
For I see some who are imperfect in their fear of Plim 
sinning very much. Let us therefore fear God, not only 
because He is just ; for it is through pity for those who have 
received injustice that He inflicts punishment on those who 
have done the injustice. As water therefore quenches fire, 
so does fear extinguish the desire for evil practices. He who 
teaches fearlessness does not himself fear ; but he who does 
not fear, does not believe that there will be a judgment, 
strengthens his lusts, acts as a magician, and accuses others 
of the deeds which he himself does." 

CiiAP. XIII. — The evidence of the senses contrasted with that 
from supernatural vision. 

Simon, on hearing this, interrupted him, and said : ''I know 
against whom you are making these remarks ; but in order 
that I may not spend any time in discussing subjects which 
I do not wish to discuss, repeating the same statements to 
refute you, reply to that which is concisely stated by us. 
You professed that you had well understood the doctrines and 
^ We have adopted an emendation of a passage which is plainly corrupt. 


deeds^ of your teacher because you saw them before you with 
your own eyes,^ and heard them with your own ears, and that 
it is not possible for any other to have anything similar by 
vision or apparition. But I shall show that this is false. He 
who hears any one with his own ears, is not altogether fully 
assured of the truth of what is said ; for his mind has to con- 
sider whether he is wrong or not, inasmuch as he is a man as 
far as appearance goes. But apparition not merely presents 
an object to view, but inspires him who sees it with confi- 
dence, for it comes from God. Now reply first to this." 

Chap. xiv. — The evidence of the senses more trustioorthy than 
that of supernatural vision. 

And Peter said : " You proposed to speak to one point, 
you replied to another.^ For your proposition was, that one 
is better able to know more fully, [and to attain confidence,^] 
when he hears in consequence of an apparition, than when 
he hears with his own ears ; but when you set about the 
matter, you were for persuading us that he who hears 
through an apparition is surer than he who hears with his 
own ears. Finally, you alleged that, on this account, you 
knew more satisfactorily the doctrines of Jesus than I do, 
because you heard His words through an apparition. But I 
shall reply to the proposition you made at the beginning. 
The prophet, because he is a prophet, having first given cer- 
tain information with regard to what is objectively^ said 

^ Doctrines and deeds ; lit., the things of your teacher. 

^ The MSS. have here hipyiicc, " activity." This has been amended 
into ivocpyilcc^ "with plainness, with distinctness." ''Eyxpynx is used 
throughout in opposition to oTirruala.^ opx^a, and euvTn/iou, and means the 
act of seeing and hearing by our own senses in plain daylight, when to 
doubt the fact observed is to doubt the senses ; o'lnocaia, is apparition 
or vision in ecstasy, or some extraordinary way but that of sleep ; opocf^cc 
and iuv-TTuiQu are restricted to visions in sleep. The last term implies 
this. The first means simply " a thing seen." 

^ Probably it should be a.Tna'hi'ja instead of ccTrsKpiucoj " you turned 
aside to another." 

^ The words inserted in brackets are inserted conjecturally, to fill up 
a lacuna in the best MS. 

^ ivupycjgj " with reference to things palpable to our senses." 


by liim, is believed with confidence ; and being known be- 
forehand to be a true prophet, and being examined and 
questioned as the disciple wishes, he replies : But he who 
trusts to apparition or vision and dream is insecure. For he 
does not know to whom he is trusting. For it is possible 
either that he may be an evil demon or a deceptive spirit, 
pretending in his speeches to be what he is not. But if any 
one should wish to inquire of him who he is who has ap- 
peared, he can say to himself whatever he likes. And thus, 
gleaming forth like a wicked one, and remaining as long as 
he likes, he is at length extIno;uished, not remaining with the 
questioner so long as he wished him to do for the purpose of 
consulting him. For any one that sees by means of dreams 
cannot inquire about whatever he may wish. For reflection 
is not in the special power of one who is asleep. Hence we, 
desiring to have information in regard to something in our 
waking hours, inquire about something else in our dreams ; 
or without inquiring, we hear about matters that do not con- 
cern us, and awaking from sleep we are dispirited because 
we have neither heard nor inquired about those matters 
which we were eager to know." 

Chap. xv. — The evidence from dreams discussed. 

And Simon said: "If you maintain that apparitions do 
not always reveal the truth, yet for all that, visions and 
dreams, being God-sent, do not speak falsely in regard to 
those matters which they wish to tell." And Peter said : 
" You were right in saying that, being God-sent, they do 
not speak falsely. But it is uncertain if he who sees has 
seen a God-sent dream." And Simon said : " If he who has 
had the vision is just, he has seen a true vision." And 
Peter said : " You were right. But who is just, if he stands 
in need of a vision that he may learn what he ought to learn, 
and do what he ought to do ? " And Simon said : '' Grant 
me this, that the just man alone can see a true vision, and I 
shall then reply to that other point. For I have come to the 
conclusion that an impious man does not see a true dream." 
And Peter said: "This is false; and I can prove it both 


apart from Scripture and by Scripture ; but I do not under- 
take to persuade you. For the man who is inclined to fall 
in love with a bad woman, does not change his mind so as to 
care for a lawful union with another woman in every respect 
good; but sometimes they love the worse woman through 
prepossessions, though they are conscious that there is 
another who is more excellent. And you are ignorant, in 
consequence of some such state of mind." And Simon said: 
*^ Dismiss this subject, and discuss the matter on which you 
promised to speak. For it seems to me impossible that 
impious men should receive dreams from God in any way 

Chap. xvi. — None hut evil demons appear to the impious. 

And Peter said : " I remember that I promised to prove 
this point, and to give my proofs in regard to it from Scrip- 
ture and apart from Scripture. And now listen to what I 
say. We know that there are many (if you will pardon me 
the statement ; and if you don't, I can appeal to those who 
are present as judges) who worship idols, commit adultery, 
and sin in every way, and yet they see true visions and 
dreams, and some of them have also apparitions of demons. 
For I maintain that the eyes of mortals cannot see the incor- 
poreal form of the Father or Son, because it is illumined by 
exceeding great light. Wherefore it is not because God 
envies, but because He pities, that He cannot be seen by 
man who has been turned into flesh. For he who sees 
[God] cannot live. For the excess of light dissolves the 
flesh of him who sees ; unless by the secret power of God 
the flesh be changed into the nature of light, so that it can 
see light, or the substance of light be changed into flesh, 
so that it can be seen by flesh. For the power to see the 
Father, without undergoing any change, belongs to the Son 
alone. But the just shall also in like manner behold God ;^ 
for in the resurrection of the dead, when they have been 

^ We have translated a bold conjecture. The text has, " The just not 
in like manner," without any verb, which Schwegler amended: "To 
the just this power does not belong in like manner." 


changed, as far as their bodies are concerned, into light^ 
and become like the angels, they shall be able to see Him. 
Finally, then, if any angel be sent that he may be seen by a 
man, he is changed into flesh, that he may be able to be 
seen by flesh. For no one can see the incorporeal power 
not only of the Son, but not even of an angel. But if one 
sees an apparition, he should know that this is the apparition 
of an evil demon. 

Chap. xyii. — The impious see true dreams and visions. 

'^ But it is manifest that the impious see true visions and 
dreams, and I can prove it from Scripture. Finally, then, it 
is written in the law, how Abimelech, who was impious, 
wished to defile the wife of just Abraham by intercourse, and 
how he heard the commandment from God in his sleep, as 
the Scripture saith, not to touch her,^ because she was dwell- 
ing with her husband. Pharaoh, also an impious man, saw 
a dream in refjard to the fulness and thinness of the ears of 
corn,^ to whom Joseph said, when he gave the interpretation, 
that the dream had come from God.^ Nebuchadnezzar, who 
worshipped images, and ordered those who worshipped God 
to be cast into fire, saw a dream* extending over the wdiole 
age of the world.^ And let no one say, ^ No one who is 
impious sees a vision when awake.' That is false. Nebu- 
chadnezzar himself, havini:^ ordered three men to be cast into 
fire, saw a fourth when he looked into the furnace, and said, 
^ I see the fourth as the Son of God.' ^ And nevertheless, 
though they saw apparitions, visions, and dreams, they were 
impious. Thus, we cannot infer with absolute certainty that 
the man who has seen visions, and dreams, and apparitions, 
is undoubtedly pious. For in the case of the pious man, 
the truth gushes up natural and pure^ in his mind, not 
worked up through dreams, but granted to the good through 

1 Gen. XX. 3. ^ Qen. xU, g, 3 Qcn. xli. 25. ^ Dan. ii. 31. 

^ Lit., of the whole length of the age. ^ Dan. iii. 25. 

^ "We have amended this passage. The text applies the words " natu- 
ral [or innate] and pure " to the mind. 


Chap, xviii. — The nature of revelation, 

" Thus to me also was the Son revealed by the Father, 
Wherefore I know what is the meaning of revelation, having 
learned it in my own case. For at the very time when the 
Lord said, ^ Who do they say that I am ? ' ^ and when I 
heard one saying one thing of Him, and another another, 
it came into my heart to say (and I know not, therefore, how 
I said it), ^ Thou art the Son of the living God.' ^ But He, 
pronouncing me blesseJ, pointed out to me that it was the 
Father who had revealed it to me; and from this time I learned 
that revelation is knowledge gained without instruction, and 
without apparition and dreams. And this is indeed the case. 
For in the [soul ^] which has been placed in us by * God, 
there is all the truth ; but it is covered and revealed by the 
hand of God, who works so far as each one through his 
knowledge deserves.^ But the declaration of anything by 
means of apparitions and dreams from without is a proof, not 
that it comes from revelation, but from wrath. Finally, then, 
it is written in the law, that God, being angry, said to Aaron 
and Miriam,^ ' If a prophet arise from amongst you, I shall 
make myself known to him through visions and dreams, but 
not so as to my servant Moses ; because I shall speak to him 
in an [outward] appearance, and not through dreams, just as 
one will speak to his own friend.' You see how the state- 
ments of wrath are made through visions and dreams, but 
the statements to a friend are made face to face, in [outward] 
appearance, and not through riddles and visions and dreams, 
as to an enemy. 

1 Matt. xvi. 13. 2 Matt. xvi. 16. 

^ This word is not in the text. Schliemann proposed the word 
"heart." Possibly "breath" or "spirit" may be the lost word. See 

4 u gyn should properly be " from." 

^ Lit., " who produces according to the merit of each one knowing." 
Cotelerius translated, "who, knowing the merit of each man, does to 
him according to it." The idea seems to be, that God uncovers the 
truth hidden in the soul to each man according to his deserts. 

^ Num. xii. 6 ; Ex. xxxiii. 11, 


Chap. xix. — Opposition to Peter unreasonable, 

^' If, then, our Jesus appeared to you in a vision, made 
Himself known to you, and spoke to you, it was as one wdio 
is enraged with an adversary ; and this is the reason why it 
was through visions and dreams, or through revelations that 
were from without, that He spoke to you. But can any one 
be rendered fit for instruction through apparitions ? And 
if you will say, ' It is possible,' then I ask, ' Why did our 
teacher abide and discourse a whole year to those who were 
awake?' And how are we to believe your word, when you 
tell us that He appeared to you ? And how did He appear 
to you, when you entertain opinions contrary to His teaching ? 
But if you were seen and taught by Him, and became His 
apostle for a single hour, proclaim His utterances, interpret 
His sayings, love His apostles, contend not with me who 
companied with Him. For in direct opposition to me, who 
am a firm rock, the foundation of the church/ you now 
stand. If you were not opposed to me, you w^ould not accuse 
me, and revile the truth proclaimed by me, in order that I 
may not be believed when I state what I myself have heard 
with my own ears from the Lord, as if I were evidently a 
person that was condemned and in bad repute.^ But if you 
say that I am condemned, you bring an accusation against 
God, wdio revealed the Christ to me, and you inveigh against 
Him who pronounced me blessed on account of the revela- 
tion. But if, indeed, you really wish to work in the cause of 
truth, learn first of all from us what we have learned from 
Him, and, becoming a disciple of the truth, become a fellow- 
worker with us." 

Chap. xx. — Another sulject for discussion proposed. 

When Simon heard this, he said : " Far be it from me to 
become his or your disciple. For I am not ignorant of what 
I ought to know ; but the inquiries which I made as a learner 

1 Matt. xvi. 18. 

^ ^Ve have adopted an emendation of Scliwegler's. The text reads, 
" in good repute." 


were made that I may see if you can prove that actual sight 
is more distinct than apparition.^ But you spoke according to 
your own pleasure ; you did not prove. And now, to-morrow 
I shall come to your opinions in regard to God, whom you 
affirmed to be the framer of the world ; and in my discus- 
sion with you, I shall show that he is not the highest, nor 
good, and that your teacher made the same statements as I 
now do ; and I shall prove that you have not understood 
him." On saying this he went away, not wishing to listen 
to what might be said lO the propositions which he had laid 

1 This passage is corrupt in the text. Dressel reads, " that activity is 
more distinct than apparition." By activity would be meant, " acting 
while one is awake, and in full possession of liis senses ; " and thus the 
meaniDg would be nearly the same as in our translation. 


Chap. i. — Simon maintains that the framer of the icorld is 
not the highest God. 

T break of daj, when Peter went forth to discourse, 
Simon anticipated him, and said : ^^ When I went 
away yesterday, I promised to you to return to- 
day, and in a discussion show that he who framed 
the world is not the highest God, but that the highest God 
is another who alone is good, and who has remained un- 
known up to this time. At once, then, state to me whether 
you maintain that the framer of the world is the same as the 
lawgiver or not ? If, then, he is the lawgiver, he is just ; 
but if he is just, he is not good. But if he is not good, 
then it was another that Jesus proclaimed, when he said,^ 
' Do not call me good ; for one is good, the Father who is in 
the heavens.' Now a lawgiver cannot be both just and 
good, for these qualities do not harmonize." And Peter 
said : '•^ First tell us what are the actions which in your 
opinion constitute a person good, and what are those which 
constitute him just, in order that thus we may address our 
words to the same mark." And Simon said : ^' Do you state 
first what in your opinion is goodness, and what justice." 

Chap. ii. — Definition of goodness and justice. 

And Peter said : '' That I may not waste my time in 
contentious discussions, while I make the fair demand that 
you should give answers to my propositions, I shall myself 
answer those questions which I put, as is your wish. I then 
affirm that the man who bestows^ [goods] is good, just as I 
see the Framer of the world doing when He gives the sun 

1 Matt. xix. 17. 

^ There is a lacuna in one of the MSS. here, which is supplied in various 
ways. We have inserted the word " goods." 



to the good, and the rain to the just and unjust." And 
Simon said : " It is most unjust that he should give the 
same things to the just and the unjust." And Peter said : 
" Do you, then, in your turn state to us what course of con- 
duct would constitute Him good." And Simon said : " It is 
you that must state this." And Peter said : " I will. He 
who gives the same things to the good and just, and also to 
the evil and unjust, is not even just according to you ; but you 
would with reason call Him just if He gave goods to the good 
and evils to the evil. What course of conduct, then, would 
He adopt, if He does not adopt the plan of giving things 
temporal to the evil, if perchance they should be converted, 
and things eternal to the good, if at least they remain [good]? 
And thus by giving to all, but by gratifying the more ex- 
cellent,^ His justice is good ; and all the more long-suffering 
in this, that to sinners who repent He freely grants forgive- 
ness of their sins, and to those who have acted well He 
assigns even eternal life. But judging at last, and giving to 
each one what he deserves. He is just. If, then, this is right, 
confess it ; but if it appears to you not to be right, refute it." 

Chap. hi. — God both good and just. 

And Simon said : " I said once for all, ^ Every lawgiver, 
looking to justice, is just.' " And Peter said : " If it is the 
part of him who is good not to lay down a law, but of him 
who is just to lay down a law, in this way the Framer of the 
world is both good and just. He is good, inasmuch as it is 
plain that He did not lay down a law in writing from the 
times of Adam to Moses ; but inasmuch as He had a written 
law from Moses to the present times,^ He is just also." And 
Simon said : ^' Prove to me from the utterances of your 
teacher that it is within the power of the same man to be 
good and just ; for to me it seems impossible that the law- 

^ This translation of Cotelerius is doubtful. More correctly it would 
be, " by gratifying different people," which does not make sense. 
Wieseler proposes, " by gratifying in different ways." 

2 The text seems corrupt here. Literally it is, " from Moses to the 
present times, as has been written, He is just also." 


giver who is good should also be just." And Peter said : 
'• I shall explain to you how goodness itself is just. Our 
teacher Himself first said to the Pharisee who asked Him,-^ 
'What shall I do to inherit eternal life?' ' Do not call me 
good ; for one is good, even the Father who is in the 
heavens;' and straightway He introduced these words, 'But 
if thou shalt wish to enter into life, keep the commandments.' 
And when he said, 'What commandments?' He pointed 
him to those of the law. Now He would not, if He were 
indicating some other good being, have referred him to the 
commandments of the Just One. That indeed justice and 
goodness are different I allow, but you do not know that it 
is within the power of the same being to be good and just. 
For He is good, in that He is now long-suffering with the 
penitent, and welcomes them ; but just, when acting as judge 
He will give to every one according to his deserts." 

CiiAP. IV. — The unrevealed God. 

And Simon said : " How, then, if the framer of the world, 
who also fashioned Adam, was known, and known too by 
those who were just according to the law, and moreover by 
the just and unjust, and the whole world, does your teacher, 
coming after all these, say,^ 'No one has known the Father 
but the Son, even as no one knoweth the Son but the Father, 
and those to whom the Son may wish to reveal Him?' But 
he w^ould not have made this statement, had he not proclaimed 
a Father who was still unrevealed, whom the law speaks of 
as the highest, and who has not given any utterance either 
good or bad (as Jeremiah testifies in the Lamentations^) ; who 
also, limiting the nations to seventy languages, according to 
the number of the sons of Israel who entered Egypt, and 
accordinn" to the boundaries of these nations, crave to his own 
Son, who is also called Lord, and who brought into order 
the heaven and the earth, the Hebrews as his portion, and 
defined him to be God of gods, that is, of the gods who re- 
ceived the other nations as their portions. Laws, therefore, 

^ Luke xviii. 19 ; Matt. xix. 17. 

2 Matt. xi. 27. s Lam. iii. 38. 


proceeded from all the so-called gods to their own divisions, 
which consist of the other nations. In like manner also 
from the Son of the Lord of all came forth the law which is 
established among the Hebrews. And this state of matters 
was determined on, that if any one should seek refuge in the 
law of any one, he should belong to the division of him 
whose law he undertook to obey. No one knew the highest 
Father, who was unrevealed, just as they did not know that 
his Son was his Son. Accordingly at this moment you 
yourself, in assigning che special attributes of the unrevealed 
Most High to the Son, do not know that he is the Son, being 
the Father of Jesus, who with you is called the Christ." 

Chap. v. — Peter doubts Simon^s lionesty. 

When Simon had made these statements, Peter said to 
him : " Can you call to witness that these are your beliefs 
that being Himself, — I do not mean Him whom you speak 
of now as being unrevealed, but Him in whom you believe, 
though you do not confess Him ? For you are talking non- 
sense when you define one thing instead of another. Where- 
fore, if you call Him to witness that you believe what you 
say, I shall answer you. But if you continue discussing 
with me what you do not believe, you compel me to strike 
the empty air." And Simon said : " It is from some of your 
own disciples that I have heard [that this is the truth ^]." 
And Peter said : " Do not bear false witness ? " And Simon 
said : ^' Do not rebuke me, most insolent man." And Peter 
said : " So long as you do not tell who it was who said so, 
[I affirm that] you are a liar." And Simon said : " Suppose 
that I myself have got up these doctrines, or that I heard 
them from some other, give me your answer to them. For 
if they cannot be overturned, then I have learned that this 
is the truth." And Peter said : " If it is a human invention, 
I will not reply to it ; but if you are held fast by the sup- 
position that it is the truth, acknowledge to me that this is 
the case, and I can then myself say something in regard to 

^ The words in brackets are inserted to fill up a lacuna which occurs 
here in the Vatican MS. 


the matter." And Simon said : " Once for all, then, these 
doctrines seem to me to be true. Give me your reply, if you 
have aught to say against them." 

Chap. vi. — TJie nature of revelation. 

And Peter said : " If this is the case, you are acting most 
impiously. For if it belongs to the Son, who arranged 
heaven and earth, to reveal His unrevealed Father to whom- 
soever He wishes, you are, as I said, acting most impiously 
in revealing Him to those to whom He has not revealed 
Him." And Simon said : " But he himself wishes me to 
reveal him." And Peter said : " You do not understand 
w^hat I mean, Simon. But listen and understand. When 
it is said that the Son will reveal Him to whom He wishes, it 
is meant that such an one is to learn of Him not by instruc- 
tion, but by revelation only. For it is revelation when that 
which lies secretly veiled in all the hearts of men is revealed 
[unveiled] by His [God's] own will without any utterance. 
And thus knowledge comes to one, not because he has been 
instructed, but because he has understood. And yet the 
person who understands it cannot demonstrate it to another, 
since he did not himself receive it by instruction ; nor can he 
reveal it, since he is not himself the Son, unless he maintains 
that he is himself the Son. But you are not the standing 
Son. For if you were the Son, assuredly you would know 
those who are worthy of such a revelation. But you do not 
know them. For if you knew them, you would do as they 
do who know." 

Chap. vii. — Simon confesses his ignorance. 

And Simon said : " I confess I have not understood what 
you mean by the expression, * You would do as they do who 
know.' " And Peter said : ^' If you have not understood it, 
then you cannot know the mind of every one ; and if you are 
ignorant of this, then you do not know those who are worthy 
of the revelation. You are not the Son, for ^ the Son knows. 
Wherefore He reveals [Him] to whomsoever He vrishes, be- 

1 The Greek has "but." 


cause they are worthy." And Simon said : " Be not deceived. 
I know those who are worthy, and I am not the Son. And 
yet I have not understood what meaning you attach to the 
wordsj ^ He reveals [Him] to whomsoever He wishes.' But 
I said that I did not understand it, not because I did not 
know it, but because I knew that those who were present 
did not understand it, in order that you may state it more 
distinctly, so that they may perceive what are the reasons 
why we are carrying on this discussion." And Peter said : 
"I cannot state the matter more clearly: explain what mean- 
ing you have attached to the words." And Simon said : 
"There is no necessity why I should state your opinions." 
And Peter said : *' You evidently, Simon, do not understand 
it, and yet you do not wish to confess, that you may not be 
detected in your ignorance, and thus be proved not to be the 
standing Son. For you hint this, though you do not wish 
to state it plainly ; and, indeed, I who am not a prophet, but 
a disciple of the true Prophet, know well from the hints you 
have given what your wishes are. For you, though you do 
not understand even what is distinctly said, wish to call your- 
self son in opposition to us." And Simon said : " I will 
remove every pretext from you. I confess I do not under- 
stand what can be the meaning of the statement, ' The Son. 
reveals [Him] to whomsoever He wishes.' State therefore 
what is its meaning more distinctly." 

Chap. yiii. — TJie work of revelation belongs to the Son alone. 

And Peter said : ^' Since, at least in appearance, you have 
confessed that you do not understand it, reply to the question 
1 put to you, and you will learn the meaning of the statement. 
Tell me, do you maintain that the Son, whoever he be, is 
just, or that he is not just ? " And Simon said : " I maintain 
that he is most just." And Peter said : " Seeing He is just, 
why does He not make the revelation to all, but only to those 
to whom He wishes?" And Simon said: "Because, being 
just, he wishes to make the revelation only to the worthy." 
And Peter said : " Must He not therefore know the mind of 
each one, in order that He may make the revelation to the 


worthy?'' And Simon said: "Of course he must." And 
Peter said : " With reason, therefore, has the work of giving 
the revelation been confined to Him alone, for He alone knows 
the mind of every one ; and it has not been given to you, 
who are not able to understand even that which is stated 
by us." 

Chap. ix. — How Simon hears his exposure. 

When Peter said this, the multitudes applauded. But 
Simon, being thus exposed,^ blushed through shame, and 
rubbing his forehead, said : " Well, then, do they declare that 
I, a magician, yea, even I who syllogize, am conquered by 
Peter ? It is not so. But if one should syllogize, though 
carried away and conquered, he still retains the truth that is 
in him. For the weakness in the defender is not identical 
with the truth in the conquered man.^ But I assure you 
that I have judged all those who are bystanders worthy to 
know the unrevealed Father. Wherefore, because I publicly 
reveal him to them, you yourself, through envy, are angry 
with me who wish to confer a benefit on them." 

Chap. x. — Peter s reply to Simon. 

And Peter said : " Since you have thus spoken to please 
the multitudes who are present, I shall speak to them, not 
to please them, but to tell them the truth. Tell me how 
you know all those who are present to be worthy, when not 
■even one of them agreed with your exposition of the subject; 

1 Lit., " caught in the act." 

^ This passage is deemed corrupt by commentators. We have made 
no change in the reading of the MSS., except that of vvjiK-fii^ivftv into 
vi'jiKY.yAvo;^ and perhaps even this is unnecessary. The last sentence 
means : "A man may overcome the weakness of his adversary ; but he 
does not therefore strip him of the truth, which he possesses even when 
he is conquered." The Latin translation of Cotelerius, with some 
emendations from later editors, yields this: "But they say that I, a 
magician, am not merely conquered by Peter, but reduced to straits 
by his reasonings. But not even though one be reduced to straits by 
reasonings, has he the truth which is in him conquered. For the weak- 
ness of the defender is not the truth of the conqueror." 


for the giving of applause to me in opposition to you is not 
the act of those who agree with you, but of those who agree 
with me, to whom they gave the applause for having spoken 
the truth. But since God, who is just, judges the mind of 
each one — a doctrine which you affirm to be true — He would 
not have wished this to be given through the left hand to those 
on the right hand, exactly as the man who receives anything 
from a robber is himself guilty. So that, on this account, 
He did not wish them to receive what is brought by you ; but 
they are to receive the revelation through the Son, who has 
been set apart for this work. For to whom is it reasonable 
that the Father should give a revelation, but to His only Son, 
because He knows Him to be worthy of such a revelation ? 
And so this is a matter which one cannot teach or be taught, 
but it must be revealed by the ineffable hand to him who is 
worthy to know it." 

Chap. xi. — Simon professes to utter his real sentiments. 

And Simon said : " It contributes much to victory, if 
the man who wars uses his own weapons; for what one 
loves he can in real earnest defend, and that which is 
defended with genuine earnestness has no ordinary power 
in it. Wherefore in future I shall lay before you my real 
opinions. I maintain that there is some unrevealed power, 
unknown to all, even to the Creator himself, as Jesus him- 
self has also declared, though he did not know what he 
said. For wlien one talks a great deal he sometimes hits 
the truth, not knowing what he is saying. I am referring 
to the statement which he uttered, ' No one knows the 
Father.'" And Peter said: "Do not any longer profess 
that you know His doctrines." And Simon said : '' I do not 
profess to believe his doctrines ; but I am discussing points 
in which he was by accident right." And Peter said : 
" Not to give you any pretext for escape, I shall carry on 
the discussion with you in the way you wish. At the same 
time, I call all to witness that you do not yet believe the 
statement which you just now made. For I know your 
opinions. And in order that you may not imagine that I 


am not speaking the truth, I shall expound your opinions, 
that you may know that you are discussing with one who is 
well acquainted with them. 

Chap. xii. — Simoiis opinions expounded hj Peter. 

"We, Simon, do not assert that from the great power, 
which is also called the dominant ^ power, two angels were 
sent forth, the one to create the world, the other to give the 
law; nor that each one when he came proclaimed himself, on 
account of what he had done, as the sole creator ; nor that 
there is one who stands, will stand, and is opposed.^ Learn 
how you disbelieve even in respect to this subject. If you say 
that there is an unrevealed power, that power is full of igno- 
rance. For it did not foreknow the inaratitude of the anirels 
who were sent by it." And Simon became exceedingly angry 
w^ith Peter for saying this, and interrupted his discourse, say- 
ing: "AVhat nonsense is this you speak, you daring and most 
impudent of men, revealing plainly before the multitudes the 
secret doctrines, so that they can be easily learned ? '* And 
Peter said : " Why do you grudge that the present audience 
should receive benefit?" And Simon said: " Do you then 
allow^ that such knowledge is a benefit?" And Peter said: 
"I allowMt: for the knowledge of a false doctrine is beneficial, 
inasmuch as you do not fall into it because of ignorance." 
And Simon said : " You are evidently not able to reply to 
the propositions I laid before you. I maintain that even your 
teacher affirms that there is some Father unrevealed." 

Chap. xiii. — Peter s explanation of the passage. 

And Peter said : " I shall reply to that which you wish me 
to speak of, — namely, the passage, ' No one knows the Father 
but the Son, nor does any one know the Son but the Father, 

^ Kvpl». 

^ The text is corrupt. Various emendations have been proposed, none 
of which are satisfactory. Uhlhorn proposes, "that there is a standing 
one, one who will stand. You who are opposed, learn how you dis- 
believe, and that this subject which you say is the power unrevealed is 
full of ignorance." P. 283, note. 


and they to whom the Son may wish to reveal Him.' First, 
then, I am astonished that, while this statement admits of 
countless interpretations, you should have chosen the very 
dangerous position of maintaining that the statement is made 
in reference to the ignorance of the Creator (Demiurge), and 
all who are under him. For, first, the statement can apply 
to all the Jews who think that David is the father of Christ, 
and that Christ himself is his son, and do not know that He 
is the Son of God. Wherefore it is appropriately said, ^ No 
one knows the Father,' since, instead of God, they affirmed 
David to be His father ; and the additional remark, that no 
one knows even the Son, is quite correct, since they did not 
know that He was the Son. The statement also, ^to whom- 
soever the Son may wish to reveal Him,' is also correct ; for 
He, being the Son from the beginning, was alone appointed 
to give the revelation to those to whom He wishes to give it. 
And thus the first man (protoplast) Adam must have heard 
of Him ; and Enoch, who pleased [God], must have known 
Him ; and Noah, the righteous one, must have become 
acquainted with Him ; and Abraam His friend must have 
understood Him ; and Isaac must have perceived Him ; and 
Jacob, who wrestled with Him, must have believed in Him ; 
and the revelation must have been given to all among the 
people who were worthy. 

Chap. xiv. — Simon refuted. 

" But if, as you say, it will be possible to know Him, be- 
cause He is now revealed to all through Jesus,-^ are you not 
stating what is most unjust, when you say that these men 
did not know Him, who were the seven pillars of the world, 
and who were able to please the most just God, and that so 
many now from all nations who w^ere impious know Him in 
every respect ? Were not those who were superior to every 
one not deemed worthy to know Him ? ^ And how can that 
be good which is not just ? unless you wish to give the name 

^ The text is corrupt. TVe have placed Itoi ro after dliuxi. 
2 Another reading is: "Were not those deemed better worthy than 
any one else to know Him ? " 


of ^ good,' not to him who does good to those who act justly, 
but to him who loves the unjust, even though they do not 
believe, and reveals to them the secrets which he would not 
reveal to the just. But such conduct is befitting neither in 
one who is good nor just, but in one who has come to hate 
the pious. Are not you, Simon, the standing one, who 
have the boldness to make these statements which never have 
been so made before? " 

Chap. xv. — Matthew xi. 25 discussed. 

And Simon, being vexed at this, said: *^ Blame your own 
teacher, who said, ' I thank Thee, Lord of heaven and earth, 
that what was concealed from the wise. Thou hast revealed to 
suckling babes.' "^ And Peter said : ^' This is not the way in 
which the statement was made ; but I shall speak of it as if 
it had been made in the way that has seemed good to you. 
Our Lord, even if He had made this statement, ' What was 
concealed from the wise, the Father revealed to babes,' could 
not even thus be thought to point out another God and Father 
in addition to Him who created the world. For it is possible 
that the concealed things of which He spoke may be those of 
the Creator (Demiurge) himself ; because Isaiah^ says, ' I 
will open my mouth in parables, and I will belch forth things 
concealed from the foundation of the world.' Do you allow, 
then, that the prophet was not ignorant of the things con- 
cealed, which Jesus says were concealed from the wise, but 
revealed to babes ? And how was the Creator (Demiurge) 
ignorant of them, if his prophet Isaiah was not ignorant of 
them ? But our Jesus did not in reality say ' what was con- 
cealed,' but He said what seems a harsher statement ; for He 
said, [' Thou hast concealed these things from the wise, and^] 

1 Matt. xi. 9o. 

2 The passage does not occur in Isaiah, but in Ps. Ixxviii. 2. The words 
are quoted not from the Septuagint, but from the Gospel of Matthew 
(xiii. 35), where in some MSS. they are attributed to Isaiah. See Uhl- 
horn, p. 119. 

^ The words in brackets are omitted in the Jiss. ; but the context 
leaves no doubt that they were once in the text. 


hast revealed them to sucking babes.' Now the word ^ Thoii 
hast concealed' implies that they had once been known to 
them ; for the key of the kingdom of heaven, that is, the 
knowledge of the secrets, lay with them. 

Chap. xvi. — Tliese things hidden justly from the wise. 

"And do not say He acted impiously towards the wise 
in hiding these things from them. Far be such a supposi- 
tion from us. For He did not act impiously ; but since they 
hid the knowledge of the kingdom,^ and neither themselves 
entered nor allowed those who wished to enter, on this 
account, and justly, inasmuch as they hid the ways from 
those who wished, were in like manner the secrets hidden 
from them, in order that they themselves might experience 
what they had done to others, and with what measure they 
had measured, an equal measure might be meted out to 
them.^ For to him who is w^orthy to know, is due that which 
he does not know ; but from him who is not worthy, even 
should he seem to have anything, it is taken away,^ even if 
he be wise in other matters ; and it is given to the worthy, 
even should they be babes as far as the times of their dis- 
cipleship are concerned. 

Chap. xvii. — The way to the kingdom not concealed from, the 


" But if one shall say nothing was concealed from the sons 
of Israel, because it is written,^ ' Nothing escaped thy notice, 
O Israel (for do not say, O Jacob, The way is hid from me),' 
he ought to understand that the things that belong to the 
kingdom had been hid from them, but that the way that leads 
to the kingdom, that is, the mode of life, had not been hid 
from them. Wherefore it is that He says, * For say not that 
the way has been hid from me.' But by the way is meant 
the mode of life ; for Moses says,^ ^ Behold, I have set before 
thy face the way of life and the way of death.' And the 
Teacher spoke in harmony with this :^ * Enter ye through the 

1 Luke xi. 52. 2 T^^^tt. vii. 2. » L^^e viii. 18. 

•* Isa. xl. 26, 27. « Beut. xxx. 15. ^ Matt. vii. 13, 14. 


strait and narrow way, through which ye shall enter into life.' 
And somewhere else, when one asked Him,^ ' What shall I 
do to inherit eternal life 1 ' He pointed out to him the com- 
mandments of the law. 

Chap, xviii. — Isaiah i. 3 explained, 

" From the circumstance that Isaiah said, in the person of 
God/ ' But Israel hath not known me, and the people hath 
not understood me,' it is not to be inferred that Isaiah in- 
dicated another God besides Him who is known ;^ but he 
meant that the known God was in another sense unknown, 
because the people sinned, being ignorant of the just cha- 
racter of the known God, and imagined that they would not 
be punished by the good God. Wherefore, after he said, 
' But Israel hath not known me, and the people hath not 
understood me,' he adds, ^ Alas ! a sinful nation, a people 
laden with sins.' For, not being afraid, in consequence of 
their ignorance of His justice, as I said, they became laden 
with sins, supposing that He was merely good, and would not 
therefore punish them for their sins. 

Chap. xix. — Misconception of God in the Old Testament, 

" And some sinned thus, on account of ima^inincr that 
there would be no judgment^ because of Plis goodness. But 
others took an opposite course. For, supposing the expres- 
sions of the Scriptures which are against God, and are unjust 
and false, to be true, they did not know His real divinity 
and power. Therefore, in the belief that He was ignorant 
and rejoiced in murder, and let off the wicked in consequence 
of the gifts of sacrifices ; yea, moreover, that He deceived 
and spake falsely, and did everything that is unjust, they 

1 Luke xviii. 18 ; Matt. xix. 17. ^ ig^. i, 3. 

2 Cotelerius' MS. inserts " the Creator" (Demiurge). 

"* "We have adopted the Latin transhation here, as giving the meaning 
■VN'hich was intended by the writer ; but the Greek will scarcely admit 
of such a translation. Probably the text is corrupt, or something is 
omitted. The literal translation is, "in consequence of the unjudging 
supposition on account of the goodness." 


themselves did things like to what their God did, and thus 
sinning, asserted that they were acting piously. Where- 
fore it was impossible for them to change to the better, and 
when warned they took no heed. For they were not afraid, 
since they became like their God through such actions. 

Chap. xx. — Some 'parts of the Old Testament luritten to 

try us, 

" But one might with good reason maintain that it was 
with reference to those ./ho thought Him to be such that the 
statement was made, 'No one knoweth the Father but the 
Son, as no one knoweth even the Son, but the Father.' And 
reasonably. For if they had known, they would not have 
sinned, by trusting to the books written against God, really 
for the purpose of trying. But somewhere also He says, 
wishing to exhibit the cause of their error more distinctly to 
them, ' On this account ye do err, not knowing the true 
things of the Scriptures, on which account ye are ignorant 
also of the power of God.' ■"■ Wherefore every man who 
wishes to be saved must become, as the Teacher said, a judge 
of the books written to try us. For thus He spake : ^ Be- 
come experienced bankers.' Now the need of bankers arises 
from the circumstance that the spurious is mixed up with 
the genuine." 

Chap. xxi. — Simon^s astonishment at Peter s treatment of 

the Scriptures. 

When Peter said this, Simon pretended to be utterly 
astonished at what was said in regard to the Scriptures ; and 
as if in great agitation, he said : ^' Far be it from me, and 
those who love me, to listen to your discourses. And, 
indeed, as long as I did not know that you held these 
opinions in regard to the Scriptures, I endured you, and dis- 
cussed with you ; but now I retire. Indeed, I ought at the 
first to have withdrawn, because I heard you say, ' I, for 
my part, believe no one who says anything against Him who 
created the world, neither angels, nor prophets, nor Scrip- 

1 Mark xii, 24. 


tures, nor priests, nor teachers, nor any one else, even 
though one should work signs and miracles, even though he 
should lighten brilliantly in the air, or should make a revela- 
tion through visions or through dreams.' Who, then, can 
succeed in changing your mind, whether well or ill, so as 
that you should hold opinions different from what you have 
determined on, seeing that you abide so persistently and im- 
moveably in your own decision ? " 

Chap. xxii. — Peter worsldps one God, 

When Simon said this, and was going to depart, Peter 
said : " Listen to this one other remark, and then go where 
you like." Whereupon Simon turned back and remained, 
and Peter said : " I know how you were then astonished 
when you heard me say, ^Whosoever says anything whatever 
against God who created the world, I do not believe him.' 
But listen now to something additional, and greater than this. 
If God who created the world has in reality such a character 
as the Scriptures assign Him, and if somehow or other He is 
incomparably wicked, more wicked^ than either the Scrip- 
tures were able to represent Him, or any other can even 
conceive Him to be, nevertheless^ I shall not give up 
worshipping Him alone, and doing His will. For I wish 
you to know and to be convinced, that he wdio has not affec- 
tion for his own Creator, can never have it towards another. 
And if he has it towards another, he has it contrary to 
nature, and he is ignorant that he has this passion for the 
unjust from the evil one. Nor will he be able to retain 
even it stedfastly. And, indeed, if there is another above 
the Creator (Demiurge), he will welcome me, since he is 
good, all the more that I love my own Father ; and he will 
not welcome you, as he knows that you have abandoned 
your own natural Creator : for I do not call Him Father, 
influenced by a greater hope, and not caring for what is 

^ " Incomparably wicked, more wicked than;" literally, "incompar- 
ably wicked as." 

^ The Greek has o'^o/w;, " in like manner." We have translated 


reasonable. Thus, even if you find one who is superior to 
Him, he knows that you will one day abandon him ; and the 
more so that he has not been your father, since you have 
abandoned Him who was really your Father. 

Chap, xxiii. — Simon retires. 

" But you will say, ' He knows that there is no other above 
him, and on this account he cannot be abandoned.' Thanks, 
then, to there being no other ; but He knows that the state 
of your mind is one inchned to ingratitude. But if, knowing 
you to be ungrateful, He welcomes you, and knowing me to 
be grateful. He does not receive me. He is inconsiderate, 
according to your own assertion, and does not act reasonably. 
And thus, Simon, you are not aware that you are the servant 
of wickedness." And Simon answered : "Whence, then, has 
evil arisen ? tell us." And Peter said : " Since to-day you 
were the first to go out, and you declared that you would not 
in future listen to me as being a blasphemer, come to-mor- 
row, if indeed you wish to learn, and I shall explain the 
matter to you, and I will permit you to ask me any questions 
you like, without any dispute." And Simon said ; " I shall 
do as shall seem good to me." And saying this, he went 
away. Now, none of those who entered along with him 
went out along with him ; but, falling at Peter's feet, they 
begged that they might be pardoned for having been car- 
ried away with Simon, and on repenting, to be welcomed. 
But Peter, admitting those persons who repented, and the 
rest of the multitudes, laid his hands upon them, praying, 
and healing those who were sick amongst them ; and thus 
dismissing them, he urged them to return early about dawn. 
And saying this, and going in with his intimate friends, he 
made the usual preparations for immediate repose, for it was 
now evening. 


Chap. i. — Simon undertakes to prove that the Creator of ike 
world is not blameless. 

HE next day Peter came forth earlier than usual; 
and seeing Simon with many others waiting for 
him, he saluted the multitude, and began to dis- 
course. But no sooner did he begin than Simon 
interrupted him, and said : ^' Pass by these long introduc- 
tions of yours, and answer directly the questions I put to you. 
Since I perceive that you ^ (as I know from what I heard at 
the beginning, that you have no other purpose, than by every 
contrivance to show that the Creator himself is alone the 
blameless God), — since, as I said, I perceive that you have 
such a decided desire to maintain this, that you venture to 
declare to be false some portions of the Scriptures that clearly 
speak against him, for this reason I have determined to-day 
to prove that it is impossible that he, being the Creator of 
all, should be blameless. But this proof I can now begin, if 
you reply to the questions which I put to you. 

Chap. ir. — The existence of the devil affirmed. 

" Do you maintain that there is any prince of evil or not ? 
For if you say that there is not, I can prove to you from 
many statements, and those too of your teacher, that there 
is ; but if you honestly allow that the evil one exists, then 
I shall speak in accordance with this belief." And Peter 
said : " It is impossible for me to deny the assertion of my 
Teacher. Wherefore I allow that the evil one exists, be- 
cause my Teacher, who spoke the truth in all things, has 

^ This passage is corrupt. "Wieseler has proposed to amend it by a bold 
transposition of the clauses. "We make one slight alteration in the text. 



frequently asserted that he exists. For instance, then, he 
acknowledges that he conversed with Him, and tempted Him 
for forty days.^ And I know that He has said somewhere 
else, ' If Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against him- 
self : how then is his kingdom to stand ?' ^ And He pointed 
out that He saw the evil one like lightning falling down 
from heaven.^ And elsewhere He said, * He who sowed the 
bad seed is the devil.' ^ And again, 'Give no pretext to 
the evil one.' ^ Moreover, in giving advice. He said, ' Let 
your yea be yea, and your nay nay ; for what is more than 
these is of the evil one.' ^ Also, in the prayer which He 
delivered to us, we have it said, ' Deliver us from the 
evil one.' ^ And in another place. He promised that He 
would say to those who are impious, ^ Go ye into outer dark- 
ness, which the Father prepared for the devil and his angels.' ^ 
And not to prolong this statement further, I know that my 
Teacher often said that there is an evil one. Wherefore 
I also agree in thinking that he exists. If, then, in future 
you have anything to say in accordance with this belief, say 
it, as you promised." 

Chap. hi. — Peter refuses to discuss certain questions in 
regard to the devil. 

And Simon said : " Since, then, you have honestly con- 
fessed, on the testimony of the Scriptures, that the evil one 
exists, state to us how he has come into existence, if indeed 
he has come into existence, and by whom, and why." And 
Peter said : " Pardon me, Simon, if I do not dare to affirm 
what has not been written. But if you say that it has been 
written, prove it. But if, since it has not been written, you 
cannot prove it, why should we run risk in stating our 
opinions in regard to what has not been written ? For if we 
discourse too daringly in regard to God, it is either because 

1 Mark i. 13. 2 lyiatt. xii. 26. 

3 Luke X. 18. 4 Matt. xiii. 39. 

^ This passage is not found in the New Testament. It resembles 
Eph. iv. 27. 
6 Matt. V. 37 ; Jas. v. 12. ^ Matt. vi. 13. ^ Matt. xxv. 41. 


we do not believe that we shall be judged, or that we 
shall be judged only in respect to that which we do, but 
not also in regard to what we believe and speak." ^ But 
Simon, understanding that Peter referred to his own mad- 
ness, said : ^' Permit me to run the risk ; but do not you 
make what you assert to be blasphemy a pretext for retir- 
ing. For I perceive that you wish to withdraw, in order 
that you may escape refutation before the masses, sometimes 
as if you were afraid to listen to blasphemies, and at other 
times by maintaining that, as nothing has been written as 
to how, and by whom, and why the evil one came into 
existence, we ought not to dare to assert more than the 
Scripture. Wherefore also as a pious man you affirm this 
only, that he exists. But by these contrivances you deceive 
yourself, not knowing that, if it is blasphemy to inquire 
accurately regarding the evil one, the blame rests with me, 
the accuser, and not with you, the defender of God. And 
if the subject inquired into is not in Scripture,^ and on this 
account you do not wish to inquire into it, there are some 
satisfactory methods which can prove to you what is sought 
not less effectively than the Scriptures. For instance, must 
it not be the case that the evil one, who you assert exists, is 
either oricrinated or unoriirinated?"^ 

Chap. it. — Suppositions in regard to the deviVs origin. 

And Peter said : '' It must be so." And Simon : " There- 
fore, if he is originated, he has been made by that very God 
who made all things, being either born as an animal, or sent 
forth substantially, and resulting from an external mixture 
[of elements]. For either* the matter, being living or lifeless, 

^ This passage is probably corrupt. "We have adopted the readings of 
Cotelerius — ij, ^, instead of d and [^vi. 

2 Lit., "unwritten." 

^ The words yivvt-og and dyivr-o; are difficult to translate. The first 
means one who has somehow or other come into being ; the second, one 
who has never come into being, but has always been. The Mss. con- 
found yiur,r6g with yi'j'jY,-6c^ begotten, and dysuriTog with dyiuy/iTo;, 

* We have changed si into ij. 


from which he was made was outside of him/ or he came 
into being through God Himself, or through his own self, or 
he resulted from things non-existent, or he is a mere relative 
thing, or he always existed. Having thus, as I think, clearly 
pointed out all the possible ways by which we may find him, 
in going along some one of these we must find him. We 
must therefore go along each one of these in search of his 
origin ; and when we find him who is his author, we must 
j)erceive that he is to blame. Or how does the matter seem 
to you ? " 

Chap. v. — God not deserving of blame in permitting 
the existence of the devil. 

And Peter said : " It is my opinion that, even if it be 
evident that he was made by God, the Creator who made 
him should not be blamed ; for it might perchance be found 
that the service he performs^ was an absolute necessity. But 
if, on the other hand, it should be proved that he was not 
created, inasmuch as he existed for ever, not even is the 
Creator to be blamed in this respect, since He is better than 
all [others], even if He has not been able to put an end to 
a being who had no beginning, because his nature did not 
admit of it ; or if, being able, He does not make away with 
him, deeming it unjust to put an end to that which did not 
receive a beginning, and pardoning that which was by nature 
wicked, because he could not have become anything else, 
even if he were to wish to do so.^ But if, wishing to do 
good. He is not able, even in this case He is good in that He 
has the will, though He has not the power ; and while He has 
not the power, He is yet the most powerful of all, in that the 
power is not left to another. But if there is some other that 
is able, and yet does not accomplish it, it must be allowed 
that, in so far as, being able, he does not accomplish it, he 

1 By " Him" is understood God, though it may mean the devil. 

2 Lit., "his usefulness was most necessary of all." 

^ This sentence is obscure in the original. We have, with Wieseler^ 
read IttsI, omitting ccp)c}^. Instead of supplying /^t], we have turned 
avyyvZuoci into the participle. 


is wicked in not putting an end to liim, as if he took pleasure 
in the deeds done by him. But if not even he is able, then 
he is better who, though unable, is yet not unwilling to 
benefit us according to his ability." 

Chap. vi. — Peter accuses Simon of being worse than the devil. 

And Simon said : " When you have discussed all the sub- 
jects which I have laid before you, I shall show you the 
cause of evil. Then I shall also reply to what you have now 
said, and prove that that God whom you affirm to be blame- 
less is blameable." And Peter said : " Since I perceive from 
what you say at the commencement that you are striving 
after nothing else than to subject God, as being the author 
of evil, to blame, I have resolved to go along with you all 
the ways you like, and to prove that God is entirely free 
from blame." And Simon said : " You say this as loving 
God, whom you suppose you know ; but you are not right." 
And Peter said : " But you, as being wicked, and hating 
God whom you have not known, utter blasphemous words." 
And Simon said : " Remember that you have likened me to 
the author of evil." And Peter said : " I confess it, I was 
wrong in comparing you to the evil one ; for I was compelled 
to do so, because I have not found one who is your equal, or 
worse than you. For this reason 1 likened you to the 
evil one ; for you happen to be much more wicked than the 
author of evil. For no one can prove that the evil one 
spoke against God ; but all of us who are present see you 
speaking daiingly against Him." And Simon said : *' He 
who seeks the truth ought not to gratify any one in any 
respect contrary to what is really true. For why does he 
make the inquiry at all ? Why, I ask ? for I am not also 
able, laying aside the accurate investigation of things, to 
spend all my time in the praise of that God whom I do not 

^ "We have adopted the pointing of Wieseler, 


Chap. vii. — Peter suspects Simon of not believing even 

in a God, 

And Peter said : " You are not so blessed as to praise 
Him, nor indeed can you do such a good deed as this ; for 
then you would be full of Him. For thus said our Teacher, 
who always spoke the truth ; ^ Out of the abundance of the 
heart the mouth speaketh.' ^ Whence you, abounding in 
evil purposes, through ignorance speak against the only good 
God. And not yet suffering what you deserve to suffer for 
the words which you have dared to utter,^ you either imagine 
that there will be no judgment, or perchance you think that 
there is not even a God. Whence, not comprehending such 
long-suffering as His, you are moving on to still greater 
madness." And Simon said : " Do not imagine that you 
will frighten me into not investigating the truth of your 
examples. For I am so eager for the truth, that for its sake 
I will not shrink from undergoing danger. If, then, you 
have anything to say in regard to the propositions made by 
me at the commencement, say it now." 

Chap. viii. — Peter undertakes to discuss the deviVs origin. 

And Peter said : " Since you compel us, after we have made 
accurate investigations into the contrivances of God, to ven- 
ture to state them, and that, too, to men who are not able to 
comprehend thoroughly the contrivances of their fellow-men, 
for the sake at least of those who are present, I, instead of 
remaining silent — a course which would be most pious — shall 
discuss the subjects of which you wish me to speak. I agree 
with you in believing that there is a prince of evil, of whose 
origin the Scripture has ventured to say nothing either true 
or false. But let us follow out the inquiry in many ways, as 
to how he has come into existence, if it is the fact that he 
has come into existence ; and of the opinions which present 
themselves, let us select that which is most reverential, since, 

1 Matt. xii. 34. 

2 AVe have altered the punctuation. Editors connect this clause with 
the previous sentence, and change ^ of the Mss. into g/. 


in the case of probable opinions, that one is assumed with 
confidence which [is based on the principle] that we ought to 
attribute to God that which is more reverential ; and all the 
more so, if, when all other suppositions are removed, there 
still remains one which is adequate and involves less danger.-^ 
But I promise you, before I proceed with the investigation, 
that every method in the investigation can show that God 
alone is blameless. 

Chap. ix. — Theories in regard to the origin of the deviL 

" But, as you said, if the evil one is created, either he has 
been beo-otten as an animal, or he has been sent forth sub- 
stantially by Him," or he has been compounded externally, 
or his will has arisen through composition ; or it happened 
that he came into existence from things non-existent, without 
composition and the will of God ; or he has been made by 
God from that which in no manner and nowhere exists ; or the 
matter, being lifeless or living, from which he has arisen was 
outside of God ; or he fashioned himself, or he was made by 
God, or he is a relative thing, or he ever existed : for we can- 
not say that he does not exist, since we have agreed in thinking 
that he does exist." And Simon said : '' Well have you dis- 
tinfTuished all the methods of accounting for his existence in a 
summary manner. Now it is my part to examine these various 
ideas, and to show^ that the Creator is blameable. But it is 
your business to prove, as you promised, that he is free from 
all blame. But I wonder if you will be able. For, first, if 
the devil has been begotten from God as an animal, the vice 

^ This sentence is regarded as corrupt by TVieseler. T^'e have retained 
the reading of the Paris MS., 6, and understand y.xiitSx'jsroci after it. As 
would naturally be inserted after tccvtv), but it is not necessary. Kxfictp- 
Snacdu is translated in the Latin pwgatis, which may mean the same 
as in our translation if we take it in the sense of " washed away ; " but,6ot.ipidiiaZ)'j would be a better reading. The translation of Cotelerius 
gives, " Since this is reasonably assumed with firmness, — namely, that 
it is right to give to God," etc. 

2 The text here is evidently corrupt in many places. If the reading " by 
him" is to be retained, we must suppose, with "Wieseler, that " by God" 
is omitted in the previous clause. Probably it should be, " by himself." 


whicH Is Ill's is accordingly the same as that of him who sends 
him forth." And Peter said : " Not at alh For we see 
many men who are good the fathers of wicked children, and 
others who are wicked the fathers of good children, and 
others again who are wicked producing both good [and 
wicked^] children, and others who are good having both 
wicked and good children. For instance, the first man who 
was created produced the unrighteous Cain and the righteous 
Abel." To this Simon said : '' You are acting foolishly, in 
using human example^ when discoursing about God." And 
Peter said: "Speak you, then, to us about God without using 
human examples, and yet so that what you say can be under- 
stood ; but you are not able to do so. 

Chap. x. — The absolute God entirely incompreliensihle by man, 

" For instance, then, what did you say in the beginning ? 
If the wicked one has been begotten of God, being of the 
same substance as He, then God is wicked. But when I 
showed you, from the example which you yourself adduced, 
that wicked beings come from good, and good from wicked, 
you did not admit the argument, for you said that the example 
was a human one. Wherefore I now do not admit that the 
term ^ being begotten ' ^ can be used with reference to God ; 
for it is characteristic of man, and not of God, to beget. 
Not only so ; but God cannot be good or evil, just or unjust. 
Nor indeed can He have intelligence, or life, or any of the 
other attributes which can exist in man ; for all these are 
peculiar to man. And if we must not, in our investigations 
in regard to God, give Him the good attributes which belong 
to man, it is not possible for us to have any thought or make 
any statement in regard to God ; but all we can do is to 
investigate one point alone, — namely, what is His will which 
He has Himself allowed us to apprehend, in order that, being 
judged, we might be without excuse in regard to those laws 
which we have not observed, though we knew them." 

1 " And bad " is not in the MSS., but is required by the context. 

2 The text is corrupt here. Literally it is, "I do not admit that God 
has been begotten." 


Chap. xi. — Tlie application of the attributes of man to God. 

And Simon, hearing this, said : " You will not force me 
throuoh shame to remain silent in regard to His substance, 
and to inquire into His will alone. For it is possible both to 
think and to speak of His substance. I mean from the good 
attributes that belong to man. For instance, life and death 
are attributes of man ; but death is not an attribute of God, 
but life, and eternal life. Furthermore, men may be both 
evil and good ; but God can be only incom.parably good. 
And, not to prolong the subject too much, the better attri- 
butes of man are eternal attributes of God." And Peter 
said : " Tell me, Simon, is it an attribute of man to beget 
evil and good, and to do evil and good ? " And Simon said : 
^' It is." And Peter said : " Since you made this assertion, 
we must assign the better attributes of man to God ; and so, 
while men beget evil and good, God can beget good only ; and 
while men do evil and good, God rejoices only in doing good. 
Thus, with regard [to God], we must either not predicate any 
of the attributes of man and be silent, or it is reasonable that 
we should assign the best of the good attributes to Him. 
And thus He alone is the cause of all good things." 

Chap. xii. — God produced the icicked one, hut not evil. 

And Simon said : ^' If, then, God is the cause only of what 
is good, what else can we think than that some other prin- 
ciple begot the evil one ;^ or is evil unbegotten ?" And Peter 
said : " No other power begot the wicked one, nor is evil un- 
begotten, as I shall show in the conclusion ; for now my 
object is to prove, as I promised in the commencement, that 
God is blameless in every ^ respect. AVe have granted, then, 
that God possesses in an incomparable way the better attri- 
butes that belong to men. Wherefore also it is possible for 
Him to have been the producer of the four substances, — 
heat, I mean, and cold, moist and dry. These, as being at 
first simple and unmixed, were naturally indifferent in their 

1 " Evil " is not in the MSS. It is inserted from the next sentence. 
* "Every" is inserted by a conjecture of Schwegler's. 


desire;^ but being produced by God, and mixed externallj, 
they would naturally become a living being, possessing the 
free choice to destroy those who are evil. And thus, since all 
things have been begotten from Him, the wicked one is from 
no other source. Nor has he derived his evil from the God 
who has created all things (with whom it is impossible that evil 
should exist), because the substances w^ere produced by Him 
in a state of indifference, and carefully separated from each 
other ; and when they were externally blended through his 
art, there arose through volition the desire for the destruc- 
tion of the evil ones. But the good cannot be destroyed by 
the evil that arose, even though it should wish to do so : for 
it exercises its power only ^ against those who sin. Ignorant, 
then, of the character of each, he^ makes his attempt against 
him, and convicting him, he punishes him." And Simon 
said : " God being able to mingle the elements, and to make 
Plis mixtures so as to produce any dispositions that He may 
wish, why did He not make the composition of each such as 
that it would prefer what is good ? " 

Chap. xiii. — God the maker of the devil. 

And Peter said: "Now indeed our object is to show how and 
by whom the evil one came into being, since he did come into 
being; but we shall show if he came into being blamelessly, 
when we have finished the subject now in hand. Then I shall 
show how^ and on account of what he came into being, and I 
shall fully convince you that his Creator is blameless."^ We 
said, then, that the four substances were produced by God. 
And thus, through the volition of Him who mingled them, 
arose, as He wished, the choice of evils. For if it had arisen 
contrary to His determination, or from some other substance 
or cause, then God would not have had firmness of will : for 
perchance, even though He should not wish it, leaders of evil 
might continually arise, who would war against His wishes. 

^ Lit.," naturally had their desire towards neither." 

2 The Mss. have " by law." We have changed y6(/.u into y.ouov. 

^ The devil is plainly by the " he." 

^ This passage is evidently corrupt. But it is not easy to amend it. 


But it IS impossible that this should be the case. For no 
living being, and especially one capable of giving guidance, 
can arise from accident : for everything that is produced 
must be produced by some one." 

Chap, xi v. — Is matter eternal ? 

And Simon said : " But what if matter, being coeval with 
Him, and possessing equal power, produces as His foe leaders 
who hinder His wishes ? " And Peter said : " If matter is 
eternal, then it is the foe of no one : for that which exists 
for ever is impassible, and what is impassible is blessed ; 
but what is blessed cannot be receptive of hatred, since, on 
account of its eternal creation,^ it does not fear that it will 
be deprived of anything. But how does not matter rather 
love the Creator, when ^ it evidently sends forth its fruits to 
nourish all who are made by Him ? And how does it not 
fear Him as superior, as trembling through earthquakes it 
confesses, and as, though its billows ran high, yet, when the 
Teacher was sailing on it and commanded a calm, it imme- 
diately obeyed and became still? ^ What! did not the demons 
go out through fear and respect for Him, and others of them 
desired to enter into swine; but they first entreated Him 
before going, plainly because they had no power to enter 
even into swine without His permission ? " ^ 

Chap. xv. — Sin the cause of evil. 

And Simon said: "But what if, being lifeless, it pos- 
sesses a nature capable of producing what is evil and what 
is good ? " And Peter said : " According to this statement, 
it is neither good nor evil, because it does not act by free 
choice, being lifeless and insensible. Wherefore it is pos- 
sible to perceive distinctly in this matter, how, being lifeless, 
it produces as if it were living ;^ and being insensible, it yet 

^ Probably " eternity" should be read, instead of " eternal creation." 

2 At this "vvord the MS. of Cotelerius breaks off ; and we have the rest 
only in the Ottobonian MS., first edited by Dressel. 

3 Matt, xxvii. 51, viii. 24. * Matt. viii. 31. 

* Possibly the right reading is iix-d/v-ycov;, " it produces living beings." 


plainly fashions artistic shapes both in animals and plants." 
And Simon said : " What ! if God Himself gave it life, is not 
He, then, the cause of the evils vv^hich it produces?" And 
Peter said : '•'• If God gave it life according to His own will, 
then it is His Spirit that produces it, and no longer is it any- 
thing hostile to God, or of equal power with Him ; or it is 
impossible that everything made by Him is made according 
as He wishes. But you will say, He Himself is the cause 
of evil, since He Himself produces the evils through it. 
What sort, then, are the evils of which you speak ? Poison- 
ous serpents and deadly plants, or demons, or any other of 
those things that can disturb men ? — which things would not 
have been injurious had not man sinned, for which reason^ 
death came in. For if man were sinless, the poison of ser- 
pents would have no effect, nor the activities of injurious 
plants, nor would there be the disturbances of demons, nor 
would man naturally have any other suffering ; but losing his 
immortality on account of his sin, he has become, as I said, 
capable of every suffering. But if you say. Why, then, was 
the nature of man made at the beginning capable of death ? 
I tell you, because of free-will ; for if we were not capable 
of death, we could not, as being immortal, be punished on 
account of our voluntary sin. And thus, on account of our 
freedom from suffering, righteousness would be still more 
weakened if we were wicked by choice ; for those who should 
have evil purposes could not be punished, on account of their 
being incapable of suffering.^ 

Chap. xvi. — Why the wiched one is entrusted with power. 

And Simon said to this : ^^ I have one thing more to say in 
regard to the wicked one. Assuredly, since God made him 
out of nothing, he is in this respect wicked,^ especially since 
he was able to make him good, by giving him at his creation 
a nature in no way capable of selecting wickedness." And 
Peter said : " The statement that He created him out of 

^ Or, " on whose account." 2 tJi^q text is corrupt. 

^ The MS. reads : "In this respect he who made him is wicked, who 
gave existence to what was non-existent." 


nothiDg, \^'ltll a power of choice, is like the statement we 
have made above, that, having made such a constitution as 
can rejoice in evils, He Himself appears to be the cause of 
what took place. But since there is one explanation of both 
statements, we shall show afterwards why it was that He made 
him rejoice in the destruction of the wicked." And Simon 
said : " If he made the ancjels also voluntary agents, and the 
wicked one departed from a state of righteousness, why has he 
been honoured with a post of command? Is it not plain that 
he who thus honoured him takes pleasure in the wicked, in 
that he has thus honoured him? " ^ And Peter said : ^' If God 
set him by law, when he rebelled, to rule over those who were 
like him, ordering him to inflict punishment on those who 
sin, He is not unjust. But if it be the case that He has 
honoured him even after his revolt. He w^ho honoured him 
saw beforehand his usefulness ; for the honour is temporary, 
and it is right that the wicked should be ruled by the wicked 
one, and that sinners should be punished by him." 

Chap. xvii. — The devil has not equal power with God. 

And Simon said : '' If, then, he exists for ever, is not the 
fact of the sole government [of God] thus destroyed, since 
there is another power, namely, that concerned with matter^ 
which rules along with Him?" And Peter said: '^ If they 
are different in their substances, they are different also in 
their powers, and the superior rules the inferior. But if 
they are of the same substance, then they are equal in 
power, and they are in like manner good or bad. But it 
is plain that they are not equal in power ; for the Creator 
put matter into that shape of a world into which He willed 
to put it. Is it then at all possible to maintain that it always 
existed, being a substance ; and is not matter, as it were, the 
storehouse of God? For it is not possible to maintain that 
there was a time^ when God possessed nothing, but He always 

^ The Greek is either nngrammatical or corrupt, but the sense is 

- This passage is supposed by most to be defective, and various ■words 
have been suggested to supply the lacuna. 


was the only ruler of it. Wherefore also He is an eternal 
sole ruler ; ^ and on this account it would justly be said to 
belong to Him who exists, and rules, and is [eternal^]." And 
Simon said : " What then ? Did the wicked one make him- 
self ? And was God good in such a way, that, knowing he 
would be the cause of evil, he yet did not destroy him at his 
origination, when he could have been destroyed, as not yet 
being perfectly made ? For if he came into being suddenly 
and complete, then on that account^ he is at war with the 
Creator, as having ccme suddenly into being, possessed of 
equal power with him." 

Chap, xviii. — Is the devil a relation ? 

And Peter said : " What you state is impossible ; for if 
he came into existence by degrees. He could have cut him 
off as a foe by His own free choice. And knowing before- 
hand that he was coming into existence. He would not have 
allowed him as a good, had He not known that by reason 
of him what was useful was being brought into existence.* 
And he could not have come into existence suddenly, com- 
plete, of his own power. For he who did not exist could 
not fashion himself ; and he neither could become complete 
out of nothing, nor could any one justly say that he had 
substance,^ so as always to be equal in power if he were 
begotten." And Simon said: "Is he then a mere relation, and 
in this way wicked?^ — being injurious, as water is injurious 
to fire, but good for the seasonably thirsty land ; as iron is 

^ Or, " monarch." But only two letters of the word are in the MS. ; the 
rest is filled in by conjecture. 

2 Supplied by conjecture. 

^ Three words are struck out of the text of the MS. by all editors, as 
being a repetition. 

■* The editors punctuate differently, thus : " And knowing beforehand 
that he was becoming not good. He would not have allowed him, unless 
He knew that he would be useful to Himself." We suppose the reference 
in the text to be to Gen. i. 31. 

^ Or, " self -subsistence." We have supposed a transposition of the 
words in the text. The text is without doubt corrupt. 

® We have adopted an emendation of Lagarde's. 


good for the cultivation of the land, but bad for murders ; 
and lust is not evil in respect of marriage, but bad in respect 
of adultery; as murder is an evil, but good for the murderer 
so far as his purpose is concerned; and cheating is an evil, but 
pleasant to the man who cheats ; and other things of a like 
character are good and bad in like manner. In this way, 
neither is evil evil, nor good good ; for the one produces the 
other. For does not that which seems to be done injuriously 
rejoice the doer, but punish the sufferer? And though it 
seems unjust that a man should, out of self-love, gratify him- 
self by every means in his power, to whom, on the other 
hand, does it not seem unjust that a man should suffer severe 
punishments at the hand of a just judge for having loved 

Chap. xix. — Some actions really imcked. 

And Peter said : ''A man ought to punish himself through 
self-restraint,^ when his lust wishes to hurry on to the injury 
of another, knowing [that"] the wicked one can destroy the 
wicked, for he has received power over them from the be- 
ginning. And not yet is this an evil to those who have done 
evil ; but that their souls should remain punished after the 
destruction, you are right in thinking to be really harsh, 
though the man who has been fore-ordained for evil should 
say that it is right." AVherefore, as I said, we ought to avoid 
doing injury* to another for the sake of a shortlived pleasure, 
that we may not involve ourselves in eternal punishment for 
the sake of a little pleasure." And Simon said : '' Is it the 
case, then, that there is nothing either bad or good by nature, 
but the difference arises through law and custom ? [For is 
it not^] the habit of the Persians to marry their own mothers, 
sisters, and daughters, while marriage with otlier women is 

^ Dressel translates viriliter^ "manfully." 
2 This word is supplied by conjecture. 

^ This passage is hopelessly corrupt. "We have changed liKxia; into 
iitKoiioig^ the verb, and tov 'Trpo^iapiaf^iuov into rov -Trpohiapiafiivov. 

* We have adopted Wicseler's emendation of c^iZtKou into cchiKslv. 

* This is a conjectural filling up of a blank. 


prohibited^ as most barbarous? Wherefore, if it is not 
settled what things are evil, it is not possible for all to look 
forward to the judgment of God." And Peter said : ^^ This 
cannot hold; for it is plain to all that cohabitation with 
mothers is abominable, even though the Persians, who are a 
mere fraction of the whole, should under the effects of a bad 
custom fail to see the iniquity of their abominable conduct. 
Thus also the Britons publicly cohabit in the sight of all, 
and are not ashamed ; and some men eat the flesh of others, 
and feel no disgust ; aad others eat the flesh of dogs ; and 
others practise other unmentionable deeds. Thus, then, we 
ought not to form our judgments with a perception which 
through habit has been perverted from its natural action. 
For to be murdered is an evil, even if all were to deny it ; 
for no one wishes to suffer it himself, and in the case of 
theft ^ no one rejoices at his own punishment. If, then, no 
one ^ were at all ever to confess that these are sins, it is right 
even then to look forward of necessity to a judgment in 
regard to sins." When Peter said this, Simon answered : 
" Does this, then, seem to you to be the truth in regard to 
the wicked one ? Tell me." 

Chap xx. — Pain and death the result of sin. 

And Peter said : " We remember that our Lord and 
Teacher, commanding us, said, ' Keep the mysteries for me 
and the sons of my house.' Wherefore also He explained 
to His disciples privately the mysteries of the kingdom of 
heaven.* But to you who do battle with us, and examine 
into nothing else but our statements, whether they be true or 
false, it would be impious to state the hidden [truths]. But 
that none of the bystanders may imagine that I am contriv- 
ing excuses,^ because I am unable to reply to the assertions 

1 This is partly conjecture, to fill up a blank. 

2 The text is likely corrupt. 

^ Uhlhorn changed ovu bog into ovleuog. We have changed kxI rpiTYi!^ 
into Kxl TOTS rviv. Various emendations have been proposed. 
^ Mark iv. 34. 

^ "We have adopted an emendation of Wieseler's. 



made by you, I shall answer you by first putting the ques- 
tion, If there had been a state of painlessness, what is the 
meaning of the statement, ^ The evil one was ? ' " And Simon 
said : "- The words have no meanino;." And Peter : " Is then 
evil the same as pain and death ?" And Simon : " It seems 
so." And Peter said: '•'• Evil, then, does not exist always, yea, 
it cannot even exist at all substantially ; for pain and death 
belong to the class of accidents, neither of which can co-exist 
with abiding strength. For what is pain but the interrup- 
tion of harmony ? And what is death but the separation of 
soul from body ? There is therefore no pain when there is 
harmony. For death does not even at all belong to those 
things which substantially exist : for death is nothing, as I 
said, but the separation of soul from body ; and when this 
takes place, the body, which is by nature incapable of sensa- 
tion, is dissolved ; but the soul, being capable of sensation, 
remains in life and exists substantially. Hence, when there 
is harmony there is no pain, no death, no, not even deadly 
plants nor poisonous reptiles, nor anything of such a nature 
that its end is death. And hence, where immortality reigns, 
all things will appear to have been made with reason. And 
this will be the case w^hen, on account of righteousness, man 
becomes immortal through the prevalence of the peaceful 
reign of Christ, when his composition will be so well arranged 
as not [to give rise^] to sharp impulses ; and his knowledge, 
moreover, will be unerring, so as that he shall not [mistake^] 
evil for good ; and he wdll suffer no pain, so that he will not 
be mortal." ^ 

Chap. xxi. — TJie uses oflustj anger, grief. 

And Simon said : " You were right in saying this ; but in 
the present world does not man seem to you to be capable 
of every kind of affection, — as, for instance, of lust, anger, 
grief, and the like ? " And Peter said : " Yes, these belong 
to the things that are accidental, not to those that always 

^ The words in brackets supplied by conjecture. 
^ This last sentence has two blanks, which are filled up by conjectures ; 
and one emendation has been adopted. 


exist, and it will be found that they now occur with advan- 
tage to the soul. For lust has, by the will of Him who created 
all things well, been made to arise within the living being, 
that, led by it to intercourse, he may increase humanity, from 
a selection of which a multitude of superior beings arise who 
are fit for eternal life. But if it w^ere not for lust, no one 
would trouble himself with intercourse with his wife; but 
now, for the sake of pleasure, and, as it were, gratifying him- 
self, man carries out His will. Now, if a man uses lust for 
lawful marriage, he does not act impiously ; but if he rushes 
to adultery, he acts impiously, and he is punished because 
he makes a bad use of a good ordinance. And in the same 
way, anger has been made by God to be lighted up naturally 
within us, in order that we may be induced by it to ward off 
injuries. Yet if any one indulges it without restraint, he 
acts unjustly; but if he uses it within due bounds, he does 
what is right. Moreover, we are capable of grief, that we 
may be moved with sympathy at the death of relatives, of a 
wife, or children, or brothers, or parents, or friends, or some 
others, since, if we were not capable of sympathy, we should 
be inhuman. In like manner, all the other affections will be 
found to be adapted for us, if at least the reason for their 
existence ■'■ be considered." 

Chap. xxii. — Sins of ignorance. 

And Simon : " Why is it, then, that some die prematurely, 
and periodical diseases arise ; and that there are, moreover, 
attacks of demons, and of madness, and all other kinds of 
afflictions which can greatly punish ? " And Peter said : 
^^ Because men, following their own pleasure in all things, 
cohabit without observing the proper times; and thus the 
deposition of seed, taking place unseasonably, naturally pro- 
duces a multitude of evils. For they ought to reflect, that 
as a season has been fixed suitable for planting and sowing,^ 
so days have been appointed as appropriate for cohabitation, 
which are carefully to be observed. Accordingly some one 

^ We have adopted an emendation of Lagarde's. 
2 Eccles. iii. 2. 


well instructed in the doctrines tauMit bv Moses, findlnf]^ 
fault with the people for their sins, called them sons of the 
new moons and the sabbaths.^ Yet in the beginning of the 
world men lived long, and had no diseases. But when through 
carelessness they neglected the observation of the proper 
times, then the sons in succession cohabiting through in;nor- 
ance at times when' they ought not, place their children 
under innumerable afflictions. "Whence our Teacher, when 
we inquired of Him^ in regard to the man who was blind 
from his birth, and recovered his sight, if this man sinned, 
or his parents, that he should be born blind, answered, 
' Neither did he sin at all, nor his parents, but that the power 
of God mi^ht be made manifest through him in healing the 
sins of ignorance.' * And, in truth, such afflictions arise be- 
cause of ignorance ; as, for instance, by not knowing when one 
ought to cohabit with his wife, as if she be pure from her 
discharge. Now the afflictions which you mentioned before 
are the result of ignorance, and not, assuredly, of any wicked- 
ness that has been perpetrated. Moreover, give me the man 
who sins not, and I will show you the man who suffers not ; 
and you will find that he not only does not suffer himself, 
but that he is able ^ to heal others. For instance, Moses, on 
account of his piety, continued free from suffering all his 
life, and by his prayers he healed the Egyptians when they 
suffered on account of their sins." 

Chap, xxiit. — The inequalities of lot in human life. 

And Simon said: " Let me grant that this is the case : does 
not the inequality of lot amongst men seem to you most 
unjust ? For one is in penury, another is rich ; one is sick, 
another is in good health : and there are innumerable differ- 
ences of a like character in human life." And Peter said : 
^' Do you not perceive, Simon, that you are again shooting 

^ Lit., " new moons that are according to the moon." Gal. iv. 10. 
^ " At times when " is supplied by conjectm-e. 
^ We have followed an emendation of Wieseler's. 

* John ix. 2, 3. 

* We have adopted an obvious emendation of Wieseler's. 


your observations beyond the mark ? For while we were dis- 
cussing evil, you have made a digression, and introduced the 
question of the anomalies that appear in this world. But I 
shall speak even to this point. The world is an instrument 
artistically contrived, that for the male who is to exist eter- 
nally, the female may bear eternal righteous sons. Now 
they could not have been rendered perfectly pious here, had 
there been no needy ones for them to help. In like manner 
there are the sick, that they may have objects for their care. 
And the other afflicaons admit of a like explanation." 
And Simon said : " Are not those in humble circumstances 
unfortunate ? for they are subjected to distress, that others 
may bo made righteous." And Peter said : " If their humi- 
liation were eternal, their misfortune would be very great. 
But the humiliations and exaltations of men take place 
according to lot ; and he who is not pleased with his lot can 
appeal,-"^ and by trying his case according to law, he can 
exchange his mode of life for another." And Simon said : 
*' What do you mean by this lot and this appeal?" And 
Peter said : " You are now demanding the exposition of 
another topic ; but if you permit me, we can show you how, 
being born again, and changing your origin, and living 
according to law, you will obtain eternal salvation." 

Chap. xxiv. — Simon rehuJced hy Faustus. 

And Simon hearing this, said : " Do not imagine that, 
wdien I, while questioning you, agreed with you in each 
topic, I went to the next, as being fully assured of the truth 
of the previous ; but I appeared to yield to your ignorance, 
that you might go on to the next topic, in order that, becom- 
ing acquainted with the whole range of your ignorance, I 
might condemn you, not through mere conjecture, but from 
full knowledge.^ Allow me now to retire for three days, 
and I shall come back and show that you know nothing." 
When Simon said this, and was on the point of going out, my 

^ An emendation of "\Yieseler's. 

^ The whole of this sentence is corrupt. "We have adopted the con- 
jectures of Wieseler, though they are not entirely satisfactory. 


father said : " Listen to me, Simon, for a moment, and then 
go wherever you like. I remember that in the beginning, 
before the discussion, you accused me of being prejudiced, 
though as yet you had had no experience of me. But now, 
having heard you discuss in turn, and judging that Peter 
has the advantao;e, and now assicrnin^ to him the merit of 
speaking the truth, do I appear to you to judge correctly, 
and with knowledge ;^ or is it not so ? For if you should 
say that I have judged correctly, but do not agree, then you 
are plainly prejudiced, inasmuch as you do not wish to agree, 
after confessing your defeat. But if I was not correct in 
maintainincr that Peter has the advantacre in the discussion, do 
you convince us how we have not judged correctly, or you 
will cease ^ to discuss with him before all, since you will 
always be defeated and agree, and in consequence your own 
soul will suffer pain, condemned as you will be, and in dis- 
grace, through your own conscience, even if you do not feel 
shame before all the listeners as the greatest torture ; for we 
have seen you conquered, in fact, and we have heard your 
own lips confess it. Finally, therefore, I am of opinion that 
you will not return to the discussion, as you promised ; but 
that you may seem not to have been defeated,^ you have pro- 
mised, when going away, that you will return.*' 

Chap. XXV. — Simon retires. Sopkonias asks Peter to state 
his real opinions in regard to evil. 

And Simon hearing this, gnashed his teeth for rage, and 
went away in silence. But Peter (for a considerable portion 
of the day still remained) laid his hands on the large multi- 
tude to heal them ; and having dismissed them, went into 
the house with his more intimate friends, and sat down. 
And one of his attendants, of the name of Sophonias, said : 

^ Possibly sometliiDg is corrupt here. The words may be translated : 
*' Is it not plain that I know how to judge correctly ?" 

^ The MS. has, " do not cease." TTe have omitted fi'/j, and changed 
'TTocvat] into Travail. "We have inserted the itci) after »7, changed into d 
before ulosla^oci. 

^ We have adopted an emendation of "Wieselcr's. 


" Blessed is God, O Peter, who selected jou and instructed^ 
you for the comfort of the good. For, in truth, you dis- 
cussed with Simon with dignity and great patience. But we 
beg of you to discourse to us of evil ; for we expect that you 
will state to us your own genuine belief in regard to it, — 
not, however, at the present moment, but to-morrow, if it 
seems good to you : for we spare you, because of the fatigue 
you feel on account of your discussion." And Peter said : 
" I wish you to knew, that he who does anything with 
pleasure, finds rest in the very toils themselves ; but he who 
does not do what he wishes, is rendered exceedingly weary 
by the very rest he takes. Wherefore you confer on me 
a great rest when you make me discourse on topics which 
please me." Content, then, with his disposition, and sparing 
him on account of his fatigue, we requested him to put the 
discussion off till the night, when it was his custom to dis- 
course to his genuine friends. And partaking of salt, we 
turned to sleep. 

^ An emendation of Wieseler's. 


Chap. i. — Peter is willing to gratify SopJionias, 

N the night-time Peter rose up and wakened us, 

1^ and then sat down in his usual way, and said : 
^^^i a ^si^ j^e questions about anything you like." 
And Sophonias was the first to begin to speak to 
him : '• Will you explain to us who are eager to learn what is 
the real truth in regard to evil ? " And Peter said : ^* I have 
already explained it in the course of my discussion with Simon; 
but because I stated the truth in regard to it in combination 
with other topics, it was not altogether clearly put ; for many 
topics that seem to be of equal weight with the truth afford 
some kind of knowledo;e of the truth to the masses. So that, 
if now I state what I formerly stated to Simon along with 
many topics, do not imagine that you are [not^] honoured with 
honour equal to his." And Sophonias said : '' You are right; 
for if you now separate it for us from many of the topics that 
were then discussed, you will make the truth more evident." 

Chap. ii. — The two ages. 

And Peter said : '' Listen, therefore, to the truth of the 
harmony in regard to the evil one. God appointed two king- 
doms, and established two ages, determining that the present 
world should be given to the evil one, because it is small, 
and passes quickly away ; but He promised to preserve for 
the £cood one the a^e to come, as it will be o;reat and eternal. 
Man, therefore. He created with free-will, and possessing 
the capability of inclining to whatever actions he wishes. 
And his body consists of three parts, deriving its origin from 
^ " Not " is supplied by conjecture. 


the female; for it has lust, anger, and grief, and what is con- 
sequent on these. But the spirit not being uniform,^ but 
consisting of three parts, derives its origin from the male ; 
and it is capable of reasoning, knowledge, and fear, and what 
is consequent on these. And each of these triads has one 
root, so that man is a compound of two mixtures, the female 
and the male. Wherefore also two ways have been laid be- 
fore him — those of obedience and disobedience to law ; and 
two kingdoms have been established, — the one called^ the 
kingdom of heaven, and the other the kingdom of those who 
are now kings upon earth. Also two kings have been 
appointed, of whom the one is selected to rule by law over 
the present and transitory world, and his composition is such 
that he rejoices in the destruction of the wicked. But the 
other and good ^ one, who is the King of the age to come, 
loves the whole nature of man ; but not being able to have 
boldness in the present world, he counsels what is advan- 
tageous, like one who tries to conceal who he really is. 

Chap. hi. — The work of the good one and of the evil one, 

^' But of these two, [the one'^] acts violently towards the 
other by the command of God. Moreover, each man has 
power to obey whichever of them he pleases for the doing of 
good or evil. But if any one chooses to do what is good, he 
becomes the possession of the future good king ; but if any 
one should do evil, he becomes the servant of the present evil 
one, who, having received power over him by just judgment 
on account of his sins, and wishing [to use it^] before the 
coming age, rejoices in punishing him in the present life, 
and thus by gratifying, as it were, his own private passion, 
he accomplishes the will of God. But the other, being made 
to rejoice in power over the righteous, when he finds a right- 

^ A doubtful emendation of "Wieseler's for the senseless rpiroyvAg. 
Possibly it may be for xpuroysus;, original, and is underived. 
2 An obvious correction of the MS. is adopted. 
2 We have changed uvrog into oiya^og. 
* "One" is supplied by Dressel's conjecture. 
^ The words in brackets are supplied by Dressel's conjecture. 


eous man, is exceedingly glad, and saves him with eternal 
life ; and he also, as if gratifying himself, traces the gratifica- 
tion which he feels on account of these to God. Now it is 
within the power of every unrighteous man to repent and be 
saved ; and every righteous man may have to undergo punish- 
ment for sins committed at the end of his career. Moreover, 
these two leaders are the swift hands of God, eager to anti- 
cipate Him so as to accomplish His will. But that this is so, 
has been said even by the law in the person of God : ^ I will 
kill, and I will make alive; I will strike, and I will heal.'^ 
For, in truth. He kills and makes alive. He kills through 
the left hand, that is, through the evil one, who has been so 
composed as to rejoice in afflicting the impious. And he 
saves and benefits through the right hand, that is, through 
the good one, who has been made to rejoice in the good deeds 
and salvation of the righteous. Now these have not their 
substances outside of God : for there is no other primal 
source. Nor, indeed, have they been sent forth as animals 
from God, for they were of the same mind with Him; nor 
are they accidental,^ arising spontaneously in opposition to 
His will, since thus the greatest exercise of His power would 
have been destroyed. But from God have been sent forth 
the four first elements — heat and cold, moist and dry. In 
consequence of this. He is the father of every substance, but 
not of the disposition ^ which may arise from the combina- 
tion of the elements ; for when these were combined from 
without, disposition was begotten in them as a child. The 
wricked one, then, having serv^ed God blamelessly to the end 
of the present world, can become good by a change in his 
composition,'* since he assuredly is not of one uniform sub- 
stance whose sole bent is towards sin. For not even more 
does he do evil, although he is evil, since he has received 
power to afflict lawfully." 

^ Deut. xxxii. 39. 

- We have adopted an obvious emendation of TViescler's. 
^ We have changed ova-rt; into ov zvjt;. 

■* "We have given a meaning to /xsruavyKpide!; not found in diction- 
aries, but waiTantcd by etymology, and demanded by the sense. 


Chap. iv. — Men sin through ignorance. 

When Peter said this, Micah, who was himself one of his 
followers, asked : '' What, then, is the reason why men 
sin ? " And Peter said : " It is because they are ignorant 
that they will without doubt be punished for their evil deeds 
when judgment takes place.^ For this reason they, having 
lust, as I elsewhere said, for the continuance of life, gratify 
it in any accidental way, it may be by the vitiation of boys,^ 
or by some other flattcxing sin. For in consequence of their 
ignorance, as I said before, they are urged on through fear- 
lessness to satisfy their lust in an unlawful manner. Where- 
fore God is not evil, who has rightly placed lust within man, 
that there may be a continuance of life, but they are most 
impious who have used the good of lust badly. The same 
considerations apply to anger also, that if one uses it right- 
eously, as is within his power, he is pious ; but going be- 
yond measure, and taking judgment to himself,'^ he is im- 

Chap. v. — Sophonias maintains that God cannot loroduce 
what is unlike Himself, 

And Sophonias said again : " Your great patience, my 
lord Peter, gives us boldness to ask you many questions 
for the sake of accuracy. Wherefore we make our inquiries 
with confidence in every direction. I remember, then, that 
Simon said yesterday, in his discussion with you, that the 
evil one, if he was born of God, possesses in consequence 
the same substance as He does who sent him forth, and he 
ought to have been good, and not wicked. But you answered 
that this was not always the case, since many wicked sons 
are born of good parents, as from Adam two unlike^ sons 

^ Part of this is supplied by Dressel's conjecture. 

2 There is a lacuna, which has been filled up in various ways. TVe 
have supposed ^^ to be for ^j ^., possibly f^^rtpuu »j. Wieseler supposes 
*' immature boys." 

3 Dressel translates, " drawing judgment on himself." 
"* An emendation of Wieseler's. 


were begotten, one of whom was bad and the other good. 
And when Simon found fault with you for having used 
human examples, you answered that in this way we ought 
not to admit that God begets at all ; for this also is a human 
example. And I, Sophonias, admit that God begets ; but I 
do not allow that He begets what is bad, even though the 
good among men beget bad children. And do not imagine^ 
that I am without reason attributing to God some of the 
qualities that distinguish men, and refusing to attribute 
others, when I grant that He begets, but do not allow that 
He begets what is unlike Himself. For men, as you might 
expect, beget sons who are unlike them in their dispositions 
for the following reason. Being composed of four parts, 
they change their bodies variously, according to the various 
changes of the year ; and thus, the appropriate change either 
of increase or decrease taking place in the human body, 
each season destroys the harmonious combination. Now, 
when the combinations do not always remain exactly in the 
same position, the seeds, having sometimes one combination, 
sometimes another, are sent off ; and these are followed, 
according to the combination belonging to the season, by 
dispositions either good or bad. But in the case of God we 
cannot suppose any such thing ; for, being unchangeable and 
always existing, whenever He wishes to send forth, there is 
an absolute necessity that what is sent forth should be in all 
respects in the same position as that which has begotten, I 
mean in regard to substance and disposition. But if any 
one should wish to maintain that He is changeable, I do not 
know how it is possible for him to maintain that He is im- 

Chap. yi. — GocPs power of changing Himself. 

When Peter heard this, he thought for a little, and said ; 
'•^ I do not think that any one can converse about evil with- 
out doing the will of the evil one. Therefore knowing this, 
I do not know what I shall do, whether I shall be silent or 
speak. For if I be silent, I should incur the laughter of the 
^ An emendation of "Wieselcr's. 


multitude, because, professing to proclaim the truth, I am 
ignorant of the explanation of vice. But if I should state 
my opinion, I am afraid lest it be not at all pleasing to God 
that we should seek after evil, for only seeking after good is 
pleasing to Him. However, in my reply to the statements 
of Sophonias, I shall make my ideas more plain. I then 
aojree wdth him in thinkino; that we ou^ht not to attribute 
to God all the qualities of men. For instance, men not 
having bodies that are convertible are not converted ; but 
they have a nature that admits of alteration by the lapse of 
time through the seasons of the year. But this is not the 
case with God; for through His inborn^ Spirit He becomes, 
by a power which cannot be described, whatever body He 
likes. And one can the more easily believe this, as the air, 
which has received such a nature from Him, is converted 
into dew by the incorporeal mind permeating it, and being 
thickened becomes water, and water being compacted becomes 
stone and earth, and stones through collision light up fire. 
According to such^ a change and conversion, air becomes first 
water, and ends in being fire through conversions, and the 
moist is converted into its natural opposite. Why? Did not 
God convert the rod of Moses into an animal, making it a 
serpent,^ which He reconverted into a rod % And by means 
of this very converted rod he converted the water of the 
Nile* into blood, which again he reconverted into water. 
Yea, even man, who is dust. He changed by the inbreathing^ 
of His breath ^ into flesh, and changed him back again into 
dust.^ And was not Moses, '^ who himself was flesh, con- 
verted into the grandest light, so that the sons of Israel 
could not look him in the face ? Much more, then, is God 
completely able to convert Himself into whatsoever He 

^ £fi(pvTov. 2 ■\Y'(3 have changed toiovtou into roixCryju, 

3 Ex. iv. 3, 4. 4 Ex. vii. 19, 20. ^ Gen. ii. 7. 

6 Eccles. iii. 20. ^ Ex. xxxiv. 29. 


Chap. yii. — TJie objection answered^ that one cannot change 


" But perhaps some one of you thinks that one may become 
something under tlie influence of one, and another under the 
influence of another, but no one can change himself into 
whatever he wishes, and that it is the characteristic of one 
who grows old, and who must die according to his nature,^ 
to change, but we ought not to entertain such thoughts of 
immortal beings. For were not angels, who are free from 
old age, and of a fiery substance,^ changed into flesh, — those, 
for instance, who received the hospitality of Abraham,^ whose 
feet men w^ashed, as if they were the feet of men of like 
substance?^ Yea, moreover, with Jacob,^ who was a man, 
there wrestled an angel, converted into flesh that he might 
be able to come to close quarters with him. And, in like 
manner, after he had wrestled by his own will, he was con- 
verted into his own natural form ; and now, when he was 
changed into fire, he did not burn up the broad sinew of 
Jacob, but he inflamed it, and made him lame. Now, that 
which cannot become anything else, wdiatever it may wish, 
is mortal, inasmuch as it is subject to its own nature ; but 
he who can become whatever he wishes, whenever he wishes, 
is immortal, returning to a new condition, inasmuch as he 
has control over his own nature. Wherefore much more 
does the power of God change the substance of the body 
into whatever He wishes, and whenever He wishes ; and by 
the change that takes place ^ He sends forth what, on the one 
hand, is of similar substance, but, on the other, is not of 
equal power. Whatever, then, he who sends forth turns 
into a different substance, that he can again turn back into 
his own ; ^ but he who is sent forth, arising in consequence 

^ One word of tHs is supplied conjecturally by Dressel. 
- Gen. vi. 2. ^ Part of this is conjectural. 

^ Gen. xviii. 4. ^ Gen. xxxii. 24. 

^ AYc have adopted "Wieseler's emendation of ^wij into yAv. 
"^ This passage is corrupt. We have changed on into o^n, and sup- 
plied rpiTTU. 


of the change which proceeds from him, and being his child, 
cannot become anything else without the will of him who 
sent him forth, unless he wills it." 

Chap. viii. — The origin of the good one different from 
that of the evil one. 

When Peter said this, Micah,-^ who was himself also one 
of the companions that attended on him, said: "I also should 
like to learn from you if the good one has been produced in 
the same way that the evil one came into being. But if 
they came into being in a similar manner, then they are 
brothers in my opinion." And Peter said : " They have 
not come into being in a similar way: for no doubt you 
remember what I said in the beginning, that the substance 
of the body of the wicked one, being fourfold in origin, was 
carefully selected and sent forth by God ; but when it w^as 
combined externally, according to the will of Him who sent 
it forth, there arose, in consequence of the combination, the 
disposition which rejoices in evils : ^ so that you may see that 
the substance, fourfold in origin, which was sent forth by Him, 
and which also always exists, is the child of God ; but that 
the accidentally arising disposition which rejoices in evils has 
supervened when the substance^ was combined externally by 
him. And thus this disposition has not been begotten by God, 
nor by any one else, nor indeed has it been sent forth by 
Him, nor has it come forth spontaneously,^ nor did it always 
exist, like the substance before the combination ; but it has 
come on as an accident by external combination, according to 
the will of God. And we have often said that it must be 
so. But the good one having been begotten from the most 
beautiful change of God, and not having arisen accidentally 
through an external combination, is really His Son. Yet, 

^ Dressel remarks that this cannot be the true reading. Some other 
name mentioned in Hom. ii. c. 1 must be substituted here or in c. 4. 

2 This passage is corrupt. "\Ye have adopted Wieseler's emendations 
for the most part. 

2 "We have read r^g- with "Wieseler for rig. 

* Wieseler translates "accidentally." 


since these doctrines are unwritten, and are confirmed to us 
only by conjecture, let us by no means deem it as absolutely 
certain that this is the true state of the case. For if we 
act otherwise, our mind will cease from investigating the 
truth, in the belief that it has already fully comprehended 
it. Remember these things, therefore ; for I must not state 
such things to all, but only to those who are found after 
trial most trustworthy. Nor ought we rashly to maintain 
such assertions towards each other, nor ought ye to dare to 
speak as if you were accurately acquainted with the discovery 
of secret truths, but you ought simply to reflect over them 
in silence ; for in stating, perchance, that a matter is so,^ he 
who says it w'ill err, and he will suffer punishment for having 
dared to speak even to himself what has been honoured with 

Chap. ix. — Why the wicked one is appointed over the wicked 
hy the righteous God, 

When Peter said this, Lazarus, who also was one of his 
follow^ers, said : " Explain to us the harmony, how it can be 
reasonable that the wicked one should be appointed by the 
righteous God to be the punisher of the impious, and yet 
should himself afterwards be sent into lower darkness alonfj 
with his angels and with sinners : for I remember that the 
Teacher Himself said this." ^ And Peter said : " I indeed 
allow that the evil one does no evil, inasmuch as he is accom- 
plishing the law given to him. And although he has an 
evil disposition, yet through fear of God be does nothing 
unjustly ; but, accusing the teachers of truth so as to entrap 
the unwary, he is himself named the accuser (the devil). 
But the statement of our unerring Teacher, that he and his 
angels, along with the deluded sinners, shall go into lower 
darkness, admits of the following explanation. The evil 
one, having obtained the lot ^ of rejoicing in darkness accord- 
ing to his composition, delights to go down to the darkness 
of Tartarus alono: with ani^els who are his fellow-slaves ; for 

^ We have changed ov-/, ug 'ix^y into oZra; 'iyjiv. ^ Matt. xxv. 41. 
^ We have adopted an emendation of Wiescler's. 


darkness is dear to fire. Bat the souls of men, being drops 
of pure lightj are absorbed by the substance fire, which is 
of a different class ; and not possessing a nature capable of 
dying, they are punished according to their deserts. But if 
he who is the leader of men ^ into vice is not sent into dark- 
ness, as not rejoicing in it, then his composition, which re- 
joices in evils, cannot be changed by another combination 
into the disposition for good. And thus he will be adjudged 
to be with the good,^ all the more because, having obtained a 
composition which rejoices in evils, through fear of God he 
has done nothing contrary to the decrees of the law of God. 
And did not the Scripture by a mysterious hint ^ point out 
by the statement^ that the rod of the high priest Aaron be- 
came a serpent, and was again converted into a rod, that a 
change in the composition of the wicked one would after- 
wards take place ? " 

Chap. x. — Why some believe, and others do not. 

And after Lazarus, Joseph, wdio also was one of his fol- 
lowers, said : " You have spoken all things rightly. Teach 
me also this, as I am eager to know it, why, when you give 
the same discourses to all, some believe and others disbelieve ? " 
And Peter said : " It is because my discourses are not charms, 
so that every one that hears them must without hesitation 
believe them. The fact that some believe, and others do not, 
points out to the intelligent the freedom of the will." And 
when he said this, we all blessed him. 

Chap. xi. — Arrival of Appion and Annuhion, 

And as we were going to take our meals, some one ran in 
and said : " Appion Pleistonices has just come with Annubion 
from Antioch, and he is lodging with Simon." And my 
father hearing this, and rejoicing, said to Peter : " If you 
permit me, I shall go to salute Appion and Annubion, who 

^ AYieseler's emendation. 

2 We have changed dyccdog into dyu&olg, 

^ An emendation of Wieseler's. 

4 Ex. vii. 9. 



have been my friends from cliildhood. For perchance 
I shall persuade Aunubion to discuss genesis with Clement." 
And Peter said : " I permit you, and I praise you for ful- 
filling the duties of a friend. But now consider how in the 
providence of God there come together from all quarters 
considerations which contribute to your full assurance, ren- 
dering the harmony complete. But I say this because the 
arrival of Annubion happens advantageously for you." And 
my father : " In truth, I see that this is the case." And say- 
ing this, he went to Simon. 

Chap. xii. — Faustus aiopears to his friends luith the face of 


Xow all of us who were with Peter asked each other ques- 
tions the whole of the night, and continued awake, because 
of the pleasure and joy we derived from what was said. But 
when at length the dawn began to break, Peter, looking at 
me and my brothers, said : " I am puzzled to think what 
your father has been about." And just as he was saying 
this, our father came in and caught Peter talking to us of 
him ; and seeing him displeased, he accosted him, and ren- 
dered an apology for having slept outside. But we were 
amazed when we looked at him : for we saw the form of 
Simon, but heard the voice of our father Faustus. And 
when we were fleeing from him, and abhorring him, our 
father was astonished at receivino; such harsh and hostile 
treatment from us. But Peter alone saw his natural shape, 
and said to us : " Why do you in horror turn away from 
your own father?" But we and our mother said: "It is 
Simon that we see before us, with the voice of our father." 
And Peter said : " You recognise only his voice, which is 
unaffected by magic ; but as my eyes also are unaffected by 
magic, I can see his form as it really is, that he is not 
Simon, but your father Faustus." Then, looking to my 
father, he said : " It is not your own true form that is seen 
by them, but that of Simon, our deadliest foe, and a most 
impious man." ^ 

^ There are some blanks here, supplied from the Epitome. 


Chap. xiii. — The flight of Simon. 

While Peter was thus talking, there entered one of those 
who had gone before to Antioch, and who, commg back 
from Antiochj said to Peter : '^ I wish you to know, my lord, 
that Simon, by doing many miracles publicly in Antioch, and 
calling you a magician and a juggler [and a murderer^], has 
worked them up to such hatred against you, that every man 
is eager to taste your very flesh if you should sojourn there.^ 
Wherefore we who wont before, along with our brethren 
who were in pretence attached by you to Simon, seeing the 
city raging wildly against you, met secretly and considered 
what we ought to do. And assuredly, while we were in 
great perplexity, Cornelius the centurion arrived, who had 
been sent by the emperor to the governor of the province. 
He was the person whom our Lord cured when he was 
possessed of a demon in Csesarea. This man we sent for 
secretly ; and informing him of the cause of our despond- 
ency, we begged his help. He promised most readily that 
he would alarm Simon, and make him take to flight, if we 
should assist him in his effort. And when we all promised 
that we should readily do everything, he said, ' I. shall spread 
abroad the news ^ through many friends that I have secretly 
come to apprehend him ; and I shall pretend that I am in 
search of him, because the emperor, having put to death 
many magicians, and having received information in regard 
to him, has sent me to search him out, that he may punish 
him as he punished the magicians before him; while those of 
your party who are with him must report to him, as if they 
had heard it from a secret source, that I have been sent to 
apprehend him. And perchance when he hears it from 

^ Supplied from Epitome. The passage in Epitome Second renders it 
likely that the sentence ran : "But Simon, while doing many miracles 
publicly in Antioch, did nothing else by his discourses than excite hatred 
amongst them against you, and by calling you," etc. 

2 This j)assage is amended principally according to Wieseler and the 

^ An emendation of "Wieseler's. 


tliem, he will be alarmed and take to flight.' When, there- 
fore, we had intended to do something else, nevertheless the 
affair turned out in the following way. For when he heard 
the news from many strangers who gratified him greatly by 
secretly informing him, and also from our brethren who pre- 
tended to be attached to him, and took it as the opinion of 
his own followers, he resolved on retirin^j. And hasteninfr 
away from Antioch, he has come here with Athenodorus, as 
we have heard. Wherefore we advise you not yet to enter 
that city, until we ascertain whether they can forget in his 
absence the accusations which he brought aojainst vou." 

O CD >J 

Chap. xiy. — The change in the form of Faustus caused 

by Simon, 

When the person who had gone before gave this report, 
Peter looked to my father, and said : '• You hear, Faustus ; 
the change in your form has been caused by Simon the 
magician, as is now evident. For, thinking that [a servant^] 
of the emperor was seeking him to punish him, he became 
afraid and fled, putting you into his own shape, that if you 
were put to death, your children might have sorrow." W^hen 
my father heard this, he wept and lamented, and said : 
*' You have conjectured rightly, Peter. For Annubion, who 
is my dear friend,^ hinted his design to me ; but I did not 
believe him, [miserable man that I am,^] since I deserved to 

Chap. xv. — The repentance of Faustus, 

When my father said this, after no long time [Annubion 
came^] to us to announce to us the flight of Simon, and how 
that very night he had hurried to Judea. And he found 
our father wailing, and with lamentations saying : " Alas, 
alas ! unhappy man ! I did not believe when I was told that 
he was a mao;ician. Miserable man that 1 am ! I have been 

^ Inserted by conjecture. 

2 Part of this is supplied from the Recognitions. 

"' Inserted from the Recognitions. 

* These words are taken from the Recognitions, 


recognised for one day by my wife and children, and have 
speedily gone back to my previous sad condition when I was 
still ignorant." And my mother lamenting, plucked her hair; 
and we groaned in distress on account of the transformation 
of our father, and could not comprehend what in tlie world 
it could be. But Annubion stood speechless, seeing and 
hearing these things ; while Peter said to us, his children, in 
the presence of all: ^'Believe me, this is Faustus your father. 
Wherefore I urge you to attend to him as being your father. 
For God will vouchsafe some occasion for his putting off 
the shape of Simon, and exhibiting again distinctly that of 
your father." And saying this, and looking to my father, 
he said : '• I permitted you to salute Appion and Annubion, 
since you asserted that they were your friends from child- 
hood, but I did not permit you to associate with the magician 

Chap. xvi. — Why Simon gave to Faustus Ids own 


And my father said : '' I have sinned ; I confess it." And 
Annubion said : '' I also along with him beg you to forgive 
the noble and good old man who has been deceived : for the 
unfortunate man has been the sport of that notorious fellow. 
But I shall tell you how it took place.-^ The good old man 
came to salute us. But at that very hour we who were there 
happened to be listening to Simon, who wished to run away 
that night, for he had heard that some people had come to 
Laodicea in search of him by the command of the emperor. 
But as Faustus was entering, he [turned "] his own rage on 
him, and thus addressed us : ^ Make him, when he comes, 
share your meals ; and I will prepare an ointment, so that, 
when he has supped, he may take some of it, and anoint 
his face with it, and then he will appear to all to have my 
shape. But I will anoint 3^ou with the juice '^ of some plant, 

"^ An emendation of Dressel's. 

2 Supplied by Dressel from the Ilecognitions. 

^ An emendation of TVieseler's. 


and then vou "will not be deceived by his new-^ shape ; but to 
all others Faustus will seem to be Simon.' 

Chap. xvii. — Annuhions services to Faustus. 

*' And while he stated this beforehand, I said, ^ What, 
then, is the advantage you now expect to get from such a 
contrivance ? ' And Simon said, ' First, those who seek me, 
when they apprehend him, will give up the search after me. 
But if he be executed by the hand of the emperor, very 
great sorrow will fall upon his children, who left me, and 
fleeing [to Peter], now aid him in his work.' And now, Peter, 
I confess the truth to you : I was prevented by fear [of 
Simon] from informing [Fau]stus of this. But Simon did 
not even give us an opportunity for private conversation, 
[lest] some one of us might reveal ^ to him the wicked design 
of Simon. Simon then rose up in the middle of the night 
and fled to Judea, convoyed by Appion and Athenodorus. 
Then I pretended that I was sick, in order that, remaining 
after they had gone, I might make Faustus go back imme- 
diately to his own people, if by any chance he might be able, 
by being concealed with you, to escape observation, lest, being 
caught as Simon by those who were in search of Simon, he 
might be put to death through the wrath of the emperor. 
At the dead of night, therefore, I sent him away to you ; 
and in my anxiety for him I came by night to see him, with 
the intention of returning before those who convoyed Simon 
should return." And looking to us, he said : " I, Annubion, 
see the true shape of your father ; for I was anointed, as I 
related to you before, by Simon himself, that the true shape 
of Faustus might be seen by my eyes. Astonished, there- 
fore, I exceedingly wonder at the magic power of Simon, in 
that standing ^ you do not recognise your own father." And 

^ MS. reads " empty." ^icseler proposed " new " or " assumed." 

2 An emendation of Wieseler's. The parts within brackets are sup- 
plied by conjecture. 

3 TYe should have expected " standing near" or something similar, as 
Wieseler remarks ; but the Latin of the Recognitions agrees with tho 
Greek in having the simple " standing." 


while our father and our mother and we ourselves wept on 
account of the calamity common to all of us, Annubion also 
through sympathy wept with us. 

Chap, xviii. — Peter promises to restore to Faustus Ids own 


Then Peter promised to us to restore the shape of our 
father, and he said to him : '•^ Faustus, you heard how 
matters stand with us. When, therefore, the deceptive 
shape which invests y)u has been useful to us, and you have 
assisted us in doing what I shall tell you to do, then I shall 
restore to you your true form, when you have first performed 
my commands." And when my father said, " I shall do 
everything that is in my power most willingly ; only restore 
to my own people my own form ; " Peter answered, " You 
yourself heard with your own ears how those who went before 
me came back from Antioch, and said that Simon had been 
there, and had strongly excited the multitudes against me by 
calling me a magician and a murderer, a deceiver and a 
juggler, to such an extent that all the people there were 
eager to taste my flesh. You will do, then, as I tell you. You 
will leave Clement with me, and you will go before us into 
Antioch with your wife, and your sons Faustinus and Faus- 
tinianus. And some others will accompany you whom I 
deem capable of helping forward my design. 

Chap. xix. — Peter^s instructions to Faustus, 

" When [you are] with these in Antioch, while you look 
like Simon, proclaim publicly your [repentance], saying, ^ I 
Simon proclaim this to you : I confess ^ that all my state- 
ments in regard to Peter are [utterly false ;^ for he is not] a 
deceiver, nor a murderer, nor a juggler ; nor are any of the 
evil things true which I, urged on by wrath, said previously 
in regard to him, I myself therefore beg of you, I who have 
been the cause of your hatred to him, cease from hating him ; 
for he is the true apostle of the true Prophet that was sent 

^ Amended according to Epitome. 

2 Partly filled up from Epitome and Recognitions. 


by God for the salvation of the world. T^rherefore also I 
counsel you to believe what he preaches ; -^ for if you do not, 
your whole city will be utterly destroyed. Now I wish you 
to know for what reason I have made this confession to you. 
This night angels of God scourged me, the impious one, 
terribly, as being an enemy to the herald of the truth. I 
beseech you, therefore, do not listen to me, even if I myself 
should come at another time and attempt to say anything 
against Peter. For I confess to you I am a magician, I am 
a deceiver, I am a juggler. Yet perhaps it is possible for 
me by repentance to wipe out the sins which were formerly 
committed by me.' " 

Chap. xx. — Faiistusj Ms u'ifej and sons, prepare to go to 


When Peter suggested this, my father said : ^' I know 
what you want ; wherefore take no trouble. For assuredly 
I shall take good care, when I reach that place, to make such 
statements in reo;ard to vou as I ouo;ht to make." And 
Peter again suggested : " When, then, you perceive the city 
chancrino; from its hatred of me, and loncrino^ to see me, send 
information to me of this, and I shall come to you imme- 
diately. And when I arrive there, that same day I shall 
remove the strange shape which now invests you, and I shall 
make your own unmistakeably visible to your own people 
and to all others." Saying this, he made his sons, my bro- 
thers, and our mother Mattidia to go along with him ; and 
he also commanded some of his more intimate acquaintances 
to accompany him. But my mother was"" unwilling to go 
vv'ith him, and said : '• I seem to be an adulteress if I asso- 
ciate with the shape of Simon ; but if I shall be compelled 
to go along with him, it is impossible for me to recline 
on the same couch with him.^ But I do not know if I 

^ MS. reads, " I preach." 

2 "We have changed iXta into Ci-Kz^ and added xal nin. according to the 

^ One word, Ti/pc^J?» is superfluous. 


shall be persuaded to go along with him." And while she 
was very unwilling to go, Annubion urged her, saying : 
^' Believe me and Peter, and the very voice itself, that this 
is [Faustus] your husband, whom I love not less than you. 
And I myself [will go^] along with him." When Annubion 
said this, our mother promised to go with him. 

Chap. xxi. — Appion and Atlienodorus return in quest of 


But Peter said : " God arranges our affairs in a most 
satisfactory manner;" for we have with us Annubion the 
[astro] loger.'" For when w^e arriv^e at Antioch, he will in 
future discourse regarding genesis, giving us his genuine 
opinions as a friend." Now when, after midnight, our father 
hurried with those whom Peter had ordered to go along 
with him and with Annubion to Antioch, which was near, 
early next day, before Peter went forth to discourse, Appion 
and Atlienodorus, who had convoyed Simon, returned to 
Laodicea in search of our father. But Peter, ascertaining 
the fact, urged them to enter. And wdien they came in and 
sat down, and said, " Where is Faustus % " Peter answered : 
^' We know not ; for since the evening, when he went to 
you, he has not been seen by his kinsmen. But yesterday 
morninrj Simon came in search of him ; and when we made 
no reply to him, something seemed to come over him,^ for he 
called himself Faustus ; but not being believed, he wept and 
lamented, and threatened to kill himself, and then rushed out 
in the direction of the sea." 

Chap. xxii. — AppAon and Atlienodorus return to 


When Appion and those who were with him heard this, 
they howled and lamented, saying : " Why did you not 

^ Supplied from tlie Recognitions. 

2 We read iTrn'/ilnorccroc^ in harmony with the Recognitions. 
^ Part within brackets supplied from Recognitions. 
^ The Greek is probably corrupt here 5 but there can scarcely be a doubt 
about the meaning. 


receive him ? " And when at the same time Athenodorus 
wished to say to me, "It was Faustus, your father ; " Appion 
anticipated him, and said, " We learned from some one that 
Simon, finding him, urged him [to go along with him^], 
Faustus himself entreating him, since he did not wish to see 
his sons after they had become Jews. And hearing this, we 
came, for his own sake, in search of him. But since he is 
not here, it is plain that he spake the truth who gave us the 
information which w^e, hearing it from him, have given to 
you." And I Clement, perceiving the design of Peter, that 
he wished to beget a suspicion in them that he intended to 
look out among them for the old man, that they might be 
afraid and take to flight, assisted in his design, and said to 
Appion : " Listen to me, my dearest Appion. We were 
eager to give to him, as being our father, what we ourselves 
deemed to be good. But if he himself did not wish to 
receive it, but, on the contrary, fled from us in horror, I 
shall make a somewhat harsh remark, ' Nor do we care for 
him.' " And when I said this, they went away, as if irri- 
tated by my savageness ; and, as we learned next day, they 
went to Judea in the track of Simon. 

Chap, xxiii. — Peter goes to Antiocli, 

Now, when ten days had passed away, [there came one of 
our people ^ from our father to announce to us how our father 
[stood forward] publicly [in the] shape [of Simon], accusing 
him ; ^ and how by praising Peter he had made the whole 
city of Antioch long for him : and in consequence of this, all 
said that they were eager to see him, and that there were 
some who were angry with him as being Simon, on account 
of their surpassing affection for Peter, and wished to lay 
hands on Faustus, believing he was Simon. Wherefore he, 
fearing that he might be put to death, had sent to request 
Peter to come immediately if he wished to meet him alive, 

1 This is supplied purely by conjecture. 

2 Supplied from the Recognitions. 

2 This part is restored by means of the Recognitions. 


and to appear at the proper time to the city, when it was at 
the height of its longing for him. Peter, hearing this, called 
the multitude together to deliberate, and appointed one of 
his attendants bishop ; and having remained three days in 
Laodicea baptizing and healing, he hastened to the neigh- 
bouring city of Antioch. Amen. 



i. 1, . 
i. 26, . 
ii. 7, . 
ii. 16, 17, 
ii. 20, . 
iii. 5, . 
iii. 22, . 
vi. 2, . 
vi. 6, . 
vii. 1, . 
viii. 21, 
XV. 13-lG, 
xviii. 4, 
xviii. 21, 
XX. 3, . 
xxii. 1, 
xxxii. 24, 
xli. 6, . 
xli. 25, 
xlix. 10, 



















iv. 3, 4, 
vii. 9, . 
vii. 19, 20, 
xix. 9, . 
xxii. 28, 
xxxiii. 11, 
xxxiv. 29, 

. 317 
. 321 
. 317 
246, 248 
. 271 
. 317 

xi. 34, . 
xii. 6, . 



iv. 34, 
iv. 39, 
vi. 4, 
vi. 13, 
X. 14, 
X. 17, 

. 246 

. 247 
. 247 
. 247 
. 247 
246, 247 bis 

xiii. 1, etc., 
xiii. 6, . 
xviii. 15-19, 
XXX. 15, 
xxxii. 7, 
xxxii. 39, 
xxxiv. 8, 






xxiii. 7, . 247, 248 

xix. 1, . 
XXXV. 10, 

xlv. 11, 
1. 1, . 
Ixxii. 1, 
Ixxviii. 2, 
Ixxxvi. 8, 
cii. 26, 27, 

viii. 30, 

iii. 1, . 
iii. 2, . 
iii. 20, . 


i. 3, ". 


ix. 6, . 
xl. 26, 27, 
xliv. 6, 
xlv. 21, 
xlix. 18, 







X. 11, . . 246, 248 

iii. 38, . . . 276 


ii. 31, . . . 270 
iii. 25, . . . 270 


iv. 10, . 
V. 3, . 
V. 8, . 
V. 17, . 
V. 18, . 
V. 34, 35, 
V. 37, . 
V. 39-41, 
V. 44, . 
V. 44, 45, 
vi. 6, , 
vi. 8, 32, 
vi. 13, . 
vii. 2, . 
vii. 7, . 
vii. 9-11, 
vii. 12, 
vii. 13, 14, 
vii. 21, 

viii. 11, 
viii. 24, 
viii. 31, 
ix. 13, . 

X. 12, . 
X. 28, . 
X. 34, . 
xi. 25, . 
xi. 27, . 
xi. 28, . 
xii. 7, . 
xii. 26, 
xii. 34, 
xii. 42, 
xiii. 17, 
xiii. 39, 
XV. 13, . 

2, 19 
81, 291 
139, 260, 284 
259, 276 
81, 291 
. SO 



xvi. 13, 
xvi. 16, 
xvi. 18, 
xvii. 5, 
xvii, 19, 
xviii. 7, 
xviii. 10, 
xix. 8, . 
xix. 17, 


XX. 16, . 
xxii. , . 
xxii. 2, 
xxii. 29, 
xxii. 32, 
xxii. 39, 
xxiii. 2, 
xxiii. 37, 
xxiv. 2, 34, 
xxiv. 24, 
xxiv. 45-50, 
XXV. 27-30, 
XXV. 35, 36, 
XXV. 41, 
xxvii. 51, 




259, 274, 

276, 286 




56, 79 










291, 320 

. 300 

xxviii. 19, 


i. 13, . 
iii. 31, . 
iv. 34, . 
vi. 11, . 
X. 5, 
X. 18, . 
xii. 24, . 
xii. 27,. 
xii. 29, . 


viii. 18, 
X. 5, 
X. 18, . 
xi. 32, . 
xi. 52, . 
xii. 42,. 
xiii. 29, 
xiii. 34, 
xvii. , . 
xviii. 6, 
xviii. IS, 

. 261 

. 291 

. 305 
. 70 
. 81 

. 82 

5Q, 287 

. 81 

. 82 












xviii. 19, . 82, 276 

xix. 6, . . .84 

xix. 43, . . 63 

XX. 38, . . . 81 

xxiii. 34, . 65, 183 


iii. 5, . . . 186 

ix. 2, 3, . . 308 

X. 3, . . .80 

X. 9, . . .80 


iii. 22, . . . 80 

vii. 37, . . 80 


iv. 10, . . . 309 


iv. 27, . . . 291 


V. 12, . . . 29 


Abel, his name and nature, 08. 

Actions, wicked, to be avoided, 304. 

Adam, liad lie the Spirit ? C3 ; was 
not ignorant, G4. 

Adultery, the evils of, 98, 99 ; advo- 
cated by some philosophers, 109, 

Adultery, spiritual, 69. 

Afflictions, the, of the righteous, 
suffered for the remission of sins, 

Ages, the two, 312. 

Allegory, the bad actions ascribed 
to the gods attempted to be ex- 
plained by, 100, 121 ; the inventors 
of these stories of the gods blame- 
worthy, 124. 

Amours, the, of Jupiter, 106, 107. 

Angels, the metamorphoses of, 142; 
the fall of, and its cause, 143 ; 
discoveries made by, 143 ; the 
giant offspring of, 144 ; demons 
sprung from the fallen, 145. 

Antaradus, 192. 

Annubion, 92, 321, 326. 

Appion, meets and salutes Clement, 
92 ; discussion with Clement, 93, 
etc. ; previous acquaintance of 
Clement with, and trick played 
on, 101, 102, etc. ; second discus- 
sion ^^-ith Clement, 115, etc. ; and 
Annubion, 321, 326 ; in quest of 
Faustus, and return to Peter, 329. 

Aquila, declares the doctrine of 
Simon Magus to Clement, 41, etc.; 
and Nicetas deceived by Simon 
Magus, but finding out his true 
character, forsake him, 41, 44 ; 
sent with Xicetas and Clement 
to observe and report concerning 
Simon, 89, 90 ; and Xicetas, re- 
cognise each other as brothers, 

Ai'temis, 120. 

Assembling together, the duty of, 

Athenodorus, 329. 

Attendants of Peter, names of the, 

Attribute, the peculiar, of God, 169. 



Baptism, 89 ; for tlie remission of 
sins, 134 ; the wedding garment, 
147 ; in good works, 148 ; the use 
of, 185, 186 ; all have need of, ISG. 

Baptized, the privileges of the, 158. 

Barnabas, preaches at Alexandria, 

22 ; interrupted by the crowd, 22, 

23 ; defended by Clement, 23-25 ; 
instructs Clement, 25 ; leaves 
Alexandria, 25, 26. 

Bernice, the daughter of the Canaan- 

itess, 89 ; receives Clement at 

Tyre, 90 ; reports the doings of 

Simon Magus, 90, 91. 
Bishop, the duty of a, 9 ; labours 

and reward of a, 14 ; to be heard 

and obeyed, 86, 87. 
Books, Christian, to be imparted to 

tht initiated only, 1-4. 
Born of water, 185. 
Boyish questionings, the, of Clement, 


Cain, his name and nature, 67. 

Cannibals, the first, 144. 

Catechists, the duties of, 12. 

Chaos, the origin of, 117, IIS. 

Chaste woman, the, 220. 

Chastity, 218-224. 

Christ, the true prophet, 34, 01, 78 ; 
hidden from the Jews, 139 ; and 
Moses, 140 ; not God, but the Son 
of God, 252. 

Christ, His prophecies, 63. 

Christ, the reign of, 64. 

Christ, His teaching respecting the 
interpretation of Scripture, 79-81. 

Church, the, a ship, 13. 

Church, duties of the members of 
the, 88. 

Church office-bearers, the duties of, 

Clement, epistle of, to James, 6, etc, ; 
ordained by Peter his successor, 
7-16 ; installation of, 15 ; his boyish 
questioning — an autobiographic 
sketch of, 17 ; his perplexities 
arising from the teaching of philo- 
sophers, 18, 19 ; his resolution, 
19 ; hears good tidings out of 
Judea, 20 ; the gospel reaches him 
in Eome, 21 ; sets out for Judea, 
but is driven by contrary winds 
to Alexandria, 21, 22 ; meets with 
Barnabas at Alexandria, 22 ; his 
zeal in defence of Barnabas, 23- 
25 ; is instructed in Christianity 
by Barnabas, 25 ; introduced to 
Peter, 26 ; Peter's salutation of. 

27 ; questions proposed by, to 
Peter, 27, 28 ; instructed by Peter, 
28 ; Peter's satisfaction with, 29 ; 
convinced of the truth of Chris- 
tianity, 30 ; Peter's thanksgiving 
on account of, 31 ; sent by Peter 
to Tyre, to learn and report con- 
cerning Simon Magus, 89, 90 ; 
meets his friend Appion, and holds 
a discussion with him, 92 ; relates 
his previous acquaintance with 
Appion, 101 ; and the successful 
trick he pla3'ed on him, 101, 102, 
etc. ; result of the trick he played 
on Appion, 114; meets Appion 
again for discussion, 115, etc. ; 
the joy of, for being permitted by 
Peter to remain with him, 193 ; 
his office of service, 194 ; grief 
because Peter speaks of being his 
servant, 195 ; the family history 
of, 196, 197 ; the mother of, her 
story of herself and family, 198, 
etc. ; introduced by Peter to his 
mother, 203, etc. ; Peter relates 
the history of, to Nicetas and 
Aquila, 212 ; the father of, dis- 
covered, 226, 229, 230, 231 ; under- 
takes to discuss the subject of 
genesis, 233. 

Concealment and revelation, 139. 

Conjunction, the doctrine of, 63. 

Constellations, the, 109. 

Contradictions of Scripture, 61, 74- 
77, 249, 250. See Scripture. 

Converts and preachers, their mutual 
love, 192. 

Creation, the works of, 71 ; the ex- 
tent of, 71 ; boundless, 71, 72 ; 
man's dominion over, 72. 

Creatures, avengers of God's cause, 

Custom, a second nature, 97. 

Custom and truth, 94. 

Customs of one's country and fathers, 
are they to be observed ? 93. 

Deacons, the duties of, 12. 

Demons, the subjection of, to angel 
generals, 103 ; origin of, 143, 144, 
145 ; the law given to, 145, 146 ; 
how they enter men, 146 ; how 
they get power over men, 152 ; 
how they are expelled, 153 ; un- 
belief the stronghold of, 153, 154 ; 
deceits of, 154 ; tricks of, 155 ; 
power of, 156 ; reasons why the 
deceits of, are not detected, 157 ; 
props of the system of, 159 ; the 



baptized have power to drive a'^vay, 
158 ; subject to believers, 159 ; 
none but evil, appear to the im- 
pious, 269. 

Destiny, 95. 

Devil, the, the existence of, asserted, 
290 ; Peter refuses to discuss cer- 
tain questions relating to, 291 ; 
suppositions as to the origin of, 
292 ; God is nob blameable for 
permitting the existence of, 293 ; 
Peter accuses Simon Magus of 
being worse than, 294 ; theories 
in regard to the origin of, 296 ; 
the creation of, 299 ; why en- 
trusted with power, 301 ; has not 
equal power with God, .302 ; is 
he a mere relation ? 303, 304. 

Devil, the wiles of the, 60. 

Discussion between Clement and 
Appion, 103, etc., 115, etc. ; of 
Peter with Simon Magus, 242, etc. 

Disease, a theory of, 154. 

Disobedience, the danger of, 86. 

Doctrine according to godliness, the, 

Dositheus and Simon Magus, the 
contest between, for pre-eminence. 

Dreams, evidence furnished by, dis- 
cussed, 268 ; the impious see true 
visions and, 270. 

EGYPTLl^-s, gods of the, 167 ; their 
defence of their system exposed, 

Eros, 105, 111, 112. 

Errors, the use of, 58, 59. 

Evil, sin the cause of, 300, 301. 

Evil one, the. See Devil. 

Faith, the gift of God, 130; ob- 
stacles to, 235. 

Faith and duty, 162. 

Fall, the, of man, the cause of, 142 ; 
of angels, 143. 

Father, love to God as our, 184. 

Father, no one knows the, how to 
be understood, 282, 234. 

Faustus, 226, 229, 230. 

Fear and love, 210. 

Fear of God, 163, 265 ; and love of, 

Female prophetess, the, 66 ; a de- 
ceiver, 67. 

Few shall be saved, 58. 

Fire-worship, the origin of, 150, 151. 

Flattery or magic, which the more 
potent, 104. 

Flesh, the, persons who first ate, 

Flood, the cause of the, 144. 
Foreknowledge, 61. 
Forewarned, forearmed, 33. 
Fornication, 10. 
Freedom, the, of man, 176. 

Genesis, 94, 95 ; Peter's argument 
against, 227 ; a practical refuta- 
tion of, 228 ; discussion concern- 
ing, 232, etc. 

Giants, the, who ? 144. 

God, what is not, 127. 

God, good and just, 37 ; the ways 
of, 38, 39 ; attributes of, 52, 53 ; 
how to be thought of, 53, 54 ; His 
works of creation, 70-72 ; the ex- 
cellency of the knowledge of, 73 ; 
the, of the Jews, 95 ; vindicated 
as blameless, 141 ; peculiar attri- 
butes of, 169 ; neither the world 
nor any part of it to be considered 
as being, 169 ; jealous, 176 ; crea- 
tures avenge the cause of, 177 ; 
the nature of, 253 ; the name of, 
254 ; the shape of, in man, 254 ; 
the character of, 255 ; man in the 
shape of, 261 ; the figure of, 262 ; 
the centre and heart of the uni- 
verse, 263 ; the nature and shape 
of, further noticed, 264 ; the fear 
of, 265 ; the fear and love of, 266 ; 
both good and just, 275 ; miscon- 
ceptions respecting, in the Old 
Testament, 286, 287 ; not blame- 
able for permitting the existence 
of the devil, 293 ; incomprehen- 
sible, 297 ; produced the evil one, 
but not evil, 208 ; the maker of 
the devil, 299 ; His power of chang- 
ing Himself, 316 ; not the author 
of the evil one, so as He is of the 
good one, 319 ; why He appoints 
the evil one over the wicked, 

God, the Son of, 252. 

God, the unrevealed, of Simon, 277. 

Gods of the heathen, the, the wicked- 
ness of, 96 ; evil influence of the 
example of, 97 ; attempted ex- 
planation of the bad actions 
ascribed to, 100 ; not really gods, 
112 ; imitation of, 112 ; really 
wicked magicians, 126 ; graves of, 

126 ; the contemporaries of, did 
not look on them as being gods, 

127 ; those which are made by 
hands are not, 164 ; of the Egyp- 



tians, 1G7 ; the, -whicli have not 

made the heavens, 185. 
Golden rule, the, 182, 174, 209. 
Good, out of evil, 17. 
Good, the sufferings of the, 2.17. 
Good one, the, and the evil one, the 

different origins of, 319. 
Goodness and justice defined, 274, 


Ham. the family of, 150. 

Helena and Simon Magus, 42 ; what 

Simon says of, 43, 44. 
Hell and purgatory, 59. 
Hercules, 124. 
Hero-worahip, 150. 
Honesty, 11. 
Hospitality, 201. 
Human life, the inequalities of lot 

in, 308. 

Idolatry, a delusion of the serpent, 
1G5 ; the folly of, 171 ; why God 
suffers, 175. 

Idols, the test of, 155, 15G ; the un- 
profitableness of, 163, 178 ; not 
animated by the Divine Spirit, 
169 ; confutation of the worship 
of, 170 ; folly of the worship of, 
171 ; heathen worshippers of, under 
the power of the demon, 180. 

Ignorance and error, no excuse for 
the sinner, IGG. 

Ignorant, the, the condemnation of, 

Image of God, man made after the, 

Image of God, the, restoration to, 

Imitation of the gods, 97. 

Immoral teaching of the Greeks, the, 
illustrated, 101-105. 

Immortality of the soul, Clement's 
perplexities about, 18, 19 ; the 
belief of, necessary to a knowledge 
of God, 37 ; asserted by Peter, 

Impiety, what it is, GO. 

Inequalities of lot in human life, 308. 

Initiation, necessary before possess- 
ing the privilege of reading Chris- 
tian books, 2 ; mode of, 3 ; vow 
and adjuration connected with, 

Israel, the way of knowledge re- 
vealed to, 285 ; how ignorant of 
God, 286. 

James, the epistle of Peter to, 1, 2, 

etc. ; epistle of Clement to, G, 

Jealous God, a, God is, 176. 

John the Baptist, Simon Magus for- 
merly a disciple of, 42. 

Judging, who qualified for, 206, 207. 

Justa, the Syrophoenician woman, 
the daughter of, 40, 41. 

Jupiter, the wickedness of, 96 ; the 
amours of, 106, 107. 

King of the present time, the, and 
the King of righteousness, 146, 

Kingdom, the way to, not concealed 
from the Israelites, 285, 286. 

Kronos, 98; and Eea, 118. 

Laodicea, a journey to, 211. 

Law, the original, 141. 

Law, the, of the Old Testament, 

the corruption of — not written by 

Moses, 50. 
Liberty and necessity, 176. 
Life, human, inequalities of lot in 

the, 308. 
Love and fear, 210. 
Love of God, 206. 
Love of man, 237. 
Love-letter, a, written by Appicn 

for Clement, 105, etc. ; a reply 

to. 111, etc. 
Lust, anger, and grief, the uses of, 


Magic, the power of, 102, 103. 

Male and female, 66. 

Man, the original state of, 141 ; the 

fall of, 142 ; the lord of all, 162 ; 

in the shape of God, 263 ; as 

created by God, 313 ; his power 

to choose good or evil, 313, 314 ; 

sins through ignorance, 315. 
Marriage, urged on presbyters, 9, 

10 ; always honourable, 86. 
Marriage supper, the, 147. 
Matter, is it eternal ? 300. 
Mattidia, 196; the story of, 19?, 

etc., 211 ; wishes to be baptized, 

213 ; values baptism aright, 217 ; 

unintentionally fasted one day, 

217, 218 ; baptized in the scii, 

Meeting together, the duty of, urged 

on Christians, 87. 
Merchants, the best, 152. 
Micah, question addressed by, to 

Peter, 319. 
Ministry, the support of the, 310. 



Aliracles, useless and pliilaiitTiropic, 
the, of Simon ]Magus, 48, 49. 

Monarchy and polyarchy, 149. 

Moses, how he delivered his writings, 
70-72 ; the law not written by, 
77, 78. 

Moses and Christ, 140. 

Myths, the heathen, not to be taken 
literally, according to Appion, 
115, etc., 117, etc., 120, 121 ; the 
inventors of such vile, blame- 
worthy, 124, 125. 

Names, the giving of, to animals, 
65, 66. 

Xebrod, or Zoroaster, 150. 

Isicetas, statement of, concerning 
Simon Magus, 45-47 ; and Aquila, 
recognise each other as brothers, 
212 ; and relate what befell each 
other, 215 ; near being deceived 
by Simon Magus, 216. 

Nineveh, the men of, 189. 

Noah, 148 ; the family of, 150. 

'^ Nolo episcopari" 85. 

Oeediexce leads to peace, S4 ; danger 

of the contrary, 86. 
Offences must come, 208. 
05icebearers in the church, the 

duties of, 86. 
Old Testament, misconceptions of 

God in the, 286 ; some parts of, 

written to try us, 287. 
Order, God's, 38, 39. 
Ordination, the, of Zacharias by 

Peter, 88, 89. 
Orgies, 151, 179, 180. 
Orthasia, 192. 

Patx and death, the result of sin, 

Pairs, the doctrine of, 38, 48, 66. 

Paris, the judgment of, 123. 

Paths, the two, 138. 

Pallas and Hera, 120. 

Peculiar attributes of God, the, 169. 

Persians, the, fire-worshippers, 151. 

Peter, the martyrdom of, 6 ; ordains 
Clement his successor, 7, 8 ; his 
charge to Clement, 9 ; Clement 
tells of his introduction to, and 
instruction b}^, 26-31 ; names of 
the attendants of, *^2 ; tactics of, 
in regard to Simon Magus, 50, 51 ; 
meets Simon, 69 ; his discussion 
with Simon, 73, etc. ; after the 
flight of Simon, sends Clement to 
Tyre to incLuire and report con- 

cerning him, 89, 90; arrival of, 
at Ceesaren, 128 ; addresses the 
people at Tyre, 130 ; departs to 
Sidon, 132 ; founds a church in 
Sidon, 134 ; attacked by Simon, 

134 ; goes to Byblus and Tripolis, 

135 ; arrives at Tripoli?;, 137 ; 
thoughtfulness of, 137, 138 ; his 
third day in Tripolis, 161 ; at 
Antaradus, 192; frugality of, 194; 
journeys to Laodicea, 211 ; bap- 
tizes Mattidia, 225 ; his discussion 
with an old man, 226 ; wishes to 
convert Faustus, 234 ; his discus- 
sion with Simon respecting the 
unity of God, 242 ; mode of the 
discussion, 243 ; his reply to 
Simon's appeal to the Old Testa- 
ment, and other objections, 247, 
etc. ; close of first day's discussion 
with Simon, 256 ; second day's 
discussion with Simon, 257, etc. ; 
third day's discussion with Simon, 
274 ; fourth day's discussion with 
Simon, 290 ; Simon is confounded 
by, and retires, 310 ; reply to the 
questions of Sophonios, 312, etc. ; 
promises to restore Faustus to his 
own proper shape, 327 ; goes to 
Antioch, 330. 

Peter, epistle of, to James, 1, etc. 

Phanes and Pluto, 119. 

Philanthropy and friendship, 204 ; 
what is philanthropy ? 205. 

Philosophers, the unworthy ends of, 
93 ; false and impious theories of, 
98 ; advocates of adultery, 109, 

Philosophy and religion, the differ- 
ence between, 236. 

Polyarchy and monarchy, 149. 

Polytheism, a sophistical illustra- 
tion in favour of, exposed, 167, 

Poseidon, Zeu?, and Metis, 119. 

Possessions, sins, 240. 

Poverty, not necessarily righteou?, 

Prediction and prophecy, the dis- 
tinction between, 61. 

Presbyters, the duties of the, 9. 

Present, the, and the future, 239. 

Prince, the, of the left hand, and 
the, of the right hand of God, 
130, 131. 

Prophecies of Christ, 63. 

Prophecy, two kinds of, QQ. 

Prophet, the true, 34, 61, 78 ; all 
may judge of the, 35 ; the test 



of, SG ; doctrines of, 37 ; lias ap- 
peared in different ages, G5. 

Prophet and prophetess, the, CG, 

Prophetic knowledge, constant, 62. 

Prophetic spirit, the, constant, 62. 

Prophets, false, to be avoided, 190. 

Punishment, reformatory, 181. 

Purgatory and hell, 59. 

Purification, 187. 

Purity, outward and inward, 187, 

Queen of the South, the, ISC 

Rkligton and philosophy, the dif- 
ference between, 236. 

Peserve, the doctrine of, 1. 

Responsibility, 188, 189. 

Pevelation, the nature of, 271, 278 ; 
the work of, belongs to the Son, 

Pighteous, the, afflictions of, 197. 

Pule, the golden, 209. 

Sacrifices, 77. 

Sacrificial orgies, 151. 

Saved, the number of the, 58, 59. 

Scripture, the, false and blasphe- 
mous chapters added to, 50, 51, 
52 ; misrepresentations of God in, 
54, 55 ; some things in, false, and 
some true, 55, 56 ; Simon makes 
use of the alleged falsehoods of, 
in argument with Peter, 58 ; use 
of the falsehoods of, 58, 59 ; the 
uncertainty of, 66 ; contradictions 
of, 61, 74-77 ; how to discriminate 
the true from the false in, 79-81 ; 
Peter's explanation of contradic- 
tions in, 249 ; the contradictions 
in, intended to try the readers of, 
250, etc. 

Senses, the testimony of the, more 
trustworthy than that of super- 
natural vision, 267. 

Service, the, which God requires, 
134. , 

Serpent, the, idolatry, a delusion 
of, 165 ; why he tempts to sin, 
165 ; charming the, 182. 

Sidon, Peter comes to, 132 ; Peter 
preaches to the people of, 132, 
133 ; Peter attacked there by 
Simon, 134; Simon driven from, 

Simon Magus, mistakes about, 40 ; 
the doctrines of, 41 ; once a dis- 
ciple of the Baptist, 42 ; and 

Dositheus, the contest between, 
for precedence, 43 ; the wicked- 
ness and knavish tricks of, 44 ; 
statement of Nicetas respecting, 
and counsel to, 45-47 ; proceed- 
ings of, 4-7, etc. ; the design and 
object of, exposed by Peter, 57 ; 
comes to dispute with Peter, 69 ; 
his discussion with Peter, 73, etc. ; 
driven into a corner by Peter's 
arguments, he quits the field, 82 ; 
Clement sent to watch, and report 
concerning, 89 ; tricks of, at Tyre, 
91 ; reason of the power of, 138, 
139 ; attacks Peter, 134 ; is driven 
away, 135 ; departs from Tripolis 
to Syria, 188; comes from Antioch 
to discuss with Peter the unity 
of God, 242 ; appeals to the Old 
Testament to prove that there are 
many gods, 245 ; tries to show 
that the Scriptures contradict 
themselves, 248 ; accuses Peter of 
using magic, and of teaching doc- 
trines difi'erent from those taught 
by Christ, 257, 258 ; asserts that 
Jesus is not consistent with Him- 
self, 259, 260; asserts that the 
Framer of the world is not the 
highest God, 274 ; asserts an un- 
revealed God, 277 ; the opinions 
of, expounded and refuted by 
Peter, 282, 283 ; retires from the 
discussion, 289 ; is rebuked by 
Faustus, 309 ; changes the face 
of Faustus into the exact resem- 
blance of his own, 322, 324, 325 ; 
flight of, 323. 

Sin, the cause of evil, 300, 301 ; the 
cause of pain and death, 305. 

Sins of ignorance, 307. 

Son of God, the, 252. 

Sophonias, his questions, and Peter's 
replies to, 311, 312. 

Soul, Clement's former perplexities 
about the immortality of, 32, 33 ; 
the belief of the immortality of, 
necessary to correct views of God, 
37 ; the immortality of, asserted 
by Peter, 178. 

Sound mind, a, in a sound body, 
32, 33. 

Spies in the enemy's camp, 50. 

Standing One, the, 42. 

Submission, 193. 

"Sword, not peace, but a," 182, 

Syrophoenician woman, the story of, 
amplified, 40, 41. 



Tactics, the, of Peter against Simon 

Magus, 50, 51. 
Teaching, the, of Christ, 78-82. 
Teaching, the immoral, of the Greeks, 

illustrated, 101-105. 
Temptation, the, of Christ, 147. 
Traditions from our fathers, are 

they to be followed ? 93. 
Trick, the, of Clement upon Appion, 

Tripolis, Peter at, 137. 
Truth, cannot be found by man left 

to himself, 34 ; vain search of 

philosophers for, 34, 35 ; taught 

by the prophets, 35. 
Truth and custom, 94. 
Tyre, Peter at, 128 ; address to the 

people of, 130. 

Unity, the, of God, proved by 
Peter from the Old Testament, 
247, 250. 

Universe, the, the product of mind, 

Unrevealed God, the, of Simon 
Magus, 276. 

Voyage, the, of the church, 13. 

Water, born of, 185 ; baptized 

with, 186, 187. 
Way of salvation, the, 134. 
Ways, the, of God, opposed toman's 

ways, 38, 39. 
Wicked actions to be avoided, 304. 
Wicked one, the, why appointed 

over the wicked by a righteous 

God ? 320. 
Wiles of the devil, the, 60. 
Wise, the, divine things justlj' 

hidden from, 285. 
Woman, the, of sorrowful spirit, 

198 ; her story, 199, etc. 

Zaccheus, 41 ; appointed by Peter 

his successor, 84, B5. 
Zoroaster, 150. 

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