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For 1S99-1900. 



Chapter XXIX. 



EDDCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES, CUBA. PORTO RICO, 
HiWAlI, AND SAMOA. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVEHNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 
1 « (1 1 . 



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EDUCATIOJS' OF THE FILIPINOS. 1635 

AuiVK, .Josk. Album de las diferc'utes razas de Mindanao. Manila, Fototipografio de J. Marty, 1899. 

[Instantaneous photographs of the Inhabitants of Mindanao.] 
Bagnios o tifones de 1894. Estudio de lo.s mismos, seguido de algiinas conslderaciones gcnerales 

acerca de los caracteres de estos meteoros en el extremo Oriente. Madrid, 1805. pi. chart. 

180 pp. (Observatorio de Jlanila. ) 
Alvarez, GUEKRA Ji'AN. Viajes por Filipinas. De Manila a Marianas. Madrid, 1887. 307 pp. 12°. 

De Manila & Albay. 318 pp. 12°. 

De Manila A Tayabas. 388 pp. 12°. 

Alv.\rez y Tejero, Lui% Prudencio. De las islas Filipinas. Memoria eserita y publicada. Valen- 
cia, 1812. 92 pp. 8°. 
Aknual Register, for the year 1763. London, 1782. 8°. (Siege of Manila.) 
Arag6n, Ildefoxso. Descripci6n geogrdfica y topogr&fica de la isla de Luzon, o Nueva Castilla. Con 

las particulares de las diez y seis provincias 6 partidos que comprehende. Manila, 1819-1821. 
Arias, Evabisto Fernaxdez, Fr. Memoria hist6rico-cstadi.stica sobre la ensenanza secundaria y 

superior en Filipinas; eserita con motivo de la exposicion colonial de Amsterdam por en- 
cargo de la subeomision de estas islas. Manila, 1883. 4°. 29 tables. 
Puralelo entre la conquista y dominacion de America y el descubrimiento y pacificacion de 

Filipinas. Madrid, 1893. 8°. 
Barrantes, V. El teatro tagalo. Madrid, 1889. 299 pp. 8°. 
Balbas Y Castro (Tom^s). Minas de cobre de Lepanto. Manila, 1861. 
Beauregard, Olivier. Anthropologie et philologie aux Philippines. (Bull, de la Soc. d'anthropol. 

de Paris, ser. 3, vol. 10, pp. 482, 515. ) 
Belloe y Sanchez, Vicente. Los misioneros en Filipinas, sus relaeiones con la civilizaeion y 

dominacion espaiiola. Madrid, 1895. 55 pp. 16°. 
Bergjiann, — . Der malayische Archipel im Lichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen. (Das Ausland, 

Jahrg.G6: 357-360; 375-378; 391-393. 1893.) 
Best, Eladon. Prehistoric civilization in the Philippines. The Tagalo Bisayo tribes. (Journal of 

the Poly-iesian Soc. Vol. 1: 195-201. 1893.) 
Blanco, Manuel, Fr. Flora de FilipiTias scgiin el sistema sexual de Linneo. Manila, 1837. En la 

imprenta de St". Tomds. (Different parts, 1845, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1883.) 4 vols. test. 2 

vols. pi. 
Blumentritt, F. Ascension du volcan Apo, dans I'ile de Mindanao, par le docteur B. Schadenberg 

et le docteur O. Koch. 
(In Sociote academique indo-chinoise. Bulletin, 2 ser.. Tome 2: 496-rOl. Paris, 1883-1SS5.) 

Breve diceionario etnograflco de Filipinas. Manila, 1889. 

Das Stromgebiet des Rio Grande de Mindanao. Mit Karte. (Petermann's Mittheilungen, v. 37: 

108-114. 1891.) 
Aufstand a. d. Philippinen. (In Anschluss a. d. japanesisehen Krieg.) (Botanisches Cen- 

tralbl., 70. B. pp.213.) 
— Der Ahnencultus und die religiosen Anschauungeii der Malaien des philippin. Archipels. 

Wien, L. C. Zamanski,1882. 4°. 45 pp. 
Der Aufstand auf den Philippinen. (Geogr. Zeitung, vol. 2: 545-547) or (Globus, vol. 70: 213. 

1895.) 
I)ie Erschaffung der Welt und der ersten Mensehen, nach der Schopfungsgeschichte der alten 

Philippiner. (Globus, vol.63: 146.) 

• Die Filipiner als Herren im eigenen Hause; eine ethnographisch-politische Studie. 

■ Die Ilongoten (Luzon). Nach den Missionsberichten. (Globus, vol.64: 165.) 

Die religiosen Anschauungen der Bisayas und Tagalen. (Oesterr. Monatsschr., vol. 19: 45.) 

Sitten und Briiuehe der Ilocaner auf Luzon. (Globus, vol. 51: 359-361,376. 1887.) 

■ Streiflichter auf die philippinische Revolution. (Oesterr. Monatsschr. ftir den Orient, vol. 23: 

109-113.) 
, translator. (Plasencia, Jnan de.) Die Sitten und Briiuehe der alten Tagalen. MS. d. J. de 

Plasencia. Herausg. von T. H. Pardo de Tavera. (Zeitschr. fiir Ethnologic, vol. 25: 1, 21. 

Berlin, 1893. Smithsonian.) 
Organisation communale des indigenes des Philippines placees sous la domination espagnole. 

Traduit par A. Hugot. Paris, 18S1. 11 pp. (Bulletin de la Society academique indo- 
chinoise.) 
■ Ueber die Namcn der malaischen Stiimme der philippinischen Inseln. (Globus, vol. 97; 

334-337. 
Bride, Capt. Ch. La guerre hispano-americaine de 1898. Avec de nombreux croquis dans le texte. 

Paris, 1899. 275 pp. Maps. 
— '- — La guerre hispano-am6ricaine, ses origines; la lutte; le traits de Paris; I'insurrection de 1895- 

1898 . . . 
Brijac, Jean Leopold Emile. Precis de quelques campagnes contemporaines. La guerre hispano" 

americaine. Paris, 1899. 



1636 EDUCATIOiq' KEPORT, 1899-1900. 

Cabeza y Pepeiro (A.). La isla de Ponap(5. (Carolinas.) Geografia, etnografla, bistoria. 

Manila, 1895. (4°, con mapas 6 ilustraciones.) 
Campo EcHEVAERiA, A. del. Espana en Oceania. Descripcion hiatorico-geografica y estadistica de 

nuestras posesiones en aquella parte del mundo; religi6n, usos, costumbres de sus habi- 

tantes . . . Santander, Planchard, 1897. 8°. 152 pp. 
CaSamaque, rEANCisco. La province de Zambales de I'ile de Lufon. Traduit de I'espagnol par 

A. W. Taylor. (In So& academique indo-chinoise. Bulletin, 2" si5r., tome 1: 154-169. 

Paris, 1882.) 
editor. Memoria sobre Filipinas y Jolo, redactada en 1863 y 1864 ^or el Excmo. Seiior D. 

Patricio de la Escosura. Madrid, 1882. 
Canga, ArgiJelles y Villalba Felipe. La isla de Mindanao. Conferencia. (In Boletin de la 

Sociedad geogriiflca de Madrid, vol. 22: 226-262. 1887.) 

La isla de la Paragua. (Bol. de la Soe. geogr., vol. 23: 205-243, 1887; vol. 24: 43-88, 1888.) 

La isla de la Paragua. Estudio geogrdfico politico-social. Madrid, 1888. 88 pp. 8°. 

Centeno y Garcia, Josii;. Memoria geologico-minera de las islas Filipinas. Madrid, 1876. (Folded 

map.) viii 61(3) pp. 
Clemente (M.). La Venganza de Fajardo. Relato historico. (Manila, 1621.) Madrid, 1898. 8°. 
CoMYN, TOMAS DE. Estado de las islas Filipinas en 1810. Madrid, 1820. 
Cornish, Sir Samuel, and Draper, ,S7?- William. A plain narrative of the reduction of Manila and 

the Philippine Islands. London, 1781. (In The Field of Mars, vol. 2.) 

■ Letter from Manila Bay. Ibid. 

Cosmopolis, vol. C: 475-488: L'insurrection des Philippines. By E. Planchet. 1896. 

vol. 17 (1897): 475. 

Delgardo, Juan J. Historia general sacroprofana politica y natural de las islas del poniente 

llamadas Filipinas. Manila, 1892. 
Drasche, E. v. Datos para nn estudio geologico de la isla de Lnz6n. Folded map. (In Boletin de 

la comision del mapa geologica de E.spana. Madrid, 1881. 
Fragmente zu eiuer Geologic der lusel Luzon (Philippinen). Mit einem Anhange iiber die 

Foiaminiferen der Tertiiiren, etc. Wien, 1878. 
Geological papers on Luzon. Verhandlungen, Jahrg. 1876: 89-93 and 251-2.55 (Kai.serl.-konigl.- 

geolog. Reichsanstalt, Mineral. Mitth., 157-166. Wien, 1876.) 
Elera, C. de, dontinico. Catalogo sistematico de toda la fauna de Filipinas conocida hasta el pre- 

sente, y A la vez el de la coleccion zoologica del museo del Colegio-Universidad de Manila. 

Manila, 1895-96. 
Fabie, a. M. Ensayo historico de la legislacion espaiiola en sus Estados de Ultramar. Madrid, 1897. 
Feced (P.). (Quioquiap.) Filipinas. Esbozos y pinceladas. Manila, 1888. 

Foreman, John. The Philippine Islands. A historical, graphical, ethnological, social, and com- 
mercial sketch of the Philippine Archipelago and its political dependencies, with maps and 

illustrations. 2d cd. New York, 1899. 
Frenzel, a. Mineralogisches aus dem Ostindischen Archipel. (Jahrb. der Kaiserl.-Konigl. geolo- 

gischen Reichs-Anstalt. Mineralog. Mittheil.: 302-304. Wien, 1877.) 
Gonzales y Martin, R. Filipinas y sus habitantes, lo que son y lo que deben ser. Bajar, 1896. 287 

pp. 8°. 
Great Britain. Calendar of Home Office papers of the reign of George III, 1760, 1765, contains papers 

relating to the capture and restoration of Manila by the British. 
Foreign Office. Miscellaneous series 1887. Report on native manufactures in the Philippines. 

London, 1887. 
Gumma y Marti, Alfred. El Archipielago Dondi.i, el nombre de Luzon y los origenes del cristia- 

ni-smo en Filipinas. (Bolet. de la sociedad geogrAficade Madrid, vol.39: 21—16. Madrid, 1897.) 
Heger, Franz. Goldgeriite von den Philippinen. (With plate.) (Mitth. d.Anthroplog.Gesellschaft, 

Wien, vol. 22: 216-220. 1893.) 
Iles Philippines, extrait d'un ouvrage public a Manila. (In Nouvelles annales des voyages. 2» 

.ser. Tome 12: 1-12. Paris, 1879.) 
Jacquet, E. Considerations sur les alphabets des Philippines. Paris, Imp. Royale, 1831. 
JAGOE. Eeisen in den Philippinen. BeHin, 1873. . 
JoRDANA Y Morera, Ra.mon. Bosquejo geogKaflco e historico-natural del archipielago Filipino. 

Madrid, 1885. 
La Gironiijre, Paul de. Vingt annees aux Philippines. Paris, 1887. 

Lola, Ramon Reyes. The Philippine Islands. K. Y., Continental Publ. Co. 1899. 342 pp. 
L6PEZ, Ventura Fernandez. La religion de los antiguos Indies Tagales. Madrid, 1894. 55 pp. 16°. 
Malibran y Maetin6n, Arturo de. Resumen de las tareas de la real sociedad econ6miea lilipina 

de amigos del pais durante el periodo de 1881 d 1885. Manila, 1886. 
Mallat. Les iles Philippines: histoire, geographie, mamrs, agriculture, industrie et commerce. 2 v, 

Paris, 1846. 
Marche, Alfred. Lufon et Palaouan. Six annees de voyage aux Philippines. Paris, 1887. 



EDUCATION OF THE FILIPINOS. 1637 

Marcilla y Martix, Cipriano. Kstudio de los antiguos alfabetos filipinos. Malabon (Luzon), 

1895. 109 pp. 4°. 

Mass, Miguel Saderra. La seismologla en Filipinas. Dato.s para el e.studio de terremotos del Archi- 

pi61ago Filipino. Manila, 1895. 132 pp. 8°. (Observatorio de Manila.) 
Medina, Jos^: Torribio. La imprenta en Manila desde sus orlgenes hasta 1810. Santiago de Chile, 

1896. xcvi, 277 pp. 

EI primer peri6dico publicado en Filipinas y sus origenes. Madrid, 1895. 

Mendez de Vigo, Agustin de la Cavada. De la liistoria, geognlflca, geologica y estadistica de 
Filipinas. Manila, 1877. 2 v. Maps. 

Mextrida, Alonso de. Arte de lengua Bisaj-a-Hiligryna de la isla de Panay. Manila, 1818. 

Mayer, A. B., anrf SCHADENBERG, A. Album von Philippinen-Typen, etc. Dresden, 1891. (Repro- 
duction of photos.) 19 pp. 

• Die Mangianenschrift von Mindoro. Speciell bearb. von W. Foy, (Kgl. zoOl. u. aiithro- 

polog. Museum, Dresden. Abtheil. u. Berichto, 1894-95. No. 15, 34 pp. 4 pi.) 

MiNARD. Sur les gisementsd'ordes Philippines. (Society geol. de France, Bull., 3' s6r. Vol, 2: 403— 40G. 
Paris, 1874.) 

MoNTAXo, J. Excursion ii I'interieur et sur la cote orientale de Mindanao. With map. (Bull.de la 
Soci^te de geogr., 7= stSr. Tome 3: 593-616. Paris, 1882.) 

Rapport sur une mission aux lies Philippines et en Malaisie, 1879-18S1. Paris, 1881. 

Voyage aux Philippines. Paris, 1886. 

MoNTERO Y Vidal. Historia general de Filipinas desde el descubrimiento de dichas islas hasta 

nuestras dias. 3 vols. Madrid, 18S7-95. 
MoRGA, Antonio de. The Philippine Lslands, Moluccas, Slam, Cambodia, Japan, and China, at the 

close of the 16th century. Translated from the Spanish with notes and preface and a letter 

from Louis de Torres, describing his voyage through the Torres straits, by Henry J. Stanley. 

London, Hakluyt soc., 1868. 

Sucesos de las islas Filipinas; obra publ. in M^-jico el aiio de 1609. Nuevamente sacada a luz y 

anotada por JosiS Rizal . . . Paris, 1889. 
Native inhabitants of the Philippine Islands. (Jour, of the Anthropolog. Inst, of Gt. Britain. 

Vol.23: 198.) 
Obbeke, K. Beitriige znr Petrographie der Philippinen. (Neues Jahrb. fiir Mineralogie, Beilage,B. 

1:451-501. Stuttgart, 1881.) 
Pardo de Tavera, T. H. Contribucion para el estudio de los antiguo.-i alfabetos filipinos. Losana, 

1834. 

Las costumbres de los Tagalos en Filipinas segun el padre Pla.seneia. Madrid, 1892. 

Consideraciones sobre el origen del nombre de los niimeros en Tagalog. Manila, 1889. 

Noticias sobre la imprenta y cl grabado en Filipina.s. Madrid, 1893. 

El sdnscrito en la lengua Tagalog. Paris, 1887. 

Planchet, Edmond. Negritos et Samoges de I'ile Lufon. (Revue Scientifique, 1887: 228-235.) 
Plasencia, Juan de. La familia Tagalog. Madrid, 1892. 

La antigna civilisaci6n Tagalog. Madrid, 1887. 

El Barangay. Madrid, 1892. 

PoLiTiCA (La) de Espa55a en Filipinas. Revista quincenal. Jladrid, 1891-98. 

POLITISCHE (Die) Lage der Philippinen. (Unsere Zeit, Dec, 1889: 512-531.) 

Retana, W. E. Archivo del bibliofilo iilipino. 3 vols. Madrid, 1897. (Contains republications of 

historical papers and bibliography). 

Bibliography of Mindanao. 

Mando del General Weyler en Filipinas, 1888, Nov. 17, 1S91. pp. XXIII (1), 437. Madrid, 1896. 

Portrait. 12°. 

Cuestiones filipinas. Avisos y profecias. Madrid, 1892. 

El periodismo filipino. Noticias para su historia. (1811-1894.) Apuntes bibliograficos. Indi- 

caciones biogrAficas. Notas criticas. Semblanzas. An(Jcdotas. Madrid, 1895. 8°. 

■ Supersticiones de los Indies Filipinos. Un libro de Aniterias. Madrid, 1894. 

Filipinas. El precursor de la politica redentorista. Breves comentarios a un libro raro. 

Madrid, 1894. 
Reyes y Florentino, Isabelo de los. El folk-lore filipino. Manila, 18S9. 

Prehistoria de Filipinas. 

. Historia de Ilocos (Filipinas). Manila, 1892. 2 vols. Pt.l: Prehistoria. 

— i Las Islas Viscayas en la 6poca de la conquista. 

Die religiosen Anschauungen der Iloeanen (Luzon). Mitth. der geogr. Gesellsch. Wien. 

Vol.31: 552-575.) 

Sitteii und Briiuche der alten Tagalen. (Zeitschr. fiir Ethnologic. Vol. 25: 1-21, 1893.) 

KizAL, Josfe. Ueber tagalische Verskunst. (Zeitschr. fur Ethnologie, 1887: 293-95. ) 

, editor. See Morga. 

Rosario y Sales, A. del. Apuntes para el estudio de un nuevo entofilo. Manila, 1887. 



1638 EDUCATION EEPORT, 1899-1900. 

Saderea Maso, Miguel. La seismologia en Filipinas. Datos para el'estudio de torremotos del 

archipit>lago lilipino. Manila. 1S95. 
San Agustix, Fr. Gaspar de. Compendio del arte de la lengua tagala. 3d ed. Manila, 1S79. 
Saxtos, Fr. Domingo de los. Vocabulario de la lengua tagala. 
Part 1: Spanish-Tagal. 
Part 2: Tagal-Spanish. (First ed. printed on rice paper at Tayabas, Philipi)ines, in 1703 

reprinted 1793 at Manila.) 
Sawyer, Frederick H. Memb. Inst. C. E. Memb. In,st. N. A. The Inhabitants of the Philippines. 

New York, 1900. 
Schadekberg, A. Beitriige zur Ethnographic von Nord-Luz6n (Philippinen) . Wien, Holder, 1888. 

(Reprinted from Mlttheil. d. anthropolog. Gesell.schaft, Wien.) 
On native races. (Ztschr. fiir Ethnol. Vol. 19: 14.5-159; 20: 31-42; 21: 674-700; 17: 8-37 and 4.5; 12: 

133-174,1885.) (Das Ausland. Vol.56: 1012-1028.) 
Scheidnagel, MA^'^EL. Les Igorrotes de I'isle de Lu^'on. Traduit de I'espagnol par Eug6ne Gibert. 

(In Societe academique indo-chinoise. Bulletin, 2" ser. Tome 2: 316-317. Paris, 1883-85.) 
■ Colonizaci6n espanola. Estudios acerca de la misma, en nuestras pose.siones de Oceania. Con 

un prologo do Emilio Bonelli. Jladrid, 1893. 12°. 
Semper, Karl. Die Pliilippinen und ihre Bewohner. Wiirzburg, 1869. 

Die Palay. Inseln im Stillen Ocean. Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1873. 

Keise durch die-nordostlichen Provinzen der Inscl Luzon. (Ztschr. fiir allgemeine Erdkunde, 

N.F. Vol.10: 2-19-266; 13: 81-96. Berlin, 1861-62.) 
Skutchley, Ethelbert Forbes. Cagayan, Sulu: Its customs, legends, and superstition.s, (Royal 

A.siatic Soc'y, of Bengal, Journal, vol. 65, 47-57.) 
Taylor, A. VV. lies Philippines. La province de Zambales de I'ilc de Lueon d'apres la monographie 

de M. Francisco Canamarque. Paris, 18S1. 
Torres Lanzas, P. Relacion de.seriptiva do los mapas, pianos, etc., de Filipinas. Madrid, 1897. 8". 
ToTANAS, Sebastian de. Arte de la lengua tagala, y manual tagalog, para la admini.straei6n de los 

Santos sacramentos que de orden de sus superiores compueso. Manila, 1850. 
U.STARiz, Bernardo. Relafi6n de los sucesos y progresos de la mision de Santa Cruz de Paniqui 

[and others] . Manila, 1745. (On Chinese paper; curious and very rare work on the history 

of the religious missions in the Philippines. ) 
Vergara, Francisco Euqracio. La masoneria en Filipinas. Estudio de actualidad; apuntes para 

la historia de la colonizaci6n espanola en el siglo XIX. Paris, 1896. 
A^idal y Soler, SebastiIn. Sinopsis de familias y geiieros de plantas lefiosas de Filipinas. Intro- 

duccion &, la flora forestal del archipiclago Filipino. Manila, 1883. 
ViRCHOW, Rudolph. Die Bev51kerung der Philippinen. (K. k. Akad. d. Wissen.sch. Berlin, 1897.) 
Die Bevolkerung der Philippinen. (Sitsungsb. d. kgl. preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften. 

279-289.) 
Waitz, Theodor. Die Volker der Siidsee. Ethnographic. Leipzig, 1865-72. 3 vols, in 2. Folded 

map. 8°. 
Walls y Merino, M. La musica popular de Filipinas, con un preludio de Antonio Peiia y Gone. 

Madrid, 1892. 
Zeferino, a. Certamen cientlflco-literario y velado que en su honor celebro la I'uiver.sidad de 

Manila. Manila, 1885. 
ZCniga. Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas, 6 mis viajes por este pais. Por el padre Fr. Joaquin Martinez 

de Zuiiiga. (Published by W. E. Retana.) 2 vols. Madrid, 1893, (Appendixes contain 

bibliography and account of printing in the Philippines from the first settlement to 1893.) 



EDUCATION OB' THE FILIPINOS. 1639 

APPENDIX II. 

TAGALOG ALPHABET USED BY FR. FRANCISCO LOPEZ, 1621. 

The following alphabet was used by Fr. Francisco Lopez in a catechism printed in 1G21. Fr. Lopez 
improved the original Tagalog alphabet by introdneing the sign f underneath the alphabetical sign 
in order to make the latter a simple consonant like the equivalent letter in Spanish. The alphabet is 
taken from a work by the R. P. Fr. Cipriano Marcilla y Martin, entitled Estudio de los Antiguas Alfa- 
betos Filipinos, published in Malabon,. Luzon, 1895. The conclusion of the author is that all the 
Filipino alphabets were imitations or adaptations of the Tagalog. 

The vowels have the continental sound. The point placed above or below the letter gives the 
vowel sound as shown. 

a e or i o or u 

Vw L-w C»>J L*J C--S (yy 

* -t 

b ca ke or ki 





be or !ji 


bo or bu 


^ 




? 


CO or cu 




c, k or q 


» 


^ 


31 


do or (lu 


d 


ga gi 



da de or di 



• t 



go or gu 



K) ^ K) ^ "T 



nga 


nge or ugi 


ngo or ngu ng 


la 


leor li 


T 




\P 


^ 


tP 


^ 


lo or lu 


1 


ma 


me or mi 


mo or mu 


m 


a\ 


• 


• 


m 

t 

n 


\C 


vc 


na 


ne or ni 


no or nu 


pa 


pe or pi 


• 


¥ 


CO 




c>o 


CO 

ii 


po or pu 


• P 


ha 


he or hi 


9 

ho or hu 


>3 


iJ 


1/3 


^ 


"n 


t^ 


sa 


se or si 


so or su 


s 


ta 


te or ti 


• 
to or tu 


t 


3 

va 


5 

ve or vi 


• 
vo or vu 


+ 

V 




'LO 




• 


CX) 






ya 


ye or yi 


yo or 3'U 


y 





1640 



"EDUCATION EEPOET, 1899-1900. 



The following- comparative table of alphabets was prepared by the Filipino author Isabelo de los 
Eeyes y Florentine. 

Nos. 1 and 2 are Filipino alphabets (Visayas); 3 and 4 are Malay (Sumatra and Celebes); 5 is Indian 
(Asoka); 6 is from Borneo, while 7 is ancient Javanese. 





A 


B 


D 


E-I 


G 


H 


K 


L 


M 


N 


NG 


o-u 


p 


s 


T 


V 


1 


V 


o 


^ 


v/w. 


n 


C^O 


j: 


3-^ 


-v 


T 


>^ 


3 


\/ 


V? 


>^ 


x; 


2 


\^ 




\r 




























3 


C^ 


c^ 


/N 


r^ 


— > 


-»•>-> 


'^ry 


-- 


CSC 


— e> 


< 


■#- r 


.„_ _ 


^ 


s? 


<r> 


4 


A/:v 


^ 


V 


< 


^ 


oo 


II 


"^ 


V 


/CV 


\ 


^ 


rJ 


o 


A 


A>S 


S 


H 


Q 




\>i- 


A 


I 


+ 


J 


JJ 


JL 


Q 


^ 


I 


/^ 


A 


i 


6 






u\ 


^ 


OfV\ 


n^ 


m 


V 




iin? 


on 


^V 




Oa 


Xf\ 




7 


^ 


o 


£. 


n 


ri 


^ 


m 


lly 


u 


tr 


s: 


I 


A. 


lA 


^ 


s 









W 



CUBA. 



As soon as the Americans had taken possession of the island the American mihtary 
governor assumed, in regard to education, the functions of the Spanish Governor- 
General, who had represented the King of Spain. The details of the system of edu-- 
cation, even to the minutest particulars, were directed by orders from the American 
military governor as they had been previously by royal decrees. Under American^ 
rule some radical changes have been made in the organization of the elementary 
school system in order to make it more like that of the common schools of the United 
States, and the schools were placed under a superintendent. The courses of study in 
the secondary schools (the institutes in the different provinces), the special and art 
schools of Habana, and the university are still arranged by printed orders from the 
military governor, the changes being made upon the recommendation of the secretary 
of public instruction. Professors were also appointed by the military governor until 
by the order of February 7, 1900, it was directed that the assistant professors should 
be appointed by the secretary of public instruction upon the recommendation of the 
faculties. The new programme of the school of commerce in the Institute of Habana 
shows that increased attention is being given to commercial studies, and a school of 
stenography and typewriting has also been established in that institute. The new 
programme of the faculty of pharmacy at the University of Habana shows that 
increased attention is being given to i^ractical studies in the university also. The 
course in jjhysics and other experimental or laboratory studies has been extended. 
From an interesting address by l)r. Carlos de Pedroso, of tlie Institute of Habana, 
before the Harvard Teachers' Association, we learn that the principal needs of the 
institutes are laboratories, museums, and apparatus for practical work in experi- 
mental sciences. 

The changes which have been made in the elementary school system since the 
American occupation may be seen from a comparison of the condition of affairs in 
the island before that event, as described in the following account taken from the 
census of Cuba, published by the War Department, and the recent condition as shown 
by the statistics and enactments, which are given next in order: 

The system in operation at the time of American occupation, January 1, 1S99 was based on the law 
of 1865 as modified by that of 1880, and had in view a progressive course of public and private instruc- 
tion through primary and secondary schools to the special schools and university and it may be 



EDUCATION IN CUBA. 1641 

said at once that the plan of studies as thus prescribed was excellent in theory, and had it been 
thoroughly carried out by meausof liberal appropriations and more attention to details, the figures 
of the census would have been reversed as far as they represent the condition of literacy in general. 
But, as will be shown later in this report, the appropriations for the schools were far from adequate, 
and their administration most imperfect, and thus the sche7iic of popular education, v/hich as a 
theoretical proposition was almost beyond adverse criticism, utterly failed to accomplish its ostensible 
purpose, as the figures of the census prove. 

Under the law of 1880 the general supervision of public instruction in all its branches was vested in 
the governor-general and administered by him through the superior board of public instruction, 
composed of a vice-president and twelve other members appointed by the home government on the 
recommendation of the governor-general, who was ex officio president of the board. * * * 

In addition to the superior board of education there was a board of education in each province, 
performing its duties under the supervision of tl-.e provincial governor and the provincial deputation. 

The provincial board was composed of the governor of the province, an ecclesiastic to represent the 
diocese, and nine others. * * * 

The local or municipal boards of education consisted of the mayor as president, one alderman, the 
parish priest, and three fathers of families. In towns of more than 1,000 inhabitants the number of 
members could be increased on the recommendation of the mayor by adding more heads of families. 

For the periodical examination of the schools and other educational institutions the law provided 
inspectors, who were certain- members of the superior board of education. Other inspectors were 
ecclesiastics designated by the church to examine the text-books and instruction of the professors, in 
order to determine whether anything prejudicial to Catholic doctrine was incorporated in the 
religious education of the pupils. 

Primary instruction was divided into the elementary and superior. The complete course of instruc- 
tion included Ciiristian doctrine and the outlines of sacred history arranged for children; reading, 
writing, and the elements of Spanish grammar, with exercises in spelling; principles of arithmetic, 
with the legal system of weights, measures, and money; brief outline of agriculture, industry, and 
commerce, according to localities, and the constitution of the state. 

Elementary instruction not embracing all the subjects just mentioned was considered incomplete, 
and the elementary schools were called "complete," or "incomplete," according to the instruction 
given. 

Primary superior instruction embraced, in addition to a reasonable extension of the subjects men- 
tioned as elementary, the principles of geometry, lineal drawing, and as applied to the elements of 
surveying; the rudiments of history and geography, especially of Spain, and the elements of physics 
and natural history. In the elementary instruction of girls, sewing, embroidery, and drawing as 
applied to same, and the elements of domestic hygiene were substituted for agriculture, industry, 
and commerce, and the elementary superior course was omitted. 

The law further required the elementary education of the deaf, dumb, and blind in the institu- 
tions established for them. All Spanish children between the ages of 6 and 9 were required to 
receive elementary instruction in the public primary schools unless their parents or guardians pro- 
vided such instruction at home or in private schools, the fine for failing to do so being from 2 to 20 
reales. 

All elementary instruction was given free to children whose parents were not able to pay for it, 
and instruction in Christian religion and sacred history was subjecfto the supervision of the parish 
priest, who was required to visit the schools once each week for this purpose. * * * 

As to the distribution of the primary schools throughout the municipalities, the law required every 
town of 500 souls to maintain at least one elementary school for boys, and another, although, per- 
haps, incomplete, for girls. Incomplete schools for the boys were only allowed in the smaller towns. 
In towns of 2,000 inhabitants two complete schools for boys and two for girls were required ; in towns 
of 4,000, three, and so on, the nimiber of schools increasing by one for each sex for every 2,000 inhabi- 
tants, including private schools, one- third of all schools, however, to be public. 

The superior schools were established in the capitals of vhe provinces, and one in each town of 
10,000 inhabitants, but the municipal authorities (council) could establish superior schools in towns 
of less population if thought advisable, provided it could be done without detriment to the main- 
tenance of the required number of elementary schools. 

The law further required the governor-general to provide infant schools (kindergartens) and night 
and Sunday schools, in which linear and ornamental drawing were to be taught, in the capitals of 
provinces and in towns of 10,000 inhabitants, and to promote the education of the deaf, dumb, and 
blind by providing at least one school for them in Habana, and a normal school for the education 
of teachers in the capital of each province. 

Next in the regular course of public education was "secondary instruction," given in the institutes 
(institutos), of which there was one in each province, maintained by provincial funds and under 
the immediate supervision of the provincial deputations, through which the appropriations were 
paid. 

Secondary instruction embraced a course of five years and comprised general studies or a special 
course of scientific studies. The course of general studies included a daily lesson in Spanish or Latin 
grammar, the elements of rhetoric and poetry, one lesson daily; outlines of geography, three lessons 



1642 EDUCATION EEPOET, 1899-1900. 

weekly; outlines of universal history, three lessons weekly; history of Spain, three lessons weekly; 
arithmetic and algebra, daily; geometry and plane trigonometry, daily; elements of physics and 
chemistry, daily; outlines of natural history, three lessons woekly; psychology, logic, and moral 
philosophy, daily; physiology and hygiene, three lessons weekly; and elements of agriculture every 
alternate day. For admission to the course it was necessary to pass an examination in the complete 
course of primarj' elementary instruction. 

The special studies of the institutes or "secondary instruction" were linear, topographic, orna- 
mental, and figure drawing; outlines of theoretical and practical agriculture; industrial mechanics 
and chemistry as applied to the arts; topography, measures of area, and construction of plans; com- 
mercial arithmetic and bookkeeping; accounts and correspondence, and commercial transactions; 
outlines of political economy, commercial and industrial legislation, physical geography and com- 
mercial statistics; English, German, and Italian languages, and shorthand. * * « 

On completing the course of general studies, pupils received the degree of A. B. and were eligible 
to the University of Habana. Those who had followed the scientific course were eligible to certificates 
as surveyors (when 20 years old), and mechanical or chemical experts, according to their proficiency 
in the special studies provided. 

A pupil could take the general and scientific studies simultaneously if desired, and receive the 
instruction in languages and drawing at home. 

Following the course in the institutes came the Univer.sity of Habana, whose curriculum embraced 
law, medicine and pharmacy, philosophy and belles-lettres, and the exact sciences. For the higher 
education of engineers of roads, canals, and ports, mining and civil engineers, the industrial arts, 
belles-lettres, and diplomacy, the special schools of Spain were open. 

The law also provided for a school of sculpture, painting, and engraving in Habana; one for the 
education of notaries, and, whenever thought advisable, an industrial college, a veterinary school, a 
commercial college, a nautical school, and one for master workmen, overseers, and surveyors. Of 
these special schools only the art school, the professional school, the normal school, and the school 
of arts and trades were carried on. In addition to the public schools the law authorized all Spaniards 
to establish private schools, the government reserving the right to inspect their moral and hygienic 
condition and to direct such remedies as might be necessary to correct existing defects. 

There were, as a result of this privilege, a large number of private primary elementary schools, and 
a number of colleges, which, as they conformed to certain provisions of the law, were incorporated 
with the provincial institutes for which they prepared their pupils. Some of these colleges were 
mo.st excellent in.stitutions, where boys could qualify for the university, besides being carefully 
trained in other ways. Such were the Jesuit College of Belen, established in Habana in 1853; the 
Colegios de Escuelas Pias, in Guanabacoa and Puerto Principe, and the Catholic Institute of Santiago, 
although, with the exception of the latter, they are not now able to confer the degree of A. B. In 
short, they are on the same footing as other colleges and merely prepare pupils for the institutes. 

Forty other colleges were in operation when the census was taken. * * * 

While the laws made ample provi-sion for the free education of the mass of children, the number 
of schools and their administration were so deficient, through failure fo provide even the funds voted 
in the municipal, provincial, and insular budgets, that only a small fraction of the children of school 
age were provided for. By the census it appears that only about one-sixth attended school during 
1899, and only two-thirds of these went to the public schools. 

The ten years' war was a serious interruption to the schools, and during the last war they were all 
closed by Captain-General Weyler, except in the provincial capitals and garrisoned towns occupied 
as military headquarters. Even many of these schools were slimly attended or abandoned by the 
teachers, who, as they received no pay, were unable to maintain themselves or their schools. 

In February, 1898, the secretary of public instruction of the autonomous government rescinded the 
decree of General Weyler and ordered the reestablishment of the schools, but they remained very 
much in the condition they then were until nearly a year after the American occupation. * * * 

While the law required the compulsory attendance of children between 9 and 13 years of age at 
either public or private schools, it was not enforced, nor could it be, as the number of schools was 
totally insufificient. Again, while provision was made for secondary and universit5' education, the 
fees for instruction and matriculation were so great that only the sons of parents or guardians able to 
pay ever passed beyond the elementary course of study, and many of those who qualified in the 
institutes were unable to enter the university because unable to pay for their diplomas. 

Although the teachers were supposed to be appointed after competitive examination, it was well 
understood that their selection was usually a personal or political question, to be decided without 
much reference to other qualifications. They were classified according to their salaries, and were 
also known as regular, temporary, or substitutes. As they were generally obliged to provide the 
schoolrooms, the schools v/ere usually held in their homes, very few municipalities owning school 
buildings. Of school furniture, such as desks, books, slates, blackboards, maps, etc., there werefref-^ 
quently none, and the pupils, without respect to race, blacks and whites mixed, sat on benches 
with no backs for five or six hours consecutively, the in.struction being usually given simultaneously 
to the classes, study and recitation being exceptional and impracticable. But a single teacher was 
allowed the elementary schools, no matter how many pupils, although the superior olementary 
sehools were sometimes provided with assistants. 



EDUCATIOI^ IN CUBA. 1643 

The schools for girls were separaterl from those for boys, and were invariably in charge of women. 
The schoolrooms were badly ventilated, with insufficient and foul privies, and no playgrounds. 
Physical culture was not taught. That the children learned as much as they did under such condi- 
tions was apparently due to tlicir precocity and docility, traits which appear to be common to them 
throughout the island. 

On December 6, 1899, the American military governor published an order reor- 
ganizing the elementary and secondary school sysTem of the Lsland. It provided 
that there should be a boarci of education in each municipality to take charge of the 
schools, with the mayor as president, who should appoint the other members; that 
there should be one public school for boys and one for girls in every tov.'n of 500 
inliabitants, and more as the population is larger. In smaller towns " iucomiilete " 
schools were provided. It made attendance compulsory under penalty of a fine of 
$5 to $25; provided for the payment of the teachers, for superintendence and insi^ec- 
tion of the schools, free text-books, and other details. The course of study Avas pre- 
scribed by the superintendent of schools. 

On March 1, 1900, there were 3,099 schools (or schoolrooms) in operation with 
3,500 teachers and 130,000 children enrolled. In 1899 there had been only 200 
schools with an attendance of 4,000. This enormous increase was said to be due to 
impressing upon the mayors of the municipalities the necessity of elementary schools, 
and assitring theni tiiat the United States Government would pay the salaries of the 
teachers. The expenditures up to the end of March, 1900, had been f!3,500,000, the 
school fund being taken from the customs receipts, and the estimate for 1900 was 
$4,000,000. 

The most comprehensive regulations regarding the isublic schools are the following, 
and the extracts taken show the organization of the entire school system of the island. 

Headquakters Division op Cuba, 

Habana, June 30, 1000. 
The military governor of Cuba, upon the recommendation of the secretary of public instruction, 
directs the publication of the following regulations for the public schools of the island of Cuba: 

COilMISSIONER OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Commissioner the chief execulirr officer. — There shall be a chief executive ofRcer for the public schools 
of the island, to be appointed by the military governor and to be known as the commissioner of 
public schools, and in the performance of his duties as such he shall be guided by this order, and by 
such rules and orders as may be promulgated hereafter by the military governor or the secretary of 
public instruction. 

Ditties of commissicmer. — It shall be the duty of the commissioner of public schools to see that all 
orders and instructions from the proper authority p&rtaining to the public schools of the island are 
rigidly and impartially enforced. He shall make annually, to the secretary of public instruction, a 
report of the public schools of the island, which shall contain an abstract of the reports herein 
required to be made to him, and such other information as he may deem valuable ; and he shall 
make such special reports as may be required by the military governor or secretary of public instruc- 
tion. It shall be his further duty to superintend the building of schoolhouses throughout the 
island, and direct the purchase and disposition of such supplies as the military governor may 
authorize. 

BOARD OF SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Composition of the board. — There shall be ar superintendent of the public schools of the island, to 
be appointed by the military governor upon the recommendation of the secretary of public instruc- 
tion and to be known as the island superintendent of public schools, who shall be assisted in each 
province in the performance of his duties by an assistant to be appointed in the same manner as the 
island superintendent, and to be known as the provincial superintendent of public schools ; the 
Lsland superintendent as president, with the provincial superintendents as members, shall constitute 
a board of superintendents for the public schools of the island. 

Duties of board and individual superintendents. — Each provincial superintendent is the assistant 
and agent of the commissioner of public schools in the general government and management of the 
public schools of the island. The board of superintendents shall fix upon and introduce proper 
methods of teaching in the public .schools of Cuba, and shall select text-books, and arrange the 
courses of studies for the different grades of public schools throughout the island ; and in all schools 
of the island which are of the same grade, the same text-books and the .same courses of study shall 
be used. 



1644 EDUCATION KEPORT, 1899-1900. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DISTRICTS. 

Classes of school dislr ids. —The island is hereby divided into school districts to be styled, respectively 
city districts of the first class, city districts of the second class, and municipal districts. 

City districts of the first class. — Each city of the island having a population of 30,000 or more by the 
last preceding census of the island shall constitute a city district of the first class. Under this para- 
graph the following cities are announced as forming city districts of the first class: Habana, Santi- 
ago, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, and Puerto«Principe. 

City districts of the second class. — Each city having a population of more than 10,000 and less than 
30,000 by the last preceding census of the island shall constitute a city district of the second class. 
Under this paragraph the following cities are announced as forming city districts of the second 
class: Cardenas, Manzauillo, Guanabacoa, Santa Clara, Sancti Spiritus, Regla, Trinidad, and Sagua 
la Grande. 

Mill) icijml districts.— 'Each organized municipality, exclusive of any of its territory included in a 
city district, shall constitute a school district, to be styled a municipal district. 

CITY DISTRICTS OF THE FIRST CLASS. 

Board of education. — The board of education in city districts of the first class shall consist of a 
school council and a school director. 

School council. — A legislative power and authority shall be vested in the school council, which shall 
consist of seven members to be elected by the qualified electors residing in such district, and no two 
members of the council shall be residents of the same ward. 

School council election and term. — The first election for such council shall be held on the same day as 
the annual municipal elections in 1901, at which election three members of the council shall be 
elected for a term of two years, and their successors shall be elected at the annual municipal election 
for 1903, and biennially thereafter, and four members of the council shall at such election in 1901 be 
elected for a term of one year, and their successors shall be elected at the annual municipal election 
of 1902 for a term of two years, and biennially thereafter, and all members of the council shall serve 
until their successors are elected and qualify. 

President and clerk. — The council shall organize annually by choosing one of their members presi- 
dent, also a clerk, who shall not be a member thereof, and who shall receive a salary to be fixed by 
the council which shall not exceed SI, .500 per year. 

Teachers and employees. — The council shall provide for the appointment of all necessary teachers 
and employees, and prescribe their duties and fix their compensation. 

School director; election and powers.— The executive power and authority shall be vested in the school 
director, and in the performance of his duties as chief executive officer he shall be guided by this 
order, and by such rules and orders as may be promulgated by proper authority, and by the resolu- 
tions of the council. He shall be elected by the qualified electors of the districts. 

He shall devote his entire time to the duties of his office, and shall receive an annual salary of 
82,000, payable monthly; and before entering upon the discharge of the duties of his office shall give 
bond, to be approved by the board, for the faithful performance thereof, in the sum of $5,000, which 
bond shall be deposited with the clerk within ten days from date of election and preserved by him. 
The director shall report to the council annually, or oftener, if required, as to all matters under his 
supervision; he shall attend all meetings of the council and may take part in its deliberations, subject 
to its rules, but shall not have the right to vote except in case of a tie. 

Superintendent of instruction. — The council shall appoint a superintendent of instruction, who shall 
remain in office during good behavior, and the council may at any time, for sufficient cause, remove 
him; but the order for such removal shall be in writing, specifying the cause therefor, and shall be 
entered upon the records of the council. 

Poicers and duties.— The superintendent of instruction shall have the sole power to appoint and 
discharge, with the approval of the council, all assistants and teachers authorized by the council to 
be employed, and shall report to the council, in writing, quarterly, and oftener if necessary, as to all 
matters under his supervision, and may be required by the council to attend any or all of its meet- 
ings; and except as otherwise provided in this order all employees of the board of education shall be 
appointed or employed bj' the school director. 

Meetings of the board of education, regular and special.— The board of education shall hold regular meet- 
ings once every two weeks, and may hold such special meetings as it may deem necessary. It may 
fill all vacancies that occur in the board until the next annual election, and may make such rules 
and regulations for its own government as it may deem neces.sary, but such rules and regulations 
must be consistent with this order. 

CITY DISTRICTS OF THE SECOND CLASS. 

Board of education. — In city districts of the second class the board of education shall consist of six 
members, who shall be judicious and competent persons with the qualifications of an elector therein, 
and shall be elected by ballot at the annual municipal election in 1901 by the qualified electors of 
the city. 

Elections.— Tho&e elected shall be divided, upon the fifteenth day thereafter, by lot, into three equal 
classes; the members of the first class shall serve for one year, the members of the second class for 



EDUCATION IN CUBA. 1645 

tv.-o years, and the luciubcrs of the third class for three years. All elections of members for the 
board of education thereafter shall be held at the regular municipal election annually, and all mem- 
bers shall serve until their successors are elected and qualified. 

Judges of election.— The election for members of the board of education in city districts of the second 
class shall be held by the same judges and clerks provided for the municipal election, and returns of 
such election, duly certified as in other cases, shall be made within five days to the clerk of the board 
of education of any such city. 

The board of education shall hold regular meetings once every two weeks, and may hold such 
special meetings as it may deem necessary. It may fill all vacancies that occur in the board until 
the next annual election, and may make such rules and regulations for its own government as it 
may deem necessary, but such rules and regulations must be consistent with this order. It shall 
organize annually by choosing one of its members president. 

Municipal board of education. — The board of education of each municipal district shall consist of the 
mayor of the municipality, who shall be president of the board, and one director elected for a term 
of three years from each subdistrict; provided, that if the number of subdistricts in any municipal dis- 
trict exceeds fifteen the board of education .shall consist, exclusive of the president, of those directors 
who have one and two years still to serve; and that if the number of subdistricts exceed twenty-four 
the board of education shall consist, exclusive of the president, of those directors who have but one 
year to serve. The director of each subdistrict is the representative of the inhabitants of that sub- 
district in educational matters, and if not a member of the board of education shall represent to the 
board in writing the wants of hi.s subdistrict. 

Election and quedification of directors. — There shall be elected by ballot as soon as possible after para- 
gi'aph following of this order has been complied with in each subdistrict, by the qualified electors 
thereof, one competent person, to be styled director. These directors shall meet at the oflftce of the 
mayor of the municipality, and shall be divided upon the third Saturday after such election by lot 
into three classes, as nearly equal as possible. The directors of the first class shall serve for the term 
of one year, the directors of the second class for two years, and the directors of the third class for 
three years. All elections of directors thereafter shall be held on the last Saturday of April annually, 
and all directors shall serve until their successors arc elected and qualify. 

REORGANIZATION OF DISTRICTS. 

Division into subdistricts.— The board of education of each municipal district provided for in order 
No. 220 shall at once divide its municipal district, exclusive of whatever territory may be comprised 
in a city district of the first or second cla.ss, into subdistricts. No subdistrict shall contain le.ss than 
60 resident scholars by enumeration, except in cases where, in the opinion of the board, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to reduce the number. The division shall be so made that the number of teachers 
shall not be Increased over that employed at the time this order is received. 

Number of schools in sid>district. — No subdistrict .shall be without at least one school, open to children 
of both sexes, or if not such a mixed school, then at least two schools, one for boys and one for girls. 
In rural subdistricts it is preferable to have but one mixed school to a subdistrict. In cities of either 
the first or second class subdistricts may have one or more schools for girls, and one or more for boys. 
Schools of- any subdistrict shall be in the .same building, unless this is absolutely impossible, in which 
case they shall be as near together as possible. 



Annual report of board of education.— The board of education of each district shall make a report to 
the provisional superintendent, on or before the last day of August of each year, containing a state- 
ment of the expenditures of the board, the number of schools sustained, the length of time such 
schools were sustained, the enrollment of pupils, the average monthly enrollment, and average daily 
attendance, the number of teachers employed and their salaries, the number of schoolhouses and 
schoolrooms, and such other items as the commissioner of public schools may require. 

PROVISIONS APPLYING TO ALL SCHOOL BOARDS. 

What property the boards have title to.— All property, real or personal, which has heretofore vested in 
and is now held by any board of education for the use of public or common schools in any district 
is hereby vested in the board of education provided for in this order, and having under this order 
jurisdiction and control of the schools in such district. 

Scliool property exempt from ta.vcdion.—AU property, real or personal, vested in any board of educa- 
tion shall be exempt from tax and from sale on execution or other writ or order in the nature of an 
execution. 

lllegcd use o/sc/woZ/ior^se.?.— Schoolrooms shall be secured in healthful localities, and shall be clean, 
•well ventilated, and well lighted, and all rooms, buildings, or parts of buildings rented or assigned 
for school use shall be used exclusively for school purposes, and no teacher, janitor, or other person 
shall dwell therein. 



1646 EDUCATION EEPORT, 1899-1900. 

Sufficient schools must be provided. —BSiCh board of education shall establish n. sufficient number of 
schools to provide for the free education of the youth of school age in the district under its control, 
at such places as will be most convenient for the attendance of the largest number of such youth, and 
shall continue each and every day school so established thirty-six weeks in each school year; and 
each municipal board of education shall establish at least one primary school in each subdistrict 
under its control, i 

Schools at childrcjt's homes and orphan asi/lums.— The board of any district in which a children's 
home or orphans' asylum is or may be established by law shall, when requested by the directors of 
such children's home or orphans' asylum, establish in such home or asylum a separate school, so as to 
afford to the children therein, as far as practicable, the advantages and pri\ileges of the common- 
school education. All schools so established in any such home or asylum shall be under the control 
and management of the directors of such institution, which directors shall, in the control and manage- 
ment of such schools, as far as practicable, be subject to the same laws that boards of education and 
other school officers are who have charge of the common schools of such district; and the teacher of 
any such school so established shall make all reports required by this order as any other teacher of 
the district and to the same officers. 

Eveninff schools. — In any district, or part thereof, parents or guardians of children of school age 
may petition the board of education to organize an evening school. The ijetition shall contain the 
names of not less than twenty-five youths of school age who will attend such school, and who, for 
reasons satisfactory to the board, are prevented from attending day school. Upon receiving such 
petition the board of education shall provide a suitable room for the evening school and employ a 
competent person, who holds a regularly issued tocher" ,s certificate, to teach it. Such board may 
discontinue any such evening school when the average evening attendance for any month falls 
below twelve. 

Who may be admitted to public schools. — Schools of each district shall be free to all unmarried youth 
between 6 and 18 years of age who are children, wards, or apprentices of actual residents of the dis- 
trict, including children of proper «ge who are or may bo inmates of a children's home or orphans' 
asylum located in any such school district, provided that all unmarried youth of school age living 
apart from their parents or guardians and who work to support themselves by their own labor shall 
be entitled to attend school free in the district in which they are employed. The several boards 
shall make such assignment of the unmarried youth of their respective districts to the schools estab- 
lished by them as will in their opinion best promote the interests of education in their district. 

Suspens^ion and e.cpulsion of pupils. — No pupil shall be suspended from school by a superintendent or 
teacher except for such time as may be necessary to convene the board of education, and no pupil 
shall be expelled except by a vote of two-thirds of such board, and not until the parent or guardian 
of the offending pupil has been notified of the proposed expulsion and permitted to be heard against 
the same, and no pupil shall be suspended or expelled from any school beyond the current term 
thereof. 

Boards to control school and appoint officers. — Each board of education shall have the management 
and control of the public schools of the district, except as otherwise provided for boards of educa- 
tion in city districts, with full power to appoint principals, teachers, janitors, and other employees, 
and fix their salaries or pay, provided such salaries each month do not exceed the following: In 
Habana, S65; in the capitals of provinces and in Cardenas and Cienfuegos, S50; in all other munici- 
palities, $40, except for all teachers in schools with an average attendance of less than 30 pupils, in 
which case the salary shall not exceed $30; and any person serving as a regular teacher of a school 
and also having the supervision of not less than two other schools shall be rated as a principal on 
the rolls and receive the additional sum of $10 per month. Such salaries or pay maj be increased, 
but .shall not be diminished dviring the term for which the appointment is made; but no person shall 
be appointed for a longer time than one year, and the board of education may dismiss any ajipointee 
for inefficiency, neglect of duty, immorality, or improper conduct. Women only shall be employed 
in schools for girls; either women or men may be employed in schools for boys. For similar services 
women and men shall at all times receive equal pay. 

ENU.MERATIOX. 

Yearly enumeration of school youth. — There shall be taken in each district annually during the two 
weeks ending on the fourth Saturday of March an enumeration of all unmarried youths, denoting 
sex, between 6 and 18 years of age, resident within the district and not temporarily there, designat- 
ing also the number between 6 and 8 years of age; the number between 8 and 14 years of age, the 
number between 14 and 16 years of age, and the number between 16 and 18 years of age. 



1 Boards of education may, in their discretion, permit boys and girls of school age to attend the 
same .school; and it is hoped that, at least with young children, this plan will prevail; as it will tend 
to develop that high respect betAveen the sexes which is the basis of true womanhood and manhood. 
In small towns and in the country it may often be the only means of establishing sufficient schools. 



EDUCATION IN CUBA. 1647 

ATTENDANCE. 

Time of attendance. — Every parent, guardian, or other person having eliarge of any child between 
the ages of 6 and 14 years, shall send such child to a public, private, or parochial school not less than 
twenty weeks, at least ten weeks of which, commencing with the first four \veeks of the school year, 
shall be consecutive, occasional daily absence for reasonable excuse excepted. 

Excusalfrom such attendance. — Unless the child is excused from such attendance by the president of 
the board of education in municipal districts, or city districts of the second class, and the superin- 
tendent of instruction in city districts of the first class, upon a satisfactory showing either that the 
bodily or mental condition of tli^child does not permit of its attending school, or that the child is 
being instructed at home by a person qualified, in the opinion of the clerk of the board of education, 
to teach writing, spelling, reading, geography, and arithmetic. 

Employment of children under U years of age.— 'So child under the age of 14 years shall be employed 
by any person, company, or corporation during the school term, and while the public schools are in 
session, unless the parent, guardian, or person in charge of such child shall have fully complied with 
the requirements of the preceding paragraph. Every person, company, or corporation shall require 
proof of such compliance before employing, any such minor, and shall make and keep a written 
record of the proof given, and shall, upon the request of the truant officer hereinafter provided for, 
permit him to examine such record. Any person, company, or corporation employing any child 
contniry to the provisions of this paragraph shall be fined not less than S25 nor more than ^50. 

When child is exempt. — WheJi any truant officer is satisfied that any child compelled to attend school 
by the provisions preceding is unable to attend school because absolutely required to work, at home 
or elsewhere, in order to support itself or help support or care for others legally entitled to its support 
who are unable to support or care for themselves, the truant officer shall report the case to the board 
of education, who may exempt such child from the provisions ijreceding. 

Duty of commissioner of public schools. — It shall be the duty of the commissioner of public schools 
from time to time, whenever deemed advisable, to formulate and forward to boards of education 
throughout the island regulations and suggestions for the instruction and guidance of all persons 
charged with the enforcement of the preceding six paragraphs or any of their provisions. 

TEACHERS' INSTITUTE,. 

Organization hy hoard ff superintendents.— It shall be the duty of the board of superintendents to 
organize in each province at least one teachers' institute, and more than one if, in the opinion of the 
board of superintendents, one will not accommodate all the teachers of the province. 

jS'nmber and salaries of instriictors and lecturers. — The board of superintendents shall determine upon, 
the number and salaries of instructors and lecturers of any institute and the length of each session of 
the institute, provided that no session shall continue less than four school weeks. 

Attendance of teachers necessary to collect vacation salaries. — Each teacher shall attend at least one 
complete session of the institute in order to obtain his salary during the vacation period. 

Institute fund.— As a condition of attending the institute each teacher shall deposit with an indi- 
vidual, to be designated by the board of superintendents, the amount of 15, which shall form the 
institute fund. This fund shall be used to cover the necessary expenses of the institute, and shall 
bo expended and accounted for as directed in order from time to time. If the expense of the insti- 
tute exceed in amount the institute fund, the unpaid balance shall be paid from the Lsland revenues. 
If the institute fund for any year exceeds the expenses of the institute for that year, such excess 
shall go to form a sinking fund for the support of the institute. 

Organization ofinsfitute.—ThQ board of superintendents shall, at their regular meeting in October, 
1900, decide upon a plan of organization of the teachers' institutes of the island for the school years 
of 1900-1901 and submit the same- to the secretary of public instruction and the military governor for 
approval as soon thereafter as possible. 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS. 

Plans for examinations of teachers.— The board of superintendents shall, at their regular meeting in 
October, 1900, decide upon a plan for the examination of the teachers of the island as to their qualifi- 
cation to teach, and shall present the same in writing to the military governor, through the secretary 
of public instruction, as soon thereafter as possible for his approval. 

Certificate a requisite to employment of tcacha:— After the approval and publication of the plan men- 
tioned in the preceding paragraph, no person shall be employed as teacher in a common school who 
has not obtained from a board of examiners having competent jurisdiction a certificate of good moral 
character and that he or she is qualified to teach such branches of study as the board of superintend- 
ents may decide upon and possesses adequate knowledge of the theory and practice of teaching. 

All salaries and fines mentioned in this order shall be payable in United States currency or its 
equivalent. 

J. B. HiCKEY, Assistant Adjutant-General. 



1648 



EDUCATION REPORT, 1899-1900. 



The following statistics of higher and secondary instntction are supplied by the 
courtesy of the Secretary of Public Instruction of Cuba. 

THE rXIVEKSITY. 

Attendance by faculties and schools for the academic year 1900-1901. 

Faculty of letters and sciences: 

School of letters and philosophy 2 

School of pedagogy 58 

School of sciences 8 

School of engineering 73 

School of agronomy 5 

Attending two or more schools in the same year 13 

Total 159 

Faculty of medicine and pharmacy: 

School of medicine 230 

School of pharmacy 74 

School of dental surgery 8 

School of midwifery 4 

School of nurses 22 

Total /. 338 

Faculty of law: 

School of civil law 84 

School of public law 6 

School of notaries 1 

Attending two or more schools in the same year 74 

Total 105 

Average attendance at the private course in anthropology '. 25 



SECOXDARY INSTRUCTION. 

Attendance at the institutes of the island and annexed scJtools. 





Secondary instruction. 


Schools 
of sur- 
veying. 


School 
of com- 
merce. 


School 
of cos- 
mog- 
raphy. 


Acade- 
my of 
stenog- 
raphy 
and" 
type- 
writ- 
ing. 




Institutes. 


Prepar- 
atory 
studies. 


Gen- 
eral 
studies. 


Total. 


Total. 


Habana 


18 

19 

9 

36 
12 
76 


143 
40 
64 
56 
42 
86 


161 
59 
73 
92 
54 

162 




31 


2 


100 


294 




59 


Matanzas 


3 








76 


Santa Clara 








92 




24 
11 








78 


Santiago de Cuba 








173 












Total 


170 


431 


601 


38 


31 




100 


772 







Students in the colleges incorporated in the institutes of the i.sland: 

Institute of Habana 170 

Institute of Santa Clara 27 

Institute of Santiago de Cuba 20 

Total 217 

Students in the school of painting and sculpture: 
Elementary studies — 

Males 214 

Females 208 

422 

Advanced studies — 

Males 37 

Females 31 

68 

Total 490 



EDUCATION IN CUBA. 



1649 



Students in the school of arts and trades: 

Day school 246 

Night school 76 

Total 322 

Attendance at the summer normal sclwols. 



Province. 


Male 
teachers. 


Female 
teachers. 


Others 
attending 
the course. 


Total. 




37 
229 
92 
81 
27 
59 


55 
376 
162 
149 

77 
85 


40 
507 
139 


132 


Habana 


1 11'^ 




393 




230 


Puerto Principe 




104 




70 


214 






Total 


525 


904 


756 


2 185 







There were also 525 persons attending 19 summer schools of pedagogy in the various 
cities in the different provinces of the island. 

From the census of Cuba, taken under the direction of Gen. J. P. Sanger, U. S. A., 
the following instructive table relating to education is taken: 



Per cent. 



Unable to read 

Able to read, but unable to write 

Able to write, but without superior education. 

With higher education 

Unknown 

Total 



1,004,884 

33, 003 

514, 340 

19, 158 

1, 412 



63.9 
2.1 

32.7 

1.2 

.1 



1, 572, 797 



100.0 



The conclusion drawn from the census figures is that literacy is greater in the 
cities than in the rural districts, rather more than one-third of the total population 
of Cuba being aljle to read, while in Habana the proportion was nearly two-thirds 
and in thirteen other cities it averaged nearly three-fifths, while in rural Cuba it was 
rio | , quitp one- fourth. 
f""^ Two organizations for educating young Cubans which have been effected by 
' benevolent persons in the United States deserve mention. One is the Cuban Edu- 
cational Association, the object of which is to secure for Cuban boys an education in 
the various colleges in the United States on condition that they return to Cuba, finish 
their special education, if they wish, at the University of Habana, and make their 
home in Cuba. The idea is that these students will become familiar with American 
ideas and customs in this way. In May, 1899, there were forty Cuban young men 
matriculated in colleges in the United States, and in May, 1900, it was said, gome 
1,500 Cuban and Porto Rican youths were students in the colleges- and advanced 
scientific and technical schools of this country. All are under engagement to return 
to their homes on completing their studies. Their tuition is free. Some are supported 
by their relatives, and all are encouraged to contribute to their own self-support. 
The association, through its secretary, keeps watch over all these students, and is 
kept informed of the progress and conduct of each. The officers of the association 
are Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, president; Gilbert K. Harroun, treasurer of Union 
College, secretary and treasurer, and Messrs. Alexander E. Orr, Nicholas Murray 
Butler, Albert Shaw, and William H. Baldwin, are mentioned as active workers, 
with Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood, Gen. Calixto Garcia, Hon. Theodore Roosevelt, and 
Ferdinand W. Peck among the directors. 

The other benevolent organization referred to is the Cuban Orphan Society, with 
Francis V. Green, piesident, Robert Bacon, treasurer, and William B. Buck, secre- 
ED 1900— VOL II 24 



1650 EDUCATION REPORT, 1899-1900. 

tary. The vice-presidents are Me?srs. William T. Blodgett, Charles W. Gould, 
and Cornelius N. Bliss. The office is at No. 11 Broadway (room 558), New York 
City. The scope of the work of the Cuban Orphan Society is confined to the care 
and education of oi-phan and destitute children in Cuba, and the trustees have 
adhered very rigidly to this limitation of their work. The policy of the society is 
not to give food and shelter to large numbers, as the insular government has declared 
its intention of providing in this way for all orphan and destitute children in the 
island. The society lays stress upon its educational work for young children pref- 
erably, and particularly industrial training, which v»'ill enable the orphan and desti- 
tute children to earn their own livelihood and thus become self-supporting members 
of the communit3^ 



PORTO RICX). 



The former condition of the poorer people of Porto Rico was unfavorable to popu- 
lar education. Poverty bred apathy, and the antecedents of the greater part of the 
people, from an intellectual standpoint, were unfortunate. 

Over 83 per cent of the population, according to the report of General P/avis, could 
not read or write in 1899. The misfortunes, too, of flood and famine, which have 
occurred since the American occupation, have in themselves been such a check to 
enterprise of any kind as to forbid expectation of progi-ess in education. Neverthe- 
less, a decided change has taken place. With a conviction that the common school 
is a safeguard of the people, the military governor, General Henry, recommended 
the reorganization of the school system of the island, the need of w'hich was recog- 
nized by representative Porto Ricans, who had already drawn up resolutions requir- 
ing the establishment of kindergartens and normal schools, and asking other changes 
after the pattern of schools in the United States. Gen. John Eaton, formerly United 
States Commissioner of Education, was appointed by Seiaor Salvador Carbonell, the 
secretary of the interior, on December 31, 1898, to take charge of the work of reor- 
ganization, and he continued in office as chief of the bureau of education of Porto 
Rico until May, 1900. The report of General Eaton upon education in the island 
forms Chapter IV of the present Report. It affords a complete account of the condi- 
tion of education in the island up to the time that General Eaton left. He was suc- 
ceeded in his duties by Dr. Victor S. Clark, who presented a very full report on 
education in Porto Rico to Gen. George W. Davis, military commander. 

Dr. Clark was succeeded by Maj. George G. Goff, who in turn v/as followed by 
Prof. Martin G. Brumbaugh, of the University of Pennsylvania, who was appointed 
commissioner of education for Porto Rico (under the act of Congress of April 12, 1900) 
in August, 1900. 

From the report on education in Porto Rico, by Dr. Victor S. Clark, to General 
Davis, military commander, made in February, 1900, the following particulars are 
taken: The Americans found a collegiate institute, with 16 professors and assistants 
and- an attendance of 60, whicl\was founded in 1880; a normal school for girls, with 
8 teachers and 60 pupils, and an industrial school. The curriculum of the institute 
included Latin, Spanish, geography, history, arithmetic, algebra, rhetoric, geometry, 
psychology, logic and ethics, physics, chemistry, natural history, and agriculture. 
The institute granted the degree of B. A. The professors were required to be gradu- 
ates of an university. The industrial school was equipped for instruction in the 
trades of tj'pesetting, carpentering, bookbinding, tailoring, shoemaking, masonry, 
model making, sculpture, lithography, the manufacture of tobacco, and in chemical 
industries. There was a liranch for women, where drawing was taught. The total 
attendance at this school for 1897 and 1898 was 312. Tuition was free. The methods 
of instruction in the institute and normal school, being judged defecvtive by a com- 



EDUCATION IN PORTO EICO. H)51 

niittee appointed to iiaA-estigate them both, were suspemled at the eloefe of the 
scholastic year, in June, 1899. 

The salaries of the professors, secretaries, clerks, janitor, messenger, and servant 
of the institute amounted to $2(5,780 a year, and of the normal school to $8,600. The 
institute had no building. 

The Americans foujul the common-school sj^stem in an unsatisfactorj^ condition. 
' There were no schoolhouses which had been especially built for the purpose, and 
suitable school furniture and material were wanting, while the school was often kept 
in the dwelling of the teaclier, M'ho frequently carried on some otlier occupation 
while performing his function of teacher. This condition was recognized and 
deplored by the Spanish inspectors in 1880, who also, like the American supervisors, 
reported upon the illiteracy of the population, the incompetence of the teachers, 
their ignorance of methods, the want of school accommodations, furniture, text-books, 
maps, blacTchoards, etc;. The cause of this state of things is to be found in the polit- 
ical and social condition of the island, and is explained in the interesting history of 
education in Porto Ri(X3 und-er the Spanish rule, by Sefior Enrique C. Hernandez, 
secretary of the insular board oi education, contained in Dr. Clark's report. Fi'om 
that history we see that the Porto Ricans always had more or less education for the 
wealth}' class, but that public primary education had been neglected (as it was in 
the moth-er country and elsewhere in Europe) until 1820, notwithstanding laudable 
efforts of municipalities and individuals to establish schools. The conditions of the 
island practically forbade schools. The wealthy young men attended the Latin, 
philosophy, and theology classes in the cloisters and private schools, and went to 
the University of Santo Domingo to complete their studies, or, as an old report runs, 
the parents "found themselves impelled by necessity or unhappy fate to send them 
to North America to be educated as well as possible, the remedy being worse than 
the disease itself which they were trying to" avoid." Under the Jesuits a,nd also 
under the auspices of the economic society of the island secondary schools were 
founded and lasted a few years, as well as private schools and academies for both 
l)oys and girls. In 1820 primary education M'as made free and compulsory by the 
Spanish law, but the law was practically a dead letter, and it was not until 1865, 
when General J.Iesina, who had public education really at heart, came to the island 
as governor, that a serious move was made. JBy the organic decree of that year 
primary instruction was divided into elementary and superior (as in Spain), and a 
normal school was also decreed, besides infant schools and schools for adults. The 
decree, however, on account of opposition of the ayuntamientos, did not take effect 
until 1874, after the establishment of a republic in Spain. In June, 1867, there were 
296 schools, with 9,472 pupils, and their cost was $90,833, and in June, 1869, there 
were 313 schools, with 8,129 pupils, and the expenditure was $88,136. After the 
restoration of tlie Bourbons the Porto Rican teachers were replaced by Spaniards, 
who were often appointed more ior political reasons than merit. -General Despujol 
came to Porto Rico as governor in 1876 and devoted his main attejition to reorgan- 
izing instruction. The island then had 731,'645 inhabitants; there were 324 schools, 
with an attendance of 11,097 and an expenditure of $129,456, an increase of only 33 
schools in eleven years. General Despujol anticipated tlie Americans in ascertaining, 
by means of inspectors, the actual condition of the schools, and their reports, as 
stated before, were practically identical with those of the Americans twenty years 
later. They show a kuowl-edge of pedagogical reciuirements. General Despujol 
published the organic decree which bears his name in October of 1880, in which he 
prescril)ed the courses of study, fixed salaries, established rural schools, and 
endeavored to raise the cliaracter and efficiency of the school system in many ways, 
but })olitical conditions frustrated his plans, so that the condition of the schools 
found by the Americans in 1898 was much the same as that which existed in 1880. 



1652 EDUCATION KEPORT, 1899-1900. 

On June 30, 1898, three months before the Americans took possession of the 
island, the school situation was as follows: 

Public schools for boys 380 

Public schools for girls 148 

Public schools for adults (in San Juan ) 1 

Private schools 26 

Attendance. 

Enrollment in public schools 25, 644 

Attendance in public schools 18, 243 

Attendance in private schools 980 

Expenditures. 

Pesos. 

Salaries of public-school teachers 234, 912. 00 

Maintenance: 

Rent for buildings 54, 386. 00 

School books 10, 922. 00 

Industrial instruction 4, 180. 00 

Given in prizes 3, 622. 75 

Subsidy granted by Government to private schools: 

Salaries 1, 620. 00 

Supplies 168. 00 

Total expended on education 309, 810. 75 

The Civil Institute of Secondary Instruction was finally established in 1883 with 
1,045 students, including those in private schools allied Avith the institute and home 
students. The course has already been given. From 1883 to 1898 4,783 students 
were enrolled in this institute. At the same time a professional school was estab- 
lished for the preparation of surveyors, builders, commercial and industrial agents, 
and engineers, besides a trade school, where workmen could acquire a broader and 
more scientific knowledge of their trades. Both these institutions were shortlived 
for want of practical instruction, and a new trade or industrial school was started in 
1896 with workshops, etc., which was successful. There are a number of private 
colleges and academies in Porto Kico. Among the private and charitable societies 
should be particularly mentioned La Sociedad Protectora de la Inteligencia, which, 
had for its object to send poor young men who had distinguished themselves in the 
examinations, to the United States or Spain to complete their studies. 

Another educational institution was the Ensefianza Popular for the instruction of 
workmen. The subjects taught were reading and writing, history of Spain, isolitical 
economy, "popular" law, talks upon the works of Samuel Smiles, geography of Porto 
Rico, and practical ethics. More than one hundred workmen attended these popu- 
lar courses. 

Such being the condition when the Americans took hold, an order was issued on 
May 1, 1899, by the military governor, Gen. Guy V. Henry, on recommendation of 
Gen. John Eaton, director of public instruction, which reorganized the system of 
education. An insular board gf education, consisting of five members, was created 
July 8, 1899, which was to act in an advisory or superintending capacity. The 
president of this board was the insular superintendent of education. By the act of 
Congress of April 12, 1900, the charge of public instruction was placed with a com- 
missioner of education, who is to make such reports as may be required by the United 
States Commissioner of Education. The order divided the island into school dis- 
tricts, something like those in the United States, provided English supervisorships, 
prescribed the manner of electing local school boards, established fines for nonat- 
tendance to duty on the part of the boards, and provided for district school taxes and 
the issuance of district bonds. The municipalities were required to provide build- 
ings or quarters for the schools, the schools were graded, the courses of study pre- 
scribed, and the qualifications of the teachers were defined and their salaries fixed, 



EDUCATION IN PORTO RICO. 



1653 



free text-books were provided for, and high schools, a normal school, and professional 
schools were organized. From a table in Dr. Clark's report it appears that at the 
close of the school year, June, 1899, there were 212 town schools, 313 comitry dis- 
tricts with schools and 426 without. In a population of 857,660 there were 152,961 
boys and 144,851 girls of school age, of whom only 19,804 boys and 9,368 girls were 
enrolled in the schools, a total of 29,172, while the attendance was 21,873, leaving 
268,630 children without school facilities. There were 582 teachers in 1898-99, 74 of 
whom were Americans. The salaries ranged from $30 to $75 per month. The 
municipal expenditure for schools in 1898-99 was $203,372.99, and the total expendi- 
ture $279,216. The appropriation for 1899-1900 was $330,050. In the first term, 
1899-1900, the enrollment was 15,440 boys, 8,952 girls; total, 24,392. Average daily 
attendance, 20,103. Population, 957,779. The board of education offered an annual 
appropriation of $20,000 for any town in the island which would provide a like 
amount for site and buildings for an industrial and normal school. This offer was 
accepted by the town of Fajardo, and a secondary school, like the Atlanta Univer- 
sity, the Hampton University, and the Carlisle Indian School, with a normal depart- 
ment and a department of scientific horticulture and agriculture, was projected for 
that nmnicipality. A model and training school was opened in San Juan in Septem- 
ber, 1899, v/ith a high-school department. All the instruction in this school, which 
embraces courses from the kindergarten through the college preparatory, is to be 
given in English, and the text-books are in English. The teachers are American. 
The high school has a course of four years, and fits pupils for colleges and universities 
in the United States. In all the departments of this institution, from kindergarten 
through the high school or preparatory course, there were enrolled 169 boys and 69 
girls; a total of 238. 

The present commissioner of education is Martin G. Brumbaugh, formerly a pro- 
fessor of pedagogics at the University of Pennsylvania. From information furnished 
by his report to the Secretary of the Interior, October 15, 1900, it appears that in 
1900 there are 800 schools to be maintained against 616 the previous year, providing 
for 9,000 additional pupils. There are now 100 American teachers compared with 67 
last year. Fifty per cent of the schools, 409 in actual number, are rural schools. 

The normal department of the Fajardo School, the only department for which 
accommodations were prepared, opened October 1, 1900. There are no public-school 
buildings in Porto Rico, the schools being conducted in rented houses or rooms, most 
of them. Professor Brumbaugh states, being unsuited for the purpose, and the sani- 
tary conditions are bad. The only building on the island erected for school purposes 
was built under the American direction, and was destroyed by fire July 1, 1900, 
together with all the records, books, and supplies of the department of education 
which had been removed thither. The construction of the building has been criti- 
cised. In 1899 $33,000 was expended for books; in 1900 the estimate for supplies is 
$20,000. Every child in the schools now has free books and supplies without 
expense to the local boards. 

Under the Spanish control 3 per cent of the teachers' salaries was set aside as a 
pension fund, which was paid quarterly to aged and indigent teachers, and has been 
administered by the Americans since they took control. No pension fund is now 
collected, and the commissioner hopes that some provision will be made to renew it. 
A pedagogical library and museum is being collected. There are 300 volumes 
already on hand which, tmder the department, will increase to 500 by purchase. A 
library of 5,000 volumes of standard Spanish and American literature which was 
found in the rooms of a building in San Juan was reconverted into a public library. 
The department has made arrangements with thirty leading institutions of the 
United States to give free instruction to Porto Rican pupils. There are now (1900) 
800 teachers and 38,000 pupils in the public schools, and about 300,000 children of 
school age for whom there are no school facilities. Many are refused admission for 



1654 EDUCATION EEPOKT, 1899-1900. 

want of accommodation. The expenditures from May to September, 1900, v>-ere 
191,057.32. 

From the course of study for the San Juan School, pubHshed in Profesnor Brum- 
baugh's reix)rt, it will be seen that tlie effort is being made to introduce the most 
approved method of instruction in use in the Uniteti States. 

From the census of Porto Rico for 1899, taken under the direction of Lieut. Col. 
J. P. Sanger, U. S. A., inspector-general, it appears that .of the white school popula- 
tion, 5 to 17 years of age, 190,961 in number, 17,516, or 8.8 per cent, attende<l school, 
and of the black school population of the same age limits, 125,432 in number, 8,282, 
or 6.6 per cent, attended school in 1899. The total school poi)ulation was 322,393; the 
attendance was 25,798, or 8 per cent. The city school population was 16,790, with 
an attendance of 3,778, or 22.5 per cent, while the rural school population was 305,603, 
with an attendance of 22,020, or 7.2 per cent. 

It also appears from the same report that in the three cities of Mayaguez, Ponce, 
and San Juan, about half the population could read, while in the rest of the island 
the proportion was 13.8 ])er cent. It appears worthy of comment that the depart- 
ments containing a very high proportion of colored people have also a large propor- 
tion of literates, while those having the largest proportion of whites were those in 
which illiteracy was most common. It appears that the size of the urban population 
is of greater influence in this respect than the color of the population. Of the entire 
population 22.7 per cent of those over 1*0 years of age could read. The cities and 
coast regions were better in this respect than the interior of the island. Of the total 
whites 27.1 per cent could read, and of the total colored 15.6 per cent. 

The percentage of pupils to population is given as 3 per cent for whites, 4 per cent 
for negroes, and 2.2 per cent for mulattoes. The proportion of colored is remarkable. 

From the new school law of Porto Rico the following extracts have been taken 
with a view to illustrate the organization of the school system and the method of 
appointing teachers and the salaries of the latter. 

Besides the school law two other acts were passed by the Porto Rican legislature, 
providing for the education of Porto Rican young men and v/omen in the United 
States, at Hampton Institute, Virginia, and the Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 

GENERAL PROVISION'S. 

Sec. 1. That there shall be established and maintained a system of free public schools in Porto 
Rico, under the direction and supervision of the commissioner of education, for the purpose of 
providing a liberal education for the children of school age in Porto Rico, for the establishment of 
higher institutions of learning, including colleges, universities, normal, industrial, mechanical, 
agricultural, and high .schools, together with such other educational agencies as the eommissioner of 
education may from time to time establish and direct. 

ELECTION OF SCHOOL DIRECTORS. 

Sec. 2. The qualified voters of each school district shall elect at the regular municipal election 
next succeeding the passage of this act three of their number as directors of the public schools of the 
district, who shall serve without compensation and whose election shall be certified in the same 
manner as that of other officers elected at the same time. These three officers shall be known as the 
school board. They shall proceed by lot to determine their tenure; one shall serve for three years, 
one for two years, and one for one year, and at each succeeding annual election one director shall 
be elected as above provided to serve for three years; prG^ided that from and after the p.issage of 
this act the present school trustees shall serve until the school boards herein provided shall have been 
duly elected and organized. 

1)CTIEB OF SCHOOL BOAEDS. 

Sec. 4. The school boards shall have charge of all school buildings in their respective districts. 
They shall have power to erect, repair, remodel, and improve school property, rent buildings for 
school purposes, provide- suitable furniture and equipment for the same, employ janitors for school 
buildings, pay house rent for teachers, erect and keep in good order suitable outbuildings, and in 
general shall perform such duties as the commissioner of education and the law may require. 



EDUCATION IN PORTO RICO. 1055 



SCHOOL FUNDS. 

Sec. 5. For the performance of their duties it is hereby ordered that not less than 10 per cent and 
not more than 20 per cent of all taxes collected and funds received from the insular treasury by any 
municipality shalUae set aside, as collected, and designated as school funds. The money or moneys 
thus set aside shalfte kept as a separate fund, and shall be apportioned by the ayuntamicnto among 
the respective school boards situated in said municipality, said apportionment to be based upon the 
number-of schools actually in operation in the respective school districts; said separate funds shall 
be disbursed by the treasurer of the school district only upon the written authorization of the officers 
of the respective school boards in said municipality. 

CLASSIFICATION AND DISMISSAL OF TEACHERS. 

Sec. 14. The .teachers of Porto Rico shall be designated as rural teachers, graded teachers, teachers 
of English, and principal teachers. They shall all be persons of good moral character, and possessed 
of the attainments required by law. They may be dismi.ssed from, office for cruelty, negligence, 
immorality, or incompetency, upon investigating proceedings, instituted by the commissioner of 
education, in which investigation the school board and the teacher shall be heard. Such dismissal 
shall be made by the commissioner of education, who may, if he so decide, suspend a teacher for the 
same reasons. 

SALAKIES OF TEACHERS. 

Sec 15. The salaries of all teachers shall be fixed by the commissioner of education, provided that 
teachers performing similar service shall receive the same salary, and provided further that the 
salary of any teacher may be increased by the local school board above the sum set by the commis- 
sioner of education; in which case such increase shall be subject to the approval of the commissioner 
of education and shall be paid from the school funds herein provided, and not from the department 
of education. 

RURAL TEACHERS. 

Sec. 10. A rural teacher shall receive not less than S30 per school month for each month of actual 
service. Rural teachers shall pass an examination for a certificate to teach in the rural schools of 
Porto Rico in the following studies: English language, Spanish language, arithmetic, geography, 
history of the United States and of Porto Rico, and methods of teaching. 

GRADED TEACHERS. 

Sec. 17. A graded teacher shall receive not less than $iO per school month for each month of actual 
teaching. Candidates for graded certificates shall pass an examination for a certificate to teach in 
the graded schools of Porto Rico in the following studies: English language, Spanish language, arith- 
metic, geography, history of the United States and of Porto Rico, and methods of teaching. 

TEACHERS OF ENGLISH. 

Sec. 18. Teachers of English shall receive not less than $40 per school month for each month of 
actual service. Teachers of English shall be graduates of a first-class high school, normal school, 
college, or university, or a teacher of extended experience holding a high-grade certificate from some 
State of the United States, or they shall pass an examination in the English language, including 
writing, spelling, reading and grammar, arithmetic, geography, history of the United States, physi- 
ology, and methods of teaching. In every village and city maintaining a graded system of schools 
there shall be at least one teacher of English, and as many more as the commissioner of education 
may appoint. All teachers of English shall be selected and appointed by the commissioner of edu- 
ctition, and shall perform the duties he may assign to them; but in all other respects they shall be 
subject to the same conditions and regulations governing graded teachers. 

PRINCIPALS OF GRADED SCHOOLS. 

Sec 19. Principals of graded schools shall receive not less than $60 per school month for each month 
of actual service. Principals shall be graduates of an accredited normal school, college, or university, 
or they shall pass an examination for a certificate to teach in the public schools of Porto Rico in the 
following studies: All the studies required for a graded certificate, and in addition thereto algebra, 
geometry, physiology, and such additional studies as the commissioner of education may require; 
provided, that no additional study shall be required without giving at least six months' notice of 
such additional studies. The principal of a graded system of schools shall perform such duties as 
the commissioner of education may specify. 

SELECTION OF TEACHERS. 

Sec. 20. Teachers other than teachers of English shall be selected for the schools of Porto Rico in 
the following manner: The school board by a majority vote shall, on or before July 1 of each and 
every year, certify to the commissioner of education the list of teachers whom they desire to elect 



1(356 EDUCATION EEPORT, 1899-1900. 

for the next ensuing year. The commissioner of education shall return this list within thirty days, 
with his approval or disapproval of each teacher so nominated, and the school board shall then pro- 
ceed to elect for the schools of their respective districts, according to law, from the approved list 
received from the commissioner of education, the teachers for the next ensuing school year. Vacan 
cies shall be filled in the same manner. No applicant for a school shall be cerSlfied to the commis- 
sioner of education by any school board unless said applicant possesses a legal certificate bearing thc- 
signature of the commissioner of education and the seal of the department of education. 

HIGHER EDUCATION. 

Sec. 21. All high institutions of learning established or to be established in Porto Rico shall be such 
and shall be so organized and conducted as the commissioner of education may from time to time 
determine, and he shall have full power to make effective this provision; provided, that in no case 
shall the commissioner of education in the execution of this provision expend any sum in excess of 
that firovided for education in Porto Rico. 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Sec. 23. The commissioner of education being required by act of Congress of April 12, 1900, to 
supervise education in Porto Rico, he shall, to comply with .said act, appoint from time to time 
supervisors or superintendents of schools, who shall be subject to the commissioner in all respects; 
he shall prepare and promulgate all courses of study, conduct all examinations, prepare and issue 
all licenses or certificates to teachers, fix the salaries of teachers, select and purchase all school 
books, supplies, and equipments necessary for the proper conduct of education, approve of all plans 
for public school buildings to be •erected in Porto Rico, require and collect such statistics and reports 
from all school boards, supervisors or superintendents, and teachers as he may require, and formulate 
such rules and regulations as he may from time to time find necessary for the effective administration 
of his office. 

TREATMENT OF PUPILS. 

Sec. 25. Teachers in the public schools of Porto Rico shall at all times treat their pupils humanely 
and kindly, and the commissioner of education shall provide such rules and regulations for the 
discipline of the pupils in the public schools as to enforce the spirit of this act. 

NIGHT SCHOOLS. 

Sec. 26. The commissioner of education, upon application of twenty young men, unable to attend 
day school for justified reasons, may establish a night school in each town, and may also close the 
same when the average attendance in any one month does not reach twelve students. 



HAWAII. 



The report of the minister of public instruction, Mr. E. A. Matt Smith, of Hawaii, 
for the year ending December 31, 1899, contains a full report on education in the 
islands by Mr. Henry Schuler Townsend, inspector-general of schools, from which 
the following brief notes are taken: 

It appears that the first missionaries in Hawaii, in 1820, taught the natives the 
alphal)et, and many of the latter learned to read English before their own language 
was reduced to written form. After this was effected, before the end of 1824, 2,000 
people had learned to read, and a system of schools was extending over the islands; 
the people were eager to learn reading and writing, and at length nearly the whole 
population went to school. After this early enthusiasm had exhausted itself, in 1831, 
a high school was organized for training teachers. This was the Lahainaluna Semi- 
nary, which is still in existence. Hilo Boarding School for Boys dates from 1836, as 
v/ell as a boarding school for girls, and in 1839 an industrial school for boys was 
opened. Numerous mission schools have sprung up from time to time. Other insti- ■ 
tutions which have had influence are the Oahu Charity School (1833), which became 
finally the Honolulu High School, the principal function of which was to teach the 
half whites English; the Royal School (1840), for chiefs, v.-hich subsequently became 
a school for all Hawaiian boys, and was the leading school for teaching English; and 



EDUCATION IN HAWAII. 



1657 



Punahou School (1841), for the children of missionaries, which was chartered as 
Oahn College in 1853. In 1839 the Roman Catholic missionaries established their 
system of schools. In 1840 the first comprehensive written laws were published, and 
they included a compulsory school law with penalties for both parent and child for 
noncompliance with the law. The law provided also that no illiterate man should 
"hold office over any other man," nor could an illiterate man or woman marry. A 
minister of ijublic instruction was among the functionaries provided by the new laws, 
the first of whom, after the laws took effect in 1846, was Richard Armstrong, the 
father of Gen. S. C. Armstrong, who is universally known for his connection with the 
Hampton Institute. Mr. Armstrong was an admirer and disciple of Horace Mann, 
whose teachings had, therefore, great influence in the methods he advocated for the 
common schools. Mr. Armstrong laid special stress upon the importance of indus- 
try and industrial training. In 1855 a board of education was established in place of 
the minister of public instruction, and in 1865 an inspector-generalship of schools 
was created. In 1876 the reciprocity treaty Avith the United States ushered in the 
modern era of commercial progress. The influx of foreigners, especially of English- 
speaking ones, and the increase of business made English more and more the language 
of business, and the necessity of teaching it in the schools became more and more 
apparent. English, therefore, became the language of the two principal schools, and 
its use soon spread to other schools. In 1884 there were 44 day schools, with 100 
teachers, in which English was the language of instruction. In 1883 the St. Louis 
College for Boys was opened under the care of the Brothers of j\Iary, wdio had come 
to work in the Roman Catholic schools. This college had 2-45 students in 1884. At 
this time English was essentially the sole language of the private schools, employing 
106 teachers, but was used in less than half the public or common schools. In 1888 
all Government schools were made free, and the attendance rose to 8,050, the total 
number in both Government and independent schools being 11,307. Since then 
nearly all the common schools, in Avhich the Hawaiian language was the medium of 
instruction, have been converted into schools in which English alone is so employed, 
98 per cent of the children being at present instructed by teachers who use English. 
There is a normal and training school which has courses in history (and mythology), 
including Hawaiian, arithmetic, algebra and geometry, agriculture and manual work, 
art work, and professional (pedagogical) work. There is, finally, an industrial and 
reformatory school for boys, with 39 inmates. The following tables show the statis- 
tics of schools in 1899: 



Schools. 


Num- 
ber. 


Teachers. 


Pupils. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Public 


143 
46 


113 

79 


231 
121 


344 
200 


6,345 
2, 256 


5,041 
1,798 


11 436 


Private 


4,054 




Total 


189 


192 


352 


544 


8,651 


6,839 


15, 490 





Tliere were 760 pupils under 6 years of age, 13,438 between 6 and 15, and 1,292 
above 15 years of age. Of the 544 teachers in the public schools in 1899, 62 were 
Hawaiian, 68 part Hawaiian, 282 American, and the rest of all nationalities, includ- 
ing 6 Japanese and 10 Chinese. In the private schools 11 of the 200 teachers were 
Hawaiian, 14 part Hawaiian, 122 American, and the rest of various nationalities. 
Of the 15,490 pupils, 5,043 were Hawaiian, 2,721 part Hawaiian, 601 American, 213 
British, 337 German, 3,882 Portuguese, 84 Scandinavian, 1,141 Jai^anese, 1,314 Chi- 
nese, 30 South Sea Islanders, and 124 other foreigners. Each nationality had its 
own teacher. The relatively small proportion of American pupils is noteworthy. 

The expenditures for the two years ending December 31, 1899, were $575,353. 



1658 EDUCATION RErOET, 1899-1900. 

SAMOA. 

The f;)llowing iiiteresting account of the condition of education in Samoa is taken 
from the letter of a lady who has made herself familiar v;ith the situation hy per!?onai 
observation. She writes as follows: 

It will be a year the 17th of this month [April] since the American flag was formally raised over 
•these islands; many things have been accomplished during that year, but apparently no steps have 
yet been tiiken toward the establishing of public schools. 

The only efforts for the education of the children in American Samoa are made by missionaries. 
There is a French Catholic school at Leone, a small one, and there are nine Mormons upon Tutuila 
who teach English to some extent. But the majority of the Mormons are immature and illiterate, 
and not at all competent to take the education of any people into their hands. The most system- 
atic and widespread efforts for the education of the young Samoans are made by the London 
Mission Society, which for seventy years has been doing a most noble work among these people. 
Their missionaries were the first to come to these islands, when there was no written language, and 
now, through their efforts, there are over twenty books printed by them in Samoan, including the 
Bible, several works which would aid particularly in their religious teachings, besides the necessary 
books to be (ised in school work. 

Tlieir finest schools are upon Upolu, in German Samoa, where they liave not only a college where 
young natives are prepared for the work of teaching and preaching to their own people, but one for 
manual training also, which has been very successful. 

A school for girls has recently been opened at Afao, in Leone Bay, 11 miles from Pagopago, where 
100 young girls, whose average age is 14, are taught the usual school branches, besides English, sewing, 
and ordinary housework. There were many more applicants than there was room for at this school; 
and so great was the desire of the people to have a school of this kind on this island that they con- 
tributed not only the money necessary for the erection of the building (about S7,000), but gave their 
services for the clearing of the land, and did the greater part of the manual labor upon the building, 
under the direction of the resident missionary and one cari>enter, who attended to tlie more difficult 
parts of the work. 

Th« resident missionary, who has just gone to England for a much-needed and well-earned re#t, 
had a school at Leone, where young men were prepared to enter the higher schools on Upolu. 
Recently, too, there has been a .school opened upon the island of Manua for young men, tinder the 
superintendence of one of the graduates from the college on Upolu, which is doing very well. 

Every little village— and there are about forty, I believe upon the islands of Tutuila and Manua— 
has its native pastor, who is also the village schoolmaster. It has been my privilege to visit a number 
of the village schools. They are all held in the churches, from one and one-half to two hours in the 
early morning. There is no school furniture whatever. The pupils sit upon mats spread upon the 
sand or coral floor. The teacher has a rough blackboard, a Bible, an arithmetic, and an elementary 
geography. The pupils have an occasional slate and pencil and their Bibles. And yet with these 
incomplete furnishings the children learn to read, write, and do a little simple arithmetic. 

The rest of the day these little creatures, brimful of activity and energy, run wild, and as they 
grow older, from never having acquired habits of industry and regularity, become indolent and idle, 
and do not begin to derive as much benefit from the resources of their fruitful and beautiful land as 
they~mig'ht if in their youth they were trained as our American children are. It seems to me, if they 
can acquire so much learning under such primitive conditions, they might, with a very little more 
trouble and expense, be brought to become industrious, capable, and helpful citizens. 

The argument has been brought forth that general public .schools will be of no benefit to the 
young [in Samoa] until they can be entirely removed from the home influences, where eveJj^thing 
tends to undo the lessons learned at school; and as examples several cases have been cited where 
young girls have returned to their homes after a four years' course in a mission school, like that at 
Afao, and have gone back to their ol-d savage state and apparently forgotten all that they learned 
while away at school. But to me it has not seemed so strange that they should relapse into old 
ways, because they have been, perhaps, the only girls in their village taught to do differently, and, 
of course, with their indolent natures and fear of ridicule or of being different from other girls, it has 
been much easier for them to do as the other girls about them did than for them to try to make their 
companions like themselves. 

It seems to me that in order to reach the homes the very young children must be taken while their 
minds are receptive and impressionable, while they are still full of the restless activity of childhood, and 
before they have begvm to fully develop characters and habits. If several children in every house- 
hold of a village could be taught habits of neatness, industry, and thrift, does it not seem reasonable 
to suppose that more can be done through them to change the character of their homes than by an 
occasional two or three in a village so trained? These people are passionately fond of their young, 
and the child is the rn.ler of the family; therefore it seems as though the way to accomplish the 
greatest reform is to train the children. 

They are very quick to imitate, and a few experienced teachers with a knowledge of kindergarten 
methods could do a marvelous amount of good among them. It could be done with very little 



EDUCATION IN SAMOA. 1659 

• 

expense, too. The Government need not erect a school building at first. A large native houi^e ci mjjl— 
be hired for a small sum each month, say 55o, and would be the thing at first, as it is what tlie r 
dren are accustomed to and would be an object lesson as to\vhat could be done with their homes, ^y 
is perfectly ventilated and well lighted. Have the floor boarded, as a guard against dampness, and 
small, low tables built, similar to those the Japanese use in their houses, and with the usual school 
appliances one has a sanitary schoolhousc at very little expense. 

Education is not compulsory here. In the whole of American Samoa there is a school population 
of 1,500, about 800 of whom are receiving a desultory education in the village pastors' schools. There 
are about 150 children of school age in the three villages in the harbor of Pagopago. If only some 
good philanthropist at home would open three schools — one in each village — and try the experiment 
of educating the very young, I think it would be found that more could be accomplished toward the 
enlightenment and advancement of these people than in any other way. 

One necessary feature of the training in the schools would need to be simple talks upon health and 
the care of the body. The ignorance these people show in the handling of their young and their 
sick is appalling, and many lives are lost in consequence. 

This interesting and intelligent people are eager for more knowledge. At the opening ceremonies 
of the girls' school at Afao, in February, all the remarks made by the native chiefs and pastors 
showed an earnest desire for wider facilities for the education of their young. They realize that it is 
useless to try to do much with this present generation. In the younger generation just springing up 
is their hope and they look to our Government for aid. Shall they look in vain? 






021 468 907 8 



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