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Prof.  Morse  Stephens 


•HJtP  U  ' 

'  '66  J/ 




Cornell  University   Library 
DS   451.062 

On  the  original  inhabitants  of  Bharatava 

3    1924   024   065   470 

Cornell  University 

The  original  of  tliis  book  is  in 
tine  Cornell  University  Library. 

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We  regret  that  owing  to  circumstances  beyond 
our  control,  the  publication  of  this  work  has 
been  much  delayed. 

Archibald  Constable  &  Co. 
January,    1 894. 








Professor  of  Sanskrit  and  Comparative  Philology  Presidency  College  Madras 
Telugu  Translator  to  Government 
Curator  Government  Oriental  Manuscripts  Library 
Src     8fc     ^c 


Aechibald  Constable  &  Co 
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[All  rights  reserved] 





Thk  main  object  of  this  work  is  to  prove  from  existing 
sources,  so  far  as  they  are  available  to  me,  that  the  original 
inhabitants  of  India,  with  the  exception  of  a  small  minority 
of  foreign  immigrants,  belong  all  to  one  and  the  same  race, 
branches  of  which  are  spread  over  the  continents  of 
Asia  and  Europe,  and  which  is  also  known  as  Finnish- 
Ugrian  or  Turanian.  The  branch  which  is  domiciled  in 
India  should,  according  to  my  opinion,  be  called  Bharalan, 
because  the  Bharatas  were  in  olden  times  its  most  numerous 
and  most  honoured  representatives,  after  whom  the  country 
received  its  name  Bharatavarsa  or  Bharatavarsa. 

The  favoured  spots  in  which,  in  primeval  periods,  men  pre- 
ferred to  select  their  dwellings,  were  the  highlands,  hills,  and 
mountains ;  for  these  regions  afforded  gi'eater  protection  not 
only  against  the  attacks  of  men  and  of  wild  beasts,  but  also 
against  the  fury  of  the  unfettered  elements,  especially  against 
the  ravages  of  sudden  and  disastrous  inundations.  Though 
the  plains  were  not  altogether  uninhabited,  still  the  bulk  of 
the  population  preferred,  where  obtainable,  the  higher  and 
more  secure  places.  I  believe  that  the  Bharatas  were 
essentially  a  race  of  mountaineers,  and  that  their  name  is 
intimately  connected  with  the  G-auda-Dravidian  root  paru , 
parai,  mountain,  a  circumstance  to  which  I  draw  atten- 
tion. ' 

See  pages  13,  32,  83. 


The  Bharatas  divided  at  an  early  date  into  two  great  sec- 
tions, whicli  were  known  in  antiquity,  as  Kuru-Pancalas  and 
Kauravas  and  Paijdavas,  and  afterwards  as  Gaudians  and 
Dravidians,  and  as  Kuruvas  or  Kurumbas  and  Mallas  or 
Malayas,  etc.  All  these  names,  too,  are  derived  from 
words  which  denote  mountains.  However  nearly  related 
these  tribes  were  to  each  other,  they  never  lived  together 
in  close  friendship,  and  although  they  were  not  always  per- 
haps at  open  war,  yet  feelings  of  distrust  and  aversion  seem 
always  to  have  prevailed. 

Though  positive  evidence  in  favour  of  mj^  assertions  was 
very  difficult  to  obtain,  still,  it  was  incumbent  on  me  to 
verify  my  statements  by  the  best  means  available.  In 
order  to  do  so,  I  had  to  betake  myself  to  the  fields  of 
language  and  religion,  which  in  matters  of  this  kind  are 
the  most  reliable  and  precious  sources  of  information.  For 
language  and  religion  manifest  in  a  peculiar  manner  the 
mental  condition  of  men,  and  thouoii  both  differ  in  their 
aim  and  result,  yet  the  mind  which  directs  and  animates 
both  is  the  same,  so  that  though  they  work  in  different 
grooves,  the  process  of  thinking  is  in  both  identical.  Besides 
the  mental  character,  we  must  not  neglect  the  physical 
complement  which  is  supplied  by  ethnology,  and  in  this 
case  the  physical  evidence  of  ethnology  supports  thoroughly 
the  conclusions  at  which  I  had  arrived  from  consulting  the 
language  and  religion  of  the  inhabitants  of  India. 

In  the  first  two  parts  I  have  treated  separately  of  the 
two  bi'anohes  of  the  Bharatas,  relying  mainly  on  the 
linguistic  and  historical  material  at  my  disposal  concerning 
the  ethnological  position  of  the  Dravidians  and  Gaudians. 
The  principal  Gauda-Dravidian  tribes  who  live  scattered 
over  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  vast  Indian  con- 
tinent are,  in  order  to  establish  their  mutual  kinship, 
separately   introduced  into  this   discussion.     This  method 


may  create  in  tlie  minds  of  some  readers  an  impression  that 
the  several  topics  are  somewhat  disconnected,  but  this 
arrangement  was  necessitated  by  the  peculiarity  of  the  sub- 
ject of  my  inquiry. 

In  pursuing  the  ramifications  of  the  Bharatan,  or  Gauda- 
Dravidian,  population  throughout  the  peninsula,  I  hope 
I  have  been  able  to  point  out  the  connexion  existing 
between  several  tribes,  apparently  widely  different  from 
each  other.  I  have  tried  thus  to  identify  the  so-called 
Pariahs  of  Southern  India  with  the  old  Dravidian  moun- 
taineers and  to  establish  their  relationship  to  the  Bhars, 
Brahuis,  Mhars,  Mahars,  Paharias,  Paravari,  Paradas 
and  other  tribes;  all  these  tribes  forming,  as  it  were,  the 
first  layer  of  the  ancient  Dravidian  deposit.  In  a  similar 
manner  I  have  identified  the  Candalas  with  the  fii*st  section 
of  thp  G-audian  race  which  was  reduced  to  abject  slavery  by 
the  Aryan  invaders,  and  shown  their  connexion  with  the 
ancient  Kandalas  and  the  present  Gonds.  In  addition  to  this, 
I  trust  I  have  proved  that  such  apparently  diiJerent  tribes 
as  the  Mallas,  Pallas,  Pallavas,  Ballas,  Bhillas  and  others 
are  one  and  all  oiishoots  of  the  Dravidian  branch,  and  that 
the  Kolis,  Kois,  Khonds,  Kodagas,  Koravas,  Kurumbas 
and  others  belong  to  the  Gaudian  division,  both  branches 
forming  in  reality  only  portions  of  one  a,nd  the  same  people, 
whom  I  prefer  to  call,  as  I  have  said,  Bharatas. 

Where  there  is  so  much  room  for  conjecture,  it  is  easy 
enough,  of  course,  to  fall  into  error,  and  I  shall  be  prepared 
to  be  told  that  many  of  my  conclusions  are  erroneous  and 
the  hypotheses  on  which  they  are  built  fanciful.  But  though 
much  of  what  I  have  written  may  be  shown  to  be  untenable,  I 
shall  yet  be  satisfied  if,  in  the  main,  I  establish  my  contention, 
and  I  shall  deem  myself  amply  repaid  for  my  labor  if  I 
succeed  in  restoring  the  Gaudian  and  Dravidian  to  those 
rights  and  honors  of  which  they  have  so  long  been  deprive  d 


In  the  third  part  which  treats  on  Indian  Theogony  I  have 
endeavoured  to  give  a  short  sketch  of  some  of  the  most 
prominent  features  of  the  Aryan  and  non-Aryan  beliefs. 
After  noticing  briefly  the  reverence  which  the  Yedic  hymns 
display  towards  the  Forces  of  Nature,  which  develops  gradu- 
ally into  the  acceptance  of  a  Supreme  Being  {Brahmayi), 
I  go  on  to  show  how  the  idea  of  an  impersonal  God,  a  per- 
ception too  high  and  abstract  to  be  grasped  by  the  masses  of 
the  population,  gradually  gave  place  to  the  recognition  of  a 
personal  Creator,  with  whom  were  associated  eventually 
the  two  figure-heads  of  Preservation  and  Destruction,  all 
these  three  together  forming  the  Trimurti  as  represented 
by  Brahman,  Visi;iu  and  Siva. 

About  the  time  that  the  ancient  Vedie  views  began  to 
undergo  a  change, and  the  idea  of  the  existem^e  of  a  Supreme 
.Spirit  impressi.'d  itself  on  the  minds  of  the  thoughtful,  tlie 
non-Aryan  Pi-inciple  of  the  Female  Energy  was  introduced 
into  the  Arvan  system.  This  dogma  which  originated  with 
the  Turanian  races  of  Asia,  and  was  thus  also  acknowledged 
in  ancient  Babylonia,  soon  exercised  a  powerful  influence, 
and  pervaded  the  whole  religion  of  the  Aryans  in  India. 
Its  symbol  was  in  India  the  Salagrama-stone,  which  Visnu 
afterwards  appropriated  as  his  emblem. 

I  have  further  tried  to  show  how  the  contact  with  the 
non- Aryan  population  aifected  the  belief  of  the  Aryans 
and  modified  some  of  the  features  of  their  deities.  Brahman 
was  thus,  by  assimilating  himself  with  the  non- Aryan  chief- 
god  and  demon-king  Aiyauar,  transformed  into  a  Brahma- 
bhuta,  while  the  very  same  Aiyanar  was  changed  into  Siva 
in  his  position  as  demon-king  or  Bhutanatlia,  and  Visnu 
became  e;radually  identified  by  a  great  section  of  the 
Brahmanic  community  with  the  Female  Principle'and  taken 
for  Uma. 

The  religions   opinions  of   the  original  inhabitants   were 


on  the  other  hand  not  left  unchanged  as  the  result  of  their 
intercourse  with  the  Aryans,  and  many  ideas  and  many  of 
the  deities  of  the  invader  were  received  into  their  religion. 
The  prominent  features  of  this  religion  lay  in  the  adoration 
of  the  Principle  of  the  Female  Energy,  or  Sakti,  as  repre- 
sented by  the  chief  local  goddess  or  Grramadevata,  in  the 
acknowledgment  of  a  Supreme  God  revered  under  such 
names  as  Aiyanar  (Sasta),  and  in  the  worship  of  Demons. 

I  trust  now  that  the  racial  unity  of  the  great  majority 
of  the  Indian  population  has  been  established  by  this 
research  based  mainly  on  linguistic  and  theological  evi- 
dence, as  it  has  also  been  proved  independently  by  ethno- 
logical enquiries. 

In  order  to  perpetuate  by  an  outward  sign  the  racial  union 
of  the  overwhelming  majority  of  the  population  of  India,  I 
venture  to  suggest  that  the  inhabitants  of  this  country  would 
do  well,  if  they  were  to  assume  the  ancient,  honorable  and 
national  name  of  Bharatas,  remembering  that  India  has 
become  famous  as  Bharatavarsa,  the  land  of    the  Bharatas. 

In  such  a  multitude  of  subjects,  it  was  only  possible  for 
me  to  formulate  my  ideas  in  a  somewhat  imperfect  manner, 
without  being  able  to  treat  separately  every  particular 
subject  as  thoroughly  and  completely  as  it  deserved,  and  as 
I  had  wished  to  treat  it.  1  make  this  observation  to  show 
that  I  am  fully  cognizant  of  the  incompleteness  of  this 
enquiry,  but,  I  trust,  I  have  at  least  succeeded  in  making 
clear  its  purport  and  significance.  If  time  and  circum- 
stances had  permitted,  I  should  have  added  some  chapters 
on  some  essential  topics,  and  enlarged  the  scope  of  others, 
but  my  impending  departure  from  India  has  compelled  me 
to  be  brief.  If  this  book  should  be  deemed  worthy  of 
another  edition,  I  hope  to  be  able  to  remedy  these  defects. 
It  is  here  perhaps  not  out  of  place  to  mention,  that  the 
first  portions  of  this  book  appeared  some  years  ago,  the 


first  Part  being  priDted  as  early  as  1888j  and  it  is  possible 
that  the  publication  of  this  work  in  fragments  has  been 
attended  with  some  disadvantages. 

I  am  thus  well  aware  of  the  many  defects  in  a  publica- 
tion like  thisj  but  I  trust  that  even  my  errors  may  not  be 
without  use,  if,  like  stranded  vessels,  they  serve  to  direct 
the  explorer,  warning  him  away  from  the  shoals  and  rocks 
that  beset  the  enquirer  in  his  seai'ch  after  truth. 

Madras,  14/A.  February,  1893. 





General  Remarks 

Philological  Remarks    ... 

Historical  Remarks 

Division  between  Gaudians  and  Dravidians 


On  the  Mallas 

Explanation  of  the  terms  Dravida,  Tamil  and  A  ravam 


On   the    Pariah    (Parata,    PahSria),    Brahui,     Bar    (Bhar),    M; 

(Mhar),  &c 

Derivation  of  the  word  Pariah 

On  the  Brahuis  ... 

On  the  Bars  or  Bhars   ... 

On  the  Mars,  Mhars,  Mahars,  Mhairs  or  Mers 

On  the  Maravar  -• 

Religious  and  Social  privileges  enjoyed  by  Pariahs 

Wrong  Derivation  of  the  terms  Holeya  and  Pulaya 

Caste  distinctions  among  Pariahs ;  Right  and  Left  Hand  Castes 

On  the  Vallnvar  .,  







The  names  of  ancient  kings  and  Asuras  indicate  the  names   of 

the  people  over  whom  they  ruled  ...  ...  ...  ...       14,15 

Beginning  of  peaceful  Intercourse  and  Inter-marriage  between 

Aryans  and  Dravidians         ...  ...  ...  ...  ...       16,17 





On  the  Pallar,  Pallavas,  Pulayar,  Ballas  (Bhallas)  Bhils,  Pulindae, 

On  the  name  of  the  Pallas  and  Pallavas 

On  the  Pajlar 

On  the  Pulayar  ... 

On  the  Ballaa 

On  the  Bhils 

On  the  Pnlindas  . . . 

On  Pulaha,  Pnlastya,  Puloman,  &c. 




On  the  Pallis,  Agnikulas,  Paiidyas,  Vellalar,  &c.     ...  ..  ...    89-108 

On  the  Agnikulae  ...  89-94 

On  the  Pallis       ...     94-100 

Different  meanings  of  the  word  Palli  ...  ...  ...  ...   100,101 

Explanation  of  the  words  Pandya,  Vellala,  Ballala,  Bhillala         ...   101-108 




Philological  Remarks  ... 

Application  of  the  term  Gaudian 

Explanation  of  the  use  of  Gaiula  as  a  tribal  name 

On  the  name  Kolarian 





On  the  Kolis  (Kulis),  Kolas  ... 

On  the  Gaulis   ... 

On  the  Kulindas,  Kuliitas,  &o. 


On  the  Kois,  Konds,  Kands,  Gouds 

On  the  Oaadalas 

On  the  names  Khandobii,  Khandesh,  Gondaja,  &c. 

On  Gondophares 


141,  142 

142,  143 

155,  156 

160,  161 



On  the  Kocjagas 

On  the  Koragas 

On  Hubasika  and  Huviska 

On  the  Todas     ... 

On  the  Kotas    


On  the  Kuravas  (Kuruvas,  Kurumas),  Koracaru. 
On  the  Kurus  (Yerakulas)  and  Kaurs 
On  the  Kunnuvaa  and  Kunavarie 







On  the  Kurubas  or  Kurumbas 

Remarks  about  the  name  Kurumba ... 

On  the  sub-divisions  among  the  Kurumbas 

On  their  religion,  manners  and  customs     ... 

On  our  historical  knowledge  about  the  Kurumbas 

On  Adonda  Cola         

On  Toudamandalam 

On  the  Kallas  under  the  Tondaman  of  Pudukota  .. 

On  the  Kurmis,  Kumbis  or  Kunbis  ... 

On  the  origin  of  the  term  Kadamba 







Introductory  Remarks . . 
On  Vedio  Deities 
On  Vedio  Creation 
On  the  Trimurti 




BiTihmfi  11 . 

fieneral  Eemarke 

On  the  present  Worship  of  Brahman 

On  the  Brahmabhilta  ... 



General  Remarks 

On  the  "Deluge  ... 

On  the  Yugas   ... 

On  the  Salagrama-stone 

On  the  modification  of  the  worship  of  Visnu 

On  Visiiu's  wives 



General  Remarks 
On  the  Linga 


On  Paramatman,  the  Supreme  Spirit 


Introductory  Remarks 

On  Uma,  Amma,  Amba 

On  Drvi  (Durga),  etc. 

On  Sakti'a  participation  at  the  creation 

On  the  origin  of  the  worship  of  the  various  Saktis 

On  the  VidySdevis,  llatrs  and  Gramadevata.? 


Qrnmadevataa,  Aiyannr  <ind  BhUtas. 

General  Remarks 
On  GrSmadevatas 








On  Ellamma     ...          464-471 

On  Mariyamma            ...          ...          ...          ...          ...         ,,.          ...  471-485 

On  Angaramma  (Aiigalamma,  etc.)              ...          ...          ...          ...  485-491 

On  Piclari           491-495 

On  Bhadrakali,  Civmuncjii,  Durga     ...          ..           ...          .            .  .  495-499 

On  other  Gramaclevatas          ...          ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  499-504 

On  Aiyanar  (Ayyappa  or  Sasta)         ..          ...          ...          ...         ...  504-513 

On  Bhatas         513-516 

About  Fiends  (Asuraa,  Danavas,  Daityas)  ...         ...          ...          ...  516-526 

About  Ghosts  (Transmigration)        ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  526-550 

On  Devils          550-574 




Introductory  Remarks  ...  ...  ...  575-581 

On  Vasistha       581-585 

On  Visvamitra . . ,  ...  ...  ...  ..  ...  ...         ...  585-595 

On  the  Bharatas  596-623 

Index       624-711 


k,    kh,    g,    gh,    i,    h,    h,    a,    a. 
c,    oh,      i,     jh,     n,    s,     y,     i,     i,    e',     e,     ai. 
t,     th,     d,    dh,     M,     s.,    1',     r,     f. 
t,    th,     d,    dh,    n,     s,     1,      ],     1 
p,    ph,    b,    bh,    m,    li    v,     "     n,    o',    o,     au. 
Anusvara   iri  ;    r,  !,  1,  are  peculiar   to  the  Dravidian   languages. 

'Used  in  the  Dravidian  languages. 

On  the  Original  Inhabitants  of 
Bharatavarsa  or  India. 



General  Bemaeks. 
No  one  who  undertakes  to  study  the  ancient  history  of 
India  can  fail  to  be  impressed  by  the  scantiness  of  the 
material  at  his  disposal.  In  fact  such  an  undertaking  would 
soon  appear  to  be  futile,  were  he  to  depend  solely  on  Indian 
accounts  and  records.  Fortunately,  however,  we  possess  some 
writings  of  foreigners  who  visited  India  ;  and  their  reports 
of  what  they  actually  saw  during  their  stay  in  this  country, 
and  of  what  they  were  able  to  gather  from  trustworthy 
sources,  furnish  us  with  materials  of  a  sufficiently  reliable 
character.  If  we  except  Kashmir  and  Ceylon,  regarding  the 
latter  as  belonging  to  India,  no  part  of  India  possesses 
anything  like  a  continuous  historical  record.  The  prepond- 
erance of  caste  and  the  social  prejudices  it  creates  are  disabili- 
ties such  as  no  Hindu  who  wishes  to  relate  the  history  of  his 
country  can  entirely  overcome.  The  natives  of  India  have,  as 
a  rule,  little  sympathy  with  people  outside  their  own  class,  and 
when  it  is  believed  that  persons  belonging  to  the  highest  caste 
can  by  their  piety  ensure  final  beatitude,  if  they  simply 
remember  and  revere  the  memory  of  their  three  immediate 
predecessors — father,  grandfather,  and  great  grandfather — 
we  need  not  wonder  at  the  apathy  displayed  towards  history 
by  them  and  by  others  who  are  beneath  them  in  the  social 


Yet,  if  the  study  of  Indian  history  has  up  to  now  not 
proved  interesting  to  the  Hindus  themselves— and  there  exist 
many  good  reasons  why  this  has  been  and  is  still  the  case— 
this  fact  need  not  discourage  foreigners,  who  are  interested  in 
this  subject,  from  pursuing  it. 

It  is  true  no  doubt  that  the  results  which  have  been 
obtained  from  decipherings  and  archaeological  researches  in 
India,  must  appear  insignificant  wlien  compared  with  what 
has  been  achieved  elsewhere  in  the  same  fields.  StiLl,  there  is 
no  need  to  despair  of  final  success,  for  our  knowledge  and 
material  are  daily  increasing,  though  Indian  history  at 
present,  becomes  interesting  only  when  it  throws  light  on 
the  communal,  legal  and  social  conditions  of  the  people,  or 
on  their  intercourse  and  relation  with  foreigners. 

Owing  to  the  meagreness  and  often  to  the  untrustworthi- 
ness  of  the  historical  material,  an  Indian  historian  must  be 
continually  on  the  look-out  for  new  tracks  in  which  to  pursue 
his  researches.  The  task  of  a  scientific  historian  is  difficult  in 
itself,  but  it  is  made  still  more  so,  if  a  scholar  is  anxious  to 
make  original  researches  and  strike  out  for  himself  a  new 
path  in  Indian  history,  as,  in  addition  to  other  qualifications, 
he  must  be  a  linguist  possessing  some  knowledge  of  the 
language  of  the  people  into  whose  past  he  is  inquiring. 

The  limited  number  of  Indian  historical  records,  including 
architectural,  palseographical,  numismatic  and  similar  anti- 
quities, compels  a  student  of  Indian  history  to  draw  within 
his  range  subjects  other  than  those  usually  regarded  as 
strictly  historical,  e.g.,  the  names  of  nations  and  individuals, 
of  countries  and  tovms,  of  mountains  and  rivers,  and  such  other 
topics,  in  which  he  believes  that  historical  relics  lie  concealed. 

I  have  selected  as  the  subject  of  this  inquiry  the  people 
to  whom  I  assign  in  default  of  a  better  name  that  of  Gauda- 
Dravidian,  who  by  the  extensive  area  they  occupied,  and  over 


which  their  descendants  are  still  scattered,  are  well  worthy  of 
a  careful  research  being  made  into  their  past  history. 

Philological  Eemaeks. 

Before  entering  upon  the  historical  part  of  this  inquiry, 
a  few  general  philological  remarks  will  not  be  out  of  place. 
Every  one  who  is  even  slightly  acquainted  with  the  laws 
which  govern  the  interchange  of  letters,  knows  that  the  labial 
nasal  m  is  often  permuted  into  the  other  labials  as  p,  h,  or  » 
and  vice  versa.  Mumba  is  thus  changed  to  Bombay,  and 
MaUava  into  Ballava ;  ManilMCcha  is  identical  with  Bharu- 
kaccha ;  Sanskrit  pramdna  is  altered  to  Kanarese  pavanu  or 
havanu,  measure ;  mattai,  stem,  in  Tamil  resembles  pattai, 
bark  ;  madandai  in  Tamil,  woman,  corresponds  to  padati  in 
Telugu,  and  Mallar  to  Pallar,  &c.  On  the  other  hand,  Bhavdni 
becomes  Bhamani ;  Vdnam,  heaven,  is  changed  in  Tamil  to 
Mdiiam;  Palavaneri  to  Palamaneri;  Pallava  to  Vallama 
(Yelama)  andVallamba;  pallddu,  goat,  in  Tamil,  to  velladu  ; 
Vadavan  to  Vadaman ;  the  words  Oiruvan  and  Ciruman, 
youth,  both  occur ;  piranku,  to  shine,  in  Tamil  corresponds  to 
the  Telugu  merungu,  &c. 

The  above-mentioned  rule  is  general  and  applies  to 
other  languages  as  well,  for  in  Greek,  onima,  e.g.,  becomes 
op>2m ;  meta,  peda  ;  membras,  bembras  ;  palkiii,  ballein,  and 
patein,  batein,  &c. ;  but  nowhere  else  does  there  exist  such 
a  variety  and  difference  of  pronunciation  as  in  the  vernacular 
languages  of  India.  Their  system  of  writing  is  a  proof 
of  this  fact.  Tamil  has,  e.g.,  only  one  sign  for  the  four 
sounds  1  belonging  to  each  of  the  five  classes ;  in  fact  20 
different  sounds  are  expressed  by  five  letters,  and  even 
where,  as  in  Telugu,  these  20  sounds  are  provided  with  20 

1  s  for  k,  kh,  g,  gh ;  i^  for  c,  ch,,j,  jh ;  L  fort,  tt,  d,  ih ;  /S  for  t,  th, 
d  dh  ;  and  u  for  p,  ph,  b,  bh.  In  their  transliteration  accordingly  are  only 
used  k,  c,  I,  t  and  p,  which  indicate  the  letter,  but  not  the  sound. 


distinct  characters,  tlie  pronunciation  still  remains  so  unoer- 
tain,  that  in  his  Telugu  Dictionary  the  late  Mr.  0.  P.  Brown 
arranged  these  four  letters  respectively  under  one  head.  The 
cause  of  this  striking  peculiarity  and  these  continual  per- 
mutations is  to  be  found  partly  no  doubt  in  indefinite  pro- 
nunciation and  dialectical  divergencies,  but  mainly  in  the 
strict  enforcement  of  the  over-stringent  and  artificial  rules 
of  Sandhi  or  Euphony,  which  affect  alike  vowels  and  con- 
sonants, and  which  do  not,  e.g.,  permit  a  word  in  the  middle 
of  a  sentence  to  begin  with  a  vowel.  Local  differences  in 
pronunciation  exist  in  India  as  well  as  in  other  countries. 
Amongst  these  the  interchanges  between  tcnues  and  iiiccliae 
are  most  common ;  we  find  them  in  Wales  and  in  German 
Saxony,  where  the  tenues  j),  t,  and  A-  are  to  this  day  con- 
founded with  the  mediae  b,  d,  and  g,  or  vice  versa. 

The  three  Dravidian  I'a  (lev,  Im-  and  I  te)  however  differ- 
ently they  may  be  pronounced,  are  only  varieties  of  the  same 
sound  and  are  therefore  interchangeable,  thus,  ?.(/.,  the  Sanskrit 
phidaiii  becomes  in  Tamil  jjff/«m  ueuii,  or  palaiii  ulpld,  while 
viu/him  LDeusuih  becomes  maUam  LDeir&rLh,  relldlan  Qsneiren-rrsmisr 
is  also  spelt  veUalan  Qsj  sir  err  rrifissr,  and  a  village  or  town  is 
called  pnlli  udjsS  [valli  auajsS),  palli  uotj-ctA,  or  pdli  urrifi. 
The  harsher  sound  is  generally  used  by  the  lower  classes,  and 
where  these  pronounce  an  eb  I  ot  err  J,  a  high  caste-man  will 
lisp  a,  jfi  I,  which  letter  is  probably  a  modern  innovation 
prevailing  specially  in  Malayalam  and  Tamil. 

As  the  different  /'s  interchange  between  each  other,  so  do 
the  two  Dravidian  r  and  r  ;  ^  a  hard  double  pp  rr  is  pro- 
nounced in  Tamil  somewhat  like  a  double  //,'  which  ciroum- 

^  Tamil  it  and  p,  Tolugu  S  and  es  Kanarese  d  and  fee,  Malayalam 
o  and  o, 

^  Tho  Tamil  pp  in  represented  occaaionally  in  Telugu  \\y  ks  e.g.,  the 
Tamil  l-\p^,  pnrru,  corresponds  to  the  Telugu  B&4.-'  piitja. 


stance  is  a  proof  of  the  relationship  between  the  r  and  t 
sounds.  After  this  statement  the  permutation  between  the 
lingual  d  and  the  r  and  I  sounds  will  not  create  any  surprise. 
Some  of  these  changes  are  pretty  common  elsewhere  ;  they 
occur  in  the  Aryan  as  well  as  in  the  Dravidian  languages. 

A  further  peculiarity  of  the  Dravidian  languages,  and 
especially  of  Tamil,  is  their  dislike  to  beginning  words  with 
compound  letters  :  Brahma  becomes  Piramam,  i3irLDih  ;  pra- 
handha,  pirapantam,  lSituje^lo  ■  graniha,  kirantam,  Qit^^ld. 
In  consequence  of  indistinct  pronunciation  and  the  desire 
for  abbreviation,  initial  and  medial  consonants  are  often 
dropped  at  the  beginning  or  in  the  middle  of  words,  while  on 
the  other  hand  in  opposition  to  this  tendency  a  half -consonant 
is  prefixed  to  an  initial  vowel,  in  order  to  prevent  a  word  from 
beginning  with  a  vowel.  We  thus  occasionally  meet  words 
whose  initial  consonants  are  dropped  and  replaced  by  half- 
consonants,  e.g.,  vella,  white,  in  Telugu  becomes  ella  and  yelki, 
vesa,  haste,  esa  and  yesa,  the  name  of  the  Billavar  of  Travan- 
core  becomes  Ilavar  and  Yilavar  ;  Velur  becomes  Elur  and 
Teltir.  This  practice  of  prefixing  a  half-consonant  before  an 
initial  vowel  is  generally  enforced  in  the  middle  of  a  sentence, 
— a  y  is  thus  placed  before  an  a,  e,  i,  and  ai  and  a  v  before 
0,  u,  and  au.  The  half-consonant  is  used  to  avoid  an  hiatus 
and  this  explains  why  the  University- degrees  M.A.  and  B.A. 
are  pronounced  by  many  Natives  Yam  Ya  and  Be  Ya. 
Metathesis  is  likewise  of  not  unfrequent  occurrence  in  the 
Dravidian  languages.  It  is  even  found  in  words  of  common 
occurrence,  in  kurudai,  e.g.,  for  hidii-ai,  horse  ;  in  Marudai  for 
the  town  Madura  ;  in  Verul  for  Elora  (Velur  or  Ballora);  in 
Vaikdiam  {emw^irffLc)  and  Vaikaii  [(saensirffl)  for  Vai&SMmn 
and  Vaiidkhi ;  in  the  Telugu  agapa  and  abaka,  ladle,  &o. 

Another  peculiarity  is  to  drop  one  of  two  consonants  in 
a  syllable  and  to  lengthen  the  vowel  if  it  happens  to  be 
short,   or  to  double  a  consonant  and  to  shorten  the  vowel, 


if  it  happens  to  be  long;  e.g.,  ^csfcgto  ceyyutaiov  ^cxSo^^ 
cei/uta,  Velldlan  for  Veldlan,  Palla  for  Pdla,  &c. 

It  will  be  readily  perceived  that  this  laxity  of  pronun- 
ciation affords  a  wide  field  for  philological  conjectures,  and 
that,  if  we  choose  as  an  example  the  representative  name  of 
the  Mdlla  or  Palla  tribe,  a  variety  of  forms  for  Mara  and 
Malla,  or  Para  and  Palla,  which  actually  occur,  can  be  re- 
traced to  the  common  source,  and  thus  be  shown  to  have  a 
sound  basis.  The  task  which  a  philologist  has  to  perform  is 
a  serious  one  and  ought  to  make  him  cautious.  Considerable 
and  unexpected  difficulties  also  arise  from  the  great  simi- 
larity of  many  Sanskrit  and  Dravidian  words  with  Mara, 
Malla  and  their  derivatives.*  The  explanations  of  names  of 
persons,  tribes,  places,  &c.,  so  readily  tendered  by  the  Natives 

'  A  fe'W  of  such,  eimilar  words  are  in  Sanskrit :  para,  other,  ^ato,  m.,  straw, 
n.,  flesh,  pala,  m.,  barn,  pallava,  m.,  u.,  sprout,  palvala,  m.,  pond,  psM,  m., 
guard,  ^«te  great,  ^/iaZa,  n. ,   fruit,  ^M?a,  m.,  n.,  ploughshare,  ^AwKa,  open, 
bala,  n.,  power,  bali,  m.,  oblation,  bala,  young,   bhala,  u..,  forehead,  mara, 
killing,  mala,  n.,  dirt,  malli,  f.,  jasmine,  mdra,  killing,  mala,  n.,  field,  mala,  f., 
garland,  valla,  covering,  vallabha,  m.,  lover,  ■valli  (j),  f.,  creeper,  &c.;  in  Tamil: 
alam,  plough,  alii,  lily,  alliyam,  village  of  herdsmen,  alai,  cave,  dlatn.,  water, 
palar    (palldr),  many  persons,  palam,  strength,  fruit,  flesh,  pali,  sacrifice, 
pal,  tooth,  pallam,  bear,  arrow,  palli,  lizard,  palam,  old,  palam,  fruit,  pali,  ■ 
blame,  palai,  hole,  pallam,  lowness,  paUayam  (pallait/am) ,  ofiering  to  demons, 
pallaicci,  dwarfish  woman,  pal,  milk,  palam,  bridge,  palar,  herdsmen,  palai, 
a,Tid, pali,  cave,  village,  pdlayam  (pdlaiyam)  country,  camp,  pali,  encampment, 
palai,  palmtree,  pilli,  demon,  pulam,  ricefield,  puldl,  flesh,  pulai,  flesh,  pul, 
meanness,  piillii,    grass,  pullam,   ignorant,  pulli,  lizard,  malam,   excretion, 
malar,  flower,  maJai,  hill,  mal,  boxing,  mallam,  strength,  malli,  jasmine,  r/iallu, 
wrcstUng,  malai,  rain,   mallam,  strength,  mal,  greatness,   mullai,  jasmine, 
mid,  miillu,  thorn,  mel,  above,  valam,  rightside,  valam,  power,  vali,  strength, 
t>ff/»,  strong, «'«/«(',  net,  rallar,  strong  persons,  ■yaKajipan,  beloved,  vallavan,  shep- 
herd, valli,  woman,  village,  valliyam,  vUlage   of  shepherds,  valuli,  poetical 
epithet  of   the   Pandya  kings,   valappam,  valamai,  valam,  valan,  strength,    ' 
valavan,  epithet  of  Cola,  vallam,  com  measure,  valliyam,  pipe,  pepper,  vdlai, 
plantain,  ral,  sword,  vil,  bow,  villi,  Manmatha,  vel,  white,  vellam,  inundation, 
velli,  silver,  vel,  lance,  veli,  village,  veljim,  sugarcane -reed,   &c.;  in  Teluyu: 
ala,  wave,  ala  [alia),  then,  alii,  water,  lily,  alle,  bowstring, c^«,  young,  ella, 
all,  limit,  white  {vella),  palla  (pulla),  red,   reddish,  pdlemii,  camp,  pallemu, 
saucer,  pala,  name  of  a  tree,  white,  jay,  pdlu,  share,  milk,  pilla,  child,  pilli, 
cat,  puli  {pulla),   sour,  puli,  tiger,  pulu  fptillu),  grass,  piilla,  piece,  balla, 
bench,  bhdli,  affection,  mala,  mountain,  malumii,   dirt,  main,   again,   malla 

or    BHARATAVARSA    OR    INDIA.  7 

of  India  and  seemingly  supported  by  some  legendary  and 
historical  evidence,  must  be  viewed  with  extreme  caution 
and  distrust.  It  is  not  an  uncommon  occurrence  to  make 
a  statement  of  "this  kind,  and  afterwards  to  invent  cor- 
roborative evidence.  This  is  often  not  done  with  any  desire 
to  mislead,  but  rather  because  it  affords  a  fair  display  for 
speculative  ingenuity.  If,  e.g.,  a  rich  man  of  a  high  caste 
acquires  a  Paraiceri,  he  will  alter  its  name  so  as  to  hide 
the  low  origin  of  his  property  and  to  impart  to  it  a  sacred 
appearance.  Near  Madras  is  situated  the  well-known  hill 
called  St.  Thomas'  Mount.  Its  name  in  Tamil  is  Parahgi 
Malai  or  Mountain  of  the  Franks  or  Europeans,  from  the 
original  European  or  rather  Portuguese  settlement.  Some 
years  ago  a  Brahman  settlement  was  established  there  and 
the  name  of  Parangi  Malai  was  no  longer  deemed  respect- 
able. Thenceforth  it  was  changed  to  Bhrngi  Malai,  the 
mountain  of  the  sacred  Bhrngi,  and  eventually  in  support 
of  this  appellation  legendary  evidence  was  not  slow  in 

again,  malle  {ynallelu),  jaemine,  mala  {male,  mdlilca),  garland,  mdli, 
gardener,  male,  house,  mula  {mullu) ,  thorn,  mule,  corner,  mella,  hall,  melamu, 
fun,  melu,  good,  upper,  maila,  unclean,  vala,  right,  net,  valla,  stratagem,  valle, 
noose,  vdli,  custom,  valu,  long,  sword,  vilu  [villu),  how,  vllu,  expedient,  vela, 
price,  vella,  white,  rellui-a,  flood,  vela,  limit,  vela,  time,  vein  1000,  toe,  &c. 

Considering  the  changes  the  letters  undergo  in  Dravidian  words,  when 
pallddu,  goat,  is  also  written  veUddu  and  pala,  flesh,  hecomes  ptilai  and 
Valluru  is  also  written  Vdluru,  Velluru,  Telluru,  &c.,  similar  alterations 
need  not  create  any  great  surprise,  especially  if  it  is  admitted  that  small 
orthographical  changes  assist  their  heing  the  more  easily  distinguished. 
As  an  illustration  how  the  names  of  the  Mallas  and  Pallas  appear  in  local 
appellations  I  only  add  as  an  example  a,  few  such  names  as  Mallapur, 
Pallapur,  Ballapur,  VaUapur,  YaUapur,  Allapur,  EUapur,  Vellapur, 
Yellapur,  Illapur,  ViUapur,  Volluru,  TJUapur,  Vullapur,  Mftlavur,  Palavur, 
Balapur,  Vfilapur,  Yalapetta,  Elapur,  Elavur,  Velapur,  Yelagiri,  &c.,  &c. 

5  An  example  of  the  spurious  character  of  similar  writings  is  exhibited  hy 
the  Sthalapurana  that  contains  the  origin  of  the  Gunmjbag-weavers,  which, 
though  of  recent  origin,  is  hy  some  incorporated  in  the  Brahmanda  Purana. 

A  curious  instance  of  the  alteration  of  a  name  is  supplied  hy  the  Barber's 
bridge  near   St.    Thom^  in  Madras.     It  was  originally  named  Mamilton's 


It  might  appear  that  when  so  many  changes  are  possible, 
no  reliance  can  be  placed  on  such  evidence,  but  these  permu- 
tations do  not  all  take  place  at  the  same  time,  indeed  dialecti- 
cal pronunciation  selects  some  letters  in  preference  to  others. 
The  northern  Hindu  pronounces,  a  B,  where  the  southern 
prefers  a  F,  and  both  letters  occur  only  in  border  districts  ; 
thus  no  B  is  found  in  the  names  of  such  places  situated  in 
the  Ohingleput,  South- Arcot,  Tanjore,  Trichinopoly,  Madura., 
Tinnevelly,  and  Malabar  districts,  while  in  South-Kanara, 
Ganjam  and  Mysore  a  Fis  seldom  used. 

These  few  preliminary  philological  remarks  are  absolutely 
necessary  to  facilitate  the  understanding  of  the  subsequent 
discussion.  The  important  position  which  language  occupies 
in  such  a  research  as  the  present  was  well  pointed  out  more 
than  forty  years  ago,  by  the  Pioneer  of  North-Indian  Ethno- 
logy, the  learned  B.  H.  Hodgson,  when  he  wrote  in  the 
preface  to  his  first  Essay  :  "  And  the  more  I  see  of  these 
primitive  races  the  stronger  becomes  my  conviction  that 
there  is  no  medium  of  investigation  yielding  such  copious 
and  accurate  data  as  their  languages." 

Historical  Eemaeks. 

Turning  from  these  linguistic  to  historical  topics,  we 
know  as  a  fact  that  when  tracing  the  records  of  any  nation  or 
country  as  far  back  as  possible,  we  arrive  at  a  period  when 
all  authentic  or  provable  accounts  cease.  We  have  then 
reached  the  prehistoric  stage.  What  occurred  during  that 
epoch  can  never  be  verified.  When  the  mist  of  historic 
darkness  disappears  from  the  plains  and  mountains  of  a 
country,  the  existing  inhabitants  and  their  dwellings  become 

bridge  after  a  gentleman  of  that  name.  The  word  Samilton,  being  difficult 
to  pronounce  in  Tamil,  was  changed  into  amattan  (common  form  for  ampat- 
tan)  which  means  in  Tamil  a  Imrbcr,  whence  by  retrauslation  into  English 
the  bridge  was  called  Barber's  bridge. 


visible,  but  whether  these  are  in  reality  the  first  settlers  and 
their  abodes  the  first  erected,  is  another  question  which  does 
not  properly  belong  to  the  domain  of  history,  so  long  as  we 
are  unable  to  assert  its  relevancy  or  to  find  an  answer  to  it. 
Whether  the  people  of  whom  we  first  hear  in  a  country  are 
really  its  aborigines  may  be  doubtful ;  but  so  long  as  no 
earlier  inhabitants  can  be  discovered,  they  must  be  regarded 
as  such.  So  far  as  historical  traces  can  be  found  in  the  laby- 
rinth of  Indian  antiquity,  it  was  the  Gauda-Dra vidians  who 
lived  and  tilled  the  soil  and  worked  the  mines  in  India. 

This  discussion  does  not  concern  the  so-called  Kolarian 
tribes,  whose  connection  with  the  ancient  history  of  India 
is  so  very  obscure,  that  we  possess  hardly  any  historical 
accounts  about  them. 

However  considerable  and  apparently  irreconcilable  may 
appear  the  differences  exhibited  by  the  various  Gauda-Dra- 
vidian  tribes  in  their  physical  structure  and  colour,  in  their 
language,  religion,  and  art,  all  these  differences  can  be  satis- 
factorily accounted  for  by  the  physical  peculiarities  of  the 
localities  they  inhabited,  by  the  various  occupations  they 
followed,  and  by  the  political  status  which  regulated  their 
domestic  and  social  habits.  For  every  one  must  be  aware  of 
the  fact  that  change  of  abode  and  change  in  position  have 
worked,  and  are  working,  the  most  marvellous  alterations  in 
the  physical  and  mental  constitution  of  individuals  and 
nations.  Language,  especially  the  spirit  which  pervades  it^ 
is  the  most  enduring  witness  of  the  connection  which  exists 
between  nations,  and  with  its  help  we  can  often  trace  the 
continuity  of  descent  from  the  same  stock  in  tribes  seemingly 
widely  different. 

From  the  north-west  across  to  the  north-east,  and  from 
both  corners  to  the  furthest  south,  the  presence  of  the  Gauda- 
Dravidian  race  in  India  can  be  proved  at  a  very  early  period. 
On  the  arrival  of  the  Aryans  on  the  north-western  fron- 
tier, the  Gauda-Dravidians  are  already  found  in  flourishing 


communities.  But  successive  waves  of  the  Aryan  invasion, 
swelled  in  their  course  by  the  accession  of  former  opponents 
who  had  despaired  of  successful  resistance,  must  soon  have 
flooded  over  the  Gauda-Dravidian  settlements.  Some  by 
their  prowess  were  able  to  maintain  their  ground  against 
the  invaders,  while  others,  defeated,  left  their  abodes  and 
emigrated  towards  the  South.  Yet  even  the  North,  subject 
though  it  became  in  time  to  the  Aryan  or  rather  Brahmanical 
sway,  can  never  be  said  to  have  been  totally  conquered  by 
force  of  arms.  Still  less  was  this  the  case  with  the  South, 
where  the  Brahmanical  influence  always  assumed  a  more  civic 
and  priestly  character ;  influence,  which  though  of  another 
kind,  can  hardly  be  deemed  less  powerful,  since  it  is  more 
lasting  and  more  thorough.  Even  the  Aryanised  languages 
of  North-India — however  they  may  prove  the  mental  superi- 
ority of  the  invaders  who  were  able  to  force  on  their  defeated 
foes  their  peculiar  mode  of  thinking — manifest  their  origin 
in  their  vocabularies  and  show  the  inability  of  the  victors  to 
press  on  the  vanquished  their  own  language.  The  languages 
of  both,  victors  and  vanquished,  amalgamated  and  formed 
new  dialects,  and  the  diflerence  which  exists  between  the 
abstract  synthetic  Sanskrit  and  the  concrete  agglutinated 
Dra vidian  is  clearly  expressed.  This  difference  is  easily 
observable  when  we  compare  on  the  one  hand  the  construction 
of  Sanskrit  with  that  of  such  Aryanised  languages,  as  Ben- 
gali and  Marathi,  which  possess  a  considerable  substratum 
of  a  non-Aryan  element,  and  on  the  other  hand  the  con- 
struction of  Latin  with  that  of  the  Neo- latin  languages 
French  and  Spanish,  which  may  be  considered  as  entirely 
Aryan.  I  have  alluded  to  this  fact  in  my  "  Classification 
of  Languages."  Hindustani  is  a  fair  specimen  of  such  a 
miscegenation  of  languages. 

The  earliest  mention  of  a  Gauda-Dravidian  word  is  to  be 
found  in  the  Bible.  In  the  first  book  of  Kings,  x.  22  we 
read  as  follows :  For  the  king  had  at  sea  a  navy  of  Tharshish 


ivith  the  navy  of  Hiram ;  once  in  three  years  came  the  navy  of 
Tharshish,  bringing  gold,  and  silver,  ivory,  and  apes,  and 
peacocks.'" «  The  expression  for  peacocks  is  tukkiyyim,  a  word 
derired  from  the  Gauda-Dravidian  toka  {tokai  or  togai), 
which  originally  signifies  the  tail  of  a  peacock  and  eventually 
a  peacock  itself.  It  exists  in  Telugu,  Tamil,  Malayalam, 
Kanarese,  Gondi  and  elsewhere.  The  identification  of  tukki 
(tUki)  with  tokai  is  very  old  indeed,  and  is  already  quoted  as 
well  known  in  the  early  editions  of  the  Hebrew  dictionary 
of  Wilhelm  Gesenius.'  The  mere  fact  that  the  sailors  of 
Solomon  and  Hiram  designated  a  special  Indian  article  by  a 
Gauda-Dravidian  word,  renders  it  j)robable  that  the  inhabi- 
tants with  whom  they  traded  were  Gauda-Dravidians  and 
that  Gauda-Dravidian  was  the  language  of  the  country.  The 
Aryan  influence  could  at  that  time  hardly  have  been  strong 
enough  to  supplant  the  current  vernacular,  or  to  force  upon 
it  a  Prakritised  Aryan  term.  Moreover^  the  peacock  is  a 
well-known  bird,  common  all  over  India,  and  it  is  highly 
improbable  that  the  Gauda-Dravidians  should  have  waited 
for  the  arrival  of  the  Aryans  to  name  it,  or  should  have 
dropped  their  own  term  in  order  to  adopt  in  its  stead  an 
Aryan  one.  The  vocal  resemblance  between  the  Hebrew 
hopk  and  the  Sanskrit  kapi  is  most  likely  accidental.  The 
ancient  Egyptians,  who  kept  monkeys  in  their  temples, 
called  a  monkey  kdf.  Besides  it  cannot  at  all  be  assumed 
that  the  sailors  of  the  fleet  of  Tharshish  did  not  know 
monkeys.  May  not  koph,  kdf,  kapi,  &c.,  after  all  be  an 
OnomatopoiStikon  ?  Another  word  which  proves  the  connection 
of  the  Gauda-Dravidians  with  foreign  nations  is  supplied  by 

«  The  Hetrew  worda  in  1  Kings,  x.  22,  are  :  Oni  Tharsts  noseth  sdMb 
vakeseph  senhahbim  veqopMm  vethukkiyylm.  2  Clironioles,  ix.  21,  has  a  long 
u  and  reads  vethUkkiyyl'm.     The  derivation  of  senhaHim  is  still  doubtful. 

'  See  also  my  lecture  On  the  Ancient  Commerce  of  India,  p.  25.  The 
derivation  of  Abmiggim  or  Algummim  from  valgu  as  the  sandalwood  is  called 
in  different  places,  1  Kings,  x.  11,  12,  and  2  Chronicles,  ii.  7  ;  ix.  10,  11, 
is  very  doubtful,  and  I  hesitate  to  derive  it  from  Sanskrit. 


the   Greek   word  oryza  for  rice,   which  corresponds  to   the 
Q-auda-Dravidian  arUi,  and  not  to  the  Sanskrit  vrlhi.^ 

The  Aryan  invaders  showed  little  sympathy  with  the 
inhabitants  they  found  on  the  confines  and  in  the  interior  of 
India.  The  outward  appearance  of  the  Dasas  or  Dasyus — 
these  were  the  names  with  which  the  new-comers  honoured 
their  opponents — was  not  such  as  to  create  a  favourable 
impression,  and  thoy  were  in  consequence  taunted  with  their 
black  colour  and  flat  noses,  which  latter  made  their  faces 
appear  as  if  they  had  no  noses.  Indra  is  invoked  to  reduce 
into  the  darkness  of  subjection  the  colour  of  the  Dasas  and 
to  protect  the  colour  of  his  worshippers,  for  the  latter  were 
not  always  successful  in  the  combats,  and  the  Dasas  at  times 
turned  the  tables  on  their  foes  by  becoming  victorious 

So  far  as  civilisation  is  concerned,  a  great  difference 
could  hardly  have  existed  between  the  two  races  when  they 
first  met.  However  rude  may  have  been  the  bulk  of  the 
indigenous  population,  a  considerable  portion  of  it  must 
have  already  attained  a  certain  degree  of  cultivation.  It  was 
no  doubt  the  wealth  which  they  had  acquired  that  stimulated 
the  invaders  to  pursue  their  conquests,  even  when  a  brave 

*  See  my  lecture  On  the  Ancient  Commerce  of  India,  p.  37  -  "  Of  grains 
Eice  formed  an  important  commodity.  The  cultivation  of  rice  extended 
in  ancient  times  only  as  far  west  as  to  Bactria,  Susiana,  and  the  Euphrates 
valley.  The  Greeks  most  likely  obtained  their  rice  from  India,  as  this 
country  alone  produced  it  in  sufSoient  quantity  to  he  ahle  to  export  it. 
Moreover  the  Grecian  name  for  rice  oryza,  for  which  there  exists  no  Aryan 
or  Sanskrit  root,  has  heen  previously  identified  by  scholars  with  the  TamU 
word  arisi,  which  denotes  rice  deprived  of  the  husk.  This  was  exactly  the 
state  in  which  rice  was  exported.  The  Greeks  besides  connected  rice  gene- 
rally with  India.  AthenaBos  quotes  oryza  hepJithe,  cooked  rice,  as  the 
food  of  the  Indians,  and  Aelianus  mentions  a  wine  made  of  rice  as  an  Indian 
beverage.  If  now  the  Greek  received  their  rice  from  India,  and  the 
name  they  called  this  grain  by  is  a  Dravidian  word,  we  obtain  an  addi- 
tional proof  of  the  non- Aryan  element  represented  in  the  Indian  trade." 

Aral,  rice,  occurs  also  in  Keikadi,  and  nriselti,  ricecakes,  in  Telugu. 

OF    BHARATAVARfciA    OR    INDIA.  13 

and  stubborn  resistance  warned  the  Aryans  not  to  drive  to 
despair  the  various  chieftains  who  had  retreated  to  their 
mountain  strongholds.  The  bravery  of  the  Dasas  excited 
the  admiration  of  their  opponents.  Indra  himself  occasion- 
ally protects  the  Dasas,  the  Aryan  priest  deigns  to  accept 
his  offering,  and  the  divine  Asvins  partake  even  of  his  food. 
Though  both  the  terms  Dasyii  and  Ddsa  originally  denote  a 
destroyer,  at  times  a  malevolent  superhuman  being,  and  at 
times  in  contrast  to  Arya,  an  enemy  of  the  gods  or  a  wicked 
man,  and  are  in  this  sense  specially  applied  to  the  aboriginal 
races  who  stood  outside  the  Brahmanical  pale,  yet  the 
expression  Ddsa  continued  to  be  contemptuously  used  by  one 
Aryan  against  another,  till  it  became  in  time  equivalent  to 
a  common  menial  or  slave. 

Division  between  Gaudians  and  Dravidians. 

The  foemeu  whom  the  Aryans  first  encountered  were 
generally  brave  mountaineers  who  offered  a  stout  resistance 
in  their  numerous  castles.  Indeed,  most  tribal  names  of  the 
inhabitants  of  India  wiE.  be  shown  to  refer  to  mountains. 

The  two  special  Gauda-Dravidian  terms  for  mountain  are 
mala  {malai,  par,  pdrdi,  &c.)  and  ko  {konda,  kuru,  Jcunru, 
kora,  &c.).  Both  kinds  of  expressions  are  widely  used  and 
prevail  throughout  India.  Hence  are  derived  the  names  of 
the  Mallas,  Mdlas,  Mdlavas,  Malayas^-^  &c.,  and  of  the  Koyis, 
Kodiilu,  Kondas,  Gondas,  Gaiidas,  Kurums^,  &c.  I  shall  in 
future  call  those  tribes  whose  names  are  derived  from  mala 
Dravidians^  and  those  whose  names  are  derived  from  ko 

'  Conoeming  the  single  and  doutle  I  which  is  found  respectively  in  Mala- 
ya, Malla  and  in  their  derivatives,  it  should  be  considered  that  the  Dravidian 
languages  do  not  possess  fixed  orthographical  rules  regarding  proper  names 
and  that  single  and  douhle  letters  are  often  used  indifferently.  A  moun- 
taineer is  thus  generally  described  in  South-India  as  Malayan  or  Malaiyan, 
while  Kalian  also  denotes  an  inhabitant  ot  a  mountainous  district. 




The  names  of  Ancient  Kings  and  Asueas  indicate  the 
names  of  the  people  over  whom  they  eulel). 

Among  the  tribes  and  people  whom  I  regard  as  Dra- 
vidians,  whose  names  are  derived  either  directly  from  Mala 
or  from  cognate  terms,  and  who  are  of  the  same  race  as  the 
Mallas  or  Pallas,  which  term  is  chosen  on  p.  6  as  their  re- 
presentative designation,  I  may  mention  the  Maras  (, 
Mahars,  Maharas  or  Malas),  Maris,  Maravar,  Pariahs, 
Parjas,  Paravar,  Paravari,  JJo^povapoi,  Paratas,  Hapovrat,, 
Paradas,  Parheyas,  Bars  (Bhars,  Bdppai),  Brahuis ;  the 
Mallas  {MaXKoi,  Malli),  Malas  (Mais  or  Maras),  Mala 
Arayar,  Malacar,  Malayalis,  Malavas,  (Malvas),  Malair 
(Maler  or  Paharias),  Mallar  or  Pallar,  the  Palliyar,  Polaiyar, 
Pulayar,  Holiyar,  Pulindas  {UovXivhaC) ,  Pundras,  Pallis, 
Palas,  PaliSj  Pallavas  (Palhavas^  Pahlavas,  Pahnavas, 
Plavas),  Pandyas,  Ballas,  Bhallas,  Bhils  (Bhillas,  ^vXkl- 
rat),  Bhillalas,  Ballalas,  Vellalar,  Velamas  (Vallamas, 
Vallambams),  Valluvar,  &c.^° 

The  Rgveda  only  rarely  confers  special  names  on  the 
Indians  who  opposed  the  Aryans,  and  these  names  wherever 
they  occur  cannot  be  easily  recognised  and  explained. 

On  the  other  hand  the  Indian  gods  adopted,  particularly 
in  later  times,  the  names  of  the  demons  they  had  defeated  in 

'"  The  Mftvglla  or  Mdvellaka  whom  Lassen  in  his  Indische  Alterthums- 
knnde  (vol.  I,  p.  751,  or  605)  identifies  with  the  Megalloi  of  Megasthenea 
as  occupying  Mflrwar,  might  perhaps  ho  added  to  this  list. 

OF    BHAllATAVAESA    OR    INDIA.  15 

comlDat  in  order  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  their  victories. 
A.  natural  assumption  leads  one  to  infer  that  the  names  of 
the  conquered  demons  or  Asuras  represent  those  of  the  forces 
they  led  to  battle,  and  that  the  Asuras  Malta,  Bala,  Bali, 
Bala,  Bali  or  Vali,  Vala  ^^  and  others  were  chiefs  of  the 
aboriginal  race. 

Krsna  is  thus  called  Mallari,'^  the  enemy  or  destroyer  of 
the  Asura  Ma  lla ;  Indra  is  renowned  as  Valadvis  or  Valana- 
sana,  enemy  or  destroyer  of  the  demon  Vala,^'  the  brother 
of  Vrtra,  and  as  Balanasana  and  Balarati,  enemy  or  destroyer 
of  Bala}^  Visnu  goes  by  the  name  of  Balidhvaiiisin,^^  for 
he  defeated  the  great  giant  king  Bali  in  the  shape  of  a 
dwarf  in  the  Vamana  Avatara.  Eama  covers  his  name  with 
doubtful  glory  by  killing  in  unfair  fight  the  mighty  so- 
called  monkey -king  Bali  or  Yali,  the  brother  of  Sugriva ; 
hence  Rama's  name  Balihantr. 

"  Though  Vala  need  not  he  taken  in  the  Egvgda  as  a  demon,  he  is 
regarded  as  such  in  later  works.  He  may  perhaps  have  been  confounded 
later  on  with  Bala. 

'2  Malldri  or  Ualhdrl  is  in  the  Maratha  country  regarded  as  an  incarna- 
tion of  Siva,  and  is  also  called  Khandoha. 

13  Or  Valahhit,  Valavrtraghna,  Valavrtrahan,  Valasudana,  Valahantr, 
and  Valarati. 

"  Or  Balanisudana,  Balahhit  and  Balasudana. 

''  Or  Balindama,  Balibandhana  and  Balihan.  Bali  or  Mahahali  was  the 
son  of  Virocana,  and  father  of  Bana.  He  ruled  over  the  three  worlds,  estah- 
lished,  according  to  the  Matsya-Purftna,  at  the  desire  of  Brahma,  the  four 
castes,  and  was  eventually  reduced  by  Visnu  to  become  the  king  of  Patala. 
He  is  still  the  most  popular  legendary  king  among  the  whole  Hindu  popu- 
lation, especially  in  South-India.  We  find  a  Mahdbalipura  on  the  Son  river 
in  the  North,  and  near  Madras  in  the  South.  The  people  remember  to  this 
day  the  prosperity  enjoyed  under  his  sway.  Once  a  year  Bali  is  said  to 
visit  the  earth,  but  this  visit  is  not  celebrated  simultaneously  throughout 
India.  His  greatest  feast  falls  on  the  fuUmoon  in  the  month  of  Karttiki, 
when  the  corn  standing  in  the  fields,  the  cow-houses,  wells,  and  particularly 
the  dwelling-houses,  are  illuminated  with  lamps.  In  Mysore  popular  songs 
are  sung  in  his  praise  on  the  last  day  of  the  Navaratri.  The  Hindu  people 
worship  him  also  during  the  Pongal,  when  gourds  (in  Sanskrit  kusmanda)  are 
given  to  Brahmans.  Bali  is  worshipped  in  Malabar  on  the  Onam  festival. 
He  does  not  die  and  is  one  of  the  seven  Cirajivins. 


Beginning  or  Peaceful  Intercourse  and  Intermar- 
riage BETWEEN  Aryans  and  Deavidians. 
With  the  decrease  of  the  Aryan  immigration  into  India, 
their  actual  conquests  ceased  and  the  new  comers,  once 
established  in  the  country,  devised  more  peaceful  means  to 
perpetuate  and  extend  their  power.  Colonists  and  mis- 
sionaries visited  the  hitherto  unapproached  provinces  and 
tried  to  win  by  their  superior  knowledge  and  civilisation 
the  good  will  of  the  natives.  Intermarriage  recommended 
itself  as  the  most  efficient  means  to  gain  this  object,  though 
the  race-pride  of  the  conquering  nation  shrank  from  such 

In  order  to  sanction  them  the  example  of  the  gods  was 
needed,  and  Subrahmanya,  the  South-Indian  representa- 
tive of  Xarttikeya,  the  son  of  Siva,  who  delights  to  reside 
in  wild  forests  and  weird  mountain  tops  is  credited  with 
having  chosen  a  South-Indian  girl  called  Valli  ^^  as  his  wife. 
Valli  is  a  well-known  female  name  common  among  the 
Pariahs  and  Pallar,  the  Pallis  and  other  Sudras,  and  corres- 
ponds to  the  equally-widely  used  man's  name  Malla.  Valli 
is  also  celebrated  as  the  Amman  of  Vaisnava  gods."     The 

'^  He  13  the  presiding  deity  of  many  moimtains,  as  Tirupparahkunran , 
Cdmimalai  (or  Palani),  Cdln-imrilai,  &c.,  and  is  thus,  among  other  titles,  called 
the  ruler  of  the  Palani  mountain,  Palani  A^di  or  Andavar. 

Two  wives  are  generally  assigned  to  Subrahmanya.  They  are  called 
DevasSna  (contrauted  in  colloquial  Tamil  into  Tsvanai)  and  VaUi.  (Valli- 
D^vasenftsameta-Subrahmanyasvamini?  namah.)  Subrahmanya  is  therefore 
also  called  in  Tamil  Vajlimanlnv)dlan,  or  husband  of  VaUi. 

"  The  popular  derivation  of  Triplicane  (Tiruvallikkeni)  i  from  Alii, 
^euetH,  a  kind  of  water  lily  ;  which  explanation  I  believe  to  be  wrong. 
According  to  the  Sthalapui-ana  of  Triplicane  Xdi-ada  goes  to  Kailasa  to  as- 
certain from  ParamSSvara  the  position  of  Brndarauya  which  lies  north-east 
of  Tirunlrmalai  near  Pallavaram.  The  sage  Bhrgu  lived  there  near  a  pond 
full  of  lotus,  called  Kairavinl.  He  worshipped  the  5  gods  of  the  place, 
especially  Ranganatha,  who  slept  under  a  sandal  tree.  Near  it  Bhrgu  found 
a  little  girl  whom  he  gave  to  his  wife  to  nurse.  He  called  her  Vedavalli, 
and  married  her  in  due  time  as  VedavaUi  Tayar  to  Ranganathasvami  &o. 
The  ancient  temple  tank  in  Triplicane  is  called  Vedavallipuskarinl. 


principal  goddess  in  Trix^lioane,  who,  as  Amman  presides  over 
the  Ksetram  and  to  whom  the  temple-compound  belongs,  is 
Yedavalli.  The  god  Parthasarathi  is  only  lodging  there  as 
her  guest.i*  In  Tiruvallur  the  Amman  is  called  Kanakavaili, 
in  Chidambaram  Pankajavalli,  in  Rrimusnam  Amhujavalli, 
in  Kumbhakonam  there  are  two,  a  Komalavalli  and  a  Vijaya- 
valli,  in  Mannargudi  a  Campakavalli,  and  in  Tirumalirun- 
colai  as  well  as  in  Nagapatam  there  is  a  Sundaravalli,  &e. 
The  derivation  of  Valli  in  these  names  from  the  Sanskrit 
Valli,  creeper,  appears  doubtful,  especially  if  one  considers 
that  Subrahmanya's  wife,  Valli,  was  a  low-caste  South- 
Indian  woman,  that  the  Saiva  preceded  the  Vaisnava  creed, 
and  that  Saiva  temples  were  occasionally  turned  into  Vaisnava 
temples.  Parvati,  the  wife  of  Siva  and  daughter  of  the 
mountain  Himalaya,  is  even  worshipped  as  a  Pariah  woman 
in  her  disguise  as  Matangl.  This  word  is  derived  from 
Matanga,  which  signifies  a  wild  mountaineer.^* 

'*  The  difference  between  Amman  and  Ammal  (both  meaning  mother) 
is  that  the  former  expression  refers  only  to  goddesses,  while  the  latter  is 
applied  both  to  goddesses  and  mortal  women. 

"  The  Syamaladandaka  ascribed  to  Kalidasa  contains  the  following 
^l8ka  concerning  Matangl : — 

Manikyavlnam  upalalayantim 

madalasam  manjulavagvilasam 
Matarigakanyam  manasa  smarami. 
It  is  perhaps  not  impossible  that    there   exists  a  connection   between 
Mdtanga   and   Mdlahga.     The   d  and   the  I  are  occasionally   interchanged, 
compare  the  Greek  Saftpu  with  the  Latin  lacryma.     The  Malayalis  consis- 
tently pronounce  an  I  instead  of  a  i,  e.g.,  for  tasmdt  karonat  they  say  tatmal 
karandl.    In  Marathi  the  word  Matanga  has  been   contracted  into  Ma*ga, 
seep.  66.     Compare  also  the  Dravidian  roots  pala  aadpandu,  old.   Telugu 
has  besides  pandu  also  pdta. 

The  Amarako^a,  II,  Sudravarga  (X)  20,  21,  contains  the  following  SlOkas 
concerning  the  Matanga  and  other  out -castes. 

Slieddh  R  i  rdla-Sabarn-Fulindd  Mlecchajatayah. 




The  Mallas. 

The  name  of  the  Mallas  appears  in  various  forma  in 
Sanskrit  literature.  As  the  name  of  a  people,  we  meet  it 
in  Malaka,  Malada,  Malaja,  Malla,  Mallaka,  Mallava,  Mala, 
Malava^  Malavarti^  &o. ;  as  the  name  of  a  demon  in  Malayaja 
(Rahu),  Malla  (perhaps  also  if  not  connected  with  maid, 
garland,  in  Malyavan  and  Malini),  &o.  ;  as  the  name  of  a 
human  being  in  Malayaketu^  Malayadhvaja,  Malayanarapati, 
Malayaprabha,  Malayasimha,  Malay agandhini,  Malayava- 
sini,  Malavi,  &c.  ;  as  the  name  of  a  country  in  Malaya, 
Malayadesa,  Malayabhnmi,  Mallabhumi,  Mallarastra,  Mala, 
Malava,  Malavadesa,  Malavaka,  &o. ;  as  the  name  of  a 
mountain  or  mountain-range  in  Malaktita,  Malaya,  Malaya- 
parvata,  Malayabhubhrt,  Malayacala,  Malayadri,  Malyavan, 
&o. ;  as  the  name  of  a  ricer  in  Malavi,  &c. ;  as  the  name  of  a 
town  in  Malayapura,  Mallapura,  Mallavastu,  Mallaprastha, 
&c. ;  as  the  name  of  a  plant  in  Malayaja,  Malayadruma, 
Malayodbhava  (sandal)  ;  Mallaja  (Vellaja,  black  pepper), 
&o.,  &c. 

If  we  include  in  this  list  some  variations  of  the  sound 
Malla,  we  may  mention  the  three  mind-born  sons  of  Brahma, 
the  famous  Prajapatis  Marici,  Pulaha,  and  Pulastya,  who 
had  among  their  progeny  the  most  reputed  Daityas  or  Rak- 
sasas,  as  well  as  the  demon  Puloman,  whom  Indra  killed,  in 
order  to  obviate  the  curse  pronounced  against  him  for  his 
having  violated  Puloman's  daughter  ^aei.  The  name  Mai  wi 
occurs  also  among  the  Daityas,  Maraka  among  the  nations, 
and  mallaja,  black  pepper,  is  likewise  called  inarica  or 

Maru  means  in  Sanskrit  a  desert  and  a  mountain,  and 
the  expression  Marubhtl  is  specially  applied  to  Marwar,  but 
its  inhabitants  as  well  as  the  Mhars  are  the  representatives 


of  an  old  Dravidian  stock,  like  their  namesakes  the  Maravar, 
mpsuir,  in  South-India.  It  is  in  itself  very  improbable, 
that  these  tribes  should  have  obtained  their  name  from 
a  foreign  source,  and  it  would  not  be  very  ventui-esome  to 
conjecture  without  any  further  authentic  proof,  that  there 
existed  in  the  ancient  Dravidian  dialect  a  word  mar  or  marai 
for  mountain,  corresponding  to  the  synonymous  Tamil  words 
par  and  pdrai.  And  in  fact  mar  in  the  language  of  the 
original  inhabitants  of  Marwar  means  hill,  and  the  Mars  or 
Mhars  are  in  reality  kill  men.^" 

The  Mallas,  as  a  nation,  are  repeatedly  mentioned  in 
the  Mahabharata,  Harivariisa,  in  various  Puxanas,  the  Brhat- 
sarhhita,  the  Lalitavistara  and  elsewhere.  Mallabhiimi  and 
Mallarastra,  which  as  well  as  Malayabhumi  refer  to  the 
northern  parts  of  India,  occur  in  the  Eamayana  and  Maha- 
bharata. The  Siddhantakaumudi  mentions  in  a  passage  that 
refers  to  Panini,  V.  3,  114^  the  Malldh  instead  of  Bhallah, 
which  latter  expression  is  found  in  the  commentary  to 
Dr.  0.  V.  Bohtlingk's  edition  of  Panini.  This  quotation  is 
significant  as  the  Brhatsamhita  mentions  likewise  the  Bhal- 
las,  who  represent  the  modern  Bhillas  or  Bhils.  Bhalla  and 
BhiUa  are  identical  with  Malla  and  are  only  different  pro- 
nunciations or  formations  of  the  same  word. 

The  Mallas  are  specially  brought  to  our  notice  by  the 
circumstance  that  Buddha,  the  great  reformer  of  India, 
preferred  to  die  among  the  Mallas  in  Kusinagara.  The 
citizens,  when  they  heard  of  the  arrival  of  the  dying  saint, 
met  him  sorrowfully,  and  among  the  last  acts  of  Buddha  was 
that  he  appointed  the  Malla  Subhadra  as  an  Arhat.  This 
connection  of  Buddha  with  the  Mallas  appears  strange  and 

20  See  Lieut. -Col.  James  Tod's  Annals  and  Antiquities  of  Rajasthan; 
Louden  1829,  vol.  I,  p.  680  :  The  Mair  or  Mera  is  the  mountaineer  of 
Eajpootana,  La  the  country  he  inhaWts  is  styled  Mainoarra,  or  "  the 
region  of  hills." 


strengthens  the  doubt  whether  Buddha  was  an  Arj^an  at 
all.  His  name  of  Sakyamuni  and  bis  relationship  with  the 
Sakya  race  has  been  taken  as  a  reason  to  associate  his  name 
with  the  Scythian  tribes,  who  had  for  some  time  previously 
been  invading  north-western  India.  However  this  may  be, 
Buddha's  friendship  with  the  Mallas  supports  his  non- Aryan 
origin.  The  enmity  which  existed  between  the  kings  of 
KoSala  and  the  Sakya  princes  is  of  itself  significant,  leaving 
altogether  out  of  consideration  the  question  whether  Buddha 
was  a  prince  or  not.  Moreover  the  inimical  position  which 
Buddhism  soon  assumed  towards  Brahmanism,  the  great 
hold  the  former  took  on  the  non-Brahmanical  population, 
which  rushed  to  be  received  into  its  fold,  makes  the  conjecture 
of  Buddha's  non- Aryan  origin  rather  probable. 

Another  branch  of  the  Mallas  came  into  collision  with 
Alexander  the  Great,  while  he  was  progressing  towards 
the  South  along  the  valley  of  the  Indus.  In  the  fight  which 
ensued  during  his  attack  on  their  city  he  was,  as  is  well 
known,  severely  wounded.  This  happened  not  far  from  the 
present  Multan,  which  word  I  assume  to  denote  Mallasthana, 
the  place  of  the  Mallas,  not  Mulasthana,  as  has  been  assiuned 
hitherto.  In  fact  Sir  Alexander  Burnes  states  in  his 
Tirwels  into  Bokhara  (vol.  Ill,  p.  114)  that  "  Mooltan  is 
styled  '  Malli  than,'  or  '  Mali  tharun '  the  place  of  the 
Malli,  to  this  day." 

Malayaketu,  the  son  of  the  mountain  king  Parvataka, 
who  figures  in  the  drama  Mudraraksasa,  represents  the 
northern  branch  of  the  Mallas,  settled  in  Malayabhumi, 
near  the  Himalaya  while  the  Pandya  kings  Malayadhvaja, 
Malayanarapati,  Malayaprabha,  Malayasiiiiha  and  others  are 
representatives  of  the  south. 

Even  to  this  day  the  name  of  the  Mallas  is  preserved 
among  the  population  all  over  India,  for  the  Malas  (Mais), 


Mala  Arayar  or  Malai  Ara&ar,  Malacar,  ^^  Malayalis,  Mala- 
vas  (Malvas),  Malair  (Maler  or  Paharias),  Majlar,  Mars 
(Maras,  Mhars,  Mahars,  Maharas),  Maris,  Maravar,  &c.,  as 
they  are  named  in  different  places,  are  found  scattered  all 
over  the  country. 

The  word  Malla  also  shows  in  its  Tarious  meanings 
all  the  vicissitudes  to  which  individuals  and  nations  are 
alike  exposed.  When  the  bearers  of  the  name  were  prosperous 
in  the  enjoyment  of  wealth  and  power,  kings  were  proud  to 
combine  the  term  Malla  with  their  own  appellation  in  order 
to  add  further  splendour  to  themselves,  so  that  the  word 
Mallaha  assumed  also  the  meaning  of  royal,  as  in  the  Mrccha- 
katika  ;^^  yet  when  the  wheel  of  fortune  turned  and  the  star 
of  the  Mallas  had  sunk  beneath  the  horizon,  the  former  term 
of  honour  became  degraded  into  a  byname  of  opprobrium 
and  was  applied  to  the  lowest  population,  so  that  Malavadu 
is  in  modem  Telugu  the  equivalent  of  Pariah. 

Still  the  recollection  of  former  splendour  is  not  forgotten 
and  is  cherished  among  the  Pariahs  or  Malas.  The 
Pariahs  or  Mahars  of  the  Maratha  country  claim  thus  to 
have  once  been  the  rulers  of  Maharastra.  And  this  is  not 
improbable,  for  not  only  are  the  Mahars  found  all  over  the 
country,  but  philological  evidence  is  also  in  their  favour.  An 
old  tradition  divides  the  Dravida  and  Grauda  Brahmans  into 

^'  See  Lassen's  Indische  Alterthumskunde,  vol.  I,  pp.  433,  434  (364), 
note  1:  "Die  Malasir  (Malliars,  Journal  of  the  R.A.S.,  II,  336)  im  Waldge- 
tirge  Malabars,  haben  keine  Brahmanen  oder  Guru,  verehren  als  ihren 
Gott  MaUung  einen  Stein.  Auch  die  Pariar  Malabar's  haben  in  ihren 
Tempeln  nur  Steine."  "Each  village  (of  the  Mala  Arayar)  has  its  priest, 
who,  when  required,  calls  on  the  Hill  (Mala),  which  means  the  demon  resi- 
dent there  ;"  see  Native  Life  in  Travancore,  by  the  Rev.  S.  Mateer,  p.  77. 
See  note  28. 

2^  Compare  such  names  as  Yuddhamalla,  Jagadskamalla,  TrailOtamalla, 
AhavamaUa,  TribhuvanamaUa,  &c.  See  about  the  Malla  Era,  Arehmolo- 
gioal  Survey  of  India,  toI.  VIII,  p.  203  ff,  and  about  Mallaka,  Wilson's 
Theatre  of  the  Hindus,  toI.  I,  p.  134. 


five  classes.    The  Slokas  whicli  contain  this  statement  are  as 
follows : — 

Maharastrandhradravidah  karnataSoaiva  gurjarah 

Dravidah  panoadha  prokta  Vindliyadaksinavasinali. 

Sarasvatah  kanyakubja  gaudotkalasoa  maithilah. 

Graudah  pancavidlia  prokta  VindhyaduttaraTasinah. 

Except  the  term  Mahdrdstra ,  all  the  other  names  refer 
to  Indian  tribes.  It  may  be  presumed  therefore  that  this  is 
true  likewise  in  the  case  of  Mahirastra,  and  that  this  name 
should  not  be  explained  by  "  Great  Kingdom."  Maharastra 
was  also  called  Mallarastra,  the  country  of  the  Mallas. 
The  Mallas  are  the  same  as  the  Maras,  who  are  better 
known  as  Mars  or  Mhars.  Mhar  was  eventually  trans- 
formed into  Mahar ;  in  fact  both  forms  exist  in  modern 
Marathi.  Two  terms  identical  in  meaning  Mallarastra 
and  Mahdrdstra  were  thus  used.  The  former  dropped  into 
oblivion,  and  with  the  waning  fortunes  of  the  Mahars, 
their  connection  with  the  name  was  soon  forgotten  and 
Maharastra  was  explained  as  meaning  the  "Grreat  Kingdom" 
instead  of  the  Kingdom  of  the  Mahars  or  Mallas.  It  is 
indeed  curious  that  the  word  Pariah  has  still  in  Marathi, 
the  meaning  of  Mahara,  for  the  term  Parardrl  corresponds 
to  Pariah,  and  is  used  in  Marathi  in  a  general  way  as  a 
courteous  or  conciliatory  term  for  a  Mahar. ^ ' 

2'  There  exist  other  SlStag  about  this   division.      The   SJcanda-Purdna 
contains  the  ahovementioned  SlOkas  also  in  the  following  form  :  — 

KarnataScaiva  Dra-idda  Gurjara  Eastravasinah 

Andhragca  Dravidah  pafica  Vindhyadaksinavasinah. 

Sarasvatah  Kanyaknhj  a  G-auda-Maithilakotkalah 

Panoa  Gauda  iti  khyata  Vindhasyottaravasinah. 
According  to  Dr.  John  Wilson  :  "  Maharatta  is  the  Pali  form  of  Maha- 
rashtra, which  with  the  variant  reading  Mallarashtra  appears  in  several  of 
the  Puranas.  .  Now,  Maharashtra  jna^j  mean  'the  country  of  the MahdrSy^  n- 
trihe  still  known  in  the  province,  though  in  a  degraded  position,  and  still  so 
numerous  throughout  the  Maratha  country  that  there  runs  the  proverb,  Jetiye 


The  proper  names  of  Mallayija  and  Malladu,  common 
among  the  Sudxa  and  Pariah  population  of  Southern  India, 
are  occasionally  like  Kuppayija  and  VSmhayya  ^*  given 
among  Brahmans  and  other  high- caste  people  to  a  hoy, 
when  the  parents  have  previously  lost  two  or  more  children. 
By  this  act  of  humility,  displayed  in  giving  a  low  name 
to  their  child,  they  hope  to  propitiate  the  deity  and  obtain 
for  their  offspring  the  health  of  a  poor  man's  child.  "With 
that  object  they  even  throw  the  infant  into  a  dunghill  or 
huppa  (Tamil  kuppai) ;  a  practice  which  has  given  rise  to  the 
name  of  Kuppayya. 

Step  by  step  the  Dravidians  receded  from  Northern  India, 
though  they  never  left  it  altogether.  The  Brahmanical 
supremacy  deprived  them  of  their  independence,  yet  not  all 
submitted  to  Aryan  customs  and  manners.  Scattered  remains 
of  the  Mallas  exist,  as  we  have  seen,  to  this  day  in  North- 

The  immense  chain  of  the  Vindhya  mountains  acted  as 
a  protecting  barrier,  otherwise  the  Dravidians  in  the  south, 

ganva  tenye  Mahara  vada.  '  Wherever  there  is  a  village  there  ia  the  Mahar 
ward. '  The  Mahars  are  mentioned  hy  the  cognomen  which  they  still  hear 
that  of  Parwari  {Uapovapoi)  by  Ptolemy,  in  the  second  century  of  the  Chris- 
tian era  ;  and  in  his  days  they  were  eridently  a  people  of  distinct  geogra- 
phical recognition."  See  Dr.  John  Wilson's  Ifbtes  on  the  Constituent 
Elements. .  of  the  Mardthl  language,  p.  xxiii  in  the  second  edition  of  the 
Dictionary  Marathi  and  English,  compiled  by  J.  T.  Molesworth,  Bombay, 
1857.— Consult  too  Dr.  John  Wilson's  Indian  Caste,  vol.  II,  p.  48  :  "The 
Mahars,  who  form  one  of  its  (Maharashtra's)  old  degraded  tribes,  and  are 
everywhere  found  in  the  province  say,  that  Maharashtra  means  the  country 
of  the  Mahars."  Compare  Notes  on  Castes  in  the  Dekhau,  by  W.  F.  Sinclair, 
Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  II  (1874),  p.  130.  See  also  Col.  Dalton's  Ethnology 
of  Bengal,  p.  264  :  "  We  have  a  tribe  called  Mai  or  Mftr,  scattered  over 
Sirguja,  Palamau,  Belounja,  &c." 

In  the  Vishnupurdpa  of  H.  H.  Wilson,  edited  by  Pitzedward  Hall,  vol. 
II,  p.  165,  Mallarastra  is  called  Vallirdstra,  and  it  is  conjectured  that 
Mallardstra  may  be  identical  with  the  Maharastra  (the  Mahratta  country)  of 
the  Puranas. 

'^  Vembayya  is  called  after  Vembu,  the  Margosa  tree,  the  representative  of 
bitterness.  Death  should  regard  in  consequence  the  child  as  too  bitter  and 
too  worthless  to  carry  it  off. 


unlike  their  brothers  in  the  north,  would  not  have  remained 
so  unmolested.  In  fact  the  Vindhya  mountains  were  by- 
degrees  recognized  as  constituting  the  natural  frontier 
between  the  Aryanised  nations  of  the  north  and  the  Dravi- 
dians  of  the  south. 

Aryan  colonisation  progressed  slowly  in  the  south.  The 
first  missionaries  appear  to  have  been  only  visitors  and 
sojourners  not  permanent  settlers  in  the  country,  whence 
they  retraced  their  steps  homewards. 

The  holy  Agastya,  according  to  one  tradition^*  a  grandson 
of  Brahma,  a  son  of  Pulastya,  a  brother  of  Visravas  and  an 
uncle  of  the  Raksasa  king,  Ravana,  is  said  to  have  remained 
in  the  South.  Many  miraculous  deeds  are  ascribed  to  this 
diminutive  sage.  He  is  said  to  have  been  instrumental  in 
the  destruction  of  the  powerful  Nahusa,  to  have  consumed 
and  digested  the  Eaksasa  Vatapi,  to  have  drunk  the  waters 
of  the  ocean,  and  to  have  forced  the  Vindhya  mountains  to 
prostrate  themselves  before  him.  This  last  feat  was  intended 
to  symbolize  the  fact  that  he  having  settled  down  for  good 
in  Dravlda,  became  the  originator  of  Brahmanical  coloni- 
sation. For  he  exacted  from  the  insurmountable  Vindhya, 
who  was  lying  at  his  feet,  the  promise  not  to  rise  again 
until  he  had  returned  and  recrossed,  and  as  Agastya  did  not 
come  back,  the  Vindhya  could  not  lift  its  head  again,  and 
since  then  the  mountain  became  passable  for  future  immi- 

-^  According  to  anotlier  tradition  he  was  bom  together  with  T'asistlia  in 
a  waterjar  (therefore  called  Kamhhnsamhhava,  Kiunbhayoni  and  Ghatodbhava) 
as  the  son  of  Mitra  and  Varuna  (therefore  Maitracdruni)  and  of  the  Apsaras 
Ufran.  In  the  Svayamhhuva  Manvantara  the  name  of  Agastya,  as  the  son 
of  Pulastya  and  Priti,  is  Dattoli.  According  to  the  Bhagavata-Purana 
Agastya  was  the  son  of  Pulastya  and  of  Havirbhu  and  was  called  in  a 
\>TQvion3'hiTt'h  Dahrd(/ni  or  Jatharar/iii.  (Sec  Vishnupur. ,  yo\.  Xj'p.  lo4.)  He 
is  also  called  Fitdbdhi  as  Ocean-drinker  and  Vdtajfidvls^  as  destroyer  of  Vatftpi. 
His  abode  is  fixed  on  the  mountain  Kunjara.  Many  hymns  of  the  Egveda 
are  ascribed  to  him.  Lassen  (vol.  II,  p.  23)  has  pointed  out  the  incongruity 
of  the  reports  respecting  the  time  when  he  lived,  as  he  is  mentioned  both  as 
a  conteniporrry  of  Anaataguna  and  of  Klrtipufaija  Pandya. 


grants.  Agastya's  residence  is  said  to  have  been  the 
mountain  Malayam  or  Potiyam,  not  far  distant  from  Cape 
Comorin  ;  in  the  firmament  he  shines  as  the  star  Canopus. 
To  him  is  ascribed  the  civilisation  of  South -India,  in  fact 
the  most  famous  ancient  Tamil  works  in  nearly  every  branch 
of  science,  such  as  divinity,  astronomy,  grammar,  and  medi- 
cine are  attributed  to  him.  In  consequence  he  is  specially 
called  the  Tamil  sage  (^"Stp  (Lpssfl). 

Explanation  of  the  teems  Dravida,  Tamil 
AND  Aravam. 

Sanskrit  is  called  in  South-India  the  northern  language  or 
pa  to  moU,  eui—  Qlditl^,  while  the  Dravidian  goes  by  the  name 
of  the  southern  language,  or  ten  moli  Qflasr  Olq^-l^.  Previous 
researches  have  established  the  fact  that  the  words  Dravida 
and  Tamil  are  identical  in  meaning,  that  both  resemble  each 
other  in  form,  and  that  Tamil  seems  to  be  a  derivative  from 
Dravida.  Yet  the  origin  of  the  word  Dravida  has  hitherto 
not  been  explained.  Though  Dravida  is  generally  restricted 
to  denote  Tamil :  Dravida,  Dramida  or  Dramila  is  also 
applied  to  denote  ancient  Malayalam  ;  in  fact  it  is  properly 
speaking  applicable  to  all  the  Dravidian  languages.  The 
word  Dramila  occurs  also  in  Sanskrit  literature.  I  derive 
Dramila  from  Tlnmiala  and  explain  it  to  signify  the  sacred 
Mala  language,  as  Sanskrit  is  kut  i^o-^^v  the  refined 
Aryan  language. 

It  is  immaterial  to  us  whether  Tint  is  an  original  Dra- 
vidian word,  or  a  derivation  from  the  Sanskrit  Sri,  prosperity. 
Some  of  the  best  Tamil  scholars  of  the  past  as  well  as  of 
the  present  day  have  declared  in  favour  of  tiru  being  a  pure 
Dravidian  word,  and  this  has  all  along  been  my  opinion  also. 
Tiru  was  probably  in  course  of  time  changed  to  tira  or  tara, 
then  contracted  to  tra  or  dra,  and  finally  to  ia  (da),  both 
letters  t  and  d  being  identical.  The  Veda  is  called  in  Tamil 
Tiruvdy,  the  sacred  word,  and  its  Tamil  adaptation  specially 



used  by  Vaisnavas  is  the  well-known  Tiruvay  Moli.  Tiruvay 
was  eventually  changed  to  Taramy,  which  is  now  generally 
used  in  the  sense  of  Veda-rcading.  The  word  Ottu  does  thus 
in  Malayalam  signify  Yeda  and  Veda-reading.  The  tini  of 
Tiruvallankodu  has  been  similarly  changed  to  tra  in  Travan- 
core,  both  alterations— Dravida  and  Travanoore — being  no 
doubt  due  to  the  same  Aryan  influence.  From  Dramala  to 
Dramila,  Damila  and  Tamil  is  a  short  step,  unless  Tamil  is 
directly  derived  from  Tixumala.  Dramila,  Dramida  and 
Dra^ada  are  Aryan  corruptions  of  Tirumala  and  found 
re-admission  into  the  South-Indian  languages  as  foreign 
expressions,  whose  signification  was  forgotten  and  defied 
explanation.  I  recognize  the  name  Tirumala  also  in  the 
Tamala  or  Damala  of  Ddmahi raruhhaijam  near  Pdndamanga- 
Inm  in  the  Trichinopoly  district.  Pandamangalam  is  regarded 
as  the  old  capital  of  the  former  kings,  among  whom  the  name 
Tirumala  did  not  unfrequently  occur.  Ubhayam  (s-uinta) 
is  anything  offered  or  devoted  to  religious  purposes,  and 
Ddmalavar ubhayam  denotes  therefore  the  offering  of  the 
Tirumala  people,  var  being  used  as  the  aflix  of  the  Tamil 
pronoun  of  the  third  person  plural.  Tinimalardja  is  in 
colloquial  Telugu  often  called  Tiramalarayalu,  as  Tirupati 
becomes  Tirapati.  Like  Ddiiuilacaruhhayam  might  be  men- 
tioned Ddmalaceruvu  in  North-Arcot,  Bdmal  in  Ohingleput, 
Damalapddi  in  Tanjore  and  others.  I  have  been  informed  on 
good  authority  that  the  last  place  is  to  this  day  also  known 
as  Tirumalapadi.  Yet,  my  derivation  of  Tirumala  does  not 
require  the  support  of  the  etymology  of  these  names. 

Another  but  rarer  form  of  Dramila  is  Drimila,  which  is 
derived  from  Tinimila,  as  Tripati  from  Tirujmfi,  Trikovil  for 
Tirukocil,  or  Trikal  for  Tinikdl.  The  fact  of  the  term  Tamil 
being  the  ultimate  derivative  from  Tirumala  (Tramala)  and 
denoting  a  special  Dravidian  dialect  will  perhaps  serve  in 
future  researches  as  an  historical  clue  for  fixing  the  period 
when  the  various  vernaculars  of  Southern  India  became  sepa- 


rate  and  distinct  languages.  If  the  Limijrike  (Ai,yi,vpiKr\)  of 
Ptolemy  (VII,  1,  8  and  85)  is  the  Dimirica  repeatedly  men- 
tioned in  the  Cosmography  of  the  anonymous  geographer 
of  Ravenna,  as  Bishop  Caldwell  has  clearly  pointed  out  by 
identifying  it  with  Damirice  or  the  Tamil  country  (see  p.  14 
of  the  Introduction  to  the  second  edition  of  the  Oomparntive 
Dravidian  Grammar),  the  work  of  Ptolemy  contains  the 
earliest  mention  of  the  word  Tamil. 

All  these  permutations  prove  the  continual  interchange 
of  m  with  the  other  labial  consonants,  and  of  /  into  the  d  and 
r  sounds.^® 

2^  Witli  respeet  to  the  above-mentioned  conjectures  a  few  observations 
are  perhaps  necessary. 

The  change  of  a  into  i  and  vice  versd  is  not  rare,  as  in  mala  and  inila, 
Damirica  and  Dimirica,  Ufa,  open,  and  tara.  Sea.,  Sen.  Tiniudy  and  its  slang 
alteration  into  Taravay a,re  both  Tamil  words,  though  the  latter  common  form 
has  been  introduced  into  Telugu  by  Telugu  J3rahmans — especially  by  Vais- 
nava  Telugu  Brahmans — -who  live  in  the  Tamil  country,  and  has  thus  found 
its  way  even  into  modern  Telugu  dictionaries.  The  term  Taravay  for  Veda- 
dhyayana  or  Vedopakrama  is  neither  found  in  Kanarese  and  Malay alam, 
nor  in  pure  Telugu.  The  most  important  lesson  which  Brahman  boys  have 
to  learn  at  and  after  their  Upanayanam  or  investiture  with  the  holy  thread 
are  Veda  mantras.  Children  generally  alter  words  so  as  to  suit  their  pro- 
nunciation, and  Tamil  boys  most  probably  invented  Taravay  for  Tirumy  as 
they  say  tara,  open,  instead  of  tira.  This  corrupted  form  found  eventually 
access  into  common  Tamil,  for  up  to  this  moment  Taravay  is  only  considered 
a  slang  term.  The  origin  of  the  word  once  forgotten,  tara  of  taravay,  was 
connected  with  the  word  laram  in  the  meaning  of  time  (once,  twice,  &c.), 
and  as  every  lesson  in  order  to  be  known  must  be  repeated,  so  also  the  reciting 
of  the  Veda  after  so  many  times  or  taram.  It  seems  to  be  overlooked  by 
those,  who  prefer  this  explanation,  that  the  term  Taravay  is  only  applied  to  the 
repetition  of  the  Veda  and  not  to  any  other  repetition,  that  if  tara  had  been 
taken  in  the  senss  of  "  time,"  it  ought  to  be  at  the  end  of  the  word,  and  that 
the  syllable  vay  gives  no  sense  in  taravay  unless  it  is  accepted  as  meaning 
Veda  or  holy  word.  Taravay,  taruvay,  in  taravata  and  taruvdta,  occur  in 
Telugu  in  the  meaning  of  afterwards,  as  do  in  Kanarese  taravdya  and  taru. 
vdya  ;  but  these  words  have  nothing  in  common  with  the  above-mentioned 
Tamil  Taravay.  The  elision  of  an  r  is  also  not  unfrequent,  as  trdguta,  to 
drink,  in  Telugu  becomes  generally  tdguta.  Already  Bishop  Caldwell  was 
struck  with  the  strange  formation  of  the  word  Dravida,  for  he  says :  "  The 
compound  dr  is  quite  un-Dravidian.  It  would  be  tira  in  Tamil ;  but  even 
if  we  suppose  some  such  word  as  Tiravida  or  Tiramida  to  have  been  con- 
verted into  Dravida  by  the  Sanskrit-speaking  people,  we  get  no  nearer  to. 


The  Telugu,  Kanarese  and  other  cognate  northern  races, 
when  they  had  forgotten  their  claim  to  the  name  of  Dra- 
vidians,  called  the  Tamil  language  Aravam.  This  word 
Aravam  is  most  likely  a  corruption  of  Dravidam.  Dravidam 
or  Dramilam  became  in  its  turn  Daramidam  (Daramilam), 
Aravidam  (Ara\ilam),  and  finally  Aravam.^'  However 
peculiar  these  changes  may  appear  to  the  uninitiated,  to 
the  scientific  philologist  they  can  afford  no  special  difhculty. 
Even  in  Sanskrit  we  occasionally  observe  an  initial  d 
dropped,  e.g.,  in  asru,  tear,  which  is  haKpv  in  Greek,  thrdne 
in    German,    and   lacnjma  in  Latin  ;    while  the  elision  of 

an  explanation  of  the  original  meaning  of  the  word."  See  Introduction 
to  Comparative  Ilravtdtn)^  Gyaminar,  p.  13. 

The  name  Tinunala  hecomes  in  colloquial  Telugu  also  Tiramala,  Tirmala 
and  Timma.  This  last  word  must  he  distinguished  from  Timiita  for  tim- 
mi(c!u  or  timmanna,  monkey.  Similarly  does  iuuibulamu,  hetel,  become  tama- 
lamu  (or  tammalamu)  and  tamma  ;  and  tdmara,  lotus,  tauiini. 

In  Tamil  the  verb  oiii  (|B<^)  means  to  recite  the  Vada,  while  ottu 
(sB^^)  signifies  the  Veda  itself.  Both  words  are  Tadhhavams  formed 
from  the  Sanskrit  word  Teda. 

^'  The  Tamil  form  Tirariditm  for  Dravidam  appears  to  prove  that  the  origin 
of  the  word/>/rtiJ^a  had  been  forgotten,  when  it  was  re-introduced  into  Tamil. 
As  the  Telugu  and  Kanarese  languages  do  not  insert  an  i  between  two  con- 
sonants in  the  same  manner  as  Tamil  does,  the  derivation  of  Aravam  from 
Dravidam  gains  in  probability.  In  Kanarese  the  Tamil  people  are  besides 
called  Tigahi-r,  which  I  am  inclined  to  consider  also  as  a  oorruptionfor  Trimala. 
The  r  in  the  first  syllable  was  dropped,  and  the  labial  in  the  second  has 
been  changed  into  a  guttural  (/,  as  is  not  mifrequent ;  compare,  e.g.,  Kudaman 
and  Kudavan  with  Kudagan.  Tigala  and  Arara  have  in  this  case  the  same 
meaning.  I  am  aware  that  the  Kov.  Mr.  Kittel,  whose  opinion  carries 
much  weight,  has  declared  that  the  original  form  of  Tig a(or  {Tigular)  was 

The  derivations  of  Aniram  hitherto  proposed  appear  to  me  to  he  in- 
appropriate. Dr.  Gundert  thought  it  could  be  connected  with  aram,  virtue, 
and  araran  woiild  have  the  meaning  of  a  moralist.  Others  preferred  the 
Tamil  word  arira,  knowledge,  and  ariran  or  aravan  represented  thus  the 
TamuUan  as  the  intelligent  person  of  the  South,  others  derived  it  from  an 
obscure  Tamil  district  Antra.  The  defect  of  these  etymologies  is  the  fact  that 
the  Tamil  people  ignore  the  word  aravam,  so  far  as  their  name  is  concerned. 
The  Telugu  pandits  are  in  favor  of  arara  meaning  a-rara,  without  sound,  for 
the  Tamil  language  does  not  possess  aspirates,  or  is  according  to  others  rather 
rough  ;  while  some  Kanarese  pandits  proposed  as  its  root  the  Kanarese  word 
arani.,  half,  or  deficient,  as  the  ancient  Kanarese  people  are  said   to  have 

or    BHAEATAVARSA    OR    INDIA.  29 

medial  consonants  is  not  at  all  unusual  in  the  Indian  vernacu- 
lars, Bestdramu,  Thursday,  in  Telugu,  e.g.,  for  Brhaspativara, 
jannidamu  for  yajnopavita,  dnati  for  ajnapti. 

The  importance  I  attach  to  the  derivation  of  Dravidian 
from  Tirumala  in  the  specified  sense  can  be  duly  appre- 
ciated only  when  one  considers  that  it  establishes  at  once  the 
prominent  position  the  Malas  (Mallas)  or  Dravidians  occupied 
in  the  whole  of  India.  It  may  perhaps  be  interesting  to  quote 
from  the  eloquent  preface  of  Hodgson  on  the  Kocch,  Bodo, 
and  Dhimal  Tribes  the  foUowiag  sentences,  in  which  the  term 
Tamulian  is  employed  as  equivalent  to  Dravidian.  "  The 
"  Tamulian  race,  confined  to  India  and  never  distinguished 
"  by  mental  culture,  offers,  it  must  be  confessed,  a  far  less 
"  gorgeous  subject  for  inquiry  than  the  Arian.  But,  as  the 
"  moral  and  physical  condition  of  many  of  these  scattered 
"members  of  the  Tamulian  body  is  still  nearly  as  little 
"  known  as  is  the  assumed  pristine  entirety  and  unity 
"of  that  body,  it  is  clear  that  this  subject  had  two  parts, 
"each  of  which  may  be  easily  shown  to  be  of  high 
"  interest,  not  merely  to  the  philosopher  but  to  the  states- 
"man.  The  Tamulians  are  now,  for  the  most  part,  British 
"  subjects  :  they  are  counted  by  millions,  extending  from 
"  the  snows  to  the  Cape  (Comorin)  ;  and,  lastly,  they  are  as 
"  much  superior  to  the  Arian  Hindus  in  freedom  from  dis- 
"  qualifying  prejudices  as  they  are  inferior  to  them  in  know- 
"  ledge  and  all  its  train  of  appliances.  Let  then  the  student 
"  of  the  progress  of  society,  of  the  fate  and  fortunes  of  the 
"  human  race,  instead  of  poring  over  a  mere  sketch  of  the  past. 

regarded  Tamil  to  be  a  deficient  language.     Bishop  Caldwell  has  treated  at 
some  length  on  this  subject  in  his  Introduction,  pp.  18-20. 

The  initial  consonant  is  often  dropped  in  Dravidian  languages,  e.g.,  in 
Tamil  Aval,  assembly,  for  cavai ;  alliyam,  village  of  herdsmen,  for  valUyam  ; 
alai,  rat  hole,  for  valai  and  palai ;  amar,  war,  from  Sanskrit  samara  ;  alam, 
plough,  from  Sanskrit  hala  ;  ita,  agreeable,  from  Sanskrit  hita  ;  in  Telugu 
esa,  haste,  for  vesa ;  ella,  white,  for  tella  ;  eyuta,  to  throw,  for  veyuta  ;  enu, 
1,  for  nenu  ;  wu,  thou,  for  nwu  ;  emu,  we,  for  iriernu,  &c.,  &c. 


"  address  himself  to  the  task  of  preparing  full  and  faithful 
"portraits  of  what  is  before  his  eyes  ;  and  let  the  statesman 
"  profit  by  the  labours  of  the  student;  for  these  primitive  races 
"  are  the  ancient  inheritors  of  the  whole  soil,  from  all  the  rich 
"  and  open  parts  of  which  they  were  wrongfully  expelled." 

As  points  of  minor  interest  I  may  as  well  here  mention 
that  the  words  Tirumal  and  Perumal  are  also  derived  from 
Mala  (Malla).  Both  terms  were  originally  the  titles  given 
by  the  Mallas  to  their  great  chiefs  and  kings.  Each  Perumal 
was  at  first  elected  to  rule  for  a  period  of  twelve  years,  and 
was  chosen  from  outside  the  country  to  govern  Malanadu 
or  Malay alam.  As  it  often  happens  elsewhere  with  royal 
names,  these  were  in  later  times  applied  as  honorific  appel- 
lations to  the  specially  revered  god,  in  this  instance  to  Visuu. 
The  terms  sacred  Mala  or  the  Great  Mala  being  once  oon- 
neoted  with  the  deity,  lost  their  original  meaning,  which 
was  in  course  of  time  entirely  forgotten.  This  circumstance 
explains  their  peculiar  derivations  so  often  found  in  Tamil 
dictionaries,  and  the  strange  attempts  of  grammarians  to 
explain  their  startling  formations.  The  name  of  Perumal, 
the  great  Mala,  is  still  a  royal  title  in  Malabar.^' 


The  Pariah  (Paeata,  Paharia),  Brahdi,  Bar  (Bhar), 
Mar  (Mhar),  &c. 

Before  I  turn  to  the  Mallas  known  as  Pallas,  I  shall, 
after  a    few  remarks,  discuss  the  position  of    the   Pariahs 

26  The  malin  Tirumal  is  generally  derived  from  mal,  illusion,  while  the 
same  mdlia  Perumal  is  explained  as  a  change  for  man  in  the  synonymous 
JPerumdn.  The  word  Tirumal  supplies  the  best  evidence  of  the  radical  nature 
of  the  I  in  Perumal. 

The  indigenous  title  of  the  South-Indian  Csra,  Cola  and  Panijya  king 
was  Perumal-     Mallan  was  the  name  of   a  Perumal  who  built  Mallur   in 


and  kindred  races.  The  Pallar  are  described  in  Dr. 
Winslow's  Tamil  and  English  Dictionary  as  "  a  low 
dependent  caste  employed  in  husbandry,  &c.,  under  their 
feudal  lords,  a  peasant  tribe  dwelling  in  the  south,  supposed 
to  be  a  change  of  Mallar,  LDefrmir."  Though  the  Pallar, 
like  the  Pallis  and  other  tribes  regard  themselves  as  the 
descendants  of  the  Pallavas  once  so  powerful,  they  them- 
selves neither  produce  nor  possess  sufficiently  reliable  his- 
torical evidence  in  support  of  their  claims,  which  nevertheless 
may  be  perfectly  weU-founded.  I  have  often  but  in  vain 
tried  to  obtain  some  authentic  information  from  the  various 
castes  in  corroboration  of  their  assertions,  but  I  have  only 
received  vague  and  unreliable  statements. 

Derivation  of  the  word  Pariah. 

If]  the  term  Pariah  is  considered  to  signify  every  out- 
oaste  from  every  caste,  then  the  Pariahs,  as  such,  do  not 
come  within  the  scope  of  this  discussion ;  for  though  the 
greater  part  of  them  belong  no  doubt  to  the  original  or 
rather  aboriginal  Dravidian  population,  from  which  they  have 
in  later  times  been  severed  by  hereditary  social  rules,  and 
though  they  in  their  turn  acknowledge  among  themselves 
caste  distinctions,  yet  as  every  outcaste  becomes  to  a  certain 
extent  a  Pariah,  the  term  Pariah  does  not  represent  now  a 
strictly  ethnological  sub-division. 

On  the  other  hand  it  must  be  admitted  that  irrespective 
of  this  foreign  element  which  has  been  added  to  the  Pariah 
community,  the  Pariahs  represent  a  distinctly  separate  class 
of  the  population,  and  as  such  wo  have  to  deal  with  them  here. 
The  general  name  by  which  the  Maratha  Pariahs  is  known 
is  Paravdri. 

Polanadu.  Mallan  is  also  called  a  rural  deity  whieli  is  set  up  on  the  border 
or  on  the  ridges  of  rice-fields.  Compare  Dr.  G-undert's  Malaydlmn  I/iction- 
art/,  p.  801,  and  note  21  on  p.  21. 


That  their  name,  in  spite  of  its  usual  derivation  from  para 
or  pared,  drum,  should  rather  be  connected  with  the  name 
of  the  original  Dravidian  population,  seems  to  me  to  admit 
of  no  question.  The  supposition  that  the  Pariahs  are  the 
drummer-caste  and  have  obtained  their  name  from  that 
instrument  appears  to  rest  on  a  weak  foundation.  It  is  most 
probably  an  afterthought,  the  more  easily  explicable  since 
the  lower  classes  delighted  in  the  noise  of  the  drum,  and  the 
name  of  the  drum -beating  class  was  transferred  to  the  instru- 
ment by  which  the  Pariah  made  his  presence  known.  The 
lute  of  the  Candala  (the  candala-vallakl,  canddlilid,  cdndalikd, 
kandoli  or  kanddla-vlad)  is  similarly  named  after  the  Candala, 
and  not  the  Candala  after  the  lute.  Moreover,  the  word^ara 
or  parai  is,  except  in  Malayalam  and  Tamil,  not  found  in 
the  other  Dravidian  languages  in  the  sense  of  drum  and  at 
the  same  time  as  the  name  of  the  Pariahs  ;  for  the  Pariah  is 
called  Holeya  in  Kanarese  in  spite  of  pare  signifying  a  drum, 
and  in  Telugu  he  is  known  as  Mdlavddu,  which  word  origi- 
nally signifies  mouutaiiieer  (see  pp.  21  and  56).  If  the 
Pariahs  were  really  the  caste  of  drummers,  they  would  most 
probably  be  called  so,  wherever  they  are  found  in  India. 

I  regard  the  Pariah  as  the  representative  of  the  ancient 
Dravidian  population,  and  as  having  been  condemned  to 
supply  his  name  to  the  lowest  layers  of  the  population,  as 
the  ancient  Stidras  after  their  subjugation  gave  their  name 
to  the  Sudra  caste.  It  will  be  subsequently  shown  that  the 
Canddlas  are  among  the  Gaudians,  what  the  Pariahs  are 
among  the  Dravidians.  This  connection  is  even  indicated 
by  the  name  of  the  Candalas,  which  resembles  those  of  the 
Kandaloi,  Khands  and  Gonds. 

I  think  that  the  word  Pariah,  the  Paramrl  of  the  Maratha 
country,  is  intimately  connected  with  the  names  of  the  Paratas, 
Paradas,  Paravar,  Pardhis,  Parheyas,  Paharias  or  Maler, 
Bars  (Bhars),  Brahuis,  Mars  (Mhars),  &c.,  &c.,  and  that  it 
designated  originally  a  iiiounfaineer,  from  the  Dravidian  root 


para,  preserved  in  the  Malayalam  para,  in  the  Tamil  fjar  and 
partii,  and  the  Telugu  ^wrw.  The  formation  of  the  word 
Pahdria  corresponds  probably  with  that  of  Muhdra,  and  as 
Mahara  or  Mahar  is  derived  from  Mhar  and  Mar,  as  Bahar 
is  from  Bhar  and  Bar,  so  may  also  Pahdr  be  regarded  as  a 
derivative  from  Phar  and  Par.^'' 

"  Bishop  Caldwell  remarks  on  p.  549  on  tMs  subject :  "  It  has  lieen  said 
"  that  the  name  Pareiya,  or  Pariah,  is  synonymous  with  that  of  the  Paharias 
"(from  pdhdr,  a  hill),  a  race  of  mountaineers,  properly  called  Malers, 
"  inhahiting  the  Rajmaha.1  Hills,  in  Bengal ;  and  hence  it  is  argued  that  the 
"  Pareiyas  may  be  considered,  like  the  Paharias,  as  a  race  of  non-Aryan,  non- 
"  Dravidian  aborigines.  It  is  an  error,  however,  to  suppose  that  there  is 
"any  connection  between  those  two  names.  The  word  Pariah,  properly 
"Pareiya,  denotes  not  a  mountaineer,  but  a  drummer,  a  word  regularly 
"  derived  from  parei,  a  drum,  especially  the  great  drum  used  at  funerals. 
"The  name  Pareiya  is,  in  fact,  the  name  of  a  hereditary  occupation,  the 
"  Pareiyas  being  the  class  of  people  who  are  generally  employed  at  festivals, 
"  and  especially  at  funerals,  as  drummers." 

The  improbability  of  this  derivation,  though  advocated  by  such  a  great 
authority  as  the  highly  esteemed  and  learned  Bishop,  has  been  pointed  out  by 
me.  Moreover,  it  may  be  remarked  that  Pariah  drummers  are  not  employed 
at  the  festivals  of  Brahmans. 

As  the  Dame  of  the  Pariah  is  thus  by  high  authorities  derived  from  parai, 
drum,  it  is  here  perhaps  not  out  of  place  to  mention  some  of  the  various  kinds 
of  drums  used  by  the  natives  of  Southern  India.  The  drums  vary  as  to 
their  size,  construction,  the  material  they  are  made  of,  and  the  manner  in 
•which  they  are  carried.  A  Samara  (Sanskiit  Damaru)  is  carried  by  a  buU,  a 
phanka  (Sanskrit  Bhakha)  on  a  horse,  a  Nagard  (of  Semitic  origin,  in  Arabic, 
e.g. ,  8)US ;  Tamil  Nakard)  by  an  elephant  or  camel,  and  a  Bher'i  (Sanskrit  Blien 
(t))  on  a  cart.  Other  kinds  of  drums  are  carried  by  men,  as  the  Tappattai,  a 
small  drum,  which  hangs  from  the  left  shoulder  and  is  beaten  under  the 
left  arm  from  below  with  a  stick  in  the  right  hand,  and  from  above  with  a 
smaU  stick  in  the  left  hand.  The  Tdsd,  a  small  semi-globular  shaped  drum, 
is  worn  in  front  round  the  neck  below  the  chest  and  beaten  with  two  small 
sticks.  The  Bol  (Sanskrit  BUla)  is  a  big  drum  which  is  also  carried  over 
the  neck,  but  is  beaten  only  with  one  stick  in  the  right  hand  and  with  the 
other  hand.  The  Parai,  which  has  the  euphemistic  name  cf  Alankdram,  is 
not  carried,  when  beaten,  but  lies  on  the  ground  between  the  feet  of  the 
drummer  and  is  used  at  festivals,  weddings,  and  funerals.  It  is  beaten  only 
by  a  particular  class  of  Pariah  the  Yettiyan,  who  burns  corpses  and  digs 
graves  It  is  therefore  neither  beaten  by  all  Pariahs  nor  used  m  common 
life  The  Tappattai  and  Td^o,  are  in  fashion  among  the  Pariahs  and  other 
low  classes,  though  Muhammedans  andSudras  practise  on  them  occasionally. 
The  beaters  of  the  other  drums  are  mostly  Sudras.  The  Kota.  and  the  Todas 
on  theN-ilagiri  also  have  the  Tappattai  and  Tasa.  The  term  paTa^  is  m 
TamU  now  used  as  the  general  term  for  drum.     I  believe  that  most  of  the 

34  on  the  original  inhabitants 

The  Brahuis. 

On  the  northern  frontier  of  India  near  the  Bolan  Pass 
not  far  from  the  seats  of  the  ancient  Bhalanas,  who  are 
mentioned  by  the  bards  of  the  Rg-veda,  begins  the  long 
chain  of  the  Bmhui  mountains.  This  mountain  range 
extends  continuously  from  the  vicinity  of  the  Bolan  pass 
to  Cape  Monze  on  the  Persian  Grulf,  and  is  to  this  day 
the  home  of  the  Dravidian  Brahuis,  who  must  be  regarded 
as  the  western  borderers  of  Dravidian   India.     The  origin 

above-mentioned  names  of  the  drums  are  merely  imitations  of  the  sounds 
these  instruments  make.  H.  H.  Wilson  introduced  by  mistake  the  "  Palaya 
or  Paraya ' '  in  his  translation  of  the  second  edict  of  ASoka.  The  Mdlalu  or 
Telugu  Pariahs  are  also  called  Mamiepiivdndlu  or  Highlanders  ;  see  hid. 
Anliq.,  vol.  VIII,  p.  218. 

Compare  Fr.  Buchanan's  History,  Antiquities,  Topography  and  Statistics 
of  Eastern  India,  edited  by  Montgomery  Martin,  vol.  II,  pp.  122,  123: 
'*  The  mountain  tribes  are,  I  believe,  the  descendants  of  the  original  inhabit- 
ants of  the  country,  very  little,  if  at  aU,  mixed  with  foreign  colonies.  Their 
features  and  complexion  resemble  those  of  all  the  rude  tribes,  that  I  have 
seen  on  the  hiUs  from  the  Granges  to  Malabar,  that  is  on  the  Vindhya  moun- 
tains. Their  noses  are  seldom  arched  and  are  rather  thick  at  the  points.. 
Their  faces  are  oval. .Their  lips  are  full.. Their  eyes.. are  exactly  like  those  of 
Europeans."  See  Lassen,  Indische  Alterthumskunde,  vol.  I,  pp.  454-458 
(1st  ed.,  pp.  380-384)  :  "  Die  Paharia  uennen  sich  selbst  Malar  oder  Berg- 
bewohner, .  .  sie  haben  dieselben  Ziige  und  die  Hautf arbe,  wie  alle  die  rohen 
Stamme  vom  Ganges  nach  Malabar  .  .  es  soU  die  Sprache  der  Paharia 
reich  an  Worten  eein,  die  dem  Tamil  and  Telinga  zugleich  angehbren."  On 
p.  1028  Lassen  remarks  in  note  5  :  "  Est  is  zu  bemerken,  dass  Pdrada  zwar 
auch  Bergbewohner  bedeutet  haben  wird." — I  believe  that  the  Parjas  of 
Jeypore  should  be  included  among  these  people,  though  Mr.D.  F.  Carmichael 
prefers  to  regard  this  name  as  a  corruption  by  metathesis  from  the  Sanskrit 
■word  Prajas,  subjects.  See  Manual  of  the  District  of  Vizagapatam,  p.  87 ; 
Madras  Census  Report  of  1871,  vol.  I,  pp.  223-225. — One  of  the  Koli  tribes 
on  the  Mahi  Kanta  hills  is  called  Pariah.  Two  Eajput  tribes  of  Mallani  are 
known  by  the  name  of  Paria  and  Pariaria. 

The  fishermen  in  Tinnevelly  are  called  Paravar  (or  Paratar  and  Paratavar). 
According  to  5Ir.  Simon  Casie  Chetty  in  his  "  Remarks  on  the  Origin  and 
History  of  the  Parawas  "  in  vol.  IV  of  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  So- 
ciety, pp.  130-134:  "It  is  the  general  belief  among  the  Parawas  that  their 
"  original  country  was  Ayudhya,  or  Oude  ;  and  it  appears  that  previously  to 
"the  war  of  the  Mahabharat,  they  inhabited  the  territory  bordering  on 
"  the  river  Yamuna,  or  Jumna...  In  that  section  of  the  Mahabharat  entitled 
"  Adipurva,  it  is  said,  that  the  king  of  the  Parawas  who  resided  on  the  banks 
"  of  the  Jumna,  having  found  an  infant  girl  in  the  beUy  of  a  fish  adopted 
"  her  as  his  own  daughter,  giving  her  the  name  of  Machehakindi,  and  that 

or    BHAKATAVARSA    OR    INDIA.  35 

of  the  names  of  the  Baluches  "o  and  of  the  Brahuis  is 
unknown,  but  I  believe  that  they  are  in  some  way  related 
to,  if  not  indeed  identical  with,  each  other.  I  recognise  in 
the  name  of  the  Paratas  3'  and  Paradas  who  dwelt  in  North- 
eastern Baluchistan, — which  country  coincides  with  the  Para- 
dene  of  Ptolemy,^^ — the  origin  of  the  modern  word  Brahui. 
Both  the  Sanskrit  as  well  as  the  Dravidian  languages  possess 
the  two  liquids  r  and  /,  yet  the  former  letter  seems  to  have 

' '  when  she  grew  up,  she  was  employed  (as  was  customary  with  the  females 
"  of  the  Parawa  tribe)  to  ferry  passengers  over  the  river.  On  a  certain  day, 
' '  the  sage  Fdrasara  having  chanced  to  meet  her  at  the  f eiTy,  she  became 
"  with  child  by  him,  and  was  subsequently  delivered  of  a  son,  the  famous 
"  Vyasa,  who  composed  the  Puranas.  Her  great  personal  charms  afterwards 
"  induced  king  Santanu,  of  the  lunar  race,  to  admit  her  to  his  royal  bed,  and 
"by  him  she  became  the  mother  of  Vachitravirya,  the  grandsire  of  the 
"  Pandavaa  ani.  KauroAxis..  Hence  the  Para  was  boast  of  being  allied  to  the 
' '  lunar  race,  and  call  themselves  accordingly,  besides  displaying  at  their 
"  wedding  feasts  the  banners  and  emblems  peculiar  to  it." 

This  is  the  story  of  Satyavatl  (MatsyagandhV) ,  the  mother  of  Vyasa  by 
Parasara,  and  of  Vicitravlrya  and  Citrafigada  by  Santanu,  which  is  told 
in  the  Adiparva  in  the  63rd  and  100th  chapters  and  elsewhere,  as  also  in 
the  Harivamsa,  XVIII,  38-45.  Compare  also  J.  Talboys  "Wheeler's  History 
of  India,  vol.  I,  pp.  60-62. 

It  is  peculiar  that  the  Palleva^dlu  in  the  Telagu  country  who  corres- 
pond to  the  Pajlis  in  the  South  are  mostly  fishermen,  though  the  same  term 
pallevdndlu  applies  also  to  villagers.  In  North  India  a  class  of  fishermen 
is  called  Malla.     The  name  denotes  the  tribe  and  not  the  occupation. 

^''  The  modern  Baluches  say  that  they  came  from  Aleppo  in  Syria.  Little 
is  known  about  the  origin  of  their  name.  It  resembles  that  of  the  Ballas 
and  Bhalanas,  though  it  is  unsafe  to  make  any  conjecture  in  this  respect. 

^'  See  Brhatsamhita,  x,  5,  7;  xiii,  9;  xiv,  21,  &c.  Varahamihira  men- 
tions the  Paratas  together  with  the  Ramatas,  and  with  other  nations  on  the 
northern  frontier  of  India,  e.g.,  Saka-Yavana-Darada-Parata-Kambojah. 
The  Paradas  occur  in  Manu  (x.  44),  in  the  Eamayana,  and  repeatedly  in  the 
Mahabharata,  HarivamSa  and  Visnupiirana. 

It  has  been  also  proposed  to  explain  Pdrada  as  meaning  a  people  living 
across  the  river,  in  this  case  beyond  the  Indus.  Such  a  name  could  hardly 
have  been  assumed  by  the  Paradas  themselves,  especially  if  they  had  never 
crossed  the  Indus. 

*^  When  describing  Gedrosia  Ptolemy  VI,  21,  4,  says:  la.  ^tv  oZv  iitX 
SaXaaax)  ttjs  x^P"^  KaTex"""^"  'Ip/3iTa>'  Kw/xai,  to  Se  iropo  Tr/v  Kap/j-aviaf 
Ilap(rlSat(il  Tlapirlpai),  ra  Se  iropa  Trif  'Apax'^<ria.i'  Movffapyatoi,  n  Se  ^eVr;  rfli 
X^poii  iraa-a  Ka\€iTai  TlapaSrjy-li,  Kal  vtt'  avT^v  napurcTivii,  juefl'  V  Ta  irpis  t$ 
'IcSip  KaTexovffi  'Pa/u.yai.     Besides  Parade iie  may  be  mentioned  as  connected  by 


been  preferred  in  more  ancient  times,  as  is  seen,  in  the 
Vedic  words  arani,  enough,  and  rardta,  forehead,  instead  of 
the  later  alam  and  laldta.  The  same  peculiarity  has  been 
observed  in  ancient  Iranian,  and  no  valid  objection  can  be 
raised  against  connecting  the  word  Parthva  of  the  cuneiform 
inscriptions  (the  classical  Parthiva)  with  Pahlav.  The  Par- 
thians  were  Scythians  or  Turanians  and  so  were  the  Pallas 
(Mallas)  of  India  and  their  neighbours  on  the  northern 
frontier  of  India. 

The  power  of  the  Parthians  becoming  supreme  in  Persia, 
the  name  became  identified  with  Persia,  and  after  the  disap- 
pearance of  the  Parthian  or  Pahlavi  kings  the  words  Pahlavi 
assumed  in  course  of  time  the  meaning  of  ancient  Persian 
and  even  of  ancient.  It  is  a  curious  coincidence  that  in  the 
Dravidian  languages  also  a  word  resembling  Palla  in  form 
means  old,  in  Tamil  and  Malayalam  pala,  in  Kanarese  ]}ale 
or  hale,  in  Tulu  para,  etc.  Under  these  circumstances  I  regard 
the  Bra  in  Brahui  as  a  contraction  of  Bara,  and  obtain 
thus  in  Bwrahui  a  name  whose  resemblance  to  that  of  the 
ancient  Barrhai  the  modern  Bhars,   as  well  as  to  that  of 

similarity  of  name  and  vicinity  of  geographical  position  the  districts  Farsia, 
Farsiana  and  Farsiene,  the  tribes  of  the  Farnoi  (Arsacea  and  Tiradates  are 
said  to  have  been  Pamians),  Farutai,  Farsidai  or  Farsirai  and  Farsyetai  and 
the  mountain  range  of  the  Faropainisos. 

According  to  the  command  of  the  king  Sagara,  the  Tavanas  shaved  their 
heads  entirsly,  the  Sakaa  shaved  the  upper  half  of  their  heads,  the  Faradas 
wore  their  hair  long,  and  the  Pahlavas  let  their  beards  grow.  (See  Hari- 
variisa,  XIV.  16-17). 

Sagarah   svftm    pratijnim  ca  gurOr  vakyam   nifemya  ca 

dharmam  jaghana  t6sam  vai  vgsanyatvam  cakara  ha.  15 

Arddham  Sakanam    siraao    mundayitva  vyasarjayat 

Yavananam  fiirah  sarvam  Kambojanam  tathaiva  ca,  16 

Paradft  muktakletei^ca  Pahlavah  smasrudharinah 
nissvadhaya  vasatkarah  krtah  t6na  mahatmana.  17 

Compare  also  Vishnu  Piirana  of  H.  H.  Wilaou,  edited  by  F.  Hall,  vol. 
Ill,  p.  294. 

Bishop  Caldwell  mentions  that  the  practice  of  wearing  long  hair  is 
characteristic  of  the  Dravidians.  (See  Diaridian  Grammar,  2nd  edit.,  Intro- 
duction, p.  114.)      Beards  are  also  worn  by  many  Dravidian  races. 


the  Paratas  and  Paravar,  and  their  kindred  the  Maratha 
Faravorl  and  Dravidian  Parheyas  of  Palamau  is  striting. 
It  is  also  not  impossible  that  the  country  ParaSa,  whicH 
corresponds  to  Northern  Baluchistan  and  not  to  Persia,  and 
is  meutioned  in  Hiven-Tsiang's  travels,  contains  the  same 
name.  The  interchange  of  r  and  I  is  equally  apparent  in 
the  name  of  the  Maras  or  Malas  of  Palamau,  who  derive 
their  origin  from  Malva.  The  connecting  link  between  the 
Brahuis  and  the  ancient  Dravidians  through  the  Bhars, 
Parheyas,  Mars  and  Malas,  &c.,  seems  to  be  thus  established." 

The  Bars  or  Bhars. 

After  the  Brahuis  the  aboriginal  Indian  race  of  the  Bars 
or  Bhars  claims  our  attention.  The  earliest  mention  of  them 
is  found  in   Ptolemy  VII,  2,  20,  where   they  are   called 

"  The  late  Dr.  Trumpp  was  fully  persuaded  of  the  DraTidian  character  of 
the  Brahui  language.  With  respect  to  the  explanation  of  the  name  most 
authorities  seem  to  admit  that  the  first  syllahle  Bra  is  originally  dissyllabic. 
The  Journal  of  the  Uoyal  Asiatic  Society  contains  in  vol.  SIX,  pp.  59-136 
"An  Essay  on  the  Brahui  Grammar"  after  the  German  of  the  late 
Dr.  Trumpp,  of  Munich  University,  by  Dr.  Theodore  Duka,  M.R.A.S., 
Surgeon-Major,  Bengal  Army.  On  p.  64  we  read  :  "  The  national  name, 
"  Br&hdi  is  pronounced  in  several  ways.  Nicolsonand  Maulawi  Alia  Bux 
"  spell  it  Biruhi  (that  is  Biroohi  or  Birouhi),  but  we  must  not  forget  that 
' '  Biruhi  (  f^^f  )  is  a  Sindhi  word,  and  it  is  therefore  difficult  to  say  how 
"  the  people  in  question  call  themselves.  In  Nicolson's  Reader  the  word 
"  occurs  twice  written  ^^»Ji\o,  which  cannot  be  pronounced  otherwise  than 
"  Br&hdi  or  BirahiSi,  and  this  should,  therefore,  be  adopted  as  the  proper 
"  pronunciation  of  the  word." 

This  statement  is  not  quite  correct ;  it  can  as  well  be  pronounced  Sarahuit 
for  \jj   large,  is  pronounced  hara,  and  oU},  abreast,  harabar,  &c. 

According  to  Mr.  C.  Masson  Brahui  is  a  corruption  of  Ba-roh-i. 

The  word  Brahui  appears  to  indicate  a  highlander,  for  a  tribe  of  the  Baluchis 
is  called  Nhdrui,  not  a  hiU  man,  i.e.,  a  dweller  in  the  plain.  The  Nharuia 
"may  be  considered  to  hold  the  same  place  with  reference  to  the  Brahuis  that 
'lowlanders'  do  to  ^highlanders '."  See  Th0  Country  of  Balochistan,  hy 
A.  W.  Hughes,  p.  29. 

My  derivation  appears  thus  to  have  a  good  foundation. 

See  Dr.  Fr.  Buchanan's  Eastern  India,  edited  by  M.  Martin,  vol.  II,  p. 
126  :  "  The  northern  tribe  consider  their  southern  neighbours  as  brethren, 
and  call  them  Maler,  the  name  which  they  give  themselves  ;  but  the  southera 
tribe,  shocked  at  the  impurity  of  the  others,  deny  this  consanguinity,  and 


Barrhai.  They  do  not  appear  to  be  specially  quoted  in 
Sanskrit  literature,  unless  the  wild  mountaineer  tribe  of  the 
Bhamtas,  who  ocexir  in  the  dictionaries  along  with  the 
Saharas,  is  considered  identical  with  them.  Sir  Henry 
M.  Elliot  thought  that  the  Bhars  might  perhaps  be  the 
Bharatas,  whose  descent  is  traced  to  Jayadhvaja.  According 
to  the  HarivamSa  the  Bharatas  are  very  numerous.  The 
Bhars  pronounce  their  name  very  harshly,  and  it  is  by  no 
means  impossible  that  the  well-known  Aryan  word  barba- 
rian, Barbara  or  Varvara  in  Sanskrit,  owes  to  a  certain 
extent  its  origin  to  them.^*  The  Bhar  tribe  is  also  known  as 
Rajhhdr,  Bharat  and  Bhdrpatva^^  There  is  some  contention 
between  the  Bhar  and  the  Rajbhar  as  to  superiority,  but  this 
is  a  difficult  point  to  decide;  some  regard  the  Eajbhars  aa 

moat  usually  call  the  northern  trihe  Chet,  while  they  assume  to  themselves 
the  denomination  of  Mai  or  Mar,  which  however  is  probahly  a  word  of  the 
same  derivation  with  Maler."  Compare  also  note  23  on  p.  22,  and  De- 
scriptive Ethnology  of  Bengal,  by  Colonel  E.  T.  Dalton,  p.  264  :  "We  have 
a  tribe  called  Mai  or  Mar.  .They  declare,  they  came  originally  from  Malwa. 
. .  Malwa  is  the  chief  seat  of  the  Bhil  race,  who  are  considered  aborigines  of 
that  district.  Malavas  and  Bhils  may  be  identical,  and  our  Pabarias  and 
Bhils  cognates." 

^*  See  Genl.  Sir  A.  Cunuingham  in  his  Archmohgical  Survey  of  India,  vol. 
XVII,  p.  140  :  "  "We  know  at  least  that  the  Aryans  ridiculed  the  aborigines 
on  account  of  their  burr,  and  gave  them  the  nick  name  of  barbaras,  or  barba- 
rians, from  which  we  may  conclude  that  any  words  containing  the  burred  r 
must  be  indigenous." 

The  word  barhar  is  spelt  in  Hindustani  barbar,  5>jj.  Compare  "Notes  on 
the  Bhars  and  other  Early  Inhabitants  of  Bundellthand,"  by  Vincent  A. 
Smith  in  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal  [1877],  vol.  XL VI, 
pp.  227-236,  where  in  the  first  note  on  p.  227  we  read  :  "  The  name  is 
usually  spelt  '  Bhar,  '  but  the  spelling  '  Bharr  '  would  more  accurately 
represent  the  pronunciation." 

^  See  Sir  Henry  M.  Elliot's  Stipplemental  Glossary  of  Indian  Terms,  vol. 
I,  pp.  33  and  34  :  "  Common  tradition  assigns  to  them  the .  .  whole  tract  from 
Gorakhpllr  to  Bundelkhand  and  Saugor,  and  the  large  Pargannah  of  Bhadoi, 
in  Benares  (formerly  Bhardai)  is  called  after  their  name.  Many  old  stone 
forts,  embankments,  and  subterraneous  caverns  in  GorakhpOr,  Azimgarh, 
Jaunpur,  Mirzapflr,  and  Allahabad,  which  are  ascribed  to  them,  would  seem 
to  indicate  no  inconsiderable  advance  in  civilization.  The  wild  Bhils  of 
Marwar  are  called  Bhaunrls,  but  I  know  not  whether  there  is  any  connexion 
between  them  and  the  Bhars.     The    Bhoyas   and  Bhuttias  of  Agon  and 


descended  from  the  old  Bhar  nobility,  who  themselves  claim 
to  have  been  formerly  Ksatriyas.  They  do  not  eat  swine's 
flesh  as  the  Bhars  do,  and  this  abstention  is  regarded  as  an 
indication  of  greater  respectability.  All  these  races  are  now 
very  much  mixed.  The  Bhars  are  often  mentioned  together 
with  the  Cherus. 

We  possess  very  little  information  about  the  ancient 
history  of  the  Bhars.  Legend  associates  their  name  with 
the  earliest  Aryan  heroes,  e.g.,  with  Rama  and  his  sons,  but 
the  Bhars  suddenly  disappear  from  the  scene,  and,  so  far 
as  history  is  concerned,  reappear  just  previously  to  the 
Mahommedan  invasion  of  India,  at  which  period  they  cer- 
tainly possessed  a  vast  territory,  and  were  indeed  the  real 
owners  of  the  soil. 

In  fact  the  Bhars  must  have  once  ruled  over  a  great  area 
of  country  stretching  from  Oudh  in  the  west  to  Behar  in  the 
east  and  Chota  Nagpur,  Bundelkund  and  Sagar  in  the  south. 
Their  name  still  survives  in  Bahar,  Bahraich  (Bharaich), 
Bara,  Baragaon,  Bara  Banki,  Barhapara  and  Barwan  in 
Oudh,  in  Bareilly,  Barhaj,  Barhar  (or  Bharhar)  in  the 
North-Western  Provinces,  in  Bar,  Barabar,  Baraghi  and 
Barhiya  in  Behar,  in  Barva  in  Chota  Nagpur,  and  in  many 
other  places.^^     Bara  in  Oudh  is  said  to  have  been  founded 

Singraull,  who  are  generally  classed  as  Ahlrs,  may  probatly  bear  some 
relation  to  the  Bhars,  though  no  trace  can  now  he  had  of  their  descent. 
The  Cherus  also  are  sometimes  said  to  be  a  branch  of  the  Bhars.  .  .  It  is 
strange  that  no  trace  of  Bhars  is  to  be  found  in  the  Puranas,  unless  we  may 
consider  that  there  is  an  obscure  indication  of  them  in  the  '  Brahma 
Purana,'  where  it  is  said  that  among  the  descendants  of  Jayadhvaja  are  the 
Bharatas,  who,  it  is  added,  '  are  not  commonly  specified  from  their  great 
number, '  or  they  may,  perhaps,  be  the  Bhargas,  of  the  Mahabharata, 
subdued  by  Bhim  Sen  on  his  Eastern  expedition.  The  Bhars  consider 
themselves  superior  to  Eajbhars,  notwith.standing  the  prenomen  of  Eaj, 
but  this  claim  to  superiority  is  not  conceded  by  the  Eajbhars.  They  do  not 
eat  or  drink  with  each  other." 

See  Barivarhia  XXXIII,  53  :  BharataSca  suta  jata  bahutvannanuklrttitah. 

3«  See  The  Bhars  of  Audh  and  Saniras,  by  Patrick  Carnegy,  Com- 
missioner of  Eai  Bareli,  Oudh,  printed  in  the  Bengal  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  45, 
p.  303  :  "  The  parganas  of  Bhardoi,  Bharosa,  Bahraich,  and  Bharoli  and  the 


by  a  Bhar  Raja  called  Bar  a,  while  the  foundation  of  Bdra 
Hanki  is  associated  with  J  as,  another  Bhar  Raja.  The  Linga 
on  the  top  of  the  Bdrahdr  hill  near  Gaya  was  according  to 
local  tradition  placed  there  by  a  Bar  Raja,  whose  combats 
with  Krsna  are  even  now  remembered  by  the  people. ''  This  is 
most  probably  an  allusion  to  the  Asura  Bdna,  the  son  of  Bali. 
The  Bdrhapdra  pargana  is  still  populated  with  aboriginal 
Bhars.  The  pargana  Bhddohi  or  Bhdrdohi  is  called  after 
them,  and  the  name  of  the  town  of  Bharaich  is  also  derived 
from  their  name.'' 

Traces  of  the  former  supremacy  of  the  Bhars  are  found 
scattered  all  over  the  country.  Most  of  the  stone  erections, 
fortifications,  as  well  as  the  embankments,  and  the  subterranean 
caves  in  Gorakhpur,  Azimgarh,  Janpur,  Benares,  Mirzapur, 
and  Allahabad  are  ascribed  to  them.  Such  forts  generally 
go  now  by  the  name  of  Bhdr-dih.  The  grand  ruins  known 
as  those  of  Pampapura  in  the  neighboui-hood  of  the  modem 

town  of  Bhartipur  (near  the  Bhar  capital,  Kusbhawanpur  alias  Sultftnpur), 
are  all  believed  to  derive  their  names  from  the  Bhars . .  Sleeman  also  mentions 
a  large  district  of  nearly  a  thousand  villages  near  Mahamdi,  which  even  in 
his  day  was  known  as  Bharwara,  now  occupied  by  Ahban  Rajpats."  Com- 
pare Bengal  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  46,  pp.  227  and  228  :  "  The  former  presence 
of  the  Bhars  in  the  Hamlrpur  District  is  attested  by  the  traditions,  which 
will  be  presently  described,  and  by  local  names  in  every  pargana.  A  few 
examples  of  such  names  out  of  many  may  be  of  interest ;  thus  the  old 
name  of  the  town  of  Sumerpur  (in  Parg.  ISumerpur)  is  Bharua,  and  in  the 
parganas  of  Maudha,  Panwari-Jaitpur,  Jalalpur,  and  Rath,  respectively, 
we  find  localities  named  Bharsawan,  Bharwara,  Bharkharl  or  Barkharl,  and 
Bhanraura  Kera,  and  in  several  of  these  cases  the  evidence  of  the  name  is 
confirmed  by  that  of  tradition."  With  respect  to  Baragaon  Genl.  Sir  A. 
Cunningham  [Arch<eologieal  Survey  of  India,  vol.  I,  p.  28)  says  :  "  By  the 
Brahmans  these  ruins  (of  Baiugaon)  are  said  to  be  the  ruins  of  Kundilpur 
. .  I  doubt  the  truth  of  this  Brahmanical  tradition,  more  especially  as  I  can 
show  beyond  all  doubt  that  the  remains  at  Baragaon  are  the  ruins  of  Nalanda, 
the  most  famous  seat  of  Buddhist  learning  in  all  India." 

**'  About  Barabar  compare  Arch.  Survey  of  India,  vol.  I,  pp.  40-53. 
Sir  A.  Cunningham  derives  the  name  from  "  bara  and  awara,  or  Barawara, 
the  great  enclosure  (see  p.  43),"  as  there  was  an  endosui'e  on  the  SiddheSvara 
hill.     See  ibidem,  vol.  "VIII,  pp.  35-37. 

'*  Genl.  Sir  A.  Cunningham  identifies  the  Bardaotis  of  Ptolemy  with 
Bharhut.  See  Arch.  Survey  of  India,  IX,  pp.  2-4  and  XXI,  p.  92. 
Compare  also  Bengal  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  XVI,  pp.  401-416. 


Mirzapur  probably  owed  their  origin  to  the  Bhars.  Mr.  C.  A. 
Elliot  states  that  "almost  every  town  whose  name  does  not 
"  end  in  pur,  or  ahdd,  or  moir,  or  is  not  distinctly  derivable 
"  from  a  proper  name,  is  claimed  by  tradition,  in  the  east  of 
"  Oudh,  as  a  Bhar  town.  The  district  of  Bharaioh  ...  is  their 
"  oldest  abode,  and  the  name  of  the  town  Bharaioh  is  said 
"  to  be  derived  from  them."  Traces  of  the  Bhars  abound 
according  to  Mr.  Duthoit,  late  Superintendent  of  the  Maha- 
raja of  Benares,  "  on  all  sides  in  the  form  of  old  tanks  and 
village  forts.  One  cannot  go  for  three  miles  in  any  direc- 
tion without  coming  upon  some  of  the  latter."  Not  very 
long  ago  the  Bhars  were  the  lords  of  the  soil  in  the  districts 
of  Benares  and  Oudh,  and  according  to  the  still  prevailing 
tradition  in  Azimgarh,  the  Raj  bhars  occupied  the  country  in 
the  time  of  Rama.  The  structures  left  by  the  Bhars  prove 
that  they  were  equally  proficient  in  the  arts  of  peace  and  of 
war.  The  remains  ascribed  to  them  are  especially  numerous 
in  the  Benares  district. ^^ 

Benares  or  Varanasi  (Baranasi)  lies  on  the  banks  of  the 
Barna  (or  Varana),  where  it  flows  into  the  Ganges.  I  am 
of  opinion  that  Bdrdna.-ii  owes  its  name  to  the  Bars  or 
Bhars.  I  assign  likewise  the  name  of  Behar  or  Bahar  to 
the  same  origin,  especially  as  the  Bhars  were  once  the  rulers 
in  this  district,  and  as  the  usual  derivation  from  Vihdra,  a 
Baddhist  temple,  seems  to  me  very  problematic,  the  more  so 

3'  Compare  Sherring's  Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  I,  pp.  357-375  on 
tlie  Bhar  tribe,  and  the  Archaologieal  Survey  of  India,  vol.  XII,  p.  89  : 
"It  is  said  tliat  Nagar  Khas  and  Pokhra,  and  the  land  generally  around 
"  the  Chando  Tal,  were  originally  in  the  possession  of  the  Bhars,  who  may 
"  possibly,  therefore,  have  founded  some  of  the  ancient  sites  in  that 
"neighbourhood."  Read  also  Bengal  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  XLV,  p.  305, 
about  the  Bharddis  (or  Bhar-abadis). 

On  the  other  hand,  Mr.  Smith,  ididem,  vol.  XLVI,  p.  234,  remarks  : 
"The  Bhars  of  Bundelkhand,  so  far  as  we  know  them,  seem  to  have 
"possessed  little  of  the  arts  of  civilization,  and  to  have  consequently  left 
"  behind  them  almost  nothing  of  architectural  or  artistic  interest." 



as  Behar  was  not  the  only  district  in  India  which  was  covered 
with  such  religious  buildings.  Not  far  north  from  the  old 
town  of  Behar  lies  to  this  day  the  district  and  village  of  Bar. 
Bahar  is  also  the  name  of  a  small  place  in  Oudh.  It  might 
perhaps  be  advisable  to  discontinue  deriving  the  names 
of  Indian  localities  from  Sanskrit  words,  as  has  been  usually 
done  hitherto,  unless  where  such  derivations  are  well  sup- 
ported. Greneral  Sir  A.  Cunningham  thinks  that  too  much 
stress  has  been  laid  upon  the  popular  traditions  which  ascribe 
nearly  all  the  ancient  remains  to  the  Bhars.*"  But,  impossible 
though  it  may  be  to  prove  the  authenticity  of  the  legends, 
it  can  hardly  be  doubted  that  a  good  deal  of  truth  does 
underlie  them. 

In  the  explanation  of  the  local  names  a  great  difEculty 
arises  because  many  words  of  Sanskrit,  Persian,  Arabic  and 

*"  See  Gren.  Sir  A.  Cunningham,  Archieological  Survetj  of  India,  vol.  XI, 
p.  67  :  "ft  has  been  the  fashion  to  refer  all  the  remains  of  antiquity  in  East- 
ern Oudh  to  the  barbarous  race  of  aboriginal  Bhars." 

Instead  of  proving  the  incorrectness  of  such  statements,  that  may  be, 
and  indeed  are,  wrong  in  some  cases.  Sir  Alex.  Cunningham  substitutes 
another  etymology,  to  which  also  many  real  objections  can  be  made.  He 
is  in  favor  of  substituting  for  the  name  of  the  Bhar  people  that  of  the  bar 
(banian)  tree,  which  is  in  Sanskrit  Vata.  Speaking  of  the  native  iurr  as 
mentioned  on  p.  38,  in  note  34,  he  continues  on  p.  140  of  vol.  XVII :  "To 
' '  this  class  I  would  refer  the  name  of  the  banian  tree,  hat,  which  is 
"  invariably  pronounced  bar  or  war,  with  a  burring  r.  Hence,  as  da  means 
' '  water  in  several  of  the  aboriginal  dialects,  we  have  Wardd,  or  the  '  Banian 
"  tree  river.'  That  this  is  the  true  derivation  of  the  name  seems  nearly 
"  certain  from  the  plentifulness  of  the  banian  tree  in  the  Warda  district, 
"  where  we  also  find  the  names  of  War-ora,  Warar,  Wargaon,  IVarhona, 
"  Warha,  V^argai,  Warjhari,  Warkuli,  Warnera,  and  Wadnera,  and  Sadnera, 
' '  several  times  repeated ;  and  even  the  name  of  Berar  itself  is  said  to  be 
"  properly  War  Sdr  or  Barhdr,  the  country  of  the  bar,  '  a  banian  tree.'  " 

Some  of  these  etymologies  appear  very  doubtful,  especially  those  of 
Wargaon  and  Berar.  I  should  perhaps  remark  that  the  places  given  by 
Sir  Alex.  Cunningham  differ  from  those  quoted  by  me  on  p.  39.  It  is  also 
peculiar  that  most  of  the  localities  above  mentioned  are  written  with  an 
initial  VF.  Compare  also  the  notices  about  the  Banian  {Bar)  forests  in 
the  Haveli  pargana  in  the  Arehaolog ical  Survey  of  India,  vol.  XVIII,  pp. 
52-54,  and  vol.  XXII,  pp.  13-15. 


other  origin   are  very  similar  to  the  tribal  name   of  the 

These  people  formed  no  doubt  a  considerable  portion  of 
the  old  population  of  Northern  India.  Though  the  Aryan 
power  was  for  some  time  paramount  in  this  part  of  Bharata- 
varsa,  and  our  historical  accounts  about  the  Bhars  begin 
at  a  considerably  later  period — in  fact  after  the  Buddhist 
reformation — we  are  as  yet  unable  to  define  the  time  of  the 
supremacy  of  the  Bhars.  I  am  of  opinion  that  the  Aryan 
invaders  subdued  the  Bhars,  and  kept  them  in  the  back- 
ground till  they  in  their  turn  were  vanquished  by  other 
intruders.  The  non- Aryan  population  continued  to  occupy 
the  ground  as  previously  in  the  capacity  of  landowners, 
farmers  and  serfs.  The  Buddhist  re- action  brought  them 
again  to  the  front.  Some  of  them  who  were  landholders  or 
farmers  were  called  Bhumiyas,  from  Bhumi,  land,  and  are 
now  known  by  this  name.*^ 

*'E.g.,  bar,  ihdr,  bhara,  Tjurden;  bd7-,  signifies  also  in  Hindustani 
according  to  tlie  various  words  from  which  it  is  derived,  time,  water,  prohibi- 
tion, &c.  ;  bars,  boy,  barah,  twelve,  bar,  excellent,  barr,  wasp,  bard  and 
bard,  large,  bar,  Indian  figtree,  &c. 

'2  See  General  Sir  A.  Cunningham  in  the  Archieological  Suirey  of  India, 
vol.  XI,  pp.  130-131 :  "  There  is  a  ruined  fort  on  the  hiU  above  the  viUage 
"  (Bhuili).  The  derivation  of  the  name  is  not  known,  but  I  suspect  it  to  be 
"  connected  with  the  great  tribe  of  Bhu'ias,  and  that  it  may  be  only  a 
"  slightly  altered  form  of  Bhuidla.  The  Bhuias  are  by  far  the  most  numer- 
"  ous  class  in  the  Chunar  and  Sahsaram  districts.  They  are  evidently  the 
"  aborigines  or  old  inhabitants  of  the  country.  Buchanan  writes  the  name 
"  Bhungihar,  but  I  beBeve  that  the  proper  appellation  is  simply  Bhumia,  or 
"  men  of  the  earth,  or  autochthones,  a  title  given  to  them  by  the  Brahmans. 
"  They  generally  caU  themselves  Musaliar." 

See  the  Sistory,  Antiquities,  Topography  and  Statistics  of  Eastern  India, 
edited  by  Montgomery  Martin;  London,  1883,  vol.  I,  p.  163:  "The 
"  Bhar  have  been  fuUy  mentioned  in  my  account  of  Puraniya,  in  the  north- 
"  western  parts  of  which,  and  in  the  adjacent  parts  of  Trrahut  and  Nepal 
"  they  were  at  one  time  the  governing  tribe  ;"  further,  pp.  176,  177,  178  : 
"  In  this  district  the  most  numerous  of  these  tribes  is  called  Musahav,  and  they, 
"probably  Uke  the  Bhungiyas,  are  the  remains  of  the  armies  of  Jarasandha. 
"In  some  parts,  Musahars  and  Bhungihars  are  reckoned  two  names  for 
"  the  same  tribe,  which  is  probably  a  just  opinion  (176).     The  Eajtcars  are  a 


As  many  changed  or  disowned  their  tribal  name,  the 
seeming  disappearance  of  the  Bhars  can  be  explained  to  a 
great  extent.     They   were  also   largely   absorbed  by  other 

"  pretty  numerous  tribe  (177).  They  pretend  that  their  common  ancestor  waa 
' '  a  certain  Rishi,  who  had  two  sons.  From  the  eldest  are  descended  the 
"  Eajwars,  who  became  soldiers  and  obtained  their  noble  title ;  from  the 
"  younger  are  descended  the  Musahars,  who  have  obtained  their  name  from 
*'  eating  rats  which  the  Rajwars  reject. . .  They  differ  in  scarcely  any  of  their 
' '  customs  from  the  Musahars ....  The  Rajivar  and  £hunffii/as  are  allowed  to  be 
"  higher  than  the  Musahars . . .  .They  all  speak  a  very  impure  dialect  of  the 
"Hindi.. The  Musahars  live  chiefly  in  little  round  huts,  like  bee-hives; 
"  but  the  huts  of  the  Bhungiyaa  and  Rajwars  are  of  the  usual  form.  The 
"  Bhungiyaa  and  Rajwars  have  chief  men  called  Majhis,  like  those  of  the 
"hill  tribes  in  Bbagalpur."  (178);  vol.   II,  p.   119. 

About  the  Musaharread:  "  The  Musheraa  of  Central  and  Upper  India," 
by  John  0.  Nesfield,  in  the  Calcutta  Eevieio  of  January  1888,  pp.  1-53. 
On  p.  2,  Mr.  Nesfield  says:  "In  Buchanan's  Eastern  India  they  are 
"  described  as  a  people  'who  ha^e  derived  their  name  from  eating  rats.' 
"  In  an  old  folk-tale,  which  has  recently  come  to  my  knowledge,  the  name 
"  is  made  to  signify  flesh-seeker  or  hunter  (being  derived  fron  masu,  flesh, 
"andAfr«,  seeker)." 

Compare  Dalton,  Ethnology  of  Bengal,  pp.  81,  82,  92,  130,  148— 

"  The  Kocchis  then  gave  a  line  of  princes  to  Kamrup  ;  at  this  time  a  part 
' '  of  Upper  Asam  was  under  a  mysterious  dynasty,  caUed  the  Bhara  Bhuya, 
"  of  which  no  one  has  ever  been  able  to  make  anything  (81)  .  .All  the  works 
"still  existing  in  the  deserted  forests  of  the  northern  bank  of  the  Brahma- 
"  putra  are  attributed  to  the  Bhara  Bhungyas  or  Bhuyas  (82).  (Buchanan, 
"vol.  II,  p.  612,  mentions  already  the  legend  of  the  12  persons  of  Bdrah 
"  Bhniyas.).  .The  Konh  appear  to  me  equally  out  of  their  element  among  the 
"  Lohitic  tribes . .  In  short  I  consider  thej'  belong  to  the  Draridian  stock,  and 
"  are  probably  a  branch  of  the  great  Bhuiya  family,  and  we  thus  obtain  a  clue 
"  to  the  tradition  of  the  Bhara  Bhuiyas,  to  whose  period  of  rule  so  many  great 
"  works  in  Asam  are  ascribed(92). 

According  to  Colonel  Dalton,  p.  327,  the  Rajwars  in  Sirguja  "  are  skilled 
"  in  a  dance  called  CJiailo,  which  I  believe  to  be  of  Draridian  origin."  See 
the  two  articles  "On  the  Barah  Bhuyas  of  Eastern  Bengal,"  by  Dr.  James 
Wise,  in  the  Bengal  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  LXIII,  pp.  197-214,  and  vol.  LXIV, 
pp.  181-83.  Dr.  Wise  relates  the  history  of  five  Bhuyas,  i.e.,  of  Fazl  Ghazi  of 
Bhowal,  Chand  Rai  and  Kedar  Eoi  of  Bikrampur,  Lakhan  Manik  of  Bhaluah, 
Kandarpa  Narayana  Rai  of  Chandradlp,  and  Isa  Khan,  Masnad-i-Ali  of 

Compare  further  Xote  on  Mahastlxnn  near  Bagurd  (Bogra),  Eastern  Bengal, 
by  C.  J,  O'Donnell,  ibidem,  LXIV,  pp.  183-186.  On  page  183  we  read: 
"  With  regard  to  Mahasthan  he  (the  District  Deputy  Collector)  seems  more 
"correct.  He  identifies  it  with  Bdrendra,  the  capital  of  the  Barendra 
"Hindus.     In  favour  of  this  view  the  only  arguments  are  strong,  though 


castes  and  communities,  but  a  sufficient  number  of  them  still 

Many  Rajputs  have  Bhar  blood  in  their  ~  veins,  and 
Dr.  Francis  Buchanan  went  so  far  as  to  state  that  the 
Parihdra  Rajputs  of  Shahabad  are  descended  from  the 

"  simple.  The  whole  country  between  the  Ganges,  the  Mahananda,  Kamiup, 
"and  the  Karatoya,  was  undoubtedly  the  old  Barendra  Desha.  To  the 
"  present  day,  much  of  it  is  called  '  Bariud.' . .  All  round  it,  however,  there 
' '  are  shrines,  holy  wells  and  embankments  connected  with  the  name  of 
' '  Bhlma,  one  of  the  Pandava  brothers  . .  Bhima  is  said  to  have  made  a  large 
"  fortified  town  south  of  Mahasthan,  which  is  marked  by  great  earthworks 
' '  altogether  about  eight  miles  long,  and  still  in  places  as  much  as  twenty 
' '  feet  high.  The  whole  country  between  them  and  Mahasthan  is  in  places 
"  covered  with  bricks.. .  .  It  may  be  mentioned  in  connection  with  Mahasthan 
"  that  there  is  a  legend  that  on  a  certain  occasion  twelve  persons  of  very 
"high  distinction  and  mostly  named  Pala  came  from  the  west,  to  perform 
"  a  religious  ceremony  on  the  Karatoya  river,  but  arriving  too  late,  settled 
"  down  on  its  banks  till  the  next  occurrence  of  the  holy  season,  the  NarayanI, 
"  which  depends  on  certain  conjunctions  of  the  planets,  and  was  then  twelve 
' '  years  distant.  They  are  said  to  have  buUt  numerous  places  and  temples, 
"  dug  tanks,  and  performed  other  pious  acts.  They  are  said  to  have  been 
' '  of  the  Bhuinhar  or  Bhamau  Zamindar  tribe,  which  is,  at  the  present  day, 
"  represented  by  the  Rajas  of  Banaras  and  Bhettia."  See  also  Archceological 
Survey  of  India,  vol.  SV,  p.  115. 

"The  Census  of  1881  counts  382,779  Bhars,  of  whom  20,870  live  in 
Bengal,  1,639  in  the  Central  Provinces,  and  360,270  in  the  North-Western 

«  See  Dr.  Buchanan's  report  in  Montgomery  Martin's  vol.  II,  p.  463  : 
"  In  the  account  of  Shahabad  I  have  mentioned,  that  those  pretending  to  be 
such  {Farihar  Rajputs)  were  in  fact  Bhars  or  Bhawars,  and  the  same  might  be 
supposed  to  be  the  case  here  (in  Gorukhpoor) ,  where  the  Bhars  were  once  lords 
of  the  country  ;  but  the  Bhars  here  do  not  pretend  to  have  any  kindred  with 
the  Parihars,  and  the  latter  are  not  only  allowed  to  be  a  pure  but  a  high 
tribe ;"  and  vol.  I,  493  :  "  The  tribe  of  palanquin-bearers,  including  Farihar 
Rajputs,  Majbangsi  Bhars,  and  Sajbars  amounts  to  about  500  families." 

Compare  P.  Carnegy  in  the  Bengal  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  XLV,  p.  300-2. 
"  Many  years  of  the  official  life  of  the  writer  have  been  devoted  to  duties 
'■  which  involved  the  examination  of  the  genealogies  of  some  of  our  oldest 
"  and  best  native  families,  and  the  results  of  his  inquiries  have  led  him  to 
"the  following  conclusions:  (1)  that  not  a  single  member  of  the  landed 
"  gentry  or  local  priesthood  can  trace  back  to  an  ancestor  who  held  an  acre 
"  of  land,  or  who  administered  a  spiritual  function  within  the  area  under 
"  inquiry  during  the  Bhar  supremacy  ;  (2)  that  scarcely  any  of  them  can 
"  trace  back  to  an  ancestor  who  came  into  Audh  at  the  Muhammadan  advent, 


The  Bhars  like  other  tribes  have  embraced  the  diiferent 
creeds,  which   from   time   immemorial  prevailed  in  India ; 

' '  when  the  Bhars,  who  were  then  in  universal  possession  of  the  land,  were 
"  overthrown  ;  and  (3)  that  the  great  mass  of  the  landowners  of  to-day  can 
*'  trace  no  fuiiher  back  than  to  an  ancestor  whose  origin  is  easily  discovered 
"  to  be  both  indigenous  and  spurious.  . .  I  have  found  the  opinion  so  gener- 
"  ally  entertained  that  there  was  a  Rajput  conquest  and  colonization  of 
"  Audh,  that  it  requires  a  distinct  answer. .  .1  have  not  discovered  the  exist - 
' '  ence  of  any  such  central  tradition  of  conquest  by  Rajputs  from  without , . 
' '  I  can  refer  to  the  histories  of  many  Rajput  clans, . .  but  none  of  them  declare 
*'  .  .the  arrival  of  an  army  of  clansmen,  and  colonization  by  the  victors  with 
"  their  families  and  kin.  The  very  fact  of  the  singular  connections  to  which 
' '  so  many  of  the  clans  trace  their  descent  is  opposed  to  the  idea  of  a  con- 
"  quest  by  arms.  An  orthodox  Hindu,  the  conqueror  of  a  low-born  race, 
' '  would  not  have  founded  a  family  by  an  alliance  which  his  religion  sternly 
"  rebuked. .  .It  is  finally  noticeable  that  the  Audh  clans  who  claim  an  extra- 
' '  provincial  origin,  trace  their  descent  to  single  Chatris,  and  not  to  troops 
"  of  Rajput  invaders.  Such  are  the  Bais  of  Baiswara, .  .and  the  Rajkumars. 
"  .  ."With  these  two  exceptions  none  of  the  clansmen  of  eastern  Audh  claim  a 
"western  origin.  In  regard  to  the  third  class,  it  is  always  invidious  to 
*'  enter  into  details  of  pediprers,  but  a  few  amongst  very  many  available 
' '  instances  may  be  given.  The  Kanpnria  is  one  of  oni  most  important 
"  clans  ;  so  is  the  Bandelgot.  In  twenty  generations  according  to  the 
"  members,  both  these  pedigrees  are  lost  in  obscurity  ;  but  what  the  world 
"  says  is  this,  that  they  are  the  offspring  of  mal-alliances  between  two 
"  Brahman  brothers,  and  women  of  the  Ahir  and  Dharkar  tribe.  The 
"  Amethia  is  not  an  unimportant  clan.  They  call  themselves  Chamar-gor 
"Rajputs,  and  their  generations  are  not  longer  than  the  other  named. 
"  What  the  world  says  of  this,  is  that  a  Chamar-gor  is  the  offspring  of  a 
"  Chamar  father  and  a  Gor-Brahman  woman.  Moreover  within  the  memory 
' '  of  man,  an  Amethia  Chief  has,  according  to  Sleeman,  taken  to  wife  the 
"  grand-daughter  of  an  ex-PasI  Chowkildar  and  raised  up  orthodox  seed 
"  unto  himself.  The  Elaotars  are  another  numerous  clan  with  but  half  the 
' '  number  of  generations,  and  with  precisely  a  similar  parentage  as  the  Kan- 
"  purias  (Brahman- Ahir).  Their  name  is  taken  from  Rawat,  an  Ahir  chief. 
' '  The  Pulwars  are  influential  and  numerous,  and  of  these  it  is  said  that  they 
"are  descended  from  a  common  ancestor,  who  had  four  wives,  of  whom 
"  one  only  was  of  his  own  status,  the  others  being  a  Bharin,  an  Ahirin,  and 
"another  low  caste  woman.  Here  we  have  a  Hindu-Bhar  origin  freely 
"admitted.  The  Bhalesaltan  clan,  also,  is  comparatively  modern,  and  of 
"  equivocal  Ahir  origin.  There  are  numerous  families  of  Bais,  too,  who  are 
"  in  no  way  related  to  the  Tilokchaudl  Bais  of  Baiswarft.  The  former  are 
"  modern  and  equivocal,  the  term  Bais  being,  it  may  be  mentioned,  the  most 
"  ready  gate  by  which  enlistment  into  the  fraternity  of  Rajputs  could  for- 
' '  merly  be  achieved ....  Finally,  all  those  landovraing  families,  who  can  only 
"  urge  an  indigenous  origin,  must,  whether  they  admit  it  or  not,  recognise 
"the  fact  that  they  are  descendants  of  Bhars,  for  every  acre  of  land  was 


but  Buddhisin  and  Jainism  were  naturally  more  popular 
than  any  other  foreign  religion.** 

A  considerable  number  of  Bhars  fills  the  post  of  village 
policemen,  while  others  are  ploughmen,  but  the  vast  majority 
of  this  race  are  now  in  a  miserable  condition. 

In  spite  of  the  abilities  they  exhibit  when  suitably 
employed,  and  in  spite  of  the  reputation  of  their  ancestors 
which  has  survived  to  this  day,  the  descendants  of  the  ancient 
rulers  of  the  land  have  now  lost  nearly  everything  and  are 
reduced  to  the  most  abject  condition. 

The  Mars,  Mhars,  Mahdrs,  Mhairs  or  Mers. 

While  speaking  about  the  Mallas  I  availed  myself,  on  pp. 
21  and  22,  of  the  opportunity  of  introducing  the  Mahars  or 
Mhars,  whom  I  recognised  as  the  people  who  had  given  their 
name  to  MaMrdsfra.  But  it  was  not  to  that  country  alone 
that  the  Mahars  were  confined,  for  they  have  always  been 
occupants  of  Rajputana.  The  provinces  which  now  go  by  the 
name  of  (Ajmere)  Mhairwara  and  ( Jodhpur)  Marwar  are  their 
ancient  home.  "  The  Mair  or  Mera  is,"  according  to  Colonel 
Tod,  "  the  mountaineer  of  Rajpootana,  and  the  country  he 
"  inhabits  is  styled  Mairtcarra  or  the  region  of  hills."  These 
hillmen  by  and  bye  populated  the  plain  and  are  also  foimd 
there.*^  They  remained  masters  of  the  soil  until  they  were 
ousted  later  on  by  victorious  invaders.  As  chiefs  and 
warriors,  Hke  other  aboriginal  tribes,  they  have  a  claim  to  be 

' '  owned,  and  the  country  was  throughout  peopled  by  these  alone  and  by 
"  no  others." — Compare  also  the  article  "On  the  Bhar  Kings  of  Eastern 
Oudh,"  by  W.  0.  Benett,  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  I,  1872,  pp.  265 
and  266. 

**  Compare  Bengal  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  XLV,  p.  303. 

**  See  Annals  and  Antiquities  of  Majasthan  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  James 
Tod,  vol.  I,  680. — The  name  of  Marwdr  is  generally  connected  with  Sanskrit 
maru,  desert,  mountain,  rock.  I  believe  this  derivation  to  be  wrong, 
though  it  gives  a  pretty  good  explanation  of  the  diversified  nature  of  the 
country,  which  ia  hilly  in  one  part  and  arid  in  the  other. 


called  Rajputs,  for  the  name  of  Rajput  or  Rajaputra  confers 
only  a  social,  and  not  an  ethnological  distinction.  The 
term  Rajput  is  generally  applied  to  an  Aryan  Ksatriya, 
though  everybody  knows  that  the  victors  intermarried  freely 
with  the  vanijuished  non-Aryans,  who  were  nerer  totally 
annihilated,  and  that  the  Mars  and  other  non -Aryan  tribes 
claim  relationship  with  the  Rajputs. 

No  real  ethnological  difference  between  a  Mar  (Mhar, 
Mahar)  and  a  Mhair  (Mer)  has  been  found  to  exist.  It 
has  been  previously  mentioned  that,  according  to  Colonel 
Dalton,  "  Mar  or  Mala  is  a  very  uncertain  name  applied 
"  to  or  assumed  by  different  people  in  different  parts  of  India, 
"  but  it  may  be  that  there  is  some  affinity  between  all  the 
"  tribes  who  bear  it."*' 

Many  Mara  (Mhars)  have  clung  to  their  hills  as  strong- 
holds ;  some  have  comfortably  settled  down  as  cultivators, 
while  by  far  the  greater  part  are  exposed  in  consequence  of 
their  indigence  to  severe  oppression,  and  are  treated  like 
Pariahs,  In  fact,  the  history  of  the  Mar  (Mhar)  resembles 
that  of  the  Bhar  and  the  Pariah,  and,  like  the  latter,  he 
has  also  retained  in  the  Dekhan  a  small  amount  of  influ- 
ence. For,  according  to  Mr.  R.  N.  Gooddine,  "  he  is  the 
"  watchman  and  guardian  of  the  village  and  the  living  chro- 
"nicle  of  its  concerns.  His  situation  or  his  curiosity  makes 
"  him  acquainted  with  everybody's  affairs,  and  his  evidence 
"  is  required  in  every  dispute.  Should  two  cultivators  quarrel 
"  respecting  the  boundaries  of  their  fields,  the  Mhar's  evidence 
"  ought  to  decide  it,  and  should  a  similar  quarrel  happen 
"  between  two  villages,  the  Mhars  are  always  the  chief  actors 

*'  See  Tod's  Rajasthan,  vol.  I,  681  ;  Hunter's  Imperial  Gazetteer  of 
India,  vol.  T,  97:  "All  the  inhabitants  of  Mhairwara  bear  the  common 
title  of  Mairs  or  hillmen,  which,  however,  must  be  regarded  rather  as  a 
geographical  than  as  a  social  or  religious  distinction  ;"  and  VII,  514,  "  Most 
of  these  (the  Mmas  and  Mhairs)  claim  irregular  descent  by  half-blood  from 
Rajputs,  while  some  of  them  are  closely  connected  with  the  Bhlls." 


"  in  it,  and  to  their  decision  alone  it  is  sometimes  referred. 
"  Tlie  Mhar  is  emphatically  called  the  village-eije"^^ 

The  Maravar. 
The  Maravar  in  Madura  and  Tinnevelly  likewise  claim 
the  position  of  Eajputs,  and  if  we  regard  them  as  a  warrior 
tribe,  they  are  entitled  to  this  distinction.  They  are  also 
most  probably  in  some  way  connected  with  the  Mars  of  the 
north.  The  Maravar  have  to  a  great  extent  preserved 
their  freedom  and  independence.  They  are  brave,  warlike, 
and  self-willed  like  most  semi -barbarous  races,  but  they 
have  latterly  taken  to  more  peaceful  pursuits  than  they  used 
to  follow  formerly.  They  were  once  very  numerous,  but 
are  now  greatly  reduced  in  numbers.  Their  chief  is  the 
Setupati  of  Ramnad,  one  of  the  oldest  and  most  respected 
princes  in  Southern  India,  and  who  is  still  highly  honored  by, 

'"  See  this  extract  from  Mr.  R.  N.  Gooddine's  Report  on  the  "  Village 
Communities  of  the  Dekhan,"  in  vol.  II,  pp.  207-208  of  Rev.  M.  A.  Sher- 
ring's  Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  as  well  as  Sherring's  further  remarks. 

Mr.  W.  F.  Sinclair  says  (see  Indian  Aiitiquaty,  vol.  Ill,  1874,  pp.  130, 
131):  "The  ilahdrs  or  Ithtds  are  the  most  important  caste  of  Parwaria. 
Whether  they  are  the  aborigines  of  the  country  or  not,  there  does  not  seera 
to  he  any  way  of  deciding  ;  but  it  seems  to  me  that  the  term  Mabftrashtj-a, 
generally  translated  '  country  of  the  Marathas,'  is  at  least  as  likely  to 
mean  'country  of  the  Mahara;'  and  I  tHrow  this  out  for  more  learned 
Sanskritists  to  decide  upon.  However,  they  are  a  very  important  people  in 
it  now,  nor  must  it  be  supposed  that  their  position,  though  socially  low, 
is  without  its  rights  and  dignities  .  .  .  The  Mahar,  a>s  I  have  mentioned, 
is  not  only  the  guardian  of  boundaries,  but  also  of  the  public  peace  and 
health,  as  watchman  and  scavenger  ;  of  communications,  for  he  should  g-uide 
travellers  and  make  petty  road  repairs  ;  and  of  the  public  treasure  and 
correspondence,  for  it  is  his  duty  to  carry  the  revenue  to  the  treasury,  and 
convey  all  messages  on  account  of  Government.  It  will  be  seen  that  he 
has  no  sinecure  (and)  .  it  is  obvious  that  he  is  not  one   '  of  the  Queen's 

bad  bargains.'  These  duties  belong  to  the  Mahar  as  yeslar,  or  village 
watchman  .  .  .  But  the  Tara.1  or  gate- ward,  an  officer  found  in  a  good 
many  villages,  is  generally  also  a  Mahar  by  caste.  The  term  Bhed  is  simply 
Hindustani  for  a  Mahar  and  is  found  as  we  go  northward."  Compare  "  Two 
I^ectures  on  the  Aboriginal  Race  of  India,"  by  Lieut.. General  Briggs,  Royal 
AHiahf  S'tc.  Jo'fjiinl,  XIII,  pp.  275-309,  specially  p.  281.  See  my  remarks 
about  the  origin  of  the  term  Mahdrditra  on  pp.  22  and  23. 



and  exacts  honors  from,  the  surrounding  chiefs  and  princes. 
The  active  life  which  the  Maravan  leads  in  the  open  air  has 
imparted  to  him  great  bodUy  strength.  He  can  be  easily 
distinguished  from  other  natives  by  his  good  figure  and 
generally  erect  and  proud  bearing. ^^ 

The  Pariah,  Paharia,  Parheya,  the  Brahui,  Bar  or  Bhar 
and  the  Mar,  Mhar  or  Mahar  of  our  day  should,  as  I  hope  to 
have  proved,  be  regarded  as  the  descendants  of  the  original 
Dravidian  population.  I  am  of  opinion  that  all  these  tribes, 
whose  names  contain  the  letter  r,  are  the  representatives 
of  the  first  and  oldest  stratum  of  the  Dravidian  race,  and  that 
the  descendants  of  the  Mul/a  or  Pal/a  are  those  of  the  second 
stage,  from  which  the  other  part  of  the  present  Dravidian 
population  has  been  gradually  evolved. 

Religious  and  Social  Privileges  enjoyed  by 


In  Mysore  the  Holii/a  or  Holej/a  (joj®Sai:,  ^jsSodo 
takes  the  place  of  the  Pariah.  The  word  Holiya  may  be 
another  form  for  Palaiya,  unless  we  assume  that  the  /  in 
Holiya  is  a  change  from  /•  and  connect  the  word  Holiya  with 

However  despised  a  position  the  Pariah  and  the  Holij-a 
occupy  in  the  places  where  they  Hve,  they  have  preserved 
and  still  cherish,  as  the  Mhar  and  Bhar  do,  the  memory 
of  former  greatness  and  regard  themselves  as  the  original 
owners  of  the  soil.  Political  revolutions,  about  which  we 
now  know  nothing,  have  most  probably  been  the  cause  of 

*9  Maravan  also  means  originally  monntnineer,  but  Mr.  Nelson  in  his 
Miinnal  of  Madura,  has  quotoil  (II,  p.  39)  a  legend,  according  to  which  the 
Maravar  aided  with  Eama  against  Ravana,  and'  Kama  thanked  them  and 
"  exclaimed  in  good  Tamil,  Momven  or  '  I  will  never  forget '  ;  and  that  they 
"  have  ever  since  been  called  Maravans.  With  more  probability  the  name 
"  may  be  comicctod  with  the  word  marain,  Ld/D'}),  which  means  killing, 
"  foi'ocity,  bravery  and  the  like."  See  Nelson's  Mmmal,  II,  p.  3S-42,  on 
the  Muravar. 

01-    BHARATAVARSA    OR    INDIA.  51 

tlieii-  subversion  by  other  kindred  Dravidian  tribes.  Yet, 
considering  the  unstable  nature  of  the  Indian  states,  the 
continual  disturbances  and  fighting  which  give  to  Indian 
history  such  an  unpleasant  and  unsatisfactory  appearance, 
there  seems  nothing  peculiar  in  the  claims  advanced  by  those 
Pariahs,  who  are  in  reality  the  descendants  of  the  original 
inhabitants.  The  Pariah  calls  himself  to  this  day  the  elder 
brother  of  the  Brahman,  claiming  in  this  manner  precedence 
of  the  Brahman.  The  Brahmans  on  the  other  hand  ascribe 
the  origin  of  the  Pariahs,  Candalas,  and  other  low  castes  to 
the  connection  of  Brahman  women  with  low  caste  men,  or  to 
the  curse  which  sages,  like  Visvamitra,  were  so  fond  of  utter- 
ing against  their  own  flesh  and  blood,  or  against  any  one 
who  was  unfortunate  enough  to  come  across  them  at  an 
inauspicious  moment.  The  legend  of  the  curse  of  Visva- 
mitra's  sons  is  interesting,  as  it  ascribes  to  them  the  origin 
of  some  wild  tribes  like  the  Andhras,  Pundras,  Sabaras, 
and  Pulindas.^" 

The  Pariahs  have  according  to  the  Ndnaretti  eighteen 
titles  like  the  Yellalar  and  possess  also  the  same  insignia.*' 

The  chief  goddess  of  the  Pariahs  is  called  Attal  or  Animal, 
mother,  and  represents  Parvati  as  mother  of  the  earth,  while 

™  The  elder  filt.y  of  the  hundred  sons  of  Visrdmitra  offended  their  father, 
and  being  cursed  by  him,  became  outcastes  and  the  forefathers  of  all  the 
wild  tribes. 

According  to  an  old  tradition,  found  in  the  Piiranas  and  retold  in  the 
Kulasankarami'la  of  Veiikatacalacaryar  of  Eayapuram  and  in  the  Kanarese 
Somtsvaras<>taka^  Vasistha  was  the  son  of  Urvasi,  the  famous  divine  prosti- 
tute, and  the  husband  of  a  Candala  woman  of  the  Cakkili  caste,  who  was  in 
reality  Arimdhati,  reborn  as  a  Candall.  As  such  she  bore  him  one  hundred 
sons,  ninety-six  of  whom  disobeyed  their  father  and  reverted  to  the  Pancama 
(fifth;  or  Pariah  caste,  while  the  four  others  remained  Brahmans. — Agastya 
was,  as  already  intimated  on  p.  24,  n.  25,  in  this  birth  the  brother  of  Vasistha. 

^'  Among  these  insignia  are  mentioned  the  following  :  white,  earth-circle 
umbrellas  ;  lion,  swan,  green  and  white,  monkey  {Hmwinan),  cuckoo,  plough- 
handle,  wheel  and  lion  faced  flags  ;  a  trumpet ;  closely  carried  torches  {arulcu) 
and  day  torches  ;  victorious  bells,  two  white  chowries,  white  elephant  ; 
white  horse  ;  ivory  palanquins  ;  cuscus  fan,  flute  ;  white  petticoat,  two  poles 
with  cloth  across  the  street  {makaratoruna),  golden  pot,  &c. 


as  Pidari  she  ressmbles  through  her  evil  inclinations  Kali. 
Different  personifications  of  Parvati  and  Kali  are  variously 
named,  as  Velattal  (Elattal),  Nagattal,  Egattal,  Cemattal, 
Mariyattal  or  Mariyamman,  Angalamman,  Ellamman,  Pun- 
ganamman  (Pungattal),  &c.  Temples  are  found  everywhere 
in  South  India,  and  she  is  generally  the  village  goddess. 
Mar  ill  am  man,  the  goddess  who  inflicts  and  removes  small-pox 
and  other  diseases,  is  found  among  the  Gauda-Dravidians 
of  the  whole  of  India. 

The  feasts  of  these  goddesses  extend  over  a  week  and  last 
occasionally  sixteen  days.  During  the  whole  of  this  time  a 
Pariah  is  kept  clothed  and  fed  in  the  temple  as  the  accepted 
bridegroom  of  the  goddess.  High  across  the  streets  festoons 
of  margosa  leaves  are  hung,  and  on  the  last  day,  while  pots 
filled  with  water  are  carried  by  the  people  and  the  idol  is 
taken  in  procession  round  the  streets  of  the  village,  tom- 
toms are  beaten  in  honor  of  the  Pariah  bridegroom,  and  after 
he  has  fasted  and  bathed,  he  gets  a  new  cloth  dyed  with 
saffron,  and  the  priest  fastens  a  quarter  anna  piece  to  the 
right  hand  of  the  goddess  and  another  to  that  of  the  Pariah. 
This  ceremony  is  called  kdppu,  s/tljl/. 

The  name  Velattal  is  commonly  explained  as  mother  of 
Subrahmanya,  from  Vel  and  Attal.  Nagattal  is  regarded 
to  signify  the  same  from  Nagan  (Subrahmanya)  and  Attal. 
Some  Tamil  scholars  however  do  not  favor  this  explanation. 
When  revered  in  these  forms  Parvati  or  Kanj^akumari  is 
regarded  as  a  Pariah  woman  or  Matangi. 

Tlie  Pariahs  enjoy  even  now,  in  many  places,  privileges, 
the  origin  of  which  cannot  be  explained  except  by  admitting 
the  existence  of  substantial  reasons,  which  have  long  been  for- 
gotten. A  Pariah  ties  to  this  day  the  tali  round  the  neck  of 
Egattal,  the  tutelary  goddess  of  Black  Town  in  Madras.  The 
Pariah,  who  acts  as  the  bridegroom,  arrives  at  the  temple 
about  ten  days  before  the  feast  commences  and  is  treated  as 
described  above.     At  Pemmbui;  near  Madras,  the  same  deity 


is  called  Ceimtlal,  mother  of  safety.  In  Mysore  a  Holiya 
is  generally  the  priest  of  the  village  goddess,  and  the  Kulvadi 
or  Pariah  headman  of  the  village  community  is  regarded 
as  the  real  proprietor  of  the  village.  At  Melkota  a  Holiya 
presents  to  Celvapillai,  or  utsava-idol,  which  is  thus  called  as 
it  is  carried  in  procession  at  the  festival,  a  hranch  of  the 
Cami  or  Vahni  tree  to  be  used  as  an  arrow  for  his  bow  at 
the  hunting  festival  {paricettai),  and  while  the  idol  is  moving 
in  procession,  a  Pai'iah  huntsman  lets  a  hare  run  across 
the  road  in  front  of  the  car  that  the  god  may  shoot  at  it ; 
this  done,  the  idol  returns  in  grand  procession  to  the  temple. 
The  Pariah  receives  as  a  reward  {pdritosihvm)  a  garland,  the 
flowers  of  which  are  distributed  among  the  heads  of  the 
large  conflux  of  Pariahs.  This  hunting  festival  is  in  Mala- 
yalam  called paUiretta,  or  royal  hunt.  It  is  just  possible  that 
pari  and  palli  are  identical  words.  The  Holiyas  pull  the  car 
at  Melkota  and  are  not  ilebarred  from  approaching  it.  They 
pull  also  the  ropes  of  the  cars  at  Kancipuram,  Kumbha- 
konam,  Srivalliputtur,  and  other  places.  In  fact  they  do  so 
wherever  there  are  big  temples.  To  obviate  any  unpleasant- 
ness arising  on  such  occasions,  it  is  laid  down,  as  a  rule,  that 
the  touch  of  Pariahs  and  outcastes  who  come  to  revere  the 
deity  does  not  pollute. 

Devalayasamipasthan  devasevartham  agatan 
Oandalan  patitan  vapi  sprstva  na  snanam  acaret.^^ 
The  Holiyas  are  permitted  in  Melkota  to  enter  the  Tiru- 
narayana  temple  on  three  days  of  the  year.  The  Brahmans 
ascribe  this  privilege  to  the  circumstance  that  a  poor  but  pious 
Pariah  had  observed  that  a  cow  approached  every  day  a 
white  ant's  hole  and  let  her  milk  drop  into  it.  He  searched 
and  discovered  that  the  image  of  Celvapillai  was  concealed  in 
it.     In  consequence,  the  Pariah  took  compassion  on  the  cow 

62  One  need  not  bathe  if  one  touches  Candalas  or  outcastes,  who  stand 
near  the  teu:ple  and  have  come  to  worship  God. 

•54  ox    THE    ORIGlNAr.    INHAIilTANTS 

an<l  supplied  her  daily  with  folder.  The  great  VaiMiava 
reformer,  Bhagavat  Ramauujacarya,  had  at  the  same  time 
been  dreaming  of  this  Celvapillai  image,  and  the  Pariah 
showed  it  to  him.  As  a  reward  for  this  act  of  piety,  Rama- 
nujacarya  allowed  the  Pariahs  to  enter  the  temple  in  future 
for  three  days  of  the  year.  Others  say  that  this  favor  was 
granted  because  the  Pariahs  had  protected  him  in  their 
paraiceri,  when  he  was  pursued.  Very  likely,  the  privilege 
is  of  older  origin.     A  similar  custom  prevails  in  Kadiri.^^ 

It  is  most  peculiar  that  the  origin  of  the  famous  Jagan- 
natha  temple  is  also  closely  connected  with  the  low-caste 
Pariahs.  A  Sacnra  mountaineer,  called  Bdsu,  worshipped  in 
secret  the  blue  stone  image  of  Jagannatha,  to  obtain  which 
the  powerful  king  of  Malva,  Indradyumua,  had  despatched 
Brahmans  to  all  quarters  of  the  w(jrld.  One  of  them  pene- 
trated at  last  into  the  wilderness  where  Basu  lived.  Basu 
detained  the  Brahman,  made  him  marry  his  daughter,  and 
led  him  after  some  time  blindfolded  to  the  place  where  the 
image  of  Jagannatha  was  lying  concealed.     The  Brahman 


"■  Compare  "Archseological  Notes,"  liy  JI.  J.  Walhouse  in  the  Iiidir 
Aiitiqunnj,  vol.  TIT,  1874,  p.  191  :  "  It  is  well  known  that  the  servile  castes 
in  Southern  India  once  held  far  higher  positions,  and  were  indeed  masters  of 
the  land  on  the  arrival  of  the  Brahmanical  caste.  Many  curious  vestiges  of 
their  ancient  power  still  survive  in  the  shape  of  certain  privileges,  which 
are  jealously  cherished,  and,  their  origin  being  forgotten,  are  much  mis- 
understood. These  pii\'ilegee  are  remarkalde  instances  of  survivals  from  an 
extinct  order  of  society — shadows  of  hmg-departed  supremacy,  hearing  wit- 
ness to  a  period  when  the  present  haughty  high-e;iste  ruees  were  suppliants 
before  the  ancestors  of  degraded  classes  whose  touch  is  now  regarded  as  pollu- 
tion. At  Melkotta,  the  chief  seat  of  the  followers  of  Eftmanuja  Acharya, 
and  at  the  BrAhraan  temple  at  Bailur,  the  Holeyars  or  Pareyars  have  the 
right  of  entering  the  temple  on  three  days  in  the  year,  specially  set  apart  for 
them.  At  the  '  bull-games  '  at  Dindigal,  in  the  Madura  district,  which  have 
some  resemblance  to  S|ianish  bull-fights,  and  are  very  solemn  celebrations, 
the  Kallar,  or  robber  caste,  can  alone  officiate  as  priests  and  consult  the  pre- 
siding deity  On  this  occasion  they  hold  quite  a  Saturnalia  of  lordship  and 
arrogance  over  the  Brahmans.  In  the  great  festival  of  Siva  at  Trivalm-,  in 
Tanjore  the  head-man  of  the  Pareyars  is  mounted  on  the  elephant  with  the 
god,  and  carries  his  chiiiiri.  In  MaiJi-as,  at  the  rmnual  festival  of  the  god. 
dess  of  the  Black  T^jwn,  when  a  tail  is  tied  round  the  neck  of  the  idol  iii  the 


worshipped  the  god,  and,  after  the  lapse  of  some  time,  was 
able  to  commuuioate  his  discovery  to  the  king.  As  the  king 
was  very  proud  of  his  power,  the  god  Jagannatha,  in  order 
to  punish  his  pride,  did  allow  him  to  build  the  temple,  but 
did  not  manifest  himself  personally  to  Indradyumna.  This 
favor  was  granted  him  after  prolonged  delay,  and  it  was 
only  with  the  help  of  the  Savara  Basu  that  the  image  could 
finally  be  obtained  and  removed.  Until  very  recently, 
pilgrims  of  all  castes  and  outcastes  frequented  Puri  and  par- 
took together  of  their  meals,  as  the  presence  of  Jagannatha 
is  said  to  destroy  all  distinctions  of  caste,  race,  and  faith  ; 
but  now  out-castes  are  no  longer  allowed  to  enter  the 
sanctuary  and  to  join  in  the  eating  of  holy  food,  though 
the  food  prepared  and  sanctified  at  Puri  can  be  eaten  by 
Brahmans  anywhere,  even  in  the  presence  of  the  ■  lowest 
people.  The  descendants  of  Basu  are  thus  debarred  from 
worshipping  personally  their  own  divinity. 

Many  Pariahs  have  attained  high  renown  as  poets  and 
saints.     Take  for  example,  TinivaUiwa  Nayanar,  the  author 

flame  of  the  entire  community,  a,  Pareyar  is  chosen  to  represent  the  hride- 
groom.  In  Madras,  too,  the  mercantile  caste,  and  in  Vizagapatam  the 
Brahmans,  had  to  go  through  the  form  of  asking  the  consent  of  the  lowest 
castes  to  their  marriages,  though  the  custom  has  not  died  out."  See 
Sir.  J.  D.  B.  Gribhle's  Manual  of  Cuddapalt,  p.  241. 

See  Comparative  Grammar  of  the  Dravidian  Laiiffiiar/eshy  Bishop  Caldwell, 
second  edition,  p.  548  :  "  Thus,  at  the  annual  festival  of  Egattal,  the  only- 
mother — a  form  of  Kali,  and  the  tutelary  goddess  of  the  '  Black  Town  '  of 
Madras— when  a  tali,  or  bridal  necklace  (answering  to  our  wedding  ring), 
was  tied  round  the  neck  of  the  idol  in  the  name  of  the  entire  community,  a 
Pareiya  used  to  be  chosen  to  represent  the  people  as  the  goddess'  bridegroon: ." 

I  am  indebted  to  the  Rev.  H.  Jensen  of  the  Danish  Lutheran  Mission 
for  my  statement  concerning  the  continuation  of  the  service  of  a  Pariah  at 
the  Egattal  temple  in  Black  Town. 

Major  J  S.  F.  Mackenzie  has  contributed  on  p.  36  of  volume  VIII  of 
the  Indian  Antiquary  an  article  on  the  "  Customs  of  the  Comti  Caste."  Most 
of  the  statements  that  note  contains  I  have  repeatedly  heard  in  Madras,  and 
I  myself  possess  some  documents  confirming  them.  I  quote  this  subject  here 
merely  as  it  ought  not  to  be  entirely  omitted,  and  as  it  affords  strong  evidence 
of  the  great  influence  and  authority  once  enjoyed  by  the  now-despised 
Pariahs— an  influence  which  apparently  is  exercised  even  at  the  present 

56  ON  thp:  original  inhabitants 

of  the  Kural  and  his  so-called  sister,  the  famous  poetess, 
Acvai,  the  Vaisnava  Alvar  Tinqjan,  the  author  of  the  work 
beginning  with  Ainalmi  Adipirdn,  who  was  brought  up  by 
Pariahs,  and  the  Saiva  saint  Naiulan,  who  was  a  Pariah.  A 
Ivuruniba  robber,  Ti rumn hfi<iiiiiaiinan,  became  afterwards  a 
celebrated  Vaisnava  Alvar. 

These  and  many  other  instances  can  be  adduced  to  prove 
the  once  flourishing  condition  of  the  now  despised  lowest 

Wrong  Derivation  of  the  term  Holeya  and  Pui.aya. 

The  Telugu  Pariahs  are  called  Malavandlu,  its  corre- 
sponding term  in  Tamil  Malar  is  often  used  in  the  sense  of 
Pulaiyar  and  equivalent  to  Paraiyar.  The  word  Mala,  in 
the  sense  of  mountaineer  or  barbarian,  occurs  in  Sanskrit. 
As  the  word  holcija  is  derived  from  hole,  ^j®iS,  pollution,  and 
the  South-Indian  Vulayan  horn  jjii/a,  ojaj,  pollution,  so  also  is 
Malaj'a  occasionally  derived  from  the  Sanskrit  ina/a,  taint. 
All  these  derivations  rest  ou  no  substantial  philological 
grounds.  They  have  been  suggested  by  the  accidental  resem- 
blance existing  between  the  Sanskrit  words  mala,  taint,  and 
jKila,  flesh,  and  the  Dravidian  puta  {hole) ,  pollution,  and  their 
derivatives  on  the  one  side  and  the  names  of  the  Malhts 
or  Pallas  on  the  other  side,  and  are  used  to  revile  and  as 
an  excuse  for  despising  the  low  defenceless  and  ill-treated 

This  tendency  to  revile  strangers,  enemies  or  slaves 
is,  however,  not  confined  to  any  particular  country.  The 
Tatars,  when  thej'  first  invaded  Europe,  were  called  Tartars, 
because  they  were  supposed  to  have  come  from  Tartarus  or 

I  further  believe  that  all  such  Sanskrit  words  as  malla, 
vi'lla,  iiialayit,  iialli,  Sfc,  which  are  connected  with  the  name 

5'  Mr.  Lewis  Rice  in  his  Myxore  and  Coorg,  vol.  I,  p.  312,  ventures  anothpr 
deiivation  ;  "  the  Holayar,  whose  name  may  be  derived  from  hola,  a  field." 


of  the  Mallas  and  Pallas,  to  ha\'e  been  introduced  into  that 
language  from  Dravidian. 

Caste  distinctions  among  Paeiahs  ;  Bight 
AND  Left  Hand  Castes. 

The  Pariah  caste  is  divided  into  18  classes  ^*  like  the 
Vellalar,  as  has  been  already  intimated.  The  first  class  of 
the  Pariahs  is  called  the  Valluvapparai.  The  highest  caste 
of  the  Pulayar  in  Cochin  also  bears  the  name  of  Valluva. 
One  great  cause  that  keeps  the  Pariahs  and  the  Pallar  apart, 
or  that  prevents  them  from  being  on  friendly  terms  with 
each  other,  is  the  fact  that  they  take  different  sides  in  the 
great  question  of  right-hand  and  left-hand  castes. 

The  reference  to  this  distinction  necessitates  some  re- 
marks. The  cause  of  the  division  into  right-hand  and  left- 
hand  castes,  and  the  time  when  this  difference  arose,  are  both 
unknown,  though  weighty  reasons  can  be  adduced  against 
assigning  to  it  a  very  early  period.  The  legendary  reports 
abound  with  suspicious  details  which  militate  against  their 
trustworthiness.  The  contest  seems  to  have  been  both 
national  and  religious.^^ 

^  Dr.  Winslow  enumerates  in  his  Tamil-English  Dictionary  the  following 
classes  among  tlie  Pariahs  :  The  Valluvapparai,  Tatapparai,  Tankalanparai, 
Turcalipparai,  Kulipparai,  Tipparai,  Muracapparai,  Mottapparai,  Ampup- 
parai,  Vatukapparai,  Aliyapparai,  KOliyapparai,  TaUpparai,  Vettiyarp- 
parai,  Cankupparai.  Compare  Mr.  J.  H.  Nelson's  Manual  of  Madura,  III, 
pp.  75-79.  Mr.  W.  F.  Sinclair  says  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  p. 
130  :  "The  Parwaris  should  not  hy  rights  be  called  outcastes,  seeing  that 
they  have  caste  of  their  own,  ohey  its  rules,  and  squabhle  among  themselves 
for  precedence  with  a  pertinacity  worthy  of  ambassadors." 

5«  In  the  edition  of  a  portion  of  the  Kural  which  was  published  together 
■with  an  English  translation  and  valuable  notes  by  one  of  the  earliest  and 
best  European  Tamil  Scholars,  the  late  Mr.  T.  W.  Ellis,  of  the  Madras  Civil 
Service,  is  found  on  page  44  the  following  passage:  "Intercourse  with 
foreign  nations,  the  extension  of  commerce,  and  other  circumstances  have  in 
latter  times  materially  altered  the  manners  of  the  olden  time  and  infringed 
the  privileges  of  the  landed  proprietors,  but  they  have  not  been  able  to 
prevent  a  lively  tradition  of  them  remaining,  and  this  has  given  origin  to  the 
dissensions  between  the  factious  denominated  Valang-caiyar  and  Idimg-caiyar , 


The  five  classes  of  artisans^the  cai-penters,  goldsmiths, 
blacksmitlis,  braziers,  and  masons,  well  known  in  Southeni 
India  as  Pahcdlar  or  Kammular — regard  themselves  as  the 
real  Brahmans  and,  as  the  descendants  of  the  divine  artificer 
Viirakanna,  call  themselves  Visva  Brahmans.  They  assume 
the  title  of  Acarya,  wear  the  holy  thread,  and  claim  the  right 
to  perform  religious  ceremonies  among  themselves,  especially 
at  marriages.  They  farther  declare  that  there  were  origi- 
nally five  Vedas,  but  that  Veda  Vijasa,  in  order  to  curtail 
their  privileges,  suppressed  the  fifth  and  arranged  the  other 
four  in  such  a  manner  as  suited  Vyasa  and  the  false 
Brahmans  whom  he  headed ;  that  he  tried  to  win  the  reigning 
king  over  to  his  side,  and,  when  he  did  not  succeed,  that  he 
instigated  the  king's  murder  and  placed  an  illegitimate  son 
on  the  throne,  who  conferred  on  Vyasa  the  dignity  of  priest 
of  the  royal  family.  According  to  one  versioQ  Vyasa  induced 
the  king  to  issue  a  proclamation,  enacting  that  all  those 
who  sided  with  the  king  should  be  styled  right-hand  caste 
men,  and  all  those  who  opposed  him  left-hand  caste  men. 
Anotlier  tradition  asserts  that  Vyasa's  right  hand  was  cut  off 
by  a  bigoted  Saiva,  who  heard  Vyasa  swear  with  his  uplifted 
right  hand  that  Visnu  was  superior  to  Siva  and  that  he  had 
never  in  his  Puranas  opposed  Visnu.*'     Others  transfer  these 

or,  as  commonly  though  improperly  called,  the  right  and  left  /land  castes  ;  the 
former  including  the  whole  of  the  agricultural  tribes,  who  endeavour,  under 
a  different  order  of  things,  to  maintain  their  ancient  pre-eminence  ;  the  latter, 
including  chiefly  the  trading  and  manufactui'ing  tribes,  who  endeavour,  and 
in  modern  days  generally  with  success,  to  evade  it." — According  to  the  late 
Dr.  Burnell  (see  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  II,  (1873),  p.  274):  "The  distinc- 
tion arises  primarilj-  from  the  landowners  and  their  serfs  being  the  heads 
of  one  class,  and  the  Brahmans,  artizans,  and  other  interlopers  forming  the 
other.  But  the  constituent  castes  of  either  party  vary.''  The  Pancalas  or 
Kammalar  are  known  in  Tamil  by  the  title  of  Aedri  ^mi-^irS. 

So  far  as  I  am  informed,  and  as  I  have  stated  above,  the  Brahmans  are 
not  included  in  either  faction,  though  some  lists  mention  them  as  partisans. 

"  Compare  the  Decision  of  the  Vittilr  JiUii  Court  (-Qiij^iS:)   Ser°   W5r°p) 
«Sor*tWF-    ^eo^)  printeJ  at  Cittur,  1881,  on  these  dissensions.     An  account 

OF    BHAUATA-^ARSA    OR    INDIA.  59 

events  to  Kanoipurani,  and  declare  tliat,  when  ■  the  two 
opposed  parties  brought  their  complaints  before  the  Pallava 
king  reiguiug  over  the  Cola  country,  tlie  Kammalir,  Beri 
Cetties  and  their  friends  were  sitting  on  the  left  hand  of  the 
king  and  the  Vellalar  and  their  adherents  on  the  right  hand. 
The  left-hand  side  is  regarded  by  the  Kanimalar  as  the  place 
of  honor. 

is  given  on  page  29  of  the  circumstances  in  which  Vyasa  lost  his  hand.  His 
opponent   is   in   this   Cittur   Decision  descrihed  as   t!SAMH.\^i'^   tsi^tfc. 

Tlramtisti  means  a  Vira  Saiva  or  Jangama,  who  precedes  a  procession,  holding 
a  shield  and  brandishing  a  sword.  He  is  also  called  VrsabheSvara.  The 
Skandapurana  contains  also  the  story  about  the  cutting  off  of  Vyastt's  arm. 
Captain  J.  S.  T.  Mackenzie  connects  the  V yasanu-tolu  Kallu  (Vyasana's 
armstone)  found  in  Mysore  with  this  event.  Compare  Indian  Antiquary, 
vol.  ir,  (1873),  p.  49. 

As  the  Pancalar  claim  the  privilege  of  being  their  own  priests  and  the 
Brahmans  oppose  this  claim,  many  disputes  and  even  serious  disturbances 
of  the  public  peace  have  ensued.  Such  was  the  case,  e.g.,  at  Cittur  in  1817. 
Through  the  kindness  of  the  present  Judge  at  Cittur,  Mr.  Crole,  I  have 
obtained  a  copy  of  the  judgment  from  which  I  give  the  following  extracts  : 

After  mentioning  the  names  of  the  plaintiffs  and  the  six  defendants  it 
begins :  "  1  ■  This  suit  was  brought  against  the  defendants  by  the  plaintiffs 
to  recover  Rs.  530j  damages  on  account  of  the  defendants  having  prevented 
the  plaintiffs  from  celebrating  a  marriage  in  their  family. 

"The  record  consists  of  the  plaint,  three  answers,  one  reply  and  two 
rejoinders  ...  2.  The  plaintiffs  in  this  suit  call  themselves  Kammalars,  the 
descendants  of  five  Brahmas.  The  Kammalars  follow  five  crafts,  namely, 
that  of  carpenter,  blacksmith,  goldsmith,  mason  and  brass-smith.  3.  The 
plaintiffs  state  that  they  and  their  tribe  have  been  accustomed,  and  that  they 
consider  themselves  entitled,  and  have  resolved,  to  conduct  their  own  mir- 
riages,  and  other  domestic  and  religious  ceremonies  without  the  interference 
of  the  Brahmins,  to  which  tribe  the  defendants  belong.  The  plaintiffs 
maintain  that  one  of  their  own  tribe  is  their  Guru,  and  performs  their  reli- 
gious rites,  and  that  they  will  not  attend  to,  nor  employ  a  Brahmin  therein, 
and  they  state  their  confidence  that  no  Court  of  Justice  can  give  the  defend- 
ants or  Brahmins  liberty  to  enter  their  houses  by  force  to  officiate  at  their 
ceremonies,  moreover,  they  state  that  they  are  neither  of  theVaisya  nor  Sudra 
tribes,  but  are  descendants  of  Brahma  and  that  therefore  they  do  not  require 
Brahmins  to  officiate  for  them.  That  moreover  they,  the  plaintiffs  are 
Deva  or  divine  Brahmins,  and  that  the  defendants  are  Go  or  cow  Brahmins 
who  were  originally  Sudras,  and  by  certain  penance  and  ceremonies  obtained 
Brahminism,  and  that  they,  the  plaintiffs,  can  prove  their  right  from  the 
Veda,  Smriti  and  Vasishthapuranum  and  the  Silpa  Sastram.  4.  The  principal 
defendants,  namely,  the  1st,  2nd,  3rd,  4th  and  5th  maintain  that  they  are 
Brahmins  of  the  Siva  Bhakti  and  have  a  right  to  perform  the  ceremonies 


The  charge  of  having  suppressed  the  fifth  Veda  is  very- 
extraordinary  indeed,  especially  if  one  considers  that  the 
original  number  of  the  Vedas  is  indicated  by  the  name  Trmfi, 
or  Trinity,  representing  the  Rg,  Yajur  and  Sama  Vedas, 
and  that  the  fourth  or  Atharvaveda  is  generally  ascribed 
to  a  later  period.  The  existence  and  destruction  of  a  fifth 
Veda,  assuming  such  a  work  to  have  ever  existed,  must 
therefore  be  assigned  to  a  comparatively  late  or  modern 

and  religious  ritea  of  the  plaintiffs  who  they  state  to  be  Sankaras,  or  out- 
castes  of  the  Sudra  trihe.     The  defendants  in  consequence  deny  that  the 
plaintiffs  could  ever  become  Brahmins,  thoug-h  they  were  bom  again  ever  so 
many  times.     Moreover  that  if  the  plaintiffs  think  proper  to  perform  the 
marriage  and  other  ceremonies  using  forms  of  prayers  taken  from  the  Veda 
they  will  not  only  be  liable  to  suffer  a  great  punishment  in  their  next  birth, 
but  to  be  punished  criminally  by  the  executors  of  the  law  appointed  by 
trovemment,  who  they  state  would  never  suffer  the  plaintiffs  to  perform  any 
ceremonies  contrary  to  the  law  of  their  sect,  to  ascertain  which  the  defendants 
request  that  the  opinion  of  the  law  officer  of  the  Court  may  be  taken  on  the 
subject.  5.  The  above  is  the  sum  of  the   difference  between  the  parties.  .  . 
9.  The  evidence    in    this  case  is    very  long   and  contradictory,  but    the 
Court  has  no  doubt  from  a  consideration  thereof  but  that  the  defendants  did 
actually,  seriously  and  violently  molest  the  plaintiffs  in  the  celebration  of  a 
marriage  which  the  plaintiffs  were  celebrating  though  they  (the  defendants) 
did  not  actually  prevent  it,   as  the  marriage  took  place  notwithstanding 
their  interference,  though  not  without  the  plaintiffs  meeting  with  much 
obstruction  from  the  defendants.     10.  It  is  a  notorious  fact  which  the  plain- 
tiff's witnesses  have  deposed  to,  that  the  plaintiffs  and  persons  of  the  Karama- 
lar  caste  (like  Kannadiyar,  Satanis  and  Jainas)  do  frequently  celebrate  their 
religious  festivals  without  calling  in  the  Brahmins  of  any  other  sect  to  aid 
them  in  the  performance  of  any  part  thereof.     The  plaintiffs  have  declared 
that  they  admit  those   marriages  only  to  be  perfectly  regular,   which  are 
celebrated  by  Gurus  of  their  own   appointment.     They  do  not  admit  the 
superiority  of  any  other  tribe  to  themselves.     These  opinions  they  state 
to  be   according  to   the   Hindu   Saatra,   but   it   is   a  point   and   a   right, 
which  it  is  well  known  the  Siva  and  Vishnu  Brahmins  do  not  admit,  and 
therefore  it  has  not  been  considered  necessary  to  consolt  on  this  subject  the 
pandits  of  the  Courts,  no  more  than  if  it  were  a  question  of  law  regarding  a 
religious  difference  between  any  other  sect  and  the  Brahmins,  on  which  they 
never  would  agree.     If  the  plaintiffs,  who  deny  the  superiority  of  the  defend- 
ants as  Brahmins  do  in  their  tribe  choose  to  follow  or  relinquish  any  ancient 
custom  or  to  establish  any  new  ceremony  which  is  not  contrary  to  honesty, 
decorum,  and  the  peace  of  the  country,  neither  the  defendants  nor  any  other 
persons  have  any  right  to  interfere,  nor  would  the  officers  of  Government 


The  division  of  the  population  into  right-hand  and  left- 
hand  castes  occurred  most  likely  simultaneously  with  the 
religious  agitation  which  introduced  into  Southern  India  the 
now  prevailing  Brahmanical  supremacy.  The  imminent  decay 
of  the  Jaina  power  opened  a  fair  prospect  to  the  Brahmans 
of  which  they  were  not  slow  to  take  advantage.  They 
gathered  round  them  their  followers,  while  their  opponents, 
who  represented  in  certain  respects  the  national  party,  did 
the  same.     This  movement  seems  to  have  been  originally 

ever  interfere,  if  it  should  not  appear  to  be  necessary  lor  the  peace  of  the 
country.  It  appears  that  marriages  celehrated  by  Gurus  of  the  plaintiffs 
own  sect  have  been  for  a  long  period  at  least  admitted  by  a  very  great  body 
(if  not  perhaps  by  the  whole)  of  them,  and  at  all  events  are  now  by  them 
acknowledged  to  be  good  and  proper  and  valid,  and  according  to  their  inter- 
pretation of  the  Sastra  perfectly  conformable  thereto.  No  other  sects  there- 
fore have  any  right  to  interfere,  especially  a  sect  (namely  that  of  the  defend- 
ants or  Smarta  Brahmins)  which  the  plaintiffs  do  not  acknowledge  to  be 
superior  to  them ;  for  the  plaintiffs'  rejection  of  them  (the  defendants,  the 
Smarta  Brahmins)  as  their  spiritual  guides  or  Gurus  is  what  the  defendants 
themselves  aokno-wledge  that  any  Hindu  is  at  liberty  to  do.  Thousands 
among  themselves  (the  Smarta  Brahmins)  have  of  late  years  left  them  and 
from  being  Siva  bhaktars  have  become  Vishnu  bhaktars,  and  have  conse- 
quently chosen  the  Gurus  of  another  sect  to  be  their  Gurus.  Had  the 
plaintiffs  introduced  ever  so  many  innovations  into  their  ceremonies  (which 
they  do  not  appear  to  have  done),  as  they  do  not  admit  that  the  defendants 
have  any  more  concern  with  them  (the  plaintiffs)  than  they  (the  plaintiffs) 
have  with  the  defendants  (Brahmins),  the  latter  had  no  business  to  go  near 
them  on  the  occasion  of  the  celebration  of  their  marriage.  They  (the 
defendants)  have  no  right  to  force  themselves  as  Purohitas  upon  any  tribe 
who  do  not  acknowledge  them,  as  their  superiors,  and  Purohitas.  In  the 
opinion  of  the  Courts  the  plaintiffs  were,  and  are,  fully  entitled  to  perform 
(the  marriage  in  question  or  any  other)  their  religious  ceremonies  in  such 
a  manner  as  the  tribe  to  which  they  belong  may  from  time  to  time  establish 
to  be  the  rule  and  form  of  their  caste,  and  it  is  so  decreed  accordingly  .  . 
Given  under  my  hand  and  the  seal  of  the  Court  this  twenty-eighth  day  of 
June  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  twenty. 

(Signed)     Joseph  Dacre, 

In  1843  a  similar  case  was  tried  in  Salem  before  a  Brahman,  ^f.  Krish- 
namacharyulu  ...  A  Paficalan,  EainaliAgachari,  for  claiming  certain  rights, 
had  been  insulted  and  severely  beaten  by  some  persons,  and  his  sacred  thread 
had  also  been  torn  to  pieces.  The  defendants  pleaded  that  Eamalingaohari, 
as  belonging  to  the  Goldsmith  caste  (or  Kamsalajdti  in  Telagu)  had  no  right  to 
study  the  Veda  and  to  undertake  any  Praya§citta,  or  any  other  religious  cere- , 


confined  to  Southern  India,  its  centre  being  at  Kaficipuram, 
the  seat  of  so  many  religious  and  political  dissensions,  where 
there  are  to  this  day  special  halls  for  both  parties,  called 
Valankai-mantapams  and  Itankai-mantapams.^^  As  the 
Pallar  and  the  Pariahs  belong  to  different  hands  and  the 
Yalluvar  are  the  priests  of  both,  the  division  into  right-hand 
and  left-hand  castes  must  very  probably  have  taken  place 
after  the  Valluvar  had  obtained  this  position.  At  the  time  of 
Bhagacat  Bdmdnujaxdnja  this  division  into  right-hand  and 
left-hand  castes  was  already  an  acknowledged  institution,  as 
different  hours  were  assigned  to  right  and  left  hand  people 
for  entering  the  Celvapillai  temple  at  Melkota,  which  place  is 
also  called  Patitafidmnaksetra,  i.e.,  the  field  where  even  out- 
eastes  can  be  purified.  The  influence  of  the  Jainas  was 
perhaps  strongest  in  towns  where  the  artisan  classes  form  an 
important  and  powerful  portion  of  the  population,  while  the 
Brahmans  appealed  to  the  land-owning  and  agricultural 
classes,  whom  they  won  over  by  entreaties  or  by  threats. 
The  Brahmans  have  not  joined  and  strictly  speaking  do  not 
belong  to  either  side,  but  their  interests  lie  mainly  with  the 
right  side.  As  in  various  localities  the  same  castes  have 
embraced  different  sides,  it  is  difficult  to  assign  to  all  a 
permanent  position.  Yet,  on  the  whole,  the  principal  parties 
on  both  sides  are  always  the  same.** 

mony,  whose  performance  is  a  privilege  of  the  Brahmans,  and  that  the  Kam- 
ealaj&ti  ranked  according  to  the  Uharmasastra  among  the  Gramacandalas. 
The  Court  concurred  in  this  view  and  the  case  was  dismissed,  Ramalingachari 
paying  costs.     See  Sriani  JlUd  Tit-mdnat'it,  Madras,  1886. 

*^  On  p.  326  of  the  Jdtimngrahasdra  (in  Tamil  Sfr^Sl<FiBj8ir<SS=!TJri£>") 
is  mentioned  a  copperplate  order  or  Tdnira^dsanam  which  confirms  the 
position  of  the  Vauniyar,  they  held  at  Kinci  during  the  reign  of  Sukhakal- 
ydpa  in  the  762nd  year  of  Salivahana  Saka ;  hut,  though  it  is  stated  there, 
that  this  Sasanam  is  still  preserved,  no  one  seems  ever  to  have  seen  it. 

»■■'  The  quarrels  and  actual  fights  which  occurred  between  these  hostile  par- 
ties have  given  rise  to  much  litigation  before  Magistrates  and  Judges,  espe- 
cially in  the  Chingleput  and  North-Arcot  districts.  The  judgment  of 
George  Coleman,  Judge  and  Magistrate  of  Chingleput,  dated  the  25th  July 

or    BHAKATAVARSA    OR    INDIA.  63 

This  dissension  must  have  seriously  affected,  for  some 
time  at  least,  the  agricultural,  mechanical,  and  commercial 
interests  of  the  country,  for,  as  both  parties  were  stubborn, 
a  great  deal  of  inconvenience  must  have  been  felt,  till  each 
party  was  able  to  supply  its  own  wants.  The  right-hand  side 
had  in  these  circumstances  to  seek  a  fresh  supply  of  artisans 
until  the  necessary  knowledge  was  acquired  by  men  in  its 
own  ranks.     Borne  who  joined  it  were  perhaps  deserters  from 

1809,  specifies  the  different  people  of  both  hands,  gives  their  emblems,  flags 
and  instruments,  and  fixes  certain  privileges. 

I  have  applied  to  the  Court  and  gone  to  Chingleput  with  the  express 
purpose  to  obtain  a  copy  of  this  important  judgment  from  the  District 
Court,  but  it  could  not  be  found  among  the  records,  though  many  decisions 
of  less  consequence  and  of  earlier  years  are  still  extant. 

However,  through  the  exertions  of  Mr.  A.  Krishnasvamy  Iyer,  B.A.,  an 
official  of  the  Accountant -Greneral's  Office,  and  a  much  esteemed  former 
pupil  of  mine,  I  have  been  able  to  secure  a  Tamil  manuscript  copy  of  the 
judgment.  On  the  right  hand  are  enumerated  the  Velalar  and  Kavaraikal 
with  the  following  insignia  :  white  umbrella,  white  flag,  curved  fan,  chowry, 
arukutlvatti,  plough,  plough-flag,  monkey-flag,  cuckoo-flag,  parrot-flag, 
beU,  conch,  wheel  stick,  big-drum,  green,  blue  lotus  gailand,  Atti  flag, 
Tamntai,  trumpet ;  2,  Vatiiha  Velalar  (Northern  or  Telugu  VeUaJar)  with 
swan  flag ;  3,  Eediikal  with  plough  flag  ;  4,  Eammavdrukal  (agricultural 
labourers)  with  bull-flag ;  5,  Eontalavarkal  with  chakora  flag  ;  6,  Nattamon 
with  Ali  flag ;  7  Malaiyaindn  with  Aritdla  or  Srttala  flag ;  8  Komattikal 
(merchants)  with  cotton-flag,  Makaratoranam-ivam,  Vimumayir,  Itimuracu; 
9,  7(a(y«>- (shepherds)  with  wheel;  10,  Vatuka  Itaiyar  (Telugu  shepherds) 
with  conch;  11,  Eannitaiyar  (Kanarese  shepherds),  with  tent,  .  .  .  five- 
coloured  flag  ;  12,  Fatmaedliyar  (weavers)  with  tiger  vehicle,  male  tiger  flag  ; 
13,  Pattuedliyar  (sUk  weavers)  with  two-headed  bird  flag  ;  14,  Vatukaceni- 
yar  (northern  weavers)  with  jasmine  flag,  Nakapacam,  five-coloured  flag  ;  16, 
J(zm<rafa>- (Telugu  weavers)  with  crocodile  ;  16,  Kannitaiya-Ceniyar  (Kajia.- 
rese  weavers)  with  wild  jasmine  garland,  big  eagle  flag,  Vicm-utan^ai ;  17, 
Pattunulkdrar  (sUk  thread  weavers)  with  silk  flag;  18,  Cetar  (weavers)  with 
tortoise  flag,  and  Kolinci&ng;  19,  Cekkuvdniyar  (oilpress  mongers)  mth 
cedaiceti  (centu-tontu),  eUuraci,  sesamum-leaf  garland,  garuda-flag,  drum  ; 
20,  Ilaivdniyar  (leaf  oil-mongers)  with  kovai-garland,  drum,  cuckoo  flag  ;  21, 
Onti'erutu  ■vamdyar  (one  bullock  oil-mongers)  with  flve-coloured  parrot  flag  ; 
22,  Janappar  (hemp  dressers)  with  chowry  flag  ;  23,  Muceiyar  (painters,  &c.,) 
with  makara  flag ;  24,  Kinciyar  (braziers)  with  Poti  flag ;  25,  Vetakdrar 
(basketmakersVwith  Cikkiri  flag,  wooden-legged  horse,  sword  flag;  26,  Nari 
cokiyar  (Fox-beggars)  with  dog  flag  ;  27,  Tamil  Kuoamr  (potters),  Vatuka 
Kmavar  (Telugu  potters),  Kuca  Kanakkar  ;  28,  Melakkdrar  (flooters)  with 
drum  flag;  29,   Xattuvar  (dancing  masters)   with  cymbal  flag ;    30,  Ddcikal 


the  hostile  camp,  while  others  were  outsiders,  Muhammadan 
artisans,  for  instance,  who  were  allowed  to  earn  their  living 
in  the  Hindu  community  by  following  their  profession. 

The  fifth  caste  formed  of  outoastes  is  in  consequence  of 
this  dissension  divided  into  two  great  hostile  camps,  on  the 
right  side  are  ranged  the  Pariahs,  and  on  the  left  side  the 
Cakkilis  or  leather-workers.  It  appears  that  there  prevails 
in  some  parts  of  the  South  the  peculiar  phrase  :  "  the  Pariahs 

(dancing  girls)  with  Manmatha  flag;  31,  Cdndr  and  liar  (toddy- drawers) 
with  kurifioi  flag,  knife  and  ladder ;  32,  Kuravar  (mountaineers,  foresters, 
snake-catchers,  basketmakers,  salt-sellers), with  donkey  flag ;  33,  Cuhhdr  cetti 
lampdtikal  (salt-sellers)  with  picturesque  flag;  3i,  Vettaklcdrar  (hunters)  with 
sling  flag;  35,  Pattanarar  (?)  with  tortoise  flag  ;  36,  Karnh/nr  (sea-coastmen) 
with  fish  flag  ;  37,  Ottar  (road-makers  and  tank-diggers  from  Orissa)  with 
spade  flag;  38,  Uppararar  (common  tank-diggers)  with  pig  flag;  39,  Poyi 
(hearers)  with  palanquin  flag  ;  40,  PaniceyvOrkal  (?)  (menial  servants ? )  with 
Tarai  (trumpet)  flag  ;  41,  Tamil  Vanndr  and  Vatuka  Vannar  (Tamil  and 
Telugu  washermen)  with  curved  knife,  lotus  garland  and  white  elephant ; 
42,  Tamil  Ndvitar  (Tamil  barbers)  with  tumpai  garland,  animal  with  human 
face  ;  43,  Vatuka  Ndvitar  (Telugu  barbers)  with  nakasaram  (musical  instru- 
ment) ;  44,  Tompiirarnr  (rope-dancers)  with  Ke^ai  flag  ;  45,  Mdriyamman 
Pucdrikal  (Mariyamman  priests)  with  small  drum  flag;  46,  PMcaW/lrf  with 
hoUow  brass  lingflag;  47,  /»■!(/«»•  (wild  foresters)  with  iron  bar  flag;  48, 
Arippiikkdr  Kavurni  (kavarai  weavers)  with  lotus  flag  ;  49,  Vatuka  Panda- 
ram  (northern  mendicants)  with  battle-axe  flag;  50,  Vancurdr  (?)with 
pearl  flag ;  61,  Entukutuppaikdral  {sooth.s3,ying  beggars)  with  s4kti  flag; 
52,  Jindti  (forestmen)  with  hare  flag  ;  53,  Kaldcvkdrnr  (lascars)  with  cart 
flag;  54,  Velikkarumdr  excommunicated  blacksmiths)  with  beUows  and 
hammer  flag  ;  55,  Vihkal  tar.r.n.r  (excommunicated  carpenters)  with  chisel 
flag  ;  56,  Kappal  tatcar  (ship  carpenters)  with  adze  flag  ;  57,  Kappal  ratnkar 
(Telugu  sailors)  with  ship  flag  ;  68,  Pantar  (bards)  with  sword  flag. 

The  people  and  ensigns  of  the  fifth  class  are  -  1,  Paeuniyar  or  Palanikal 
(processionists)  with  damara  (drum)  flag  ;  2,  VaUuuar^  Atdvattiydr  and  Vettiydr 
(mahaut),  Paraiyar  and  Pantaparniyar  with  white  umbrella,  white  chowry, 
white  flag,  conch,  vajra  stick,  trumpet  (tamukku),  drum  (tappattai),  paiika 
(trumpet),  tuttari  (short  trumpet),  big  tuttari,  paraiya  music,  five  pots  and 
white  makara  (alligator)  festoons. 

The  left  hand  musters  1,  Peri  Cettikal  (Beri  merchants)  with  kite  flag ; 
2,  Nakara  Vdniyar  (town  oil-mongers)  with  tontu  garland  and  garland  of 
nine  gems  ;  3,  Kaikkolar  (weavers)  with  tiruvaraipattiram,  adakkam,  lance, 
male  vulture,  lion  flag,  bear  flag,  deer  flag,  peacock  flag,  cuckoo  flag,  drum ; 
4,  Kammdiar  (artisans).  [This  class  is  composed  of  the  TaY/ar  (goldsmiths), 
Kmindr  (braziers),    Cirpar  (masons),   KnUar    (blacksmiths)   and  Taccar  (car- 


are  not  left-hand  people,  they  belong  to  the  Tamils  ;  "  an 
expression  whose  exact  meaning  it  is  difficult  to  make  out 
especially  as  a  Tamilan  or  Tamulian  denotes,  in  Madras,  a 
Hindu  in  general,  and  not  a  Pariah.'^''  I  believe  that  the 
meaning  of  this  phrase  is  that,  as  the  Tamilar  or  Vellalar,  the 
masters  of  the  Pariahs  and  principal  Rudras,  are  right  hand 
men,  so  are  their  dependents,  the  Pariahs.    The  Pariahs  enjoy 

penters)  ;  the  word  Kammila  is  most  likely  the  Sanskrit  Kammara,  which 
occurs  already  in  the  Veda  '"n  the  meaning  of  artificer.]  With  hammer,  chisel, 
adze,  compass  or  ulakani,  stick,  parrot  flag,  eagle  flag,  or  white  kite  flag  ;  .5, 
PaUikal  with  hig  axe,  crane  feather,  vgnkai  garland,  red  lotus  garland,  crow 
flag,  cloud-coloured  flag,  fire  flag,  cock  flag,  vulture  flag,  fox  flag,  date  flag, 
stone  flag,  green  flag,  hair-queue  flag,  drum  and  how,  kuntali,  hlack  flag. 

As  helonging  to  the  fifth  class  of  the  Ilankai  are  mentioned —  1 ,  Taltar 
with  nelli  garland  and  crab  flag  ;  2,  Cakkililial  (leather-workers)  with  saffron 
screen,  hlack  garland,  warrior  sword,  cocoa  leaf,  drum,  curved  stick. 

Mr.  Coleman's  decision  refers  also  to  the  manner  in  which  temple, 
funeral  and  other  processions  should  he  performed  by  the  different  castes, 
but  to  quote  his  remark's  here  would  lead  us  too  far  away. 

The  Government  Oriental  Manuscripts'  Library  contains  two  lists  of  the 
right  and  left  hand  castes.  98  different  divisions  are  ascribed  to  each  sect. 
If  the  lists  had  not  heen  very  inaccurate,  I  should  have  printed  them  here, 
but  they  place  inter  alias  the  Kammdlar  on  the  right-hand  and  the  Brahmans 
on  the  left-hand. 

Dr.  Macleane  (in  the  Administration  Manual,  vol.  I,  p.  69),  though 
without  producing  confirmatory  evidence,  makes  the  important  statement 
that  the  male  Fullies  belong  to  the  right  and  the  female  Ftdlies  to  the  left 
hand.  He  says  :  "The  following  lists  show  the  more  important  of  the  i'ast<'8 
"which  take  part  in  the  disputes  of  the  rival  hands.  On  the  left  hand, 
"  Chetties,  artisan3,oilmongers,  weavers,  Patnavar,  male  leather- workers,  and 
"  female  Pullies.  On  the  right  hand ;  Vellaular,  Cavarays,  Comaties,  acoouut- 
"  ants  silk-weavers,  male  Pullies,  Pariahs  and  female  leather- workers. 
"  It  is  to  be  observed  that  the  females  of  two  of  the  inferior  castes  take  differ- 
"  ent  sides  from  their  husbands  in  these  disputes."  I  have  made  inquiries 
among  the  PaUis  on  this  point  and  they  deny  the  correctness  of  the  state- 
ment, yet  it  is  very  difiicult  to  decide  such  a  question,  unless  both  sides 
produce  their  authorities.  It  must  certainly  appear  peculiar  that  husband 
and  wife  should  belong  to  the  different  rival  hands,  as  if  it  were  desirable 
to  specially  provide  causes  for  domestic  disagreements.  Mr.  Nelson  has,  as 
will  he  seen  on  the  next  page,  made  a  similar  statement  concerning  the 
Cakkilis  in  Madura. 

«"  The  Eev.  E.  Lbventhal  of  Vellore  communicated  to  me  the  existence 
of  the  saj-ing;  usro/Tii^fr  @l-I5ist,s  .^siieu  ^esjrra'dn  ^tSifitT  ;  "The 
Pariyar  are  not  Irfthand,  they  are  Tamilians." 


also  the  honorific  title  of  Valahkamattdr  or  Valanhnhttdr  and 
claim  in  consequence  precedence  over  the  left-hand  Pallar. 

The  Tamil  Oakkili,  the  Telugu  and  Kanarese  Madiga, 
and  the  Maratha  Wang  all  do  belong  to  the  same  caste. 
Their  occupation  is  mostly  connected  with  leather  and  rope 
making.  The  enmity  between  the  common  Pariahs  and 
these  people  is  very  acrimonious  as  it  concerns  precedence  ; 
and  a  Ming,  who  as  ropemaker  is  generally  also  the  hang- 
man, is  said  to  regard  as  his  proudest  and  most  meritorious 
action  the  hanging  of  a  Mahar  or  Maratha  Pariah.  Never- 
theless, the  Pariahs  and  the  Cakkilis,  when  not  actually 
engaged  in  hostilities,  acknowledge  each  other  in  a  friendly 
manner  as  brothers-in-law.  In  his  Madura  Manual  (II, 
p.  7)  Mr.  Nelson  mentions  the  curious  fact  that  in  Madura 
the  Cakkili  women  belong  to  the  right-hand  and  their  hus- 
bands to  the  left-hand. 

The  words  Mdng  aud  Madiga  are  corruptions  of  Mdtanga. 

The  division  of  the  Snkti  worshippers  or  Sdktas  in  Dak- 
sinacaris  and  Vamacaris  has  nothing  in  common  with  the 
right  or  left  hand  castes.  This  difference  concerns  merely 
the  ptija,  inasmuch  as  the  daksindcdra,  the  right  observance, 
allows  only  milk,  fruit,  cakes  made  of  blackgram,  and  other 
sweetmeats  and  sweet  drinks,  wliile  the  minnvdra,  the  left 
or  adverse  observance,  permits,  besides  the  mentioned  eatables 
and  drinks,  meat  and  liquors  also. 

The  VALL^^  ar. 

The  oppression  which  the  Pariahs  and  Paljar  haA-e  suf- 
fered has  not  drawn  them  closer  together,  but  yet  these 
two  classes  have  their  priesthood  in  common.  These  priests 
are  called  Yalluvar,  and  their  name  has  become  renowned 
by  Tirn  VcMuua  Ndj/anni\  the  author  of  the  famous  Tamil 
work  the  Kural  ((g/psrr).  It  is  evident  from  this  appellation 
itself,  that  Tiruvailuva  Naj^anar  is  not  the  real  name  of  this 

or    BHAEATAVAESA    OE    INDIA.  [     67 

celebrated  man,  but  only  his  title.'"'  This  poet,  who  was  born 
aud  died  at  Mailapur,  a  suburb  of  Madras,  showed  in  his 
writings  a  knowledge  of,  and  a  tendency  towards  Jainism ; 
and  though  some  deny  the  fact  of  his  having  been  a  Jain, 
other  Valluvar  admit  it :  at  all  events  the  title  Nayanar 
may  be  taken  in  favor  of  such  an  assumption,  as  it  is  used  by 
the  Jains  as  an  honorific  appellation.  The  word  means  /ord 
and  devotee,  and  is  probably  a  contracted  form  of  the  Tamil 
honorific  term  Ndijakanar,  from  which  the  syllable  ha  has  been 
dropped.  Ndyaka,  a  leader,  especially  a  leader  of  troops, 
i.e.,  a  general,  is  derived  from  the  Sanskrit  iii,  to  lead.  This 
word  becomes  in  Tamil  Ndyalcan  (Naik),  in  Telugu  Ndi/ada 
(Naiduj,  and  in  Malayalam  Ndyar  (Nair),  and  is  used  as  a 
title  by  many  Hindus  in  Southern  India ;  it  is   adopted  in  the 

'■  The  accounts  given  about  TinwaUuva  Nayanar  are  very  obscure. 
One  fact  alone  is  clear  that  he  belonged  to  one  of  the  lowest  classes  of  the 
population,  but  that  the  highest  classes  could  not  ignore  his  talents,  and  to 
save  their  superiority  connected  his  birth  with  the  Brahman  caste.  Another 
important  item  of  information  is  that  other  celebrated  Tamil  poets  as  Kapilar 
and  Amai  are  also  brought  into  intimate  contact  with  the  same  lower 
classes.  The  legend  given  below  mates  Kapilar,  Avvai  and  TiruvaUuva 
Nayanar,  brothers  and  sister,  though  it  is  manifest  that  they  did  not  all  live 
and  compose  their  works  at  the  same  time  ;  still  the  connection  of  all  with 
one  another  and  with  the  Pariahs  and  Pulayar  is  very  peculiar  indeed. 

Brahma  performed,  according  to  the  legend,  a  sacrifice  for  the  explana- 
tion of  the  Sanskrit  and  Tamil  languages  and  Agastya  arose  from  it  out  of  a 
pot.  The  sage  married  the  daughter  of  the  Ocean,  and  had  from  her  a  son 
Peruncdrahan.  His  sou  married  at  Tiruvalur  a  Pulaiyan  woman  or  Pitlaieei, 
and  their  offspring  was  Bhagavan  (usisuajr).  About  this  time  there  lived 
Tavamuni,  a  scion  of  the  Brahmavarhsa,  who  had  married  a  Brahman  woman 
Arulmahkai.  They  had  a  daughter,  but  left  her  behind  to  perform  a  sacrifice 
at  the  Virali  mountain.  A  Pariah  of  Uraiyur  found  the  girl,  and  brought  lier 
up,  until  there  fell  a  downpour  of  earth  which  killed  all  the  inhabitants  in  the 
neighbourhood  except  the  girl,  who  took  refuge  in  the  house  of  one  Nxhyap- 
pan  at  Melurakaram.  On  his  way  to  Benares  the  young  Bhagavan  stopped 
at  the  choultry  near  Melurakaram,  when  the  girl  passed.  He  asked  her 
whether  she  was  a  Pulaicci  or  "Valaicci,  and  beat  her  with  a  wooden  ladle 
on  her  head,  so  that  it  bled,  and  the  wound  left  eventually  a  scar.  On  his 
return  from  Benares  the  pilgrim  stopped  at  the  same  inn  and  again  saw  the 
young  girl,  who  had  since  become  very  beautiful,  at  the  house  of  Nitiyappan, 
but  he  did  not  recognise  her  and  asked  her  foster-father  to  give  him  his 


same  meaning  by  the  Bhillalas,  Mahars  and  Gronds.  Tte  word 
Valluvan  euerri^wesr,  (PI.  Valluvar)  I  take  to  mean  "the 
honorable  Palla;"  Vallu  or  rather  Pallu  being  the  collective 
name  of  the  Palla  caste  and  an  (ar)  the  honorific  pronominal 
affix.  The  present  position  of  the  Yalluvar  is  highly  inter- 
esting. He  is  famous  for  his  superior  attainments  in  Astro- 
logy, and  is  much  consulted  when  horoscopes  are  to  be  cast. 
Though  socially  an  outcaste,  he  is  respectfully  treated  by 
Brahmans  and  especially  by  Brahman  ladies,  who  often  have 
recourse  to  his  advice.  He  wears  the  holy  brahmanical 
thread  ot  paj'mpavHa,  in  Taiiiil  pilnii  iiul  or  punill.^"  At  the 
weddings  of  Pariahs  and  Pallar  he  utters  Sanskrit  passages 

daughter  in  marriage.  He  consented  and  the  marriage  was  celebrated  when 
Bhagavan  returned  from  Rftmesvaram.  On  his  anointing,  according  to  the 
ceremonial,  the  head  of  his  bride,  he  saw  the  scar  on  her  head  and  recog- 
nised her  as  the  girl  he  had  hcaten.  Ashamed  he  ran  away,  but  the 
girl — -who  was  henceforth  called  A ti  (^ffl) — ran  behind  him.  At  Pftpaccerj 
she  overtook  him  at  last,  when  Bhagavan  exacted  from  her  the  promise  that 
she  would  leave  behind  her  all  the  children  which  they  might  have  on  their 
ioiirneys.  She  consented  and  much  against  her  inclination  kept  her  word, 
advised  by  her  babies  to  do  so.  Thus  were  born  Aivai  (^djsroaj)  or 
Auvai  (sjsirsrosu)  as  an  incarnation  of  SarasvatI,  TJppai  (e.ueau')  iu 
Tondaraandalam,  ^^iAa;«^rt  (^^SLniresr']  inKaruvur,  Uruvai  (a_mi©o>eu) 
in  Kaveripattanam,  Eapllar  (aLSsvrr)  in  TiruvSrOr,  J'«IH  near  the  Veli 
mountain  and   Tirnealluvar  in  an  oil  nut  tree  tope  at  Mailapur. 

All  these  children  play  important  parts  in  the  legends  and  poetry  of 
Southern  India.  Aviuii  was  nursed  by  hunters.  Uppai  was  brought  up  by 
washermen  and  married  a  Pariah  grave-digger.  They  were  very  poor,  and  she 
was  attacked  by  small-pox  and  went  about  covered  only  with  margosa-tree 
leaves.  Thus  she  became  known  and  worshipped  as  Mariyamman.  Adjka- 
m'hi  was  educated  by  Csraman,  Vruvai  by  brewers,  Eapilar  by  the  Brah- 
man Pdpaiya,  and  VaUt  by  Kuravar.  The  names  of  TiruvaUuvar  and  of  most 
of  his  so-called  brothi  rs  £.nd  sisters  are  no  pro))er  names. 

*'  See  f<anav6tti  (gj/rssrOauLli^-)  ascribed  to  Tiruvalluva  Nayanftr 
edited  by  Arunacala  Mudaly,  p.  9,  stanza  40,  which  begins  ( u, ^pi  jFir ^ 
^fl^^iQairefrQeuirih  Seu  ffiau  (Panunul  tarittukkolvom,  Siva,  Siva) 
' '  Let  us  wear  the  sacred  thread,  Siva,  Siva,  let  us  follow  the  promptings  of  the 
five  senses  ;  let  us  carry  all  the  insignia,  especially  the  white  umbrellas  and 
white  chowries,  as  well  as  the  golden  fans  used  by  the  gods  and  sages, 
beautiful  marks  and  clothes.  Let  us  praise  by  worshipping  the  begiiming  and 
ending  of  Om^  in  which  luistre  of  wisdom  and  divine  essence  are  manifest." 

Ot"    BHAEATAVAESA    OE    INDIA.  69 

in  the  marriage  ceremonial,  the  meaning  of  which  he  pro- 
bably does  not  know.  Considering  how  jealous  the  Brahman 
priests  are  of  keeping  secret  their  sacred  verses,  it  is  very 
strange  indeed  that  the  ValJLuvar  knows  and  uses  some  of 
them.  This  knowledge  must  have  been  acquired  long  ago, 
perhaps  at  a  time  when  friendly  relations  still  existed 
between  the  Brahman  settlers  and  the  original  population. 

He  is  most  probably  the  representative  of  the  ruling  class 
of  ancient  times,  and  his  name  can  still  be  easily  discerned, 
as  it  is  preserved  in  historical  records  and  geographical 
accounts.  I  need  only  mention  the  ValluvaMn,  of  Valluva- 
nadu,  the  king  of  the  Valluvar,  who  presided  at  the  great 
assembly  of  Keralam,  when  a  new  Perumal  was  chosen  every 
twelfth  year  to  rule  over  the  whole  of  Malayalam.  I 
pointed  out  some  years  ago  the  connection  which  exists 
between  the  Valluvar  and  Pallavas  and  shall  recur  to  this 
question  later  on. 

All  this  splendour  of  the  ValJLuvan  has  departed  and  he 
is  now  known  only  as  the  priest  of  the  Pariahs  and  Pallar. 
He  occupies  the  highest  position  among  the  Pariahs,  while 
his  name  connects  him  with  the  Pallar,  and  among  the 
kindred  of  the  latter,  i.e.,  among  the  Pulayar  of  Cochin,  the 
Yalluvar  still  rank  highest.  We  may  perhaps  be  justified 
in  regarding  him  as  representing  a  liuk  between  the  first 
and  second  Dravidian  stage. 

This  suggestion  will  naturally  be  repudiated  by  the 
Valluvar,  for  they  regard  themselves  as  much  superior  to 
the  people  committed  to  their  spiritual  charge. 

To  accept  the  assertions  of  every  individual  Hindu  would 
be  to  admit  a  separate  creation  for  each  tribe,  sect,  trade, 
profession,  and  calling.  The  pride  of  caste,  even  among 
the  lowest  in  the  country,  the  tendency  towards  exclusive- 
ness,  and  the  firm  belief  in  individual  superiority  combined 
with  a  strong  spirit  of  conservatism,  divide  the  Indian  popu- 
lation into  innumerable  sections.     And  as  if  the  existing 


distinctions  did  not  suffice,  new  conditions  and  new  compli- 
cations are  continually  giving  rise  to  new  variations  and 
combinations  in  Hindu  society.  Thus  among  the  Vellalar, 
such  new  castes  have  lately  arisen,  and,  if  I  am  not  mistaken, 
some  promoters  of  the  widow-remarriage  movement  advocate 
the  establishment  of  a  new  caste,  composed  of  those  who 
have  married  widows  and  of  the  offspring  of  such  marriages. 


On  the  Pallae,  Pallavas,  Pulayar,  Ballas  (Bhallas), 
Bhils,  Polindas,  &c. 

What  was  originally  an  accidental  discrepancy  in  the 
pronunciation  of  the  name  of  the  Mallas  or  Pallas,  though 
immaterial  in  itself,  has  produced  occasionally  in  the  course 
of  time  a  real  difference.  It  may  perhaps  be  assumed, 
either  that  those  who  had  descended  from  the  mountains  to 
the  plains  preferred  to  be  called  Pallas,  because  the  Dra- 
vidian  word  paVbam  signifies  depth  or  low  country,  or  that  they 
imparted  this  meaning  to  the  term  pallam,  unless  the  vocal 
similarity  between  Pallan,  a  Palla,  and  pallam,  low  country, 
is  regarded  as  an  accidental  freak  of  language. 

In  these  circumstances  one  may  be  justified  in  distin- 
guishing in  certain  localities,  between  the  Mallas  and  Pallas 
as  between  Highlanders  and  Lowlanders,  while  we  may  find 
elsewhere  Mallas  living  in  the  plains  and  Pallas  on  the 
mountains.  After  a  prolonged  residence  of  the  descendants 
of  the  Highlanders  in  the  plains  and  of  the  Lowlanders  in 
the  mountains,  both  might  re-adjust  their  names  to  the  actual 
places  they  are  occupying,  and  call  themselves,  respectively, 
Mallar  and  Pallar. 

The  Pallas  appear  in  Sanskrit  literature  as  Pallavas, 
Pahlaras,  Pahnacas,  Palhava  and  Plaras. 


The  formation  of  the  word  Pallava "'  can  be  explained  in 
different  ways.  It  may  have  been  derived  from  the  word 
Palla  which,  being  combined  with  the  pronominal  affix  an, 
formed  the  honorific  term  PaUaoan,  and  eventually  dropped 
the  final  n ;  or,  if  of  Sanskrit  origin,  the  affix  va  may  either 
have  been  added  to  Palla,  or  the  Taddhita  affix  a  to  the  term 
-Pallu,  which  denotes  the  Pallar  caste  as  an  aggregate.  In 
the  latter  ease  Pallava  would  have  been  formed  from  Pallu 
and  ought  to  have  been  Pallava,  but  according  to  Panini  Y 
2,  127  {nrsa  adibhyo'c)  Vrddhi  or  long  a  is  not  necessary. 

The  omission  of  one  /  and  the  insertion  in  its  place  of  an  h 
requires  a  few  remarks  in  order  to  connect  Palhava,  Pah- 
lava  and  Pahnava  with  Palla,  which  was  no  doubt  the 
original  Dravidian  form  with  which  the  Aryans  became  first 

Before  a  language  reaches  the  literary  stage,  dialectical 
differences  excepted,  only  one  form  of  speech  does  generally 
prevail,  which  is  the  language  in  common  use,  the  popular 
or  Prakrit  idiom.  In  course  of  time,  with  the  growth  of 
literature,  the  language,  or  rather  the  literary  speech,  becomes 
more  and  more  settled  and  stationary,  and  certain  forma- 
tions, owing  to  their  having  been  preferred  by  poets  and 
other  authors,  are  widely  adopted  and  supersede  those  pre- 
viously used.  The  refined  or  Sanskrit  language  must  have 
originated  in  some  such  manner.  Its  very  existence  pre- 
supposes the  Prakrit,  as  the  original  Prakrit  must  be  older 
than  the  later  Sanskrit.  The  so-called  Prakrit  forms,  which 
are  found,  e.g.,  in  the  Vedic  literature,  should  not  for  this 
reason  be  regarded  as  belonging  to  a  later  period,  simply 
because  they  belong  to  Prakrit,  as  they  may  even  represent 

*^  The  .Tdtisangrahasara  on  p.  171  says  that  Fnllnran  is  derived  from 
Fumvalan,  one  who  has  got  the  strength  of  body,  that  purn  was  dropped  in 
course  of  time,   V  changed  into  P,  and  ran  added. 


the  older  Prakrit  phase."*  While  Prakrit  is  indefinite,  Sans- 
krit is  definite  and  becomes  in  consequence  ossified  and 
unchangeable.  Eventually  it  loses  its  hold  on  the  people, 
bat  remiins  the  linguistic  standard  of  the  educated  and  the 
dialect  of  the  learned.  It  supplies  in  its  turn  the  material 
for  a  modern  Prakrit,  which  may  likewise  contain  some 
relics  of  the  original  Prakrit,  but  from  which,  as  prior  to 
Sanskrit,  it  must  be  distinguished. 

Applying  these  remarks  to  the  special  subject  before  us, 
it  is  not  at  all  impossible  that,  as  the  Graudian  Kanda  has 
been  changed  in  Sanskrit  into  Khanda,  similarly  the  original 
Dravidian  and  ancient  Prakrit  word  Palla  has  been  already 
at  an  early  date  altered  and  become  Pallia  and  Pahla,  which 
three  different  terms  were  then  in  use  at  one  and  the  same 
time.  Sanskrit  prefers  on  the  whole  a  form  whose  pronun- 
ciation is  more  difficult  than  what  satisfies  the  Dravidian 
languages.  Some  of  these  changes  may  have  been  made  for 
reasons  of  which  we  are  now  ignorant.  In  support  of  my 
supposition  that  Pallia  or  Pahla  is  a  modification  of  Palla, 
I  contend  that  a  similar  connection  does  apparently  exist 
between  the  names  Kalhana  or  Kahlana  and  Kalla  ;  between 
Balhana,  Balhi,Balhika,  Balluka,  Bdlhi,  &c.,  or  Bahlana,  Bahli, 
Bahlikd,  Bahltka,  Bahli,  &c.,  and  Balla ;  between  Bilhana 
{yUliana)  ox  Bililam  [Vihlam)  and  Billa,  [Villa);  between 
Malhana  or  Mahlam  and  Malla  ;  between  Silhana  or  Sihlana 
and  §illa ;  and  between  Siilkana,  Suhlana  or  Sullana  and  an 
original  Sulla.  The  names  ending  in  n  like  Balhana,  Kal- 
hana, Malhana  and  Sulhana  have  some  resemblance  with 
those  Dravidian  names  ending  in  anna,  as  Eaghanna,  Nag- 
anna,  &c.  Of  the  change  of  double  /  into  lit,  the  change  of 
31alldri  into  JIallidri  in  Marathi  affords  an  example. 

*'  For  instance  compare  krihaldsa  with  krikaddsu,  purnddM  ■wiila.purdlasa, 
ksuHaka  with  ksudraka  and  hhallakfa  with  bhitdrdksa^  in  Professor  A.  Weber's 
Iiidische  S/udien,  II,  p.  87,  note. 

or    BHAEATAVARSA    OE    INDIA.  73 

The  introduction  of  an  h  into  words  in  which  it  originally 
found  no  place  has  already  been  commented  upon  when 
discussing  on  p.  61  the  origin  of  the  names  MMr  and  Bhdr 
from  Mar  and  Bar. 

The  practical  result  of  this  inquiry  is  the  establishment 
of  the  Indian  equivalents  Pahlava,  Palhava  and  Plava  for 
Pallava  and  Palla,  and  the  conclusion  that  the  names  of 
such  peoples,  where  they  occur  in  the  Mahabharata,  E.ama- 
yana,  and  other  ancient  Sanskrit  works,  refer,  in  most  cases, 
to  Indian  tribes  and  not  to  nations  beyond  the  frontiers  of 
India,  e.g.,  to  the  Persian  PaMavas.  This  assumption  does 
not  dispute  the  fact  that  relationship  existed  between  Non- 
Aryan  races  dwelling  on  both  sides  of  the  Indian  frontier. 

The  Pallar,  as  well  as  the  Pallis,  claim  to  be  connected 
with  the  Pallavas.  The  PaUavarajas  were  in  early  times 
already  rulers  in  this  country.  Some  rajas,  e.g.,  those  of  the 
Sambhugotra  in  the  North  near  Eajamandry  still  affect  the 
title  of  Pallavaraja  and  worship  at  their  marriages  the  fire 
and  the  vahni-iTee,  a  twig  of  which,  as  we  have  mentioned 
above,  is  used  as  an  arrow  at  the  hunting  festival  {Parivet- 
tai)  on  the  Yijayadasami  during  the  Navaratri  or  Dasara 

In  accordance  with  the  interchange  between  v  and  m 
which  has  been  previously  pointed  out,  the  word  Pallava 
can  be  easily  recognized  in  the  more  modem  Vellama, 
Vellamba,  Bhillama,  Yellama  and  Ellama.  The  connection 
between  YaUuva  and  Pallava  has  already  been  mentioned. 

The  majority  of  the  Pallar  now-a-days  occupy  the  plains, 
but  they  have  even  there  retained  their  innate  predilection 
for  the  woods  and  mountains.  Wherever  possible,  they  erect 
their  shrines  in  forests  and  on  hills,  and  their  marriages 
also  take  place  in  such  localities.  A  pandal  or  wooden  shed 
is  there  constructed  to  celebrate  them.     Before  the  marriage 

**  Read  Tlu  Fallavas  \iy  the  learned  Eev.  Thomas  Foulkes,  and  see  p.  53. 



is  actually  performed,  the  bridegroom  suddenly  leaves  his 
house  and  starts  for  some  distant  place,  as  if  he  has  sud- 
denly abandoned  his  intention  of  marrying,  in  spite  of  the 
preparations  that  have  been  made  for  the  wedding.  His 
intended  father-in-law  intercepts  the  young  man  on  his 
way  and  persuades  him  to  return,  promising  to  give  him 
his  daughter  as  a  wife ;  to  this  the  bridegroom  consents.*" 
The  marriage  ceremony  is  then  proceeded  with  :  the  Yal- 
luva  priest  shows  the  Ti'tli  or  marriage  necklace  to  the 
assembled  guests,  pronounces  the  necessary  prayers  and 
mantrams,  and  hands  the  Tali  to  the  bridegroom,  who  ties  it 
round  the  neck  of  his  bride.  It  is  highly  probable  that  the 
Pallar  adopted  a  part  of  their  marriage  rites,  especially 
those  resembling  the  Kasiyatra,  from  the  Brahmans.  The 
marriage  of  the  Pallar  can  be  dissolved  on  either  side  ;  the 
husband  divorces  his  wife  by  breaking  the  Tali,  and  the 
woman  can  remarry.  Should  a  wife  run  away  from  her 
husband,  she  can  onlj  remarry  with  the  consent  of  a  pan- 
cayat.  A  widow  can  remarry.  The  dead  are  either  burnt 
or  buried  :  burying  is  cheaper  and,  therefore,  more  common 
among  the  poorer  of  the  lower  classes. 

66  This  custom  resembles  stvangrl}^  the  so-called  Kdiiiintni  among  the 
Brahmans  and  high-caste  Hindus,  ric.tonding  to  go  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Kdn 
(Benares),  the  bridegToom  loaves  his  house  with  a  wooden  stick  in  his  right 
hand,  a  kadjan  (palm-leaf)  hook  under  his  left  arm,  on  his  left  shoulder  he 
carries  an  umbrella,  to  which  is  tied  a  bundle  of  clothes,  containing  also  some 
doll  and  other  neressaries  for  tho  jourrcy  ;  his  feet  are  encased  in  a  pair  of 
pddiiriikaa  or  hard  leather  shoes,  and  on  his  head  he  wears  a  pugri.  "SATiila 
on  the  riiad,  he  is  overtaken  by  the  father  and  mother  of  his  bride,  who  carry 
.respecti\'ely  two  cocoanuts  and  two  vesacls  filled  with  water.  The  intended  pours  the  water  over  tho  feet  of  the  youth,  while  her  husband 
washes  them  and  then  gives  him  the  two  cocoanuts.  Both  entreat  him  not 
to  proceed  to  Benares,  but  to  return  and  marry  their  daughter,  to  which 
■proposals  he  eventually  listens,  and  the  wedding  is  celebrated  as  pre-arranged. 
The  origin  of  this  custom  may  be  that,  though  e\cvy  Brahman  should  visit 
Benares  in  order  to  study  there,  the  young  man  cannot  do  so  if  he  hecomcs 
a  firha'^ihn  or  family  man.  He  saves,  therefore,  his  conscience  by  simulatin,^" 
an  immediali'  departure  to  Kasi  and  manifesting  thus  his  good  intentions, 
which,  though  not  carried  out,  will  be  credited  to  him  as  if  ho  had  actually 
performed  the  pilgrimage. 


Mallan,  Kulantdn,  and  Murukan  are  common  names 
among  Palla  men,  while  Valli,  Tevanai  (for  Devayana  cor- 
ruption of  Devasena)  and  Kulantai  (Kulumai)  are  applied  to 
their  women. ^' 

The  Pallar  are  an  industrious,  hardworking,  and  hard- 
worked  class  of  land  labourers,  found  mostly  in  the  Madras 
Presidency,  and  especially  in  the  southern  districts.  They 
toil  unintermittingly  to  enrich  their  masters,  the  actual 
owners  of  the  soil,  and  they  were,  until  very  lately,  not  much 
better  treated  than  bondslaves.  The  time  is  not  remote 
when  the  owners  of  the  ground  even  regarded  them  as 
their  property,  as  Helots  belonging  to  the  land.  Continual 
bad  treatment  and  exposure  to  all  kinds  of  hardship  have 
been  their  sad  lot,  and  it  is  only  natural  that  this  condition 
should  have  eventually  told  on  their  mental  and  physical 
development,  but  it  speaks,  on  the  other  hand,  much  for 
the  superiority  of  their  original  nature  that,  in  spite  of  all 
the  miseries  endured,  they  have  been  able  to  retrieve  their 
position  under  a  kinder  government  and  are  now  starting 
again  with  fair  prospects  of  improvement. 

The  Pulayar  of  Travancore,  Cochin,  and  Malabar  corre- 
spond to  the  PajULar  in  the  Tamil  country,  the  Pallar  set- 
tlers in  these  countries  being  often  called  Pulayar.  Their 
fate  resembles  that  of  the  Pallar.  Constant  exposure  to  the 
heat  of  a  scorching  sun,  to  the  unceasing  downpours  of  rain 
during  the  monsoon,  and  to  the  violent  gales  and  thunder- 
storms so  prevalent  on  the  West  Coast  of  India,  combined 
with  insufficient  and  unsubstantial  nourishment,  has  tinder- 
mined  and  stunted  their  physique,  and  their  skin  has  in  the 
course  of  generations  assumed  a  colour  approaching  black  as 
nearly  as  possible.  Unfavorable  local  circumstances  have 
made  the  position  of  the  Pulayar  even  worse  than  that  of 

"  Murukan  and  MurukeSan  are  also  names  of  Subrahmanya.    See  note  16 
on  p.  16. 


the  most  oppressed  races  in  the  Tamil  country.  The  Pariahs 
or  Pallar,  who  despaired  of  their  sad  lot,  had  at  least  a 
chance  of  improving  it  by  running  away  from  their  oppres- 
sors without  being  caught  again ;  but  even  this  prospect 
was  denied  to  the  unfortunate  Pulayan.  Hemmed  in  on  all 
sides  by  mountains,  woods,  backwaters,  swamps,  and  the 
sea  he  could  not  hope  to  escape  and  to  better  his  position ; 
even  if  he  evaded  recapture,  he  had  to  face  death  in  another 
cruel  form  in  the  wilderness  in  which  he  found  himself 
entangled,  and  out  of  which  he  could  not  extricate  himself. 

Like  the  Pallan,  the  Pulayan,  when  well  treated,  has 
shown  himself  to  be  possessed  of  creditable  mental  and 
physical  powers.  In  the  census  report  of  Travancore  it  is 
said  of  them  that  "  they  are  an  extremely  useful  and  hard- 
working race,  and  are  sometimes  distinguished  by  a  rare 
character  for  truth  and  honor,  which  their  superiors  in  the 
caste  scale  might  well  emulate." 

The  degree  of  contempt  with  which  the  Pulayan  is  treated 
is  evident  from  the  disgraceful  etymological  derivation  of 
his  name  from  Pula,  pollution,  as  has  been  already  men- 
tioned. Like  every  other  Hindu,  the  Pulayan  takes  a  pride 
in  his  caste  and  despises,  in  his  turn,  all  those  whom  he 
regards  as  beneath  him.  As  has  also  been  remarked,  the 
highest  class  among  the  Pariahs  and  the  Pulayar  is  that  of 
the  Valluvar,  who  are  moreover  the  priests  of  the  Pariahs 
and  Pallar.  This  seems  to  be  another  proof  of  the  identical 
origin  of  the  Pallan  and  Pulayan. 

The  chief  deities  of  the  Pulayan  are  Mddan  and  the  Fire 

As  a  Pariah  found  at  Melkota  the  image  of  Celvapillai, 
as  a  Savara  was  originally  in  possession  of  the  sacred  stone 
of  Jagannatha,  so  also  is  the  worship  of  Padmanabha  in 
Trivandrum  intimately  connected  with  a  Pulayan.  Once  a 
Piilacci  or  Pulaya  woman,  who  was  living  with  her  husband 
in  the  Anantakadu  jungle,  suddenly  heard  the  cry  of  a  baby. 


She  rushed  to  the  spot  and  saw,  to  her  surprise,  a  beautiful 
child  lying  on  the  ground,  protected  by  a  cobra.  She  had 
compassion  on  it,  and  nursed  it  Hke  her  own  child.  The 
appearance  of  a  cobra  intimated  to  her  the  divine  origin 
of  the  infant.  This  beUef  proved  true,  for  the  child  was  an 
incarnation  of  Visnu.  As  soon  as  the  Eaja  of  Travancore 
heard  of  this  wonderful  event,  he  built  a  shrine  on  the  spot 
where  the  baby  had  been  found,  and  dedicated  it  to  Padma- 
nabha.  This  is  the  origin  of  the  Padmanabha  temple  at 
Trivandrum.  The  Pulayar  round  Trivandrum  assert  to 
this  day  that  in  former  times  a  Pulaya  king  ruled  and  had 
his  castle  not  far  from  the  present  capital  of  Travancore.*^ 

This  constant  connection  of  individuals  belonging  to  the 
lowest  population  with  the  worship  of  the  Hindu  gods  is 
indeed  a  very  peculiar  and  significant  circumstance. 

While  the  Pallar  on  the  East  Coast  and  the  Pxilayar  on 
the  Malabar  Coast  are  mostly  agricultural  labourers,  the 
Pukiiyar  and  the  Palliyar  {Palliar)  in  Madura  are  on  the 
other  hand  mountaineers.  The  former  are  regarded  as  the 
aboriginal  inhabitants  of  the  Palani  Hills,  and  have  been 
the  bondslaves  of  the  Kunnuvar.  The  Palliyar  dwell  on 
the  hills  also  in  Madura  and  the  adjacent  districts,  avoiding 
as  much  as  possible  any  intercourse  with  strangers. 

Related  to  the  Pallas  by  kinship,  and  bearing  also  a 
similar  name,  are  the  Balla  (Bala,  Valla,  Vella)  and  Bhalla 
(Bhilla  or  Bhll). 

It  is  now  impossible  to  decide  or  explain  when  and 
why  the  original  name  Palla  became  thus  diversified;  but 
after  these  dialectical  variations  had  once  come  into  use,  it 
was  advisable  to  retain  rather  than  to  drop  them. 

*^  The  god  Padmanabha  rests  with  his  head  at  Tiruvallam  and  with  his  feet 
at  Tirupalapur  or  Tirupadapur.  The  chief  Nambnri  priest  of  Travancore 
comes  from  Cochin  and  is  called  Aluvanceri  Tamhurahal.  See  also  Rev. 
S.  Mateer's  Land  of  Charity,  p.  161,  and  Native  Life  in  Travancore,  p.  34. 

78  on  the  original  inhabitants 

The  Ballas. 

The  tribe  which  bears  this  name  has  become  famous 
throughout  India  at  different  times  and  in  different  places. 
We  meet  the  Ballas  in  the  North  as  well  as  in  the  South, 
but  their  fame  is  especially  connected  with  those  countries 
■which  form  now-a-days  the  north-western  part  of  the  Bom- 
bay Presidency,  including  its  dependencies.  Their  ancient 
capital  was  the  renowned  Balabhlptira  in  Kathiawar.  Enor- 
mous ruins,  spread  over  fifteen  miles,  are  evidence  of  its 
splendour  before  its  destruction  in  the  eighth  century. 
Walla  lies  now  near  the  site  of  Balabhipura.  The  kings  of 
the  Ballas  are  known  as  Balla  Rajas  (Balla-Eaos),  Balharas 
and  Ballalas.  The  power  and  splendour  of  the  Balharas 
excited  the  admiration  of  mediseval  Arabian  travellers  who 
visited  the  Indian  shores. 

Some  Ballas  claim  to  belong  to  the  Suryaramsa  or  sun- 
line  and  trace  their  descent  from  Lava's  son  Balla.  The 
bards  praise  them  as  Tatta-MiiUan-ka-Bao,  the  Lords  of  Tatta 
and  Multan.  They  called  the  territory  which  they  conquered 
Ballak0ra  with  BalahMpur  as  its  chief  town.  The  Ballas 
of  Surat  derive  their  origin  from  Caiidra  or  the  moon  and 
connect  their  pedigree  with  the  Balikaputras,  the  ancient 
lords  of  Aror  on  the  Indus.  The  present  Ballas  and  the 
Kathis,  like  their  ancestors,  still  worship  the  sun,  which  is 
the  presiding  deity  of  Multan,  a  circumstance  that  intimates 
a  Scythian  and  Non-Aryan  origin.  The  Ballas  are  probably 
identical  with  the  Mallas  whom  we  have  mentioned  above. 
The  Kathi  of  Kathiawar,  who  as  Kathcei  fought  against 
the  great  Macedonian,  claim  to  be  descended  from  the 

The  name  of  the  Balla  Rajas  reappears  in  a  different 
form  at  a  later  period  in  Mysore  as  the  well-known  Ballalas. 

Many  places,  all  over  India,  still  preserve  the  name  of 
the  Ballas.  I  reserve  this  subject  for  a  later  chapter,  but 
mention  here  only  such  places  as  Belganm  or  Baliagrama, 


Ballasaniudram,    Ballapallem,    Balla'pur,   MdhMvar    (Maha- 
balleSvara),  &o.^^ 

The  BhIls. 

The  Bhils  are  protably  aborigines  of  Marwar.  They 
live  scattered  over  a  great  tract  of  country;  they  dwell  so 
far  north  as  the  Aravalli  Hills,  and  they  are  found  in  the 

*'  See  Ijieutenant-Colonel  James  Tod's  Annals  of  Eajasthan,  vol.  I,  pp. 
112,  113  :  "  All  the  genealogists,  ancient  and  modem,  insert  the  Balla  trihe 
among  the  Eaj-culas.  The  it/rd,  or  hlessing,  of  the  bard  is  Tatta  Mooltan  ca 
rao  (Princes  of  Tatta  and  Mooltan),  indicative  of  their  original  ahodes  on  the 
Indus.  They  lay  claim,  however,  to  descent  from  the  Sooryavansi,  and 
maintain  that  their  great  ancestor,  Balla  or  Bappa,  was  the  offspring  of  Lava, 
the  eldest  son  of  Ram  ;  thnt  their  first  settlement  in  Sauiashtra  was  at  the 
ancient  Dhank,  in  more  remote  periods  called  Mongy  Pottun  ;  and  that,  in 
conquering  the  country  adjacent,  they  termed  it  Ballakhetr  (their  capital 
Balahhipoora) ,  and  assumed  the  title  of  Ballah-rae.  Here  they  claim 
identity  with  the  Ghelote  race  of  MSwar  :  nor  is  it  impossible  that  they  may 
be  a  branch  of  this  family,  which  long  held  power  in  Saurashtra.  Before 
the  Ghelotes  adopted  the  worship  of  Mahadeo,  which  period  is  indicated  in 
their  annals,  the  chief  object  of  their  adoration  was  the  sun,  giving  them 
that  Seijthic  resemblance  to  which  the  Ballas  have  every  appearance  of 
claim.  The  BaUas  on  the  continent  of  Saurashtra  on  the  contrarj',  assert 
their  origin  to  be  Induvansa,  and  that  they  are  the  Balica-pootras,  who  were 
the  ancient  lords  of  Arore  on  the  Indus  .  .  .  The  Cattis  claim  descent  from 
the  Ballas  ;  an  additional  proof  of  northern  origin,  and  strengthening  their 
right  to  the  epithet  of  the  bards  '  Lords  of  Moolthan  and  Tatta.'  The  Ballas 
were  of  sufficient  consequence  in  the  thirteenth  century  to  make  incursions 
on  Mewar,  and  the  first  exploit  of  the  celebrated  Rana  Hamir  was  his  killing 
the  Balla  chieftain  of  Choteela.  The  present  chief  of  Dhank  is  a  Balla,  and 
the  tribe  yet  preserves  importance  in  the  peninsula." 

Read  also  ibidem,  pp.  216-219.  "A  work  written  to  commemorate  the 
"  reign  of  Rama  Raj  Sing  opens  with  these  words  :  '  In  the  west  is  Sooratdes, 
"  a  country  well  known:  the  harbarians  invaded  it,  and  conquered  Bhal- 
' '  ca-nath  ;  aU  fell  in  the  sack  of  Balahhipoora,  except  the  daughter  of  the 
"  Pramara.'  And  the  Sanderai  roll  thus  commences:  When  the  city  of 
"  Balabhi  was  sacked,  the  inhabitants  fled  and  founded  Balli,  Sanderai,  and 
"  Nadole  in  Mordur  des.      These  are  towns  yet  of  consequence  .  The 

"  tract  about  Balahhipoora  and  northward  is  termed  Bhal,  probably  from 
"the  tribe  of  Balla.  .  The  sun  was  the  deity  of  this  northern  tribe  .  .  . 
"The  solar  orb  and  its  type,  fire,  were  the  chief  objects  of  adoration  of 
"  Silladitya  of  Balahhipoora."  The  Balarajas  are  also  mentioned  in  the 
ylslfilic  Researches,  vol.  IX. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Tod's  Travels  in  Western  India,  London,  1839,  pp. 
U7-149,  contain  the  same  information  as  above,  to  this  is  added  the  follow- 
ing :    "The  Balla  pays  adoration  exclusively  to  the  sun,  and  it  is  only  in 


deserts  of  Sind  and  Eajputana  as  well  as  in  the  woody  and 
inaccessible  gorges  of  Kandesh  and  Ahmedabad. 

The  name  of  the  Bhils  occurs  in  various  Sanskrit  works, 
and  also  in  Ptolemy,  VII,  1,  66.  He  makes  mention  of 
the  PhylUtai  together  with  the  Bettigoi  and  Kandaloi. 

Instead  of  connecting  the  PhylUtai  with  the  Bhils,  as 
Lassen  first  rightly  proposed  to  do,  Sir  A.  Cunningham 
prefers  to  derive  the  term  PhyUitai  from  the  Greek  word 

' '  Saurashtra  that  temples  to  this  orb  ahound  ;  so  that  religion,  tradition  as 
"regards  their  descent,  and  personal  appearance,  aU  indicate  an  Indo-scy- 
"  thio  origin  for  this  race,  and  in  order  to  conceal  their  barbarian  (mleteha) 
"extraction,  the  fable  of  their  birth  from  Eama  may  have  been  devised. 
' '  The  city  of  Balabhi ,  written  Wulleh  in  the  maps,  and  now  an  inconsider- 
"  able  village,  was  said  to  be  twelve  ooss,  or  fifteen  miles,  in  circumference. 
"From  its  foundations,  gigantic  bricks,  from  one  and-a-half  to  two  feet  in 
"length,  are  still  dug;  but  of  this  hereafter.  Enough  has  been  said  to 
"  trace  the  origin  of  the  Balhara  of  the  Arabian  travellers,  the  Baleokouras 
' '  of  Ptolemy  ;  for,  even  in  the  second  century,  it  had  claims  to  the  attention 
"  of  the  royal  geographer  of  Egypt. "  See  ibidem,  pp.156,  159-169,  where 
Colonel  Tod  discusses  the  Arabic  accounts  of  the  Balhara  princes  of  India. 
On  page  160  he  says  :  "  We  may  remark  upon  this  description,  first,  of  the 
''  title  Balhara,  that  it  was  derived  from  Balld-cd-Rae,  whose  ancient  capital 
"was  Balabhipoor,  on  whose  site  Ptolemy  has  placed  a  Byzantium."  I 
also  derive  Balhara  from  Balla  Mdja,  the  word  Balla  having  undergone  the 
change,  which  I  have  explained  on  pp.  71  and  72.  Though  Colonel  Tod 
gives  abovethe right  explanation, he  called  these  rulers  on  p.  145  "Balhara,  or 
more  correctly  Balha-raes,  exalted  kings."  The  Arabic  travellers,  especially 
Idn  Ehurdadba  and  Al  Idrisi,  styled  these  monarchs  and  interpreted  their 
name  Balhara  as  meaning  king  of  kings,  and  the  late  Mr.  Edward  Thomas,  of 
numismatic  reputation,  explained  it  to  signify  Bara  Rai,  great  king  or  lord 
paramount  of  the  time  being.  Compare  about  this  subject  "  The  History  of 
India,"  edited  from  the  posthumous  papers  of  Sir  H.  M.  Elliot  by  Professor 
John  Dowson,  vol.  I,  pp.  3-5,  9,  13,  21,  24,  86,  87,  201  and  354-358,  which 
latter  passage  contains  u,  great  deal  of  information  on  this  subject.  The 
Riiiition  des  Voyaries  fiits  par  lis  Arabes  et  les  Persans  dans  V Inde  et  a  la 
Chine,  par  M.  Eeinaud ;  Paris,  1845,  should  be  also  consulted. 

Colonel  Tod  devotes  a  special  chapter  to  Balabhi  in  his  Travels  in 
Western  India,  pp.  268-271.  "The  name  of  this  is  now  Balli,  or  Wulleh  .  . 
Some  interesting  additions .  .  amply  confirmed  all  I  had  recorded  of  it  (Balabhi) 
from  the  Yutis  of  BaUi  and  Sandera  in  Marwar,  the  descendants  of  those 
who  were  expelled  on  its  sack  in  S.  300  (A.D.  214)"  .  StiU,  both  books 

and  tradition  connect  the  tribe  of  Balla  with  the  ancient  sovereigns  of 
Balabhi  .  The  lord  of  Balla-khetra  would,  of  course,  be  Bal-ca-rae, 
which  doubtless  originated  the  epithet,  so  often  noticed,  of  the  Balhara 
princes         .  Not  far  from  B;ilabhi,  there  is  a  spot  still  sacred  to  the  pilgrim, 


^vXXov,  leaf,  and  to  assign  to  it  the  meaning  of  leaf-clad. 
This  expression,  according  to  Sir  Alexander,  appropriately 
describes  the  Gronds,  though  parna,  leaf,  is  used  only  in 
connection  with  the  Sabaras,  as  he  himself  admits  when 
referring  to  them.  There  is  no  objection  to  his  explaining 
parna  by  "  leaf -clad,"  though  it  can  also  signify  "leaf -eating." 
In  fact  I  prefer  to  a  certain  extent  the  former  interpretation 
oiparna.   But  as  the  Phyllttai  are  mentioned  by  Ptolemy  as  a 

and  connected  with  the  grand  national  epic,  the  Mahabharat,  called 
Bheemnath,  where  there  is  a  fountain,  whose  waters,  in  past  days,  were  of 
miraculous  efficacy,  and  on  whose  margin  is  a  temple  to  Siva,  which  attracts 
votaries  from  all  quarters.  The  origin  of  this  spot  is  referred  to  the  adventures 
of  the  Pandua  brothers,  and  their  wanderings  in  exile  amongst  the  forests  of 
Berat,  which  tradition  places  in  this  very  region,  and  its  capital,  Beratgurh, 
is  held  to  he  the  more  modem,  but  still  interesting  Dholka,  included  in  Balla. 
khetra,  and  affording  fresh  and  almost  superabundant  testimony  to  the 
veracity  of  the  ancient  chronicles  of  Mewar,  which  state  Balabhi,  Beratgurh, 
and  G-urh-Gajni  to  have  been  the  three  chief  cities,  which  owned  their  sway 
on  their  expulsion  from  the  ' '  land  of  the  Sauras . "  The  era  of  Balabhi,  which 
is  identical  with  the  Gupta  era,  begins,  according  to  the  correct  statement  of 
Albirunl,  in  A.D.  3|S.  The  Balabhi  grants  are  dated  between  the  years  207 
and  447  of  the  Gupta  era.  (See  Colonel  Tod's  Annals  of  Sajaslhan,  vol.  I, 
801.  and  Travels  in  Western  India,  p.  213,  and  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vols. 
XI,  pp.  241,  305—9  ;  XV.,  pp.  189,  273,  335  ;  XVI,  p.  147  ;  the  researches 
of  Dr.  Hultzsoh,  Prof  Biihler,  and  Mr.  Fleet) .  Balabhi  was  visited  by  Hiven 
Tsiang  about  640  A.D.  "On  its  destruction,  in  the  middle  of  the  eighth 
century,  Anhulwarra  became  the  metropolis,  and  this,  as  recorded,  endured 
until  the  fourteenth,  when  the  title  of  Bal-ca-rae  became  extinct."  (Tod's 
Travels  in  Western  India,  p.  214.) 

Ptolemy  mentions,  VII,  1.  8Z 'iTriri Kovpa,  ^curiKetovBaKe^Kovpov,^  for  which 
WUlberg  in  his  edition  of  Ptolemy  substitutes  'BaAepKaJpou.  This  is  the 
passage  to  which  Colonel  Tod  has  referred  above  in  his  Travels  on  p.  149,  and 
which  is  mentioned  also  in  his  Annals,  vol.  I,  p.  213.  Chr.  Lassen  speaks  in 
his  Indische  Alterthumskunde,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  179,  185,  and  186  of  this  passage, 
and  places  this  Hippokura  in  the  south  ;  ' '  Die  Stadt  muss  in  der  Nahe  des 
' '  j  etzigen  Mulkher  gelegen  haben .  .  Nur  so  viel  lasst  sich,  ohne  Besorgniss  zu 
"  irren,  behaupten,  dass  dem  Siripolemios  die  nordliohem,  dem  Baleokuros 
"die  siidlichem  Gebiete  unterworfen  waren."  I  conjecture  that  the  word 
Balla  is  contained  in  Baleoktiru  as  well  as  in  Balerkiirn,  and  if  the  latter  is 
accepted  as  a  reading,  the  r  must  indicate  the  title  of  Eaja  or  Eao. 

About  Balabhi  consult  "Notes  on  the  Ancient  City  of  Balabhipura," 
by  Mr.  B.  A.  E.  Nicholson,  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  vol. 
XIII,  pp.  146-163.  Eead  alio  the  articles  on  this  subject  by  the  above  men- 
tioned scholars,  and  those  of  the  late  Mr.  J.  Fergusson,  and  Professor  R.  Gopal 
Bhandarkar,  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vols.  I,  III,  IV,  V,  VI,  VII,  IS,  XI, 



separate  tribe  distinguished  from  the  Kandaloi,  both  cannot 
be  merged  into  one,  nor  can  Phyllltai  be  taken  as  a  Greek 
word,  for  Ptolemy  does  not  use  Greek  expressions  instead 
of,  or  among  other,  Indian  proper  names  without  tendering 
an  explanation  for  such  an  unusual  proceeding.  PhylUtai, 
moreover,  does  not  occur  in  Greek  in  the  sense  suggested  by 
Sir  A.  Cunningham. 

The  passage  in  Ptolemy  has  no  connection  whatever  with 
the  Sabaras.'" 

XII,  XIV,  XV  and  XVI.  Professor  Biihler  especially  has  by  his  puhlication 
and  translation  of  a  considerable  number  of  Balabhi  grants  considerably 
contributed  to  the  elucidation  of  this  hitherto  dark  passage  in  Indian  history. 

Compare  also  Sir  Alexander  Cunningham's  remarks  in  the  Arehceological 
Survey  of  India,  vol.  11,  pp.  33-35:  "  We  know  also  that  both  the  Balas 
and  the  Kathi  of  the  present  day  pay  special  adoration  to  the  sun,  which 
was  the  chief  deity  of  Multan,  from  the  earliest  times  down  to  the  reign 
of  Aurangzib,  by  whose  orders  the  idol  is  said  to  have  been  destroyed.  It 
seems  probable  therefore  that  the  Balas  may  be  the  same  tribe  as  the  Malli 
or  Main  of  Alexander's  historians,  as  the  interchange  of  the  letters  b  and 
m,  which  is  of  frequent  occurrence  in  most  languages,  was  very  common  in 
the  Macedonian  dialect."  Compare  about  iliiUan,  vol.  V,  pp.  114-136  of 
the  Arehmological  Survey  of  India  ;  and  about  the  golden  statue  of  the  Sun, 
H.  M.  Elliot's  History  of  India,  vol.  I,  pp.  11,  23,  27,  35,  82,  206  and  469. 

The  remark  about  the  Macedonian  dialect  is  misleading,  as  the  Greek 
historians  mention  the  Malloi,  and  as  the  change  of  m  into  b  is  in  this 
instance  of  Indian  origin. 

'<>  The  Pardsarapaddhati  mentions  the  Bhlls,  Pulindas,  Pullas,  MaUas  and 
others  in  the  following  lines  : 

Pulinda-Meda-BhiUasca  Pullo  MaUai^ca  Phavakah, 
Kundakaro  Dokhalo  va  Mrtapo  Hastipas  tatha ; 
Ete  vai  Tivarajjatah  kanj-ayam  Brahmanasya  ca. 

See  Ptolemy,  VII,  1,  66;  "Ilepi  ie  r'bv  "Havayovvav  ^vWlrai  koX  Brimy^, 
iv  oTs  Kcii'SaXot  )U€V  -/rapct  tovs  4>uA.XiTas  koX  rhv  i:oTafx6v'''  See  Sir  A.  Cun- 
ningham iu  the  Archeeological  Survey  of  India,  vol.  IX,  p.  151:  "  In  his 
"(Ptolemy's)  day  the  large  district  at  the  head  of  the  Nanagnna,  or  Tapti 
"  River,  was  occupied  by  the  Kondali  or  Gondali,  a  name  which  has  been 
' '  generally  identified  with  that  of  the  Gonds.  But  their  country  is  described 
"as  pars  PhuUitarum,  the  P/faKitee  themselves  being  placed  more  to  the 
"  north.  I  take  this  name  to  be  a  pure  Greek  one,  tpuAXenai,  descriptive 
"  of  the  '  leaf -clad  '  aborigines.  Varaha  Mihira  notices  the  Parna-Sabaras, 
'•  or  '  leaf -clad  Sauras  '  ;  and  we  know  that  the  Juangs  of  the  present  day 
"  still  preserve  this  primitive  costume.  I  believe,  therefore,  that  there  may 
"have  been  Pa/7M  Gaudas,  or  'leaf-clad  Gonds,'  in  the  time  of  Ptolemy, 
"  and   that  these    are   the    people    intended    by    his    PhuUitae-Gondali." 


The  Mars  of  Ajmere  resemble  the  Bhils,  and  these  again 
are  not  dissimilar  to  the  Parheyas  and  Khonds.     The  Bhils 

This  opinion  does  not  appear  to  coincide  with  that  expressed  by  Sir  A. 
Cunningham  in  vol.  XXI,  p.  93  :  "  Still  further  to  the  south  Ptolemy  places 
"  the  PhuUitae  and  the  Kondali,  -whose  country  is  descrihed  as  Pars  Phulli- 
"  tarum.  Phullitae  I  take  to  he  a  Greek  name  descriptive  of  the  Parna 
"  Savaras,  or  'leaf -clad  Savaras,'  one  of  the  most  powerful  of  the  ahoriginal 
"races  in  the  early  centuries  of  the  Christian  era.  Their  only  town  was 
"  Aguftt,  which  may  perhaps  be  identified  with  Sagar."  In  H.T.Colebrooke's 
edition  of  A.marakosa,  Serampore,  1825,  p.  2.52,  note  j,  we  read  ;  savarah  or 
patrascwarah,  wearing  feathers  (a  peacock's  tail,  &c.).  A.  Loiseleur  Deslong- 
champs'  French  edition  contains  on  p.  233  the  same  remark.  In  Bothlingk 
and  Roth's  SansJcrit  W'drterbueh,  vol.  IV,  p.  417,  standis  patrasaoara,  "  ein 
mitFedem  sich  schmiickender  Savara."  BrhatsamhitS,  XIV,  10,  mentions 
the  Purikadasdrndh  with  saha  nagnaparnasataraih ;  and  Bothlingk  calls 
ibidem,  p.  574  the  Parnasavara,  von  Blattem  lebende  Savara,  i.e.,  Savaras, 
who  live  on  leaves  ;  the  term  occurs  also  in  MarkandSya  Purana.  Some  take 
Parna  as  the  name  of  a  people ;  e.r/.,  Mr.  N.  Chidambaram  Iyer,  who 
translates  this  passage  :  Nagna,  Parna  and  Sahara.  It  is  possible  that  in  this 
place  three  different  tribes  are  enumerated,  the  Nagna  (naked),  the  Partia, 
and  the  Sahara  :  for  if  two  tribes,  the  Nagna-iahara  and  Parna-saiara, 
i.e.,  the  "naked  Sahara"  and  the  "  leaf -Sahara, "  are  only  mentioned, 
in  order  to  prevent  any  doubt  on  this  subject,  any  other  mode  of  expression 
would  have  been  preferable  to  the  use  of  the  compound  in  the  Instrumental 
Plural,  i.e.,  to  nagnaparnasabaraih.  I  ought  also  not  omit  to  mention  that 
the  Sabardh  occur  ten  times  in  the  Brhatsamhitd,  but  only  once  in  the  quoted 
place  in  connection  with  either  nagna  or  parna.  To  these  remarks  I  join 
General  Sir  A.  Cunningham's  comments  as  contained  in  his  17th  vol.  pp.  127, 
12S:  "I  think  it  probable  that  Colebrooke's  reading  of  Patra  Savaras  is 
' '  erroneous,  as  Variha  Mihira  gives  the  name  of  Parpa  Savara,  or  leaf -clad 
"  Savaras.  Varaha  places  in  the  south-east  quarter,  in  the  territory  of  the 
' '  aborigines,  the  Purikas,  the  Dasimas,  the  ' '  naked  Saiaras,  and  the  Parva 
"  iSaiaras,"  and  in  the  south  the  Sauris  and  Kirnas.  The  commentator, 
**  however,  takes  these  two  names  as  one,  or  Saitri- Kirnas,  who  are  probably 
"  the  people  of  Hwen  Tsang's  Kirna-Suvarna,  Professor  Kern  thinks  that 
'■  the  Parna  Savaras  are  '  manifestly  the  Phyllitae  of  Ptolemy,'  and  he  ex- 
"  plains  the  name  as  '  feeding  upon  leaves.'  But,  as  we  know  that  the  Juangs, 
"  a  cognate  race,  still  wear  leaves,  it  seems  to  me  more  probable  that  the 
"term  means  '  leaf-clad.'  In  other  places  Varaha  speaks  of  the  '  Savara 
"savages,'  (IX,  15),  the  'savage  Sabaras  and  Puliudas '  (IX,  29),  and 
"  of  various  tribes  of  i^aico'«  savages  (XXXII,  16).  This  last  notice  must 
' '  refer  to  more  than  the  two  tribes  of  Nagna  Sabaras,  or  '  Naked  Savaras, 
"  and  Parna  Savaras,  or  '  Leaf-clad.'  Both  Amara  and  Varaha  date  about 
"A.D.  650." 

To  my  previous  remarks,  I  only  add  that  the  term  c/JuWiTai,  as  used  by 
Ptolemy,  cannot  apply  to  the  Sabaras,  who  are  mentioned  by  him  VII,  1,  80 
near  the  Ganges  ;  that  a  word  tpvWeirai  does,  I  believe,  not  occur  in  Greek, 
though  <f>u\\(T7)s  (m)  and  tpvWiris  (J)  are  used  in  the  sense  of  (pxiWifos,  made  of 
leaves  ;  that  the  Phyllitae  are  distinguished  by  Ptolemy  from  the  Kondaloi 


being  mostly  mountaineers,  are  called  in  Kanarese  Koracaru 
or  Kuncciyar,  and  a  Bhil  woman  or  Koravahji  is  known  in 
Sanskrit  as  Bhilld  str'i  or  Pdrvafei/i.''^  Koravanji  is  also  the 
name  of  a  girl  whom  Arjuna  is  said  to  have  married  when 
he  stayed  in  the  Raicataka  forest.'^ 

Cairns,  cromlechs  and  stone  platforms  testify  on  the  tops 
of  hills  to  the  presence  of  the  Bhils.  Clay  horses  are,  as  in 
Southern  India,  dedicated  to  the  gods.  If  images  of  horses 
are  deposited  near  or  on  the  tops  of  hills,  the  souls  of  the 
dead  are  supposed  to  shorten  their  journey  to  heaven  by 
using  them. 

Though  of  a  wild  and  unmanageable  disposition  and 
much  addicted  to  thieving,  the  Bhils  can,  when  they  have 
once  been  won  by  kind  and  just  treatment,  be  easily  turned 
into  useful  and  trustworthy  servants,  soldiers,  and  land 
labourers.  Some  of  their  villages  show  superior  cultivation. 
In  Nimar  and  elsewhere  they  fill  the  post    of   hereditary 

and  that  both  cannot  be  regarded  as  one  nation  " Phyllitae-Oondali"  (IX, 
p.  151)  or  as  *'  leaf-clad  Savaras  "  (XXI,  p.  93)  :  that  the  countrj^  of  thp  KoTtd- 
all  is  not  by  Ptolemy  described  ae  Fan  F/iiU/itariim  ;  and  that  the  Sabaras 
are  in  the  Brhatsaihhita,  IX,  15,  29,  and  XXXII,  1 5,  not  respectively  called 
"  Savara  savages,"  "savage  Sabaras  and  Pulindas,"  and  of  "various 
tribes  of  Sahara  savages,"  for  we  find  there  in  the  text  dvikdnchabarasudrdn 
(IX,  15),  s'abarapulindapradJiramsakaro  (IX,  29)  and  Tangana-Kalinga-J'ahga- 
iJrariddh  Sabardsea  naikavidhdh,  the  Sabaras  mentioned,  but  nowhere  as 
Sahara  savages.  The  Snhitya  Larpana  mentions  the  different  dialects,  by 
whom  they  should  be  spoken,  and  indicates  that  the  language  of  the  Abhiras 
and  Sabaras  should  be  used  by  those  who  gain  their  living  by  wood  and 
leaves;  i.e.,  most  probably  by  wood-cutting  and  leaf-gathering  (Abhlrl 
Savari  capi  kasthapatropajivisu).  We  meet  here  the  Sabaras  in  connection 
with  pair  a. 

Bishop  Caldwell  advocates  in  his  Comparative  Grammar  the  derivation  of 
:Bhil  from  bil,  arrow,  as  he  says  on  p.  464  :  "  Bhillas,  probably  Billas,  from 
the  Dra vidian  vil,  Ul,  a  bow,  bowmen."  The  Bettigoi  are  also  called  Bittoi, 
Bittioi,  and  Bittigoi.  Compare  Lassen,  vol.  I,  p.  113  (88),  and  Sherring, 
vol.  II,  p.  128-9,  284,  291-300,  326  ;  III,  81-84. 

"  See  Dalton,  pp.  264,  284,  430  and  439.  Compare  also  "  An  Account 
of  the  Maiwar  BhUs,"  by  Mr.  T.  H.  Hendley,  Bengal  Asiatic  Journal,  vol. 
XLIV,  pp.  347-388. 

"  The  marriage  is  mentioned  in  a  Kanarese  ballad.  A  commentary  of 
the  Bharatacampfl  goes  also  by  the  name  of  Koravardmiyam. 


watchmen,  as  the  Mhars  and  Holeyas  do  in  other  parts  of 

The  chiefs  of  the  Bhils  are  known  as  BMlldlas.  Some 
Bhil  chiefs  have  assumed  the  title  of  Ndyak  or  Naick,  as  the 
Pallis  and  Mahars  have  done.  The  founder  of  the  Yadava 
Dynasty  of  Demgiri  bore  the  name  of  Bhillama,  which  word 
I  have  previously  explained.  This  Bhillama  is  also  called 
Bhillamanrpa,  and  Balanrpa,  and  Bellam. 

Colonel  Tod  names  Bulla  as  the  progenitor  of  the  Bhils.'' 

The  Pulindas. 
Not  only  in  their   name  but  also  in  their  habits   and 
ciistoms  do  the  Pallar,   Pulayar   and   their  kiadred  tribes 

"  See  Mr.  T.  H.  Hendley's  Account  of  the  Maiuidr  Bhils,  vol.  44,  p.  347, 
ff .  :  "In  tlie  MRy  tracts,  the  erection  of  cairns,  usually  on  hill  tops  ;  the 
adoption  of  Shiva  and  his  consort  as  symbols  of  the  powers  of  terror  and 
darkness  ;  the  construction  of  stone  platforms  on  which  stand  blocks  smeared 
with  red  paint ;  the  sacrifice  of  animals  and  tradition  of  human  oblations ; 
the  use  of  effigies  of  the  horse  are  apparently  relics  of  their  ancient  faith. 
Piles  of  loose  stones,  .  .  or  mere  platforms,  are  erected  on  the  summits  of  high 
hills,  .  .  on  these  are  arranged  a  large  number  of  stone  or  burnt  clay  images 
of  the  horse.  I  have  seen  a  hollow  cairn  on  the  verge  of  a  steep  crag  near 
Khairwara,  four  feet  in  diameter  and  as  many  deep,  filled  with  these 
images,  each  of  which  was  about  four  inches  in  length  .  .  The  common 
explanation  of  the  construction  of  cairns  and  horses  is  as  follows  : — Heaven 
is  supposed  to  be  but  a  short  distance  from  earth,  but  the  souls  of  the  dead 
have  to  reach  it  by  a  very  painful  and  weary  journey,  which  can  be  avoided 
to  some  extent  during  life  by  ascending  high  hills,  and  there  depositing 
images  of  the  horse — which  in  addition  to  reminding  the  gods  of  the  work 
already  accomplished,  serve  as  chargers  upon  which  the  soul  may  ride  a 
stage  to  bliss.  .  .  The  Bhil  is  an  excellent  wood-man,  knows  the  shortest 
cuts  over  the  hills ;  can  walk  the  roughest  paths  and  climb  the  steepest 
crags  without  slipping  or  feeling  distressed.  .  .  Though  robbers,  and 
timorous,  owing  to  ages  of  ill-treatment,  the  men  are  brave  when  trusted, 
and  very  faithful ;  they  have  been  looked  upon  by  the  Rajputs  as  wild 
beasts  to  be  hunted  down  as  vermin,  and  are  now  only  beginning  to  feel 
themselves  men.  .  History  proves  them  always  to  have  been  faithful  to 
their  nominal  Kajplit  sovereigns,  especially  in  their  adversity.  The  Bhil 
is  a  merry  soul  loving  a  jest."  About  the  Bhils  read  the  account  of  Mr. 
W.  I.  Sinclair  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  IV,  pp.  336-338. 

Colonel  Tod  mentions  Bulla  on  the  first  table  of  his  Annals.  In  the  IV 
Appendix  to  the  same  volume  on  p.  802  PuUnda-Devi  is  explained  as  the 
goddess  of  the  Bhil  tribe. 

With  respect  to  the  Naick  title  in  use  among  the  Bhils,  see  Dr.  Wilson's 


resemble  the  ancient  Pulindas,  who  lived  in  olden  times  in 
various  districts  all  over  India. 

In  the  Aitareya  Brahmana  the  Pulindas,  together  with 
the  Andhras,  Pundras,  Sabaras,'*  and  Mutibas,  are  declared 
to  be  the  offspring  of  the  cursed  elder  sons  of  Yisvamitra, 
while,  according  to  another  tradition,  they  were  descended 
from  the  dark-skinned,  flat-nosed,  and  dwarfish  Nisada,  who 
had  been  produced  by  rubbing  the  thigh  of  the  corpse  of  the 
impious  king  Vena.  The  Pulindas  are  frequently  mentioned 
in  the  classical  language  of  India  as  well  as  in  those  of 
Earope.  The  Ramayaaa  fixes  their  abode  in  different  parts 
of  Northern  and  Southern  India.  They  are  found  on  the 
banks  of  the  Indus,  and  even  in  Ceylon ;  "  in  Central  India 
they  occupied  extensive  tracts  and  dwelt  among  the  Bhils, 
Sabaras,  and  Gronds  in  such  a  manner  that  the  one  are  often 
mistaken  for  the  other.  The  Mahabharata,  Visnu-,  Bhaga- 
vata-,  Padma-,  and  other  Puranas,  the  Brhatsamhita  and 
various  works  contain  repeated  allusions  to  them,  and  Ptolemy 
introduces  them  by  the  name  of  Pulindai  agriophagoi,''^  or 

Indian  Caste,  vol.  I,  p.  99  :  "  The  word  Nak,  the  contraction  of  Nay  ah,  is 
the  common  epithet  (of  respect)  used  by  the  lowly  Mahars  of  the  Maratha 
country.  From  the  abundance  of  Nahi  connected  with  the  BhiUs  of  the 
Baria  jungles,  east  of  Baroda,  they  are  called  Nakadas."  Compare  also 
Sherring's  Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  II,  p.  299  ;  "  The  territories  of 
Baria  and  Chota  Oodepoor,  in  Rewa  Kanta,  were  infested  by  a  class  of 
Bheels,  known  as  Naikras,  of  peculiarly  savage  and  predatory  habits." 
Consult  also  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  p.  208,  on  Nakara ;  Nayak ; 

■>'  I  quote  here  the  derivation  of  the  word  Sahara  proposed  by 
General  Sir  Alex.  Cunningham,  Archaohgieal  Survey  of  India,  vol.  XVII, 
p.  113  :  "  The  origin  of  the  name  of  Savara  must  be  sought  for  outside  the 
"  language  of  the  Aryas.  In  Sanskrit  Snrara  simply  means  a  '  corpse.' 
"  From  Herodotus,  however,  we  learn  that  the  Scythian  word  for  an  '  axe ' 
"  was  Sagaris  ;  and  as  g  and  v  are  interchangeable  letters,  Sarar  is  the  same 
"word  as  Sagar.  It  seems,  therefore,  not  unreasonable  to  infer  that  the 
''  tribes,  who  were  so  called,  took  their  name  from  their  habit  of  carrying 
"  axes.  Now  it  is  one  of  the  striking  peculiarities  of  the  Savaras  that  they 
"are  rarely  seen  without  an  axe  in  their  hands." 

'*  See  Lassen's  Indische  AUerthums/cunde,  vol.  II,  p.  101,  469. 

'*  no\/K7ySai  aypiopdyoi  ;  Ptol.,  VII,  1,  64. 

OF    BHAEATAVAfiSA    OR    INDIA.  87 

raw  flesh  and  wild  fruits  eating  Pulindas,  as  living  north  of 
the  present  Barok. 

On  Pulaha,  Pulastya,  Puloman,  &c. 

The  previously  mentioned  names  of  Pulaha,  Pulastya, 
Puloman,  ^c,  bear  in  their  first  two  syllables  Pula  a  strange 
resemblance  to  the  name  of  the  Pulayar  and  Pulindas.  Sans- 
krit grammarians  generally  connect  the  names  of  these 
Saints  with  the  root  pwl,  to  be  great,  and  the  word  Pulastya 
is  also  derived  from  pulas,  standing  for  puras.  These  deri- 
vations, however,  appear  too  artificial." 

Pulastya  is  said  to  be  the  father  of  Agastya  and  Vilravas. 
Visravas  had  four  sons.  Ruber  a  by  Idavida  (or  Ilavila) 
and  Ravana,  Kumhhakarna,  and  Vibhisana  by  Kesini.  The 
saintly  civiliser  of  Southern  India,  Agastya,  is  thus,  as  pre- 
viously noticed,  very  closely  indeed  related  to  the  chief  of 
the  hated  Eaksasas,  being  in  fact  the  uncle  of  Eavana,  the 
god- despising  king  of  Lanka.  While  Ravana  conquered 
.India  and  reduced  the  gods  to  abject  subjection,  from  which 
they  were  only  rescued  by  Visnu  appearing  as  Balarama,  his 
uncle  Agastya  waged  war  with  the  demons  and  advised 
Rama  how  to  subdue  the  Raksasas.  Similar  family  discords 
assisted  Rama  in  his  warfare  against  Ravana  and  Bali, 
whose  respective  brothers  Vibhisana  and  Sugriva  joined 

"While  Ravana  is  regarded  with  horror  by  the  Brah- 
mans,  Rdvanabhet,  a  Vedic  work  on  Phonetics,  is  ascribed  to 
this  Eaksasa.     His  memory  is  still  cherished  by  the  Jains. 

"  Compare  the  remarks  of  the  Eev.  F.  Kittel  on  the  root  pulai,  pule,  pole 
and  on  Pulaha  and  Pulastya  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  VIII  (1879), 
pp.  SO,  51.  Though  I  arrived  at  my  conclusions  previously  to  my  reading 
Mr.  Kittel's  suggestive  article,  I  admit  his  priority  in  this  respect  and  gladly 
quote  his  opinion  :  "The  Pallava  .  .  and  the  Pallavaka,  a  libertine,  a  gallant, 
"I  do  not  hesitate  to  connect  with  poleya  ;  and  who  knows  whether  the 
"  ancient  Pallava  dynasty  was  not  a  dynasty  of  certain  Poleyas  when  still  a 
"  powerful  tribe." 


It  is  also  curious  that  Havana  is  esteemed  and  acknowledged 
by  pious  Pandits  as  a  learned  man,  and  is  supposed  to  have 
heen  the  author  of  a  Telugu  Grammar.'* 

Though  the  Raksasas  are  described  in  the  Ramayana 
and  elsewhere  as  horrible  monsters  both  physically  and 
morally,  it  appears  that  the  condition  of  being  a  Raksasa 
depended  more  upon  the  sins  committed  by  an  individual  or 
by  his  progenitors  than  upon  the  accident  of  birth.  If 
this  be  admitted,  the  physical  monstrosities  ascribed  to  the 
Raksasas  must  be  regarded  as  the  exaggerated  creations  of 
a  morbid  and  hostile  imagination. 

Even  the  Eamayana ,  extols  the  beauty  and  grandeur  of 
Lanka,  its  architectural  splendour,  and  the  efficiency  of  its 
administration.  This  latter  was  so  excellent,  that  no  thief 
dared  to  pick  up  any  valuable  thing  lost  in  its  streets. 
The  enemies  of  Rama  could  hardly,  therefore,  have  been  so 
rude  and  uncivilised  as  they  are  generally  represented. 

The  ancient  historical  capital  of  Ceylon  went  by  the 
name  of  Pulastinagara.'^  If  Ravana  is  regarded  as  the  king 
of  Lanka,  and  perhaps  also  as  the  master  of  Southern  India, 
and  if  the  present  Pulayar  are  admitted  to  be  representa- 
tives of  the  aborigines,  the  startling  similarity  of  the  names 
Pulastya  and  Pulayan  is  at  once  explained. 

The  relationship  between  the  Paulastya  Agastya  and 
the  Paulastya  Ravana  opens  at  all  events  a  new  and  wide  per- 
spective. It  thus  appears  that  the  mind-born  sons  of  Brahma 
should  be  taken  as  the  progenitors  of  all  the  different  races 
of  India,  and  that,  as  all  men  emanate  from  one  common 
source,  no  vital  difference  is  acknowledged  to  exist  between 

■"8  Compare  the  Andhxa  Kaumudi  in  which  the  Ravamya,  the  Telugu 
Grammar  ascribed  to  EAvana,  is  repeatedly  mentioned. 

"  lliigasthenes  calls  the  Singhalese  Falaiogonoi  and  the  Periplus  maris 
F.rtjthrai  caUs  Cej'lon  Falaesimuiidn.  See  Lassen's  Ind.  Alt.,  I,  p.  240 
{2nd  edition)  ;  compare  alsoMr.  T.W.  Rhys  Dayids  in  the  Indian  Antiquary, 
vol.  II  (1873),  p.  286,  on  Pulastipura. 

or    BIIARATAVARSA    OR    INDIA.  89 

them  at  first.  The  degraded  condition  into  which  some  sank 
was,  therefore,  due  to  subsequent  events. 

The  word  Pula  must  be  regarded  as  a  corruption  of  Palla. 
This  change  from  a  to  ti  is  easily  accounted  for.  Not  ouly 
is  the  letter  a  changed  into  u,  as  in  the  Sanskrit  joa/a  which 
in  Tamil  becomes  piilai,  but  the  vowel  a  is  often,  especially  in 
the  North  India,  pronounced  as  u. 

It  is  even  possible  that  the  names  of  the  demon  Ilvala, 
who  was  destroyed  by  Agastya,  and  of  his  son  Balvdla  con- 
tain another  reference  to  the  original  Pallas.  At  all  events 
the  similarity  of  the  names  of  Pulaha,  Pulastya,  Puloman, 
&c.,  with  that  of  the  Pulayar,  as  well  as  the  connection 
which  the  near  relationship  between  the  Sage  Agastya  and 
the  Eaksasa  Ravana  suggests  as  existing  between  the  Brah- 
manical  civiliser  of  Southern  India  and  the  representative 
ruler  of  the  aborigines,  should  command  in  future  researches 
the  attention  of  the  scholar. 


On  the  Pallis,  Agnikulas,  Pandyas,  Vellalar,  &c. 
The  Agnikulas. 
Another  portion  of  the  aboriginal  South-Indian  popula- 
tion is  represented  by  the  Pallis.  The  Pallis  form  at  this 
moment  on  the  whole  a  highly  respectable  class,  living  partly 
as  agriculturists  in  the  country  and  partly  as  citizens  in  towns. 
They  belong  to  the  caste  of  the  Vannit/ar  {(b-usirenfliLur).^'' 
The  word  Vanniyan  is  generally  derived  from  the  Sanskrit 

80  This  caste  includes  also  the  Anuppar,  Bailagar,  Devadigar,  Kallar, 
Maravar  Masadikar,  Bantar,  Muppar,  Nattamhadis,  Padaiyaccis,  Pariva- 
rams  Sudras,  UppiHyar,  TJdayar  and  Vanniyar.  According  to  the  last  Census 
Report  the  Pallis  number  1,300,733  souls,  of  whom  1,295,049  live  in  the 
Madras  Presidency,  which  number  is  only  exceeded  by  the  Shanar  with 
2  028  546  of  whom  1,478,660  dweU  also  in  Madras,  by  the  VeUalar  with 
l'683'lOo'  and  by  the  Pariahs  with  3,223,938  persons,  and  the  whole  of  the 
other'  unclassified  population  consisting  of  3,934.990  individuals.  The 
last  two  figures  refer  to  the  Madras  Presidency  alone. 



Vahiii,  fire.  Agni,  the  god  of  fire,  is  connected  with  the 
regal  office,  as  kings  hold  in  their  hands  the  fire  wheel  or 
Agneyacahra,  and  the  Vanniyar  urge  in  support  of  their 
name  the  regal  descent  they  claim,  for  they  contend  that  the 
Pandya  kings  belonged  to  their  race.  In  the  north  of  India 
four  races — the  Cauhan,  Cdluhya  (S5lanki),  Pramdra,  and 
Parihdra — similarly  claim  to  originate  from  Agni,  and  are 
called  Agnikulas. 

The  existence  of  these  Fire-races,  Agnikula  or  Vahnikula 
(Vanniyan),  in  North  and  South  India  is  a  remarkable  fact. 
No  one  can  refuse  to  a  scion  of  a  Non- Aryan  warrior  tribe  the 
title  of  Rdjaputra,  but  in  so  doing  we  establish  at  once  Aryan 
and  Non- Aryan  Rajaputras  or  Rajputs.  The  Vanniyan  of 
South  India  may  be  accepted  as  a  representative  of  the  Non- 
Aryan  Rajput  element.  Yet,  if  we  thus  admit  a  Turanian 
element  among  the  Rajputs,  the  question  arises,  how  far  does 
it  extend  ?  The  modern  Rajputs  of  Northern  India  are  in 
most  cases  the  offspring  of  mixed  parentage,  for  even  Aryan 
warriors  of  pure  extraction  did  not  scorn  in  bye-gone  times 
to  take  as  wives  by  peaceful  or  violent  means  the  alien 
daughters  of  the  soil.** 

The  legend  goes  that  after  Parasurama  had  swept  the 
Ksatriya  race  from  the  surface  of  the  earth,  ignorance  and 
infidelity  began  to  spread  again  in  the  land,  and  the  Brah- 
mans  were  prevented  by  impious  races —Asuras,  Daityas, 
and  Danavas — from  fulfilling  their  sacred  rites.  Vasistha,  ov 
according  to  others  his  great  rival  Viivdmitra,  took  compas- 
sion on  the  oppressed,  and  with  Indra,  Brahma,  Siva,  Yisnu 
and  the  other  gods  repaired  to  the  Agnikunda,  i.e.,  the  hollow 
which  contained  the  consecrated  fire,  on  Mount  Abu,  the 
celebrated  peak  of  Rajasthan.  There  the  hermits  prayed 
and  purified  the  fire  fountain  with  the  sacred  water  of  the 
Ganges.   Indra  first  formed  a  figure  of  grass  and  sprinkling  on 

"  Compare  pp.  45  and  46  on  the  genealogies  of  the  EAjputs. 


it  the  water  of  life,  cried  :  "  Mar,  Mar  "  "  Slay,  Slay,"  and  the 
Paramdra,  the  killer  of  enemies,  appeared.  Abu  Dhar  and 
Uj  jain  were  assigned  to  him  as  his  territory.  Brahma  instilled 
his  essence  into  the  second  image,  and  throwing  it  into  the 
pit,  Caluk  or  Solanki  appeared  with  a  sword  in  one  hand, 
the  Veda  in  the  other,  and  a  noose  round  his  neck.  He 
received  Anhalptir.  Slca  formed  the  third  figure,  and  Pari- 
hara  rose  as  an  ill-favored  black  figure  armed  with  a  how.  He 
stumbled  and  was  placed  as  a  guardian  at  the  temple  gates. 
Nine  places  of  the  desert,  Marusthalam,  were  assigned  to  him. 
Vimit  formed  Caturbhuja  Cauhan,  who  appeared  like  him 
four-armed,  in  each  arm  carrying  a  peculiar  weapon.  He 
received  Macavati  Nagari.  These  were  the  ancestors  of  the 
Agnikulas  who  destroyed  the  demon  races,  and  of  all  the 
thirty-six  royal  races  the  four  Agnikulas  rank  highest,  ac- 
cording to  "  Chaiid,  the  great  bard  of  the  Chohans."  ^^  This 
creation  "  is  dated  so  far  back  as  the  opening  of  the  second 
"age  of  the  Hindus"  (Tod,  ibidem, -p.  442).     Cauhan  chro- 

^'^  See  for  this  account  Tod's  Eajasthan,  vol.  II,  pp.  440,  £E.  Vis'vdmitra 
is  here  mentioned  as  the  presiding  priest,  while  in  the  first  volume,  p.  95, 
Vasistha  fills  this  place :  "  From  the  fire-fountain  a  figiu?e  issued  forth,  but 
he  had  not  a  warrior's  mien.  The  Brahmins  placed  him  as  guardian  of  the 
gate,  and  thence  his  name,  Prithiha-dwara  (portal  or  door  [dwar)  of  the  earth  ; 
contracted  to  Prithihara  and  Purihara) .  A  second  issued  forth,  and  being 
formed  in  the  palm  {chaloo)  of  the  hand  was  called  Chalooka.  A  third  ap- 
peared and  was  named  Pramara  (the  first  striker) .  He  had  the  blessing  of  the 
Eics,  and  with  the  others  went  against  the  demons,  but  they  did  not  prevail. 
Again  Vasiatha,  seated  on  the  lotus,  prepared  incantations  ;  again  he  called 
the  gods  to  aid  :  and  as  he  poured  forth  the  libation,  a  figure  arose,  lofty  in 
stature,  of  elevated  front,  hair  like  jet,  eyes  roUing,  breast  expanded,  fierce, 
terrific,  clad  in  armour,  quiver  filled,  a  bow  in  one  hand  and  a  brand  in  the 
other,  quadriform  {chatooranga),  whence  his  name  Chohan  {ehatoor  or  cha, 
'four';  Anga,  body')."  About  Canhan,  see  EUiot's  Sup.  Glossary,  vol.  I, 
p.  63,  ff. 

The  discrepancies  between  these  two  legends  are  considerable,  not  only 
so  far  as  the  presiding  priests  are  concerned,  bat  also  with  respect  to  the  order 
of  creation,  and  because  in  the  description  given  in  the  text  the  gods  them- 
selves take  part  in  the  creation.  Caluka  or  culuka  signifies  a  hollowed  hand  to 
hold  water.  Colonel  Tod  assigns  (II,  p.  441),  as  above  stated,  the  nonangul 
Marusthali,  or  '  nine  habitations  of  the  desert '  to  Parihara,  while  he  had 
previously  (vol.  I,  p.  91)  allotted  the  No-lcote  MaroosthuUi  to  Pramara. 


nicies  mention  AJa  as  the  founder  of  Ajmere,  the  mountain  of 
Aja.  Tradition  connects  Candragupta  with  the  Mori  branch 
of  the  Pramaras.  Ujjayliu,  the  capital  of  Vikramaditya,  is 
assigned  to  them,  and  Bhdja  Raja,  at  whose  court  the  Nine 
Gems  are  said  to  have  flourished,  belonged  to  the  Pramara 

It  is  not  my  purpose  to  discuss  here  the  fortunes  of  these 
celebrated  clans  ;  they  are  only  of  interest  in  this  inquiry 
in  so  far  as  a  connection  might  be  established  between  the 
Agnikula  of  the  North  and  the  Vanniyar  of  the  South. 

Lassen  regards  the  derivation  of  the  name  Pramara  from 
Paramura  in  the  sense  of  killfi  of  enemies  as  suspicious  and 
ascribes  it  to  a  later  period."'  Colonel  Tod  says :  "  that 
"  these  races,  the  sons  of  Agni,  were  but  regenerated,  and 
"  converted  by  the  Brahmins  to  fight  their  battles,  the 
"  clearest  interpretation  of  their  allegorical  history  will  dis- 
"  close,  and  .  .  warrants  our  asserting  the  Agniculas  to  be 
"  of  this  same  race,  which  invaded  India  about  two  centuries 
"  before  Christ."— (Vol.  I,  p.  90.)  No  matter  whether 
Colonel  Tod's  reasoning  and  conclusion  are  right  or  wrong, 
one  can  agree  with  him  so  far  as  the  Non-Aryan  origin  of 
the  Agnikulas  is  concerned. 

As  has  previoiisly  been  stated,  mention  is  made  by 
Ptolemy,  VII,  1,  70,  of  the  Poruaroi  (Ilapovapoi),  a  name 
which  Lassen  thinks  is  derived  from  Pramara.^*  I  believe 
that  Lassen  is  mistaken  on  this  point.  I  prefer  to  explain 
the  m  as  a  modification  of  an  original  r,  as,  e.g.,  in  Vellama 
for  Pallava,  and  to  suggest  Pararara  as  the  original  form 
of  Paramara. 

*'  See  Lassen's  In<i.  AHcrth.,  Ill,  p.  .572  :  "  Da  sein  Name  sonst  Pramara 
lautet,  must  jene  Erkliirung  des  Namens  als  eine  willkuhrliche  Dichtung 

**  See  Lassen,  ibidem,  IIT,  p.  150  ;  "  Von  denPorvaroi  habe  ich  schonlrii- 
her  temerkt,  dasb  ihr  Name  hochst  wahrseheinlich  aus  dem  bekannten,  sich 
Prmndra  nennenden  Geschleclite  der  Rajaputra  enstellt  ist,  welcher  in  der 
Volksspiacho  Pnnvar  lautet  und  in  dieser  Form  weiter  von  Pr&mara  entfernt 
ist,  als  Porvara." 


I  have  already  connected  the  Paravari  of  the  Maratha 
country  with  the  Poruaroi  of  Ptolemy,  and  eventually  with 
the  Pariahs  of  Southera  India.  Others  identify  the  Poruaroi 
with  the  Pariharas.  Whichever  derivation  is  right,  we  can- 
not he  far  wrong,  if  we  regard  the  connection  between  the 
Poruaroi  and  the  Paravar  and  Pariahs  as  established,  mainly 
in  consequence  of  the  identity  between  the  Marathi  Paravari 
and  the  Mahars.*' 

One  of  the  15  sub-divisions  of  the  South-Indian  Vanniyar 
is  called  Pariodram,  which  name,  if  not  of  Sanskrit  origin, 
may  likewise  be  considered  as  a  connecting  link  between  the 
northern  and  southern  Paravari. 

Under  these  circumstances  the  terms  Pramdra  and  Pari- 
Mra  can  be  traced  to  an  ancient  Dravidian  source  and 
associated  with  the  Paradas  and  similar  names.  Dr.  Fr. 
Buchanan  has,  as  I  have  quoted,  proposed  to  connect  the 
Pariharas  with  the  Bhars. 

No  doubt  most  of  the  Rajputs  are  easily  distinguishable 
from  other  Hindus  by  their  proud  bearing,  fiae  figure  and 
lighter  complexion,  but  these  peculiarities  do  not  necessarily 
point  to  an  Aryan  origin,  for  such  varieties  in  outward 
appearance  are  found  in  all  large  nations  which  contain 
different  classes  and  ranks.  The  Turcomans  of  Western 
Asia,  the  Osmanli  Turks  and  the  Magyars  of  Hungary, 
who  are  not  Aryans,  count  among  the  finest  races.  If  the 
origin  of  the  Agnikulas  throughout  India  can  be  eventually 
proved  as  Non-Aryan,  a  very  important  historical  fact  will 

8'  Arehmohgieal  Survey  of  India,  vol.  JX,  p.  5.  "  The  Porudri,  who  are 
"  very  prohably  the  same  people  aa  the  Parihars ;  "  ibidem,  vol.  XXI,  p.  93: 
"  To  the  south  of  the  BoUngae,  Ptolemy  places  the  Poruari  with  their  three 
"  towns,  named  Bridama,  Tholohana,  and  Malaita.  The  people  I  take  to  he 
"  the  Parihar  Eajputs,  who  have  occupied  this  part  of  the  country  from  a 
"very  early  date." — Mr.  McCrindle  says  in  his  Ancient  India  as  described 
by  Ptoleimj,  p.  164  :  "  POrouaroi  (Poroaroi)  :— This  is  the  famous  race  of 
the  Pauravas,  which,  after  the  time  of  Alexander,  was  all  predominant  in 
Rajasthana  under  the  name  of  the  Pramaras." 


have  been  ascertained.  New  researches  have  shown  that  the 
Aryan  population  in  India  is  very  limited  in  numbers,  and 
that  even  admitting  all  Brahmans  to  be  of  pure  Aryan  origin, 
this  highest  caste  counts  according  to  the  last  census  only 
13,693,439  members  against  a  grand  total  of  252,541,210.86 

On  the  Pallis. 
A  feeling  of  superiority  has  of  late  re-asserted  itself 
among  the  Pallis.  The  Madras  Census  Report  of  1 87 1  states  : 
"  The  Vunnias  or  Pullies  are  the  great  agricultural  laboring 
"  class  of  the  southern  districts.  Before  the  British  occu- 
"  pation  of  the  country,  they  were  slaves  to  the  Vellalar 
"  and  Brahman  cultivators ;  but  a  large  number  of  them 
"  are  now  cultivators  on  their  own  account,  or  else  work  the 
"  lands  of  the  higher  castes,  on  a  system  of  sharing  half 
"  the  net  produce  with  the  proprietor."  *'     With  the  return 

««  See  Madras  Census  Seporl  oi  1881,  vol.1,  pp.  103-105.  "  It  will  also  be 
"  unnecessary  here  to  go  oyer  the  old  discussion  as  to  how  far  the  caate  system 
'■  of  Southern  India  is  of  Aryan  origin.  It  may  he  safely  accepted  that  the 
' '  mass  of  the  people  are  not  Aryan  ;  that  indeed  none  of  them  are  Aryan, 
' '  except  the  Brahmans,  prohably  not  all  of  these,  for  there  are  several  classes 
"or  sub-divisions  of  Brahmans  of  more  or  less  hazy  origin.  All  the  rest  of 
"  the  so-called  Hindus  may,  if  they  please,  call  themselves  Shudras,  but  they 
"  are  in  fact  a  Dra vidian  or  Turanian  or  Scythian  people,  who  have  adopted 
"  in  a  very  highly-developed  form,  the  Aryan  caste  system,  whose  germs  are 
"  found  in  the  four  caste  system  of  Menu  ...  Of  late  years,  castes  have  been 
"  80  infinitely  multiplied  that,  even  if  there  were  any  recognised  principle  of 
"precedence,  the  nuances  of  rank  would  be  so  slight,  that  the  places  of  the 
"  several  castes  could  not  be  distinguished.  But  there  is  no  such  principle. 
"  Except  the  members  of  the  admittedly  degraded  and  depressed  castes,  each 
"  Shudra  thinks,  or  professes  to  think,  his  caate  better  than  his  neighbour's. 
"  The  Shanar  claims  to  be  Eajput.  The  Kammila  and  Pattnul  growl  that,  if 
"  they  had  their  rights,  they  would  be  recognised  as  Brahmans.  But  in  this 
"  matter,  as  in  the  matter  of  occupation,  modern  innovation  has  had  its  effect, 
"  Wealth  means  social  pre-eminence  in  the  India  of  1881,  nearly  as  much  as 
"  it  does  in  England.  A  Shudra  millionaire  cannot  be  made  a  Bi-ahman,  but 
"  ho  can  purchaae  the  services  of  Brahmans.  A  Brahman  cannot  eat  with 
"  him  ;  but  this  ia  the  Brahman's  loaa,  for  the  millionaire's  rice  is  fair  and 
"  his  ghee  unexceptionable." 

^^  The  Madras  Census  Report,  vol.  I,  p.  157,  continues  :  "Others  are 
simply  labourers,  and  many  of  them,  by  taking  advances  fi'om  their 
employera,  are   still    practically  serfs   of  the  soil,  and  unable  to  extricate 


of  self-esteem  and  independence  the  Pallis  have  not  been 
backward  in  denying  such  a  statement  as  the  one  just 
made  concerning  their  alleged  condition  of  serfdom,  and  in 
urging  their  claims.  They  have  thus  lately  presented  to 
G-overnment  a  petition  in  order  to  obtain  certain  concessions 
at  Kahoipuram,  Srirahgam  and  Madras.  They  claim  to  be 
the  descendants  of  Manimahamuni  and,  as  what  formerly 
belonged  to  them,  demand  the  Dharmakartaship  of  the 
Ekambaresvarasvami-kovil  in  Kancipuram,  and  the  censor- 
ship over  the  nine  classes  of  people  there,  including  in  it 
even  the  chiefs  of  the  Itankai  and  Valankai,  i.e.,  of  the 
left  and  right  hand  people.  The  Jdtisangmhasara  and  the 
JdtibhSdanul  contain  much  valuable  information  on  this  topic, 
though  no  critical  acumen  has  been  exercised  in  arranging 
and  verifying  the  evidence. 

It  is  very  unfortunate  that  hardly  any  question  of  his- 
torical interest  which  concerns  the  various  classes  of  the 
population  of  this  country  is  considered  with  impartiality. 
Class  interest  and  caste  pride  prevent  unbiassed  inquiries  and 
even-balanced  decisions.     The  relations  of  the  various  agri- 

themselves  from  the  bondage  of  the  landlord.  In  all  respects,  these  people 
have  the  characteristics  of  aboriginal  tribes.  They  are,  as  a  rule,  a  very  dark- 
skinned  racp,  but  good  field  laborers,  excellent  farm  servants,  and  cultivators. 
They  abound  largely  in  the  Tamil  districts  of  Trichinopoly  and  Tan j  ore. 
The  Vunnim,  like  so  many  of  the  Sodra  castes  in  the  south,  are  striving  to 
prove  that  their  position  in  the  caste  system  is  a  wrong  one.  In  1833  they 
attempted,  in  Pondicherry,  to  get  a  legal  decision  that  they  were  not  of  a 
low  caste  ;  but  the  administration  refused  to  deal  with  the  question,  on  the 
ground  that  the  Hindu  law  did  not  refer  to  the  Vunnim  at  all.  There  can  be 
no  doubt  that  when  the  aboriginal  tribes  ruled  in  South  India,  many  Vunnias 
raised  themselves  to  the  position  of  Folygars,  or  independent  chiefs.  The 
term  Naick  is  usually  afiSxed  to  the  names  of  the  Vunnias,  and  the  Naicks  of 
Madura  and  Tinnevelly  were  great  men  not  very  long  ago.  There  are  about 
thirty  sub-divisions  of  the  Fullies,  named  chiefly  after  their  different  occupa- 
tions, hut  they  may  all  eat  together  and  some  intermarry."  The  Census  of 
1881,in  vol.  I,  p.  104,  says:  " The  Palli,  once  the  Vellala's  slave,  is  still 
working  on  the  soil  as  a  laborer  and  often  as  a  proprietor.  But  the  work  of 
divorce  between  occupation  and  caste  has  not  only  begun,  but  has  advanced, 
and  is  advancing." 


cultural  classes  to  one  another  are  very  strained,  and  the 
evidence  which  the  one  may  supply  with  respect  to  the  other 
should  always  be  accepted  with  great  caution.  Thus  the 
acrimonious  dissensions  whicli  exist  between  the  Pallis  and 
Vellalar  are  a  matter  of  deep  regret,  but  they  must  be  men- 
tioned here  to  explain  why  certain  statements  concerning 
both  cannot  be  admitted  in  an  historical  inquiry,  as  they  are 
unsupported  by  facts  and  are  tainted  by  prejudice.'* 

The  investigation  which  I  am  now  making  is  sine  ira 
et  studio,  and  I  trust  it  will  be  accepted  as  such  by  those 
who  come  within  its  range. 

The  difference  which  at  an  early  stage  divided  the  Pallar 
from  the  Pallis  was,  I  believe,  that  the  former  confined 
themselves  to  the  country,  palayain,  while  the  latter  congre- 
gated mostly  in  villages  and  towns.  These  were  named  palli 
(usueS)  or  palli  {u&retff)  in  contradistinction  to  the  country 
or  Pdlaiyam  (un-SsmuLb)  in  Tamil  and  pdlemu  (^"^^o)  in 
Telugu.  The  feudal  chieftains  were  called  after  the  country 
Poligars."^     The  bulk  of  the  Pallas,  who  lived  as  agricultural 

*'  Compare  "The  Poyakliarries  rersus  Meerassidars,  or  the  Revenue 
System  of  Madras,"  by  A.  Venkatachella  Naicker,  p.  9.  Again,  in  the  third 
place,  Mr.  Place  states  that  the  Pullees  were  servants  of  the  Brahmins.  Any 
thing  more  untrue  could  not  he  stated.  The  Pullees  or  Vunneers  were  not 
the  servants  of  the  Brahmins.  They  were  formerly  the  ruling  race  of  a  very 
large  portion  of  Southern  India.  The  potentates,  Sharen,  Choleu,  and  Paun- 
dian  were  all  Vunneers,  and  all  the  southern  and  western  Poligars  and 
Zemindars  are,  even  at  the  present  time,  Vunneers ;  and  on  p.  12  :  In  proof 
that  the  Pullees  or  Vunneers  were  the  most  powerful  and  most  prevalent 
race  in  Southern  India,  there  are  the  boundary  stones  which  are  marked  with 
the  Royal  "wheel  of  mandate  "an  ensign  of  the  roj'al  descent  of  the 
Vunneers  ;  also  the  inscriptions  on  the  temples  of  Conjeeveram  and  in  fact 
on  the  muntapums  and  other  sacred  shrines  throughout  the  Chingleput 
district.  Whilst  the  Vellalars  had  the  mark  of  a  trident  on  their  boundary 
stones,  and  the  boundary  stones  of  the  agraharums  bore  the  impression  of 
a  short  Brahmia  with  an  umbrella. 

Consult  about  the  S&sanama  concerning  the  Vanniyar  Jdtisangrakasira, 
pp.  272,  326,  &c. 

*'  Pdlaiyakkdraii  in  Tamil  and  Fdlegddu  in  Telugu.  For  Pdlemu, 
encampment,  baronial  village,  occurs  in  Telugu  also  the  word  Telamu. 


labourers  in  the  country,  were,  like  our  rustics,  peasants  or 
boors,  while  the  inhabitants  of  a  village  or  small  town  {palK, 
palli,  palle,  &o.),  assuming  the  same  name  as  the  place  they 
inhabited,  became  gradually  urbane  and  polite  citizens.'" 

The  Pallis  generally  worship  in  temples  dedicated  to 
Dharmardja.  In  these  temples  are  found  the  images  of 
Yudhisthira  (or  Dharmaraja)  and  of  his  four  brothers  Bhima, 
Arjuna,  Nakula,  and  Sahadeva,  of  DraupadT,  of  K-psna,  and 
occasionally  of  PStaraja  (also  Poturdju  in  Telugu  and  Potappa 
in  Kanarese).  The  head  of  Ira  vat,  the  son  of  Arjuna  and 
XJliipI,  who,  according  to  popular  tradition,  was  killed  on 
the  day  preceding  the  battle  as  an  oblation  to  the  battle-field, 
and  whose  head  looked  on  the  fight  for  eighteen  days,  is 
often  exhibited  on  a  pole  during  the  festival.  The  Maha- 
bharata  fixes  the  death  of  Iravat  on  the  eighth  day  of  the 
battle.  A  Palli  is,  as  a  rule,  the  pujdri  or  priest  of  the 
shrine.  The  above-mentioned  Potardja  is  a  rustic  god 
revered  especially  in  the  Telugu,  Kanarese,  and  Marathi 
districts,  and  his  wives  are  known  as  Grangamma,  Polakamma 
or  Poleramma  (the  goddess  of  small-pox),  &c. 

At  the  great  annual  festival  in  honor  of  Dharmaraja,  or 
the  local  god  or  goddess,  people  walk  over  burning  coals, 
in  order  to  testify  their  purity  of  mind. 

The  worship  of  Dharmaraja  is  very  popular  ;  it  is,  per- 
haps, the  most  widely  spread  in  this  country.  Over  500 
Dharmaraja  temples  exist  in  South- Aroot  alone.  The 
village  goddess  is  occasionally  called  Draupadi,  and,  even 
where  she  has  a  name  of  her  own,  she  is  often  merely  a  sub- 
stitute for  the  wife  of  the  Pandavas.  The  popularity  which 
the  latter  enjoy  among  the  lower  classes  of  the  iahabitants 
throughout  India  is  very  significant,  inasmuch  as  it  is  in 
opposition  to  Rama,  the  favorite  hero  and  divine  represent- 

™  Compare  the  meaning  of  ndgara  and  ndgaraka,  citizen,  polite,  clever, 
from  nagara,  town,  in  Sanskrit ;  with  iro\iTiK<is  from  woXis  in  Greek  ;  and 
urbauus  from  urbs  in  Latin. 



ative   among  the  Brahmans.      It   is  also   remarkable  that 
Brahmans  have  nothing  to  do  with  these  temples. 

Some  of  the  most  celebrated  remains  in  India  are  those 
found  at  the  Seven  Pagodas  near  Madras.  Famous  among 
these  rock  temples  and  rock  sculptures  of  Mdmalkqmram  or 
Mdvallipuram  are  the  Rathas  or  monolithic  temples  of  the 
five  Pandavas  and  of  their  wife  Draupadi.  Mamallapuram 
or  Mavallipuram  stands^  I  believe,  for  Mahdmallapuram  or 
Mahdpallipuram,  that  is,  the  town  of  the  great  Mallas  or  Pallis, 
both  designations  being  almost  identical.  And  even  if 
MahavalUpuram  is  to  be  regarded  as  connected  with  the  name 
of  the  great  king  Bali,  he  himself,  as  I  have  previously 
endeavoured  to  show  on  pp.  14  and  15,  should  be  looked 
upon  as  the  representative  of  the  Mallas  or  Pallas,  Pallis 
and  Pallavas.  If  we  now  associate  the  cult  of  the  Pan- 
-  davas  with  these  relies  at  Mamallapuram  and  consider  that 
the  inhabitants  of  this  town,  the  Mallas,  worshipped  those 
heroes  as  do  their  descendants  even  to-day,  and  that  the 
Pallis  are  the  pujdris  of  these  deified  persons  at  this  moment, 
I  believe  that  a  relation  has  been  sufiioiently  established 
between  the  Pandavas  and  the  original  inhabitants  of  this 

"  See  in  the  Iiidia-n  Antiquary,  vol.  II,  pp.  190  and  191,  the  article  : 
"  Walking  through  Fire,"  by  Mr.  H.  J.  Stokes,  M.C.S.  "  The  situation  was 
i  on  an  extensive  open  plain  before  the  village  deity  Dranpafi  Amman' s  temple. 
The  pit  lay  east  and  west ;  the  image  of  the  goddess  was  placed  at  the  west 
end,  and  it  was  towards  it  that  the  worshipper  walked  along  the  length  of 
the  pit  from  east  to  west."  Virappa  Vandyan  states  : — "I  was  one  of  the 
"  eight  persons  who  carried  the  goddess  Di'aupafi  Amman  to  the  place  where 
"the  fire-treading  took  place.  The  fire-pit  was  a  trench  about  two  poles 
"long  by  two  strides  broad.  Six  babul  trees  were  cut  into  faggots  and 
■"  kindled.  Those  who  trod  on  the  fire  were  Nachchti,  Pujari  of  Periyan- 
"  gudi,  Chidambaram  ;  Pujftri  of  Angalamman  temple  at  Achchutaman- 
*'galam;  E.amasami  Pillei,  Stanika  of  Draupati  Amman  of  Periyangudi ; 
"  Saminada  Padeyachi  of  the  same  place,  his  brother  Subraya  ;  Subba- 
"  nayakkan  of  Valkci.  . ."  Nagappa  Malavarayan  states  : — "  I  livein  the  next 
"  street  to  the  temple  of  Draupati."  .  Nachchu  Padeyachi  states  : — "  I  am 
"  I'ujari  of  this  temple  of  DraupHii."  The  practice  of  fire-treading  is 
"  connected  in  some  places  with  a  L-gond  of  Draupadi  ,  .  .,  the  wife  of  the 


In  Chingleput  and  its  neighbourhood  the  Pallis  add  to 
their  name  the  title  of  Ndyakar  or  leader,  which  term  ia 
synonymous  with  the  Telugu  Ndyadu  and  the  Malayalam 
Ndyar.  Those  in  Tanjore  and  its  neighbourhood  prefer  the 
Tamil  title  Padaiydcci  (usiBi_uj/r<y9),52  army -leader,  which  has 
the  same  meaning  as  Nayakar  ;  while  others  in  Coimbatore, 
Salem,  North  and  South-Arcot  call  themselves^  like  the 
neighbouring  hill  men,  Kaundar  (Oaeiressri^ir  or  sswessri—ir').  I 
connect  this  word  with  the  root  ko,  and  derive  it  from  konda, 
mountain,  and  if  this  etymology  is  right,  it  shows  that 
these  Pailis  have  preserved  in  their  name  some  recollection 
of  their  original  habitat. 

Pandavas.'' — I  have  mentioned  tlie  names  of  the  worshippers,  in  order  to 
prove  that  they  are  Pallis  (Nayakar)  and  Padaiyaccis. 

Read  also  "  The  Village  Feast,"  by  Captain  J.S.F.  Mackenzie  in  the  Indian 
Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  6-9,  and  "  Passing  through  Fire,"  by  Mr.  M.  J. 
Walhouse,  late  M.O.S.,  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  VII.,  pp.  126-129  : 
"  When  not  done  in  discharge  of  vows  made  in  time  of  sickness  or  disaster, 
"  the  fire-walking  seemed  to  be  performed  (generally  in  March  and  June)  in 
"  most  places  in  honour  of  Vlrabhadra,  the  portentous  flame-clad  progeny 
"  of  Siva,  who  is  especially  feared  as  presiding  over  family  discord  and  mis- 
"  fortune  or  else  of  Dharmaraja,  the  elder  Pandava,  to  whom  there  are  five 
"  hundred  temples  in  South  Aikat  alone,  and  with  whom  and  Draupadi  the 
"  ceremony  has  some  particular  association.  In  Ganjam  and  Maisur  it  is  per- 
"  formed  in  honour  of  a  village  goddess,  and  everywhere  seems  connected 
"  with  aboriginal  rites  and  Siva-worship,  Brahmaps  always  disowning  it." 
I  myself  witnessed  this  fire-treading  in  June  1885  in  Coimbatore.  With 
respect  to  the  sun  worship  previously  mentioned  on  p.  62  as  peculiar  to  the 
Scythians,  it  should  be  remembered  that  Draupadi  prayed  twice  to  the  sun 
god  for  assistance.  Concerning  the  explanation  of  MahamaUapura  I  may 
also  add  that  I  regard  Mallapura  as  the  original  form  of  Mailapur  in  Madras. 
These  names  wiU  be  considered  in  the  last  part  of  this  treatise. 

92  The  higher  castes  are  often  anxious  to  enhance  their  superiority  at 
the  expense  of  their  inferiors,  whom  they  ridicule.  To  this  tendency  must 
be  ascribed  many  expressions  which  reflect  on  the  language  used  by  Pariahs, 
PaUar,  PaUis,  and  Padaiyaccis.  The  word  Padaiyacci  is  derived  itoTapadai 
and"  dtci,  which  originaUy  signified  Army  ruling.  Its  more  correct  spelling 
is  Padaiyatci,  ueniL-iuinLQ. 

The  Eev.  Mr.  Loventhal  of  Vellore  informs  me  that  the  hill-people  near 
Vellore  insist  on  being  addressed  as  Gaundan  and  Gaundal,  and  that  they 
feel  insulted  when  called  Ayya  or  Amma.  He  teUs  me  also  that  many 
PaJLlis  adopt  now  the  title  Mudaliyar.  Occasionally  the  term  Kaundur  la, 
used  by  Pulayar  and  Candalas. 


The  few  necessaries  which  in  India  suffice  to  sustain  life, 
the  simplicity  of  manners,  and  similarity  of  external  wants 
create  a  great  uniformity  in  the  habits  and  mode  of  living 
among  the  population.  In  this  respect  there  is  less  differ- 
ence, perhaps,  between  the  rich  and  the  poor  in  India  than 
elsewhere.  The  dwelling  places  are  pretty  much  the  same  in 
villages  as  in  towns,  and  architectural  ambition  displays  itself 
mostly  in  the  erection  of  the  temples  devoted  to  the  gods, 
or  the  palaces  occupied  by  the  kings.  Difference  in  population 
— irrespective  of  caste,  religion,  and  occupation — forms, 
therefore,  in  India  the  most  striking  distinction  between 
village  and  town.  In  these  circumstances  even  speech  does 
not,  as  a  rule,  distinguish  between  them,  and  in  the  Dravidian 
languages  the  same  expressions  palli  (pci/li,  halli,  ^c.)  and 
iir  (urn,  &c.)  are  applied  both  to  village  and  town. 

Different  meanings  of  the  woiid  Palli. 

The  word  Palli  has  also  various  other  meanings.  In 
towns,  and  even  in  small  villages,  where  people  congregate  in 
greater  numbers,  such  buildings  and  institutions  as  temples 
and  schools  are  more  easily  and  more  appropriately  founded 
than  in  a  lonely  and  sparsely  populated  country.  These 
establishments  are  accordingly  called  after  the  place  in  which 
they  are  erected.  The  Buddhist  and  Jain  missionaries  were 
probably  the  first  preachers  and  religious  teachers  who 
devoted  themselves  to  the  indigenous  population  and  who 
succeeded  in  their  efforts  to  win  by  their  sympathy  the  affec- 
tion of  the  masses.  This  may  be  the  reason  why  a  temple, 
more  particularly  if  Buddhistic  and  Jaina,  is  called  pnlli. 

Everything  connected  with  royalty  has  the  term  palli 
prefixed  to  it  in  Malayalam  as,  pallikovilal-am,  a  royal  palace, 
pallimetta,  a  royal  bed,  palUvdl,  a  royal  sword,  palUvetta, 
a  royal  chase,  &c.^'     This  expression  is  very  peculiar  indeed, 

''  In  Tamil  the  word  palli  is  at  timeB  also  used  in  the  sense  of  royal, 
thus  paUiyarai,  like  the  Malayalam  palliyara,  denotesthe  royal  bed-chamher, 


and  seems  to  prove  that  the  reoollection  of  the  splendour  and 
power  of  the  ancient  Pallas  or  Pallis  had  not  died  out  in  the 
minds  of  the  people  when  these  words  came  into  use. 

The  Buddhist  missionaries,  who  propagated  throughout 
India  the  precepts  of  their  master,  spoke  and  wrote  a  Pra- 
kritised  form  of  Sanskrit.  This  became  gradually  the  sacred 
language  of  the  Buddhists,  and  from  India  it  was,  together 
with  the  Buddhistic  faith,  introduced  into  Ceylon.  Though 
this  idiom  differed  widely  from  the  language  which  the 
Dravidian  PalLas  spoke  in  those  days,  in  the  same  way  as 
the  priestly  Latin  differed  much  from  the  vernaculars  of 
Northern  Europe  into  which  it  spread  with  the  progress  of 
Christianity,  yet,  as  the  Buddhistic  religion  came  to  Ceylon 
from  the  country  inhabited  mostly  by  Pallas,  or  in  whose 
towns  and  temples — Palli  or  Pali — it  had  found  a  firm 
abode,  the  dialect  in  which  the  sacred  books  reached  Ceylon 
was  likewise  called  Pali  after  them. 

Explanation  of  the  avords  Pandya,  Vellala,  Ballala, 


The  Paljiar  and  Pallis  claim,  as  has  been  previously  pointed 
out,  kinship  with  the  kings  who  ruled  over  them,  i.e.,  with 
the  Pandyas  and  Pallavas.  It  has  been  proved  that  a 
philological  connection  can  be  established  between  the  words 
Palla,  Palli  and  Pallava,  and  no  great  difficulty  will  be 
experienced  in  extending  it  to  the  name  of  the  Pandyas. 

The  Pandyas  of  Southern  India  have  been  linked  by 
legends  with  the  Pandavas  of  the  North.  According  to  the 
Harivarnsa  (XXXII,  123),  Pandya,  together  with  Kerala^ 
Kola,  and  Cola,  was  a  descendant  of  the  famous  king  Busyanta, 
the  husband  of  Sakuntala  and  father  of  Bharata.  Arjuna 
meets  and  fights  in  his  adventures  for  the  Asvamedha  with 

while  paiukkaiyarai  is  the  common  sleeping  room.     Compare  also  atout 
path  in  the  sense  of  a  royal  title  the  Jdtiscmgrahaadra,  p.  281. 


his  son  Babhrnvahana,  the  king  of  Manipura,  which  place  I 
have  identified  with  Madura.^'* 

The  legend  of  the  king  Vijaya  of  Lanka  is  likewise 
mysteriously  and  intimately  connected  with  the  Pandavas. 
He  is  reported  to  have  wedded  a  daughter  of  the  Pandava 
king  of  the  southern  Mathura,  and,  as  he  had  from  her  no 
ofEspring,  to  have  invited  his  nephew  from  the  Indian  conti- 
nent to  become  his  successor.  This  nephew,  Pdndiivamiadeva, 
married,  in  his  turn,  the  princess  Bhadrakancana,  the  daughter 
of  Pdndu-Sahja  and  grand-cousin  of  Buddha,  who  had 
drifted  in  a  boat  with  her  32  lady  companions  to  Lanka 
and  arrived  providentially  just  in  time  to  marry  the  king.'* 

But  there  exist  also  other  legends  which  do  not  mention 
this  connection  between  the  Pandavas  of  the  North  and  the 
Pandyas  in  the  South.  Among  these  is  one  which  ascribes 
the  colonisation  and  civilisation  to  a  northern  VeUalan  named 
Madura  Pdndiyan,  who,  on  his  pilgrimage  to  Eamesvara, 
observed  the  great  fertility  of  the  Dandaha  forest  and  deter- 
mined to  settle  in  it.  He  returned  to  his  own  town,  came 
back  to  the  South  with  his  family  and  dependents,  cleared  the 
country  and  erected  on  the  banks  of  the  VaiJcai  river  his 
capital,  which  he  called  after  himself  Madura.  The  neigh- 
bouring Maravar  assisted  him  much  in  the  cultivation  of 
the  country  and  foundation  of  his  capital.  Madura  Pdndiyan 
rvded  according  to  this  account  50  years  after  his  arrival, 
and  died  90  years  old.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Can- 
drapdndii/an,  who  reigned  40  years.  Malai/adrajapdndiyan 
and  Alakapdndiyan  are  mentioned  as  the  next  kings.'^ 

"  See  my  monograph  "  On  the  Weapons  of  the  Ancient  Hindus," 
pp.  145-152. 

9'  See  Lassen's  Ind.  Alterth.,  vol.  II,  pp.  95-111. 

'«  See  "Historical  Sketch  of  the  Kingdom  of  Pandya,"  hy  Horace 
Hayman  Wilson,  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society  of  G.  B.  and  I., 
vol.  Ill,  pp.  199-242,  1836,  reprinted  in  the  Madras  Journal  of  Literature 
and  Science,  vol.  VI,  pp.  176-216,  and  H.  H.  Wilson's  Supplementary  Note 
in  the  Madras  Journal,  vol.  VI,  pp.  217-220.  Compare  also  Eev.  William 
Taylor's  Orientnl  Historical  Mninisci-ipts,  Madi'as,  1835,  in  two  volumes  ;  and 


Though  some  have  proposed  to  derive  the  name  Pdndya 

his  Observations  on  Professor  Wilson's  Historical  BTcetch  in  the  same  volume 
of  the  Madras  Journal,  pp.  142-1.57.  H.  H.  Wilson  had  said  in  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society's  Journal,  vol.  Ill,  p.  201,  and  in  the  Madras  Journal, 
vol.  YI,  p.  177,  that  "an  adventurer,  named  Pandya,  of  the  Velalar  or 
' '  agricultural  trihe,  first  estahlishod  himself  in  that  portion  of  the  south  to 
"which  his  name  was  afterwards  assigned."  See  also  Wilson's  Mackenzie 
Collections,  Introduction,  p.  46,  and  Tamul  Books,  p.  203  (new  edition). 

The  Rev.  W.  Taylor  took  exception  to  these  statements  in  his  Oriental 
Historical  Manuscripts,  vol.  II,  pp.  73,  74,  and  its  Appendix,  pp.  35  and 
39,  and  animadverted  on  Wilson's  want  of  acquaintance  with  the  Tamil 
language  (p.  63),  to  which  charges  Wilson  replied  in  his  Supplementary 
Note.  The  Rev.  W.  Taylor  admitted  the  error  of  indulging  in  strong 
language,  hut  maintained  (on  p.  144)  that:  "  Vada  desattilulla  pandiyan- 
"  dkira  velldzhan  might  have  heen  still  better  and  more  accurately  rendered 
"an  ancient  agriculturist  in  (or  of)  the  north  country,"  and(onp.  149)  that 
"there  is,  however,  throughout  no  mention  of  this  person's  proper  name." 
In  hoth  these  statements  Taylor  is  not  quite  correct.  Akira  means  here 
"  called,"  for  in  the  same  manuscript  occur  repeatedly  such  phrases  as 
Irdmandkirairdcd,  the  king  called  Bama,  or  SUaiydkira  pencdti,  the  wife 
caUed  Sita. 

The  Tamil  manuscript  in  question  is  the  Pdntiyamantalam  Colamantalam 
'purmkardjdearitravolunku  in  the  Government  Oriental  Manuscript  Library 
No.  241,  in  Wilson's  Mackenzie  Collections,  Tamil  Local  History  No.  4,  and 
in  W.  Taylor's  Catalogue  Haisonne,  vol.  Ill,  p.  88,  No.  2322.  On  p.  4a  the 
pdndiyan  is  first  mentioned  as  follows  :  ^uuisf-Quj  <5iiL^Qfi<g=^^^jtsn'(Sir 
uiTeSsriSf-iu^SiD  QeuefretrrreirssFl^^  jrirQLDSfjnijrr^^esjfriS^LjLfroLJ 
ulL(B  eue^rreir  (Appatiye  vatateoattil  uUa  Pantiyan  akira  Tellajan  inta 
Ramecurayattiraikku  purappattu  vantan) .  The  translation  of  which  sentence 
is  :  "  Thus  having  started  came  on  a  pilgrimage  to  EamfiSvara  a  VeUalan 
named  Pandiya,  who  lived  in  the  northern  country."  Again  on  p.  5  h  : 
®uuis-  ....  ujjr<feisr  uirsisns^ujsir  Qufr  LD^irpfrius  utrassruLujar 
.S/isusir  (Lps^smQ  uessremsflstsr  uiL^ensr^^sfg^^asr  Quearr is ^ir 
Qesr eaeus;^  LD^jnrL\ifl  Qtusk^ih  Las"^iTJEsG)!ra!r^ih  QuifluLQ 
iSesr,^  ldGjssu  ULLi^amrmsiisinjLKyyem-Q  uessraSi^air  (Ippati .  . 
yaracan  Pan^iyan  per  Maturanayaka  Pantiyan  avan  mutal  untu  pannina 
pattanattukku  tan  pgrai  tanS  vaittu  Maturapuri  yenrum  Maturainakarenrijm 
perittu pinnum  anekappattanaiikalaiyum  untu  panninan);  or  in  English: 
Thus  this  Pandiya  king,  called  Maturapandiyan,  having  given  to  the  town  he 
founded  first  his  own  name,  and  having  named  it  Maturapuri  or  Maturainagar, 
established  afterwards  many  towns. ' '  The  f  oimder  of  the  Cola  kingdom,  Tdya- 
man  Nalli,  is  also  called  a  VeUalan,  see  p.  6  b.  Compare  Lassen's  Indische 
Alterth"  vol.  II,  p.  108.  Mr.  J.  H.  Nelson  remarks  in  his  Manual  of 
Madura  Part  III,  p.  44  :  "The  story  of  the  man  of  Oude  may  doubtless 
be  found  in  certain  Hindu  writings,  but  I  do  not  believe  it  is  traditional  in 
the  country  to  which  it  relates.  And  the  Pandya  kings  of  the  lunar  race 
are  commonly  believed  to  be  of  the  Kshatriya,  not  of  the  Vellala  or  any 


directly  from  Pandu  and  some  have  ventiired  other  explana- 
tions, I  bolieve  that  none  are  generally  accepted  as  correct,'" 
I  do  not  flatter  myself  that  I  have  solved  the  difficulty, 
but  merely  hazard  a  new  conjecture.  I  suggest  that  the  word 
Pandi  (uiremts/.),  which  is  specially  applied  to  the  ancient 
kingdom  of  Madura,  and  the  term  Pdndii/an  (u.Tisjisr  19-10 sir), 
which  denotes  the  king  who  ruled  over  it,  the  Pandion, 
UavSlcov  of  Ptolemy,  YII,  1,  11,  are  contracted  forms  for 
Palldndi  and  Palldndiyan.  The  king  of  Madura,  the  Peru- 
mal  of  the  Pandiyas,  was  regarded  as  the  most  powerful 
king  of  Southern  India,  and  as  such  he  might  well  have  been 
named  after  the  people  over  whom  he  ruled.  The  word 
Palldndiyan,  the  king  of  the  Pallas,  was  contracted  into 
Pandiyan  as  Tiruvallankodu  has  become  Tiruvdnkodu,  &c.'' 
Andi  {^s^i^)  and  dndaran  (^izm-L^euesr),  ruler,  come  from 

agricultural  caste."  Compare  also  Part  II,  p.  31.  Already  the  Rev.  W. 
Taylor  has  pointed  out  that  Oude  is  not  mentioned  as  Pindya's,  hut  only  as 
Kama'  8  home.  Whatever  is  the  right  extraction  of  the  Vellalar,  they  as  well 
as  their  Telugu  relatives,  the  Velamas,  regard  themselves  as  Ksatriyas.  The 
Eev.  J.  F.  Keams  in  The  Tribes  of  South  India,  Madras,  1860,  alludes  to  the 
tradition  that  the  Eeddies  of  Tinnevelly  derive  their  origin  from  Oude,  for  he 
Bays  on  p.  8 :  "  There  is,  however,  a  circumstance  connected  with  the  Reddiea 
■which  in  some  degree  appears  to  impart  an  air  of  prohability  at  least  to 
the  legend,  namely,  all  the  Roddies  in  the  province  style  themselves  Oude 
Eeddies,  and  assert  that  Oude  is  the  native  country  of  their  tribe." 

"  Compare  Lassen's  Ijid.  Alterth.,  vol.  II,  p.  102,  and  Bishop  Caldwell's 
Introduction  to  his  Comparative  Dravidian  Grammar,  p.  16  :  "  The  Sanskrit 
Pandya  is  written  in  Tamil  Pftndiya,  but  the  more  completely  TamiUsed 
form  Pandi  is  still  more  commonly  used  all  over  Southern  India.  I  derive 
Fundi  not  from  the  Tamil  and  MalaySlam  pandu,  ancient,  though  that  is 
a  very  tempting  derivation,  but— as  native  scholars  always  derive  the  word— 
from  the  Sanskrit  Fdndu,  the  name  of  the  father  of  the  Pandava  brothers. 
This  very  form  Pdndya,  in  the  sense  of  a  descendant  of  Pandu,  is  mentioned, 
as  I  am  informed  by  Professor  Max  MiiUer,  by  Katyayana,  the  immediate 
successor  of  Panini." 

'8  Compare  A  History  of  Travanoore,  by  P.  Shungoonny  Menon,  p.  2  : 
"  Thiruvancode  instead  of  Sreevalumcode."  Tiruviddnkodu  is  a  wrong 

Not  far  from  TiruvaUafikodu  lies  Vallavankodu,  both  localities  being  inti- 
mately connected  with  each  other  in  the  history  of  Travancore.  I  have  also 
strong  reasons  to  suppose  that  the  name  of  Tirurangddu  near  Tellicherry  is 
the  same  as  that  of  TIrnralangadu  near  Calicut.  Both  places  have  celebrated 
temples.     That  of  the  latter  belongs  to  the  Zamorin.     I  regard  the  usual 


the  Dravidian  root  al,  to  rule.  If  we  admit  that  names  in 
common  use  are  more  subject  to  change  than  other  words, 
the  alteration  from  dndavan  to  dndiijun  can  he  easily  accounted 
for.  Yet  even  this  modification  is  not  absolutely  necessary, 
as  dndiyan  can  also  be  formed  by  adding  the  pronomiaal 
affix  an  to  dndi?'^ 

The  root  al  is  also  used  in  the  formation  of  other  similar 
words,  e.^.,  in  VallaU  [Velldla),  Ballala,  BhiUdla,  &c.,  and 
indicates  a  person  of  iufluenee  among  or  a  lord  of  the  Vallas, 
BallaSj  and  Bhillas,  which  names  were  originally  identical 
with  the  name  of  the  Pallas. 

The  Vellalan  is  thus  the  territorial  lord  of  the  despised 
Pallan,  and  though  both  were  originally  intimately  connected 
with  each  other,  the  institution  of  caste  seems  to  have  parted 
them  for  good.  The  relation  of  the  PaljLan  to  the  Vellalan 
was  that  of  serf  to  the  owner  of  the  soil,  like  what  existed 
in  Russia,  where  both,  serf  and  master,  belong  to  the  same 
nation.  The  abbreviated  form  of  Vellalan  is  Vellal.  It  is 
dialectically  changed  in  Kanarese  into  Belial  and  is  applied 
to  the  landowning  agriculturist  of  Kanara.  The  Toda  words 
Pdlal,  the  milkman  or  priest,  and  Kdvildl,  herdsman,  are 
similarly  formed.     Vellalan  is  also  contracted  into  Vellan. 

derivation  of  vala  in  Tiruvalangadu  from  the  Sanskrit  word  valaya,  bracelet, 
and  the  legend  connected  with  this  valaya  as  a  later  invention. 

Some  time  ago  advised  by  a  friend  I  visited  Gudumnceri,  a  small  station 
on  the  South-Indian  Railway,  between  Pallavaram  and  Chingleput,  in 
search  of  some  old  tombs.  Nobody  in  Gudnvanceri  was  acquainted  with 
these  remains.  I  found  them  on  the  slope  of  a  hill  near  the  hamlet 
Yallaneeri,  whence  the  old  now  deserted  village  Pallaiiceri  was  pointed  out 
to  me.  I  was  further  told  that  Guduvanceri  was  formerly  called  Putuvano§ri 
or  New  Vanceri.  In  this  case  Vanceri  should  be  regarded  as  a  contraction 
of  Vallanceri. 

Sir"  A.  Cunningham  identifies  in  vol.  IX,  p.  56  of  the  Arch.  Sun.  of 
.Tndia,  Bdndogarh,  with  the  Balantipurgmi  of  Ptolemy  ;  and  this  derivation  is 
repeated  in  vol.  XXI,  p.  92 :  "  Mr.  CarUeyle  also  suggests  that  Ptolemy's 
"  fort  of  Balantipurgon,  which  I  have  identified  with  Bando-garh,  may  have 
"derived  its  name  from  the  Balands." 

99  See  note  16  about  Subrahmaiiya  being  called  Palani  Andi  or  Pakmi 



As  the  Vellalar  are  essentially  agriculturists  and  live  upon 
the  produce  which  they  derive  from  cultivation,  agriculture 
is  called  in  Tamil  and  in  Malayalam  velldnmai  or  velldyma. 
The  Tamil  word  Vcljanmai  is  a  compound  of  Vellal  and 
mai,  the  affix  indicating  abstract  nouns.  It  means  Vellalan- 
ship  or  the  occupation  and  position  of  a  Vellalan  or  culti- 
vator. It  may  perhaps  be  necessary  to  add  that  the  terms 
VcHdlaii  and  Velldnma  are  hardly  ever  used  in  Malabar, 
except  in  Palghat,  which,  as  a  border  district  between  the 
Tamil  and  Malayalam  speaking  population,  contaias  many 
Tamil  words.  It  is  customary  to  derive  the  name  of  the 
Vellalan  from  telldnmai,  i.e.,  the  name  of  the  cultivator  from 
the  work  of  cultivation  to  which  he  is  devoted,  but  I  regard 
this  explanation  as  erroneous.  The  Telugu  representative 
of  the  Tamil  VelMlan  is  tlio  Viktuia  (Vellama),  and  if  rel- 
Idnmni,  agriculture,  were  derived  from  a  cor  tic  j.  Dra vidian 
root,  a  representative  of  this  word  should  be  found  in  all  or 
most  Dravidian  languages.  It  is  most  probably  not  indi- 
genous in  Malayalam,  nor  does  it  exist  in  Telugu,  where  we 
find  words  like  hdpu  denote  a  cultivator  and  sagu  cultivation. 
The  Velaiua  is  the  baron,  the  grand-seicjneur,  in  the  Telugu 
country.  Most  of  the  Telugu  Eajas  belong  to  the  Velama 
caste.  The  identity  of  Velama  and  Pallava  has  been  already 
established  by  me.  The  Vellalar  of  Malabar  are  called 
Ndi/ar,  which  word  means,  as  we  have  seen,  ruler.  This 
circumstance  is  very  significant,  as  the  term  Vellalan, 
according  to  my  explanation,  designates  also  a  ruler.i"" 

•™  The  derivation  of  Vellnnmni  is  v.n-y  uncertain.  The  Tamil  pandits 
propose  different  explanations,  a  sure  indication  of  their  uncertainty.  Some 
derive  the  word  from  t'?7,  benefit,  and  wish  to  write  it  accordingly  Veldn- 
mai  ;  others  prefer  Vellam,  abundance,  iV'C.  The  VejULalar  are  cultivators. 
Cultivation  is  in  India  generally  divided  into  dry  cultivation,  which  is 
applied  in  higher  levels  and  in  places  Avliich  depend  entirely  on  the  rain- 
fall, and  into  wet  cultivation,  which  is  carriid  on  by  means  of  irrigation 
chiefly  from  tanks.  These  two  kinds  of  cultivation  are  called  in  Tamil 
jnmrnj  (or  p-uncai)  and  nnneey  (/BeirO,g=iu  or  ?ianeey),  in  Telugu  metta  and 
palla/if  irOTn  pfjflfim, -plAin,  and  in  Kanarese  beita  and  halla.  Ful  and  ?m^ 
mean  bad   and  good ;   pHHcnj  is  a  sterile  field  for  dry  grains  and  HfiHeeij  a 


The  name  of  the  Ballalas  is  well  known  by  the  dynasty 
which  brought  it  into  prominence,  and  to  which  I  have 
alluded  previously. 

rice  field.  The  Telugu  and  Kanarese  expressions  denote  high,  land  and  low 
land.  The  high  land  for  want  of  irrigation  produces  generally  poorer  crops 
than  the  well-irrigated  low  land.  Vellam  in  Tamil,  VeUma  in  Telugu,  and 
Bolla  in  Talu  denote  as  in  the  other  Dravidianlanguages^/fooatand  inundation. 
No  inundation  can  he  without  water,  and  in  Malaj'alam  Vellam  seems  to 
mean  also  water,  hut  this  appears  not  to  he  the  case  in  Tamil  and  Telugu. 
Mr.  Nelson  has  in  his  lahorious  Manual  of  Madura  first  proposed  to  derive 
VeUanmai  from  veUam  and  dnmai.  He  says  in  Part  II,  p.  31  :  "  The  Tamil 
"mode  of  spelling  the  word  Vellalan  is  Qeuerrenrretretsr  ;  and  as  Veils  nmei, 
"OsuErrsrr/T'srareroLD,  is  the  word  commonlj' used  to  express  the  act  of 
"  cultivating  (strictly,  ruling  or  managing  irrigation),  it  is  hut  natural  to 
"  infer  that  Vellalan  means  a  cultivator  or  irrigator  of  rice  fields,  rather 
"than  a  man  of  a  particular  trihe  or  country."  This  derivation  has  heen 
accepted  hy  some  authors,  generally  without  giving  Mr.  Nelson  ccdit  for 
it ;  but  it  is  not  known  to  the  Tamil  pandits  whom  I  have  consulted,  and  is- 
repudiated  by  them.  Dr.  Gundert,  who  gives  in  his  Malaydlam  and  English 
Dictionary  water  as  a  meaning  of  rellam,  does  not  connect  it  with  the  word 
velldnmai  which  he  places  under  vellan,  a  true  man.  Velldnmai  is  also  in 
Dr.  Winslow's  Tamil  and  JSnglish  Dictionary  not  derived  from  "  veUam  a,n 
inundation,  a  flood,  a  deluge,  a  strong  current."  It  cannot  be  denied  that 
it  is  grammatically  possible  to  derive  velldnmai  from  veUam  and  dnmai,  but 
as  veUdnmai  in  this  sense  denotes  only  wet  cultivation  or  irrigation,  and 
the  VejLlalau,  as  every  agriculturist  uses  both  dry  and  wet  cultivation, 
this  name"  would  be  inappropriate  if  applied  to  him.  Curiously  enough 
dry  cultivation  prevails,  if  I  am  not  wrongly  informed,  in  the  wet  districts 
on  the  West  Coast  of  South  India  where,  owing  to  the  heaviness  of  the  rain, 
no  tank  irrigation  is  necessary.  The  derivation  from  PaUan  and  dlan  as 
the  master  of  the  Pajftar  or  agricultural  labourers  seems  simpler  and 
more  preferable.  My  conjecture  is  supported  by  the  Tamil  and  Malayalam 
term  Velldtti,  a  slave  girl,  a  female  servant.  The  meaning  of  this  expression 
has  not  been  explained  so  far  as  my  knowledge  goes,  but  is  clear,  if  it  is  con- 
sidered  to  denote  a  Palla  woman,  a  woman  of  the  servile  class  (LJS»reir  + 
i^j.  N  In  this  particular  instance  dfti  signifies  woman  in  general,  as 
dl  does  also  occasionally  mean  servant  or  slave.  Jtti  occurs  in  a  similar, 
thouo-h  more  respectable,  sense  in  manaiydtti,  housewife,  and  pentaffh 
wife"  The  feminine  of  VcUdlan  is  Velldlacci.  The  truth  of  the  saying 
Usus  tyrannus  manifests  itself  peculiarly  in  this  case.  I  may  add  that 
even  my  derivation  of  VeUanmai  contains  the  word  dpmai  as  formed  from 

"  The  Purana  of  Tiruhaluhmram  near  Chingleput,  also  known  as  Pakn- 
tlrtkam,  mentions  24  clashes  of  Vellalar.  They  ^^^S^^'^fW^"^^'^,  .^^ 
three  great  sections  in  Gangakulatar,  Indrakulatar,  and  Ma^kulatar.  0  the 
63  Alvar  13  are  VeUalar.  Mr.  Nelson  has  in  his  Manual,  II,  pp.  27-37 
coUected  a  great  deal  of  information  about  them.     Compare  also  "  Notes 


The  Bhillalas  are  the  chiefs  among  the  Bhillas  or  Bhils, 
some  of  whom  are  regarded  as  the  offspring  of  Eajput  men 
and  Bhil  women.^^i 

The  similar  formation  of  all  these  words  tends  much  to 
prove  the  correctness  of  my  conjecture,  and  as  according  to 
my  explanation  the  meaning  of  Pdndiijnn  as  Palldndiyan  is 
identical  with  that  of  Velldlan,  the  legend  which  assigns 
to  the  Velldlan,  who  founded  the  celebrated  kingdom  of 
Madura  in  Southern  India,  the  name  of  Pdndiyan  or  of  ruler 
of  the  Pallas,  may  be  considered  as  by  no  means  irrelevant 
evidence  in  support  of  my  theory. 

on  Castes  in  Southern  India,"  by  Mr.  J.  A.  Boyle,  in  the  Indian  Anti- 
quary, vol.  Ill  (1874),  pp.   287-289. 

As  Falemu  is  identical  with  Velamu,  baronial  village,  so  is  Velama 
originally  synonymous  with  Palegadu.  About  the  Vellamas  compare  fiev. 
John  Cain's  article  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  VIII,  p.  216. 

""  Compare  also  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  p.  208,  and  IV,  pp.  338 
and  339. 




Philological   Eemaeks. 

Having  in  the  first  part  of  my  work  treated  of  the  Dravi- 
dians,  I  have  now  to  deal  with  the  other  aboriginal  tribes 
of  India,  whom  I  have  classed  together  under  the  name  of 
Gaudian.  As  already  intimated,  I  derive  the  term  Gavdian 
from  the  root  ko,  mountain. 

This  word  ko  or  ku  is  of  the  old  Turanian  stock.  It  is 
still  extant  in  the  Tamil  G^/r,  ko,  mountain,  and  can  be  easily 
recognized  in  many  expressions  found  in  Telugu,  Gondi,  and 
other  kindred  dialects.  Among  words  which  perhaps  are 
related  to  it  is  the  Persian  »^  {koh,  kuh,)  or  a^  {koh,  kuh) 
mountain;  for  Persian,  I  would  remark,  contains  a  con- 
siderable number  of  Turanian  words  which  have  their  re- 
presentatives in  the  Gauda-Dravidian  dialects  of  India. 
The  Sanskrit  word  go  has  many  difEerent  meanings,  most  of 
which  are  also  expressed  by  its  Tamil  tatsamam  ko;  but  go  in 
Sanskrit  does  not,  so  far  as  my  knowledge  goes,  signify 
moimtain,  while,  as  already  indicated,  ko  occurs  in  Tamil  in 
the  sense  of  mountain.  As  the  root  ko  can  be  traced  in  other 
Gauda-Dravidian  dialects  as  synonymous  with  mountain,  it 
is  pretty  clear  that  the  Tamil  ko,  mountain,  is  a  separate 
word  not  identical  with  the  term  ko,  denoting  cow,  &c. ;  and 
that  it  is  not  of  Sanskrit  but  of  Gauda-Dravidian  origin.^ 

1  About  the  derivation  of  Gaudian  from  io,  see  p.  13.     Tatsamam  is  a 
word  introduced  from  Sanskrit  into  an  Indian  vernacular  with  little  or  no 


The  word  ko  is  found  in  Koi,  Koya,  Koyi  and  ESdu,  &c.,  which  mean  in 
Telugu  and  Gondi  a  mountaineer  or  Gonii ;  also  in  Kona,  mountain-glen,  or 



The  Gauda-Dravidian  numerical  roots  o(r)  one,  and  mu, 
three,  are  found  in  Tamil  as  onru  [oru  and  onmi)  and  munrtc, 
in  Malayalam  as  onnu  and  munnu,  in  Telugu  as  ondu  and 
mudu,  in  Kanarese  as  ondii  and  muru,  in  Tulu  as  onji  and 
muji,  in  Madi  as  undi  (wandi)  and  mundu,  in  Gondi  as  undi 
and  munu  (mund),  iu  Kurgi  as  ondu  and  mundu.  In  a 
similar  manner  the  root  ko  (Jcu),  mountain,  has  developed  in 
Tamil  into  hunru,  kunram,  and  kdndam,  in  Malayalam  into 
kunnu,  kunnam,  and  kuru,  in  Telugu  into  konda,  gundu  and 
gutta,  in  Kanarese  into  gudda,  in  other  dialects  into  kundu,  &c- 
The  tribal  names  Koracaru  and  Koravaru,  mountaineers, 
permit  the  assumption  of  a  root  l:ora?  The  fact  that  liugual 
and  dental  letters  are  promiscuously  used  in  these  formations, 
is  rather  peculiar.  Lingual  and  dental  affixes  must  have  been 
indiscriminately  employed  in  Dravidian  languages  for  the 
construction  of  words ;  thus  ondu  signifies  one  (and  ojiti,  single) 

dale.  The  term  liu  is  preferred  by  the  Khonds,  for  Colonel  John  Camphell 
states  on  p.  13  in  his  Personal  Narrative  of  Service  among  the  Wild  Tribes  of 
£hondistan:  "The  hill  districts  of  Orissa  .  .  are  peopled  generally  by 
Khonds,  or  Xui,  as  they  call  themselves." — The  name  of  the  Koyana,  one 
of  the  seven  rivers  which  flow  from  the  MahabalS^vara  mountain,  is  "  derived 
either  from  Kuvena,or  from  Koh,  a  primitive  term  signifying  a  mountain." 
See  Bombay  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  IX,  p.  253.  With  respect  to  the  New- 
Persian  and  Parsi  koh,  mountain,  I  should  mention  that  /caufa,  mountain, 
occurs  in  the  cuneiform  inscriptions  of  the  Persian  Mng  Darius  at  the 
Behistun.  In  Huzvaresh  mountain  is  kuph.  Yet  it  is  not  impossible  that 
in  spite  of  this  fact,  the  word  ko  (ku)  may  also  in  this  case  be  originally 

Only  where  Tamil  letters  actually  occur,  they  are  transcribed  according 
to  the  principle  contained  in  note  1  on  p.  3. 

'  Eev.  Dr.  Gundert  in  his  Malayalam  and  English  Dictionary  presupposes  a 
root  0.  Bishop  Caldwell  while  advocating  in  his  Comparative  Grammar  of 
the  Dravidian  languages  on  pp.  217-223,  the  assumption  of  a  basis  or,  writes 
on  p.  220  :  "  Dr.  Gundert  considers  ondru  an  euphonised  form  of  on,  with 
the  addition  of  du,  the  neuter  formative,  and  that  on  and  or  are  equivalents, 
being  both  verbal  nouns  from  o,  to  be  one.  It  is  quite  true  that  such  a  verb 
as  0  exists,  that  n  or  an,  alternating  with  am,  is  used  as  a  formative  by  many 
nouns,  and  that  n  sometimes  changes  into  or  alternates  with  r  or  r."  And 
on  p.  222  :  "  There  is  a  verbal  root  in  Tamil  o,  which  has  been  supposed  to 
mean,  to  be  one.  On  and  or  (ondru  and  oru)  are  supposed  by  Dr.  Gundert  to 
be  verbal  nouns  from  this  v.  An  undoubted  derivative  of  o  in  Tamil  and 
Malayalam  is  okka,  which  in  Malayalam  and  the  Tamil  of  the  extreme  south 
means  '  altogether,'  '  all '  (compare  Mordvin  wok,  all) ;  and  this  is  supposed 

or    BHARATAVARSA    OR    INDIA.  Ill 

in  Kanarese  corresponding  to  the  Telugu  ondu,  and  in  Telugu 
Kodu  and  Gondu  mean  a  Khond,  while  their  equivalents  in 
Sanskrit  are  Konda  and  Gonda,  to  which  corresponds  the 
Telugu  Kondarudu} 

The  addition  of  these  lingual  and  dental  aiExes  with  or 
without  a  nasal,  is  a  peculiarity  of  the  Gauda-Dra vidian 
languages.*  The  change  of  k  into  the  other  gutturals  kh,  g, 
and  gh,  or  perhaps  more  properly  the  interchange  between 
them,  need  hardly  be  mentioned,  beiug  of  such  frequent 
occurrence ;  nor  is  it  necessary  to  draw  attention  to  the 
resemblance  in  the  pronunciation  of  the  vowels  a,  u  and  o, 
and  to  their  being  promiscuously  used  the  one  for  the  other, 
e.g.,  in  Kudaku  and  Kodaku,  the  name  of  the  province  Kurg, 
in  Kuravanji  or  Koravahji,  a  common  expression  for  a  female 

The  names  of  most  of  the  Graudian  races  are  formed 
from  the  above-given  variations  of  ko,  a  circumstance  which 
explains    the    very    considerable    differences    occasionally 

by  Dr.  Grundert  to  be  identical  witb  the  Telugu  oka,  one.  Every  step  in  this 
process,  with  one  exception,  is  encumbered  with,  difficulties."  The  question 
is  still  very  doubtful,  and  can  be  hardly  ever  settled.  Bishop  Caldwell  himself 
admits  on  p.  220  that :  "  or,  in  its  primitive,  unuasalised  shape,  is  not  now 
found  in  the  cultivated  Dravidian  dialects  as  the  first  abstract  neuter  noun 
of  number  for  one  or  unity."  The  Rev.  P.  Kittel  seems  to  agree  with  the 
Bishop  as  he  writes  in  his  "  Notes  concerning  the  Numerals  of  the  Ancient 
Dravidians  "  in  the  Indian  Ardiqnary,  vol.  II,  p.  24  :  "1,  ondu,  onru  (pro- 
nounce :  ondu),  onji,  or,  or,  om,-on,  ondu,  ottu,  to  be  undivided,  to  be  one. 
A  unit  without  a  branch."  *  *  "  When  the  affix  rf«  is  joined  to  a  short 
monosyllabic  root  with  final  r,  the  root  in  this  case  being  or,  this  liquid  is 
sometimes  changed  into  the  Bindu.     Observe  du  has  become  ji  (in  Tulu)." 

3  Kodu,  steep,  Icodu,  peak,  and  similar  words  belong  to  this  group. 
Ku  and  go  denote  in  Sanskrit  earth,  hence  kuklla,  moimtain  (a  peg  or  pin 
of  the  earth) .  Whether  any  connection  exists  between  the  Sanskrit  kuta, 
mountain,  fort ;  kuttdra  and  kuttira,  mountain ;  kuta,  mountainpeak ;  kofa, 
fort ;  and  koti,  end,  &c.,  and  some  Gauda-Dravidian  words  of  similar  sound 
and  same  meaning,  is  now  very  difficult  to  decide.  Except  kuta,  which 
occurs  already  in  the  Egveda,  none  of  these  Sanskrit  terms  are  found  in 
verj^  ancient  works. 

*  It  is  thus  conspicuous  in  the  formation  of  some  irregular  plurals  in 

'  See  p.  84. 


noiicsable  in  their  outward  appearance.  People  resort  in 
private  life  to  a  variety  of  names  in  order  to  facilitate 
distinction  between  kindred  individuals,  families  and  clans. 
The  same  name  is  often  borne  by  various  tribes  "who,  though 
originally  akin  to  one  another,  dwell  separately  in  distant 
places  of  the  larga  Indian  continent.  Some  tribal  terms 
originally  unobjectionable  have  had  attributed  to  them  in 
course  of  time  a  disparaging  meaning, — such  terms,  for 
instance,  as  Pariah  and  Ganddla.  Yet,  neither  individuals 
nor  races  should  be  despised  simply  for  the  name  they  bear, 
particularly,  if  it  is  uncertain  whether  any  stigma  can  be 
attached  to  them  on  that  account.  This  caution  should  be 
strictly  observed,  especially  as  identical  terms  have  often 
different  significations  in  the  various  districts  and  separate 
communities  of  so  vast  a  country  as  India. 

Application  op  the  teem  Gaudian. 

I  am  aware  that  it  is  impossible  to  b©  too  cautious  in 
drawing  up  such  lists  as  the  following,  the  more  so  if  they 
are  the  first  of  their  kind ;  but  one  must  guard  as  much 
against  mistakes  of  omission  as  of  commission.  It  is 
preferable,  I  believe,  in  a  research  like  this,  to  make  at  first 
comprehensive  statements,  and  to  leave  to  the  competent 
critic  the  task  of  pruning  them. 

I  regard  under  these  circumstances  the  following  tribes 
and  races  as  belonging  to  the  Gaudian  division  r — the  Koi 
(Kui,  Ku,  Koital,  Koya,  Koyi),  Kodu  and  Gondu  or  Konda 
(Khonda,  Kunda,  Kavunda,  Gauda,  Gonda,  and  Gaunda) 
or  Kanda  (Khanda,  Kandara,  Cauda,  and  Candala),  Toda, 
Kota,  Kodaga,  Koraga,  Kola  (Cola),  Koli,  Kulu,  Koracaru 
(Korcaru,  Korsaru,  Kuruoiyar,  Gurcari),  Korava  (Korama), 
Kuruva  (Kuru,  Yerakala,  Kuruma,  Kurumba,  Kurmi), 
Kunnuva,  &o. 

The  following  Sanskrit  names  can,  I  believe,  be  con- 
nected with  the  Gaudians,  though  it  may  be  difficult  actually 


to  prove  such  a  connection  always.  Tribal  names  such 
as  : — Gauda,  Gaudaka,  Gonda,  Kandola,  Khanda,  Candala, 
Kontala,  Kundala,  Kuntala,  Kunlhaka,  Kunti,  Kuntika, 
Kurata,  Konvasira,  Kola,  Kolvagireya,  Cola  (Coda),  &c.  The 
following  names  of  men  :  Kunda,  Kundika,  Kundina,  Kola, 
Cola,  &c. ;  of  women:  Kundala,  Kunti,  &c. ;  of  countries: 
Gauda,  Khandava,  Kunti,  &c. ;  of  mountains :  Kunda, 
Kundoda,  Kuranga,  Konva,  Kolagiri  (KoUagiri),  Kolahala, 
&c. ;  of  streams  :  Kundala,  &c.  ;  of  forests :  Gondavana 
(Gondavara),  Khandava,  &o. ;  of  plants  :  Kunda  (or  Malli, 
jasmine),  Kundali  (mountain  ebony) ;  and  of  towns  :  Gauda 
(Gonda),  Gaura,  Khandavaprastha,  Kundaprastha,  Kun- 
dagni,  Kundina(pura),  &,c.^ 

Ptolemy  mentions  among  Indian  trihes  the  Gonds  as  Kan- 
daloi  (VII,  1,66).'  Strabo  speaks  of  the  country  Gandaris 
or  Gandarltis*  in  the  north-west  of  India,  while  Ptolemy 
distinguishes  (YI,  12,  4)  between  the  Kandaroi  in  Sogdiana 

°  Koi-jdti  is  a  term  generally  given  to  the  Koi  tribe.  In  the  July  number, 
1837,  of  the  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science,  the  Kev.  William 
Taylor  remarks  as  follows  on  page  17  -  "In  the  title  to  Mr.  Stevenson's 
paper  on  their  customs,  they  (the  Khoonds)  are  styled  S^cSitu  Codulu  and  in 
Dr.  Maxwell's  Hst  Khoi-jdti." 

It  is  perhaps  not  quite  out  of  place  to  mention  among  the  tribal  names 
also  the  Gandhdra,  Gdndhdra  or  Gandhdri,  who  appear  in  the  Behistiln 
inscription  among  the  subjects  of  Darius  Hystaspes  as  Ganddra.  If  this  is 
the  case,  the  name  of  the  Queen  Gdndhdrl  would  find  a  place  among  the 
female  names  connected  with  the  Gaudians.  Some  connect  the  name  of 
Kandahar  with  the  Gandharas,  while  others  derive  the  name  of  the  town 
Kandahar  from  Alexander  the  Great. 

I  omit  to  include  above  in  the  text  the  names  of  the  other  sons  of 
Dhrtarastra :  Kundabhedin,  Kundadhara,  Kun^aka,  KundaSayin  and 

'  See  p.  82,  n.  70. — Christian  Lassen  used  the  edition  of  B.  G.  'Willberg 
and  wrote  in  vol.1,  p.  113  (88),  No.  2:  "  Ich  lese  mit  "WiUberg  Gondaloi 
statt  Kondaloi."  I  used  C.  F.  A.  Nobbe's  edition,  which  contains  on  p. 
165  ViivSaKoi. 

8  See  Strabonos  Geographika  recensuit  G.  Kramer,  Berolini,  1852,  lib, 
XV,  1,  26  (Casaubonus,  p.  697)  :  The  Choaspea  (Attock)  runs  into  the 
KOphes  (Cabul)  near  the  town  Plemyrion,  after  passing  by  Gorys,  another 
city  and  going  through  BandobSnS  and  Gandarltis  ;  and  XV,  1,  30  (Casau- 
bonus, p.  699) :  Some  caU  Gandaris  the  country  subject  to  him  (the 
nephew  of  Porus). 


(VI,  12,  4)  and  the  Gandarai  (VIT,  1,  44)  between  the 
Suastos  and  Indos.^  The  same  geographer  names  also  the 
Korankaloi  (VII,  2,  15),  who  lived  probably  near  the  river 
Grandaki,  which  Pliniua  calls  Condoohates  in  his  Natural 
History.  Omitting  a  number  of  places,  which  may  perhaps 
refer  to  the  Gaudian  population  and  are  mentioned  in  the 
work  of  Ptolemy,  I  only  draw  attention  to  Kandipatna 
(VII,  1,  92),  Kondota  (VII,  1,  14),  Konta  (VII,  1,  51), 
Kontakossyla  emporion  (VII,  1,  15),  Koreur  (VII,  1,  86), 
Korindiur  (VII,  1,  89),  Korunkala  (VII,  1,  93),  and 
Korygaza  (VII,  2,  14). i» 

Explanation  or  the  use  of-Gauda  (Gaudian) 
AS  A  Tribal  Name. 

The  term  Gauda  (Gaudian)  is  now  generally  regarded  as 
appropriate  to  North  India,  whUe  Dravida  is  connected  with 
South  India.  Neither  term  is  used  in  its  widest  sense,  for 
this  division,  though  right  in  a  general  way,  ignores  the  fact 
that  many  Gaudian  elements  are  found  in  the  south,  while 
the  north  contains  numerous  Dra vidian  constituents.  In  fact 
both  branches  of  the  kindred  stock  exist  side  by  side  through- 
out the  land.  With  this  restriction,  the  use  of  both  terms 
may  be  admitted. 

The  word  Gauda  is  a  derivative  of  the  root  M,  mountain, 
and  its  equivalents  are  Goda  and  Gonda.^^  The  substitution 
of  r  and  /  for  d  gives  Gaura  and  Gaula,  which  five  forms 

'  Ptol.  VI,  12,  4.  "  Elra  Tapc^  ri  SoySm  Spi; '0|uSp57/cai  koL  hpvfiilcnu,  KaX 
Kcii'Sapoi,"  and  VII,  1,  44  :  MeTo^u  ^\  toE  2ouci[rTOu  Kol  toC  'IcSoB  Vavidfiai." 

'o  See  C.  Plinii  Secundi  Naturalis  historice,  lib.  VI,  22  :  "  Ex  iis  naviga- 
biles,  praeter  iam  diotos,  Condochatem,  Eranoboam,  Gosoagum,  Sonum."  I 
have  not  included  the  Gandakl  among  the  rivers,  as  its  name  is  generally 
derived  from  gandaka,  rhinoceros,  which  are  said  to  be  found  in  it.  I  regard 
this  etymology  as  doubtful. 

'1  See  General  Sir  Alexander  Cunningham's  Archaological  Survey  of 
India,  vol.  I,  pp.  327,  328  ;  "  In  Uttara  Kosala  they  (the  districts)  are  Gauda. 
(vulgarly  Gonda)  to  the  south  of  the  Rapti,  and  Kosala  to  the  north  of  the 
Eapti.  .  These  apparent  discrepancies  are  satisfactorily  explained  when  we 
learn  that  Gauda,  is  only  a  sub-division  of  Uttara  Kosala,  and  that  the  ruins 


occur  simultaneously.  There  is  no  reason  for  supposing  that 
Q-auda  is  an  antiquated  Sanskrit  formation ;  it  was  origi- 
nally not  Sanskrit  at  all,  though  it  was  received  in  course 
of  time  into  the  Sanskrit  vocabulary.  So  far  from  being 
antiquated,  it  is  still  used  in  popular  language.  The  modem 
Gaudas  have  formed  themselves  into  a  separate  clan,  the 
greater  part  of  which  dwells  at  present  in  Southern  India. 
The  chief  of  a  village,  even  when  the  principal  villagers  do 
not  belong  to  the  Gauda  caste,  is  in  Mysore  and  its  neigh- 
bouring districts  now  generally  called  the  Gaudan.  It  must 
not,  however,  be  overlooked  that  in  spite  of  this  fact  the 
term  Gauda  has  a  tribal  meaning  and  was  probably  given 
to  the  headman  of  a  village  community  in  consequence  of  the 
honorable  position  the  Gaudas  occupied  in  the  estimation 
of  the  population.  According  to  the  last  Census  report 
259,110   Gaudas  live  in  Mysore  alone,  and  4,387  in  the 

of  Sravasti  liave  actually  been  discovered  in  the  district  of  Gauda,  which  is 
the  Gonda  of  the  maps.  The  extent  of  Gauda  is  also  proved  hy  the  old  name 
of  Balrampur  on  the  Rapti,  which  was  formeriy  Rdmgarh  Oauda." 

Compare  also  vol.  XXI,  p.  13  :  "  Gonda  (or  Godu)  is  a  large  flourishing 
village  ..13  mUes  from  Karwi. . .  To  the  east  of  the  village,  .  there  is  a  pair 
of  old  temples.,  known  asChandeli  Mandar,  or  the  '  Chandeli  temples,'  as  aU 
the  old  buildings  are  designated  throughout  Bundelkhand."  See  further, 
vol.  IX,  p.  151 :  "  The  name  of  Gond  is  simply  a  corruption  of  Gauda. 
In  the  northern  Gauda,  or  Uttara  Kosala,  the  chief  town  is  still  named 
Oauda,wh.ich.  the  lluhammadans  before  us  corrupted  to  Gonda.  On  the  finger- 
posts leading  to  the  place,  the  Nagari  lU^"  Gauda  and  the  English  Gonda  are 
placed  side  by  side.  I  spent  several  mouths  in  the  Central  Provinces,  and 
I  never  once  heard  the  aborigines  called  Gond,  but  always  Gor.  Now,  as 
Gauda  is  a  pure  Sanskrit  word,  it  would  seem  that  this  was  not  their  true 
name  and  that  it  must  have  been  derived  from  the  country  in  which  they 
dwelt.  This  appears  the  more  probable  when  we  learn  that  they  do  not  call 
themselves  either  Gond  or  Gor,  but  Ko'itur.  It  is  also  strongly  confirmed  by 
the  fact  that  there  are  no  Gonds  in  the  northern  Gauda,  or  Uttara  Kosala,  and 
none  in  the  eastern  Gauda  or  western  Bengal .  .  My  explanation  of  Gauda 
as  a  geographical  term,  which  gave  its  name  to  the  Gond  people,  instead  of 
having  received  it  from  them,  is  still  confirmed  by  the  fact  that  numerous 
temples  which  are  said  to  have  been  built  by  the  Gonds,  were  certainly  not 
erected  by  them."  Sir  A.  Cunningham  overlooks  that  Koitur,  the  name 
which  the  Gonds  give  to  themselves,  is  in  reality  identical  with  Gond, 
see  p.  H5. 


Bombay  Presidency.  I  am  well  aware  of  the  fact  that  the 
term  Gauda  has  often  been  derived  from  the  Sanskrit  gd, 
cow ;  but  this  I  take  to  be  a  wrong  derivation.''' 

The  name  is  found  in  fact  all  over  India.  That  the  terms 
Qtiuda  and  Gonda  are  synonymous  is  proved  by  the  fact  that 
the  well-known  district  and  its  capital  in  Oudh  are  known 
both  as  Gonda  and  Gauda.  True,  the  term  Gond  signifies 
now  only  a  section  of  the  Gaudian  population,  but  this 
affects  neither  its  etymology  nor  the  point  at  issue.  On  the 
contrary  the  common  origin  of  both  terms  explains  why  one 
can  be  used  for  the  other,  or  both  for  one  and  the  same  place 
or  individual. 

It  is  a  curious  coincidence  that  the  national  division  of 
the  Indian  population  into  Gaudians  and  Dravidians  was 

'- There  are  altogetKer  263,497  Gaudas  and  161,353  Gaudes  in  India. 
About  the  Gaudas  see  Dr.  Francis  Buchanan's  Journey  jrom  Madras  through 
the  countries  of  Mysore,  Canara  and  Malabar,  second  edition,  vol.  I,  pp.  187, 
207,  208,  274,  338,  340,  367,  395  and  396.  On  p.  187  he  remarks:  "The 
Gauda,  called  corruptly  Gaur,  and  in  the  Mussulman  language  the  Potail, 
is  the  chief  Ryut,  or  farmer,  in  the  -viUage,  and  receives  the  whole  dues  of 
government.  .  The  office  of  Gauda  was  originally  hereditary  ;  but  now  these 
persons  are  appointed  by  the  Amildar,  and  continue  in  place  so  long  as  they 
keep  up  the  collections  to  their  supposed  value,  or  until  some  other  man  un- 
dertakes, by  bringing  a  greater  number  of  farmers,  to  make  the  revenue  more 
productive.  The  Gauda  settles  all  disputes,  in  the  same  manner  as  here- 
ditary chiefs  of  casts  do."  On  pp.  207,  208,  stands:  "The  Gaudas  here 
(in  Colar)  rent  the  vUlages,  and  every  year  make  a  new  settlement  with  the 
Amildar  ;  while  they  receive  authority  to  take  from  the  cultivators  as  much 
as  they  legally  can.  Some  Gaudas  rent  two  or  three  Gramas,  or  villages ;  but 
to  each  there  is  an  hereditary  Gauda,  who  receives  the  title."  See  p.  338  : 
"  In  all  this  part  (Belluru)  of  the  country  it  has  been  customary,  when  a 
new  village  was  founded,  for  the  person  appointed  to  be  hereditary  Gauda, 
or  chief,  to  place  a  large  stone  in  or  near  the  village.  This  stone  is  called 
the  Curuvu  CaUu,  or  calf-stone,  and  is  considered  as  representing  the  Grama 
Devaru,  or  god  of  the  village.  The  hereditary  Gauda  always  officiates 
as  Fujari  or  priest ;  and  at  the  annual  village  feast,  after  having  rubbed  it 
with  oil,  offers  a  sacrifice,  with  which  he  feasts  his  relations  and  the  chief 
men  of  the  place."  On  p.  274  we  read:  "The  proper  Curubas  have 
hereditary  chiefs,  who  are  called  Gaudas,  whether  they  be  head-men  of 
villages  or  not,  and  possess  the  usual  jurisdiction."  See  also  p.  380.  The 
title  Gaudan  is  esteemed  in  Mysore.  About  the  name  Kawndar,  see  p.  99, 
As  Gauda  so  has  Gauli  been  derived  from  go,  cow,  compare  p.  141.  About 
Gaula  see  Mysore  Inscriptions  of  L.  Rice,  pp.  20,  45,  &c. 


adopted  by  the  Aryan  Brahmans  after  they  had  settled 
in  Bharatavarsa,  and  like  the  Graudians  and  Dravidians, 
the  Gauda-Brahmans  are  mainly  settled  in  the  north,  while 
the  Dravida-Brahmans  preponderate  in  the  south.  I  have 
already  alluded  to  this  classification  on  pp.  21  and  22. 

The  five  divisions  of  the  Qauda-Brahmans  are,  as  pre- 
viously mentioned,  named  respectively  after  the  Sarasvati- 
river,  Kanyakubja  (the  modern  Kanauj),  Grauda,  Utkala 
now  known  as  Orissa,  and  Mithila. 

When  applied  to  Brahmans,  many  explain  the  term 
Gauda  as  describing  those  who  lived  near  the  celebrated 
ancient  town  of  Gauda  or  Gaura,  the  ruins  of  which  still 
excite  the  admiration  of  those  who  visit  them.  Others 
take  Gauda  as  the  kingdom  of  which  Gaur  was  the  capital.i^ 
It  appears  somewhat  improbable  that  the  Brahmans,  who 
came  originally  from  the  West,  should  have  chosen  for  them- 
selves a  name  from  a  locality  so  far  remote  in  the  East. 
This  supposition  becomes  even  less  likely  if  one  considers 

"  Instead  of  Kamata  KaSmIra  is  mentioned  in  the  Jdtimald. 

See  H.  T.  Coletrooke's  Enumeration  of  Indian  Classes  in  his  miscellaneous 
Essays,  vol.  II  (1873),  p.  169  :  "  In  Jamhu-dwipa,  Brihmanas  are  reckoned 
tenfold ;  S^aswata,  Kinyakubja,  Gauda,  Maithila,  Utkala,  Dr&vida,  MahS,- 
r&shtra,  Gujjara,  and  KASmira,  residing  in  the  several  countries  whence 
they  are  named." 

Head  Arehaological  Survey  of  India,  vol.  XV,  p.  39;  "  The  great  city, 
of  Gauda  or  Gaur,  the  capital  of  Balal  Sen  and  his  descendants .  .  is  not 
mentioned  at  aU  by  Hwen  Thsang  .  .  (p.  40)  The  name  of  the  province 
in  which  Lakhnauti  or  Gaur  was  situated  was  Barbanda  or  Baranda.  At  the 
same  time  we  know  that  the  Gaudas  were  a  tribe,  and  that  the  Pala  Rajas 
took  the  title  of  Oauresvara,  It  seems  certain  therefore  that  the  western 
part  of  the  province  at  least  must  have  been  ealled  Gauda  or  Gaur  . 
(p.  41)  The  name  of  Gauda  or  Gaur  is,  I  believe,  derived  from  Guda  or  Gur, 
the  common  name  of  molasses,  or  raw  sugar,  for  which  this  province  has 
always  been  famous.  In  former  days  when  the  Ganges  flowed  past  the 
city,  Gaur  was  the  great  mart  where  all  the  sugar  of  the  northern  districts 
was  collected  for  exportation." 

This  derivation  of  Gaur  is  also  mentioned  and  recommended  by  others,  but 
it  is  still  doubtful.  Gaur  or  Lakhnauti  Ues  in  lat.  24°  52'  N.,  long.  88°  10' 
E.,  in  theMaldah  district  of  Bengal. 



that  some  of  the  principal  Gaudian  sub-divisions  are  named 
after  such  western  districts,  as  Kanyakubja,  or  the  country- 
watered  by  the  sacred  Sarasvati  which  loses  itself  in  the 
deserts  north  of  Eajputana."  Some  scholars  even  state  that 
the  Brahmans  known  as  G-auda-Brahmans  are  not  Bengalis, 
but  inhabitants  of  Hindustan  proper,  who  according  to  their 
own  legends  left  Kanyakubja  and  emigrated  to  the  East  in 
the  time  of  the  Paadavas." 

According  to  this  tradition,  the  Kanyakubja  Brahmans 
migrated  to  the  Eastern  Grauda  at  an  early  period,  but 
the  question  when  the  division  into  Grauda  and  Dravida 
Brahmans  took  place,  remains  unanswered.  Nor  are  we 
better  able  to  decide  the  reason  of  this  peculiar  separation. 
The  most  probable  explanation  may  be  that  the  Brahmans 
simply  adopted  the  division  which  they  found  existing  among 
the  original  inhabitants  in  the  midst  of  whom  they  settled. 
In  that  case  we  have  no  means  of  assigning  an  historical 
date  to  this  event.  If,  as  I  suppose,  the  Grauda-Dravidian 
population  existed  in  this  dual  state  already  in  prehistoric 
times,  it  will  be  very  difficult  indeed  to  ascertain  when 
the  Brahmans  adopted  this  classification  in  their  community. 

'"  Compare  H.  H.  Wilson's  Vishnupurdna,  vol.  II,  p.  195,  and  Dr.  John 
Wilson's  Indian  Caste,  vol.  II,  pp.  124-139:  "The  Sarasvata  Brahmans 
form  the  only  class  of  natives  of  India  now  distinctly  recognized  as  connected 
with  the  Sarasvata  nation.  They  are  found,  not  only  in  the  Panjah  and 
Sindh,  where  they  ahound,  hut  in  Eajputaria,  Gujarat,  the  North- West  Pro- 
vinces, and  even,  as  we  have  seen,  throughout  the  southern  provinces  of 
India  "  (pp.  125,  126).  H.  T.  Colebrooke  states  in  his  Miscellaneous  Essays, 
London,  1873,  vol.  II,  p.  21  :  "  The  Saraswata  was  a  nation  which  occupied 
the  banks  of  the  river  Saraswatl.  Brahmanas,  who  are  still  distinguished  by 
the  name  of  their  nation,  inhabit  chiefly  the  Panjab  or  Panchanada,  west  of 
the  river  from  which  they  take  their  appellation." 

1*  See  H.  T.  Colebrooke,  ibidem,  vol.  II,  p.  25,  note  1  :  "It  is  necessary 
to  remark,  that  though  Gaura  (Gauda)  be  the  name  of  Bengal,  yet  the 
Brahmanas,  who  bear  that  appellation,  are  not  inhabitants  of  Bengal,  but  of 
Hindustan  proper.  They  reside  chiefly  in  the  Suba  of  Delhi,  while  the 
Brahmanas  of  Bengal  are  avowed  colonists  from  Kanoj .  It  is  difiicult  to 
account  for  this  contradiction.  The  Gaura  Brahmanas  allege  a  tradition,  that 
their  ancestors  migrated  in  the  days  of  the  Pandavas,  at  the  commencement 
of  the  present  Kali  Yuga.    Though  no  plausible  conjecture  can  be  formed  on 


Yet,  considering  that  the  Dravidians  gravitated  in  the 
course  of  time  towards  the  south,  while  the  Gaudians 
preponderated  in  the  north,  and  that  the  Brahmanic  divi- 
sion corresponds  with  this  fact,  we  may  not  err  in  assuming 
that  the  Brahmans  introduced  this  arrangement  among 
themselves  after  the  Grauda-Dravidians  had  thus  settled 
down  in  their  respective  places.  However,  even  this  sup- 
position will  not  supply  us  with  accurate  dates,  especially 
as  Southern  India  was  already  known  as  Dravida  at  a  com- 
paratively early  period. 

It  seems  thus  very  improbable  that  the  Grauda- Brahmans 
were  originally  called  after  the  celebrated  town  Oauda,  or 
after  the  kingdom  of  which  it  was  the  capital,  especially  if 
the  true  derivation  of  this  word  is  from  gauda,  ^S',  molasses 
(from  guda),  and  if  Gaudadesa  is  an  equivalent  of  Sugarland, 
an  explanation  which  also  appears  to  be  doubtful.  The  name 
Gauda  applies  to  most  Brahmans  in  the  North,  but  it  is 
also  used  as  specifying  a  particular  sub-division ;  in  the 
same  manner  as  Dravida  has  also  a  general  and  a  special  sig- 

tMs  tradition,  yet  I  am  induced  to  retract  a  conjecture  formerly  hazarded 
by  me,  that  the  Gar  of  our  maps  was  the  'original  country  of  the  Gaura 

Sir  Henry)  M.  Elliot  supports  in  his  Supplementary  Glossary  of  Indian 
Terms,  London,  1869,  vol.  I,  p.  102,  the  Pandava  legend  :  "  They  (the  Gaur 
Brahmans)  all  state  that  they  came  from  Gaur  in  Bengal,  hut  there  is  much 
improhability  in  the  story.  There  can  be  little  doubt  of  Kanaujias  emigrat- 
ing on  the  invitation  of  Adiswara  from  Kanauj  to  Bengal ;  how  then  can  we 
account  for  the  whole  tribe  of  Gaurs  not  only  leaving  their  native  seats,  but 
crossing  through  the  country  of  the  Kanaujias,  and  dwelling  on  the  other 
side  of  them  ?  If  they  emigrated  in  or  about  the  time  of  the  Pandavas,  as 
universal  local  tradition  would  induce  us  to  suppose,  it  would  lead  to  the 
inference  that  Kanaujias  are  a  more  modem  race.  Gaur,  moreover,  was 
only  made  the  Bengal  capital  shortly  before  the  Mahomedan  conquest, 
and  that  is  too  late  to  admit  of  its  giving  a  name  to  one  of  the  ten  tribes."— 
Compare  also  ilidem  the  remarks  made  on  the  Gaur  taga  on  pp.  106-115. 

Dr.  Francis  Buchanan  mentions  the  legend  of  a  westward  Brahmanic 
emigration  from  Gaur,  but  disapproves  of  it  also  finally.  He  alludes  to  it 
twice  in  the  third  volume  of  his  History,  Antiquities,  Topography,  and 
Statistics  of  Eastern  India  ;  thus  on  p.  42  he  writes  :  "  One  (tradition)  is  that 


nification.  From  what  has  been  already  stated,  the  origin 
of  this  expression  is  to  be  looked  for  in  the  West,  though  no 
doubt  the  subsequent  preponderance  of  the  Eastern  Grauda 
kings  made  this  fact  fall  into  oblivion.  KuMmba,  a  grand- 
son of  Balakasva  and  son  of  Kusa,  is  the  reputed  founder 
of  the  well-known  town  Kausambi,  south  of  Ayodhya  and 
north-west  of  the  modern  Allahabad.  The  HitopadeSa 
places  it  in  the  Gauda  country.^^  Similarly  is  the  city 
^ravasti  described  as  situated  in  Gauda,  while  it  belongs  to 
Kosala,  likewise  a  part  of  Oudh."  These  and  many  more 
examples  can  be  quoted  to  show  that  the  term  Gauda  does 
not  apply  only  to  the  distant  East.  Moreover,  the  tradition 
which  Colebrooke  has  preserved  assigns  to  the  Gauda-Brah- 
mans  a  western  home  and  connects  their  origin  with  the  wars 
of  the  Pandavas,  I  am  inclined  to  attach  to  this  legend 
some  value,  though  I  quite  admit  that  we  possess  no  records 
to  prove  its  authenticity.  If  deserving  notice,  we  ought  to 
ascribe  to  this  division  a  comparatively   early  date,  while 

Janmeyaj ,  son  ol  Parikshit,  aon  of  Abhemanyu,  son  of  Arj  cm,  brother  of 
Yudidshthir,  and  the  third  king  of  India  of  the  family  of  Pandu,  remoTed 
all  the  Brahmans  from  Gaur  and  settled  them  to  the  west  of  the  Ganges 
beyond  Hastinapoor,  where  their  descendants  still  remain."  On  pp.  154- 
155,  howeTer,  he  remarks :  "  The  few  Brahmans  of  the  Gaur  nation,  that  are 
now  in  Bengal,  have  avowedly  come  very  recently  from  the  west  of  India, 
and  the  same  is  the  case  with  almost  all  the  tribes  of  Sudras,  who  claim  to 
be  of  the  Gam-  nation,  none  of  whom,  the  Vaishnavs  excepted,  are  now  to 
be  found  in  Gaur.  I  therefore  concluded,  that  some  place  called  Gaur  in  the 
vicinity  of  Agra  or  Delhi,  was  the  original  country  of  this  nation.  I  have, 
however,  since  met  with  some  well-informed  Brahmans  of  this  nation  who 
allege,  that  the  Gaur  of  Bengal  is  their  original  place  of  settlement,  but 
that  the  whole  of  them  were  removed  from  thence  by  Janmeyaj ,  and  placed 
near  Hastinapoor.  .  .  The  Sudras,  however,  of  Gaur,  having  as  well  as  the 
Brahmans  come  from  the  west  of  India,  renders  this  emigration  in  the  time 
of  Janmeyaj  rather  doubtful." 

I  have  proved  above  the  existence  of  a  western  Gauda  (Gaur.) 

Read  about  Gaur,  also  ibidem,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  68-80. 

"  Compare  Rdmayaria,  I,  34,  6  ;  Pdnini,  IV,  2,  68  ;  Hitopadesa  in 
Mitralabha  Asti  Gaadavi?ayS  (GaudadSSS,  GaudlyS)  KauSambi  nama 

"  Compare  Yislmiipurdm,  vol.  Ill,  p.  263,  and  above  p.  115  n.  11. 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OE    INDIA.  121 

if  the  city  of  Gauda  was  not  in  existence  when  Ptolemy 
lived,  it  is  evident  that  no  Brahmans  could  have  been 
called  after  it  before  his  time.  I  merely  call  attention  to 
this  fact,  though  I  object  to  the  proposed  derivation  of  the 
name  Gauda-Brahman  from  the  city  of  Q-auda,  whatever 
may  have  been  the  origin  of  the  name  of  that  town. 

On  the  name  Kolarian. 

Before  entering  into  any  further  particulars  about  the 
Graudian  group,  it  is  necessary  to  make  a  few  remarks  on 
the  name  Kolarian.  It  has  of  late  been  repeatedly  and 
authoritatively  stated  that  India  was  in  ancient  times  called 
Colaria,  and  that  the  Kols  in  Central  India  represent  the  real 
aborigiaes  of  India,  to  whom  it  is  indebted  for  this  name. 
To  both  these  statements  I  demur,  and  though  I  admit  the 
antiquity  of  the  tribes  which  are  now  styled  Kolarian,  I 
would  at  once  observe  that  the  Kola  and  Koli,  who  are 
mentioned  in  the  Epic  and  Pauranic  Sanskrit  literature, 
should  not  be  confounded  with  the  modern  Kols.^' 

The  Kolarian  theory,  if  I  may  so  call  it,  derives  its  main 
support  from  the  writings  of  three  eminent  men,  Colonel 
Wilford,  Colonel  Dalton,  and  Sir  G-eorge  Campbell,  for  whom 
I  must  needs  have  the  greatest  respect;  but  while  recog- 
nizing their  merit,  I  trust  to  be  able  to  show  that  in  this 
matter  they  have  erred  in  their  conclusions  and  built  up  a 
theory  on  very  slender  foundations.  The  view  they  main- 
tain will  be  found  presented  in  the  following  extracts. 

According  to  Colonel  Dalton  the  word  Kol  "  is  one  of 
"  the  epithets  of  abuse  applied  by  the  Bramanical  races  to 
"the  aborigines  of  the  country  who  opposed  their  early 
"  settlement,  and  it  has   adhered  to  the  primitive  inhabi- 

18  Koli,  as  it  occurs,  e.g.,  in  Kolisarpah. 


"  tants   of   Chota  -  Nagpore   for  ages.      It   includes   many 

"  tribes ;  the  people  of  this  province  to  whom  it  is  generally 
"  applied  are,  either  Moondah  or  Oraon ;  and  though  these 
"  races  are  now  found  in  many  parts  of  the  country  occupying 
"  the  same  villages,  cultivating  the  same  fields,  celebrating 
"  together  the  same  festivals,  and  enjoying  the  same  amuse- 
"  ments,  they  are  of  totally  distinct  origin  and  cannot  inter- 
"  marry  without  loss  of  caste."'^ 

Sir  George  Campbell  is  the  inventor  of  the  term  Kolarian, 
and  I  shall  now  quote  his  arguments  in  favor  of  it :  "  The 
"  generic  name  usually  applied  to  the  Aborigines  of  the 
"  hni  country  of  Chota-Nagpore,  Mirzapore,  and  Rewah 
"  is  '  Coles  '  or  '  Koles.'  Europeans  apply  the  term  to  the 
"  Dra vidian  Oraons  as  weU  as  to  the  others,  but  perhaps 
"  erroneously.  It  is  difficult  to  say  to  which  tribes  the 
"  name  is  properly  applied,  for  most  of  them  have  other 
"  distinctive  names.  But  in  the  south  of  the  Chota-Nagpore 
"  country,  about  Singbhoom,  &c.,  it  is  certainly  applied  to 
"  the  '  Lurka  Coles,'  and  I  can  myself  testify  that  on  the 
"  Mirzapore-Jubbulpore  road,  the  Aborigines  are  called  by 
the  natives  Coles  or  Kolees,  which  they  volunteered  to 
"  explain  to  me  to  be  the  same  word  '  which  you  call 
"  Coolee.'  On  the  Bombay  side  again  a  very  numerous  class 
"  of  Aborigines  are  styled  Kolees.  In  the  Simla  hills  also, 
"  the  inferior  people  are  known  as  Kolees.  Altogether  I 
"  have  myself  little  doubt  that  the  ordinary  word  Coolee,  as 
"  applied  to  a  bearer  of  burdens  or  labourer,  is  the  same  word, 
"  and  that  in  short  it  is  the  word  generally  applied  by  the 
"  Northern  Indians  to  the  Aboriginal  tribes,  most  of  whom 
"  they  reduced  to  the  condition  of  Helots.  There  seems  to 
"  be  good  reason  to  suppose  that  the  original  form  of  the 

"  See  Colonel  Dalton's  article  "  The  Kols  of  Chota-Nagpore,"  in  the 
Supplement  to  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  vol.  XXXV, 
1887,  Part  II,  p.  154. 


"  word  was  '  Kola '  or '  Kolar.'  In  fact,  India  seems  to  have 
"  teen  known  to  the  ancients  (who  approached  it  coastwise 
"from  the  "West)  as  Oolara  or  Ooolee-land  {Asiatic  Re- 
"  searches,  vol.  IX)  and  the  people  as  Colaurians.  If  Kolar 
"be  the  original  form  of  Kolee,  it  would  seem  not  im- 
"  probable  thatj  as  in  the  mouths  of  some  tribes  by  dropping 
"  the  '  r '  it  becomes  Kola  or  Kolee,  so  in  the  mouths  of 
"  others  by  dropping  the  '  1 '  it  would  become  Koar,  Kaur, 
"  Koor,  Khar^  or  Khor,  a  form  which  would  embrace  a 
"  large  number  of  those  tribes  as  now  designated.  I  propose 
"  then  to  call  the  northern  tribes  Kolarian  or  Coolee 
"  Aborigines. 

"  One  may  see  frequent  allusion  to  Kolaries  or  CoUeriea 
"in  the  south  of  India.  It  appears  that  the  word  there 
"  used  is  properly  '  Kallar.'  In  the  Canarese  language,  the 
"  word  '  Kallar,'  it  seems,  simply  means  a  thief  or  robber, 
"  and  hence  some  of  the  predatory  Aborigines  of  the  hills, 
"  are  designated  Kallars  or  robbers,  just  as  the  thieves  of 
"  Central  Asia  are  called  '  Kazaks '  or  '  Cossacks.'  The  word 
"  is  applied  so  differently  from  that  of  Coolee,  that  there 
"  may  fairly  be  doubt  of  its  being  the  same.  But  the  subject 
"  is  worthy  of  further  inquiry,  and  if  it  prove  that  in  fact 
"  the  two  words  are  identical,  the  term  Coolee  or  Kolarian 
"  must  be  applied  to  the  Aboriginal  tribes  generally,  not  to 
"  one  division  of  them.  Meanwhile,  however,  I  apply  it  to 
"  the  Northern  tribes  only,  but  I  confess  I  have  misgivings 
"  whether  the  more  general  sense  may  not  prove  to  be  the 
"  true  one."2» 

^''  See  The  Ethnology  of  India,  by  Mr.  Justice  Campbell,  in  the  Supplement 
to  Paxt  II,  pp.  27,  28  of  vol.  XXXV  of  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of 

Compare  A  Comparative  Dictionary  of  the  Languages  of  India  and  High  Asia 
by  "W.  "W.  Hunter  ;  Dissertation,  pp.  25-27-  "  Sanskrit  literature  refers  to 
other  sections  of  the  Kol  race  under  such  names  as  Chol-as,  Kul-indas,  &c.  .  . . 
In  the  Asiatic  Society'' s  Journal  the  ancient  name  for  India  is  stated  to  have 
been  Kolaria,  and  turning  to  the  modem  map  of  India,  we  find  indications  of 


Sir  George  Campbell  appears  thus  to  be  rather  diffident 
as  to  the  propriety  of  his  selecting  the  term  Kolarian  and 
his  doubts  are  not  without  good  cause.  A  perusal  of  the 
arguments  of  Colonel  Wilford  will  confirm  them.  In  the 
twentieth  volume  of  the  Asiatic  Journal  of  Bengal  was 
published  "  A  comparative  Essay  on  the  Ancient  Geography 
of  India"  by  Colonel  Wilford,  in  which  we  read  on  pp. 
227  and  228  the  following  remarks :  "  The  oldest  name  of 
"  India,  that  we  know  of,  is  Colar,  which  prevailed  till  the 
"  arrival  of  the  followers  of  Brahma,  and  is  still  preserved 
"  by  the  numerous  tribes  of  Aborigines,  living  among 
"  woods,  and  mountains.     These  Aborigines  are  called  in  the 

the  race  in  every  province  from  Burmali  to  Malabar  :  in  the  Kols  of  Central 
India ;  Kolas  of  K^twar ;  the  Kolis,  inferior  husbandmen  and  a  landless  clan 
of  Gujarat ;  the  Kolis,  obscurely  mentioned  as  helot  cultivators  on  the  Simla 
range  ;  the  Kolitas  of  Northern  Bengal  and  Assam  ;  the  Kolami  of  Central 
India,  classed  with  the  Naikude,  &c. ,  in  my  vocabularies  ;  the  Kalars,  a 
robber  caste  in  the  Tamil  country ;  the  Kalars  of  Tinnevelly  :  in  the  Kolis 
of  Bombay  ;  in  the  names  of  the  Kolarun  river  in  Southern  India,  of  the 
Koel  river,  from  the  Chota  Nagpore  watershed,  of  the  Culinga  and  Koladyn 
rivers,  and  of  many  other  streams ;  in  Kulna,  a  district  in  Bengal ; 
Kulpac,  in  the  Nizam's  dominions  ;  Kulalpur,  in  the  Panjab  ;  Kulan  and 
Kola  Fort,  in  the  distant  north-west ;  in  Kulbunga,  town  and  district,  near 
the  Bombay  Presidency,  within,  I  believe,  the  territory  of  the  Nizam ;  and  to 
be  brief  in  such  names  as  the  following,  scattered  over  the  whole  length  and 
breadth  of  India, — names  which  the  reader  may  identify  in  a  moment  by 
referring  to  Dr.  Keith  Johnston's  index  to  his  Map  from  the  Royal  Atlas. 
Kuldah,  Kulteri,  Kulianpur  in  three  different  districts,  Kullavakurti,  Kul- 
lean,  KuUer-kaher,  Kulu  district,  Kullum,  Kullung  River,  KuUunji,  several 
Kullurs,  Kulpani,  Kulpi,  Kulra,  Kulsi,  Kolachi,  Kolapur  town  and  state, 
the  three  Kolars,  Kolaspui,  Kolbarea,  Koli,  Kolikod  (Calicut),  Cola  Bira, 
Colair,  Colgong,  Collum  (Kayan-kulam),  Colur,  and  Colombo  in  Ceylon.  I 
would  go  further,  and,  if  time  permitted,  could  philologically  prove  the 
connection  of  the  above  with  hundreds  of  other  names  and  places  in  regular 

I  am  afraid  that  something  more  than  time  would  have  been  required  by 
Sir  William  Hunter  for  proving  the  philological  connection  of  the  Kols 
with  the  Gaudian  Kolami,  with  the  Tamil  KaUar,  with  Kolikod  the  modern 
Calicut  or  Ksli-kodu,  with  Kulianpur  or  Kalyanapura,  not  to  mention 
many  others  of  the  above-quoted  names.  The  Royal  Atlas  of  Dr.  Keith 
Johnston  can  hardly  be  regarded  as  an  authority  with  respect  to  the  spelling 
of  Indian  places. 


*'  peninsula  to  this  day,  Colaris  and  Colairs,  and  in  the 
"north  of  India  Coks,  Coik  and  Coolies;  thus  it  seems, 
"that  the  radical  name  is  Cola.  This  appellation  of 
"  Colar  was  not  unknown  to  the  ancients ;  for  the  younger 
"Plutarch  says,  that  a  certain  person  called  Ganges,  was 
"  the  son  of  the  Indus  and  of  Bio-Pithusa,  a  Calaurian 
"  damsel,  who  through  grief,  threw  himself  into  the  river 
"  Chliarm,  which  after  him  was  called  Ganges ;  and  Chliarus 
"  is  probably  a  mistake  for  Calaurins,  or  the  Colarian 
"  river.  I  believe,  that  Bio-Pithus  is  the  name  of  the 
"  father  and  Sindhu  of  the  mother :  for  Dem-Pithu,  or 
"  Beo-Pithu,  is  worshipped  to  this  day  on  the  banks  of  the 
"  Sindhu,  a  female  deity.  The  etymology  of  Colar  is  pro- 
"  bably  out  of  our  reach  :  but  it  is  asserted  by  some  that  Cola., 
"  Coil,  or  Cail,  signify  a  woodlander,  exactly  like  Chael,  Gal, 
"  in  Great  Britain ;  and  the  etymological  progress  is  the  same. 
"  In  several  dialects  of  the  peninsula  Cadu,  is  a  forest,  and 
"  its  derivative  is  Cddil ;  from  which  striking  off  the  d 
"  remains  Cail."  ^' 

I  come  now  to  the  passage  in  Plutarch's  work  "On 
Rivers,"  which  has  originated  all  these  statements  about 
India's  ancient  name  Colaria.  Plutarch  gives  in  his  work 
some  legendary  accounts  of  twenty-five  rivers.    Three  among 

'•  The  article  to  which  Sir  George  Campbell  refers  when  quoting  vol.  IX 
oi  the  Asiatic  Sesearches  is  the  suggestive  "  Essay  on  theMagadha  Kings,"  by 
Captain  F.  "WiLford,  where  on  p.  92  we  read  :  "The offspring  of  Turvasu,  so 
far  from  settling  in  the  west,  is  declared,  in  the  Sarivansa,  to  have  settled  in 
the  southern  parts  of  India  ;  and  in  the  tenth  generation,  including  their 
Sire,  four  brothers  divided  the  peninsula  among  themselves.  Their  names 
were  Pandya,  Oerala,  Cola,  and  ChUa  :  and  this  division  obtains,  even  to  this 
day.  Cola  lived  in  the  northern  parts  of  the  peninsula,  and  his  descendants 
are  called  Coles,  and  Colters  to  this  day  :  and  they  conceive  themselves,  with 
much  probability,  to  be  the  aborigines  of  India,  to  which  they  give  the  name 
of  Cotter  or  Colara.  Hence,  we  read  in  Plutarch,  that  the  Ganges  was  called 
formerly  the  Calaurian  river,  and  the  same  author  mentions  a  Calaurian, 
or  Hindu,  and  a  handsome  damsel,  called  Diopithusa,  who  was  also  a  Calaa- 
rim,  C  native  of  India,  or  country  bordering  upon  the  Calaurian  river." 



these  are  Indian  streams :  the  Hydaspes,  Ganges  and 

The  Hydaspes  is  the  first  river  described.  Plutarch 
relates  that  a  certain  king  Hydaspes  had  a  daughter  Chry- 
sippe,  whom  Aphrodite  out  of  spite  caused  to  fall  in  love 
with  her  own  father.  She  was  for  this  offence  crucified  by 
the  order  of  her  father.  But,  these  calamities  so  upset 
Hydaspes  that  he  threw  himself  into  the  river  Indos,  which 
was  henceforward  called  Hydaspes. 

In  ancient  times  there  lived  a  youth  called  Indos,  who 
had  raped  Damasalkida,  a  daughter  of  the  king  Oxyalkos, 
while  she  was  celebrating  the  feast  of  Bakohos.  The  king, 
her  father,  pursued  him,  and  when  Indos  saw  all  escape  im- 
possible, he  plunged  into  the  river  Mausolos  rather  than 
expose  himself  to  the  king's  vengeance.  This  river  had 
been  so  called  after  Mausolos,  a  son  of  the  Sun,  but  from 
that  time  it  was  named  Indos  which  is  a  river  in  India  in  the 
country  of  the  Ichthyophages  or  Fish-eaters. 

The  story  of  the  Ganges  resembles  these  two.^'  It  is  as 
follows : — "  The  Ganges  is  a  river  of  India,  called  so  for  the 
following  reason.     The  nymph  Kalauria  bore  Indos  a  son  of 

^^  See  Plutarcli  riepl  iriyraixiiv  or  defluminibus.  The  twenty-five  rivers  are 
the  Hydaspea,  Ismenoa,  Hebros,  Ganges,  Phasis,  Arar,  Paktolos,  Lykormas, 
Maiandros,  Marsyas,  Strymon,  Sagaris,  Skamandros,  Tanais,  Thermodon, 
Nilos,  Eurotas,  Inachos,  Alpheios,  Euphrates,  Kaikos,  Acheloos,  Araxes, 
Tigris,  and  Indos. 

'^  See  Flutarchi  Chaeronensis  omnium  quae  extant  operum  {Tomi  duo), 
Gulielmo  Xylandro  interprete,  Lutetiae  Parisiorum,  1624.  At  the  end  of  the 
second  volume  is  printed  :  * '  TlKovrapx^v  irepi  irBrafj^uv  Kat  opuv  ftrojvvfiias  Kai 
Toiv  iv  avTois  evpuTKoi^evaiv. — Plutarchi  de  Fluviorum  et  Montium  nominihus, 
et  de  iis  quae  in  illis  inveniuntur,  interprete  Philippo  Jacobo  Maussaeo"  There 
we  read  in  vol.  II,  pp.  1151,  1152  : 

rtiyviis  T!ora)iis  itrrt  Trjs  'IvSlas,  tV  irposriyoplav  \a0iiv  Si'  ahlav  Toiaiirrji'. 
'IvSif  tIs  KaAavpia  vJfi(pT]  iyyivvi]iTiV  viiv  KaWei  Trepi$\eirTOl',  t^  Spo/ia  Ta.yyr)V. 
OStos  Kapit^apiiaas  ttj  fwjTpl  kwt'  &yvamv  crvpiyyivero  rri  AwinBotlffrj,  i  Se  /leB' 
ri/jifpas  irapa  ttjs  Tpo(pov  fiaSHv  t^v  aX^jBeiav,  Sia  \uTn;s  iirfpfioXiiv  ^avrhv  mii<f/ev 
eis  TroTa/jt-hv  XMapiv  KaXoiiievov,  &s  la"  avTOv  Tdyyris  jj.eTavo/j.icdr).  Maussacus 
translates  this  passage  as  follows  :  "  Ganges  fluvius  est  Indiae,  ita  vocatus 
hao  de  causa  :  Ex  Indo  Calauria  quaedam  virgo  genuit  filium  pulchritudine 
conspicuum  nomine  Gangem  :  qui  somno  vinoque  sepultus  cum  matre  Diopi- 


conspicuoua  beauty,  by  name  Oanges,  who,  when  inebriated, 
had  once  in  ignorance  connection  with  his  mother.  But 
when  he  had  learnt  on  a  subsequent  day  the  truth  from  his 
nurse,  he  threw  himself  through  excess  of  remorse  into  the 
river  Chliaros,  which  was  called  after  him  Granges."  The 
ancient  edition  of  Plutarch,  which  was  published  by 
Xy lander  at  Paris  in  1624,  contains  in  an  Appendix  at  the 
end,  the  treatise  On  Rivers.  It  was  edited,  translated  and 
annotated  by  Phil.  Jacob.  Maussaous.  In  its  text  occurs 
instead  of  the  correct  reading  S'eVtouo-?;  the  false  expres- 
sion Abo-TTiOova-ri  which  Maussacus  mistook  for  a  name, 
though  his  predecessors  the  learned  Natalis  a  Comitibus  and 
Tumebus  had  already  doubted  the  accuracy  of  the  textj  as 
Maussacus  himself  mentioned  in  a  note  which  is  quoted 
below.  Colonel  Wilford  unfortunately  accepted  the  wrong 
reading  and  built  on  it  a  new  theory.  According  to  Plutarch, 
so  says  the  Colonel,  Diopithiose  was  a  Calauxian  damsel, 
but  Wilford  himself  further  changes  Diopithuse  into  a  man 
Dio-Pithus   (for  Deva-Pithu  or  Deo-Pithu),  and  declares 

thuae  concubuit  per  inscitiam,  sed  interdiu  cum  a  mitrice  rei  veritatem  didi- 
cisset,  ob  dolorem  extremum  seipsum  coniecit  in  fiuvium  Chliaxum,  qui  ab 
eo  Grangis  nomen  assumpsit.' ' 

However,  in  the  6tli  volume  of  TlXovrapx^v  ^AtrotrTratrfiaTa  /cat  "^evSeirtypatpa 
edited  by  TV.  Dubner,  Paris,  1855,  and  in  tbe  e6ition  oi  Flutarchi  Ziiellus 
de  flwviis,  rec.  et  notis  instr.  End.  Hercher,  Lipsiae,  1857,  we  read : 
V6.'YYn^  iroTaixSi  itrrt  rrji  *lvSias  .  .  .  Ovros  Koprifiapiiffa^  rp  fiTjrpl  Kar^  &yvoiay 
iTvviyyevero,  T^  S'eirioiJo^  r&v  Tjfiepwv  irapa  T^s  rpoijtov  fiaOiov  t^v  aX^Oeiap  , 
^aurhv  ^^pt^ev  ets  TOTafxhv  XKiapoy  .  .  . 

We  read  already  on  p.  72  in  the  Appendix  to  the  edition  of  M  aussacus 
entitled ;  Plutarchi  Ubrorum  Ilfpl  iroTafiav  Philippi  Jac.  Maussaoi  emenda- 
tioneset  notae:  "  Minim  est  hoc  nomen  proprium  Diopithusae  uoatros  in- 
terpretes  exercitos  habuisse.  Natalis  a  Comitibus  sicco  pede  haec  transivit, 
quae  tamen  fida  interpretatione  opus  habebant.  Magnus  Tumebus  tanta 
est  usus  ciroumlocutione  in  vero  hoc  nomine  explicando,  ut  plane  eum  ab 
scope  aberasse  nemo  bonus  negare  audeat ;  qui  per  ebrietatem  (inquit)  inscienter 
matrem  divorum  quempiam  esse  existimantem,  cognovit.  TJt  concedamus 
Aioiri9oi5<rt)  hie  non  esse  nomen  proprium  tamen  Graecis  non  convenit  haec 
interpretatione  Latina,  vertendum  enim  esset  simpliciter,  Jovem  eum  esse 
eredentem,  sed  hoc  est  nugari,    AioTrieoiio-?)  nomen  verum  est  Diopithusae." 


Cohir  as  the  oldest  name  of  India  we  know  of.  That  theory, 
however,  must  now  be  abandoned,  and  with  the  disappearance 
of  Biopithuse  from  the  pages  of  Plutarch,  the  whole  edifice  of 
conjecture  so  ingeniously  raised  on  the  supposed  occurrence 
of  this  name,  must  faU.  to  the  ground ;  there  being  absolutely 
nothing  to  support  the  assumption  that  India  was  known  in 
the  earliest  times  as  the  Kolarian  Empire. 

Sir  George  Campbell  supported  Colonel  Wilford  by  stating 
that  India  "  seems  to  have  been  known  to  the  ancients  as 
Colara  or  Coolee  Land  and  the  people  as  Colaurians  "  and 
by  eventually  advocating  the  name  Colee  or  Kolarian  for  the 
aboriginal  tribes  of  India.  I  need  not  specially  mention 
that  the  dictionary  of  Greek  proper  names,  compiled  by  Dr. 
W.  Pape,  does  not  contain  Biopithuse  as  a  name,  though  it 
refers  to  the  nymph  Kalauria  and  the  river  Chliaros.^* 

I  had  here  in  Madras  at  my  disposal  only  the  antiquated 
edition  of  Xylander  printed  by  Antonius  Stephanus,  in  which 
the  reading  Biopithuse  occurs.  Though  doubting  its  accu- 
racy from  the  first,  I  was  not  prepared  to  emendate  the  text, 
for  besides  my  own  conviction  and  the  note  of  Maussacus,  I 
had  no  evidence  to  go  upon.  Later  on,  however,  I  consulted 
Dr.  Pape's  excellent  Dictionary  of  Greek  names  and  the 
fact  that  it  makes  no  mention  of  Diopithuse  confirmed  my 
suspicions.     To   ascertain  the  truth,  I  eventually  wrote  to 

'^^  The  Worterbuch  der  griechischen  Eigennnmen  von  Dr.  W.  Pape  gives 
Kalauria  as  the  name  of  a  nymph,  e.g.  on  p.  235  (third  edition) 
"Ganges,-')  S.-des  Indos  u.-der  Kalauria,  welcher  eich  in  den  Chliaroa 
Btiirzte,  wovon  dieeer  den  Namen  Ganges  erhielt,  Pb<t.  fluv.  4,  1  ;''  and  on 
p.  596  under  Kalauria;  "'Nymphe,  Gem.  des  Indos,  M.  des  Ganges, 
Plut.fltw.  4,  1." 

Kalauria  or  Kalaureia  is  the  well-known  island  with  the  famous  temple 
■of  Poseidon,  which  opened  a  safe  asylum  to  all  pursued.  Demosthenes 
when  hunted  down  by  the  Macedonians,  poisoned  himself  in  it.  The  island 
was  called  after  Kalauros,  a  son  of  Poseidon.  Kalauria  helonged  originally  to 
Apollo  who  had  exchanged  it  with  Poseidon  for  Delos.  Poseidon  is  therefore 
also  called  Kalam-eatcs,  Kalauria  in  contradistinction  to  Kalabria  is  some- 
times explained  as  ' '  land  of  peace  "  and  Kalauros  as  "  peaceful ' '  (Frederic) . 


friends  in  Europe  who  Jdndly  supplied  me  with  the  right 
reading  S'eTnova-r}  instead  of  Aiowodovarj. 

It  may  also  be  added  that,  according  to  Plutarch,  all  the 
rivers  on  which  he  comments  have  changed  their  original 
names  in  order  to  bear  the  one  by  which  they  were  afterwards 
generally  known.  Plutarch  refers  occasionally  to  previous 
authors  to  verify  his  accounts,  e.g.,  to  Kallisthenes,  Kai- 
maron,  Kleitophon,  Aristoteles,  and  others,  but  even  if  most 
of  the  works  he  quotes  had  not  been  lost,  it  is  doubtful 
whether  he  could  have  substantiated  his  statements.  The 
stories  about  the  Hydaspes  and  Indos  are  so  un-Indian 
and  so  mythical  that  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  try  to  explain 
the  report  concerning  the  Ganges.  Even  if  the  term 
Kalauria  were  an  adjective  derived  from  a  proper  name,  and 
Chliaros  were  a  mistake  for  Kalaurios,  there  is  nothing 
to  prove  that  Kalauria  should  be  identical  with  Indian,  not 
to  speak  of  the  boldness  of  deriving  from  it  Colar  or  Colara 
as  a  term  designating  India  in  ancient  times  ;  a  term  and 
a  signification  which  occur  nowhere  in  the  whole  classical 
literature.  I  am  quite  convinced  that  Kalauria  has  nothing 
to  do  with  the  Kols  of  Chota-Nagpore,  though  I  am  not  pre- 
pared to  venture  a  decided  conjecture  as  to  the  origin  of  the 
word  Kalauria  used  by  Plutarch.^* 

It  is  perhaps  a  mere  accident  that  the  Yamuna  which 
joins  the  Granga  or  Ganges  at  Prayaga  (Pratisthana,  the 
modem  Allahabad)  is  called  Kalindi,  the  daughter  of  Ka- 
linda,  for  she  springs  from  the  mountain  Kalinda,  or  is  accord- 

25  Herodotos  mentions  III,  38  and  97,  the  Indian  Kalatiai  or  Kalantiai 
who  ate  their  parents.  The  Brahman  Kalanos  (Kalyana)  who  accompanied 
Alexander  the  Great  is  well  known  for  burning  himself  alive.  I  only  mention 
these  names  as  they  resemble  somewhat  Kalauria.  I  need  hardly  add 
that  the  Greek  word  Ka\apis,  which  is  commonly  prononnced  K6\apis,  a  kind 
of  screech-owl,  has  nothing  in  common  with  this  subject. 

To  declare  Colara  as  a  name  of  India,  though  such  never  existed,  and 
to  derive  it  from  the  nymph  Kalauria  on  the  authority  of  the  younger 
Plutarch's  mythical  account  of  the  river  Ganges  appears  like  a  pun,  or 
like  what  a  Berliner  would  call  a  Kalauer. 


ing  to  others  a  daughter  of  the  Sun-god  Kalinda  who  is  in 
consequence  known  as  Kdlindlsu,  the  father  of  Yamuna,  while 
the  god  Yama  is  called  Kalmd'mdara,  the  brother  of  Yamuna. 
I  mention  this  circumstance  as  Plutarch  gives  to  Indos  the 
name  of  Mausolos  after  Mausolos,  the  son  of  the  Sun. 

Another  peculiar  coincidence  is  that  the  Kali  or  Black 
Ganga,  which  is  also  known  as  Mandakiifi,  has  in  its  upper 
course  some  famous  warm  springs  and  that  Chliaros  in  Greek 
means  lukewarm.  A  second  Mandakini  rises  on  the  Kdlan- 
jara  mountain,  on  whose  top  the  lake  of  the  gods  is  situated. 

It  is  somewhat  astonishing  that  Colonel  Wilford  without 
giving  any  reasons  explained  Chliaros  as  a  mistake  for 
Calaurius.  He  could  as  weU.  have  conjectured  Chliara  for 
Kalauria.  All  editions,  however,  of  Plutarch,  the  modem 
emendated  as  well  as  the  old  antiquated,  read  Kalauria  and 
Chliaros  as  proper-names.^^ 

The  ancient  inhabitants  of  the  country  round  Mathura 
in  North  India  are  also  called  Kalars,  but  this  name  has 
not  yet  been  explained  and  has  presumably  no  connection 
with  the  Kalauria  nymphe  of  Plutarch. 

Modem  writers  have  often  identified  the  Kolis  and  the 
Kolarees  or  Colleries  of  South  India  with  the  Kols.  It  is 
a  peculiar  circumstance  that,  except  by  the  Hos  or  Larka- 
Kols,  the  term  Kol  is  not  used  by  the  so-called  Kolarians, 
who  include  the  Mundas,  Santals,  Korwas,  Juangs,  and  a 
few  other  tribes.^'  The  Kolis  are,  according  to  my  opinion, 
Gaudians,  and  must  be  distinguished  from  those  races  now 

^  For  Edlindi  occurs  also  Kalindi,  a  wrong  formation.  Balarama  is  also 
caXiei.  Kilinrli-Knrsma,  or  Ealindi-bhedana  for  diverting  the  Yamuna  by 
his  ploughshare  into  a  new  bed  in  the  Vrndavana-forest.  Manddkitil  is  also 
the  name  of  the  Ganga  of  the  heavens.  About  this  river  see  Chr.  Lassen's 
Indische  Alterth.,  vol.  I,  pp.  64-66,  where  this  question  is  fully  discussed. 

"  See  Colonel  Dalton's  Ethnology  of  Bengal,  p.  178  :  "  The  Hos  are  the 
only  branch  of  the  Kols  that  has  preserved  a  national  appellation."  Larlca. 
means  fighter.  About  the  Kolarians  conoult  Mr.  J.  F.  Hewitt's  "Notes  on 
the  early  History  of  Northern  India,"  in  the  Journal  of  the  JR.  A.  Society, 
vol.  XX,  pp.  321-363. 


generally  described  as  Kols.  Besides,  our  knowledge  of  this 
people  is  stiU  very  limited,  and  it  would  be  Tenturesome  to 
make  decided  statements  as  to  their  origin.  Though  differing 
from  the  Grauda-Dravidians  in  language,  which  must  be 
regarded  as  a  very  important  test,  they  nevertheless  inter- 
marry occasionally  with  them,  a  circumstance  which  on 
the  other  hand  tends  to  indicate  some  intimate  connection 
between  them. 

The  word  Kuli  is  a  common  Gauda-Dravidian  term 
which  signifies  hire,  and  is  eventually  also  applied  to  the 
person  who  is  hired.  A  hireling  or  servant  is  thus  called 
a  Kuli.  The  name  Kol  is  a  totally  distinct  word.  The 
now  common  term  Kuli  started  from  the  Eastern  coast  of 
India,  where  the  principal  English  factories  such  as  Madras 
were  situated,  and  whence  in  course  of  time  the  English 
commenced  to  lay  the  foundation  of  their  Indian  Empire 
in  the  days  of  Olive. ^* 

The  Kolarees  or  CoUeries  represent  the  well-known 
Xallas,  the  dreaded  thief  tribe,  who  are  mostly  dependents  of 

28  Compare  Wilson's  Glossary,  p.  301 :  "  Ktdi,  Coolee,  (Tam.  a,_6i9,  Mai. 
^aTi.,  Kan.  *«0,  Tel.  ^8,  Beng.  ^r^,  Hind.  ,^),  Daily  hire  or  wages : 

a  day  labourer,  a  Cooh/ :  (the  word  is  originally  Tamil,  whence  it  spread  into 
the  other  languages  :  in  TTpper  India  it  hears  only  its  second  and  apparently 
suhsidiary  meaning  :  it  appears  as  Culialu,  as  the  term  for  hired  labourers, 
in  Tulava — Buchanan.)"  Kuliyalu  is  one  of  the  Kanarese  terms  for  hireling 
like  the  Telugu  Kiiligaiu. 

In  Colonel  Tula's  and  Dr.  BurneU's  Glossary  of  Anglo-Indian  Colloquial 
Words  and  Phrases,  p.  192,  an  attempt  is  made  to  derive  the  term  Euli  from 
Koli,  hut  it  is  notwithstanding  admitted:  "Though  this  explanation  of 
the  general  use  of  the  term  Gooly  (from  Koli)  is  the  most  probable,  the 
matter  is  perplexed  by  other  facts  -which  it  is  difiBcult  to  trace  to  the  same 
origin.  Thus  in  S.  India,  there  is  a  Tamil  word  kuli  in  conunon  use, 
signifying  '  hire '  or  '  wages, '  which  "Wilson  indeed  regards  as  the  true  origin 
of  Cooly.  Also  in  both  Oriental  and  Osmanli  Tuxtish  Kol  is  a  word  for  a 
slave,  whilst  in  the  latter  also  Kukh  means  '  a  male  slave,  a  bondsman ' 
{SedLuse).  Khol  is  in  Tibetan  also  a  word  for  servant  or  slave  (Note  from 
A.  Schiefner).  The  famUiar  use  of  Cooly  has  extended  to  the  Straits  Settle- 
ments, Java  and  China,  as  weU  as  to  all  tropical  and  sub-tropical  colonies, 
whether  English  or  foreign." 


the  Eaja  of  Pudukota.  A  single  individual  of  this  clan 
is  called  a  Kalian,  of  which  word  Kallar  is  the  plural. ^^ 

Enough  has  been  already  adduced  to  prove  that  the 
Kalauria  nymphe  of  Plutarch  does  not  refer  to  an  ancient 
name  of  India,  that  the  so-called  Colaria  is  a  purely  imag- 
inary appellation,  based  in  part  on  a  badly  pronounced  and 
distorted  plural  formation  of  the  name  of  the  Kallar,  or  on 
Kolarees,  and  that,  though  the  term  Kolarian  may  be  still 
applied  to  the  Kol  race,  it  must  be  clearly  understood  that 
all  the  wild  philological  vagaries  concerning  the  origin  and 
antiquity  of  this  expression  ought  to  be  abandoned.  Yet,  the 
history  of  the  fictitious  term  Colaria  provides  us  on  the  other 
hand  with  an  instructive  example  how  by  a  concatenation  of 
conjectures  and  conclusions  a  new  theory  can  be  successfully 
started  and  find  acceptance  among  scholars  of  reputation. 
It  has  thus  now  become  a  fashion  to  ascribe  all  ancient 
monuments  with  which  the  Kolis,  Kolas  and  other  kindred 
tribes  can  be  connected  with  the  so-called  Kolarians,  whose 
original  home  and  early  history  are  shrouded  in  mysterious 
darkness,  who,  if  we  can  trust  reliable  information,  do  not 
even  use  the  term  Kol  as  a  tribal  name,  and  who,  so  far  as 
it  is  known,  do  not  claim  as  their  own  the  scattered  remains 
in  Northern  India,  which  modem  writers  are  so  fond  of 
ascribing  to  them. 

I  now  proceed  to  discuss  in  detail  the  principal  tribes 
whom  I  regard  as  representatives  of  the  Gaudian  race.  The 
linguistic  and  ethnological  connection  of  these  clans  has 
in  most  instances  been  generally  admitted  by  competent 
scholars,  yet,  their  close  relationship  has,  so  far  as  I  am 
aware,  not  hitherto  been  so  distinctly  stated. 

I  shall  begin  with  the  Kolis,  Kolas,  and  tribes  kindred, 
pass  on  to  the  Gonds  and  their  clansmen,  then  notice  the 

^'  It  is  doubtful  whether  Kalian  meant  originally  a  thief,  or  simply  a  man 
of  the  Kalian  trihe  who,  excelling  in  thieving  accomplishments,  imparted  to 
his  trihal  name  the  meaning  of  thief.    I  recur  to  this  suhject  on  pp.  267 — 60. 


Kodagas,  Koragas,  afterwards  consider  the  position  of  the 
Todaa  and  Kotas,  and  end  with  a  survey  of  the  Kurubaa 
or  Kurumbas  in  their  various  ramifications. 


On  the  Kolis  (Kulis),  Kolas. 

The  Kolis  and  Kolas  have  already  been  mentioned  in 
the  previous  chapter.  Sanskrit  works  contain  their  name 
in  connection  generally  with  Pandya,  Kerala  and  Cola,  the 
sons  of  Akrida  and  descendants  of  I>usyanta.  The  term 
Koli  occurs  in  Kolisarpah,  instead  of  which  the  manuscript 
used  by  M.  Langlois  contained  probably  Kolah  Sarpah  or 
Kolasarpah,  as  he  translates  the  passage  by  :  "  les  Colas,  les 
Sarpas."  The  Kolis  appear  likewise  in  Sanskrit  inscriptions. 
The  name  of  the  Kolas  can  be  traced  in  that  of  the  country 
Kolanca,  which  has,  according  to  the  Sabdaratnavali,  Kanya- 
kubja  as  its  capital,  or  which,  according  to  Horace  Haymaa 
Wilson,  is  identical  with  Kalinga. 

The  word  Kola  forms  also  part  of  Sanskrit  names  of 
various  peoples,  plants,  countries  and  mountains,  as  of 
Kolagiri,  KoUagiri,  Kolahala,  Kollaka  and  Kolvagiri,  &c^ 
We  meet  it  even  in  South-Indian  names  of  places,  e.g.,  ia 
Kolam,  Kolanadu,  Kolattanadu  and  others. 

I  regard  the  name  Cola  or  Coda  (in  Telugu  and  Kanarese- 
Cola,  and  in  Tamil  and  Malayalam  Cola)  as  a  modification 
of  the  word  Kola.  It  is  a  remarkable  historical  fact  that 
the  Colas  and  Pandyas  were  as  a  rule  rival  kings  who- 
fought  continually  against  each  other.  With  the  various 
formations  of  the  terms  Kola,  Cola,  and  Coda  may  be  com- 
pared those  of  Kera,  Cera  and  Ceda.  The  expressions  Cera 
and  Kongu  are  occasionally  used  identically. 

The  first  syllable  ko  in  Kola  and  Koli  indicates  the 
mountain  home,  while  the  second  syllable  la  or  li  intimates 



the  particular  tribal  distinction.     The  interchange  between 
/  and  r  produces  Kori  (Kohri)  as  a  variation  of  Koli.^" 

The  Kolis  and  Kolas,  as  has  already  been  pointed  out, 
should  be  distinguished  from  the  so-called  Kolarian  Kols. 
In  consequence  of  the  near  relation  of  the  Kolis  to  the 
Bhils  and  Gronds,  hardly  any  doubt  can  be  entertained  about 
their  belonging  to  the  Graudian  branch  of  the  Grauda-Dra- 
vidians.  The  establishment  of  this  ancient  kinship  is  an 
important  fact.     It  severs  the  connection  between  the  Kolis 

3"  KnlaTica  means  originally  a  country  adjoining  Kola.  The  late  Mr.  C. 
P.  Brown  explained  Koladesamu,  r*e)"i^^Ai,  as  the  long  country,  which 
interpretation  ia  obviously  erroneous  when  applied  to  the  Sanskrit  word 

Kolagiri  is  a  mountain  in  Southern  India.  The  commentator  Malli- 
natha  is  surnamed  Kolagiri.  The  Sabhdparva  says  in  Slokall71 :  "  Krtsnam 
KOlagirim  caiva  Surabhipattanam  tatha."  The  KoUagiri  occurs  in  Varaha- 
mihira's  Brhatsamhitd,  XIV,  13  : 

Karnata  -  Mahatavi-CitrakQta  -  Nasiky  a  -  KoUagiri  -  Colah 


The  KauUagireyas  fought  according  to  the  ASvamSdha  with  Ar j  una  : 

Arcitah  prayayau  hhflmau  daksinam  salilarnavam 

Tatrapi  Dravidair  Andhrair  Audrair  Mahisakair  api. 

Tatha  KauUagireyaisca  yuddham  asU  Kirltinah. 
About  Kolahala  compare  G-eneral   Sir  A.  Cunningham's   Arch(2ological 
Survey  of  India,  vol.  VIII,  pp.  123,  125. 

Compare  what  is  said  about  the  town  Kollagira  in  the  Indian  Antiquary, 
vol.  XIV,  p.  23,  note  22:  "it  appears  that  KoUagii-a  was  another  name 
of  KoUapura  or  Kolhapur."  See  ibidem,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  209,  210  in  the 
article  "The  Geography  of  Ibn  Batuta's  Indian  Travels,"  by  Col.  H. 
Yule :  "  The  Koil  prince  must  be  the  Kola-tiri  or  Cherakal  Raja,  whose 
kingdom  was  called  Kola-ndda."  About  Kolatta-nddu,  the  district  about 
Tellicherry,  see  Indian  Antiquary, -vol.  VIXI,  pp.  115,  146.  Compare  also 
Dr.  Gundert's  Malayalam  and  English  Dictionary,  p.  318,  under  Kolani :  "  4. 
North  Malabar,  subject  to  Kolattiri  or  Kolaswarupam." 

About  the  Cera  or  Kotigu  kings  confer  among  others  the  Indian  Anti- 
quary, vol.  II,  pp.  155,  271  ;  vol.  V,  pp.  13.1-140  ;  vol.  VI,  pp.  99-103. 

About  the  change  of  the  I  into  r  in  words  like  KoU  compare  General  Sir 
A.  Cunningham's  Arehaologieal  Survey  of  India,  vol.  XI,  p.  101  :  "  I  paid 
a  visit  to  the  old  site  of  Eoron,  or  Kordwa-dih,  because  the  people  agreed  in 
stating  that  the  old  name  of  the  place  was  Kolpur,  which  I  thought  might 
perhaps  be  connected  with  the  old  city  of  Koli,  the  birth-place  of  Maj^adevi. 
But .  .  the  position  of  Eorondih  ...  is  much  too  distant  to  be  identified  with 
that  of  Koli."  Compare  also  the  late  Mr.  John  A.  C.  Boswell's  Manual  of 
the  Nellore  District,  p.  157  ;  "The  Yerukalas  in  this  district  state  that  their 
tribe  name  in  their  own  language  is  Eurru,  also  Kola." 


and  Kols,  whicli  is  still  occasionally  asserted  to  exist  and  to 
which  I  have  repeatedly  alluded. 

The  Kolis  appear  originally  as  mountaineers,  but  after- 
wards descending  to  the  plains,  some  settled  down  as  agri- 
culturists, while  many  others  selecting  the  seashore  became 
fishermen  and  sailors.'^ 

The  Koli  mountaineers  were  not  long  ago  the  guardians 
of  the  hill-passes,  especially  of  those  in  the  Ajanta  range  and 
in  the  Western  Ghats.  Their  ancient  position  as  lords  of  the 
mountains  is  to  this   day  certified  by   the   fact  that  the 

''  See  C.  Lassen's  Indische  AUerthtimskimde,  vol.  I,  p.  137  (or  108): 
"  Bhilla  sitzen  hier  nooh  in  dem  Granzgebirge  naoh  Malva,  Eajputana  und 
siidliclier  ;  ein  grosser  Theil  der  Bevolkerung  besteht  aus  einem  andern 
ursprunglich  ahnliohen  Volke,  den  Kuli  {Kola) ,  welches  aber  Brahmanisohe 
Sitten  dem  grossem  Theile  nach  augenommen  hat."  Compare  further  Eev. 
M.  A.  Sherring's  Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  II,  pp.  307-316. 

Sir  George  Campbell  remarks  in  his  Ethnology  of  India  about  the  Koolens 
on  pp.  42-45  as  follows  :  "  I  find,  however,  that  the  opinion  of  those  quali- 
fied to  judge  seems  to  tend  to  the  belief  that  there  is  no  essential  difference 
between  the  two  tribes  (the  Koolees  and  Bheels) .  Forbes  in  his  Eas  Mala  says . 
'  Koolees  or  Bheels,  for  though  the  former  would  resent  the  classification,  the 
distinctions  between  them  need  not  be  here  noticed.'  Captain  Probyn  says  : 
'  I  think  there  is  no  actual  difference  between  Koolees  and  Bheels.  Their 
religion  ia  the  same.'  Mr.  Ashburner  :  '  There  is  no  real  difference  between 
Bheels  and  Koolees  ;  their  habits,  physiognomy  and  mode  of  life  are  the 
same,  modified  by  local  circumstances.'  And  the  Rev.  Mr.  Duulop  Moore 
says  :  '  Koolees  frequently  marry  Bheel  wives.'  Other  authorities,  however, 
say  that  they  do  not  intermarry.  They  both  seem  to  claim  a  northern  and 
not  a  southern  origin,  pointing  to  the  hills  of  Eajpootana  and  the  north 
of  Goozerat.  The  Bheels  say  that  they  were  originally  called  Kaiyos  ;^  Sir 
John  Malcolm  says  that  they  are  related  to  the  Meeuas  of  Eajpootana,  and 
once  ruled  in  the  Jeypore  country.  Forbes  again  teUs  us  that  the  Koolees 
were  originally  called  Mairs,  while  in  Eajpootana,  Col.  Tod  speaks  of  Maira 
or  Meenas  as  one  race  .  .  .  Though  probably  in  the  main  of  the  same  class 
and  similar  origin,  the  Koolees  and  Bheels  are  now  quite  distinct  tribes,  and 
there  is  this  considerable  difference  that  the  Koolees  have  come  much  more 
into  contact  with  Aryan  blood  civilization  .  . .  The  Koolees  are  the  Abori- 
gines of  Goozerat  (where  they  now  live  in  considerable  number),  and  of 
the  hills  adjoining  that  Province.  The  hills  east  of  Goozerat  are  called 
<  Kolwan  '  and  seem  to  be  the  property  of  Koolee  tribes  . .  .  The  Bheels  are 
the  proper  possessors  of  the  hills  farther  in  the  interior  and  east  of  the 
Koolees  .  .  .  The  Koolees  seem  to  be  scattered  down  the  Coast  country 
nearly  as  far  as  Goa,  and  north  again  into  the  '  Thurr  '  and  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Scinde.   While  the  wUder  Koolee*  of  the  hills  are  like  the  Bheela, 


famous  sanctuary  at  Mahabalesvara  is  under  the  hereditary 
wardenship  of  Kolis. 

Many  shrines  throughout  India  are  associated  with  the 
lowest  classes  of  the  population,  as  we  have  seen,  when 
speaking  of  the  temples  at  Melkota,  Puri  and  Trevandrum. 
The  sanctuary  at  Mahabalesvara  over  a  spring  which  is  sup- 
posed to  he  the  source  of  the  Krishna,  though  said  to  have 
been  founded  by  a  Sattara  Brahman,  named  Anagada,  is 
under  the  hereditary  superintendence  of  a  Koli  family,  and 
the  chief  official  in  charge  is  a  Koli.  Such  a  Koli  is  called 
Gangaputra,  and  whatever  offerings  a  worshipper  makes 
after  bathing  form  the  perquisite  of  the  Kolis  and  are  taken 
by  them.  "At  the  temple  of  Mahabalesvara  also,"  thus 
writes  the  Hon.  Visvanath  Narayan  Mandlick,  "  the  Kolis 
"  hold  a  hereditary  position,  and  the  Guravas,  who  worship 
"  the  Linga  in  that  temple,  appear  more  closely  allied  to  the 
"  hill  tribes  than  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  plains ;  they  (i.e., 
"  the  Guravas)  have,  however,  no  connection  with  the  shrine 
"  of  the  Krishnd,  where  the  Kolis  alone  are  the  principal 

the  mass  of  more  civilised  Koolees  are  said  to  be  not  only  fairer  and  more 
Caucasian  in  feature,  but  also  more  sly  and  cunning  and  less  truthful  .  . 
The  wilder  tribes  of  the  race  are  stiU  predatory,  and  Forbes  mentions  the 
Koolees  as  by  far  the  most  numerous  of  the  arm-bearing  castes  who  in 
former  days,  living  in  the  hills  between  Goo3erat  and  Rajpootana,  disturbed 
the  country.  He  describes  them  as  of  diminutive  stature,  with  eyes  which 
bore  an  expression  of  liveliness  and  cunning,  clothes  few,  arms  bows  and 
arrows,  habits  swift  and  active,  bold  in  assault,  but  rapid  in  flying  to  the 
jungles,  independent  in  spirit,  robbers,  averse  to  industry,  addicted  to 
drunkenness,  and  quarrelsome  when  intoxicated  ;  formidable  in  anarchy, 
but  incapable  of  uniting  among  themselves.  This  description  seems  exceed- 
ingly well  to  apply  to  the  wild  Bheels  of  modem  days,  whom  indeed  Forbes 
classes  with  the  Koolees  . .  .  Lassen  in  his  map  places  Koolees  (Kolas  he  calls 
them)  in  the  centre  of  Kattywar  .  .  .  The  Kolees  of  the  Simla  hiUs  and 
Domes  of  Kumaon  are  merely  inferior  castes  living  among  the  general 

Compare  the  Gazetteer  of  Aurangahad,  Bombay  1884,  p.  280  :  "The  Kolis 
belong  to  the  aborigines,  and  are  of  low  but  respectable  caste.  They  are 
divided  into  the  Kolis  of  the  hiUy  countries,  and  the  Kolis  of  the  plains. 
They  are  also  arranged  in  separate  tribes,  and  were  formerly  very  trouble- 
some. Several  tribes  of  Kolis  guarded  the  passes  of  the  Ajanta  range  imder 
their  own  N&iks,  while  others  attached  themselves  to  the  Bhils  ;  but  the  majo- 
rity have  long  settled  down  to  peaceful  callings,  and  the  land-holding  Kolis 


"  officers  in  charge."  ^^  The  origin  of  the  famous  Mahaba- 
leSvara  temple  is  ascribed  to  the  Paulastya  Ravana.  He 
compelled  Siva,  so  runs  the  tradition,  by  his  severe  penance 
on  the  mountain  Kailasa,  to  surrender  to  him  his  Prdna 
Linga.  The  terrified  gods  tried  every  means  to  regain  it,  but 
their  attempts  were  fruitless.  At  last  Visnu  raised  his  Cakra 
to  prevent  the  sun-rays  from  descending  to  the  earth,  and 
Havana,  who  was  then  at  Grokarna,  believing  that  the  sun 
was  setting  prepared  to  perform  his  Sandhyavandanam. 
But  the  Prdna  Linga,  which  he  carried  in  his  hand,  prevented 
him  from  performing  properly  his  worship.  He,  therefore, 
requested  Gampati  to  take  temporary  charge  of  the  Linga. 
The  god  assented,  but  pretending  that  the  Linga  was  too  heavy 
placed  it  on  the  ground.  Once  there,  it  remained  fixed  in 
spite  of  all  the  attempts  of  the  Eaksasa  to  remove  it.  When 
trying  for  the  fifth  time  he  cried  as  his  strength  was 
failing :  "  0  Mahabala,"  0  great  power !  which  expression 
is  said  to  have  given  the  name  to  the  place. '^ 

deny  all  affinity  with,  those  of  the  hills.  In  the  village  establishment,  the 
Koli  is  most  generally  associated  with  the  occupation  of  a  water-carrier,  and 
the  Kunhi  drinks  water  from,  his  hands.  He  is  known  hy  his  ehumli,  or 
twisted  cloth  which  he  wears  on  his  head  in  order  to  rest  the  waterpot ;  but 
he  is  often  a  good  farmer,  or  is  engaged  as  a  musician,  handicraftsman, 
weaver,  palanquin  bearer,  fisher,  labourer  .  . .  They  use  meat,  drink  spirits, 
bury  their  dead,  worship  KhandobS,,  Bairob4,  and  Bhavini,  and  employ 
Brihmiins  for  religious  ceremonies,  but  have  also  priests  of  their  own." 
See  Mstorical  and  Descriptive  Sketch  of  S.  H.  theMmm's  Dominions,  compiled 
by  Syed  Hossain  Bilgrami,  b.a,,  and  C.  Willmott,  Bombay,  1883,  vol.  I,  p. 
310  :  "  At  one  time  they  (the  Kolis)  acted  as  guards  in  the  hiU  passes  on  the 
northern  frontier  and  in  the  Ajanta  hills  ;  there  is  a  tribe  of  KoUs  who  had 
charge  of  the  Ghaut  passes."  The  Kambali  Kurumbas  make  and  wear 
chamlis  (kambalis)  in  the  same  manner ;  see  p.  229,  n.  107. 

I  agree  with  Sir  George  Campbell  so  far  as  their  relationship  with  the 
Bhils  is  concerned,  the  latter  I  have  proved  to  be  Dravidians,   see  pp.  19, 


^''  See  "  The  Shrine  of  the  Kiver  Krishna  at  the  Village  of  Mahibale^- 
vara,"  by  E&o  S&heb  Vishvanlth  NSrayan  Mandlick  in  the  Journal  of  the 
Bombay  Branch  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  vol.  IX,  pp.  250-261. 

'3  See  ibidem,  pp.  257,  268.  Compare  also  Areheeological  Survey  of  India, 
vol.  VIII,  pp.  143,  1*4,  about  Havana's  connection  with  the  linga  of 
"  Mahadeo  EavaneSvara. " 


The  conneotion  of  the  ancient  hill  tribes  with  many  cele- 
brated Indian  shrines  is  also  admitted  by  the  Hon.  ViSvanath 
Narayan  Mandlick.  "  The  above  tradition  of  Gokarna,"  he 
says,  "  points  out  to  the  origin  of  these  places  of  Linga  worship 
"  by  the  influence  of,  if  not  amongst,  the  wild  tribes  of  the 
"  mountains  of  whom  Eavana  is  a  fair  representative.  The 
**  actual  position  of  the  Kolis  at  the  temples  of  the  Krishna 
"  and  also  at  Mahabalesvara,  appears  to  confirm  the  above 
"  conclusion.  The  serpent  is  connected  with  both  these 
"  temples,  and  from  the  Linga  temples  he  seems  to  be  quite 
"  inseparable.  In  the  latter  he  is  represented  as  being  coiled 
"  round  the  Linga,  while  in  the  temple  of  the  Krishna,  a  living 
"  one  is  supposed  to  be  guarding  its  sources."  ^* 

The  most  accurate  description  of  the  Kolis  has  been 
written  by  Captain  A.  Macintosh,  to  whose  account  we 
owe,  in  fact,  the  greater  part  of  our  information  about 
these  people.  Yet,  he  is  compelled  to  admit :  "  We  cannot 
"  expect  to  glean  much  authentic  information  of  an  historical 
"  description  from  an  ignorant  and  unlettered  people  like  the 
"  KoKs.  The  few  traditions  they  possess  relative  to  their  first 
"  settlement  in  their  present  locations  and  of   subsequent 

Read  also  Dr.  Ft.  Buchanan's  Journey  from  Madras  through  the  countries  of 
Mysore,  Canara  and  Malabar,  second  edition,  vol.  II,  p.  316.  "  Gaukarna,  or 
the  cow's  horn  (?),  is  a  place  of  great  note  among  the  Brahmans,  owing  to  a 
celebrated  image  of  Siva  called  Mahabaleswara.  The  image  is  said  to  have 
been  brought  from  the  mountain  Coila  by  Eavana,  king  of  Lanca.  He 
wished  to  carry  it  to  his  capital ;  but  ha^-ing  put  it  down  here,  the  idol 
oeoame  fixed  in  the  place,  where  it  stands  to  this  day." 

*'  The  Kanara  people  regard  Gokarna  as  holier  than  Benares  ;  for  they 

Gokarnam  ca  mahakaSI  viSvanatho  mahabalah 
Kctitlrtham  oa  Gangayah  simiidram  adhikam  phalam  ;  " 
according  to  the  Journal  of  the  Bombay  Royal  Asiatic,  vol.  IX,  p.  258. 
Compare  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  247,  248,  Dr.  J.  Gerson 
da  Cunha's  account  of  the  legend  concerning  the  linga  of  Wdlukesvara, 
the  present  Malabar  Hill,  with  which  liiga  the  Kolis  seem  also  to  be  con- 
nected :  ' '  The  Kolis,  who,  as  wiU  be  shown  hereafter,  were  the  original 
inhabitants  of  Bombay,  pay  special  devotion  to  this  linya  ....  (their) 
principal  quarter  in  the  whole  Konkan,  I  suppose,  is  Kulftba." 


"  events  until  within  the  last  century  appear  to  be  involved  in 
"  much  obscurity  and  confusion."  The  late  Mr.  Alexander 
Kinloch  Forbes  mentions  in  his  Rds  Maid  the  legendary  des- 
cent of  the  Kolis  from  YuvanaSva,  the  father  of  Mandhatr." 
Captain  Macintosli  repeatedly  mentions  in  his  Account 
the  great  veneration  in  which  the  Kolis  hold  the  well-known 

^  See  "  An  Account  of  the  Tribe  of  the  Mhadeo  Kolies,"  by  Captain  A. 
Macintosh,  in  the  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science,  vol.  V.,  pp. 
71-112,  238-279;  compare  also /»!ija«  Antiqunry,  vol.  II,  p.  154  ;  vol.  Ill, 
pp.  76,  77, 126,  127,  186-196,  222,  224,  227,  228,  248  ;  vol.  V,  p.  8,  and  Sir 
G.  Campbell's  Ethnology  of  India  in  the  Appendix  to  vol.  XXXV,  of  the 
Journalof  the  Asiatic  Society  oj  Bengal,  pp.  46,  53,  123,  125. 

In  the  Rds  Mala,  London,  1878,  pp.  78-79,  we  read  :  "  A  similar  fabulous 
descent  is  given  to  the  Koolees  from  Youwanashwa,  the  father  of  Mandhata 
Raja.  Their  ancestor,  Koolee,  was  brought  up  by  a  sage  in  the  forest,  and 
always  led  a  jungle  life,  "whence  it  happened,  as  the  bard  says,  that  his  descen- 
dants, though  in  the  towns  they  are  of  little  importance,  are  lions  %n  the  jungle. 
The  Koolees  lived  for  a  long  time  on  the  sea-shore,  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  Indus,  but  they  were  removed  to  the  country  about  the  Null  by  the  god- 
dess Hinglaz,  and  brought  with  them  the  earth-nut  called  '  beerd,'  which 
even  in  famine  does  not  fail.  They  were  called  at  this  time  Mairs,  as  well 
as  Koolees,  and  Sonung  Mair  was  their  leader.  He  left  twelve  sons,  each  of 
whom  became  the  head  of  a  clan  ...  In  these  times,  says  the  bard,  there 
was  not  so  great  a  population  in  Goozerat,  but  there  was  much  forest,  and 
the  Bheels  and  Koolees  lived  in  security.  They  were  doubtless  then,  as  now, 
hereditary  and  professional  plunderers,  '  soldiers  of  the  night, '  as  they 
describe  themselves.  Raja  Kurun  Solunkee  is  the  first  ruler  of  Goozerat  on 
record  who  devoted  his  attention  to  putting  a  curb  upon  these  wild  tribes." 

Captain  Macintosh  derived  the  term  Kiili  from  the  Koli  tribe.  He  writes 
in  a  note  on  p.  71 :  "On  a  former  occasion,  I  ventured  to  derive  the  term 
Cooly,  applied  by  us  to  porters,  labourers  or  persons  who  work  for  hire,  in 
the  following  manner — as  the  fishermen,  boatmen,  and  many  of  the  common 
labourers,  at  Bombay,  and  along  the  coast,  are  Kolies,  the  term  Cooly  may 
have  originated  among  the  English  at  Bombay.  A  passenger  coming 
ashore,  when  a  ship  arrived  from  Europe,  might  have  wished  to  give  a  box 
or  package  in  charge  to  a  native  (probably  a  person  of  rank  or  caste) ;  he 
would  say,  or  a  servant  in  attendance  might  say,  that  he  would  fetch  a 
Koly ,  or  a  certain  number  of  Kolies,  to  take  '  master' s  baggage '  to  the  shore. 
Thus  the  term  would  have  become  familiar,  and,  in  the  course  of  time, 
would  be  indiscriminately  applied  to  all  porters  or  labourers,  and  soon 
have  spread  among  the  few  English  settled  in  India  in  those  days." 

In  the  above-mentioned  Glossary  of  Anglo-Indian  Colloquial  Words  and 
Phrases  is  on  p,  192  the  expression  Cooli/  also  connected  with  the  Kolis  : 
"The  origin  of  the  word  appears  to  have  been  a  nomen  gentile,  the  name 
(Koll)  of  a  race  or  caste  in  Western  India,  who  have  long  performed  such 
offices  as  have  been  mentioned  .  .    According  to  Dr.  H.  V.  Carter,  the  Kolis 


Kliand5ba,  whom  I  consider  as  a  national  deity  of  the  Gau- 
dian  Khands.^^ 

The  Kolis  have  among  thera  a  tradition,  according  to 
which  they  are  the  descendants  of  the  famous  Yalmlki,  the 
poet  of  the  Eamayana.  It  may  be  that  the  similarity 
of  the  profession  embraced  by  Valmiki — previously  to  his 
becoming  a  poet — and  by  the  Kolis,  has  something  to  do 
with  this  belief.     Both  are  celebrated  as  robbers." 

According  to  the  last  census  report,  the  Kolis  number 
2,488,372  souls:  1,669,302  live  in  Bombay,  429,688  in 
Baroda,  213,966  in  Hyderabad,  and  123,171  in  the  Punjab, 


The  KohJis  in  Bhandara  and  Chanda,  who  are  agricul- 
turists, have  a  distinct  Gond  type,  and  have  retained  many 
Gond  customs.'^ 

proper  are  a  true  hill-people  whose  especial  locality  lies  in  the  Western 
Ghats,  and  in  the  northern  extension  of  that  range,  between  18°  and  24°  N. 
latitude."  I  have  referred  on  p.  131,  u.  28,  to  another  passage  of  this 
article  in  the  Glossary. 

I  have  already  on  p.  131  declared  myself  against  this  explanation. 
Though  it  is  a  matter  cf  minor  importance,  I  may  observe  as  an  additional 
proof  that  the  tribal  name  is  always  pronounced  Koli,  and  not  Killi. 

^  See  ibidem,  p.  106  :  "  The  Kolies  pay  their  adorations  to  all  the  Hindoo 
deities,  but  their  chief  object  of  worship  is  Khundy-row,  commonly  called 

3'  See  ibidem,  p.  82  :  "  One  of  the  descendants  of  Neeshad  and  a  female 
sboodur,  were  the  parents  of  the  Poolkuss ;  and  a  male  of  the  Neeshad  lineage 
and  a  female  of  the  Poolkuss  family,  were  the  parents  of  the  Koly.  He  was 
to  subsist,  by  kiUing  whatever  animals  he  encountered  in  the  jungles  and 
forests.  It  may  further  be  stated,  that  the  Kolies  say  that  they  are  the 
descendants  of  Valmik,  the  distinguished  author  of  the  Ramayan,  who, 
although  of  Brahman  parentage,  and  born  at  Veer  Walla,  twenty-four  miles 
south-east  of  Poona,  it  is  said,  followed  the  life  of  a  Koly."  About  the 
Koolees  or  Bheelssee  Sir  G.  Campbell's  Ethnology  of  India,  p.  46. 

3'  According  to  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  VI,  p.  233,  the  late  Eev.  Dr. 
John  Wilson  derived  the  name  of  the  Kolis  from  the  Sanskrit  word  kula,  a 
clan.  I  need  aot  dilate  on  the  groundlessness  of  this  etymology.  Compare 
p.  133. 

3'  See  Eev.  M.  A.  Sherring's  Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  II,  p.  109  : 
"  They  have  a  remarkable  faculty  for  selecting  the  best  sites  for  irrigation 
reservoirs ;  and  to  possess  a  large  tank  is  their  highest  ambition.  On  the 
lands  watered  by  these  tanks  they  cultivate  sugar-cane  and  rice." 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  141 

I  telieve  that  the  Koris  (Kohris)  are  of  the  same  extrac- 
tion as  the  Kolis.  The  former  are  said  to  have  emigrated 
from  Benares,  in  the  train  of  a  Bhonsla  prince  of  the 
Chandah  hranch.*"  I  am  also  inclined  to  connect  the  Koiris 
of  Bengal  with  both  these  tribes.*^ 

Whether  there  exists  any  connection  between  the  Kolis  and 
the  Graulis  is  doubtful.  As  was  the  case  with  Gauda,  so  also  is 
the  term  Gauli  differently  interpreted.  Some  derive  the  name 
Gauli  from  the  Sanskrit  word  go,  cow,  and  explain  Gauli  to 
signify  cowherd,  others  connect  it  with  Koli.  It  is  even  pos- 
sible that  both  derivations  are  right,  and  that  the  term  Gauli 
represents  originally  two  different,  but  equal-sounding  words ; 
oue  being  derived  from  Koli  and  the  other  from  go.  In  the 
first  case  it  has  an  ethnological  and  in  the  other  a  professional 
meaning.     To  those  Gaulis  who  are  cowmen  both  terms  are 

*"  See  ibidem,  pp.  107,  108  :  "  They  produce  sugar-cane  in  large  quan- 
tities, the  produotiou  of  which  is  chiefly  in  their  hands.  The  tribe  has 
distinguished  itself  for  its  great  enterprise  and  energy  in  the  excavation  of 
noble  tanks  and  in  the  formation  of  numerous  embankments."  According 
to  the  census  of  1881,  the  Koris  amount  to  946,851,  843,422  of  whom  are 
found  in  the  North-Western  Proirincea,  48,826  in  the  Central  Provinces,  and 
43,565  in  Bengal.  Compare  Mr.  Charles  Grant's  Gazetteer  of  the  Central 
Provinces,  pp.  61,  137,  181,  194  and  438  on  the  Koris  (Kohris). 

*i  Compare  Colonel  Dalton's  Ethnology  of  India,  pp.  320,  321 :  "In  some 
districts  the  Koiris  appear  to  be  more  numerous  than  the  Kurmis.  The 
distinction  between  them  is,  that  the  former  are  generally  market  gardeners 
as  well  as  agriculturists.  Buchanan  estimated  that  there  were  30,000 
families  of  Koiris  in  the  Shahabad  District,  and  45,000  families  in  Bihar. 
A  learned  pandit  informs  me  that  the  derivation  of  the  name  is  ku, 
earth,  and  ari,  enemy.  They  are  so  called  from  their  constant  attacks  on  the 
soil.  Koiris,  men  and  women,  are  always  troubling  it.  .  .  Every  three  years 
they  make  offerings  on  a  MU  known  as  the  Marang  Bum  of  the  Kols,  the  god 
that  is  invoked  by  the  aborigines,  especially  when  rain  does  not  fall  in  due 
season."  See  also  Eev.  M.  A.  Sherriug's  Sindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  I, 
pp  325  326  :  "  These  (the  Koeris)  and  the  Kumhhis  are  the  great  agri- 
cultural classes  of  these  provinces.  .  .  The  Koeris  and  Kumbhis  are 
agriculturists  by  profession.  .  .  The  Koeris  are  the  principal  growers  of 
poppy,  and  producers  of  opium,  both  in  Benares  and  Behar.  .  .  The  Koeris 
are  numerous  in  the  district  of  Jhansi,  where  they  pursue  the  occupation  of 
weaving.  Their  tradition  is,  that  they  came  from  Benares  about  seven 
hundred  years  ago."  The  census  report  of  1881  mentions  3,067  Koeris  in 
Assam  and  1,204,884  Koeris  in  Bengal.  Eev.  Sir  O.  Campbell's  Ethnology 
of  India,  p.  107. 



applicable.  The  Mahadeo  Kolis  assert  that  their  ancestors 
subdued  the  Gaulis,  and  to  these  are  also  ascribed  most 
of  the  earlier  graves.  The  Grauli  chiefs,  according  to  tradi- 
tion, ruled  in  the  Central  Provinces  long  before  the  Gond 
Bajas.  I  believe  that  future  enquiry  will  prove  that  the 
Grauli  Rajas  were  not  Aryans,  but  that  they,  like  other 
tribes  similarly  named,  belonged  to  the  Graudian  race.*^ 

I  must  not  omit  to  mention  here  the  ancient  tribes  of  the 
KuUnda,  Kuluta,  (Koluta,  Koluka)  and  Kauluta  (Kaulubha), 
who  inhabited  the  high  mountain  ranges  of  the  Himiilaya 
in  North  India.  Their  names  occur  in  one  form  or  other  in 
the  Mahabharata,  Ramayana,  Visau  Purana,  Brhatsarhhita, 
Mudraraksasa  and  elsewhere  in  Sanskrit  literature,  while 
Ptolemy's  KvXivhpivri  (Kylindrine,  VII.  1,  42)  coincides  in 
position  with  the  country  which  some  of  these  tribes  formerly 

*'  Refer  to  pp.  114  and  116,  n.  12,  where  the  Oaulas  are  mentioned. 

See  Mr.  Charles  Grant's  Gmctteer  of  the  Central  Provinces,  p.  301  : 
"  Among  the  people  (of  Nagpur)  tradition,  widespread  though  vague,  is  not 
wanting,  pointing  to  a  time  far  anterior  to  the  Gonds,  when  throughout 
Deogarh  Gauli  chiefs  held  sway.  The  exploits  and  renown  of  these  ancient 
chiefs  are  often  referred  to  in  the  songs  of  the  villagers.  There  are  forts 
too,  and  tanks  and  temples,  or  remnants  of  such  structures,  evidently  the 
handiwork  of  races  preceding  the  Gonds.  . .  'It  was  a  Gaull,  not  a  Gond  king 
so  our  father  told  us,'  this  is  the  common  answer  to  all  questions  respecting 
such  reUos."  The  same  legend  is  told  about  the  fortifications  of  Ramtek, 
ibidem,  p.  428.  Compare  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  I,  pp.  204,  20.5, 
Mr.  W.  F.  Sinclair's  article  on  the  "  Gauli  Kaj  "  in  Khandesh  and  the 
Central  Provinces  :  "1  think,  therefore,  that  the  most  prohable  explanation 
of  the  QauU  RcIJ  is  this, — -that  Gauli  was  the  surname,  or  nickname,  of  a 
family  of  princes  (and  not  of  a  nation)  of  Aryan  race  who  established  them- 
selves in  the  valleys  of  the  Tapti  and  Narmada  during  the  great  migration 
southward  which  ended  in  the  colonization  of  the  Dekhan  by  the  Aryan 
Marathas."  Mr.  Sinclair's  remarks  were  criticized  by  Mr.  W.  Ramsay  on 
p.  258  ;  notice  also  Mr.  Sinclair's  query  :  "  HemaiJ  Pant  and  the  Gauli  Rajas" 
in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  VI,  pp.  277,  278, 

Captain  A.  Macintosh  remarks  in  his  "  Account  of  the  Mhadeo  Kolies  " 
in  the  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science,  vol.  V  (1837),  pp.  261-282  : 
"  There  is  a  popular  tradition  among  the  people  in  this  part  of  the  country, 
that  the  Gursees  were  the  original  inhabitants  of  the  Dukhan,  and  that  they 
were  displaced  from  the  hilly  tracts  of  the  country  by  the  race  of  GouUies  or 
cowherds.  These  Goullies,  it  is  said,  subsequently  rebelled  against  their  law. 
ful  prince,  who  detached  an  army  that  continued  unceasing  in  their  exer- 


occupied.  The  similarity  of  their  name  with  that  of  the  Kolis 
and  of  the  Kulu  district  is  therefore  not  accidental.*^ 


On  the  Kois,  Konds,  Kands,  Gonds,  &c. 

Much  as  the  several  tribes,  whose  names  head  this 
chapter,  differ  from  one  another  in  their  manners,  dialects 
and  appearance,  still  there  exists  such  a  general  resemblance 
between  them,  that,  as  has  been  pointed  out  by  one  of  the 
greatest  geographers  of  O'lr  century,  the  late  Karl  Bitter, 
all  these  various  races,  however  considerable  may  be  the 
distances  at  which  they  live  apart  from  one  another,  must  be 

tions  until  they  exterminated  the  entire  race  of  Goullies  .  .  It  is  a  common 
practice  with  snch  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  plains  as  bury  their  dead,  as- 
well  as  the  hill  tribes  to  erect  thurgahs  (tombs  commonly  of  a  single  stone), 
near  the  graves  of  their  parents.  In  the  vicinity  of  some  of  the  Koly 
villages  and  near  the  site  of  deserted  ones,  several  of  these  thurgahs  are 
occasionally  to  be  seen,  especially  near  the  source  of  the  Bhaum  river.  The 
people  say  they  belonged  to  Gursees  and  Goullies  of  former  times.  The 
stones  with  many  figures  in  relief  roughly  carved  upon  them,  and  one  of 
these  holding  a  drum  ia  his  hand,  and  in  the  act  of  beating  time  on  it,  are 
considered  to  have  belonged  to  the  Gursees  who  are  musicians  by  profession. 
The  other  thurgahs  with  a  Saloonka  (one  of  the  emblems  of  Mhadeo)  and  ai. 
band  of  women  forming  a  circle  round  it,  with  large  pots  on  their  heads,  are 
said  to  be  Goully  monuments.  This  may  be  reckoned  partly  confirmatory  of 
the  tradition." 

Consult  about  the  Gaulis  also  the  Gazetteer  of  Aurangabad,  pp.  136,  226, 

278,  279. 

'3  About  references  concerning  Kulinda,  Euluta,  Koluha,  Koluta  and 
Kauluta  consult  Bothlingk  and  Roth's  Sanskrit  W'irterhueh.  About  Kaulubha 
see  Lassen's  Indisehe  Altherthumskunde,  vol.  I,  p.  57  (p.  75  second 
edition),  and  vol.  II,  pp.  206,  207.  Lassen  desires  to  substitute  for  Kauluta 
in  Mudraraksasa  Kaulubha  especially  on  the  authority  of  Plinius  who 
in  his  Historia  Naturalis,  lib.  VI,  cap.  22,  mentions  that:  "Ultra 
(Gano-em)  siti  sunt  Modubae,  Molindae.  .  .  .  Colubae,  Orxulae,  etc."  In  vol. 
I,  p.  547  (661),  Lassen  speaks  of  the  Kulindas :  "  Die  Kulinda  wohnten  nach 
dem  Epos  im  hbchsten  Himalaya  und  zwar  ostwarts  bis  zu  den  Ganges- 

Ptolemy  assigns  the  sources  of  the  VipaSa,  Satadru,  Yamuna  and  Ganga 
to  the  country  Kylindrine  :  "  'Yirh  Sh  ras  Bifida-ios  Kal  tov  ZapdSpov  Kal  to5 
Aia/iovm  Kol  tov  Tdjyov  n  KuXipSptyii.  "  The  inhabitants  of  this  district 
were  the  Kulindas.  About  Kylindrine  compare  also  Sir  A.  Cunningham's 
Ancient  Geography  of  India,  pp.  136-138,  where  it  is  identified  with  Jiland- 
hara    whose  "antiquity  is  undoubted,  as  it  is  mentioned  by  Ptolemy  as 


regarded  as  representatives  of  one  and  the  same  nation. 
They  are  still  in  occupation  of  nearly  the  whole  area  of  that 
portion  of  the  Indian  continent  which  stretches  from  Khan- 
desh  on  the  west  to  Gran  jam  on  the  east. 

Koi,  Kui  (contracted  into  Ku),  Godu,  Gauda,  Gondu, 
Q-oandu,  Gand,  Koand,  Kond  (Kondh,  Khond)  or  Kand 
(Khand)  are  all  derivatives,  as  has  already  been  shown, 
from  the  root  Ko  or  Ku,  mountain,  so  that  their  very  name 
indicates  a  mountaineer.  I  have  previously  alluded  to 
the  peculiarity  that  both  Lin^uals  and  Dentals  are  used 
in  the  formation  of  the  derivatives  of  Ko.     We  need  not, 

KuUndrine  or  Khdindrine,  wWch  should  probably  be  corrected  to  Sulindrine, 
as  the  K  and  2  are  frequently  interchanged  in  Greek  manuscripts." 

Read  also  in  H.  H.  Wilson's  Vishnu-pwdna  edited  by  F.  Hall  the 
notes  on  the  Kulutas  (Kolttkas),  vol.  II,  p.  174,  and  Kulindas,  p.  180. 
According  to  H.  H.  Wilson  the  Kulindas  were  mountaineers,  see  Fr.  Johnson's 
Selections  from  the  Mahabharata,  p.  65. 

Varahanuhira  mentions  the  Eulutaa  in  his  Brhatsamhita,  Chapter  XIV, 
b1.  22  and  29  : 

DiSi  paScimattarasyam  Mandavya-Tukhara-Talahala-Madrah, 

ASmaka-Z^Miute-Lahada-Strlrajya-Nrsimha-Vanakhasthah.     22. 

AiSanyam  Msrukanas  taraj  ya-  PaSupala-Kira  -  KaSmlrah. 

Abhisara-Parada-Tangana-i^fi&fte-Sairindha-Vanara^trah.  29. 
Sir  Alexander  Cunningham  considers  the  question  of  these  hill  tribes  at 
length  in  the  Archieological  Survey  of  India,  vol.  XIV,  pp.  125-135,  137-139  : 
"  The  origin  of  the  Knnets,  who  form  the  bulk  of  the  population  in  the 
valleys  of  the  Bias,  the  Satlej  and  the  Tons  Rivers,  has  long  engaged  my 
attention  ;  and  I  believe  that  I  have  now  solved  the  puzzle  by  identifying 
them  with  the  Kunindas  or  Kulindas  of  early  Hindu  history.  Under  both  of 
these  forms  their  name  is  still  preserved  in  the  districts  of  Kulu  on  the  Bias 
and  Eunawar  on  the  Satlej.  The  Vishnu  Purana  gives  the  name  of  Eulinda, 
which  is  supported  by  Ptolemy's  Xulindrine,  a  district  occupying  the  whole 
of  the  upper  tract  between  the  Bibasis  or  Bias  River  and  the  Ganges.  It 
corresponds  therefore  most  exactly  with  the  Kunet  District  of  the  present 
day.  Varaha  Mihira  places  the  Kunindas  along  with  the  Kashmiras,  Abhi- 
earas,  Kulutas,  and  Sairindhas,  and  makes  their  country  one  of  his  nine  divi- 
sions of  India.  In  another  place  he  marks  their  position  stiU  more 
definitely  as  being  to  the  east  of  Madras.  {Madreso  anyaseha  Kauninda.) 
He  also  speaks  of  the  King  of  the  Kunindas.  This  was  about  A.D.  560,  but 
we  have  coins  of  the  King  of  Kuninda  {Majnya  Etmindasa),  which  date 
before  the  Christian  era.  For  Kauninda  the  Markandeya  Purana  reads  Kau- 
linda,  which  agrees  with  the  Kulinda  of  the  Vishnu  Purana.  It  would 
seem  therefore  that  these  are  only  two  readings  of  the  same  name.  This 
conjecture  is  strongly   supported  by  the   fact  that  much  more  than  half  of 


therefore,  he  surprised  to  see  that  the"  Telugu  Kodu,  e.g., 
corresponds  to  the  Sanskrit  Konda  (in  Kondabhatta)  and 
Gonda,  though  konda  in  Telugu  signifies  only  mountain  and 
not  mountaineer,  which  meaning  is  expressed  by  Kondarudu.*^ 

The  principal  Gond  tribes  call  themselves  Koitor.  Telugu 
people  regard  the  last  syllable  tor  of  this  term  as  identical 
■with  the  word  dora,  master,  which  is  not  improbable,  as  the 
Kois  affix  this  term  to  names,  e.g.,  Bhima  is  called  by  them 
Bhimadur.  The  Kois  of  the  Bhadracala  and  Eekapalli 
taluks  in  the  Upper  Grodavari  district  are  called  Doralu, 
(masters)  only  by  their  Mala  and  Madiga  servants,  for  this 
title  is  otherwise  generally  conceded  only  to  the  Velama 

It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  a  word  often  loses  its  original 
meaning  when  it  is  used  as  a  proper  name.     Koi  designates 

the  population  of  Kulu  is  Kunet.  ...  I  have  now"  traced  the  Kaunindas 
up  to  the  third  century  B.C.,  when  they  were  a  rich  and  powerful  people. 
But  there  is  still  earlier  mention  of  the  people  in  the  Mahabharata,  where 
the  Kulindas  are  said  to  have  been  conquered  by  Arjuna.  From  the  context 
Wilson  rightly  concluded  that  they  were  mountaineers  and  neighbours  of 
the  Traigarttas  or  people  of  Kangra.  In  the  Vishnu  Purina  1  find  not  only 
the  Kulindas  but  also  Kulindopatyakas  or  '  Kulindas  dwelling  along  the  foot 
of  the  hills,'  which  describes  exactly  the  tract  of  plain  country  bordering 
the  hills  in  which  Srughna,  the  capital  of  the  Kaunindas,  was  situated." 
About  Kulu  or  Kullu  see  Sir  W.  W.  Hunter's  Imperial  Gazetteer  of  India, 
vol.  V,  pp.  465-469:  "The  character  of  the  hiU-men  resembles  that  of 
moat  other  mountaineers  in  its  mixture  of  simplicity,  independence,  and 
superstition.  Polyandry  still  prevails  in  Seoraj,  but  has  almost  died  out 
elsewhere.  It  consists  simply  of  a  community  of  wives  amongst  brothers, 
who  hold  all  their  other  goods  in  common,  and  regard  their  women  as 
labourers  on  the  farm.  The  temples  usually  occupy  picturesque  sites,  and 
are  dedicated  rather  to  local  deities  than  to  the  greater  gods  of  the  Hindu 

Compare  also  Mr.  J.  W.  McCrindle's  Ancient  India  as  described  ly 
Ptolemy,  pp.  105,  109,  110. 

*'  The  Teluga  people  call  the  Gonds,  Konda  or  Kands,  Koya,  Koyavadu 
(pi.  KOyavandlu),  Kodu  (pi.  Kodnlu),  Gondu,  Kondarudu,  &c.  We  read  in 
Lieutenant  Macpherson's  Report  upon  the  Khonds  of  the  Districts  of  Ganjam 
and  Cuttack,  Calcutta,  1842,  p.  20,  §42,  the  following  account:  "The 
Hindu  name  for  this  people  which  we  have  adopted,  Khond,  in  the  plural 
Khondooloo,  means  mountaineer,  from  the  Teloogoo  word  signifying  a  UU. 
Their  sole  native  appellation  south  of  the  Mahanuddee  is  Koinga  or  Kwinga, 
which  may  be  a  corruption  of  Kulinga,  which,  by  the  exchange  of  convertible 
letters  may  be  Pulinda,  meaning  in  Sanskrit  and  thence  in  Tamil  o  bar- 


thus  a  mountaineer,  but  this  radical  meaning  of  the  term 
was  forgotten  by  that  tribe  when  some  of  them  had  settled 
permanently  in  the  plains.  The  Malvah  or  Grutta-Kois 
(Hill-Kois)  are  in  consequence  distinguished  from  the  Sassi- 
Kois  (Plain-Kois).  The  Khonds,  on  the  other  hand,  call  their 
own  country  Kui  Bina  or  Kui  Pruti,  and  that  of  the  Uriyas 
Sassi  Dina. 

The  Kois  worship  as  deities  Katuradu,  Adamaraju,  Kor- 
raraju  (who  governs  the  tigers),  Kommalamma,  Sarlamma, 
and  others.  The  five  Pandava  brothers,  especially  Arjuna 
and  Bhima,  are  highly  revered.  They  have  imitated  the 
step  of  Bhima  in  their  dance.  The  Kois  or  Koyas  in  the 
Nizam's  Dominions  preserve  a  legend  according  to  which 
they  are  descended  from  Bhima  and  a  wild  superhuman 
woman  whom  he  met  in  the  woods. ^^ 

larian,  a  savage  mountaineer  .  ,  .  They  employ  as  distinctive  epithets  of  their 
race,  the  terms — Subboro  and  Mullaro,  the  latter  signifying  hill  people,  from 
a  root  common  to  Tamul  and  Teloogoo,  the  Khonds  designate  the  alpine 
portions  of  Oriasa  solely  hy  its  Hindu  name  (from  the  root)  '  Malwa, ' 
meaning  highlands.  The  Hindu  people  they  call  Sassi,  a  word  whose 
signification  is  not  ascertained.  The  Khonds,  who  inhabit  the  mountains 
are  styled  Maliah  Koinga,  those  of  the  low  country  Sassi  Koifiga." 

The  fifth  volume  of  the  Calcutta  Review  (January — June  1846)  contains 
on  p.  26  the  following  note:  "  Respecting  the  name  of  Khonds,  Lieutenant 
Hill  remarks,  that,  in  their  own  language,  '  they  call  themselves  Knee.  A 
single  Khond  is  called  Kwinga.  By  Uriyas,  they  are  called  Khonds  and 
by  the  TeUngas,  Kodulu  and  often  KoduwanQlu  or  hill  people."  According 
to  Sir  W.  W.  Hunter  in  his  Orissa,  vol.  II,  p.  71  :  "The  word  Kandh, 
like  Mali  and  the  tribal  names  of  other  hill  tribes,  means  in  the  aboriginal 
languages  '  mountaineer.'  " 

About  the  Gands  or  Gandas  consult  Mr.  Charles  Grant's  Gazetteer  of  the 
Central  Provinces  of  India,  pp.  100,  103,  2i7,  251,  412,  413,  and  457.  They 
cultivate  some  land  in  Ealgarh,  Laira  and  Sambalpur,  but  they  seem  not  to 
be  regarded  as  good  cultivators.  The  population  of  Laira  is  chiefly  agri- 
cultural and  consists  of  Gonds,  Khonds  and  Gandas.  On  the  other  hand  the 
Gandas  are  generally  classified  as  weavers.  Their  number  in  the  Central 
Provinces  amounts  to  250,133. 

Koinga  is  the  plural  of  Koi,  nga  being  the  plural  termination  in  the 
Kond  language.  A  similar  termination  exists  in  the  Koi  language  on  the 
Godavarl,  e.g.,  mdra,  tree,  pi.  marlngu  ;  goggodi,  cock,  goggodingu ;  handi, 
carriage,  bandingu  ;  goddeli,  axe,  goddelingu. 

"  See  the  Rev.  John  Cain's  articles  on  "  The  Bhadrachallam  and  Reka- 
palli  Talukas,  Godavarl  District,"  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  V,  pp.  301- 


The  four  tribes  to  whom  the  title  Koitor  is  applied  are 
the  Raj  Goad,  Raghuwal,  Padal  and  Dholi,  and  occasionally 

303,  357-359  ;  vol.  VIII,  pp.  33-36,  219-221  ;  and  vol.  X,  pp.  259-264. 
Read  ibidem,  vol.  V,  pp.  358,  359  :  "Formerly  on  a  certain  day  in  the  year 
the  Eoi  men  of  each  village  were  driven  into  the  jungle  by  the  women 
to  hunt,  and  were  not  allowed  to  return  unless  they  brought  home  some 
game, — a  smaU  bird,  or  even  a  rat,  being  enough  to  give  them  the  right 
to  be  welcomed  back.  This  practice  is  still  carried  on  jby  the  Eois  in  ths 
Bastar  country,  and  also  by  many  in  the  Nizam's  territory.  Mr.  Van- 
stavern,  whilst  boring  for  coal  at  Beddadanolu,  was  visited  on  that  day  by 
all  the  Koi  women  of  the  village,  dressed  up  in  their  lords'  clothes,  and  they 
told  him  that  they  had  that  morning  driven  their  husbands  to  the  forest  to 
bring  home  game  of  some  kind  or  other.  Mr.  Vanstavem  also  states  that 
the  Kois  round  Beddadanolu  do  not  eat  the  goat  annually  offered  for  a 
prosperous  harvest,  but  leave  it  to  itseU  in  the  jungle  tied  up  to  a  tree. 

' '  The  Kois  aay  that  the  f oUowing  gods  and  goddesses  were  appointed  to  be 
worshipped  bj'  the  Sudras : — Muttelamma,  MaridimahdlakshmT,  Poturdzu,  and 
Korrazulu,  and  the  following  were  to  receive  adoration  from  the  Kois  :  — Eom- 
malnmma,  Kdtdradu,  Adamarazu.  The  goddess  Mamili  or  Lsle  must  be  propi- 
tiated early  in  the  year,  or  else  the  crops  will  undoubtedly  fail ;  and  she  is 
said  to  be  very  partial  to  human  victims  .  .  .  All  the  Kois  seem  to  hold  in 
great  respect  the  Pdndma  brothers,  especially  Arjuna  and  Bhlma.  The  wild 
dogs  or  dhols  are  regarded  as  the  (fete  or  messengers  of  these  brothers,  and 
the  long  black  beetles  which  appear  in  large  numbers  at  the  beginniug  of  the 
hot  weather  are  called  the  Pandava  £ock  of  goats.  Of  course  they  would  on 
no  account  attempt  to  kiU  a  dhol,  even  though  it  should  happen  to  attack 
their  favourite  calf,  and  they  even  regard  it  imprudent  to  interfere  with 
these  datas  when  they  wish  to  feast  upon  their  cattle."  In  vol.  VIII,  p.  34, 
we  read :  "  They  say  their  dance  is  copied  from  Bhlma' s  march  after  a 
certain  enemy.  There  is  no  Koi  temple  in  any  village  near  here,  and  the 
Eois  are  seldom  if  ever  to  be  found  near  a  Hindu  temple." 

In  the  Jeypore  territory  of  the  Vizagapatam  district  a  similar  practice 
as  the  abovementioned  prevails.  The  men  are  often  away  for  days  in 
search  of  game,  and  if  they  return  with  none  of  an  evening ,  their  women 
pelt  them  with  cow-dung. 

The  Sistorical  and  Descriptive  Sketch  of  S.B.  the  Nizairi's  Dominions 
remarks  in  vol.  I,  pp.  325,  326,  about  the  Kois  as  follows : — "  The  Eoyas  or 
Eois  (45,300)  are  an  aboriginal  race,  found  chiefly  in  the  Khamam  District 
(39,990).  They  belong  to  the  same  family  as  the  G-onds  and  the  other  primi- 
tive races  of  Central  and  Southern  India.  The  Kois  say  that  '  they  are  the 
descendants  of  Bhimadur,  and  the  local  tradition  is  that  when  Bhimadur 
accompanied  his  brother  Dharma  Eagu  to  his  forest  exile  he  one  day  went 
hunting  in  the  jungle,  and  there  met  a  wild  woman  of  the  woods,  whom  he 
fell  in  love  with  and  married.  The  fruit  of  their  union  was  the  Koi  people. 
The  tradition  further  states  that  this  wild  woman  was  not  a  human  being.' 
The  language  spoken  by  them  is  similar  in  some  respects  to  that  of  the 
Oonds.  Like  the  latter  they  are  noted  for  their  truthful  habits  .  .  .  The 
fruit  of  the  Ippa  tree  is  dried  and  reduced  to  powder.  This  made  into  cakes 
and  porridge  forms  their  favourite  and  principal  food  for  the  greater  part  of 


the  Kolam.     The  Marias  who  are  likewise  styled  Koitur, 
represent  perhaps  now  the  purest  type  of  the  Gonds.*^ 

In  ancient  times  these  people  occupied  a  much  larger 
portion  of  India  than  they  do  now.  Their  name  appears  in 
places  far  distant  from  one  another,  in  the  north,  e.g.,  in 
Gonda  or  Gauda  in  Oudh,  in  Khandwa  in  the  Central  Pro- 
vinces, in  Gonddl  in  Kathiawar,  in  Khandesh  and  Khanddla 
in  Bombay,  in  Gondvdna  in  Central  India,  while  Khandagiri 
and  EJiandapara  testify  to  their  presence  in  Orissa.     Even 

the  year.  They  also  distil  great  quantities  of  an  intoxicatiag  drink  from  the 
flowers;  they  mU  eat  the  flesh  of  every  animal,  not  even  rejecting  that  of 
the  cow.  They  seldom  remain  long  in  one  place,  as  soon  as  the  productive 
powers  of  the  soil  are  exhausted  they  move  to  another  spot  and  make  a  fresh 
clearing.  They  have  no  caste,  their  religion  consists  of  belief  in  one 
Supreme  Being,  they  also  worship  the  spirits  of  the  mountains  and  a  divinity 
who  protects  them  from  the  ravages  of  tigers.  They  regard  heaven  as  a 
large  and  strong  fort  where  there  is  an  abundance  of  rice  stored  up  for  those 
who  are  permitted  to  enter.  Hell  is  a  place  in  which  an  iron  cow  con- 
tinually gnaws  the  flesh  of  the  unfortunate  persons  detained  there.  "Widows' 
remarriages  are  allowed.  Their  wedding  ceremonies  are  exceedingly 
simple ;  the  betrothed  couple  have  a  triangular  mark  placed  on  their 
foreheads,  they  then  kneel  together,  and  the  ceremony  is  completed  by 
pouring  water  over  the  heads  of  both.  The  personal  appearance  of  both 
sexes  is  the  reverse  of  prepossessing." 

**  The  Gazetteer  of  the  Central  Provinces  of  India,  edited  by  Mr.  Charles 
Grant,  contains  on  pp.  137  and  500  the  following  statements :  "  The  Marias, 
or  as  they  are  called  towards  the  north  the  Kohiturs  . .  are  in  aJl  probability  the 
purest  type  of  Gond.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  in  villages  bordering  upon 
the  more  cultivated  tracts  the  change  of  name  from  Maria  to  Kohitur,  then 
to  Jangli  G-ond,  and  then  to  Gond,  can  be  seen  in  progress,  and  it  is  easy  to 
imagine  that  a  well-to-do  Maria  family  calling  themselves  Gond  might  in 
two  or  three  generations  adopt  the  more  fashionable  style  of  Raj  Gond 
(p.  137).  .  Gotes  and  Kois,  or  as  they  are  commonly  called  Gotewars  and 
Koiwars— the  termination  war  being  a  Telugu  affix,  signifying  person  or  man 
— are  the  aborigines  of  the  country  (Upper  Godavari) .  Although  almost 
identical  in  customs  and  in  language,  they  do  not  eat  together  or  inter- 
marry, the  Kols  claiming  superiority  over  the  Gotes.  The  proper  name  for 
the  Kois  is  '  Koitor,'  and  this  is  what  they  call  themselves.  By  the 
Telingas  they  are  called  Koidhoras,  the  word  '  dhora '  meaning  gentleman 
or  sahib.  This  error  has  probably  arisen  from  the  last  syllable  of  '  Koitor  ' 
havin  g  been  taken  for  '  dhora,'  owing  to  the  similarity  of  sound.  The 
Kols,  where  they  come  into  contact  with  the  Telinga  population,  have 
adopted  many  of  their  customs.  .  The  Got6  keeps  more  aloof  from  civili- 
sation; but .  .  the  customs  of  the  two  races  are  very  similar,  and  both  belong 
to  the  Gond  family  (p.  500)."  Compare  also  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  VIII, 
p.  34  :   "  The   custom  of   calling   the  Kois  doralu  {dora  =   lord,  Tel.)  has 


now  these  tribes  are  found  in  all  the  Presidencies  of 
Bombay,  Madras,  and  Bengal,  though  their  chief  abode  is 
in  the  Central  Provinces.*' 

The  Uriyas  aspirate  the  final  d,  hence  the  name  is  often 
spelt  Kondh  or  Kandh,  but  this  pronunciation  is  only  local. 

"Wherever  the  Gonds,  Konds,  or  Kands  are  found  in  their 
own  homesteads,  far  from  strangers,  they  have  preserved 
their  national  virtues,  among  which  honesty,  fidelity,  and 
hospitality  occupy  a  prominent  position.  Like  many  other 
wild  tribes  they  are  brave,  but  they  are  also  cruel  and  very 
superstitious.  In  those  parts  of  the  country  where  they 
dwell,  the  simple-minded  Gronds  are  feared  as  dangerous 
sorcerers  and  intimate  friends  of  the  evil  spirits. 

About  the  Religious  Doctrines  of  the  Khonds  Captain  Mac- 
pherson  makes  the  following  remarks :  "  There  is  one  Supreme 

been  traced  by  some  (Central  Promnees  Gazetteer,  p.  50O)  to  the  ending 
tor  in  the  word  Koitor.  This  has  always  seemed  to  me  (Eev.  Mr.  Cain) 
rather  doubtful,  as  this  honoriiic  affix  is  not  only  conceded  to  the  Kois,  hut 
also  to  several  other  castes,  e.g. ,  the  (true)  Vellamma  caste,  and  to  all  the 
most  influential  natives  in  the  independent  or  semi-independent  neighbour- 
ing states."  The  Gonds  in  the  Singbhum  District  are  called  Dorowas 
or  ]!faiks.  See  Dalton's  Ethnology,  p.  277,  and  Grant's  Gazetteer,  p.  137. 
Elsewhere  in  Narasingpur  are  found  the  Dhur  Gonds  which  term  appears 
to  be  identical  with  the  Dhurwe  or  Naik  Gonds.  I  wonder  what  is  the 
meaning  of  the  term  Dhur  (Dhurwe  or  Dorowas),  and  whether  it  is  con- 
nected with  the  word  dora. 

About  the  Marias  consult  also  the  Report  of  the  Dependency  of  Bustar  by 
Deputy  Commissioner  C.  L.  R.  Glasfurd,  pp.  46-52  :  "  104.  The  Marias 
and  Jboorias,  I  should  say,  are,  strictly  speaking,  a  sub-division  of  the  true 
Gond  family." 

*' See  Lieutenant  Macpherson,  p.  13,  §  13:  "  The  Khonds  are  now  seen,  in 
"  both  of  these  situations,  within  the  following  Hi-defined  limits.  Upon  the 
"  east  they  appear  scattered  over  the  wilder  tracts  of  the  Ganjam  district 
"  bordering  upon  the  Chilka  Lake,  and  are  seen  in  that  qua,rter  at  a  few 
"  points,  upon  the  coast  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal.  They  are  found,  on  the 
' '  north-west,  on  the  confines  of  Gondwana,  in  longitude  83°,  while  on  the 
"  west,  they  extend  within  the  unsurveyed  frontier  of  Berar.  They  are 
"  found  as  far  south  as  Bustar  in  latitude  19°  40',  while  the  Zemindary  of 
"  Palconda  is  like  that  of  Kunnapoor  possessed  by  a  Khond  Chief  on  the 
"  south-east,  they  are  replaced  on  the  limits  of  the  Souradah  and  Moherry 
"  districts  in  Ganjam,  by  the  Sourah  race,  which  henceforward  occupies 
"  the  eastern  acclivities  of  the  Ghauts  to  the  Godavery.  To  the  north, 
"  fifty  miles  beyond  the  Mahanuddee,  in  the  meridian  of  Boad,  they  are 
"  succeeded  by  the  Kole  people.     On  the  north-east,  they  are  found  high 



"  Being,  self-existing,  the  Source  of  Good,  and  Creator  of  the 
"  Universe,  of  the  inferior  gods,  and  of  man.  This  divinity 
"  is  called  in  some  districts,  Boora  Pennu,  or  the  God  of 
"  Light ;  in  others,  Bella  Pennu,  or  the  Sun  God ;  and  the 
"  sun  and  the  place  from  which  it  rises  beyond  the  sea  are 
"  the  chief  seats  of  his  presence.  Boora  Pennu,  in  the 
"  beginning,  created  for  himself  a  consort,  who  became  Tari 
"  Pennu,  or  the  Earth  Goddess,  and  the  Source  of  Evil. 
"  He  afterwards  created  the  Earth.  As  Boora  Pennu  walked 
"  upon  it  with  Tari,  he  found  her  wanting  in  affectionate 
"  compliance  and  attention  as  a  wife,  and  resolved  to  create 
"  from  its  substance,  a  new  being,  Man,  who  should  render  to 
"  him  the  most  assiduous  and  devoted  service,  and  to  form 
"  from  it  also  every  variety  of  animal  and  vegetable  life 
"  necessary  to  man's  existence.  Tari  was  filled  with  jealousy, 
"  and  attempted  to  prevent  his  purpose,  but  succeeded  only 
"  so  far  as  to  change  the  intended  order  of  creation.  . ,  Tari 
"  Pennu  then   placed  her  hands  over   the  earth,  and  said, 

' '  in  Cuttack,  while  Sourahs  (not  identified  with  the  southern  race)  there 
"  inhabit  the  inferior  ridges  of  the  Ghauts."  (Compare  his  "  Account  of  the 
Religion  of  the  Khonds  "  in  the  Journal  of  t/ie  Royal  Asiatic  Sooiety,  vol. 
XIII,  pp.  220,  221.) 

Compare  also  Papers  relating  to  the  A-boriginal  Tribes  of  the  Central 
Provinces  left  in  MSS.,  by  the  late  Rev.  Stephen  Hialop,  missionary  of  the 
Free  Church  of  Scotland  at  Nagpore :  edited,  with  notes  and  preface,  bj' 
R.  Temple,  C.S.I.,  1866,  pp.  3  and  4  :  "  The  name  of  Gond,  or  Gund,  seems 
"  to  be  a  form  of  Kond,  or  Kund,  the  initial  gutturals  of  the  two  words  being 
"  interchangeable.  .  Both  forms  are  most  probably  connected  with  Konda — 
"  the  Teloogoo  equivalent  for  a  mountain — and  therefore  wiU  signify  '  the  hill 
"  people.'  And  no  designation  could  be  more  appropriate  to  the  localities 
"  which  the  majority  of  them  inhabit.  Though  they  are  also  found  residing 
"  in  the  villages  of  the  plains  along  with  the  more  civilized  Hindus,  yet 
"  they  chiefly  frequent  the  mountain  ranges  l}-ing  between  1 8°  40'  and  23°  40' 
"  north  latitude,  and  between  78°  and  82|  east  longitude.  This  tract  some- 
' '  what  corresponds  with  the  old  Mahomedan  division  of  Gondwana,  but  differs 
' '  from  it  in  not  reaching  so  far  to  the  east  and  in  extending  considerably 
"  further  towards  the  south-east.  The  Moghul  geographers  seem  to  have 
"  included  with  the  Gonds  of  Nagpore  the  KOls  on  their  east  frontier,  and  to 
"  have  been  ignorant  of  the  relationship  between  them  and  the  inhabitants 
"  of  Bustar.  In  the  north,  Gonds  are  met  with  about  Saugor  and  near  the 
"  source  of  the  Hasdo  ;  on  the  east,  they  cross  that  river  into  Sarguja,  where 
' '  thoy  border  on  the  Kfils,  and  are  found  with  Konds  and  Uriyas  in  Nowa- 


"  '  Let  these  beings  you  have  made  exist ;  you  shall  create  no 
"  more.'  Whereupon  Boora  caused  an  exudation  of  sweat  to 
"  proceed  from  his  hody,  collected  it  in  his  hand,  and  threw 
"  it  around,  saying  :  '  To  all  that  I  have  created,'  and  thence 
"  arose  love,  and  sex,  and  the  continuation  of  species.  The 
"  creation  was  perfectly  free  from  moral  and  physical  evil. 
"  Man  enjoyed  free  intercourse  with  the  Creator.  They  lived 
"  without  labour,  .in  perfect  harmony  and  peace.  They  went 
"  unclothed. .  .The  lower  animals  were  all  perfectly  innocuous. 
"  The  Earth  Groddess,  highly  incensed  at  the  love  shown 
"  towards  man  thus  created  and  endowed,  broke  into  open 
"  rebellion  against  Boora,  and  resolved  to  blast  the  loss  of  his 
"  new  creature  by  the  introduction  into  the  world  of  every 
"  form  of  moral  and  physical  evil.  .  .  A  few  indiA^duals  of 
"  mankind  entirely  rejected  evil,  and  remained  sinless ;  the 
"  rest  all  yielded  to  its  power,  and  fell  into  a  state  of  uni- 
"  versal  disobedience  to  the  Deity,  and  fierce  strife  with  one 
"  another.  Boora  immediately  deified  the  sinless  few  without 
"  their  sufEering  death.  . .  Upon  the  corrupted  mass  of  man- 

"  gudda,  Kareal,  and  Kharond  or  Kalahandi  ;  in  the  south,  they  form  the 
"  mass  of  the  population  of  Bustar  and  a  portion  of  the  inhahitants  of 
"  Jeypur  (in  the  Madras  Presidency),  while  they  occupy  the  hills  along  the 
"  left  bank  of  the  G-odavery  about  Nirmul ;  and  on  the  west,  they  are  inter- 
"  mingled  with  the  Hindus  of  Berar  for  30  miles  from  the  right  bank  of  the 
' '  Wurdah,  and,  along  the  KOrs,  extend  along  the  hills  both  north  and  south 
' '  of  the  Narbadda  to  the  meridian  of  Hindia,  where  they  give  place  to  the 
"  Bhils  and  Nahals. 

"  In  such  a  large  extent  of  country,  as  might  be  expected,  they  are  di- 
' '  Tided  into  various  branches,  and  distinguished  by  specific  names.  The 
' '  classification  adopted  by  themselves  is  into  twelve  and  a  half  castes  or 
"  classes,  in  imitation  of  the  Hindus.  These  are — Kaj  Gond,  Eaghuwal, 
"  Dadave,  Katulya,  Padal,  Dholi,  Ojhyal,  Thotyal,  Koilabhutal,  Koikopal, 
"  Kolam  Madyal,  and  an  inferior  sort  of  Padal  as  the  half  caste.  The  first 
"  four  with  the  addition,  according  to  some  of  the  Kolam,  are  comprehended 
"  under  the  name  of  Koitor — the  Gond,  par  excellence.  This  term,  in  its 
"  radical  form  of  Koi,  occurs  over  a  wide  area,  being  the  name  given  to  the 
"  Meria-saorificing  aborigines  of  Orissa  and  to  the  jungle  tribes  skirting  the 
"  east  bank  of  the  Godavery  from  the  apex  of  the  delta  as  far  up  nearly  as 
"  the  mouth  of  the  Indrawati.  Its  meaning  is  evidently  associated  with 
"  the  idea  of  a  hill ;  the  Persian  name  of  which,  Koh,  approaches  it  more 
"  closely  than  even  the  Teloogoo,  Kondd.    I  need  scarcely,  therefore,  add 


"  kind,  Boora  Permu  inflicted  high  moral  penalties,  and. , 
"  entirely  withdrew  his  face  and  his  immediate  guardianship 
"from  mankind.  He  made  all  who  had  fallen  subject  to 
"  death. .  .Universal  discord  and  war  prevailed. .  .Diseases  and 
"  death  came  upon  all  creatures ;  snakes  became  venomous..  . 
"  Man.  .sank  into  a  state  of  abject  suffering  and  degrada- 
"  tion.  .Meanwhile,  Boora  and  Tari  contended  for  superiority 
"  in  fierce  conflict ;  their  terrible  strife  raging  throughout 
"  the  earth,  the  sea  and  the  sky ;  their  chief  weapons  being 
"  mountains,  meteors  and  whirlwinds.  Up  to  this  point,  the 
''  Khonds  hold  the  same  belief  ;  but  from  it,  they  divide  into 
"  two  sects  directly  opposed  upon  the  great  question  of  the 
"issue  of  the  contest  betweem  Boora  and  his  rebel  consort.  . 
"  The  sect  of  Boora  believe  that  he  proved  triumphant  in  the 
"contest,  and,  as  an  abiding  sign  of  the  discomfiture  of 
"  Tari,  imposed  the  cares  of  childbirth  upon  her  sex..  .The 
"  sect  of  Tari  hold,  upon  the  other  hand,  that  she  re- 
"  mained  unconquered,  and  still  maintains  the  struggle  with 
"  various  success."  *'     I  give  this  interesting  story  of  the 

"  that  it  has  no  connection  with  the  interrogative  Koi,  as  some  have  sup- 
"  posed,  nor  has  Koitorany  relation  to  the  Sanskrit  Kskatrii/a,  as  suggested  by 
"  Sir  R.  Jenkins.  Though  there  are  a  few  of  the  more  wealthy  Koitora  who 
"would  gladly  pass  themselves  off  as  Rajputs,  yet  the  great  majority  of 
"  those  known  by  that  name  resent,  with  no  small  vehemence,  the  imputation 
' '  of  belonging  to  any  portion  of  the  Hindu  community.  The  sacred  thread 
"  of  the  twice-born,  instead  of  being  an  object  of  ambition,  is  to  them  a 
"  source  of  defilement." 

The  passage  on  the  Gonds  and  Khonds  in  C.  Lassen's  Indische  Alterthiims- 
kunde,  vol.  I,  pp.  426-432  (or  pp.  373-78),  should  be  consulted  as  well  as 
those  in  the  Eev.  M.  A.  Sherring's  Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  II,  pp.  134- 
152,  and  vol.  Ill,  pp.  200  and  206,  and  Colonel  Dalton's  Ethnology  of  Bengal, 
pp.  275-304.  In  the  second  volume  of  H.  H.  Wilson's  Vishnupurdna 
published  by  F.  Hall,  p.  163,  Shanda  is  read  instead  of  Khanda. 

*'  Lieutenant  Maopherson  gives  in  his  report  on  p.  61  a  list  of  the  Khond 
deities  and  divides  them  into  national  and  local  deities  :  "  In  the  first  class 
are  (1)  Bera  Pennoo  or  the  Earth  god ;  (2)  Bella  Pennoo,  the  Sun  god,  and 
Danzoo  Pennoo,  the  Moon  god ;  (3)  Sunde  Pennoo,  the  god  of  Limits ; 
(4)  Loha  Pennoo,  the  Iron  god  or  god  of  Arms ;  (5)  Joogah  Pennoo,  the  god 
of  Small-pox ;  (6)  Nadzoo  Pennoo,  or  the  VUlage  deity ;  the  universal 
genius  loci  ;  (7)  Sora  Pennoo,  the  Hill  god,  Jori  Pennoo,  the  god  of  Streams, 
and  Gossa  Pennoo,  the  Forest  god;  (8)  Moonda  Pennoo,  the  Tank  god; 


creation  of  the  world  and  the  fall  of  man  which  Macpherson 
ascribes  to  the  Khonds.  It  reminds  one,  however,  in  many 
of  its  features  of  the  Biblical  Accounts,  and  fills  one  with 
wonder  that  such  an  uncivilised  Indian  tribe  as  the  Khonds 
should  have  so  beautiful  a  legend  of  their  own. 

In  the  human  sacrifices  which  these  tribes  offered  up  in 
days  not  long  gone  by,  and  which  even  now  they  have 
not  altogether  abandoned,  they  displayed  an  indescribable 

(9)  Soogoo  Pennoo  or  Sidrojoo  Pennoo,  the  god  of  Fountains ;  (10)  Pidzoo 
Pennoo,  th.e  god  of  Eain  ;  (11)  Pilamoo  Pennoo,  the  god  of  Hunting  ; 
(12)  god  of  Births."  Lieutenant  (Captain)  Macpherson's  Report  was  re- 
printed under  the  title  of  "  An  Account  of  the  Religious  Opinions  and 
Observances  of  the  Khonds  of  Goomsur  and  Boad ' '  in  the  Journal  of  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society,  vol.  VII  (1843),  pp.  172-199,  and  "  An  Account  of  the 
Ghonds  inOrissa"  in  vol.  XIII,  1852,  pp.  216-274  of  the  same  journal. 
Besides  Bura  and  Tari  there  are  (pp.  226-228)  "  inferior  gods  divisible  into 
two  classes,  distinguished  by  their  origin,  their  attributes,  and  the  scope 
of  their  duties  and  authority.  The  gods  of  the  first  class  sprang  from  Boora 
and  Tari. . .  1,  Pidzu  Pennn,the  god  of  Rain.  2,  Boorbi  Pennu,  the  goddess 
of  new  Vegetation  and  First  Fruits.  3,  Peteri  Pennu,  the  God  of  increase. 
4,  Klambi  Pennu,  the  God  of  the  Chase.  S,  Loha  Pennu,  the  God  of  war. 
6,  Sundi  Pennu,  the  God  of  Boundaries.  7,  Dinga  Pennu,  the  Judge  of  the 
dead  .  .  .  The  third  class  of  inferior  deities  are  sprung  from  the  Gods  of  the 
first  two  classes.  They  are  the  strictly  minor  and  local  deities  of  the  Khonds  . . 
The  following  are  the  chief  of  this  class  of  gods.  I,  Nadzu  Pennu,  the  Village 
God.  2,  Soro  Pennu,  the  HiU  God.  3,  Jori  Pennu,  the  God  of  Streams.  4, 
Tozu  Pennu,  the  Family  or  House  God.  5,  Mounda  Pennu,  the  Tank  God.  6, 
Sooga  Pennu,  the  God  of  Fountains.  7,  Gossa  Pennu,  the  Forest  God. 
8,  Koosti  Pennu,  the  God  of  Ravines.  9,  Bhora  Pennu,  the  God  of  New  Fruits, 
produced  on  trees  or  shrubs."  These  two  accounts  differ  in  some  respects. 
On  pp.  243-256  :  the  worship  of  Tari  Pennu  is  described  :  "  In  the  worship 
paid  to  Tari  Pennu  by  her  sect,  the  Chief  rite  is  human  sacrifice.  It  is 
celebrated  as  a  public  oblation  by  tribes,  branches  of  tribes  or  villages  both 
at  social  festivals  held  periodically,  and  when  special  occasions  demand 
extraordinary  propitiations.  And  besides  these  social  offerings,  the  rite  is 
performed  by  individuals  to  avert  the  wrath  of  Tari  from  themselves  and 
their  families."  According  to  Mr.  Grant  (p.  106;  the  Gonds  worship  as  a 
rule  only  "  Bar4  Deva  and  D614  Deva." 

Colonel  Dalton  says  in  his  Ethnology  of  Bengal,  on  p.  281 :  "  The 
Gonds  are,  however,  found  to  have  one  common  object  of  worship,  called, 
according  to  the  linguistic  peculiarities  of  the  locality,  Bdra  Deo,  B&da 
Deo  or  Badiil  Pen.  Pen  and  Deo  mean  the  same,  but  the  signification  of 
B<ira  or  B4da  I  am  not  sure  of.  Major  Macpherson  teUs  us  that  Brira  Pen, 
the  Kandh  god,  means  the  '  god  of  light .  .'  I  was  credibly  informed  that  the 
Gonds  of  Sirguja  formerly  offered  human  sacrifices  to  B(ira  Deo.'' 

Mr.  Glasfurd,  48-52,  remarks  about  the  religion  of  the  tribes  in  Bustar 
as  follows  :    "The  Mooreas,  Bhuttras,  Dhakurs,  Gudwas,  Marias,  &c.,  all 


atrocity.  Tet,  as  an  excuse  for  them,  it  ought  not  to  be 
forgotten  that  their  peculiar  ideas  about  right  and  wrong 
made  them  believe  that  they  had  acquired  a  right  of  dispos- 
ing of  their  Meriah  victims,  as  they  had  bought  and  paid 
for  them.  The  great  goddess  of  the  Earth,  their  principal 
divinity,  could  only  be  propitiated  by  human  blood,  to  grant 
good  pastures  for  their  flocks  and  rich  crops  for  their  own 
support.  The  buffalo  was  by  some  Khonds  sacrificed  instead 
of  the  human  being.  These  tribes  depend  for  their  living 
mainly  on  the  produce  of  the  earth  which  they  tUl,  for 
besides  hunting  they  do  not  follow  any  other  pursuit. 
Trading,  for  instance,  is  unknown  to  them. 

woreliip  Dunteshwaree,  or,  as  slie  is  Bometimes  called, '  Maolee,'  with  '  Matha 
Deyee,'  '  Bhungarma,'  or  '  DhoUa  Devee,'  '  Gam  Devee,'  DongurDeo,'  and 
Bheem.  The  higher  castes  worship  '  Dunteshwaree '  and  '  Matha  Devee  '  with 
the  other  well-known  deities  of  the  Hindoo  Pantheon  .  . .  She  is  the  same 
as  Bhowanee  or  '  Kelee '  .  .  .  Temples  to  Dunteshwaree  or  Maolee  exist  all 
over  the  vicinity  of  Jugdulpore  and  Duutewara.  The  temples  to  '  Matha 
Devee '  are,  perhaps,  as  numerous,  if  not  more  so.  They  are  easily 
recognised  by  swings  in  front  of  the  shed  erected  over  the  semblance  of  the 
goddess,  which  is  generally  a  stone  daubed  with  red,  although  I  have  more 
than  once  seen  her  represented  by  a  grotesquely-carved  figure  dressed  as  a 
female,  with  a  female  attendant  on  each  side  .  . .  When  small-pox  appears 
this  person  (her  Poojareei  becomes  of  great  importance.  .  .  Bhungarma,  or 
DhoUa  Devee  is  said  to  be  the  sister  of  Matha  Devee.  She  also  has  a  swing 
put  up  before  her  temple,  and  is  worshipped  when  cholera  appears ;  but  as 
smaU-pox  is  much  more  frequent  in  its  visits,  her  worship  is  much  neglected 
.  .  .  The  Jhoorias,  Mooreas,  and  Marias  do  worship  the  above-mentioned 
gods,  especially  towards  Narayenpoor,  TJbujmard,  Kootroo,  cfec.  The 
peculiar  deity  of  the  Jhoorias  is  '  Unga  Deo  ;'  he  is  represented  by  a  piece  of 
wood  fastened  to  a  framework  made  of  four  sticks.  .  .  It  has  been  the 
custom  for  the  Bustar  Rajahs  to  have  a  duplicate  of  the  Jhooria  '  Unga  Deo  ' 
kept  at  Bustar.  Whenever  any  epidemic  appears,  the  Unga  Deo  at  Nara- 
yenpoor  is  called  for,  and  the  duplicate  sent  in  its  stead.  Sacrifices  are 
made  to  the  new  arrival,  and  he  is  requested  to  state  whether  the  cholora  or 
the  small-pox,  as  the  case  may  be,  will  soon  disappear  .  .  .  The  Marees  of 
'Ubujmard'  caU  their  god  'Pen:' this  word  literally  meanS  god.  They 
have  several  gods,  which  resemble  the  '  Unga  Deo  '  of  the  Jhoorias.  The 
most  noted  of  those  in  the  Maree  country  under  Kootroo  are  '  Deda  Maida  ' 
at  Kolnar  and  '  Koolung  Mora  '  at  the  village  of  Dewaloor  ;  they  are  both 
represented  by  logs  of  wood.  .  .  The  '  Deda  Maida '  at  Kolnar  is  the  favo- 
rite deity  of  these  wild  people,  and  in  the  month  of  May  there  is  a  festival 
at  Kolnar,  at  which  all  the  Marees  from  far  and  near  congregate  and  spend 
three  days  in  dancing,  and  drinking,  and  singing.  Throughout  the  Depen- 
dency the  grossest  ignorance  and  superstition  prevail,  and  hold  the  minds  of 

OF    BHARATAVAE8A    OE    INDIA.  155 

Contact  with  Hindas  more  Mgbly  civilised  exercised 
a  remarkably  deteriorating  influence  on  the  Gond  tribes, 
who  soon  began  to  lose  their  own  virtues  and  sink  to  a 
lower  social  condition.  Harsh  treatment,  coupled  with  spite- 
ful scorn,  renders  men  callous  and  demoralises.  Ignorant 
and  uncivilised  aborigines  when  they  are  under  the  influence 
of  civilised  and  unscrupulous  persons  are  especially  subject 
to  such  degeneration.  The  Candalas  are  an  illustration  of 
this  assertion. 

They  were  probably  the  first  Gaudian  tribe  whom  the 
Aryan  invaders  reduced  to  abject  servitude,  and  who 
became  thus  the  prototype  of  the  lowest  Indian  helots,  which 
condition  they  share  with  the  Dravidian  Pariahs.  The 
word  Canddla  is  evidently  a  modification  of  Kandala,  a 
tribe  mentioned  by  Ptolemy.*' 

Manu  stigmatises  a  Candala  as  the  offspring  of  a  Sudra 
man  and  a  Brahman  woman,  which  definition,  fostering  no 

the  people,  from  the  highest  to  the  lowest,  in  miserable  thraldom.  The 
simple  and  unsophisticated  Gond  tribes  are  believed  to  be  expert  necro- 
mancers, '  and  on  the  most  intimate  footing  with  evil  spirits.'  Considering 
their  secluded  position  from  civilized  life,  their  gross  ignorance,  and  the 
soUtary  jungles  they  live  in,  it  is,  perhaps,  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  the 
people  invariably  impute  their  misfortunes  to  witchcraft." 

Compare  also  the  article  "  Gonds  and  Kurkus,"  by  Mr.  W.  Eamsay  in 
the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  I,  pp.  128,  129  :  "  The  Gond  admits  none  of  the 
Hindu  divinities  into  his  pantheon,  and  is  moreover  bound  on  occasions  of 
death  to  slay  a  cow  and  pour  its  blood  on  the  grave  to  ensure  peace  and  rest 
for  the  manes  of  the  departed.  In  my  experience,  Gonds  almost  always 
bury  their  dead.  .  .  The  Gond  deities  are  numerous  :  hill  tops  deified  are 
favorite  objects  of  adoration."  Mr.  Ramsay  treats  on  the  same  subject 
on  pp.  348-50,  and  he  observes :  "  It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  one  of  the 
ceremonies  after  a  death  consists  in  killing  a  cow  and  sprinkling  its  blood 
over  the  grave  ;  in  default  of  this  it  is  said  that  the  spirit  of  the  departed 
refuses  to  rest,  andietuxns  upon  earth  to  haunt  its  relatives  in  life."  Allu- 
sions to  the  Gonds  are  also  contained  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  yo\.  Ill, 
p.  224 ;  vol.  VI,  p.  233  ;  vol.  IX,  p.  140,  and  vol.  X.  p.  321. 

Kead  also  the  remarks  on  the  Khonds  in  Sir  W.  "W.  Hunter's  Orissa, 
vol.  II,  pp.  67-102,  283-8,  and  the  article  "  On  the  Uriya  and  Kondh 
Population  of  Orissa"  by  Lieut.  J.  P.  Frye,  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society,  vol.  XVII  (I860),  pp.  1-38. 

M  See  p.  32. 


doubt  the  prejudices  of  caste  by  assigning  to  tbe  detested 
offspring  of  such  persons  a  despised  rank,  does  not  explain 
the  ethnological  position  of  the  original  Oandalas.^"  The 
late  Rev.  Dr.  John  Wilson  was,  so  far  as  I  know,  the  first 
to  recognize  in  the  Oandalas  the  Kandaloi  of  Ptolemy.^' 
The  name  of  the  Candalas  has  great  similarity  with  that 
of  the  Rajput  Oandels  (whose  Gond  origin  is  an  admitted 
fact),  Oandas,  Candaks,  and  Candani-s,  and  others.  The 
Candalas  prevail  in  the  Gaudian  districts  of  the  North,  for, 
of  the  1,779,047  Oandalas  who  appear  in  the  Indian  Census 
report,  173,532  live  in  Assam,  1,576,076  in  Bengal,  and 
29,489  in  the  Central  Provinces. 

Konda  is  even  now  a  name  common  to  Candalas,  so  that 
their  original  identity  with  the  Gond  race  is  likewise  sug- 
gested by  this  circumstance. 

I  must  also  not  omit  to  allude  here  to  the  Kuntalas  (Kon- 
talas),  Kundalas  and  other  tribes  who  are  mentioned  in 
Sanskrit  writings.  The  famous  capital  Kimdina  (Kundina- 
pura)  where  Bhisma  or  Bhismaka  held  his  court,  so  celebrated 

'"'  Compare  ManavadharmaSastra,  X,  12  : 

Sudradayogavah  ksatta.  candalas  cadhamo  nrnam. 
VaiSyarajanyaTiprasu  jayante  varnasafikarah. 

About  the  Candalas  compare  also  Mahdbhdrata,  AnuSasanaparva,  2621, 
and  J.  Muir'a  Sanskrit  Texts,  vol.  I,  p.  481. 

Consult  also  the  Memoirs  of  the  Origin  of  Slaves,  by  Eamappa  Karmk  of 
Barkur,  translated  and  annotated  by  Mr.  Joseph  Saldanha,  Court  Sheristadar 
at  Mangalore,  and  printed  by  Dr.  Shortt  in  the  TV  Part  of  The  Rill  Ranges 
of  Southern  India,  pp.  15-37;  p.  17  :  "Sub -division  of  Chandalas  .  .  The 
Chandalas  are  subdivided  as  follows :  a.  Hambatar  or  Fammadas,  b.  Panar, 
c.  Hasalar,  d.  Paravar,  e.  Belar  or  Medarar,  /.  Battadar,  g.  Merar, 
h.  Karajar,  i.  Asadi,  j.  Holeya,  J.  Madiga,  I.  Bakada  with  three 
Bub-divisions,  I.  Chnjana  Bakada,  II.  Turibina  Bakada,  III.  Goddina 
Bakada,  m.  NuUga,  n.  Kappata  Koragar,  u.  Soppina  Koragar.  (This  class 
speak  a  language  peculiar  to  themselves  which  they  won't  give  out  under 
any  circumstances.)" 

The  Hindu  Law  recognizes  fifteen  different  classes  of  Slaves  or  Candalas. 

'1  Read  Dr.  John  Wilson's  Indian  Caste,  vol.  I,  p.  57 :  "A  Chandala,  the 
lowest  of  mortals,  whose  tribe  is  recognized  by  Ptolemy  as  that  of  the  Kandali 
or  Gondali,  on  the  river  Tapti,  perhaps  the  Gonds — adjoining  the  Fhyllitae 
of  the  same  author,  identified  as  the  BhilU — or  the  Gcmdhalis,  still  a  wander- 
ing tribe  of  the  Maharashtra." 


by  his  beautiful  daughter  Eukmini,  may  perhaps  be  con- 
nected with  the  aboriginal  Gond  race. 

Khande  Rdva  (Khandoba)  or  Khandoji  is,  like  Bhairava, 
an  incarnation  of  Siva  and  much  worshipped  by  the  lower 
classes  in  the  Maratha  country.  In  that  district  he  is  every 
where  revered  as  a  house-hold  deity  and  numerous  temples 
are  erected  for  his  worship.  The  shepherds  claim  him  as  their 
tutelary  deity.  He  is  most  frequently  represented  as  riding 
on  horseback,  attended  by  a  dog  and  accompanied  by  his  wife 
Makara,  another  form  of  Parvati.  As  he  generally  carries 
in  his  hand  a  big  sword,  his  name  is  popularly  derived  from 
hhande,  sword.  I  regard  this  explanation  as  very  problem- 
atic, and,  taking  him  as  a  representative  national  deity, 
prefer  to  connect  his  name  with  the  aboriginal  Khand  people 
of  Khandesh  and  its  neighbourhood.  It  is  now  perhaps 
impossible  to  ascertain  whether  his  worship  is  connected 
with  the  existence  of  a  deified  Khand  leader.  No  historical 
record  on  this  topic  has  come  to  us.  I  explain  the  common 
term  Khandoba  as  originating  from  Klianda  (khande)  -j-  ha, 
a  famQiar  Marathi  form  for  hapa,  father ;  compare  Ganesa 
Qanoha,  Mahisa  Mdhsohd,  Vitthala  Vithobd,  Viuayaka  Vinobd, 


'^  Atout  "Konda,  a  name  common  to  Chandalas,"  see  Rev.  W.  Reeve'a 
Canareseand  English  Dictionary ,Te-naei  by  Dr.  Sanderson,  p.  326.  The  name 
of  Khande  Rdva  is  in  Molesworth's  Marathi  amd  English  Dictionary  (second 
edition),  p.  193,  explained  as  :  "  ig^^J^,  m.  (jg^  Sword,  and  ^j^)  An 
incarnation  of  Shiva."  The  word  jg^  is  peculiarly  enough  not  found  in  this 
Marathi  dictionary  in  the  sense  of  sword,  though  seven  different  meanings  of 
this  word  are  given  on  p.  191  and  nine  various  renderings  of  jgj^are 
contained  on  p.  202,  without,  however,  mentioning  that  of  sword.  The 
Hindustani  \h\^-khdndd,  sword,  is  explained  as  a  derivation  of  the  Sanskrit 
j^-kkadya.  Ehanda  in  the  Uriya  language  signifies  a  sword.  Even  il  this 
etymology  is  correct,  it  is  not  at  all  necessary  that  the  term  khande  in 
Khande  Rdva  has  the  same  origin.  Many  Indian  gods  carry,  like  Khandoid 
a  sword,  hut  are  not  called  after  it. 

The  Hindu  Pantheon  by  Edward  Moor,  F.R.S.,  Madras,  1864,  contains 
on  pp.  285,  286,  an  account  of  Khandoba  :  "  What  I  have  to  relate  of 
Kandeh  Rao  is  gathered  chiefly  .from  Poona  Brahmans ;  who  state,  that  Siva 
became    incarnate    in  his   personage   for   the    purpose    of   destroying  an 



It  is  perhaps  worth  mentioning  here  that  the  Gaudian 
Koragas,  of  whom  I  shall  speak  in  the  next  chapter,  place 
on  a  hillock  a  stone,  which  they  worship,  while  most  of  the 

oppreasive  giant,  named  Mani-mal,  at  a  place  in  the  Camatic,  called 
Themer.  Farvaii^  they  say,  under  the  name  of  Malsma,  accompanied  her 
lord,  who  appeared  as  a  man  clothed  in  green.  .:  he  is  generally  represented 
■with  Parvati  on  horseback,  attended  frequently  by  a  dog.  The  giant  Mani- 
mal  made  a  most  desperate  defence  against  Kandeh  Rao's  attack,  but  was 
at  length  slain:  whereupon  all  the  oppressed  subjects  of  this  giant  paid 
adoration  to  Fandek  Rao,  to  the  number,  as  the  story  goes,  of  seven  Kroor  of 
people,  whence  this  Avatara  is  called  Tehl-hhut :  Yehl,  in  a  dialect  of  the 
Camatic,  being  seven,  and  Khut,  or  Koot,  being  a  Mahrata  pronunciation 
of  Kroor  (100,00,000),  a  hundred  lakh,  or  ten  millions."  About  Khapdoba 
consult  also  Rev.  Stevenson's  article  "  On  the  Modem  Deities  worshipped 
by  the  Hindus  in  the  Bekkan  "  in  i\ie  Journal  of  the  Mo-yal  Asiatic  Society , 
vol.  VII,  pp.  105-112.  "  The  first  in  order  of  the  modem  deities  is  Khan- 
doba,  as  he  is  usually  termed  by  way  of  respect,  or  more  properly  Khande 
Eao.  This  name  may  have  been  given  him  from  his  breaking  the  hosts  of 
his  enemies,  or  from  his  wearing  a  particular  kind  of  sword  called  in 
Marathi  '  khanda.'  His  Sanskrit  name  is  Mallari,  which  has  been  given  him 
from  the  Daitya  he  vanquished.  This  name  is  corrupted  into  Mahhar. 
There  is  a  legend  relative  to  this  deity  called  the  Mallari  Mahatmya,  which 
professes  to  belong  to  the  Kshetra  Kanda  of  the  Brahmanda  Parana.  It 
is  a  dialogue  between  Parvati  and  Mahadeva,  the  latter  of  whom  merely 
repeats  what  Sanat  Kumara  narrated  formerly  to  the  sages  engaged  in  per- 
forming austerities  in  the  Naimisha  forest.  The  scene  of  this  romance  is  laid 
at  a  low  range  of  hills  called  in  Sanskrit  the  Mani  Chuda  (jewel  cliff)  and  in 
Marathi,  Khade  Pathar  (table-land  above  the  cliff).  The  town  of  Jejurl, 
which  lies  about  thirty  miles  east  from  Poonah,  is  built  close  to  its  western 
extremity.  At  this  place,  according  to  the  legend,  certain  Brahmans  were 
interrupted  in  their  devotions  by  a  Daitya  called  MaUa,  who  with  his  brother 
Mani  and  a  great  army.  .  .beat  and  ill-used  the  Brahmans  . .  .In  Sir  John  Mal- 
colm's account  of  the  Bhils,  in  the  first  volume  of  the  Transactions  »/  the  Royal 
Asiatic  Society,  mention  is  made  of  a  powerful  tribe  of  these  freebooters, 
who  derive  their  origin  from  a  place  called  Toran  MaUa.  Their  remotest 
ancestor,  in  the  same  account,  is  said  to  have  murdered  a  Brahman,  and 
carried  offi  his  daughter  ;  and  one  of  their  patriarchs,  Kunda  Rana,  with  his 
brothers,  to  have  conquered  and  ruled  over  all  the  surrounding  country.  By 
some  one  of  that  tribe  probably  the  Brahmans  were  oppressed  when  they  called 
in  the  aid  of  some  other  local  prince  called  Khande  Rao  .  .  .  The  Champaka 
Shashti  is  directed  to  be  held  particularly  sacred  to  Mallari.  It  is  the  sixth 
day  of  the  increase  of  the  moon  in  the  month  Margasirsha  (November- 
December).  This  is  the  great  day  accordingly  at  Jejnri,  where  Khandoba's 
principal  temple  is.  It  formerly  stood  on  the  top  of  the  hill,  but  on  being  re- 
edified  by  Malhar  Eao  Holkar,  the  first  famous  Maratha  leader  of  that 
name,  whose  family  god  Khande  Rao  was,  the  site  was  changed  to  a  level 
spot,  but  a  little  way  from  the  base  of  the  mountain.  The  approach  is  by  a 
pretty  broad  flight  of  stone  stairs  . .  .  The  tliird  landing-place  is  the  platform 


other  Candalas  of  the  district  revere  a  deity  called  Kandiya, 
■who  is  most  probably  identical  with  Khandoba.^' 

In  a  similar  way  I  am  inclined  to  associate  the  name  of 
the  Khandesh  district  with  Khanda.  Khandesh  can  be 
explained  as  signifying  the  Khaud  country,  Khanda  + 
deSa,  Khandadeid  contracted  into  KhandeSa,  Khandesh.  It 
is  also  possible  to  interpret  it  as  the  name  of  the  lord  of 
the  Khands,  Khanda.,  +  tid,  Khandesa.^* 

Some  religious  customs  can  be  traced  to  the  Gonds.  It 
is  thus  not  unlikely  that  the  Grondana  worship,  in  which 
the  Maratha  Brahmans  and  other  Hindus  revere  ParvatI, 
is  of  Gond  origin,  equally  as  the  Qondala  ceremony  among 
the  Kolis.  In  this  case  the  tribal  name  of  the  Gaudian 
Gondhalis  has  been  substituted  to  call  the  performance 
after  the  performers,  which  circumstance  was  forgotten  in 
course  of  time.     The  term  Pariah  in  its  wrong  derivation 

of  the  temple . . .  Inside  there  is  the  image  of  Khande  Rao  and  his  wife 
Mhalsa,  placed  behind  a  Linga,  which  is  raised  a  little  from  the  floor  .  .  . 
Although  from  the  local  nature  of  the  worship  of  Khande  Bao,  the  surname 
of  Eao,  and  the  engrafting  of  this  worship  on  the  more  ancient  adoration  of 
the  Linga,  it  would  appear  to  he  comparatively  modem,  stiU  we  cannot  trace 
its  origin  by  the  light  of  authentic  history." 

The  passage  in  the  Gazetteer  of  Aurcmgabad,  pp.  344-346,  is  taken  from 
this  account,  to  which  is  added  the  statement  that ' '  Khande  Rao  or  Khan- 
doba  of  Ujain  was  the  great  champion  of  Brahmanism  in  the  seventh  century 
of  the  Christian  era."     The  authority  of  this  statement  is  unknown  to  me. 

About  the  worship  of  KhandSbd  compare  also  the  Indian  Antiqimry,  vol. 
X,  p.  286,  in  the  article  MnrUs  and  Wdghias. 

"  In  the  Memoir  of  the  Origin  of  Slaves  we  read  on  p.  28:  "The  two 
classes  of  Koragars  place  some  stone  on  a  hillock,  worship  it  by  performing 
Puja,  as  the  god  of  Koragars.  The  remaining  classes  worship  a  deity  called 
Kandiya  and  pay  her  vows." 

"  About  the  name  of  Khandesh  compare  "  Rough  Notes  on  Khandesh" 
by  W.  F.  Sinclair,  Bo.C.S.,  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  IV,  p.  108  :  "  The 
term  Khandesh  is  of  doubtful  derivation.  It  has  been  supposed  to  refer  to  the 
title  of  Khan  used  by  the  Sultans  of  Burhanpur,  and  has  also  been  derived 
from  Kdnh-desh,  '  land  of  Krishna, '  (conf .  Kanhpur) ;  from  Tan-desh,  '  the 
land  of  thirst  '  in  allusion  to  its  arid  plains  and  scanty  rainfall ;  facetiously 
from  Kantadesh,  '  the  land  of  thorns,'  in  which  it  certainly  abounds  ;  and 
finally  the  author  of  the  Ayini  Ahhari  and  other  Musulman  writers  allude  to 
it  as  '  Khandesh,  otherwise  called  Dandesh,'  which  might  be  derived  from 
'  DangdeSa,'  the  mountain  and  the  plain.     .  I  am  inclined  myself  to 


from  parai,  drum,  offers  a  parallel  example^  as  I  have  pre- 
viously explained  on  p.  32. '' 

If  Gondophares  can  be  accepted  as  the  actual  name  of 
the  well-known  Parthian  king  who  ruled  in  North-Western 
India  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Peshawar,  one  may  possibly 
associate  his  name  with  that  of  the  Gaudian  or  Gond  tribe. 
However,  the  name  appears  in  so  many  variations  on  coins 
and  inscriptions  that  it  is  a  difficult  matter  to  settle.  On  the 
Greek  obverse  of  some  coins  we  read  Yndop/ierres,  which 
Dr.  Aurel  Stein  inclines  to  identify  with  the  Old-Persian 
Vindaferna,  winning  glory.  On  the  Arian-Pali  reverse 
Gudaphara  or  Gadaphara  is  generally  found.  The  name  of 
Gondophares  is  of  additional  interest  as  the  legend  connects 
it  with  the  visit  of  the  Apostle  Thomas  to  India.  The 
locality  of  the  adventures  of  Saint  Thomas  was  eventually 
transplanted  to  South  India ;  and  MaUapur,  now  a  suburb  of 

believe  in  the  derivation  froni  Kanh,  and  to  suppose  that  it  was  afterwards 
altered  by  the  Musulmans  to  the  modem  form.  Krishna,  under  the  name  of 
Khandoha,  is  at  this  day,  and  would  seem  to  have  long  heen,  a  favorite 
divinity  in  the  country." 

By  substituting  Khandoba  for  Kr^na  Mr.  Sinclair  supports  my  theory, 
though  Khapdldba  as  a  representation  of  Siva  could  hardly  be  identical 
with  Krsna. 

'*  See  "  An  Account  of  the  Mhadeo  Kolies,"  by  Captain  A.  Macintosh  in 
the  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science,  vol.  V,  pp.  108-111 :  "Whatever 
malady  man,  woman,  or  child,  or  even  their  cattle,  may  be  seized  with,  the 
Kolies  imagine  it  is  produced  by  the  agency  of  some  evil  spirit  or  offended 
deity  ....  two  or  three  sheep  are  sacrificed  as  a  peace-oSering  to  the 
goddess  Bhoany  (Dewee)  and  the  gods  Khundobah  and  Bhyroo,  and  the 
Gondhul  ceremony  takes  place  afterwards." 

In  H.  H.  Wilson's  Glossary  we  read  on  p.  182  :  "  Oondana,  Gondala,  or 
Gondii,  Gondhala,  or  Gondal.  A  tumultuous  festivity  in  honour  of  the 
goddess  Devi,  celebrated,  even  in  Mysore,  chiefly  by  Maratha  Brahmans,  it 
being  a  Maratha  festival  (from  the  Mar.  Gondhala,  tumult,  bustle),  consist- 
ing of  music,  and  dancing,  and  recitation  of  mythological  stories  .  .  .  It  ia 
probably  the  same  thing  as  the  Gondhal." 

"  Gondhali,  incorrectly  Gondali,  and  Gondii,  or  Gondlee,  corruptly 
GoneduUee.  The  name  of  a  caste,  or  individual  of  it,  whose  business  it  is  to 
sing  and  dance,  and  perform  the  Gondhal :  in  some  places  the  Gondhali  is 
the  village  drummer,  sometimes  he  is  a  vagrant  musician,  dancer,  and 
tumbler,  or  subsists  by  begging." 

Read  also  Historical  and  Descriptive  Sketch  of  Sis  Sickness  (he  Nizam's 
Dominions,  vol.  I,  pp.  316,  317  :   "  The  Gondhalis.—M.emheia  of  this  sect.  . 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  161 

Madras,  is  pointed  out  as  the  place  of  his  last  mission  and  of 
his  passion.  Peculiarly  enough,  we  find  that  the  Eaja  of 
Mailapur,  who  is  associated  with  Saint  Thomas,  is  called 
Kandappa,  a  name  which  has  some  resemblance  with  Ganda- 
phares,  a  variation  of  Gondophares.  It  must,  however,  he 
mentioned  that  Kanda  or  Kandappa  is  the  Tamil  form  of 
Skanda,  the  well-known  Subrahmanya,  whose  vehicle  is  the 
peacock,  in  Tamil  m-ayil,  lduSsu.  Professor  Gutschmid  has 
identified  Gundophares  with  Caspar,  one  of  the  three  Magi 
who  went  to  Bethlehem.  I  have  already  explained  in  my 
monograph  on  Prester  John  the  names  of  the  three  holy 
kings  as  representing  the  countries  whence  they  came. 
Melehior,  king  of  Nubia,  became  thus  Malki  y'or,  king  of 
the  Nile,  Balthasar,  king  of  Saba,  Behazzar,  king  of  the 
Chaldaeans,  and  Kaspar,  king  of  T  arsis  in  Central  Asia, 
Kas-hdr,  the  ruler  of  the  Casia  regio.^^ 

are  distributed  chiefly  in  the  Bider,  Naldrug,  Aurangahad,  Birh  and  Nandair 
districts.  They  are  usually  attached  to  temples,  though  some  are  wandering 
mendicants.  Numbers  of  them  are  found  at  Tuljapur.  They  perform  what 
is  known  as  the  Gondhal  ceremony  at  the  houses  of  Brahmins  in  the 
Dasara,  Hanmnan's  birthday  and  the  cocoanut  holidays.  This  ceremony 
can  only  be  performed  by  married  members  of  tie  sect,  and  those  so  entitled 
to  perform  it  wear  a  string  of  cowries  round  their  necks.  They  biiry  their 
dead  and  shave  their  beards  as  a  sign  of  mourning."  See  Gazetteer  of 
Aurangabad,  p.  309  :  "  They  dance  at  Hindu  weddings  with  a  lighted  torch 
in  their  hands." 

Compare  note  51  on  p.  166. 

"  The  variations  of  Gondaphares  are :  Gandophares,  Gundopharus, 
Gundoforus,  Yndopheres,  Gudaphara,  Gadaphara,  Godaphara. 

See  on  this  subject  The  Coins  of  the  Greeh  and  Bcythlc  Kings  of  Bactria  and 
India  in  the  British  Museum,  by  Percy  Gardner,  ll.d.,  edited  by  E.  S.  Poole, 
LL.D.  ;  Introduction,  pp.  xliii,  xlvi,  Ixxiii ;  103-107,  174.  "With  respect 
to  dental  and  lingual  d  the  editor  makes  on  p.  Ixx  the  remark  :  "  I  cannot 
distinguish  on  the  coins  between  na  and  na,  daemd  da."  The  nasal  in  Gu 
(6a  or  &o)  daphara  has  been  omitted  as  in  the  name  of  Menander,  which 
is  spelt  Menadra. 

Read  also  Dr.  M.  Aurel  Stein's  Zoroastrian  Deities  on  Indo-Scythian 
Coins,  p.  13. 

Among  the  articles  of  the  pioneers  of  Indian  Archaeology  consult 
T.  Prinsep's  Note  on  the  Historical  Jiesults  dedwiihle  from  recent  Discoveries 
in  Afghanistan,  London,  1844,  and  his  Mssaya  on  Indian  Antiquities  ;  H.  H. 
"Wilson's  Ariana  Antiqua,  pp.  256,  340,  342  ;  Christian  Lassen's  monograph 
Zur  Oeschichte  der  Griechiscken  tmd  Indoskythiaehen  Konige  and  especially  in 



On  the  Kodagas,  Koeagas,  Koravas,  Todas,  and  Kotas. 
The  Kodagas. 
The  Kodagas  or  Kurgs  are  the  inhabitants  of  Kurg  and 
represent  the  dominant  trihe  of  that  province.  They  are  a 
hardy  race,  independent  and  proud  of  the  liberty  they 
enjoy.  A  foreign  dynasty  of  Lingayat  Rajas  ruled  over 
them  till  1834.  Their  country  is  generally  called  Kudagu 
or  Kodagu,  which  term  signifies,  according  to  my  opinion, 
mountain-tract.  The  beginning  of  this  word  means  moun- 
tain, and  the  suffix  gu  is  added  to  its  end.  A  Kurgman 
is  called  Kodagan  or  Kudagan,  but  the  term  Kutavan  is 
used  in  Malayalam  besides  Kutakan  for  the  gutturals,  as  we 
have  seen,  interchange  occasionally  with  the  semi-vowel  v. 
The  syllable  an  indicates  the  pronoun  of  the  third  person 

his  Indisehe  Alterthumshunde,  vol.  II,  pp.  391-397  :  "In  dem  dritten  von 
diesen  Eeichen,  dessen  Daaeyn  nur  durch  die  MUnzen  uns  bezeugt  wird,  in 
Arachoaien  war  Yndopherres  oder  Oondophares  der  Wiederhersteller  der 
Parthischen  Herrschaft.  Die  letztere  Form  is  die  eiiiheiinische  gewesen,  weil 
Bie  in  den  Arianischen  Insohriften  vorkommt  .  .  (Wo  die  Vocalzeichen  noch 
vorhanden  sind,  ist  der  Name  Gudiiphara  zu  lesen,  das  «  aclieint  nicht 
bezeichnet  zu  seyn,  wenigstena  nicht  wie  auf  den  Miinzen  dea  Menandros)  .  . 
Seine  Miinzen  stellen  uns  gleichsam  im  Umrisse  die  Geachichte  seiner 
Thaten  vor  .  .  .  Zwei  seiner  Typen  aind  zweifelhaf ter  Deutung  .  .  .  Die 
z-weite  iat  ihm  und  aeinem  NacUolger  eigenthiimlich.  Auf  dieser  Miinze 
ersoheint  eine  Gestalt  in  Indischer  Tracht  mit  einem  Zepter ;  vielleicht  ist 
es  der  Konig  aelbst.  Wenn  dieses  richtig  ist,  kann  daraus  gefolgert  werden, 
dasB  er,  wenn  auch  nicht  eigentliche  Inder,  was  unmoglich  ist,  doch  Unter- 
thanen  gehabt  habe,  deren  Gebrauche  nur  wenig  von  jenen  aich  unterachie- 
den,  und  denen  er  seine  Achtung  dadurch  beweisen  wollte,  dass  er  zugleich 
sich  ihnen  in  Parthischer  and  in  Indischer  Tracht  zeigte." 

Specially  noticed  shoiJd  be  also  Sir  Alexander  Cunningham'a  writinga, 
e.g.,  hia  "  Coina  of  the  Indian  Buddhiat  Satraps  with  Greek  inscrip- 
tions," in  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  vol.  XXIII,  pp. 
711-13;  his  remarks  in  the  Archaohigical  Survey  of  India,  vol.  II, 
pp.  59-61,  vol.  V,  pp.  60,  62,  and  vol.  XIV,  pp.  48,  116.  See  further 
JJie  Kachfolger  Alexander  des  Grossen  in  Bactrien  and  Indien  yon  Alfred 
von  SaUet ;  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  p.  309  ;  vol.  IX,  pp.  258-263  ; 
vol.  X,  p.  214  ;  vol.  XII,  p.  7  ;  my  book  Ler  Presbyter  Johannes  in  Sage 
vvrl  Oeschichte,  zweite  verbesserte  Auflage,  pp.  7,  41  and  228  ;  Die  Kirche  der 
Thomas-Christen  von'Di.  W.  Germann,  pp.  16,  22,  26,  100. 

OF    BHAEATAVAR8A    OK    INDIA.  163 

The  derivation  of  the  word  Kodagu  is  a  disputed  point 
among  scholars.  Dr.  Ghindert  feels  inclined  to  connect  it 
with  kotu,  steep,  the  Eev.  F.  Kittel  connects  it  with  the  root 
kud,  and  Bishop  Caldwell  gives  as  its  meaning  either  curved 
or  west.  I  believe  that  Kodagu  or  Kudaku  is  in  reality  a 
name,  and  that  the  signification  West  is  derived  from  it. 
To  the  Tamil  people  Kudagu  is  a  western,  but  to  the 
Malayalis  ii  is  an  eastern  district.  We  find  thus  that  the 
king  of  Cera  is  called  in  Tamil  the  king  of  the  West  or 
Kiidakon  (Kudako  and  KudansLtan),  while  the  king  of  Konnu 
or  Cera  is  in  Malayalam  the  king  of  the  East,  and  Cerakarru 
is  a  name  of  the  East- wind.  Konnu  signifies  according  to 
Dr.  Gundert  mountain-declimty ,  and,  though  a  general  name 
of  the  Cera  (or  Kerala)  country,  it  is  particularly  applied 
to  the  Coimbatore  district.  Moreover,  kudakku  for  west  is  a 
special  Tamil  expression  and  not  found  in  the  other  kindred 
tongues.  Even  Tamil  generally  uses  in  its  stead  the  more 
common  term  merku.  I  feel  therefore  inclined  to  explain 
the  Tamil  meaning  of  kudakku  as  west  from  the  situation 
of  the  Kurg  country  which  occupies  a  prominent  position. 
Just  in  the  same  way  the  south-wind  is  called  in  Tamil 
Colakam  after  the  southern  Cola  country  whence  it  blows.*' 

"  Kurg  is  Kodagu  in  Kanarese,  Tulu  and  Telugu,  Kudahn  and  Kudakam 
in  Tamil,  and  Kutaku  or  Kotaku  in  Malayalam.  Kutavan  and  Kutaman 
signify  in  Malayalam  a  predial  slave,  while  Eutiyan  means  a  slave  in  Kurg. 
The  latter  term  may  have  been  perhaps  derived  from  the  word  kuti,  house. 
With  respect  to  the  interchange  of  g  and  v  compare  in  Telugu  poga  and  povti, 
earring ;  pagadamu  and  pavadamu,  coral ;  aguta  and  avuta,  to  he.  Consult 
C.  P.  Brown's  Telugu  Grammar,  and  see  p.  28. 

Respecting  the  name  Kodagu  the  Kev.  F.  Kittel  makes  the  following  re- 
marks jn  a  note  to  his  article  "  Three  Kongu  Inscriptions  "  in  the  Indian 
Atitiquary,  vol.  VI,  pp.  99-103  :  "  As  eYinced  by  the  pronunciation  of  Kan- 
arese, Kodaga,  and  other  peoples,  the  name  of  the  country  is  Kongu  (not  Kongu 
with  the  long  Sanskrit  o  ) ;  an  inhabitant  of  that  country,  now-a-days  often 
identified  with  the  Koyambuttur  (Coimbatore)  district,  is  called  a  Konga. 
Thus  also  Kodagu  (Coorg)  is  the  country,  and  Kodaga,  a  native  of  Coorg. 
Koiigini,  Konguni,  Kongani  are  Sanskritized  forms.  Though  Kongu  and 
Kodagu  more  than  probably  have  the  same  root  {Kud),  there  seems  to  be  no 
historical  proof  for  the  identity  of  the  names.  Among  the  Kodagaa  of  our 
time  there  is  a  well-known  family  called  the  Kongo,  house, — a  secondary 


It  is  not  impossible  that  the  ancestors  of  the  present 
Kodagas,  unless  they  are  regarded  as  aborigines,  immi- 
grated at  a  later  period  into  Kurg.  In  those  early  days  the 
Billavas  and  the  Kurumbas^  the  two  representatives  of  the 
ancient  Drayidian  and  Gaudian  tribes,  were  already  living 
on  these  mountains,  as  well  as  the  Holeyas  and  Teravas, 
who  probably  had  not  been  degraded  into  bondslaves  and 

The  principal  divisions  among  the  Kurgs  are  the  priestly 
or  Amma-Kodagas  and  the  Lay-Kodagas.'^  Both  classes 
are  of  Graudian  origin,  though  the  Kaveri  Purana  represents 
the  Amma-Kodagas  as  Brahmans,  who  had  been  cursed  by 
Agastya.  Brahmanic  tradition  assigns  to  the  ancient  Tulu 
priests  a  similar  fabulous  history.  These  are  said  to  have 
been  fishermen,  whom  Parasurama  had  elevated  into  Brah- 
mans by  investing  them  with  the  holy  thread  torn  from 
the  cords  of  their  nets,  but  whom  he  afterwards  again  de- 
graded as  unbelievers.     The  Amma-Kodagas  were  probably 

evidence  aa  to  the  influence  of  the  Koftgas  over  at  least  a  portion  of  Coorg. 
It  would  be  of  some  interest  to  know  in  what  document  Kodagu  is  first 
mentioned.*'  Bishop  Caldwell  gives  in  the  introduction  to  his  Comparative 
Grammar  of  the  Drividian  Languages,  second  edition,  two  different  explana- 
tions of  the  word  Kodagu.  On  p.  22  he  says  :  "  The  word  Kongu,  one  of 
the  names  of  the  Chera  country,  means,  like  Kudagu  (Coorg),  crooked, 
curved,  and  is  evidently  a  name  derived  from  the  configuration  of  the 
country;"  and  on  p.  36  he  writes :  "  The  native  spelling  of  Coorg  is  usually 
Kodagu,  properly  Kudagu,  from  Jciida,  west,  a  meaning  of  the  word  which  is 
usual  in  ancient  Tamil. "  The  original  meaning  of  Kurg  is  often  explained 
as  signifying  western,  but  this  explanation  like  the  others  proposed  by  the 
two  previously  mentioned  scholars  appears  to  me  improbable. 

*'  See  Coorg  Memoirs  ;  an  Account  of  Coorg. .  by  the  Rev.  H.  Moegling, 
Bangalore,  1855 ;  the  Rev.  G.  Richter's  Manual  of  Coorg  (1870)  and  his  Ethno- 
graphical Compendium  on  the  Castes  and  Tribes  found  in  the  Province  of  Coorij, 
Bangalore,  1887  ;  as  well  as  Mr.  Lewis  Rice's  Mysore  and  Coorg,  vol.  III. 
Moegling  gives  on  pp.  1-10  a  description  of  the  Kurg  country. 

^^  According  to  A  Manual  of  Coorg  Civil  Law,  by  Captain  R.  Cole,  p.  i, 
"  There  are  four  different  sects  or  tribes  amongst  the  Coorgs,  viz.,  1.  Amma, 
2.  Sanna,  3.  Malta,  4.  Boddu  Ooorgs.  Amongst  these  sects  the  Amma  and 
Banna  Coorgs  are  to  be  found  in  aU  parts  of  Coorg  proper,  whilst  the  Boddu 
Coorgs  are  chiefly  found  to  the  north  of  Mercara.  The  Malta  Coorgs  are 
amalgamated  with  the  ^anna  Coorgs  and  are  no  longer  distinguishable." 


SO  called  after  Amma  Kaveri  or  Mother  Kaveri,  whom  they 
worship,  though  they  do  not  assist  at  any  ceremonies  at  the 
Kaveri  temple.  In  fact  for  a  considerable  period  the  Amma- 
Kodagas  do  not  appear  to  have  performed  any  priestly  func- 
tions at  all.  They  hardly  surpass  their  lay  countrymen 
in  education,  and  they  live  entirely  on  agriculture.  They 
possess  no  sacred  hooks  of  their  own,  and  their  influenca  is 
very  limited.  Some  years  back  they  could  scarcely  be  dis- 
tinguished from  the  other  Kurgs,  and  they  have  only  lately 
discarded  their  national  costume,  in  order  to  imitate  the 
Brahmans  in  their  dress  and  food.  They  wear  now  the 
sacred  thread  and  abstain  from  animal  food  and  liquor. 
According  to  tradition,  the  Ammas  owned  once  half  of  the 
Kurg  country  free  of  rent,  while  the  other  half  belonged  to 
the  Lay  Kurgs.  But  circumstances  have  changed  much  of 
late,  and  the  Amma-Kodagas  are  not  only  greatly  reduced 
in  numbers,  but  are  still  continuing  to  decrease.^" 

™  Compare  Coorg  Memoirs  of  the  Rev.  H.  Moegliug,  pp.  24-27  :  "When 
the  Brahmans  for  whom  Parashurama's  victory  opened  the  Western  Coast, 
settled  in  their  new  country,  they  found  there  an  indigenous  priesthood. 
They  could  not  destroy  them  ;  they  could  not,  or  would  not,  amalgamate 
with  them.  What  was  to  be  done  ?  The  Parashurama  Shrishti  Kathe 
(history  of  the  creation  of  Kerala  by  Parashurama)  has  managed  the  difB- 
culty.  The  native  priesthood,  the  Taulava  Brahmans,  are  represented  as 
Brahmans,  created  by  Parashurama,  but  afterwards  cursed  by  him.  They 
were  originally  fishermen.  Parashurama  elevated  them  to  Brahmanical 
rank  by  investing  them  with  cords,  torn  from  their  nets.  Afterwards, 
provoked  by  their  unbelieving  presumption,  he  degraded  them  for  ever. 
Thus  the  ancient  priests  of  the  Tulu  country  were  absorbed  by  the 
Brahmanical  system  as  Brahmans,  lying  under  a  curse.  In  a  similar 
manner  the  Ammas  of  Coorg  appear  in  this  Kavgri  Purana,  as  Brahmans 
indeed  originally,  but  degraded  by  the  curse  of  the  Eishi  Agastya.  . .  The 
real  history  of  the  Ammas,  or  Amma  Kodagas  has  thus  been  effaced,  and 
cannot  be  restored.  However,  a  few  facts  may  be  mentioned  as  proofs,  that 
the  Ammas  are  the  remains  of  the  ancient  priesthood,  though  they  know  it 
not  themselves.  1 .  Their  common  name  is  Amma  Koiaga,  which  would 
naturally  signify :  Coorgs  devoted  to  the  worship  of  Amma,  i.e.,  the  goddess 
of  the  chief  river  of  the  country,  the  Kaveri.  2.  They  observe  the  great 
festivals  of  the  Coorg  country  in  the  same  manner  as  the  rest  of  the  Coorgs, 
but  of  course,  as  priests,  performing  pilja,  etc.  3.  They  dress  like  the  rest 
of  the  Coorgs,  though  wearing  at  the  same  time,  the  Brahmanical  cord. 
However,  on  this  subject  my  information  is  rather  curious.    It  is  said,  that 



The  Lay-Kurgs  were  formerly  a  warlike  race,  but  the 
long  years  of  peace  and  security  have  to  a  certain  extent 
softened  their  manners.  Still  they  are  strong  and  brave, 
and  though  now  not  called  upon  to  face  hostile  armies,  they 
courageously  encounter  the  wild  and  fierce  beasts  which 
infest  their  woods  and  mountains. 

Their  acknowledged  bravery  and  the  loyalty  they  dis- 
played towards  Government  secured  to  the  Kurgs  the  dis- 
tinction of  being  exempted  from  the  provisions  of  the 
Disarming  Act  after  the  suppression  of  the  Great  Mutiny. 

It  has  been  asserted  that  polyandry  exists,  or  has  existed, 
among  the  Kodagas,  and  though  this  practice  has  probably 
become  extinct  in  more  recent  times,  there  is  no  reason  for 
supposing  that  it  did  not  once  exist.  Polyandry  is  a  custom 
peculiar  to  the  Gauda-Dravidian  tribes,  and  is  still  found 
among  certain  races.  The  households  of  the  Ko4agas,  in 
which  two  or  three,  perhaps  even  four,  generations  live 
together,  have  been  likened  to  those  of  the  five  Pan4avas. 

having  degenerated  by  degrees,  and  being  at  last  carried  away  by  the  Turks, 
they  ceased  to  put  on  the  holy  cord,  and  began  to  wear  the  common  Coorg 
dress.  But  it  appears  to  me,  that  the  truth  differs  much  from  the  current 
statement.  I  suppose,  that  they  wore  the  Ooorg-dress  originally,  knew 
nothing  of  Brahmanical  pretensions  and  badges,  and  differed  in  nothing 
from  their  brethren,  except  their  selection  for  the  priestly  office.  In  mora 
recent  times  they  seem  to  have  inclined  towards  the  proffered  patronage  of 
the  Brahmans,  and  to  have  gradually  dropped  into  Brahmanical  habits  of 
thought  and  life.  A  good  many  now  wear  the  holy  cord,  having  laid 
aside  the  dress  of  their  country,  and  all  profess  to  abstain  from  meat  and 
fermented  liquors.  This  return  to  Brahmanical  initiation  and  dress  was 
brought  about  by  a  Haviga  Brahman,  the  late  Karnika,  Timappaya.  His 
family  still  exercise  spiritual  rule  over  the  Amma  Kodagas,  who  appear  to 
delight  in  the  shade  of  Brahmanical  patronage.  4-  They  have  no  Shastra. 
The  whole  Coorg  race  was  unlettered  from  the  beginning.  Their  own  priest- 
hood also,  like  the  priests  of  ancient  Germany  and  Britain,  had  no  need  of 
books."  Mr.  Lewis  Kice's  statements,  loco  citato,  pp.  227,  228,  coincide  with 
those  of  Mr.  Moegling.  The  Rev.  G.  Eiohter  gives  in  his  Ethnographical 
Compendium  the  following  description  of  the  Amma  Kodagas  on  p.  21 ;  "  The 
Amma  Coorgs  form  but  a  small  and  exclusive  sect.  They  are  said  to  have 
been  the  indigenous  priesthood,  but  there  is  no  distinct  priesthood  attached 
to  demon  worship.  The  Coorgs  being  demon  worshippers  can  have  had  no 
priesthood  in  the  Brahmanical  sense  and  the  Amma  Coorgs  may  rather  be 
considered  as  having  been,  like  the  Ajjala  Falyas,  the  officiating  JPuJaris  at 

OF    BHAEATAVAB8A    OB    INBIA.  167 

The  Kodagas  are  very  superstitious,  worshipping  demons  and 
evil  spirits. 

On  the  whole  the  Kodaga  is  a  very  worthy  represen- 
tative of  the  Gauda-Dravidian  race,  and  has  no  need  to  raise 
himself  in  the  esteem  of  others  by  claiming  to  be  an  Aryan 

the  bloody  sacrifices  offered  to  their  Bhutas,  an  office  which  generally  the 
head  of  the  family  performs.  Yet  their  name,  Amma  Kodagas,  denotes  that 
they  were  devotees  to  '  Mother  Xaveri,'  a  river  deity  which  is  identical  with 
Fanati,  the  wife  of  Siva.  .  It  may  be  conjectured  that  the  Brahmans  coming 
in  contact  with  the  rude  Coorg  mountaineers  and  seeing  in  the  dominant  race 
a  promising  field  to  further  their  own  interests,  imposed  upon  them  their  own 
puranic  superstition  and  peopled  the  high  mountains  with  celebrated  rishia 
or  hermits,  chief  among  them  Agastia  Muni,  and  brought  the  source  of  the 
Kaveri  in  relationship  with  the  principal  Brahmanical  deities,  Siva  and 
Farvati,  and  to  give  divine  authority  to  their  proceedings  they  foisted  upon 
the  Coorgs  the  Kaveri  Parana,  a  feat  which  may  have  overawed  a  rude  and 
superstitious  race,  but  which  by  modern  criticism  is  discovered  as  a  frau- 
dulent imposition  of  recent  date.  To  conciliate  and  win  over  the  indigenous 
Bhuta  pujaris  they  were  admitted  as  a  sort  of  inferior  priests  of  Kaveri 
Amma,  hence  their  name  Amma  Kodagas.  In  the  course  of  time  disputes 
must  have  arisen  between  them  and  the  more  crafty  and  learned  Bramanical 
priests  whose  interests  necessitated  a  monopoly  and  as  legend  has  it,  the 
former  fell  under  Kaveri  s  curse  and  decreased,  whilst  the  Coorgs  who 
sided  with  Agastia  Muni,  were  promised  increased  prosperity.  But  however 
obscure  the  history  of  the  Amma  Coorgs  may  be,  the  fact  is  that  from  time 
immemorial  they  perform  no  priestly  functions  whatever,  and  being  un- 
lettered and  ignorant  they  exercise  no  spiritual  influence  upon  the  rest  of 
the  Coorgs  from  whom  they  are  only  distinguished  by  wearing  the  Brah- 
manical cord  and  by  abstaining  from  animal  food  and  fermented  liquor. 
They  do  therefore  not  eat  with  Coorgs  nor  intermarry  with  them  ;  but  the 
Brahmans  do  in  no  wise  acknowledge  them  as  of  equal  standing  or  even 
resembling  them  in  priestly  dignity.  Their  number  does  not  exceed  400, 
and  the  next  census  wiU  likely  confirm  the  opinion  of  their  steady  decrease. 
They  live  on  agriculture  only.  It  is  said  that  a  class  of  people  Uke  the 
Amma  Kodagas  live  in  the  Wynaad,  with  whom  they  claim  relationship,  but 
have  now  no  intercourse."  The  legend  of  ParaSurftma  elevating  fishermen 
on  the  Tnluva  shore  to  Brahmans  by  destroying  the  nets  and  forming  Brah- 
manical strings  out  of  their  meshes,  is  also  contained  in  a  Kanarese  BhUgola. 
ParaSurama  became  incensed  against  them  in  consequence  of  their  attempt- 
ing to  trj-  the  truth  of  his  word. 

81  See  Coorg  Annals,  pp.  27,  ff  :  "  There  can  be  no  doubt,  that  the  Coorgs 
have  an  origin  distinct  from  the  population  both  of  the  Western  coast 
(Canara  and  Malayalam),  and  of  the  Mysore  tableland.  Their  very  ap- 
pearance proves  this.  They  are  a  tall,  muscular,  broad-chested,  well-favored 
race.     Many  of  them  do  not  exceed  the  neighbouring  tribes  in  height  of 


The  Koragas. 

A  greater  dissimilarity  can  hardly  exist  between  two 
tribes  than  is  found  between  the  Kodagas  of  Kurg  and  the 
Koragas  of  Kanara,  though  both  belong  to  the  same  Gaudian 
race.  The  free  and  independent  bearing  of  the  Kodaga 
stands  in  glaring  contrast  to  the  shy  and  retiring  demeanour 

body.  .  Their  complexion  is  rather  fair,  their  features  generally  re^lar.  .  , 
The  national  character  of  the  Coorgs  is  perhaps  tolerably  well  understood  by 
the  people  of  the  plains,  who  look  upon  them  as  a  fierce,  irascible  and  revenge- 
ful race,  not  easily  to  be  managed  .  .  .  They  have  a  strange  and  noxious 
custom,  a  kind  of  marriage -communism  within  the  family.  The  wives  of  the 
brothers  of  one  house  are  considered  as  common  property.  The  children 
consequently  are  rather  children  of  the  family,  or  of  the  mother,  than  of  the 
acknowledged  father  .  .  .  Among  the  Coorgs  the  family  property  descends 
accordingly  not  so  much  from  father  to  son,  as  from  generation  to  generation, 
the  eldest  member  acting  as  head  of  the  house.  .  In  former  days  there  was 
another  way,  my  informant  told  me,  for  contracting  marriage,  besides  family 
agreement.  Two  young  people  of  the  same  (district)  Xadu,  would  see  each 
other,  and  without  asking  counsel  of  parents  or  friends,  agree  upon  a  union 
for  life.  Such  a  covenant  would  be  held  sacred.  Unfaithfulness  in  the  case 
of  such  partners  was  a  thing  unheard  of."  Read  also  Mr.  Lewis  Eice's 
Gazetteer  ofCoorg,  pp.  93,  ff.,  203,  218,  234.  Compare  Jlr.  'Richtev' a  Ethnogra- 
phical CompendlitDi, '^. '1'.  "There  can  be  no  doubt  that  however  varied  the 
population  of  Coorg  may  be,  the  dominant  tribe,  the  Ooorgs,  as  well  as  the 
other  Hindu  castes  and  tribes  of  the  country  belong  to  the  Dravidian  race. 
. .  .  As  to  th  eir  physiognomy  and  bodily  characteristics,  essentially  there  seems 
to  be  no  difference  other  than  what  may  be  accounted  for  by  civilization  and 
social  institutions.  The  shape  of  their  heads  is  clearly  meso-cephaUc  and 
orthognntitfi  with  loss  or  more  prominent  cheek-bones  and  oval  or  pointed 
faces."  P.  3:  '  'As  to  traditional  habits  and  customs  amongst  the  people  of  Coorg 
there  is  a  great  similitude  to  the  usages  among  the  other  Dravidian  races 
modifiedof  course  by  the  diiference  of  climate  and  civilizing  influences."  P.19  : 
. .  Ibe  Coorgs  or  Xudagas,  as  they  are  properly  called,  are  the  principal  inha- 
bitants of  the  country,  and  from  time  immemorial  the  lords  of  the  soil.  For 
the  last  two  centuries  they  are  known  as  a  compact  body  of  mountaineers  who 
resemble  more  a  Scotch  clan  than  a  Hindu  caste.  .  .  However,  the  peculiar 
character  attached  to  them  is  doubtless  the  result  of  physical  and  political  cir. 
cumstances  in  which  they  were  placed.  They  are  a  tribe  more  from  position 
than  genealogy  and  cannot  be  said  to  be  of  distinct  origin.  In  the  Hindu 
scale  they  are  considered  as  Sudras.  By  the  force  of  local  circumstances 
they  became  like  other  pre- Aryan  hill  tribes  hunters  and  warriors  and 
were  brought  into  historical  prominence  through  the  chivalrous  exploits 
of  their  Eaja  Dodda  Verajender  in  his  struggle  with  Ti))pu  Sultan  for 
independence  and  his  alliance  with  the  English,  and  again  through  the 
insane  hostility  of  the  last  Raja  and  the  short  invasion  and  annexation 
of  the  country  by  the  English  in  1S34.  Now  the  Coorgs  are  peaceful 
agriculturists  and   chiefly   fill  .the  oflices   of   the  local  administration   and 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  169 

of  the  Koraga  when  he  enoounters  a  stranger  in  his  jungles. 
The  Kodaga  has  a  comparatively  fair  complexion,  while 
the  skin  of  the  Koraga  is  black ;  the  former  delights  to 
cover  himself  with  handsome  clothes,  the  latter  prefers  rags 
or  a  state  bordering  on  nudity ;  while  the  Koraga  woman  is 
even  contented  with  a  partial  covering  of  interwoven  leaves. 
In  spite  of  his  poverty  and  wretchedness,  the  Koraga  is  a 
contented  man  and  lives  happy  and  contented  so  long  as 
nobody  interferes  with  him,  and  of  course  so  long  as  he 
can  satisfy  his  hunger  and  thirst.  He  likes  meat  and  is 
fond  of  spirits.  The  dead  are  buried  according  to  Mr.  N. 
Eaghavendra  Eow,  but  burnt  according  to  Dr.  Francis 
Buchanan.     Mr.    N.    Eaghavendra   Eow   asserts  that  the 

owe  their  notable  position  to  the  special  favor  of  the  British  Government. 
Their  presumption  to  he  of  Eshatria  or  Rajput  descent  may  flatter  their 
natural  pride,  bat  has  not  the  slightest  foundation  in  history  or  tradition, 
or  in  the  evidence  derived  from  their  language  or  social  and  religious  insti- 
tutions and  customs.  Lieutenant  Connor,  whose  professional  duties  brought 
him  into  daily  intercourse  with  them  for  a  period  of  two  years,  1815-1817,  en- 
joyed the  most  favorable  opportunities  to  form  an  unbiassed  opinion  of  the 
Coorgs  before  any  European  influence  had  affected  their  habits  and  social 
position.  He  rejects  the  supposition  of  their  being  a  division  of  the  Nairs 
as  ha'\"ing  '  no  pretension  to  rank  with  the  higher  classes  of  the  Soodra  tribe.'  " 
P.  38  ;  "  The  Coorgs  are  generally  charged  with  the  practice  of  polyandry, 
and  Lieutenant  Connor  writes  of  the  custom  as  an  undoubted  fact,  the  reason 
for  which  he  fails  to  see.  He  states,  '  The  Codugus  generally  marry  after 
the  age  of  puberty,  the  nuptials  of  the  eldest  brother  are  first  celebrated, 
and  the  lady  in  all  cases  yields  a  consent  to  become  the  wife  of  the  younger 
ones,  who,  when  circumstances  will  permit,  are  married  successively,  their 
spouses  being  in  turn  not  less  accommodating.'  Upon  a  careful  and  confi- 
dential examination  of  the  matter,  I  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that,  what- 
ever may  have  been  the  custom  of  bygone  ages,  or  whatever  form  it  may 
have  assumed, — Thornton  in  his  history  of  the  British  Empire  alluding  to 
the  marriage  laws  of  the  Coorgs,  called  it  '  communism  of  wives ' — there  is  no 
such  thing  now  practised  amongst  the  Coorgs  as  a  'general  usage.'  "  P.  42  ; 
"  Rei'arding  the  religion  of  the  Coorgs  the  general  statement  already  given 
needs  some  special  remarks.  Considering  their  intimate  connection  with 
local  and  neighbouring  castes  and  tribes,  it  is  bat  natural  that  their  religious 
practices,  which  originally  stood  on  the  same  level  with  those  of  the  Soleyas, 
viz.,  demon  and  ancestor  worship,  have  been  much  influenced  by  Malayalim, 
Tulu  Kanarese,  Brahmanical  and  Lingayet  superstitions.  Malayalis  have 
made  themselves  indispensable  at  demon  and  ancestor  worship;  Tulus  have 
smuggled  in  their  demons  and  are  in  requisition  as  pujaris ;  Mysoreans  at 
certain  times  of  the  year  carry  Mari  Amma  shrines  through  the  countrj'  to 


Xoraga  does  not  like  to  volunteer  any  information  about 
his  language.  "  He  may  be  induced  to  give  an  account  of 
"  his  feasts,  his  god,  and  his  family,  but  a  word  about  his 
"  dialect  will  frighten  him  out  of  his  wits.  At  that  moment 
"  alone,  he  wUl  become  impolite  and  unmannerly.  He 
"  thinks  his  dialect  is  a  shield  in  his  hand  and  cannot 
"  be  parted  with,  and  therefore  keeps  it  as  a  sacred  secret. 
"  But  good  words  and  kind  treatment  can  do  something. 
"  A  few  words  that  have  been  gathered  with  great  difficulty 
"  resemble  those  of  the  Keikadi  and  Naikunde  Gondi  tribes 
"  of  Nagpore."  The  unwillingness  of  the  Soppina  Koragas 
to  give  information  concerning  their  language  is  also  men- 
tioned in  the  Memoirs  of  the  Origin  of  Slaves.''^ 

have  the  people's  vows  paid  to  them  ;  the  Brahmans  who  are  domiciled  in 
Coorg  have  succeeded  in  introducing  Mahadeva  and  Suhrahmamja,  in  entirely 
brahmanizing  the  worship  of  the  river  Kaveri,  in  having  temples  erected  and 
idols  set  up,  in  spreading  puranic  tales,  and  in  usurping  to  some  extent  the 
puja,  at  the  places  of  the  worship.  They  have  been  greatly  assisted  in  these 
successful  endeavours  by  the  Liiigayets  and  Sivacharis,  especially  in  the  in- 
troduction of  the  Linga.  Christianity  iirst  presented  to  them  by  the  Roman 
Catholic  settlement  in  Virajendrapet  since  the  days  of  Dodda  Virajendra,  and 
for  the  last  30  years  offered  to  them  by  the  agents  of  the  Basel  Mission .  . . 
has  made  little  progress."  Bead  also  Rev.  F.  Kittel's  articles  entitled 
Coorg  Superstitions,  The  Coorgs  and  Three  Kongu  Inscriptions  in  the  Indian 
Antiquary,  vol.  II,  pp.  168-171,  182,  and  vol.  VI,  pp.  99-103.  The  second 
article  treats  about  the  custom  of  polyandry.  Compare  Rev.  M.  A.  Sherring's 
Sindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  Vol.  II,  pp.  286-290. 

According  to  the  last  census  the  number  of  Amma  Kodagas  amounted  to 
475  and  that  of  the  other  Kodagas  to  26,.'J38  souls. 

'-  See  Ur.  UUal  Raghavendra  Rao's  account  on  the  Koragas  of  Canara.  I 
have  not  been  able  to  obtain  a  copy  of  the  original  lecture.  It  has  been 
reprinted  two  years  ago  in  the  May  number  1886  of  the  Madras  Christian 
College  Magazine,  it  is  also  in  extenso  quoted  in  the  Madras  Census  Report  of 
1871,  vol.1,  pp.  343-345,  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  195-199,  and 
in  Mr.  Sherring's  ffi«rfM  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  206-210.  "With 
a  black  face,  forehead  of  moderate  size,  and  strong  body,  all  bespeaking 
contentment,  the  Koragar  is  separated  from  the  rest  of  mankind, — alien  in 
dress,  in  manners,  customs  and  dialect.  Uneducated  and  illiterate  as  he  is,  in 
his  circle  virtue  thrives  as  in  her  proper  soil.  .  .  He  has  a  god,  and  him  he 
knows  to  love — ^him  he  knows  to  pray  to,  however  incoherent  his  language 
be.  Lying,  stealing,  adultery,  and  other  social  evils,  he  knows  not.  He 
has  never  appeared  in  a  court  of  justice  as  defendant  in  a  suit.  He  does 
drink  toddy,  it  is  true.  .  He  does  eat  flesh.  On  what  else  should  he  live, 
whUe  we  have  denied  him  every  means  of  subsistence.  ?  .  The  Koragar,  born 


Little  is  known  about  their  former  history.  The  Koya- 
gas  are  now  treated  Hke  Pariahs,  though  according  to  tradi- 
tion they  also  were  once  a  governing  race.  Dr.  Erancis 
Buchanan   states  that :  "  Ifubushica,   chief   of  the  savages 

as  a  slave,  is  richly  content  with  hie  ignorance,  with  his  koppu,  and  with  his 
squalid  poverty.  Ambition  finds  in  him  no  place.  He  eats  but  the  rotten 
flesh  of  the  dead  cattle.  He  clothes  himself  but  with  rags.  . .  The  dress  of 
the  Koragar  does  not  greatly  differ  from  that  which  the  lower  classes,  such 
as  the  Billawars,  make  use  of  during  their  daily  labour,  the  only  point  of 
difference  is,  that  the  poverty  of  the  Koragar  does  not  allow  him  to  replace 
the  narrow  piece  of  threadbare  cloth,  little  better  than  a  rag,  by  a  more 
recent  suit  of  clothes  on  festive  occasions ;  while  the  other  classes  invariably 
reserve  some  sort  of  finery  for  gala  days.  The  dress  of  the  females,  how- 
ever, is  very  peculiar.  While  the  males  gird  a  piece  of  cloth  around  their 
loins,  the  females  cover  their  waist  with  the  leaves  of  the  forest  interwoven 
together.  The  custom  of  their  nudity  is  attributed  to  different  reasons  ;  and 
a  tradition,  which  has  been  handed  down  to  posterity  among  the  upper  classes, 
who  boast  of  the  glory  of  the  past,  is  hardly  worthy  of  belief. . .  One  of  these 
'  blacklegged '  (the  usual  expression  by  which  they  are  referred  to  during  the 
nightj  demanded  a  girl  of  high  birth  in  marriage.  Being  enraged  at  this,  the 
upper  class  withheld,  after  the  overthrow  of  the  Koraga  empire,  eveiy  kind 
of  dress  from  the  Koraga  women,  who,  to  protect  themselves  from  disgrace, 
have  since  had  recourse  to  the  leaves  of  the  forest  .  .  .Within  his  own 
circle,  he  has  three  divisions  :  1.  TAe  Ande  Koragars. — These  are  described 
as  having  a  pot  suspended  from  their  neck.  This  class,  which  is  the  lowest, 
has  been  rarely  seen  since  the  establishment  of  British  rule  in  Canara. 
They  were  considered  so  unholy,  that  they  were  not  allowed  to  this  on  the 
public  way;  and,  consequently,  the  pot  was  worn  for  this  purpose.  2.  I'he 
Vastra  Koragars. — This  appellation  has  reference  to  their  wearing  clothes 
such  as  were  used  to  shroud  a  dead  body  and  were  given  to  them  in  the  shape 
of  charity,  the  use  of  a  new  cloth  being  prohibited,  3.  The  Sappu  Koragan. 
— These  Koragars  are  such  as  we  now  generally  see,  wearing  leaves  for 
clothes.  These  three  divisions  are  named  simply  after  their  diif erent  kinds 
of  dress."  (This  extract  is  from  M.  Sherring's  vol.  Ill,  and  the  following 
partly  also  from  the  Indian  Antiquary.) 

"  When  a  Koragar  dies,  as  a  matter  of  simple  duty,  reference  is  made  to 
his  landlord,  and  with  his  permission  the  deceased  is  buried  in  a  place  con» 
secrated  for  the  purpose,  and  in  his  honour  four  balls  of  rice  are  made  and 
placed  on  the  grave,  which  must  be  done  within  twelve  months  from  the 
date  of  his  death.  Koragars  were,  it  is  said,  originally  worshippers  of  the 
sun.  .  .  They  have  no  separate  temple  for  their  god ;  bat  a  place  beneath 
a  Kasarkana  tree  is  consecrated  for  the  worship  of  their  deity,  which 
is  exclusively  their  own,  and  is  called  Kata.  .  .  The  Koragars  have  no  fixed 
feasts  exclusively  their  own.  Now,  while  liberty  shines  throughout  the 
world  under  this  Christian  Government,  slavery  stiU  lurks  in  those  darkest 
comers  where  the  rays  of  education  have  yet  to  penetrate.  The  Koragan 
and  Holeyas  are  victims  to  this  vestige  of  past  despotism.     The  ceremony 


"  called  Coragoru,  or  Corar,  governed  12  years,  till  Kali- 
"yugam  2657.  Locaditya  Raya,  son  of  Myui'u  Varma, 
"  expelled  the  Coragoru,  and  governed  Tulava,  Malayala, 
"  and  Haiga  21  years,  till  KaHyugam  2678."  ^^ 

of  buying  a  slave  needs  a  little  explanation.  The  destined  slave  is  washed, 
and  anointed  with  oil,  and  new  clothes  are  given  him .  The  master  takes  a 
batlit,  or  plate,  pours  some  water  in  it,  and  drops  in  it  a  piece  of  gold. 
The  slave  drinks  up  the  water,  and  taking  some  earth  from  his  future 
master's  estate,  throws  it  on  the  spot  which  he  has  chosen  for  his  use, 
which  is  thereupon  given  to  him  with  the  trees  thereon.  The  greater  num- 
ber of  slaves  belong  to  the  Aliya  Santanam  castes,  and  among  these 
people  a  male  slave  is  sold  for  three  Bhaudry  pagodas,  and  a  female 
slave  for  five  pagodas ;  whereas  the  few  slaves  who  follow  the  Makkala 
Santanam  custom,  fetch  five  pagodas  for  the  man,  and  only  three  for  the 
woman.  This  is  because  the  children  of  the  latter  go  to  the  husband's 
master,  while  those  of  the  Aliya  Santanam  slaves  go  to  the  mother's 
master,  who  also  has  the  benefit  of  the  husband's  services." 

In  the  Memoirs  of  the  Origin  oj  Slaves  of  Ramappa  Kamik  of  Barkur, 
which  I  quoted  on  p.  156  in  note  50,  p.  159,  note  53,  and  on  p.  170  concerning 
the  language  of  the  Soppu  Koragar,  contain  also  other  interesting  remarks  on 
the  Koragas  on  pp.  23,  24,  32,  33,  34,  36.  In  11 :  "  Mirars,  Eappata  Koragars, 
Soppu  Koragars  and  those,  who  are  aborigines  of  Ghauts  feed  upon 
carrion  or  carcasses  of  oxen,  cows,  calves,  buffaloes  and  other  cattle.  Fe- 
males of  Soppu  Koragars  alone  wear  leaves  of  trees.  .  .  Kappata  Koragars 
and  Soppu  Koragars  do  wicker-work,  sell  hides  to  shoe-makers  and  secure 
remnants  of  food  of  all  higher  classes  except  the  subdivided  Chandalas.  Soppu 
Koragars  also  beat  drum  during  buffalo  race  and  other  occasions.  . .  Among 
the  Soppu  Koragars,  male  guests  of  their  caste  bring  degradation  upon 
them  if  they  enter  after  sun-set  a  hut  occupied  by  a  single  woman.  The 
females  of  this  class,  failing  to  wear  leaves,  bring  disrepute  to  the  whole 

^3  Compare  A  Journey  from  Madras  through  the  Countries  of  Mysore, 
Canara,  and  Malnhar,  by  Francis  Buchanan,  m.d.,  second  edition,  Madras 
vol.  ri,  p.  269,  and  pp.  271,  272  :  "  Having  assembled  some  of  the  Corar, 
or  Corawar,  who  under  their  chief  Subashiea  are  said  to  have  once  been 
masters  of  Tulava,  I  found,  that  they  are  now  all  slaves,  and  have  lost  every 
tradition  of  their  former  power.  Their  language  differs  considerably  from 
that  of  any  other  tribe  in  the  peninsula.  When  their  masters  choose  to  employ 
them,  they  get  one  meal  of  victuals,  and  the  men  have  daily  one  Hany 
of  rice,  and  the  women  three-quarters  of  a  Hany.  This  is  a  very  good 
allowance  ;  but,  when  the  master  has  no  use  for  their  labour,  they  must  sup- 
port themselves  as  well  as  thej  can.  This  they  endeavour  to  do  by  making 
Coir,  or  rope  from  coco-nut  husks,  various  kinds  of  baskets  from  Ratam  and 
climbing  plants,  and  mud  walls.  They  pick  up  the  scraps  and  offals  of  other 
people's  meals,  and  skin  dead  oxen,  and  dress  the  hides.  They  build  their 
huts  near  towns  or  villages.  Their  dress  is  very  simple,  and  consists  in 
general  of  a  girdle,  in  which  they  stick  a  bunch  of  grass  before,  and  another 


The  same  incident  is  mentioned  in  the  following  manner 
in  the  MS.  of  the  yet  unprinted  "  Geography  and  History  of 
Canara  "  compiled  by  the  late  Mr.  William  Lavie,  an  official 
of  South  Kanara,  during  the  years  1830  to  1841 :  "  About 
"  900  years  or  more  before  Christ  (but  we  must  not  be  too 
*'  particular  about  dates)  Hoobashee  brought  an  army  from 
"  Anantapur  consisting  of  the  Berar,  Mundale,  Karamara, 
"  Mailla,  Holeya,  Ande  Koraga  ;  with  these  troops,  whom 
"  Buchanan  calls  savages,  Hoobashee  marched  against 
"  Angara  Varma,  the  son  of  Yeera  Varma.  They  first  came 
"  to  Barktir  and  from  thence  proceeded  to  Mangalore,  where 
"  they  were  seized  with  the  small-pox,  and  greatly  troubled 
"  by  the  ants.  Subsequently  they  went  to  the  south- 
"  ward  of  Manjeshwar.  Here  Hoobashee  established  his 
"  capital,  and  put  his  nephew  Siddha  Bhyru  on  the  throne 
"  in  lieu  of  Veera  Varma.  He  reigned  only  twelve  years, 
"  and  then  both  he  and  Hoobashee  died,  owing  to  the  en- 
"  chantments  used  by  Veera  Varma  who  went  to  Banwasee 
"  in  Sonda  for  that  very  purpose.  After  their  deaths,  Veera 
"  Varma  returned  and  drove  the  aforesaid  army  into  the 

behind.  Some  of  the  men  have  a  fragment  of  cloth  round  their  -waist ;  but 
very  few  of  the  women  ever  procure  this  coveting.  They  are  not,  however, 
without  many  ornaments  of  beads,  and  the  like  ;  and  even  when  possessed 
of  some  wealth,  do  not  alter  their  rude  dress.  Some  few  of  them  are  permit- 
ted to  rent  lands  as  Gaynigaras.  In  spite  of  this  wretched  life,  they  are  a 
good  looking  people,  and  therefore  probably  are  abundantly  fed.  They  have 
no  hereditary  chiefs,  and  disputes  among  them  are  settled  by  assemblies  of  the 
people.  If  they  can  get  them,  they  take  several  wives  ;  and  the  women  are 
marriageable  both  before  and  after  puberty,  and  duriag  widowhood.  They 
win  not  marry  a  woman  of  any  other  caste  ;  and  they  are  considered  of  so 
base  an  origin,  that  a  man  of  any  other  caste,  who  cohabits  with  one  of  their 
women  is  inevitably  excommunicated  and  afterwards  not  even  a  Corar  will 
admit  his  society.  The  marriages  are  indissoluble,  and  a  woman  who  com- 
mits adultery  is  only  flogged.  Her  paramour,  if  he  be  a  Corar,  is  fined.  The 
master  pays  the  expense  of  the  marriage  feast.  When  a  man  dies,  his  wives, 
with  all  their  children,  return  to  the  huts  of  their  respective  mothers 
and  brothers,  and  belong  to  their  masters.  They  will  eat  the  offals  of  any 
other  caste,  and  can  eat  beef,  carrion,  tigers,  crows,  and  other  impure 
things;  they  reject,  however,  dogs  and  snakes.  They  can  lawfully  drink 
intoxicating  liquors.     They  burn  the   dead,  and  seem  to  know  nothing  of 



"jungles  where  they  were  driven  to  such  extremities  that 
"  they  consented  to  become  slaves  and  serve  under  the  former 
"  landlords.  The  way  in  which  this  was  done  was  as  follows  : 
"  After  washing  and  anointing  the  body  with  oil,  new  cloths 
"  were  put  on  the  destined  slave,  and  his  future  owner  having 
"  taken  a  Batlu  or  plate,  poured  some  water  on  it  and  dropt 
"  in  a  piece  of  gold.  After  which  the  slave  drank  up  the 
"  water.  The  slave  then  took  up  some  earth  from  his  future 
"  master's  estate  and  threw  it  on  such  a  spot  as  he  chose  for 
"  his  house  and  garden  which  was  accordingly  given  over  to 
*'  him  with  all  the  trees  thereon.  The  Karamara  were  set 
"  to  watch  the  crops  and  cattle  belonging  to  the  village. 
"  The  head-men  who  had  been  appointed  by  Hoobashee  to 
"  the  most  responsible  poets  under  his  nephew's  government 
"  were  taken  naked  towards  the  sea  in  order  to  be  hung 
"  there,  but  being  ashamed  of  their  naked  state  they  gathered 
"  the  leaves  of  the  Necky  gida  (c5^^  ^t^),  five-leaved  trees,  and 
"  made  a  small  covering  for  themselves  in  front.  Thereupon 
"  their  conductors  took  pity  on  them  and  let  them  go,  since 
"  which  they  have  continued  to  wear  no  other  covering  than 
"  the  leaves  of  the  said  tree."  ^ 

a  state  of  future  existence,  nor  do  they  believe  in  Paisachi,  or  evil  spirits. 
Their  deity  is  called  Buta,  and  is  represented  by  a  stone,  which  is  kept 
in  a  square  surrounded  by  a  wall.  To  this  stone,  in  all  cases  of  sickness, 
they  sacrifice  fowls  or  make  offerings  of  fruit  or  grain,  and  every  man  offlers 
his  own  worship  (Fiija) ;  so  that  they  have  no  officiating  priest,  and 
they  acknowledge  the  authority  of  no  Guru.  They  follow  all  the  oxen  and 
buffaloes  of  the  village,  as  so  much  of  the  live  stock,  when  they  are  driven  in 
procession  at  a  great  festival  which  the  farmers  annually  celebrate." 

**  I  copied  this  extract  from  a  MS.  copy  of  Mr.  Lavie's  Geography  and 
History  of  Canara  kindly  lent  to  me  by  Mr.  J.  Sturrock,  Collector  of  South 
Canara,  and  it  occurs  thereon  pp.  21,  22.  Mr.  Lavie  says  about  it :  "  29.  The 
following  traditionary  account  of  the  Dhers  I  quote  in  full  from  a  Canarese 
paper  obligingly  furnished  to  me  by  a  respectable  native."  This  extract  is 
also  contained  in  a  note  to  the  Memoirs  of  the  Origin  of  Slaves  by  Ramappa 
Kamic  of  Barkur,  a  friend  of  Dr.  Buchanan.  These  memoirs  were  trans- 
lated by  Mr.  Joseph  Saldanha,  Sheristadar  of  Mangalore,  and  published 
by  Dr.  John  Shortt  in  the  IV  Part  of  The  Hill  Ranges  of  Southern  India. 
The  MS.  copy  of  these  Memoirs  and  the  print  of  Dr.  Shortt  (on  p.  19) 
acknowledge   Lavie's   Geography  and   Sistory   of  Canara  as    their  original 


In  the  English  tranflation  of  Ramappa's  Memoirs  of 
the  Slaves,  Hoobashee  is  always  called  Hubashika,  and  the 
Karamaras  are  called  Marimans  or  Kappatu  Koragas. 

We  read  also  in  this  memoir  that  Hubasika,  king  of 
the  Oandalas,  subdued  king  Lokadiraya,  that  the  king 
Candrasena,  in  order  to  get  rid  of  Hubasika,  proposed  to 
him  that  he  should  marry  Candrasena's  sister,  and  when 
Hubasika  with  his  chief  followers  came,  the  guests  were 
treacherously  assailed  and  either  massacred  or  enslaved.^' 

source.  The  following  account  is  reprinted  from  The  Koragars  by  Mr.  Ullal 
Eaghavendra  Rao  from  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  p.  196:  "The 
following  tradition  gives  us  a  very  faint  idea  of  their  rule  : — 

"  Atout  900  years  or  more  B.C.  (but  we  must  not  be  too  particular  about 
dates) ,  the  Habashi  brought  an  army  from  Anautapur,  consisting  of  the  Birar, 
Muudal,  Karmara,  Maila,  Holeya,  Ande  Koraga ;  with  these  troops,  whom 
the  learned  Dr.  Buchanan  calls  savages,  the  Habashi  marched  against  Angara 
Varma,  the  son  of  Vira  Varma.  They  first  came  to  Barkur,  and  from  thence 
proceeded  to  Mangalur,  where  they  were  attacked  by  small-pox,  and  greatly 
troubled  by  ants.  They  went  to  the  southward  of  Manjesvar.  There  the 
Habashi  established  his  capital,  and  put  his  nephew  Sidda  Bairu  on  the 
throne  in  lieu  of  Vira  Varma.  He  reigned  only  twelve  years,  and  then  both 
he  and  the  Habashi  died,  owing  to  the  enchantments  used  by  Vira  Varma, 
who  went  to  Banawasi  in  Sonda  for  that  very  purpose.  After  their  death 
Vira  Varma  returned,  and  drove  the  aforesaid  army  into  the  jungles,  where 
they  were  pursued  to  such  extremities  that  they  consented  to  become  slaves 
and  serve  under  the  former  landlords.  The  Earmara  was  sent  to  watch 
the  crops  and  cattle  belonging  to  the  village.  The  headmen  who  had  been 
appointed  by  the  Hubashi  to  the  most  responsible  posts  under  his  nephew's 
government  were  taken  naked  to  the  seashore  in  order  to  be  hanged,  but, 
being  asham.ed  of  their  naked  state,  they  gathered  the  leaves  of  the  Nekki 
ffida  and  made  a  small  covering  for  themselves.  Thereupon  their  conductors 
took  pity  on  them,  and  let  them  go,  since  which  they  have,  it  is  said, 
continued  to  wear  no  other  covering  than  the  leaves  of  the  said  tree." 

The  Koragars  have  been  republished  in  the  Madras  Christian  College 
Magazine,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  824,  833.  The  contents  of  the  nine  lines  (beginning 
with  "  The  way  in  which,"  and  ending  with  "all  the  trees  thereon,"  con- 
cerning the  ceremony  of  buying  a  slave)  are  omitted  in  this  extract,  and  ar& 
found  in  another  extract  reprinted  at  the  top  of  p.  172  in  note  62. 

The  passage  on  p.  197  beginning  with  :  "  Although  these  slaves  are  in  a 
degraded  position  "  and  ending  with :  "  They  are  also  mortgaged  for  three 
or  four  pagodas,"  forms  verbatim  part  of  §  30  on  p.  23  of  Mr.  Lavie's  MS. 
It  is  found  in  the  Madras  Christian  College  Magazine  on  pages  828,  829. 
Mr.  La  vie  resigned  the  service  in  1848  and  died  in  England  in  1861. 

^'  The  Loeaditya  Ray  a  of  Buchanan  is  called  Lokadiraya  by  Ramappa  Kamic 
of  Barkur  in  whose  Memoirs  of  the  Origin  of  Slaves  in  Dr.  Shortt's  Sill  Ranges, 
Part  IV,  pp.  18  and  19,  we  read  :  "  Formerly,  a  hero  by  name  Hubashika 


What  makes  this  tradition  so  interesting  is  that  it  con- 
nects Hubasika  with  the  Kadambas;  for  Candrasena,  the 
ruler  of  the  Tuluva  country,  was  a  kinsman  of  Trinetra 
Kadamba.  Trinetra  is  a  favorite  name  in  this  dynasty. 
Candrasena  had  a  son  Lokaditya,  who  married  a  daughter 
of  Trinetra  Kadamba.  The  daughter  of  this  Lokaditya  and 
of  the  Kadamba  princess  Kanaka vati  was  asked  in  marriage 
by  Hubasika,  the  king  of  the  Candalas.  Lokaditya  pretended 
to  favour  the  suit,  and  invited  the  intended  bridegroom  to 
his  capital  Tripura  to  celebrate  the  marriage.  Shortly  after 
his  arrival  Hubasika  and  his  retinue  were  treacherously 
assailed  and  massacred  by  the  soldiers  of  Lokaditya  and 

These  accounts  differ  very  considerably.  According  to 
some  Hubasika  died  owing  to  the  enchantments  of  Vira 
Varma,  according  to  others  he  was  killed  by  Lokaditya,  to 

became  famous  amongst  the  Chandalas,  subdued  the  king  Lokadiraya  and 
was  ruling  with  his  caste  men.  King  Chendashena,  with  the  view  of  getting 
rid  of  Hubashika,  proposed  a  marriage  between  Hubashika  and  Chendasena's 
sister,  and  invited  the  bridegroom  and  his  caste  men  to  the  nuptials.  The 
invitation  being  complied  with,  a  wholesale  massacre  of  the  guests  ensued, 
many  fell  victims  to  the  plot,  a  few  escaped,  others  were  imprisoned  and  made 
over  to  Brahmans  to  be  employed  in  tilling  their  lands.  As  the  captives 
belonged  to  the  camp  of  the  enemy,  it  was  declared  that  the  Chandalas 
should  be  punished  by  their  respective  masters  for  faults  committed  by  them  ; 
that  they  should  for  ever  remain  under  subordination  to  others  ;  that  they 
should  possess  no  authority  whatever  ;  and  that  they  should  be  allowed  only 
the  daily  ratio  of  food  rather  than  permit  them  to  have  at  their  disposal,  the 
previous  day,  means  for  providing  themselves  with  the  necessaries  of  the 
next  day.  Thus  doomed  to  bondage  for  ever,  the  Chandalas  were  transferred 
along  with  the  lands  to  the  subsequent  Nadavar  and  Brahman  pxirohasers 
Those  who  had  escaped  during  the  aforesaid  crisis  had  returned  home,  pur- 
sued their  avocations  and  lived  an  independent  life  .  .  The  Soppu  Koragars 
also  appear  to  have  been  in  some  localities  attached  to  land  and  in  others  to 
have  enjoyed  liberty." 

With  respect  to  the  Kadambas  the  main  printed  information  so  far  as 
the  subject  concerns  us  here  is  contained  in  H.  H.  Wilson's  Mackenzie  Collec- 
tion, Introduction,  pp.  lix,  1,  ci-oiii,  96-97  (new  edition,  pp.  36,  60,  62,  149 

I  have  consulted  the  MSS.  in  the  Government  Oriental  MSS.  Library 
on  which  are  mostly  founded  the  conclusions  of  Wilson.  Bead  also  Mr.  L. 
Eice's  Mysore  and  Coorg,  vol.  I,  pp.  19i,  195. 


whom  Buchanan  ascribed  the  expulsion  of  the  Koragas  after 
the  death  of  Hubasika.  The  relationship  of  the  Kadamba 
princes  is  also  given  differently ;  still  these  contradictions 
need  not  invalidate  the  main  part  of  the  tradition  concerning 

If  we  could  recognise  in  this  prince  a  real  historical 
personage,  an  important  step  would  have  been  gained  towards 
fixing  the  period  of  these  events.  The  life  of  the  first 
Triaetra  Kadamba  is  placed  by  some  at  the  beginning 
of  the  second  century  A.D.,  and  this  is  the  very  period 
which  the  coins  supply  concerning  the  reign  of  Huviska 
or  Hooerkes,  king  of  the  Korano,  who  would  have  been  thus 
a  contemporary  of  Hubasika,  kiug  of  the  Koragas. 

The  mighty  Scythian  king  Kadphises  II  was  succeeded 
in  North- Western  India  by  king  Kaniska  or  Kanerkes,  who 
initiated  in  A.D.  78  the  Saka  Era,  as  has  been  first  sug- 
gested by  the  late  Mr.  James  Fergusson.  Kaniska  or 
Kanerkes  was  followed  in  his  reign  about  110  A.D.  by 
Huviska  or  Hooerkes.  The  latter  forms  prevail  on  the  coins, 
while  the  records  contain  the  former.  The  Korano  or  Kusan 
are  identical  with  the  Yueh-chi,  the  Chinese  name  of  this 
tribe,  commonly  known  to  us  as  Indo-Scythians. 

The  Gauda-Dravidian  race,  as  I  have  repeatedly  pointed 
out,  was  not  confined  to  India,  some  of  its  branches  having 
remained  on  the  northern  frontier  of  the  Indian  continent. 
The  invasion  by  the  Korano  can  thus  be  appropriately 
explained  as  an  inroad  into  India  made  by  a  kindred 
tribe,  and  leads  to  the  suggestion  that  Hitbasika,  king  of 
the  Koragas,  may  be  identified  with  Huviska,  king  of  the 
Korano  or  Kusan.  As  Huviska's  reign  falls  in  the  first 
half  of  the  second  century  A.D.,  the  period  of  Hubasika's 
reported  invasion  will  be  fixed  if  Hubasika  and  Huviska  are 
one  and  the  same  person. 

Moreover,  there  are  different  kings  of  the  name  Trinetra 
among  the  Kadambas.    The  first  Trinetra  lived  according 


to  native  tradition  early  in  the  Kaliyuga,  while  H.  H.  Wilson 
places  his  reign  in  the  second  half  of  the  second  century  A.D. 
Mayura  Varma,  the  Myuru  Varma  of  Buchanan,  either  the 
third  or  the  sixth  king  of  this  dynasty,  had  a  son  Trinetra 
Kadamba,  also  known  as  Ksetra  Varma  and  Candragada. 
He  was  the  brother-in-law  of  Lokaditya,  the  son  of  Oandra- 
sena.     Great  confusion  prevails  in  this  matter. 

The  resemblance  between  the  two  names  Hulasika  and 
Huviska  is  so  great,  that  one  might  suspect  them  to  be  iden- 
tical. If  this  is  the  case,  we  must  consider  whether  there 
existed  only  one  or  two  or  more  kings  of  this  same  name. 
If  only  one  king  of  this  name  ruled,  his  exploits  must  have 
been  transferred  to  a  subsequent  period,  in  order  to  confer 
on  the  then  reigning  dynasty  (in  this  circumstance  on  the 
race  of  the  Kadambas  *^)  the  glory  of  having  slain  such  a 
distinguished  sovereign.  If  we  can  trace  more  than  one  ruler 
of  the  name  of  Huviska  (Hubasika),  the  difficulty  as  to  the 
date  is  removed.  Yet,  I  feel  inclined  to  assume  that  only 
one  king  of  this  name  did  exist,  and  that  Hubasika's  or 
Huviska's  invasion  is  separated  from  Lokaditya's  reign  by  a 
long  intervening  period.  The  identity  of  the  original  Huba- 
sika with  Huviska  will  be  of  considerable  historical  interest, 
as  it  proves  the  great  impression  which  the  invasions  of 
the  Indo-Scythians  made  on  the  mind  of  the  Indian  people. 
The  similarity  between  Korano  and  Koraga,  the  names  of 
the  tribes  over  whom  Huviska  and  Hubasika  respectively 
ruled,  must  also  not  be  overlooked. 

Mayura  Varma  is  credited  with  having  introduced  Brah- 
mans  to  Kanara.  His  capital  was  Banavasi,  already  men- 
tioned by  Ptolemy  (VII,  1,  83)  as  Bavaovaaei. 

The  change  of  an  r  into  a  sibilant  does  not  offer  any 
philological  difficulty,  especially  in  Sanskrit,  so  that  the 
forms  Kaniska  and  Huviska  require  no  particular  explanation, 
if  the  original  national  pronounciation  preferred  an  r  and 

««  See  p.  264. 


was  Kanerkes  and  Hooerkes.  Certain  euphonic  rules  even 
necessitate  the  above-mentioned  change  in  Sanskrit.  The 
Gauda-Dravidian  languages  are  not  very  strict  in  the  use  of 
the  liquids  r  and  /,  and  the  letter  I  is  at  times  pronounced 
like  an  I  or  an  r,  and  even,  though  faulty,  like  an  s.*' 

The  Koragas,  whom  Buchanan  calls  Corawar,  though 
treated  like  out-oastes,  yet  acknowledge  caste-distinctions 
among  themselves.  They  are  known  as  Ande  Koragas,  Vastra 
Koragas  and  Snppu  Koragas.  They  are  divided  besides  into 
five  tribes.  The  names  of  two  of  these  are  lost.  The  others 
are  called  Bangaranna,  Kumaranna,  and  Mungaranna. 

I  explain  the  word  Koraga  in  the  same  manner  as 
Kodaga,  both  names  being  derivatives  of  ko,  mountain. 
Dr.  Francis  Buchanan  calls  the  Koragas,  as  above  men- 

"  Atout  tliese  rulers  and  especially  atout  Smislca  or  Hooerkes,  compare 
besides  other  writings  the  Catalogue  of  the  Greek  and  Scythic  kings  of  Sactria 
and  India  in  the  British  Museumhy  Percy  Gardner,  ll.d.,  edited  by  Reginald 
S.  Poole,  LL.D.,  Introduction,  pp.  xlix-li :  "  The  evidence  derived  from 
the  style  and  epigraphy  of  coins  seems  to  show  that  Kadphises  I.  and 
Kadaphes  ruled  hut  a  part  of  North- West  India.  When  Kadphises  came 
in  as  an  invader  from  the  north,  he  found  Hermaeus  ruling  in  the  Kabul 
Valley,  and  reduced  him  to  a  state  of  dependence  .  .  .  The  Yueh-chi  did 
not  rapidly  extend  their  dominion  in  India  .  .  Only  on  the  accession  of  the 
second  Kadphises  did  the  power  of  the  invaders  become  altogether  predomi- 
nant .  .  Kadphises  II.,  Ooemo  Kadphises,  was  a  wealthy  monarch,  and  the 
founder  of  a  powerful  line  of  Scythic  kings,  as  to  whom  inscriptions  give  us 
some  information.  His  date  is  about  the  middle  of  the  first  century  A.D. 
His  successors  are  the  kings  called  on  their  coins  Kanerkes  and  Hooerkes, 
and  in  the  records  Kauishka  and  Huvishka.  Their  rule  comprised  the 
whole  of  North- West  India  and  the  Kabul  Valley."  See  further  pp.  129, 
158,  175  ;  H.  H.  Wilson's  Ariana  Antigua,  pp.  5,  9,  347-377  ;  The  Archie- 
ological  Survey  of  India  by  Sir  Alexander  Cunningham,  vol.  II,  p.  238  ;  vol. 
II,  pp.  10,  43,  44,  63-70,  88,  159,  162,  168  ;  vol.  Ill,  pp.  30,  32 ;  vol.  V,  p. 
57  ;  vol.  XIV,  p.  53  ;  vol.  XVI,  Pref.,  P.  IV;  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  VI,  pp. 
217-19  ;  vol.  X,  pp.  213,  216  ;  vol.  XVII  contains  the  article  on  "  Zoroastian 
Deities  on  Indo-Scythian  Coins"  by  M.  Aurel  Stein,  Ph.D.,  to  which  I 
wish  to  draw  attention,  though  I  cannot  as  yet  see  my  way  to  agree  with 
him  in  his,  at  all  events,  ingenious  conjecture  of  identifying  the  Greek  P 
which  he  himself  pronounces  repeatedly  r  with  the  sibilant  s. 

The  Banavasei  {Bau'aaiffet  and  Bamovaa-et)  of  Ptolemy  has  been  differently 
explained.  Some  take  it  for  Kundapur,  others  for  Konkanapura,  Kokanur 
and  Anegundi.  See  Mr.  T.  W.  McCrindle's  Ancient  India  as  described  by 
Ftolemy,  p.  179. 


tioned,  also  Corawar.  The  Koravas  or  Koramas,  moun- 
taineers, are  indeed  a  tribe  widely  spread  in  Southern  India. 
They  are  identical  with  the  Kuruvas,  of  whom  I  shall  speak 
later  on.  To  the  mountain  climbing  Malaca,  whom  I 
noticed  on  p.  21,  correspond  the  terms  Koraca,  Korea  and 
Korsa  unless  they  are  taken  as  modifications  of  Korava. 
We  find  these  people  especially  in  the  Kanarese  districts. 
They  are  well  known  as  basket-makers.^' 

The  Todas. 

The  Todas  or  Tudas,  as  these  pastoral  rulers  of  the 
Blue  Mountains,  or  Nllagiri  of  South  India,  are  generally 
called,  have  to  a  certain  extent  baffled  all  inquiries  con- 
cerning their  origin.  But  there  is  no  doubt  that  they  belong 
to  the  Gaudian  branch  of  the  Gauda-Dravidian  group.  The 
supposition  that  the  Todas  are  connected  with  the  African 
Ethiopian  has,  I  think,  no  foundation  whatever.^' 

The  question  whether  they  are  aborigines  of,  or  immi- 
grants into,  the  country  they  at  present  inhabit,  has  been 
much  discussed.  The  probability  is  that,  according  to  their 
traditions,  they  left  their  original  abodes  and  settled  on  the 
Nilagiri  mountain  range ;  but  the  time  when  this  migration 
actually  took  place  is  shrouded  in  mystery.  Yet,  even  if 
they  ascended  from  the  plains  to  the  Nilagiri  hills,  this 
circumstance  does  not  militate  against  the  fact  that  originally 
in  their  old  homes  they  were  mountaineers.  At  all  events 
very  many  centuries  must  have  elapsed  since  their  settlement 
on  the  Nilagiri.  They  possess,  so  far  as  we  can  ascertain, 
no  trustworthy  traditions,  no  inscriptions,  nor  any  literature 
concerning  their  ancient  history. 

«8Seep.  97. 

^*  See  Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  E.  Marshall's  A  Phrenologist  amongst  the 
Todas,  p.  4  :  "  There  is  much  of  the  '  blameless  Ethiopian '  about  them  : 
something  of  the  Jew  and  of  the  Chaldaean  in  their  appearance."  "On 
the  eve  of  sending  this  work  to  the  press,  I  would  beg  again  to  urge  my 
belief  in  the  connection  between  the  Dravidian  Toda  and  the  Ethiop." 


The  Todas  are  divided  into  five  clans,  namely:  Paiki, 
Pekkun,  Kuttan,  Kenna  and  Todi.  We  meet  tlie  term  Paiki 
again  among  the  Hnle-paikis  of  Naga,  and  the  Kumdra- 
palkas  of  North  ICanara,  who  make  toddy-drawing  their 
chief  occupation.  The'  Hale-paikis  of  Manjarabad  are 
called  Devara  makkalu  or  children  of  God,  and  the  Paikis 
who  take  the  lead  among  the  Todas,  for  from  them  the 
Palal  or  high-priest  is  chosen,  call  themselves  also  Der  nwkh, 
or  children  of  God.'" 

The  derivation  of  Paiki  is  obscure  ;  can  it  be  connected 
•with  the  Telugu  postposition  pai,  above  ? 

'"  In  The  Tribes  inhabiting  the  Neilgherry  Bills,  Mangalore,  1864,  the  Rev. 
F.  Metz  says  on  p.  14  :  "  At  what  period  the  Todas  first  came  to  and  settled 
upon  the  Neilgherries,  we  have  no  means  of  ascertaining ;  for  they  have  no 
literature,  nor  any  inscriptions,  and  such  of  their  traditions  as  I  have 
hitherto  heard  them  mention  afEord  no  clue  whatever  by  which  this 
mystery  can  be  unravelled.  From  their  legends,  and  some  particular 
words  contained  in  their  language,  I  am  led  to  think  that,  prior  to 
migrating  to  these  Hills,  they  must,  perhaps  for  centuries,  have  inhabited 
a  range  lying  to  the  North-East,  in  the  direction  of  Hassanoor,  beyond 
the  Gazelhutty  pass.  Part  of  the  tribe  appears  to  have  settled  in  a 
northern  direction  near  Collegal ;  for  I  am  frequently  pressed  to  go  and  visit 
them  and  bring  back  intelligence  respecting  their  condition  in  life ; 
prosperity  with  the  Todas,  as  in  patriarchal  times,  consisting  in  the  number 
and  extent  of  their  heads."  See  also  An  Account  oftlie  Tribes  on  the  Neil- 
gherries,hy  3.  Shortt,  M.D.,  Madras,  1868,  pp.  4-42.  On  p.  4  he  writes: 
' '  Todawars,  or  Torawurs,  who  are  reputed  to  be  the  aborigines,  and,  it  is 
said,  were  once  clad  in  leaves  and  roamed  as  free  and  unrestrained  lords  of 
the  soil,  leading  a  pastoral  nomadic  life. . .  Todawars,  or  Torawurs — the  literal 
name  given  to  herdsmen  in  the  Tamil  language — are  the  principal  tribe,  and 
are  believed  to  be  the  original  inhabitants,  as  well  as  the  territorial 
sovereigns  of  these  Hill  tracts.  Wot  only  do  the  Todara  themselves  claim 
this  priority  of  existence  and  possession,  hut  the  right  is  conceded  to  them 
by  the  other  Hill  tribes,  who,  in  recognition  of  it,  always  paid  a  tribute  to 
their  Toda  lords,  consisting  of  one-sixth  of  the  produce  in  kind;  but,  under  the 
British  Government,  this  practice  is  being  gradually  discontinued.  .  .  The 
Toda  or  Thoddur  tribe  consists  of  five  distinct  intersections  or  sub-divisions, 
namely  (1)  Peiky ;  (2)  Pekkan ;  (3)  Kuttan ;  (4)  Kenna ;  and  (5)  Tody.  . . 
(On  p.  7.)  The  Todawars  are  entirely  a  pastoral  race,  and  lead  a  peaceful 
tranquil  life,  chiefly  employed  in  tending  their  cattle.  They  carry  no  weapon 
of  offence  or  defence  for  protection  against  enemies  of  their  own  kind  or 
wild  beasts,  except  a  cowherd's  wand  or  staff,  which  is  made  of  jmigle  wood 
generally,  about  4J  feet  long  with  a  large  knob  or  head."  Compare  further 
ibidem  a  Geographical  and  Statistical  Memoir  of  a  Survey  on  the  Neilgherry 
Mountains,  by  Captain  J.  Ouchterlony,  1847,  pp.  51-52  :  "  This  remarkable 
race  differs  in  almost  every  essential  respect  from  all  other  tribes  of  the 



They  also  do  not  show  much  interest  in  the  old  cairns, 
kistvains,  sepulchral  structures,  and  other  remains  that  are 
found  scattered  all  over  these  mountains,  though  they  claim 
some  as  their  own.  It  is,  therefore,  still  a  matter  of  some 
douht  whether  these  relics  ought  to  be  assigned  to  them  in 
preference  to  the  Kurumbas,  who  may  perhaps  have  a  more 
legitimate  title  to  their  possession.  From  many  indications 
it  would  appear  that  the  people  who  erected  these  stone 
buildings  must  have  been  agriculturists.     The  Todas,  on  the 

natives  of  Hindustan,  and  their  singular  characteristics  and  strange  hahits 
have  given  rise  to  much  speculation  as  to  their  origin  and  history.  As  no 
clue  has  however  yet  been  discovered  either  in  the  form  of  monuments,  coins, 
or  even  in  their  own  traditions,  by  which  research  could  be  directed,  all 
theories  broached  upon  the  subject  cannot  be  otherwise  than  vain  and  iUueory, 
especially  those  which  have  been  based  upon  the  assumption  that  the 
images,  bones,  and  other  relics  which  are  found  in  the  remarkable  '  cairns,' 
discovered  in  such  numbers  all  over  the  HiUs,  belonged  to  the  ancestors  of 
the  Todars.  .  .  (On  p.  63.)  Their  occupation  is  purely  pastoral;  their  only 
manual  labor  being  the  milking  of  the  buHaloes,  and  converting  portions  of 
their  milk  into  butter  and  ghee."  Consult  An  Accoinit  of  the  Primitive  Tribes 
and  Momtments  of  the  Nllagiris,  by  the  late  James  Wilkinson  Breeks,  edited 
by  his  widow  ;  London,  1873,  pp.  26  and  27  •  "The  burning  at  funerals 
of  a  mimic  bow  and  arrow  together  with  the  daily-used  implements  of 
the  deceased,  and  the  importance  assigned  to  the  bow  in  the  marriage  cere- 
mony, seem  to  me  inexplicable,  except  on  the  theory  that  the  bow  was 
once  the  chief  weapon  of  the  Todas,  although  they  are  ignorant  of  its  use 
now.  This  view  is  in  a  measure  confirmed  by  the  Todas'  admission  that 
their  ancestors  ate  eamber  flesh,  and  that  they  would  gladly  do  so  now  if  they 
could  obtain  it ;  and  by  the  fact  that  they  still  recognise,  and  make  offerings 
to,  a  hunting  God  vmder  the  name  of  Betikhan,  who,  though  he  now  resides 
in  a  temple  at  Nambilicote  beyond  Gudaltlr,  is,  they  say,  the  son  of  their 
ancestor,  Dirkish.  The  question  then  arises  :  how,  and  when  did  the  bow  fall 
into  disuse  with  the  Todas  ? .  .  The  answer  could  seem  to  be  found  in  the 
tradition  mentioned  by  Colonel  Ouchterlony,  viz. — that  before  the  Badagas 
and  Kotas  came  to  the  HiUs,  the  Todas  lived  only  by  their  herds,  and  wore 
leaves.  As  far  as  the  leaf  dresses  go,  the  story  seems  apocryphal.  If  the 
Todas  had  only  adopted  clothes  after  the  arrival  of  the  Badagas  and  Kotas, 
their  garments  would  probably  have  Badaga  or  Kota  names,  whereas 
piitkuU,  tharp,  konu,  #«.,  are  among  the  few  Toda  words  which  Mr.  Metz  can 
trace  to  no  Dravidian  roots.  Besides,  a  hunting  race  would  certainly  wear 
skins  :  however,  the  story  probably  contains  some  truth.  Before  the  culti- 
vating tribes  settled  in  the  Hills,  the  Todas,  unless  they  killed  their  cattle, 
would  have  no  means  of  obtaining  solid  food  except  by  hunting,  for  their 
traf&c  with  the  Western  Coast  must  have  been  too  intermittent  and  insigni- 
ficant to  be  depended  on  for  subsistence.  Probably  they  were  then  expert 
in  the  use  of  the  bow."    Kead  further  A  Fhrenologist  amongst  the  Todas,  by 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  183 

other  hand,  are  now  shepherds,  and  lead  a  simple  pastoral  and 
nomadic  life.  They  do  not  devote  themselves  to  the  culti- 
vation of  the  son,  an  occupation  which  the  Badagas,  who 
immigrated  at  a  later  period,  especially  follow.  Yet  the 
assumption  that  the  Todas  have  always  led  a  pastoral  life,  if 
substantiated,  seems  to  speak  against  the  connection  of  the 
Todas  with  such  structures.  However,  it  is  quite  possible 
that  the  sickles  found  in  the  cairns  may  have  been  used  for 
other  than  agricultural  purposes.'^ 

Lieutenant-Colonel  William  E.  Marshall,  London,  1873,  pp.  2-8  and  136, 
and  A  Manual  of  the  Nllagiri  District,  by  H.  B.  Grigg,  Madras,  1880,  pp. 
183-202.  Compare  about  the  Faiki  Mr.  Lewis  Rice's  Mysore  Inscriptions, 
Introduction,  pp.  xxxiii,  xxxiv,  and  Metz,  p.  35. 

"  See  Rev.  F.  Metz,  ibidem,  p.  13  :  "  Some  few  of  the  Todas  maintain  that 
the  cairns  are  the  work  of  their  ancestors,  but  these  are  men  who  have  been 
examined  by  Europeans.  The  majority,  and  especially  the  most  respectable 
of  them,  do  not  hold  this  opinion,  and  it  would  be  a  strange  anomaly  indeed 
in  a  people  so  proverbial  for  their  respect  for  the  dead,  to  allow,  as  the  Todas 
do,  these  places  of  interment  to  be  rudely  disturbed  and  desecrated  by  the 
hands  of  strangers,  did  they  believe  them  to  be  the  veceptacles  of  the  ashes 
of  their  forefathers.  Many  of  the  circles  constructed  of  loose  stones  which 
have  been  taken  to  be  deserted  temples  of  this  tribe,  were  doubtless  nothing 
more  than  bufialo-pens."  And  on  p.  124  :  "  During  the  13  years  that  I  have 
labored  amongst  and  mixed  with  the  [hill-tribes,  I  have  never  found  the 
Todas  in  any  way  interested  in  the  cairns,  whilst  the  fact  of  their  making  no 
objection  to  their  being  opened,  taken  in  connection  with  the  circumstance 
of  the  contents  frequently  consisting  of  plough-shares,  sickles  and  other 
implements  of  husbandry,  showing  that  the  cairns  were  constructed  by  an 
agricultural  race,  which  the  Todas  never  were,  are  to  me  convincing  proofs 
that  they  are  not  the  work  of  the  Todas  of  a  past  generation."  The  Rev. 
Mr.  Metz  states  that  such  kist-vains  are  called  Moriaru  mane,  house 
of  the  Morias,  and  recognises  in  the  latter  the  Mauryas  or  TJsbeck  Tatars. 
Is  it  perhaps  possible,  to  connect  the  term  Moriaru  with  the  Mar  tribe  ? 
Peculiarly  enough  Mer  is  the  Toda  expression  for  the  Kundahs,  as  in  the 
Toda  name  MerkoMl  for  Kotagiri,  i.e.,  the  Kota  village  (Kokal)  of  the 
Kundahs,  see  Breeks,  p.  36.  Compare  Captain  Congreve's  article :  The 
Antiquities  of  the  Neilgherry  Hills,  including  an  Inquiry  into  the  Descent  of 
the  Thauta/oars  or  Todars,  in  the  Madras  Journal  oj Literature  and  Science,  1 847, 
vol.  XIV,  No.  32,  pp.  77-146.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Congreve  contends  that 
the  Todas  were  the  constructors  of  the  old  cairns  and  he  gives  on  pp.  84,  85 
his  reasons  for  it :  "1st.  The  shape  of  the  cairns  :  a  Circle  of  stones  similar 
to  that  of  the  cemeteries  of  the  Thautawars  at  this  day.  2nd.  The  basins 
and  other  utensils,  knives,  arrow-heads,  shreds  of  cloth,  mingled  with  charcoal 
and  bones  found  in  the  cairns  are  precisely  the  same  articles  buried  at  the 
funeral  of  a  modem  Thautawar.     3rd.  In  both  cases  these  things  are  deposited 


Some  of  their  legends  connect  the  Todas  with  the  Raksasa 
king  Bdvana,  others  with  his  great  antagonist,  Rama.  The 
ancestors  of  the  Todas  are  said  to  have  been  the  palanqiiia 
hearers  of  Eavana ;  if  so,  they  belong  to  the  Grauda-Dravi- 

in  holea  under  large  slabs  in  the  middle  of  the  cemeteries.  4th.  The  nu- 
merous figures  of  buffaloes,  some  with  hells  round  their  necks,  made  of 
pottery,  found  in  the  cairns  are  monuments  of  the  antiquity  of  the  Thau- 
tawar  custom  of  sacrificing  huiJaloes  decorated  with  hells  at  funerals.  5th. 
In  every  case  I  have  observed  a  Thautawar  village  situated  contiguously  to 
the  cairn,  manifesting  some  connection.  6th.  The  Thautawara  claim  to  he 
the  original  proprietors  of  the  land,  a  claim  acknowledged  by  the  English,  as 
well  as  the  Native  inhabitants  of  the  Hills.  7th.  The  prevailing  opinion 
amongst  the  latter  that  these  cairns  belonged  to  the  early  Thautawar  people. 
8th.  The  absence  of  any  inscription  on  any  of  the  vessels  dug  out  of  the 
cairns,  considered  with  reference  to  the  fact  of  the  Thautawars  having  no 
written  language.  9th.  The  circumstance  of  some  lascars  attempting 
to  open  a  cairn  in  search  of  treasure  being  compelled  to  desist  in  their 
enterprize  by  the  Thautawars  of  an  adjoining  village."  Dr.  Shortt,  in 
the  article  above  mentioned,  says  on  p.  45:  "The  Todas  themselves 
attribute  the  cairns  found  on  the  Neilgherries,  sometimes  to  a  people 
who  preceded  them,  at  others  to  the  Kurumbas,  and  that  they  formed  their 
burial  places  ...  It  is  generally  believed  by  the  Natives  that  these  cairns 
and  cromlechs  are  the  work  of  the  followers  of  the  Pandean  Kings,  and  that 
they  at  one  time  ruled  on  the  Neilgherries  also.  The  Todas  and  Badagas 
likewise  believe  this,  while  some  of  them  attribute  them  to  the  Kurumbas. 
The  Rev.  Mr.  Metz  is  also  of  the  latter  opinion,  and  I  am  inclined  to  coincide 
with  this  gentleman."  See  also  J.  W.  Breeks'  Frimihve  Tribes  of  the  Nlla- 
ffiris,  pp.  72-110  ;  p.  95  :  "  The  Perangauad  cairns,  lyingbetweenKotagherry 
and  Kodanad,  difl^er  less  from  those  at  Tuneri ;  the  figures  are  generally 
smaller  and  rougher,  and  the  colour  darker,  but  the  urns  are  often  very  fine 
with  strong  glaze  of  mica  .  .  It  is,  however,  remarkable  that  the  rougher 
remains  are  found  in  the  division  in  which  lie  the  two  (probably)  oldest  Toda 
mands,  and  the  only  cairns  claimed  by  the  Todas. .  (On  p.  96.)  At  one  time 
they  were  generally  assigned  to  the  Todas  ;  and  Colonel  Congreve  wrote  an 
elaborate  essay  to  prove  the  Scythian  origin  of  this  people  and  their  claim 
to  the  cairns.  His  large  theories,  and  occasionally  incorrect  facts,  dis- 
credited his  cause  rather  unduly,  and  of  late  years  the  cairns  have  been 
generally  attributed  either  to  the  Kurumbas  or  to  an  extinct  race.  Those 
who  held  these  views,  however,  seem  to  have  been  unaware  of,  or  to  have 
overlooked,  the  significant  fact  that  the  Todas  even  now  burn  their  dead 
in  a  circle  of  stones  and  bury  the  ashes  there.  Now,  not  only  may  the 
circle  of  stones  be  called  the  fundamental  idea  of  cairns  and  barrows,  but 
some  of  them  consist  of  insignificant  circles  of  stones,  hardly  to  be  distin- 
guished from  Toda  Azdrams  except  by  the  trees  or  bushes  which  indicate 
their  greater  age...  (On  p.  97.)  It  will  be  seen  that  these  old  Azdnims 
(supposing  them  to  be  A-iirmns),  shew  one  or  two  marked  points  of  approxi- 
mation to  the  cairns.     1st.    They  prove  that  metal  ornaments  and  objects 


dian  race,  of  whom  Ravana  was  an  ancient  representative. 
This  report  is  more  likely  to  be  true  than  that  which  des- 
crihes  them  as  Rama's  followers  who  eventually  settled  in 
the  south. '^ 

of  value  were  in  old  times  actually  turied  by  the  Todas,  instead  of  being, 
as  now,  only  offered  to  the  flames  and  taken  away.  2nd.  These  objects 
include  iron  spears,  chisels,  and  styles  f  at  present  unused  by  the  Todas, 
but  common  in  the  cairns.  The  spears  were  of  rather  different  shape 
from  most  of  those  figured.  An  old  Toda,  who  had  had  possession  of  the 
spear  of  Koten,  but  professed  to  have  lost  it,  told  me  that  it  was  something 
like  these,  but  longer.  The  style  is  very  like  some  used  in  Malabar,  hol- 
low at  the  top ;  one  cannot,  however,  imagine  that  writing  ■  was  ever  a 
Toda  accomplishment ;  it  may  have  been  used  for  marking  pottery.  3rd. 
The  receptacle  for  the  ashes  and  remains,  instead  of  being  indifferently 
placed  at  any  side  of  the  circle,  was,  in  three  cases  out  of  four,  at  the 
north-east  edge...  (On  p.  99.)  Against  the  theory  that  the  cairns  belong  to  the 
Todas,  it  has  been  urged  that  they  do  not  claim  them.  This  is  not  strictly 
correct ;  they  do,  as  has  been  shewn,  claim  some.  But  even  if  the  statement 
were  entirely  true,  it  is  not  of  much  consequence  with  a  people  like  Todas. 
I  have  known  a  Toda,  while  pointing  out  the  Azaram  in  which  a  funeral 
ceremony  then  going  forward  was  to  terminate,  profess  entire  ignorance  of 
the  object  of  some  other  stone  circles  close  at  hand,  obviously  old  Azarams 
belonging  to  the  same  mand  ;  so  that  their  disclaimer  of  the  cairns  carries 
little  weight.  It  has  been  further  stated  that  the  cairns  contain  agricul- 
tural implements,  and  must  therefore  have  belonged  to  a  comparatively 
civilized  people.  Except  the  curious  shears,  which  may  have  been  used  for 
various  purposes,  the  only  agricultural  implements  which  have  appeared  in 
these  investigations  are  sickles.  These  may  have  been  used  for  cutting 
grass  and  bushes,  and  it  is  singular  that,  although  the  Todas  do  not  now 
use  any  tool  of  the  kind,  they  bum  with  the  dead  the  Kafkatti,  a.  large 
curved  knife,  apparently  intended  for  some  such  purpose,  although,  except 
in  one  instance ,  the  cairn  sickles  are  of  different  shape.  The  Kafkatti, 
when  committed  to  the  flames,  is  bound  round  with  cotton  cloth,  traces  of 
which  are  often  found  on  the  razors  in  the  cairns.  On  the  whole,  I  think 
it  is  more  satisfactory  to  assign  the  cairns  to  the  Todas  than  to  an  unknown 
race."  Bead  also  Mr.  H.  B.  Grigg's  Manual  of  the  Ntlagiri  District,  pp.  229- 
247  ;  about  the  origin  of  the  remains,  see  p.  241  ;  and  about  the  sculptured 
cromlechs  consult  this  passage  :  "As  regards  the  third  class  of  monuments, 
none  of  the  present  hill  inhabitants  of  the  Hills  are  capable  of  executing  sculp- 
tures of  even  so  elementary  a  degree  of  art  as  those  on  the  cromlechs."  Mr. 
M.  J.  Walhouse  has  in  the  third  and  fifth  volumes  of  the  Indian  Antiquary 
written  some  articles  on  the  funerals,  &c.,  of  the  Todas,  and  in  vol.  TI., 
p.  41,  he  says:  "At  any  rate  it  is  clear  that  these  circles  (Azarams)  are 
claimed  and  formed  by  the  Todas." 

■"  See  Captain  A.  Harkness's  Description  of  »  singular  Aboriginal  Sace 
inhabiting  the  Summit  of  the  Neilgherry  Sills,  pp.  24,  25  :  "They  have 
some  tradition  bearing  reference  to  a  period  about    the  time  of  Ravan, 


The  Todas  have  five  kinds  of  priests,  of  whom  the  Pdldh 
are  held  in  the  greatest  sanctity.  The  Palais,  who  are  five 
in  number,  belong  to  the  highest  class  of  the  Todas  and 
have  charge  of  the  sacred  hells,  which  they  carry  to  every 
Mand  or  hamlet.  Tliey  subsist  on  the  milk  of  the  sacred  herd, 
and  have  a  Kavalal  as  their  attendant.  The  other  priests  of 
lower  degree  are  the  Varlal,  Kokvali,  Kurpuli  and  Pali- 
karpal.  The  temples,  which  are  of  two  kinds,  are  called 
Boa  and  Palci,  the  former  being  sugarloaf-shaped  and  the 
latter  like  an  ordinary  house.  There  are,  at  present,  only 
four  Boas  in  existence  ;  thny  may  have  originally  belonged  to 
some  other  race,  as  the  Todas  do  not  appear  to  hold  them 
in  very  great  respect,  and  their  ministering  priests  belong 
only  to  the  second  rank. 

The  Todas  have  a  large  pantheon,  but  they  revere  par- 
ticularly a  hunting  god  called  Bet.alrai,  the  son  of  Dirkish, 
the  son  of  En,  the  first  Toda.  His  temple  is  at  Nambala- 
kod,  in  the  Wainad.  Besides  him  they  worship  Siriadeva, 
whose  representative  is  the  sacred  buffalo-bell,  which  hangs 
from  the  neck  of  the  finest  buffalo  of  the  sacred  herd,'* 
The  buffalo  is  indigenous  only  in  the  south-east  of  Asia, 

when  they  say  they  inhabited  the  low  country.  One  among  these  is  that 
their  lorefathera  were  the  subjects  of  Ravan,  and  that,  being  aftei-wards 
unable  to  bear  the  severities  imposed  on  them  by  the  successful  Ravan, 
they  fled  to  these  mountains  as  a  place  of  refuge,  dri^'ing  their  herds  before 
them,  carrjdng  their  females  and  children  on  their  shoulders,  and  vowing 
to  wear  no  covering  on  their  heads  tiU  they  had  wreaked  their  vengeance 
on  their  oppressors."  Congreve,  loco  citato,  p.  110,  says  on  the  contrary: 
"  The  Thautawars  have  a  tradition  that  their  ancestors  were  subjects  of 
Eavannah  with  whom  they  fled  before  Ramah."  About  the  legend  of  the 
Todas  having  been  the  palanquin  bearers  of  Rftvana,  see  Mr.  H.  B.  Grigg's 
Manual,  pp.  202,  252  and  256.  About  their  coming  with  Rama  consult 
the  Rev.  F.  Metz,  ibidem,  p.  46:  "The  Brahmins  of  the  plains  maintain 
that  the  Todas  were  followers  in  the  train  of  Rama  when  he  came  from  the 
North  to  a\enge  himself  on  Ravana  and  that  desiring  independence  they 
deserted,  and  fled  to  the  Hills ;  but  of  this  tradition  the  Todas  themselves 
know  nothing"  ;  read  also  p.  6.5  ;   and  Mr.  Grigg's  Manual,  p.  258. 

'3  Read  Mr.  J.  W.  Breeke'  Account  of  the  Frimitive  Tribes  and  Monu- 
ments of  the  Nilagiris,  pp.  13-17;  and  Mr.  H.  B.  Grigg's  Manual,  pp. 


i.e.,  in  South  India,  Burma  and  parts  of  China.  It  is  not  a 
native  of  the  North- West.  The  most  valuable  property  of 
the  original  inhabitants  must  have  been  formed  by  the  herds 
of  these  animals,  which  were  and  are  still  highly  esteemed 
and  regarded  worthy  of  carrying  the  symbol  of  the  deity. 
The  worship  of  the  buffalo  is  a  most  striking  feature  and 
can  only  be  traced  to  very  ancient  times.  The  buiialo  figures 
also  in  Mdhismati,  a  town  founded  by  king  Mahismat,  whose 
name  implies  that  he  was  rich  in  buffaloes.  The  worship 
of  the  fire,  or  of  Agni,  prevailed  here,  and  women  were 
allowed  unrestricted  liberty  in  the  choice  of  their  husbands. 
The  city  was  situated  in  the  plateau  south  of  the  Goda- 
vari,  most  probably  on  a  tributary  of  the  Krishna.  King 
Nila  of  Daksinapatha  reigned  here.  He  is  mentioned  as 
an  ally  of  Duryodhana,  though  he  was  killed  in  battle  by  the 
son  of  Drona.'*  The  people  of  king  Nila  are  called  the 
Mdhisakas,  and  are  mentioned  in  the  Sloka  previously  to 
the  Kohagireyas,  the  inhabitants  of  Koha  or  Kolagiri.  This 
circumstance  places  the  Mahisakas  locally  in  proximity  with 
the  Grond  tribes.  Mysore  or  Mahisdsura,  the  country  named 
according  to  tradition  after  the  buffalo-shaped  Asura  Mahisa, 
may  have  been  a  part  of  king  Nila's  empire.  The  Nilagiri 
mountains  and  Mysore  are  conterminous.  The  name  of  the 
Asura  Mahisa  is  in  this  case  also  used  as  representing  the 

'*  Compare  the  Vdy5gapana  XVIII,  23,  24  of  the  Mahabharata : 
Sa  ca  samprapya  Kauravyam  tatraivaatardadhe  tada, 
tatha  Mahismatlvasl  NUo  Nllayudhais  saha  23. 

Mahipato  mahavlryair  Daksinapathavasibhih.  24. 

and  ibidem,  Dronaparva  XXXI,  24,25. 

Sa  plutah  syandamat  tasman-NllaScarmavarasibhrt 
DraimayanSh  Sirah  kayaddhartum  aicchat  patattrivat.  24. 
Tasyomiatamsajn  sunasam  Sirah  kayat  sakundalam 
BallSnapaharad-Draunih  smayamana  ivanagha.  25. 

See  Christian  Lassen's  Indisehe  Alterthumshunde,  vol.  I,  pp.  681-683  (or 
567-569  ia  the  first  edition). 

About  the  town  MaUamati  (MahsSvara)  on  the  Narmada  in  Indore  com- 
pare the  article  "  MaheSvara  in  Malwa  "  by  Eaoji  Vaaudeva  Tullu,  m.a.,  in 
the  Indirni  Antiqmry,  vol.  IV.  (1876),  pp.  346-348. 


people  of  the  Mahisas  or  Maldsakis,  a  circumstance  to  which 
I  have  previously  on  p.  14  drawn  attention  in  the  case  of 
the  demons  Bala,  Malla  and  others. 

The  word  JIa/ikc  has  when  combined  with  the  Marathi 
Bd  for  Bclpa,  father,  assumed  the  form  of  ilahsohd,  and  the 
demon  Mahsoba  is  to  this  day  held  in  high  veneration  among 
the  cultivators  and  the  lower  classes  of  the  population.  A 
stoneblock  generally  covered  with  red-lead  colour  and  stand- 
ing in  a  circle  of  other  stones  serves  as  his  representative. 
The  structure  resembles  in  this  respect  the  rude  stones  wor- 
shipped by  the  Kurumbas.  Of  these  I  shall  speak  later  on. 
The  worship  of  the  buffalo  to  which  the  Todas  still  adhere  is 
very  interesting  and  may  perhaps  indicate  the  origin  of  this 
ancient  tribe.  Some  Gond  tribes  also  sacrifice  the  buffalo. 
This  subject  deserves  to  be  fully  enquired  into." 

Like  other  primitive  races  of  Turanian  or  Scythian 
origin,  the  Todas  revere  the  great  luminaries  of  the  sky,  the 
Sun  and  the  Moon,  besides  the  Fire.     They  have  a  very 

"  Durga  or  Bhavam  killed  the  buffalo-shaped  Asura  Mahisa,  the  well- 
known  MaMsasura,  after  whom  Mysore  is  called. 

According  to  the  legend  in  the  MarkandSyapurana  Diti  had  lost  all  her 
sons,  the  Asuras,  in  thehattle  between  the  Gods  and  the  Asuras.  With  the 
object  to  anihilate  the  Gods  she  assumed  the  shiipe  of  a  buffalo,  and  under- 
went such  dreadful  austerities  in  order  to  propitiate  Brahma,  and  to  obtain  a 
son,  that  the  whole  vrorld  was  shaken  in  its  foundations  and  what  was  worse, 
the  sage  Suparsva,  was  disturbed  in  his  quiet  hermitage.  He  therefore  cursed 
Diti  to  bring  forth  a  buffalo  instead  of  a  human-shaped  son.  Brahma  miti- 
gated this  curse  by  confining  the  buffalo  form  to  the  head  and  allowing  the 
remainder  of  the  body  to  be  like  that  of  a  mau.  This  offspring  was  called 
Mahisasura  who  defeated  the  gods  and  Ul-treated  them,  till  they  appealed 
for  help  to  Visuu  and  Siva,  who  jointly  produced  a  beautiful  representation 
of  BhavanI,  the  Mahisdsuramardanl,  who  slew  the  monster. 

The  Gazetteer  of  Aumngahad  mentions  Mahsoba  on  pp.  347  and  358  : 
"  Mahishasura,  who  was  slain  by  Parvati,  and  in  honor  of  whom  the  feast 
of  Dassura  is  celebrated,  is  probably  Mahsoba,  a  demon  much  worshipped 
by  the  lower  classes  and  especially  by  the  cultivators,  for  the  purpose  of 
rendering  their  fields  fertile.  The  image  is  like  a  natural  Linga,  consisting 
of  any  rounded  stone  of  considerable  size,  found  in  the  comer  or  to  the  side 
of  a  field.  This  when  covered  with  red-lead  becomes  Mahsoba,  to  which 
prayers  are  addressed,  and  cocoanuts,  fowls,  and  goats  are  offered  (p.  347).  . 
On  the  southern  side  of  the  Chauki  pass,  in  the  Lakenwara  range  between 
Aurangabad  and  Phulmari,  there  is  a  shrine  of  Mahsoba,  consisting  of  a 

Ot'    BHABATAVAR8A    OR   INDIA.  189 

dim  idea  of  the  divine  powers;  they  possess  hardly  any 
religious  rites ;  hut  they  firmly  believe  in  the  existence  of  a 
life  after  death,  in  a  heaven  for  the  good  and  a  hell  for 
the  bad. 

The  ceremonies  at  births,  marriages  and  funerals  are 
very  curious  and  have  often  been  described.  They  burn 
their  dead  with  the  face  downwards,  a  custom  which  prevails 
still  among  the  aborigines  of  some  parts  of  Central  India. 
The  Todas  go  always  bareheaded,  as  also  do  the  Khonds. 
The  habit  of  polyandry  peculiar  to  the  Gauda-Dravidian 
race  is  also  prevalent  among  the  Todas. 

The  interest  which  this  tribe  has  excited  is  mainly  due  to 
their  fine  and  striking  appearance  so  different  from  that  of 
other  races  and  to  their  dwelling  in  a  most  picturesque  country. 
The  Todas  are  regarded  by  the  other  hill  tribes  as  the  lords 
of  the  soil,  and  as  such  exact  a  tribute  (gudu)  from  them. 
How  they  obtained  this  supremacy  is  unknown,  and  the 
acquisition  of  their  influence  is  the  more  remarkable,  as, 
unless  they  have  greatly  changed  since  their  first  appearance, 
they  are  not  a  war-Hke  race,  and  could  not  have  forced  their 
way  into  these  hills  with  the  aid  of  arms.  The  fact  that 
the  Todas  enjoy  this  peaceful  supremacy  proves  them  to 
be  very  ancient,  if  not  the  aboriginal  inhabitants  of  these 
Hills.  The  Todas  are  steadily  decreasing  in  nimibers  and, 
according  to  the  last  census,  numbered  only  689.  Their 
reputation  as  sorcerers  stood  them  in  good  stead  and  perhaps 
frightened  into  submission  those  who  might  otherwise  have 
molested  them.      The  Todas  alone  among  the  hill  tribes 

block  of  stone  surrounded  -witli  smaller  pieces,  and  all  covered  with  red-lead. 
During  the  jatra  which  is  held  in  the  month  of  Chaitra,  and  lasts  for  four 
days,  people  of  aU  castes,  hut  especially  the  Kunbis,  flock  from  a  circle  of  a 
hundred  miles,  and  offer  many  sheep  in  sacrifice." 

The  buffalo  was  the  carrier  of  Yama,  and  he  is  therefore  also  known  as 
Mahisadhvaja  and  Mahiaavahana.  Skanda  is  known  as  Mahimrdana,  and 
one  of  his  Matris  is  called  Mahiadnana.  Mahisa  or  Mahisa,  Mahisaka  or 
Mahisaka  are  names  of  people.  MahiaasthaU  is  the  name  of  a  place,  Mdhisya 
that  of  a  mixed  caste,  and  3[dhi§ika  besides  meaning  a  herdsman  is  also  used 
in  the  sense  of  a  man  who  lives  by  the  prostitution  of  his  wife. — Seep.  164. 



are  not  afraid  6i  the  Kurumbas,  who  are  generally  shunned 
as  wizards. 

Very  many  conjectures  have  been  ventured  to  explain 
the  term  Toda  or  Tuda.  The  d  in  this  word  is,  according  to 
Bishop  Caldwell  and  the  Eev.  Mr.  Metz,  dental  and  not 
lingual,  as  the  Rev.  Dr.  Pope  is  inclined  to  believe,  for  he 
spells  it  Tuda.  Dr.  Pope  does  so  probably  to  support  the 
derivation  he  proposes.  He  connects  the  name  of  the  Toda 
with  the  Tamil  word  Tolam,  herd,  and  derives  from  it  a  pro- 
blematic word  Tolan,  in  the  sense  of  herdsman.  The  modern 
Tamil  Tolu,  a  fold  for  cattle,  is  the  root  of  Toluvam  which  is 
again  contracted  into  Tolam.  Toluvar  signifies  according 
to  the  dictionaries  agriculturists,  but  the  word  Tolar  in  this 
meaning  is  not  given.  Besides,  the  o  in  Tolar  is  long,  while 
tha^in  Toda  is  short.  Moreover,  the  people  who  keep  these 
cattle-stalls  are  not  herdsmen,  but  agriculturists.  On  the 
other  hand  the  Todas  are  a  pastoral,  and  not  an  agricultural 

Having  met  with  no  explanation  which  satisfies  me,  I 
venture  to  propose  one  myself.  I  believe  that  the  t  in  Toda 
or  Tuda  is  a  modification  of  an  original  k,  and  that  the  real 
name  is  Koda  or  Kuda.     This  I  explain  as  a  derivation  of 

■"  See  Dr.  "Winslow's  Tamil  and  English  Dictionary,  p.  636,  where  Tohmar 
Ofiir(i£iisuif  is  explained  as  agriculturists,  isiQ^fiSsoLCiirsseir.  In  Col. 
Marshall's  Phrenologist  amongst  the  Todas  the  first  note  on  p.  1  is  as  follows  : 
"  Todan.  Tamil,  Toravam  and  Toj-am  =  a  herd.  And  thus  Toravan  or 
To!:an=:  herdsman.  (Pope)."  Compare  Bishop  Caldwell' s  Introduction  Cow- 
parative  Dravidian  Grammar,  p.  37  :  "  Dr.  Pope  connects  the  name  of  the 
Todas  with  the  Tamil  word  Tora,  a  herd ;  but  the  d  of  Tuda  is  not  the 
lingual  d,  hut  the  dental,  which  has  no  relationship  to  r  or  I.  The  derivation 
of  the  name  may  be  regarded  as  at  present  unknown."  The  Eev.  F.  Kittel 
writes  to  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  p.  205  :  "In  Part  XXIX  of  the 
Indian  Antiquary,  p.  93  seq.  the  name  of  a  well-known  smaU  tribe  on  the 
Nilagiri  is  given  as  '  Toda.'  The  lingual  d  in  this  word  is  not  in  the 
mouth  of  the  Nllagiri  people,  these  pronouncing  it  '  Toda.'  The  same 
remark  is  to  be  applied  to  the  word  '  Xota  '  on  p.  96  ;  the  true  spelling  of 
this  name  is  '  Kota.'  The  word  '  Toda  '  may  mean  '  man  of  the  top,'  soil, 
of  the  hills.  '  Kota '  can  be  derived  from  various  Drlviija  roots  ;  it  is 
difficult  to  say  what  its  true  meaning  is.  Certainly  it  does  not  mean  '  cow- 
killer/  as  some  have  thought." 


ko  or  ku,  mountain  and  Koda  or  Kuda  signifies  then  a 
mountaineer.  The  change  of  k  into  t  is  perhaps  not  very 
common,  yet  it  takes  place  occasionally.  The  Tamil  kel 
to  ask,  is,  e.g.,  tal  in  Grondi;  the  Irula  kdlage,  helow,  corres- 
ponds to  tala  in  Tamil  and  Malayalam ;  the  Kurg  kidatu  and 
the  Tamil  kile,  below,  is  tirt  in  Tulu.  The  town  Eondota, 
mentioned  by  Ptolemy,  is  likewise  called  Tondota,  and  the 
district  Khandesh  is  also  known  as  Tandesh.  The  same  change 
can  be  observed  in  the  middle  of  a  word,  as  the  Sanskrit 
tilaka  frontal  mark,  becomes  optionally  tilakani  and  tilatam  in 
Tamil,  and  sdUvika  is  altered  into  cattumkam  or  cdttuvttam.^'' 

Peculiarly  enough,  when  inquiring  into  their  name,  I 
was  informed  by  various  Natives  and  even  by  some  Todas 
that  the  Todavar  O^ir^wir  are  also  called  Kodavar  Osn-^euir.''^ 

And  this  statement  which  supports  my  conjecture  is  up- 
held by  several  names  of  persons  and  places.  I  take  thus 
Kodanad,  which  lies  near  Kotagiri,  and  is  the  seat  of  one  of 
the  Palais  containing  some  of  the  most  ancient  Todamands 
in  the  sense  of  denoting  the  district  of  the  Kodas.'^     One  of 

"  The  generally  accepted  derivation  of  Telugu  or  Telinga  ia  from 
Trilinga,  but  this  remains  doubtful  as  the  term  Triliiga  ia  a  corruption 
of  Trikalinga,  to  which  the  Modogalingam  of  Pliny  corresponds :  "  Insula 
in  Grange  eat  magnas  amplitudinis  gentem  contiueus  nnam,  Modogalingam 
nomine;"  Hist.  Natur.  Lib.  VI,  cap.  22.  If  Telinga  ia  a  modified  form 
of  Kalinga,  this  word  would  provide  another  example  of  the  interchange 
between  a  k  and  t.     About  Tandesh,  see  p.  159,  n.  54. 

The  t  is  occasionally  chosen  as  the  representative  of  all  the  others  con- 
sonants, Kaumarila  is  thus  playfully  changed  into  Tautdtita  in  Vedanta- 
deSikacftrya's  Tattvamuktdkaldpa,  and  paduka  into  tdtuta  in  the  Fdduko' 
sahasra  of  the  same  author. 

'8  T.  C.  Maduranayaka  PiUai,  the  clerk  of  Major- General  Morgan, 
has  told  me  of  his  own  accord  that  he  has  often  heard  the  Todavar  call 
themselves  and  be  called  Kodavar.  Some  Kotas  whom  I  asked  confirmed 
this  evidence.  A  few  Todas  told  me  the  same.  They  might  have  said  so 
to  please  me,  but  they  had  no  reason  for  so  doing,  as  I  had  not  expressed 
to  them  any  opinion  on  that  subject. 

''  Kodanad  lies  on  the  north  of  Paranganad.  It  contains  one  of  the 
oldest  mands  and  between  it  and  Kotagiri  are  found  the  sculptured 
Cromlechs  of  Hlai  uru.  Some  derive  the  name  of  Kodanad  from  kodan,  the 
Toda  word  for  monkey,  which  corresponds  to  the  Kota  term  kode,  and  the 
Badaga,  Kunimba,  and  Irula  kormgu.    But  the  presence  of  the  common 


the  ancestors  of  the  Todas  is  called  Koten,*"  and  the  Huli- 
kaldrug  is  also  named  Kodatha-betta,  after  the  god 

The  Todas  have  many  customs  which  are  also  met  with 
among  other  tribes,  e.g.,  among  the  Kols.  But  this  coin- 
cidence does  not  prove  the  existence  of  any  relationship.  The 
same  rites  and  practices  often  prevail  among  totally  different 
people  who  live  at  a  great  distance  from  one  another.  The 
singular  custom  by  which  the  youngest  son  becomes  heir  to 
the  property  in  opposition  to  the  law  of  primogeniture  is 
observed  by  the  Todas  in  South  India  as  well  as  by  some 
Holstein  peasants  in  North  Germany. 

brown  monkey  kodcm  [turimi  being  the  black  monkey)  is  hardly  a  distinctive 
feature  of  any  district  on  the  hills.  It  is  perhaps  possible  that  the  Todas 
changed  the  initial  letter  of  their  original  name  in  order  to  avoid  any 
allusion  to  that  of  the  monkey. 

8"  About  Koten  read  Breeks'  Primitive  Tribes  of  the  NUagiri,  pp.  34,  36, 
37,  97,  99.  Koten  is  said  to  have  brought  the  Kotas  up  to  the  hills,  though 
they  are  also  represented  to  have  been  bom  on  ths  hills,  p.  36  :  "  KotSu  went 
to  the  Kundahs,  and  established  a  Tiriari  and  Palais,  and  placed  the  Kotas 
at  the  Kimdah  Kotagiri,  called  by  the  Todas  Merkokal "...  37.  "  After  this, 
KotSu  went  to  a  Kurumba  village  in  Bani  Shima,  and  on  his  return,  when 
bathing  in  a  stream,  a  hair  of  a  golden  colour  came  to  his  hand  ;  he  followed 
it  up  stream  to  find  the  owner  of  the  hair,  and  saw  a  Swami  woman,  by 
name  Terkoah,  whom  he  married.  After  this,  KotSn  returned  home  to  his 
mand  near  the  Avalanche.  Koten  slept  on  a  deer  skin,  wore  a  silver 
ring,  and  carried  a  spear,  bow,  and  arrow.  On  the  night  of  his  return  he 
went  to  sleep,  and  in  the  morning  nothing  was  found  of  him  but  his 
spear  and  ring  and  some  blood  on  the  deer-skin.  He  and  Terkosh  were 
transformed  into  two  hills,  .  .  on  the  Sisapara  side  of  the  hills,  to  which  both 
Kurumbas  and  Todas  pay  occasional  ceremonial  visits.  The  Kurumbas  light 
a  lamp  on  the  hill  Terkosh.  When  the  Todas  see  these  two  hills,  they  sing 
the  song  about  Kotan.  (Thus  five  gods  are  connected  in  these  traditions 
with  different  hiUs,  viz. :  — Dirkish,  Kodatha,  Pursh,  Koten,  and  Terkosh. 
If  the  Todas  originally  deified  every  hill,  not  an  unnatm-al  worship  for 
mountaineers,  the  number  of  their  gods,  otherwise  astonishing,  is  accounted 
for.  The  Todas,  ia  common  with  the  other  hill  tribes,  still  offer  ghee  to  be 
burnt  to  Maleswaramale)." 

*'  About  Kodatha  read  ibidem,  p.  35  :  "  One  day  the  Gods  took  counsel, 
saying  '  why  does  the  kite  come  here,  let  us  drive  him  out ';  so  one  of  them, 
Kodatha,  took  the  kite  home  to  Kodatha-betta  (Hulikaldurga),  and  pushed 
him  over  ;  the  kite,  in  falling,  caught  hold  of  a  bamboo,  with  which  he 
returned,  and  struck  Kodatha's  head,  so  that  it  split  into  three  pieces." 


Thougli  it  is  difficult  as  yet  to  decide  definitively  the 
ethnological  status  of  the  Todas,  I  believe  I  have  been 
successful  in  assigning  them  to  the  Gaudian  branch  of  the 
Gauda-Dravidian  race. 

The  Kotas. 

Next  to  the  "Kurumbas  and  Todas  the  Kotas  are  the 
most  ancient  inhabitants  of  the  Nilagiri  range.  According 
to  Toda  tradition  Koten  introduced  them  to  these  hills. 
Though  they  are  regarded  as  the  Pariah  element  among  the 
hill-tribes,  it  is  possible  that  they  were  originally  more 
nearly  related  to  the  Todas,  whom  they  call  their  annata- 
malu,  i.e.,  brothers.  They  have  many  customs  in  common  with 
the  Todas,  e.g.,  that  which  constitutes  the  youngest  brother 
as  heir  of  the  house,  a  practice  which  seems  also  to  prevail 
among  the  Kurumbas.  They  recognize  no  caste  distinctions, 
but  are  sub-divided  into  Keris  or  streets.  They  are  a  very 
industrious  tribe  and  devote  themselves  to  agriculture  and  to 
various  sorts  of  handicrafts.  They  excel  as  carpenters,  smiths, 
tanners,  basket-makers,  &c.  They  acknowledge  the  Todas 
as  the  lords  of  the  soil,  and  pay  them  tribute  (gudu) .  They 
are  well-formed,  of  average  height,  not  bad  featured  and  fair- 
skinned.  They  live  in  seven  villages,  one  of  which  is  in  the 
neighbourhood   of   Gudalur.^^     The   last  census  fixes  their 

8^  Compare  Dr.  Shortt's  Account  of  the  Tribes  of  the  Neilgherries,  pp. 
53-57:  "This  tribe  ranks  next  to  tlie  Todas  in  priority  of  occupation  of 
these  hills.  They  have  no  caste,  and  are  in  this  respect  equal  to  the 
Pariahs  of  the  low  country  ;  and  as  a  body,  are  the  industrious  of  the 
hill  tribes,  giving  much  of  their  time  and  attention  to  agriculture  and 
handicraft,  &c.  .  .  .  They  also  employ  themselves  as  Curriers,  and  are  highly 
esteemed  in  the  plains  for  the  excellent  leather  they  cure  .  .  .  They  ac- 
knowledge the  Todas  as  lords  of  the  soil.  .  .  At  the  same  time  they  exact 
from  each  hamlet  of  the  Badagas  within  certain  distance  of  their  own  village, 
certain  annual  fees,  which  they  receive  in  kind  for  services  rendered  as 
handicraftsmen,  &o.,  in  addition  to  that  of  ceremonial  or  festive  occasions 
for  menial  services  performed  ...  In  confirmation  of  their  having  followed 
the  Todas  as  settlers  on  these  HUls  they  hold  the  best  lands,  and  have 
the  privilege  of  selecting  the  best  whenever  they  wish  to  extend  their  hold, 
ings.    They  are  well  made  and  of  tolerable  height,  rather  good  featured  and 


number  at  1,122  souls,  55  Kotas  are  assigned  to  the  Bombay 


It  seems  probable  that  the  Todas  and  Kotas  lived  near 
each  other  before  the  settlement  of  the  latter  on  the  Nilagiri. 
Their  dialects  too  betray  a  great  resemblance,  and,  if  my 
coujecture  concerning  the  original  name  of  the  Todas  is 
confirmed,  their  names  at  first  were  also  much  alike.**  The 
Kotas  are  the  only  hill  people  who  are  not  afraid  of  the 
Todas,  and  they  treat  them  occasionally  even  with  bare 
courtesy,  though,  as  a  rule,  a  Kota,  when  meeting  a  Toda 
and  Badaga,  lifts  both  his  hands  to  his  face  and  makes  his 
obeisance  from  a  distance.  They  do  also  not,  like  the  other 
hill-tribes,  stand  in  awe  of  the  mysterious  power  of  witch- 
craft, with  which  the  Todas  are  credited. 

According  to  a  tradition  of  theirs  they  lived  formerly 
on  Kollimalai,  a  mountain  in  Mysore. *'  They  possess,  like 
most  Hindus,  a  tradition  concerning  their  special  creation. 
Their  god,  Kamataraya,  perspired  once  profusely  and  "  he 
"  wiped  from  his  forehead  three  drops  of  perspiration,  and 
"  oat  of  them  formed  the  most  ancient  of  the  hill -tribes,  viz., 
"  the  Todas,  Kurumbas,  and  Kotas.  The  Todas  were  told  to 
"  live  principally  upon  milk ;  the  Kurumbas  were  permitted 

light-skinned,  having  a  copper  color,  and  some  of  them  are  the  fairest- 
skinned  among  the  Hill  tribes.  They  have  well  formed  heads,  covered 
■with  long  black  hair,  grown  long  and  let  loose,  or  tied  up  carelessly  at 
the  back  of  the  head.  .  .  The  women  are  of  moderate  height,  of  fair  build 
of  body,  and  not  nearly  so  good-looking  as  the  men."  Read  also  Breeks' 
Primitive  Tribes  of  the  Ntlagiris,  pp.  40-47  ;  and  Metz,  pp.  127-132. 

"  The  Census  mentions  3,232  Kotamali  in  the  North-Western  Provinces, 
1,112  Kotalcas,  .572  Eotayas  and  1,076  Kottharas  in  Madras. 

s*  See  Rev.  F.  Metz,  loco  citato,  p.  127:  "The  close  affinity  existing 
between  the  language  of  the  Todas  and  that  of  the  Kotas  leads  me  to  believe 
that  both  these  tribes  came  from  the  same  quarter,  and  that  they  probably 
settled  on  the  Neilgherries  at  about  the  same  period." 

9*  See  Metz,  ibidem,  p.  127  :  "  According  to  one  of  their  traditions,  the 
Kotas  formerly  lived  on  a  mountain  in  Mysore,  called  KoUimale,  after  which 
they  named  the  first  village  they  built  on  the  Neilgherries.  They  now 
occupy  seven  tolerably  large  villages,  all  of  which  are  known  by  the  general 
nama  of  Kotagiri,  or  Cow-killers'  hill." 

OP    BHARATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  196 

"  to  eat  the  flesh  of  buffalo  calves ;  and  the  Kotas  were 
"  allowed  perfect  liberty  in  the  choice  of  their  food,  being 
"  informed  that  they  might  eat  carrion,  if  they  could  get 
"  nothing  better,  and  beef  also,  though  it  is  repulsive  to  all 
"  Hindu  notions."  ^* 

It  is  wrong  to  connect  the  name  of  the  Kotas  with  cow- 
slaying  and  to  derive  it  from  the  Sanskrit  go-hatya.  This 
derivation  seems  to  have  been  suggested  from  Kohatur,  one 
of  the  corrupted  forms  of  the  name  of  the  Kotar  or  Koter. 
According  to  the  late  Mr.  Breeks,  in  his  Primitive  Tribes  of 
the  Nilagiris,  p.  40  :  "  The  Todas  call  them  Kuof,  or  cow- 
people  ; "  but  singularly  enough  the  Toda  word  for  cow  is 
danam,  like  the  Kurumba  and  Badaga  dana.  Dr.  Pope  on 
the  other  hand  goes  so  far  as  to  contend  that  the  Todas  had 
no  word  for  cow ;  a  statement  which  I  regard  as  extremely 
venturous.  However  in  both  circumstances,  if  the  Todas 
have  no  term  for  cow,  or  if  that  term  is  danam,  they  could  not 
have  called  the  Kotas,  Kuof  or  cow-people.  Moreover,  the 
Kotas  would  not  call  themselves  by  such  a  name,  nor  would 
the  Todas  and  the  other  hill-tribes  who  have  no  knowledge  of 
Sanskrit  apply  a  Sanskrit  word  to  designate  their  neighboiirs. 
The  derivation  of  the  term  Kota  is,  as  clearly  indicated,  from 
the  Gauda-Dravidian  wordAo,  {ku),  mountain,  and  the  Kotas 
belong  to  the  Q-audian  branch.'"     It  is  a  peculiar  coincidence 

^  Metz,  pp.  27  and  128:  "The  Kotas  are  the  only  of  all  the  hill 
tribes  who  practise  the  industrial  arts,  and  they  are  therefore  essential 
almost  to  the  very  existence  of  the  other  classes.  They  work  in  gold  and 
sUver,  are  carpenters  and  hlacksmiths,  tarjiers  and  rope-makers,  umbrella- 
makers,  potters,  and  musicians,  and  are  at  the  same  time  cultivators  of  the 
soil.  They  are,  however,  a  squalid  race,  living  chiefly  on  carrion,  and  are 
on  this  account  a  bye-word  among  the  other  castes,  who,  while  they  feel  that 
they  cannot  do  without  them,  nevertheless  abhor  them  for  their  filthy 
habits.  All  the  cattle  that  die  in  the  villages  are  carried  off  by  the  Kotas, 
and  feasted  on  by  them,  in  common  with  the  vultures,  with  whose  tastes 
their  own  precisely  agree ;  and  at  no  time  do  the  Kotas  thrive  so  well  as 
when  there  is  murrain  among  the  herds  of  the  Todas  and  Badagas." 

8'  See  Breeks,  p.  40  :  "  The  name  is  found  differently  spelt.  Kota, 
Kotar  KotSr,  Kohatur.    The  derivation  is  uncertain.     Kohata  or  Gohata, 


that  according  to  the  statement  of  Mr.  Eamiah,  Deputy 
Superintendent  of  Mysore,  the  "  Lingayet  Panchalas  (work- 
ers in  metals)  and  Huttagars  are  called  Kotars  in  this  part 
of  the  country  (Harihar),  and  they  worship  Kama  (god) 
and  Kurymena  (goddess)."  To  this  remark  Mr.  Breeks  ^^ 
adds :  "  Also  that  a  caste  of  the  same  name  exists  in  Marwar 
and  Guzerat."  Dr.  Fr.  Buchanan  makes  a  similar  remark 
about  the  goddess  of  the  Panoalas.*^ 

The  occupation  and  the  worship  of  the  Mysore  Kotas 
confirmed  to  a  certain  degree  the  tradition  of  the  Nilagiri 
Kotas  when  they  contend  that  they  came  from  Mysore. 

co-w-tiller,  has  been  suggested,  but  this  seems  doubtful.  The  Todas  call 
them  Kuof,  or  cow-people."  Read  also  Mr.  H.  B.  Grigg's  District  Manual, 
pp.  203-213.  On  p.  203  he  says:  "The  name  is  differently  spelt  Kotu, 
Kster,  Kotar,  Kshatur  and  Kotturs.  Its  derivation  is  doubtful.  The 
Todas  call  them  Kuof  or  cow-men,  and,  arguing  from  this  word,  some 
connect  it  with  Xo  (Sans.)  cow,  and  hatya,  i.e.,  oow-MUing.  The  first  part 
of  the  derivation  is  probably  correct.  They  are  emphatically  men  of  the 
cow,  as  opposed  to  the  buffalo,  the  animal  of  the  Toda.  The  latter  they  are 
never  allowed  to  keep  ;  the  former  they  keep,  bat  do  not,  for  superstitious 
reasons,  milk."  Compare  note  76  on  p.  190  where  Eev.  F.  Kittel  also 
decides  against  the  explanation  of  Kota  as  cow.killer. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Pope  peculiarly  enough  declares  on  page  261  of  his 
Tuda  Grammar  in  Lieut. -Colonel  Marshall's  Phrenologist  amongst  the  Todas  : 
"  N.B. — No  Tuda  word  for  cow,  plough,  sword,  or  shield."  Yet  according 
to  Rev.  F.  Metz's  Vocabulary  of  the  Toda  Dialect  in  the  Madras  Journal  of 
Literature  and  Science,  vol.  XVII  (1857),  p.  136,  and  to  Mr.  Breeks'  Voca- 
bulary, on  p.  113,  the  Toda  equivalent  for  cow  in  danam.  Rev.  F.  Metz, 
loco  citato,  gives  nekhel  as  the  Toda  word  for  plough,  and  urthbini  (pro- 
nounced uUhbini)  for  to  plough. 

8^  See  Breeks'  Primitive  Tribes  o}  the  Nllagiris,  p.  47. 

*'  See  Dr.  Fr.  Buchanan's  Journey  from  Madras  through  Mysore,  Ganara, 
and  Malabar,  Madras,  1870,  vol.  I,  p.  477:  "The  deity  peculiar  to  the 
caste  (of  the  Panchalar)  is  Camachuma,  or  Kalima,  who  is,  they  say,  the 
same  with  Parvati,  the  wife  of  Siva."  Compare  Breeks'  Primitive  Tribes, 
p.  44  :  "  The  chief  Kota  festival,  however,  is  the  annual  feast  of  Kamataraya, 
called  Kambata  or  Kamata."  Read  also  Grigg's  Manual,  p.  205  :  "  The 
Kotas  had,  it  is  said,  formerly  but  one  deity  Kamataraya,  but  they  also 
worship  his  wife  (Kahasuma  or  KaUkai),  each  is  represented  by  a  silver  plate. 
The  god  is  also  called  Kambata  and  Kftmata."  Kamata  may  be  of  Sanskrit 
origin.  KamadSva  is  a  name  of  Siva,  and  Kamakji  one  of  Durga  or  Kali, 
"T*sSr»&3&»  <  /edmd(amu  '  signifies  in  Telugu  workman. 



On     the     Kuravas     (Kuruvas,    Kurumas),    Koracaru, 
KuRus  (Terakulas),  Kaurs,  Kunnxjvas. 

The  above-mentioned  names  are  representative  terms  of 
various  kindred  trites  who  live  scattered  in  this  country. 
While  a  considerable  majority  of  their  relatives  in  Northern 
India  have  embraced  agricultural  pursuits  and  form  a  pre- 
ponderant element  of  the  rustic  population,  many  of  their 
cousins  in  Southern  India  still  cling  to  their  old  mountain 
homes,  or  roam  as  migratory  hordes  over  the  country,  or  are 
leading  a  pastoral  life  as  shepherds. 

For  the  sake  of  lucidity  I  shall  consider  these  tribes  under 
separate  heads  and  begin  with  the  wandering  Kuravas. 

On  the  Kuravas  (Kuruvas,  Kitrumas),  Koracaru,  &c. 

These  wandering  tribes  are  known  over  the  greater  part 
of  India  as  Kuravas  (Koravas)  or  Kurumas.  They  are  also 
known  as  Koracaru  (Korcaru,  Korsaru  or  Kuruciyar),  which 
term  may  be  either  a  variation  of  Korava,  the  v  being 
changed  into  c,  or,  as  has  been  suggested,  may  be  explained 
as  a  mixed  compound  from  kora  mountain  and  the  Sans- 
krit root  car,  to  go,  so  that  it  means  hill-walkers.  In  this 
case  their  name  reminds  one  of  their  Dravidian  brothers 
the  Malacar  (Malasar).  Dr.  Francis  Buchanan  by  calling 
the  Koragas  of  South-Kanara  Koravas,  identifies  them  with 
the  latter.  At  another  place,  however,  he  names  the  Koravas 
also  Koramas. 

In  consequence  of  their  roving  life  and  the  begging  and 
cheating  propensities  which  so  many  Kuravas  exhibit,  they 
are  much  disliked  and  shunned.'"    They  wander  continually 

90  Compare  Dr.  Francis  Buclianan's  Journey  from  Madras  through  the 
Countries  of  Mysore,  Caaara,  and  Malabar,  second  edition,  vol.  I,  pp.  174, 
175:  "The  Goramas,  or  Coramaru,  are  a  set  of  people  considered  by  the 
Brahmans  as  an  impure  or  mixed  hreed.  They  make  haskets  and  trade  in 
erain  and  salt  to  a  considerable  extent ;  but  none  of  them  can  read  or  write, 



from  one  place  to  another,  gaining  a  precarious  livelihood 
by  making  and  selling  wicker  baskets  of  bamboo  and  reed 
grass,  or  mats  and  other  household  utensils  of  bamboo. 
Some  of  them  also  know  how  to  prepare  metal  wires  of  steel, 
copper,  and  iron.  They  are  famous  bird-catchers,  clever 
snake-jugglers,  and  very  experienced  hunters.  If  nothing 
else  offers,  they  pierce  the  ears  of  children  to  insert  ornaments, 
or  tattoo  the  limbs  of  persons  who  desire  this  embellishment 
of  their  body.  Most  of  their  women  are  fortune  tellers, 
while  the  men  profess  often  to  be  conjurors. 

They  live,  in  general,  in  small  camps  of  moveable  huts,  which  are  sometimes 
stationary  near  large  towns ;  but  they  are  often  in  a  state  of  daily  motion, 
while  the  people  lire  following  the  mercantile  concerns.  The  Ooramas  con- 
sist of  four  families,  Maydraffuta,  Oavadiru,  Maynapatru,  and  Satipatru. 
These  are  analogous  to  the  Gotrams  of  the  Brahmans  ;  for  a  man  and  woman 
of  the  same  family  never  intermarry,  being  considered  as  too  nearly  allied 
by  kindred.  The  men  are  allowed  a  plurality  of  wives,  and  purchase  them 
from  their  parents.  The  agreement  is  made  for  a  certain  number  oifanams, 
which  are  to  be  paid  by  instilments,  as  they  can  be  procured  by  the  young 
woman's  industry  ;  for  the  women  of  this  caste  are  very  diligent  in  spinning 
and  carrying  on  petty  traffic.  "When  the  bargain  has  been  made,  the  bride- 
groom provides  four  sheep,  and  some  country  rum,  and  gives  a  feast  to 
the  caste,  concluding  the  oeromony  by  wrapping  a  piece  of  new  cloth  round 
his  bride.  Should  a  man's  wife  prove  unfaithful,  he  generally  contents 
himself  with  giving  her  a  beating,  as  she  is  too  valuable  to  be  parted  with 
on  slight  grounds  ;  but,  if  he  chooses,  she  may  be  divorced.  In  this  case,  he 
must  assemble  the  caste  to  a  feast,  where  he  publicly  declares  his  resolu- 
tion ;  and  the  woman  is  then  at  liberty  to  marry  any  person  that  she  chooses 
who  is  wiDing  to  take  her.  The  Goramus  do  not  follow  nor  employ  the 
Brahmans ;  nor  have  they  any  priests,  or  sacred  order.  When  in  distress 
they  chiefly  invoke  Veneati/  Ramana,  the  Tripathi  Vishnu,  and  vow  small 
oflierings  of  money  to  his  temple,  should  they  escape.  They  frequently  go 
into  the  woods  and  sacrifice  fowls,  pigs,  goats,  and  sheep,  to  Muni,  who  is  a 
male  deity,  and  is  said  by  the  Brahmans  to  be  a  servant  of  Iswara  ;  but  of 
this  circumstance  the  Coramas  profess  ignorance.  They,  as  usual,  eat  the 
sacrifice.  They  have  no  images,  nor  do  they  worship  any.  Once  in  two  or 
three  years  the  Coramas  of  a  village  make  a  collection  among  themselves 
and  purchase  a  brass  pot,  in  which  they  put  five  branches  of  the  Melia  azadi- 
rachta  and  a  coco-nut.  This  is  covered  with  flowers,  and  sprinkled  with 
sandal-wood  water.  It  is  kept  in  a  small  temporary  shed  for  three  days 
during  which  time  the  people  feast  and  drink,  sacrificing  lambs  and  fowls  to 
Marima,  the  daughter  of  Siva.  At  the  end  of  the  three  days  they  throw 
the  pot  into  the  water." 

Bead  also  Abbe  J.  A.  Dubois'  Description  of  the  Charaeter,  Manners  and 
Cnatomsof  the  People  of  India,  tliird  edition,  Madras,  1879,  pp.  335-338  :   "The 


They  generally  bury  their  dead  in  solitary  and  unknown 
places  at  night,  and  the  traces  of  their  dead  disappear  so  com- 
pletely that  the  Natives  have  a  common  saying  :  "  Nobody 
has  seen  a  monkey's  carcass  or  the  corpse  of  a  Kurava,"  and 
if  anything  is  irretrievably  lost  the  fact  is  intimated  by  the 
proverb :  "  It  has  gone  to  the  burial  place  of  the  Kuravas 
and  to  the  dancing  room  of  the  wandering  actors." 

As  a  rule  they  do  not  acknowledge  the  priestly  supre- 
macy of  the  Brahmans,  nor  do  they  worship  Hindu  divini- 
ties, unless  Hinduized  to  a  certain  extent.     However,  many 

vagrants  called  Kuravers  are  divided  into  three  branches.  One  of  these  is 
chiefly  engaged  in  the  traffic  of  salt,  which  they  go,  in  bands,  to  the  coasts 
to  procure,  and  carry  it  to  the  interior  of  the  country  on  the  backs  of  asses, 
which  they  have  in  great  droves.  .  .  The  trade  of  another  branch  of  the 
Kuravers  is  the  manufacture  of  osier  panniers,  wicker  baskets,  and  other 
household  utensils  of  that  sort,  or  bamboo  mats.  This  class,  like  the 
preceding,  are  compelled  to  traverse  the  whole  countrj-,  from  place  to  place, 
in  quest  of  employment.  .  .  The  third  species  of  Kuravers  is  generally 
known  under  the  name  of  KaUa-Bantru  or  robbers  ;  and  indeed  those  who 
compose  this  caste  are  generally  thieves  or  sharpers,  by  profession  and  right 
of  birth.  The  distinction  of  expertness  in  filching  belongs  to  this  tribe.  .  . 
The  KaUa-Bantru  are  so  expert  in  this  species  of  robbery  (of  cutting  through 
the  mud  wall  an  opening  sufficiently  large  to  pass  through),  that,  in  less 
than  half-an-hour,  they  will  carry  off  a  rich  lading  of  plunder,  without  being 
heard  or  suspected  till  day-light  discloses  the  vUlainy." 

See  Rev.  M.  A.  Sherring's  Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  Ill,  p.  142 : 
"  Koravar,  a  tribe  of  thieves  and  vagabonds  wandering  about  the  districts  of 
the  Carnatic.  This  tribe  is  common  to  several  districts.  Among  the  Tamils 
these  people  are  called  Koravars,  but  by  the  Telugus,  Terakalas.  In  North 
Arcot  they  mortgage  their  unmarried  daughters  to  pay  their  creditors  when 
unable  to  pay  their  debts.  In  some  districts  they  obtain  their  wives  by 
purchase,  giving  a  sum  varying  from  thirty  to  seventy  rupees.  The  clans 
into  which  they  are  divided  do  not  intermarry.  In  Madura  and  South 
Arcot  the  Koravars  are  hawkers,  petty  traders,  dealers  in  salt,  jugglers,  box- 
makers,  breeders  of  pigs  and  donkeys  ;  and  are  a  drunken  and  dissolute 
race."  Compare  J.  H.  Nelson's  Manual  of  Madura,  Part  II,  p.  69,  about 
the  Kuravans. 

Consult  further  Dr.  Edward  Balfour  ' '  On  the  Migratory  Tribes  of  Natives 
in  Central  India  "  in  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  vol.  XIII, 
1844,  pp.  9-12:  "  The  Koratoa.  This  migratory  people  arrange  themselves  into 
four  divisions,  the  Bajantri,  Teling,  KoUa,  and  Soli  Korawas,  speaking  the 
same  language,  but  none  of  them  intermarrying  or  eating  with  each  other. 
Whence  they  originally  migrated  it  would  be  difficult  perhaps  now  to  come 
to  a  conclusion,  nor  could  it  be  correctly  ascertained  how  far  they  extend. 
The  Bajantri,  or  Gaon  ka  Korawa,  the  musical  or  village  Korawa,  are  met 


revere  Venkatesvara  of  Tripati,  or  Siva  and  Kali  in  their 
cruder  forms,  the  latter  especially  as  Mariamma ;  Grurunatha, 
a  village  god,  whose  presence  is  indicated  by  a  rude  stone 
situated  under  a  tree,  is  also  an  object  of  their  veneration, 
though  some  Kurumbas  claim  him  as  their  special  god.  Their 
own  elders  generally  fill  the  position  of  priests. 

They  practise  polygamy  and  are  said  to  pawn  their  wives 
for  debt.  Their  family  disputes  are  decided  by  arbitrators, 
but  they  often  nurse  their  quarrels  to  such  an  extent  that  an 
interminable  law  suit  is  called  a  Kurava's  strife. 

They  have  different  sub-divisions  in  various  pai-ts  of  the 
country,  either  according  to  their  various  clans  or  the  occu- 
pation they  follow,  and  the  latter  soon  becomes  a  tribal 
distinction.     Dr.  Francis  Buchanan  mentions  a  classification 

with  in  Bejapore,  Bellary,  Hyderabad  and  throughout  Canara.  .  .  Their 
food  difiers  from  that  of  the  Hindoo  aa  well  as  the  Mahomedan  ;  they  never 
eat  the  cow  or  bullock,  but  the  jackal,  porcupine,  hog  and  wild  boar,  deer 
and  tigers  are  sought  after  and  used  by  them.  They  deny  that  robbery  is 
ever  made  a  regular  mode  of  earning  a  subsistence  ;  an  honesty,  however, 
that  the  people  among  whom  they  dwell  give  them  but  little  credit  for.  . 
They  live  by  thieving,  making  grass  screens  and  baskets.  The  men  likewise 
attend  at  festivals,  marriages,  and  births,  as  musicians,  which  has  obtained 
for  them  the  name  of  Bajantri.  .  .  The  women,  too,  earn  a  little  money  by 
tattooing  on  the  skin  the  marks  and  figures  of  the  gods,  which  the  females 
of  all  castes  of  Hindus  ornament  their  arms  and  foreheads  with.  .  The 
age  for  marrying  is  not  a  fixed  time  ;  and,  different  from  every  other  people 
in  India,  the  youth  of  the  female  is  not  thought  of  consequence.  ...  It  is 
not  unusual  to  have  two,  three,  or  four  wives  in  one  household,  among  this 
people.  . .  This  people  live  virtuously  ;  the  abandonment  of  their  daughters  is 
never  made  a  trade  of,  and  other  classes  speak  favorably  of  their  chastity. 
They  respect  Brahmins  ;  though  they  never  .  .seem  to  respect  the  gods  of  the 
Hindoo  mythology.  .  .  The  Teling  Korawa  (generally  known  as  Kusbi, 
Korawa,  Agbare  Pal  Wale,  prostitute  Korawas)  gain  a  livelihood  by  basket- 
making  and  selling  brooms,  in  making  which  their  wives  assist  ;  but  their 
chief  means  of  subsistence  is  in  the  prostitution  of  their  female  relatives 
whom,  for  that  purpose,  they  devote  to  the  gods  from  their  birth.  .  The 
goddess,  in  whose  service  the  lives  of  the  Teling  Korawas'  devoted  women 
are  thus  to  be  spent,  has  her  chief  shrine  near  Bellary.  They  never  devote 
more  than  one  of  their  daughters  ;  the  rest  are  married  and  made  honest 
women  of  .  This  branch  bury  their  dead,  and  the  food  that  was  most  liked 
by  the  deceased  is  placed  at  the  head  of  the  grave.  The  most  favorable 
Dmen  of  the  state  of  the  departed  soul  is  drawn  from  its  being  eaten  by 
a  crow  ;  leas  auspicious  if  by  a  cow  ;   but  if  both  the  crow  and  cow  decline  to 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  201 

based  on  the  family  system,  while  Abbe  Dubois  gives 
another  derived  from  occupation,  and  Dr.  Balfour  prefers 
one  of  local  origin. 

In  the  census  report  these  people  ai'e  arranged  under 
different  heads,  and  their  aggregate  number  amounts  to 
nearly  175,000.9> 

On  the  Kurds  (Ybrakulas)  and  Kaurs. 

Another  tribe  who  are  acknowledged  as  a  separate 
class  of  the  Kuravas  are  the  Yerakulavdndlu  or  Yerakala- 
mru,  who  caU.  themselves  Kuru,  Kuluintru  or  Kola,  while 
the  Tamil  people  designate  them  as  Kuravar,  whom  they 
resemble    in  their  manners  and  customs.^^    They  live   in 

eat  it,  they  deem  the  dead  to  have  lived  a  very  deprayed  life,  and  impose 
a  heavy  fine  on  hie  relatives  for  having  permitted  such  evil  ways." 

About  the  name  consult  Glossary  of  Judicial  and  Revenue  Terms,  hy 
H.  H.  Wilson,  p.  294  :  "  Koracharu,  also  Korckaru,  Korvaru,  or  Korsaru,  &c., 
corruptly  Korchoor.  The  name  of  a  trihe  in  the  Karnatic,  whose  husiness 
is  making  bamboo  mats  and  baskets,  or  who  carry  hetelnuts  from  market  to 
market :  they  live  in  the  hills  and  forests. 

"  Koravarava,  Koramaravanu,  or  Koravanu,  or  ahhrev.  Koravar,  Koramar.  .  . 
The  name  of  a  low  tribe  in  Mysore,  of  which  there  are  three  branches — 
Kalla-koramar,  who  are  professed  thieves  ;  Wakiga-koramar,  who  are  musi- 
cians ;  and  Sakki-koramar,  who  are  a  migratory  race,  and  subsist  by  making 
baskets,  catching  birds,  &c.  :  they  are  hill  and  forest  tribes  and  have  a 
dialect  of  their  own :  (the  name  may  be  only  a  local  modification  of  Kola, 
or  Cole,  the  hill  tribes  of  Hindustan)."  On  p.  306  :  "  Kuruchchiyan,  or 
Euruman,  Mai.     A  class  of  people  inhabiting  the  hiUs  in  Wynad." 

»i  According  to  the  Census  Beportof  1881,  there  were  registered  in  India 
7,875  Kurumarin.  Madras,  1,071  Qorcha  in  the  North- Western  Provinces, 
24Hakikoraw  in  Hyderabad,  11,864  Korachar  in  Mysore,  110,473  Eoramr 
in  Madras  and  Travancore,  597  Korehar  in  Bombay,  3,448  Eormiavasayar  in 
Madras,  14,106  Korvi  in  Bombay,  1,001  Kuravandlu  in  Madras,  31,644  Eura 
in  the  Central  Provinces,  14  Euravar  in  the  Central  Provinces,  and  3,135 
Eunoai  in  Hyderabad,  &c. 

92  Consult  H.  H.  Wilson's  Glossary,  pp.  560,  561 :  "  Terkullemr,  (  ? )  Tel. 
probably  for  Eruktmddu,  pi.  Erukmtartdlw,  and  the  same  as  those  corruptly 
termei  Yerkelwanloo,  Yera-kedi,  Terakelloo  (  Je»^sj^2i> ).  The  designation 
of  a  wild  migratory  tribe  who  subsist  on  game  and  all  sorts  of  flesh  ; 
they  make  and  sell  baskets  and  mats,  and  are  considered  as  outcastes  :  both 
men  and  women  pretend  to  be  fortune-tellers  and  conjurors:  they  are 
also  said  to  be  called  Eoorshe-wdnlu,  Terkel-wanloo  {wdnlu,  or  more  correctly 
vdndlu,  being  only  the  plural  of  vddu),  Yera-kedi,  and  Yerakelloo,  but  to  be 
known  amongst  themselves  as  Eurru  ;  they  are  possibly  the  same  who  appear 


like  manner  under  tents  fixed  by  bamboo  poles  and  covered 
with  mats  made  of  reed  grass.  They  are  also  continually 
roaming  about,  avoiding  villages  and  towns  and  preferring 
to  pitch  their  tents  in  some  open  ground  a  few  miles  distant 
from  inhabited  places,  only  to  strike  them  again  after  a 
few  days'  stay.  They  thus  wander  over  Hyderabad,  the 
Ceded  Districts,  and  other  adjacent  provinces.  Their  tents 
of  which  every  family  possesses  a  separate  one,  with  a  few 

among  tlie  predial  slavea  in  Kurg  under  the  name  ol  Yerrwanroo,  i.e., 
Erra-vdndlu,  ?  red  men,  or  Tevaru  q.v.  or  Yerlan,  or  Siehlen,  (?)  alao 
specified  amongst,  the  serTile  races  of  Kurg." 

Further  see  "  The  Migratory  Eaces  of  India,"  by  Assistant  Surgeon 
Edward  Balfour,  Madras  Army,  in  the  Madran  Journal  of  Literature  and 
Science,  vol.  XVII  (1857),  pp.  i-9  :  "  The  Ooorroo.  This  seems  to  be  a 
branch  of  the  Korawa  people,  two  divisions  of  whom  .  .  were  described  by 
me  in  an  article  on  the  Migratory  Tribes  of  India  .  .  This  wandering  race 
occupy  the  Ceded  Districts  and  are  called  by  Mahomedans  '  Koorshe 
Wanloo  ;'  Telings  give  them  the  names  of  '  Yerkel  wanloo,'  '  Yera  keedi,' 
and  '  Yera  kelloo,'  and  the  Aravas  know  them  as  Coortee  ;  bat  their  designa- 
tion among  tliemselves  is  Ooorroo,  the  rr  being  pronounced  by  them  with 
a  loud  thrilling  sound.  I  believe  them  to  be  a  branch  of  the  Korawa 
people  from  the  similarity  of  their  customs,  and  from  their  using  similar 
articles  of  diet,  but  the  term  korawa  was  quite  new  to  this  community, 
who,  although  familiar  with  the  appellations  of  the  Mahomedans  and 
Hindoos,  told  me  that  Coorroo  was  the  only  name  they  ever  designated 
themselves  by  .  .  They  live  in  huts  constructed  of  mats,  very  neatly  woven 
froma  long  grass,  named  in  Telagoo  "  zamboo,"  which  grows  in  the  beds  of 
tanks,  and  which,  they  spread  over  a  bamboo  frame  work.  They  are  inces- 
santly on  the  move,  wandering  about  the  country,  and  they  never  reside 
inside  of  towns,  but  pitch  their  little  camps  on  open  plains  three  or  four  miles 
from  some  inhabited  place.  They  rarely  remain  above  two  or  three  days  in 
one  spot  and  their  journeys  are  of  considerable  length.  The  value  of  one  of 
their  huts  would  hardly  amount  to  half  a  rupee  (one  shilling),  asses,  goats 
and  pigs  constitute  their  wealth  ;  the  two  last  of  these  they  use  as  food  and 
sell  for  money  in  towns.  They,  likewise,  earn  a  little  by  selling  grass  mats 
and  baskets  made  of  canes  and  bamboos,  the  handy-work  of  the  men,  but 
which  are  sold  by  the  women .  .  .  Each  family  in  their  communities  lives 
apart  in  its  own  hut,  constracted,  as  above-mentioned,  by  the  mats  woven 
by  themselves. .  The  men  informed  me  that  they  usually  marry  about  the 
time  that  their  mustaches  appear  (18  years  of  age  ?)  with  women  who  have 
attained  maturity,  and  a  bride  is  never  taken  to  her  husband's  but  before  two 
months  after  this  period  of  her  life.  They  marry  one  wife  only,  but  they  can 
keep  as  many  of  their  women  as  they  choose.  The  greatest  number,  however, 
that  any  of  my  informants  remembered  to  have  seen  in  one  man's  hut,  was 
one  wife  and  three  kept  women  \  this  latter  class  being  in  general  widows. . . 


asses,  goats,  and  pigs  represent  their  property.  They  earn 
besides  a  precarious  living  by  selling  grass-mats  and  cane  or 
bamboo-baskets,  which  are  made  by  the  men,  but  hawked 
about  and  sold  by  the  women.  In  their  wanderings  they 
sometimes  commit  all  sorts  of  robberies  and  often  are  trouble- 
some dacoits  and  highway  robbers. 

Accounts  vary  about  their  marriage  customs.     Accord- 
ing to  some,  the  tali  or  marriage  string  is  bound  round  the 

The  marriage  ceremony  consists  in  sprinkling  rice  and  turmeric  oyer  the 
bride  and  bridegroom's  head ;  and  after  it  is  over  the  bride  returns  to  her 
parents  and  remains  with  them  for  five  days. . .  The  Coorroo  attaches  much 
importance  to  the  purity  of  their  unmarried  females,  bat  they  regard  a  want 
of  integrity  in  their  married  women  as  a  trivial  matter ....  They  drink 
all  sorts  of  intoxicating  drinks,  but  never  use  opium  or  any  of  the  pre- 
parations from  hemp..  They  never  use  the  flesh  of  the  horse,  jackall, 
tiger,  cheetah,  or  crow ;  but  they  eat  the  hog,  mouse,  rat,  wild  rat,  and 
fowls..  It  is  difficult  to  say  what  their  religion  is.  They  do  not  bind  on  the 
tali  in  marriage,  or  use  any  of  the  Hindu  sectarian  marks  on  their  foreheads, 
neither  do  they  revere  the  Brahmans  or  any  religious  superior,  nor  perform 
any  religious  ceremony  at  any  Hindu  or  Budhist  temple,  but  they  told  me 
that,  when  they  pray,  they  construct  a  small  pyramid  of  clay  which  they 
term  Mariammah  and  worship  it.  But  though  they  seem  thus  almost  with- 
out a  form  of  religion,  the  women  had  small  gold  and  silver  ornaments 
suspended  from  cords  round  their  necks  and  which  they  said  had  been 
supplied  to  them  by  a  goldsmith  from  whom  they  had  ordered  figures  of 
Mariamma.  The  form  represented  is  that  of  the  goddess  Kali,  the  wife  of 
Siva.  They  mentioned  that  they  had  been  told  by  their  forefathers  that, 
when  a  good  man  dies,  his  spirit  enters  the  body  of  some  of  the  better 
animals  as  that  of  a  horse  or  cow,  and  that  a  bad  man's  spirit  gives  life  to  the 
form  of  a  dog  or  Jackall ;  but  though  they  told  me  this  they  did  not  seem  to 
believe  it.  They  believe  firmly,  however,  in  the  existence  and  constant 
presence  of  a  principle  of  evil,  who,  they  say,  frequently  appears. . .  When 
they  die  the  married  people  are  burned,  but  the  unmarried  are  buried  quite 
naked  without  a  shroud  or  kufn,  or  other  clothing,  a  custom  which  some 
other  castes  in  India  likewise  follow.  .  .  The  Coorroo  people  are  naturally  of 
a  bamboo-color,  though  tanned  by  the  sun  into  a  darker  hue.  Their  faces 
are  oval  with  prominent  bones,  their  features  having  something  of  the 
Tartar  expression  of  countenance. . .  The  dialect  spoken  by  the  '  Coorroo  ' 
as  their  lingua  franca,  in  their  intercourse  with  the  people  of  the  country,  is 
the  Teloogoo,  and  I  was  surprised  to  find  them  entirely  ignorant  of  the 
Canarese  language  although  living  exclusively  among  the  Canarese  nation." 
Compare  also  Mr.  H.  E.  Stokes'  account  of  these  people  in  the  Manual  of 
the  Nellore  District,  compiled  and  edited  by  Mr.  John  A.  0.  Boswell,  M.c.s., 
pp.  154-157  :  "These  people  (the  Yerukalas)  wander  from  place  to  place, 
as  they  find  it  easy  to  gain  a  living,  pitching  their  huts  generally  in  open 
places  near  villages.     Their  property,  consists  principally  of  cattle  and  asses. 


neck  of  the  woman  ;  according  to  others  this  is  not  the  case. 
This  discrepancy  may  be  explained  by  some  having  adopted  the 
usual  Hindu  customs,  while  others  still  keep  aloof  from  them. 
With  respect  to  their  religious  worship  the  same  observation 
may  hold  good.  There  is  no  doubt  that  originally  they  did 
not  worship  any  Hindu  deities,  nor  did  they  in  consequence 
perform  any  religious  ceremonies  at  any  Hindu  shrine,  nor 
revere  the  Brahmans  as  their  religious  superiors.     In  fact  the 

and  they  act  as  carriers  of  salt  and  grain  ;  the}'  cut  firewood  in  the  jungles 
and  sell  it  in  the  villages  ;  they  also  gather  and  sell  a  leaf  called  karepaku 
(the  black  margosa) ;  they  eat  game,  flesh  of  all  sorts,  and  jungle  roots. 
They  all,  hoth  women  and  men,  pretend  to  tell  fortunes ;  these  people, 
like  all  the  wandering  tribes  of  the  district,  are  basket-makers.  .  .  They 
are  stout  men  and  very  hardy  in  constitution.  Like  the  Yanadies  they  tie 
their  hair  in  a  knot  over  the  forehead.  Lieutenant  Bulmer,  in  his  letter 
to  the  Collector,  dated  22nd  May  1865,  No.  317,  writes  the  following  as  to 
the  Yerukalas :  '  The  crimes  they  are  addicted  to  are  dacoity,  highway 
robbery,  and  robbery  ;  they  are  the  most  troublesome  of  our  wanderers.' . . 
The  gods  whom  they  chiefly  worship  are  Mahalakshmi  and  Venkatesvara  (to 
whom  the  Trippati  temple  is  sacred),  and  they  also  sacrifice  to  the  pitris,  or 
manes  of  their  ancestors.  They  state  generally  that  all  gods  worshipped  by 
Hindus  are  worshipped  by  them.  The  old  men  of  the  tribe  are  priests. 
Each  tribe  or  family  has  a  god,  which  is  carried  about  with  the  encampment. 
One,  which  I  have  seen,  was  a  piece  of  wicker-work,  about  five  inch  square, 
cased  in  black  canvas,  one  side  being  covered  with  white  sea-shells  imbedded 
in  a  red  paste.  It  was  called  Polaperamma.  Polygamy  is  practised  among 
the  Yerukalas,  and  the  number  of  wives  is  only  limited  by  the  means  of  the 
husband.  There  is  no  polyandria,  nor  is  there  any  trace  of  the  custom, 
which  sometimes  is  found  among  rude  tribes,  of  the  brothers  of  a  family 
haviniJ;  their  wives  in  common.  The  marriage  string  is  always  tied  round 
the  neck  of  the  wife.  The  females  are  said  not  to  marry  till  they  are  full 
grown.  The  ceremony  usually  takes  place  on  a  Sunday,  puja  having  been 
made  on  the  Saturday.  Rice  mixed  with  turmeric  is  poured  on  the  heads 
of  the  married  couple ;  the  marriage  string  is  tied  on,  and  the  ceremony 
is  complete.  During  the  lifetime  of  her  husband  a  wife  may  not  marry 
another  man,  but  after  his  death  she  may  if  she  wishes.  .  .  A  man  supports 
all  his  children  by  all  his  wives.  H  he  has  a  great  number,  the  brothers 
will  take  some  of  them ;  but  when  they  are  grown  up  they  return  to  their 
father's  family.  Sons  so  reared  will,  through  gratitude,  support  their  uncles 
in  old  age.  .  .  I  have  collected  a  number  of  words  and  phrases  of  the 
Yerukalas  among  themselves — a  language  which  is  unintelligible  to  the 
Telugu  people.  The  most  cursory  glance  at  these  is  sufiSoient  to  produce 
the  conviction  that  it  is  a  Tamil  dialect.  It  has  been  considerably  mixed, 
as  is  to  be  expected,  with  Telugu  and  Canarese,  but  in  its  structure  it  is 
plainly  Tamil.  The  Yerukalas  understand  Tamil  when  spoken,  and  it  is 
superfluous  to  state  analogies  between  their  dialect  and  Tamil,  inasmuch  as 


old  men  of  the  tribe  are  to  this  day  their  priests.  They 
mainly  worship  Mariamma  or  Poleramma,  an  image  of 
whom  generally  accompanies  each  tribe  in  its  wanderings. 
The  god  Venkatesvara  of  Tripati  is  also  held  in  respect  by  a 
great  many.  They  generally  keep  a  lamp  burning  night 
and  day  in  their  encampments  before  which  they  offer  up 

the  former  is  nothing  but  a  patois  of  the  latter,  in  which  Telugu  and 
Canarese  words  are  freely  used.  There  can  be  no  doubt  as  to  the  fact  that 
the  Terukalas  are  a  Tamil  tribe,  but  there  are  some  points  connected  with 
the  name  and  language  which  seem  to  throw  farther  light  on  the  question. 
The  name  has  two  forms  in  Telugu,  one  TerukuTandlu,  said  by  Brown  and 
Campbell  to  be  derived  from  '  Erugu  '  to  know,  and  to  have  reference  to  their 
fortune-telling  powers,  and  one  Yerukulavandlu  ;  the  first  of  this  word  is 
evidently  not  a  plural  of  '  Yeruku,'  but  a  distinct  word.  This  seems  to  be 
recognized  by  Brown  and  Wilson,  who  conjecture  that '  Yeru'  is  a  prefix  to 
be  connected  by  the  word  '  erra'  red.  .  .  The  Yerukulas  in  this  district 
state  that  their  tribe  name  in  their  own  language  is  '  Kurru,'  also.  Kola ; 
and  I  think  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  '  Yer '  or  '  Yeru  '  is  a  mere  prefii 
and  that  '  Kala,'  Wilson's  '  KuUevar  '  represents  the  real  name  of  the  tribe. 
To  connect  '  Yer  '  or  'Yeru'  with  the  Telugu  'erra,'  red,  seems  quite 
meaningless  ;  it  might  perhaps  be  compared  with  '  Yervaru  '  mentioned  by 
Wilson,  or  which  seems  more  plausible  to  suppose  it  to  be  the  word  '  Yeruku  ' 
(which,  as  has  been  said,  is  one  designation  of  the  tribe  in  Telugu,  com- 
pounded with  the  real  tribe  name  '  Kurruvandlu,'  or  Kolavandlu,  when, 
according  to  a  common  euphonic  law  in  Telugu,  the  two  '  k's '  would  coalesce 
and  the  word  becomes  Yerukkalavandlu.  The  second  '  k  '  would  easily  bs 
dropped,  and  the  word  assume  its  common  form  Yerukalavandlu.  I  have 
been  unable  to  find  that  there  are  any  traditions  among  these  people  as  to 
the  country  from  which  they  came  ;  one  of  them  indignantly  repudiated  the 
notion  of  a  Tamil  origin.  The  language,  however,  and  the  tribe  name 
'  Kurru '  seems  to  me  unmistakeably  to  point  to  the  identity  of  this  tribe 
with  the  well-known  Kuravar  or  Koravar  of  the  Tamil  districts." 

The  Historical  and  Descriptive  Sketch  of  3..  B.  the  Mzam's  Dominions 
contains  in  vol.  I,  pp.  326-28,  an  account  of  the  Yerakulavandlu :  "  The 
YarJcalwars  are  a  nomad  tribe  living  in  huts  made  of  palmyra  leaves  or  reeds. 
They  are  found  in  some  of  the  eastern  districts  of  the  Dominions.  T"hey 
live  on  the  flesh  of  swine,  game  and  carrion,  and  a  little  grain  they  may  get 
in  barter  for  the  mats  and  baskets  they  construct.  They  snare  birds  with 
bird-lime,  and  they  have  a  small  breed  of  dogs  with  which  they  kill  hares. 
They  kill  most  of  the  dogs  when  young,  but  retain  the  bitches,  to  which, 
when  they  are  intended  for  hunting,  they  give  a  certain  root  that  renders 
them  barren . .  Brahmans  will  not  approach  the  Yarkalwars  but  the  Jangam 
of  the  Lingayets  is  more  pliant,  and  on  the  occasion  of  a  death,  for  a  present 
of  some  grain,  he  attends  and  blows  his  conch.  Their  marriage  ceremonies 
consist  in  a  headman  whom  they  elect  for  the  occasion,  and  place  on  a 



The  explanation  of  their  hy-name  Yerukulavdndlu  ( Yeru- 
kalavandlu,  Yerakalavandlu  or  Yerikalavandlu)  offers  some 
difficulties.  Scholars  like  0.  P.  Brown  and  H.  H.  Wilson 
are  inclined  to  take  yeru  in  the  meaning  of  erra,  red ;  but 
there  does  not  seem  sufficient  ground  for  this  derivation.  It  is 
true,  and  I  have  elsewhere  alluded  to  the  fact,  that  Scythian 
tribes  use  occasionally  terms  signifying  color,  in  order  to 
represent  political  positions ;  black,  e.g.,  indicating,  tinder 
these  circumstances,  dependence  and  servitude,  and  white 
liberty  and  sovereignty.     I  have  not  observed^  however,  this 

throne  of  turf,  putting  rice  on  tlie  heads  of  the  young  people,  and  uttering 
some  mystic  words ;  a  pig  is  then  killed,  the  flesh  is  cooked  and  eaten,  and 
ample  as  their  experience  must  be  of  the  qualities  of  every  kind  of  flesh, 
they  are  unanimous  in  declaring  that  pork  is  superior  to  all.  They  then 
jump  about,  beat  their  bellmetal  vessels,  and  the  whole  concludes  by  the 
whole  party,  male  and  female,  getting  drunk.  One  of  their  customs  is  very 
peculiar.  On  the  occasion  of  a  birth  the  husband  is  looked  on  as  the  subject 
of  compassion,  and  is  carefully  tended  by  the  neighbours,  as  if  he  and  not 
the  wife  had  been  the  sufferer.  Like  all  vagabonds  they  are  regarded  with 
suspicion,  and  with  some  reason,  as  they  affect  to  possess  a  divining  rod  in 
the  shape  of  the  frond  of  the  wild  date,  by  which  they  may  discover  on  the 
outside  of  the  house  where  property  is  placed  within  .  .  .  Although  despised 
as  a  carrion-eating  caste,  the  ryots  do  not  hesitate  in  cases  of  sickness  to 
consult  them.  Then  the  divining  rod  is  produced,  a  Yarkalwar  woman 
holding  one  end  while  the  other  is  given  to  the  person  seeking  advice,  a  long 
string  of  words  is  rattled  over,  the  result  of  the  disease  foretold,  and  the 
particular  shrine  is  indicated  where  an  offering  is  to  be  placed,  or  the 
offended  Sakti  named,  whose  wrath  is  to  be  appeased  by  sacrifice  .  .  .  They 
speak  a  corrupt  Tamil." 

Compare  also  a  "  Brief  Sketch  of  the  Yerukala  Language  as  spoken  in 
Eajahmandry  "  in  the  Madras  ./otnmi/  of  Ziteratiire  and  Science,  1879,  pp. 
93-102.  Messrs.  A.  G.  Subrahmanyam  I)-er,  k.a.,  and  P.  Srinivasa  Rao 
Pantulu,  B.A.,  asked,  imder  the  direction  of  Rev.  Mr.  J.  Cain,  a  Yeruka  a 
series  of  questions  and  drew  up  the  paper.  Mr.  Cain  published  afterwards 
a  similar  but  shorter  paper  in  the  Indian  Antiqmi-i/,  vol.  IX  (1880),  pp. 
210-212.  The  brief  sketch  contains,  among  others,  the  following  statements: 
"  The  Yerukulas  do  not  seem  to  have  any  distinctive  tribal  or  national  name. 
In  conversation  with  each  other  they  call  themselves  '  Kuluvaru,  evidently 
from  the  Sanskrit  '  kula,'  merely  signifjing  '  our  people  '  while  to  strangers 
they  speak  of  themselves  as  Yerukala varu,  a  name  most  probably  given  them 
by  their  Telugu  neighbours  (Telugu  J  air)  in  allusion  to  their  supposed 
skiU  in  palmistry,  which  they  practise  as  a  means  of  livelihood.  The 
Yerukula  in  question  was  not  able  to  say  when  his  people  settled  in  Rajah- 
mandry.  He  only  knew  that  a  long  time  ago  they  came  from  the  west. . . 
Their  customs  arc  generally  of  a    very  simple  character-     They  burn  their 


custom  among  the  Gauda-Dra vidian  tribes  of  India,  though 
the  term  erra,  red,  is  occasionally  used  in  names,  e.g.,  in  that 
of  the  Erra  Gollalu.^^ 

There  is  also  no  reason  for  connecting  the  two  iaitial 
syllables  Tera  of  Yemltalavdndlu  with  the  Yeravas  of  Kurg. 
These  are  a  distinct  tribe  and  do  not  belong  to  the  Kuravas, 
of  whom  the  Kurus  or  Yerukulavandlu  are  a  branch.  The 
name  Terava  is  in  reality  only  another  form  of  Parava.^^ 

A  similar  remark  must  be  made  as  to  the  propriety  of 
derivLag  the  name  of  the  Kurus  from  the  Telugu  words 

dead  with,  little  ceremony. . .  There  appears  to  be  little  doubt  that  the 
language  belongs  to  the  Dravidian  family.  The  following  collection  of 
words  and  phrases  seems  to  show  conclusively  that  of  these  languages  it 
bears  the  closest  affinity  to  Tamil  although  possessing  words,  allied  to 
Telugu  and  Canarese. ' ' 

'^  See  my  monograph  Der  Presbyter  Johannes  in  Sage  and  Geschiehte,  p.  121, 
note  1  ;  "  Die  mougolischen  Volkersohafteu  pflegen  namlioh,  wie  bekannt, 
dem  eigeuthijmlichen  Stammesnam.en  eine  Farbe,  wie  schwarz,  weiss,  etc., 
voranzusetzen.undhierdurch  die  politische  Lage  der  Horde,  ob  sie  unabhan- 
gig  oder  abhangig  aei,  anzudeuten." 

'*  See  "  Ethnographical  Compendium  on  the  Castes  and  Tribes  in  the 
Province  of  Coorg,"  by  the  Rev.  Gr.  Richter,  pp.  9,  it)  :  "  Of  the  hiU-tribes 
the  Yeravas  stand  lowest  and  seem  to  have  been  in  remote  ages  in  a  servile 
relation  to  the  Betta  Kurumbas  .  .  They  are  immigrants  from  Wynad, 
where  the  same  class  of  Yeravas  is  said  to  be  found.  Their  language  is 
related  to  that  of  the  Betta  Kurumbas  and  understood  by  the  Coorgs.  .  .  The 
Yeravas  bury  their  dead  with  their  clothes  on  lying  flat  the  head  eastward  ; 
but  according  to  the  statement  of  an  intelligent  Yerava  maistry,  who  was 
also  the  headman  of  his  gang,  the  women  are  buried  in  a  sitting  posture  in 
a  hole  scooped  out  sideways  from  what  would  have  been  an  ordinary  grave, 
so  that  the  earth  over  head  does  not  touch  her." 

Read  also  Mysore  and  Coorg,  hj  Lewis  Rice,  in  vol.  I,  p.  3.51  :  "  Yerava. 
These  are  only  found  in  Mysore  District,  in  the  taluks  forming  the  southern 
frontier  ;  they  are  said  to  have  originally  belonged  to  "Wainad,  where  they 
were  held  in  slavery  by  the  Nairs.  They  resemble  the  African  in  features 
having  thick  lips  and  compressed  noses.  They  speak  a  language  of  their, 
own."  In  vol.  II,  p.  94  :  "  Yerra  Ganga  and  Challava  Grauga,  two  men 
of  the  Yerralu  tribe,"  to  this  the  note  is  added  :  "  A  wandering  tribe  identi- 
cal with  or  closely  related  to  the  Korachars.  They  are  known  in  Coorg  as 
Yeravas."  And  in  vol.  Ill,  on  pp.  214,  215  :  "  Yeravas,  also  known  as 
Panjara  Yeravas,  5,608  males,  and  4,908  females.  .  .  From  the  description 
given  of  the  Yeravas,  it  is  probable  they  would  have  been  more  correctly 
classed  with  Holeyas  among  the  outcastes.  They  are  said  to  be  originally 
from  Wainad,  where,  like  the  Holeyas  in  Coorg,  they  were  held  in  slavery  by 
the  Nairs.    They  are  met  with  almost  entirely  in  Kiggatnad  and  Yeden^lkad 


erike,  eruka  or  eruku.  The  Telugu  terms  erihe  or  eruka 
knowledge,  in  the  sense  of  astrology  or  of  palmistry,  and 
eruku,  hunter,  do  not  offer  an  explanation  of  the  tribal  name 
Kuru.  It  ia  highly  probable  that  the  name  and  the  occu- 
pation of  the  fortune-telling  Kuruvandlu  or  Kulavandlu 
induced  the  Telugu  people  to  call  this  tribe  Terukulavandlu, 
Yerakalavandlu  or  Yerikelavandlu,  including  in  these  terms 
both  their  tribal  name  and  their  profession,  and  that  this 
nickname,  once  substituted  for  the  real  tribal  surname, 
supplanted  the  latter  in  course  of  time.  I  prefer  this  expla- 
nation to  the  conjecture  suggested  by  Mr.  H.  E.  Stokes  in 
his  interesting  account  of  these  people.  Taking  Eruku  as 
a  Telugu  designation  of  this  race,  he  adds  to  it  their  tribal 
name  by  dropping  the  last  vowel  of  the  first  part  of  the 
compound,  so  that  the  word  becomes  Yerukkalmandlu. 
Peculiarily  enough  the  term  JErukukula  occurs  in  reaHty  as 
quoted  in  the  note  below,  but  apparently  in  the  meaning 
of  hunter.  No  race  takes,  as  a  rule,  its  name  from  a  foreign 
language,  and  Telugu  is  a  strange  dialect  to  the  Kurus, 
whose  real  idiom  is  rather  akin  to  Tamil.  In  this  language 
the  expression  Yerukalavas  is  ignored,  and  this  tribe  is 
called  simply  by  the  term  Koravar.^* 

taluks.  They  speak  a  language  of  their  own,  a  dialect  of  Malayalam,  and 
live  with  the  Coorgs,  hut  always  in  separate  huts  in  or  near  jungle.  They 
are  much  sought  after  as  labourers." 

It  is  evident  from  the  above  that  Mr.  Rice's  statements  contradict 
each  other.  If  Terra  Ganga  and  Challava  Qanga  were  Kuruvandlu  or 
Terukulavandlu,  they  could,  according  to  my  opinion,  not  have  been 
Yeravar. — Moreover  Mr.  Rice  calls  them  "  men  of  the  Yerralu  tribe,"  and 
the  Yeravar  are  not,  as  I  believe,  known  as  Yerralu.  Mr.  Rice  was  induced 
tothis  identification  by  Mr.  Stokes'  remarks,  to  which  he  refers.  In  this 
case  it  appears  very  doubtful  whether  yerra  in  Terra  Ganga  is  a  tribal  distinc- 
tion at  all,  it  seems  rather  to  be  a  personal  proper  name. 

"  See  the  Telugu  and  English  Dictionary  by  Charles  Philip  Brown,  p.  126  : 
"J6"^  or  J ^> 6^  knowledge,  acquaintance,  fortune-telling.  JdTejft  or 
J8"^e;;i'S  a  female  gypsey,  a  witch.  JaTe):r>;Sb  a  fortune-teller:  JoTe- 
3r>oJfc  gypsies.  See  J&S'ej.  JiXj*'  mountaineer,  a  savage.  J&S'TsSjji) 
to  tell  fortunes.   ^Hii   adj.  Belonging  to  gypsies,  oi  to  hillpeople.     J&>ei- 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  209 

It  is  hardly  necessary  after  this  to  contradict  two 
other  statements,  namely  that  the  term  Kulavaru  is  derived 
from  the  Sanskrit  word  kula  and  that  the  original  trihal 
name  of  this  race  was  Kala.  The  falseness  of  the  first  is 
ohvious,  while  the  real  trihal  designation,  as  has  been  proved, 
is  Kulu,  Kola,  or  Kuru.  Ko  (ku),  mountain,  is,  indeed,  the 
root  to  which  the  name  of  the  Kuruvas,  Koravas,  Koramas, 
Kuruvandlu  or  Kolavan41u  must  be  traced.  According  to 
the  last  census  48,882  Terukulavandlu  live  in  the  Madras 
Presidency,  9,892  in  Hyderabad,  and  30  in  the  Central 
Provinces,  or  altogether  58,804  in  India. 

These  Kurus  must  not  be  confounded  with  the  Kolarian 
Kurs,  who  live  on  the  Mahadeva  hills  and  in  the  forests 
watered  by  the  Tapti  and  Narbada.  The  Kurs  are  better 
known  as  Muasis.'^ 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  by  no  means  improbable  that  the 
Kaurs  of  the  Central  Provinces  stand  in  some  relationship 
to  the  Kuxavas,  as  they  appear  to  belong  to  the  Gonds. 

'^&  a.  highland  chief.  J^iSoajr-Jfe  a  gypsey,  J&S'ejS  a  gypsey  wench. 
This  tribe  of  fortune-tellers  speak  a  peculiar  jargon  or  cant :  and  when  they 
pitch  their  camps  near  towns,  they  herd  swine.  ^Siivir>T>  a  woman  of 
this  trihe  :  a  witch."  Compare  also  Sabda  Satndkaram,  a  dictionary  of  the 
Telugu  Language,  compiled  by  B.  Sltfirftmacftryulu,  Madras,  1885,  pp.  160- 
151.  "  J  rajs'  .  ■^.  S.  1.  "383.  .  .5  ^^^io  .  .  .  JrajS.  'rf.  S.  1. 
|-cr°SoiSi    2.  sr^.SicJSi.  <S.    ,JeM5JSJoo-a3iSo&    iBSc»5ofic!io    $&j$ele)S2mj7i', 

86  See  the  Rev.  Stephen  Hislop's  Papers  relating  to  the  Aboriginal  Tribes  of 
the  Central  Provinces,  pp.  25-27:  "We  come  now  to  a  race  in  language  at  least 
quite  distinct  from  any  that  have  engaged  our  attention — a  race  in  that 
respect  not  alHed  to  the  Dravidian  stock,  but  to  the  family  which  numbers 
among  its  members  the  KSl  nation.  With  the  name  of  this  last-mentioned 
nation,  the  word  Eur,  or  Kul,  as  it  ought  properly  to  be  pronoimced,  is 
evidently  identical.  . .  Xhe  Kurs  were  found  on  the  Mahadeva  Hills,  and 
westward  in  the  forests  on  the  Tapti  and  Narbadda,  vmtil  they  came  into 
contact  with  the  Bhils.  On  the  Mahadeva  HUls,  where  they  have  been 
much  influenced  by  the  Hindus,  they  prefer  the  name  of  Muasi,  the  origin  of 
which  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain. ' '  Compare  also  Rev.  M.  A.  Sherring's 
Hindu  Tribes  and  Caste,  vol.  II,  p.  126,  and  Colonel  Dalton'a  Ethnology  of 
India,  pp.  161,  221,  230. 


They  resemble  in  their  customs  the  aboriginal  tribes  of  the 
jungles,  revere  Gond  deities,  and  avoid  all  intercourse  with 
Brahmans.  With  the  Kurumbas  they  have  in  common  the 
peculiar  habit  that  all  males  are  clean-shaved  when  a  death 
takes  place  among  their  connections.  Their  features  have  a 
thorough  Turanian  aspect,  their  color  is  darkish,  their  noses 
are  broad,  and  their  lips  rather  thick.  They  assert,  and  their 
neighbours  all  round  support  them  in  their  claim,  that  they 
are  the  survivors  of  the  Kauravas  who,  after  the  battle  of 
Kuruksetra,  fled  to  the  south  and  took  refuge  in  the  hill 
tracts  of  Central  India.^' 

On  the  Kunnuvas  and  Kunavaeis. 

Dr.  Shortt  mentions,  on  p.  85  in  the  fifth  part  of  his 
"  Hill  Ranges  of  Southern  India,"  the  "  Manadies,  Coonoovars 

''  Read  Colonel  Dalton's  Ethnology  of  India,  pp.  136-138  :  "  In  a  paper 
entitled  '  Notes  of  a  Tour  in  the  Tributary  Mahals, '  publiahed  in  the  Journal, 
Asiatic  Society,  Bengal,  I  introduced  them  as  a  dark,  coarse-featured,  hroad- 
nosed,  wide-mouthed,  and  thick-lipped  race,  and  it  was  natural  to  conclude 
from  this  that  they  were  one  of  the  aboriginal  tribes.  .  .They  are  decidedly 
ugly,  but  are  taller  and  better  set  up  than  most  of  the  people  described  in  this 
chapter.  The  Kaura  form  a  considerable  proportion  of  the  population  of 
Jashpur,  Udaipur,  Sirguja,  Korea,  Chand  Bhakar,  andKorba  of  Chattisgarh, 
and  though  they  are  much  scattered,  and  the  various  divisions  of  the  tribe 
hold  little  communication  with  each  other,  they  all  tenaciously  cling  to  one 
tradition  of  their  origin,  that  they  are  the  descendants  of  the  survivors  of 
the  sons  of  Kuru,  called  Kauravas  in  Purans,  who,  when  defeated  by  the 
Pandavas  at  the  great  battle  of  Kurukshetrya,  and  driven  from  Hastinapur, 
took  refuge  in  the  hill  country  of  Central  India.  They  not  only  relate  this 
of  themselves,  but  it  is  firmly  believed  by  the  people  of  all  castes  of  Hindus, 
their  neighbours,  who,  notwithstanding  their  dark  complexions  and  general 
resemblance  to  the  offspring  of  Nishada  and  some  anti-Hindu  practices,  do  not 
scruple  to  regard  them  as  brethren.  .  .  I  was  informed  that  the  Kaurs  were 
divided  into  four  tribes — (1)  the  DUdh  Kaurs,  (2)  Paikera,  (3)  Rettiah  Kaurs. 
The  Kaurs  of  Udaipur  described  by  me  in  the  paper  above  quoted  belong  to 
this  class.  They  rear  and  eat  fowls,  and  have  no  veneration  for  Brahmans. 
The  village  barber  is  their  priest,  and  officiates  as  such  at  marriages  and 
other  ceremonies.  At  births,  marriages  and  deaths,  the  males  affected  by 
the  casualty  and  all  connected  with  them  of  the  same  sex  are  clean-shaven 
all  round.  Some  villages  maintain,  besides,  a  Byga  priest,  or  exorcist  for 
the  Dryads,  Naiada,  and  witches.  The  Paikera  Kaurs  therefore,  who  are,  I 
think,  the  most  numerous,  cannot  be  regarded  as  Hindu  in  faith  .  .  (4)  the 
Clierwa  Kaurs  .  .  .  The  Dudh  Kaura  alone  preserve  the  true  blood  of  the 
Kuru  race  .  .  .     They  have  none  of  them  in  the  tracts  mentioned,  attained 


(Mountaineers),  or  Koravnrs "  among  the  tribes  of  the  Palani 
Mountains.  He  contends  that "  the  Manadies  or  Coonoovars 
were  the  chief  landed  proprietors,  possessing  large  herds  of 
cattle,  and,  when  compared  with  the  other  tribes,  seem  to 
be  in  easy  circumstances."  According  to  Mr.  Nelson  (Part 
II,  p.  34) :  "  The  Kunntwans,  or  as  they  are  also  called 
"  Kunnuva  Vellalans,  perhaps  from  the  word  Kunru  a 
"  hillock,  are  supposed  to  be  a  caste  of  lowland  cultivators  who 
"  came  up  from  the  Coimbatore  plains  some  three  or  four 
"  centuries  ago  and  settled  upon  the  Palani  mountains  as 
"  has  been  shown."  Whether  the  Kunnuvas  were  originally 
Dravidian  Vellalas  who  adopted  the  surname  Kunnuva 
as   a   distinguishing  clan-title,   or  whether  the  name  Vel- 

to  the  dignity  of  landlord  either  as  zamlndar,  or  jaglrdar.  I  am  told,  how- 
ever, that  the  Zamlndar  of  Korha  in  Chattisgarh  is  a  Kaur.  All  this  makes 
me  inclined  to  separate  them  from  the  aboriginal  tribes  of  Central  India,  and 
to  think  that  there  is  some  foundation  for  their  tradition  ;  bat,  as  I  cannot 
efface  their  Turanian  traits,  and  from  all  I  have  seen  of  them  must  regard 
those  traits  as  the  predominating  and  original  characteristics  of  the  tribe 
I  find  myself  in  the  dilemma  of  having  to  come  forward  as  the  propounder  of 
a  new  theory,  and,  in  opposition  to  the  Mahabharat,  to  suggest  that  the  war 
of  the  Pandavas  and  Kauravas  was  not  a  family  quarrel  but  struggle  for 
supremacy  between  an  Aryanand  Turanian  nation!"  Compare  also  the 
Eev.  M.  A.  Sherring's  Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  II,  p.  155':  "The  Kaura 
are  usually  regarded  as  aborigines,  although  claiming  to  have.been  originally 
connected  with  the  Tuar  tribe  of  Rajpoots  in  the  North- Western  Provinces.. 
Nevertheless,  their  customs  are  not  like  those  of  Rajpoots,  but  like  the 
aboriginal  tribes  of  jungles.  They  worship  Doolar  Deo  and  Boorha  Deo, 
Gond  deities,  and,  as  a  class,  avoid  intercourse  with  Brahmans.  Their  mar- 
riage ceremonies  are  performed  in  the  presence  of  the  elders  of  the  village, 
and  they  bury  their  dead.  The  Kaurs  are  good  and  industrious  cultivators." 
The  Kaurs  are  also  mentioned  in  Mr.  N.  Ball's  Jungle  Life  in  India, 
pp.  296,  300,  322. 

Compare  with  the  above  Justice  Campbell's  JEthnohgy  of  India,  p.  40 :  "In 
this  region  of  India,  it  only  remains  to  mention  one  more  Aboriginal  tribe, 
called  Kaurs,  found  in  the  extreme  west  of  the  Chota-Nagpore  Agency  about 
Korea,  Oodeypore,  and  the  adj  oining  parts  of  the  territory  of  Nagpore  proper, 
the  Pergunnah  of  Korbah  of  Chatteesgurh.  They  are  described  as  a  very  in- 
dustrious, thriving  people,  considerably  advanced  in  civilisation.  They  now 
affect  Hindu  traditions,  pretend  to  be  descended  from  the  defeated  remnants 
of  the  Kooroos  who  fought  the  Pandavas,  worship  Siva  and  speak  Hindee, 
but  in  appearance  they  are  ultra-aboriginal,  very  black,  with  broad  noses,  and 
thick  lips,  and  eat  fowls,  &c.,  bury  most  of  their  dead,  and  contemn  Bramins  ; 
so  that  their  Hindooismia  scarcely  skin-deep." 


lala  was  given  them  as  landed  proprietors,  because  the 
land-owners  of  the  plains  were  so  called,  it  is  impossible 
to  decide  now.  It  is,  however,  an  interesting  coincidence 
that  the  Kunnuvas  who  inhabit  the  Palani  hiUs  are  called 
and  call  themselves  Mannddi.  This  compound  is  formed  of 
coejr,  man,  a  contraction  of  malai,  mountain,  and  nddu,  coun- 
try. Manmdu  signifies  thus  mountain-country,  and  mannddi, 
mountaineer,  as  Malaiydhm  denotes  the  country,  and  Malai' 
yali,  the  inhabitant  of  Malabar.'* 

Besides  malai  another  word  man  occurs  in  the  sense 
of  mountain.  Man  in  Tamil  signifies  not  only  earth,  but 
also  mountain.^'  In  the  former  sense  it  is  identical  with 
the  Telugu  mannu,  and  in  the  latter  with  mannemu  or 
manyamu.  Mannedora  and  manyadu  denote  a  highland  chief- 
tain, and  manyadu  is  a  title  of  some  Velama  Rajas,  while  the 
hill-people  are  called  Mamievdru.  If  the  Mons  of  Pegu  are 
called  by  the  Burmese  Talaings,  who  according  to  Sir  Alex- 
ander Cunningham  "  must  have  emigrated  from  Telin- 
gana,"  the  conjecture  of  connecting  this  term  Mon  with  the 
Telugu  Mannemu  and  the  Tamil  Man  appears  permissible. 

Considering  that  Mankulattdr,  Gangakulattdr  and  Indra- 
kulattdr  are  the  three  principal  divisions  of  the  Vellalas,  it 
seems  now  doubtful  whether  the  term  man  in  Mankulattdr 
should  be  explained  as  meaning  earth  or  mountain.""' 

98  See  Dr.  John  Shortt's  Hill  Ranges,  Part  V,  pp.  85-89.  On  p.  85  we 
read :  ' '  When  a  Manady  marries,  the  whole  tribe  is  represented  on  the 
occasion  and  to  avoid  unnecessary  expense,  marriages  are  generally  put  off 
untU  two,  three  or  more  can  be  celebrated  at  once  .  .  .  (On  p.  86)  The  young 
man  advances  and  ties  the  marriage  string  with  the  Thalee  or  symbol  around 
the  bride's  neck ;  to  complete  the  ceremony,  a  Foliar  is  called  upon  to  an- 
nounce a  blessing  on  the  new  married  couple."  Read  also  ibidem,  Part  VI, 
pp.  42-46;  on  pp.  42-43:  "The  inhabitants  of  these  High  Ranges  are 
Mndavars  and  .  .  the  mixed  population  of  the  villages  in  Unjenaad  known 
as  Kunuvers,  Munnadies,  and  others  may  be  considered  inhabitants."  Compare 
Mr.  J.  H.  Nelson's  Manual  of  the  Madura  Country,  Part  II,  pp.  33-36. 

''  See  Dr.  WinsloVs  Tamil  and  English  Dictionary,  p.  841 :  uj  sm  s. 
The  earth  ...  3.  HUl,  mountain. 

""'  See  p.  34,  n.  29,  on  the  term  Mannepmdndlu,  highlanders,  being 
used  to  designate  the  Telugu  Pariahs  or  Mdlalu,  and  p.  106,  n.  100,  on 
the  terms  Vetlila  and  Velama.    The  Muhammedau  rulers  in  India  conferred 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  213 

These  remarks  have  been  made  with  a  view  to  introduce 
here  the  inhabitants  of  the  Kunawar  district,  which  is 
situated  in  the  Himalayan  mountain  range.  The  people  of 
this  country  are  generally  known  as  Kunets  or  Kanets,  but 
call  themselves  Mon.  Sir  Alexander  Cunningham  remarks : 
"  With  respect  to  the  name  of  Mon,  which  is  given  to  the 
*'  Kunets  or  Khasas  by  the  Tibetans,  it  does  not  appear  to  be 
"  a  Tibetan  word,  as  it  is  used  by  the  Kunets  themselves  to 
"designate  the  ancient  possessors  of  the  hills,  whom  they 
"  acknowledge  to  have  been  their  own  ancestors."  On  very 
slight,  and,  as  I  think,  on  very  suspicious  linguistic  evidence 
does  Greneral  Sir  Alexander  Cunningham  connect  the  Mons 
of  Kunawar  with  the  Kolarian  Mundas,  and  thus  with  the 
Kolarian  population  of  India.  I,  on  the  other  hand,  regard 
these  Kunawari  Mons  together  with  the  Kulindas  as  a  branch 
of  the  Gaudian  tribe  of  the  Grauda-Dravidian  race,  and  even 
Sir  Alexander  Cunningham  cannot  deny  the  possibility  of 
"  a  Grondish  affinity  for  the  Kunets."  I  have  a  very  high 
respect  for  the  earnest,  indefatigable,  and  ingenious  researches 
of  the  late  chief  of  the  Archseological  Survey  of  India,  but 
no  single  individual,  however  gifted,  can  write  so  much 
without  occasionally  committing  errors,  and  if  I  disagree  at 
times  with  General  Sir  Alexander  Cunningham's  statements 
and  conclusions,  I  must  acknowledge  at  the  same  time  the 
great  obligations  I  owe  to  bim  in  common  with  all  who 
consult  his  excellent  writings. '"' 

occasionally  the  title  Manya  Sultan  on  Velama  chiefs  and  other  princes. 
Manya  in  this  sense  stands  for  Manyadora,  and  has  nothing  in  common  with 
the  Sanskrit  word  Manya  from  man,  to  consider. 

'"'  See  Sir  Alexander  Cvmningham's  Archaeological  Survey  of  India, 
vol.  XIV,  pp.  125-135  ;  more  especially  p.  127  :  "  All  the  ancient  remains 
within  the  present  area  of  Kunet  occupation  are  assigned  to  a  people  who  are 
variously  called  Mowas,  or  Mons,  or  Motans,  and  all  agree  that  they  were 
the  Kunets  themselves  .  At  Dwara  Hath  there  are  numbers  of  monuments 
like  tombs  built  of  large  flat  tUes,  which  the  people  attribute  to  the  Maowis  or 
Monas.  These  I  take  to  be  the  monuments  of  the  ancient  Kimindas  or  Kunets 
before  they  were  driven  from  Dwara  Hath  to  Joshimath  .  (P.  1281.  In 
Dhami  and  Bhagal  and  in  all  the  districts  along  the  Satlej  there  are  numerous 



If  the  Kunets  or  Kunawaris  are,  as  I  believe,  of  Q-audian 
origin,  the  circumstance  of  their  being  called  Mon,  moun- 
taineer, gains  in  importance ;  for  this  name  can  then  be 
derived  from  a  Grauda-Dravidian  word.  I  feel  inclined  to 
derive  the  name  of  the  inhabitants  of  Kunawar,  i.e.,  of 
the  ancient  Kulindas  and  the  modern  Kunets,  from  the  root 
ku,  mountain.  The  etymology  of  the  Madura  term  Eun- 
/I una-  from  Kunnu,  mountain,  is  evident,  and  is  confirmed 
by  the  meanings  of  the  other  two  names  of  this  tribe,  i.e., 
Koravar  and  Mannadikal.  Yet,  it  is  doubtful,  whether 
Kuiiiiava  is  an  original  name  or  was  afterwards  adopted. 

One  of  the  peculiar  features  of  the  social  habits  of  the 
Kunets  is  their  strict  adherence  to  the  old  Gauda-Dravidian 
custom  of  polyandry.  Polyandry,  it  is  true,  does  not  ac- 
tually prevail  among  the  Southern  Kunnavas,  but  a  woman 
can  take  in  succession  as  many  husbands  as  she  likes,  though 
she  is  allowed  only  one  at  a  time. 

remains  of  old  stone  buildings,  many  of  them  foundations  of  squared  stones, 
all  of  which  are  attributed  to  the  Maowis  or  Mons,  the  former  rulers  of  the 
country  I  think  it  therefore  very  probable  that  the  Mons  of  the  Cis- 

Himalaya  may  he  connected  with  the  Mundas  of  Eastern  India,  who  are 
certainly  the  Jlloiiedes  of  PUny,  as  well  as  with  the  Mons  of  Pegu.  As  these 
last  are  called  Talaings  by  the  Burmese,  it  would  seem  that  they  must  have 
emigrated  from  Telingana,  I  would  also  suggest  that  the  true  name  of 
Mongir  was  most  probably  Monagiri,  and  that  the  country  of  the  Mundas  or 
Monedcs  once  extended  northward  as  far  as  the  Ganges  at  Mongir."  See  Csoma 
de  Korosi,  Geographical  Notice  of  Tibet  in  Bengal  Asiatic  Society's  Journal^ 
vol.  I,  p.  122  :  "  The  hill  people  of  India  who  dwell  next  to  the  Tibetans  are 
called  by  them  by  the  general  name  of  Mon,  their  country  2Ion  Yiil,  a  man  Mon- 
pa  or  simply  Mon,  and  a  woman  Mon-ino)  .  (Pp.  131-132.)  The  language  of 
the  Kunets,  like  that  of  the  Khas,  just  described  by  Mr.  Hodgson,  is  a  corrupt 
dialect  of  Hindi,  but  it  still  retains  several  traces  of  a  non-Aryan  language. 
Thus  the  word  ti,  for  water  of  stream,  is  found  all  over  the  Kunet  area.  The 
word  is  not  Tibetan,  but  occurs  in  the  Milohang  dialect  of  Lower  Kunawar. 
It  is  clearly  connected  with  the  di  and  ti  of  the  E.  Koch  and  Moch  tribes,  and 
with  the  da  of  the  aboriginal  Kolish  dialects  of  Eastern  and  Central  India,  the 
Munda,  Santhal,  Ho,  KurJ  and  Saur  or  Savara.  Thus  within  the  Kunet 
area  are  the  following  large  streams.  (1)  Rawa-ti,  or  Eavi  River.  (2)  Nyung- 
ti,  or  Bias  River  .  (P.  133).  Several  of  the  gTeat  rivers  of  Northern  India 
hate  the  Kolish  affix  da,  as  Pad-da,  Narma-da,  Bahu-da,  etc.  .  .  Da-Muda, 
Da-San,  Altogether  I  think  the  evidence  of   language,   so  far  as  it 

goes,  points  decidedly  to  a  Kolish  rather  than  to  a  Gondish  affinity  for  the 


No  doubt  these  two  tribes  of  the  North  and  the  South 
resemble  each  other  strangely  in  their  names  and  in  their 
customs,  but  I  am  far  from  trying  to  force  on  them  for  these 
reasons  any  closer  relationship  than  that  which  has  from  the 
first  existed  between  them,  namely  that  both  of  them  formed 
part  of  the  large  Gauda-Dravidian  race.  Both  are  here 
mentioned  together,  as  they  afford  an  interesting  example  of 
similar  sounding  and  nearly  identical  names  being  borne  by 
two  distinct,  distant,  and  yet  originally  kindred  tribes.'"^ 


On  the  Kueubas  on  Kueumbas. 
Remarhs  about  the  name  Kurumba. 
The  Kurubas  or  Kurumbas  who  form  the  subject  of 
this  enquiry  represent  the  most  important  of  all  those  tribes 
that  have  been  already  mentioned  in  this  chapter,  owing  to 
the  influential  part  they  have  played  in  the  History  of  India, 
and  the  position  they  still  occupy  among  the  people  of  this 
country.     However  separated  from  each  other  and  scattered 

Kuneta  and  other  mixed  races  of  North- West  India."  The  linguistic 
evidence  so  far  as  the  Kunets  are  concerned  is  very  weak,  in  fact  nihil. 
Nothing  proves  that  the  ti  of  Bdvati,  the  Sanskrit  Airavati  denotes  river; 
and  that  a  word  like  da,  water,  shoidd  in  one  and  the  same  language  be  used 
in  the  same  connection  both  at  the  beginning  and  the  end  of  compounds 
as  in  Bihu-da,  Narma-dd,  Ba-Muda,  and  Da-San,  is  against  linguistic  rules. 
About  the  Kolarian  terms  for  water,  da,  doi,  di,  dat,  ti  and  tui  compare 
Hislop's  Papers,  p.  27- 

112  Read  Mr.  J.  H.  Nelson's  Manual  of  Madura.  Part  II,  pp.  34-35  :  "In 
this  way  a  woman  may  legally  marry  any  number  of  men  in  succession, 
though  she  may  not  have  two  husbands  at  one  and  the  same  time.  She  may 
however  bestow  favors  on  paramours  without  hindrance,  provided  they  be  of 
equal  caste  with  her.  On  the  other  hand  a  man  may  indulge  in  polygamy  to 
any  extent  he  pleases,  and  the  wealthier  Kunnuvans  keep  several  wives  as 
servants  particularly  for  agricultural  purposes.  Among  the  Western  Kim- 
nuvans  a  very  curious  custom  is  said  to  prevail.  When  an  estate  is  likely  to 
descend  to  a  female  on  default  of  male  issue,  she  is  forbidden  to  marry  an 
adult  but  goes  through  the  ceremony  of  marriage  with  some  young  mala 
child  or  in  some  cases  with  a  portion  of  her  father's  dwelling-house,  on  the 
understanding  that  she  shall  be  at  liberty  to  amuse  herself  with  any  man  of 


among  the  Dravidian  clans  witli  whom  they  have  dwelt,  and 
however  distant  from  one  another  they  still  live,  there  is 
hardly  a  province  in  the  whole  of  Bharatavarsa  which  cannot 
produce,  if  not  some  living  remnants  of  this  race,  at  least 
Bome  remains  of  past  times  which  prove  their  presence. 

Indeed,  the  Kurumbas  must  he  regarded  as  very  old  in- 
habitants of  this  land,  who  can  contest  with  their  Dravidian 
kinsmen  the  priority  of  occupation  of  the  Indian  soil. 
The  two  rival  tribes  have  in  reality  become  so  intermixed 
with  each  other,  that  according  to  the  temporary  superiority 
of  the  one  or  the  other,  the  same  district  is  at  different  times 
known  as  Vala(va)nadu  and  Kujumbana4u,  while  in  some 
instances,  when  both  tribes  live  more  apart  from  each  other, 
we  find  a  Vallavanadu  bordering  on  a  Kujumbana4u. 

In  some  parts  of  this  country  the  Kurumbas  are  even 
now  considered  as  the  oldest  existing  remnant  of  the  earliest 
stratum  of  the  population.  Some  tracts  and  places  of  the 
Indian  realm  stiU  bear  their  name,  while  some  localities  had 
their  names  changed  after  the  collapse  of  the  Kurumba 
supremacy.  The  well-known  Tondamandalam,  of  which 
Kancipuram  was  once  the  capital,  is  said  to  have  been  pre- 
viously called  Kurumbabhumi  or  Kurambanadu.  Kurum- 
baranadu  forms  still  an  integral  portion  of  Malabar,  and  the 
forest-clad  mountainous  district  of  the  Nilagiri  has  preserved 
in  many  localities  the  ancient  name  of  the  Kurumbas.  It 
may  not  be  inappropriate  to  mention  here  that  Valanadu 

her  caste,  to  whom  she  may  take  a  fancy  :  and  her  issue,  so  hegotten,  inherits 
the  property,  which  is  thus  retained  in  the  woman's  family.  Numerous 
disputes  originate  in  this  singular  custom  ;  and  Madura  CoUectors  have  some- 
times heen  puzzled  not  a  little  hy  eiddence  adduced  to  show  that  a  child  of 
three  or  four  years  was  the  son  or  daughter  of  a  child  of  ten  or  twelve.  The 
religion  of  the  Kunnuvans  appear  to  be  the  Saiva,  but  they  worship  their 
mountain  god  Valapan  with  far  more  devotedness  than  any  other." 

Compare  also  Sir  W.  W.  Hunter's  Imperial  Gazetteer  of  India,  vol.  V,  pp. 
482-483  :  "  In  physique,  the  Kunawaris  are  taU,  athletic,  weU-made,  and 
dark-skinned  ;  while  their  character  stands  high  for  hospitality,  truthfulness 
and  honesty  .  .  Polyandry  everywhere  eadsts  in  its  fullest  form," 


is  now  kno-wn  as  the  name  of  a  district  round  Kanoipuram, 
and  that  Valluvanad.u  is  bordering  on  Ku5umbarana4Ti.-''^ 

Before  entering  further  on  the  discussion  concerning  the 
ethnology  and  history  of  the  Kujumbas,  I  feel  it  incumbent 
on  me  to  make  a  few  linguistic  remarks,  which  apply  to  the 
whole  chapter.  I  have  already  derived  their  name  from 
kuru,  an  enlarged  form  of  ko  (ku),  mountain.  A  Kuruba 
or  Kurumba  signifies  thus  a  mountaineer. 

The  terms  Kujuba  and  Kurumba  are  originally  identical, 
though  the  one  form  is  in  different  places  employed  for  the 
other,  and  has  thus  occasionally  assumed  a  special  local 
meaning.  I  have  previously  proved  that  even  the  wandering 
Koravas  are  direct  offshoots  from  the  same  stem,  in  spite 
of  their  being  now  distinguished  from  the  bulk  of  the 
Kurubas  or  Kurumbas  by  occupation  and  caste.  Mr.  H.  B. 
Grigg  appears  to  contradict  himself  when,  while  speaking 
of  the  Kurumbas,  he  says  that  "  in  the  low  country  they  are 
"  called  Kurubas  or  Curubdru,  and  are  divided  into  numerous 
"  families,  such  as  the  '  Kn&  '  or  Elephant,  Ndya  or  Dog, 
"  M41e  or  Hill  Kurumbas."  Such  a  distinction  between 
Mountain-Kuxumbas  and  Plain-Kumbas  cannot  be  estab- 
lished. The  Rev.  G.  Eichter  will  find  it  difficult  to  prove 
that  the  Eurubas  of  Mysore  are  only  called  so  as  shepherds, 
and  that  no  connection  exists  between  these  Kurubas  and  the 
Kurumbas.  Mr.  Lewis  Rice  calls  the  wild  tribes  as  well  aa 
the  shepherds  Kurubas,  but  seems  to  overlook  the  fact  that 
both  terms  are  identical  and  refer  only  to  the  ethnological 
distinction.  Instead  of  Kuruba  he  uses  also  occasionally 
Kurumba.     In  the  Tamil  language  all  the  Kurumbas  are 

103  Or  Velanadu.  Near  Chingleput  in  Valanftdu  lies  Vallam  with  an 
ancient  temple  on  the  top  of  the  hiE  and  Vajam  in  Tanjore  is  also  situated 
on  a  height.  I  am  not  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  the  term  Valanddu  ia 
generally  explained  as  the  extensive  or  excellent  district.  (See  F.  M.  Ellis' 
Mirdsi  Article,  p.  229,  and  Mr.  Nelson's  Manual,  Part  II,  p.  49.)  In  Mr. 
Nelson's  Manual  of  Madura  the  Vallama  Nadu  in  Tanjore  is  mentioned 
in  Part  II,  on  pp.  28  and  57  and  "  the  VeUa(Vala)  Nadu,  near  Kaachipuram 
(Conjeveram),"  on  p.  44,  the  Vala  Ndifu  or  excellent  district  of  Madura 
on  p.  49. 


called  Kunnnbar,  and,  as  we  shall  see  hereafter,  they  are 
divided  into  Anda  or  Andai-Kurumbar,  KambaU-Kurumbar^ 
Kurumba-Idaiyar,  Cimndmbu-Kurumbar,  8fc.  The  ethnological 
origin  of  Kuruba,  shepherd,  is  proved  by  the  occurrence  of 
such  terms  as  Kuri-Kuruba,  Sheep-Kuruba,  HamU-Kuruba, 
Pig-Kuruba.  The  Kurubas  or  Kurumbas  embraced  the 
occupation  of  herdsmen  to  such  an  extent,  that  the  tribal 
designation  became  in  course  of  time  a  professional  one.  In 
English  the  term  shepherd  is  on  the  other  hand  used  in  such 
a  general  sense,  that  the  original  meaning  of  shepherd,  as 
a  herd  of  sheep,  the  German  Schafhirt,  is  quite  forgotten. 
The  expression  Kuri-Kuruba  would  mean  sheejy-shepherd,  if 
the  original  signification  of  Kuruba  were  really  shepherd. 

Now  it  happens  that  one  of  the  principal  occupations  of 
the  Kurubas  or  Kurumbas  is  that  of  tending  sheep,  and  by  a 
peculiar  coincidence  knri  or  kori  is  a  common  Gauda-Dravi- 
dian  term  for  sheep,  from  which  can  also  be  derived  the  word 
Kuruban,  in  the  sense  of  shepherd.  In  fact  the  term  kuruba 
in  Kanarese,  kuruban  in  Malayalam  and  Tulu,  and  goUadu 
or  goUavddu  in  Telugu  denote  a  shepherd,  but  the  Tamil 
kurumbaii  in  the  sense  of  shepherd  refers  only  to  the 
Kurumba  shepherd,  and  the  sheep  peculiar  to  the  Kurumbas 
is  called  Kurumbddu,  in  Tamil  ^j)ithuirQ,  go  far  as  the 
Telugu  golladu  is  concerned,  I  must  at  once  remark  that  I 
think  it  incorrect  to  connect  this  word  with  the  Sanskrit  term 
go,  cow.  Golladu  or  Gollavadu  is  derived  from  golla  the 
Casus  Oonstructus  (tatamu)  in  the  plural  of  gorre,  sheep, 
plural  gorrelu  or  gorho  changed  into  gollu.  I  have  been  since 
informed  by  reliable  authority  that  in  the  Telugu-speaking 
districts  the  term  gollavadu  is  particularly  applied  to  herds- 
men of  sheep  or  shepherds.  The  Kurumba  herdsmen  are 
styled  in  Tamil  Kurumba  Idaiyar,  and  in  Telugu  Kurumba 

'"*  Compare  Mr.  Grigg'a  Manual  of  the  NUagiri  District,  p.  208,  Rev.  G. 
Kichter's  Ethnographical  Compendium,  p.  11  (see  note  108  on  p.  230),  and  Mr. 
Lewis  Rice's  Mgsore  and  Coorg,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  20,  49,  57,  207,  208,  214,  216. 


But  we  have  also  to  deal  with  another  word  which 
resembles  kuru  mountain  ;  this  is  the  term  kuru  short,  which 
occurs  in  Tamil,  Malayalam,  Tulu,  Kanarese  and  Telugu. 
Peculiarly  enough  a  large  percentage  of  the  Kurumhas,  more 
especially  those  who  inhabit  the  hill-ranges  have  a  short 
almost  dwarfish  figure,  so  that  the  etymology  may  appear 
appropriate  in  their  case.  A  similar  derivation  from  the 
Malayalam  ceru,  small,  in  Tamil  and  Telugu  ciru,  is  actually 
suggested  to  explain  the  name  of  the  praedial  slaves  of  Mala- 
bar, the  ill  treated  Ceramas  or  Cerumas.  This  tribe  is  in 
reality  called  after  their  native  country  Cera,  of  which  they 
were,  so  far  as  we  know,  the  original  rulers,  until  they  were 
suppressed  and  finally  reduced  to  abject  slavery  by  their 
present  masters,  the  Nairs.  The  Kurumhas  have  shared  a 
similar  fate  in  many  places.  The  Ceramas  can  therefore  be 
compared  with  their  fellow  sufferers,  the  Kudamas. 

The  stunted  growth  of  animals  and  plants  in  cold,  wet 
and  high  elevations  is  a  well-known  natural  law,  to  which  the 
human  species  has  also  to  submit.  In  consequence  of  their 
loneliness   and    comparative  physical  weakness,  the   small 

In  the  late  Mr.  0.  P.  Brown's  Telugu- English  Dictionary  vie  find 
gollata,  sr'ejS,  given  as  signifying  a  woman  of  the  oowkeeper  caste,  and 
gollatamu,  ffeiSam,  as  the  cowherd  class.  This  is,  I  think,  not  quite  correct. 
Later  Telugu  Lexicographers  have  adopted  and  perpetuated  the  mistake  of 
Mr.  Brown.  The  same  meaning  is  contained  in  Kanarese  dictionaries,  as 
Kanarese  also  possesses  the  word  golla,  as  a  caste  of  herdsmen.  The  Kana- 
rese term  is  most  likely  taken  from  Telugu.  Mr.  W.  Logan  speaks  in  his 
Malaiar  Manual,  vol.  I,  p.  114,  of  the  Koruha  Golla  as  herdsmen.  Compare 
Dr.  Buchanan's  Travels,  vol.  II,  pp.  433,  434  :  "  Sheep  are  an  object  of 
great  importance,  and  are  of  the  kind  called  Curi  in  the  language  of  Karnata. 
They  .are  kept  by  two  castes,  the  Curubaru  and  Goalaru.  A  man  of  either 
caste,  who  possesses  a  flock  of  sheep,  is  by  the  Mussalmans  called  a  Donigar. 
The  Curubaru  are  of  two  kinds ;  those  properly  so  called,  and  those  named 
Sand!/  or  Cumly  Curubaru.  The  Curubaru  proper,  and  the  Goalaru,  are  some- 
times cultivators,  and  possess  the  largest  flocks  ;  hut  they  never  make 
blankets. .  .  The  flocks  contained  by  the  former  two  castes  contain  from  30  to 
300  breeding-lives." 

The  GoUas  of  Aurangabad  appear  to  he  identical  with  the  wandering 
KuTuvas;  for  according  to  the  Gazetteer  of  that  district  (p.  309)  :  "  The  Col- 
lars move  about  with  droves  of  asses,  or  are  employed  as  goatherds.    They 


mountaineers,  when  they  meet  their  taller  but  less  clever 
neighbours  of  the  plains,  display  often  a  spiteful  distrust, 
use  poisonous  arrows  and  frighten  them  by  their  mysterious 
proceedings  into  abject  superstition.  This  is  the  reason  why 
the  Kurumbas  of  the  Nilagiri  Hills  are  so  shunned ;  and  why 
dwarfs  in  general  are  treated  with  suspicion,  as  is  shown  by 
the  well-known  native  proverb :  "  One  may  trust  a  thief, 
but  not  a  dwarf." 

When  pointing  out  the  different  meanings  of  the  word 
palli,  I  specially  drew  attention  to  the  fact  that  it  signified 
originally  aDravidian  village  or  town,  andremarkably  enough 
the  Gaudian  Kurumbas  also  possess  similar  terms,  which 
must  have  been  at  first  applied  to  their  villages.  I  speak 
of  kuricci,  a  village  in  mountainous  regions,  and  kurumbu, 
a  village  situated  in  desert  tracts. 

Moreover  to  the  Dravidian  Pallavan,  as  chief  of  the  Palla 
people,  corresponds  the  Gaudian  Kuruppu,  the  Kurumba 
headman  in  the  Kuriimbaranadu  of  Malabar. 

On  the  sub-divisions  among  the  Kueumbas. 

The  Kurumbas  represent  a  very  numerous  community, 
who  are  subdivided  into  many  classes.  Most  of  these  sub- 
divisions indicate  either  the  place  of  their  habitation,  or  the 
pursuit  and  profession  they  follow  to  gain  their  livelihood. 
In  some  cases  these  professional  terms  have  become  tribal 
names.  In  the  various  provinces  of  the  Indian  Empire  and 
in  the  different  vernaculars  of  this  country  distinct  names  are 
given  to  the  several  subdivisions,  so  that  the  same  class  is 
called  differently  in  sundry  districts ;  the  Tamil  and  Kana- 
rese  descriptions  differ  thus  in  their  nomenclature. 

rear  dog3,huut  jackals,  iguanas,  and  wild  animals,  and  live  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  towns  and  villages.  The  women  heg,  and  are  said  to  be  great  thieves." 
In  the  last  Census  Report  the  GoUas  are  divided  into  Erra,  Gauda,  Kadu, 
Kanuadi,  Kama,  Kuruba,  Mushti,  Puja,  Puri,  Peddeti  and  Uru  GoUas, 
Kurumbas  and  Yadavulu.  They  are  classed  as  Dravidians,  and  number 
1,258,786  souls. 

OF    BHAEATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  221 

The  Kurumbas  are  as  jealous  about  their  social  position 
as  the  other  Hindus.  ^°^  They  have  fought  and  are  still 
fighting  when  the  opportunity  occurs  with  great  pertinacity 
against  any  real  or  imaginary  encroachments  on  their  rights 
of  precedence.  Very  serious  disturbances  used  to  take  place 
at  the  great  annual  festival  held  about  February  in  the  Siva 
shrine  at  Muduhutnrai  in  the  Kollegal  Taltikj  where  about 
50,000  people  assemble  on  the  banks  of  the   Kaveri,  and 

'"*  About  tlie  ensigns  compare  pp.  63,  64,  n.  59. 

See  Mackenzie  CoUection,  No.  9,  CM.  763,  XII;  No.  11,  CM.  765  ;  No. 
14,  CM.  768,  Vni ;  No.  20,  CM.  774,  X,  and  Dr.  Francis  Buchanan's 
Journey  from  Madras  through  the  Countries  of  Mysore,  Canara  and  Malabar, 
vol.  I,  pp.  274-276,  312,  379-381,  389  ;  vol.  II,  pp.  3,  40,  155,  156,  433-436. 
In  vol.  I,  pp.  274-276  he  says  :  "  The  Curubaru  are  an  original  caste  of 
Karnata,  and,  wherever  they  are  settled,  retain  their  language.  They  are 
divided  into  two  tribes,  that  have  no  communion,  and  which  are  called  Sandy 
Curubaru,  and  Curubaru  proper.  The  last  again  are  divided  into  a  number  of 
families ;  such  as  the  Any,  or  elephant  Curubaru ;  the  Sal,  or  Milk  Curu- 
baru ;  the  Colli,  or  fire  C;  the  NeUy  C;  the  Sdmanta  C;  the  Coti  C; 
the  Asil  C;  and  the  Murhindina  Curubaru.  These  families  are  like  the 
Gotrams  of  the  Brahmans ;  it  being  considered  as  incestuous  for  two  persons  of 
the  same  family  to  intermarry.  The  proper  Curubas  have  hereditary  chiefs, 
who  are  called  Gaudas,  whether  they  be  headmen  of  villages  or  not,  and  possess 
the  usual  jurisdiction.  Some  of  them  can  read  accompts,  but  they  have  no 
book.  The  proper  duty  of  the  caste  is  that  of  shepherds,  and  of  blanket- 
weavers  ;  and  in  general  they  have  no  other  dress  than  a  blanket.  A  few  of 
those  who  are  rich  have  betaken  themselves  to  the  luxury  of  wearing  cotton 
cloth  next  their  skin  ;  for  all  castes  and  ranks  in  this  country  wear  the  blanket 
as  an  outer  garment.  The  dress  of  the  women  resembles  that  of  the  females 
of  the  kingdom  of  Ava.  The  blanket  is  put  behind  the  back,  and  the  two 
upper  comers,  being  brought  forward  imder  the  arms,  are  crossed  over  the 
bosom,  and  secured  by  the  one  being  tucked  under  the  other.  As  their  blanket 
is  larger  than  the  cloth  used  by  the  women  of  Ava,  the  dress  is  more  decent- 
The  Curubaru  were,  besides,  Candachara,  or  militia  ;  cultivators,  as  farmers, 
as  servants,  and  as  gardeners  ;  Attavana,  or  the  armed  men  who  serve  the 
Amildars  ;  Anchay,  or  post-messengers,  and  porters.  They  are  allowed  to  eat 
animal  food,  but  in  most  places  are  not  permitted  to  drink  spirituous  liquors. 
In  other  places  this  strictness  is  not  required,  and  almost  everywhere  they 
intoxicate  themselves  with  pahn-wine.  The  women  are  very  industrious, 
and  perform  every  kind  of  work  except  digging  and  ploughing.  Even  after 
the  age  of  puberty  they  continue  marriageable,  and  can  only  be  divorced  for 
adultery.  In  this  caste  the  custom  of  Cutiga,  or  concubinage,  prevails  ;  that 
is,  all  adulteresses  who  are  turned  away  by  their  husbands,  |and  have  not 
gone  astray  with  a  strange  man,  and  all  girls  and  widows,  to  whom  a  life  of 
celibacy  is  disagreeable,  may  live  with  any  man  of  the  caste  who  chooses  to 
keep  them.    They  are  looked  down  upon  by  their  more  virtuous  sisters  ;  but 



Government  had  to  interfere  and  to  arrange  that  the  Ku- 
pumbas  and  the  Gangadikaras  should  attend  the  fair  on 
different  days,  so  as  to  prevent  theu-  meeting  each  other.  On 
another  occasion  the  Kurumbas  collected  and  spent  about 
10,000  rupees  to  obtain  from  the  records  in  Kancipuram 
documentary  evidence  in  confirmation  of  their  claims.  One 
of  the  disputes  between  the  Kurumbas  and  the  Gangadikaras 
concerns  the  question  who  are  the  IndraStidras  and  who  the 

still  they  are  admitted  into  company,  and  are  not  out-casts.  Among  the 
Curubaru,  the  children  of  concubines  do  not  form  a  separate  caste,  hut  are 
allowed  to  marry  with  those  of  a  pure  breed.  By  a  connection  with  any  man, 
except  a  C'liruia,  a  woman  becomes  an  entire  out;oast.  The  men  take  several 
wives  ;  and,  if  they  be  good  workers,  do  not  always  divorce  them  for  adxiltery  ; 
but  as  they  thus  incur  some  disgrace,  they  must  appease  the  anger  of  their 
kindred  by  giving  them  an  entertainment,  and  the  Guru  generally  interposes 
his  authority  to  prevent  a  separation.  The  Curubas  believe,  that  those  men 
who  die  without  having  been  married  become  Ylrikas,  to  whose  images,  at  a 
great  annual  feast,  which  is  celebrated  on  purpose,  offerings  of  red  cloth,  jagory 
rice,  &o.,  are  made.  If  this  feast  be  omitted,  the  Virikas  become  enraged, 
occasion  sickness,  kill  the  sheep,  alarm  the  people  by  horrid  dreams,  and, 
when  they  walk  out  at  night,  strike  them  on  the  back.  They  are  only  to  be 
appeased  by  the  celebration  of  the  proper  feast.  The  peculiar  god  of  the  caste  is 
Sir'  -uppa,  or  father  Biray,  one  of  the  names  of  Siva  ;  and  the  image  is  in  shape 
of  the  Linga  ;  but  no  other  person  prays  to  Siva  under  his  name,  nor  ofEers 
sacrifices  to  that  god,  which  is  the  mode  by  which  the  Curubas  worship  Bir'- 
uppa.  The  priests  who  officiate  in  the  temples  of  this  deity  are  Curubas.  Their 
office  is  hereditary,  and  they  do  not  intermarry  with  the  daughters  of  laymen. 
In  some  districts,  the  (7!»-!4j«s  worship  another  god,  peculiar,  I  believe,  to  them- 
selves. He  is  called  Battay  Devaru,  and  is  a  destructive  spirit.  They  offer 
sacrifices  to  him  in  woods,  by  the  sides  of  rivulets,  or  ponds.  The  carcasses 
of  the  animals  killed  before  the  image  are  given  to  the  barber  and  washerman, 
who  eat  them.  Besides  these,  the  Curubaru  off'er  sacrifices  to  the  Saktis,  and 
pray  to  every  object  of  superstition  (except  Dharma  Sdja)  that  comes  in  their 
way.  They  are  considered  too  impure  to  be  allowed  to  wear  the  Linga,  as 
their  Gtcru  does.  This  person  is  called  a  Wodear,  or  Jangama ;  but  he  is 
married,  and  his  office  is  hereditary.  His  title  is  Rdvana  Sidhesivara,  and  he 
originally  lived  at  Sariir,  which  is  near  Ealydnapattana.  At  his  visits  he 
bestows  consecrated  ashes,  and  receives  charity.  He  has  a  fixed  due  on 
marriages,  and  sends  his  agents  to  collect  it.  At  some  of  their  ceremonies  the 
Pimchdnga  attends,  and  acts  as  Purohita."  On  page  312  Buchanan  says  : 
"  The  Curubas  here  (in  TumkQr)  say,  that  at  a  temple  of  Bhaimwa  at  Sermy 
Samudra,  which  is  near  Mercasera,  to  the  north  of  this  place,  and  where  one 
of  their  caste  acts  as  Pujdri,  the  image  represents  a  man  sitting  on  horseback 
with  the  Linga,  round  his  neck,  and  a  drawn  sword  in  his  hand,  they  offer 
sacrifices  to  this  image  and  eat  the  flesh.  The  family  of  Havana  have  now 
spread  all  over  the  country  ;  but  Sarur  is  still  considered  as  the  proper  famUy 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OR    INDIA.  223 

Sukrasudras ;  the  Kurumbas  claiming  to  be  Indraiudras  and 
calling  the  Gangadikaras  Sukra&fidras,  and  vice  versd.  The 
lonner  expression  indicates  the  issue  of  married,  and  the 
latter  that  of  unmarried  women. 

They  carry  an  enormous  white  umbrella  and  a  flag  with 
the  figure  of  a  bull,  and  of  this  umbrella  they  proudly  say 
that  it  covers  the  world.  It  is  therefore  known  as  Jagajam- 
pina  sattige. 

seat.  Ttieir  Guru  has  the  power  of  restoring  any  out-east  to  the  en]'oyment  of 
full  communion.  They  have  a  book  peculiar  to  the  caste  called  Jiraga  Clia- 
pagodu.  It  is  written  in  the  language  of  Karndta,  and  gives  an  account  of 
the  tribe.  The  Curubaru  buy  their  wives,  a  girl  of  a  good  family  costs  from 
30  to  40  fanams  ;  a  girl  of  the  bastard  or  Cutiga  breed  costs  15  fanams,  or 
10s."  On  pp.  379-81  he  describes  the  Kadu  and  Betta  Kurumbas  :  "  The  Cad" 
Curubaru  are  a  rude  tribe  of  Karndta,  who  are  exceedingly  poor  and  wretched. 
In  the  fields  near  villages  they  build  miserable  low  huts,  have  a  few  rags  only 
for  covering,  and  the  hair  of  both  sexes  stands  out  matted  like  a  mop,  and 
swarms  with  vermin.  Their  persons  and  features  are  weak  and  unseemly, 
and  their  complexion  is  very  dark.  Some  of  them  hire  themselves  as  labour- 
ing servants  to  the  farmers,  and,  like  those  of  other  castes,  receive  monthly 
wages.  Others,  in  crop  season,  watch  the  fields  at  night,  to  keep  off  the 
elephants  and  wild  hogs  .  .  Their  manner  of  driving  away  the  elephant  is  by 
running  against  him  with  a  burning  torch  made  of  bamboos.  .  .  The  Curubaru 
have  no  means  of  killing  so  large  an  animal .  .  The  wild  hogs  are  driven  out 
of  the  fields  by  slings .  .  These  poor  people  frequently  suffer  from  tigers, 
against  which  their  wretched  huts  are  a  poor  defence  ;  and,  when  this  wild 
beast  is  urged  by  hunger,  he  is  regardless  of  their  burning  torches.  The  Curu- 
baru have  dogs,  with  which  they  catch  deer,  antelopes  and  hares;  and  they  have 
the  art  of  taking  in  snares  peacocks,  and  other  esculent  birds.  They  have  no 
hereditary  chiefs,  but  assemble  occasionally  to  settle  the  business  of  their  caste. 
They  confine  their  marriages  to  their  own  tribe.  The  Gauda,  or  chief  man  of 
the  village,  presides  at  this  ceremony,  which  consists  of  a  feast.  During  this 
the  bridegroom  espouses  his  mistress,  by  tying  a  string  of  beads  around  her 
neck.  The  men  are  allowed  to  take  several  wives,  and  both  girls  after  the  age 
of  puberty,  and  widows  are  permitted  to  marry.  In  case  of  adultery,  the 
husband  flogs  his  wife  severely,  and  if  he  be  able,  beats  her  paramour.  If  he 
be  not  able,  he  applies  to  the  Gauda,  who  does  it  for  him.  The  adulteress  has 
then  her  choice  of  following  either  of  the  men  as  her  husband.  They  can  eat 
everything  except  beef  ;  and  have  no  objection  to  the  animal  having  died 
a  natural  death.  .  .  They  do  not  drink  spiritous  liquors.  None  of  them  take 
the  vow  of  Ddseri  nor  attempt  to  read.  Some  of  them  bum,  and  others  bury 
the  dead.  They  believe  that  good  men,  after  death,  will  become  benevolent 
Devas,  and  bad  men  destructive  Devas. .  .  The  spirits  of  the  dead  are  believed 
to  appear  in  dreams  to  their  old  people,  and  to  direct  them  to  make  offerings  of 
fruits  to  a  female  deity,  named  Bettada  Chicmna  ;  that  is,  the  little  mother  of 
the  hill.     Unless  these  offerings  are  made,  this  goddess  occasions   sickness; 


I  have  been  informed  that  there  exist  ae  many  as  23 
Kiirumba  subdivisions. 

The  Mackenzie  Manuscripts  contain  in  this  respect  valu- 
able information  about  the  Tamil  Kurumbas,  while  Dr. 
Francis  Buchanan  supplies  interesting  accounts  of  the 
Kanarese  Kurumbas.  Among  such  distinctions  may  be 
mentioned  the  Malai  or  Betta  Kurumbas,  who  are  confined 
to  the  mountains,  and  the  Kddu  Kurumhas,  who  dwell  in 
forests.     It  is  probable  that  the  Mullu  Kurumbas,  who  are 

tut  she  18  never  supposed  to  do  her  votaries  any  good.  She  is  not,  however, 
appeased  hy  tloody  sacrifices.  There  is  a  temple  dedicated  to  her  near 
Nunjinugodu  ;  but  there  is  no  occasion  for  the  offering  being  made  at  that 
place.  There  is  also  in  this  neighbourhood  (of  Hegodu  Devana  Cotay)  an- 
other rude  tribe  of  Ouniharu,  called  Betta,  or  Malaya,  both  words  signifying 
mountain,  the  one  in  the  Karnata,  and  the  other  in  the  Tamil  language.  .  - 
They  are  not  so  wretched  nor  ill-looking  as  .the  Gai'  Curubaru,  but  are  of 
diminutive  stature.  They  live  in  poor  huts  near  the  villages,  and  the 
chief  employment  of  the  men  is  the  cutting  of  timber,  and  making  of  baskets 
....  The  Betta  Curubaru  have  an  hereditary  chief  called  Ijyamana,  who 
lives  at  Friya-pattana.  .  .  In  this  tribe,  the  concubines,  or  Cutigaa,  are 
women  that  prefer  another  man  to  their  husband,  or  widows  who  do  not 
wish  to  relinquish  carnal  enjoyment.  Their  children  are  not  considered  as 

' '  Grirls  are  not  considered  as  marriageable  until  after  the  age  of  puberty, 
custom  that  by  the  higher  orders  is  considered  as  a  beastly  depravity.  The 
men  may  take  several  wives,  but  never  marry  a  woman  of  the  same  family 
with  themselves  in  the  male  line.  The  Betta  Curubaru  never  intoxicate 
themselves  ;  but  are  permitted  to  eat  every  kind  of  animal  food  except  beef, 
and  they  have  no  objection  to  carrion.  They  never  take  the  vow  of  Daseri, 
and  none  of  them  can  read.  Some  of  them  bum,  and  others  bury  their  dead. 
They  imderstand  nothing  of  a  future  state.  The  god  of  the  caste  is  Ejuruppa, 
who  seems  to  be  the  same  with  Hanumanta,  the  servant  of  Eama,  but  they 
never  pray  to  this  last-mentioned  deity  although  they  sometimes  address 
Siva.  To  the  god  of  their  caste  they  ofEer  fruit,  and  a  little  money  ;  they 
never  sacrifice  to  the  Saktis.  Their  Qiini,  they  say,  is  of  the  caste  Woti- 
tneru,  and  from  their  description  would  appear  to  be  of  those  people  called 
Satananas."  On  p.  389  :  "  Bhairawa  Devaru  is  the  god  of  the  Ciirubas,  and 
is  a  malevolent  male  spirit  ....  The  Pujari,  or  priest,  is  a  Hal  Cunibai-u, 
who  can  neither  read  nor  write."  Compare  further  vol.  II,  pp.  3,  42,  433- 
436  :  "  The  Curubaru  arc  of  two  kinds  ;  those  properly  so  called,  and  those 
named  Sandy  or  Cumly  Curubaru.  The  Curubaru  proper,  and  the  Goalaru, 
are  sometimes  cultivators,  and  possess  the  largest  flocks  ;  but  they  never 
make  blankets.  The  Handy  Curubas  abstain  entirely  from  cultivation,  and 
employ  themselves  in  tending  their  flocks,  and  manufacturing  the  wool.  .  .  The 
Randy  Curubaru  .  .  .  are  a  caste  li-jong  in  the  Harapunya-hulty  and  Chatrakal 


found  in  the  Nilagiri  Mountains,  are  so  called  from  mulhi, 
thorn,  as  they  live  among  the  jungle  ;  if  so,  the  term  is  to 
some  extent  synonymous  with  Kddu  Kurumbas.  Some  think 
that  the  word  muUu  may  apply  to  their  arrows,  as  these 
sturdy,  well-made  mountaineers  are  never  seen  without  their 
bows  and  arrows.  As  regards  their  neighbours  whom  the 
Rev.  F.  Metz,  otherwise  a  great  authority  on  this  Bubject, 
calls  Naya  Kurumbas,  and  Mr,  Grrigg  JVdya  or  Dog  Kurumbas, 
I  have  ascertained  on  reliable  authority  that  their  name  is 
in  reality  not  Naya  but  Ndyaka  Kurumbas,  and  that  they 
are  held  in  respect  by  the  neighbouring  tribes.     The  Mullu 

districts,  and  are  of  Kamata  descent.  .  .  All  those  who  have  settled  in  that 
(Marattah)  country  being  horsemen,  they  are  called  Handay  Rmalar,  a  name 
pronounced  Eawut  by  the  Mussulmans,  and  by  them  frequently  applied 
to  every  Hnd  of  Cwubas  .  .  .  The  deities,  whom  this  caste  consider  as 
their  peculiar  objects  of  worship,  are  Bira  Deva,  and  his  sister  Mctyma. 
Bira  is,  they  say,  the  same  with  Iswara,  and  resides  in  Kailasa  .  .  There 
is  only  one  temple  of  Bira,  which  is  situated  on  Curi  Jletta,  or  the  sheep 
hill,  on  the  banks  of  the  Elrishna,  near  the  Poonah.  There  is  also  only  one 
temple  dedicated  to  Mayava.  It  is  near  the  Krishna,  at  a  place  named 
Chinsuli.  Once  in  ten  years,  every  man  of  the  caste  ought  to  go  to  these 
two  temples ;  but  a  great  many  do  not  find  leisure  for  the  performance 
of  this  duty.  These  deities  do  not  receive  bloody  sacrifices,  but  are  worship- 
ped by  offerings  of  fruit  and  flowers.  The  priests  {Fujaris)  at  both  these 
temples  are  Curubaru,  and,  as  the  ofi&ce  is  hereditary,  they  of  course  marry. . 
Besides  the  worship  of  the  deities  proper  to  the  caste,  the  Curubaa  offer 
sacrifices  to  some  of  the  destructive  spirits,  such  as  Burgawa,  Jacani,  and 
Barama  Deva.  .  .  The  Curuiaru  have  no  trouble  from  Pysaehi ;  and  ordinary 
Butas,  or  devils,  they  believe,  are  expelled  by  prayer  addressed  to  the  deities 
of  the  caste.  At  Sujiny,  in  the  Harapunya-huUy  district,  resides  Ravana 
Siddheswara,  the  Guru  of  this  caste."  In  bis  description  of  Malabar, 
Buchanan  speaks  in  vol.  II.,  pp.  156—158  of  the  Curumbalum  or  Catalun 
in  Kurumbaranadu  :  ' '  Another  caste  of  Malayala,  condi5mned  to  slavery, 
is  called  in  the  singular  Catal  or  Gurumhal,  and  in  the  plural  Catalam  rsi 
Curiimbalmi.  They  reckon  themselves  higher  than  the  Churman,  Polian, 
or  Parian.  The  deity  is  worshipped  by  this  caste  under  the  name  of 
Malayadevan,  or  the  god  of  the  hill,  and  is  represented  by  a  stone  placed  on 
a  heap  of  pebbles.  This  place  of  worship  is  on  a  hill,  named  Turuta  Malwy, 
near  Sivapurata,  in  Gurumbara  Nada.  To  this  place  the  Catalun  annually 
go,  and  offer  their  prayers,  coco-nuts,  spirituous  liquors,  and  such  like,  but 
make  no  sacrifices,  nor  have  they  any  kind  of  priest.  They  pray  chiefly 
for  their  own  worldly  happiness,  and  for  that  of  their  relations.  The  spirits 
of  good  men  after  death  are  supposed  to  have  the  power  of  inflicting  disease, 
and  are  appeased  by  offerings  of  distilled  and  fermented  liquors,  which  the 
votary  drinks  after  he  has  called  upon  the  spirit  to  take  such  part  of  them 


Kiirumbas  live  particularly  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  hills 
in  their  middle  belts,  while  the  ]Vaya  or  Nayaka  Kurumbas 
inhabit  generally  the  lower  slopes  of  this  range  as  well  as  of 
the  Wynaad.  It  appears  that  the  latter  are  identical  with 
those  who  are  elsewhere  called  Jenu  Kurumbas,  or  Honey 
Kurumbas,  because  they  gather  honey  for  their  own  use  as 
well  as  for  sale.  These  Jenu  Kurumbas  are  also  found  in 

About  the  Kurumbas  of  the  Nilagiri-Mountain-rdnge, 
we  are  favoured  with  various  pretty  accurate  accounts. 
Among  these  deserve  special  mention  the  writings  of  the  late 
Bev.  Ferdinand  Metz  ^"^  of  the  Basel  Lutheran  Mission,  who 

as  ■will  pacify  his  resentment.  The  dead  bodies  of  good  men  are  burned,  but 
those  of  bad  men,  in  order  to  confine  their  spirits,  are  buried  ;  for,  if  they 
escape,  they  are  supposed  to  occasion  great  trouble.  It  is  not  customar}', 
howeTer,  to  make  any  ofierings  to  these  evil  spirits.  This  caste  has  no 
hereditary  chiefs  ;  but  disputes  are  settled  by  the  elders  who  never  inflict  a 
severer  punishment  than  a  mulct  of  some  Betel-leaf.  .  The  tradition  here 
is,  that  Cheruman  Permal  divided  the  whole  of  Malayala  among  four  families, 
who  were  called  Rajas,  but  whose  dominions  were  afterwards  subdivided 
amongst  innumerable  petty  chiefs,  and  younger  branches  of  the  original 
families.  These  four  families,  however,  always  maintained  a  superiority 
of  rank,  which  they  at  this  day  retain.  Thej  are,  the  Coluta-nada  Raja, 
commonly  called  Cherical;  the  Venatra,  or  Rdjd  of  Travancore  ;  the  Ferum- 
hunipa,  or  Coehi  Ritjd,  and  the  Eniada,  or  Tamuri.  The  dominions  of  the 
latter  were  originally  very  small.  The  same  story  concerning  them  is  told 
here  {Pyiir  or  Eivurmalay)  that  was  related  at  Calicut.  In  process  of  time 
the  Ciinimhara  family,  who  seem  to  have  been  a  branch  descended  from  the 
Cochi  Rdjds,  seized  on  a  part  of  Coluta-nada,  which  included  all  the  northern 
parts  of  Malayali.  Among  other  usurpations,  this  family  seized  on  Eivurmalay, 
of  which  they  were  afterwards  stript  by  the  ancestors  of  the  three  Wau- 
namar.  Another  Kshatriya  family  called  ftiteyAwMi/ (Co<io^«),  who  seem  to 
have  been  descended  from  a  younger  sister  of  the  Curmnbara  Rdjds,  seized 
on  another  portion  of  Coluta-nada  lying  between  TelUcherry  and  the  Ghats. 
The  Curumiara  Nada  Raids  became  extinct  in  the  Malabar  year  954  (1778- 
1779),  five  years  after  Syder  invaded  the  country." 

About  the  Kurumbas  of  Southern  India  consult  also  Abbe  Dubois'  De- 
scription of  the  People  of  India,  second  edition,  p.  342,  and  the  Manual  of 
Madura  by  Mr.  J.  H.  Nelson,  Part  II,  pp.  64,  65. 

"•*  Compare  Rev.  F.  Metz  The  Tribes  inhabitiny  the  Seilyhm-ry  Hills, 
pp.  115-126;  "The  Todas  divide  the  Kurumbas  into  three  classes— The 
MuUu  Kurumbas,  the  Naya  Kurumbas,  and  the  Panias.  The  two  latter  live 
in  the  Wynaad.  The  Panias  are  not  looked  upon  as  sorcerers,  as  are  the  other 
two  classes,  and  are  chiefly  employed  as  the  laborers  of  the  Badagas  who 


spent  the  best  part  of  his  life  in  intimate  intercourse  with 
the  hill-tribes,  among  whom  he  commanded  the  highest 
respect  for  the  genuine  kindness  he  showed  to  them  and  the 
utter  vinselfishness  he  displayed  towards  the  amelioration  of 
their  position.  Yery  valuable  information  is  also  contained 
in  the  writings  of  the  late  Colonel  Ouchterlony,  in  the 
Account  of  the  late  Mr.  J.  Wilkinson  Breeks,  Commissioner  of 

have  settled  in  the  Wynaad.  Each  Badaga  district  has  its  own  Kurumha 
priest,  who  comes  up  at  the  ploughing  season,  and  sows  the  first  handful  of 
grain  ;  and  at  harvest  time  also  before  the  sickle  is  put  to  the  crop.  And 
if  a  standing  crop  should  at  any  time  he  attacked  hy  insects,  he  is  sent  for, 
and  has  to  go  through  the  ceremony  of  lowing  like  a  caU,  which  the 
Badagas  helieve  has  the  effect  of  killing  the  insect.  .  The  Mullu  and  Naya 
Kurumbas  are  believed  to  possess  the  power  of  killing  men  by  sorcery,  and  so 
greatly  are  they  feared  that,  if  a  Badaga  meet  a  Kurumba  in  a  jungle  alone, 
death  from  sheer  terror  is  not  unfrequently  the  consequence.  .  .  The  cairns 
and  cromlechs  found  in  various  parts  of  the  hills,  .  .  were,  I  think,  pro- 
bably the  work  of  the  ancestors  of  the  Kurumbas.  .  .  During  the  1 3  years  that 
I  have  labored  amongst  and  mixed  with  the  hiU-tribes,  1  have  never  found  the 
Todas  in  any  way  interested  in  the  cairns,  whilst  the  fact  of  their  making  no 
objections  to  their  being  opened,  taken  in  connection  with  the  circumstance  of 
the  contents  frequently  consisting  of  parts  of  plough-shares,  sickles,  and  other 
implements  of  husbandry,  showing  that  the  cairns  were  constructed  by  an 
agricultural  race  which  the  Todas  never  were,  are  to  me  convincing  proofs 
that  they  are  not  the  work  of  the  Todas  of  a  past  generation.  The  Badagas 
and  Kotas,  on  the  other  hand,  are  to  a,  certain  degree  afraid  to  approach 
them  .  .  I  was  once  on  a  preaching  excursion  in  a  district  near  the  southern 
boundary  of  the  hills,  and  not  very  far  from  the  principal  Kurmnba  village, 
called  MuUi,  and  after  the  labors  of  the  day  felt  a  curiosity  to  open  a  cairn 
which  happened  to  be  in  the  neighbourhood.  Much  to  my  surprise  however 
the  Badaga  headmen  present  would  not  permit  me  to  do  so,  not  on  account  of 
any  objections  they  had  themselves  to  make,  but  because,  as  they  said,  it  was 
the  residence  of  the  god  of  the  Kurumbas,  who  came  up  frequently  from 
Mulli  in  order  to  worship  the  god  of  their  forefathers.  This  is  the  only 
occasion  on  which  I  have  ever  known  any  of  the  bill  tribes  venerate  a  cairn, 
as  the  depository  of  the  ashes  of  a  deceased  ancestor  ;  but,  viewed  in  connec- 
tion with  what  I  have  already  stated,  I  think  it  is  sufficient  to  justify  the 
supposition  that  the  Kurumbas  of  old,  when  masters  of  the  tableland  may 
have  constructed  these  remarkable  cemeteries  ;  and  this  consideration  is  fur- 
ther borne  out  by  the  fact  that  the  common  tradition  among  Todas,  Badagas, 
and  Kotas,  is  that  they  are  the  graves  of  a  very  wicked  race  of  people,  who, 
though  diminutive  in  stature,  were  at  the  same  time  powerful  enough  to 
raise  the  large  blocks  of  granite  of  which  the  walls  of  Hoolicaldroog  are  built ; 
and  that  God  drove  them  from  the  hills  on  account  of  their  wickedness — a 
■description  which  would  well  apply  to  the  case  of  the  Kurumbas,  who,  in 
addition  to  being  feared  and  detested,  are  as  a  race  much  stunted  in  their 


the  Nilagiris,  in  the  reports  of  Deputy-Surgeon-General 
Dr.  John  Shortt,  and  in  the  exhaustive  and  valuable  Manual 
of  the  Nllagiri  District  compiled  by  Mr.  H.  B.  Grigg,  late 
Assistant  Commissioner  of  the  Nilagiris."'' 

growth.  The  cromlechs  were  doubtless  the  work  of  the  same  people  as  the 
cairns.  .  The  Kurumhas  call  their  deity  Kuribattaraya,  meaning,  Lord  or 
possessor  of  sheep  and  to  him  they  now  and  then  sacrifice  a  goat  or  a  fowl." 

""  Compare  Dr.  Shortt' s  Article  on  the  Kurumbas  in  the  Hill  Ranges  of 
Southern  India,  Parti,  pp.  47-53  :  "  Kurumbas — From  ©  JJ'iil-/  (Kurmnboo) 
mischief,  the  characteristic  of  a  class  of  savages  who  are  supposed  to  be  the 
aborigines  of  Southern  India,  from  which  the  term  Kurumba  is  derived.  A 
tribe,  who  call  themselves,  and  are  recognized  as  Kurumbas,  having  three 
sub-divisions  among  them,  viz.  : — 1.  MuUu  Kurumba.  2.  Naya  Kurmnba. 
3.  Panias  Kuramba. . .  The  Mullu  Kurumbas  chiefly  occupy  the  middle  belts  of 
these  hiUs,  while  the  other  two  divisions  are  confined  to  the  lower  slopes,  or 
are  inhabitants  of  the  Wynaad  jungles,  but  the  tribe  generally  is  recognized 
as  mountaineers.  .  The  Kurumba  tribe  are  small  in  stature,  and  have  a  squalid 
and  somewhat  uncouth  appearance  from  their  peculiar  physiognomy,  wild 
matted  hair,  and  almost  nude  bodies.  .  They  are  as  a  body  sickly- looking, 
pot-bellied,  large -mouthed,  prognathous,  with  prominent  out-standing  teeth 
and  thick  lips— frequently  saliva  dribbles  away  from  their  mouths.  . .  The 
men  show  great  agility  in  climbing  and  descending  hills,  trees,  &c.  The 
women  have  much  the  same  features  as  the  men,  only  somewhat  softened  in 
expression,  and  slightly  modified  in  feature,  with  a  small  pug  nose,  and  surly 
aspect.  .  Their  villages  are  termed  Motta.  .  They  have  no  furniture.  .  They 
have  no  marriage  ceremony. .  Those  Kurumbas  who  live  on  the  Hills  ofiiciate 
as  priests  to  the  liadagas.  .  The  Badaga  will  do  nothing  without  the  presence 
of  a  Kurumba,  so  that  each  district  has  its  own  Kurumba  priest.  .  He  is 
supposed  to  be  well  versed  in  the  use  of  herbs,  and  prescribes  for  all  ailments; 
implicit  confidence  is  placed  in  his  skill,  and  he  is  remunerated  either  in 
money  or  grain,  and  sometimes  both.  The  Kurumbas  also  oificiate  as  priests 
at  their  marriages  and  deaths.  .  .  The  Kurumbas,  as  a  body,  keep  the  other 
tribes  in  great  dread  of  witchcraft,  not  even  excepting  the  Todas,  who  look 
upon  the  Kurumbas  as  great  adepts  in  the  power  and  skill  of  bewitching  or 
destroying  men,  animals,  or  other  property.  .  .  The  Kurumbas  are  also 
employed  as  musicians  by  the  Toda  and  Badaga  tribes  on  all  ceremonial  and 
festive  occasions  ;  they  play  on  the  flute  and  tom-tom  very  dexterously  to 
the  admiration  of  the  Todas  and  Badagas.  .  They  withstand  the  endemic 
diseases  of  the  locality  pretty  well,  and  are  not  subject  to  fever.  .  They 
hold  some  crude  notions  of  a  superior  being,  whom  they  designate  under  a 
variety  of  names,  with  no  distinct  idea  as  to  who  or  what  he  is.  .  The 
Kurumbas  are  superstitious,  and  while  they  keep  all  the  other  tribes  on  these 
Hills  in  awe,  they  themselves  fear  the  Todas,  believing  that  they  possess 
supernatural  powers  over  them.  They  are  said  to  hold  in  respect,  and  make 
offerings  at,  the  different  cairns  and  cromlechs  met  with  on  these  HiUs,  and 
from  which  it  is  believed  that  these  cairns  and  cromlechs  are  the  work  of 
their  ancestors.    Against  this,  their  weak  and  dwarfed  stature  is  brought 


So  far  as  the  Kurumbas  of  Kurg  are  concerned,  we  are 
mainly  indebted  to  the  Rev.  G.  Eichter  who  wrote  an  Ethno- 

forward  as  an  objection,  as  most  of  these  cairns  and  cromlechs  are  built  of 
huge  stones,  such  as  it  is  believed  the  Kurumba  tribe  could  not  move  in  the 
absence  of  suitable  appliances.  .  .  Some  of  the  Todas  do  attribute  the  cairns 
and  cromlechs  to  the  Kurumbas.' ' 

Consult  further  the  late  Mr.  James  Wilkinson  Breeks'  Account  of  the 
Primitive  Tribes  and  Monuments  of  the  Nllagiris^-^^.  48-66:  "In  the  Tabu- 
lated Census  Returns  they  are  entered  under  the  following  castes  or  divi- 
sions : — Eda  Kurumban,Karmadiya  Kurumban,  Kurumban,  KurumbanOkki- 
liyan,  Male  Kurumban,  Pal  Kurumban.  .  They  generally,  however,  say  they 
have  no  caste,  but  are  divided  into  higas  or  families,  which  do  not  intermarry. 
It  is  difficult  to  get  a  complete  account  of  the  tribal  divisions  recognised  by 
them.  One  man  will  name  you  one  (his  own) ;  another  two  divisions ; 
another   three,  and  so  on.     The  headman  of  the  village  enumerated  four  • — 

1.  Betta  Kiiriimias   who  live    on  the  slopes,   and  near  the  Mysore  ditch. 

2.  Kambale  Kurumbas,  who  make  blankets  (cambly),  and  live  in  the  low 
country,  in  the  Konguru  (Coimbatore).  3.  MuUii  Kurumbas  (he  did  not  know 
where  they  lived).  4.  Anda  XH)'!(mias,  who,  like  himself,  live  on  the  eastern 
slopes.  Pal  Kurumbas  are  also  vaguely  mentioned  sometimes.  ^  ISome  Kurum- 
bas whom  I  have  met  with,  profess,  in  answer  to  inquiries,  to  worship  Siva, 
and  occasionally  women  mark  their  forehead  with  the  Saiva  spot.  Others, 
living  near  Barliar, worship  Kuribattraya  (lord  of  many  sheep),  and  the  wife 
of  Siva  under  the  name  of  Musni.  They  worship  also  a  rough  round  ston& 
under  the  name  of  Hiriadeva,  setting  it  up  either  in  a  cave  or  in  a  circle  of 
stones  like  the  so-called  '  Kurumba  Kovil '  of  the  Badagas,  which  the  latter 
seem  to  have  borrowed  from  the  Kurumbas.  .  They  do  not  consider  the  stone 
as  a  lingam,  although  they  profess  to  be  Saivites.  .  Each  Badaga  Grama, 
with  its  group  of  villages,  keeps  a  Kurumba  priest  called  Edni  Eunimba. .  The 
office  is  hereditary.  In  April  and  May,  before  sowing  time,  a  goat  or  young 
male  builalo  is  supplied  by  the  cultivators,  and  the  Kani  Kurumba  is  sum- 
moned to  make  the  sacrifice.  Surrounded  by  the  villagers,  the  officiating 
priest  cuts  oS  the  head  of  the  animal,  and  sprinkles  the  blood  in  three  direc- 
tions, east,  west,  and  south,  and  also  on  a  water-worn  stone,  which  is  con- 
sidered as  a  "  Hutu  (natural)  lingam."  No  words  are  spoken,  but  after 
the  sprinkling,  the  Kiurumba  clasps  his  hands  behind  his  head,  shouting  Do, 
Do,  So,  three  times  and  bows  the  head  to  '  Mother  Earth.'  The  priest  gets 
the  head,  and  the  Badagas  the  body,  of  the  goat,  which  is  taken  home  and 
eaten.  In  the  Jakaneri  Grama  this  ceremony  is  performed  at  the  cromlech ; 
in  Tenad,  at  a  rude  circle  of  stone  surrounding  a  water-worn  stone  for  a 
lingam.  They  call  the  place  the  '  Kurumba  Kovil '  (Kurumba  Church)...  The 
Kurumbas  near  Rangaswami's  Peak  told  me  that  some  Kurumbas  buried 
their  dead,  but  that  they  themselves  burned  theirs,  and  that  the  nearest  rela- 
tives next  day  took  some  boiled  rice  in  a  cloth  and  a  small  round  stone,  and 
perhaps  a  bone  from  the  funeral  pile,  and  deposited  them  for  the  dead  in  the 
Sdvumane  (death-house)  belonging  to  the  Motta.  At  Barliar  they  do  the  same. 
These  Sdvumanes  are  small  cromlechs  of  three  upright  stones  and  a  covering 
slab  ;  they  said  they  did  not  now  make  them,  but  that  they  used  those  made 
by  their  forefathers.  .      They  knew  of  no  god  peculiar  to  the  Kurumbas,  nor 



graphical  Cotnpendnm  .  .  of  Coorg  ;  but  the  Gazetteer  of  Mysore 
and  Coorg  by  Mr.  Lewis  Eice  should  also  be  consulted. i"* 

had  they  any  temple,  but  at  a  certain  season  they  took  offerings  of  plantains 
to  the  Pujdri  (a  Tamil  man)  who  attended  on  Maleswara  (lord  of  the  moun- 
tain), the  god  who  lived  on  a  hill  known  by  that  name." — I  take  the  Jida  to 
he  the  Idaiya  Kurumha. 

Compare  with  these  extracts  Colonel  Ouchterlony's  Geographical  and 
Statistical  Memoir  .  .  of  the  Neilghei-ri/  Mountains,  pp.  62,  63  in  Dr.  Shortt's 
Bill  Ranges,  Part  I,  and  Mr.  H.  B.  (jrigg'a  Chapter  on  the  Kurumbas  in  his 
Manual  of  the  Nllagiri  District,  pp.  208-217. 

'"'*  About  the  Kurumbas  of  Kurg  consult  Rev.  G.  Kichter's  Etltnographieal 
Compendium  .  . .  of  Coorg,  pp.  H-l.^.  "  The  Kurumbas  of  Coorg  are  closely 
connected  with  those  of  the  jungles  of  South-Mysore  and  with  the  Kurumbas 
of  the  Nilgiries,  .  .  but  there  is  now  no  intercourse  between  them,  nor  have 
they  any  connexion  with  the  shepherd  caste  of  Mj-sore,  the  Kurubas  who  live 
in  the  open  country  in  mixed  villages  and  tend  cattle,  sheep  and  swine  and 
also  weave  cumblies,  whence  they  are  called  Ualu-,  Ktiri,  Sandi-  and  Cambli 
Kurubas.  The  Kuriiinhas  in  Coorg  are  divided  into  two  distinct  sections, 
the  Jenu  and  the  Betta  Kurumbas.  The  Jenu  Kurumbas  are  foimd  in  the  north 
and  south-east  of  Coorg  scattered  in  the  jungles.  They  have  no  fixed 
abode  but  wander  about  from  place  to  place  in  search  of  honey,  hence  their 
name,  Jeiiu  meaning  honey  in  Kanarese. .  In  appearance  the  Jenu  Kurumbas 
are  not  unlike  the  Betta  Kurumbas  ;  but  the  men  do  not  tie  their  hair  in  a 
knot,  and  from  carelessness  it  often  gets  matted.  .  The  women  who  dress  like 
the  Canarese  Vokkaligas  tie  their  rather  curly  hair  into  a  knot  at  the  back  of 
the  head.  Those  I  saw  had  regular  features  and  might  have  been  taken  for 
Vohlcaligas.  Also  in  their  wedding  ceremonies  they  conform  to  those  of  the 
Vokkaligas,  but  worship  Kari  Kali  at  Kutta  like  the  Coorgs.  .  .  The  name 
Bella  or  Kadti  Kurumbas  is  derived  from  their  abode.  .  A  short  flat  nose,  which 
in  the  women  is  turned  up  with  deep  indentation  at  the  root,  prominent  lips, 
small  dark  deep-set  eyes  do  not  enhance  the  personal  attractiveness  of  the 
Betta  Kurumba,  jet  he  is  a  harmless  good-humoured  fellow  and  industrious 
at  his  work  as  long  as  it  pleases  him.  He  loves  above  all  things  personal 
freedom  and  independence  and  is  quite  in  is  native  element  when  roaming 
about  on  a  hunting  expedition  as  tracker  of  large  game.  .  .  In  their  religious 
practices  they  are  devoted  to  demon  worship  and  once  within  three  years  they 
bring  the  usual  offering  (Kanike)  of  money,  fowl,  cocoanut  and  plantains  to 
Kiiltiulamma  or  Karinkali  (Black  Kali)  at  Kurchi  near  the  south-east  frontier 
of  Coorg.  The  eatables  are  shared  between  the  pujari  who  is  a  Vokkaliga, 
and  the  devotee.  At  the  Kutludamma  ./atri  (March-April)  the  &■<<«  Kurum- 
bas perform  a  dance  accompanied  by  drum  and  gong ;  they  also  wear  small 
round  bells  igejje)  below  the  knee  and  in  a  stooping  posture  with  outstretched 
arms  and  clenched  fists  they  vigorously  move  round.  They  do  not  venerate 
snakes,  but  kill  them,  nor  do  they  apply  Vibhuti  or  sacred  ashes.  The 
Betta  Kurumbas  are  divided  into  two  sections  or  gotras,  the  Mundpudi,  literally 
families  belonging  to  three  hamlets,  and  the  Yelpadi  or  families  belonging 
to  seven  hamlets,  and  as  among  the  higher  castes  of  Hindus,  members  of 
the  same  gotra,  do  not  intermarry  .  . .  Their  principal  Bhutas  are  Ajja  and 
Kuda.  .  -  In  case  of  sickness  what  remedies  are  known  to  the  elders  are 
applied  and  vows  made  to  the  demon,  Kuttadamma,  and  fulfilled  on  recovery. 


According  to  their  rank  the  first  to  be  considered  are 
the  Anda  Kurumbas  who  superintend  the  administration. 
Next  follow  the  Kurumba  Okhaligas  or  agricultural  Kurum- 
bas whom  we  find  mentioned  in  the  Nilagiri  Census  Eeport. 
Though  the  number  assigned  to  them  is  very  insignificant, 
the  circumstance  of  their  being  reported  at  all  is  highly- 
interesting,  for  it  supplies  a  link  to  connect  them  with  a 
respectable  and  influential  class  of  people  in  Mysore,  the 
well-known  Okkaligaru.  Okkalu,  pronounced  Vokkalu,  signi- 
fies in  Kanarese  '  tenancy,'  okkalatana,  husbandry,  and 
okkaliga,  a  farmer  or  cultivator.  Dr.  Buchanan  calls  this 
caste,  which  is  very  numerous  in  Mysore,  also  Cunabis. 
These  I  shall  eventually  identify  with  the  Kunbis,  Kumbis 
(Kurmis)  or  Kudumbis,  the  agricultural  class  to  which 
Sivaji,  the  great  Maratha  chieftain  belonged  who  with  his 
Kudumbis  of  Kudumba  or  Kurumba  extraction  effected  such 
a  change  in  the  political  aspect  of  India,  some  two  hundred 
years  ago.  The  sentence  in  the  text  of  Buchanan  leaves  it 
doubtful,  whether  he  referred  to  the  Cunabis  as  an  ethno- 
logical or  professional  distinction.  Not  all,  perhaps  not  even 
the  majority  of  the  Okkaligas  of  Mysore  are  of  Kurumba 
origin.  With  the  exception  of  the  abovementioned  Ganga- 
dikaras  and  the  Nonaba  Okkaligas,  the  others  appear  to  have 
been  later  settlers  in  Mysore.  Their  name  implies  only  an 
occupation,  but  it  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  many  Okkaligas, 
who  do  not  cultivate  the  soil  are  engaged  in  similar  pursuits 
such  as  the  Kurumbas  embrace.  Both  tribes  for  instance 
have  a  predilection  for  a  military  life,  and,  what  is  more  sug- 
gestive still,  both  commimities  are  under  the  same  Gurus,  or 
spiritual  superiors,  the  chief  of  whom  resides  at  Kadgundi  in 

Their  dead  are  buried,  the  corpse  being  placed  sideways  with  the  head  to 
the  west.  A  widow  may  he  remarried  to  a  relative  of  the  deceased  husband, 
but  not  to  a  stranger  .  .  Of  the  Mysore  and  Nilgiri  Kurumbas  it  is  said  that 
they  eat  the  flesh  of  the  cow,  but  those  in  Coorg  abhor  it." 

The  EcT.  G.  Eichter  is,  according  to  my  opinion  (seep.  217),  mistaken 
in  his  tribal  distinction  between  the  Kurumbas  and  the  Kurubas. 


Bara-mahal.  The  Piijari  of  the  Betta  Kurumbas  in  Kurg 
is  also  an  Okkaliga.  The  last  Census  Report  fixes  their 
number  at  711,622  souls.  The  Mysore  Okkaligas  have  some 
peculiar  customs,  not  the  least  extraordinary  among  them 
being  that  which  prevails  among  the  women  of  the  Morasa 
Okkaligas,  who  cut  off  the  ring  and  little  fingers  of  their  right 
hand,  before  they  celebrate  the  marriage  of  their  eldest 

The  shepherds  are  known  as  Kurmnha  Idaiyas,  Kurumba 
Gollas,  occasionally  also  as  Kuri  Kurumbas  and  even  as 
Sands  Kvrumbas.  Others  keep  pigs,  this  do  the  widely- 
spread  Handi-Kurvmbas,  who  must  not  be  confounded  with 
the  Hande  Kurumbas ;  the  Pal  or  Hal  Kurumbas  sell  milk ;  the 
Kainlali  Kurumbas  weave  and  sell  woollen  blankets,  which 
they  themselves  wear  in  a  peculiar  fashion ;  and  the  Cunndmbu 
Kurumbas  prepare  and  sell  lime.  The  Kurumba  Vedas  or 
hunting  Kurumbas  are  well  known  in  the  Tamil  country,'!" 
while  the  Ane  Kurumbas  seem  to  have  obtained  their  name 
from  their  cleverness  in  way-laying  and  hunting  elephants. 
The  KaUa-Kurumbas  lived  not  so  long  ago  an  easy  life  as 
thieves  and  robbers.  Most  likely  they  formed  part  of  the 
warrior  class  and  took  to  marauding  in  times  of  peace  for 
want  of  other  occupation,  and  in  order  to  support  them- 

"»  See  Dr.  Buchanan's  Travels,  vol.  I,  pp.  180,  181  :  "  The  fluddi  are 
one  of  the  tribes  of  Sudra  caste,  which  being  much  employed  in  agriculture 
are  called  Woculigaru  in  the  language  of  Karnata,  and  Cunabi  in  that  of  the 
Decany  Mussulmans. . .  They  are  divided  into  two  sects  by  a  difierence  of 
religion;  one  party  worshipping  Vishmi,  and  the  other  Siva;  but  this  does 
not  prevent  intermarriages.  Those  who  worship  Siva  are  followers  of  a  kind 
of  Jaiigama-< ;  but  do  not  wear  the  Linga.  The  people  with  whom  I  con- 
versed seemed  to  consider  them  as  the  same  with  the  Jangamas  of  the 
Pancham  Banijigas,  but  this  caste  informed  me,  that  they  were  distinct,  and 
that  the  Gurus  of  the  Rtiddi  were  the  same  with  those  of  the  Curubaru, 
whose  chief  resides  at  Cangundy  in  the  Bara-mahal."  Compare  Mr.  L. 
Eice's  Mysore  and  Coorg,  vol.  I,  pp.  337,  338,  340,  vol.  Ill,  pp  208,  209,  also 
the  Ethnological  Compendium  of  the  Rev.  G.  Richter,  p.  13,  and  pp.  260-264. 

""  See  Mackenzie  Collection,  No.  11,  CM.  765,  Sect.,  new  copy,  vol.  Ill, 
p.  298,  where  the  Anda,  Idaiya,  Kamtali,  Cunndmbu  and  Veda-Kurumbas  are 
mentioned,  and  also  No.  14,  CM.  768,  Section  VII. 

OF    BHARATAVAE8A    OR    INDIA.  233 

selves.  The  oiroumstances,  however,  are  now  changed,  and 
the  Kallas  in  Pudukota  are  no  longer  the  dread  of  their 

Among  the  Kurumbas  of  the  Mandayam  Taluk  are  found 
the  following  nine  divisions  :  the  Pal,  Hande,  Mullu,  Kambali, 
Sdda,  Javndii,  Somavdra,  Bestvdra  and  Adifyavdra  Kurumhas. 
These  last  three  designations  appear  like  nick-names,  for 
they  are  peculiarly  enough  names  of  days  of  the  week. 

Besides  these  there  are  mentioned  the  Kurumbas,  whose 
name  Buchanan  connects  with  koUi,  fire,  but  whom  others 
call  Kdli-Kurubas  or  Kalle-Kurubas-  after  the  Goddess  Kali. 
The  JYelli  Kurumbas  (?) ;  the  Asil  Kurumbas  (?  from  asal, 
pure) ;  the  Koti  Kurumbas  (?  perhaps  from  koti,  monkey)  ; 
the  Sdmanta  Kurumbas  (?  connected  with  the  Sanskrit  word 
sdmanta  in  the  meaning  of  chief)  ;  the  Murhindina  Kurumbas 
(?  of  three  groups),  whose  name  reminds  one  of  the  Mund- 
padi  and  Yelpadi  sections  of  the  Betta  Kurumbas  in  Kurg, 
who  belong  to  three  or  to  seven  hamlets,  according  to  Rev. 
Gr.  Erichter's  Compendium,  p.  13.  It  is  very  doubtful  whether 
the  Pania  Kurumbas,  who  inhabit  the  Nilagiri  mountains 
and  whom  Eev.  F.  Metz  counts  among  the  Kurumbas, 
should  be  regarded  as  Kurumbas.  The  other  Kurumbas  do 
not  treat  them  at  all  like  relations  ;  nor  do  they,  and  this  is 
a  point  of  importance,  inspire  the  other  native  tribes  with 
that  superstitious  fear,  which  renders  the  Mullu  and  Ndyaka 
Kurumhas  so  terrible.  They  also  do  not  resemble  the  other 
Kurumbas  in  their  outward  appearance.  Their  abject 
state  of  servitude  (hence  their  name  pania,  from  pani,  work) 
would  not  absolutely  militate  against  their  being  Kurumbas, 
though  these  people  have  generally  contrived  to  maintain  a 
certain  amount  of  freedom,  for  the  Curumbalun  or  Catalun 
of  the  Kuxumbaranadu  in  Malabar  were,  according  to  Dr. 
Buchanan's  description,  held  in  slavery.'" 

The  Kurumbas  are  said  to  belong  to  the  Havyaka  Grotra, 

1"  See  note  105  on  pp.  225,  226. 


and  to  the  Renuka  or  Bevam  Sutra.  According  to  legendary 
report  the  Kurumbas  form  the  offspring  of  the  family  of 
Unne,  this  being  a  tadbhavam  of  iTrnS,  sheep-wool.  Their 
connection  with  the  sheep  is  traced  to  a  curse  of  the 
celestial  buffoon  Bhrhgi,  who,  being  dissatisfied  with  the  Pra- 
mathas,  the  attendants  of  Siva,  is  said  to  have  cursed  and 
turned  them  into  sheep  ;  saying  : 

Pramatha  Bhrngi&apena  kavayo'pyavayo'hhavan. 

This  curse  was  eventually  removed  by  fi.enuk:aradhya  or 
Revanasiddha,  an  incarnation  of  a  servant  of  Siva,  and  the 
high-priest  of  the  Lingayats. 

Some  of  the  Kurumba  hill-tribes  have  been  reduced  by 
the  hard  life  they  lead  to  a  dwarfish  and  monkey -like  ap- 
pearance, but  that  this  exterior  is  to  a  great  degree  due  to 
these  unfavorable  circumstances  and  that  it  improves  under 
better  conditions  is  exemplified  by  the  following  statement 
of  Dr.  Shortt :  "  Whilst  the  appearance  of  this  tribe  is  so 
"  uncouth  and  forbidding  in  their  own  forest  glens,  they  are 
"  open  to  wonderful  improvement  by  regular  work,  exercisCj 
"  and  food ;  of  this  ample  evidence  is  to  be  seen  at  the  Gov- 
"  ernment  Chinchona  Plantations  at  Neddiwuttum,  where  a 
"  gang  of  Kurumbas,  comprising  some  twenty  individuals, 
"  are  employed  as  laborers,  receiving  their  wages  in  grain 
"  for  the  most  part.  They  appear  to  give  saliisfaction  to  their 
"  employers,  and  in  their  general  appearance  they  cannot 
"  be  recognized  from  other  natives,  except  perhaps  by  that 
"  peculiar  physiognomy  characteristic  to  the  tribe  and  their 
"  somewhat  slight  conformation  and  dwarfed  stature.  They 
"  have  not  the  pot-belly,  do  not  gape,  nor  is  the  dribbling 
"  saliva  or  blood -shot  eyes,  common  to  their  brethren  of  the 
"  jungles  to  be  found  among  them."  ^'^ 

"^  Read  Dr.  Shortt's  The  Sill  Ranges  of  Southern  Inrlia,  Part  I,  pp.  52,  .53. 
Compare  also  Mr.W.  F.  Sinclair's  '  Remark'  in  the  Indian  Antiquary  (1877), 
vol.  VI,  p.  230  :  "  In  the  Kaladgi  district  the  Shepherd  caste  are  called 
Kurubhars.. .,     What  ia  the  meaning  and  derivation  of  Eurubhar,  and  is  it 

or    BHARATAVARSA    OR    INDIA.  235 

On  their  rkligion,  manners  and  customs. 

According  to  the  most  trustworthy  native  authorities,  the 
Kitrumbas  had  originally  no  special  god,  nor  idols,  nor  any 
peculiar  religious  belief  of  their  own.  This  state  of  things 
was  eventually  changed  with  the  rise  of  proselytizing  reli- 
gions, such  as  Buddhism,  Jainism,  and  with  the  desire  of  the 
majority  to  conform  to  Hindu  or  Brahmanic  customs. 

Their  earliest  objects  of  religious  worship,  however,  appear 
to  have  been  rough  rounded  stones,  which  somehow  inspired 
them  with  a  belief  as  representing  the  great  superhuman 
powers.  The  weird  aspect  of  the  imposing  immovable  stone- 
hills,  which  braved  the  strongest  storms  amidst  ton-ents  of 
rain  and  flashes  of  lightning  impressed  most  probably  these 
children  of  nature  to  such  an  extent,  that  mountains,  rocks 
and  even  smaller  pieces  of  stones  appeared  to  them  the  most 
appropriate  representation  of  the  deity.  It  may  be  perhaps 
added,  that  such  kind  of  material  is  most  easily  set  up  and 
does  not  require  any  art  to  adjust  it.  This  stone-worship 
has  survived  among  the  Kurumbas  to  the  present  day.  A 
stone  to  which  worship  is  paid  stands  often  in  caves  or  in 
the  middle  of  circles,  likewise  formed  of  stone^  but  it 
must  not  be  regarded  as  a  Linga.  The  stone  circle  with 
its  centre-piece  is  known  among  natives  as  a  Kurumha  Kocil 
or  temple  of  the  Kurumbas.  This  stone  is  in  the  Nilagiri 
district  remembered  as  the  Hiriadeva  or  Great  God.  The 
Kurumbas  of  the  Nilagiris  offer  presents  of  plantains  to  the 
I'ujari  of  the  Malesvara  idol  on  a  high  cliff  which  overlooks 
the  Bhavani  valley,  while  those  of  Malabar  worship  simi- 
larly their  hill  god  Malayadeva.''^  Occasionally  we  meet  with 
a  stone-block  under  a  tree,  which  is  revered  as  Gurunatha. 

the  same  word  as  Kurambd,  the  name  of  Nilgiri  hill-tribe  P  The  latter,  I 
believe,  is  a  race  of  dwarfs ;  the  shepherds  here  are  a  fine  breed  of  men ; 
yet  the  difference  can  hardly  be  greater  than  that  which  exists  among  the 

"'See  pp.  225  n.  105,  229   n.  116,    Breeks'  Tribes,  pp.  52  and  55,   and 
Dr.  Buchanan's  Travels,  vol.  II,  p.  155. 


The  meaning  of  the  name  of  this  village  god  has  hitherto 
defied  identification,  but  is,  I  believe,  now  pretty  clear.  I 
think  that  Guru  stands  for  Kuru,  the  original  form  of 
Kuruva  or  Kurumba,  and  that  Grurunatha  in  Telugu  Guru- 
ndthndu  is  in  reality  identical  with  the  god  of  the  Kurus  or 

As  the  bulk  of  the  Kurumbas  are  shepherds  or  Kuri- 
hirumbas  and  as  their  property  is  represented  by  the  flocks 
of  sheep  they  possess,  their  god  is  often  called  the  Lord  or 
King  of  the  Sheep  Hill  or  Eiiri-betta-rai/a.^^* 

Like  other  nations  the  Kurumbas  also  have  repeatedly 
changed  their  religion,  and  very  many  different  beliefs  are 
prevalent  among  them.  At  an  early  age  a  considerable 
fraction  of  the  Kurumbas  adopted  the  Jaina  faith  and  became 
eventually  bigoted  adherents  of  this  sect.  It  seems  in  fact 
that  their  fanatical  efforts  to  spread  and  to  ensure  the 
general  adoption  of  this  religion  have  been  among  the  chief 
causes  of  the  collapse  of  their  power  in  the  central  districts 
of  the  Madras  Presidency,  i.e.,  in  the  country  round 
KancTpuram.  The  campaign  of  Adonda  Cola  was  specially 
undertaken  to  crush  the  threatening  supremacy  of  Jainism, 
and  the  religious  element  played  in  it  as  important  a  part 
as  the  politioal.i"  The  ascendancy  of  Saivism  was  the  most 
important  result  of  the  war,  but  Jainism  is  by  no  means 
extinct  among  the  Kurumbas.  The  Lingayats  claim  also 
a  considerable  number  of  adherents,  and  Renukdrddhya  or 
Memm  Siddhehara  is  their  high  priest  in  certain  parts  of 
Mysore,  ii''  Eenukaradhya  is  said  to  have  chosen  in  Srisaila 
the  Kurumba  leader  Padmarasa  (from  Padnia  and   Arasu, 

'"  About  Gunmdtha  see  p.  200,  and  consult  pp.  •/25  n.  105,  226  n.  106, 
and  229  n.  107,  where  the  Rev.  F.  Metz's  Kimlattarayn,  Mr.  Breeks' 
Kurihaltrdya,  and  Dr.  F.  Buchanan's  "  temple  of  Bira  which  is  situated  on 
Curi-betta,  or  the  Sheep  Hill"  are  mentioned. 

"5  See  a  petition  of  the  Jaina  of  Kumbakonam,  Cittur,  Vrddhacalam  and 
other  places  who  complained  about  their  losing  their  temples  through  Kulot- 
tunga  Cola  and  Adonda  Cola. 

"»  Rsvanasiddha  or  Keijukaradhya  is  said  to  have  resided  on  the  Kailasa 


king)  or  Padmanna  as  his  disciple  and  alienated  him  from 
Jainism.  Siva  is  revered  under  various  forms,  most  frequently 
as  Bhairava,  but  also  as  Virabhadra,  and  the  temple  of  the 
god  ^Blra  on  Curiietta'  is  most  probably  his  shrine."' 
EJuruppa  I  take  to  be  Irulappan,  the  god  of  darkness ; 
Barama  Dem  is  perhaps  Brahma  if  not  ParameSvara  ;"*  Dur- 
gawa,  Yacani  ( Fafesawe  or  more  correctly  Yaksini),  Mayava 
(Mayava)  and  Mumi  (?)  are  mentioned  as  the  deities  revered 
by  the  Kurumbas ;  and  Durga,  Mayava  and  Musni  are  wor- 
shipped as  the  wives  of  Siva.  In  Kurg  the  monster  Kuttadam- 
ma  or  KarinMU  (black  Kali)  is  revered  by  the  Kufumbas."^ 

It  seems  that  Sakti,  as  well  as  Bhuta  or  demon- worship 
exists  in  some  Kujumba  commimities,  though  the  authorities 
do  not  agree  with  respect  to  the  Bhutacult.^^" 

Rama  is  not  adored  by  the  Kurumbas,  and  Dharmardja, 
the  favorite  deity  of  the  Pallis  and  other  Dravidian  races, 
shares  the  same  fate,  which  fact  must  be  regarded  as  very 

The  Mackenzie  Collection  contains  an  interesting  descrip- 
tion of  the  manner  in  which  Virabhadra  is  worshipped  by  the 
Idaiya  Kurumbas  who  belong  to  the  Tadava  race.'^^  Vira- 
bhadra is  generally  regarded  as  an  Avatara  of  Siva,  who, 
according  to  the  Visnupurana,  proceeded  from  the  mouth 
of  Siva  to  spoil  the  sacrifice  of  Daksa,  and  who  is  described 
as  "  a  divine  being  with  a  thousand  heads,  a  thousand  eyes, 

1"  See  p.  225  n.  105,  and  Dr.  Buchanan's  Travels,  vol.  I,  pp.  275,  312, 
389  ;  vol.  II,  pp.  435,  436. 

"8  See  pp.   224,  225  n.  105,  and  Dr.  Buchanan's  Travels,  vol.  I,  p.  381 ; 

vol.  II,  p.  436. 

119  See  pp.  225  n.  105,  230  n.  108,  and  Dr.  Buchanan's  Travels,  vol. 
II  p.  436,  and  Rev.  d.  Eichter's  Ethnographical  Compendium,  p.  13. 

"»  See  pp.  225  n.  105,  230  n.  108,  and  Dr.  Buchanan's  Travels,  vol.  I, 
p.  271  ;  vol.  II,  p.  381,  and  Eev.  G.  Eichter's  Ethnogr.  Compend.,  p.  13. 

121  See  p.  222  n.  105,  and  Dr.  Buchanan's  Travels,  vol.  I,  p.  276. 

"2  See  Mackenzie  Collection,  No.  9,  CM.  763,  XII,  in  the  new  copy, 
vol.  IV,  pp.  76,  ff.,  and  Eev.  W.  Taylor's  Catalogue  Raismne,  vol.  Ill,  pp. 
368,  369. 



a  thousand  feet ;  wielding  a  thousand  clubs,  a  thousand  shafts, 
holding  the  shell,  the  discus,  the  mace,  and  bearing  a  blazing 
bow  and  battle-axe."  i^'  It  is  now,  I  believe,  impossible  to 
decide  whether  the  Virabhadra  of  the  Kurumbas  represents 
a  national,  or  is  a  Hindu  divinity.  According  to  our  MS. 
the  Kurilmbas  have  no  national  worship,  but  revere  only  one 
deity  whom  they  call  Vira,  Viralu,  or  Virabhadra.  His  feast 
is  celebrated  once  a  year,  on  new  moon  day  of  the  Tamil 
month  Tai,  or  about  January.  The  idol  is  kept  shut  up  in  a 
box  in  a  special  room  during  the  whole  remaining  time  of  the 
year.  On  the  anniversary  of  the  festival  the  box  is  reverently 
opened  and  the  idol,  which  is  made  of  brass,  is  taken  out  of  it. 
The  image  is  about  a  span  long,  and  is  placed  in  an  upright 
position  on  a  cloth  spread  over  the  floor,  after  it  has  been 
thoroughly  cleaned  with  tamarind  juice  and  weU.  washed. 
The  figure  of  the  idol  is  then  dressed  in  clothes,  and 
flowers  are  placed  on  its  head.  Incense  is  burnt  in  front  of 
it.  Some  raw  rice  is  then  cooked  with  milk  and  water  in 
a  new  earthen  pot,  and  presented  to  the  idol  on  a  plantain 
leaf.  Plantains,  betel-leaf  and  nuts,  are  besides  offered,  and 
cocoanuts  are  broken  in  its  honor.  After  the  ceremony 
is  overj  the  idol  is  carried  back  to  its  usual  place,  and  the 
people  sit  down  to  their  meals.  The  feast  lasts  three  con- 
secutive days,  but  eight  days  before  its  commencement  the 
worshippers  take  an  oil  bath,  abstain  from  all  sensual  enjoy- 
ments, prepare  their  food  in  clean  unprofaned  vessels,  do 
not  eat  flesh  but  bathe  daily.  He  who  has  observed  all  the 
prescriptions  most  conscientiously,  is  placed  in  front  of  the 
idol,  and  the  cocoanuts  are  broken  on  his  head.  The  man 
who  breaks  the  cocoanut,  keeps  it.  If  the  man's  head 
begins  to  bleed  by  the  breaking  of  the  cocoanuts,  he  is 
■suspected  of  having  committed  some  offence,  and  thus  to 
have  incurred  pollution.  He  must  bathe  again,  and  the  trial 
with  the  cocoanuts  is  repeated  a  second  time.     If  his  head 

'=3  See  H.  H.  Wason's  Tishnu  Piirana,  vol.  I,  pp.  128-132. 


should  begin  to  bleed  again,  he  is  finally  rejected  as  impure. 
Whoever  passes  the  test,  becomes  the  Pujdri  for  the  time 
being.  After  this  ceremony  the  Kurumbas  dance  together, 
beat  drums  and  blow  trumpets. 

At  the  great  festivals  in  Pudukota  the  Kurumbas  per- 
form a  similar  ceremony  in  the  presence  of  the  Maharaja, 
when  the  image  of  Vlralaksml  is  carried  in  procession  and 

Some  Kurumbas  believe  in  a  life  after  death,  while  others 
deny  a  future  existence.  They  differ  also  in  their  way  of 
disposing  of  their  dead  ;  some  burn,  others  bury  the  corpses. 
The  good,  according  to  some,  become  after  their  death, 
benevolent  spirits,  while  the  bad  assume  the  shape  of  evil 
spirits ;  and  those  who  die  unmarried  become  Virikas.  But 
it  seems  that  even  the  spirits  of  the  good  require  some 
stimulant  to  keep  them  quiet,  and  unless  they  are  appeased 
by  liquor,  in  their  anger  they  inflict  various  diseases.  Some 
bum  the  good  but  bury  the  bad,  as  the  spirits  of  the  latter 
thus  confined  in  the  ground  cannot  escape  and  make  mis- 
chief, i^* 

The  Kurumbas  have  the  peculiar  habit,  already  noticed 
when  speaking  of  the  Kaurs,^^'  of  shaving  their  heads  entirely 
when  they  have  to  attend  a  funeral  of  any  of  their  community. 
This  custom  of  the  Kurumbas  was  once  the  cause  of  a  great 
calamity.  1^^  The  Kurumbas  had  made  themselves  extremely 
unpopular  by  their  intolerance.  During  the  reign  of  the 
Kajas  of  Vijayanagara  the  Kurumba  Idaiyas  were  powerful 
in  several  other  places,  especially  in  Nerumpur,  Salapakkam 
and  other  similar  strongholds.  The  Kurumbas,  either  actuated 
by  religious  zeal  or  wishing  to  annoy  their  dependents,  tried 

"*See  pp.  222  n.  105,  223  n.  105,  225  n.  105,  226  n.  105,  and  Dr. 
Buotanan's  Trmels,  vol.  I,  pp.  275,  380,  381 ;  vol.  II,  pp.  155. 

125  See  p.  210. 

126  See  Mackenzie  Collection,  No.  II ;  CM.  765,  VII ;  compare  Eev.  W. 
Taylor's  Catalogue,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  399-400. 


to  force  the  Mudalis  and  Vellalas  to  pay  homage  to  them  by 
bowing  their  heads  respectfully  to  them.  But  these  two 
classes  refusing  to  do  it,  the  Kuiumbas  in  revenge  ill-treated 
and  oppressed  them  in  all  sorts  of  ways.  They  constructed 
for  this  purpose  very  low  entrances  at  the  various  places 
where  the  Mudalis  and  Vellalas  had  to  pass  through  gates, 
and  they  thought  that  they  would  thus  compel  these  men  to 
lower  their  heads  when  going  through  these  entrances,  and 
extract  from  them  in  this  manner  a  certain  amount  of  invo- 
luntary homage.  But  the  Mudalis  and  Vellalas  of  Nerumpur 
were  quite  equal  to  the  occasion,  and  instead  of  bowing  their 
heads,  they  scrambled  through  with  their  legs  foremost,  so 
that  they  added  injury  to  insult ;  and  the  Kurumbas  became 
only  more  exacting.  At  last  the  Vellalas  could  stand  this 
treatment  no  longer  and  determined  to  get  rid  of  their 
oppressors.  For  this  purpose  they  had  recourse  to  a  leading 
barber,  whom  they  induced  by  liberal  promises  of  gifts  of 
land  to  devise  a  scheme  to  help  them,  and  this  man  persuaded 
his  fellow-barbers  to  kill  the  Kurumbas  when  an  opportunity 
occurred.  He  founded  his  plot  on  the  above-mentioned 
custom,  according  to  which  all  the  Kurumbas  who  attend  a 
funeral  shave  their  heads.  About  this  time  a  prominent 
personage  among  the  Kurumbas  died,  and  the  Mudalis 
and  Vellalas  availed  themselves  of  this  opportunity  to  instruct 
the  head  barber  to  issue  orders  to  his  caste-people  to  kill  the 
Kuiumbas  while  they  were  being  shaved.  As  the  shaving 
was  performed  pretty  simultaneously,  each  barber  cut  the 
throat  of  his  Kurumba  customer,  and  all  the  Kurumbas  of 
Nerumpur  were  thus  massacred.  As  soon  as  the  tidings  of 
the  murder  of  their  husbands  reached  the  Kurumba  women, 
they  determined  not  to  survive  them,  and  burnt  themselves 
with  the  corpses  of  their  consorts.  The  dying  widows  uttered 
the  curse  that  Nerumpur  should  never  again  produce  enough 
grain  to  buy  salt,  even  if  three  crops  of  grain  were  reaped 
every  year.  The  fortification  and  irrigation  works  of  the 
Kurumbas  have  fallen  into  ruins  since  then,  and  only  the 


earth-mounds  and  old  brick  wells  near  Sadras  betray  the 
existence  of  an  ancient  town. 

Their  marriage  customs  differ  also  considerably.  Origi- 
nally they  did  not  perform  any  ceremonies  at  their  marriages, 
but  later  on,  the  majority  adopted  Jaina  or  Hindu  rites.  A 
manuscript  in  the  Mackenzie  Collection  contains  the  following 
description  which,  however,  resembles  the  common  Hindu 
marriage  customs.  ^^'  The  bride  and  the  bridegroom  are 
anointed  with  oil,  and  dress  themselves  after  their  bath  in  new 
clothes.  The  bride  sits  in  the  pandal  on  the  left  and  the 
bridegroom  on  the  right.  Both  are  adorned  with  flowers  and 
have  golden  tinsel  (hhdsikani)  on  their  foreheads.  A  shoot  of 
the  Pippal  or  Holy  Figtree  (Aram,  ■s/jtst')  is  fixed  between  the 
two  inner  posts  of  the  pandal,  in  which  the  ceremonies  are  per- 
formed and  the  people  walk  round  those  posts.  The  marriage 
is  attended  by  the  headman  and  all  relatives.  The  former 
when  approaching  the  betrothed  couple  breaks  a  cocoanut, 
and  places  the  Tali  which  is  fastened  to  a  golden  string, 
in  the  upper  cup.  This  is  handed  round  to  ten  or  more 
relatives,  who  shout  mangali,  mangali.  Eventually  the  bride- 
groom, who  receives  the  Tali,  at  last  fastens  it  round  the 
neck  of  the  bride,  uttering  the  name  of  Oovinda.  The  nearest 
relatives  now  with  crossed  hands  pour  saffron-colored  raw 
rice  on  the  heads  of  the  young  pair  :  this  ceremony  is  called 
Cesai  {Qs^saei^),  in  Telugu  Sesa  ("^-ii).^^*  After  this  the 
couple  prostrate  themselves  at  the  feet  of  their  elders  and  sit 
down  in  their  midst.  Betel  leaves  and  nuts  are  then  handed 
round,  and  the  eating  and  drinking  commences.  After  the 
distribution  of  garlands,  the  Kankana  is  tied  on  the  right  wrists 
of  the  happy  pair.  The  Cesai  ceremony  is  repeated  during  the 
two  following  days,  while  the  bride  and  bridegroom  occupy 
their  former  seats ;  after  that  the  guests  are  liberally  enter- 
tained. On  the  fourth  and  fifth  days  pepperwater  (milaku- 
tanni)  and  rice  are  served  out.     On  the  latter  day  the  bride 

1"  See  Mackenzie  Collection,  new  copy,  vol.  IV,  p.  78. 
«8  From  the  Sanskrit  ^rsa,  head. 


is  taken  to  her  mother's  house,  where  cakes  are  dlstrihuted 
and  a  sumptuous  meal  is  provided  for  all  relatives  and  friends. 
Two  men  are  then  despatched  from  the  house  of  the  bride- 
groom to  that  of  the  bride,  where  they  are  welcomed  as  the 
escort  of  the  young  pair  to  the  bridegroom's  house,  and  re- 
ceive on  starting  with  them  a  bundle  containing  eleven 
rice-cakes  and  a  lot  of  jaggery. 

Many  peculiar  customs  prevail  among  the  Kurumba 
women,  some  of  which  they  share  with  other  castes.  They 
generally  take  assafoetida  after  childbirth  and  bathe  on  the 
fifth  day.'^^  Adultery  is  generally  leniently  punished  and 
condoned  vnth  a  fine.  This  is  as  a  rule  spent  on  an  enter- 
tainment, after  which  the  woman  is  readmitted  into  society. 

The  Tali  is  not  removed  from  the  neck  of  a  widow,  imless 
she  desires  to  remarry.  In  this  case  the  marriage-tie  is 
returned  to  the  family  of  her  former  husband,  and  she  wears 
that  given  by  her  new  husband.  A  widow  may  remarry  as 
often  as  she  likes. 

On  our  historical  knowledge  about  the  Kiirumbas. 

We  are  very  insufficiently  informed  about  the  early  his- 
tory of  the  Kurumbas.  Before  they  settled  down  to  any- 
thing like  domestic  hfe,  they  roamed  as  Vedas  in  the  virgiQ 
forests  hunting  the  deer  for  its  fiesh  and  the  wUd  animals  for 
their  own  safety.  In  some  places  the  traces  of  an  ancient 
Kurumba  occupation  are  not  yet  effaced.  The  Eev.  F.  Metz 
writes  respecting  their  settlement  on  the  Nllagiri  mountains- 
as  follows :  "  There  are  strong  grounds  for  supposing  that 
"  the  Kurumbas  once  occupied  and  cultivated  the  plateau  of 
"  the  hills,  and  were  driven  thence  by  the  Todas  into  the 
"  unhealthy  localities  which  they  now  inhabit,  on  the  pretext 
"  of  their  beiag  a  race  of  sorcerers  whose  presence  was  a  bane 
"  to  the  happiness  of  the  other  hill- tribes.     Several  spots  near 

l»  See   Mackenzie   Manuscripts,  No,   14,  CM.    768.     The  Tamil  for- 
assafoetida  is  QuQ^iksirujih  Perunkayam. 


"  the  Badaga  villages  bear  the  name  of '  Motta '  to  this  day, 
"  and  traces  of  houses  are  still  visible  ;  and  in  one  place  a 
"  stone  enclosure  for  buffaloes  is  to  be  seen,  which,  as  I  gather 
"  from  an  old  piece  of  Badaga  poetry  formerly  belonged  to  a 
"  rich  Kurumba,  who  was  murdered  by  the  Todas,  at  the  insti- 
"  gation  of  the  Badagas  .  .  .  The  Todas  and  Badagas  say 
"  that  the  Kurumbas  are  the  enemies  of  their  peace,  and  that 
"  they  cannot  live  without  killing  them.  Some  years  ago 
"  I  discovered  the  site  of  a  former  Kurumba  town,  of  the 
"  existence  of  which  I  was  well  aware,  but  which  I  had  never 
"  been  able  to  trace  out.  It  is  in  the  heart  of  a  dense  forest, 
"  totally  unfrequented  by  the  natives  and  probably  never 
"  penetrated  by  any  European."  i'" 

The  Mackenzie  Collection  contains  about  the  Kurumbas 
of  the  Tamil  districts  some  interesting  information.  From 
one  manuscript  (No.  14  CM.,  768)  I  extract  the  following 
account : 

"  The  country  of  Tondamandalam  was  after  the  deluge 
totally  covered  with  forest  and  was  infested  with  wild  beasts. 
A  people  of  wild  hunters,  known  as  Vedas,  roamed  about  in 
the  woods.  They  lived  in  huts  which  they  had  erected  after 
clearing  the  country.  Their  place  of  settlement  is  still 
called  Vedar  Pdlayam.  No  kings  ruled  over  them,  and  they 
did  just  what  they  pleased.  Besides  their  huts,  they  had  no 
places  in  which  they  could  protect  themselves.  They  were 
guided  neither  by  social  nor  reKgious  rules,  nor  had  they  any 
books.  In  fact  they  were  merely  a  lot  of  naked  savages, 
who  did  not  observe  any  ceremonies  even  at  their  marriages. 
They  killed  the  wild  beasts  of  the  forests  and  lived  on  their 

"  The  Kurumbas  of  the  Karnata  country  had  meanwhile 
risen  to  prominence,  and,  after  their  numbers  had  increased, 
began  to  tyrannize  over  the  other  inhabitants.  The  Kurumbas 
had  very  barbarous  and  cruel  habits,  and  deserved  to  be 

"0  See  Kov.  F.  Metz'  Triies  inhabiting  the  Neilgherry  Mills,  pp.  122,  123. 


called  Kurumbas.  (This  is  an  allusion  to  the  meaning  of 
O^LDL/,  Kurumpu,  or  ©  jKiiqA/^sBr'i,  Kurumputtanam,  savage- 
ness,  stubbornness,  insolence,  wickedness.  It  is,  however, 
derived  from  the  national  name  of  the  Kurumbas,  and  not 
vice  versa.)  In  course  of  time  they  extended  their  dominion 
to  the  very  border  of  Tondamandalam,  and  a  few  Kurumbas 
settled  in  Salapakkam  near  Uttaramallur,  where  their  descen- 
dants are  still  known  as  Kurumbas.  Before  they  had  any 
king,  they  roved  about  unrestrained  like  wild  hunters  in  the 
forests,  till,  when  dissensions  and  quarrels  had  arisen  among 
them,  Kamanda  Prabhu  restored  peace  and  quiet.  He  con- 
vinced them  that  it  would  be  to  their  advantage  to  elect  a 
king  and  they  followed  his  advice.  As  he  was  a  wise  and 
popular  man,  he  himself  was  chosen  king,  and  henceforward 
he  was  known  as  Kamanda  Kurumba  Prabhu,  the  ruler  of 
the  Dravida  country  and  Eaja  of  Pulal.  The  kingdom  was 
called  Kurumhabhumi,  the  land  of  the  Kurumbas,  and  this 
name  was  entered  in  all  the  official  documents.  He  built  a 
fort  at  the  town  of  Pulal,  its  walls  were  constructed  of  bell- 
metal,  and  its  strength  and  grandeur  defied  description. 
His  rule  extended  over  a  vast  territory,  and  as  several  of  his 
subjects  betrayed  occasionally  an  inclination  to  rebel  against 
him,  he  subdivided  his  reakn  into  24  districts,  in  each  of 
which  he  erected  a  stronghold  and  appointed  a  governor. 
The  fort  of  Pulal  was  his  own  capital.  The  following  are 
the  names  of  some  of  these  fortified  places  :  PTolalkottai, 
Amurkottai,  Kalatturkottai,  Puliyurkottai,  Cempurkottai, 
TJrrukattukottai,  Venkunakottaij  tkkattukottai  and  Patuvur- 

"'  The  late  F.  W.  Ellis  gives  in  his  classical  article  on  the  Mirasi  ques- 
tions all  the  24  names,  besides  the  ahove  named  are  further  mentioned  : 
Manavurkottai,  Cenkattukottai,  Paiyurkottai,  EyirkOttai,  Tamarko^tai, 
Palkunrakottai,  IlafikftttukOttai,  Kaliyurkottai,  Cirukaraikottai,  Katikai- 
kottai,  Cantirikaikottai,  KuurapattirakSttai,  VgnkatakOttai  and  Vslurkottai. 
— Mr.  Ellis  obtained  the  list  from  the  JilanaprakaSa  Matam.  Compare  the 
Papers  on  Mirasi  Sight,  Madras,  1862,  pp.  235-241. 

See  also  Abbe  Dubois'  Description  of  the  People  of  India,  second  edition 
p.  342,  and  Jlr.  J.  H,  Nelson's  Mnmioil  oj Madura,  Part  II,  pp.  64,  65, 


"  While  Kamanda  Prabhu  ruled,  the  various  tribes  in 
the  country  submitted  to  his  rule,  and  the  people  could 
quietly  follow  their  various  avocations.  Some  engaged  in 
trade,  others  in  husbandry,  and  so  on,  according  to  their 
special  inclinations,  though  the  majority  devoted  themselves 
to  sheep-tending,  wooUen  blanket-weaving  and  lime-selling. 
They  even  ventured  at  that  time  to  engage  in  shipping 
trade,  and  some  Cetti  merchants  from  Kaveripattanam  settled 
in  the  Kurumba  country.  Stimulated  by  them  the  Kurum- 
bas  soon  developed  a  taste  and  an  aptitude  for  commerce, 
and  in  order  to  facilitate  mercantile  transactions,  they  built 
in  course  of  time  strongholds  at  Pattipulam,  Salakuppam, 
Salapakkam,  Meyyur,  Kadalur,  Alamparai,  Marakkanam, 
&o.  The  Kurumbas  and  Oettis  of  Kaveripattanam  occupied 
these  fortified  ports,  and  as  they  were  successful  in  their 
speculations,  amassed  great  wealth  and  became  influential. 

"As  already  intimated  the  Kurumbas  had  no  special 
religion  of  their  own,  and  a  Jaina  priest  who  visited  their 
country,  was  able  to  convert  the  greater  portion  of  the  people 
to  Jainism.  The  Jaina  basti  which  the  king  of  Pulal  erected 
in  honour  of  that  priest,  remains  up  to  this  day  a  monument 
of  this  conversion.  Besides  this  building,  a  few  other  bastis 
are  still  existing,  though  in  a  very  dilapidated  condition. 
Jaina  sculptures  are  now  occasionally  found  in  the  rice-fields  ; 
they  are,  however,  either  destroyed  or  reburied  in  the 
ground  by  Brahmans  and  other  religious  enemies  of  the 
Jains.  Many  Kurumbas  resemble  in  their  present  manners 
and  customs  the  Jains  of  former  times,  and  they  do  so 
especially  in  their  marriage  ceremonies. 

"  While  the  Kurumbas  ruled  over  the  land,  their  more 
civilized  neighbours  often  attacked  them,  but  were  generally 
defeated.  The  Cola  and  Pandya  kings  made  thus  repeated 
inroads  into  the  Kurumba  territory ;  but  their  attempts  to 
subdue  their  fierce  foes  were  in  vain,  as  they  did  not  mind  to 
sacrifice  their  lives  on  the  battle-field.  Some  of  these  royal 
aggressors  were  at  times  captured  and  chained  in  fetters  to 



the  fort-gate  of  Pulal.  These  continual  successes,  however, 
turned  the  head  of  the  Kurumbas  and  made  them  over- 
bearing, so  that  they  began  to  annoy  and  ill-treat  those  of 
their  subjects  who  belonged  to  rival  tribes,  or  had  embraced 
other  religious  beliefs.  They  endeavoured  in  fact  to  force 
the  Jain  religion  on  all,  and  created  great  dissatisfaction 
by  their  religious  intolerance.  Yet  no  one  rose  who  could 
oppose  them  effectually. 

"  At  last  Adonda  Cola,  a  brave,  wise  and  popular  prince, 
marched  against  the  Kurumbas  and  invested  their  capital 
Pulal  with  a  large  army.  He  began  this  campaign  as  he 
could  no  longer  endure  the  tyranny  and  mal-administration 
of  the  Kurumba  king  and  resolved  to  defeat  him  at  any 
risk,  in  order  to  alleviate  the  sufferings  of  the  people.  The 
Kurumba  king  on  his  side  was  not  wanting  in  bravery,  and 
went  to  face  the  enemy.  Both  sides  fought  valiantly,  at 
last  three-fourths  of  the  army  of  Adonda  Cola  were  put  to 
the  sword,  and  unable  to  resist  longer,  he  fled  from  the 
battle-field  and  took  refuge  with  a  few  remaining  followers 
in  a  place  not  far  distant  from  the  fort.  This  locality  is 
still  known  as  Colanpedu.  He  then  made  up  his  mind  to 
retreat  on  the  nest  morning  to  his  country  Tanjore.  But  at 
night  Siva  appeared  to  him  in  a  dream  and  said  :  "  After 
ascending  to-morrow  morning  your  elephant,  on  your  way  to 
the  battle,  you  will  find  that  his  legs  are  entangled  ia  a 
jasmine-creeper  (Mullai),  and  when  you  try  to  cut  it  away 
with  your  sword,  blood  will  ooze  out  of  it,  and  on  closer 
examination  you  will  discover  there  a  Linga."  Encouraged 
by  his  dream,  he  went  to  the  battle-field,  and,  after  ascending 
his  elephant,  saw  that  the  legs  of  the  animal  were  caught  in 
a  jasmine  bush  and  that  blood  oozed  out  from  the  spot  where 
he  tried  to  out  it.'^^     This  sign  confirmed  his  resolution  to 

'32  Compare  Tondala  satakam,  p.  4,  SI.  9  :  "  When  Tondaman  was  driven 
from  the  battle-field,  his  elephant  was  prevented  from  moving  by  a  jasmine- 
creeper.  Afterwards  he  fought  again  and  became  victorious."  A  descriptiou 
of  this  fact  is  given  in  a  work  called  TirunMllaivdyalpatikam. 

OF    BHA.RATAVA118A    OR    INDIA.  247 

attack  his  fierce  enemies,  and  he  secured  a  complete  victory 
over  them.  Adonda  Cola  captured  the  Kurumba  king  and 
put  him  to  death.  Pulal,  the  chief  town  and  fort  of  the 
Kurumbas,  was  taken,  and  its  brass  doors  were  placed  in  the 
inner  portion  (garbhagrha)  of  the  temple  of  Tanjore.  A 
pillar  made  of  Arka  ( Calatropis  gigantea)  wood  that  had  been 
removed  from  the  Tanjore  temple,  was  placed  in  the  interior 
of  a  temple  and  erected  at  the  spot  where  the  Sivalinga  had 
been  found.  This  temple  was  called  Tiru-mullai-mial,  after 
the  jasmine-creeper  which  had  covered  the  legs  of  the  ele- 
phant. The  part  of  the  Linga  where  the  sword  of  Adonda 
had  touched  it  looked  like  a  wound,  and  is  therefore  covered 
with  camphor  to  conceal  the  sore. 

"  The  remaining  twenty-three  forts  were  then  taken,  and 

their  governors  with  their  retinues  were  also  killed.    Adonda 

Cola  appointed  Vellala  chiefs  instead  of  the  Kurumbas.     As 

he  observed  that  the  country  was  very  thinly  populated,  he 

invited  Vellalas  from  different  districts  and  induced  them 

to  settle  in  the  newly- acquired  territory,  by  granting  them 

freehold  land  and  conferring  on  them  other  favours.     The 

Vellalas  who  accepted  the  offer  were  the  Tuluva,  Coliya  and 

Kondaikatti  Vellalas.     The  first  two  were  called  after  the 

district  they  came  from,  the  Tuluva  Vellalas  emigrated  from 

the  Tuluva-Nadu  in  Kanara  and  the  Coliya   Vellalas  from 

the  C5lanadu.     The  Kondaikatti    Vellalas  were  so   called, 

from  binding  their  hair  in  a  tuft  on  the  top  of  their  head 

instead  of  leaving  a   small  lock   (Kudumi).     With  these 

Vellalas  together  came  the  Eanakka-Pillaikal  or  accountants. 

"  Adonda  Cola  ruled  the  land  with  justice  and  in  peace, 

and  was  henceforth  known  as  Adonda  Cola  Cakravarti  or  as 

Tondaman  Cakravarti.     The  country  which  had  hitherto 

been  caUed  Kurumbabhumi  was  now  named  Tondaman- 


In  order  to  ascertain  what  was  left  of  Pidal,  I  lately 
visited  the  place  and  its  neighbourhood.  It  lies  about  8  miles 
north-west  of  Madras,  to  the  east  of  the  big  lake,  known  as 


the  Eed- Hills  Tank.  The  place  where  the  old  fort  of  Pulal 
stood  is  still  remembered  and  pointed  out  by  the  people. 
However,  the  outlines  of  the  outer  and  inner  mud  walls  are 
now  only  visible,  within  the  latter  is  a  tank.  These  walls 
must  have  encircled  once  a  fort  of  considerable  extent,  of 
which  nothing  however  remains.  Hj'der  Ali  on  his  march 
to  Madras  encamped  here.  Pulal  is  also  called  Vana  Pulal, 
and  near  it  is  situated  a  small  hamlet  Mddhavaram. 

About  a  mile  to  the  north-east  Hes  the  present  village 
Pulal,  in  which  I  found  three  temples.     A  small  Jaina  basti 
dedicated  to  Aditirtliankara,  though  in  a  decayed  condition,  is 
stiU  used  for  worship,  and  has  the  reputation  of  being  old. 
The  Vaisnava  temple  of  Earimanikyaperumdl  does  not  ap- 
pear to  be  ancient,  while  the  erection  of  the  Siva  temple  is 
ascribed  to  Adonda  Cola.     It  is  dedicated  to  TrimuJandtha, 
but  as   a  famous  sannyasi  Sundaramurtisvami   worshipped 
there,  it  is  known  as  the  shrine  of  Sundarewara.     It  is  evi- 
dently pretty  old,  and,  though  partly  repaired  some  years 
ago,  is  in  a  dilapidated  state.     It  has  the  appearance  of  a 
Cola  temple,  and  is  covered  with  inscriptions,  those  seen 
on  the   outside  being  in    a  bad  condition.      The   temple 
possesses  no  Sthalapurana,  nor  any  copper  Sasanams.     The 
name  of  the  goddess  is  Svarndmbikd. 

Oo  the  other  side  of  the  lake,  about  six  miles  towards 
south-west,  lies  the  hamlet  Tirumullaivdml  or  Tirumullai- 
vdyal,  which  is  named  after  the  adventure  which  befell  the 
prince  Adonda  in  his  combat  against  the  Kurumbas.  A 
temple  is  erected  near  the  spot  where  the  Linga  was 
wounded  by  the  sword  of  the  Cola  prince  and  dedicated  to 
Siva  as  Mdcillamani,  which  is  a  Tamil  translation  of  the 
Sanskrit  Nirmalamaxti,  meaning  '  spotless  jewel.'  On  one  of 
the  stone  columns  of  the  mantapam  in  front  of  the  Gopuram 
is  carved  the  figure  of  Adonda  sitting  on  an  elephant  in  the 
act  of  cutting  with  his  sword  the  jasmine-creeper  from  the 
leg  of  the  elephant.  The  similarity  in  the  sound  of  mullai, 
jasmine,    and    )nala,  stain,    raises   a   suspicion    against   the 


genuineness  of  this  legend.  The  temple  is  in  good  preserva- 
tion. Two  so-called  Axka-pillars  (not  one  as  the  manuscript 
just  quoted  states)  are  covered  with  a  heam,  and  form  with 
the  two  side  walls  the  support  of  the  Ardhamantapam,  which 
communicates  on  the  western  side  by  a  door  in  the  common 
wall  with  the  Garbhagrha  behind.  Between,  but  behind  the 
two  Arka-pillars,  is  situated  in  the  Garbhagrha  the  holy 
Linga,  which  on  account  of  its  wouiid  is  covered  with  sandal- 
wood-powder  and  other  cooling  ingredients.  The  local 
legend  contends  that  Adonda  brought  the  two  brownish- 
looking  Arka-pillars,  together  with  a  bell,  and  a  bronze 
door  from  the  fort  of  Pulal.  This  gateway,  however,  has 
since  disappeared.     Colanpedu  lies  close  to  TirumullaivaSal. 

In  order  to  assist  Adonda  in  his  fight  against  the 
Kurumbas,  Siva  sent  his  attendant  Nandi,  and  in  confirma- 
tion of  this  fact  the  Nandi  at  Tirumullaivasal  faces  the 
east,  instead  of  being  turned  towards  the  idol,  i.e.,  towards 
the  west.  The  consort  of  Macillamani  is  called  Kodi  idai 
Ndyaki.  The  temple  has  a  Sthalapurana,  its  first  part, 
which  was  only  lent  to  me,  does  not  contain,  any  allusion  to 
Adonda.  I  have  been  told  that  there  are  no  Tamra  SaSa- 
nams  to  throw  light  on  the  erection  of  the  temple.  Not 
far  from  this  temple  towards  the  south  stands  an  enormous 
image,  constructed  of  brick  and  mortar  representing 
Mannarsvami,  accompanied  by  the  seven  Sages. 

A  young  Brahman  D.  Eaghavayya  accompanied  me  and 
obtained  some  valuable  information  as  I  was  not  permitted 
to  enter  the  temple,  and  I  do  not  know  whether  it  contains 
any  important  inscriptions.  It  may  be  well  worth  while  to 
examine  carefully  the  temples  at  Pulal  and  Tirumullaivasal 
in  order  to  ascertain  whether  they  possess  any  account  about 
Adonda  Cakravarti,  though  I  have  been  told  that  there  is 
none.  The  battle  between  the  Colas  and  the  Kurumbas  was 
fought  somewhere  between  those  two  places. 

The  origin  of  the  word  Tondamandalam  is  doubtful,  and 
difierent  explanations  are  given  of  it.    The  most  widely- 


spread  legend  connects  the  name  with  the  prince  Adonda 
Cola.  As  the  destruction  of  the  Knrumbas  is  attributed  to 
this  popular  hero,  an  account  of  his  origin  will  not  be  out 
of  place  here.  The  following  story  is  found  in  several  MSS. 
of  the  Mackenzie  Collection :  '^^ 

"  In  Colamandalam  ruled  44  descendants  of  the  ancient 
Cola  Eajas.  The  last  was  Kulottunga  Cola,  who  had  by  his 
queen  two  children,  a  daughter  and  a  son.  Kulottunga  Cola 
killed  the  sou  of  the  poet  Kamban,  and  Kamban  killed  in 
revenge  the  son  of  the  king.  At  the  royal  entertainments  of 
the  court  there  was  dancing  for  some  time  a  beautiful  girl 
Ndkinagaratna  with  whom  the  king  fell  in  love.  But  as 
Kulottiuiga  felt  that  he  would  lose  the  esteem  of  the  people  if 
he  allowed  his  passion  to  transgress  public  decency,  he  kept 
his  affection  a  great  secret  and  used  a  servant  girl  TJmapati 
to  arrange  meetings  between  Nakinagaratna  and  himself. 
In  course  of  time  a  boy  was  born,  whom  TJmapati  dressed 
in  a  silk  gown  and  put  in  a  golden  basket  with  Adonda 
flowers  round  him.  She  then  placed  the  basket  on  the  bank 
of  the  Kaveri,  near  the  spot  where  the  king  generally  bathed. 
All  this  was  done  by  the  order  of  the  king.  When  the  king 
came  afterwards  with  his  Brahmans  and  courtiers  to  the 
river  they  heard  a  child  cry,  and,  on  approaching  nearer, 
they  saw  it  and  said  to  the  king :  '  0  king,  as  you  forgave 
Kamban  who  killed  your  son,  God  presents  to  you  this 
wonderful  child  on  the  bank  of  the  Kaveri.  The  child 
resembles  you,  and  is  worthy  to  become   the  ruler  of  the 

"'  In  the  Tondamandalam  Colamcmdalum-Pantiyamantalam,  old  No.  241 
CM.  66.  This  work  is  said  to  have  been  compiled  by  Vedandyahan,  a 
Christian  poet  of  Tanjore.  See  Taylor's  Catalogue  Eaisonne,  vol.  Ill,  pp. 
41,  42.  This  work  is  copied  in  No.  7,  CM.,  761,  Section  III  (Taylor,  vol. 
Ill,  p.  370).  A  somewhat  similar  account  is  contained  in  No.  14,  CM. 
768,  Section  II;  in  the  new  copy  in  the  vol.  II,  pp.  65-67,  and  in  Taylor, 
vol.  Ill,  pp.  426,  427 ;  and  also  in  No.  15,  CM.  769,  I.,  new  copy,  vol.  I, 
p.  125. 

I  need  not  specially  point  out  the  inaccuracief  contained  in  this  report,  for 
they  are  too  evident,  as,  e.y.,  the  foundation  of  Ki&a.  by  KuldttuAga  Cola. 


country.  As  he  is  adorned  with  Adonda  flowers,  we  take 
this  as  a  lucky  omen  and  call  him  '  Adonda  Cola.' '  Cir- 
cumstauces  favouring  so  far  the  designs  of  the  king,  he  gave 
the  child  to  his  wife  with  the  words :  '  God  has  presented 
this  child  to  you  near  the  Kaveri.'  The  queen  accepted  it 
and  brought  it  up  with  much  affection.  The  truth  ahout 
the  birth  of  the  child  was  not  only  known  to  the  king  and 
the  dancing  girl,  but  also  to  some  extent  to  his  chief  minister. 
Meanwhile  the  child  grew  up,  and  displayed  much  cleverness, 
knowledge  and  courage.  When  the  king  consulted  hia 
minister  about  the  marriage  and  succession  of  his  son,  the 
minister  pretended  to  agree  with  the  plans  of  the  king,  but 
communicated  secretly  to  the  relatives  of  the  king  the 
circumstances  accompanying  the  birth  of  Adonda  and  the 
intentions  of  the  king  concerning  the  future  of  his  son. 
The  consequence  was  that  the  royal  princes  refused  to  marry 
one  of  their  daughters  to  a  bastard,  and  to  allow  his  succes- 
sion to  the  throne  as  it  would  throw  dishonor  on  them. 
The  minister  communicated  to  Kulottunga  the  unfavourable 
disposition  of  the  princes.  The  king,  however,  did  not  give 
up  his  plans,  but  pondered  how  he  might  execute  them  in 
spite  of  their  objections.  At  last  he  fixed  on  Tondamanda- 
1am  as  a  suitable  province  to  give  to  Adonda,  though  it  was 
still  a  wilderness.  He  explored  it,  cleared  the  forest,  laid 
the  foundation  of  the  capital  Kanci,  erected  there  a  temple 
and  dug  a  channel  for  the  river  Palar.  As  Kulottunga 
observed  how  thinly  the  land  was  inhabited,  he  despatched 
his  minister  with  money  to  other  countries  to  induce  people 
to  immigrate  into  the  newly-acquired  district.  The  minister 
accordingly  returned  with  many  boys  and  girls  of  various 
castes,  and  the  king  ordered  them  to  be  married.  This  done 
he  placed  Adonda  on  the  throne  at  Kanci.  Kulottunga 
then  asked  the  minister  to  propose  a  suitable  name  for  the 
country.  In  spite  of  the  high  position  which  Adonda  had 
meanwhile   secured,    the    minister    still    despised  him  on 

252  ON    THE    ORIGINAL    INHABITANTS      , 

account  of  his  illegitimate  birth.  He  suggested  therefore 
that  the  new  territory  should  he  called  Tondamandalam  (the 
district  of  slaves)  and  the  king  without  any  suspicion  named 
it  so."'*  Since  that  time  this  country  has  been  called  Tonda- 
mandalam, and  Tondamandalam  was  thus  foimded  by  Kulot- 
tunga  Cola.  The  name  of  Kurumbabhumi  was  then  changed 
into  Tondamandalam  and  Adonda  Cola  was  installed  as 
Tondamandala  Cakravarti.  ''^ 

"  The  legitimate  daughter  of  Kulottunga  Cola  had  mar- 
ried Yaragunapandya,  ^'^  the  only  son  of  Balacandrapandya. 
After  Kulottunga  Cola's  death,  which  took  place  in  the  69th 
year  of  his  life,  Varagunapandya  took  Colamandalam  and 
Tondamandalam,  which  had  belonged  to  his  father-in-law. 
Afterwards  JJbhayakulaUlipdndya,  the  son  of  Varagunapandya 
and  of  the  daughter  of  Kulottunga  Cola,  ascended  the  throne 
of  Colamandalam,  and  his  descendants  reigned  over  it  for 
three  centuries. 

"  The  progeny  of  Adonda  Cola  submitted  to  their  fate 
and  received  some  land  for  their  maintenance. 

"  Minaketanapandya  was  the  last  and  eleventh  descendant 
of  Ubhayakulakilipandya.  So  long  as  these  kings  ruled,  no 
enemies  were  feared.     These  kings  ruled  for  2707  years."'" 

"»  MS.  No.  14,  CM.  768,  Section  II,  here  inserts  a  short  account  of  the 
war  of  Adonija  C6la  with  the  Kurumhas,  his  first  defeat  and  final  victory. 
This  MS.  also  calls  always  Toncjamandalam  Tondarmandalam. 

'3'  This  last  remark  as  well  as  the  other  ahoutthe  Kurumhas  is  only  found 
in  No.  li,  CM.  768,  Section  II,  which  ends  with  this  passage. 

''«  Compare  the  Appendix  hy  Rev.  T.  Foulkes  to  A  Manual  of  the  Salem 
District,  vol.  II,  pp.  370,  (si.  18),  373,  (si.  18),  378,  379. 

The  father  of  Varaguna  is  generally  given  as  SundareSvarapadaSekhara 
and  his  son  as  Baja  Eaja,  though  the  chronicles  differ  in  their  chronology  ; 
see  H.  H.  "Wilson's  List  of  the  Pandyan  kings  in  his  Historical  Sketch  in  the 
Madras  Journal,  \ol.  VI,  (1837),  pp.  211,  213;  Rev.  W.  Taylor's  Oriental 
Historical  Manuscripts,  vol.  I,  pp.  85-90.  Ahout  Kamhan's  life  refer  to 
F.  W.  Ellis'  replies  to  Mirasi  questions  in  Papers  on  Mirdsi  Might,  p.  292, 
■where  S.S.  808  (A.D.  886)  is  given  as  the  date  of  his  presenting  the  Tamil 
translation  of  the  Bamftyaija  to  his  patron  Rajendxa  Cola.  Others  prefer 
S.S.  807,  A.D.  885. 


The  Tiruverkdttu  Puram  says  about  the  origin  of  the  term 
Tondamandalam  :  "  The  country  was  called  Dandakanddu 
as  it  was  ruled  by  Dandaka.  Then  it  was  named  Tundlra- 
nddu  in  consequence  of  the  reign  of  Tundlra.  Afterwards 
it  was  called  Tondanadu,  as  Tondaman,  a  descendant  of  the 
solar  race  who  wore  a  garland  of  Adonda  flowers,  governed 
the  kingdom."!" 

The  late  Mr.  F.  W.  Ellis  quotes  a  stanza  from  the  Tiruhka- 
lukkunra-Purdna  in  which  a  similar  statement  is  made,  the 
difference  between  the  two  Puranas  being,  that  the  latter 
mentions  Tondira  as  the  founder  of  Tondirana4u  before 
Dandaka,  the  assumed  establisher  of  Dandakanadu.'^* 

The  boundaries  of  Tondamandalam  are  said  to  be  the 
two  Pennai  or  Pinakini  rivers  in  the  north  and  south,  and 
the  sea  and  the  Western  Ghats  up  to  Tirupati  on  the  east  and 
west.  Some  parts  of  the  Western  Ghats  also  belonged  to  it. 
Mr.  Ellis  gives  the  memorial  verses  concerning  the  frontiers 
of  this  district.  The  Southern  Pennai  flows  into  the  sea  near 
Gudalur  (Cuddalore),  while  the  northern  passes  through  the 
district  of  Nellur  close  to  Kalahasti,  both  streams  rising  near 
the  Nandidrug  in  Mysore.  ^'^ 

13'  See  the  following  stanza  from  the  Tiruverkdttu  Purdnam  : — 
^(mQeu/bmirLLQu  UJrirmarih. 

QfiiressTL^jsasruitrieo^  QfirrssEn—LDtrt^emQ    Q^irssisrL-jBiri—iruj^ 


138  See  Papers  on  Mirdsi  Right  (Madras,  1862),  p.  234  :  "  Tondlren,  the 
chief  among  the  leaders  of  the  demon  bands  of  the  three-eyed  deity,  hafing 
governed  it,  this  country  became  Tondlranadu ;  when  it  was  defended  by 
DandacavSnder,  it  became  accordingly  Dandaca-nadu  ;  and  when  Chflzher  of 
the  family  of  the  sun,  who  was  Tondeiman  adorned  by  garlands  of  flowers, 
extended  his  protection  to  it,  it  become  Tondei-nadu."  Compare  also  the 
stanza  in  Bastigirieampu  which  begins  with  "  Tmdirdkhyam  mandalam  asti 

■  139  See  Papers  on  MirasiPight,  pp.  229-247  ;  on  p.  246,  Mr.  EUis  remarks  : 
"  The  whole  superficies  of  Tonda-mandalam,  as  originally  settled  by  the 



According  to  the  above-mentioned  Tiruverkattu  Purana 
this  country  is  known  also  as  Palinddu,  hecause  the  Palar 
river  flows  through  it. 

The  original  meaning  of  the  term  Tondamandalam  is 
variously  explained.  According  to  the  first  and  most  popular 
derivation  it  was  so  called  after  the  illegitimate  Cola  prince 
Adonda,  who  had  been  exposed  on  the  bank  of  the  Kaveri 
in  a  basket  filled  with  Adonda  or  Tonda  flowers,  which 
in  their  turn  supplied  him  with  his  name.  A  second 
interpretation  asserts  that  the  newly-acquired  province  was 
covered  to  such  an  extent  with  the  Bonda  oil-creeper,  that 
the  country  was  called  after  it.  The  third  etymology  is 
founded  on  the  meaning  of  Tondan,  a  slave,  a  devotee.  If 
80,  it  alludes  either  to  the  low  birth  of  Adonda,  its  illegiti- 
mate first  ruler,  or  to  the  uncivilised  and  slavish  condition 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Tondamandalam.  Another  possibility 
arises  by  coimecting  Tundh-a,  the  fabulous  ancient  king, 
with  Tonda. 

The  legendary  story  of  the  birth  of  the  illegitimate  Cola 
prince  Adonda  is  very  perplexing.  All  eircimistancea  con- 
sidered, even  after  his  victory  he  could  only  have  been  a 
dependent  Viceroy  of  the  Cola  king.  According  to  tradition, 
his  ofEspring  soon  lost  even  this  position ;  though  some  inscrip- 
tions appear  to  make  him  the  ancestor  of  reigning  princes. 
The  defeat  of  the  Kurumbas  appears  to  be  a  historical  fact, 
but  is  sometimes  narrated  without  mentioning  Adonda.''"' 
As  the  latter  is  said  to  have  introduced  Vellalas  and  Kanaka 

people  of  ShOzha-mandalam,  is  measured  by  18,302  square  miles;  of  this 
extent  the  division  of  the  country  between  the  range  of  the  Ghat  mountains 
and  the  sea,  lower  Tondei,  contains  14,028  square  miles,  and  the  division  to 
the  west  of  the  Ghats,  upper  Tondei,  4,274 :  the  latter  is  colored  yellow  in 
the  map." 

Rwid  also  Mackenzie  MS.,  No.  15,  CM.  769,  Section  I ;  in  the  new 
copy,  vol.  I,  p.  125.  This  declares  Kalahasti  as  the  northern,  the  river 
Penijai  as  the  southern,  the  mountain  Pa^umalai  as  the  western,  and  the  sea 
as  the  eastern  boundary. 

'«Seep.  251. 

OF    BHARATAVAR3A    OR    INDIA.  255 

Pillaikal  into  Tondainandalani,  these  men  could  not  be 
stigmatised  as  slaves  or  tondar. 

The  oil-plant,  Capparis  horrida,  which  is  the  Ta.mi\  Adondai 
(commonly  pronounced  Adandai)  or  Tondai  creeper,  is  well 
known  in  Southern  India  and  esteemed  for  its  medicinal 
properties."!  It  is  certainly  peculiar  that  the  same  plant 
should  have  given  its  name  to  a  Tanjorean  prince  and  to  a 
northern  province  which  he  is  said  to  have  governed  and 
which  was  covered  with  it. 

I  rather  feel  inclined  to  prefer  the  legend  which  connects 
the  name  vnth  the  inhabitants  of  the  country,  who  made  on 
the  more  cultivated  southerners  the  impression  of  a  rude  and 
uncouth  set  of  people.  The  Kurumbas,  however,  must  have 
already  attained  a  considerable  degree  of  civilisation,  though 
they  looked  despicable  in  the  eyes  of  their  enemies.  "While 
tondan  denotes  a  slave,  tondu  signifies  feudal  service.  In 
Palghat  the  Ilavas  are  to  this  day  nicknamed  Kotti-tondar. 
I  think  it  highly  probable  that  the  Kurumbabhumi  was 
reduced  to  a  feudal  state  as  Tondamandalam,  and  that  the 
Kurumbas  were  regarded  as  Tondar.  The  minister  of  Kulot- 
tuhga  wanted,  as  we  have  seen,  to  apply  the  name  Tondan 
to  Adonda  Cola  himself."^ 

The  subject  becomes  even  more  complicated  by  the  Sans- 
krit name  of  the  district  DandaMranya,  or  Bandakanddu  in 
Tamil.     The  southern  legend  ascribes  to  this  country,  as  we 

'*•  In  Tamil  ^O^irsrarsu)^  and  Q^iremeiSL-  ',  in  Telugu  Arudonda 
w^S^oJf.  The  A  of  Adojida  seems  to  be  therefore  a  contraction  of  Aru 
in  Arudonda.  Aredonda  s'BS^oaf  is  called  the  Capparis  zeylanica.  Bonda 
seems  to  apply  to  the  fruit  of  the  Bryonia  or  Bimba  (0.  P.  Brown's 
Teluffu  Dictionary,  pp.  71,  451) ;  in  Kanarese  Tonde  or  Tonde-kdi  is  the  name 
of  the  Bryonia  grandis.  In  Dr.  J.  Forbes  Watson's  Index  to  the  Native  and 
Scientific  Names  of  Indian  and  other  Eastern  Economic  Plants  and  Prodnets  the 
Capparis  horrida  is  called  Adonda,  Arudonda  in  Telugu ;  Ardandu,  Arduudu  in 
Hindustani  and  Pekkani ;  Atanday,  Atonday,  Atunday  in  TarniL  Eieinus 
communis  is  called  Aranda  and  Arundi  in  Hindustani ;  and  Bryonia  grandis 
Donda  kaya  in  Telugu.  Tu^diTceri  is  the  Sanskrit  name  for  the  cotton  plant, 
■which  grows  in  South  India  in  great  quantity. 

"'  See  p.  252. 


have  seen,  three  rulers  Dandaka,  Tundira  and  Adonda,  who 
conferred  in  their  turn  their  names  on  it.  This  tradition 
seems  to  rest  on  a  very  sUght  foundation.  Not  only  do  these 
rulers  appear  in  a  different  sequence,  at  least  so  far  as  Dandaka 
and  Tundira  are  concerned,  but  their  names  resemble  one 
another  to  such  an  extent,  that  one  cannot  help  suspecting  their 
being  in  reality  only  variations  of  the  same  identical  term. 

Danda  or  Dandaka  was  the  son  of  the  ancient  king  Iksvaku, 
and  was  cursed  by  Sukracarya  for  carrying  off  his  daughter 
Ahjd.  In  consequence  of  this  curse  the  pious  hermits  left 
the  country,  and  it  became  an  uninhabitable  waste  land. 
According  to  ancient  accounts  Dandakaranya,  the  forest  of 
Danda  or  Dandaka,  was  situated  between  the  Narmada  and 
G-odavari  rivers,  but  its  limits  were  gradually  widened,  till 
it  stretched  all  over  Southern  India.  On  the  other  hand  the 
province,  in  whose  centre  lies  the  present  City  of  Madras, 
was  specially  distinguished  as  Tondamandalam.  So  far  as 
I  am  informed  nothing  is  known  about  a  Dravidian  king 
Dandaka,  and  this  present  form  of  the  name  suggests  a  Sans- 
krit origin.  I  am,  however,  of  opinion  that  Danda,  TundOy 
Tundira  are  all  variations  of  the  same  identical  word,  though 
it  is  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  decide  whether  this  term 
is  of  Sanskrit  or  Gauda-Dravidian  source.  It  is  not  impro- 
bable that  the  king  Danda  and  the  demon  Tunda — peculiarly 
enough  Tondira  is  described  as  a  leader  of  demon  bands — 
are  the  representatives  of  an  aboriginal  population.  The 
name  of  the  Tundikeras  behind  the  Vindhyan  mountains 
bears  some  resemblance  to  Tonda.  After  Tundira  Kanclpuram 
is  occasionally  called  Timdirapvram,  a  designation  which 
would  assign  its  foundation  to  a  remote  antiquity.  Tondi  is 
also  the  name  of  a  town,  and  Tondiarpet  is  a  suburb  of 
Madras.  It  is  now  commonly  called  Tandiyarpet  fia5sns).iijmr- 
Quileat^,  as  Adondai  is  in  Tamil  similarly  pronoimced 

'*3  Compare  the  Sanskrit-  Worterbuch  von   Otto   Bohtlingk  and    Rudolpb 
Both,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  494,  495  under  ^^  and  ?^^,  H.  H.  Wilson's  Vishnn- 


The  existence  of  the  Tonda  or  Donda  plant  may  have  led 
to  the  legend  of  the  illegitimate  prince  Adon4a  being  placed 
in  a  basket  filled  with  Adonda  creepers  and  named  after 

The  name  of  the  king  Danda  or  Dandaka  may  thus  be 
of  Gauda-Dravidian  origin.  So  far  as  historical  evidence 
goes,  the  term  Dandakaranya  is  prior  to  that  of  Tondamanda- 
1am,  but  both  may  have  sprung  from  the  same  source.  It  is 
further  possible  that  the  Kurumbas  were  nicknamed  Tondas. 
Other  difficulties  arise  from  the  circumstance  that  the  Pallava 
kings  exercised  authority  contemporaneously  with  the 
Kurumbas  in  the  same  country. 

The  title  of  the  ruler  of  Tondamandalam  was  Tondaman, 
a  designation  which  is  still  borne  by  the  Raja  of  Pudukota 
in  the  Trichinopoly  district,  as  chief  of  the  Kallas.  I  regard 
these  Kallas  as  the  representatives  of  a  portion  of  the  martial 
caste  of  the  Kurumbas.'**  When  these  had  found  their 
occupation  as  regular  soldiers  gone,  they  took  to  marauder- 
ing,  and  made  themselves  so  obnoxious  by  their  thefts  and 
robberies,  that  the  term  Kalian,  thief,  was  applied  and  stuck 
to  them  as  a  tribal  appellation. i*^  In  some  documents  the 
Kallas  are  called  Kurumbas,  and  one  of  the  sub-divisions  of 
the  kindred  Koramas  is  known  as  KaUa-Koramas. 

purd^,  edited  by  Fitzedward  Hall,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  238,  239,  259,  260,  and 
vol.  IV,  p.  59,  about  the  Tundikeras. 

1"  The  Eev.  W.  Taylor  identifies  also  in  the  Catalogue  Raisonne,  vol.  III. 
pp.  385  (the  Kallars  or  Curumbars)  and  399  (the  Kallars,  or  thieves,  another 
name  for  the  Gurumhars  or  Vedars),  the  Kallas  with  the  Kurumbas.  MS.  No. 
I,  C.  M.  755,  3,  of  the  Mackenzie  MSS.  identifies  in  fact  the  Kallas  with  the 
Kurumbas,  for  the  Kallas  of  KaJlakkettu  who  were  defeated  by  the  Palegar. 
SrlvaHavaramakuttala  Tevar  and  Krsnarayamarutappa  Tsvar  are  called 
Kurumbas.  The  Kallas  have  also  adopted  the  title  Tevar  like  the  Maravas. 
Compare  moreover  Mr.  J.  H.  Nelson's  remarks  on  the  Kallas  in  his  Manual 
of  the  Madura  Country,  Part  IX,  pp.  44-56. 

"*'  In  Tamil  Teal,  means  theft,  lying,  and  kalian,  thief,  robber  ;  in  Mala- 
yalam  kaUam  denotes  theft,  untruth,  and  kalian,  thief,  Mar  ;  in  Kanarese 
Icala  is  a  vUlain,  liar ;  and  in  Telugu  kalla,  means  lie.  The  word  Kalian 
occurs  only  in  the  Tamil  language  as  a  tribal  designation,  a  fact  which  proves 
that  the  name  KaUan  is  derived  from  the  root  Tml,  and  not  vice  versA  as  Mr. 


From  reliable  information  I  have  gathered,  the  Kurumba 
origin  of  the  Kajlas  appears  very  probable.  The  ancestors 
of  the  Kallas  were  according  to  tradition  driven  from  their 
home  in  consequence  of  a  famine  and  migrated  from  a  place 
near  Tripati  in  Tondamandalam  to  the  south.  They  even- 
tually settled  in  the  village  Ambil  on  the  bank  of  the  Kole- 
roon  (in  Tamil  KoUadam),  opposite  and  not  far  distant  from 
Tanjore,  the  river  being  between  both  places.  The  ruler  of 
Tanjore  enlisted  them  in  his  service  as  watch-men  or  Kavar- 
kar.  Eventually,  they  left  Ambilnadu,  penetrated  still 
further  to  the  south  and  founded  AmhuMvil,  which  they 
named  after  the  home  they  had  left  not  long  before."^  They 
settled  in  nine  villages,  and  their  descendants  are  called 
Onhadukuppattdr,  after  onbadu  nine  and  kuppam  village.  They 
are  regarded  as  the  nine  representative  clans  of  the  Kallas. 
The  reigning  family  of  the  Tondaman  belongs  to  them,  and  the 
Onhadukuppattdr  are  as  a  sign  of  this  connection  invited  to 
aU  the  marriages,  festivals  and  other  solemnities  which  take 
place  at  Court.  Ambilnadu  formed  originally  one  of  the 
12  independent  small  communities,  known  as  Tamiaracu 
Nadu,  i.e.,  a  district  which  has  its  own  kiugs,  forming  thus  a 
sort  of  confederation,  like  that  which  prevailed  among  the 

Kelson  seems  to  intimate  when  he  says  in  his  Manual  (II,  p.  49)  "that  the 
•word  Kalian  is  common  to  the  Kanarese,  Telugu,  Malayalam  and  Tamil 
tongues  .  .  (andl  that  the  Kalians  were  the  last  great  ahoriginal  tribe  of  the 
south  which  successfully  opposed  the  advancing  tide  of  Hinduism." 

146  ^  great  part  of  the  information  about  the  Kallas  I  obtained  from  the 
present  Dewan  Regent  of  PudukOta,  the  Honorable  A.  Seshiah  Sastriyar, 


See  also  Mr.  Nelson's  Manual,  II,  p.  44  :  "According  to  Ward's  Survey 
Account  the  Kalians  belong  to  two  main  divisions,  that  of  the  Kilnddu  or 
eastern  country,  and  that  of  the  Mel  nadu  or  western  country.  The  Kll 
Nadu  comprises  the  Nadus  of  Melur,  a  village  about  sixteen  miles  east  of 
Madura,  VeUalur  and  Sirungudi :  and  its  inhabitants,  whose  agromen  is 
usually  Ambalakaran,  are  the  descendants  of  a  clan  which  immigrated  into 
the  country  in  the  following  circumstances.  Some  Kalians  belonging  to  the 
Vella  (Vala  P)  Nadu  near  Kanchipuram  (Conjeveram)  came  down  south  with 
a  number  of  dogs  on  a  grand  hunting  expedition,  armed  with  their  peculiar 
weapons,  pikes,  bludgeons  and  Vallari  Thadis  or  bomerangs.  Somehow  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Melur,  whilst  they  were  engaged  in  their  sport,  they 


Kadambas.  This  Nadu  was  situated  east  of  Trichinopoly, 
south  of  Tanjore  and  north  of  Eamnad,  the  residence 
of  the  Setupati.i*'  In  course  of  time  the  Ambilnadu  Kallas 
became  through  the  favour  of  the  Trichinopoly  Naicks  the 
heads  of  the  twelve  districts,  under  their  chief  the  Tondaman. 
One  of  these  princes  married  a  daughter  of  a  Trichinopoly 
Naick,  and  her  consort  erected  after  her  death  the  Ammal 
cattiram,  which  lies  between  Trichinopoly  and  Pudukota.  In 
consequence  and  in  honor  of  this  connection  the  court  language 
at  Pudukota  is  to  this  day  Telugu,  and  Telugu  is  the  first 
language  in  which  the  royal  children  are  instructed.  In 
the  characters  of  this  language  the  Eajas  also  write  their 
signature.  The  Kattiyams  or  poems  which  celebrate  the  deeds 
and  contain  the  pedigree  of  the  Tondamans  are  sung  in 
Telugu  and  by  Telugu  bards  or  Bhatrdjus. 

A  singular  observance  which  has  survived  to  the  present 
day  seems  to  strengthen  the  evidence  about  the  Kurumba 
descent  of  the  Kallas.  At  every  important  feast,  especially 
at  the  floating  festival,  which  is  celebrated  by  the  Pudukota 
Eajas  the  Kambali-Kurumbas  of  a  neighbouring  village, 
about  4  miles  distant  from  Pudukota,  appear  with  their 
goddess  Vlralaksmi.  They  then  perform  before  the  Eaja  a 
very  old  and  peculiar  dance,  their  heads  being  covered  with 
long  flowing  plumes,  and  at  the  conclusion  of  the  dance,  a 
Kurumba  sits  down  quietly  with  his  arms  round  his  knees, 
while  another  breaks  on  his  head  cocoanuts,  the  tom-toms 
meanwhile  continuing  to  beat  time  to  the  dance.     With  this 

observed  a  peacock  showing  fight  to  one  of  their  doga,  and  thinking  from 
this  circumstance  that  the  country  must  he  a  fortunate  country  and  one 
favorahle  to  bodily  strength  and  courage,  they  determined  to  settle  in  it." 

In  Dr.  Winslow's  Tamil  Dictionary,  p.  31,  Amhalakkdran  is  explained 
as  "  a  chief  of  the  Kaller  caste,"  or  as  KaUajjatittalaiyan. 

The  village  of  the  Kallas  above  alluded  to  is  Ambalakkarappatfi  and  lies 
5  miles  distant  from  Melur. 

1"  The  TamU  smssrjrsr,  Tanmracu,  originally  meaning  self-govern- 
ment, got  eventually  the  sense  of  republican,  anarchic  and  even  independent 
rule.  Tannaracu  Nadu  is  therefore  a  district  with  a  democratic  or  indepen- 
dent government. 


ceremony  the  festival  oonoludes.  This  respect  paid  to  the 
Kurumba  goddess  seems  to  prove  that  she  is  also  worshipped 
by  the  Kalias,  who,  though  calling  themselves  Saivites,  are 
mostly  still  devil-worshippers.'** 

The  ancient  home  of  the  Kalias  being  Tondamandalam 
explains  thus  the  name  of  their  chief,  so  well  known  in  the 
modern  Indian  history  as  the  Tondaman ;  and  their  Kurumba 
origin  is  likewise  indicated  by  their  using  the  Nadu  and 
Kottam  system  as  a  division  of  their  country  ;  these  two 
terms  being  peculiar  to  the  Eevenue  Administration  of  the 

From  subsequent  events  it  is  however  clear  that  the 
Kurumbas,  though  defeated  and  at  times  even  reduced  to 
insignificance,  were  not  annihilated  and  that  they  eventually 
recovered  to  some  extent  their  former  influence.  We  know 
thus  that  the  Kurumbas  reasserted  their  supremacy  in  certain 
places,  and  made  themselves  feared  again  in  Tondamandalam, 
and  held  Marutam  Kottai  in  the  times  of  Krsnaraja  of 

Another  branch  of  the  Kurumbas  is  even  said  to  have 
founded  the  kingdom  of  Vijayanagara,  as  its  first  dynasty 
is  traced  to  Kurumba  descent.  Horace  H.  Wilson  says  that 
these  princes  were  of  a  "Kiirma  or  Kuruba  family."  This 
tradition  tallies  with  the  fact  that  both  the  first  kings  of 
Vijayanagara  and  the  Kurumbas  pretended  to  be  Yadavas.'^' 

Other  Kurumbas  invaded  Southern  India  about  two 
hundred  years  ago  and  founded  the  Maratha  kingdom  of 
Tanjore,  an  event  which  leads  me  to  speak  of  the  Kurmis, 
Kumhis  or  Kunbis. 

"'  The  special  deity  of  the  modern  Kalias  is  called  Alakar,  ^lasir  • 
alakii  signifies  beauty.     Compare  ahout  the  coooanuts,  p.  238. 

'"  See  Mr.  Ellis'  Seport  on  the  Mirasi  Rights,  pp.  228,  229. 

"0  See  Mackenzie  Collection  No.  U,  C.  M.  768,  VIII. 

'°' See  p.  261.  Rev.  W.  Taylor's  Catalogue  Raisonne,  vol.  Ill,  p.  368, 
and  H.  H.  Wilson's  Introduction  to  the  Mackenzie  Collection,  1st  ed.,  p.  cxi, 
(2nd  cd.,  p.  83):  "  One  tradition  ascrihed  the  origin  of  Vijai/anagar  to  Madhava 
leaving  it  to  the  Kurma  or  Kiiruia  family." 

of  bharatavarsa  or  india.  261 

On  the  Kurmis,  Kumbis  or  Kunbis. 

I  have  already  intimated  that  a  considerahle  portion  of 
the  agricultiiral  population  of  Northern  India  is,  as  I  believe, 
of  Graudian  origin.  When  saying  this,  I  had  in  view  the 
widely-spread  and  well-known  tribe  of  the  Kurmis,  Kumbis 
or  Kunbis,  who  according  to  the  last  Census  Eeport  number 
12,199,531  souls.  The  agricultural  population  forms  in  most 
countries  the  bulk  of  the  nation,  and,  in  an  agricultural  land 
like  India  this  large  number  need  not  create  any  astonish- 
ment. The  late  Eev.  Dr.  John  Wilson  proposed  to  derive 
the  word  Kurmi  (Kumbi  or  Kunbi)  from  the  Sanskrit  root 
krs,  to  plough,  and  to  take  kurmi  for  a  modification  of  krsmi, 
ploughman,  a  word  which,  however,  so  far  as  I  know,  does 
not  exist  in  Sanskrit.'^^ 

I  regard  this  etymology  as  wrong  and  prefer  to  explain 
the  terms  Kurmi  and  Kumbi  as  contractions  of  Kurumi  and 
Kurumbi;  in  fact,  as  stated  previously,  we  actually  meet  with 
the  term  Kurma  for  Kuruma-^^'  The  interchange  between 
r  and  d  modifies  Kurumba  into  Kudumba  and  most  peculiarly 
a  part  of  the  agricultural  population  of  Tanjore  bears  to 
this  day  the  name  Kudumban  which  is  ideijtical  with 
Kudumbi,  and  from  which  the  Marathi  Kumbi  or  Kunbi  is 
derived.  The  expression  Ktidvmbi  is  stiU  occasionally  used 
in  this  sense,  as  I  have  been  informed  on  good  authority, 
by  some  natives  of  Baroda  and  its  neighboiirhood  ;  and  even 
in  the  Mysore  territory  the  Maratha  Kunbis  are  called,  as 
I  hear,  at  times  Kudumbis.     The  existence  of  terms  like 

'5^  See  the  Kev.  Dr.  John  Wilson's  "  Tribes  and  Languages  of  the  Bombay 
Presidency  "  in  the  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  Ill,  p.  222  :  "  The  largest  tribe 
of  the  JIaratha  people  is  that  of  the  Kuniis,  corresponding  with  the  Gujarati 
Kulambls  or  cultivators.  The  derivation  of  the  name  is  as  follows :  Kruhmi 
(S.)  a  plonghman,  Kmnii  (Hindi),  KulambI  (Gujarati),  and  Kunabi  or  Kunbi 
(Marathi).  They  are  called  '  Mara^haa  '  by  way  of  distinction.  Some  of  their 
oldest  and  highest  families  (as  that  of  Sivaji,  the  founder  of  the  Maratha  Em- 
pire) hold  themselves  to  he  descended  of  Kshatriyas  or  BajpUts  ;  and,  though 
they  eat  with  the  cultivating  Marathis,  they  do  not  iutertnarry  vrith  them. 
All  the  Marathds,  however,  are  viewed  by  the  Brahmans  as  Siidras." 

"s  See  the  text  and  n.  151  on  p.  260. 



Kiirumbi  or  Kudumbi  accounts  also  for  the  Q-uzarati  Kulamhl, 
though  this  expression  is  said  to  be  only  used  in  works  pub- 
lished in  the  Educational  series. 

The  term  Kudumbi,  however,  is  also  mentioned  in  the 
Madras  Census  Eeport  as  current  in  Tan j  ore.  It  must  not 
be  mistaken  for  the  Sanskrit  Kutumhi,  householder ;  nor 
must  it  be  connected  with  the  Tamil  kudumi,  a  tuft  of  hair. 

Kumbi  was  changed  into  Kunhi,  and  this  again  into  Ku- 
nabi  and  Kunubi  which  forms  are  found  in  modern  Marathi. 
Should  any  derivative  of  Kurmi,  Kumbi  or  Kunbi  denote 
agriculture,  it'  must  have  originated  in  the  same  manner 
from  Kumbi  as  Vellanmai  has  from  Vellalan. 

The  antiquated  Indian  caste  system  is  so  far  right  that 
it  assigns  the  Kurmis,  Kumbis  or  Kunbis  to  the  Sudra  class, 
i.e.,  to  the  non- Aryan  population.  In  spite  of  contradictory 
evidence  Colonel  Dalton  thinks  :  "  it  is  probable  that  in  the 
Kurmis  we  have  the  descendants  of  some  of  the  earliest  of 
the  Aryan  colonists  of  Bengal."^^* 

The  Kurmis  are  on  the  whole  a  very  respectable,  indus- 
trious and  well-to-do  class,  though  not  credited  with  much 
intellect.  Like  many  other  low-born  people  some  Kurmis 
display  a  great  anxiety  to  prove  their  noble  extraction,  and, 
in  order  to  avoid  any  mistakes  being  made  on  this  subject. 
Dr.  Francis  Buchanan  expressly  asserts  that  they  are  in 
reality  Siidras,  though  some  claim  to  be  Ksatriyas.  The 
Kurmis  of  Berar  eat  meat,  drink  spirits  and  allow  widows 
to  remarry.  In  the  Bombay  Presidency  the  Kurmis  are 
subdivided  into  two  classes,  the  Agris  and  Mardthas,  and 
the  latter  are  in  their  turn  again  known  as  Pure  Marathas 
and  Akarmashis.  The  Akarmashis  are  deemed  to  be  descen- 
dants of  slaves,  and  the  Agris  are  representatives  of  an 
aboriginal  race.'*' 

'"  See  his  Ethnology  of  Bengal,  p.  317. 

>"  About  the  Kurmis  compare  Dr.  Fr.  Buchanan's  Sistory,  Antiquities, 
Topography  and  Statistics  of  Eastern  India,  vol.  I,  pp.  166,  283;   vol.  II   pp! 

OF    BHARATAVAR8A    OH    INDIA.  263 

These  facts  seem  to  be  conclusive  evidence  for  the  non- 
Aryan  origin  of  the  Kurmis  and  Kunbis.  But  what  makes 
this  tribe  historically  so  interesting,  is  the  circumstance  that 
some  of  the  chief  Hindu  dynasties  of  modern  times  such 
as  the  Eajas  of  Sattdra,  the  late  Eajas  of  Tanjore,  Scindia 
and  others  are  of  Kumbi  extraction.  The  circumstance 
that  the  old  Marathi  dialect  has  preserved  the  term  Kudumbi 
enables  us  to  trace  the  connection  of  these  Kunbis  with  the 
Kudumbas  or  Kurumbas. 

Considering  the  bravery  and  the  fierceness  of  the  ancient 
Kurumbas  who  were  the  dread  and  the  bane  of  their  neigh- 
bour's, we  need  not  be  surprised  if  the  fire  of  their  martial 
disposition  was  not  quite  extinct  in  the  otherwise  plodding 
Kumbis,  and  that  the  genius  of  Sivaji  and  Ekoji  could 
kindle  the  spark  into  a  blazing  flame.  If  Sir  Greorge 
Campbell  had  suspected  the  origin  of  the  Kumbis,  he  would 

468,  469  :  "  Next  to  the  AMrs  the  Kurmis  here  (in  Gorukhpoor)  hold  the 
highest  place ;  and  in  Parraona  they  obtained  the  whole  property,  although 
they  were  not  able  to  secure  the  title  of  Raja.  This,  however,  was  bestowed 
on  the  family  by  the  late  Asfud-Doulah,  but  it  gave  great  offence  to  the 
Eajputs,  and  has  been  discontinued.  The  families  most  nearly  connected 
with  the  chiefs  of  Parraona,  and  some  others,  who  were  Chaudkuris  of  Per- 
gimahs,  are  reckoned  Ashraf ,  and  scorn  the  plough.  While  a  great  many  of 
the  Saithawar  and  Patanawar  tribes  have  become  ashamed  of  the  term  Kurmi, 
and  reject  all  additions  to  the  names  above-mentioned,  although  it  is  well 
known  that  they  are  Kurmis,  and  many  of  them  are  not  ashamed  of  this 
name.  On  the  right  of  the  Sarayu  this  tribe  is  most  commonly  called  Kunmi 
or  Kunbi,  which,  in  the  account  of  Mysore,  I  have  written  Cunabi  (see  above 
p.  232  n.  109);  for  itis  one  of  the  most  generally  diffused  audnumerous  tribes  in 
India ;  and  in  Malawa  has  risen  to  great  power  by  the  elevation  of  Sindhiya 
to  the  government  of  TJjjain.  This  person  was  a  Kurmi ;  but  I  am  told, 
that  at  his  capital  the  Kurmis  are  now  reckoned  Eajputs,  as  they  would  have 
been  here  had  the  Parraona  family  been  a  little  more  powerful.  There  is 
some  reason  to  suspect,  that  their  daim  is  better  founded  than  that  of  many 
who  have  had  more  success  ;  for  it  is  alleged  by  many,  that  they  are  the 
same  with  the  Tharus,  whose  claim  to  be  descended  of  the  family  of  the  sun, 
is  supported  by  many  circumstances  which  must  be  allowed  to  have  some 
weight,  although  I  do  not  think  them  conclusive.  If  the  Kurmis,  however, 
are  the  same  with  the  Tharus,  they  are  at  any  rate  descended  of  the  most 
powerful,  most  civilized,  and  most  ancient  tribe,  that  has  been  sovereigns  of 
the  country  since  the  time  at  least  of  the  family  of  the  sun.  Ag  the  Tharus, 
however,  are  impure,  the  Kurmis  strenuously  deny  the  connection,  they  being 



not  have  been  so  puzzled  about  the  military  element  so  con- 
spicuous in  their  character.''^ 

On  the  origin  of  the  term  Kadamba. 

Having  been  able  to  recognize  in  the  Kurmis  or  Kumbis 
the  well-known  Kurumbas  or  Kudumbas,  I  do  not  believe  that 
I  go  too  far  by  suggesting  a  similar  explanation  for  the 
name  of  the  famous  Kadamba  dynasty  of  ancient  times. 
Only  mysterious  legends  which  connect  its  founder  with  the 
Kadamba  tree  are  known  about  this  royal  race.  I  suspect 
that  behind  the  name  Kadamba  lurks  that  of  Kudumba 
or  Kurumba,  and  that  the  former  was  originally  an  acci- 
dental alteration  through  variation  of  sound,  which,  in  course 
of  time,  was  accepted  and  used  to  obliterate  the  real  origin 
of  the  ruling  tribe.  In  this  case,  its  ethnological  status  is 
ascertained,  and  I  shall  now  enquire  into  the  origin  of  the 
title  Kadamba. 

nearly  as  pure  as  the  A  hire.  Thej'  formerly  ate  wild  pork,  tut  now  reject  it, 
and  will  not  acknowledge  that  they  drink  Bpirituous  liquor.  They  keep 
widows  as  concubines.  Their  Gurus  and  Purohits  are  the  same  with  those  of 
the  Ahirs." 

Compare  further  Sir  Henry  M.  Elliot's  Supplemental  Glossary  of  Indian 
Terms,  vol.  I,  pp.  155,  157  ;  H.  H.  WHson's  Glossary,  pp.  302,  a04  and  305, 
uniei  Kunbi  a,ni.  Kurmi :  "  Knrmi,  Koormee  (H.  ^_j«X  jriy).  The  caste  of 
agriculturists,  or  of  a  member  of  it,  in  Eastern  and  Central  Hindustan,  being 
the  same,  essentially,  as  the  Kunbis  of  the  west  and  south."  Consult  also 
Colonel  Dalton's  Descriptive  Ethnology  of  Bengal,  pp.  306,  308,  317-327  ;  Sir 
George  Campbell's  Ethnology  of  India,  pp.  40,  92-95  ;  Rev.  M.  A.  Sherring's 
Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes,  vol.  I,  pp.  323-325  ;  vol.  II,  pp.  99-101,  187,  188  ; 
vol.  Ill,  pp.  150-152. 

''*  See  Sir  George  Campbell's  Ethnology  of  India,  p.  94  :"  Nothing  puzzled 
me  more  than  this,  viz.,  to  understand  whence  came  the  great  Maratta  mili- 
tary element.  In  the  Punjab  one  can  easily  understand  the  sources  of  Sikh 
power  ;  every  peasant  looks  fit  to  be  a  soldier.  But  the  great  mass  of  the 
Maratta  Koonbees  look  like  nothing  of  the  kind,  and  are  the  quietest  and 
most  obedient  of  humble  and  unwarlike  cultivators.  .  Although  the  Koonbee 
element  was  the  foundation  of  the  Maratta  power,  though  Sevajee  and  some 
of  his  chiefs  were  Koonbees,  it  appears  that  these  people  came  almost 
exclusively  from  a  comparatively  small  district  near  Sattara,  a  hiUy  region 
where,  as  I  judge,  the  Koonbees  are  much  mixed  with  numerous  aboriginal 
aad  semi-aboriginal  tribes  of  JMhars  and  others."  Compare  about  the  Kunbis 
also  the  Gazetteer  nj  Auraiigr'had,  pp.  265-270. 


Different  legends  are  told  to  explain  the  name  of  the 
Kadamha,  Kadamba  or  Kadamba  dynasty,'" 

One  story  tells  us  that  after  the  destruction  of  the  demon 
Tripura  a  drop  of  perspiration  fell  from  the  forehead  of 
Kvara  through  the  hollow  of  a  Kadamba  tree,  and  assumed 
the  form  of  a  man  with  three  eyes  and  four  arms.  He  was 
accordingly  called  Trinetra  or  Trilocana  Kadamha,  became 
the  foimder  of  the  Kadamba  dynasty  and  erected  near  the 
Sahya  mountain  his  capital  Vdnavdii,  also  known  as  Jayantl- 
piira  or  Vaijayantipura}^^ 

Another  tradition  relates  that  he  was  the  son  of  Siva 
and  Parvati,  who  stayed  for  a  certain  period  in  the  same 
mountain  range,  that  he  was  born  there  eventually  under  a 
Kadambatree,  whence  the  child  obtained  his  name,  and 
became  a  king  in  course  of  time. 

These  are  the  two  most  widely-spread  reports,  but  ac- 
cording to  another  a  Brahman  of  Yalgi  underwent  a  severe 
penance  in  order  to  become  a  king  through  the  favor  of 
MadhukeSvara.i^^  His  penance  was  graciously  accepted,  and 
a  divine  voice  informed  him  that  he  would  be  reborn  as  a 
peacock,  that  the  person  who  would  eat  his  head  would 
become  a  king,  that  those  who  would  partake  of  his  breast 
would  become  ministers,  and  that  those  who  would  feast 
on  the  remainder  of  his  body  would  become  treasurers.  The 
Brahman  satisfied  with  this  promise,  went  to  Kdii,  where  he 
killed  himself  with  a  spear  and  was  reborn  as  a  peacock.  In 
such  a  state  he  roamed  about  in  the  forest  and  announced 

1"  See  "  A  Kadamba  Inscription  at  Siddhapur"  by  K.  B.  Patbak,  b.a., 
in  tbe  Indian  Antiquary,  vol.  XI,  p.  273  :  "  The  name  of  the  family  seems  to 
have  been  written  differently,  as  Kadamba,  Kadamba  or  Kadamba." 

158  Consult  Mackenzie  MSS.,  Kanareee  No.  744, 11,  pp.  208  »eq.,  further 
H.  H.  Wilson's  Introduction  to  The  Mackenzie  Collection,  pp.  1.,  ci.,  old 
edition,  pp.  60,  149,  second  edition;  Mr.  Lewis  Eice's  Mysore  and  Coorg, 
vol.  I,  pp.  193,  194)  II>  P-  352,  and  his  Mysore  Inscriptions,  p.  xxxiii. 

15*  See  Maekemie  Manuscripts,  Kauarese,  No.  725,  VI,  pp.  99-102  ;  H.  H. 
Wilson's  Mackenzie  Collection,  pp.  ci,  ciii,  old  edition  ;  pp.  149,  150,  new 


with  a  shrill  voice  that  the  person  who  would  eat  his  head 
would  become  a  king ;  until  he  fell  into  the  hands  of  a  gang 
of  thieves,  who  were  resting  under  a  Kadamha  tree.  They 
killed  the  bird  and  asked  a  woman,  Puspavafl  by  name,  who 
was  living  near  by,  to  cook  the  peacock  and  to  distribute  its 
flesh  amongst  them.  While  the  woman  was  preparing  the 
peacock,  and  the  thieves  were  bathing,  her  son  came  home 
very  hungry,  and,  as  he  wanted  something  to  eat,  his  mother 
gave  him  the  head  of  the  bird  in  ignorance  of  what  was  in 
store  for  him  who  ate  it.  When  he  had  eaten  it,  the  thieves 
returned,  partook  of  the  remainder  of  the  meat,  but  were 
astonished  that  after  staying  a  while,  none  of  them  was 
proclaimed  king.  They  fetched  the  woman,  who,  when  hard 
pressed,  told  them  what  she  had  done,  and  that  her  son 
had  eaten  the  head  of  the  peacock.  The  thieves  found  that 
it  was  of  no  use  to  fight  against  destiny  and  submitted  to 
their  fate. 

The  king  Annkapiirandara  of  Jayantipura  had  died  at  that 
very  time  without  leaving  any  living  issue  behind  and,  as 
was  the  custom  in  these  circumstances,  the  ministers  let  the 
state  elephant  loose  with  a  watervessel  containing  holy  water. 
While  thus  roaming  about,  he  came  to  the  spot  in  the  forest 
near  which  the  son  of  Puspavati  was  living  close  to  the 
Kadamba  tree.  The  elephant  bowed  down  to  the  youth, 
who  ascended  the  animal  and  was  carried  by  him  to  Jayanti- 
pura, where  he  was  joyfully  received,  placed  on  the  royal 
throne  and  anointed  as  king.  He  assumed  henceforth  the 
name  Mayuravarma  Kadamba  and  ruled  for  a  long  time 
gloriously  over  the  country. 

The  election  of  a  king  is  in  Indian  legends  often  entrusted 
to  a  state-elephant,  and  widely  spread  is  also  the  belief  that 
he  who  eats  the  head  of  a  peacock  becomes  a  king.  The 
peacock  is  in  Sanskrit  called  Mayura,  hence  the  name 
Mayuravarma,  which  the  youth  accepted.  So  far  as  the 
person  and  his  origin  are  concerned,  the  two  legends  differ, 
as  one  refers    to  Trinetra  and  the    other  to    Mayuravarma 


Kadamba,  but  the  Kadamba  tree  plays  in  both  traditions  a 
significant  part. 

As  Puspamti  prepared  the  food  for  the  thieves  of  which 
her  son  partook,  and  which  she  distributed  among  the  thieves, 
one  may  assume  with  good  reason  that  she  belonged  to  the 
same  caste  as  the  thieves  who  caught  the  peacock,  and  these 
people  I  feel  inclined  to  identify  with  the  Kurumbas. 
The  peacock  plays  an  important  part  in  the  account  of  the 
settlement  of  the  Kallas  in  the  Kadambavanam  or  Kadamhd- 
tavi  of  Madura.  So  far  as  the  expression  thief  is  concerned, 
it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  thieving  or  robbing  was  not 
considered  disgraceful,  if  it  was  practised  as  a  regular  pro- 
fession, just  as  cattlelifting  did  not  in  former  times  attach 
any  stygma  to  those  who  indulged  in  it  in  the  Highlands 
of  Scotland. 

The  Kadamba  tree,  of  which  there  exist  various  species, 
is  much  esteemed  for  its  flowers  which  are  sacred  to  the  god 
Skanda,  for  its  fragrant  and  highly  esteemed  powder  which 
is  used  at  religious  ceremonies,  for  the  juice  which  exudes 
from  its  stem,  and  for  other  reasons.  Its  name  was  spelt  in 
various  ways,  Kadamba  and  Kadamba,  and  as  it  was  origi- 
nally an  indigenous  Indian  plant,  I  presume  that  this  term 
is  also  indigenous  and  Non- Aryan.  I  believe  that  the  people 
and  the  dynasty,  which  we  caU  Kadambas,  were  actually 
a  branch  of  the  Kurumbas,  who  had  assumed  a  slightly 
modified  designation  by  changing  their  name  Kurumba  into 
Kadamba,  and  that  the  stories  about  the  Kadamba  tree  are 
inventions  of  later  times  in  order  to  explain  the  coincidence. 
It  is  hardly  necessary  to  restate  here  the  resemblance  be- 
tween the  a  and  u  sounds,  and  to  mention  that  the  Kadamba 
plant  is  in  various  places  of  India  called  Kudumba."" 

I  have  had  occasion  to  allude  to  the  peculiar  mode 
of    confederation     prevalent    among    the    Kurumbas    and 

18°  See  the  Eev.  Dr.  Morison  Winslow's  Tamil  and  English  Dictionary, 
p.  219,  "Katampam,  Eatampu,  a  flower  tree."  It  is  sacred  to  Skanda  who  ia 
called  Katampan  ;  Madura  is  called  Katampavanam  or  Katampdtavi.    On  p. 


a  similar  institution  is  said   to    have    existed    among    the 

Yet,  what  seems  to  establish  the  original  identity  be- 
tween the  Kurumbas  and  the  Kadambas,  is  the  fact  that 
the  term  Kadamba  is  actually  found  in  Tamil  as  a  synono- 
mous  and  identical  expression  for  Kurumba,  though  this 
circumstance  has  up  to  now  escaped  the  notice  it  really 

236  we  find  "Katampam,  Katampu,  the  Kadamba  tree."  In  the  common 
vernacular  the  Kadamha  tree  is  often  called  Kudumbu,  in  Hindustani  and 
Bengali  it  is  known  as  Kudum. — Toddy  is  made  from  certain  Kadamba  trees, 
and  the  Marathaa  make  mead  from  the  Kadamba  {Anthoeephalus  Cadamba). 
Compare  Dr.  Dymock's  Anthropogonic  Trees,  Bombay  Anthropological 
Journal,  vol.  I,  p.  301.  ParvatI  (or  Durga)  likes  to  dwell  in  the  tree.  Mr. 
Lewis  Eice  says  on  p.  xxxiii  in  his  Mysore  Inscriptions  that  "the  Ka- 
damba tree  appears  to  be  one  of  the  palms  from  which  toddy  is  extracted." 
The  Vispupuraua  (see  H.  H.  Wilson's  translation  edited  by  Fitzedward  Hall, 
vol.  V,  pp.  65,  66)  reports,  that  "  Varuna,  in  order  to  provide  for  his 
(Sssa's)  recreation,  said  to  (his  wife)  Vaninl  (the  goddess  of  wine)  :  '  Thou, 
Madira,  art  ever  acceptable  to  the  powerful  Ananta.  Go,  therefore,  auspicious 
and  kind  goddess,  and  promote  his  enjoyments.'  Obeying  these  commands, 
Varunl  went  and  established  herself  in  the  hollow  of  a  Kadamba-tree  in  the 
woods  of  Vrindavana.  Baladeva,  roaming  about  (came  there,  and),  smelling 
the  pleasant  fragrance  of  liquor,  resumed  his  ancient  passion  for  strong 
di'ink.  The  holder  of  the  ploughshare,  observing  the  vinous  drops  distilling 
from  the  Kadamba-tree,  was  much  delighted,  (and  gathered)  and  quaffed 
them  along  with  the  herdsmen  and  the  Gopis,  whQst  those  who  were  skilful 
with  voice  and  lute  celebrated  him  in  their  songs.  Being  inebriated  (with 
the  wine),  and  the  drops  of  perspiration  standing  like  pearls  upon  his  limbs, 
he  called  out,  not  knowing  what  he  said."  (In  a  note  to  this  is  said  : 
"  Kadambarl  is  one  of  the  synonyms  of  wine  or  spirituous  liquor.  The 
grammarians,  however,  also  derive  the  word  from  some  legend  ;  stating  it  to 
be  so  called,  because  it  was  produced  from  the  hoUow  of  a  Kadamba-tree 
on  the  Gomanta  mountain.")  According  to  the  Bhagavata  the  Kadamba - 
tree  was  placed  on  SuparSva;  see  Vishnupurana,  vol.  II,  p.  116.  In  the 
Sanskrit  Dictionary  of  Professors  Bohtlingk  and  Roth  we  read  in  vol.  I,  p. 
211:  ^' Kadambara  ein  aus  den  Blumen  der  Nauclea  Cadamba  bereitetes 
borauschendes  Getrank,  n.  Tfqi^,  H  (Smacandra)  an.  Med.  f.  f  diesB.  und 
A.K  2,  10,  40,  H.  902,  the  rain-water  which  collects  in  clefts  and  hollow 
places  of  the  tree  (Nauclea  Cadamba)  when  the  flowers  are  in  perfection, 
and  which  is  supposed  to  be  impregnated  with  the  honey,  Carey  bei  Haugh- 
ton.     4i<H4>'li"i  3TRTT  11^  +KH<1l'r)  HT  Hariv.    5417,  fg." 

"1  See  p.  259. 

"^  I  have  elsewhere  pointed  out  the  circumstance  that  the  name  of  the 
rude  and  cruel  Kurumbas  was  used  in  some  South  Indian  Languages  as  an 
expression  for  cruelty;  so  that  Earumbart  denotes  in  Tamil  and  Malayalam 


At  a  much  later  period  we  find  the  Kaclambas  connected 
with  the  last  great  dynasty  of  Southern  ludia,  the  Eajas  of 
Vijayanagara.  The  founders  of  this  kingdom  are  also  said 
to  have  been  Kurumbas.  If  the  first  family  of  the  Vijaya- 
nagara kings  were  Kurumbas,  and  on  the  other  hand  re- 
lated to  the  once  famous,  but  then  decayed  though  not  extinct 
royal  house  of  the  Kadambas  of  Tuluva,  historical  evidence, 
however  slight,  would  have  been  adduced  to  estabhsh  the 
connection  between  the  Kurumbas  and  the  Kadambas,  and 
this  connection  is  in  its  turn  supported  by  philological  proof 
of  the  original  identity  of  their  names.''^''^ 

I  have  thus  in  the  preceding  pages  given  an  account  of 
those  more  important  sections  of  the  Gaudian  population 
whose  identification  offered  the  least  difiiculty,  and  who  from 
time  immemorial  have  occupied  an  acknowledged  position 
among  the  inhabitants  of  India. 

I  have  shown,  moreover,  that  these  Gaudians  form 
together  with  the  Dra vidians  the  Gauda-Dravidian  race,  and 

a  savage,  a  stubborn  fellow,  and  kurumiu  (or  ktirumhuttanam) ,  barbarity, 
insolence  and  wickedness.  The  same  word  underwent  a  slight  alteration, 
of  u  being  changed  into  a,  so  that  Eadamban  signifies  in  both  these 
languages  an  unruly  fellmv,  and  in  Dr.  Winslow's  Dictionary  we  find  on 
p.  219  "  Si^LDuiT  (Katampar),  s.  Unruly  persons,  (^^lduit  (Kurumpar)." 
The  only  explanation  of  the  name  Kadamba  I  remember  to  have  seen,  is 
contained  in  Mr.  Grigg's  Manual  of  the  Nilagiri  District,  where  in  note  4 
on  p.  208  he  asks  :  "  May  not  this  word  (Kadamba)  be  a  compound  of  Katu  or 
Katam  (both  meaning  forest)  and  Kurumba,  and  perhaps  be  the  same  as 
Kad-Kurumba  ?  " 

i°3  See  The  Mackenzie  Collection  Introduction,  p.  civ;  new  edition, 
pp.  61,  62  :  "  There  is  little  doubt  also  that  the  first  princes  of  Yijayanagar 
were  descended  from  a  Tuluva  family  of  ancient  origin  and  power,  whose 
dominions  extended  towards  the  western  sea :  whether  they  were  connected 
with  the  Kadamba  family  does  not  appear,  but  that  this  race  continued  to 
hold  possessions  in  Kernata,  till  near  their  time,  is  proved  by  grants  at 
Banavaai,  Savanur,  and  Gokernam,  dated  in  the  twelfth,  thirteenth  and 
fourteenth  centuries  by  Kadamba  kings."  Compare  also  Mr.  Lewis  Rice's 
Mysore  and  Coorg,  vol.  Ill,  p.  98  :  "  In  1336  was  founded  the  city  of  Vijaya- 
nagar,  whose  princes  are  said  to  have  derived  their  origin  from  the 


that  though  descended  from  the  same  stock  and  speaking  the 
same  language,  these  tribes  separated  iuprehistoric  times  and 
subsequently  became  still  more  alienated  from  each  other. 

In  spite  of  this  fact,  they  continued  to  live  intermingled 
in  the  same  districts,  though  a  gulf  of  hatred  and  of  caste 
prejudice  prevented  them  from  coalescing.  The  cause  of 
this  separation  of  the  two  kindred  tribes  it  is  now  impossible 
to  ascertain,  but  the  division  has  since  been  kept  alive  and, 
if  anything,  it  may  be  still  further  widened  in  the  future. 
A  few  exceptions  to  this  mutual  antipathy  however  occur, 
e.g.,  in  the  case  of  the  Bhils  and  the  Gonds. 

With  these  remarks  I  shall  pass  to  the  third  part, 
in  which  the  religious  aspect  of  this  enquiry  will  be  dis- 


(  271  ) 



Inteoductoet  Rbmaees. 

In  the  two  previous  parts  my  researches  concerning  the 
Original  Inhabitants  of   India  proceeded  from  a  linguistic 
point  of  view,  I  shall  now  endeavour  to  prove  that  the  con- 
clusions I  arrived  at  from  philological  evidence  can  be  sup- 
ported by,  as  it  were,   a  theological  enquiry.     Though  the 
main  subject  of  these  researches   refers  to   the  non-Aryan 
population  of  this  country,  I  have  as  an  introduction  also  to 
consider  portions  of  the  Aryo-Indian  theogony,  as  both  the 
Aryan  and  the  non- Aryan  have  eventually  blended  into  one. 
The  Sanskrit  works  which  in  particular  contain  accounts 
of  such  a  nature  are  the  Vedas,  more  especially  the  Rgveda, 
the   Mahabharata,    the    Ramayaija,   the   Puraijas  and   the 
Dharmasastras.     The   Rgveda  which  supplies    us    with  the 
most  ancient  description  of  the   religious  and  domestic  life 
of  the  Aryan  invaders  of  India,  and  which  on    account  of 
the  sacred  character  of   its  hymns  has   been  invested   with 
a  supernatural  origin,  contains  the  oldest,  and  as  such  the 
most  important  information,  of  this  kind.     The  knowledge 
we  derive  from  it  is,  however,  of  a  very  vague  and  obscure 
nature.     The  accounts  preserved  in  the  Mahabharata,  Rama- 
yaua,    Puraiias  and  Law-books  refer  to  a  later  period,  and 
are  obscured  by  a  legendary  veil  which  renders  their  explana- 
tion difficult. 

The  Veda  contains  a  collection  of  ancient  verses  composed 
by  different  authors  at  various  times  for  sundry  purposes. 



It  is  extant  in  four  different  Samliitas  or  texts.  The  Bgveda 
contains  tlie  rcas  or  verses  arranged  according  to  tlie  hymns, 
to  which  they  belong.  They  are  recited  by  the  Hotr-priests, 
and  must  be  regarded  as  the  literary  legacy  bequeathed  by 
their  forefathers  to  the  present  Aryan  population  of  India. 
The  separate  verses  of  the  Egveda  hymns  are  compiled  in 
the  Sdmaveda  without  any  internal  connection  and  are  sub- 
ject to  musical  modifications  ;  the  Udgatr-priests  sing  these 
sdmani  or  songs  at  the  Soma  offering.  The  same  verses 
are  re-arranged  into  yajumsi  or  prayers,  and  are  with  a 
peculiar  intonation  muttered  by  the  Adhvaryu-priests  of  the 
Yajurveda,  of  which  two  recensions  exist,  the  Krsna,  the 
black  or  unarranged,  and  the  8uMa,  the  white  or  cleansed 
Yajurveda.  The  verses  of  these  three  Yedic  compilations 
are  known  as  mantra.  The  Atharva-  or  Brahma-veda  is  the 
fourth  Veda  and  consists  mostly  of  popular  incantations, 
some  of  which  can  justly  lay  claim  to  great  antiquity,  as 
they  have  been  found  also  among  the  legendary  lore  of  other 
Aryan  tribes.  It  is  ascribed  to  the  priest  Atharvan.  The 
verses  of  this  Veda  rank  more  as  Tantra  than  Mantra. 
"While  the  hymns  of  the  Rgveda  and  of  the  Atharvaveda 
possess,  besides  their  poetic  and  religious  value,  a  high 
importance  as  historical  documents,  the  liturgical  element 
prevails  in  both  the  Samaveda  and  Yajurveda.  The  latter, 
however,  attained  in  subsequent  times  such  a  popularity, 
that  the  Taittirlyopanisad  likens  the  four  Vedas  to  a  bird, 
in  which  the  Yajurveda  forms  the  head,  the  Eg-  and  Sama- 
veda respectively  the  right  and  left  wings,  and  the  Athar- 
vaveda the  tail. 

It  is  hardly  reasonable  to  suppose  that  man  in  his  earliest 
stage  should  have  possessed  sufficient  aptitude  and  leisure 
to  consider  the  obscure  problem  of  creation.  Wherever 
therefore  we  find  in  olden  times,  or  amidst  hitherto  unknown 
people,  an  account  of  the  creation,  we  may  safely  ascribe 
Such  an  account  to  a  subsequent  period  when  the  conditions 


of  life  permitted  sucli  meditations.  Tlie  contemplation  of 
tlie  universe  eventually,  however,  inspired  the  ancient  poets 
to  investigate  and  to  try  to  discover  the  secrets  of  nature, 
to  find  out  who  created  heaven  and  earth,  the  sun,  the 
moon,  and  the  stars,  to  determine  whether  the  night  pre- 
ceded the  day,  or  the  day  the  night,  and  similar  problems. 
Whenever  the  creation  of  the  world  forms  the  sub-stratum 
of  thought,  it  seems  natural  to  assume  that  this  creation — if 
a  creative  power  or  impetus  is  admitted — may  be  ascribed 
to  one  or  to  more  than  one  creator,  this  creator  being  often 
considered  as  the  supreme  centre  from  which  creation  freely 
emanates  to  sub-centres,  which  in  their  turn  emanate  ad 
infinitum.  Yet,  all  the  religions  actually  known  to  us  which 
accept  a  creative  principle,  acknowledge  the  existence  of 
only  one  creator.  But  he  who  believes  in  the  existence  of 
one  creator  need  not  necessarily  believe  in  the  existence  of 
only  one  God.  Much  less  right  have  we  to  assume,  that  the 
religion  of  the  people  to  whom  a  monotheistic  seer  belongs, 
must  be  monotheistic.  A  faint  monotheistic  tendency  is 
quite  compatible  with  a  limited  or  even  an  extravagant 
polytheism,  and  this  peculiar  feature  is,  if  anywhere,  extant 
already  in  the  faith  contained  in  the  Veda,  and  later  on  in 
the  Indian  Trimilrti  and  the  immense  Hindu  Pantheon.  The 
different  Vedic  gods,  Varuna,  Mitra,  Indra,  Agni,  POsan, 
Savitr,  Soma  and  others,  are  each  in  their  turn  praised  and 
worshipped  as  the  supreme  divinity,  but  this  worship  of 
one  deity  at  a  time  does  not  constitute  monotheism.  Every 
god  thus  adored  retains  his  personal  existence,  and  is  not 
merged  in  another.  This  kind  of  worship  has  been  styled 
Henotheism  or  Kathenotheism,  but  as  such  it  must  be  distin- 
guished from  Monotheism,  the  worship  of  one  god.  At  all 
events  the  Vedic  Henotheism  savours  much  of  Polytheism. 
The  qualities  and  the  position  of  the  various  deities  are 
subiect  to  change,  and  this  fact  enables  us  to  understand 
how  the  Asuras,  the  original  gods  of  the  Veda,  were  degraded 


when   the  period  of   their  ascendancy   had   expired,  and 

the  very  term  asura  became  identical  with  demon,  and  how 
Brahman  (Brahma),  the  creative  deity  of  the  Indian  cos- 
mogony, was  deposed  from  his  throne,  was  reduced  to  a 
comparatively  insignificant  place  in  the  Trimurti,  and  nearly 
altogether  lost  his  ascendancy  as  a  propitiating  deity. 

The  rapturous  enunciations  of  enthusiastic  bards,  enun- 
ciations which,  in  course  of  time,  often  develop  into  religious 
tenets,  as  mighty  forest  trees  arise  from  tiny  seeds,  should 
neither  be  undervalued  as  indications  of  poetic  eminence  or 
of  intellectual  power,  nor  overrated  as  religious  inspirations 
of  supreme  value.  A  too  high  theological  importance  has, 
in  my  opinion,  been  attributed  by  some  European  San- 
skritists  to  the  comparatively  few  celebrated  Vedic  hymns 
which  contain  an  allusion  to  the  creation  of  the  world  and 
to  its  creator,  an  estimation  which  in  this  country  has  been 
readily  accepted  and  has  led  to  some  peculiar  conclusions 
concerning  the  ancient  Aryan  religion. 

The  overpowering  impression  which  the  elementary  forces 
of  nature  produce  on  the  minds  of  simple  but  susceptible 
people  is  manifested  by  the  worship  they  offer  to  these 
powers  individually.  From  the  nucleus  of  these  deified 
elements  arise  at  a  later  period  the  complicated  pantheons 
of  the  various  polytheistic  religions.  The  ancient  Aryans 
offer  no  exception  to  this  general  rule.  The  natural  origin 
of  their  gods  is  manifested  by  the  ancient  songs  of  the 
Veda,  which  display  the  worship  of  the  physical  forces. 

Vedic   Deities. 

I  shall  give  in  the  following  discussion  a  cursory  account 
of  the  most  important  Vedic  deities.  The  Vedic  theogony 
has  been  described  at  length  by  many  eminent  European 
scholars,  so  that  I  need  not  dilate  on  it  here,  especially  as 
an  exhaustive  treatise  on  it  does  not  come  within  the  range 
of  this  discussion. 


The  Vedio  poets  assumed  the  existence  of  three  great 
spheres,  the  heaven  {div),  the  atmosphere  {ant ariks a), a,nd  the 
earth  {prthvi,  bhumi,  ^c).  The  atmosphere  lies  between 
heaven  and  earth,  and  these  two  together  are  called  rodasl. 
Heaven  and  earth  are  each  subdivided  into  three  spheres, 
those  of  the  earth  being  called  paramd,  madhyamd  and 
avama  hhumi.  The  earth,  or  rather  its  spirit,  is  generally 
invoked  together  with  heaven. 

Variina  occupies  in  the  Egveda  the  highest  position. 
He  resides  in  the  heavens  high  above  all  gods.  Like 
other  gods  he  is  styled  an  Asura,  or  Lord,  and  he  is  most 
probably  identical  with  the  Ahura  Mazda  of  the  Zend- 
Avesta.  He  is  the  chief  among  the  Adityas,  or  the  sons  of 
Aditi.  ^  He  is  the  surrounder  of  the  firmament,  the  Uranos 
of  the  Greek,  and  became  subsequently  the  god  of  the  sea. 
He  has  spread  the  stars  on  high  and  the  earth  below,  he 
fixed  the  Seven  Stars  in  the  sky,  he  constructed  the  path 
of  the  sun,  the  moon  moves  according  to  his  laws,  he  made 
the  long  nights  follow  the  days.  Like  Tndra  he  is  addressed 
as  the  supreme  deity,  for  the  divine  Varuija  is  called  the 
king  of  all,  both  of  gods  and  of  men,  and  Indra  and  Varmia 
together  made  by  their  power  all  the  creatures  of  the  world. 
He  is  also  often  associated  with  Mitra,  when  the  latter  is 
regarded  as  presiding  over  the  day  and  Varuna  over  the 
night.  Mitra  is  identical  with  the  Iranic  sun  god  Mithra, 
and  another  brother  of  Yamna,  the  Aditya  Dhdga,  becomes 
the  Slavonic  supreme  god  Bog. 

Sitrya,  the  sun,  resides  in  the  sky,  and  forms  with  Agni 
and  Indra  or  Vayu  the  triad  of  the  Vedic  etymologists. 
He  enlivens  all  that  live  in  the  morning  and  sends  them  to 
rest  in  the  evening.  The  praises  of  Surya,  Sura  or  Savitr, 
the  genitor,  are  through  the  famous  Gayatn  daily  sung  by 

^  The  number  of  the  Adityas  varies.  Besides  Varnna  are  generally 
mentioned  Mitra,  Aryaman,  Indra,  Bhaga,  Daksa,  Aiisa,  Saviti  and  Surya 


millions  of  worshippers.^  Pusan  is  likewise  worshipped  as 
a  solar  deity  or  an  Aditya.  His  name  signifies  nourisher, 
he  is  the  protector  of  the  paths  frequented  by  men^  he  is 
the  herdsman  who  drives  the  cattle  with  an  ox-goad,  and 
he  rides  on  a  goat.  He  is  the  lover  of  his  sister  Sdrya,  and 
assists  the  day  to  alternate  with  night. 

Vimu,  the  pervader,  is  also  a  Solar  deity  in  the  Veda. 
Although  he  does  not  occupy  a  predominant  position,  he 
appears  as  the  friend  of  Indra,  or  as  the  god  who  strode 
over  the  seven  regions  of  the  earth  and  planted  his  step 
in  the  three  spheres  of  the  universe. 

Usas  or  the  morning  dawn,  the  daughter  of  heaven  and 
the  sister  of  the  Adityas  as  well  as  of  the  night,  is  likewise 
worshipped  She  illustrates  by  her  regular  appearance  the 
passing  away  of  generations  of  men  and  the  continuity  of 
divine  institutions.  The  two  Asvins,  the  divine  charioteers, 
who  sparkle  with  perpetual  yoath  and  are  full  of  strength 
and  of  vigour,  the  Dioskuroi  of  the  Greek,  precede  the 
dawn.  They  protect  men,  they  heal  the  ailing  and  help 
the  distressed,  especially  when  exposed  to  danger  at  sea. 
SaranijU  is  mentioned  as  their  mother. 

The  moon  and  the  planets  are  not  enrolled  in  the  Veda 
among  deities.  The  moon  is  still  known  as  Gandramas  and 
not  as  Soma,  nor  is  Brhaspati  (Brahmanaspati)  identified 
with  the  planet  Jupiter.  The  Great  Bear  is  mentioned 
among  the  stars  which  are  fixed  in  the  sky,  and  which  are 
occasionally  assigned  to  celebrated  saints  as  mansions. 

Indra,  the  mighty  sovereign  of  the  atmosphere,  is  the 
god  of  the  shining  sky,  who  fixes  the  earth  and  supports 
the  firmament.  He  defeats  the  demons  in  the  sky  and  on 
earth,  and  Vrtra,  the  serpent  Ahi,  and  Uala  are  thus  con- 
quered by  him.  He  protects  mankind  and  vouchsafes 
refreshing  rain  to  man  and  beast.     His  greatness  transcends 

^  figveda  III,  62,  10 :  Tat  Sayitur  varenyam  bhargo   devasya  dhimahi, 
dhiyo  yo  nalj  praoodayat, 


the  sky  and  the  earth  and  surpasses  the  atmosphere ;  no 
one^  whether  god  or  daring  mortal^  can  resist  his  command 
and  empire.  He  eventually  supersedes  Varuija,  and  takes 
his  place  at  the  head  of  the  gods.  He  manifests  himself  in 
the  thunderstorm^  and  his  divine  weapon  is  the  thunderbolt. 
He  supports  the  heroes  in  battle,  swings  his  club,  and 
heavy  potations  of  Soma  give  him  additional  strength. 

Vdyu,  the  wind  (also  called  Vcita),  is  associated  with 
Indra,  and  is  often  mentioned  as  dwelling  in  the  atmosphere 
in  Indra's  place.  The  first  draught  of  Soma  is  presented 
to  him.  The  wind  god  Vdta  has  been  identified  with  the 
old  Teutonic  god  Wotan  {Wodan)  or  Odin. 

To  Indra's  or  Vayu's  sphere  belong  likewise  the  winds. 
The  winds  kut  e^oxnv  are  collectively  personified  in  Vayu, 
or  individually  appear  as  the  Maruts.  They  are  the  gods  of 
the  thunderstorm.  The  Maruts  are  also  called  the  sons  of 
Budra  and  of  Prsni.  They  follow  Indra  to  the  battle.  The 
term  Rudra,  roaring,  tawny-coloured,  is  as  an  epithet  ap- 
plied in  the  Rgveda  to  difierent  gods,  e.g.,  to  Agni,  or  it  is 
used  as  the  name  of  a  separate  deity,  to  whom  as  such  are 
dedicated  special  hymns.  He  carries  the  lightning  in  his 
arm,  and  throws  it  as  an  arrow-  He  is  the  ruler  of  heroes, 
the  fulfiller  of  sacrifice.  His  protection  is  required  for  men 
and  for  beasts,  he  heals  the  sick,  destroys  the  wicked,  but 
his  anger  must  be  pacified.  At  a  later  period  Siva,  the 
propitious,  is  identified  with  Rudra,  but  Siva  is  nowhere 
mentioned  in  the  Rgveda,  and  Rudra  is  still  everywhere 
subordinate  to  Indra. 

The  rain  god  or  thunder  god  Parjanya  belongs  likewise 
to  this  sphere,  and  he  is  the  same  as  the  Lithuanian  god  of 
thunder  PerTtunas. 

Agni,  the  god  of  fire,  who  resides  on  the  earth,  is  the 
first  in  the  triad  of  Vedic  gods.  Though  residing  now  on 
the  earth,  he  came  originally  from  heaven,  from  which 
Atharvan  or  Matarisvan  carried   him  as  a  gift  of  the  gods. 


and  not  by  fraud  as  the  Greek  Prometheus  had  done.  As 
lightning  breaking  through  the  rain  cloud,  Agni  is  called 
the  son  of  water.  In  fact  Agni  lives  in  all  the  three 
spheres,  as  sun  in  the  sky,  as  lightning  in  the  atmo- 
sphere, and  as  fire  on  the  earth.  He  is  not  worshipped  in 
temples  made  by  the  hands  of  men,  but  under  the  open 
sky,  and  the  holy  fire  is  produced  at  his  worship  by  rub- 
bing a  stick  of  the  Asvattha  tree  against  a  stem  taken  from 
the  Sami  tree.  He  is  the  pervading  life  of  the  world,  he 
remains  young,  because  he  is  always  renewed ;  he  is  the 
priest,  the  2^urdhita  or  rtvij  of  the  sacrifice,  which,  as  the 
first  Rsi,  he  offers  to  the  gods.  He  purifies  men,  confers  on 
them  wealth,  and  protects  them  from  their  enemies,  especi- 
ally from  the  demoniac  Raksasas,  whom  he  burns  and  whose 
castles  he  breaks  down.  Thus  he  becomes  the  most  popu- 
lar god  amongst  men. 

Though  Varuija  and  Indra  are  often  extolled  as  the 
mightiest  gods,  the  Veda  does  not  contain  a  classification 
of  the  gods  according  to  their  rank,  a  classification  which 
it  would  have  been  difficult  to  establish,  for  the  gods  did 
not,  as  I  have  already  observed,  retain  everywhere  the 
same  position,  a  fact  exemplified  by  Indra,  who  himself,  as 
he  loses  his  eminence,  eventually  becomes  the  leader  of  the 
minor  gods.  In  the  Zend-Avesta  Indra  or  Andra  is  even 
turned  into  a  bad  demon. 

The  number  of  the  gods  is  in  the  Rgveda  generally 
fixed  at  thirty-three,  and  in  the  Satapatha  Brahmana  8 
Vasus,  11  Rudras,  and  12  Adityas  are  enumerated,  besides 
heaven  and  sky.  In  the  Rgveda  itself  these  thirty-three 
gods  are  classed  in  three  groups,  each  containing  eleven 
gods,  who  dwell  respectively  in  the  sky,  air,  and  earth.  As 
a  thirty-fourth  god  Prajdpati  is  occasionally  mentioned. 
Moreover,  some  well-known  deities,  as,  t-.g'.,Agni,the  Asvins, 
the  Maruts,  Usas  and  others  are  not  included  in  these  lists, 
so  that  the  number  33  or  34  is  by  no  means  sufficient.     Some 


hymns  indeed  allude  to  far  greater  numbers^  when  Agni, 
e.g.,  is  said  to  be  worshipped  by  three  thousand  three 
hundred  thirty  and  nine  gods.^ 

Another  division  of  the  gods  is  into  great  and  small, 
young  and  old. 

The  Vedic  gods  lost  in  course  of  time  their  ascendancy^ 
and  though  Indra  retained  it  longest,  he  was  with  some  of 
his  former  colleagues  relegated  to  the  guardianship  of  a 
quarter  of  the  world.  He  was  posted  to  the  east,  while 
Agni  went  to  the  south-east,  Yama  to  the  south,  Nirrti  to 
the  south-west,  Varuna  to  the  west,  Vayu  or  ilarut  to  the 
north-west,  Kiibera  (who  does  not  appear  in  the  Rgveda)  to 
the  north,  and  Isana  or  Siva  to  the  north-east. 

Yama,  the  son  of  Vivasvat  and  Saranyu,  appears  as  the 
first  man  who  died.  He  became  the  king  of  the  dead  spirits, 
who  wandered  to  him  after  death.  He  is  united  with  the 
gods,  who  think  with  him  under  a  leafy  tree,  and  is  wor- 
shipped as  a  god.  His  sister  is  Yarm.  He  corresponds  to 
the  Iranic  Yima  who  appears  in  the  later  legend  as  king 
Jamshld.  The  Persian  hero  Feridun  is  thus  the  representa- 
tive of  the  Iranic  Thraetaona  (Thrita),  who  is  identical  with 
the  Vedic  deity  Trita  Aptya. 

On  Vedic  Ceeation. 

In  course  of  time  the  belief  in  the  power  of  the  gods 
as  representing  physical  forces  declined,  and  the  mind  of 
thinkers  began  to  ponder  over  the  mystery  of  creation. 
The  Rg-Veda  does  not  admit  one  universally  adopted  cosmo- 
gonic  system,  such  as  we  find  in  the  Bible.  Well-known  is 
the  one  expounded  in  the  famous  PurusasQkta.  However, 
this  hymn,  though  proclaiming  the  origin  of  the  four  castes, 

'In  Bgreda  III,  9,  9  are  mentioned  3339  gods  (triai  sata  tri  sabas- 
ranyagnim  triiiisacoa  deva  nava  casaparyan).  This  number  -wbioh  may 
have  probably  been  formed  by  adding  33  +  303  +  3003.  See  the  Aitareya 
Brahmanam,  edited  by  Martin  Hang,  Ph.  D.,  Vol.  II,  p.  212 ;  Bombay,  1863. 



hardly  enters  into  the  cosmogonic  origin  of  the  world. 
Moreover,  it  is  of  a  comparatively  late  date,  and  its 
importance  is  thus  much  diminished.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
Eg-Veda  represents  too  early  a  period  for  broaching  cosmo- 
gonic topics  which  were  afterwards  amply  and  even  ad 
nauseam  discussed  in  the  Pauranio  literature. 

Many  different  gods  are,  as  we  have  seen,  in  their  turn 
extolled  as  supreme  and  praised  as  the  framers  and  rulers 
of  the  world.  However,  Prajapati,  Hiranyagarbha,  Visva- 
karman  or  Brahraaiiaspati  appear  in  the  Veda  especially  as 
creators  of  the  uniA^erse.  Most  celebrated  among  the  Vedic 
creation  hymns  is  the  129th  of  the  10th  book,  a  poem  which 
has  been  repeatedly  edited  and  translated  since  the  time  of 
Colebrooke.  The  121st  hymn  of  the  same  mandala  possesses 
also  great  beauty  and  high  poetic  merit.  It  is  addressed  to 
Hiranyagarbha,  the  golden  embryo.  As  the  poet  asks  at 
the  end  of  each  verse  :  To  what  god  may  we  offer  sacrifice 
{kasmai  dfvUya  havisd  vidhtma)  ;  the  creator  is  also  called 
Ka,  Who,  the  nominative  of  Icasmai. 

Where  such  a  variety  of  opinions  exists,  it  is  too  much 
to  expect  that  the  various  legends  concerning  the  creation 
and  the  creator  should  agree,  and  indeed  we  find  consider- 
able discrepancies  among  them.  Even  in  principle  they 
differ,  for  we  find  creation  arising  from  nought,  or  from 
aught,  or  from  emanation.  These  legends  concerning  the 
creation,  however,  initiate  a  new  era  of  thought  and  reflec- 
tion and  as  sach  they  claim  our  attention. 

According  to  one  legend  the  universe  did  not  originally 
exist.  Indra,  the  middle  breath,  kindled  with  his  strength 
the  other  worn-out  breaths  or  Rsis.  He  was  called  the  kindler 
(Indha),  because  he  kindled  them.  And  Indha  is  called 
secretly  Indra.  The  thus  kindled  gods  created  seven  males, 
but  as  these  seven  males  could  not  generate,  the  gods  turned 
ihem  into  one.     This  male  became  Prajapati,  who  created 


the  Veda  by  his  austere  penance^  and  the  waters  from  his 
speech.  He  pervaded  all  and  desired  to  be  reproduced  from 
the  waters.  An  egg  arose  and  the  triple  science^  the  trayl 
vidyd,  was  created.* 

This  account^  which  peculiarly  enough  gives  a  two-fold 
creation  of  the  Veda,  is  at  variance  with  another  found  in 
the  same  Brahmana,  which  states  that  only  the  waters  were 
at  the  beginning  of  the  universe,  and  a  golden  egg  was 
created  when  the  waters  desired  to  be  reproduced.  This 
egg  moved  about  for  a  year,  after  which  time  a  male,  iiurusa, 
appeared  j  this  was  Prajapati.  As  he  had  no  other  home, 
he  remained  in  this  egg  for  another  year,  when  he  desired 
to  speak.  He  said  hhur,  which  became  the  earth,  bhuvah, 
which  became  the  firmament,  and  svar,  which  became  the 
sky.  As  he  desired  offspring,  he  created  with  his  mouth 
the  gods  {devdh],  who  became  such  on  reaching  the  sky, 
divam.  Meanwhile  it  became  daylight  [diva).  From  his 
lower  breath  he  created  the  Asuras,  who  assumed  this  state 
when  they  reached  this  earth.  Darkness  then  set  in,  and 
with  it  Evil.  After  this  he  created  Agni,  Indra,  Soma  and 
Paramesthin,  as  well  as  Vayu,  Candramas,  and  Usas.  In 
consequence  he  is  the  progenitor  of  both  the  gods  and  the 
Asuras,  and  is  also  called  so.  He  is  likewise  said  to  have 
assumed  the  shape  of  a  tortoise  in  order  to  create  pi'ogeny ; 
as  he  made  {akarot)  what  he  created,  the  word  hurma,  tor- 
toise, is  derived  from  the  Sanskrit  root  Icr,  to  make.''  Tradi- 
tion also  accused  him  of  having  conceived,  to  the  great 
indignation  of  the  gods,  an  unholy  passion  for  his  daughter, 
said  to  have  been  either  the  sky  or  the  dawn,  and  from 
their  bodies  was  formed  Eudra,  who,  as  Pasupati,  pierced 

A  great  change  in  religious  feeling  and  in  civil  life  was 
meanwhile   slowly   taking  place  among  the   Aryans   when 

*  See  Satapatha  Bralimana,  VI,  1,  1. 

»  Do.  VII,  4,  3  and  XI,  1,  6. 


they  spread  eastwards  towards  the  plains  of  Hindustan  and 
settled  in  large  towns.  Former  shepherds  and  husband- 
men^ by  becoming  inmates  of  towns^  altered  their  mode  of 
life  and  became  artisans  and  traders.  New  interests^ 
and  with  them  new  divisions,  arose  and  began  to  keep 
asunder  the  different  branches  of  the  population,  which 
divisions,  though  originally  only  temporary,  developed  into 
permanent  institutions  and  laid  the  foundation  of  the  strict 
regulations  of  Hindu  caste.  The  development  of  caste  was 
great])'  fostered  by  the  fact  that  two  rival  and  hostile  races, 
the  Aryan  and  the  Gauda-Dravidian,  occupied  the  country, 
and  that  the  ruling  nation  aimed  at  intensifying  and  per- 
petuating this  racial  distinction.  The  priestly  class  profited 
most  by  such  an  arrangement,  and  the  framing  of  the 
religious  precepts  and  of  the  civil  laws  was  left  to  their 
initiative.  The  priest  not  only  framed  the  statutes,  but 
also  superintended  their  oliservanco  with  the  help  of  the 
regal  power,  which  he  upheld  for  this  very  reason.  The 
Brahman  priest  became  the  supreme  head  of  the  community, 
and  though  this  power  was  not  vested  in  one  individual, 
but  in  the  whole  caste  as  an  individual,  it  was  not  the  less 
influential.  The  priest  was  the  jDerformer  of  the  sacrifice, 
and  assumed  the  power  to  make  it  acceptable  to  the  gods 
or  not ;  and  as  the  gods  depended  on  the  Brahman  priests 
for  their  sacrifices,  their  power  extended  even  over  the 
gods,  and  the  Brahmans  became  the  real  gods,  and  the 
legislator  Mann  could  say  that  a  Brahman  becomes  by 
his  birth  the  deity  of  the  gods.  Under  these  circumstances 
the  religious  enthusiasm  of  the  bards  of  the  Rgveda  gave 
way  to  the  theological  meditations  of  the  Yajurveda,  the 
Veda  of  the  sacrificial  prayer,  when  this  praj^er  had  lost  its 
fervour,  and  had  sunk  to  mere  formulas,  which  had  to  be 
strictly  observed.  This  prayer  in  its  abstract  form,  or  the 
neutral  Brahman,  grew  eventually  from  the  Atman  into 
the   Paratman    (Paramdtman)     or    Supreme    Spirit,     and 


developed  in  time  into  the  male  god  Brahman^  who  occupied 
the  high  throne  to  which  gods  and  men  had  recourse  in 
their  troubles^  and  who  advised  and  cheered  them  as  a 
grandfather  his  grandchildren.  The  divine  Asuras  of  the 
Rgveda  became  the  demons  of  the  Yajurveda^  Visiju  came 
more  to  the  fore,  and  Siva  made  his  appearance  in  the 

Prajapati  too,  the  creator  of  the  universe,  with  its  gods, 
demons,  men,  beasts,  trees,  and  other  matter,  merges 
gradually  into  the  person  of  Brahman,  who  though  origin- 
ally unconnected  with,  and  superior  to,  either  Visiiu  or 
Rudra,  eventually  forms  with  them  the  Trimurti. 

The  Teimueti. 

It  is  a  peculiar  coincidence  that  the  two  great  doctrines 
of  the  Trinity  and  the  Transmigration  of  souls  should  have 
appeared  in  India,  so  far  as  we  can  judge,  at  about  the 
same  period;  and  so  long  after  both  had  been  known  to 
the  two  leading  nations  of  antiquity,  the  Chaldeans  and 
Egyptians.  The  Chaldean  triad,  formed  of  the  gods  Anu, 
Bel,  and  Ea,  the  representatives  of  heaven,  the  lower  world, 
and  the  water;  the  old  Akkadian  trinity  composed  of  the 
divine  father,  mother,  and  their  son,  the  Sun  god ;  or  the 
Egyptian  solar  triads  of  Turn,  Ra,  and  Kheper,  or  of  Osiris, 
Isis,  and  Horns  are  too  well  known  to  require  explanation. 
It  may  be  interesting  to  add  here,  that  the  Hindu  TriniQrti 
has  been  also  explained  as  a  representation  of  the  three 
great  powers  of  nature  exemplified  by  the  earth,  the  water, 
and  the  fire,  and  that  the  Indian  sect  of  the  Sauras  revere 
the  rising  meridian  and  setting  sun,  corresponding  to 
Brahman,  Siva  and  Visnu  respectively,  as  symbol  of  the 
TrimQrti.  Similarly  well  known  is  the  migration  which 
the  souls  of  the  deceased  Egyptians  had  to  undergo  to 
expiate  the  crimes  they  had  committed  while  alive,  until 
they  could   regain  their  human  body  and  be  united  with 


Osiris.  In  fact  this  final  union  with  and  absorption  in 
Osiris  shows  a  strikinec  resemblance  to  the  absorption  in  the 
Brahmanic  Paratman  or  the  Buddhistic  Buddha.  As  I  do 
not  believe  Buddha  to  have  been  an  Aryan  Indian,  this 
question  is  of  importance.  It  is  highly  probable  that  these 
Indian  dogmas  did  not  originate  with  the  Aryans  of  India, 
and  that  they  can  be  traced  back  directly  or  indirectly  to 
those  ancient  countries.  It  is  also  possible  that  because 
these  doctrines  were  not  previously  unknown  in  India,  they 
could  be  more  easily  spread  in  this  country  for  the 
vast  majority  of  the  Indian  population  belonged  to  the 
same  race  as  did  the  ancient  Akkadians  and  Chaldeans. 
It  seems  to  me  to  be  a  matter  of  great  regret  that  while 
the  antique  religious  and  civil  history  of  India  have  often 
been  discussed,  no  notice  has  been  taken  of  the  bulk  of  its 
population ;  in  consequence  the  results  of  the  researches  on 
these  points  have  not  been  very  satisfactory. 

On  Brahman. 
The  legends  concerning  Prajdpati  and  Brahman  have 
often  a  striking  resemblance,  and  the  latter  occupies  even- 
tually the  position  of  the  former.  Brahman  was  born  in  a 
golden  egg  and  arose  from  the  waters.  At  the  time  of  the 
deluge  he  assumed  the  form  of  a  fish,  and  as  a  boar  he 
raised  the  earth  from  the  waters.  To  him  belonged  origin- 
ally the  name  of  ISTarayaria,  which  was  afterwards  applied 
to  Visiju.  As  creator  he  became  the  head  of  the  Trimurti, 
a  dogma  probably  unknown  to  Yaska,  but  already  discussed 
at  the  time  of  Buddha,  though  finally  developed  at  a  sub- 
sequent period.  His  colleagues  in  the  trinity,  expressed 
by  the  mystic  syllable  Oto,  are  Visnu  and  Siva.  These 
three  gods  are  respectively  regarded  as  the  representatives 
of  the  three  natural  qualities  (gunas),  sattva,  goodness,  rajas, 


passion,  and  tamas,  darkness.  Brahman  represents  rajas, 
the  creating  power,  Visnu  preserves  by  sattva,  goodness  or 
indifference,  and  Rudra  or  Agni  filled  with  tamas  person- 
ates time  or  the  destroyer.  Yet,  as  creation  involves  pre- 
servation and  destruction,  and  as  each  is  indispensable  to 
the  other,  true  Brahmanism  does  not  admit  that  any  one 
member  of  the  trinity  is  superior  to  the  others.  No  man 
should  attempt  to  create  a  division  between  the  three  gods, 
who  does  so,  goes  to  Hell.  Indeed  some  go  further  and 
assert  that  whichever  of  the  three  is  Visnu,  is  at  the  same 
time  Siva  and  Brahman,  and  that  any  one  of  the  three  gods 
reciprocally  includes  the  remaining  two.'' 

In  consequence  of  his  abstract  origin  and  philosophical 
appearance  and  through  his  position  of  creator.  Brahman 
always  lacked  the  popularity  which  was  enjoyed  by  his 
more  attractive  colleagues.  In  the  Mahabharata,  however. 
Brahman  is  still  the  creator  of  the  world,  he  is  eternal, 
sacred,  and  omniscient ;  he  teaches,  advises,  and  governs 
the  gods.     He  regulates  all  institutions  and  arranges  the 

"   Compare  such  well  known  verses  as  :  "  Avayor  antaram  nasti  sabdair 
anyair    jagatpate,"  or   "  Sivaya  Visauriapaya    Sivarnpaya   Tispave,"  or  : 
Tvani    evaDye    Sivoktena  margena    Sivariipinam   bahvacarya   vibhedena, 
Bhagavan,  samupasate  (Bhagavata). 
See  also  Bevihhagavata,  III,  6,  54 — 56  : 

hi.  Ye  vibhedam  karisyanti  manava  miidhacefcasah, 
nirayam  te  gamisyauti  vibhedannatra  samsayah. 

55.  Yo  Harih  sa  Sivah  saksat  yah  Sivali  sa  STayam  Harih 
etayor  bhedam  atisthan  narakiSya  bhavet  naralj. 

56.  Tathaiva  Drnhino  jueyo  natra  karya  viearana, 

aparo  gunabhedo'sti  srijn  Tisno  bravJmi  te. 
One  of  the  three  qualities  prevails  in  each  god,  the  other  two  are  sub- 
ordinate ;   thus  rajas  does  prevail  in  Brahman,   sattva  in  Visnu  and  tamai 
in  Siva.     Compare  ibidem,  si.  57  and  66. 

57.  Mukhyalj  sattvagunab  te'etu  paramatmavicintane 
gauiiatve'  pi  parau  khyatau  rajogunatamoguaau. 

66,  Mukhyah  tamogunaste'stu  gaunau  sattrarajoguaau  (applying 
to  Siva). 
See  further  ibidem,  slokas  32,  39  and  44. 


rules  concerning  sacrifice  and  penance,  marriage  and  caste, 
and  tlie  position  of  kings  and  subjects. 

Notwithstanding  that  Brahman  was  originally  superior 
both  to  Visnu  and  to  Siva,  who  as  Eudra  sprang,  according 
to  a  legend,  from  the  forehead  of  Brahman,  the  adherents  of 
these  gods  deny  his  supremacy.  Yet,  it  is  difficult  to  arriye 
at  a  final  decision  on  this  subject  as  the  legendary  evidence 
is  so  defective.  Brahman  is  thus  represented  as  rising 
from  the  lotus  which  grew  from  the  navel  of  Yisiju,  while 
the  worshippers  of  Siva  contend  that  Brahman  was  created 
by  Siva,  that  he  acted  as  Siva's  charioteer  and  worships 
Siva  and  the  Lihga.  At  another  time  he  interfered  in  a 
dispute  between  Visnu  and  Rudra,  and  persuaded  the 
excited  gods  to  allow  Siva  a  share  at  the  sacrifices.  The 
Prajapatis,  whose  names  and  number  are  variously  recorded, 
are  known  as  his  mind-born  sons,  and  appear  to  be  identical 
with  the  ten  Maharsis.  These  latter  are  mentioned  as  the 
progenitors  of  men  while  the  Purusasukta  gives  another 
account  of  this  subject. 

T^tlc,  Speech,  his  daughter,  became  the  object  of  his 
love  and  as  Sarasvatl  his  wife."  In  fact  this  sinful  attach- 
ment of  Brahman  became  the  doom  of  his  supremacy, 
and  caused  the  ascendancy  of  Visnu  and  Siva.  By  gazing 
intently  at  his  charming  daughter,  he  obtained  five  heads, 
but  lost  the  topmost  for  this  unchaste  love  by  the  hand  of 
Siva,  and  is  henceforth  called  the  four-faced  or  caturmukha. 
His  four  heads,  each  of  which  wears  a  crown,  are  also 
explained  as  corresponding  to  the  four  Vedas.  On  his  fore- 
head he  has  the  mark  of  musk  (kasturi)  ;  in  his   h  airlocks 

'  SarasvatJ  is  described  in  revTbhagav.ita  III,  6,  31 — 35  and  in  IX, 
1,29 — 37.  Another  wife  of  Brahman  SnTifrt  is  by  some  regarded  as  the 
deified  sacred  prayer  which  is  known  as  the  Gayatn  (Bgveda  III,  62,  10); 
about  Savitri  read  also  DevibhSgavata  IX,  1,  38 — 43.  Sarasvatl  is  called 
in  the  Vaijayanti,  p.  3,  line  18  :  Vag  Vani  BhSratf  Bhasa  Gaur  Gir  Brahmi 


he  wears  strings  of  pearls,  in  his  four  hands  he  wears 
respectively  the  Veda,  a  sacrificial  ladle,  a  rosary,  and  an 
earthen  waterpot.  His  colour  is  tawny.  He  sits  on  a 
lotus,  and  rides  on  a  swan.  Many  names  are  given  to 
Brahman  and  according  to  his  worshippers  he  also  possesses 
a  thousand  names. «  I  need  not  add  that  these  legends 
are  also  explained  from  an  esoteric  standpoint. 

With  these  few  remarks  concerning  the  earlier  accounts 
of  Brahman,  I  shall  now  pass  to  his  present  position. 
Many  of  the  legends  concerning  all  these  three  gods  of  the 
Trimurti  are  of  ancient  origin,  while  others  certainly  point 
to  a  more  modern  invention.  In  some  cases  it  may  be 
possible  to  explain  their  source  and  to  account  for  their 
raison  d'etre.  As  India  has  since  time  immemorial  been 
chiefly  peopled  with  two  races,  the  Gauda-Dravidian  and 
the  Aryan,  we  need  not  wonder  that,  when  these  two  began 
to  intermix,  each  became  acquainted  with  the  religious 
beliefs  of  their  neighbours  and  adopted  in  a  more  or  less 
modified  form  some  of  their  gods  and  dogmas.  This  circum- 
stance explains  the  fact  why  so  many  Gauda-Dravidian 
elements  are  fonnd  in  the  modern  Hindu  worship. 

And  such  an  influence  we  can  also  trace  in  the  modern 
worship  of  Brahman.  I  have  previously  mentioned  that  he 
lost  his  fifth  face  on  account  of  his  unnatural  conduct 
towards  his  daughter,  but  later  legends  contend,  that  it  was 
at  the  instigation  of  Parvati,   who  could  not  distinguish 

"  In  the  Vaijajanti,  p.  3,  are  given  the  following  lines: 
Brahma  Vidhata  Visvatma  Dhata  Srasta  Frajapatili, 
Hiranyagarbho  JDruhiiio  Viriiioah  Kali  Caturmukhali, 
Padmasanah  Surajyesthali  Cirajivi  Sanatanalj, 
Satanandah  Satadhrtilj  Svayambhulj  SarTatomnkhah, 
ParamesthI  Visvaretali  Puruso  Hamsavahanah. 
Other   names   are :    Abjayuni,    Aja,    Ananta,    Atmabhii,    Caturvaktra, 
Jagatsrastr,    Jnanin,     Kamalayoni,    Kamalasana,     Lokakartr,     Lokakrt, 
Lokesa,  Padmaja,  SarTalokakrt,  Savitripati,  Vara,  Vidhi,  Visvasrj,  Vedhas, 
&c.     The  Buddhists  call  him  also  Satampati. 



Brahman  from  her  own  five-faced  husband^  or  because 
Brahman  told  a  lie.  He  is  therefore  now  generally  repre- 
sented with  four  faces. ^  The  Skandapurana  relates  that 
Siva  cursed  Brahman  for  his  untruthful  assertion  of  having 
seen  the  end  of  Siva,  and  for  producing  in  confirmation  of 
this  lie  a  Ketaki  flower  as  a  witness.  The  original  judg- 
ment that  Brahman  was  henceforth  nowhere  to  be  wor- 
shipped was  on  Brahman's  appeal  mitigated,  and  his 
worship  was  allowed  on  all  auspicious  occasions,  and  at  all 
initiatory  ceremonies  and  Soma  sacrifices.^" 

Present  Woeship  op  Beahman. 

In  consequence  of  the  disgrace  he  incurred,  as  is  now 
generally  averred,  or  perhaps  owing  to  his  abstract  and 
unapproachable  position  as  creator.  Brahman  does  not 
receive  anything  like  the  attention  which  is  paid  to  Visnu 
and  Siva.  There  exists  also  a  proverb  among  the  people 
that  a  man  who  has  no  house,  says  :  "I  have  no  house  like 
Brahman."  On  the  other  hand  it  is  a  peculiar  circumstance 
worth  mentioning  that  the  principal  festival  of  every  temple 

"  See  beginning  of  note  16,  on  page  207. 
'"  The  curse  was  :  Yatrakutrapiloke'smiu  apiijyo  bhava,  padmaja. 
This  was  modified  to  : 

?!ubliakaryesu  sarvesu  pratidiksadliTaresu  ca, 
Piijyo  bhava,  oaturvaktra,  madvaco  nanyatha  bharet. 
In  consequence  Brahman  is  revered  as  guardian  of  the  sacrifice  at  all 
yagas,  vratas,  marriages,  funerals  and  annual  ceremonies  during  the  pre- 
liminary ceremonies.  The  real  proceedings  begin  after  Brahman  has  been 
worshiped  with  the  words  Brnlnmnam  trnm  rniimah?.  The  Brahman 
who  acts  as  Brahman  is  provided  with  a  seat,  and  betelnut,  flowers,  sandal 
and  cloths  are  presented  to  him,  but  no  incense  is  burnt  in  his  favor,  nor 
are  lamps  lighted,  nor  eatables  presented,  nor  are  fans,  umbrellas,  camphor, 
mirrors  or  flags  alloi\ed.  The  presence  of  Bi-ahman  who  must  be  represent- 
ed by  a  Brahman  who  knows  the  A'eda,  is  necessary  in  order  to  superintend 
and  help  the  Puruhita  in  the  correct  recital  of  the  mantras  and  the 
np-keep  of  the  fire.     In  fact  Brahman  is  the  guardian  of  the  sacrifice. 

Siva  also  cursed  the  Ketaki  flower,  but  this  curse  concerns  only  Siva, 
for  the  flower  is  still  worshipped  in  honor  of  Yisnu,  Laksmi,  and  even  of 

OP    BHAEAtAVAKSA    OE    INDIA.  289 

is  called  Brahmotsava.  It  is  moreover  -wrong  to  assert 
that  Brahman  is  only  revered  in  one  place  in  the  whole  of 
India^  i.e.,  near  the  Puskara  lake  in  Ajmere.  The  local 
legend  there  says,  that  the  god  Brahman  left  once  his 
Satyaloka  to  perform  a  sacrifice  in  this  mundane  region, 
but  forgot  to  invite  his  consort  Sarasvati,  Enraged  at 
this  discourtesy,  she  did  not  follow  her  husband.  When 
Brahman  had  finished  all  the  necessary  preparations,  and 
was  ready  to  perform  the  Saiikalpa,  while  the  gods  and 
Esis  stood  before  the  sacrificial  fire,  he  observed  to  his  sur- 
prise that  his  wife  was  not  present.  As  the  priests  refused 
to  go  on  with  the  sacrifice,  because  Brahman  had  not  his 
wife  by  his  side.  Brahman  requested  Indra  to  fetch,  as 
quickly  as  possible,  an  unmarried  girl  to  take  the  place  of 
his  wife.  Indra  returned  with  a  Sudra  girl,  whom  Brahman 
purified  by  letting  her  pass  from  the  mouth  through  the 
alimentary  canal  of  the  celestial  cow  Kamadhemi.  He  then 
called  her  Gayatii,  made  her  his  partner  and  performed 
the  sacrifice.  Opposite  to  the  temple  of  Brahman  lies  a 
large  and  deep  tank,  whose  waters  arc  credited  with 
miraculous  qualities.  If  the  shadow  of  a  woman  falls 
during  her  menstrual  period  on  the  waters  of  this  tank 
ipushara) ,  it  turns  red  and  keeps  this  colour  until  purified 
by  mantras.  Brahman  is  in  this  place  worshipped  by  his 
thousand  names  and  the  same  formalities  which  are  observed 
in  the  temples  of  "Visnu  and  Siva  are  also  adhered  to  in  this 
temple  of  Brahman.* ' 

'  1  This  report  was  communicated  to  me  indirectly  by  a  Brahman 
who  had  visited  Pushkar.  See  Annals  and  Antiquities  of  Rajasthan  by 
Lieut.-Colonel  James  Tod,  London,  1829,  Vol.  I,  pp.  773—75.  "  Poshkur  is 
the  most  sacred  lake  in  India;  that  of  Mansiirwar  in  Thibet  may  alone 
compete  with  it  in  this  respect.  By  far  the  most  conspicuous  edifice  is  the 
shrine  of  the  creator  Brihma.  This  is  the  sole  tabernacle  dedicated  to  the 
One  God  which  I  ever  saw  or  heard  of  in  India.  The  statue  is  quadriferous 
and  what  struck  me  as  not  a  little  curious  was  that  the  sikra,  or  pinnacle 
of   the  temple,  is   surmounted  by  a  cross."     Read   also    the  Bajputana 


It  is  very  peculiar  that  this  renowned  and  ancient  place 
of  worship  is   connected  like  the  temples  at  Melkota,  Puri, 

Gazetteer,  Vol.  II,  pp.  07— 71,  which  contains  a  full  description  of  the 
legend ;  from  it  I  have  extracted  the  following ;  "  Pnshkar  is  a  celebrated 
place  of  pilgrimage,  and  the  great  sanctity  of  its  lake  equalled,  according 
to  Colonel  Tod,  onlj'  \ij  that  of  Manusarowar  in  Thibet,  is  due  to  the 
belief  that  here  Brahma  performed  the  yajnci,  and  that  the  Sarasvati  here 
reappears  in  iive  streams.  The  legends  connected  with  these  two  beliefs 
maybe  found  in  the  Fushkar  Muhatmya  oi  the  Padma  Purana.  Brahma 
was  perplexed  as  to  where  he  should  perform  the  sacrifice  according  to 
the  Yrdas,  as  he  had  no  temple  on  earth  like  other  deities.  As  he  reflect- 
ed, the  lotus  fell  from  his  hand,  and  he  determined  to  perform  his  sacrifice 
wherever  it  fell.  The  lotus,  rebounding,  struck  the  earth  in  three  places. 
Water  issued  from  all  three,  and  Brahma,  descending,  called  the  name  of 
the  place  Pushkar,  after  the  lotus.  (The  holy  ground  extends  for  one 
i/oj'ai/' round  the  largest  lake,  called  Jyesht  Fvshkar.  The  second  lake  is 
the  Madhya  Fushkar,  near  the  tank,  now  called  Suda  Bai.  The  third  lake 
is  the  Eanisht  Puslikar,  which  is  now  generally  called  Burka  Pushkar. 
The  middle  lake  is  very  small,  and  there  arc  no  buildings  round  it  or 
round  the  third  lake.)  Brahma  then  collected  all  the  gods,  and  on  the 
11th  day  of  the  bright  half  of  Kartik,  everything  was  ready.  Each  god 
and  rish  i  had  his  own  special  duty  assigned  to  him,  and  Brahma  stood 
with  a  jar  of  amrit  on  his  head.  The  sacrilice,  however,  could  not  begin 
until  SSvitri  appeared,  and  she  refused  to  come  without  Lakshmi,  Parvati 
and  Indrani,  whom  Pavan  had  been  sent  to  summon.  On  hearing  of  her 
refusal,  Brahma  became  enraged  and  said  to  Indra :  "Search  me  out 
a  girl  that  1  may  marry  her  and  commence  the  sacrifice,  for  the  jar  of 
aun-il  weighs  heavy  on  my  head."  Indra  accordingly  went,  but  found 
none  except  a  Gujar's  daughter  whom  he  pm-ified  by  passing  her  through 
the  body  of  a  cow,  and  then,  bringing  her  to  Brahma,  told  what  he  had 
done.  Vishnu  observed—-  Brahmans  and  cows  are  in  reality  identical ; 
you  have  taken  her  from  the  womb  of  a  cow,  and  this  may  be  considered 
a  second  birth.''  Shiva  added  that,  as  she  had  passed  through  a  cow,  she 
should  be  called  Gayatri.  The  Brahmans  agreed  that  the  sacrifice  might 
now  proceed,  and  Brahma,  having  married  G.ij  atri  and  having  enjoined 
silence  on  her,  placed  on  her  head  the  jar  of  umrit,  and  the  yajna  com- 
menced. (The  image  of  Gayatri  may  be  seen  in  the  temple  of  Brahma, 
close  to  that  of  Brahma  himself.)  The  sacrifice,  however,  was  soon  inter- 
rupted by  a  naked  man  ^vho  appeared  crying  '  Atmat !  Atmat  ! '  and  who, 
at  the  instigation  of  Shiva,  threw  a  skull  into  the  sacrificial  ground.  When 
it  was  attempted  to  rcmo\-c  the  skull,  two  appeared  in  its  place,  and  the  whole 
ground  gradually  becanje  eo\ered  with  skulls ;  till  Shiva,  at  Brahma's 
request,  finally  agreed  to  remove  them  on  condition  that  he  should  have  a 
temple  at  Pushkar,  there  to  be  worshipped  under  the  name  of  Atmaheswar. 


and    Trivandrum    witli    the  lower  classes,  and    that  the 
Pokharna  Brahmans  are  according  to  tradition  Beldars,  who 

Meanwhile  a  number  of  Brahmans,  all  ugly  men,  arrived  from  the  Dakhln. 
As  they  bathed  in  the  lake,  their  forms  changed  iuto  those  of  handsome 
men;  and  the  ghat  at  which  they  bathed,  called  Suriip  Ghat,  is  the  resort 
of  pilgrims  on  the  lltli  day  of  Kartik.  On  the  morning  of  the  12th  day 
the  Brahmans  came  to  Brahma  and  asked  where  they  were  to  bathe.  He 
directed  them  to  bathe  in  the  Priichi  Sarasvati,  the  stream  which  passes 
by  the  village  of  Hokran ;  and  it  is  explained  how  the  Sarasvati,  after 
disappearing  underground  to  escape  the  heat  of  the  fire  which  she  is  carry- 
ing to  the  sea,  reappears  in  five  channels  (as  Suprahha  which  falls  into 
Jyesht  Pushkar,  Sudha  which  falls  into  Madhya  Pushkar,  Kanka  which 
falls  into  Kanisht  iPnshkar,  Nanda  which  flows  past  Kand,  and  Prachi 
which  passes  by  Hokran),  in  the  sacred  soil  of  Pushkar,  how  two  of  these 
meet  at  Nand,  five  miles  from  Pushkar;  and  how  from  the  junction,  the 
river,  thereafter  called  the  Luni,  proceeds  to  the  sea.  The  sacrifice  was 
disturbed  this  day  by  Batu  Brahman,  who  let  loose  a,  snake  among  the 
Brahmans.  The  reptile  coiled  itself  round  Bhrigu  Eishi,  whose  son 
imprecated  a  curse  against  Batu  that  he  might  become  a  lake.  Batu, 
going  to  his  grandfather  Brahma,  was  consoled  by  the  promise  that  he 
should  be  the  founder  of  the  ninth  order  of  snakes,  and  was  directed  to 
go  to  Kagpahar,  where  he  should  receive  worship  on  the  fifth  day  of  the 
dark  half  of  Shwan  at  the  place  called  the  Nagkand.  The  sacrifice  pro- 
ceeded till  the  15th  each  day  having  its  appointed  duties ;  for  this  day  the 
Brahmans  were  directed  to  make  a  circuit  of  the  lakes  and  to  bathe  in 
Gayakup.  (The  virtues  of  the  tirth  of  Gaya  are  said  to  reside  in  this 
place,  whence  the  name.)  Shortly  after  their  return  Savitri  appeared, 
greatly  incensed  at  the  disregard  which  had  been  shown  to  her.  Brahma 
sought  to  pacify  her,  but  to  no  purpose,  and  she  went  away  in  a  rage  to 
the  hill  north  of  the  lake  where  is  her  temple.  Alter  the  yojna  performed 
by  Brahma,  Pushkar  became  so  holy  that  the  greatest  sinner,  by  merely 
bathing  in  it,  went  to  heaven.  Heaven  became  inconveniently  crowded, 
and  the  gods  complained  that  no  longer  any  man  regarded  them  or  his 
duty,  so  easy  was  it  to  get  to  heaven.  Brahman  agreed  accordingly  that 
the  tirtli  should  only  be  on  earth  from  the  11th  day  of  Kartik  to  the  full 
moon,  and  for  the  remainder  of  the  year  he  promised  to  remove  the  tirih 
to  the  air  {antariksha).  Such  is  the  legend  given  in  the  Pushkar  Mahat- 

Bead  also  the  short  account  about  the  temple  of  Brahma  at  Pnshkar  in 
the  Indian  Caste  by  Dr.  John  Wilson,  Bombay,  1S77,  Vol.  I,  p.  170.  "  The 
Brahmans  don't  directly  compromise  themselves  by  taking  care  of  the 
temple  (which  in  point  of  fact  is  under  the  charge  of  Gosavis)  ;  but  they 
lay  claim  to  a  share  of  the  offerings  at  the  shrine.  The  four  faces  of 
Brahma  on  the  image  are  uniform,  but  they  have  a  lengthened  chin  in  the 


obtained  in  return  for  excavating  tlie  sacred  lake  at  Push- 
kar  or  Pokhar  the  favour  of  the  god  and  the  dignity  of 

Brahman  has  still  a  small  but  separate  temple  in  Benares, 
and  though  there  are  very  few  temples  in  Northern  India 
in  which  Brahman  is  now  worshipped,  there  are  not  a  few 
places  in  Southern  India  which  possess  temples  dedicated 
to  Brahman,  and  where  he  and  his  wife  Sarasvati  receive 
similar  honors  as  are  offered  to  Visnu  and  Siva. 

This  is  the  case  for  example  with  the  Brahma  temple  at 
Cebrolu  in  the  Krishna  district,  which,  as  I  am  informed, 
was  erected  in  imitation  of  the  Brahma  temple  at  Jayapu- 
ram  ov  Brahmagaya,  a  place  which  is  without  doubt  identical 
with  Pushkar.  The  construction  of  the  present  temple  at 
Cebrolu  is  ascribed  to  the  once  powerful  Rajah  Yasireddi 
Vehkatadri  Nayudu,  Zamindar  of  Cintapalle,  who  resided 
both  at  Amaravati  and  CebrOlu,  and  in  whose  time  the 
ruins  of  the  celebrated  Buddhist  shrine  were  first  discovered 
at  Amaravati.  The  temple  at  Cebrolu  is  situated  near  a 
pit  called  Brahmagunda.    A'ehkatadriin  the  hope  of  finding 

place  of  a  beard.  The  temple  is  exteriorly  associated  with  an  image  of 
Shiva  with  four  visible  heads  placed  on  a  Linga,  and  must  therefore  be 
principally  frequented  by  votaries  of  that  God." 

'^  Seo  Dr.  .T.  Wilson's  Indian  Cusle,  II,  p.  1(1.  "The  tradition  of 
their  origin  is  singular  ;  it  is  said  that  they  were  Beldiirs,  and  excavated 
the  sacred  lake  of  Pushkar  or  Pokhar,  for  which  they  obtained  the  favour 
of  the  deity  and  the  grade  of  Brahmans,  with  the  title  of  Pokharpa. 
Their  chief  object  of  emblematic  worship,  the  Klxoiloln,  a,  kind  of  pick-axe 
used  in  digging,  seems  to  favour  this  tradition."  Compare  also  the  Haj- 
putann  Gazetteer,  Yol.  II,  p.  70.  "  They  (the  BrahmauB  of  Pushkar)  say 
they  are  descended  from  Parasar,  the  father  of  the  Veda  Vyasa,  and  that 
like  the  Mathura  Chaubes,  their  names  were  omitted  when  the  list  of  the 
ten  Brahmanical  tribes  was  drawn  up.  They  trace  their  descent,  however, 
through  one  Bopat,  and  the  general  belief  is  that  this  Bhopat  was  a  Mer. 
Brahmans  will  not  eat  with  these  men,  who  are  found  only  in  Pushkar  and 
in  a  few  of  the  neighbouring  towns  of  Marwar.  They  arc  generally  called 
Bhojal-  in  the  papers  which  have  been  given  by  the  Rajas  on  the  appoint- 
ment of  Purohits." 


a  treasure  began  to  excavate  it,  but  being  disappointed 
in  Ms  expectations  converted  the  pit  into  a  water  reservoir 
or  Korieru,  in  tbe  midst  of  whicli  be  built  after  his  return 
from  Kasi  (Benares)  the  temple  of  Brahman,  on  the  model 
of  the  one  he  had  seen  at  Jayapuram.  He  dedicated  it  to 
CatiirmvMia  Brahma  LlhgesvarasvUmi,  the  last  name  being 
added  as  the  temple  was  erected  according  to  the  Siva 
Agama,  because  the  AgamaSastras  do  not  contain  measure- 
ments for  a  temple  of  Brahman.  The  original  name  of  the 
pit  Brahmagunda  appears  to  favor  the  idea  that  previ- 
ously to  the  erection  of  the  temple  by  Verikatadri  Brahman 
had  been  worshipped  in  this  district.  As  the  Raja  died 
before  the  commencement  of  the  first  year's  ceremony,  his 
death  was  regarded  as  a  bad  omen,  and  only  daily  offerings 
are  made  and  lights  are  kept  in  this  temple,  but  no  peri- 
odical feasts  or  car  festivals  are  observed.  Venkatadri  is 
said  to  have  been  under  a  curse  for  having  treacherously 
beheaded  150  Centsu  chiefs  whom  he  had  invited  to  a  feast, 
and  the  immense  sums  of  money  he  spent  on  charitable 
and  religious  purposes,  he  regarded  as  an  expiation  of  his 
atrocious  sin.^^ 

1'  Cebroluia  also  called  Catarmuhhipuram.  This  name  lufers  to  Brah- 
man, but  cannot  be  explained  to  mean  "  the  city  facing  the  four  points  of 
the  compass"  as  Mr.  Gordon  Mackenzie  states  in  his  Manual  of  the  Kistna 
District,  p.  203  ;  see  sXsoihidem,  pp.  301  —  13. 

1  am  indebted  for  the  following  description  to  Mr.  G.  Campbell,  Sub- 
Collector,  Guntnr,  dated  the  15th  December  1890  :— "  I  was  at  Ohebrolu 
"  yesterday,  and  had  a  look  at  the  temple  from  the  edge  of  the  l-nnia  in 
"  which  it  stands.  The  temple  is  quite  a  small  square  building,  and  is  in 
"  a  neo-lected  condition.  Only  one  out  of  the  four  Dhvajastambas  is 
"  standing,  and  that  looks  very  tottery.  This  is  a  rough  plan,  the  square 
"  beino-  the  kunta  with  the  temple  in  the  middle,  outside  being  the  eight 
"little  shrines  to  the  Dikpalakas.     As  far  as  is  known  □ 

"  here    this  and  the   Brah'magaya  temple  are  the  only        □     H     □ 

'  da 

"  Brahman  temples  in  India.  a 

Mr.  G.    Campbell   kindly    enclosed   a   report   of  the    Cebrolu   temple, 

which  had   been  submitted  to  him  by  the  late  M.R.Ey.  D.  V.  Chelapati 

Eow    Deputy  Tashildar  of  the  Ponnur  Division.     The  following  is  taken 


An  old  and  still  used  temple  of  Brahman  exists  in  Kala- 
hasti  in  the  North  Arcot  district,  I  visited  it  in  January 
1886.  On  the  top  of  the  mountain  over  the  temple  stands 
a  fourfaced  statue  of  Brahman.     Popular  tradition  declares 

from  this  report  i — "  Popular  legend  states  that  dnring  the  energetic 
"  days  of  Bajah  Vasireddi  Venkatadri  Naidu  he  had  determined  to  get  rid 
"  of  a  tribe  of  Chentchus  who  pillaged  his  Zamindary,  and  so  inviting  150 
■'  of  the  tribe  to  a  feast,  he  had  them  all  beheaded  in  the  Port  at  Chinta- 
"  palli.  Remorse  overwhelmed  him  for  his  treachery,  and  whenever  he  sat 
"  down  to  his  meal  the  grain  turned  into  insects.  In  order  to  remove 
"  this  curse  he  went  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Benares  and  other  sacred  places, 
"  built  temples,  erected  numerous  pillars  before  various  shrines,  besides 
"  mating  charities.  He  made  Chebrole  his  second  residence,  Amaravati 
"  being  the  iirst.  At  this  place  (Chebrole)  there  had  been  a  small  pit 
"  called  Brahmagundam,  about  which  was  said  to  have  been  buried  gold 
"  grains  of  immense  quantity  and  a  Bhairava  idol  was  fixed  to  guard  the 
"  treasure.  He  (the  Zamindar)  made  excavations  for  the  hidden  treasure 
"  to  considerable  extent,  and  havhig  at  the  end  been  disappointed,  he 
"  converted  the  pit,  including  the  Brabmaguiida,  into  a  reservoir  called 
"  Koneru,  and  in  the  middle oonstruoted  a  temple  dedicated  to  the  worship 
"  of  Chaturmukha  Brahma  Lingesvarasvami  as  such  a  temple  had  no  exist- 
"  ence  elsewhere  in  this  part  of  the  country,  and  he  gave  the  name  of 
"  Chaturniiikhapuram  to  the  place  which  has  had  several  other  names, 
"  viz.,  Chebrole,  Jayabrole,  Tambrapani.  The  idol  is  of  the  following 
"  description:  The  Lingam  was  first  fixed  in  a  red  Chintamani  stone  most 
"  beautifully  carved  in  the  form  of  a  lotus  (kamalam)  of  1,000  petals, 
"  underneath  which  is  a  raised  seat  called  Peetam.  On  four  sides  of  the 
"  Lingam  four  separate  Brahma  images  equal  in  size  and  equal  in  all  other 
"  respects  were  carved  ;  each  image  has  two  legs  and  four  hands.  Of  the 
"  four  bauds  two  are  empty,  while  of  the  other  two,  one  contains  a  garland 
"  (japamala)  and  the  other  a  tumbler  (kamandal).  The  Lingam  is  about 
"three  inches  higher  than  the  Brahma  images.  The  temple  has  four 
"  gates.  On  the  four  sides  and  corners  of  the  reservoir  eight  small  temples 
"  were  built  for  the  worship  of  the  following  deities :  1.  North,  Venu 
"  Gopalasvami,  and  his  .-\mmavaru.  North-cast;  2.  South,  Ranganayakulu, 
"  and  his  Araniavaru  Xanohari,  South-east ;  3.  East,  Chandramaulesvara- 
"  svami,  and  his  Ammavaru,  South-east ;  4.  \V'est,  Sahasra  Lingesvara- 
"  svami,  and  his  Ammavaru,  North-east.  (Mr.  Campbell  assigns  these 
"  8  temples  to  the  Dikpalakas,  Avhich  is  very  possible.)  The  Ammavaru 
"temples  are  falling  down  and  the  pillars  of  gilt  fixed  on  the  four  sides 
"  of  the  Brahma  temple  are  in  ruins.  The  temple  has  an  endowment 
"  of  Ac.  29,  90  Ch.  The  title  deeds  bear  the  name  of  Chaturmukha  Brahma 
"  Lingesvarasvami.  The  worshippers  are  Pujaris  and  worship  Bi-ahma  with 


that  this  hill  is  really  the  Sivanandanilaya,  the  highest 
peak  of  the  Kailasa,  which  Brahman  transferred  in  ancient 
times  to  Kalahasti.  Of  the  four  faces  of  Brahman  the  one 
which  looks  towards  the  south  has  fangs  instead   of  teeth. 

"  Namakam,  Chamakam  and  with  Sivanamamuhi  after  the  Smarta  fashion. 
"  No  kind  of  periodical  and  oar  festivals  are  celebrated  except  making 
"  daily  offerings  and  lightings,  &c.  The  non-oelebration  is  said  to  be  due 
"to  the  bad  omen,  as  the  Zaraindar  who  constructed  the  temple  and  the 
"  car  at  a  great  cost  having  died  before  the  commencement  of  the  first 
"  year's  ceremony. 

"  I  hear  there  is  another  Brahma  temple  at  Jayapuram  in  the  north.  It 
"  is  called  Brahmagaya,     The  temple  there  is    said  to   be  in  a  tank. 

"  Brahma  images  similar  to  those  at  Ohebrole  were  carved  on  a  Lingam 
"  and  worshipped.  Yenkatadri  Naidu  appears  to  have  built  the  temple 
"after  he  had  seen  the  one  at  Jayapuram  when  he  went  to  Benares  on 
''  pilgrimage  and  named  the  place  Chatnrmukham,  meaning  Brahmapuram. 
"  I  doubt  therefore  that  Chaturmukhapuram  means  the  city  facing  the 
"four  points  of  the  compass,  as  Mr.  Mackenzie  calls  it.''  (I  had  intimated 
this  previously  as  my  opinion  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Campbell.) 

"  The  addition  Lingesvarasvami  to  Brahma  appears  to  have  been  added 
"  for  the  following  reason.  Temples  are  built  according  to  the  Agama 
"  Sastram,  which  treats  of  the  measurement  of  the  several  temples.  This 
"  Sastram  is  of  four  sorts  with  regard  to  Siva,  Vishnu,  Sakti  and 
"  Ganapati.  No  Agamam  is  known  to  exist  which  treats  of  measurements 
"  regarding  temples  dedicated  to  Brahma,  and  hence  no  temple  of  such 
"  sort  has  been  constructed;  but  Venkatadri  Naidu  having  the  vanity  to 
"  excel  the  other  Rajahs  in  charity  and  iu  the  construction  of  temples,  con- 
"  structed  this  temple  partly  arbitrarily  and  partly  with  Siva  Agamam  and 
"  made  the  addition  Lingesvarasvami  to  Brahma. " 

It  is  probable  that  there  was  originally  at  Cebrolu  an  old  Brahma 
temple,  and  that  Venkatadri  rebuilt  this  shrine  to  revive  the  worship. 
With  respect  to  the  temple  at  Jayapuram,  whose  construction  was  imi- 
tated by  the  Rajah  of  Cebrolu,  it  is  not  cigar  which  Jayapura  (Jaipur) 
is  meant.  There  is  a  well  known  town  of  this  name  in  the  Vizagapatara 
District,  and  another  rather  more  famous  place  of  the  same  name  lies  iu 
Rajaputana  not  far  from  the  above-mentioned  Pushkar  in  the  Ajmere  Dis- 
trict where  the  famous  Brahma  temple  is  situated.  This  temple  is  most 
probably  the  one  alluded  in  the  above  printed  report. 

It  must  also  not  be  forgotten  that  a  Brahma  temple  exists  at  Benares 
and  that  Veiikatfidri  visited  this  town  previously  to  his  building  the  Brahma 
temple  at  Cebrolu.  His  death  prevented  that  a  special  Brahma  worship 
was  introduced,  and  was  the  cause  of  the  adoption  of  the  Smarta  cere- 
monial.    Raja  Vasireddi  Venkatadri  Nayudu  died  in  1816. 


296  ON    THE    OEiaiNAL    INHABITANTS 

Special  priests  perform  daily  the  prescribed  worship  in  this 
Brahmadevalaya  whose  idol  goes  by  the  name  of  Manikar- 
nikesvara . 

In  Kuttanur  near  Mayavaram  the  temples  of  Brahman 
and  Sarasvati  face  each  other,  and  Brahman  priests  wor- 
ship these  two  gods  as  Visnu  and  Laksmi,  or  Siva  and 
Parvati  are  adored  in  their  respective  pagodas,  A  big 
temple  of  Brahman,  I  am  told,  exists  at  Tiruvannamalai  and 
one  devoted  to  Sarasvati  as  Manamhika  i's,  &t  Tiruvalur.i* 
Vedaranyam  possesses  likewise  a  temple  dedicated  to  the 
same  goddess.  Brahman's  image  occupies  an  honored  place 
in  the  temple  of  Kodumudi  near  Erode,  at  Tirukkandiyur 
near  Tiruvadi,  in  the  Uttamarkovil  near  Srirangam,  at 
Salyamangalam  and  Kila  A'aluttur  near  Aiyampettai  in  the 
Tanjore  district,  at  KumbhakOnam  and  elsewhere.  Some 
contend  that  there  is  an  image  of  Brahman  in  every  temple 
of  Siva  at  the  place  where  the  purified  water,  poured  out 
over  the  head  of  Siva,  or  over  the  liiiga  inside,  escapes 
through  the  channel.^'' 

On  the  Bkahmabhdta. 

Among  the  population  on  the  West  coast,  especially 
among  the  Tulus,  where  the  devil-worship  prevails,  Brah- 
man is  not  only  revered  as  a  god,  but  also  as  a  spirit  or 
Bhuta.  In  fact  all  castes  worship  him,  and  he  is  universally 
adored ;    he  has  in  reality  his  special  place  of  worship  in 

1  *  This  shrine  at  Tiruvaliir  must  not  be  mistaken  for  that  dedicated  to 
Kamalamba,  which  belongs  to  the  Tyagarajasvami  temple,  within  whose 
precincts  is  also  a  famous  well,  known  as  Sarasvatttirtham. 

' '  A  temple  covered  in  the  sand  near  the  confluence  of  the  Kaveri  and 
Amaravati  not  far  off  from  Karnr,  is  by  some  ascribed  to  Erahman,  by 
others  to  Siva.  According  to  a  legend  the  god  Varadaraj  asviimin  in 
Kaiicipuram  arose  from  the  flames  of  a  sacrifice  performed  by  Brahman 
over  the  Hastisaila,  on  which  the  present  garbhagrha  stands. 

I  am  indebted  for  a  great  part  of  this  information  concerning  the  wor- 
ship of  Brahman  in  South  India  to  my  former  pupil  and  young  friend 
Mr.  Nadadiir  V.  Desikacaryar,  m.a. 



nearly  every  big  landed  estate.  At  Sirvaj  Brahman  is 
represented  witli  four  heads,  his  image  is  about  2  feet  high 
and  is  made  of  Pancaloha  or  the  iiye  metals,  gold,  silver, 
copper,  tin  and  lead.  He  rides  on  the  goose  or  hamsa  in  the 
usual  position,  one  of  his  hands  holding  a  water  jar,  while 
the  other  has  a  rosary  or  japamald,  and  the  two  remain- 
ing are  folded  on  the  chest  and  contain  the  Salagrama, 
The  officiating  Brahman  or  bhatta  enters  the  temple  daily 
after  his  bath  with  a  water  jar  and  pours  the  water  over 
the  image.  He  then  fills,  while  muttering  the  usual  mantras, 
the  holy  sankha  with  water  and  sprinkles  the  latter  over  the 
image.  This  done,  he  puts  sandal  and  a  garland  on 
the  head  of  the  idol  and  offers  some  cooked  rice  to  the  god. 
These  ceremonies  occupy  about  three  hours.  The  evening 
service  is  the  same  but  only  shorter,  it  lasts  about  two  hours. 
The  neighbouring  Brahmans  and  Sodras  celebrate  every 
year  a  great  festival,  during  which  the  image  of  Brahman 
is  carried  about  within  the  precints  of  the  temple  and  a 
special  puja  is  performed.'  ^ 

' "  The  Eev.  Oh.  Gojar  at  Sirva  near  Udapi,  gave  the  following  in- 
formation to  Rev.  Gr.  Bitter  who  sent  me  this  report  in  German  through 
the  Rev.  F.  Kittel ; — "  Eine  halbe  Stunde  westlich  von  Sohirwa  steht  in 
einem  Thai,  Warasare  genannt,  ein  Tempel,  in  welohem  ein  Bild  Brahmaa, 
der  4  Gesiohter  hat,  angebetet  wird.  E  asselbe  ist  gegen  2'  hoch  and  besteht 
aus  Pantschaloha.  Brahma  sitzt  da  auf  dem  Vogel  Hamsa.  Zwei  seiner 
Hande  hebt  er  zar  Aohsel  empor,  in  der  einen  ein  Wassergefass,  in  der 
andern  einen  Bosenkranz  (Japamala)  haltend.  Die  beiden  andern  Hande 
hat  er  vor  seiner  Brust  gefaltet  and  halt  zugleioh  darin  den  heiligen  Stein 
(Salagrama).  Der  dienstthuende  Brahmane  (Bhatta)  geht  taglich  nach 
seinem  iibliohen  Bad  mit  einem  Wassergefass  in  den  Tempel  und  giesst 
das  Wasser  iiber  das  Bild.  Dann  fiillt  er,  wahrend  er  Shastras  hersagt 
seine  heilige  Mnsohel  {shaiika  genannt)  mit  Wasser  und  sprengt  dasselbe 
anf  das  Bild.  Hierauf  legt  er  etwas  Sandalholz  (mehl  ?)  und  einen  Bin- 
menkranz  auf  des  Gotzen  Kopf  und  setzt  ihm  eine  Portion  gekochten  Beises 
vor.  AUes  dies  nimt  jeden  Morgen  3  Stunden  in  Anspruoh.  Den  Abend- 
dienst,  der  dem  des  Morgens  fast  gleich  ist,  abaolviert  er  in  2  Stunden. 
Ansserdem  kommen  die  Tempelvorsteher,  die  benaohbarten  Brahmanen 
und  auoh  eine  Anzahl  Shudras  alljahrlioh  einmal  bier  zu  einen  Feat  zusam- 


The  Brahma-image  in  the  temple  at  Kufijar  has  only 
three  faces,  and  is  therefore  regarded  by  some  as  a  repre- 
sentation of  a  Brahmabhuta. 

The  Brahmabhuta  must  not  be  confounded  with  a  Brah- 
marahsasa,  the  latter  being  the  evil  spirit  of  a  dead  Brah- 

Wherever  the  divine  nature  of  Brahman  prevails,  Brah- 
mans  perform  the  worship,  even  dancing  at  his  service,  while 
low  caste  persons  generally  dance  in  honor  of  the  Brahama- 
bhutas.  The  festival  of  the  superior  Brahman  is  called  a 
mandala,  while  that  of  a  Brahmabhuta  or  of  every  bhuta  is 
known  as  ahula.  Thedrawing  onthe  floorfor  suchamandala 
consists  of  black,  white,  red,  green,  and  yellow  colours  and  is 
made  by  the  Jakkedakulus  who    occupy  in  consequence  at 

men.     Bei  dieser  G-elegenheit  wird  das  Brahmabild  in  Tempelhof  herumge- 
tragen  nnd  ein  besonderer  Puja  (Anbetung)  wird  verrichtet. 

"  Solche  Brahmabilder  iinden  sich  ini  Udapi-bezirk;  noch  einige,  z.  B., 
in  Kanjar,  Bolle,  Nandolige,  &c.  Doch  ist  zu  bemerkeu,  dass  z.  B.  das 
Bild  in  Kanjar  nur  3  Geaichter  liat,  und  daruni  mehr  als  Brahmaihuta 
betrac'litet  wird.  Der  berunter  gescUagene  4te  Kopf  des  Brahma,  so 
wird  erziiblt,  babe  zu  Parameshvara  gefleht,  der  ibm  dann  rieht  auf  die 
Erde  herabzusteigen  und  sieb  den  Bbutas  auzuscbliessen.  So  seien  die 
Brabmabhutas  entstandeii.  Ein  solcber  bat  menschlicbe  Gestalt  und 
reitet  auf  einem  Pferd  ein  Schwert  in  seiner  recbten  Hand  haltend.  Er 
wird  tiigiich  von  Brabuianen,  aber  auch  von  Sbudras  angebetet.  Die 
Sbastras,  die  dabei  gebraucbt  werden,  sind  aber  verscbieden  von  denen, 
welcbe  man  fiir  den  Brabnia-Gott  benutzt.  Es  wird  ibm  nur  ungekochter 
Reis  vorgesetzt ;  aber  auch  sein  Kopf  wird  mit  Sandelbolz  und  Blumen 
bestreut,  auch  wird  Rauchwerk  vor  ibm  verbrannt.     See  Note  20  on  p-  303. 

"  Ausserdem  gibt  es  Brabuiabilder  die  von  den  Riscbis  berstammen 
Eollen,  und  darnm  regelmassig  verehrt  wcrdeii.  Ferner  finden  sich  da 
und  dort  gestaltlose  Brabmnsteiiie,  bci  welcben  jedocb  kein  tiigliober 
Dienst  stattfindet  ;  z.  B.,  J  Stunden  westlicb  von  TJdajii  ist  ein  solcher 
Btein,  zu  wolobem  viellcicbt  das  Jahr  einmal  ein  Tisbnubild  gebraoht  und 
dort  verebrt  wid.  Sie  sind  nieist  mit  Nnga-steinen  vereint  und  werden 
nie  fiir  dcu  Brabmgott,  sondern  nur  fiir  Brabmabhuteu  angesehen. 
Auch  in  den  gewobnliclien  Bhutatempeln  findet  eich  der  Brahmabhuta, 
genannt  Bernic. 

"Als  Grund  der  Veiehrung  das  gestiirzten  Brahms  wird  geltend  gemacbt. 
das  die  altei  Rishis  gleichfalls  nacb  seinem  Fall  ihn  anbeteten." 


present  a  respectable  position,  but  who  were  originally 
Holeyas  or  Paraiyas.  Everything  else  for  the  maijdala  is 
done  by  Brahmans,  A  Brahman  becomes  possessed  of 
Brahman  and  to  him  he  vouchsafes  his  oracles.  The  offering 
or  ball  consists  of  fruits  and  various  condiments.  Brahman 
is  addressed  as  Svami  Bermere,  and  not  like  the  other  gods 
as  Svami  Devere.  The  people  pray  to  him  as  follows: 
We  have  been  remiss  in  thy  worship,  spare  us  ;  remove  gra- 
ciously from  us  all  evil,  give  us  health  for  our  body,  increase 
our  wealth  in  the  house  and  on  the  field.  The  Brahman 
then  makes  his  puja,  and  recites  the  following  mantram  : 
"  Uddi !  I  revere  the  sunlike,  three-eyed  Narayana,  who  is 
shining  with  the  ornament  of  the  serpent-prince,  who  is 
honoured  by  the  skull  held  in  his  hand,  who  is  armed  with 
a  chisel  and  a  white  lotus,  who  has  anklets  provided  with 
golden  bells  and  who  is  facing  (me),  the  lord  of  the  Bhotas, 
who  removes  fear^  has  four  faces  and  is  called  Brahman,*^ 

"  ^'  JJddi,  hhaslcarasannihham  trinayana-}ti  nardyanavi  nagendrahhusoj' 
jvalam  hastddattalcapalamahitam  ivetahjatahkayudham  Tcancanalcihkininupu- 
ritasanTYiukhwm  hhuteiam  bhayaharam-  caturdnanwm  hrahTudhhidhdnam 

Eev.  M.  Schaible  writes  from  Karkal :  "  Ueber  den  Ursprung  ties  Brahma, 
im  Volksmnnde  Berme,  wegeri  seiner  Verwandtsohaft  mit  den  Nagas  oft 
auch  Naga-Brahma  genannt,  sagen  die  Leute  :  in  alten  Zeiten  hatten 
Brahma  and  Shiwa  5  Angeaichler  besessen.  Um  ihrer  Aehnlichkeit  willen 
sei  einstens  Schiwas  Weib,  Farwati,  einmal  bei  ihrem  Erscheinen  in  einer 
Gbtterversammlung  in  grosse  Verlegenheit  geraten,  da  sie,  ausser  Stande, 
ihren  Gemahl  und  Brahma  von  einander  zu  nnterscheiden,  nicht  gewusst 
habe,  zn  welchem  TOn  beiden  sie  sich  setzen  solle.  Schiwa,  der  ihre  Ver- 
legenheit und  den  Grund  derselben  erkannte,  hieb,  nm  ihr  ins  kiinftige 
derartiges  zn  ersparen,  dem  Brahma  ein  Haupt  ab.  Als  dieses  hieranf 
den  Schiwa  iiber  die  Art  and  Weise  seiner  Weiterexistenz  um  Eat  und 
Hilfe  anging,  erhielt  ea  die  Weiaung  sich  unter  seine  Ganas  zu  begeben, 
auf  die  Erde  zu  gehen,  die  Menschen  zu  plagen  und  so  sich  seinen  Unter- 
halt  zu  verschaffen  und  seine  Fortexistenz  zu  sichern." 

"  Brahma  geniesst  allgemeine  Terehrung  von  alien  Kasten.  Die  Leute 
halten  ihn  fur  den  Urheber  von  Augenentziiudnng  Hautauschlag  und 
hauptsiichlich  von  Kinderlosigkeit.  In  Nandolige  und  Mala  hat  er  zwei 
grossere   Tempel,    doch   stehen    dieae  ihrer   Grosse    nach   in    keinerle, 


The  worsliip  of  Brahman  and  his  eventual  absorption  into 
a  Brahmabhuta  shows  the  influence  which  the  aboriginal 
inhabitants  of  India  exercised  over  the  Aryan  invaders. 
Brahman  becomes  half  god,  half  bhota;  he  is  regarded  as 
Such  inferior  to  a  naga,  but  superior  to  the  common  bhuta. 
A  legend  asserts  that  the  fifth  head  of  Brahman,  after  being 

Verhaltniss  zn  anderen  grossen  Hindutempeln.  Sonst  finden  sich  kleine 
Tempelchen,  Brahmasthfina  oder  Bermeregunda  genannt  auf  dem  Gute 
nahezu  jedes  grogseren  Gutsbesitzers,  der  oignen  Grand  und  Boden  hat. 
In  dem  Nandolige  Tempel  findet  sich  kein  Bild,  in  dem  in  Mala  dagegen  ist 
Brahma  aus  Stein  gehauen,  in  Menschengestalt  anf  einem  Pferde  reitend 
dargestellt.  Die  iibrigen  fast  zahTlosen  kleinen  Tempelchen  enthalten 
entweder  ebenfalls  Brahma  in  Menechengestalt,  oder  aber  auch  nur  einen 
rohen  oder  nur  ganz  oberflachlioh  behanenen  Stein,  Bei  dem  Nandolige- 
Tempel  hndet  jahrlich  im  Zusammenhang  mit  einem  Bhuten  und  einem 
Gbtzenfest  ein  grosseres  Fest  statt,  zu  dem  Leute  von  nahe  und  fern 
gewallfahrtet  kommen  um  dem  Brahma  ihre  Geludbe,  die  sie  ihm  in  den 
Tagen  der  Krankheit  gelobt  hatten,  zu  entrichten.  Sonst  findet  an  jedem 
Bankranti  ein  Puja  statt.  In  dem  Mala-Tempel  wird  taglich  Puja  gemacht, 
das  am  Preitag  einen  etwaa  feierlichern  Character  triigt.  Die  gleiohe 
Ordnung  fand  ich  in  Mudar,  wo  dem  Brahma,  der  dort  ganz  im  Freien 
kampirt,  und  bloss  in  einem  wenig  behauenen  Granitstein  dargestellt  ist, 
ebenfalls  taglichen  Dienst  verrichtet  wird.  In  den  oben  erwahnten  vielen 
kleinen  Tempelchen  wird  nur  alle  Monate  geopfert ;  nur  im  Monat  Sona 
taglich  oder  einige  Male  in  der  Woche.  Beim  Puja  wird  eine  Lampe 
angezundet,  Blumen,  Eeis  und  Sandelholzpulver  vorgesetzt.  Seinem  Wesen 
nach  ist  dieser  Brahma  halb  Gott,  halb  Bhuta.  Er  steht  niedriger  als  die 
Kagas  und  hbher  als  die  Bhutas.  In  seiner  Eigenschaft  als  Gott  kann  nur 
der  Brahmane  ihm  Puja  machen  und  ergreift  er  bei  Festlichkeiteu  nur 
von  diesem  Besifcz,  aber  nie  von  einem  andern  niedern  Kastenmann. 
Wahrend  dem  Bhuten  ein  liola,  wird  dem  Brahma  ein  sogenanntes  Mandala 
oder  Barmadahali  dargebraoht.  Die  Zeiohnung  zu  diesem  Mapdala  hat 
eine  ursprunglich  niedere,  jetzt  aber  duroh  ihreu  Dienst  zn  Ansehen 
gekommene  Kaste  (die  Jakkedalculii)  auf  dem  Boden  vor  dem  Tempel  zu 
entwerfen,  wobei  5  Farben,  schwarz,  weiss,  rot,  griin  und  gelb  zur  Verwen- 
dung  kommen.  Das  Uebrige  bei  dem  Mapdala  kann  nur  ein  Brahmane 
besorgen,  von  dem  der  Brahma  Besitz  ergreift  und  dann  Orakel  gibt.  Das 
hali  besteht  in  einer  Darbringung  vou  Friichten  und  versohiedenen 
Gewiirzen.  Beim  Gebet  zu  diesem  Brahma  sagen  die  Leute:  '  Wir  fehlen 
gar  viel  in  deiner  Verehrung,  verzeihe.  Wende  gnadig  alles  Uebel  ab, 
gib  Gesundheit  dem  Leib  und  mehre  den  Reichthum  im  Eaus  und  anf 
dem  Feld.'  Die  Anrede  lautet  nicht  wie  bei  den  Gbttern — Svami  devere 
Bondern  Svami  hermere, 


cut  off,  prayed  to  Paramesvara,  who  advised  it  to  descend 
to  the  earth  and  to  associate  with  the  bhotas.  According 
to  a  Tulu  tradition  the  present  Brahman  (Bermere,  Berume, 
Baruma,  Berma  or  Bomma)  is  only  a  portion  of  Brahman 
united  with  the  serpent  god  {naga  devaru).  Siva  is  said  to 
have  been  jealous  because  Brahman  had  four  faces  and 
eight  eyeSj  while  he  had  only  three.  He  therefore  cut  off 
one  of  these  four  heads,  and  when  this  head  asked  him 
what  he  should  do,  Siva  told  him  to  unite  itself  with  the 
serpent  [ndga),  torment  mankind  and  to  extort  thus  offer- 
ings from  them.  In  Badakay  Lokanad  Brahman's  head 
appeared  first  as  a  naga,  and  there  it  was  worshipped. 
When  I  was  visiting  the  Buddha  temple  at  Kotahenu,  a 
suburb  of  Colombo,  I  saw  a  figure  of  Brahman  with  three 
heads  which  I  originally  took  to  have  four  heads,  the  fourth 
being  behind  and  thus  of  course  invisible,  But  the  temple- 
servant  particularly  declared  that  Brahman  had  only  three 
heads,  one  representing  the  past,  the  other  the  present^  and 
the  third  the  future.  ^  *  This  legend  I  heard  also  confirmed 
by  other  Ceylonese  Buddhists.  At  Kandy  in  the  Maligava 
Temple  or  the  Shrine  of  the  Sacred  Tooth  is  a  picture  of 
Brahman  as  Mahahrahmaraja,  or  as  king  of  heaven — known 
as  Brahmaloka  or  Satyaloka.  ^  ^     He  has  only  one  head,  and 

1=  Tivata  is  one  of  the  Ceylonese  names  of  Bratman.  Its  meaning  and 
derivation  are  not  clearly  known.  It  can  be  connected  with  the  Sanskrit 
words  trivrtta  (trivrt)  and  trivaktra.  The  High  Priest  of  Adam's  Peak 
and  President  of  the  Vidyodaya  College  in  Colombo,  Hikkoduwe  Suman- 
gala  Terunnanae,  thinks  that  it  is  derived  from  trivrtta,  and  explains  it  as 
denoting  Karmavrtta,  Klesavrtta  and  Vipal-avrtfa.  If  vata  stands  for 
vaktra,  trivaktra  would  mean  three-faced. 

^'  According  to  Hindu  cosmology  there  exist  fourteen  worlds,  seven  above 
and  seven  below  the  earth.  The  highest  and  best  world  Satyaloka  is 
under  the  rule  of  Brahman,  and  is  therefore  also  called  Brahmaloka,  while 
it  is  at  times  also  assigned  to  Siva  and  then  named  Sivalbka  ;  the  Kiirma- 
purana  identifies  Brahmaloka  also  with  a  Visnuloka.  The  lowest  and 
worst  world  is  Patala,  it  is  under  the  rule  of  Tama,  and  hence  also  known 


one-headed  he  also  appears  in  the  neiglibouring  Mahadevale 
temple.  Biesdes  the  statue  of  Buddha  there  are  in  this 
shrine  the  images  of  Visuu  and  oE  Siva,  respectively  on  the 
left  and  right  hand  side  of  the  entrance  door,  and  a  one- 
headed  Brahman  is  painted  standing  on  the  left  side  on  the 
wall  near  Buddha.  On  my  asking  for  an  explanation,  I 
was  told  that  this  one-headed  Brahman  represents  the 
present  time.     The   existence   of  a  one-headed  Brahman  is 

as  Tamaloka.  The  eeven  nether  worlds  are  I .  Atahi,2.  Vifalci,S.  Sutala, 
4.  Rasatala,  5.  Talatala,  6.  Mahdtala  and  7.  Patnla,  (the  4th,  5th  and,6th 
hells  are  also  respectively  called  4.  Xitala,  5  Dharatala  and  Mahatala,  and 
6.  Talatala).  It  is  perhaps  worth  noticing  that  also  other  sects,  e.g.,  the 
Muhamraedans  believe  in  the  existence  of  seven  hells.  The  seven  upper 
worlds  are  1.  BhUrloin,  the  earth,  occupied  l)y  men,  2.  Bhuvarlolta,  the 
space  between  earth  and  sun,  occupied  by  Munis,  Siddhas,  &c.,  3.  Suvar- 
loka  (Svarloka),  or  Devcdoka,  between  the  sun  and  the  polesfcar,  or  Dhruva, 
heaven  of  Indra  with  the  330,000,000  gods.  The  Visimpurana  calls  it  the 
abode  of  Tisnn,  where  Dharma,  Dhruva  and  the  Yogis  reside.  4.  Mahar- 
loha  extends  one  krore  of  yojanas  beyond  the  polestar,  residence  of  Bhrga 
and  of  other  sages,  who  survive  the  annihilation  of  the  three  lower 
worlds,  5.  Janaloha  (Jandloka)  occupied  by  the  mind-born  sons  of  Brah- 
man as  Sanandana,  the  Ksis,  and  the  demigods.  6.  Tapololca  is  the  resi- 
dence of  the  Vairagis,  and  7.  Satijaloka  (Brahmaloka)  is  the  abode  of 
Brahman,  whoever  reaches  this  heaven  is  exempted  from  further  birth. 
The  first  of  these  three  upper  worlds  are  destroyed  at  the  end  of  a  Kalpa 
or  a  day  of  Brahman,  though  the  fourth  outlasts  the  kalpa,  it  remains 
uninhabited  during  the  conflagration  raging  below,  for  no  one  can  endure 
the  heat  and  its  occupants  repair  to  the  next  or  Janoloka.  The  last  three 
are  annihilated  at  the  end  of  the  life  or  the  100th  year  of  Brahman.  The 
Devibhagavata  (IX,  III,  8,  if.)  contends  that  the  Erahmripda  contains 
the  seven  nether  and  the  seven  upper  worlds,  which  at  the  time  of  a 
general  destruction  become  a  watery  bubble.  The  A^aikuntha  and  Goloka- 
heavens,  which  lie  beyond  the  Brahmauda,  and  are  eternal,  remain  intact. 
Each  of  these  fourteen  worlds  is  50,000,000,000,000,000  miles  long  and 
25,000,000,000,000,000  miles  broad.  The  fourteen  worlds  occupy  therefore 
a  space  of  17,500  Quinquillions  of  square  miles.  The  mountain  Mahameru 
passes  through  all  these  14  worlds.  There  are  besides  seven  immense  seas. 
The  Mahameru  together  with  the  fourteen  worlds  is  carried  by  the  eight 
elephants  I  Airavata,  Pundarika,  Viimana,  Kumuda,  Anjana,  Puspadanta, 
Sarvabhauma  and  Supratika,  and  by  the  eight  serpents  :  Ananta,  Vasuki, 
Daksa,  Taksaka,  Karkoiaka,  Sajiga,  Kulika  and  Mahapadma,  but  instead 
of  these  eight  serpents  some  mention  only  the  one  thousand-headed   Sesa, 


rather  surprising,  if  we  consider  that  Brahman  as  Brah- 
mabhuta  is  represented  with  one  head,  and  that  this  Maha- 
devale  temple,  though  Buddhistic  in  all  other  respects, 
contains  Hindu  gods,  which  may  perhaps  have  been  im- 
ported by  non-Aryan  Indians.  The  old  Tamil  rulers  of 
Ceylon  compelled  thus  their  Buddhistic  subjects  to  erect 
a  shrine  of  Subrahmariya  or  Kandasvami  (Kanda)  near 
every  Buddhistic  temple,  and  this  custom  is  observed  to 
this  day. 

The  naga  devaru  is  worshipped  like  this  Brahman,  but 
must  not  be  confounded  with  Subrahmanya  {Subraya 
devaru)  who  is  likewise  revered  under  the  image  of  a 
serpent-  ^ " 

Brahman  is  among  the  Tulus  regarded  as  the  cause  of 
eye-disease,  skin-disease  and  childlessness,  he  is  even 
feared  as  the  originator  of  all  evil,  but  also  adored  as  their 

'°  Eev.  Jacob  Goetz  wrote  thus  from  Karkal ; — "  Dor  Sira  Gott  sei  einst 
dariiber  neidisch  geworden,  dass  der  Brahma  Gott  4  Gesichter  somit  8  Augen 
hahe,  -wahrend  er  ihrer  nur  3  besasse,  nnd  habe  ihm  desshalb  einen  Kopf 
abgesohlagen.  Ala  ihn  dann  dieser  abgeschlagene  Kopf  gefragt  habe,  waser 
denn  nun  anfangen  soUe,  dann  habe  ihm  dieser  Siva  geautwortet,  er  soUe 
aich  mit  dem  Naga,  der  Schlange,  vereinigen,  die  Menschen  plagen  und  sioh 
von  ihnen  Gabon  nnd  Opfer  bringen  lassen.  So  sei  er  denn  als  Schlange 
(Naga)  zuerat  im  Badakay  Lokanad  aufgetretu  und  verehrt  worden, 
welter  wurde  ihm  dann  auchin  Mala  am  Fusse  der  Ghata  und  in  Nandolige 
ein  Tempelchen  (Bermere  guncia)  gebaut.  Anoh  privatim  wird  er  Ton 
alien  Kasten  ohne  Dnteraehied  verehrt  und  zwar  mehr  in  der  Art  einea 
Bhuta  ala  einea  Gottea.  Auch  versieht  den  Tanz  oder  Dienat  meiat  nur 
ein  Brahmine,  wahrend  bei  den  gemeinen  Bhutas  meiat  nur  geringere 
Kaaten  sich  zum  tanzen  und  sprechen  hergeben.  Daa  Feat,  das  ihm  zu 
Ehren  gefeiert  wird,  heisst  wie  das  dea  Naga  Mandala,  wahrend  daa  Feat 
eines  Gottes  Jyajia  heisst,  nnd  daa  eines  Bhiita  i'oZa.  Sein  Bild  ist  daa 
eines  Menachen  mit  einem  7  fachen  Schlangenkopfe  iiber  seinem  Haupt 
andere  sagen  es  seien  diea  matted  and  twisted  hair.  Der  gewohnliche 
Naga  devaru,  der  in  deraelben  Weiae  auch  ohne  Verbindung  mit  diesem 
Brahma  verehrt  wird,  ist  nicht  zu  verwechseln  mit  dem  Subraya  Devaru, 
der  auch  unter  dem  Bild  der  Schlange,  aber  eigentlioh  ala  Gott 
verehrt  wird."     See  note  on  p.  298  about  the  statue  of  Brahman  in  Kanjar. 



A  BrahmabliQta  has  human  form,  and  rides  on  horseback 
holding  a  sword  in  his  right  hand.  His  head  is  covered 
with  matted  and  twisted  hair,  which  is  by  some  taken  as 
a  head  of  seven  snakes.  Brahmans  as  well  as  Sodras  pay 
him  daily  worship,  but  mantras  addressed  to  him  differ 
from  those  offered  to  Brahman.  Uncooked  rice  is  present- 
ed to  him,  his  head  is  covered  with  sandal  and  flowers, 
and  incense  is  burnt  to  him. 

The  Brahma  temple  at  Mala  contains  a  big  stone  image 
of  Brahman  riding  as  a  man  on  horseback.  Wliile  there 
is  no  such  figure  in  the  temple  at  Nandolige,  the  innumer- 
able smaller  temples  in  the  country  contain  either  such 
images,  or  in  their  stead  rude  or  roughly  hewn  stones. 
A  great  festival  of  Brahman  is  yearly  celebrated  at  Nan- 
dolige among  a  huge  conflux  of  people.  Crowds  throng  to 
this  temple  to  thank  the  god,  and  to  offer  him  the  presents 
they  had  promised  him  in  the  days  of  their  distress  or 
sickness.  There  is  also  divine  service  or  a  puja  at  every 
Sankranti.  In  the  temple  at  Mala,  Brahman  is  daily 
worshipped,  and  the  service  on  Fridays  is  specially  cere- 
monious. In  the  smaller  temples  (Brahmasthana  or  Ber- 
mere  gunda)  worship  is  celebrated  once  a  month,  but 
during  the  month  of  Sona,  the  service  is  either  daily  or  on 
certain  days  of  the  week. 

There  exist  also  images  of  Brahman  which  are  traced  back 
to  the  Rsis  and  which,  out  of  respect  for  them,  are  regu- 
larly worshipped,  especially  as  the  E.sis  adored  Brahman 
even  after  his  fall. 

Besides  these  images  of  Brahman  there  are  the  well- 
known  Brahma-stones,  which  must  not  be  forgotten.  They 
are  found  in  great  numbers  in  Kanara,  especially  among 
the  Tulu  population.  Such  stones  are  generally  rude  and 
unhewn.  They  are  as  a  rule  not  daily  worshipped,  but  at 
the  granite  stone  at  Mudar  near  Karkal,  Brahman  is  daily 


revered  in  the  same  manner  as  in  the  Mala  temple,  eight 
miles  east  of  Karkal.  Once  a  year  the  image  of  Visnu  is 
carried  to  a  similar  stone,  which  lies  about  three  miles  from 
Udapi.  The  castes  of  the  Barikeras  and  Talavaras  have  a 
peculiar  custom,  They  draw  a  circle  with  pipeclay  about 
half  or  a  foot  in  diameter  and  make  in  the  middle  of  it  a 
point©.  This  point  represents  Brahman.  All  people  are 
requested  to  pour  oil  on  this  stone,  and  to  offer  to  it  cocoa- 
nuts  :  in  short  they  honor  it  with  divine  worship.  Stones 
lying  near  the  gates  of  a  village  or  of  a  town,  or  which 
belong  to  such  gates,  are  generally  thus  marked.  The 
Rev.  Mr.  Kittel  informs  me  that  he  has  also  seen  this 
Bomma  (Brahma)  mark  drawn  on  rocks  near  inhabited 
places.  Such  Brahma-stones  are  often  combined  with 
Naga  stones  and  are  therefore  rather  representations  of 
BrahmabhQtas  than  of  Brahman. ^i 

The  Brahma-stones  are  no  doubt  connected  with  the 
stoneworship  in  vogue  among  the  Gauda-Dravidians,  to 
which  I  have  already  alluded  when  speaking  of  the  Kurum- 
bas  and  Knnbis.^  ^     In  the  riding  BrahmabhQta  I  recognize 

"^  The  Bev.  F.  Kittel  of  Meroara,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for 
most  of  the  information  obtained  from  Kanara,  writes  to  me : — "  Aua 
Slid  Mahratta  erbat  ich  mir  einen  genauen  Bericht  iiber  Brahma  von 
einem  befreundeten  alteu  und  intelligenteu  Bingebornen.  Seine  kana- 
resisohe  Antwort  lautet  in  tjbersetznng  wie  f olgt.  '  Die  Kasten  der 
Barikeras  und  Talavaras  zeichnen  (mit  einer  Art  Pfeifererde)  einen  Kreia 
von  etwa  einem  halben  bis  ganzen  Fuss  im  Durohmesser  auf  einen  rohen 
Stein,  und  machen  eben  damit  einen  Punkt  in  die  Mitte,  so  ®.  Dies  tbun 
sie,  um  den  Gott  Brama  oder  Bomma  (cJ.  i.  Brahma)  darzustellen,  und 
fordern  so  alle  Leute  auf,  ihm  anf  den  Stein  01  zu  giessen,  Kokosniisse  zu 
opfern,  &o.,  kurz  ihm  gottliche  Terehrung  zu  erweisen.  Hauptsaohlich 
zeichnen  sie  die  obige  Form  des  Bomma  auf  Steine,  die  gerade  vor  dem 
Thore  eines  Dorfes  oder  einer  Stadt  liegen  oder  sioh  im  Thore  selbst 
befinden,  oder  in  nicht  welter  Enteferung  vom  Thore  liegen.  Ausser  den 
zwei  obengenannten  Kasten  zeichnet  keine  die  Gestalt  des  Bomma.'  So 
weit  der  Eingeborne ;  ioh  selbst  habe  diesen  Bomma  auoh  an  Felsen  in 
der  Nahe  von  Ortsohaften  angemalt  geaehen." 
"  See  pp.  189,  235. 


a  resemblance  to  the  Kliandoba  (Khande  Eao)  of  the 
Maratha  country,  who  in  his  turn  is  most  probably  iden- 
tical with  the  Aiyanar  of  Southern  India.  Of  the  latter  1 
shall  speak  hereafter.  The  identity  of  these  chief  popular 
deities,  if  confirmed,  goes  a  long  way  to  prove  from  a  reli- 
gious point  of  view  the  national  coherence  of  the  principal 
aboriginal  tribes  of  India,  and  this  result  is  so  important 
because  it  coincides  all  along  with  the  already  adduced 
philological  evidence. 


On  Visnu. 

Visnu  represents  in  contradistinction  to  the  more  abstract 
nature  of  Brahman,  the  bodily  incarnate  deity  to  which 
men  cling  with  fervour  in  times  of  affliction  and  despair. 
He  became  in  fact  the  popular  god  of  post  Vedio  India. 
Many  tribal  deities  which  resembled  him,  and  which  had 
been  in  reality  mostly  only  deified  heroes,  were  united  in  his 
worship  and  appeared  eventually  only  as  attributes  among 
the  thousand  names  by  which  he  is  worshipped.  The  cult 
of  Siva  offers  a  similar  example.  Visnu  is  an  instance  of 
a  god  of  originally  secondary  importance  rising  to  supreme 
dignity,  because  the  Brahmanical  priesthood  required  a 
god  round  whom  the  people  could  gather,  as  a  counterpoise 
against  the  propagation  of  Buddhism.  This  being  the  case. 
Buddhism  must  have  preceded  Vaisijavism. 

Visnu,  the  second  person  of  the  Trimurti,  appears,  as  we 
have  already  seen,  as  a  deity  in  the  Eg- Veda,  and  though 
in  a  subordinate  position,  yet  he  is  called  the  intimate 
friend  of  Indra,  whom  he  joins  in  the  fight  against  Vrtra, 
and  with  whom  he  drinks  the  Soma-juice.  He  is  also  often 
associated  with  Pusan,  anothei-  Aditya.  He  performed  the 
celebrated  three  steps,  and  is  in  consequence  called  Tri- 
vikrama.  Through  this  action  Visnu  is  identified  with  the 
sun.      SakapQni  explains   these  steps  as  referring  to  the 


sun's  three-fold  existence  in  the  earth,  in  the  atmosphere 
and  in  the  sky,  but  Aurnavabha  prefers  to  explain  them  as 
referring  to  the  hill  where  the  sun  rises,  to  the  meridian 
sky,  and  to  the  hill  where  he  sets.  The  three  aspects  of 
the  Egyptian  sun-god  bear  thus  some  resemblance  to  the 
steps  of  Visnu.  In  fact,  Visnu  is  a  solar  deity  or  an  Aditya, 
or  one  of  the  six,  seven,  eight,  or  twelve  sons  of  Aditi.  He 
appears  on  this  earth  at  critical  moments  in  various  shapes, 
as  a  fish,  as  a  tortoise,  a  dwarf,  &c.  Some  of  these  divine 
manifestations  are  already  mentioned  in  the  Yeda,  and  are 
there  ascribed  not  to  Yisrju  but  to  other  gods,  e.g.,  to 
Prajapati  and  to  Brahman,  but  they  have  been  eventually 
tranferred  to  Visiju.  When  Brahman's  supremacy  was 
declining,  the  ascendancy  of  Visnu  increased.  He  was 
thus  identified  with  the  Supreme  Spirit,  and  Brahman  and 
Mahadeva  are  regarded  as  having  originated  from  him. 
However,  in  a  different  place  he  is  called  an  offspring  of 
Mahadeva,  and  appears  sometimes  as  his  friend,  at  others 
as  his  enemy.  Manifold  are  the  stories  told  of  Visnu,  but  the 
goodness  of  his  disposition  is  the  principal  characteristic  of 
most.  He  pervades  and  preserves  the  whole  of  Nature, 
and  his  essence  fills  at  his  pleasure  every  object,  in  fact  he 
is  everywhere.  He  appears  in  each  different  yuga  in  a 
different  garb,  in  the  Krtayuga  as  the  wise  teacher  Kapila, 
in  the  Treta  as  punishing  Gakravartin,  in  the  Dvapara  as 
the  Veda-dividing  Veda  Vyasa,  and  in  the  Kali  as  the  order 
re-establishing  KalM.  Nothing  is  in  this  respect  too  small 
or  insignificant  for  him.  He  honors  with  his  presence  the 
Salagrama-stone  as  well  as  the  Tulasi  plant;  he  descends 
into  the  Gariga  river  as  well  as  into  common  animals  like  a 
fish,  a  boar,  or  a  tortoise ;  he  is  personated  by  a  dwarf  or 
a  monstrous  creature  as  well  as  by  men  of  the  highest  merit, 
like  Parasurama  or  Eama,  the  son  of  Dasaratha.  All  these 
various  shapes  he  mainly  assumes  in  order  to  save  mankind 
from  impending  evil.     As  the  world  is  often  in  danger  of 


becoming  a  prey  to  bad  and  unscrupulous  spirits,  be  they 
demons  or  men,  Visnu  has  to  appear  repeatedly  in  various 
disguises  to  frustrate  their  evil  intentions.^ ^ 

Brahman  is  only  rarely  incarnated,  the  Brahmans  are 
regarded  as  his  principal  representatives  on  earth.  Later 
legends  ascribe  to  Siva  various  incarnations  to  the  number 
of  twenty-five,  and  though  these  seem  to  be  invented  to 
counterbalance  those  of  Visiju,  they  do  not  equal  them  in 
importance,  for  the  manifestations  of  Siva  are  less  known 
and  less  influential  than  those  of  Visi;iu.  Different  expres- 
sions are  also  used  to  distinguish  between  the  incarnations 
of  the  three  great  gods  of  the  Trimurti,  the  terms  vibhuti, 
avatdra  and  lllu  being  respectively  used  for  those  of  Brah- 
man,  Visnu  and  Siva.^  *  Indra,  Vayu,  Agni,  Sesa  and  other 
gods  have  assumed  the  forms  of  other  persons,  yet  these 
personations  do  not  reach  the  high  level  of  the  avataras  of 
Visnu.  Comparable  with  the  descents  of  Visnu,  however, 
are  those  of  Buddha,  who,  though  afterwards  figuring 
among  the  incarnations  of  Visnu,  claims  to  have  appeared 
in  many  forms  before  he  was  born  as  a  king's  son  in 
Kapilavastu.  Regarding,  as  I  do,  the  rise  and  success  of 
Buddhism  as  mainly  due  to  the  antagonism  existing 
between  the  ruling  Aryan  and  the  oppressed  Turanian  or 
Gauda-Dravidian  population,  it  strikes  me  as  by  no  means 
improbable  that  the  incarnation  doctrine  may  in  India 
have  originated  among  the  Gauda-Dravidians  independently 

"  See  Devlbhagavata,  III.  6,  39-40. 

39.  Tada  yadS  hi  karyam  vo  bhavisyati  duratyayam, 
karijyati  prthivyam  vai  avataram  tada  Hareh. 

40.  TiryagyonSvathanyatra  manuslm  tanum  asrtali, 
Danavanam  vinasam  vai  karisyati  Janardanalj. 

'  *  According  to  the  following  passage  from  Brahmandapurana  : 
Parasakteh  prabhSvena  Brahmavisnuaivadayah 
isvara  jagatah  sadhye  svakarmaByacaranti  hi  ; 
Brahmapalj  sarjanam  karma  Yispoh  palanam  ucyate 
sarhharah  tatra  Eudrasya  vibhiJtir  Brahmanalj  smrta 
Avatarah  tatha  Visnoh  Illah  Sambhor  udlritali. 


of  any  Aryan  influence,  as  we  see  it  at  a  very  early  period 
appear  among  the  kindred  Akkadians  on  the  shores  of  the 
Persian  Gulf. 

To  Visnu  are  generally  attributed  only  ten  avataras,  but 
this  number  was  soon  exceeded,  and  twenty-four  or  even 
a  greater  number  of  incarnations  were  eventually  ascribed 
to  him.  In  fact  as  innumerable  as  are  the  creatures  of  the 
creation,  so  innumerable  also  are  regarded  the  manifesta- 
tions of  Yisnu.  I  believe,  however,  that  the  original  number 
was  ten,  and  that  the  remaining  fourteen  must  be  regarded 
as  additions.  The  order  in  which  thsse  different  divine 
descents  appeared,  is  manifest  from  the  various  readings 
of  the  Slokas  which  enumerate  them.  One  stanza  runs  as 
follows  : 

Matsyah  KQrmO  Varahasca  Narasimhasca  Vamanah. 

Ramo  Ramasca  Ramasca  Krsno  BuddhO  Janardanah. 

Others  read  after  Ramasca  :  Krsnah  Kalkir  Janardanah, 
or  Buddah  Kalkika  eva  ca,  or  Buddhah  Kalki  ca  te  dasa,  etc. 
The  first  stanza  omits  Kalki,  the  second  Buddha,  and  the 
third  and  fourth  omit  Krsna.^^  As  the  Kalki  or  horse- 
avatara  is  the  only  manifestation  of  Visnu  which  is  yet  to 
come,  we  may  perhaps  be  allowed  to  assume  that  its  con- 
ception originated  at  a  later  period  than  the  tradition 
which  omits  it. 

'  ^  These  ten  avataras  are  generally  known  as  the  fish-,  tortoise-,  boar-, 
Narasiriilia-,  dwarf-,  Parasurama-,  Rama-,  Balarama-,  (Kisna-),  Bnddha- 
and  horse-avataraa. 

These  minor  or  upa-avataras  are  the  following  :  Sanaka,  Sanandana, 
Sanatsnjata,  Sanatkumara,  Naranarayana,  Kapila,  Visabhayogin,  Narada, 
Hayagrlva,  Dattatreya,  Mohini  (orMaya),  Yajnapati,  Vyasa  and  Dhanvan- 
tari.  Some  of  the  avataras  are  as  it  were  localised.  According  to  the 
Visnupurana  Tisnu  resides  in  the  country  of  Bhadrasva  as  the  horse-headed 
Hayasiras,  in  Ketumali  as  the  boar  Varaha,  in  Bharata  as  the  tortoise 
Kiirma  and  in  Kuru  as  the  fish  Matsya.  In  the  Jatindramatadipikd  of 
Srlnivasacarya,  a  pupil  of  Doddamahaoarya  (Madras  edition,  p.  44)  the 
number  of  the  avataras  of  Tisnu  is  fixed  at  36  (padmanabhadayo'  pi  sat- 
trmsadavatarah  santi). 


There  is  no  doubt  that  the  first  two  incarnations  have 
a  cosmological  meaning ;  the  third  ^  ^  is  perhaps  of  the 
same  nature,  or,  as  it  had  two  different  versions,  may  with 
the  fourth  and  fifth  allude  to  the  fights  between  the  gods 
and  the  asuras,  or  rather  to  the  attempts  to  firmly  establish 
the  worship  of  the  Aryan  deities  in  India  by  subduing  the 
aborigines  and  superseding  their  religion.  The  avatara  of 
Parasurama  indicates  the  contention  between  the  religious 
fervour  of  the  Aryans  and  the  brute  force  of  the  aboriginal 
races.  I  prefer  this  explanation  to  the  accepted  tradition, 
according  to  which  the  priestly  Brahmans  exterminated  in 
war  the  Aryan  warrior  caste  of  the  Ksatriyas.  Rama,  the 
son  of  Dasaratha,  represents  the  extension  of  Aryan  power 
and  civilisation  from  the  North  to  the  South  of  India. 
Balarama  and  Krsna  show  the  high  state  of  development 
attained  in  political  and  religious  fields  degenerating  into 
civil  dissension ;  and  in  Buddha  we  have  the  strife  trans- 
planted to  religious  ground  caused  by  the  popular  reaction 
against  Brahmanic  priestcraft,  which  reaction,  however,  was 
not  successful  in  the  end.  Such  a  historical  explanation  of 
the  order  of  the  avataras  of  Visnu  will,  if  proved  to  be 
correct,  approximately  settle  the  time  of  the  origin  of  this 
Vaisnava  doctrine.  By  mentioning  Buddha  as  the  last 
incarnation  of  Visnu,  this  dogma  must  have  been  conceived 
considerably  after  his  time,  when  the  belief  in  the  power 
of  Visnu  was  in  the  ascendant.  A  similar  view  has  already 
been  expressed  by  Lassen  in  his  Indische  Alter thumshunde. 
According  to  the  Vaisuava  belief  Visnu  assumed  the  decep- 
tive appearance  {Mayamblia)  of  Buddha  in  order  to  lead  by 
his  wrong  teaching  the  Daityas  astray  from  the  path  of  the 
Vedas  and  then  to  destroy  them. 

2"  According  to  one  legend  Visnu  as  a  boar  lifts  the  sinking  earth  from 
the  overflowing  waters,  while  according  to  another  he  delivers  it  from  the 
asura  Hirapyaksa,  who  had  seized  the  earth  and  carried  it  to  the  bottom 
of  the  sea, 

OF    BHAEATAVAE8A   OR    INDIA.  31 1 

Of  late  another,  a  cosmogonic  explanation  of  the  avataraSj 
has  been  attempted,  in  imitation  of  the  Da