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The Air War in Vietnam 
IBM PC VERSION 


Spectrum HoloByte” 





A WORD ABOUT 
. THIS GAME 


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Spectrum HoloByte America Onl 

2061 Challenger Drive CompuServe: 
Alameda, CA 94501 GEnie: HOLOP 

(415) 522-1164 PC-Link: SPECTR 
Phillip G. Adam, President Gilman G. Louie, CEO 


Sphere, Inc. Sphere, Inc. 


FLIGHT 


[OF thle 


INTRUDER 


A SIMULATION OF 


THE AIR WAR OVER NORTH VIETNAM 
Including Flight Simulations of 








The A-6 Intruder 
and 


The F-4 Phantom 


FLIGHT MANUAL 


Spectrum HoloByte” 
Division of Sphere, Inc. 
2061 Challenger Drive 
Alameda, CA 94501 


(415)522-3584 


PERSONNEL 


Stephen Coonts A former U.S. Naval Aviator, Stephen Coonts accumu- 
lated 1,600 hours in A-6 Intruders and made two 
combat cruises aboard the USS Enterprise during the 
Vietnam War. As well as providing the accurate techni- 
cal detail in the bestseller Flight of the Intruder (Simon 
and Schuster, 1986), Steve provided much more infor- 
mation in a very long transatlantic phone call. Steve 
also wrote Final Flight and The Minotaur. 


Pete Bonanni Major, U.S. Air National Guard — F-4, F-16 and A-7 pilot 
who provided anecdotal information about the F-4. 

Norman Cosand ex-U.S. Air Force Captain, — Flew Wild Weasel F-4 
missions as a “Guy In Back” over North Vietnam. 
Provided much useful information about F-4 missions 
and flight characteristics. 


John McGinn Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy Reserve— Veteran 
A pilot who is still flying and provided invaluable 
checks on our A-6 accuracy and pictures. 


Phil Hanley Colonel, U.S. Air Force (ret.) — Invaluable source of in- 
formation about Phantom vs. MiG combat over Viet- 
nam. Colonel Hanley is credited with the only F-4 gun 
kill of a MiG-19 over North Vietnam. 


If you have questions regarding the use of FLIGHT OF THE INTRUDER™, or 
any of our other products, contact Spectrum HoloByte™ Customer Support 
at: 


Spectrum HoloByte 
& 2061 Challenger Drive 

Alameda, CA 94501 

Attn: Customer Support 


(415) 522-1164 
Wey 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Pacific Time 
Monday through Friday 


CompuServe: 76004,2144 
© GEnie: HOLOBYTE 
PC-Link: SPECTRUMH 


Flight of the Intruder game and manual © 1990 Sphere, Inc. All rights 
reserved. Flight of the Intruder and Spectrum HoloByte are trademarks of 
Sphere, Inc. All other trademarks are owned by their respective holders. 


CONTRIBUTORS 


Concept and Design 
Programming Team 

Artwork and Animations 
Object Design and World Files 


Music and Sounds 
Flight Models 


Manual Artwork 
Photo Reference 


Programming Team Manager 
Product Manager 
Testing 


Special Thanks to 


Rod Hyde 


Chris Orton, Colin Bell, James Taylor, 
Dave Whiteside, Steve Parys and Paul 
Dunscombe 


Mark Shaw, Jody Sather and Matt 
Carlstrom 


Paul Dunscombe, Stephen Tickle and 
Mark Shaw 


Colin Bell 
Vera Piqueur, Colin Thorpe and Colin Bell 


Rod Hyde, Robert Argento, Marisa Ong, 
Nick Lavroff, Steve Perrin and Robert 
Giedt 


Chuck Butler 


Jack McGinn, Gilman Louie, Stephen 
Coonts, Phil Hanley and Norman Cosand 


Chris Orton 
Rod Hyde 


Steve Perrin, Paul Jepson, Gilman Louie, 
Karl Maurer, Marisa Ong, Anthony Chiang 
and Robert Giedt 


Gilman Louie, Phil Adam, Guymond Louie, 
Karen Sherman and Jim Mackonochie 


4 FLIGHT orm c= INTRUDER 


Come Fly With Me 


by Stephen Coonts 


A modern jet warplane is a strange, 
challenging machine, and its cockpit is 
much different than the places that 
most of us are familiar with. It’s a 
flying Grand Prix racer, world-class 
superbike and a video game, all in one. 


This magnificent machine slices 

through the atmosphere with a free- 

dom that cannot be described, only ex- 

perienced. A slave to your every whim, 

the aircraft responds to the slightest 

pressure on the controls, yet is ready 

to kill you the instant you make a false 

move. There is the darkness and the 

weather — nothing is as black as a 

night sky under a tropical overcast as 

you skim above the ground knowing 

the slightest caress from Mother Earth will be instantly, totally, fatal. 
There is the enemy — in combat they are doing their damnedest to 
destroy your machine, and you with it. If you survive all that, then 
you may sample the piéce de résistance , the night carrier landing, 
usually in foul weather, occasionally in a shot-up airplane. You come 
out of the goo and there is the deck, pitching gently with the meat- 
ball and the centerline lights and all you have to do is fly your air- 
plane through the needle’s eye into an arresting gear wire. 

So come on! 

Come fly with me. 

You awaken in the middle of the night, put on your stinky, green, 
one-piece flight suit and your steel-toed flying boots — you need the 
steel toes to keep your feet from being torn off by the instrument 
panel if you eject — and stumble through the passageways to the 
briefing room to learn your target and your mission. You swig a cup 
of bitter coffee and don your flight gear in layers: G-suit, torso 
harness, survival vest, pistol, helmet, oxygen mask, gloves, flash- 
light, survival radios. You even wedge a candy bar and a plastic 
baby-bottle full of water into one of the pockets of your G-suit. 

Out on the flight deck your aircraft is waiting. The night is hot and 
humid in the tropics — you quickly work up a sweat which soaks 
your underwear and flight suit and runs in salty rivulets into your 
eyes. 

You examine the plane and its weapons with your flashlight. There 
are a lot of weapons on this A-6 tonight, ten 500-pound bombs, a 
dozen Rockeye anti-tank weapons at 500 pounds each, and a 2,000- 
pound belly tank on the center-line station. 16,000 pounds of 
internal fuel. The plane weighs 56,500 pounds for the catapult shot 





COME FLY WITH ME 5 


— over 28 tons. Over half that weight is fuel and ordnance. 


When you are satisfied that all is as it should be, or when you can 
put it off no longer, you climb the ladder into the cockpit, for this 
plane is big, with the cockpit rail nine feet above the deck. The plane 
captain helps you strap yourself to the ejection seat. Perhaps he says 
something he thinks is funny because you look like you need it. 

On signal you bring the machine to life, start the engines, turn on 
the inertial navigation system, computer, radios, radar, the elec- 
tronic counter-measures, and check the health of every system. All 
go. 

You sit staring across the deck at the inky blackness, at the other 
aircraft with other men like you, equally competent, equally scared, 
also waiting. 

Then the yellow-shirt taxi director gives the signal. You use throttle 
and brakes carefully, attentive to every twitch of his hand and nod 
of his head. There is little room on the flight deck of an aircraft 
carrier and most of it is taken. You get what is left over. So you taxi 
slowly, obediently, alert for the exhausts of other aircraft or grease 
that will break your tires’ adhesion to the anti-skid surface. The sea 
is out there in that blackness, waiting. As you taxi, you lower and 
lock the wings and drop the flaps and slats to takeoff position. 

Onto the catapult. You feel the clunk as the shuttle captures the 
nose-tow link and you see the cat officer’s signal to advance the 
throttles to full power. 

You shove the levers forward to the stops and take your feet off the 
brakes. The engines wind up with a howl audible even through the 
padding of your helmet. 

Your breathing is rapid, the salt of your sweat stings your eyes as 
you waggle the controls and check the engine instruments. The 
machine trembles from the fury of the roiling air being sucked into 
the intakes and blown furiously out the exhausts. 

You flip on the plane’s exterior lights, you signal to the catapult 
officer you that are ready to fly, then put your head back into the 
headrest and wait for the shot. 

Ahead of you is a hundred yards of dimly-lit deck, then nothing! The 
night is waiting to swallow you. Inside this machine full of fuel and 
laden with weapons, you will soon be thrown from this deck into 
that hot, humid, black air, sixty feet above the night sea, 15 knots 
above a Stall. The enemy is also waiting, also ready — even now they 
are loading belts of ammo into the anti-aircraft guns and testing 
their missiles. 


Your life will depend on your skill, your knowledge, your courage, 
your determination. 

You blink the sweat from your eyes and take one more ragged 
breath. 

The catapult fires and the G slams you back into your seat as the 
blackness hurls toward you. 








6 FLIGHT coor te INTRUDER 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 
INTRODUCTION 
Personnel/Contributors 2 
Come Fly With Me, by Stephen Coonts 4 
Table of Contents 6 
Introduction 8 
About This Manual 9 
Hardware Requirements 9 
Getting Started 10 
Conventions Used In This Manual 10 
PART I: YOUR FIRST FLIGHT IN THE A6 INTRUDER 
History aT 
Duty Roster 12 
The Mission 13 
Cockpit Orientation 14 
Takeoff Procedures and First Flight 16 
Controlling Your Aircraft 16 
Directional Control, Flying With The Stick 17 
So Let’s Go Already 17 
First Strike Mission 19 
Landing 20 
A Typical Intruder Mission 21 
PART Il: YOUR FIRST FLIGHT IN THE F4 PHANTOM 
History 25 
Cockpit Orientation 26 
Takeoff Procedures and First Flight 27 
Controlling Your Aircraft 2r 
About the BarCAP Mission 27 
Going Into Combat 
Using the Sparrow 29 
Using the Sidewinder 30 
Using the 20mm Gun 31 
Landing 32 
Flying The F-4 33 
PART Ill: YOUR FIRST OPERATION AS CAG 
Background and Duties of a CAG37 
A Mission Of Your Own 39 
Target Intelligence 40 
General Intelligence 41 
Waypoints 42 


Stores 45 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Aircraft Information 
Enemy Encounters 


PART IV: OPERATIONS AND MISSIONS 
Background 

Rules of Engagement 
Operation: BARCAP 
Operation: DECK ALERT 
Operation: TALLY HO YO 
Operation: BACK BREAKER 
Operation: MORNING SONG 
Operation: JULY 4TH EVE 
Operation: JULY 4TH DAY 
Operation: JULY 4TH REFROG 
Operation: LIGHTS OUT 
Operation: IRON RAIN | 
Operation: IRON RAIN II 
Operation: ALPHA STRIKE 
Operation: HUNTER KILLER 
The Most Dangerous Game 


PART V: DEBRIEFING 
Operation Statistics 
Badges and Medals 
Sierra Hotel 


PART VI: REFERENCE 
Menus 
Aircraft Specifications 
Cockpits 
Instruments in Common 
Warning Lights — Intruder Only 89 
Phantom Only 
The Phantom Radar Screen 
Carrier Landing 
Strike Mission Tactics 
Officer Training For Modern Jet Aircraft 
Air Combat Maneuvers 
Fuel Management 
Using the Radio 
Armament 
The Naval Air War In Vietnam 
Glossary and Abbreviations 
Keyboard Layout and Explanation 
Index 





g FLIGHT == or tee 
INTRODUCTION 


This simulation takes place just prior to and during the Linebacker campaign 
in 1972 over North Vietnam. The object of the game is to complete assigned 
missions and do it with minimum losses of equipment or personnel. Usually, 
but not always, a mission is part of a larger operation and is undertaken by 
one of several sections of aircraft. For example, a section of F-4 Phantoms 
could be given a MiGCAP mission, and a section of A-6 Intruders could be 
given the bombing mission as part of an overall operation to destroy a 
bridge. In some cases, such as the “Morning Song” operation, only one 
section of Intruders is used so that the mission is effectively the same as 
the operation. 


You can take the role of a Phantom pilot, an Intruder pilot or the Commander 
Air Group (CAG) based on a carrier at Yankee Station. The CAG is primarily 
responsible for planning missions, but he can fly any aircraft in the mission 
if he chooses to do so. Using this game, you can plan your own missions 
against famous targets in Vietnam such as the Yen Bai Railroad Bridge or 
the thermal power plant at Hanoi. 


Success is measured by operation completion and safe return of all aircraft. 
Individual survival, while important, is not the sole measure of success. 
Moreover, it can be just as important how you win as if you win. If the Rules 
of Engagement are in force and you violate them, it will not matter how vital 
the target you hit — you’re headed for a court-martial. 


A key feature of this simulation is that there can be many friendlies (up to 
eight, arranged in four flights of Intruders or Phantoms) as well as many 
bogeys. Friendlies can have different missions in the same operation. You 
may be on a bombing run and see either a friendly Phantom protecting you 
from MiGs or an A-6 attacking SAM sites to protect you. Alternatively, you 
can do the protecting as an A-6 friendly goes on the bomb run. Moreover, 
you can take the role of any friendly at any time. 


No matter what role you take, you can switch aircraft in mid-mission and 
always be where the action is. If you are flying an A-6 in to bomb a bridge, 
you can switch to the covering F-4s to dogfight the MiGs coming up to stop 
you, switch back to the A-6s to make the actual bombing run, and then 
switch back to the Phantoms to cover the retreat. 


In short, with this game you can participate in every facet of the deadly air 
war over North Vietnam, 1972. 


a INTRUDER 


INTRODUCTION 9 
ABOUT THIS MANUAL 


You don’t have to read every word in this manual in order to see action in 
southeast Asia. If you prefer to learn by trial and error, you can use the “Five 
Minutes To Play” card in your package. This will provide you with a command 
summary and an overview of the game, giving you just enough information to 
get you started. Then you can always turn to the manual for in-depth informa- 
tion on any of the game components. 


On the other hand, if you are fairly new to this kind of game, we recommend 
you take a little time to read the introductory material in the manual and 
undertake the first missions described. Flying a Phantom or an Intruder is a 
challenging task and involves skills that are best learned through step-by- 
step instructions. Once you feel proficient flying either aircraft, then you can 
undertake some of the more advanced missions. Missions are described in 
detail in Part V. 


Getting Started (below) shows you how to install the software for the first 
time and introduces you to some of the conventions used in this manual. 
It’s important that you read that section; otherwise, later sections of the 
manual may not make much sense. 


The Reference Section (Part VI) provides detailed information about the 
aircraft (both friendly and bogey), the weapons, as well as the menus and 
keyboard commands available to the player. Turn to the Reference section 
whenever you want to learn more about your aircraft or its payloads. 


HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 
CGA/Hercules Graphics: 512K RAM 
EGA/VGA Graphics: 640K RAM 
Disk Drive: 5¥%4" or 3¥2" floppy drive 
Mouse: Optional 


Joystick: Optional 





10 FLIGHT ==ert# == INTRUDER 


GETTING STARTED 


You can install Flight of The Intruder onto a hard disk, or you can play it 
directly off the floppy disk. If you are playing off a floppy disk, you should 
make a copy of your original disk first and put the original away in a safe 
place. That way, if anything should ever happen to your backup copy, you will 
still have the original to copy from. 





Conventions Used In This Manual 


Input Devices: Whether you use a joystick, a mouse or the keyboard, you will 
find that you often need to choose from a number of different options. To 
avoid multiple instructions, we will use the term select to describe this 
process, no matter which input device you use. 





If you are using a joystick, choosing an option involves two steps: first you 
highlight the desired option and then you select it. Highlight the option by 
moving the joystick and select by pressing the fire button while the option is 
highlighted. 


If you are using the keyboard, you can select the option directly by pressing 
the key shown at the lower right corner of the icon. For example, to select 
OK from the above selection screen, simply press (Enter), the key shown at 
the lower right corner of the icon. Use the arrow keys to move up and down 
the pull-down menu. 


If you are using a mouse, you can select the desired option just by pointing 
to it and clicking the left mouse button. You can also use the mouse to point 
to a Menu heading, bring down the menu and make a selection from it. 


Step-By-Step Instructions: When you need to do something (such as press a 
key or select an option), we will use the following formatting: 


ce Press [+] to increase thrust to the maximum value. 


This way, you'll be able to distinguish between instructions and explanations 
with just a glance. 


FLY THE INTRUDER 11 


PART I: YOUR FIRST FLIGHT 
IN THE A-6 INTRUDER 








The Grumman A-6 was the response to a need found during the Korean War: 
an effective, all-weather, close support aircraft that could be flown from 
carriers. 


Several design changes and designations later, the production lines started 
rolling on the A-6A. Now in 1990, 28 years later, the very similar A-6E is still 
being produced, an enviable record in anyone’s book. 


The Intruder is a dedicated bomber. Unlike other naval attack craft, such as 
the A-4 Skyhawk and A-7 Corsair, the Intruder carries no air-to-air weaponry. 
It relies on stealth and its ability to fly in any weather to get past defendng 
aircraft, deliver its bombs, and get home. 


The “heart” of the A-6 is DIANE, the Digital Integrated Attack Navigation 
Equipment. It is rumored that the name, belonging to the daughter of one of 
the design engineers, came first and the designation later. This combination 
of equipment, which has undergone regular upgrades over the years, 
essentially consists of a search radar, a tracking radar, and an inertial 
navigation system. These let the plane navigate in all weathers, seek out 
and track both mobile and immobile targets, and map terrain ahead. Initial 
flight checking was a nightmare, but by 1965 Intruders were dropping their 
18,000 Ib bombloads wherever asked for in North and South Vietnam. 





J OF THE | 





12 FLIGHT = INTRUDER 


The first thing you need to do is get your name on the Duty Roster. Initially, 
the Roster just has “Rookie” in every name slot. 


Select the name at the top of the Duty Roster. 


A dialog box appears. This is where you will enter your name and callsign. 
(The callsign is always used over the air in Vietnam for security reasons. See 
the Glossary for some examples). 


or Press to clear the name field and type in your name. You can 
use for editing. 
dl Highlight the callsign field and enter your callsign. Select OK. 


Back at the Corridor scene, you are faced with the following options: 
Scramble 
Phantom Pilot Brief 
Intruder Pilot Brief 
CAG Brief 


Duty Roster 





cr Select Intruder Pilot Brief. You will be moved to the Briefing Room. 


The board in the Briefing Room is being used to describe an operation. The 
icons show the options available to you. In this case we want to cycle 
through the operations until we get to “Morning Song.” 


PUUMCNIM: SHES 

: THIS IS A SINGLE STRIKE BOMB MISSION 

: WITHOUT ESCORT — DO NOT LINGER. 

: TORPEDO BOAT AND MISSILE CARGO BOATS 
: HAVE BEEN REPORTED. 





FLY THE INTRUDER 13 


or Keep selecting “Next Op” ((+}) until “Morning Song” appears. Select 
OK ((Enter)). 


You are presented with a new set of icons (see figure below). 


These new icons provide you with information about the operation, giving you 
details about stores, your aircraft, the waypoints, and other relevant data. 





ce Select {1} for information about the Morning Song operation. 


The objective of this mission is to destroy a torpedo boat. Nearby barges 
have been designated as the secondary targets. Unless you are feeling 
especially skillful, don’t bother with these on your first mission. 


The torpedo 
boat is a fairly 
soft target, and 
so the Walleye 
is the ideal 
weapon. It is a 
relatively easy 
weapon to use. 
(For more infor- 
mation about 
the Walleye and 
the other 
weapons, see 
Part VI later in 
this manual). 


If you like, you 
can select the 
other icons to 
learn more 
about the oper- 
ation. Just 
follow the selection procedure appropriate to your input device. AS soon as 
you are ready to fly your Intruder, select OK from the above set of icons. 


You now find yourself in the cockpit of an Intruder on the catapult. 





14 FLIGHT sort oa INTRUDER 








Cockpit Orientation 

Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with the Intruder. Look at the 
components of the cockpit and compare them with the above illustration. 
You don’t need to know what every item represents just now — only the 
ones you will be using on your first flight. The cockpit and all its components 
are discussed in detail in the Reference section. 


What you need to know for your first flight: 


1. Combined moving map/radar. The map is always oriented with north at 
the top. Your position is represented by a pulsing square on the display. 
Sometimes a smaller square is also displayed. This is the position of a 
MiG referred to by a recent message at the top of the screen. 

The radar mode changes depending on the weapon selection and delivery 
mode. In this first mission we will be using the Walleye missile, so the 
screen actually shows a TV picture relayed from the missile. 


You can toggle between Radar and Map by pressing (C}. 


2. RPM gauge. This represents the percentage of power that has been 
applied with the throttle ({+]) key. The example shows 100% power being 
applied. 

3. Wheel brake light. The light is off, signifying that your wheel brakes are 
not on. 


4. Airspeed dial. Shows the Intruder’s true speed in knots (KTS). 


FLY THE INTRUDER 15 


5. Compass. Displays the heading. The following table shows the relation- 
ship between compass points and degrees from the vertical. 


O degrees north 
90 degrees east 
180 degrees south 
270 degrees west 





6. Altimeter. Displays the height in feet. The big hand rotates 360 degrees 
for every 100 feet. The little hand rotates 360 degrees for every 1,000 
feet. The digits record the altitude in 1,000s of feet. 


7. Attitude Director Indicator (ADI). The ADI helps to orient your aircraft to 
the horizon while pitching and rolling. Use visual contact with the real 
horizon to orient the aircraft directionally. 


Before taking off, take a look at the other views from your cockpit: 


(‘@ Use the combination of the and numbers 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 
on the number pad to shift your viewpoint around the cockpit. The 
position you are looking at corresponds to the key on the number 
pad with as the forward view. Thus, is the left for- 
ward view, (Shift](9] is the right forward view, is the left view, 
(Shift](6} is the right view, and so forth. This can be duplicated on the 
normal keyboard pad by using numbers (3) — (9} without the (Shift). In 
this case, the keys travel from [3] (left back 45°) to [4] (left) all the 
way around to (9] (right back 45°) This means that on the 
number pad is the equivalent of (6) on the keyboard. and 





Shift}(9) (or (6) and (7}) give you all the necessary instruments, there 
are no important instruments in any other portion of the Intruder 
cockpit. 





(@ ~ Goto the right 45° view (7) or (Shit)(9) — you'll learn more about the 
additional instruments later. For now, note the position of the 
Multiple Weapons Selection Panel. You'll need this when the time 
comes to select the Walleye missile. 


16 FLIGHT = 


Even though the other six views do not contain any instruments, you 
should be looking around all the time during a flight. Remember that your 
six o’clock view (directly behind your plane) is your most vulnerable 
position. This means that even though your six o’clock view does not give 
you any instrument data, it can let you know if you have a bogey on your 
tail. There is a further complication in that you cannot look directly back 
because your plane is in the way. You have to use one of the Back 45° 
positions and weave to see what is on your tail. 


ll Use or (6) to return to the front view. 


Takeoff Procedures and First Flight 
Controlling Your Aircraft 





| OF THE 





PUT NOSE DOWN 


-~ ~ BANK RIGHT 
= 
> 


BANK LEFT 





PULL NOSE UP 


Joystick 


PUT NOSE DOWN 


BANK LEFT 









BANK RIGHT 


PULL NOSE UP 


FLY THE INTRUDER 17 


Directional Control — 
“Flying with the Stick” 


7 8 9 Fighter pilots control the di- 
Home} | 4 PgUp rectional movement of their 
4 5 6 planes with a hand control 
BANK LEFT +4 ee BANK RIGHT commonly known as the 


stick. The accompanying 
1 é 3 diagrams show how to 
1) (Papn control your A-6 Intruder 
fais wee using either joystick, mouse 
or keyboard. 

Throughout this manual, references to the stick apply equally to operations 
using either the keyboard, the mouse or the joystick. For example, “pull back 
on the stick” means either “press the down arrow on the numeric keypad,” 
“move the mouse toward you,” or “move the joystick back toward you,” de- 
pending on the input device you are using. Refer to the above diagram for 
the other directional equivalents. 


Note: When you use the keyboard to control directional movement, the 
aircraft’s “stick” automatically centers itself after each keypress, allowing 
you to maintain a constant rate of turn. In other words, if you press the Left 
Arrow key once, your aircraft will bank left at a small constant rate and 
continue to do so until you make another directional change. If you want to 
increase the degree of turn (or any other directional change), you need to 
hold the key down for a longer period of time. However, holding the left key 
down will eventually roll the plane all the way over. To make a fast tum, you 
must hold down both the Left Bank key and the Pull Nose Up key, which puts 
the plane into a sharp turn. The longer you hold the Pull Nose Up key down, 
the faster the turn (other things being equal). Things are slightly more com- 
plicated when you use the normal (rather than the “super”) engine. 





PUT NOSE DOWN 











Pause: You can pause the game at any time and put everything into a state 
of suspended animation. To do this, press (P). Press it a second time to 
resume play. Note that this “stops the world.” You can go get a cup of coffee 
or have dinner without worrying about the mission being completed without 
you. While pausing, you can still move around the different views and diff- 
erent aircraft. The rotation and zoom options (See page 138) also work 
during a pause. 


So Let’s Go Already 
OK, OK. So you think you’re ready for your first flight? All right, let’s go. 
You are now under the Catapult officer’s orders. When you are ready: 


ec Press to launch the Intruder. If you do not launch within 5 
seconds, you are automatically launched. 


18 FLIGHT Ssorm =a INTRUDER 


In two seconds you are at the bow of the carrier 60 feet above sea level 
(SL), doing about 145 KTS. Don’t sit back and enjoy the view just yet; you’ve 
got work to do. First, you need to put the landing gear away: 


all Press (G] to get the landing gear up. Three lights in a row in the 
upper left of your control panel will go out and and you will hear the 
sound of the gear retracting. 


Next, you need to start climbing slowly, and increasing your speed: 


or Pull back slightly on the joystick (or press (2]) to start a 4,500 ft/ 
min climb. The radar screen gives a digital readout of speed and 
climb rate in the upper left corner. 


You can use ADI rather than VVI to monitor your climbing rate. See Part VI for 
more information on these instruments. 


oc At 170 KTS, press [F] to put your flaps up. The “Flap” light on the 
left side of your control panel goes out. 


Next you need to level out a little at about 500 feet: 


or At 500 feet, level out by gently pushing the stick forward (or press 
on the number pad). Stop once you are straight and level. 


When the ASI shows about 400-450 KTS we climb to our cruising altitude: 


oc Pull back on the stick (or press (2)) to achieve a 30 degree rate of 
climb. Level out at 10,000 ft. and set the throttle to achieve 
400-450 KTS True. This should require about 86% RPM. 


OK, so you’re two miles up, and you have to find your way to the target (re- 
member, you’re on a mission). This is a good time to consult the map. 


ll If the map isn’t showing, press (C) to bring it up. 


TARGET 





A-6 
At this stage you can fly on automatic pilot or manually. Autopilot is available 
because the waypoints to the target have been programmed into the on- 
board computer. By invoking the autopilot, the computer automatically steers 
the aircraft to the waypoints in this mission: the carrier, the torpedo boat 
(the target) and back to the carrier. 


all Press (A] to engage the autopilot. 


FLY THE INTRUDER 19 


The aircraft should bank and turn towards the first waypoint. This gives you a 
chance to get used to the aircraft. You can disengage the autopilot by 
pressing |A] a second time if you wish to experiment with the aircraft con- 
trols. To get back on course, press [A] to re-engage the autopilot. 


If you are still some way from the target, you can press to accelerate 
the action and press again just short of the target. The acceleration 
automatically turns off any time you are being threatened by MiGs or SAMs. 


Note that the accelerator key affects all aspects of the operation, so that all 
aircraft are teleported a distance in proportion to their speed. Your wingman 
goes with you and the MiGs are still after you. 


First Strike Mission 


Now it’s time to select your weapon. As we noted earlier, the torpedo boat is 
a relatively “soft” target, making it ideal for the Walleye missile. It is “soft” 

because the boat is lightly armored and just steaming out to sea; it has not 

yet built up speed. 


er Press [7] on the keyboard to go to the weapon selection panel of the 
A-6. Press to toggle through the Air-to-ground weapons to 
select the Walleye missile, and to arm the missile. 


The Walleye is now ready to go. Next you need to target the missile and 
release it at the right moment: 


cr Dive at the torpedo boat. The radar will show a TV-like image of the 
boat. Line up the screen’s cross hairs on the image and press 


to fire the missile. 


If you were successful in hitting the target, you should see an explosion. If 
not, well, better luck next time. In either case, it’s time to head back to the 
carrier, before you start running low on fuel or a MiG gets on your tail. 


If you’re on autopilot, your Intruder should already be heading back to the 
ship. If not, press (A] to engage it. 





20 FLIGHT “moor tH == 


Landing 


You may not feel ready to attempt a manual landing at this stage, so try an 
auto landing by selecting (A). Alternatively, you can bring up the menu bar by 
pressing (F10], using (+) to go to the FILE menu, then using [+] to move the 
highlight to End Mission and selecting it by pressing (Enter). This takes you 
directly to the Debriefing Room no matter what stage of the game you’re in. 
Needless to say, this procedure is for the more lily-livered players, those who 
should have been weeded out at the recruitment office. If you must use it (or 
if you just want to learn more about menu options), see the Reference 
section. You can also consult the Reference section for information about 
manual landing. 

When your hook has caught the wire and the aircraft has slowed down, you 


are automatically moved to the Debriefing Room. Look at the TV screen to 
see how successful you were. 





INTRUDER 





OPERATION : S0HG 
SUCCESS RATING: 123 123 

MANUAL PILOT: GREEH TREE 
SUCCESS RATING: 0 - 


PRIMARY TARGET: TORFEDG BOT 
TARGET DESTROYED 


SECONDARY : MISSILE CARGO EOARTS 


TARGET UNDAMAGED 
It’s BEEN A PLEASURE WORKING WITH vou! 





The statistics for the current mission are displayed on the Debriefing Room 
monitor. The VCR buttons give you the chance to see more detailed results 
of the mission by pressing {i ], a check to see how well you met your way- 
points by pressing (W), a chance to review any photographs you took by 
pressing (P], or the videotape from your airplane’s video recorders by press- 
ing (A], or you can move on to your next mission by pressing (Enter). See Part 
V for information on analyzing these statistics. If you have earned a decora- 
tion you may get pulled out of the debrief for a photo opportunity. If you have 
done well, a word with your boss comes next; look to see if you are on the 
Sierra Hotel Notice on his wall. The Sierra Hotel Notice lists the top ten 
pilots that have played the simulation. The derivation of the term Sierra 
Hotel is in the Glossary. 


FLY THE INTRUDER 21 


A Typical Intruder Mission 


by Lt. Cmdr Jack McGinn, USNR 


It’s 0230; you’re sound asleep aftera 
tough bombing mission in the North 
last night. The carrier’s been on 
station for three weeks now in mon- 
soon season and the constant foul- 
weather flying (ceilings have been av- 
eraging 300 ft to 500 ft with visibility 
often down to 1 to 2 miles in rain) is 
draining you. The stateroom phone 
rings; you have to fly a strike in the 
North against a high value target. It’s 
time to get your act in full gear. The 
day has just begun. 


After you get the basic details from 

the duty officer in the Ready Room, 

you meet your B/N (Bombardier/Nav- 

igator) and visit the CV’s intel center 

for the latest information on the 

target (photos, defenses, restrictions, 

other planned attacks) and the latest 

SAM threats affecting the general 

flight route. The preflight planning 

includes ingress and egress route 

selection to take advantage of terrain 

masking and minimizing enemy de- 

fenses, weapons load and release calculations, selection of attack 
type, briefs on the communications plan, and basic aircraft takeoff 
planning data. 

After preflight planning is complete, you give the duty officer the 
weight chit which has the aircraft launch weight; the catapult offi- 
cer and crew need this for your cat launch. Then it is on to your 
squadron’s Maintenance Control space to read the aircraft data 
book to see what maintenance has been performed and current 
status of all aircraft systems. After a quick stop in the squadron 
paraloft to suit up in your flight equipment — G-suit, torso harness, 
survival vest, helmet, oxygen mask and navigation publications — 
you check your drinking water before leaving for the flight deck. 

It is very dark on the pre-dawn flight deck as rain continues to fall 
from the low ceiling. Your plane captain briefs you on his inspection 
of the aircraft. You tell him to keep the canopy closed 'till you and 
your B/N perform the mandatory preflight inspection of the aircraft 
so the seats won't get too wet. It’s going to be a long flight so you 
don’t want to sit on a cold, wet ejection seat all flight. After the 
inspection, you climb in the cockpit and strap yourself into the 
ejection seat before commencing the aircraft prestart checklist. 








== INTRUDER 


Meanwhile, the B/N is going through his prestart checks. After 
engine start, he brings the computer system and radar on-line and 
begins to enter the turnpoints and waypoints the computer needs for 
your flight route. After start and post-start checks are completed, 
you signal you are ready for launch. The Ordies pull your bomb rack 
safety pins. Using flashlight wand signals, a taxi director instructs 
deck crewmen to “break the aircraft down” (remove its tie down 
chains). He taxis you forward to bow catapult number 1. As you 
approach the catapult you acknowledge the “Weight Board” (it has 
the weight you sent up earlier on the weight chit); he signals you to 
drop your tailhook (a check to ensure it will come down) and to 
spread your wings. You lower the flaps and slats, perform your 
takeoff checklist, and make sure the ejection seat is armed. Follow- 
ing the director’s and cat officer’s signals, you taxi into the shuttle 
and are signalled to run up to full power. One last check of the 
gauges, a good wipe out of all the control surfaces, a “good to go” 
from your B/N and you turn on your lights as a signal to the cat 
officer; you’re ready to launch. About 2 seconds after he touches the 
deck with his wand, the cat fires and you go from 0 to 150 KIAS in 
less than 2 seconds. With a full load of Mk82s, that max weight cat 
shot was a vicious attention-getter in the absolute dark of the 
predawn clag. 


After you clear your head, you have already raised your gear, 
started a climb straight ahead and accelerated to raise the flaps and 
slats while the B/N calls the CV to say you're airborne. While execut- 
ing the departure procedures and checking in with the appropriate 
airborne controllers, the B/N brings his system to life, providing you 
with basic navigation information to steer to the coast-in point. Prior 
to going feet dry, it is time to review the weapon system settings 
ensuring the proper wing stations are selected and the weapon 
system is ready to go except for the Master Arm Switch. You’ve 
checked that the passive EW system is operational and the active 
ECM system is in Standby, ready to go. You also take one last look at 
the chaff, flare and jammer panel to ensure it is ready for pilot 
activation when the SAMs come up. 

It’s still black outside as the driving rain beats on the windscreen. 
Approaching the coast-in point, the B/N turns his radar on for one 
sweep to update his navigational system. Keeping the radar silent 
for as long as possible will help to not alert the enemy’s defenses. As 
you prepare to hit your first point, you descend to your preplanned 
ingress altitude and select the terrain clearance display on your VDI. 
The B/N is glued to the radar scope as you start to weave your way 
through the mountains on the route. Being low and masking with 
the terrain, the SAMs know you're there but they can’t get a good 
lock. The EW indicator is alive with strobes. With the B/N talking 
from his radar display and you viewing the terrain contours build- 
ing on the VDI, you weave through the mountains and valleys at 500 
ft, 420 KIAS. Your world is the B/N and the VDI. 


22 FLIGHT === oF tu 



















































FLY THE INTRUDER 23 


Nearing the target, a power plant tucked ina valley, you accelerate 
to 500 KIAS (Knots Indicated Air Speed). You'll need all of the energy 
you can get for maneuvering when the SAMs start flying. The 
approach from the initial point (IP) to target was planned to achieve 
the best target aspect angle and time enough to perform the system 
attack. About 15 nm out, the B/N selects the Master Arm and tells 
you the pickle is Hot. You both review the weapons control panel to 
ensure the proper stations and type of system attack are selected. 
The plan is to stay low, so you ensure the bombs are set up to drop 
in the retarded configuration. Drawing closer to the target, the B/N 
steps the system into attack giving you finer steering information on 
the VDI. As the weapon solution is reached, the in-range marker 
comes on the screen telling you to depress the trigger any time. You 
pull the trigger, the symbology on the screen jumps and you feel the 
airplane leap up as the load of 500 pounders falls away. You’ve 
never seen the target. 


In and out of clouds, tracers start to fly as the enemy now knows 
where you are. The B/N is glued to his scope and you to the VDI’s 
terrain display as you jink wildly and fly as low as you can stand, 
flying the egress route back to the ship. The B/N gives you heading 
corrections as you start to get to close to a ridge line building 
rapidly in front of you. You get a missile launch indication on your 
EW panel and hear the tell-tale audio tones as you execute evasive 
turns to defeat the missile track. You start the chaff program hoping 


it will decoy the missile. A thundering roar goes off nearby; the 
missile missed. You deviated off course to evade the missile, the B/N 
gives commands for a heading to the next turn point. Finally, the EW 
equipment quiets down and you go “feet wet” and start a climb to 
head back to “Mother.” 


The clouds surrounding the aircraft are starting to turn from black 
to grey as the new day appears. Your Bombardier checks in with 
Marshall to get the latest weather, marshall radial, and altitude 
assignment. You’re emotionally drained from the gut wrenching low 
level flight. With the weather at a 300 ft ceiling and 1 '/2 nm visibil- 
ity in rain with a pitching deck, you have to dredge up every last 
ounce of concentration to fly a flawless approach. After getting 
established in the IMC marshall stack and getting assigned your 
push time, it’s time to get ready for the approach. You lower your 
hook now so you won't forget it later. Fortunately, the ACLS needles 
have been working in this bad weather as you test them as OK. 
Finally, you calculate your landing weight and optimum approach 
speed and get rid of any excess gas so you can trap aboard with the 
proper weight. 

It’s your turn to push out of the stack and start your approach. You 
hear the approach controllers vectoring a low fuel state Phantom to 
the duty tanker and another just boltered. It doesn’t sound like it is 
going to be easy. Passing through 5,000 ft at 250 KIAS you break 
your rate-of-descent and continue to 1,200 ft where you level off 





24 FLIGHT 


and drive in. At 10 nm the controller tells you to delay lowering your 
landing gear ’till 8 nm. At 8 nm you go dirty by lowering the gear, 
flaps, and slats and start to slow up to 150 KIAS while performing 
your landing checklist. At 6 nm you put the speed brakes out and 
start slowing up to your on-speed airspeed. You continue to fly the 
TACAN final bearing course to the point you hope to get needles. 


The controller, who hasn't talked to you except to acknowledge you 
are on his net and that call at 10 nm, comes up at 4 nm to say he’s 
sending you ACLS information and to “call your needles.” You’ve 
been working hard to follow the final bearing in as best as possible 
so you can get a good start on the approach. You call the needles as 
centered and slightly high. That’s OK because you are approaching 
the glidepath from below. The controller says to fly your needles. It’s 
still raining heavily as the rain pelts the windscreen. You keep the 
needles centered and keep your instrument scan going so you don’t 
lose track of AOA, altitude, or lineup. You remember lineup espe- 
cially. You saw your squadron CO and pilot land too far right one 
night, clip a few planes then disappear forever in the water. 

It’s now a mile to go to the CV and you're concentrating in the 
cockpit. The B/N says he can’t see anything yet. If you don’t see 
anything soon, you'll have to execute a missed approach and try 
again. At ?/s nm the controller says “Intruder 506, 37/4 nm, call the 
ball” as he hands you off to the LSO for the visual portion of the car- 
rier approach. You tell the LSO “Intruder 506 is Clara” which means 
you can’t see the ball. He says “Roger, Paddles contact, keep it com- 
ing, you're looking good, a little power.” Suddenly the B/N sees the 
ship just as you do. You have to make a slight lineup correction to 
the left but the ball is solid in the datums. Suddenly you touch down 
and cobb the throttles then feel that reassuring tug of the wire. As 
you clean up and taxi out of the landing area, you breathe again. 
You’re emotionally exhausted. After shutdown and debrief it’s time 
for breakfast and your second flight of the day. 


Welcome to the world of the All Weather Attack Pilot. 


Jack McGinn has been a Naval Aviator since 1979 and has piloted 
A-6E’s and A-6E TRAMs with the VA-75 “Sunday Punchers.” He has 
1,850 hours in the A-6 and has had 300 traps. He is now in the Naval 
Reserves with Tactical Air Control Squadron-24 and is the owner of an 
aerospace consulting company in Norfolk, Virginia. 





You can move through the screens that follow by selecting OK each time. 
This will take you back to the Corridor scene, ready for your next operation. 
Selecting Scramble gives you a repeat of the previous mission. You could try 
a more adventurous Intruder mission if you like, but you’re probably itching 
to climb aboard an F-4 Phantom. If so, just go to the next page... 





™ 


FLY THE PHANTOM 25 


PART Il: YOUR FIRST FLIGHT IN THE 
F-4 PHANTOM 





“It was heavy. It proved the aerodynamic principle that if you have 
enough power, you can fly a brick...” 


“It had honest flight characteristics. It was a very stable gun 
platform, albeit with no gun. And | never thought I’d admit it, but in 
the end, | came to love the airplane...” 


Both quotes from Col. Dennis J. (Deej) Kiley, 
U.S. Marine Corps. 


The F-4 Phantom II started as an enhanced version of McDonnell Aircraft 
Company’s F-3H Demon, a lackluster fighter designed for a brief career with 
the United States Navy. The original design was for an attack fighter but in 
April 1955, the Navy said that a heavy two-seater attack plane was not the 
answer to their prayers. However, a fleet defense interceptor that could fly 
off an aircraft carrier, remain on station 250 miles from the carrier, intercept 
enemy MiGs and not come home for up to three hours would be just what 
the Navy doctor ordered. Oh yes, guns are obsolete, just put on Sparrow 
radar-guided missiles. 


We can do that, said McDonnell. And sure enough, they did. 


The Air Force, also looking for a fighter, picked up on the new airplane and 
joined the Naw in setting an impressive list of records. 


The Phantom II (the Phantom | was a little-used McDonnell design from the 
Korean era) became the fighter of choice for both services in Vietnam. They 
went through many changes over the years, but the versions most commonly 
in service during the Vietnam era were the Navy’s F-4B and F-4J and the Air 
Force’s F-4C, F-4D, and the gun-armed F-4E. 


For the most part, F-4s are no longer in any U.S. military inventory, except 
for the RF-4C’s still used by many Air Force Reconnaissance units. 





26 FLIGHT ==0r 1 c= INTRUDER 


You have just completed your first Intruder mission and are back at the 
Corridor scene. You have the following options: 


Scramble 
Intruder Pilot Brief 
Phantom Pilot Brief 

CAG Brief 


Duty Roster 





is Select Phantom Pilot Brief, and then select BarCap. 


You find yourself on the catapult ready for an immediate launch to intercept 
an incoming air threat. Your wingman will be launched seconds behind you. 
This will be your opportunity to practice wing tactics. 


Cockpit Orientation 





You will probably notice some similarities between this and the A-6 cockpit. 
More important, however, are the following differences: 


The F-4 has a four-stage fuel afterburner (AB) (Select (<] to increase, (>) to 
decrease). Use full AB during the launch. You can also use AB to go faster. 


Unlike the A-6, the views are symmetrical, so that the right forward 45° view 
looks out of the aircraft. This is because the F-4 pilot and his RIO (Radar 


FLY THE PHANTOM 27 


Intercept Officer) are placed in tandem, with the RIO behind the pilot. In the 
A-6, the pilot and his B/N are effectively side-by-side. 


There is also a look down view. Press [1], and note the position of the Mul- 
tiple Weapon Selection Panel. Press [[] to get back to the usual cockpit view. 





Takeoff Procedures and First Flight 


Controlling Your Aircraft 


Note that joystick and keyboard controls are the same as the A-6. Takeoff 
and landing procedures are also similar, except for the use of the after- 
burner on takeoff. You may want to review the earlier section describing 
aircraft control on pages 16-17. 


About the BarCap Mission 


You will be vectored to incoming threats by Red Crown, the radar picket ship. 
Stay in the air as long as possible by using sensible fuel management. When 
you are Bingo fuel (just enough fuel for a safe landing) or Winchester (out of 
missiles and ammunition), return to the Carrier by selecting the Landing 
waypoint by pressing (:]. 


When you are ready to take off: 
dl Press to launch the Phantom or wait for automatic launch. 


Note that afterburner uses fuel at a tremendous rate, so cut back as soon 
as possible. Don’t sit at sea level with full afterburner. 


os Follow the same procedures as you used with the Intruder to climb 
to 1,000 feet. Kick up your speed to 600 kts. 


Within seconds you are at 1,000 feet and following your patrol pattern. Now 
it is time to look for bogies (unidentified aircraft) that might threaten your 
home carrier. In Vietnam, the North Vietnamese wisely refrained from 
attacking American aircraft carriers in international waters. This made 
BARCAP a very dull duty for Navy fighter pilots. For this game, however, MiGs 
attacking the carrier are a very real threat. Keep your eyes open. 





] OF THE 


28 FLIGHT ° INTRUDER 


ce Look for the enemy by following the directions printed across the 
top of your screen. Remember, that 12 o'clock is directly in front of 
you and 6 o’clock is directly behind you. You want to have enemies 
in the former position and do not want them in the latter position. 


all At a distance of less than 27 miles, it is possible to get radar 
detection of your enemies if they are within 60° of the nose of your 
plane. If your radar is on (select (R) if not) and you are pointing at 
the MiG, you should get a green blip on the radar screen. However, 
this means that the MiG will detect your presence easily. 


er Also, you get a black diamond on the threat indicator (the circular 
screen on the upper right of the control panel) if the MiG has its 
radar turned on. (For this beginner’s game all MiGs have their radar 
on.) This screen also shows other aircraft, ships and radar stations 
that illuminated your plane with their radar. The range for this 
passive radar screen is variable, between 15 and 30 miles. 


oc Finally, if all else fails, ook for your targets. You can see about eight 
miles. Actively switch to different viewpoints within the cockpit. Like 
the A-6, you cannot look directly back over your tail; your RIO is in 
the way. Do not shoot at your wingman. 





Going Into Combat 
all Select (3) to get the look down view. 


This gives you a view similar to what you would get if you kept most of your 
attention inside the cockpit. You want the Multiple Weapons Selection Panel 
on the bottom left of this view. 


er Use to toggle between the Sparrow and Sidewinder missiles 
and your 20mm gun. 


As you toggle through the weapons you should see: 


° One of the rows of five horizontal lights illuminated when the Side- 
winder is selected. This represents the selected station on the 
Phantom’s wing or centerline. (The guns and Sparrows do not light 
up because the guns pod is internal and the Sparrows are mounted 
on their own special stations.) 


° The weapon type displayed in text in the display box over the station 
representation. 


Above the illuminated station light you will see the number of weapons 
available in that station. Above this set of numbers you will see some “RDR” 
and “HS” lights. These light indicate how many radar-guided (Sparrow) and 
heat-seeking (Sidewinder) weapons you have. Gun rounds remaining are 
shown to the right of the Multiple Weapon Selection Panel. 


Use the Sparrow for targets more than two miles away, the Sidewinder for 
targets you are following that are within two miles, and the gun for targets 
within 500 yards. 


FLY THE PHANTOM 29 


Using the Sparrow 


The AIM-7 is a radar-guided missile, so using it is a matter of getting a radar 
lock on the target. 


o Toggle until AIM 7 appears in the display box, the Radar light 
comes on in the menu to the left of the radar screen, and a green 
cone circle appears on the radar screen. 


er Steer to keep the green blip inside the inner green circle. The range 
figure (lowest right number on the radar screen) will continue to 
count down the range. When you are within Sparrow range (2-14 
miles) the range light to the right of the radar screen comes on. If 
you have been keeping the target within the green circle, the Lock 
light should come on soon after. Two vertical lines on either side of 
the blip also appear when lock has been achieved. These lines are 
called captain’s bars. 


o Switch on the Master Arm (select (Home]) when the MiG is in range 
and fire ((Spacebar)) when the lock light comes on. The Sparrow will 
guide to the target so long as you keep the target blip in captain’s 
bars until it hits. 


Sparrows were the weapon the Phantom had been designed to carry. They 
were meant to be a far-ranging missile that could hit a target the pilot could 
not even see. The F-4 pilot was not supposed to need a gun because he 
would knock down all of his targets from long range. It had not been used in 
combat before the Vietnam War and had a very low kill ratio. Only one out of 
12 fired hit a target. Launch two Sparrows at the same time to increase your 
chance of success. 


Moreover, the Rules of Engagement over Vietnam usually called for visual 
identification of an enemy before shooting, therefore negating the presumed 
superiority of using the Sparrow. 


If you launch without a lock-on, a hit is unlikely. However, launching in these 
conditions is not always foolhardy. At least a launch is likely to unsettle the 
bandit. This can be important if the bandit has you or another friendly in his 
sights. 


NOTES: In this beginner's mission, you are being given a little easier time of 
it than the Navy had. The missile’s hit probability has been greatly 
improved. If you select a harder level (see Part VI), you will have the 
same problems the Navy did. 


30 FLIGHT 


Using the Sidewinder 


The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking missile whose descendants are still 
being used today. 


oc Select the Sidewinder by toggling (E] until AIM 9 appears in the 
weapons box, the Heat light comes on in the menu to the left of the 
radar screen, and a green cone circle appears on the radar screen. 


ce Find your target in the same manner you used for the Sparrow. 
When the target is within Sidewinder range (1-2 miles) and you are 
pointing at the enemy’s rear so the heat-seeker head on the Side- 
winder can find its target, select to master arm your weapons 
and use to launch missiles at the target. The Sidewinder 
is a “fire and forget” weapon so you do not need to point at the 
target after missile release. 





NOTES: Sidewinders also had a low kill ratio in Vietnam, though not as bad 
as the Sparrow. Among their problems was that they were not the 
all-aspect weapon they are now. The pilot had to be on the tail of 
the target so the heat sensors in the missile could get a good 
thermal picture of its exhaust. 


For ease of play, the default “easy targets” selection on the Options 
Menu allows you to shoot at any aspect of the target with a fair 
chance of success. The “medium targets” option requires you to 
shoot at the bandit’s rear quarter to get a lock. The “hard targets” 
option requires that you continue to point at the bandit’s rear while 
the missile is in flight. 





FLY THE PHANTOM 31 


Using the Vulcan M61A1 20mm Cannon 


The Navy never intended for the Phantom to carry a gun and, even after the 
need for guns became obvious, never really liked mounting guns on their 
Phantoms. The original design called for an entirely missile-armed weapon, 
and only the U.S. Air Force mounted the internal 20mm provided in this 
game. F-4J’s, the type of Phantom being flown here, did have an optional 
externally mounted 20mm gun pod, however, so we are using that as an 
excuse to give you lots of opportunity to shoot up the opposition. If you 
insist on doing things The Navy Way, never select guns in your dogfights. 


Only a few Navy F-4s actually carried the external pod, and it was strictly 
meant as an air-to-ground weapon. It was very inaccurate for air-to-air use. 


o Select Guns by toggling either or (you can use 
because Guns can also be used against ground targets) 
until GUNS comes up on the display box, the Gun light comes on, 
and the green cone circle disappears from the radar screen. 


Guns should only be selected when the target is in visible range. For initial 
detection, use the same methods you use for missile targets. 


oc Use (H) to switch on the Master Arm when the target is within a mile 
and fire (using (Spacebar]), when ready. 


For best results, do not shoot until the bandit fills your screen. The bandit 

should at least be bigger than the sighting circle. Remember that you and 

the bandit are moving. You need to use what is called deflection shooting (or 

just “leading a target”), which simply means you have to shoot where the 

enemy is going to be, not where he is when you press the trigger. 

NOTES: More than one hit is needed to kill a MiG. Successful hits are 
marked by mini-explosions on the surface of the MiG. 

Once all the bandits have been shot down, you should head back to the 

ship. You can press [A] to engage the autopilot to take you directly back to 

the ship. 


INTRUDER 





32 FLIGHT ozs oF tHe om 


Landing 


You may not feel ready to attempt a manual landing at this stage, so try an 
auto landing by selecting [A]. Alternatively, you can bring up the menu bar by 
pressing and selecting End Mission. This takes you directly to the De- 
briefing Room no matter what stage of the game you’re in. Needless to say, 
this procedure is for the more lily-livered players, those who should have 
been weeded out at the recruitment office. If you must use it (or if you just 
want to learn more about menu options) see the Reference section. You can 
also consult the Reference section for information about manual landing. 


When your hook has caught the wire and the aircraft has slowed down, you 
are automatically moved to the Debriefing Room. 





OPERATION: 
SUCCESS RATING: 44 

MAMUAL PILOT: BAR 
SUCCESS PATIWG: 373 

MIGS KILLED: TOTAL: 3 
IW MAMUAL: 3 


TOTAL AIRCRAFT LiuST: 1) 


BAG Luck! 





The statistics for the current mission are on display in the Debriefing Room. 
See Part V for information on analyzing these statistics. If you have earned a 
medal or badge you may get pulled out of the debrief for a photo opportunity. 
A word with your boss comes next; look to see if you are on the Sierra Hotel 
Notice on his wall. The Sierra Hotel Notice lists the top ten pilots that have 
played the simulation. The derivation of the term Sierra Hotel is in the 
Glossary. 


You can move through the screens that follow by selecting OK each time. 
This will take you back to the Corridor scene, ready for your next operation. 
Selecting Scramble gives you a repeat of the previous mission. 


FLY THE PHANTOM 33 


Flying The F-4 
by Col. Phil Hanley, U.S. Air Force (ret.) 


On a cloudless day in August 1984, at 

Holloman AFB, I flew my last flight as an 

active duty TAC pilot. That flight was 

made in the magnificent F-15 Eagle, a 

plane I had flown and loved since 1977. 

Its flawless handling qualities are trans- 

ferred through a hydro-mechanical stick 

that makes it feel smaller in your hand 

than the comparatively tiny F-5E. On my 

second ride in at Luke AFB in 1977, I did 

a triple Immelmann — a vulgar display 

of brute power. Its huge bubble canopy affords the pilot an unre- 
stricted view of his 6 o'clock, an attribute that had been sacrificed by 
aero design engineers since the era of the F-86. However, as much as 
I loved the F-15, to this day, absolutely nothing stirs my memory 
banks or brings chills to my spine like the crack and roar of an F-4’s 
afterburners on takeoff roll. 


First of all, it looks like a fighter ought to look with its dropped nose 
and stabs, canted wing tips, and no-nonsense “don’t mess around 
with me” stance. Anybody looking at the business end of this fighter 
(especially an enemy) has got to immediately understand the pur- 
pose for which it was built. When the Thunderbirds and the Blue 
Angels flew them in their demonstration teams, the ground shook, 
babies cried, and dogs barked. They were never better, and it was a 
sad day when the Thunderbirds were forced to trade them in for T- 
38s (which looked and sounded like a Tinkertoy by comparison). But 
as great as it was in air shows, it was far more impressive doing the 
job it was designed for, a fact indisputably demonstrated for over 
seven years during thousands of sorties in the skies over Southeast 
Asia (SEA). 


The All-Around Fighter 


Officially named the Phantom II, but affectionately called “Double 
Ugly” or the “McDonnell Rhinoceros” by the men who flew her, the 
F-4 will surely join great fighters of the past like the Spitfire, P-51, 
and F-86 as a classic. It was and continues to be a big, tough, mean- 
faced fighting machine that doesn’t do a single thing better than 
competing fighters. Thuds (F-105s) were faster and far more stable 
bombing platforms, F-5s and all the MiGs could outturn it, its out-of- 
cockpit visibility wasn’t that great, the original models were built 
without a gun, it was plagued with tremendous adverse yaw, and 
the engines smoked so badly at mil power that a defecting MiG pilot 
once stated that the first time he ever saw one he thought it was on 
fire. But as a package deal, the F-4 could do it all — Close Air 
Support, interdiction, air superiority or reconnaisance. It was simply 
the best fighter in the skies over North Vietnam. 





34 FLIGHT = INTRUDER 


As a “mud beater” it hauled a lot of iron very far, very fast. It could 
fight its way in and out of the target area, and with two of the most 
reliable engines in the world (seemingly immune to throttle abuse 

and FOD), it would bring you home, even with one of them shot out. 


Unarmed and Unafraid 


The RF-4C was a recce version, it carried high speed cameras 
instead of weapons and had the thorny mission of post-strike recon- 
naisance. After a huge strike package (called the eight hundred 
pound gorilla) had done its thing and really gotten everyone north 
of the Red River stirred up, somebody had to go in and get the 
pictures — a job that fell to the particularly gutsy and resourceful 
aircrews that flew the RF-4C. Their motto, “Alone, Unarmed, and Un- 
afraid” wasn’t always totally accurate. On many occasions “alone” 
didn’t apply because it was decided that an element of armed F-4s 
should accompany them into the just-vacated target area to protect 
them from MiG attack while they were getting the pictures. These 
missions were appropriately called “The Run For The Roses,” because 
to a recce pilot, speed was life; the RF-4C was fast — boy, was it fast. 
Since it was lighter to begin with, and had far less drag than its 
accompanying missile-laden escorts, it was not uncommon for the 
flight leader of the escort to find himself in first or second stage 
afterburner by the time the recce hit mil power. When he really got 
serious and went to full burner, he would simply walk away from his 
escort like it was parked and the escort would find themselves all 
alone directly over the “City On The River” as the unarmed recce 
disappeared at supersonic speed into the foothills. 

Fighting MiGs 

In the air-to-air role, all versions of the Air Force’s F-4 C, D, & E 
bristled with eight missiles and a gun (only the F-4E carried the gun 
internally). Although the missiles didn’t work that well, no one else's 
did, either. Even if their Pk was low, AIM-7s launched at long ranges 
left huge white exhaust trails that created great confusion, loss of 
tactical awareness and mutual support within the MiG formations. 
The Phantom had energy to burn (especially in the denser air at low 
altitude), and in the hands of a capable pilot, it was more than a 
match for all takers. 

Against the much lower wing-loaded MiGs (especially the MiG-17 and 
MiG-19), you simply could not play a “nose-pointing” game anywhere 
near the MiG’s corner velocity, as you would constantly find him 
pointing at you with his nose on fire. Conversely, the F-4 could take 
the flight into the vertical where it enjoyed a decided energy advan- 
tage, or drag it low into the dense air where it not only had unbe- 
lievable energy, but where the MiG pilot’s flight controls became stiff 
and his airframe unstable at very high calibrated airspeeds. Against 
a cannon-only armed MiG-17 or MiG-19, an F-4 pilot could “unload 
to zero G” and extend to a range that allowed him to “pitch back” 
into the fight with great energy and a better aspect angle. 





OF THE | 








FLY THE PHANTOM 35 


Taking the fight into the vertical became a classic tactic, but by no 
means did it ensure victory. In the hands of a skilled pilot, all of the 
MiGs (including the MiG-17) could take it up with you. When this 
happened, you had to avoid being “spit out” in the ensuing vertical 
rolling scissors before the MiG ran out of energy and fell off. This 
maneuver was especially dangerous against the MiG-21, which flew 
about like an F-5E with a light nose. It not only turned well, but also 
had the energy to go up with you a long way. Once a vertical rolling 
scissors was joined, it was somewhat like “riding a hog; there was no 
way to get off.” Even if it meant flying the bird down to zero air- 
speed, you had to do whatever was necessary to make him fall off 
first. If you failed and tried to extend out of the fight, not only was 
the MiG-21 difficult to extend from, the F-4’s forty-foot afterburner 
cones made a great heat source for his Atoll missiles. 

The Controversial Guy In Back 

Originally developed for the Navy, the F-4 was non-traditional in 
that it was a two-seat fighter. The thinking being that there was 
more than enough for the pilot to do in flying the jet without having 
to also run the fire control system. The Navy assigned these tasks to 
the backseater, calling him a RIO (Radar Intercept Officer). The Air 
Force, using their rule ensuring nothing was ever called the same as 
in the Navy, dubbed their backseater the WSO (Weapon Systems 
Officer). Those that flew the Air Force F-4s took it one step further 
and simply called him the GIB (Guy In Back). Few tactical fighter con- 
troversies rival the continuing debate over single seat vs. two-place 
cockpits, where strong and passionate arguments are advanced all 
the way from the Pentagon to the stag bar. Everyone has an opinion, 
and having flown both single seat and two-place for a number of 
years, 1am no exception. 

Flying by yourself in today’s fighters like the F-15, F-16, and F/A-18 
works just fine. Not only does it make you feel macho, but your 
individual situational awareness and ability to act decisively is 
probably heightened. I have no empirical data to support that 
assertion, it’s just how I feel. 


However, I don’t think the single seat would have worked worth a 
damn in Southeast Asia. For one thing, the avionics and weapons 
systems, although not nearly as capable as today’s, were difficult to 
operate really well. HOTAS (Hands On Stick And Throttle) was non- 
existent. Clearing your own six o'clock from the F-4’s cockpit was 
difficult during patrol, and almost impossible once engaged ina 
close-in fight. Simply put, the F-4 was designed to exploit the state- 
of-the-art weapons systems of its day, and those systems did not 
easily lend themselves to operation by an single individual. 

In my opinion, if the GIB did nothing more than twist himself around 
to put his eyeballs on your vulnerable cone during dogfights, he was 
worth his weight in gold. But the truth of the matter is that he did 
infinitely more than that. I have flown with lots of them, some better 








36 FLIGHT | INTRUDER 


than others, but I was privileged to fly most of my missions in SEA 
with two really great ones. They could pick radar returns of MiGs 
from the clutter of a radar scope that looked to me like a bowl of 
buttermilk. They could air refuel off tankers, and generally fly the 
jet better from the back seat than some of the IPs. (Some GIBs saved 
their pilot’s life when they recovered the aircraft after he was 
incapacitated.) Contrary to myth, they weren't all frustrated pilots 
that couldn’t hack it, but dedicated professionals that strapped their 
pink bodies to Double Ugly and did their jobs four feet in trail with 
you, in one of the most sophisticated and dangerous integrated air 
defense environments ever devised. One of those GIBs I refer to was 
killed in action; the other won the ATC Commander’s Trophy in 
flight training, was top gun at F-4 RTU and F-15 RTU, and will soon 
be a general officer. As whether future fighters should be single or 
two place, I could make arguments either way. But in the case of the 
F-4, you will not hear this fighter pilot bad-mouth the GIB. 
Carrying On 

To this day, the F-4 continues to be a great fighter. In the active duty 
forces, the RF-4C is still the primary recce aircraft for TAC, USAFE 
and PACAF. The F-4G, a highly modified version of the slatted F-4E, 
performs the Wild Weasel role of detection, identification and des- 
truction or suppression of enemy radars. Although none of the 
F-4C’s are still in service, hundreds of F-4D and F-4E models have 
been constantly updated and scrupulously maintained by Air Force 
Reserve and Alr National Guard units, where they are flown exceed- 
ingly well by highly experienced and capable aircrews. 

Not bad for an aircraft designed in the mid-1950s. But time marches 
on, and one day, like all of the great ones, it too will pass from the 
scene. When it does, I for one sincerely hope that it will take its place 
on a pedestal of honor at TAC Headquarters at Langley AFB (even if 
it was originally a Navy design), for it has served us exceedingly well 
and has truly earned its place in the sun. 


Colonel Phil Hanley has been a U.S.Air Force command pilot with 7,000 
flying hours and two combat tours in Southeast Asia (325 combat 
sorties) flying F-4D’s and F-4E’s. He has earned 21 air medals, 3 Distin- 
guished Flying Crosses, and 1 Silver Star. 


Moving On 


Now you are a veteran of two operations, Morning Song and BARCap. If you 
think you are ready to take on the duties of the Commander of the Air Group 
(CAG) and plan your own operation, then turn the page to the next section. If 
you feel you need a little more combat experience, go back and try another 
mission or two flying either an Intruder or a Phantom. Return to the main 
corridor and select either Intruder or Phantom Pilot Brief. You are taken to 
the Briefing Room, where you can select from the available operations. 


As described in the CAG Part following, it is possible to modify any of these 
missions by changing their waypoints or the aircraft taken. 





MISSION PLANNING 37 


PART Ill: YOUR FIRST OPERATION AS 
CAG 





The CAG (Commander Air Group) is an archaic title that derives from the 
time when all the planes on board a carrier were known as its Air Group. 
Well before the Vietnamese war, the carrier planes had been redesignated 
as Air Wings, but one supposes that the commanders of these aggregations 
would rather be known as CAGs than CAWs. The name is still in use. 


It is the function of the CAG to work with his pilots to plan their missions and 
to lead these missions. In this simulation, you act as CAG by planning all the 
steps of the mission and then flying the mission in whatever plane you 
choose. 





You have successfully undertaken at least one of the two preceding mis- 
sions, and now you feel ready to plan and execute your first operation as 
Commander Air Group. You are at the Corridor scene. (If you’re not, you 
should know how to get there by now). As usual, you have the following 
options: 


38 FLIGHT cor tHe 1 


Scramble 
Intruder Pilot Brief 
Phantom Pilot Brief 


CAG Brief 


Duty Roster 





oc Select CAG Brief. 


You are taken to the CAG briefing room, where the display shows a list of the 
primary targets. 


Planning an operation is a multiple stage process. First, the CAG selects the 
operation’s primary and secondary targets. Primary targets are usually sig- 
nificant installations, such as a bridge, a railroad, or an ammunition dump. A 
primary target is the whole point of the operation — hitting a primary target 
is sufficient to make an operation a success. Secondary targets are targets 
in the vicinity of the primary but are less important. You can get extra points 
for hitting a secondary target. Note, however, that all auto-flying in this simu- 
lation is based on single pass attacks. This means that if you are on auto- 
pilot, you will be taken over the primary target and then back to the carrier. 


The next step in planning an operation involves choosing the waypoints and 
setting up the desired route, timing and actions. At this point you can also 
determine whether the Rules of Engagement will apply to the mission. 


The route should be chosen to keep planes coming into the target from 
running into planes leaving the target. 


The timing should involve in what order planes leave the carrier (usually 
MiGCAP and other Escorts go first and then the bombers) and in what order 
they hit the target area. In general, Iron Hand and Wild Weasel attacks 
should hit their targets before the main bombing run happens, but not so far 
in advance of the bombing attack that the enemy has the time to recover 
and be ready for the next attack. 


Actions involves what planes will handle what parts of the job: what planes 
are handling Iron Hand, which doing the bombing, and so forth. 


MISSION PLANNING 39 


A Mission Of Your Own 


Let’s set up a mission to see how this works. 


dl Select Hanoi Power Station as your primary target and select OK. 
You will then be presented with a list of secondary targets. 


oc Select SAM site near Hanoi as your secondary target and select 
OK. 


This brings up the main CAG screen, which presents you with the following 
choices: 














HAMOGE PLR Pay Pin 
| THIS IS A DIFFICULT TARGET. IT COMPRISES | 
/ A BOILER HOUSE, CONTROL BUILDING AND 
i CHIMNEY. A CONUEYOR BELT CONNECTS THE 

i RAILWAY TO THE BOILER HOUSE. 





taecneeeeseececscnesececeenscesccsecesascnessasaesscnssesecsenscecesscccceseceeesseseseeed 


Cancel: Return to corridor scene. 

Stores: Choose weapons and other external stores. 
Waypoint: Set up the desired route, timing and actions. 
Target Intell: Obtain information about the chosen target. 


General Intell: Obtain information about selected area of map, e.g. 
position, SAM, MiG, AAA, ground force activity. 


Aircraft Info: Obtain information about your assigned aircraft and 
set up departure times and duties. 


Target Select: Choose another primary target. 
Enter} OK: Accept changes and continue. 


la © soeod 





40 FLIGHT sort c= INTRUDER 


You can choose your options in any order you like. For example, you can set 
your waypoints and then decide you want to select a new target (which would 
require resetting the waypoints). Or you can get aircraft information, and 
then decide on the weapons and external stores. Generally, however, it’s a 
good idea to obtain General and Target Intelligence before making your other 
choices, since what you learn there may influence your decisions. The first 
one to look at is Target Intelligence. 


TARGET INTELLIGENCE 
o Select Target Intelligence (1). 


This information is provided to help the pilot locate and identify the target. 
On entry, a map is displayed showing the primary and secondary targets. 
Get this information first; without it you won’t know where to send your 
attacking force. 





c}] Exit back to Mission Planning Screen. 


Photo of the target. 


sab 


Information: the position and description of 
the target. 


Map: this changes the scale of the map 
display between the general map of North 
Vietnam and the location of the target. The 
target location map also puts a square around 
the target site. 


ES) 





Now you know where you are going. It’s time to look at the General Intelli- 
gence Map to see what you are going to be up against. 


MISSION PLANNING 41 
GENERAL INTELLIGENCE 


When planning, you will need to know something about the enemy activity. 
This is where you get the latest intelligence. It should be possible to plan a 
route which skirts the heaviest defenses. Don’t go to Hanoi via Haiphong 
Docks. Remember the long way around could use too much fuel. 


You can use Gl aggressively. Make a note of the annoying SAMs/AAAs, and 
hit them on the way back from the main mission. 


or Select General Intelligence (G) 


This gives you a map similar to the Target Intelligence map, with the follow- 
ing icons available: 


GEAERAL INTELLIGENCE 
LATITUDE: He 
LONGITUDE: 

RANGE: 
BEARING: 


ESTIMATED No. SAMS: 
ESTIMATED No. AAA: 
LOCAL MIG ACTIVITY: 
LOCAL GROUND ACTIVITY: 





Exit Return to next level up. 


(1) Information displays the following intelligence about the area 
enclosed in the square: 


Position: The latitude and longitude 
Range: Distance in miles from Hanoi (Bull’s-eye) 
Bearing: Compass bearing from Hanoi (Bull’s-eye) 


Estimated No. of SAMs: How many SAMs in the area 
Estimated No. of AAA: How many AAA in the area 

Local MiG activity: How likely MiGs are to be present* 
Local Ground Activity: | How likely ground fire might be* 


* In both these cases, the range runs from low (hardly any) to 
heavy (lots). 


42 FLIGHT == orm c= INTRUDER 


WAYPOINTS 


This brings you back to the main CAG screen. Next we’ll choose the way- 
points for the operation. 


Le Select Waypoint. 


This brings up the following screen: 


ACTION Law 





On selecting waypoints, a map is shown on which is displayed the route and 
waypoints for the first section of aircraft. Note that a route is specified for 
the section, not individual aircraft. The current waypoint is flashing. The 
current section and waypoint number are displayed at the top of the screen. 
There must be a minimum of four waypoints, and the first and last are 
treated in a special way — i.e. they cannot be deleted. 


To set the waypoints for your operation you use the following icons: 








Esc] Cancel Return and forget edits. 

(S} Next Section Display next section’s route and waypoints. 

(Ww) Next Waypoint Make next waypoint current. 

(A) Add Waypoint Adds a waypoint after the current waypoint. This 
is not allowed for the last waypoint. 

[D) Del Waypoint Delete current waypoint. 

(E} Edit Waypoint Open dialog box to allow editing of waypoint. 

(M) Map Change scale of map. The current waypoint must 
be retained on the map; therefore, moving to the 
large scale is only allowed if it is available. 

Enter] OK Return with edits. 


MISSION PLANNING 43 


The position of the current waypoint can be moved using: 





Cursor Keys (€), (>), (+) and (+) will move whichever waypoint has been 
selected using (Ww. 
Mouse: Click the left mouse button to select the nearest way- 


point. Drag the waypoint and release to fix it. 


ACTICn DROP 


HAYPOINT 
AVE. SPEED: 375 KNoTs 
RANGE: Fa HMiLes 
BEARING: F DEG. 


Lat: 
Lone: 
ALT: 
ACTION: 





Edit waypoint dialog 

This is divided into two areas. The first is the Comment Field: it tells you 
what your average speed should be and the range and bearing of the point to 
Bull’s-eye (See next page). These entries change when you change the fields 
described below. Also, if your new entries take the waypoint out of the range 
of the map or to an impossible latitude or longitude, a message telling you 
SO appears when you your edit. 


Latitude/: These entires allow very accurate placement of current 

Longitude waypoint. 

Alt: This shows the altitude at which the section of planes 
should reach the waypoint. 

Action: Takeoffs and bombing are examples. This allows you to 


set up the specific operation for each waypoint and let 
the mission unfold automatically. 


ETA: Estimated Time of Arrival: this is the time that you want 
the aircraft to reach the waypoint. 


be FLIGHT 





Points of Reference 
We are interested in the following area: 


104 deg E to 108 deg E 
19 deg N to 22 deg N 


It is possible to fly outside this region. It is not very interesting; we 
have not defined anything outside this region. The area is bordered on 
the east and southeast by water. To the north and northwest is China; 
venturing here is foolhardy — expect to be shot down very soon. To the 
west and southwest are the mountains of Laos, another hostile area. 


There are five maps available in the software: 


A small scale map of the whole area which is displayed during waypoint 
editing in the game beginning. Because the whole area is displayed, 
the map can be used for route planning. This map is also used for the 
moving map display in the aircraft cockpits. 


This map is similar to the authentic Route Map included with this 
game. This map is identical to the maps carried on the knees of pilots 
who flew over Vietnam. Four maps at four times the scale of the small 
scale map can be displayed during waypoint editing. The maps display 
the most targeted areas: 


Hanoi: 20-55N to 21-40N 105-30E to 106-30E 


Haiphong: 20-15N to 21-OON 106-00E to 107E 
Yen Bai: 21-15N to 22-O0N 104-30E to 105-30E 
Than Hoa: 19-30N to 20-15N 105-O00E to 106—-00E 


When looking at locations on the Waypoint and Intelligence maps, the 
locations are given in degrees of latitude and longitude. However, for 
an easily understood location fix in combat, we also use the “Bull’s-eye 
system” used by the Air Force and Naw in the Vietnam War. Bull’s-eye 
is downtown Hanoi. Any position in North Vietnam can be described as 
a bearing and range from Bull’s-eye. The map that alternates with your 
cockpit radar screen shows these coordinates. The circles are drawn in 
20 nautical mile increments from the center of Hanoi. 


So “MiGs at 180 for 60”, means that MiGs have been sighted 60 
miles south of Hanoi. Looking at the map, you can tell that the MiG is 
at about 20°,2' N by 105°, 49' E, or just south and west of Bien Son. 


Clock Code 
When sending messages the “Clock Code” is used: Straight ahead is 
12 o'clock, straight behind is 6 o'clock. For example: 


“Bandit at your 3 o’clock range 2 miles” means that there is a bandit 
on your right hand side at a range of 2 miles. Usually, the subject of 
the message was repeated twice, such as “Bandit, Bandit, at your 3 
o'clock range 2 miles.” To save space we only use the designator once. 





MISSION PLANNING 45 


STORES 


Now that you know where you are going, you need to determine what you are 
going to deliver to the target. 


or Select Stores 


This brings up a screen depicting either an F-4 Phantom or an A-6 Intruder. 


The CAG chooses weapons and other external stores, such as extra gas 
tanks and ECM pods. It is important to choose the right weapons for the job 
— forego the extra missiles if the trip is a long one, lighten the plane or take 
an extra gas tank instead. 


SECTION | See “EOMERUN 





Description of icons: 


Next Section Move to the next section of planes attached to the 
operation. 


Next Weapon Highlight the next weapon to the right. (¢} will move the 
highlight to the left, even though there is no icon 
displayed. 

Up Arrow Load highlighted weapon. If there is room on the cen- 
ter station, then the weapons are loaded individually. If 
not, the wing stations are used and the weapons are 
loaded in pairs. 


Down Arrow Unload highlighted weapon. Center stations are 
emptied first. 


(R} Reset Reset the weapon selection to that defined on disk by 
us: i.e. the standard load for type of mission selected. 
In CAG mode, the reset is to a basic minimum bomb- 
ing load of Walleye and MK82s. 





46 FLIGHT : INTRUDER 


(1) Information Provide information about the highlighted weapon. 
Next to each weapon a fraction is displayed. 


The top number indicates the number of that weapon 
type currently loaded. The bottom number represents 
the total number that could be loaded. Note that, as 
weapons are loaded, the options become more 
limited. 


Section number and duty are displayed at the top of the screen. 


ce Select a Paveway from the stores screen. 


Optional External Fuel Tanks 
For some missions extra fuel is essential, but double-check those fuel 
management calculations — too much fuel can be as bad as too little! 


Among the possibilities are: 
370 gallon fuel tank — Only for use with the Phantom 


300 gallon fuel tank — Only for use with the Intruder 


Small external fuel tank — Always loaded in pairs. Giving total 
extra capacity of 4200 Ib. 


600 gallon fuel tank Large external fuel tank holding 4200 
Ib of extra fuel. 





Weapon Station Capacity 


The underside and wings of both the Phantom and the Intruder have areas 
where weapons can be slung for use. These are called weapon stations. The 
following tables show the capacities of the two planes. 


RO Right Outer Wing 

RI Right Inner Wing 

Center Under the body of the plane 
LI Left Inner Wing 


LO Left Outer Wing 


MISSION PLANNING 47 











INTRUDER 
Stations 

Wt(kg) RO RI Center LI LO 
300 g fuel 150+950 aL: 1 1 1 dL; 
ECM Pods 500 1 1 dl; 1 1 
Shrike 206 1 1 O al 1 
Walleye 502 1 1 0 1 1 
Mk82 Snakeye 254 6 5 6 5 6 
Mk82 226 6 5 6 5 6 
Mk83 454 3 2 3 2 3 
Mk84 907 1, 41. 1 1: 1 
Paveway 907 1 1 0) 1 4. 
Rockets 194 3 2 (0) 3 2 
PHANTOM 

Stations 

Wt (kg) RO RI Center LI LO 
370g fuel 150+1175 1 0 4; (0) It 
600g fuel 200+1905 0 0) 1 (0) 0 
ECM Pods 500 (0) a: 0 1 0 
Sparrow 206 (0) 2 0 2 0 
Sidewinder 77 0 2 0 2 0 
Shrike 206 1 2 ce) 1 1 
Walleye 502 4. 4, 0 4: 3 
Mk82 Snakeye 254 6 3 6 3 6 
Mk82 226 6 3 6 3 6 
Mk83 454 3 2 3 2 3 
Mk84 907 1 0 1 (0) ul 
Paveway 907 1 1 0 1 al 
Rockets 194 5 0 5 0 5 


INTRUDER 





ag FLIGHT = or tue 


Aircraft Information 


Next, we’ll need to obtain information about the aircraft you'll be using in the 
mission. 


oc Select Aircraft Info. 



















of DEP ARK 
Tyr THEE 
#@ INTPimee 2 Borakiuw STOR ES 


& PHENT CHANGE DETAILS 
AIRCRAFT: F 

TIME: 
Duty: 






INTRU 














Boobies 


This is where you get the information about the aircraft in the chosen 
operation. The aircraft are organized in sections of one or two aircraft. For 
mutual protection, most sections start with two members, leader and 
wingman. The exception to this is the lone Intruder mission: go in low and 
fast in bad weather. Sections never consist of a mix of aircraft. 


Each section is given a number. This is important as it is used to move 
between the sections when in flight: you press for Section 1 and so 
on. This simulation has a limit of four sections per mission. 


As well as displaying Section number, aircraft type and number of aircraft in 
the section, you also get duty and departure time. The duty dictates the type 
of job given to the Section. This is explained later. 


Under the aircraft information line is the names of the pilot and B/N (or RIO) 
for the lead aircraft in each section. How you can alter these names is 
shown on the next page. 


Icons Available: 


Previous Section Highlights the next section up. 
Next Section Highlights the next section down. 


(1) Information Opens a dialog box which indicates the orders for 
that section and allows you to change some of them. 


MISSION PLANNING 49 


lll Select [1]. 


This brings up the Aircraft Duty screen shown on the previous page. On this 
screen you can alter the time of takeoff for the section, its basic mission, 
and the personnel involved. Use [+] and {+] to go between the Time field, the 
Duty field, the Aircrew field and the OK field. As you can see, you don’t get 
to choose the aircraft you'll be using in your operation. As in real life, you 
have to make do with what has been assigned to you. What you can do, 
however, is assign specific duties and crew to your aircraft. The following 
aircraft duties are available: 





MIGCAP Combat air patrol away from the target area. 

IRON HAND Ground attack against AAA and SAM sites using normal 
air-to-ground weapons. On autopilot, its priority is for AAA 
sites. 

BOMB RUN Strike mission against the primary target. 


WILD WEASEL Ground attack against AAA and SAM sites using ECM 
pods for protection and the Shrike anti-radiation missile. 
On autopilot, its priority is for SAM sites. 


ESCORT Ground and air cover, equal priority goes into AAA, SAM 
and GCI sites. 
TARCAP Combat air patrol at the target area. 


For this particular operation, we will need to have a bomb run on the Plant 
with a smart weapon. We also have to deal with a SAM site, so it would be 
best to have our second section of A-6s equipped for Wild Weasel activity 
and the Phantoms equipped for Iron Hand. 


For aircrew, we need to find crews with good Accuracy for the main bomb run 
and good Iron Hand skills for the Iron Hand and Wild Weasel missions. The 
Phantom crew should also have good Dogfighting skill, but that is secondary 
to the Iron Hand skill for this mission. If you want to change the aircrew, use 
and (+) to bring up new crew names. 


How do you know what the capabilities of the crew are? 


oc Select (C] for Crews to get a list of the crews with their capabilities 
The meaning of these capabilities can be found in the Personnel/ 
Communications Manual. 


You have one more thing to plan before actually executing the operation — 

assigning departure times to your aircraft. 

Local time is entered in the following format: HH:MM.SS 

o Select the Time data field and type in 02:00.00. This will start the 
mission at 2:00 AM. 


Once you have set your aircraft and crew duties and departure times, it’s 
time to start the operation. Hit to take command of your aircraft. In 
this game, just like the Navy, the CAG both plans and flies the missions. 





50 FLIGHT coorm co INTRUDER 


Enemy Encounters 

United States aircraft had to run the gauntlet of both NV air and ground 
defenses. The major ground threat was AAA and SAMs. Generally the 
North Vietnamese attacked with either AAA, SAMs or MiGs. So the first 
wave of U.S. aircraft could, after the first engagement, tell the others 
whether it was a SAM or a MiG day. In this simulation we mix them up 
together to represent the worst days. 


Air Encounters 

The enemy have MiG-17, MiG-19 and MiG-21 jet fighters. See the 
aircraft specifications in Part VI. They are armed with cannon and Atoll 
heat-seeking missiles similar to the Sidewinder. This means that you 
are relatively safe as long as you haven’t got a MiG on your tail. 


Ground Encounters 

SAMS For most of the war, the only surface-to-air missiles used by the 
North Vietnamese were Russian SA-2 Guidelines. Until very late 
in the war, these only appeared in North Vietnam. This is small 
consolation, since you are only flying over North Vietnam. 


The usual description of a SAM is that it looked like a flying 
telephone pole. They look deceptively clumsy. Many pilots 
learned how to avoid a SAM (see below) and then became 
complacent. But SAMs are extrememely fast, hitting over three 
times the speed of sound and could be set off in three ways; by 
impact, proximity, and ground signal. The United States leader- 
ship thought that the SAMs were probably the most significant 
threat in the skies of North Vietnam, and they proved a very 
potent threat. 
Avoiding a SAM is easy if you know it is coming. Just make a 
hard turn when it is almost on top of you. Of course, if you do it 
too soon, it will turn with you. If you do it too late, it will just 
explode and down you anyway. 
The Vietnamese employed many types of anti-aircraft guns, from 
the 37mm cannon (an orange tracer) to the ubiquitous 57mm 
(which explodes with greyish brown smudges like pigtails) to the 
slow-firing but deadly 87mm (red puffs of smoke). At the start of 
the war, common wisdom was that anti-aircraft guns could never 
track a jet plane.Therefore, planes came in low to avoid SAMs. 
Common wisdom forgot that AAA could put up a pattern of fire 
that could blow away a jet plane as easily as a Piper Cub. The 
best plan was to fly over 3,000 feet and jink a lot to throw off 
the radar tracking for the SAMs and AAA. 

Rifles A lot of planes were shot down by ground fire. Fly above 3,000 
ft. to avoid small arms fire. Of course, that makes you a target 
for SAMs and AAA. 





MISSIONS 51 
PART IV: OPERATIONS AND MISSIONS 


The following mission descriptions give you needed information to make a 
selection of what missions you would like to fly in Flight of The Intruder. 
Several terms are used that should be explained before you go on. 


Operation The overall activities of (usually) several elements to 
accomplish an objective. Each part of an operation is 
called a mission. 


Mission The individual task of one element or section (usually 
two planes) of an operation. Missions have special 
titles such as Wild Weasel (suppression of SAM and 
AAA sites with anti-radiation missiles and ECM), MiG- 
CAP (Combat Air Patrol against MiG incursions) and so 
forth. A full explantion of each mission title is given in 
the Glossary at the back of this manual. 


Rules of Engagement 

In certain of the missions you can find yourself having to deal with the same 
Rules of Engagement that bedeviled the U.S. military through most of the 
Vietnam war. These are rules made by your superior officers that limit what 
you can do in a combat. Breaking any of these rules can get a pilot court- 
martialed. During the Linebacker period, most of the Rules of Engagement 
were lifted, but in this simulation you can attempt to deal with the same 
problems real A-6 and F-4 pilots had to deal with in the unfriendly skies over 
North Vietnam. 


These rules (as they apply to this simulation) are: 


1. You may only engage MiGs that are airborne or in the process of taking 
off and which you or your wingman have visually identified as being 
bandits. 


2. You may only attack mobile units: e.g. trucks, trains, and off-shore 
enemy boats. This excludes any boats around the Haiphong harbor 
unless they have been designated as the mission’s primary or alternate 
target. 

3. You may only attack designated primary and alternate targets. You may 


not attack targets of opportunity. If operating as CAG, you cannot 
designate a target within ten miles of Hanoi or four miles of Haiphong. 


4. You may attack any AAA, SAM or GCI site that illuminates you with its 
radar (thus taking a hostile action). 

5. You may not activate your master arm switch when within ten miles of 
Hanoi or four miles of Haiphong. 

In the following Operation descriptions, the Special Instructions will indicate 


which are covered by the Rules of Engagement. This coverage can be 
cancelled through the Options Menu (see Part VI: Reference). 


52 FLIGHT ° 


Operation: BARCAP 


Description: A dawn patrol around Yankee Station. 
Objective: To intercept incoming threats from North Vietnam. Make sure 
there is no penetration of the 40 mile exclusion zone by plane or boat. 


Special Instructions: Incoming aircraft could be friendlies or bogies so visual 
ID is necessary. Rules of Engagement apply. 


PHANTOM MISSION: MiGCAP 


There is only one mission in this operation, and it is performed by a single 
flight of Phantoms. This combat air patrol mission should stay around top 
deck plus ten. Maintain a patrol area just off the North Vietnam coast. 








™ 


MISSIONS 53 
Operation: DECK ALERT 


Description: Scramble to meet a torpedo boat attack on the carrier. 
Objective: To intercept three torpedo boats making a run on Yankee Station. 


Special Instructions: Go in low to avoid enemy radar. Rules of Engagement 
apply. 





INTRUDER MISSION: DUCKS IN A BARREL 


One flight of A-6s must intercept and destroy the torpedo boats before they 
get close enough to the Shiloh to launch torpedoes. 





TM 


54 FLIGHT 


Operation: TALLY HO YO! 


Description: Single strike bombing mission with fighter escort and Iron 
Hand. 


Objective: Destroy the Yen Bai railroad bridge. 


Special Instructions: The bridge is defended by AAA. Secondary targets 
(warehousing) exist in Yen Bai. Be prepared for targets of opportunity on the 
railway. Rules of Engagement apply to all other targets. 


Be sure to take plenty of fuel with you. 








PHANTOM MISSION: IRON HAND 
Escort the A-6s. On arrival, be prepared for targets of opportunity. 


INTRUDER MISSION: IRON HAND 


A 57mm AAA battery has been reported to the north of the bridge. This 
needs to be silenced before the strike flight comes in. They are two minutes 
behind you. 


INTRUDER MISSION: STRIKE 


Come in over the target two minutes after flak suppression by Phantoms. 
Use small smart weapons. 





MISSIONS 55 
Operation: BACK BREAKER 


Description: Single strike bombing mission with fighter escort for MiGCAP 
and flak suppression. 


Objective: Destroy the notorious Than Hoa bridge. Secondary targets include 
the AAA batteries radar guidance station and warehouses in the town. 


Special Instructions: A low level direct approach up the estuary is sug- 
gested. This bridge has stood up against intense bombardment since 1965. 
Try to do it right this time. Rules of Engagement apply. 


High likelihood of traffic in vicinity of bridge. 





PHANTOM MISSION: MIG CAP 


One flight of Phantoms required on combat air patrol to the north west of 
Thanh Hao. Cover required for the duration of the operation. Expect unfriend- 
lies if the attack on the radar guidance unit is successful. 


INTRUDER MISSION: IRON HAND 


Heavy AAA placements on both sides of the river and bridge have been 
reported. The radar guidance unit to the southeast of the bridge is the main 
target. 


INTRUDER MISSION: BULLSEYE 


Low level route straight up the estuary. Fighter escort should keep AAA 
occupied. 





56 FLIGHT =sor tm =o INTRUDER’ 


Operation: MORNING SONG 


Description: Single strike bomb mission without escort. 
Objective: Destroy torpedo boats and missile cargo boats. 


Special Instructions: This operation can be given to either a Phantom or 
Intruder section. Rules of Engagement apply. 


You are without escort on this mission, so don’t linger. 


INTRUDER MISSION: GREEN TREE 


There is only one mission in this operation, and it is performed by a single 
flight of aircraft. Come in low over the sea from the east. Coast defenses will 
provide shipping with air cover. 


PHANTOM MISSION: BLUE TREE 

There is only one mission in this operation, and it is performed by a single 
aircraft. Come in low over the sea from the east. Coast defenses will provide 
shipping with air cover. 





MISSIONS 57 


Operation: JULY 4TH EVE 


Description: Bombing mission. 

Objective: Destroy the Phuc Nhac airfield in preparation for the July 4th 
celebrations (see below). Predicted bad weather should make a lone attack 
by a single A-6 feasible. 


Special Instructions: No MiGCAP is provided. Ripple Mk82s along the length 
of the runway. No second chances — you don’t want MiGs chasing you. 


INTRUDER MISSION: LONE RANGER 


No MiGCAP or SAM or flak suppression. The poor visibility makes conditions 
ideal for an attack by a single Intruder. 





58 FLIGHT ==orm c= INTRUDER 


Operation: JULY 4TH DAY 


Description: Bombing mission. 


Objective: Destroy the ammunition dumps reported in the town of Thanh 
Hoa. The main warehouse is reported to be empty. Most stores are in build- 
ings around the hospital. 


Special Instructions: Do not hit the hospital. It is recognizable by a red 
cross on its roof. 


MiGCAP is provided to the northwest. 


PHANTOM MISSION: MiGCAP 


Provide MiGCAP for the Intruders coming in from the northeast. Take a look 
at the AAA batteries to the southwest of the town. 


PHANTOM MISSION: TARCAP 
Provide CAP for the Intruders coming in from the southwest. 


INTRUDER MISSION: FIREWORKS 


The safest approach seems to be from the southwest. This also puts the 
targets in transit. Phantoms will provide TARCAP. 





MISSIONS 59 
Operation: JULY 4TH REFROG 


Description: Bombing Mission. 

Objective: Destroy the ammunition dumps reported in Thanh Hoa. The main 
warehouse is reported to be empty. Most stores are in buildings around the 
hospital. 

Special Instructions: Do not hit the hospital. It is recognizable by a red 
cross on the roof. 


INTRUDER MISSION: FIREWORKS 


No MiGCAP or SAM or flak suppression. The poor visibility makes conditions 
ideal for an attack by a single flight of Intruders. 








60 FLIGHT sa oF rue 
Operation: LIGHTS OUT 


Description: Double strike bomb mission with MiGCAP and Wild Weasel 
escort. 


Objective: Destroy the thermal power plant at Hanoi. 


PHANTOM MISSION: MiGCAP 


The main duty is to provide MiGCAP for the Intruders. They will be coming in 
two waves. Make sure you have enough fuel to stay around until everyone is 
on the way home. Expect company from the north. 


PHANTOM MISSION: WILD WEASEL 


SAM suppression is the main duty. However, the area is also defended by 
AAA. 


INTRUDER MISSION: BOMB RUN ONE 


Your objective is the main compressor house. It is the main building in the 
complex. The power station is in a residential area, so use guided weapons. 


INTRUDER MISSION: BOMB RUN TWO 


Go for the main compressor house if it is still standing. Otherwise go for the 
chimney or conveyor. 





MISSIONS 61 


Operation: IRON RAIN I 


Description: A massive attack on Hanoi. This will take place in two opera- 
tions: Iron Rain | and Iron Rain II. (See Operation: Iron Rain Il) 


Objective: Knock out Phuc Yen Airfield, suppress flak, and destroy SAM 
radar guidance equipment. 


PHANTOM MISSION: TARCAP 
First in and last out. Engage any interceptors that are airborne. 


PHANTOM MISSION: ESCORT 


Provide air cover for Intruders on low level attack on Phuc Yen airfield and 
downtown Hanoi. Seek targets of opportunity. 


INTRUDER MISSION: WILD WEASEL 


Seek and destroy the area’s radar guidance units. Keep the enemy radar 
stations off the air. 


INTRUDER MISSION: STRIKE 


The objective of this low level ripple bombing run is to close down the Phuc 
Yen airfield. The runway is the prime target; you may also attack grounded 
MiGs. 


Clear up anything that the Alpha strike missed. 








62 FLIGHT = 


Operation: IRON RAIN II 


Description: A massive attack on Hanoi (continued). This will take place in 
two sections: Iron Rain | and Iron Rain Il. (See Operation: Iron Rain 1) 
Objective: Bomb the Paul Doumer bridge. 

Special Instructions: Iron Rain | should have weakened the defenses; 
however, MiGCAP and Wild Weasel escorts are provided for incursion into 
this heavily defended area. 





PHANTOM MISSION: MiGCAP 
MiGCAP to the north of the target is required to intercept bandits. 


PHANTOM MISSION: ESCORT: 
Pick up your charges before going feet dry and provide CAP over the target. 


PHANTOM MISSION: WILD WEASEL 


There are over 84 SAM sites, mostly to the south of the city, to keep you 
busy. 


INTRUDER MISSION: KNOCKOUT 


This is an interdiction strike on the Paul Doumer bridge. A low level run from 
the north east is advised. Direct hits on the spans are required. 





MISSIONS 63 
Operation: ALPHA STRIKE 


Description: A bombing run using all the available aircraft on a hitherto 
untouchable objective. 


Objective: The objective of this Alpha Strike is to inflict damage on the 
Haiphong docks and shipping facilities. 


Special Instructions: Do not attack the neutral shipping in the harbor, even 
if they shoot at you. 


PHANTOM MISSION: MIGCAP 


Two sections of F-4s have been allocated to provide combat air patrol to the 
south of Haiphong. MiG-21s have been reported in the area. 


INTRUDER MISSION: BALLGAME 


The two big dockside warehouses are the main targets this morning. Also 
target any shipping in the bay. 


INTRUDER MISSION: WILD WEASEL 

SAM suppression is the main duty on this early morning mission. You will be 
protecting an A-6 flight which will target the dockside warehouses. Be 
prepared for targets of opportunity in the dock. 








84, FLIGHT 


Operation: HUNTER KILLER 


Description: An all-out attack on a pesky SAM site. 


Objective: The six-launcher SAM site south of Hanoi is the target. Shrikes 
only hit the radar van, and the site is active again quickly. The bigger punch 
of Hunter Killer tactics are needed. 

Special Instructions: Take out the GCI first to increase your chances. Don’t 
make more than one run on the target, and use the biggest bomb load 
possible to do the most destruction. Rules of Engagement apply. 


OF THE = 


INTRUDER 





PHANTOM MISSION: ESCORT 


Two sections of F-4s are tasked to escort the A-6s. If possible, silence the 
light AAA to the south. 


INTRUDER MISSION: STRIKE 


The objective is to destroy the site. Target the launchers. The Wild Weasels 
will get the radar. 


INTRUDER MISSION: WILD WEASEL 


Destroy the GCI and then keep the site busy so that the bombers can attack 
with impunity. 





MISSIONS 65 


The Most Dangerous Game 


by ex-U.S. Air Force Capt. Norman Cosand ('69- 
'76) 


The Hunter Killer mission was, without a doubt, 
one of the toughest and most dangerous 
missions flown over North Vietnam in 1972. The 
Hunter Killer “team” (term used by Fighter Pi- 
lots) was comprised of two elements: 1. The 
Hunter element — two Wild Weasel F-105G’s in 
the lead armed with AGM 78 missiles (an air-to- 
ground missile designed to home in and destroy 
SAM site radar vans); 2. The Killer element — 
two F-4E’s armed with CBU 52 (cluster fragmentation bombs de- 
signed to destroy metallic SAM missiles, transportation vehicles and 
radar vans) ready to roll in on an moment’s notice on the exposed 
SAM site. The aircrew members who flew the mission were all 
individually selected by the F-105 and F-4E Squadron Commanders 
because of the severe hazards associated with multiple SAM sites. 
Each SAM site was ringed with hostile 23mm and 37mm AAA gun 
sites. North Vietnam (in particular Hanoi) was considered to be one 
of the most heavily defended enemy countries ever known to aerial 
warfare. SAM sites, MiG bases and AAA gun Sites carpeted the entire 
breadth of North Vietnam with an extra abundant concentration of 
defenses protecting the cities of Hanoi and Haiphong. Flying over the 
far reaches of North Vietnam was a daily “fireworks show” for the 
aircrews from Korat AFB in Thailand who flew the Hunter Killer 
missions. “First in and last out” was a standard operating procedure 
— Time on target was longer, the defenses more intense and sur- 
vival rate reduced. The Hunter Killer team was no picnic. 


It was dark and humid at 4:18 AM when | arose from a restless 
sleep in my Hootch at Korat AFB. I rapidly threw on my flight suit, 
put on my jungle boots and made my way to the Squadron Brief- 
ing room by 4:30 AM (via our reliable air crew van). Tension was 
written on the faces of the Captains and Lieutenants who were 
scheduled for today’s Hunter Killer mission deep into North 
Vietnam. Our target was two SAM sites just southwest of Hanoi. 
With maps, classified photographs, weapon settings and enemy 
defense updates, I join the other team members for a comprehen- 
sive target briefing at 0500. Briefing synopsis: “The weather is 
marginal en route (thunderstorms) but improving over Hanoi; the 
main target for the Strike Force (F-4s from bases in Thailand and 
South Vietnam) is the Thai Nguyen Steel Plant north of Hanoi; all 
MiG bases, SAM sites and AAA gun sites are active and opera- 
tional; our Hunter Killer teams (call sign “Eagle”) are to suppress 
two SAM sites prior to the Strike Force’s arrival and then remain 
in the target area to back up friendly forces — fuel permitting!” 
Breakfast at the Officer’s Club was gulped down and barely 





66 FLIGHT sor = INTRUDER 


digested. Takeoff occurs at 7:00 AM (exactly on time); we fill up 
with fuel from a KC 135 at 7:30 AM and drop off the tanker at 
8:20 AM. “Eagle flight topped off,” radios the Hunter lead as we 
ingress to the target area with full fuel tanks and weapons 
checked for readiness. As we approach the target area I can hear 
the heavy breathing of the pilot in the front seat of my F-4E as we 
receive “Bandit” calls from MiG-19 and MiG-21 aircraft launching 
from several MiG bases surrounding Hanoi. I quickly discover that 
we are now 15 miles from two approaching MiG-19 aircraft. 
“Eagle Flight, Bandits attacking,” radios the flight lead of another 
Hunter Killer team off to my left. Two Atoll missiles zip under my 
aircraft and disappear in the clouds behind me. We are still 100 
miles from our target; the pulse rate picks up; it is going to be one 
of those rare days when both MiGs and SAMs are in joint defense 
of North Vietnam. 


As we approach Hanoi from the Southwest, the lead F-105 launches 
an AGM78 and quickly eliminates a SAM radar van from a site just 
east of the city. Travelling at 480 nautical miles per hour, I scramble 
in the back seat with my North Vietnam maps and target photos di- 
recting my element of two F-4Es to the first targeted SAM site, while 
the F-105G element pulls off to our left to provide coverage. I con- 
centrate on the detail of my map and compare the map to rivers, 
roads and canals below; again I cross-check my map for landmarks. 
The target photo on the first SAM site is finally matched to a section 
of road near a small canal below. 


A sigh of relief — no time or fuel was wasted, we are here to do the 
job we came for. The first SAM site is identified, we are ready to roll 
in at 60° of dive and supersonic speeds. My throat is dry and sweat 
races down my face as we pull 7+ g’s coming off the first target. 
Half of our CBU 52 bomb load was just deposited on the SAM site 
below with thousands of pieces of shrapnel flying in every direction 
ensuring destruction of multiple surface-to-air missiles and radar 
equipment. As the second F-4E pulls off the target and tucks close to 
my right wing, I pull my North Vietnam maps from a large clamp 
fastened to my G-suit and begin to immediately identify new land- 
marks below in order to expedite our ingress to the second target 
SAM site. Clouds partially obscure the second SAM site as we visually 
acquire the target. The ground below is suddenly lit up like a Christ- 
mas tree as AAA gun barrel flashes send a thousand rounds of 
23mm and 37mm directly at our flight. Large red and orange silver 
dollar-sized tracers are close to my canopy; I can hear the “snap, 
crackle and pop” of the tracers as we point our nose at the second 
SAM site. “Eagle 3, SAM at 6:00 (six o'clock), break now,” radios the 
lead F-105. My vision is gone; however, my mind is clear, I have 
“blacked out” as we pull nearly 9 g’s to avoid the SAM (travelling at 3 
times the speed of sound) that was homing in on our tailpipe. With 
vision now restored and our nose pointed skyward, we turn back 
toward the target for a second round. That SAM was alone, there 





MISSIONS 67 








would have been no way out had we been hit, diving at the ground 
and travelling at supersonic speeds. “Snap, crackle and pop” as 
dozens of tracers surround my F-4E while again diving at the second 
SAM site. “Thump,” I feel the aircraft shake and lighten up as our 
last half of CBU 52 bomb load is released on top of the target. The 
second F-4E in our element also drops his CBU 52 and rejoins on our 
wing. Two SAM sites destroyed, all aircraft and aircrew are safe! 


We are critically low on fuel as we rejoin the F-105 element. Our 
heading is 220° (southwest heading) as we egress back to Thailand. 
A KC 135 tanker is waiting for us over the border of Thailand and 
vectors north over Northern Laos to meet us. We are thankful for the 
tanker aircrews who risk 57mm and 86mm over hostile territory to 
refuel our empty tanks. 

It has been a memorable day for the aircrews of Eagle Flight as well 
as other flights who flew the Hunter Killer mission deep into North 
Vietnam that day. We are all thankful to be alive. We are also 
thankful that soon we can see an end to the war with North Viet- 
nam, have our prisoners of war returned and set our feet once 
again on fertile American soil. 




























Captain Normand Cosand flew for the U.S. Air Force between 1969 and 
1976. He was the Guy In Back in an F-4E and a Bomber/Navigator on an 
F-111. He flew 82 missions over North Vietnam including 41 missions 
over Hanoi as part of a Hunter Killer Team. He received 4 Distinguished 
Flying Crosses, 11 air medals and 1 Vietnam Cross of Gallantry. 


68 FLIGHT 
PART V: DEBRIEFING 





PHCESTITG EME 
OPERATION: MORNING SONG 
SUCCESS RATING: 123 123 
MANUAL PILOT: GREEN TREE 
SUCCESS RATING: 0 ote 
PRIMARY TARGET: TORPEDO BOAT 
TARGET DESTROYED 


SECOMDARY: MISSILE CARGO BOATS 


TARGET UNDAMAGED 
It’s BEEN A PLEASURE WORKING WITH You! 





OPERATION STATISTICS 


Each time you complete a mission and successfully land your aircraft, you 
are taken to the Debriefing Room, where you can view your statistics for the 
current operation as well as the overall average for the entire Tour. To start a 
new Tour of Duty, delete from the working floppy (not the master) all files 
with the extension .PLY. 


The important statistic is the success rating. You get a score for each 
mission you attempt. IF your total exceeds 100, you earn the right to wear 
the Operation Badge. The scores for the various events are added together 
to provide the Air Wing’s SR. Your Success Rating is calculated by totalling 
the scores associated with those events which were directly attributable to 
you. For instance, you only get credit for the primary if you were in control of 
the aircraft which dropped the bomb that destroyed the target. 





DEBRIEFING 69 


Here is how the Success Rating is calculated: 


Primary target destroyed 100 
Secondary target destroyed 50 
SAM destroyed 25 
MiG destroyed 25 
AAA destroyed 10 
PT boat destroyed 10 
Guided missile on target 14 
Unguided missile on target 12 
Truck destroyed 5 
Train destroyed 5 
Player’s landing 

green 10 

black 0 

red -10 
Carrier destroyed -1000 
Hospital destroyed -1000 
U.S. aircraft destroyed -50 
Guided missile released -4 
Unguided missile released -2 


Explanation of Icons 


Information {1} This displays the cumulative scores for the air wing and 
the individual pilot. 


As the duty pilot your landing 


record is displayed in the form S srarisrics 

of a set of colored disks: OP SUCCESS RATING nas 
Red Dangerous |] oRoNANer_ usact 
Green OK 3 AIRCRAFT LOST 


Black No comment q MIG Kurs: 
3 GROUND TARGET KILLS: 2 
TOTAL: 7 
DUTY PILOT LANDINGS: 


TOTAL: 





Waypoint Review Every few seconds the position of every aircraft is 
recorded. This information is used to show the aircraft 
track in review. It is possible to compare the ideal track 
following waypoints against the actual track. As the 
positions are being recorded relatively infrequently, it 
will not always be possible to completely review the 
track during a dogfight when direction changes are fast 


70 


Camera ([P]} 





FLIGHT = or 1 om 


and furious. 


This provides a record of your activities as if taken by a 
camera. Use the keys given to review the snapshots of 
your mission you took by using the Photograph option 
in the File Menu (see Part Vil Reference; Menus) or 


pressing while the game is playing. Select (P) to 
see the previous photo, (N] to see the next photo, and 





Airplane 


(D) to delete the photo currently on the screen. 


The Video Recorder reviews the videotape you took by 
using the Video option on the FILE Menu. Select (P] to 
look at the current tape, |+] to move to the next 
sequence, (S} to save the videotape to disk, and [L] to 
load a previously saved video. 


Aside from using the FILE Menu option, you can also 
activate and deactivate the video recorder with (V)}. You 
can record more than one sequence per flight, but 
there is a finite length. However, if you find yourself 
with a sequence you just have to save and your tape 
has run out, you can select (0] to reset the recorder. 
This will, however, wipe out all your previous records for 
that mission. 


DEBRIEFING 71 





BADGES AND MEDALS @ 


Badges 


Every time you successfully com- 
plete an operation, a badge is 
sewn onto your flight suit. Occa- 
sionally you will see a picture of 
yourself in your flying suit. As you 
progress through the simulation, 
you may see your suit become 
gradually more colorful, when you 
earn the right to wear the badges. 


Medals 


Medals had their beginnings in such knightly orders as the Knights of the 
Bath of England. They are a way of saying, this person is among the greats. 
In Vietnam, some flyers began to feel that they were getting their medals 
just for waking up in the morning. To some, it seemed as if they only got a 
medal if they fouled up a mission and thereby took damage. If they did it 
right, no one noticed. 


In this game we give you medals for doing it right, though the Purple Heart 
might be considered an award for blowing it big time. If you deserve an 
award, the Award Screen will appear and show a pilot displaying: 


Purple Heart: Injured in action 

Air Medal: Every ten missions completed 

Distinguished Flying Cross: In one mission: destroying two SAM 
sites, one MiG and three gun sites 





Air Force Cross: Downing one MiG which was attacking 
another aircraft 
Medal of Honor: Personally destroying the primary and 


secondary targets for an operation 


Sierra Hotel: 


Once you have attained an Awards Screen, press any key to view the Sierra 
Hotel display. This screen lists 
the top ten pilots who have ever 
played from your disk — the 
“best of the best.” Press any 
key from the Sierra Hotel 

screen to return to the Duty 
Roster. From there, you can 
start another mission or exit the 
game. 


The Sierra Hotel screen appears 
after every mission. 








72 FLIGHT Soorm c= INTRUDER 


PART VI: REFERENCE 


This section contains detailed information about all aspects of this simula- 
tion. It includes instruction on using the menus, a summary of the keyboard 
commands, specifications of the aircraft (both friendly and otherwise), a 
summary comparison of the five aircraft involved, a full description of the 
cockpits of the Intruder and Phantom and hints on what to look for, carrier 
takeoff and landing instructions (both real and for the game), flying and 
fighting instructions, a summary of the armaments involved, and a glossary 
of technical terms and ever-present military abbreviations for your informa- 
tion and amusement. 


Don’t try to read this section in one sitting; we do recommend that you refer 
to it whenever you need more information about any part of the simulation. 
The Reference section is organized under the following headings: 


MENUS 

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS 

COCKPITS 

LANDING 

FLYING AND FIGHTING 

ARMAMENT 

HISTORY OF THE AIR WAR IN VIETNAM 
GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS 
KEYBOARD COMMAND SUMMARY 
INDEX 


MENUS 73 
MENUS 


Press at any time to display the Menu Bar at the top of the screen. 
Each of the six menus in the Menu Bar contains a number of options or 
selections. These options remain hidden until you activate them using any of 
the following methods, depending on the input device you are using: 


Mouse or Joystick: Move the pointer to the menu you wish to activate, and 
press the left mouse button or the joystick’s fire button. The menu options 
pop down, remaining displayed for as long as you hold the button down. To 
select a menu option, move the pointer down to highlight the option of your 
choice and release the button. 


Keyboard: Press (¢] or [+] to highlight the menu you wish to activate. Press 
and (+) to highlight the option of your choice, then press (Enter). 


Once you display the Menu Bar, the game is stopped. It remains paused 
until you use the Return option from the File Menu. The following is a des- 
cription of the menu options within each of FOTI’s six menus: 


ABOUT Menu 


This provides information about the game itself. It displays the credits, the 
version number and other information about the simulation. 


FILE Menu 


The File Menu lets you manipulate the simulation (or “file”) at hand. By 
selecting from the following options, you can abort, postpone or end an 
operation, as well as return to the operation you accessed the File Menu 
from. You can also end the game and return to DOS. 


Abort Mission: Return to Corridor Scene. This is otherwise known as 
“giving up,” and achieves nothing but the scorn and con- 
tempt of your friends and family. Needless to say, you are 
awarded no points for an aborted mission. 


End Mission: This takes you immediately to the end of the mission, 
whether or not you have attained the objective. Its 
primary use is for eliminating the tedium of a return-to- 
carrier trip and the anxiety of a carrier landing. The 
mission is over; you go immediately to Debriefing and get 
your scores (minus any score for not making a landing). 


Return: Return to the operation without change. 
Exit: This exits the game into DOS. No score is recorded. 
Photograph: This allows you to take a photograph of what is on the 


screen at the moment you choose the option. This comes 
in handy for later reference during Debriefing. 


Video: This turns on the “videotape camera” to record action 
sequences during a game. 





74 FLIGHT cor tue ¢ 


LEVEL Menu 


Use the Level menu to choose the level of difficulty of the simulation, from 
Lieutenant j.g. (the easiest) to Captain (the most difficult). When you first 
start the simulation, the rank is set to Lieutenant j.g. You can select the 
more difficult levels as you become more proficient. You earn more points 
for completing a mission at a higher level of difficulty. See the OPTIONS 
Menu for more information about ranks and levels of difficulty. 

Lieutenant j.g. 

Lieutenant 

Lt. Commander 

Commander 

Captain 


CONTROL Menu 


Use the control menu to select or change input device, select sound options 
and control the detail of the simulation visuals. 
Input Device 


Selecting one of the following three input devices places a checkmark next 
to that option: 


| INTRUDER 





Keyboard: This is the default unless you have a mouse or joystick 
installed. It allows you to operate the plane entirely from 
your keyboard. 

Joystick: This allows you to operate the actual piloting and fighting 


of the plane with a joystick, though you will still have to 
use the keyboard for several functions. Follow the 
directions on the screen to calibrate your joystick. 


Mouse: Like the joystick, this allows you to fly and fight the plane 
with a mouse but leaves several functions to be done on 
the keyboard. Follow the directions on the screen to 
calibrate your mouse. 


Recalibrate: Allows you to recalibrate the sensitivity of your mouse or 
joystick. 


Sound Options 


All Sound Off: Turns all the sound in the game off. Ideal for playing at 
work or when the rest of the family is sleeping. 


Engines Off: Turns off the sound of the engines, thus relieving a major 
source of irritation (for real pilots as well as players), and 
leaving on all the important sounds such as guns and 
rockets firing. 

All Sound On: For those who have to hear the sound of the engines as 
well as all the rest of the sound. Not recommended for 
households where anyone at all has sensitive hearing. 


MENUS 75 


Scale Control 

Large Scale: Choosing this option makes all the objects in the game 
four times as big as they normally would be in relation to 
the land and sea. This is a benefit because it makes 
spotting things easier. 

Detail of Simulation Visuals 


Minimum Detail, These options control the detail of the simulation. 


Low Detail, The more detail chosen, the better the detail of the 
Medium Detail, visuals, but the slower the game moves because 
High Detail, of the extra time necessary for the computer to 


Maximum Detail: draw detailed pictures. 


Weather 


Bad Weather: Putting a check mark next to this options means that you 
will be fighting (or perhaps enjoying) bad weather through- 
out the mission. Some missions are set to Bad Weather 
as a default. The main effect of bad weather is that it 
grounds the MiGs. You still have to worry about SAMs 
and pattern-fired AAA. 


OPTIONS Menu 


This menu sets your game preferences. For example, you can choose to limit 
the armaments you have available, to equip your aircraft with Super Engines, 
or to make mid-air collisions possible. By manipulating both Level and 
Options, you can achieve a wide range of difficulty levels (however, see Note 
below). For example, you can choose to go up against an aggressive enemy, 
but retain the advantage of super engines to give you that extra edge. 


Choosing dn option places a checkmark next to it in the menu, so you can 
tell the state of an option at a glance. The following choices are available: 


Super Engine: Choose Super Engine to make your flying job a little 
easier. For example, with Super Engine selected, you can 
assume that the ASI needle is directly connected to the 
RPM gauge. This is not necessarily the case with Normal 
Engine (see below). 


Normal Engine: Choose Normal Engine if you want to make your life a 
little more difficult. Normal Engine is closer to real-life. 


Limited Arms: Choose Limited Arms to limit the armaments and ammu- 
nition you have available during a mission. This is the 
more difficult setting and closer to a real-life simulation. 
Choosing this option a second time toggles it off, giving 
you an easier game with unlimited arms. 





76 FLIGHT INTRUDER 


Limited Chaff & Choose Limited Chaff and Flares to limit the chaff and 

Flares: flares you have available during a mission. This is the 
more difficult setting and closer to a real-life simulation. 
Choose this option a second time to toggle it off. 


Collisions: If Collisions is turned ON, the piloted aircraft will be 
destroyed if it collides with another object (eg. another 
aircraft, missile, house, carrier, bridge). If Collisions is 
turned OFF, then the piloted aircraft can fly through 
anything without being damaged. Collisions ON is the 
more difficult setting and closer to a real-life simulation. 
Choosing this option a second time toggles it off. 


Ground Crashes: |f Ground Crashes is set to ON, then the piloted aircraft 
will be destroyed if it hits the ground too heavily (during a 
heavy landing, for example). If Ground Crashes is turned 
OFF, then a heavy landing will not result in the destruc- 
tion of the aircraft. You can tum Ground Crashes OFF by 
selecting it a second time. 


Red/Black Out: If Red/Black Out is ON, the possibility exists for pilot 
blackout or redout under circumstances of excessive g 
forces during flight. Positive g forces, usually the result of 
sharp and climbing high-speed turns, can cram the pilot 
into his seat and push his blood supply downward. 
Forces in excess of 8 g’s create a risk of pilot blackout, 
characterized in this simulation by a screen fade-out. 
Negative g forces, which tend to “pull” the pilot from his 
seat during a sustained high-speed dive, are equally 
dangerous. Forces in excess of -2.5 g’s can result in pilot 
redout, characterized by the screen turning progressively 
black. If either situation should occur in the game, you 
can recover from it by reversing or stopping the current 
action. Turning Red/Black Out OFF avoids this altogether. 


Enemy Activity: | Choose from Low, Medium and High Enemy Activity. 
These determine whether the enemy’s MiGs carry arma- 
ments, as well as the effectiveness of their flares and 
their SAM and AAA missiles. The following table summa- 
rizes the relationship between the Enemy Activity settings 
and the effectiveness of the enemy’s ordnance. 





MiGs Flares SAM & AAA 
No Guns Ineffective Ineffective 
No Missiles 


Guns Partially Partially 
No Missiles _ Effective Effective 


Guns Fully Fully 
Missiles Effective Effective 





Targets: 


Fuel: 


a7 


You can choose from Easy, Medium and Hard. This deter- 
mines how close the bomb has to be to the target to 
register a hit. With Easy Target selected, you score a hit 
when the bomb falls within an area four times the size of 
the shape of the target. Medium Target scores a hit if the 
bomb falls within an area two times the size of the 
shape. Hard Targets must be hit on the target itself. 


Unlimited Fuel: There is no fuel consumption by the 
plane. You can stay in the air as long as someone 
doesn’t shoot you down. 


Half Fuel: Your plane consumes fuel at half its nomal 
rate, giving you much more air time. 


Full Fuel: This is the regular rate of fuel consumption. You 
have to manage your fuel just like a real pilot does. 


Indexing Preferences to Rank 


The above preferences allow you to tailor the game to your require- 
ments. Your selected rank provides a broad customization. For example, 
if your selected rank is Captain, the preset options are set for the 
maximum reality. You can alter them all to “easy,” but this gains you 
nothing, as your score depends on the options selected, not your rank. 


The following table shows the relationship between rank and the availa- 
bility of the “easy” options. The letters in the body of the table refer to 
the state of the option (Yes/No, Low/Medium/High, or Easy/Medium/ 
Hard); the numbers refer to the multiplier to the base score you receive 
for taking the harder options. 


Super Engine 
Limited Arms 
Limited Chaff/ 
Flares 
Collisions 
Ground Crashes 
Red/Blackout 
Enemy Activity 
Targets 
Limited Fuel 


Totals 


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Some operations default to being restricted by Rules of 
Engagement. Some do not. This option can be used to 
change the default for each mission. 


78 FLIGHT OF THE Ea 


COMMS Menu 


Use the Comms menu to fight the game head-to-head with another player to 
join another player on the same mission, using a cable or modem hookup. 


Consult the Personnel/Communications Manual for detailed instructions for 
setting up two person play for Flight of the Intruder. 





INTRUDER 





Single Player: This is the default. It means you are playing against the 
machine alone. 
U.S. Host: This is the default when you are playing with or against 


another player. The player with the fastest machine 
(which will be doing most of the work) should select this 
line. The host machine is always flying a U.S. plane. 


Terminal: The player with the slower machine should select this 
option. When he makes this selection, he will be pre- 
sented with the U.S. Host’s callsign. Using [+] and [+] the 
Terminal player can cycle through all the American call- 
signs and pick a section to lead on the same mission. 
You should divide up the planes in the mission ahead of 
time, so that one of you does not jump to a plane con- 
trolled by the other player! 


If you do not choose an American callsign, you can cycle 
through Bandit 1, Bandit 2, etc. and pick a North Viet- 
namese plane to fly. From the outside your plane will look 
like a MiG, though, of course, the cockpit and handling 
characteristics will be those of an F-4 Phantom. 





AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS 79 


AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS 


The A-6 Intruder 


The A-1 SkyRaider and A-4 

SkyHawk were very successful 

attack aircraft, but even before it 

had to deal with the storm- 

tossed seas and cloudy skies of 

Vietnam, the United States Navy realized 

that it needed a heavy carrier-based bomber that would carry a bigger bomb 
load and be able to make blind passes at a target in any weather and at any 
time. 





The Grumman A-6 
Intruder first flew in 
April 1960. The 
airframe was so 
successful that it 
was adapted to the 
KA-6D aerial tanker and 

the EA-6B Prowler electronic warfare plane. 
Initially, the electronics suite of the Intruder was too fragile for its mission. 
The plane spent most of its time in maintenance. However, the then new 
science of microelectronics in the 1960s led to a complete replacement of 
its original avionics into a much smaller and more efficient setup capable of 
sustained missions. 


The A-6A was the first operational version of the Intruder. It was followed by 
the A-6B (a Shrike-carrying SAM suppression craft) and A-6C (specially con- 
figured to interdict the Ho Chi Minh trail) as well as the aforementioned 
tanker. In this simulation you fly the A-6A, which was replaced in service by 
the A-6E right after Linebacker in 1972. The A-6E is still in operation with 
and being built for the United States Navy 
and Marine Corps, though its replacement, 
the A-GE TRAM is steadily replacing it. 
Current versions can carry 
the Harpoon anti-ship 
missile. 


The Intruder is just barely 
subsonic; its builders 
concentrated on a plane 
capable of flying low and 
and bombing accurately. 


They got it. 











80 FLIGHT : | INTRUDER 


F-4. Phantom Il 


The F-4 Phantom was a long- 

ranged fighter capable of bursts of 

speed over Mach 2. Though not an 
agile aircraft, in the hands of a 
good pilot it could, and did, give a good account of itself against the far more 
agile MiGs employed by the North Vietnamese. It was used by both the U.S. 
Air Force and the U.S. Navy in the Vietnamese war. The basic Navy fighter 
was the F-4B and then the F-4J. The basic Air Force fighter was the F-4C and 
the F-4D, and later the gun-armed F-4E. 


The Phantom you fly in this 
simulation is basically a 
version F-4B or F-4J. 
This is the 
Navy F-4 
available 
during the 
Linebacker 
campaign. However, there are some modifications 

similar to those for the Air Force F-4E, also present during Linebacker. For 
instance, an M61 20mm cannon and self-aiming Paveway smart bombs 
have been fitted. 















One interesting difference between the 
Navy and Air Force versions of the F-4 is 
that the Radar Intercept Officer (RIO), 

[the Alr Force designation is Weapon 
Systems Officer (WSO or WIZZO)] 
also called the GIB 

(Guy In Back), in 
the Navy plane was 
a dedicated radar 
watcher and 
weapon shooter. In the 

Air Force, the GIB had a stick and 

could fly the plane in a pinch. The Navy 
jets had a hole in the deck where the 
stick was in the Air Force plane. 


The Phantoms had a long career as the 
principal fighter of the U.S. Navy, though they have now been phased out in 
favor of the F-15 Tomcat and F/A-18 Hornet. Some Marine reconnaissance 
units still use the RF-4B recce fighter, but most of these have been retired. 
There are still many Phantoms in use by various foreign air forces. 


AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS 81 


MiG-21 


The MiG-21 was originally developed as an 
interceptor to meet the threat of the 
American B-47 and B-52. It was 

the first Soviet Mach 2 fighter. 

The first of the Soviet fighters to 
use a delta wing instead of the 
swept wing of the MiG-17 and 19, it 
was a durable fighter that is still 
used in various configurations in many airforces today. 


The design requirements called for a small fighter (actually smaller than the 
MiG-19), and this caused a reduction in endurance as the plane just had no 
room for large internal fuel tanks. The first operational design, the MiG-21F, 
was found to be deficient in radar efficiency. To accomodate a larger radar 

system, the designers had to relinquish the initially-required aircraft cannon. 


The MiG-21PF was sent to North Vietnam and met its first real operational 
test. They rapidly discovered that it suffered from a deficiency in 

armament. The radar made little 
difference. 


Its total offensive : : eo) of £ 
weaponry consisted of — : 
four air-to-air missiles OEE es 
of dubious utility. Once 

they were fired, the plane was useless. In many ways, the MiG-17, despite 
its relative antiquity, was more successful in its basic mission of stopping 
bomber raids because it had greater endurance and 
packed a couple of rapid-fire cannon. 


Almost immediately, the Soviets began a remake of the 
MiG-21 which was designated the MiG-21PFMA. The major 
additions were two extra pylons that could carry missiles 
or extra fuel tanks (thus increasing either firepower or 
endurance), and an internal gun, a 23mm two-barrelled 
weapon that takes up an amazingly small amount of 
space. Unfortunately, its lack of barrel length seemed 
to reduce its range and accuracy. The additional 
missile carrying capacity and gun increased the 
MiG-21's kill ratio, but not by a significant 
amount. This was the fighter used in North 
Vietnam (along with its retrofitted relatives) from 
1968 through the rest of the war. 





















82 FLIGHT 





MiG-19 

The MiG-19 was developed to 
provide a truly super- 
sonic fighter for the 
Soviet air force. It 
became the first such 
fighter in the world. 


It was equipped with missiles and a limited-performance radar and was 
among the last fighters given to the People’s Republic of China before their 
split with the Soviet Union in 1960. The Chinese reverse-engineered the 
fighter into their highly successful Shenyang J-6, which they have imported in 
one form or another all over the world. 











The MiG-19 in North Vietnam was no more maneuverable than its predeces- 
sor and its radar gave it away, so it was little improvement over the MiG-17 
in the air against the American forces. 





AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS 83 


MiG-17 


Production of the MiG-17 was 
authorized in mid-1951. It 
was a modification of the 
MiG-15 that gave many 
United Nations pilots fits 
in Korea. By 1960 it was considered obsolete and was being replaced in the 
Soviet air force by the MiG-19, but it still proved a 
dangerous adversary in Vietnam ten years later. Part 
of its danger to 
opposing 
aircraft was in 
its obsoles- 
cence. Its 
minimal radar 
(completely 
missing in many of the North Vietnam fighters) meant that it did not show up 
on RWR, and its maneuverability let it turn inside of any American fighter in 
the sky. Since all it had to do was force 
American bombers to abort their bombing 
missions, its very presence was sometimes 
enough to complete its primary mission, 
which means it was very successful in its 
task. 


The MiG-17 also has the distinc- 
tion of being the first missile- 
ee armed Russian fighter. This was 
<=T1_Ya_\_» the favorite aircraft of the notori- 
|} SSI ZY ous “Colonel Toon,” who was 
credited with shooting down 13 
American planes. 



















SUMMARY COMPARISONS 
Intruder Phantom MiG-21 MiG-1 MiG-17 
Max Speed (mph) 644 1,500 1,385 902 710 


Max Ceiling (feet) 42,400 55,000 60,000 58,725 52,500 
Full Weight (Ib) 60,400 58,000 20,725 19,180 14,440 
Max Ordnance (Ib) 18,000 16,000 3,307 2,200 1,650 


84 FLIGHT 
COCKPITS 


The following is a description of the instruments found in the Intruder and 
the Phantom. As you might expect, the two aircraft have many instruments in 
common. In particular, you will find that the important flight instruments are 
arranged in the traditional “T” on both aircraft. This makes it easier to 
change from one aircraft type to the other. Nonetheless, you should be 
aware that there are important differences between the two aircraft types, 
and it’s a good idea to take the time to familiarize yourself with them. 


In real life, both the Intruder and the Phantom rely on a crew of two. In the 
Intruder the crew sit side by side, while in the Phantom the RIO sits behind 
the pilot. In one of our few departures from reality, we have designed this 
simulation so that the aircraft can be flown by one person. We have 
attempted to do this while still maintaining as realistic a cockpit as possible. 


INTRUDER 








Intruder: As the pilot you sit on the left side of the cockpit. On your front 
view you can see the flight instrumentation. On your left 45 degree view, you 
look over the side of the aircraft. On your right 45 degree view, you look into 
the B/N’s side of the cockpit at the stores and warning lights. 





COCKPITS 85 





Phantom: The front view displays the flight instrumentation. Both the left 
and right 45 degree views can be used to look over the side of the aircraft. 
Stores and warning lights are available on a lookdown front view. This 
arrangement reflects the narrow but high front panel fitted onto the Phan- 
tom. The look down at the instruments view should be selected only for brief 
periods. You should have your head up and looking out of the cockpit 90% of 
the time. Your instruments are not trying to kill you, but lots of unfriendly 
objects outside the plane are. 








86 FLIGHT 


Instruments In Common 
The following descriptions apply to both the Intruder and the Phantom: 


INTRUDER 


Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) The ADI (sometimes 
called the “level ball”) helps register your plane’s 
position relative to the horizon as it rolls and pitches in 
any direction. The ADI is of vital importance in a dive 
because you use it to get your dive angle. Remember 
for manual dive bombing everything must be right: dive 
angle, speed and height. See table below. 


Compass The compass shows your aircraft magnetic 
directional heading. For the purposes of this simula- 
tion, you can assume the compass has no problems 
with deviation and variation. 


Altimeter The altimeter’s small needle rotates 360 
degrees for every 1,000 foot change in altitude. The 
large needle rotates 360 degrees for every 100 foot 
change in altitude. The digits display the altitude in 
1,000’s of feet. 


Airspeed Indicator (ASI) The ASI consists of a dial 
calibrated in knots TAS (see Glossary). The zero 
position is at 12 o’clock. One revolution represents 
1,200 KTS on the F-4 and 600 KTS on the A-6. 


Vertical Velocity Indicator (VVI) This dial measures 
climb and descent rate in 1,000s of feet per minute. 
The zero position is at 9 o'clock. Climb is represented 
by a clockwise movement of the needle. Three o’clock 
represents 6,000 ft/min. 


Angle of Attack Indicator (AOA) Measures angle of 
attack in degrees. The zero position is at 9 o’clock, 30 
degrees at 12 o'clock. Increased AOA is represented 
by an counter-clockwise movement. 


Fuel When the tank is full (16,000 Ib. of fuel) the 
needle points to 6 o’clock. The needle moves counter- 
clockwise as fuel is depleted, to the zero position at 9 
o'clock. 


Clock Standard analog 24 hour display (“military 
time”). 











COCKPITS 87 


Tachometer Measures the engine RPMs in percent- 
ages of the maximum: 0% at 12 o'clock and 100% at 9 
o’clock. 





Threat Indicator and Panel 
The Threat Indicator Panel lets you know about enemy activity through 
















warning lights. 

ae ° Empty diamond Friendly Aircraft 
Filled Diamond MiG 
Filled Red Box Missile Radar 
Empty Red Box AAA radar 
Grey Hat Ship 


Missile Light flashing SAM site engaging 
Missile Light constant SAM on the way 


AAA AAA radar detected 

|-Band MiG radar detected 

GCI NV Intercept Station 
detected 


Angle of Attack (AOA) Indexer The AOA Indexer is 
used primarily to assist in landing the plane. As the 
following illustration shows, the plane needs to ap- 
proach the runway at the right angle and speed when 
landing. 





If the top light is on, it means that the approach is too 
slow. If the bottom light is on, it means that the 
approach is too fast. The middle light on means that 
the approach is ideal. 








FLIGHT orm = INTRUDER 


Aircraft Landing System (ACLS) Indicator The ACLS 
Indicator assists you when making an instrument 
landing (called “following the needle”). The ACLS has 
two principal components: the Glide Slope Deviation 
(GSD) scale, and the Localizer Deviation (LD) scale. 





The GSD scale indicates the extent to which you are 
above or below the “landing beam” (an imaginary beam 
projected from the flight deck) The higher you are above 
the beam, the lower the GSD scale. The scale is centered 
when the landing approach is correct. 





The LD scale indicates the extent to which you are to the 
left or right of the runway. If you are left of the flight deck, 
the LD scale will be to the right of center, and vice versa. 
The scale is centered when the landing approach is 
correct. 


Note that you need to control two additional parameters 
for a perfect landing: Angle of Attack and Heading. These 
are discussed above. 


Sensitivity Indicator Indicates the degree of sensitivity 
of your aircraft to turning, diving and climbing. Sensitiv- 
ity varies from a low of 0 to a high of 3. At setting of 1, 
the plane is less sensitive to directional changes, and 
is easier to control. At a setting of 3, the turn, dive and 
climb characteristics of the simulation is virtually iden- 
tical to those of actual aircraft. (The most realistic 
setting is a sensitivity of 3 while flying at the rank of 
Captain). The default sensitivity is 2. 


COCKPITS 89 


Chaff and Flare Indicators Chaff are packages of tiny 
foil strips designed to confuse radar-guided missiles. 
The Chaff Indicator shows how much chaff you have 
remaining on your plane. Each plane starts off with 50 
packages of chaff. You can turn Limited Chaff off (see 
Options menu, above) for an easier game. 


Flares are designed to confuse heat-seeking missiles 
by providing extraneous sources of heat for them to 
follow. The Flare Indicator shows how many flares you 
have remaining on the plane. Each plane starts off with 
50 flares. You can turn Limited Flares off (see Options 
menu, above) for an easier game. 





Lights — Phantom 
In most cases, the lights shown below indicate that the particular system is 
in operation. 


Automatic Pilot Light ia eee n ean naeesune naan er sa aniinn ss, Ghia nnbiesnaeseenenenannien 
Stall Warning ge 
Flaps 
Air Brakes 











Landing Gear 
Hook Down 


Fire Master Caution ECM 





Wanming Lights — Intruder Only 


Warning Light Panel 
A highlighted word in one of these panels indicates something is wrong. 





Flaps 


. Stores 
. Brakes 


ECM 


5. Radar 
6. DIANE 
7. 
8 
9 


Engine Port 


. Engine Strbd 
. Fuel Leak 


10. Low Fuel 


11. Nav 
12. Oxy Low 


FLIGHT = INTRUDER 


The wing flaps have been damaged and are frozen in 
their present state. For example, if they were up when 
the damage occurred, they stay up. Because flaps help 
curb excessive speed, the plane may be much harder to 
land. On the other hand, if the flaps were down when they 
were damaged, they stay down. This hampers the plane’s 
maneuverability and prevents it from reaching top speed. 
To attain a needed speed takes more thrust, and there- 
fore uses more fuel. 


Weapons cannot be released from external stores. 


The Brakes light indicates a failure in the airbrake 
system. If the airbrakes were open when the damage 
occurred, they stay open. This is similar to Flaps damage 
(see above) and seriously threatens your planes maneu- 
verability, forcing it to fly at reduced airspeed. If the air- 
brakes were closed when the damage occurred, they stay 
closed, making the plane harder to land in some situ- 
ations. 


The threat indicator is out and ECM (Electronic Counter- 
Measures) is unavailable. You will have to rely on visual 
sightings and messages from friendly forces. 


The radar display is inoperable. 

The DIANE display is inoperable. 

Partial or complete loss of power in the port engine. 
Partial or complete loss of power in the starboard engine. 


You will have to judge how serious this is. Do you have to 
turn back immediately? 

When this light comes on, you have a full scale emer- 
gency. You need first clearance onto a green deck. 

The map display is not functioning. 


Indicates a drop in cabin pressure, usually caused by a 
bullet hole. Don’t fly above 27,000 feet or you will black 
out, even when flying straight and level. 





5 OF THE 





Phantom Only 
Waming Light panel Refer to the Warning Light Panel diagram for the 





if 


Intruder, above. The Phantom F-4 panel is identical 
to that of the Intruder except for the Afterburner 
light in place of the DIANE light. The Afterburner 
light comes on when you can no longer select the 
afterburner. 


COCKPITS 91 


The following displays are unique to the Phantom 
Optical sight 
When shooting 
guns or rockets, 
fill this circle with 
the target and 
pull the trigger. 


Pull Up Light 
This is a warning 
light that tells you 
when you are 
about to hit the 
ground. 


Multiple Weap- 
ons Control 
Panel 

This shows you 
what weapons 
you are currently 
using. 








Rounds remaining 
This shows how many rounds you have left to fire from your gun. 


THE PHANTOM RADAR SCREEN 


The F-4 in this simulation 
has a radar screen that 
very closely simulates the ; I"[e)-1h40))" 


radar used by Phantoms / 


over Vietnam. 


The radar has two modes, 
an air-to-air mode that is 
shown to the right and an 
air-to-ground mode that is 
essentially a green screen 
with TV-like images. 

In the air-to-air mode, we wath ; 
see a sweep line that updates the picture as it passes, a cone that changes 
size when a target is within Sparrow range, and a horizon line that lets you 
know where you are in relation to the world. 


When the radar has locked onto a target, “captain’s bars” show up around 
the radar image of the target, as shown in the image here. 








92 FLIGHT === or 
CARRIER LANDING 


Landing on an aircraft carrier is a difficult task at best. It requires alertness 
and concentration — just the thing at the end of a trying mission. 


Some say it doesn’t matter where the bombs go, but you’d better get the 
landing right. Everybody is watching and you get marked. 


In this simulation, you get real marks for each manual landing. (There is no 

mark for taking the easy way out and using End Mission from the FILE Menu 
or the autopilot to land the plane.) If you land the plane manually and go to 

the Debriefing screen, you get one of three marks: 


Green OK Speed and orientation good on touchdown 
Black No comment Speed and orientation not dangerous 
Red Dangerous _— Hook or gear up on touchdown 


If you are having a bad day or if your aircraft is damaged, call for the net 
((Shift](H] for Help). This is a barrier erected over the wires to stop an aircraft 
which cannot hook an arrestor wire. 


If you go for the net, you do not get a landing mark. 


Instrumentation to Help with Landing 


Meatball This is a column on the port (left) side of the carrier 
with two fixed horizontal green lights and one movable 
vertical yellow light. If the yellow light is in line with the 
green lights, then you are on the glide slope and you 
are descending at the required pitch of 3°. 


If the yellow light is above the green ones, then you are 
above the glide slope. 


If the yellow light is below the green ones, then you are 
below the glide slope. 





CARRIER LANDING 93 


Indexer This is a column on the left of the aircraft optical 
sight. There are three lights: a downward arrow at the 
top, a circle in the middle, and an upward arrow at the 
bottom. The circle is illuminated if your approach 
speed is correct. 


F-4 156 kts 
A-6 118 kts 


i If the top light is illuminated, then you are going too 
slow. If both the top and center lights are on, then your 
; approach speed is a little too slow. This means that 
‘your angle of attack (closely related to speed) is out by 
half a unit. 


: The bottom light indicates that speed is too high. 






Digital Readout On the top left of the radar, the following readings are 
available: 


Speed in knots 
Vertical speed in feet/min 
Pitch of flight path in degrees 


On the top right of the radar screen, the following 
readings are available: 


Bearing to next waypoint in degrees and range to way- 
point in nautical miles. The range is rounded down, 
and when the figure goes from two to one, you know 
that the range has just dropped below two miles. 


f On autopilot the waypoints are automatically updated. 
Mweeee On manual whenever you pass a waypoint, select the 
next one using the [;] key. 


Practice Landings 

Select CAG Briefing and load the target TESTLAND. This is a shortened 

mission which takes you away from the carrier and then brings you back to 

do the required circuit before automatically landing. 

e First, play this mission through on automatic to see the circuit. Put the 
aircraft on accelerated mode until it is heading back towards the carrier. 
(You should see the carrier at about 8 miles.) The aircraft will fly over the 
carrier, drop the landing gear and break left. 

e A course of 270 is then achieved, and the carrier should be seen on the 
left. 


e When the starboard escort frigate is just still visible in the left side view, 
the flaps are lowered and the aircraft turns again toward the carrier. 


e When the aircraft has lined up the approach, the hook is lowered. 


94 FLIGHT INTRUDER 


During the final approach on automatic, note the ACLS, the meatball, etc. 


e Stay in the outside view ({F5_}) for the landing and you should see the 
arrestor wire engage. 


e Now try a manual landing. You can turn to manual at any part of a circuit. 
Initially, it is a good idea to just practice the final approach. 


e You will need a combination of stick and RPM adjustments to: 





Keep the meatball’s lights in line. 

Keep the ACLS lines centered into a perfect cross. 
Keep the speed correct (118 for A-6 and 154 for F-4). 
Keep the pitch correct. 


If the meatball lights are in line and your pitch is 3° (as shown on the AOA 
Indexer or the radar screen), then you are in good shape. 


Some Useful Data 


In the A-6 the landing speed is 118 kts. The carrier is moving at 40 kts (on a 
good day) so the relative speed is 78 kts. 


To achieve 118 kts, power down to 80% RPM and use airbrakes. When the 
desired speed is obtained, put the RPM back up to 88%. On the RPM dial, 
80% is at the 6 o'clock position. 


The VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator) should be 650 ft/min. From this data we 
can produce the following table: 


Miles Out Desired Height 


1 575 feet 
2 1075 feet 


e 3 1575 feet 
va —— etc. 





FLYING AND FIGHTING 95 


FLYING AND FIGHTING 


Strike Mission Tactics 


Intruder Missions 


The Intruder is an all-weather low-level bomber, so most of its deployment 
was in system drops at night and/or in filthy weather. Many of its drops were 
at low level (500 ft) at about 500 kts and consisted entirely of following the 
DIANE steering instructions. 


There would usually just be a section of one or two aircraft with no covering 
fighters (who couldn’t operate well in those conditions, anyway). These were 
not flown to Hanoi or the Haiphong docks but usually to Vinh or some 
isolated target. 


If the target could actually be acquired visually, the Intruders would dive 
bomb in pairs. 





Alpha Strike 


If an Alpha Strike is called, all flyable aircraft on the carrier go to divide the 
enemy’s fire power. These are usually day strikes, and everything is dropped 
in 60 seconds. All attackers dive bomb: the lead rolls, then everybody 
follows at two-second intervals so everybody is slightly offset. 


Dive Bombing 


The secret of dive bombing success is all in where you put the cross hairs 
or, in the case of the Phantom, the gun circle. 


On the Intruder, the center is 1*/2 mils diameter. The lines are 1¥2 mils wide. 
A mil is 1 foot in 1,000 feet. So, as a rule of thumb on a 45 degree dive at 
6,000 feet, you can see a ten foot diameter circle on the ground. Using this 
technique, you should be able to get a bomb close enough to almost any 
target. 


Stephen Coonts’ Technique: 

Roll out at 15,000 feet. 

40 degree dive — look at gyro. 

Pickle at 6,000 feet — 500 KTS. 

The aircraft datum line (ADL) indicates direction of travel. There is no 


instrument to show it. Optical displacement for the bomb sight would be 
115 mils from the ADL. 


Coming out of roll, wings level, point at the target with the ADL. Make 
correction for wind — no jinking from now on. Need 1g flight on release. 
Cross hairs track towards the target. Cross hairs on target on release — 
except for wind correction. 





96 FLIGHT INTRUDER 


OFFICER TRAINING FOR MODERN JET AIRCRAFT 


This is a section on how to fly your jets and, most important, maneuver them 
in air combat. But first, let’s deal with some of the basics of jet flying. 





The Nature of G Forces 


The key to a jet being a good Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) aircraft is in its 
ability to “pull g’s” (also known as “turn g’s”). G’s represent the force of 
gravity that is being applied to the plane and its pilot and is commonly called 
“centrifugal force.” G’s dictate how fast and how tight a plane can turn at 
any given speed. All other things being equal, the plane that can turn the 
fastest usually wins the battle. 


The effects of g forces on aircraft and pilots must be understood by anyone 
entering the air combat arena. Strictly speaking, a force of 1g is equal to the 
force exerted by gravity on a body “at rest.” When a jet is flying straight and 
level, the lift generated by the plane’s wings offsets its weight, to the point 
that both plane and pilot are experiencing a gravity force equal to 1g. This is 
equivalent to what you might feel while walking along a level street. Since 
increasing units of g forces are used to indicate the increasing force to 
which a body is subjected when accelerated, a higher “positive” number of 
g's represents a higher force of gravity. Decreasing positive numbers (even 
to the point of being negative) signify a decreasing force of gravity. Whenever 
you pull your nose into a turn or a climb (by pulling back on the stick or 
increasing your bank angle), you’ll pull an increasing amount of positive g’s. 
You've probably seen the centrifuge used in astronaut training that tests a 
person’s ability to withstand centrifugal force. Whirling a person around in a 
circle at increasing speeds is very similar to what a pilot feels in a banking 
turn, and many of these turns are performed almost instantly. You begin to 
appreciate not only the pilot’s ability to withstand the force, but the plane’s 
ability as well. Pushing the stick forward results in pulling less or even 
negative g’s, since you’re not opposing the force of gravity anymore per se. 


Positive g’s push a pilot into the seat. At 7g’s, your body experiences 7 
times the normal gravitational force. This means that your 25 pound head 
weighs 175 pounds! At forces greater than 9g’s, there is so much pressure 
that the blood stops flowing in your head, causing you to black out. A black- 
out results in a loss of vision or passing out completely. 


On the other hand, negative g’s cause the blood to be forced into your head. 
Your body and plane can tolerate many more positive g’s than negative g’s. 
Excessive negative g’s (greater than -3) cause the blood vessels in your eyes 
to rupture. This is commonly referred to as a redout, which is just as 
dangerous as a blackout. 


The typical fighter of the Vietnam era could only tolerate a maximum of 7¢’s. 
Even in 1985, an F-15 pilot pulled his plane into a high g climb with a full 
load of missiles and external tanks, which caused his plane to go out of 
control and disintegrate. You should take special note of this, especially if 
you’re carrying any external stores. 


FLYING AND FIGHTING 97 


How to Pull G’s 


Pulling and pushing on your stick controls turn radius and g forces. Banking 
your plane at steeper angles results in an increase in g forces and a 
decrease in turning radius. Pulling back on your stick will add additional g’s. 
Pushing forward will subtract g’s. Turns with excessive g’s (more g's than 
are required to maintain an angle of bank) pull the plane into a higher angle 
of climb. Turns made with less than the required g’s cause the plane to 
drop. 


The Flight Performance Envelope 


The ability to pull g’s is dependent upon a plane’s flight performance 
envelope. Simply put, this is a measure of how many g’s the plane can pull 
going at what speed and what altitude. In general, the faster a plane is 
going, the higher he has to be to pull a high-g turn. However, the plane also 
needs atmospheric density for its control surfaces to “bite” into, so after a 
certain height (different for each plane), you simply cannot turn it tight 
enough to pull high g’s. Flying beyond the envelope (chasing too many 
demons too far) can result in a stall or total loss of control of your plane. 


Pulling Out of a Stall 


Learning how to pull yourself out of a stall can be a lifesaving matter. Flying 
beyond your plane’s performance envelope can result in a stall. If you’re 
flying too fast and trying to pull too many g’s, all you have to do is relax off 
the stick. 


Stalling because you’ve lost too much airspeed is a Pads eee 
completely different matter. You can convert altitude 4 we 
into energy (airspeed) by going into a dive until 

you’ve built up enough airspeed and control before ) 
pulling out. Pulling out too soon or too hard can 

result in another stall. aan 

Keep Your Energy High 


A common mistake made by rookies is flying their aircraft either too slow or 
too fast. 


Those flying their planes too slow are under the false assumption that 
slower speeds result in tighter turns and advantage during high-g ACM 
environments. Pulling high g’s bleeds off (reduces) airspeed. Flying too slow 
results in lower g capabilities. Pulling g’s can force your airspeed to fall 
below the stall rate, resulting in an uncontrollable dive. Remember, speed is 
energy, and energy helps you get in and out of combat. Running out of 
airspeed (energy) is no fun in the heat of battle. 


On the other hand, rookies have been known to carry this too far and 
attempt to dogfight travelling at Mach 2 (over 1,000 knots per hour). Trying 
to maneuver at Mach 2 is like trying to control a rocket that has gone 
ballistic. 





98 FLIGHT or = INTRUDER 


As with everything else in the world, there is a happy medium. Most dog- 
fights occur between 500 and 700 knots. This is the optimum speed for high 
g maneuvers as well as maintaining a high energy state. 

When you maneuver sharply in the upper ranks of the program, expect to 
bleed off airspeed in the process. If you don’t want this to happen, increase 
your RPMs to 100% or kick in the afterburner to minimize the effect as much 
as possible. 


Avoiding Negative G’s 


You are capable of pulling up to SS 
3 negative g’s, though you'll 2G DIVE 
start to redout if you exceed ee de 
2.5 g’s. To pull negative g's, ‘\ 

push your stick all the way Aa ANE 

forward. 


Inexperienced pilots will initiate 
a dive by pulling negative g’s. A 
better approach is to roll your 
plane upside down and pull 
positive g’s toward the ground. 
Using this technique, you’ll use 
gravity to go into a faster dive. 


And So To Fight 


And now that you know the basics of combat piloting, let’s go on to some of 
the basics of plane-to-plane combat. 


FLYING AND FIGHTING 99 


AIR COMBAT MANEUVERS 


Fighter pilots have to rove in the area allotted to them in any way they 
like, and when they spot an enemy they attack and shoot them 
down...anything else is rubbish. 


BARON VON RICHTHOFEN 


To be successful in the fighter business the air crew must, first and 
foremost, have a thorough background in fighter tactics. They must 
acquire an excellent knowledge of all their equipment. Then they 
must approach the problem with a spirit of aggression and with utter 
confidence. 


LT. R.S. LORD 
ROYAL NAVY 


We agree with the Red Baron that a good pilot is more important than any 
plane. Although if he had lived to see the agility of modern-day jet fighters, 
he might have changed his tune about the simplicity of air combat. Being 
aggressive isn’t the only prerequisite to success in dogfight battle today. 
Rather, the pilot must be well trained in air combat maneuvers and apply an 
aggressive behavior to the fighting situation in light of his particular fighter’s 
capabilities. 

For example, a plane’s ability to pull 7-9 g’s in a matter of three seconds 
enables it to turn in an incredibly tight arc. However, as you will learn, that 
same capability will cause most pilots to blackout in the process. You must 
remember that the pilot and plane are working together, and following any 
series of maneuvers requires you to know exactly what your plane can do 
and work in harmony with it. 


The maneuvers that we will be discussing are standard ones employed by 
fighter pilots throughout the world. 


Engage 

This is a basic offensive maneuver, where the 
MiG will try to do anything in order to move in on 
your “six” for the kill. 








100 __ FLIGHT INTRUDER 


Break = 


A traditional defensive maneuver. When a plane is 
attacked from the rear, it turns hard into the pur- 
suer’s line of attack in an attempt to make the 
attacker overshoot. Use this maneuver whenever you 
get a warning that you have a bandit or SAM “on your 

evasive maneuver. In its purest 


six.” 
— form, you pull into a sharp climb 


~ —— Ww and simply come over the top and 
REZ continue in the same direction. If 


you complete this maneuver, you 

may be able to pull in behind the 
other plane. Otherwise, since the loop is relatively easy to perform, you can 
use it is a decoy while setting up another maneuver to execute immediately 
after coming out of the loop. 





Vertical Loop 
The Vertical Loop is used as an 


High G Yo-Yo 


The High G Yo-Yo is an offensive maneuver that is a reaction to the “Break.” 
Because the attacking plane is unable to hold position with the plane that is 
“breaking,” it starts to pull less of a hard turn and moves vertically as well. 
During the climb, it rolls in the general direction of the predominant turn, so 
it can make an aggressive dive at the breaking plane from what is now a 
more favorable position. This 
maneuver is an example of 
using a vertical move to enable 
your plane to change position 
in less of a horizontal plane 
than a more conventional turn. 
If this maneuver is performed 
precisely, it can be very effec- 
tive because the other “break- 
ing” plane will find it hard to 
detect your position. Unfor- 
tunately, if you combine an 
ineffective turn with inade- 
quate speed in the climb, the 


other plane will have plenty of 
time to move away. 





FLYING AND FIGHTING 101 


Low G Yo-Yo 


This maneuver basically takes the opposite approach from the High Speed 
Yo-Yo to resolve a stalemate with a “breaking” plane. Rather than go verti- 
cal, the attacking plane goes into somewhat of a dive while maintaining as 
much of the turn as possible. The attacking plane then pulls up behind the 
other plane in a more favorable position. Don’t dive too low or overturn, 
because the other plane will probably roll in behind you. 





Flip Yo-Yo 

This is a slight variation of the Low G Yo-Yo. Rather than do a pure dive and 
risk pulling too many negative g’s, roll your plane after initiating the dive. 
You'll also be able to pick up speed faster in this move than the more con- 
ventional Low G Yo-Yo. Take care to not overshoot the other plane due to 
excessive speed buildup. 


Scissors 


This maneuver results from a successful Break by the plane under attack. As 
the attacking plane overshoots its target, the other plane tries to turn the 
tables and move in behind the previous attacker. Both planes roll and criss- 


ie Be 





OF TH 





102 FLIGHT INTRUDER 


cross the other’s path as each tries to gain the advantage. Your F-4 has an 
inherent disadvantage versus a MiG in this maneuver because the MiG has 
much better turning characteristics, but a skilled Phantom pilot can succeed 
with this maneuver versus Easy Targets (or versus Hard Targets if you are 
very skilled). The Scissors can remain in a stalemate for a relatively long 
period of time, until one plane takes the initiative and bails out or else 
initiates another maneuver. 


Variable Scissors 


This move is a variation of the Scissors maneuver. Rather than simply 
making rolling reversals in a relatively flat trajectory, both fighters also climb 
and dive while reversing in and out of each other’s flight path. This maneuver 
is very unlikely to end up in a stalemate because of the numerous changes 
in position. 


Split S 


The Split S is a defensive 
maneuver that comes as a 
result of the attacking plane 
moving in too close. The 
target plane will roll upside 
down and pull into an accel- 
erated dive before the at- 
tacking plane can react. The 

important thing is to do the ye 
half-roll before you dive, so 

you'll pull positive g’s when Fe 

you initiate the dive. You’ll 

accelerate better and your body will withstand the stress better (remember 
negative g’s?). 


nal 


ws 






Head On 


The classic confrontation, where 
unless either plane has been 
lucky enough to strike the other 
on the way in, the advantage is 
gained by the plane that can 
turn on the tighter arc to over- 
take the other. Because it’s 
difficult to guess which way your 
adversary is going to turn after 
passing you, most pilots get 
used to looking over their 
shoulder to check on the 
opponent’s next move, even 
while they’re making their own. 





FLYING AND FIGHTING 103 





Rollaway 


This maneuver is similar to the High G Yo-Yo 

discussed earlier. The main difference is that 

the attacking plane rolls in the opposite 

direction of the predominant turn before ah 
making its dive to regain the advantage. 





Bas mm > Dive Loop 
az, The Dive Loop is a 


good maneuver to 


perform when you are 
being trailed by a 
pursuer that is still a 
relatively long distance 


away. As is the case in 
some of the other ma- 
neuvers, you have a 
more efficient turn 
ZA because of the vertical 


emphasis. Plus, it’s 

more difficult for your 
pursuer to tell what you’re doing, since there is no movement on the horizon- 
tal plane of sight. The key is to do a half-roll (invert) as you initiate the dive, 
so as to pull positive g’s, initiate better acceleration, and achieve a tighter 
turn radius. 


Lag Pursuit 


When a plane under attack makes 

a Break, the tendency is for the 

attacker to overshoot. Sometimes po 
though, the attacker is able to mn 3, 
maintain its advantage by perform- : 
ing the Lag Pursuit, where the 

favorable position is held slightly 

behind and below the path of the 

target plane. Besides being able to 


match the target plane’s turn rate, “Se 
the attacking plane is able to 


prevent overshooting by occasion- 
ally pulling g’s in a slight climb to hg 
bleed off speed. 


104 


FLIGHT == orm co [INTRUDER 


The Immelmann is a defensive maneuver where the 
plane being chased is trying to change direction in 
the least amount of horizontal area by rolling in a 
vertical climb, rather than using the more conven- 
tional turn on a flat plane. A hard vertical climb is 
followed by a roll into whatever direction you wish to 
go at the top of the climb. Your Phantom is not a 
good jet for performing this classic move dating from 
the First World War; avoid using it except in the most 
exceptional circumstances. 


Suicide Prevention 
There are a few things you can do if you are determined to commit 
suicide in the skies above North Vietnam. 





1. Attack a target twice in one mission; once you 
have been over a target, the gunners are 
ready for you. 

. Run away from a missile at full afterburner; 
your exhausts make a wonderful target for a 


heat-seeking missile. 

. Approach a target slow and low; the AAA has 
lots of time to track you. 

. Try to out-turn a MiG; they turn much tighter 
than you do. 

. Try to outrun a SAM on the straightaway; they 
go much faster in a straight line than you do. 





FLYING AND FIGHTING 105 


FUEL MANAGEMENT 


Fuel management is an important element of this simulation. If you arrive at 
a target too early (by flying too fast and using too much fuel), you will have to 
leave the scene of the action earlier to get back safely. This might mean 
leaving others unprotected or the operation incomplete. On the other hand, if 
you have the MiGCAP role and arrive late, you may find that the aircraft you 
were supposed to protect has already been shot down. 


During the conflict, the fleet that was assigned the job of attacking North 
Vietnam was stationed at Yankee Station. There was no precise location for 
Yankee Station. Generally speaking, however, it had to be far enough off the 
coast to minimize the chance of attack from land-based forces, yet close 
enough to allow the attack aircraft to reach their target and return. In this 
simulation we have moved Yankee Station so that it is close to the North 
Vietnam coastline. This is to minimize the flight time to target. 


Fuel management was an important part of mission planning, and it would 
weaken the simulation if we ignored that fact. So to counter the fact that 
Yankee Station is closer than it should be, we have excluded the option of 
refuelling. At first sight this might be considered to be a disadvantage, but 
consider how tedious refuelling would be if it had to be done twice every 
mission. Nobody likes to stop to fill up with gas! 


If the climb requires 2,000 Ib and the minimum trap is 3,000 Ib, there is 
enough fuel to cruise for about one hour. Say a round trip of 400 nm. Now 
Yankee Station is at 107 degrees, 30 mins E Longitude and 19 degrees 30 
mins N Latitude, so there is not enough internal fuel to get to Yen Bai. There 
is certainly enough for Thanh Hoa. There is barely enough for Hanoi. 


You can start with unlimited fuel on the OPTIONS Menu so that fuel con- 
sumption doesn’t bother you while you are thinking of everything else. You 
can get a taste for fuel management by selecting half fuel consumption. The 
real test is to complete a mission at regular fuel consumption and bring the 
bird back in one piece. 


106 FLIGHT =sor me c= INTRUDER 


USING THE RADIO 


Multiple aircraft friendly missions make messages very important. 
Messages appear as screen readouts on the top line of the screen. 


Messages are an important part of the game. The pilot receives messages 
from other aircraft and from his Bombardier/Navigator. You can tell where a 
message comes from by its color. 

BLUE Chatter from other aircraft and picket ships. 

WHITE A message directed to your aircraft. 


GREEN A message from your Bomardier/Navigator (BN) or RIO. In 
CGA mode this message is colored RED. 


An urgent message goes to the top of the queue, but it does not clear the 
queue. 
Messages are not sent indiscriminately. For instance the sighting of a MiG 


is reported to MiGCAP leader. If MiGCAP leader is on auto, then the mes- 
sage triggers a response, e.g. engage or send out another section. 


Messages have four main purposes: 
e To signal position of enemy 
e To request assistance 


e To warn (eg. SAM or Bandit sighted) 
e To give information about progress of operation 





Note that each aircraft has a callsign. At the start of a mission, look at all 
the aircraft involved using the Outside View and you will see their 
callsign. Remember this or make a note, and you’ll have a good idea of who 
is calling and how much it applies to you. 


SPEED S00 KeOTS HEADING 335 GEG ALTITUDE S95 FT 
IEW CALLSIGH 
HAYPOTMT PAMGE 2 MILES EERRING 344 DEG 





ARMAMENTS 107 


ARMAMENT 
Radar-Guided Weapons 


Many of the weapons available to you are radar-guided in some way. Others 
let you use your radar as an assist in locating the target. Unless indicated in 
a following weapon description, the radar screens on both aircraft will have a 
constant radar readout of five numbers — three on the upper left of the 
screen and two on the upper right. In all cases, these numbers mean: 


True speed 
in knots 


Bearing to X 


Vertical speed 
in feet per 
second 


Distance to X 





Current pitch of aircraft in degrees 
(+ or — indicates whether climbing or diving) 


X is either your next waypoint or a target if the LOCK light is on. 


INTRUDER 





108 FLIGHT Sor te 
WEAPON SELECTION PANELS 


Selecting the weapon you want is done on a Weapon Selection Panel. This is 
different for each aircraft. 


Intruder Multiple Weapon Selection Panel 


The Intruder’s Weapon Selection Panel is positioned on 
the right forward 45° view. Press (7). 


Weapons On Station: set of 5 numbers. These indicate 
the number of weapons on each station. 


Master Arm Light: Toggled with [Home]. Must be on before 
weapons can be released. 


Active Station: By pressing (Backspace), the active station 
can be changed. The active station is indicated by 
activating the light below the weapons on the station 
number. 


Direct/DIANE/Dive Toss: This option is toggled using the 
on the keypad. It is not available on all weapon 
modes because it determines the bombing method. 


Single/Ripple: Toggle using the (9} on the keypad. Single 
means that one weapon is released on each trigger 
press. Ripple means that all weapons on that station 
are released at one second intervals on pressing the 
trigger. Weapons on the wing stations are released in 
pairs to maintain a balanced aircraft. Ripple is not 
available on all weapon options. 


Description Panel This displays the type of store at the selected station. 
Note that mixed store stations are not allowed. 





ARMAMENTS 109 


Phantom Multiple Weapon Selection Panel 


Positioned on the lookdown front view (press (1]). The panel is a variation of 
the A-6 panel. Differences account for air-to-air missiles and guns. 


The weapons on station and active station 
panel (WOSASP) which is similar to the A-6 is 
situated at the bottom left of the front panel. 
The dive toss/direct lights are to the right, 
and above them the rounds remaining in the 
gun are displayed. Above the WOSASP we 
have the missiles available panel. Lights 
indicate the current load of air to air mis- 
siles. Above that we have the description 
panel and single/ripple lights side by side. 
The master arm light comes above the 
single/ripple lights. There are two more 





instruments/switches: 
Active Weapon 
To the left of the radar, there is a light panel: 
Station: 

Radar Sparrow selected. 

Heat Sidewinder selected. 

Gun Gun selected. 

Arm Air-to-Ground weapon selected 


AA/AG switch 


/ This is the air to air/air to 

# ground toggle. Pressing 
changes the active 
AG station. If [E) is pressed, 
then the AA/AG switch is 
turned and the first AA weapon 
is selected. Pressing 

* further changes the active AA 

; Station. This station must be 
changed using the keyboard. 

* The switch is on the screen for 
show. 





110 


FLIGHT 





Air-to-Air Weapons 


It is assumed that you have selected the weapon type you want to fire. See 
the Multiple Weapon Selection Panel above. Remember that the following 
only applies to the F-4 Phantom. The A-6 Intruder carries no air-to-air weap- 


ons. 


AIM-7 Sparrow 


Purpose 


Selection 


Aiming 


Notes 


The AIM-7 sparrow is a radar-guided anti-aircraft missile for use 
at long range only. If you are expected to confirm your target 
before firing, you may be too close to use this weapon. 


Maximum Range: 14 miles 
Minimum Range: 2 miles 


Press until AIM7 comes up in the display box, the Radar 
light comes on, and the cone circle appears on the radar 
screen. 


Steer to keep the blip on the radar screen within the circle. 
When you get the captain’s bar to appear around the blip, then 
you have locked on. Press to release the missile. 
Continue to point at the bandit and the missile should lock and 
guide. The bandit must be illuminated by the fighter’s radar 
(65° cone) the entire time that the missile is flying. Generally 
fire in pairs to improve PK. During a Sparrow kill you will have 
your head inside the cockpit for much of the time. 


The Sparrow was 12 ft long, had an 8 inch diameter and a 3 ft 
4 inch fin span. It takes 4 seconds to lock on to a target and 
1.5 seconds to release. It can accelerate to more than 1,200 
mph in 2.5 seconds. It takes 40 seconds to cross 40 NM. 


The Sparrow had a disappointing 10% kill rate in Vietnam. It 
was virtually useless below 8,000 ft. 


High altitude range: 
Head-on Stern 
Maximum: 7-8.6 NM 3 NM 
Minimum: 2 NM 1 NM 


ARMAMENTS 111 





AIM-9 Sidewinder 


Purpose 


Selection 


Aiming 


Notes 


Sidewinders are heat-seeking missiles used in air-to-air combat 
with a useful range of about two miles. Although hits have been 
recorded at seven mile range, this is not probable since a 
strong heat-source is required for tracking. 


Press until AIM-9 comes up in the display box, the Heat 
light comes on, and the cone circle appears on the radar 
screen. 


Follow the same general tactics as described for the Sparrow. 
However, you are fitted with an early version of the Sidewinder 
so you don’t have all-aspect firing capabilty. Maneuver the 
aircraft to get on the bandit’s tail. You should get a lock at a 
range of two miles. Because you will be close in during a Side- 
winder kill, you will probably not want to have your head inside 
the cockpit. It is better to rely on the growl. The missile is 
guided by an infrared homing device mounted behind the glass 
nose of the weapon. When the detector is pointed at a source 
of infrared energy, it produces a growling tone into the pilot’s 
headset. When you have heard this sound for a second, press 
(Spacebar]. Generally fire in pairs to improve PK (probability of 
kill). 

Because of its infrared homing device, the missile is a fire- 
and-forget weapon. You do not need to stay lined up on the 
target after firing. 


Like the Sparrows, the Sidewinders had a disappointing kill 
ratio in Vietnam. Among their problems were an inclination to 
lock onto the sun if it was in their way and a penchant for 
losing targets against ground heat sources. 

For this simulation, you can choose how effective your Side- 
winders are with the OPTIONS menu. 


Easy Targets Sidewinder is an all-aspect 
weapon. 

Medium Targets Pilot must point at the bandit’s 
rear quarter to get a lock on. 

Hard Targets Missile must continue to point 
at bandit’s rear to maintain lock. 


112 


FLIGHT © 





Gun and Rockets 


Purpose 


Selection 


Aiming 


Notes 


The gun and rockets can be used for air-to-air and air-to-ground 
attacks, though the rockets are really meant for air-to-ground 
attacks. Rockets are further described under air-to-ground 
weapons. 


Since the gun is either an A-A or A-G weapon, you can press 
either or until Guns comes up in the display 
box, the Gun light comes on, and the cone circle disappears on 
the radar screen. 


Guns should only be selected when the target is in visible 
range. Find your target with the threat indicator and any reports 
you receive from Red Crown and your wingman. When it is 
within 800 yards, you have a chance of hitting it. You will have 
no instruments to help you. Just fill the screen with the Bandit 
and press (Spacebar}. Unless you are right on top of the bandit, 
be sure to aim where you think he will be, not where he is when 
you shoot. 


The Phantom you are flying is fitted with an M61A71 internally 
mounted rotary cannon. This gun, which fires at a rate of 100 
rounds/second, was fitted to the Air Force’s F-4E. Navy F-4J’s 
carried the M61A‘1 in a gun pod if they carried any gun at all. 
However, we felt that if you are playing an air-to-air simulation, 
you should have the joy of blasting enemy aircraft with your 
gun. Certainly a lot of Navy pilots wished they had one. 


If you want the real feel of being a Navy pilot in an F-4J, just 
don’t use the gun. 


ARMAMENTS 113 





Air-to-Ground Weapons 


Both aircraft carried the following weapons and could use them in the same 


Way. 


AGM-45A Shrike 


Purpose 
Selection 


Aiming 


Notes 


The Shrike homes in on active radar, making it ideal for 
attacking AAA and SAM radar targeting and control centers. 


Press until AGM 45A comes up in the display box. 
On the F-4, the arm light comes on too. 


When a light red blip appears on the threat indicator, itis a 
ground threat; in addition, the threat displays should have the 
missile or AAA light flashing. A click can be heard every time 
the number of dots on the threat indicator changes. 


Get the blip on the threat indicator to 12 o’clock. The Shrike 

will lock after about five seconds. When the LOCK light comes 
on use to release the missile. The missile will guide 
itself to the target unless the radar station stops transmitting. 


Canny Vietnamese AA operators will turn off their radar if they 
think a Shrike has been launched at them (this happens at the 
“High Enemy Activity” setting on the OPTIONS Menu). A Shrike 
will not always destroy a site. It is good practice to follow up, 
while the site is quiet, with a Walleye or a ripple of iron bombs. 
You can even strafe with guns or rockets. 


AGM-78 Standard 


Purpose 
Selection 


Aiming 
Notes 


The Standard homes in on random radar and continues on its 
set flight path when the radar turns off. 


Press until AGM 78 comes up in the display box. On 
the F-4, the arm light comes on too. 


See AGM-45A above. 

Canny Vietnamese AA operators who turned off their radars 
were very surprised when these smart bombs continued to 
glide in on their already-established path. Again, it is always a 
good idea to follow up with bombs, guns, or rockets. 


| INTRUDER 





114 FLIGHT “or me & 


AGM-62 Walleye 


Purpose The Hughes Walleye is a small laser-guided missile. It can be 
relied on to hit its target if it is used correctly, but it is not 
particularly big and cannot be relied on to take out a large or 
hard target. 


Selection Press until Walleye comes up in the display box and 
a camera view appears on the radar screen. On the F-4 the arm 
light comes on. 


Aiming Point the aircraft in the direction of the target. You should see 
the target on the radar screen. This is a TV view, as the camera 
is located in the nose of the missile. 


There are two modes of operation for the Walleye: (1) Fixed 
Sight and (2) Variable Sight. Toggle between the two by 
pressing (T). 

Fixed Sight provides cross hairs on the TV screen that match 
wherever the cross hairs on the HUD are placed. The only 
exception is that the TV screen cross hair cannot be drawn 
above the horizon and so as you climb, the cross hair is 
pushed down the screen. This indicates that a shot should not 
be made as the solution is unreliable. 


Point the aircraft at the target so that the cross hairs overlay 
the target. Press (Spacebar). The locked light should come on 
and the figures on the screen show the range and bearing to 
the target. The cross hair on the screen will now move with the 
target. If you are not happy with the lock, press [x] to release 
the lock. 


Variable Sight gives you HUD and TV cross hairs that do not 
match. The TV cross hair is locked to a point on the ground. As 
the aircraft moves, the cross hair moves to continue to overlay 
the point on the ground. The point the cross hair is locked to 
can be changed with the following keys. 





Move Up Screen 0) 
Move Left 
Move Right 


Move Down Screen 


Using with these keys speeds up the motion. 
When the cross hairs overlay the target, switch on the master 


arm ({Home}) and press to release the missile. 


ARMAMENTS 115 





LGB Paveway 


Purpose 


Selection 


Aiming 


Notes 


The Paveway is a laser-guided bomb (LGB). It consists of a 
laser sensor attached to an Mk84. It is very similar to the 
Walleye except that it is a bomb, not a missile. It packs a 

greater punch but must be released over the target. 


Press until Paveway comes up in the display box and 
a camera view appears on the radar screen. On the F-4, the 
arm light comes on. 


The aiming method is virtually identical to that used for the 
Walleye. It has the same two methods of aiming. Paveway 
packs a much bigger punch than the Walleye, but the Walleye is 
easier to aim. This is because the Paveway does not have any 
propulsion and therefore can only maneuver in a small enve- 
lope. Thus, you must dive more steeply over your target when 
using the Paveway. The harder the targets you select on the 
Options Menu, the higher the dive angle you must attain before 
releasing this weapon. 


While the method of shooting the Paveway is identical to the 
Walleye for shooting purposes, the actual method of target 
designation is different. When Paveway is selected, a friendly 
illuminates the target with laser light. The pilot must release 
the bomb so that it can pick up the reflected light from the 
target. This is called “getting the bomb down the chute” or “in 
the basket.” 


The need to get a friendly to illuminate, or “paint” the target, is 
simulated in the game with the Lock light. If the Lock light is 
on, the illuminating plane has done its job and the bomb will 
guide. Bombs released without the Lock light act like the 
unguided weapons described later. 





116 FLIGHT 


LAU-3A ZUNI Rockets 


Purpose Rockets are meant to put a lot of firepower into a relatively 
small area at once. They can be used against personnel and 
lightly armed vehicles, but have no penetration against tanks. 


Selection Rockets are considered air-to-ground weapons, so press 
until LAU3A comes up in the display box, the arm 
light comes on, and the cone circle disappears on the radar 
screen. 


Aiming Rockets have an effective range of about one mile, so only 
select them when you have a target in visual range. For the 
purpose of shooting, rockets can be treated the same as a 
gun. Just aim the plane at the target and press (Spacebar). If the 
target is moving, lead it. 


Notes The LAU-3A rocket pod holds 19 folding fin aircraft rockets 
(FFAR). They are usually fired in bursts of four or five. While 
they are considered an air-to-ground weapon, there is nothing 
to stop you from letting some fly in the direction of a bandit. As 
an A-6 pilot you could certainly give a MiG a surprise. If a 
rocket hits a MiG, it can shoot it down. 


Iron Bombs 


Purpose lron Bombs have changed little since the Second World War. 
The size has increased and some sophistication has been 
added (such as the Snakeye’s retarded fall), but essentially the 
Iron Bomb still falls from the airplane with nothing influencing 
its motion but gravity and wind drag. 


Selection Press until either Mk82, Mk83, Mk84 or Mk82 
Snakeye comes up in the display box. On the F-4, the arm light 
comes on. Toggle [1] on the number pad to select the bombing 
mode of DIANE, Direct or Dive Toss. Toggle (9) on the number 
pad to select either single or ripple release. 


Aiming Mk82, Mk83, Mk84 and Mk82 Snakeyes can be released 
singly or on ripple. Ripple means all weapons on a station are 
released at one second intervals. The following bomb release 
methods are available: 

DIANE A-6 only 


Direct A-6 and F-4 
Dive Toss A-6 and F-4 


ARMAMENTS 117 


DIANE — This is only available on the A-6. On the waypoint 
screen in the game beginning, select ripple bomb for the action 
over the target. In the cockpit, select lron Bomb, DIANE and 
Ripple or Single. Follow the waypoints to the target. This is 
done by steering the aircraft so that the center steering cue 
line is vertical. When you are steering straight for a waypoint, 
the bearing figure should be zero. You should see the range 
figure count down. When the range is less than one mile, 
select the next waypoint. This is done by pressing (3). You 
should see the waypoint information change, and you will have 
to turn the aircraft to point at the new waypoint. The display 
shows the words NAV or ATTACK on the bottom left of the 
display. NAV indicates that you are steering to a normal navi- 
gation waypoint. ATTACK indicates you are steering towards 
your target. 


When you see the ATTACK come up, tum on the master arm 
and fly straight and level toward your target at 10,000-15,000 
feet. Diving towards the target is also possible. If the dive 
angle is over 45° when the altitude is less than about 7,000 
feet, you should see the impact point display (filled circle). 

The steering cue box should be filled with the target square. As 
you approach the release point, a bar at the top of the screen 
appears. This bar moves down the screen. When it just drops 


off the screen, press (Spacebar]. 





118 FLIGHT INTRUDER 


Direct — This is very difficult and takes a great deal of prac- 
tice. The simplest method is a straight approach toward the 
target. See Notes for the more realistic method of circling the 
target. 


Before starting the attack, you need to choose the release 
parameters: speed, height, and angle of dive. 


From this selection, you can find the mil setting in the tables 
following. For instance, for 450 kts, an altitude of 8,000 ft and 
a dive angle of 60 degrees, the mil setting is 112. 


In the cockpit the mil setting is achieved using the keys {1 and 
(i). Shift can be used for a faster change. As the keys are 
pressed, you should see the aiming sight in the simple HUD 
(Head Up Display) move up and down. The actual mil reading is 
shown on the otherwise blank display below the radar screen. 


Set the mils as shown in the example above. Approach the 
target at about 8,500 ft and a speed of 400-420 Kts. If using 
keyboard flight controls, use the sensitivity keys, and (F4 ], 
to change the sensitivity to maximum. When the range figure 
hits one mile, push the stick forward quickly and get the sights 
on the target. 


Coordination is needed here because you must hit 
when the sight is on the target, the altitude is 8,000 ft, the 
speed is 450 kts, and the dive angle is 60°. The dive angle 
should be taken care of by diving at a range of one mile. Direct 
attack is difficult, so it is a good idea to ripple. 


Dive Toss — The setup for dive toss is very similar to manual 
dive bombing. Circle the target at 10,000-15,000 ft and then 
turn and dive towards the target. When your wings are brought 
level after turning towards the target, point directly at the 
target. The bombsight should be directly over the target. Pickle 
the target by pressing the trigger and pull up. The bombs are 
released automatically. 





ARMAMENTS 119 





Notes 


Mk82. The standard all-purpose free-fall 500 Ib bomb still has 
many uses — especially in rapid-+elease mode. 


Mk83. This 1,000 Ib. bomb is standard ordnance. For best 
results release around 7,000 ft., diving at 45°. 


Mk84. This general purpose 2,000 Ib bomb is standard 
ordnance, giving a high PK. 


MK82S Snakeye. The Snakeye is a retarded free-fall version of 
the Mk82 all-purpose bomb for use in low-level attacks. 


CBU52 CLuster Bombs. These bombs are actually a container 
of several smaller bombs that scatter and explode, making it 
an ideal weapon for personnel-intensive areas such as SAM 
sites. Commonly used by Wild Weasel attacks after a Shrike or 
Standard had silenced the radar installation. 


Single or Ripple. Select Ripple for soft targets spread over a 
large area. Choose Single when pinpoint accurate bombing is 
required. On hearing the bombs release, press (Q] to go to 
missile view. You will then see the bombs fly towards the 
target. 


Correct Approach. You can approach the target directly and 
point the nose at the target by pushing forward on the stick to 
drop the nose of the aircraft. In reality, this causes a negative g 
on the pilot’s body and can cause a “redout” in which he has 
no control of the aircraft. This can be simulated in the OPTIONS 
menu. 


To avoid this redout problem, a bomber pilot will normally circle 
the target, go into a 135° roll, pull back on the stick and then 
straighten up to point straight down at the target. 





120 FLIGHT Soerm c= INTRUDER 


MIL DETERMINATON TABLES 
Dive Bomb Mil Settings — Free Fall 
Speed: 450 Kts 


DIVE ANGLE 






Dive Bomb Mil Settings — Free Fall 


Speed: 500 Kts 


Height 
(feet) DIVE ANGLE 


ARMAMENTS 121 


Dive Bomb Mil Settings — Retarded Fall 
Speed: 450 Kts 


Height 
(feet) DIVE ANGLE 


[o00’'s] 60[ 55] SO] 45] 40] 35] 30] 25] 20] 15] 10) 


af 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 






Dive Bomb Mil Settings — Retarded Fall 
Speed: 500 Kts 


Height 
(feet) DIVE ANGLE 


OMNDORWNHR 





122 FLIGHT oor c= [INTRUDER 
THE NAVAL AIR WAR IN VIETNAM 


The Gulf of Tonkin 


The war in Vietnam began on August 2, 1964 when F-8E Crusaders from the 
USS Ticonderoga attacked North Vietnamese P-4 patrol torpedo boats off 
Hon Me Island. The North Vietnamese PT boats had attacked the U.S. 
destroyer Maddox (DD-731), possibly confusing the destroyer with one of the 
South Vietnamese patrol boats which had earlier shelled a radar station on 
Hon Me Island and a radio transmitter on Hon Ngu Island. After the Maddox 
fired three warning shots, the Vietnamese craft launched torpedoes. All 
shots missed. After taking machine gun fire, the Maddox radioed for air 
support. Four F-8E Crusaders intercepted the patrol boats and sank one of 
the P-4 boats with gunfire and Zuni rockets. 


On the night of August 4, 1964, the Maddox and USS Turner Joy picked up 
three high-speed surface radar contacts. Two A-1 Skyraiders were launched 
from the Ticonderoga to intercept the probable boat contacts and to provide 
aircover. Because of bad weather, the A-1s never confirmed the presence of 
enemy patrol craft. This apparent hostile action against U.S. destroyers on 
patrol in international waters led to the passing of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolu- 
tion on August 10th by Congress. This resolution gave the President the 
power to “take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against 
the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.” 


Escalation 


The Vietnam conflict started as a series of United States retaliations against 
the North Vietnamese government for specific actions. In retaliation for the 
attack on the Maddox, 64 aircraft were launched on August 5, 1964 from 
the USS Ticonderoga and USS Constellation to attack enemy PT boat bases 
in Operation Pierce Arrow. These aircraft carriers, part of Task Force 77, 
were stationed in the Gulf of Tonkin just south of Hainan. This position 
became known as Yankee Station. 


On December 24, 1964 73 servicemen were either killed or injured when 
the Brink Hotel Bachelor Officers’ Quarter in Saigon was bombed. The 
President authorized Operation Flaming Dart One, which targeted enemy 
barracks at Dong Hoi and Vit Thu Lu. The Communists responded by bomb- 
ing the Bachelor Enlisted Quarters at Qhi Nhon on February 10, 1965, which 
killed or wounded 44 U.S. personnel. Again, the U.S. retaliated the next day 
with Flaming Dart Two which attacked the Chanh barracks. 


Action brought reaction. Targets and mission profiles were approved in 
Washington before each mission. Targets were assigned by the Joint Chiefs 
of Staff (JCS) with approval from the President and Secretary of Defense. On 
February 13, 1965 President Johnson authorized operation Rolling Thunder. 
Rolling Thunder tasked both the Navy and Air Force with bombing missions 
north of the DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) to the outskirts of Hanoi. The goal of 
Rolling Thunder was to force North Vietnam to the peace table by demon- 


THE AIR WAR OVER VIETNAM 123 


strating U.S. fire power and threatening their capital. 
The object was to bomb military targets and to 
avoid civilian or foreign casualities. U.S. Admiral 
Grant Sharp said, “It [Rolling Thunder] does not 
seek to inflict maximum damage on the enemy. 
Instead, it is a precise application of military pres- 
sure for the specific purpose of halting aggression 
in South Vietnam.” 





Rules of Engagement 


Rules of Engagement were established to control the conflict. Only targets 
that had been pre-approved could be bombed. Targets would be submitted to 
the Pentagon, and they would recommend the targets to the JCS and the 
Secretary of Defense. Only the the President could officially add targets to 
the list. The number of sorties and mission profiles including the type of 
ordnance was decided in Washington. This elaborate approval process was 
designed to control and limit the conflict by placing control in Washington 
rather than with the local commanders. This policy failed. 


The rules of engagement frustrated the naval aviators. Several rules were 
established. Aircraft were not allowed to bomb secondary strike targets. All 
unexpended ordnance had to be jettisoned at sea rather than on targets. 
Surface-to-air missile sites could not be attacked while under construction 
for fear of hurting Soviet advisors. Enemy aircraft could not be bombed while 
on the ground unless they were taking off. No aircraft could be attacked 
unless positive visual identification was made, yet the Navy’s principal 
fighter, the F-4 Phantom, was designed as a beyond-visual-range interceptor 
and had no internal gun. Harbors could not be mined; ships carrying war 
supplies could not be bombed. Aircrews also could not attack military tar- 
gets such as AAA (Anti-Aircraft Artillery) batteries on farms, rice patties or 
dikes; military supply trucks parked on civilian sites; or SAM batteries within 
10 miles of Hanoi. If a mission was canceled due to weather or a change in 
operations, the entire authorization process had to be repeated. 


To make matters worse, ship commanders during the early phases of the 
war competed with each other to see which ship could launch the most 
sorties (missions). If one ship flew 125 sorties in one day, another ship tried 
to launch 130 sorties the next day. So instead of loading up planes with full 
loads to bomb several targets in one mission, several flights of planes would 
be launched with only one or two bombs in order to keep up the number of 
required sorties. Many pilots and Radar Intercept Officers (RIOs) lost their 
lives as others played the numbers game. As one pilot had put it, “it’s crazy 
to let politicians run a war...it’s like having the military run a country.” 


The Threat Grows 


By the spring of 1965, the air war really began to heat up. Operation Rolling 
Thunder was under way, and the United States was dropping an average of 
eight hundred tons of ordnance a day. Instead of buckling under, the North 


124 FLIGHT © INTRUDER 


Vietnamese raised the ante by adding two new air defense weapons to its 
already effective AAA: the MiG and the SAM (surface-to-air missile). On April 
4, 1965 the first conclusive air combat took place over Vietnam when two Air 
Force F-105s were shot down by MiG-17s. Then on April 5, a USS Coral Sea 
RF-8A reconnaissance plane positively confirmed the construction of the first 
surface-to-air missile site. The photos revealed the construction of a Soviet 
built SA-2 Guideline missile site 15 miles southeast of Hanoi. The SA-2 was 
a two stage anti-aircraft missile capable of intercepting and destroying 
aircraft at altitudes of over 60,000 feet. 


The commander of Task Force 77, Rear Admiral Edward Outlaw, along with 
the commander of the 7th Air Force in Saigon, wanted to strike the SAM site 
quickly. Because of the rules of engagement, however, he was not allowed 
without first going through the chain of command. A joint Air Force and Navy 
plan that would destroy all of the sites under construction was submitted, 
but permission was never given by the JCS. On July 24, 1965 an Air Force 
F-4C was shot down by a SA-2 while flying target combat air patrol during an 
attack on the Lang Chi munitions factory. The SAMs were now operational. 


The President authorized a single retaliatory strike on July 27th against two 
specific SAM sites (sites 6 and 7) near Hanoi. One site was destroyed, but 
the cost was four Air Force F-105s and one RF-101C. The Nav lost its first 
plane, an A-4E, to a SAM on the night of August 11th. The Navy was author- 
ized to retaliate on August 13, 1965. Seventy-six low-level anti-SAM mis- 
sions (“Iron Hand”) were launched on that Black Friday. Five planes were 
shot down by enemy guns, two pilots were killed, and seven planes were 
damaged. No SAM sites were discovered or destroyed. 





Enter the Intruder 


The Grumman A-6A Intruder is 
a two-seat subsonic attack 
aircraft capable of delivering 
16,800 pounds of ordnance at 
ranges of over 1,500 miles in 
any kind of weather, day or 
night. Until Vietnam, the A-6 
with its multimillion dollar ad- 
vanced radar and computer 
systems, was untested. Many 
experts had doubts as to the 
ability of the A-6 to deliver its 
payload. 


In July 1965 the VA-75 Attack 
Squadron aboard the USS 
Independence, better known 
as the Sunday Punchers, was 
the first Air Wing to receive the 
Intruder. The first mission of 





THE AIR WAR OVER VIETNAM 125 


the Sunday Punchers was to take the Intruder to targets south of Hanoi. This 
was the first Vietnam mission flown entirely by radar. Over the next several 
weeks, the A-6A proved its ability to hit its target in any kind of weather or 
time of day. The introduction of the A-6 gave the Navy its first attack aircraft 
that could overcome the terrible monsoons the Vietnamese weather deliv- 
ered in the Tonkin Gulf. 


The A-6 was so effective that Radio Hanoi claimed that American B-52 heavy 
bombers had attacked the Uong Bi power plants under the cover of night 
with 26 bombers. In reality the raid was carried out by only two Intruders. 
The Intruder was used not only as a bomber but also served as a SAM sup- 
pressor in the “Iron Hand” missions. 


The A-6 was an effective attack aircraft, but it did come at a cost. Fifty-one 
Intruders were shot down in Vietnam, and the plane suffered one of the 
worse combat loss rates in the Naw, trailing only the propeller driven A-1 
and the single-seat light attack A-4 Skyhawk in loss to flight ratio. The main 
threats to the A-6 were small arms and anti-aircraft automatic weapons. 


lron Hand 


As the war continued, the United States began to develop new tactics to 
deal with the growing number of North Vietnamese threats. To counter the 
growing SAM threat, the Navy developed an operation called “Iron Hand” to 
suppress the SA-2 surface-to-air missiles. These anti-SAM sorties were first 
flown from July 1965 to August 1965. Initially, these missions proved very 
costly. Several Iron Hand planes were shot down by the SAMs and even 
more were destroyed by AAA fire. It wasn’t until October 17, 1965 that the 
Navy bagged its first confirmed destruction of a SAM site near Kep Air Base. 


It took time for the Navy to develop adequate Iron Hand tactics. At first, 
planes attempted to come in below 3,000 feet to avoid the high flying SAMs. 
The problem was that the flights became extremely vulnerable to small arms 
fire and AAA. Another problem with coming in low was that the planes did not 
have enough energy (speed) when they had to pop-up for their attack runs. 
This made the attacking plane a sitting duck for AAA and small arms as the 
plane seemed to hang in mid-air as it popped up for its attack. 


It took until March 1966 before the Iron Hand operations became truly 
effective. With the introduction of the AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missile, 
the Navy had its first real anti-SAM weapon. The Shrike was designed to 
follow the radar beam being emitted from a SAM site. The installation of 
radar warning equipment (AN/APR-25 RHAW) in the 
aircraft along with jammers (AN/ALQ-81 ECM) and 
chaff dispensers (AN/ALE-29A), allowed the American 
planes to dive in at medium altitudes. An even more 
effective anti-SAM missile was introduced in May 
1968, called the Standard, which was bigger, had a 
longer range, and was less susceptible to being 
fooled. The Iron Hand missions greatly reduced the 
effectiveness of the SAMs. 





126 FLIGHT : 


MiGCAP 


The air war in Vietnam 
was mainly an air-to- 
ground affair. MiGCAP 
(MiG Combat Air Patrol) 
was an operation mainly 
flown by F-4 Phantom II's 
from the larger Forrestal 
and later class carriers and by F-8 Crusaders off of the smaller Essex and 
Midway class carriers. (The Midway and Coral Sea had F-4 Squadrons as 
well). For many, MiGCAP was a boring mission since most of the action was 
air-to-ground. But MiGCAP was needed to defend the attack aircraft against 
the MiG-17, MiG-19 and MiG-21. When the MiGs were up, things got hot. 


The F-4 Phantom II was a Mach 2.5 multi-purpose interceptor and is regard- 
ed by many as the best all-around aircraft flown in Vietnam (though Navy F-8 
drivers might try to argue this with you). The Navy versions, unlike the Air 
Force F-4E, did not have an internal gun. All of the Navy’s MiG kills in the F-4 
were done exclusively with missiles. The F-4 mainly carried two types of air- 
to-air missiles: the medium range radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow and the short 
range AIM-9 Sidewinder. 


The AIM-7 Sparrow was designed to intercept and destroy aircraft at dis- 
tances beyond visual range (up to 14 miles). The Radar Intercept Officer 
(RIO), or GIB (Guy In Back), would lock onto targets with his radar and launch 
an AIM-7 at his prey. The F-4 must keep its radar on the target in order to 
guide the missile until the point of contact. Because the Rules of Engage- 
ment required aircraft to be positively identified (which usually meant visually 
within two miles), the effectiveness of the AIM-7 was greatly reduced. The 
AIM-7 accounted for only ten of the Navy Phantom’s 41 kills. Only one 
Sparrow out of every twelve launched found its target. 


The AIM-9 Sidewinder accounted for the other 31 MiG kills by Phantom 
drivers. The AIM-9 is a heat-seeking missile with approximately a two mile 
range. A pilot had to approach his target’s rear end in order for the missile 
to lock on the heat signature of the MiG’s engines. Once launched, the Side- 
winder would guide itself towards the target. The Sidewinder was twice as 
effective as the AIM-7 with a kill every 5.5 
launches. 


The Navy orchestrated large attack groups 
consisting of bombers (A-6 Intruders, A-4 
Skyhawks or A-7 Corsair II's), Combat Air 
Patrol fighters (F-8 Crusaders or F-4 Phan- 
toms), Flak Suppressors (F-8s or F-4s) and 
lron Hands (A-6s, A-4s or F-8s). These flights, 
which could contain as many as 24 aircraft, 
became known as Alpha Strike missions. It was 
this strike package which became the standard for- 
mation for hitting targets in North Vietnam. 
















THE AIR WAR OVER VIETNAM 127 


Top Gun 


From 1965 to 1968, the F-4 Phantom’s kill ratio was a lousy 2.6:1. The F-4 
crews had bagged 13 MiGs and lost five F-4’s. The naval aviator had lost his 
ability to dogfight, especially against the smaller and more maneuverable 
MiGs. By 1968, things were getting worse with the kill ratio falling below 1:1. 


In 1968 the Naval Air System Command ordered a study to find out why our 
aviators were being blown out of the skies. The now famous “Ault Report” 
pointed out three reasons why the kill ratio had suffered. First, the air-to-air 
missiles did not work as advertised. Second, the Rules of Engagement 
neutralized any advantages our aircraft had and gave limitless advantages to 
the enemy. Third and most important, our pilots were poorly trained in air 
combat maneuvering (ACM) against dissimilar aircraft and tactics. 


In 1969 a class for Navy F-4 crews began to correct these deficiencies. 
Three years later an independent command, the Navy Fighter Weapons 
School, better known as TOP GUN, was established to train crews in the art 
of ACM. 


When the air war began to heat up again in 1972, TOP GUN F-4 pilots 
enjoyed a 24 to 2 kill ratio. In addition, no additional Navy attack or recon- 
naissance aircraft were lost to enemy MiGs. TOP GUN produced the Navy’s 
only aces, Lt. Randy Cunningham and Lt (j.g.) Willie Driscoll. On May 10, 
1972, Cunningham and Driscoll in their F-4 shot down three MiGs in one 
mission including the dreaded enemy ace Col. Tomb flying a MiG-17. Col. 
Toon was credited with downing 13 American jets before meeting Cunning- 
ham and Driscoll. The dogfight that took place between these two planes is 
now legendary. TOP GUN had paid off. 





Rolling Thunder V 


The war continued to intensify through 1967 with Operation Rolling Thunder 
V which began on February 14, 1967. President Johnson authorized attacks 
against a new list of targets which included mining the Song Ca estuaries 
and Song Giang rivers in order to close them to barge traffic. He also 
ordered the bombing of the ports of Cam Pha, Hong Gai and Haiphong. In 
addition to this, bridges and rail networks were also destroyed, cutting off 
the steady supply of weapons and fuel to the North Vietnamese. Eventually, 
Haiphong ran out of ammunition. In 1967 the Navy alone destroyed 30 SAM 
sites, 187 flak batteries and dropped 955 bridges. In addition, thousands of 
trains, trucks and watercraft were destroyed. The Navy scored 14 MiG kills 
and had no less than 11 aircraft carriers on line. 


Early 1968 saw the North Vietnamese striking back with two large offen- 
sives: the Tet offensive and the battle for Khe Sanh. Both efforts were 
repulsed. On November 1st, after feeling the pressure of the anti-war 
movement, President Johnson ordered the unilateral halting of bombing 
north of the 20th parallel except “in the areas where the continuing enemy 
buildup directly threatens allied forward positions and where the movement 
of their troops and supplies are clearly related to that threat.” President 





OF THE 





128 FLIGHT = INTRUDER 


Johnson had hoped that by halting the bombing a peace dialogue between 
the Communists, the South Vietnamese and the United States could begin. 
He hoped that the cessation of hostile activity would demonstrate the United 
States’ good faith. In reality, it eased the pressure on Hanoi and Haiphong 
and allowed the North Vietnamese to rearm. The Communists were commit- 
ted to their cause. 


After winning the 1968 presidential election, President Nixon began the 
gradual withdrawal of troops from Vietnam. On June 8, 1969, the U.S. 
withdrew 5,000 troops from South Vietnam. Peace talks began in Paris in 
August 1969. Bombing began in both Laos and Cambodia in an attempt to 
stop the steady supply of arms to the Viet Cong into South Vietnam. Princi- 
pal targets were trucks and transportation routes along the infamous Ho Chi 
Minh Trail. This bombing effort continued through 1970 with very little suc- 
cess because the supplies needed to be cut off at their source, the harbors. 
The anti-truck campaign did not halt the transportation of arms since the 
Viet Cong found new ways of moving weapons under the cover of night and 
jungle to avoid the U.S. air raids. 


Linebacker 


On March 30, 1972 North Vietnam launched a massive all-out spring 
offensive across the Demilitarized Zone into South Vietnam. Cease-fire talks 
in Paris between the President’s National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, 
and the North Vietnamese representative, Le Duc Tho, broke off. Tho felt he 
had the advantage because of the protests in the United States over the war 
and, with the new spring offensive, he thought that victory over the South 
was imminent. 


In response, on April 7, 1972, President Nixon authorized the Navy, for the 
first time during the Vietnam war, to mine Haiphong and other North Viet- 
namese ports. In addition, an all-out effort was made to bomb all of the 
North’s supply lines. B-52s began their first raids over Hanoi and Haiphong 
on April 17th. The Navy also launched strikes into Hanoi and Haiphong. All 
traffic stopped, with the exception of that across the Chinese borders. 
Between May and September, the Navy launched an average of 4,000 day 
and night sorties a month. In that same period of time, the North launched 
nearly 2,000 SAMs and fired thousands of rounds of AAA, resulting in the 
destruction of 28 U.S. aircraft. By the end of the campaign, the North ran 
out of ammunition. Not a single AAA shell nor SAM missile was fired at U.S. 
aircraft. On October 23rd the Communists asked for a cease-fire. 


On October 24th the United States halted bombing above the 20th Parallel 
as a peace gesture (although bombing of supply lines south of the 20th 
Parallel continued at an unprecedented rate). Linebacker | had ended. 


After the bombing stopped, the Communists refused to deal in earnest and 
instead used the halt to resupply and rebuild. To make matters worse, the 
South, after accusing the U.S. of cutting a separate deal with the North, 
sabotaged the peace discussions by making 69 major changes in the initial 
peace proposal. 


THE AIR WAR OVER VIETNAM 129 


Operation Linebacker Il commenced on December 18, 1972 when President 
Nixon resumed the bombing of Hanoi and mining of Haiphong. Nixon was 
determined to force the North back to the bargaining tables. For the next 
eleven days, with the exception of Christmas and New Year’s Day, aircraft 
from the America, Enterprise, Midway, Oriskany, Ranger and Saratoga 
attacked a variety of targets: petroleum, oil and lubricant (POL) storage 
areas, airfields, SAM and AAA sites, rail, road, shipyards, port facilities, and 
enemy troop emplacements. All told, the Navy flew 505 day and night 
sorties against the North in the 11 days. On January 15, 1973 combat 
operations in the North were halted. 


On January 27, 1973 representatives from the U.S., South Vietnam, North 
Vietnam and Viet Cong signed the “Agreement on Ending the War and 
Restoring the Peace in Vietnam.” All offensive operations ceased, the mines 
were removed from Haiphong harbor (Operation Endsweep), and prepara- 
tions for the return of 144 downed U.S. pilots (Operation Homecoming) were 
made. Thirty-five aviators had died in captivity. 


Four months after Congress voted in June 1973 to end all U.S. combat 
activities in or over Southeast Asia, the North Vietnamese Central Commit- 
tee adopted a resolution to conduct a revolutionary war to destroy the 
enemy and liberate the South. Because of the War Powers Resolution Act 
which made it illegal to commit U.S. forces for more than 60 days without 
congressional approval, the U.S. did not respond. 


On April 30, 1975 Saigon, along with all of South Vietnam, fell to the North. 


The Score 


U.S. naval combat action officially terminated on August 15, 1973 when 
Congress mandated the end of all combat involvement in Southeast Asia. 
During the nine years and five days after the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, the 
war had cost the Navy the lives of 377 naval aviators, 179 prisoners of war 
and 64 missing in action. Another 205 officers and men had also been lost 
during major fires aboard three carriers. Operational accidents claimed 316 
planes, while 538 aircraft had been lost in combat. Anti-aircraft artillery 
accounted for 37% of the Navwy’s aircraft losses, 18% to small arms fire 
(machine guns and rifles), and 15% to surface-to-air missiles (SAMs). Only 
2% of the Navy’s losses were to MiG interceptors. 


The Navy used 21 carriers during the Vietnam war and spent a total of 
9,178 days in the Gulf of Tonkin. Between the Navy, Marines and Air Force, 
the United States dropped a total of 7.4 million tons of bombs in Southeast 
Asia. Between 1964 and 1973, the Navy flew a total of 785,000 fixed-wing 
combat sorties. The Navy and Marines shot down a total of 61 enemy 
aircraft of which 59 were MiGs (39 MiG-17s, 2 MiG-19s and 18 MiG-21s). 
The Navy enjoyed a 56 to 10 fighter vs. fignter score against the North 
Vietnamese. 


INTRUDER 


OF THE | 





130 FLIGHT 















ow iii 


18. Flaps 






16. Landing 
19. COMED: Gear 
Map/Radar 
Toggle 


Ait)()) Reverse Vertical View Rotation 
Ait)(2) Reverse Horizontal View Rotation 








(Snitt)(#) [on number pad] Cockpit Views 
(Shift](A) Autopilot will engage enemy plane 
Shift)[H) Emergency Net toggle 
(snift}.) Increase MIl Setting by 10 mililradians 
(Shift)(M) Decrease Mil Setting by 10 milliradians 
(Snitt](0) View Unfriendly 
nift)(9) Leader/Wingman toggle 
Shift] (#) Move to aircraft section # 
(Shit) (5) Waypoint Information toggle 
Shift)(Tab) Accelerator will not shut off If bogey near 








(C) Jettison Centerline Stores 









[E) Elect 
. (Ctrij(L) Catapult Launch 
. (Ctri)[K) Jettison All Stores 
































BSSSSESESy 


KEYBOARD LAYOUT 131 











132 FLIGHT INTRUDER 


THE KEYBOARD 


The keyboard is your main access to this game. Even if you are using a 
mouse or joystick, many commands can only be entered at the keyboard. 


The following pages provide a number key to refer to the keyboard layout 
provided with this game. Take a plane out and play around with this keyboard 
without trying for scores and accomplishment. We are trying to provide as 
complete a simulation of Phantom and Intruder flying over Vietnam as we 
can. We also must somehow give you (one computer game player) the oppor- 
tunity to accomplish everything that the normal crew of either of these air- 
craft (two highly trained people) can do. There are a lot of commands to 
learn here. Take your time and enjoy getting used to the aircraft. 








HAVE FUN! 


KEYBOARD USE 133 


KEYBOARD 
Keyboard Command Descriptions 


1. Cockpit Views 


Press the following keys to change your view out of the cockpit: 


View Keyboard Number Pad 
Left Back 45° 
Left (4) (snitt}[4) 
Left Front 45° 
Front (6) 
Right Front 45° (Shift}(9) 
Right (snitt)(6) 
Right Back 45° (9) 


or (6Jor(snit}(s}  — Zor (snitt}(9) 









(4] or (snitt}(4) (8) or (snitt}(6) 
(8) or (9] or 





134 FLIGHT 


2. Out of Cockpit Views 
The following keys provide you with views of the aircraft from outside the 
cockpit. Use these to see your aircraft’s position relative to the surrounding 
geography and to other aircraft. 
Outside View. View of the piloted aircraft from 
a tracking aircraft. The view rotation keys ((1] and 
on the keyboard) and zoom keys ((F1_] and (F2 }) are 
available. 
(Fé ] Tracking View. View of the piloted aircraft from 
the rear. The view rotation and zoom keys are 
available. 
(F7,} ACLS. Automatic Carrier Landing System. This 
toggle turns on the ACLS instruments. 


(Fs) Satellite. Looking down (from satellite) at the 
piloted aircraft. 

(Fo) Carrier. A view of the home carrier. View 
rotation keys are available. 


(F10) Menu. This brings up the Menus described 
earlier and stops the game until you are done with 


PJ 
J) 





the menus. 
3. Stick control 
See pages 16-17 for more information on Flying with the Stick. 
NOSE DOWN 





i 7 8 9 | 
Home f PgUp 
BANK LEFT Be ) z] BANK RIGHT 
) 
1 [ 2 3 
End ' | L PgDn 


NOSE UP 














4. Throttle Press [+] to increase engine throttle which is normally 
reflected by an increase in RPM and airspeed. Press (-] 
to decrease throttle and RPM. If your keyboard has more 
than one (+) or (=} key, you can use either one. 


5. Air-to-Air Press once to activate the air-to-air weapons select 
mode (if not already present). Press again to cycle 
through the different missile and gun formats. This is not 
available on the Intruder. 


KEYBOARD USE 135 


6. Air-to-Ground 


7. Trigger 
8. Military Power 


9. Afterburner 


10. 


14. 


15. 


16. 
ly 


19. 


Flares 


Chaff 


. Pause 


. Review 


Air Brakes 


Wheel Brakes 


Landing Gear 
Video Record 


Flaps 


COMED 


Press once to activate the air-to-ground weap- 
ons select mode (if not already present). Press 
again to cycle through the different missile, bomb and 
gun formats. 


Press the to fire all weapons or release bombs. 


The [/] key kicks your plane up to military power (100% 
RPM). It also turns off the afterburner on the F-4 Phan- 
tom. 


Four stages of afterburner power are available on the F-4, 
for times when you need to “put the pedal to the metal.” 
Press (>) to increase the afterburner stage or {<] to 
decrease it. Note that the afterburner is not available on 
the Intruder. 


Press (ins) to release flares when heat-seeking missiles 
are being fired at you by enemy SAM sites or MiGs. 


Press (Del) to dispense chaff and avert radar-guided 
missiles fired at you by enemy SAM sites or MiGs. 


Press (P] to pause the simulation. Press it a second time 
to continue. All view keys in and outside the cockpit are 
available when the game is paused. 


Press [PgDn] to toggle through the messages received by 
your aircraft. 


Press [8] to activate the air brakes and slow your aircraft 
down while it’s in the air. Press (8B) a second time to 
release the air brakes. 


Press (W) to toggle the wheel brakes. These are used 
solely on the ground and slow the aircraft upon landing or 
prevent it from rolling after the engine has started. When 
landing on a carrier, do not use the wheel brakes. The 
arrestor wire brings you to a stop in this game. 


Press (G) to raise and lower the landing gear. 


Toggle {V] to turn the video recorder on and off. You can 
use the camera for taking “videotape” of whatever is hap- 
pening when you press the key until you press it again. 


Press [F] to activate wing flaps for speed control. Press 
a second time to deactivate wing flaps. Flaps give 
extra lift and so are used in landing to allow a slower 
approach speed. Without flaps, the aircraft would be 
dangerously close to stall speed when approaching a 
landing. 

COMED is the Combined Map/Electronic Display. Press 
to toggle between a map detailing the mission land- 
scape and the default radar mode. 








136 


20. 


21. 


22. 


23. 


24. 


25. 


26. 
27. 


28. 


29. 


Radar 


Master Arm 
Bomb Mode 


ECM 


Autopilot 


Clear A-G 
Lock 


Cat Launch 


Jettison 
Centerline 
Stores 


Eject 


Jettison 
All Stores 


FLIGHT | a INTRUDER 


Press (A) to turn your radar display off to avoid detection 
by enemy planes. Press (R) a second time to turn the 
radar display back on. 


Press to arm all the missiles and weapons for 
firing. 

Press to toggle between the DIANE, Direct, and Dive 
Toss bomb dropping modes. 


Press [E) to turn on the ECM (Electronic Counter-Meas- 
ures) Pod (if you’re carrying one) as a defense against 
radar-guided SAMs. Press [E] a second time to turn it off. 


Press [A] to toggle the autopilot on and off. If you turn on 
the autopilot during a dogfight, it will track the MiGs for 
you automatically. A real autopilot does not do this, but 
this is a convenience for the player who wants to see a 
dogfight without participating. If there are no MiGs pre- 
sent, the autopilot will fly your aircraft to the target for 
the current mission. This means it will: 


Follow waypoints. 


Perform actions such as dropping bombs at 
the waypoints. 


Engage MiGs and radar sites if that is its duty 
(see Part IV). 


However, the autopilot will not release weapons normally. 
You must press to allow the autopilot to actually 
fight the plane. 


If you make an unsuccessful attempt at locking on 
to a target during an air-to-ground mission, press (x) to 
clear the lock and try again. 


launches your plane from the carrier catapult. 


Press to jettison the centerline stores if you need 
to get rid of excess weight to give you added maneuvera- 
bility or acceleration. See also Jettison All Stores, below. 


When all else fails, press to eject from your 
aircraft. Remember that ejecting is not necessarily the 
safest or the smartest option in a given situation. Invoke 
it only as a last resort. 


Press to jettison everything except your missiles. 
This will give you increased maneuverability and accelera- 
tion in an emergency. See also Jettison Centerline 
Stores, above. 





31. 


32. 


33. 


35. 


36. 


37. 


38. 


39. 


Snapshot 


Video Reset 


Move 
Between 
Sections 


Leader/ 
Wingman 


. Unfriendly 


KEYBOARD USE 137 


30. 


Use to take snapshots of whatever is on the 
screen at any time. This can be replayed later during 
Debriefing. 

Use (0] (the letter “O,” not zero) to reset the Gun Camera 
to make videotapes of your air combats. 


Some missions can have up to four American sections of 
aircraft with up to two aircraft in each section. Use the 
following key commands to move between the sections: 


Section Command Key (from keyboard) 


1 





2 
3 
4 (snitt}(4) 


Just as you can move between sections in a mission, you 
can also toggle between the leader and the wingman in 
your section. Press (Shift](9] to toggle between them. 


Press (Shift)(0) (zero) to toggle between the piloted aircraft 
and its current unfriendly (if it has one). A Phantom on 
MiGCap is allocated a MiG to engage, and an A-6 on Wild 
Weasel duty is allocated a SAM site to destroy. You can 
view these unfriendlies by using this key. 


Single/Ripple Press to toggle between the two bomb release 


Missile View 


Sensitivity 


Waypoint 
Select 


Look Up/ 
Down 


modes. Single releases one bomb per trigger press. 
Ripple releases one bomb every second until all bombs 
on the station are released, allowing you to lay a line of 
bombs on a long target. 


Press (Q] to toggle between missile view and piloted 
aircraft view. This lets you follow the missile down to the 
target. If the missile hits the ground, it explodes. 


Press to increase and to decrease the aircraft's 
sensitivity to banking, climbing or diving, on a scale of O 
to 3. You may want to learn making bombing runs at a 
sensitivity level of 1, and then progress to a level of 3 in 
aggressive dogfight battles. 


On any Outside View ((F5 }, (Fé _), (F8 }), press [5] to 
increase the Waypoint number and ("} to decrease it. 
toggles between the carrier, the buddy, and the 
waypoint information. 


Press [(] to look up above the usual cockpit view (a 
“heads up” view), and [1] to look back down at the 
cockpit (a “heads down” view). This latter key can be 
used in the Phantom again to look even further down to 
see more instruments. The A-6 only has a “heads up” 
view. 


138 


40. 


41. 


42. 


45. 


Zoom 





OF THE | 





FLIGHT INTRUDER 


Press to zoom in closer to the aircraft, and to 
zoom out. Use in conjunction with the Outside View 
and the Tracking View (Fé |. Also works with the Carrier 
View and the Missile View (Q]. 


View Rotation In any non-cockpit view, press (1] on the keyboard to cycle 


Accelerator 


. Captain’s Bar 


. Emergency 


Net 


Walleye/ 
Paveway 
Sight Toggle 


. Walleye 


Target 
Setting 


through different vertical views of your aircraft. Each key- 
press changes the orientation along a circle surrounding 
the aircraft, starting from the rear up and forward and 
then from the front down and back. Press [2] on the key- 
board to cycle through views moving horizontally around 
the aircraft. Using with either of these keys rotates 
the point of view in the other direction. 


Press to speed up the action during long flights over 
the sea. This speeds time up for everybody in the simula- 
tion (friendly or otherwise) and moves you toward the 
target at increased speed. The accelerator is automati- 
cally deactivated when you approach the target or when 
you are approached by a MiG or SAM. If you don’t want 
automatic deactivation, use (Shift]}(Tab}. You can also tog- 
gle the accelerator off by pressing a second time. 


Press (M} to move the “Captain's bars” onto the target 
(see Walleye delivery method). 

Mil Setting. Also, the {} and (M) keys can be used to alter 
the Mil Setting of the sight on the HUD (see pg. 125). 
This measurement is in milliradians, hence the name. 


(Shift) and increment and decrement the Mil 
Setting by 10 milliradians. 


Toggling activates and deactivates the Emergency 
net if you are afraid you cannot land your plane normally 


Use [T} to toggle between sight modes when using the 
Walleye or Paveway guided weapons. 


Use (€}, (#),(), (+) to move the Walleye sight around on 
the screen. 


GLOSSARY 


139 





GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS 


The following entries are meant to give you a general feeling for the 
military and somewhat more informal jargon of being a pilot in Southeast 
Asia in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Game terms are not included. 


AAA 
AA 
AB 


ACLS 
ACM 
ADI 


ADL 
AGM 


Al 
AIM 
Aircrew 


Airspeed 


Air Wing 
Alpha Strike 


Altimeter 
Angels 


AOA 
AOA Indexer 


Anti-Aircraft Artillery. 
Air-to-Air, also written as A2A or just AA. 


Afterburner. Acceleration over and above normal military power, 
achieved by spraying fuel into the back of the engine. The F-4 had 
this capability, as did most of the MiGs. The A-6 does not have an 
afterburner. 


Automatic Carrier Landing System. 
Air Combat Maneuvering. Essentially the art of dogfighting. 


Attitude Director Indicator. This gauge helps register your plane’s 
position relative to the horizon as it rolls and pitches in any 
direction. 


Aircraft Datum Line indicates direction of travel. 


Air-to-Ground Missile. The designation for such weapons as the 
Walleye and Shrike, meant to be fired from an aircraft at a ground 
target. 


Airborne Intercept. 


Air Interdiction Missile. Otherwise known as an AAM (Air-to-Air 
Missile). It is meant to be used by one aircraft to knock down 
another. In this game, the Sidewinder and Sparrow are AIMs. 


The pilot and his teammate (RIO for the Phantom and B/N for the 
Intruder) 


IAS (Indicated Airspeed). This is the speed usually presented to 
the pilot. It should be reasonably accurate at sea level. Since the 
measurement is a function of air density, however, it becomes 
more and more inaccurate at increased altitudes. TAS (True Air 
Speed). This is the air speed corrected for altitude effects. 


A group of aircraft aboard a carrier which is led by a senior 
commander. 

An airstrike using every available aircraft in a carrier’s comple- 
ment against one target or a closely related cluster of targets. 

A gauge that tells the pilot what altitude he is at. 

Altitude in 1,000s of feet. “Dead Duck is at Angels 23” means 
that he is at 23,000 feet. 

Angle of Attack. 

Used primarily to assist you in landing your plane. It consists of a 
bank of three lights just to the left of your HUD. If the top light is 


on, your AOA is too high. If the bottom light is on, your AOA is too 
low. If the middle light is on, you are at the perfect AOA. 


140 


FLIGHT | 





F THE 








AOA Indicator This gauge displays the AOA in degrees. The zero position is at 9 


Arrestor Net 


ASI 


Atoll 


Ault Report 


Autopilot 


Bandit 
Bank 
BARCAP 


Bearing 
Bingo Fuel 


Blackout 


BN or B/N 
Bogey 
Bolter 
Bomb Run 


Break 
Clag 
CAG 
Callsigns 


o'clock and 30° at 12 o'clock. Increased AOA is represented by 
counter-clockwise movement of the needle. 

A net strung over the arrestor wires when it is thought that the 
incoming aircraft may not be able to make a normal landing. 


Air Speed Indicator. This dial is calibrated in knots TAS. The zero 
position is at 12 o’clock. One revolution represents 1,200 KTS on 
the F-4 and 600 KTS on the A-6. 

A Russian air-to-air missile that very similar to the Sidewinder 
(q.V.). 

The report of the commission to investigate why the Navy had 
such a poor record in air-to-air combat in the 1960s. Reaction to 
the findings of this report created the Top Gun school. 


A device that will keep the plane at the same altitude, speed, and 
heading it was set for. The autopilot in this game is far more 
sophisticated than any autopilot currently available. 


A bogey (q.v.) that has been identified as a foe. 
To turn left or right in the air. 


BARrier Combat Air Patrol. A group of fighters whose job it is to 
defend a carrier against intruding aircraft. 


The compass heading from one point to another. 

An indication that your plane has just enough fuel to return with 
an adequate safety margin. 

A loss of vision or consciousness due to pulling too many positive 
g's. 

The Bombardier/Navigator in an A-6 or A-3. 

An unidentified aircraft that may be friend or foe. 

To abort a carrier landing and circle around for another try. 

(1) Mission code for the actual run to drop bombs on a target; (2) 
The act of attacking a target with bombs. 

A sharp turn of 6+ g’s taken to avoid a SAM or MiG on your tail. 
Bad, mucky weather. 

Commander Air Group. 


These are used instead of real names for security reasons. Just 
about anything seems to go. However, callsigns were grouped into 
families, e.g.: birds (hawk, condor, bluebird, falcon), cars (Olds, 
etc.) and trees (oak, pine). Transmissions start with callsign and 
number in section, e.g.: “Oaki, Execute, Execute, Papa Orange.” 
As well as being leader of a section, Oak1 is also the Strike Force 
Commander. His message indicates that the operation is on: go 
for the primary target. 


GLOSSARY 141 





CAP 


Cat 
Ceiling 


CBU 
Chaff 


Charlie 
Climb Rate 


co 

Cockpit 
Cobb 
Colonel Toon 


COMED 


Compass 
Connie 
Court-Martial 


CTF 

CV 

CVA 
Debriefing 


Det. 


Combat Air Patrol. Essentially the job of keeping hostile planes 
away. Basic CAP was originally the duty of guarding the aircraft 
carrier against attack. During the Vietnam war, there were several 
different forms of CAP. See BARCAP, MiGCAP, RESCAP and 
TARCAP. 


Catapult. 


The level of the clouds. A “ceiling at 3,000 feet” means there is a 
total cloud cover at 3,000 feet above sea level. 


Cluster Bomb Unit. 


Packages of tiny foil strips dropped from a plane that confuse 
radar-guided missiles. 


Slang term for the Viet Cong. 


The number of feet a plane can climb in one minute of climbing. 
This is usually expressed as a positive number. As a negative 
number it is effectively the dive rate of the aircraft. 


Commanding Officer. 

The space where the aircrew sits and manipulates their airplane. 
To open up all the way, as in “cobb the throttle.” 

Legendary Vietnamese ace credited with shooting down 13 
American aircraft before he was shot down in turn by Lt. Randy 
Cunningham and his RIO, Willie Driscoll, graduates of the Top Gun 
school. 


COmbined Map/Electronic Display. The central display on the 
control panel that can be toggled between a map showing target 
locations and your plane’s location. It also displays the various 
air-to-ground and air-to-air weapons. 


A device that always shows the current heading of the airplane. 
The nickname for the aircraft carrier USS Constellation. 

A military court that tries defendants under the code of military 
justice. It is said that a court-martial is the best court if you are 
innocent and the worst if you are guilty. Those accused of 


breaking the Rules of Engagement were tried under a Court- 
martial. 


Carrier Task Force. 
Aircraft Carrier. 
Aircraft Carrier (Attack). 


The act of being questioned after a mission so the Intelligence 
officers can learn everything possible about the current state of 
the enemy and the results of the mission. 


Detachment. This refers to a small number of planes not big 


enough to form a squadron. They were formed primarily because 
of heavy combat losses in Vietnam. 


142 


DIANE 


Dixie Station 


DMZ 


Dogfight 


“Double Ugly” 


Driver 


Duty Roster 
ECM 


Egress 
Enemy 


Escort 


EW 


Feet wet/ 
Feet dry 


FFAR 
Flaps 


Flares 
“Fly your 


needles 
FOD 


Free Fall 


Friendly 





FLIGHT INTRUDER 


Digital Integrated Attack Navigation Equipment. This is the 
collection of radars and inertial guidance systems that allows the 
A6 to find its targets and bomb them without ever seeing them in 
the darkest night or foulest weather. 

Sea area off of South Vietnam used by the carriers of the US Navy 
for attacking targets in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. 
Demilitarized Zone. The border separating North and South 
Vietnam. 


A fight between two airplanes, so named because the constant 
circling of the combatants resembled circling dogs in the eyes of 
some of the early writers about air combat. 


A term of derision or endearment for the F-4 Phantom II. 


A person flying (rather than navigating) the plane in a two-seat 
aircraft. 


The list of which pilots are flying and what their missions are. 
Electronic Counter-Measures. This takes the form of a pod that is 


designed to fool ground-based SAM sites and to confuse the 
radar of MiG fighters. 


Flying out of the target area. 


Someone who is trying to kill you, possibly because you have 
orders to try to kill him. 


Ground cover mission, meant to keep the ground-based defenses 
from interfering with a bomb run. Equal priority goes into covering 
AAA, SAM and GIC sites. 


Electronic Warning, as in Electronic Warning Indicator. 


Feet wet indicates that a pilot is currently over water, while feet 
dry refers to a pilot reaching land. 


Folding-Fin Aircraft Rockets. 


Control surfaces on the wing and tail that help you slow down your 
aircraft. 


Magnesium-based packages dropped from a plane which are 
designed to fool heat-seeking missiles. 


A command to fly by your instrument readings rather than by 
visual sighting. 


Foreign Object Damage. Something that has hit the plane. It can 
be shrapnel, a bird, a thrown rock or whatever. It usually refers to 
objects sucked into the jet intake. 


The state of falling without power. Usually referring to the fall of a 
bomb after it has been released by a bomber, but it can refer to 
anyone or thing falling without anything to retard the fall (such as 
a parachute, airfoils, etc.). See Retarded Fall. 


As a noun, this designates another person or vehicle who is on 
your side, even if he is an Air Force or Marine pilot. 


GLOSSARY 143 





G-suit 


GBU 
GCA 
GCI (or GIC) 


Gear, Landing 
GIB 


Ground Fire 


Grumman 


GSD 


“Go dirty” 


Guideline 
Gulf of Tonkin 


Haiphong 


Hangfire 
Hanoi 
Hanoi Hilton 


Heading 


Heartbreak 
Hotel 


Hot Start 


The force of gravity being applied to the plane and its pilot. 1g is 
equivalent to a plane flying straight and level. Too many g’s and a 
pilot blacks out. 


A full body suit designed to compress the fat tissue on a pilot’s 
legs and abdomen. It was created so that a pilot’s blood would 
not pool to the bottom of his body during high g maneuvers. 


Guided Bomb Unit (a laser-guided bomb). 
Ground Control Approach. 


Ground Intercept Control. The radar units that track incoming 
aircraft and relay the information to AAA and SAM sites. The usual 
North Vietnam SAM site consists of SAMs at the points of a star 
shape with a GCI unit at the center of the star. 


The wheels you use to land on a ship or land. 


Guy In Back, originally Air Force slang for the RIO (Naw title) or 
WSO (Air Force title) in the back seat of an F-4. 


Can be any attack by projectile weapons from the ground, but 
usually used to refer to soldiers using normal infantry weapons 
rather than AAA. 


The company that built the A-6 Intruder. 


Glide Slope Deviation. The horizontal scale on the ACLS. When 
landing, the further you are to the right of the carrier, the further 
the GSD scale moves to the left and vice versa. See LD. 


To lower your gears, flaps, etc. in preparation for landing your 
plane. 


NATO code for the Russian SA-2 SAM. 


Body of water between the Vietnamese mainland and Chinese- 
owned Hainan island. 


Principal port of North Vietnam. For years pilots gritted their teeth 
as they passed over this port and saw dozens of foreign vessels 
unloading supplies for North Vietnam. American pilots were 
forbidden under the Rules of Engagement (q.v.) from attacking 
this shipping. 

A failure or delay of an article of ordnance after being triggered. 
Capital of North Vietnam and current capital of Vietnam. 


The nickname for the Hoa Lo prison located in the center of 
Hanoi. Built by the French during their occupation, it was always 
heavily guarded and almost completely escape proof. 


The compass direction any vehicle (ship, plane, tank, etc.) would 
move if it travelled straight ahead from its current position. It can 
refer to either a moving or a stationary vehicle. 


A pilot's first stop when brought to the Hoa Lo prison. See Hanoi 
Hilton. 


A start that exceeds normal starting temperatures. 


144 


FLIGHT 





OF THE 





INTRUDER 





HSI 
HUD 


In-country 
Ingress 
Intruder 
IR 

lron Hand 


lron Triangle 
Jamming 
Jink 

JP 

JP-5 

K 


KIAS 
Korat AFB 
Knot (KTS) 


LD 


LGB 


Linebacker 


Lock-on 


LOX 
LSO 


Mach 


Horizontal Situation Indicator. 
Head-Up Display. 
Identification Friend or Foe. 


Instrument Landing System. A HUD mode designed to guide the 
plane in for landing. 


Inches. 

Within the borders of South Vietnam. 

Flying into the target area. 

The official title of the Navy’s A-6 all-weather attack bomber. 
Infrared. 


Navy term for an attack mission on AAA and SAM sites. See Wild 
Weasel. 


An extremely defended area located between Thanh Hoa, 
Haiphong and Hanoi. 


The attempt to confuse enemy radar and other electronics so that 
they cannot find you as a target. 


Fly in an irregular flight path in order to prevent enemy gunners 
from targeting the plane. 


Jet Petroleum. The standard term for jet fuel. 


Jet fuel used by Navy, it has a density of 7 pounds/gallon. Pilots 
are concerned about how many pounds of fuel they have because 
thrust is a function based on mass of fuel, not volume of fuel. 


The initial designation code for an airplane used as a mid-air 
tanker. The tanker version of the A-6 is known as the KA-6D 


Knots Indicated Air Speed. 
A principal Alr Force Phantom base in Thailand. 


Short for speed of nautical mile per hour or, loosely, one nautical 
mile. A nautical mile is approximately 6,076 ft. 


Localizer Deviation. The vertical scale on the ACLS. The higher 
you are when landing on the carrier, the lower the LD slides down 
the scale and vice versa. See GSD. 


Laser-Guided Bomb. 


The code name of the last, and greatest, air attack against North 
Vietnam. There were actually two Linebackers, one following the 
other. 


The act of acquiring a target with the radar and setting the radar 
to track the target. 


Liquid Oxygen. 


Landing Signal Officer. The officer whose job it is to guide pilots 
to a landing on the aircraft carrier. 


Unit of speed measurement equal to the speed of sound. 


GLOSSARY 145 





Manual 


Master Arm 


McDonnell 
Meatball 
MIA 


MiG 


MiGCAP 


Mil 


Mission 


M61A1 


Multiple 
Weapon 


To bomb a target or attack or land on a carrier without using the 
avionics (frequently because the avionics are not working). In 
essence doing everything “by hand.” 


If this switch is not thrown, the plane’s weapons do not work. 
Under one of the Rules of Engagement (q.v.), pilots were forbid- 
den to have their master arm switch on within a certain distance 
of Hanoi or Haiphong. 


The manufacturer of the F-4 Phantom Il. 
Glide slope image of mirror landing system (MLS). 


Missing In Action. This is the designation for a pilot who is not 
known to have died in his plane but has also not been located in 
an enemy prison camp. 


Any product of the Mikoyan/Guryevich design works which 
designs the majority of Soviet fighters (though not all of them). 
Commonly, any enemy fighter is called a MiG whether it is or not. 
The North Vietnamese fielded MiG-17s, MiG-19s and MiG-21s. 


MiG Combat Air Patrol. MiGCAP generally consisted of a group of 
fighters away from the target area. They were placed between the 
target and the nearest airfields for the purpose of intercepting 
MiGs before they could reach the target area. 


1) Military Power — 100% thrust of an airplane’s engines without 
using the afterburners (which the Intruder doesn’t have, anyway). 
2) Milliradian — An angular measurement which subtends one foot 
at 1,000 feet (17.45 mils = 1°). 


The individual task of one element or section (usually two planes) 
of an operation (q.v.). Missions generally have special titles such 
as Wild Weasel, MiGCAP, etc. 


Official designation of the 20mm cannon mounted on some F-4s 
and many other American fighter and attack planes. 

The area on the control panel on which the pilot can select the 
weapons he wants to use in any situation. 


Selection Panel 


Nautical mile 
(NM) 


Nuggets 
“On your six” 


Operation 


Ordies 
Ordnance 


Over the 
beach 


6076.12 feet which is equivalent to 1.15 miles. 


Airmen on their first tour of duty. 


Common call from a wingman telling you that you have an enemy 
fighter or a SAM directly behind your plane. 


A number of sections of aircraft with a common objective. Usually 
the objective is the destruction of a primary and a secondary 
target. 


The men who load the ordnance onto a plane. 
Weaponry. 
The plane is over land. See Feet dry. 





146 FLIGHT == ort ca INTRUDER 





Paddles Nickname for a LSO (q.v.). 

Paveway A “smart bomb” that uses a TV guidance system similar to that 
used by the Walleye (q.v.) 

Phantom II The official name of the Air Force’s F-4 fighter. 


“PhantomMan” A cartoon figure adopted by the Navy as a method of pointing out 
important information in their Phantom Flight Manuals. 


Pitch The movement of a plane on the vertical axis. 

PK Probability of kill. 

POW Prisoner of War. You become a POW if you have been shot down 
and captured, which is not a good position to be in. 

psi Pounds per square inch. 


Pullup Light —_A light on the control panel of the Phantom that warns the pilot 
that he must pull up or crash. 


RADAR RAdio Detection And Ranging. 

Red Crown Radar picket ship in the Tonkin Gulf. It called all MiG radar 
sightings and tried to cover SAMs as well. If MiGs flew “in the 
weeds,” then Red Crown could not always spot them. While Red 
Crown was very useful, it was not 100% reliable. 


Reece A reconnaissance flight. See RF. 

Redout A loss of vision or consciousness as the result of pulling too 
many negative g’s. 

RESCAP REScue Combat Air Patrol. These are the guys whose job it is to 
find downed pilots and pull them out of the jungle or ocean. 

rf Radio frequency. 

RF Reconnaissance Fighter. 


Retarded Fall The fall of any object that is being slowed down for any reason. 
For bombing, it refers to the fall of a bomb that is slowed down by 
vanes or parachutes. 


RIO Radar Intercept Officer. The official title of the second man in the 
two-seater Phantom. His responsibility was different than the Air 
Force’s GIB (Guy in Back), a copilot who could, and often did, fly 
the plane. The RIO’s sole job was watching for threats (either 
enemy fighters or SAMs) and running the radar. 


River Rat A pilot who has flown in combat north of the Red River. 

Rockeye Anti-tank bomb. 

Rookie Pilot without prior combat flight experience. 

RPM Revolutions Per Minute. The percentage of power being produced 
by your engine. See Thrust. 

Rules of The specific rules that all pilots and bombardiers had to follow 

Engagement over the skies of Vietnam. Breaking the rules was cause for a 

court-martial. 


SA-2 The official designation of the Russian Guideline SAM. 


GLOSSARY 147 





Saigon 
SAM 


SAR 
Section 


Shrike 
Shuttle 


Sidewinder 
Sierra Hotel 


Six o'clock 


SL 
Slats 


Sortie 
Sparrow 
Stall 


Stick 
Stores 
Super Engine 


TACAN 

TARCAP 

TAS 

Tico 

Threat 
Indicator 


Thrust 


Top Gun 
Trap 


Capital of South Vietnam. Now known as Ho Chi Minh City. 


Surface-to-Air Missile. The SAM which the Navy had to contend 
with in Vietnam was the SA-2. 


Search And Rescue. 


One or two planes which are used to perform a mission. See 
Wing. 
An anti-radar missile primarily fired at enemy SAM sites. 


The device that attaches the front wheel of a carrier aircraft to the 
catapult that launches it. 


The AIM-9 heat-seeking air-to-air missile. 


The military identifiers for the letters “s” and “h.” Pilots who were 
extremely good were known as being Sh*t Hot, or Sierra Hotel. 


The directly behind position. It’s a good position for an attacker, a 
very bad one for the target. 


Sea Level. 


A movable auxiliary airfoil attached to the leading edge of a wing 
which can act as a flap. 


A launch of several aircraft to perform one or more operations. 
The AIM-7 radar-guided air-to-air missile. 


A loss of control of the plane due to low airspeed or radical 
maneuvering in high altitudes. 


A pilot’s directional control. 
The bombload and other devices carried by an aircraft. 


When using super engine, the plane’s airspeed is directly related 
to the percentage of RPM applied and no other factors are 
involved. 


TACtical Air Navigation system. 


TARget Combat Air Patrol. A group of fighters which patrolled 
around the target area during an air strike. 


True Air Speed. The equivalent airspeed corrected for error due to 
altitude and temperature (air density). 


The nickname for the aircraft carrier USS Ticonderoga. 


A found radar display on the control panel which gives the relative 
positions of various enemies and friendlies for about a 30 mile 
radius. 


RPM. The amount of power being produced by your aircraft's 
engine. The terms Thrust and RPM can be used interchangeably. 


The common name of the Navy ACM school. 
Arrested (by hook and arresting wire) landing. 


Twelve o'clock The straight-ahead position. Where you want an enemy to be. 


148 


UHF 

Up North 
VHF 

WVI (or VSI) 


Walleye 


Waypoints 
Wild Weasel 
Winchester 
Wing 


Wing Leader 

Wingman 

Yankee 
Station 


Zoo 


Zuni Rockets 





FLIGHT caer rit 


Ultra High Frequency. 

Slang term for North Vietnam. 

Very High Frequency. 

Vertical Velocity Indicator (Vertical Speed Indicator). This dial 
measures climb and descent rate in 1,000s of feet per minute. 
The zero position is at 9 o’clock. Climb is represented by a 


clockwise movement of the needle. For example, 3 o’clock 
represents 6,000 feet/minute. 


A TV-guided air-to-ground bomb where the pilot can see his target 
through the missile’s TV camera. 

Points on the map frequently associated with landmarks or ship 
positions, which a plane is plotted to fly between to make sure it 
is on course. 

Originally an Air Force term for a ground attack on SAM and AAA 
sites. Planes flying Wild Weasel strikes generally carried ECM 
pods. See /ron Hand. 

If an airplane is “Winchester,” it is depleted of weapons. 

A complement of two planes used to carry out a mission. See 
Section. 

The lead plane in a wing. 

The following plane in a wing. He mirrors the wing leader and 
covers him if necessary. 

Sea area in the Gulf of Tonkin where the U.S. Navy stationed its 
carriers to launch air attacks into North Vietnam. 

A nickname for the POW camp on the southwest edge of Hanoi in 
North Vietnam. 

Unguided rockets carried in cannisters for attacking ground 
targets (though at least one MiG was brought down by a barrage 
of Zunis). 


INDEX 


INDEX 


A 

AAA 

Air-to-Air missiles 
Abort Mission Option 
Accelerated Action 
ACLS 

ACM 

Actions 

ADI 

ADL 

Afterburner (AB) 
AGM 

AIM 

Aircrew 

Airplane 

Airspeed dial 
Aircraft Information 
Air Wing 

Alpha Strike 
Altimeter 

America 

AOA 

AOA Indexer 

AOA Indicator 
Arrestor net 

A-6 Intruder Specifications 
ASI 

Atoll 

Ault Report 
Autopilot 


B 
Badges 
Bandit 


149 


50,51 
29-30,50,110-111,134 
73 

19,138 

23 
96,99-104,127 
38 

15 

95 

26, 90,135 
65,66,135 
110-111 
48-49 

70 

14 

39,48 

37 

63,95 

6,86 

129 

24,87 ,88 
86,87 ,88 
86 

92 

79 

86 

50 

L2t 
18,38,136 


1 
27 


150 


Bank 
BARCAP 
Bingo Fuel 
Blackout 

BN or B/N 
Bogey 
Bomb Run 
Brakes Light 
Break 


Cc 

Clag 

CAG 

Callsigns 
Camera 

Carrier Landing 
Cat 

CBU 

Ceiling, low 

CGA 

Chaff 

Climb Rate 
Clock 

Close Air Support 
Coonts, Stephen 
Cockpit 
Collisions 
“Colonel Toon” 
COMED 
Communications 
Compass 

Coral Sea 
Corridor 
Cosand, Norman 
Court-Martial 
Crew (see Aircrew) 








FLIGHT a INTRUDER 


17-18 

ai OZ 
27,105 
76,96,99 
21-24 
52 

49 

90 

100 


22 

8,37 
12,106 
70 
92-94 
4,17,21 
66 

21 

9 
23,135 
18 

86 

33 

4,95 
14,15,26,84-91 
76 

83 
14,18,135 
78 
15,86 
124 
20,32 
65 

51 


INDEX 


Cunningham, Randy 
CV 


Debriefing 
Departure Time 
Detail level 
DIANE 

Digital Readout 
Dive Bombing 
Dive Loop 

DMZ 

Dogfight 
“Double Ugly” 
Driscoll, Willie 
Driver 

Duty (see Mission) 
Duty Roster 


E 

Easy Targets 
ECM 

EGA 

Egress 

End Mission option 
Enemy activity 
Engage 
Engine Lights 
Enter 
Enterprise 
Escort 

EW 

Exit to DOS 


F 


Feet wet 
Feet dry 


151 


127 
a1, 


20,24,32,68 
49 

75 
11,90 
93 

95 

103 
122,128 
8 

33 

127 


12,26,38 


30,77,102 
90,136 
9 

21 

73 
50,76 
99 

90 

39 

12 

49 

22 

73 


23 
me 


152 


FFAR (see ZUNI) 


F-4 Phantom Specifications 


Flaps 
Flares indicator 


Flight Performance Envelope 


Flip Yo-Yo 

“Fly your needles” 
FOD 

Free Fall Bombs 
Friendly 

Fuel 

Fuel Indicator 
Fuel management 


G 


g 

G-suit 

GCI (or GIC) 
Gear, Landing 
GIB 
Grumman 
GSD scale 
“Go dirty” 
Ground crashes 
Ground Fire 
Guideline 
Gulf of Tonkin 


Hanley, Col. Phil 

Hard Targets 

Hanoi Power Station 
Hardware Requirements 
Head on 

High G Y-Yo 

Hot Start 





coorme c= INTRUDER 


8,25,80 
18,90,135 
88,135 
97 

101 

24 

34 
116-119 
8 
77,105 
86,90 
105 


5,96-98,103 
4 

51,64 

18 

35,36 

11 

88 

24 

76 

50 

50 
122,125,129 


33-36 
30,77,102 
39 

9 

102 
100,103 


INDEX 
I 


Icons 

Immelman 
Independence 
Indexing Preferences To Rank 
Information 

Ingress 

Input Devices 
Installation 
Intelligence, General 
Intelligence, Target 
Intruder (See A-6) 
lron Hand 


J 

Jamming 

Jink 

Johnson, Lyndon Baines 
Joystick 


K 

KA-6D aerial tanker 
KC 

Keyboard 

KIAS 


L 


Landing, carrier 

Latitude, Longitude 

LD Scale 

LGB 

Lights, Phantom 

Limited Arms Option 

Limited Chaff & Flares Option 
Linebacker 


153 


69 

104 

124 

oe 

69 

21 

10,74 

10 
39,40,41 
39,40 


49 


136 

95 
122,127-128 
9,10,16,73,74 


79 

66,67 
10,17,74 
23 


20,32,92-94 
44 

88 

114,115 

89 

75 

75 
8,128-129 


154 FLIGHT om oF tHe xm 


Lock-on 
Look-up/Look-down 
Low G Yo-Yo 

LSO 


Maddox 

Map 

Master Arm Switch 
McDonnell 

Meatball 

Medium Targets 
Midway 

MiG 

MiG-17 Specification 
MiG-19 Specifications 
MiG-21 Specifications 
MiGCAP 

Milliradians 

Military Power 
Mission 

Mouse 

M61A1 

Multiple Weapons Control Panel 


N 

Nav light 

Nixon, Richard Milhous 
Normal Engines 


Oo 

“On your six” 
Operation 
Optical sight 
Ordies 
Ordnance 





29,110 
26-27 ,137 
101 

24 


122 

42 

22,04 
25,33 

92 

30,77 

129 
31,34,50 
83 

82 

81 

49 
95,118,120,121 
135 

8,37 
16-17,74 
31,80,112 
91 


90 
128,129 
75 


100 
8,37-50,51-64 
91 

22 

107-121 


INDEX 


Oriskany 
Outside View 
Oxy Low light 
Outlaw, Edward 


Pp 
Paddles 

Pause 

Paveway Smart Bombs 
“Phantom Man” 
Photographs 

Photo Opportunity 

PK 

POW 

Practice Landings 
Pullup light 


R 

RADAR 

Radar, Phantom 
Range, Detection 
Ranks 

Red Crown 
Recce 

Redout 

Retarded Fall 
Rifles 

RIO 

River Rat 
Rockeye 

Rookie 

Route 

RPM 

Rules of Engagement 


155 


129 
94, 106,134 


90 
124 


24 
17,135 
80 

104 
73,137 
20,71 
34 

87 

93 

91 


19,22-—23,29,90,91,136 
91 

28 

74 

106 

34 

96,98 
23,116,119,121 
50 

28,35-36,80 
125 

4 

12 

38 

14 

8,51 





156 FLIGHT == orm =m INTRUDER 
Ss 

SA-2 Guideline 50 
SAM 50 
Saratoga 129 
Scale Control 75 
Scissors Maneuver 35,1:01. 
Scramble 32 
Section 48 
Sensitivity 88,137 
Shrike 113 
Sharp, Grant 123 
Shuttle 5 
Sidewinder 28,30 
Six o’clock position 27 
Single Player Game 78 
Single/Ripple 137 
Sierra Hotel 2032, 7. 
SL 27 
Sortie 123 
Sound 74 
Sparrow 29,110 
Stall 97 
Step-by-step instructions, format 10 
Stick 17 
Stores 39,45 
Strike Mission Tactics 95 
Suicide Prevention 104 
Summary Comparison of Planes 83 
Super Engine 75 
Sweep Line 91 
Switch Alrcraft 8131 
T 

TACAN 24 


Tachometers 87 


INDEX 


TARCAP 

Target, Primary 
Target, Secondary 
Threat Indicators 
Ticonderoga 
Timing 

Top Gun 

Torpedo Boats 
Turner Joy 
Twelve o’clock position 
20mm Cannon 
Two-player Game 


Vv 


Vertical Loop 
Videotape 
VVI (or VSI) 


WwW 

Walleye 

Warning Lights (Intruder) 
Warning Lights (Phantom) 
Waypoints 

Weapon Stations 
Weather 

Wheel Brake Light 

Wild Weasel 

Winchester 

Wingman 


Y 


Yankee Station 


Z 


Zuni Rockets 


157 


49 

38 

38 

87 

122 

38 

127 
19,53,56,122 
122 

27 
31,112 
78 


100 
70,73,135 
86,94 


13,137 
89-90 

90 
39,42,43,137 
46-47 

15 

14 

49 

ar 

137 


105,122 


122 


158 FLIGHT orm a= [INTRUDER 


NOTES 159 





FLIGHT 


A FINAL WORD 


The Vietnam War tore America apart. It was an era that pitted young 
against old, liberal against conservative, poor against rich, and black 
against white. Over 58,000 Americans died. Another 153,000 where 
wounded. The Vietnamese lost even more. Today, there are many opin- 
ions and viewpoints about the U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia. Flight 
of the Intruder is intended to give you the Naval Aviator’s point of view. 


The Navy lost 377 pilots in Vietnam. For many aviators, the most upset- 
ting part of the war was not the loss of life but the loss of life without 
purpose. Many pilots were killed attempting to bomb meaningless tar- 
gets. The Vietnam war became a war of statistics. Sortie, mission, and 
target counts became more important than the lives of the people who 
put their lives on the line every day. 


This game is not intended to glorify the war but is designed to give you a 
better understanding of the sacrifices we asked our warriors to make. We 
at Spectrum HoloByte are attempting to give you a very realistic simula- 
tion of the era. We want you to appreciate the effects of the rules which 
we made our aviators operate under and to appreciate the effectiveness 
of the North Vietnamese defenses. 


When you play the game, play it as if you where in a real A-6 or F-4 in 
Vietnam. When you are hit by a missile or shot out of the sky in the 
game, understand that if you were a aviator in Vietnam, you would have 
died. The men who flew in Vietnam did not have the ability to reset the 
game or turn off the computer. They did not have the ability to simply turn 
off the Rules of Engagement. 

War, especially the Vietnam war, is not about machines and technology. 
It’s about people and politics. It’s about lives and deaths. War is not a 
game. It should never be reduced again to a collection of statistics. We 
should never take decision of war lightly and never ask our youth to 
sacrifice their lives without cause. Perhaps in the future we can live ina 
world in which we are dedicated to building rather than destroying. 

This game is dedicated to all those people who sacrificed their lives and 
those who lost their dreams and loved ones in Vietnam. 


Gilman G. ety ; 


CEO/Chairman 
Sphere, Inc. 


INTRUDER 


Spectrum HoloByte™ Ninety-Day Limited Warranty 


To the original purchaser only, Spectrum HoloByte warrants the magnetic diskette on 
which this software product is recorded to be free from defects in materials and faulty 
workmanship under normal use for a period of ninety days from the date of purchase. 
If during this ninety-day period the diskette should become defective, it may be returned 
to Spectrum HoloByte for a replacement without charge, provided you have previously 
sent in your Warranty Registration Card to Spectrum HoloByte or send proof of purchase 
of the program. 


Your sole and exclusive remedy in the event of a defect is expressly limited to replace- 
ment of the diskette as provided above. If failure of a diskette has resulted from 
accident, abuse or neglect, Spectrum HoloByte shall have no responsibility to replace 
the diskette under the terms of this. limited warranty. 


Ifthe diskette should fail after the original ninety-day limited warranty period has expired, 
you may return the diskette to Spectrum HoloByte at the address noted below, 
accompanied by a check or money order for the applicable replacement fee as outlined 
on the Warranty Registration Card, a brief statement describing the defect, and your 
return address. Spectrum HoloByte will replace the diskette provided that you have 
previously returned your Warranty Registration Card to Spectrum HoloByte, and the 
diskette retains the original product label. 


ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES RELATING TO THE DISKETTE, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED 
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE 
LIMITED TO APERIOD OF NINETY DAYS FROM DATE OF PURCHASE. PUBLISHER SHALL 
NOT BE LIABLE FOR INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES RESULTING 
FROM THE USE OF THIS PRODUCT. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR 
LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITA- 
TIONS MIGHT NOT APPLY TO YOU. THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL 
RIGHTS, AND YOU MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO 
STATE. 


Spectrum HoloByte™ 
division of Sphere, Inc. 
2061 Challenger Drive 
Alameda, CA 94501 
(415) 522-3584 


Spectrum HoloByte™ Software License Agreement 


THE ENCLOSED SOFTWARE PROGRAM IS LICENSED BY SPEC- 
TRUM HOLOBYTE™ TO CUSTOMERS FOR THEIR USE ONLY ON THE 
TERMS SET FORTH BELOW. OPENING THIS PACKAGE OR USING 
THE ENCLOSED DISKETTE INDICATES YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF 
THESE TERMS. 


Spectrum HoloByte hereby grants you a non-exclusive license to use 
the enclosed software and manual subject to the terms and restric- 
tions set forth in this Software License Agreement. 


This manual and the software accompanying it are copyrighted, with 
all rights reserved. You may not copy or otherwise reproduce any part 
of the software or the manual, except that you may load the software 
into a computer as an essential step in executing the software on the 
computer. The original and any back-up copies of the software and the 
manual are to be used only in connection with a single computer. You 
may physically transfer the software from one computer to another, 
provided that the software is used in connection with only one 
computer at a time. You may not transfer the software electronically 
from one computer to another over a network. You may not distribute 
copies of the software or the manual to others. YOU MAY NOT USE, 
COPY, MODIFY, TRANSFER, SUBLICENSE, RENT, LEASE, CONVEY, 
TRANSLATE, CONVERT TO ANY PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE OR 
FORMAT OR DECOMPILE OR DISASSEMBLE THE SOFTWARE OR 
ANY COPY, MODIFICATION OR MERGED PORTION, IN WHOLE ORIN 
PART, EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED FOR IN THIS LICENSE. 


FLT-IBM-30 06-90