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FUND     GIVEN     IN     1891     BY 


_  Corner!  University  Library 

F  1039K5  E14 

"'®'°irjfiiiiffi!,.,!lii!?9*  ^°""*yi  Nova  Scotia    he 


3    1924   028  897   936 

otber  Booft0 

By  Dr.  Eaton 

The  Church  op  England  in  Nova 
Scotia  and  ths  Tory  Ci,ergy  of 
THE  Revoi,ution 

The  Heart  of  the  Creeds,  Histor- 

ICAI,    S.EI.IGION    IN    the    I<IGHT    OF 

Modern  Thought 

Acadian  Legends  and  Lyrics 

Acadian  Bai,i,ads 

The  Lotus  of  the  Nii,e  and  Other 

Poems  of  the  Christian  Year 

Poems  in  Notable  Anthologies 

Magazine    and   Bncyclop^dia  Ar- 


Family  Historical  Monographs 
Educational  Works  Compiled 

The  History 









1604   -   1910 



Prieat  of  the  Diocese  of  New  York;  CorreipondinK  Member  of  the  Nora  Scotia  Hletorlcal 

Society;  Honorary  Hembor  of  the  New  BruDBwiek  Historical  Society;   Life 

Member  of  the  New  England  Historic  Genealogical 

Society ;  Member  of  the  Boston  Authors  Clnb 




''>!   '% 

\'    I 

,--»— .^j'^, ' 


Of  My  Brother 
FRANK  HERBERT  EATON,  M.  A.,  D.  C.  L. 

This  Book  is  Affectionatei,y 

The  original  of  tiiis  book  is  in 
tine  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 



Preface       ...  ix 

I.    King's  County 1 

II.    The  Micmac  Indians      .     .          16 

III.  The  Acadian  French 23 

IV.  The  Acadians  to  the  Expulsion 39 

V.    The  Coming  op  New  England  Planters  to  Corn- 

wallis  and  Horton 58 

VI.    The  Township  of  Aylesford 90 

VII.     The  Township  of  Parrsborough 115 

VIII.    Kentville,  the  Shire  Town 123 

IX.    WoLFviLLE,  Canning,  Berwick,  and  other  places  147 

X.     County  Government,  Public  Officials  ....  159 

XI.     Roads  and  Travelling,  Dyke  Building  ....  176 

XII.     Chief  Industries  op  the  County 190 

XIII.  Houses,    Furniture,    Dress 207 

XIV.  Marriages,  Domestic  Life,  Slaves,  Etc 224 

XV.    The  Anglican  Church 240 

XVI.    The  Congregationalist   Church,  and  the  Alline 

Revival 271 

XVII.    Early  Presbyterianism 294 



XVIII.    The  Rise  of  the  Baptists 303 

XIX.     Early  Methodism        322 

XX.    The  Roman  Catholic  Church 329 

XXI.    The  Progress  of  Education        334 

XXII.    Acadia  University 348 

XXIII.  Literature,  Authors,  Newspapers 360 

XXIV.  Politics,  Representatives  to  the  Legislature  .  410 
XXV.    The  County's  Militia 426 

XXVI.    Current  Events 441 

Population  at  Different  Periods        458 

Biographies 461 

Family  Sketches 542 

Index 885 


As  the  most  prosperous  part  of  the  whole  Acadian  country  in 
French  times,  and  as  the  scene  of  conspicuous  events  at  the  tragical 
period  of  the  Acadian  expulsion,  King's  County,  Nova  Scotia,  will 
always  have  a  wider  interest  for  the  world  than  is  possible  with 
most  rural  localities.  That  part  of  the  county  which  borders  the 
Basin  of  Minas  is  the  scene  of  the  early  part  of  Longfellow's 
Evangeline,  and  all  through  the  two  original  townships  of  Horton 
and  Cornwallis,  which  compose  the  eastern  part  of  the  county,  were 
scattered  the  clustered  hamlets  and  individual  homes  of  those 
thrifty  French  people  who  in  1755  were  forcibly  taken  from  their 
fertile  farms  and  rich  dyke-lands  into  suffering  exile  in  unfriendly 
colonies,  and  placed  as  wretched  paupers  among  people  who  had 
no  sympathy  with  their  traditions  or  habits  of  mind,  who  were 
unfamiliar  with  their  faces,  and  who  profoundly  hated  their  speech. 
"When  the  Acadians  had  been  deported  the  red  tide-floods  of  the 
Bay  of  Fundy  bore  to  Minas  Basin's  shores  a  new  population,  repre- 
senting families  that  had  long  been  conspicuous  for  energy  and 
worth  in  various  parts  of  New  England,  and  with  these  began  a 
fresh  civilization  in  King's  County,  that  continued  and  conserved 
much  that  had  been  best  from  the  beginning  in  New  England's  own 
life.  From  such  favoured  towns  as  New  London,  Norwich,  Say- 
brook,  Colchester,  Lebanon,  and  Lyme,  and  from  similarly  inter- 
esting places  in  Rhode  Island,  these  King's  County  successors  of  the 
Acadians  were  largely  drawn,  and  it  is  with  them  and  their  institu- 
tions and  their  deeds  that  the  volume  here  introduced  will  be  found 
chiefly  to  deal. 

That  the  descendants  of  these  New  England  planters  in  the 
favourable  conditions  in  which  they  found  themselves  in  the  fruitful 
Acadian  country  in  not  a  few  cases  have  carved  out  for  themselves 
brilliant  careers  will  not  seem  strange  when  one  remembers  the  fine 
qualities  of  the  stock  from  which  most  of  them  sprang.    In  King's 


County  the  first  New  England  owners  of  the  land  with  untiring 
industry  replanted  the  long  tilled  but  now  vacant  upland  soil, 
rebuilt  and  enlarged  the  great  marsh  spaces  reclaimed  from  the 
sea  by  their  predecessors,  set  out  new  orchards,  sowed  flourishing 
fields  of  flax  and  com,  bnilt  churches,  established  schools,  and  by 
their  intelligence  and  piety  laid  the  foundations  for  a  college, 
where,  in  one  of  the  loveliest  regions  in  eastern  America,  for  seventy 
years  now.'sound  learning  has  been  constantly  fostered  and  solid 
principles  have  been  taught.  At  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War 
between  thirty  and  thirty-five  thousand  Loyalists,  from  New  Eng- 
land, New  York,  New  Jersey,  and  colonies  farther  south,  poured 
into  Nova  Scotia,  and  in  King's  County  a  certain  number  of  these 
refugees  also  established  their  homes.  To  these  later  important 
settlers  a  certain  amount  of  attention  has  naturally  been  given  in 
this  book. 

In  the  history  of  any  colony  the  origins  and  interrelations  of 
families  have  an  important  place,  but  in  a  general  History  complete 
Genealogies  are,  of  course,  impossible.  In  the  laborious  task  of 
writing  this  History  the  last  three  years  have  almost  entirely  been 
spent,  and  not  by  any  means  the  least  difficult  part  of  the  task  has 
been  the  compilation  of  the  many  family  sketches  the  book  contains. 
To  make  these  sketches  complete  family  histories,  several  lifetimes 
would  have  been  demanded  and  many  volumes  required  to  be  filled, 
but  if  the  sketches  here  given,  brief  as  some  of  them  necessarily 
are,  shall  give  the  families  themselves  chiefly  concerned  an  impulse 
for  more  thorough  genealogical  research  on  their  own  part,  the 
author's  purpose  in  making  them  shall  have  been  fully  served. 
That  some  families  are  not  represented  in  the  book  at  all  is  due  to 
the  fact  that  the  author's  request  in  the  newspapers  for  further 
genealogical  information,  except  in  two  or  three  cases  has  received 
no  response.  On  such  omitted  families,  and  on  any  families  whose 
Genealogies  are  nowhere  yet  fully  in  print,  the  author  urges  the 
necessity  for  the  careful  preservation  and  collation  of  records.  For 
many  decades  until  recently  Nova  Scotia  has  had  no  public  registra- 
tion of  vital  statistics  and  this  fact  makes  more  imperative  the 


careful  preservation  of  private  records  of  births,  marriages,  and 

To  several  persons,  in  and  out  of  the  county,  for  material  aid 
in  the  writing  of  this  book,  the  author  desires  here  strongly  to 
express  his  thanks.  Major  Robert  William  Starr,  of  Wolfville,  has 
the  widest  knowledge  of  any  person  living  in  the  county  of  the 
general  details  of  the  county's  history,  and  from  first  to  last  the 
author  has  had  Major  Starr's  cordial  and  most  important  help.  To 
Mr.  John  Burgess  Calkin,  LL.D.,  of  Truro,  Mr.  John  Elihu  Wood- 
worth  of  Berwick,  Hon.  Judge  Savary,  the  accomplished  editor  and 
part  author  of  the  valuable  Calnek-Savary  History  of  Annapolis ;  to 
Harry  Piers,  Esq.,  of  Halifax,  Miss  Donohue,  Acting  Librarian  of 
the  Nova  Scotia  Historical  Society,  the  Bev.  Edward  Manning 
Saunders,  D.D.,  of  Halifax,  Mr.  Gustavus  E.  Bishop,  of  Greenwich, 
Mr.  John  E.  Chapman,  of  Boston,  and  in  connection  with  the  chapter 
on  authors  and  literature  the  Bev.  Arthur  John  Lockhart,  of  Winter- 
port,  Maine,  the  author  owes  deep  debts  of  gratitude.  For  con- 
tinual inspiration  and  suggestion  he  owes  much  also  to  his  cousin, 
Dr.  Benjamin  Band,  of  Harvard  University,  one  of  the  best  friends 
Nova  Scotia,  and  indeed  Canada  at  large,  has  in  the  United  States. 
By  his  cousins,  Ralph  Samuel  Eaton  and  Mrs.  Wilford  Henry  Chip- 
man,  of  Kentville,  the  author  has  also  been  helped  in  important  ways. 

In  the  preparation  of  family  sketches  the  well  known  news- 
paper articles,  now  in  scrap  books,  of  the  late  William  Pitt  Brechin, 
M.D.,  of  Boston,  have  been  of  great  assistance.  Dr.  Brechin  was  an 
indefatigable  genealogist  of  Cornwallis  families,  and  although  his 
work  has  been  available  for  this  History  only  as  furnishing  a  basis 
for  sketches,  in  the  cases  of  several  families  such  basis  it  has  formed. 
Owing,  however,  to  the  loyal  labour  in  summer  vacations  of  Dr. 
Benjamin  Rand  in  copying  completely  the  vital  records  in  the 
Cornwallis  Town  Book  the  author  has  been  able  to  make  direct 
appeal  to  the  original  source  from  which  a  very  considerable  part 
of  Dr.  Brechin's  material  was  drawn.  In  the  fifty-fourth  volume 
of  the  New  England  Historical  and  Genealogical  Register  a  slight 
sketch  of  Dr.  Brechin  and  his  work  by  the  author  of  this  book  wiU 


be  found.  Among  the  many  sons  of  King's  County  who  in  other  parts 
of  the  continent  have  kept  loyal  to  their  native  traditions  and  have 
reflected  honour  on  the  country  of  their  birth,  Dr.  Brechin's  name 
deserves  an  important  place. 

Another  debt  of  gratitude  owed  by  the  author,  which  he  can 
never  adequately  repay,  is  here  gladly  acknowledged.  The  History 
of  King's  County  has  been  written  entirely  in  the  Library  of  the 
New  England  Historic  Genealogical  Society  in  Boston,  and  to  the 
kindly  encouragement  and  unvarying  courtesy  of  the  able  Libra- 
rian of  the  Society,  Mr.  William  Prescott  Greenlaw,  as  also  to  the 
friendly  interest  of  the  accomplished  Assistant  Librarian,  Miss 
Mary  Ella  Stickney,  is  due  the  fact  that  the  book  has  come  into 
being  at  all.  Much  of  the  material  for  the  History  has  been  gradu- 
ally  collected  during  the  author's  twenty  years  residence  in  New 
York  City,  but  the  writing  of  the  book  could  hardly  have  been  done 
elsewhere  than  in  Boston,  and  in  Boston  it  could  have  been  done 
nowhere  so  pleasantly  or  so  thoroughly  as  under  the  genial  auspices 
mentioned  above.  The  most  liberal  subscriber  to  the  book  before 
publication  has  been  Mr.  Arthur  Watson  Eaton,  of  Pittsfield,  Mass., 
whose  intelligent  appreciation  of  the  necessity  for  such  a  work  as 
the  present  has  greatly  strengthened  the  author's  courage  in  carry- 
ing to  completion  his  laborious  and  dil&cult  task. 


July,  1910. 


De  Monts,  Ghamplain,  and  Poutrincourt  visit  Minas     .    .    .  1604 

Ghamplain  again  visits  Minas 1606 

Poutrincourt  and  Biencourt  yisit  Minas 1607 

First  Settlement  at  Minas  shortly  before 1680 

Col.  Benjamin  Church  visits  Minas  and  cuts  the  dykes  .    .     .  1704 

Acadia  finally  conquered  by  England 1710 

Unconditional  Oath  of  Allegiance  refused 1755 

Expulsion   of   the   French       1755 

Representative  Assembly  created  in  Nova  Scotia 1757, 

Proclamation  for  Settling  French  Lands   adopted      ....  1758 

Townships  of  Horton,  Comwallis,  and  Falmouth  erected      .  1759 

Coming  of  New  England  Planters 1760-  61 

Anglican  Mission  established 1762 

Congregationalist  Church  founded  about 1765 

Eev,  James  Murdoch  comes  to  Horton 1766 

Henry  Alline  begins  to  preach 1776 

New  Light  Congregationalist  Church  of  Comwallis  founded  1778 

Hants    County    formed        1781 

Migration  to  New  Brunswick  about 1783 

Loyalists  settle  at  Aylesford  and  Parrsborough 1783 

The  Congregationalist  Church  of  Comwallis  becomes  Presby- 
terian          1785 

Aylesford  Township  erected  about 1786 

The  Baptist  Church  of  Comwallis  founded 1807 

The  Shire  Town  named 1826 

Horton  Academy  founded 1829 

Parrsborough  separated  from  King's       1840 

Acadia  College  chartered 1840 

King's  County  changed  to  a  municipality 1879 

Kentville  incorporated          1886 

Wolfville  incorporated         1893 


In  the  printing  of  this  volume  certain  slight  errors  have  crept  into  the 
text,  these  the  author  urges  the  owner  of  the  book  kindly  to  correct  with  his  pen. 

Page  45,  line  6,  omit  in  his  place. 

"     59,  line  10,  for  ajfected  read  effected. 

"    158,  line  32,  for  speitt  read  spend. 

"    163,  line  31,  for  Cottman  read  Cottnam. 

"    173,  line  11,  for  Coronors  read  Coroners. 

"    240,  line  25,  for  Lunenberg,  read  Lunenburg, 

"    240,  line  27,  for  Louisberg  read  Louisburg. 

"    256,  line  13,  for  have  ministered  read  may  have  ministered. 

"    268,  line  20,  for  have  lost  read  have  been  lost. 

"    269,  line  32,  for  Earl  Gray  read  Earl  Grey. 

"    273,  line  10,  for  was  he  had  sold  read  was  that  he  had  sold. 
;    "    288,  line  20,  for  shut  not  read  shut  out. 

"    303,  line  11,  omit  other. 

"   304,  line  32,  for  a  chaplain  read  as  chaplain. 

"    352,  line  22,  for  Hon.  S.  P.  Robie  read  Hon.  S.  B.  Robie. 

"    603,  line  17,  for  Tarnar  ( Troop)  Starr  read  Tamar  (Troop)  Starr. 

"    603,  line  30,  for  as  physician  read  as  a  physician. 

"    611,  line  28.     The  proper  date  of  John  Cogswell's  birth  is  Sept.  26,  1781. 

"    624,  DeBlois  family  sketch,  line  11,  omit  George. 

"    643,  8th  line  from  the  bottom,  for  Volumtown  read  Voluntown. 

"    651,  line  5,  for  George,  born  April,  1790,  read  April  6,  1790. 

"    716,  at  the  end  of  line  19  insert  his. 

*'  731,  lines  1,  2,  3,  should  read:  You  are  on  a  summit  of  a  hill  over- 
looking the  valley.  Before  you  lies  its  whole  length  of  about  10  miles  ( ?) 
and  a  mile  of  breadth.  Through  its  centre  flows  the  narrow  Gaspereau 
stream,  etc. 

"     747,  line  8,  omit  influence. 

"  843,  Thorpe  family  sketch,  line  4,  for  gives  as  much  light  read  gives  us 
much  light. 

"    859,  line  7,  after  b.  Dec.  ij,  1837,  insert  m.  (married). 

It  was  originally  intended  to  add  to  this  History  a  list  of  the  chief  sources 
from  which  the  materials  for  it  have  been  drawn.  Among  these  would  have 
been  mentioned  two  manuscript  historical  sketches  of  King's  County,  written 
many  years  ago  for  the  Aikin  Prize,  and  since  then  preserved  in  the  library  of 
King's  College,  Windsor.  The  writers  of  these  interesting  manuscripts  were 
Charles  S.  Hamilton,  Esq.,  Counsellor  at  Law,  of  New  Haven,  Conn.,  a  native 
of  Horton,  winner  of  the  Aikin  Prize,  and  Lieut.-Col.  Wentworth  Eaton  Ros- 
coe,  K.C.,  Barrister,  of  Kentville,  a  native  of  Comwallis.  To  both  these  man- 
uscripts the  author  is  indebted  for  valuable  suggestions. 


In  the  history  of  Nova  Scotia  at  large  there  is  a  certain  dram- 
atic interest  that  belongs  to  few  portions  of  the  American  continent. 
The  little  peninsula  which  with  the  island  of  Cape  Breton  now 
forms  this  maritime  province,  for  more  than  a  century  served  as 
the  chief  contending  ground  for  empire  in  America  of  two  great 
European  nations,  whose  strifes  ceased  only  when  the  noted  French 
strongholds,  Louisburg  and  Quebec,  at  last  fell  decisively  into 
English  hands.  To  Port  Koyal,  now  Annapolis  Royal,  in  the  county 
of  Annapolis,  and  to  Fort  Beausejour,  now  in  Cumberland  county, 
attaches  a  stronger  military  interest  than  to  any  point  in  King's 
County,  but  in  the  whole  Acadian  province  there  was  not  so  pros- 
perous a  district  as  MinaS,  and  though  Beaubassin,  Cobequid, 
Piziquid,  and  Port  Royal  share  deeply  in  the  tragic  interest  of  the 
expulsion,  in  the  village  of  Grand  Pre,  and  the  country  near  it  that 
borders  on  the  Gaspereau,  the  saddest  romance  of  the  expulsion 
seems  always  to  lie.  In  King's  County  was  the  district  of  Minas, 
and  the  populous  adjoining  district  at  first  included  in  Minas, 
known  in  French  annals  as  Riviere  aux  Canards. 

Through  the  county,  into  Minas  Basin,  flow  the  five  rivers,  with 
names  now  only  slightly  anglicized,  the  Gaspereau,  the  Grand  Habi- 
tant, the  Riviere  aux  Canards,  the  Petit  Habitant,  and  the 
Pereau.  From  north-east  to  south-west  run  the  two  ranges  of  hills 
known  as  the  North  and  South  mountains,  the  North  Mountain 
terminating  at  Minas  Channel  in  rugged  Cape  Split  and  the  bold 
bluff,  Blomidon.  The  county's  northern  and  eastern  boundaries, 
respectively,  are  determined  by  the  Bay  of  Fundy  and  Minas  Basin, 
and  the  bordering  counties,  that  make  its  western  and  southern 
boundaries,  are  the  counties  of  Annapolis,  Lunenburg,  and  Hants. 


Within  its  ancient  limits  as  a  county,  King's  was  one  of  the  largest 
counties  in  the  province,  with  its  present  limits  it  is  one  of  the 
counties  of  second  size.  It  now  contains  in  all  but  eight  hundred 
and  eleven  square  miles,  hut  its  importance  is  not  measured  by  its 
acreage,  for  its  landscape  is  so  beautiful  and  the  fertility  of  its  soil 
so  great  that  it  long  ago  came  to  be  called  appropriately,  "the 
Garden  of  Nova  Scotia."  In  shape  the  county  is  very  like  the 
letter  V,  the  vertical  point  resting  on  the  county  of  Lunenburg. 
Nova  Scotia's  civil  government  began  with  the  founding  of 
Halifax  in  1749 ;  and  August  17th,  1759,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Council, 
Messrs.  Jonathan  Belcher,  Benjamin  Green,  John  Collier,  Charles 
Morris,  Eichard  Bulkeley,  Thomas  Saul,  and  Benjamin  Gerrish 
being  present,  the  first  division  of  the  province  into  counties  was 
made.  The  names  given  the  five  counties  then  created,  were  Halifax, 
Cumberland,  Lunenburg,  Annapolis,  and  King's.  The  boundaries 
of  King's  were  described  in  the  following  way:  "King's  to  be 
bounded  westerly  by  the  county  of  Annapolis,  and  of  the  same 
width,  and  from  the  southeasterly  corner  of  said  county  to  run  east 
24  degrees  north  to  the  lake  emptying  into  Pisiquid  (the  Avon) 
River,  and  thence  continuing  near  the  same  course  to  the  river 
Chibenaccadie,  opposite  to  the  mouth  of  the  river  Stewiack ;  thence 
up  said  river  ten  miles,  and  thence  northerly  to  Tatmaguash,  and 
from  Tatmaguash,  westerly,  to  the  river  Solier,  where  it  discharges 
into  the  channel  of  Chignecto."  From  this  description  we  see  that 
King's  County  first  comprised,  besides  the  present  county,  a  corner 
of  Lunenburg,  almost  the  whole  of  Hants,  more  than  a  third  of 
Colchester,  and  about  half  of  Cumberland.  Between  1759  and  1785 
four  other  counties,  Hants,  Sydney,  Shelburne,  and  Queens,  were 
formed,  and  in  the  latter  year  the  Council  had  the  limits  of  all  the 
counties  in  the  province  described.  The  most  important  change 
which  had  been  made  in  the  territory  of  King's  since  the  beginning, 
was  the  creation  from  it  of  Hants,  and  the  boundaries  of  the  reduced 
King's  were  described  as,  "beginning  at  the  bridge  on  Seven  Mile 
Brook  in  Wilmot,  being  the  beginning  bound  of  the  county  of 
Annapolis,  thence  to  run  north  ten  degrees  west  to  the  Bay  of 
Fundy,  and  from  the  said  bridge  south,  ten  degrees  east  to  the 


north  line  of  Lunenburg  County,  thence  to  run  north  seventy-five 
degrees  east  until  it  comes  to  the  south-west  limit  of  Hants  County, 
thence  north  thirty  degrees  west  until  it  comes  to  the  south-east 
angle  of  Horton  township  and  by  the  dividing  line  of  Horton  and 
Falmouth  to  the  River  Pizzaquid  now  called  Avon,  and  bounded  on 
the  north  and  north-east  by  the  waters  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  Minas 
Gut,  and  Basin,  and  River  Avon  aforesaid,  and  also  including  the 
Tswnehip  of  Parrsborough  and  other  granted  and  ungranted  land  on 
the  northern  side  of  the  Gut  and  Basin  of  Minas,  which  are  ascer- 
tained by  a  line  drawn  from  Cape  Chignecto  to  the  northern  bound- 
ary line  of  Parrsborough,  and  thence  to  the  south  boundary  of 
Francklin's  Manor,  and  thence  to  begin  at  the  east  boundary  of  land 
granted  Benjamin  De  "Wolf  and  John  Clark  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Basin  of  Minas  aforesaid,  thence  to  run  north  nine  miles,  and  thence 
to  the  south  boxmdary  of  Francklin's  Manor  aforesaid". 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Council,  December  16,  1785,  when 
this  description  was  submitted,  there  were  present,  the  Honourables 
Richard  Bulkeley,  Henry  Newton,  Jonathan  Binney,  Alexander 
Brymer,  Isaac  Deschamps,  Thomas  Cochran,  and  Charles  Morris. 

In  1821,  '22,  and  '24,  acts  were  passed  calling  for  a  new  defini- 
tion of  county  limits.  Pursuant  to  these  acts,  such  definitions 
were  prepared,  and  by  another  act,  passed  in  1826,  were  by  the 
Council  affirmed.  The  boundaries  then  settled,  as  regards  King's  at 
least,  were,  however,  precisely  those  that  had  been  fixed  by  the 
Council  in  1785.  Since  1826  no  re-definition  of  the  boundaries  of 
King's  has  been  necessary,  or  has  been  made. 

May  21,  1759,  the  two  townships  of  Horton  and  Cornwallis  had 
been  created,  and  July  21st  of  that  year  the  township  of  Falmouth 
was  made.  In  1761,  from  the  part  of  Falmouth  east  of  the  Piziquid, 
which  was  known  as  East  Falmouth,  the  township  of  Newport  was 
set  off,  and  in  1764  the  township  of  Windsor  was  formed.  In 
1781  these  last  three  King's  County  townships  petitioned  to  be 
erected  into  an  independent  county,  and  July  2d  of  that  year  Fal- 
mouth, Newport,  and  Windsor,  "with  the  lands  contiguous  to  them", 
became  the  county  of  Hants.    As  early  as  July  1,  1761,  the  settle- 


ment  of  Cobequid,  now  Masstown,  in  Colchester  County,  was  thrown 
into  the  county  of  Halifax,  and  finally  new  limits  for  the  early 
formed  county  of  Cumberland  were  drawn.  In  Cumberland  today, 
most  of  the  old  township  of  Parrsborough,  on  the  north  side  of 
Minas  Channel,  is  to  be  found,  but  until  1840  the  district  of  Parrs- 
borough remained  a  township  of  King 's. 

The  third  of  the  three  present  townships  of  King's  is  Aylesford, 
but  the  exact  time  or  manner  of  the  recognition  of  it  as  a  separate 
township  we  haVe  never  ascertained.  "A  part  of  Wilmot  was  now 
set  off  as  a  separate  township  and  named  Aylesford",  says  Murdoch, 
writing  of  the  year  1786,  but  diligent  inquiry  has  failed  to  give  us 
any  more  light  on  the  matter. 

May  13,  1784,  it  was  resolved  in  Council  that  a  large  district 
now  in  Cumberland  county  should  be  included  in  King's.  This  tract 
is  described  as  comprising  "all  that  tract  of  land  situate  on  the 
north  side  of  the  Basin  of  Minas  and  Gut,  and  bounded  on  the  south 
by  the  shores  thereof,  on  the  western  part  by  Cape  Dore  and  along 
the  coast  of  Cape  Chignecto,  on  the  north  by  a  line  drawn  from  the 
point  of  said  cape  to  the  north-western  angle  of  a  tract  of  land 
called  Francklin  Manor  and  by  a  line  from  thence  seventy  degrees 
east,  twenty  miles,  and  thence  by  a  line  to  the  north-east  corner  of 
land  granted  to  Benjamin  Gerrish,  Esq.,  by  the  said  land  to  the 
Basin  aforesaid".  It  would  seem  from  this  action  of  the  Council 
that  the  tract  here  referred  to,  which  covers  the  south-western  part 
of  Cumberland,  had  up  to  this  time  lain  outside  of  any  county  limits, 
but  possibly  before  this  it  may  have  been  roughly  included  in  the 
county  to  which  it  now  belongs.  The  history  of  the  gradual  forma- 
tion of  the  present  county  of  Cumberland  bears  a  close  relation  to 
the  history  of  the  formation  of  King's,  but  the  details  of  the  fixing 
of  Cumberland's  boundaries  must  be  left  to  the  future  historian 
of  that  most  northerly  section  of  the  Nova  Scotian  peninsula. 

The  County  of  King's  is  thus  now  limited  to  what,  until  the 
erection  of  the  county  into  a  Municipality,  in  1879,  were  the  three 
townships  of  Horton,  Cornwallis,  and  Aylesford,  Horton  being  much 
the  largest  township  of  the  three. 


Of  the  general  appearance  of  the  townships  of  Horton  and 
Cornwallis  as  one  comes  to  them  from  the  east,  Judge  Haliburton 
in  his  History  of  Nova  Scotia  eloquently  says :  "After  leaving  Pal- 
mouth  and  proceeding  on  the  great  western  road,  the  attention  of 
the  traveller  is  arrested  by  the  extent  and  beauty  of  a  view  which 
bursts  upon  him  very  unexpectedly  as  he  descends  the  Horton 
mountains.  A  sudden  turn  of  the  road  displays  at  once  the  town- 
ships of  Horton  and  Cornwallis,  and  the  rivers  that  meander 
through  them.  Beyond  is  a  lofty  and  extended  chain  of  hills,  pre- 
senting a  vast  chasm,  apparently  burst  out  by  the  waters  of  nine- 
teen rivers  that  empty  into  the  Basin  of  Minas,  and  here  escape 
into  the  Bay  of  Fundy.  The  variety  and  extent  of  this  prospect, 
the  beautiful  verdant  vale  of  the  Gaspereaux ;  the  extended  town- 
ship of  Horton,  interspersed  with  groves  of  wood  and  cultivated 
fields,  and  the  cloud-capt  summit  of  the  lofty  cape  that  terminates 
the  chain  of  the  North  Mountain,  form  an  assemblage  of  objects 
rarely  united  with  so  striking  an  effect.  *  *  *  No  part  of  the 
Province  can  boast  more  beautiful  and  diversified  scenery  than  the 
township  of  Horton.  Beside  the  splendid  prospect  from  the  moun- 
tain just  mentioned,  and  those  in  the  vicinity  of  Kentville,  there 
are  others  still  more  interesting  at  a  distance  from  the  post  road. 
It  would  be  difiicult  to  point  out  another  landscape  at  all  equal 
to  that  which  is  beheld  from  the  hill  that  overlooks  the  site  of  the 
ancient  village  of  Minas.  On  either  hand  extend  undulating  hills 
richly  cultivated,  and  intermingled  with  farm  houses  and  orchards. 
From  the  base  of  these  high  lands  extend  the  alluvial  meadows, 
which  add  so  much  to  the  appearance  and  wealth  of  Horton.  The 
Grand  Prarie  is  skirted  by  Boot  and  Long  Islands,  whose  fertile 
and  well  tilled  fields  are  sheltered  from  the  north  by  evergreen 
forests  of  dark  foliage.  Beyond  are  the  wide  expanse  of  waters 
of  the  Basin  of  Minas,  the  lower  part  of  Cornwallis,  and  the  isles 
and  blue  highlands  of  the  opposite  shores.  The  charm  of  this 
prospect  consists  in  the  unusual  combination  of  hill,  dale,  woods, 
and  cultivated  fields;  in  the  calm  beauty  of  agricultural  scenery, 
and  in  the  romantic  wildness  of  distant  forests.    During  the  sum- 


mer  and  autumnal  months,  immense  herds  of  cattle  are  seen  quietly 
cropping  the  herbage  of  the  Grand  Prarie ;  while  numerous  vessels 
plying  on  the  Basin  convey  a  pleasing  evidence  of  the  prosperity 
and  resources  of  this  fertile  district." 

Of  the  fertility  of  the  soil  of  Horton  and  Cornwallis  too  much 
cannot  possibly  be  said.  Besides  the  present  fifty  thousand  acres 
of  beautiful  dyked  land  which  these  townships  contain,  a  rich 
alluvial  country  in  successive  epochs  reclaimed  from  the  sea,  there 
are  perhaps  seventy  thousand  acres  of  tilled  upland,  where  grains 
and  root  crops  grow  luxuriantly,  and  where  apple,  pear,  and  plum 
orchards  come  to  magnificent  fruitage.  Across  the  South  Mountain 
lies  a  large  area  of  forest  land,  and  even  here  there  is  some  good 
agricultural  soil.  It  is  in  the  so  called  "Annapolis  Valley,"  how- 
ever, between  the  North  and  South  mountains,  that  the  rich  farms 
and  wonderful  fruit  orchards  of  this  far  famed  region  of  the 
province  of  Nova  Scotia  are  to  be  found.  An  almost  magical  charm, 
indeed,  lies  over  this  whole  valley,  its  wide-spreading  dyke-lands, 
pink-blossoming  orchards,  scarlet-maple  clad  hills,  clumps  of  droop- 
ing willows,  sturdy  groves  of  oak,  the  graceful  sweeping  elms  that 
throw  soft  shade  over  country  and  town — where  else  in  northern 
America  can  such  beauty  be  found!  "The  outlooks  from  many  of 
the  most  elevated  points,"  says  a  recent  writer,  "are  admirable  pic- 
tures of  rural  loveliness.  Notable  among  them  is  the  'Lookoff', 
on  the  North  Mountain,  from  which  portions  of  five  counties  are 
visible,  and  where  the  eye  ranges  some  ninety  miles  westward  till 
it  reaches  the  shores  of  Annapolis  Basin.  When  seen  in  the  early 
October  haze  it  is  a  panorama  of  unforgettable  charms.  One  has 
but  to  turn  one's  head  from  this  view  of  the  valley  to  see  in  its 
loveliness  the  historic  Basin  of  Minas,  framed  in  green  and  azure, 
fretting  the  wide  curves  of  its  shores  with  far-famed  tides  that  race 
over  the  tawny  flats,  back  and  forth,  from  age  to  age.  Another 
turn  of  the  head,  and  we  have  in  view  Minas  Channel,  and  on  its 
farther  shore  the  bold  hills  of  Greville  Bay  and  Spencer's  Island, 
and  the  frowning  cliffs  of  Cape  D'Or." 

Of  the  beauties  of  the  township  of  Aylesford,  lying  to  the  west 


and  south-west  of  the  other  townships,  somewhat  less  is  to  be  said  in 
praise.  The  township  covers  a  flat,  sandy  district  between  the 
North  and  South  mountains,  part  of  which  is  a  bog  about  five  miles 
long,  known  as  the  Aylesford  or  Caribou  Bog,  where  cranberries  are 
largely  cultivated,  but  it  contains  also  much  as  good  soil  for  agricul- 
ture as  Cornwallis  and  Horton.  Of  the  large  region  which  includes 
Aylesford  and  "Wilmot,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Saunders  says:  "Not  many 
years  have  passed  since  it  has  been  found  that  the  swampy  lands  in 
the  valley  could  be  drained,  and  were  of  excellent  quality.  Now  this 
section  of  the  country  is  known  as  possessing  all  kinds  of  soil,  from 
barren  sand  to  thick  red  clay.  Much  of  it  is  the  very  best  soil 
for  fruit  raising,  other  parts  are  excellent  for  pasturage  and  hay 
lands.  Hence  the  products  of  this  part  of  the  valley  are  very 
numerous."  The  distance  from  the  eastern  to  the  western  boundary 
line  of  Aylesford  township,  by  the  old  road,  in  the  Almanacs  of  the 
18th  century  used  always  to  be  given  as  exactly  ten  miles. 

On  the  geological  structure  of  King's  County  many  longer  or 
shorter  treatises  are  to  be  found.  Of  these  may  be  mentioned 
Jackson  and  Alger's  discussion  of  the  Mineralogy  and  Geology  of 
Nova  Scotia,  1832;  Dr.  Abram  Gesner's  "Remarks  on  the  Geology 
and  Mineralogy  of  Nova  Scotia",  1836,  and  "Industrial  Resources 
of  Nova  Scotia",  1849;  Sir  William  Dawson's  "Acadian  Geology", 
1855  and  1878;  Dr.  Honeyman's  paper  on  "Nova  Scotian  Geology", 
in  the  Nova  Scotia  Institute  of  Science,  Vol.  5,  Part  1 ;  a  paper  by 
Professor  Ernest  Haycock,  in  the  publications  of  the  Nova  Scotia 
Institute  of  Science,  Vol.  10,  Part  2 ;  and  a  Summary  Report  of  the 
Geological  Survey  Department,  with  a  map,  1901. 

On  the  rich  alluvial  King's  County  marshes,  and  the  remark- 
able Minas  Basin  tides,  no  one  has  written  so  well  as  King's  Coun- 
ty's scholarly  son,  the  late  Frank  Herbert  Eaton,  D.  C.  L.,  whose 
knowledge  of  the  county's  natural  history  and  resources  was  ac- 
curate and  wide.  In  an  article  in  the  Popular  Science  Monthly  for 
June,  1893,  Dr.  Eaton  described  the  marshes  and  tides,  and  his 
description  is  so  graphic  that  with  a  few  slight  changes  we  repro- 
duce part  of  it  here. 


"Among  the  many  littoral  indentations  of  the  western  Atlan- 
tic", says  Dr.  Eaton,  "no  other  possesses  so  many  unique  and  in- 
teresting features  as  the  Bay  of  Fundy.  Of  this  truly  extraordinary 
sheet  of  water  the  single  fact  is  usually  recorded  in  the  school  books 
that  it  is  noted  for  its  very  high  tides.  But  so  meagre  a  reference 
to  what  is  in  itself  an  imposing  exhibition  of  gravitational  energy, 
helpful  as  it  may  be  in  a  mnemonic  way  to  the  learner  of  geograph- 
ical catalogues,  gives  no  hint  either  of  the  remarkable  series  of 
physiographical  conditions  which  are  the  cause  of  this  phenomenon, 
or  of  those  which  it  creates.  The  Bay  of  Fundy  is  remarkable  not 
simply  for  the  grandeur  of  its  tidal  phenomena,  but  equally  so  for 
the  exquisitely  picturesque  sculpturing  of  its  coast  line,  and  the 
diversity,  range,  and  richness  of  the  geological  evidence  thereby 
revealed;  for  the  unique  character  of  the  extensive  alluvial  tracts 
that  skirt  its  head-waters ;  and  for  the  wealth  of  legend,  tradition, 
and  romantic  incident  embodied  in  the  early  history  of  the  people 
that  dwell  about  it. 

"North  of  Cape  Cod,  the  continental  coast  line  recedes  abruptly 
westward  and  then  sweeps  in  a  long  curve  north-eastwardly  till 
the  head-waters  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy  are  reached.  Turning  again 
on  itself,  its  course  is  westward  to  Cape  Sable,  from  which  it 
stretches  away  toward  the  east  as  the  southern  shore  of  Nova 
Scotia.  Thus  between  capes  Cod  and  Sable  lies  the  long,  narrow, 
open  Bay  of  Maine  which  terminates  toward  the  north  and  east  in 
the  land-locked  Bay  of  Fundy.  In  the  shallower  waters  of  this  open 
bay,  the  tidal  impulse  which  over  ocean  depths  moves  only  as  a 
wave  of  vertical  oscillation,  is  gradually  changed  into  one  of  trans- 
lation. Under  the  influence  of  this  transformation,  the  whole  body 
of  water  moves  slowly  shoreward,  and  sweeping  round  with  the  curv- 
ing coast  line,  skirts  the  southern  shores  of  Maine  and  New  Bruns- 
wick till  it  reaches  the  narrow  strait  between  Briar  Island  and 
Grand  Manan.  Compressed  between  these  closer  limits,  the  water 
is  forced  onward  with  increasing  velocity  into  the  Bay  of  Fundy, 
part  finding  its  way  into  the  Annapolis  Basin  and  its  tributary 
rivers,  the  main  current,  however,  moving  onward  till  it  meets 


the  tongue  of  land  which  terminates  in  Cape  D'Or.  Here  this  cur- 
rent divides,  the  northern  portion  filling  Shepody,  and  Chignecto 
basins;  while  the  southern  half  rushes  onward  through  the  nar- 
row entrance  to  the  Basin  of  Minas.  As  it  passes  capes  Split  and 
Blomidon,  the  swirling,  eddying,  foaming  tide  attains  a  velocity 
of  ten  miles  or  more  an  hour.  Thus,  twice  a  day  the  low  and  un- 
protected marsh-lands  which  former  tides  have  made  along  the 
Minas,  Shepody,  Chignecto,  and  Annapolis  shores  are  covered  by 
the  tidal  flood,  while  in  the  tributary  rivers  the  mingled  salt  and 
fresh  water  fills  the  channels  for  many  miles  into  the  interior  to  a 
height  of  ten,  twenty,  or  thirty  feet  above  the  normal  level  of  the 
stream.  Thus  it  is  that  the  long  sickle-curved  Maine  coast  grad- 
ually gathers  up  the  water  rolled  upon  it  twice  a  day  by  the  ocean 
tide-wave,  and  throwing  it  backward,  presses  it  into  the  long  fun- 
nel-shaped Bay  of  Fundy,  within  whose  confines  are  exaggerated, 
far  beyond  their  normal  limits,  all  the  spectacular  and  physiograph- 
ical  effects  of  ordinary  tidal  phenomena. 

"Such  is  the  general  character  of  the  Fundy  tides,  while  local 
conditions  determine  great  diversity  in  the  height,  velocity,  and 
specific  effects.  In  some  places  the  extreme  elevation  of  the  flood- 
tide  above  low  water  mark  is  as  great  as  sixty  feet ;  in  some  rivers 
the  upward  flow  against  the  fresh-water  current  forms  a  rapidly 
moving  wall  or  bore  several  feet  in  height,  the  rushing  sound  of 
which  can  be  heard  at  considerable  distance,  while  in  others  the 
two  currents  meet  and  mingle  so  quietly  that  an  observer  can  hardly 
tell  where  the  backward  flow  begins. 

"Lining  the  shores  of  the  headwaters  of  the  bay,  and  spread- 
ing far  inland  up  the  valleys  of  its  river  tributaries,  are  extensive 
tracts  of  alluvial  marsh  land  of  remarkable  fertility.  These  great 
alluvial  tracts  are  unlike  any  other  so-called  marshes  known  to  exist. 
In  general,  alluvial  deposits  are  formed  as  river  basins  by  materials 
washed  down  from  higher  levels  by  fresh  water  floods;  here  the 
whole  deposit  is  of  tidal  origin.  Every  incoming  tide  bears  land- 
ward its  burden  of  finely  comminuted  sediment,  formed  by  the 
wearing  action  of  the  tidal  currents  upon  the  sides  and  bottom  of 


the  bay.  During  the  interval  between  the  flood  that  covers  the 
unprotected  river  and  basin  margins  and  the  ebb  that  leaves  them 
bare  again,  the  suspended  sediment  is  precipitated  as  a  film  of  soft 
and  glistening  mud,  upon  the  partly  dried  and  hardened  deposi- 
tions of  previous  tides.  Thus,  layer  after  layer  accumulates,  until 
the  flat  becomes  too  high  for  any  but  extraordinary  tides  to  cover. 

"Instructive  illustrations  these  marsh  flats  often  give  of  Na- 
ture's methods  in  the  preservation  of  those  records  by  which  the 
geologist  reads  our  earth's  early  history.  So  plastic  and  impres- 
sionable is  the  mud  which  the  out-going  tide  has  left,  that  it  easily 
takes  and  holds  the  tracings  of  any  disturbing  contact.  A  wind- 
blown leaf,  a  resting  insect,  or  a  drop  of  rain,  may  make  a  tiny 
mould,  which  hardening  somewhat  before  the  next  incoming  flood, 
receives  thereafter  successive  linings  to  which  it  gives  its  form.  In 
this  way  the  rain  marks  of  a  passing  shower  have  been  fixed,  and 
then  completely  covered  up;  and  yet  when  subsequently  exhumed, 
so  perfectly  were  the  spatter  marks  preserved  that  one  could  tell 
in  which  direction  the  wind  was  blowing  when  the  shower  fell. 

"It  is  obvious  that  the  deposition  of  tidal  sediment  can  in  gen- 
eral be  made  only  between  the  lower  and  higher  limit-levels  of  the 
daily  ebb  and  flow.  The  accumulation  of  mud  to  greater  depths 
than  these  can  only  be  accounted  for  on  the  supposition  of  a  grad- 
ual subsidence  of  the  littoral  areas — a  movement  which  would  con- 
comitantly widen  the  area  of  tidal  inundation.  That  such  a  steady 
and  prolonged  subsidence  of  the  Fundy  marsh-lined  shores  has 
•  been  in  progress  since  the  marsh  began  to  form,  is  attested  not  only 
by  the  surprising  depths  of  mud  accumulated,  but  also  by  the  occur- 
rence in  many  places  of  deeply  buried  forests,  which  were  clearly 
once  above  the  coexistent  tidal  levels. 

"A  general  idea  of  the  geological  features  of  the  depression 
in  which  the  Bay  of  Fundy  lies,  is  necessary  to  a  fuller  tmderstand- 
ing  of  the  nature  of  these  marshes  and  especially  of  the  sources  of 
their  wonderful  fertility.  In  earlier  geological  times,  but  subse- 
quently to  what  is  known  as  the  Carboniferous  Age,  the  bay  was 
much  wider  and  somewhat  longer  than  it  now  is.    The  long  ridge  of 


trap  rock  known  as  the  North  Mountain  did  not  then  exist,  and  the 
waters  of  the  bay  extended  uninterruptedly  over  the  whole  of  the 
Annapolis  Valley  to  the  base  of  the  Silurian  hills,  which  under  the 
name  of  the  South  Mountain  form  the  southern  enclosure  of  the 
valley.  Eastwardly  the  headwaters  of  the  ancient  bay  washed  the 
Devonian  and  Carboniferous  rocks  of  the  Cobequid  Hills,  while  the 
northern  shore  line  of  the  present  bay,  skirting  the  southern  limit 
of  the  Paleozoic  rocks  of  New  Brunswick,  is  in  the  main  identical 
with  that  of  the  original  bay.  In  general  character,  the  tidal  move- 
ments of  this  larger  Atlantic  inlet  were  the  same  as  in  the  modern 
smaller  bay;  and  the  semi-daily  ebb  and  flow  of  the  waters,  by 
incessant  and  violent  attrition  with  the  Carboniferous  limestones, 
shales,  and  sandstones,  and  the  other  ancient  rocks  that  formed  the 
bed  and  margins  of  the  bay,  produced  immense  quantities  of  sand 
and  mud,  sediment  which  was  redistributed  over  the  greater  part 
of  the  Fundy  valley.  Subsequent  changes  of  level  caused  a  reces- 
sion of  the  waters  to  their  present  limits,  and  brought  to  view  as 
the  Triassic  or  New  Red  Sandstone,  extensive  areas  of  the  sediment- 
ary deposits  that  had  been  accumulating  beneath  the  surface.  These 
red  sandstone  strata  are  still  to  be  seen  in  shreds  and  patches,  at 
various  points  in  the  Annapolis  Valley  and  on  the  shores  of  the 
Minas,  Cumberland,  and  Chignecto  basin.  Their  general  dip 
towards  the  north  indicates  that  the  epoch-closing  movement  which 
narrowed  the  Bay  of  Fundy  to  its  present  limits  was  a  subsiding 
of  its  bed  along  its  northern,  or  New  Brunswick  border.  Follow- 
ing this  subsidence,  as  concluding  events  in  the  series  of  seismic 
■convulsions — by  which  the  region  gained  its  present  contour-fea- 
tures— occurred  the  volcanic  eruptions  in  which  the  North  Moun- 
"tain  had  its  origin.  This  long  trappeau  wall  forms  the  southern 
boundary  of  the  bay,  from  Cape  Split  to  Digby  Neck,  a  distance  of 
•a  hundred  and  twenty-five  miles;  the  only  interruption  to  its 
continuity  being  the  singular  gap  called  Digby  Gut,  which  gives 
an  entrance  into  the  beautiful  Annapolis  Basin.  The  effective  shel- 
ter from  northerly  storms  afforded  by  this  wall  of  trap  renders 
the  climate  of  the  apple  growing  region  on  its  southerly  incline, 
the  mildest  in  Eastern  Canada. 


"Though  there  were  probably  many  volcanic  vents  along  the 
line  of  fracture,  yet  the  scene  of  greatest  eruptive  activity  was 
no  doubt  near  Cape  Split,  at  the  entrance  to  Minas  Basin,  scattered 
along  the  shores  of  which,  on  either  side,  are  isolated  patches  of 
amygdaloidal  trap.  There  are  indications,  too,  that  transverse 
ridges  of  trap  run  at  intervals  across  the  sandstone  bottom  of  the 
bay.  From  these  two  Triassic  rocks,  the  sandstone  and  the  trap, 
that  form  the  floor  and  margins  of  the  bay,  subjected  to  the  erosive 
action  of  the  ceaseless  movements  of  the  Fundy  waters  to  and  fro, 
mainly  derives  the  material  which  constitutes  the  fertile  alluvium 
at  the  head  waters  of  the  bay.  The  sandstone  yields,  of  course, 
the  greater  part  of  the  marsh-creating  sediment.  Its  detritus  con- 
sists of  a  large  percentage  of  silica,  a  little  clay,  the  iron  which 
mainly  determines  its  reddish  colour,  and  the  calcareous  matter 
which  served  as  a  cement  in  the  parent  rock.  This  material,  in 
the  extremely  comminuted  form  in  which  it  occurs  in  marsh-land 
soil,  would  itself  afford  conditions  highly  favourable  to  the  sup- 
port of  vegetable  life.  But  an  additional  cause  of  the  wonderful 
fertility  of  these  marshes  is  the  richness  of  the  trap-rock  in  various 
salts  of  potash,  lime,  and  alumina,  which  the  action  of  the  water 
mingles  freely  with  the  sandstone  mud.  The  plant  supporting 
power  of  this  complex  soil  is  increased  still  further  by  contribu- 
tions from  the  upland  soils  through  the  medium  of  the  streams  and 
rivers  flowing  towards  the  bay. 

' '  The  great  fertility  of  this  alluvium  may  be  inferred  from  the 
fact  that  portions  of  the  Annapolis,  Cornwallis,  Grand  Pre  and 
Cumberland  marshes  have  been  producing  annually  for  almost  two 
centuries  from  two  to  four  tons  per  acre  of  the  finest  hay.  Besides, 
it  is  a  common  practice,  after  the  hay  has  been  removed  to  con- 
vert the  marshes  into  autumn  pastures,  on  the  luxuriant,  tender 
after-growth  of  which  cattle  fatten  more  rapidly  than  on  any  other 
kind  of  food.  Thus  virtually  two  crops  are  annually  taken  from 
the  land,  to  which  no  fertilizing  return  is  ever  made.  The  only 
portions  of  the  Acadian  marshes  that  have  as  yet  shown  signs  of 
exhaustion  are  those  about  the  Chignecto  branch  of  the  bay,  on  the 


cliffs  and  bed  of  which  the  Triassic  rocks  do  not  occur,  but  in  their 
stead  a  series  of  blue  and  gray  'grindstone  grits'  of  an  earlier 
formation.  In  this  region  the  marshes  situated  well  up  towards 
the  head  of  the  tide,  where  the  red  soil  of  the  uplands  has  been 
mingled  with  the  gray  tidal  mud,  are  good,  while  those  lower  down 
are  of  inferior  quality  and  less  enduring.  Efforts  are  being  made 
to  renew  and  improve  these  inferior  tracts  by  admitting  the  tide 
upon  them. 

"In  general,  however,  the  necessity  for  periodic  innundations 
by  the  muddy  waters  of  the  bay  in  order  to  maintain  the  produc- 
tiveness of  the  marshes,  as  implied  in  the  passage  from  Evan- 
geline : — 

'Dikes  that  the  hand  of  the  farmer  had  raised  with  labour 

Shut  out  the  turbulent  tides;  but  at  stated  seasons  the 

Opened  and  welcomed  the  sea  to  wander  at  will 
o'er  the  meadows' — 

not  only  does  not  exist,  but  on  the  contrary,  some  two  or  three 
years  are  required  for  the  grass  roots  to  recover  from  the  injury 
done  them  by  the  salt  water,  when,  as  occasionally  happens,  an 
accident  to  the  protecting  dikes  admits  the  unwelcome  flood.  The 
exceedingly  fine  texture  of  the  soil,  and  its  consequent  compactness 
and  retentiveness  of  moisture,  render  it  for  the  most  part  quite 
unsuitable  for  the  production  of  root  crops,  and  at  the  same  time 
adapt  it  admirably  for  the  growt;h  of  hay  and  of  cereals,  especially 
oats,  barley,  and  wheat.  As  a  rule,  however,  the  succession  of 
grass  crops  is  interrupted  only  at  intervals  by  a  single  crop  of 
grain.  The  reproductive  power  of  the  grass  roots  declines  per- 
ceptibly with  long-continued  cropping,  so  that  a  renewal  of  the 
stock  by  re-seeding  is  occasionally  necessary.  For  this  purpose 
the  marsh  is  plowed  in  the  autumn  or  spring  and  new  seed  is  sown ; 
but  to  avoid  the  loss  of  a  season,  since  grass  does  not  mature  for 
harvesting  the  first  year,  grain  is  also  sown  and  a  large  yield  is 


usually  obtained.  This  plowing  and  re-seeding,  at  intervals  often 
of  many  years,  is  the  only  cultivation  the  soil  receives  or  requires. 
There  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that  abundant  harvests  of  grain 
might  not  be  obtained  annually  for  an  indefinite  period,  but  as  this 
would  involve  annual  tilling,  the  hay  crop  is  more  profitable. 

"Along  the  river  estuaries  the  encroachment  of  the  land  upon 
the  sea  is  in  continual  progress,  so  that  there  are  always  con- 
siderable areas  of  unreclaimed  salt  marsh,  the  lower  portions  of 
which  are  flooded  every  day,  while  the  higher  portions  are  covered 
only  by  the  highest  tides.    The  reclamation  of  such  new  marsh  is 
effected  by  building  around  its  seaward  margin  a  wall  or  dike 
of  mud  to  prevent  all  tidal  overflow.    After  two  or  three  years 
the  salt  will  have  sufiSciently  disappeared  to  permit  the  growth  of 
a  crop  of  wheat,  and  in  a  year  or  two  more  the  best  quality  of 
English  grass  will  grow.    At  the  head  of  Cumberland  Basin  an 
interesting  experiment  in  the  reclamation  of  worthless  land  has 
been  successfully  tried.     Large  areas  of  swamp,  and  in  some  in- 
stances shallow  lakes,  have  been  connected  with  the  tidal  waters 
of  the  neighboring  rivers  by  channels   cut  through  intervening 
ridges  of  upland,  thus  effecting  the  double  purpose  of  draining 
and  of  admitting  the  mud-laden  tides.    In  this  way,  in  five  or  ten 
years  many  acres  of  worthless  swamp  have  been  converted  into 
valuable  dike  land. 

"The  use  of  marsh  mud  as  a  fertilizer  is  very  general  among 
farmers  to  whom  it  is  accessible.  It  is  taken  in  the  autumn  or 
winter  from  the  bank  of  some  tidal  creek  or  river,  where  the 
daily  depositions  can  soon  replace  it,  and  is  spread  directly  on  the 
upland.  Its  effects  are  two-fold,  it  enriches  with  valuable  supplies 
of  plant  food  the  soil  to  which  it  is  applied,  and  it  greatly  im- 
proves the  texture  of  all  the  light  and  open  soils,  making  them 
more  compact  and  firm,  and  so  more  retentive  of  moisture  and 
of  those  ingredients  which  are  otherwise  easily  washed  away.  This 
permanent  effect  upon  the  physical  character  of  the  soil  which  the 
marsh  mud  produces  renders  undesirable  its  application  to  clayey 
soils  already  compact  and  firm  and  moist  enough,  for  it  makes  them 


more  difficult  to  work,  and  more  impervious  to  atmospheric  influ- 
ences. To  well  drained  hay  fields,  however,  which  need  but  little 
cidtivation  the  mud  may  be  advantageously  applied,  even  though 
the  soil  be  naturally  stiff  and  heavy. 

"The  French  settlers  were  the  first  dike-builders  here.  They 
brought  the  art  with  them  from  the  Netherlands;  and  to  this  day 
no  other  class  of  Provincial  workmen  is  as  skillful  as  the  Acadian 
French.  It  was  no  doubt  the  existence  of  these  vast  areas  of  marsh 
land,  whose  potential  value  was  even  then  clearly  seen,  that  induced 
the  first  New  World  immigrants  to  settle  about  the  Bay  of  Fundy 
shores;  and  it  was  these  same  broad,  fertile  marshes,  left  unoccu- 
pied by  the  expulsion  of  the  Acadian  French,  that  attracted  the 
New  England  settlers,  whose  descendants  now  derive  from  them  an 
income  aggregating  not  less  than  a  million  doUars  every  year," 


Pf  the  two  great  families  of  Indian  tribes,  the  Algonquins  and 
Iroquois,  that  inhabited  the  North  American  continent  when  Euro- 
peans discovered  it,  the  Algonquins  extended  over  part  of  Virginia 
and  Pennsylvania,  New  Jersey,  south-eastern  New  York,  New  Eng- 
land, the  maritime  provinces  of  Nova  Scotia  and  New  Brunswick, 
and  the  province  of  Ontario.  They  were  spread,  also,  along  the 
shores  of  the  Great  Lakes,  and  throughout  the  northern  regions  be- 
yond, and  they  occupied  "Wisconsin,  Michigan,  Illinois,  and  Indiana, 
and  in  detached  bands  "ranged  the  lonely  hunting  grounds  of  Ken- 
tucky". In  New  England,  where  the  Algonquins  were  most  numer- 
ous, were  the  tribes  known  as  Mohicans,  Narragansetts,  Penacooks, 
Pequots,  and  "Wampanoags,  and  further  east  the  Passamaquoddies 
or  Etchemins,  and  Penobscots. 

Inhabiting  eastern  Maine  and  New  Brunswick  were  the 
Maliseets,  and  throughout  the  country  bordering  on  the  Gulf  of  St. 
Lawrence,  from  Baie  Chaleurs  to  Nova  Scotia,  including  Prince 
Edward  Island  and  Cape  Breton,  the  Souriquois  or  Micmacs,  which 
tribe  in  later  times  spread  also  into  Newfoundland.  The  boundary 
line  between  the  territories  of  the  Micmacs  and  Maliseets,  says 
Professor  Ganong,  began  at  Quaco,  east  of  St.  John,  in  New  Bruns- 
wick, and  followed  the  water-shed  which  divides  the  rivers  flowing 
into  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence  from  those  flowing  into  the  Eiver  St. 
John.  It  ran,  that  is,  from  Quaco  to  the  head  of  the  Kennebecasis, 
thence  to  the  head  of  the  "Washademoak,  thence  to  the  head  of 
Salmon  River,  thence  away  to  the  west,  to  the  head  of  the  Miramichi, 
thence  to  the  head  of  the  Tobique,  and  thence  to  the  head  of  the 
Eestigouche;  following  everywhere  the  height  of  land,  and  giving 
all  streams,  large  and  small,  on  the  Gulf  side,  to  the  Micmacs,  and 


all  on  the  side  of  the  St.  John  waters  to  the  Maliseets.  Similar 
boundaries  separated  the  Maliseets  from  the  Penobscots  and  Pas- 
samaquoddies  on  the  west. 

The  Micmacs  were  larger  framed  and  had  flatter  features  than 
the  Maliseets,  but  the  habits  and  characteristics  of  the  two  tribes 
did  not  greatly  differ.  Both  subsisted  chiefly  by  hunting  and  fish- 
ing, but  both  had  some  rude  agriculture,  and  both,  as  far  back 
as  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century  had  cultivated  corn, 
squash,  and  tobacco.  From  Marc  Lescarbot  in  the  beginning,  and 
Nicholas  Denys  in  the  latter  part,  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and 
from  DiereviUe,  in  1700,  we  learn  much  regarding  the  Micmacs 
at  that  early  time.  To  be  a  good  hunter  was  the  supreme  ambition  of 
every  young  man  in  the  tribe,  for  on  his  skill  in  hunting  his  stand- 
ing with  his  people  largely  depended.  In  ancient  times  the  country 
was  full  of  moose,  caribou,  and  wild  fowl,  and  these  furnished  the 
Indians  liberally  with  food.  Beavers,  martins,  otters,  lynxes,  and 
other  small  animals,  were  also  most  abundant,  and  from  them  were 
got  the  valuable  furs  that  formed  the  chief  article  of  commerce 
between  the  Micmacs  and  the  French. 

Before  the  conversion  of  the  Micmac  tribe  by  French  Roman 
Catholic  missionaries,  the  Nova  Scotia  Indians  are  said  to  have 
worshipped  the  sun  as  their  creator,  believing  also  in  a  demon 
called  Mendon,  whom  they  frequently  tried  to  propitiate  with  sac- 
rifices and  prayers.  They  made  offerings,  likewise,  to  departed 
spirits,  and  looked  forward  for  themselves  at  death  to  happy  hunt- 
ing grounds,  where  fatigue  and  hunger  woidd  be  unknown,  and 
where  game  would  be  abundant  and  easily  got.  The  marriage  cere- 
mony among  them,  wherever  any  existed,  was  simple,  and  was  con- 
nected, as  among  aU  peoples,  barbarous  and  civilized,  with  feasts 
and  merry-making.  Funeral  ceremonies,  however,  were  conducted 
with  great  demonstrations  of  grief,  with  loud  wailings,  and  smear- 
ing of  the  face  with  soot.  Dead  bodies  were  dried  or  embalmed 
and  then  buried,  pipes,  knives,  axes,  bows  and  arrows,  snow-shoes, 
moccasins,  and  skins  being  put  with  them  in  the  grave.  The  people 
were  keenly  alive  to  the  supernatural,  and  their  mythology  and 


legends,  which  Charles  6.  Leland  finds  strikingly  like  those  of  the 
Scandinavians,  show  that  almost  all  natural  objects  were  invested 
by  them  with  mind  and  soul.  They  were  superstitious  to  the  last 
degree,  putting  implicit  faith  in  the  incantations  of  jugglers,  and 
the  charms  of  medicine  men.  They  had  much  less  warlike  pro- 
pensities than  their  neighbors  the  Maliseets,  but  they  regarded 
valor  in  war  as  the  noblest  characteristic  they  could  be  possessed 
of  and  on  occasion  would  fight  bravely  and  well.  They  were  gen- 
erous, hospitable,  chaste,  and  in  common  intercourse  had  a  code  of 
etiquette,  which  they  strictly  observed. 

In  all  parts  of  the  Nova  Scotian  peninsula  the  tribe  had  favorite 
camping  places ;  in  winter,  when  the  snows  were  deep  they  tramped 
from  place  to  place  through  the  woods  on  snow-shoes,  in  single  file, 
men  and  women  alike  having  heavy  loads  strapped  on  their  shoul- 
ders and  dragging  behind  them  long,  narrow  sledges  or  sleds. 
On  these  sleds  were  piled  skins,  rude  axes  and  kettles,  dried  moose- 
meat,  and  rolls  of  birch-bark  for  covering  their  wigwams  when 
they  should  again  encamp.  In  a  little  book  of  sketches  published 
some  twenty  years  ago,  Miss  Frame,  a  Nova  Scotian  writer,  gives 
an  imaginary  but  perfectly  truthful  picture  of  a  Micmac  encamp- 
ment. The  Indians  were  encamped  in  the  dense  forest  on  the  edge 
of  a  little  brook  which  flowed  into  a  larger  river.  "Here  some  of  the 
women  were  busy  sewing  new  and  repairing  old  birch-bark  canoes. 
In  this  primitive  ship-yard  neither  broad-axe  nor  caulking-mallet 
was  required.  The  framework  was  made  of  split  ash,  shaped  with 
a  knife  and  moulded  by  hand;  this  was  covered  with  sheets  of 
white  birch-bark,  sewed  round  the  wood-work  with  the  tough  root- 
lets of  trees.  The  wigwams  were  formed  of  poles  stuck  into  the- 
ground  and  secured  at  the  top  by  a  withe.  This  circular  inclosure 
was  covered  with  birch-bark;  a  blanket  or  skin  covered  the  aper- 
ture which  served  for  a  door;  and  the  centre  was  occupied  by  the 
fire,  the  struggling  smoke  of  which  found  its  way  out  at  the  top. 
Round  the  fire,  boughs  were  laid,  which  served  the  family  for  seats. 
Dogs  snored  around  the  camps,  and  papooses  lay  sleeping  in  the 
cradles  strapped  to  their  mothers'  backs,  their  brown  faces  up- 


turned  to  the  sun.  One  mother  sat  apart,  nursing  a  dying  babe. 
She  had  prepared  a  tiny  carrying  belt,  a  little  pail,  and  a  paddle, 
to  aid  her  child  in  the  spirit  land.  Beside  the  spring  some  women 
were  preparing  the  feast  for  the  congregated  warriors.  Over  the 
fire  were  suspended  cauldrons  containing  a  savory  stew  of  porcu- 
pine, carriboo,  and  duck.  Salmon  were  roasting  before  the  fires, 
the  fish  being  inserted,  wedge  fashion,  into  a  split  piece  of  ash 
some  two  feet  in  length,  crossed  by  other  splits,  its  end  planted 
firmly  into  the  earth  at  a  convenient  distance  from  the  fire ' '.  Until 
the  middle  of  the  19th  century  small  encampments  similar  to  this 
imaginary  one,  might  have  been  found,  summer  or  winter,  in 
several  places  in  King's  County,  one  of  the  chief  spots,  latterly, 
being  the  "Pine  Woods",  in  Cornwallis,  near  Kentville,  the  county 

On  the  mythology  of  the  Micmacs  and  Maliseets,  as  of  the  neigh- 
bouring kindred  tribes,  the  Passamaquoddies  and  Penobscots,  Mr. 
Charles  G.  Leland  has  written  at  length.  These  tribes,  which  to- 
gether with  the  St.  Francis  Indians  of  Canada  and  some  smaller 
clans  call  themselves  the  Wabanaki,  "have  in  common",  he  says, 
"the  traditions  of  a  grand  mythology,  the  central  figure  of  which 
is  a  demigod  or  hero,  who,  while  he  is  always  great,  consistent,  and 
benevolent,  and  never  devoid  of  dignity,  present's  traits  which  are 
very  much  more  like  those  of  Odin  and  Thor,  with  not  a  little  of 
Pantagruel  than  anything  in  the  character  of  the  Chippewa  Man- 
obozho,  or  the  Iroquois  Hiawatha."  This  demigod,  who  is  called 
Glooskap,  like  the  Norse  deities  combines  giant-like  strength  with 
tender  feeling  and  a  light  but  never  cruel  or  merely  fantastic  hu- 
mour. In  King's  County,  especially,  conspicuous  traces  of  his  power 
abound.  While  he  roamed  the  province  incessantly,  encamping  in 
many  different  spots,  his  chief  abiding  place  was  the  crest  of 
Blomidon.  Before  his  time  the  beavers,  who  were  then  huge,  pow- 
erful beasts,  had  built  a  great  dam  across  the  strait  from  Blomidon 
to  the  Cumberland  shore,  thus  making  Minas  Basin  an  immense  pond 
or  inland  sea.  One  day  by  speaking  a  word  or  by  waving  his  wand, 
Glooscap  broke  the  beaver  dam  and  let  the  fierce  Fundy  tides  rush 


in,  as  they  have  ever  since  continued  to  do.  Towards  a  beaver 
who  was  in  hiding  near,  and  whom  the  demigod  wanted  to  frighten, 
he  once  tossed  a  few  handfuUs  of  earth.  These  lodging  a  little  to 
the  eastward  of  Parrsborough  became  the  Five  Islands.  From  the 
site  of  old  Fort  Cumberland,  running  parallel  with  River  Hebert 
to  Parrsborough,  is  a  ridge  known  by  the  Indians  as  Ou-Wokun,  but 
by  white  men  as  the  Boar's  Back.  This  ridge  was  thrown  up 
by  the  demigod,  whose  power  to  do  physical  wonders  was  quite 
unlimited,  to  make  it  easier  for  him  and  his  companions,  the  old 
Noogumee,  who  kept  his  wigwam,  and  the  boy  Abistariooch  or  the 
Marten,  who  is  connected  with  many  of  Glooskap's  feats,  to  pass 
over  to  Parrsborough,  and  from  thence  to  Cape  Blomidon.  It  was 
Glooskap  who  created  the  spirits  corresponding  to  elves  and  fair- 
ies, which  inhabited  the  woods  and  lived  by  the  shores  of  rivers 
and  brooks.  From  an  ash  tree  he  created  man.  The  names  of  all 
animals  and  birds  were  given  by  him.  The  turtle,  his  uncle,  he 
changed  into  a  man,  and  found  a  wife  for.  The  dangerous  wind- 
bird,  Wuchowsen,  he  seized  and  bound  fast.  Certain  saucy  Indians 
he  changed  into  rattlesnakes,  giant  sorcerers  he  conquered,  whales 
let  him  ride  on  their  backs,  loons  became  his  willing  messengers. 
At  last,  however,  he  withdrew  far  into  the  west,  and  although 
the  Indians  long  expected  that  some  day  he  would  return,  he  has 
never  come  back  and  his  home,  the  high  crest  of  Blomidon,  remains 
lonely  and  desolate  still. 

When  the  French  explorers  came  to  Acadia  the  Micmacs  seem 
to  have  welcomed  them  at  once,  and  during  the  whole  period  of 
French  occupancy  of  Acadia  these  children  of  the  forest  kept  loyal 
to  the  first  European  usurpers  of  the  soil.  The  Micmacs  also  took 
kindly  to  the  religion  of  the  French,  the  baptism  of  the  aged  Chief 
Membertou  and  his  family  at  Port  Royal,  in  1610,  being  followed 
in  a  few  years  by  the  conversion,  chiefly  under  RecoUet  friars,  of  the 
whole  tribe  to  Roman  Catholicism.  But  towards  the  English,  dur- 
ing this  period,  the  Micmacs .  showed  little  love.  As  the  end  of 
French  rule  in  Acadia  drew  near,  under  the  influence  of  the  wily 
priest  Le  Loutre  and  others  of  his  spirit,  they  committed  occasional 


depredations  on  English  residents  in  King's  and  other  counties, 
and  by  the  English  garrison  at  Windsor,  as  indeed  by  the  planters 
and  their  families  after  the  New  England  immigration,  with  good 
reason  were  distrusted  and  feared.  In  1720  John  Alden,  a  New 
England  trader,  was  robbed  of  his  goods  at  Minas  by  eleven  In- 
dians. In  1722,  during  the  progress  of  Love  well's  war,  the  Mic- 
macs  captured  several  vessels  in  the  Bay  of  Fundy.  Two  years 
later,  a  party  of  seventy  or  eighty  Miemaes  and  Maliseets  com- 
bined assembled  at  Minas  with  hostile  intentions.  In  complicity 
with  them,  it  was  charged,  were  two  priests.  Father  Felix,  the 
Minas  Cure,  and  Father  Charlemagne  the  Annapolis  Koyal  priest, 
and  as  a  result  of  the  charge  the  two  cures  were  banished  from  the 
province.  In  1749,  about  three  hundred  Micmacs  and  Maliseets 
attacked  the  English  fort  at  Minas,  but  effected  no  injury.  As 
usual,  the  French  were  accused,  perhaps  justly,  of  having  inspired 
this  fruitless  attack. 

For  many  years  the  Rev.  Silas  Tertius  Eand,  D.  D.,  D.  C.  L., 
a  native  of  Cornwallis,  laboured  as  a  Protestant  missionary  among 
the  Nova  Scotia  Indians.  In  the  matter  of  doctrinal  religion  Dr. 
Rand's  mission  was  not  successful,  for  few  if  any  of  the  Micmacs 
through  his  labours  were  permanently  won  to  the  Protestant  faith, 
but  to  Dr.  Rand's  scholarly  enthusiasm  for  philological  research  is 
due  the  preservation  of  the  Micmac  language  and  many  of  the 
Micmac  legends.  Dr.  Rand  died  in  1889,  but  shortly  before  his 
death  his  distinguished  service  to  native  American  philology  and 
mythology  was  suitably  recognized,  his  Micmac  dictionary  being 
subsidized  and  given  to  the  press  by  the  Canadian  Government. 

The  whole  province  of  Acadia,  together  with  the  island  of 
Cape  Breton,  seems  to  have  been  divided  by  the  Micmacs  into  seven 
districts,  the  greatest  of  these  comprising  the  whole  of  Cape  Breton, 
and  the  other  six  extending  eastwardly  in  two  groups  of  three  each. 
Of  these  groups,  the  right  hand  one  took  in  Pictou,  Memramcook, 
and  Restigouche,  the  left  the  country  from  Canseau  to  Yarmouth, 
this  latter,  of  course,  containing  the  present  County  of  King's. 
Originally  each  of  these  districts  had  its  chief,  but  the  chief  of  the 


district  which  included  Cape  Breton  was  regarded  as  the  head  of 
all.  Some  of  the  Micmac  names  of  places  in  King's  County  were 
the  following:  Blomidon,  Owbogegechk,  "Dogwood  grove",  and 
also  Ulkogunchechk,  "Bark  doubled  and  sewed  together";  Cape 
Split  Plekteok,  "Huge  handspikes  for  breaking  open  a  beaver 
dam";  the  strait  at  Blomidon,  Pleegun,  "Opening  in  a  broken  bea- 
ver dam";  Cornwallis  river,  Ghijkwtook,  "Narrow  river";  Canard 
river,  Apchechknmoochwakode,  "Resort  of  black  duck";  Gasper- 
eau  river,  Magapskegechk,  "Tumbling  over  large  rocks";  Kent- 
ville,  Penooek;  Aylesford  Bog,  Eobetek,  "The  Beaver";  Long 
Island,  Mesadek,  "Extending  far  out";  Mud  Bridge  (Wolfville), 
Mtaban,  "Mud-catfish  catching  ground";  Oak  Point,  Cornwallis, 
Vpkwawegun,  "A  house  covered  with  spruce  rinds";  Partridge 
Island,  Pulowechwa,  "A  partridge  island";  Pereau,  Wojeechk, 
"A  white  signal  seen  from  afar"  (a  waterfall  showing  white  in  the 
distance) ;  Starr's  Point,  Nesoogwitk,  "It  lies  on  the  water  between 
two  other  points." 

Although  the  present  King's  County  has  never  been  without 
a  few  small  Indian  encampments  there  is  no  Indian  "reservation" 
within  its  limits,  and  it  is  doubtful  if,  since  the  English  settle- 
ment at  least,  more  than  two  or  three  hundred  Micmacs  have  lived 
here  at  any  one  time.  On  the  earliest  census  reports  of  the  King's 
County  Indians  we  cannot  safely  rely,  nor  are  later  reports  much 
more  certainly  correct.  The  census  of  1871  gave  the  whole  num- 
ber of  Micmacs  in  the  province  as  only  1,666.  In  1901,  Bang's 
County  is  said  to  have  had  as  its  share  of  the  Indian  population,  the 
very  insignificant  number  of  twenty-eight. 


Ever  since  the  writing  of  Longfellow's  Evangeline,  an  atmo- 
sphere of  peculiar  romance  has  encircled  the  country  about  Minas 
Basin,  in  Nova  Scotia's  garden  County  of  King's.  Except  Scott's 
Lady  of  the  Lake  no  modern  narrative  poem  has  done  so  much 
to  excite  interest  in  a  special  locality  as  the  famous  poem  which 
perpetuates  the  loves  and  sorrows  of  the  simple  French  peasant 
folk  who  in  the  18th  century  were  rudely  torn  from  thrifty  homes 
in  a  favoured  province,  and  dragged  forcibly  into  suffering  exile 
in  other  colonies,  where  as  miserable  paupers  they  were  hated  and 
shunned.  In  the  very  names,  Acadia  or  Acadie,  and  Grand  Pre, 
a  certain  compelling  poetry  for  most  men  resides,  and  the  opening 
lines  of  Longfellow's  poem: 

"In  the  Acadian  land,  on  the  shores  of  the  Basin  of  Minaa, 
Distant,  secluded,  still,  the  little  village  of  Grand  Pr6 
Lay  in  the  fruitful  valley" — 

have  awakened  multitudes  to  feel  the  charm  that  lies  in  the  ancient 
musical  nomenclature  of  this  lovely  region.  No  less  have  they 
tended  to  arouse  interest  in  the  real  beauty  that  dwells  in  the  rural 
landscape  about  this  peaceful  inland  bay.  "When  one  visits  the 
region  one  will  not  find  very  near  the  Basin  the  soft  shade  of 
"murmuring  pines  and  hemlocks",  nor  will  one  see  waving  in  the 
sunlight  the  Aeadians'  pleasant  fields  of  flax  and  corn,  but  one  will 
find  the  vast  shimmering  dyke-lands,  the  calm  Basin's  surface  of 
matchless  turquoise  blue;  and  from  the  hills  above  the  spot  where 
the  Minas  Aeadians'  chief  village  stood  one  will  see  a  panorama  of 
unusually  varied  beauty  imfold. 

The  first  voyager  of  whom  we  know  anything,  who  visited 


this  part  of  Acadia,  was  the  famous  explorer,  De  Monts.  In  1604, 
from  Port  Koyal,  with  Champlain  and  Poutrincourt  he  sailed  up 
la  Baie  Francoise,  as  the  party  then  named  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  and 
at  Mines,  which  they  probably  so  named  because  of  specimens  of 
copper  they  saw  at  Cape  D'Or,  and  glittering  purple  amethysts 
they  picked  up  on  the  shore  below  Blomidon,  they  disembarked. 
In  1606,  Champlain  a  second  time  went  to  Minas,  and  in  his  "Voy- 
ages" we  have  the  following  account:  "We  went",  he  says,  "as 
far  as  the  head  of  this  bay,  and  saw  nothing  but  certain  white  stones 
suitable  for  making  lime,  yet  they  are  found  only  in  small  quan- 
tities. "We  saw  also  on  some  islands  a  great  number  of  sea  gulls. 
"We  captured  as  many  of  them  as  we  wished.  "We  made  the  tour 
of  the  bay,  in  order  to  go  to  Port  aux  Mines,  where  I  had  pre- 
viously been,  and  whither  I  conducted  Sieur  de  Poutrincourt,  who 
collected  some  little  pieces  of  copper  with  great  difficulty.  All 
this  bay  has  a  circuit  of  perhaps  twenty  leagues,  with  a  small  river 
at  its  head,  which  is  very  sluggish  and  contains  but  little  water. 
There  are  many  other  little  brooks,  and  some  places  where  there 
are  good  harbours  at  high  tide,  which  rises  here  five  fathoms.  In 
one  of  these  harbours,  three  or  four  leagues  north  of  Cap  de  Pou- 
trincourt (Cape  Split),  we  found  a  very  old  cross,  covered  with 
moss  and  almost  rotten,  a  plain  indication  that  before  this  there 
had  been  Christians  there.  All  of  this  country  is  covered  with 
dense  forests,  and  with  some  exceptions  is  not  very  attractive". 

In  1607,  Poutrincourt  again  visited  Minas,  but  Port  Royal, 
which  had  been  founded  in  1605,  being  at  the  close  of  this  year 
temporarily  abandoned  and  every  European  inhabitant  removed, 
we  have  no  further  mention  of  the  district  until  1612.  In  the  lat- 
ter part  of  August,  1607,  Monsieur  Biencourt,  son  of  Poutrincourt, 
who  had  returned  to  Acadia  two  years  before,  inheriting  his  father's 
love  of  adventure  went  from  Port  Royal  to  "Mines  and  Chinictou" 
in  a  small  shallop,  so  that  he  might  see  what  the  country  further 
up  the  Bay  of  Pundy  was  like.  A  priest.  Father  Biard,  probably 
a  Capucin,  accompanied  him,  and  at  "Chinictou"  they  saw  "fine 
meadows  reaching  as  far  as  the  eye  could  see". 


It  is  possible  that  some  few  settlers  may  have  found  their  way 
to  Minas  before  the  destruction  of  the  French  settlements  by  Cap- 
tain Argal  in  1613,  but  of  this  there  is  no  record,  and  there  was 
no  attempt  at  resettling  Acadia  under  English  auspices  until  1621, 
when  James  I  of  England  granted  Acadia  to  his  favourite,  Sir 
William  Alexander,  also  a  Scotsman,  whom  he  afterward  created 
Earl  of  Stirling.  It  is  in  Alexander's  grant  that  the  name  Nova 
Scotia  first  appears.  In  August,  1622,  Alexander  sailed  for  his 
new  dominions,  and  after  this  the  ownership  of  Acadia  was  con- 
tinually in  dispute.  From  Sir  William  the  province  passed  to  Sir 
David  Kirk,  one  of  the  early  merchant  adventurers  of  Canada.  By 
the  treaty  of  Saint  Germains  it  was  restored  to  France,  and  Isaac 
De  Razilly  was  appointed  its  lieutenant-governor.  At  De  Razilly's 
death.  Monsieur  d'  Aulnay  Charnisay  was  made  governor,  and  then 
began  the  long  period  of  strife  between  him  and  Charles  de  la  Tour, 
in  the  climax  of  which  figures  so  proudly  the  name  of  one  of  the 
true  heroines  of  modern  history,  the  brave  Madame  de  la  Tour. 

After  the  death  of  Charnisay,  Major  Robert  Sedgwick,  one 
of  Cromwell's  officers,  the  founder  of  the  well-known  New  Eng- 
land Sedgwick  family,  was  ordered  by  the  Protector,  who  believed 
that  Acadia  belonged  to  England  by  right  of  discovery,  to  seize 
the  French  forts  and  take  possession  of  the  country.  The  mastery 
being  gained  by  the  English,  Sir  Thomas  Temple  was  appointed 
governor,  and  the  country  was  divided  between  Sir  Charles  St. 
Stephen,  Charles  de  la  Tour,  Thomas  Temple,  and  William  Crowne. 
In  1667,  by  the  treaty  of  Breda,  Nova  Scotia  was  again  ceded  to 
France,  but  the  little  progress  in  colonization  made  from  year  to 
year,  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  in  1671  the  entire  French  population 
of  the  province  did  not  exceed  four  hundred,  and  that  in  1686,  it 
was  not  more  than  nine  hundred  and  twelve,  this  number  being 
shortly  after  reduced  to  eight  hundred  and  six.  Under  Sir  William 
Phipps,  in  1690,  England  again  achieved  the  mastery  of  Acadia, 
but  seven  years  later,  by  the  Peace  of  Ryswick,  it  was  once  more 
given  to  France. 

The  first  permanent  settlers  in  Acadia,  says  Placide  Gaudet, 


were  the  people  who  have  been  called  de  Eazilly's  "three  hundred 
hommes  d'elite".  These  came  in  1632,  and  were  joined  by  other 
immigrants  brought  by  Charnisay  between  1639  and  1649.  In  1651 
more  settlers  came  with  Charles  de  St.  Etienne  de  la  Tour,  and  still 
later,  at  various  times,  a  few  fresh  groups  increased  the  population. 
These  people  were  chiefly  from  Eoehelle,  Saintonge,  and  Poitou, 
a  district  on  the  west  coast  of  France,  now  within  the  modern  de- 
partment of  Vendee  and  Charente  Inferieure.  Their  native  coun- 
try was  a  country  of  marshes,  from  which  the  sea  was  kept  out  by 
artificial  dykes,  and  in  the  new  province  to  which  they  migrated 
their  intimate  knowledge  of  dyke  building  soon  found  room  for 
exercise.  The  rich  marshes  on  the  shores  of  Annapolis  Basin  and 
along  the  Annapolis  river  attracted  them  much  more  than  the 
forest  covered  uplands,  and  as  early  as  1672,  Denys  says,  the  Port 
Royal  marshes  under  their  tillage  were  producing  great  quantities 
of  wheat.  In  1671  a  census  was  taken  of  the  Acadia  and  Cape 
Breton  French,  and  the  return  showed  at  Port  Royal,  ninety-eight 
families,  numbering  three  hundred  and  sixty-three  souls,  at  Pub- 
nico  fourteen  persons,  at  Cape  Negro  fourteen,  at  Musquodoboit 
thirteen;  and  at  St.  Peter's,  in  Cape  Breton,  seven,  and  Riviere  aux 
Rochelois  three. 

The  settlement  of  Minas  was  begun  shortly  before  1680.  Of 
its  founding  we  have  a  detailed  account  by  Rameau  de  Saint 
Pere  in  his  Une  Colonic  Feodale  en  Amerique  L'Acadie,  published 
in  1889.  Towards  1680,  Rameau  says,  two  inhabitants  of  Port 
Royal,  Pierre  Melanson  and  Pierre  Terriau,  the  former  of  whom, 
a  tailor  as  well  as  farmer,  seems  also  to  have  borne  the  name  La 
Verdure,  quite  independently  migrated  from  Port  Royal  to  the 
country  about  Minas  Basin.  Both  men  were  in  comfortable  circum- 
stances, and  both  were  sufficiently  enterprising  to  see  the  oppor- 
tunities Grand  Pre  offered  for  the  further  improvement  of  their 
fortunes.  Melanson  was  a  man  of  about  forty-five  and  was  the 
father  of  five  young  children ;  Terriau  was  only  twenty-six,  but  he 
also  had  recently  been  married.  Near  Melanson,  at  Port  Royal, 
lived  his  brother  Charles,  one  of  the  most  prosperous  colonists 


there,  his  wife's  brothers,  the  Messieurs  D 'Entremont,  seigneurs  of 
Pobomcoup  (Pubnico),  and  his  son-in-law,  Jacques  de  la  Tour,  but 
none  of  them  seems  to  have  had  any  idea  of  accompanying  him. 
Melanson,  though  he  had  all  the  energy  necessary  for  a  successful 
pioneer,  was  of  a  somewhat  morose  and  churlish  disposition,  and  to 
that  fact,  Eameau  thinks,  is  due  the  comparative  isolation  in  which 
for  a  good  while  he  remained  on  his  Grand  Pre  farm. 

Unlike  Melanson,  Terriau  was  open-hearted,  genial,  and  frank, 
and  about  him,  on  the  banks  of  the  Saint  Antoine,  where  he  located, 
a  stream  which  Eameau  decribes  as  one  of  the  loveliest  streams 
flowing  into  the  Basin  of  Minas,  settled  also  a  number  of  his  rel- 
atives and  friends.  Terriau 's  wife  was  Celine  Landry,  of  another 
Port  Royal  family,  and  with  their  sister  and  her  husband  also 
migrated  to  Minas,  Claude  and  Antoine  Landry,  and  probably 
Etienne  Hebert  and  Claude  Boudrot,  all  of  whom  were  married 
and  presimiably  had  children.  Shortly  after  the  settlement  began, 
Terriau  sent  to  Port  Royal  for  one  of  his  nephews,  Jean  Terriau, 
and  about  the  same  time  Martin  Aucoin,  Philippe  Pinet,  and  Pran- 
gois  Lapierre,  the  last  two,  new  comers  from  France,  joined  the 

Li  1686,  four  years  from  the  migration  of  these  men,  in  Melan- 
son's  neighborhood  there  were  still  only  two  or  three  families,  but 
in  Terriau 's  settlement  there  were  seven  families,  comprising  thirty- 
five  persons.  During  the  next  seven  years,  from  1686  to  1793,  the 
region  attracted  settlers  in  such  numbers  that  the  population  in- 
creased six-fold.  Census  returns  give  the  population  of  Minas  in 
1686  as  11  families,  comprising  57  souls ;  in  1693,  as  55  families,  com- 
prising 307  souls;  in  1701,  as  79  families,  comprising  498  souls. 
Following  the  farmers  came  a  tailor,  Frangois  Rimbaut,  son  of  an 
old  tailor  at  Port  Royal,  a  blacksmith,  Celestin  Andre,  a  man  newly 
arrived  from  France,  a  physician,  Amand  Bugeant,  also  lately  from 
France,  but  now  the  son-in-law  of  Pierre  Melanson,  near  whom 
he  established  himself;  and  two  or  three  sailors,  who  no  doubt 
did  their  part  in  establishing  the  export  trade  to  Louisburg  and 
Port  Royal  that  before  long  reached  such  comparative  importance. 


By  the  beginning  of  the  18th  century  other  settlements  had  been 
made,  at  Riviere  aux  Canards,  across  the  Grand  Habitant,  and 
at  Piziquid,  Cobequid,  Chipody,  and  Peticodiac,  the  last  two  being 
in  what  is  now  the  province  of  New  Brunswick. 

It  is  difficult  to  define  the  exact  limits  either  of  the  district 
of  Minas,  or  of  the  special  part  of  that  district  known  as  Grand  Pre. 
In  general,  says  J.  P.  Herbin,  Minas  may  be  said  to  have  included 
all  the  land  bordering  on  the  Gaspereau,  Cornwallis  (Grand  Habi- 
tant), Canard,  Habitant  (Petit  Habitant),  and  Pereau  rivers.  This 
covers  the  present  territory  of  Avonport,  Hortonville,  Grand  Pr6, 
Gaspereau,  Wolfville,  Port  "Williams,  New  Minas,  Starr's  Point,  Can- 
ard, Canning,  and  Pereau.  The  French  settlement  of  Piziquid 
(Port  Edward,  now  Windsor)  was  for  a  time  included  in  Minas, 
but  this  before  long  became  a  separate  district.  In  the  township 
of  Horton,  Minas  extended  as  far  west  as  Kentville,  the  site  of  which 
town  it  included,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  beyond  Kentville  there  were 
ever  any  French  houses  or  farms.  In  Cornwallis  it  included  Church 
Street,  as  far  west  as  Robinson's  Corner,  Upper  Dyke  Village  being 
perhaps  its  western  limit  here.  As  the  settlement  on  both  sides  of 
the  Grand  Habitant  river  increased  and  the  hamlets  became  more 
numerous,  the  Horton  part  of  the  district  was  usually  exclusively 
known  as  Minas,  the  Cornwallis  district  being  known  as  Riviere  aux 

The  special  part  of  Minas  in  Horton  designated  Grand  Pre, 
was  undoubtedly  of  much  wider  extent  than  the  mere  village  or 
hamlet  of  that  name.  Its  limits  were  possibly  nearly  coterminous 
with  those  of  the  present  Grand  Pre,  which  includes  the  country 
between  Long  Island  on  the  North,  Gaspereau  river  on  the  south, 
Horton  Landing  on  the  east,  and  "Wolfville  on  the  west.  The  village 
of  Grand  Pre  was  evidently  very  closely  settled, — in  comparatively 
recent  years,  on  the  farm  of  the  late  Robert  L.  Stewart,  along  the 
line  of  the  railway  no  less  than  twenty-eight  French  cellars  could 
be  seen,  thirteen  of  these  rather  close  together.  At  the  time  of  the 
expulsion,  in  the  district  of  Grand  Pre,  225  houses,  276  barns,  11 
mills,  and  a  large  number  of  outhouses  or  sheds,  were  burned. 


In  eighty-four  years  from  the  beginning  of  the  settlement  of 
Minas,  the  Riviere  aux  Canards  district  comprised  twenty-one  ham- 
lets, with  from  three  to  eighty  inhabitants  each ;  the  Minas  district 
comprised  seventeen  hamlets,  with  from  three  to  ninety-four  inhab- 
itants each.  According  to  Herbin,  the  names  of  the  Canard  ham- 
lets were :  Antoine,  Augoine,  Brun,  Claude,  Claude  Landry,  Claude 
Terriau,  Comeau,  De  Landry,  Dupuis,  Francois,  Granger,  Hebert, 
Jean  Terriau,  Michel,  Navie,  Pinous,  Poirier,  Saulnier,  Trahan.  The 
names  of  the  Minas  hamlets  were:  Comeau,  De  Petit  or  Gotro, 
Gaspereau,  Grand  Le  Blanc,  Grand  Pre,  Granger,  Hebert,  Jean  Le 
Blanc,  Jean  Terriau,  La  Coste,  Landry,  Melanson,  Michel,  Pierre 
Le  Blanc,  Pinour,  Pinue,  Richard. 

The  largest  hamlets  on  the  Grand  Pre  or  south  side  of  the  Grand 
Habitant  were :  De  Petit  or  Gotro  (the  chief  village  of  this  dis- 
trict), Pierre  Le  Blanc,  Michel,  Melanson  (the  largest  settlement 
of  what  is  now  Gaspereau),  Grand  Le  Blanc,  Gaspereau,  Jean  Le 
Blanc,  and  Grand  Pre.  The  largest  hamlets  on  the  Canard  or  north 
side  of  the  Grand  Habitant  were :  Claude,  with  eighty  inhabitants, 
Augoine,  with  seventy-seven,  Comeau,  Claude  Landry,  and  Hebert, 
with  seventy-four  each;  Dupuis,  Jean  Terriau,  Brun,  Trahan,  and 
Saulnier.  The  exact  location  of  the  largest  Canard  villages  is  said 
to  have  been  at  Town  Plot,  Boudro's  Point  (Starr's  Point,  the  steep 
bank  at  Town  Plot  being  called  Boudro's  Bank),  Blenn's  Point, 
Hamilton's  Corner,  and  the  late  Mr.  William  Thomas'  farm.  There 
"was  a  settlement  about  half  way  between  Mr.  Andrew  McDonald's 
place,  at  Upper  Dyke  Village,  and  the  Gibson  "Woods  road;  one 
■which  seems  to  have  extended  from  the  Gesner  place,  or  the  Beck- 
with  (now  Mrs.  William  Young's)  place,  to  the  Isaac  Reid  place; 
and  one  on  the  George  Borden  place,  where  a  few  years  ago  French 
<iellars  were  said  still  to  exist.  On  Wilson  Pierson's  farm  on 
Brooklyn  or  Shadow  street,  once  owned  by  Mr.  John  Lyons,  was 
an  Acadian  hamlet,  and  on  the  site  of  an  old  French  cellar  Mr.  Lyons 
built  his  house.  French  orchards  are  remembered  as  having  existed 
on  the  Ward  Eaton  place,  the  Gesner  place,  the  Beckwith  place, 
and  the  farm  of  the  late  Isaac  Reid.    In  some  places  the  houses 


clustered  more  or  less  closely,  but  often,  as  in  the  case  of  the  dwel- 
lings of  the  New  England  settlers  who  succeeded  the  French,  the 
houses  stood  far  apart. 

The  settlement  known  as  "New  Minas",  between  Kent- 
viUe  and  Wolfville,  must  have  been  a  somewhat  important  hamlet. 
A  letter  from  Mr.  Edward  Seaman  to  the  late  Dr.  Brechin  gives 
traditions  concerning  this  settlement  that  are  probably  based  on 
fact,  though  no  historical  documents  known  to  the  author  men- 
tion a  chapel  or  a  priest  at  this  point.    Mr.  Seaman  says : 

"On  what  was  formerly  known  as  the  Best  Farm,  now  owned 
by  Amos  Griffin,  in  New  Minas,  was  a  French  village,  where  there 
was  a  chapel  and  a  resident  priest.  Most  of  the  cellars  have  been 
filled,  but  the  foundations  of  the  chapel,  say  28x36  feet,  are  still 
partly  visible,  as  are  also  the  supposed  site  of  the  priest's  house,  this 
house  being  longer  than  the  average.  By  the  side  of  the  brook,  about 
fifty  rods  from  the  chapel,  some  of  the  first  English  settlers  found 
a  set  of  blacksmith's  tools  buried.  They  found  also,  a  mile  or  two 
south,  in  the  woods,  remains  of  a  stone  building,  which  has  always 
been  known  since  as  the  'French  fort'.  Very  few  traces  can  now 
be  seen  except  in  rough  places,  of  the  old  French  roads.  North  of 
Eobert  Redden 's,  across  the  hollow  running  east  and  west,  the 
French  road  can  be  traced  yet.  It  can  be  seen  again,  crossing  the 
hollow  east  of  Mr.  Silas  Elderkin's,  about  forty  rods  south  of  the 
present  road.  Near  the  western  limit  of  the  Thomas  Barss  farm, 
just  off  the  post  road,  two  or  three  cellars  have  always  been  viable. 
Henry  Terry's  father  built  over  a  French  cellar  the  house  where 
the  Hon.  Thomas  Lewis  Dodge  long  lived.  I  have  heard  of  a  cellar 
near  Herbert  Denison's,  and  that  was  probably  as  far  west  on  this 
side  of  the  river  as  the  Acadians  built.  About  1827  a  Frenchman 
travelling  from  French  Town  (Clare,  Digby  County)  to  Cum- 
berland, staid  all  night  at  my  father's  and  told  the  following  story: 
'Almost  at  the  head  of  the  tide  was  a  French  village.  It  had  a 
chapel  and  a  priest.  When  the  Acadians  were  summoned  by 
Winslow  to  Grand  Pre  the  people  of  this  village  did  not  go, 
but  taking  from  their  houses  what  they  could,  went  south  into 


the  woods,  about  two  miles.  There  for  eleven  months  they  lived  in 
huts,  building,  however,  a  stone  house  for  the  priest.  Always  hop- 
ing the  French  would  recover  Acadia,  they  used  often  to  go  along 
on  the  hills  to  the  westward,  above  Greenwich  and  Wolfville,  and 
look  eagerly  across  the  Basin  to  see  whether  the  French  colours 
were  visible  there.  Finally  they  became  discouraged,  and  leaving 
Minas  went  to  the  western  part  of  the  province'.  The  man  said 
that  his  father,  who  was  then  about  eighty  years  of  age,  was  one 
of  the  children  who  with  their  parents  underwent  this  experience, 
and  that  he  remembered  the  facts  well". 

Of  the  French  settlement  of  New  Minas,  the  late  Mr.  Edmund 
J.  Cogswell  once  wrote:  "Minas,  with  its  dykes,  consisted  of  the 
village  along  the  banks  of  the  upland,  with  the  Grand  Pre  lying 
in  front,  and  with  Long  Island  and  Boot  Island  bounding  it  on 
the  north.  As  new  lands  for  settlement  were  wanted,  some  of  the 
inhabitants  went  up  the  Cornwallis  river  and  found  a  place  that 
seemed  curiously  familiar.  There  was  a  piece  of  marsh  somewhat 
resembling  the  Grand  Pre,  vdth  Oak  Island  lying  outside  it.  On 
the  edge  was  a  similar  chance  for  settlement  to  that  furnished  by 
the  upland  that  bordered  the  Grand  Pre.  They,  therefore,  put  in 
short  dykes  at  each  end  of  Oak  Island,  reclaimed  a  considerable 
piece  of  marsh,  built  themselves  some  houses,  and  called  their 
settlement  'New  Minas'.  In  later  times  French  cellars  have  been 
numerous  here,  and  we  know  from  the  vitrified  debris  that  has 
been  found  that  at  the  expulsion  the  houses  above  them  were 
burned.  The  centre  of  the  hamlet  was  what  afterward  became 
known  as  the  Foster  farm.  The  French  burying  ground  is  snid 
to  have  been  on  a  little  knoll  near  the  railroad  track.  To  the  south 
and  east  of  the  'Griffin  house'  a  chapel  was  built,  part  of  the  foun- 
dations of  which  can  still  be  seen  in  the  bushes.  It  would  seem 
as  if  there  was  a  burying  ground  here,  to®,  and  tradition  says  that 
not  far  off  there  was  a  mill.  After  the  removal  of  the  Acadians 
the  English  built  their  village  further  south,  on  the  military  road, 
but  although  they  left  the  old  site  they  retained  the  name,  'New 
Minas'  ". 


When  the  Acadians  were  expelled  their  buildings  as  a  rule, 
throughout  the  whole  of  Minas  were  burned,  but  in  a  few  cases, 
at  least,  barns  were  left  standing.  In  testimony  of  this  is  a  state- 
ment once  made  to  the  author  by  the  Hon.  Samuel  Chipman,  who 
died  in  1891  at  the  age  of  a  hundred  and  one,  that  he  himself  re- 
membered a  French  barn  still  standing  when  he  was  a  boy,  on  what 
is  now  the  land  of  Mr.  Eoss  Chipman.  On  the  Stewart  property  at 
Grand  Pre,  long  after  the  New  England  settlers  came,  a  French 
barn  still  stood,  and  likewise  one  on  the  Albert  Harris  place  in 
Horton.  As  a  rule,  wherever  in  Horton  or  Cornwallis  willow  trees 
were  conspicuously  present  in  the  early  part  of  the  19th  century, 
French  hamlets  had  existed,  for  the  wiUow,  imported  from  France, 
seems  to  have  been  the  Acadians'  favourite  ornamental  tree.  "With- 
in the  memory  of  living  men  a  large  number  of  French  cellars  have 
been  visible  in  these  two  townships  and  it  is  probable  that  even  at 
this  late  day  some  few  of  them  remain. 

In  a  comparatively  short  time  after  its  settlement,  the  district 
of  Minas  became  by  all  means  the  most  prosperous  part  of  the  whole 
Acadian  land.  The  census  of  1686  ascribes  to  it  eighty-three  acres, 
probably  of  upland,  under  cultivation,  and  the  people's  posses- 
sions as  including  ninety  horned  cattle,  twenty-one  sheep,  and  sixty- 
seven  swine.  For  weapons  of  defence,  it  says,  they  had  twenty 
guns.  In  1714  the  population  numbered  878,  and  at  the  time  of  the 
expulsion,  according  to  Winslow,  2,743.  In  "Winslow's  account 
it  is  stated  that  the  people  were  then  possessed  of  5,600  sheep,  4,000 
hogs,  and  500  horses.  How  soon  the  Minas  French  began  to  build 
dykes  we  do  not  know,  but  it  is  estimated  that  before  they  were 
expelled  they  had  dyked,  of  the  Grand  Pre  marsh  some  2,100  acres 
and  along  the  Canard  river  no  less  than  2,000  acres. 

In  road  building  also,  here  as  well  as  at  other  points  in  Acadia, 
the  French  were  far  from  inactive.  In  1720  the  Port  Royal  people, 
and  probably  in  conjunction  with  them  the  people  of  Minas,  had 
begun  a  road,  on  the  basis,  no  doubt,  of  old  Indian  trails,  between 
Port  Royal  and  the  Minas  settlements,  but  they  were  stopped  by 
Governor  Phillips,  who  feared  that  there  was  some  sinister  in- 


tention  in  their  work.  Nine  years  later  the  enterprise,  thus  ar- 
rested, was  still  in  abeyance,  but  before  the  expulsion  passable 
roads  had  been  made  from  Minas,  westward  to  Annapolis  Royal, 
and  eastward  to  Windsor  and  so  to  Halifax.  On  the  north  side  of 
the  Cornwallis  river  a  road  was  made  from  Town  Plot  to  Church 
Street,  where  the  Fox  Hill  road  now  runs.  The  present  road  from 
Port  "Williams  to  St.  John's  Church,  for  a  considerable  distance 
from  the  river  at  least,  was  also  a  French  road.  Through  the  "Dry 
Hollow"  a  road  ran  from  Cornwallis  into  Kentville,  a  little  to  the 
west  of  the  present  main  Cornwallis  road.  This  road  probably  be- 
gan at  Centreville,  near  the  French  hamlet  on  the  "Gibson  Woods" 
road,  passed  through  Steam  Mill  Village,  south-west,  by  Harris 
Vaughn's,  through  the  Kentville  Trotting  Park,  near  the  present 
Aldershot  Camp  groimds,  and  then  crossing  "Gallows  Hill"  near 
the  spot  where  the  house  of  the  late  Charles  Jones  long  stood,  came 
into  Kentville  a  little  above  the  present  Cornwallis  bridge. 

The  following  description  of  the  French  roads  in  Cornwallis 
is  taken,  except  for  many  necessary  changes  in  expression,  from 
Dr.  William  Pitt  Brechin's  manuscript,  written  about  1890.  To 
people  born  in  the  county  its  details  though  intricate,  for  the  most 
part  will  be  perfectly  clear.  The  first  roads,  says  Dr.  Brechin,  were 
only  paths  made  through  the  woods  by  the  Indians,  and  were  zig- 
zag in  their  course,  from  one  point  of  high  ground  to  the  next. 
From  time  to  time,  as  the  need  of  more  passable  roads  became 
urgent,  these  paths  were  improved  and  widened,  until  they  became 
fairly  good  highways.  When  it  was  necessary  to  cross  ridges  they 
always  crossed,  not  straight,  but  diagonally.  The  main  roads  of 
Cornwallis  ran  parallel  with  the  rivers,  in  the  most  natural  way, 
and  as  close  as  possible  to  these  streams.  Of  course,  as  the  various 
dykes  were  constructed  across  the  Canard  river,  the  direction  of 
the  roads,  for  obvious  reasons,  was  somewhat  changed.  The  road  to 
the  French  settlement  near  Mr.  William  Thomas',  must  have  been  in 
use  prior  to  the  building  of  the  Grand  Dyke,  for  before  the  Grand  and 
Wellington  dykes  were  constructed  all  roads  must  have  gone  round 
the  head  of  the  tides.    After  leaving  the  settlement  this  road  prob- 


ably  wound  round  the  meadow  that  makes  up  on  the  farm  formerly 
owned  by  Simpkins  Walton,  and  passing  the  orchard  on  what  was 
formerly  Mr.  Ward  Eaton's  place,  met  the  present  Canard  road. 
Following  this  road  till  it  came  to  the  top  of  the  hill  at  the  Baptist 
Church,  it  descended  the  hill  and  passed  a  spot  at  the  foot,  about 
twenty  yards  south  of  an  apple  tree,  near  the  willow  trees  on  the 
easterly  side  of  Mr.  Perez  M.  Brechin's  farm,  where  it  is  said  an 
Acadian  blacksmith  shop  stood.  It  then  led  toward  the  dyke  on 
the  easterly  side  of  Mr.  Brechin's  farm,  took  in  the  settlement  on 
the  John  Harris  place,  went  westward  across  the  brow  of  the  hill 
on  the  Brechin  place,  passed  another  stray  cellar  or  two  in  its 
course,  went  on  till  it  reached  the  residence  of  George  C.  Pinep, 
and  after  the  completion  of  the  Middle  Dyke,  crossed  that  and  met 
the  French  road  that  followed  the  course  of  the  present  Church 
Street.  Then  it  continued  toward  Kentville,  running  back  of  the 
Hon.  Samuel  Chipman's  place,  at  Chipman's  Corner.  Before  the 
completion  of  the  Middle  Dyke  this  road  undoubtedly  ran  where 
the  road  now  does  that  leads  from  the  George  Pineo  house  to  Mrs. 
John  T.  Newcomb  's. 

From  this  point  it  followed  round  Sheffield's  Brook,  which  it 
crossed,  met  the  road  that  came  up  the  southerly  side  of  the  Habi- 
tant river,  which  can  be  traced  from  the  John  Gibson  place,  went 
down  on  the  westerly  side  of  Sheffield's  Creek,  and  after  passing 
two  French  cellars  came  out  on  the  west  side  of  William  Newcomb 's 
house.  It  then  ran  along  the  present  Upper  Dyke  Village  road 
as  far  as  William  Newcomb,  Sr.'s,  from  there  went  south,  after 
the  Upper  Dyke  was  constructed  crossed  that,  and  finally  met  the 
continuation  of  the  Church  Street  road.  Before  the  Upper  Dyke 
was  built  it  led,  by  the  most  accessible  route,  to  Leander  Crocker's, 
then  bore  across  toward  Shadow  Street,  passed  the  settlement  that 
existed  where  the  John  Lyons  house  stands,  and  ran  towards  Kent- 
viUe,  across  the  "Gallows  Hill",  and  down  the  Dry  Hollow,  a  little 
west  of  the  present  road.  In  its  course  the  road  ran  through  Steam 
Mill  Village,  south-west  of  Harris  Vaughn's,  and  crossed  the  Corn- 
wallis  river  directly  opposite  Dry  Hollow,  which  is  about  fifty  rods 


above  the  present  bridge,  at  which  place  there  is  a  spot  that  is  easily- 
forded.  On  the  Horton  side  of  the  river  is  a  gorge  in  the  bank, 
and  the  road  came  through  that,  ran  round  the  base  of  the  now 
removed  "Sand  Hill",  and  connected  with  the  road  going  west 
beyond  Kentville. 

A  Frenchman  starting  from  the  Pereau  settlement  to  make  a 
visit  to  his  friends  in  Minas,  would  have  gone  through  Canning, 
crossed  the  Habitant,  and  landed  in  his  skiff  at  or  near  the  place 
now  called  the  "Pickets".  He  would  then  have  taken  a  southerly 
course,  and  coming  to  the  Canard  road  would  have  followed  that 
till  he  reached  Hamilton's  Corner.  If  his  journey  had  been  made 
after  the  completion  of  the  Grand  Pre  Dyke,  he  would  have  crossed 
the  Canard  river  on  the  cross  dyke,  which  for  part  of  the  way 
followed  the  present  road  (though  for  fully  a  quarter  of  the  way, 
particularly  after  crossing  the  present  bridge,  it  lies  west  of  this). 
If  his  journey  had  been  made  before  the  dyke  was  built  he  cpuld 
have  gone  over  the  river  in  his  skiff,  or  by  way  of  the  ford,  and  then 
would  have  passed  on,  down  the  road  to  Town  Plot,  and  have 
crossed  the  ferry  to  Minas.  If  he  had  wished  to  reach  a  part  of 
Minas  further  up  the  river,  he  would  have  crossed  the  ferry  or  ford 
at  the  place  now  called  Port  Williams,  for  tradition  states  that  at 
both  these  places  ferries  or  fords  had  been  made. 

Concerning  the  roads  on  the  Horton  side  of  the  Grand  Habi- 
tant, Dr.  Brechin  has  also  much  of  importance  to  tell  us.  The  chief 
road  of  Grand  Pre,  to  the  westward,  ran  through  the  present  vil- 
lage of  Grand  Pre,  north  of  the  main  highway,  which  it  joined  near 
Scott's  Corner.  Thence  it  led  to  Johnson's  Hollow,  just  beyond 
the  Horton  Academy  boarding-house,  and  from  that  point  diverged 
and  ran  near  the  present  rail-road  to  Kentville.  There  was  a  road, 
also,  from  the  village  of  Grand  Pre  to  the  landing  place  on  the 
Gaspereau  river.  What  is  known  as  the  "Island",  where  the  French 
well  and  the  willows  are,  had  a  road  running  through  its  whole 
length.  Prom  the  main  village  of  Grand  Pre  a  road  ran  south, 
over  the  hill,  to  Wall  Brook,  and  crossing  the  river  at  that  point 
by  a  sunken  bridge,  which  could  be  used  only  at  low  tide,  proceeded 


to  Windsor.  From  Kentville  the  main  highway  to  Annapolis  Royal 
ran  parallel  with  the  present  post  road,  a  little  to  the  north.  Pas- 
sing a  French  cellar,  opposite  a  French  orchard,  both  of  which  lasted 
till  recent  times,  it  reached  the  Col.  Moore  place,  then  crossed  diag- 
onally the  present  road  to  another  French  cellar,  again  ran  parallel 
with  the  post  road,  on  the  south,  near  Robert  Harrington's  bam; 
followed  beside  the  post  road  till  it  reached  the  place  once  owned 
by  William  Harrington  and  afterward  by  Maurice  Barnett,  at  this 
point  re-crossed  the  main  road  and  ran  north  of  it,  opposite  John 
Harrington's,  and  then  extended  on  to  the  Curry  Brook  and  the 
Thomas  Griffin  place.  Some  claim-  that  it  ran  from  there  round 
the  Aylesford  Bog,  and  others  that  it  ran  through  the  Bog,  for 
near  the  place  where  the  old  Aldershot  Camp  Ground  was,  there 
is  a  turnpike,  about  fifteen  feet  high  and  perhaps  twenty  feet  across 
the  top,  with  ditches  on  both  sides.  It  has  been  stated  that  the 
French  never  made  turnpikes,  but  they  must  have  constructed  some, 
for  between  Kentville  and  the  Moore  place,  and  also  at  the  Ayles- 
ford Bog,  a  turnpike,  or  as  some  might  call  it,  a  breastwork,  can 
plainly  be  seen.  That  in  the  most  advanced  stage  of  their  industrial 
development  in  Nova  Scotia  the  Acadians  had  turnpikes  is  further 
shown  by  the  fact  that  across  the  hollow,  at  the  edge  of  the  woods 
west  of  the  William  Harrington  place,  near  the  old  brick  kiln, 
there  are  clear  traces  of  a  French  bridge.  Besides  the  roads  we 
have  mentioned,  there  was  also,  doubtless,  a  road  running  from  the 
Cornwallis  valley  over  the  mountain  to  the  bay  shore,  probably 
either  to  Baxter's  or  Hall's  harbour.  All  French  cellars  now  found 
remote  from  the  river  banks  were  clearly  on  cross  roads  from 
one  settlement  to  another. 

Ecclesiastically,  the  large  district  of  Minas  was  divided  into 
two  parishes,  St.  Joseph  at  Riviere  aux  Canards,  and  St.  Charles,  at 
Grand  Pre,  and  at  each  place  was  a  wooden  church  with  a  tower 
and  a  bell.  The  church  of  St.  Joseph  stood  at  Chipman's  Corner, 
almost  on  the  site  of  the  old  Congregationalist-Presbyterian  meet- 
ing house,  which  was  built  in  1767-8,  and  taken  down  in  1874.  The 
church  of  St.  Charles  stood  at  Grand  Pre  on  a  little  strip  of  land, 
which  at  high  tide  was  surrounded  by  water,  where  now  is  a  clump 


of  old  willows  that  every  visitor  to  the  "Evangeline  Country"  is 
religiously  shown;  and  an  ancient  well,  which  is  supposed  to  have 
been  digged  in  Acadian  times.  About  each  church  was  a  burying- 
ground,  and  near  the  church  of  St.  Charles  was  the  house  of  the 
cure,  who  was  the  loved  and  feared  mentor  and  guide  of  the  Grand 
Pre  people  in  both  their  spiritual  and  their  temporal  concerns. 

Eegarding  the  French  priests  who  ministered  in  King's  County, 
a  few  words  must  be  said.  The  first  priest  who  resided  at  Grand 
Pre  was  Pere  Claude  Moireau,  a  Recollect,  who  made  the  earliest 
entry  in  the  parish  register,  June  25,  1684.  From  1694  to  at  least 
1697,  M.  de  St.  Cosme  was  there.  In  1698  Bishop  Valliers  of  Que- 
bec visited  Minas,  but  there  was  no  priest  there,  for  it  is  recorded 
that  finding  the  people  entirely  without  religious  ministration,  the 
Bishop  staid  with  them  a  day  to  hear  confessions,  give  them  the 
Holy  Communion,  and  baptize  their  infant  children.  They  were 
very  anxious  for  a  priest  and  promised  if  one  were  sent  them  to 
support  him  and  build  a  church  and  a  cure's  house.  In  1710  a  priest 
was  residing  at  Minas,  for  Governor  Brouillan  reports  the  Minas 
cure  as  having  a  salary  of  eight  hundred  livres. 

In  1705,  no  doubt  to  replace  the  sacred  vessels  and  ornaments 
Col.  Church  and  his  soldiers  the  previous  year  had  taken  away, 
Bonaventure,  Lieutenant  du  Boi,  presented  to  the  church  at  Minas 
as  a  royal  gift,  un  ostensoir,  tin  calice,  un  ciboire,  et  un  orne- 
ment  complet,  for  the  furnishing  of  the  altar  and  the  celebration 
of  the  Eucharist.  From  1707  to  1710,  Bonaventure  Masson,  a  Recol- 
let,  was  priest  at  Minas ;  from  1711  to  1717,  Abbe  Gaulin  was  there, 
after  1717,  Fathers  Felix  Pain  and  Justinian  Durand,  perhaps  to- 
gether, held  the  cure.  In  1724  Father  Felix  Pain  and  Father  Charle- 
magne of  Annapolis  Royal  were  charged  with  complicity  with  the 
Indians,  and  Father  Felix  was  dismissed  from  the  province.  The 
latter 's  successor,  it  is  said,  was  Pere  Isadore,  but  in  1739,  and 
until  1748,  Abbe  de  la  Goudalie  was  the  priest.  At  the  time  of  the 
expulsion.  Abbe  Chavreulx  was  at  Grand  Pre,  and  Abbe  Le  Maire 
at  Riviere  aux  Canards. 

Of  the  churches  at  these  two  places.  Abbe  Casgrain  says :  "These 
temples   surmounted  by   graceful   spires,   their   wooden  interiors 


carved  with  taste,  were  all  in  oak,  and  had  cost  the  people  much, 
sacrifice".  With  more  definiteness  Lady  Weatherbe  has,  in  sub- 
stance, written:  "The  church  of  St.  Charles  at  Grand  Pre,  so 
far  as  we  are  aware,  was  constructed  of  wood,  the  style  of  the 
building  being  similar  to  that  of  the  churches  in  Canada  at  the  time. 
These  were  all  built  on  the  same  plan ;  the  belfry  tower,  surmounted 
by  its  cross  was  mauresque  in  style,  as  is  the  case  now  with  the 
old  church  of  St.  Anne  de  Beaupr6,  near  Quebec,  though  that  of  the 
church  of  St.  Charles  was  somewhat  smaller.  Twice  daily  sounded 
the  Angelus,  always  responded  to  by  the  pious  inhabitants.  The 
interior  also  resembled  the  interiors  of  the  churches  of  Canada. 
Usually,  the  choir  had  its  architectural  ornamentation,  pillars,  either 
Ionic  or  Corinthian,  supporting  the  cornice,  though  sometimes  the 
entablature  continued  into  the  nave.  The  cemetery  adjoined  the 
church,  and  was  inclosed  by  a  wooden  railing  or  fence,  and  near 
by  was  the  house  of  the  resident  cure".  "When  "Winslow  turned  the 
church  at  Grand  Pre  into  an  arsenal  and  prison,  from  the  number 
of  men  he  made  it  accommodate  we  see  that  it  must  have  been 
large  enough  to  hold  five  or  six  hundred  worshippers.  Before  he 
devoted  it  to  this  secular  use,  to  his  credit  be  it  said,  the  Puritan 
commander  ordered  the  elders  of  the  village  to  remove  the  sacred 

From  time  to  time  interesting  relics  of  the  Acadians  have  been 
unearthed  at  Grand  Pre  and  elsewhere  in  the  county.  Before  the 
French  went  away,  it  is  said,  some  of  them,  perhaps  hoping  to 
return,  buried  in  caches,  or  stoned-up  places  like  wells,  their  farm- 
ing and  household  utensils.  Some  twenty  years  ago  a  cache  was 
discovered  on  the  farm  of  Mr.  John  A.  Chipman,  on  Church  Street, 
in  which  were  plow-shares,  pitch-forks,  and  other  farming  utensils, 
all  of  the  best  iron.  At  about  the  same  time,  or  perhaps  a  few 
years  earlier,  some  chains  and  plow-shares  were  unearthed  on 
Enoch  Collins'  farm  at  Port  Williams.  In  1892  a  French  Louis 
D'Or,  bearing  the  ef&gy  of  Louis  XIV  of  France  and  Navarre,  was 
turned  up  by  the  hoof  of  a  cow  that  was  being  driven  to  pasture 
on  the  farm  of  a  Mr.  McGibbon,  within  the  confines  of  the  present 
Grand  Pre. 


The  history  of  the  settlement  of  the  Acadian  French  in  King's 
County  covers  a  period  of  exactly  eighty-four  years.  In  this  time, 
in  their  two  chief  districts  of  Minas  and  River  Canard,  they  built 
houses  and  churches  and  small  forts,  reclaimed  from  wildness 
many  hundreds  of  acres  of  upland  fields,  the  crops  from  which,  as 
from  the  fertile  marshes,  they  sent  in  small  schooners,  chiefly  to 
Louisburg;  traded  also  in  some  measure  with  the  mother  settle- 
ment at  Port  Eoyal  and  with  the  early  established  fishing  port 
of  Canso;  spun  and  wove  wool  for  their  clothing  and  flax  for  their 
household  linen;  and  most  laborious  industry  of  all,  inclosed  from 
the  sea  several  thousand  acres  of  marsh  land  on  the  Grand  Pre, 
and  along  the  county's  five  rivers,  the  Grand  Habitant,  the  Riviere 
aux  Canards,  the  Petit  Habitant,  the  Pereau,  and  the  Gaspereau. 
Their  district  as  we  have  said,  was  by  far  the  most  pros- 
perous in  the  whole  of  Acadia,  and  that  this  fact,  together  with  their 
comparative  isolation  from  the  rest  of  the  Acadians,  should  have 
engendered  in  them  a  strong  feeling  of  independence,  that  made 
them  almost  republican  in  spirit,  is  not  to  be  wondered  at.  "The 
gentle  and  peaceful  character  of  the  Acadians",  says  Hannay, 
"has  been  much  insisted  on.  The  people  within  reach  of  the  guns 
of  Port  Royal  were  tolerably  obedient,  but  in  the  settlements  where 
there  was  no  military  force  to  coerce  them  they  exhibited  very 
different  traits".  Governor  Brouillan  records  that  when  he  visited 
Minas  in  1701  he  found  the  people  there  extremely  independent, 
not  acknowledging  royal  or  judicial  authority,  and  very  impatient 
of  control  from  without.  "The  judgments  of  the  judge  at 
Port  Royal",  he  says,  "they  entirely  disregarded,  and  Bona- 
venture,  Lieutenant  du  Boi,  had  to  use  considerable  pressure 
to  bring  them  to  order.    They  expressed  their  fears  to  Brouillan 


that  the  province  was  about  to  be  put  under  the  control  of  a 
Company,  and  declared  that  in  that  case  they  would  do  nothing 
for  its  defence,  but  would  rather  belong  to  the  English.  This 
testimony  of  a  French  governor  as  to  the  disposition  of  the  people 
of  Minas  agrees  precisely  with  that  of  Paul  Mascarene,  a  French 
Huguenot  in  the  British  service  in  Nova  Scotia,  who  wrote  to  the 
Lords  of  Trade  in  1720;  'The  inhabitants  of  this  place  *  •  * 
are  less  tractable  and  subject  to  command.  All  the  orders  sent 
to  them,  if  not  suiting  to  their  humours,  are  scoffed  and  laughed 
at,  and  they  put  themselves  on  the  footing  of  obeying  no  gov- 
ernment' ". 

At  some  time,  though  possibly  late,  in  their  occupancy  of  the 
country,  the  Acadians  found  a  market  for  part  of  the  produce  of 
their  farms  with  Joshua  Mauger,  the  enterprising  son  of  a  London 
Jewish  merchant,  who  long  traded  in  Acadia,  with  Louisburg  as 
a  centre.  Mauger,  of  whom  we  shall  have  occasion  to  speak  more 
fully  in  a  later  chapter,  established  "truck  houses"  at  Piziquid, 
Minas,  and  Grand  Pre,  as  well  as  on  the  River  St.  John,  and 
while  buying  the  Acadians'  produce  at  their  doors,  and  in  his  own 
vessels  transporting  it  to  Louisburg,  he  no  doubt  brought  to  their 
homes  much  of  the  varied  merchandise  he  so  persistently  smug- 
gled from  France. 

But  the  people's  prosperity  was  not  without  interruption.  In 
May,  1704,  Governor  Joseph  Dudley  of  Massachusetts,  disturbed  by 
the  almost  continual  strife  between  the  English  and  French  on  the 
frontier  settlements  of  New  England,  sent  a  naval  force  under 
command  of  the  noted  Rhode  Island  Indian  warrior.  Col.  Benjamiii 
Church,  to  punish  the  French  and  their  allies,  the  Indians,  on  the 
eastern  coast.  This  force  comprised  two  war  ships,  the  Jersey  and 
the  Qosport,  together  with  the  province  galley;  fourteen  trans- 
ports, thirty-six  whale-boats,  and  a  scout  shallop,  and  included  in 
all,  550  men.  Church  had  already  made  four  voyages  to  Acadia, 
and  through  cruelties  he  had  perpetrated  at  Beaubassin  (Chignecto) 
in  1696,  had  earned  for  himself  the  deserved  reputation  of  a  harsh 
and  mipit3dng  man.    On  this  expedition  he  fully  sustained  his  repu- 


tation.  After  visiting  Penobscot  and  Passamaquoddy,  killing  and 
making  prisoners  many  of  the  French,  carrying  away  among  others 
the  daughter  of  Baron  Castin  and  her  family,  he  sailed  to  the  Bay  of 
Fundy.  There  his  fleet  divided,  his  men-of-war  proceeding  to  Port 
Eoyal,  but  he  and  his  soldiers  going  in  the  smaller  vessels  to  Minas. 
Following  in  part  Governor  Dudley's  instructions  to  burn  and 
destroy  the  homes  of  the  French,  cut  their  dykes,  injure  their  crops, 
and  take  what  spoils  he  could,  he  made  huge  openings  in  several  of 
the  dykes,  so  that  the  destructive  salt  tides  swept  over  the  marshes, 
and  then  did  whatever  other  damage  he  could  to  the  Minas  farm- 
ers' possessions.  After  this  ruthless  work,  the  fierce  messenger 
of  Dudley  sailed  down  the  Bay  and  joined  the  ships  he  had  ordered 
to  await  him  at  Digby  Gut.  Before  he  returned  to  Boston,  how- 
ever, he  went  again  to  Beaubassin,  and  there  burned  twenty  houses, 
and  killed  a  hundred-and-twenty  horned  cattle  and  a  number  of 

From  this  time  we  have  frequent  notices  of  the  Minas  settle- 
ment. In  December,  1704,  Bonaventure  complains  of  the  bad  state 
of  the  fort,  and  says  that  there  are  only  eight  officers  in  the  gar- 
rison, and  they  inexperienced  and  young.  In  the  same  year  Gov- 
ernor Brouillan  writes  that  he  has  exiled  to  Minas  a  certain  Mad- 
ame Freneuse,  about  whom  there  had  been  no  little  scandal  among 
the  Port  Royal  settlers.  In  1705  Bonaventure  sends  an  inhabitant, 
with  four  soldiers,  to  Minas,  to  bring  back  the  King's  bark,  La 
Galliarde,  laden  with  wheat.  The  soldiers  of  this  party  got  drunk 
and  seriously  misconducted  themselves,  and  eventually  compelled 
the  sailors  to  take  the  King's  bark  to  Boston,  they  evidently  pre- 
ferring to  give  themselves  up  to  the  authorities  there  and  endure 
whatever  fate  they  might  meet,  rather  than  go  back  to  Port  Royal 
and  face  the  wrath  of  the  French  governor.  Shortly  after  this 
event,  in  the  same  year,  Governor  Brouillan  died  at  sea,  and  Mon- 
sieur Suberease  came  from  France  in  his  stead.  In  1709  the  new 
governor  enlisted  with  others  seventy-five  men  at  Minas,  as  an  ad- 
ditional force,  in  case  the  English  should  again  visit  the  province, 
as  it  seemed  likely  they  would  soon  plan  to  do. 


In  1710  the  final  conquest  of  Acadia  was  effected,  under  Gen- 
eral Francis  Nicholson,  the  holder,  successively,  of  more  governor- 
ships in  British  colonies  than  any  man  known  to  history.  On  the 
18th  of  September,  with  a  fleet  of  six  war  ships,  twenty-nine  trans- 
ports, and  the  Massachusetts  province  galley,  Nicholson  sailed 
from  Nantasket,  and  on  the  16th  of  October,  the  French  garrison, 
a  hundred  and  fifty-six  half  starved  men,  came  out  of  the  fort, 
and  Nicholson  and  his  New  England  troops  went  in.  On  the  28th 
of  October,  having  left  a  sufficient  garrison  in  the  place,  the  leader 
of  this  important  expedition  took  his  ships  away.  April  11,  1713, 
a  treaty  of  peace  was  signed  at  Utrecht,  by  which  the  whole  of 
Acadia  was  ceded  to  the  British  crown.  Thirty-two  years  later, 
again  through  the  energy  of  New  England  troops,  the  renowned 
fortress  of  Louisburg,  which  lay  outside  Acadia,  was  also  captured 
for  the  English  King. 

To  the  Acadians  at  Minas  the  sudden  change  of  ownership 
caused  by  the  surrender  of  Port  Royal  must  have  brought  no  little 
foreboding.  The  ill-feeling  toward  them  of  their  New  England 
neighbors  they  had  already  had  much  opportunity  to  test,  and  what 
fresh  incursion  the  Puritans  might  now  make  into  their  prosperous 
domain  it  was  impossible  for  them  to  know.  "When  the  treaty  of 
Utrecht,  however,  at  last  settled  the  status  of  the  Acadian  popula- 
tion, what  they  had  to  expect  from  their  conquerors  remained  no 
longer  uncertain.  The  treaty  provided  that  such  of  the  inhabitants 
as  were  willing  to  stay  in  Acadia  and  be  subject  to  Britain  should 
remain  in  unhindered  possession  of  their  lands,  and  should  enjoy 
the  free  exercise  of  their  religion,  "according  to  the  usage  of  the 
Church  of  Rome,  as  far  as  the  laws  of  Great  Britain  do  allow  the 
same",  but  that  any  who  chose  might  within  a  year  remove  from 
the  province  with  their  effects,  forfeiting,  however,  all  their  lands. 
That  the  Acadians  did  not  take  advantage  of  this  last  clause  of  the 
treaty  and  remove  to  Canada  or  to  Cape  Breton,  is  a  matter  that 
we  shall  speak  of  a  little  further  on. 

In  1731,  Lieutenant  Governor  Armstrong  ordered  Nigau  Robi- 
chaux  to  buy  black  cattle  and  sheep  at  Minas  and  bring  them  to 


Annapolis.  About  the  same  time  the  lieutenant  governor  reported 
that  he  had  been  applied  to  for  house  and  garden  lots  near  An- 
napolis, for  farm  lots  at  Minas,  and  for  grants  at  Chippody,  where 
some  young  people  had  recently  settled.  In  1732  he  planned  to 
erect  a  "granary"  at  Minas  for  the  accommodation  of  soldiers, 
but  owing  to  the  opposition  of  the  Indians  to  such  a  project,  and 
to  the  disapproval  of  his  scheme  by  the  Council,  he  soon  relin- 
quished his  plan.  In  his  letter  to  the  Duke  of  Newcastle  in  refer- 
ence to  the  matter,  Armstrong  says:  "Under  the  disguise  of  a 
magazine  I  have  ordered  a  house  to  be  built  at  Menis,  where  I 
design  to  fix  a  company  for  the  better  government  of  those  more 
remote  parts  in  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  and  as  I  hope,  to  perfect  it,  not- 
withstanding all  the  opposition  I  meet  with  from  the  rebellious 
spirits  in  these  parts,  incited  to  oppose  it  by  Governor  St.  Ovide  (of 
Quebec),  cost  what  it  will". 

In  1734  Ensign  Samuel  Cottnam,  at  Minas,  wrote  to  the  lieuten- 
ant governor  complaining  of  clandestine  trade  there.  It  was  re- 
solved in  Council  to  authorize  Cottnam  to  seize  the  traders  who 
were  smuggling,  and  their  vessels,  and  bring  them  to  Annapolis. 
To  assist  in  the  suppression  of  illegal  trade,  Mr.  John  Hamilton, 
Deputy  Collector  and  Naval  oflScer  at  Annapolis,  a  cousin  of  Major 
Otho  Hamilton  of  the  40th  Regiment,  was  employed  to  go  up  the 
Bay.  In  1735  the  Deputies  at  Minas  were  reproved  for  not  obey- 
ing the  governor's  orders  regarding  the  punishment  of  "petit 
Jacques  Le  Blanc",  who  had  grossly  insulted  the  deputy  collector. 
In  April  of  this  year,  an  order  was  issued  by  the  Council  for  re- 
pairing the  road  between  Minas  and  Piziquid,  and  for  mending 
dykes  and  fences  at  both  places.  The  same  month  Lieutenant 
Governor  Armstrong  sailed  to  Minas  and  found  the  people  there 
"very  complaisant,  and  outwardly  well  affected",  but  in  his  judg- 
ment, not  reaUy  loyal  to  the  English  crown.  He  was  convinced 
that  they  had  incited  the  Indians  to  mischief,  but  he  thinks  the 
erection  of  a  blockhouse  and  the  placing  of  troops  there  might 
keep  their  rebellious  spirit  in  check.  Armstrong  was  destined, 
however,  never  to  carry  out  his  wish  to  strengthen  the  fortress  at 


Minas,  and  it  is  possible  that  disappointment  at  not  being  allowed 
to  do  so  may  have  increased  the  melancholy  which  in  December, 
1739,  led  him  to  take  his  own  life.  A  little  over  three  years  before 
his  death  he  had  signed  a  grant  of  fifty  thousand  acres,  in  what 
afterward  became  the  County  of  King's  (later  the  county  of 
Hants),  to  some  thirty-five  gentlemen,  among  whom  were  all  the 
chief  military  officials  in  Nova  Scotia.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that 
in  this  grant,  the  land  given  is  said  to  be  in  the  "township  of  Har- 
rington, in  the  county  of  Southampton^ \  names  that  have  never 
been  known  in  the  later  history  of  the  province.  May  27th  of  this 
year,  Alexander  Bourg  was  reappointed  "notary  and  receiver  of 
King's  dues"  at  Grand  Pre. 

In  the  spring  of  1742,  a  certain  Captain  Trefry,  master  of  a 
sloop  engaged  in  trading  at  Grand  Pre,  was  surprised,  robbed, 
and  otherwise  ill-used,  by  some  Indians,  probably  on  his  vessel  at 
Horton  Landing.  The  robbery  caused  great  excitement  at  Minas, 
and  the  two  Deputies,  Messrs.  Bourg  and  Mangeant,  were  active  in 
recovering  Trefry 's  goods.  In  1744  a  Canadian  named  Joseph 
Vanier  was  arrested  at  Annapolis  and  detained,  on  complaints  made 
against  him  at  Minas.  In  connection  with  Vanier 's  arrest,  Lieuten- 
ant-Governor Masearene  wrote  complainingly  to  the  Minas  Depu- 
ties: "The  people  from  your  place  bring  us  so  many  affairs  to  set- 
tle, and  they  are  in  such  a  hurry  to  get  home  again,  that  we  have  no 
time  to  write  suitable  answers".  This  one  complaint  is  a  sufficient 
proof  that  however  worthy  the  people  of  Minas  in  general  may  have 
been,  like  people  of  other  nationalities  and  times,  they  were  a  great 
way  from  having  reached  a  millennial  condition  of  good-will  and 

In  June,  1744,  fresh  disturbance  arose  between  France  and 
England,  and  on  the  first  of  July  a  party  of  Indians,  directly  in- 
spired in  their  action,  it  was  believed,  by  the  notorious  priest,  Le 
Loutre,  fiercely  attacked  the  Annapolis  garrison.  The  timely  ar- 
rival of  a  force  from  Massachusetts,  however,  defeated  the  attack, 
and  caused  the  Indians  to  retreat  to  Minas,  where  in  a  short  time 
they  were  joined  by  French  troops  from  Louisburg.     The  siege 


of  the  Annapolis  fort  was  then  resumed,  but  without  success,  and 
the  inhabitants  of  Minas,  together  with  the  people  of  Annapolis 
and  Chignecto,  hastened  to  assure  the  government  of  their  loyalty, 
in  spite  of  the  fact  that  they  had  been  entreated  and  menaced  by 
the  invading  force.  This  year  the  notary,  Bourg,  was  suspended 
for  neglect  of  duty,  and  in  his  place  one  of  the  men  whose  name 
has  been  made  familiar  to  us  by  Longfellow's  poem.  Bene  Le  Blanc, 
was  appointed  in  his  place.  The  next  year  Bourg  and  Joseph  Le 
Blanc  were  taken  to  Annapolis  and  closely  interrogated  regarding 
their  conduct  during  the  recent  invasion.  In  the  end  Bourg  was 
entirely  freed  of  suspicion  of  having  willingly  given  the  enemy 

A  matter  of  continual  dissatisfaction  to  the  government  at 
Annapolis  was  that  the  inhabitants  of  Minas  and  Chignecto  were 
accustomed  to  supply  the  garrison  at  Louisburg  with  cattle  and  farm 
produce.  This,  of  course,  was  done  in  the  way  of  legitimate  trade, 
and  in  spite  of  orders  to  the  contrary  from  the  lieutenant-gov- 
ernor and  his  Council,  must  be  felt  to  have  been  perfectly  justifiable, 
since  any  agricultural  people  must  somewhere  find  a  market  for 
what  their  fields  and  farm-yards  yield  them  to  sell.  It  is  charged 
truly,  against  the  Minas  farmers,  that  after  the  first  fall  of  Louis- 
burg for  a  time  they  refused  to  supply  the  new  garrison  there  with 
food,  but  it  is  strongly  probable  that  this  refusal,  so  distinctly  in 
opposition  to  their  own  financial  interests,  was  chiefiy  due  to  the  ter- 
rorism exercised  over  them  by  Le  Loutre,  the  most  persistent  and 
troublesome  foe  England  ever  had  in  the  Acadian  peninsula.  On 
the  17th  of  June,  1745,  the  first  capture  of  Louisburg  was  effected 
by  Sir  William  Pepperrell  and  the  troops  who  with  almost  the 
zeal  of  ancient  crusaders  had  enrolled  themselves  for  the  final  de- 
struction of  French  power  on  New  England's  borders.  The  next 
year,  France,  grown  desperate  by  the  loss  of  her  strongest  fortress, 
sent  a  fleet  across  the  seas  to  recapture  not  only  Louisburg,  but 
the  whole  of  Acadia,  as  well.  From  Quebec,  also,  came  a  detach- 
ment of  troops  to  cooperate  with  the  fleet.  To  protect  Nova  Scotia 
from  any  attack  the  French  might  make,  on  appeal  from  Lieuten- 


ant-Governor  Mascarene,  Governor  Shirley  of  Massachusetts  sent 
five  hundred  volunteers  to  the  province  to  assist  the  small  number 
of  troops  already  there.  One  of  the  officers  at  the  capture  of  Louis- 
burg  was  Lieut.-Colonel  Arthur  Noble,  who  had  made  a  fortune 
by  farming  and  trading  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kennebec.  To  his 
command  Shirley  committed  the  volunteers,  and  in  the  late  autumn 
of  1747,  this  force  with  its  commander  landed  at  Annapolis.  From 
there,  part  of  the  five  hundred  marched  directly  by  land,  over  the 
rude  highway  to  Grand  Pre,  part,  however,  going  in  vessels  up 
the  Bay,  At  the  "French  Cross",  now  Morden,  in  Aylesford,  on 
account  of  severe  storms  they  left  the  vessels;  then,  without  paths 
or  guides,  with  great  hardship  they  travelled  across  the  North 
Mountain,  and  through  the  Aylesford  wilderness  to  Minas,  where 
they  joined  their  comrades. 

By  this  time  it  was  too  late  in  the  season  to  erect  a  blockhouse- 
and  in  twenty-four  private  houses,  which  they  were  able  to  se 
cure  for  their  accommodation,  they  prepared  to  spend  the  winter. 
At  Beaubassin,  in  Cumberland  county,  was  then  stationed,  in  com 
mand  of  the  French  troops,  a  Canadian  officer  named  Eamesay 
Learning  of  the  arrival  of  the  New  England  troops  at  Minas,  and 
being  told  that  it  was  Noble's  intention  in  the  spring  to  march 
against  him,  this  officer  formed  a  plan  immediately  to  surprise  the 
American  commander  anil  attack  his  force.  In  January  he  car- 
ried out  his  plan,  and  the  march  to  Minas,  amid  cold  and  snow, 
was  made  with  such  secrecy,  and  the  attack,  in  the  dead  of  night, 
was  so  unexpected,  that  Noble,  roused  from  his  bed  and  fighting 
in  his  shirt,  with  many  of  his  officers  and  men  was  almost  instantly 
killed.  At  the  foot  of  a  bank,  beside  the  present  road  leading 
to. the  old  well  and  the  willows,  a  trench  was  hurriedly  made,  and 
all  the  dead,  except  Noble  and  his  brother,  were  there  interred. 
These  two  brave  officers  were  buried  on  the  right  of  the  road, 
farther  up  the  hill,  on  what  a  few  years  ago  was  the  property  of 
Mr.  James  Laird.  On  each  side  of  the  spot  stands  now  a  large 
apple  tree,  but  no  monument  of  any  kind  has  ever  been  erected 
to  mark  the  double  grave.     The  result  of  this  night  attack  was 


that  the  English  were  obliged  to  leave  Minas  for  Annapolis,  with, 
however,  the  honours  of  war,  within  forty-eight  hours,  their  sick 
and  wounded  being  left,  under  protection  of  a  French  guard,  at 
River  Canard  till  they  were  well.  The  English  loss  was  one  hun- 
dred killed,  fifteen  wounded,  and  fifty  captured;  the  French  loss 
was  seven  killed  and  fifteen  wounded.  In  all  the  history  of  Minas, 
until  the  removal  of  the  Acadians,  no  incident  is  so  tragical  as  this 
night  battle  between  the  French  and  the  English  at  the  hamlet  of 
Grand  Pre. 

There  is  a  tradition  that  at  some  date,  not  specified,  while  the 
French  occupied  the  county,  a  company  of  British  soldiers  going 
from  Halifax  to  Annapolis  under  command  of  a  lieutenant,  were 
met  by  a  party  of  French  and  Indians  at  a  place  called  "Bloody 
Eun"  or  "Moccasin  Hollow",  a  few  miles  west  of  Kentville,  and 
were  cruelly  slain.  It  is  possible,  says  Dr.  Brechin  in  his  manu- 
script, that  the  little  force  of  British  troops  thus  killed  may  have 
been  that  under  command  of  Col.  Goreham  and  Major  Erasmus 
J.  Phillips,  that  on  the  9th  of  February,  1752,  left  Minas  to  go 
by  land  to  Annapolis.  The  trench  where  these  British  soldiers  were 
buried  was  visible,  it  is  claimed,  not  more  than  twenty  years  ago. 

In  1749  came  the  founding  of  Halifax,  and  in  that  year  the 
blockhouse  at  Annapolis  was  taken  down  and  removed  to  Minas. 
Thereafter,  a  small  permanent  force  was  kept  at  the  latter  place 
under  Major  Handfield,  the  troops  being  quartered,  as  they  had 
previously  been,  in  rented  houses  near  the  block  house.  How 
early  earthworks  for  fortification  had  been  thrown  up  at  Grand 
Pre  it  is  impossible  to  know,  but  it  is  likely  that  during  much  of  the 
period  covered  in  this  chapter,  some  such  fortification  did  exist  j 
the  name  of  the  Minas  fort,  according  to  Murdoch,  who  no  doubt 
found  it  in  some  French  document,  was  Yieux  Logis.  Late  in 
1749,  a  company  of  Micmac  and  Maliseet  Indians  attacked  Vieux 
Logis,  and  somewhere  near  the  fort  made  prisoners  a  young  offi- 
cer, Lieut.  John  Hamilton,  son  of  Major  Otho  Hamilton,  and  a 
certain  number  of  soldiers  of  the  garrison.  The  attack  on  the 
fort  itself  was  unsuccessful,  but  the  young  officer  and  his  men 


the  Indians  took  with  them  to  Chignecto,  where  they  were  kept 
until  ransomed  by  the  government. 

With  the  surrender  to  England  in  1755  of  the  northern  Aca- 
dian stronghold,  the  fort  near  the  present  boundary  between  Nova 
Scotia  and  New  Brunswick  known  as  Beausejour,  the  whole  of 
Acadia  at  last  came  under  British  control,  and  the  complete  sub- 
jection of  the  French  population  of  the  province  to  English  rule 
now  seemed  to  the  Governor  and  Council  at  Halifax  a  necessary 
thing.  In  an  earlier  part  of  this  chapter  we  have  referred  to  the 
clause  in  the  treaty  of  Utrecht  which  allowed  the  Aeadians,  if  they 
wished,  to  remove  from  the  peninsula  within  a  year.  Until  com- 
paratively recent  times  the  controversy  between  those,  who  like 
Abbe  Kaynal  idealize  the  French  inhabitants  of  Acadia,  and  those 
who  like  Parkman  more  or  less  strongly  uphold  the  conduct  of  the 
English  authorities  in  taking  them  away,  has  concerned  itself  chief- 
ly with  the  unwillingness  of  the  Aeadians  to  take  an  unqualified 
oath  of  allegiance  to  Britain.  Recently,  however,  the  interest  of 
controversalists  on  the  subject  of  the  deportation  of  the  Aeadians 
has  centred  in  the  unwillingness  of  the  British  authorities  to  give 
the  French  inhabitants  the  benefit  of  the  last  clause  of  the  treaty 
of  Utrecht.  The  year  after  the  treaty,  the  people  were  tendered 
an  unqualified  oath  of  allegiance,  but  they  objected  to  taking  it, 
since  it  demanded  that  in  the  event  of  war  they  should  hold 
themselves  ready  to  take  up  arms  against  their  fellow  countrymen. 
Reporting  to  the  home  government  their  refusal  to  take  the  oath, 
Major  Caulfield,  the  lieutenant-governor,  however,  urged  that  in 
any  ease,  if  possible,  the  people  should  be  kept  in  the  province, 
since  their  leaving  would  almost  certainly  expose  the  English  set- 
tlers to  attacks  from  the  Indians,  and  would  make  it  impossible  for 
the  garrison  at  Annapolis  to  get  proper  supplies  of  food.  In  April, 
1730,  the  Aeadians  of  Minas,  Cobequid,  Piziquid,  and  Beaubassin, 
all  the  country  bordering  on  Minas  Basin,  did,  willingly  subscribe 
the  following  oath:  "Nous  Promettons  et  Jwrons  sincerement  en 
foi  de  Chretien  que  nous  serons  entierement  Fidelle  et  Nous 
Soumettrons    Y entablement  a   Ba  Majeste    George   Le   Second,   Boy 


de  la  Grande  Bretagne,  que  Nous  reconnoissons  pour  Le  Soverain 
Seigneur  de  La  Nouvelle  Ecosse  et  L'Acadie.  Ainsi  Dieu  nous 
swt  en  aide".  To  this  oath  there  were  five  hundred  and  ninety- 
one  signatures,  the  names  of  the  people  subscribing  being:  Aigre, 
Allan,  Amiraul,  Aucoin,  Arsenau,  Babin,  Barriot,  Bean,  Bellem^re, 
Bellivaux,  Benoit,  Bernard,  Blanchard,  Boudrot,  Bourg,  Bourgeois, 
Breau,  Brossard,  Bujean,  Bujeauld,  Caissy,  Caudet,  Celestin, 
Chaudet,  Chene,  Chiasson,  Cloistre,  Comeau,  Cormier,  Corporon,, 
D'Aigle,  D 'Aigre,  D'Aroits,  Dounaron,  Doucet,  Dugas,  Dupuis, 
Ely,  Epee,  Flanc,  Fontaine,  Foret,  Galerme,  Gantreaux,  Garceau, 
Gaudet,  Gautrot,  Girouard,  Giroir,  Gouzier,  Granger,  Grivois, 
Guerin,  Haehe,  Hamel,  Hautbois,  Hebert,  Henry,  Hortements,  Hu- 
gon,  Jareau,  La  Bove,  La  Croix,  Lamirre,  Lamon,  Landry,  La  Pierre, 
La  Vaehe,  Lebert,  Le  Blanc,  Leger,  Le  Jeune,  Levron,  Le  Prince, 
Le  Vieux,  Martin,  MazeroUe,  Melanson,  Michel,  Mouton,  Naquin, 
Noge,  Nuiratte,  OUivier,  Pas,  Pitre,  Poupar,  Fourier,  Prijeant  (or 
Pryjeau),  Quaicie,  Racois,  Richard,  Rivet,  Robichaud,  Roy, 
Sampson,  Saulnier,  Savoie,  Sesmez,  Sire,  Terriot,  Tibodo,  Trahan, 
Trigeul,  Turpin,  Vincent. 

In  the  brilliant  pages  of  his  "Montcalm  and  "Wolfe",  Park- 
man  gives  strong  reasons  why  the  action  of  the  authorities  in  de- 
porting the  Acadians  should  not  be  condemned.  In  his  "Missing 
Links  of  a  Lost  Chapter  in  American  History",  Edouard  Richard, 
and  in  the  Calnek-Savary  "History  of  Annapolis",  the  learned  Judge 
Savary,  as  energetically  takes  the  part  of  the  French.  These  writers 
both  show  that  repeated  attempts  on  the  part  of  the  inhabitants 
to  take  advantage  of  the  declared  willingness  of  the  British  crown 
to  let  them  leave  the  province,  on  one  plea  or  another  were  deter- 
minedly resisted,  and  lay  the  blame  for  what  they  regard  as  un- 
pardonable cruelty  on  the  part  of  the  British,  chiefly  on  Colonel 
Lawrence,  the  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia,  and  a  Council  of  four  men, 
three  of  whom,  Benjamin  Green,  John  Rous,  and  Jonathan  Belcher, 
were  Bostonians  by  birth.  "It  will  be  still  quite  new  to 
many  who  read  these  pages",  says  Judge  Savary,  "that  it  was 
not  by  their  own  choice,  but  by  that  of  the  Government  and  its 


repfesentatives  in  Nova  Scotia  that  they  (the  French)  remained; 
and  that  they  persistently  sought  to  avail  themselves  of  the  priv- 
ilege of  removal  guaranteed  to  them  by  the  treaty,  and  were  as 
persistently  prevented.  A  few  who  had  lived  in  the  banlieue  were 
permitted  to  sell  out  and  depart,  and  some  managed  to  make  good 
their  escape  in  the  autumn  of  1749,  after  Cornwallis'  declaration. 
Governor  Lawrence  (the  next  governor  but  one  to  Cornwallis), 
even  after  his  conception  of  the  plan  for  their  destruction,  wrote 
thus:  'I  believe  that  a  very  large  part  of  the  inhabitants  would 
submit  to  any  terms  rathe?  than  take  up  arms  on  either  side'. 
It  is  not,  therefore,  with  any  question  of  the  expulsion  of  the 
Acadians  that  we  have  to  deal,  but  with  their  annihilation  as  a  race 
or  nationality  attempted,  and  with  partial  success,  and  untold 
misery  and  ruin  to  the  victims,  by  Governor  Lawrence". 

Without  entering  any  further  into  a  controversy  so  long  now 
and  with  so  much  feeling  pursued,  we  may  properly  say  that  the 
expulsion  of  the  Acadians  was  part  of  a  determined  movement 
by  England  and  New  England  to  break  forever  the  power  of  Prance 
in  the  new  world.  "The  Acadians  could  be  neutralized",  says  Dr. 
Edward  Channing  in  his  recent  History  of  the  United  States,  "by 
seizing  and  holding  as  hostages  the  leading  men  among  them,  or 
by  settling  an  overwhelming  number  of  English  colonists  in  their 
country;  they  could  be  eliminated  from  the  military  problem  by 
distributing  them  throughout  the  old  English  settlements  to  the 
southward.  The  last  was  likely  to  be  the  most  efScacious  solution 
of  the  difficulty,  as  well  as  the  easier  and  cheaper  from  a  military 
point  of  view".  The  Acadians,  unfortunately  for  themselves, 
"lived  in  one  of  the  most  important  strategic  points  on  the  Atlantic 
coast,  holding  the  southern  entrance  to  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence, 
*  *  *  had  their  homes  been  a  hundred  miles  farther  south  or 
north,  they  might  have  lived  placidly  and  died  peacefully  where 
they  were  born". 

Li  the  summer  of  1755,  an  unqualified  oath  of  allegiance,  in- 
volving willingness  to  bear  arms  for  England,  was  again  demanded 
of  the  Acadian  people,  but  the  Deputies  from  Grand  Pr6  and  the 


other  Minas  settlements,  and  from  Annapolis,  the  two  bodies  repre- 
senting nine-tenths  of  the  population  within  the  peninsula,  ap- 
peared before  the  Council,  and  on  behalf  of  themselves  and  the  rest 
of  the  inhabitants  respectfully  but  firmly  refused  to  take  any 
other  oath  than  that  they  had  subscribed  years  before.  During  the 
progress  of  the  Government's  final  attempt  to  exact  from  them  an 
unconditional  oath.  Governor  Lawrence  wrote  the  Secretary  of 
State:  "I  am  determined  to  bring  the  inhabitants  to  compliance, 
or  rid  the  Province  of  such  perfidious  subjects".  When  the  Depu- 
ties had  finally  left  Halifax  the  Council  at  once  began  to  make 
plans  for  the  people's  removal.  There  were  perhaps  eight  thou- 
sand, in  all,  in  the  peninsula,  and  to  carry  so  many  away  was  a 
somewhat  formidable  task.  From  Governor  Shirley  at  Boston 
transports  were  obtained  and  the  removal  of  the  Minas  people  was 
given  in  charge  to  Lieut.-Colonel  John  Winslow,  who  was  already 
at  Port  Beausejour,  then  Fort  Cumberland.  Armed  with  Law- 
rence's proclamation  for  the  removal,  the  14th  of  August  Winslow 
sailed  down  Chignecto  Channel  to  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  and  when  the 
tide  set  into  Minas  Basin  held  his  course  to  the  mouth  of  the  Avon. 
Where  Windsor  now  stands  was  a  stockade,  known  as  Fort  Edward, 
and  there  with  a  small  garrison  Captain  Alexander  Murray  held 
command.  The  two  officers  quickly  conferred,  and  by  the  end  of 
the  month,  at  Windsor  and  Grand  Pre,  had  fully  matured  their 
plans.  On  the  fifth  of  September  four  hundred  and  eighteen  men, 
representing  the  chief  settlements  of  Minas,  in  obedience  to  Wins- 
low's  summons  assembled  in  the  Grand  Pre  church.  "The  per- 
emptory orders  of  his  Majesty",  said  the  New  England  officer, 
addressing  them,  "are,  that  all  the  French  inhabitants  of  these 
districts  be  removed;  and  through  his  Majesty's  goodness  I  am 
directed  to  allow  you  the  liberty  of  carrying  with  you  your  money 
and  as  many  of  your  household  goods  as  you  can  take  without 
overloading  the  vessels  you  go  in.  I  shall  do  everything  in  my 
power  that  all  these  goods  be  secured  to  you,  and  that  you  be  not 
molested  in  carrying  them  away,  and  also  that  whole  families  shall 
go  in  the  same  vessel;  so  that  this  removal,  which  I  am  sensible 


must  give  you  a  great  deal  of  trouble,  may  be  made  as  easy  as  his 
Majesty's  service  will  admit;  and  I  hope  that  in  whatever  part  of 
the  world  your  lot  may  fall,  you  may  be  faithful  subjects,  and  a 
peaceable  and  happy  people.  I  must  also  inform  you  that  it  is  his 
Majesty's  pleasure  that  you  remain  in  security  under  the  inspection 
and  direction  of  the  troops  that  I  have  the  honour  to  command". 
The  men  were  then  declared  prisoners  of  the  King. 

"Horton  Landing"  is  an  anchorage  on  a  bold  shore,  where  the 
Gaspereau  river  joins  the  estuary  of  the  Avon  and  the  Basin  of 
Minas.  It  is  a  spot  protected  on  the  west  and  north  by  Boot  Island, 
and  is  some  three  or  four  hundred  yards  north  of  the  present  rail- 
way, and  some  two  miles  from  deep  water,  at  low  tide.  At  this 
landing  the  vessels  of  Winslow  were  drawn  up,  and  September  ninth 
two  hundred  and  thirty  young  men  were  marched  from  the  church, 
a  mile  and  a  half,  to  the  landing  and  placed  on  board  three  sloops, 
at  high  tide.  When  they  were  on  board,  the  vessels  dropped  out 
to  deep  water  and  anchored.  September  seventeenth,  in  the  same 
way,  further  shipments  were  made.  October  eighth,  the  embarka- 
tion of  families  began.  "Began  to  embark  the  inhabitants",  writes 
Winslow  in  his  Journal,  "who  went  off  very  solentarily  and  un- 
willingly, the  women  in  great  distress,  carrying  off  their  children 
in  their  arms;  others  carrying  their  decrepit  parents  in  their  carts, 
with  all  their  goods;  moving  in  great  confusion,  and  appeared  a 
scene  of  woe  and  distress". 

"All  day  long  between  the  shore  and  the  ships  did  the  boats  ply; 
All  day  long  the  wains  came  laboring  down  from  the  village. 
Late  in  the  afternoon,  when  the  sun  was  near  to  his  setting, 
Echoing  far  o'er  the  fields  came  the  roll  of  drums  from  the  church-yard. 
Thither  the  women  and  children  thronged. 

On  a  sudden  the  church-doors 
Opened,  and  forth  came  the  guard,  and  marching  in  gloomy  procession 
Followed  the  long-imprisoned,  but  patient,  Acadian  farmers." 

On  this  day  eighty  families  were  put  on  board  the  ships.  From 
October  twenty-third  to  twenty-seventh,  on  the  Cornwallis  side  of 
the  Grand  Habitant  river,  five  sloops  were  loaded  at  Boudreau's 
Bank  (Town  Plot)  with  the  inhabitants  of  the  various  settlements 


in  Cornwallis,  the  people  who  lived  in  the  scattered  hamlets  along 
the  Canard,  Petit  Habitant,  and  Pereau  rivers.  Haliburton  tells  us 
in  pathetic  detail  that  near  the  spot  where  these  Cornwallis  Acadians 
embarked,  the  New  England  people  who  five  years  later  were  given 
their  lands,  found  sixty  ox-carts  and  as  many  yokes  (tradition 
adds,  chains,  and  remnants  of  household  goods),  which  the  French 
had  used  in  conveying  their  goods  to  the  vessels  that  had  borne 
them  away,  and  that  at  the  skirts  of  the  forest  they  saw  many 
bleached  skeletons  of  sheep  and  horned  cattle,  that  the  winter 
after  their  owners  left  had  died  of  starvation  and  cold.  In  a 
short  time,  he  adds,  they  encountered  a  few  straggling  Acadian 
families  who  had  escaped  deportation,  who  afraid  of  sharing 
their  countrymen's  fate  had  not  ventured  to  till  the  soil,  or  even 
appear  in  the  open  country,  since  their  friends  were  removed. 

By  the  beginning  of  November,  1,510  persons  had  gone,  in  nine 
vessels,  and  the  commander  writes  that  he  has  more  than  six  hun- 
dred still  to  send.  On  account  of  the  scarcity  of  vessels  not  all 
were  removed  till  the  twentieth  of  December,  but  soon  after  the 
removal  began,  "Winslow  went  to  Halifax,  leaving  Captain  Osgood 
to  guard  those  that  remained.  Before  he  left,  however,  he  ordered 
the  houses  and  barns  on  the  Cornwallis  side  of  the  Grand  Habitant, 
and  at  Gaspereau,  to  be  burned,  and  in  December  a  similar  de- 
struction was  made  of  the  houses  and  barns  in  and  near  the  vil- 
lage of  Grand  Pre.  The  first  week  of  November  two  hundred  and 
six  houses  and  two  hundred  and  thirty-seven  barns  were  burned 
at  Canard,  Habitant,  and  Pereau,  and  forty-nine  houses,  and  thirty- 
nine  barns  at  Gaspereau.  Besides  these,  there  were  burned  at 
various  places,  eleven  mills.  In  the  burning  of  Grand  Pre,  the 
Church  of  St.  Charles  with  its  furnishings,  like  the  other  buildings, 
was  destroyed.  Besides  the  1,510  persons  shipped  at  Minas  by 
"Winslow,  732  were  reported  to  have  been  shipped  later  by  Osgood. 
The  whole  number  of  people  in  the  peninsula  at  the  time  of  the 
deportation,  as  we  have  said,  was  probably  about  8,000,  and  from  the 
four  centres,  Minas,  Fort  Edward,  Beaubassin,  and  Annapolis,  a 
little  over  6,000,  in  all,  Parkman  estimates,  were  taken  away. 


From  the  district  of  Grand  Pr6,  as  at  the  other  centres,  a  certain 
number  escaped  deportation  by  hiding  in  the  woods.  Tradition  says 
that  when  the  New  England  planters  came  in  1760,  they  found  here, 
as  in  Cornwallis,  some  wretched  people  who  had  hardly  dared  ven- 
ture out  of  the  forest  since  their  friends  were  removed,  and  who  in 
all  the  miserable  five  years  of  their  fugitive  life  had  never  once 
tasted  bread.  In  1762,  a  considerable  number  of  these  fugitives 
were  employed  by  the  new  inhabitants  of  Cornwallis  and  Horton  in 
the  work  they  had  undertaken  of  rebuilding  the  partly  destroyed 
dykes.  In  July  of  that  year,  by  order  of  the  government  a  hun- 
dred and  thirty  of  them  in  King's  and  Annapolis  (King's,  of 
course,  then  including  Hants)  were  brought  to  Halifax  under  escort 
of  a  hundred  of  the  King's  County  militia.  A  little  later,  the 
lieutenant-governor  representing  the  French  neutral  prisoners  as 
"insolent  and  dangerous",  and  as  inciting  the  Indians  near  Halifax 
against  the  English,  advised  that  they  should  be  transported  to 
Boston.  Very  soon  they  were  sent  to  Boston,  but  the  Boston  au- 
thorities refused  to  receive  them  and  they  were  returned  to  Halifax 
without  being  allowed  to  land.  In  1764,  there  were  at  Fort  Ed- 
wards, seventy-seven  families  of  Acadians,  comprising  227  souls. 

Of  the  deported  Acadians  the  subsequent  history  is  more  melan- 
choly, far,  to  read  than  any  description  of  the  expulsion  that  has 
ever  found  its  way  into  print.  In  pitiful  groups,  varying  greatly 
in  size,  they  were  set  down  on  the  American  seaboard,  from  Maine 
to  Georgia,  their  poverty  and  their  distress  of  mind  being  usually 
as  great  as  they  well  could  be.  Precisely  how  sorrowful  their 
plight  was  may  be  learned  from  documents  in  the  archives  of  many 
of  the  states  of  the  American  Union  where  they  were  unwelcomely 
received,  or  were  refused  to  be  allowed  to  land.  Hutchinson  says 
that  some  families  were  brought  to  Boston,  mothers  and  children 
only,  without  their  husbands  and  fathers,  the  men  having  been 
shipped  to  Philadelphia,  and  learning  of  their  families'  where- 
abouts only  through  advertisements  in  the  newspapers.  Miss 
Caulkins  in  her  history  of  New  London,  Connecticut,  states  that 
more  of  the  neutrals  were  brought  to  New  London  than  to  any 


other  port:  "The  selectmen  were  desired  to  find  accommodations 
for  them  at  some  distance  from  the  town,  and  to  see  that  they  were 
kept  at  some  suitable  employment.  A  vessel  with  three  hundred  on 
board  came  into  New  London  harbour,  Jan.  21,  1756.  Another 
vessel,  thronged  with  these  unhappy  exiles,  that  had  sailed  from 
Halifax  early  in  the  year,  and  being  blown  off  the  coast  took  shel- 
ter in  Antigua,  came  from  thence  under  convoy  of  a  man-of-war, 
and  arrived  in  port,  May  22nd.  Many  in  this  last  vessel  were  sick 
and  dying  of  small-pox.  A  special  Assembly  convened  by  the 
governor,  Jan.  21,  1756,  to  dispose  of  these  foreigners,  distributed 
the  four  hundred  then  on  hand  among  all  the  towns  in  the  col- 
ony, according  to  their  list.  The  regular  proportion  of  New  Lon- 
don was  but  twelve,  yet  many  others  afterward  gathered  here. 
Some  of  the  neutrals  were  subsequently  returned  to  their  former 
homes.  In  1767,  Captain  Richard  Leffingwell  sailed  from  New 
London  with  two  hundred  and  forty,  to  be  reconveyed  to  their 

The  great  interest  in  Nova  Scotia  that  the  proclamation  of 
1758  offering  the  French  lands  to  New  England  settlers,  aroused 
in  eastern  Connecticut,  was  no  doubt  largely  owing  to  the  knowledge 
the  Connecticut  people  had  of  Nova  Scotia  through  the  tragedy  of 
the  expulsion  of  the  "neutrals",  as  the  exiles  were  commonly 

In  the  State  Archives  of  Massachusetts  are  two  large  volumes 
of  manuscript  documents,  comprising  orders  of  the  Council  concern- 
ing the  neutrals,  charges  from  the  Selectmen  of  a  large  number  of 
towns  for  their  support,  petitions  from  the  people  themselves,  for 
help,  and  for  removal  to  places  where  they  might  be  better  able 
to  support  themselves  and  their  families,  and  facts  of  other  sorts 
that  must  arouse  in  the  mind  of  any  one  who  reads  them  a 
deeper  sympathy  than  he  has  ever  felt  before  for  the  woes  of  the 
exiled  French,  and  a  deeper  feeling  of  indignation  at  the  politi- 
cal measures  that  were  responsible  for  their  unhappy  fate.  Of 
documents  to  be  found  in  New  England  which  throw  light  on  their 
pitiful  condition,  two  examples  only  can  be  given  here.    At  Point 


Shirley  had  been  placed  Prangois  Leblanc,  very  likely  one  of 
the  Minas  inhabitants.  In  the  summer  of  1756  this  man  wrote  the 
Government  of  Massachusetts  as  follows: 

"To  his  Excellency  the  Governor,  the  Honorable,  the  Council 
and  Representatives  of  the  Province  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay ;  Fran- 
gois  Le  Blanc,  a  poor  French  inhabitant  of  Accaday  humbly  shows 
that  he  and  his  family,  five  of  which  are  men,  were  placed  at 
Point  Shirley,  that  they  have  with  great  difSculty  supported  them- 
selves since  the  provision  allowed  by  the  Province  ceased,  but  now 
they  cannot  find  work  and  they  have  a  winter  before  them  and 
no  prospect  of  any  opportunity  of  labour  during  that  season  and 
all  necessaries  of  life  are  excessive  dear  there  and  your  Petitioner's 
family  must  perish  with  hunger  and  cold.  Your  Petitioner  has 
relations  placed  in  the  Town  of  York  and  is  known  to  Col.  Don- 
nell  and  Capt.  Dounell  and  has  traded  with  them,  and  he  thinks 
he  could  support  his  family  tho'  he  is  63  years  old,  with  the  help 
of  his  sons  and  some  little  relief  from  the  Public  and  as  there 
is  but  eight  French  in  that  town  he  hopes  there  will  be  no  excep- 
tion and  humbly  prays  he  may  be  placed  there  with  his  family". 

This  petition  was  read  in  Council,  Aug.  20,  1756,  and  referred 
to  James  Minot,  Esq.,  and  certain  members  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives, as  a  committee,  to  be  considered  and  acted  on. 

From  Falmouth,  now  Portland,  Maine,  in  1763,  among  many 
such  petitions  for  relief  from  distress,  came  a  similarly  sad  plea 
from  an  Acadian  whose  name  had  been  anglicized  to  "John  White". 

"To  his  Excellency  Francis  Bernard,  Esq.,  Gov.  of  the  Province 
of  the  Massachusetts  Bay : 

"To  the  Honorable,  his  Majesty's  Council  and  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives in  General  Court  Assembled : 
February  23rd,  1763 : 

"The  petition  of  John  White,  one  of  the  inhabitants  of  Minas 
in  Nova  Scotia;  living  in  Falmouth  in  Casco  Bay  (now  Portland) 
in  behalf  of  himself  and  others,  living  in  said  Town.  Humbly 
Sheweth  that  we  being  brought  from  our  Native  Country,  where- 
by we  are  deprived  of  our  Houses  and  lands  and  Stripped  in  a 


Great  measure  of  our  whole  Substance,  and  now  live  among 
strangers  grappling  with  misery  and  want,  and  the  Town  of  Fal- 
mouth have  rated  us  in  their  Public  taxes  which  adds  greatly  to 
our  Distresses, — 

"Wherefore  we  humbly  intreat  your  Excellency  and  Honours 
So  Far  to  Compassionate  our  Miserable  Circumstances  as  to  Ex- 
cuse us  from  paying  to  public  Taxes,  until  we  shall  get  into  some 
way  of  Business  to  maintain  ourselves  and  families,  or  otherwise 
relieve  us  as  in  your  great  Wisdom  you  shall  think  just  and  reason- 

In  the  House  of  Eepresentatives,  Feb.  25th,  1765,  this  let- 
ter was  read,  and  it  was  ordered  "that  the  assessors  of  the  said 
Town  of  Falmouth  be  directed  to  abate  all  the  Poll  Taxes  here- 
tofore imposed  upon  all  the  French  Neutrals  (so  called)  living  in 
said  Town". 

The  chief  family  names  at  Minas  at  the  time  of  the  expulsion 
were:  Alin,  Apigne,  Aucoine,  Babin,  Belfontaine,  Belmere,  Benois, 
Blanchard,  Bondro,  Bouer,  Bouns,  Bourg,  Brane,  Brasseux,  Brassin, 
Braux,  Brun,  Bugeant,  Capierre,  Caretter,  Celestin,  Celue,  Cleland, 
Clemenson,  Cloarte,  Commeau,  Cotoe,  Daigre,  David,  Diron,  Doucet, 
Doulet,  Dour,  Duis,  Duon,  Dupiers,  Dupuy,  Dusour,  Duzoy,  Forest, 
Gotro,  Granger,  Herbert,  Inferno,  Labous,  Landry,  Lapierre,  Le 
Bar,  Le  Blanc,  Leblin,  Le  Prince,  Lesour,  Leuron,  Massier,  Melan- 
son,  Mengean,  Menier,  Michel,  Noails,  Pitree,  Quette,  Richard, 
Eobichaud,  Eour,  Sapin,  Semer,  Somier,  Sorere,  Sosonier,  Terriot, 
Tibodo,  Tilhard,  Trahan,  Trahause,  Timour,  Vinson. 



The  first  significant  attempt  at  English  settlement  in  Nova 
Scotia  was  made  by  the  Lords  of  Trade  and  Plantations  in  1749. 
In  June  of  that  year,  2,476  persons  from  England,  under  command 
of  the  Hon.  Edward  Cornwallis,  who  had  been  commissioned  Cap- 
tain General  of  the  expedition,  and  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia,  in 
thirteen  transports  accompanied  by  the  Beaufort,  a  sloop  of  war, 
sailed  into  Chebucto  Bay.  Abolishing  the  Military  Council  which 
had  long  existed  at  Annapolis  Koyal,  on  board  the  Beaufort  in 
the  harbour,  Cornwallis  organized  a  civil  government,  and  with  this 
important  event  the  settled  history  of  Nova  Scotia  begins.  The 
new  town  established  by  Cornwallis,  in  compliment  to  George 
Montague,  Earl  of  Halifax,  then  head  of  the  Lords  of  Trade,  was 
named  Halifax,  and  henceforth  the  chief  authority  in  the  province 
was  located  there.  In  the  wake  of  the  English  settlers  whom  the 
new  governor  brought  out,  the  next  year  came  some  1,500  or  more 
German  and  French  Protestants,  who  for  the  most  part  finally 
located  in  what  soon  became  the  County  of  Lunenburg. 

The  removal  of  the  Acadians  from  the  province,  as  we  have 
seen,  was  accomplished  in  1755,  and  before  the  end  of  December 
of  that  year,  what  is  now  King's  County  was  almost  entirely  with- 
out inhabitants.  In  1753  the  old  fort,  Yieux  Logis,  at  Minas,  erected 
in  the  first  year  of  Cornwallis'  government,  had  been  abandoned, 
and  its  garrison  sent  to  Fort  Edward  at  Piziquid,  which  had  suffi- 
cient accommodation  for  both  garrisons.  After  the  French  gen- 
erally were  removed,  a  small  force  for  protection  was  still  retained 
at  Fort  Edward,  and  the  Acadians  of  the  vicinity  who  had  es- 


caped  deportation  and  could  be  found,  were  kept  there  as  prison- 
ers. How  many  of  these  there  were  it  is  impossible  to  say,  but 
from  the  official  returns  it  appears  that  the  average  number  from 
June  13,  1763,  to  March  18,  1764,  was  343.  In  the  former  year, 
however,  there  were  nearly  400  there.  After  the  expulsion,  there- 
fore, save  for  the  garrison  at  Piziquid,  the  few  French  these  soldiers 
guarded,  and  the  little  companies  of  Micmaes  in  the  solitary  woods, 
in  what  are  now  the  counties  of  Hants  and  King's  there  could  not 
have  been  a  single  human  inhabitant. 

In  1758  the  final  capture  of  Louisburg  was  affected,  and  the 
next  year  Quebec  fell,  and  with  the  complete  destruction  of  French 
power  on  the  continent  the  possibility  of  having  a  loyal  British 
population  in  Nova  Scotia  at  last  came  strongly  into  view.  It 
is  said  that  the  scheme  of  settling  the  province  that  was  now 
matured  by  the  Lords  of  Trade  was  suggested  to  that  body  by  the 
authorities  of  Massachusetts,  and  the  statement  is  doubtless  true. 
That  Governor  Lawrence  at  Halifax,  Cornwallis'  successor,  who 
iad  played  a  vigorous  part  in  the  expulsion  of  the  French,  warmly 
seconded  the  plan,  is  also  certainly  true,  and  since  several  of  the 
Councillors,  his  advisers,  were  themselves  New  England  men,  the 
•Council  was  naturally  loud  in  its  praise. 

In  the  autumn  of  1758,  therefore,  under  instructions  from  Eng- 
land, the  Council  adopted  a  proclamation  relative  to  settling  the 
"vacant  lands.  The  proclamation  stated  that  by  the  destruction  of 
Prench  power  in  Cape  Breton  and  Nova  Scotia,  the  enemy  who 
had  formerly  disturbed  and  harassed  the  province  and  obstructed 
its  progress  had  been  obliged  to  retire  to  Canada,  and  that  thus 
a  favorable  opportunity  was  presented  for  "peopling  and  cultivat- 
ing as  well  the  lands  vacated  by  the  French  as  every  other  part  of 
this  valuable  province".  The  lands  are  described  as  consisting 
of  "upwards  of  one  hundred  thousand  acres  of  interval  and  plow 
lands,  producing  wheat,  rye,  barley,  oats,  hemp,  flax,  etc. "  "  These 
have  been  cultivated  for  more  than  a  hundred  years  past,  and 
never  fail  of  crops,  nor  need  manuring.  Also,  more  than  one  hun- 
dred thousand  acres  of  upland,  cleared,  and  stocked  with  English 


grass,  planted  with  orchards,  gardens,  etc.  These  lands  with  good 
husbandry  produce  often  two  loads  of  hay  per  acre.  The  wild  and 
unimproved  lands  adjoining  to  the  above  are  well  timbered  and 
wooded  with  beech,  black  birch,  ash,  oak,  pine,  fir,  etc.  All  these 
lands  are  so  intermixed  that  every  single  farmer  may  have  a  propor- 
tionate quantity  of  plow  land,  grass  land,  and  wood  land;  and  all 
are  situated  about  the  Bay  of  Fundi,  upon  rivers  navigable  for 
ships  of  burthen".  Proposals  for  settlement,  it  was  stated,  would 
be  received  by  Mr.  Thomas  Hancock  of  Boston  (uncle  of  John 
Hancock),  and  Messrs.  De  Lancey  and  Watts  of  New  York,  and 
would  be  transmitted  to  the  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia,  or  in  his  ab- 
sence to  the  Lieutenant  Governor,  or  the  President  of  the  Council. 

The  next  step  was  to  have  the  proclamation  made  known,  and 
accordingly,  on  the  12th  of  October,  1758,  the  Council  caused  it  to 
be  published  in  the  Boston  Gazette.  As  soon  as  the  proclamation 
appeared,  the  agent  in  Boston  was  plied  with  questions  as  to  what 
terms  of  encouragement  would  be  offered  settlers,  how  much  land 
each  person  would  receive,  what  quit-rent  and  taxes  were  to  be 
exacted,  what  constitution  of  government  prevailed  in  the  province, 
and  what  freedom  in  religion  new  settlers  would  have.  The  result 
of  these  questions  was  that  at  a  meeting  of  the  Council,  held  Thurs- 
day, January  eleventh,  1759,  a  second  proclamation  was  approved  in 
which  the  Governor  states  that  he  is  empowered  to  make  grants  of 
the  best  land  in  the  province.  That  a  hundred  acres  of  wild  wood- 
land would  be  given  each  head  of  a  family,  and  fifty  acres  additional 
for  each  person  in  his  family,  young  or  old,  male  or  female,  black 
or  white,  subject  to  a  quit-rent  of  one  shilling  per  fifty  acres,  the 
rent  to  begin,  however,  not  \mtil  ten  years  after  the  issuing  of  the 
grant.  The  grantees  must  cultivate  or  inclose  one  third  of  the 
land  in  ten  years,  one  third  more  in  twenty  years,  and  the  re- 
mainder in  thirty  years.  No  quantity  above  a  thousand  acres, 
however,  would  be  granted  to  any  one  person.  On  fulfilment  of 
the  terms  of  a  first  grant  the  party  receiving  it  should  be  entitled 
to  another  on  similar  conditions. 

The  lands  on  the  Bay  of  Fundy  were  to  be  distributed  "with 


proportions  of  interval  plow  land,  mowing  land,  and  pasture",  which 
lands  for  more  than  a  hundred  years  had  produced  abundant  crops 
•of  wheat,  rye,  barley,  oats,  hemp,  and  flax,  without  ever  needing 
to  be  manured.  The  government  of  Nova  Scotia  was  constituted 
like  that  of  the  neighboring  colonies,  the  legislature  consisting  of 
a  Governor,  a  Council  and  an  Assembly.  As  soon  as  the  people  were 
settled,  townships  of  a  hundred  thousand  acres  each,  or  about 
twelve  miles  square,  would  be  formed,  and  each  township  would 
be  entitled  to  send  two  representatives  to  the  Assembly.  The  courts 
of  justice  were  constituted  like  those  of  Massachusetts,  Connecticut, 
and  other  northern  colonies;  and  as  to  religion,  both  by  his 
Majesty's  instructions  and  by  a  late  act  of  the  Assembly,  full  lib- 
erty of  conscience  was  secured  to  persons  of  all  persuasions.  Papists 
excepted.  Settlers  were  to  be  amply  protected  in  their  new  homes, 
for  forts  garrisoned  with  royal  troops  had  already  been  established 
in  close  proximity  to  the  lands  proposed  to  be  settled. 

It  is  a  little  singular  that  the  interest  which  these  proclama- 
tions aroused  in  New  England,  and  the  important  migration  which 
accordingly  soon  followed,  should  have  left  so  little  trace  in  printed 
records  of  the  colonies  from  which  the  settlers  went.  Miss  Caulkias ' 
history  of  New  London,  however,  says:  "The  clearing  of  Nova 
Scotia  of  the  French  opened  the  way  for  the  introduction  of  English 
«olonists.  Between  this  period  (1760)  and  the  Revolution,  the 
tide  of  immigration  set  thitherward  from  New  England,  and  par- 
ticularly from  Connecticut.  Menis,  Amherst,  Dublin,  and  other 
towns  in  the  province,  received  a  large  proportion  of  their  first 
planters  from  New  London  county".  The  same  author's  history  of 
Norwich  says  of  1760:  "Nova  Scotia  was  then  open  to  immigrants, 
and  speculation  was  busy  with  its  lands.  Farms  and  townships 
-were  thrown  into  the  market,  and  adventurers  were  eager  to  take 
possession  of  the  vacated  seats  of  the  exiled  Acadians.  The  provin- 
cial government  caused  these  lands  to  be  distributed  into  towns 
and  sections,  and  lots  were  offered  to  actual  settlers  on  easy  terms. 
The  inhabitants  of  the  eastern  part  of  Connecticut,  and  several  citi- 
zens of  Norwich,  in  particular,  entered  largely  into  these  purchases. 


as  they  did  also  into  the  purchase  made  at  the  same  period,  of 
land  on  the  Delaware  River.  The  proprietors  held  their  meetings 
at  the  town-house,  in  Norwich,  and  many  persons  of  even  small 
means  were  induced  to  become  subscribers,  in  the  expectation  of 
bettering  their  fortunes.  The  townships  of  Dublin,  Horton, 
Falmouth,  Cornwallis,  and  Amherst  were  settled  in  part  by  Con- 
necticut emigrants.  Sloops  were  sent  from  Norwich  and  New  Lon- 
don with  provisions  and  passengers.  One  of  these  in  a  single  trip 
conveyed  137  settlers  from  New  London  county.  The  second  Capt. 
Robert  Denison  (Miss  Caulkin's  ancestor)  was  among  the  emi- 
grants". Maey's  History  of  Nantucket  also  has  a  slight  notice  of 
the  migration:  "It  would  seem  by  the  preceding  account  of  the 
whale  fisheries",  it  says,  "that  the  (Nantucket)  people  were  in- 
dustrious and  doing  well  and  that  business  was  in  a  flourishing 
state.  No  one  would  suppose  that  under  the  circumstances  any  of 
the  inhabitants  could  feel  an  inclination  to  emigrate  with  their 
families  to  other  places;  yet  some,  believing  that  they  would  im- 
prove their  condition,  removed  to  Nova  Scotia,  some  to  Kennebeck, 
some  to  New  Garden,  in  the  state  of  South  Carolina,  etc ' '. 

The  interest  in  Nova  Scotia  aroused  by  the  Council's  proclam- 
ations, and  by  the  knowledge  New  England  people  had  in  other 
ways  gained  of  the  vacant  lands  there,  was  indeed  widespread  and 
great.  In  certain  parts  of  Massachusetts  this  interest  centred 
more  strongly  in  the  southern  part  of  Nova  Scotia,  the  Atlantic 
seaboard  towns,  to  which  soon  a  multitude  of  Massachusetts  set- 
tlers removed.  In  eastern  Connecticut  and  Rhode  Island  interest 
was  strongest  in  the  Minas  district,  the  townships  of  Horton  and 
Cornwallis,  and  the  lands  that  lay  farther  east,  on  both  sides  of 
the  Avon  river.  So  great  was  this  interest  that  in  April,  1759,  a 
large  number  of  for  the  most  part  well-to-do  persons  in  Connecti- 
cut and  Rhode  Island,  who  had  partly  determined  to  settle  near 
Minas  Basin,  sent  five  agents  to  the  province  to  inspect  this  part  of 
the  Acadian  country  and  report.  These  agents  were.  Major  Robert 
Denison,  Messrs.  Jonathan  Harris,  Joseph  Otis,  and  Amos  Fuller 
of  Connecticut,   and  Mr.   John  Hicks   of  Rhode   Island,   worthy 


gentlemen  and  prominent  persons  in  the  several  towns  where  they 
belonged.  Coming  to  Halifax,  the  agents  by  invitation  of  Governor 
Lawrence  attended  a  meeting  of  the  Council,  at  which,  besides  the 
Governor,  Messrs.  Jonathan  Belcher,  Benjamin  Green,  John  Col- 
lier, and  Charles  Morris  were  present.  The  conditions  under  which 
settlement  of  the  Minas  lands  would  be  made  were  carefully  dis- 
cussed, and  the  conference  proved  satisfactory  to  the  agents.  From 
the  Council  these  gentlemen  received  assurance  that  the  vessels  be- 
longing to  the  province  would  be  put  at  the  service  of  the  people 
they  represented,  to  bring  them,  with  their  stock  and  furniture,  to 
Nova  Scotia;  that  arms  for  a  small  number  would  be  furnished j 
that  the  settlers  would  not  be  subject  to  impressment;  and  that 
since  the  people  in  whose  behalf  they  came  were  the  first  appli- 
cants for  land,  the  poorer  ones  among  them  should  receive  govern- 
ment aid. 

That  the  agents  might  satisfy  themselves  thoroughly  regarding 
the  Minas  lands,  the  Council  soon  sent  them  in  an  armed  vessel,  with 
an  officer  of  artillery  and  eight  soldiers,  to  visit  the  places  along 
the  Bay  of  Fundy  proposed  for  settlement.  Mr.  Morris,  who  was 
not  only  a  member  of  the  Council,  but  was  also  chief  land-surveyor 
for  the  province,  himself  from  New  England,  accompanied  the  party 
to  give  information,  and  if  necessary  to  lay  out  townships.  Around 
the  southern  coast  of  Nova  Scotia  the  party  sailed,  and  no  doubt 
first  calling  at  Annapolis  Royal,  proceeded  up  the  Bay  of  Fundy  to 
Grand  Pre  and  Piziquid,  at  each  of  which  places  they  disembarked 
and  spent  some  time.  It  was  now  late  in  April  or  early  in  May, 
the  orchards  were  in  their  earliest  budding,  the  dykes  were  begin- 
ning to  grow  green,  the  rich  uplands  were  waiting  for  the  plow, 
and  here  and  there  was  still  standing  some  lonely  barn,  or  perhaps 
house,  that  had  escaped  burning  at  the  sad  time  when  its  owner 
was  taken  away. 

"With  their  tour  of  inspection  the  agents  were  so  well  pleased 
that  when  they  again  reached  Halifax  the  four  Connecticut  men, 
who  represented  three  hundred  and  thirty  of  their  fellow  country- 
men, at  once  entered  into  an  agreement  with  the  Council  to  set- 


tie  a  township  at  Minas,  "joining  on  the  river  Gaspereau,  and  in- 
cluding the  great  marshes,  so  called,  "which  township  was  to 
consist  of  a  hundred  thousand  acres,  to  be  settled  by  two  hundred 
families,  the  grants  to  be  in  fee  simple,  subject  to  the  proposed 
quit-rent.  For  the  people's  defense,  block  houses  were  to  be  built 
and  garrisoned  and  arms  and  ammunition  given,  and  fifty  families 
of  the  number  were  to  have  from  government  an  allowance  of 
corn  of  one  bushel  a  month  for  each  person,  or  a  full  equivalent  in 
other  grain.  The  settlers,  with  their  moveables  and  stock,  were 
also  to  be  transported  from  New  England  at  the  government's 

Another  township,  Canard,  consisting  also  of  a  hundred  thou- 
sand acres,  on  the  north  side  of  the  Grand  Habitant,  was  to  be  set- 
tled by  a  hundred  and  fifty  families.  Two  of  the  agents,  Mr.  Amos 
Fuller  of  Connecticut,  and  the  Rhode  Island  agent,  Mr.  John  Hicks, 
requested  the  governor  to  reserve  lands  for  them  and  their  consti- 
tuents for  a  third  township,  on  the  north  side  of  the  Avon  river, 
they  promising  to  settle  there  fifty  families  in  1759,  and  fifty  more 
in  1760,  on  the  same  terms  as  had  been  stipulated  in  the  cases  of 
Minas  and  Canard.  At  this  meeting,  which  took  place  May  21, 
1759,  grants  of  the  two  townships  of  Horton  and  Cornwallis  (these 
names  being  probably  determined  on  at  the  meeting)  were  ordered 
to  pass  the  great  seal  of  the  province,  and  in  June  the  draft  of 
a  grant  of  the  township  of  Granville,  on  the  north  side  of  the  An- 
napolis river,  was  also  approved.  A  temporary  check,  however, 
was  now  given  to  the  formation  of  new  settlements,  by  the  fact 
that  a  party  of  French  and  Indians  had  fired  on  the  members  of 
a  committee  which  were  inspecting  the  lands  near  Cape  Sable,  that 
another  hostile  band  had  appeared  before  the  fort  at  Piziquid,  that 
five  persons  had  been  murdered  on  the  east  side  of  Halifax  har- 
bour, and  that  the  enemy  had  frequently  appeared  in  the  environs 
of  Lunenburg  and  Fort  Sackville. 

On  the  nineteenth  of  July,  a  fresh  committee  of  four 
Connecticut  men,  Messrs.  Bliss  Willoughby,  Benjamin  Kimball, 
Edward  Mott,  and  Samuel  Starr,  appeared  before  the  Council  at 


Halifax  and  stated  that  they  desired  to  settle  a  township  at  Chig- 
necto.  To  their  desire,  also,  the  Council  quickly  acceded,  and  a 
vessel  was  allowed  them  so  that  they  might  go  to  the  Cumberland 
shore.  On  the  24th  of  July,  on  behalf  of  fifty-two  other  applicants 
it  was  resolved  to  erect  a  township  a  Cobequid,  to  be  called  Onslow, 
and  also  to  grant  land  in  Annapolis  to  a  company  of  New  Eng- 
landers,  numbering  a  hundred  and  twelve. 

Until  January,  1757,  the  Governor  and  Council  ruled  alone  in 
Nova  Scotia,  at  that  time,  after  long  debate,  it  was  decided  that  a 
Eepresentative  Assembly  should  be  created,  and  that  there  should 
be  elected  for  the  province  at  large,  until  counties  should  be  formed, 
twelve  members,  besides  four  for  the  township  of  Halifax,  two  for 
the  township  of  Lunenburg  and  one  each  for  the  townships  of 
Dartmouth,  Lawrencetown  (both  in  Halifax  County),  Annapolis 
Royal,  and  Cumberland.  The  bounds  of  these  townships  were 
described,  and  it  was  resolved  that  when  twenty-five  qualified 
electors  should  be  settled  at  Piziquid,  Minas,  Cobequid,  or  any  other 
district  that  might  in  the  future  be  erected  into  a  township,  any 
one  of  these  places  should  be  entitled  to  send  one  representative 
to  the  Assembly  and  should  likewise  have  the  right  to  vote  in  the 
election  of  representatives  for  the  province  at  large.  Members  and 
voters  must  not  be  "Popish  recusants",  nor  be  under  the  age  of 
twenty-one  years,  and  each  must  have  a  freehold  estate  in  the 
district  he  represented  or  voted  for.  The  first  Assembly  met  in 
Halifax  on  Monday,  October  2,  1758,  when  nineteen  members — six 
'' esquires",  and  thirteen  "gentlemen",  were  sworn  in.  At  a  meet- 
ing of  the  Council  in  August,  1759,  soon  after  the  dissolution  of  the 
second  session  of  the  first  Assembly,  the  Council  fixed  the  repre- 
sentation of  the  township  of  Halifax  at  four  members,  and  of 
Lunenburg,  Annapolis,  Horton,  and  Cumberland,  at  two  each.  For 
the  newly  formed  counties  of  Halifax,  Lunenburg,  Annapolis, 
King's,  and  Cumberland,  there  were  to  be  two  each. 

The  first  grants  of  land  to  intending  settlers  in  Horton  and 
ComwalUs  were  completed  and  ordered  to  pass  the  seal  of  the 
province,  the  21st  of  May,  1759.    In  each  township,  there  were  a 


hundred  thousand  acres,  in  Horton  the  land  to  be  distributed  among 
200  families,  in  Cornwallis  among  150  families.  After  most 
of  the  New  England  people  had  come  to  the  province,  on  ac- 
count of  many  deficiencies  in  the  grants  the  government 
advised  the  committees  appointed  to  act  for  the  grantees  to  sur- 
render them,  and  accordingly  on  the  29th  of  May,  1761,  a  new 
grant  of  the  township  of  Horton,  and  oh  the  21st  of  July,  a  grant 
of  Cornwallis,  was  made.  The  toAvnship  of  Falmouth,  "between 
the  river  Pisiquid  and  the  town  of  Horton",  was  also  created  and 
a  grant  of  50,000  acres  was  given  there,  the  21st  of  July,  1759. 
Falmouth  lay  on  both  sides  of  the  river  Piziquid  and  the  two  divi- 
sions of  it  were  called  respectively.  East  and  West  Falmouth.  Late 
in  1761,  perhaps,  the  division  known  as  East  Falmouth  was  made 
a  separate  township,  and  in  honour  of  Lord  Newport,  a  friend  of 
Hon.  Jonathan  Belcher  (who  was  at  this  time  lieutenant-governor) 
was  named  Newport,  when  the  earlier  name  West  Falmouth  dis- 
appeared. The  township  of  Windsor  was  created  in  1764.  Writers 
on  the  establishment  of  the  early  New  England  colonies  say  that  of 
the  two  names,  town  and  tovmsMp,  given  to  the  territories  within 
the  limits  of  grants  or  purchases,  or  to  considerable  settlements, 
the  name  township  soon  ceased  to  be  as  common  a  designation  as 
town.  In  Nova  Scotia,  however,  the  name  township  remained  in 
common  use  until  the  merging  of  the  original  townships  in  muni- 
cipalities, in  1879. 

The  chief  reason  for  the  return  of  the  first  large  grants  in 
Cornwallis  and  Horton  and  the  issuing  of  new  ones  was  probably 
that  many  of  the  persons  to  whom  the  first  grants  were  given.when 
they  actually  faced  the  prospect  of  removal  from  their  old  homes 
in  Connecticut  gave  up  the  idea  of  coming  and  announced  their 
relinquishment  of  their  grants.  On  the  other  hand,  many  new 
men  caught  the  enthusiasm  for  removal  to  Nova  Scotia,  where 
lands  were  given  away  so  freely,  and  announced  their  intention 
of  coming  in  the  others'  stead.  Accordingly,  the  committees  for 
distributing  the  lands,  the  Cornwallis  committee,  consisting  of 
Messrs.  EUakim  Tupper,  Stephen  West,  and  Jonathan  Newcomb, 


were  advised,  as  we  have  said,  to  return  the  old  grants,  and  request 
new  ones  bearing  more  nearly  the  names  of  actual  settlers  in  the 

Full  information  concerning  the  sailing  from  Massachusetts, 
Connecticut,  and  Rhode  Island,  of  the  Nova  Scotia  planters,  it 
has  never  been  possible  to  obtain.  As  early  as  May  11,  1760, 
Governor  Lawrence  reports  that  forty  families  have  already  ar- 
rived to  settle  in  the  direction  of  Annapolis,  Minas,  and  Piziquid, 
and  that  transports  are  expected  soon  from  Connecticut  bearing 
others  still.  In  May  of  the  same  year,  the  sloop  Sally,  Jonathan 
Lovett,  master,  brought  from  Newport,  Rhode  Island,  to  Falmouth, 
thirty-five  persons,  and  the  sloop  Lydia,  Samuel  Toby,  master, 
twenty-three  more.  Haliburton's  pages  record  the  tradition  that 
a  large  number  of  settlers  for  Cornwallis  sailed  together  in  a  fleet 
of  twenty-two  vessels,  convoyed  by  a  brig  of  war,  mounting  sixteen 
guns,  commanded  by  Captain  Pigot,  and  that  the  vessels  reached 
Town  Plot  on  the  fourth  of  June,  1760.  The  first  of  June  there 
came  to  Piziquid  from  New  London,  a  certain  Captain  Rogers  with 
six  transports,  bringing  inhabitants  principally  for  the  township 
of  Horton.  The  people  who  came  in  these  ships  had  been  at  sea 
twenty-one  days  and  had  had  great  lack  of  provender  and  hay  for 
their  stock.  At  New  London,  when  they  left,  many  others  who  had 
hoped  to  sail  with  them  had  been  left  behind  for  want  of  accom- 
modation. From  Piziquid,  these  planters  drove  their  stock  over 
land  to  Minas.  Of  one  of  the  vessels  that  brought  settlers  to  Corn- 
wallis, we  know  the  name;  Elizabeth  Seaborn  "Wolfe  Woodworth, 
daughter  of  Silas  and  Sarah  (English)  "Woodworth,  had  been  born 
on  the  passage  from  New  London,  May  21,  1760  on  the  ship  Wolfe. 
Of  the  birth  of  another  child  on  the  passage  from  New  London, 
we  have  also  authentic  record;  this  was  Betty,  daughter  of  Capt. 
Peter  and  Rhoda  (Schofield)  "Wickwire,  who  was  born  "in  the 
harbour  of  Horton"  on  Sunday,  June  7,  1760. 

The  chief  places  of  disembarkation  for  the  settlers  in  Corn- 
wallis and  Horton  respectively,  were  Town  Plot  on  the  Cornwallis 
side  of  the  Grand  Habitant  river,  and  Horton  Landing  on  the 


Horton  side.  At  Town  Plot  the  bold  bank  gave  a  natural  quay 
for  the  small  vessels  in  early  days  in  use  on  these  shores,  and 
Horton  Landing  had  been  the  chief  place  of  anchorage  for  ves- 
sels coming  to  Grand  Pre  through  the  whole  French  period  in 
Acadia.  As  soon  as  there  were  organized  township  governments 
in  the  county  a  public  ferry  was  established  at  Town  Plot  in 
CornwalUs,  to  a  point  almost  exactly  opposite,  on  the  Horton  side. 
From  there  a  road  was  made  over  marsh  and  dyked  land  to  what 
is  now  the  village  of  Wolfville.  This  ferry  and  the  road  to  Wolf- 
ville  were  in  use  until  1834,  when  the  bridge  at  Terry's  Creek,  now 
Port  Williams,  was  constructed.  For  the  first  few  weeks  or  months 
after  they  came,  the  settlers  must  have  lived  chiefly  in  tents,  for 
«ven  the  smallest  houses  could  not  be  constructed  in  a  day.  The 
materials  for  probably  a  considerable  number  of  the  first  houses 
were  brought  from  New  England  ready  to  be  put  together. 
This  was  the  case  with  Elkanah  Morton's  house,  and  it  was  true 
also  of  the  ferry  house,  which  was  one  of  the  first  buildings  erected, 
and  which  stood  at  Cornwallis  Town  Plot  until  1905. 

An  interesting  side-light  is  thrown  on  the  settlement  of  the 
New  England  people  in  Falmouth  by  an  account  which  has  been 
handed  down  in  the  Haliburton  family  of  the  coming  to  that  town 
of  William  and  Susannah  (Otis)  Haliburton,  and  of  their  life  near 
Fort  Edward  during  the  first  months  after  they  came.  Landing 
at  Halifax,  probably  from  Boston,  the  young  husband  on  horseback 
and  his  wife  on  a  pillion  behind  him  made  the  long  journey  to 
Newport  over  the  rough  forest  road,  and  for  eighteen  months  after 
they  reached  Falmouth,  with  their  two  Negro  servants  from  the 
household  of  Mrs.  Haliburton 's  father,  Ephraim  Otis  of  Scituate, 
lived  in  tents.  At  last,  however,  they  built  a  good  two-story  frame 
house,  the  foundations  and  posts  of  which  were  logs,  the  outside 
being  clapboarded.  They  had  brought  with  them  ' '  eighteen  months ' 
provisions,  tents,  furniture,  spinning  wheels,  a  loom,  and  farming 
implements",  to  serve  them  on  their  plantation;  but  after  en- 
during the  hardships  and  trials  of  farm  life  as  long  as  they  could, 
the  couple  gave  farming  up  and  moved  into  the  village  of  Windsor, 


■where  Mr.  Haliburton  entered  on  the  more  congenial  study  of  law. 

Of  the  agents  who  came  to  Nova  Scotia  before  the  migration, 
on  behalf  of  the  intending  planters,  Col.  Robert  Denison,  born  in 
New  London  in  1697,  was  a  captain  in  General  Eoger  Wolcott's 
brigade  at  Louisburg  in  1758  and  soon  won  reputation  for  gallant 
behaviour  in  that  notable  siege.  He  settled  in  Horton,  and  as  we 
shall  hereafter  see,  founded  an  important  family  in  that  town. 
Jonathan  Harris,  born  in  New  London,  June  15,  1705,  whose  father- 
in-law  was  Hon.  Judge  Joseph  Otis  of  Scituate,  Mass.,  was  also 
a  man  of  much  prominence  in  eastern  Connecticut.  He  did  not 
himself  settle  in  King's  County,  but  his  brother  Lebbeus  and  his 
son  James  did.  Judge  Joseph  Otis,  though  he  had  been  a  judge 
of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  for  Plymouth  County,  Mass.,  ancj 
a  representative  in  Massachusetts  to  the  General  Court,  was  a  large 
land-owner  in  New  London,  Colchester,  Pomfret,  and  other  Con- 
necticut towns.  He  also  remained  in  New  England.  Benjamin 
Kimball  was  probably  a  son  of  Joseph  Kimball  of  Preston,  Conn., 
and  if  so  was  born  April  15,  1722.  "Whether  Nova  Scotia  did  not 
please  him  or  not  we  do  not  know,  but  in  1768  he  bought  land  in 
Plaiafield,  New  Hampshire  and  settled  there.  Bliss  "VVilloughby 
■was  a  son  of  Joseph  Willoughby  of  New  London  and  his  wife, 
Thankful  (Bliss),  and  a  brother  of  Dr.  Samuel  "Willoughby  who 
became  a  grantee  in  Cornwallis.  He  too  went  back  to  New  En^ 
•land  and  remained.  Samuel  Starr,  born  in  Norwich,  Conn.,  Sept. 
2,  1728,  was  a  son  of  Samuel  and  Anne  (Bushnell)  Starr,  and  a 
great-great-great-grandson  of  Dr.  Comfort  Starr,  who  came  to 
America  from  the  town  of  Ashford  in  Kent.  He  became  one  of  the 
most  important  King's  County  planters  and  founded  in  Cornwallis 
a  family  whose  influence  from  first  to  last  has  been  very  great. 

Of  the  planters  themselves  who  came  to  Cornwallis  and  Horton, 
by  far  the  larger  number  were  members  of  representative  families 
in  the  eastern  comities  of  Connecticut.  A  few  were  from  Massa- 
chusetts and  Ehode  Island,  but  the  original  homes  of  most  were 
those  beautiful  old  towns  comprised  within  the  boundaries  of  the 
four  Connecticut  counties.  New  London  and  "Windham,  Middlesex 


and  Tolland,— the  towns  of  New  London,  Lebanon,  Colchester, 
Lyme,  Norwich,  Killingworth,  Hebron,  Saybrook,  Stonington,  Tol- 
land, Windham,  and  Windsor,  the  last,  however,  lying  a  little  farther 
west  in  the  county  of  Hartford.  If  any  one  will  take  the  trouble 
to  examine  the  admirable  histories  of  New  London  and  Norwich, 
from  both  of  which  we  have  already  quoted  in  this  chapter,  or  the 
now  rapidly  increasing  later  town  and  family  histories  of  eastern 
Connecticut,  he  will  see  how  important  the  families  were  from 
•whom  are  descended  the  people  who  have  inhabited  and  still  largely 
inhabit  the  county  whose  annals  this  volume  is  written  to  preserve. 
In  the  North  Parish  of  New  London,  now  called  Montville, 
in  the  noted  old  town  of  Lebanon,  in  Norwich,  the  beautiful  "rose 
of  New  England",  the  most  influential  families  in  the  18th  century 
were  families,  branches  of  which  the  later  genealogical  sketches  in 
this  book  will  be  found  to  enshrine.  Prom  Lebanon  a  larger  num- 
ber migrated  than  from  any  other  town.  Of  this  interesting  locality, 
the  author  of  the  Strong  Genealogy  says  with  pardonable  enthusi- 
asm: "Lebanon,  Connecticut,  has  had  a  remarkable  history.  No 
town  in  the  whole  country  has  compared  with  it  in  the  number 
of  leading  professional  men  it  has  furnished  to  the  nation.  The 
■first  settlers,  who  went  there  from  1695  onwards  were  of  superior 
stock,  the  very  best  intellectual  and  religious  material  for  'a  new 
plantation'  that  Northampton,  Norwich,  etc.,  could  furnish.  An- 
other fact  is  that  the  land  of  Lebanon  was  and  is  of  a  very  superior 
quality,  but  most  of  all  must  be  taken  into  account  the  grand  school 
privileges  of  Lebanon  in  its  early  history.  In  1700,  the  town  ap- 
propriated two  hundred  acres  of  land  for  a  school,  and  many  of 
the  proprietors  gave  of  their  own  lands  also  for  the  same  purpose, 
Eev.  Joseph  Parsons  giving  five  acres  of  his  land.  In  1740,  a  gram- 
mar school  was  established  by  a  vote  of  the  town  and  it  became  a 
school  of  great  celebrity,  having  pupils  from  nine  of  the  thirteen 
colonies  which  afterward  became  the  first  states  of  the  union,  and 
sending  large  numbers  of  them  in  successive  years  to  Harvard  and 
Yale.  Here  Nathan  Tisdale,  'Master  Tisdale',  as  he  has  always  been 
called,  did  a  great  work  for  his  generation.    He  was  bom  in  Leban- 


on,  Sept.  19,  1732,  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1749,  at  the  age  of 
seventeen,  and  had  charge  of  the  grammar  school  from  that  time 
till  his  death  in  1786.  Such  men  as  Jeremiah  Mason,  Zephaniah 
Swift,  Col.  John  Trumbull,  Governor  John  Trumbull,  Eev.  Dr. 
Lyman,  Judge  Baldwin,  and  a  host  of  others,  were  his  pupils". 

In  a  certain  "Rate  List"  in  Lebanon  for  levying  the  minister's 
salary  drawn  up  in  1741,  we  find  the  familiar  names,  not  only  of 
"Deacon  John  Newcomb"  and  "Deacon  Eliakim  Tupper",  but  of 
Robert  Avery,  Moses  Dewey,  John  English,  Amos  and  Noah  Fuller, 
Eddy  Newcomb,  John  and  Samuel  Porter,  and  Benjamin  Wood- 
worth.  Besides  these  we  find  persons  of  the  names  of  Bill,  Brewster, 
Harris,  Hutchinson,  Lee,  Parker,  Pineo,  and  Post.  From  the  North 
Parish  of  New  London,  a  very  large  number  of  the  grantees,  but 
precisely  how  many  we  do  not  know,  also  came.  Adjoining  the 
Connecticut  counties  we  have  mentioned,  on  the  east  lie  the  coun- 
ties of  Washington  and  Newport  in  Rhode  Island,  and  on  the  west 
the  counties  of  Bristol  and  Plymouth  in  Massachusetts,  and  through 
all  these  southern  New  England  counties  enthusiastic  interest  in 
the  proclamation  concerning  Nova  Scotia  seems  to  have  spread. 
Accordingly,  we  have  among  our  planters,  men  Whose  homes  had 
been  in  Newport,  Tiverton,  South  Kingston,  Plymouth,  Swansea, 
Nantucket,  and  other  well  known  Rhode  Island  and  Massachusettis 

In  the  following  lists  of  grantees  will  be  found  the  names  of 
the  chief  persons  who  founded  the  more  prominent  families  in  the 
two  earliest  settled  townships  of  the  county,  the  townships  of  Corn- 
wallis  and  Horton,  but  to  discover  with  certainty  the  exact  locality 
from  which  every  one  of  them  directly  came  would  require  more 
research  into  New  England  local  and  family  history  than  at  present 
we  can  possibly  make.  It  is  safe  to  say,  however,  that  of  the  whole 
list  of  King's  County's  earliest  English  planters,  nine  tenths,  at 
least,  were  directly  from  conspicuous  eastern  Connecticut  towns. 
Many  of  the  families  that  settled  in  Horton  and  Cornwallis  had 
intermarried  in  Connecticut,  and  to  untangle  the  relationships  that 
existed   among  them  when  they  came   to   the   county  would   be 


a  diflScult,  though  very  interesting  task.  So  interrelated  were  the 
Horton  families,  for  example,  in  Connecticut,  that  ia  tracing  their 
history  we  feel  as  if  we  were  tracing  the  relationships  not  of  many 
families  to  each  other,  but  of  one  great  family  among  its  various 
branches.  In  the  latter  part  of  this  volume  brief  genealogical 
sketches  of  many  of  these  related  families  will  be  found,  but  it 
would  take  a  lifetime  of  research  to  compile  anything  like  com- 
plete genealogies  of  the  families  of  all  the  grantees.  Such  work 
must  be  left  to  the  individual  genealogists  of  the  families  them- 
selves. The  whole  New  England  migration  to  Nova  Scotia  in 
1760- '61,  bringing  hither,  as  we  have  said,  people  from  many  other 
than  eastern  Connecticut  and  Rhode  Island  towns,  and  numbering 
in  all  some  six  or  seven  thousand  souls,  has  been  ably  treated  in 
newspaper  print  by  Dr.  Benjamin  Rand,  who,  it  is  hoped,  wiU 
sometime  publish  the  results  of  his  investigation  in  more  permanent 


First  effective  grant  of  65,750  acres,  given  May  29,  1761,  registered 
Jime  13,  1761.  Committee  of  and  for  the  grantees :  William  "Welch, 
Lebbeus  Harris,  Samuel  Reid.  Each  full  share  consisted  of  500 

Names  are  spelled  here  as  in  the  original  grants : 

Shares  Shares 

Atwell  John 


Breynton  Rev.  John 


Avery  Robert 


Brown  Darius 


Bacon  Jacob 


Brown  Elisha 


Bacon  Jacob,  Jr. 


Browning  Else 


Beckwith  Benjamin,  Jr. 


Burnham  Jacob 


Bennett  Caleb 


Carr  William 


Bennett  Zadok 


Chappell  Jonathan 


Benjamin  Obadiah 


Clark  Moses 


Bishop  John 


Clark  Samuel 


Bishop  John,  Jr. 


Coats  Bulah 


Bishop  Peter 


Colwell  John 


Bishop  Timothy 


Comstock  Jeremiah 


Bishop  William 


Comstock  Rufus 


Blackman  Jonathan 


Conniver  Samuel 



Cooley  ■William 


Larrabee  Thomas 


Copp  Samuel 


Lockert  James 


Crane  Silas 


Lockert  John 


Crane  Silas,  Jr. 


Lothrop  Elisha,  Esq. 


Davis  John 

11/2 . 

Lothrop  Elijah 


Davison  Andrew 


Lothrop  Isaac 


Denison  Col  Eobert 


Lothrop  Thaddeus 


Denison  Samuel 


Lyon  Amariah 


Dickson  Major  Charles 


Markham  James 


Dickson  Thomas 


Martin  Brotherton 


Dickson  William 


Mather  Joseph 


Dodge  Daniel 


Miner  Christopher 


Emmerson  Stephen 


Miner  Darius 


Forsyth  Gilbert 


Miner  Martha 


Fuller  Amos 


Miner  Sylvanus 


Fuller  Nathan 


Miner  Thomas 


Fuller  Nathan,  Jr. 


Mitchell  Michael 


Fuller  Noah 


Morris  Charles,  Jr. 


Godfrey  David 


Murray  Patrick 


Graves  Ephraim 


Nichols  Elisha 


Graves  Jonathan 


Palmeter  Elnathan 


Griffin  Samuel 


Peabody  Parker 


Hackett  Joseph 


Peck  Benjamin,  Jr. 


Hackett  Joseph,  Jr. 


Prentice  James 


Hackley  Marshall 


Prentice  Oliver 


Hackley  Peter 


Kandall  Anna 


Hamilton  John 


Randall  Charles 


Hamilton  Jonathan 


Randall  John 


Harding  Abraham 


Ransom  Stephen 


Harding  Israel 


Rathbon  Amos 


Harding  Lemuel 


Reid  James 


Harding  Thomas 


Reid  Mary 


Harris  Asa 


Reid  Samuel 


Harris  Daniel 


Reid  Samuel,  Jr. 


Harris  Ephraim 


Reid  William 


Harris  Ephraim,  Jr. 


Rich  Cornelius 


Harris  Gilbert 


Rogers  Rowland 


Harris  Lebbeus 


Seovel  Arthur 


Harris  Lebbeus,  Jr. 


Sears  Richard 


Hatch  Patience 


Southworth  William 


Higgins  Sylvanus 


Spencer  Thomas 


Huntley  Jabesh 


Stark  Obadiah 


Johnson  Thomas 


Stocking  George,  Jr. 


Jordan  Jedediah 


Strickland  Christopher 


Kenney  Nathan 


Strickland  Samuel 


Laggat  Thomas 


Stuart  Joshua 




Welch  "William,  Esq.  IV2 

Whipple  Daniel  i/^ 

Whitney  John  1 

Whitney  John,  Jr.  Vz 

Wickwire  James  1 

Wickwire  Zebadiah  1 

Williams  Jedediah  1 
Winter  (Witter)  Samuel      1 

Woodworth  Benjamin  1 

For  a  glebe  600  acres,  for  a  school  400  acres.  The  whole  num- 
ber of  shares  to  be  granted  in  Horton  was  ISl^^.  Distribution  of 
shares  that  remained  after  the  above  grants  were  given,  will  be 
mentioned  farther  on. 

Sutherland  Theophilus 


Taggart  John 


Townsend  Ezra 


Tubbs  Lebbeus 


Tubbs  Samuel 


Turner  John 


Webb  James 


Welch  James 


Welch  Joshua 


Welch  Joshua,  Jr. 



First  effective  grant,  given  July  21,  1761,  committee  of  and  for  the 
grantees:  Eliakim  Tupper,  Stephen  West,  Jonathan  Newcomb. 
Each  full  share  consisted  of  666  ^g  acres. 



Akley  Lawrence 


Huntington  Ezekiel 


Anderson  Perez 


Johnson  James 


Bartlett  John 


Johnson    Lawrence 


Beckwith  John 




Beckwith  John,  Jr. 


Kilbourn  Benjamin 


Bentley  David 


Kinsman  Benjamin 


Best  William 


Lummis  Ephraim 


Bill  Amos,  Esq. 


Morris  Francis 


Bill  Ebenezer 


Morris  Hezekiah 


Bill  Edward 


Morton  Elkanah 


Boardman  Ichabod 


Newcomb  Benjamin 


Brewster  Samuel 


Newcomb    Eddy 


Burbidge  John 


Newcomb  John,  Jr. 


Canada  William 


Newcomb  William 


Caulkin  Ezekiel 


Parish  Solomon 


Chappell  Jabish,  Jr. 


Parker  David 


iChappell  Mary 


Parker  Elisha 


Cogswell  Hezekiah 


Parker  Eobert 


Dean  John 


Porter  Elisha 


Downer  Ezra 


Porter  John 


English  Abigail 


Porter  Samuel 



Pratt  Ethan  1 

Eockwell  Jonathan  1 

Eogers  Jeremiah  1 

Starr  Samuel  IV^ 

Steadman  John  1^^ 

Stiles  Nathan  1 

Strong  Stephen  1% 

Terry  John  1 

Thorpe  Oliver  % 
Tupper  Eliakim  (heirs  of)  1^2 

Tupper  Elias  1 

Tupper  William  1 

Webster  Abraham  1 

West  Stephen  II/2 

West  William  114 

Wheaton  Caleb  1 

Wickwire  Peter  1% 

Willoughby  Samuel  1^ 
Wood  Jonathan  Yz 

Woodworth  Amasa  1 

Woodworth  Benjamin  1 

Woodworth  Silas  lYz 

Woodworth  Thomas  1 

Woodworth  William  1 

For  a  glebe  600  acres ;  for  a  school  400  acres. 


Second  grant  of  38,917  acres,  given  December  31,  1764. 

Shares  Shares 

Barnaby  Stephen 
Barnaby  Timothy 
Beckwith  Samuel 
Bigelow  Isaac 
Bigelow  Isaac,  Jr. 
Blaekmore  Branch 
Bliss  Nathaniel 
Borden  John 
Borden  Samuel 
Burbidge  Elias 
Burgess  Seth 
Chase  Jethro 
Chase  Joseph 
Chase  Stephen,  Jr. 
Clerk  Asa 
Coats  Hannah 
Cocks  John 
Cone  Reuben 
Corigdon  Benjamin 
Congdon  James 
Congdon  Joseph 
Curtis  Nathaniel 
Dewey  Moses 
Eales  Joshua 
Eaton  David 


Fox  James 



Gillett  Caleb 



Gore  Moses 



Hammond  Archelaus 



Hatch  Nathaniel  (heirs  ( 

oi)  1 


Herrington  Stephen,  Jr. 



Huntington,  Caleb,  Jr. 



Huntley  Daniel 



Loomer  Stephen 



Lord  Barnabas  TuthiU. 



Lowden  John 



Morton  Elkanah 



Newcomb  Benjamin 



Newcomb  Simeon 



Parrish  Joel 



Pineo  Peter 



Porter  Simeon 



Post  Stephen 



Proctor  William 



Rand  Caleb 



Rand  John 



Rand  Jonathan 



Rand  Thomas 



Ratchford  Thomas 



Rogers  Stephen 



Rust  Jehiel 

Tupper  Eliakim 

Sheffield  Amos 

Wells  Judah 

Starr  David 

West  Jabez 

Stark  Zephaniah 

Wickwire  Peter,  Jr. 

Strong  Stephen 

Wood  John 

Sweet  John 

Woodruff  Jonathan 

The  full  text  of  the  first  effective  grant  in  Cornvrallis  is  as 
follows : 

"To  all  to  whom  these  presents  shall  come,  Greeting:  Whereas  Eliakim 
Tupper,  Stephen  West  and  Jonathan  Newcomb,  a  committee  of  the  township  of 
Cornwallis  within  King's  County  in  this  province,  in  behalf  of  themselves  and 
other  proprietors  in  the  said  Township,  apprehending  and  being  advised  that 
the  grant  for  the  said  Township  heretofore  made  to  them  and  their  associates 
would  for  many  deficiencies  be  insufficient  to  secure  to  them  their  property 
therein,  and  therefore  have  in  behalf  of  themselves  and  their  associates  surren- 
dered the  said  grant  and  have  requested  me  that  a  new  grant  of  the  said  premises 
might  be  made  out  for  the  move  fully  assuring  to  them  and  their  associates  their 
right  and  shares  therein.  Now  Know  ye  that  I,  Jonathan  Belcher,  Esquire,  Presi- 
dent of  his  Majesty's  Council  and  Commander  in  chief  of  his  Majesty's  Province 
of  Nova  Scotia  for  the  time  being,  by  virtue  of  the  power  and  authority  to  me 
given  by  his  present  Majesty  King  George  the  third  under  the  Great  Seal  of  Great 
Britain  have  erected,  and  do  by  these  presents  by  and  with  the  advice  and  coun- 
sel of  his  Majesty's  Council  for  the  said  province  erect  into  a  township  a  tract  of 
land  situate,  lying,  and  being  within  the  Basin  of  Minas,  being  the  district  com- 
monly called  Canard  and  is  abutted  and  bounded  beginning  at  the  River  Habi- 
tant and  running  south  sixty  degrees  west,  measuring  eight  hundred  and  twenty 
chains;  thence  north  thirty  degrees  west  to  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  measuring  eight 
hundred  chains;  thence  on  the  said  Bay  according  to  the  course  of  the  Bay  of 
Fundy  to  Cape  Fondu;  thence  on  the  entrance  of  the  Basin  of  Minas  and  by  the 
said  basin  to  the  river  Habitant,  and  the  River  Habitant  on  the  south  part  to  the 
boundaries  first  mentioned  according  to  the  plan  annexed  containing  in  the 
whole  one  hundred  thousand  acres  more  or  less  according  to  a  plan  and  survey  of 
the  same  to  be  herewith  registered;  which  township  is  now  called  and  hereafter  to 
be  known  by  the  name  of  the  Township  of  Cornwallis  in  the  said  province. 

"And  also  that  I,  by  virtue  of  the  power  and  authority  in  and  by  with  the 
advice  and  consent  aforesaid  have  given  granted  and  confirmed  and  do  by  these 
presents  give,  grant  and  confirm  unto  the  several  persons  hereinafter  named, 
sixty-nine  and  five-eighths  shares  or  rights,  whereof  the  said  township 
is  to  consist,  with  all  and  with  all  manner  of  mines  unopened,  excepting 
mines  of  gold  and  silver,  precious  stones  and  lapis  lazuli,  in  and  upon 
the  said  tract  of  land  or  township  situate  as  aforesaid,  viz.,  to  the  heirs  of  Eliakim 
Tupper,  to  Stephen  West,  John  Newcomb,  Jr.,  Peter  Wickwire,  Edde  Newcomb, 
Samuel  Starr,  Ebenezer  Bill,  Amos  Bill,  Esq.,  Hezekiah  Cogshall  (Cogswell), 
Samuel  Porter,  William  West,  John  Steadman,  Elkanah  Morton,  SUas  Wood- 


•worth,  and  Dr.  Samuel  Willowby,  one  share  and  one  half  each;  unto  Stephen 
Strong  one  share  and  one  eighth;  unto  Nathan  Stiles,  Ethan  Pratt.John  Beckwith 
Ephraim  Lummis,  John  Bartlett,  William  Woodworth,  Abraham  Webster> 
Edward  Bill,  John  Porter,  Elisha  Porter,  Samuel  Brewster,  Jonathan  Rockwell, 
Caleb  Wheiton,  Hezekiah  Morris,  Francis  Morris,  John  Dean,  Benjamin  New- 
comb,  Elias  Tupper,  Jonathan  Morecomb,  and  the  heirs  of  Lawrence  Johnson, 
Ichabod  Boardman,  Benjamin  Kilbourne,  Thomas  Woodworth,  William  Tupper 
Ezekiel  Caulkin,  Benjamin  Kinsman,  Abigail  English,  Ezekiel  Huntington 
David  Bentley,  William  Canada,  Robert  Parker,  David  Parker,  Amasa  Wood- 
worth,  Lawrence  Akley,  Jeremiah  Rogers,  William  Newcomb,  Benjamin  Wood- 
worth,  and  John  Terry,  one  share  each,  and  unto  Jonathan  Wood,  Peres  Anderson 
Solomon  Parish,  Ezra  Downer,  Mary  Chappel,  Elisha  Parker,  John  Beckwith,  Jr., 
Oliver  Thorpe,  James  Johnson,  and  Jabish  Chappel,  Jr.,  one  half  share  each; 
unto  WilUam  Best,  and  John  Burbidge  item  one  share  and  a  haU  to  each;  to  the 
first  minister  one  share ;  for  the  glebe  land  six  hundred  acres,  and  for  the  school 
four  hundred  acres,  making  together  two  shares  for  the  use  of  the  church  and  a 
school  forever,  saving  always  the  previous  right  of  any  other  person  or  persons 
to  the  said  tract  of  land  or  township  or  any  part  thereof,  to  Have  and  to  Hold 
the  said  granted  premises  in  the  said  respective  shares  to  each  and  every  or  the 
said  Grantees  in  the  manner  hereinbefore  described,  with  all  privileges,  profits, 
commodities  and  appurtenances  thereunto  belonging  unto  the  said  [names  of 
grantees  given  above],  each  share  and  right  of  said  granted  premises  to  consist 
of  six  hundred  and  sixty-six  acres  and  two  thirds  of  an  acre,  and  to  be  hereafter 
divided,  one  or  more  lots  to  each  share  as  shall  be  agreed  upon  by  the  major  part 
of  the  said  grantees,  and  in  case  the  major  part  of  the  said  grantees  shall  un- 
reasonably refuse  to  divide  the  said  granted  premises,  the  Governor,  Lieutenant 
Governor,  or  Commander-in-chief  for  the  time  being,  shall  direct  a  partition  to 
be  made  by  such  person  or  persons  as  he  shall  appoint,  and  such  partition  shall 
be  binding  on  each  and  every  of  the  said  grantees;  provided  always  that  to  each 
share  and  right  there  shall  be  allotted  a  full  and  equal  proportion  as  one  share 
or  right  is  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  shares  or  rights  of  all  the  cleared  or  improved 
lands  comprehended  within  the  said  Township;  yielding  and  paying  by  the  said 
grantees,  their  heirs  and  assigns,  which  by  the  acceptation  hereof  each  of  the 
said  grantees  binds  and  obliges  himself,  his  heirs,  executors,  and  assigns,  to  pay 
to  his  Majesty  King  George  the  third.  His  heirs  and  successors,  or  to  the  Com- 
mander-in-chief of  the  said  Province  for  the  time  being  or  to  any  person  law- 
fully authorized  to  receive  the  same,  for  His  Majesty's  use  a  free  yearly  quit  rent 
of  one  shilling  sterling  money  on  Michaelmas  day  for  every  fifty  acres  so  granted 
and  so  in  proportion  for  a  greater  or  lesser  quantity  of  land  granted,  the  first 
year's  payment  of  the  same  to  be  made  on  Michaelmas  day  next  after  the  expira- 
tion of  ten  years  from  the  date  hereof  and  so  to  continue  payable  yearly  here- 
after forever.  But  in  case  three  years  quit  rent  shall  at  any  time  be  behind  and 
unpaid  and  no  distress  to  be  found  on  the  premises,  then  this  grant  to  the  grantee 
so  failing  shall  be  null  and  void. 

"And  whereas  the  selling  or  alienating  the  shares  or  rights  of  the  said  town- 
ship to  any  persons  except  Protestant  settlers  and  inhabitants  within  this  prov- 


ince  may  be  very  prejudicial  to  and  retard  the  settling  of  the  said  township,  in 
case  any  of  the  said  grantees  shall  within  ten  years  from  the  date  hereof  alienate 
or  grant  the  premises  or  any  part  thereof  except  by  will,  without  license  from 
the  Governor,  Lieutenant  Governor,  or  Commander-in-chief  for  the  time  being 
under  the  seal  of  the  said  Province,  for  which  license  no  fee  or  reward  shall  be 
paid,  then  this  grant  to  him  so  alienating  or  granting  the  premises  or  any  part 
thereof  except  by  will  shall  be  null  and  void.  And  moreover  the  grant  hereby 
made  is  upon  express  condition  and  each  of  the  said  grantees  obliges  and  binds 
himself  his  heirs  and  assigns,  to  plant,  cultivate,  improve  or  enclose  one  third 
part  of  the  land  hereby  granted,  within  ten  years;  one  other  third  part  within 
thirty  years  from  the  date  of  this  grant,  or  otherwise  to  forfeit  his  right  to  such 
land  as  shall  not  actually  be  under  improvement  and  cultivation  at  the  time 
forfeiture  shall  be  incurred.  And  each  of  the  said  grantees  does  likewise  hereby 
bind  himself  his  heirs  and  assigns,  to  plant  within  ten  years  from  the  date  hereof 
two  acres  of  the  said  land  with  hemp,  and  to  keep  up  the  same  or  a  like  quantity 
of  acres  planted  during  the  successive  years.  In  witness  whereof  I  have  signed 
these  presents  and  caused  the  seal  of  the  Province  to  be  thereunto  affixed  at 
Halifax  in  the  said  province  this  twenty-first  day  of  July  in  the  first  year  of  the 
reign  of  our  sovereign  Lord  George  the  third,  by  the  Grace  of  God  of  Great  Brit- 
ain, France,  and  Ireland,  King,  Defender  of  the  Faith,  and  so  forth,  and  in  the 
year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  sixty  one. 

"By  order  of  the  Commander  in-chief  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  his 
Majesty's  Council. 

(Sd)  Richard  Bulkeley." 

The  distribution  of  lands  to  the  New  England  planters  was 
made  in  a  thoroughly  systematic  and  careful  way.  In  the  first  dis- 
tribution of  lands  in  Norwich,  Connecticut,  the  home  before  they 
came  to  Nova  Scotia  of  some  of  the  most  important  of  these  plant- 
ers, "the  home-lots  comprised  each  a  block  of  several  acres,  and 
were  in  general  river  lands,  favorable  for  mowing,  pasture,  and 
tillage.  Each  homestead  had  a  tract  of  pasture  land  included  in  it, 
or  laid  out  as  near  to  it  as  was  convenient.  Near  the  centre  of  the 
Town  Plot  an  open  space  was  left  for  public  buildings  and  military 
parades.  This  was  soon  known  as  the  'Green'  or  'Plain'.  Here 
stood  the  first  meeting-house,  toward  the  south  side,  with  the  open 
Common  around  it,  and  a  steep  pitch  to  the  river".  In  the  King's 
County,  Nova  Scotia,  townships,  a  somewhat  similar  distribution 
of  lands  was  made.  In  each  township  lot  layers  were  appointed, 
in  Cornwallis,  Samuel  Starr  being  one,  and  the  lots  were  all  num- 


bered  and  drawn  for  individually.  Each  full  share,  as  we  have  seen, 
comprised  666  ^/^  acres,  and  the  various  sorts  of  land  were  appor- 
tioned in  the  following  way.  In  Cornwallis  a  Town  Plot,  containing 
781^  acres,  was  laid  off,  and  each  grantee  of  a  full  share  was  given  a 
half  acre  lot  in  this  reservation.  In  the  centre  of  the  Town  Plot  a 
square  of  four  lots,  or  two  acres,  was  left  unoccupied,  and  roads 
through  the  rest,  sixty-six  feet  wide,  were  cut  at  right  angles. 
For  the  settlers  generally  a  hundred  and  fifty  lots  were  available, 
one  lot  besides  these  being  set  apart  for  a  school,  one  as  glebe  land, 
and  one  for  the  first  settled  minister  of  the  town,  whatever  his  denom- 
ination might  be.  Secondly,  a  hundred  and  fifty-three  ten  acre 
lots  were  established,  these  comprising  all  the  land  between  the 
Cornwallis  or  Grand  Habitant  river  and  the  river  Canard,  from 
Starr's  Point  to  the  Lockwood  farm  at  Port  Williams,  and  the 
Old  Masters'  farm  on  Church  Street.  Thirdly,  a  hundred  and 
fifty-three  farm  lots  were  laid  out,  these  covering  almost  all  the 
lands  that  had  been  cleared  by  the  French.  Fourthly,  the  estimated 
three  thousand  acres  of  dyked  marsh  was  similarly  divided.  Later, 
wood  lots  of  several  hundred  acres  each  were  surveyed  on  the  north 
and  west  and  were  apportioned  to  the  settlers,  each  man  therefore 
receiving  as  far  as  possible  an  equitable  division  of  the  cultivable 
or  otherwise  valuable  lands.  Besides  the  lands  apportioned  to 
individual  settlers,  three  Parades  were  set  apart,  one  at  Town  Plot, 
one  at  Chipman's  Corner,  and  one  at  Canard,  where  the  Baptist 
Church  stands. 

In  Horton  a  town  was  laid  out,  fronting  on  what  is  now  Horton 
Landing,  and  covering  a  hundred  and  forty-nine  and  a  half  acres, 
exclusive  of  the  Parade  Ground.  The  plan,  which  may  be  seen 
in  the  Crown  Land  Office  in  Halifax,  shows  the  town  to  have  been 
of  rectangular  form,  divided  by  streets  at  right  angles,  making 
squares  of  ten  acres  each,  with  the  three  Parade  Grounds  equi- 
distant from  each  other.  Almost  every  lot  measured  two  hundred 
and  fifty  feet,  and  had  the  intention  of  its  projectors  been  carried 
out,  says  one  writer,  "a  very  pretty  toAvn  would  have  arisen  there. 
From  various  causes,  however,  the  town  grew  only  in  a  limited 


way,  and  now  some  of  the  ten  acre  sections  are  in  the  hands  of 
private  persons".  As  in  Cornwallis,  the  land  was  divided  into  three 
sections,  and  the  holders  of  town  lots  also  held  land  in  these  three 
divisions.  The  lots  were  compared,  the  Elderkin  lot  in  "WolfviUe 
being  valued  at  two  hundred  and  eighty  pounds  and  taken  as  a 
standard.  When  other  lots,  according  to  this  standard  lacked  in 
quality,  they  were  added  to  in  quantity,  thus  an  extra  piece  of  dyke 
would  often  be  thrown  in  to  atone  for  the  comparative  poverty  of 
a  piece  of  upland.  In  illustration  of  this  plan  of  equalization  we 
have  the  following  document,  dated  October  18,  1790:  "At  a  meet- 
ing of  the  present  committee  for  making  exchange  of  lands,  and 
making  of  compensation  for  roads,  we  do  mutually  agree  to  ex- 
change a  certain  road  with  James  Miner  and  Sylvanus  Miner,  to 
say  that  they  are  to  have  the  dyke  road  that  runs  south  and  adjoins 
their  dyke  lands,  beginning  at  the  east  end  of  their  lands  opposite 
to  Josiah  Bennett's  farm,  and  to  extend  to  Discharge  dyke,  in  con- 
sequence of  which  we  are  to  have,  for  the  proprietors  of  Grand  Pre, 
a  road  to  extend  to  the  cross  road  to  the  north  side  of  said  Dis- 
charge creek  to  said  Discharge  dyke. 


Lebbeus    Harris 
John  Bishop 
Jonathan  Crane." 

Of  the  exact  method  of  distributing  the  Cornwallis  lands  we 
have  an  interesting  account  by  a  native  of  the  county,  Mr.  Eobie 
L.  Eeid.  "Soon  after  the  people  came",  says  Mr.  Eeid,  "surveyors 
were  appointed  to  measure  the  ground,  and  lot  layers  to  'qualify' 
the  land,  that  is,  to  see  that  all  the  lots  contained  an  equitable 
quantity — quality  and  size  being  considered  together.  If  the  land 
was  poor,  more  was  given  for  a  certain  number  of  acres  than  if  the 
quality  was  first  rate — ^medium  worth  being  considered  standard. 
The  first  work  of  the  surveyors  was  to  lay  out  the  Town  Plot  in  half- 
acre  lots,  one  of  which  was  given  to  each  man,  irrespective  of  the 
number  of  shares  he  held.    The  other  divisions  were  given  in  the 


proportion  that  the  number  of  shares  one  held  bore  to  the  number  of 
shares  in  the  township.  The  dyke  lands  were  laid  off  and  qualified 
at  the  rate  of  six  acres  to  each  share.  A  quantity  of  marsh  and 
broken  dyke  (as  the  land  was  called  that  lay  inside  of  certain 
French  dykes  which  were  out  of  repair),  and  a  lot  on  the  Grand 
Dyke,  were  also  given  to  each  share.  The  best  upland  was  then 
divided,  part  into  ten  acre  lots,  and  part  into  fifty-four  acre  lots. 
These  were  called  the  'first  division  farm  lots',  and  one  of  each  was 
given  to  each  share.  These  lots  being  laid  out  by  order  of  the  Pro- 
prietors' meeting,  to  prevent  disputes  were  drawn  by  lot,  or 
'draughted',  as  the  old  records  say. 

"The  remainder  of  the  land  was  afterward  divided  as  follows: 
First,  the  two  hundred  acre  division  was  apportioned  by  the  town 
officers  to  each  share,  this  was  called  the  'second  division  of  farm 
lots'.  Afterward,  a  three  hundred  acre  division  was  apportioned 
in  like  manner,  and  called  the  'third  division  of  farm  lots'.  These 
last  two  divisions  were  not  actually  laid  off  on  the  ground  by  the 
town  officers  as  the  first  division  of  farm  lots  had  been,  but  a  man 
having  a  proprietor's  right  in  either  of  these  divisions  took  the 
township  surveyor  and  two  lot  layers  and  laid  out  his  land  wherever 
he  could  find  any  unappropriated  land.  This  in  the  language  of 
the  times  was  called  'pitching  it'.  The  term  'pitch'  was  applied 
to  the  right  to  the  land,  the  manner  of  locating  it,  and  also  the  land 
itself,  so  that  a  man  who  purchased  land  from  one  of  the  old  pro- 
prietors was  not  said  to  buy  a  right  to  lay  out  land,  but  was  said 
to  buy  a  'pitch'.  What  may  seem  strange  to  the  people  of  this  day, 
after  the  laying  out  of  the  forty-four  acre  divisions,  the  lands  on 
the  North  Mountain  in  Cornwallis  were  accounted  of  most  value, 
and  were  first  laid  out.  This  was  because  they  were  mistakenly 
considered  better  than  the  valley  lands  for  raising  wheat. 

""We  have  also  the  peculiarity  in  the  laying  out  of  the  North 
Mountain  lands,  that  the  base  line  which  runs  through  the  centre 
of  the  North  Mountain  table  land,  and  over  which  runs  what  is 
now  known  as  the  'Base  line  road',  is  straight,  while  in  some  cases, 
at  least,  the  side-lines  are  that  torment  of  surveyors  the  conch- 


shell  line.  In  running  the  latter,  the  points  for  division  were  made 
on  the  base-line,  and  at  corresponding  points  on  the  Bay,  and  at 
the  front  of  the  mountain,  and  then  the  line  was  'blazed'  through 
the  forest  by  following  from  point  to  point  the  sound  of  a  conch- 
shell,  used  as  a  horn.  This,  however,  was  not  done  in  all  cases,  as 
some  of  the  lines  are  well  run.  The  last  'pitch'  was  taken  on  the 
John  Arnold  Hammond  grant  by  the  Hon.  Samuel  Chipman,  who 
pitched  land  on  Cape  Blomidon  in  December,  1873.  The  chief 
surveyor  in  the  county  for  many  years,  and  a  good  one  he  was, 
was  William  Tupper.  The  last  surveyor  appointed,  was  Edward 
Armstrong  of  Church  Street.  The  last  of  the  King's  County  lot 
layers  was  Bayard  Borden  of  Belcher  Street". 

In  not  a  few  instances  grantees  entered  into  possession  of  their 
land  as  much  as  three  years  before  formally  receiving  their  grants. 
David  Eaton,  for  example,  was  in  Comwallis  before  August  15, 
1761,  but  his  grant  was  not  issued  by  the  Council  until  December 
31,  1764.  It  is  clear,  therefore,  that  the  committees  for  the  distri- 
bution of  lands  had  authority  to  induct  settlers  into  their  lands  be- 
fore the  Council  had  a  chance,  or  cared,  to  act  on  their  applications. 
Of  lands  set  off  for  public  use  besides  the  chiirch  and  school 
lands,  and  Parades,  were,  of  course,  burial  grounds.  For  burial 
places,  in  Cornwallis  at  least,  the  planters  seem  as  much  as  possible 
to  have  chosen  the  French  cemeteries.  The  first  burial  place  at 
Town  Plot,  where  the  Starrs  and  a  few  other  families  buried,  and 
the  Congregationalist-Presbyterian  churchyard  at  Chipman 's  Cor- 
ner, were  both  originally  French  churchyards.  With  regard  to 
burial  places,  it  may  be  said  that  the  early  New  England  custom  of 
burying  in  lonely  places  on  farms  does  not  seem  anywhere 
in  Nova  Scotia  to  have  prevailed.  The  share  of  land  in 
Cornwallis  set  apart  for  the  first  minister  was  obtained,  as  we 
shall  hereafter  see,  by  the  Eev.  Benaiah  Phelps.  With  his  retire- 
ment from  the  pastorate  of  the  Congregationalist  church,  this  land, 
which  he  sold  for  his  own  benefit,  became  forever  alienated  from 
the  use  of  the  town. 

For  the  expense  of  surveying  his  land,  and  obtaining  his  grant 


or  deed,  as  also  for  the  amount  of  his  quit-rent  to  the  government, 
each  grantee,  of  course,  was  responsible.  In  the  100,000  acres  in 
Cornwallis  designed  for  a  hundred  and  fifty  families,  only  a  hun- 
dred and  twenty-eight  families  at  first  shared.  Some  of  the  extra 
lots  were  given  to  Halifax  men  who  had  been  for  a  few  years  ia 
the  province,  and  who  had  influence  with  the  government,  as  for- 
example,  Messrs.  John  Burbidge  and  William  Best,  who  settled, 
in  the  county,  and  Hon.  Jonathan  Belcher,  John  Duport,  Jr.,  Robert 
Duport,  and  Joseph  Gorham,  who  never  did.  In  the  100,000  acres 
in  Horton,  designed  for  two  hundred  families,  at  first  only  a  hun- 
dred and  fifty-four  families  shared.  Some  of  the  remaining  lots, 
here,  also,  were  given  to  Halifax  men  who  never  settled  on  them^ 
as  for  example,  William  Porster  and  Joseph  Gerrish  Gray.  For 
the  most  part,  however,  in  both  townships  the  lots  that  remained 
after  the  first  division  were  given  to  men  who  became  residents 
of  the  townships.  In  the  preceding  lists  of  grantees  are  many 
names  that  have  never  been  much  known,  if  known  at  all,  in  the 
county.  In  not  a  few  of  these  cases  the  grantees  either  never 
came,  or  if  they  did  soon  went  away.  The  lands  of  the  New  Eng- 
land men  who  failed  to  come  to  the  county  were  generally  es- 
cheated and  in  time  given  to  others,  but  some  of  the  grantees  who 
entered  into  possession  of  their  lands,  before  many  years  sold  their 
properties  and  returned  to  their  early  homes.  Among  such  were, 
Abraham,  Lemuel,  and  Thomas  Harding,  who  probably  returned 
to  Connecticut;  and  Archelaus  Hammond,  Jonathan  Longfellow, 
Jonathan  Woodruff,  and  Jabez  West,  who  removed  to  Machias, 

A  tradition  remains  in  the  county  that  the  first  committee 
sent  from  Connecticut  to  view  the  Acadian  lands  were  inclined  to 
choose  for  themselves  and  the  people  who  had  sent  them,  homes  in 
the  township  of  Cornwallis.  The  second  committee,  who  followed 
closely  on  the  heels  of  the  first,  also  liked  Cornwallis  best.  By 
expatiating  "long  and  earnestly",  however,  on  the  value  of  the 
Grand  Pre  dyke,  the  second  committee  managed  cleverly  to  get  the 
first  to  fix  on  Horton  for  themselves;  in  this  way,  the  second  suc- 
ceeded in  making  their  own  settlement  in  the  township  they  greatly 


preferred.  In  some  cases  individual  settlers  were  allowed  to  choose 
their  own  lots,  and  we  may  be  sure  that  these  privileged  ones 
did  not  select  the  least  desirable  lands.  That  all  the  grantees 
should  at  first  have  been  perfectly  satisfied  with  the  allotments 
made  them  is  too  much  to  expect,  as  a  matter  of  fact  there  was, 
sooner  or  later,  considerable  dissatisfaction  with  the  distribution 
of  lands.  As  a  result  of  this  not  a  few  transfers  or  changes  in  time 
came  to  be  made. 

In  the  large  grants  in  Cornwallis  and  Horton,  as  in  all  later 
grants  in  King's  and  other  counties  of  the  province,  the  govern- 
ment reserved  for  itself  mines  of  gold,  silver,  precious  stones,  and 
lapis  lazuli.  In  some  grants  coal,  too,  was  reserved,  but  this  was 
not  the  case  in  King's.  An  example  of  the  early  transfers  of  lands 
that  the  government  permitted  to  be  made  is  found  in  the  aliena- 
tion. May  13,  1768,  of  the  grant  in  Horton  of  Moses  Clark,  to  Syl- 
vanus  Miner,  Jr.,  Thomas  Miner,  and  James  Miner.  For  the 
knowledge  of  still  other  transfers  we  are  again  indebted  to  Mr. 
Eobie  Reid.  Captain  Jonathan  Morecomb,  Mr.  Reid  tells  us,  sold 
his  share  to  John  Burbidge  and  William  Best  in  1764 ;  Ezra  Downer 
sold  his  half  share  to  Dr.  Samuel  Willoughby;  James  Mather  sold 
his  iy2  shares  to  Col.  Jonathan  Sherman  in  October,  1770.  John 
Arnold  Hammond  (from  Newport,  R.  I.)  came  to  Cornwallis  and 
looked  at  his  land,  but  did  not  care  to  settle  on  it.  Accordingly, 
he  sold  part  of  it  to  Robert  Stephens  of  Newport  and  others, 
Stephens  giving  for  his  purchase  eight  hundred  "Spanish  milled 
dollars".  Finally  Stephens  sold  his  land  to  Hon.  Samuel  Chipman 
for  a  horse.  Branch  Blackmore  settled  in  Cornwallis,  but  eventual- 
ly sold  part  of  his  land  to  Judah  Wells.  In  the  transfer  he  describes 
his  land  as  lying  by  a  road  leading  to  "Stephen  Chase's  mills". 
Major  William  Canada,  one  of  the  first  Cornwallis  grantees,  took 
up  his  land  at  what  was  named  after  him  "Canada  Creek",  Sam- 
uel Brewster  "gave  his  name  to  the  Brewster  Plains,  in  Centreville. 
Part  of  his  lands  were  taken  on  Bear  Brook,  in  Woodville,  a  little 
above  where  William  Killam's  mill  now  is.  Archelaus  Hammond 
in  1771  gave  his  share  and  a  half  to  his  father-in-law,  Simon  New- 


comb,  and  went  away.  Brereton  Pojmton,  the  two  Duports,  Major 
Gorham,  and  others,  were  Halifax  men  of  position  who  obtained 
shares  for  speculation,  without  any  idea  of  settlement  in  the  county". 

In  an  article  on  the  origins  of  settlements  in  New  Brunswick, 
in  the  Transactions  of  the  Eoyal  Society  of  Canada,  Vol.  10  (1904) 
Professor  "W.  F.  Ganong  speaks  of  a  movement,  from  about  1790 
to  1810,  of  settlers  "from  Horton,  Cornwallis,  and  elsewhere  in 
Nova  Scotia",  to  the  following  places  in  New  Brunswick: — ^Harvey, 
part  of  Hopewell  (including  Albert,  Riverside,  Hopewell  Hill,  and 
Hopewell  Cape),  and  Alma.  This  immigration,  says  Professor 
Ganong,  originated  in  large  part  the  settlement  of  the  older  parts 
of  the  parishes  mentioned,  including  Shepody  River,  Germantown, 
New  Horton,  and  the  coast  from  Cape  Enrage  through  Little  Roeher 
and  "Waterside,  to  Alma  village.  The  names  of  some  of  the  King's 
County  people  in  this  migration  were :  Bishop,  Copp,  Forsyth,  Reid. 
[The  migration  was  probably  a  little  earlier  than  Professor  Ganong 
makes  it;  a  descendent  of  the  Reid  family  of  New  Horton,  N.  B., 
says  that  Duncan  Reid  went  in  1783] . 

Grants  given  in  Horton  subsequent  to  the  large  Grant  of  1761 : 


Edward  Hughes 


July  3,  1761 

Joseph  Gray 


July  21,  1761 

"William  Forster 


March    4,    1762 

James  Kennedy 


March    5,    1762 

Alexander  Hay 


April  7,  1763 

Richard  Best 


June  8,  1763 

Henry  Burbidge 


June  8,  1763 

Isaac  Desehamps  et  al 


June   30,   1763 

Lieut.  Alex.  Munroe 


July   9,    1763 

John  Eagell 


Aug.  24,  1763 

Charles  Dickson,  Jr. 


Sept.  6,  1763 

John  Allen 


Sept.   6,  1763 

Thomas  Lee 


Sept.   6,   1763 

Capt.  James  "Wall  et  al 


Sept.  17,   1763 

John  Clark 


Sept.  17,  1763 

Benjamin  Peck,  Sr. 


Jany.  10,  1764 

James  Anderson 


Feb'y.  4,  1764 

John  Copp 


Peb'y.  4,  1764 

Joseph  Elderkin 


Feb'y.  4,  1764 



Jacob  Brown 
Daniel  Dixon 
Timothy  Goodwin 
Patrick  Murray 
Simeon  DeWolf 
Jehiel  DeWolf 
Nathan  DeWolf 
Andrew  Marsters 
Daniel  Hovey 
James  Billings  et  al 
Joseph  Woodworth 
Jonathan  Darrow 
William  Nesbitt 
Joseph  Gerrish  Gray 
Benjamin  Beckwith  et  al 
James  Murdoch 
John  Turner 
Elizabeth  Buel  et  al 
Benjamin  Beckwith 
Israel  Harding 
Lebbeus  Harris 

21,  1761,  and  December  31,  1764 

John  Duport,  Jr. 

Robert  Duport 

John  Arnold  Hammond 

Handley  Chipman  et  al 

John  Best 

John  Best 

Jonathan  Parker 

Timothy  Hatch 

Caleb  Wheaton 

Elisha  Freeman 

Eobert  Thompson 

Jonathan  Longfellow 

Abel  Burbidge 

Joseph  Gorham 

James  Mather,  Brereton  Poyn- 

ton,    Benjamin    Comte,  and 

Andrew  Belcher,  Jr., 
Benajah  Phelps 
Hon.  Jonathan  Belcher 
Nathan  Longfellow 
John  Chipman 
Benjamin  Belcher 


Feb'y.  4,  1764 


Feb'y.  4,  1764 


July  19,  1764 


July  19,  1764 


Aug.  29,  1764 


Aug.  29,  1764 


Aug.  29,  1764 


Aug.  29,  1764 


Nov.  30,  1764 


Nov.  30,  1764 


Oct.  31,  1765 


Feb'y.  19,  1766 


Aug.  3,  1767 


Sept.  30,  1767 


April  8,  1768 


Sept.  26,  1769 


Sept.  28,  1770 


Nov.  5,  1777 


Oct.  28,  1779 


March  29,  1784 


July  21,  1785 

besides  the 

large  grants  of  July 


Oct.  27,  1761 


Oct.  27,  1761 


Jan.  8,  1763 


Jan.  8,  1763 


April  8,  1763 


April  28,  1763 


April  28,  1763 


July  29,  1763 


Sept.  6,  1763 


Sept.  17,  1763 


Oct.  12,  1763 


Feb.  4,  1764 


Oct.  12,  1764 


Sept.  13,  1767 


April  14,  1768 


Sept.  26,  1769 


Jnlr  21),  1771 


April  8,  1773 


July  4,  1781 




It  was  originally  intended  to  give  at  this  point  a  list  of  the 
names  of  persons  buying  or  selling  land  in  Cornwallis  or  Horton 
for  twenty  years  after  the  planters  came.  The  list  is  a  long  one, 
but  to  the  names  of  the  original  planters  or  their  sons  so  few  new 
names  are  added  that  it  does  not  seem  desirable  to  take  room  to 
introduce  it  here.  In  this  time,  many  of  the  persons  who  did  not 
settle  on  their  lands,  or  who  did  not  care  to  remain,  disposed  of 
their  properties,  but  the  buyers  seem  to  have  belonged  chiefly  to 
the  families  who  did  settle  here,  rather  than  to  persons  outside 
the  original  emigration. 

Earlier  New  England  homes  of  some  of  the  King's  County 
people : 






East  Haddam 









Middle  Haddam 
New  London  (chiefly  the  north 
parish,  now  Montville) 


Bigelow,    Clark,    Dodge,    Gil- 
lette,  Harris    (probably),    Ran- 
dall,   Ransom,    Rathbun,    Skin- 
ner, "Wells 
Cone,  Fuller 

Lockwood,  Randall 
Ratchford  (perhaps) 

Avery,  Barnaby,  Bill,  Bliss, 
Brewster,  Calkin,  Cogswell, 
Crane,  Dewey,  English,  Fitch, 
Fuller,  Huntington,  Loomer, 
Newcomb,  Pineo,  Strong,  Ter- 
ry, Tupper,  Webster,  "Wood- 

Beckwith,      Butler,      De"Wolf, 
Lord,  Mather,  Pierson,  Reid 

Benjamin,  Bishop,  Comstock, 
Congdon,  Denison,  Fox  (prob- 
ably), Hamilton,  Harris,  Turn- 
er, "Wickwire,  Willoughby 




Beckwith,    Bentley,    Elderkin, 

Farnham,  Gore,  Starr,  Welch, 

Witter  (probably) 


Davidson,  Randall 


DeWolf,  Parker,  Post 




Eaton    (earlier    from    Mass.), 





Brown,  Cleveland 





Brown,  Pingree 

Cambridge  (possibly)                      Prescott 


Morton,  Burgess 





Martha's  Vineyard                         Eand 















Chipman    (earlier   Mass.),    Gil- 

pin, Sanford 

North  Kingston 


South  Kingston 

Sherman,  Steadman 


Borden,  Sheffield  (probably) 





W  hidden  (probably) 











From  New  York  state  have  been  the  following  families:  Ges- 
ner,  Inglis,  Moore,  Seaman.  Prom  New  Jersey,  Van  Buskirk.  From 
England  came  the  founders  of  the  following  families :  Belcher,  Best, 
Bligh,  Burbidge,  Coldwell,  Coleman,  North,  Pudsey,  Koscoe, 
Tewens.  From  Scotland,  McKittrick,  Sutherland.  From  Ireland: 
Allison,  Caldwell,  Dickie,  Laird,  Manning,  Patterson.  From 
Wales,  Twining.  A  few  families  had  long  been  connected  with  Hali- 
fax before  they  sent  representatives  to  King's  County.  Such  were: 
Avery,  Crawley,  DeBlois,  Johnstone,  Kidston,  Pryor,  Pyke,  Stairs, 
Thome,  Tobin,  Young. 


The  third  of  the  three  historic  townships  of  the  present  King's 
County  is  Aylesford,  which  lies  to  the  west  of  Cornwallis  and 
Horton,  and  borders  on  Wilmot  township,  in  the  County  of  An- 
napolis. For  some  time  after  the  New  England  planters  came  to 
the  county  they  were  too  much  interested  in  the  rich  lands  about 
Minas  Basin  and  the  rivers  flowing  into  the  basin  and  to  give  them- 
selves much  concern  about  the  territory  lying  farther  west.  As 
early  as  1770,  however.  Major  Charles  Dickson,  whose  name  is  men- 
tioned in  the  large  Horton  grant,  received  a  grant  of  3,000  acres 
in  Aylesford,  his  grant  being  one  of  the  earliest  recorded  on  the 
existing  Aylesford  plan.  In  1771,  Capt.  John  Terry,  a  Cornwallis 
grantee,  received  in  Aylesford  a  grant  of  similar  size,  and  these 
grants  were  followed  in  1774  and  later  years  by  larger  or  smaller 
grants  to  other  Cornwallis  or  Horton  men. 

The  general  distribution  of  Aylesford  lands,  however,  did  not 
begin  until  the  tide  of  Loyalist  emigration  that  swept  into  the 
province  at  the  close  of  the  Kevolutionary  "War  made  necessary 
the  opening  of  many  new  regions  to  permanent  settlement.  From 
September,  1782,  to  December,  1783,  the  Loyalists  came  from  New 
York  in  such  numbers  that  the  government  was  busy  day  and  night 
making  provision  for  their  settlement.  In  furnishing  lands  for 
these  exiles,  the  township  of  Aylesford,  like  the  townships  farther 
west,  in  Annapolis,  Shelburne,  and  Digby  counties,  had  an  im- 
portant share.  Among  the  grantees  whose  names  stand  on  the 
Aylesford  plan  will  be  found  not  a  few  who  are  conspicuously 
known  in  the  annals  of  the  Eevolution  on  the  unpopular  side. 

The  special  enactment  of  the  legislature  by  which  Aylesford 
was  erected  into  a  township,  if  there  was  such  enactment,  has  not 


been  discovered.  In  the  third  volume  of  his  Documentary  History 
of  Nova  Scotia,  writing  of  the  year  1786,  Beamish  Murdoch  says: 
"A  part  of  Wilmot  was  now  set  off  as  a  separate  township  and 
named  Aylesford,  and  a  parish  was  set  off  at  Parrsborough".  Up 
to  and  beyond  this  period,  the  erection  of  counties  and  the  settle- 
ment of  their  boundaries,  and  the  creation  of  townships  and  parishes, 
seems  to  have  belonged  exclusively  to  the  Executive  Council.  A 
careful  examination,  however,  of  the  Minute  Books  of  the  Council 
for  a  considerable  number  of  years  has  failed  to  show  any  such 
action  regarding  Aylesford  as  that  here  mentioned  so  casually  by 
Murdoch.  The  Minute  Book  of  the  Council  for  the  year  1786  shows 
that  July  20th  of  that  year  a  memorial  was  presented  by  Lt.  Col. 
Elisha  Lawrence,  "in  behalf  of  the  inhabitants  of  Parrsborough, 
requesting  that  part  of  that  township  be  erected  into  a  parish", 
and  that  the  following  December  this  was  done,  but  no  mention 
whatever  is  made  of  the  creation  of  the  township  of  Aylesford. 
That  the  name  Aylesford,  however  (given  possibly  after  the  fourth 
Earl  of  Aylesford,  Lord  of  the  Bedchamber  to  George  III,  who  re- 
signed that  office  in  1783),  was  about  this  time  somehow  fastened 
to  the  western  part  of  King's  is  very  clear.  It  will  be  remembered 
that  the  original  boundary  between  King's  and  Annapolis  was  estab- 
lished in  1759,  the  township  of  Wilmot,  however  (named  after  Gov- 
ernor Montague  "Wilmot),  which  adjoins  Aylesford,  was  not  erected 
until  five  years  later.  Of  this  event,  which  took  place  in  the  first 
year  of  Wilmot 's  governorship,  Mr.  Murdoch  has  the  following 
notice:  In  1764,  "Wilmot  township  in  the  Coimty  of  Annapolis 
was  ordered  to  be  surveyed  and  laid  out".  In  the  Calnek-Savary 
History  of  Annapolis,  page  226,  the  author  says:  "This  portion  of 
the  county  (Wilmot)  was  not  settled  quite  so  early  as  some  other 
parts.  It  was  not  ordered  to  be  laid  out  until  1764,  or  four  years 
after  the  arrival  of  the  Charming  Molly  with  the  first  immigrants 
at  Annapolis.  It  received  its  name  from  Governor  Wilmot,  and 
comprised  within  the  orignal  boundaries  a  large  part  of  the  present 
township  of  Aylesford". 

That  Wilmot  township,  in  the  popular  imderstanding  at  first 


extended  much  within  the  present  limit  of  King's,  is  perfectly  clear, 
and  whether  the  boundary  between  it  and  Aylesford  in  King's,  until 
at  least  the  end  of  the  first  quarter  of  the  19th  century,  was  ever 
exactly  defined,  may  indeed  be  strongly  questioned.  In  1770  Walter 
Wilkins,  received  a  thousand  acres,  and  in  1771,  as  we  have  seen, 
Capt.  John  Terry  three  thousand,  in  "the  township  of  Wilmot", 
but  these  tracts  are  now  to  be  seen  on  the  Aylesford  plan.  In  1783 
Brotherton  Martin  received  two  thousand  acres,  in  1784  John 
Huston  a  thousand,  and  1785  the  Morrison  family  a  thousand,  all 
of  which  are  now  in  Aylesford.  These  were  originally  described, 
however,  as  "in  "Wilmot",  John  Huston's  being  "in  Wilmot,  in 
the  county  of  King's".  In  1786  William  Brenton  and  Dr.  John 
Halliburton  received  land  in  "Upper  Wilmot,  in  King's",  but  in 
1790  Bishop  Charles  Inglis  and  the  Van  Cortlandt  family  had  grants 
"in  the  township  of  Aylesford,  in  King's  County".  In  1795  Eev. 
John  Inglis  also  had  a  grant  "in  Aylesford  in  King's  County", 
and  January  31,  1797,  Andrew  Denison  a  grant  of  a  thousand  acres 
"in  the  township  of  Wilmot,  now  called  Aylesford".  In  1797  the 
Barclay  family's  grant  is  described  as  in  the  township  of  Ayles- 
ford, in  King's  County,  but  in  1802  grants  to  the  Grassie  and 
Ritchie  families  and  to  John  Harris  are  described  as  "in  the  town- 
ship of  Aylesford,  within  the  County  of  Annapolis".  Another 
grant  of  five  thousand  acres,  given  in  1810,  is  said  to  be  "situated 
on  the  South  Mountain,  so  called,  in  the  township  of  Aylesford,  in 
the  county  of  Annapolis".  Our  conclusion,  therefore,  necessarily 
is  that  long  after  the  township  of  Aylesford  was  more  or  less 
formally  created,  the  boundary  between  it  and  Wilmot  was  quite 
unsettled,  and  that  whether  an  exact  spot  was  in  one  tovraship  or 
the  other  was  often  entirely  uncertain  in  the  public  mind. 

In  1788  "Seven  Mile  River"  is  called  the  western  boundary  of 
Aylesford,  and  the  distance  between  the  eastern  and  western 
boundaries  is  given  as  exactly  ten  miles.  In  the  Report  of  the  S.  P. 
G.  for  1789-90,  Wilmot  is  described  as  forty  miles  distant  from 
Cornwallis  and  as  "twenty  miles  long,  the  township  of  Aylesford 
intervening,  which  is  sixteen  miles  long".    In  the  former  township. 


it  is  reported,  there  are  upwards  of  six  hundred  inhabitants,  in  the 
latter  three  hundred,  and  in  both  townships  the  population  is  said 
to  be  increasing.  In  1803  the  Rev.  John  Inglis,  missionary  at  Ayles- 
ford,  writes  the  Society  that  the  township  of  Aylesford  forms  a 
square  of  ten  miles,  distant  from  Halifax  ninety  miles,  and  from 
Annapolis  Royal  thirty-eight  miles.  The  township's  population, 
he  writes,  comprises  forty-two  families.  In  1828  Aylesford  had  a 
population  of  1,054;  in  1833  it  had  1,382. 

The  following  list  of  early  grantees  in  Upper  Aylesford  is 
taken  from  a  plan  in  the  Crown  Land  Office  in  Halifax.  The  list 
is  probably  not  complete,  but  it  undoubtedly  comprises  the  chief 
names  of  the  earliest  owners  of  land  ia  the  township, 



Barclay  Beverly  Robinson  1,000  May  1,  1797 
Barclay  DeLaneey  1,000  May  1,  1797 
Barclay  Henry  1,000  May  1,  1797 
Barclay  Thomas  1,000  May  1,  1797 
Barclay  Thomas,  Jr.  1,000  May  1,  1797 
Bayard  Ethelinda  4,730  Feb'y  22,  1803 
Bayard  Louisa  4,730  Feb'y  22,  1803 
Bayard  Maria  4,730  Feb'y  22,  1803 
Bayard  Robert  4,730  Feb'y  22,  1803 
Bayard  Samuel  Vetch  4,730  Feb'y  22,  1803 
Beekwith  Andrew  (heirs  of)  486  Aug.  30,  1783 
Beckwith  Benjamin  470  Aug.  30,  1783 
Benedict  Jabez  300  Nov.,  1790 
Bowlby  John  Charles  (and  Fran- 
cis Hutchinson)  300  Jan'y  3,  1788 
Bowen  Nathan  403  Dec.  10,  1774 
BowenNoah  400  Nov.   18,   1774 
Brenton  William  and  John  Halli- 
burton 856  July  20,  1786 
Brenton  "William  and  John  Halli- 
burton 150  July  20,  1786 
Brown  Darius  400  Dec.  10,   1774 
Brown  Ezekiel  402  Dec.  10,  1774 
Brown  Samuel  300  March  23,  1810 
Brown  Samuel  100 
Burden  Elisha  450  Oct.  8,  1812 




Chandler  John 


Dec.  20,  1787 

Cleveland  Lemuel 


Aug.  30,  1783 

Crane  Joseph 


A-iril  6,  1814 

Dickson  Charles 



(This  grant  renewed  to  his  heirs  Oct.  23, 


Farnsworth  Daniel 


March  23,  1810 

Fowler  Capt.  John 


Nov.,   1770 

Grassie  George 


June  1,  1802 

Grassie  George,  Jr. 


June  1,  1802 

Grassie  John  Alex.  William             646 

June  1,  1802 

Graves  Elias 


March  23,  1810 

Harcourt  John 


March  23,  1810 

Halliburton  John    (and  William 



July  20,  1786 

Halliburton  John    (and  William 



July  20,  1786 

Harris  James 


May  5,  1814 

Harris  John 


June  1,  1802 

Hinds  Benjamin 


Oct.  14,  1774 

Huston  John 


Nov,  5,  1784 

Hutchinson    Francis    (and 


Charles  Bowlby) 


Jan'y  3,  1788 

Inglis  Bishop  Charles 


Dec.  31,  1790 

Inglis  Bishop  Charles 


(date  not  known) 

Inglis  Rev.  John 


June  29,  1795 

Kinne  Jeremiah 


Oct.  8,  1812 

Magee  Henry 


Feb'y    16,  1786 

Martin  Brotherton 


June   7,   1783 

Miller  William 


March  23,  1810 

(This  is 

probably  correct.) 

Morden  James 


Sept.  10,  1783 

Morrison  Archibald 


July  7,  1785 

Morrison  Elizabeth 


July  7,  1785 

Morrison  George 


July  7,  1785 

Morrison  Hugh 


July  7,  1785 

Morrison  James 


July  7,  1785 

Morrison  John 


July  7,  1785 

Morrison  Margaret 


July  7,  1785 

Morrison  Robert 


July  7,  1785 

George  and  Hugh  Morrison  also   have   1,000   acres,  Feb'y   15, 
1787 ;  John  Morrison  has  1,000  acres,  July  14,  1778. 




Ormsby  Matthew 


Feb'y.  16,  1786 

Orpin  George 


March  23,  1810 

Orpin  Joseph 


March  23,  1810 

Palmer  Benjamin 


March  23,  1810 

Palmer  Elijah  M. 


March  23,  1810 

Palmer  Enoch  Lewis 


March  23,  1810 

Palmer  George 


March  23,  1810 

Palmer  George  B. 


March  23,  1810 

Palmer  Lewis 


March  23,  1810 

Parker  William 


March  23,  1810 

Philip  Martha 


Dec.  20,  1787 

Phipps  David  et  aZ 


Oct.  28,  1783  , 

Pierce  Henry     \ 
Pierce  William  | 


Feb'y.  16,  1786 

Piere  Lewis 


March  23,  1810 

Piere  Lewis 


Potter  Henry 


April  6,  1768 

(Confirmed  July  11,  1778.) 

Ritchie  Alicia  Maria 


June  1,  1802 

Ritchie  Thomas 


June  1,   1802 

Robertson  Daniel 


March  23,  1810 

Robertson  John 


March  23,  1810 

Robertson  William  Henry 


March  23,  1810 

Shaffro  George 


Dec.  22,  1780 

(He  had  entered  into  possession  in  1768) 

Skinner  John 


Spinney  Joseph 


Aug.   30,   1783 

Terry  Capt.  John 


Dec.  22,  1771 

Van  Buskirk  Garrett 


May  5,  1814 

Van  Buskirk  Henry 


May  5,  1314 

Van  Buskirk  John 


May  5,  1814 

Van  Buskirk  Lawrence,  Jr, 


May  5,  1814 

Van  Buskirk  Lawrence,  Jr, 


May  23,  1810 

Van  Buskirk  Samuel 


March  23,  1810 

Van  Buskirk  William 


May  5,  3814 

Also,  to  John  Van  Buskirk  and  others,  5,000  acres,  March  23, 
1810,  and  to  Henry  Van  Buskirk 's  children,  300  acres. 
Van    Cortlandt    Arthur    Auch- 






Van  Cortlandt  Catherine 





Van  Cortlandt  Charlotte 





Van  Cortlandt  Elizabeth 






Dec.  31,  1790 


Dec.  31,  1790 


Dec.  31,  1790 


Dec.  31,  1790 


Dec.  31,  1790 



Dec.  31,  1790 


Dec.  31,  1790 


Dec.  31,  1790 


Dec.  31,  1790 


Dec.  31,  1790 


Sept.  3,  1784 


Peb'y.  16,  1786 


July  6,  1784 


Oct.  20,  1770 



Van  Cortlandt  Gertrude 
Van  Cortlandt  Henry  Clinton 
Van  Cortlandt  Jacob  Ogden 
Van  Cortlandt  Margaret 
Van  Cortlandt  Mary  Ricketts 
Van  Cortlandt  Ensign  Philip 
Van  Cortlandt  Major  Philip  and 

Van  Cortlandt  Sarah 
Van  Cortlandt  Sophia  Sawyer 
Van  Cortlandt  Stephen 
"West  John 
West  John 
Wilkins  James 
Wilkins  Walter 
Wilson  Elizabeth's  children 

Other  early  grantees,  with  dates  of  grants  not  ascertained,  were : 
Richard  Banks,  Thomas  Chittick,  Bernard  McDade;  Alexander, 
Dawson,  James,  John,  and  Thomas,  Patterson;  James  Pierce, 
William  Pierce,  Jr.,  and  Samuel  Randall.  These  men  had  grants 
varying  in  size  from  77  to  366  acres. 

March  23,  1810,  a  grant  to  which  we  have  before  referred, 
containing  over  five  thousand  acres,  "situated  on  the  South  Moun- 
tain, so  called,  in  the  Township  of  Aylesford,  County  of  Annapolis", 
was  given  as  follows:  To  John  Van  Buskirk,  400  acres;  Lewis 
Palmer,  300 ;  Samuel  Van  Buskirk,  300 ;  Lewis  Piere,  250 ;  Lawrence 
Van  Buskirk,  Jr.,  200;  William  Miller,  200;  Daniel  Robertson,  100; 
William  Parker,  500;  John  Harcourt,  100;  Samuel  Brown,  200; 
George  Orpin,  450;  Elias  Graves,  400;  William  Henry  Robertson, 
200;  Elijah  M.  Palmer,  100;  John  Robertson,  100;  Benjamin 
Palmer,  500;  Daniel  Famsworth,  250;  Joseph  Orpin,  500;  and  "to 
the  Rev.  John  Inglis,  D.  D.,  Rector  of  St.  Mary's  Parish,  and 
Alexander  Walker  and  Henry  Van  Buskirk,  Esq.,  church  wardens 
and  trustees  of  the  parish,  100  in  part  of  a  glebe,  and  100  in  part 
of  a  school". 

Until  1835,  what  is  known  as  Lower  Aylesford  remained  almost 
unsettled.    About  this  date  the  government  began  to  sell  land  here 


also,  the  price  commonly  being  £10.  18.  9,  a  hundred  acres.  On 
the  plan  of  Lower  Aylesford,  in  the  Crown  Land  Office,  will  ac- 
cordingly be  found  a  large  number  of  names  of  persons  who  have 
purchased  land  in  this  region,  many  of  them  not  residents  of  the 
•county  and  having  no  connection  with  it  except  the  owning  of  these 
tracts.  Since  1854  no  free  grants  worthy  of  mention,  if  any  at  all, 
have  been  made  in  Upper  Aylesford,  but  in  Lower  Aylesford  the 
government  is  selling  land  in  small  quantities  still.  The  largest  of 
these  sales  have  reached  1,400  or  1,500  acres,  the  smallest  as  few 
as  25  acres. 

Of  the  early  Aylesford  grantees  the  government  simply  exacted 
promise  of  settlement,  or  of  cultivation  of  a  certain  portion  of  the 
grant,  within  a  reasonable  time.  Li  the  case  of  Henry  Potter, 
for  example,  who  received  his  grant  in  1778,  the  nominal  quit-rent 
of  one  farthing  per  acre  for  ever  was  exacted.  Of  William  Brenton 
and  John  Halliburton,  who  received  their  united  grant  in  1786, 
the  government  demanded  that  they  should  within  three  years,  for 
every  fifty  acres  of  "plantable  land",  clear  and  drain  three  acres 
of  swampy  or  sunken  ground,  or  drain  three  acres  of  marsh,  if  any 
such  were  contained  in  their  grant,  or  erect  on  some  part  of  their 
land  one  good  dwelling  house,  to  be  at  least  twenty  feet  in  length 
and  sixteen  feet  in  breadth,  and  to  put  on  their  land  "the  like 
number  of  neat  cattle  for  every  fifty  acres,  etc ' '. 

Prom  the  foregoing  account  it  will  be  seen  that  the  first  grant- 
ing of  lands  in  Aylesford  gave  no  enormous  blocks  for  wide  dis- 
tribution, as  was  the  ease  in  Cornwallis  and  Horton.  In  Aylesford, 
the  lands  were  given  in  single  tracts,  varying  in  amount  from  one 
hundred  to  seven  thousand  acres,  few  individuals,  however,  receiv- 
ing more  than  five  or  six  hundred.  In  some  of  the  larger  grants 
several  members  of  the  same  family  participated,  but  to  a  few  in- 
dividuals, grants  much  larger  than  any  single  grant  given  in  Corn- 
wallis or  Horton  were  allowed.  Charles  Dickson,  of  Horton,  for 
instance,  as  we  have  seen,  in  1770  received  in  Aylesford  a  grant  of 
three  thousand  acres,  and  James  Morden  in  1783  one  of  five 


Between  1820  and  1833,  transfers  of  land  were  made  in  Aylea- 
f ord  among  persons  of  the  following  names :  Allan,  Banks,  Barclay, 
Beckwith,  Black,  Bowlby,  Brennan,  Butler,  Cassidy,  Charlton,  Chip- 
man,  Cole,  Condon,  Crane,  Crocker,  Crowly,  DeWolf,  Dolan, 
Dugan,  Edson,  Elliott,  ElUs,  Falconer,  Farnsworth,  Fisher,  Fos- 
ter, Eraser,  Gates,  Gilpin,  Graves,  Grogan,  Halliburton,  Harris,  Hill, 
Hinds,  Illsley,  Inglis,  Jackson,  Jaques,  Keaton,  King,  Kinne,  Leaver, 
Lovett,  Magee,  Marshall,  McKay,  McNaught,  Miller,  Morden,  Mor- 
gan, Morris,  Morrison,  Morton,  Mudge,  Neily,  Nichols,  Ogilvie, 
Orpin,  Owen,  Palmer,  Parker,  Patterson,  Perkins,  Pierce,  Prawl, 
Quin,  Randall,  Reid,  Rich,  Ritchie,  Roach,  Ryarson,  Ruggles,  Saun- 
ders, Smith,  Solomon,  Spinney,  Stewart,  Trainer,  Truesdale,  Tupper, 
Van  Buskirk,  Vroom,  Walker,  Walsh,  Ward,  Warner,  Welton,  West, 
Willett,  Wilson,  Woodbury.  Among  these  transfers  are  the  fol- 
lowing :  From  Rev.  John  Inglis  to  John  Ogilvie,  Oct.  12,  1820 ;  from 
Henry  Van  Buskirk  to  Rev.  Edwin  Gilpin,  Jan'y.  D,  1827;  from 
Rev.  John  Inglis  to  William  Pearce,  July  15,  1830 ;  from  Rev.  Edwin 
Gilpin  to  Rev.  Henry  Lambeth  Owen,  Feb'y-  19,  1833;  from  George 
Foreman  Morden,  of  Scotland  Yard,  Whitehall,  in  the  city  of  West- 
minster, London,  Esq.,  a  captain  in  H.  M.  Army  and  John  Edward 
Buller  of  the  Inner  Temple,  in  the  County  of  Middlesex,  gentle- 
man, to  John  Butler  Butler,  Esq.,  Commissary  general  of  H.  M. 
Forces,  now  residing  at  Bouverie  Sheet,  Fleet  Street,  London,  May 
28  and  29,  and  June  1,  1833.  The  land  conveyed  in  this  last  trans- 
fer was  originally  owned  by  James  Morden,  Esq.,  and  by  him  was 
willed  to  his  wife,  James  Spry  Heaton,  and  Alexander  Thomson. 

The  earliest  book  of  Aylesford  Records,  in  the  county  Registry 
of  Deeds  bears  on  the  fly  leaf  the  date  1819.  The  first  entry 
in  this  book  is  as  follows:  "To  all  People  to  whom  these  presents 
shall  come.  Greeting— -Know  ye  that  I,  Alexander  Walker  and  Atiti 
Walker,  my  wife,  of  the  Township  of  Aylesford,  County  of  King's 
and  Province  of  Nova  Scotia,  Esquire.  For  and  in  Consideration 
of  the  sum  of  50  pounds  of  Good  and  Lawful  Money  of  this  province 
to  me  in  hand  paid  by  Francis  Ryarson,  of  the  Township  of  Clem- 


ents  and  County  of  Annapolis,  Gentleman,  the  Eeceipt  whereof  we 
do  hereby  acknowledge,  Have  Granted,  Bargained,  Sold,  Aliened, 
and  Confirmed  unto  the  said  Francis  Eyarson,  His  Heirs  and  Exe- 
cutors, Administrators  and  Assigns  forever,  a  certain  tract  or  par- 
cel of  land  bounded  as  follows,  etc".  The  instrument  is  signed  by 
Alexander  and  Ann  Walker,  and  witnessed  by  Catherine  D.  Walker 
and  Daniel  Robinson.    The  date  is  Sept.  29,  1819. 

Of  the  settlement  of  the  townships  of  Wilmot  and  Aylesford, 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Edward  Manning  Saunders  of  Halifax  has  written 
somewhat  at  length,  and  from  an  interesting  paper  of  his,  yet  un- 
published, we  are  permitted  to  quote.  Dr.  Saunders  says:  "The 
settlement  of  that  part  of  the  Annapolis  Valley  included  in  Ayles- 
ford and  Wilmot  (or  from  Kentville  to  Paradise)  did  not  begin 
until  some  years  after  1760.  That  was  because  being  beyond  the 
flow  of  the  tides  it  afforded  no  chance  for  village  life,  and  because 
lying  as  it  did,  so  far  in  the  interior,  the  English  settlers  feared 
to  enter  it  on  account  of  the  Indians.  At  last,  however,  a  few  fam- 
ilies penetrated  it  from  the  west,  some  of  them  even  pushing  up  from 
western  Wilmot  into  the  County  of  King's.  Then  began  an  inter- 
mittent stream  of  emigration  from  the  east,  which  flowed  as  far 
west  as  the  east  side  of  Caribou  Bog  and  there  met  the  western 
stream.  At  Berwick  have  ever  since  been  found  names  which 
originally  belonged  to  both  the  east  and  the  west, — ^Parkers  and 
Shaws  from  Annapolis;  and  Skinners,  Huntingtons,  Lyons',  and 
Loomers',  who  had  originally  settled  farther  east  in  King's.  The 
greatest  accession  to  the  population,  however,  came  at  the  time  of 
the  American  Revolution.  This  influx  began  in  1776  and  did  not 
cease  till  1784  or  '85.  Some  of  the  people  who  came  at  this  time 
were  army  officers  of  various  ranks,  who  had  served  on  the  British 
side,  and  who  at  the  close  of  the  war  retired  to  spend  the  rest  of 
their  days  in  this  quiet  valley.  Col.  Samuel  Vetch  Bayard,  Col. 
James  Eager,  and  Brigadier  General  Ruggles,  settled  in  Wilmot. 
The  Van  Buskirks  settled  in  both  Wilmot  and  Aylesford.  Henry 
Van  Buskirk  pitched  his  tent  near  where  the  Anglican  Church  of 
Upper  Aylesford  now  stands.    He  was  the  squire  and  the  merchant 


for  a  large  section  of  the  country  around  him.  After  1795  he  had 
for  his  neighbor  in  summer  Bishop  Charles  Inglis.  "William  Rhodes, 
from  Philadelphia,  married  a  daughter  of  Alden  Bass  of  Nictaux, 
he  too  lived  near  St.  Mary's  Church  in  Upper  Aylesford.  His  father 
was  a  German  from  Leipsic.  He  had  a  large  family  of  daughters, 
and  but  one  son,  William,  the  latter  an  enterprising  man  who  had 
the  esteem  of  the  whole  community. 

"With  the  officers  of  the  Revolution  came  a  large  number  of 
soldiers,  who  settled  in  various  parts  of  the  two  townships.  Hand- 
ley  Mountain,  in  Annapolis  County,  was  chiefly  settled  by  them. 
It  is  doubtful  if  any  part  of  the  wilderness  of  America  of  equal 
size  was  ever  settled  with  people  varying  as  much  in  race,  religion, 
culture  and  social  standing.  First  there  were  the  stern,  unbending 
Puritans  of  New  England,  then  followed  the  Loyalists,  devoted 
adherents  of  monarchy  and  the  established  church.  Many  of  the 
settlers  were  rude  and  boisterous,  but  men  and  women  of  the  finest 
culture  were  scattered  among  them;  English,  American,  Scotch, 
Irish,  German,  and  Dutch  were  intermixed  by  marriage  or  lived 
side  by  side,  in  every  neighborhood.  The  earliest  settlers  were  of 
the  adventurous  element  among  the  Puritans,  who  sold  out  their 
uplands  and  marshes  further  west  in  Annapolis  and  pushed  on 
eastward  into  the  wilderness.  The  first  of  these  who  came  took 
up  lands  so  as  to  build  their  log  houses  near  the  river.  This  gave 
them  the  advantage  of  the  meadow  lands  for  hay,  and  the  open 
plains  for  the  cultivation  of  other  crops.  It  made  it  also  convenient 
for  them  to  fish  in  the  river,  as  well  as  to  shoot  game  in  the  woods 
to  the  south.  Later  comers  took  up  lands  on  the  mountain  slopes, 
which  when  the  forest  was  cleared,  yielded  good  crops  of  wheat, 
followed  by  good  crops  of  grass.  Indeed,  the  soil  produced  in 
abundance  all  kinds  of  grains  and  vegetables. 

"By  the  settlers'  hands  the  primeval  forest  vanished  and  home- 
steads appeared  in  its  place.  The  people's  dwellings  were  rude, 
but  there  was  plenty  of  fuel  to  keep  them  warm.  At  first  their 
lands  did  not  produce  enough  to  meet  their  wants;  to  supply  this 
deficiency   ship-timber,   masts,   oars,    staves,   shingles,    deals,    and 


boards  were  taken  from  the  forests  along  the  Annapolis  River  in 
Aylesford  and  Wilmot  and  rafted  either  to  Bridgetown  or  to  An- 
napolis, for  shipment  to  other  places  in  America,  to  the  West  Indies, 
or  to  Europe.  Partial  but  substantial  supplies  for  the  table  came 
from  the  salmon  and  shad  in  the  river,  and  the  moose  and  caribou 
in  the  woods.  From  the  first,  in  imitation  of  the  French,  the  farm- 
ers not  only  raised  a  great  variety  of  vegetables  and  cereals,  but 
they  planted  apple,  cherry,  and  plum  trees,  which  in  the  rich  virgin 
soil  soon  came  to  maturity. 

"A  look  into  the  homes  on  the  plains  and  mountain  slopes, 
all  the  way  from  Kentville  to  Paradise,  on  a  winter's  night,  when  a 
howling  snow  storm  was  sweeping  over  the  country,  reveals  a  picture 
of  domestic  life  long  since  passed  away.  There  were  the  great  fire- 
places piled  up  with  logs,  supplied  by  the  big  strong  boys.  Around 
sat  the  grandfathers  and  grandmothers,  the  fathers  and  mothers. 
and  the  young  men  and  women,  of  the  families.  The  women  were 
busy  knitting  or  sewing,  not  one  was  idle.  The  boys  were  making 
splint  brooms  or  twine  rabbit  snares.  The  lights  and  shadows  were 
dancing  on  the  log-walls,  rough  board  floors,  and  rude  ceilings. 
There  was  an  occasional  roar  in  the  chimney  in  response  to  a  fresh 
blast  of  wind  from  outside".  Stories  were  often  told  by  these  fire- 
sides of  ghost-lights  seen  dancing  about  haunted  places  where 
people  were  buried,  of  the  remarkable  power  of  the  mineral  rod  in 
revealing  where  gold  had  been  hidden,  of  ghosts  stopping  the  work 
of  men  digging  for  Spanish  doubloons,  buried  by  notable  pirates ;  of 
witch  malevolence,  and  most  terrible  of  all,  of  Indian  murders  and 
scalpings.  Such  relations  indeed,  were  not  uncommon  in  the  other 
townships  of  King's  besides  Aylesford. 

The  Aylesford  and  Wilmot  people  had  their  diversions  tooi, 
notably  their  land  clearings,  when  "twenty  strong  men  with  a  full 
supply  of  Jamaica  rum  would  make  the  heavy  black  logs  roll  about 
merrily,  and  mount  each  other  in  great  piles  ready  for  the  blazing 
torch.  Habitual  drunkenness,  however,  was  neither  common  nor 
respectable."  The  people,  indeed,  were  generally  not  only  indus- 
trious but  moral,  and  were  peculiarly  open  to  the  influences  of  educa- 


tion  and  religion.  In  Aylesford  and  in  Wilmot  the  Society  for  thfl 
Propagation  of  the  Gospel  early  established  schools,  but  as  few  of 
the  children  of  these  scattered  townships  were  able  to  attend  these 
schools,  the  people  themselves  often  engaged  disbanded  soldiers  to 
teach  their  families.  These  pedagogues,  says  Dr.  Saunders,  were 
often  very  ill-fitted  to  teach,  but  they  were  not  an  unmixed  evil 
to  the  communities  where  they  came.  "They  often  drank,  but  they 
boarded  round  and  made  the  firesides  lively,  and  they  kept  the  desire 
for  education  alive".  Travelling  in  these  townships  was  for  a  long 
time  chiefly  on  horseback,  people  often  riding  double^  as  was  common 
in  other  parts  of  America.  About  the  houses  where  people  met  for 
religious  worship  on  Sundays  horses  always  stood  saddled  waiting 
to  take  their  owners  home  when  service  was  done. 

Of  the  conspicuous  Loyalist  families  whose  names  appear  in  the 
list  of  grantees  we  have  given,  something  must  here  be  said.  The  Bar- 
clay family,  from  New  York,  never  lived  in  Aylesford,  but  for  a  time 
did  live  in  Wilmot.  On  the  north  wall  of  the  chancel  of  St.  Paul's 
Chapel,  Broadway,  New  York,  rests  a  tablet  of  white  marble,  set  on 
another  of  black.  It  is  surmounted  by  the  arms  of  the  Barclays  of 
Urie,  Scotland,  and  was  erected  in  memory  of  Colonel  Thoma.s 
Barclay  (son  of  the  Eev.  Henry  Barclay,  D.  D.,  Rector  of  Trinity 
Church,  New  York),  born  in  New  York,  Oct.  12,  1753.  In  the 
history  of  Annapolis  county,  and  in  the  Sabines'  Loyalists  will  be 
found  interesting  sketches  of  Col.  Barclay.  Graduating  at  Columbia 
(King's)  College,  and  for  a  while  studying  law  in  the  ofSce  of  John 
Jay,  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution  he  joined  the  British  forces 
under  Sir  William  Howe,  as  a  captain  in  the  Loyal  American  Regi- 
ment. Promoted  by  Sir  Henry  Clinton  to  the  rank  of  Major  he 
served  through  the  war,  and  in  1783,  his  estate  confiscated,  wilh  his 
family  he  fled  to  Nova  Scotia.  In  Annapolis  he  took  up  the  practice 
of  law,  and  until  1799,  when  he  was  appointed  British  Consul  at 
New  York,  he  was  closely  identified  with  the  political  interests  of 
his  adopted  province.  In  Nova  Scotia  he  was  a  member  and  speaker 
of  the  House  of  Assembly,  was  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Royal  Nova 
Scotia  Regiment;  during  the  war  of  1812  was  "Commissary  for  the 


care  and  exchange  of  prisoners  of  war",  and  later  was  England's 
Commissioner  with  Mr.  Holmes,  of  the  United  States,  to  settle  the 
boundary  between  the  two  governments  in  Passamaquoddy  Bay. 
His  wife  was  Susanna,  ninth  child  of  Peter  DeLancey  ol;  Kosehill, 
West  Farms,  New  York,  and  his  wife,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Cad- 
wallader  Golden.  His  sister,  Cornelia  was  first  the  wife  of  Lieut.-Col. 
Stephen  DeLancey  (eldest  son  of  Brigadier-General  Samuel  Oliver 
DeLancey),  secondly,  of  Sir  Hudson  Lowe,  K.  C.  B.  His  sister  Anna 
Dorothea  was  the  wife  of  Col.  Beverly  Robinson,  who  after  the  war 
settled  permanently  in  St.  John,  N.  B.  In  the  History  of  Annapolis 
will  be  found  a  letter  from  Col.  Barclay  to  the  Governor  of  Nova 
Scotia,  Lord  Dalhousie,  protesting  against  the  escheat  that  had  been 
threatened  of  his  and  his  family's  lands  in  Aylesford,  on  account  of 
his  failure  to  settle  on  or  improve  them.  His  excuse  for  not  doing 
so  is  that  he  had  been  occupied  for  years  wiil)  important  foreign 
business  for  the  crown.  Of  Col.  Barclay's  sons,  Henry  DeLancey, 
Beverly  Robinson,  George  Cornwell,  Anthony,  and  probably  Thomas 
Edmund,  were  students  at  King's  College,  "Windsor.  Anthony  Bar- 
clay,  who  like  his  father  was  long  British  Consul  at  New  York, 
matriculated  at  King's,  Windsor,  in  1805,  took  his  degree  of  B.  A.  in 
1809,  and  was  made  an  hororary  D.  C.  L.  in  1827,  CoL  DeLancey 
Barclay  was  an  officer  in  the  British  army,  was  at  the  Battle  of 
Waterloo,  and  for  some  years  was  an  aide-de-camp  to  King 
George  IV. 

The  Bayard  family,  of  mingled  Huguenot  and  Dutch  ancestry, 
whose  grant  of  4,730  acres  in  Aylesford  was  almost  as  large  as  that 
of  the  Barclays,  settled  permanently  in  Wilmot.  The  head  of  this 
family  was  Col.  Samuel  Vetch  Bayard,  a  son  of  Stephen  and  Alida 
(Vetch)  Bayard,  of  New  York,  and  a  grandson  on  his  mother's  side, 
of  Col.  Samuel  Vetch,  the  first  English  governor  (appointed  also  thirl 
governor)  of  Nova  Scotia.  Col.  Samuel  Vetch  Bayard  married,  April 
24,  1778,  Catherine  Van  Home,  and  had  children :  William,  born  at 
Halifax,  N.  S.,  Feb.  14,  1779 ;  Elizabeth,  born  in  New  York,  Dec.  1, 
1780;  Catharine,  born  Oct.  13,  1782;  Stephen,  born  in  Cornwallis, 
Oct.  26,  1785,  married  Elizabeth  Anne  De  Lancey;  Robert,  born  at 


Wilmot,  March  1,  1788;  Samuel,  born  at  "Wilmot,  March  1,  1790  j 
Prances,  born  July  25,  1793 ;  Ethelinda ;  Eliza,  married  to  George  L. 
Cooper;  Louisa;  and  Sarah.  Col.  Bayard's  son  Robert,  born  in  1788, 
was  a  physician.  He  entered  King's  College,  Windsor,  in  1803,  but 
seems  not  to  have  graduated.  He  became  a  physician,  practised  for 
some  years  in  Kentville,  but  finally  removed  to  St.  John,  N.  B., 
where  he  probably  died.  In  1871,  when  he  was  83,  the  degree  of 
D.  C.  L.  was  conferred  on  him  by  King's. 

William  Brenton  was  a  brother-in-law  of  Dr.  John  Halliburton 
and  an  uncle  of  Sir  Brenton  Halliburton,  Nova  Scotia's  eighth  Chief 
Justice.  He  was  a  son  of  the  Hon.  Jahleel  and  his  second  wife,  Mary 
(Neargrass)  (Scott)  Brenton,  of  Newport,  R.  I.,  where  he  was  bom 
Jan.  4,  1750,  and  was  a  brother  not  only  of  Mrs.  John  Halliburton, 
but  of  the  first  wife  of  Hon.  Joseph  Gerrish  of  Halifax,  and  a  half 
brother  of  Hon.  Judge  James  Brenton,  M.  L.  C,  of  the  Nova  Scotia 
Supreme  Bench,  who  died  at  Halifax,  in  1806,  or  early  in  1807. 
William  Brenton,  the  Aylesford  grantee,  married  in  Newport,  R.  I., 
Feb.  24,  1779,  Frances,  daughter  of  Benjamin  and  Mary  Wickham,. 
and  Sabine  says  that  two  of  his  sons  were  in  the  Royal  navy. 

John  Chandler  was  probably  the  Hon.  John  Chandler,  a 
notable  Loyalist  of  Worcester,  Mass.,  "one  of  the  six  inhabitants  of 
Worcester  who  were  included  in  the  act  of  banishment  forbidding^ 
the  return  of  former  citizens  of  the  state  who  had  joined  the  enemy". 
He  was  born  Feb.  26,  1720-1,  in  New  London,  Conn.,  married  first,, 
March  4,  1740-1,  Dorothy  Paine  of  Worcester,  secondly,  June  11, 
1746,  Mary  Church,  of  Bristol,  R.  I.,  and  had  in  all  fourteen  children. 
He  had  a  large  and  valuable  estate  in  Worcester,  and  was  a  very 
prominent  person  there.  He  died  in  London,  Sept.  26,  1800,  and  was 
buried  in  Islington.  He  was  nearly  related  to  the  Chandlers  of  New 

Lemuel  Cleveland,  Jr.,  son  of  Lemuel  Cleveland,  formerly  of 
New  London,  Conn,  (who  probably  settled  in  New  Brunswick),  and 
his  wife  Lydia  (Woodward),  was  born  about  1750,  and  died  after 
1800.    He  married  a  Miss  Sabeans,  but  probably  left  no  family     He 


and  his  wife  lived  in  "Wilmot,  and  he  willed  his  property,  it  is  said, 
to  Lemuel  Cleveland  Banks,  of  Nictaux. 

Captain  John  Fowler  was  undoubtedly  a  Loyalist  from  West- 
chester, N.  Y.,  but  precisely  what  his  relationship  was  to  Jonatlian 
Fowler,  born  in  East  Chester,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  13,  1713,  who  "went  to 
Nova  Scotia  with  Samuel  Sneden  and  other"  in  1783,  and  for  a 
little  while  lived  in  Digby,  we  do  not  know.  From  Jonathan's  sons, 
it  is  said,  are  descended  the  Fowlers  of  Digby  and  Annapolis 
counties,  some  of  whom  have  been  known  also  in  King's  County. 
Jonathan,  himself  died  Feb.  9,  1784,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Paul's 
Churchyard,  East  Chester.  His  wife,  whom  he  married  in  1840,  was? 
!Anne  Seymour,  born  in  1720,  died  Sept.  11,  1803. 

Of  the  Halliburton  and  Inglis  families  we  shall  give  an  account 
in  the  Family  Sketches.  The  Van  Buskirk  family,  who  settled  in 
Aylesford  and  have  always  been  prominently  identified  with  that 
township 's  progress,  were  New  Jersey  Loyalists,  their  descent  being 
mingled  Danish  and  Dutch.  John  Van  Buskirk  (Laurens,  Andres- 
sen),  married  Theodosia ,  had  a  family,  and  died  in  1783.    Of  his 

children,  Lawrence,  born  in  1729,  in  Hackensack,  Bergen  County, 
New  Jersey,  had  an  estate  in  New  Jersey  and  owned  slaves.  Pro- 
testing against  the  Revolution,  he  became  a  captain  in  the  King's 
Orange  Rangers,  and  in  1783  fled  to  St.  John,  N.  B.  Soon  after,  he 
removed,  so  it  is  said,  to  Kentville,  from  there  going  to  Aylesford,  in 
which  township  he  purchased  a  farm  of  Daniel  Bowen.  He  married 
his  first  cousin,  Jannetje  Van  Buskirk,  daughter  of  his  uncle  Abra- 
ham, who  died  in  Shelburne,  N.  S.,  in  1791.  He  himself 
died  in  Shelburne  (according  to  Sabine),  in  1803.  His  prop- 
erty in  New  Jersey,  which  was  confiscated,  was  worth  £2,400. 
Abraham  Van  Buskirk,  son  of  John  and  Theodosia,  a  brother  of 
Lawrence,  born  about  1740,  also  became  a  Revolutionary  officer.  He 
was  colonel  of  the  Fourth  Battalion  of  New  Jersey  Volunteers,  and 
was  second  in  command  to  Brigadier-General  Arnold  at  Saratoga. 
He  settled  at  Shelburne  in  1784,  and  was  the  first  mayor  of  that 

Of  the  Van-Cortlandt  family,   Philip   Van-Cortlandt,   son   of 


Stephen  (who  died  in  1756),  and  his  wife  Mary  (Ricketts),  born  in 
1739,  was  the  representative  of  the  family  and  owner  of  the  Manor 
of  Cortlandt,  in  Westchester,  N,  Y.    Among  the  Loyalist  families 
who  accepted  the  hospitality  of  Nova  Scotia  none  can  more  properly 
lay  claim  to  aristocratic  lineage  than  the  Van  Cortlandts.     They 
were,  it  is  said,  of  noble  Dutch  origin,  their  ancestor  coming  to  New 
York  in  1629,  as  secretary  to  the  first  governor  sent  out  by  the 
States'  General.    From  the  New  Netherlands  government  the  family 
received  two  manors,  Yonkers  and  Cortlandt,  but  in  the  Revolution, 
Philip  Van  Cortlandt,  adhering  to  the  Crown,  and  as  "an  officer  in 
the  volunteers  being  frequently  engaged  against  the  Whigs",  shared 
the  fate  of  so  many  other  Loyalists  and  had  his  estates  confiscated, 
"as  well  in  possession  as  in  reversion".    In  the  act  of  confiscation 
his  claim  as  the  representative  of  Cortlandt  Manor  was,  of  course,  • 
included.    Prom  New  York  he  came  to  Nova  Scotia,  but  from  this 
province  went  to  England,  where  he  died  in  1814.  His  wife,  Cathar- 
ine, a  daughter  of  Jacob  Ogden,  died  also  in  England  in  1828. 
He  had  in  all,  born,  twenty-three  children,  but  in  the  foregoing  list 
of  Aylesford  grantees,  we  have  the  names  probably  of  all  who  were 
living  in  1790.    Of  his  sons,  Sabine  says  that  Arthur  Auchmuty  was 
captain  in  the  45th  Regiment,  and  died  at  Madras.    Henry  Clinton 
was  a  major  in  the  31st  Regiment,  and  in  1835  was  living  in  the  East 
Indies ;  Jacob  Ogden  was  a  captain  in  some  regiment  and  was  killed 
in  Spain  in  1811 ;  Philip,  Jr.,  born  in  1766,  twin  with  Stephen,  was 
an  ensign  in  the  3rd  Battalion  of  New  Jersey  Volunteers  in  the  Revo- 
lution.    Of  his  daughters,  Gertrude  was  married  to  Vice- Admiral 
Sir  Edward  Buller,  Bart.      Whether  the  Van  Cortlandt  family's 
large  grant  in  Aylesford  was  escheated  we  have  not  inquired,  from 
the  absence  of  the  Van  Cortlandt  name  in  the  record  of  early  trans- 
fers of  land  in  the  township  it  would  seem  as  if  it  could  not  have 
been  sold  by  its  original  owners. 

The  complete  history  of  the  Loyalist  migration  to  Nova 
Scotia  between  1776  and  1784  remains  yet  to  be  written.  In  1776 
Howe's  fleet  brought  almost  the  whole  of  the  pre-Revolutionary 
aristocracy  of  Boston  to  the  town  of  Halifax,  and  at  the  close  of  the 


war,  as  we  have  said,  such  multitudes  from  New  York,  New  Jersey, 
and  colonies  farther  south,  landed  at  the  ports  of  Shelburne  and 
Annapolis  Eoyal,  that  the  problem  of  how  to  locate  them  became 
almost  too  difficult  for  the  the  government  to  solve.  "Every  habita- 
tion is  crowded  with  them  (the  Loyalists)",  writes  the  Eev.  Jacob 
Bailey,  at  Annapolis,  in  1782,  ' '  and  many  are  unable  to  procure  any 
lodgings.  Many  of  these  distressed  people  left  large  possessions  in 
the  rebellious  colonies,  and  their  suffering  on  account  of  their  loy- 
alty, and  their  present  uncertain  and  destitute  condition,  render 
them  very  affecting  objects'of  compassion".  "Since  the  commence- 
ment of  this  week",  he  again  writes,  in  October,  1783,  "there  have 
arrived  at  Annapolis  five  ships,  eight  brigs,  and  four  sloops,  besides 
schooners,  with  near  a  thousand  people  from  (New)  York.  They 
must  be  turned  on  shore  without  any  shelter  in  this  rugged  season". 
In  November,  he  writes:  "Fifteen  hundred  fugitive  Loyalists  are 
just  landed  here  from  York  in  affecting  circumstances,  fatigued 
with  a  long  and  stormy  passage,  sickly  and  destitute  of  shelter  from 
advances  of  winter.  *  *  *  For  six  months  past  these  wretched 
outcasts  of  America  and  Britain  have  been  landing  at  Annapolis  and 
various  other  parts  of  this  province".  About  the  same  time,  he 
writes  the  Secretary  of  the  S.  P.  G. :  "  Since  my  last,  of  August  15th, 
above  seventeen  hundred  persons  have  arrived  at  Annapolis,  besides 
the  Fifty-seventh  Eegiment,  in  consequence  of  which  my  habitation 
is  crowded.  The  church  has  been  fitted  for  the  reception  of  several 
hundreds,  and  multitudes  are  still  without  shelter  in  this  rigorous 
and  stormy  season.  Near  four  hundred  of  these  miserable  exiles 
have  perished  in  a  violent  storm,  and  I  am  persuaded  that  disease, 
disappointment,  poverty,  and  chagrin  will  finish  the  course  of  many 
more  before  the  return  of  another  spring.  So  much  attention  is 
required  in  settling  these  strangers  that  nothing  of  a  pub  lick  nature 
can  be  pursued  to  effect".  From  records  like  these  we  are  able  to 
gain  some  true  idea  of  the  unhappy  conditions  under  which  the  Loy- 
alists who  received  land  in  Aylesford  entered  the  province. 

Memoranda  in  the  Register  of  St.  Mary's  Parish,  Aylesford, 
give  the  inhabitants  in  the  township,  in  January,  1802,  as  42  families, 


comprising  63  men,  62  women,  137  children,  and  3  negroes.  In  1828. 
as  172  families,  comprising  560  males,  495  females, — in  all  1,055  souls. 
In  1833  (census  taken  by  the  Rev.  Henry  L.  Owen),  as  214  families, 
comprising  694  males,  688  females,— in  all  1,382  souls.  la  1851 
(census  taken  by  W.  Miller),  1,954  souls.  In  this  last  total  number, 
880  are  given  as  Baptists,  364  as  Methodists,  333  as  of  the  Church  of 
England,  275  as  Roman  Catholics,  74  as  Presbyterians,  8  as  of  the 
Free  Church,  2  as  Universalists,  18  not  specified  or  not  known.  At 
this  period,  Aylesford  had  10  day  schools,  with  274  children  in  atten- 
dance.   The  area  of  the  township  is  given  as  280  square  miles. 

In  a  sketch  of  the  History  of  Aylesford  township,  the  village  of 
Morden,  on  the  shore  of  the  Bay  of  Pundy,  demands  especial  notice. 
This  hamlet,  which  until  recent  times  was  called  "Prench  Cross",  was 
the  scene  of  one  of  the  saddest  episodes  in  the  history  of  the  deporta- 
tion of  the  Acadians  from  King's  County.  At  the  time  of  the  expul- 
sion, as  we  have  seen,  no  inconsiderable  number  of  the  Prench  fled 
to  the  woods  and  so  escaped  the  edict  of  exile  that  had  been  passed 
upon  them.  A  newspaper  article  which  we  shall  presently  repro- 
duce, describes  in  detail  the  escape  of  a  group  of  the  Miuas  Acadians 
to  Aylesford,  and  the  terrible  sufferings  they  endured  in  the  winter 
they  spent  there, — sufferings,  indeed,  that  ended  in  death  for  many 
of  them  in  the  lonely  Aylesford  woods.  "When  Spring  came,  those 
who  survived  went  in  canoes  up  the  Bay  of  Pundy,  probably  to 
Cumberland,  perhaps,  however,  crossing,  to  New  Brunswick,  but 
before  they  went,  to  mark  the  graves  of  their  dead,  they  erected  a 
wooden  cross  on  a  bluff  near  the  present  village  of  Morden. 

In  the  year  1815,  says  the  late  John  E.  Orpin,  "I  first  came 
across  the  North  Mountain  from  the  valley,  with  my  brothers,  to 
this  place,  for  the  purpose  of  fishing.  I  saw  on  the  point  a  cross 
about  seven  feet  high,  which  was  called  by  everybody  the  Prench 
Cross.  It  was  a  matter  of  common  knowledge  that  a  group  of 
Acadians,  driven  from  Annapolis  Royal  in  the  fall  of  1755,  came  up 
the  valley  to  Aylesford  and  encamped  there  for  a  month  or  so,  then 
crossed  the  mountain  to  this  place  and  encamped  here  until  spring, 
when  they  went  to  Port  Cumberland.    During  the  winter,  many  died. 


it  is  said,  of  fever  and  starvation,  and  were  buried  here.  Later,  their 
comrades  erected  the  cross  to  mark  their  graves.  I  have  seen  the 
cross  since  1815,  dozens  of  times ;  in  1820  it  still  stood,  but  after  that 
year  I  was  absent  for  several  years,  and  when  I  came  back  it  was 
gone.  It  stood  close  by  the  shore,  on  the  extreme  point,  but  the 
waves  have  washed  the  spot  bare,  and  the  place  where  it  stood  is  now 
in  a  ledge  of  rocks,  a  few  feet  out  from  the  shore ' '.  On  the  31st  of 
August,  1887,  we  learn,  another  cross  made  by  John  Orpin,  painted 
by  George  H.  Fall,  and  lettered  by  Thomas  Jones,  was  publicly 
erected  as  nearly  as  possible  on  the  spot  where  the  older  cross  stood. 
Mr.  Orpin,  the  maker  of  the  new  cross,  was  at  this  time  eighty-one 
years  old.  In  his  account  we  are  told  that  the  Aylesford  Acadians 
who  erected  the  cross  came  from  Annapolis  Royal ;  in  the  newspaper 
account  which  here  follows  it  is  stated  that  they  came  from  Minas; 
which  tradition  is  right  we  do  not  know. 

In  the  Halifax  Herald  of  January  25,  1889,  a  writer  whose  name 
is  unknown  to  us  has  given  what  he  calls  "a  thrilling  chapter  of 
Nova  Scotia  history".  His  account  of  the  "Black  Winter  Among  the 
Acadians  at  French  Cross"  is  so  graphic  that  we  reproduce  it  here 
entire.  "As  is  well  known",  says  the  writer,  "the  southern  shore  of 
the  Bay  of  Fundy  is  overlooked  by  a  frowning,  beetling  cliff,  extend- 
ing all  the  way  from  Cape  Split  to  Digby  Neck.  Against  this  wall 
of  solid  trap,  from  time  immemorial,  the  thundering  waves,  like  bat- 
tering-rams, have  hurled  themselves  in  vain.  At  certain  points,  how- 
ever, there  are  breaks  in  this  high  bluff,  making  access  to  the  Bay 
easy,  and  affording  harbours  for  vessels.  One  of  these  places  is  found 
opposite  the  Aylesford  St.  Mary's  Church.  The  ancients  called  it 
the  'French  Cross',  the  moderns  call  it  'Morden'. 

"Long  before  either  English  or  French  speech  was  heard  along 
the  shores  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  the  Miemacs  had  their  highways  of 
travel  over  land  and  water,  as  well  established  and  as  well  known  as 
are  the  railways,  coach  roads,  and  steamer  routes,  of  the  present  day. 
The  country  around  the  head  of  the  Bay,  all  the  way  from  the 
Petitcodiac  to  Advocate,  was  favourite  ground  for  the  savages  of 


olden  times.  Equally  desirable  was  the  district  along  the  banks  of 
the  Annapolis  river.  The  abundance  of  fish,  fowl,  and  wild  beasts 
made  these  parts  of  the  country  desirable  dwelling  places  for  the  red 
men.  And  there  was  necessarily  much  travelling  from  place  to  place. 
In  choosing  their  highways  the  Indians,  like  the  modern  railway 
men,  looked  for  routes  securing  the  greatest  possible  advantage. 
Prom  any  point  at  the  head  of  the  Bay,  outside  of  Minas  Basin, 
canoes  would  soon  glide  across  to  French  Cross.  An  easy  portage  of 
about  four  miles  would  bring  them  to  the  Annapolis  river,  near 
where  St.  Mary's  Church  in  Aylesford  now  stands.  Here  the  canoes 
would  be  launched,  and  down  the  river  to  Digby  it  was  mere  music 
and  poetry  to  travel.  The  gentle  current  would  bear  them  along 
the  sinuosities  of  the  river,  where  there  were  always  mink,  otter, 
beaver,  rabbits,  partridges,  ducks  and  geese  for  their  swift-winged 
arrows  and  their  traps  and  snares ;  and  salmon  and  shad  in  plenty  for 
their  deft  spears.  High  pleasure  and  glorious  sport  it  was  for  the 
red  men  to  drift  down  this  stream,  and  not  less  was  the  fun  to  their 
papooses  and  squaws.  Silently  they  would  float  along,  surprising 
game  at  every  turn  of  the  stream.  As  soon  as  the  French  came  into 
possession  of  the  lands  at  Annapolis,  and  around  the  head  of  the 
Bay,  and  had  made  friends  with  the  Micmacs,  they  naturally 
adopted  the  Indian  routes  by  land  and  water. 

"In  the  early  autumn  of  1755  a  canoe,  well  manned  with 
Indians,  might  have  been  seen  gliding  up  the  Cornwallis  river,  and 
then  being  taken  rapidly  over  the  portage  between  Berwick  and  the 
Caribou  bog.  Here  being  again  launched,  it  swept  along  the  Anna- 
polis river,  impelled  both  by  the  current  and  the  Indians'  paddles. 
Its  occupants  stopped  neither  to  shoot  fowl  nor  to  spear  fish.  On 
and  on  they  went  till  they  arrived  at  the  point  a  little  above  the 
Paradise  railway  station.  Here  they  came  upon  the  eastern  end  of 
the  Acadian  settlement.  They  were  the  bearers  of  startling  news. 
Gloom  was  on  their  faces,  and  alarm  in  their  actions  and  words.  The 
intelligence  they  gave  brought  consternation  to  the  hearts  of  the 
Aeadians,  for  the  latter  now  learned  from  their  Micmac  friends  that 
their  compatriots  at  Grand  Pre  and  Canard  were  prisoners  in  the 


Grand  Pre  parish  church,  and  surrounded  by  armed  red  coats ;  and 
that  ships  were  anchored  at  the  mouth  of  the  Gaspereau,  ready  to 
bear  them  away  from  their  homes  to  lands  strange  and  unknown. 

"The  news  flew  down  the  river  and  over  the  marshes  on  the- 
wings  of  the  wind,  and  spread  on  either  side  till  it  reached  the  home 
of  every  habitant.  The  hearts  of  the  people  quailed  before  an 
impending  calamity  so  dire,  a  fate  so  terrible.  In  Upper  Granville, 
that  is  from  below  Bridgetown  to  Paradise,  a  meeting  of  the  people 
was  hastily  called.  Of  course,  the  pressing,  burning  question  was,, 
what  under  the  circumstances  should  be  done.  Already  their 
priests  and  delegates  were  prisoners  in  Halifax,  and  they  were  face 
to  face  with  the  black  sequel.  Some  said:  'Make  no  resistance,, 
surrender  to  the  English  and  trust  Providence'.  Others  said,  'Nay; 
of  all  evils  before  us  this  is  the  worst  to  choose ! '  The  result  was  a 
permanent  division  of  opinion.  About  sixty  resolved  on  instant 
flight  up  the  river.  But  the  risk  was  too  great  to  travel  either  by- 
stream,  or  by  the  old  French  road.  In  either  course  they  might 
meet  the  English  soldiers.  Their  route  must  be  north  of  the  river,, 
north  of  the  road. 

"Loading  themselves  to  the  full  measure  of  their  burden 
bearing  powers  with  provisions  and  camp  life  conveniences,  they 
took  a  wailing  farewell  of  their  companions,  who  had  resolved  to- 
remain,  and  started  on  their  wearisome  journey.  Slowly  and 
cautiously  they  moved  up  the  country,  till  they  came  to  a  point  about 
a  mile  east  of  Kingston  railway  station.  There  these  fugitive  men, 
women,  and  children  encamped.  Their  Micmac  friends  acted  as 
pickets  and  spies.  On  these  sand  dunes  they  heard  from  time  ta 
time  of  the  progress  of  the  deportation  at  Annapolis,  Grand  Pre 
and  Cumberland.  Their  bread  lasted  but  a  short  time,  and  this 
forced  them  to  a  diet  of  berries,  fish,  and  venison.  Dysentery,  com- 
mon at  that  season,  broke  out  among  them.  Death  began  its  work.  Na 
priest  was  there  to  minister  to  the  soul,  no  physician  to  care  for 
the  body.  Fear  aggravated  the  malady.  With  sad  hearts  they  dug 
their  friends '  graves  in  the  soft  sands  of  the  Aylesf ord  plains.  "With 
an  agony  such  as  only  these  social,  simple-hearted  Acadians  were 


•capable  of,  they  buried  their  dead  in  these  graves,  and  their  wailings 
xesounded  among  the  trim,  straight  trunks  of  the  ancient  pines. 

"All  Aylesford  has  heard  of  the  'French  Burying  Ground'.  In 
it  the  money  diggers  have  found  bones,  but  no  money.  The  mineral 
rods  in  the  hands  of  the  experts  have  pointed  unerringly  to  the 
■chest  of  gold.  Digging  must  be  done  in  the  night.  Spectres  and 
.ghosts  were  ever  on  guard,  and  at  any  moment  might  be  encoun- 
tered. Again  and  again  these  supernatural  visitors  have  appeared, 
.striking  terror  into  the  hearts  of  the  gold-seekers.  More  than  once 
the  crow-bar,  thrust  deep  into  the  soft  soil,  has  struck  the  iron 
-chest  containing  the  gold;  but  incautious  lips  have  uttered  some 
sudden  exclamation,  and  away  has  gone  the  enchanted  chest  to 
another  place,  driven  through  the  sand  by  the  might  of  the  presiding 
:ghost.  Baffled  and  chagrined  by  their  own  folly,  the  diggers  have 
"then  gone  home  empty-handed,  denoimcing  their  impulsive  comrade, 
and  resolved  to  be  more  cautious  the  next  time.  Not  a  man  of  three 
score  years  in  all  Aylesford,  but  remembers  these  adventures  of 
olden  times. 

"The  tragedy  of  the  expulsion  dragged  its  ci'uel  length  along 
through  the  autumn  and  into  the  early  winter.  The  intelligence 
brought  to  the  camp  by  the  faithful  Micmacs  convinced  the  Acadians 
that  they  were  so  hemmed  in  by  dangers  that  their  safest  course  was 
to  take  the  trail  to  French  Cross  and  remain  there  until  spring,  and 
-then  cross  the  Bay  and  wander  on  to  Quebec.  This  plan,  desperate 
though  it  was,  was  executed.  Under  the  shadow  of  the  primeval 
forest,  close  by  the  shore,  where  a  brook  still  empties  itself  into  the 
waters  of  the  Bay,  about  six  miles  from  their  camp  in  the  valley 
-they  erected  their  rude  winter  huts.  Before  leaving  the  plains  they 
bedewed  with  tears  the  graves  of  their  companions,  and  then  wearily 
made  their  way  over  the  level,  wooded  country,  up  the  slopes  of  the 
moimtain,  and  down  to  the  shore  of  the  Bay.  From  the  place 
chosen  for  their  winter  home  they  could  see  across  to  the  opposite 
shore.  The  English  vessels  were  continually  passing  up  and  down 
the  Bay,  and  even  should  they  get  safely  to  the  other  side  it  would 
not  be  possible  for  them  to  go  to  Quebec,  for  not  only  grim  forests, 


but  deep  snows  would  effectually  bar  their  way.  Until  spring,  there- 
fore, they  must  stay  there  as  contentedly  as  they  could.  During  all 
this  bitter  experience  their  Micmac  friends  stood  faithfully  by  them. 
Though  there  were  many  moose  and  caribou  in  the  woods  it  was  not 
always  easy  to  capture  them,  yet  they  managed  to  get  a  good  deal  of 
venison,  and  to  vary  their  diet  they  found  an  almost  inexhaustible 
quantity  of  mussels  clinging  to  the  rocks. 

"The  winter  passed  slowly  away.  Above  them,  through  the 
rigid,  leafless  branches  of  the  giant  forest,  howled  the  storm.  But 
around  their  huts  were  always  the  sympathetic  spruce  and  fir  trees, 
kindly  and  green.  In  December,  they  saw  the  last  of  the  transports 
pass  down  the  Bay,  bearing  away  their  compatriots  to  unknown 
shores.  As  they  gazed  upon  them,  appearing,  passing,  and  disap- 
pearing in  the  west,  borne  on  to  shores  and  destiny  all  unknown, 
they  envied  them  their  lot.  The  last  tidings  brought  them  late  in  the 
autumn  was  that  all  the  Acadian  homes  had  been  burned.  No  hope 
or  shelter  appeared  in  that  direction,  so  there  they  remained,  the 
winter  through,  in  their  huts  by  the  sea.  Disease  dogged  their  steps, 
from  the  sand  dunes  to  their  cold  camps  on  the  shore.  Death 
•claimed  more  victims.  The  weak  among  them,  both  old  and  young, 
succumbed,  and  another  cemetery  was  made.  Close  by  the  shore, 
opposite  their  camps,  was  an  open  space,  green  till  covered  by  the 
snow.    There  they  dug  more  graves  for  their  fallen  companions. 

"At  length  spring  came.  Indians  helped  them  flay  the  birches 
and  construct  enough  canoes  to  take  the  survivors  to  the  New 
Brunswick  shores.  "When  all  was  ready  the  fugitives  loaded  their 
tianoes,  wept  over  the  graves  of  their  dead,  took  a  farewell  look  at 
their  rude  huts  and  the  heaps  of  bones  of  moose,  partridges,  and 
-caribou,  and  the  shells  of  mussels,  and  committed  themselves  to  the 
tender  mercies  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  whose  calms  and  storms  they 
had  watched  through  all  that  black  winter.  As  the  shore  receded 
from  their  gaze  their  tear-dimmed  eyes  rested  upon  one  object  which 
stirred  their  deepest  feelings.  It  was  the  wooden  cross  they  had 
•erected  to  protect  the  graves  of  their  dead  brothers,  sisters,  fathers, 
imothers,  and  children.    No  priest  had  been  present  to  absolve  the 


dying  or  to  say  solemn  service  for  the  dead,  but  they  left  this  symbol 
of  their  religion  to  hold  their  sepulchres  sacred  in  the  eyes  of  all 
who  might  visit  the  place  in  after  years. 

"On  the  opposite  side  of  the  Bay  they  foimd  some  of  their 
countrymen,  who,  like  themselves,  had  endured  the  sufferings  of 
camp  life  throughout  that  rigorous  winter  with  Micmac  friends. 
Patience,  fortitude,  and  hope,  characteristic  of  the  Acadian,  did  not 
forsake  them.  They  knew  their  homes  were  in  ashes,  but  a  blind 
belief  possessed  them  that  they  should  return  to  them,  and  again  sea 
in  spring  their  green  fields,  bursting  forests,  and  blossoming  apple 
trees;  again  hear  the  sweet  call  of  their  church  bells  to  mass  and 
vespers ;  and  again  around  their  bright  fires,  drink  their  cider,  smoke 
their  pipes,  and  enjoy  life  as  they  had  done  in  bygone  days". 

Aylesford  Township  officials  appointed  by  the  Court  of  Sessions 
October  16,  1812,  were:  Overseers  of  the  Poor:  James  Harris, 
Nathan  Randall,  Jonathan  Smith.  Surveyers  of  Highways :  James 
Harris,  Nathan  Randall,  Nicholas  Beckwith,  George  Orpin,  Timothy 
Landrus,  Sr.  Assessors:  Jonathan  Smith,  William  Parker,  John 
Dugan.  Pound  Keeper:  John  Patterson.  Constables:  William 
Greaves,  Samuel  Van  Buskirk.  Hog  Reaves:  Matthew  Reason, 
Moses  Banks,  Jonathan  Smith,  Richard  NicoUs.  Collector  of  Rates : 
James  Patterson.  Surveyors  of  Bricks:  William  Parker,  William 
Randall.  Surveyors  of  Lumber:  Samuel  Randall,  Edward  Morgan. 
Fence  Viewers:  Blias  Graves,  Francis  Tupper,  Joseph  Spinney. 
Town  Clerk:  Robert  Kerr.  January  2,  1813,  the  Aylesford  town 
meeting  nominated  Henry  U.  Van  Buskirk,  James  and  John  Patter- 
son, Alexander  Jaques,  and  Nathan  and  Samuel  Randall,  as  trustees 
of  schools  for  Aylesford.  For  the  encouragement  of  a  school  a  hun- 
dred and  four  pounds  had  recently  been  raised  by  general  subscrip- 
tion, the  Society  for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel  giving  sixteen 
pounds,  thirteen  shillings  and  four  pence,  as  its  contribution  to  the 


Until  1840  the  township  of  Parrsborough,  in  Cumberland  coun- 
ty, was  included  in  the  County  of  King's.  Like  Aylesford,  however, 
it  never  had  the  privilege  accorded  to  Cornwallis  and  Horton  of 
sending  representatives  to  the  legislature,  and  as  in  the  case  of 
Aylesford,  we  are  not  sure  when  it  was  formally  established  as 
a  township.  "The  township  of  Parrsborough",  writes  Haliburton 
in  1829,  "was  named  after  the  late  Governor  Parr  (the  12th  Eng- 
lish governor  of  Nova  Scotia),  and  though  situated  on  the  eastern 
side  of  the  Bason  of  Minas,  is  appended  to  King's  County.  There 
is  a  small  village  bearing  the  name  of  the  township  nearly  opposite 
the  extreme  point  of  the  Cornwallis  mountain,  from  whence  the 
packets  run  to  Horton  and  Windsor  twice  a  week,  and  occasionally 
oftener.  The  distance  between  this  place  and  Windsor  is  thirty- 
five  miles.  The  village  is  overlooked  by  a  bold  bluff,  two  hundred 
and  fifty  feet  high,  called  Partridge  Island,  which,  resisting  the 
tides  of  the  Bay  of  Pundy,  affords  shelter  in  the  summer  months 
to  vessels  employed  in  this  internal  navigation.  Near  the  junction 
of  this  township  with  Colchester,  is  a  beautiful  group  of  islands, 
five  in  number,  and  generally  known  as  the  Five  Islands.  They  rise 
abruptly  from  the  sea  and  present  a  very  picturesque  appearance. 
About  two  miles  from  the  village  is  the  Parish  Church.  From 
this  place  to  Francklin  Manor,  the  lands  on  both  sides  of  the 
road  to  Cumberland  were,  in  the  year  1774,  subdivided  into  farm 
lots  and  offered  for  sale  at  the  rate  of  sixpence  per  acre,  but  at 
that  period,  such  was  the  low  estimation  in  which  the  country  was 
held  that  not  a  single  sale  could  be  effected.  In  1783  and  at  sub- 
sequent periods  they  were  again  divided  into  sixty  farm  lots  of 
two  hundred  and  fifty  acres  each,  and  were  granted  to  such  fam- 


ilies  as  were  inclined  to  accept  of  them.  Besides  this  settlement 
there  are  several  others  in  Parrsborough,  that  are  in  a  thriving  and 
prosperous  condition.  The  inhabitants  experience  much  inconven- 
ience from  the  intervention  of  the  Bason  of  Minas,  between  Parrs- 
borough and  Kentville,  where  the  public  offices  are  held". 

The  original  boundaries  of  King's,  as  we  have  seen,  like  those 
of  Annapolis,  Halifax,  and  Cumberland,  were  very  wide,  and  even 
as  late  as  1784  what  still  remained  to  it  of  the  country  north  of 
the  Basin  of  Minas  was  increased  by  a  tract  extending  from  Cape 
Dore  to  Chignecto,  northward,  one  boundary  of  which  was  "Franck- 
lin  Manor",  a  large  domain  owned  by  the  Hon.  Michael  Francklin, 
lieutenant-governor  of  the  province  from  1766  until  probably  1776. 
The  27th  of  March,  1840,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  legislature  "to 
divide  the  township  of  Parrsborough,  and  to  annex  parts  thereof 
to  the  counties  of  Colchester  and  Cumberland".  The  act  reads: 
"Whereas  great  inconvenience  is  felt  by  the  inhabitants  of  Parrs- 
borough in  being  annexed  to  the  County  of  King's,  as  they  are 
cut  off  from  all  connection  with  their  county  during  the  winter 
months,  leaving  them  in  a  great  measure  without  protection  of 
law,  for  remedy  thereof:  Be  it  enacted  by  the  Lieut.  Governor, 
Council,  and  Assembly,  that  from  and  after  the  passing  of  this  act, 
all  that  part  of  King's  County  lying  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Basin  of  Minas,  and  known  as  the  Township  of  Parrsborough,  shall 
l)e  and  the  same  is  hereby  annexed  to  the  counties  of  Cumberland 
and  Colchester,  as  follows : — All  that  part  of  the  Township  of  Parrs- 
borough lying  to  the  west  of  Harrington's  Kiver  in  the  Five  Islands, 
to  the  county  of  Cumberland,  and  the  remaining  part  of  said  Town- 
ship lying  east  of  Harrington's  River,  aforesaid,  to  the  County  of 
Colchester".  In  a  later  part  of  the  act  it  is  specified  that  all  Jus- 
tices of  the  Peace  and  other  county  officers  then  in  office,  should 
have  the  same  power  and  authority  while  their  commissions  lasted, 
in  the  new  counties  as  in  the  old.  The  portion  of  Parrsborough 
annexed  to  Cumberland  was  to  remain,  as  it  still  is,  a  distinct  and 
separate  township  of  Cumberland. 

Within  the  limits  of  the  original  township  of  Parrsborough, 


no  doubt  a  considerable  number  of  Acadian  French  had  their 
homes.  About  ten  years  after  the  removal  of  the  French  the  gov- 
ernment began  to, grant  land  in  Parrsborough  as  it  had  earlier  done 
in  Cornwallis  and  Horton,  to  English  speaking  settlers,  one  of  the 
earliest  grants,  it  is  said,  being  2,000  acres, — ^half  to  John  Avery, 
and  a  quarter  each  to  John  Bacon,  Jr.  and  Jacob  Lockhart.  The 
first  of  these  early  grantees,  by  deed  bearing  date  April  8,  1777, 
transferred  his  land  to  Asa  and  Abijah  Scott  of  Fort  Sackville, 
in  Halifax  County,  and  Jacob  Hurd.  In  time  the  ownership  of  the 
Scotts  in  this  Parrsborough  land  passed  to  James  Ratchford,  who 
gave  for  it  the  not  excessive  sum  of  five  hundred  and  fifty  pounds. 
A  grant  that  may  perhaps  be  even  slightly  earlier  than  this,  has 
the  date  of  April  28,  1763.  The  amount  comprised  in  this  latter 
tract  was  also  2,000  acres,  and  the  grantees  were,  Abel  and  Michael 
Michener,  Matthew  Shepherd,  and  "William  and  George  Forbes. 
The  land  thus  granted  is  said  to  be  "at  Advocate  Harbour,  near 
Cape  Dore,  in  the  County  of  King's".  Another  grant,  dating  from 
1784,  was  587  acres  to  Rev.  Thomas  Shreve.  This  was  "on  the 
east  side  of  the  road  leading  from  Partridge  Island  towards  Cum- 
berland, and  east  side  Chignecto  River  in  King's".  A  large  grant 
of  8,900  acres  was  made,  under  the  seal  of  Governor  Parr,  October 
15,  1784,  to  Thomas  Pottinson,  Lieut.  Francis  Fraser,  Capt.  Joseph 
Vought,  Christopher  Vought,  Thomas '  Yelverton,  Ensign  Francis 
Finney,  Lieut.  Thomas  J.  Pritchard,  Capt.  Samuel  Lindsay,  Lieut. 
John  "Wightman,  Capt.  John  Hetfield,  Adjutant  Alexander  Clark, 
Capt.  Alexander  McDonald,  Capt.  James  Raymond,  and  Lieut. 
Eleazer  Taylor. 

As  will  at  once  be  imagined,  these  grantees  were  chiefly,  per- 
haps indeed  all,  officers  who  had  fought  in  the  American  Revolu- 
tion on  the  losing  side.  Another  grant  was  to  Thomas  Parr,  Es- 
quire, John  Parr,  Jr.,  William  Parr,  and  Harriet  Parr,  "in  severalty 
imto  each  of  them  and  unto  each  and  every  of  their  several  and 
respective  heirs  and  assigns".  The  grant  comprised  "several 
plantations  of  land  comprehended  within  a  tract  of  2,800  acres, 
situate  and  being  within  the  Township  of  Parrsborough",  Thomas 


Parr  receiving  Lot  no.  57,  John  Parr,  Jr.  Lot  58,  William  Parr 
Lot  59,  Harriet  Parr  Lot  60.  Each  of  the  lots  contained  seven  hun- 
dred  acres,  and  the  "consideration"  given  was  two  shillings  for 
every  hundred  acres.  The  grant  bears  date  August  8,  1795.  The 
same  date.  Governor  Parr  granted  21,380  acres  to  a  large  number 
of  men,  most  of  whom  were  Loyalist  Refugees,  new  to  the  province, 
one  or  two,  however,  being  men  who  had  previously  lived  in  other 
townships  of  King's.  The  names  on  this  grant  are:  Lieut.  Col. 
Blisha  Lawrence,  Major  Isaac  Kipp,  Lieut.  John  Eeid,  Capt.  John 
Longstreet,  Lieut.  Adolphus  French,  Quartermaster  John  Nowlan, 
Sarah  Bessionet,  Capt.  Edmund  Ward,  Lieut.  Elijah  Fowler,  Lieut. 
Asher  Dunham,  Letitia  Barnston,  Lieut.  Robert  Spicer,  William 
Taylor,  Esq.,  Lieut.  Patrick  Henry,  Richard  Walker,  Esq.,  Lieut. 
Moses  Ward,  Capt.  James  Stewart,  Rebecca  Cloud,  Capt.  Finley 
Brown,  Lieut.  John  Monroe,  Lieut.  Luther  Hathaway,  Major  John 
Vandyke,  Capt.  Samuel  Wilson,  Lieut.  Thomas  Loudon,  John 
Bowsley,  Charles  Bowsley,  Edmund  Butler,  Lieut.  William  Reid, 
James  Ratchford,  Thomas  Moore,  James  Mitchell,  Thomas  Harriott, 
William  Dumaine,  Col.  Edward  Cole,  John  Smith,  William 

It  is  recorded  in  the  Crown  Land  Office  that  the  rights  of  John 
Longstreet,  Adolphus  French,  Sarah  Bessionet,  Letitia  Barnston, 
William  Taylor,  Richard  Walker,  Moses  Ward,  Thomas  Loudon, 
John  Bowsley,  and  Charles  Bowsley,  were  excheated  May  14,  1814. 
How  many  of  the  others  of  these  grantees  actually  settled  on  their 
lands  we  do  not  know.  A  few,  however,  were  later  conspicuously 
identified  with  the  history  of  the  township,  notably  Col.  Elisha 
Lawrence,  James  Ratchford,  and  Thomas  William  Moore. 

In  a  grant  bearing  date  August  18,  1785,  many  Scotch  names 
occur.  The  list  is  as  follows:  John  Campbell,  Donald  McKay, 
Thomas  Smith,  John  McPherson,  Alexander  McLean,  John  McGil- 
veroy,  Lieut.  Robert  Clarke,  Peter  Rogers,  James  Dick,  John 
Mathieson,  John  Irwin,  Robert  Buchan,  Angus  McLeod,  Thomas 
Martin,  Andrew  Anderson,  Michael  Wilson,  John  Carry,  William 
McKegan,  John  Jardine,  John  McMillan,  Timothy  Hammond,  John 


McLeod,  John  Cunningham,  Patrick  Murphy,  Daniel  Campbell, 
Alexander  McDonald,  William  Cummins,  Peter  Morrison,  Charles 
McLoughlin,  David  Young,  Charles  McKinnon,  Norman  McKenzie, 
Neil  McLean,  James  Smith,  Jonathan  Crow,  Henry  St.  Clair,  Peter 
Nicholson,  William  Campbell,  Charles  McGregor,  Donald  Mclver, 
and  several  others.  The  antecedents  of  these  men  we  do  not  know, 
but  William  Campbell  is  probably  the  William  Campbell  who  was 
appointed  a  JTistice  of  the  Peace  in  King's  County  a  few  years  after 
the  date  of  this  grant,  and  it  is  probably  he  who  as  early  as  1814 
was  Judge  of  Probate  for  the  county  and  was  living  in  Cornwallis, 
The  6th  of  April,  1814,  another  grant  in  Parrsborough,  consisting 
of  1,700  acres,  was  given  to  James  Noble  Shannon,  Esq.,  James 
Noble  Shannon,  Jr.,  Elijah  Kenwood,  and  Silas  H.  Crane.  The 
number  of  acres  to  each  of  the  first  three  of  these  men  was  five 
hundred,  to  Silas  H.  Crane  the  number  was  but  two  hundred. 
Among  others  who  received  grants  from  Governor  Parr,  were  Lieut, 
John  Connolly,  who  received  1,000  acres,  and  Capt.  D.  Meyern,  who 
received  700.  The  first  of  these  grants  bears  date  July  21,  1785,  the 
second,  June  7,  1787. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Executive  Council  in  Halifax,  July  20,  1786, 
a  memorial  was  presented  from  Lt.-Col.  Elisha  Lawrence,  "in  be- 
half of  the  inhabitants  of  Parrsborough,  requesting  that  part  of 
the  township  be  erected  into  a  parish,  whereon  it  was  resolved  that 
the  following  tract  be  for  that  purpose.  Beginning  at  Swan  Cove, 
about  two  miles  to  the  eastward  of  Chignecto  River,  thence  to 
run  north  ten  miles,  then  westerly  to  Parrsborough,  and  then 
bounded  on  the  north  and  west  by  said  Parrsborough,  and  on  the 
south  by  Minas  Gut  and  Basin,  comprehending  the  public  land  on 
the  east  side  of  Chignecto  River  and  all  the  lots  on  both  sides 
the  road  leading  from  thence  to  Francklin  Manor".  At  a  meet- 
ing of  the  Council,  December  21,  1786,  it  was  resolved  that  the 
Parish  of  Parrsborough  should  be  limited  and  bounded  as  above. 

June  18,  1798,  the  inhabitants  of  the  township  of  Parrsborough 
assembled  "to  choose  persons  to  receive  voluntary  contributions  for 
the  support  of  the  King's  Government  and  for  carrying  on  the 


present  just  and  necessary  war".  The  persons  chosen  were:  Capt. 
James  Ratchford,  Capt.  Samuel  Wilson,  and  Bleazer  Taylor,  Esq. 
The  people  who  subscribed  were:  Rev.  Thomas  Shreve,  Samuel 
Wilson,  John  Smith,  James  Noble  Shannon,  Eleazer  Taylor,  Will- 
iam Skidmore,  Jesse  Lewis,  Charles  Praser,  William  Conroy,  Fran- 
cis Phinney,  James  Ratchford,  Jonathan  Vickery,  Jonathan  Vickery, 
Jr.,  Mary  Crane,  widow;  James  Jinks,  Jr.,  William  Teate,  John 
Vickery,  Andrew  Thompson,  Jonathan  Davison,  Denis  Lefurfy, 
Robert  Kerr,  Walter  Shey,  James  Fordyce,  Thomas  William  Moore, 
F.  York,  James  Holt,  John  Fordyce,  Nicholas  Willigar.  Shortly 
after  the  raising  of  these  loyal  contributions,  August  1,  1798,  Nel- 
son defeated  the  French  in  the  Battle  of  the  Nile.  At  this  event 
there  was  great  rejoicing  in  Nova  Scotia;  in  Halifax  salutes  were 
fired  and  the  town  was  illuminated;  in  Lunenburg  a  similar  dem- 
onstration was  made. 

A  name  that  occurs  often  in  the  records  of  Parrsborough,  and 
that  has  had  one  previous  mention  in  this  history,  is  that  of  James 
Noble  Shannon,  who  was  long  the  leading  merchant  of  Partridge 
Island,  where  he  had  his  store  and  his  house.  Mr.  Shannon,  who 
was  born  in  Portsmouth,  New  Hampshire,  in  September,  1751,  was 
one  of  the  five  sons  of  Cutt  or  Cutts  Shannon,  a  leading  lawyer  of 
Portsmouth,  and  his  wife  Mary,  daughter  of  Lt.  Governor  George 
Yaughn,  his  great  grandfather  being  being  a  brother,  it  is  said; 
of  Sir  William  Shannon,  once  Mayor  of  the  city  of  Dublin.  James 
Noble,  who  was  named  for  an  uncle  by  marriage,  James  Noble 
of  Boston,  was  brought  up  in  Boston  and  educated  there.  When 
he  reached  manhood  he  went  into  the  lumber  business  in  Machias, 
Maine,  but  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution  he  removed  to  Horton, 
King's  County,  where  he  married  Chloe,  bom  Sept.  24,  1745,  elder 
daughter  of  Silas  and  Lucy  (Waterman)  Crane,  formerly  of  Con- 
necticut, a  sister  of  Col.  Jonathan  Crane,  long  one  of  Horton 's  most 
prominent  men.  Settling  finally  in  Parrsborough,  where  as  we 
have  seen,  together  with  his  brother-in-law,  Silas  H.  Crane,  he 
received  a  grant  of  land  in  1814,  he  soon  built  up  an  important 
business,  his  partner  in  which,  after  a  while,  was  Mr.  James  Ratch- 


ford,  a  young  Comwallis  man.  Mr.  Shannon  had  no  children,  so 
he  adopted  a  nephew,  James  Noble  Shannon,  father  of  the  late 
Hon.  Judge  Samuel  Leonard  Shannon,  of  the  Nova  Scotia  Su- 
preme Bench.  James  Noble  Shannon  died  at  Parrsborough,  Nov. 
7,  1822,  and  is  buried  in  a  picturesque  spot  in  sight  of  Minas  Basin, 
It  is  recorded  that  in  June,  1780,  the  lieutenant  of  a  privateer  from 
Machias,  with  seven  other  men  landed  at  Partridge  Island  and  be- 
gan to  rob  Mr.  Shannon's  store.  Lieutenant  Wheaton  was  in  charge 
of  a  small  force  of  regulars,  who  were  stationed  at  the  block  house 
on  Block-House  Hill,  and  with  five  of  his  men  he  routed  the  enemy, 
killing  the  Machias  lieutenant  and  two  of  his  men,  and  making 
prisoners  of  the  rest. 

A  sketch  of  the  Ratchford  family  will  be  found  in  the  Family 
Sketches  in  this  book.  "The  history  of  Parrsborough",  a  news- 
paper writer  says,  "was  for  half  a  century  and  more  the  history  of 
the  Ratchford  family.  There  was  a  time  when  the  half-pay  offi- 
cers, whose  descendants  formed  the  bulk  of  Parrsborough 's  popu- 
lation, were  wont  to  fire  a  cannon  when  anything  in  particular 
happened  to  a  Ratchford".  A  sketch  of  the  King's  County  Moore 
family,  originating  in  Parrsborough  with  the  Loyalist  Thomas  Will- 
iam Moorie,  will  also  be  found  in  the  Family  Sketches  in  this  book. 

In  1797,  Theophrastus'  Almanac  announces  for  the  information 
of  travellers  between  Windsor  and  Parrsborough,  that  "the  Parrs- 
borough packet  sails  regularly  between  Windsor  and  Parrsborough 
twice  in  every  week,  and  occasionally  three  times,  but  is  always  at 
Windsor  every  Tuesday  in  the  summer  season  (wind  and  weather 
permitting),  so  as  to  sail  from  thence  to  Parrsborough  the  first  high 
water  that  happens  at  or  after  twelve  o'clock  of  that  day.  The 
passage  money  for  each  person  is  five  shillings  and  sixpence  per 
head.  The  vessel  is  forty-two  tons  burthen  and  has  good  accom- 
modations for  passengers ;  and  likewise  for  taking  over  horses,  neat 
cattle,  and  sheep,  etc".  In  a  similar  advertisement  in  some  other 
almanac  in  1803,  the  passage  money  for  each  person  is  stated  to  be 
five  shillings,  and  the  freight  for  horses  and  cattle  seven  and  six- 
pence a  head. 


The  census  of  Parrsborough  in  1822  is  said  to  have  given  the 
tovm  223  families,  comprising  336  men,  293  women,  368  boys,  and 
290  girls,  in  all  1,287  persons.  April  19,1884,  an  act  was  passed  by 
the  legislature  to  incorporate  Parrsborough  town. 


For  some  years  after  the  New  England  planters  came  to  the 
county  the  social  and  business  centre  of  the  township  of  Horton  was 
the  Horton  Town  Plot.  As  late  as  1800,  however,  near  this  centre 
there  were  only  about  twenty  houses  and  one  or  two  stores,  though 
some  of  the  leading  families  of  the  township  from  the  first  had 
resided  there.  Prom  the  earliest  settlement,  what  is  now  "Wolfville 
had  a  considerable  number  of  houses,  and  by  the  beginning  of  the 
19th  century  a  few  more  had  been  added.  As  the  population  of 
Horton  multiplied  west,  and  as  the  business  increased,  Wolfville 
became  more  important  than  the  "Lower  Horton"  village,  but  by 
the  end  of  the  first  quarter  of  the  century,  a  more  important  hamlet 
still  was  Kentville,  the  present  shire  town.  The  hamlet  was  first 
known  as  "Horton  Corner",  and  Sept.  16,  1766,  the  first  deed  of 
land,  it  is  said,  was  given  there  by  Jonathan  Darrow,  to  James  Fillis 
and  Joseph  Pierce.  If  this  is  true,  Jonathan  Darrow 's  grant  of  five 
hundred  acres,  given  Feb.  19,  1766,  may  very  well  have  included 
part,  at  least,  of  the  site  of  the  present  Kentville  town.  Nor  is  it  at 
all  unlikely  that  the  house  James  Fillis  erected  on  his  land  purchased 
from  Darrow,  was  the  first  permanent  dwelling  erected  in  what  is 
now  the  centre  of  the  town. 

About  1798  a  Loyalist,  Henry  Magee,  who  had  received  land  in 
Aylesford  in  1786,  built  a  grist  mill  on  the  Kentville  brook,  probably 
on  the  exact  site  of  the  mill  afterwards  owned  by  Mr.  William 
Redden.  Magee  built  also  a  house,  which  was  later  owned  by  the 
Allisons,  and  at  some  point  near  opened  a  shop  for  general  trade. 

In  1800,  Horton  Corner  comprised  fourteen  houses  and  Magee 's 
store.  About  1812  Sheriff  George  Chipman  built  the  house  that  was 
afterwards  for  a  long  time  the  home  of  Mr.  James  Edward  DeWolfe 


and  his  family,  and  some  distance  further  up  the  main  street  Patrick 
Fuller  opened  a  general  store.  When  the  first  bridge  over  the  Kent- 
ville  brook  was  constructed  we  do  not  know,  but  there  must  have 
been  a  rough  one  made  very  soon  after  the  New  England  planters 
came  to  Horton. 

In  June,  1794,  his  Royal  Highness  Prince  Edward,  Duke  of 
Kent,  then  commanding  on  the  North  American  Station  and  residing 
at  Halifax,  made  a  journey  on  horseback  through  the  valley,  from 
Annapolis  Royal  going  by  vessel  to  St.  John,  New  Brunswick. 
At  that  time  Wolfville  was  the  leading  place  in  Horton,  and 
Prince  Edward  was  entertained  there  at  the  house  of  Judge  Elisha 
DeWolf .  The  visit  of  this  illustrious  person  to  the  county  was  never 
forgotten  by  the  Horton  people,  and  thirty-two  years  later,  in  1826, 
at  a  meeting  of  the  principal  inhabitants  of  Horton  Corner,  tlie  name 
"Kentville"  was  given  to  the  budding  town.  In  the  l^ova  Bcotian 
newspaper  of  April  19,  1826,  is  the  following  notice  of  this  change  t 
"The  inhabitants  of  Horton  Corner  having  lately  held  a  public 
meeting,  at  which  George  Chipman,  Esq.,  presided,  have  resolved 
that  their  growing  village  should  in  the  future  be  called  Kentville,  in 
honour  of  His  late  Royal  Highness,  the  Duke  of  Kent,  one  of  the  earli- 
est and  best  friends  of  Nova  Scotia.  They  have  it  in  intention  to  rrett 
a  public  school-house,  with  sufficient  room  for  the  introduction  of  the 
Madras  system,  as  well  as  for  a  Grammar  School;  and  as  a  further 
proof  of  the  spirit  of  improvement  which  animates  them,  they  have 
it  likewise  in  contemplation  to  establish  a  public  library".  Three 
years  later  the  court-house  and  jail  were  planted  at  Kentville,  and 
thenceforth  all  the  chief  county  business  was  transacted  there. 

The  first  court-house  and  jail  were,  of  course,  situated  at  Horton 
town,  near  the  present  Horton  landing,  but  probably  very  early  in 
the  19th  century  these  buildings  were  burned,  and  for  some  years, 
the  courts  were  held  in  the  Baptist  Meeting-House  at  "Wolfville.  For 
a  jail  presumably  some  neighboring  dwelling  house  was  used.  In 
1784  the  township  of  Aylesford  became  more  settled,  and  for  the 
inhabitants  of  that  region,  Wolfville,  as  the  seat  of  the  county  offices 
and  as  a  place  for  holding  the  courts  was,  of  course,  inconveniently 


far  to  the  east.  It  was  not  until  1829,  however,  as  we  have  said, 
that  a  court-house  and  jail  were  built  at  Kentville.  In  that  year  a 
two-story  structure,  containing  both  court-house  and  jail  was  built, 
its  location  being  perhaps  on  the  present  railway  track,  or  a  little 
to  the  north  of  that,  on  CornwaUis  Street.  In  1849  this  double 
building  was  burned,  but  in  the  record  of  the  acts  of  legislature 
for  that  year  we  learn  that  it  had  an  insurance  on  it  of  five  hundred 
pounds.  To  this  amount  the  legislature  added  five  hundred  more, 
and  immediately  two  separate  buildings  were  put  up,  which  did  duty 
until  1903.  In  that  year,  a  red  brick  Municipal  Building,  including 
a  court-house,  was  built,  the  first  use  of  the  court-house  being  by  the 
Municipal  Council  at  its  meeting  in  January,  1904.  At  the  present 
time,  however,  the  court-house  of  1850  still  stands.  In  1907  a  new, 
larger  jail  was  erected,  the  old  one  having  long  been  inadequate  to 
the  county's  needs. 

"Kentville  owes  its  location",  says  a  recent  writer,  "to  the 
enormous  sand  bank  (removed  about  twenty-five  years  ago),  which 
here  narrowed  the  river  and  made  a  convenient  place  for  a  ford  at 
low  tide,  and  later  for  a  bridge.  Thus,  naturally,  a  village  sprang  up 
here.  The  two  main  streets  of  the  present  town.  Main  and  Corn- 
waUis Streets,  as  we  have  already  seen,  were  roads  made  by  the 
Acadian  French,  but  the  two  streets  that  complete  the  Kentville 
^'Square",  the  streets  called  Church  Street  and  "Webster  Street,  were 
laid  out  by  Dr.  William  Bennett  Webster,  probably  the  most  enter- 
prising and  far-seeing  man  the  village  in  its  early  history  had.  It  is 
said  that  when  Dr.  Webster  extended  the  road  now  Church  Street 
over  the  steep  sand  bank,  we  have  referred  to,  he  received  from  the 
people  of  the  town  generally  little  praise  and  much  ridicule,  but  the 
present  usefulness  of  the  road  is  a  complete  justification  of  his  wise 

In  the  first  two  decades  of  the  19th  century  the  following  were 
the  chief  houses  in  and  near  the  present  town.  '  On  the  "Roy  farm", 
between  Kentville  and  New  Minas,  which  was  originally  the  grant 
of  Eli  Perkins,  stood  the  Perkins  grantee  house.  Half  a  mile  to  tlie 
west,  on  the  high  road,  stood  the  Benjamin  Peck  House,  afterward 


enlarged  or  completely  rebuilt,  by  Capt.  Joseph  Barss,  who  married 
Olivia,  daughter  of  Judge  Blisha  DeWolf.  A  few  rods  further  west 
still,  on  a  knoll  from  which  a  charming  view  of  the  dykes  could  be 
had,  stood  the  grantee  house  of  Benjamin  Peck's  younger  brother, 
Cyrus  Peck.  The  next  house  westward,  standing  almost  but  not 
quite  on  the  site  of  the  large  building  later  erected  by  Mr.  William 
Eedden  and  known  as  the  "Riviere  House",  was  owned  by  Moses 
Stevens,  who  finally  removed  to  Gaspereau.  On  the  site  of  the 
Colonial  house,  built  about  1840  by  Mr.  Caleb  Handley  Rand  and 
now  owned  by  Col.  Wentworth  Baton  Roscoe,  stood  the  house  owned 
and  first  occupied  by  Henry  Magee,  in  which  at  that  time  lived  Mrs. 
Joseph  Allison.  In  a  small  house  on  the  south  side  of  the  road,  after- 
ward bought  and  added  to  by  Hon.  James  Delap  Harris,  for  years  his 
i'esidence,  and  after  he  moved  across  the  road  to  the  "Wbidden 
House"  the  home  of  his  son,  William  Harris,  Q.  C,  lived  Robert 
Westcott,  a  blacksmith.  In  the  house  inherited  by  Deaconess  Alice 
E.  Webster  from  her  father,  the  late  Mr.  Henry  Bentley  Webster, 
lived  Dr.  Isaac  Webster,  Kentville's  first  physician.  About  four 
rods  back  of  the  "Red  Store"  diagonally,  stood  a  gambrel -roofed 
house,  probably  first  owned  by  James  Pillis,  and  it  would  seem  kept 
by  him  as  an  inn.  In  that  house,  at  the  period  of  which  we  Avrite, 
lived  Mrs.  Dennis  Angus,  a  widow,  whose  husband  had  once  been 
High  Sheriff  of  Halifax  County.  Almost  on  the  site  of  the  house 
which  Mr.  Benjamin  H.  Calkin  afterward  owned,  stood  the  old  Fitch 
or  Bragg  or  Denison  house,  with  a  blacksmith  shop  near.  In  ISIS 
the  house  was  occupied  by  Mr.  Handley  Chipman.  Next  came  Mr. 
Silas  Masters'  house,  a  little  above  the  present  Baptist  Church,  for 
many  years  now  the  property  of  his  son,  Mr.  Charles  Masters.  In  a 
log  house  where  Mr.  Herbert  Denison 's  house  stands  lived  Thomas 
and  Samuel  Tupper.  Of  these  men,  Thomas  later  moved  to  Ayles- 
ford,  and  Samuel  to  Cold  Brook,  to  a  farm  in  recent  times  owned  by 
Thomas  Grifiin.  Their  home  and  farm  in  Kentville  the  Tuppers 
sold  to  Major  Timothy  Barnaby,  who  later  re-sold  it  to  Mr.  Samuel 
Denison.  The  "Coloned  Moore  place"  had  previously  been  owned 
by  Col.  Henry  Gesner  of  Comwallis,  but  from  him  had  passed  to 


James  Prentice  Harris,  the  latter  selling  it  to  Col.  Moore,  who  there- 
after occupied  it. 

On  the  place  once  owned  by  Mr.  Charles  Smith,  now  in  the  pos- 
session of  Frederick  Mitchell,  lived  George  Harrington,  father  of 
William  and  Kobert  Harrington.  At  Cold  Brook  was  what  is  known 
as  the  "Davidson  Place",  now  the  property  of  Mr.  Peter  Innes,  but 
who  occupied  it  at  the  period  in  question  no  one  remembers.  In  1813 
Patrick  Puller  purchased  a  building  already  standing,  which  as  we 
have  said,  he  opened  as  a  store,  the  location  of  it  being  near  the 
eastern  corner  of  Main  and  Church  Streets.  This  store  occupied 
almost,  if  not  quite,  the  site  of  the  small  cottage  afterward  known 
as  the  "DeWolf  House",  which  stood  a  little  to  the  west  of  the 
James  Neary  house.  Close  beside  it,  probably  to  the  east,  stood 
another  store,  kept  by  William  Hunt.  This  gentleman  who  married 
Jane,  daughter  of  John  Barnaby  and  his  wife  Rebecca  (Chipman), 
and  niece  of  Hon.  Samuel  Chipman,  while  he  was  in  Kentviile 
studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Robert  Bayard,  and  when  he  had  obtained 
his  profession  removed  to  St.  John,  New  Brunswick,  and  practised 
there.  Before  he  left  Kentviile  he  built  the  house  in  the  grove 
afterward  owned  and  occupied  by  Dr.  William  Bennett  Webster. 
Some  time  after  1813  Dr.  Isaac  Webster  removed  the  Fillis  house  and 
built  in  its  stead  a  Masonic  Hall,  half  of  which,  however,  was  never 
roofed  in.  This  hall,  which  was  the  first  public  hall  erected  in  Kent- 
viile, was  after  three  or  four  years  taken  down.  It  stood  almost  if 
not  quite  on  the  site  of  the  Bragg  Inn,  this  site  being  later  occupied 
by  the  "Victoria  House".  At  this  time  George  Chipman  was  High 
Sheriff,  and  he  of  course  lived  in  the  house  he  had  recently  built. 
Until  1812,  or  thereabouts,  when  he  built  his  new  house.  Sheriff 
Chipman  lived  in  the  jail  building;  after  he  moved  from  that  build- 
ing his  brother  Charles,  who  was  then  Deputy  Sheriff,  resided  there 
instead.  At  some  period  during  Dr.  Robert  Bayard's  residence  in 
Kentviile  he  built  the  house  that  Mr.  Stephen  Harrington  Moore, 
Q.  C,  afterward  for  many  years  owned  and  occupied,  and  where  he 
died.  Exactly  how  many  years  Dr.  Bayard  lived  in  the  house  we  do 
not  know. 


A  probably  complete  list  of  the  residents  of  the  village  and  its 
suburbs  in  1825  is  the  following:  Beginning  east,  on  the  "Leander 
Bishop  Hill",  in  the  long,  low  (probably  grantee)  house,  which  for 
many  years  stood  there,  lived  a  shoemaker  named  Hopkins,  an 
Irishman,  he  being  succeeded  by  another  Irishman  named  Mitchell. 
In  the  Eli  Perkins  house  lived  an  estimable  Scotchman,  Mr.  Georgo 
Roy.  On  the  Elderkin  Farm  lived  the  mother  of  Silas  Elderkin,  by 
her  second  marriage  the  mother  also  of  James  Burbidge.  In  the 
Benjamin  Peck  house  lived  Capt.  Joseph  Barss.  In  the  Cyrus  Peck 
house  lived  Mr.  Peck's  widow.  In  the  house  afterward  owned  by 
Hon.  Thomas  Lewis  Dodge,  and  still  owned  by  his  family,  lived  the 
builder  of  the  house,  Mr.  George  Terry.  In  a  house  which  stood  on 
the  site  of  the  later  built  "Riviere  House",  lived  a  Mr.  Benjamin,  a 
miller.  The  house,  however,  and  the  grist  mill  which  had  been 
owned  by  Henry  Magee,  and  Magee's  dwelling,  were  all  owned  by 
Moses  Stevens,  who  later  married  Cyrus  Peck's  widow.  In  the 
Magee  house  lived  Mrs.  Joseph  Allison,  her  husband  then  being 
dead.  Later  Mrs.  Allison  occupied  half  the  house,  her  son  Leonard 
occupying  the  other  half.  In  the  house  he  had  built  lived  Sheriff 
George  Chipman.  In  the  house  later  owned  by  Hon.  James  Delap 
Harris,  lived  Robert  Westcott,  "Where  the  late  Mr.  Benjamin  H. 
Calkin's  first  dwelling  stood,  was  the  Samuel  Dennison  house,  then 
occupied  by  Samuel  Dennison 's  daughter,  Mrs.  Carr,  and  by  one  or 
two  other  families.  In  the  "James  Neary  house"  lived  the  owner, 
Mr.  James  Denison,  a  cousin  of  Samuel  Denison,  whose  sister 
Lavinia  he  had  married.  In  the  house  afterward  owned  by  Dr. 
"William  Bennett  "Webster,  lived  "William  Hunt,  who,  as  we  have 
said,  built  the  house.  In  the  house  he  had  built  lived  the  then  owner 
Dr.  Robert  Bayard. 

"Where  Mr.  "Winckworth  Chipman  afterward  lived,  lived  John 
Terry,  who  had  brothers,  George,  Ephraim,  Elkanah,  etc.  In  the 
next  house  west,  lived  Silas  Masters,  whose  wife  was  a  sister  of 
Caleb  Handley  Rand.  "Where  the  house  built  by  the  late  Judge 
Oeorge  A.  Blanchard  stands,  stood  a  house  occupied  by  Elijah 
Phinney.    "Where  Herbert  Denison  lives,  lived  the  present  owner's 


grandfather,  Samuel  Denison,  Sr.,  whose  wife  was  Polly  Gallup.  In 
the  next  house  beyond  lived  Col.  William  Charles  Moore.  On  the 
place  afterward  owned  by  Charles  Smith,  lived  George  Harrington. 
On  Cornwallis  Street,  in  the  jail  building,  lived  Charles  Chipman. 
The  chief  men  of  Kentville  were  Col.  Moore,  Dr.  Bayard,  Dr.  Isaac 
"Webster,  Sheriff  Chipman,  James  and  Samuel  Denison,  and  the  two 
«arly  successful  Kentville  merchants,  James  Delap  Harris  and  Caleb 
Handley  Band.  Of  these  men,  the  Denisons  alone  had  been  born  in 
Horton ;  Dr.  Bayard,  a  son  of  Col.  Samuel  Vetch  Bayard,  had  come 
to  Kentville  from  Wilmot ;  Col.  Moore  and  his  family,  who  lived  first 
in  Parrsborough,  in  1813  had  moved  from  the  "lower  end  of  Saxon 
Street",  Cornwallis,  to  the  Horton  village;  Sheriff  Chipman,  Dr. 
Isaac  Webster,  and  Messrs.  Harris  and  Band,  had  also  previously 
lived  in  Cornwallis. 

From  reminiscences  of  the  late  James  Ratchf ord,  DeWolf,  M.  D., 
of  Halifax,  we  learn  that  in  or  about  1830,  the  stores  in  Kentville 
were  James  Edward  DeWolf 's,  Daniel  Moore's,  James  Delap  Harris', 
and  Caleb  Handley  Rand's,  all  of  course  general  stores.  The  physi- 
cians were  Drs.  Isaac  Webster  and  E.  P.  Harding,  the  latter 
of  whom  had  come  to  KentviUe  from  Windsor.  The  barristers  were 
Stephen  Harrington  Moore,  John  Clarke  Hall,  Henry  Bentley  Web- 
ster, John  Whidden  (for  many  years  Clerk  of  the  House  of 
Assembly),  and  William  Harris,  "all  professional  men  of  good 
standing  and  a  credit  to  the  bar".  The  most  attractive  houses  were 
-those  of  Sheriff  Campbell,  who  had  succeeded  Sheriff  Chipman; 
-Caleb  Handley  Rand,  John  Whidden,  "whose  Italian  villa  was  aftei- 
ward  the  home  of  Hon.  James  Delap  Harris";  Dr.  William  Bennett 
Webster,  and  Henry  Bentley  Webster,  "whose  houses  were  fronted 
-by  groves  of  shady  maples";  and  Stephen  Harrington  Moore,  who 
then  owned  the  Dr.  Robert  Bayard  house.  At  the  extreme  west  of 
■the  town  lived  Col.  William  Charles  Moore,  and  at  the  extreme  east 
Mrs.  Joseph  Barss. 

In  the  Almanac  for  1803,  between  Windsor,  in  Hants  County, 
and  the  eastern  boundary  of  Aylesford,  we  find  the  following 
""houses  of  entertainment"  or  inns:     At  Windsor,  Andrews  and 


Halls;  at  Falmouth  Ferry,  Smith's;  at  Halifax  River,  Frame's;  then 
in  succession:  Bishop's;  DeWolf's;  Fillis';  Willoughby  Farm; 
Calkin's;  and  Marshall's,  the  distance  between  Andrews  and  Hall's 
and  Marshall's  being  given  as  thirty  miles.  At  some  later  time,  but 
just  when  we  do  not  know,  Cyrus  Peck  opened  his  grantee  house  as 
an  inn.  Mr.  Peck  was  one  of  two  brothers,  of  the  well  known  Peck 
family  of  Lyme,  Connecticut,  both  brothers  having  places  in  what 
is  now  the  eastern  end  of  Kentville.  His  first  wife  was  Mary  Eng- 
lish, daughter  of  the  widowed  Cornwallis  grantee,  Mrs.  Abigail 
English,  and  a  sister  of  Mrs.  Samuel  Willoughby.  Mrs.  Peck  died  in 
1808,  but  her  husband  soon  married  again,  and  until  his  death  in 
1812  continued  to  keep  the  inn.  For  a  while  after  his  death  the 
house  still  remained  open  to  strangers,  but  Angus',  farther  west^ 
near  the  corner  where  the  Red  Store  is,  and  Bragg 's  still  farther 
west,  shared  the  honours  with  it.  Finally,  largely  it  is  said  through 
the  enterprise  of  the  merchant,  Caleb  Handley  Rand,  the  "Kentville 
Hotel"  was  built,  and  the  other  inns  went  out  of  existence.  On  the 
site  of  Mr.  Peck's  house,  which  as  an  inn  was  known  as  the  "Royal 
Oak",  stands  now  the  handsome  residence  of  Mayor  Harry  Hamm 
Wickwire.  The  old  house  was  reached  from  the  post  road  by  a  pic- 
turesque flight  of  wooden  steps,  at  the  top  shaded  on  one  side  by  a 
magnificent  oak,  on  the  other  by  a  large  willow.  The  house  itself, 
which  Mr.  Peck  at  some  time  after  he  built  it  must  considerably 
have  enlarged,  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1881.  Shortly  after  this  Mr» 
Wickwire  purchased  the  hill  on  which  it  stood  and  there  erected; 
his  house.  In  1904  Mr.  Frederick  Wickwire  bought  the  property 
of  which  the  hill  was  originally  a  part,  and  built  the  house  in  which 
he  lives.  Precisely  how  early  a  stage-coach  line  was  established 
between  Halifax  and  Kentville  we  do  not  know,  but  in  1829,  it  i» 
said,  Mr.  John  Whidden  was  instnunental  in  having  the  stage  line 
extended  from  Kentville  westward  to  Annapolis  Royal.  Until  the 
stage-coach  was  supplanted  by  the  railroad  in  1869  the  Kentville 
Hotel  was  the  headquarters  of  stage  travel  between  Halifax  and 
Annapolis.  Back  of  it,  fronting  on  the  Kentville  brook,  were  the 
great  stables,  in  which  the  coach  horses  were  stalled  and  baited,  and 


whence  they  were  taken  every  day  in  summer  to  the  brook  for  la 
swim  in  the  "deep  hole". 

The  first  Kentville  school-house  stood  almost  opposite  the  jail, 
near  what  was  later  the  entrance  to  the  Lydiard  place.  It  was 
erected  probably  between  1826  and  1829,  and  was  a  very  small 
building.  Long  after  the  second  school-house  was  built  it  was  moved 
to  the  northeast  corner  of  Main  and  Church  Streets,  a  little  to  the 
west  of  the  "DeWolf  house",  where  it  finally  became  a  cobbler's 
shop  or  a  residence  for  very  poor  people.  The  second  school-house 
was  also  built  on  Cornwallis  Street,  but  on  the  site  of  what  lis  now 
Mr.  James  Seeley's  store,  in  "Lovett  Block".  This  building  stood 
until  the  present  school-house  was  built  on  Academy  Hill.  To  erect 
the  first  school-house  a  company,  composed  of  the  leading  men  of 
the  village,  was  formed,  and  the  subscriptions  they  made  were  sup- 
plemented by  a  small  grant  from  the  government.  In  the  very  first 
years  of  the  use  of  this  school-house  it  is  said  that  men  taught  there 
named  Masters,  Fisher,  and  Noble,  after  them  coming  in  succession, 
Charles  Chipman,  a  Mr.  McSweeney,  and  a  Mr.  Hall.  Between  1835 
and  1831,  Andrew  Black,  a  Scotchman  and  Presbyterian,  taught 
there  "an  excellent  school".  Exactly  how  long  his  incumbency 
lasted  we  do  not  know,  but  he  died  at  the  Elderfcin  place,  wthere  he 
had  a  home  with  Mr.  John  Terry,  shortly  before  1831.  At  his 
funeral  the  school  children  walked  in  procession,  the  little  girts 
dressed  in  white.  Under  his  instruction,  came  most  of  the  Kent- 
ville boys  of  the  time,  among  these  William  and  Charles  "WMdden, 
John  Chaloner  Chipman,  Robert  and  William  Bayard  (sons  jof  Dr. 
Eobert  Bayard),  William  Harris,  and  George  Masters,  Not  only 
Horton  boys  but  many  Cornwallis  boys  came  to  his  sehool.  Mr. 
Black's  immediate  successor  was  Mr.  Samuel  Eirkpatrick,  la  very 
estimable  man,  born  in  Antrim,  Ireland,  of  North  of  Ireland  Scotch 
parentage,  who  in  his  youth  had  studied  for  the  Presbyterian  min- 
istry. Early  renouncing  the  Calvinistic  creed,  he  taught  sehool  for  a 
•while  in  his  native  land,  but  in  1812  came  to  America.  A  Kttle  earlier 
than  this  his  father  had  emigrated  to  Pennsylvania,  leaving  his 
family  behind  him.    When  the  wife  with  her  children  jsailed  to  join 


her  husband,  the  ship  on  which  the  family  had  taken  passage  was 
seized  by  an  English  privateer  and  brought  to  Halifax.  For  a  while 
Samuel  Kirkpatrick  taught  school  in  Newport,  Hants  county,  then 
for  some  years  he  was  master  of  the  Kentville  school.  Like  his  pre- 
decessor he  boarded  at  or  lived  in  the  Blderkin  house,  east  of  ths 
village.  After  him,  for  a  short  time,  came  a  Mr.  Desmond,  an  Eng- 
lishman, who  with  his  friend  Alexander  Tremaise  had  come  to 
King's  county  shortly  before.  Desmond  did  not  teach  long,  but 
gave  way  to  Mr.  Thomas  Hardy,  a  Scotchman,  who  taught  in  Kent- 
ville for  twelve  years.  Mr.  Hardy's  daughter  Jessie,  became  the 
second  wife  of  Hon.  Samuel  Chipman. 

The  next  teacher  was  Mr.  Robert  Brine,  of  a  Newfoundland 
family,  who  had  just  graduated  at  King's  College,  Windsor,  and 
was  studying  for  Orders.  He  taught  in  Kentville  for  three  or  four 
years  and  his  ordination  to  the  diaconate  occurred  during  that 
time.  He  married  Miss  Rose  "WoUenhaupt,  a  sister  of  Mrs.  John 
Blanchard,  and  after  he  left  Kentville  for  many  years  had  parishes 
in  the  diocese.  From  May,  1847,  until  the  spring  of  1854,  the  teacher 
of  the  school  was  William  Eaton,  second  son  of  Ward  Eaton,  Esq.,  of 
ComwalUs,  who  after  his  retirement  from  teaching  settled  per- 
manently in  Kentville.  Mr.  Eaton  was  appointed  a  Commissioner 
in  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  Province,  under  the  new  school  act 
became  the  second  Inspector  of  Schools  for  the  county,  and  finally 
on  the  incorporation  of  Kentville,  the  shire  town's  first  Treasurer 
and  Clerk,  FoUoAving  him  as  teacher,  came  John  R.  Miller,  and 
next  Dr.  Stephen  Dodge,  who  married  Florence,  second  daughter  of 
Judge  George  Augustus  Blanchard,  and  later  till  his  death  (Feb.  3, 
1899)  practised  medicine  in  Halifax, 

Dr.  Dodge's  successor  was  John  Moser,  a  native  of  Lunenburg 
county,  and  a  graduate  of  Acadia,  after  whom  came  the  Rev. 
Alexander  Romans,  a  clergyman  of  the  Free  Church  of  Scotland, 
brother  of  Robert  Romans  of  Halifax,  who  before  coming  to  Kent- 
ville had  been  Professor  of  Classics  in  Dalhoasie  College.  After 
teaching  for  a  certain  length  of  time  in  the  old  Kentville  school- 
house,   about  1860  Mr.  Romans  withdrew  from  the   school   and 


founded  a  separate  grammar  school,  to  which  a  considerable  number 
of  the  best  pupils  in  the  town,  both  boys  and  girls,  went.  His  new 
school  he  kept  in  what  was  known  as  "Kedden's  Hall",  on  the  Mill 
Brook  road,  the  town  school-house  being  occupied  by  David  Stuart 
Hamilton,  B.  A.,  an  accomplished  teacher,  a  graduate  of  King's 
College  of  the  Class  of  1847,  who  on  the  5th  of  August,  1863,  married 
Mrs.  Josephine  Collins  (Hamilton),  widow  of  John  Rufus  Eaton,  and 
went  to  New  York  City  to  live.  At  King's  College  Mr.  Hamilton  had 
studied  with  Orders  in  view,  and  finally,  in  the  diocese  of  Alabama  he 
was  admitted  to  the  Diaconate  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church. 
Before  long,  however,  in  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  he  died.  From  a 
now  extinct  college  in  the  South,  at  some  time  in  his  career  in  the 
United  States  he  was  created  a  Doctor  of  Civil  Law.  After  Mr. 
Hamilton,  in  1863,  came  Bernard  Parrell,  and  then  Junia  D. 

For  many  years  there  were  schools  in  the  village  exclusively 
for  girls  or  for  little  children.  While  Mr.  Kirkpatrick  was  master  of 
the  grammar  school.  Miss  Rachel  Martin,  an  aunt  of  William  Leg- 
gett,  a  local  poet  of  Sussex  Vale,  New  Brunswick,  herself  possessing 
some  poetical  gift,  kept  a  rather  notable  school  for  girls.  She 
taught  first  in  Bragg 's  Inn,  then  in  a  cottage  afterward  owned  by 
Mr.  Winckworth  Chipman,  where  she  also  lived.  Most  of  the  young 
ladies  of  the  village,  the  Misses  Isabel  Morton  (afterward  Mrs. 
Wishart),  Amelia  Allison,  Elizabeth  Whidden,  Susan  and  Minetta 
Hamilton,  Maria  Bishop  (Mrs.  Edward  Young),  Julia  Dennisou 
(the  first  Mrs.  Benjamin  H.  Calkin),  Sarah  Bragg  (Mrs.  Eaton  Rock- 
well), Eliza  Dennison,  Mary  Carr,  and  others,  were  her  pupils. 
Before  she  left  New  Brunswick,  Miss  Martin  had  taught  Latin  to 
boys  in  St.  John,  and  in  Kentville  she  had  also  a  small  class  of  boys. 
.When  she  left  Nova  Scotia,  she  went  to  Fredericton,  New  Bruns- 
wick, and  there  taught  Latin  and  singing,  and  for  a  long  time  her- 
self sang  in  the  Anglican  Church  choir.  She  was  a  well  bred  woman 
and  had  much  influence  on  the  minds  and  manners  of  the  Kentville 
young  women.  A  strict  churchwoman,  she  always  opened  her  school 
with  collects  from  the  Prayer-Book  and  with  the  hymn  "Awake  my 


soul  and  with  the  sun".  In  the  afternoon  she  closed  it  with  the 
hymn  "Glory  to  Thee  my  God  this  night".  She  had  the  floor  of  her 
school  room  chalked  and  her  pupils  were  literally  obliged  to  "toe 
the  mark".  She  has  been  described  as  wearing  a  black  beaver  bon- 
net lined  with  pink  satin,  with  long  handsome  plumes,  and  a  veil 
with'  sprigs.  A  story  is  told  of  Miss  Martin,  relative  to  her  poetical 
gifts,  that  one  winter  morning  she  opened  her  school  room  and 
fiMing  no  fire  in  it  went  across  the  road  to  Mr.  James  Denison's  to 
ask  for  some  wood.  At  the  Denisons'  she  found  the  handsome  Miss 
Maria  Haliburton  of  "Windsor,  a  cousin  of  Judge  Thomas  Chandler 
Haliburton,  who  had  long  wanted  to  meet  "the  clever  poetess". 
Returning  to  her  school  she  wrote  rapidly : 

"Is  it  winter,  said  I,  for  the  v/ind  keenly  blows, 

Then  what  means  the  fine  bloom  of  this  beautiful  rose  ? 

As  I  entered  the  room  and  had  vision  of  thee. 

Pair  stranger,  thought  I,  here's  a  subject  for  me; 

If  the  critical  gaze  of  the  cold  temale  eye 

Can  that  soul-kindling  glance  without  feeling  descry. 

If  female  the  beauty  of  female  can  see. 

Glow  with  rapture  my  fancy  here 's  business  for  thee ! 

Then  beautiful  stranger  there  is  no  mistake, 

If  I  were  not  a  poetess  one  you  could  make. 

That  visage  of  sweetness,  that  soft  summer  smile, 

Would  melt  the  stern  soul  to  smooth  numbers  like  oil". 

Miss  Martin's  residence  in  Kentville  was  probably  due  to  the 
fact  that  she  was  a  first  cousin  once  removed  of  James  Denison,  her 
mother  Abigail  Denison  (daughter  of  David  Sherman  Denison),  born 
in  1753,  having,  been  married  to  Dr.  John  Martin,  who  is  said  to 
ha^ve  been  a  chaplain  in  the  British  army.  The  author  of  the  Deni- 
son Genealogy^  says  that  Miss  Rachel  Martin  and  her  sister  Mary 
[(who  was  married  to  "William  N.  Leggett)  were  for  some  time 
teachers  in  New  York  City.  Rachel  Martin,  the  writer  adds,  ia  her 
old  age  went  to  England  and  was  presented  to  her  Majesty,  the  late 


Queen  Victoria,  who  kindly  settled  on  her  a  pension  of  fifty  pounds 
a  year  for  the  rest  of  her  life. 

In  the  summer  of  1831,  after  Miss  Martin  left  Kentville,  a  Miss 
St.  George  opened  in  the  village  a  select  school  for  girls.  The  aim 
of  this  lady  seems  to  have  been  to  give  her  young  ladies  "accom- 
plishments" rather  than  solid  instruction.  She  taught  in  the  old 
school-house,  but  her  school  lasted  only  six  months.  Her  pupils 
were  considered  rather  remarkable  for  their  beauty,  among  them 
being  the  Misses-  Kate  and  Mary  Cogswell,  Nancy  Allison,  Mary 
Miller  Chipman,  Marga,ret  Ann  Lovett,  Caroline  Barnaby,  Margaret 
Starratt,  Rachel  Harris,  and  Susan  and  Minetta  Hamilton.  In  later 
times  Miss  Catherine  Gaul,  from  Rawdon,  had  a  girls'  school  in  the 
old  school-house,  and  after  her.  Miss  Mary  Campbell  taught  there  a 
school  for  small  children.  About  1856  Miss  Esther  Gould  taught  a 
small  school  for  girls ;  later  than  that.  Miss  Bessie  Torrey,  and  Miss 
Bessie  Swymmer,  had  schools. 

The  first  place  of  worship  of  any  denomination  in  Kentville 
was  a  Methodist  chapel,  built  in  1821  on  the  site  of  Alfred  DeWolf 's 
house,  on  the  hill  above  the  house  built  by  SherifE  Chipman.  The 
trustees  of  this  chapel  were  Messrs.  James  and  Samuel  Denison,  who 
though  of  a  Connecticut  Congregationalist  faanily,  probably  at  this 
time  favoured  the  Wesleyan  faith ;  and  Col.  "William  Charles  Moore, 
who  was  of  the  Anglican  Church.  Interest  in  Methodism  among 
Kentville  people  was  one  of  the  results  of  the  preaching  in  Cornwallis 
and  Horton  in  1782  of  the  noted  pioneer  Wesleyan  preacher,  the 
Rev.  William  Black,  and  for  a  long  time  the  only  religious  services 
held  in  the  village  were  conducted  in  this  chapel  by  itinerant  Wes- 
leyan ministers.  These  services,  however,  as  a  rule,  came  only  once 
in  two  weeks,  in  the  afternoon  or  evening,  the  ministers  probably 
living  at  Windsor  and  preaching  at  Grand  Pre  in  the  forenoon. 
Occasionally,  after  he  became  pastor  of  the  Wolfville  Baptist 
Church,  "Father"  Harding  came  and  preached,  but  sometimes,  as 
when  a  Wesleyan  Conference  in  some  remote  place  took  the  min- 
isters of  that  denomination  away  from  their  circuit,  there  would  be 
no  religious  service  at  all  in  KentviUe  for  several  weeks;    In>  1839j 


soon  after  Acadia  College  was  founded,  the  Rev.  Edmund  Albem 
Crawley,  one  of  the  earliest  professors  in  the  college,  came  regularly 
every  other  Sunday  forenoon  and  preached  in  the  Methodist  chapel. 
In  his  stead,  however,  sometimes  came  Messrs.  George  Armstrong, 
Samuel  Elder,  Samuel  Richardson,  or  some  other  Baptist  student 
for  the  ministry.  About  1849  a  new  meeting-house  was  built  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Methodists,  towards  the  west  end  of  the  village, 
near  the  entrance  to  the  road  which  leads  up  the  Academy  hill.  It 
was  hoped  by  many  that  this  structure  would  be  a  "Union"  chapel, 
but  the  Methodists  preferred  to  keep  it  exclusively  for  their  own  use. 
After  the  court-house  and  jail  were  burned,  for  a  while  the 
old  chapel  on  the  hill  was  used  for  both  court-house  and 
jail,  the  deputy  sheriff,  who  was  then  George  Clark,  himself 
living  in  it  as  well.  The  building  and  the  site  later 
became  the  property  of  Mr.  Henry  Bentley  Webster,  and 
he  at  his  death  willed  it  to  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Ina  DeWolf,  who 
still  owns  the  land.    The  chapel  was  burned  about  1860. 

The  first  services  of  the  Anglican  Church  in  Kentville  were  held 
in  the  school-house,  but  precisely  how  early  we  cannot  tell.  The 
Rev.  John  Storrs'  ministry  began  in  1841,  and  it  is  possible  that  he 
was  the  first  incumbent  of  St.  John's  parish,  Comwallis,  who  felt  it 
necessary  to  give  the  Kentville  people  services  in  their  own  village. 
At  whatever  period  services  according  to  the  Book  of  Common 
Prayer  did  begin,  it  is  certain  that  they  were  held  more  or  less 
regularly  for  some  years  preceding  the  building  of  St.  James 
Church.  This  church  was  erected  between  1843  and  1846.  It  stood 
on  the  west  side  of  Church  Street,  a  little  back  of  the  present 
marble-working  shop,  but  in  1882  the  Rev.  John  Owen  Ruggles, 
M.  A.,  Kentville 's  then  faithful  Rector,  with  enormous  labor  had  it 
removed  to  the  site  it  now  occupies,  and  somewhat  enlarged.  On 
its  old,  as  on  its  present,  site,  its  chancel  was  on  the  west,  and  like 
most  churches  of  the  period  in  which  it  was  built  it  had  spacious 
square  pews  on  the  wall  side  of  the  aisles  and  in  the  upper  middle 
part.  Along  the  east  end  ran  a  gallery,  in  the  centre  of  which  was 
the  organ  loft,  which  held  a  small  pipe  organ,  and  where  the  choir, 


consisting  of  well  known  young  men  and  women  of  the  village,  sang 
the  chants  and  hymns.  Among  the  members  of  the  early  St.  James' 
choir  were  Mrs.  "William  Eaton,  and  her  sister,  Mrs.  John  Rufus 
Eaton,  Misses  Margaret  Lydiard  and  Lavinia  Harris,  and  Mr.  John 
Blanehard,  who  was  for  many  years  the  chief  male  singer  in  St. 
Paul's  Presbyterian  choir.  At  the  lower  end  of  the  church,  on  the 
right  of  the  entrance,  was  the  small  robing-room,  and  as  the  clergy^ 
man  in  preaching  always  wore  the  scholar's  gown,  it  was  the 
invariable  custom  for  him  to  leave  the  chancel  during  the  singing 
of  the  hymn  before  the  sermon,  walk  down  the  long  north  aisle  to 
the  robing-room,  remove  his  surplice,  and  then  attired  in  his  black 
gown  return  to  the  pulpit.  On  Sunday  evenings,  at  least,  during  the 
rectorship  of  Rev.  Harry  Leigh  Tewens,  it  was  not  uncommon  for 
this  clergyman  to  wear  gloves  when  he  preached. 

At  Christmas,  St.  James'  Church  was  always  tastefully 
wreathed  with  hemlock,  the  boughs  for  which  were  drawn  to  the 
door  on  ox  or  horse  sleds,  and  taken  into  the  church  aisles.  There, 
amidst  fragrant  balsamy  odours,  several  afternoons  and  evenings 
before  Christmas,  a  group  of  devoted  parishioners,  the  young  men 
assisting  the  ladies  in  the  heaviest  part  of  the  work,  would  assemble 
to  decorate  the  church.  On  Christmas  morning,  and  on  the  Sxmday 
following  Christmas,  the  two  hymns  from  the  excellent  but  rather 
scanty  collection  in  use,  that  were  always  sung  were  the  familiar 
ones:  "Hark  the  herald  angels  sing",  and  "While  shepherds 
watched  their  flocks  by  night".  Until  St.  James'  Church  was  built, 
the  Kentville  people  who  were  attached  to  the  Anglican  Church 
were  accustomed  on  Sunday  mornings  to  drive  to  the  parish  church 
of  St.  John's,  at  Cornwallis.  Of  families  that  did  so,  were  the 
Col.  Moores,  the  George  Chipmans,  the  Caleb  Handley  Rands,  and 
the  James  Delap  Harrises.  To  the  Presbyterian  church  at  Chip- 
man's  Comer  went  the  families  of  Dr.  Isaac  "Webster,  and  George 
and  John  Terry,  and  to  the  Baptist  church  at  Canard,  the  Silas 
Masters'  and  the  Charles  Chipmans.  The  next  church  after  St. 
James  to  be  erected  in  Kentville  was  St.  Joseph's  Roman  Catholic 
church,  built  no  doubt  in  1853.    It  was  placed  on  the  beautiful  hiU 


■where  the  present  church  stands,  across  the  Cornwallis  river.  In 
1860,  St.  Paul's  Presbyterian  church  was  built  on  Webster  Street, 
and  last  of  aU,  in  1874,  the  Baptist  church,  toward  the  west  end  of 
the  town. 

As  Halifax  was  the  chief  centre  of  social  life  for  the  province 
at  large,  so  the  smaller  shire  towns  were  socially  the  most  important 
places  in  the  various  counties  they  represented.  Of  these  toT\Tis 
there  was  not  a  single  one  that  had  not  a  group  of  intelligent,  well- 
bred  men  and  women,  of  more  or  less  education  as  the  case  might, 
be,  but  of  refined  instincts  and  cultivated  tastes,  and  of  such  people 
Eentville  had  a  good  share.  At  first  social  pre-eminence  in  Corn- 
wallis and  Horton  lay  with  the  chief  families  that  lived  about  the 
respective  Town  Plots,  as  the  county's  population  increased  west- 
ward, however,  social  importance  more  and  more  focussed  itself  in 
the  shire  town.  Here  as  elsewhere  through  the  county,  there  were 
not  a  few,  both  of  "Esquires",  as  Justices  of  the  Peace,  were  tech- 
nically called,  and  "Gentlemen",  as  other  men  of  standing  were 
properly  termed^  but  in  social  distinction  the  village  never  quite 
ranked  with  its  neighbor,  Windsor,  the  shire  town  of  Hants. 
Windsor  in  the  course  of  its  history  had  many  important  families 
like  the  Butlers,  Clarks,  Cottnams,  Cunninghams,  Benjamin  De- 
Wolfs,  Franklins,  Prasers,  Halibuxtons,  HeadSj  McHeffeys,  Porters, 
Nathaniel  Eay  Thomases,  and  others,  who  had  aristocratic  connec- 
tions in  Halifax,  Boston,  or  the  British  Isles,  while  the  Kentville 
families'  importance  had  been  gained  chiefly  in  King's  County 
itself.  Early  in  the  history  of  the  town  people  began  to  give  grace- 
ful evening  entertainments,  at  which  cards  and  dancing  formed  the 
chief  amusements,  these  accompanied  with  excellent  suppers, 
for  the  people  of  King's  County  have  always  been  noted  for 
living  well.  After  the  middle  of  the  19th  century,  every  winter 
saw  a  round  of  evening  parties  in  Kentville,  which  in  time  extended 
itself  to  Starr's  Point  and  Caaining  and  the  neighborhood  between, 
at  which  dancing  was  kept  up  till  a  very  late  hour,  the  suppers 
being  sumptuous  and  the  wine  and  other  stimulants  as  good  as 
could  anywhere  on  the  continent  be  found.    At  these  entertain- 


ments  the  music  for  dancing  was  usually  furnished  by  two  or  three 
well  known  ladies,  who  were  noted  for  the  perfect  time  they  kept, 
and  who  graciously  took  turns  at  the  piano  the  long  evenings 
through.  Violinists,  however,  were  sometimes  hired  to  accompany 
the  pianos.  Picnics  at  the  Bay  Shore  were  in  summer  very  frequent, 
people  driving  thither  in  single  or  double  wagons.  After  the  rail- 
road through  the  valley  began  to  be  built  more  strangers  than  ever 
before  came  to  settle  in  and  near  the  town,  some  of  them  young 
English  families  who  had  come  out  to  Nova  Scotia  to  try  farming, 
or  people  who  had  been  attracted  by  the  reputation  of  the  village  for 
beauty  and  for  health-giving  air.  Thus  by  the  last  quarter  of  the  19th 
century  the  society  of  Kentville  became  greatly  enlarged. 

For  the  loveliness  of  its  walks  and  drives  Kentville  is  famous, 
and  for  the  beauty  of  its  shade-trees  no  village  that  we  know  can 
surpass  it.  Prom  time  immemorial  high  tributes  have  been  paid  to 
its  charms  by  strangers  who  have  come  to  visit  it;  In  the  Halifax 
Herald  of  June  8,  1898,  a  traveller  through  the  province  eloquently 
wrote:  "Kentville  has  an  individuality  all  her  own,  an  individu- 
ality as  charming  as  the  absence  of  sameness  is  in  people.  Had  Mrs. 
Hemans,  who  so  poetically  pictures  ancient  Rome  as  a  queen  sitting 
OB  seven  hills,  wisely  elected  to  live  until  the  present  day  and  visit 
Evangeline's  Land,  she  would  have  pictured  Kentville  as  the  chief 
lady  of  King's,  sitting  smilingly  at  the  junction  of  seven  roads, 
"which  like  magic  wands  she  stretches  forth  into  the  beautiful 
country  surrounding  her,  when  lo !  the  orchard  fairies,  the  dairy 
fairies,  and  other  agricultural  fairies,  troop  with  their  treasures 
toward  her  hospitable  gates.  If  you  have  passed  through  Kentville 
in  one  of  the  comfortable  Dominion  Atlantic  Railway  cars  you  may 
perhaps  imagine  you  have  seen  the  town,  but  you  have  had  only  a 
glimpse  of  its  attractions;  its  broad  level  streets,  delightfully  shaded 
■with  trees  of  oak  and  maple,  its  pretty  residences,  surrounded  by 
grounds  that  give  evidence  of  the  artistic  taste  of  their  owners  in 
landscape  gardening,  its  five  good  churches,  its  commodious,  well- 
kept  hotels,  its  ample-sized  stores,  its  far  famed  orchards,  all  these 
you  cannot  see  from  the  windows  of  the  car. 


"Much  as  you  may  enjoy  the  town  at  close  range  you  will  want 
to  view  it  as  a  whole,  and  there  are  several  vantage  points  from 
which  you  can  gratify  this  wish.  From  'Chapel  Hill'  you  see  the 
southern  portion  of  the  town,  nestling  gracefully  in  its  little  valley, 
a  cluster  of  new  homes  here  being  known  as  the  'Klondike',  from 
the  rapid  growth  of  the  town  in  this  direction.  You  watch  the  clear, 
deep  waters  of  the  Cornwallis  river  flow  silently  through  the  green 
meadows  at  your  feet.  Behind  you  are  orchards,  where  the  exquis- 
its  blossoms  of  the  apple  and  pear,  the  drowsy  murmur  of  the  bees, 
and  the  merry  flitting  to  and  fro  of  golden  butterfly-wings,  charm 
you  into  silence.  But  you  may  leave  Chapel  Hill  without  saying 
good-bye  to  the  lovely,  fragile  fruit  blossoms,  for  you  will  find  them 
in  every  part  of  the  town.  From  the  old  Beech  Hill  road  you  have 
the  most  far-reaching  view  of  the  Cornwallis  valley  to  the  west  and 
north  of  the  town,  a  valley  of  verdant  fields  and  thriving  villages, 
the  dark  green  of  pine,  fir,  and  spruce  groves  forming  a  striking 
contrast  to  the  newly  donned  garb  of  the  elm,  oak  and  willow. 
Beyond  this  ne'er-to-be-forgotten  view  lies  the  North  Mountain, 
which  does  not  suffer  the  winds  of  heaven  to  visit  too  roughly  the 
cosy  villages  which  lie  along  its  sheltering  base. 

"One  of  the  charms  of  Kentville  is  its  central  location,  afford- 
ing opportunity  for  many  varied  and  delightful  drives.  East  of  a 
little  bridge  which  crosses  Main  Street,  a  road  leads  south  over 
Canaan  heights,  following  a  tiny,  musical  stream  of  water  known 
as  Kentville  Brook,  its  abrupt  banks  shaded  with  verdant,  graceful 
willows.  After  a  drive  of  three  miles  on  this  road  you  leave  the 
queen's  highway  and  a  hundred  or  more  yards  to  your  left  find 
Moore's  Falls,  a  delightfully  romantic  and  picturesque  spot,  where 
a  goodly  stream  of  water  pours  over  a  precipitous  rock,  thirty  or 
forty  feet  high.  Tou  can  return  to  Kentville  on  the  other  side  of 
the  brook,  over  Beech  Hill  road,  and  from  a  quite  different 
viewpoint  behold  the  narrow  silver  stream  winding  through  its 
quaintly  picturesque  valley.  North  of  the  town,  Cornwallis  Street 
becomes  Cornwallis  Road,  and  over  this  you  must  drive  to  enjoy 


another  magnificent  view.    Here  you  pass  "Gallows  Hill",  so  named 
from  the  sad  fact  that  a  scaffold  was  once  erected  on  it. 

"Westward,  about  a  mile  from  the  centre  of  the  town, 
Main  Street  passes  Sutherland's  Lake,  a  waveless  sheet  of 
water  that  dreamily  reflects  the  wooded  hills  in  which  it 
is  enclosed.  This  pretty  lake,  over  whose  still  surface  you 
may  gently  glide  on  a  summer  day,  is  on  the  estate  of  Mr. 
Kenneth  Sutherland,  for  some  years  Superintendent  of  the 
Dominion  Atlantic  Railway.  To  the  east  of  the  town,  Cornwallis 
Street  leads  to  Cornwallis,  giving  one  many  delightful  glimpses  of 
the  river  and  the  dykes.  Passing  mention  has  already  been  made  of 
the  gardens  and  orchards  of  Kentville,  but  the  grounds  of  Messrs. 
Melville  G.  DeWolf ,  James  W.  Ryan,  and  John  Carroll,  Town  Clerk, 
are  so  unique  in  their  situation,  are  so  skillfully  cultivated,  and 
have  such  a  delightful  mingling  of  rare  flowers,  rustic  bowers,  fruit 
trees,  terraces,  and  hedges,  that  you  will  not  be  surprised  to  hear  that 
the  owners  of  these  properties  not  only  'walk  in  the  garden  in  the 
cool  of  the  day',  but  also  work  there  while  the  slothful  man  sleepeth". 
Of  the  orchards  of  King's  County  in  June  we  have  elsewhere  spoken. 
When  the  writer  from  whom  we  have  just  quoted  was  in  Kentville, 
the  country  about  the  shire  town  was  a  succession  of  banks  of 
beautiful  pink  and  white  bloom  and  the  air  was  perfumed  with  a 
scent  as  delicious  as  the  odours  of  Araby.  The  reference  to  Mr.  Mel- 
ville G.  DeWolf 's  garden  was  sure  to  be  made,  for  that  garden  was 
for  many  years  the  admiration  of  all  strangers  and  the  delight  of 
the  townspeople  themselves.  Mr.  DeWolf 's  property  is  now  owned 
by  St.  James'  Church,  and  the  former  owner,  whose  garden  was  so 
long  the  pride  of  the  town,  is  recently  dead. 

A  drive  he  took  from  Kentville  to  the  "Look  Off"  on  the  North 
Mountain  in  1894,  the  late  Mr.  Frank  BoUes  of  Harvard  College  has 
described  in  the  following  way.  "We  crossed  the  Grand  Habitant 
or  Cornwallis  river  at  Kentville,  and  then  followed  the  general 
direction  of  the  shore  of  the  basin  until  we  had  crossed  in  order, 
the  Canard,  Habitant,  and  Pereau  rivers,  and  gained  the  North 
Mountain.    Striking  a  ravine  in  its  side,  we  ascended  a  well-made 


road  to  the  summit  at  a  point  called  the  'Look  Off'.  I  know  of  no 
other  hill  or  mountain  which  gives  the  reward  that  this  one  does  in 
proportion  to  the  effort  required  to  climb  it.  Many  a  rough  "White 
Mountain  scramble  up  three  thousand  feet  yields  nothing  like  the 
■view  which  this  hill  affords.  The  Nova  Seotian  glories  in  the  fact 
that  from  it  he  can  see  into  seven  counties,  and  can  count  pros- 
perous farms  by  the  score,  and  apple-trees  by  the  hundred  thousand.. 
From  the  shores  of  the  basin  westward,  through  the  valley  between 
the  North  and  South  mountains,  well-tilled  farm  lands  reach 
towards  Annapolis  as  far  as  the  eye  can  see.  It  is  a  patchwork  of 
which  the  Maritime  Provinces  are  and  may  well  be  proud,  that 
quilted  landscape,  with  grain  and  potatoes,  orchard  and  hayfield, 
feather-stitched  in  squares  by  zigzag  pole  fences.  Were  this  the 
the  whole  or  the  essence  of  the  view  from  the  Look  Off  it  would  not 
be  worth  writing  about,  for  farm  lands  by  themselves,  or  with  a 
frame  of  rounded  hills,  are  neither  novel  nor  inspiring.  That  which 
stirs  in  this  view,  is  the  mingling  of  Minas  Basin,  its  blue  water  and 
dim  farther  shores,  with  Grand  Pre,  and  the  other  dike  lands  and 
with  the  red  bluffs  of  Pereau.  The  patchwork  and  hills  serve 
only  as  contrast,  baek-ground,  filling,  to  the  pronounced  feat- 
ures of  sparkling  sea,  bright  green  meadows  cleft  from  the  sea  by 
dikes,  terra  cotta  sands  and  bluffs,  and  the  forest-covered  ridge 
leading  towards  half-concealed  Blomidon,  the  monarch  of  this  gay 
and  sunlit  realm.  It  was  dreamlike  to  see  the  tide  creeping  in  over 
the  shining  red  sand  and  ooze,  and  changing  their  vivid  tints  by 
blending  with  them  its  own  colours,  to  make  tones  strange  both  to 
sea  and  land.  The  wide  expanses  of  mud  left  bare  by  the  tide  told 
in  their  own  way  the  story  of  the  Acadian  dike  builder". 

By  the  beginning  of  the  last  decade  but  one  of  the  19th  century, 
Kentville  as  the  shire  town  of  the  county,  and  the  headquarters  of 
the  Dominion  Atlantic  railway,  had  attained  sufficient  importance 
to  ask  for  incorporation.  Accordingly,  on  the  7th  of  December, 
1886,  articles  of  incorporation  were  granted  it,  and  on  the  21st  of 
the  following  January  the  first  annual  meeting  of  the  rate-payers 
was  held.    The  object  announced  in  the  proclamation  for  the  meet- 


ing,  was  "to  receive  a  report  on  the  accoxints  and  the  condition  of 
the  public  services  of  the  town ;  to  receive  an  approximate  estimate 
of  the  income  and  expenditures  of  the  current  year;  to  approve  or 
otherwise  of  a  proposal  to  convert  the  temporary  school  loan  of  a 
thousand  dollars  into  a  debenture  loan  of  like  amount,  at  a  reduced 
rate  of  interest,  etc.,  etc".  The  first  election  of  town  officers  was 
held  February  1,  1887,  the  result  being  that  John  Warren  King 
was  elected  Mayor,  and  James  William  Eyan,  Robert  Silas  Masters^ 
William  Eaton,  Charles  Frederick  Cochran,  Thomas  Pennington 
Calkin,  and  Kenneth  Sutherland,  Councillors.  The  first  meeting  of 
the  new  Council  was  held,  March  1,  when  Judge  John  Pryor  Chip- 
man  was  elected  Recorder,  and  William  Eaton,  unanimously.  Town 
Clerk  and  Treasurer.  His  acceptance  of  the  latter  office  removed 
Mr.  Eaton  from  the  Council  and  his  place  on  this  board  was  filled 
by  the  election  of  Charles  Smith.  The  auditors  elected  were  CoL 
Leverett  de  Veber  Chipman,  and  Arthur  E.  Calkin. 

The  successive  Mayors  of  the  Town  since  incorporation  have 

John  Warren  King  Charles  Frederick  Rockwell 

Judge  John  Pryor  Chipman  William  Yould 

Henry  Bentley  Webster,  M.  D.  Charles  Frederick  Rockwell 

Brenton  Halliburton  Dodge,  M.  P.  P.  Col.  Wentworth  Baton  Roscoe 
James  William  Ryan  Henry  Bentley  Webster,  M.  D. 

Robert  Silas  Masters  Harry  Hamm  Wickwire 

On  the  death  of  William  Eaton,  Town  Clerk  and  Treasurer,  in 
1893,  Frank  Herbert  Eaton,  D.  C.  L.,  was  appointed  in  his  father's 
place.  Dr.  Eaton  held  office,  performing  the  duties  largely  through 
a  secretary,  until  January  10,  1898,  when  the  present  incumbent, 
Mr.  John  Carroll,  was  appointed.  Before  1888  the  only  towns  in 
the  Province  incorporated,  besides  Halifax,  were  Dartmouth,  Pic- 
tou,  Windsor,  New  Glasgow,  Sydney,  North  Sydney,  and  Kentville. 

Across  the  Cornwallis  river  from  Kentville,  on  the  main  roads 
that  run  north,  for  many  years  have  stood  some  small  scattered 
houses,  owned  and  occupied  by  people  of  the  African  race.  Prom  the 


pine  forest  that  originally  covered  the  sandy  country  in  this  part  of 
Cornwallis,  this  Negro  settlement  got  the  name  it  has  always  borne, 
the  "Pine  "Woods",  or  as  now,  "The  Pines",  A  similar  Negro  settle- 
ment, known  from  the  name  of  the  chief  family  that  settled  there  as 
the  "Gibson  Woods",  lies  five  or  six  miles  to  the  northwest  of  the 
Pines.  In  the  Pine  Woods  the  chief  families,  originally,  were 
named  Bear,  Jones,  Landsey,  and  Smith,  while  individual  families 
or  persons  bore  the  names  Bell,  Higgins,  Lawrence,  and  Powell.  In 
the  18th  century,  as  we  shaU  see,  slavery  existed  in  almost  all  the 
chief  Nova  Scotia  towns,  the  King's  County  towns  being  no  excep- 
tion to  the  rule.  From  slaves  brought  to  the  county  by  the  early 
planters,  or  purchased  after  they  settled  here,  a  few  of  the  Pine 
Woods  and  Gibson  Woods  Negroes  have  been  descended,  and  from 
slaves  who  escaped  from  their  owners  in  Maryland  or  Virginia  and 
took  passage  on  English  war  ships  in  Chesapeake  Bay  in  1814, 
probably  others  have  come.  One  of  the  most  respectable  and 
respected  of  the  Pine  Woods  coloured  people  of  the  19th  century 
was  Elisha  Lawrence,  and  tradition  says  that  he  came  to  Halifax 
on  the  Chesapeake  after  her  encounter  with  the  Shannon  in  1813, 
later  finding  his  way  to  Cornwallis,  where  he  spent  the  rest  of  his 
life  and  died.  Lawrence,  perhaps  alone  of  the  Cornwallis  Negroes, 
was  a  loyal  member  of  the  Anglican  Church,  and  for  many  years 
his  place  in  the  south  end  of  the  gallery  of  St.  James'  Church,  Kent- 
ville,  on  Sundays,  was  never  vacant.  Long  past  the  middle  of  the 
19th  century,  two  old  coloured  women,  sisters,  Dinah  Powell  and 
Chloe  Landsey,  lived  in  the  Pine  Woods,  both  of  them  in  their  youth 
having  been  slaves  in  the  family  of  Mr.  Benjamin  Belcher.  In 
1783  Colonel  Morse,  commanding  Royal  Engineer  in  Nova  Scotia, 
under  instructions  from  Colonel  Winslow,  made  a  tour  of  the 
Nova  Scotia  settlements  and  in  his  census  of  the  population  of 
King's  County  specified  a  hundred  and  seven  "servants",  who 
were  probably  Negroes.  Of  these,  thirty-eight  were  at  Cornwallis 
and  Horton,  and  sixty-nine  at  Parrsborough.  In  the  census  of 
1901,  King's  County  is  reported  as  having  only  two  hundred  and 
•ten  Negroes. 


In  the  Pine  Woods  and  at  other  spots  near  Kentville,  for 
many  years,  there  were  also  small,  picturesque  Micmac  encamp- 
ments. In  pointed,  smoky,  birch-bark  covered  wigwams,  these 
simple  sons  of  the  forest  and  their  families  lived.  They  made  bas- 
kets which  they  sold  in  the  town,  hunted  in  the  woods,  fished  in 
the  lakes  and  streams,  and  were  always  glad  to  accept  of  broken 
bread  at  the  townspeople's  doors.  They  were  simple-minded, 
harmless,  gently-moving  people,  some  of  whom,  like  "old  Madeline" 
lived  to  the  age  of  a  hundred  years,  but  most  of  whom  died  of 
exposure  and  poor  living  at  a  much  earlier  age.  Like  all  their  race 
in  Nova  Scotia  they  were  nominally  Roman  Catholics,  and  on  Sun- 
days and  Saints  Days,  went  to  mass  at  St.  Joseph's,  the  women 
wearing  high  bead-embroidered  squaws'  caps,  or  else  men's  tall 
silk  hats,  the  accompaniment  of  which  was  not  infrequently  a 
blanket  round  the  shoulders. 

Of  the  origin  of  the  beautiful  "Oak  Grove  Cemetery",  in  the 
extreme  east  end  of  Kentville,  on  what  was  once  the  property, 
successively,  of  Messrs.  Benjamin  Peck,  Sr.,  and  Jr.,  a  few  words 
must  here  be  said.  Whittier  once  wrote  of  the  New  England  bury- 
ing grounds : 

"Our  vales  are  sweet  with  fern  and  rose, 
Our  hills  are  maple-crowned. 

But  not  from  them  our  fathers  chose 
The  village  burying  ground; 

The  dreariest  spot  in  all  the  land 

To  death  they  set  apart; 
"With  scanty  grace  from  Nature's  hand. 

And  none  from  that  of  art". 

But  such  charge  cannot  be  brought  against  the  pioneer  plant- 
ers of  King's  County,  and  especially  is  it  not  true  of  the  choice  of 
a  burial  spot  for  the  village  of  Kentville,  made  by  the  second  Mr. 
Benjamin  Peek.  On  the  8th  of  March,  1845,  an  act  was  passed  by 
the  legislattire  to  provide  for  the  supervision  and  management  of  this 


earliest  burying  ground  of  the  Kentville  people.    This  act  recites 
that,  July  1,  1817,  when  Benjamin  Peck,  the  younger,  late  of  Hor- 
ton,  with  his  wife  Mary,  deeded  his  farm  to  Joseph  Barss,  Jr.,  he 
reserved  half  an  acre  for  a  public  burying  place,  in  the  grove  of 
oaks,  on  the  north  side  of  the  county  road  "where  his  honoured 
father  and  mother  and  several  other  persons  were  biu'ied",  this 
public  burying  ground  to  be  perfectly  open  and  free  to  people  of 
all  denominations  forever.    To  Benjamin  Peck,  Jr.,  therefore,  who 
in,  or  shortly  before,  1817,  removed  with  his  family  from  Horton 
to  the  State  of  Ohio,  we  are  indebted  for  the  beautiful  cemetery 
where  most  of  the  Kentville  dead  are  buried.     The  original  half- 
acre  which  Mr.  Peck  gave  the  town  for  a  burial  place  has  in  course 
of  time  been  greatly  added  to,  until  now  several  acres  are  conse- 
crated to  the  purpose  for  which  the  second  English  owner  of  the 
land  gave  a  piece  of  his  farm.    The  first  graves  in  the  cemetery 
have  tombstones  which  are  still  well  preserved.     The  graves  they 
mark  are  of  Hannah  Peck,  who  died  Sept.  8,  1774,  in  the  6th  year 
of  her  age ;  Anna  Lee,  wife  of  Benjamin  Lee,  who  died  April  21,  1795, 
in  the  29th  year  of  her  age;  Hannah  Best,  wife  of  John  Best,  who 
died  May  6,  1798,  in  the  20th  year  of  her  age;  Benjamin  Peck  {8r.), 
who  died  October  24,  1801,  in  the  61st  year  of  his  age ;  Sabra  Peck, 
who  died  October  3,  1801,  in  the  21st  year  of  her  age;  Eliza, 
third  daughter  of  Benjamin  and  Mary  Peck,  who  died  December  17, 
1803,    aged   2   years   and   8   months;   Dan,   second   son   of   Benja- 
min   and    Mary    Peck,    who    died    aged    2    days;    Henry    Magee, 
a    native    of    Ireland,    a    Loyalist    from    one    of    the    revolting 
Colonies,  who  died  "firmly  attached  to  his  King  and  Country", 
August  2,  1806,  aged  67  years;  Mary,  wife  of  Cyrus  Peck,  who  died 
May  2,  1808,  in  the  49th  year  of  her  age ;  Patrick  Murray,  who  died 
Dec.  10,  1808,  in  the  79th  year  of  his  age ;  James  C.  Griffin,  and  his 
son  Thomas,  drowned  Sept.  13,  1810,  the  father  in  the  50th,  and  the 
son  in  the  19th  year  of  his  age ;  Cyrus  Peck,  who  died  April  13,  1812, 
in  the  66th  year  of  his  age;  Hannah  Peck,  wife  of  Benjamin  Peck, 
who  died  July  10,  1816,  in  the  72nd  year  of  her  age ;  Joseph  Barss, 
Jr.,  formerly  of  Liverpool,  N.  8.,  who  died  August  3,  1824,  in  the 
49th  year  of  his  age. 



The  second  town  in  the  county  to  receive  incorporation,  and 
the  only  one  in  the  province  save  Windsor  and  Halifax,  that  has 
the  dignity  of  being  a  college  town  is  Wolfville,  which  lies  a  little 
to  the  west  of  the  wide  expanse  of  dyke  known  as  the  Grand  Pre» 
To  the  original  hamlet,  on  the  main  road  from  Horton  Town  Plot  ta 
Annapolis,  which  is  now  called  Wolfville,  the  early  planters  with 
not  very  good  taste  gave  the  disagreeable  name  "Mud  Creek", 
Over  the  creek  from  which  the  name  came,  which  here  leads  up 
from  the  Cornwallis  river  the  people  early  constructed  a  bridge^ 
and  this  bridge,  known  as  "Mud  Creek",  may  properly  be  regarded 
as  the  middle  point  of  Wolfville  town.  By  1829  or  '30  the  name 
"Mud  Creek"  became  so  objectionable  to  some  of  the  inhabitants 
that  two  young  grand-daughters  of  Judge  Elisha  DeWolf,  the 
Misses  Maria  and  Mary  Starr  Woodward,  proposed  to  their  uncle, 
Elisha  DeWolf,  Jr.,  who  was  postmaster  at  the  time,  that  it  should 
be  changed  to  "WoKville",  and  through  Mr.  DeWolf,  the  Post- 
master General  of  the  province  was  appealed  to.  This  functionary 
at  once  acceded  to  the  proposed  change,  and  the  upper  Horton  Post 
OfSce  Station  was  henceforth  known  as  Wolfville.  The  yonnger  of 
the  ladies  who  were  instrumental  in  having  the  name  changed  was 
afterward  married  to  James  Edward  DeWolf  of  Kentville,  and 
became  the  mother  of  Alfred,  Stanley,  and  Melville  G.  DeWolf. 

The  new  name  of  the  village  was  entirely  appropriate,  for  along 
the  Wolfville  main  street  lived  a  considerable  group  of  families 
bearing  the  DeWolf  name.  Of  these  were.  Judge  Elisha  DeWolf, 
the  leading  man  of  the  village,  an  important  land-owner,  who  built 


the  house  now  known  as  Kent  Lodge,  and  who  had  the  honour  of 
entertaining  in  his  hospitable  cottage,  H.  R.  H.  the  Duke  of  Kent, 
when  he  was  journeying  from  Halifax  to  Annapolis ;  Daniel  DeWolf, 
M.  P.  P.,  a  remote  cousin  of  Judge  Blisha  DeWolf  and  an  almost 
equally  prominent  man;  Daniel's  brother  Oliver,  and  son  Eobert 
Dickson,  DeWolf;  Judge  Elisha's  sons,  Hon.  Thomas  Andrew 
Strange  DeWolf,  a  member  of  the  Executive  Council  of  the 
province,  and  Elisha  DeWolf,  Jr.,  M.  P.  P.,  postmaster  for  Wolf- 
ville ;  Stephen  Brown  and  Joseph  Brown  DeWolf,  sons  of  Edward, 
older  brother  of  Judge  Elisha;  and  Charles  DeWolf,  Sr.,  of  a  third 
DeWolf  family  in  Horton,  and  his  son,  Israel.  The  houses  of  the 
first  residents  of  WoKville  were  built  on  both  sides  of  the  post 
road,  each  house  having  its  own  garden  and  larger  grounds.  The 
house  known  as  "Kent  Lodge",  originally  somewhat  smaller  than 
it  is  now,  was  the  house  in  which  Judge  Elisha  DeWolf  reared  his 
large  family ;  the  dwelling  toward  the  lower  end  of  Wolfville  after- 
■ward  for  many  years  occupied  by  Dr.  Lewis  Johnstone,  was  the 
house  in  which  Hon.  Thomas  Andrew  Strange  DeWolf  lived;  the 
house  in  the  upper  part  of  the  village,  approached  by  a  fine  avenue 
of  trees,  afterward  owned  by  Professor  D.  Francis  Higgins,  was 
built  and  occupied  by  Elisha  DeWolf,  Jr. 

' '  Wolfville ' ',  says  a  recent  writer, ' '  is  indeed  a  pleasant  place.  In 
front  lies  the  placid  basin  of  Minas,  ever  changing  as  the  incoming 
and  outgoing  tides  enlarge  and  narrow  its  area.  On  the  right 
stretches  away  to  the  eastward  the  great  dyked  marsh  known  as 
the  'Old  Dyke'  or  'Grand  Pre',  and  the  new  or  Wickwire  Dyke,  the 
first  in  part  reclaimed  from  the  sea  by  the  French,  the  second 
largely  the  work  of  their  Anglo-Saxon  successors.  On  the  left  may 
be  seen  the  winding  Comwallis  river,  bordered  by  fertile  fields 
and  productive  orchards;  while  in  the  middle  distance,  ten  miles 
away,  rises  bold  Blomidon,  always  majestic  in  his  simple  grandeur, 
but  varying  in  beauty  as  the  lights  and  shadows  alternate  upon  his 
changeful  brow.  Sometimes  he  is  capped  with  a  fleecy  cloud-cov- 
ertftg,  at  others  he  stands  out  in  bold  relief,  the  guardian  of  the 
inland  waters;  while  as  the  seasons  roll  by,  the  soft  blue  tint  of 


Biimmer  in  whicli  he  arrays  himself,  gradually  changes  to  the 
sombre  gray  of  winter.  Beyond  Blomidon,  in  the  remote  back- 
ground, stretches  the  long  range  of  the  Cobequids,  the  highest  land  in 
Nova  Scotia.  In  the  rear  of  WoLfville  lies  the  Eidge,  a  spar  of  the 
South  Mountain,  from  the  summit  of  which  some  of  the  loveliest 
views  in  the  province  are  obtained.  On  the  north  the  view  em- 
braces Minas  Basin,  with  all  its  beautiful  surroundings,  and  the 
luxuriant  Cornwallis  Valley,  with  its  four  tidal  rivers,  in  the  distance 
looking  like  silver  threads.  On  the  south  we  can  look  down  into  the 
famous  Gaspereau  Valley,  lovely  beyond  words  to  describe.  These 
views  remain  a  part  of  the  mental  outfit  of  Acadia  University's 
students,  many  of  whom  come  back  year  after  year  to  renew  their 
early  association  with  these  attractive  scenes". 

Back  of  Wolfville  is  the  high  ridge  to  which  the  writer  we 
have  quoted  from  refers,  called  "Gaspereau  Mountain",  between 
which  and  the  South  Mountain  lies  the  lovely  Gaspereau  Valley. 
Through  this  valley  runs  the  gradually  widening  stream  known  as 
the  Gaspereau  river,  from  the  mouth  of  which  in  1755  "Winslow's 
vessels  sailed,  carrying  into  dreary  exile  the  imfortunate  Acadian 
French.  On  the  picturesque  Wolfville  hill-side,  in  full  view  of 
Minas  Basin  and  green-mantled  Grand  Pre,  stand  the  buildings  of 
Acadia  University,  Horton  Academy,  and  Acadia  Seminary  for 
women,  while  on  the  streets,  shaded  by  luxuriant  maples,  that  now 
at  right  angles  intersect  the  long,  sloping  hill-side,  are  built  the 
tasteful  villas  of  the  well-to-do  inhabitants  of  King's  County's  uni- 
versity town. 

Of  the  view  from  the  hill  above  Wolfville,  the  late  Mr.  Frank 
Bolles  in  1894  wrote:  "It  was  on  the  afternoon  of  the  next  day, 
our  second  on  the  peninsula,  that  I  saw  Blomidon,  at  first  from  the 
Kentville  slopes,  and  again,  after  we  had  followed  down  the  dash- 
ing, dancing  Gaspereau  for  several  miles,  from  the  heights  above 
Wolfville.  The  Gaspereau  Valley  had  been  charming,  by  reason 
of  its  wooded  hillsides,  in  parts  holding  the  river  closely  between 
dark  banks  of  spruce  and  fir,  but  later  giving  it  freer  range  through 
well-tilled  meadow  and  undulating  fields.     Evening,  heralded  by 


rolling  masses  of  dark  clouds,  seemed  to  be  upon  us,  as  our  horses 
slowly  climbed  the  steep  slope  of  the  Gaspereau,  back  of  "Wolfville. 
Then  it  was  that,  gaining  the  edge  of  the  northern  slope,  we  sud- 
denly saw  the  marvellous  panorama  of  the  Cornwallis  Valley,  North 
Mountain,  Blomidon,  the  Basin  of  Minas,  the  Acadian  dike-lands,  in- 
cluding Grand  Pre,  and  the  mouth  of  the  Gaspereau,  spread  before  us 
imder  the  sunset  lights  and  the  emphatic  contrasts  of  speeding  wind- 
clouds.  The  tide  was  out,  and  miles  of  basin  bottom  lay  red  and 
shining  in  the  sunlight.  The  dike-lands  were  intensely  green,  the 
sands  or  mud,  all  shades  of  terra  eotta,  the  shallows  strange  tones  of 
purple,  and  the  deeper  waters  varying  shades  of  blue.  Colour 
ran  riot  in  meadow,  mud,  and  bay.  Above  and  beyond 
all,  directly  in  front  of  us,  miles  away,  at  the  extremity  of  a  grand 
sweep  of  shore  which  curved  towards  it  from  our  left,  was  a  dark 
red  blufif,  crowned  with  evergreens.  Its  profile  was  commanding. 
From  the  edge  of  its  forest  it  fell  one  quarter  of  the  way  to  the  sea 
in  a  line  perfectly  perpendicular.  Then  relenting  a  little,  the  line 
sloped  to  the  waves  at  a  gentler  angle,  but  one  still  too  steep  for 
human  foot  to  ascend.  This  was  Blomidon,  simple,  majestic, 
inspiring.  The  distant  northern  shore  of  the  basin  was  plainly  indi- 
cated by  a  line  of  blue  mountains,  the  Cobequid  range,  and  we  knew 
that  between  us  and  its  rugged  coast-line,  the  mighty  pent-up  tides 
of  Fundy  raced  each  day  and  night  into  the  comparative  calm  of 
Minas,  and  spread  themselves  there  over  the  red  sands  and  up  to 
the  dikes  which  the  Acadia  peasants  had  built  round  about  Grand 

Wolfville  was  incorporated  in  1893,  and  its  population  in  1901 
was  1,412.  Its  mayors,  since  incorporation  have  been:  E.  Perry 
Bowles,  M.  D.,  1893- '94;  J.  W.  Bigelow,  1895- '96;  George  Thomson, 

1897- '01;  John  Frederic   Herbin,   1902- '03;  DeWitt,   M.   D., 

1903- '05;  W.  M.  Black,  1906- '09;  Thomas  L.  Harvey,  1909 . 

The  hamlet  that  finally  grew  into  the  town  of  Canning,  was  first 
called  Apple-Tree  Landing,  from  the  fact  that  near  what  was  after- 
wards the  ship-yard  of  Messrs.  Bbenezer  Bigelow,  Sons  &  Co.,  where 
the  village  centred,  stood  an  old  apple-tree  that  had  lasted  from  the 


Acadian  time,  the  stump  of  which  was  visible  until  perhaps  1860. 
Later,  Canning  was  called  Habitant  Corner,  but  about  1830,  a  num- 
ber of  the  most  prominent  men  residing  there,  among  whom  were 
John  Wells,  John  Sheffield,  John  Palmeter,  Judah  Wells,  David 
Eaton,  Jr.,  Nathan  Woodworth,  Benjamin  Donaldson,  Erastus 
Pineo,  and  Geo.  Pineo,  met  and  formally  changed  the  name  to  Can- 
ning, in  honour  of  either  George  Canning,  statesman  and  orator, 
Governor-General  of  India  and  Prime  Minister,  or  his  illustrious 
son.  Viscount  Charles  John  Canning,  who  was  also,  during  the  In- 
dian Mutiny  of  1857,  Governor-General  of  India. 

The  first  householder  at  Apple-Tree  Landing  is  said  to  have 
been  a  man  by  the  name  of  Stewart  (the  name  has  been  written 
Steward).  If  this  information  is  correct,  Stewart  was  also  the  first 
ship-owner  of  Canning,  he  is  reported  to  have  owned  a  small  ves- 
sel and  to  have  traded  with  her  between  Cornwallis  and  St. 
John.  At  the  time  the  name  of  the  place  was  changed 
to  Canning,  the  chief  houses  in  the  settlement  were :  Benja- 
min Donaldson's,  afterwards  owned  by  John  0.  Pineo;  John 
Wells',  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street;  the  "Barlow 
house",  occupied  by  John  Sheffield,  who  had  a  large  general 
store  near;  and  William  Woodworth 's,  where  afterward  Stephen 
Sheffield's  house  stood.  Below  the  corner,  near  where  Charles  R. 
Northup  afterward  lived,  was  Erastus  Pineo 's  house.  Mr.  Pineo, 
it  is  said,  "owned  all  the  land  east  of  Elias  Burbidge's  line,  to  the 
street  leading  from  the  hay-scales  to  the  North  Mountain,  and  back 
to  the  Heming  farm.  Where  in  recent  times  Edward  Lockwood 
lived,  was  the  house  of  a  Mr.  Faulkner,  who  also  at  an  early  date 
built  vessels  at  Apple-Tree  landing.  Where  afterward  the  late  Mr. 
John  H.  Clarke  lived,  was  a  house,  usually  rented,  belonging  to  Levi 
Woodworth,  Sr.,  who  also  built  the  house  in  later  years  occupied 
by  Ebenezer  Bigelow.  Then  came  the  Merriam  or  Haze  (?) 
House,  on  the  river  bank,  south  of  the  road,  and  next,  the 
house  of  Geo.  D.  Pineo,  afterwards  owned  by  Benjamin  Baxter 
Woodworth, — ^in  recent  years  the  oldest  house  in  the  town.  The 
principal  merchants  of  the  place  were:  Benjamin  Donaldson,  who 


had  rather  large  interests  in  shipping  and  did  considerable  general 
trade,  and  the  firm  of  Sheffield  &  Wells,  the  partners  in  which  were 
John  Sheffield  and  Judah  Wells.  Where  the  thickest  part  of  the 
town  of  Canning  now  is,  however,  was  only  the  green  river  bank, 
over  which  sheep  and  cattle  peacefully  grazed  in  summer,  and 
where  the  shad  were  divided  when  the  boats  brought  the  contents 
pf  the  laden  seines  in. 

The  first  vessel  that  left  a  Canning  ship-yard  is  said  to  have 
been  built  by  Dr.  William  Baxter,  and  the  next  by  a  company,  con- 
sisting of  Ebenezer  Bigelow,  Joseph  Northup,  Edward  Lockwood, 
and  Edward  Pineo.  This  vessel,  which  was  considered  for  the 
time  a  large  one,  was  of  about  two  hundred  tons,  and  was  named  the 
Sam  Slick.  A  second  vessel  built  for  the  same  company,  was  named 
the  Isctbella.  In  1847  a  new  ship-yard  was  started  near  the  place 
where  David  M.  Dickie  long  lived,  and  in  it  a  company,  consisting 
of  Elias  and  Arnold  Burbidge,  and  Charles  R.  Northup,  built  the 
Elizabeth  Hastings,  brigantine,  which  the  owners  sold  to  Captain 
Gault,  of  St,  John.  It  is  remembered  that  the  purchaser  of  this  ship 
paid  for  her  entirely  in  Mexican  silver  dollars,  which  he  carried  in 
a  bag.  A  store  was  built  in  Canning  in  1850  by  Edwin  Dickie,  and 
another,  called  the  "Blue  Store",  from  the  colour  it  was  painted, 
by  Charles  Dickie  and  his  son  David  M.  Dickie.  After  1850,  for  six 
years,  stores  and  houses  went  up  rapidly  in  the  town. 

The  modern  Canning  owes  its  existence  largely  to  the  potato 
industry  of  Cornwallis.  In  1844,  owing  to  a  prevalent  disease  in 
the  potatoes  of  the  New  England  States,  the  demand  for  Nova  Scotia 
potatoes  in  the  New  England  market  was  so  great  that  the  price  of 
this  vegetable  rose  to  a  dollar  or  a  dollar  and  a  quarter  a  bushel.  A 
great  part  of  the  shipping  of  the  potatoes  of  the  county,  for  the 
Boston  market,  was  done  at  Canning,  and  much  of  the  money  the 
farmers  received  for  their  crop  was  spent  in  the  Canning  stores. 
One  writer  on  Canning's  early  history  remembers  when  wagons 
and  carts  from  all  parts  of  the  township,  loaded  with  potatoes, 
filled  the  streets  from  morning  till  night,  the  vessels  for  their  recep- 
tion lying  at  the  wharves  "as  many  as  eleven  deep". 


Between  1839  and  1853  fourteen  houses  were  erected  in  Can- 
ning, seven  stores  were  opened,  and  one  hotel  was  built.  About 
1849  a  factory  was  opened  in  the  place  for  the  manufacture  of  cut- 
lery, the  machinery  of  which  was  driven  by  steam.  This  steam 
factory  was  the  second  steam-mill  in  the  county,  the  first  having 
been  put  in  operation  at ' '  Steam-mill  Village ' '.  A  little  before  July 
15,  1866,  the  most  destructive  fire  the  county  has  ever  had  occurred 
in  Canning.  "This  fire  tore  its  way  in  both  directions,  stopping  only 
at  John  Smith's  house  on  the  west,  and  the  barque,  Providence,  then 
in  frames,  on  the  east".  Before  daylight  on  the  morning  of  the  16th 
(Sunday),  over  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars'  worth  of 
property  had  been  destroyed,  the  whole  business  part  of  the  town, 
including  ten  stores,  having  been  burned.  Nothing  daunted,  how- 
ever, the  citizens  soon  recovered  from  the  tremendous  blow  they  had 
had,  and  out  of  the  ashes  new  buildings  began  rapidly  to  rise. 
Before  two  years,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  small  gaps,  the  vil- 
lage was  again  wholly  rebuilt. 

One  of  the  most  prominent  merchants  of  Canning  for  many 
years  was  John  Leander  Wickwire,  Esq.,  son  of  Peter  Wickwire, 
and  brother  of  William  Nathan  Wickwire,  M.  D.,  a  leading  medical 
practitioner  of  Halifax.  Mr.  Wickwire  was  the  father  of  the  pres- 
ent mayor  of  Kentville.  The  shipping  firm  to  which  he  belonged 
was  known  as  "Sheffield  &  Wickwire".  Another  family  of  impor- 
tance in  Canning  has  long  been  the  Eand  family,  in  several 
branches;  and  still  another  the  family  of  the  late  Mr.  John  H. 
Clarke.  The  most  distinguished  householder  in  Canning  today  is 
the  Dominion  Minister  of  Militia,  Sir  Frederick  Borden,  K.  C.  M.  G., 
who  has  conspicuous  notice  in  other  places  in  this  book. 

A  brief  description  by  Dr.  Benjamin  Kand,  of  Canning,  as  it 
was  in  the  earliest  times,  will  give  us  a  still  clearer  idea  of  how  the 
village  began.  Dr.  Eand  says:  "The  location  is  a  natural  one, 
owing  to  the  bend  of  the  river  where  the  waters  run  close  to  a  high 
bank.  The  earliest  settlement  was  at  the  upper  end  of  the  present 
village,  where  the  road  crossing  the  dyke  meets  the  one  running 
east  and  west.    Here  were  the  oldest  houses,  the  brick  school-house, 


and  later  the  post-office,  and  stores.  The  bend  in  the  river  at  this 
place  was  called  the  'Wash  Bowl',  and  that  at  the  lower  end  of  the 
present  village,  'Apple-Tree  Landing'.  Between  the  "Wash  Bowl  and 
Apple-Tree  Landing  the  land  was  chiefly  divided  into  two  farms, 
owned  respectively  by  Messrs.  Northup  and  Lockwood.  The  site  of 
the  present  village  was  used  as  a  place  for  drying  fish,  and  the  road 
wound  close  to  the  beach.  Later  the  road  was  straightened  and  the 
land  used  for  fish  drying  was  divided  into  lots,  on  which  was  erected 
a  row  of  stores". 

A  few  miles  east  of  Canning  is  the  village  of  Kingsport,  long  the 
King's  County  point  of  departure  for  the  Parrsborough  packets, 
and  now  a  favorite  summer  resort.  In  Kingsport,  until  1878,  stood 
a  fine  old  oak,  the  last  of  a  sturdy  grove,  under  whose  shade  it  is 
said  the  Micmacs  in  old  days  held  councils  of  war,  yearly  feasts, 
and  religious  dances,  and  celebrated  solemn  marriage  rites.  A 
Kingsport  newspaper  correspondent  in  1887  mourned  the  destruc- 
tion of  this  old  tree  in  the  following  lines : 

"I  mourn  for  the  oak,  the  dear  old  oak. 

That  stood  by  the  side  of  the  lane. 
For  it  sheltered  me  in  my  hours  of  glee. 

From  the  heat  and  the  wind  and  the  rain. 

"I  mourn  for  the  oak,  the  dear  old  oak. 

Though  his  trunk  be  torn  and  rent. 
He  has  stood  the  storm  in  his  kindly  form. 

Till  he 's  bowed  with  years  and  bent. 

"He  stood  like  a  Prince  of  the  forest  field. 

Defying  the  woodsman's  stroke, 
But  I  saw  the  wield  of  the  glittering  steel. 

That  felled  the  brave  old  oak. 

"Yes,  I  love  the  oak,  the  dear  old  oak. 

For  the  years  that  have  passed  away, 
When  close  to  his  feet  crept  lovers  sweet. 

To  gather  the  flowers  of  May. 


' '  'Twas  there  they  whispered  their  tales  of  love, 

As  they  saw  the  daylight  fade, 
And  plighted  in  youth  their  vows  of  truth, 

Under  his  broad  green  shade ; 

"And  there,  at  the  evening,  twilight  hour, 

When  lovers  are  wont  to  meet, 
The  night  breeze  hushed,  and  the  old  oak  blushed, 

To  look  on  a  scene  so  sweet. 

"0,  I'll  praise  the  oak,  the  dear  old  oak, 

For  his  constancy  till  death, 
For  the  tales  there  told  he  did  ne  'er  unfold, 

But  their  secrets  died  in  his  breast". 

One  of  the  more  important  places  in  the  county  is  Berwick,  in 
the  extreme  western  part  of  Cornwallis,  in  a  district  that  used  to 
be  called  "Pleasant  Valley".  What  is  now  the  village  of  Berwick, 
was  first  called  "Currie's  Corner",  then  "Congdon's  Corner",  then, 
after  1835,  when  William  Davison  settled  there,  "Davison's  Cor- 
ner", The  site  of  Berwick  was  cleared  of  woods  about  1827-1830, 
and  in  1835  there  were  three  houses  there.  Among  the  chief  pioneer 
settlers  of  the  region  were  Benjamin  Congdon,  his  half  brother 
Enoch  Congdon,  and  Deacon  Abel  Parker,  who  bought  his  farm  of 
three  hundred  acres  from  Enoch  Congdon,  and  April  4,  1827,  re- 
moved from  Aylesford  to  his  new  home.  Of  Mr.  Parker's  farm 
only  one  acre  had  then  been  touched  by  the  plow,  but  the  new  owner 
set  vigorously  to  work  to  clear  it,  and  eventually,  he  became  a 
prosperous  man.  At  first,  from  his  own  small  farm-house,  with 
walls  of  grooved  and  tongued  boards  and  with  shingled  roof,  he 
could  see  in  any  direction  only  one  other  house,  the  house  of  Blizur 

In  1857,  Baptist  and  Methodist  churches  were  built  at  Berwick, 
and  somewhere  about  that  time,  at  a  public  meeting  of  the  citizens, 
the  present  name  of  the  place  was  given  the  growing  village.  The 
pronunciation  of  the  name,  it  was  distinctly  understood,  was  to  be 


not  Berrick,  as  the  English  town  of  the  same  name  is  pronounced, 
but  Burrmck,  and  Burrwick  the  village  has  commonly  been  called 
since.  In  the  five  years  succeeding  1857,  ten  houses  went  up  in 
Berwick,  and  in  1866  a  weekly  newspaper,  The  Star,  was  estab- 
lished there  by  James  A.  Halliday.  Late  in  the  19th  century,  through 
the  influence  of  Mr.  Abel  Parker,  a  girls'  school  was  founded  at 
Berwick,  this  gentleman  giving  the  enterprise  out  of  his  own 
pocket,  a  hundred  pounds.  In  time,  however,  the  school  was  re- 
moved to  "Wolfville,  and  from  it  has  developed  the  present  pros- 
perous "Acadia  Seminary".  Of  the  village  of  Berwick  and  the  sur- 
rounding county,  the  Eev.  D.  0.  Parker  once  wrote:  "It  crowns 
the  highest  land  in  the  King's  and  Annapolis  valley.  The  Com- 
wallis  river  coming  down  the  North  Mountain  flows  through  it  to 
the  east,  and  the  Annapolis  river  from  the  South  Mountain,  flows 
west.  The  intervales,  with  their  rich  alluvial  soil  and  lofty  trees, 
of  ash  and  elm,  and  the  uplands  studded  with  clumps  of  thick 
forest;  the  bracing  winds  of  winter,  the  balmy  breath  of  spring, 
the  genial  warmth  of  summer,  and  the  variegated  glory  of  autumn, 
were  the  attractions  which  must  have  influenced  our  fathers  in  the 
early  years  of  the  present  (19th)  century  to  make  these  grand  acres 
their  home". 

In  a  preceding  chapter  we  have  given  at  some  length  the 
earliest  tradition  of  the  Aylesford  village  of  Morden  or  French 
Cross.  The  present  village  was  built  chiefly  between  1835  and  1868. 
In  1820  there  were  there  only  one  or  two  houses  and  a  few  fisher- 
men's huts.  The  earliest  permanent  settlers  seem  to  have  been 
named,  Benedict,  Cook,  and  Dodge.  About  1835  the  place  began  to 
grow,  and  by  1868  it  had  become  a  considerable  village.  In  1854, 
through  the  instrumentality  and  by  the  munificence  of  Col.  Butler, 
an  Anglican  Church  building,  called  "Christ  Church",  was  erected 

Hall's  Harbour  received  its  name  from  the  following  event: 
About  1779  Samuel  Hall,  a  native  of  King's  County,  who  had  left 
the  province  and  settled  in  New  England,  piloted  a  privateering 
band  of  seventeen  men  from  the  revolted  colonies,  to  this  point. 


The  company,  captained  by  a  man  named  Gow,  made  several 
marauding  excursions  into  the  valley,  taking  away  cattle,  and  rob- 
bing houses  and  stores.  At  last  the  militia  were  aroused  to  action, 
and  Abraham  Newcomb,  with  about  forty  men,  went  to  the  har- 
bour. Newcomb  's  party  found  most  of  the  robbers  gone,  three  only 
having  been  left  to  guard  the  vessels,  and  these  they  fired  on.  Shat- 
tering the  leg  of  one  and  wounding  another  under  the  arm,  they 
made  both  prisoners ;  the  third,  however,  escaped.  From  their  two 
prisoners  the  pursuing  party  learned  that  the  main  body  of  the 
marauders  had  gone  into  the  valley  to  rob  Mr.  Sherman's  house  and 
store  at  the  Cornwallis  Town  Plot.  Returning  as  quickly  as  pos- 
sible across  the  mountain,  the  pursuers  found  Sherman's  house  and 
store  pillaged  and  the  robbers  not  there.  Again  the  King's  County 
men  took  their  way  to  the  bay  shore,  but  as  they  went  to  the  east 
side  of  the  harbour  and  the  robbers  had  gone  to  the  west,  the 
marauders  escaped.  Hall  himself  went  to  Annapolis  and  it  is  prob- 
able got  safely  back  to  the  United  States. 

For  a  good  while  after  this  event  Hall's  Harbour  served 
chiefly  as  a  fishing  station  for  the  valley  people.  From  1826,  how- 
ever, the  place  grew;  in  that  year  two  families  settled  there  and  a 
mill  was  built.  About  1830  the  first  store  was  opened  at  the  place 
by  Sylvanus  "Whitney.  In  1835  the  first  vessel  was  built  there;  it 
registered  perhaps  five  tons,  and  was  called  the  Dove.  In  1835  and 
'36,  the  place  added  about  a  dozen  houses  and  two  stores. 

In  1764,  three  or  four  families  located  at  Scots  Bay  and  began 
the  present  settlement  there,  among  them  people  of  the  name  o^ 
Andrews  and  Loomer.  Tradition  has  it  that  shortly  before  this  a 
vessel  with  some  Scotch  emigrants  sailed  up  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  its 
passengers  intending  to  settle  at  Cape  D  'Or.  In  a  squall  the  vessel 
was  driven  ashore  at  the  present  Scots  Bay,  where  she  lay  stranded, 
her  passengers  and  crew,  however,  being  saved.  For  some  time 
the  shipwrecked  people  wandered  helplessly  about,  but  at  last  they 
came  on  a  solitary  hunter.  The  man  gave  them  food  and  led  some  of 
them  down  the  mountain,  but  these  soon  returned  to  their  first  land- 
ing place.    During  the  winter  that  followed,  the  Scotchmen  made 


frequent  journeys  into  the  valley  for  food,  but  what  became  of  them 
in  the  end  we  do  not  know.  From  these  temporary  residents  the 
place  got  its  name  Scots  Bay.  Early  in  the  period  which  followed 
the  comiQg  of  the  New  England  planters  to  Cornwallis  and  Horton, 
shad  fishing  in  a  small  way  began  to  be  carried  on  at  Scots  Bay. 
About  1800,  weirs  were  made  there  on  a  larger  scale,  and  great 
numbers  of  fish  were  caught.  In  perhaps  1835,  a  new  seine  was  set 
in  place  of  the  "great  seine"  of  1800,  and  shares  were  bought  in  it, 
but  only  by  the  proprietors  of  the  soil  at  Scots  Bay  itself.  The  chief 
early  settlers  at  Baxter's  Harbour,  which  is  ten  miles  west  of  Scots 
Bay,  was  Dr.  William  Baxter,  of  whom  we  have  elsewhere  given  a 
conspicuous  notice. 

About  1770  representatives  of  the  Bill  and  Rockwell  families 
settled  at  Billtown  and  began  that  village.  In  twenty  years  there 
were  about  ten  houses  there,  few  of  them  less  than  two  miles  apart. 
What  is  now  Hamilton's  Corner,  in  Cornwallis,  was  at  first  and  for 
a  long  time,  known  as  "Jaw  Bone  Comer",  or  more  simply  "The 
Whalebone".  The  reason  for  this  name  was  that  at  a  certain  spot 
near  the  corner  where  the  four  roads  meet  was  a  gate  with  gate- 
posts made  from  a  whale 's  jaw-bone.  Port  Williams  was  settled  by 
Terrys  and  Lockwoods,  and  for  many  years,  as  we  have  elsewhere 
said,  was  known  as  "Terry's  Creek".  The  earliest  settlers  of  Gas- 
pereau  were  the  family  of  Eliphalet  Coldwell  and  families  named 
Benjamin,  Martin,  and  Pierce.  In  time  a  considerable  number  of 
Horton  people  of  other  names  took  farms  there,  and  the  Gas- 
pereau  settlement  at  last  came  to  have  a  good  deal  of  importance. 

One  of  the  most  conspicuous  estates  in  the  county  is  "St. 
EulaUe",  the  estate  of  Sir  Robert  Linton  Weatherbe,  Kt.,  at  Wall- 
brook,  near  Grand  Pre,  in  Horton.  It  includes  a  portion  of  what 
it  is  believed  was  once  a  French  hamlet  named  "Melanson", 
and  is  charmingly  located.  Sir  Robert  is  an  enthusiastic  orchardist, 
and  he  and  Lady  Weatherbe  usually  spent  their  summers  on  their 
King's  County  farm. 




"When  Governor  Cornwallis  came  to  Nova  Scotia  in  1749,  one 
of  his  earliest  acts  was  the  erection  and  commissioning  of  courts  of 
justice  for  the  carrying  out  of  the  principles  of  English  common 
law.  In  pursuance  of  his  orders  from  the  crown  he  at  once  erected 
three  courts,  a  Court  of  General  Sessions,  a  County  Court,  having 
jurisdiction  over  the  whole  province,  and  a  General  Court  or  Court 
of  Assize  and  General  Jail  Delivery,  in  which  the  Governor  and 
Council  for  the  time  being,  sat  at  judges.  In  1752,  the  County 
Court  was  abolished,  and  a  Court  of  Common  Pleas  similar  to  the 
Superior  Courts  of  Common  Pleas  of  New  England  erected  in  its 
place.  In  1754,  Jonathan  Belcher,  Esq.,  was  appointed  the  first 
Chief  Justice  of  the  province,  and  the  General  Court  was  supplanted 
by  a  Supreme  Court,  in  which  the  Chief  Justice  was  the  sole  judge. 

After  the  coming  of  the  New  England  planters,  new  counties 
having  been  erected,  courts  of  Common  Pleas  were  multiplied  and 
judges  for  them  appointed,  the  first  judges  for  King's  County  being 
Col.  Eobert  Denison,  Henry  Denny  Denson,  and  Isaac  Deschamps. 
In  1829  Judge  Haliburton  wrote:  "There  is  no  separate  Court  of 
Common  Pleas  for  the  Province,  but  there  are  courts  in  each  county, 
bearing  the  same  appellation  and  resembling  it  in  many  of  its 
powers.  These  courts  when  first  constituted  had  power  to  issue 
both  mesne  and  final  process  to  any  part  of  the  Province,  and  had  a 
concurrent  jurisdiction  with  the  Supreme  Court  in  all  civil  causes. 
They  were  held  in  the  several  counties  by  Magistrates,  or  such  other 
persons  as  were  best  qualified  to  fill  the  situation  of  judges,  but 
there  was  no  salary  attached  to  the  office,  and  fees,  similar  in  their 


nature,  but  smaller  in  amount  than  those  received  by  the  Judges  of 
the  Supreme  Court,  were  the  only  remuneration  given  them  for 
their  trouble.  As  the  King's  bench  was  rising  in  reputation,  from 
the  ability  and  learning  of  its  Judges,  these  courts  fell  into  disuse, 
and  few  causes  of  difficulty  or  importance  were  tried  in  them.  It 
was  even  found  necessary  to  limit  their  jurisdiction,  and  they  were 
restrained  from  issuing  mesne  process  out  of  the  county  in  which 
they  sat.  The  exigencies  of  the  country  requiring  them  to  be  put 
into  a  more  efficient  state,  a  law  was  passed  in  1824  for  dividing  the 
Province  iuto  three  districts  or  circuits  and  the  Governor  was  em- 
powered to  appoint  a  professional  man  to  each  circuit,  as  first  Jus- 
tice of  the  several  courts  of  Common  Pleas  within  the  District,  and 
also  as  President  of  the  courts  of  sessions. 

In  1774  an  act  of  the  Legislature  was  passed,  first  establishing 
the  circuits  of  the  Supreme  Court.  This  act  authorized  the  holding 
of  courts  at  Horton,  Annapolis,  and  Cumberland,  the  sittings  to  last 
at  each  place  not  more  than  five  days,  and  two  judges  always  to  be 
present.  At  Halifax  the  terms  were  fourteen  days,  liberty,  however, 
being  allowed  for  longer  terms  if  the  number  of  cases  to  be  tried  de- 
manded an  extension  of  time.  In  1783  the  Supreme  Couft  sat  at  Hor- 
ton on  Tuesday,  May  3rd,  and  Tuesday,'  Sept.  4 ;  the  Superior  Court 
sat  at  Horton  on  Tuesday,  June  1,  and  Tuesday,  Oct.  1 ;  the  Court 
of  Sessions  also  met  at  Horton  June  1st  and  Oct.  1st.  In  1797  the  sit- 
tings of  the  Supreme  Court  were  held  on  the  Monday  next  after  the 
third  Thursday  of  May  and  of  September.  The  Sessions  of  the  Peace 
were  held  on  the  first  Tuesdays  of  June  and  October.  In  1807  the 
Supreme  Court  sat  at  Horton  on  the  fourth  Tuesday  of  September, 
at  Annapolis  on  the  Tuesday  following  the  sitting  at  Horton.  The 
Inferior  Court  sat  at  Horton  on  the  second  Tuesdays  of  April  and 
October.  In  1828  the  Supreme  Court  sat  at  Kentville  on  the  first 
Tuesdays  of  June  and  September.  No  less  than  eighteen  or  twenty 
acts  of  the  legislature  relative  to  the  times  of  holding  the  courts 
in  the  province,  were  passed  between  1760  and  1840. 

In  1824  an  act  was  passed  changing  the  constitution  of  the 
courts  of  Common  Pleas,  and  dividing  the  province  into  three  Judi- 


cial  Districts:  the  Eastern  District,  to  comprise  the  county  of 
Sydney,  the  districts  of  Pictou  and  Colchester,  and  the  county  of 
Cumberland;  the  Middle  District,  the  counties  of  Hants,  King's, 
Lunenburg,  and  Queens;  the  Western  District,  the  counties  of 
Annapolis  and  Shelburne.  On  the  17th  of  March,  Jared  IngersoU 
Chipman  of  King's  was  appointed  Chief  Judge  of  the  Court  of 
Common  Pleas  for  the  Eastern  Division,  William  Henry  Otis  Hali- 
burton  for  the  Middle  Division,  and  Thomas  Ritchie  for  the  Western 
Division.  The  appointment  of  these  judges  and  the  amount  of 
salary  promised  them  met  with  much  opposition  throughout  the 
province.  In  1841,  by  an  act  of  the  legislature,  the  Inferior  Courts 
of  Common  Pleas  were  abolished  and  the  administration  of  law 
was  generally  improved. 

With  the  advent  of  the  New  England  planters  to  the  county, 
came  the  introduction  of  New  England's  time  honoured  institution, 
the  Town  Meeting.  ' '  The  New  England  town  meeting  was  and  still 
is",  says  Charles  Francis  Adams,  "the  political  expressions  of  the 
town",  and  many  writers  have  spoken  of  the  influence  the  institu- 
tion has  had  in  developing  and  conserving  that  spirit  of  indepen- 
dence and  sense  of  liberty  which  have  been  characteristic  of  the 
New  England  colonies  and  colonies  sprung  from  New  England.  In 
aU  the  New  England  settlements  in  Nova  Scotia,  the  Town  Meeting 
was  from  the  first,  in  conjunction  with  the  Court  of  Sessions,  the 
source  of  local  government.  The  Court  of  Sessions  was  composed 
of  the  magistrates  or  justices  of  the  peace,  the  chairman  of  which 
was  the  Gustos  Botulorum,  and  its  secretary,  the  Clerk  of  the  Peace. 
By  this  court,  the  constables,  assessors,  surveyors  of  highways, 
school  commissioners,  pound  keepers,  fence  viewers,  and  trustees 
of  school  lands,  were  appointed.  In  the  Town  Meeting  the  rate- 
payers met  to  discuss  freely  all  local  affairs,  not  the  least  impor- 
tant matter  under  its  jurisdiction  being  always  the  relief  and  sup- 
port of  the  poor  and  the  appointment  of  overseers  and  a  clerk  of 
overseers  for  carrying  out  the  provisions  for  the  needy  the  Town 
Meeting  made. 

From  the  Cornwallis  Town  Book,  we  learn  that  April  1,  1771, 


the  Town  Meeting  voted  to  raise  twenty  pounds  for  the  support  of 
the  poor  in  Cornwallis,  and  made  choice  of  John  Burbidge,  Esq., 
Capt.  Samuel  Beckwith,  Dr.  Samuel  Willoughby,  Amos  Bill,  Esq., 
and  Mr.  Judah  Wells,  as  assessors,  to  assess  the  amount  voted  on  the 
inhabitants.  Nov.  1,  1790  (Capt.  Judah  Wells,  moderator),  it  was 
voted  to  raise  seventy  pounds  for  the  poor's  support.  The  assessors 
appointed  to  raise  this  amount  were,  William  Chipman  Andrew 
Newcomb,  Lemuel  Morton,  John  Allison,  and  John  Beckwith; 
Jacob  Walton  being  appointed  to  serve  as  collector.  April  4,  1791 
(Capt.  Blkanah  Morton,  moderator),  it  was  voted  that  seventy 
pounds  be  raised  for  the  care  of  the  poor,  Messrs.  William  Chip- 
man,  Elkanah  Morton,  Stephen  Harrington,  James  Burbidge,  and 
Samuel  Starr,  to  be  assessors;  Mr.  Benjamin  Belcher  to  collect  the 
voted  sum.  At  a  meeting  held  Nov  7,  1791,  it  was  voted  that  the 
overseers  should  arrange  with  some  doctor  to  take  care  of  the  needy 
by  the  year,  a  hundred  pounds  being  the  sum  then  set  apart  for  the 
poor's  support.  At  this  meeting,  Daniel  Bowen,  John  Whidden 
Jonathan  Sherman,  Jonathan  Band,  and  William  Webster,  were 
made  assessors,  John  Beckwith  being  appointed  to  collect  the  voted 
amount.  For  many  years  it  was  customary  for  certain  rate-payers 
to  "bid  off"  one  or  more  poor  men,  women,  or  children,  for  stipu- 
lated sums  to  be  paid  weekly  by  the  town.  In  these  cases,  where  it 
was  possible,  the  rate-payers  made  the  poor  whom  they  bid  off,  use- 
ful in  their  homes ;  for  such  service,  and  for  the  sum  they  received, 
giving  the  unfortunates,  board,  lodging,  and  clothes.  Many  persons 
also,  who  became  town  charges  were  "farmed  out"  to  men  who 
made  their  living  wholly  or  in  part  by  boarding  them.  In  1815,  the 
sum  raised  in  Cornwallis  for  keeping  the  poor  was  two  hundred 
and  forty  pounds. 

May  7,  1858,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  legislature  to  incorpor- 
ate a  general  Poor-House,  the  committee  appointed  to  take  the  mat- 
ter in  charge  and  assess  for  the  building  being :  John  M.  Caldwell, 
Peter  Wickwire,  George  W.  Fisher,  Levi  W.  Eaton,  James  Eaton, 
Charles  Dickie,  James  Bligh,  Eobert  W.  Beckwith,  John  Boscoe, 
and  Holmes  C.  Masters.    Another  similar  act  was  passed  in  1867, 


the  committee  then  appointed  being  "William  H.  CMpman,  James 
Bligh,  Leander  Band,  Thomas  lUsley,  and  Elias  Calkin.  For  many 
years,  now,  Poor-Houses  have  existed  in  the  three  original  townships, 
of  the  county,  and  all  the  needy  who  become  town  charges  are  taken 
care  of  in  them.  Up  to  1790,  and  how  much  later  we  do  not  know, 
the  Town  Meetings  of  Cornwallis  were  held  in  the  Meeting-House,, 
but  after  that  they  were  held  in  some  other  convenient  place.  In 
1839  an  act  was  passed  to  enable  the  inhabitants  of  Cornwallis  to 
provide  a  public  Town  House  for  the  holding  of  elections  in  that 
township.  For  this  building  the  toivnship  was  to  be  assessed  in  a 
sum  not  to  exceed  two  hundred  pounds. 

In  1879  the  three  townships  of  the  county  were  united  in  a  cen- 
tral government,  and  the  Town  Meeting  and  Court  of  Sessions  be- 
came things  of  the  past.  In  place  of  the  three  townships  now  arose 
the  Municipality  of  King's  County,  the  sole  governing  body  of 
which  is  the  Municipal  Coimcil.  Under  this  new  system  the  county 
is  divided  into  fourteen  wards,  twelve  of  which  elect  one  coun- 
cillor each,  and  two,  two  councillors,  for  a  term  of  two  years.  The 
Council  as  a  whole  then  elects  a  Warden,  who  corresponds  to  the 
Custos  Rotulorum,  of  the  old  Court  of  Sessions,  and  whatever  other 
officers  it  was  the  duty  of  the  Court  of  Sessions  to  elect.  Under  the 
Municipality's  control  thus  came  all  the  interests  that  formerly  per- 
tained to  both  the  Town  Meeting  and  the  Court  of  Sessions.  The 
change  of  the  county  to  a  Municipality  was  affected  at  a  meeting 
held  at  the  court  house  on  Tuesday,  January  13,  1879,  pursuant  to 
a  notice  by  the  then  Sheriff,  John  Marshall  Caldwell.  When  the  re- 
turns from  the  respective  returning  officers  of  the  several  wards  were 
declared,  the  officers  of  the  Municipality  were  found  to  be :  Warden, 
John  W.  Barss ;  Clerk,  Col.  Leverett  de  Veber  Chipman ;  Treasurer, 
Hon.  Thomas  Lewis  Dodge.  Councillors:  Ward  1 — ^Leander  Band 
and  Elijah  C.  West;  Ward  2 — ^Dr.  Charles  Cottman  Hamilton; 
Ward  3 — James  Roscoe;  Ward  4— W.  S.  Sweet;  Ward  5 — ^David 
Berteaux;  Ward  6 — James  Lyons  and  Adolphus  Bishop;  Ward  7 — 
Jehiel  Davison ;  Ward  8 — John  W.  Barss ;  Ward  9 — John  B.  North ; 
Ward  10 — James  Patterson;  Ward  11 — Michael  Lonergan;  Ward 


12— Thomas  E.  Harris;  Ward  13— C.  P.  Illsley;  Ward  14r— Daniel  B. 

It  is  said  that  one  of  the  legal  institutions  of  the  county  in  very 
early  times  was  what  was  popularly  known  as  "Sheepskin  Court", 
the  function  of  which  was  to  hear  cases  above  the  jurisdiction  of 
magistrates,  but  below  that  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  that  over 
this  court  for  some  time,  while  George  Chipman  was  Sheriff,  Col. 
William  Charles  Moore  presided.  Precisely  what  the  court  was, 
however,  we  do  not  know.  To  regulate  all  matters  concerning  the 
dykes  of  the  county,  in  both  Horton  and  Cornwallis,  separate 
boards  of  Commissioners  have  always  existed,  their  meetings  being 
held  more  or  less  frequently,  as  occasion  has  demanded. 

Before  1761,  two  elections  had  been  held  in  Nova  Scotia  for 
choosing  representatives  to  the  popular  Assembly  of  the  province, 
in  the  spring  of  1761,  another  was  held.  It  was  in  this  third  elec- 
tion that  Bang's  County  first  took  part,  and  the  result  of  the  voting 
was  that  for  the  Township  of  ComwaUis,  Dr.  Samuel  Willoughby 
and  Captain  Stephen  West  were  elected;  for  the  Township  of  Hor- 
ton, WiUiam  Welch  and  Lebbeus  Harris;  and  for  the  Township  of 
Falmouth,  Col.  Henry  Denny  Denson  and  Isaac  Deschamps.  For 
the  County  were  chosen.  Col.  Robert  Denison,  of  Horton,  and 
Charles  Morris,  Jr.  In  the  third  Assembly,  which  lasted  from  1761 
to  1765,  besides  the  King's  County  members,  sat  two  members  each 
from  the  counties  of  Halifax,  Lunenburg,  and  Annapolis,  and  two 
■each  from  the  towns  of  Halifax,  Lunenburg,  Annapolis,  and  Liver- 
pool. The  popular  representatives  in  this  third  Assembly  thus  num- 
bered twenty-four,  a  third  of  whom  were  from  the  County  of  King's. 

In  official  reports  of  early  Nova  Scotia  elections  the  title 
Esquire  is  always  carefully  given  persons  chosen  to  serve  in  the 


1761,  Eobert  Denison,  Henry  Denny  Denson,  Isaac  Deschamps 
1768,  John  Burbidge,  Henry  Denny  Denson,  Isaac  Deschamps, 
Benjamin  Gerrish 


1783,  John  Burbidge,  John  Chipman,  Lebbeus  Harris,  Dr. 
Samuel  Willoughby 

1788,  John  Burbidge,  John  Chipman,  Lebbeus  Harris,  John 

1794,  John  Burbidge,  John  Chipman,  John  Whidden 

1797,  John  Burbidge,  John  Chipman,  Elisha  DeWolf,  Gurden 

1810,  John  Burbidge,  "William  Campbell,  John  Chipman,  Gurden 
Denison,  Elisha  DeWolf 

1815,  William  Campbell,  John  Chipman,  Jonathan  Crane,  Elisha 
DeWolf,  David  Whidden 

1821,  William  Campbell,  John  Chipman,  Elisha  DeWolf,  David 

.  1825,    William    Campbell,    John    Chipman,    Elisha    DeWolf, 
Charles  Ramage  Prescott,  David  Whidden 

1828,  William  Campbell,  John  Chipman,  William  Allen  Chip- 
man,  Elisha  DeWolf 

1840,  William  Campbell,  William  Allen  Chipman,  James  Delap 

In  the  Books  of  the  Council  at  Halifax  no  record  can  be  found 
of  the  appointment  of  High  Sheriffs  in  King's  County  before  1782. 
Earlier  than  that,  however,  to  make  arrests,  serve  processes,  and  do 
the  other  necessary  work  of  a  sheriff  there  must  have  been  locally 
appointed  sheriffs,  and  a  tradition  remains  that  the  first  sheriff  of 
the  county  was  Jonathan  Hamilton,  the  second  Sherman  Denison. 
Jonathan  Hamilton,  one  of  the  Horton  grantees  of  1761,  died  Feb. 
24,  1778,  and  if  his  successor  in  the  sheriff's  office  was  a  Denison, 
the  person  must  have  been  David  Sherman  Denison,  bom  in  Con- 
necticut in  1734,  died  in  Horton  in  1796 

In  1778  an  act  was  passed  by  the  legislature,  and  in  1780  con- 
firmed by  the  crown,  empowering  the  Governor,  Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, or  Commander-in-Chief,  to  appoint  sheriffs  in  such  counties 
as  needed  them,  and  for  King's,  though  we  have  found  no  record  of 
his  appointment,  we  feel  certain  that  the  first  appointee  was  Thomas 


Parrel.  Of  other  county  officials  than  sheriffs  before  1812,  owing  to 
the  loss,  which  it  is  hoped  is  only  temporary,  of  the  records  of  the 
Court  of  Sessions  to  that  time,  it  is  difficult  to  get  a  complete  list 


Thomas  Farrel            Appointed  Jan.     7,  1782 

Daniel  Dickson           Appointed  Dec.  13,  1782 

Elisha  DeWolf,  Sr.      Appointed  Jan.  16,  1783 

John  Thomas  Hill        Appointed  Dec.  17,  1792 
[He  died  in  1800] 

David  Whidden,  Sr.  1801—1809 

[He  married  Oct.  6,  1794,  Eunice,  sister  of  Sheriff  George 

George  Chipman  1809—1838 

[He  was  born  April  23,  1774,  and  died  April  7,  1838] 

William  Charles  Campbell  1838—1855 

John  Marshall  Caldwell  1855—1881 

[He  was  bom  June  15,  1801;  appointed  Sheriff  Dec.  12,  1855; 
and  died  Nov.  6, 1881] 

Stephen  Belcher  1881—1905 

Charles  Frederick  Rockwell  1905 — 

[It  will  be  noticed  that  David  "Whidden  and  George  Chipman 
were  brothers-in-law.  During  part,  at  least,  of  George  Chipman 's 
term  of  office,  his  older  brother,  Charles  Chipman,  bom  July  9,  1772, 
died  about  1851,  was  Deputy  Sheriff] 


Isaac  Deschamps  1768 — 1781 

Handley  Chipman  1781—1799 

William  Charles  Campbell  1801—1836 

Thomas  B.  Campbell  1837—1840 


John  Clarke  Hall  1841—1853 

■William  H.  Keating  1853—1856 

[The  dates  given  Mr.  Keating 's  incumbency  are  probably 

George  Augustus  Blanchard  1856 — 1879 

Stephen  Harrington  Moore  1880 — 1886 

Edmund  James  Cogswell  1888 — 


John  Chipman  David  Whidden 

John  Wells  Eev.  William  Chipman 

Jared  IngersoU  Chipman  William  Henry  Chipman 

William  Charles  Campbell  Col.  Leverett  de  Veber  Chipman 

[This  list  is  probably  correct] 


Handley  Chipman  1792—1799 

John  Chipman  1799—1836 

WilUam  Allen  Chipman  1843—1846 

Hon.  John  Morton  1848—1857 

Hugh  Logan  Dickie  1858—1873 

Samuel  Chipman  1874—1879 


1768,  Joseph  Bailey,  John  Burbidge,  Handley  Chipman,  John 
Day,  Henry  Denny  Denson,  Isaac  Deschamps,  EUward  Ellis,  George 
Feath,  Lebbeus  Harris,  Elisha  Lothrop,  Charles  Morris,  Jr.,  William 
Nisbet,  William  Tonge,  Samuel  Willoughby 

1783,  William  Best,  John  Bishop,  Jr.,  John  Burbidge,  Handley 
Chipman,  John  Chipman,  Jonathan  Crane,  Lebbeus  Harris,  Charles 
Morris,  Joseph  Pierce,  Jonathan  Sherman,  John  Whidden,  Samuel 
Willoughby.  By  1788  the  number  had  increased  to  seventeen.  Jus- 
tices appointed  between  these  dates  were:    Daniel  Bowen,  Finley 


Burn,  Antil  Gallop,  Benjamin  Hilton,  Thomas  William  Moore,  Ed- 
ward Potts,  John  Vought.  The  names  of  William  Best  and  Samuel 
Willoughby  had  been  dropped. 

1792,  Benjamin  Belcher,  John  Bishop,  Jr.,  Daniel  Bowen,  John 
Burbidge,  Colin  Campbell,  William  Campbell,  Handley  Chipman, 
John  Chipman,  Jonathan  Crane,  Gurden  Denison,  Elisha  DeWolf, 
John  Fraser,  Benjamin  Gerrish  Gray,  Edward  Potts,  Thomas  Ratch- 
ford,  Jonathan  Sherman,  Robert  Walker,  John  Whidden 

1797,  John  Allison,  Benjamin  Belcher,  John  Bishop,  Sr.,  Daniel 
Bowen,  John  Burbidge,  Colin  Campbell,  William  Campbell,  Handley 
Chipman,  John  Chipman,  Jonathan  Crane,  Gurden  Denison,  Elisha 
DeWolf,  John  Fillis,  John  Fraser,  Benjamin  Gerrish  Gray,  John 
Thomas  Hill,  James  Kerr,  Elkanah  Morton,  Edward  Potts,  Thomas 
Ratchford,  Jonathan  Sherman,  E.  Taylor,  Robert  Walker,  John 

1807,  John  Allison,  John  Bishop,  Jr.,  Daniel  Bowen,  John  Bur- 
bidge, William  Campbell,  John  Chipman,  William  Allen  Chipman, 
Jonathan  Crane,  Gurden  Denison,  Elisha  DeWolf,  John  Fillis,  John 
Fraser,  Benjamin  Gerrish  Gray,  Stephen  Harrington,  James  Kerr, 
Elkanah  Morton,  Charles  R.  Prescott,  James  Ratchford,  Jonathan 
Sherman,  E.  Taylor,  David  Whidden 

1815,  James  Allison,  Samuel  Bishop,  William  Campbell,  Wil- 
liam Chipman,  WiUiam  Allen  Chipman,  Jonathan  Crane,  Sherman 
Denison,  Daniel  DeWolf,  Elisha  DeWolf,  Simon  Fitch,  James  S. 
Fullerton,  Stephen  Harrington,  James  Harris,  Rev.  John  Inglis, 
D.  D.,  James  Kerr,  Daniel  Lockhart,  Elkanah  Morton,  Rev.  Robert 
Norris,  James  Ratchford,  James  Noble  Shannon,  Alexander  Walker, 
John  Wells,  David  Whidden,  Samuel  Wilson 

1825,  James  Allison,  Samuel  Bishop,  William  Campbell,  John 
Chipman,  William  Chipman,  William  Chipman,  Jr.,  William  Allen 
Chipman,  Samuel  Denison,  Daniel  DeWolf,  Elisha  DeWolf,  Simon 
Fitch,  James  S.  Fullerton,  Harris  Harrington,  James  Harris,  James 
Delap  Harris,  James  Kerr,  Jesse  Lewis,  Daniel  Lockhart,  James 
Ratchford,  Alexander  Walker,  John  Wells,  David  Whidden 

1843,  Mayhew  Beckwith,  Caleb  R.  Bill,  Charles  H.  Brovm,  Seth 



Burgess,  'Williani  C.  Campbell,  Samuel  Chipman,  William  Allen 
Chipman,  James  N.  Crane,  Jonathan  Crane,  Nathan  Davison,  Sher- 
man Denison,  Elisha  DeWolf,  Hugh  L.  Dickey,  Simon  Pitch,  Harris 
Harrington,  James  Harris,  James  Delap  Harris,  John  P.  Hutchinson, 
"William  Johnson,  Daniel  Lockhart,  George  Lockwood,  Thomas 
Lovett,  John  Lyons,  Henry  Magee,  "William  Miller,  Hon.  John  Mor- 
ton, Edward  Palmer,  Nathan  Parker,  Alexander  Patterson,  John 
Patterson,  3rd,  George  D.  Pineo,  Caleb  Handley  Band,  Samuel  Sharp, 
Fairfield  Smith,  Eichard  Starr,  John  "Wells 


Samuel  Denison 


office  in 


Samuel  Leonard  Allison 


"William  Henry  Chipman 


George  Eaton  Barnaby 

1856    1869 

Henry  Lovett 

—        — 

Charles  Frederick  Eockwell 


Robert  C  Dickie 



The  Registers  of  Deeds  begin  as  follows:  Cornwallis  in  1764; 
Horton  in  1766 ;  Aylesf  ord  in  1820. 

John  Burbidge  (for  Cornwallis) 
Nathan  Dewolf  (for  Horton) 
Benjamin  Belcher 
"William     Campbell     (for     Cornwallis, 

Aylesf  ord) 
James  Ratchford   (for  Parrsborough) 
Thomas  B.  Campbell 
David  M.  Dickie 
Frederick  Brown 
Annie  M.  Stuart 

Horton     and 



Cornwallis:  "William  Allen  Chipman,  Ward  Eaton,  James 
Stanley  Eaton 

Horton:  Samuel  Denison,  James  P.  Johnson,  James  Morse, 
Gustavus  Bishop 

Parrsborough :  James  Ratchf ord,  etc. 

Aylesf ord :  Robert  Kerr,  Parker  Spurr,  etc. 


Our  knowledge  of  the  county's  various  coUectorships  of 
customs,  before  1824,  is  not  very  complete.  It  is  said  that  Elisha 
DeWolf  was  appointed  excise  officer  for  Horton  (perhaps  for  the 
county)  in  1819.  In  1824  Mr.  DeWolf  was  acting  as  "Pro-collector" 
for  Horton,  David  Whidden  of  Cornwallis  having  been  appointed 
"Collector  of  Import  and  Excise,"  several  years  before.  The  title 
of  the  office  varies,  it  was  sometimes  ' '  Collector  of  Customs, ' '  some- 
times "Collector  of  Colonial  and  Light  Duties,"  sometimes  "Col- 
lector of  Customs  and  Navigation  Laws".  In  1839  and  '40,  T.  D. 
Dickson  was  collector  at  Parrsborough,  and  in  1842  and  '43  "William 
Lovett  served  as  "Seizing  Officer."  In  1850,  besides  David  Whidden, 
there  was  in  this  office  as  "Collector  of  Colonial  Duties"  on  the  Bay 
Shore,  west  of  Hall's  Harbor,  John  Givan.  At  that  date,  Isaac 
Hamilton,  William  North,  W.  H.  Lovett  and  John  Givan  were 
"Seizing  Officers".  About  1853  (at  least  before  1855),  Edward 
Lockwood  succeeded  David  Whidden  as  Collector  at  Cornwallis, 
Joseph  Crane  became  Collector  for  Horton,  Cornelius  V.  Rawding 
for  Canada  Creek,  and  John  Orpin  for  French  Cross  (Morden). 
John  Givan  still  continued  Collector  for  the  Bay  Shore,  west  of 
HaU's  Harbor,  and  Isaac  Hamilton,  W.  H.  Lovett,  and  John  Givan 
remained  Seizing  Officers.  Before  1858,  an  additional  office  of 
"Surveyor  of  Shipping"  was  created,  and  Edward  Lockwood  re- 
ceived the  appointment  to  it.  An  additional  Seizing  Officer  was 
also  appointed  in  the  person  of  Abraham  Ogilvie. 

November  14,   1859,   Ebenezer    Rand    became    Collector    for 


Cornwallis,  but  from  1860  to  1863,  Edward  Lockwood  was  again 
Collector.  Sept.  29,  1863,  Ebenezer  Band  was  appointed  Collector 
for  Cornwallis,  and  in  the  office  he  remained  for  twenty-five  years-, 
his  resignation  of  the  CoUectorship  at  Cornwallis  and  the  Chief 
Collectorship  being  offered,  March  1,  1888.  After  the  confederation 
of  the  provinces  a  head  Collector  was  appointed  for  each  county, 
and  sub-collectors  under  him  were  appointed  at  the  outposts.  In 
King's  County,  Ebenezer  Eand  became  Chief  Collector,  Cornelius 
V.  Eawding,  becoming  Sub-Collector  at  Canada  Creek,  Robert 
Famsworth  at  Morden,  Edwin  DeWolf  at  Horton,  and  Henry  Morris 
at  Harborville.  The  Seizing  Officers  were  Abraham  Ogilvie,  George 
Lockwood,  Elijah  Rockwell,  and  Simon  N,  Porter,  July  1, 
1873,  George  Lockwood,  whose  first  appointment  as  Seizing 
Officer  was  on  the  1st  of  July,  1860,  became  Sub-Collector  at  Port 
Williams,  and  March  14,  187^,  John  Edwin  Orpin,  whose  earliest 
appointment  as  Seizing  Officer  was  on  the  1st  of  April,  1853,  became 
Sub-Collector  at  Morden.  June  10,  1879,  Stephen  "W.  Rawding 
succeeded  his  father,  Cornelius  V.  Rawding,  as  Sub-Collector  at 
Canada  Creek.  April  3,  1880,  Joseph  Benjamin  Davison  became 
Sub-Collector  at  Wolfville.  January  1,  1886,  Charles  Eugene  Morris 
succeeded  his  father,  Henry  Morris,  as  Sub-Collector  at  Harborville. 
May  1, 1888,  Frederick  Clarence  Rand  succeeded  his  father,  Ebenezer 
Rand,  as  Collector  at  Cornwallis  and  -Head  Collector  for  King's 

August  1,  1888,  the  Chief  Collectorship  was  removed  from  Can- 
ning to  Kentville,  the  great  increase  in  the  imports  of  this  town,  as 
a  railway  centre,  making  the  change  necessary.  At  this  time, 
Edward  Harris  was  appointed  Sub-Collector  for  Canning.  Owing 
to  the  increase  of  trade  along  the  line  of  railway,  and  to  its  decline 
at  the  shipping  ports  on  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  other  changes,  also,  soon 
followed,  Berwick,  on  the  railway,  was  created  an  outport,  and 
July  15,  1894,  Stephen  Illsley  was  appointed  its  Sub-Collector. 
Kingsport,  likewise  became  an  outport,  and  Nov.  1,  1897,  Elijah  C. 
Borden  was  made  its  Sub-Collector.  Aylesford  Station  became  a 
third  outport,  and  January  1,  1900,  J.  Caldwell  "West  was  made  its 


Sub-Collector.  Feb.  1,  1896,  Caleb  Eand  Bill  succeeded  Joseph  B. 
Davison  as  Sub-Collector  at  Wolfville;  Sept.  4,  1897,  Charles  H. 
Norwood  succeeded  Stephen  lUsley  at  Berwick;  Oct,  1,  1901,  John 
E.  Bigelow  succeeded  Edward  Harris  at  Canning ;  and  March  1, 1906, 
John  Rufus  Starr  succeeded  George  Lockwood  at  Port  Williams. 
Abram  Ogilvie,  whose  first  appointment  as  Preventive  or  Seizing 
Officer  bore  date  April  1,  1856,  continued  in  that  office  till  his  death. 
Likewise,  also  did  Simon  N.  Porter,  who  was  first  appointed  Decem- 
ber 30,  1864.  The  latter  was  succeeded  in  his  office  by  his  son. 
When  the  trade  of  the  seaports  passed  to  the  growing  towns  along 
the  railway,  in  the  valley,  the  customs  officers  at  Morden,  where 
John  Edwin  Orpin  was  Sub-Collector  for  many  years,  and  at  Har- 
borville,  where  Cornelius  V.  Rawding  was  likewise  a  veteran  Sub- 
Collector,  were  reduced,  as  in  earlier  days,  to  Seizing  Officers. 

In  1910  the  Chief  CoUectorship  of  the  county  is  still  held  by 
Frederick  Clarence  Rand. 


It  is  not  easy  to  secure  a  complete  list  of  the  Postmasters  of 
the  county  from  the  beginning,  but  the  following  have  acted  in  this 
capacity  at  different  times,  some  of  them  for  a  good  many  years. 

Borden  H.  A.  Canning 

Borden  Judah  Lower  Horton 

Chase  Albert  Port  Williams 

Cox  Joseph  B.  Kingsport 
DeWolf  Elisha,  Jr.  [Appointed  in 

1831]  Wolfville 

Eldridge  James  W.  Long  Island 

Forsyth  Enoch  Port  Williams 

Parker  John  M.  Berwick 

Rand  George  V.  Wolfville 

Ratchford  James  Parrsborough 

Van  Buskirk  H.  Aylesford 

Van  Buskirk  James  Aylesford 


Successive  Postmasters  at  Kentville  have  been : 
James  Bragg  1830—1831 

Daniel  Moore  1831—1834 

John  P.  Hutchinson  1834—1867,  June  28th 

James  P.  Cunningham  [Appointed,  but  served  a  very  short  time]' 
George  E.  Calkin  1867—1876 

Walter  Carruthers  1876— 

Joseph  Edwin  Eaton  — 1892 

Joseph  R.  Lyons  1892 — 

[Mr.  Lyons  is  postmaster  in  1910] 


This  office  was  first  established  about  1830. 

1830,  William  Charles  Moore ;  Daniel  DeWolf ;  James  Allison. 

1843,  James  Allison ;  John  Fisher ;  John  E.  Forsyth,  M.  D. ;  Wil- 
liam Charles  Moore 

1855,  Jonathan  Borden,  M.  D. ;  John  Fisher;  Charles  Cottnam 
Hamilton,  M.  D.  j  Charles  W.  H.  Harris ;  Holmes  Masters,  M.  D. ;  A. 
Van  Buskirk 

1867,  Jonathan  Borden,  M.  D. ;  Gideon  Cogswell;  Stephen 
Dodge,  M.  D. ;  Gilbert  Fowler;  Charles  Cottnam  Hamilton,  M.  D.; 
George  Hamilton;  Charles  W.  H.  Harris,  Henry  Lovett,  Holmes 
Masters,  M.  D. ;  Harris  0.  McLatchy,  M.  D. ;  James  S.  Miller,  M.  D. ; 
Henri  Shaw,  M.  D. ;  William  H.  West 


1788,  Cornwallis,  John  Burbidge ;  Horton,  Nathan  DeWoLf . 
1792-1809,  Cornwallis,  John  Burbidge ;  Horton,  Samuel  Denison 
1843,  Thomas  B.  Campbell;  WiUiam  Henry  Chipman;  James 
Delap  Harris;  Caleb  Handley  Rand. 


1769- '70,  Naval  Officer  for  the  Port  of  Windsor  and  the  rivers 
flowing  into  the  Basin  of  Minas,  Isaac  Deschamps;  County  Treas- 
urer, Nathan  DeWolf. 



1843,  John  Clarke  Hall,  Stephen  Harrington  Moore,  Jlenry 
Bentley  Webster,  L.  D.  Morton,  Elias  Tupper,  Charles  W.  H.  Harris, 
William  C.  Whidden,  James  Robert  Prescott.  [Court  of  Chancery : 
Charles  W.  H.  Harris,  James  Robert  Prescott] 

1860,  George  Augustus  Blanchard,  Charles  W.  H.  Harris,  Thomas 
William  Harris,  Stephen  Harrington  Moore,  James  Robert  Prescott, 
Edward  Allan  Pyke,  Henry  Bentley  Webster 

1867,  George  A.  Blanchard,  Charles  W.  H.  Harris,  Thomas  Wil- 
liam Harris,  Q.  C;  Stephen  Harrington  Moore,  James  Robert 
Prescott,  Edward  Allan  Pyke,  Henry  Bentley  Webster 

1876,  George  Augustus  Blanchard,  John  Pryor  Chipman,  Ed- 
mund J.  Cogswell,  Thomas  William  Harris,  Q.  C. ;  Joseph  J.  Moore, 
James  Robert  Prescott,  Edward  Allan  Pyke,  Benjamin  Smith,  Bar- 
clay Webster,  Douglas  B.  Woodworth 

1908,  Edward  B.  Cogswell,  Sydney  E.  Crawley,  A.  E.  Dunlop, 
Howard  G.  Harris,  George  Johnson,  Charles  Archibald  McLean, 
Frederick  A.  Masters,  Louis  F.  Newcomb,  William  F.  Parker,  Avard 
B.  Pineo,  Frederick  Clarence  Rand,  Col.  Wentworth  Eaton  Roscoe, 
Barry  W.  Roscoe,  William  P.  Shaffner,  Clifford  A.  Tufts,  Barclay 
Webster,  K.  C. ;  Harry  Hamm  Wickwire 

A  few  of  the  many  lawyers  the  county  has  produced  besides  the 
above,  are:  Jared  IngersoU  Chipman,  James  A.  Denison,  Brentoa 
Halliburton  Eaton,  K.  C. ;  Harry  Havelock  Eaton,  Robie  Lewis  Reid, 
John  Whidden,  for  many  years  Clerk  of  the  House  of  Assembly,  and 
Joseph  Whidden,  also  Clerk  of  the  House. 

Physicians  in  the  county  in  1876,  were :  Andrew  DeWolf  Barss, 
George  Bell,  E.  Perry  Bowles,  Henry  Chipman,  W.  Gibson  Clarke, 
Albert  DeWolf,  James  R.  Fitch,  J.  Newman  Fuller,  William  J.  Ful- 
lerton,  Charles  Cottnam  Hamilton,  Harris  0.  McLatchy,  F.  Middle- 
mas,  James  S.  Miller,  John  A.  Morse,  George  E.  Outhit,  Charles  N. 
Payzant,  Henri  Shaw,  Mason  ShefSeld,  John  Struthers,  Henry  Bent- 
ley Webster,  S.  W.  Woodworth.  Of  these  physicians,  all  except  one 
received  their  medical  education  in  the  United  States.    Drs.  Bell, 


Chipman,  Clarke,  DeWolf,  Middlemas,  Morse,  and  "Woodworth  at 
Harvard;  Drs.  Fitch,  Shaw,  and  "Webster  at  the  College  of  Physi- 
cians and  Surgeons,  New  York ;  Drs.  Puller,  FuUerton,  Sheffield,  and 
Struthers  at  Bellevue,  New  York ;  Dr.  Charles  Cottnam  Hamilton  at 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania;  Drs.  McLatchy,  Outhit,  and  Pay- 
zant  at  Jefferson,  Medical  College ;  Dr.  Miller  at  the  Berkshire  Medi- 
cal College;  Dr.  Barss  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh.  Physicians 
the  county  has  produced  besides  the  above  have  been,  James  R. 
Avery  (practised  in  Halifax) ;  John  Barnaby  (practised  in  Queen '& 
County,  N.  S.) ;  "William  Baxter,  Edward  Beckwith,  John  Leander 
Bishop  (practised  in  Philadelphia) ;  Adolphus  Borden  (practised  at 
New  Bedford,  Mass.) ;  Sir  Frederick  W.  Borden,  K.  C.  M.  G.;  Jona- 
than Borden,  Edward  L.  Brown,  Barry  Calkin  (practises  at  Jamaica 
Plain,  Mass.) ;  A.  Chipman,  (practised  at  Turk's  Island) ;  Reginald 
Chipman  (practises  in  Chelsea,  Mass.) ;  Silas  Crane,  Gurden  Denison, 
Joseph  Denison  (practised  in  Bridgeton,  N.  S.) ;  Edward  De"Wolf, 
James  Ratchford  De"Wolf  (long  Medical  Superintendent  of  the  In- 
sane Hospital  at  Dartmouth,  N.  S.) ;  Stephen  DeWolf  (practised  in 
New  York  City) ;  Robert  Dickey,  Somerville  Dickey,  Simon  I'itch, 
John  E.  Forsyth,  "William  Forsyth,  John  Fox  (Surgeon  R.  N.) ;  N. 
Fuller,  E.  Harding  (practised  at  Windsor) ;  Charles  W.  Hamilton, 
Charles  Harris,  J.  W.  Harris,  Holmes  Masters,  Willis  B.  Moore 
(practises  in  Kentville) ;  Van  E.  Parker,  E.  F.  Payzant,  Obadiah 
Pineo  (Surgeon  R.  N.) ;  Peter  Pineo  (practised  in  the  United  States)  j 
George  Van  Buskirk,  J.  Walton,  Arthur  Webster  (practises  in  Edin- 
burg:h) ;  David  Webster  (practises  in  New  York  City) ;  Frederick 
Webster  (practised  in  Yarmouth,  N.  S.) ;  Isaac  Webster,  William  B. 
Webster,  B.  Welton,  William  N.  Wickwire,  (practised  in  Halifax); 
Percy  Woodworth,  William  S.  Woodworth  (both  the  latter  prac- 
tise in  Kentville). 



In  every  country  the  building  and  proper  care  of  roads  and 
bridges  is  one  of  the  people's  earliest  and  chief  interests,  and 
in  our  account  of  the  French  occupation  of  King's  County  we  have 
endeavored  to  give  some  accurate  idea  of  the  earliest  roads  that 
intersected  the  two  townships  of  Horton  and  Comwallis  in  French 
times.  As  early  as  1701  Governor  Brouillan  says  of  the  Minas 
Acadians:  "I  proposed  to  these  demi-republieans  to  make  a  road 
for  ten  leagues  across  the  woods  to  get  to  Port  Royal.  They  have 
engaged  to  execute  this  project  as  soon  as  harvest  is  over.  They 
can  subsequently  make  a  like  one  to  Laheve".  In  1749  Governor 
Comwallis  writes  to  the  Duke  of  Bedford  that  the  French  inhab- 
itants have  cleared  a  road  eighteen  feet  wide,  all  the  way  from 
Minas  to  Halifax.  Of  the  course  of  this  road,  between  Grand  Pre 
and  Kentville,  we  have  the  following  tradition:  "It  ran  nearer  the 
dykes  and  intervales  of  the  Comwallis  river  than  it  does  now. 
From  the  numerous  hills  and  thickets  beside  it,  it  was  dangerous 
to  travel,  accordingly  when  the  New  England  planters  came  they 
changed  it  to  its  present  course".  Of  the  earliest  efforts  of  the 
New  England  planters  at  road  and  bridge  building  we  know  very 
little,  though  after  1812  we  have  abundant  testimony  ia  the  rec- 
ords of  the  Court  of  Sessions  to  the  People's  activity  in  the  matter. 

In  these  records,  which  deal  with  all  sorts  of  local  affairs,  the 
trial  and  punishment  of  statutory  offences,  the  assessment  of  taxes, 
the  building  of  dykes,  the  regulation  of  fisheries  in  bays  and  rivers, 
legislation  concerning  the  building  and  repair  of  roads  and  bridges, 
occupies,  probably,  the  largest  space.  In  1763  the  Council  voted 
fifty  pounds  for  mending  the  road  between  Granville  and  Horton, 


and  no  doubt  to  the  object  for  which  it  was  granted  the  subsidy- 
was  applied.  In  1775  Governor  Legge  repeats  a  request  he  had 
previously  made  of  the  legislature,  for  a  grant  of  five  hundred 
pounds  to  improve  the  roads  of  the  province,  and  we  presume  the 
money  was  given.  If  so,  a  certain  proportion  of  it  probably  went  for 
the  roads  in  King's  Coxmty.  In  1799,  the  Governor,  Sir  John  W*mt- 
worth,  recommended  to  the  Assembly  the  completion  of  the  roads 
to  Annapolis  and  Pietou.  In  1814  or  '15  a  new  road  was  surveyed 
by  the  government  surveyor,  Mr.  Morris,  from  Halifax  to  Annapolis, 
the  whole  distance  to  be  a  hundred  miles.  The  expense  of  the 
survey  was  a  hundred  and  thirty-three  pounds,  six  shillings. 

The  first  bridge  across  the  Cornwallis  River  at  Port  Williams 
(Terry's  Creek)  was  built  at  least  as  early  as  1780.  In  1818  an 
act  was  passed  by  the  legislature  for  "rebuilding  and  repairing" 
this  bridge.  Whether  it  was  the  first  bridge  or  a  second  that  was 
finally  carried  out  by  the  tide,  piers  and  all,  we  do  not  know,  but 
in  1825  an  act  was  passed  by  the  legislature,  incorporating  a  com- 
pany to  build  a  new  bridge.  In  1827  the  legislature  voted  towards 
the  enterprise  the  sum  of  seven  hundred  and  fifty  pounds.  Five 
years  later  the  sum  of  eleven  hundred  and  fifty  pounds  more  was 
granted  for  the  same  purpose.  In  1834  another  act  of  iacorpora- 
tion,  similar  to  the  one  of  1825,  passed  the  legislature,  the  former 
one  being  repealed.  In  1835  the  bridge  was  opened.  The  piers  of 
it,  which  are  still  standing,  were  constructed  by  Joseph  Wiathrop, 
who  came  from  Hants  Coimty  to  build  them.  The  bridge  was  for 
many  years  a  toll-bridge,  and  sometime  after  the  middle  of  the 
century,  John  Lingley  was  toU-keeper. 

March  19,  1842,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  legislature  to  in- 
corporate a  pier  or  wharf  near  French  Cross,  in  Aylesford,  Amos 
B.  Patterson,  Fairfield  Smith,  George  Fitch,  Jonathan  Crane,  Isaac 
Orpin,  Benjamin  B.  Sheflaeld,  Elisha  D.  Harris,  Alexander  Patterson, 
Thomas  Welton,  James  L.  Van  Buskirk,  William  Morton,  and  Nel- 
son Farnsworth,  being  the  incorporators.  Some  time  before  this, 
a  hundred  poimds  had  been  granted  by  the  government  for  the 
erection  of  a  breakwater  at  French  Cross. 


Among  the  letters  of  that  remarkable  man,  the  Eev.  Jacob 
Bailey,  so  well  known  in  Loyalist  annals  as  the  "Frontier  Mission- 
ary" we  have  one  to  a  private  correspondent,  which  describes  in 
the  writer's  usual  graphic  way  his  journey  over  land  in  1782  from 
Cornwallis,  where  for  some  time  he  had  been  serving  as  mission- 
ary, to  Annapolis  Eoyal,  where  he  was  to  enter  on  a  new  field. 
This  letter  is  so  valuable  for  the  picture  it  gives  of  the  hardships 
of  travel  in  King's  County  at  this  early  time  that  we  reproduce 
part  of  it  here.     "We  proposed",  says  Mr.  Bailey,  "to  advance 
towards  Annapolis  on  Tuesday,  the  24th  of  July,  but  an  excessive 
rain  on  Monday  hindered  our  preparations,  so  that  our  departure 
was  delayed  till  Wednesday  morning,  when  we  observed  the  fol- 
lowing order:  A  cart  with  two  yoke  of  oxen,  containing  all  our 
worldly  possessions,  began  the  procession,  guarded  by  a  couple  of 
sprightly  young  fellows,  who  offered  their  services;  a  vehicle  for 
the  reception  of  Mrs.  Bailey  and  her  children,  drawn  by  two  horses, 
next  appeared  under  the  conduct  of  honest  John  [John  McNamara, 
born  in  Pownalborough  in  1758,  died  in  Annapolis  Eoyal  in  1798. 
He  was  for  many  years  a  helper  in  Mr.  Bailey's  household,  but 
during  the  last  years  of  his  life  was  S.  P.  G.  Schoolmaster  and 
Postmaster  at  Annapolis  Eoyal].     Mrs.  Burbidge,  in  her  chaise, 
with  the  above  mentioned  persons,  set  off  about  seven,  accompanied 
with  near  thirty  people,  of  both  sexes,  on  horseback,  who  attended 
us  with  cheerful  solemnity,  to  the  distance  of  fourteen  miles  on  our 
journey.    About  eleven,  we  arrived  at  Marshall's,  and  with  much 
difficulty  provided  an  early  dinner  for  our  large  company. 

"At  one  we  parted  with  our  friends.  *  •  *  The  distressing 
ceremony  of  parting  beiug  over,  Mrs.  Bailey  was  seated  with  her 
little  ones  in  the  above  mentioned  machine,  over  which  was 
stretched  a  covering  of  canvas,  as  a  defence  both  from  the  vivid 
rays  of  the  sun  and  the  rain  of  heaven.  We  now  entered  a  wilder- 
ness of  vast  extent,  without  a  single  human  habitation  for  the 
space  of  eleven  miles,  the  roads  extremely  rough,  sheltered  with 
tall  forests,  encumbered  with  rocks  and  deformed  with  deep 
sloughs ;  and  to  render  the  scene  still  more  disconsolate  and  dismal 


the  wind  howled  among  the  trees,  thick  volumes  of  clouds  rollesd 
from  the  western  hemisphere,  and  the  rumble  of  thunder  announced 
the  horrors  of  an  approaching  tempest.  We  had  still  in  company 
six  persons  besides  our  own  family,  two  of  whom  pushed  forward 
with  Betsey  Nye  and  reached  a  publick  house  before  the  rain.  Mr. 
Starr  [David  Starr,  great-great-grandfather  of  the  author  of  this 
book,  who  with  his  family,  had  been  devoted  parishioners  of  Mr, 
Bailey's]  and  your  humble  servant,  left  the  carriages  at  the  dista^se 
of  four  miles  from  the  dwelling  of  one  Potter,  lately  removed  from 
Cornwallis,  at  which  we  arrived  a  little  after  sunset,  just  as  the 
heavy  shower  was  beginning  to  descend". 

After  relating  in  detail  the  discomforts  of  the  night,  which 
they  spent  at  Mr.  Potter's,  Mr.  Bailey  says  that  at  five  the  iie;xt 
morning  he  and  his  party  again  started  on  their  way.  "At  the 
distance  of  a  mile  from  our  lodgings,  I  was  invited  to  a  christeAiag, 
while  the  carriages  proceeded.  After  the  performance  of  this  ex- 
ercise I  took  my  leave  of  Mr.  Starr  and  rode  over  the  sandy,  bar-i 
ren  (Aylesford)  plains  till  I  overtook  our  company".  The  ima 
Mr.  Bailey  calls  "Marshall's"  stood  probably  about  two  miles  east 
of  Berwick,  and  the  eleven  miles  he  travelled  from  there  covered 
the  distance  from  Water^aUe  to  St.  Mary's  Church,  in  Aylesford. 
The  (French)  road  he  took,  however,  says  Eev.  Dr.  Saunders,  in 
commenting  on  this  letter,  lay  to  the  south  of  the  present  post  road, 
keeping  the  high  land  till  it  came  to  the  head  waters  of  the  An- 
napolis river,  at  this  point  a  mere  brook.  After  crossing  the  river 
it  kept  on  the  south  side  till  it  reached  a  point  opposite  St.  Mary's 
Church.  "From  the  north  side  of  the  river  the  high  land  extends 
across  the  meadow  so  far  that  but  a  very  short  space  of  flat  land 
intervenes.  Here  the  French  built  a  bridge  across  the  river  and 
made  their  road  along  the  tongue  of  high  land  north,  till  it  came 
to  where  the  present  post  road  is.  From  this  point  on  to  Bridgetown) 
it  kept  nearly  the  line  of  the  present  post  road.  This  would  give 
the  eleven  miles  of  wilderness  and  just  such  roads  as  Mr.  Baileys 
describes.  The  large  pine  trees,  flattened  on  one  side  and  placed 
side  by  side  across  the  Annapolis  Eiver,  and  used  for  bridges^  were 


still  to  be  seen  as  late  as  1815.     John  Orpin,  who  was  born  in 
1708,  distinctly  remembers  the  logs  of  these  French  bridges ' '. 

Until  after  the  19th  century  opened,  travelling  in  the  county 
was  almost  exclusively  on  horseback,  the  women  often  sitting  on 
pillions  behind  the  men.  Not  infrequently  as  she  rode,  a  woman 
carried  in  the  saddle  one  child  before  her  and  one  behind.  "When 
the  first  carriage  was  introduced  into  the  county  we  do  not  know, 
but  it  is  not  at  all  unlikely  that  the  chaise  in  which  Mrs.  Burbidge 
accompanied  the  departing  Cornwallis  clergyman  towards  An- 
napolis, may  have  been  the  first.  About  1803,  it  is  said,  Mr.  Benja- 
min Belcher  imported  a  wagon  from  Boston.  The  vehicle  cost 
fifty  pounds,  and  was  an  object  of  the  greatest  interest  to  the 
King's  County  people  at  large.  This  wagon  has  been  called  the 
first  one  in  the  county,  but  from  the  preceding  record  it  is  clear 
that  it  could  not  have  been.  It  was  not  until  1823  that  the  first 
wagon  was  brought  into  Kentville.  In  that  year  (if  the  date  is 
correct)  a  tin  peddler  from  New  England  came  to  the  village  with 
a  white  horse  and  a  red  wagon,  bringing  a  load  of  tin-ware  to  sell. 
When  he  had  disposed  of  his  merchandise  he  sold  his  horse  and 
wagon  to  Mr.  James  Delap  Harris,  and  from  miles  around  people 
came  to  see  the  remarkable  "turn-out".  After  that,  two-wheeled 
gigs  and  four-wheeled  wagons  gradually  became  common  and  horse- 
back travelling  steadily  declined. 

It  must  have  been  shortly  before  1816  that  a  stage  coach  line 
was  established  between  Halifax  and  "Windsor,  but  it  was  not  until 
1829,  as  we  have  seen,  that  the  line  was  extended  through  Kent- 
ville to  Annapolis.  In  1816  Isaiah  Smith  drove  the  coach  between 
Halifax  and  "Windsor  twice  a  week  each  way.  In  his  advertise- 
ment of  his  line  in  the  Almanac  he  announces  that  the  fare  be- 
tween these  points  is  six  dollars,  and  that  the  inside  of  his  coach 
accommodates  six  passengers.  In  1855  the  Royal  "Western  Stage 
Coach  is  advertised  in  the  Almanac  to  leave  Halifax  for  "Windsor 
and  Kentville,  every  morning  at  seven  o'clock;  for  "Windsor,  Kent- 
ville, Aylesford,  Bridgetown,  and  Annapolis,  on  Tuesday,  Thurs- 
day, and  Saturday  mornings,  at  the  same  hour.    From  "Windsor  the 


coach  leaves  for  Halifax  every  morning  after  the  arrival  of  the 
coach  from  Kentville ;  for  Kentville,  and  Annapolis,  it  leaves  every 
afternoon,  after  the  arrival  of  the  coach  from  Halifax.  From  An- 
napolis it  leaves  for  Kentville,  Windsor,  and  Halifax,  on  Tuesday, 
Thursday,  and  Saturday  mornings  at  nine  o'clock.  The  coach  is 
advertised  to  connect  with  the  steamers  running  from  Windsor  and 
Annapolis  to  St.  John,  New  Brunswick,  Portland,  Me.,  and  Bos- 
ton. Extra  coaches  were  dispatched  on  the  arrival  of  steamers, 
when  the  travel  was  especially  heavy.  The  old  stage-coach  days 
in  the  county  stopped  in  the  autumn  of  1869.  The  shrill  scream 
of  the  engine  as  it  tore  across  the  silent  Grand  Pre,  and  over  the 
green  dykes  between  Wolfville  and  Kentville,  sounded  the  death 
knell  of  Jehuism, — slow  travelling,  good  fellowship,  discomfort,  pic- 
turesqueness  and  all. 

Writing  in  1900  of  the  county  as  it  was  about  the  end  of  the 
first  quarter  of  the  19th  century,  the  late  Dr.  James  Eatchford  De- 
Wolf  says:  "Travelling  through  the  country  was  a  very  different 
matter  then  from  the  rapid  transit  of  today.     In  1828  the  mail 
for  Halifax  (carried  on  horseback)  was  due  weekly,  on  Wednesday 
at  ten  in  the  forenoon,  it  having  been  dispatched  from  Halifax  on 
Monday,  at  2  P.  M.,  more  than  forty-four  hours  before.    Now  there 
are  two  mails  daily,  which  come  in  one-tenth  of  the  time.    At  that 
time  there  were  but  two  post-masters  in  what  is  now  King's  County, 
and  I  believe  there  were  none  at  all  between  Kentville  and  An- 
napolis.    In  1829  a  stage  coach  commenced  to  run  from  Halifax 
to  Annapolis,  three  times  a  week  in  summer  and  twice  a  week  in 
winter.    The  time  of  leaving  Halifax  was  five  in  the  morning,  from 
May  until  August,  six  in  the  morning  from  September  until  Feb- 
ruary, and  at  daylight  from  February  until  May.     The  fare  from 
Halifax  to  Annapolis  was  ten  dollars,  and  the  journey  occupied 
the  best  part  of  two  days.    The  weight  of  baggage  allowed  was  but 
twenty  pounds,  all  in  excess  of  that  being  charged  at  the  discre- 
tion of  the  agent.    Postage  was  then  regulated  by  distance,  single 
letters  must  be  on  one  piece  of  paper,  but  with  no  limit  as  to  weight. 
Envelopes  were  unknown,  and  stamps  were  not  dreamed  of". 


"Previous  to  1869",  said  Dr.  Henry  Chipman,  some  years  ago, 
to  an  audience  in  Lower  Horton,  "our  railroad  stopped  at  Wind- 
sor. Before  that  travelling  was  done  by  private  carriages,  or 
by  the  mail  coach,  which  ran  daily  between  Windsor  and  An- 
ilapolis  carrying  Her  Majesty's  mail.  Four  and  six  horses  were 
driven.  Fresh  horses  were  'hitched  up'  for  the  start  at  Kentville 
and  Windsor,  and  relays  were  kept  at  the  half-way  house  on  Hor- 
ton Mountain.  The  drivers  for  many  years  were  Harry  Kilcup 
and  Walsh.  Excellent  whips  they  were,  and  when  the  roads  were 
good  they  drove  like  Jehu.  Pleasant  it  was  in  fine  summer  weather 
to  sit  beside  the  driver  on  the  top  of  the  coach  and  bowl  away, 
tip  hill  and  down.  When  the  roads  were  breaking  up  in  the  spring, 
however,  it  was  not  so  pleasant.  When  I  was  a  student  at  King's 
College,  Windsor,  I  often  travelled  by  coach,  and  I  well  remember 
driving  through  Lower  Horton  when  the  wheels  were  sinking  down 
to  the  hubs  and  we  passengers  were  obliged  to  turn  to  and  help 
pry  them  out  with  fence-poles.  One  cold  December,  when  the  roads 
were  hard  and  rough,  a  hind  wheel  smashed  and  down  came  the 
coach.  One  of  the  inside  passengers  began  to  extricate  himself  by 
tearing  away  the  lining  of  the  coach,  when  Walsh,  addressing  him 
in  anything  but  parliamentary  language  ordered  him  to  stop  and 
Wait  till  he  was  let  out.  The  passenger  did  not  stop,  and  when 
he  climbed  out,  the  driver  saw  that  it  was  Dr.  Charles  Tupper, 
now  Sir  Charles  Tupper,  Bart.,  a  politician,  high  in  authority  then, 
as  now.  It  was  wonderful  to  see  how  quickly  Walsh  changed  his 

The  first  act  to  incorporate  a  railway  system  in  Nova  Scotia 
passed  the  legislature,  March  31,  1853.  This  act  proposed  a  trunk 
railway  from  Halifax  to  the  frontier  of  New  Brunswick,  with 
branches  extending  eastward  to  Pictou  Harbour,  and  westward  to 
Victoria  Beach,  or  some  other  place  in  the  county  of  Annapolis 
having  navigable  communication  with  the  Bay  of  Fundy.  In  1865, 
'66,  and  '67,  acts  were  passed  incorporating  the  Windsor  and  An- 
napolis railway.  In  1868  and  '69,  acts  were  passed  authorizing  the 
appraising,  assessing,  and  paying  of  damages  in  King's  County  for 


the  pt6p6Tty  that  had  been  taken  by  the  railway.  In  1869  the 
road  was  opened  from  Windsor  to  Annapolis.  In  1887  the  Central 
Valley  Railway  Company  was  incorporated,  and  in  the  fall  of  1890 
this  road,  from  Kentville  to  Kingsport,  was  opened  for  travel  and 
freight.  In  1892  it  was  sold  to  the  Dominion  Atlantic  Railway 
Coittpany,  which  owns  and  operates  it  still. 

For  many  years  until  the  preseiit,  the  Dominion  Atlantic  rail- 
way has  been  under  the  efficient  management  of  Mr.  Percy  Gifkins, 
a  resident  of  Kentville,  he  having  succeeded  the  late  Mr.  Kenneth 
Sutherland  as  manager.     Mr.  Sutherland's  immediate  predecessor 
in  the  Management  of  the  road  was  Mr.  Peter  Innes,  at  the  present 
time  and  for  many  years  one  of  the  most  progressive  agriculturists 
and  business  men  in  King's  Coimty.    Mr.  Innes  was  born  in  Thurso, 
Scotland,  in  1840,  and  was  trained  in  railway  management  in  the 
head  offices  of  the  North  British  Railway  Company,   one  of  the 
largest  railway  corporations  in  the  British  Isles.    In  1871  he  came 
to  Nova  Scotia  to  organize  the  financial  affairs  of  the  Windsor  and 
Annapolis  railway,  and  the  following  year,  succeeded  Mr.  Vernon 
Smith  as  general  manager  of  the  road.     The  railway  was  a  con- 
tractor's line,  imperfectly  constructed  and  poorly  equipped,  with 
at  that  time  a  very  scant  and  inadequate  traffic,  and  for  a  number 
of  years  his  energies  were  taxed  to  the  utmost  to  keep  the  line  run- 
ning, and  to  find  money  to  maintain  the  track  and  provide  suffi- 
cient rolling  stock.     Later  on,  to  complicate  his  difficulties,  the 
Dominion  Government  cancelled  the  contract  under  which  the  com- 
pany had  leased  the  Windsor  branch  and  run  their  trains  into 
Halifax,  and  then  followed  two  or  three  years  of  strenuous  effort 
on  his  part  to  keep  the  Windsor  and  Annapolis  road  open  on  its 
own  meagre  earnings  and  to  carry  on  litigation  against  the  govern- 
ment.    Eventually  the  branch  was  restored  and  the  government 
was  amerced  in  damages.     Easier  times  followed,  and  Mr.  Innes' 
attention  was  thenceforth  directed  to  the  development  of  the  traffic 
a;nd  the  general  improvement  of  the  line.    In  1889  he  resigned  the 
managership  on  account  of  ill  health,  since  when  he  has  resided  on 
his  latm  at  Coldbrook,   devoting  himself  mainly  to   agricultural 


In  1784  moiitMy  packets  between  Falmouth,  Hants  County,  and 
New  York,  via  Halifax,  were  first  established,  and  it  is  unlikely 
that  any  regular  communication  between  Nova  Scotia  and  the  out- 
side world  existed  before  that  time.  For  a  long  time  after  the  in- 
troduction of  steamboats  into  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  small  steamers 
plied  regularly  between  Windsor  and  St.  John,  New  Brunswick, 
but  with  the  opening  of  the  railway  all  steamers  from  New  Bruns- 
wick made  Annapolis  Eoyal  their  Nova  Scotia  terminal  port. 

As  early  as  December,  1760,  Hon.  Jonathan  Belcher,  President 
of  the  Council,  appealed  to  the  Lords  of  Trade  to  allow  the  New 
England  planters  to  have  help  from  the  Acadians  that  remained  in 
the  province  in  rebuilding  the  partially  destroyed  dykes.  "In  the 
month  of  August",  writes  Mr.  Belcher,  "the  late  Governor  (Law- 
rence) having  returned  from  Liverpool,  made  a  progress  into  these 
settlements,  where  after  having  regulated  several  matters,  the  great 
objects  of  his  attention  were  the  dykes,  of  which  the  breach  made 
in  that  of  the  river  Canard,  in  the  township  of  Cornwallis,  as  it  was 
the  greatest,  was  his  first  care.  For  this  purpose  the  inhabitants, 
with  their  cattle  and  carriages,  together  with  those  hired  from 
Horton  at  their  own  expense,  were  joined  with  some  of  the  provin- 
cial troops  and  Acadians,  who  were  best  acquainted  with  works 
of  this  kind,  to  make  a  collection  of  the  necessary  materials  to  re- 
pair the  breach.  A  considerable  quantity  was  accordingly  got 
ready,  when  the  innundation,  usual  at  this  time  of  the  year,  put  a 
stop  to  the  work  for  this  season.  However,  the  materials  are  aU 
secured  against  the  next  undertaking,  and  care  was  immediately 
taken  to  protect  as  much  of  the  dykes  in  this  and  the  neighboring 
townships  as  would  inclose  land  sufScient  to  raise  bread  corn  for 
them  the  next  year,  except  in  Falmouth,  where  the  upland  is  in 
very  good  condition  for  that  purpose.  As  the  perfect  establishment 
of  the  settlements  depends  in  a  very  great  degree  on  the  repairs 
of  the  dykes,  for  the  security  of  the  marsh  lands,  from  whence  the 
support  of  the  inhabitants  will  become  easy  and  plentiful,  necessary 
measures  for  effecting  this  great  point  have  been  fully  considered, 
and  I  humbly  conceive  that  the  dykes  may  be  put  into  very  good 


condition,  if  with  your  Lordships'  approbation  one  hundred  of  the 
French  inhabitants  may  be  employed  in  different  parts  of  the  Prov- 
ince to  assist  and  instruct  in  their  repairs,  the  new  settlers  having 
come  from  a  country  in  which  such  works  are  wanting". 

In  June,  1761,  Mr.  Belcher  again  earnestly  petitioned  the  gov- 
ernment that  the  new  settlers  might  have  help  from  the  French, 
and  by  1765  the  need  of  such  assistance  was  felt  by  the  planters 
themselves  to  be  so  imperative  that  on  their  behalf  Judge  Isaac 
Deschamps,  at  Windsor,  drew  up  the  following  strong  plea : 

"To  His  Excellency,  Montague  Wilmot  Esquire,  Captain  Gen- 
eral and  Governor  in  chief  in  and  over  His  Majesty's  Province  of 
Nova  Scotia  and  its  Dependencies,  Colonel  in  His  Majesty's  ser- 
vice and  commanding  the  Troops  in  said  Province.  The  Memorial 
of  the  inhabitants  of  King's  County  Humbly  Sheweth: 

"That  the  french  accadians  who  have  hitherto  been  stationed 
in  this  county,  have  been  of  great  use  as  labourers  in  assisting  the 
carrying  on  our  Business  in  agriculture  and  Improvements  in  gen- 
eral, but  particularly  in  the  repairing  and  making  Dykes,  a  work 
which  they  are  accustomed  to  and  Experienced  in,  and  we  find  that 
without  their  further  assistance  many  of  us  cannot  Continue  our  Im- 
provements, nor  plough  nor  sowe  our  Lands  nor  finish  the  Dykeing 
still  required  to  secure  our  lands  from  salt  water,  and  being  con- 
vinced from  Experience  that  unless  those  Dyke  Lands  are  enclosed 
we  cannot  with  certainty  raise  Bread  for  our  Subsistence. 

"Your  Memorialists  therefore  Humbly  Pray  Your  Excellency 
will  be  pleased  to  take  this  matter  of  so  much  consequence  to  us 
into  Consideration,  to  Permit  the  accadians  to  remain  with  us  the 
Ensueing  summer,  and  to  continue  to  them  the  allowance  of  Pro- 
visions as  hitherto,  which  enables  them  to  Labour  at  much  lower 
wages  than  if  obliged  to  purchase  Provisions,  especially  at  the  high 
Price  they  now  bear  in  the  Country,  and  which  will  tend  greatly 
to  the  Encouragement  and  success  of  these  infant  settlements. 

"And  your  Memorialists  as  in  duty  bound  will  ever  pray,  etc. 
March  23rd,  1765. 



John  Burbidge 
Saml.  Willoughby 
Samuel  Beckwith 
William  Canady 
Handley  Chipman 

Blisha  Lothl-op 
Silas  Crane 
Nathan  DeWolf 
Robert  Dennison 
William  Welch 

I.  Deschamps 
Moses  Delesdernier 

■  In  behalf  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Cornwallis 

■  In  behalf  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Horton 

W.  Tonge 

Henry  Denny  Denson 
Joseph  Bennett 
Abel  J.  Michner 
Joseph  Wilson 

Joseph  Baley  ) 

Benj.  Sanford  j 

I   In  behalf  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Windsor 
In  behalf  of  King's  County 

In  behalf  of  the  Township  of  Famouth 

In  behalf  of  the  Township  of  Newport" 

That  this  petition  was  successful  is  almost  certain  from  the  fact 
that  a  considerable  number  of  Acadians  were  still  kept  in  the 
county,  who  in  1768,  as  we  learn  from  dispatches  between  the 
home  and  provincial  authorities,  and  from  correspondence  between 
Lieut.  Governor  Francklin  and  Isaac  Deschamps,  took  an  unquali- 
fied oath  of  allegiance  to  the  British  crown. 

In  continuing  the  important  work  of  dyking  the  marshes,  that 
the  Acadians  had  so  long  pursued,  the  New  England  planters  fol- 
lowed closely  the  methods  of  their  predecessors.  The  French  had 
reclaimed  many  squares  or  oblong  pieces  of  marsh  by  throwing 
up  dykes  along  the  rivei*  channels,  and  from  the  river,  on  two  sides, 
to  the  upland.  In  Cornwallis,  however,  the  New  England  planters 
not  only  built  dykes  beside  the  rivers,  but  before  long  threw  up 
substantial  aboiteaus  across  the  streams.    "The  first  of  these  cross 


dykes  we  find",  says  Dr.  Brechin,  "is  near  Steam  Mill  Village,  al- 
though some  claim  that  the  Tobin  Dyke  on  the  Isaac  Reid  place 
was  built  first.  The  second  was  at  Upper  Dyke  Village,  the  third 
was  across  the  Middle  Dyke,  and  the  fourth  ran  from  Hamilton's 
Corner  to  Church  Street.  This  last  was  evidently  the  masterpiece 
of  the  new  dyke  builders;  it  is  so  scientifically  constructed  that 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  builders  of  it  were  fairly  skilled  in 
mechanical  engineering.  These  dykes  served  a  double  purpose,  to 
keep  out  the  tides  and  to  be  available  as  roads.  In  each  of  these 
cross  dykes,  there  can  be  no  doubt,  was  an  aboiteau  or  sluice.  As 
each  successive  dyke  was  built  the  old  sluice  was  destroyed". 

"The  first  dykes",  writes  Dr.  Benjamin  Band,  "were  made  by 
the  construction  of  long  ridges  of  sods,  sufficiently  high  to  keep  out 
the  tides.  The  New  England  planters,  however,  shut  out  the  riv- 
ers by  the  constructions  of  aboiteaus.  These  were  sluice-ways,  with 
gates  swinging  outward  at  the  bottom  of  the  channel,  with  a  dyke 
wide  enough  for  a  road,  built  above.  After  two  or  three  years  of 
dyking,  the  salt  would  be  freed  from  the  marsh  soil,  and  the  al- 
luvial deposit  was  so  deep  that  it  would  for  many  successive  years 
yield  two  or  three  tons  of  hay  to  the  acre,  without  fertilization,  or 
cultivation  of  any  sort.  In  the  autumn,  a  month  or  two  after  the 
hay  was  gathered,  the  dyked  lands  would  afford  aftermath  for  the 
grazing  of  cattle  and  horses.  From  the  first,  the  King's  County 
dykes  were  built  by  common  labour,  and  the  dyked  lands,  while 
belonging  to  individuals,  were  treated  in  many  respects  as  a  com-' 
mon  field.  The  management  of  the  dykes  naturally  led  to  the  crea- 
tion of  special  officers  unknown  in  New  England,  whose  duties 
were  limited  to  this  part  of  the  planters'  new  possessions;  such  of- 
ficers were  Dyke  Commissioners,  Assizers,  Branders,  Dyke  Drivers, 
etc.  Originally,  of  course,  the  dykes  were  mown  and  raked  by 
hand,  todSy  almost  all  the  labour  on  them  is  done  by  machinery. 
Putside  the  running  dykes  the  salt  hay  was  and  still  is  piled  upon 
straddles.  This  coarse  hay  furnished  inferior  fodder  for  cattle, 
and  was  largely  used  in  winter  to  mix  with  fresh  hay,  and  for  bed- 
ding in  the  stables  and  barns". 

188  KING'S    COUNTY 

Concerning  the  exact  location  of  some  of  the  Cornwallis  dykes, 
Dr.  Rand  has  elsewhere  written:  "On  the  Habitant  river  there  was 
probably  a  crossing  of  an  early  date  at  Sheffield's  Mills.  Here  a 
mill-dam  was  afterward  built  for  saw  and  grist  mills.  Lower  down, 
at  'Randville',  there  were  fords,  but  no  aboiteaus.  At  one  time  an 
aboiteau  existed  on  the  site  of  the  present  railway  bridge  across 
the  river.  This  was  probably  the  first  aboiteau  made  across  the 
Habitant.  Later,  an  aboiteau  was  built  near  Borden's  wharf,  be- 
tween Lower  Canard  and  Habitant.  The  chief  aboiteau  of  the  river 
has  long  been  at  the  present  crossing  of  the  highway  from  Canard 
to  Canning.  About  three  years  ago  a  new  aboiteau  was  built  behiad 
the  Baptist  meeting  house  in  Canning.  Fruitless  attempts  were 
made  to  construct  it  a  few  rods  further  down,  the  failure  being  due 
to  the  existence  of  a  sandstone  bottom  on  the  north  side  of  the 
river.  A  large  area  of  dyke  land  was  lately  reclaimed  on  the  north 
side  of  the  river,  a  short  distance  above  Kingsport.  The  tide,  how- 
ever, proved  so  powerful  that  a  section  of  it  had  to  be  abandoned. 
The  dykes  on  the  Habitant  river  are  thus  partly  dependent  on  run- 
ning dykes  exclusively,  and  partly  on  running  dykes  in  conjunc- 
tion with  aboiteaus.  The  Cornwallis  river  has  always  had  running 
dykes  on  each  side.  From  Wolfville  to  Kentville  an  aboiteau,  how- 
ever, is  now  proposed  at  the  old  French  ford  at  Starr's  Point.  The 
Pereau  river  has  never  had  but  one  aboiteau". 

The  chief  dykes  of  the  county  are  known  as  the  "Wellington, 
Grand,  and  Union  dykes,  in  Cornwallis,  and  the  Grand  Pre  and 
"Wickwire  dykes,  in  Horton,  The  building  of  the  first  of  these  was 
the  greatest  dyke  building  enterprise  the  county  has  ever  known. 
This  famous  dyke  was  begun  in  1817  and  was  finished  in  1825. 
The  people  of  Cornwallis,  says  Murdoch,  "at  an  expense  of  about 
ten  thousand  pounds  had  built  a  new  (the  "Wellington)  Dyke,  en- 
closing more  than  a  thousand  acres  of  marsh  redeemed  from  the 
sea.  They  had  been  five  years  on  the  work  and  it  was  nearly  com- 
pleted, when  in  August,  1822,  the  sea  broke  in  and  destroyed  it. 
They  were  in  the  habit  of  working  at  it  all  night,  but  on  this  occa- 
sion the  workmen,  in  consequence  of  the  great  fatigue  they  had 


undergone,  a  few  hours  before  the  event  occurred  had  retired". 
Undismayed  by  the  calamity  they  promptly  went  to  work  again  and 
restored  the  dyke.  "I  subsequently  saw  it",  continues  Murdoch, 
"under  a  crop  of  grain,  covering  apparently  the  whole  extent  of 
the  marsh".  The  expense  of  the  dyke  is  said  to  have  been  not 
less  than  £20,708.  When  the  work  was  done  the  event  was  cele- 
brated with  much  festivity.  In  1823  eight  hxmdred  pounds  was 
voted  by  the  legislature  toward  building  the  dyke. 

In  1830- '31  the  legislature  appointed  Commissioners  to  report  on 
the  advantages  which  might  accrue  to  the  proprietors  of  the  Grand 
Dyke  and  Union  Dyke  in  Cornwallis,  by  the  building  of  the  "Welling- 
ton Dyke.  Between  1836  and  1862  several  acts  were  passed  by  the 
legislature,  relative  to  the  New  or  "Wickwire  Dyke,  in  Horton.  Of  the 
Great  Horton  Dyke,  the  Grand  Pre,  Dr.  Henry  Chipman  says :  ' '  Our 
dyke  is  a  monument  to  the  skill,  industry,  enterprise,  and  thorough- 
ness of  the  Acadian  farmers.  But  once  during  the  two  centuries 
since  they  built  it,  has  the  'turbulent  tide'  made  a  breach  in  the  work 
and  flooded  the  land.  The  'Saxby  tide',  in  the  autumn  of  1869, 
made  a  clean  sweep  over  it,  carrying  masses  of  it  out  bodily.  The 
whole  three  thousand  acres  were  flooded,  cattle  were  drowned,  and 
'Long  Island'  became  an  island  in  reality.  The  salt  left  on  the  land 
destroyed  the  crop  of  grass  for  three  years". 


In  previous  chapters  we  have  given  some  account  of  the  chief 
industries  of  the  Acadians,  especially  of  their  dyke  building,  and 
have  shown  how  this  last  industry  was  continued  by  their  succes- 
sors. The  first  care  of  the  New  England  planters  when  they  came 
to  the  county  was,  of  course,  to  provide  proper  shelter  for  their 
families,  and  the  next  to  plant  corn,  flax,  and  roots  in  the  already 
well  cultivated  fields,  and  from  the  dyked  marshes  and  the  uplands 
to  gather  hay  for  their  cattle  and  sheep  for  the  next  winter's  use. 
As  early  as  December  12,  1760,  Mr.  Jonathan  Belcher  writes  the 
Lords  of  Trade  that  already  a  thousand  tons  of  hay  have  been 
gathered  in  Horton,  five  hundred  in  Cornwallis,  and  six  hundred  in 
Falmouth.  From  New  England,  the  planters  brought  with  them 
stock,  farming  utensils  and  household  goods,  and  the  seed  for  future 
^rops.  Whatever  sorts  of  plows,  harrows,  hoes,  scythes,  and  rakes 
they  had  been  accustomed  to  use  in  New  Engl?ind  they,  of  course, 
also  used  here.  They  had  flails  for  threshing  and  sieves  for  win- 
nowing grain.  In  their  houses  they  had  spinning  wheels  for  flax 
and  wool,  and  hand  looms  for  weaving  linen  and  woolen  cloth.  In 
building  their  houses  and  barns  they  gave  each  other  material  help. 
In  convenient  places  they  set  up  blacksmiths'  forges,  where  carts 
and  farming  utensils  were  mended  and  oxen  and  horses  brought 
to  be  shod.  Here  and  there  they  located  carpenters'  shops,  where 
much  of  their  household  furniture  and  many  of  the  common  utensils 
they  used  were  made.  On  the  brooks  they  built  grist  mills,  saw  mills, 
and  carding  mills,  and  in  various  places  established  brick-yards  and 
tanneries.  The  French  had  found  the  soil  and  climate  of  Nova 
Scotia  well  adapted  for  fruit  raising  and  had  set  out  small  orchards, 
from  which  they  gathered  considerable  crops  of  apples;  they  no 


doubt  had  given  some  attention  also  to  the  growing  of  pears, 
cherries,  currants,  and  plums.  This  fruit  industry  the  New  England 
planters  continued,  and  with  the  ripening  of  their  apple  crops  they 
set  up  cider  presses  as  the  French  before  them  likewise  had  done. 

Regarding  the  county's  subsequent  agriculture  and  fruit  rais- 
ing a  good  deal  must  be  said.  In  November,  1789,  a  society  for  pro- 
moting agriculture  was  formed  in  Halifax,  with  Hon.  Richard 
Bulkeley,  president;  Hon.  Henry  Newton,  vice-president;  Mr.  Law- 
rence Hartshorne,  treasurer;  and  Mr.  James  Clark,  secretary;  and 
the  10th  of  December  of  the  same  year  the  ' '  King 's  County  Agricul- 
tural Society",  which  has  had  a  continuous  history  to  the  present 
time,  began  its  career.  The  wide  purpose  of  this  latter  society  was 
declared  to  be  "the  better  improvement  of  Husbandry,  encourage- 
ment of  Manufactures,  cultivation  of  the  Social  Virtues,  acquirement 
of  Useful  Knowledge,  and  to  promote  the  good  order  and  well  being 
of  the  Community  to  which  we  belong".  The  first  officers  of  the  soci- 
ety were :  Jonathan  Crane,  president ;  John  Thomas  Hill,  vice-presi- 
dent; James  Noble  Shannon,  treasurer;  James  FuUerton,  secretary; 
Pavid  Denison,  steward.  The  society  stiU  exists  and  holds  meetings, 
and  in  1889  celebrated  its  centennial  by  a  dinner  at  the  American 
House,  Wolfville.  The  minute  books  from  the  beginning  are  care- 
fully preserved  and  these  give  us  the  early  membership  in  full.  In 
the  list  of  members,  as  we  should  expect,  are  the  names,  most  of 
them  familiar  in  the  county  still:  Allison,  Avery,  Bacon,  Bennett, 
Bigelow,  Bishop,  Borden,  Calkin,  Crane,  Crowe,  Denison,  DeWolf, 
Elderkin,  Fillis,  Fitch,  Fuller,  FuUerton,  Gilmore,  Harding,  Harris, 
Hill,  Johnson,  Laird,  Leonard,  Palmer,  Rathburn,  Reid,  Scott, 
Shannon,  Starr,  Woodworth.  One  of  the  first  acts  of  this  society 
yras  the  appointment  of  an  agent  in  Halifax,  for  "the  vending  of 
beef,  etc.,"  and  the  appointment  in  the  county  of  inspectors,  whose 
business  it  should  be  to  see  "that  cattle  sent  to  the  agent  were  fit 
for  the  market".  It  was  further  provided  that  when  a  number  of 
cattle  were  ready  to  be  driven  to  Halifax,  they  should  be  divided 
into  lots  and  sent,  "by  ballot,  in  turn". 

That  the  diversified  objects  for  which  the  society  was  founded 


were  all  conscientiously  kept  in  mind  its  ancient  records  make 
clear;  these  show  that  it  concerned  itself  with  the  buying  of 
imported  stock  and  seeds,  making  experiments  in  fertilizing  land 
with  marsh  mud,  Hme,  and  plaster,  testing  new  or  strange  crops, 
holdiug  fairs  and  ploughing  matches,  fencing  the  burying  ground, 
buying  a  pall  for  use  at  funerals,  instituting  Sunday  schools  and 
paying  teachers  in  the  same,  founding  a  circulating  library,  and 
frequently  recommending  to  the  Town  Meeting  and  Court  of  Ses- 
sions, needed  general  reforms.  A  newspaper  report  of  the  centennial 
celebration  from  which  we  have  drawn  the  facts  given  above,  goes 
on  to  say  that  "these  recommendations  generally  met  a  ready 
response,  and  it  is  only  within  a  few  years  that  a  memorial  from  the 
society  to  the  Municipal  Council  led  to  the  purchase  of  a  Poor's  Farm 
for  the  township  of  Horton,  which  has  resulted  in  decreasing  taxa- 
tion and  in  greatly  improving  the  condition  of  the  poor". 

In  1843,  the  Society  had  branches  in  Horton,  Cornwallis  and 
Aylesford.  The  Horton  branch  had  as  officers,  Thomas  Andrew 
Strange  DeWolf,  president;  James  Harris  and  Charles  W.  H. 
Harris,  secretaries;  the  Cornwallis  branch  had,  Hon.  John  Morton, 
president;  Dr.  Charles  Cottnam  Hamilton,  secretary;  the  Aylesford 
branch  had,  Rev.  Henry  Lambeth  Owen,  president;  James  D.  Van 
Buskirk,  secretary. 

In  1898,  no  less  than  nine  agricultural  societies  existed  in 
King's  County,  their  total  membership  being  677.  The  only  other 
counties  in  the  province  having  a  larger  number  of  such  societies 
were,  Pictou  with  fifteen,  and  Colchester  with  ten.  Among  the 
many  importations  into  the  county  of  new  varieties  of  agricultural 
products  one  notable  one  must  be  mentioned  here.  This  is  the 
"Bluenose"  potato,  imported  for  the  Agricultural  Society  about 
1820,  by  the  Earl  of  Dalhousie.  It  is  from  this  importation  that 
the  name  "Bluenose"  himiourously  given  Nova  Scotians  is 
believed  to  have  come. 

The  famous  "Letters  of  Agricola",  which  appeared  anony- 
mously in  the  Halifax  Acadian  Recorder,  between  July  25th  and 
December  26th,  1818,  gave  a  great  stimulus  to  intelligent  farming 


in  King's  County,  as  elsewhere  throughout  the  province.  In  con- 
sequence of  suggestions  these  letters  contained,  agricultural 
societies  were  organized  in  various  counties  of  Nova  Scotia,  and 
farming  generally  was  put  on  a  higher  plane.  The  author  of  the 
letters  was  Mr.  John  Young,  born  at  Falkirk,  Scotland,  in  Sep- 
tember, 1773,  and  educated  at  Glasgow  University,  one  of  whose 
sons  was  the  Hon.  Sir  William  Young,  Kt.,  ninth  Chief  Justice  of 
Nova  Scotia.  In  the  last  quarter  of  the  19th  century  a  nephew  and 
namesake  of  Sir  "William  lived  in  Cornwallis  and  very  successfully 
farmed  there. 

To  promote  agriculture  a  Grange  movement  was  organized 
throughout  Canada  about  1878  or  '79.  In  the  Maritime  Provinces 
it  began  in  Colchester  county,  from  there  spreading  rapidly 
through  Hants,  King's,  Annapolis,  Pictou,  and  Cumberland  counties; 
and  in  New  Brunswick,  through  "Westmoreland,  Albert,  and  York 
counties.  In  each  of  these  counties  was  a  district  grange,  and  in 
the  Maritime  Provinces  at  large  was  a  Maritime  Provincial  Grange, 
sending  delegates  to  the  Dominion  Grange,  which  met  annually  at 
Toronto  and  Ottawa.  In  King's  County  there  were  strong  sub- 
granges  at  Pereau,  Sheffield's  MiUs,  Port  "Williams,  and  Grand  Pre. 
The  grange  system  did  good  work  in  Nova  Scotia  for  several  years, 
especially  in  promoting  a  system  of  cash  buying  among  the  farmers 
and  in  abolishing  the  long  credit  and  longer  price  system  of  the 
country  stores.  Finally,  however,  dissensions  arose  in  the  manage- 
ment of  the  granges;  at  headquarters  in  Ontario  politics  were 
allowed  too  much  sway,  and  in  country  places  grange  stores  were 
not  managed  on  the  best  business  principles.  The  grange  move- 
ment, consequently,  after  a  few  years  entirely  ceased. 

The  yield  of  wheat  and  rye  in  King's  County  in  1813,  was  as 
follows :  of  wheat,  in  Aylesf ord  2,4071/^  bushels ;  in  Cornwallis  1,844 
bushels;  in  Horton  790  bushels;  in  Parrsborough  158  bushels.  Of 
rye,  in  Cornwallis  1,812  bushels;  in  Aylesford  643  bushels;  in  Hor- 
ton 230  bushels;  in  Parrsborough  190  bushels.  In  1900  King's 
County  produced  829,922  bushels  of  potatoes  and  57,658  tons  of 
hay.     The  value  of  its  field  crops  was  $777,676;  forest  products 


$168,517;  dairy  products  $174,557;  fruits  and  vegetables  $373,414; 
eggs  $34,455;  wool  $11,521;  furs  $473.  Of  live  stock  it  sold  196,944 
animals.  In  1901  King's  had  131,320  acres  of  improved,  and  177,178 
acres  of  unimproved,  land.  Of  forest  lands  it  had  73,688  acres;  of 
pasture  land  91,247  acres;  of  land  in  field  crops,  68,173  acres;  in 
vegetables  and  small  fruits,  990  acres.  In  1889,  according  to  a 
newspaper  article,  the  inhabitants  of  Gaspereau  raised  and  manu- 
factured into  pickles,  15,000  bushels  of  cucumbers.  In  1890  from 
the  cultivated  bogs  of  Aylesford  some  400  barrels  of  cranberries 
were  gathered,  in  1898,  this  crop  was  almost  ten  times  as  great. 

April  14,  1832,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  legislature  encourag- 
ing the  importation  of  improved  breeds  of  cattle  into  Nova  Scotia^ 
and  it  is  likely  that  the  interest  in  thoroughbred  stock,  which  led 
to  the  passing  of  this  act,  was  strong  among  intelligent  King's 
County  men.  In  the  last  half  of  the  19th  century,  at  least,  much 
attention  was  given  in  the  county  to  the  importation  and  breeding 
of  foreign  stock.  One  of  the  most  noted  stock-raisers  has  been  Mr. 
Herbert  Stairs  of  Cornwallis.  In  1898  two  Dairy  Companies  existed 
in  King's,  the  Acadia  Dairy  Company,  Limited,  at  Grand  Pre,  of 
which  Charles  H.  R.  Starr  was  president,  and  S.  Avery  Bowser, 
secretary;  and  the  Aylesford  Creamery  Company,  at  Aylesford,  of 
which  John  C.  West  was  president,  and  N.  J.  Bowlby,  secretary. 

"The  Annapolis  Valley",  says  a  late  writer  truthfully,  "is  one 
of  the  favoured  regions  of  the  world  for  fruit  culture^  Situated  in 
the  western  portion  of  the  Provinxie,  comprising  Annapolis,  King's, 
and  a  part  of  Hants  counties,  it  is  sheltered  from  the  cold  north 
winds  by  a  range  of  hills  known  as  the  North  Mountain,  extending 
from  Digby  Gut  to  historic  Blomidon,  while  a  parallel  mountain 
range,  some  eight  or  ten  miles  distant,  shuts  out  the  fogs  of  the 
Atlantic  Ocean  from  this  charming  country.  A  watershed  about 
midway  of  the  valley  divides  the  source  of  the  Annapolis  river 
from  that  of  the  Cornwallis,  the  former  running  fifty  miles  west, 
to  the  Annapolis  Basin.  These  two  small  rivers,  with  a  hundred 
rippling  brooks  and  gushing  springs,  water  the  roots  of  tens  of 
thousands  of  fruitful  trees.    The  soil  varies  from  a  yielding  sand 


to  a  clayey  loam,  and  strange  though  it  seems,  in  all  its  varieties 
is  wonderfully  adapted  to  the  growth  of  fruits.    All  up  and  down 
the  Valley,  orchards  of  apple,  plum,  and  pear  trees,  with  an  occa- 
sional peach  and  quince  tree,  cluster  round  the  cosy  farmhouses, 
while    strawberries,    raspberries,    blackberries,    and    every    other 
variety  of  the  smaller  fruits  and  berries,  grow  plentifully  from  the 
fertile  soil".    In  June  the  Valley  from  end  to  end  is  like  a  sump- 
tuous garden,  "in  that  month  every  tree  is  a  mass  of  blossoms,  tha 
air  is  laden  with  perfume,  and  the  hum  of  bees  fills  the  air  with, 
gentle  music".    "When  the  Acadians  came  to  Minas  they  soon  dis- 
covered, as  we  have  said,  the  remarkable  adaptation  of  the  King-  s 
County  soil  and  climate  to  apple  growing,  and  so  they  set  out  small 
orchards,  but  of  comparatively  insignificant  fruit.    How  early  the 
New  England  planters  began  to  give  special  attention  to  the  raising 
of  apples  we  do  not  know,  but  from  the  beginning  of  the  19th  century, 
at  least,  the  townships  of  Comwallis,  Horton  and  Aylesford,  have  all 
raised  a  great  deal  of  this  fruit.    Among  early  settlers  in  the  county 
several  persons  have  been  mentioned  as  being  specially  interested 
and  as  interesting  others  in  the  cultivation  of  apples.    One  of  thes© 
was  Col.  John  Burbidge,  who  is  said  to  have  introduced  the  "Non- 
pareil" apple  into  the  county  from  England,  about  1775.    A  pear 
grown  in  Comwallis  down  to  a  recent  time  was  known,  after  CoL 
Burbidge,  as  the  "Burbidge  pear".    It  was  round.  Hot  large,  and 
and  was  sweet  and  well  flavoured. 

In  the  first  quarter  of  the  19th  century  an  intelligent  man,  a 
Mr.  Hugh  Pudsey,  came  from  England  to  Horton,  where  he  married' 
Eoxalina,  daughter  of  Benjamin  Cleveland,  and  sister  of  Mrs.  Cor- 
nelius Fox.  He  was  a  man  of  scientific  tastes  and  had  a  good 
library,  and  he  imported  from  England  grape  vines  and  other  fruit 
scions,  rare  in  the  province.  Others  who  helped  promote  fruit  cul- 
ture in  the  county  were  the  Rev.  John  Wiswall,  long  settled  m 
Aylesford  and  Wilmot,  and  Bishop  Charles  In^lis,  who  is  said  to 
have  introduced  here  several  fine  varieties  of  apples,  among  them 
the  beautiful  yellow  "Bishop  Pippin",  now  commonly  known  as 
"BeUefleur".    Among  men  who  in  later  tim^s  have  been  deeply  and 


intelligently  interested  in  frnit  raising  in  the  county  have  been,  the 
Hon,  Charles  Ramage  Prescott,  who  between  1830  and  '35  intro- 
duced the  Gravenstein  apple  and  the  Ribston  Pippin,  Dr.  Charles 
Cottnam  Hamilton,  Mr,  Samuel  Starr  and  his  son.  Major  Robert 
"William  Starr,  Mr.  John  Edward  Starr,  Mr.  Leander  Rand,  and  Mr. 
Ralph  Samuel  Eaton,  whose  wonderful  "Hillcrest  Orchards",  in 
Cornwallis  (now  owned  by  a  stock  company),  of  apples,  pears, 
plums,  quinces,  and  cherries,  are  known  to  fruit  raisers  all  over  the 
continent.  By  1870  every  farm  in  the  fruit-growing  sections  of 
Annapolis,  King's,  and  Hants  counties  had  on  it  many  fruit-bearing 
trees.  The  complete  apple  yield  of  the  Annapolis  Valley  for  that 
year  was  a  hundred  thousand  barrels,  of  which  twelve  thousand 
were  exported,  chiefly  to  England.  The  market  for  Annapolis 
Valley  apples,  at  first  was  chiefly  the  United  States,  but  about 
1870- '75,  exportation  to  the  English  markets  began.  In  1892  the 
orchards  of  the  Valley  are  said  to  have  covered  25,000  acres,  and  to 
have  produced  300,000  barrels,  about  half  of  which  were  sent 
abroad.  Since  that  time  orchard  development  has  gone  steadily 
on,  the  crops,  shipped  almost  exclusively  to  England,  being  at 
present  much  greater,  and  the  apples  much  flner,  Ihan  over  before. 
In  1901  the  county  had  in  orchards  12,944  acres,  the  adjoining 
counties  of  Annapolis  and  Hants,  next  to  Bang's  the  largest  fruit 
producing  counties  in  the  province,  having  respectively,  but  6,264, 
and  3,280  acres.  Besides  apples,  pears  and  plums  continue  to  be 
widely  cultivated,  the  "Burbank"  being  the  most  commonly  grown 

A  horticultural  society  seems  to  have  been  formed  in  King's 
County  about  1825  to  '28 ;  in  the  latter  year,  we  find  as  its  officers : 
Hon.  Charles  Ramage  Prescott,  president;  John  Whidden,  vice- 
president;  Ebenezer  P.  Harding,  corresponding  secretary;  Caleb 
Handley  Rand,  recording  secretary ;  and  James  Delap  Harris,  treas- 
urer. This  society  is  not  remembered  to  day,  and  it  is  thought  it 
must  have  had  a  very  brief  career.  A  Fruit  Growers'  Association 
and  International  Show  Society  of  Nova  Scotia  was  organized  at 
Halifax,  March  11,  1863,  with  a  few  members.    Its  first  meeting  for 


business  was  held  in  Kentville,  July  3rd  of  the  same  year,  Charles 
Cottnam  Hamilton,  M.  D.,  being  then  elected  president.  At  Dr.  Ham- 
ilton's death  in  1880  Major  Robert  William  Starr  became  president, 
and  following  him  have  been  as  presidents:  Avard  Longley, 
1883- '84;  Rev.  J.  R.  Hart,  1885- '87 ;  Henry  Chipman,  M.  D.,  1888- '90; 
J.  W.  Bigelow,  1890- '02;  S.  Spurr,  1903;  Peter  Innes,  1904;  Ralph 
Samuel  Eaton,  1905;  John  Donaldson,  1906- '07;  Major  Robert  Wil- 
liam Starr,  1908.  The  annual  meetings  of  the  society  were  held  at 
Wolfville  until  1901,  the  places  of  meeting  after  that  being  succes- 
sively Middleton,  Bridgewater,  Windsor,  Annapolis,  Wolfville,  Ber- 
wick, and  Middleton.  To  the  teaching  and  general  stimulus  given  by 
this  society,  the  fruit  industry  of  the  Annapolis  Valley  owes 
much  of  its  late  remarkable  success.  In  1873  an  act  was  passed  by 
the  legislature  for  the  better  protection  of  growing  fruit  in  King's. 
A  School  of  Horticulture,  having  afiflliation  with  Acadia  University, 
for  some  years  existed  at  Wolfville.  At  the  close  of  1898  this 
school,  then  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  F.  C.  Sears,  reported  sixty- 
two  students,  fifty-seven  of  whom  were  from  Nova  Scotia. 

When  the  distribution  of  lands  to  the  New  England  planters 
was  made,  two  reservations  were  set  apart  in  Cornwallis,  and  no 
doubt  two  or  three  in  Horton,  for  mills.  The  first  Cornwallis  mills 
were.  Knight's,  afterward  ShefSeld's,  and  one  at  Port  Williams 
(Terry's  Creek),  probably  first  owned  by  James  Wood.  At  Shef- 
field's mill  a  hundred  acres  were  allowed  for  a  mill-pond,  though 
so  much  was  never  used.  A  little  later,  Barnaby's  grist  mill,  after- 
wards Killam's  carding  mill;  Bishop's  mill  at  Lakeville;  Garrett's 
mill  near  Steam  Mill  Village;  Obed  Benjamin's  mill  at  White  Rock; 
and  Lane's  mill  on  the  Gaspereau  river,  were  all  established.  In 
1829  there  were  on  the  Habitant  river,  two  grist  mills  and  a  carding 
mill;  at  Canning,  Harrington's  tide  mill  for  grinding  wheat  and 
rye,  in  conjunction  with  which  was  a  mill  for  grinding  oats;  and 
on  or  near  the  Pereau  river,  a  mill  of  some  kind  owned  by  Nathan 
Loomer.  At  this  period  there  were  in  the  county  in  all,  eleven  grist 
mills  and  sixteen  saw  mills.  A  little  later,  Thomas  Dickie  had  a 
carding  mill  somewhere  in  Lower  Canard.    Of  tanneries  there  were 


Chase's  at  Lakeville,  Lowden's  at  Centreville,  Phinney's  in  Kent- 
yille,  Bragg 's  under  the  "Gallows  hill",  and  probably  Johnson's  at 

The  lumber  interests  of  the  county  have  always  been  consid- 
erable. In  1900,  as  we  have  seen,  the  total  value  of  forest  products 
was  $168,517;  of  the  various  woods  cut  and  exported  then,  pine 
holding  the  first  place.  The  most  considerable  lumber  merchant 
in  the  county  for  the  past  twenty  or  thirty  years  has  been  Mr.  S.  P. 
Benjamin.  His  ownership  of  lumber  woods  and  his  large  shipments 
of  lumber  have  given  him  a  conspicuous  place  in  the  county's  long 
roll  of  enterprising  men. 

At  various  points  in  King's  County  from  early  times  a  good 
deal  of  shipbuilding  has  gone  on.     At  Scots  Bay,  Hall's  Harbor, 
Baxter's  Harbor,  Black  Rock,  and  French  Cross,  many  vessels  have 
been  built,  while  at  Canning  and  Kingsport  there  have  been  a  great 
many  more.    It  is  said  that  the  first  vessel  built  in  the  county  was  a 
schooner  rigged  craft,  of  about  forty  tons  register,  built  at  the  Corn- 
wallis  Town  Plot  about  1790.    To  the  grand  event  of  its  launching 
jpeople  came  in  all  directions  from  thirty  miles  around,  and  the  day 
throughout  Cornwallis  was  made  one  of  much  festivity.    The  first 
ship-builder  of  importance  was  Ebenezer  Bigelow,  Sr.,  of  Canning, 
who  began  to  build  vessels  in  1800.    His  craft  ranged  in  size  from 
seventy  to  a  hundred  and  fifty  tons.    The  next  was  Elijah  "West,  Sr., 
who  at  various  points  built  vessels  of  a  larger  class  still.     In  the 
spring  of  1813,  Mr.  Handley  Chipman  built  a  brig  of  some  two  hun- 
dred tons  on  the  Cornwallis  river,  near  the  bridge  at  Kentville.    At 
the  same  place  in  1846,  James  Edward  DeWolf  built  a  barque, 
which  he  called  The  Kent.    The  first  vessel  built  at  Lower  Horton 
(Horton  Landing)  was  the  schooner  Nonpareil,  built  about  1848  or 
'50  for  Arthur  M.  Wier  and  Capt.  Joseph  Rathbun.     Mr.  Wier 
owned  the  shipyard  and  the  property  round  it,  and  lived  in  a  two- 
story  house,  with  elms  shading  it,  near  the  wharf.    Prom  him  the 
shipyard  passed  to  Jacob  Curry,  who  by  and  by  sold  it  to  J.  B. 
North.    Mr.  North,  in  1780,  built  the  barque  Kestrel,  and  after  that 
three  other  barques  and  a  brig.    In  the  year  ending  September  30, 


1866,  there  were  built  in  the  county,  three  barques,  with  a  combined 
tonnage  of  1,467;  seven  schooners,  with  a  tonnage  of  394;  three 
brigantines,  with  a  tonnage  of  437 ;  and  three  brigs  with  a  tonnage 
of  794. 

In  Canning,  says  a  late  writer,  about  the  middle  of  the  19th  ccut 
tury  it  was  no  uncommon  sight  to  see  two  ships  on  stocks  at  the  same 
time.  From  1850  to  '75  the  chief  ship-builders  at  this  place  were, 
Ebenezer  Bigelow,  John  Northup,  William  Harris,  and  Charles 
Connors.  At  Scots  bay  the  men  building  ships  were  Jacob  Lockhart 
and  Abraham  Ells.  At  Kingsport,  Benjamin  and  Isaac  Bigelow  and 
W.  H.  Church  were  the  chief  builders,  the  Bigelow  brothers  also 
having  a  shipyard  at  Spencer's  Island.  At  Baxter's  Harbor,  the 
builders  were  Amos  Baxter  and  John  Irvin.  In  1883  Philip  R. 
Crichton  of  Halifax,  who  had  for  some  time  been  build- 
ing vessels  in  King's  County,  sold  his  interests  to  C.  R.  Burgess 
of  Wolfville,  and  thereafter  for  some  years  Mr.  Burgess  built 
and  owned  more  ships  in  the  county  than  any  one  else.  "His 
splendid  fleet  of  full  rigged  ships,  among  the  largest  ever 
built  in  Nova  Scotia",  were  all  built  and  launched  at  Kings- 
port.  These  were  the  Kammira,  1,885  tons,  built  in  1882; 
the  Karoo,  1,900  tons,  built  in  1883;  the  Earl  Burgess,  1,800  tons, 
built  in  1887;  the  Queen,  1,894  tons,  built  in  1887;  the  King's  County ^ 
2,071  tons,  built  in  1890 ;  the  Canada,  2,127  tons,  built  in  1891 ;  the 
Golden  Rod,  built  in  1892 ;  and  the  Skoda,  built  in  1893.  Launchings 
at  Kingsport  and  elsewhere  were  always  festive  occasions  and 
brought  together  great  crowds  of  people,  young  and  old. 

From  the  earliest  settlement  of  the  county,  fishing  has  been 
carried  on  in  Minas  Basin  and  the  rivers  and  along  the  Bay  Shore. 
By  the  New  England  planters,  seines  were  early  stretched  across  the 
Habitant  river  for  catching  shad.  In  the  Gaspereau  river  at  certain 
seasons  alewives  or  gaspereaux,  and  salmon,  have  always  been  plenti- 
ful. At  Pereau,  herring  have  been  abundant.  On  the  broad  flats  at 
Starr's  Point  and  at  the  mouth  of  the  Canard,  weirs  are  annually 
placed  for  shad  and  other  fish.  In  the  mill-brook  at  Kentville,  neap 
its  junction  with  the  Cornwallis  river,  in  the  early  spring,  quantities 


of  smelts  are  caught.  At  Scots  Bay,  shad  and  herrings  and  at  Hall's 
Harmor,  salmon,  abound.  In  1861  there  were  engaged  in  fishing  in 
the  county  six  vessels,  manned  by  twenty-eight  men ;  and  fifty  boats, 
manned  by  forty-three  men;  of  nets  and  seines  there  were  in  aU  a 
hundred  and  forty-one.  From  time  to  time  acts  have  been  passed  by 
the  legislature  regulating  the  King's  County  fisheries. 

The  county's  trade  began  in  French  times  with  the  shipment 
of  farm  produce  from  Minas  to  Annapolis  and  Louisburg,  and  with 
the  return  of  French  imported  merchandise  from  the  latter  place. 
At  some  period,  we  do  not  know  precisely  when,  Joshua  Mauger, 
an  adventurous  trader,  the  son  of  a  London  Jewish  merchant, 
making  Louisburg  the  centre  of  his  business  operations  established 
"truck  houses"  at  Piziquid,  Grand  Pre,  and  Annapolis,  and  smug- 
gling goods  in  large  quantities  from  France  sent  them  to  these 
points  and  to  the  St.  John  River.  He  is  said  to  have  been  not  only 
a  "prince  of  smugglers",  but  for  years  the  great  intermediary 
between  the  French  government  and  the  inhabitants  of  Acadia,  both 
French  and  Indian,  and  next  to  the  priest  Le  Loutre  the  most  mis- 
chievous influence  in  Acadia  with  which  English  authority  had  to 
contend.  The  tomahawks  and  scalping  knives  in  use  among  the 
Indians  are  said  to  have  been  brought  from  France  largely  by  him, 
the  French  emissaries  here  distributing  them  to  the  dwellers  in  the 
forest.  "When  Louisburg  was  first  captured  he  returned  for  a  short 
time  to  London,  but  after  the  founding  of  Halifax  he  came  to  Nova 
Scotia  and  established  himself  in  the  new  capital  of  the  province. 
In  Halifax  he  obtained  a  license  to  distil  rum  for  the  fleet,  and  he 
was  further  successful  in  obtaining  a  grant  of  the  greater  part  of 
"Comwallis  Island  and  Beach",  a  short  distance  from  the  town. 
He  also  formed  a  partnership  with  Messrs.  Apthorp  and  Company 
of  Boston  to  supply  the  government  with  almost  all  that  was 
required  for  the  support  of  the  new  settlement,  the  profits  from  the 
breadstuffs  alone  this  firm  imported,  since  they  charged  whatever 
they  pleased,  amounting  annually  to  a  very  large  sum.  When  the 
French  were  expelled  from  Acadia  it  is  probable  he  closed  his 
business  at  Halifax,  where  among  other  valuable  possessions  he 


bwned  three  distilleries,  and  at  once  settled  in  London.  There  he 
secured  a  seat  in  Parliament,  lived  in  princely  style,  married  his 
only  daughter  to  the  Due  de  Brouillan,  and  May  4,  1792,  died  worth 
three  hundred  thousand  pounds  sterling.  In  connection  with  two 
places  in  these  provinces  his  name  still  stands.  These  are,  Mauger's 
Beach,  near  Halifax,  and  the  town  of  Maugerville,  on  the  St.  John 
river.  In  1780  Mr.  Bulkeley,  the  cool  headed  Secretary  of  the 
province,  estimated  that  in  the  thirty  years  since  the  founding  of 
Halifax,  through  the  smuggling  of  Mauger  and  others,  fully  four 
hundred  thousand  pounds  currency  had  been  lost  to  the  treasury. 
Mauger's  dishonest  career  in  Halifax  had,  it  is  said,  a  most  per- 
nicious effect  in  lowering  the  tone  of  commercial  morals  in  the 
province  for  years  after  he  left.  With  the  removal  of  the  Acadians, 
of  course,  all  trading  operations  in  King's  County,  except  about  the 
fort  at  Piziquid,  entirely  ceased. 

Soon  after  the  New  England  planters  came  they  opened  small 
general  stores  at  Cornwallis  and  Horton  Town  Plots,  and  these 
stores  in  time  came  to  have  rivals  at  cross  roads  and  in  other  con- 
venient small  centres  of  population.  Such  stores  as  Chipman's,  at 
Chipman's  Corner,  Buckley's,  at  Buckley's  Corner,  Dickie's,  near 
the  Baptist  meeting-house  corner  in  Canard,  and  others  like  them, 
which  lasted  until  comparatively  recent  times,  were  survivals  of 
these  early  established  Cornwallis  and  Horton  general  stores.  In 
time,  Wolfville,  Kentville,  Canning,  Kingsport,  Billtown,  Berwick; 
and  on  the  bay  shore.  Hall's  Harbor,  Baxter's  Harbor,  Black  Eock, 
Harborville,  and  French  Cross,  became  notable  trading  centres. 
Since  the  building  of  the  railway,  naturally  trade  has  been  greatest 
chiefly  in  the  places  near  which  the  railway  runs.  These  places  are, 
Grand  Pre,  "Wolfville,  Kentville,  Waterville,  Berwick,  and  Kingston. 
In  the  year  ending  Sept.  30,  1865,  the  value  of  products  exported 
from  Cornwallis  was  $134,684;  from  Horton  was  $35,827.  In  the 
following  year,  however,  the  figures  were  less.  They  were,  for 
Cornwallis  $125,109;  for  Horton  $32,746.  The  products  exported 
in  1865-6  comprised  wood,  fish,  and  hides  to  the  United  States, 
vegetables,  to  New  Brunswick,  potatoes  to  New  Brunswick  and 


Newfoundland,  and  fruit  to  New  Brunswick.  In  the  same  year 
there  were  imported  from  the  United  States,  tea,  leather,  hardware, 
earthenware,  flour,  and  drugs  and  medicines.  While  the  potato 
industry  flourished,  shipments  of  potatoes  were  frequent  to  the 
West  Indies,  return  cargoes  from  West  Indian  ports  being  molasses, 
sugar,  and  rum.  "Before  the  Windsor  and  Annapolis  railway  was 
built",  says  some  one,  "all  poultry,  pork,  eggs,  butter,  etc.,  were 
trucked  away  to  Halifax,  by  the  farmer  himself,  who  in  addition  to 
his  own  expenses  and  those  of  his  team  was  obliged  to  spend  three 
or  four  days  in  marketing  a  load  that  now  would  not  fill  one  corner 
of  a  railway  car.  Cattle  and  great  flocks  of  lambs  were  driven  to 
market,  the  driver  footing  it  after  them,  often  with  blistered  feet, 
and  not  seldom  far  into  the  night,  so  as  to  be  in  Halifax  at  an  early 
hour  the  next  morning".  For  a  good  while,  potatoes  were  the  most 
important  product  of  the  Annapolis  Valley,  gradually,  however, 
apples  came  to  take  their  place. 

"The  pioneer  advocate  of  Boards  of  Trade  in  King's  County", 
says  Mr.  Peter  Innes,  "was  Mr.  George  E.  Calkin,  and  it  was  owing 
to  his  spirited  and  persistent  efforts,  ably  seconded  by  those  of  the 
late  Mr.  Melville  G.  DeWolfe,  that  the  Kentville  Board  was  founded 
in  1886.  Subsequently,  Boards  of  Trade  were  established  in  Wolf- 
ville.  Canning,  Berwick,  and  Hantsport.  While  these  Boards 
admirably  served  the  interests  of  their  respective  towns  it  was  felt 
by  many  that  the  important  agricultural  and  rural  population  of 
the  county  should  have  a  directly  representative  organization  of 
their  own  to  promote,  foster,  and  protect  their  varied  industries 
and  interests.  Accordingly,  in  1895,  the  King's  County  Board  of 
trade  was  incorporated,  under  the  provisions  of  a  general  Dominion 
Act  respecting  Boards  of  Trade,  W.  H.  Chase  being  elected  president 
and  the  late  Dr.  Frank  H.  Eaton,  secretary.  This  board,  which  is 
the  only  County  Board  of  Trade  in  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  con- 
cerns itself  with  all  matters  affecting  the  progress  and  prosperity  of 
the  Province  and  the  Dominion.  Its  membership,  in  addition  to  the 
County  Councillors  from  every  ward,  includes  the  leading  repre- 
sentatives of  the  industries   and  trades  of  the   County,   and  its 


activities  have  been  a  distinct  factor  in  the  County's  progress  and 
development.  Its  regular  quarterly  meetings  are  held  alternately 
at  different  important  centres".  The  successive  presidents  of  this 
Board  of  Trade,  have  been:  W.  H.  Chase,,  1895-6;  Peter  Innes, 
1897-1902;  C.  0.  Allan,  1903- '05;  J.  A.  Kinsman,  1906;  A.  McMahon, 
1907;  W.  H.  Woodworth,  1908;  T.  H.  Morse,  1909.  Its  secretaries 
have  been:  Frank  H.  Eaton,  1895- '97;  Charles  F.  Rockwell,  1898- 
'99;  Ralph  S.  Eaton,  1900- '03;  H.  G.  Harris,  1904;  J.  Howe  Cox, 
1905;  W.  B.  Burgess,  1906- '08;  M.  K.  Ells,  1909. 

King's  County  has  had  a  few  small  manufacturing  interests, 
but  none  of  them  have  ever  had  great  importance  or  have  yielded 
their  projectors  much  profit;  the  county  is  not  a  manufacturing 
county.  As  early  as  1836  an  act  was  passed  incorporating  the 
"King's  County  Woolen  Cloth  and  Mills  Co".  The  persons  com- 
posing this  company  were:  Caleb  Handley  Rand.  James  Edward 
DeWolf,  James  Denison,  Levi  Rice,  Isaac  "Webster,  George  M.  Terry, 
William  B.  Webster,  Winckworth  Chipman,  Silas  W.  Masters,  and 
Henry  B.  Webster.  This  laudable  enterprise,  however,  must  have 
died  in  its  infancy.  Since  that  time  several  other  small  manufac- 
turing interests  have  been  established  in  the  county,  but  except  in 
the  ease  of  one  or  two  none  have  had  much  success. 

So  conspicuous  has  King's  County  become  for  successful  fruit 
raising,  and  so  much  is  said  in  certain  chapters  of  the  present  book 
on  the  extent  and  the  beauty  of  the  orchards  in  King's,  that  we 
append  to  this  chapter  the  following  interesting  historical  sketch 
of  the  fruit  industry  written  for  the  purpose  by  one  of  the  acknowl- 
edged masters  of  fruit  culture  in  King's,  Mr.  Ralph  Samuel  Eaton, 
whose  genius  in  this  direction,  as  we  have  already  said,  conceived 
and  brought  to  successful  issue  the  famous  CornwaUis  "Hillcrest 
Orchards",  not  far  from  the  county  town.    Mr.  Eaton  says: 

"The  first  fruit  gardens  of  King's  were  planted  by  the 
Acadians,  and  a  few  individual  apple  trees  at  Gaspereau,  Grand 
Pre,  and  Canard  still  stand,  which  are  supposed  to  have  been 
planted  by  these  fruit-raising  pioneers.  Though  the  first  plum 
trees  have  long  since  disappeared,  some  varieties  of  this  fruit  are 


still  grown  which  are  traceable  to  these  French  Gardens.  These 
patches  of  fruit  trees  planted  by  the  French  encouraged  the  New 
England  settlers  who  came  in  1760  to  the  farms  of  the  Acadians, 
and  they  soon  began  to  enlarge  the  orchards  and  introduce  new 
varieties  of  fruit.  We  have  the  names  of  several  men  of  the  early 
part  of  the  century  who  took  special  interest  in  fruit,  and  we  have 
also  the  names  of  a  number  of  varieties  of  apples,  some  of  them 
still  standard  sorts,  which  these  men  introduced.  Col.  John  Bur- 
bidge  has  the  credit  of  having  started  the  Nonpareil  and  English 
Golden  Russet;  Bishop  Charles  Inglis  introduced  the  Bishop  Pippin 
or  Yellow  Belle  fleur;  Ahira  Calkin,  the  Calkin  Pippin  and  Calkin's 
Early;  David  Bent  brought  from  Massachusetts  the  Greening  Spit- 
zenbzerg,  Pearmain,  and  Vandevere ;  but  the  one  man  who  exerted, 
perhaps,  the  greatest  influence  on  the  early  history  of  the  industry 
was  the  Hon.  Charles  Prescott,  who  removed  from  Halifax  to 
Starr's  Point  in  1812.  Here,  in  his  beautifully  kept  garden,  Mr. 
Prescott  planted  the  Eibston,  Blenheim,  King  of  Pippins,  Graven- 
stein,  Alexandra,  and  Golden  Pippin,  which  he  imported  from 
England,  the  Baldwin,  Rhode  Island  Greening,  Esopus  Spitz, 
Sweet  Bough,  Early  Harvest,  and  Spy,  which  he  obtained  from 
the  United  States,  and  the  Fameuse,  Pomme  Gris,  and  Canada 
Eeinette,  which  he  got  from  Montreal.  To  Mr.  Prescott 's  credit, 
too,  is  the  introduction  of  many  of  the  standard  varieties  of  plums, 
pears,  and  cherries  since  grown  ia  the  province. 

"Following  Mr.  Prescott,  Charles  and  Richard  Starr,  Benjamin 
Woodworth,  James  Hardwick,  Dr.  Charles  Cottnam  Hamilton, 
Ward  Baton,  Charles  Dickie,  James  Eaton,  Leander  Rand,  and 
John  Chipman,  in  Cornwallis,  and  the  Johnsons  and  DeWolfs  in 
Horton,  should  be  mentioned  as  men  who  showed  great  interest  in 
the  early  fruit  culture  of  the  county. 

"In  the  days  of  those  men  the  great  hindrance  to  orchard 
extension  was  lack  of  markets,  which  in  turn  was  because  of  lack  of 
transportation  facilities.  The  industry  was  put  on  a  stable  footing, 
and  began  a  steady  increase  of  about  fifty  per  cent,  every  five  years, 
■when  the  railway  was  opened  to  Halifax.    Between  1870  and  '80, 


regular  shipments  of  apples  began  to  England.  The  following 
figures  show  the  average  export  of  barrels  for  each  five  years  of 
the  last  thirty  years  from  the  whole  province,  and  it  is  quite  safe 
to  allot  one-half  of  this  quantity  to  the  County  of  King's.  The 
total  crop  of  the  county  would  be  about  one-third  added  to  this 
half  for  local  consumption:  1880- '85,  23,920;  1885- '90,  83,249; 
1890- '95,  118,552;  1895-1900,  259,200;  1900- '05,  320,406;  1905- '10, 
482,298.  It  is  felt  by  the  best  fruit  growers  that  this  ratio  of 
increase  should  be  more  than  maintained  during  the  next  twenty 
years;  the  result  will  then  be  that  King's  will  raise  over  a  million 
and  a  half  barrels  a  year. 

"Inseparable  from  the  history  of  the  fruit  industry  in  Nova 
Scotia,  and  unquestionably  the  principal  agent  in  orchard  develop- 
ment during  these  thirty  years,  has  been  the  Nova  Scotia  Fruit 
Growers'  Association,  which  until  the  last  few  years  has  virtually 
had  its  home  in  King's  County.  This  association  was  organized  in 
1863,  with  Robert  Grant  Haliburton  as  its  first  president,  and  the 
next  year  Dr.  Charles  Cottnam  Hamilton  as  its  second,  and  its 
existence  shows,  as  has  often  before  been  shown,  how  men  of  travel 
and  education  frequently  have  marked  influence  in  organizing  and 
carrying  on  works  for  the  public  good  ontirely  outside  the  lines  of 
their  own  proper  professions.  The  Nova  Scotia  Fruit  Growers' 
Association  was  largely  the  outcome  of  the  success  of  an  exhibit 
of  fruit  and  vegetables  made  by  the  province  the  year  before  its 
inception,  at  the  Royal  Horticultural  Society's  Exhibition  in  Lon- 
don, England,  where  one  silver  and  seven  bronze  medals  were  won  by 
the  province  besides  much  favourable  press  comment.  All  the  early 
exhibitions  of  Nova  Scotia,  from  which  so  much  inspiration  and 
education  came,  were  the  result  of  this  association's  activity.  To 
its  credit,  too,  is  due  the  enviable  position  the  province  has  taken 
at  such  international  displays  of  fruit  as  at  Philadelphia,  Chicago, 
Buffalo,  Omaha,  London,  Edinburgh,  Paris,  and  the  several  exhibi- 
tions that  have  been  held  in  the  Dominion  of  Canada. 

"No  record  of  the  King's  County  fruit  industry  would  be  com- 
plete without  the  mention  of  names  of  men  who  have  borne  a 


leading  part  in  the  activities  of  the  Fruit  Growers '  Association  dur- 
ing the  past  thirty  years.  The  man  who  has  been  identified  longest 
with  the  association,  and  has  probably  rendered  it  the  best  service, 
is  Major  Robert  William  Starr  of  Wolfville,  one  of  the  leading 
scientific  pomologists  of  the  Canadian  Dominion.  Major  Starr  was 
one  of  the  first  secretaries  of  the  association,  and  has  been  twice  its 
president.  The  other  secretaries  have  been  Andrew  Johnson  and 
Charles  H.  R.  Starr,  of  WolfviUe,  and  S.  C.  Parker  of  Berwick,  the 
last  of  whom  has  efficiently  filled  the  position  for  about  fifteen 
years.  Among  the  King's  County  men  who  have  held  the  presi- 
dency have  been  Henry  Chipman,  M.  D.,  of  Grand  Pre,  J.  W. 
Bigelow,  of  "Wolfville,  who  held  the  position  with  marked  credit 
for  many  years;  Peter  Innes,  of  Cold  Brook,  Ralph  S.  Baton,  of 
Hillcrest  Orchards,  John  Donaldson,  of  Port  Williams,  and  E.  E. 
Archibald  of  Wolfville. 

"To  the  Fruit  Growers'  Association  is  further  due  the  existence 
for  some  years  at  Wolfville  of  a  Horticultural  School  for  the 
province,  the  first  of  such  schools  on  the  continent,  and  later  the 
establishment  of  an  Agricultural  College,  the  second  of  its  kind  on 
the  continent,  which  absorbed  the  Horticultural  School.  Its  latest 
service  to  the  fruit-growing  industry  is  the  establishment  of  a 
Provincial  Experimental  Station  for  Horticulture,  the  farm  for 
which  has  lately  been  purchased  at  Kentville. 

"The  breadth  of  the  valley  in  King's  County,  its  central 
position  in  the  fruit  belt  of  Nova  Scotia,  and  the  intelligence  of  its 
fruit  growers,  combine  to  make  the  county  one  of  the  most  progres- 
sive fruit-raising  sections  of  the  whole  American  continent.  Already 
the  development  of  the  fruit  industry  has  increased  the  value  of 
the  county's  farms  many  times  over  what  they  would  otherwise 
have  been,  and  with  the  future  certain  progress  of  the  industry 
this  value  will  doubtless  in  the  future  still  further  increase." 

To  this  interesting  sketch  of  the  fruit  industry  of  the  county 
Mr.  Eaton  adds  the  fact,  that  J.  Spurgeon  Bishop,  of  Auburn, 
shipped  the  first  car  load  of  cranberries  from  King's  County  in 
1892.  In  1898,  he  says,  there  were  3,000  barrels  of  cranbefries 
grown  in  Aylesford,  in  1908,  5,000  barrels. 


The  frames  of  some  of  the  first  houses  that  were  built  in  Corn- 
wallis  and  Horton,  but  how  many  we  do  not  know,  were  brought 
from  Connecticut  or  from  Maine,  and  the  standards  of  architecture 
the  planters  who  owned  them  recognized,  were  those  commonly- 
held  in  rural  communities  of  New  England  at  the  time  they  came 
to  King's  County.  In  his  "Early  Rhode  Island  Houses"  and 
"Early  Connecticut  Houses",  Professor  Isham,  of  Brown  University, 
apparently  divides  the  dwelling  house  architecture  of  New  England 
before  strictly  Colonial  times  into  three  periods,  from  1640  to  1675, 
from  1675  to  1700,  and  from  1700  to  1730.  The  Connecticut  houses  of 
the  first  period  he  describes  as  of  one  story,  a  story  and  a  half,  or  two 
stories  high,  and  as  having  an  "overhang",  or  projection  over  the 
lower  story.  On  the  ground  floor  they  had  usually  but  two  rooms 
and  a  narrow  entry,  with  sometimes  a  small  lean-to.  In  the  second 
period  the  great  change  consisted  in  the  addition  of  a  kitchen  and 
other  rooms  at  the  back,  these  rooms  covered  by  a  lean-to  roof  and 
built  as  an  integral  part  of  the  house,  and  not  as  an  ell.  The  dis- 
tinguishing mark  of  the  third  period  was  the  upright  or  fuU  two- 
story  house,  with  its  kitchen  and  kitchen  chamber  behind  the 
parlour  and  hall.  In  this  period  the  overhang  was  still  very  often 
founds  but  it  had  much  less  projection.  In  the  earlier  houses 
the  "summer",  a  beam  supporting  the  upper  story,  and  crossing 
the  room  from  the  chimney  to  the  end,  was  universally  found, 
but  here  it  was  of  less  depth,  that  it  might  on  the  under 
side  be  flush  with  the  joists,  which  were  now  made  larger,  and  be 
plastered  over  and  concealed.  In  all  three  periods  plaster  was 
freely  used  on  ceiling  and  walls,  and  the  great  brick  chimney,  with 
its  cavernous  fire-place,  was  found. 


The  first  Cornwallis  and  Horton  houses  must  have  partaken  of 
the  characteristics  of  both  the  first  and  the  second  of  these  early- 
American  architectural  periods,  they  were  chiefly  low,  steep-roofed, 
story  and  a  half  dwellings  (the  roof,  back  and  front,  having  the 
same  pitch),  containing  two  rooms  on  the  ground  floor  and  often  a 
back  porch  or  ell,  the  narrow  entry  leading  directly  to  the  chimney, 
which  occupied  the  end  of  the  house,  but  was  not  uncovered.  In  front 
of  the  chimney  a  steep,  narrow  stair-case  led  to  the  low-eaved  bed- 
rooms above.  In  King's  County  neither  the  uncovered  chimney 
nor  the  overhang,  so  far  as  we  know,  was  ever  found.  In  Connec- 
ticut, says  Professor  Isham,  at  a  later  period,  perhaps  about  1760, 
"the  increased  wealth  of  the  colonists  and  their  desire  to  follow 
English  fashions  introduced  more  elaborate  finish.  There  appears, 
too,  a  most  significant  change  in  the  plan,  the  introduction  of  the 
central-entry  type.  Here  the  old  entry  or  porch,  with  its  chimney 
behind  it,  is  replaced  by  a  passage  running  from  the  front  to  the 
back  of  the  house.  There  are  two  rooms  at  each  side  of  this  pas- 
sage, and  the  chimneys  of  these  were  at  first  in  the  end  walls  of 
the  house,  and  then  between  each  pair,  as  the  chimney  once  was 
between  the  rooms  which  anciently  constituted  the  dwelling.  A 
later  development  still,  is  the  addition  of  the  ell,  often  really  an 
older  house,  to  contain  the  kitchen.  Already,  early  in  this  period, 
if  not  toward  the  end  of  the  one  before  it,  the  old  sharp  pitch  of 
the  roof  had  been  visibly  flattened,  and  before  the  end,  the  gambrel 
had  become  established,  though  how  or  when  it  came  into  fashion 
is  an  obscure  question.  The  central-entry  plan,  with  either  a 
gambrel  or  a  plain  pitched  roof  held  sway  till  long  after  the  Eevo- 
lution,  and  was  superseded  only  at  the  Greek  Revival  of  1830". 

In  Nova  Scotia  the  "Greek  Revival"  never  spread.  Nowhere 
there  did  the  lofty-pillared  mansions,  so  conspicuous  in  many  New 
England  and  Middle  States'  towns,  rear  their  imposing  heads.  The 
plain  two-story,  central-entried  or  more  frequently,  gambrel-roofed 
house,  was  the  highest  type  of  dwelling  Cornwallis  and  Horton,  as 
a  general  thing,  ever  achieved.  In  the  first  quarter  of  the  19th 
century  a  few  houses  showing  Colonial  influence  appeared,  but 


these  -were  conspicuously  few.  For  the  most  part,  the  King's 
County  houses,  at  least  those  built  before  1860,  were  central-entried, 
story-and-a-half  houses,  with  chimneys  of  not  very  large  size 
between  each  pair  of  rooms  on  the  first  and  second  floors.  In  the 
larger  villages  slightly  different  types  have  developed,  small 
piazzas  often  serving  to  break  the  monotony  of  line.  The  four  most 
conspicuous  examples  in  Horton  and  Cornwallis  of  houses  of  a,  more 
ambitious  type,  are  the  Colonial  house  built  apad  originally  occupied 
by  Hon.  Charles  Ramage  Prescott,  near  the.  Cornwallis  Town  Plot, 
the  house  in  Wolfville  built  by  Elisha  DeWolf,  Jr.,  that  built  in 
Kentville  by  David  Whidden,  Sr.,  long  owned  by  Hon.  James  Delap 
Harris,  but  now  by  Col.  Leverett  de  Veber  Chipman ;  and  the  house, 
also  in  Kentville,  of  Mr.  Caleb  Handley  Sand,  now  owned  by  Col. 
Wentworth  Eaiton  Roscoe. 

Of  the  early  Norwich,  Connecticut,  houses.  Miss  Caulkins,  the 
historian  says:  "Towns  were  not  built  in  those  days  like  a  factory 
village,  all  at  once  and  after  one  model.  At  Norwich,  especially, 
if  considered  in  its  whole  extent,  great  diversity  in  the  form  and 
position  of  the  buildings  was  displayed.  Here  a  house  stood 
directly  on  the  town  street;  another  was  placed  at  the  end  of  a 
lane;  a  third  in  a  meadow  by  a  gurgling  brook;  and  others  were 
scattered  over  the  side-hills,  or  sheltered  under  jutting  ledges  of 
rock.  Some  were  only  one-story,  with  two  rooms,  but  the  better 
sort  presented  a  wide,  imposing  front  of  two  stories,  ending  in  a 
very  low  story  in  the  rear.  The  windows  were  small  and  few.  The 
rooms  were  supplied  with  chimney-closets,  both  over  the  fire- 
places and  by  their  sides.  In  the  chambers,  and  sometimes  even  in 
the  garret,  large  closets  might  be  seen  diving  here  and  there  into 
the  chimney,  or  occupying  the  space  between  the  chimneys.  As 
the  houses  decayed,  these  closets  became  receptacles  for  rubbish 
and  vermin.  Often  in  later  times,  the  wrecks  of  discarded  furni- 
ture, old  snow-shoes,  moth-eaten  buff-caps,  broken  utensils,  and 
sometimes  books  and  pamphlets,  or  written  papers,  discolored, 
tattered,  nibbled,  till  they  were  worthless,  have  been  dragged  from 
those  reservoirs". 


Suggestive,  indeed,  this  description  is  of  the  location  and 
and  general  external  and  internal  appearance  of  many  of  the 
Cornwallis  and  Horton  houses  that  older  people,  bom  in  the  county, 
remember  well.  As  a  rule,  the  houses  of  the  Cornwallis  and  Horton 
planters  were  placed  a  very  short  distance  off  the  main  roads,  with 
small  flower  gardens  in  front  and  vegetable  gardens  at  the  side. 
The  most  important  interior  feature  of  the  house  was  the  cavernous 
fire-place.  In  these  huge  fire-places,  on  winter  nights,  the  flames 
from  great  logs  "bellied  and  tugged"  in  a  majestic  way.  Wood 
was  abundant,  though  it  often  had  to  be  hauled  a  long  distance, 
and  the  absence  in  the  fall  of  a  generous  wood-pile  was  usually 
a  distinct  indication  of  unthrift,  as  well  as  a  mournful  prophecy 
of  discomfort  to  the  household  the  long  winter  through.  In  1744 
Benjamin  Franklin  invented  a  cast-iron  open  heater,  the  Franklin 
stove,  but  the  cast-iron  box  stove  was  not  invented  till  1752.  In 
1782,  and  very  likely  earlier,  Franklin  stoves  were  advertised  for 
sale  in  Halifax,  and  it  is  very  likely  that  some  few  of  these  almost 
as  soon  as  they  reached  Halifax  found  their  way  into  King's  County 

As  late  as  from  1885- '90  some  few  of  the  old  first  planters' 
houses  of  the  county  were  still  standing.  One  of  these  was  a 
gambrel-roofed  house  at  Grand  Pre,  in  1885  occupied  by  Mr.  H.  C. 
Vaughn;  another  a  house  built  by  Jonathan  Hamilton,  at  the  date 
mentioned  occupied  by  Col.  Tuzo,  and  believed  to  be  the  oldest 
house  then  standing  in  the  eastern  end  of  the  county. 

In  Connecticut,  in  the  middle  of  the  18th  century,  the  great 
mass  of  furniture,  even  in  rich  men's  houses,  was  entirely  of 
native  manufacture,  and  was  made  of  cedar,  white  wood,  cherry, 
and  black  walnut.  Among  these  woods,  cherry,  especially,  had 
favour  for  the  construction  of  chests,  tables,  chairs,  and  cases  of 
drawers.  The  furniture  the  Bang's  County  planters  brought  with 
them  from  Connecticut  must  have  been  chiefly  of  these  common 
woods.  They  had  two,  three,  four  or  five  slat,  black-painted  rush- 
bottom  chairs,  oval  tables,  tables  with  drop  leaves,  high-post  bed- 
steads, chests  of  drawers,  brass  dog's  head  andirons,  bellows,  iron' 


shovels  and  tongs,  often  with  brass  tops;  warming  pans,  foot- 
stoves,  brass  kettles,  wool  and  flax  spinning  wheels,  and  possibly 
a  few  of  not  the  most  expensive  grades  of  tall  clocks.  In  Miss 
Esther  Singleton's  "The  Furniture  of  our  Forefathers",  the 
author  says:  "It  is  customary  to  think  of  old  and  'Colonial'  fur- 
niture as  consisting  entirely  of  mahogany.  This  idea  is  erroneous. 
Mahogany  furniture  was  virtually  non-existent  in  the  South  before 
1720.  People  in  Moderate  circumstances  occasionally  possessed  a 
mahogany  table,  but  their  furniture  was  almost  entirely  of  oak, 
pine,  bay,  cypress,  cedar,  and  walnut".  In  New  England 
mahogany  did  not  much  make  its  appearance  before  1730,  "when 
an  occasional  dressing  box  begins  to  appear  in  the  inventories ' '.  How 
many  pieces  of  mahogany  furniture  were  brought  into  King's 
County  from  Connecticut,  or  were  later  imported  from  England, 
or  purchased  in  Halifax,  we  cannot,  of  course,  tell,  but  it  is  doubt- 
ful if  before  1830  or  '40  there  was  very  much.  In  Halifax  and 
"Windsor,  however,  where  there  was  a  good  deal  more  wealth  than 
in  the  villages  of  King's,  it  is  likely  that  as  soon  as  mahogany 
became  at  all  common  in  Boston  it  pretty  freely  appeared. 

Of  the  furniture  of  Halifax  houses  towards  the  end  of  the 
18th  century  and  the  beginning  of  the  19th,  Dr.  George  W.  Hill 
says:  "The  furniture  in  the  dwellings  of  those  who  possessed 
means  was  of  a  far  more  substantial  character  than  that  now  used 
by  persons  of  the  same  class,  and  was  considerably  more  expensive. 
The  householder,  however,  was  content  with  a  far  less  quantity 
than  is  deemed  necessary  at  the  present  day.  It  was  usually  made 
of  mahogany  wood,  of  a  rich,  dark  colour.  The  dining-room  table 
was  plain  but  massive,  supported  by  heavy  legs,  often  ornamented 
at  the  feet  with  the  carved  resemblance  of  a  lion's  claw.  The  side- 
board was  high,  but  rather  narrow  and  inelegant;  the  secretary  or 
covered  vn-iting  desk  was  bound  with  numberless  brass  plates  at 
the  edges,  corners,  and  sides.  The  cellaret,  standing  in  the  corner, 
which  held  the  wines  and  liquors  brought  up  from  the  cellar  for 
the  day's  consumption,  was  also  bound  elaborately  with  plates  of 
burnished    brass.      The    chairs,    cumbrous,    straight-backed,    with 


titei?  cfli^^ipn?  covered  with  blacks  hor^e-haircloth,  were  as  uncom- 
fpFt^tjle  as  they  were  hefivy.  The  sof^,  when  found,  was  unadorned 
but  roomy.  The  great  arm-chair  deserved  its  title,  for  it  was  wide 
enough  and  deep  enough  to  contain  not  only  the  master  of  the 
hpl:^sehold,  but,  if  he  pjea,§ed,  sevepal  of  his  children  besides.  These 
article^  for  tbe  most  part  cowppised  the  furniture  of  the  upper 

"That  contaijied  in  the  bedroom  was  built  of  the  same  wood, 
ap4  of  a  corresponding  style.  The  bedsteads  were  those  still  knQwn 
as  four-poste4,  invariably  curtained,  and  with  a  canqpy  overhead, 
Upt  pnly  shutting  put  air,  but  involving  serious  expense  and  labour 
to  the  matron,  as  ^t  the  approach  of  winter  and  summer  the  curtains 
were  g,lw^ys  changed-  The  chests  of  drapers  ai^d  the  ladies'  ward- 
rpbep  were  covered  with  the  ubiquitpus  brazen  plates,  and  being 
kept  bright,  g^ve  the  poom  ftn  a,\T  of  comfort  and  cleanliness.  In 
filmost  every  hall  stood  a  clock,  encased  by  a  frame  of  grefit  size ; 
^  Qnston;  introduced  by  the  Germans,  from  whose  native  la,nd  they 
^eem  to  have  been  imported  in  great  nijmbers.  The  mistress  of  such 
an  establishment  ha4  no  sinecure  in  keeping  such  furniture  in 
or4er;  and  it  was  not  an  unfpunde4  cpmpla,int  which  they  pre- 
ferred, that  tbe  time  of  ope  servant  was  wholly  engrossed  with  the 
daily  routine  of  burnishing  the  metal  on  the  furniture  and  doors, 
^nd  polishing  the  wood.  For  common  use  rough  tables  were  made 
by  the  piechanics  of  the  town ;  and  chairs  with  rush-bottomed  seats 
were  mj^nflfactijred  in  an  old  establishment  in  HoUis  Street,  con- 
ducted by  one  of  the  early  settlers.  It  was  necessary,  however,  to 
speat  some  months  before  the  chairs  were  actually  needed,  and  if 
the  good  man  happened  to  be  out  of  rushes,  the  intending  purchaser 
was  obliged  to  wait  until  the  rushes  grew,  were  cut  down,  and 

The  dress  of  the  period  in  New  England  between  the  strict 
Purit9.n  times  and  the  Eevolution,  "cannot  be  eulogized,"  says 
Miss  Caulkins  in  her  History  of  Norwich,  "for  its  simplicity  or 
economy.  The  wardrobe  of  the  higher  circles  was  rich  and  extrava- 
gant, and  among  the  females  of  all  classes  there  was  a  passion  for 


gathering  and  hoarding  articles  of  attire  beyond  what  was  necessary 
for  present  use,  or  even  for  yeal's  ahead.  It  was  an  object  of 
ambition  to  have  a  chest  full  of  linen,  a  pillow-hier  of  stoekihgs,  aiid 
other  articles  in  proportion,  laid  by".  For  example,  a  certain 
widow  Elizabeth  White  of  Norwich,  daughter  of  Samuel  BliSs,  and 
formerly  Wife  of  Daniel  White  of  Middletown,  tfrhen  she  died  (in 
1757)  had  among  her  effects,  gowns  of  brown  duroy,  striped  stuff, 
plaid  stuff,  black  silk  crape,  calico,  and  blue  camlet ;  a  scarlet  Cloak, 
blue  cloak,  satin-flowered  mantle,  and  furbelow  scarf;  a  woolen 
petticoat  with  calico  border,  a  camlet  ridihg-hood,  a  long  silk  velf  et 
hood,  white  hoods  trimmed  with  lace,  a  silk  boimet,  nineteeil  caps; 
cambric,  laced  silk  and  linen  handkerchief fe,  sixteen  in  all;  mutelin 
laced,  flowered  laced,  and  gfeen  taffety  aptoiis,  fourteen  in  all;  a 
silver  ribband,  a  silver  girdle  and  a  blue  girdle;  four  pieces 
of  flowered  satin;  a  parcel  of  crewel,  a  woman's  fan,  a  gold 
necklace,  a  death's  head  gold  ring,  a  plain  gold  ring,  a  set 
of  gold  sleeve  buttons,  a  gold  locket,  a  silver  haii*  peg,  silver 
cloak  clasps,  a  stone  button,  set  in  silver;  a  large  silver 
tankard,  a  silver  cup  with  two  handles,  a  silver  cup  with 
oue  handle,  a  large  silvet  spoon;  and  besides  all  these 
treasures,  some  turkey-worked  chairs.  The  more  interesting  to  us 
is  this  remarkable  inventory  from  the  fact  that  Madam  Elizabeth 
White,  both  by  birth  and  by  marriage  was  related  tci  persons  iii 
King's  Coimty  tracing  their  descent  from  the  Connecticilt  Blisses 
and  Whites. 

In  her  "Historic  Dress  in  America",  Elizabeth  MeClellah  says: 
"We  find  that  in  1745  the  hoop  had  increased  at  the  sides  ahd 
diminished  in  front,  and  a  pamphlet  was  published  in  that  year 
entitled  'The  Enormous  Abomination  of  the  Hoop  Pettidoat,  as  the 
fashion  now  is'.  The  hoop  of  this  period  was  a  great  bell-Shaped 
petticoat  or  skirt  of  the  dress  stiffened  by  whalebone.  The  ihaterial 
Was  placed  directly  upon  it,  so  that,  being  a  part  of  the  gown  itself, 
it  was  customary  to  speak  of '  a  damask  hoop ',  or  '  a  Brocade  hoop '  ' '. 
In  the  summer  of  1745,  "Gypsy"  straw  hats  appeared,  with  a 
ribbon  tying  them  imder  the  chin.    At  this  time,  ladies*  hair  was 


dressed  rather  close  to  the  head,  French  curls  (which  looked  "like 
eggs  strung  in  order  on  a  wire  tied  around  the  head"),  and  a  little 
later  Italian  curls,  "which  had  the  effect  of  scollop  shells  and  were 
arranged  back  from  the  face  in  several  shapes",  or  the  tete  de 
mouton,  or  tete  moutonee,  in  which  the  hair  was  curled  close  all  over 
the  back  of  the  head",  being  fashionable.  By  1760  no  doubt  these 
fashions  had  considerably  changed,  but  some  of  them  in  more  or 
less  modified  form  the  wives  and  daughters  of  the  King's  County 
planters  probably  brought  with  them  from  Connecticut.  At  the 
time  of  the  migration  the  calash,  as  a  head  covering  for  women  does 
not  seem  to  have  come  into  fashion.  Women  of  mature  years  all 
wore  close-fiitting  linen  caps,  and  whatever  their  bonnets  may  have 
been  for  formal  occasions,  it  is  likely  that  our  grandmothers  for 
simple  goings  abroad  commonly  wore  home-made  silk  or  woolen 

By  1779,  in  Connecticut,  "cushions  stuffed  with  wool  and 
covered  with  silk"  were  used  to  comb  the  hair  over,  this  mode  of 
hair-dressing  making  the  calash  necessary  instead  of  the  bonnet. 
The  calash  "was  large  and  wide,  a  vast  receptacle  for  wind,  and  an 
awkward  article  of  attire,  but  often  shrouding  a  health-brimming 
face  in  its  depth,  needing  no  other  ornament  than  its  own  good 
humoured  smile".  The  word  honnet,  says  Mrs.  Alice  Morse  Barle, 
does  not  appear  in  America  till  1725.  By  the  middle  of  the  cen- 
tury, however.  Quilted  bonnets,  Kitty  Fisher  bonnets,  Quebeck 
bonnets,  Oarrick  bonnets,  Banelagh  bonnets,  French  bonnets. 
Queen's  bonnets.  Cottage  bonnets,  Russian  bonnets.  Drawn  bonnets. 
Shirred  bonnets,  were  all  advertised  by  New  York  and  Boston 
milliners.  To  Halifax,  and  so  to  the  smaller  towns  of  Nova  Scotia, 
it  is  likely  that  most  of  the  styles  of  head  covering  popular  in 
Boston  and  other  leading  places  of  New  England  little  by  little 
found  their  way.  As  Halifax  was  the  headquarters  of  fashion  in 
Nova  Scotia,  it  is  probable  that  very  early  some  King's  County 
women  bought  their  best  millinery  there. 

In  1761,  and  long  after,  both  for  men  and  women,  cloaks  of 
some  kind  were  popular  in  the  county.     The  cloak  is  always  a 


comfortable  article  of  dress,  for  it  wraps  the  form  well,  and  is  easy 
to  be  thrown  on  or  off.  In  New  England,  scarlet  cloaks  for  women 
were  worn  for  several  successive  generations,  and  it  is  impossible 
that  the  first  planters'  wives  should  not  have  brought  some  of 
these  with  them  to  the  province  when  they  came.  The  capucin  or 
hooded  cloak,  the  cardinal,  the  pellerine,  all  these  may  have  found 
their  way  from  Connecticut  here.  Whether  muffs  were  used  in 
the  county  as  early  as  1761  we  do  not  know,  but  they  must  have 
become  common  soon  after,  for  Mrs.  Earle  says  that  "from  1790 
tiU  1820  great  muffs  never  went  out  of  fashion  for  women",  or  to 
a  certain  extent  for  men.  It  is  likely  that  because  of  the  cold 
climate  of  Nova  Scotia,  furs  were  early  universally  worn  in  King's 
County,  and  that  soon  after  the  planters  came  they  began  to 
slaughter  the  little  fur-bearing  animals  to  secure  these  articles  of 

In  1820,  according  to  Mrs.  Earle,  a  description  of  the  dress 
worn  by  the  generality  of  New  England  men  in  the  years  previous 
to  the  Revolution  was  given  in  the  Old  Colony  Memorial.  The 
description  says:  "In  general  men,  old  and  young,  who  had  got 
their  growth,  had  a  decent  coat,  vest,  and  small  clothes,  and  some 
kind  of  a  fur  hat.  These  were  for  holiday  use  and  would  last  half 
a  lifetime.  Old  men  had  a  great  coat  and  a  pair  of  boots.  The 
boots  generally  lasted  for  life.  For  common  use  they  had  a  long 
jacket,  or  what  was  called  a  fly  coat,  reaching  doAvn  about  half 
way  to  the  knee.  They  had  a  striped  jacket  to  wear  under  a  pair  of 
small  clothes  like  the  coat.  These  were  made  of  flannel  cloth.  They 
had  flannel  shirts  and  stockings  and  thick  leather  shoes.  A 
silk  handkerchief  for  holidays  would  last  ten  years.  In  summer 
they  had  a  pair  of  vnde  trousers  reaching  half  way  from  the  knee 
to  the  ankle.  As  for  boys,  as  soon  as  they  were  taken  out  of  petti- 
coats they  were  put  into  small  clothes,  summer  and  winter.  This 
lasted  till  they  put  on  long  trousers,  which  they  called  'tongs'. 
They  were  but  little  different  from  the  pantaloons  of  today.  These 
were  made  of  linen  or  cotton,  and  soon  were  used  by  old  men  and 
young,  through  the  warm  season.    Later,  they  were  made  of  flannel 


cloth,  and  were  in  general  use  for  the  winter.  Young  men  never 
thought  of  great-coats;  and  overcoats  were  then  unknown". 

This  account  no  doubt  accurately  describes  the  ordinary  cloth- 
ing of  many  of  the  New  England  planters  and  their  sons  who  came 
to  the  county  in  1760  and  '61.  It  is  doubtful  if  any  of  them  were 
able  to  indulge  in  the  "exceeding  magnifical"  waistcoats,  "with 
their  embroidered  pocket-flaps  and  buttonholes,  and  their  beautiful 
paste  buttons;  these  latter  rich  in  coloured  enamels  and  jewels,  in 
odd  natural  stones  of  lovely  tints,  such  as  agates,  carnelians,  blood- 
stones, spaf,  marcasite,  onyx,  chalcedony  lapis  lazuli,  malachite", 
which  Mrs.  Earle  herself  describes  as  worn  by  the  richest  New  Eng- 
land men.  Nor  that  any  of  them,  like  a  certain  Boston  bridegroom, 
wore  rose-pink  waistcoats,  embroidered  in  silver,  with  buttons  of 
darker  pink  shell  in  silver  settings ;  or  silver-gray  velvet  coats,  also 
with  shell  buttons;  or  white  satin  small  clothes,  but  the  dress  of 
the  most  important  of  them  must  have  been  such  as  comfortably 
off  New  England  rural  gentlemen  of  their  time  were  accustomed 
to  wear. 

The  only  attempt,  so  fat  as  we  know,  to  record  the  fashions 
of  dress  in  Nova  Scotia,  at  any  period,  is  that  of  the  late  Rev. 
George  W.  Hill,  D.  C.  L.  long  the  beloved  Rector  of  St.  Paul's 
Church,  Halifax,  who  died  in  England  a  few  years  ago.  Of  men's 
dress  in  Halifax  in  the  latter  part  of  the  18th  century.  Dr.  Hill 
says:  "The  fashion  of  the  times  was  to  wear  the  hair  powdered, 
with  a  queue.  This  was  a  long  and  tedious  process.  As  the  hair 
dressers  were  few  they  were  compelled,  in  otder  to  get  through 
their  task  previous  to  the  hour  appointed  for  a  festivity,  to  begin  it 
early  in  the  morning.  He  was  an  unfortunate  man,  whose  turn 
came  first,  for  he  was  obliged  to  sit  the  whole  day  in  idleness,  or 
move  with  slow  and  measured  step,  lest  he  should  disarrange  the 
handiwork;  sleep  he  dare  not,  for  one  unlucky  nod  would  spoil  it 
all,  and  so  he  was  forced  patiently  to  wait  until  the  time  came,  and, 
then  with  cautious  Wary  step,  proceed  slowly  to  his  host's  On  such 
occasions  the  full  dress  consisted  of  knee-breeches,  silk  stockings, 
shoes  and  silver  buckles,  white  neckerchief  of  amazing  thickness. 


straight-collared  coats,  ornamented  with  large  buttonSj  a  coloured 
waistcoat,  and  hanging  at  the  side  a  sword  or  rapier.  This  last 
addition  to  the  costume,  which  was  more  like  a  long  dagger  than 
a  sword,  was  looked  upon  as  the  distinguishing  badge  of  one  who 
was  entitled  to  be  considered  as  an  esquire  or  gentleman.  And 
this  species  of  court  dress  was  frequently  called  into  use.  The 
custom  of  constantly  calling  together  the  leading  men  for  consul- 
tation on  topics  of  importance  to  the  colony,  resolved  itself,  as  time 
passed,  into  the  holding  of  levees.  In  the  course  of  some  years 
these  official  gatherings  were  held  no  less  than  nine  times,  and  on 
all  these  occasions  the  streets  leading  to  Government  House,  were 
filled  with  the  gentlemen  of  the  powdered  hair,  the  silk  stockings, 
the  silver-hilted  sword". 

How  many  of  the  King's  County  gentlemen  of  the  18th  and 
early  19th  centuries  on  state  occasions  wore  frilled  shirts,  knee- 
breeches,  wigs  or  powdered  hair,  cocked  hats,  and  swords,  it  is 
impossible  to  say,  but  some  of  them,  like  Col.  "William  Charles 
Moore,  and  most  probably  Col.  Burbidge,  Benjamin  Belcher,  Hand- 
ley  Chipman,  John  Wells,  the  DeWolfs,  and  others,  did.  "By 
1809",  says  Mrs.  Earle,  "we  find  a  stiff  standing  collar  (called  a 
dicky  in  New  England)  on  the  necks  of  all  men,  worn  with  or 
without  the  full  pudding  cravat.  The  shirt-frill  still  continued  to 
be  worn.  I  have  portraits  wherein  a  full,  finely-pleated  shirt-frill, 
a  jabot  shaped  chitterlings  a  pudding  cravat,  and  a  dicky  can  be 
be  seen  on  one  unfortunate  wearer.  When  the  waistcoat  stood  up 
fiercely  outside  this  wear,  and  an  ear-high  coat  collar  was  a  wall  over 
all,  no  wohder  men  complained  that  they  could  not  turn  their  heads 
or  move  their  necks  a  half  degree.  It  seems  to  me  a  period  of  excep- 
tional discomfort  for  men".  Until  near  the  middle  of  the  19th  cen- 
tury, in  King's  County,  and  with  old  men  long  after  that,  the  dicky 
and  large  black  stock  were  commonly  worn.  For  Sundays  and  state 
occasions,  good  black  broadcloth,  both  for  trousers  and  long  frock 
coats,  was  almost  invariably  used,  but  on  week  days  men,  old  and 
young,  appeared  in  grey  homespun,  w^oveu  either  at  home  or  on 
some  community  loom.    How  early  silk  hats,  "beavers"  as  they 


were  called,  came  into  use,  we  do  not  know,  but  certainly; 
soon  after  the  19th  century  began  they  were  considered  necessary, 
at  least  in  summer,  for  Sunday  and  holiday  wear. 

The  tables  of  King's  County  people  have  always  been  bounti- 
fully supplied.  As  a  rule,  says  Dr.  Hill,  writing  of  Halifax  in  the 
18th  century,  food  was  plentiful  and  good,  and  this  has  always 
been  true  of  King's  County  as  well.  Dr.  HiU's  account  of  the 
supply  for  Halifax  tables  ia  the  18th  century,  is  interesting.  He 
says:  "Corned-beef,  pork,  and  salted  codfish,  far  more  frequently 
formed  the  dishes  of  all  classes  than  fresh  meat.  For  delicacies 
and  variety,  anxious  housekeepers  were  driven  to  ingenious  devices 
in  cooking.  The  same  species  of  meat  was  dressed  in  many  ways. 
Poultry  early  came  into  fashion,  and  for  game  a  porcupine  was  con- 
sidered the  right  thing.  For  vegetables  each  man  was  dependent 
either  on  the  produce  of  his  own  garden,  or  if  he  lived  in  the  middle 
of  the  town,  where  gardens  could  not  be,  he  might  purchase  from 
the  public  gardener.  When  after  a  few  years  these  public  gardens 
were  abandoned,  the  want  of  vegetables  was  very  seriously  felt, 
and  it  was  then  viewed  not  only  as  an  enterprise  on  the  part  of  the 
proprietor,  but  as  highly  conducive  to  the  public  welfare,  when  on 
Saturdays  he  sent  one  wheelbarrow  filled  with  greens  and 
vegetables  from  a  well-kept  garden  near  Freshwater  Bridge.  All 
the  ungardened  gentlemen  kept  watch  for  the  passage  of  this  valu- 
ably laden  train,  and  followed  it  down  to  the  market  that  they 
might  get  their  share.  The  butchers'  meat  was  carried  round  to 
the  customer  in  the  ordinary  tray  by  boys,  or  on  small  carts  drawn 
by  dogs:  as  was  also  the  bread  baked  at  the  two  chief  bakeries". 
As  to  drink,  "wines  and  strong  liquors"  were  always  plentiful 
and  "a  craving  for  stimulants  early  became  the  crying  evil  of  the 

In  King's  County,  fruits  and  vegetables  of  the  finest  kinds 
have  always  been  plentifully  raised,  in  the  Basin  and  the  rivers 
the  best  fish  has  abounded,  beef,  mutton,  and  poultry  have  been  of 
excellent  quality,  and  bread  and  pastry  have  usually  been  baked 
at  home.     Consequently,   the  limitations  felt  by  Halifax  house- 


keepers  can  hardly  be  said  to  have  been  felt  here.  In  all  the  early- 
years  of  the  New  England  occupation  of  the  county,  and  indeed 
until  comparatively  recent  times,  a  good  deal  of  rum  and  cider  were 
drunk,  and  from  the  records  of  the  Court  of  Sessions  we  learn  that 
the  results  were  often  of  a  most  disastrous  kind.  Yet  it  can  hardly 
be  said  that  drunkenness  has  ever  been  a  conspicuous  King's 
County  vice.  Of  "Windsor  township,  shortly  after  Hants  County 
was  set  off  from  King's,  Dr.  Henry  Youle  Hind,  in  his  "Old  Parish 
Burying  Ground",  says:  "In  the  four  years  included  between 
1788  and  1792,  great  efforts  at  reform  were  made  in  Windsor  town- 
ship", as  indeed  in  Hants  County  at  large.  "The  old  Parish 
Church  was  built,  the  Academy  was  opened,  the  College  was 
founded  and  inaugurated,  a  Temperance  Society  was  organized,  a 
Beading  Society  was  established,  men  were  fined  for  being  intoxi- 
cated in  the  streets,  citizens  were  arrested  and  fined  for  uttering 
one  profane  oath,  public  whipping  for  misdemeanors  was  prac- 
tised, the  pillory  was  in  full  operation,  sinners  were  mulcted  for 
not  going  to  church,  constables  were  appointed  to  inspect  public 
houses  on  the  Sabbath  Day,  women  of  light  character  were  hustled 
out  of  the  village  by  officers  of  the  law,  and  petitions  from  the 
Bench  and  the  Grand  Jury  were  in  order  to  stop  trade  with  the 
United  States.  Yet,  in  the  midst  of  all  these  efforts  at  goodness, 
rum  strove  hard,  and  often  succeeded  in  holding  the  reins  of 
power".  At  this  period,  as  later.  King's  County  undoubtedly  had 
its  share  of  moral  defects,  yet  gross  immorality  can  nowhere  be 
said  to  have  been,  in  any  remotest  corner  of  it,  a  glaring  thing. 

In  pursuance  of  the  mention  by  Dr.  Hind  of  fines  being  exacted 
for  failure  to  attend  church,  it  may  be  noticed  that  among  the 
early  statutes  made  in  the  province  is  one  which  prescribes  that 
"a  person  absenting  himself  from  public  worship  for  the  space  of 
three  months,  without  proper  cause,  if  the  head  of  a  family,  shall 
pay  a  fine  of  five  shillings,  every  child  over  twelve  years  of  age, 
and  every  servant,  five  shillings".  It  was  also  enacted  that  in 
Halifax  "the  church  wardens  and  constables  should  once  in  the 
forenoon  and  once  in  the  afternoon,  in  the  time  of  divine  service, 


■walk  through  the  town  to  observe  and  Suppress  all  disorders  and 
apprehend  all  offenders".  In  Windsor,  on  the  24th  of  April,  1789> 
the  Court  of  Sessions  of  Hants  County  directed  that  as  George 
Henry  Monk  and  Nathaniel  Ray  Thomas,  Esqrs.,  Massachusetts 
Loyalists,  "had  neglected  to  attend  divine  service  for  the  space  of 
three  mouths,  to  the  evil  exahiple  of  society,  these  two  getitlemen 
should  be  fined  ten  shillings  each".  The  Sessions  record  reads 
that  Mr.  Thomas  paid  his  fine,  but  that  Mr.  Monk  on  technical 
grounds  was  relieved  from  doing  so. 

In  Windsor,  from  the  eal-liest  period,  the  Church  of  England 
■was  pre-eminent  among  religious  bodies,  but  in  Cotnwallis  and  Hor- 
ton  Puritan  Independency  bore  less  interrupted  sway.  With  the 
Nova  Scotia  Congregationalists  outward  conformity  to  the  require- 
ments of  Religion  was  not  so  much  a  matter  of  course  as  ■with 
Anglican  Churchmen,  and  moreover,  in  their  eafliest  years  in  the 
Cbunty  the  Congregationalist  planters  had  only  desultory  feligiolis 
services  of  their  o^wn  denomination,  when  they  had  any  at  all. 
Consequently,  We  do  not  hear  in  King's  County  of  presentments  by 
the  Grand  Jury  ot  Court  of  Sessions  foi*  failure  to  attend  chiiteh. 
That  the  keeping  of  Sunday  free  from  labour,  however,  was  an  abso- 
lute rule,  trill  be  understood  from  the  fact  that  in  1761  the  provin- 
cial legislature  enacted  that  no  person  ot  persons  should  "do  ot 
exercise  any  labour,  Work,  or  business,  or  his  of  their  ordinary 
callings,  or  other  worldly  labour,  or  suffer  the  same  to  be  dohe,  by 
his  or  their  servant  or  servants,  child  or  children,  either  by  land  or 
by  water  (works  of  necessity  and  charity  alone  excepted),  or  use 
or  suffer  to  be  used,  any  sport,  game,  play  or  pastime,  on  the  Lord's 
Day,  or  any  part  thereof",  under  penalty  of  ten  shillings  for  each 

With  few  books  and  almost  no  newspapers,  how  the  long 
Sundays  were  spent  in  the  various  scattered  communities  of  King's 
County  in  these  times  one  often  wonders.  In  later  days  churches 
■were  multiplied  and  it  became  almost  as  much  the  rule  to  attend 
service,  even  when  the  preachers'  doctrines  were  not  fully  agreed 
■with,  as  it  was  in  communities  where  Anglicanism  strongly  prevailed. 


On  week  days  and  evenings,  however,  the  natural  instinct  for 
diversion  was  permitted  to  assert  itself,  and  social  gatherings  on 
winter  nights,  and  picnics  in  summer,  besides  what  may  be  called 
"industrial  frolics",  were  very  common.  In  Anglican  and  Pres- 
byterian circles,  dancing  and  cards  were  more  or  less  freely  allowed, 
but  before  the  middle  of  the  19th  century,  and  indeed  a  good  deal 
later,  among  Baptists  and  Methodists  indulgence  in  simple  amuse- 
ments of  this  nature  was  regarded  as  sinful  in  the  extreme.  In 
Henry  AUine's  New  Light  church  in  Cornwallis,  August  21,  1792, 
"Sister  Susanijah  Eaton,  made  a  public  acknowledgement  of  her 
levity,  dancing,  etc.,  and  still  desired  to  walk  with  the  church, 
except  in  the  Sacrament".  About  the  same  time  "Sister  Julia  Ann 
Sivgard"  was  suspended  from  the  church  "on  account  of  levity, 
siuging  songs,  etc.,  and  had  no  desire  to  lay  the  least  restraint  upon 
herself"— poor  light-minded,  song-singing  Sister  Julia  Ann!  As 
people's  ideas  grew  broader,  what  was  known  as  the  best  society 
of  the  county  indulged  freely  in  dancing  and  cards,  and  at  least 
after  the  middle  of  the  19th  century,  many  gay  and  rather  elegant 
entertainments  were  given  every  winter,  especially  in  and  near 
the  more  important  villages  and  towns. 

To  the  New  Light  revival  in  Cornwallis  and  Horton  must 
la,rgely  have  been  due  the  strong  objection  to  dancing  which  so 
late  continued  to  prevail  in  the  township,  for  at  the  time  our 
ancestors  left  Connecticut,  "neighborly  dancing"  was  one  of  the 
commonest  amusements  in  that  colony.  On  the  12th  of  June,  1769, 
a  great  wedding  dance  took  place  at  New  London,  at  the  house  of 
Squire  Nathaniel  Shaw.  His  son,  Daniel  Shaw,  had  just  married 
Grace  Coit,  and  ninety-two  gentlemen  and  ladies  came  to  the  dance. 
It  is  recorded  that  this  merry  assemblage  danced  "ninety-two  jigs, 
fifty-two  contra  dances,  forty-five  minuets  and  seventeen  horn- 
pipes", and  that  they  retired  at  forty-five  minutes  past  midnight. 
The  music  for  these  Connecticut  dances  was  often  furnished  by  a 
skilled  fiddler;  though  quite  as  often,  we  learn,  part  of  the  com- 
pany sang  for  the  others  to  dance.  The  suppers  that  followed  the 
dancing  were  of  cake,  nuts,  apples,  and  cider.    In  winter,  sleighing 


parties  were  common,  and  on  Election,  Training,  and  Thanksgiving 
days,  shooting  at  targets,  horse-racing,  wrestling,  running,  and 
jumping,  were  popidar  amusements.  In  King's  County,  also,  these 
athletic  sports  must  sometimes  have  been  indulged  in,  and  from  the 
love  of  good  horses  that  has  always  prevailed,  one  can  hardly  believe 
that  horse  racing  did  not  at  an  extremely  early  date  have  a  recog- 
nized, if  somewhat  qualified, place  among  the  county's  diversions. 
Tradition  has  it,  says  Dr.  Hind,  that  during  his  administration  as 
governor  of  the  province  (1766-1773)  Lord  William  Campbell  had 
a  race-course  round  Fort  Edward  hill  at  "Windsor,  and  this  may 
easily  have  been  the  formal  beginning  of  horse  racing  in  the  County 
of  King's.  In  1773,  the  Nova  Scotia  Gazette  advertises  that  at  a 
fair  to  be  held  at  Windsor  races  are  to  be  held,  the  competition  in 
which  is  to  be  limited  to  native  bred  horses.  The  prizes  to  be  run 
for  are  to  be  one  "plate"  of  twenty  pounds,  and  one  of  ten  pounds. 
"This  day",  says  Henry  AUine,  in  his  journal,  writing  on  the  28th 
of  February,  1781,  "I  went  from  Cornwallis  to  Horton,  and  O, 
how  was  I  grieved  to  see  a  vast  crowd  of  people  at  horse-racing! 
O,  if  they  knew  the  worth  of  those  precious  hours  they  are 
wasting,  and  the  danger  their  poor  souls  are  in,  they  would  not 
risk  their  souls  on  such  a  pinnacle  of  danger"! 

In  Halifax,  theatrical  performances  were  popular  at  an  early 
date.  In  April,  1773,  two  comedies,  "The  Suspicious  Husband", 
and  "The  Citizen",  were  given  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor,  the 
price  of  admission  to  this  double  performance  being  two-and-six- 
pence.  About  1818  two  rival  theatrical  companies  were  perform- 
ing in  Halifax,  only  one  public  theatre,  however,  a  theatre  situated 
on  Fairbanks'  Wharf,  being  in  existence  in  the  town.  A  few  of  the 
King's  County  people,  no  doubt,  from  time  to  time  saw  these 
Halifax  performances,  but  travelling  was  expensive  and  difficult, 
and  the  great  majority  of  them  could  hardly  ever,  if  ever,  have 
visited  the  city. 

In  Nova  Scotia  at  large,  until  daguerreotyping  became  known 
there  were  very  few  portraits  of  any  kind  made.  Consequently,  of 
the  earliest  Eling's  County  settlers  we  have  no  likenesses.     With 


the  advent  of  the  Loyalists  from  the  richer  American  colonies  a  few 
oil  portraits  came  into  the  province,  but  in  King's  County,  to  the 
middle  of  the  19th  century,  at  least,  there  must  have  been  almost 
none.  In  1839  the  French  Daguerre  perfected  the  wonderful  art  ever 
since  known  by  his  name,  and  by  the  middle  of  the  century,  or  a 
little  later,  beautiful  daguerreotype  portraits  were  freely  made  in  the 
county.  As  the  art  of  photography  developed,  the  taking  of  small 
card  photographs  and  tin-types  became  common,  and  thus  by 
degrees  photographic  portraiture  in  the  county  became  a  finished 

In  common  with  all  civilized  peoples,  the  King's  County 
planters  loved  and  cultivated  ornamental  shade  trees  and  flowers. 
The  native  flora  of  Nova  Scotia  is  similar  to  that  of  eastern  New 
England,  but  the  Connecticut  people  brought  with  them  from  their 
old  homes  not  only  the  imported  Lombardy  Poplars,  but  most  of 
the  beautiful  vines  and  garden  flowers  they  had  cultivated  with 
affection  on  the  places  they  had  left.  On  the  trellised  porches  and 
in  the  gardens  of  King's  County  will  still  be  found  blooming  lineal 
successors  of  the  fragrant  cream-and-pink  petalled  honeysuckles, 
and  the  luscious  white  roses,  and  other  familiar  flowers,  that  are  the 
delight  of  summer  visitors  to  Norwich  and  Lebanon,  in  the  State 
of  Connecticut,  to-day. 

In  the  early  King's  County  gardens  grew  freely,  old-fashioned 
sweet-wiUiams,  shy  lilies  of  the  vaUeys,  rich  carnation  pinks,  hardy, 
gay  coloured  stocks,  dainty  sweet-peas,  pungent  scented  southern- 
wood, blue  bachelors'  buttons,  deep-belled  foxgloves,  asters,  mari- 
golds, nasturtiums,  and  fragrant  mignonette.  In  the  yards  were 
clumps  of  red  cabbage,  or  pink  blush,  roses,  drooping  bushes  of 
white  waxberries,  and  heavily  laden  purple  lilac  bushes ;  and  some- 
times, interspersed,  the  dominating  simflower,  with  his  huge,  golden, 
heavy-fringed  head.  Above  them  all  the  acacia  often  hung  his 
fair  clustering  blooms,  and  along  the  roadsides,  a  little  further  away, 
would  be  spicy-smelling  Balm-of-Gilead  trees,  and  the  drooping 
boughs,  laden  with  glistening  scarlet  berries,  of  the  sturdy  mountain 


In  the  King's  County  township  books,  the  parish  register  of  St. 
John's  Church,  Cornwallis,  and  the  record  of  licenses,  in  Halifax, 
most,  if  not  all  of  the  early  marriages  solemnized  in  the  county  after 
1760  will  be  found  recorded.  In  Nova  Scotia,  from  1758,  when  the 
first  Assembly  met,  until  1832,  in  spite  of  the  legal  religious  equality 
that  was  promised  to  all  settlers  in  the  province  except  Roman 
Catholics,  licenses  to  marry  without  the  publication  of  banns  were 
strictly  withheld  from  dissenters  from  the  Church  of  England.  In 
the  first  Assembly  an  act  was  passed  imposing  a  fine  of  fifty  pounds 
on  any  one  who  should  celebrate  a  marriage  without  publication  of 
banns,  except  under  a  license  from  the  governor.  From  the  gov- 
ernor, through  the  Provincial  Secretary,  it  was  always  easy  on 
payment  of  twenty  shillings  currency  to  obtain  a  license,  but 
licenses  were  invariably  addressed  to  some  minister  of  the  Anglican 
Church,  never  to  one  of  another  denomination.  Very  early,  how- 
ever, it  became  common  for  the  clergymen  who  had  received  these 
licenses,  for  a  consideration  to  transfer  them  to  ministers  of  other 
religious  bodies.  The  license  invariably  specified  that  the  marriage 
was  to  be  performed  according  to  the  rites  of  the  Church  of 
England,  but  even  this  restriction,  it  is  said,  was  not  by  any  means 
always  observed. 

By  1818  the  double  restriction  concerning  the  performance  of 
marriages  became  so  intolerable  to  the  people  discriminated  against 
that  strong  petitions  were  presented  in  the  legislature  for  entire 
equality  in  the  laws.  The  complainants  properly  described  the 
discrimination  against  them  as  an  infringement  of  the  liberty  in 
religion  that  had  been  so  frankly  promised  them  when  they  came 
to  the  province.    In  the  protracted  discussion  of  the  subject  which 


now  arose  in  the  Assembly,  Col.  Jonathan  Crane  of  Horton,  among 
others,  took  a  leading  part,  "he  showed  that  the  license  system  had 
existed  for  sixty  years  and  more,  and  that  it  was  peculiar  to  the 
Church  of  England.  He  concurred  in  the  opinion  that  it  was  a 
grievance  that  dissenters  were  obliged  to  apply  for  a  license  to  the 
head  of  a  church  to  which  they  did  not  belong".  Changes  in  the 
laws,  however,  are  usually  slowly  made,  and  it  was  not  until  1832 
that  the  oppressive  restrictions  were  removed.  By  an  act  of  the 
legislature  passed  on  the  14th  of  April  of  that  year  it  became  lawful 
to  issue  marriage  licenses  to  the  duly  ordained  and  settled  ministers 
of  all  denominations,  the  parties  desiring  the  license,  however,  being 
required  to  belong  to  the  same  denomination  as  the  minister  by 
whom  the  ceremony  was  to  be  performed.  The  preamble  to  the  act 
declares,  that  "it  is  expedient  that  the  ministers  of  various  denomi- 
nations of  Christians  within  this  province  should  possess  the  power 
of  solemnizing  marriages  by  license,  without  the  publication  of 
banns,  according  to  the  forms  of  their  respective  churches,  or 
religious  persuasions,  and  it  is  expedient  that  such  power  should 
be  granted".  Under  the  new  system,  as  under  the  old,  a  bond  was 
always  given  by  the  intending  bridegroom,  declaring,  under 
penalty  of  a  hundred  pounds,  that  the  parties  were  not  already 
married,  and  that  they  did  not  come  within  the  table  of  prohibited 

The  first  marriage  recorded  on  the  Town  Book  of  Cornwallis 
is  that  of  Archelaus  Hammond  and  Jerusha,  daughter  of  Simon 
and  Jerusha  Newcomb;  it  was  performed  by  Handley  Chipman, 
Justice  of  the  Peace,  on  the  22nd  of  June,  1762,  "agreeable  to  the 
form  prescribed  in  the  Common  Prayer  Book".  Amongst  other 
couples  Mr.  Chipman  married  also,  July  29,  1763,  James  Condon 
and  Sibel  Bill.  An  early  marriage  in  Cornwallis,  performed  by 
the  Rev.  Joseph  Bennett,  Anglican  missionary,  probably  on  one  of 
his  brief  visits  to  the  town,  was  that  of  Joseph  Chase  and  Hannah 
Ells,  the  date  being  October  21,  1764.  A  somewhat  curious  marriage 
ceremony  which  is  recorded  at  length  in  the  Cornwallis  Town 
Book  was  that  which  united  Stephen  Chase  and  Abigail  Porter.    It 


bears  date  August  2,  1764.  The  post  facto  declaration  made  by  the 
parties  is  as  follows:  "Whereas  Stephen  Chase  of  Cornwallis,  in 
the  county  of  King's  County,  and  in  the  Province  of  Nova  Scotia, 
yeoman,  and  Abigail  Porter,  daughter  of  Samuel  Porter,  late  of 
Cornwallis,  deceased,  and  Remember,  his  wife;  they,  the  said 
Stephen  Chase  and  Abigail  Porter  having  declared  their  intention 
of  marriage  and  nothing  appearing  to  obstruct — Therefore  these 
may  Certify  to  all  whom  it  may  Concern  that  for  their  full  accom- 
plishing of  their  said  Intentions  of  Marriage,  they  the  said  Stephen 
Chase  and  Abigail  Porter  appeared  at  the  House  of  Said  Stephen 
Chase  in  said  Cornwallis,  before  a  number  of  people  met  together 
for  that  purpose,  and  then  and  there  the  said  Stephen  Chase  took 
the  said  Abigail  Porter  by  the  hand  and  declared  that  he  took  her 
to  be  his  Wife  and  promised  to  be  a  True  and  Loving  Husband  until 
Death  should  separate  them,  and  then  and  there  the  said  Abigail 
Porter  took  the  said  Stephen  Chase  to  be  her  husband  and  in  Like 
Manner  to  be  a  true  and  Loving  Wife  unto  him  until  death  should 
separate  them,  and  furthermore  as  a  further  Confirmation  thereof 
she  the  said  Abigail  assumed  the  name  of  her  Husband,  and  we 
whose  names  are  hereunto  written  being  Present  at  said  solemniza- 
tion, have  hereunto  set  our  hands  as  witnesses  thereof  on  the 
second  Day  of  August,  1764, 

Isaac  Bigelow  Moses  Gore,  Jr. 

Samuel  Starr  Stephen  Herenton 

Branch  Blackmore  Abigail  Bigelow 

Ethan  Pratt  Sarah  Blackniore 

Ezra  Cogswell  Ruth  West 

Elisha  Porter  Meriam  Porter 
William  Newcomb 

f  Abigail  Chase 
1  Stephen  Chase  ". 

By  a  like  ceremony  Stephen  Chase  was  married  again  in  Corn- 
wallis, January  28,  1776,  to  Mrs.  Nancy  (White)  Bushell,  of  Hali- 


fax.  The  witnesses  to  this  marriage  were :  "William  Smith,  Samuel 
Bill,  Perry  Burden,  Samuel  BUs,  Stephen  Emmerson,  Mary  Bill. 

In  1793,  an  act  was  passed  making  valid  marriages  that  had 
been  performed  in  any  part  of  the  province  by  "Justices  of  the 
Peace  and  other  laymen".  In  a  letter  to  the  home  authorities  on 
the  subject.  Governor  "Wentworth  explains  that  the  act  had  been 
passed  for  the  benefit  of  people,  chiefly  settlers  from  New  England, 
who  lived  in  places  where  it  was  difficult  if  not  impossible  to  get 
a  clergyman.  In  1795  the  governor  was  empowered  to  appoint 
laymen  to  solemnize  marriages  in  townships  where  there  was  no 
resident  clergyman,  and  the  practice  of  marrying  in  this  way,  saya 
Murdoch  in  1865,  "continued  till  very  recent  times". 

Concerning  the  domestic  life  of  King's  County  people  in  the 
scattered  homes  of  Cornwallis  and  Horton  in  early  times.  Dr.  John 
Burgess  Calkin  has  pleasantly  written :  "In  the  time  of  our  grand- 
fathers and  later,  almost  everything  people  in  the  country  places 
used  was  home-made.  The  farmer  manufactured  his  own  imple- 
ments, his  carts,  sleds,  harrows,  plows,  rakes,  baskets.  If  the 
good-wife  wanted  milk  dishes  her  husband  made  trays  from 
blocks  of  wood  by  scooping  out  the  centre  with  an  adze  and  a 
crooked  knife.  If  she  needed  brooms  he  made  them  from  ash  or 
birch  saplings  taken  from  the  neighboring  forest.  The  ash  broom 
was  the  more  durable,  but  it  required  more  work  in  its  manufac- 
ture. In  making  the  brush  the  wood  had  to  be  pounded  to  separate 
the  different  years'  growth,  "Within  the  house  the  industries  were 
equally  varied.  The  home  was  a  cheese-factory,  a  soap-factory,  a 
candle-factory,  a  cloth-factory.  The  wool  was  taken  from  the 
sheep's  back,  picked,  carded,  spun,  dyed,  woven,  and  made  into 
garments,  all  by  the  mother  and  daughters.  In  like  manner  was 
carried  on  the  manufacture  of  linen,  from  the  raising  of  the  flax, 
through  the  various  processes  of  pulling,  rotting,  breaking, 
swingling,  hackling,  spinning,  weaving,  bleaching,  until  there  came 
out  from  the  long  and  varied  operations  the  snow  white  table 
clothes  and  towels.  All  this  has  passed  away  with  the  changing 
times.    The  little  treadle  wheel,  propelled  by  the  busy  foot,  whUe 


the  dextrous  hand  drew  out  the  thread  from  the  distaff,  this  same 
little  wheel,  that  with  its  incessant  hum  kept  time  with  the  anxious 
thought  of  Miles  Standish,  now  stands  forever  silent,  cleaned, 
stained,  and  polished — a  parlour  ornament.  These  home-made  things 
lacked  that  fineness  of  finish  characteristic  of  the  factory-made  ones 
of  the  present  day,  but  besides  serving  their  purpose  for  the  genera- 
tion that  then  was,  the  making  of  them  gave  an  all  round  develop- 
ment to  boys  and  girls  and  helped  fashion  them  into  the  strenuous 
men  and  women  they  became.  Our  pioneer  ancestors  were  many- 
sided  men  and  women.  They  abounded  in  expedients,  they  were 
never  nonplussed  by  emergencies. 

"In  no  way,  perhaps,  is  a  people's  progress  in  civilization  and 
comfort  more  clearly  indicated  than  in  the  history  of  its  means  of 
illumination,  the  lighting  of  its  homes.  From  the  pine  knot  to  the 
electric  light  is  a  long  stride,  and  one  that  indicates  marvellous 
changes  in  social  life.  The  chief  light  in  early  days  was  the  tallow 
candle.  The  manufacture  of  these  feeble  luminaries  was  generally 
the  work  of  some  day  in  winter,  soon  after  the  slaughter  of  a  cow 
for  family  use.  The  first  part  of  the  process  was  the  preparation  of 
the  wicks  and  the  stringing  of  them  on  rods.  The  candle  rods  were 
sticks  about  twenty  inches  long  and  three  eighths  of  an  inch  in 
diameter.  Over  these  the  cotton  wicking  was  doubled,  each  wick 
being  about  nine  or  ten  inches  in  length.  Six  of  these  were  placed 
on  each  rod,  about  an  inch  and  a  half  apart.  Sixty  or  more  of 
these  rods,  thus  strung  with  wicks,  the  centres  and  beginnings  of 
as  many  candles  as  there  are  days  in  the  year,  were  hung  across 
two  long  poles,  which  rested  on  kitchen  chairs,  one  at  either  end. 
The  tallow  was  melted  in  a  large  pot  or  kettle  of  boiling  water  in 
such  proportions  that  about  one  third  of  the  liquid  in  the  vessel  was 
tallow  and  two  thirds  water.  The  melted  tallow  having  less  specific 
gravity  than  the  water  would  rise  to  the  top.  The  vessel  was 
placed  beside  the  suspended  rods  and  forthwith  the  dipping  began. 
Beginning  at  one  end  the  dipper  lifted  the  rods,  one  after  another 
consecutively,  from  the  poles,  plunged  the  wicks  into  the  kettle, 
took  them  out  quickly,  and  then  replaced  the  rods  across  the  poles. 


This  process  went  on  through  the  whole  row,  and  was  repeated 
many  times,  until  the  candles  had  grown  to  the  proper  size.  The 
growth  was  on  the  same  principle  as  that  exemplified  in  the  forma- 
tion of  icicles,  only  there  is  no  central  thread  in  the  icicle,  and  the 
lower  end  is  smaller. 

"The  most  sacred  spot  in  all  the  house  in  the  olden  time  was 
the  hearth,  with  the  big  open  fire  burning  brightly  on  it.  It  was 
no  easy  matter  to  start  this  fire,  or  to  maintain  its  continuity.  It 
is  difficult  for  people  of  our  day  to  realize  fully  the  value  or  con- 
venience of  the  friction  match.  It  is  a  little  over  half  a  century 
since  matches  came  into  common  use;  how  did  our  fathers  and 
grandfathers  do  without  them?  In  the  first  place,  like  the  ancient 
Vestal  Virgins  they  used  every  precaution  to  keep  the  fire  from 
dying  out.  A  partially  burned  brand,  its  face  glowing  with  fire, 
was  carefully  covered  over  with  ashes  to  exclude  the  air  and  thus 
arrest  combustion.  For  holding  the  fire  nothing  served  better  than 
a  hemlock  knot,  which  was  obtained  from  some  decayed  log  or 
stump.  In  the  morning  the  ashes  were  drawn  off,  showing  a  fine 
bed  of  coals  on  which  to  build  the  new  fire.  Sometimes,  however, 
the  brand  was  wholly  consimied  and  not  a  spark  remained.  Then 
came  the  question  what  to  do.  Various  expedients  were  possible, 
a  common  one  was  to  send  a  small  boy  to  a  neighbor's,  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  away, '  to  borrow  fire '.  Seizing  the  coal  between  two  chips, 
held  by  the  thumb  and  finger,  the  boy  hastened  home  with  his 
precious  charge.  The  faster  he  ran,  fanned  by  the  current  of  air 
set  up  by  his  movements  the  more  lively  became  the  coal.  Occa- 
sionally, to  save  his  fingers  he  had  to  throw  down  the  burning 
thing  before  he  reached  home.  Another  way  to  start  the  house- 
hold fire  was  to  use  an  old  flint-lock  gun.  A  little  powder  placed 
in  the  pan  was  ignited  by  a  spark  generated  by  the  action  of  the 
hammer  on  the  flint.  Sometimes  the  flint  was  removed  from  the 
gun  and  struck  sharply  by  the  back  of  a  jack-knife  blade.  The 
burning  powder  conveyed  the  flame  to  a  bunch  of  tinder  or  tow, 
and  this  again  set  fire  to  the  wood.  When  the  sun  shone,  fire  was 
sometimes  obtained  by  concentrating  the  rays  through  a  convex 


lens,  or  burning-glass,  as  it  was  called.  Again,  a  chemical  match 
was  employed.  This  consisted  of  a  splinter  of  wood  coated  with 
sulphur,  having  the  end  tipped  with  a  mixture  of  sugar  and 
chlorate  of  potash,  made  adhesive  by  a  little  glue  and  ignited  by 
dipping  the  end  in  sulphuric  acid". 

On  the  gradual  substitution  of  small  burning-fluid  lamps  for 
tallow  candles,  as  a  means  of  lighting  houses  and  churches,  Dr. 
Calkin  has  not  spoken.  The  earliest  "fluid  lamps"  must  have 
come  to  the  county  somewhere  about  1855,  but  as  late  as  1860,  at 
least,  tallow  candles  must  have  been  chiefly  used  to  light  all  build- 
ings, public  and  private.  For  a  long  time,  in  Kentville,  people  of 
various  denominations  were  accustomed  to  worship  on  Sunday 
evenings  in  the  Methodist  Chapel,  near  the  foot  of  the  Academy 
hill,  and  many  persons  living  must  retain  vivid  recollections  of  the 
lighting  of  candles  in  that  church,  as  the  darkness  grew  deeper, 
often  during  the  singing  of  a  hymn.  From  "fluid"  the  county 
passed  before  long  to  kerosene  oil  as  a  means  of  obtaining  light, 
this  finally,  in  the  towns,  being  supplanted  in  great  measure  by 

Of  people's  amusements  and  holiday  observances.  Dr.  Calkin 
says :  ' '  Our  fathers  were  sons  of  toil,  but  they  were  often  able  to 
get  amusement  out  of  their  work.  In  many  places,  'frolics'  or 
'bees'  were  common,  in  which  all  the  neighbors  for  miles  around 
would  assemble  to  help  one  another.  There  were  'piling  frolics', 
'husking  frolics',  'raising  frolics',  for  all  which  it  was  essential  to 
have  some  stimulating  drink,  mostly  rum.  When  Christmas  Eve 
came,  the  Christmas  back-log,  of  larger  size  than  the  back-log  of 
other  days,  was  rolled  into  position  hard  to  the  back  of  the  fire- 
place, the  smaller  sticks  being  built  up  in  front.  Early  on  Christ- 
mas morning  the  children  of  the  household  were  astir.  Breakfast 
was  soon  over  and  preparations  for  cooking  the  dinner  were  begTin. 
A  long  string  was  twisted  from  the  coarser  fibres  of  home-grown 
flax.  One  end  of  this  string  was  fastened  to  a  large  nail  in  the  beam 
directly  over  the  hearth.  To  the  other  end,  which  came  down 
directly  to  the  fire,  was  attached  a  turkey,  a  goose,  or  perchance  a 


young  pig.  The  cooking  process  was  thus  carried  on  by  the  heat 
that  was  radiated  from  the  open  fire.  But  that  the  cooking  might 
go  forward  evenly,  the  roast  must  be  kept  ever  on  the  whirl  to 
bring  all  sides  in  turn  before  the  fire.  The  impetus  for  this  cir- 
cular movement  was  given  by  hand,  so  that  constant  attention  was 
needed.  But  to  keep  the  string  from  being  untwisted  and  falling 
to  pieces,  with  constant  disaster  to  the  roast,  the  whirling  had  to 
be  now  in  one  direction,  then  in  another". 

To  Dr.  Calkin's  brief  account  of  the  amusements  of  King's 
County  young  people,  might  be  added  holiday  excursions  to  launch- 
ings,  and  once  a  year  to  the  performances  at  Kentville  of  the 
"travelling  circus.  For  many  of  the  older  men,  Supreme  Court  trials 
at  Kentville  were,  spring  and  fall,  an  important  diversion.  When 
a,  particularly  interesting  case  was  being  tried  men  from  all  parts 
of  the  county  would  drive  to  the  shire  town  in  the  early  morning, 
and  all  day  remain  spell-bound  in  the  stifling  court-room,  listening 
to  the  evidence  as  the  various  witnesses  were  called.  Fortunately, 
few  murder  trials  have  ever  been  held  in  the  county,  and  the 
morbid  excitement  of  these  lamentable  events  for  the  most  part 
King's  County  people  have  been  spared.  To  the  Kentville  young 
people  the  opening  of  court  was  always  an  interesting  event.  After 
the  Kentville  Hotel  was  opened,  the  Supreme  Court  Justice  from 
Halifax,  Judge  Wilkins,  Judge  Dodd,  Sir  William  Young,  Judge 
Bliss,  or  whoever  the  judge  on  circuit  for  the  term  happened 
to  be,  on  the  morning  of  the  opening  of  court,  as  indeed  every 
morning  while  the  session  lasted,  would  issue  from  the  hotel,  with 
the  Sheriff  marching  before  him  and  various  members  of  the  bar 
attending,  and  so,  on  foot,  proceed  formally  to  the  court.  If  the 
county  was  so  fortunate  as  not  to  have  any  criminal  cases  for  trial, 
it  was  the  custom  for  the  barristers  of  the  county  to  present  the 
judge  with  a  pair  of  white  kid  gloves. 

"  On  winter  evenings",  proceeds  Dr.  Calkin,  "the  family  were 
accustomed  to  gather  round  the  parlour  hearth.  There  the  father 
told  the  oft-repeated  tale  of  his  early  efforts  at  home-making  in  the 
-forest,  which  even  then  was  so  near  that  the  voice  of  the  hooting 


owl  could  often  at  evening  be  heard.  When  he  first  came  there  was 
no  road  for  many  miles — only  blazed  trees  to  mark  the  way.  He 
Tvould  tell  how  he  had  traversed  on  horseback  the  primitive  bridle- 
that  led  to  the  thicker  settlements,  his  wife  behind  him  on  a  pillion. 
At  first  one  child  had  been  encircled  by  the  mother's  left  arm  as 
she  sat  on  the  horse  behind  him,  holding  herself  in  position  by 
■throwing  her  right  arm  i^und  his  waist.  "When  a  second  child  was 
added  to  the  family  the  eldest  sat  on  the  horse's  neck  in  front  of 
the  father,  while  the  mother  held  the  baby  fast.'  Then  the  narrative 
would  be  varied  by  a  thrilling  story  of  a  bear  hunt.  How  Bruin 
had  killed  a  sheep  or  a  calf,  had  been  tracked  to  his  lair  in  some 
forest  glen,  and  had  been  made  to  pay  the  penalty  of  his  wicked- 
ness. Or  it  may  be  the  evening  was  passed  in  telling  tales  of 
apparitions  and  ghosts,  until  every  shadow  on  the  wall  seemed  a 
visitor  from  the  spirit  world".  To  this  graphic  description  the 
writer  might  have  added  an  account  of  the  apple  paring  and 
stringing,  and  pumpkin-cutting,  which  occupied  people  in  late 
autumn  evenings,  in  almost  all  farm-houses,  the  county  through. 

Concerning  horseback  travel  before  carriages  were  introduced, 
Dr.  Calkin  further  writes:  "For  a  woman  riding  behind  a  man  on 
horseback  there  was  a  peculiar  sort  of  saddle  called  a  pillion.  This 
was  somewhat  like  a  chair  with  a  foot-rest.  An  amusing  story  is 
told  of  a  good  Presbyterian  deacon  and  his  wife  in  old-time  Truro, 
who  were  accustomed  to  ride  together  to  church.  Near  the  Church 
was  a  block  with  steps  on  it  for  convenience  in  getting  on  and  off 
the  pillion.  One  Sunday,  so  it  is  said,  the  worthy  deacon,  after 
service  was  over,  mounting  his  horse  rode  up  beside  the  block, 
where  his  wife  was  standing  ready  to  take  her  place  on  the  pillion. 
Probably  meditating  on  the  wholesome  truths  of  the  sermon,  he 
jogged  towards  home.  As  he  came  near  his  house,  which  was  two 
or  three  miles  from  the  Church,  he  met  a  neighbor  who  asked  him 
in  surprise:  'Where's  Esther?'  'She's — where  is  she?'  said  the 
startled  deacon,  looking  round,  first  on  one  side,  then  on  the  other. 
He  had  not  given  his  wife  time  to  mount  the  pillion  and  had  left 
her  standing  on  the  block.     Another  story  is  told  of  a  much  sadder 


kind.  A  good  Truro  couple  had  to  cross  the  Salmon  river  in  order 
to  reach  home  from  church.  The  river  was  much  swollen  by  late 
rains,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  stream  the  poor  wife  slipped  off  and 
was  drowned". 

The  subject  of  slavery  in  New  England  and  the  Canadian 
Provinces  is  a  very  interesting  one,  and  it  has  been  ably  treated, 
in  the  tenth  volume  of  the  Nova  Scotia  Historical  Society's  Collec- 
tions, by  the  late  Rev.  Dr.  T.  Watson  Smith.  Until  after  the 
Revolution,  many  Massachusetts,  Connecticut,  and  Rhode  Island 
people  kept  slaves,  and  sooner  or  later  some  of  these  found  their 
way  to  various  places  in  Nova  Scotia.  In  1783  Colonel  Morse,  Royal 
Engineer  in  the  province,  found  in  the  three  townships  of  Horton, 
Cornwallis,  and  Parrsborough,  as  servants  to  the  more  independent 
people,  a  hundred  and  seven  persons,  and  no  doubt  part,  at  least, 
of  these  servants  were  Negro  slaves.  In  September,  1751,  the  Boston 
Evening  Post  advertised:  "Just  arrived  from  Halifax,  and  to  be 
sold,  ten  strong  hearty  Negro  men,  mostly  tradesmen,  such  as 
caulkers,  carpenters,  sailmakers,  and  ropemakers.  Any  person 
wishing  to  purchase  may  inquire  of  Benjamin  Hallowell  of 
Boston".  In  1752,  Thomas  Thomas, "late  of  New  York, but  now  of 
Halifax",  bequeathed  his  plate  and  his  Negro  servant  Orange  to 
his  son.  In  the  Halifax  Gazette  of  May  15,  1752,  Joshus  Mauger 
advertised  that  he  had  imported  and  would  sell  a  Negro  woman 
aged  thirty-five,  two  boys  aged  twelve  and  thirteen,  respectively, 
two  boys  of  eighteen,  and  a  man  aged  thirty.  In  1760  the  same 
newspaper  advertised:  "To  be  sold  at  public  auction,  on  Monday, 
the  3rd  of  November,  at  the  house  of  Mr.  John  Rider,  two  slaves, 
viz.,  a  boy  and  a  girl,  about  eleven  years  old;  likewise  a  puncheon 
of  choice  cherry  brandy,  with  simdry  other  articles";  and  in  1769: 
"On  Saturday  next,  at  twelve  o'clock,  will  be  sold  on  the  Beach,  two 
hogsheads  of  rum,  three  of  sugar,  and  two  well-grown  Negro  girls, 
aged  fourteen  and  twelve,  to  the  highest  bidder".  In  1770  the 
executors  of  the  estate  of  Hon.  Joseph  Gerrish  ' '  announce  a  loss  of 
thirty  pounds  on  three  Negroes  appraised  at  one  hundred  and  eighty 
pounds,  but  actually  sold  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  to  Richard 
"Williams  and  Abraham  Constable". 


In  1780  the  executors  of  the  estate  of  Henry  Denny  Denson,  of 
"West  Falmouth,  report  that  they  had  received  seventy-five  pounds 
for  a  Negro,  "Spruce",  sixty  pounds  for  "John",  and  thirty  pounds 
for  "Juba".  In  the  autumn  of  the  same  year,  Benjamin  DeWolf  of 
"Windsor  offered  publicly  a  handsome  reward  to  any  one  capturing 
his  negro  boy,  "Mungo",  about  fourteen  years  old  and  well-built, 
and  sending  the  slave  home.  In  1781  Abel  Michener  of  Falmouth 
offered  five  pounds  for  the  capture  of  his  Negro,  "James".  In  an 
inventory  of  the  effects  of  John  Porter,  "late  of  Cornwallis", 
deceased,  in  1784,  are  enumerated : ' '  One  grain  fan,  fifteen  shillings ; 
one  Negro  man,  eighty  pounds;  books,  thirty  shillings". 

On  the  25th  of  December,  1790,  Col.  John  Burbidge  made  a 
deed  of  manumission  of  his  slaves,  giving  them  freedom,  but  on 
specified  conditions.  The  slaves  were :  a  Negro  woman  Fanny,  a 
boy  Peter,  aged  seventeen  years  and  eight  months ;  a  girl  Hannah, 
aged  seven  years  and  eight  months;  a  girl  Flora,  aged  two  years 
and  seven  months;  and  all  the  other  children  that  Fanny  might 
have  before  the  end  of  her  servitude.  The  mother  of  the  children, 
Fanny,  was  to  serve  seven  years  before  she  should  have  her  free- 
dom; the  boy  Peter  was  to  have  his  freedom,  and  the  yoimger 
children  theirs,  when  they  should  reach  the  age  of  thirty  years. 
None  of  these  slaves  were  to  be  taken  out  of  the  province,  but  if 
this  should  happen  they  should  then  at  once  become  free.  They 
should  be  taught  to  read,  and  when  they  became  free  should  be 
dismissed  with  two  good  suits  of  clothing,  one  for  S\mdays,  and 
one  for  week  days.  At  the  same  time  as  his  uncle,  Henry  Burbidge  of 
Cornwallis  manumitted  his  slaves  under  conditions.  His  man 
Spence  was  to  be  free  after  seven  years,  his  boy  Job,  who  was  then 
four  years  and  seven  months  old,  when  he  should  reach  the  age  of 
thirty.  These  slaves  were  to  be  treated  exactly  as  his  uncle  had 
prescribed  that  his  should  be.  On  St.  John's  parish  register,  Corn- 
wallis we  find  recorded  the  baptisms  of  Col.  Burbidge 's  slaves: 
Hannah,  Sept.  28,  1783 ;  Peter,  July  3,  1786 ;  Flora,  Aug.  31,  1788 ; 
Charleston,  Feb.  13,  1792;  Samuel,  Feb.  5,  1794;  Eosanna,  July  3, 


In  1801  Mr.  Benjamin  Belcher  in  his  will  made  the  following 
disposition  of  his  slaves:  "I  give  and  bequeath  my  Negro  boy- 
called  Prince  to  my  son,  Stephen  Belcher,  during  his  life,  after 
that  to  his  eldest  surviving  son ;  I  give  my  Negro  girl  called  Diana 
to  my  daughter,  Elizabeth  Belcher  Sheffield,  and  after  her  death 
to  her  eldest  male  heir  of  her  body;  I  give  my  Negro  man  named 
Jack,  and  my  Negro  boy  Samuel,  and  Negro  boy  James,  and  Negro 
girl  called  Chloe,  to  my  son  Benjamin  and  his  heirs,  forever ;  charging 
these  my  children  unto  whom  I  have  entrusted  these  Negro  people 
never  to  sell,  barter,  or  exchange  them  or  any  of  them  under  any 
pretension,  except  it  is  for  whose  bad  and  heinous  offences  as  will 
not  render  them  safe  to  be  kept  in  the  family,  and  that  to  be 
adjudged  of  by  three  Justices  of  the  Peace  in  said  Township,  and 
in  such  case  on  their  order  they  may  be  sold  and  disposed  of.  And 
I  further  request  that  as  soon  as  these  young  Negroes  shall  become 
capable  to  be  taught  to  read,  they  shall  be  learned  the  Word  of 

In  1809  Jonathan  Sherman  of  Cornwallis,  who  in  Rhode 
Island  in  1768  had  married  Sarah  Harrington,  and  after  that  had 
come  to  Cornwallis,  in  his  will  prescribed  that  his  wife  and  daugh- 
ter should  maintain  comfortably  during  her  life  his  Negro  woman 
Chloe,  "should  she  remain  with  them  as  heretofore".  In  1787, 
John  Huston  of  Cornwallis,  gives  and  bequeaths  to  his  dear  and  well 
beloved  wife,  his  Negro  man  Pomp,  and  all  the  live  stock,  utensils, 
and  implements,  etc.,  of  which  at  the  time  of  his  death,  he  should 
be  owner.  In  1776,  John  Rock,  who  twenty  years  before  had 
obtained  a  license  to  conduct  the  ferry  between  Halifax  and  Dart- 
mouth, died,  and  among  his  effects,  was  a  "Negro  wench  named 
Thursday,  who  was  valued  at  twenty-five  pounds".  Soon  after- 
ward, Rock's  executors  sold  the  slave  girl  to  John  Bishop 
for  twenty  poimds.  Whether  the  buyer  was  a  Horton  man  or  not 
we  do  not  know,  but  his  name  suggests  that  he  probably  was.  A 
few  years  before  his  death  Rock  advertised  in  the  newspaper  as 
follows:  "Ran  away  from  her  master,  John  Rock,  on  Monday,  the 
18th  day  of  August  last,  a  Negro  girl  named  Thursday,  about  four 


and  a  half  feet  high,  broad-set,  with  a  lump  over  her  right  eye. 
Had  on  when  she  went  away  a  red  cloth  petticoat,  a  red  baize  bed- 
gown, and  a  red  ribbon  about  her  head.  Whoever  may  harbour 
the  said  Negro  girl,  or  encourage  her  to  stay  away  from  her  said 
master,  may  depend  upon  being  prosecuted  as  the  law  directs,  and 
whoever  may  be  so  kind  as  to  take  her  up  and  send  her  home  to  her 
said  master,  shall  be  paid  all  costs  and  charges  with  two  dollars 
reward  for  their  trouble ' '.  In  1788  a  fierce  controversy  arose  among 
the  Presbyterians  of  Nova  Scotia  concerning  the  morality  of  the  Rev. 
Daniel  Cock's  holding  two  slaves,  a  mother  and  daughter,  in  the 
village  of  Truro.  In  the  chapter  on  the  Cornwallis  Congregation- 
alist  Church,  reference  is  made  to  the  visit  in  Cornwallis  in 
theologically  troubled  times  there,  of  the  Rev.  Daniel  Cock  and  the 
Rev.  David  Smith,  At  this  time,  or  on  some  other  visit  he  made  to 
Cornwallis,  the  Truro  minister  received  the  elder  slave  as  a  gift 
from  some  person  there,  we  do  not,  however,  know  whom.  The 
younger  slave  he  is  said  to  have  bought. 

In  her  book,  "Customs  and  Fashions  in  old  New  England",  Mrs. 
Alice  Morse  Earle  cites  the  case  of  a  respectable  Newport,  Rhode 
Island,  church  elder,  who  sent  many  a  slaver  to  the  African  coast 
and  who  on  the  safe  return  of  his  ships  always  gave  thanks  in 
meeting  "that  a  gracious  overruling  Providence  had  been  pleased 
to  bring  to  this  land  of  freedom  another  cargo  of  benighted  heathen 
to  enjoy  the  blessings  of  a  Gospel  dispensation".  From  the  care- 
ful provisions  made  by  our  Cornwallis  slaveholders  for  the  future 
freeing  of  their  slaves  we  gather  that  a  serious  conviction  had 
shaped  itself  in  their  minds  that  slavery  was  not  right.  In  1784, 
Connecticut  passed  an  act  for  the  gradual  emancipation  of  slaves, 
declaring  that  all  Negroes  born  in  the  state  after  that  period  should 
be  free  when  they  reached  the  age  of  twenty-five  years,  and  giving 
masters  the  right  to  liberate  at  once  all  slaves  between  the  ages  of 
twenty-five  and  forty-five.  In  1800  forty-five  slaves  remained  in 
the  state,  but  some  time  later  the  legislature  declared  slavery 
"extinct  and  forever  abolished".  Of  the  Negroes  in  Nova  Scotia, 
and  of  the  disappearance  of  slavery  in  this  province  Judge  Hali- 


burton  wrote  in  1829:  "A  small  portion  of  the  labouring  popula- 
tion of  the  country  is  composed  of  free  blacks,  who  are  chiefly 
employed  as  agricultural  and  domestic  servants,  but  there  are  no 
slaves.  Formerly  there  were  Negro  slaves,  who  were  brought  to 
the  country  by  their  masters  from  the  old  colonies,  but  some  legal 
difficulties  having  arisen  in  the  course  of  an  action  of  trover, 
brought  for  the  recovery  of  a  runaway,  an  opinion  prevailed  that 
the  courts  would  not  recognize  a  state  of  slavery  as  having  a 
lawful  existence  in  this  country.  Although  this  question  never 
received  a  judicial  decision  the  slaves  were  all  emancipated.  The 
most  correct  opinion  seems  to  be  that  slaves  may  be  held  in  the 
colony;  and  this  is  not  only  corroborated  by  the  construction  of 
several  English  acts  of  parliament,  but  by  particular  clauses  of  the 
early  laws  of  the  province ' '. 

Before  we  close  this  chapter  a  few  words  must  be  said  con- 
cerning early  Freemasonry  in  King's  County.  The  earliest  char- 
tered lodge,  St.  George's,  was  opened  November  22,  1784,  at  the 
house  of  William  Allen  Chipman  in  Cornwallis,  a  dispensation  to 
that  effect  having  been  granted  by  John  George  Pyke,  Grand 
Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Nova  Scotia,  to  Benjamin  Hilton. 
The  first  offlcers  of  St.  George's  Lodge  were:  Benjamin  Hilton, 
Worshipful  Master;  Dr.  William  Baxter,  Senior  Warden;  Samuel 
Wilson,  Junior  Warden;  the  two  remaining  masons  present  at  the 
opening  being  John  North  and  John  Smith.  The  same  night.  Dr. 
Samuel  Willoughby  was  initiated;  later  Dr.  Willoughby  became 
Junior  Warden.  The  lodge  was  registered  as  No.  11.  At  the 
second  regular  meeting  under  the  charter  the  Worthy  Master  is 
recorded  as  having  purchased  a  set  of  silver  jewels  for  the  Master 
and  Wardens,  at  a  cost  of  eighteen  shillings  and  fourpence. 
December  27,  1785,  the  lodge  held  its  first  festival,  the  day  being 
St.  John's  Day.  On  that  occasion,  Brothers  Hilton,  Baxter, 
Willoughby,  North,  and  Pineo,  met  in  the  lodge  room  and  dined. 
This  custom  was  continued  by  the  lodge  for  a  number  of  years. 

Under  the  lodge's  warrant  the  first  person  initiated  was  Cor- 
nelius Fox  of  Cornwallis,  who  was  the  first  regularly  installed 


secretary.  The  date  of  his  taking  the  secretaryship  was  August  7, 
1786.  During  part,  at  least,  of  his  incumbency  as  Rector  of  St. 
John's  Church  Cornwallis  the  Rev.  William  Twining  was  Chaplain, 
The  first  funeral  recorded  was  that  of  brother  Patrick  McMasters, 
who  had  been  shipwrecked  and  whose  body  was  brought  to  Corn- 
wallis for  burial.  The  funeral  took  place  January  8,  1798.  In  the 
same  month  and  year  a  Past  Master's  jewel  was  purchased  for  Past 
Master  Charles  Prescott,  and  also  jewels  for  the  Senior  and  Junior 
Deacons.  On  the  4th  of  December,  1809,  Past  Master's  jewels  were 
presented  by  the  lodge  to  Past  Masters,  Brothers  Best,  Cummings, 
and  Webster.  In  1811,  the  Rev.  Theodore  Seth  Harding  of  Horton 
received  the  three  degrees  of  ancient  craft  Freemasonry  in  St. 
George's  Lodge.  Afterward,  on  several  occasions,  Mr.  Harding 
preached  before  the  lodge  on  St.  John's  Day.  His  first  sermon  was 
December  27,  1812,  the  text  being:  "What  manner  of  persons 
ought  ye  to  be  in  all  holy  conversation  and  godliness".  In  May, 
1812,  the  lodge  presented  Brother  Harding  with  ten  pounds,  "pre- 
sumably to  help  him  in  his  ministerial  labours ' '.  In  April,  1813,  the 
lodge  removed  from  Cornwallis  to  Horton. 

February  7,  1814,  Hon.  Samuel  Chipman  was  a  visitor  from 
Virgin  Lodge,  Halifax.  He  had  been  made  a  mason,  in  Virgin 
Lodge,  December  23,  1813,  just  six  weeks  before  this  visit.  At  the 
time  of  his  death  (in  1891)  he  was  the  oldest  mason  in  America, 
being,  within  one  month  of  completing  his  seventy-eighth  masonic 
year.  In  October,  1816,  Perez  Benjamin  of  Horton,  who  was  after- 
wards a  representative  in  the  Assembly,  was  made  a  mason.  In 
September,  1818,  the  lodge  purchased  a  hearse  "for  the  decent 
carriage  of  the  deceased  friends  of  the  fraternity,  and  for  the 
accommodation  of  the  people  of  Cornwallis  and  Horton".  Some 
six  years  later  the  hearse  was  sold  at  public  auction,  but  the  pall 
was  kept.  In  May,  1827,  Bphraim  Clark,  G.  D.  Pineo,  and  Dr. 
Isaac  Webster  were  voted  the  distinction  of  honorary  members,  the 
first  persons  ever  given  this  distinction  by  the  lodge.  In  October, 
1827,  the  altar  and  pedestal,  in  active  service  thereafter  until 
November,  1890,  were  built  by  Peter  Fox,  at  a  cost  of  four  pounds. 


ten  shillings.  In  November,  1830,  the  lodge  removed  to  Kentville 
and  met  three  times,  when  it  was  again  removed  to  Horton,  meeting 
there  at  the  house  of  Jonathan  Graham.  In  October,  1830,  it  met 
at  the  Kentville  Hotel.  In  April,  1832,  it  was  removed  to  Peter 
Pineo  's  in  Cornwallis. 

From  December  3,  1832,  until  January  25,  1858,  the  lodge  never 
met.  The  reason  of  the  suspension  seems  to  have  been  that  dis- 
satisfaction arose  among  the  members  in  consequence  of  dues  being 
claimed  by  the  Provincial  Grand  Lodge,  which  the  Book  of  Consti- 
tutions received  from  England  did  not  sanction.  During  this  long^ 
intermission  the  original  warrant  was  never  forfeited,  and  when 
in  January,  1858,  it  was  decided  to  reopen  the  lodge,  Brother 
Eliphalet  Fuller  went  to  the  house  of  Brother  Peter  Pineo,  in  West 
Cornwallis,  and  got  the  ark  and  furniture.  Taking  these  to  Lower 
Horton,  he  and  Brothers  John  and  Cornelius  Fox,  the  latter  having 
been  members  in  1832,  opened  the  ark.  The  aprons,  collars,  etc., 
they  found  in  good  preservation,  the  pedestals,  altar,  and  candle- 
sticks, however,  being  broken  and  defaced  After  this  the  lodge 
met  for  some  years  at  Temperance  Hall,  in  Lower  Horton.  In  April, 
1862,  it  moved  to  Wolfville,  where  it  has  since  remained.  An  inter- 
esting relic  of  the  lodge  is  a  "Worthy  Master's  Chair,  made  by 
Brother  James  Cochran  from  the  wood  of  an  oak  tree  cut  on  the 
farm  of  a  brother  mason,  who  had  grown  it  from  an  acorn,  and  had 
presented  it  in  1878.  The  earliest  masonic  lodges  in  Nova  Scotia 
in  the  order  of  their  f oimdation  were :  St.  Andrews,  Chartered  as 
No.  118,  March  26,  1768;  St.  John's,  as  No.  161,  June  30,  1780; 
Virgin,  as  No.  3,  October,  1784 — all  in  Halifax ;  St.  George 's,  as  No. 
11,  November  22,  1784. 


Organized  religion  in  Nova  Scotia  began  with  the  Roman 
Catholic  missions  established  among  the  French  and  Indians  soon 
after  the  first  European  settlement  in  the  province  was  made.  Of 
the  Jesuit  and  EecoUet,  or  Franciscan,  priests  who  long  laboured 
among  the  Micmacs  and  later  became  so  great  a  power  with  the 
Acadian  French  it  would  be  interesting  to  know  who  was  the  first 
to  celebrate  the  rites  of  Christianity  within  the  limits  of  King's 
County.  This,  however,  we  shall  probably  never  know,  but  in 
another  chapter  we  have  given  as  complete  a  list  as  we  could  of  the 
priests  who  ministered  in  the  churches  at  Grand  Pre  and  River 
Canard.  In  the  first  Assembly  of  the  province,  in  1758,  it  had  been 
enacted  that  the  worship  of  the  Church  of  England  should  be  con- 
sidered the  fixed  form  of  worship  in  Nova  Scotia,  but  that  all  dis- 
senters from  the  Church,  save  "Papists",  should  have  free  liberty 
of  conscience,  and  "might  build  meeting  houses  for  public  worship 
and  choose  and  elect  ministers  for  carrying  on  Divine  Service  and 
administering  the  Sacraments  according  to  their  several  opinions". 
The  long  continued  work  in  Nova  Scotia  of  the  famous  English 
missionary  society,  the  Society  for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel 
in  Foreign  Parts  (commonly  known  as  the  S.  P.  G.),  began  with  the 
founding  of  Halifax.  With  the  Cornwallis  fieet  came  from  Eng- 
land two  clergymen,  the  Rev.  William  Tutty  and  the  Rev.  William 
Anwell,  and  a  schoolmaster,  Mr.  Edward  Halhead.  Following  them 
came  the  Rev.  Jean  Baptiste  Moreau,  who  was  at  once  sent  to 
Lunenberg;  while  not  very  long  after,  the  Rev.  John  Breynton,  an 
English  clergyman  who  had  been  chaplain  on  a  war  ship  at  the 
siege  of  Louisberg,  assumed  the  rectorship  of  St.  Paul's  Church, 
Halifax.    In  1754  the  Rev.  Thomas  Wood  was  sent  from  New  Jersey 


to  assist  Dr.  Breynton,  and  when  the  New  England  planters  came 
to  King's  County,  Dr.  Breynton  and  Mr.  Wood  were  sharing  the 
arduous  labours  of  the  parish  of  St.  Paul's. 

In  1761  the  Society  appointed  the  Rev.  Joseph  Bennett,  prob- 
ably a  New  England  man,  then  in  his  thirty-fourth  year,  itinerant 
missionary  in  the  province,  with  instructions,  however,  to  officiate 
chiefly  at  Lunenburg.  Not  knowing  of  the  Society's  appointment, 
the  lieutenant-governor,  Mr.  Jonathan  Belcher,  had  meanwhile 
appointed  Rev.  Robert  Vincent  to  Lunenburg.  Mr.  Bennett's  head- 
quarters, therefore,  had  to  be  fixed  in  some  other  place.  As  soon  as 
the  New  England  planters  were  fairly  established  in  King's  County, 
the  Halifax  clergymen.  Dr.  Breynton  and  Mr.  "Wood,  had  begun  to 
make  them  visits.  Sometime  in  1762,  as  the  S.  P.  G.  Reports  inform 
us,  Mr.  "Wood  visited  the  "interior  parts  of  Nova  Scotia",  going 
twice  to  East  and  "West  Falmouth,  CornwalUs,  and  Horton,  at  each 
of  which  places,  he  was  kindly  received.  At  the  beginning  of  this 
same  year,  Mr.  Belcher  had  recommended  to  the  Society  that  a 
resident  missionary  should  be  appointed  for  Horton,  to  officiate  in 
rotation  there  and  in  the  townships  of  Cornwallis,  Falmouth,  and 
Newport.  A  house  for  public  worship,  he  said,  was  much  needed  at 
Horton,  and  he  proposed  that  a  chapel  should  be  built  there  which 
the  Calvinistic  settlers,  as  well,  could  use  for  Congregationalist 
services  if  they  should  settle  a  minister  of  their  own  denomination. 
Mr.  Bennett  being  without  a  settlement,  on  the  lieutenant-gover- 
nor's recommendation  was  now  appointed  missionary  in  the  four 
townships  of  Newport,  Falmouth,  Horton  aijd  Cornwallis,  and  in 
November,1762,  with  the  promise  of  seventy  pounds  sterling  a 
year,  took  up  his  residence  somewhere  (it  seems  probable  at  Fal- 
mouth) in  his  large  field. 

About  Fort  Edward  (Piziquid)  there  were  a  few  English 
speaking  people,  but  the  group,  including  soldiers,  must  have  been 
small,  and  in  all  the  four  townships,  except  at  the  "Windsor  fort, 
there  were  not  more  than  766  resident  adults.  That  in  spite  of  their 
Calvinistic  Congregationalist  sympathies  the  King's  County  people 
generally  took  kindly  to  the  Prayer  Book  worship,  is  clear  from  the 


fact  that  in  1763  Mr.  Bennett  reported  that  the  Cornwallis  people 
purposed  "building  a  Church",  and  that  the  Horton  people  had 
already  started  a  subscription  for  "purchasing  a  house  to  hold 
service  in".  In  a  letter  to  the  Society,  dated  January  4,  1763,  he 
states  that  he  has  now  been  settled  in  King's  County  six  weeks,  and 
that  he  finds  in  Horton  670  persons,  of  whom  375  are  children;  in. 
Cornwallis  518,  of  whom  319  are  children;  in  Falmouth  278,  of 
whom  146  are  children;  and  in  Newport,  251  of  whom  111  are 
children.  In  still  another  letter,  dated  July  of  the  same  year,  he 
writes  that  his  success  in  his  mission  has  far  exceeded  his  expecta- 
tion. He  has  already  baptized  sixteen  and  married  three  couples, 
and  he  has  eighteen  communicants.  In  September  he  writes  that  he 
now  officiates  at  five  places,  for  the  governor  has  ordered  him  "to 
take  Fort  Edward  in  rotation  on  account  of  a  difficult  and  dan- 
gerous river,  which  renders  it  impossible,  at  least  five  months  in 
the  year,  for  the  inhabitants  near  that  fort  to  attend  Divine  Worship 
at  the  place  appointed".  To  perform  the  regular  duties  of  his 
mission  on  Sundays  he  was  obliged  to  ride  nearly  two  hundred 
miles  a  month.  In  the  preceding  half  year  he  had  baptized  fifty-two 
children  and  one  adult,  and  he  says  that  as  the  prejudices  of  the 
people  against  the  Church  wear  off,  the  duties  of  his  ministry 

In  1768-9  he  writes  still  more  optimistically  of  his  mission, 
especially  of  his  Cornwallis  field.  That  township  he  visits  once  a 
month  and  one  of  the  means  he  has  taken  to  win  its  people  to  the 
Church,  has  been  to  distribute  widely  a  little  tract  entitled  "The 
Englishman  Directed  in  the  Choice  of  his  Eeligion".  This  tract  the 
people  have  gratefully  received,  and  he  is  sure  that  it  has  done 
good.  About  Horton  he  has  nothing  to  say,  but  the  Cornwallis 
young  people,  he  writes,  attend  church  very  regularly. 

In  1770  he  reports  that  at  "Windsor  and  Falmouth  he  has  large 
congregations;  "that  at  Newport,  where  it  is  very  inconvenient  for 
the  people  to  assemble  to  Divine  Worship,  by  reason  of  that  town's 
being  intersected  by  deep  and  dangerous  rivers,  he  officiates  in  pri- 
vate houses".    In  January,  1763,  writes  Professor  Hind  in  his  "Old 


Parish  Burying  Ground",  Mr.  Bennett  took  up  his  residence  at  Fort 
Edward,  and  there  when  ill-health  at  last  compelled  him  to  resign 
his  work  in  the  province,  he  lived,  and  probably  died.  In  the  S.  P. 
G.  Report  for  1780  it  is  stated  that  "the  Society  have  received  the 
sad  intelligence  that  the  Rev.  Mr.  Bennett  is  confined  at  Windsor, 
greatly  disordered  both  in  body  and  mind,  so  that  the  physicians 
are  of  opinion  that  he  will  never  again  be  serviceable".  How  soon 
after  this  report  this  missionary  died  we  do  not  at  present  know. 

Ij;i  1775  an  exchange  was  effected  between  another  missionary, 
the  Rev.  William  Ellis,  and  the  Rev.  Mr.  Bennett,  the  former  taking 
the  wide  King's  County  mission,  and  the  latter  becoming  an 
itinerant  missionary  in  the  province.  In  1776  Mr.  Ellis  reports  his 
communicants  at  Windsor  as  sixteen,  at  Newport  nine,  at  Falmouth, 
eleven,  and  at  Cornwallis  eighteen.  He  complains  that  there  is  na 
church  building  at  Newport  or  Falmouth,  and  that  the  building  at 
Windsor,  "which  is  called  a  church,  is  applied  to  various  purposes,, 
and  occasionally  to  very  improper  ones".  Although  Governor 
Legge  had  made  a  present  of  very  handsome  church  furniture  to  the 
Windsor  congregation  the  furniture  could  not  be  made  use  of,  the 
church  building  being  quite  unfit  to  receive  it. 

In  1779  Mr.  Ellis  writes  the  Society  that  in  Cornwallis  alone 
there  are  upwards  of  a  thousand  inhabitants,  most  of  them  well 
affected  to  the  Church  and  very  desirous  of  having  a  minister  to 
themselves.  That  year  the  Rev.  Jacob  Bailey  of  Pownalborough, 
Maine,  so  weU  known  in  Loyalist  annals  as  the  "Frontier  Mis- 
sionary", after  suffering  incredible  hardships  in  New  England  took 
refuge  with  his  family  in  Halifax,  and  very  soon  was  permitted  by 
the  Governor  to  go  to  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Ellis  in  his  laborious 
field.  "I  have  made  an  excursion  into  the  country",  he  writes  his 
brother  at  Pownalborough  under  date  of  Sept.  6th,  1779  "and 
travelled  through  all  the  fine  settlements  on  the  Basin  of  Minas, 
and  never  beheld  finer  farms  than  at  Windsor,  Falmouth,  Horton, 
and  Cornwallis.  The  latter  is  the  place  where  the  Neutral  French 
had  formerly  their  principal  habitation.  I  have  dined  upon  the  very 
spot  where  Charles  (Rene)  le  Blanc  formerly  lived.     Two  hundred 


families  are  settled  in  this  place  and  I  am  invited  to  officiate  among 
them  this  winter,  and  believe  I  shall  accept  their  offer  till  I  can 
return  to  Kennebeck  in  safety.  They  have  agreed  to  furnish  me 
with  an  house  and  firing,  to  give  me  an  horse  worth  ten  guineas,  to 
be  at  the  expense  of  my  removal,  and  to  allow  me  a  weekly  con- 
tribution besides  presents,  which  will  amount  to  more  than  seventy 
pounds  sterling  per  year,  if  I  reckon  the  price  at  Halifax.  I  have 
likewise  had  an  invitation  to  St.  John's  and  Cumberland.  In  the 
latter  department  I  might  be  admitted  Chaplain  of  the  garrison, 
worth  a  hundred  and  eighty  pounds  per  annum,  but  I  cannot  en- 
dure the  thoughts  of  that  remote  situation,  especially  among  a  set 
of  people  disposed  to  revolt". 

Mr.  Bailey's  engagement  with  the  Cornwallis  people  and  his 
residence  in  the  township  began  iu  October,  1779,  and  in  Cornwallis 
he  remained  until  July,  1782,  when  he  was  transferred  to  the  mis- 
sion at  Annapolis  Royal.  In  Cornwallis  he  experienced  a  good  deal 
of  disappoiutment.  "My  emoluments  are  small",  he  writes  a 
friend,  "I  am  allowed  a  little,  inconvenient  house  and  fire-wood, 
and  get  besides,  five  or  six  shillings  per  week  contribution  for  preach- 
ing. I  have  about  ten  or  twelve  scholars  which  afford  me  about 
eight  dollars  per  month.  Every  necessary  of  life  is  extremely  dear 
in  this  place".  In  1780  he  writes  that  he  has  lately,  without  any 
solicitation  on  his  part,  been  appointed  "deputy  chaplain  to  the 
84:th  Regiment,  part  of  which  keep  a  garrison  at  Annapolis".  His 
report  to  the  S.  P.  G.  in  the  same  year  states  that  he  has  officiated  in 
Cornwallis  every  Sunday  since  his  arrival  there,  and  had  had  "a 
decent  and  respectable,  though  not  a  large  congregation". 
"Their  contributions  towards  my  support",  he  says,  "are  pre- 
carious, and  all  the  articles  of  subsistence  are  so  excessively  extrava- 
gant that  my  emoluments  will  hardly  support  my  family.  The  want 
of  books  is  a  misfortune  I  sensibly  feel  in  my  present  situation,  for 
I  was  constrained  to  leave  my  library  behind  me  when  I  escaped 
from  New  England,  and  being  so  remote  from  the  metropolis  I  can 
receive  no  assistance  from  others". 

In  July,  1782,  Mr.  Bailey  left  Cornwallis  for  Annapolis,  and 


when  minister  and  people  at  last  had  to  part,"  the  scenes",  he -writes 
"were  affecting,  mutual  effusions  of  sorrow  were  displayed,  and  our 
hearts  were  agitated  with  tender  emotions.  Once  I  imagined  it  impos- 
sible to  abandon  Cornwallis  with  such  painful  regret,  and  conceived 
that  we  could  bid  the  inhabitants  adieu  without  a  single  tear  of 
sensibility  on  either  side,  but  I  found  myself  mistaken.  Justice  and 
gratitude  compel  me  to  entertain  a  more  favourable  opinion  of  these 
people  than  formerly,  and  their  conduct  has  appeared  in  a  much 
more  amiable  light  at  the  conclusion  than  at  the  beginning  of  our 
connection.  Most  of  my  hearers,  and  several  of  other  denomina- 
tions, made  us  presents  before  our  emigration,  and  we  were  at  no 
expense  for  horses  and  carriages". 

On  the  eve  of  his  departure  from  Cornwallis,  as  he  writes  to  a 
friend,  Mr.  Bailey  was  invited  to  officiate  in  the  Congregationalist 
Meeting  House  at  Chipman's  Corner,  and  there  he  read  prayers  and 
delivered  two  sermons  to  a  more  numerous  assembly  than  he  had 
ever  seen  in  the  province.  Most  of  the  inhabitants,  of  every  denom- 
ination, attended  these  services,  a  "very  handsome  collection"  was 
taken  for  the  retiring  clergyman,  and  the  people  "seemed  to 
relish"  his  farewell  discourses.  With  the  detailed  information  thus 
given  us  of  this  clergyman's  leave-taking  of  Cornwallis,  we  have  no 
reason  to  question  the  truth  of  Mr.  Ellis'  statement  to  the  Society 
that  "Mr. Bailey's  leaving  Cornwallis  was  not  without  the  greatest 
regret  of  the  inhabitants ' '. 

The  time  had  now  fully  come  for  the  large  double  mission  of 
Hants  and  King's  to  be  divided,  and  soon  after  Mr.  Bailey's  removal 
to  Annapolis  the  division  was  formally  made.  By  this  change  the 
three  townships  which  now  composed  the  newly  erected  Hants 
County,  became  one  mission;  the  other  included  the  townships  of 
Cornwallis,  Horton,  and  Wilmot,  most  of  the  third  township,  how- 
ever, lying  in  the  eastern  part  of  Annapolis  County.  On  the 
division,  the  Cornwallis  people  signified  to  the  Society  that  the  Rev. 
John  WiswaU,  formerly  missionary  at  Falmouth,  Maine,  would  be 
to  them  a  very  acceptable  priest.  Accordingly,  the  Society 
appointed  Mr.  WiswaU  to  the  King's  County  mission.     With  the 


life  and  character  of  this  clergyman  we  have  almost  as  intimate  an 
acquaintance  as  with  that  of  his  predecessor  at  Cornwallis,  the  Rev. 
Jacob  Bailey.  Like  Mr.  Bailey,  Mr.  Wiswall  was  for  some  years 
before  taking  orders  in  the  Church  of  England  a  Congregationalist 
minister.  He  was  the  son  of  Peleg  and  Elizabeth  (Rogers)  "Wiswall 
of  Boston,  his  maternal  grandmother  was  Sarah,  daughter  of  John 
Appleton  of  Ipswich,  and  he  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard  of  the  class 
of  1749,  During  the  Revolutionary  "War  he  suffered  greatly  for  his 
allegiance  to  the  crown,  and  at  last,  like  many  others  of  the  dis- 
tressed Loyalists,  made  his  home  permanently  in  Nova  Scotia.  His 
pastorate  at  Cornwallis  began  on  the  24th  of  August,  1783,  and 
lasted  until  1789,  when  the  Bishop  having  made  several  important 
changes  in  the  Nova  Scotia  missions,  one  of  which  was  the  separa- 
tion of  Wilmot  from  Cornwallis  and  the  erection  of  "Wilmot  and 
"the  best  part  of  Aylesford"  together  into  a  new  mission,  Mr. 
"Wiswall  by  his  own  preference  was  transferred  to  the  latter.  In 
the  now  greatly  narrowed  Cornwallis  field  he  was  succeded  by  the 
Rev.  William  Twining,  a  clergyman  born  in  Pembrokeshire,  "Wales, 
in  1750,  who  had  lately  come  to  Nova  Scotia  from  Exuma,  in  the 
Bahama  Islands,  where  he  had  for  some  time  been  a  missionary  of 
the  S.  P.  G. 

The  Report  of  the  Society  for  1789,  describing  the  Bishop's 
changes  remarks  that  "the  remaining  mission  of  Cornwallis,  being 
forty  miles  in  length,  by  fourteen  in  breadth,  the  best  settled  part  of 
the  province  will  still  be  large  enough  for  one  mission".  "The 
people  of  Cornwallis  have  expressed  their  gratitude  to  the  Society 
for  its  constant  care  and  attention  in  supplying  them  with  able 
missionaries  and,  as  appears  from  a  letter  from  Mr.  Burbidge,  who 
Vidth  Mr.  Belcher  is  a  principal  supporter  there  of  the  Established 
Church,  they  are  much  satisfied  with  the  appointment  of  Mr. 
Twining,  and  evidence  their  respect  for  him  by  a  constant  atten- 
dance on  Divine  Service  every  Sunday,  when  the  weather  will 
permit.  The  congregation  increases,  and  Mr.  Twining  hopes  that 
the  subscription  will  also  in  another  year". 

Until  1770  the  parishioners  of  St.  John's  Church,  Cornwallis, 


must  have  worshipped  either  in  private  houses  or  in  some  temporary 
building ;  in  that  year,  however,  the  first  Anglican  Church  building  in 
the  county  was  erected  at  Fox  Hill,  near  the  Town  Plot.  The  struc- 
ture was  built,  and  probably  the  land  given,  by  Messrs.  John 
Burbidge  and  "William  Best,  two  men  reared,  not  in  New  England 
but  in  the  mother  land,  and  about  the  church  was  an  acre  of  ground 
given  for  a  churchyard.  Of  churches  built  in  the  county  before  this 
time,  we  have  the  Congregationalist  church  at  Chipman's  Corner, 
erected  in  1767- '68,  and  the  Presbyterian  church  at  Lower  Horton, 
built  probably  a  little  later,  but  very  nearly  at  the  same  time.  In 
the  churchyard  at  Fox  Hill,  now  in  many  places  thickly  overgrown 
with  bushes,  the  graves  of  a  few  of  the  most  important  of  the  early 
King's  County  people,  with  well  preserved  tombstones,  may  still 
be  found. 

Until  1776  St.  John's  Church  was  not  finished,  but  from  the 
time  of  its  erection  it  was  used  for  worship  in  fair  weather,  when- 
ever the  missionaries  could  get  to  Cornwallis  to  officiate,  this, 
however,  being  at  first  probably  not  more  than  five  or  six  times  a 
year,  and  later  only  as  often  as  once  a  month.  In  1776  it  was 
finished,  and  in  1784  was  repaired.  Shortly  after  Mr.  Twining 
assumed  the  rectorship  a  gallery  large  enough  to  accommodate 
sixty  worshippers  was  built,  and  when  Mr.  Benjamin  Belcher  died 
in  1802,  he  left  two  hundred  pounds  towards  "rebuilding  an  altar 
piece"  in  the  church.  By  September,  1792,  the  church  was  hope- 
lessly out  of  repair,  in  winter,  at  least,  it  was  impossible  to  use  it, 
and  again  the  congregation  had  to  worship  in  private  houses.  A 
formal  agreement  to  built  a  new  church  was  entered  into,  Septem- 
ber 29th,  1802,  and  on  Christmas  Day,  1810,  the  present  church,  on 
Church  Street,  though  unfinished  was  opened  for  worship. 

Probably  as  early  as  the  coming  of  the  Rev.  Jacob  Bailey,  the 
Cornwallis  congregation  had  erected  or  purchased  a  small  par- 
sonage, and  when  Mr.  Wiswall's  rectorship  began,  they  added,  or  at 
least  planned  to  add,  to  this  inadequate  house.  In  1785  Mr.  Wiswall 
reports  that  his  parishioners  have  given  a  proof  of  their  regard  for 
him  in  agreeing  to  build  for  him  a  house  on  the  Glebe,  "which  in 


its  present  condition  rents  for  fifteen  pounds  per  annum".  To  the 
fund  for  this  house,  Col.  Burbidge,  the  Senior  Warden,  had  given 
fifty  pounds,  Mr.  Belcher,  the  Junior  Warden,  agreeing  to  furnish 
the  house  at  his  own  expense.  Shortly  after  Mr.  Twining 's  arrival, 
at  Cornwallis,  this  clergyman  writes  that  Col.  Burbidge  is  about  to 
complete  the  parsonage  at  his  own  expense.  In  1784  the  subscribers 
to  the  parsonage  fund  were :  John  Burbidge,  Eobert  Pagan,  James 
Burbidge,  Col.  Jonathan  Sherman,  David  Starr,  Thomas  Brown, 
William  Allen  Chipman,  Joseph  Sibley,  Richard  Best,  William 
Morine,  Colin  Brymer,  Pern  Terry,  Penderson  Allison,  Blkanah 
Morton,  Jr.,  Dr.  WiUiam  Baxter,  William  Marchant,  Cornelius  Fox, 
Joseph  Jackson,  Dan  Pineo,  John  Whidden,  John  North,  John  Hus- 
ton, John  Terry,  Thomas  Ratchford,  Mason  Cogswell,  Benjamin 

The  Rev.  John  Wiswall  was  inducted  into  the  parish  by  mandate 
from  Governor  Parr,  February  1,  1784,  and  on  the  29th  of  Septem- 
ber of  the  same  year,  a  full  parish  organization  was  effected.  At 
the  meeting  for  organization,  Mr.  Wiswall  being  chosen  moderator 
nominated  Col.  John  Burbidge,  Senior  Warden,  and  Capt.  Thomas 
Farrel  (that  year  the  county's  High  Sheriff),  Parish  Clerk.  Col. 
Burbidge  then  nominated  Lieut.  Benjamin  Belcher  for  Junior 
Warden,  and  Capt.  Thomas  Ratchford  seconded  the  nomination. 
The  vestry  chosen  were:  Capt.  John  Terry,  Capt.  Thomas  Farrel, 
Lieut.  Henry  Burbidge,  Major  Samuel  Starr,  Mr.  David  Starr,  Mr. 
Joseph  Jackson,  Mr.  John  Robinson,  Jr.,  Capt.  Thomas  Ratchford, 
Capt.  John  Cox,  Mr.  Cornelius  Fox,  Mr.  John  Burbidge,  Jr., 
and  Capt.  Ebenezer  Farnham.  [Most  of  these  gentlemen  held 
commissions  in  the  militia].  The  church,  opened  for  worship 
in  1810,  was  not  finished  until  1812,  nor  consecrated  until 
August  9th,  1826,  but  on  the  Register  remains  a  plan  of  the 
interior,  with  the  names  of  the  pew-holders,  in  1811.  On  this 
plan  the  pews  are  in  four  rows,  the  two  middle  rows  extending  only 
to  the  chancel,  the  wall  pews,  north  and  south,  extending  to  the 
east  wall,  beside  the  chancel.  The  north  wall  pews  were  held  by  the 
following  persons:  (The  Governor's  Pew),  Blisha  Eaton,  Jr.  (two 


pews),  James  Delap  Harris,  William  Charles  Moore,  Daniel  Cogs- 
well, Dr.  William  Baxter,  Samuel  Leonard,  Samuel  Leonard 
Allison,  George  Chipman,  William  Starr,  William  Campbell, 
Coloured  People.  The  south  wall  pews  were  held  by:  (The  Bishop's 
Pew),  Charles  Ramage  Prescott,  James  Allison,  Ann  Burbidge, 
Sarah  Belcher,  Edward  Sentill,  Sarah  Jarvis,  Elias  Burbidge, 
Gideon  Harrington,  Owen  Brien,  Charles  Ramage  Prescott,  Coloured 
People.  The  north  middle  row  were  held  by:  William  Campbell, 
WiUiam  Robinson,  Henry  Gesner,  Dr.  WiUiam  Bayard,  Joseph  Starr, 
John  Terry,  Luther  Hathaway ;  the  south  middle  row  by :  Ann  Bur- 
bidge, James  Allison,  George  Jackson,  Benjamin  Steadman,  Phebe 
Lockwood,  Joseph  Jackson,  David  Whidden.  This  list  of  pew- 
holders  of  course  gives  us  exact  information  as  to  who  the  most 
conspicuous  adherents  of  the  Church  of  England  in  Cornwallis  in 
the  first  quarter  of  the  19th  century  were. 

Regarding  the  three  most  active  lay  supporters  of  the  Church 
in  its  beginning  in  Cornwallis,  a  few  words  may  properly  here  be 
said.  Col.  John  Burbidge,  who  from  1784  until  1802  was  Senior 
Warden  of  St.  John's,  and  for  a  longer  period  than  this  was  prob- 
ably the  most  influential  man  in  Cornwallis,  was  an  Englishman, 
born  in  1716,  or  '17,  in  Cowes,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight.  In  1749  he  came 
to  Halifax,  perhaps  with  the  first  group  of  English  settlers  of  that 
town,  and  in  the  first,  second  and  third  Assemblies  of  the  province 
represented  the  town.  Shortly  after  1761,  however,  having  received 
a  share  and  a  half  of  land  in  Cornwallis,  he  removed  to  King's 
County,  and  thereafter  was  one  of  the  controlling  forces  among  the 
New  England  planters  who  had  settled  on  the  Acadian  lands.  In 
1764  he  was  appointed  Deputy  Registrar  of  Deeds  for  Cornwallis  and 
in  the  fourth  Assembly  of  the  province,  from  1765  to  1770,  he  repre- 
sented the  town.  In  all  matters  of  local  government  his  decisions 
had  great  weight,  and  to  his  intelligence  and  foresight  the  early 
agricultural  and  commercial  intersts  of  the  county  owed  much.  His 
first  wife,  Elizabeth,  born  in  1720,  died  in  Cornwallis  in  1775,  and 
was  buried  in  St.  John's  churchyard;  his  second  wife  was  Rebecca, 
daughter  of  the  Hon.  William  Dudley  of  Boston,  grand-daughter  of 


Governor  Joseph  Dudley  of  Massachusetts,  great-grand-daughter  of 
Governor  Thomas  Dudley,  and  when  Col  Burbidge  married  her, 
widow  of  Hon.  Benjamin  Gerrish  of  Boston  and  Halifax,  a  merchant 
of  prominence,  who  died  in  England,  May  6,  1772.  Col.  Burbidge 
had  no  children  by  either  marriage,  but  he  brought  to  Cornwallis 
from  Cowes,  four  nephews,  who  founded  the  Burbidge  family  so 
long  known  in  King's  County,  and  in  Canada  at  large.  The  opening 
words  of  the  Parish  Register  of  St.  John's  are:  "Historical  memo- 
randums taken  by  John  Burbidge,  Esquire,  during  his  lifetime  and 
continued  by  him  after  being  elected  Church  Warden  of  the  Church 
of  St.  John's,  at  Cornwallis,  in  King's  County,  in  the  Province  of 
Nova  Scotia  ".  On  a  later  page  of  the  Register  is  the  statement  that, 
"In  the  year  1770,  John  Burbidge  and  William  Best,  Esquires,  at 

their  own  expense  built  a  small  church  in  said  Cornwallis  for  the  more 


decent  and  convenient  performance  of  Divine  Service".  Later  still 
is  this  conspicuous  entry :  "On  the  11th  of  March,  1812,  John  Bur- 
bidge, Esquire,  the  great  patron  of  the  Church  in  King's  County  for 
upwards  of  fifty  years,  departed  this  life,  and  on  the  14th  his 
remains  were  interred  at  the  old  Church,  attended  by  all  the  magis- 
trates, the  militia  officers  in  their  uniforms,  and  the  principal 
inhabitants  of  the  County".  Mr.  Burbidge  was  a  colonel  in  the 
militia  and  it  was  desired  by  the  commanding  officer  that  his 
remains  should  be  interred  with  military  honours.  The  offer  to  have 
this  done,  however,  was  refused  by  his  relatives.  When  he  died  (in 
his  96th  year)  he  was  the  oldest  militia  officer,  the  oldest  justice  of 
the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  and  the  oldest  magistrate  in  the 
province.  The  newspaper  notice  of  his  death  speaks  of  him  as  a 
man  "revered  and  loved  by  all  who  knew  him,  for  his  piety, 
integrity,  and  benevolence". 

Of  William  Best,  whose  name  is  associated  with  Mr.  Burbidge 
in  the  building  of  the  church,  we  know  less  than  we  do  about  the 
latter.  He,  too,  came  out  to  Halifax  with  the  early  settlers 
and  soon  removed  to  Cornwallis,  and  he  and  his  family  were 
long  prominently  connected  with  St.  John's  Church.  But  the 
person  next  in  general  importance  to  Col.  Burbidge  was  Mr.  Ben- 


jamin  Belcher,  founder  of  the  important  Belcher  family  of  King's 
County,  who  was  born  at  Gibraltar,  probably  of  English  parents, 
July  17,  1743,  and  who  married  in  Oornwallis,  in  1763  or '64,  Sarah, 
daughter  of  Stephen  and  Elizabeth  (Clark)  Post.  Like  Col.  Bur- 
bidge,  he  was  a  considerable  land-owner  and  farmer,  but  he  was 
long  a  prosperous  trader,  as  well.  In  1784,  as  we  have  seen,  he  was 
elected  Junior  Warden  of  St.  John's,  and  this  office  he  held  until 
his  death  in  1802.  From  1785  to  '99,  Mr.  Belcher  also  represented 
Cornwallis  in  the  legislature.  Of  other  early  supporters  of  the 
Church  of  England  in  Cornwallis,  however,  the  Starrs,  Steadmans, 
Shermans,  Harringtons,  Chipmans,  Eatons,  Harrises,  Katchfords, 
Pineos,  and  others,  few  had  been  reared  Churchmen,  but  most  had 
in  infancy  been  baptized  in  New  England  Congregationalist 

The  18th  century  witnessed  in  England  and  America  a  series 
of  great  "Revival  Movements"  in  religion,  and  at  last,  in  the 
spring  of  1776,  one  of  these  stirring  revivals  began  in  Nova  Scotia. 
The  chief  agent  of  the  revival,  as  we  shall  hereafter  more  fully  see, 
was  Henry  Alline,  born  in  New  England,  but  reared  in  Falmouth, 
King's  County,  a  young  man  of  remarkable  gifts,  but  of  slight 
education  and  little  knowledge  of  life,  in  whose  heart  had  been 
kindled  a  burning  zeal  for  religion  as  he  conceived  it,  and  for  the 
rescue  of  souls  from  hell.  Having  experienced  in  his  own  life  a  pro- 
found awakening,  he  soon  felt  constrained  to  give  himself  entirely 
to  the  work  of  quickening  others,  and  for  seven  years,  in  Hants 
and  King's  counties,  and  indeed  throughout  the  Maritime  Provinces- 
generally,  he  travelled  incessantly,  holding  stirring  revival  meet- 
ings, preaching  fiery  sermons  against  sin,  condemning  worldliness  in 
the  churches,  and  rousing  the  country  communities  to  a  pitch  of 
religious  fervour  that  Nova  Scotia  had  never  witnessed  before.  To 
the  sober  Church  people,  and  indeed  to  the  more  conservative  Con- 
gregationalists  and  Presbyterians  of  the  province,  Alline 's  irregular 
opinions  and  methods  naturally  gave  the  greatest  offense.  The 
young  man  had  little  respect  for  traditional  Church  organization 
or  order  of  any  kind,  and  he  took  no  pains  to  conceal  his  belief  that 


most  of  the  clergy  labouring  in  Nova  Scotia  were  still  unconverted, 
and  so,  blind  leaders  of  the  blind.  The  consequence  was  that  with 
some  justice,  though  often  with  a  good  deal  of  misunderstanding, 
the  revivalist  and  his  converts  came  under  the  severe  censure 
of  those  who  had  faith  in  the  long  established  methods  of  church 
order  and  church  work  that  the  Society  for  the  Propagation  of  the 
Gospel,  and  the  first  New  England  Congregationalists,  had  intro- 
duced into  the  province.  In  both  Hants  and  King's  counties  AUine's 
preaching  resulted  in  a  lamentable  schism  from  the  regular  Con- 
gregationalist  body,  and  the  establishment  of  "New  Light" 
Congregationalist  churches,  which  later  became  Baptist  churches, 
and  for  some  years  after  the  revivalist's  death  the  clergy  of  the 
Established  Church  in  their  reports  to  the  S.  P.  G.  continued  to 
deplore  the  effects  of  his  irregular  teaching. 

In  1787,  Mr.  Wiswall,  in  Cornwallis,  writes  with  sorrow  of 
"the  vast  number  of  Methodists,  New  Lights,  and  Lay  Teachers", 
whom  he  finds  invading  his  parish.  This  clergyman's  immediate 
successor,  however,  the  Eev.  William  Twining,  was  evidently  less 
out  of  sympathy  with  the  spirit  of  the  new  teachers,  for  in  1804  the 
Rev.  William  Black,  founder  of  the  Wesleyan  body  in  Nova  Scotia, 
writes  the  Methodist  Missionary  Society  that  at  Horton,  "the  princi- 
pal place  in  his  circuit",  for  several  years  the  Rev.  Mr.  Twining  of 
Cornwallis  has  preached  regularly  one  in  three  weeks  in  the 
Methodist  chapel,  and  has  frequently  administered  the  Lord's 
Supper  to  the  Methodist  people.  Five  or  six  years  before,  says 
Mr.  Black,  Mr.  Twining  had  been  first  brought  "to  experience  the 
converting  grace  of  God";  from  which  time  he  had  not  shunned 
to  declare  the  necessity  for  regeneration,  and  warmly  to  press  on 
the  consciences  of  his  hearers  "this  and  the  other  distinguishing 
doctrines  of  the  Gospel."  He  had  frequently  been  present  at  the 
meeting  of  the  "class",  and  had  spoken  with  great  humility  and 
thankfulness  of  the  grace  of  Jesus  Christ.  Sometimes  he  had 
even  conducted  the  class  meeting  himself.  His  attachment  to  the 
Methodists,  and  his  plain  manner  of  preaching  the  doctrines  of 
the  Gospel,  hed  brought  upon  him,  Mr.  Black  says,  ' '  much  reproach, 


and  considerable  trials  from  some  from  whom  he  ought  to  have 
received  much  encouragement.  Benjamin  Belcher,  Esq.,  one  of  his 
vestry,  who  had  been  his  principal  opponent  and  had  pre- 
ferred many  charges  against  him  to  the  Bishop,  on  his  death- 
bed had  sent  for  Mr.  Twining  to  pray  with  him,  and  in  his 
will  he  left  about  two  hundred  pounds  towards  the  building  him 
a  church".  In  his  own  report  to  the  Society  in  1803,  Mr.  Twining 
speaks  of  the  loss  the  Church  had  met  with  in  the  death  of  Mr. 
Belcher,  whom  he  calls  "a  valuable  parishioner".  Mr  Belcher,  he 
says,  "has  bequeathed  two  hundred  pounds  towards  building  an 
altar  piece  in  the  church". 

In  1806  Mr.  Twining  removed  from  Cornwallis  to  Sydney,  Cape 
Breton,  but  some  time  later  he  came  to  Newport  and  Eawdon, 
Hants  County.  Of  this  latter  parish  he  was  rector  when  Bishop 
Charles  Inglis  died,  in  1816.  His  wife  was  Sarah,  daughter  of  the 
Rev.  Joshua  "Wingate  "Weeks,  a  New  England  Loyalist  clergyman, 
who  at  the  Revolutionary  "War  took  refuge  in  Nova  Scotia,  and  in 
Cornwallis  the  Twinings  had  seven  children  born.  The  eldest  of 
these  was  afterward  the  Rev.  John  Thomas  Twining,  D.  D.,  curate 
of  St.  Paul's  and  the  Garrison  Chapel,  because  of  attachment  to 
whom  a  number  of  influential  families  soon  after  1825  seceded  from 
St.  Paul's  Church,  Halifax,  and  gave  their  influence  to  the  Baptist 

When  the  Rev.  "William  Twining  left  Cornwallis  the  Rev. 
Robert  Norris  was  elected  in  his  place.  Mr.  Norris  was  an  English- 
man, born  in  1763  and  ordained,  it  is  said,  in  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church.  Becoming  a  Protestant,  however,  in  1797  he  was  sent  as 
an  S.  P.  G.  missionary  to  Nova  Scotia,  and  very  soon  after  was 
placed  at  Chester,  where  he  married  Lydia,  daughter  of  Dr.  Jona- 
than Prescott,  and  sister  of  the  Hon.  Charles  Ramage  Prescott,  who 
was  long  a  resident  of  Cornwallis  and  an  important  parishioner  of 
St.  John's.  From  Chester,  in  1801,  Mr.  Norris  removed  to  New 
Brunswick,  but  in  1806  he  came  to  Cornwallis.  "What  his  religious 
temper  was  may  be  seen  from  the  report  that  is  given  of  him  when 
he  was  at  Chester.  There,  it  is  said,  he  generally  chose  for  his  sermons 
"Gospel  themes",   endeavoured   to   give   his   congregations   right 


apprehensions  of  the  doctrine  of  Salvation,  pointed  out  to  them  the 
advantages  of  peace  and  union  and  Christian  charity,  and  "took 
every  occasion  to  remove  the  prejudices  and  correct  the  errors 
which  some  had  fallen  into  through  the  influences  of  the  New  Lights, 
who  prevailed".  In  the  Rectorship  of  St.  John's,  Cornwallis,  he 
remained  until  September  15,  1829,  when  he  resigned ;  he  continued, 
however,  to  live  in  Cornwallis  until  his  death  in  1834.  In  the  Rec- 
torship of  Cornwallis  he  was  at  once  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  John 
Moore  Campbell,  who  remained  until  1835.  From  1835  till  1838  the 
Rev.  John  Samuel  Clarke  was  rector;  from  1841  to  1876,  the  Rev. 
John  Storrs ;  from  1876  to  1879,  the  Rev.  Richmond  Shreve  (now  the 
Rev.  Richmond  Shreve,  D.  D.,  of  Sherbrooke,  Diocese  of  Quebec) ; 
from  1879  to  1903,  the  Rev.  Frederick  J.  H.  Axford.  In  1903  the 
present  efflcient  rector,  the  Rev.  T.  C.  Mellor,  began  his  work. 


Rev.  Joseph  Bennett  1761 — '75 

Rev.  William  Ellis  1775— '79 

Rev.  Jacob  Bailey  1779— '82 


Rev.  John  Wiswall  1782— '89 

Rev.  William  Twining  1789—1806 

Rev.  Robert  Norris  1806— '29 

Rev.  John  Moore  Campbell  1829— '35 

Rev.  John  Samuel  Clarke  1835— '38  (July) 

Rev  John  Storrs  1841— '76 

Rev.  Richmond  Shreve  "^  1876— '79 

Rev.  Fred'k  J.  H.  Axford  1879—1903 

Rev.  T.  C.  Mellor  1903— 

During  the  absence  in  England  of  Rev.  John  Storrs,  1874- '76, 
the  Revds.  Robert  P.  Brine  and  H.  Sterns,  successively,  took 
the  Rector's  place. 

.Of  the  work  of  the  earliest  English  Church  missionaries  on  the- 


Horton  side  of  the  Cornwallis  river  we  know  very  little  in  detail. 
Until  late  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  19th  century  no  parish 
organization  existed  in  the  township  of  Horton,  and  although  the 
Cornwallis  rectors  officiated  with  more  or  less  "frequency  there,  very 
few  references  to  their  labours  are  to  be  found  in  their  reports  to 
the  S.  P.  G.  In  1785  Mr.  Wiswall  was  officiating  once  a  month  in 
the  Baptist  Meeting  House  at  what  is  now  "Wolfville,  but  in  1786  he 
reports  that  he  has  but  two  communicants  in  his  Horton  mission. 
In  Horton,  between  August,  1783,  and  June,  1786,  he  had  married 
three  couples,  baptized  three  persons,  and  buried  two.  As  late  as 
1804,  as  we  have  seen  from  the  Eev.  William  Black's  letter,  Mr, 
Twining  was  officiating  once  in  three  weeks  in  the  Grand  Pre 
Methodist  Chapel. 

Of  the  formal  constitution  of  the  parish  of  St.  John's,  Horton, 
no  record  whatever  remains  in  the  parish  itself.  In  1813  there  was 
a  survey  made  of  the  marsh  belonging  to  the  Horton  glebe,  on 
behalf  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Norris,  who  was  then  called  "Missionary 
of  Cornwallis  and  Horton".  Our  earliest  intimation  of  the  organ- 
ization of  a  parish  at  Horton  comes  from  the  record  of  a  deed  of 
one  acre  of  ground  (for  thirty  pounds)  given  by  Stephen  Brovm 
DeWolfe  to  Bishop  Stanser,  January  1,  1817,  and  the  gift  to  the 
parish  by  the  S.  P.  G.,  through  the  Rev.  Robert  Norris,  missionary 
in  charge,  of  a  large  Bible,  in  1818.  The  parish  was  therefore 
probably  organized  in  1817,  and  the  church  building  erected  very 
soon  after.  It  is  said  that  Thaddeus  Harris,  of  Kentville,  for  some 
years  after  the  parish  was  organized  acted  as  clerk  of  the  vestry, 
but  somewhere  about  the  middle  of  the  19th  century  his  father's 
store  in  Kentville  was  burned,  and  whatever  records  he  kept, 
with  other  public  records  of  Horton  township,  were  probably 
then  destroyed.  The  earliest  records  of  the  parish  now  in  existence 
are  of  the  year  1823,  at  which  time  the  Rev.  Joseph  Wright  was 
Rector.  The  earliest  baptism  Mr.  Wright  records  was,  July  27th, 
1823,  and  the  earliest  marriage  was  August  16th  of  the  same  year. 
The  last  entry  made  by  this  clergyman  is  a  burial  on  the  3rd  of 
September,  1829.    It  is  therefore  probable  that  Mr.  Wright  was  the 


first  Rector  of  Horton  and  that  he  was  inducted  into  the  parish  about 
the  time  his  first  entry  was  made. 

On  the  1st  of  January,  1830,  Mr.  Wright  was  succeeded  by  the 
Rev.  John  Samuel  Clarke,  of  a  family  that  had  early  settled  in 
Halifax,  who  in  1835  also  assumed  the  rectorship  of  St.  John's 
parish,  Cornwallis.  When  Mr.  Clarke  came  to  Horton  the  Rev.  John 
Moore  Campbell  was  Rector  of  Cornwallis,  but  owing,  it  is  said,  to 
a  reduction  in  the  grant  of  the  S.  P.  G.  to  the  latter  parish,  by  which 
act  the  clergyman's  stipend  became  less,  in  1835  Mr.  Campbell 
resigned  at  Cornwallis  and  went  to  Granville.  To  the  Cornwallis 
rectorship,  also,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Clarke  was  then  elected,  and  this 
double  office  he  held  until  July,  1838,  when  by  his  removal  from  the 
diocese  both  parishes  became  vacant.  What  priests  have  ministered 
to  the  two  King's  County  parishes  during  the  immediately  follow- 
ing three  years  we  do  not  know;  but  the  next  rector  to  be  settled 
over  them  was  the  Rev.  John  Storrs,  a  clergyman  born  in  Yorkshire, 
England,  but  at  the  time  of  his  appointment,  curate  at  St.  George 's 
Halifax,  who  assumed  the  double  rectorship  in  April,  1841.  As 
rector  of  both  Cornwallis  and  Horton,  Mr.  Storrs  remained  until 
1876,  when  after  two  years'  absence  in  England  he  resigned  and 
settled  permanently  in  the  mother  land.  On  his  retirement  the  Rev. 
Richmond  Shreve  succeeded  to  the  Cornwallis  rectorship,  but  the 
Horton  parish  once  more  began  under  a  separate  head. 

Originally,  as  we  know,  the  chief  point  in  the  township  of 
Horton  was  what  is  now  Grand  Pre,  but  as  the  western  part  of  this 
township  and  the  eastern  part  of  Aylesford  became  more  thickly 
populated,  the  village  of  Kentville  attained  the  dignity  of  the 
county  town.  With  the  steady  growth  of  Kentville  in  importance 
the  interests  of  the  Church  in  Horton  naturally  came  to  centre  there, 
and  in  1843- '46,  a  "Chapel  of  Ease,"  under  the  name  of  St.  James, 
was  erected  in  Kentville.  The  parish  church  was  still  St.  John's, 
at  Wolfville,  but  the  number  of  worshippers  at  Kentville  was  now 
so  considerable  that  the  need  of  a  resident  clergyman  at  this  place 
became  imperative.  In  1855,  therefore,  as  is  recorded  on  the  parish 
registers  of  both  Cornwallis  and  Horton,  "the  District  of  St.  James, 


Kentville,  was  set  off  from  the  parishes  of  Cornwallis  and  Horton  as 
a  separate  charge,  by  written  agreement  between  the  Rev.  John 
Storrs  and  the  Rev.  Henry.  Leigh  Yewens,  dated  12th  day  of  April. 
1855.  The  sanction  of  his  Lordship  the  Bishop  to  said  agreement, 
and  the  separation  of  the  District  of  St.  James,  Kentville,  was 
signified  home  (probably  to  the  S.  P.  G.)  by  letters.  Date  the  2nd 
of  May,  1855."  This  agreement  is  signed  by  Harry  Leigh  Yewens, 
"Missionary  in  charge  of  the  District  of  St.  James,  Kentville". 

The  first  services  in  the  Kentville  ' '  Chapel  at  Base ' '  were  prob- 
ably conducted  with  more  or  less  frequency  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Storrs, 
possibly  assisted  by  temporary  curates.  From  March  28,  1852,  to 
early  in  August  of  the  same  year,  the  Rev.  James  Johnstone  Ritchie, 
afterward  Rector  of  St.  Luke 's  Church,  Annapolis  Royal,  as  ' '  assist- 
ant curate"  ministered  at  Kentville,  and  the  parish  register  (now 
at  "Wolfville)  records  baptisms  and  burials  performed  by  him  there. 
When  Mr.  Ritchie  left  Kentville,  the  Rev.  Harry  Leigh  Yewens, 
Tjorn  in  London,  England,  who  had  first  come  to  Nova  Scotia  in  the 
autumn  of  1848,  and  for  some  time  before  he  settled  in  King's  had 
ministered  at  Shubenacadie  and  adjacent  places,  was  at  once 
installed  in  his  place.  In  1853  he  was  advanced  to  the  priesthood  in 
St.  Paul's,  Halifax,  and  his  work  as  a  priest  in  Cornwallis  then  at 
once  began.  When  the  District  of  St.  James,  Kentville,  was  set  off, 
he  left  Cornwallis  to  become  "missionary  in  charge"  of  this  field, 
and  here  he  remained  until  1863,  when  after  eight  years  of  intelli- 
gent and  faithful  service  he  resigned  and  went  to  Digby.  His  first 
recorded  baptism  at  Kentville  was  on  the  1st  of  June,  1855,  and  the 
last  during  his  ministry  was  that  of  his  daughter,  Katherine  Agnes, 
performed  not  by  himself  but  by  Rev.  John  Storrs,  on  the  4th  of 
March,  1863.  Mr.  Yewens '  wife  was  Katherine,  born  in  1827,  fourth 
child  of  Thomas  Blake,  Esq.,  a  retired  Commander  in  the  Royal 
Navy  who  had  settled  at  Shubenacadie  in  1839.  Prom  the  beginning 
of  Mr.  Yewens'  ministry  at  Kentville,  the  District  of  St.  James, 
while  not  an  organized  parish,  had  almost  the  autonomy  of  a  parish. 
By  whom  during  this  clergyman's  incumbency  services  were  held 
.at  Wolfville  we  are  not  informed,  but  the  officiating  clergyman 


there  was  more  probably  Mr.  Storrs  than  the  Kentville  missionary 
in  charge. 

A  few  weeks  after  Mr.  Yewens  left  Kentville  for  Digby  the 
Rev.  John  Owen  Buggies,  M.  A.,  was  appointed  in  his  place.  Mr. 
Ruggles  who  was  a  great-grandson  of  Brigadier-General  Timothy 
Ruggles,  the  noted  Massachusetts  Loyalist,  was  graduated  from 
King's  College,  Windsor,  in  1859.  He  was  still  in  deacon's  orders, 
but  the  next  year  after  he  came  to  Kentville  he  was  ordained  priest. 
For  eight  years,  one  of  the  most  faithful  clergymen  the  county 
has  ever  had,  he  laboured  in  Kentville  and  the  country  aroiind,  but 
early  in  1871  he  resigned  his  King's  Coimty  charge  and  went  to 
St.  Margaret's  Bay.  During  May  and  June,  1871,  the  Rev.  Edward 
Scaummell  officiated  at  Kentville,  but  from  August  of  that  year 
until  November,  1876,  the  Rev.  Theophilus  Richey  was  minister. 
When  Mr.  Storrs  resigned  the  double  rectorship  of  Comwallis  and 
Horton,  the  District  of  St.  James  seems  to  have  become  absorbed 
by  the  Parish  of  Horton,  the  Rev.  J.  Lloyd  Keating,  a  native  of 
Halifax,  being  called  to  the  Horton  rectorship.  In  about  a  year  Mr. 
Keating  resigned,  and  early  in  1878  the  Rev.  John  Owen  Ruggles 
was  recalled  to  the  county,  this  time  as  Rector  of  Horton  and  not 
merely  missionary  in  charge  of  Kentville.  For  ten  years,  until  1888, 
this  devoted  clergyman  ministered  with  unflagging  interest  to  his 
large  parish,  but  in  1888  he  retired  from  pastoral  work  and  opened 
a  church  bookstore  in  Halifax.  In  1889  the  Rev.  Isaac  Brock,  D.  D., 
accurate  scholar  and  faithful  priest,  some  time  President  of  King's 
College,  and  later  Canon  of  St.  Luke's  Cathedral,  Halifax,  was 
elected  in  his  place.  In  1893  the  parish  of  St.  James,  Kentville,  with 
fixed  boundaries,  was  formally  set  off  from  the  parish  of  Horton, 
and  the  Rev.  Dr.  Brock  was  elected  its  first  rector,  the  Rev.  Kenneth 
C.  Hind  becoming  rector  of  the  old  parish  of  Horton.  For  more 
than  six  years  Dr.  Brock  faithfully  served  St.  James  Parish,  but 
January  30,  1900,  he  resigned  and  on  the  25th  of  July  of  the  same 
year,  the  present  incumbent,  the  Rev.  Charles  De Wolfe  White, 
became  rector.  In  1899,  the  Rev.  Richard  Ferguson  Dixon,  born  at 
Houghton  Hall,  Cumberland,  England,  for  two  years  previously 


Rural  Dean  of  Avon,  a  governor  of  King's  College,  and  former 
editor  of  Church  Work,  was  elected  to  the  rectorship  of  Horton,  and 
this  position  he  still  holds. 

The  act  of  the  legislature,  passed  April  28,  1893,  which  divided 
the  parish  of  Horton,  prescribed  that  the  parish  of  Kentville  should 
comprise  all  the  territory  west  of  the  "Deep  Hollow  Road",  south 
to  the  county  line,  and  north  to  the  Comwallis  river.  The  Rectory 
of  St.  James,  KentviUe,  was  built  in  1854, 


Rev.  Joseph  Wright  1823  (probably)— '25 

Rev.  John  Samuel  Qarke  1830— '38 

Rev.  John  Storrs  1841— '76 

Rev.  J.  Lloyd  Keating  1877— '78 

Rev.  John  Owen  Ruggles  1878— '88 

Rev.  Isaac  Brock,  D.  D.  1889— '93 

Rev.  Kenneth  C.  Hind  1893— '99 

Rev.    Richard  Ferguson  Dixon       1899     — 


Rev.  Harry  Leigh  Tewens  1855 — '63 

Rev.  John  Owen  Ruggles  1863— '71 

Rev.  Theophilus  Richey  1871— '76 


Rev.  Isaac  Brock,  D.  D.  1893—1900 

Rev.  Charles  DeWolfe  White      1900— 

When  the  first  Anglican  missionary  may  have  visited  Parrs- 
borough  we  do  not  know,  but  the  earliest  settled  clergyman  in  that 
part  of  King's  County  was  the  Rev.  Thomas  Shreve  (grandfather  of 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Richmond  Shreve),  who  was  licensed  by  Robert, 
Bishop  of  London,  "to  perform  the  ministerial  office  of  a  priest  at 
Parrsborough,  in  Nova  Scotia,  in  North  America",  June  6,  1787, 


and  who  remained  at  Parrsborough  until  1807,  when  he  was  insti- 
tuted (August  13th)  by  Bishop  Inglis  to  the  Cure  of  Lunenburg, 
In  the  office  of  the  Registry  of  Deeds  at  Parrsborough  is  recorded 
the  following  deed:  "Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  I, 
Thomas  William  Moore,  of  Parrsborough,  King's  County,  Nova 
Scotia,  esquire,  from  the  regard  and  respect  I  have  for  the  Church 
of  England  as  by  law  established,  and  in  consideration  of  a  church 
being  built  and  placed  on  the  land  hereinafter  described,  have  given 
and  granted  and  do  by  these  presents  give  and  grant  and  alien  unto 
the  Reverend  Thomas  Shreve,  the  present  rector,  Edward  Cole  and 
Elisha  Lawrence,  esquires,  wardens,  and  unto  John  Longstreet, 
Edward  Potts,  Caleb  Lewis,  John  Fordyce,  Silas  Crane,  James  Ray- 
mond, "William  Taylor,  Dr.  John  Mercer  (one  of  the  commissioners), 
Archibald  McEachern,  and  Archibald  Thompson,  Vestrymen;  and 
to  them  and  their  successors  in  trust  for  the  sole  use  and  behoof  of 
the  said  Established  Church  forever,  one  hundred  and  fifty  acres  of 
land,  situate  lying  and  being  as  follows  to  wit:  Beginning  at  high 
water  mark  up  the  river  called  Partridge  or  Chignecto,  etc.,  etc.  To 
lave  and  to  hold  the  above  described  premises  unto  the  said  rector, 
church  wardens,  and  vestry,  in  trust  aforesaid,  to  them  and  their 
successors  forever,  thereby  engaging  to  warrant  and  forever  defend^ 
the  said  premises  against  all  persons  claiming  right  to  the  same.  In 
witness  whereunto  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal  at  Parrs- 
borough, this  12th  day  of  August,  A.  D.,  1788,  and  in  the  twenty- 
eighth  year  of  his  Majesty's  reign,  whom  God  preserve. 

'    "(Signed)  Thomas  William  Moore ". 

May  31,  1813,  a  glebe  or  minister's  lot  of  600  acres,  and  a 
school  lot  of  400  acres,  were  given  to  Parrsborough  by  the  govern- 
ment, but  it  was  largely  through  the  liberal  benefaction  of  Captain 
Moore  that  the  Church  was  first  able  properly  to  establish  itself  in 
this  part  of  Krag 's  County.  In  Mr.  Shreve 's  first  report  to  the  S.  P.  G. 
he  says  that  a  church  building  has  been  begun  at  Parrsborough, 
Governor  Parr  having  allotted  .for  the  building  of  it  two  hun- 
dred poimds.    The  church  is  to  be  forty  feet  long  and  twenty-seven 


feet  high,  with  a  steeple  fifty  feet  high,  and  its  location  is  near 
Partridge  Island,  the  supposed  centre  of  the  parish,  where  the 
Rector  himself  resides.  In  this  report  Mr.  Shreve  also  speaks  of 
the  great  extent  of  his  mission,  in  which  he  believes  there  are  about 
a  hundred  families.  Besides  Parrsborough,  he  ofSciates  at  Ratch- 
ford  Harbour  and  Half-Way  river.  In  two  distinct  reports  after 
this  he  announces  that  the  church  is  nearly  completed,  but  after 
1792,  until  the  end  of  the  century,  the  Society's  reports  give  us  no 
information  concerning  the  Parrsborough  parish. 

The  church  was  finished,  and  consecrated  as  "St.  George's", 
in  1790.    The  first  rector,  born  probably  in  New  Jersey,  was  gradu- 
ated at  King's  College,  New  York,  in  1773,  and  then  began  to  study 
for  orders.    When  the  Revolution  broke  out,  however,  he  entered 
the  King's  srvice,  in  which  he  served,  first  as  lieutenant,  then  as 
captain,  in  the  Prince  of  Wales  American  Volunteers.    When  the 
war  was  over  he  retired  from  the  army  on  half  pay,  and  going  to 
London  was  ordained  Deacon  in  April,  1787,  and  ordered  Priest  in 
June  of  the  same  year.     He  then  came  to  Nova  Scotia  and  for 
twenty  years  laboured  at  Parrsborough,  after  which,  as  we  have 
seen,  he  settled  in  Lunenburg,  where,  August  21st,  1816,  he  died. 
Capt.  Thomas  William  Moore,  the  earliest  benefactor  of  the  Church  in 
Parrsborough,  was  also  a  new  York  Loyalist.    In  1781  he  came  to 
Parrsborough,   where   he   built   a   large   house,   which   he   named 
"Whitehall",  and  in  which  he  lived  for  a  few  years.    Becoming 
tired  of  Nova  Scotia,  however,  he  finally  went  back  to  New  York, 
leaving  in  Nova  Scotia  a  son.  Col.  William  Charles  Moore,  who 
moved  from     Parrsborough  to  Cornwallis  and  there  founded  the 
well-known   Moore   family   of   King's    County,    which    afterwards 
became  more  closely  identified  with  Horton.    Capt.  Moore 's  daughter, 
Rachel  Lane  Moore,  became  the  wife  of  William  Campbell,  Esq.,  long 
Judge  of  Probate  for  King's  County,  and  like  Col.  William  Charles 
Moore,  a  parishioner  of  the  Cornwallis  Church  of  St.  John.    The  list 
of  Rectors  of  Parrsborough  (so  far  as  we  have  been  able  to  compile 
it)  to  the  present  time  is  as  follows : 



Rev.  Thomas  Shreve  1787—1807 

?            ?  ?          ? 

Rev.  George  Morris  1823— '27 

Rev.  W.  B.  King  1830— '31 

?            ?  ?          ? 

Rev.  N.  A.  Coster  1836— '42 

Rev.  Robert  Arnold  1843— '45 

Rev.  W.  H.  Cooper  1846 

Rev.  W.  B.  King  1846— '75 

Rev.  Robert  F.  Brine  1875— '78 

Rev.  Charles  Bowman,  D.  D.  1878— '88 

Rev.  Simon  Gibbons  1888— '96 

Rev.  John  Ambrose,  D.  D.  1897 

Rev.  Robert  Johnston  1897—1900 

Rev.  "William  Driffield  1900— '04 

Rev.  H.  J.  Johnston  1905— '07 

Rev.  George  Backhurst  1907 — 

Like  Parrsborough,  the  township  of  Aylesford  was  settled 
chiefly  after  the  close  of  the  American  Revolutionary  War.  Until 
1789  "Wilmot,  in  Annapolis  county,  and  the  whole  township  of 
Aylesford,  which  lay  between  "Wilmot  and  Cornwallis  and  Horton, 
was  part  of  the  large  King's  County  mission,  and  occasionally  we 
find  mention  in  the  Society's  reports  of  work  done  in  the  western 
part  of  this  enormous  field.  Such  mention,  however,  is  chiefly  of 
Wilmot,  where  between  August,  1783,  and  June,  1786,  Mr.  Wiswall 
reports  that  he  had  had  seven  baptisms ;  in  1787,  however,  in  that 
township  he  had  had  twenty-eight  baptisms.  In  1789,  as  we  have  seen, 
the  best  part  of  Aylesford  was  united  with  Wilmot  in  a  separate 
mission,  and  the  Rev.  Mr.  Wiswall,  removing  from  Cornwallis, 
became  its  minister. 

Of  his  new  field,  in  1791  Mr.  Wiswall  gives  the  Society  a  rather 
dreary  account.  He  says  that  that  part  of  the  province,  "though 
the  finest  land,  and  most  healthy  and  pleasant  of  any  in  Nova  Scotia, 


is  yet  but  thinly  settled,  and  by  those  who  in  general  are  very  poor, 
living  mostly  in  huts,  having  none  of  the  conveniences  and  few  of 
the  necessaries  of  life,  and  being  so  long  habituated  to  what  may 
be  called  a  savage  life  that  it  is  very  difficult  to  civilize  them".  The 
past  winter  he  says,  had  been  so  severe  that  he  had  been  prevented 
for  four  Sundays  from  getting  to  the  Aylesf ord  church.  Perhaps  on 
account  of  the  severe  weather,  in  half  a  year  he  had  had  only  three 
children  brought  to  him  for  baptism.  In  this  time  he  had  married 
seven  couples,  and  had  attended  one  funeral.  The  settlers,  of  whose 
character  he  speaks  in  such  a  deprecating  way,  were  chiefly  com- 
mon soldiers  who  had  served  on  the  British  side  in  the  Revolution, 
and  with  many  of  the  officers  who  had  commanded  them,  when  the 
war  was  over  had  come  to  Nova  Scotia  and  from  the  government  or 
from  private  owners  had  obtained  small  tracts  of  land.  By  this 
class  certaia  parts  of  "Wilmot  were  almost  exclusively  settled. 

In  Upper  Aylesford,  however,  as  we  have  seen,  late  in  the  18th 
and  early  in  the  19th  century  there  were  not  a  few  settlers  of  a  very 
much  higher  class.  In  1783  Mr.  James  Morden,  an  Englishman, 
ordnance  storekeeper  at  Halifax,  received  a  grant  of  five  thousand 
acres  in  Aylesford,  and  very  soon  after  fixed  his  summer  residence 
there.  In  1790  Bishop  Charles  Inglis  also  received  land  in  Aylesford, 
and  he  too  soon  built  in  that  township  a  summer  house.  In  1814 
Henry  VanBuskirk,  formerly  of  New  Jersey,  received  a  grant  of 
land  in  the  township,  and  thereafter  for  many  years  he  was  a 
prominent  person  in  the  town.  In  1790,  chiefly  through  the  exer- 
tions and  benefactions  of  Mr.  Morden,  a  church  called  St.  Mary's 
was  built  at  Aylesford,  of  which  we  have  a  detailed  account  in  the 
Society's  report  for  that  year.  It  was  fifty-seven  feet  long,  includ- 
ing the  chancel  and  steeple,  and  twenty-eight  feet  wide,  and  was 
"the  neatest  and  best  finished  Church  in  the  Province".  As  in  all 
the  Nova  Scotia  churches  built  in  the  18th  century,  one  pew  was 
set  apart  ia  it  for  the  Governor,  and  one  for  the  Bishop,  and  over 
their  pews  the  King's  arms  and  the  arms  of  the  Nova  Scotia  See, 
respectively,  were  handsomely  painted.  In  the  steeple  was  a  bell, 
and  for  the  Communion  table,  Reading  Desk,  and  Pulpit,  Commis- 


sioner  Duncan  had  given  a  set  of  silk-damask  hangings,  probably 
red.  To  complete  the  furnishing,  Governor  Wentworth  had  given 
the  Church  "a  Bible  and  Prayer  Book,  elegantly  bound".  As  an 
endowment  for  the  parish,  the  governor  had  granted  three  hun- 
dred acres  for  a  glebe,  and  Mr.  Morden  had  given  two  hundred 

In  the  parish  is  preserved  a  copy  of  a  paper,  "which  was  placed 
in  the  upper  ball  attached  to  the  vane  on  the  tower"  of  the  church, 
when  it  was  built.  The  paper  records  that  "this  Church  of  St. 
Mary's  was  built  in  the  year  1790,  under  the  patronage  of  his 
Excellency  John  Parr,  Esq.,  Lieutenant-Governor  of  this  Province; 
the  Right  Rev.  Charles  Inglis,  D.  D.,  first  Bishop  of  Nova  Scotia; 
and  James  Morden,  Esq.,  ordnance  storekeeper;  the  first  minister, 
Rev.  John  Wiswall;  the  builder,  William  Matthews".  An  article 
on  St.  Mary's  parish,  published  in  the  Canadian  Church  Magazine 
in  1891,  says  that  from  Mr.  Matthews'  bill  of  construction  it  is 
learned  that  the  total  cost  of  the  building  was  £475,  Is,  5d,  the 
amount  being  obtained  as  follows:  Governor  Parr,  £222,  4s,  6d; 
various  smaller  benefactions,  £86,  3,  3 ;  James  Morden,  £165,  13,  7. 
"The  furnishings  of  the  Church",  the  writer  of  this  article  says, 
"were  all  gifts,  among  others  an  elegant  folio  Bible  with  three 
Prayer  Books  to  match,  the  gift  of  Governor  Wentworth.  In 
addition  to  the  great  care  and  expense  at  which  Mr.  Morden  had 
been,  he  gave  a  deed  of  the  grounds  (between  five  and  six  acres) 
on  which  the  Church  stands,  with  its  surroundings". 

In  February,  1791,  the  parish  of  Aylesford  was  duly  organized, 
but  of  the  first  parochial  officers  we  have  not  the  names.  The 
earliest  recorded  minute  of  the  vestry,  however,  is  of  the  year  1802. 
On  Michaelmas  Day  of  that  year,  there  was  a  regular  meeting  of 
the  parish  held,  at  which  officers  were  elected  and  other  business 
was  transacted.  In  1795  Mr.  Wiswall  writes  the  Society  that  he 
had  a  good  congregation  at  Wilmot,  but  not  at  Aylesford.  At  the 
latter  place,  Mr.  Addison,  "the  catechist",  was  very  diligent  and 
gave  great  satisfaction.  In  1797  he  writes  that  at  Wilmot  his 
congregation  increases,  but  at  Aylesford  it  grows  less.    The  condi- 


tion  of  things  at  the  latter  place  is  made  worse  by  the  sympathy 
of  some  of  the  Aylesford  people  with  the  extravagances  of  the 
New  Lights  and  Methodists. 

On  the  ordination,  in  1801,  of  Rev.  John  Inglis,  Bishop  Charles 
Inglis'  son,  as  Deacon  and  Priest,  Mr.  Wiswall's  jurisdiction  over 
the  parish  of  Aylesford  seems  to  have  ceased,  for  from  that  time 
until  1816,  when  he  was  elected  rector  of  St.  Paul's,  Halifax,  the 
third  Bishop  of  Nova  Scotia  was  rector  of  St.  Mary's.  Not  long 
after  his  ordination,  however,  he  was  appointed  his  father's  Com- 
missary, and  during  much  of  his  rectorship  of  Aylesford  he  must 
necessarily  have  been  absent  from  his  parish.  In  1806  he  was  in 
England,  and  again  in  1813.  In  July,  1804,  his  first  child  was  born, 
apparently  in  Halifax,  and  it  would  seem  that  six  others  of  his 
children  were  born  there  also.  But  in  St.  Mary's  parish  remain 
fixed  traditions  of  much  faithful  service  performed  by  him  in  Ayles- 
ford. "  In  no  case ' ',  it  is  said, ' '  did  he  spare  himself,  but  continually 
travelling  the  wilderness  paths,  either  on  horseback  in  summer,  or 
on  snowshoes  in  winter,  he  visited  the  scattered  settlers,  relieved 
their  necessities  (for  there  was  much  poverty  at  that  time),  prayed 
with  the  sick,  baptized  their  children,  and  encouraged  all  by  his 
life  and  example  to  follow,  as  he  endeavoured  to  follow,  in  the 
footsteps  of  the  Master". 

In  spite  of  these  traditions  we  are  compelled  to  believe  that  much 
of  the  time  during  his  fifteen  years  rectorship  of  Aylesford  Dr. 
Inglis  was  away  from  his  parish,  and  we  cannot  help  wondering 
how  in  his  frequent  and  sometimes  long  absences  the  parish  needs 
were  met.  Of  his  rectorship  surprisingly  few  records  remain,  but 
of  one  important  fact  we  are  assured  from  sources  outside  the 
parish, — on  the  23rd  of  March,  1810,  the  government  increased  the 
endowment  of  the  parish  by  granting  to  "the  Rev.  John  Inglis, 
D.  D.,  Rector,  and  Alexander  Walker  and  Henry  VanBuskirk, 
Churchwardens  and  trustees  of  the  parish",  a  hundred  acres  "in 
part  of  a  glebe",  and  a  hundred  "in  part  of  a  school".  In  1816 
Bishop  Charles  Inglis  died,  and  his  son  went  to  England  hoping 
to  be  appointed  to  the  Nova  Scotia  See.    His  hopes,  however,  for 


the  time  were  disappointed.  Instead  of  the  episcopate  he  received 
from  the  government  the  rectorship  of  the  parish  of  St.  Paul's, 
Halifax.  His  immediate  successor  at  Aylesford  was  the  Eev. 
Edwin  Gilpin,  born  August  8,  1792,  at  Lower  Dublin,  Pennsylvania, 
baptized  there  by  Bishop  White,  admitted  to  King's  College,  Nova 
Scotia,  in  1814,  and  probably  early  in  1816  ordained  to  the  ministry 
and  elected  Rector  of  Aylesford.  For  the  first  few  years  of  his 
rectorship  Mr.  Gilpin  lived  in  "Wilmot  with  John  Wiswall,  Jr.  (son 
of  the  Rev.  John  Wiswall),  whose  daughter,  Eliza,  October  29,  1817, 
he  married.  Mrs.  Gilpin  died  in  Aylesford,  July  5th,  1823,  in  her 
27th  year,  and  Mr.  Gilpin  married,  second,  June  15th,  1827,  in 
Trinity  Church,  Newport,  R.  I.,  Gertrude  Aleph,  eldest  daughter  of 
Edward  and  Janet  (Parker)  Brinley,  who  died  January  17,  1845. 
In  1832  Mr.  Gilpin  became  rector  of  St.  Luke's  Church,  Annapolis 
Royal,  and  there  he  remained  until  his  death  twenty-eight  years 

When  he  had  been  at  Aylesford  a  few  years,  Mr.  Gilpin  "pur- 
chased the  property  a  great  part  of  which  now  forms  the  Rectory 
grounds".  During  the  whole  of  his  ministry  in  Aylesford  it  is  said 
there  was  no  minister  of  any  other  denomination  settled  in  the  town- 
ship, consequently  in  his  farewell  sermon,  holding  up  his  hands  he 
was  able  to  say:  "With  these  hands  have  I  baptized  every  child  that 
has  been  bom  in  the  parish  during  my  ministry".  Having  some 
knowledge  of  medicine  he  was  able  to  minister  very  often  to  the 
bodily  needs  of  his  people;  thus  in  every  way  he  was  in  King's 
County  a  faithful  and  useful  minister  of  Christ. 

In  1832  the  Rev.  Henry  Lambeth  Owen  became  Rector  of 
Aylesford,  and  three  years  later.  Dr.  Charles  Inglis,  son  of  Bishop 
John,  who  continued  to  live  in  Aylesford  until  his  death  in  1861,  by 
perseverance  secured  funds  and  built  a  schoolhouse  for  the  parish 
use.  In  1847,  among  other  good  works  which  he  did,  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Owen  started  a  branch  of  the  Diocesan  Church  Society  in  Aylesford, 
thus  materially  helping  the  work  of  diocesan  missions.  In  1852,  at 
the  Bishop's  request,  this  clergyman  left  Aylesford  and  assumed 
the  rectorship  of  Lunenburg,  in  which  position  he  remained  until 
he  died. 


The  next  rector  of  Aylesford  was  the  Rev.  Richard  Avery,  son 
of  John  and  Elizabeth  (Simmons)  Avery,  who  was  bom  at  South- 
ampton, England,  and  educated  there,  at  Warminster,  and  at 
Oxford,  his  brothers,  the  Rev.  John  S.  Avery,  M.  A.,  and  the  Rev. 
"William  Avery,  B.  A.,  being  chiefly  his  tutors.  Passing  the  Clerical 
Board  of  the  S.  P.  G.  in  London,  Mr.  Avery  was  sent  out  as  a  Deacon 
to  Nova  Scotia,  and  by  Bishop  John  Inglis  was  given  the  curacy 
of  Lxmenburg.  In  the  spring  of  1842  he  was  called  as  assistant  to 
St.  Paul's  Church,  Halifax,  and  Christ  Church,  Dartmouth,  and  in 
September,  1843,  was  priested  and  elected  rector  of  Yarmouth. 
Early  in  1846  he  resigned  the  parish  of  Yarmouth,  and  for  the 
next  six  months  was  assistant  at  Digby.  For  almost  two  years 
after  that,  in  the  absence  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Gray,  he  was  locum  tenens 
in  St.  John,  N.  B.  In  the  spring  of  1848,  however,  he  went  to  Pug- 
wash  and  Wallace,  but  in  1852  was  elected  Rector  of  Aylesford,  to 
succeed  Mr.  Owen.  The  duties  of  St,  Mary's,  Aylesford,  he  faith- 
fully performed  until  January  1,  1887,  when  with  the  permission 
of  the  Bishop  and  the  S.  P.  G.  he  retired  from  active  labour,  his 
place  being  filled  until  May,  1900,  successively,  by  the  Revs.  J.  M. 
C.  Wade,  and  G.  I.  Foster,  as  vicars.  In  May,  1900,  he  resigned 
the  parish.  Mr.  Avery  married,  first,  in  Yarmouth,  Mary  Ann, 
daughter  of  Gabriel  Bydder  Van  Norden,  of  Yarmouth,  who  bore 
him  a  daughter,  Helen,  and  a  son.  Dr.  William  A.  Avery ;  secondly, 
November  22,  1853,  in  Aylesford  (the  Rev.  Mr.  Stamer  of  Wilmot 
officiating),  Lavinia  Mary  Palmer,  of  Aylesford,  who  bore  him  a 
daughter,  Elizabeth  Palmer  Avery. 

Mr.  Avery  was  a  gentlemen  of  the  kindliest  spirit  and  the 
most  exact  good  breeding.  The  last  years  of  his  life  were  spent  at 
Kentville  where,  esteemed  and  honoured  as  he  had  been  through- 
out his  whole  ministerial  career,  on  the  6th  of  May,  1900,  he  passed 
to  a  better  life.  In  1900,  on  his  resignation  of  the  parish  of  Ayles- 
ford, the  Rev.  G.  I.  Foster  became  Rector.  From  1901  until  Decem- 
ber 31,  1903,  the  Rev.  James  Simonds  was  Rector,  and  in  January, 
1904,  the  Rev.  Henry  T.  Parlee,  M.  A.,  the  present  faithful  incum- 
bent, succeeded  to  the  parish. 



Rev.  John  Wiswall  1791—1801 

Rev.  John  Inglis,  D.  D.  1801—16 

Rev.  Edwin  Gilpin  1816— '32 

Rev.  Henry  Lambeth  Owen  1832— '52 

Rev.  Richard  Avery  1852—1900 

Rev.  G.  I.  Foster  1900— '01 

Rev.  James  Simonds  1901— '03 

Rev.  Henry  T.  Parlee  1904^ 


Rev.  John  Moore  Campbell  Wade  1888— '99 

Rev.  G.  I.  Foster  1899—1900 

A  subject  of  no  little  interest  in  connection  with  the  Church 
of  England  in  King's  County  is  the  administration  of  the  glebe 
and  school  lands  in  Cornwallis  and  Horton,  given  by  the  govern- 
ment in  1761.  In  the  Rector  and  Wardens  of  the  several  parishes 
of  the  county,  glebe  lands  of  course  always  have  been  vested.  In 
Cornwallis  the  glebe  has  from  the  first  been  managed  in  a  careful 
way,  but  in  Horton,  it  is  said,  owing  to  early  mismanagement  the 
uplands  have  lost  to  the  Church.  The  dyke  lands,  however,  are 
still  intact,  and  the  revenue  from  them  is  enjoyed  by  the  parish  of 
Horton.  On  the  creation  of  St.  James  parish,  Kentville,  the  division 
of  lands  then  made  gave  whatever  forest  lands  are  still  owned  by 
the  Church  to  the  newer  parish,  as  its  share  of  the  original  grant. 

As  we  have  elsewhere  stated,  September  26,  1769,  a  grant  of 
666  acres  was  given  the  Rev.  Benaiah  Phelps,  the  Cornwallis  Con- 
gregationalist  minister,  as  the  first  minister  of  any  denomination 
to  be  actually  settled  in  the  town.  The  subsequent  history  of  this 
grant  will  be  alluded  to  further  on.  At  the  same  time  as  Mr. 
Phelps,  the  Rev.  James  Murdoch  of  Horton,  Presbyterian,  received 
a  grant  of  500  acres  on  his  own  side  of  the  Cornwallis  river,  but 
whether  this  clergyman  on  his  removal  from  Horton  sold  his  land 
or  not  we  do  not  at  present  know.    In  1761,  two  shares  in  Horton, 


comprising  a  thousand  acres,  were  given  to  the  Eev.  John  Breyn- 
ton  of  Halifax.    This  was,  however,  strictly  a  personal  grant. 

The  history  of  the  school  lands  in  King's  County  is  too  long 
and  involved  to  be  given  save  in  the  barest  outline  here.  By  an 
act  passed  in  1766  the  income  from  these  lands  was  to  be  paid  by 
such  trustees  as  the  governor  should  appoint ' '  to  protect  and  improve 
them",  to  the  acknowledged  schoolmasters  of  the  S.  P.  G.  By  an 
act  dated  December  31,  1790,  the  Cornwallis  school  lands  were 
vested  in  the  Rev.  William  Twining  and  his  Churchwardens, 
Messrs.  Burbidge  and  Belcher,  as  trustees,  but  by  whom  the  Horton 
lands  were  to  be  administered  the  Nova  Scotia  "Private  and  Local 
Acts"  do  not  inform  us.  In  1813,  it  is  said,  all  the  Nova  Scotia 
school  lands  came  directly  under  the  control  of  the  Bishop  of  the 
Diocese  and  two  other  trustees  in  each  parish  where  they  existed, 
which  provision  seems  to  have  remained  indisputedly  in  force  until 

With  the  gradual  broadening  of  educational  methods  in  the 
province,  in  1838  an  attempt  was  made  to  withdraw  the  school 
lands  from  Church  control,  but  the  governor.  Sir  Colin  Campbell, 
positively  refused  his  assent  to  a  bill  authorizing  a  new  mode  of 
appointing  trustees.  The  next  year  the  right  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land to  administer  the  school  lands  was  brought  fully  before  Her 
Majesty's  Government,  the  provincial  legislature  then  pasing  an 
act  to  vest  them  all  in  trustees  for  the  purpose  of  general  euduea- 
tion.  This  act,  however,  the  British  Government  refused  to 
sanction,  and  after  hearing  the  opinions  of  counsel  in  England  as 
to  what  rights  in  these  lands  were  held  by  the  S.  P.  G.,  ordered  that 
all  lands  then  occupied  and  improved  by  the  Society  should  be 
preserved  to  the  Church. 

In  1850  the  Nova  Scotia  legislature  passed  another  act,  similar 
to  the  act  of  1839,  but  again  strong  protest  was  made  to  the  Queen 
by  the  S.  P.  G.  Upon  this.  Earl  Gray  in  a  dispatch  expressed  his 
surprise  that  the  Nova  Scotia  governor,  Sir  John  Harvey,  had 
assented  to  the  bill,  and  required  an  explanation  from  the  Attorney 
General.    Thus  the  conflict  went  on,  until  at  last,  as  regards  the 


Comwallis  school  lands,  the  matter  was  brought  to  the  notice  of 
the  Privy  Council.  The  decision  of  this  body  is  not  at  hand,  but 
after  the  erection  of  the  Nova  Scotia  counties  into  municipalities  in 
1879,  the  school  lands  of  King's  County  seem  all  to  have  become 
securely  vested  in  the  municipality.  By  an  act  of  the  legislature, 
passed  April  28,  1893,  the  trustees  of  school  lands  for  the  time  being 
were  empowered  to  sell,  if  need  be,  the  school  lands  in  Comwallis  ; 
and  by  an  act  passed  March  11,  1895,  the  school  lands  in  Horton; 
and  appropriate  the  income  from  such  sale  to  the  general  purposes 
of  education. 

The  first  S.  P.  G.  schoolmaster  in  King's  County  was  Mr. 
Cornelius  Fox,  at  Comwallis,  a  gentleman  born  in  County  Cork, 
Ireland,  in  1745.  On  the  18th  of  June,  1782,  the  governor,  Sir 
Andrew  Snape  Hamond,  granted  a  license  to  Cornelius  Fox  "to 
occupy  and  possess  that  lot  of  land  called  the  School  lot,  in  the 
township  of  Comwallis,  containiog  four  hundred  acres,  so  long  as 
he  shall  continue  to  be  employed  as  schoolmaster  by  the  Society 
in  England  for  Propagating  the  Gospel  in  Foreign  Parts".  Mr. 
Fox  left  Comwallis  for  Sydney,  Cape  Breton,  in  1797,  his  imme- 
diate successor  in  Comwallis  being  Mr.  Matthew  McLoughlin. 




The  New  England  planters  of  Cornwallis  and  Horton  were, 
of  course,  with  hardly  an  exception,  members  or  adherents  of  the 
independent  Congregationalist  churches  of  the  various  towns  from 
which  they  had  come  to  Nova  Scotia,  and  one  of  the  matters  of 
immediate  concern  to  them  must  have  been  the  establishment  in 
the  new  townships  where  their  lot  was  now  cast,  of  the  worship 
to  which  they  had  always  been  used.  In  Halifax,  shortly  after 
the  settlement  of  that  town,  there  were  enough  New  England 
people  of  Puritan  Congregationalist  origin  to  form  a  dissenting 
church.  .Of  this  church,  to  which  the  name  "Mather's"  was  given, 
the  Rev.  Aaron  Cleveland,  who  later  took  Orders  ia  the  English 
Church,  was  the  first  pastor.  Soon  after  the  New  England  migra- 
tion several  other  Congregationalist  churches  sprang  up  in  places 
where  New  England  men  had  settled,  and  by  the  beginning  of 
1770  seven  Nova  Scotia  Congregationalist  churches  had  entered  on 
their  career.  These  were,  at  Yarmouth,  with  the  Rev.  Nehemiah 
Porter  as  pastor;  at  Barrington,  with  the  Rev.  Samuel  Wood;  at 
Liverpool,  with  the  Rev.  Israel  Cheever.;  at  Chester,  with  the  Rev. 
John  Secombe;  at  Cumberland,  with  the  Rev.  Caleb  Gannett;  at 
Halifax,  with  the  Rev.  William  Moore;  and  at  Cornwallis  and 
Horton,  with  the  Rev.  Benaiah  Phelps.  Of  these  Congregationalist 
ministers,  the  Rev.  Israel  Cheever,  the  Rev.  John  Secombe,  and  the 
Rev.  Caleb  Gannett  were  graduates  of  Harvard ;  the  Rev.  Benaiah 
Phelps  alone  was  a  graduate  of  Yale.  With  the  exception  of  Mr. 
Moore,  who  was  a  native  of  Ireland,  all  were  New  England  born 


The  exact  date  of  the  founding  of  the  Congregationalist 
"Church  of  Horton  and  Cornwallis"  it  seems  improbable  now  that 
we  shall  ever  be  able  to  know.  For  five  years  after  the  New 
England  planters  came  to  the  county  they  were  without  settled 
religious  ministration;  but  deeply  attached  to  religion  as  many  of 
them  were,  it  is  necessary  to  suppose  that  during  this  time  they 
sustained  neighbourhood  meetings  in  private  houses  for  lay  preach- 
ing or  conference,  and  prayer.  In  an  explanatory  letter  from  Mr. 
Handley  Chipman  of  Cornwallis,  one  of  the  most  important  of  the 
King's  County  planters,  written  June  30,  1777,  to  two  Presbyterian 
clergymen,  Messrs.  Daniel  Cock  and  David  Smith,  who  as  we  shall 
see  had  come  to  Cornwallis  to  try  to  produce  a  better  state  of  feeling 
in  the  church,  it  is  stated  that  as  early  as  1761  or  '62  the  people 
subscribed  to  send  to  New  England  for  a  minister,  and  that  while 
the  question  of  whether  to  look  for  one  in  Massachusetts  or  Connec- 
ticut was  still  under  discussion,  the  Eev.  Benaiah  Phelps  was  sent 
to  them  by  an  Association  of  Connecticut  ministers. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  probably  early  in  1765,  the  church  or  some 
important  members  of  it  made  formal  application  to  the  South 
Hartford  Association  for  a  minister,  and  that  year,  four  years  from 
the  time  of  his  graduation  from  Yale,  the  Eev.  Benaiah  Phelps  was 
ordained  especially  for  this  field.  The  young  minister  came  first  to 
Halifax,  and  Mr.  Handley  Chipman  courteously  went  from  Corn- 
wallis to  accompany  him  to  his  new  field.  "When  the  minister 
reached  Cornwallis  it  was  thought  best  for  some  reason  not  to 
settle  him  at  once,  but  to  take  him  on  trial  for  a  year,  and  this  the 
church  did.  At  the  end  of  the  year  he  became  the  church's  regular 
pastor,  and  in  this  position  remained  until  probably  some  time  in 
1776.  As  a  whole,  the  people,  glad  to  be  once  more  under  a  settled 
ministry,  were  at  first  pleased  with  Mr.  Phelps,  though  Mr.  Chipman 
says  he  himself  early  had  doubts  of  the  sincerity  of  the  young  man 's 
attachment  to  his  calling,  and  was  generally  not  much  impressed  in 
his  favour.  The  salary  promised  the  minister  was  eighty  pounds  a 
year,  and  there  was  much  discussion  as  to  the  proper  way  of  raising 
it,  whether  by  a  distinct  pledge  on  the  part  of  the  committee  repre- 


seating  the  congregation,  by  entirely  voluntary  contributions,  or 
by  a  definite  rating  of  the  pews. 

How  soon  after  Mr.  Phelps'  formal  settlement  as  pastor  of  the 
church  strong  opposition  to  him  began  to  manifest  itself  we  do 
not  know,  nor  are  we  informed  precisely  what  the  grounds  of  the 
people 's  dislike  of  him  were.  By  1776,  however,  the  feeling  against 
him  had  grown  so  bitter  that  he  was  obliged  to  withdraw  from  the 
pastorate,  and  in  1778  he  left  the  province  not  to  return.  The 
culminating  reason  for  the  bitterness  that  followed  him  when  he 
left  was  he  had  sold  to  John  Robinson  the  land  granted  him  Septem- 
ber 26, 1769,  as  the  first  minister  settled  in  the  town,  and  had  appro- 
priated the  money  he  received  for  the  sale.  The  grant,  which  was 
given  under  the  seal  of  Lord  William  Campbell,  the  governor,  was 
made  out  in  Mr.  Phelps'  own  name,  and  he  therefore  evidently  had 
a  legal  right  to  seU  it,  but  the  people  believed  that  the  land  had 
been  intended  for  the  continual  benefit  of  the  church,  and  they 
regarded  the  minister  as  having  committed  a  moral  wrong  in 
treating  it  as  his  own.  Mr.  Phelps'  salary  was  probably  in  arrears, 
for  as  time  went  on  the  people 's  subscriptions  towards  it  had  fallen 
off,  and  this  fact  may  have  seemed  to  him  sufficient  justification  for 
the  course  he  took  in  selling  the  land.  Be  that  as  it  may,  the  people 
felt  that  he  had  wronged  them,  and  after  he  had  returned  to  New 
England  they  appealed  to  the  South  Hartford  Association  to  take 
some  action  toward  having  the  money  he  had  received  for  it 
refunded.  Their  appeal,  however,  was  disregarded,  and  the  prog- 
ress of  the  Revolution  soon  stopped  all  commimication  of  a 
friendly  nature  between  Nova  Scotia  and  the  revolted  colonies. 
"My  father",  says  Mr.  Phelps'  son  in  a  biographical  notice  of  the 
clergyman  in  question,  "got  into  trouble  with  the  Government  of 
Nova  Scotia  and  had  to  leave  unceremoniously  in  1778".  Pre- 
cisely what  meaning  this  statement  may  have  had  to  the  writer 
of  it  we  do  not  know,  but  it  is  said  that  Mr.  Phelps  added  some- 
what to  his  unpopularity  in  Cornwallis  by  showing  decided  sym- 
pathy with  the  revolt  against  England  on  the  part  of  his  New  Eng- 
land friends.-  In  connection  with  his  removal  from  the  Horton  and 


Comwallis  church,  the  name  of  one  prominent  man  is  still  remem- 
bered, the  name  of  Mr.  Samuel  Starr.  Major  Starr  was  from  the 
first,  in  Comwallis,  a  person  to  be  reckoned  with,  and  for  Mr. 
Phelps  he  evidently  shared  the  common  dislike.  Whether  he  held 
any  official  position  in  the  Congregationalist  Church  at  this  early 
time  we  do  not  know,  but  in  1784,  when  St.  John's  parish  was 
organized,  both  he  and  his  younger  brother  David  became  vestry- 
men in  it,  thenceforth  probably  giving  it  their  exclusive  support. 

The  difficulty  in  Comwallis  about  raising  Mr.  Phelps'  salary 
was  almost  from  the  first  so  great  that  the  committee  charged  with 
raising  it  were  sometimes  obliged  to  take  money  from  their  ovra 
pockets  to  pay  it.  Finally,  on  their  own  authority,  without  pre- 
senting the  matter  to  the  congregation,  these  men  wrote  the  Rev. 
Dr.  Andrew  Eliot,  third  pastor  of  the  New  North  Church,  on  Hanover 
Street,  Boston,  representing  their  church  as  very  poor  and  asking 
for  help.  The  preface  to  their  appeal,  which  was  dated  November 
8,  1T69,  in  the  following  way,  describes  the  condition  of  things  in 
the  church :  ' '  God  in  his  Providence,  who  orders  the  bounds  of  the 
habitation  of  his  people,  after  previously  removing  our  enemies, 
planted  us  in  this  infant  colony,  in  the  year  1760,  and  after  con- 
tinuing five  years  destitute  of  a  minister  of  the  gospel,  by  applica- 
tion to  the  South  Association  in  Hartford,  in  the  colony  of 
Connecticut,  we  obtained  one  Rev.  Benaiah  Phelps,  who  came  to 
us  ordained  to  the  work  of  the  ministry  and  well  recommended  by 
said  Association,  who  after  one  year's  continuance  with  us  on 
probation  took  the  pastoral  charge  of  us  to  our  general  satisfaction. 
Our  numbers  consist  of  a  hundred  and  thirty-three  families  (not 
ten  of  which  are  of  the  established  church),  and  between  eight  and 
nine  hundred  souls".  The  members  of  the  committee  who  made 
the  appeal  were.  Captain  Samuel  Beckwith,  Deacon  Caleb  Hunt- 
ington, and  Messrs.  Isaac  Bigelow,  John  Newcomb,  Hezekiah  Cogs- 
well, and  Elkanah  Morton,  Jr.  These  men  seem  personally  to  have 
been  some  three  hundred  dollars  out  of  pocket  in  their  management 
of  the  Church's  affairs,  and  according  to  the  letter  already  referred 
to  of  Mr.  Handley  Chipman  to  Messrs.  Cock  and  Smith,  to  have 


taken  this  means  to  reimburse  themselves.  The  appeal  was  received 
by  Dr.  Eliot  in  the  kindest  way.  At  once,  it  is  stated,  he  raised  a 
hundred  pounds  for  the  church,  but  just  then  happening  to  see  in 
Boston  a  Halifax  Congregationalist,  Mr.  Malachy  Salter,  he  asked 
him  if  there  were  not  other  congregations  in  the  province  as  needy 
as  that  at  Cornwallis.  Mr.  Salter  assured  him  that  there  were,  and 
particularly  the  congregation  at  Chester,  where  the  Eev.  John 
Secombe,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  of  the  class  of  1728,  was  stationed. 
Accordingly,  Dr.  Eliot  sent  his  contribution  to  the  Hon.  Benjamin 
Gerrish,  another  Boston  man  living  in  Halifax,  who  distributed  it 
as  he  judged  wisest  amongst  the  various  Nova  Scotia  Congregation- 
alist churches. 

In  the  Proceedings  of  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society  for 
1888  this  appeal  has  been  printed,  and  in  connection  with  it  a  long 
letter  from  Messrs.  Gerrish  and  Salter  to  the  Eev'ds.  Andrew  EUot, 
and  Samuel  Cooper  (of  the  Brattle  Square  Church  in  Boston), 
describing  in  detail  the  condition  of  the  several  churches  of  the 
Congregational  order  throughout  the  province.  There  is  also 
printed  a  letter  from  the  Rev.  Nehemiah  Porter,  of  Yarmouth,  Nova 
Scotia,  to  Dr.  Eliot,  thanking  him  for  his  donation  of  forty  dollars, 
which  he  says  he  had  received  in  September,  1769,  almost  two 
months  before  the  Cornwallis  people's  appeal  had  been  sent.  Of 
the  later  donation  from  Boston  it  is  said  that  the  Cornwallis  and 
other  churches  received  ten  pounds  apiece,  the  more  needy  church 
at  Chester,  however,  getting  double  the  amount. 

When  the  appeal  of  the  Cornwallis  Committee  to  Dr.  Eliot  be- 
came known,  Mr.  Chipman  and  others  were  very  indignant,  and 
from  that  time  on  there  seem  to  have  been  continual  ill  feeling  and 
frequent  dissensions  among  the  members  and  adherents  of  the 
church.  A  little  later,  however,  the  church,  probably  as  a  body, 
did  appeal  to  a  clergyman  in  New  England  to  get  assistance  for 
them  in  their  low  financial  state.  On  the  minutes  of  the  Council  of 
Connecticut,  under  date  of  New  Haven,  October  11,  1771,  we  find 
the  following  important  record:  "Upon  the  memorial  of  the  Rev. 
Solomon  [Williams   of  Lebanon    (Rev.   Solomon  Williams   D.   D., 


minister  of  the  First  Church  of  Lebanon  from  December,  1722,  to 
February,  1776),  in  behalf  of  the  Congregational  Church  in  the 
town  of  Cornwallis,  in  the  Province  of  Nova  Scotia,  shewing  to 
this  Board  that  the  inhabitants  of  said  town  were  settled  there  in 
the  year  1760,  and  continued  five  years  almost  destitute  of  gospel 
administration;  that  they  have  since  by  the  general  desire  of  the 
people  settled  the  Kev.  Mr.  Benajah  Phelps  in  the  gospel  ministry 
in  that  town  with  the  pleasing  prospect  of  a  sufiScient  support, 
since  which  their  circumstances  are  become  very  difficult  and  dis- 
tressing, chiefly  by  means  of  the  fruits  of  the  earth  being  cut  short 
in  1767  and  1768,  and  by  extraordinary  expense  in  building  a  meet- 
ing house,  and  especially  in  repairing  their  dykes  to  the  amount  of 
near  2000  (£),  which  has  involved  them  so  deeply  in  debt  that 
except  they  can  obtain  relief  by  the  charity  of  their  christian 
brethren  and  friends  ia  Connecticut,  the  cause  of  religion  will 
greatly  suffer ;  praying  for  a  Brief  &c  as  per  memorial  on  file : 

"Resolved  by  this  Board  that  the  said  Rev.  Solomon  Williams, 
in  behalf  of  the  church  and  town  of  Cornwallis,  have  liberty  to  ask 
the  charitable  contributions  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  several  relig- 
ious societies  in  the  towns  of  New  London,  Norwich,  Windham, 
Lebanon,  Colchester,  Canterbury  and  Lyme;  and  said  church  and 
inhabitants  of  said  Cornwallis  are  hereby  recommended  to  their 
christian  liberality". 

The  meeting  house  referred  to  in  this  minute  was  built  at 
Chipman's  Comer  in  Cornwallis,  in  1767  and  '68.  Until  it  was 
erected  the  people  must  have  worshipped  in  private  houses  or  school- 
houses,  or  perhaps  on  important  occasions  in  barns.  That  the 
Horton  Congregationalists  did  not  also  move  to  erect  a  church 
building  on  their  side  of  the  river,  seems  strange ;  our  only  explana- 
tion of  their  failure  to  do  so  is  that,  as  we  shall  see,  a  Presbyterian 
church  was  very  soon  built  at  Grand  Pre,  and  a  Scotch  Presby- 
terian minister  settled  there.  The  Cornwallis  Congregationalist 
church  organization,  it  will  be  remembered,  however,  was  techni- 
cally known  as  the  Church  of  Horton  and  Cornwallis ' '. 

The  Cornwallis  church  building  was  located  on  land  that  had 


originally  been  a  corner  of  the  Parade  at  Chipman's  Corner,  the 
road  across  the  Middle  Dyke  here  meeting  the  road  called  Churcli 
Street.    Very  near  where  the  church  was  placed,  in  French  times 
stood  the  parish  church  of  St.  Joseph,  of  River  Canard,  the  Con- 
gregationalist  churchyard,  where  many  of  the  most  important  of 
the  early  Cornwallis  people  are  buried,  being  identically  the  church- 
yard of  the  French  parish  church.     The  site  of  both  church  and 
churchyard,  it  is  said,  as  iudeed  of  the  Parade,  was  first  included 
in    Major     Samuel     Starr's     grant;     very     soon,     however,     this 
gentleman  made  the  land  a  gift  to  the  town  for  public  use.    The 
meeting  house  was  a  large,  square,  two-story  wooden  structure, 
with  high-backed  pews,  and  a  lofty  pulpit  arched  by  a  canopy  or 
Bounding  board.    The  pews  were  arranged  in  four  tiers,  besides  the 
wall  pews,  and  the  church  must  have  seated  not  much  less  than  a 
thousand  persons.     The  frame  was  brought  from  New  England, 
probably  from  Machias,  Maine,  whence  the  frames  of  the  old  gam- 
brel  roofed  houses  on  Church  Street  are  said  to  have  been  brought. 
The  church  was  used  for  worship  continuously  until  1859,  when  on 
the  division  of  the  King's  County  Presbyterians  into  three  separate 
congregations,  services  in  it  were  finally  discontinued.    An  act  of 
the  legislature,  passed  May  7,  1874,  authorized  the  trustees  of  the 
South  Presbyterian  congregation  of  Cornwallis  to  sell  it,  the  pro- 
ceeds  to    be    applied   to   keeping   the   burying   ground   in    order. 
Shortly  after  this  the  building  was  bought  by  the  Hon.  Samuel 
Chipman  and  taken  down.    So  many  of  the  New  England  grantees 
had  settled  farther  northward  in   Cornwallis,   toward  the   Habi- 
tant river,  that  even  for  Cornwallis  the  location  of  the  church  was 
never  central.  "As  to  building  the  meeting  house",  says  Mr.  Hand- 
ley  Chipman,  "a  number  of  the  people  was  of  the  mind  to  have  two 
smaller  ones  built,  as  the  town  was  very  large  in  extent,  of  which 
I  was  one,  although  where  it  now  stands  accommodates  me  and 
most  of  mine  best,  but  it  was  carried  otherwise,  by  reason  of  which 
many   over   Canard   and   Habitant   river   would   never   give   one 
farthing  to  the  meeting  house,  and  caused  some  to  be  backward 
about  Mr.  Phelps'  support  and  caused  uneasiness  that  has  subsisted 
ever  since". 


Mr.  Phelps  himself  lived  a  little  to  the  eastward  of  the  meeting 
house,  but  it  was  in  Horton  that  he  got  his  wife.  From  the  Corn- 
wallis  Town  Book  we  learn  that  ' '  The  Eev.  Benajah  Phelps,  son  of 
Nathaniel  Phelps  of  Hebron,  in  the  Colony  of  Connecticut,  in  New 
England  and  Mary  his  wife,  was  married  to  Phebe  Dennison, 
daughter  of  Col.  Robert  Dennison  of  Horton,  and  Prudence  his  wio, 
November  the  19th,  1766,  by  the  Eev.  Joseph  Bennett".  Among 
the  births  recorded  in  the  Town  Book,  are  to  be  found  the  names  of 
the  Phelps  children :  Elizabeth,  born  August  30,  1768 ;  Phebe,  born 
Oct.  7,  1770;  Denison,  born  Sept.  24,  1772.  It  is  probable  that 
one  of  the  first  ofBcial  acts  of  Mr.  Phelps  in  his  new  parish  was  the 
marriage  of  Margaret  Bigelow  to  Nathan  Longfellow,  on  the  tenth 
of  October,  1765.  Among  other  marriages  he  celebrated  were  those 
of  George  Smith  and  Lucy  Rude  in  October,  1765;  Jonathan  Rand 
and  Lydia  Strong,  November  12, 1776 ;  Perry  Borden  and  Mary  Ells, 
October  22,  1767;  Moses  Gore  and  Molly  Newcomb,  January  26, 
1769;  Cyrus  Peck  and  Mary  English,  October  11,  1770;  John 
BngUsh  and  Christina  Cogswell,  October  31,  1771 ;  Mason  Cogswell 
and  Lydia  Huntington,  October  31,  1771;  Ezra  Pride  and  Lydia 
Bigelow,  January  30,  1772;  Peter  Pineo  and  Eunice  Bentley,  May 
14,  1772 ;  Ahira  Calkin  and  Irena  Porter,  December  24,  1772 ;  Dan 
Pineo  and  Anna  Bentley,  October  21,  1773;  Oliver  Cogswell  and 
Abigail  Ells,  December  23,  1773 ;  William  Pineo  and  Phebe  Bentley, 
July  18,  1766 ;  William  Allen  Chipman  and  Ann  Osbom,  November 
20,  1777.  This  last  date  is  the  latest  that  we  can  be  sure  of  his 
having  performed  any  clerical  function  in  the  county. 

About  the  time  of  Mr.  Phelps*  retirement  from  the  pastorate 
of  the  Horton  and  Cornwallis  church,  the  first  religious  revival 
movement  of  Nova  Scotia  began.  In  1740  and  '41  New  England 
had  been  stirred  by  what  is  historically  known  as  the  "Great 
Awakening".  This  movement  had  begun  almost  simultaneously  in 
Old  and  New  England,  in  the  former  with  the  "Methodist"  move- 
ment in  Oxford,  with  which  the  names  of  John  and  Charles  Wesley 
and  George  Whitefield  will  always  stand  inseparably  connected,  in 
the  latter  with  the  preaching  of  Jonathan  Edwards  at  Northampton, 


Massachusetts,  in  1735.  The  first  sermon  that  "Whitefield  preached 
in  Gloucester  Cathedral  after  his  ordination  to  the  deaconate  in 
1736  was  so  vehement  that  several  persons  in  the  great  congre- 
gation almost  went  mad  with  excitement  and  fear.  Complaints 
were  made  to  the  bishop  that  the  young  enthusiast  was  driving 
people  crazy,  but  the  bishop  only  replied  that  he  hoped  the  madness 
would  last  until  the  following  Sunday. 

In  1738  "Whitefield  came  first  to  America,  but  he  soon  returned. 
The  next  year  he  again  came  to  America  for  a  longer  time,  and 
wherever  he  preached,  the  feeling  of  his  audiences  was  roused  to  a 
fervid  flame.  The  other  chief  names  connected  with  the  American 
revival  movement  were  Gilbert  Tennent  from  abroad,  and  Graham, 
Meacham,  Whitman,  and  Parrand,  native  born  American  evangelis- 
tic preachers.  At  New  London,  Groton,  Lyme,  Stonington,  Preston, 
and  Norwich,  as  well  as  in  other  parts  of  Connecticut  and  in  various 
places  in  Rhode  Island,  people  were  stirred  religiously  as  they  had 
never  been  before.  New  England,  generally,  was  moved,  but  Con- 
necticut more  remarkably  than  any  other  colony.  "In  many  places 
people  would  cry  out  in  time  of  public  worship  under  a  sense  of 
their  overbearing  guilt  and  misery,  and  the  all-consuming  wrath  of 
God,  due  to  them  for  their  iniquities ;  others  would  faint  and  swoon 
under  the  affecting  views  which  they  had  of  God  and  Christ.  Some 
would  weep  and  sob,  and  there  would  sometimes  be  so  much  noise 
among  the  people,  in  particular  places,  that  it  was  with  difficulty 
that  the  preacher  could  be  heard.  In  some  few  instances  it  seems 
that  the  minister  has  not  been  able  to  finish  his  discourse,  there  has 
been  so  much  crying  out  and  disturbance". 

The  excesses  of  the  revival  movement  naturally  led  to  great 
opposition  to  it  on  the  part  of  the  more  conservative  people  in  the 
churches.  Newly  aroused  persons  often  branded  their  fellow  church 
members,  and  indeed  their  pastors,  as  unconverted,  and  refused  to 
have  further  fellowship  with  them;  the  aroused  people,  in  turn, 
were,  of  course,  charged  with  being  fanatical  disturbers  of  the 
churches'  peace.  The  result  of  the  movement  on  the  whole,  how- 
ever, was  a  great  increase  of  vital  religion  throughout  all  the 


colonies.  The  number  of  converts  made  in  a  few  years  in  New 
England  is  variously  estimated  at  from  twenty-five  to  fifty  thousand, 
and  in  less  than  twenty  years  a  hundred  and  fifty  new  Congrega- 
tionalist  churches  were  formed.  But  for  a  time  in  many  of  the  older 
churches  the  greatest  bitterness  of  feeling  prevailed,  and  in  the 
course  of  the  revival  a  considerable  number  of  Separatist  churches 
— in  Connecticut  no  less  than  ten — ^were  formed,  in  which  "New 
Light"  principles,  as  they  early  came  to  be  called,  found  full 
expression.  This  religious  awakening  was  chiefly  in  the  Congre- 
gationalist  churches,  but  its  effect  was  greatly  felt  also  in  the  Baptist 
churches,  many  of  the  Separatist  churches  in  a  short  time  going 
completely  over  to  the  Baptist  faith. 

In  1748,  in  Newport,  Rhode  Island,  Henry  AUine  was  born. 
His  father  and  mother  were  natives  of  Boston,  but  after  their 
marriage,  in  1730,  they  moved  to  Newport,  and  probably  there  came 
under  the  influence  of  the  great  revival.  In  1760  they  migrated  to 
Falmouth,  Nova  Scotia,  and  in  that  town  from  his  twelfth  year, 
their  son  Henry  grew  up.  With  a  poetical,  spiritual  nature,  and  a 
mind  keenly  sensitive  to  impressions  of  every  sort,  the  boy  came 
into  manhood.  Outwardly  he  was  much  like  other  boys,  but  deep 
within  were  always  seething  the  elements  of  fierce  spiritual  conflict. 
The  theology  in  which  he  had  been  reared  is  pathetically  described 
by  himself  in  the  "Life  and  Journal"  he  has  left,  which  was  pub- 
lished in  Boston  by  Gilbert  and  Dean  in  the  year  1806.  When  he  was 
twenty-seven  years  old,  "wherever  I  went  or  whatever  I  did,  night 
or  day",  he  says,  "I  was  groaning  under  a  load  of  guilt  and  dark- 
ness, praying  and  cryiag  continually  for  mercy;  yea  I  would  often 
be  so  intent  ia  prayer  that  when  I  met  any  one  in  the  street  I  would 
be  praying  until  I  spoke  to  him,  and  as  soon  as  I  left  him  would 
begin  to  cry  within  myself  for  mercy.  *  *  «  When  I  waked  in 
the  morning  the  first  thought  would  be,  0,  my  wretched  soul,  what 
shall  I  do,  where  shall  I  go?  And  when  I  laid  down  would  say, 
'I  shall  perhaps  be  in  hell  before  morning'.  I  would  many  times 
look  on  the  beasts  with  envy,  wishing  with  all  my  heart  I  was  in 
their  place,  that  I  might  have  no  soul  to  lose ' '. 


In  a  short  time,  however,  his  conversion  came  and  his  ecstasy 
was  then  as  great  as  his  previous  agony  had  been.  At  that 
instant  of  time,  when  I  gave  up  all  to  Him,  to  do  with  me  as  He 
pleased,  and  was  willing  that  God  should  reign  in  me  and  rule  over 
me  at  His  pleasure,  redeeming  love  broke  into  my  soul  .with 
repeated  scritpures,  with  such  power  that  my  whole  soul  seemed  to  be 
melted  down  with  love ;  the  burden  of  guilt  and  condemnation  was 
gone,  darkness  was  expelled,  my  heart  humbled  and  filled  with  grati- 
tude and  my  will  turned  of  choice  after  the  Infinite  God,  whom  I 
saw  I  had  rebelled  against,  and  been  deserting  from  all  my  days. 
Attracted  by  the  love  and  beauty  I  saw  in  His  divine  perfections, 
my  whole  soul  was  inexpressibly  ravished  with  the  blessed 
Eedeemer;  not  with  what  I  expected  to  enjoy  after  death  or  in 
heaven,  but  with  what  I  now  enjoyed  in  my  soul:  for  my  whole 
soul  seemed  filled  with  the  Divine  Being.  My  whole  soul,  that  was  a 
few  minutes  ago  groaning  under  mountains  of  death,  wading 
through  storms  of  sorrow,  racked  with  distressing  fear,  and  crying 
to  an  unknown  God  for  help,  was  now  filled  with  immortal  love, 
soaring  on  the  wings  of  faith,  freed  from  the  chains  of  death  and 
darkness,  and  crying  out  'My  Lord  and  my  God;  thou  art  my  rock 
and  my  fortress,  my  shield  and  my  high  tower,  my  life,  my  joy,  my 
present  and  my  everlasting  portion'  ". 

At  once  the  conviction  came  to  him  that  he  must  preach  salva- 
tion to  other. s.  "In  the  midst  of  all  my  joys,  in  less  than  half  an 
hour  after  my  soul  was  set  at  liberty,  the  Lord  discovered  to  me  my 
labour  in  the  ministry  and  call  to  preach  the  gospel.  I  cried  out, 
'Amen,  Lord,  I'll  go,  I'll  go,  send  me,  send  me'.  And  although 
many  (to  support  the  preaching  of  antichrist)  will  pretend  there 
is  no  such  thing  as  a  man's  knowing  in  these  days  he  is  called  to 
preach  any  other  way  than  his  going  to  the  seats  of  learning  to  be 
prepared  for  the  ministry,  and  then  authorized  by  men ;  yet  blessed 
be  God,  there  is  a  knowledge  of  these  things  which  an  unconverted 
man  knows  nothing  of.  *  *  *  As  for  learning,  it  was  true  I 
had  read  and  studied  more  than  was  common  for  one  in  my  station, 
but  my  education  was  but  small :  what  I  had  of  human  literature  I 


had  acquired  of  myself  without  schooling,  excepting  what  I  obtained 
before  I  was  eleven  years  of  age,  for  I  never  went  to  school  after  I 
came  to  Nova  Scotia". 

Because  of  his  lack  of  education,  for  a  year  he  refrained  from 
anything  more  than  a  local  exercise  of  his  gifts  for  preaching,  but 
at  last  he  was  led  to  believe  that  God  wanted  him  to  go  forth  just 
as  he  was  and  show  men  the  way  of  eternal  life.  "About  the  13th 
or  14th  day  of  April,  1775,  I  began  to  see  that  I  had  all  this  time 
been  led  astray  by  labouring  so  much  after  human  learning  and 
wisdom,  and  had  held  back  from  the  call  of  God.  One  day 
in  my  meditation  I  had  such  a  discovery  of  Christ's  having 
everything  I  needed,  and  that  all  was  mine,  that  I  said 
I  needed  nothing  to  qualify  me  but  Christ;  and  that  if  I  had 
all  the  wisdom  that  could  ever  be  obtained  by  mortals,  with- 
out having  the  spirit  of  Christ  with  me  I  should  never  have  any 
success  in  preaching;  and  if  Christ  went  with  me  I  should  have  all 
in  all.  And  0  what  a  willingness  I  felt  in  my  soul  to  go  in  his  name 
and  strength,  depending  on  him  alone.  I  found  I  had  nothing  more  to 
inquire  into,  but  whether  God  had  called  me;  for  he  knew  what 
learning  I  had,  and  could  have  in  the  course  of  his  providence 
brought  me  through  all  the  seats  of  learning  that  ever  man  went 
through,  together  with  all  the  orders  of  men ;  but  he  had  not,  there- 
fore I  had  nothing  else  to  observe  but  the  call  of  God". 

Accordingly,  though  his  parents  were  reluctant  to  have  him  do 
so,  he  began  to  preach  in  Falmouth,  the  town  where  he  lived.  From 
the  first,  people  were  deeply  moved  by  his  sermons,  and  before  long 
he  went  from  Falmouth  to  Newport  and  preached  there.  His 
preaching  began  in  April,  1776,  and  the  3rd  of  November,  having 
been  invited  to  Horton  he  preached  two  sermons  there.  He  had 
occasionally  been  in  Horton  before,  and  "it  was  a  strange  thing", 
he  says,  "to  see  a  young  man  who  had  often  been  there  frolicking, 
now  preaching  the  Everlasting  Gospel.  The  people  seemed  to  have 
hearing  ears,  and  it  left  a  solemn  sense  on  some  youths".  A  few 
evenings  later  he  spoke  again,  and  there  was  then  "such  a  throng 
of  hearers  that  the  house  could  not  contain  them ;  and  some  of  them 
were  that  evening  convicted  with  power". 


As  he  was  on  his  way  back  to  Falmouth,  he  was  requested  to 
attend  a  funeral,  and  at  the  funeral  he  met  a  young  man  from  Corn- 
wallis  who  begged  him  to  come  as  soon  as  possible  and  preach  in 
that  town.  He  promised  that  if  AUine  would  do  so  he  would  find  a 
place  for  him  to  preach.  AUine  told  him  that  he  was  willing  to  go 
wherever  God  called  him,  and  that  if  it  seemed  his  duty  he  would 
come  to  Cornwallis  as  soon  as  he  possibly  could.  On  the  9th  of 
November  he  did  set  out  for  Cornwallis,  stopping  that  night  "in 
the  borders  of  the  town".  The  next  morning  he  rode  to  "the  further 
part  of  the  town",  where  the  meeting  had  been  appointed,  and 
preached  two  sermons.  The  day  following  he  went  about  four  miles 
and  preached  again,  and  at  this  service  ' '  the  Lord  began  to  set  the 
word  home  with  power  on  some  of  the  hearers".  Here  the  "stand- 
ing minister"  tried  to  "dash"  him,  but  the  minister  and  all  the 
rest  were  to  him  as  worms  of  the  dust  like  himself.  His  opponent, 
he  says,  who  of  course  was  the  Rev.  Benaiah  Phelps,  "had  been 
minister  of  the  town,  but  on  account  of  some  division  between  him 
and  his  people  had  been  dismissed,  and  did  not  seem  pleased"  at  his 
coming  into  the  town.  From  Cornwallis  Alline  returned  to  Horton, 
where  he  preached  two  sermons  as  he  passed  through.  There  "God 
was  pleased  to  take  hold  of  the  hearts  of  some  of  the  hearers,  and 
never  left  them  until  they  were  brought  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
Redeemer".  January  15th,  1777,  he  went  to  Newport,  where  he 
preached  five  days ;  then  he  returned  to  Falmouth  and  preached  and 
visited  there  until  the  3rd  of  February.  After  that  he  went  again 
to  Cornwallis,  and  there  for  four  days  preached  to  attentive  and 
deeply  moved  congregations.  On  his  way  through  Horton,  as  he 
returned  to  Falmouth,  he  held  a  service,  at  which  the  "standing  min- 
ister" resident  there  "got  up  and  opposed".  The  other  people, 
however,  paid  little  attention  to  the  minister  and  he  soon  rose  and 
left  the  house. 

This  was  the  beguming  of  Henry  Alline 's  work  in  King's 
County,  a  work  which  continued  at  intervals  for  five  years,  set  in 
motion  streams  of  earnest  religious  feeling  that  have  not  ceased 
flowing  yet,  and  shaped  a  theology  that  to  the  present  time  may  be 


said  to  have  been  essentially  the  theology  of  the  deeply  religious 
population  of  the  outlying  districts,  and  to  a  great  extent  of  the 
more  closely  settled  villages  and  towns.  In  the  course  of  the  next 
five  years  Alline  visited  the  two  townships  of  Horton  and  Com- 
wallis  some  thirty  or  forty  times.  He  conceived  it  to  be  his  duty 
never  to  remain  long  in  one  place;  he  preached  now  in  Falmouth 
and  Newport,  now  in  Horton  and  Cornwallis,  now  in  Annapolis  and 
Granville,  now  in  Liverpool  and  Chebogue,  now  in  the  county  of 
Cumberland,  now  in  Prince  Edward  Island,  and  now  in  the  New 
England  settlements  in  New  Brunswick,  on  the  banks  of  the  pic- 
turesque river  St.  John.  Under  the  influence  of  his  preaching 
several  New  Light  Churches  were  formed,  the  first  of  these  being  at 
Cornwallis,  where  he  had  what  more  nearly  approached  a  settled 
pastorate  than  at  any  other  place.  In  the  first  months  of  his  min- 
istry he  had  a  chief  part  in  organizing  a  church  at  Newport,  the 
articles  for  which  in  conjunction  with  others  he  was  chosen  to 
draw  up.  At  Newport  "I  preached  a  sermon",  he  says,  "and  the 
Lord  seemed  to  own  us.  The  reason  that  we  called  for  no  assistance 
from  other  churches  was  because  we  did  not  think  the  churches  in 
those  parts  were  churches  of  Christ,  but  had  only  a  dry  form  without 
religion.  The  church  was  gathered  both  of  Baptists  and  Oongrega- 
tionalists,  also,  for  we  did  not  think  that  such  small  non-essentials  as 
different  opinions  about  water  Baptism  were  sufiSeient  to  break  any 
fellowship,  and  to  obstruct  building  together  among  the  true  citi- 
zens of  Zion ;  and  the  Lord  owned  and  answered  us,  and  blessed  us 
by  increasing  the  gifts,  graces,  and  the  numbers  of  the  small,  feeble 
band.  But  the  powers  of  darkness  and  church  of  antichrist  rose 
against  it  from  every  quarter,  both  in  public  and  private ' '. 

"When  Alline  first  came  to  Cornwallis  the  disaffection  in  the 
church  there  was  no  doubt  virtually  a  schism.  To  the  flame  of  dislike 
of  the  old  church  Alline 's  fervid  preaching  added  fresh  fuel,  and  at 
last  some  of  the  more  conservative  members  of  the  church  in  despair 
sent  to  Colchester  County  for  the  two  Presbyterian  ministers, 
Messrs.  Smith  and  Cock,  to  come  and  use  their  influence  to  restore 
better  feeling.    In  the  meantime,  about  a  year  after  Alline 's  first 


visit,  sixty  of  the  disaffected  signed  a  paper  entreating  the  evan- 
gelist to  settle  permanently  among  them  and  form  a  church.  To  their 
earnest  appeal  AUine  answered  that  he  believed  God  had  called  him 
to  an  itinerant  mission,  and  consequently  he  felt  that  he  could  not 
accede  to  their  wish.  When  Messrs.  Smith  and  Cock  came,  AlUne 
was  in  Cornwallis  and  went  to  hear  them  preach.  He  had  reason  to 
hope,  he  says,  that  at  least  one  of  them  was  a  minister  of  Christ, 
"although  something  sunk  into  a  form  without  the  power".  The 
advocates  of  order  soon  confronted  the  young  evangelist  and  asked 
him,  since  he  was  not  ordained  what  right  he  had  to  preach.  He 
told  them  his  authority  was  from  heaven,  and  upon  that  began  a 
discussion  with  them  as  to  where  the  power  of  ordination  truly  lay. 
He  said  he  upheld  order  in  the  Church,  but  he  looked  on  the  power 
of  God's  Spirit  as  of  far  more  importance  than  "the  bare  tradi- 
tions of  men".  The  ministers  begged  him  to  leave  off  preaching 
until  he  could  study  more,  and  offered  him  the  use  of  their  libraries, 
but  he  politely  refused  their  offer  and  said  that  God  knew  before  he 
called  him  how  uneducated  he  was,  and  that  he  trusted  the  Almighty 
would  qualify  him  for  any  work  he  still  had  for  him  to  do.  The 
clergymen  finally  told  him  they  regarded  him  as  a  "stiff  young 
man",  and  so  went  away.  A  short  time  after  this  AUine  came  to 
ComwaUis  again.  The  interest  in  religion  was  stiU  so  deep  there 
that  "a  great  number  met  almost  every  evening  and  continued  till 
eleven  and  twelve  o  'clock  at  night,  praying,  exhorting,  singing,  some 
of  them  telling  what  God  had  done  for  their  souls,  and  some  groan- 
ing under  a  load  of  sin.  At  last,  in  August,  1777,  the  newly  aroused 
people  appointed  a  committee  to  wait  on  the  evangelist  formally 
and  request  him  to  engage  to  stay  with  them  continuously  for  some 
time.  To  this  request  he  answered,  that  though  the  divisions  of  the 
town  did  not  make  the  prospect  of  a  long  stay  there  agreeable,  yet 
considering  the  people's  destitution  in  religious  ministration  he 
would  stay  with  them  for  six  months  of  the  ensuing  nine. 

On  the  15th  of  July,  1778,  the  Cornwallis  New  Light  Church, 
over  which  AlUne  soon  for  a  while  assumed  intermittent  pastoral 
eare,  was  brought  into  being.     From  the  minutes  of  the  church. 


which  are  still  preserved,  we  learn  that  at  this  date  "there  met  at 
the  house  of  Mr.  Simon  Pitch  a  number  of  brethren  to  enter  into 
church  covenant,  and  accordingly  signed  a  church  covenant  (viz.), 
Jonathan  Rockwell,  "William  West,  Elias  Tupper,  Benjamin  New- 
comb,  Stephen  West,  Peter  Wickwire,  Elnathan  Palmeter".  A 
covenant  had  previously  been  signed  by  Joel  Parrish,  Benjamin 
Kinsman,  Abner  Hall,  Isaac  Bigelow,  Nathaniel  Bliss,  and  Cyrus 
West,  the  last  two  of  whom,  however,  were  dead,  and  with  the  four 
of  these  earlier  signers  who  were  living,  the  seven  newly  covenant- 
ing church  members  now  joined.  The  29th  of  October  of  the  same 
year  Alline  assisted  in  organizing  a  mixed  Baptist  and  Congregation- 
alist  Church  in  Horton,  and  the  following  January  (Jan.  22,  1779), 
having  become  convinced  that  under  existing  circumstances  his  use- 
fulness would  be  increased  if  he  submitted  to  ordination,  he  met  the 
Comwallis  Church  to  consult  with  them  about  methods  for  obtaining 
this  rite.  The  Church  proposed  that  they  confer  with  other  New 
Light  churches  concerning  the  matter,  and  to  this  plan  Alline  will- 
ingly assented.  He  positively  refused,  however,  to  let  any  of  the 
"churches  of  antichrist"  have  a  voice  or  hand  in  the  act.  On  the 
6th  of  April,  after  prayer  and  singing,  three  lay  delegates  each 
from  the  churches  he  had  founded  or  helped  found,  at  Horton, 
Falmouth,  and  Newport,  laid  their  hands  on  his  head,  and  the 
minister  was  thus  ordained.  The  ordination  was  held  at  Falmouth 
in  a  large  barn,  and  when  it  was  over,  with  his  new  credentials 
signed  by  the  nine  delegates,  Alline  went  back  to  Comwallis  and 
resumed  his  work.  There  he  staid  for  about  a  fortnight,  but  on  the 
25th  of  April  he  said  good-by  to  his  people  and  sailed  down  the 
Bay  for  the  River  St.  John.  In  July  he  was  back  again,  and  on 
Sunday,  the  25th,  baptized  Lebbeus  and  John  Harris,  sons  of 
Thaddeus  Harris,  and  for  the  first  time  administered  the  rite  of 
Communion  to  the  Church.  During  this  visit  he  also  introduced 
into  the  church  three  other  members,  and  as  he  says,  "preached  the 
sweet  mysteries  of  the  cross  and  enjoyed  many  happy  hours". 

It  seems  almost  incredible  that  a  man  of  such  delicate  organi- 
zation as  Henry  Alline  could  have  stood  as  long  as  he  did  the 


intense  strain  of  a  fervent  evangelist's  life.  Whether  the  seeds  of 
consumption  were  in  him  from  birth  or  not  we  do  not  know,  but 
the  poor  fellow  soon  became  a  victim  to  this  dreadful  disease.  The 
last  visit  to  Cornwallis  his  journal  records  was  in  September,  1782 : 
"I  went  also  to  Windsor  and  Newport;  preached  often  in  both 
places,  conversed  with  the  people  there,  and  found  some  still  press- 
ing on  for  the  immortal  prize.  And  after  I  had  been  there  a  while 
I  went  to  Horton  and  Cornwallis,  where  I  often  preached  early  in 
the  morning,  and  was  rejoiced  to  see  how  people  would  crowd  to 
meeting  so  soon  and  so  early  in  the  morning.  0  the  sweet  hours  that 
I  have  enjoyed,  proclaiming  my  Master's  love  to  the  hungry  souls. 
I  remained  in  Cornwallis,  preachiag  twice  and  sometimes  three 
times  a  day,  until  the  last  day  of  September,  when  I  went  to  Annap- 
olis, where  I  preached  often  and  saw  blessed  days".  In  April, 
1783,  however,  he  tells  of  two  visits  to  Horton,  but  he  was  now  in 
very  feeble  health  and  it  is  possible  his  beloved  Cornwallis  people 
had  no  visit  from  him  at  all.  In  spite  of  his  growing  weakness  he 
had  made  up  his  mind  to  go  to  New  England,  and  on  the  27th  of 
August  of  this  year  he  sailed  from  Windsor  probably  for  Boston, 
where  his  parents  had  been  born.  At  Jones'  River,  in  the  state  of 
Maine,  he  left  the  vessel  and  bought  a  horse,  and  from  there 
travelled  by  land.  Preaching  in  many  places  along  the  way,  some- 
time in  January,  1784,  he  reached  the  house  of  Rev.  David  McClure, 
minister  of  the  Congregationalist  Church  in  Northampton,  New 
Hampshire.  He  was  now  in  the  last  stages  of  his  sickness,  and 
almost  immediately  had  to  be  put  to  bed.  His  temperature  grew 
'high,  his  feet  swelled,  he  was  greatly  distressed  for  breath,  and  at 
last  in  the  early  hours  of  the  morning  of  February  2nd  "he  breathed 
out  his  soul  into  the  arms  of  Jesus,  with  whom  he  longed  to  be". 
One  of  the  objects  of  his  visit  to  Boston  was  to  publish  a  collection 
of  hymns  he  had  written  for  public  worship. 

When  Mr.  Alline  first  came  to  Cornwallis,  Mr.  Phelps  had 
ceased  to  be  pastor  of  the  church  there,  and  the  congregation  was 
therefore  left  without  settled  preaching.  Accordingly,  a  majority 
of  the  persons  who  controlled  the  meeting  house   had  given  their 


consent  to  the  evangelist's  preaching  in  it  when  services  had  not 
been  arranged  there  for  other  men.  Mr.  Handley  Chipman,  who 
was  one  of  Mr.  Alline's  supporters,  says,  however,  that  there  were 
some  "heady"  men  that  opposed  his  doing  so,  and  that  for  the  sake 
of  peace  Mr.  AUine's  friends  preferred  to  forego  their  right  to  the 
meeting  house  and  were  content  to  listen  to  the  preacher  in  private 
houses  or  barns.  For  a  good  while  after  its  formation  the  New 
Light  Church  used  a  schoolhouse  near  Hamilton's  Corner  for  its 
services,  but  it  is  clear  that  in  the  earlier  part  of  Alline's  irregular 
ministry  the  evangelist  preached  often,  if  not  always,  in  private 
houses  or  barns,  in  various  parts  of  the  town.  Two  of  these  private 
houses,  as  we  learn  from  Mr.  Handley  Chipman 's  letter  to  Messrs. 
Smith  and  Cock,  were  those  of  Samuel  Beckwith,  Jr.,  and  "Deacon" 
Huntington.  In  1786,  about  two  years  after  Alline's  death,  a  New 
Light  Meeting  House  at  "Jaw  Bone  Corner",  was  built.  Like  its 
predecessor  at  Chipman 's  Corner  it  was  a  large,  square,  heavily- 
framed  structure,  but  unlike  that  it  was  never  finished  within,  and 
was  seated  only  with  benches.  The  last  public  service  held  in  it 
is  said  to  have  been  "on  the  Sunday  that  the  tide  was  finally  shut 
not  from  the  Wellington  Dyke",  this  being  in  the  autumn  of  1824. 
At  a  somewhat  later  date,  but  when,  we  do  not  know,  the  building 
was  removed.  In  the  churchyard  about  it  were  buried  a  good  many 
persons  who  lived  in  the  part  of  Cornwallis  where  it  stood,  most  of 
them,  no  doubt,  adherents  of  Alline's  New  Light  Church. 

We  have  dwelt  at  some  length  on  the  life  of  Henry  Alline 
because  of  the  marked  infiuence  he  exerted  on  religious  thought 
and  feeling  in  the  county.  The  only  approach  to  a  settled  pastorate 
he  had  in  his  short  ministerial  career,  as  we  have  said,  was  in  Corn- 
wallis, and  while  his  influence  has  been  felt,  in  great  part  for  good, 
all  over  the  province,  it  is  certain  that  in  King's  County  some  of  the 
best  fruits  of  his  fervid  evangelistic  labours  have  along  the  years 
been  seen.  In  some  places  the  Alline  movement  was  attended  with 
extravagances,  and  to  a  certain  extent  no  doubt  this  was  true  in 
King's,  but  here,  as  indeed  almost  everywhere  else  in  Nova  Scotia, 
the  people  generally  were  of  so  high  an  order  of  intelligence  that 


the  extravagances  soon  disappeared,  the  movement  leaving  in  the 
people's  characters  a  deposit  of  sound,  godly  principle,  that  has 
never  in  the  century  and  a  quarter  since  been  lost. 

The  complete  withdrawal  from  the  regular  Congregationalist 
Church  in  Cornwallis  of  the  people  who  composed  the  New  Light 
Church  left  the  old  church  in  a  depressed  and  enfeebled  state.  On 
the  3rd  of  November,  1778,  in  response  to  an  urgent  appeal  from 
the  old  church,  the  Eev.  Jonathan  Scott,  pastor  of  the  Congrega- 
tionalist Church  at  Chebogue,  in  Yarmouth  County,  visited  the 
town.  His  visit  lasted  all  winter,  and  his  ministrations  did  the 
people  much  good.  Soon  after  he  went  home  the  Cornwallis  people 
wrote  his  church  in  Yarmouth,  saying  that  unless  he  came  back 
they  feared  matters  with  them  would  soon  be  as  bad  as  they  had 
been  before.  They  therefore  earnestly  begged  the  Chebogue  church 
to  allow  him  soon  to  return.  The  letter  was  signed  by  Elkanah 
Morton,  Seth  Burgess,  Caleb  Huntington,  Abraham  Webster,  and 
John  Chipman.  Soon  followed  a  third  letter,  carried  by  the  hands 
of  Mr.  John  Porter,  who  also  took  with  him  two  horses  to  bring  Mr. 
Scott  and  his  two  elder  children  back.  But  Mr.  Scott  did  not  come. 
The  Chebogue  Church  not  unnaturally  felt  that  the  Cornwallis  people 
were  interfering  with  them  and  did  not  hesitate  to  express  their 
minds  on  the  point.  When  the  CornwaUis  men  heard  this,  in  a 
truly  Christian  spirit  they  wrote:  "Dearly  beloved,  we  wish  you 
peace.  We  would  not  willingly  act  anything  that  would  be  preju- 
dicial to  you,  either  directly  or  indirectly.  And  if  our  perplexed 
circumstances  under  the  present  situation  of  religious  matters 
among  us  hath  moved  us  to  proceed  too  hastily  to  obtain  an  answer 
to  our  request  by  your  Reverend  pastor,  or  have  presumed  too  far 
on  your  indulgence,  we  are  heartily  sorry".  This  letter  was  written 
on  the  17th  of  July,  1779,  and  in  addition  to  the  five  names  signed 
to  the  former  letter  bears  the  signatures  of  Hezekiah  Cogswell, 
John  Huston,  David  Bentley,  and  John  Beckwith,  Jr.  One  name 
which  appears  on  the  former  letter,  that  of  John  Chipman,  is  here 
left  out.  In  a  note  in  the  records  of  the  Chebogue  church,  Mr.  Scott 
himself  wrote:  "It  is  evident  they  (the  Cornwallis  people)   sur-- 


mounted  their  sore  trial,  and  acquitted  themselves  in  a  manner  that 
will  ever  be  an  honour  to  their  memory.  The  Church  of  Chebogue 
was  influenced  by  their  Christian  carriage  to  write  a  decent  letter 
of  apology". 

A  crisis  had  now  come  in  the  Comwallis  church's  affairs.  The 
Revolutionary  "War  was  at  its  height  and  there  was  little  friendly 
intercourse  between  Nova  Scotia  and  the  revolting  colonies.  More- 
over, the  members  of  the  church  had  not  forgotten  the  Hartford 
Association's  refusal  to  oblige  Mr.  Phelps  to  return  to  them  the 
proceeds  of  the  land  he  had  sold  before  he  left  the  town.  In  the 
meantime,  a  few  families  of  Scotch  or  Scotch-Irish  Presbyterians 
had  settled  among  the  New  England  Puritans  on  both  sides  of  the 
Comwallis  river,  people  like  the  Cummingses,  Dickies,  and  others, 
and  in  Lower  Horton  there  was  a  well  established  Presbyterian 
Church.  These  combined  facts  led  the  Comwallis  Congregation- 
alists  to  appeal  to  the  Glasgow  Associate  Synod  of  the  Secession 
Church  of  Scotland  for  a  minister  to  supply  their  religious 
needs.  The  result  of  their  appeal  was  that  in  1785  the  Eev. 
Hugh  Graham  was  sent  by  the  Presbytery  of  Edinburgh  to 
serve  the  Comwallis  Church.  Mr.  Graham  had  been  licensed 
by  the  Edinburgh  Presbytery  in  1781,  and  had  then  received 
a  caU  to  South  Shields,  in  the  north  of  England.  The  Pres- 
bytery, however,  thought  best  that  he  should  go  to  Nova 
Scotia,  and  accordingly  he  sailed  from  Greenock,  on  the 
22nd  of  June,  1785.  Two  months  later  he  arrived  at  Hali- 
fax, and  from  there  at  once  went  to  Comwallis.  On  Sunday, 
August  29th,  he  preached  his  first  sermon  in  the  Comwallis 

The  following  persons  were  members  of  the  Comwallis  New 
Light  Church  before  1799:  William  AUine,  Joseph  T.  S.  Baley; 
Joseph,  Eebecca  and  Sarah  Barnaby;  Catherine,  Elizabeth,  Hand- 
ley,  and  Marvin  Beckwith;  Asael  Bentley;  Abigail,  Amasa,  and 
Isaac  Bigelow;  Asael  and  Mary  Bill;  Thomas  Bligh,  Nathaniel 
Bliss,  Joseph  Boyle,  James  Brown,  Alexander  Campbell,  Mrs.  Caton, 
Esther  Chase ;  Ann,  Charles,  Eunice,  Handley,  William,  and  William 


Allen  Chipman;  Hannah  and  old  Mr.  Clark;  Benjamin  and  Mary 
Cleveland  J  Preserved  Coffil,  Eunice  Cogswell,  Nathaniel  Cottle^ 
Samuel  Crossman,  John  De  Maregnanst  j  Asa,  Elizabeth,  Moses,  and 
Sara  Dewey;  Elizabeth,  James,  Sabra,  and  Sarah  DeWolf ;  Rusha 
Dickie,  Abigail  Dunham;  David,  Elizabeth,  Irene,  Timothy,  and 
old  Mrs.  Baton ;  Anna  and  Mary  Elderkin ;  John  Fielding,  Alice  Fox, 
John  Godfrey;  Elizabeth  and  Nancy  Graham;  Mary  Hail,  Abner 
Hall,  Mrs.  Harding,  Amy  Harrington;  Eliphalet,  Lebbeus,  LuciUa,. 
and  Thaddeus  Harris ;  Robert  Hicks ;  Benjamin  and  Robert  Kinsman ; 
Mary  and  Stephen  Loomer;  Percy  Luice;  Edward,  James,  Nancy,, 
and  Mrs.  Edward  Manning ;  Mary  McDonald,  Mary  Mclnemay ,  Mrs. 
Stephens  (Anna  Miner) ;  Mrs.  DeWolf  (Sarah  Miner) ;  Benjamin 
Newcomb,  Elizabeth  Osburn,  George  Owen;  Abigail,  Elizabeth, 
Ehiathan,  Eunice,  Juda,  and  Nathan  Palmeter ;  Joel  Parrish,  Abner 
Parsons,  Erastus  Pineo;  Mary  and  Sarah  Power;  Dorcas  Prentice, 
John  and  Rebecca  Rand;  Deborah,  Greene,  and  Lydia  Randall; 
"William  Rear,  Reuben  Richards,  Jonathan  Rockwell,  Lucretia 
Rogers;  Deborah,  John,  Ruth,  Samuel,  and  Sarah  Sanford;  Julia 
Anna  Sivgard,  Daniel  Shaw;  Anna  and  Eunice  Skinner;  Deborah 
Strong;  Benoni  and  Elizabeth  Sweet;  Elias  and  Elizabeth  Tupper; 
Daniel  and  Mrs.  Welch ;  Asael,  Elenor,  and  Judah  WeUs ;  Cyrus, 
Mary,  Paul,  Seth,  and  Stephen  West;  Mary  Whalen,  Peter  Wick- 
wire  ;  Keturah  Whipples,  Bill  Williams,  Shalometh  Woodworth.  Of 
these  early  members  of  the  church  founded  by  AUine,  sixty,  it  is 
said,  had  received  infant  baptism,  seventy-six  had  been  immersed 
as  adults.    In  1799,  seventeen  of  these  persons  were  dead. 

Concerning  the  literary  gift  of  Rev.  Henry  Alline  a  few  words 
ought  to  be  added  here.  Besides  his  Journal,  which  records  as  we 
have  seen,  with  great  minuteness,  his  inner  experience  and  much  of 
his  evangelistic  work,  there  was  published  at  Stonington,  Connec- 
ticut, in  1802,  a  collection,  for  public  worship,  of  ninety-nine 
"Hymns  and  Spiritual  Songs"  written  by  him.  These  hymns, 
though  quite  equal  in  devotional  feeling  to  those  of  the  Wesleys  and 
Watts,  as  might  be  expected  are  generally  on  a  lower  plane  of 
literary  excellence.    Many  of  them,  however,  show  a  delicate  lyrical 


sense,  aud  to  one  a  rather  high  place  has  justly  been  given.    It  is 
the  following : 

Amazing  sight,  the  Saviour  stands 

And  knocks  at  every  door, 
Ten  thousand  blessings  in  His  hands 

For  to  supply  the  poor. 

Behold,  saith  He,  I  bleed  and  die 

To  bring  poor  souls  to  rest ; 
Hear,  sinners,  while  I'm  passing  by. 

And  be  forever  blest. 

Will  you  despise  such  bleeding  love 

And  choose  the  way  to  hell ; 
Or  in  the  glorious  realms  above 

With  me  forever  dwell  ? 

Not  to  condemn  your  sinking  race 

Have  I  in  judgment  come. 
But  to  display  unbounded  grace 

And  bring  lost  sinners  home. 

May  I  not  save  your  wretched  soul 

From  sin,  from  death,  and  hell. 
Wounded  or  sick,  I'll  make  you  whole 

And  you  with  me  shall  dwell. 

Say,  wiU  you  hear  my  gracious  voice 

And  have  your  sins  forgiven. 
Or  will  you  make  a  wretched  choice 

And  bar  yourselves  from  Heaven? 

Will  you  go  down  to  endless  night 

And  have  eternal  pain, 
Or  dwell  m  everlasting  light, 

Where  I  in  glory  reign? 


Come,  answer  now  before  I  go, 

While  I  am  passing  by, 
Say,  will  you  marry  me,  or  no, 

Say,  will  you  live  or  die  ? 


"With  the  coming  to  Cornwallis  of  the  Kev.  Hugh  Graham  in 
1785  the  history  of  the  Cornwallis  Congregationalist  Church  as  a 
Presbyterian  church  may  be  said  virtually  to  begin.  Long  before 
that  time,  however,  a  Presbyterian  church  had  been  established  at 
Grand  Pre,  in  Horton,  and  the  early  history  of  that  church  is 
synonymous  with  the  beginning  of  Presbyterianism  in  the  county. 
Before  1765  the  only  Presbyterian  ministers  who  had  laboured  in 
Nova  Scotia  were  the  Eev  Samuel  Kinloch  and  the  Rev.  James 
Lyon,  the  former  of  whom  had  previously  preached  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, the  latter  in  New  Jersey.  These  clergymen  had  made  the 
Scotch-Irish  settlers  of  Colchester  their  chief  charge,  but  in  1766 
the  County  of  King's  also  was  added  to  the  field  of  Presbyterian 
missionary  work. 

In  1765  the  spiritual  needs  of  Nova  Scotia  aroused  the  atten- 
tion of  some  young  men  studying  for  the  ministry  in  Scotland,  and 
three  belonging  to  the  General  Associate  or  Anti-Burgher  Synod 
volunteered  to  go  to  that  distant  province.  Before  the  time  of 
leaving,  however,  two  of  them  changed  their  plans,  but  the  third, 
the  Eev.  James  Murdoch  of  Gillie  Gordon,  County  Donegal,  Ireland, 
persevered  in  his  intention,  and  on  the  2nd  of  September  was 
ordained  by  the  Presbytery  of  Newton  Limavady  for  the  "Province 
of  Nova  Scotia  or  any  other  part  of  the  American  continent  where 
God  in  his  Providence  might  call  him".  With  this  wide  commission, 
in  the  autumn  of  1766  Mr.  Murdoch  landed  at  Halifax,  where  for  a 
short  time  he  preached  to  the  Congregationalists.  Seeing  a  chance 
for  settled  work  in  Horton,  however,  the  next  year  he  removed 
there,  and  in  a  short  time  gathered  a  church  at  what  is  now  Grand 
Pre.    After  Mr.  Phelps'  withdrawal  from  the  Cornwallis  Congrega- 


tionalist  Church  in  1776,  it  is  almost  certain  that  Mr.  Murdoch 
sometimes  preached  in  Cornwallis,  for  it  is  a  matter  of  record  that 
he  travelled  much  farther  than  that,  occasionally  preaching  at 
Windsor,  Parrsborough,  Fort  Lawrence,  Amherst,  Cumberland,  and 
Economy.  In  1795  he  removed  from  Horton  to  Musquodoboit,  and 
in  the  Musquodoboit  river,  at  Meagher's  Grant,  on  the  21st  of 
November,  1799,  was  unfortunately  drowned.  His  wife  was 
Abigail,  daughter  of  Malachy  Salter,  of  Halifax,  a  Boston  merchant 
who  had  settled  in  Halifax  soon  after  its  founding  in  1749.  A 
valuable  sketch  of  Mr.  Murdoch  is  to  be  found  in  the  second  volume 
of  the  Collections  of  the  Nova  Scotia  Historical  Society.  He  was 
the  grandfather  of  Beamish  Murdoch,  Esq.,  whose  documentary 
history  of  Nova  Scotia  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  literary  posses- 
sions of  the  Canadian  Dominion.  To  the  Presbyterian  Church  of 
Horton  Mr.  Murdoch  founded  belonged  members  of  the  families  of 
Avery,  Calkin,  Curry,  Davison,  Denison,  DeWolf,  Dickson,  Frame, 
Fuller,  Godfrey,  Martin,  Peck,  Reid,  Whitney,  and  Woodworth, 
most  of  these,  of  course,  like  the  Cornwallis  people  who  became 
Presbyterians  at  a  later  date,  originally  New  England  Congrega- 

The  first  meeting  house  built  by  the  Horton  Presbyterians  was 
situated  at  Grand  Pre,  almost  on  the  site  of  the  present  Methodist 
church,  in  the  rear  of  which  the  graves  of  a  good  many  of  the 
earliest  settlers  of  Horton  lie.  It  must  have  been  erected  very  soon 
after  Mr.  Murdoch  took  up  his  residence  in  the  county,  but  the 
exact  date  of  its  building  we  do  not  know.  A  few  years  after  Mr. 
Murdoch  left  Horton  it  was  taken  down,  and  in  1804  a  new  one, 
which  still  stands  but  has  long  been  disused,  was  begun.  This. 
second  one  was  not,  however,  finished  until  1818.  The  distance 
between  it  and  the  meeting  house  of  Mr.  Moulton's  mixed  Church 
at  what  is  now  Wolfville,  was  about  five  miles.  Of  the  few  archi- 
tectural relics  in  the  county,  this  Horton  Presbyterian  meeting 
house  is  perhaps  historically  the  most  interesting.  In  it  remain  still ' 
the  original  high-backed  pews,  and  the  old  sounding  board  that  so 
many  years  echoed  the  voices  of  the  first  Scottish  ministers  in  the 


Mr,  Murdoch's  pastorate  in  Horton  was  not  by  any  means  con- 
tinually a  pleasant  one,  and  he  seems  to  have  retired  from  it  some 
four  years  before  he  finally  left  the  county.  He  did  not  remove 
from  Horton  before  1795,  and  it  is  said  that  his  successor,  the  Rev. 
George  Gilmore,  became  pastor  of  the  Church  in  1791.  Mr.  Gilmore 
was  bom  in  Antrim,  Ireland,  in  1720,  studied  in  Edinburgh,  married 
and  had  children  bom  in  Ireland,  and  came  to  Philadelphia  in  1769. 
From  Philadelphia  he  removed  to  New  England,  where  he  staid 
until  the  beginning  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  Then,  hated  as  a 
Tory,  he  fled  on  the  ice,  across  the  St.  Lawrence  river,  to  Canada. 
Prom  Canada  he  found  his  way  to  Nova  Scotia,  and  in  1785  was  in 
Halifax  making  claims  for  losses  he  had  met  with  in  the  war.  On 
Ardoise  Hill,  near  Windsor,  the  government  gave  him  a  farm,  and 
there  for  one  winter  he  and  his  family  "lived  on  potatoes  and 
milk".  At  this  time  he  was  so  poor  that  it  is  said  he  once  walked  to 
Halifax  to  try  to  mortgage  his  farm  for  a  barrel  of  flour.  His  dis- 
tresses ought  not  to  have  been  so  great,  for  on  coming  to  Hants 
county  he  assumed  charge  of  the  Presbyterian  church  that  Mr.  Mur- 
doch had  gathered  at  Windsor  and  Newport,  and  at  these  places 
preached  more  or  less  regularly  until  1791.  In  that  year  he  removed 
to  Horton,  and  there  he  laboured  till  his  death  in  1811.  He  sleeps 
in  the  burying  ground  near  the  church  where  for  so  long  he 
preached,  and  a  slab  with  a  Latin  inscription  marks  his  now  almost 
forgotten  grave.  In  the  care  of  the  Windsor  Church,  when  he  left 
it,  he  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  James  Munro,  but  in  Horton  he 
seems  to  have  had  no  immediate  successor. 

The  ministry  of  Rev.  Hugh  Graham  at  Comwallis  began,  as  we 
have  seen,  in  1785.  Before  his  departure  from  Scotland  the  Asso- 
ciate Synod  issued  an  injunction  that  as  no  Presbytery  yet  existed 
in  Nova  Scotia,  as  soon  as  he  should  be  settled  there  one  should 
be  formed.  Accordingly,  in  August,  1786,  the  two  Colchester  county 
clergyTuen,  Messrs.  Smith  and  Cock,  together  with  Mr.  Graham, 
constituted  themselves  a  Presbytery,  the  name  given  to  the  new 
organization  being  the  "Associate  Presbytery,  of  Truro",  and  the 
standards  adopted  by  it  being  precisely  those  of  the  Presbyterian 


churches  of  the  same  faith  in  Scotland.  At  a  meeting  some  little 
time  after  the  date  of  organization,  the  clergymen  who  composed 
the  synod  declared  themselves  "subordinate  to  the  Burgher  Asso- 
ciate Synod  in  North  Britain".  Into  this  Presbytery,  since  he 
belonged  to  another  section  of  Presbyterianism  in  Britain,  Mr. 
Murdoch  of  the  Horton  church  did  not  come.  As  may  readily  be 
imagined,  the  New  England  Congregationalists,  who  for  the  most 
part  composed  the  Cornwallis  church,  did  not  easily  relinquish 
their  independent  ways.  In  a  pamphlet,  written  at  a  later  period 
by  the  Eev.  William  Sommerville,  the  writer  disapprovingly  says 
that  the  church  "up  till  late  days  refused  to  know  any  distinction 
among  Presbyterians;  to  testify  their  disapprobation  of  division 
stood  divided  from  every  Presbyterian  body  in  the  enirpire;  and 
conducted  their  affairs  more  upon  Congregational  than  Presbyterian 
principles".  From  the  people's  origin  and  early  training  this 
attitude  on  their  part  is  precisely  what  we  should  expect.  They 
were  Presbyterians,  not  from  natural  inclination  or  inherited 
tendency,  but  from  force  of  outward  circumstances,  and  their 
positive  refusal  for  a  long  time  to  give  up  the  use  of  their  familiar 
New  England  Watts'  hymn  book  was  a  natural  mark  of  their 
attitude  towards  the  new  ecclesiastical  relations  in  which  they 
found  themselves. 

As  a  Presbyterian  clergyman,  Mr.  Graham  with  all  his  might 
urged  the  substitution  for  this  hymn  book  of  the  Presbyterian 
version  of  the  scripture  Psalms,  but  the  people  were  unflinching, 
and  at  last,  partly  it  is  said  because  of  their  persistence  in  the  use 
of  Watts'  hymns,  in  1799  Mr.  Graham  resigned  his  charge.  In 
spite  of  the  annoyance  he  sometimes  suffered  from  the  people's 
un-Presbyterian  ways,  and  his  continual  irritation  at  being  obliged 
to  use  "uninspired  hymns",  his  ministry  was  on  the  whole  a  suc- 
cessful and  happy  one.  At  last,  however,  when  Mr.  Murdoch  was 
drowned,  a  call  came  to  him  from  the  united  congregations  of 
Stewiacke  and  Musquodoboit,  and  perhaps  not  unwillingly  he 
accepted  that  charge.  Of  marriages  performed  by  him  in  Corn- 
wallis the  Town  Book  contains  the  records  of  not  a  few.    Among 


the  people  he  married  were:  Experience  Ells  to  Prince  Coffin, 
January  8,  1798 ;  Sarah  Chase  to  Andrew  Newcomb,  December  22, 
1791;  and  Eebecca  Dickie  to  George  Cummings,  January  22,  1795. 
He  himself  married,  December  15,  1791,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  John 
and  Elizabeth  Whidden,  his  friend  the  Bev.  Daniel  Cock  performing 
the  ceremony.  To  Mr.  Graham  and  his  wife  at  least  three  children 
were  born :  Hugh,  November  21,  1792 ;  John  Whidden,  February  22, 
1795;  Elizabeth,  June  18,  1798.  Rev.  Hugh  Graham  died  in  April, 
1829,  in  his  seventy-fifth  year,  his  work  in  Nova  Scotia  having 
extended  over  the  long  period  of  forty-four  years.  In  the  pastorate 
of  the  Cornwallis  Church  Mr.  Graham  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev. 
iWilliam  Forsyth. 

This  clergyman  was  a  licentiate  of  the  Established  Church  of 
Scotland,  had  been  ordained  by  a  college  of  lay  elders  in  the  United 
States,  and  was  minister  of  the  Cornwallis  Church  from  1799  till 
his  death  in  1840.  The  first  marriage  recorded  as  having  been  cele- 
brated by  him  is  that  of  Peter  Bentley  Pineo  and  Olive  Comstock, 
September  2,  1802.  He  was  himself  married  to  Mary  Beckwith, 
daughter  of  Asa  and  Mary  (Morton)  Beckwith,  born  February  6, 
1781,  by  whom  he  had  seven  children :  Mary,  who  became  the  first 
wife  of  Rev.  George  Struthers;  William,  who  became  a  physician 
and  died  unmarried;  Jean,  who  became  the  second  wife  of  Mr. 
Thomas  Lydiard;  John,  who  became  a  physician  and  married  Miss 
Martha  Ann  Morton,  daughter  of  Hon.  John  Morton;  Margaret, 
who  was  still  living,  unmarried,  in  1885 ;  Bezaleel,  who  married  first 
Miss  Tupper,  second  Miss  Oakes;  and  Elizabeth,  who  died  unmar- 
ried. In  the  agreement  made  with  Mr.  Forsyth  it  was  expressly 
stated  that  the  people  were  still  to  be  allowed  to  use  Watts '  hymns, 
and  this  through  his  whole  pastorate  they  continued  to  do.  Mr. 
Forsyth  was  not  only  the  minister  of  the  church,  but  the  teacher  of 
many  of  the  sons  of  leading  Cornwallis  men.  His  grammar  sehoolj 
indeed,  was  the  most  important  school  in  the  western  part  of  the 
province.  He  had  a  good  deal  of  dry  humour,  and  it  is  related  of 
him  among  other  things  that  once  in  an  interview  with  a  farmer 
whose  son  he  had  found  unusually  dull,  he  said:    "Your  boy  cannot 


learn,  it  is  no  use  for  him  to  try" !  "Manure  (inure)  him  to  it",  said 
the  father,  "Manure  him  to  it"!  "Alack,  alas,  man"!  said  the 
Scotch  parson,  "if  I  were  to  put  all  the  manure  in  your  barnyard 
on  him  he  could  not  learn".  Among  those  who  received  their  early 
education  from  "Parson  Forsyth"  were  the  three  sons  of  Dr.  Isaac 
Webster — ^Dr.  William,  Dr.  Frederick,  and  Henry  Bentley  Webster; 
John  and  William  Robertson,  of  Annapolis  County;  Dr.  Samuel 
Bayard^  H.  N.  Chipman,  J.  Hosterman  DeWolf,  Peter  Delancey, 
Edward  Beckwith,  George  B.  Morton,  and  other  afterwards  well 
known  men.  Mr.  Forsyth's  active  ministry  ended  some  four  or 
five  years  before  his  death,  though  nominally  he  still  continued 
pastor  of  the  church.  In  1827,  the  Rev.  George  Struthers,  also  of 
the  Established  Church  of  Scotland,  who  afterwards  (the  Rev.  John 
Martin   of   Halifax   officiating),   January   28,    1830,   married   Mr. 

Forsyth's  eldest  daughter,  Mary,  and  the  Rev. Morrison  were 

sent  from  Scotland  by  the  Lay  Association  as  missionaries  to  Nova 
Scotia.  At  once  Mr.  Struthers  came  to  Horton,  Mr.  Morrison  going 
to  Dartmouth,  which  place  he  afterwards  left  for  Bermuda.  Mr. 
Forsyth  needing  assistance,  Mr.  Struthers  preached  for  some  time, 
once  a  month,  at  Cornwallis.  Very  soon  after  his  marriage,  how- 
ever, he  went  to  Demerara,  but  in  August,  1835,  on  an  invitation 
from  the  Cornwallis  church,  sent  him  through  Dr.  Isaac  Webster, 
he  returned  to  Cornwallis,  where  for  five  years  he  ministered  to  the 
congregation  as  subordinate  pastor.  In  1840  Mr.  Forsyth  died  and 
Mr.  Struthers  became  sole  pastor  of  the  church. 

While  Mr.  Struthers  was  at  Demerara  the  Rev.  William  Som- 
merviUe,  M.  A.,  a  Scotch-Irish  Covenanter  of  the  strongest  person- 
ality, who  had  been  ordaind.  May  31,  1831,  by  the  Reformed  Church 
of  Ireland,  and  for  a  time  had  ministered  in  Amherst,  Nova  Scotia, 
came  to  the  Horton  Church.  To  assist  Mr.  Forsyth,  he,  too,  gave  a 
quarter  of  his  time  to  Cornwallis.  His  pastorate  in  Horton  began 
April  1,  1833,  and  continued  for  about  seven  years.  When 
Mr.  Struthers  returned  from  Demerara  he  at  once  withdrew  from 
Cornwallis,  but  during  his  brief  ministry  there  he  was  able  to  bring 
about  the  long  desired  substitution  of  the  Scripture  Psalms  and 


Paraphrases  for  Watts'  Hymns.  He  first  came  to  Comwallis  on 
his  wedding  tour,  and  the  people,  it  is  said,  enjoyed  his  sermons  so 
much  that  as  soon  as  he  assumed  the  Horton  pastorate  they  engaged 
him  to  assist  Mr.  Forsyth.  In  his  initial  sermon  after  his  engage- 
ment with  them,  he  spoke  strongly  against  the  use  of  "uninspired 
psalmody",  and  this  oft-repeated  invective  sounded  a  little  unpleas- 
antly to  their  ears.  His  influence  over  them  soon  became  so  strong, 
however,  that  they  yielded  their  prejudice  in  favour  of  their  beloved 
Watts,  and  at  last  adopted  the  Presbyterian  version  of  the  Old 
Testament  Psalms. 

Mr.  Struthers'  ministry  at  Cornwallis  lasted  until  1857,  a 
period  of  between  twenty-one  and  twenty-two  years;  his  death 
occurred  March  17,  1857.  His  second  wife,  the  mother  of  his  chil- 
dren, was  Eliza  Ann  Davidson,  who  was  married  to  him  by  the  Rev. 
Donald  Fraser  of  Lunenburg.  "Mr.  Struthers",  says  Dr.  John 
Burgess  Calkin,  "was  a  preacher  of  simple,  forceful  style,  and  as  a 
man  was  held  in  the  highest  regard  by  all  who  knew  him".  He  was 
succeeded  in  the  Cornwallis  pastorate  by  the  Rev.  William  Murray, 
born  in  Colchester  county,  who  entered  into  his  work  with  great 
energy  and  zeal.  During  his  ministry  new  church  buildings  were 
erected  in  Kentville,  Lakeville,  and  at  Canard,  and  an  unfinished 
church  at  Waterville  was  completed.  The  oldest  extant  connected 
records  of  the  Cornwallis  church  begin  with  May  1,  1843,  and  dur- 
ing Mr.  Murray's  ministry  were  accurately  and  fully  kept.  From 
these  records  we  learn  that  a  call  was  issued  to  the  congregation  of 
the  old  church  to  meet  on  Monday,  December  27,  1858,  at  2  P.  M.,  in 
reference  to  a  proposal  to  divide  the  church.  This  division  was 
made  in  1859,  and  by  an  act  of  the  legislature,  dated  March  30  of 
that  year,  a  threefold  division  of  the  dyke  lands  owned  by  the 
church,  most  of  this  property  being  bequests,  was  authorized. 
Henceforth,  the  history  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  Cornwallis 
becomes  the  history  of  three  separate  congregations,  the  northern 
worshipping  at  Canard,  the  southern  worshipping  at  Kentville,  and 
the  western  worshipping  at  Lakeville.  On  the  division,  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Murray  became  pastor  of  the  church  at  Canard,  and  the  Rev. 


Alexander  "W.  McKay  of  the  church  at  Lakeville.  The  22ud  of  May, 
1859,  the  Rev.  William  Furlong  was  inducted  into  the  charge  of  the 
Kentville  congregation,  and  the  church  building,  known  as  St. 
Paul's,  was  dedicated.  At  this  dedication  service  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Sedgewick  of  Musquodoboit  officiated.  In  1868  the  Rev.  Mr.  Fur- 
long resigned,  and  the  successive  pastors  since  have  been:  Rev. 
John  B.  Logan,  1868-1885 ;  Rev.  E.  W.  Archibald,  Ph.  D.,  1886 ;  Rev. 
W.  P.  Begg,  1887-1896;  and  Rev.  G.  McMillan,  1897—.  In  1909  the 
Presbyterian  ministers  in  the  county  were,  Rev.  G.  McMillan  at 
Kentville,  Rev.  Mr.  McCurdy  at  Canard,  Rev.  Mr.  MacKinnon 
at  Lakeville,  Rev.  Mr.  "Wright  at  "Wolfville,  and  Rev.  Thomas  McFall 
at  West  Cornwallis.  The  manse,  during  Mr.  Forsyth 's  ministry,  and 
that  of  Mr.  Struthers'  until  1847,  was  the  house  in  Canard  that  for 
many  years  afterward  was  the  parsonage  of  the  Baptist  Church.  It 
was  sold  by  the  Presbyterians  in  1847,  and  a  new  manse  was  built 
nearer  Kentville  for  the  Rev.  Mr.  Struthers. 

Rev.  William  Sommerville  left  Horton  for  West  Cornwallis  prob- 
ably in  1840,  and  as  a  "Reformed"  or  "Covenanting"  minister  began 
missionary  work  there  and  in  Wilmot.  In  1843  he  organized  a 
Reformed  church  in  West  Cornwallis,  his  congregation  in  1842-3 
erecting  a  church  building,  the  interior  of  which,  however,  was  not 
for  some  time  finished.  Mr.  Sommerville  first  celebrated  the  Lord 's 
Supper  in  the  church  in  November,  1844;  of  the  congregation  he 
remained  pastor  until  his  death  in  1878.  In  1882  the  Rev.  Thomas 
McFall,  also  a  native  of  Ireland,  but  educated  in  the  Middle  States, 
became  pastor,  and  in  this  position  still  remains.  At  Church  Street, 
Cornwallis,  services  of  the  Reformed  Church  are  also  now  regularly 

Ministers  of  the  Congregationalist-Presbyterian  Church,  meet- 
ing at  Chipman's  Corner: 

Rev.  Benaiah   Phelps  1765—1776 

Rev,  Hugh  Graham  1785—1799 

Rev.  William  Forsyth  1799—1840 

Rev.  George  Struthers  1840—1857 

Rev.  WilUam  Murray  1857—1859 


Ministers  of  the  Horton  Presbyterian  Church: 

Rev.  James  Murdoch  1766—1791 

Rev.  George  Gilmore  1791—1811 

Rev.  George  Struthers  1827—1830 

Rev.  William  Sommerville  1833—1840  (probably) 

Of  some  of  the  customs  of  early  King's  County  Presbyterianism 
in  the  first  half  of  the  19th  century  Dr.  John  B.  Calkin  says :  ' '  The 
Sunday  service  was  an  all-day  affair.  It  included  a  morning  sermon 
and  an  afternoon  sermon,  with  an  intermission  of  fifteen  minutes,  so 
that  the  wox'shippers  could  eat  the  lunch  they  had  brought  with 
them  in  their  pockets.  In  church  people  were  accustomed  to  stand 
in  prayer,  with  their  faces  turned  from  the  minister.  This  peculiar 
custom,  the  turning  of  the  back  to  the  minister  in  prayer,  was  prob- 
ably originally  intended  as  a  protest  against  reverence  for  the 
minister  as  a  priest.  The  hymns  were  lined  out  before  singing,  two 
lines  at  a  time,  sometimes  by  a  sort  of  rapid  chanting  of  the  words. 
The  minister's  stipend,  like  the  priest's  portion  under  the  Mosaic 
dispensation,  was  paid  in  farm  produce,  a  quarter  of  lamb  or  veal, 
a  roast  of  beef,  a  cheese,  or  whatever  happened  to  be  most  plentiful 
and  in  season  among  the  parishioner's  products". 


The  distinguishing  feature  of  the  Baptist  faith  has  always  been 
the  admission  of  adults  only,  after  a  deep  inward  experience  called 
conversion,  into  the  visible  church,  this  introduction  in  every  case  to 
be  effected  by  the  rite  of  immersion.  In  opposition  to  the  Baptist 
belief  is  the  doctrine,  common  to  all  the  leading  denominations  of 
Christians  besides  Baptists,  that  in  certain  cases  others  besides  con- 
sciously "converted"  people  are  proper  subjects  for  the  Church  of 
God ;  and  especially  the  Anglican  doctrine,  that  the  Church  is  rather 
a  great  graded  school  for  training  in  Christian  life  than  a  voluntary 
association  of  people  of  mature  religious  convictions.  Other  denom- 
inations of  Christians  other  than  Baptists  hold  that  while  the 
original  Eastern  mode  of  baptism  was  by  complete  immersion  of  the 
body  in  water,  the  spirit  of  the  act  is  sufficiently  maintained  in  the 
application  of  water  to  the  body  in  any  quantity,  or,  except  that  a 
certain  formula  must  be  used  in  the  application,  in  any  particular 
way.  The  great  first  apostle  of  Baptist  doctrine  in  New  England 
was  Roger  Williams,  whose  opinions  were  so  distasteful  to  Massa- 
chusetts, where  he  first  settled  that  he  was  early  obliged  to  flee  to 
Ehode  Island  and  establish  himself  permanently  there.  Before  the 
middle  of  the  17th  century  Baptist  churches  were  established  at 
Providence  and  Newport,  and  in  many  other  places  individual  men 
were  to  be  found  who  had  carried  their  Calvinistic  faith  to  its  full 
logical  limit,  and  their  views  of  baptism  to  the  most  exclusive  point. 
In  Massachusetts  the  first  Baptist  church  was  established  at 
Eehoboth  in  1663,  this  being  followed  by  one  at  Charlestown  in 
1665.  At  the  time  of  the  "Great  Awakening"  there  were  in  the 
New  England  Colonies,  in  all,  about  twenty  Baptist  churches,  but 


this  widespread  revival,  emphasizing  as  it  did  the  prime  importance 
to  church  membership  of  conscious  conversion,  gave  a  great  impetus 
to  the  Baptist  faith. 

The  New  England  people  who  came  to  Nova  Scotia  in  1760  were 
chiefly  from  Congregationalist  churches  of  the  conservative  type,  but 
among  them  were  no  doubt  some  who  had  been  strongly  influenced  by 
the  New  England  New  Light  revival,  and  there  was  probably  here 
and  there  one  who  had  gone  beyond  the  others,  and  in  sympathy,  at 
least,  had  given  his  complete  allegiance  to  Baptist  belief.  The 
most  notable  example  of  this  was  the  Kev.  Ebenezer  Moulton,  who 
had  been  ordained  pastor  of  the  Baptist  Church  at  South  Brimfield, 
Massachusetts,  in  1741,  but  who  in  1761,  came  to  Nova  Scotia. 
"With  other  immigrants  he  landed  at  Chebogue,  in  Yarmouth 
County,  and  there  received  from  the  government  seven  hundred 
and  fifty-flve  acres  of  land.  Soon  after  his  arrival  he  and  two 
others  were  appointed  land  surveyors  in  the  western  part  of  the 
province,  Moulton  also  being  made  a  magistrate.  For  some  years 
Moulton  probably  preached  wherever  he  could  flnd  hearers,  two 
of  the  places  being  Horton  and  Cornwallis,  at  both  of  which  places 
we  find  him  in  1763.  Under  his  preaching  in  these  townships  a  good 
deal  of  religious  feeling  is  said  to  have  been  aroused,  and  as  a 
result  he  baptized  in  Horton  a  number  of  men  and  women,  whom 
he  at  once  organized  into  a  church.  It  is  agreed  by  all  historians 
that  this  church  was  not  exclusively  Baptist,  that  its  membership 
included  some  who  more  properly  still  belonged  among  "Pedo- 
Baptist"  Congregationalists,  and  it  is  a  matter  of  common  knowl- 
edge that  because  of  lack  of  harmony  among  its  members,  and 
perhaps  from  general  indifference,  its  existence  gradually,  before 
many  years,  came  to  an  end.  [It  is  not  clear  how  long  Mr.  Moulton 
stayed  in  Horton.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Saunders  in  his  history  of  the  Bap- 
tists says  that  there  is  some  ground  for  believing  that  while  he  was  in 
the  province  he  received  an  appointment  a  chaplain  on  board  an 
English  man  of  war.  He  finally  returned  to  Brimfield,  however, 
and  there  in  1783  died.] 

Under  Henry  Alline's  preaching  the  Horton  people  were  agaitt 


aroused  spiritually,  and  as  we  have  already  seen,  in  1778  the  evan- 
gelist was  called  upon  to  assist  in  forming  a  new  church  there.  In 
his  Journal  he  says:  "Being  requested,  I  attended  now  a  meeting 
of  some  of  the  Baptists  in  Horton,  to  advise  about  gathering  a 
church  there.  0  may  the  time  come  when  Ephraim  shall  no  more 
vex  Judah  nor  Judah  envy  Ephraim,  and  that  there  might  never 
more  be  any  disputes  about  such  non-essentials  as  water  baptism, 
the  sprinkling  of  infants,  or  baptizing  of  adults  by  immersion,  but 
every  one  enjoy  liberty  of  conscience.  They  gathered  in  church 
order,  and  made  choice  of  one  N.  Person  (who  was  not  endowed 
•with  a  great  gift  in  the  word)  for  their  elder,  intending  to  put  him 
forward  until  God  gave  them  some  better  one,  or  brought  him  out 
more  in  the  liberty  of  the  gospel;  after  which  he  was  ordained". 
The  minister  here  called  "Person",  of  whom  the  Horton  Church 
had  made  choice  as  their  "elder",  was  Nicholas  Pierson,  an  English 
^oemaker  living  at  Horton,  of  whose  origin,  or  the  time  of  whose 
migration  to  Nova  Scotia,  we  are  entirely  ignorant.  The  church 
he  helped  organize  began  its  existence  October  29,  1778,  and  his 
own  ordination  took  place  the  5th  of  the  following  month.  His 
first  fellow  members  in  the  Church  were :  Benjamin  Sanford,  John 
Clark,  Peter  Bishop,  Silas  Beals,  Benjamin  Kinsman,  Jr.,  Daniel 
Hiintley,  John  Coldwell,  Esther  Pierson,  and  Hannah  Kinsman,  in 
all  ten  persons.  At  the  organization  of  the  church  Benjamin 
Kinsman  laid  his  hands  on  Mr.  Pierson 's  head  and  charged  him 
to  be  a  faithful  pastor,  and  Mr.  Pierson  laid  his  hands  on  Mr. 
Kinsman's  head  and  created  him  a  deacon.  To  Pierson 's  formal 
ordination  the  New  Light  churches  of  Falmouth  and  Newport  sent 
delegates,  and  at  the  service  Henry  AUine  himself  preached  the 
sermon.  The  6th  of  April,  1779,  when  AUine  was  ordained,  Pierson, 
jt  is  said,  in  return  preached  the  sermon  for  him.  Of  the  Horton 
church,  Benjamin  Kinsman  was  at  once  made  clerk  as  well  as 
deacon.  In  the  succeeding  year  ten  other  persons  were  baptized 
by  Pierson  and  added  to  the  membership.  These  were  Peter  Wick- 
wire,  Jerusha  Harrison,  Frederic  Babeoek,  Susannah  Palmeter, 
Mary  Loomer,  Thomas  Handley  Chipman,  Deborah  Newcomb,  Haji- 


nah  Loveless,  Huldah  "Woodworth,  and  Joseph  Morton.  Of  these 
new  members,  Thomas  Handley  Chipman  afterward  became  one  of 
the  "Fathers"  of  the  Baptist  denomination  in  the  Maritime  Pro- 
vinces, and  the  Church  generally  had  a  strong  pioneer  Baptist 
influence  in  Nova  Scotia  at  large. 

For  a  short  time  after  the  founding  of  the  Horton  Church  the 
subject  of  close  communion  was  evidently  warmly  disputed,  and  for 
a  year  or  two  the  more  exclusive  Baptist  practice  prevailed.  For 
this  reason,  or  because  of  some  other  supposed  divergence  of  the 
Horton  Church  from  New  Light  standards,  on  the  22nd  of  July, 
1780,  the  Cornwallis  Church  voted  "that  the  Baptist  Church  of 
Horton,  of  which  Rev.  Nicholas  Pierson  is  pastor,  have  no  right 
to  sit  in  any  council  with  this  Church,  neither  have  this  Church  or 
any  member  of  it  a  right  to  sit  with  them".  That  the  Horton 
Church,  however,  had  not  become  fully  confirmed  in  Baptist  ex- 
clusive beliefs  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  in  the  autumn  of  1780,  at 
a  "Conference"  in  Wilmot  the  Church  voted  "that  the  Congrega- 
tional brethren  who  are  sound  in  the  faith  be  invited  to  sit  down 
with  us  at  the  Lord's  table  occasionally,  and  that  the  mode  of 
baptism  is  no  bar  to  communion".  This  vote,  however,  by  common 
practice,  at  least,  if  not  formally,  was  later  rescinded,  for  during 
the  pastorate  of  the  Rev.  Theodore  Seth  Harding,  the  Church  like 
all  the  other  Baptist  churches  in  the  province,  became  a  strictly 
close  communion  church.  In  1780,  Peter  Bishop  was  appointed  a 
deacon  of  the  Church,  and  in  1779- '80  thirty  persons  were  baptized 
into  its  membership.    In  1784  the  church  had  eighty  members. 

From  1791,  when  Mr.  Pierson  left  Horton  for  Hopewell,  New 
Brimswick,  until  1796,  the  Horton  Church  was  without  a  settled 
pastor,  but  had  more  or  less  regular  "supplies",  one  of  these,  the 
Rev.  Joseph  Read,  of  Sackville,  New  Brunswick,  who  at  some  time 
unknown  to  us  died  suddenly  at  Wolfville,  from  "the  lodging  of 
an  apple  core  in  his  throat".  In  June,  1795,  Rev.  Theodore  Seth 
Harding  was  engaged  to  preach  for  six  months,  and  with  this  event 
begins  the  settled  history  of  the  church.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Harding 
was  a  native  of  Barriagton,  Queen's  County,  and  was  bom  March 


14,  1773.  His  parents,  Theodore  Harding,  Sr.,  and  Martha  (Sears) 
Harding,  came  to  Nova  Scotia  with  other  Cape  Cod  families,  from 
Eastham,  Massachusetts,  in  1761,  in  the  same  migration,  also,  being 
the  founders  of  the  later  well  known  Queen's  county  families  of 
Collins,  Crowell,  Doane,  Freeman,  Nickerson,  and  Snow.  Theodore 
Harding,  Sr.,  was  born  at  Eastham,  June  11,  1730,  and  May  13,  1756, 
married  Martha,  daughter  of  Josiah  and  Azubah  (Knowles)  Sears. 
His  children,  born  in  Barrington,  Nova  Scotia,  were  Azubah  and 
Jerusha,  twins,  born  January  1,  1763 ;  Joshua,  born  March  15,  1768 ; 
Bethiah,  born  May  15,  1767;  Mercy,  born  November  24,  1769; 
Theodore,  born  March  14,  1772.  The  father  of  Theodore,  Sr.,  was 
also  Theodore,  and  a  brother  was  Captain  Seth  Harding,  born  April 
17,  1734,  whom  the  Harding  Genealogy  calls  "a  distinguished  naval 

Rev.  Theodore  Seth  Harding  was  only  eight  years  old  when  he 
came  under  the  influence  of  Henry  AUine's  preaching,  and  that 
moment  the  boy's  deeper  spiritual  life  began.  In  1785,  Rev.  Free- 
born Garretson,  a  Methodist  minister  of  the  Baltimore  (Maryland) 
Conference,  came  to  the  province  and  engaged  in  evangelistic  work, 
and  under  his  preaching  Mr.  Harding's  religious  life  was  still  fur- 
ther quickened.  Finally,  through  the  influence  of  his  namesake.  Rev. 
Harris  Harding  of  Horton,  he  was  effectually  converted,  and  in 
1793  began  to  preach.  His  mother  was  "a  pious  Presbyterian", 
but  he  had  come  under  the  influence  of  the  Methodists  and  in  1794, 
Rev.  William  Black  gave  him  a  lay  preacher's  mission  to  Windsor, 
Horton  and  Cornwallis.  For  nine  months  he  preached  in  these 
places,  and  whenever  he  preached,  Methodists,  Baptists,  and  New 
Lights  flocked  to  his  sermons.  At  last  his  early  Presbyterian  train- 
ing showed  itself  so  strongly  in  his  preaching  that  the  Methodists 
called  him  to  account.  The  examination  was  kindly  conducted,  but 
it  resulted  in  his  leaving  the  Methodist  denomination.  Before  long 
a  decided  change  came  in  his  views  of  baptism,  and  on  the  31st  of 
May,  1795,  he  was  immersed  by  the  Rev.  John  Burton,  at  Halifax". 
The  26th  of  the  following  June,  he  was  engaged,  as  we  have  seen,  to 
preach  for  six  months  to  the  Horton  Church.    When  the  six  months 


■jv^as  elided  he  received  9,  call  to  the  pastorate,  and  on  the  13th  of 
f'ebruary,  1796,  began  his  settled  work.  The  following  July  (July 
13)  he  was  ordained  at  Horton  by  Rev.  John  Burton,  and  from  that 
tifne  till  his  death,  the  8th  of  June,  1855,  he  was  the  faithful  and 
honoured  pastor  and  friend  of  many  of  the  most  influential  of  the 
Horton  people.  His  immediate  successor  at  Wolfville  was  the  late 
Rev.  Dr.  Stephen  William  DeBlois,  who  also  laboured  faithfully  with 
the  church  till  his  death.  "Father"  Harding's  long  ministry  at 
Horton,  a  pastorate  lasting  for  the  extraordinary  period  of  more 
than  fifty-nine  years,  was  one  of  unstinted  devotion  to  duty,  and  of 
lingular  fruitfulness  in  spiritual  resuljts.  When  the  first  church 
building  of  the  Horton  Baptists  was  erected  it  is  impossible  to  say ; 
it  must  have  been,  however,  some  time  early  in  the  Key.  Ebenezer 
Moulton's  pastorate.  The  building  stood  in  the  old  burying  ground, 
Reside  the  njain  street  of  the  village,  very  near  where  Rev.  Theodore 
Seth  Harding  is  buried.  For  a  long  time  it  was  used  not  only  for 
preachii^g  on  Sundays,  but  for  secular  meetings  in  the  week  as  well. 
We  have  seen  how  from  the  disturbances  which  early  aro^e  in 
the  Congregationalist  Church  of  Cornwallis  and  Horton,  finally 
resulted  a  New  Light  Congregationalist  church,  with  its  meeting 
place  at  "Jaw  Bone  Corner",  we  have  now  to  see  the  latter  church 
torn  by  dissension,  and  at  last  dividing,  as  the  church  of  the  ' '  Stand- 
ing Order"  earlier  had  done.  That  the  Cornwallis  New  Light  con- 
T^erts  were  often  full  of  religious  fervour,  we  have  ample  testimony 
ip  AUine  's  Journal,  but  we  find  also  in  that  Journal  evidence  that  at 
a  very  early  stage  of  its  history  the  fiercest  doctrinal  disputes  began 
5;^  the  church.  In  December,  1779,  AUine  writes  of  his  Cornwallis 
converts : ' '  The  Christians  were  sometimes  blest  with  liberty  in  their 
souls;  but  the  work  of  conviction  had  been  declining  ever  since 
the  dispute  began  about  water  baptism.  0  that  Christians  would 
tjiipk  -what  they  are  about,  when  warmly  contending  about  such 
non-essential  matters;  and  that  they  are  not  only  laying  stumbling 
blocks  before  the  blind  world,  but  neglect  also  the  vitals  of  religion, 
and  the  salvation  of  poor  unconverted  souls".  Shortly  after  this 
the  evangelist  visited  Cornwallis  again  and  found  that  many  of 


the  awakened  ones  had  "tone  back  to  sin  and  vanity",  that  thid 
work  of  conviction  was  declining,  and  that  people  were  ihdulgin^ 
in  "unprofitable  disputes  about  Wat€r  baptism".  In  July,  1780; 
he  complains  once  more  of  the  same  thing,  and  says :  "  0  how  much 
advantage  does  the  enemy  get  iii  the  minds  of  Christians  by  those 
zealous  disputes  about  non-essentials,  making  that  the  chief  subject 
of  their  discourses,  when  the  essentials  or  work  of  God  is  neglected. 
I  have  often  observed  in  the  short  compass  of  my  ministry  that 
when  the  Christians  get  much  of  the  life  of  religion  with  the  love 
of  God  in  their  souls,  those  small  inatters  were  scai'cely  talked  of; 
but  whenever  they  met  their  discourse  A^as  abbiit  the  work  of  Gbd 
in  the  heart,  and  what  God  had  doiie  for  their  souls,  exhorting  sin- 
ners to  come  to  Christ,  and  setting  forth  in  their  conversation  th(3 
important  truths  of  the  gospel,  but  as  soon  as  religion  grows  cold 
then  they  sit  hours  and  hours  discoursing  about  those  things  wHieli 
would  never  be  of  service  to  body  or  soul,  and  proving  the  validity 
of  their  own  method,  or  form  of  some  eiternal  mattei-s,  and  con- 
demn others  who  do  not  think  as  they  do.  Ah,  how  many  hours  I 
have  Spent  even  among  Christians  to  prove  the  different  methods 
of  Water  baptism  either  to  infants  or  adults,  either  by  sprinkling 
or  immersion;  when  it  Would  not  at  all  help  the  poor  soul  in  the 
least  out  of  its  fallen  state  back  to  God  without  the  true  baptiSni 
of  the  spirit  of  Christ,  which  alone  can".  Six  months  later  he 
Writes:  "About  the  25th  of  December  I  went  to  Cornwallis  and 
remained  there  until  the  1st  of  January.  I  preached  bfteii  there 
among  the  people  and  found  many  of  the  Christians  very  lively  iii 
religion  but  there  remained  still  some  disputes  between  the  Baptists 
and  Congregationalists  about  water  baptism.  Many  hours  were 
very  unprofitably  spent  by  some  of  the  Christians  contending  about 
it.  O  the  infinite  goodness  of  God  to  bear  the  infirmities  of  hiis 
children.  How  much  tradition,  superstition,  and  idolatry  do  We' 
bear  about  us,  yet  he  loves  us". 

The  first  settled  pastor  of  the  Cornwallis  New  Light  Church 
after  the  death  of  Mr.  AUine,  was  the  Kev.  John  Payzant.  The 
Payzant  family,  like  the  AUines,  lived  in  Falmouth,  and  there  John 


Payzant  had  married  a  sister  of  Henry  AUine.  Payzant's  ancestors 
had  been  staunch  Huguenots,  but  for  a  time  he  himself  had  studied 
at  Quebec  for  the  priesthood  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  After 
the  family  migrated  to  Nova  Scotia,  his  father  had  been  killed  by 
Indians  at  Lunenburg;  his  mother  with  her  children  had  then 
settled  in  Falmouth,  where  the  government  had  given  her  a  grant 
of  land.  Under  Alline's  preaching  at  Falmouth,  John  Payzant  was 
converted,  and  in  a  short  time,  like  Alline,  he  consecrated  himself 
to  evangelistic  work.  In  April,  1782,  Alline  was  at  Annapolis  with 
Payzant  and  other  delegates  from  New  Light  churches  for  the 
ordination  of  Thomas  Handley  Chipman,  and  on  the  day  of 
ordination  Alline  records:  "Brother  Pezant  preached  at  7  in  the 
morning".  Monday,  July  3,  1786,  Mr.  Payzant  was  himself  or- 
dained over  the  Cornwallis  church,  and  in  the  Cornwallis  pastorate 
he  remained  until  1795.  At  that  date  he  removed  to  Onslow  to  take 
charge  of  the  New  Light  Church  there;  later,  however,  he  went 
to  Liverpool,  and  until  his  death  in  1834,  at  a  very  advanced  age, 
was  pastor  of  the  Liverpool  Old  Zion  Congregationalist  Church. 

During  Mr.  Payzant's  nine  years  pastorate  of  the  Cornwallis 
church,  controversies  about  baptism  were  no  doubt  as  frequent  as 
they  had  been  before  Henry  Alline's  death.  To  the  pastor  himself 
they  must  have  been  as  distasteful  as  they  had  been  to  his  prede- 
cessor, for  like  Alline  Mr.  Payzant  was  never  baptized  except  in 
infancy,  and  to  the  end  of  his  days  he  cared  little  how  or  when  the 
baptismal  rite  was  performed.  To  him  the  baptism  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  was  the  baptism  that  united  God's  people  and  made  them  one, 
and  whether  men  were  baptized  by  "sprinkling  or  dipping",  he 
thought  was  of  almost  no  consequence  at  all.  As  to  restricted 
communion,  "the  close  communion  among  the  Baptists",  he  said, 
"is  an  old  Jewish  tradition,  new  vamped,  as  we  read  from  the 
Greek  testament,  Mark  7:  4,  'Except  they  baptize  they  eat  not,  and 
other  things  there  are  which  they  have  received  to  hold,  as  the 
baptizing  of  cups  and  pots,  brazen  vessels  and  beds'  ". 

When  Eev.  John  Payzant  left  the  Cornwallis  Church  in  1795, 
the  Rev.  Edward  Manning  assumed  the  pastorate.    The  Manning 


family  had  come  from  Ireland,  by  way  of  Philadelphia,  to  Fal- 
mouth, it  is  said  as  Roman  Catholics,  but  the  younger  members  of 
it,  at  least,  had  embraced  Protestantism,  and  the  sons,  Edward  and 
James,  becoming  converted  entered  the  ministry  as  New  Light 
preachers.  Edward  Manning  was  first  awakened  in  1776,  by  the 
preaching  and  personal  conversation  of  Henry  AUine,  whom  he 
met  at  his  father's  house.  Thirteen  years  later  he  came  under  the 
influence  of  Rev.  John  Payzant,  and  then  made  up  his  mind 
firmly  to  "seek  the  Lord".  If  he  was  finally  to  be  lost,  he  said, 
he  would  at  least  "go  to  hell  begging  for  mercy".  Soon  he  was 
converted,  and  on  Mr.  Payzant 's  resignation,  the  19th  of  October, 
1795,  was  ordained  over  and  became  pastor  of  the  Cornwallis  New 
Light  Church.  It  is  not  many  years  since  the  last  echoes  in  Corn- 
wallis of  the  strife  over  baptism  in  the  New  Light  congregation, 
during  Mr.  Manning's  twelve  years'  pastorate,  died  away.  Al- 
though there  were  many  in  his  congregation  who  in  reference  to 
baptism  remained  old  time  Congregationalists,  he  himself,  like  all 
the  New  Light  Ministers  in  the  province  except  Payzant,  soon 
became  convinced  that  it  was  wrong  to  baptize  infants,  or  to  baptize 
at  all  except  by  immersion,  and  in  1798,  at  Annapolis,  received 
immersion  from  Thomas  Handley  Chipman,  who,  as  we  have  seen, 
himself  had  been  immersed  by  Rev.  Nicholas  Pierson  nineteen  years 
before.  After  his  immersion,  Mr.  Manning  positively  refused  to 
perform  the  rite  of  baptism  except  according  to  Baptist  rules,  but 
his  sympathizers  in  the  church  were  so  many  that  in  spite  of  con- 
tinued controversy  and  the  strong  opposition  of  some,  he  remained 
the  church's  pastor  until  1807,  when  he  and  eight  or  nine  of  his 
people  withdrew  and  formed  the  Cornwallis  First  Baptist  Church. 
In  the  extant  records  of  the  New  Light  Church  are  found  lists 
of  names  of  members  who  had  and  had  not  been  immersed,  and 
these  lists  alone  indicate  the  division  of  feeling  that  must  have 
existed  ill  the  church.  In  both  lists  appear  the  names  of  repre- 
sentatives of  the  same  families,  and  tradition  tells  us  that  the  con- 
troversy over  the  baptismal  rite  raged  so  fiercely  that  intimate 
friendships  were  broken  and  even  family  relations  sometimes  se- 


vefely  strdined.  WKen  Mr.  Manning  decided  to  form  a  Baptist 
ehurch  he  may  have  expected  that  a  large  number  of  the  seventy 
New  Light  Church  members  who  had  been  immersed  would  follow 
him,  but  this  was  not  the  case.  The  names  of  those  who  joined 
with  the  pastor*  in  forming  the  new  church  were  only  eight,  half 
of  these  being  men  and  half  women.  The  men  were,  William  Chip- 
man,  William  Cogswell,  Holmes  Chipman,  and  Walter  Eeid.  The 
women  wercj  Mrs.  Edward  Manning,  Mrs.  Handley  Beckwith 
(Catherine  Nlwcomb),  Mrs.  William  Chipman,  and  Miss  Doreas 

Historians  of  the  Baptists  in  the  Maritime  Provinces  pi'operly 
claim  Henry  AUine  as  the  father  of  the  Baptist  denomination  here, 
and  indeed  the  greatest  influence  of  men  of  power  often  lies  ini 
directions  quite  different  from  those  to  which  they  have  intention- 
ally given  their  energy.  AUine,  like  all  mystics,  was  the  apostle 
solely  of  the  inner  light.  To  him  forms  were  of  little  importance, 
indeed  they  were  often  a  hindrance  to  the  soul's  true  approach  to 
God.  Except  worldliness  there  was  nothing  among  Christians  he 
so  deplored  as  discussions  about  religious  forms.  When  Baptist 
opinions  began  to  take  such  hold  of  the  minds  of  his  converts  in 
Horton  and  Cornwallis  that  they  felt  it  necessary  to  argue  for  and 
uphold  them,  to  the  point  of  division,  the  people's  sad  mistakes,  as 
he  regarded  them,  filled  his  soul  with  pain.  Adult  baptism,  or 
pedo-baptism,  baptism  by  sprinkling  or  by  immersion,  were  to  him 
matters  of  utter  indifference;  the  New  Testament  he  had  read  to 
find  in  it  only  the  necessity  for  the  soul's  consecration  to  God.  Oil 
the  basis  of  the  revival  wave  which  under  his  preaching  swept  ovet 
the  province,  the  Baptist  denomination  arose,  but  its  rise  is  to  be 
attributed  rather  to  the  impulse  he  gave  the  old  belief  in  the 
necessity  for  conscious  conversion,  than  to  any  views  he  held  or 
taught  concerning  ecclesiastical  forms.  Alline  died,  as  he  lived,  a 
New  Light  Congregationalist,  and  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  from 
first  to  last  his  antagonism  to  Baptist  formal  exclusiveness  went 
very  d«ep  and  strong. 

Apart  from  Alline 's,  the  two  most  influential  personalities  in 


the  early  Baptist  religious  history  of  King's  County  were  undoubt- 
edly those  of  the  Rev.  Theodore  Seth  Harding,  and  the  Rev.  Edward 
Manning.  Mr.  Harding's  ministry  lasted,  as  we  have  seen,  for 
almost  Sixty  years,  Mr.  Manning's  lasted  for  a  little  less  than  fifty- 
six  years,  and  both  men  had  a  moulding  influence  on  the  people  at 
large  of  the  respective  townships  in  which  they  ministered  that  it 
is  not  easy  to  overrate.  Rev.  Theodore  Seth  Harding  began  his 
ministry  in  Horton,  June  26,  1795,  and  died  June  8,  1855.  Rev. 
Edward  Manning  was  ordained  over  the  Cornwallis  New  Light 
Church  in  1795,  and  died  January  12,  1851.  Mr.  Manning's 
physique  was  powerful,  his  intellect  was  commanding,  his  temper 
was  stern ;  Mr.  Harding  was  of  medium  height  and  size,  and  though 
strong  in  his  convictions  had  a  far  more  magnetic  and  softer  mind. 
Mr.  Manning  towered  high  above  most  of  the  men  with  whom  he 
mingled,  his  head  was  large,  his  forehead  wide,  his  eyes  dark  and 
piercing,  his  arms  and  legs  long,  and  his  voice  full  and  deep,  and 
he  carried  always  a  certain  majestic  air  of  command.  Mr.  Harding 
was  a  smaller,  gentler  man,  eccentric  and  fervid  in  utterance,  en- 
dowed with  true  apostolic  fire,  a  real  prophet  of  righteousness,  but 
gifted  with  poetic  sensibility,  and  with  a  wide  charity,  that  some- 
times completely  triumphed  over  the  severe  logic  of  his  creed.  Mr. 
Manning  was  a  born  ruler,  a  man  made  to  sway  men;  Mr.  Hard- 
ing's intellect  had  perhaps  less  directness  and  power  but  his  thought 
had  a  wide  range,  his  sentences  were  epigrammatic ;  what  he  failed 
to  utter  in  W^ords,  he  "conveyed  by  vivid  suggestion",  and  his 
voice  was  so  melodious  that  his  sermons  held  spell-bound  whoever 
listened  to  them.  "For  fulness  and  melody  of  voice",  says  an  his- 
torian, "he  was  without  an  equal.  His  speech  had  a  chanting, 
rhythmical  flow,  and  was  suffused  with  pathos  and  charged  to  the 
full  with  irrestible  power".  Like  several  early  Nova  Scotians  in 
the  political  realm,  like  Uniacke,  Howe,  and  Johnstone,  for  example, 
these  ministers  well  deserved  to  be  called  great,  for  they  had  great 
ability,  and  they  left  a  great  influence  behind  them;  but  in  estima- 
tifig  their  influence,  it  is  impossible  not  to  wish  strongly  that  they 
had  had  the  benefit  of  wider  scholastic  training,  and  larger  asso- 
ciation with  the  educated  world. 


By  1800  all  the  New  Light  ministers  in  Nova  Scotia  except  Rev. 
John  Payzant,  at  Liverpool,  had  been  immersed,  and  on  the  23rd 
and  24th  of  June  of  that  year  a  "Baptist  Association"  was  formed. 
In  this  Association  were  included  two  churches  in  Annapolis  County, 
one  in  Digby,  one  in  Horton,  one  in  Cornwallis,  one  in  Newport,  one 
in  Sackville,  one  in  Yarmouth,  and  one  in  Chester,  but  the  close 
communion  platform  was  not  fully  adopted  by  the  Association  until 
1809.  After  that  year  the  Congregationalism  that  the  New  England 
settlers  of  1760  and  1761  had  brought  into  the  province  almost 
ceased  to  exist.  The  Baptist  body  in  Nova  Scotia  had  its  birth  in 
a  general  religious  Revival,  and  its  growth  may  largely  be  traced 
through  later  similar  revivals.  Of  these  revivals  King's  County 
has  had  always  its  share,  and  oat  of  them  have  come  undoubtedly 
a  great  deal  of  deep,  continuing  religious  life.  In  1809  the  members 
of  the  Cornwallis  Baptist  Church  numbered  sixty-five,  in  1810  fifty- 
six,  in  1811  sixty-three,  in  1812  seventy-three,  in  1813  sixty-five,  in 
1814  sixty-eight,  and  in  1820  a  hundred  and  twenty-four. 

Mr.  Manning's  pastorate  of  the  Church  lasted  until  his  death, 
which  occurred,  as  we  have  said,  on  the  12th  of  January,  1851.  In 
1847,  on  account  of  his  failing  health,  the  Rev.  Abram  Spurr  Hunt, 
a  young  graduate  of  Acadia  College  of  1844  (and  master  of  arts  of 
1851),  was  chosen  to  assist  him.  "When  Mr.  Manning  died  Mr.  Hunt 
succeeded  to  the  pastorate,  and  in  this  office  remained  until  Novem- 
ber, 1867,  when  he  resigned  and  removed  to  Dartmouth,  the  well 
known  suburb  of  Halifax.  His  successor  was  the  Rev.  Samuel  Brad- 
ford Kempton,  D.  D.,  a  native  of  Queen's  County,  whose  ministry  at 
Cornwallis  began  February  2,  1868,  and  lasted  till  1893.  Dr.  Kemp- 
ton's  immediate  successor  at  Cornwallis  was  the  Rev.  Charles  H. 
Martell,  who  held  the  pastorate  from  June,  1894,  to  May,  1901.  He 
was  followed  by  the  Rev.  Daniel  E.  Hatt,  who  was  pastor  from  1901 
to  1905 ;  and  he  by  the  Rev.  Frank  H.  Beals,  who  began  preaching 
for  the  church  in  October,  1905,  and  became  pastor,  March  1,  1906. 

When  Mr.  Manning  and  his  followers  withdrew  from  the  New 
Light  Church  they  worshipped  for  a  while  in  a  small,  square  single 
roomed  brick  school-house,  with  a  fireplace  on  one  side,  and  having 


a  wooden  roof,  which  stood  on  the  crest  of  the  hill,  west  of  the 
Walton  bridge,  at  Lower  Canard.  On  the  south  side  of  the  street, 
opposite,  were  "the  remains  of  an  old  French  dwelling  house  and 
blacksmith  shop",  and  near  the  running  dyke,  in  the  rear,  were  the 
remains  of  a  brick  kiln,  which  had  probably  furnished  the  brick 
for  the  building.  This  school-house,  which  is  the  first  one  of  which 
we  have  any  knowledge  in  the  county,  was  destroyed  by  fire  in 
1856.  By  1809  the  Baptist  Church  had  grown  sufficiently  strong  in 
numbers  to  erect  a  building  of  its  own,  and  this  its  members  did, 
choosing  for  a  site  the  edge  of  the  Parade  in  Upper  Canard.  The 
building  they  now  erected  closely  resembled  the  first  Congrega- 
tionaUst  meeting  house  at  Chipman's  Corner.  It  had  the  same 
plain,  rectangular  form,  and  for  many  years  the  same  unpainted, 
weather-stained  look.  It  had  two  stories,  and  in  each  story  a  long 
row  of  small-paned  windows.  On  three  sides  of  the  interior  was  a 
wide  gallery,  with  tiers  of  pews  raised  above  one  another,  and  at 
the  church's  upper  end  was  a  high,  square  pulpit,  hung  with  red 
damask,  into  which  the  minister  climbed  by  steep  stairs  from  the 
floor.  Directly  under  the  front  of  the  pulpit,  in  a  little  pen  facing 
the  congregation,  sat  the  venerable  .deacons,  three  or  four  as  the 
case  might  be.  In  front  of  them,  on  ordinary  Sundays  hanging 
down  by  the  hinges,  was  the  communion  table,  before  which  once 
a  month  the  pastor  stood  to  consecrate  the  bread  and  wine.  In  the 
front  gallery  opposite  was  the  mixed  choir,  who  sang  the  three 
hymns  and  sometimes  a  voluntary,  usually  led  by  one  of  the 
brethren  who  used  a  primitive  tuning  fork.  "Can  you  picture  the 
old  church  and  its  plan  of  arrangement"?  said  a  speaker  at  the 
Centenary  celebration  of  the  church,  which  was  held  September  1st 
and  2nd,  1907.  "It  was  a  rectangular  building,  nearly  even  with 
the  four  points  of  the  compass.  A  porch  on  the  south  side  admitted 
by  two  doors.  Entering,  you  saw  the  pulpit  directly  in  front  of 
you  on  the  north  wall.  On  either  side  of  the  central  aisle,  leading 
from  the  entrance  to  the  pulpit,  was  a  double  tier  of  pews  or  high 
backed  enclosures.  These  formed  the  body  of  the  floor  space.  An 
aisle  ran  all  round  these  ranks  of  pews.    Around  the  entire  wall 


ran  one  continuous  row  of  pews,  interruptfed  only  by  the  pulpit  on 
the  north  side  and  the  doorway  on  the  south  Wall.  A  gallery, 
reached  by  stairs  from  the  porch,  occupied  the  sbuth,  east,  and  west 
Walls  above,  the  choir  being  seated  in  the  south  gallery,  fronting  the 
pulpit.  The  pulpit  was  high  and  spacious  and  enclosed  the  preacher 
seciirely.  The  building  was  not  square;  its  longer  sides  ran  froni 
east  to  west.  There  was  no  steeple,  no  toWer,  no  bell".  The  meet- 
ing houSe,  as  has  been  stated,  was  built  in  1809.  Its  dimensions 
T^ere  about  sixty  feet  long  by  forty  wide  and  its  timbers  were  im- 
mense. It  stood  until  1873,  when  it  was  taken  doT^n  to  be  replaced 
by  a  more  modern  building.  This  latter  was  burned  in  1909,  a; 
third  church  vei'y  soon  taking  its  place. 

The  offshoots  from  the  First  Comwallis  Baptist  Church  have 
been, — the  "Second  Comwallis  Chui'ch",  organized  at  Berwick  in 
1828,  with  fifty  persons;  the  "Third  Comwallis  Church",  organized 
At  Billtown,  June  6,  1835,  with  a  hundred  and  sixty-seven  persons ; 
the  "Fourth  Comwallis  Church",  organized  at  Pereau  in  1839;  and 
the  "Fifth  Comwallis  Church",  organized  at  Canning  in  1870, 
ivhich  in  1906  was  united  With  the  Canning  "Free  Baptist  Church". 
At  the  start  this  Caiining  Baptist  Church  had  about  twenty-seven 
members;  when  the  union  was  effected  the  joint  membership  was 
over  two  hundred.  Froih  the  Berwick  Church  in  1849  or  1850,  the 
Lbng  Point,  now  Burlington,  Church  was  organized,  with  twenty- 
eight  members;  from  this  latter  church,  June  23,  1874,  the  "Cani- 
bridge  Church"  was  organized,  with  about  ninety  members.  "In 
addition  to  these  offshoots,  the  Berwick  Church  cohtributed  largely 
towards  the  original  membership  of  the  AylesfOrd  Church".  At 
Town  Plot,  also,  as  early  as  1839,  Baptist  services  were  held,  from 
these  in  time  coming  a  Baptist  church  at  Port  Williams,  the  building 
of  the  meeting  house  for  which  was  begun  in  1866.  The  first  Bap- 
tist parsonage  in  Comwallis,  which,  as  we  have  seen,  was  originally 
the  Presbyterian  manse,  was  an  attractive  cottage  on  the  Middle 
Dyke  road,  -v^ith  an  avenue  of  acacia  trees  leading  to  it,  known  as 
"Salem  Cottage".  It  was  hei^e,  for  much  of  his  ministrjl'  that 
the  Reir.  Abram  Spurr  Hunt,  and  for  all  of  his  ministry   that  th6 


Rev.  Dr.  Samuel  Bradford  Kempton  lived.  In  1834  there  were  ip 
the  pounty  but  three  Baptist  ministers,  the  Kevds.  Edward  Manning, 
William  Chipman,  and  Theodore  Seth  Harding.  In  Aylesford  none 
is  given.  In  1860,  there  were :  at  Wolfville,  Revds.  John  Chase, 
John  Mockett  Cramp,  D.  D.,  Stephen  William  DeBlois,  and  Artemas 
Wyman  Sawyer,  D.  D. ;  at  Pleasant  Valley,  Eev.  William  Chipman ; 
at  New  Minas,  Rev.  Thomas  W.  Crawley;  at  Cornwallis,  Eev. 
Abram  Spurr  Hunt ;  at  Billtown,  Rev.  James  Parker ;  at  Gaspereau, 
Rev.  E.  0.  Reid ;  at  Aylesford,  Rev.  Abram  Stronach. 

After  Rev.  Edward  Manning's  withdrawal  from  the  Cornwallis 
New  Light  Congregationalist  Church,  that  body,  it  is  said,  found 
itself  composed  of  "members  of  the  original  Chipman 's  Corner 
Church  who  could  not  be  Presbyterians,  and  New  Lights  who  would 
not  be  Baptists  after  the  type  of  the  Manning  Church,  together 
with  some  newcomers  who  sympathized  with  the  church  in  its 
difficulties,  and  the  Chase  family,  who  had  been  Quakers".  It  was 
a  time  for  the  Church  of  great  depression,  but  the  majority  of  the 
members  who  had  not  joined  the  secession  held  steadfastly  to  their 
allegiance,  among  them  the  two  deacons,  Messrs.  Thaddeus  Harris 
and  Amasa  Bigelow,  both  of  whom  had  laid  their  hands  on  Mr. 
Manning's  head  at  his  ordination  in  1795.  The  church  building  at 
Hamilton's  Corner  remained  in  possession  of  the  New  Light  people, 
and  very  soon  after  Mr.  Manning's  withdrawal,  but  at  precisely 
what  date  we  do  not  know,  Mr.  John  Pineo,  who  had  been  one  of 
Mr.  Manning's  bitterest  opponents,  was  ordained  and  became  as 
the  church's  records  quaintly  call  him  "pasturer"  of  the  flock. 
The  Church's  preserved  recprds  begin  only  with  the  year  1819,  at 
which  time  Mr.  Pineo  was  pastor,  Messrs.  Thaddeus  Harris  and 
John  Sanford  were  deacons,  and  Mr.  Benjamin  Weaver  was  clerk. 
For  a  short  time  the  congregation  continued  to  hold  services  at 
Hamilton's  Comer,  but  a  majority  of  the  members  living  near  what 
is  now  Canning,  the  meeting  house  was  soon  abandoned  and  services 
were  held  in  private  houses  "east  of  the  Little  Habitant  River". 
In  1819  a  new  meeting  house  was  begun  at  Habitant,  but  before  it 
was  finished  it  was  destroyed  by  fire.     The  next  year,  however, 


1820,  it  was  rebuilt,  but  it  was  at  first  finished  only  on  the  outside,  and 
floored.  During  the  last  years  of  Mr.  Pineo's  pastorate  the  Church 
suffered  greatly  for  lack  of  attention.  The  minister  was  old  and 
infirm,  and  lived  at  Scots  Bay,  and  services  do  not  seem  to  have 
been  at  all  regularly  kept  up.  On  the  2lBt  of  June,  1835,  in  his; 
82nd  year,  Mr.  Pineo  died,  and  for  four  years  if  the  church  had  a 
minister  at  all  it  must  have  been  Rev.  William  Payzant,  son  of  Rev. 
John  Payzant,  who  before  Mr.  Pineo's  death  had  come  to  reside  in 
the  neighbourhood,  and  who  in  the  pastor's  declining  years  had 
undoubtedly  assisted  him  in  his  work. 

In  August,  1839,  the  Rev.  Jacob  B.  Norton,  of  Argyle,  Nova 
Scotia,  a  Free  Baptist  minister,  was  settled  over  the  church,  and  in 
1841  some  other  Free  Baptist  minister  who  happened  to  be  tem- 
porarily taking  his  place,  indiscreetly  and  improperly  alluded  pub- 
licly to  the  church  as  a  Free  Baptist  church.  This  allusion  so 
angered  the  stricter  Congregationalists  that  they  soon  withdrew  to 
the  Bass  Creek  school-house,  leaving  the  majority,  who  preferred  to 
stay  with  Norton  and  become  Free  Baptists,  in  possession  of  the 
meeting  house  and  the  parsonage.  Before  long  the  Congregation- 
alists engaged  Mr.  George  Sterling  as  their  minister,  but  in  1846  he 
left  for  Pleasant  River  and  his  place  was  taken  by  the  Rev.  Jacob 
Whitman,  who  also  resigned  in  1852. 

From  1855  to  '57,  Rev.  Joseph  Peart  was  pastor  of  the  church; 
for  a  year  Rev.  Samuel  Cox  supplied  its  pulpit;  from  1861  to  '67 
Rev.  J.  R.  Keen  was  its  pastor;  and  from  1870  to  '74  Rev.  Jacob 
Whitman  ministered  to  it.  For  five  years  after  this,  students  were 
engaged  as  supplies;  from  1879  to  '81,  Rev.  Enoch  Barker  served 
as  pastor;  for  a  year  Rev.  J.  B.  Thompson  preached  in  its  pulpit; 
for  several  years  Hon.  Rev.  Burnthorne  Musgrave  acted  as  supply; 
from  1886  to  '89  Messrs.  Jacob  W.  Cox,  B.  C.  Wall,  and  Harry 
Goddard  supplied  it ;  in  1890  and  '91  Rev.  Churchill  Moore  was  pas- 
tor ;  and  between  1891  and  1900  there  were  several  other  brief  pas- 
torates, the  longest  being  that  of  Rev.  David  Colburn.  In  1847  the 
church  property  at  Habitant,  which  until  then  had  remained  in 
the  hands  of  the  Free  Baptists,  was  restored  to  the  Congregation- 


alists  by  law.  In  1849  the  meeting  house  was  completed  and  the 
pews  sold,  but  in  1889  the  church  disposed  of  its  property,  both  at 
Hamilton's  Corner  and  at  Habitant,  and  began  the  erection  of  a 
meeting  house  at  Kingsport,  in  the  vicinity  of  which  the  majority 
of  the  Congregationalists  of  Cornwallis  still  live. 

The  minutes  of  the  monthly  meetings  of  the  church  after  1819, 
which  are  contained  in  a  dilapidated  book,  yellow  with  age,  and 
coverless,  are  characteristic  of  the  time  and  place  in  which  they 
were  made.  Some  of  them  are  as  follows:  "May  the  22  (1819). 
The  Church  met  and  Eenewed  Covenant  Several  Come  forward  and 
told  their  Experience  and  was  received  we  have  Reason  to  Bless 
God  it  was  a  day  of  rejoicing".  "May  the  29.  The  Church  Met  and 
Eenewed  Covenant  several  Come  forward  and  told  their  Experience 
and  was  received  the  Lord  was  with  his  People".  "June  20.  The 
Church  met  and  Renewed  Covenant.  Several  come  forward  and 
told  their  Experience  the  Lord  was  righting  up  his  people".  "July 
3.  The  Church  met  and  Renewed  Covenant  the  Lord  was  moving 
on  the  hearts  of  his  people".  "Dee.  4.  Mary told  her  Ex- 
perience and  was  Received  the  5  or  the  Sabeth  Day  following. 
Partook  of  the  Sacrament".  "January  2  (1820).  The  Church  met 
and  renewed  Covenant.  I  think  there  was  a  quickening  of  God's 
Spirit  upon  the  minds  of  the  people".  "Sept.  4.  I  beleave  the 
Spirit  of  the  Lord  was  with  the  people".  "Sept.  25.  Their  was  one 
come  forward  and  told  their  Experience.  I  beleave  the  Lord  was 
moving  upon  the  minds  of  the  people".  "Oct.  the  9.  The  Church 
met  etc.  the  Lord  never  will  leave  nor  forsake  his  people".  'Nov. 
7.  The  Church  met  etc.  We  have  Reason  to  Bless  God  for  his  good- 
ness their  was  a  revival  of  his  Cause".  "August  5.  The  Church 
met  etc.  I  beleave  it  was  not  a  lost  opportunity".  "Feb.  24  (1821). 
The  Church  met  etc.  we  have  reason  to  bless  God  for  the  opertunity 
that  we  have  of  meeting  together  from  Day  to  Day  and  from  time 
to  time".  "30  March.  The  Church  met  and  renewed  fellowship 
we  hope  that  we  shall  not  forsake  Assembling  ourselves  together. 
I  beleave  the  Lord  meets  with  us  and  owns  and  Blesses  us  and  will 
Bless  all  his  people".    "July  28.     The  Church  met  and  renewed 


fellowship  we  do  not  enjoy  his  love  as  we  have  in  times  past". 
"Sept.  29.  The  Church  met  etc.  their  was  some  of  the  Church  that 
I  beleave  could  Bless  the  Day  that  ever  they  was  Born  to  Be  Born 
again".  "Oct.  27.  The  Church  met  etc.  their  is  yet  hope  concern- 
ing Israel  the  Lord  never  leaves  himself  without  a  witness".  "  Jan'y. 
25  (1823).  The  Church  met  and  Eenewed  fellowship  it  was  a  Dark 
time  the  Church  seems  to  be  scattered".  "Nov.  29.  it  is  a  dark  and 
scattered  time  amongst  God's  people"  (This  reads  like  a  wail  fron^ 
one  of  the  Hebrew  prophets).  "Sept.  25.  The  Church  met  etc. 
we  feel  like  those  that  goes  mourning  without  the  sun".  "Decem- 
ber 25  (1830).  The  Church  met  etc.  it  was  like  a  great  freedom  with 
a  part  of  the  Church".  "Oct.  29  (1831).  The  Church  met  etc..  And 
we  beleave  many  felt  the  writing  of  Jesus  Christ's  Spirit  in  their 
inmost  Soals". 

The  following  Baptist  and  Congregationalist  ministers  have 
been  reared  in  King's  County,  or  have  had  an  immediate  King's 
County  ancestry :  The  Eevds.  Howard  Barss,  "Walter  Barss,  William 
H.  Beckwith,  M.  A.  Bigelow,  Ingraham  Ebenezer  Bill,  D.  D.,  John 
Chase,  Alfred  Chipman,  Samuel  L.  Chipman,  Thomas  Handley 
Chipman,  "William  Chipman,  Bennett  Chute,  Nathaniel  Cleveland, 
Aaron  Cogswell,  John  B.  Cogswell,  Joshua  B.  Cogswell,  Erastus 
Obadiah  Cox,  George  Davenport  Cox,  Jacob  "W.  Cox,  Frederick 
Crawley,  Adoniram  Judson  Davidson,  Austin  K.  de  Blois,  D.  D., 
M.  A.  DeWolf,  I.  J.  De"Wolf,  Henry  Eagles,  Charles  Aubrey  Baton, 
D.  D.;  Joshua  Tinson  Baton,  "William  "Wentworth  Eaton,  "William 
D.  Fitch,  Harris  Harding,  C.  K.  Harrington,  D.  D. ;  David  Harris, 
Edward  N.  Harris,  Masters  Harris,  Austin  Kempton,  Thomas  A. 
Higgins,  D.  D. ;  W.  V.  Higgins,  "William  Johnson,  Burton  "W.  Lock- 
hart,  D.  D. ;  John  M.  Lowden,  D.  D.,  Ezekiel  Masters,  John  Masters, 
John  P.  Masters,  John  Chipman  Morse,  D.  D. ;  S.  J.  Neily,  Abram 
Newcomb,  James  Newcomb,  "William  A.  Newcomb,  James  Palmer, 
James  Parker,  Maynard  Parker,  Obed  Parker,  David  B.  Pineo,  John 
Pineo,  Silas  Tertius  Rand,  D.  D. ;  Charles  Randall,  S.  Martin  Ran- 
dall, J.  Otis  Redden,  Edward  Manning  Saunders,  D.  D;  J.  H. 
Saunders,  D.  D.;  Adoniram  Judson  Steyens,  James  Stevens,  I.  J. 


Skinner,  J.  E.  Skinner,  Joseph  C.  Skinner,  George  Thomas,  Aaron 
Thorpe,  Charles  Tupper,  D.  D.;  J.  H.  Tupper;  O.  C.  S.  Wallace, 
D.  D.;  Burpee  Welton,  Daniel  M.  Welton,  D.  D.;  Sidney  Welton, 
Among  Methodist  ministers  have  been,  Charles  DeWolfe,  D.  D.,  and 
Arthur  John  Lockhart.  ' 

Of  sects  other  than  the  larger  denominations,  King's  County 
has  fortunately  not  had  many.  About  the  middle  of  the  19th  cen- 
tury a  small  congregation  of  Disciples  or  "Campbellites"  was 
gathered  in  Cornwallis,  chiefly,  it  is  believed,  of  disaffected  Baptists, 
their  first  meeting  house  probably  being  a  small  square  building 
known  as  the  "Tabernacle",  a  short  distance  west  of  the  First 
Baptist  and  present  Presbyterian  churches  in  Canard.  Their  second 
meeting  house  was  on  the  Upper  Dyke  road,  between  Upper  Dyke 
Village  and  the  west  end  of  Church  Street.  The  congregation  was 
always  a  small  one  and  the  church's  place  in  the  ecclesiastical  his- 
tory of  the  county  is  not  important. 


The  Wes(leyan  Methodist  denomination  had  its  first  adherents  in 
Nova  Scotia  in  a  number  of  Yorkshire  families  who  emigrated  tO' 
Cumberland  county  in  1770-75,  that  county  then  including  the  coun- 
ties of  Westmoreland  and  Albert,  in  the  province  of  New  Brunswick. 
Of  these  Yorkshire  settlers  in  Nova  Scotia  and  New  Brunswick  a 
few  families  broke  away  from  the  main  body  and  made  their 
homes  in  Halifax,  Hants,  and  Annapolis  counties,  but  the  majority 
remained  in  Cumberland.  The  religion  of  probably  all  these  York- 
shire settlers  was  "Wesleyan  Methodism,  and  the  earnest  religious 
faith  their  lives  manifested  has  had  an  important  influence  on  the 
character  of  the  people  of  Nova  Scotia  to  the  present  time. 

A  member  of  this  Yorkshire  company  was  William  Black, 
whose  father  was  a  Scotchman  from  Paisley,  but  whose  mother  was 
of  Yorkshire  parentage.  William  Black  himself  was  born  in  Hud- 
dersfield,  England,  in  1760,  and  with  deep  emotional  experiences 
was  converted  in  Nova  Scotia  in  1779.  As  soon  as  he  attained  hi» 
majority,  like  Henry  Alline,  he  began  an  evangelistic  career,  but  his 
ordination  to  the  ministry,  which  occurred  in  Philadelphia,  did  not 
take  place  until  1789.  In  May,  1782,  Mr.  Black  made  his  first  visit 
to  King's  County.  Starting  from  Amherst,  by  way  of  Partridge 
Island,  for  Windsor,  he  came  to  Parrsborough,  but  there  found  that 
the  packet  for  Windsor  had  gone.  An  opportunity  soon  presenting^ 
itself,  however,  he  crossed  to  Oornwallis  in  a  privately  owned  vessel, 
and  presented  himself  to  some  of  the  people.  One  of  the  most 
prominent  men  of  Comwallis  was  Jonathan  Sherman,  Jr.,  formerly 
of  Portsmouth,  Rhode  Island,  son  of  Jonathan  Sherman,  Sr.,  and  his 
wife  Mary  (Card).  Whether  Mr.  Sherman  had  already  anywhere 
come  under  the  infiuence  of  Methodism  we  do  not  know,  but  he  wa» 


"distinguished  by  a  love  of  good  men,  nnrestricted  by  the  shackles 
of  bigotry",  and  he  seems  to  have  been  Mr.  Black's  first  Cornwallia 
host  (The  Rev.  Matthew  Richey,  D.  D.,  calls  him  Gideon  Sherman, 
but  this  must  be  wrong) .  Less  than  four  years  had  passed  since  the 
New  Light  Congregationalist  church  of  Cornwallis  and  Horton 
founded  by  AUine  had  come  into  being,  and  neither  over  that  nor 
the  mother  Congregationalist  church  was  there  any  settled  pastor. 
Mr.  Black's  coming,  therefore,  was  undoubtedly  welcomed  with  a 
good  deal  of  pleasure,  and  on  Sunday,  May  26th,  both  morning  and 
afternoon,  he  preached  to  the  New  Light  people,  one  of  his  texts 
being :  "  I  determined  not  to  know  anything  among  you  save  Jesus 
Christ  and  Him  crucified".  At  both  services,  he  says,  "God  was 
graciously  present,  but  it  ought  to  be  said  with  emphasis,  'The 
voice  of  the  Lord  was  heard  in  the  cool  of  the  day'  ".  At  Cornwallis 
he  staid  until  the  30th  of  the  month,  then  he  rode  to  Horton  and 
preached  in  the  evening  there.  On  this  occasion  his  text  was: 
Unto  you,  therefore,  which  believe  he  is  precious". 

Jime  1st  he  went  back  to  Cornwallis  and  preached  both  in  the 
school-house  and  at  Mr.  Sherman's.  Again  he  returned  to  Horton 
to  Mr.  George  Johnson's,  and  from  there  went  to  Falmouth,  Wind- 
sor, and  Newport,  preaching  his  first  sermon  at  Windsor  on  the  5th 
of  June.  Here  his  service  was  held  in  the  house  of  Mrs.  Scott,  who 
lived  on  the  Francklin  farm.  "Very  precious  to  the  scattered 
Methodists  of  the  Province",  writes  the  Rev.  Dr.  T.  Watson  Smith, 
"must  have  been  the  opportunity  of  receiving  the  Lord's  Supper, 
when  persons  from  Horton  and  Halifax  were  ready  to  meet  their 
brethren  at  Windsor  and  Newport  for  the  sacred  purpose".  [At 
this  time,  however,  Mr.  Black  was  not  ordained,  and  that  he  admin- 
istered the  Lord's  Supper  seems  doubtful]. 

Mr.  Black's  visit  to  Cornwallis  and  Horton  must  have  been 
attended  with  some  embarrassment,  for  in  many  Cornwallis  families 
Henry  Alline  was  looked  on  as  an  inspired  apostle,  while  for  much 
of  his  teaching  Mr.  Black  himself,  who  the  year  before  had  come 
into  close  contact  with  the  Falmouth  evangelist,  had  deep-seated 
distrust.      "Mr.    Alline 's    religious    tenets",    says    Mr.    Black's 


biographer,  "were  a  singular  combination  of  heterogeneous  mate- 
rials   derived   from   various    and    opposite    sources.     They   were 
fragments  of  different  systems,  without  coherence,  and  without  any 
mutual  relation  or  dependence.    With  the  strong  assertion  of  man's 
freedom  as  a  moral  agent,  he  connected  the  doctrine  of  the  final 
perseverance  of  the  saints.    He  allegorized  to  such  excess  the  plain- 
est narrations  and  announcements  of  Scripture  that  the  obvious 
and  unsophisticated  import  of  the  words  of  inspiration  was  often 
entirely  lost  amidst  the  reveries  of  mysticism".    Moreover,  he  did 
not  hesitate  to  speak  slightingly  of  Mr.  Wesley,   and  this  in  a 
Wesleyan's  eyes  naturally  indicated  an  unsually  perverse  and  mis- 
guided mind.    With  this  estimate  of  Henry  Alline  Mr.  Black  would 
entirely  have  agreed,  yet  he  no  doubt  expressed  himself  guardedly 
concerning  the  evangelist,  and  his  preaching  generally  gave  satis- 
faction to  Mr.  Alline 's  King's  County  friends. 

Before  long  Mr.  Black  went  to  Wilmot  and  Annapolis  Royal,  but 
soon  returning,  again  preached  at  Horton,  in  a  large  barn.    During 
his  visit  here  Joseph  Johnson,  he  says,  found  peace,  and  Matthew 
Ormsby,  "formerly  a  valiant  servant  of  the  devil,  and  confessedly 
proud  as  Lucifer",  was  deeply  affected.     In  a  later  visit  to  Horton 
the  same  autumn,  October,  1782,  he  had  a  long  argument  with  the 
Bev.  Aaron  Bancroft,  a  New  England  Congregationalist,  who  at  this 
time  was  temporarily  in  the  county,  perhaps  preaching  as  occasion 
might  offer,  concerning  the  fundamentals  of  evangelical  religion.  Mr. 
Bancroft,  who  was  the  father  of  George  Bancroft,  the  historian,  and 
who  before  this  time  from  the  year  1780  had  been  labouring  as  a 
clergyman  in  Yarmouth,  Nova  Scotia,  was  strongly  rationalistic, 
and  Mr.  Black  says  he  was  one  of  them  that  "prophesy  smooth 
things"  to  unregenerate  hearers.    In  1784,  the  Methodist  evangelist 
was  in  Horton  again,  and  during  this  visit  a  Mrs.  Card,  who  had 
formerly  been  "an  opposer,  but  was  now  on  a  bed  of  affliction,  and 
in  great  distress  of  mind,  terribly  afflicted  with  the  fear  of  death", 
was  converted  and  found  great  mental  relief.  In  1785  the  missionary 
was  once  more  in  Horton,  preaching  at  the  Baptist  and  Presbyterian 
meeting  houses,  and  in  Comwallis ,  preaching  at  Habitant.   August 


7,  1786,  he  writes  Rev.  John  Wesley  that  at  Horton  the  prospect  for 
Methodism  was  good. 

During  the  winter  of  1786-7,  under  the  ministry  of  the  Rev. 
Freeborn  Garrettson,  who  in  1785  had  come  to  Nova  Scotia  from 
Maryland,  a  revival  of  religion  took  place  at  Horton.  There, 
and  at  "Windsor  and  Cornwallis,  Garrettson  spent  the  greater 
part  of  the  winter,  exchanging  appointments  occasionally 
with  Mr.  Black,  on  whom  devolved  the  care  of  the  Meth- 
odist congregation  at  Halifax.  "The  people  of  Horton",  says 
Mr.  Black's  biographer,  "had  acquired  an  unenviable  distinc- 
tion for  wickedness;  their  attention  to  public  and  private  worship 
now  became  equally  prominent".  During  the  winter  many 
were  converted ;  "  I  have  had  a  blessed  winter  among  them ' ',  wrote 
Garrettson,  in  March,  1787.  "If  the  work  continue  much  longer  as 
it  has  done,  the  greater  part  of  the  people  will  be  brought  in.  It 
would  cause  your  heart  to  rejoice  to  know  what  a  deadly  wound 
Antinomianism  has  received  in  the  town  of  Horton.  My  dear  Mas- 
ter has  given  me  one  of  the  first  lawyers  in  Cornwallis,  and  his 
lady".  In  1786,  it  is  recorded,  the  Methodist  missions  at  Horton, 
Cornwallis,  and  "Windsor,  numbered  five  hundred  and  ten  members ; 
after  this  revival  they  probably  numbered  considerably  more. 

Methodist  missionary  labour  in  King's  County,  however,  for  a 
long  time  after  the  revival  was  unorganized  and  desultory.  At 
Horton,  owing  to  the  want  of  pastoral  care ,  some  persons  were  lost 
to  the  denomination,  but  to  those  who  remained  faithful  the  Anglican 
missionary  at  Cornwallis,  the  Rev.  "William  Twining,  preached  once 
in  every  three  weeks  in  the  chapel.  "For  several  years",  writes  Mr. 
Black,  "the  Rev.  Mr.  Twining,  a  missionary  of  the  Established 
Church,  resident  at  Cornwallis,  has  once  in  three  weeks  preached  in 
our  chapel  at  Horton,  and  frequently  administered  the  Lord's  Sup- 
per to  our  people.  About  five  or  six  years  ago  he  was  first  brought 
to  experience  the  converting  grace  of  God;  from  which  time  he  has 
not  shunned  to  declare  the  necessity  of  regeneration,  and  warmly  to 
press  on  the  consciences  of  his  hearers  this  and  the  other  distin- 
guishing doctrines  of  the  Gospel.    He  has  been  frequently  present 


at  the  meeting  of  the  class,  and  spoken  with  great  humility  and 
thankfulness  of  the  grace  of  Christ  Jesus;  and  has  sometimes  met 
the  society  himself.  His  attachment  to  the  Methodists,  and  his  plain 
manner  of  preaching  the  doctrines  of  the  Gospel,  have  brought  upon 
him  much  reproach,  and  considerable  trials  from  some  from  whom 
he  ought  to  have  received  much  encouragement.  Benjamin  Belcher, 
Esq.,  one  of  his  vestry,  who  had  been  his  principal  opponent,  and 
had  preferred  many  charges  against  him  to  the  Bishop,  on  his 
death-bed  sent  for  Mr.  Twining  to  pray  with  him,  and  in  his  will  he 
left  about  two  hundred  pounds  towards  the  building  him  a  church". 

Some  time  before  1793,  but  precisely  when  we  do  not  know,  the 
Windsor  Circuit,  which  embraced  Falmouth,  Newport,  Windsor, 
Horton,  and  Cornwallis,  was  created,  and  in  the  year  mentioned 
Hev.  James  Boyd  was  in  charge.  The  head  of  the  circuit  was  not 
"Windsor,  but  Horton,  and  in  1804  Rev.  William  Black  writes  the 
Missionary  Society  that  at  Horton,  "the  chief  place  in  the  circuit", 
the  Methodists  have  a  convenient  chapel,  which  is  generally  well 
attended.  Under  the  management  of  Rev.  William  Bennett  and  a 
young  colleague.  Rev.  Robert  Alder,  the  Windsor  circuit  grew  in 
importance,  and  in  1812  the  Rev.  William  Croscombe  was  sent  to  it 
by  the  Conference.  In  1819  the  Rev.  William  Burt  took  his  place, 
and  to  his  activity  the  denomination  in  the  county  owes  much. 

The  precise  date  of  the  building  of  the  Horton  Methodist  chapel 
we  do  not  at  present  know.  About  1786,  moved  by  the  preaching 
of  Mr.  Garrettson,  the  Cornwallis  people  subscribed  five  hundred 
dollars  towards  a  church  building  in  that  township,  but  the  church 
was  apparently  not  then  erected.  At  the  same  time,  Col.  Jonathan 
Crane  and  Mr.  James  Noble  Shannon,  together,  offered  two  hundred 
dollars  towards  the  erection  of  a  church  at  Horton,  and  it  ia  likely 
that  on  the  basis  of  their  generous  gift  the  Horton  chapel  was  there- 
after almost  immediately  built.  On  the  last  Sunday  in  May,  1821,  a 
new  church  was  opened  in  Horton,  the  old  one  having  been  moved 
across  the  road  to  be  converted  into  a  parsonage.  In  1818  the  Presby- 
terians had  completed  a  new  church  for  their  congregation  at  Horton, 
but  without  a  spire.  The  new  Methodist  church  was  built  with  a  spire, 


and  when  it  was  finished  some  of  the  Presbyterians,  determined  in 
this  respect  not  to  be  outdone  by  their  neighbours,  got  together  and 
subscribed  five  pounds  apiece  to  add  a  steeple  to  theirs.  At  Horton 
Corner  (Kentville),  says  the  Rev.  Dr.  T.  Watson  Smith,  Mr.  Burt 
"found  the  frame  of  a  church,  which  before  his  removal  was  form- 
ally opened  for  worship".  At  Wolfville  he  frequently  preached 
at  the  house  of  Mr.  Thomas  Andrew  Strange  DeWolf,  and  at  Starr's 
Point  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Joseph  Starr,  and  in  an  old  dwelling 
which  had  been  altered  for  the  purpose.  Through  his  efforts  a 
church  was  built  in  what  was  known  as  the  "Smith  Woods",  near 
Canning,  where  services  were  also  held  "until  the  dedication  of  a 
new  and  neat  church  in  Canning  in  1854".  In  Mr.  Burt's  time  or  a 
little  later,  services  were  also  sometimes  held  at  Greenwich  and 

Probably  as  early  as  its  establishment  in  Horton,  Methodism 
had  found  a  lodgment  in  Parrsborough,  and  at  some  period  of  which 
we  have  not  the  record  a  small  church  had  been  built  there.  This 
church,  says  Dr.  Smith,  "stood  near  Cross  Roads,  about  two  miles 
from  the  site  of  the  present  sanctuary".  In  1835-6  a  notable 
Methodist  revival  took  place  in  Parrsborough. 

Undoubtedly  the  most  distinguished  family  in  the  present 
county  to  give  countenance  and  support  to  Methodism  was  that  of 
Col.  Jonathan  Crane,  at  Horton.  Mrs.  Crane  was  Rebecca,  sister  of 
John  Allison,  Esq.,  M.  P.  P.,  of  Newport,  Hants  county,  and  both  she 
and  her  brother,  though  having  been  bred  in  Presbyterianism,  early 
became  members  of  the  Wesleyan  body.  Col.  Crane  himself  never 
united  with  the  Methodists,  but  to  the  end  of  his  life  took  great 
interest  in  the  denomination's  welfare.  To  his  noble-minded  liber- 
ality, says  Dr.  Richey,  the  congregation  was  chiefly  indebted  for 
"their  handsome  and  commodious  chapel  at  Lower  Horton,  which 
he  only  lived  to  see  completed"  (he  died  in  August,  1820).  Of  Mrs. 
Crane,  Dr.  Smith  says:  "She  was  the  acknowledged  centre  of  a 
group  of  godly  women" ;  and  Dr.  Richey  writes :  "Her  holy  life  and 
godly  conversation  long  rendered  her  a  distinguished  ornament  of 
the  Methodist  Society".    Other  noted  converts  in  the  county  to  the 


Methodist  faith  were,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  Noble  Shannon,  first  of 
Horton,  then  for  the  rest  of  their  lives  of  Parrsborough,  Mrs.  Shan- 
non, as  we  have  seen,  being  Chloe,  older  sister  of  Col.  Jonathan 
Crane.  "While  memory  continues  to  perform  its  office",  says  Dr. 
Richey,  "or  the  least  spark  of  gratitude  remains  unextinguished  in 
his  breast,  the  compiler  of  these  pages  can  never  forget  the  parental 
kindness  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Shannon,  when  in  the  seventeenth  year  of 
his  age  he  laboured  on  the  Parrsborough  circuit".  It  may  be  noted 
here  than  one  of  Col.  Crane 's  daughters,  his  youngest  child,  Rebecca, 
became  the  wife  of  Samuel  Black,  a  son  of  the  distinguished 
first  missionary  of  Methodism  in  Nova  Scotia.  A  long  letter  of  Mr. 
Black's,  written  February  10, 1787,  in  which  he  earnestly  exhorts  his 
correspondent  to  seek  religion,  was  to  "Lawyer  Hilton",  of  Com- 
wallis,  who  was  undoubtedly  the  lawyer  in  Cornwallis  whom  Mr. 
Garrettson  about  this  time  speaks  of  as  an  important  convert. 

In  1834  there  were  in  the  county  but  two  Methodist  ministers, 
the  Rev.  William  Temple  in  Horton,  and  the  Rev.  William  Smith  at 
Parrsborough.  In  1860  there  were  in  the  county,  which  then  lay 
in  what  was  called  the  "Annapolis  district",  the  following  minis- 
ters: in  ComwalUs,  the  Rev'ds.  William  Smithson  and  George 
Butcher;  in  Horton,  Thomas  Angwin;  in  Aylesford,  George  W. 


The  legal  disabilities  under  which  Koman  Catholics  laboured  in 
Nova  Scotia  after  the  introduction  of  civil  government  in  1749, 
were  for  a  long  time  very  great.  Of  the  influence  the  French 
priests  exerted  among  the  Acadians  the  government  had  had  such 
just  cause  of  complaint  that  when  the  first  Assembly  met  in  1758  its 
members  conceived  it  necessary  to  pass  the  following  severely  dis- 
criminating act:  "Be  it  enacted  that  every  popish  person  exer- 
cising any  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction,  and  every  popish  priest,  shall 
depart  out  of  the  Province  on  or  before  the  25th  day  of  March,  1759. 
And  if  any  such  person  or  persons  shall  be  found  in  the  Province 
after  the  said  day,  he  or  they  shall  upon  conviction  be  adjudged  to 
suffer  perpetual  imprisonment,  and  if  any  person  or  persons  so 
imprisoned  shall  escape  out  of  prison,  he  or  they  shall  be  deemed 
and  adjudged  to  be  guilty  of  felony  without  benefit  of  clergy.  And 
be  it  further  enacted  that  any  person  who  shall  knowingly  harbour 
any  such  clergyman  of  the  popish  religion,  or  priest,  shall  forfeit 
fifty  pounds,  one  moiety  to  His  Majesty  for  the  support  of  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  Province,  and  the  other  moiety  to  the  informer,  and 
he  shall  be  also  adjudged  to  be  set  in  the  pillory  and  to  find  sureties 
for  his  good  behavior  at  the  discretion  of  the  Court". 

In  spite  of  this  act,  and  in  the  face  of  the  extreme  penalties  it 
prescribed,  it  is  possible  that  for  some  little  time  after  the  passage 
of  it  the  veteran  missionary.  Abbe  Maillard,  who  had  remained  in 
the  province  after  the  expulsion  of  the  Acadians,  to  attend  to  the 
needs  of  the  Indians,  may  have  sometimes  surreptitiously  celebrated 
Mass  in  Halifax.  As  we  are  not  sure,  however,  of  the  exact  date  at 
which  he  left  the  province,  it  may  be  that  his  work  ceased  promptly 
at  the  time  the  Assembly  had  set.    "During  the  winter  of  1771,  Mass 


was  celebrated  in  Halifax  by  a  priest  whose  name  we  have  not 
learned,  in  a  barn  owned  by  Hon.  Michael  Tobin,  on  South  Street. 
The  priest,  however,  from  the  opposition  raised  against  his  services, 
was  soon  forced  to  withdraw  from  Halifax  and  officiate  in  "a 
secluded  spot  six  miles  from  the  town".  This  spot  has  been  identi- 
fied as  Birch  Cove. 

Against  Roman  Catholic  laymen,  also,  before  the  law,  almost 
equally  strong  discriminations  existed.  By  the  first  Assembly  it 
was  enacted  that  all  deeds  or  wills  conveying  "lands  or  tenements 
to  any  Papist"  should  be  utterly  null  and  void.  Before  a  man  could 
be  permitted  to  hold  any  public  office  he  must  declare  unqualifiedly 
against  "popery  and  transubstantiation ",  and  this  latter  restriction 
was  not  formally  removed  until  1827.  In  1783,  however,  in  conse- 
quence of  a  petition  by  the  Roman  Catholics  of  Halifax  to  Lieuten- 
ant-Governor Hamond,  the  disabilities  under  which  non-office -hold- 
ing Catholic  laymen  lived  were  entirely  removed.  In  1823,  Lawrence 
Kavanagh,  Esq.,  an  Irish  Catholic,  was  allowed  by  the  English 
Secretary  of  State  to  take  his  seat  as  a  member  of  the  Assembly 
for  the  Island  of  Cape  Breton.  After  this  decision,  which  of  course 
formed  an  important  precedent,  the  question  of  Mr.  Kavanagh 's 
right  to  sit  in  the  Assembly  was  debated  by  the  House  itself.  "When 
the  vote  was  put,  twenty-one  members  voted  in  favour  of  his  being 
allowed  to  do  so,  fifteen  against.  Of  the  King's  County  members, 
Samuel  Bishop  voted  for  the  measure,  William  Allen  Chipman,  Sher- 
man Dennison,  and  John  "Wells  voted  against  it. 

July  19,  1784,  the  frame  of  St.  Peter's,  the  first  Roman  Catholic 
Church  building  in  Halifax,  was  raised  almost  on  the  site  of  the 
present  St.  Mary's  Cathedral,  on  Spring  Garden  Road.  In  1785 
the  Rev.  James  Jones,  of  the  order  of  the  Capuchins,  landed  in 
Halifax  and  took  charge  of  the  congregation  worshipping  there. 
Two  years  later  he  was  constituted  by  the  Bishop  of  Quebec,  Supe- 
rior of  all  the  Catholic  missions  in  Nova  Scotia  which  had  come,  or 
under  his  supervision  should  come,  into  being.  His  jurisdiction 
also  included  Cape  Breton,  Prince  Edward  Island,  New  Brunswick, 
and  part  of  the  Magdalen  Islands.    In  1787,  it  is  stated,  there  were 


besides  Father  Jones,  but  two  priests  working  in  all  the  great  field 
over  which  the  Superior's  care  extended;  by  1800,  however,  ten 
had  been  added  to  the  number.  The  first  Roman  Catholic  Bishop 
of  Nova  Scotia  was  the  Right  Rev.  Edmund  Burke,  who  was  con- 
secrated at  Quebec  on  Sunday,  July  5,  1818.  For  some  years  before 
his  consecration  Dr.  Burke  had  been  Vicar  General  in  Nova  Scotia 
of  the  Bishop  of  Quebec. 

"Whatever  earlier  ministration  there  had  been  in  King's  County 
by  priests  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  organized  Catholic  mis- 
sionary labour  in  the  county  did  not  begin  until  1853.  The  parish 
now  known  as  St.  Joseph's,  with  its  Church  and  Rectory  near 
Kentville,  was  at  first  "The  District  of  Cornwallis,  Kentville,  and 
Aylesford",  and  to  this  district  the  Rev.  David  Canon  O'Connor  was 
sent  in  the  year  mentioned  above.  On  the  fly-leaf  of  the  earliest 
St.  Joseph's  Parish  Register  are  two  entries,  one  stating  that  the 
Rev.  D.  O'Connor  "took  possession  of  the  United  District  of  Corn- 
wallis, Kentville,  and  Aylesford  on  the  13th  day  of  June,  1853 ' ' ;  the 
other  that  the  Rev.  David  Canon  O'Connor  "arrived  in  this  place 
on  Thursday,  the  21st  day  of  November,  1860".  From  the  Register 
we  also  discover  that  Mr.  O'Connor  ministered  in  the  county  from 
1853  to  '57,  but  that  from  1857  to  '60  he  was  absent,  his  place  being 
fiUed  by  others,  whose  names  will  in  the  following  list  appear.  The 
priests  who  have  ministered  at  St.  Joseph's  from  1853  to  the  present, 
are:  Rev.  D.  O'Connor,  1853- '57;  Revds.  Messrs.  Hannigan,  Power, 
Madden,  Dillon,  Butler,  and  Kennedy,  1857- '59;  Rev.  D.  O'Connor, 
1859- '61;  Revd.  Messrs.  Mclsaac,  Kennedy,  Butler,  and  "Walsh, 
1861- '63;  Rev.  Philip  M.  Holden,  1863-1906;  Rev.  John  Bernard 
Moriarty,  1906 — .  The  first  marriage  on  the  Register  was  solemnized 
in  Kentville,  Sept.  16,  1853 ;  the  second  in  Horton,  Nov.  24,  1853 ;  a 
third,  in  Aylesford,  August  21,  1854;  a  fourth  in  Cornwallis,  Nov. 
8,  1854.  In  1853  there  were  twenty-eight  baptisms  recorded  in  this 
large  mission  field,  in  1854,  forty.  The  first  Register  ends  with 
1862,  the  second  begins  in  the  same  year.  The  title-page  of  the 
second  bears  the  inscription:  "Register  of  Baptisms  and  Marriages 
kept  in  the  mission  of  Kentville,  Cornwallis,  &c.  1862 — ". 


The  Church  building  of  St.  Joseph's  was  completed  by  December 
10,  1853,  and  until  a  few  years  ago  underwent  very  few  changes. 
Recently,  however,  it  has  been  completely  reconstructed,  and  in  a 
beautiful  location  very  near  it  an  attractive  Rectory  has  been 
built.  During  the  long  rectorship  of  the  Rev.  Philip  M.  Holden, 
this  popular  priest  occupied  his  own  house  on  the  Beech  Hill  Road, 
On  the  10th  of  December,  1853,  William,  Archbishop  of  Halifax, 
gave  formal  sanction  to  the  following  regulations  concerning  the 
church :  No  one  but  a  member  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  could 
be  a  pew-holder;  the  pews  were  to  be  let  for  five  years,  at  an 
annual  rent,  to  the  highest  bidder ;  the  pew  rents  were  to  be  applied 
for  the  current  expenses,  decorations,  and  repairs  of  the  church, 
under  the  direction  of  the  Archbishop  or  Ordinary  of  Halifax  for 
the  time  being ;  an  annual  account  of  the  receipts  and  expenditures 
of  the  church  was  to  be  submitted  to  the  Archbishop  or  Ordinary 
for  approval.  The  first  baptisms  on  the  Register  number,  twenty- 
eight  in  1853,  forty  in  1854.    The  first  marriages  number,  three  in 

1853,  four  in  1854.  The  first  marriage  in  the  parish  was  performed 
in  Kentville,  Sept.  16,  1853,  the  second  "in  Horton",  Nov.  24,  1853. 
One  marriage,  August  21,  1854,  was  in  Aylesford,  and  one,  Nov.  8, 

1854,  in  Cornwallis.  The  date  of  the  first  baptism  by  Rev.  Philip  M. 
Holden  was  August  24, 1863,  the  last  May  19, 1895. 

The  following  surnames  appear  on  St.  Joseph's  Parish  Register  in 
1853:  Bond,  Brady,  Brennan,  Christy,  Coleman,  Connors,  Dalton, 
Delahunty,  Fitzgerald,  Hudson,  Galavan,  Hanton,  Henderson,  Mc- 
Dado,  McPadden,  Kehoe,  Lacy,  Little,  McGarry,  Murphy,  Ryan, 
Sarsfield,  Sef erene.  Shea,  Thomson.  The  following  additional  names 
appear  in  1854:  Burke,  Casey,  Cornell,  Doherty,  Dooley,  Doyle, 
DriscoU,  Pennessy,  Foot,  Fry,  Hamilton,  Hare,  Harvey,  Keanealy, 
Lynch,  Lyons,  Mulloney,  Nugent,  Quigley,  Redmond,  Rogers,  Slat- 
tery,  Smyth,  Sullivan,  Sweeney,  Tobin,  Tully,  Walsh.  Later  addi- 
tional names  on  the  Register  are :  Ahern,  Arnold,  Bums,  Carter, 
Conlin,  Corbin,  Corkery,  Delancey,  Dorman,  Dunne,  Griffin,  Hanni- 
fen,  Kane,  Mahoney,  McBride,  McNally,  Nolan,  O'Hare,  O'Neil, 
Patterson,  Reddy,  Regan,  Roach,  Taylor,  ToUimore,  Trainor,  Walker. 


In  the  families  who  since  the  establishment  of  St.  Joseph's  parish 
have  been  adherents  of  the  Boman  Catholic  Church  in  King's 
County,  some  of  the  county's  most  respectable  inhabitants  have  been 
found.  Public  positions,  such  as  the  mayoralty  and  the  postmaster- 
ship  of  Kentville,  representatives  of  these  families  have  from  time 
to  time  filled,  or  at  present  occupy.  The  shire  town  of  the  county 
ia  proud  to  number  among  its  citizens  such  men  as  Messrs.  Joseph 
R.  Lyons,  Dr.  John  MuUoney,  James  W.  Ryan,  and  others  like  them. 
The  oldest  tombstone  in  St.  Joseph's  Churchyard  is  that  of 
"Martin  Ryan,  a  native  of  the  County  Tipperary,  Ireland,  who  died 
December  16,  1838,  aged  62".  The  inscription  on  the  tombstone  of 
the  Rev.  Philip  M.  Holden  is,  "To  the  beloved  memory  of  Rev. 
Philip  M.  Holden,  bom  in  Halifax,  N.  S.,  June  19,  1829.  Pull  of 
merits  and  charitable  deeds,  lamented  by  his  devoted  people,  he  was 
called  to  his  reward,  Feb.  2,  1906,  the  fifty-third  year  of  his  Priest- 
hood, and  forty-second  year  of  his  Kentville  pastorate".  The  pres- 
ent excellent  Rector  of  St.  Joseph 's,  the  Rev.  John  Bernard  Moriarty, 
was  educated  at  Lavalle  Seminary,  Quebec,  and  was  connected  with 
St.  Mary 'i^  Cathedral,  Halifax,  for  fifteen  years.  He  was  appointed 
Rector  of  St.  Joseph's  February  6,  1906. 


So  far  as  we  know  no  record  remains  of  the  schools  which  may 
have  existed  in  the  county  in  French  times,  nor  have  we  much  more 
knowledge  of  the  earliest  schools  established  by  the  New  England 
planters.  Of  schools  established  by  the  Society  for  the  Propagation 
of  the  Gospel  we  have  some  record,  but  these  S.  P.  G.  schools  could 
have  given  instruction  to  comparatively  few  of  the  planters'  chil- 
dren, and  although  the  demands  of  education  were  not  great,  with 
intelligent  people  like  our  ancestors  they  must  have  been  so 
insistent  as  to  lead  very  soon  to  the  establishment  in  many  neigh- 
bourhoods of  small  schools  where  the  rudiments  of  education  were 
taught,  by  women  or  men.  That  no  trace  except  in  tradition  is  now 
to  be  found  of  these  first  neighbourhood  schools  is  not  strange,  for 
they  were  purely  voluntary  institutions,  coming  under  no  general 
system,  and  responsible  only  to  the  individuals  who  subscribed  to 
them,  or  later,  to  the  trustees  who  acted  as  representatives  of  the 
people  at  large.  It  is  probable  that  in  every  neighbourhood  in  the 
county  some  tradition  remains  of  the  exact  location  of  the  first 
school-house  in  that  neighbourhood,  and  possibly  of  the  persons 
who  first  taught  in  it,  but  even  in  the  county  town,  with  reference 
to  the  teachers,  at  least,  such  tradition  has  been  vague  and  difficult 
to  obtain. 

From  the  S.  P.  G.  Report  issued  in  1764  we  learn  that  on  the 
3rd  of  February  of  the  preceding  year,  Mr.  Jonathan  Belcher  pre- 
sented to  the  Society,  with  his  own  strong  endorsement,  a  proposal 
from  the  Eev.  Joseph  Bennett,  then  living  at  "Windsor,  that  two 
schoolmasters  should  be  sent  out  by  the  Society,  one  for  Falmouth 
and  Newport,  and  one  for  Cornwallis  and  Horton.  The  Report  says 
that  this  proposal  had  been  complied  with,  and  that  at  Horton  the 


people  were  inclined  to  make  some  additional  provision  for  a  school- 
master, who,  with  the  salary  paid  him  by  the  S.  P.  G.,  the  people's 
voluntary  subscriptions,  and  the  use  of  the  land  set  apart  by  Gov- 
ernment for  the  school's  benefit,  it  was  thought  might  live  very  com- 
fortably. The  earliest  mention  we  find  of  schoolmasters  as  actually 
in  the  county  is  in  1767,  when  at  Windsor  and  Newport  a  Mr.  "Watts 
is  reported  as  being  stationed.  In  the  Report  for  1769- '70  we  find 
as  schoolmaster  at  Windsor  and  Nevirport,  a  Mr.  Haliburton,  in 
1772- '73  we  find  at  Oornwallis  and  Horton,  Mr.  Cornelius  Fox. 
After  1773- '74  Mr.  Haliburton 's  name  disappears  from  the  list  of 
schoolmasters,  and  Windsor  and  Newport  are  no  longer  spoken  of. 
Mr.  Fox,  however,  is  found  at  Oornwallis  until  1798,  when  he 
removed  to  Cape  Breton  and  Mr.  Matthew  McLoughlin  was  appoint- 
ed in  his  place.  The  salary  of  each  of  these  men  from  the  Society 
was  ten  pounds  a  year.  That  Windsor  so  soon  ceased  to  share  for 
purposes  of  education  in  the  Society's  bounty  is  probably  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  Windsor  and  Newport  people  were  sufficiently  well 
off  to  make  adequate  provision  for  their  own  educational  needs. 

Since  the  river  separated  Cornwallis  from  Horton,  Mr.  Fox,, 
living  as  he  did  in  Cornwallis  (probably  at  Fox  Hill),  could  not 
possibly  have  taught  any  of  the  Horton  children ;  the  Horton  people 
therefore,  must  early  have  established  small  schools  of  their  own. 
But  of  these  schools,  or  of  any  schools  that  may  have  been  estab- 
lished in  Cornwallis,  farther  west  or  north  than  the  Town  Plot,  we 
know  absolutely  nothing.  Much  before  the  close  of  the  18th  cen- 
tury we  hear  of  a  school-house  near  Hamilton's  Corner,  but  when  it 
was  built  or  who  first  taught  in  it  we  cannot  now  tell.  There  is 
unfortunately  no  department  of  the  county's  history  concerning 
which  we  know  less  than  the  earliest  schools. 

In  the  Halifax  Weekly  Chronicle  of  April  20,  and  27,  and  June 
15,  1799,  we  find  the  following  advertisement  for  a  teacher,  though 
for  precisely  what  part  of  Cornwallis  we  are  not  informed:  "Any 
person  capable  of  teaching  reading,  writing  and  arithmetic,  with 
propriety,  who  can  produce  a  good  recommendation  for  sobriety 
and  steadiness  of  conduct  and  to  whom  a  residence  in  the  country 


would  be  agreeable,  will  be  informed  of  an  eligible  situation  by 
applying  to  Messrs.  Charles  and  Samuel  Prescott  in  Halifax  or  to 
Joseph  Prescott,  Esq.,  or  Timothy  Baton,  merchant  in  Cornwallis". 

In  1811  an  act  was  passed  by  the  legislature  to  establish  gram- 
mar schools  in  the  counties  of  Sydney,  Cumberland,  King's,  Queen's, 
Lunenburg,  Annapolis,  and  Shelbume,  and  in  the  districts  of  Col- 
chester, Pictou,  and  Yarmouth,  the  master  of  each  school  to  receive 
a  hundred  pounds  a  year  from  the  treasury,  and  his  assistant  if  he 
had  one,  to  receive  fifty  pounds,  when  over  thirty  pupils  should  be 
in  attendance.  This  act  was  to  be  in  force  for  seven  years;  it  was 
then  extended  to  the  year  1825.  [Halifax,  during  this  period,  had  a 
grammar  school  under  a  different  act.]  In  1812  the  grammar 
schools  in  these  different  counties  were  established,  that  in  King's 
undoubtedly  being  located  at  Kentville.  At  a  Town  Meeting  held 
at  Cornwallis  November  5,  1812,  the  chairman,  David  Whidden, 
reported  that  four  hundred  pounds  had  been  raised  by  subscription 
for  schools  in  that  township,  that  eight  school-houses  had  been  pro- 
vided, and  that  six  licensed  schoolmasters  were  then  teaching  under 
the  direction  of  trustees.  The  meeting  nominated  as  trustees: 
James  Allison,  David  "Whidden,  William  Allen  Chipman,  William 
Borden,  James  Dickie  and  Daniel  Cogswell. 

In  a  notice  we  have  alluded  to  in  the  Nova  Scotian  newspaper, 
of  the  naming  of  Kentville,  the  intention  of  the  people  of  the  shire 
town  to  establish  a  school  of  the  "Madras  type"  is  mentioned.  The 
Madras  educational  system,  which  took  its  name  from  the  fact  that 
it  was  first  employed  in  1795  in  the  Orphan  Asylum  at  Madras, 
India,  by  1811  became  very  popular  in  England,  and  from  England 
came  to  the  Maritime  Provinces.  Its  general  method  was  the  em- 
ployment of  older  pupils  in  the  instruction  of  younger  ones,  and  the 
distribution  of  both  teaching  and  discipline  through  various  pupil 
bodies.  In  1816  the  S.  P.  G.  sent  out  a  Scottish  Episcopal  clergy- 
man, the  Rev.  James  Milne,  to  introduce  the  system  into  Nova 
Scotia  and  New  Brunswick,  and  this  clergyman  was  soon  joined  by 
an  English  schoolmaster,  a  Mr.  West,  also  sent  out  by  the  Society, 
through  the  exertions  of  whom  a  Madras  School  was  opened  at 


Halifax.  The  date  of  the  opening  of  this  Halifax  School  was 
1816,  but  it  is  clear  that  the  intention  of  the  Kentville  men  to  estab- 
lish a  Madras  School  in  King's  County  was  never  carried  out. 

On  the  7th  of  March,  1825,  in  the  legislature,  a  joint  report  of 
a  committee  of  both  houses  on  the  subject  of  schools  was  read.  In 
this  report  it  was  stated  that  in  the  opinion  of  the  committee  two 
hundred  and  ten  additional  schools  were  necessary  in  the  province. 
It  was  deplored  that  the  salaries  of  teachers  were  so  low,  and  it  was 
recommended  that  an  assessment  should  be  made  on  the  whole  popu- 
lation, to  provide  for  common  schools,  and  that  children  should  be 
taught  in  them  free  of  charge.  The  minimum  salary  to  teachers 
should  be  sixty  pounds. 

Of  the  further  progress  of  education  in  Nova  Scotia,  Duncan 
Campbell  the  historian  says:  "In  1832  an  Act  was  passed  for  the 
encouragement  of  common  and  grammar  schools,  conducted  on  the 
precarious  principle  of  voluntary  subscriptions  by  the  inhabitants 
within  the  different  school  districts,  the  Province  not  being  yet 
deemed  in  a  condition  to  assume  the  burden  of  maintaining  a  sys- 
tem of  elementary  education  by  an  equitable  assessment  on  the 
population".  In  1835  the  number  of  voluntary  schools  in  the 
province  was  five  hundred  and  thirty,  and  the  number  of  pupils 
attending  them  was  fifteen  thousand.  In  King's  the  number  of 
pupils  attending  school  was  a  thousand.  By  this  time  the  provin- 
cial treasury  was  supplementing  by  a  considerable  amount  the  sums 
for  education  the  people  in  the  various  counties  were  raising,  but 
the  benefits  of  education  were  very  generally  being  felt,  and  the 
people  themselves  were  paying  liberally,  according  to  their  means, 
for  the  support  of  the  elementary  grammar  schools. 

In  opening  the  legislative  session  of  1841,  the  Governor,  Lord 
Falkland,  advocated  strongly  a  scheme  of  provincial  education 
which  involved  a  general  assessment  for  the  •  support  of  common 
schools.  The  Governor's  proposal  the  Assembly  did  not  at  this  time 
adopt,  but  it  amended  the  old  educational  act  by  setting  apart  six 
thousand  pounds  annually  for  the  period  of  four  years  for  the 
support  of  schools,  and  by  authorizing  the  Governor  and  Council  to 
appoint  five  or  more  Commissioners  of  Schools  for  each  coimty,  who 


■were  to  have  the  management  and  control  of  schools  established 
under  the  new  law,  this  board  being  required  to  divide  the  respec- 
tive counties  into  school  districts. 

In  1848,  a  fresh  attempt  was  made  for  a  general  assessment 
for  education,  but  the  final  introduction  of  the  present  Free  School 
system  of  Nova  Scotia  was  not  accomplished  till  1864.  On  the  15th 
of  February  of  that  year  an  Education  Bill  was  introduced  by  Sir 
Charles  Tupper,  who  was  then  Provincial  Secretary,  and  its  pro- 
visions were  explained.  The  bill  proposed  a  general  assessment  of 
the  people  for  free  schools,  and  provided  facilities  for  the  carrying 
of  this  principle  out.  A  premium  of  twenty-five  per  cent,  was  to  be 
offered  to  every  school  founded  on  the  assessment  principle  and  made 
perfectly  free.  To  meet  the  necessities  of  poorer,  more  thinly 
settled  districts  the  bill  provided  that  one-fifth  of  the  entire  amount 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  each  Board  of  Commissioners  should  be 
set  apart  for  the  support  of  such  schools,  in  addition  to  the  amount 
they  were  already  entitled  to  receive.  In  supreme  control  of  educa- 
tion  be  a  Council  of  Public  Instruction,  and  under  this  body, 
a  Superintendent  of  Education  and  a  staff  of  paid  Inspectors,  whose 
duty  should  consist  in  periodically  inspecting  all  the  schools  in 
their  respective  districts.  In  each  district  were  to  be  Examiners, 
one  of  whom  was  to  be  the  Inspector,  whose  duty  it  should  be  care- 
fully to  ascertain  the  qualifications  of  all  applicants  for  license  to 
teach.  These  teachers  it  was  proposed  to  classify  according  to  their 
proficiency,  and  to  pay  without  reference  to  the  wealth  or  the  num- 
ber of  the  population  of  the  district  in  which  they  might  be  engaged 
to  teach.  ^ 

This  enlightened  bill  now  passed  the  Nova  Scotia  legislature, 
and  henceforth  the  character  of  education  in  King's  County,  as  in 
the  other  counties  of  the  province,  was  completely  changed.  "The 
Educational  Act  of  1864",  says  Campbell,  "was  unquestionably  one 
of  the  most  important  measures  bearing  on  the  moral  and  material 
interests  of  the  Province  that  was  ever  introduced.  It  struck  at 
the  very  root  of  most  of  the  evils  that  tend  to  depress  the  intellec- 
tual energies  and  moral  status  of  the  people.     It  introduced  the 


genial  light  of  knowledge  into  the  dark  recesses  of  ignorance, 
opened  the  minds  of  thousands  of  little  ones,  the  fathers  and 
mothers  of  coming  generations,  to  a  perception  of  the  true  and 
beautiful,  and  placed  Nova  Scotia  in  the  front  rank  of  coimtries 
renowned  for  common  school  educational  advantages".  In  1864 
the  machinery  of  the  Free  School  system  was  completed,  and  the 
first  Inspector  appointed  for  King's  County  was  John  Burgess  Cal- 
kin, LL.D.,  already  a  weU-known  educationist,  a  King's  County 
man.  Dr.  Calkin  was  appointed  in  the  early  summer  of  1864,  and 
assumed  office  in  July  of  that  year.  In  November,  1865,  he  resigned 
the  position,  to  take  the  chair  of  English  and  Classics  at  the  Pro- 
vincial Normal  School,  then  under  the  principalship  of  Rev.  Alex- 
ander Forrester,  D.  D.,  and  William  Eaton,  Esq.,  of  Kentville,  who 
since  1854  had  been  one  of  the  Commissioners  of  Schools  under  the 
Act  of  1841,  was  appointed  in  his  place. 

No  legislative  enactment  affecting  the  interests  of  a  whole 
people  ever  goes  into  effect  without  friction,  and  there  was  not  a 
single  county  of  the  province  where  great  irritation  was  not  pro- 
duced by  this  revolutionary  Free  School  Act.  In  spite  of  the 
general  intelligence  of  the  people  of  King's,  in  this  county  there 
were  loud  protestations  on  the  part  of  men  who  had  no  children,  or 
whose  children  had  grown  up,  against  being  taxed  to  support  free 
schools,  and  perhaps  not  more  than  one-seventh  of  the  school  sec- 
tions throughout  the  county  at  first  organized  schools  under  the 
provisions  of  the  Act,  The  spirit  of  the  broader  minded  men  of  th^ 
county  was  that  of  Mr.  William  Stairs  of  Halifax,  who  at  a  public 
meeting  in  the  capital  at  a  much  earlier  time  had  said:  "I  do  not 
intend  to  descant  on  the  exquisite  pleasures  which  learning  confers, 
or  upon  the  personal  resources,  dignity,  and  independence,  derived 
from  it,  the  mastery  which  it  gives  over  the  art  and  science  of 
nature,  leading  from  Nature,  as  has  been  beautifully  said,  to 
Nature's  God;  or  to  its  fitness  to  prepare  the  mind  both  for  its 
duties  here  and  an  inheritance  hereafter.  These  are  subjects  for 
another  field,  but  I  put  it  gravely  to  this  meeting,  assembled  as  we 
are  to  found  and  perpetuate  a  system  best  adapted  to  open  and 


perfect  the  Provincial  mind,  and  thus  to  promote  the  virtue,  the 
skill,  and  the  happiness  of  the  people,  from  what  cause  has  it  sprung 
that  Prussia  and  Holland  on  the  continent  of  Europe,  and  Scotland 
in  the  United  Kingdom,  occupy  so  decided  a  superiority  over  the 
nations  around  them?  To  bring  the  illustration  nearer  home,  I  ask 
how  it  is  that  the  people  of  New  England  enjoy  so  unquestionable  a 
pre-eminence  over  those  of  the  sister  states  in  the  union?  It  has 
arisen  from  their  admirable  system  of  education  and  from  their 
having  introduced  into  their  common  schools,  academies,  and  col- 
leges, all  the  improvements  and  principles  which  have  been 
discovered  by  the  intelligence  of  modern  times.  From  the  opera- 
tion of  these  systems  have  sprung  their  skill  in  manual  labour, 
education  in  public  morality,  wealth  in  all  the  products  of  intellect 
which  give  richness  and  embellishment  to  social  life ' '.  But  the  less 
enlightened  men  of  the  county  felt  only  that  their  taxes  would  be 
heavier,  and  that  they  would  not  immediately  benefit  by  the  new 
law.  Especially  was  this  true  in  the  outlying  districts,  and  the 
first  two  Inspectors  sometimes  found  cold  receptions  in  places 
where  their  professional  duties  required  them  to  go.  They  were 
both,  however,  men  of  well  balanced  judgment  and  pacific  temper, 
and  their  united  four  years  faithful  administration  did  much 
towards  allaying  the  discontent  the  new  act  had  aroused.  Mr. 
Eaton  held  the  Inspectorship  until  1868,  when  through  a  change  of 
government  the  Rev.  Robert  SommerviUe,  a  brilliant  young  Pres- 
byterian clergyman,  recently  from  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  was 
appointed  in  his  place.  In  1875,  Mr.  (now  Dr.)  SommerviUe,  who 
for  many  years  to  the  present  has  been  pastor  of  the  Second 
Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  of  New  York  City,  resigned  the 
Inspectorship.  Since  1875  the  position  has  been  ably  filled  by  Mr. 
Colin  "W.  Roscoe.  In  1901  there  were  in  attendance  at  the  public 
schools  of  King's  4,491  pupils;  at  the  high  school  there  were  90; 
and  at  "universities"  there  were  300. 

Among  the  sons  of  early  King's  County  planters  who  taught 
school  under  the  S.  P.  G.  were  one  of  the  brothers  of  William 
Haliburton   of   "Windsor,    who,    as    we    have    already   seen,    was 


S.  P.  G.  schoolmaster  at  Windsor  for  several  years,  and  Blkanah 
Morton,  Jr.,  son  of  Elkanah  Morton  of  Cornwallis,  who  was 
Master  of  the  Society's  Indian  School  at  Sussex  Vale,  New 
Brunswick,  for  teaching  white  children,  from  1792  until 
1796.  A  specimen  of  the  early  licenses  granted  to  teachers  in 
Nova  Scotia  is  the  following  from  the  Governor,  Sir  John  Coape 
Sherbrooke  to  the  Rev.  Edward  Manning,  who  for  some  time 
taught  in  the  school-house  near  Hamilton's  Corner,  in  which  he  at 
first  preached  after  he  left  the  Alline  Church : 
"To  the  Rev.  Edward  Manning, 

"In  consequence  of  the  good  report  of  your  conduct  and  moral 
character,  and  confiding  in  your  integrity  and  abilities,  I  do  by 
virtue  of  the  power  and  authority  in  me  vested  by  His  Majesty's 
Commission  and  Royal  Instructions,  and  by  the  laws  of  the  Province 
hereby  (during  pleasure)  License  and  authority  you,  the  said 
Edward  Manning,  to  keep  a  school  at  Cornwallis  in  King's  County, 
for  the  instruction  of  youth  in  reading,writing,  and  arithmetic,  you, 
the  said  Edward  Manning  first  taking  the  oath  of  allegiance  and 
supremacy  and  subscribing  the  declaration  before  two  of  His 
Majesty's  Justices  of  the  Peace  in  and  for  the  same  County. 

"Given  under  my  hand  and  seal  at  Arms  at  Halifax,  this  30th 
day  of  April,  in  the  54th  year  of  His  Majesty's  reign.  Anno  Domini, 

"(Signed)  J.  C.  Sherbrooke". 

"By  His  Excellency's  Command, 
"Henry  H.  Cogswell,  Sec'y. 

The  ideals  of  common  school  education  which  the  early  planters 
brought  with  them  from  Connecticut  were  necessarily  not  very  high. 
During  the  Revolutionary  War,  says  Miss  Caulkins  in  her  history  of 
Norwich,  an  institution  of  higher  grade  than  elementary  was  sus- 
tained at  the  Norwich  Town  Plot.  It  announced  that  it  would  fur- 
nish instruction  to  "young  gentlemen  and  ladies,  lads  and  misses. 


in  every  branch  of  literature,  viz.,  reading,  writing,  arithmetic,  the 
learned  languages,  logic,  geography,  mathematics,  etc".  But  the 
average  Connecticut  school  then  could  not  have  been  much  in 
advance  of  the  dame  school  of  earlier  times,  where  boys  and  girls 
were  taught  "to  sit  up  straight  and  treat  their  elders  with  respect; 
to  conquer  the  spelling-book,  repeat  the  catechism,  never  throw 
stones,  never  tell  a  lie;  the  boys  to  write  copies,  and  the  girls  to 
work  samplers".  Eegarding  the  educational  system  of  King's 
County,  even  so  late  as  he  himself  could  remember.  Dr.  John 
Burgess  Calkin  says :  ' '  There  was  little  machinery  in  our  early  Nova 
Scotia  educational  system.  A  board  of  School  Commissioners  for 
the  county,  and  a  board  of  Trustees  for  the  Section  or  District,  as 
it  was  called,  comprised  the  whole.  The  chief  duties  of  the  Com- 
missioners consisted  in  arranging  the  bounds  of  the  districts, 
licensing  teachers,  and  apportioning  government  grants.  This 
division  of  the  money  was  not  regulated  by  any  fixed  law.  The 
function  of  the  Trustees  was  little  more  than  nominal,  consisting 
chiefly  in  signing  the  teacher's  return  or  report,  by  which  act  they 
certified  to  the  correctness  of  what  they  knew  very  little  about.  In 
those  days  the  teacher's  license  was  issued  by  the  Commissioner's 
Clerk,  on  the  recommendation  of  the  two  members  of  the  Board  who 
were  supposed  to  examine  the  candidate. 

"As  late  as  the  year  1852,  in  King's  County,  an  aspirant  for 
the  teacher's  ofiSce  called  on  a  certain  School  Commissioner  for 
examination  and  for  a  certificate.  The  Commissioner  frankly 
acknowledged  his  lack  of  qualification  for  the  function  of  examiner 
and  recommended  the  Candidate  to  go  to  a  neighbouring  member  of 
the  Board,  whose  qualifications  were  better.  This  gentleman  was 
found  in  the  act  of  shaving.  Pausing  occasionally  during  the  opera- 
tion he  put  to  the  candidate  a  few  general  questions.  "When  his 
toilet  was  completed,  however,  he  requested  the  young  teacher  to 
go  with  him  to  his  little  general  store.  Here  the  candidate  was 
required  to  solve  a  question  in  vulgar  fractions,  to  read  a  few  lines 
from  Milton's  'Paradise  Lost',  and  to  parse  a  portion  of  the  pas- 
sage read.    All  this  having  been  done  to  the  examiner 's  satisfaction, 


the  certificate  was  made  out  and  signed,  first  by  him,  then  by  the 
Commissioner  earliest  called  on.  Last  of  all  it  was  presented  to  the 
Commissioner's  Clerk  as  his  warrant  for  issuing  the  license.  The 
clerk  at  this  time  was  Mr.  John  Clarke  Hall,  Barrister,  a  lawyer  of 
some  distinction. 

' '  It  was  seldom  that  the  Trustees  stood  in  any  capacity  between 
the  people  and  the  teacher.  The  contract  was  made  directly 
between  the  'Proprietors'  of  the  school,  as  the  parents  were  called, 
and  the  teacher.  The  agreement,  which  was  generally  carried 
round  from  house  to  house  by  the  teacher  for  the  signatures  of  the 
parents,  bound  the  teacher  to  conduct  a  'Regular  School'.  Just 
what  was  meant  by  the  term  'Regular',  however,  one  does  not  know. 
In  addition,  or  perhaps  in  explanation,  the  teacher  pledged  himself 
to  give  instruction  in  reading,  writing  and  arithmetic — ^the  three 
'E's'.  Sometimes  he  added  the  extra  branches  of  grammar  and 
geography.  The  patrons  bound  themselves  to  provide  school-room, 
fuel,  and  board  for  the  teacher.  The  further  item  of  salary  was 
variously  designated.  Sometimes  it  was  a  certain  number  of  pence 
per  week  for  each  scholar,  sometimes  so  much  per  pupil  for  the 
whole  term ;  or  again  it  was  agreed  to  pay  a  fixed  salary  for  the 
term,  each  patron  paying  his  share  according  to  the  number  of 
pupils  he  sent. 

"For  many  years  the  teacher  'boarded  round',  that  is,  lived 
from  house  to  house,  his  sojourn  varying  from  three  or  four  days  to 
as  many  weeks,  according  to  the  number  of  pupils  that  the  various 
homes  sent  him,  "Whatever  objections  this  system  had,  it  had  the 
advantage  of  bringing  the  teacher  into  close  contact  with  his  pupils 
and  their  parents.  School  books  in  early  times  were  not  numerous 
or  bulky.  Indeed  it  was  not  uncommon  for  a  single  book,  and  that 
a  slender  one,  to  include  the  whole  course  of  a  child's  study.  Such 
a  comprehensive  volume  was,  'The  New  Guide  to  the  English 
Tongue,  by  Thomas  Dilworth,  Schoolmaster'.  It  began  with  the 
alphabet,  then  came  the  spelling  of  simple  words,  easy  reading  les- 
sons, containing  such  moral  precepts  as  'Do  not  tell  a  lie',  and  'Let 
thy  hand  do  no  hurt',  and  after  that  the  spelling  of  longer  words, 


of  two,  three,  four,  or  more,  syllables.  Next  came  a  treatise  on 
English  grammar,  Latin  words  and  phrases  in  common  use,  abbre- 
viations used  in  writing,  arithmetical  tables,  outlines  of  geography, 
advanced  reading  lessons  in  prose  and  verse,  a  compendium  of 
natural  history,  illustrated  select  fables  (as  that  of  the  wagoner 
and  Hercules),  and  finally  a  church  catechism,  beginning  with, 
'What  is  your  name?',  prayers  for  morning  and  evening  in  the 
home,  private  prayers,  grace  before  meat  and  grace  after  meat. 
All  this  for  one  shilling ! " 

Dr.  Calkin  describes  a  country  school-house:  "The  school 
room  was  primitive  indeed.  On  one  side  was  a  large  open  fireplace, 
near  which,  in  a  comer,  sat  the  teacher,  often  writing  copies  or 
making  goose  quill  pens,  while  he  listened  to  the  small  boys  read. 
Around  three  sides  of  the  room  were  the  writing  tables,  which  con- 
sisted of  boards  about  two  feet  eight  inches  in  width,  standing  out 
horizontally  from  the  wall.  For  about  eight  inches  this  board  made 
a  shelf  for  books,  inkstands,  and  pens,  but  for  two  feet  the  board 
sloped  forward.  Originally  fairly  smooth,  in  the  course  of  time 
this  writing  table  became  covered  with  boys'  autographs,  made 
with  the  convenient  jack-knife.  On  the  south  side  of  the  room, 
opposite  the  windows,  were  deep  cuttings  made  by  the  teacher  him- 
self to  mark  the  boundary  line  between  sunshine  and  shadow  at 
diflferent  hours  of  the  day,  especially  at  mid-day.  The  sittings  of 
the  school  room  were  made  of  slabs,  supported  on  legs  consisting 
of  pins  or  stakes  driven  into  auger  holes  on  the  \mder  sides.  The 
seats  were  without  support  for  the  back  of  the  pupil,  and  as  the 
room  was  often  used  for  singing-schools  and  other  evening  meet- 
ings the  legs  were  made  long  enough  for  full  grown  persons,  and 
necessarily  so  long  that  the  pupils'  legs  often  dangled  in  mid  air. 
The  seats  were  placed  around  three  sides  of  the  room  in  front  of 
the  tables.  When  pupils  were  writing  they  faced  the  wall,  when 
they  were  not  they  faced  toward  the  middle  of  the  room.  Besides 
these  high  seats  there  were  two  or  three  of  smaller  dimensions  and 
shorter  legs,  for  the  pupils  who  were  in  the  lowest  grade  of  the 


"Perhaps  the  most  unique  feature  of  the  old-time  school  was  the 
spelling  lesson.  The  last  twenty  minutes  of  the  day  was  devoted 
to  the  preparation  of  this  lesson.  The  class,  including  all  who  could 
read,  sat  on  the  high  seats,  facing  inwards,  with  full  room  between 
their  feet  and  the  floor  for  the  free  play  of  their  legs.  All  studied 
aloud  and  they  did  so  with  emphasis.  As  they  pronounced  each 
letter  and  syllable  and  word,  they  swayed  to  and  fro,  keeping  time 
in  their  bodily  movements  with  the  rhythm  of  the  voice:  'Big  a, 
little  a,  r  0  n,  ron,  Aaron'  'H  a  b,  hah,  e  r,  er,  haher,  dash,  dash, 
haherdash,  e  r,  er,  haberdasher'.  When  time  was  up  all  took  their 
places,  standing  in  a  long  row,  in  order,  from  head  to  foot.  The 
first  part  of  the  exercise  was  the  numbering,  to  see  that  each  had 
his  proper  place,  for  there  was  'going  up  and  down',  and  every 
pupil  was  jealous  of  his  place  in  the  line.    Then  the  spelling  began". 

One  of  the  most  important  educational  institutions  of  the 
county  is  "Acacia  Villa  School",  or  "Patterson's",  for  boys,  at 
Grand  Pre,  whose  buildings  stand  almost  in  the  centre  of  the  old 
Horton  Town  Plot,  a  little  above  the  present  railway  station.  The 
school  was  founded  in  July,  1852,  by  Joseph  R.  Hea,  D.  C.  L.,  who 
was  its  principal  until  July,  1860.  At  that  time  it  was  purchased 
by  Mr.  Arthur  McNutt  Patterson,  M.  A.,  who  conducted  it  until 
1907,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Mr.  A.  H.  Patterson,  B.  A., 
who  for  fifteen  years  had  been  business  manager  of  the  school  and 
during  part  of  that  time  had  been  on  the  teaching  staff.  Besides 
the  proprietor,  there  are  in  the  faculty  of  the  school  a  head  master 
and  assistant  master,  and  two  or  three  other  teachers.  The  aim  of 
this  excellent  school  is  to  fit  boys  physically,  morally,  and  intellect- 
ually, for  the  responsibilities  of  life,  to  give  a  practical  business 
education  to  those  who  desire  it,  and  to  prepare  students  to  enter 
the  several  maritime  provincial  colleges. 

As  might  be  expected  from  the  character  of  the  people,  a  very 
large  number  of  the  sons  of  King's  County  men  have  gone  beyond 
the  grammar  schools  and  other  secondary  schools  of  the  county,  to 
institutions  of  higher  learning  at  home  and  abroad.  The  next 
chapter  in  this  book  will  treat  of  the  county's  own  college,  Acadia 


University,  at  "Wolfville,  but  many  representatives  of  Bang's  County 
have  studied  at  King's  College,  Windsor.  In  the  roll  of  King's 
College  students  have  been  representatives  of  the  families  of  Alli- 
son, Barclay,  Borden,  Chipman,  Cogswell,  DeWolf,  Gilpin,  Hamil- 
ton, Harrington,  Harris,  Inglis,  Laird,  Prescott,  Batchford,  Twining. 
The  following  King's  County  men  have  received  from  King's  Col- 
lege the  degree  of  D.  C.  L. :  Hon  Henry  Hezekiah  Cogswell,  M.  L.  C, 
1847;  Sir  John  Eardley  Wilmot  Inglis,  K.  C.  B.,  1858;  Joseph 
R.  Hea,  M.  A.,  1858;  Robert  Bayard  M.  D.,  1871;  J.  Johnstone 
Hunt,  M.  A.,  1886;  Rev.  Edward  Albern  Crawley,  D.  D.,  1888; 
Rev.  Silas  Tertius  Rand,  D.  D.,  1889 ;  Sir  Frederick  William  Borden, 
K.  C,  M.  G.,  1898 ;  Rev.  Arthur  Wentworth  Hamilton  Eaton,  M.  A., 

King's  County  men  who  have  studied  at  Harvard  University 
and  have  received  degrees  (the  dates  given  indicate  the  last  year 
the  student's  name  is  found  in  the  University  Catalogue)  have  been: 
The  College:  Frank  Herbert  Eaton,  B.  A.  1875;  Benjamin  Rand, 
B.  A.  1879 ;  Arthur  Wentworth  Hamilton  Eaton,  B.  A.  1880 ;  Everett 
Wyman  Sawyer,  B.  A.  1883;  Horatio  Hackett  Welton,  B.  A.  1884; 
Law  School:  Samuel  Denison  Brown,  1848;  Joseph  James  Moore, 
1867;  Edmund  John  Cogswell,  1868;  Aubrey  Blanchard,  1869; 
John  Pryor  Chipman,  1869 ;  Barclay  Webster,  1871 ;  William  Law- 
son  Barss,  1876 ;  Frederic  Clarence  Rand,  1882 ;  Allen  Edgar  Dun- 
lop,  1898;  Barry  Wentworth  Roscoe,  1905.  Medical  School:  Adol- 
phus  K,  Borden,  1824;  John  Jeffers,  Jr.,  1825;  Jonathan  Borden, 
1841 ;  Lewis  Johnstone,  Jr.,  1844 ;  John  Edward  Pryor,  1848 ;  Wil- 
liam Archibald,  1851;  Edward  Hill,  1851;  Peter  Pineo,  Jr.,  1851; 
William  Gibson  Clark,  1852;  John  Morton  Barnaby,  1863;  Mason 
Sheffield,  1863;  John  Allen  W.  Morse,  1864;  Sommerville  Dickey, 
1865 ;  Albert  DeWolfe,  1866 ;  Clarence  David  Barnaby,  1869 ;  Fred- 
erick William  Borden,  1869 ;  Henry  Chipman,  1869 ;  James  William 
Harris,  1869;  Augustus  Tupper  Clarke,  1870;  Gideon  Barnaby, 
1871 ;  William  Pitt  Brechin,  1872 ;  Frank  Middlemas,  1873 ;  Wil- 
liam Somerville  Woodworth,  1873.  Andrew  DeWolfe  Barss,  1893; 
James    Clifford    McLean,    1898;     James    Francis    Brady,    1902. 


Graduate  School:  Arthur  "Wentworth  Hamilton  Eaton,  1881;  Ben- 
jamin Rand,  1885;  William  Penwick  Harris,  1892;  John  Edmund 
Barss,  1893;  Charles  Edward  Seaman,  1898;  John  Cecil  Jones, 
1902;  Percy  Erwin  Davidson,  1905;  Joseph  Clarence  Hemmeon, 
1906;  Clement  Leslie  Vaughan,  1906;  Ralph  Kempton  Strong, 
1907;  Morley  DeWolfe  Hemmeon,  1908;  Laurie  Lome  Burgess, 
1909.  Besides  these  a  few  have  attended  the  Harvard  Summer 

A  few  King's  County  men  have  studied  in  foreign  universities, 
in  Great  Britain  or  on  the  Continent  of  Europe,  but  we  cannot 
here  give  their  names.  Two  of  the  best  known  of  these,  are  Arthur 
Webster,  M,  D.,  physician  in  Edinburgh,  whose  medical  education 
was  obtained  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  and  Dr.  Benjamin 
Rand,  who  studied  at  Heidelberg  University,  in  Germany. 

Among  the  lamentable  deficiencies  in  the  means  of  education 
of  Nova  Scotians  at  large  has  been  and  still  is  the  absence  of  public 
libraries.  In  King's  County  there  is  no  library  of  much  size  open 
to  the  public,  except  it  be  the  library  of  Acadia  University  at  Wolf- 
ville.  Sometime  before  the  middle  of  the  19th  century  a  school 
library,  containing  a  good  many  useful  books  of  various  sorts,  exist- 
ed at  Kentville,  the  last  custodian  of  it  being  Mr.  Winckworth 
Chipman.  About  1860,  however,  this  library  was  given  up  and  the 
books  dispersed. 


The  next  year  after  the  separation  of  Hants  County  from 
King's,  five  Loyalist  clergymen  of  the  Church  of  England  who 
purposed  removing  from  the  revolting  colonies  to  Nova  Scotia,  met 
in  New  York  city  to  perfect  a  plan  that  had  already  begun  to  shape 
itself  in  their  minds  for  the  establishment  in  the  province  in  which 
they  intended  to  settle  of  a  "Religious  and  Literary  Listitution". 
When  Bishop  Charles  Inglis  came  to  the  newly  established  Diocese 
of  Nova  Scotia,  in  1787,  however,  the  institution  had  not  been 
founded,  and  one  of  Dr.  Inglis'  first  acts  was  to  urge  its  establish- 
ment. With  an  appropriation  from  the  provincial  treasury  of  four 
hundred  pounds  the  school  was  founded  at  Windsor,  and  November 
1,  1788,  was  opened  with  seventeen  students. 

The  first  schoolhouse  was  what  had  been  the  private  residence 
of  Mrs.  Susanna  Prancklin,  widow  of  Hon.  Michael  Francklin, 
daughter  of  Joseph  Boutineau  of  Boston,  and  granddaughter  of 
Peter  Faneuil  of  that  city.  The  trustees  of  the  school  were  Governor 
Parr,  Bishop  Inglis,  Hon.  Richard  Bulkeley,  Chief  Justice  Sampson 
Salter  Blowers,  and  Hon,  Richard  John  Uniaeke.  The  principal 
was  Mr.  Archibald  Peane  Inglis,  a  nephew  of  the  Bishop,  who  soon 
after  became  a  clergyman  and  for  a  good  many  years  ministered  at 
Granville,  in  Annapolis  County.  The  next  year  an  act  was  passed 
for  "Founding,  Establishing,  and  Maintaining  a  College  in  this  Prov- 
ince", and  an  appropriation  of  not  more  than  five  hundred  pounds 
was  made  for  the  erection  of  a  building  and  for  paying  a  president 
and  professors.  Besides  this  appropriation  a  grant  of  three  thou- 
sand pounds,  which  was  afterwards  increased  by  fifteen  hundred 
more,  was  obtained  from  the  home  government,  and  in  May,  1802, 
the  college  received  its  charter.    With  the  charter  came  also  the 


promise  of  a  thousand  poimds  a  year  to  defray  the  current  expenses 
of  the  college,  and  this  annual  grant  the  college  received  till  the 
year  1834.  To  this  initial  Nova  Scotia  college  the  provincial  govern- 
ment was  also  generous,  for  until  1851  it  annually  contributed  to 
the  expenses  of  the  college  the  sum  of  four  hundred  pounds.  Though 
the  charter  was  not  obtained  until  1802  the  institution  opened  its 
doors  to  students  in  1790,  and  in  twelve  years  it  had  had  under  its 
training  no  less  than  two  hundred  men. 

The  committee  appointed  to  frame  statutes  for  the  college  were 
Bishop  Inglis,  Judge  Alexander  Croke,  and  Chief  Justice  Sampson 
Salter  Blowers,  and  these  gentlemen,  ignoring  the  fact  that  the 
larger  part  of  the  Nova  Scotia  population  was  not  attached  to  the 
Church  of  England,  followed  so  closely  the  statutes  of  Oxford  Uni- 
versity as  to  demand  of  all  students  subscription  to  the  thirty-nine 
articles.  As  the  provincial  government  in  subsidizing  the  college 
intended  thereby  to  promote  the  cause  of  higher  education  among 
the  people  at  large,  the  absurdity,  and  indeed  the  gross  injustice, 
of  making  subscription  to  the  articles  a  prerequisite  of  admission 
to  the  college  will  at  once  be  seen.  To  render  the  college  still  more 
impossible  to  people  not  of  the  Established  Church  the  narrow- 
minded  framers  of  the  statutes  prescribed  that  no  student  should 
"frequent  the  Romish  Mass,  or  the  meeting-houses  of  Presbyterians, 
Baptists,  or  Methodists,  or  the  conventicles  or  places  of  worship  of 
any  other  dissenters  from  the  Church  of  England".  To  the  credit 
of  Bishop  Inglis'  intelligence  it  should  be  said  that  he  saw  the 
unwisdom  of  such  statutes,  and  protested  against  them.  Chief 
Justice  Blowers,  however,  siding  with  the  wrong-headed  English- 
born  Judge  Croke,  the  Bishop  was  overruled,  and  Congregation- 
aUsts,  Presbyterians,  and  Baptists  were  thus  barred  from  the 

Whatever  mistakes  in  the  course  of  their  several  histories  other 
religious  bodies  may  have  made  in  Nova  Scotia,  it  may  justly  be 
said  that  no  such  act  of  blind  folly  has  ever  been  committed  as  that 
which  on  the  threshold  of  its  existence  characterized  the  Anglican 
founders  of  King's  College.   Its  evil  results  have  been  so  far-reaching 


that  the  Maritime  Provinces,  which  together  are  fairly  able  to  support 
one  respectable  university,  now  find  on  their  hands  to  be  meagrely 
supported  no  less  than  five  or  six.  Under  the  weight  of  the  dis- 
criminating statutes  King's  College  groaned  until  1830,  when  except 
in  the  case  of  professors  and  fellows  subscription  to  the  articles 
was  formally  abolished. 

The  rejection  of  King's  College  as  a  place  to  educate  their 
sons  was  of  course  for  people  not  attached  to  the  Church  of  England 
a  foregone  conclusion.  Sooner  or  later,  therefore,  with  a  people  so 
eager  for  education  as  the  Nova  Scotians  other  attempts  at  found- 
ing colleges  were  sure  to  be  made.  The  first  effort  was  made  by  the 
Earl  of  Dalhousie,  who  was  Governor  of  the  province  from  1816  to 
1819.  An  intelligent,  broad-minded  man.  Lord  Dalhousie  saw  the 
pressing  need  of  an  tmdenominational  college  in  Nova  Scotia,  and 
as  ex-officio  President  of  the  board  of  governors  of  King's  he  made 
an  effort  to  have  the  obnoxious  statutes  that  had  been  made  for 
that  college  repealed.  Failing  in  this,  he  secured  from  the  Imperial 
Government  the  right  to  establish  a  college  at  Halifax,  where  no 
sectarian  tests  whatever  should  be  required,  and  to  which  young 
men  of  all  denominations  should  be  equally  welcome.  On  the  22nd' 
of  May,  1820,  the  corner  stone  of  the  new  Dalhousie  College  build- 
ing was  laid  at  the  west  end  of  the  Parade,  in  the  centre  of  Halifax, 
and  in  two  years  the  building  was  finished.  In  spite,  however,  of 
the  fact  that  the'provincial  government  had  given  liberally  toward 
the  new  college,  Dalhousie  was  not  opened  until  1838. 

In  the  meantime  the  leading  Baptists  of  the  province  had 
united  in  founding  at  Wolfville,  in  King's  County,  an  Academy  for 
the  education  of  Baptist  young  men,  especially  those  who  purposed 
entering,  or  indeed  had  already  entered,  the  ministry  of  their 
denomination.  The  school,  of  course,  was  made  open  to  persons  of 
any  other  denomination,  but  it  was  founded  essentially  as  a  Baptist 
school.  The  Academy  was  opened  on  the  first  of  May,  1829,  Kev. 
Asahel  Chapin,  a  graduate  of  Amherst  College,  "A  Baptist  of  com- 
petent qualifications,  earnest  piety  and  zeal,  as  well  as  of  unblem- 
ished reputation",  being  made  the  first  principal. 


Shortly  before  the  opening  of  this  Horton  Baptist  School,  a 
very  important  event  had  occurred  in  the  ecclesiastical  history  of 
Nova  Scotia.    The  resignation  of  Bishop  Stanser,  the  second  Angli- 
can Bishop  of  Nova  Scotia,  was  accepted  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment in  1824,  and  the  Eev.  John  Inglis,  who  since  1816  had  been  the 
faithful  and  beloved  Rector  of  St.  Paul's  Church,  Halifax,  was 
appointed  in  his  stead.    Dr.  Inglis'  election  to  the  Episcopate  left 
the  rectorship  of  St.  Paul's  vacant,  and  the  Crown  insisted  on  its 
right  to  appoint  a  new  rector.     For  seven  years  the  Eev.  John 
Thomas  Twining,  son  of  the  Rev.  William  Twining,  the  Cornwallis 
missionary,  a  young  clergyman  who  like  his  father  held  evangelical 
views  and  had  a  spirit  of  the  deepest  piety,  had  been  Dr.  Inglis' 
Curate.    Under  Mr.  Twining 's  ministrations  the  spiritual  life  of  the 
St.  Paul's  parishioners  had  been  greatly  stimulated,  and  as  was  very 
natural  they  desired  him  to  remain  as  their  rector.     The  British 
Government,  however,  had  another  cfindidate  for  the  place,  and 
before  long  the  parishioners  learned  that  the  Rev.  Robert  Willis, 
formerly  Chaplain  of  the  Flag  Ship  on  the  station,  and  at  that  time 
Rector  of  Trinity   Church,   St.  John,   New  Brunswick,   had  been 
named  by  the  crown  as  Dr.  Inglis'  successor.    Feeling  that  their 
wishes  had  been  disregarded  in  a  most  unjustifiable  way,  the  St. 
Paul's  parishioners  at  once  entered  protest,  and  from  October,  1824, 
until  February,  1826,  a  fierce  dispute  raged  in  the  parish  over  the 
right  of  presentation  to  the  rectorship.    In  this  dispute  the  Govern- 
ment triumphed,  and  the  Rev.  Mr.  Willis  was  finally  inducted  into 
the  rectorship.    But  as  a  result  of  the  altercation  a  disruption  of  a 
serious  nature  ensued  in  St.  Paul's;  many  of  the  most  prominent 
members  forsook  the  old  church,  and  before  long,  severing  them- 
selves completely  from  the  Church  of  England,  joined  the  Baptist 
denomination  and  formed  themselves  into  the  "Granville  Street 
Baptist  Church".    Among  the  people  who  took  this  course  were 
representatives  of  the  families  of  Boggs,  Crawley,  Ferguson,  John- 
stone, Kinnear,  Nutting,  Pryor,  and  Twining,  all  of  whom  became 
henceforth  closely  identified  with  the  history  of  the  Baptists  in  the 
province,  giving  the  Baptist  body  the  prestige  of  their  social  influ- 
ence and  cultured  worth. 


Of  these  converts  from  Anglicanism  to  Baptist  tenets,  the  two 
strongest  minds  were  Edmund  Albern  Crawley,  and  James  "William 
Johnstone.  It  is  doubtful,  indeed,  if  on  the  whole  American  continent 
two  intrinsically  greater  men  in  their  time  could  have  been  found. 
Dr.  Edmund  Albern  Crawley,  bom  in  1799,  was  the  son  of  a  retired 
naval  officer,  who  had  settled  at  Sydney,  Cape  Breton,  where  he 
lived  the  life  of  a  cultured  English  gentleman.  Prepared  by  his 
father  for  King's  College,  Windsor,  Edmund  Crawley  graduated 
at  that  college  in  1820,  and  in  1822  was  admitted  to  the  Nova  Scotia 
Bar.  His  career  began  brilliantly,  but  after  his  secession  from  St. 
Paul's  and  his  union  with  the  Baptists  he  felt  impelled  to  study  for 
the  Baptist  ministry,  and  in  1830,  in  Providence,  Rhode  Island,  was 
formally  ordained.  Beturning  to  Halifax  he  now  became  pastqr  of 
the  Granville  Street  Church,  and  this  position  he  filled  faithfully 
until  1839.  The  Hon.  Judge  James  William  Johnstone  was  the  fifth 
son  of  Dr.  William  Martin  and  Elizabeth  (Lichtenstein)  Johnstone, 
and  was  bom  in  the  Island  of  Jamaica,  August  29,  1792.  His  early 
education  was  obtained  in  Edinburgh,  but  coming  to  Nova  Scotia 
he  studied  law  with  his  brother-in-law.  Judge  Thomas  Ritchie  of 
Annapolis.  After  his  admission  to  the  bar  he  practised  for  a  short 
time  in  Annapolis,  then  for  a  little  while  in  Kentville,  but  later  he 
became  a  partner  with  Hon.  S.  P.  Robie  in  Halifax.  From  1843 
until  his  appointment  to  the  Bench  as  Judge  of  Equity  and  Judge 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  province,  he  was  the  able  leader  of 
the  Conservative  party  in  Nova  Scotia.  He  was  made  a  member 
of  the  Council  in  1838,  Attorney  General  in  1843,  and  Judge  in 
1869.  On  the  death,  in  1873,  of  the  Hon.  Joseph  Howe,  for  a  short 
time  governor  of  the  province^  Judge  Johnstone  was  appointed 
governor.  At  the  time  of  his  appointment  he  was  in  Europe  for 
his  health  and  though  he  accepted  the  appointment  he  did  not  live 
to  get  home ;  he  died  at  Cheltenham,  England,  November  2,  1873.  To 
the  distinguished  advocacy  of  Rev.  Dr.  Crawley  and  Hon.  Judge 
Johnstone  the  Baptist  Academy  at  Wolfville  largely  owed  its 

While  Dr.  Crawley  was  pastor  of  the  Halifax  Granville  Street 


Church,  to  supplement  his  small  salary  and  to  gratify  his  love  for 
instructing  and  otherwise  helping  young  men,  he  was  teaching 
classes  in  advanced  subjects  in  the  Dalhousie  College  building. 
Shortly  before  1838,  to  meet  the  urgent  needs  of  the  province,  he 
suggested  a  plan  for  the  opening  of  Dalhousie.  The  plan  was 
adopted,  and  he  himself  was  promised  by  the  governors  a  place  in 
its  faculty.  When  the  college  was  opened,  however,  Presbyterian 
bigotry  had  asserted  itself,  and  because  he  was  a  Baptist,  Dr.  Craw- 
ley had  not  received  the  appointment.  This  violation  of  good  faith 
on  the  part  of  the  governors  of  Dalhousie  and  their  narrow  sec- 
tarianism, was  promptly  condemned  by  Dr.  Crawley's  friends,  and 
especially  his  associates  in  the  secession  from  St.  Paul's  who  were 
now  members  of  the  Baptist  Church  of  which  he  was  pastor.  Stung 
by  the  personal  slight  to  so  noble  and  cultured  a  gentleman  as  their 
friend  and  pastor,  and  to  the  religious  body  to  which  they  had 
given  their  mature  allegiance,  and  urged  on  by  the  pressing  neces- 
sity for  a  college  where  truly  liberal  principles  should  obtain,  they 
got  together  and  in  conjunction  with  the  intelligent  Baptists  of 
King's  and  others  of  the  western  counties  of  the  province,  deter- 
mined to  found  a  third  college  at  "Wolfville,  where  already  the 
Academy  was  doing  successful  work. 

To  all  broad-minded  men  in  the  province  the  establishment  of 
one  small  college  after  another  seemed  a  calamity.  In  the  House 
of  Assembly  a  few  years  later,  the  Hon.  Joseph  Howe  unsparingly 
condemned  the  narrow  Presbyterian  bigotry  which  had  made  it 
impossible  for  the  Baptists  to  throw  in  their  lot  with  Dalhousie,  but 
the  mischief  had  been  done,  the  Baptists  felt  that  they  had  been 
insulted,  and  on  the  15th  of  November,  1838,  at  a  meeting  in  Horton 
of  the  Baptist  Educational  Society,  it  was  unanimously  resolved  to 
establish  a  college  at  Wolfville  at  once.  On  the  20th  of  January, 
1839,  in  the  building  of  the  Academy,  the  classes  of  "Queen's  Col- 
lege" began.  For  two  years  the  legislature,  a  majority  of  whose 
members  properly  felt  that  in  a  province  whose  whole  population 
was  less  than  203,000  the  establishment  of  a  third  college  was  a 
fatal  mistake,  refused  to  grant  the  Baptists  a  charter,  but  the 


denomination's  cause  was  argued  with  such  ability  that  in  1840  the 
charter  was  granted.  Before  many  months  the  name  "Queen's" 
was  changed  to  "Acadia",  and  this  name  the  college,  now  "Acadia 
University",  has  ever  since  borne.  At  the  meeting  of  the  Baptist 
Education  Society  in  1838  two  professors  were  appointed,  both  of 
well  known  Halifax  Anglican  families,  and  both  graduates  of  King's 
College,  the  Rev.  John  Pryor,  who  had  been  Principal  of  the  Acad- 
emy since  1830,  who  was  now  made  Professor  of  Classics  and 
Natural  Philosophy,  and  the  Rev.  Edward  Albern  Crawley,  made 
Professor  of  Moral  Philosophy,  Rhetoric,  and  Mathematics. 

In  1843,  Acadia's  first  students  took  their  bachelor's  degrees. 
The  graduates  were:  John  Leander  Bishop,  James  William  John- 
stone, Jr.,  Lewis  Johnstone,  and  Amos  Sharp.  The  class  of  1844 
numbered  six:  George  Armstrong,  Richard  E.  Burpee,  Samuel  El- 
der, Abraham  Spurr  Hunt,  William  P.  Stubbert,  and  George  Rob- 
bins  Wilby.  The  class  of  1845  contained  but  three :  William  Almon 
Johnstone,  Samuel  Richardson,  and  James  Whitman.  The  class  of 
1846  contained  five:  Edward  Anderson,  Asahel  Bill,  Stephen  Wil- 
liam deBlois,  Lewis  Johnstone,  and  James  Sampson  Morse.  The 
class  of  1848  had  Harris  Otis  McLatchy,  and  John  Moser ;  the  class 
of  1849  had  Arthur  Richard  Ralph  Crawley,  Henry  Thomas  Crawley, 
and  Elisha  Budd  DeMille;  the  class  of  1850  had  Thomas  William 
Crawley,  and  David  Freeman;  the  class  of  1851  had  Henry  Went- 
worth  Johnstone;  the  class  of  1854  had  Thomas  Alfred  Higgins; 
the  class  of  1855  had  Alfred  Chipman,  Isaac  Judson  Skinner,  Isaiah 
Wallace,  and  Daniel  Morse  Welton ;  the  class  of  1856  had  William 
Green  Johnstone,  Thomas  Richard  Pattillo,  and  Robert  Ralph  Philp ; 
the  class  of  1857  had  Robert  Dickey  Porter;  the  class  of  1858  had 
Charles  Henry  Corey,  George  Gilbert  Sanderson,  Edward  Manning 
Saunders,  Henry  Vaughan,  Simon  Vaughan,  and  Robert  Linton 
Weatherbe;  the  class  of  1859  had  Andrew  DeWolf  Barss,  Brenton 
Halliburton  Eaton,  Daniel  Francis  Higgins,  and  Dugald  Thomson. 

Of  these  earlier  graduates  of  Acadia,  not  a  few  of  whom  later 
attained  considerable  distinction,  we  find  a  number  of  King's 
County  men.    Andrew  De Wolfe  Barss,  John  Leander  Bishop,  and 


Harrie  Otis  McLatchy,  were  from  Horton;  Asahel  Bill,  Alfred 
Chipman,  and  Brenton  Halliburton  Baton  were  members  of  well 
known  Cornwallis  families.  In  the  class  of  1860  there  were  from 
Oornwallis,  Theodore  Harding  Band,  and  William  Nathan  "Wick- 
wire;  in  the  class  of  1862,  from  Horton,  James  Nutting  Fitch;  in 
the  class  of  1864,  from  Cornwallis,  Harris  Harding  Bligh,  and 
Edward  Manning  Cunningham  Band.  In  later  classes,  before  1880, 
we  find  from  King's  County:  Horace  Llewellyn  Beckwith;  Hum- 
phrey, Baleigh  H.,  and  Trueman  Bishop;  James  Israel  DeWolf; 
Daniel  and  Frank  Herbert  Eaton;  George  Ormonde  Forsyth; 
Charles  Bandall  Harrington;  Lewis,  James  Johnstone,  and  Ealph 
Melbourne,  Hunt ;  Burton  Wellesley  Lockhart ;  Charles  H.  Masters ; 
"William  Abram  Newcomb;  Benjamin,  Charles  D.,  and  Henry 
"Walter,  Band;  Adoniram  Judson  Stevens;  and  George  "William 
and  Theodore  Thomas. 

Among  the  earlier  graduates  of  Acadia,  John  Leander  Bishop 
became  a  physician,  practised  for  a  while  in  Philadelphia,  and  at 
the  time  of  his  death  was  chief  of  an  important  division  in  the 
Bureau  of  Statistics  at  "Washington,  D.  C. ;  Brenton  Halliburton 
Eaton,  K.  C,  D.  C.  L.,  became  a  barrister  and  has  long  practised 
law  in  Halifax ;  Charles  Frederic  Hartt  was  a  geologist  of  note,  and 
was  for  some  time  professor  at  Cornell  University;  "William  Almon 
Johnstone,  Q.  C,  practised  for  years  at  the  Halifax  Bar;  James 
"William  Johnstone,  Jr.,  became  a  county  judge;  "William  Green 
Johnstone  was  a  physician  in  New  Brunswick;  Harris  Otis  Mc- 
Latchy was  a  physician  in  Horton ;  John  Yoimg  Payzant  and  many 
others  have  practised  at  the  Halifax  Bar;  Amos  Sharp  was  a 
physician  in  New  Brunswick ;  Sir  Bobert  Linton  Weatherbe  became 
Chief  Justice  of  the  province  and  was  knighted,  and  "William 
Nathan  Wickwire  has  long  been  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
physicians  in  Halifax. 

A  large  number  of  the  graduates  of  Acadia  have  been  lawyers, 
physicians,  ministers  of  various  denominations,  and  instructors  in 
the  higher  departments  of  education,  or  directors  of  educa- 
tion,   pt  educationists  are:     Albert  E.  Coldwell,  Daniel  Francis 


Higgins,  and  Robert  Von  Clure  Jones,  professors  in  Acadia  College ; 
Rev.  Abraham  Spurr  Hunt,  Superintendent  of  Education  for  Nova 
Scotia;  Silas  Marcus  McVane,  for  many  years  an  honoured  profes- 
sor in  Harvard  University;  Theodore  Harding  Rand,  Superintend- 
ent of  Education,  first  for  Nova  Scotia  and  then  for  New  Brunswick, 
afterward  becoming  Chancellor  of  McMaster  University ;  and  Prank 
Herbert  Eaton,  who  after  an  influential  career  as  an  educationist  in 
Nova  Scotia  became  the  first  director  of  popular  education,  and  a 
governor  of  the  College  of  Victoria,  in  Victoria,  British  Columbia. 
A  distinguished  former  student  at  Acadia  is  Jacob  Gould  Schurman, 
LL.  D.,  since  1892  President  of  Cornell  University.  President 
Schurman  won  the  Canadian  Gilchrist  scholarship  in  connection 
with  the  University  of  London  in  1875,  and  leaving  Acadia  gradu- 
ated at  the  University  of  London  in  1877.  Prom  1880  to  '82  he  was 
professor  of  English  literature,  political  economy,  and  psychology 
at  Acadia;  from  1882  to  '86,  professor  of  metaphysics  and  English 
literature  at  Dalhousie ;  from  1886  to  '92  Sage  professor  of  philos- 
ophy, and  for  the  latter  part  of  the  time  dean  of  the  Sage  School  of 
Philosophy  at  Cornell,  in  the  latter  year  becoming  president  of  the 

Between  1880  and  '88  the  roll  of  Acadia's  graduates  shows  the 
following  students  of  King's  County  origin:  Walter  Barss,  M. 
Blanche  Bishop,  Oliver  H.  Cogswell,  Carmel  L.  Davidson,  Austin 
Kennedy  de  Blois,  John  Donaldson,  Poster  Pitch  Eaton,  Charles 
"William  Eaton,  Alice  Maud  Pitch,  Clarence  E.  Griflan,  Walter 
Vaughn.  Higgins,  Benjamin  Alfred  Lockhart,  Joseph  S.  Loekhart, 
Harry  Almon  Lovett,  Lewis  Johnstone  Lovett,  Vernon  P.  Masters, 
Albert  J.  Pineo,  Everett  Wyman  Sawyer,  and  Harry  Hamm 
Wickwire.  _ 

The  presidents  of  the  university  since  its  foundation  as  Queen's 
College  have  been: 
Rev.  John  Ptyor,  D.  D.,  1847-1850 
Rev.  John  Mockett  Cramp,  D.  D.,  1851-1853 
Rev.  Edmund  Albern  Crawley,  D.  D.,  D.  C.  L.,  1853-1859 
Rev.  John  Mockett  Cramp,  D.  D.,  1859-  1869 


Rev.  Artemas  "Wyman  Sawyer,  D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  1869 

Rev.  Thomas  Trotter,  D.  D. 

Rev.  William  B.  Hutchinson,  D.  D. 

Rev.  George  B.  Cutten,  M.  A. 

Among  professors,  instructors,  and  tutors,  besides  the  presi- 
dents, have  been:  Andrew  DeWolf  Barss;  Rev.  Alfred  and  Isaac 
Ij.  Chipman;  Albert  E.  Coldwell,  M.  A.;  James  DeMille,  M.  A.; 
Brenton  Halliburton  Eaton,  K.  C,  D.  C.  L. ;  Prank  Herbert  Eaton, 
M.  A.,  D.  C.  L. ;  "William  Elder,  M.  A.,  D.  Se. ;  D.  Francis  Higgins, 
Ph.  D.,  and  Thomas  A.  Higgins,  D.  D. ;  Henry  W.  Johnstone,  B.  A. ; 
Robert  V.  Jones,  Ph.  D.;  George  T.  Kennedy,  M.  A.;  E.  Miles 
Keirstead,  D.  D. ;  Theodore  Harding  Rand,  M.  A.,  D.  C.  L. ;  Charles 
D.  Randall,  M.  A.;  Everett  "W.  Sawyer,  M.  A.;  Rev.  Robert  Som- 
merville,  D.  D. ;  A.  P.  S.  Stuart,  M.  A. ;  John  Freeman  Tufts,  M.  A., 
D.  C.  L. ;  Henry  Vaughn,  B.  A. ;  Sir  Robert  Weatherbe,  Kt.,  D.  C. 
L. ;  Rev.  Daniel  M.  Welton,  D.  D.,  Ph.  D. ;  and  Luther  E.  Wortman, 
M.  A. 

The  names  of  those  on  whom  Acadia  has  conferred  the  hon- 
orary degree  of  Doctor  of  Civil  Law  are : 

Theodore  Harding  Rand,  Esq.,  M.  A.  1874 

Hon.  D.  McNeil  Parker,  M.  D.,  M.  L.  C.  1882 

Hon.  Sir  Charles  Tupper,  Bart.,  G.  C.  M.  G.,  C.  B.  LL.  D.           1882 

Silas  Alward,  Esq.,  M.  A.,  K.  C.  1883 

Hon.  Sir  Robert  Linton  "Weatherbe,  M.  A.,  Kt.,  Chief  Justice    1883 

George  E.  Foster,  Esq.  1885 

Hon.  Judge  James  "William  Johnstone,  M.  L.  C.  1886 

Hon.  Judge  J.  Wilberforce  Longley,  of  the  Supreme  Bench    1897 

Brenton  Halliburton  Eaton,  Esq.,  M.  A.,  K.  C.  1899 

James  Hannay,  Esq.  1899 

Professor  J.  Freeman  Tufts,  M.  A.  1900 

Hon.  "WUliam  S.  Fielding,  1901 

Henry  R.  Emmerson,  Esq.  1905 

Frank  Herbert  Eaton,  Esq.,  M.  A.  1905 

Harris  Harding  Bligh,  Esq.,  M.  A.  1906 


Among  men  of  King's  County  origin,  or  who  have  had  long 
association  with  the  county,  on  whom  the  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Divinity  has  been  conferred,  are:  Rev'ds.  Ingraham  Ebenezer  Bill; 
John  Mockett  Cramp;  Charles  DeWolfe;  Stephen  William  de 
Blois;  Charles  K.  Harrington;  Thomas  A.  Higgins;  E.  Miles 
Keirstead;  Samuel  Bradford  Kempton;  John  Pryor;  Silas  Ter- 
tius  Band;  Edward  Manning  Saunders;  Joseph  H.  Saunders; 
Charles  Tupper;  O.  S.  C.  "Wallace;  Daniel  M.  Welton. 

The  governors  of  Acadia  College  appointed  by  the  Lieutenant 
Governor,  Legislative  Council,  and  House  of  Assembly,  as  provided 
by  the  original  charter,  were :  Hon.  Charles  Ramage  Prescott,  M. 
L.  C;  Hon.  Thomas  Andrew  Strange  DeWolf,  M.  B.  C. ;  Hon. 
Edmund  M.  Dodd,  M.  P.  P. ;  Hon.  Samuel  Chipman,  Esq.,  M.  L.  C. ; 
Herbert  Huntington,  Esq.,  M.  P.  P.;  Charles  W.  H.  Harris,  Esq., 
M.  A.  The  governors  in  1843  were :  Rev.  Ingraham  Ebenezer  Bill, 
Caleb  Rand  Bill,  Rev.  William  Burton,  Hon.  Samuel  Chipman,  Rev. 
William  Chipman,  Rev.  William  Allen  Chipman,  Rev.  Edmund 
Albern  Crawley,  Hon.  Thomas  Andrew  Strange  DeWolf,  Hon.  Ed- 
mund M.  Dodd,  Simon  Pitch,  C.  W.  H.  Harris,  Herbert  Huntington, 
William  Johnson,  Hon.  James  William  Johnstone,  James  W.  Nut- 
ting, Hon.  Charles  Ramage  Prescott,  Rev.  John  Pryor,  Rev.  Charles 
Tupper.  The  professor  of  classics  in  that  year  was  Rev.  John 
Pryor;  of  moral  philosophy,  logic,  and  rhetoric,  Rev.  Edmund  Al- 
bern Crawley;  of  mathematics  and  natural  philosophy,  Mr.  Isaac 
Chipman.  The  principal  of  Horton  Academy  was  Mr.  Edward 
Blanchard,  his  assistant  being  Mr.  Thomas  Soley. 

In  1860  the  Baptist  Education  Society  in  the  province  had  the 
following  officers:  President,  Rev.  William  Chipman;  Vice-Presi- 
dent, Rev.  Charles  Tupper,  D.  D. ;  Secretary,  Rev.  Abram  Spurr 
Hunt,  M.  A.;  Executive  Committee,Rev.  Ingraham  Ebenezer  Bill, 
D.  D.,  Rev.  John  Mockett  Cramp,  D.  D.,  Caleb  R.  Bill,  Esq.,  William 
Johnson,  Esq.,  Simon  Pitch,  Esq.,  James  Ratchford  Pitch,  M.  D., 
and  Ward  Eaton,  Esq. 

Besides  the  tradition  Acadia  University  well  maintains  for  effi- 
cient and  useful  instruction  no  little  classical  interest  belongs  to 


the  college  from  its  location  at  the  centre  of  the  land  of  the 
Acadians.  To  this  interest  is  added  the  fact  that,  as  we  shall  see 
in  another  chapter,  many  of  its  students  have  caught  the  inspira- 
tion of  the  scenes  it  overlooks,  and  have  added  their  tributes  in 
literature  to  the  charms  of  the  beautiful  country  surrounding 
their  alma  mater.  Of  the  location  of  the  university  the  annual 
catalogue  truthfully  says : 

' '  Wolf viUe  is  a  beautiful  town  in  the  heart  of  the  country  made 
famous  by  Longfellow's  Evangeline.  It  is  situated  on  the  upward 
slope  of  the  southern  shore  of  the  Basin  of  Minas.  The  University 
buildings  are  well  up  the  slope  and,  looking  northward,  command  a 
fine  view  of  the  Cornwallis  Valley,  the  Basin  of  Minas,  the  meadows 
of  Grand  Pre,  the  North  Mountain,  terminating  in  Cape  Blomidon, 
and  the  distant  shores  of  Cumberland  County.  It  may  be  said 
indeed  that  the  surroundings  of  the  University  are  of  unsurpassed 
beauty  and  breadth;  and  all  that  the  kind  face  of  nature  may  in- 
spire in  a  man  is  here". 

In  this  history  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  trace  in  detail  the  prog- 
ress of  the  two  attendant  schools  of  Acadia  University,  Horton 
Collegiate  Academy,  for  boys,  and  Acadia  Seminary,  for  girls.  The 
former,  as  we  have  seen,  began  in  1829,  the  latter  not  until  a  much 
more  recent  period.  The  person  most  active  in  founding  Acadia 
Seminary  is  said  to  have  been  the  Rev.  Thomas  A.  Higgins,  D.  D.,  and 
the  first  principal  of  the  school  to  have  been  Miss  Alice  T.  Shaw,  who 
afterward  became  Mrs.  Alfred  Chipman.  The  present  principal  is 
the  Rev.  Henry  Todd  DeWolfe,  B.  A.,  and  the  vice-principal  Miss 
Carrie  E.  Small,  M.  A.  The  teacher  of  French  and  German  for 
some  years  has  been  Miss  M.  Blanche  Bishop,  M.  A.,  whose  name 
appears  elsewhere  in  this  book.  The  principal  of  Horton  Collegiate 
Academy  is  Chalmers  J.  Messereau,  M.  A.,  and  the  assistant  teachers 
of  the  school  number  eight. 


Few  spots  on  the  American  continent  have  become  so  enshrined 
in  literature  as  the  country  that  centres  in  the  beautiful  Horton 
lirand  Pre.  Some  peculiarly  subtle  charm  dwells  in  the  atmosphere 
it  carries,  that  quite  independently  of  the  mournful  historic  Acadian 
tragedy  has  inspired  the  imagination  and  quickened  the  love  of  a 
great  many  writers,  both  among  strangers  and  men  and  women 
whom  King's  County  may  justly  claim  as  her  children.  Longfel- 
low's idyllic  poem  Evangeline  has  no  doubt  given  the  region  its  chief 
poetic  and  classic  association,  and  it  is  evident  from  the  descriptive 
setting  of  this  poem  that  the  New  England  author  felt  strongly, 
from  afar,  the  unusual  fascination  that  the  country  exercises : 

"In  the  Acadian  land,  on  the  shores  of  the  Basin  of  Minas, 
Distant,  secluded,  still,  the  little  village  of  Grand  Pre 
Lay  in  the  fruitful  valley.    Vast  meadows  stretched  to  the  east- 
Giving  the  village  its  name,  and  pasture  to  flocks  without  number. 
Dikes,  that  the  hands  of  the  farmers  had  raised  with  labor  in- 
Shut  out  the  turbulent  tides ;  but  at  stated  seasons  the  floodgates 
Opened,  and  welcomed  the  sea  to  wander  at  will  o  'er  the  meadows. 
West  and  south  there  were  fields  of  flax,  and  orchards  and  corn- 
Spreading  afar  and  unfenced  o'er  the  plain;    and  away  to  the 

Blomidon  rose,  and  the  forests  old,  and  aloft  on  the  mountaing 
Sea-fogs  pitched  their  tents,  and  mists  from  the  mighty  Atlantic 
Looked  on  the  happy  valley  but  ne'er  from  their  station  de- 


In  his  pathetic  ballad  of  the  poor  French  Neutral,  "Marguerite", 
Whittier  likewise  shows  that  from  his  New  England  home  he  too 
had  caught  the  spirit  of  the  region : 

"  But  her  soul  went  back  to  its  child-time,  she  saw  the  sun  o'erflow 
With  gold  the  Basin  of  Minas,  and  set  over  Gaspereau ; 
The  low,  bare  flats  at  ebb-tide,  the  rush  of  the  sea  at  flood, 
Through  inlet  and  creek  and  river,  from  dike  to  upland  wood, 
The  gulls  in  the  red  of  morning,  the  fish-hawk's  rise  and  fall, 
The  drift  of  the  fog  in  moonshine,  over  the  dark  coast- wall". 

The  beginning  of  the  native  literature  of  the  Minas  Basin  and 
Gaspereau  country  is  contemporary  with  the  establishment  at  "Wolf- 
ville  of  Acadia  University.  John  Leander  Bishop,  M.  D.,  a  Horton 
man  and  a  graduate  of  the  first  class  that  left  Acadia,  the  class  of 
1843,  some  time  in  the  early  fifties,  a  good  deal  in  the  tone  and 
manner  of  Scott  wrote  a  descriptive  poem  on  the  Gaspereau  river, 
in  which  he  loyally  contrasts  his  favourite  stream  with  nearly  all 
the  great  rivers  of  the  American  continent.  Parts  of  this  poem,  as 
one  of  the  earliest  inspired  by  the  Minas  country,  we  give  further 
on.  Poems  descriptive  of  the  region  were  written  by  Rev.  Samuel 
Elder,  member  of  a  gifted  Hants  county  family  that  has  also  had 
close  association  with  King's.  Mr.  Elder  was  graduated  in  the 
second  class  that  left  Acadia,  and  on  his  death  in  1856  his  friend,  Dr. 
Bishop,  apostrophizing  the  Gaspereau,  wrote  in  his  memory : 

"  Fair  stream !    thou  once  did'st  proudly  own 
A  native  lyre,  of  sweetest  tone, 
That  thrilled  beneath  the  touch  of  one 
Who  knew  and  loved  thy  haunts  full  well, 
Could  tunefully  thy  legends  tell. 
But  Elder's  graceful  pipe  no  more 
Shall  fill  thy  grottoes  as  of  yore ; 
His  song  is  hushed!" 

Eev.  Arthur  John  Lockhart,  "Pastor  Felix",  a  native  of  King's 
on  its  extreme  eastern  limit,  has  written  much  beautiful  verse  in- 


spired  by  the  country.  Of  the  spontaneous  charm  of  his  general 
poems  much  can  be  said  in  praise,  but  ia  his  poems  commemorating 
the  "Marsh  Country",  poems  like  Acadia,  Gaspereau,  and  A  Song 
of  ExUe,  we  find  the  peculiarly  intimate  quality  that  the  region  sel- 
dom fails  to  inspire.  His  brother,  Rev.  Dr.  Burton  Wellesley  Lock- 
hart,  too,  has  written  verse  of  much  beauty  fitly  commemorating  the 
scenes  of  his  boyhood  and  early  manhood.  John  Frederic  Herbin, 
a  descendant  of  the  Acadians,  and  a  long  naturalized  son  of  the 
Minas  country,  has  also  written  delightful  lyrics  and  sonnets  and 
some  fiction,  directly  inspired  by  the  region.  About  the  country  she 
knew  and  loved  in  earlier  life,  and  where  now  her  summer  home  is 
made,  Lady  Weatherbe  has  written  much  verse  of  fine  quality.  From 
Mrs.  Irene  Elder  Morton  we  have  some  excellent  poems  in  which 
there  is  much  of  the  Minas  atmosphere,  and  from  a  more  recent 
writer,  Mrs.  Lillian  Ellis  Charlton  (nee  Ells),  we  have  at  least  one 
poem  which  lovingly  and  fitly  commemorates  the  sweet  charm  of  the 
whole  Annapolis  Valley.  Dr.  Theodore  Harding  Rand's  valuable 
anthology,  *'A  Treasury  of  Canadian  Verse",  has  given  Canadian 
literature  at  large  a  magnificent  impulse,  but  in  his  own  poems,  pub- 
lished not  many  years  before  his  death,  the  part  of  Canada  Dr. 
Rand  knew  and  loved  best  has  received  treatment  so  subtle  and 
musical  that  the  author  will  always  remain  one  of  the  acknowledged 
laureates  of  the  land. 

Although  sons  only  by  adoption  of  the  Minas  country,  for  they 
are  both  by  birth  New  Brunswick  men,  Bliss  Carman  and  his  cousin, 
Charles  George  Douglas  Roberts,  have  given  the  world  by  all  means 
the  richest  and  most  varied  interpretation  of  any  poets  of  the  ever- 
changing  moods  of  King's  County's  beautiful  marshland  and  mere, 
and  of  the  inspired  upland  country  that  centres  in  the  "Vale  of  the 

"  The  year  grows  on  to  harvest,  the  tawny  lilies  bum 
Along  the  marsh,  and  hillward  the  roads  are  sweet  with  fern. 
All  day  the  windless  heaven  pavilions  the  sea-blue. 
Then  twilight  comes  and  drenches  the  sultry  dells  with  dew",— 


from  his  Light  on  the  Marsh,  gives  us  a  hint  of  how  enchantingly 
Carman  can  portray  the  delicate  features  of  the  landscape ;  and, 

"  There's  a  schooner  out  from  Kingsport, 
Through  the  morning's  dazzle-gleam, 
Snoring  down  the  Bay  of  Fundy 
With  a  norther  on  her  beam", — 

from  his  Arnold,  Master  of  the  Scud,  with  what  fine  rhythm  he  can 
reproduce  action  here.  In  his  "Marshes  of  Minas",  and  "A  Sister 
to  Evangeline ' '  Eoberts  has  given  enduring  voice  also  to  the  historic 
spirit  of  the  country. 

For  the  preservation  of  the  wealth  of  Indian  legend  connected 
with  the  whole  province,  including  King's  County,  we  are  indebted 
to  the  scholarly  interest  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Silas  Tertius  Eand,  whose 
"Legends  of  the  Micmacs"  is  one  of  the  most  important  contribu- 
tions to  native  American  folk-lore  produced  in  the  past  fifty  years. 
For  graphic  descriptions  of  the  Minas  country  and  for  adding  classi- 
cal distinction  to  King's  County's  university  and  preparatory  school 
in  the  vein  of  Thomas  Hughes,  the  county  is  deeply  indebted  to 
Professor  James  De  Mille,  among  whose  interesting  books  for  boys 
are  the  well  known  B.  0.  W.  C.  (Boys  of  "WoKville  College),  and 
Boys  of  Orand  Pre  School.  The  portrayal  in  these  books  of  student 
life  in  "Wolfville  about  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  century  has  not 
only  vivid  local  interest,  but  must  appeal  strongly  to  youth  at  large 
for  generations  to  come.  In  a  work  of  local  detail  like  the  present  it 
will  not  be  out  of  place  to  say  that  the  originals  of  the  chief  charac- 
ters in  these  student-life  books  of  De  Mille 's  are  as  follows :  Dr.  Por- 
ter was  the  Rev.  John  Pryor,  D.  D. ;  Mr.  Long  was  Rev.  Edmund  A. 
Crawley,  D.  D.,  D.  C.  L. ;  Bart  Damar  was  Rev.  Elisha  Budd  De 
Mille;  Bruce  Rawdon  was  Henry  T.  Crawley;  Arthur  Bawdon  was 
Eev.  Arthur  R.  R.  Crawley;  Thomas  Crawford  was  Rev.  Thomas 
Crawley;  Phil  Kennedy  was  Rev.  Stephen  William  DeBlois,  D.  D.; 
BUlp  Mack  was  Rev.  William  MacKenzie,  D.  D. ;  Pat  was  Rev.  Patrick 
Shields;  Da/Bid  Digg  was  Rev.  David  Freeman;  Jiggins  was  Rev. 
Thomas  A.  Higgins,  D.  D. 




Sweet  mountain  stream,  whose  amber  tide 

With  noisy  haste,  or  softest  glide, 

Like  childhood's  bright  inconstancy. 

Pursues  its  journey  to  the  sea. 

And  winds  in  many  a  graceful  sweep 

Where  blossomed  wild-flowers  silent  weep 

Upon  thy  marge  the  fragrant  dews 

That  evening's  humid  steps  diffuse, 

At  intervals  scarce  seen  amid 

The  herbage  of  the  valley  hid. 

Whose  wild  luxuriance  reveals 

The  fertile  wave  its  growth  conceals, — 

In  soft  and  mazy  dance  to  stray, 

I've  watched  thy  gentle  winding  way. 

As  leaping  o'er  its  rocky  bed 

Thy  shallow  current  downward  sped, 

Or  deeply,  smoothly  slid  away 

Without  a  ripple  or  a  spray. 

And  I  have  dreamed,  tho'  scarce  to  song. 

As  yet,  thy  humble  name  belong. 

That  not  the  travelled  summer  gale 

E'er  stepped  within  so  sweet  a  vale 

As  that  upon  whose  bosom  bright 

Thy  current  shapes  its  line  of  light. 

Where,  issuing  from  the  dark  ravine, 

Thy  forest-shadowed  wave  is  seen 

To  check  its  tide,  that  many  a  mile 

Had  fretted  in  the  dark  defile. 

Where  frowning  o'er  their  subject  flood 

Thy  mural  precipices  stood. 


My  thoughts,  tho '  seldom  now  I  may 
Beside  thy  murmuring  waters  stray, 
Oft  turn,  by  fond  remembrance  led, 
"Where  those  gray  rocks  obscurely  shed 
Their  image  on  thy  foaming  wave, 
Whose  eddying  course  was  wont  to  lave 
Their  shelvy  base,  where  in  and  out 
The  salmon  and  the  speckled  trout 
Gliding,  were  frequent  captives  made 
By  patient  angler  in  the  shade ; 
While  sweetly  on  the  branch  above 
The  wild-bird  tuned  his  note  of  love ; 
Or  mingled  with  thy  murmur  still 
Its  monotone,  the  distant  mill; 
And  sloping  sky-ward  from  thy  shore, 
Those  hills  a  fadeless  mantle  wore 
f)f  fragrant  spruce  and  hemlock  green, 
Where  the  sun's  latest  rays  were  seen, 
And  in  the  glade,  with  Spring's  first  glow, 
The  mayflower  bloomed  amid  the  snow. 

I've  seen  the  dancing  foam-wreath  fleck 

The  darkly  rolling  Kennebec ; 

And  swiftly  on  his  shining  track 

Flow  down  the  busy  Merrimac ; 

Seen  leaping  from  his  piny  hills. 

Augmented  by  a  thousand  rills. 

Where  art,  wealth,  taste  their  graces  blend, 

The  fair  Connecticut  descend. 

His  cultured  vales,  with  fertile  wave 

I've  seen  the  gentle  Mohawk  lave; 

Imperial  Hudson  glide  in  shade 

'Neath  his  eternal  palisade; 

Startled  the  fawn  on  hills  that  fling 

Shadows  on  blood-stained  Wyoming, 


And  lingering  o'er  the  classic  vale 
Have  matched  the  sadly  tragic  tale 
And  sorrows  of  sweet  Gertrude's  line 
With  those  of  thine  Evangeline. 

And  villa  'd  banks  and  cities  fair, 
Glassed  in  the  magic  Delaware; 
Her  midnight  lamp  have  seen, — the  moon, 
O'er  hidden  Schuylkill  hang  in  June; 
And  the  fierce  day-star  faintly  gleam 
On  Wissahickon's  shaded  stream; 
Beheld  in  transport  from  the  steep, 
Through  his  wild  gorge,  Potomac  leap; 
And  gathered  the  flinty  arrow  head 
By  the  wild  Lehigh's  rocky  bed. 
I've  watched  the  Spring  his  pride  renew 
On  Susquehanna's  hills  of  blue, 
And  Autumn's  lovely  tints  grow  pale 
In  Juniata's  wiuding  vale. 
•  «***• 

But,  chief,  where  Nature  wears  a  mien 
Both  grand  and  beautiful,  have  seen. 
Awe-struck,  Niagara  rush  amain 
Down  the  abyss,  then  mount  again 
In  silver  spray,  whereon  the  glow 
And  radiance  of  the  lunar  bow 
Were  cast, — then  turned  to  muse  awhile 
In  bowered  walks  on  moonlit  isle, 
"Where  every  tree  seemed  tenanted 
By  a  weird  sister  of  the  wood ; 
And  each  dark  rock  I  well  could  deem 
Held  guardian  naiad  of  the  stream, 
That  in  the  midst  and  solemn  roar 
Of  the  great  flood  dwelt  evermore; 


And  I  have  felt  in  all  its  power 
The  witchery  of  the  place  and  hour. 

To  scenes  like  these  with  fealty  true 

My  heart  hath  paid  its  homage  due ; 

Yet  not  less  constant,  nor  less  free, 

Dear  native  stream!   hast  turned  to  thee, 

In  proud  remembrance  turned,  and  then 

As  oft  in  fancy  pressed  again 

Thy  pleasant  banks,  and