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Full text of "The fruits and fruit trees of America; or, The culture, propagation, and management, in the garden and orchard, of fruit trees generally;"

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A  MAV  born  on  the  banks  of  one  of  tho  noblest  and  most  frait* 
fill  riven  in  AmericSi  and  whose  best  days  hare  been  spent  in 
gardens  and  orchards,  may  perhaps  be  pardoned  for  talking 
abont  fruit-trees. 

Indeed  the  subject  deserves  not  a  few,  but  many  words.  *^Fine 
fruit  is  the  flower  of  commodities."  It  is  the  most  perfect  union 
of  the  useful  and  the  beautiful  that  the  earth  knows.  Trees 
full  of  soft  foliage;  blossoms  fresh  with  spring  beauty;  and, 
finally, — ^fruit,  rich,  bloom-dusted,  melting,  and  luscious — such 
are  the  treasures  of  the  orchard  and  the  garden,  temptingly 
offered  to  every  landholder  in  this  bright  aud  sunny,  though 
temperate  climate. 

''If  a  man,"  says  an  acute  essayist,  ^'should  send  for  me  to 
come  a  hundred  miles  to  visit  him,  and  should  set  before  me  a 
basket  of  fine  summer  fruit,  I  should  think  there  was  some  pro- 
portion between  the  labour  and  the  reward." 

I  must  add  a  counterpart  to  this.  He  who  owns  a  rood  of 
proper  land  in  this  country,  and,  in  the  face  of  all  the  pomonal 
riches  of  the  day,  only  raises  crabs  and  choke-pears,  deserves 
to  lose  the  respect  of  all  sensible  men.  The  classical  antiqua- 
rian must  pardon  one  for  doubting  i^  amid  all  the  wonderful 
beauty  of  the  golden  age,  there  was  anything  to  equal  our  deli- 
cious modem  fruits— our  honeyed  Seckels,  and  Beurr^  our  melt- 
ing Rareripes.  At  any  rate,  the  science  of  modem  horticulture 
has  restored  almost  eveiything  that  can  be  desired  to  give  a 
paradisiacal  richness  to  our  fruit-gardens.  Yet  there  are  many 
in  utter  ignorance  of  most  of  these  fruits,  who  seem  to  live 
under  some  ban  of  expulsion  from  all  the  Mr  and  goodly  pro- 
ductions of  the  garden. 

Happily,  the  number  is  every  day  lessening.    America  is  a 


young  orchard^  but  when  the  planting  of  irait-treeB  in  one  of  the 
newest  States  nnmbers  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  million  in  a  single 
year;  when  there  are  more  peaches  exposed  in  the  markets  of 
New  York,  annually,  than  are  raised  in  all  France;  when  Ame- 
rican apples,  in  large  quantities,  command  double  prices  in  Eu- 
ropean markets;  there  is  littie  need  for  entering  into  any  praises 
of  this  soil  and  climate  generally,  regarding  the  culture  <^  fruit 
In  one  part  or  another  of  the  Union  eyery  man  may,  literally,  sit 
under  his  own  vine  and  fig  tree. 

It  is  fortunate  for  an  author,  in  this  practical  age,  when  his 
subject  requires  no  explanation  to  show  its  downright  and  direct 
usefulness.  When  I  say  I  heartily  desire  that  every  man  should 
cultivate  an  orchard,  or  at  least  a  tree,  of  good  fruit,  it  is  not 
necessary  that  I  should  point  out  how  much  both  himself  and 
the  public  will  be,  in  every  sense,  the  gainers.  Otherwise 
I  might  be  obliged  to  repeat  the  advice  of  Dr.  Johnson  to  one 
of  his  friends.  "If  possible,"  said  he,  '^have  a  good  orchard. 
I  know  a  deigyman  of  small  income  who  brought  up  a 
fiunily  very  reputably,  which  he  chiefly  fed  on  apple  dump- 

The  first  object,  then,  of  this  work  is  to  increase  the  taste  for 
the  planting  and  cultivation  of  fruit-trees.  The  second  one  is  to 
furnish  a  manual  for  those  who,  already  more  or  less  informed 
upon  the  subject,  desire  some  work  of  reference  to  guide  them 
in  the  operations  of  culture,  and  in  the  selection  of  varieties. 

If  it  were  only  necessary  for  me  to  present  for  the  acceptance 
of  my  readers  a  choice  garland  of  fruit,  comprising  the  few  sorts 
that  I  esteem  of  the  most  priceless  value,  the  space  and  time  to 
be  occupied  would  be  very  briefl 

But  this  would  only  imperfectly  answer  the  demand  that  is 
at  present  made  by  our  cultivators.  The  country  abounds  with 
collections  of  all  the  finest  foreign  varieties ;  our  own  soil  has 
produced  many  native  sorts  of  the  highest  merit ;  and  from  all 
these,  kinds  may  be  selected  which  are  highly  valuable  for  every 
part  of  the  country.  But  opinions  differ  much  as  to  the  merits 
of  some  sorts.  Those  which  succeed  perfactiy  in  one  section, 
are  sometimes  ill-adapted  to  another.  And,  finally,  one  needs 
some  accurate  description  to  know  when  a  variety  comes  into 
^i>earing,  if  its  fruit  is  genuine,  or  even  to  identify  an  indifferent 

PRBVAOl.  ni 

kind,  in  order  to  ayoid  procoring  it  again.  Hence  the  nnmber 
of  Tarieties  of  frnit  that  are  admitted  here.  little  bj  little  I 
haye  summoned  them  into  my  pleasant  and  qniet  oonrt|  tested 
them  as  £yr  as  possible,  and  endeayoored  to  pass  the  most 
impartial  judgment  upon  thenL  The  yerdicts  will  be  found  in 
the  following  pages. 

From  this  great  accnmolation  of  names.  Pomology  has  be- 
come an  embarrassing  study,  and  those  of  our  readers  who 
are  laige  collectors  will  best  undentand  the  difficulty — nay,  (he 
impossibility  of  making  a  work  like  this  perfect 

Towards  settling  this  chaos  in  nomenclature,  the  exertions  of 
the  Horticultural  Society  of  London  haye  been  steadily  directed 
for  the  last  twenty  years.  That  greatest  of  experimental  gardens 
contains,  or  has  contained,  nearly  all  the  yarieties  of  fruit,  from 
all  parts  of  the  world,  possessing  the  least  celebrity.  The  yast 
confusion  of  names,  dozens  sometimes  meaning  the  same  yarie- 
ty,  has  been  by  careful  comparison  reduced  to  something  like 
real  order.  The  relatiye  merit  of  the  kinds  has  been  proved 
and  published.  In  short,  the  horticultural  world  owes  this  So- 
cio^ a  heavy  debt  of  gratitude  for  these  labours,  and  to  the 
science  and  accuracy  of  Mr.  Robert  Thompson,  the  head  of  its 
fruitrdepartment,  horticulturists  here  will  gladly  join  me  in  bear- 
ing the  fullest  testimony. 

To  give  additional  value  to  these  results,  I  have  adopted  in 
nearly  all  cases,  for  fruits  known  abroad,  the  nomenclature  of 
the  London  Horticultural  Society.  By  this  means  I  hope  to 
render  universal  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic  the  same  standard 
names,  so  that  the  difficulty  and  confusion  which  have  always 
more  or  less  surrounded  this  part  of  the  subject  may  be  hereafter 

These  foreign  fruits  have  now  been  nearly  all  proved  in 
this  country,  and  remarks  on  their  value  in  this  climate,  de- 
duced from  actual  experience,  are  here  given  to  the  public  To 
our  native  and  local  fruits  especial  care  has  also  been  devoted. 
Not  only  have  most  of  the  noted  sorts  been  proved  in  the  gar- 
dens here,  but  I  have  had  specimens  before  me  for  comparison,  the 
growth  of  no  less  than  fourteen  of  the  different  States.  There 
are  still  many  sorts,  nominally  fine,  which  remain  to  be  collect- 
ed, compared,  and  proved;  some  of  which  will  undoubtedly  do- 

▼lU     -  PBBVAOJi. 

aer^e  a  place  in  iiitare  editiona.  To  the  kindness  of  pcmolo- 
gists  in  yarions  sections  of  the  oonntry  I  most  trust  for  the 
detection  of  errors  in  the  present  Toiome,  and  for  infonnati<«  of 
really  valuable  new  yarieties.* 

Of  the  d€9cnpUons  of  firoit,  some  explanation  may  be  neces- 
sary. Firsts  is  given  the  tlandard  name  in  capitals,  fol- 
lowed by  the  aathorities — ^that  is,  the  names  of  authors  who 
have  previously  given  an  account  of  it  by  this  title.  Below 
this  are  placed,  in  smaller  type,  the  various  ^ynonymes,  or  lo- 
cal names,  by  which  the  same  fruit  is  known  in  various  conn- 
tries  or  parts  of  the  country.  Thus,  on  page  429,  is  the  fol- 
lowing : 

Flemish  Bsauty.  lind.  Thomp. 

BeUedeFlandraB.  I     PdreDavy. 
Bosch  NoavelleL     |     Imp^ratiioe  de  Franoab 
Boedi.  I      Fondant  Du  B6iM, 

BosoSife.  I     Bosohpeer. 

Beuire  Spence  (mvnmmalif). 

By  this  is  signified,  first,  that  Fubmish  Bsautt  is  the 
standard  name  of  the  pear;  secondly,  that  it  has  been  previ- 
ously described  by  Lindley  and  Thompson ;  thirdly,  that  the 
others — synonyms — ^are  various  local  names  by  which  the 
Flemish  Beanty  is  also  known  in  various  places ;  and,  lastly,  that 
by  the  latter  name — Beurre  Spence — it  is  incorrectly  known 
in  some  collections,  this  name  belonging  to  another  distinct 

It  is  at  once  apparent  that  one  of  the  chief  points  of  value  of  a 
book  like  this,  lies  in  the  accuracy  with  which  these  synonymous 
names  are  given — since  a  person  might,  in  looking  over  different 
catalogues  issued  here  and  abroad,  suppose  that  all  ten  of  the 
above  are  different  varieties — when  they  are  really  all  different 
names  for  a  single  pear.  In  this  record  of  synonymes,  I  have 
therefore  availed  myself  of  the  valuable  experience  of  the  Lon- 

*  It  is  well  to  remark  that  many  of  the  so-called  new  varietieB^  especially 
from  the  West,  prove  to  be  old  and  well-known  kinds,  slightly  altered  in 
appearance  by  new  soil  and  different  climate.  A  new  variety  must  pOBseas 
very  superior  qualities  to  entitle  it  to  regard,  now  that  we  have  so  many 
fine  fruits  in  our  oollectiona. 


aon  HorticQltnral  Society,  and  added  all  the  additional  in* 
fonnation  in  mj  own  possession.  ^ 

Many  of  the  more  important  Tarietiea  of  fruit  are  shown  in 
outUne^  I  have  choeen  thia  method  aa  likely  to  give  the  moat 
correct  idea  of  the  form  of  a  fruity  and  becanae  I  believe  that 
the  mere  outline  of  a  fruity  like  a  profile  of  the  Human  face,  will 
often  be  found  more  characteristic  than  a  highly  finished  portrait 
in  colour.  The  outlines  have  been  nearly  all  traced  directly 
from  fruits  grown  Here.  They  are  from  epecimens  moetly 
below  the  average  eize.  It  haa  been  the  custom  to  choose  the 
largest  and  finest  fruits  for  illustration — a  practice  rery  likely 
to  mialead.  I  believe  the  general  character  is  better  ex- 
pressed by  specimens  of  medium  sixe,  or  rather  below  it 

It  only  remains  for  me  to  present  my  acknowledgments  to  the 
numerous  gentlemen,  in  various  parta  of  the  countiy,  who  have 
kindly  ftumished  information  necessary  to  the  completion  of  the 
woik.  Hie  names  of  many  are  given  in  the  body  of  the  vol* 
nme.  But  to  the  foUowing  I  must  especially  tender  my  thanks, 
for  notes  of  their  experience,  or  for  specimens  of  fruits  to  solve 
existing  doubts. 

In  Massachusetts,  to  Messrs.  M.  P.  Wilder,  S.  G.  Per- 
kins, J.  P.  Gushing,  B.  Y.  French,  S.  Downer,  and  C.  M.  Ho- 
vey,  of  Boston ;  John  C.  Lee,  J.  M.  Ives,  the  late  Bobert  Man- 
ning and  his  son  B.  Manning,  of  Salem ;  and  Otis  Johnson,  of 

In  Connecticut,  to  Dr.  R  W.  Bull,  of  Hartford ;  Mr.  S,  Ly- 
man, of  Mancheater;  and  the  Bev.  H.  S.  Bamsdell,  of  Thomp- 

In  New  York,  to  Messrs.  David  Thomas,  of  Aurora ;  J.  J. 
Thomas,  of  Macedon ;  Luther  Tucker,  and  Isaac  Denniston,  of 
Albany;  Alexander  Walsh,  of  Lansingburgh ;  T.  H.  Hyatt, 
of  Bochester :  B.  L.  Pell,  of  Pelham ;  C.  Downing,  of  New- 
bm^h ;  and  Wm.  H.  Aspinwall,  of  Staten  Island. 

In  Ohio,  to  Professor  Kirtland,  of  Cleveland ;  Dr.  Hildreth,  of 
Marietta ;  and  Messrs.  N.  Longworth,  C.  W.  Elliott,  and  A.  H. 
Ernst,  of  Cincinnati. 

In  Indiana,  to  the  Bev.  H.  W.  Beecher,  of  Indianapolis.  In 
New  Jersey,  to  Messrs.  Thomas  Hancock,  of  Burlington,  and  J 
W.  Hayes,  of  Newark.     In   Pennsylvania,  to  Mr.  Frederick 


Brown,  and  CoL  Carr,  of  Philadelphia.  In  Maryhmd,  to  lioyd 
N.  Bogens  Eaq^  of  Baltimore.  In  Geoigiai  to  James  Camak 
Esq^  of  Athena. 

A.  J.D. 

HiGHLAHO  OABDSaai       ) 


1m  impariag  fhisnTiiod  nd  oometed  edition  of  the  ^FroHi 
and  truH  Treei  of  Amorica,"  no  abenftion  has  been  made  in 
die  gonenl  principka  of  cultivation  and  piopagBttony  and  bat 
little  in  the  deBcrq>tions  of  those  yarieties  that  are  retained;  foot 
aome^  after  repeated  trial,  having  proved  nnworthy  of  genelal 
cultivation,  have  been  reduced  and  put  in  a  daaa  of  inferior 
•orti;  some  of  which,  however,  have  advocatea,  and  sncceed  in 
particnlar  aoila  and  localitiea. 

Many  new  ones  of  '^veiy  good"  and  ''best''  quality  have 
been  added;  some  well  proved,  and  oihera  partially  so^  requir- 
ing more  time  to  give  their  true  merits ;  some  giving  promise 
of  eioeilence^  others  may  prove,  when  folly  tested,  but  of  in- 
ferior value. 

Something  has  been  done  towards  ascertaining  synonymea 
and  identifying  disputed  varieties,  and  great  numbers  of  speci- 
mens compared  from  various  sources;  but  it  requires  much 
time  and  long-continued  examinations  to  accomplish  even  a 
little  by  private  individuals,  where  there  is  so  much  confusion 
as  now  exists.  Order  and  accuracy  can  only  he  arrived  at 
when  the  different  varieties  are  well  grown  in  the  same  soil 
and  locality,  which  could  only  be  realised  in  an  experimental 
garden  on  a  large  scale. 

To  the  many  persons  in  various  parts  of  the  country  who 
have  kindly  furnished  notes  and  specimens  of  numerous  fruits, 
we  tender  our  acknowledgments. 

In  MassachusettB,  to  John  Milton  Earl,  Samuel  Colton, 
George  A.  Chamberlain,  and  Geoige  Jacques,  Worcester ;  J. 
G.  Stone,  Shrewsbury;  F.  Burr,  Hingham ;  Asa  Clement, 
Lowell;  Willis  P.  Sargent,  West  Amesbury;  O.  V.  Hills, 


Leominster ;  Dr.  L.  W.  Puffer,  North  Bridgewater ;  Joel  Eni^p 
Sutton ;  and  Joseph  Merrill,  Danversport 

In  Connecticat^  to  S.  D.  Pardee  and  Pro£  £li  Ives,  New 
Haven ;  Sheldon  Moore,  Kensington ;  Qeoige  Seymour,  Nor- 
walk;  G.  W.  Gager,  Sharon,  and  P.  &  Beers,  Southville. 

In  Vennont^  to  Ghauncey  Goodrich  and  fiev.  John  Wheeler, 
Burlington ;  J.  M.  Eetchum,  Brandon ;  G.  W.  Harman,  Ben- 
nington ;  Buel  Landon,  Grand  Isle,  and  Albert  Bresee,  Hub- 

In  New  York,  to  Dr.  James  Fountain,  Jefferson  Valley; 
S^  P.  Carpenter,  New  Bochelle ;  William  R.  Prince,  Flushing ; 
Dr.  C.  W.  Grant,  A.  Saul,  Newbuigh ;  J.  G.  Siddes,  Stayvesant ; 
Elisha  Dorr  and  Pro£  James  Hall,  Albany ;  J.  W.  Bailey, 
Plattobuigh ;  J.  Battey,  Eeeeeville ;  J.  C.  Hastings,  Clinton ; 
Matthew  Mackie,  Clyde ;  Isaac  Hildreth,  Waikins  ;  T.  C. 
Maxwell  and  Brothers,  and  W.  T.  A;  E.  Smith,  Geneva;  EU- 
wanger  is  Barry,  H.  E.  Hooker,  A.  Frost  &  Co.,  and  James 
H.  Watts,  Bochester ;  J.  B.  Eaton,  Buffalo. 

In  New  Jersey,  to  Louis  E.  Berckmans,  Plamfield ;  William 
Reid,  Blizabethtown ;  James  McLean,  Boadstown. 

In  Pennsylvania,  to  Dr.  W.  D.  Brinckle,  Philadelphia ;  Chaa. 
Eessler  and  Daniel  B.  Lorah,  Reading ;  Dr.  J.  Eu  Bshleman 
and  Jonathan  Baldwin,  Downingtown ;  Thomas  Harvey,  Jen- 
nerville ;  Wm.  G.  Waring,  Boalsbuig ;  Samuel  Miller,  Leba- 
non; David  Miller,  Jun.,  Cumberland  ;  D.  H.  Wakefield, 
Brownsville ;  Josiah  Hoopes,  Westchester. 

In  Ohio,  to  Robert  Buchanan,  Cincinnati ;  D.  C.  Richmond, 
Sandusky ;  A.  Thompson,  Delaware ;  M.  B.  Batcham,  Colum- 
bus, and  N,  L.  Wood,  Smithfield. 

In  Illinois,  to  Dr.  J.  A.  Eennicott,  West  Northfteld ;  F.  E. 
Phoenix  and  C.  R.  Overman,  Bloomington;  Arthur  Bryant, 
Princeton ;  Tyler  McWhorter,  Pomeroy. 

In  Indiana,  to  Reuben  Regan,  Nicholsonville ;  John  C.  Teas, 
Raysville ;  Wm.  H.  Loomis,  Fort  Wayne. 

In  Maine,  to  S.  L.  Goodall,  Saco.  In  New  Hampshire,  to 
Robert  Wilson,  Eaenc;  and  Nathan  Norton,  Greenland.  In 
Canada  West,  to  James  Dougall»  Windsor ;  and  William  H, 
Read,  Port  Dalhousie.  In  Michigan,  to  T.  T.  Lyon,  Plymouth ; 
Dr.  p.  E.  Underwood,  Adrian.     In  |owa,  to  Henry  Avery, 


Bnrimgtoii.  In  Delaware,  to  Edward  Tatnall,  Wilmington. 
In  y iiginia,  to  H.  R.  Robj,  Fredericksbniig^  In  North  (Caro- 
lina, to  G.  W.  Johnson,  Ifihon.  In  Eentacky,  to  J.  8.  Downer, 
EDcton ;  and  8.  J.  LeaveO,  Trenton.  In  Minoori,  to  Geoigo 
HnaBman,  Hemnan.    In  Washington,  to  John  BanL 

In  Geoigia,  to  William  N.  White  and  Dr.  IL  A.  Ward, 
Athena;  Bichaid  G.  Peters  and  Wm.  H.  nmimond,  Atlanta, 
and  J.  y  an  Beoien,  GlaifaTiDe. 

Chabibb  Dowmre. 


Ar^antmi  Briimmiemm,  or  the  Traw  and  Shnibs  of  Britain^  piotefWly 

■nd  boteDkitllj  delneiitod,  aod  floientiile^ 

bj  J.  a  Loudon.    London,  1846,  8  Tok  Sva 
AmakB  de  la  SocUU  amfrUcuUure  dA  J\tii$.'^Fnia,     Jn  monttilj  Noi. 

8m  1837  to  1846. 
AmakB  de  CAaUM  de  ihmont     Fw  1»  Giwnlier  Sonlange  Bodin. 

Fui8,8va    18S9tol884k6TO]& 
Adfafik    A  Memoir  on  the  coUiTfttioa  of  the  Vine  in  Aoierio^  end  the 

beet  mode  of  making  Wineu    By  John  Adtann.    12ma    Washing- 
ton, 1828. 
BmJanL    Le  Bon  Jardinler,  poor  rAnnfo  1844     Oootenant  dee  priii- 

dpea  genemox  de  coltore^  eta    Par  A.  Poiteaa  and  H.  Yihnorin, 

Pari&    ISma— yearly  rolume. 
Bneby.    A  Yiait  to  the  principal  Vineyards  of  France  and  ^win.     By 

Jm.  Boahy.    New  York,  13nio.  1886. 
Btidgeman,    The  Young  Gardener'a  AsBiatant     By  Thomaa  Bxidgeman. 

Ttethed.    New  York,  1844^  8va 
BamMum'a  OaL    Catalogue  dee  Yegetaox  en  tool  genre  diqxNiiUe  dana 

rJStablianment  dee  Frdree  Baumann,  i  Bolwiller,  184& 
CbsML    A  Yiewof  the  Cultivation  of  Fruit  Trees  in  the  United  Statea,  and 

of  the  Management  of  Orchards  and  Cider.     By  William  Coze. 

Philadelphia,  8to.,  1817. 
Ckag^    Chemistry  implied  to  Agriculture.    By  John  Anthony  ChaptaL 

American  ed.,  19mo.  Boston,  1886. 
OMdL    The  American  Gardener.     By  Wm.  Oobbett     London,  1821. 

Cdeman,    Beports  on  the  Agriculture  of  Maasachnsetta.  By  Heniy  Cole- 
man.   Boston,  8Ta  1840-41. 
Dom.  GanL    The  Domestio  Gardener's  Manual    By  John  Towenk  Lon- 
don, 1889,  8Ta 
DohameL  Trait6desArbree  FruitierB,parM.Duhamel]>umonoe«iL  Paris^ 

1768,  3  Tola.  4ta 
OuUioator.    The  Cultiyator,  a  monthly  journal  of  Agriculture,  fta,  Bdited 

by  Luther  Tucker.    Albany,  continued  to  the  preaent  time,  8Ta 
IMA    Yenmcb  einer  Systematischen  Beschreibung  in  Deutsohland  vor- 

handener  Kemobstsortea    Yon  Dr.  Aug.  Freidr.  Ad.  DieL  13ma 

24  vola  1799^1886. 
De  CkmdoUe.    Physiologie  Y6g6tale,  ou  Exposition  des  Forces  et  des  Fono- 

tions  Titales  des  Y«g6taux.    Par  A.  P.  De  CandoUe.    Paris,  183% 

8  Tda.  8Ta 

.   ProdromuaSystematisNaturaliaYegetabilla.    Parifl^l818— 

1880,  4  Yols.  8va 
IfAIbreL    Cours  Th4orique  et  Pratique  de  la  Taflle  des  Aril>res  Fraitiers. 

Par  D'Albret    Paris,  1840  8va 


tbravOt-    A  Treatise  on  the  Cultore  and  Management  of  Fruit-trees.    By 

William  Forsyth,  7th  ed.    London,  182J^  8ya 
Floy,    lindlej's  Guide  to  the  Orchard.     American  ed.  with  additions  by 

Michael  Floj.    New  York,  1883,  12mo. 
Iis$endefk    New  American  Gardener,  containing  practical  directions  far 

the  culture  of  Fruits  and  Vegetables.     By  Thos.  E.  Fessenden. 

Boston,  1838,  Idma 
CfarcL  Mag.     The  Gardener's  Magazine,  conducted  by  J.  GL  Loudon,  in 

monlMy  nos.  8to.,  19  vols,  to  1844,  London. 
Oard.  Ohron.     The  Gardener's  Ohronide,  and  Agricultural  Gazette,  ed- 
ited by  Professor  Lindley,  a  weekly  journal,  4ta  6  Tols.  1844  to  the 

present  time. 
Bbare,     A  Practical  Treatise  on  the  cultiration  of  the  Grape  Vine  on 

open  wiJls.    By  Clement  Hoare.    London,  1840,  12mo. 
JSbrL  Soc  OaL    See  Thornpson, 

Bbrt  2hv».    Transactions  of  the  Horticultural  Society  of  London.    Lon- 
don, 4ta  1816,  and  at  intervals  to  the  present  time. 
Hooker,    Pomona  Londonensis.   By  William  Hooker.    London,  1818, 4to. 
ffayvHxrd,    The  Science  of  Horticulture.    By  Joseph  Hay  ward.    LondcA, 

18d4,  8vo. 
Bamria,    A  Report  on  the  Insects  of  Massachusetts  injurious  to  Vegeta- 
tion.   By  Dr.  T.  W.  Harris.    Cambridge,  1841,  8vo. 
ffoff,  Mag,  or  K  M.     The  Magawne  of  Horticulture,  Botany  and  Rural 

Affairs.    Conducted  by  C.  M.  Hovey.    Boston,  8vo.  monthly  nos. 

1834  to  the  present  time. 
Johnston.    Lectures  on  Agricultural  Chemistry  and  Geology.    By  Jas.  W. 

F.  Johnston.    American  ed.  New  York,  12ma  2  vols.  1843. 
Jard.  IhuL    Le  Jardin  Fruitier,  par  Louis  Noisette^  3  ed.    Paris,  1889, 

2  vols.  8vo. 
Knight    Various  articles  in  the  London  Horticultural  TnmsactioDS.    By 

Thomas  Andrew  Knight,  its  late  PresidentL 
Xnoop,    Pomologie,  ou  description  des  Axbres  Fruitiens.    Par  Joh.  Harm. 

Enoop.    Amsterdam,  1771,  F6L 
Km.     The  New  American  Orchardist     By  William  Kenridc,  Boston, 

KoOar.     A  Treatise  on  Insects  injurious  to  Gardeners,  Foresters  and 

Farmers.     By  Vincent  Kollar,  Notes  by  Weetwood.     London, 

1840,  13mo. 
Langleg.    Pomona,  or  the  Fruit  Garden  Illustrated.     By  Batty  Langley, 

London,  1739,  Folio. 
Loudon.    An  Encyclopedia  of  Gardening.     By  J.  C.  Loudon.     London, 

1836,  1  thick  voL  8vo. 

s    An  Encyclopedia  of  Plants.     By  the  same.     London,  1836,  1 

thick  vol  8vo. 

■  An  Encyclopedia  of  Agriculture.  By  the  sam&  London,  1831, 
1  thick  vol  8va 

Hortus  Britannicus.    A  Catalogue  of  all  the  plopts  in  Britain, 

by  the  same.    London,  8vo. 

■  The  Suburban  Horticulturist,  by  the  same.  London,  1842,  Bvo. 
I.  The  Suburban  Gardener  and  ViUa  Companion.  By  the  sama 
London,  1838,  1842,  8vo. 

s  Arboretum  et  Frutioetum  Britannicum.  By  the  same.  8  vole. 
London,  1888,  8vo. 

Liebig.  Organic  Chemisliy  in  its  applications  to  Agriculture  and  Physi- 
ology.   By  Justus  Liebig.    American  ed.,  Cambridge,  1844, 12mo. 

Lind.  A  Guide  to  the  Diehard  and  Kitchen  Garden,  or  an  account  of  the 
Fruits  and  Vegetables  cultivated  in  Great  Britain.  By  George 
Lindley.    London,  1831,  8vo. 


LAkfley.    An  Introduction  to  Botanj.    By  John  Ijndley.    LondoD,  1839i 

.    An  Introdaotion  to  the  NatonJ  System  of  Boteny.    By  Joha 

lindl^.    London,  1836,  2d  ed^  8va 
.    Britiah  Fruits.     See  Pomological  ICagazine— It  ia  the  aamto 


.    The  Theory  of  Horticulture,  or  an  attempt  to  explain  the  Ope- 
ration of  Gardening  upon  Pl^dogioal  randplea     By  John 

lindley.    London,  Syo.,  184a 
.    The  same  work  with  Notes  by  A.  Gray  and  A.  J.  Downfamp 

Kew  York,  1841,  12mo. 
L,  or  JAmuBua,    Species  Plantarum,  6th  ed.    Berlin,  1810,  6  voila  8ya 
Ldieur,    La  Pomone  Pran^aiae,  ou  Tnut^  de  la  Cultare  Pranfaiae^  et  de 

la  Taille  dee  Arbras  Fruitiera.    Par  le  Gompto  Leheor.    Pttia^ 

1811,  8m 
Man.    The  New  England  Pniit  Book.    By  B.  Mannings  2d  ed.,  enlarged 

by  John  M.  Ives,  Salem,  1844^  ISma 
Mm,  mKM    Kanning's arUdes in  Horey's lCi«;aane. 
MOL    The  Gardener's  and  Botanist's  Diotionary.    By  Philip  MOler.    Be- 

vised  by  Pro&escM:  Martyn.    London,  1819,  3  toLl  Sra 
Mkhauaa.    The  North  American  Syly%  or  Descriptions  of  the  Forest  Trees 

of  the  United  States,  Canada,  Ae    ByA.F.Michaax.    Paris,  1819, 

3  toIb.  8to. 
M^JMoOl    The  Orchard  and  Fruit  Garden.    By  Oharks  Mcintosh.    Lon- 
don, 1819,  12mo. 
K,  Duh.    (The  New  Buhamel)  Traits  des  Arbres  Fmitiers  de  DohameL 

Nourelle  edition  aogment^e,  eta    Par  IOC.  Poitean  et  Torpln, 

Paris.    6  Yola.  folio^  1808,  et  aeq. 
Nbia.    See  Jardin  Fruitier. 
NewJBnglaad  Ittrmer,    A  weeUy  periodical,  devotod  to  Agriooltme^  Hop* 

ti<»lture,  Ac.    Boston,  4ta,  continued  to  the  present  time. 
a  DuK    See  DuhameL 
J^fm.  Mag.  or  P.  M    The  Pomolo^cal  Magadne^  or  Slgures  and  Bescrip- 

tioDs  of  tiie  most  important  varieties  of  Frait  oultiTated  in  Great 

Britain.    London,  1828,  3  Tota.  8to. 
Fom,  Man.    The  Pomological  KanuaL    By  William  &.  Prinoe.     New 

York,  1831,  9  yol&  8Ta 
Prmce.    A  Treatise  on  the  Vine.    By  William  B.  Prinoe.    New  Yoric, 

1830,  8va 
iVinee.    A  short  Treatise  on  Horticulture.    By  William  Prince.    New 

Yoric,  1898,  lama 
PMBipe.    Pomarium  Britannicum ;  an  Historical  and  Botanical  Aooount 

of  the  Fruits  known  in  Great  Britain.    By  Henxy  Phillips.    Lon- 
don, 1820,  Sva     . 
FoU.  or  FsUeau.    PomolQgie  Fran^aisa    Becueil  des  plus  beaux  Fruits^ 

cultiy^  en  France.    Par  Poiteau.    Paris^  1888,  and  oontinued  in 

4ta  numbers. 
Biven.    A  DeecriptiTe  Catalogue  of  Pears,  cultivated  by  T.  Bivera,    Saw« 

bridgeworth,  1843-44^  pamphlet,  8vo. 
Bon,  or  lUmalde.    Pyrus  Mains  Brentfordienses,  or  a  concise  description 

of  Selected  Apples^  with  a  figure  of  each  sort    By  Hugh  BonaldsL 

London,  1831,  4to. 
Bay.    Historia  Plantarum,  a  John  Bay,  UJ).     London,  3  vols,  folio^ 

Banae  BbrHcole.    Journal  des  Jardiniere  et  Amateurs.    Audot»  Bditour 

Paris,  1844^  et  chaque  mois^  12ma 
Switar.    The  Practical  Fndt  Gardener.     By  Stephen  Switmr,   1724| 



TormifA  Qray.    A  Elon  of  NorUi  Ameiioa)  ocmtaiiiiiig  abridged  descn 
tioDS  of  all  the  known  plants  growing  north  of  £e  Qulf  of  Kexioa 
By  John  Torrej,  M.D.,  and  Aaa  Gray,  M.D.    New  York,  voL  lst| 
6vo.    New  Y(»k,  1840,  and  still  in  progreaa. 

r%omp.  A  Catalogue  of  the  SMtaGiiltiTatod  in  the  Garden  of  tbeHor- 
tiooltoral  Society  of  London,  8d  ed^  London,  1842.  prepared 
with  great  care  by  Robert  Thompson,  the  head  of  the  fmit  De- 

ThoiikBr,    The  American  Orohardist    By  James  Thacfaer,  M.D.    Boston, 

1822,  Sya 
Van  Mom.    Axbres  Fruitiera^  on  P6moIogie  Beige  Experimentale  et  Bai* 

sonnte.    Par  J.  B.  Van  Mooa.  Loavain,  1836—1838,  %  toUu  12ma 
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Van  Mens.  Lonrain,  1823. 
wader,  M8S.    Mannsoript  Notes  on  FroitB.    By  It  P.  "VHlder,  Bsq., 

President  of  the  ICaasachnsetts  Hortknltaral  Booiely. 


Al  Flonk    Album  de  Pomologie;  in  wh&di  the  froltB  of  Belginm  are 

flgnred  and  described. 
AnL  Fom,    Annals' of  Pomotlogy,  a  periodical  published  by  royal  ooouii*- 

aion,  in  which  choice  fruits  are  figured  and  desGribed. 
0.K  A.    Cbmice  of  Hortloulture  of  Angers. 
JSGwt    The  Hortieultuiist  of  Rural  Art  and  Rural  Taste^  11  yoIs. 
CMe,    American  Fruit  BooIl  by  a  W.Oole^  Boston,  MasL 
Thamaa,    American  Fruit  Cultuiist^  by  John  J.  Thomas^  Union  Spriogi^ 

Barry.    The  Fruit  Garden,  by  P.  Barry,  Rochester,  New  York. 
Wariitg,    The  Fruit  GroweiiB  Hand-Book,  by  Wm.  G.  Waring^  Boals- 

buig^  Pa. 
MM.    American  Fruit  Grower's  Guide^  by  F.  R  Blliott,  Cleveland,  0. 
WJMs  Qard.    Gardening  fx  the  South,  by  Wm.  N.  Wldte,  Aliiens^  Ga. 
J9Kw.  Mag,    The  Magazine  of  Horticultare^  by  0.  M.  Hovey,  Boston,  MasL 


If.  T  Sort  Beo.    New  Yoric  Hortieultural  Reriew,  by  a  Reagles,  New 

Ad  M,  Mep.    Ad  Interim  Reporii  of  the  PenusylTaaia  HortioulturBl 

Mer.  Rep.    intermediate  native  fruit  reporta  of  tiie  American  Pomdogi- 

cal  Society. 
Qa.  Pom.  &  Bep.    Ad  Interim  Reports  of  tiie  Georg^  Pomotegical  Sod* 

Me.  PUfm.  &  Bep.    Annual  Report  of  the  Maine  Pomologteal  Socielj. 
Jhme,  A.  Fiom.  &    Transactions  of  the  American  Pomotogtoal  Society. 
Bw.  ChL    Oatalogue  of  A.  Bivort,  BeMum. 
Fap.  CfaL    Oatalogue  of  Ad.  Piq[>elen,  Belgium. 
L^8  OaL    Desoriptiye  Oatak)gue  by  Andre  Leroy,  Angers,  Fhmoe. 
iV.  Oal    Descriptire  Oatalogue  of  Fruits,  1^  Wm.  R.  Prince^  Rushing, 

New  York. 
L,  R  B&rchmanU  MS.    Manuatripl  Notsa^  by  Louis  B.  Berokman,  Plain- 

fleld,  New  Jersey. 


r.  D.  BrwekUs  M&    Ifaamo^i  Notei^  hj  W.  D.  Brinokle^  FhOadol 

AifiMiMv'fiCa    Murascript  KotM^  1^  Bobert  Maimiiig^  Sdon,  lUfli. 
^.  K  JBnut  MS.    ManuMript  Noten^  bj  A.  H.  Rnl8^  Gixiciiiiuiti,  Ohio. 
J2L  BuAamam  MS.    MuHMoripC  Kotoi^  bj  Bdbert  Bnohaiun,  OiiioiniMti, 

m^  M.  WkOe  MS    Mannaoripi  Notei^  hy  Wm.  H.  Whiter  Atbeoi^  Gil 
J.  Vm  Bemm's  MS    UaniMcrq^  Kotai^  1^  J.  Yan  Bearaii,  CnarinTiUa^ 

K  R  Bobeif  MS    Mannsoi^  HotM^  bj  H.  &  Bobej,  n«d(Briokri)iii«^ 

Aan«d  if&r,  Jh,  JTA    Uanoaor^  KotM^  1^  Sanrael  Millar,  Jr^  Oom- 

J  &  DowMT  MS    MannsGript  Kote^  bgr  J.  S.  Downar, 


VHB  FBODucnoir  OT  nw  YABoms  or  muir. 

Iir  oar  mryey  of  tlie  cnltare  of  froitB  let  as  begin  al  the  Ve- 
gmnuig.  Graanal  ameUoiation,  and  the  akiUul  piadice  of  tbe 
cnltiyator,  have  ao  filled  oar  orcharda  and  gardena  with  good 
froitsy  thai  it  is  necoflBaiy  now  to  cast  a  look  back  at  the  typea 
from  which  these  delidoas  prodacts  bave  q>rang. 

In  the  tropical  aone,  amid  the  saipiising  loxoriance  of  vege- 
tation  of  that  great  natoral  hothoose,  natare  offers  to  man^  almost 
without  care,  die  most  refreshing,  the  moat  delidooa,  and  the 
most  natritive  froits.  The  Pluitain  and  Banana,  excellent 
^ther  raw  or  cooked,  bearing  all  the  year,  and  producing  npon 
a  rood  of  ground  the  sustenance  of  a  fiumily ;  the  refreshing 
Goaya  and  Sapodilla;  the  nutritioaa  Bread-froit;  such  are  the 
natural  fruit  treea  of  those  glowing  chmates.  Inddently 
seated  under  their  shade,  and  finding  a  refreahing  coolness  both 
from  their  eyer-yerdant  canopy  of  leayes,  and  their  juiey  fruits, 
it  is  not  here  that  we  must  lcK>k  for  the  patient  and  skinul  cul- 

But,  in  the  temperate  climates^  natare  wears  a  harsher  and 
sterner  aspect  Plains  bounded  by  rocky  hills,  yisited  not  only 
by  ^nial  warmth  and  sunshine,  but  by  cold  winds  and  seasons 
of  ice  and  snow;  these  are  accompanied  by  sturdy  forests, 
whose  outskirts  are  q[»rinkled  with  crabs  and  wild  dierries,  and 
festooned  with  the  clambering  branches  of  the  wild  grape. 
These  natiye  firnits,  which  at  first  offer  so  little  to  the  eye,  or 
the  palate,  are  neyertheless  the  types  of  our  garden  yarieties. 
Destmed  in  these  dimatea  to  a  perpetual  struggle  with  nature, 
it  is  here  that  we  find  man  amehorating  and  transforming  her. 

Transplanted  into  a  warmer  aspect,  stimulated  by  a  richer 
soil,  reanMl  from  selected  seeds,  carefully  pruned,  sheltered  and 
watched,  by  slow  d^rees  Uie  sour  and  bitter  crab  expands  into 
a  Golden  Pippin,  the  wild  pear  loses  its  thorns  and  becomes  a 
Bergamotte  or  a  Beurr6,  the  Almond  is  depriyed  of  its  bitterness, 
and  the  dry  and  flayorless  Peach  is  at  length  a  tempting  and 
delicious  fruit.  It  is  thus  only  in  the  face  of  obstacles,  in  a 
climate  where  natare  is  not  prodigal  of  perfections,  and  in  the 



midst  of  thorns  and  sloes,  that  man  the  gardener  arises  and 
forces  nature  to  yield  to  his  art 

These  improved  sorts  of  fruit  which  man  every  where  causes 
to  share  his  civilization,  bear,  almost  equally  with  himself,  the 
impress  of  an  existence  removed  from  tne  natural  state.  When 
reared  from  seeds  they  always  show  a  tendency  to  return  to  a 
wilder  form,  and  it  seems  only  chance  when  a  new  seedling  is 
equal  to,  or  surpasses  its  parent  Removed  torn  their  natural 
form,  these  artificially  created  sorts  are  also  much  more  liable  to 
diseases  and  to  decay.  From  these  facts  arises  the  fruit-garden, 
with  its  various  processes  of  grafting,  budding  and  other  raoan» 
of  continuing  the  sort ;  with  also  its  sheltered  aspects,  warm  bor- 
ders, deeper  soils,  and  all  its  various  refinements  of  art  and  culture. 

In  the  whole  range  of  cares  and  pleasures  belonging  to  the 
garden,  there  is  nothing  more  truly  interesting  than  the  produc- 
tion of  new  varieties  of  fruit  It  is  not,  ind<^  by  sowing  the 
seeds  that  the  lover  of  good  fruit  usually  undertakes  to  stock  his 
garden  and  orchard  with  fine  fruit  trees.  Raising  new  varieties 
IS  always  a  slow,  and,  as  generally  understood,  a  most  uncertain 
mode  of  bringing  about  this  result  The  novice  plants  and  care- 
fully watches  his  hundred  seedling  pippins,  to  find  at  last,  per- 
hi^  ninety-nine  worthless  or  indifferent  i^plea.  It  appears  to 
him  a  lottery,  in  which  there  are  too  naaay  blanks  to  the  {^ixes. 
He,  therefore,  wisely  resorts  to  the  more  certain  mode  of 
grafting  from  well  known  and  esteemed  sorts. 

Notwithstanding  this,  every  year,  under  the  influences  of  gar- 
den culture,  and  often  without  our  design,  we  find  our  fruit 
trees  reproducing  themselves ;  and  occasionally,  there  aprings 
up  a  new  and  deucious  sort»  whose  merits  tempt  us  to  fresh  tiiids 
after  perfection. 

To  a  man  who  is  curious  in  fruit,  the  pomologist  who  views 
with  a  more  than  common  eye,  the  crimson  cheek  of  a  peach,  the 
delicate  bloom  of  a  plum,  or  understands  the  epithets,  rich,  melt- 
ing, buttery,  as  applied  to  a  pear,  nothing  in  the  circle  of  culture 
can  give  more  lively  and  unmixed  pleasure,  than  thus  to  pro- 
duce and  to  create — ^for  it  is  a  sort  of  creation — an  entirely  new 
sort,  which  he  believes  will  prove  handsomer  and  better  than  any 
thing  that  has  gone  before.  And  still  more,  as  varieties  which 
origmate  in  a  certain  soil  and  climate,  are  found  best  adapted  to 
that  locality,  the  production  of  new  sorts  of  fruit,  of  high  merit, 
may  be  looked  on  as  a  most  valuable,  as  well  as  interesting 

Besides  this,  all  the  fine  new  fruits,  which,  of  late,  figure  so 
conspicuously  in  the  catalogues  of  the  nurseries  and  fruit  gar- 
dens, have  not  been  originated  at  random  and  by  chance  efforts. 
Some  of  the  most  distinguished  pomologists  have  devoted  years 
to  the  subject  of  the  improvement  of  fruit  trees  by  seeds,  and 
have  attained  if  not  certain  results,   at  least  some  general 


laws,  which  greatly  assist  us  in  this  process  of  amelioration. 
Let  ns  therefore  examine  the  subject  a  little  more  in  detail. 

In  the  wild  state,  every  genns  of  trees  consists  of  one  or  more 
ipeeies^  or  strongly  marked  individoal  sorts ;  as,  for  example,  the 
white  birch  and  the  black  birch ;  or,  to  confine  onrselyes  more 
strictly  to  the  matto*  in  hand,  tiie  different  species  of  cherry, 
the  wild  or  bird  cherry,  the  soar  cheny,  the  ma&said  cherryy 
Ac  These  species^  tn  their  natural  itate^  exactly  reproduce 
themselves ;  to  nso  a  common  phrase,  they  **  come  the  same** 
from  seed.  This  they  have  done  for  centuries,  and  doubtless 
will  do  forever,  so  long  as  they  exist  under  natmul  circumstan- 
ces only. 

On  the  other  hand,  suppose  we  select  one  of  these  9pecie$  of 
fruit-trees,  and  adopt  it  into  our  gardens.  So  lonff  as  we  culti- 
vate that  individual  tree,  or  any  ^peai  of  it,  in  the  £ape  of  suck- 
er, grafts  or  bud,  its  nature  will  not  be  materially  akered.  It 
may,  indeed,  throi^h  cultivation,  be  stimulated  into  a  more  luxu- 
riant growth ;  it  will  probably  produce  lai^r  leaves  and  fruit; 
but  we  shall  neither  alter  its  fruit  in  texture,  color  or  taste. 
It  will  always  be  identically  the  same. 

The  process  qf  aimeliaraikm  beyms  teiih  a  new  peneraHany  and 
5y  sowing  the  ueds.  Some  species  of  tree,  indeed,  seem  to  re- 
frise  to  yield  their  wild  nature,  never  producing  any  variation 
by  seed ;  but  all  frnit-trees  and  many  others,  are  etumy  domestic 
eaUdj  and  more  readily  take  the  impress  of  culture. 

If  we  sow  a  ouantity  of  seed  in  garden  soil  of  the  common 
black  mazaud  cnerry,  (Cerasus  emum,)  we  shall  find  that,  in  the 
leaves  and  habit  of  growth,  many  of  the  seedlings  do  not  entire- 
ly resemble  the  original  speci ».  When  they  come  into  bearing, 
it  is  probable  we  shall  also  find  as  great  a  diversity  in  the  size, 
color  and  flavor  of  the  frnit  Each  of  these  individual  plants, 
differing  from  the  original  type,  (the  massard,)  constitutes  a 
new  variety  ;  though  only  a  few,  perhaps  only  one,  may  be  su- 
perior to  the  original  species. 

It  is  worthy  <^  remark,  that  exactly  in  proportion  as  this  re- 
production is  frequentiy  repeated,  is  the  cnange  to  a  great  va- 
riety of  forms,  or  new  sorts  increased.  It  is  likely  indeed,  that 
to  gather  the  seeds  from  a  wild  manard  in  the  woods,  the  in- 
stances of  departure  from  the  form  of  the  original  species  would 
be  very  few ;  while  if  gathered  from  a  garden  tree,  itself  some 
time  cultivated,  or  several  removes  from  a  wild  state,  though 
still  a  mazzard,  the  seedlings  will  show  great  variety  of  cha* 

Once  in  the  possession  of  a  variety^  which  has  moved  out  of 
the  natural  into  a  more  domesticate  form,  we  have  in  our 
hands  the  best  material  for  the  improving  process.  The  fixed 
original  habit  of  the  species  is  broken  in  upon,  and  this  variety 
which  we  have  created,  b<ia  always  afterwards  some  tendency  to 


make  farther  departures  from  tiie  original  fonn.  It  is  trae  that 
all  or  most  of  its  seedlings  will  still  retain  a  likeness  to  the 
parent)  but  a  few  will  differ  in  some  respects,  and  it  is  by  seizing 

rn  those  which  show  symptoms  of  variation,  that  the  improver 
regetable  races  fomids  his  hopes. 

We  have  said  that  it  is  a  part  of  the  character  of  a  species 
to  produce  the  same  from  seed.  This  characteristic  is  retained 
even  where  the  ttport^  (as  gardenos  term  itjf  into  numberless 
varieties  is  greatest  Tnusi  to  return  to  cherries,  the  Kentish  or 
conmion  pie-cheny  is  one  species,  and  the  small  black  mazzard 
another,  and  although  a  grieat  number  of  varieties  of  each  ci 
theft  species  have  been  produced,  yet  there  is  always  the  like- 
ness  of  tiie  snecies  retained.  Fh>m  the  first  we  may  have  tho 
Iflige  and  rica  Mayduke,  and  from  the  last  the  sweet  and  lus- 
cious Black-Hearts;  but  a  glance  will  show  us  that  the  duke 
eherries  retain  the  distinct  dark  foliage,  and,  in  the  fruity  some- 
thing of  the  same  flavor,  Ampe  and  color  of  the  original  spe- 
cies ;  and  Hie  heart  dienies  the  broad  leaves  and  laSy  growth 
of  the  maoaid.  So  too^  the  currant  and  goosebeny  are  differ- 
ent species  of  the  same  genus ;  but  thou^  the  English  goose- 
berry growlers  have  raiMd  thousands  of  new  varieties  of  this 
fruity  and  shown  them  as  large  as  hen's  eK>>  aQ<i  of  eveiy 
variety  of  form  and  color,  yet  meir  efforts  wiS  the  goosebeny 
have  not  produced  an^r  thing  resembling  the  coounon  currant 

Why  do  not  varieties  prt^uce  the  same  from  seed  ?  Why 
if  we  phmt  the  stone  of  a  Green  Gage  plum,  will  it  not  always 
produce  a  Green  Gage  ?  This  is  onen  a  iHizzling  question  to 
the  practical  gardener,  while  his  every  day  experience  forces 
him  to  assent  to  the  fiict 

We  are  not  sure  that  the  vegetable  physiologists  will  under- 
take to  answer  this  queiy  fully.  But  in  tiie  mean  time  we  can 
throw  some  light  on  the  subject 

It  will  be  remembered  that  our  garden  varieties  of  fruits  are 
not  natural  forms.  They  are  the  artificial  productions  of  our 
culture.  They  have  always  a  tendency  to  improve^  but  they 
have  also  anouer  and  a  stronger  tendency  to  return  to  a  naiurai^ 
or  wild  etate.  ^  There  can  be  no  doubt^"  says  Dr.  Lindley, 
^  that  if  the  arts  of  cultivation  were  abandoned  for  only  a  few 
years,  all  the  annual  varieties  of  pknts  in  our  gardens  would 
disappear  and  be  replaced  by  a  few  original  wild  forms.'*  Be- 
tween these  two  tendencies,  therefore,  the  one  derived  from 
nature,  and  the  other  impressed  by  culture,  it  is  easily  seen  how 
little  likely  is  the  progeny  of  varieties  always  to  reappear  in  the 
same  form. 

Again,  our  American  fimners,  who  raise  a  number  of  kinds 
of  Indian  com,  very  well  know  thsut,  if  they  wish  to  keep  the 
sorts  distinct,  they  must  grow  them  in  different  fields.  Without 
this  precaution  they  find  on  planting  the  seeds  produced  on  the 


jeDow  corn  plants,  that  tkey  bave  the  next  season  a  progenj, 
not  of  yellow  com  alone,  but  compoeed  of  eveiy  color  and  me^ 
yellow,  white  and  black,  laige  ana  small,  upon  the  fiinn«  Now 
many  of  the  yarieties  of  fruit  trees  have  a  similar  power  of 
intermixitig  with  each  other  while  in  blossom,  by  the  dust  or 
pollen  of  their  flowers,  carried  throurii  the  air,  by  the  action 
of  bees  and  other  causes.  It  will  readily  occur  to  the  reader, 
in  considering  this  fiict,  what  an  influence  our  custom  of  plant- 
ing the  different  Tarieties  of  plum  or  of  cheny  together  in  a 
ffaiden  or  orchard,  must  have  upon  the  constancy  of  habit  in 
3ie  seedlings  of  such  fruits. 

But  there  is  still  another  reason  for  this  habit,  so  perplexing 
to  the  novice,  who,  having  tasted  a  luscious  fruit,  plants,  watches 
and  rears  its  seedlinff,  to  find  it,  perhaps,  whoQy  diflSsrent  in  moat 
respects.  This  is  the  influence  of  ptufUnp.  Among  the  great 
number  of  seedling  fruits  produced  in  the  United  States,  there  is 
found  occasionally  a  variety,  perhaps  a  plum  or  a  peach,  which 
will  nearly  always  reproduce  itself  from  seed  From  some  for- 
tunate circumstances  in  its  origin,  unknown  to  us,  this  sort,  in 
becoming  improved,  still  retains  strongly  this  habit  of  the  natu- 
ral or  wud  form,  and  its  seeds  produce  the  same.  We  can  call 
to  mind  several  examples  of  this ;  fine  fruit  trees  whose  seeds 
have  established  the  reputation  in  the  neighborhood  of  fidelity 
to  ibe  sort  But  when  a  ffra/t  is  taken  from  one  of  these  trees, 
and  placed  upon  another  stock,  this  grafted  tree  is  found  to  lose 
its  singular  power  of  producingthe  same  by  seed,  and  becomes 
like  aB  other  workea  trees,  llie  stock  exercises  some,  as  yet^ 
unexplained  power,  in  dissolving  tho  strong  natural  habit  of  the 
variety,  and  becomes  like  its  feUows,  subject  to  the  laws  of  its 
artificial  li^ 

When  we  desire  to  raise  new  varieties  of  fruit,  the  common 
practise  is  to  collect  the  seeds  of  the  finest  table  frttits — ^those 
sorts  whose  merits  are  every  where  acknowledged  to  be  the 
highest  In  proceeding  thus  we  are  all  pretty  w^  aware,  that 
the  chances  are  generally  a  hundred  to  one  against  our  obtain- 
ing any  new  variety  of  great  excellence.  Before  we  offer  any 
advice  on  rearing  seedlings  let  us  examine  briefly  the  practice 
and  views  of  two  distinguished  horticultftristB  abroad,  who  have 
paid  more  attention  to  Siis  subject  than  any  other  persons  what- 
ever; Dr.  Van  Mons  of  Belgium,  and  Thos.  Andrew  Eniffht, 
Esq.,  the  late  President  of  the  Hortacultnial  Society  of  London. 

The  Van  M<ms  Theory. 

Dr.  Van  Mons,  Professor  at  Louvain,  devoted  the  greater  part 
of  his  life  to  the  amelioration  of  fruits.  His  nurseries  contained 
in  1823,  no  less  than  two  thousand  seedlings  of  merit  His 
perseverance  was  indefatigable,  ard  experimenting  mainly  on 


Pears,  he  suoceeded  in  raising  an  immense  number  of  new 
varictiesy  of  high  excellence.  The  Bearr6  Diel,  De  Loavain, 
Frederic  of  Wnrtemberg,  ^c,  are  a  few  of  the  many  wcU 
known  sorts  whidi  are  the  result  of  his  unwearied  labours. 

The  Yan  Mons  theory  may  be  briefly  stated  as  follifws : 

All  fine  fruits  are  artificial  products ;  the  aim  t>f  nature,  in  a 
wild  state,  being  only  a  healthy,  vigorous  state  of  the  tree,  and 
perfect  seeds  for  continuing  the  species.  It  is  the  object  of  cul- 
ture therefore,  to  subdue,  or  enfeeble  this  excess  of  vegetation ; 
to  lessen  the  coarseness  of  the  tree;  to  diminish  the  size  of  the 
seeds;  and  to  refine  the  quality  and  increase  the  size  of  the 
flesh  or  pulp. 

There  is  always  a  tendency  in  our  varieties  of  fruit  trees  to 
return  by  thdr  seeds  towards  a  wild  state.    . 

This  tendency  is  most  strongly  shown  in  the  seeds  borne  by 
old  fruit-trees.  And  '^the  older  the  tree  is  of  any  cultivated 
variety  of  Pear,"  says  Dr.  Yan  Mons,  'Hhe  nearer  will  the 
seedlings,  raised  from  it,  approach  a  wild  state,  without  however 
ever  being  able  to  return  to  that  state." 

On  the  other  hand,  the  seeds  of  a  young  fruit  tree  of  a  good 
sort,  being  itself  in  the  state  of  amelioration,  have  the  least  ten- 
dency to  retrograde^  and  are  the  most  likely  to  produce  improved 

Again,  there  is  a  certain  limit  to  perfection  in  fruits.  When 
this  pcMut  is  readied,  as  in  the  finest  varieties,  the  next  genera- 
tion will  more  probably  produce  bad  fruit,  than  if  reared  from 
seeds  of  an  indifferent  sort,  in  the  course  of  amelioration. 
While,  in  other  words,  the  seeds  of  the  oldest  varieties  of  good 
fruit  mostly  yield  inferiour  sorts,  seeds  taken  from  recent  varie- 
ties of  bad  fruity  and  reproduced  uninterruptedly  for  several  gene- 
rations^  will  certainly  produce  good  fruit 

With  these  premises,  Dr.  Yan  Mons  begins  by  gathering  his 
seeds  from  a  young  seedling  tree,  without  paying  much  regard 
to  its  quality,  except  that  it  must  be  in  a  state  of  variation  ;  that 
is  to  say,  a  garden  variety,  and  not  a  wild  sort  These  he 
sows  in  a  seedbed  or  nursery,  where  he  leaves  the  seedlings 
until  they  attain  suflicient  size  to  enable  him  to  judge  of  then 
character.  He  then  selects  those  which  appear  the  most  pro- 
mising, plants  them  a  few  feet  distant  in  the  nursery,  and  awaits 
their  fruit  Not  discouraged  at  finding  most  of  them  cf  mediocre 
quality,  though  differing  from  the  parent,  he  gathers  the  first 
seeds  of  the  most  promising  and  sows  them  again.    The  next 

Feneration  comes  more  rapidly  into  bearing  than  the  first,  and 
tiows  a  greater  number  of  promising  traits.  Gathering  imme- 
diately, and  sowing  the  seeds  of  this  generation,  he  produces  a 
third,  then  a  fourth,  and  even  a  fiith  generation,  uninterruptedly, 
from  the  original  sort  Each  generation  he  finds  to  come  more 
quickly  into  bearing  than  the  previous  ones,  (the  5th  sowing  of 


pears  fraitiDg  at  three  years,)  and  to  produce  a  greater  nnmbei 
of  valuable  varieties ;  nntil  in  the  fifth  generation  the  seedlings 
are  nearly  all  of  great  excellence. 

Dr.  Van  Mons  found  the  pear  to  require  the  longest  tame  to 
attain  perfection,  and  he  carried  his  process  with  this  fruit 
throun^  five  generations.  A  pples  he  found  needed  hut  four  races, 
and  peaches,  cherries,  plums,  and  other  stone  fruits,  were  brought 
to  perfection  in  three  successive  reproductions  from  the  seed. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  it  is  a  leading  feature  in  this  theoij 
that)  in  order  to  improve  the  fruit,  we  must  »ubdue  or  enfeelJl$ 
the  original  coarse  luxuriance  of  the  tree.  Keeping  this  in 
mind.  Dr.  Van  Mons  always  gathers  his  fruit  before  rally  ripe, 
and  allows  them  to  rot  before  planting  the  seeds,  in  onler  to 
refine  or  render  less  wild  and  harsh  the  next  generation.  In 
transplanting  the  young  seedlings  into  quarters  to  bear,  he  cuts 
off  the  tap  root)  and  he  annualfy  shortens  ihe  leading  and  side 
branches,  besides  planting  them  only  a  few  feet  apart  All 
this  lessens  the  vigour  of  the  tre^  and  produces  an  impression 
upon  the  nature  of  the  seeds  which  will  be  produced  by  their 
first  fruit ;  and,  in  order  to  continue  in  full  force  the  progressive 
Tariation,  he  allows  his  seedlings  to  bear  on  their  own  roots.* 

Such  is  Dr.  Van  Mons*  theory  and  method  for  obtaining  new 
'/arieties  of  fruit.  It  has  never  obtained  much  favour  in  Eng- 
land, and  from  the  length  of  time  necessary  to  bring  about  its 
results,  it  is  scarcely  likely  to  come  into  very  general  use  here. 
At  the  same  time  it  is  not  to  be  denied  that  in  his  hands  it  has 
proved  a  very  successful  mode  of  obtaining  new  varieties. 

It  is  also  undoubtedly  true  that  it  is  a  mode  closely  founded 
on  natural  laws,  and  that  the  great  bulk  of  our  fine  varieties 
have  originated,  nominally  by  chance,  but  really,  by  successive 
reproductions  from  the  seed  in  our  gardens. 

It  is  not  a  little  remarkable  that  the  constant  springing  up  of 
fine  new  sorts  of  fruit  in  the  United  States,  which  is  every  day 
growing  more  frequent,  is  given  with  much  apparent  force  as  a 
proof  of  the  accuracy  of  the  Van  Mons  theory.  •  The  first  colo- 
nists here,  who  brought  with  them  many  seeds  gathered  from 
the  best  old  varieties  of  fruits,  were  surprised  to  find  their  seed- 
lings producing  only  very  inferior  fruits.  These  seedlings  had 
returned  by  their  inherent  tendency  almost  to  a  wild  state.  By 
rearing  from  them,  however,  seedlings  of  many  repeated  gene- 
rations, we  have  arrived  at  a  great  number  of  the  finest  apples, 

*  "  I  have  found  this  art  to  ponsist  in  regeoenting  in  a  direct  line  of 
desoentt  and  as  rapidly  as  possible,  aa  improving  variety,  taking  care  that 
there  be  no  interval  between  the  generations.  To  sow,  to  re-sow,  to  sow 
again,  to  sow  perpetually,  in  short  to  do  nothing  but  sow,  is  the  practioe 
to  be  pursued,  and  which  cannot  be  departed  from ;  and  in  short  this  is  the 
whole  secret  of  the  art  I  have  employed."— Van  Mons'  Arltres  DruUiers, 
I.  p.  22S. 



pean,  peaches,  and  plums.  According  to  Dr.  Van  Mons,  had 
this  process  been  continued  unintemiptedly^  from  one  generation 
to  the  next,  a  much  shorter  time  would  have  been  necessary  for 
the  production  of  first  rate  varieties. 

To  show  how  the  practice  of  chance  sowing  works  in  the 
other  hemisphere,  it  is  stated  by  one  of  the  most  celebrated  of 
the  old  writers  on  fruits,  Duhamel  of  France,  that  he  had  been 
in  the  habit  of  planting  seeds  of  the  finest  table  pears  for  fifty 
years  without  ever  bavins  produced  a  good  variety.  These 
aeedM  were  from  trees  of  old  varieties  of  fruit 

The  American  gardener  will  easily  perceive,  from  what  we 
have  stated,  a  great  advantage  placed  in  nis  hands  at  thejpresent 
time  for  the  amelioration  of  iruits  b^  this  system.  He  will 
see  that,  as  most  of  our  American  vaneties  of  fruit  are  the  re* 
suit  of  repeated  sowings,  more  or  less  constantly  repeated,  he 
has  before  him  almost  every  day  a  part  of  the  ameliorating  pro- 
cess in  progress ;  to  which  Dr.  Van  Mons,  beginning  de  novoj 
was  obliged  to  devote  his  whole  life.  Nearly  all  that  it  is  ne- 
cessary for  him  to  do  in  attempting  to  raise  a  new  variety  of  ex- 
cellence by  this  simple  mode,  is  to  gather  his  seeds  fbefbre  they 
are  fully  ripe,)  from  a  seedling  sort  of  promising  quality,  though 
not  yet  arrived  at  perfection.  The  seedling  must  be  quite 
young — ^must  be  on  its  own  root  (not  grafted  y)  and  it  must  be  a 
healthy  tree,  in  order  to  secure  a  healthy  generation  of  seed- 
lings. Our  own  experience  leads  us  to  believe  that  he  will 
scarcely  have  to  go  beyond  one  or  two  generations  to  obtain  fine 
fruit  These  remarks  apply  to  most  of  our  table  fruits  common- 
ly cultivated.  On  the  otner  hand,  our  native  grapes,  the  Isabella, 
Catawba,  &C.,  which  are  scarcely  removed  from  the  wild  state, 
must  by  this  ameliorating  process  be  carried  through  several 
successive  generations  before  we  arrive  at  varieties  equalling 
the  finest  foreign  grapes ;  a  result,  which,  jud^ng  from  what 
we  see  in  progress,  we  have  every  reason  speedily  to  hope  for. 

In  order  to  be  most  successful  in  raising  new  varieties  by  suc- 
cessive reproduction,  let  us  bear  in  mind  that  we  must  avoid — 
1st,  the  seeds  of  old  fruit  trees ;  2d,  those  of  grafted  fruit  trees ; 
and  3d,  that  we  have  the  best  grounds  for  good  results  when  we 
gather  our  seeds  frx>m  a  young  seedling  tree,  which  is  itself  ra- 
uier  a  perfecting  than  a  perfect  fruit 

It  is  not  to  be  denied  that,  in  the  £ftce  of  Dr.  Van  Mons'  theory, 
in  this  country,  new  varieties  of  rare  excellence  are  sometimes 
obtained  at  once  by  planting  the  seeds  of  old  grafted  varieties ; 
thus  the  Lawrence  8  Favourite,  and  the  Ck>lumbia  plums,  were 
raised  from  seeds  of  the  Green  Qage,  one  of  the  oldest  European 

Such  arc  the  means  of  originating  new  fruits  by  the  Belgian 
mode.  Let  us  now  examine  another  more  direct,  more  interest- 
ing, an<l  more  scientific  process — cross-breeding;  a  mode  almost 


nnivenallj  pnrsaed  now  by  akilfbl  cuhivatoni,  in  prodacii^ 
new  and  finer  varieties  of  plants ;  and  which  Mr.  Ko]fi;faty  the 
most  distin^oiahed  horticoltarist  of  the  age,  so  snccessluUy  prac* 
tised  on  fruit  trees. 


In  the  blossoms  of  fruit-trees,  and  of  most  other  plants,  the 
seed  is  the  offspring  of  the  stamens  and  pistil,  which  maj  be 
considered  the  male  and  female  parents,  growing  in  the  same 
flower.  Cross-breeding  is,  then,  nothing  more  Uian  removing 
oat  of  the  blossom  of  a  friiit  tree  the  stamens,  or  male  parents, 
and  bringing  those  of  another,  and  different  variety  of  fruit,  and 
dusting  me  pistil  or  female  parent  with  them, — a  process  suffi- 
ciently simple,  but  which  has  the  most  marked  effect  on  the  seeds 
Eroduced.  It  is  only  within  about  fifty  years  that  cross-breeding 
as  been  practised ;  but  Lord  Bacon,  whose  great  mind  seems 
to  have  had  glimpses  into  every  dark  comer  of  human  know- 
ledge, finely  n>resJiadowed  it  **  The  compounding  or  mixture 
of  plants  is  not  found  out,  which,  if  it  were,  is  more  at  command 
than  that  of  living  creatures ;  wherefore,  it  were  one  of  the 
most  notable  discoveries  touching  plants  to  find  it  out,  for  so  you 
may  have  great  varieties  of  fruits  and  flowers  yet  unknown. 

In  figure  1,  is  shown  the  blossom  of  the 
Cheny.  The  central  portion,  a,  connected 
directly  with  the  youn^^  fruit,  is  the  pistil. 
The  numerous  surrounding  threads,  ft,  are  the 
}  stamens.  The  summitof  the  stamen  is  called 
the  anther,  and  secretes  the  powderpr  substance 

^  called  pollen.    The  pistil  nas  at  its  base  the 

nr*  I-  embryo  fruit,  and  at  its  summit,  the  stigma, 

Tlie  use  of  the  stamens  is  to  fertilize  the  young  seed  contained 
at  the  base  of  the  pistil ;  and  if  we  fertilize  the  pistil  of  one  variety 
of  fruit  by  the  pollen  of  another,  we  shall  obtain  a  new  variety 
partaking  intermediately  of  the  qualities  of  both  parento.  Thus, 
among  fruits  owing  their  origin  directly  to  cross-breeding,  Coe's 

Mr.  Anight  was  of  opinion  that  the  habits  of  the  new  variety 
would  always  be  found  to  partake  most  strongly  of  the  constitu- 
tion and  habits  of  the  female  parent.  Subsequent  experience 
does  not  fully  confirm  this,  and  it  would  appear  that  the  parent 

*  The  seedlings  sometimes  most  resemble  one  parent  sometimes  thi)  other ; 
but  mora  frequently  share  the  qualities  of  both.  Mr.  Goxe  descf  tbes  an 
Apple,  a  cross  between  a  Newtown  Pippin  and  a  Russet,  the  fruit  cf  which 
resembled  externally  at  one  end  the  Russet  and  at  the  other  the  Pippin, 
and  the  flavour  at  either  end  oorrespondod  exactly  with  the  character  of  ths 



whoee  character  is  most  permanent^  impresses  its  form  most  for 
cibly  on  the  offspring. 

The  process  of  obtaining  crosfr-bred  seeds  of  fruit  trees  is  very 
easily  performed.  It  is  only  necessary  when  the  tree  blooms 
which  we  intend  to  be  the  mother  of  the  improved  race,  to  select 
a  blossom  or  blossoms  growing  npoa  it  not  yet  fiilly  expanded. 
With  a  pair  of  scissors,  we  cut  out  and  remove  all  the  anthers. 
The  next  day,  or  as  soon  as  the  blossom  is  quite  expanded,  we 
collect  with  a  cameFs  hair  brush,  the  pollen  from  a  fully  blown 
flower  of  the  variety  we  intend  for  the  male  parent,  applyins; 
the  pollen  and  leaving  it  upon  the  sti^a  or  pomt  of  the  pistil. 
If  your  trees  are  much  exposed  to  l£ose  busy  little  meddlers, 
the  bees,  it  is  well  to  cover  the  blossoms  with  a  loose  bag  of 
thin  gauze,  or  they  will  perhaps  get  beforehand  with  you  in 
your  experiments  in  cross-breeding.  Watch  the  blossoms  closely 
as  they  open,  and  bear  in  mind  that  the  two  essential  points  in 
the  operation  are ;  1st,  to  extract  the  anthers  carefully,  before 
they  have  matured  sufficiently  to  fertilize  the  pistil ;  and  2d,  to 
apply  the  pollen  when  it  is  in  perfection,  (dry  and  powdery,) 
and  while  me  stigma  is  moist  A  very  little  practice  will  enable 
the  amateur  to  jud^  of  these  points. 

There  are  certain  limits  to  the  power  of  crossing  plants. 
What  is  strictly  called  a  cro8»4Mred  plant  or  fruit  is  a  sub-variety 
raised  between  two  varieties  of  the  same  species.  There  are, 
however,  certain  species,  nearly  allied^  which  are  capable  of  fer- 
tilizing each  other.  The  offspring  in  diis  case  is  called  a  hybrid^ 
or  mble,  and  does  not  always  produce  perfect  seeds.  "•  This 
power  of  hybridising,"  says  Dr.  Lindley,  **  appears  to  be  much 
more  common  in  plants  than  in  animals.  It  is,  however,  in 
general  only  between  nearly  allied  species  that  this  intercourse 
can  take  place ;  those  which  are  widely  different  in  structure 
and  constitution  not  being  capable  of  any  artificial  union.  Thus 
the  different  species  of  Strawberry,  of  tlie  gourd  or  melon  fiimily, 
intermix  with  the  greatest  &cility,  there  being  a  great  accord- 
ance between  them  in  seneral  structure,  and  constitution.  But 
no  one  has  ever  succeeded  in  compelling  the  pear  to  fertilize  the 
apple,  nor  the  gooseberry  the  currant  And  as  species  that  are 
very  dissimilar  appear  to  have  some  natural  impediment  which 
prevents  their  reciprocal  fertilization,  so  does  this  obstacle,  of 
whatever  nature  it  may  be,  present  an  insuperable  bar  to  the  in- 
tercourse of  the  different  genera.  All  the  stories  that  are  cur- 
rent as  to  the  intermixture  of  oranges  and  pomegranates,  of 
roses  and  black  currants,  and  the  like,  may  therefore  be  set 
down  to  pure  invention." 

In  practice  this  power  of  improving  varieties  by  crossing  is 
very  largely  resorted  to  by  gardeners  at  the  present  day.  Not 
only  in  fruit  trees,  but  in  ornamental  trees,  shrubs,  and  plants, 
and  especially  in  florists'  flowers,  it  has  been  carried  to  a  great 

CR0B8-BRBKDIN0.  11 

extent.  The  fjreat  number  of  new  and  beautifnl  Rosefl,  Azaleas, 
Camellias,  Fachsias,  Dahlias,  and  other  flowering  plants  bo 
splendid  in  coloor,  and  perfect  in  Uliiid,  owe  their  ongin  to  care- 
fol  cross-breeding. 

In  the  amelioration  of  fraits  it  is  by  hi  the  most  certain,  and 
satis&ctory  process  jet  disoovered.  Its  results  are  more  speed- 
ily obtained,  and  correspond  much  more  closely  to  our  aim,  than 
those  procured  by  successive  reproduction. 

In  order  to  obtain  a  new  variety  of  a  certain  character,  it  is 
only  necessary  to  select  two  parents  of  well  known  habits,  and 
which  are  both  varieties  of  the  same,  or  nearly  allied  species,  and 
cross  them  for  a  new  and  intermediate  variety.  Thus,  if  we 
have  a  very  early,  bat  insipid  and  worthless  sort  of  pear,  and 
desire  to  raise  from  it  a  variety  both  early  and  of  fine  flavour, 
we  diould  fertilise  some  of  its  pistils,  with  the  pollen  <^  the  best 
flavoured  variety  of  a  little  later  maturity.  Among  the  seed- 
lings produced,  we  should  look  for  eariy  pears  of  g^od  quality 
and  at  least  for  one  or  two  varieties  nearly,  or  quite  as  early  as 
the  female  parent,  and  as  delicious  as  the  male.  If  we  have  a 
very  small,  but  highly  flavoured  pear,  and  wish  lor  a  larger  pear 
witlk  a  somewhat  similar  flavour,  we  must  fertilize  the  first  with 
the  pollen  of  a  lai^  and  handsome  sort  If  we  desire  to  im- 
part the  quality  of  lateness  to  a  very  choice  plum,  we  must  look 
out  fer  a  late  variety,  whether  of  good  or  bad  quality,  as  the 
mother,  and  eross  it  with  our  best  flavoured  sort  If  we  desire 
to  impart  hardiness  to  a  tender  fruit,  we  must  undertake  a  cross 
between  it  and  a  much  hardier  sort;  if  we  seek  greater  beauty 
of  colour,  or  vigour  of  growth,  we  must  insure  these  qualities  by 
selecting  one  parent  having  such  quality  strongly  marked. 

As  the  seeds  produced  by  cross  fertilizatioB  are  not  feiind  to 
produce  precisely  the  same  varieties,  though  they  will  neariy  all 
partake  of  the  mixed  character  of  tiie  parents,  it  follows  that  wo 
shall  be  most  successful  in  obtaining  precisely  all  we  hope  for 
in  the  new  race,  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  our  cross-bred 
seedlings;  some  of  which  may  be  inferionr,  as  well  as  some 
superiour  to  the  parents.  It  is  always  well,  therefore,  to  cross 
several  flowers  at  once  on  Hie  same  plant,  when  a  single  blossom 
does  not  produce  a  number  of  seeds. 

We  should  observe  heie,  that  those  who  devote  their  time  to 
raising  new  varieties,  must  bear  in  mind  that  it  is  not  always 
by  the  first  fruits  of  a  seedling  that  it  should  be  judged.  Some 
of  the  finest  varieties  require  a  considerable  age  before  their 
best  qualities  develop  themselves,  as  it  is  only  when  the  tree 
has  arrived  at  some  degree  of  maturity  that  its  secretions,  cither 
fer  flower,  or  fruit,  are  perfectly  elaborated.  The  firat  fruit  of 
the  Black  Eagle  cherry,  a  fine  cross-bred  raised  by  Mr.  Knight, 
was  pronounced  worthless  when  first  exhibited  to  the  London 
Horticultural  Society ;  its  quality  now  proves  that  the  tree  was 
not  then  of  sufficient  age  to  produce  its  fruit  in  perfection. 




Attbb  having  obtained  a  new  and  choice  kind  of  fruit,  which 
in  our  hands  la  perhiqpa  only  a  single  tree,  and  which,  as  we 
have  already  shown,  seldom  prodaces  the  same  from  seed,  the 
next  inquiry  is  how  to  continae  this  variety  in  existence,  and 
how  to  increase  and  extend  it,  so  that  other  sardens  and  conn- 
triee  may  possess  it  as  well  as  oniselveB.  This  leads  us  to  the 
sabject  df  the  pn^pagation  of  frait  trees,  m  the  continuation  of 
vaneties  by  grafting  and  budding. 

Gn^fting  and  bwkling  are  the  means  in  most  c^Jtaimon  use  for 
propap^ting  fruit  trees.  Th^  are,  in  Iwt,  nothing  more  than 
insertmg  upon  one  tree,  the  imoot  or  bud  of  another,  in  such  a 
manner  that  the  two  may  unite  and  form  a  new  compound.  No 
person  having  any  interest  in  a  garden  should  be  unable  to  per^ 
form  these  federations,  as  they  are  c^>able  oi  effecting  transfor- 
mations and  improvements  in  all  trees  and  shrubs,  no  less  valu- 
able, than  they  are  beautiful  and  interesting. 

GrttfUnff  is  a  very  ancient  invention,  havinffbeen  well  known 
and  practaeed  by  the  Greeks  and  Romans.  The  latter,  indeed, 
describe  a  great  variety  of  modes,  quite  as  ingenious  as  any  of 
the  fimcifui  variations  now  used  by  gardeners.  The  French, 
who  are  most  expert  in  grafting,  practise  occssionally  mere 
than  ^Sty  modes,  and  within  a  few  years  have  succeeded  per- 
fectly in  mfting  annual  plants,  such  as  the  tomato,  the  dahlia^ 
and  the  lue. 

The  tms  of  grmfUmg^  and  budding^  as  iqpplied  to  fruit  trees, 
may  be  briefly  stated  as  follows : 

1.  The  rapid  increase  or  propagation  of  valuaUe  sorts  of  fruit 
not  easily  raised  by  seeds,  or  cuttings,  as  is  the  case  vrith  nearly 
all  varieties. 

2.  To  renew  or  alter  the  heads  of  trees,  partially  or  fully 
grown,  producinff  in  two  or  three  joars,  by  heading-in  and 
grafting,  a  new  head,  bearing  the  nnest  fruit,  on  a  formeriy 
worthless  tree. 

3.  To  render  certain  foreien  and  delicate  sorts  of  fruit  more 
hardy  by  grafting  them  on  robust  stocks  of  the  same  species  na- 
tive to  the  country,  as  the  foreign  grape  on  the  native.  And  tc 
produce  fine  fruit  in  climates  or  situations  not  naturally  favour^ 
able  by  grafting  on  another  species  more  hardy ;  as  in  a  cool 

OmAFTXXO.  18 

climate  and  damp  strong  soi!,  by  woridng  the  Peach  on  tie 

4.  To  render  dwarf  certain  kinda  of  frait,  by  grafting  them  on 
aoitable  atocka  of  slower  growth,  aa  in  tiie  case  of  the  Pear  on 
the  Qoinoe^  the  Apple  on  the  pandiee  atocky  Ac 

5.  By  grafting  several  kimfa  on  the  same  tree,  to  be  able  to 
haye  a  aaccession  of  froit,  from  early  to  late,  in  a  small  ^^aiden. 

6.  To  hasten  the  bearing  of  soedling  yarietieB  of  ihut,  or  of 
such  as  are  a  long  time  in  producing  Iniit,  by  grafting  them  on 
the  branches  of  rail  grown,  or  matoie  beanng  trees.  Thus  a 
seedling  pear,  which  would  not  produce  fruit  on  its  own  root  in 
a  doaen  years,  will  aenerally  begin  to  bear  the  thiid  or  Ibaith 
year,  if  grafted  <m  the  eztranity  of  the  beanng  branches  of  a 
mature  tree. 

Tkt  proper  UmB  for  grcfHng  frnit  treea  k  in  the  ipring,  as 
soon  as  the  sap  ia  in  motion,  which  commencea  eaiiieat  with  the 
Chen^  and  Plum,  and  ends  with  the  Pear  and  Apple.  The  pre- 
cise tune  of  coune  yaries  with  the  season  and  the  climate,  but 
ia  generally  ccMnpfiaed  from  February  to  tiie  middle  of  April. 
Hie  grape  vine^  however,  which  auffoa  by  bleeding,  is  not  usu- 
ally ^praftad  an^  it  is  m  leail  The  most  frnrourable  weather  l»r 
graftii^  is  a  mUd  atmo^here  with  occasional  showers. 

Th$  9cUm9  are  ^enerailf  mlml$d  previously ;  as  it  ia  found 
in  nearly  all  kmds  of  grafting  b^  scions^  that  success  is  more 
comfdete  when  the  sto&  upon  which  they  are  placed  is  a  little 
more  advanced — ^the  sap  u  a  more  active  state  than  in  the 
sdon.  To  secure  this,  we  usually  cat  the  scions  very  early 
in  the  spring,  during  wmter,  or  even  in  the  autumn,  butying 
their  lower  ends  in  the  ground  ia  a  shaded  place,  or  keeping 
them  in  fine  soil  in  the  cellar  till  wanted  for  use.  In  cutting 
scions,  we  choose  straight  thrifty  shoots  of  the  last  year's  growth, 
which  may  remain  entire  until  we  commence  grafting,  when 
they  may  be  cut  into  scions  of  three  or  four  buds  each.  In  se- 
lecting scions  frx>m  old  trees  it  is  always  advisable  to  choose  the 
moat  vigorous  of  the  last  year's  shoots  growing  near  the  centre 
or  top  of  the  tree.  Scions  from  sidcly  and  unhealthy  branchea 
ahonld  be  rejected,  aa  they  are  apt  to  carry  with  them  this  feeble 
and  sickly  state.  Scions  taken  from  the  lower  bearing  branches 
will  produce  fruit  soonest,  but  they  will  not  afford  trees  of  so 
handsome  a  shape,  or  so  vigorous  a  growth,  as  those  taken  from 
the  thrifty  upri^t  shoots  near  the  centre  or  top  of  the  tree. 
Kurseiymen  generally  take  their  scions  from  young  grafted 
trees  in  the  nuraeir-rows,  these  being  usually  in  better  condition 
than  those  taken  from  old  trees  not  always  in  a  healthy  state. 

7%i  iioek  far  prafting  upoUj  is  generally  a  tree  which  has 
been  standing,  at  least  for  a  year  previously,  on  the  spot  where  it 
18  grafted,  as  success  is  much  less  certain  on  newly  moved 


In  the  case,  hoiiireYer,  of  very  small  trees  or  stocks,  which  art 
grafted  below  the  surface  of  the  ground,  as  is  {rcqnently  the 
practice  with  the  Apple  in  American  nurseries,  the  stocks  are 
grafted  in  the  house  in  winter,  or  earl  j  spring,  put  away  care 
fully  in  a  damp  cellar,  and  planted  out  in  the  spring ;  but  thi^ 
method  is  only  soccesfilul  when  the  root  is  small,  and  when  the 
top  of  the  stock  is  taken  gS^  and  the  whole  root  is  devoted  to 
supplying  the  graft  with  nourishment. 

The  Uieory  of  gmfik^g  is  based  on  the  power  of  union  between 
the  young  tissues,  or  oi^nizable  matter  of  growing  wood.  When 
the  parts  are  placed  nicely  in  contact,  the  ascending  sap  of  the 
stock  passes  into  and  sustains  life  in  ^e  seion ;  the  buds  of  the 
latter,  excited  by  this  supply  of  sap  and  the  warmth  of  the  sear 
son,  begin  to  elaborate  and  send  down  woody  matter,  which, 
passing  through  the  newly  granulated  subotanoe  of  the  parts  in 
conta<^  unites  the  graft  firmly  with  the  stock.  ^  I^"  says  De 
Candolle,  "  the  descending  sap  has  only  an  incomplete  analogy 
with  the  wants  of  the  stock,  the  latter  does  not  wrive,  though 
the  organic  union  may  have  taken  place ;  and  if  the  anak)gy  be- 
tween the  albumen  of  stock  and  scion  is  wanting,  the  oieanic 
union  does  not  operate ,  the  scion  cannot  absorb  the  sap  of  the 
stock  and  the  graft  fails.** 

Qrafiing  thenfore  is  eonfined  mUUn  certain  UmiU.  A  scion 
from  one  tree  will  not^  from  the  want  of  affinity,  succeed  on  every 
other  tree,  but  only  upon  those  to  which  it  is  allied.  We  are,  in 
short,  only  successful  in  budding  or  grafting  where  there  is  a 
close  relationship  and  similarity  of  structure  between  the  stock 
and  the  scion.  This  is  the  case  with  varieties  of  the  same  species, 
which  take  most  freely,  as  the  different  sorts  of  Apple ;  next  with 
the  different  species  of  a  genus  as  the  Apple  and  the  Pear,  which 
grow,  but  in  which  the  onion  is  less  complete  and  permanent ; 
and  lastly  with  the  ffenera  of  the  same  natural  &mily,  aa  the 
Cherry  on  the  Plum — ^which  die  after  a  season  or  two.  The 
ancients  Iboasted  of  Vines  and  Apples  grafted  on  Poplars  and 
Elms ;  but  repeated  experiments,  by  the  most  skilfbl  cultivators 
of  modem  times,  have  cleariy  proved  that  although  we  may, 
once  in  a  thousand  trials,  succeed  in  effecting  these  ill  assorted 
unions,  yet  the  graft  invMiably  dies  after  a  few  months*  growth.* 

The  range  in  grafting  or  budding,  for  fruit  trees  in  ordinary 

*  The  claHBJcal  horticulturist  will  not  &il  to  recall  to  mind  Plui/s  aoooont 
of  the  tree  in  the  garden  of  LucuUua,  grafted  in  such  a  manner  as  to  bear 
Olives,  Almonds,  Apples,  Pears,  Plums,  Figs,  and  Grapes.  Tliere  is  littlo 
doubt,  however,  that  this  was  some  ingenious  deception — as  to  this  day  tho 
Italian  gardeners  pretend  to  sell  Jasmines,  Honeysuckles,  fta,  growing  to- 
gether and  grafted  on  Oranges  and  Pomegranates.  This  is  ingenioualy 
managed,  for  a  short-lived  effect,  by  introducing  the  stems  of  these  smaller 
plants  through  a  hole  borod  up  the  centre  of  the  stock  of  the  trees — their 
roots  being  in  the  sanap  soil,  and  their  stems,  which  after  a  little  growth 
fill  up  these  holes,  appearing  as  if  really  grafted. 



snltare,  is  as  the  following;  Apples,  on  apple  or  crab  seedlinge 
for  orchards  (standarda,)  or  on  Paradise  apple  stocks,  for  dwarfe ; 
Peare,  on  pear  seedliDgs  for  common  culture,  or  Quince  stocks 
for  dwar&,  and  sometimes  on  the  thorn  for  clajey  s<^ ;  Peachesi 
on  their  own  seedlings  for  standardaor  for  orchards;  on  Almonds, 
Ibr  hot  and  diy  climates ;  on  Plums  in  cold  or  moist  soils,  or  to 
secure  them  against  the  wonn ;  Apricots,  on  Plnm  stocks,  to 
render  them  htfdy  and  productive,  or  on  their  own  seedlings  to 
render  them  long-lived.  Nectarines  are  usually  woiked  on  the 
Peach  or  Plum;  and  Cherries  on  maszard  seedlings;  or  some- 
times on  the  periumed  Cherry  for  dwaris. 

The  manual  operation  offfrafUng  is  performed  in 
a  very  easy  and  complete  manner  when  the  size  of 
the  stock,  or  branch  to  be  grafted,  corresponds  pre- 
cisely wiUi  that  of  the  scion.    In  this  case,  which  is 
called  fpliee  ffra/tioffj  it  ia  only  necessary  with  a 
smooth  sloping  cut^  upwards  on  the  stock  a,  and 
downwards  on  the  scion  6,  Fig.  2,  to  make  the  two 
fit  precisely,  so  that  the  inner  bark  of  one  corresponds 
exactly  with  that  of  the  other,  to  bind  them  nrmly 
together  with*a  strand  of  matting,  and  to  cover  the 
wound  entirely  with  grafting  cla^  or  wax,  and  the 
I  whole  is  finished.     In  this,  which  is  one  of  the 
I  neatest  modes,  the  whole  forms  a  complete  union 
nearly  at  once;   leaving  scarcely  any  wounded 
part  to  heal  over.    But^  as  it  is  only  rarely  that  the 
stock  is  of  so  small  a  size  as  to  fit  thus  pofectly  to 
the  scion,  the  operation  must  be  varied  somewhati 
and  requires  more  skill.    The  method  in  most  com- 
Jig.  2.       mon  use  to  cover  all  difficulties,  is  called  tongue 
afHeegraftiim.  grafting. 

We  may  remark  here  that  grafting  the  shoots 
of  Peaches,  Nectarines  and  Apricote,  owing  to 
their  large  pith,  is  more  difficult  than  that  of 
other  fruit  trees.  A  variation  of  splice-grafting. 
Fig.  3,  has  been  invented  to  obviate  this.  This 
consists  in  selecting  the  scion  a,  so  as  to  leave  at 
its  lower  end  about  a  fourth  of  an  inch  of  two 
years  old  wood  which  is  much  firmer.  The 
bottom  of  the  slope  on  the  stock  is  cut  with  a 
dove-tail  notch  h^  into  which  the  scion  is  | 

Tongue  gnrfting^  (or  whip-grafting,)  Fig.  4, 
resembles  very  nearly   splice-grafting,  except, 
instead  of  the  simple  splice,  a  tongue  is  made 
to  hold  the  two  together  more  firmly.    In  order     j^,  3.  SpHee 
to  understand  this  method  let  us  explain  it  a  lit-  ffrofUng  Uupeack 
tie  in  detail. 



Fig.  8.     Tongw-grafting^  progresaiw  tiages. 

Having  chosen  your  stock  of  the  proper  size,  cut  it  off  at  tl  e 
point  where,  a,  it  appears  best  to  fix  the  graft  If  the  stock  Js 
quite  small,  it  may  tng  within  three  or  four  inches  of  the  ground. 
Then,  with  a  very  sharp  knife,  make  a  smooth  cut  upwards,  by 
about  two  inches  in  length.  Next  make  a  slit  from  the  top  of 
this  cut  about  one  fourth  of  the  way  downwards,  c,  taking  out  a 
thin  tongue  of  wood.  Cut  the  scion  four  or  five  inches  long,  or  so 
as  to  have  three  buds;  then  shape  the  lower  end  with  a  single 
smooth  sloping  cut,  e,  about  the  same  length  as  that  on  the  stock, 
and  make  the  tongue  upward,  ^^  to  fit  in  the  downward  slit  of  the 
stock.  Now  apply  the  scion  accurately  to  the  stock,  making  the 
inner  bark  of  the  scion  fit  exactly  the  inner  bark  of  the  stock,  at 
least  on  one  side,  g.  Without  changing  their  position,  tie  them 
together  carefully  with  a  piece  of  bass-matting  or  tape,  A.  And 
finally  cover  the  wound  with  well  prepared  grafling-clay  or  war, 
f.  This  ball  of  clay  should  more  than  cover  the  union,  by  an 
inch  above  and  below,  and  should  be  about  an  inch  thick.  If 
grafting-wax  is  used,  the  covering  need  not  be  above  half  an 
inch  thick. 

In  a  month*s  time,  if  the  graft  has  taken,  it  will  be  expanding 
its  leaves  and  sending  out  snoots.  It  will  then  be  necessary  to 
rub  or  cut  off  all  shoots  between  the  ball  and  the  ground,  if  it  is 
a  small  stock,  or  all  those  which  would  rob  it  of  a  principal  share 
of  nourishment,  if  upon  a  large  tree.  If  the  scion  or  stock  is 
very  weak,  it  is  usual  to  leave  one  or  two  other  buds  for  a  time,  to 
assist  in  drawing  up  the  sap.  About  the  middle  of  July,  ailer  a 
rainy  daj^.  you  may  remove  the  ball  of  clay,  and,  if  the  graft  is 

OBAnnTQ.  1) 

securely  united,  also  the  bandage ;  and  the  angle  left  al  the  top 
of  the  stock,  a,  should  now  be  cut  off  smoothly,  in  order  to  allow 
the  bark  of  the  stock  and  the  scion  to  heal  neatlj  over  the  whole 

Thooffh  It  k  little  attended  to  in  common  practice,  the  ama- 
teur will  be  glad  to  know  that  the  success  of  a  graft  is  always 
greatly  insured  by  choosing  the  parts  so  that  a  bod  is  left  near 
the  top  of  the  stock,  k,  and  another  near  the  bottom  of  the  scion,  L 
These  buds  attract  the  rising  sap  to  the  portions  where  they  are 
placed,  form  woody  matter,  and  greatly  facilitate  the  union  of  the 
parts  near  them;  the  u{^r  part  of  the  stock,  and  the  lower  part 
of  the  scion,  being  the  portions  soonest  liable  to  perish  from  a 
want  of  nourishment* 

Cleft  grtrfiing  is  a  very  easy  though  rather  clumsy  mode,  and 
is  in  more  common  use  than  any  other  in  the  United  States.  It  ia 
chiefly  practised  on  large  stocks,  or  trees  the  branches  of  which 
have  been  headed  back,  and  are  too  large  for  tongue-crafting. 
4  The  head  of  the  stock  ia  first  cut  over  honzontalnr 
with  the  saw,  and  smoothed  with  a  knife.  A  deft 
about  two  inches  deep  is  then  made  in  the  stock  with 
a  hammer  and  splitting-knife.  The  scion  is  now 
prepared,  by  sloping  its  lower  end  in  the. form  of 
a  wed^  about  an  inch  and  a  half  long,  leaving  it  a 
little  wicker  on  the  outer  edge.  Opening  the  cleft 
with  the  splitting-knife,  or  a  small  chisel  for  that 
purpose,  push  the  scion  carefully  down  to  its  place, 
fitting  its  inner  bark  on  one  side  to  that  of  one 
side  of  the  stock.  When  the  stock  id  lar^e,  it  is 
Fig.  A.  usual  to  insert  two  scions,  Fi^.  4.  On  wimdraw- 
ing  the  chisel,  the  cleft  closes  firmly  on  tne  scions,  when  the 
graft  is  tied  and  clayed  in  the  usual  manner. 

Apple  stocks  in  many  American  nurseries,  are  grafted  in 
great  quantities  in  this  mode — ^the  stocks  being  previously  taken 
out  of  the  ground,  headed  down  very  near  the  root,  cleft  grafted 
with  a  single  scion,  sloping  off  with  an  oblique  cut  the  side  of  the 
stock  opposite  that  where  the  graft  is  placed,  and  then  planted  at 
once  in  the  rows  so  as  to  allow  only  a  couple  of  buds  of  the  scion 
to  appear  above  ground.  It  is  not  usual  with  many,  either  to  tie, 
or  clay  the  grafts  in  this  case,  as  the  wound  is  placed  below  the 
sur&ce;  but  when  this  plan  is  adopted,  the  grafts  must  be  set 

^  In  graftiiig  large  qnantitlesof  young  trees  when  stocks  are  scaioe,  it  is 
not  SB  unusual  practice  in  some  nunieriee  to  tongue  or  whip-graft  upon  small 
fieeta  <ffroc48  of  the  proper  sort  of  tree,  planting  the  same  in  the  earth  as 
soon  88  grafted.  Indeed,  Dr.  Van  Mons  considers  this  tlio  most  complete 
of  all  modes,  with  regard  to  the  perfect  condition  of  the  grafted  sort;  Ist^ 
because  the  smalleBtquantitj  of  the  stock  is  used;  aud  2d,  because  thelowet 
part  of  the  scion  being  thus  placed  in  the  ground,  after  a  time  it  throws  out 
fibres  ftoro  that  portion,  and  so  at  last  is  actually  growing  on  its  own  roots. 


and  the  trees  planted  at  once,  drawing  the  well  pulverized  soi 
with  great  care  around  the  graft  Another  way  of  gralting 
apple  stocks,  common  in  some  western  nurseries,  consists  in 
tongue-grafting  on  seedling  stocks  of  very  small  size,  cut  hack 
almost  to  the  root  This  is  performed  in  winter,  by  the  fire- 
side—the grafts  carefully  tied,  and  the  roots  placed  m  the  cel- 
lar, in  sand,  till  spring,  when  they  are  planted,  the  top  of  the 
graft  just  above  ground. 

Grafting  the  Vine  is  attended  with  great  success  hi  the  cleft 
manner  if  treated  as  follows.  Cut  your  scions  during  the  winter 
or  early  spring,  keeping  them  partially  buried  in  a  cool  damp 
cellar  till  wanted.  As  soon  as  the  leaves  of  the  old  vine  or  stock 
are  fully  expanded,  and  all  danger  of  bleeding  is  past — say  about 
the  1 0th  of  June,  cnt  it  off  smoothly  below  the  surface  of  the 
ground,  and  split  the  stock  and  insert  one  or  two  scions  in  the 
usual  manner,  binding  the  cleft  well  together  if  it  does  not  close 
firmly.  Draw  the  soil  carefully  over  the  whole,  leaving  two  or 
three  buds  of  the  scion  above  the  surface.  If  the  root  of  the 
stock  is  a  strong  native  grape,  the  graft  will  frequently  grow  ten 
or  fifteen  feet  during  the  first  season,  and  yield  a  &ir  crop  the 
second  year. 

The  Vine  may  also  be  grafted  with  good  success 
at  the  usual  season  if  grafted  below  the  ground, 
but  above  ground,  it  should  not  be  attempted,  on 
account  of  bleeding,  until  the  leaves  are  nearly 

Saddle  grafting,  Fig.  5,  consists  in  cutting  the 
top  of  the  stock  in  the  form  of  a  wedge,  splitting 
the  scion  and  thinning  away  each  half  to  a  tongue 
shape,  placing  it  astride  the  stock,  and  fitting  the 
two,  at  least  on  one  side,  as  in  tongue-crafting. 
1  Iliis  mode  offers  the  largest  surface  for  the  junc- 
tion of  the  scion  and  stock,  and  the  union  is  very 
perfect  Mr.  Knight,  who  practised  it  chiefly 
upon  Cherry  trees,  states  that  he  has  rarely  ever 
seen  a  graft  fail,  even  when  the  wood  has  been  sc 
succulent  and  immature  as  to  preclude  every  hope 
of  success  by  any  other  mode. 
Fig.  5.*^  ^  variety  of  this  mode,  for  stocks  larger  than 
Saddle  grciflinff,  the  scions,  is  practised  with  much  success  in  Eng- 
land after  the  usual  season  is  past,  and  when  the  bark  of  the 
stock  separates  readily.  **The  scion,  which  must  be  smaller 
than  the  stock,  is  split  up  between  two  or  three  inches  from  its 
lower  end,  so  as  to  nave  one  side  strongei  than  the  other.  This 
strong  side  is  then  properly  prepared  and  mtroduced  between  the 
bark  and  the  wood ;  while  the  thinner  division  is  fittci  to  the 
opposite  side  of  the  stock."  The  graft,  thus  placed,  receives  a 
large  supply  of  the  sustaining  fluid  from  the  stock,  and  the  union 



11  n^id;  while  the  woand  on  the  stock  is  speedilj  oorered  by  a 

Dew  layer  of  bark  from  Uutt  part 
astride  It 

Grafting  clay  is  prepared 
by  mixing  one  third  horae- 
duDg  free  from  straw,  and 
two  thirds  clay,  or  clayey 
loam,  with  a  li&e  hair,  like 
that  used  in  plaster,  to  pre- 
vent its  cracldng.  Beat  and 
temper  it  for  two  or  three 
days,  nntil  it  is  thcNTOUghly 
incorporated.  When  used, 
it  should  be  <^  snch  a  con- 
sistency as  to  be  easily  pat 
on  and  shaped  with  the 

Orafting  wax  of  excel- 
lent quality  we  have  made 
by  melting  together  three 
parts  of  bees-wax,  three 
parts  of  rosin  and  two  parts 
tallow.  While  yet  warm 
it  may  be  worked  with  the 
aid  of  a  little  water,  like 
shoemakei^s  wax,  by  the 
hand.  Ihe  common  graft- 
ing wax  of  the  French 
gardenere  is  of  two  kinds. 

of  the  scion  which  stands 

fig.  6.    Saddle  grafting  large  stocks. 

The  first,  is  melted  and  laid  on  with 
a  brash  in  a  fluid  state,  and  is  made  of  half  a  poond  of  pitch, 
half  a  pound  of  bees-wax,  and  a  pound  of  cow-dung  boiled  to- 
gether. The  second,  which  is  spread  while  warm  on  strips  of 
coarse  cotton,  or  strong  paper,  and  wrapped  directly  about  the 
graft,  answering  at  once  to  tie  and  to  proieet  it,  is  composed  of 
equal  parts  of  l^es-wax,  turpentine  and  resin.  The  grafting  wax 
most  commonly  used  here  is  made  of  tallow,  bees-wax,  and  resin, 
in  equal  parts,  or,  as  many  prefer,  with  a  little  more  tallow  to 
render  it  pliable. 

Grafting  wax  is  a  much  neater  and  more  perfect  protection 
thiui  grafting  day,  but  the  trifling  cost  of  the  latter,  where  a 
great  deal  of  work  is  to  b^  done,  accounts  for  its  greater  use  by 
muserymen,  and  gardeners  generally. 


Budding  {inoculating^  of  the  old  authors)  differs  from  common 
grafting  not  the  least  in  its  nature  or  effects.  Every  bud  is  a 
distinct  individual,  capable  of  becoming  a  tree  under  favourable 


circamfltances.  In  ^ftin^,  we  use  a  branch,  composed  of  aeve* 
ral  bnds  with  a  considerable  qaantitv  of  bark  and  wood ;  whik 
in  budding,  we  employ  but  a  single  bud,  with  a  very  small  quan^ 
tity  of  the  adjoining  bark  and  wood. 

The  advantages  of  budding  fruit  trees^  compared  with  graftin£| 
are  so  considerable,  that  in  wis  country  it  is  ten  times  as  mn<£ 
practised.  These  are,  first,  the  great  rapidity  with  which  it  is 
performed ;  a  skilful  budder,  mux  a  clever  boy  following  him  to 
tie  the  buds,  being  able  to  work  from  a  thousand  to  twelve  hun- 
dred young  nursery  stocks  in  a  day.  2d,  The  more  convenient 
season  at  which  it  is  performed,  in  all  countries  where  a  short 
spring  crowds  garden  labours  within  a  small  space,  dd.  Being 
able  to  perform  the  operation  without  injuring  the  stock  in  case 
of  &ilure,  which  is  always  more  or  less  the  casein  stocks  headed 
down  for  grafting.  4th.  The  opportunity  which  it  affords,  when 
performed  in  good  season,  of  repeating  the  trial  on  the  same 
stock.  To  these  we  may  add  that  budding  is  universally  pre- 
ferred here  for  all  stone  fruits,  such  as  Peaches,  Apricots,  and 
the  like,  as  these  require  extra  skill  in  grafting,  but  are  budded 
with  great  ease. 

The  proper  seawn  for  budding  fruit  trees  in  this  country  is 
from  the  first  of  July  to  the  middle  of  September;  the  different 
trees  coming  into  season  as  follows;  Plums,  Cherries,  Apri- 
cots on  Plums,  Apricots,  Pears,  Apples,  Quinces,  Nectarines, 
and  Peaches.  Itees  of  considerabk  size  will  require  budding 
earlier  than  youn^  seedling  stocks.  But  the  opera- 
tion is  always,  and  only,  performed  when  the  bark  of 
the  stock  parts  or  separatee  freely  from  the  toood,  and 
when  the  buds  of  the  current  yea^s  growth  are  some- 
what plump,  and  the  young  wood  is  growing  firm. 
Young  stocks  in  the  nunery,  if  thrifty,  are  usually 
planted  out  in  the  rows  in  the  spring,  and  budded  the 
same  summer  or  autumn. 

Before  commencing  you  shotdd  provide  yourself  with 
a  budding  knife.  Fig.  7,  (about  four  and  a  half  inches 
long«)  having  a  rounded  blade  at  one  end,  and  an  ivory 
handle  terminating  in  a  thin  rounded  edge  called  the 
haft^  a,  at  the  other. 

In  choosing  your  bods,  select  thrifty  sboots  that 
have  nearly  done  growing,  and  prepare  what  is  called 
a  sHck  of  huds,  ]^g.  8,  by  cutting  off  a  few  of  the 
imperfect  buds  at  the  lower,  and  such  as  may  be  yet 
too  soft  at  the  upper  ends,  leaving  only  smooth  well 
developed  single  ouds;  double  buds  being  fruit-buds. 
Cut  off  the  leaves,  allowing  about  half  an  inch  of  the 
^foot-stalks  to  remain  for  conveniently  inserting  the 
buds.  Some  strands  of  bass-matting  about  twelve  or 
JJS^'jJj^  fourteen   inches  long,  previously  soaked  in  water  to 



render  them  soft  and  pliable,  (or  in  the  abeenoe  of 
these  son^  soft  woollen  yam,)  must  also  be  at  hand 
for  tying  the  bads. 

Shield  or  T  budding  is  the  moat  approved  mode 
in  all  countries.  A  new  yariety  of  this  method  now 
generally  j^ractised  in  this  eoontry  we  shall  describe 
first  as  o^ng  the  sin^ilest  and  bait  mode  for  fruit 

American  ikieid  budding.  Haying  your  slick  of 
l>uds  ready,  choose  a  smooth  portion  of  the  stock. 
When  the  latter  is  small,  let  it  be  near  the  ground, 
and,  if  equally  conyenient,  seleet  also  the  north  side 
oi  the  stock,  as  less  exposed  to  the  sun.  Make  an 
upright  incision  in  the  DtA  from  an  inch  to  an  inch 
and  a  half  long,  and  at  the  top  of  Uiis  make  a  cross 
cut,  so  that  the  whole  shall  form  a  T.  From  the 
stick  of  buds,  your  knife  beii^  y^  *harp^  cut  a 
thin,  smooth  sHce  ci  wood  ana  bark  containing  a 
bud,  Fig.  9,  a.  With  the  iyory  haft  of  ^our  rad- 
ding  knife,  now  raise  the  bark  on  each  side  of  the 
incision  just  wide  enough  to  admit  easily  the  pre- 
pared bud.  Takinff  hold  of  the  footstalk  of  the  lea( 
msert  the  bod  under  the  bark,  pushing  it  gently  j^^^  ^  _ 
down  to  the  bottom  of  the  incision,  n  the  upper  t^iekofimds. 
portion  ci  the  bud  ]ff«jects  aboye  the  horisontal 
part  of  Ae  T,  cut  it  smoothly  off  now,  so  that  it 
may  completely  fit,  6.  A  bandage  of  the  soft 
^matting  is  now  tied  pretty  finnfy  oyer  the  whole 
wound.  Fig.  10,  commencinjr  at  the  bottom,  and 
leaving  the  bud,  and  the  footstalk  of  the  leaf 
only  exposed  to  the  liffht  and  air. 

bomnum  shield  budding^  Fig.  11,  practised  in 
all  gardens  in  Europe,  difiers  from  the  fon^oinff 
only  in  one  respect — the  remoyal  of  the  slice  ol 
wood  contained  in  the  bud.  This  is  taken  out 
with  the  point  of  the  knife,  holding  the  bud  or 
fig.  9.  Ameriuin  shield  by  the  leaf  stalk,  with  one  hand,  inserting 
MMhuddrng.  the  knife  under  the  wood  at  the  lower  extremity, 
and  then  raising  and  drawing  out  the  wood  by 
bending  it  upwards  and  downwards,  with  a  slight 
jerk,  until  it  is  loosened  from  the  bark ;  always 
taking  care  that  a  small  portion  of  the  wood  re- 
mains behind  to  fill  up  the  hollow  at  the  base  or  < 
heart  of  the  bud.  The  bud  thus  prepared  is  in- 
serted precisely  as  before  described. 

The  American  variety  of  shield  budding  is 
found  greatly  preferable  to  the  European  mode, 
at  least  for  this  climate.  Many  sorts  of  fruit  trees, 
especially  Plums  and  Cherries,  nearly  mature       Fig.  la 




although    practised 

their  growth,  and  require  to  be  budded  in 
the  hottest  part  of  our  summer.  In  the 
old  method,  the  bud  having  only  a  shield 
of  bark  with  but  a  particle  of  wood  in  the 
heart  of  the  bud,  is  much  more  liable  to  be 
destroyed  by  heat,  or  dryness,  than  when 
the  slice  of  wood  is  left  behind  in  the 
American  way.  Taking  out  this  wood  i£ 
always  an  operation  requiring  some  dex- 
terity and  practice,  as  few  buds  grow  when 
their  eye,  or  heart  wood  is  damaged.  The 
American  method,  therefore,  requires  less 
skill,  can  ba  done  eariier  in  the  season 
with  younger  wood,  is  performed  in  much 
less  time,  and  is  uniformly  more  successfuL 
It  has  been  very  fairly  tested  upon  hun- 
dreds of  thousand  fruit  trees,  in  our  gar- 
dens, for  the  last  twenty  years,  and 
English  bndders  coming  here,  at  first 
are  greatly  prejudiced  against  it,  as  being  in  direct  opposition 
to  one  of  the  most  essential  features  in  the  old  mode,  yet  a  fiur 
trial  has  never  failed  to  convince  them  of  the  superiority  of  the  new. 
After  treatment  In  two  weeks  after  the  operation  you  will 
be  able  to  see  whether  the  bud  has  taken,  by  its  plumpness  and 
freshness.  If  it  has  Med,  you  may,  if  the  bark  still  parts 
readily,  make  another  trial ;  a  clever  budder  will  not  lose  more 
than  6  or  8  per  cent  If  it  has  succeeded,  after  a  fortnight 
more  has  elapsed,  the  bandage  must  be  loosened,  or  if  the  stock 
has  swelled  much,  it  should  be  removed  altogether.  When  bud- 
ding has  been  performed  very  late,  we  have  occasionally  found 
it  an  advantage  to  leave  the  bandage  on  during  the  winteb 

As  soon  as  the  buds  conmionce  swelling  in  the 
ensuing  spring,  head  down  the  stock,  with  a  sloping 
back  cut)  within  two  or  three  inches  of  the  bud. 
The  bud  will  then  start  vigorously,  and  all  ^  rob- 
bers,'^ as  the  shoots  of  the  stock  near  to  and  below 
the  bud  are  termed,  must  be  taken  off  from  time  to 
time.  To  secure  the  upright  growth  of  the  bud, 
and  to  prevent  its  being  broken  by  the  winds,  it  is 
tied  when  a  few  inches  lo^  to  that  portion  of  the 
stock  left  for  the  purpose,  l^g.  12,  a.  About  mid- 
summer, if  the  shoot  is  strong,  this  support  may  be 
removed,  and  the  superfluous  portion  of  the  stock 
smoothly  cut  away  in  the  dotted  line,  6,  when  it  will 
be  rapidly  covered  with  young  bark. 

We  have  found  a  great  advantage,  when  budding 
trees  which  do  not  take  readily,  in  adopting  Mr.     p.    .^ 
Knight's  excellent  mode  of  tying  with  two  distinct  Tre^meniofih^ 
bandages    one  covering  that  part  below  the  bud,   grovoing  hud. 


and  the  other  the  portion  above  it  In  this  case  the  lower  band* 
age  is  removed  as  soon  as  the  bud  has  taken,  and  the  upper  left 
for  two  or  three  weeks  longer.  This^  by  arresting  the  upward 
sap,  completes  the  union  of  the  upper  portion  of  bud,  ^which  in 
plums  iiequently  dies,  while  the  lower  part  is  united,)  and  se 
cures  success. 

Reverud  shield  budding^  which  is  nothing  more  than  making 
the  cross  cut  at  the  bottom,  instead  of  the  top  of  the  upright  in 
cision-  in  the  bark,  and  inserting  .the  bud  from  below,  is  a  good 
deal  practised  in  the  south  of  £urope,  but  we  have  not  found 
that  it  possesses  any  superiour  merit  for  fruit  trees. 

An  ingenious  application  of  budding,  worthy  the  attention  oi 
amateur  cultivators,  consists  in  using  a  blossom-bud  instead  of 
a  wood-bud;  when,  if  the  operation  is  carefully  done,  blossoms 
and  fruit  will  be  produced  at  once.  This  is  most  successful 
with  the  Fear,  though  we  have  often  succeeded  also  with  the 
Peach.  Blossom-buds  are  readily  distinguished,  as  soon  as  well 
formed,  by  their  roundness,  and  in  some  trees  by  their  growing 
in  pairs;  while  wood-buds  grow  singly,  and  are  more  or  less 
pointed.  We  have  seen  a  curious  firait  grower  borrow  in  this 
way,  in  September,  from  a  neighbor  ten  miles  distant,  a  single 
blossom-bud  of  a  rare  new  pear,  and  produce  from  it  a  £ur  and 
beautiful  fruit  the  next  summer.  The  bud,  in  such  cases,  should 
be  inserted  on  a  iiEivourable  limb  of  a  bearing  tree. 

Annular  budding^  Fig.  13,  we  have  found  a 
valuable  mode  for  trees  with  hard  wood,  and 
thick  bark,  or  those  which,  like  the  walnut,  have 
i^^  B'^ttH  ^u<^  80^1^0*  to  render  it  difficult  to  bud  them 
AHm  IPi  ^  the  common  way.  A  ring  of  bark,  when  the 
1K3  JLJL  *AP  ^  flowing  freely,  is  taken  from  the  stock,  a, 
^^^  ■'"•■  and  a  ring  <rf  corresponding  siae  containing  a 
bud,  5,  from  the  scion.  If  the  latter  should  be 
too  large,  a  piece  must  be  taken  from  it  to  make 
Pl^  l^  it  fit ;  or  should  all  the  scions  be  too  small, 
Aim&kKr  Imdding.  the  ring  upon  the  stock  may  extend  only  three 
fourths  the  way  round,  to  suit  the  ring  of  the  bud. 

An  applieation  of  this  mode  of  great  value  occasionally  occurs 
in  this  country.  In  snowy  winters,  fruit  trees  in  orchards  are 
sometimes  giidled  at  the  ground  by  ield  mice^  and  a  growth 
of  twenty  years  is  thus  destroyed  in  a  single  day,  shomd  the 
girdle  extend  quite  round  the  tree.  To  save  sudi  a  tree,  it  is 
only  necessary,  as  soon  as  the  sap  rises  vigorously  in  the  spring, 
to  apply  a  new  ring  of  bark  in  tne  annulu*  mode  taken  fiK>m  a 
branch  of  proper  size ;  tying  it  finnly,  covering  it  with  mfting 
clay  to  exclude  the  air,  and  finally  drawing  up  the  ear£  so  as 
to  cover  the  wound  completely.  When  the  tree  is  too  lam  to 
apply  an  entire  ring,  separate  pieces,  carefully  fitted,  wm  an- 
swer;  and  it  is  weU  to  reduce  the  top  somewhat  by  pruning 


that  it  may  not  make  too  large  a  demand  on  the  root  for  a  sup 
ply  of  food.      ^ 

Budding  may  be  done  in  the  spring  as  well  as  at  the  lattei 
end  of  summer,  and  is  frequently  so  performed  upon  roses,  and 
othw  omamcnUd  shnibs,  by  French  gardenersi  bat  is  only  in 
occasional  use  upon  fruit  trees. 

Influence  of  the  stock  and  graft. 

The  well  known  fact  that  we  may  have  a  hundred  different 
varieties  of  pear  on  the  same  tree,  each  of  which  produces  its 
fruit  of  the  proper  form,  colour,  and  quality ;  and  tnat  we  may 
have,  at  least  for  a  time,  several  distinct,  though  nearly  related 
species  upon  one  stock,  as  the  Peach,  Apricot,  Nectarine,  and 
Plum,  prove  very  conclusively  the  power  of  eveiy  grafted  or 
budded  branch,  however  small,  in  preserving  its  identity.  To 
explain  this,  it  is  only  necessary  to  recall  to  mind  that  the  as- 
cending sap,  which  is  inmished  by  the  root  or  stock,  is  nearly  a 
simple  fluid ;  that  the  leaves  digest  and  modify  this  sap,  forming 
a  proper  juice,  which  re-descends  in  the  inner  bark,  and  that 
thus  every  bud  and  leaf  upon  a  branch  maintains  its  individu- 
ality by  preparing  its  own  proper  nourishment,  or  organizing 
matter,  out  of  t^at  general  aliment,  the  sap.  Indeed,  according 
to  De  CandoUe,*  each  separate  cellule  of  the  inner  bark  has  this 
power  of  preparing  its  food  according  to  its  nature ;  in  proof  of 
which,  a  striking  experiment  has  been  tried  by  grafting  rings  of 
bark,  of  different  allied  species,  one'  above  another  on  the  same 
tree  without  allowing  any  buds  to  grow  upon  them.  On  cutting 
down  and  examining  this  tree,  it  was  found  that  under  each 
ring  of  bark  was  deposited  the  proper  wood  of  its  swedes,  thus 
deu^y  proving  the  power  of  the  hsA  in  preserving  its  identity, 
even  without  leaves. 

On  the  other  hand,  though  the  stock  increases  in  size  by  the 
woody  matter  received  in  the  descending  sap  from  the  graft,  vet 
as  this  descends  through  the  inner  bark  of  tne  stock,  it  is  elabo* 
rated  by,  and  receives  its  character  from  the  latter;  so  that, 
after  a  tree  has  been  grafted  fifty  years,  a  shoot  which  ^rings 
out  from  its  trunk  below  the  place  of  union,  will  always  be  found 
to  bear  the  original  wild  fruit,  and  not  to  have  been  in  the  least 
affected  by  the  graft. 

But,  whilst  grafting  never  effects  any  alteration  in  the 
identily  of  the  variety  or  species  of  fruit,  still  it  is  not  to  be  de- 
nied that  the  stock  does  exert  certain  influences  over  the  habits 
of  the  graft.  The  most  important  of  these  are  dwarfing,  indu- 
cing fruitfulness,  and  adapting  the  mft  to  the  soil  or  climate. 

Thus  every  one  knows  that  the  slower  habit  of  growth  in  the 

^PhyeMogk  VigHahiL 

INFLUKlfcS   6r  THl   STOCK.  25 

Qaince  stock,  is  shared  bj  the*Pear  grafted  npon  it^  which  be- 
comes a  dwarf;  as  doe6  also  the  Apple  when  worked  on  the 
Paradise  stock,  and,  in  some  degree,  the  Peach  on  the  Plnnu 
The  want  of  entire  similaritT  of  stmctare  between  the  stock  and 
graft,  confines  the  growth  of  the  latter,  and  changes  it,  in  the 
case  of  the  Pear,  iix>m  a  loftj  tree  to  a  shrub  of  e^ht  or  ten  feet 
in  he^hl  The  effect  of  this  difference  of  stmctare  is  rerj  ap- 
parent when  the  Peach  is  grafted  on  the  Plaro,  in  the  greater 
sne  of  the  trank  above,  as  compared  wilh  that  below  the  graft ; 
a  feet  which  seems  to  arise  from  tne  obstmction  which  the  descend- 
ing sap  of  the  graft  finds  in  its  conne  throng  the  bark  of  the  stock. 

To  account  for  the  earlier  and  greater  fhiitfblness  caused  br 
grafting  on  a  stock  of  slower  growth,  Mr.  Knight,  in  one  d  his 
able  papers,  offers  the  following  excellent  ren&arki. 

''The  disposition  in  joang  trees  to  prodnoe  and  nourish  bios* 
som  bnJB  and  fruit,  »  increi^ed  by  this  apparent  obstniction  of 
the  descending  sap ;  and  the  fruit,  I  think,  ripens  somewhat  ear- 
lier than  upon  other  young  trees  of  the  same  age  which  grow 
upon  stocks  of  their  own  species.  But  the  growtii  and  vigour  of 
the  tree,  and  its  power  to  nourish  a  succession  of  heavy  crops, 
are  diminished,  apparently,  by  the  stagnation  in  the  branches 
and  stock  of  a  portion  of  that  sap  whidi,  in  a  tree  growing  on 
its  own  stem,  or  upon  a  stock  of  its  own  species,  would  descend 
to  nourish  and  promote  the  extension  of  its  own  roota.  The 
practice,  therefore,  of  grafting  the  Pear  on  the  Quince,  and  the 
Peach  on  the  Plum,  iraen  extensive  growth  and  durability  are 
wanted  is  wrong;  but  it  is  eligible  wherever  it  is  wished  to 
diminirfi  the  vigour  and  growth  of  the  tree,  and  its  durability  ia 
not  so  important.** 

In  adimn^  the  graft  to  the  soil  the  stock  has  a  marked  influ- 
ence. Thus  m  dry  chalky  soils  where  the  Peach  on  its  own 
roots  will  scarcely  grow,  it  is  found  to  thrive  admirably  bud* 
ded  on  the  Almond.  We  have  already  mentioned  tftat  in  day 
ioils  too  heavy  and  moist  for  the  Peacn,  it  succeeds  very  well 
if  worked  on  the  Plum.  M.  floes,  a  Prussian  gardener,  suc- 
ceeded in  growii^  fine  pears  in  yery  sandy  soils,  where  it  was 
neariy  imposnUe  to  raise  them  before,  by  grafting  them  on  the 
Mountain  Ash,  a  nearly  related  tree,  which  thrives  onthedryest 
and  lightest  soil 

-A  variety  of  fruit  which  is  found  rather  tender  ibr  a  certain 
dimate,  or  a  particular  neighbouriiood,  is  freouently  acclima- 
tised by  grafting  it  on  a  native  stock  of  veiy  hardy  habits.  Thus 
near  the  sea-coast  where  the  finer  plums  thrive  badly,  we  have 
seen  tliera  greatly  improved  by  being  worked  on  the  beech- 
plum,  a  native  stock,  adapted  to  the  spot ;  and  the  foreign  grape 
is  more  luxunant  when  grafted  on  our  native  stocks. 

A  slight  effect  is  sometimes  produced  by  the  stock  on  the 
quality  of  the  fruit     A  few  sorts  of  pear  are  superior  in  fia- 


Tonr,  bat  many  are  also  inferiour,  when  grafted  on  the  Quince, 
while  they  are  more  gritty  on  the  thorn.  The  Green  Gage,  a 
Plum  of  great  delicacy  of  flavour,  varies  considerably  upon  dif- 
ferent stocks;  and  Apples  raised  on  the  crab,  and  pears  on  the 
Mountain  Ash,  are  said  to  keep  longer  than  when  grown  on 
their  own  roots. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing,  a  diseased  stock  should  always 
be  avoided,  as  it  will  communicate  disease  slowly  to  the  graft, 
unless  the  latter  is  a  variety  of  sufficient  v^ur  to  renew  the 
health  of  the  stock,  which  is  but  seldiMn  the  case. 

The  cultivator  will  gather  from  these  remarks  that^  in  a  &r 
vourable  climate  and  soil,  if  we  desire  the  greatest  growth,  du- 
ration, and  development  in  any  fruit,  (and  this  applies  to  or- 
chards generally,)  we  should  choose  a  stock  of  a  closely  similar 
nature  to  the  graft — an  apple  seedling  for  an  apple;  a  pear 
seedling  for  a  pear.  If  we  desire  dwuf  treosy  that  come  into 
bearing  very  young,  and  take  little  space  in  a  garden,  we  em- 
ploy for  a  stock  an  allied  species  of  slower  growth.  If  our  soil 
or  climate  is  un&vourable,  we  use  a  stock,  which  is  adapted  to 
the  soil,  or  which  will,  by  its  hardier  roots,  endure  the  cold. 

The  influence  of  the  frofi  on  the  stock  seems  scarcely  to  ex- 
tend beyond  the  power  of  communicating  disease.  A  gradlt  taken 
from  a  tree  enfeebled  by  disease,  will  recover  with  difficulty, 
even  if  grafted  on  healUiy  stocks  for  a  dozoi  times  in  repeated 
succession.  And  when  the  disease  is  an  inherent  or  hereditary 
one,  it  will  certainly  communicate  it  to  the  stock.  We  have 
seen  the  yellows^  from  a  diseased  peach  tree,  propagated  through 
hundreds  of  individuals  by  budding,  and  Uie  stock  and  graft 
both  perish  together  from  its  effects.  Hence  the  importance,  to 
nurserymen  especially,  of  securing  healthy  grafts,  and  working 
only  upon  healthy  stocks. 

Prapoffation  hy  euttinps. 

Propagating  by  cutdngs,  as  applied  to  fruit  trees,  consists  in 
causing  a  shoot  of  the  previous  season^s  wood  to  grow,  by  detach- 
ing it  from  the  parent  tree  at  a  suitable  season,  and  planting  it 
in  the  ground  under  fevourable  circumstances. 

In  this  case,  instead  of  uniting  itself  by  woody  matter  to  another 
tree,  as  does  the  scion  in  grafting,  the  descending  woody  matter 
becomes  roots  at  the  lower  end,  and  the  cutting  of  which,  is  then  a 
new  and  entire  plant  Every  bod  being  a  distinct  individual,  capa- 
ble of  forming  a  new  plant,  has  indeed  theoretically  the  power,  if 
separated  from  the  parent  stem,  of  throwing  out  roots  and  main- 
taining a  separate  existence ;  and  some  plants,  as  the  grape  vine, 
are  frequently  propagated  by  single  buds  planted  in  the  soil. 
But  in  practice,  it  is  round  necessary,  with  almost  all  tree«  and 
plants^  to  retain  a  considerable  portion  of  the  $tem  with  tlie  bud 

cormroB.  27 

to  supply  it  with  food  nntil  it  has  foirned  roots  to  draw  noarish 
ment  from  the  soil. 

All  fruit  trees  may  be  propagated  by  onttings  with  proper  eai« 
and  attention,  but  only  a  few  grow  with  sufficient  facility 
in  this  way  to  render  thoir  propagation  by  cuttings  a  common 
mode.  These  are  the  Gooseberry,  tlie  Currant,  the  Vino,  the 
Quince,  the  Fig,  and  the  Mulberry. 

Cuttings  of  the  Currant,  Gooseberry,  and  the  hardy  sorts  of 
Vine,  will  root  readily,  in  a  soil  not  too  dry,  in  the  open  garden. 
Currants  and  Gooseberries  are  generally  taken  off  in  the  h\\  or 
winter,  prepared  for  planting,  and  two-thirds  of  their  lower  ends 
buried  in  the  ground  till  the  commencement  of  spring,  when 
they  are  planted  out,  either  where  they  are  to  remain,  or  in  nur- 
sery rows.  If  planted  in  autumn,  they  are  Kable  to 
be  thrown  ont  by  winter  frosts.  They  will  succeed 
nearly  as  well  if  taken  off  in  the  spring,  but,  owing  to 
the  period  at  which  they  commence  growing,  this 
must  be  attended  to  very  eariy^  if  deferred  till  that 

In  order  to  raise  plants  of  the  Gooseberry  an<| 
Currant,  with  straight  clean  stems,  which  shall  not 
throw  up  suckerBi  it  is  only  necessary,  before  plant- 
ing the  cutting,  to  cut  out  every  eye  or  bud  to  be 
j^aeed  below  the  surftice  of  the  ground,  Fig.  14. 
The  cutting  should  be  about  a  foot  long,  eight  inches 
of  which  may  be  inserted  in  the  ground.    To  insure 
sreater  success  in  raising  the  finer  sorts  of  goose- 
berry, or  other  shrabs,  it  is  cnstomaiT  to  plant  the 
cutting  on  the  shaded  side  of  a  wall  or  fence,  in 
deep  nch  loam,  rather  damp  than  dry.    Cuttings  of 
the  vine  are  generally  prepared  when  trimming  the 
Fic.  14      A  ^^  plants  in  autumn,  or  winter ;  they  may  then  be 
g<y»<ryymrf^ buried  with  their  lower  ends  in  the  ground,  or  kept 
oH^ImSSlvi  earth  in  the  cellar  till  spring. 

Scarce  sorts  of  foreign  grapes,  which  it  is  desirable  to  muHipiy 
extensively,  are  fre^cnUy  propi^ted  by  ioints ;  that  Is,  by 
buds  having  about  two  inches  of  wood  attached  to  each— every 
bud  in  this  way  forranng  a  plant  When  this  mode  is  adopted^ 
it  is  usual  to  plant  tlie  joints  about  half  an  inch  deep,  in  li^ht 
soil,  in  a  common  hotbed  prepared  for  the  purpose,  or  each  joint 
is  planted  in  a  pot  by  ittel£  In  the  first  way  a  great  number  of 
„^^j^wj>  -m.  r*^  j>*^  *>  »  *>■  -p*^^  planis  may  h&  grown  in  a  small 
^j^  apace.    Success  is  more  certain 

^^Jk^^^^^^k  ^  F'OfM^ting  the  vine  by  lointSi 

^yggi^2^^^  where  the  joint  is  halved  before 

planting.  Fig.  16. 
A  ^€  joimt,  ^^rtd  and  ptanud.      The  Targe  English  black  mul- 
berry is  propagated  by  cuttings 


as  follows :  about  the  last  of  October,  take  cuttings  from  the 
thrifty  shoots  of  a  bearing  tree,  cut  out  all  the  buds  except  two 
or  three  at  the  top,  and  pare  off  the  bottom  of  the  cutting  just 
below  a  bud.  Laj-in  the  cuttings  in  a  sheltered  border,  bury- 
ing them  so  that  only  the  two  buds  at  the  top  are  exposed,  and 
covering  them  with  some  loose  straw  or  litter.  In  the  spring, 
make  a  small  hot-bed  with  very  sandy  soil  in  which  to  plant 
the  cuttings  on  taking  them  out  of  the  ground,  or  place  each 
one  in  a  small  pot  in  any  hot-bed  ready  at  hand,  and  in  a  few 
weeks  they  will  be  found  to  have  made  roots  freely. 

As  a  general  rule,  cuttings  succeed  best  when  they  are  taken 
off  iust  between  the -young  and  the  previous  yearns  wood;  or, 
in  the  case  of  young  side  uioots,  when  they  are  cut  off  close  to 
the  branch  preserving  the  collar  of  the  shoot  The  lower  end 
should  be  cut  smootbly  across  just  below  a  bud,  the  soil  should 
in  all  cases  be  pressed  firmly  about  the  lower  end  of  the  cutting, 
and  it  should  always  be  planted  before  the  buds  commence 
swelling,  that  the  wound  nuLV  in  some  measure  heal  before 
growth  and  the  absorption  of  fluid  commences. 

Propagation  hy  Layers  and  Stickers, 

A  layer  may  be  considered  as  a  cutting  not  entirely  separated 
from  the  plant 

Layering  is  a  mode  of  propagation  resorted  to  in  increasing 
some  fruit  tree  stocks,  as  the  Paradise  stock,  the  Muscle  Plum, 
and  some  kinds  which  do  not  grow  so  well  from  the  seed. 
Certain  varieties  of  native  ^n^  as  the  Bland^s  Virginia,  which 
do  not  root  readily  by  cuttmgs,  are  also  raised  in  this  way,  and 
it  may  be  ^plied  to  any  sort  of  fruit  tree  which  it  is  desirable 
to  continue  on  its  own  root  without  grafting. 

Fruit  trees  are  generally  layered  in  the  spring,  and  the  layers 
may  be  taken  off  well-rooted  plants  in  the  autumn.  But  they 
TOAj  also  be  layered  with  success  early  in  July. 

in  making  layers  the  ground  around  the  mother  plant  should 
be  made  light  and  mellow  by  digging.  Being  provided  with 
some  hooked  pegs  to  fast- ' 
en  down  the  layers,  bend 
down  a  branch,  so  that 
the  end  may  recline  upon 
the  ground.  Open  a  little  w  wrm 

trench  three  or  four  inches  ^Mm  C 

deep  to  receive  the  young 
wood  to  be  layered ; 
make  a  cut  or  tongue  Fig. 
16  a,  half  way  through  the 
under  side  of  the  shoot, 
pegging  down  the  branch 
with  the  hooked  peg  6,  to  Fig.  16.    Layering. 


keep  it  in  its  place ;  press  the  earth  slightly  roand  the  tongae, 
and,  in  filling  in  the  soil,  raise  nearlj  upright  the  end  of  the 
layer  r,  which  remains  above  the  surfoce  of  the  ground. 

The  descending  sap,  filled  with  organizable  matter,  is  arrested 
by  this  tongue,  accumulates  Uiere,  and  the  emission  of  roots 
speedily  takes  pUice.  Rinmig,  woundiBg,  or  twisting  the  limb, 
answers  the  same  purpose  less  perfectly,  and  indeed  many  treeii 
root  readily  from  the  mere  position  ot  the  branches  aa  layers, 
and  the  moisture  of  the  soiL 

A  tree  or  plant  which  is  k^  for  raising  layers  is  eaUed  a 
gtool^  and  is  headed  down,  both  to  &cilitate  the  rooting  of  the 
layers,  and  to  aflford  an  abundance  ci  shoots  near  the  earth. 
Shoots  of  some  of  the  fruit  tree  stocks  in  the  English  nurseries 
are  pegged  down  to  the  surface  before  mwth  CMomences  in  the 
spring,  covered  about  an  inch  deep  witii  soil,  and  at  the  end  d 
autumn  afford  hundreds  oi  plants ;  almost  ereiy  bud  making  a 
separate  root 

8ueher$  are  shoots  sent  up  from  the  root,  or  from  portions  <rf 
the  stem  below  the  wthiot  of  the  8<m1,  whieh  are  easily  separated 
from  the  parent  plant 

Suckers  of  frait  trees  are  frequently  used  as  stocks  for  bud- 
ding or  grafting  upon,  but  they  are  greatly  inferior  to  seedlings 
for  this  purpose,  aa  they  are  always  more  liable  to  produce 
suckers,  and  they  hare  not  the  thrifty  vifl;orou8  habit,  or  the 
same  power  of  forming  as  good  roots  as  seedling  Besides  this, 
should  the  tree  from  which  they  are  taken  be  diseased,  they  will 
be  likdy  to  cany  the  malady  with  them. 

Propagating  by  suckers  is  an  easy  and  desirable  way  when 
we  wiui  to  continue  a  seedling  fruit  of  value  on  its  own  root,  and 
some  of  our  common  frnits  appear  to  be  more  healthy  and  per- 
manent when  growing  in  that  way.  It  is  also  the  only  mode  in 
use  for  increasing  the  Raspberry ;  as  is  also  that  of  mnnersi 
which  is  a  kind  <n  sucker  above  ground,  for  the  Strawberry. 



1^  Pruning  topnmoU  pra^^  or  fnodify  the  form  o/Jrtdt  treu. 

In  this  country  almost  all  frtdt  trees  are  grown  as  standardi. 
In  this  way  they  develop  their  natural  forms,  attain  the  largest 
size,  and  produce  the  greatest  quantity  of  fruit,  with  the  least 
possible  care.    Our  bright  and  powmiil  sun,  reaching  every 


part  of  the  tree,  renders  tbe  minute  systems  of  pruning  and 
training,  which  occupy  so  large  a  portion  of  the  English  works 
on  this  subject,  of  litUe  or  no  nlomcnt  to  the  cultivator  here. 
Pruning  is,  therefore,  commonly  resorted  to  only  for  the  purpose 
of  increasing  the  vigour  of  feeble  trees,  or  to  regulate  and  im- 
prove the  form  of  healthy  and  luxuriant  trees. 

Pruning  has  the  power  of  increasing  the  vigour  of  a  tree  in 
two  ways.  K  we  assume  that  a  certain  amount  of  nourishment 
is  supplied  by  the  roots  to  all  the  branches  and  buds  of  a  tree, 
by  cutting  off  one  half  of  ^e  branches,  at  the  proper  season,  wc 
direct  the  whole  supply  of  nourishment  to  the  remaining  portion, 
which  will,  consequently,  grow  with  nearly  doable  their  former 
luxuriance.  Agam,  when  a  tree  becomes  stunted  or  enfeebled  in 
itsgrowthfthe  thinness  of  its  inner  bark,  with  its  consequent  small 
sap-vessels,  (which  it  must  be  remembered  are  the  principal  chan- 
nel for  the  passage  of  the  ascending  supply  of  food)  renders  the 
upward  and  downward  circulation  tardy,  and  the  gi-owth  is 
imall.  By  heading  back  or  pruning  judiciously,  all  the  force 
of  the  nourishing  fluid  is  thrown  into  a  smaller  number  of  buds, 
which  make  new  and  luxuriant  shoots,  larger  sap-vessels,  and 
which  afford  a  ready  passage  to  the  fluids,  and  the  tree  with 
these  renewed  energies  will  continue  in  vigour  for  a  long  time. 

This  treatment  is  especially  valuable  in  the  case  of  small 
trees  of  feeble  or  stunted  growth,  which  are  frequently  cut  back 
to  a  single  bud,  and  a  new  shoot  or  shoots,  full  of  vigour,  ^ves  a 
healthy  habit  to  Ube  tree.  In  the  nurseries,  this  practice  of 
heading  down  unthrifty  trees  is  firequently  pursued,  and  small 
orchard  trees  which  have  become  enfeebled  may  be  treated  in 
the  same  manner ;  cutting  back  the  head  as  £ur  as  the  place 
where  it  is  wished  that  new  shoots  should  spring  out  Older 
trees  should  be  headed  back  more  sparingly,  nnless  they  are 
greatly  enfeebled ;  and  their  roota  should  at  the  same  time  be 
assisted  by  manure. 

A  judicious  pruning  to  modify  the  form  of  our  standard  trees 
is  nearly  all  that  is  required  in  ordinary  practice.  Every  fruit 
iree^  grown  in  the  open  orchard  or  garden  as  a  common  standard^ 
should  he  allowed  to  take  its  natural  form^  the  whole  efforts  of 
the  pruner  going  no  further  than  to  take  out  all  weak  and 
crowded  branches;  those  which  are  filling  uselessly  the  in- 
teriour  of  the  tree,  where  their  leaves  cannot  be  duly  exposed  to 
the  li^ht  and  sun,  or  those  which  interfere  with  the  growth 
of  others.  All  praning  of  large  branches  in  healthy  trees 
should  be  avoided  by  examining  tkem  every  season  and  taking 
out  superfluous  shoots  while  smul.  Mr.  Coxe,  the  best  American 
author  on  fruit  trees,  remarks  very  truly  "•  when  orchard  trees 
are  much  pruned,  they  are  apt  to  throw  out  numerous  (super- 
fluous) suckers  from  the  boughs  in  the  following  summer;  these 
should  be  rubbed  off  when  uiey  first  appear,  or  they  may  easily 


be  broken  off  wbile  youDg  and  brittle — cutting  is  apt  to  increase 
their  namber." 

Where  pmning  is  not  required  to  renovate  the  vigour  of  an 
enfeebled  tree,  or  to  regulate  its  shape — in  other  words,  in  the 
case  of  a  healthy  tree  which  we  wisn  to  retain  in  a  state  of  the 
greatest  luxuriance,  health,  and  vigour,  it  may  be  considered 
worse  than  useless.  Bearing  in  mind  that  growth  is  always 
corresponding  to  the  action  of  the  leaves  and  branches,  if  these 
are  in  due  proportion,  %nd  in  perfect  health,  the  knife  will  always 
be  found  rather  detrimental  to  luxuriance  and  constitutional 
vigour  than  beneficial.* 

The  be$i  uoMitk  for pntmng  to  promote  growth^  theoretically,  is 
in  autumn  soon  after  the  fall  of  the  leaf.  Next  to  this,  winter 
pruning,  performed  in  mild  weather,  is  best,  and  in  orchards  this 
is  the  season  usually  most  convenient  In  all  parts  of  the  coun- 
try where  the  winters  are  not  very  severe,  (and  always  in  the 
southern  or  western  states,)  the  roote  toe  collecting  a  certain 
stock  of  nourishment  during  the  whole  autunm  and  winter. 
When  a  tree  is  pruned  in  autunm  or  winter  this  whole  supply 
goes  to  the  remaining  branches,  while  in  the  case  of  spring  pru- 
ning it  is  partly  lost  North  of  the  43^  of  latitude,  however, 
the  winters  are  so  severe  that  winter  pruning  should  be  deferred 
tfll  the  last  of  February. 

We  should  especially  avoid  pmning  at  that  period  in  spring 
when  the  buds  are  swelling,  and  tiie  sap  is  in  fiill  flow,  as  the 
kws  of  sap  by  bleeding  is  very  injurious  to  most  trees,  and,  in 
some,  brings  on  a  serious  and  incurable  oanker  in  the  limbs. 

There  are  advantages  and  disadvantages  attending  all  sea- 
sons of  pruning,  but  our  own  experience  bas  led  us  to  believe 
that,  practically,  a  fortnight  before  mideummer  ie  6y  fair  the 
beet  aooMOii^  on  the  whole^for  pruning  in  the  northern  and  middle 
eiatee.  Wounds  made  at  this  season  heal  over  freely  and  rapid- 
ly;  it  is  the  most  fiivonrablc  time  to  judge  of  the  shape  and 
balance  of  the  head,  and  to  see  at  a  glance  which  branches 
require  removal ;  and  all  the  stock  of  organizable  matter  in  the 
tree  is  directed  to  the  branches  that  remain. 

In  pruning  large  limbs,  some  composition  should  always  be  at 
hand  to  cover  the  wound.  This  will  not  only  prevent  its  crack- 
ing by  the  cold  in  winter  pruning,  but  will  keep  out  the  air,  and 
maintain  the  exposed  wood  in  a  sound  state,  until  it  is  covered 

*  Ignorant  cultivators  frequently  weaken  the  energies  of  young  treeSi 
and  cause  them  to  grow  up  with  lean  and  slender  sterna,  by  ii^judiciously 
trimming  off  the  young  side  shoots  and  leaves,  in  the  growing  season.  By. 
taking  off  these  shoots,  the  stem  is  deprived  of  all  the  leaves  which  would 
■ttraot  and  elaborate  the  sap^  thus  preparing  nourishment  for  the  growth 
of  the  stem;  and  the  trunk  of  the  tree  does  not  increase  in  size  half  so  fiist 
as  when  the  side  brancshes  are  allowed  to  remain  for  a  time,  pruning  them 
away  gradually.  It  is  better,  in  the  case  of  these  young  trees,  to  dop  the 
side  branches  ^hen  of  moderate  length  by  pinching  out  the  termhul  bud. 



with  a  new  layer  of  bark.  Many  compositions  have  been  in 
fa^ion,  abroad,  for  this  purpose,  which,  under  our  summer  sun 
and  wintry  frosts,  are  nearly  worthless,  as  they  generally  crack 
and  &11  off  in  a  single  year.  The  following  is  a  cheap  and 
admirable  application,  which  we  recommend  to  all  cultivators 
of  fruit  trees. 

CompotiHonfor  wounds  made  in  pruning.  Take  a  quart  of 
alcohol  and  dissolve  in  it  as  much  gran  shellac  as  will  make  a 
]i(fmd  of  the  consistence  of  paint  Apply  this  to  the  wound 
with  a  common  painter's  brush;  always  paring  the  wound 
smoothly  first  with  the  knife.  The  liquid  becomes  per^tly  hard, 
adheres  closely,  excludes  the  air  perfectly,  and  is  affected  by  no 
changes  of  weather ;  while  at  the  same  time  its  thinness  cners 
no  resistance  to  the  lip  of  new  bark  that  gradually  closes  over 
the  wound.  If  the  c(»nposition  is  kept  in  a  well  corked  bottle, 
sufficiently  wide  mouthed  to  admit  the  brush,  it  will  always  be 
ready  for  use  and  suited  to  the  want  of  the  moment 

2.  Pruning  to  induce  fruitftdness. 

When  a  young  fruit  tree  is  too  luxuriant,  employing  all  its 
enflawies  in  makii^  vi^rous  shoots,  but  forming  few  or  no  blos- 
som buds,  and  producing  no  fruit,  we  have  it  in  our  power  by 
different  modes  of  prunmg  to  lessen  this  over-luxuriance,  and 
force  it  to  expend  its  ener^es  in  fruit-bearing.  The  most  direct 
and  snccesfifnl  mode  of  domg  this  is  by  promng  the  roots,  a  pro- 
ceeding recently  brought  into  very  successful  practice  by  Euro- 
pean f^irdeners. 

jRoot  pruning  has  the  effect  of  at  once  cutting  off  a  consideii 
able  supply  of  the  nourishment  formerly  afforded  by  the  roots  or^ 
a  tree,  llie  leaves,  losing  part  of  their  usual  food,  are  neither 
able  to  grow  as  rapidly  as  before,  n<»  to  use  all  the  nutritious 
matter  ^ready  in  the  branches ;  the  branches  theref<M«  become 
more  stunted  in  their  growth,  the  oiganizable  matter  accumu- 
lates, and  fruit  buds  are  directly  formed.  The  enei^es  of  the 
tree  are  nd  longer  entirely  carried  off  in  growth,  and  the  return- 
ing si4>  is  employed  in  producing  fruit  buds  for  the  next  year. 

Boot  pruning  should  be  p^ormed  in  autumn  or  winter,  and 
it  usually  consists  in  laymg  bare  the  roots  and  cutting  off 
smoothly  at  a  distance  of  a  few  feet  fix)m  the  trunk,  (in  propor- 
tion to  uie  size  of  the  tree)  the  principal  roots.  Mr.  Rivers,  an 
English  nurseryman  of  celebrity,  who  has  practised  this  mode 
wim  great  success,  digs  a  trench  early  in  i^ovember,  eighteen 
inches  deep,  round  his  trees  to  be  root  pruned,  cutting  off  the 
roots  with  a  sharp  spade.  By  following  this  practice  every 
year,  he  not  only  throws  his  trees  into  early  bearing,  but  forces 
Apples,  Pears,  and  the  like,  grafted  on  their  own  roots,  to  In- 
come prolific  dwarfia,  growing  only  six  feet  apart,  trained  in  a 


conical  fonn,  fbU  of  frnit  branches,  and  producing  abandauUy* 
Those  dwarf  trees,  thns  anniiaJlj  root  pmned,  he  supplies  abnn« 
dantly  viUi  mannre  at  the  end^i  of  the  roots,  thos  keeping  up 
their  health  and  vigoor.  Ihe  plan  is  an  admirable  one  fot 
snuJl  ^ardenS)  or  for  amateurs  who  wish  to  grow  a  great  many 
sorts  m  a  small  sorface.  Mr.  Rivers,  in  a  pamphlet  on  this 
sobject,  ennmerates  the  following  among  the  advantages  of  «y«^ 

^  1.  Hie  facility  of  thinning,  (owing  to  the  small  size  of  the 
trees,)  and,  in  some  varieties,  of  setting  the  blossoms  of  shy- 
bearing  sorts,  and  of  thinning  and  gathering  the  fruit 

^  2.  It  will  make  the  gardener  independent  of  the  natnral  soil 
of  his  garden,  as  a  few  banowsful  of  rich  mould  will  support  a 
tree  for  a  lengthened  period,  thus  placing  bad  soils  nearly  on  a 
level  with  those  the  most  fovourable. 

**  3.  Hie  capability  of  removing  trees  of  fifteen  or  twenty 
yeara^  growth,  with  as  much  fiunlity  as  fbmitare.  To  tenants 
this  will  indeed  be  a  boon,  for  perhaps  one  of  the  greatest  an- 
noyances a  tenant  is  subject  to,  is  that  of  being  obliged  to  leave 
behind  him  trees  that  he  has  nnrtnred  with  the  utmost  care.^ 

In  conclusion,  Mr.  Rivers  recommends  cauiiom  ;  ^  enough  of 
Tigonr  must  be  left  in  the  tree  to  support  its  crop  of  fruit,  and 
one,  two,  or  three  seasons'  cessation  from  root  pruning,  will  often 
be  found  necessary." 

Root  pruning  in  this  country  will,  we  think,  be  most  valuable 
in  its  application  to  common  standard  trees,  which  are  thrifty, 
but  bear  little  or  no  fruit.  Ther  will  fi;enera]ly  be  found  to  re- 
quire but  a  single  pruning  to  bring  them  into  a  permanently 
miitfol  condition ;  and  some  sorts  of  Pears  and  rlums,  which 
do  not  usually  give  a  fair  crop  till  they  are  twelve  or  fourteen 
years  old,  may  be  brou^t  into  fniit  by  this  means  as  soon  as 
they  are  of  proper  size.  Several  nearly  ftdl  grown  peach,  pear, 
and  plum  trees,  on  a  very  rich  soil  on  the  Hudson,  which  were 
over-luxuriant  but  bore  no  fruit,  were  root  pruned  by  our  advice 
two  years  ago,  and  yielded  most  excellent  and  abundant  crops 
last  season. 

In  the  case  of  Apple  orchards,  where  the  permanent  value 
depends  on  the  size,  Umgevity^  and  continued  productiveness  of 
the  trees,  it  is  better  to  wait  patiently  and  not  resort  to  pruning 
to  bring  them  into  bearing ;  as  it  cannot  be  denied  that  au 
excessive  pruning  shortens  somewhat  the  life  of  a  tree.  Mr. 
Coxe,  indeed,  recommended  that  the  first  fruit  should  never  be 
allowed  to  ripen  on  a  young  apple  orchard,  as  it  lessens  very 
materially  the  vigour  of  the  trees. 

8kortemnff4n  the  shoots  of  Peaches,  Nectarines,  and  Apricots, 
as  we  shall  hereafter  point  out^  has  a  strong  tendency  to  increase 
the  fruitfolness  of  these  trees^  since  by  reducing  the  younff  wood, 
the  mp  accumulates  in  the  remainder  of  the  branch,  and  many 



bearing  Bbooto  are  prodaccd  instead  of  one.  And  the  English 
practice  of  spurring-in^  which  consists  in  annually  shortening 
the  lateral  shoots  of  trained  Pears,  Apples»  and  the  like,  in  order 
to  make  them  throw  oat  short  fmit  branches,  or  spurs^  is  founded 
on  the  same  principle. 

Bending  down  the  limbs  is  an  caay  and  simple  means  of  throw- 
ing such  branches  directly  into  fruit.  By  this  means  the  circu- 
lation is  retarded,  rapid  growth  ceases,  organizable  matter  accu- 
mulates, and  fruitrbuds,  as  before  stated,  surely  ft)llow.  The 
limbs  are  bent,  while  flexible,  in  June  or  July,  and  tied  down 
below  a  horizontal  line  until  they  retain  of  themselves  their  new 
position.  When  this  can  be  easily  apjplied,  it  is  a  never-fiiiling 
mode  of  rendering  such  branches  fruitful.  It  is  stated  in  Lou- 
don's Gardener's  Magazine  that  "a  very  laam  crop  of  Pears  was 
obtained  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Fisher,  in  Buckinghamshire,  from  trees 
which  had  not  borne  at  all,  by  twisting  and  breaking  down  the 
)  oung  shoots,  late  in  the  autumn,  when  the  wood  had  become 
tough;  and  the  pendent  branches  afterwards  continued  per- 
fetly  healthy." 

hisbarking  and  Hinging  are  two  modes  tbat  have  been  reoom- 
mtnded  by  some  authors,  but  of  which,  except  as  curious  expe- 
riments, we  entirely  disapprove.  Disbarking,  that  is,  removing 
thu  outer  bark  of  the  trunk  in  FelHruaiy,  May,  or  March,  ii  and 
may  be  practised  with  good  results  on  trees  in  very  sheltered  posi- 
tions, and  under  glass,  but  must  always  be  a  somewhat  danger- 
ous practice  in  open  orchards^  and  m  a  variable  climate  Tike 
oars ;  while  its  good  effects  may  in  a  great  measure  be  attained 
by  keeping  the  bark  in  a  healthy  state  by  a  wash  of  soft  soap. 
Ainging^  which  is  nothing  more  than  stopping  the  descendinff  sap 
in  a  branch,  and  forcing  it  to  organize  blossom  buds,  by  tiudng 
off  a  rinff  of  bark,  say  a  fourth  or  half  an  inch,  near  midsummer, 
is  a  mode  always  more  or  less  injurious  to  the  health  of  the 
branch,  and  if  carried  to  any  extent,  finally  destroys  the  tree. 
It  is  gradually  falling  into  disuse,  since  root  pruning,  and  other 
and  better  mo<le8,  are  becoming  known.  A  ligature  or  bandage 
tightly  applied  to  the  limb,  willhave  temporarily  the  same  effect 
as  ringing,  without  so  much  injury  to  the  branch. 

Inducing /ruitfuine99  hg  other  means. 

The  influence  of  certain  soils  on  the  productiveness  of  fruit 
trees  is  a  subject  of  every  day  observation,  but  the  particular 
ingredients  of  the  soil,  which  insure  this  abundant  bearing  is  not 
so  well  known.  Limestone  soils  are  almost  invariably  produce 
tive  of  all  sorts  of  fruit ;  and  certain  strong  loams  in  this  coun- 
try seem  to  be  equally  well  adapted  to  this  end. 

In  a  curious  work  called  the  '^  Rejuvenescence  of  Piants,''etc. 
by  Dr.  Schultz,  of  Berlin,  the  author,  who  has  devoted  conside^ 


able  time  to  the  snljcct,  states  that  common  salt  and  chloride  of 
lime  contribute  greatly  to  the  flowering  of  most  plants,  to  which, 
however,  they  can  only  be  applied,  with  safety,  in  small  quanti- 
ties. ** Salts  of  lime,  he  continues,  ^appear  to  produce  so 
nearly  the  same  effect  as  those  of  potash  and  soda,  that  it  is  only 
necessary  to  place  lime  within  their  reach,  if  there  is  no  defici- 
ency of  manure  in  the  shape  of  general  food.  Lime  will  in  the 
main  promote,  in  an  astonishing  degree,  the  fruit  and  flowering 
of  most  plants,  because  calcareous  salts  promote  evaporation 
and  the  concentration  of  sap." 

Although  we  cannot  coincide  with  many  of  Dr.  Schults's 
views  as  expressed  in  this  work,  yet  the  remarks  just  quoted 
agree  so  entirely  with  £icts  that  have  come  under  our  own  ob- 
aervation,  that  we  gladly  place  them  before  the  cultivator  of  fhiit 
trees.  One  of  the  most  productive  fruit  gardens  in  our  know- 
ledge is  cm  a  limestone  soil,  and  another  more  than  usually  pro- 
lific, in  a  neighbourhood  not  very  fruitful,  is  every  year  treated 
with  a  top  dressing  of  coarse  salt,  at  the  rate  of  two  bushels  to  the 
acre. '  These  facts  are  surely  worth  the  attention  of  growers,  and 
ahould  be  the  subject  of  more  extended  and  careful  experiments. 

Rendering  trees  more  fruitful  by  dwarfing^  and  by  adapting 
them  to  soUs  natnrally  unfruitful  by  growing  them  upon  other 
and  better  stocks,  we  have  already  placed  before  the  reader 
under  the  head  of  OrafHng. 



TaAnmro  fruit  trees  is,  thanks  to  our  &vourable  climate,  a 
proceeding  entirely  unnecessary  in  the  greater  part  of  the  United 
States.  Our  fine  dry  summers,  with  the  great  abundance  of 
strong  light  and  sun,  are  sufficient  to  ripen  fully  the  fruits  of 
temperate  climates,  so  that  the  whole  art  of  training,  at  once  the 
trial  and  triumph  of  skill  with  En^ish  fruit  gardeners,  is  quite 
dispensed  with :  and  in  the  place  of  long  lines  of  brick  wall 
and  espalier  rails,  surrounding  and  dividing  the  fruit  garden, 
all  covered  with  carefully  trained  trees,  we  are  proud  to  show 
the  open  orchard,  and  the  borders  in  the  fruit  garden  filled 
with  tarifty  and  productive  standards.  Nothing  surprises  a  Bri- 
tish gardener  more,  knowing  the  cold  of  our  winter,  than  the 
first  sight  of  peaches,  and  ouer  fine  fruits,  arriving  at  full  per- 
fection in  the  middle  states,  with  so  little  care ;  and  he  sees  at 
once  that  three  fourths  of  the  great  expense  of  a  fruit  garden 
here  is  rendered  entirely  needless. 

Training  fruit  trees,  m  ibis  country,  is  therefore  confined  to 

so  TRAiNiira. 

the  colder  districts  north  of  the  43^  of  latitude,  and  to  the  ga^ 
dens  of  amateurs.  There  can,  however,  scarcely  be  a  more 
beautiful  display  of  the  art  of  the  horticulturist,  than  a  fine  row 
of  trained  trees,  their  branches  arranged  with  the  utmost  S3rm 
metry  and  r^^rity,  and  covered,  m  the  fruit  season,  with 
large  and  rich^  coloured  fruit. 

North  of  the  43°  latitude,  (or  north  of  the  Mohawk,)  the  peach 
does  not  ripen  well,  and  this,  as  well  as  some  other  rather  tender 
trees,  will,  in  such  situations,  generally  yield  abundant  crops 
when  trained  on  a  common  upright  trellis,  or  espalier  rail,  seven 
or  eiffht  feet  high.*  Still  &rther  north,  as  in  Maine,  or  Canada, 
a  wafi  must  be  resorted  to :  bat  our  own  observation  leads  us  to 
believe  tiiat^  generally,  the  espalier  rail  will  be  found  not  only 
cheaper,  and  more  easily  managed  in  training,  but  really  pr^ 
ferable  to  a  wall,  as  full  eoqposure  to  light  is  sufficient  without 
much  additional  heaL  With  r^ard  to  walls  themsdves,  in  the 
middle  portions  of  the  Union,  a  southern  aspect  is  almost  always 
the  worst,  being  too  hot  in  midsummer ;  a  wa^  runnii^  north 
and  south,  and  affording  east  and  w«st  aspects,  is  much  uie  best 
The  western  aspect  is  indeed  preferable  for  all  tender  fruits,  as 
the  blossoms  are  not  there  liable  to  injury  from  early  firosts.  A 
north  wall  is  useful  for  producing  a  later  crop. 

The  objects  of  training  are,  by  a  more  complete  exposure  of 
the  leaves  and  branches  to  the  light  and  sun,  to  ripen  fruits  in 
a  naturally  un&vourable  climate ;  to  render  them  more  fruit- 
ill], — ^lessening  vigour  and  excessive  growth  by  the  lateral  or 
horizontal  arrangement  of  the  branches ;  and  lastly  economy  of 
space,  as  trees  when  trained  on  a  flat  surface  occupy  much  less 
space  in  the  fruit  garden  than  standards,  and  leave  the  borders 
more  open  for  cropping  with  vegetables. 

Training  conical  standards.  A  very  easy  and  simple  mode  of 
training  fruit  trees,  which  has  lately  come  into  great  &vour  with 
amateurs,  is  the  conical  standard,  or  QuenouUU^  (pronounced  he- 
nool)  of  the  French.  It  is  applied  chiefly  to  pears,  which,  when 
treated  in  this  way,  may  be  planted  about  eight  feet  apart,  and 
thus  a  great  variety  of  sorts  may  be  ^wn  in  a  small  gutlen. 
The  best  example  of  this  kind  of  training  in  this  country,  at 
present,  is  in  the  garden  of  Mr.  Johnson  of  Lynn,  Mass.  A 
great  number  of  the  specimen  trees  in  the  London  Horticultural 
Society's  garden  are  trained  in  this  manner ;  and  Loudon  re- 
marks, that  in  1840  the  Royal  Kitchen  garden  of  Yenailles 
contained  two  hundred  trees  trained  in  the  conical  manner,  with 
the  current  year's  shoots  tied  down  en  quenouille.    "•  They  had 

*  CecUur  or  locust  posts,  set  four  or  eight  feet  apart,  with  horizontal  bars 
let  in,  and  crossed  by  light  perpendicular  straps  of  pine  from  six  to  twelve 
inches  ^mH,  will  form  an  excellent  and  durable  trellis  for  espaliers.  See  Fig. 
SI.  Indeed  many  gardeners  here  prefer  having  a  light  trklis  a  few  inches 
from  the  wall,  upon  which  to  train,  instead  of  nailing  directly  on  the  wall 



attained  the  height  of  from  six  to  twelve  feet  before  the  branches 

were  bent  down ;  bat  the  effect  of  this  was  to  cover  the  shoots 

with  blosBom  bads,  and  to  produce  the  most  extraordinary  crops.'' 

To  produce  Qoenomlle 
standards,  plant  a  young 
tree,  three  or  four  feet 
high,  and,  after  the  first 
sanuner's  growth,  head 
back  the  t<^  and  cnt-in 
the^e  branches,  as  re- 
presented hr  the  dotted 
lines,  on  a,  ^.16.  The 
next  season  the  tree  will 
shoot  oat  three  or  foar 
tiers  of  side  branches,  ac- 
cording to  its  strength. 
The  lowest  should  be 
left  aboat  eighteen  inches 
from  the  ground,  and,  by 
pinching  off  soperfluoos 
^^^  shoots,  others  may  be 

iriiMiiiiijtotfM.  made  to  grow  pretty  re- 

ffularly,  so  as  not  to  crowd  the  head.    At  the  end  of  this  season 

head   back   the   leader  as  in   6,  to 

strei^then  the  side  shoots.      Next 

season  a  fresh  series  of  lateral  shoots 

will    be  prodnced,  four  or  five  of 

which  may  be  kept  every  year ;  and 

the  third  or  fourth  year,  the  lower 

branches  may  be  bent  down  in  mid- 
summer, Cy  and  kept  in  a  pendulous 

position  for  a  year  or  two,  by  tying 

them  to  stakes  driven  in  the  ground, 

or  t9  the  main  stem.  This  success- 
ive growth  at  the  top,  and  arrange- 

mest  of  the  limbs  below,  must  be 

eontinued  till  the  requisite  height — 

say  ten  feet — ^is  attained,  when  m  the 

branches  assuming  their  final  fonn, 

the  toee  will  resemble  Fig.  17.      A 

moderate  pruning  to   produce  new 

wood,  and  the  occasional  tying  in  of 

a  rambling  shoot,  will  be  all  that  is  _ 

required.      The    French    qaenouille  j^^,  ^7,   omicai  or  oumumUie 

training    is    performed    with   dwarf  iraininff,  eamfLu. 

stocks,  but  the  trees  are  more  thrifty  and  durable  when  grafted 

on  their  own  stocks,  and  kept  within  proper  bounds  by  root  pru- 

niDg,  aft^er  Mr.  Rivers's  method,  explained  in  a  previous  page. 


The  two  be4t  modes  of  trainiDg  ibr  this  country,  on  walls  oi 
espaliers,  are  fan-training,  and  horizontal  training.  The  first 
is  the  simplest  and  easiest  mode  of  training  the  Pei^  the  Apri- 
cot, Nectarine,  and  Cherry ;  and  the  latter  is  best  sidapted  to 
the  Pear.  In  training  to  a  wall,  the  branches  are  fastened  in 
their  places  by  shreds  of  leather  and  nails ;  and,  as  espaliers, 
by  tying  them  with  slips  of  base-matting  to  the  rails  of  the  trellis. 
llie  following  account  of  these  two  m^es  of  training  is  so  con- 
deely  abridged  from  the  practice  of  the  best  EngliSi  gardens, 
in  the  Suburban  Horticulturist,  that  we  cannot  do  better  than 
to  place  it  before  the  reader. 

Jf*an'4raining  in  the  common  English  manner,  A  maiden  plant 
(a  tree  but  one  year  from  the  graft,)  being  planted  "  is  to  be 
headed  down  to  four  buds  or  eyes, 
placed  in  such  a  manner  as  to  throw 
out  two  shoots  on  each  side,  as  shown 
in  Fig.  18.  The  £ollowii^  season  the 
F%.i&  ran  »-(iininjr,;Tnr  two  uppermost  shoots  are  to  be  headed 
4te^  *  down  to  three  eyes,  placed  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  throw  out  one  leading  shoot,  and  one  shoot  on  each 
side ;  the  two  lowermost  shooto  are  to  be  headed  down  to  two 
eyes,  so  as  to  throw  out  one  lead- 
ing shoot,  and  one  shoot  on  the 
uppermost  side  as  shown  in  Fig. 
19.  We  have  now  five  leading 
shoots  on  each  side,  well  placed, 
to  form  our  future  tree.  Each 
of  these  shoots  must  be  placed  in 
the  exioct  position  in  which  it  is 
to  remain;  and  as  it  is  these  Fif.  la  wam hakiimgymetmdmagt, 
shoots  which  are  to  form  the  future  tree,  none  of  them  are  to  be 
shortened.  The  tree  should  by  no  means  be  suffered  to  bear 
any  fhiit  this  year.  Each  shoot  must  now  be  allowed  to  pro- 
duce, besides  the  leading  shoot  at  its  extremity,  two  other  shoots 
on  the  uppermost  side,  one  near  to  the  bottom  and  one  about 

midway  up  the  stem ; 
there  must  also  be  one 
shoot  on  the  under- 
most side,  placed 
about  midway  be- 
tween the  other  two. 
All  the  other  shoots 
must  be  pinched  off 
^_^^^        ^  ^"  ^^^^^  miant  state. 

Pig.  M.  >an4ra^iM^r<iur(f  4«H7«i  The  tree  will  then, 

assume,  at  the  end  of  the  third  year,  the  appearance  shown  in  Fig.20. 
From  this  time  it  may  be  allowed  to  bear  what  crop  of  fruit  the  gar- 
dener thinks  it  able  to  carry ;  in  determining  which,  he  ought 



never  to  overrate  the  vigour  of  the  tree.  All  of  thcflo  shooti 
except  the  leading  onea,  must  at  the  proper  seaflon  he  shortened, 
bat  to  what  lengUi  mast  be  left  entirely  to  the  judgment  of  the 
gardener,  it  of  course  depending  upon  the  vigour  of  the  tree. 
Li  shortening  the  shoot,  care  should  be  taken  to  cut  back  to  a 
wood  bud  tmit  will  produce  a  shoot  for  the  following  jear.  Cat 
close  to  the  bod,  so  that  the  wound  may  heal  the  following  sea* 
son.  The  following  year  each  shoot  at  the  extrenutieB  5  the 
leading  branches  should  produce,  besides  the  leading  shoot,  one 
on  the  upper  and  two  on  the  under  part,  more  or  less,  according 
to  the  vigour  of  the  tree ;  whilst  each  of  the  secondary  branches 
should  produce  bendes  the  leading  shoot,  one  other  placed  near 
to  Uie  bottom ;  for  the  grand  art  of  pranin^,  in  all  systema  to 
which  this  class  of  trees  is  sahjected,  consists  in  preserving  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  young  wood  at  the  bottom  of  the  tree ;  and 
on  no  account  must  the  mirdener  cut  away  clean  any  shoots  so 
placed,  without  well  considering  if  they  will  be  wanted,  not  only 
K>r  the  present  but  for  the  future  good  appearance  of  the  tree. 
The  quantity  of  young  wood  annually  laia  in  must  depend  upon 

FI|^  tL    Fati  ttainimg  ommpitia, 

the  vigour  of  the  tree.  It  would  be  ridiculous  to  lay  the  same 
quantity  into  a  weakly  tree  as  into  a  tree  in  full  vigour.  The 
gardener  here  must  use  his  own  judgment  But  if  any  of  the 
leading  shoots  manifest  a  disposition  to  outstrip  the  others,  a 
portion  of  young  shoots  must  be  laid  in,  and  a  greater  quantity 
of  fruit  suffered  to  ripen  on  the  over-vigorous  branch.  At  the 
same  time  a  smaller  quantity  of  fruit  than  usual  must  be  left 
to  ripen  on  the  weaker  branch.  This  will  tend  to  restore  the 
equih'brimn  better  than  any  other  method.  Fig.  21,  presents  us 
with  the  figure  of  a  tree  in  a  more  advanced  state  well  balanced, 
and  well  caleolated  for  an  eaual  distribution  of  the  sap  all  over 
its  surface.  [We  have  varied  this  figure  by  representing  it  train- 
ed on  a  trellis,  instead  of  a  wall.]  Whenever  any  of  the  lowei 
shoots  have  advanced  so  far  as  to  incommode  the  others,  they 



should  be  cut  back  to  a  yearling  shoot ;  this  will  dve  them 
room,  and  keep  the  lower  part  of  the  tree  in  order.  In  nailing 
to  a  wall,  care  must  be  taken  not  to  bruise  any  part  of  the 
shoot ;  the  wounds  made  hy  the  knife  heal  quickly,  but  a  bruise 
often  proves  incurable.  Never  let  a  nail  sail  any  part  of  the 
tree ;  it  will  endanger  the  life  of  the  branch.  In  nailing-in  the 
yoonff  shoots,  dispose  them  as  strai^t  and  regular  as  possible ; 
it  wul  look  workman-like.  Whatever  system  of  training  is 
pursued,  the  leading  branches  should  be  laid-in  in  the  exact 
position  they  are  to  remain ;  for  wherever  a  large  branch  is 
Drought  down  to  fill  the  lower  part  of  the  wall,  the  free  ascent 
of  the  sap  is  obstructed  by  the  extension  of  the  upper,  and  con- 
traction of  the  lower  parts  of  the  branch.  It  is  thus  robbed  of 
part  of  its  former  vigour,  while  it  seldom  &ils  to  throw  out,  imme- 
diately behind  the  parts  most  bent,  one  or  more  vigorous  shoots.** 

Horizontal  training  consists  in  preserving  an  upright  leader, 
with  lateral  shoots  trained  at  re^lar  intervals.  These  intervals 
may  be  from  a  foot  to  eighteen  mches  for  pears  and  apples,  and 
about  nine  inches  for  cherries  and  plums.  **  A  maiden  plant 
with  three  shoots  having  been  procured,  the 
two  side  shoots  are  laid  in  horizontally,  and 
the  centre  one  upright,  as  in  Fig.  22  ;  all  the 
buds  being  rubbed  off  the  latter  but  three, . 
viz.,  one  next  the  top  for  a  vertical  leader, 
and  one  on  each  side  near  the  top,  for  hori-  rnHmmM 

zontal  branches.  In  the  course  of  the  first  VSiSligJkHhia^ 
summer  after  planting,  the  shoots  may  be  allowed  to  grow  with- 
out being  stopped.  In  the  autumn  or  the  first  year  the  two  lat- 
erals produced  are  nailed  or  tied  in, 
and  also  the  shoots  produced  from 
the  extremities  of  the  lower  laterals ; 
the  centre  shoot  being  headed  down 
as  belbre,  as  shown  in  Fig.  23.  But 
in  the  second  summer,  when  the 
EoHtMPKua  traiminff^  ^  main  shoot  has  attained  the  length  ot 
<»nd  tioffe.  '  ten  or  twelve  inches,  it  may  be  stop- 
ped ;  which  if  the 
plant  is  in  proper 
vigour,  will  cause  it 
to  throw  out  two  ho- 
rizontal branches, 
in  addition  to  those 
which  were  thrown 
out  from  those  of 
the  preceding  year. 
The  tree  will  now 
be  in  its  second 
summer,    and    will         yj^.  ^4    ii&H«wtoi<«HWiv.«««?tfav* 


have  four  hoiuontal  branclies  on  each  side  of  the  upright  stem 
as  in  Fig.  24 ;  and  hy  peneyerine  in  this  system  four  horizontal 
hranches  will  he  prodnced  in  each  year  till  the  tree  reaches  the 
top  of  the  wall  ^or  espaUer,)  when  the  upright  stem  must  termi- 
nato  in  two  hoiuooial  hranches.    In  the  following  autumn  the 

tree  will  haye  the  appearance  of  fig.  25." — Suburban  SbrHeul- 
iuriHj  pp.  868 :  872. 

Training  frait  trees  is  nowhere  in  tbo  United  States  practised 
to  modi  extent  except  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Boston ;  and 
some  of  the  best  specimens  of  the  foregoing  methods  in  that 
neMibourhood  are  m  the  sardens  of  J.  P.  Uushing^  Esq.,  CoL 
PertinS)  and  S.  O.  Perkins,  Esq. 



As  neailj  all  fruit  trees  are  raised  first  in  nurseries^  and  then 
remoyed  to  their  final  position  in  the  orchard  or  fruit  garden ;  m 
upon  the  manner  of  this  remoyal  depends  not  only  their  slow  or 
rapid  growth,  their  feebleness  or  yigour  afterwards,  and  in  many 
cases  eyen  tbeir  life,  it  is  eyident  that  it  is  in  the  highest  degree 
important  to  understand  and  practise  well  this  irantplaniing. 

The  teason  best  adapted  for  transplanting  fruit  trees  is  a  mat- 
tor  open  to  much  difference  of  opinion  among  horticulturists ;  a 
difference  founded  mainly  on  experience,  but  without  taking 
into  account  yariation  of  climate  and  soils,  two  yery  importaux 
circumstances  in  all  operations  of  this  kind. 

All  physiologists,  however,  agree  that  the  best  season  for 
transplanting  deciduous  trees  is  in  autumn,  directly  after  the 


^11  of  the  1(  bL  The  tree  is  then  in  a  completely  donuant  state. 
Transplanted  at  this  early  season,  whatever  wounds  may  have 
been  made  in  the  roots  commence  healing  at  once,  as  a  deposit  di< 
rectly  takes  place  of  granolous  mattw  from  the  wound,  and  when 
the  spring  arrives  the  tree  is  already  somewhat  ertablishedf  and 
ready  to  commence  its  growth.  Autumn  planting  is  for  this 
reason  greatly  to  be  preferred  in  all  mild  climates,  and  dry  soils; 
and  even  for  very  hardy  trees,  as  the  apple,  in  colder  latitudes; 
as  the  fixed  position  in  the  ground,  which  trees  planted  then  get 
by  the  autumnal  and  eariy  spring  rains,  gives  them  an  advan- 
tage, at  the  next  season  of  growth,  over  newly  moved  trees. 

On  the  other  hand,  in  northern  portions  of  the  Union,  where 
the  winters  oomra«noe  early,  and  are  severe,  spring  planting  is 
greatly  preferred.  There,  autumn  and  winter  are  not  mild 
enough  to  allow  this  gndoal  process  of  healing  and  establishing 
the  roots  to  go  on ;  for  when  tae  ground  is  frozen  to  the  depth  of 
the  roots  of  a  tree,  all  that  slowjorrowth  and  connection  of  nutri- 
ment by  the  roots  is  necessanrjr  at  an  end.  And  th*e  more 
tender  sorts  of  fruit  trees,  the  Peach  and  Apricot,  which  are  less 
hardy  when  newly  planted  than  when  their  roots  are  entire,  and 
well  fixed  in  the  soil,  are  liable  to  injury  in  their  branches  by 
the  cold.  The  proper  time,  in  such  a  climate,  is  as  eariy  as  the 
ground  is  in  a  fit  condition  in  the  spring. 

/"  Early  in  autumn,  and  in  spring  before  the  buds  expand,  may 
as  a  general  rule  be  considered  Uie  best  seasons  for  transplant- 
ing. It  is  true  that  there  are  instances  of  excellent  success  in 
planting  at  all  seasons,  except  midsummer ;  and  there  are  many 
who,  fi^m  having  been  once  or  twice  successful  in  transplanting 
when  trees  were  nearly  in  leaf,  avow  that  to  be  the  best  season ; 
not  taking  into  account,  that  their  success  was  probably  entirely 
owing  to  a  fortunately  damp  state  of  the  atmosphere  at  the  time, 
and  abundant  rains  after  the  en>eriment  was  performed.  In  the 
middle  states,  we  are  frequently  liable  to  a  dry  period  in  early 
summer,  directly  following  the  season  of  removal,  and  if  trans- 
planting is  deferred  to  a  late  period  in  spring,  many  of  the  trees 
will  perish  from  drought,  before  their  roots  become  established 
in  the  soil.  Spring  planting  should,  therefore,  always  be  per- 
formed as  soon  as  possible,  that  the  roots  may  have  the  great 
benefit  of  the  early  and  abundant  rains  of  that  season,  and  get 
well  started  before  the  heat  of  sunmier  conomences.  For  the 
neighbourhood  of  New-York,  therefore,  the  best  periods  are,  from 
the  &11  of  the  leaf,  to  the  middle  of  November,  in  autumn,  and 
from  the  close  of  winter,  to  the  middle  of  April,  in  the  spring ; 
though  commonly,  the  seasons  of  removal  are  frequently  extended 
a  month  beyond  these  limits. 

^  Taking  up  the  trees  is  an  important  part  of  the  c^peration.  A 
transplanter  should  never  forget  that  it  is  by  the  delicate  and 
tender  points  or  extremities  of  the  root  that  trees  take  up  their 


food ;  and  that  the  chance  of  complete  suoceas  is  leasened,  by 
eveiy  one  of  theae  points  that  is  bruised  or  destroyed.  If  we 
could  remove  trees  with  erery  fibre  entire,  as  we  do  a  plant  *n 
»  po%  they  would  scarcely  show  any  sign  of  their  change  of  poai* 
tion.  In  most  easesi  eq>eciaUy  m  that  of  trees  tiucen  from 
nurseries,  this  is,  by  the  operation  of  removal,  nearly  impoa> 
sible.  But  although  we  may  not  hope  to  get  every  root  entircp 
we  may,  with  proper  care,  preserve  by  hr  the  larger  portion  of 
them,  and  more  particularly  the  small  and  delicate  fibres^  After 
being  taken  up,  ikej  should  be  planted  directly ;  or,  if  this  can- 
not be  done,  they  should  be  kept  from  drying  by  a  covering  of 
mats,  and  when  sent  to  a  distance  by  being  packed  in  damp  moss.* 

Preparing  the  places.  Here  is  the  &tal  stomblinff  block  of 
all  novices  and  ignorant  persons  in  transplanting.  An  English 
gardener,  when  he  is  tbhcmt  to  plant  fruit  trees^  talks  about  pre" 
paring  hit  border^  an  American  says  he  will  dig  hit  hoU$;  and 
we  eannot  give  a  more  forcible  illustration  of  the  ideas  of  two 
petBons  as  to  the  wants  of  a  fruit  tree,  or  a  better  notion  of  the 
comparative  provision  made  to  supply  these  wants,  than  by  con- 
trasting the  two  phrases  themselves.  The  one  looks  upon  a  tree 
as  a  living  being,  whose  life  is  to  be  rendered  long,  vigorous,  and 
frnitfnl  by  a  good  supply  of  food,  and  a  soil  meUow  and  easily 
penetrated  by  the  smallest  fibre;  the  other  considers  it  very 
much  in  the  light  of  a  truncheon  or  a  post,  which  he  thrusts 
into  the  smallest  possible  hole,  and  supplies  with  the  least  portion 
of  manure,  trusting  to  what  he  seems  to  believe  the  ineztingnish* 
able  powtts  of  nature  to  make  roots  and  branches  under  any 
circumstances.  It  is  true  that  the  terms  differ  somewhat  from 
the  nature  of  the  culture  and  the  greater  preparation  necessary 
in  planting  fruit  trees  in  England,  bnt  this  is  not  by  any  means 
sufficient  to  justify  the  different  modes  of  performing  the  same 
operation  there  and  here. 

In  truth,  in  this  country,  where  the  sun  and  dimato  are  so 
fiivorable,  where  pruning  and  training  are  comparatively  so 
little  necessary,  the  ^;reat  requisite  to  success  in  the  ordinary 
cnltore  of  fruit  trees  is  the  ,pfvper  preparaiion  of  the  eoil  before 
n  tree  is  pUnted.  Whether  a  transplanted  tree  shall  stru^le 
several  years  to  recover,  or  grow  moderately  after  a  short  tmie, 
or  at  once  start  into  a  very  luxuriant  and  vigorous  growth,  de- 
pends entirely  upon  the  amount  of  care  and  labour  the  planter  is 
willing  to  bestow  on  the  soil  for  his  trees.  We  have  seen  seve- 
ral instances  where,  side  by  side,  one  man  planted  his  trees  in 
laige  spaces  of  deeply  moved  and  rich  soil,  and  another  in 

*  We  should  notice  an  important  exception  to  this  in  the  osse  of  trees 
packed  for  slapping  acroes  the  Atlantic.  In  this  case  they  should  be 
packed  onlj  in  dry  idosb  ;  the  moisture  of  the  sea  air  being  sufficient  to 
keep  the  roots  in  good  condition,  while  If  packed  in  damp  moss  they  will 
be  injured  by  rotting  or  excessive  growth. 


nnall  holee  in  the  cc  mmon  mode,  which  unifonnly  showed  the  trcei 
of  the  first,  larger  after  five  years,  than  those  of  the  last  after  twelve. 

No  fruit  tree  shoald  be  planted  in  a  hole  of  less  size  than 
three  feet  square,  and  eighteen  inches  to  two  fi3et  deep.  To  this 
sise  and  depth  the  soil  would  be  removed  and  well  pulverized, 
and  it  should  if  necessary  be  property  enriched  by  the  applica- 
tion of  manure,  which  must  be  thoroughly  mixed  with  the  whole 
mass  of  prepared  soil  by  repeated  turnings  with  the  spade. 
This  preparation  will  answer,  btit  Uie  most  skilfiil  cultivatora 
among  us  make  their  spaces  four  or  five  feet  in  diameter,  or 
three  times  the  size  of  the  roots,  and  it  is  incredible  how  much 
the  luxuriance  and  vigour  of  growth,  even  in  a  poor  soil,  is  pro- 
moted by  this.  No  ^ter  mending  of  the  soil,  or  top  dressings 
applied  to  the  sur&ce,  can,  in  a  climate  of  dry  summers  like  ours, 
equal  the  effects  of  this  early  and  deep  loosening  and  enriching 
the  soil.  Its  effects  on  the  growth  and  health  of  the  tree  are 
permanent,  and  the  little  expense  and  care  necessary  in  this 
preparation  is  a  source  of  early  and  constant  pleasure  to  the 
planter.  This  preparation  may  be  made  just  before  the  tree  is 
planted,  but  in  heavy  soils  it  is  much  better  to  do  it  several 
months  previously ;  and  no  shallow  ploughing  of  the  soil  can 
obviate  the  necessity-  and  advantages  of  the  practice,  where 
healthy,  vigorous  orchards  or  fruit  gardens  are  desired. 

The  whole  art  of  transplanting,  after  tliis,  consists  in  placing 
the  roots  as  they  were  before,  or  in  the  most  favourable  position 
for  growth.  Begin  by  filling  the  hole  with  prepared  soil, 
withm  as  many  inches  of  the  top  as  will  allow  the  tree  to  stand 
exactly  as  deep  as  it  previously  stood.  With  the  spade,  shape 
the  soil  for  the  roots  in  the  form  of  a  little  hillock  on  which  to 
place  the  roots — ^andnot,  as  is  commonly  done,  in  the  form  of  a 
hollow ;  the  roots  will  then  extend  in  their  natural  position,  not 
being  forced  to  turn  up  at  the  ends.  Next  examine  the  roots, 
and  cut  off  all  wounded  parts,  paring  the  wound  smooth.  Hold 
the  tree  upright  on  its  little  mound  in  the  hole  of  prepared  soil ; 
extend  the  roots,  and  cover  them  carefully  with  the  remaining  pul- 
verized soil.  As  much  of  the  success  of  transplanting  depends 
on  bringing  the  soil  in  contact  with  every  fibre,  so  as  to  leave 
no  hollows  to  cause  the  decay  of  the  roots,  not  only  must  this  be 
secured  by  patiently  filling-in  all  cavities  among  the  roote,  but 
when  the  trees  are  not  quite  small,  it  is  customary  to  pour  in  a 
pail  of  water  when  the  roots  are  nearly  all  covered  with  soil, 
rhis  carries  the  liquid  mould  to  every  hidden  part  After  the 
water  has  settled  away,  fill  up  the  hole,  pressing  the  earth  gently 
about  the  tree  with  the  foot,  but  avoiding  the  common  practice 
of  shaking  it  up  and  down  by  the  stem.  In  windy  situations  it 
will  be  necessary  to  place  a  stake  by  the  side  of  each  tree  to 
iiold  it  upright^  until  it  shall  have  taken  firm  root  in  the  soil,  but 
it  is  not  netful  in  ordinary  cases. 


Aifoid  deq)  planting.  More  than  half  the  loflset  in  orchutl 
planting  in  America  ariees  fix>m  this  cauee,  and  the  equally 
oomnion  one  of  crowding  the  earth  too  tightly  abont  the  roots. 
No  13*00  should  be  placed  deeper  than  it  foimeriy  srew,  as  its 
roots  are  stifled  from  the  want  of  air,  or  starved  by  Um  poverty 
of  the  soil  at  the  depth  where  they  are  placed.  It  is  much  the 
better  and  more  natural  process  in  &ct  to  pUmt  the  tree  so  that 
it  shall,  when  the  whole  is  complete,  appear  just  as  deep  ss 
before,  but  standing  on  a  little  mound  two  or  three  inches  higher 
than  the  level  of  the  ffround  about  This,  when  the  mound  set- 
tles, will  leave  it  nearly  on  the  level  with  the  previous  snriace. 

MtUddng  is  an  excellent  practice  with  transplanted  trees,  and 
more  especisUy  for  tliose  which  are  removed  hte  in  the  ^ng. 
Mulching  is  nothing  more  than  coveriuK  the  ground  about  the 
stems  with  coarse  straw,  or  litter  from  uie  bam-yaid,  which  by 
preventing  evi^ration  keeps  the  soil  firom  becoming  dry,  and 
maintains  it  in  that  moist  and  equable  condition  of  temperatore 
most  favourable  to  the  growth  of  young  roots.  Very  many  trees, 
in  a  dry  season,  fiul  at  midsummer,  after  having  made  a  fine 
start,  ftotsk  the  parched  and  variable  condition  of  Uie  earth  about 
the  roots.  Watering  frequently  fails  to  save  such  trees,  but 
mulching  when  they  are  planted  will  entirely  obviate  the  neces- 
sity of  watering  in  dry  seasons,  and  promote  growth  under  any 
circumstances.  Indeed  watering  upon  the  surface,  as  com- 
monly performed,  is  a  most  injurious  practice,  as  the  roots, 
stimulated  at  one  period  of  the  day  by  water,  are  only  rendered 
more  susceptible  to  the  action  of  the  hot  sun  at  another,  and  the 
sur&ce  of  the  ground  becomes  so  hard,  by  repeated  watering, 
that  the  benefit  access  of  the  air  is  almost  cut  ofil  If  trees 
are  well  watered  in  the  holes,  while  transplanting  is  going  on, 
they  will  rarely  need  it  again,  and  we  may  say  netwr,  if  they 
are  well  mulched  directly  iSier  planting. 

Ths  best  manure  to  be  used  in  preparing  the  soil  for  trans- 
planting trees  is  a  compost  formed  of  two  thirds  muck  or  black 
peat  eairth,  reduced  by  fermenting  it  several  months  in  a  heap 
with  one-third  fresh  bam-yard  manure.  Almost  every  farm 
will  supply  this,  and  it  is  more  permanent  in  its  effects,  and 
less  drying  in  its  nature,  than  the  common  manure  of  the  stable. 
An  admirable  manure  recently  s^^lied  with  great  success,  is 
charcoal — the  small  broken  bits  and  refuse  of  the  charcoal 
pits — ^mixed  intimately  with  the  soil  Air-slaked  lime  is  an 
excellent  manure  lor  fruit  trees  in  soils  that  are  not  naturally 
calcareous.  Two  or  three  handfhls  may  be  mixed  with  the  soil 
when  preparing  each  space  for  planting,  and  a  top  dressing  may 
be  applied  with  advantage  occasionally  afterwards,  to  increase 
their  productiveness.  But  wherever  large  orchards  or  fmit 
gardens  are  to  be  planted,  the  muck  compost  heap  should  be 
made  ready  beforehand,  as  it  is  the  chei4>efi^  most  valuable,  and 
durable  of  all  manures  for  fruit  trees. 


Pruiing  the  heads  of  traDsplanted  trees,  at  the  season  of  re 
nioval,  we  think  generally  an  injunons  practice.  It  is  certainly 
neodiess  and  hnrSal  in  the  case  of  sinail  trees,  or  those  of  sacb 
a  sixe  as  w'U  allow  the  roots  to  be  taken  up  nearly  entire ;  for, 
as  the  action  of  the  branches  and  the  roots  is  precisely  recipro- 
cal, and  as  new  roots  are  rapidly  formed  just  in  proportion  to 
the  healthy  action  of  the  leaves,  it  follows  that  by  needlessly 
cutting  off  branches  we  lessen  the  vital  action  of  the  whole  tree. 
At  the  same  time,  where  trees  are  transplanted  of  so  large  a  size 
that  some  of  the  roots  are  lost  in  removing  them,  it  is  necessary 
to  cat  back  or  shorten  a  few  of  the  branches — as  many  as  will 
restore  the  balance  of  the  system — otherwise  the  perspiration 
of  the  leaves  may  be  so  great,  as  to  exhaust  the  supply  of  sap 
faster  than  the  roots  can  collect  it.  A  little  judgment  only  is 
necessary,  to  see  at  a  glance,  how  much  of  the  top  must  be 
pruned  away  before  planting  the  tree,  to  eqiudise  tne  loss  be- 
tween the  branches  and  the  roola» 

When  it  is  necessary  to  transplant  fruit  trees  of  lai^  size, 
the  best  practice  is  to  (H^pare  them  previously  by  di^ng  a 
trench  round  the  whole  mass  of  roots,  underminmg  them,  and  cut- 
ting off  all  roots  projecting  beyond  this  Une.  The  trench  should 
be  dug  at  such  a  distance  from  the  tree  as  will  include  all  the 
large  and  sufficient  ball  of  roots,  and  it  should  be  done  in  the 
spring,  or  before  midsummer,  when  it  is  desirable  to  remove  the 
tree  we  next  year.  After  all  the  roots  that  extend  to  this  circular 
trench  are  cut  ofl^  the  earth  is  replaced,  and  by  the  season  follow- 
ing an  abundance  of  small  fibres  is  sent  out  by  the  amputated 
roots,  which,  when  the  whole  is  now  removed,  will  insure  Uie  sue- 
ceBs  and  speedy  growth  of  the  tree.  This  is  more  completely  the 
case  when  the  tree  is  prepared  two  years  before  transplanting. 
A  variation  of  this  mode,  which  has  been  found  quite  as  success- 
ful and  less  laborious,  consists  in  leaving  the  trench  open,  and 
covering  it  with  boards  only,  or  boards  with  a  top  layer  of  turf. 
The  tree  then  is  somewhat  checked  in  its  growth,  it  throws  out 
an  abundance  of  small  fibres  into  the  ball  of  earth  containing 
the  roots,  and  is  the  next  season  transplanted  with  great  ease 
and  safety. 

The  proper  eisse  for  transplanting  varies  somewhat  with  the 
sort  of  tree,  and  the  kind  of  culture  intended.  It  is,  however, 
a  maxim  equally  well  settled,  both  among  theorists  and  the  best 
practical  men,  that  health,  imm<*diate  vigour,  and  duration,  are 
all  greatly  promoted  by  transplanting  fruit  trees  of  small  size — 
from  throe  to  six  or  seven  feet.  Wc  are  fully  aware  with  what 
impatience  the  beginner,  or  a  person  who  knows  little  of  the  cnl<* 
tare  of  trees,  looks  upon  trees  of  this  sixe— one  who  is  eager  to 
plant  an  orchard,  and  stock  a  garden  with  large  trees,  thinking 
to  gather  a  crop  the  next  year.  The  latter  may  indeed  be  done, 
but  the  tran^lanting  so  affects  the  tree,  that  its  first  scanty  crop 

LATlNG-in.  47 

18  followed  by  a  long  aeaaon  of  reit  and  ieeUe  growth,  while 
the  plantation  of  young  trees  is  making  wood  rapidly,  and  soon 
comes  into  a  healthy  and  longssontaniied  state  of  prodactiTe- 
ness — often  long  indeed  before  the  large  trees  have  fairly  arrived 
at  that  condition.  The  small  tree,  transplanted  with  its  system 
of  roots  and  branches  entire,  suffers  little  or  no  check ;  the  older 
and  lai^er  tree,  losing  part  of  its  roots,  requires  several  years 
to  Tesnme  its  former  vieour.  The  eonstitation  of  the  small  tree 
is  healthy  juid  unimpaired ;  that  of  the  large  is  frequently  much 
enfeebled,  A  stout  and  vigorous  habit — ^what  the  nurserymen 
call  a  <^rcd  9toeky  plant — ^is  the  true  criterion  of  merit  in  select* 
ing  fruit  trees  for  transplauting. 

Trees  intended  for  orchards,  being  often  more  exposed  than 
those  in  gardens,  should  be  somewhat  larger — not  less  than  six, 
or  more  than  eight  feet  is  the  best  size.  For  gardens,  all  expe- 
rienced cultivators  agree  that  a  smaller  size  is  preferable ;  we 
prefer  plants  two  years  old  from  the  graft.  Most  gardeners 
abroad,  when  they  select  trees  with  more  than  usual  care,  take 
what  are  called  maiden  plants — ^those  one  year  old  from  the 
graft,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that,  taking  into  account  health, 
duration,  and  the  ease  with  which  such  a  tree  can  be  made  to 
grow  into  any  form,  this  is  truly  the  preferable  size  for  removal 
into  a  fruit  garden.  But  we  are  an  impatient  people^  and  it  is 
not  till  after  another  century  of  trial  and  expenence  in  the  cul- 
ture of  fruit  trees,  that  cultivators  generally  in  this  country  will 
become  aware  of  the  truth  of  this  ^t 

The  &cility  with  which  the  different  fruit  trees  may  be  trans- 
planted differs  considerably.  Plums  are  generally  removed  with 
most  BUCcesB,  and  after  them  nearly  in  the  order  as  follows : 
Quinces,  Apples,  Fears,  Peaches,  Nectarines,  Apricots,  and 
Cherries ;  the  latter  succeeding  with  some  difficulty,  when  of 
larsre  size. 

Zayinff  tnhythe  heeU  is  a  practice  adopted  as  a  temporary  kind 
of  planting,  when  a  larger  quantity  of  trees  is  at  hand  than  can  be 
set  out  immediately.  A  trench  is  opened,  and  the  roots  are  laid 
in  and  covered  with  soil,  the  tops  being  previously  placed  in  a  slop- 
ing position,  inclining  to  within  a  few  feet  of  the  surface.  In  Uiis 
way  they  are  kept  fresh  and  in  good  order,  until  it  is  convenient 
to  plant  them  finally.  In  northern  district  where  the  autumn 
is  often  too  severe  for  planting,  and  the  spring  is  frequently  too 
late  to  receive  trees  in  time  from  nurseries  ferther  south,  it  is  a 
common  and  successful  mode  to  procure  trees  in  autumn,  and 
lay  them  in  by  the  heels  until  spring,  covering  over  the  tops  of 
the  more  tender  sorts  if  necessary  with  coarse  litter. 

In  planting  an  orchard,  always  avoid  placing  the  trees  in  the 
same  spot,  or  near  where  an  old  tree  stood  before.  Experience 
has  taught  ns  that  the  growth  of  a  young  tree,  in  such  a  posi- 
tion«  is  weak  and  feeble ;  the  nourishment  suitable  to  that  kind 


riaiag  oat  of  it  to  attack  tlie  fimh,  foliage^  or  bmadbea  of  &• 

Such  are  some  of  the  dkadrantagea  of  a  light  samty  aoil; 
and,  in  thoionghly  examining  many  of  the  vait  gvaeas  of 
the  middle  rtatee  the  last  fev  seaaone,  we  ooold  not  £nl  to  be 
rtrack  with  the  &ct  that  in  nine  cases  ont  of  ten,  where  a  Tarietf 
of  froit  was  nnnsoaliy  liable  to  disease^  to  hligh^  or  to  the  attacks 
of  certain  fimitrdeetroying  inseetoi  as  the  enioolio^  the  trees 
themselves  were  on  sandy  soils;  while  on  the  other  hand,  and 
frequently  in  the  same  neighboorhood,  the  same  sorts  were  grow- 

ing Inxariantly  and  bearing  abundant  crops,  where  the  soil  was  a 
rather  strong  ioam«*  For  a  few  years,  the  ffrowth  and  pfodno- 
tireness  of  the  trees  ap<m  sandy  soil,  is  all  that  can  be  aesired; 
but  the  trees  are  snorter  lived  and  sooner  fell  into  decay 
than  where  the  soil  is  stronger.  If  there  is  any  exception  to 
this  rule,  it  is  only  in  the  case  of  the  Peach,  and  judging  from 
the  superiouT  flavour  of  this  fruit  on  stronger  soils,  we  are 
inclined  to  doubt  the  value  of  the  exception  even  hers. 

ChraveUy  loams  are  fre<iuently  much  better  adapted  fer  ot- 
chards  than  sandy,  especially  where  the  loam  is  of  a  strong 
quality,  and  the  gravel  is  not  in  excess ;  and  the  hardier  fruits 
usually  do  well  on  this  kind  of  soiL 

Stnmg  loams^  by  which  we  mean  a  loam  with  only  just  a 
sufficient  portion  of  sand  to  make  it  easily  worked,  are  on  the 
whole  by  fer  the  best  for  fruit  gardens  in  this  countcy.  A  stronsr 
loam  is  usually  a  deep  soil,  and  affords  during  the  whole  heat  <x 
sommer,  a  proper  sapply  of  moisture  and  nourishment  to  the 
roots  €i  trees.  SVnit  trees  do  not  come  into  a  bearing  state  so 
soon  in  a  strong  ss  in  a  sandy  loam,  because  the  growth  of 
wood  is  more  v]gon>us,  and  fruit  buds  are  not  so  soon  formed ; 
but  they  bear  la^r  crops,  are  much  less  liable  to  many  diseases, 
and  their  longevity  is  much  greater.  The  lamst  and  most 
productive  ordiards  of  the  apple  and  pear  in  this  country  are 
upon  soils  of  this  kind. 

Clayey  loams  are,  when  well  drained,  and  when  the  day  is 
not  in  excess,  good  fruit  soils — ^they  are  usually  strong  and  deep 
soils  though  mther  heavy  and  difficult  to  work.  Trees  that  wiu 
flourish  on  these  soils,  such  as  the  Apple,  Pear,  Cherry,  Plum, 
and  Apricot,  usually  are  veiy  free  from  disease,  or  insects,  and 
bear  large  crops.  In  a  moi^  dimate,  like  that  of  England, 
fruit  trees  on  a  clayey  loam  would  die  of  canker,  brought  on  b^ 
tiie  excessive  quantity  of  water  contained  in  the  soil,  but  such  is 

*  As  an  instaiioe  in  pointy  the  owner  of  one  of  the  most  Ughly  eottivsted 
gardens  in  the  vicinity  of  Boston  was  showing  uS)  in  deqwir,  soiae  trees 
of  the  Seekel  pear  upon  vhieh  he  ooold  no  longer  get  good  crQ|M,  or  feir 
froit,  and  lamenting  the  degeneracy  of  the  sort  The  next  day  we  saw  in 
a  neighboariiig  ganlen  beautiful  crops  of  this  pear  growing  with  the  least 
possible  care.  The  garden  h}  the  first  case  was  a  light  sandy  losm;  in 
Che  second,  a  strong  loais* 


48  SOIL   AVD    A8PBCT. 

of  tree  having  already  been  exhausted  by  a  previous  growth| 
and  the  soil  being  half  filled  with  old  and  decayed  roots  which 
are  detrimental  to  the  health  of  the  young  tree. 



In  our  favourable  climate  many  fruit  trees  will  thrive  and 
produce  sonae  fruit  in  almost  any  soil,  except  dir  sand,  or  wet 
swamps.  But  there  is  much  to  be  piined  in  all  climates  by  a 
judicious  selection  of  soil,  when  this  is  in  our  power,  or  by  that 
improvement  which  may  generally  be  effected  in  inferior  soils, 
where  we  are  necessarily  limited  to  such.  As  we  shall,  in 
treating  the  culture  of  each  genus  of  fruit,  state  more  in  detail 
the  soik  especially  adapted  to  its  growth,  our  remarks  here  will 
be  confined  to  the  subject  of  soils  generally,  for  the  orchard  and 
fruit  garden. 

The  soils  usually  selected  for  making  plantations  of  fruit 
trees  may  be  divided  into  light  sandy  loams,  gravelly  loams, 
strong  loams,  and  clayey  loams ;  the  first  having  a  large  pro- 
portion of  sand,  and  the  last  a  large  proportion  of  clay. 

The  soil  most  inviting  to  the  eye  is  a  liffkt  sandy  loam^  and, 
as  it  is  also  a  very  common  soil,  more  than  half  the  frnit  gaxdeiis 
in  the  country  are  composed  of  this  mould.  The  easy  manner 
in  which  it  is  worked,  owing  to  its  loose  and  very  friable  nature, 
and  the  rapidity  with  which,  from  its  warmth,  crops  of  all  kinds 
come  into  bearing,  cause  it  to  be  looked  upon  with  almost  uni- 
versal favour.  .  Notwithstanding  this,  a  pretty  careful  observa- 
tion, for  several  years,  has  convinced  us  that  a  hght  sandy  soil 
is,  on  the  whole,  the  worst  soil  for  fruit  trees.  Under  the  bright 
skies  of  July  and  August,  a  fruit  tree  requires  a  soil  which  will 
retain  and  afford  a  moderate  and  continued  supply  of  moisture, 
and  here  the  sandy  soil  foils.  In  consequence  ot  tnis  the  vigour 
of  the  tree  is  checked,  and  it  becomes  feeble  in  its  growth,  aud 
is  comparatively  short-lived,  or  unproductive.  As  a  tree  in  a 
foeWe  state  is  always  most  liable  to  the  attacks  of  insects,  those 
on  a  sandy  soil  are  the  first  to  fall  a  prey  to  numerous  maladies.* 
The  open  loose  texture  of  a  sandy  soil,  joined  to  its  warmth, 
affords  an  easy  passage,  and  an  excellent  habitation  for  all  in- 
sects that  pass  part  of  their  lives  in  the  ground,  preparatory  to 

♦  This  remark  applies  to  the  luiddlo  and  southern  portions  of  this  country. 
Korth  of  the  48^  a  light  sandy  soil  is  perhaps  preferable  as  warmer  and 

8AHDT  AJffB   STBONO    LOAMS.  49 

Mag  oat  of  it  to  attack  tlie  fruity  Miage,  or  hmaokea  nf  tka 

Such  are  some  of  the  diaadTantagea  of  a  Iwkt  aamfy  aeil; 
and,  in  tkoronghly  ftTamining  manj  of  the  frait  gardeaa  of 
the  middle  states  the  last  few  eeaaoua,  we  could  not  M  to  be 
atnick  with  the  fiu^  that  in  nine  cases  out  of  ten,  where  a  varietf 
of  fruit  was  unusuallj  liable  to  disease^  to  blight^  or  to  the  attacks 
of  certain  fruit^estroying  inseotai  aa  the  eurculio^  the  treea 
tiienaelyes  were  on  sandy  soils;  while  on  the  other  hand,  and 
frequently  in  the  same  ne^hbonrhood,  the  same  aorta  were  grow- 
ing luxuriantly  and  bearing  abundant  crops,  where  the  soil  was  a 
rathtf  strone  loam.*  For  a  few  yearsi  the  flrowth  and  prodno* 
tirenesB  of  the  trees  nnon  sandy  soil,  is  all  that  can  be  aesired; 
but  the  trees  are  shorter  lived  and  sooner  fell  into  decay 
thnn  where  the  soil  is  stronger.  U  there  is  any  exception  to 
this  rule^  it  is  only  in  the  case  of  the  Peach,  and  judging  from 
the  superiour  flATour  of  this  fruit  on  stronger  soil^  we  ara 
inclined  to  doubt  the  ralne  of  the  exception  OTsn  h«e. 

Oravelly  loams  are  frequently  much  better  adapted  fer  or- 
chards than  sandy,  especially  where  the  loam  is  of  a  strong 
quality,  and  the  gravel  is  not  in  excess ;  and  the  hardier  fruits 
usually  do  well  on  this  kind  of  soiL 

Strong  loams^  hj  which  we  mean  a  kMon  with  only  just  a 
sufficient  portion  of  saud  to  make  it  easily  worked,  are  on  the 
whole  by  fer  the  best  for  fruit  nrdens  in  this  country.  A  strontr 
loam  is  usually  a  deep  soil,  and  affords  during  the  whole  heat  ol 
summer,  a  proper  supply  of  moisture  and  nourishment  to  the 
roots  of  trees.  Fhiit  trees  do  not  come  into  a  bearing  state  so 
soon  in  a  strong  as  in  a  sandy  loam,  because  the  growth  of 
wood  is  more  vigorous,  and  fruit  buds  are  not  so  soon  formed ; 
but  they  bear  lai^r  crops,  are  much  less  liable  to  many  diseases, 
and  their  lon^vity  is  much  greater.  The  largest  and  most 
productive  ordiards  of  the  i^ple  and  pear  in  this  country  are 
upon  soils  of  this  kind. 

Clayey  loams  are,  when  well  drained,  and  when  the  clay  is 
not  in  excess,  good  fruit  soils — ^Uiey  are  usually  strong  and  deep 
soils  though  nwier  heavy  and  difficult  to  work.  Trees  that  will 
flourish  on  these  soils,  such  as  the  Apple,  Pear,  Cherry,  Plum, 
and  Apricot,  usually  are  very  free  from  disease,  or  insects,  and 
bear  lai|;e  crops.  In  a  moist  climate,  like  that  of  England, 
fruit  trees  on  a  clayey  loam  would  die  of  canker,  brought  on  b^ 
the  excessive  quantity  of  water  contained  in  the  stnl,  but  such  is 

^  As  an  instanoe  is  point,  the  owner  of  one  of  the  most  highly  coRivsted 
gardens  in  the  vicfaiitj  of  Boston  was  showing  us,  in  despair,  some  trees 
of  the  Sedcel  pear  upon  whieh  he  conM  no  longer  get  good  crops,  or  fidr 
froit,  and  lamenting  the  degeneracy  of  the  sort  The  next  day  we  saw  in 
a  neighbooring  ganien  beautiful  crops  of  this  pear  growing  with  the  least 
poflsible  eara  The  garden  Sn  the  &8t  case  was  a  light  sandy  loam;  hi 
the  seoond,  a  strong  loaot 


48  SOIL   AND   A8PBCT. 

of  tree  having  already  been  exhausted  by  a  previous  gro«th| 
and  the  soil  Ming  half  filled  with  old  and  decayed  roots  which 
are  detrimental  to  the  health  of  the  young  tree. 



In  our  favourable  climate  many  fruit  trees  will  thrive  and 
produce  some  fruit  in  almost  any  soil,  except  dir  sand,  or  wet 
swamps.  But  there  is  much  to  be  gained  in  all  climates  by  a 
judicious  selection  of  soil,  when  this  is  in  our  power,  or  by  that 
improvement  which  may  generally  be  effected  in  inferior  soils, 
where  we  are  necessarily  limited  to  such.  As  we  shall,  in 
treating  the  culture  of  each  genus  of  fruit,  state  more  in  detail 
the  soik  especially  adapted  to  its  growth,  our  remarks  here  will 
be  confined  to  the  subject  of  soils  generally,  for  the  orchard  and 
fruit  garden. 

The  soils  usually  selected  for  making  plantations  of  fruit 
trees  may  be  divided  into  light  sandy  loams,  gravelly  loams, 
strong  loams,  and  clayey  loams ;  the  first  having  a  laige  pro- 
portion of  sand,  and  the  last  a  large  proportion  of  clay. 

The  soil  most  inviting  to  the  eye  is  a  light  sandy  loam^  and, 
as  it  is  also  a  very  common  soil,  more  than  half  the  frnit  gajdetis 
in  the  country  are  composed  of  this  mould.  The  easy  manner 
in  which  it  is  worked,  owing  to  its  loose  and  very  friable  nature, 
and  the  rapidity  with  which,  from  its  warmth,  crops  of  all  kinds 
come  ihto  bearing,  cause  it  to  be  looked  upon  with  almost  uni- 
versal favour.  ^Notwithstanding  this,  a  pretty  careful  observa- 
tion, for  several  years,  has  convinced  us  that  a  light  sandy  soil 
is,  on  the  whole,  the  worst  soil  for  fruit  trees.  Under  the  bright 
skies  of  July  and  August,  a  fruit  tree  requires  a  soil  which  will 
retain  and  afford  a  moderate  and  continued  supply  of  moisture, 
and  here  the  sandy  soil  foils.  In  consequence  ot  tnis  the  vigour 
of  the  tree  is  checked,  and  it  becomes  feeble  in  its  growth,  aud 
is  comparatively  short-lived,  or  unproductive.  As  a  tree  in  a 
feeble  state  is  always  most  liable  to  the  attacks  of  insects,  those 
on  a  sandy  soil  are  the  first  to  fall  a  prey  to  numerous  maladies.* 
The  open  loose  texture  of  a  sandy  soil,  joined  to  its  warmth, 
affords  an  easy  passage,  and  an  excellent  habitation  for  all  in- 
sects that  pass  part  of  their  lives  in  the  ground,  preparatory  to 

♦  This  remark  applies  to  the  middlo  and  gouthem  portions  of  this  country. 
Korth  of  the  48**  a  liglii  sandy  soil  is  perhaps  preferable  as  warmer  and 

8AHDT   AMD  STBOire    L0AM8.  49 

risiiig  oat  of  it  to  attack  tlie  fifuit,  Miage^  or  hmaakea  nf  tibo 

Such  are  some  of  the  diaadTantagea  of  a  hAt  flaachr  aoil; 
and,  in  thoron^ly  ezamimng  manj  of  the  frait  gardoM  of 
the  middle  states  the  last  few  soaaoae,  we  could  not  fiul  to  ba 
atnick  with  the  fact  that  in  nine  cases  out  of  ten,  where  a  varietf 
of  fruit  was  unusoallj  liable  to  disease,  to  blight^  or  to  the  attadcs 
of  certain  fruit-destroying  inseotsi  aa  the  enrculio^  the  trees 
themselyes  were  on  sandy  soila;  while  on  the  other  hand,  and 
frequently  in  the  same  ne^hbourhood,  the  same  aorta  were  grow- 
ing luxuriantly  and  bearing  abundant  crops,  where  the  aoil  was  a 
rathtf  strong  loam.*  For  a  few  yean,  the  arowtii  and  prodnc* 
tiyenesB  of  the  trees  upon  sandy  soil,  is  all  that  can  be  oesired; 
but  the  trees  are  snorter  lired  and  sooner  fell  into  decay 
thnn  where  the  soil  is  stronger.  If  there  is  any  exception  to 
this  rule^  it  is  only  in  the  case  of  the  Peach,  and  judging  from 
the  superiour  flarour  of  this  fruit  on  atrongar  aoii^  we  ara 
inclined  to  doubt  the  ralue  of  the  exception  even  hers. 

Gravelly  loams  are  frequently  much  better  adapted  fer  or- 
chards than  sandy,  especially  where  the  loam  is  of  a  strong 
quality,  and  the  gravel  is  not  in  excess;  and  the  hardier  fruita 
usually  do  well  on  this  kind  of  soiL 

Strong  loams^  hj  which  we  mean  a  kMun  with  only  just  a 
sufficient  portion  of  sand  to  make  it  easily  worked,  are  on  the 
whole  by  fer  the  best  for  fruit  nrdens  in  this  country.  A  strontr 
loem  is  usually  a  deep  soil,  and  afforda  during  the  whole  heat  ol 
summer,  a  prefer  supply  of  nunsture  and  nourishment  to  the 
roots  of  trees.  JBWit  trees  do  not  come  into  a  bearing  state  so 
soon  in  a  strong  aa  in  a  sandy  loam,  because  tike  growth  of 
wood  is  more  vigorous,  and  fruit  buds  are  not  so  soon  formed ; 
but  they  bear  la^r  crops,  are  much  less  liable  to  many  diseases, 
and  their  lon^vity  is  much  greater.  The  laivest  and  most 
productive  ordiards  of  the  «pple  and  pear  in  this  country  are 
upon  soils  of  this  kind. 

Clayey  Icame  are,  when  well  drained,  and  when  the  clay  ia 
not  in  excess,  good  fruit  soils — ^ihey  are  usually  strong  and  deep 
soila  though  nwier  heavy  and  difficult  to  work.  Trees  that  will 
flourish  on  these  soils,  such  as  the  Apple,  Pear,  Cherry,  Plum, 
and  Apricot,  usually  are  very  free  from  disease,  or  insects,  and 
bear  large  crops.  In  a  moist  climate,  like  that  of  England, 
fruit  trees  on  a  clayey  loam  would  die  of  canker,  brought  on  b^ 
the  excessive  quantity  of  water  contained  in  the  s(m1,  but  such  is 

^  As  an  instanoe  in  point,  the  owner  of  one  of  the  most  highly  eaWvated 
gardens  in  the  vicfaiity  of  Boston  was  showing  us,  in  despair,  some  trees 
of  the  Seckel  pear  upon  which  he  oonld  no  longer  get  good  crops,  or  feir 
fruit,  and  lamenting  the  degeneracy  of  the  sort  The  next  day  we  saw  in 
a  neighbouring  ga^en  beautiful  crops  of  this  pear  growing  with  the  leoAt 
poflsil^  care.  The  garden  !n  the  first  case  was  a  light  sandy  loam;  in 
the  seoond,  a  strong  loam. 



of  tree  having  already  been  exhausted  by  a  previous  growth| 
and  the  soil  ^ng  half  filled  with  old  and  decayed  roots  which 
are  detrimental  to  the  health  of  the  young  tree. 



In  our  favourable  climate  many  fruit  trees  will  thrive  and 
produce  some  fruit  in  almost  any  soil,  except  dry  sand,  or  wet 
swamps.  But  there  is  much  to  be  piined  in  all  climates  by  a 
ludicious  selection  of  soil,  when  this  is  in  our  power,  or  by  that 
improvement  which  may  generally  be  effected  in  inferior  soils, 
where  we  are  necessarily  limited  to  such.  As  we  shall,  in 
treating  the  culture  of  each  genus  of  fruit,  state  more  in  detail 
the  soib  especially  adapted  to  its  growth,  our  remarks  here  will 
be  confined  to  the  subject  of  soils  generally,  for  the  orchard  and 
fruit  garden. 

The  soils  usually  selected  for  making  plantations  of  fruit 
trees  may  be  divided  into  light  sandy  loams,  gravelly  loams, 
strong  loams,  and  clayey  loams ;  the  first  having  a  large  pro- 
portion of  sand,  and  the  last  a  large  proportion  of  clay. 

The  soil  most  inviting  to  the  eye  is  a  liffkt  sar^y  loam^  and, 
as  it  is  also  a  very  common  soil,  more  than  half  the  frnit  gardeiis 
in  the  country  are  composed  of  this  mould.  The  easy  manner 
in  which  it  is  worked,  owing  to  its  loose  and  very  friaUe  nature, 
and  the  rapidity  with  which,  from  its  warmth,  crops  of  all  kinds 
come  into  bearing,  cause  it  to  be  looked  upon  witn  almost  uni- 
versal favour.  Notwithstanding  this,  a  pretty  careful  observa- 
tion, for  several  years,  has  convinced  us  that  a  light  sandy  soil 
is,  on  the  whole,  the  worst  soil  for  fruit  trees.  Under  the  bright 
skies  of  July  and  August,  a  fruit  tree  requires  a  soil  which  will 
retain  and  afford  a  moderate  and  continued  supply  of  moisture, 
and  here  the  sandy  soil  £|ils.  In  consequence  ot  tnis  the  vigour 
of  the  tree  is  checked,  and  it  becomes  feeble  in  its  growth,  aud 
is  comparatively  short-lived,  or  unproductive.  As  a  tree  in  a 
fi^eble  state  is  always  most  liable  to  the  attacks  of  insects,  those 
on  a  sandy  soil  are  the  first  to  fall  a  prey  to  numerous  maladies.* 
The  open  loose  texture  of  a  sandy  soil,  joined  to  its  warmth, 
affords  an  easy  passage,  and  an  excellent  habitation  for  all  in- 
sects that  pass  part  of  their  lives  in  the  ground,  preparatory  to 

♦  This  remark  applies  to  the  middle  and  southern  portions  of  this  country. 
Korth  of  the  48^  a  lighi  sandy  soil  is  perhaps  preferable  as  wanner  and 

8AHDT   AJffB  STBONe    LOAMS.  49 

risiiig  out  of  it  to  attack  the  fruit,  foliage^  or  bmadMa  nf  tka 

Sach  an  some  of  the  diaadyaiitagea  of  a  lidii  lamfy  aeil; 
and,  in  thoroa^ly  ezaminiDg  manj  of  the  frait  gardeaa  of 
the  middle  states  the  last  few  seaaous,  we  could  not  £ul  to  be 
stnick  with  the  &ct  that  in  nine  cases  oat  of  ten,  where  a  varietf 
of  fruit  was  nnasaall j  liable  to  disease^  to  Uight^  or  to  the  attacks 
of  certain  fruit-deBtroying  inseetsi  aa  the  eorcolio^  the  trees 
themselyes  were  on  sandy  soils;  while  on  the  othtf  hand,  and 
freqaentlj  in  the  same  ne^hbonrhood,  the  same  sorts  were  glow- 
ing loxoriantly  and  bearing  abondant  crops,  where  the  soil  was  n 
rather  strong  loam.*  For  a  few  years,  the  arowtii  and  prodno- 
tiveness  of  the  trees  upon  sandy  soil,  is  all  that  can  be  oesired; 
bat  the  trees  are  shorter  lived  and  so^Mier  fell  into  decay 
thnn  where  the  soil  is  stronger.  If  there  is  any  exception  to 
this  rule,  it  is  only  in  the  case  of  the  Peach,  and  judging  feom 
the  superiour  flavoar  of  this  fruit  on  stronger  soii^  we  are 
inclinea  to  doubt  the  vaiae  <^  the  esception  OTen  hers. 

Qravelly  hamu  are  frequently  much  better  adapted  fer  or> 
chards  than  sandy,  especially  where  the  loam  is  of  a  strong 
quality,  and  the  gravel  is  not  in  excess;  and  the  hardier  fruits 
usually  do  well  on  this  kind  of  soiL 

Strong  loams^  hj  which  we  mean  a  k>«n  with  only  just  a 
snfficient  portion  of  sand  to  make  it  easily  worked,  are  on  the 
whole  by  fer  the  best  for  fruit  gardens  in  this  country.  A  strong 
loam  is  usually  a  deep  soil,  and  affords  during  the  whole  heat  cl 
summer,  a  prcqper  supply  of  moisture  and  nourishment  to  the 
rooti  oi  trees.  Fhiit  trees  do  not  come  into  a  bearing  state  so 
soon  in  a  strong  as  in  a  sandy  loam,  because  tike  growdi  of 
wood  is  more  vigorous,  and  fruit  buds  are  not  so  soon  formed ; 
but  they  bear  la^r  crops,  are  much  less  liable  to  many  diseases, 
and  their  longevity  is  much  greater.  The  laivest  and  most 
productive  ordiards  of  the  apple  and  pear  in  this  coontry  are 
upon  soils  of  this  kind. 

Clayey  loama  are,  when  well  drained,  and  when  the  clay  is 
not  in  excess,  good  fruit  soils — ^Uiey  are  usually  stroi^  and  deep 
soils  though  nwier  heavy  and  difficult  to  wo^  Trees  that  will 
flourish  ou  these  soils,  such  as  the  Apple,  Pear,  Cheiry,  Plum, 
and  Apricot,  usually  are  veiy  free  from  disease,  or  insects,  and 
bear  large  crops.  In  a  moist  climate,  like  that  of  England, 
fruit  trees  on  a  clayey  loam  would  die  of  canker,  brought  on  bj 
the  excessive  quantity  of  water  contained  in  the  s(m1,  but  such  is 

^  As  an  infltanoe  in  pointy  the  owner  of  one  of  the  most  highly  caktvated 
gardens  in  the  vicfaiitjr  of  Boston  was  showing  ns,  in  de^Mir,  sone  trees 
of  the  Seckel  pear  upon  whieh  he  ooukl  no  longer  get  good  crops,  or  feir 
froity  and  lamenting  the  degeneracy  of  the  sort  The  next  day  we  saw  in 
a  neigbboorlng  garden  beautiful  crops  of  this  pear  growing  with  the  least 
possible  care.  The  garden  in  the  first  case  was  a  light  sandy  loam;  in 
Che  second,  a  strong  loaot 


48  SOIL   AND    ASPECT. 

of  tree  having  already  been  exhatwted  by  a  previous  growth, 
and  the  soil  Ming  half  fiUed  with  old  and  decayed  roots  which 
are  detrimental  to  the  health  of  the  yonng  tree. 



In  our  favourable  climate  many  fruit  trees  will  thrive  and 
produce  some  fruit  in  almost  any  soil,  except  dry  sand,  or  wet 
swamps.  But  there  is  much  to  be  gained  in  all  climates  by  a 
judicious  selection  of  soil,  when  this  is  in  our  power,  or  by  tnat 
improvement  which  may  generally  be  effcbted  in  inferior  soils, 
where  we  are  necessarily  limited  to  such.  As  we  shall,  in 
treating  the  culture  of  each  genus  of  fruit,  state  more  in  detail 
the  soik  especially  adapted  to  its  growth,  our  remarks  here  will 
be  confined  to  the  subject  of  soils  generally,  for  the  orchard  and 
fruit  garden. 

The  soils  usually  selected  for  making  plantations  of  fruit 
trees  may  be  divided  into  light  sandy  loams,  gravelly  loams, 
strong  loams,  and  clayey  loams ;  the  first  having  a  large  pro- 
portion of  sand,  and  the  last  a  large  proportion  of  clay. 

The  soil  most  inviting  to  the  eye  is  a  light  sandy  loaaij  and, 
as  it  is  also  a  very  common  soil,  more  than  half  the  frnit  gardetis 
in  the  country  arc  composed  of  this  mould.  The  easy  manner 
in  which  it  is  worked,  owing  to  its  loose  and  very  friable  nature, 
and  the  rapidity  with  which,  from  its  warmth,  crops  of  all  kinds 
come  into  bearing,  cause  it  to  be  looked  upon  with  almost  uni- 
versal favour.  Notwithstanding  this,  a  pretty  careful  observa- 
tion, for  several  years,  has  convinced  us  that  a  hght  sandy  soil 
is,  on  the  whole,  the  worst  soil  for  fruit  trees.  Under  the  bright 
skies  of  July  and  August,  a  fruit  tree  requires  a  soil  which  will 
retain  and  afford  a  moderate  and  continued  supply  of  moisture, 
and  here  the  sandy  soil  fails.  In  consequence  oi  tnis  the  vigour 
of  the  tree  is  checked,  and  it  becomes  feeble  in  its  growth,  and 
is  comparatively  short-lived,  or  unproductive.  As  a  tree  in  a 
feeble  state  is  always  most  liable  to  the  attacks  of  insects,  those 
on  a  sandy  soil  are  the  first  to  fall  a  prey  to  numerous  maladies.* 
The  open  loose  texture  of  a  sandy  soil,  joined  to  its  warmth, 
affords  an  easy  passage,  and  an  excellent  habitation  for  all  in- 
sects that  pass  part  of  their  lives  in  the  ground,  preparatory  to 

♦  This  remark  applies  to  the  middle  and  southern  portions  of  this  country. 
Korth  of  the  48"  a  light  aandy  soil  is  perhaps  preferable  as  warmer  and 


risiiig  out  of  it  to  attack  the  fruit,  Miage,  or  hmaakea  of  &• 

Such  an  some  of  the  diaadTaiitagea  of  a  Ikht  aaady  aeil; 
and,  in  thoioi^hly  ezaminiiig  manj  of  the  frait  gardoM  of 
the  middle  states  the  last  few  seasons,  we  could  not  £ul  to  be 
stnick  with  the  &ct  that  in  nine  cases  oat  of  ten,  where  a  varietf 
of  fruit  was  nniisaaUy  liable  to  disease^  to  blifj^t^  or  to  the  attacks 
of  certain  fruit-destroying  insectsi  aa  the  eorcolio^  the  trees 
themselyes  were  on  sandj  soils;  while  on  the  othtf  hand,  and 
frequently  in  the  same  ne^hbooxhood,  the  same  sorts  were  glow- 
ing Inxariantly  and  bearing  abundant  crops,  where  the  soil  was  a 
rathtf  strong  loam.*  For  a  few  yean,  the  flrowih  and  prodnc* 
tiyeness  of  the  trees  nnon  sandy  soil,  is  all  that  can  be  oesired; 
bat  the  trees  are  shorter  lired  and  socmer  fell  into  decay 
thnn  where  the  soil  is  stronger.  If  there  is  any  exception  to 
this  rule,  it  is  only  in  the  case  of  the  Peach,  and  judging  from 
the  superiour  flavour  of  this  fruit  on  atronger  soil^  we  are 
inclined  to  doubt  the  ralue  of  the  esoeption  even  hers. 

OraveUy  loams  are  fre<inently  much  better  adapted  fer  or- 
chards than  sandy,  especially  where  the  loam  is  of  a  strong 
quality,  and  the  gravel  is  not  in  excess;  and  the  htfdior  fruit* 
usually  do  well  on  this  kind  of  soil 

Strang  laams^  hj  which  we  mean  a  kMun  with  only  just  a 
sufficient  portion  of  sand  to  make  it  easily  worked,  are  on  the 
whaie  by  fer  the  best  for  fruit  gardens  in  this  country.  A  strong 
loom  is  usually  a  deep  soil,  and  affords  during  the  whole  heat  of 
summer,  a  prcqper  supply  of  moisture  and  nourishment  to  the 
roots  o{  trees.  Fhiit  trees  do  not  come  into  a  bearing  state  so 
soon  in  a  strong  as  in  a  sandy  loam,  because  the  growth  of 
wood  is  more  vigon>us,  and  fruit  buds  are  not  so  soon  formed ; 
but  they  bear  la^r  crops,  are  much  leas  liable  to  many  diseases, 
and  their  longevity  is  much  greater.  The  largest  and  most 
productive  ordiards  of  the  i^le  and  pear  in  this  country  are 
upon  soils  of  this  kind. 

Clayey  loams  are,  when  well  drained,  and  when  the  clay  ia 
not  in  excess,  good  fruit  soils— they  are  usually  stroi^  and  deep 
soils  thou^  rather  heavy  and  difficult  to  work.  Trees  that  will 
flourish  on  these  soils,  such  as  the  Apple,  Pear,  Cherry,  Plum, 
and  Apricot,  usually  are  very  free  from  disease,  or  insects,  and 
bear  large  crops.  In  a  moist  <dimate,  like  that  of  England, 
fruit  trees  on  a  clayey  loam  would  die  of  canker,  brought  on  by 
the  excessive  quantity  of  water  contained  in  the  soil,  but  such  is 

^  As  an  Inntanoe  in  point,  the  owner  of  one  of  the  most  Ughly  cnlkivsted 
gardflos  in  the  vicinity  of  Boston  was  showing  us,  in  dee^Mir,  Bome  trees 
of  the  Seekel  pear  upon  which  he  oonld  no  longer  get  good  crops,  or  fiur 
fruit,  and  lamenting  the  degeneracy  of  the  sort  The  next  day  we  saw  in 
a  neighbonriJig  ganlen  boautiful  crops  of  this  pear  growing  with  the  least 
poeaible  care.  The  garden  hi  the  &nX  case  was  a  light  sandy  loam;  in 
Che  second,  a  strong  loaot 



not  the  case  under  the  high  and  warm  temperatnre  of  onr  som 
mers.  The  finest^  largest,  and  meet  prodnctive  Plums  and  Pean 
within  our  knowledge^  grow  in  sites  on  the  North  river,  when 
the  soil  is  a  stiff  clayey  loam,  almost  approaching  a  clay. 
Those  fruits  lliat  on  light  sandy  soils  are  almost  worthleas  from 
their  liability  to  disease,  and  the  attacks  of  insects,  are  here 
surprifiintfly  luxuriant  and  fruitful. 

It  is,  however,  well  to  remark,  that  some  varieties  of  fruit, 
perhaps  ftom  the  circumstances  of  their  origin,  succeed  better 
on  sandy  soils  than  any  other ;  thus  the  Newtown  pippin  will 
only  arrive  at  perfection  in  a  strong  loam,  while  the  Yellow  Bell- 
flower  is  finer  when  grown  on  a  sandy  soil.  But  there  are  ex- 
ceptions to  all  rules,  and  what  we  have  already  stated,  as  to  the 
relative  quality  of  soils,  will  apply  pretty  generally  to  the  whole 
of  this  country  south  of  the  Mohawk  river ;  and  it  may  be  added 
that  caloareous  soils,  of  whatever  texture,  are  better  than  soOs 
of  the  same  quality  where  no  limestone  is  present 

Trenching  is  the  most  complete  method  of  improving  a  soil 
too  sandy,  when  the  subsoil  below  is  of  a  loamy  or  clayey  na- 
ture. Deep  subsoil  ploughing,  by  bringing  up  a  sufficient  quan- 
tity of  the  stratum  below,  will  answer  the  same  purpose.  When 
the  subsoil  of  a  sandy  soil  is  sand  or  gravel,  the  surface  can  only 
be  improved  by  top  dressings,  or  the  application  of  manures. 
Top-dressing  with  clay  is  the  most  simple  means  of  changing  the 
nature  of  such  a  soil,  and  it  is  surprising  how  moderate  a  quan- 
tity of  day  will  give  a  closer  texture  to  light  sandy  soils.  In 
manuring  such  soils,  we  may  greatly  improve  their  nature  as 
well  as  condition,  by  using  composts  of  peat  or  bog  earth,  swamp 
muck,  or  river  mud,  instead  of  common  barn-yard  or  stable 
manure.  The  foimer  are  not  only  more  permanent  and  better 
as  manures  for  fruit  trees,  but  they  gradually  consolidate  and 
improve  the  whole  texture  of  the  soil. 

Indeed  no  fruit  garden,  where  the  soil  is  not  naturally  deep 
and  rich,  is  in  perfect  condition  for  planting  trees,  nnless  the 
soil  has  been  well  trenched  two  spades  in  depth.  This  creates 
a  matrix  for  the  roots,  so  deep  and  permanent,  that  they  retain 
their  vigour  and  luxuriance  through  the  droughts  of  summer, 
and  continue  for  a  long  time  in  a  state  of  health  and  produc- 

It  is  difficult  to  give  any  precise  rules  as  to  aapeet.  We  have 
seen  fine  firuit  gardens  here  in  all  aspects.  Perhaps  the  very 
best  aspect,  on  the  whole,  is  a  gentle  slope  to  the  southwest,  be- 
cause in  such  positions  the  trees,  when  in  blossom,  are  somewhat 
protected  from  the  bad  effects  of  a  morning  sun  after  spring 
nrosts.  But,  to  remedy  this  more  perfectly,  it  is  sometimes  the 
practice  to  plant  on  the  north  sides  of  hills,  and  this  is  an  effec- 
tual way  where  early  frosts  arc  fatal,  and  where  the  season  is 
long  and  warm  enough  to  ripen  the  fruit  in  any  exposure.     A 


fine  south  slope,  is,  aoutb  of  New  York,  frequontlj  found  too 
warm  for  many  fruit  trees,  iu  soils  that  are  lignt  and  dry. 

Deep  vallies,  with  small  streams  of  water,  are  the  wont  situ- 
ations for  fruit  trees,  as  the  cold  air  settles  down  in  these  vallies 
in  a  calm  frosty  night,  and  buds  and  blossoms  are  very  frequentlj 
destroyed.  We  Know  a  rich  and  fertile  valley  of  this  kind  in 
Connecticut  where  the  Cherry  will  scarcely  grow,  and  a  crop  of 
the  Apple,  or  the  Pear,  is  not  obtained  once  in  ten  years ;  wnile 
the  ac^acent  hill  tops  and  high  country,  a  couple  or  three  miles 
distant,  yield  abundant  crops  annually.  On  the  other  hand  the 
borders  of  large  rivers,  as  the  Hudson,  or  of  some  of  our  large 
inland  lakes,  are  the  most  Dsivourable  situations  for  fruit  trees,  aa 
the  climate  is  rendered  milder  by  large  bodies  of  water.  In  the 
garden  where  we  write,  a  fourth  of  a  mile  from  the  Hudson,  we 
have  frequently  seen  ice  formed  during  the  niffht,  of  the  thick* 
ness  of  a  dollar,  when  the  blossoms  of  the  Apricot  were  fully 
f^xpanded,  without  doing  the  least  hann  to  tbat  tender  fruit 
This  is  owing  to  the  slight  fog  rising  from  the  river  in  the  morn- 
ing, which  softening  the  rays  of  the  suo,  and  dissolving  gpradually 
the  frost,  prevents  the  injurious  effects  of  sadden  thawing.  At 
the  same  time,  a  couple  of  miles  from  the  shores,  this  fruit  will 
often  be  quite  destroyed.  In  short,  the  season  on  the  lower  half 
of  the  Hudson,  may,  from  the  ameliorating  influence  of  the  river, 
be  said  to  be  a  month  longer — a  fortnight  earlier  in  spring,  and 
later  in  autumn,  than  in  we  same  latitude  a  few  miles  distant ; 
and  crops  of  the  more  tender  fruits  are,  therefore,  much  more 
certain  on  the  banks  of  large  rivers  or  lakes,  than  in  inland  dis- 
tricts of  the  same  climate. 


gekshal  rsmarks  ok  ikskcts* 

Thb  insects  injurious  to  fruit  trees  are  numerous,  and  to 
combat  them  successfully  roquircs  a  minute  acquaintance  with 
their  character  and  habits,  while  considering  the  culture  of 
each  class  of  fruit  in  the  succeeding  pages,  we  shall  point  out 
the  habits,  and  suggest  means  of  destroying  the  most  important 
of  these  insects ;  but  in  the  meantime,  we  wish  to  call  attention 
to  some  general  practical  hints  on  this  subject. 

In  the  first  place,  we  cannot  too  strongly  impress  upon  the  at- 
tention of  the  fruit  grower  the  importance  of  watching  carefully, 
and  making  an  early  attack,  upon  every  species  of  insect  It 
is  only  necessary  to  look  for  a  moment  at  the  astonishing  rapid- 

02  IN8KCT8. 

\tj  with  which  many  kinds  of  insects  increase,  if  allowed  to 
get  well  established  in  a  garden,  to  become  fully  aware  of  this, 
llic  common  caterpillars  are  the  young  of  moths  or  butterflieS| 
and  that  careful  observer  of  the  habits  of  insects,  Dr.  Harris, 
says  as  each  female  lays  from  two  to  five  hundred  egsa,  a  thou 
sand  moths  or  bntteriSies  will,  on  the  average,  produce  three 
hundred  diousand  caterpillars ;  if  one  half  this  number,  when 
arrived  at  maturity,  are  females,  they  will  give  forty-five  millions 
of  caterpillars  in  the  second,  and  six  thousand  seven  hundred 
and  fifty  millions  in  the  third  generation.*  To  take  another 
example  the  aphides^  or  plant  lice,  which  are  freauently  seen  in 
great  numbers  on  the  tender  shoots  of  fruit  trees  have  an  almost 
incredibly  prolific  power  of  increase, — ^the  investigations  of 
Reaumur  having  shown  that  one  individual,  in  five  generations, 
may  become  the  progenitor  of  nearly  six  thousand  millions  of 
descendants.  With  such  surpri^ng  powers  of  propagation, 
were  it  not  for  the  havoc  caused  among  insects  by  various  species 
preying  upon  each  other,  by  birds,  and  other  animals,  and  espe- 
cially by  unfavourable  seasons,  vegetation  would  soon  be  entirely 
destroyed  by  them.  As  it  is,  the  orchards  and  gardens  of  care- 
less and  slovenly  cultivators  are  often  overrun  by  them,  and 
many  of  the  finest  crops  suffer  great  injury,  or  total  loss,  from  the 
want  of  a  little  timely  care. 
sC  In  all  well  managed  plantations  of  fruit,  at  the  first  appear- 
'  ance  of  any  injurious  insect,  it  will  be  immediately  seized  upon 
and  destroyed.  A  few  moments  in  the  first  stage  of  insect  life — 
at  the  first  birth  of  the  new  colony — will  do  more  to  rid  us  for 
the  season,  of  that  species,  than  whole  days  of  toil  after  the  mat- 
ter has  been  so  long  neglected  that  the  enemy  has  become  well 
established.  We  know  how  reluctant  a]]^ut  the  experienced 
groweivare  to  set  about  eradicating  what  at  first  seems  a  thing 
of  such  trifling  consequence.  But  such  persons  should  consider 
that  whether  it  is  done  at  first,  or  a  fortnight  after,  is  frequently 
the  difference  between  ten  and  ten  thousand.  A  veiy  little  time, 
regularly  devoted  to  the  extirpation  of  noxious  insects,  will  keep 
a  large  place  <]^uite  free  from  them.  vWe  know  a  very  large 
garden,  filled  with  trees,  and  always  remarkably  free  from  insect 
ravages,  which,  while  those  even  in  its  vicinity  suffer  greatly,  is 
thus  preserved,  by  half  an  hour's  examination  of  the  whole  pre- 
mises two  days  in  the  week  during  the  ffrowing  season.  This 
is  made  early  in  the  morning,  the  best  time  for  the  purpose,  as 
the  insects  are  quiet  while  the  dew  is  yet  upon  the  leaves,  and 
whole  races,  yet  only  partially  developed,  may  be  swept  off  in  a 
single  moment.  In  default  of  other  more  rapid  expedients,  the 
old  mode  of  hand-picking^  and  crushing  or  burning,  is  the  safest 
and  surest  that  can  be  adopted. 

*  For  much  valuable  mformatiou  on  the  habits  of  inaects  injarioos  to 
vegetation,  sec  the  Trcatiso  on  the  Inaects  of  Maasachusetta,  by  br.  T.  W 
Harris,  Cambridge. 


For  practical  porposes,  the  ntunerooa  inaects  infertiog  fruit 
trees  may  be  divided  into  four  classes ;  Ist,  those  which  for  a 
timeharboorinthegroundandmay  be  attacked  in  the  soil;  2d, 
winged  and  other  species,  which  maj  be  attacked  among  the 
branches;  Sd,  aphides,  or  plant  lice  which  infest  the  joui^ 
shootB ;  4th,  mooks,  and  all  night-flying  insects. 

Jnsect9j  the  larvmcr  ffrubt  of  which  harbour  in  ih€  grounddnnaig 
a  certain  season,  as  the  cnrculio  or  plum-weeTil,  an  all  more  or 
less  atfected  by  the  application  of  common  salt  as  a  top  dress- 
ing. On  a  larger  scale — ^in  farm  crops — the  ravsees  of  the 
eat-worm  are  frequently  prevented  by  sowing  three  Doahels  of 
salt  to  the  acre,  and  we  have  seen  it  applied  to  aU  Unds  of  fruit 
groonds  witii  equal  success.  Salt  seems  to  be  strongly  disagree- 
able to  nearly  aU  this  dau  of  insects,  and  the  grubs  perish, 
where  even  a  small  auantity  has  for  two  or  three  seasons  been 
applied  to  the  soil.  In  a  neighbourhood  where  the  peach  worm 
usually  destroys  half  the  peadi  trees,  and  where  wh<rfe  crops  of 
the  plum  are  equally  a  victim  to  the  plum-weevil,  we  have  seen 
the  former  preserved  in  the  healthiest  condition  by  an  annual 
application  of  a  small  handful  of  coarse  salt  about  the  collar  of 
the  tree  at  Ihe  sur&ce  of  the  ground ;  and  the  latter,  made  to 
hold  abundant  crops,  by  a  top  dressing  lulled  every  sprint  of 
packing  salt,  at  the  rate  of  a  quart  to  the  sur&ce  occupied  by 
the  roots  of  every  ftdl  grown  tree. 

Salt,  being  a  powerful  agent,  must  be  applied  for  this  purpose 
with  caution  and  jud^ent.  In  small  quantities  it  promotes 
the  verdure  and  luxuriance  or  fruit  trees,  while  if  implied  ^^tj 
frequently,  or  too  plentifully,  it  will  certainly  cause  the 
death  of  any  tree.  Two  or  three  yesn  top-dressing  in  moderate 
quantity  will  usually  be  found  sufficient  to  drive  away  these  in- 
sects, and  then  the  ]4>plication  need  only  be  repeated  once  in  two 
or  three  seasons.  Any  coarse,  refuse  salt  wul  answer  the  pur- 
pose ;  and  packing  salt  is  preferable  to  that  of  finer  quality,  as  it 
dissolves  slowly  by  the  action  of  the  atmosphere. 

In  the  winded  tUUe^  most  small  insects  may  either  be  driven 
away  by  powerful  odours,  or  killed  by  strong  decoctions  of  to- 
bacco, or  a*  wash  of  diluted  whale-oil  or  other  strong  soap.  At- 
tention has  but  recently  been  called  to  the  repugnance  of  aU  in- 
sects to  stroujg^  odours,  and  there  is  but  little  doubt  that  before 
a  long  time,  it  will  lead  to  the  discovery  of  the  means  of  pre- 
venting the  attacks  of  most  insects  by  means  of  strong  smelling 
liquids  or  odorous  substances.  The  moths  that  attack  furs,  as 
every  one  knows,  are  driven  away  by  pepper-corns  or  tobacco, 
and  should  future  experiments  prove  that  at  certain  seasons, 
when  our  trees  are  roost  likely  to  oe  attacked  by  insects,  we  may 
expel  them  by  hanging  bottles  or  rags  filled  with  strong  smelling 
liquids  in  our  trees,  it  will  certainly  be  a  very  simple  and  easy 
way  of  ridding  ourselves  of  them.    The  brown  scale,  a  trouble* 


some  enemj  of  the  orange  tree,  it  iff  stated  in  the  Oardener^t 
Chronicle^  has  been  destroyed  by  hanging  plants  of  the  common 
chamomile  among  its  branches.  Tlie  odour  of  the  coal  tar  of 
gas  works  is  exceedingly  offensive  to  some  insects  injunous 
to  fruits,  and  it  has  been  found  to  drive  away  the  wire  worm, 
and  other  grubs  that  attack  the  roots  of  plants.  The  vapour  of 
oil  of  turpentine  is  Mai  to  wasps,  and  tliat  of  tobacco  snioke  to 
the  green  fly.  Little  as  yet  is  certainly  known  respecting  the 
exact  power  of  the  various  smells  in  deterring  insects  fioui  at- 
tacking trees.  What  we  do  know,  however,  gives  us  reason  to 
believe  that  much  may  be  hoped  from  experiments  made  with  a 
variety  of  powerful  smelling  substances. 

Tobacco  water  J  and  diluted  whale  oil  soap,  are  the  two  most 
efficient  remedies  for  all  the  small  insects  which  feed  upon  the 
young  shoots  and  leaves  of  plants.  Tobacco  water  is  made  by 
boiling  tobacco  leaves,  or  the  refuse  stems  and  stalks  of  the  to- 
bacco shops.  A  large  pot  is  crowded  full  of  them,  and  then 
filled  up  with  water,  which  is  boiled  till  a  strong  decoction  is 
made.  Thia  is  applied  to  the  young  shoots  and  leaves  with  a 
syringe,  or,  wjien  tie  trees  are  growing  in  nursery  rows,  with  a 
common  white-wash  brush ;  dipping  tne  latter  in  the  liquid  and 
shakingit  sharply  over  the  extremities  or  the  infested  part  of  each 
tree.  Tliis,  or  the  whale  oil  soap-suds,  or  a  mixture  of  both,  will 
kill  every  species  of  plant  lice,  and  nearly  all  other  small  insects 
to  which  young  trees  are  subject. 

The  wash  of  whale  oil  soap  is  made  by  mixing  two  pounds  of 
this  soap,  which  is  one  of  the  cheapest  and  strongest  kinds,  with 
fifteen  gallons  of  water.  This  mixture  is  applied  to  the  leaves 
and  stems  of  plants  with  a  syringe,  or  in  any  other  convenient 
mode,  and  there  are  few  of  the  smaller  insects  that  are  not  de- 
stroyed or  driven  away  by  it  The  merit  of  this  mixture  be- 
longs to  Mr.  David  Haggerston,  of  Boston,  who  first  applied  it 
with  great  success  to  the  roses  lug,  and  received  the  premium  of 
the  Massachusetts  Horticultural  Society  for  its  discovery.  Wlien 
this  soap  cannot  be  obtained,  a. good  substitute  may  bo  made  by 
turning  into  soap  the  lees  of  common  oil  casks,  by  the  applica- 
tion of  potash  and  water  in  the  usual  way. 

Moths  and  other  insects  which  fiy  at  night  arc  destroyed  in 
large  numbers  by  the  following  mode,  first  discovered  by  Victor 
Adouin,  of  France.  A  fiat  saucer  or  vessel  is  set  on  the  ground 
in  which  is  placed  a  light,  partially  covered  with  a  common  bell 
glass  besmeared  with  oil.  All  the  small  moths  are  directly  at- 
tracted by  the  light,  fly  towards  it,  and,  in  their  attempts  to  get 
at  the  light,  arc  either  caught  bj  the  glutinous  sides  of  the  bell 
glass,  or  fall  into  the  basin  of  oil  beneath,  and  in  either  case 
soon  perish.  M.  Adouin  applied  this  to  the  destruction  of  the 
pf/ralis,  a  moth  that  is  very  troublesome  in  the  French  vine- 
yards ;  with  two  hundred  of  these  lights  in  a  vineyard  of  four 

INSB<?T8.  55 

ftcrea,  and  in  a  single  night,  30,000  moths  were  killed  and  found 
dead  on  or  abont  tne  veisela.  By  continuing  his  process  throagh 
the  season,  it  was  estimated  that  he  had  destroyed  female  moths 
sufficient  to  have  produced  a  proeeny  of  orer  a  million  of  cater- 
pillars. In  our  orchards,  myriad  of  insects  may  be  destroyed 
by  lighting  small  bonfires  ci  shaTings,  or  any  reAise  brush;  and 
in  dirtriets  where  the  i^ples  are  much  worm-eaten,  if  repeated 
two  or  three  nights  at  the  proper  season,  this  is  a  Teiy  emcient 
and  cheap  mode  of  getting  rid  of  the  moth  which  causes  so  much 
mischiel  Dr.  Hams,  knowing  how  important  it  is  to  destroy 
the  caterpillar  in  the  moth  state,  has  recommended  flambeaux, 
made  of  tow  wound  round  a  stake  and  dipped  in  tar,  to  be 
stuck  in  the  frait  garden  at  night  and  lighted.  Thousands  of 
moths  will  find  a  speedy  death,  even  in  the  short  time  which 
these  flambeaux  are  ourning.  The  melon-bug  may  be  extirpated 
by  myriads,  in  the  same  way, 

A  simple  and  most  effectual  mode  of  ridding  the  fruit  garden 
of  insects  of  every  description,  which  we  recommend  as  a  gene- 
ral extirpator,  suited  to  all  situations,  is  the  followinff.  Take  a 
number  of  common  bottles,  the  wider  mouthed  the  netter,  and 
fSH  them  about  half  full  of  a  mixture  of  water,  molasses,  and 
vinegar.  Suspend  these  among  the  branches  of  trees,  and  in 
various  parts  of  the  garden.  In  a  fortnight  they  will  be  found 
full  of  dead  insects,  of  every  description  not  too  large  to  enter  the 
bottles — ^wasps,  flies,  beetles,  slnffs,  grubs,  and  a  great  variety  of 
others.  The  bottles  must  now  be  emptied,  and  the  liquid  re- 
newed. A  zealous  amateur  of  our  acquaintance,  caught  last 
season  in  this  way,  more  than  three  bushels  of  insects  of  various 
kinds ;  and  what  is  more  satisfactory,  preserved  his  garden  al- 
most entirely  against  their  attacks  in  any  shape. 

71u  assistance  of  birds  in  destroying  insects  should  be  duly 
estimated  by  the  fruit-grower.  The  quantity  of  eggs  and  in- 
sects in  various  states,  devoured  annually  by  birds,  when  they 
are  encouraged  in  gardens,  is  truly  surprising.  It  is  true  that 
one  or  two  species  of  these,  as  the  ring-tail,  annoy  us  by  prey- 
ing upon  the  earlier  cherries,  but  even  taking  this  into  account, 
we  are  inclined  to  believe  that  we  can  much  better  spare  a  rea- 
sonable share  of  a  few  fruits,  than  dispense  with  the  good  ser- 
vices of  birds  in  ridding  us  of  an  excess  of  insects. 

The  most  serviceable  birds  are  the  common  sparrows,  the 
wren,  the  red-breast,  and,  in  short,  most  of  the  birds  of  this  class. 
All  these  birds  should  be  encouraged  to  build  nests  and  inhabit 
the  fruit  garden,  and  this  may  most  effectually  be  done  by  not 
allowing  a  gun  to  be  fired  witiiin  its  boundaries.  The  introduc- 
tion of  hedges  or  Hve  fences,  ^eatly  promotes  the  domestication 
of  birds,  as  tney  afford  an  admirable  shelter  for  their  nests.  Our 
own  gardens  are  usually  much  more  free  from  insects  than  those 
a  mile  or  two  distant,  and  we  attribute  l^is  in  part  to  our  practice 

56  THX    4PPLX. 

of  encouraging  birdB,  and  to  the  thom  and  arbor  yit»  hedge! 
^rowing  here,  and  which  are  greatly  resorted  to  by  those  of  the 
fathered  tribe  which  arc  the  greatest  enemies  of  the  insect  race. 
Among  animals,  the  toad  and  the  bat  are  great  insect  destroy- 
ers. The  common  bat  Htcs  almost  entindy  upon  them,  and 
in  its  evening  3a]lies  deronis  a  great  number  of  moths,  beetles, 
weevilsi  etc ;  and  the  toad  qoieUy  makes  away  with  numberless 
smaller  insects. 


Fyrtu  MaUu^  L,   JRosaceoB^  of  botanists. 

JhmmkTf  of  the  Aendi;  Apf^Sbofum^  Oennan;  ApfA,  Datoh;  Msbpmnoit 

Italisn;  and  Mmmaina^  ^woirii. 

Tax  Apple  is  the  worldnrenowned  fruit  of  temperate  dimates. 
From  the  most  remote  periods  it  has  been  the  subject  of  praise 
among  writers  and  poets,  and  the  old  mythologies  all  endow  its 
jGroit  with  wonderful  virtues.  The  allegoricid  tree  of  know- 
ledge bore  apples,  and  the  celebrated  golden  fruit  of  the  or- 
duods  of  Hesperus,  guarded  by  the  sleepless  dragon  which  it 
was  one  of  the  triimiphs  of  Hercules  to  slay,  were  also  apples, 
according  to  the  old  l^nds.  Among  the  heathen  gods  of  the 
north,  there  were  apples  fabled  to  possess  the  power  of  confer- 
ring immortality,  which  were  carefully  watched  over  by  the 
goddess  Idtma,  and  kept  for  the  especial  dessert  of  the  ^ods  who 
nit  themaelveB  growing  old !  As  the  mistletoe  flprew  diiefly  on 
the  a]^le  and  the  oak,  the  former  tree  was  lo<3:ed  upon  with 
great  respect  and  reverence  by  the  ancient  Druids  of  Britain, 
and  even  to  this  day,  in.some  parts  of  England,  the  antique  cus- 
tom of  saluting  the  apple  trees  in  the  or<£aTds,  in  the  hope  of 
obtaining  a  good  crop  the  next  year,  still  lingers  among  tho 
farmers  of  portions  of  Devonshire  and  Herefordshire.  This 
old  ceremony  consists  of  saluting  the  tree  with  a  portion  of  the 
contents  of  a  wassail  bowl  of  cider,  with  a  toast  in  it,  by  pouring 
a  little  of  the  cider  about  the  roots,  and  even  hanging  a  bit  of  the 
toast  on  the  branches  of  the  most  barren,  the  fanner  and  his 
men  dancing  in  a  circle  round  the  tree,  and  singing  rude  song^ 
like  the  following: 

**  Here's  to  thee,  old  apple  tree^. 
Whence  thou  mayst  bad,  and  whence  thoa  majst  blow ; 
And  whence  thou  mayst  bear  apples  enow, 
HatsAillI  caps  full— 
Bushels  and  sacksAilll 
Huzza  I" 

ITS   USES.  5l 

Hie  ftpecies  of  crab  from  yfhkh  all  oar  sorts  of  Applos  hare 
originated,  is  wild  in  most  parts  of  £arope.  There  are  indeed 
two  or  three  kinds  of  wild  crab  belonging  to  this  conntiy ;  as  the 
Pyrus  coronariOf  or  sweet  scented  crab,  with  fruit  about  an  inch 
in  diameter,  pt>ws  in  many  parts  of  the  United  States ;  and  the 
wild  crab  of  Oregon,  P.rivularuf^  bearing  a  reddish  jeilow  fruit 
about  the  size  of  a  cherry,  which  the  Chenook  Indians  use  as  an 
article  of  food ;  yet  none  of  our  cultivated  varieties  of  apple  have 
been  raised  from  these  native  crabs,  but  from  seeds  of  the  species 
brought  here  by  the  colonists  frx>m  Europe. 

The  Apple  tree  is^  however,  most  perfectly  naturalised  in 
America,  and  in  the  northern  and  middle  portions  of  the  United 
States  succeeds  as  well,  or,  as  we  believe,  better  than  in  any  part 
of  the  world.  The  most  celebrated  apples  of  Germany  and  the 
north  of  Europe,  are  not  superiour  to  many  of  the  varieties  ori- 
ginated here,  and  the  American  or  Newtown  Pippin  is  now 
pretty  generally  admitted  to  be  the  finest  apple  in  the  world. 
No  better  proof  of  the  perfect  adaptation  of  our  soil  and  climate 
to  this  tree  can  be  desired,  than  the  seemingly  spontaneous  pro- 
duction of  such  varieties  as  this,  the  Baldwin,  tne  Spitzenburg, 
or  the  Swaar — all  fruits  of  delicious  flavour  and  great  beauty 
of  appearance. 

The  Apple  is  usually  a  very  hardy  and  rather  slow  growing 
ft^t  tree,  with  a  low  spreading,  rather  irregular  head,  and  bears 
an  abundance  of  white  blossoms  tinged  with  red.  In  a  wild 
state  it  is  veiy  long-lived,  but  the  finest  garden  sorts  usually  live 
about  fifty  or  eighty  years ;  though  by  proper  care,  they  may  be 
kept  healthy  and  productive  much  longer.  Although  the  apple 
generally  forms  a  tree  of  medium  growth,  there  are  many  speci- 
mens in  this  country  of  enormous  size.  Among  others  we  re- 
collect two  in  the  grounds  of  Mr.  Hall,  of  Rayanham,  Rhode 
Island,  which,  ten  years  ago,  were  ISO  years  old ;  the  trunk  of 
one  of  these  trees  then  measured,  at  one  foot  from  the  ground,  thir- 
teen feet  two  inches,  and  the  other  twelve  feet  two  inches.  The 
trees  bore  that  season  about  thirty  orforty  bushels,  but  in  the  year 
1780  they  together  bore  one  hundred  and  one  bushels  of  apples. 
In  Duxbury,  Plymouth  county,  Mass^  is  a  tree  which  in  its 
girth  measures  twelve  feet  five  inches,  and  which  has  yielded  in 
a  single  season  121^  bushels. 

Uses  07  TBB  APPLE.  No  frtiit  IS  morc  universally  liked  or 
generally  nsed  than  the  apple.  It  is  exceedingly  wholesome, 
and,  medicinally,  is  considered  cooling,  and  laxative,  and  use- 
fiil  in  all  inflammatory  diseases.  The  finest  sorts  are  much 
esteemed  for  the  dessert,  and  the  little  care  required  in  its  culture, 
renders  it  the  most  abundant  of  all  fruits  in  temperate  climates. 
As  the  earliest  sorts  ripen  about  the  last  of  June,  and  the  latest 
can  be  preserved  until  that  season,  it  may  be  considered  as  a 
frait  in  perfection  the  whole  year.    Besides  its  merits  for  the 

58  THS  APFLK. 

dessert,  tbo  value  of  the  apple  is  still  greater  for  the  kitchen, 
and  in  sauces,  pies,  tarts,  preserves,  and  jellies,  and  roasted  and 
boiled,  this  fruit  is  the  constant  and  invaluable  resource  of  the 
kitchen.  Apple  butter^  made  by  stewing  pared  and  sliced  sweet 
apples  in  new  cider  until  the  whole  is  son  and  pulpy,  is  a  com- 
mon and  excellent  article  of  food  in  many  farmers'  &milies,  and 
is  frequently  made  by  the  barrel,  in  Connecticut  In  France, 
nearly  the  same  preparation  is  formed  by  simmering  apples  in 
new  wine,  until  tne  whole  becomes  a  sort  of  marmalade,  which 
is  called  Eaisine,  The  juice  of  the  apple  unfermented,  is,  in 
some  parts  of  the  country,  boiled  down  till  it  becomes  molasses. 
When  fermented  it  forms  cider^  and  if  this  is  carefully  made 
from  the  best  cider  apples,  it  is  nearly  equal  to  wine ;  in  hci 
many  hundreds  of  barrels,  of  the  cider  of  New-Jersey,  have 
been  manufactured  in  a  single  ^ear,  into  an  imitation  Cham- 
pagne, which  is  scarcely  distinguished  by  many  from  that  made 
from  the  grape. 

Dried  apples  are  also  a  considerable  article  of  commerce. 
Farmers  usually  pare  and  quarter  them  by  hand,  and  dry  them 
in  the  sun;  but  those  who  pursue  it  as  a  matter  of  trade  pare 
them  by  machinery,  and  dry  them  slowly  in  ovens.  They  are 
then  packed  in  bags  or  barrels,  and  are  used  either  at  homci  in 
sea  stores,  or  are  exported. 

In  perfumery,  the  pulp  of  this  fruit,  mixed  intimately  with 
lard,  forms  pomatum.  The  wood  is  employed  for  lasts,  and  for 
other  purposes  by  turners;  and  being  fine  grained  and  com- 
pact is  sometimes  stained  black,  and  used  for  ebony,  by  cabinet 

The  quality  of  an  apple  ie  always  judged  of  by  the  use  to 
which  it  is  to  be  applied.  A  table  or  dessert  apple  of  the  finest 
quality  should  be  of  medium  size,  regular  form  and  fine  colour ; 
and  the  flesh  should  be  fine-grained,  crisp,  or  tender,  and  of  a 
sprightly  or  rich  flavour,  and  aroma.  Very  large  sized,  or  coarse 
apples  are  only  admired  by  persons  who  have  little  knowledge 
of  the  true  criterion  of  excellence.  Apples  for  kitchen  use 
should  have  the  property  of  cooking  evenly  into  a  tender  pulpy 
consistence,  and  are  generally  acid  in  flavour;  and,  although 
there  are  many  good  cooking  apples  unfit  for  the  table,  many 
sorts,  as  the  Fall  Pippin  and  the  Greening,  are  excellent  for 
both  purposes.  To  this  we  may  add  that  for  the  common  apple- 
sauce matle  by  farmers  a  high  flavoured  sweet  apple,  which  Iwila 
somewhat  firm,  is  preferred,  as  this  is  generally  made  with  cider. 
Tlie  very  common  use  made  of  this  cheap  preserve  at  the  north 
and  west,  and  the  recent  practice  of  fattening  hogs,  horses,  and 
other  animals  upon  sweet  apples,  accounts  for  the  much  greater 
number  of  varieties  of  sweet  apples  held  in  esteem  here  ttian  in 
any  other  country.  In  fact,  so  excellent  has  the  saccharine  mat- 
ter of  the  apple  been  found  for  this  purpose,  that  whole  orchards 

IT8  U8X8.  59 

of  sweet  apples  are  frequently  planted  here  for  the  purposes  of  fii^ 
tening  swine  and  cattle,  which  arc  allowed  to  mn  at  large  in  ihem« 

Cider  appl^  *^  varieties  frequently  nsoless  for  any  other 
purpose.  The  best  for  this  purpose  are  rather  tough,  piquant^ 
and  astringent ;  their  juice  has  a  high  ipecific  quality,  and  they 
are  nsually  great  bearers ;  as  the  Harrison,  the  Red  Streak,  and 
the  Virginia  Crab. 

PaoPAOAnoN.  The  apple  for  propagation  is  usually  raised 
from  seeds  obtained  from  the  pomace  of  the  cider  mills,  and  a 
preference  is  always  given  to  that  from  thrifty  young  orchards. 
These  are  sown  in  antamti,  in  broad-  drills,  in  good  mellow  soil, 
and  they  remain  in  the  seed  buds,  attention  being  paid  to  keep- 
ing the  soil  loose  and  free  from  weeds,  from  one  to  three  years, 
according  to  the  ridmess  of  the  soil  When  the  seedlinn  are 
a  little  more  than  a  fourth  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  they  uonld 
be  taken  up  in  the  spring  or  antnnm,  their  tap  roots  shortened, 
and  then  planted  in  nursery  rows,  one  foot  apart  and  three  to 
four  feet  between  the  rows.  If  the  plants  are  thrifty,  and  the  soil 
good,  they  may  be  budded  the  foUowing  autumn,  within  three 
or  foar  inches  of  the  ground,  and  this  is  the  most  speedy  mode  of 
obtaining  strong,  stra^ht,  thrifty  plants.  Grafting  is  generally 
perform^  when  the  stocks  are  about  half  an  inch  thick ;  and 
for  several  modes  of  perfcHrming  it  on  the  apple,  see  the  remarks 
on  grafting  in  a  previous  page.  When  young  trees  are  feeble 
in  the  nursery,  it  is  usual  to  head  them  back  two  thirds  the  length 
of  tiie  graft,  when  they  are  three  or  four  feet  high,  to  make  them 
throw  up  a  strong  vigorous  shoot 

Apple  stocks  for  dwaife  are  raised  by  layers,  as  pointed  out  in 
the  artide  on  Layers. 

Apple  trees  for  transplanting  to  ordiards  should  be  at  least 
two  years  budded,  and  six  or  seven  feet  high,  and  they  should 
have  a  proper  balance  of  head  or  side  branches. 

Soil  ahd  struATioir.  The  apfde  will  trrow  on  a  great  variety 
of  soils,  but  it  seldom  thrives  on  very  dry  sands,  or  soils  satu- 
rated with  moisture.  Its  favourite  soil,  in  all  countries,  is  a 
strong  loam  of  a  calcareous  or  limestone  nature.  A  deep,  strong 
gravelly,  marly,  or  clayey  loam,  or  a  strong  sandy  loam  on  a 
gravelly  subsoil,  produces  the  greatest  crops,  and  the  highest 
naronred  fruit,  as  well  as  the  utmost  longevity  of  the  trees. 
Such  a  soil  is  moist  rather  than  dry,  the  most  fevourable  con- 
dition for  this  fruit.  Too  damp  soils  may  often  be  rendered  fit 
for  the  apple  by  thorough  draining,  and  too  dry  ones  bv  deep 
subsoil  ploughing,  or  trenching,  where  the  subsoil  is  of  a  heavier 
texture.  And  many  apple  orchards  in  New-England  are  very 
flourishing  and  productive  on  soils  so  stony  and  rock-covered 
(though  naturally  fertile)  as  to  be  unfit  for  any  other  crop.* 

*  Blowing  sands,  says  Mr.  Coxe,  when  bottomed  on  a  dry  substratam,  and 

60  THE  APPLK. 

Ab  regards  site,  apple  orchards  flooiish  best,  in  soaihem  aitd 
middle  portions  of  the  country,  on  north  slopes,  and  often  even 
on  the  steep  north  sides  of  hilk,  where  the  climate  is  hot  and  dry. 
Farther  north  a  southern  or  southeastern  aspect  is  preferable, 
to  ripen  the  crop  and  the  wood  more  perfectly. 

We  may  here  remark  that  almost  every  district  of  the  country 
has  one  or  more  varieties  which,  having  had  its  origin  there, 
seems  also  peculiarly  adapted  to  the  sod  and  climate  of  that 
jooaiity.  Ijms  the  Kewtown  pippin,  and  the  Spitzenbuigh  are 
the  great  apples  of  New-York ;  the  Baldwin,  and  the  Roxbury 
Rnssett,  of  Massachusetts;  the  Bellflower  and  the  Bambo,  of 
Pennsylvania  and  New-Jersey;  and  the  Peck's  Pleasant  and  the 
Seek-no-further,  of  Connecticnt ;  and  though  these  i^pies  are 
cultivated  with  greater  or  less  success  in  other  parts  of  the 
country,  yet  nowhere  is  their  flavour  and  productiveness  so 
perfect  as  in  the  best  soils  of  their  native  districts — exoepting  in 
tuch  other  districts  where  a  ioil  conUUninff  the  mnm  tlew^enU  *nd 
a  tarresponding  elinuUe  are  also  to  be  found. 

Plantino  AMD  cuLnYATioy  OF  OBOHARDS.  With  the  excep- 
tion of  a  few  early  and  very  choice  sorts  in  the  fruit  garden,  the 
orchard  is  the  place  for  this  tree,  and  indeed,  when  we  consider 
the  great  value  and  usefulness  of  apples  to  the  &rmer,  it  is  easy 
to  see  that  no  £aim  is  c<mi{dete  without  a  large  and  well  selected 
cp^  orchard. 

The  distance  at  which  the  trees  should  be  planted  in  an  or- 
chard, depends  upon  the  mode  in  which  they  are  to  be  treated. 
When  it  is  desired  finally  to  cover  and  devote  the  whole  ground 
to  the  trees,  thirty  feet  apart  is  the  proper  interval,  but  where  the 
&rmer  wishes  to  keep  the  land  between  the  trees  in  grain  and 
grass,  fifty  feet  is  not  too  great  a  distance  in  strong  soils.  Forty 
feet  apart)  however,  is  the  usual  distance  at  which  the  trees  are 
planted  in  orchards. 

Before  transplanting,  the  ground  should  be  well  prepared  for 
the  trees,  as  we  have  insisted  in  a  previous  page,  and  vigo- 
rous healthy  young  trees  should  be  selected  from  the  narsenes. 
As  there  is  a  great  difierence  in  the  natural  growth,  shape,  and 
size  of  the  various  sorts  of  apple  trees,  those  of  the  same  kinds 
should  be  planted  in  the  rows  together,  or  near  each  other;  this 

aided  by  msii  or  meadow  mud,  will  be  fouDd  capable  of  producing  very  fine 
apple  trees.  Gkwd  coltivatioii,  and  a  system  of  high  manuring^  will  always  re- 
munerate the  proprietor  of  an  orchard,  ezoept  it  be  planted  on  a  quidceand 
or  a  oold  clay ;  in  such  soils,  no  management  can  prevent  an  early  decay. 
One  of  the  most  thrifty  orchards  I  possess,  was  planted  on  a  blowing  sand, 
on  which  I  carted  throe  thousand  loads  of  mud  on  ten  acres,  at  an  expense 
of  about  twenty-five  dollars  per  acre,  exclusive  of  much  other  manure;  on 
this  land  I  have  raised  good  wheat  and  clovor.  Of  five  rows  of  the  Wine- 
sap  apple  planted  upon  it  eight  years  ago,  on  the  summit  of  a  sandy  knoll, 
not  one  haa  died  out  of  near  an  hundred  trees— all  abundant  bearers  of 
tai^  and  fiiir  apples.—  Vkw  offhUt  J^ees,  p  81. 


«rill  not  onlj  fiunKtste  culture  and  gathering  the  ftnit,  but  will 
add  to  the  neatness  and  orderly  appearance  of  the  orchard. 

His  an  indispenmble  requisite^  in  all  'iftmng  orchards,  to  keep 
the  grfmnd  melhw  and  looie  by  cultivation;  at  least  for  the  first 
few  jean,  nntil  the  trees  are  well  estabKahed.  Indeed,  of  twc 
adjoinhiff  orchards,  one  planted  and  kept  in  grass,  and  the  other 
l^ooghed  for  the  fint  five  years,  there  will  be  an  incredible  dif- 
ference in  fevcor  of  the  latter.  Not  only  will  these  trees  show 
rich  daik  luxuriant  foliage,  and  clean  smooth  stems,  while  those 
neglected  will  have  a  starved  and  sickly  look,  but  the  size  of  the 
trees  in  the  cultivated  orchard  will  be  treble  that  of  the  others  at 
the  end  of  this  time,  and  a  tree  in  one  will  be  ready  to  bear  an 
abandant  crop,  beibre  the  other  has  conmienced  yielding  a  peck 
of  good  fimit  Fallow  crope  are  the  best  for  orchaids — potatoes, 
be^  carrots,  bnsh  beans,  and  the  like ;  bat  whatever  crops  may 
be  ffrown  it  riionld  constantly  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  roots 
of  uie  tree  require  the  sole  occupancy  of  the  ground  so  far  as 
they  extend  and  therefore  that  an  area  of  more  than  the  diameter 
of  the  head  of  the  tree  should  be  kept  clean  of  crops,  weeds,  and 

When  the  least  symptom  of  fidlure  or  decay  in  a  bearing 
orchard  is  perceived,  the  ground  should  have  a  good  top  dressing 
of  manure,  and  of  marl,  or  mild  lime,  in  altemate  years.  It  is 
folly  to  suppose  that  so  strong  growing  a  tree  as  the  apple,  when 
planted  thickly  in  an  orchard,  will  not,  after  a  few  heavy  crops 
of  fruit,  exhaust  the  soil  of  much  of  its  proper  food.  If  we  de- 
aire  our  trees  to  continue  in  a  healthy  bearing  state,  we  should, 
therefore,  manure  ikem  as  regnlariy  as  any  other  crop,  and  they 
will  ami^y  repay  the  expense.  There  is  scarcely  a  nirm  where 
the  waste  of  barn-yard  manure, — ^the  urine,  etc.,  if  properly 
economized  by  mixing  this  animal  excrement  with  the  muck- 
heu) — ^would  not  be  amply  snfScient  to  Jceep  the  orchards  in  the 
highest  conditioii.  And  how  many  moss-covered,  barren  or- 
duirds,  fermeriy  very  productive,  do  we  not  every  day  see,  which 
only  require  a  plentiful  new  supply  of  food  in  a  substantial  top- 
dressing,  thorough  scraping  of  the  stems,  and  washing  with 
diluted  soft  soap,  to  htvag  them  again  into  the  finest  state  of 
T%onr  and  productiveness ! 

l%e  bearing  year  of  the  Apple,  in  common  culture,  only  takes 
place  every  altemate  year,  owing  to  the  excessive  crops  which 
it  usually  produces,  by  which  they  exhaust  most  of  the  organ- 
iable  naatter  laid  up  by  the  tree,  which  then  requires  another 
season  to  recover,  and  collect  a  sufficient  supply  again  to  form 
fruit  buds.  When  half  the  fruit  is  thinned  out  in  a  young  state, 
leaving  only  a  moderate  crop,  the  apple,  like  other  fruit  trees, 
will  bear  every  year,  as  it  will  also,  if  the  soil  is  kept  in  high 
condition.  The  bearing  year  of  an  apple  tree,  or  a  whole  or- 
duffd,  may  be  changed  by  picking  off  the  fruit  when  the  trees 

62  THB   APPLX. 

first  fthow  good  crops,  allowing  it  to  renuun  only  in  the  alter 
naie  sea-sous  which  we  wish  to  make  the  bearing  year.* 

Prunivo.  'ilie  apple  in  orchards  requires  very  little  pmning 
if  the  trees,  while  the  orchard  is  young,  are  carefully  in-' 
spected  every  year,  a  little  before  midaummer,  and  all  crossing 
branches  taken  out  while  they  are  email.  When  the  heads  are 
once  properly  adjusted  and  well  balanced,  the  less  the  pronin 
saw  and  knife  are  used  the  better,  and  the  cutting  out  of  de 
limbs,  and  removal  <^  such  as  nuiy  interfere  with  others,  or  too 
greatly  crowd  up  the  head  of  the  tree,  is  all  that  an  orchard  will 
usually  require.  But  wherever  a  limb  is  pruned  away,  the  sur- 
&ce  of  the  wound  should  be  neatly  smootned,  and  if  it  exceeds 
an  inch  in  diameter,  it  should  be  covered  with  the  liquid  shellac 
previously  noticed,  or  bmdied  over  with  common  white  lead, 
taking  care  with  the  latter,  not  to  paint  the  bark  also. 

Insbots.  There  are  three  or  four  insects  that  in  some  parts 
of  the  country,  are  very  destructive  or  injurious  to  this  tree ;  a 
knowledge  of  the  halnts  of  which,  is  therefore  very  important  to 

*  One  of  t^e  finest  orohards  in  America  is  that  of  Pelham  fitrm,  st 
Kflopus,  on  the  Hudson.  It  is  no  less  remaricable  for  the  beauty  and  high 
flavour  of  its  fruit,  than  tlie  constant  produotiveneaB  of  treeft  The  pro- 
prietor, R.  L.  Pell,  Esq.,  has  kindly  furnished  us  with  some  notes  of  his  ex- 
periments on  fruit  trees,  and  we  subjoin  the  following  highly  interesting 
one  on  the  Apple. 

**For  several  yeais  pest  I  have  been  experlBienting  on  the  apple,  having 
an  orchard  of  2,000  bearing  Newtown  Pippin  trees.  I  found  it  very  un- 
profitable to  wait  for  what  is  termed  the  *  bearing  year,'  and  it  has  been 
my  aim  to  assist  nature,  so  as  to  enable  the  trees  to  bear  every  year.  I 
have  noticed  that  from  the  excessive  productiveness  of  this  tree,  it  requires 
the  intermediate  year  to  recover  itsel^to  extract  from  the  earth  and  tiie 
atmo^here  the  materials  to  enable  ft  to  produce  again.  This  it  is  not  able 
to  do,  unassisted  l>y  art)  while  it  ia  loaded  with  finiit)  and  the  intervening 
year  is  lost;  i^  however,  the  tree  is  supplied  with  proper  food  it  will  bear 
every  year;  at  least  such  has  been  the  result  of  my  experiments.  Three 
years  ago,  in  April,  I  scraped  all  the  rough  bark  from  the  stems  of  several 
thousand  trees  in  my  orchards,  and  washed  all  the  trunks  and  Kmbs  within 
reach  with  soft  soap;  trimmed  oat  all  the  tmuiohes  that  crossed  each  other, 
early  in  June,  and  painted  the  wounded  part  with  white  l^id,  to  exdude 
moisture  and  prevent  decay.  I  then,  in  the  latter  pert  of  the  same  month, 
slit  the  back  by  running  a  sharp  pointed  knife  from  the  ground  to  the  first 
set  of  limbs  which  prevents  the  tree  from  becoming  baric  bound,  and  gives 
the  young  wood  an  opportunity  of  expanding.  In  July  I  placed  one  pedc 
of  oyster  shell  lime  under  each  tree,  and  left  it  piled  about  the  trunk  until 
November,  during  which  time  the  drought  was  excessive.  In  November 
the  lime  was  dug  in  thoroughly.  The  following  year  I  collected  from  these 
trees  1700  barrels  of  fruit,  part  of  which  was  sold  in  New-York  for  four, 
and  others  in  London  for  nine  dollars  per  barrel  The  cider  made  from  the 
refuse,  delivered  at  the  mill  two  dajrs  after  its  roanu&cture,  I  sold  for  three 
dollars  and  three  quarters  per  barrel  of  83  gallons,  exclusive  of  the  barrel 
In  October  I  manured  these  trees  with  stable  manure  in  which  the  ammo- 
nia had  been  Axed,  and  covered  this  immediately  with  earth.  The  suc- 
ceeding autumn  they  were  literally  bending  to  the  ground  with  the  finest 
fruit  I  ever  saw,  while  the  other  trees  in  my  orchard  not  so  treated  are 
quite  baireni  the  last  season  having  been  their  bearing.    I  am  now  placing 


the  orchardist  These  are  chiefly  the  borer*  the  cateipillar,  And 
the  canker  worm. 

The  apple  Borer  is,  as  we  usually  see  it' in  the  trunks  of  the 
apple,  quince,  and  thorn  trees,  a  fleshy  white  grub^  which  enters 
the  tree  at  the  collar,  just  at  Uie  aar&fce  of  &%  fround,  where 
the  bark  is  tender,  and  either  girdles  the  tree  or  perforates  it 
through  every  part  of  the  stem,  finally  cansii^  its  death.  This 
grub  is  the  larvs  of  a  brown  and  white  strijMd  beetle,  half  an  indi 
lon^,  {Saperda  bivittaia^)  and  it  remains  in  this  grub  state  two 
or  Uiree  years,  coming  out  of  the  tree  in  a  butteriy  form  early  in 
June — ^flying  in  the  ni^ht  only,  from  tree  to  tree  after  its  food, 
and  finally  depositing  its  eggs  during  this  and  the  next  month, 
in  the  collsr  of  the  tree. 

The  most  effectoal  mode  of  destroying  the  boier,  is  that  of 
killing  it  by  thrusting  a  flexible  wire  as  fiir  as  poasible  into  its 
hole.  Dr.  Harns  recommends  placing  a  bit  of  camphor  in  the 
mouth  of  the  aperture  and  pli:^ggiDg  the  hole  with  soft  wood* 
But  it  is  always  better  to  prevent  tae  attack  oi  the  boier,  by 
placing  about  the  trunk,  early  in  the  q^ring,  a  small  mound  of 
ashes  or  lime ;  and  where  orchards  have  already  become  greatly 
infested  with  this  insect,  the  beetles  may  be  destroyed  by  thou- 
sands,  in  June,  by  building  small  bonfires  of  shavings  in  various 
parte  of  the  orcliard.  The  attacks  of  the  bwer  on  nursery  trees 
may,  in  a  great  measure,  be  prevented  by  washing  the  stems  in 
May,  quite  down  to  the  ground  with  a  solution  of  two  ponnds 
of  potash  in  e^ht  quarts  of  water. 

The  Caierpular  is  a  great  pestilence  in  the  i^ple  orchard. 
The  species  which  is  most  troublesome  to  our  fruit  trees  (67uio- 
campa  americana^)  is  bred  by  a  sort  of  lackey  moth,  different 
fix>m  that  most  troublesome  in  Europe,  but  its  habits  as  a 
caterpillar  are  quite  as  annoying  to  the  orchardist  The  moth 
of  our  common  caterpillar  is  a  reddish  brown  insect,  whose  ex- 
panded wings  measure  about  an  inch  and  a  hal£  These  moths 
appear  in  great  abundance  in  midsummer,  flying  only  at  night, 
and  often  buzzing  about  the  candles  in  our  houses.  In  laying 
their  eggs,  they  ^oose  principally  the  apple  or  cherry,  and  they 
deposit  thousands  of  small  eggs  about  the  forks  and  extremities 
of  the  young  branches.  The  next  season,  about  the  middle  of 
May,  t^ese  eggs  begin  to  hatch,  and  the  young  caterpillars  in 
myriads,  come  forth  weaving  their  nests  &r  tents  in  the  fork  of 

round  eaoh  tree  one  peck  of  charooal  dnst,  and  propose  in  the  spring  to 
cover  it  ftooi  tbe  oonpost  heap. 

*'Mj8oU  is  a  8tn»0»  deep,  sand/  kMm  on  agraveUjsabsoO.  I  ooltivale 
my  orchard  grouzidfl^  as  if  there  wore  no  trees  on  them,  and  raise  grain  of 
every  kind  except  rye,  whick  grain  is  ao  very  injurious  that  I  believe  three 
successive  crops  of  it  would  destroy  any  orchard  younger  than  twenty 
years;  I  raised  hist  year  in  an  orchard  containing  90  acres,  trees  18  years 
old,  a  crop  of  Indian  com  which  averaged  140  bnshels  of  ears  to  the 

64  THK  APPLE. 

Uie  branches.  If  they  are  allowed  by  tho  carelem  cultivator  to 
go  on  and  multiply,  as  they  soon  do,  incredibly  fast,  they  will 
m  a  few  seasonsy^^-sometimes  in  a  single  year, — ^increase  to 
such  an  extent  as  almost  to  cover  the  branches.  In  this  cater- 
pillar state  they  live  six  or  seven  weeks,  feeding  most  vora- 
ciously upon  Ihe  leaves,  and  often  stripping  whole  trees  of  their 
foliage.  Their  eflfect  upon  the  tree  at  this  period  of  the  season, 
when  the  leaves  are  most  important  to  the  health  of  the  tree  and 
the  growth  of  the  fhiit,  is  most  deplorable.  The  crop  is  stnnted^ 
the  health  of  l^e  tree  enfeebled,  and,  if  they  are  allowed  to  re- 
main unmolested  for  several  seasons,  they  will  often  destroy  its 
life  or  render  it  exeeedinsly  decrepid  and  feeble. 

To  destroy  the  caterpilhir  various  modes  are  adopted.  One  of 
the  most  effectual  is  that  practised  by  Mr.  Pell  in  his  orchards, 
which  is  to  touch  the  nest  with  a  sponge,  attached  to  the  end 
of  a  pole,  and  dipped  in  strong  spirits  of  anmionia ;  the  sponge 
should  be  turned  slowly  round  in  the  nests,  and  every  insect 
COTding  in  contact  will  be  instantly  killed.  This  should  be  done 
early  in  the  season.  Or,  (hey  may  be  brought  down  and  de- 
stroyed with  a  round  brush  fixed  to  the  end  of  a  pole,  and  work- 
ed about  in  the  nests.  On  small  trees  they  may  be  stripped  off 
with  the  hand,  and  crushed  under  the  foot ;  and  by  this  plain 
and  simple  mode,  begun  in  time,  with  the  aid  of  a  ladder,  they 
may  in  a  litfge  orchard  be  most  effectually  kept  under  by  a  few 
moments'  daily  labour  of  a  single  man.  As  they  do  not  leave 
their  nests  until  nine  in  the  morning,  the  extirpator  of  caterpil- 
lars should  always  be  abroad  and  busy  before  that  time,  and 
while  they  are  all  lying  quietly  in  the  nests.  And  let  him  never 
ferset  that  he  nmy  do  more  in  an  hour  when  he  commences 
eany  in  the  season,  than  he  will  in  a  whole  day  at  a  later  pe- 
riod, when  they  are  thoroughly  scattered  amon^  the  trees.  If 
they  are  allowed  to  remain  unm<^ested,  they  spm  their  cocoons 
about  the  middle  of  June,  and  in  a  fortnight's  time  comes  forth 
from  them  a  fredi  brood  of  moths — ^which,  if  Ihey  are  not  put  an 
end  to  by  bonfires,  will  again  lay  the  eggs  of  an  infinite  number 
of  caterpillars  for  the  next  spring. 

The  Canker  warrn^  (Anuopteryx  pometaria^  of  Harris,)  is  in 
some  parts  of  the  country,  one  of  die  worst  enemies  ci  the  apple, 
destroying  also  its  fi^iage  with  great  rapidity.  It  is  not  yet  com* 
mon  here,  but  in  some  parts  of  New-£^^and  it  has  become  a 
serious  enemy.  The  male  is  a  moth  with  pale,  ash-cc^oured 
wings  with  a  black  dot,  a  little  more  than  an  nidi  across.  Tlie 
female  is  wingless,  oval,  dark  ash-colored  above,  and  gray  beneath. 

The  canker  worm  usually  rises  out  of  the  around  very  early 
in  the  sprint,  chiefly  in  March,  as  soon  as  me  ground  is  free 
from  frost ;  though  a  few  also  find  their  way  up  in  the  autumn. 
The  females  having  no  wings,  climb  slowly  up  the  trunks  of 
the  trees,  while  the  winged  nudes  hover  about  to  pair  with  them 

Yevy  soon  sfter  this  if  ire  examine  the  trees  we  shall  seo  the 
eggs  of  whidi  evevy  female  lays  some  sixtj  or  a  htmdred, 
med  oyer,  eioaely  arranged  in  rows  and  placed  in  the  forkn  of 
branchea  and  amcm  the  yoong  twigs.  Aooat  the  twentieth  a^ 
May,  these  eggs  are  hatched,  and  the  canker  worms,  dnsky  brown, 
or  ash-oofeured  with  a  yellow  stripe,  make  their  appearance  and 
oMunenoe  preying  iqpon  the  foliage.  When  they  are  abundant 
they  make  T$fiid  progress,  and  in  places,  where  the  colony  is 
fiimly  established,  they  will  sometimes  strip  an  orchard  in  a  ibw 
day%  making  it  look  as  if  aire  had  passed  over  it  After  feed- 
ing about  fiw  weds,  they  descend  into  the  ground  three  or  ibnr 
inches,  where  they  remain  in  a  chr^saliB  fem,  to  emem  spin 
the  next  season.  As  the  female  is  not  provided  with  wings, 
they  do  not  spread  Terr  npidly  from  one  plaee  to  another. 

The  attaeks  npon  tne  canker  worm  dioold  be  chiefly  made 
upon  the  female,  in  her  way  from  the  gronnd  np  the  trank  of 
the  tree. 

The  common  mode  of  protecting  apple  trees  is  to  snrronnd 
the  trunk  with  a  belt  or  bandage  ot  canvass,  feur  or  Are  inches 
wide,  which  is  then  thickly  smeared  with  tar.  In  order  to  prevent 
the  tar  from  aoon  becoming  dry  and  hard,  a  Ktde  coarse  train  oil 
most  be  well  mixed  with  it;  and  it  shonid  be  watched  and  re- 
newed as  often  as  it  appears  necessary.  This  tarred  belt  catches 
and  detains  all  the  females  on  their  upward  journey,  and  prevents 
them  from  aeceD<ting  the  tree  to  lay  their  eggs.  And  if  hept  in 
Older  it  will  very  e^Mtnally  deter  and  destroy  tiiem.  when 
the  canker  worm  is  abundant^  it  is  necessary  to  apply  the  tarred 
bandage  in  October,  and  let  it  remain  till  the  last  of  May,  bat 
usually  it  will  be  sufficient  to  use  it  in  the  spring.  Tt  is  probable 
that  a  mixture  of  eoal  tar  and  common  tar  would  be  the  best 
applieatioo ;  as  it  is  more  offensive  and  will  not  so  easily  dry 
uti  become  usolem,  hj  exposoie  to  the  air  and  sun.  Some 
persons  apf^y  ihe  tar  dinctly  to  the  stems  of  the  tree,  but  this 
has  a  veiy  injurious  effect  upon  the  trank.  Old  India  rubber, 
mdted  in  an  iron  vessel  over  a  very  hot  fire,  ibnns  a  very  adhe- 
sive fluid  which  is  not  affected  by  exposure  to  the  weather,  and 
is  considered,  by  those  who  have  made  use  of  it,  the  best  sub- 
stance fer  smearii^^  the  bandages,  as  being  a  more  eflbctual  bai^ 
rier,  and  seldom  or  never  leqmring  renewal. 

Mr.  Jonathan  Dennis,  jjt.  of  Portnnouth,  Rhode  Island,  has 
invented  and  patented  a  mrcular  leaden  trough,  which  surrounds 
the  trunk  of  tne  tree,  and  is  filled  with  oi),  and  stops  effectually 
the  ascent  of  the  csoker  worm.  There  appear,  however,  to  be 
two  objectiotts  to  this  tiouffh,  as  it  is  frequently  used ;  one,  the 
escape  of  the  oil  if  not  carerally  used,  which  injures  the  tree ;  and 
the  othov  the  injurious  effect  of  nailing  the  troughs  to  the  bark 
OT  trunk.  They  should  be  supported  by  wedges  of  wood  driven 
in  between  the  trough  and  the  trunk,  and  the  spaces  completely 

6d  IHK  APPLX. 

filled  up  with  liquid  daj  (mt  on  with  a  brash.  The  ioflecti 
must  be  taken  oat  and  the  oil  renewed,  fram  time  to  time.  For 
disirictB  where  the  canker  worm  greatly  aboundB,  this  leaden 
trouffh  is  probably  the  most  pennanent  and  effsctuai  remedy  yet 

Experiments  made  by  the  Hon.  J<^  Lowell,  and  Processor 
Peck,  of  MassachnsettBi  lead  to  a  belief  that  if  the  ground,  under 
trees  which  suffer  from  this  inseot,  is  dag  and  well  pohrerized  to 
the  depth  of  five  inches  in  October,  and  a  good  top  dressing  of 
lime  4^^^  **  ^  ^  ^  branches  extend,  the  canker  wonn 
will  there  be  almost  entirely  destroyed.  Ilie  elm,  and  linden 
trees  in  many  plaoesi  suffw  e<)ually  with  the  apple,  from  the  at- 
tacks of  the  canker  worm. 

The  JBark-lQuse^  a  dull  white  oval  scale-like  insect,  about  a 
tenth  of  Ml  inch  lono,  (a  species  of  coecusy)  which  sometimes 
appears  in  great  numoers  on  the  stems  of  young  i^yple  and  pear 
trees,  and  stunts  their  growth,  may  be  destroyed  by  a  wash  of 
soft  soap  and  water,  or  the  potash  solution.  The  best  time  to 
apply  these  is  in  the  month  of  June,  when  the  insects  ait) 

The  Woolly  aphis  {aphis  lanigsra^  or  American  Might*  is  a 
dreadful  enemy  of  the  apple  abroad,  bat  is  fortunately,  rery 
rarely  seen  as  yet,  in  the  United  Stu^  It  ma^  its  appear^ 
ance  in  the  form  of  a  minute  white  down,  in  the  crotches  and 
crevices  of  the  branches,  which  is  composed  of  a  great  number 
of  very  minute  woolly  lice,  that  if  allowed,  will  mcrcase  with 
fearful  rapidity,  and  produce  a  sickly  and  diseased  state  of  the 
whole  tree.  Fortunately,  this  insect  too  is  easily  destroyed,  ^This 
is  effected  by  washing  the  parts  with  diluted  sulphuric  aeid  ; 
which  is  formed  by  mixing  f  oz.  by  measure,  of  the  sul{^uric 
acid  of  the  Bhops,  with  7^  os.  of  water.  It  should  be  rubbed 
into  the  parts  affected,  by  means  of  a  piece  of  rag  tied  to  a  sticky 
the  operator  taking  care  not  to  let  it  touch  his  clothes.  After 
the  bark  of  a  tree  has  been  washed  with  this  mixture,  the  fint 
shower  will  re-dissolve  it,  and  convey  it  into  the  most  minute 
crevice,  so  as  effectually  to  destroy  all  insects  that  may  have 
escaped.'' — (LondcnCs  Maga»ns  IX.  p.  836.) 

The  Jfipie  wrm  (^or  Codling  moth,  Oatrpoocqmi  pomenana,  of 
European  writers,)  is  the  insect,  introdneed  with  the  apple  tree 
from  £ur(^  which  apjpean  in  the  early  woiu-ealen  i^plea 
and  pears,  in  the  form  of  a  reddish  white  grabv  and  causes  the 
frnit  to  iall  prematurely  from  the  trees.  Tb^  perfect  insect  is  a 
small  moth,  the  fore-wings  gray,  with  a  la^  round  brown  spot 
on  the  hinder  margin.    These  moths  appear  in  tiie  greatest 

*  It  is  not  a  little  singular  that  this  inaect,  wliich  is  not  indigenous  to 
thiB  countiy,  and  is  never  seen  here  exoept  where  introduocd  with  im« 
ported  trees,  shoold  bo  called  in  England  the  American  blight  It  is  the 
taost  inveterate  enemy  of  the  apple  in  the  north  of  France  and  Gennanjr. 


luimben  in  the  wwm  eveningB  of  the  Ist  of  Jnne,  and  lay  their 
eggs  in  the  ^e  or  bloiBOin-end  of  the  young  fruit,  eepecially  of 
the  early  kinds  oi  applet  and  pean.  In  a  B&Mi  time,  these  eggs 
hatch.  Mid  the  grub  borrows  ita  way  till  it  'reaches  the  core : 
the  firait  ihea  ripens  prematurely,  and  drops  to  the  ^und» 
Here  the  wonn  leaves  the  fruit  and  creeps  into  the  crevices  of 
the  bark  and  hollow  of  the  tree,  and  spins  its  cocoon,  which 
osually  remains  there  till  the  ensuing  springs  when  the  young 
moth  again  emetges  from  it.  The  readiest  way  of  destroying 
them,  when  it  can  be  done  conveniently,  is  to  ulow  swine  and 
pottllry  to  run  at  laige  in  the  (Hrchards  when  the  premature  fruit 
is  falling;  or  otherwise,  the  fruit  may  be  j^icked  up  daily  and 
placed  where  the  worms  will  be  killed.  It  is  said  that  if  an  old 
cloth  is  placed  in  the  crotch  of  the  tree  about  the  time  the  6uit 
begins  to  drop,  the  i4;>ple  worm  will  make  it  a  retiring  place, 
and  thousands  may  be  caught  and  killed  fr^m  time  to  time. 
As  the  cocoons  are  depo6it<»  chiefly  under  the  old  loose  bark, 
the  thorough  cultivator  will  take  care,  by  keeping  the  trunks  of 
his  trees  smooth,  to  afford  them  little  harbour ;  and  by  scraping 
and  washing  the  trunks  early  in  the  sprinff,  to  destroy  sucn  as 
may  have  weady  taken  up  their  quarters  there. 

When  the  fruk  of  orchards  is  much  liable  to  the  attacks  of 
this  insect  we  cannot  too  much  insist  on  the  efficacy  of  small 
bonfires  lighted  in  the  evening,  by  which  myriads  of  this  and  all 
other  moths  may  be  destroyed,  before  they  have  time  to  deposit 
their  eggs  and  cause  worm-eaten  fruit 

TheBlighi  which  occasionally  kills  suddenly  the  ends  of  the 
limbs  of  the  apple  and  the  quince,  i4)peaTs  to  be  caused  by  an 
insect  similar  to  that  which  produces  tne  fire  blight  of  the  pear, 
and  must  be  treated  in  the  same  way  as  directed  for  that  tree. 

Gathxriho  ahd  xKBnNO  THS  FRUIT.  In  order  to  secure 
soundness  and  preservation,  it  is  indispensably  necessary  that 
the  fruit  should  be  gathered  by  hand.  For  winter  fruit  the 
gathering  is  delayed  as  long  as  possible,  avoiding  severe  frosts, 
and  the  most  successful  practice  with  our  extensive  orchardists 
is  to  place  the  good  fruit  directly,  in  a  careful  manner,  in  new, 
tight  flour  barrels  as  soon  as  gathered  from  the  tree.  These 
barrels  should  be  gently  riiaken  while  filling,,  and  the  head 
closely  pressed  in ;  they  are  then  placed  in  a  cool  shady  expo- 
sure under  a  shed  open  to  the  air,  or  on  the  north  side  of  a 
building,  protected  by  covering  of  boards  over  the  top,  where 
they  remain  for  a  fortnight,  or  until  the  cold  becomes  too  severe, 
when  they  are  carefully  transferred  to  a  cool,  dry  cellar,  in 
which  air  can  be  admitted  occasionally  in  brisk  weather. 

A  cellar,  for  this  purpose,  should  be  dug  in  dry,  gravelly,  or 
sandy  soil,  with,  if  possible,  a  slope  to  the  north ;  or,  at  any 
rate,  with  openings  on  the  north  side  for  the  admission  of  air 
very  rarely  in  weather  not  excessively  cold*    Here  the  barrels 

68  THK   APPLK. 

should  be  placed  on  tiers  on  their  sides,  and  tbe  cellar  should  be 
kept  as  dark  as  possible.  In  such  a  cellar,  one  of  the  lar^t 
apple  growers  in  yutchess  county  is  able  to  keep  the  Greening 
apple,  which,  in  the  fruit  room,  usually  decays  in  January,  until 
the  Ist  of  April,  in  the  freshest  and  finest  condition.  Some  per- 
sons place  a  layer  of  clean  rye  straw  between  ewery  layer  of 
apples,  when  packing  them  in  the  barrels. 

Apples  are  frequently  kept  by  &rmers  in  pits  or  ridges  in  the 
ground,  covered  with  straw  and  a  layer  of  earth,  in  the  same 
manner  as  potatoes,  but  it  is  an  inferior  method,  and  the  fhiit 
very  speedily  decays  when  opened  to  the  air.  The  English  ap- 
ple growers  lay  their  fruit  m  heaps,  in  cod  diy  ceilarB,  and 
cover  them  witii  straw. 

When  apples  are  exported,  each  fhiit  in  the  barrel  should  be 
wrapped  in  clean  coarse  paper,  and  the  barrels  should  be  placed 
in  a  dry,  airy  place,  between  decks. 

Cider.  To  make  the  finest  cider,  apples  should  be  chosen 
which  are  especially  suited  to  this  pnipose.  Hie  fruit  should 
be  gathered  about  the  first  of  November,  and  coarse  cloths  or 
straw  should  be  laid  under  the  tree  to  secure  them  against 
bruising  when  they  are  shaken  fh)m  the  tree.  If  the  weather 
is  fine  me  fruit  is  allowed  to  lie  in  heaps  in  the  open  air,  or  in 
airy  sheds  or  lofts  for  some  time,  till  it  is  thoroughly  ripened. 
All  immature  and  rotten  fruit  should  then  be  rqectod,  and  the 
remainder  ground  in  the  mill  as  nearly  as  possible  to  an  uni 
form  mass.  This  pulp  should  now  remain  m  the  vat  from  24 
to  48  hours,  or  even  longer  if  the  weather  is  cool,  in  order  to 
heighten  the  colour  and  increase  the  saccharine  principle.  It 
is  men  put  into  the  press  (without  wetting  the  straw,)  from 
whence  the  liquor  is  strained  through  hair  cloth  or  sieves,  into 
perfectly  clean,  sweet,  sound  casks.  Tie  casks,  with  the  bung 
out^  are  then  placed  in  a  cool  cellar,  or  in  a  sheltered  place  in 
the  open  air.  Here  the  fermentation  commences,  and  as  the 
pomace  and  froth  work  out  of  the  bung-hole,  the  casks  must  be 
filled  up  every  day  with  some  of  the  same  pressing,  kept  in  a 
cask  for  this  purpose.  In  two  or  three  weeks  this  rising  will 
cease,  when  the  first  fermentation  is  over,  and  the  bung  should, 
at  firsts  be  put  in  loosely — then,  in  a  day  or  two,  driven  in  tight 
— leaving  a  small  vent  hole  near  it,  which  may  also  be  stopped 
in  a  few  days  after.  If  the  casks  are  in  a  cool  airy  cellar,  the 
fermentation  will  cease  in  a  day  or  two,  and  this  state  may  be 
known  by  the  "liquor  becoming  clear  and  bright,  by  the  cessa- 
tion of  the  discharge  of  fixed  air,  and  by  the  thick  crust  which 
has  collected  on  the  surface.  Tlie  clear  cider  should  now  be 
drawn  off  and  placed  in  a  clean  cask.  If  the  cider,  which  must 
be  carefiilly  watched  in  this  state  to  prevent  the  fermentation 
going  too  far,  remains  quiet,  it  may  be  allowed  to  stand  till 
spring,  and  the  addition  at  first  of  about  a  gill  of  finely  powdered 

VAftisnu.  09 

charcoal  to  a  barrel  will  aecora  this  end ;  but  if  a  wcma  eoUecte  cm 
the  rarfisu^  and  the  fennentation  seems  inolined  to  proceed  fiir- 
ther,  it  most  be  immediately  radced  again.  The  v^t-spile  may 
now  be  driven  tight  bat  examined  occasionally.  In  the  begin* 
ning  of  March  a  final  racking  shonld  take  place,  when,  should  the 
cider  not  be  perfectly  fine,  aboat  three  fourths  of  an  ounce  of  Isin- 
giass  should  DC  dissohed  in  the  cider  and  poured  in  each  barrel, 
which  will  render  it  perfectly  clear.  It  may  be  bottled  now,  or 
any  period  before  the  blossoming  of  the  apple  or  afterwards,  late 
in  May.  When  bottling,  fill  the  bottles  within  an  inch  of  the 
bottom  of  the  cork,  and  allow  the  bottles  to  stand  an  hour  before 
the  corks  are  driven.  They  should  then  be  sealed,  and  kept  in 
a  cool  cellar,  with  clean  dry  sand  up  to  their  necks ;  or  laid  on 
their  sides  in  boxes  or  bins,  with  the  same  between  each  layer. 

Yaiustixs.  The  varieties  of  the  apple,  at  the  present  time, 
are  very  numerous.  The  garden  of  uie  Horticultnral  Society, 
of  London,  whidi  contains  the  most  complete  collection  of  fruit 
in  the  world,  enumerates  now  about  900  varieties,  and  neariy 
1500  have  been  tested  there.  Of  these,  the  larger  proportion 
are  of  course  inferior,  but  it  is  only  by  comparison  m  such  an 
experimental  garden  that  the  value  of  the  different  varieties,  for 
a  certain  climate,  can  be  fully  ascertained. 

The  European  apples  generally,  are  in  this  climate,  inferiour 
to  our  first  rate  native  sorts,  though  many  of  them  are  of  high 
merit  also  with  us.  There  is  much  confusion  at  the  West,  in  regard 
to  names  of  apples;  and  the  variation  of  fruits  from  soil,  location,  or 
other  causes,  makes  it  difficult  to  identify  the  kinds,  and  until  they 
are  brought  together  and  fruited  on  the  same  ground  the  certainly 
of  their  nomenclature  will  not  be  established.  The  same  remarln 
will  apply  fb  the  South.  New  varieties  c^  apples  are  constantly 
springing  up  in  this  country  from  the  seed,  in  favourable  soils ; 
and  tnese,  when  of  superionr  quality,  may,  as  a  general  rule,  be 
considered  much  notore  valuable  for  orchard  culture  than  foreign 
6ort^  on  account  of  their  greater  productiveness  and  longevity. 
Indeed,  every  state  has  some  fine  apples,  peculiar  to  it,  ai^  it  is, 
therefore,  impossible  in  the  present  state  of  pomology  in  this 
oountiy,  to  give  any  thing  like  a  complete  list  of  the  finest  ap- 
ples of  the  United  States  To  do  this,  will  reouire  time,  and  an 
extended  and  careful  examination  of  their  relative  merits  col- 
lected in  one  garden;  The  following  descriptions  comprise  all 
the  finest  American  and  foreign  varieties  yet  known  in  our 

In  the  ensuing  paoes,  apples  are  described  as  set  upon  their 
base  or  lower  side,  with  the  stalk  inserted  in  the  centre  of  the 
base  or  more  generally  in  a  cavity  that  occupies  the  centre  of  the 
base.  They  are  said  to  be  globular  when  they  would  be  nearly 
bounded  by  the  lines  of  a  circle,  as  Summer  Ro9e  ;  and  oblate 
when  they  would  be  circumscribed  perpendicularly  by  a  depressed 



circle,  9s  Maiden's  Bhish.  When  they  are  bounded  hj  a  circle 
elevated  biitsymmetricalY  thej  are  called  ovaf,  as  Snramer  Pippin ; 
when  not  symmetrical  perpendictdarly  bnt  broadest  at  their  lower 
portion  in  the  form  of  an  egg,  they  are  said  to  be  ovate. 



Mongaitd  Owic 



When  with  considerable  breadth  of  base  but  less  than  their 
altitade,  the  sides  are  bounded  by  curved  lines  tending  towards 
each  other  at  the  apex,  they  are  called  conic,  as  Esopus  Spitzen 
burgh.  When  the  altitude  is  not  greater  than  the  breadth  or  less 
than  the  breadth,  they  are  called  oblate  inclining  to  or  approach- 
ing conic.  When  the  curved  lines  are  interrupted  suddenly 
much  before  they  reach  each  other  at  the  apcT,  the  form  is  called 
truncate  conic,  as  Herefordshire  Peannain.  When  the  altitude 
is  much  greater  than  the  breadth,  they  are  said  to  be  elongated 
conic,  as  Porter;  oblique  when  the  opposite  sides  maintain  their 
relative  positions  to  each  other,  but  are  so  inclined  from  their 
upward  direction,  that  a  perpendicular  let  fall  from  the  centre 
of  the  eye  would  not  touch  the  centre  of  the  cavity,  see  Yellow 
Newtown  Pippin,  Pry or's  Red,  Pennock,  etc. ;  cylindric  when  the 
fruit  is  round  horizontally,  flattened  at  base  and  crown,  and  with 
sides  perpendicularly  parallel,  as  Long  John  or  Long  Pearmain ; 
oblong  when  the  sides  are  perpendicularly  nearly  parallel  and  the 
height  greater  than  the  breadth,  but  without  the  roundness  that 
constitutes  cylindric — ^it  is  the  oval  form  elongated.  When  a  flat 
fiice  or  some  degree  of  flatness  is  impressed  upon  the  sides  of 
apples  so  as  to  rorm  more  or  less  distinctly  ridges  or  angles  run- 
nmg  perpendicularly  to  the  base,  they  are  said  to  be  angular  ; 
when  these  ridges  have  intervening  hollows,  they  are  said  to  be 



[Id  aimging  the  applet,  we  k«vo  tbooghi  best  to  reject  liie 
cImmb  aocording  to  the  aeaiOD,  and  adopt  the  principle  of  the 
ajsteiQ  recommended  by  the  kte  A.  J.  Downing;  bat  inttead 
of  QsiDg  the  tetma  ^'beet^"  "very  good,"  and  ''good,''  we  hare 
designated  the  qualities  as  ftrat,  second,  and  third,  answering  to 
the  above.] 


Hiis  section  comprises  those  that  are  well  known,  of  excellent 
qoality,  and  good  habit  generally. 

Amkbioav  Summxb  PaAaMAiir.    Thonp. 
Bsriy  Summer  Pwsnnam.     One, 

A  rich,  highly-flavoared  fmit,  much  esteemed  in  New  Jersey, 
where  it  is  most  known.    It  appears  to  be  (jnite  different  from 
the  Sommer  Pearmain  (of  the  English!  and  is  probably  a  seed- 
ling raised  from  it    It  ripens  graaually  from  the  tenth  of  An 
gust  to  the  last  of  September. 

Fmit  of  medium  size,  oblong,  widest  at  the  crown,  and  taper- 
ing slightly  to  the  eye.  Skin,  red  spotted  with  yellow  in  the 
shade,  but  streaked  with  livelier  red  and  yellow  on  the  sunny 
side.  Stalk  three  fourths  of  an  inch  long,  and  pretty  deeply 
inserted.  Eye  deeply  sunk.  Flesh  yellow,  remarluibly  tender, 
with  a  rich  and  pleasant  flavour,  and  often  bursts  in  falling  from 
the  tree.  This  is  a  valuable  apple  for  all  purposes,  and  it  thrives 
admirably  on  sandy  soils.   In  the  nursery  the  tree  grows  slowly.. 

Autumn  Swbbt  Bouoh, 

Late  Bough.    Sweet  BeOflower. 
Esll  Boo^    PhUadelphia  Sweet 

Or^n  unknown.  Tree,  vigorous,  upright,  very  productive. 
One  cSr  the  very  best  dessert  sweet  apples  of  its  season.  Fruit, 
medium,  conical,  angular.  Skin,  smooth,  pale  yellow,  sprinkled 
with  a  few  brown  dots.  Stalk  of  medium  length,  rather  slender, 
inserted  in  a  deep  narrow  cavity;  calyx  closed;  segments  long; 
basin  deep,  corrugated ;  flesh  white,  very  tender,  with  a  sweet 
refreshing,  vinous  flavour.    Last  of  August  to  first  of  October. 

B^LnwiK.    Ken.  Thomp.  Man. 
Woodpecker.    Pecker.    Steel's  Bed  Winter. 
The  Baldwin  stands  at  the  head  of  all  New  England  apples, 
and  is  unquestionably  a  first-rate  fruit  io  all  respects.     It  is  a 



native  of  MaaBacbusettfl,  and  is  more  lafgely  cultivated  for  the 
Boston  market  than  any  other  aoit.  It  bears  most  abnndantlj 
with  ns,  and  we  have  had  the  satisfaction  of  raising  laiger,  more 
beantiftd,  and  highly  flavoared  specimens  here,  than  we  ever 
saw  in  its  native  region.  The  Baldwin,  in  flavour  and  general 
characteristics,  evidently  belongs  to  the  same  family  as  our 
£sM>us  Spitoenbargh,  and  deserves  its  extensive  popolarity. 

froit  large,  roundish,  and  narrowing  a  litde  to  the  eye.  Skin 
yellow  in  the  shade,  but  nearly  covered  and  striped  with  crimson, 
red,  and  orange,  in  the  sun ;  dotted  with  a  few  large  russet  dots, 
and  with  radiating  streaks  of  russet  about  the  stalk.  Cal3rz 
closed,  and  set  in  a  rather  narrow,  plaited  basin.  Stalk  half  to 
three  fourths  of  an  inch  long,  rather  slender  for  so  large  a  fhiiti 
planted  in  an  even,  moderately  deep  cavity.  Flesh  yellowish 
white,  crisp,  with  that  agreeable  mingling  of  the  saccharine  and 
acid  which  constitutes  a  rich,  high  flavour.  The  tree  is  a  vigo- 
rous, upright  CTower,  and  bears  most  abundantly.  Ripe  from 
November  to  March,  but  with  us  is  in  perfection  m  January. 


Bxllx-Flxur,  Txllow.    Thomp. 

Belle-Fleur.     Ooxe.  Fky,  Ken, 
Yellow  Bellflower,  o/  moat  nurgeriet, 

Tko  Yellow  Belle-Fleur  is  a  large,  handsome,  and  excellont 



winter  apple,  every  where  b^lr  esteemed  in  the  United  States. 
It  18  mort  abondantly  seen  in  the  markets  of  Philadelphia,  as  it 
thiiyes  well  in  the  sandy  soils  of  New  Jersey.  Coxe  fini  de- 
sGribad  tUi  fruit;  the  <»4(inal  tree  of  whkhgvew  in  Bnriington, 

tf^w  ietmj.  We  follow  Thompson,  in  eaHing  it  BdU-Fkur^ 
fiom  the  bMsty  of  the  Uosbobm,  with  the  chss  of  F^ch  apples 
to  which  it  belongs. 

fVnit  yery  lazge,  oblong,  a  little  irregolar,  tapering  to  the  eye. 
Skin  smooth,  pale  lemon  yellow,  often  with  a  bliish  next  the  sun. 
Stalk  long  and  slender,  in  a  deep  cavity.  Calyx  closed  and  set 
in  a  rather  narrow,  plaited  basin.  Seeds  in  a  laige  hollow  cap- 
sole  or  core.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  crisp, with  a  sprishtlysaD- 
acid  favonr ;  before  liiliy  ripe,  it  is  considerably  acid  Wood 
yellowish,  and  tree  vigorous,  with  spreading  drooping  brandies. 
A  r^nlar  and  excellent  bearer,  ana  worthy  of  a  pb^c  ip  every 
orchwd     November  to  March. 


74  APPLIS. 


Gate.  Wh4te€q)ple. 

MjunmaBettm.  Waxen^don 

Golden  Pippin  of  some.  KeOey  whUe, 

Origiii  near  Strasburgh^  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa^  in  the  garden  of 
Mrs.  Beam  at  her  gate,  hence  the  names  ^  Gate  apple''  and 
^  Mamma  Beam."  ft  was  taken  to  Ohio  by  Jacob  Nesj  sen., 
and  became  very  popular  in  Belmont  Co.,  and  we  retain  thi& 
name,  being  the  most  universal  one.  Tree  yigorous,  healthy, 
and  very  productive. 

Fruit  medium,  to  large,  globular,  a  little  flattened  and  nar- 
rower towards  the  eye,  sometimes  oblong.  Skin  light,  waxen 
yellow,  often  with  a  bright  vermillion  cheek.  Stalk  short,  cavity 
generally  large.  Calyx  usually  closed,  basin  rather  deep,  corrugat- 
ed, flesh  yellowish,'  crisp,  tender,  juicy,  sometimes  almoet  melt  • 
ing,  of  a  mild  agreeable  flavour.     Inov.  to  Feb. 


A  Southern  fruit  of  great  excellence,  introduced  by  Lewis 
Sanders,  of  Ey.,  good  regular  bearer.  Fruit  rather  lai)^  roundish, 
^ttened,  approjushin^  conic,  angular.  Skin  fiur,  shimnff,  fine  yel- 
low, with  a  bright  crimson  cheek  in  the  sun.  Stalk  sender,  in- 
serted in  a  round  acute  cavity.  Calyx  closed  in  a  narrow  abrupt 
basin.  Flesh  yellow,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  fine  spicy  subacid 
flavour.    July,  Aug. 

Broadweli  Sweet 

Origin  Ohio,  a  valuable  fruit,  tree  vigorous,  spreading,  pro- 

Fruit  large,  oblate,  somewhat  conic  Skin  pale  yellow,  with  a 
blush.  Stem  short  and  small,  surrounded  with  russet  inserted 
in  a  deep,  broad  cavity.  Calyx  open  in  a  somewluit  abtvpt 
narrow  baain.  Flesh  whitish,  firm,  generally  tender,  juiqr,  swee^ 
aromatic     Nov.  to  March. 

Earlt  Harvxbt.    Thomp.  Man. 

Prinoe's  Harvest,  or  Eariy  French  Beinetti^  </ CbMi 

July  PSppia.    Ftoy. 

Yellow  Harvest 

Large  White  Jnnealing. 

Tart  Bongh. 

Sariy  French  Reinette. 

An  American  apple ;  and  taking  into  account  its  beauty,  Ha 


excellent  qoalities  for  the  dessert  and  for  cooking,  and  its  pro> 
dnctiveneae,  we  think  it  ^e  finest  earij  apple  yet  known.  It 
begins  to  ripen  about  the  fint  of  Jnly,  and  continnes  in  use  all 
that  month.    The  analleBt  eoUeotioD  of  apples  shonld  comprise 

this  and  the  Red  Astrachan.  Fonn  round,  above  medium  sisei 
rarelj  a  little  flattened.  Skin  very  smooth,  with  a  few  fiunt 
white  dofeis  bright  straw  coloor  when  folly  ripe.  Sialk  half  to 
three  fonrUis  of  an  inch  long,  rather  slender,  inserted  in  a  hollow 
of  moderate  deptib.  Oal^  set  in  a  shadow  basin.  Fleih  very 
white,  tender  and  jnicy,  crisp,  with  a  rich,  sprightly,  subacid 
flaTonr.  The  yonng  trees  of  moderate  vigour,  with  scarcely  di- 
verging shooto.  Manning  errs  by  following  Coze  in  calling  this 
a  flat  apple.    Bracken  may  prove  the  same. 


Cogffwell  PMimaln. 

Tim  ezodlent  niple  ommatod  on  the  tern  of  Fred.  Brewattt't 
Town  of  GviBwofd,  near  Norwich,  Covm.,  and  wherp  known  is 
mneh  esteemed  and  stands  unrivalled  as  a  dessert  fruit  of  its  mBr 
son,  a  v%oroiM,  upright  ^wer  and  an  abundant  bearer  evefy 
other  year,  fruit  very  uniform  in  size,  &ir  and  beautifhl,  and  f 
desirable  fruit. 

76  APPLXB. 

8iie  above  medinm,  roundish  oblate,  regolar.  Stem  shorti 
ratber  alender,  inaerted  in  a  laige  roMeted  cavity.  Oalyz  toM, 
n^7  dosed,  set  in  a  small  shallow  basin.  Skin  rich  jeDow, 
nearly  covered  with  red,  marked  and  streaked  with  bright  nd, 
'flesh  Vellowish,  compact,  tender,  juicy,  scarcely  sub-acid,  with  a 
very  nne  rich,  aromatic  flavour,  core  small,  ripe  Dec  to  March. 

Myer^s  Nonpareil,  Ohio  Nonpareil.  An  apple  much  grown 
at  the  West  by  the  above  names,  and  answers  to  the  descrip- 
tion of  Cogswell  Pearmain,  and  is  thought  to  be  identical,  but 
may  not  prove  so. 

Barlt  Jos. 

Origin,  ordiard  of  Oliver  Chapin,  Ontario  Co.,  N.  Y.,  tree  of 
slow  ^wth,  productive,  reqmres  hiffh  culture  for  fiur  fnoL 

Fruit  below  medium,  obkte,  very  uightly  conic  Skin  smooth, 
yellowish,  shaded  and  striped  with  red,  and  thickly  qprinkled 
with  greenish  spots.  StaUc  of  medium  length  inserted  in  a 
kige  cavity  surrounded  by  russet  Calyx  dosed,  basin  moderate. 
Flrah  whitish,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  very  agreeable  vinous 
flavour,  ripe  middle  of  August  to  middle  of  September* 


SvMmro  Pabtt. 

Ori^  Berks  Go^  Pa.    Fruit  sinaU  or  medimiiy  oblntfl^  ili|^  tly 
inclining  to  otiL    Skin  yellow  ckieflj,  ahaded  and  lomedniet 

striped  with  red.  Stem  abort,  inserted  in  a  roimd,  deep  cavity, 
Bometmies  msseted.  CSalyx  dosed*  basb  kigs.  Flesti  joieyy 
teader,  crisps  witk  a  brisk  saeckariae,  somewkat  Tiaou^  aro- 
matic flavour,  an  eKceUsot  dessert  fruit  Deesmber  and 

Fall  Qubu  ov  Kt. 
Winter  Qoeen.    I«dW  Isroarite  dteun. 

Origia  nnoerUdn,  much  sprown  at  the  Sooth  aad  Soatk-westi 
wkeie  it  is  highly  esleeflMO. 

Tiee  very  vigoioiBS)  vpn^^t,  an  eaity  and  abmidant  beaver. 

Fruit  large,  ot^Iate  inclinmg  to  conic,  sligMy  oUiqua,  angular. 
Skin  yellow,  striped  and  marbled  with  crimson,  and  thickly 
sprinUed  wiUi  brown  and  whitish  dots.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a 
broad,  deep  msseted  cavity.  Calyx  large,  partially  closed,  set  in  a 
large  open  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  crisp,  tender,  juicy,  with  a 
apnghfiy  mild  sab-aeid  Havonr.    Januaty  to  March. 

Fall  Pippin.    Coxe.  Floy. 

The  FaU  Pippin  is,  we  tUnk,  decidedly  an  American  varietjr» 
TJKeaspsaa  ana  lindlay  to  the  ewifarary,  aotwithstanding.    It  is, 

78  ATPLXfi. 

very  probably,  a  seedling  raised  in  this  ooantry,  from  the  WTiite 
Spanish  Heinettef  or  the  Holland  pippin,  both  of  which  it  so 
mudi  resembles,  and  from  which  it,  in  &ct,  differs  most  strongly 
in  the  season  of  matnrhy.  The  Fall  Pippin  is  a  noble  frait,  and 
is  considered  the  first  of  Autmnn  apples  in  the  middle  states, 
where  its  beauty,  large  sise,  and  iU  d^dons  flaToor  for  the  table 
or  for  cooking,  render  it  yeiy  popular. 

Fruit  very  large,  roundish,  geaemlly  a  little  iOiattened,  pretty 
regular,  sometimes  with  obscure  ribs  at  the  eye.  Stalk  rather 
long,  three-fourths  of  an  inch,  projecting  considerably  beyond 
the  fruit,  (which  distinguishes  it  frx>m  the  Holland  Pippin,)  set  in 
a  rather  small,  shallow,  round  cavity;  Calyx  not  very  large,  rather 
deeply  sunk  in  a  round,  narrow  cavity.  Skin  smooth,  yellowish- 
green,  becoming  a  fine  yellow,  with  often  a  tinge  of  brOMrnish 
blush,  on  one  side,  and  with  a  few  scattered  dots.  Flesh  white, 
very  tender  and  mellow  with  a  rich,  aromatic  flavour.  Oetober 

There  iu«  several  spurious  sorta^  the  true  one  is  always  rather 
flattened,  with  a  projecting  stalk.    (See  Holland  Pippia.) 

Fall  Wiint. 

Sweet  Wine.    Sharped  Spioe. 
Ohio  Wine.      Unde  Sam's  best 

Origin  unknown,  probably  an  M  Eastern  fruit  called  ^  Wine** 
or  ^  Sweet  Wine,'*  not  now  mach  cultivated  on  account  of  the 
fruit  being  defective,  but  in  the  rich  Western  soils  it  thrives 
admirably,  producing  fine  fruit,  yet  in  a  few  localities  they  com- 
plain of  its  being  knurly.  Tree  healthy,  but  of  rather  slender 
growth,  bearing  moderate  eropa  annually.  Fruit  about  medium. 
Stem  rather  long,  slender,  in  a  broad,  deep  cavity,  surrounded  by 
dear,  waxen  colour.  Cal3rx  partially  closed  in  a  broad,  deep, 
cormgatsd  basin.  Skin  striped  and  shaded  with  red,  on  a  %ht 
ground,  with  numerous  russet  dots,  flesh  yeUowish*  ja]cy«  tender 
with  a  rich,  aromakio,  mrf  mild,  sub-acid  flavoor,  almoat  sweet 
Sqvtembeiv  November. 


A  new  Western  fruit  originated  in  the  orchard  or  nnnery  of 
A.  G.  Downing,  Canton,  Fulton  Co.,  Illinois,  and  is  a  valuable 
finiti  a  vigorous  grower,  hardy,  regular  in  form,  an  annual  and 
productive  bearer. 

Size  about  medium,  oblate,  not  symmetric.  Stem  throe-fourths 
of  an  inch,  rather  slender,  inserted  in  a  broad  deep  'Cairity. 
Calyx  laige,  open,  segments  s  tall,  veenrved  in  a  pteikty  lar^ 

APPLS8.  79 

bttUD.  Skin  light  jellow,  ^Miakied  with  green  or  grey  dot^ 
haring  a  blush  on  the  aiuiBy  side.  Flesh  yellowithy  y^^t  tender, 
mdting  with  a  v«ry  rieh,  ndld,  sob-aeid  flanmr.  Bj  some  the 
eaerharine  wodd  snppoas  to  pvsdominate.  Bipe  November  to 

Gabdxn  Rotal. 

Origin  SndbniT,  Mmb^  fum  of  Mr.  Bowlcer.  Tree  of  mode- 
rate growth,  prodaetSro. 

Frait below  medinni,  roondisb,  oval,  ffldn  yellow,  striped  and 
shaded  with  red  and  dark  crimson.  Stalk  of  medinm  len^,  in- 
serted in  a  deep,  acnte  cavity.  Calyx  partially  closed  in  a 
basin  sarronnded  by  prominences.  Flesh  yellow,  very  ten- 
der, jnicy,  rich,  vinous,  aromatic,  a  beautifiil  and  excellent  fruit. 

Amsrioan  Goldxn  Pipvim. 

Golden  Hppiit  New  York  GreeniDg. 

ttbbed  VippkL  Newtown  Greening. 

This  old  upj^e  is  one  of  our  finest  American  frusts,  and  seems 
not  to  be  generally  known.  We  are  indebted  to  Dr.  James 
Fovntain,  ot  Westchester  coonty,  for  calling  attention  to  it  He 
aayaithasbeenenltivated  in  tluKt  and  the  adjoining  counties  for 
mora  than  &hj  yean,  and  is  considered  one  of  the  most  profit- 

80  TUB  APPLE. 

able  for  orchard  culture  and  marketiiig ;  they  are  ako  a  iup^ 
rior  apple  for  family  uiMi.  Growth  strong,  similar  to  R.  I.  Green- 
ing, but  leas  drooping,  making  a  round,  spreading  head ;  does 
not  bear  young,  but  very  prometive  when  a  little  advanoed,  and 
a  popular  fruit  where  kuown. 

Form  variable,  oblate,  globular,  or  conic,  angular  or  ribbed. 

Stem  stout,  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  set  in 
an  irregular  basin.  Skin  fine  gMen  yellow,  tftinly  eprinkled 
with  d<^  somethnes  slightly  n^ed  with  don  rasset.  Flesh  yel* 
lowiflh,  tender,  juicy,  umost  meltings  wiHi  a  ridi,  refreahmg, 
vinous,  aromatic  flavour ;  core  rather  laige.  November  to  Feb- 

0&AVXV8TKIK.    nomp.  Lbd. 

Grave  Siye. 

A  superb  looking  German  wple,  which  originated  at  Graven- 
stein,  in  Holstein,  and  is  thougnt  one  of  the  mest  apples  of  the 
North  of  Europe.  It  fully  sustains  its  reputation  here,  and  is, 
unquestionably,  a  fruit  of  first  rate  quality.  Vmi  laige,  rather 
flattened,  and  a  little  one-sided  or  angular,  bioadest  at  the  base. 
Stalk  quite  short  and  strong,  deeply  set  Calyx  large,  in  awide, 
deep,  rather  irr^pilar  basin.  Skin  greenish  yellow  at  flrst,  hot 
becominff  bright  yellow,  and  beautifiilly  dashed  and  penoiUed, 
and  maibled  with  light  and  deep  red  and  orange.  Reah  tender 
and  criqp,  with  a  liigh  flavoured,  somewhat  aromatic  taster 



BipenB  witih  as  in  September  snd  October,  but  will  keep  amonth 
loDgeae.  The  trees  are  yery  ikoBbf^  strong  growersiHuid  bear 

TniBf  TigMens  $mA  prodiietiY«.  Fkuit  ne<fiimi,  someirliai 
eomc;  SUn  green,  scHnetinieB  beeoming  a  tittle  T^U^  ^  matn- 
li^yOOTeiedwidi  greenish  or  figbtmssetdoti.  Stalk  of  medium 
lenmu  Oavity  xraier  deep,  covered  with  rasset ;  basin  shallow 
and  abrupt,  8(Mnewhat  farrowed.  Flesh  whitish,  tender,  jnicj^ 
8weet|  with  a  vinoos,  refreshing  flavoor.    December  to  Maidt 


Han*8  SeedllBg. 
Hall's  Bad. 
JeoDj  SeedUng . 

Or^  OB  Aa  mmnds  of  Mr.  Hall,  FiaakKn  eonntj,  North 
GaroliBa.  IVee  of  moderate  growth^  hardy,  npright,.with  long, 
dender,  ledtfsh  brandies,  and  remarkably  firm  wood.  The  tree 
nerer  attains  a  very  laige  sise ;  is  very  prodoelive,  and  is  con* 
sidered  in  North  Carolina  the  best  lonfl^leeping  dessert  apple 
they  cultivate.  We  are  indebted  to  G.  W.  Johnson,  of  Milton, 
North  Carolina,  §o^  specimens,  history,  isc    He  says  an  <Ad 


82  THE   APPLE. 

variety,  and  now  widely  disseminated^  and  wherever  known,  ia 
held  in  the  highest  estimation.  Fruit  small,  obUte,  aligfatly 
conic.  Skin  smooth,  thick,  moatly  shaded  with  crimson,  and 
covered  with  various  coloured  dots.  Stem  of  medium  len^th^ 
slender,  curved,  inserted  in  a  round,  dee[s  open  cavity.  Oidyx 
closed,  generally  in  a  small  uneven  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  ftne 
flrrained,  juicy,  with  a  ver^  rich,  vinous,  saccharine,  aromatic 
flavour.    December  to  Apnl. 

Haskbll  Swbbt. 

Origin  &nn  of  Deacon  Haskell,  Ipswich,  Ma«.  Treev|gon>oa 
and  pKkloctive^  fruit  medium  or  above,  oblate.  Skin  greenidi  yel- 
low, sometimes  with  a  Uush.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  rather 
de^  cavity*  Calyx  closed ;  baain  of  medium  depth.  Flesh  yel 
lowish,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  very  sweet,  rich,  aromatic  flavour. 
September,  October. 


Origin  Columbia  Co.,  N.  Y.  Tree  vigorous  and  bears  annu* 

fVuit  large,  conic,  sometimes  oblate.  Skin  fine  yellow,  some- 
what waxen  or  oily,  and  considerably  dotted.  Stalk  shorty 
insetted  in  a  ratherdeep  cavity.  Calyx  miaU,  neariy  eloeed,  in  a 
moderate,  somewhat  furrowed  baain.  Flesh  whitish,  very  tender, 
juicy,  rich,  wiUi  a  fine,  mild,  sub-add  fiavoor.  Ripe  Septenriiery 
and  does  not  keep  long. 

HaBBAKDSTOH  NoHBUOB.    liiau.  Eou. 
A  fine^  large,  early  wmter  fhiit)  which  originated  in  the  tow« 

THS   APPLS.  89 

of  Hnbhardistoii,  Mfls&,  and  is  of  firat  rate  quality.  Hie  tree  k  a 
Yigorons  grower,  Ibnning  a  handsome  branchuiff  head,  and  bean 
▼eiy  large  crops.    It  is  worthy  of  extensive  ord»ard  eidtare. 

FMt  large,  ronndish-oUong,  much  Banower  near  the  eye. 
Skin  smooth,  striped  with  splMhea,  and  irr^;ular  broken  stripes 
of  pale  and  bright  red,  which  neari^  cover  a  yellowish  ground. 
Hie  calyx  open,  and  the  stalk  shorty  m  a  russeted  hollow.  Flesh 
yellow,  jnicy,  and  tender,  with  an  agreeable  mingling  of  sweetness 
and  addi^  in  its  flayour.    October  to  January. 


Origin  Chester  Co.  Pa.,  growth  moderate,  very  prodnotnre.  A 
fiur  and  handsome  fruit  of  excellent  quality,  in  nas  all  of 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  inclining  to  conic  Skin  yellow,  shaded 
and  mlashed  with  crimson,  and  thickly  covered  with  large, 
whitish  dots.  Stem  very  shorti  inserted  in  a  rather  large  cavity. 
Calyx  dosed,  set  in  a  round  open  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender, 
jnicy,  with  a  rich,  mild,  sub-acid  flavour.    September. 

JoHATBAN.    Buel.  Ecn. 

King  Philip^— Philip  Rick. 

The  Jonathan  is  a  very  beautiful  dessert  applet  and  its  great 
beauty,  good  flavour,  and  prodwctiveness  in  all  soils,  unite  to  r&- 
commeiM  it  to  orchard  planters.  The  ori^nal  tree  of  this  new 
sort  is  growing  on  the  him  of  Mr.  Philip  Bick,  of  Songston. 



Now  York,  a  neighbourhood  u]i8ur{Misfled  in  the  worid  for  ita 
great  natural  eongenialitj  to  the  apple.  It  was  first  deacribed 
Dj  the  late  Judge  Buel,  and  naaied  by  him,  in  compliment  to 
Jonathan  Hasbrouck,  £sq^  of  the  same  place,  who  made  known 
the  fi-ttit  to  him.  The  colour  of  tha  young  wood  is  a  lively  light 
bix>\vn,  and  tlie  buds  at  the  ends  of  the  shoots  are  large.  Qrowth 
raUicr  slender,  slightly  pendulous. 

Fruit  of  medium  svee,  refi;ularl7  formed,  roundish-ovate,  or 
tapering  to  the  eye.  Skin  wn  aod  smooUi,  the  ground  dear 
light  yellow,  nearly  covered  by  lively  red  stripes,  and  deepening 
into  brilliant  or  dark  red  in  the  sun.  Stalk  three-fourths  of  an 
inch  long,  rather  slender,  inserted  in  a  deep,  raffolar  cavity. 
Calyx  set  in  a  deep,  rather  broad  basin.  Flesh  white,  rarely  a 
litUe  pinkish,  very  tender  and  juicy,  with  a  mild  sprightly,  fla- 
vour. This  ^lit,  evidently,  belongs  to  the  Spitzenburg^  class. 
November  to  March. 

Klmg  of  Jbmpkina  Oo. 
King  of  Tompkins  County. 
King  Apple. 
Origin  uncertain ;  much  grown  in  Tompkins  county  and  the 
adjoimng  ones ;  said  to  be  a  valuable  market  fruit    Tree  very 
vigorous,  spreading,  an  abundant  bearer  annually.    Fruit  laiige, 
globular,  inclining  to  conic,  sometimes  oblate,  angular.    Skin 
yellowish,  mostly  shaded  with  red,  striped  and  splashed  with 
crimson.  Stalk  rather  stout  and  short,  inserted  in  a  laige  some- 
what irregular  cavity.    Calyx  small  and  closed,  set  in  a  medium 


al^tiy  oorrngated  basiiL  ilesh  jellowieh,  ooftne,  jaicj,  tender, 
wUh  an  exce^iBfp|Y  agreetbk^  noh,  Tinoat  ikTWiry  delightfoUy 
aromatic.    December  to  March. 

Ladt  Appls.    G>ze. 

ApL    O.JhX 

Apft  Petit    flUmyLJlMa 

Ponuae  d*Api  Eoofa.    Ml 
GraeApiRoQg«^  f-*^ 

An  ezqukite  little  deBsert  frnit,  the  pretty  nie  and  beaotifid 
cokNir  of  which,  render  it  an  oniyeraal  fiiToarite;  aaitisagieat 
bearer  it  ia  ake  a  profitable  aort  for  the  erchardii^  bringing 
the  hiriieat  price  of  any  fancy  apple  i&  the  market.  It  ia  an  old 
French  variety,  and  is  neariy  always  known  abroad  by  the  name 
€iAjd;  bat  the  name  of  Lady  Apple  haa  become  too  oniveiMl 
here,  to  change  it  now.  No  aoiateiur^a  collection  shoold  be 
without  it 

Fruit  quite  small,  bat  legn- 
larly  formed  and  flat  Skin 
smooth  and  dossy,  with  a  bril- 
liant  deep  rod  cheek,  contrast- 
ing with  a  lively  lemon  yellow  i 
ffioand.  Stalk  of  medium 
wiwth,  and  deeply  inserted. ' 
CaJmL  small,  sunkm  a  basin 
with  small  plaits.  Flesh  white, 
crisps  tender,  and  jmcy,  with  a 
pleasant  flavour.    The  tree  has  jj^oy  Appk. 

straight,  almost  black  shoots, 

with  small  leaves ;  forms  a  very  npright,  small  head,  and  bears 
its  frait  in  banches.  The  latter  is  very  hardy,  and  may  be  left 
on  the  tree  till  severe  frosts.  The  Lady  Apple  is  in  use  from 
December  to  May. 

The  Api  Non,  or  Black  Lady  Appie^  differs  from  the  fore- 
going sort  only  in  the  colour,  which  is  nearly  black.  In  shape, 
siae,  season,  and  flavour,  it  is  nearly  the  same.  It  is,  from  its  un- 
uaoally  dark  hue»  a  sinffolar  and  interesting  frait — ^poor  flavour. 

Hie  true  Api  EtoiiA,  or  Star  Lady  AppUj  figured  and  de- 
acribod  by  Poiteau,  in  the  Pomologie  frani^aise,  is  another  very 
diatinet  variety;  the  fruit  is  of  the  same  general  character, 
but  havmff  five  prominent  angles,  which  give  it  the  form  of 
a  star.  This  variety  is  rather  scarce,  the  common  Lady  Apple 
beii^  frequently  sent  out  for  it  by  French  nurserymen.  It 
keeps  untd  quite  late  in  the  spring,  when  its  flavour  becomes 
excellent^  though  in  winter  it  is  rather  dry.  T^e  growth  of  the 
tree  leaembles  that  of  the  other  Apis. 


ram  applb. 

Laigb  Ybllow  Bonos.    Tbiomp. 

Earlj  Sweet  Bough. 
Sweet  Harvest 
Bougb.  Obxe,    Fkf, 


A  native  apple,  ripening  in  harvest  timei  and  one  of  the  first 
quality,  only  second  as  a  dessert  fruit  to  the  Early  Harvest  It 
is  ndt  so  much  esteemed  for  the  kitchen  as  the  latter,  as  it  is  too 
sweet  for  pies  and  sauce,  but  it  is  generally  much  admired  for 
the  table,  and  is  worthy  of  a  place  in  every  collection. 

Fruit  above  the  middle  size,  and  oblong-ovate  in  form.  Sldn 
smooth,  pale,  greenish  yellow.  Stalk  rather  long^  and  the  eye 
narrow  and  deep.  Flesh  white,  very  tender  and  crisp  when  fhuy 
ripe,  and  with  a  rich,  sweet,  sprighuy  flavour.  Ripens  from  the 
middle  of  July  to  the  tenth  of  August  lYee  moderately  vigo- 
rous, bears  abundantly,  and  forms  a  round  head. 

LoKo  Stem  or  FiNNSTLTAiriA. 

Origin  Berks  county.  Pa.  Fruit  rather  bebw  madinm,  lo- 
bular, inclining  to  oblong  or  oval.  Stalk  loag  and  slender, 
curved,  inserted  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  iBiall  and  dosed,  sot  in 
a  somewhat  furrowed  b^in.  Skin  yeUowish,  very  much  ihadbd, 
and  sometimes  striped  with  red  or  dark  orimaon.  Flesh  tender, 
juicy,  crisp,  with  a  fine  rich,  sub-acid  flavoui^  s]Hcy  and  aroma- 
tic. An  excellent  dessert  fruit  of  the  h]|^eak  flavour;  eora 
large  and  open.    November  to  January. 


nn  AFns.  8t 

A  fint  rate  soudkem  fridt    Specimem  hmft 
from  sevenJ  frMnds.    Tree  thrifty  and  vefy  jwodnetiT*. 

Fruit  medinni,  oblate,  alidbtlj  conie,  an^^ar.  Skin  jeOow- 
isfa,8trip6d  and  mostlj  shaded  with  red,  thickly  sprinkled  with 
whiti^  and  bronxe  dote.  Stem  short  and  small,  inserted  in  a 
broad  cavity  surrounded  by  rosset  Calyx  partially  closed; 
basin  slighdy  cocmgated.  Flesh  yellow,  Yer^  tender,  jnicy, 
mild,  snbttcid,  excellent,  highly  prised  in  Georgia  and  the  soato. 
October,  November.*    Cvter  of  Alabama  may  {wove  the  same. 


Origin,  Woodstock,  Conneeticat  Tree  thrifty,  nprighti  very 
productive  annual  bearer,  and  handsome. 

Fmit  medium  or  above,  roundish,  slightly  conic,  very  regular, 
and  fidbr.  Skin  yellow,  mostly  striped,  marbled,  and  splashed 
with  red.  Stalk  short,  iaaerted  in  a  moderate  carity.  Calyx 
small,  neariy  closed;  basin  moderate,  slightly  uneven.  Flesh 
white,  very  tender,  juicy,  with  a  fine  vinous  flavour,  almost  sac- 
charine.   December  to  March. 

Mortsn's  Mekm.    Watsnaelsa. 

Origin,  East  BkNwfteld,  N.  Y.  Tree  of  nrtiher  slow  growth, 
a  good  bearer. 

Fruit  medium  or  above,  roundish,  slightlv  oblate.  Skin  pale 
yellow,  striped  and  shaded  with  diisep  red  or  crimson  on  the 
sunny  side.  Stalk  rather  short,  inserted  in  a  laige  cavity,  some- 
what uneven,  surrounded  by  thin  russet  Calyx  dosed ;  basin 
large,  abrupt,  open,  slightly  furrowed.  Flesh  white,  tender, 
juiey,  with  a  yery  rich  refreshing  subacid  flavour.    October  to 


Qneea  Anne. 
Ori^n,Bolton,  Mass.  Tree  moderately  vigorous  and  produc- 
tive. Fruit  medium,  oval,  inclining  to  conic  Stem  louff  and 
slender,  inserted  in  a  rather  deep  abrupt  cavi^.  Calyx  closed, 
set  in  a  small  corrugated  basin.  Skin  almost  covered  with  deep 
red,  thickly  sprinkled  with  minute  dots.  Flesh  yellowish,  juicy, 
crisp,  tender,  with  a  very  rich  aromatic  flavour.  Last  of  Octo- 
ber to  January. 

^Tha  time  of  ripening  of  the  soutfaem  fruits  is  given  to  suit  their  r^ 
spective  localities. 



This  admirable  fruit  is  to  onr  taste  unsarpassod  in  flavour  of 
any  of  its  season,  strikingly  coggeBtive  of  the  flavour  and  perfume 
of  an  excellent  pear,  with  more  of  vinous  life  than  the  Vandevere 
(Newtown  Spitzenburs^hV  and  less  acidity  than  the  Esopus 
SpitMoibiifgh,  and  not  in^rior  to  dther  of  mem  as  a  dessert  fruit. 


A  native  of  Monmouth  Countjv  New  Jencgr,  of  modanite  i^ 
right  growth,  and  psoductive.  Fruit  huroe,  oUatei  a  little  in* 
clming  to  conic,  obscurely  five-anffled,  sli^dy  flattened  at  base 
and  crown.  Skin  pale  yellow,  wiw  a  beautiful  warm  cheeki  and 
numerous  russet  dots.  Stalk  lalher  short,  inserted  in  a  largo 
slightly  russeted  cavity.  Calyx  partially  closed;  basin  deep, 
abrupt,  and  corrugated.  Flesh  jmcy,  with  a  fine  brisk  aromatic 
flavour.    NovemMr  to  March. 

Nswrowv  Pippiir.    Coze.  Thonq^ 

Oreen  Newtown  Pippin. 
Green  Winter  Pippin. 

Ameriosn  Newtown  Pippin. 
Peterslrargh  Pippin. 

Hie  Newtown  Pippin  stands  at  the  head  of  all  i^ples,  and  is, 
when  in  perfection,  acknowledged  to  be  unrivalled  in  all  the 


qualities  which  oonfltitate  ft  hi^  iUTOored  dcMort  ftpple,  to 
which  it  combines  the  qoftlity  of  long  keepinc  witooat  the 
least  shriTelliitg,  retainiw  its  high  flftvoor  to  ue  last^  It  is 
Y&ry  Iftrgelj  raised  in  I^-York  snd  New-Jenej  l»r  expor> 
tstion,  and  commftnds  the  hif^hesi  price  in  Corsni  Garaen 
Maiketi  London.  This  ▼aiietj  is  s  natiTe  of  Newtown,  Long 
Uandy  and  it  reqaires  n  pretty  stroi^  dntf,  warn  soiIy  to 
sttain  its  fall  pexfectton,  and  in  the  orabaid  it  ahoold  be  well 
mannied  eveiy  two  or  three  years.  For  this  reason,  whSe  it 
is  planted  bj  acres  in  orcharcb  in  New-York  and  the  Middle 
States,  it  is  rarely  raised  in  a  larse  qnantities  or  with  nmch 
raooess  in  New-England.  On  the  Hudson,  thousands  of  banreb 
of  the  fiurcst  and  richest  Newtown  pippins  are  constantly 
Iffodueed.  The  tree  is  of  rather  slender  and  s^ow  crawth, 
and  even  while  yoonfl^  ia  always  remaricable  for  its  roogn  bark. 
Froit  of  mediom  sue,  roundish,  a  little  irregular  in  its  out- 
line, caused  by  two  or  three  obscure  ribs  on  the  Ades — and 
broadest  at  Ihe  base, next  the  stalk;  about  three  inches  in  dia- 
meter, and  two  and  a  half  deepu  fflin  dull  jpeen,  becoming 
olive  ffreen  when  ripe^  with  a  fiont,  dull  brownish  blush  on  one 
side,  dotted  with  smal  jmy  qmk%  and  with  delicate  russet 
rays  around  the  stalk.  GUyz  quite  small  and  dosed,  set  in  a 
narrow  and  shallow  basin.  £ttalk  half  an  inch  long^  rather 
dender,  deeply  sunk  in  a  wide,  funnel-chapel  carity.  Flesh 
gre^ish-wlute,  very  jnk^,  crisps  wMi  a  fina  aroma,  and  an  ex- 
ceedinj^y  hi§^  and  dalieions  flavoiir.  When  the  fhnt  is  not 
inrown  on  ke2th¥  tree%  it  is  Uabla  to  be  ^ratted  with  Uaek  mots. 
This  is  one  of  the  finest  keeping  af^le^  and  is  in  eating  from 
Decsmbsr  to  May— hot  is  in  the  finest  peslbetioa  in  Mardi. 

NnwrowH  Pippih,  Yellow.    Coxe.  Diomp. 

I^  Yellow  Newtown  Pippin  *traig^f  resembles  tfie  fengCH 
iag,  and  it  is  diflcnlt  to  sqr  whidi  is  the  superior  fruit  Tlie 
YeUow  ia  handsomely  and  has  a  higher  perfame  than  the  Green, 
snd  its  flesh  is radier  fismar,  and  equally  high  fiavoared;  while 

the  Green  ia  mors  juiey,  crisp^  and  tender.  The  Yellow  New- 
town PmMn  is  rather  flatter,  measnring  only  about  two  inches 
deep,  and  it  is  always  quite  oblique — projecting  more  on  one 
nde  of  die  stalk  than  the  other.  When  mlly  ripe,  it  is  yellow, 
with  a  rather  livelv  red  cheek,  and  a  smooth  udn,  few  or  none  of 
the  spots  on  the  Green  varietr,  but  with  the  same  russet  marks 
St  the  stalL  It  is  also  more  highly  fragrant  bsforc^  and  after,  it 
is  cut  than  the  Green.  The  fledi  is  fiim^  crisp,  juic^,  and  with 
a  Tciy  rich  and  high  flavour.  Both  tha  Newtown  pippins  grow 
slike»  and  they  are  both  excellent  bearers.  This  rariety  is 
rather  hardier  and  succeeds  best  in  the  Eastern  States.  We 
ha?e  kept  the  fruit  until  the  4th  of  July. 




NOBTBIUf  8ft* 

Hub  beaotttil  new  Amcrioui  frdt  is  one  of  die  hkmA  deli* 
ciona,  fri^;i«iit,  ftnd  apnelittyaf  sH  kle  daiMit  ap]AM.  Il  ripeiu 
in  Jannaiy,  kem  till  June,  and  al^vnya  eomnande  the  hmert 
mai^et  price.  Th%  tree  ie  of  mpid,  npright  mwthy  «Bd  bean 
moderate  ciopi.  It  originated  on  the  nin  of  QKver  (Sinpin,  of 
Bloomfield,  near  Rochester,  N.  T.  The  trees  require  high 
cnltare  and  open  heads  to  let  in  the  son,  otherwise  the  fruit  is 
wanting  in  flarour,  and  apt  to  be  imperfect  and  knotty. 

Fruit  laigCi  eonicalrflatteiied.  Skin  thin,  snooth,  in  the  shade 
greenish  or  pale  Yellow,  in  the  sun  eorsied  with  light  and  dark 
stripes  of  purplish-red,  marked  widi  a  few  pale  dota^  and  a  thin 
white  bloom.  Stalk  three^ourtiha  of  an  insh  km»  radier  slender, 
planted  in  a  Yeir  widoi  de^  cavity,  marked  wit£^ni8sel  Calyx 
small,  clofled;  basoi  narrow,  abrimt»  flu iw wed  VIesh  white, 
fino-^^ned,  tender,  sli^tly  snb-acid,  with  a  peealiariy  fl«rii  and 
delicious  flavoor. 


OHny  FfppfaL 
Whitt  Detroit. 
0rea^  Pippiiu 
White  Pippin. 

WUto  BeDfiower. 
Woolnian*s  Long. 
HoUow  Goied  ^^pia. 

Ohio  Favourite. 

Origin,  orchard  of  Michael  Ortl^,  South  Jersey* 

THS  APPU.  9i 

Hie  Ortley  »  one  of  the  mort  widely  diMemineted  and  popa« 
lar  apples  of  the  Weatem  Statoa.  It  giowa  Drettyatronriy  with 
nn^ti  aleader  thoota,  and  beait  abandantiyt  i^l^d  ka  oearing 
anooto  nre  Melined  to  braak. 

FrnitmedniBitovaijiaiga^OYato^ereonie.  SUngvaanidiyel- 
lov,  beeoaniag  fine  yellow  at  niafcuitt^  aanaatiflMa  witli  Aannny 
che^  Stalk  alentev  of  mediom  length,  inaerted  in  a  deep^acnte 
avity,  aunoiinded  by  riMaeL  Calyx  cloaedi  aat  in  an  id>nipt| 
comipated  baain.    EUanw** 

somewJint  comipated  baain.  Elaah  whita^  line  grainedt  tender, 
juicy, aab-acid, venrpimaant.  NoYenhar to fabraaiy*  H%Uy 
eateemed  at  the  Weat^  bat  doea  not  aoooeed  ao  well  at  the 

PnAnxAm,  HxuTonnaBina.    Ihomp. 

Winter  PeannaiiL    Ons, 
Royal  FwinalD.    IML  Bm, 
Pdamiain  BojaL    Xaaqp. 
Old  PeannaiD. 
Bojale  d'Ani^eteRa 

TUa  delicious  old  variety,  generally  known  here  aa  the  Bngliah 
erBoyalPeannain,  iaone  c^the  fin«t  of  all  winter  denert  frnita» 
and  Its  mild  and  agreeable  flaToor  renden  it  here,  aa  abroad, 
an  udTeraal  fiivoorite,  both  aa  a  detaert  apple,  and  for  cooking* 

Froit  of  mediom  aiaei  oblong,  and  of  a  pr^ty  regular  Pear- 

main-ahape.    Skin  atained,  and  mottled  with  aoft,  brownish  red 

92  THX  APFLS. 

on  a  dull,  russet j  green  ground,  dotted  with  graykh  specka 
The  red  thickly  mottled  near  the  eje,  with  yeUowiah  mnet 
spots.  Stalk  stender,  half  an  inch  long.  Calyx  with  wide- 
spread, reflexed  segments,  and  set  in  a  thalh^r,  namw,  shghtly 
plaited  basin,  Vieah  pale  jelk>w,  yerj  mellow  and  tender,  with 
a  pleasant,  aromatic  flaroar.  A  moderate  bearer,  bat  often  pro- 
daces  laiqge  crops  on  high  sodB^  iHiich  are  wstt  adqiM  to  thia 
sort    November  to  Felwoary.    A  strong  grower, 

llie  Winter  Peanaain  of  most  American  orehardii  is  Ao  An- 
tumn  Pearmain  of  this,  and  niost  BngUih  woiica. 


Pedes  PkaaanL 

A  first  rate  fimit  m  all  renpects,  belonging  to  the  Newtown 
pippin  dass.  It  has  long  been  cnltiTiSed  in  Khode  Island, 
where  we  think  it  originated,  and  in  the  northern  pari  of  Con- 
necticut^  bat  as  yet  is  little  known  out  of  that  district  of  conn- 
try,  bat  deserves  extensive  dissemination.  It  conaiderably  re- 
sembles the  Tellow  Newtown  pippin,  thoogh  a  Ivger  frnit  with 
more  tender  flesh,  and  is  scarcely  inferior  to  it  in  flavonr. 

Fruit  above  medium  size,  roundish,  a  little  anffular,  and 
slightly  flattened,  with  an  indistinct  Anrrow  on  one  side.  Skin 
smooth,  and  when  first  ffathered,  ffreen,  with  a  little  dark  red ; 
but  when  ripe,  a  beantiftd  clear  yeUow,  wKh  bright  bhish  on  tte 

rum  AFJPU.  93 

miaj  aide  and  near  tlie  stalk,  maiked  with  Bcaltered  my  doU, 
The  fltalk  is  pecoluurlj  fieriiy  and  flattened,  short,  and  sank  in 
a  wide,  rather  wa^y  cavity.  Calyx  woolly,  sunk  in  a  narrow, 
abrapUy,  and  {Hretty  deefiy  smk  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  fine 
gxained,  juicy,  crisp  and  tender,  with  a  delieioas,  hifffa  aromatie 
isvour.  The  tree  is  only  a  moderate  grower,  hot  Dears  rego- 
laiiy  and  well,  and  the  frnit  commands  a  high  pfioe  in  ttw  mar- 
ket Mr.6.  LysMA,  who  laises  this  froit  in  grsai  perfsction,  in- 
foms  OS  that  with  him  the  apples  on  the  lower  hraaehes  of  old 
trees  are  ^Mlt^  whBm  those  <m  tiie  upper  branehes  are  naarijr 
oomcaL    November  to  Match. 


BoQi^  sad  Bes4y* 

Origin  miknown«  "nree  a  strong  and  stocky  grower,  and 
Ibffms  a  benotifbl  head — ^very  prodactive.  Fmit  medium,  conic 
or  oblate,  angular.  Skin  greenish  white,  with  a  crimson  blush  on 
the  exposed  side.  Btem  of  medium  length,  inserted  in  a  rather 
Isige  irregolar  cavity.  Cahni  closed  in  an  abrupt^  open,  some- 
irlmt  corrugated  basin.    Flesh  white,  very  tender,  sprightly 


refreshhig,  vaM  sub^Msid.    An  eioellent  dessert  Miie,  ripening 
the  last  of  Ai^inst,  and  eontnning  in  nse  tiU  (kMw. 

t4  TSB   AFPLB. 

Paims  Ds  Nsiox.    Iliomp.  Lind. 

Snowy  Chimnej. 

A  very  celebmted  Canada  frait  (probaUy  an  old  French  finit), 
wlueh  has  its  name  from  the  snow'White  ookxnr  of  ito  flesh,  or, 
as  some  say,  frx)iii  the  Tillage  from  whenee  it  was  irat  taken  to 
Bng^iuL  It  18  aa  excellent,  prodnctire,  antomn  apple^  and  is 
especially  Talnable  in  northern  latitudes. 

Fniit  of  mediam  sise,  roundish,  somewhat  flattened;  skin 
with  a  gronnd  of  pale  greeBiah  yellow,  mixed  with  fitint  streidai 
of  pale  red  on  the  shady  side,  but  marked  with  blotches  and  short 
stripes  of  darker  red,  and  becoming  a  fine  deep  red  in  the  sun ; 
stalk  quite  slender,  half  an  inch  long,  j>laiited  on  a  aarrow  fonnd- 
shaped  cavity ;  calyx  small,  and  set  m  a  shallow,  nOher  narrow 
basin ;  flesh  remarkably  white,  very  tender,  juicy,  and  good,  with 
a  slight  perfume.  Ripe  in  October  and  November.  A  iqgolar 
bearer,  and  a  handsome  dessert  fruit 


"Kaqoire  Miner's  Best  Sort" 

'    A  native  of  MU&fidd,  Conn.    Tree  a  nkoderate  gromr,  and 
hnoB  a  handsome  head,  bean  earfy  and  very  piodactiva.    Tkt 


ormnal  tree  stands  on  the  land  of  Enoch  Coe,  fermerlj  Isaac 
Miller,  Bsq^  and  for  some  time  was  caDed  **EMjTure  MiU«-*sb€«t 

8m  abore  medfom,  rather  globular,  faicKnin^  to  conic, 
sometiines  oblate,  somewhat  angular.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a 
lonnd  cavity,  sarronnded  bj  msset  Calyx  lam,  partially  closed, 
set  in  a  shallow,  open  basin.  Skin  imooih,  yeilow,  with  a  sannr 
cheek,  sometimes  with  a  few  scattered  grey  dots.  Fledi  solid, 
tender,  crim,  jnicy,  with  a  Tery  refreshing,  vinous  flavour.  Bipe 
October  till  Apiil. 

Posmu    Han.  lliomp. 

Aftnrt  rate  New  Bi^and  frait,  raised  bTtk»]ia«;&  Porter,  of 
SherboTiie,  MasSi,  and  deservedly  a  great  iiyaufile  fe  tiie  Boaton 
market  The  froit  is  lemarbbly  fidr,  and  flie  tree  is  veiy 

Fnai  niiier  large,  regolar,  obbng,  narrowing  to  the  eye. 
»  gkMqr,  bri([^t  yelknr,  and  when  «zpoeed,  with  a  di^ 



Uudl  next  the  ann.  GaJyx  set  in  a  narrow  and  deep  baain. 
8talk  rather  alender,  not  three  foortha  of  an  inch  long.  Fledi 
fine  gnuned,  and  abounding  with  juice  of  a  aprightlj  agreeaUe 
flavonr.    B^pena  in  September,  and  deserrea  geneial  enltivation, 

Petok*8  Rid. 


Ori^  onlmown.  Tree  npriffht^  not  veij  vigoioaa,  nor  an 
early  bearer,  requirea  a  deep  rich  aoil,  and  a  warm  season  or  a 
aoQthem  climate,  for  the  full  development  of  its  excellence. 

Froit  medium,  somewhat  globular,  oblate,  obliijuely  depress- 
ed. Skin  greeniah  yellow,  shaded  with  red,  striped  with  dark 
crimson,  and  Uiickly  sprinkled  with  greeniih  srej  dots,  and 
some  seaaona  much  oovered  with  russet  Stalk  short  and  thick, 
inserted  in  a  small  acute  cavity,  surrounded  by  traces  of  russet, 
which  sometimes  considerably  overspread  the  ftnit  Galyx  flnnly 
closed^  set  in  a  small  baanu  Heah  yellowish,  tender,  juicy,  with 
yeiy  nch,  pleasant  sub-add  flavour.    January  to  March. 

Rambo.    Coxe.    Thompw 

iff  Ihia  Jmrmy. 


Bread  and  Cheese  A|»ple^ 

The  Rambo  is  one  of  the  most  popular  autumn  fne^  to  bo 
found  in  the  PhifaKlelphia  markets.  It  ia  a  highly  valuable 
q»ple  for  the  table  or  kitchen,  and  the  tree  thrirea  weH  on  li^t 



Miidj  loiki  being  a  native  of  the  ImuAm  of  tiM  Delaware.    It  is 
ako  very  popular  at  the  Weil 

Fnut  Of  medium  siae,  flat  Skin  amooth,  yellowish  wltte  in 
the  ahade^  streaked  and  marbled  with  pale  j^low  and  red  in  the 
ann,  and  ^>eckled  with  large  rough  dots.  Stalk  long,  rather 
alende^  onrred  to  one  side,  and  dM|^  planted  in  a  smooth,  fim« 
nel-like  eantj.  Galjz  elosed,  set  in  a  broad  basin,  which  is 
al^i^y  plaited  aroond  it  flesh  greenish  white^  very  tender, 
wuk  a  neh,  spri^tiy,  snb^acid  flaToor.    October  to  December, 

Rbd  BuaaiT. 

Ori^n,  £yin  of  Mr.  Sanborn,  Hampton  Falls,  N.  H.  Tree 
▼err  vigorons  and  prodnetive. 

Emit  huge,  roundish,  conie,  SkinjeDow,  shaded  with  dull  red 
and  deep  carmine  in  the  sun,  and  thiddy  covered  with  grey  dots, 
with  a  uiffht  appearance  ci  rough  russet  on  most  of  the  aur&ce. 
Stalk  rather  short  and  thick,  inserted  in  a  medium  cavity,  sur- 
rounded with  thin  russet  Calyx  neaiiy  closed ;  segments  long, 
reciirved,in  a  narrow,  uneven  baain.  Flesh  yellow,  solid,  crisp, 
tender,  with  an  excellent,  rich*  sub-acid  flavour,  somewhat  rcsem- 
bling  Baldwin.    January  to  ApriL 

JBhI  flffiflffa, 
B«n  Cahjj>a« 

BMiflQld  Konsaoh. 

Steels  Bed  Winter,  of  Hioh. 

Ab  old  fruit,  Ibnnerly  much  grown  in  Gonnectioat  and 


98  THB    APFLB. 

chusettsy  but  is  not  uow  much  planted  on  ftcoount  of  its  mohA  sin 
and  poor  fruit ;  succeeds  well  in  western  New  York,  Ohio^  and 
Michigan.  Tree  thrifty,  but  of  slender  ^wih ;  rery  productive. 
Fruit  mediam,  oUate,  incfining  to  conic,  slightlj  angular.  Skin 
yellow,  mostly  shaded  with  deep  red  or  crimson;  somewhat 
striped  or  splashed  on  the  mnny  side,  and  thickly  sprinkled  with 
grey,  and  sometimes  menish  dots.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a 
broad,  deep  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  segments  long,  in  a  snail, 
nanrow,  somewhat  irregular  basin,  ^esh  white,  tender,  cri^ 
abounding  with  a  brisk,  refreshing  juice,  and  retaining  its  fine, 
delicate  &vour  to  the  last    January  to  May. 

Bed  AatraehaiiL 

Rkd  Abtraohav.    Thomp.  Lind. 

A  fruit  of  extraordinary  beauty,  first  imported  into  Bn^land 
with  the  White  Astrachan,  from  Sweden,  in  1816.  It  bears 
abundantly  with  us,  and  its  singular  richness  of  colour  is  height- 
ened by  an  exquisite  bloom  on  A»  surface  of  the  fVuit,  like  that 
of  a  plum.  It  is  one  of  the  handsomest  dessert  fruits,  and  its 
quality  is  good,  but  if  not  taken  from  the  tree  as  soon  as  ripe 
it  is  liable  to  become  mealy.  Ripens  from  the  last  of  July  to 
the  middle  of  August 

Fruit  pretty  large,  rather  above  &e  middle  size,  and  very 
smooth  and  fair,  roundish,  a  Mttle  narrowed  towards  the  eye. 
Skin  almost  entirely  covered  with  deep  crimson,  with  sometimes 
a  little  greenish  yellow  in  liie  shade,  and  occasionally  a  fitde 
near  the  stalk,  aod  eefvered  with  a  pde  whtta  bkNxn. 

THS    APPLS.  99 

Stalk  rather  abort  and  deeply  iMeried.  Calyx  set  in  a  slight 
basin,  which  is  sometimes  a  little  irregular.  Flesh  quite  white, 
crispv  moderately  juicy,  with  an  agreeable,  rich,  acid  flavour. 

Rawlk's  Janrit* 

Banto's  JauMttitif.  Wimer  JsMwtlfag; 

Bock  Remain.  Jeanett 

Rock  Rimmon.  KeverlaiL 

Tellow  Janett  Indiana  Jannottlng.  ^ 

Origin,  Virginia,  on  the  farm  of  Caleb  Ranles.  Tree  vigorooSy 
spreading;  it  puts  forth  its  leaves,  and  blossoms  much  later  than 
other  varieties  in  the  spring,  and  consequently  avoids  injury  by 
late  frost ;  it  is,  therefore,  particularly  valuable  for  the  south  and 
southwest,  where  it  is  much  cultivated. 

Fruit  j^thcr  large,  oblate,  considerably  depressed,  conic,  an- 
gular. Skin  yellowish,  shaded  with  red  and  striped  with  crim- 
son. Stalk  short  and  thick,  inserted  in  a  broad  open  cavity. 
Calyx  partially  open,  set  in  a  rather  shallow  basin.  Flesh  whitish 
yellow,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  very  pleasant  vinous  flavour 
February  to  June.      So  far  has  not  succeeded  well  at  the  north. 

RsuiBTTE  Blavobk  D'EiPAOirE.  Thomp.  Nois. 

White  Spanish  BeinetlQ.    Finn,  Mag,  lAndL 
D'Espagnei  "^ 

Fall  Pippin. 
Large  Fall  Pippin. 
Gobbett'fl  Fall  Pippin. 

A  very  celebrated  old  Spanish  variety.  Fruit  veir  large, 
Tonndish-oft^on^,  somewhat  angular,  with  broad  ribs  on  its  sides, 
terminating  in  an  uneven  crown,  where  it  is  nearly  as  broad  as 
at  the  ba^  Calyx  large,  open,  very  deeply  sunk  in  a  broad- 
angled,  oblique,  irregular  basin.  Stalk  hau  an  inch  long,  set  in 
a  rather  small,  even  cavity.  Skin  smooth,  yellowish-green  on 
the  shaded  side,  orange,  tinged  with  browni^-red  next  the  sun, 
and  sprinkled  with  blackish  dots.  Flesh  yellowish-white,  crisp, 
tender,  with  a  sugary  juice.  The  tree  has  the  same  wood, 
foliage,  and  vigorous  habit,  as  our  Fall  Pippin,  and  the  fruit 
keeps  a  month  longer.    This  is  quite  distinct  from  Fall  Pippin. 

BxiNiETTE,  Canada.    Thomp.  Nois. 

Canadto  Roinatte.    LmL 

Orosse  Rdnette  d'Anglefcerre.     O.  Vuk. 

Pomme  du  Oaaa.  1  >,/«>«wnM- 

Reinette  dn  Canada  Blancha  Vi^z!z!z 

Reinetto  Groeee  du  Canada.      \zS^^^ 

Reinette  du  Canada  A  Oortee.     J  ^'""'^^ 




Wahr  BeiiMtta 

It  ii  easy  to  see  that  the  Canada  Reinette  is  a  popular  and 

of  Bcme 

,  100  THS   APPLE. 

highly  esteemed  variety  in  Eorope,  by  the  ffreat  number  of  syno- 
nyms under  which  it  is  known.  It  is  doubtful,  notwithstanding 
its  name,  whether  it  is  truly  of  Canadian  origrin,  as  Merlet,  a 
French  writer,  describes  the  same  fruit  in  the  17th  century; 
and  some  authors  think  it  was  first  brou^t  to  this  continent 
from  Normandy,  and  cairied  back  under  its  new  name.  At  any 
rate,  it  is  a  very  large  and  handsome  fruit,  a  ^ood  bearer,  and  <k 
excellent  quality  in  all  respects.  It  is  yet  litUe  known  in  the 
United  States,  but  deserves  extensive  orchard  culture. 

Fruit  of  the  largest  size,  conical,  flattened ;  rather  irr^;ular, 
with  projecting  ril» ;  broad  at  the  base,  narrowing  towards  the 
eye,  four  inches  in  diameter,  and  three  deep.  Skin  greenish- 
yellow,  slightly  washed  with  brown  on  the  sunny  side,  sprinkled 
with  dots  and  russet  patches.  Stalk  shorty  inserted  in  a  wide 
hollow.  Calyx  short  and  larse,  set  in  a  rather  deep,  in^ralar 
basin.  Flesh  neariy  white,  ratner  firm,  juicy,  with  a  rich,  lively, 
sub-acid  flavour.  Ki^  in  December,  and,  if  picked  eariy  m 
autumn,  it  will  keep  till  April. 

ShodeJEOand  Cfrmnkig. 

Rhodi  iBLAifD  Gbbeiong.    Coxc.  Thomp.  Man. 

Builington  Greening.       Jersey  Qrecafngf    Ome, 

The  Rhode  Island  Greening  is  such  an  universal  favourite  and 
is  so  generally  known,  that  it  seems  almost  snperflnons  to  give  a 
description  of  it.    It  succeeds  well  in  almost  all  parts  of  th» 


country,  and  on  a  great  Tarietf  (^  toik,  and  i%  perh^M,  more 
gonenJly  esteemed  than  any  other  early  winter  fruit.  In  the 
Eeetem  States  where  the  Newtown  pippin  does  not  attain  full 
perfeetion,  this  apple  takes  its  place--«nd  in  England,  it  is  fre* 
qnently  sold  for  that  frnit,  which,  however,  it  does  not  eqnal, 
|Tbe  Qttm  Newtown  Pippin  deecnbed  by  lindley  is  this  ftnit] 
Froit  laige,  lonndish,  a  little  flattened,  pretty  regnlar,  hot 
<^n  obscoraly  ribbed.  Skin  oily  smooth,  oark  green,  becom- 
ing pale  green  when  ripe,  when  it  sometimes  shows  a  dnil  blosh 
near  the  stslL  Calyx  small,  woolly,  dosed,  in  a  sUg^htly  sunk, 
scarcely  {Waited  baan.  Stdk  three-feorths  of  an  men  hmg, 
corred,  thickest  at  the  botUmu  Flesh  yoUow,  fine  grsined,  ten- 
der, criip,  with  an  abundance  of  rich,  slightly  avomatic,  lively, 
acid  juice.  The  tree  grows  very  stnm^y,  and  resembles 
the  Fall  mppin  in  its  wood  and  leaves,  and  bears  most  shnndant 
crops,  llie  fruit  is  as  eioellent  lor  cooking  as  for  the  deesart 
November  to  February — or,  in  the  North,  to  Msrch,  In  some 
localities  at  the  West  does  not  succeed,  in  others  very  good. 




Bed  Spttsenbuxgh. 

Doriok's  9nlt 

A  very  excellent  M  apple  well  worthy  of  cultivation.  Ori- 
m^  uncertain,  supposed  to  be  Ulster  County,  N.  T.  An  old 
fruit,  but  little  known — ^lately  introduced  by  K  Q.  Stndley, 



Clavcnck,  Colombia,  County,  N.  Y. — a  free  upright  grower,  a 
good  bearer,  and  one  of  the  beet  deisert  apples  of  U»  seaeoo. 

Sise  rather  above  medium,  oblate.  Stem  nearlly  an  inch 
long.  Cavity  deep  and  broad.  Calyx  cloeed,  legments  re- 
curved, basin  deep.  Colour  yellow,  mostly  striped  with  red. 
Flesh  fine-grained,  tender,  juicy,  pleasant,  inth  a  refreshing  vi- 
noBfl  flavour.    September  and  October. 


Origin,  Ikrm  of  D.  C.  Bichmond,  Sandusky,  Ohio. — ^Trce  a  free 
grower,  and  a  profuse  bearer.  Fruit  large,  oblate,  sHgfa tly  angu lar. 
Skin  light  yellow,  striped,  splashed,  and  marUed  with  crimson, 
and  thickly  sprinkled  with  liffht  brown  dots.  Stem  short,  in- 
serted in  a  broad  deep  cavity  uightly  russeted.  Calyx  open,  set 
in  a  large  furrowed  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juii^,  vinous, 
sweeti  arc  rich.    October  to  Febnuny. 

Sons  Bbavtt. 

afflett'8  Seedling. 
Origin,  Southern  Ohio.    Tree  a  moderate  grower,  succeeds 
well  at  the  South-wosL 

THS   APPLXB.  103 

Fruit  large,  roandish^  approaching  conic.  Skin  yellow,  shaded 
and  striped  wilh  br^t  red,  and  sprinkled  with  light  dots.  Stem 
an  inch  long,  iweitiKl  in  a  laige,  deep  cavity,  Mirroonded  by 
ereouish  ruaaet.  Calyx  partially  closed,  set  in  a  narrow,,  deep 
Dttstn.  Flesh  yellowuh,  tender,  jaicy,q>rigfatly  sab-acid.  Gore 
rather  large.    October  to  Decembor. 

BoMAii  Stsm.    Goxe. 

Hie  Roman  Stem  is  not  genenJly  known  ont  of  New-Jersey* 
It  oT^nated  at  Burlington,  in  that  State,  and  is  much  esteemed 
in  that  neighbourhood.  In  flavour,  it  belongs  to  the  class  of 
sprightly,  pleasant  apples,  and  somewhat  resembles  the  Yellow 
Belle  Flenr.    Tree  very  productive. 

Fruit  scarcely  of  medium  size,  roundish-oblong — or  often 
ovate.  Skin  whitish-yellow,  with  a  faint  brownish  blush, 
sprinkled  with  patches  of  small  black  dots,  and,  when  ripe, 
haying  a  few  reddish  specks,  unless  the  fruit  is  very  fair.  Stalk 
three-fourths  of  an  inch  lon^,  inserted  in  a  shallow  cavity  under 
a  fleshy  protuberance,  which  the  fitrmers  have  likened  to  a 
Boman  nose,  whence  the  name.  Calyx  set  in  a  rather  narrow 
basin,  with  a  few  plaits.  Core  hollow.  Flesh  tender,  juicy 
with  a  rkh,  pleasant,  musky  flavour.    November  to  Mtfch. 

RussBT,  Ambrican  Goldkn. 

Golden  Rusaet    Man^  Ken. 

BaMocfc*3  Fippin.    J  "**^ 
little  Pssrissin. 

The  American  Golden  Russet  is  one  of  the  most  delidoos  and 
tender  apples,  its  flesh  resembling  more  in  texture  that  of  a  but- 
tery pear,  than  that  of  an  ordinary  apple.  It  is  widely  cultivated 
at  thB  West,  and  in  Now-£nglaad  as  the  Golden  Iluaset,  and 
though  neither  handsome  nor  large,  is  still  an  universal  favour- 
ite from  its  great  productiveness  and  admirable  flavour.  The 
uncouth  name  of  Caxe,  Sheep-noa^,  is  nearly  obsolete,  except  in 
New-Jersey,  and  we  therefore  adopt  the  present  one,  to  which  it 
is  well  entitled.  The  tree  is  thrifty,  with  upright  drab  coloured 

Fruit  below  medium  size,  roundish-ovate.  Skin  dull  yellow, 
sprinkled  with  a  very  thin  russet  Stalk  rather  lon^  and  slen- 
der. CaljTx  closed,  and  set  in  a  rather  narrow  basm.  Flesh 
yellowish,  veiy  tender,  (almost  melting,)  juicy,  with  a  mild,  rich, 
spi^  flavour.    October  to  January. 

llie  Bholish  Goldbn  Russet  is  a  sub-acid  sort,  much  inferiour 
to  the  above. 

104  THE   APPLX8. 

RusasT,  Boston  or  Eozburt.    Man.  Tlion^ 

SoKbmy  Buflset.    JTm.        Putnam*  Itiwet 

lliis  Raaaeti  a  native  of  MasBachosettBi  is  one  of  the  meet 
popular  market  fruitB  in  the  conntrj,  as  it  is  ezcenent^  a  prodi 

gions  bearer,  and  keeps  till  late  in  the  spring.  It  is  in  every 
way  highly  deserving  extensive  cnltivaftkMi. 

Fhiit  of  medium  size,  often  laiger  roundish,  a  litUe  flattened, 
and  sHgfatly  angular.  Skin  at  fist  doll  green,  eovered  with 
Drownish-yellow  rosset  when  ripe,  with,  rarely,  a  finnt  blush  on 
one  side.  Stalk  nearly  three-ionrths  of  an  inch  lonj^  rather 
slender,  not  deeply  inserted.  0Bl3rx  closed,  set  in  a  round  basin, 
of  moderate  depth.  Flesh  menish-wUte,  moderately  juicy, 
with  a  rather  rich,  sub-acid  flavour.  Ripens  in  January,  an^ 
may  be  brought  to  market  in  June. 

There  are  several  native  varieties  of  Russet  or  ''Leather 
Coats,**  of  laiger  siae  than  the  foregoing,  but  they  are  much  infe- 
riour,  bein^  ant  to  shrivel  and  become  tasteless*  Does  not  suo- 
oeed  well  m  all  localities  at  the  West 


MQIcreek  Yandevere. 
English  Yandevereb 

Origin,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  near  Millcreek,  grew  on  the  fiurm 



of  a  wealthy  Quaker  named  OiUmmii,  near  hk  aouAehoiieei 
lienoe  Ha  name.  An  old  ▼ariety  and  popular  in  Pennsylvania.  It 
aomeiwliat  numMm  the  old  PonnajWania  Vaadarere^  and  ia 
eomoaed  to  be  a  aeedling  of  it 

Tnt  moderately  TigoroiHi  with  a  n»wadiBg  bead,  a  good 

FVoit  rather  abore  mediomy  eUate^  ibn  yellow,  shaded  and 
qplaahed  with  erimaon,  and  diinly  q>rin]ded  with  laige  grej 
and  Iwown  dots.  Stalk  rather  kmffy  carved,  inserted  in  a  broad 
ctmtj.  Calyx  cloaedi  eet  in  a  wide  baeini  of  modetale  dejitfi, 
slightly  corrugated.  Flesh  yellowiah,Bomewhal  firm,  juicy,  cnsp^ 
raUier  rid^  snb-aeid.  Septendm  to  Febraaiy.  Unsoxpassed 
for  colinary  nses. 

SpxmHBUROB,  Ebopub.    Coxe. 

JBaapoM  ^tBeaboig.    Ken^ 
^ne  l^tEenbargfa. 

Hie  EboposSpitBenbiiigh  is  a  handrnxne,  truly  delicious  sf^iH 
and  is  generally  considmd,  by  all  good  judges,  equal  to  the 


106  THB  APPLE. 

Newtown  Pippin,  and  nnmrpaased  u  a  daiaert  fruit,  b^  any 
other  variety.  It  originated  at  Esopua,  afiimous  apple  district^ 
oriffinallj  settled  by  me  Low  Dutch,  on  the  Hudson,  where  it  is 
still  raised  in  its  highest  perfection.  But  throughout  the  whole 
of  New  York,  it  is  considered  the  first  of  apples^  and  its  beauty 
and  productiveness  render  it  highly  profitable  for  orchard  cul- 
ture. The  firuit  of  this  variety  brought  fi!om  Western  New- 
Tork,  seems  deficient  in  flavour,  which  is,  periiapa,  owing  to 
ihe  excessive  richness  of  the  eoO  there.  Hie  tree  has  rather 
slender  shoots,  and  when  in  bearing,  has  long  and  hanging 
'  limbs. 

Fruit  lai^  oblan&  taoerjng  roundly  to  the  eye.  Skin 
smooth,  nearly  covered  witn  rich,  lively  red,  dotted  with  distinct 
yellowish  russet  dots.  On  the  shaded  side  is  a  yellowish  ground 
with  streaks  and  broken  stripes  of  red.  Stalk  rather  long, — 
three-fourths  of  an  inch — and  slender,  projecting  beyond  the 
base,  and  inserted  in  a  wide  cavity.  Oalyx  small,  and  doeed, 
set  in  a  shallow  basin,  which  is  slightly  furrowed.  Flesh  yellow, 
rather  firm,  crisp,  juicy,  with  a  delicious  rich,  bris|^  flavour. 
Seeds  in  a  hollow  core.    December  to  Februaiy. 

Sqmmsr  Rose.    Thomp.  Coxe. 
Woolmsn's  Harvest 

A  very  pretty  and  very  excellent  apple,  highly  esteemed  as  a 
dessert  fruit. 

Fruit  scarcely  of  medium  size,  roundish.  Skin  smooth,  rich 
waxen  yellow,  streaked  and  blotched  with  a  little  red  on  the 
sunny  side.  Stalk  rather  short,  and  slender.  Calyx  dosed,  set 
in  an  even  basin.  Flesh  tender,  abounding  with  sprightly  juice. 
Bipens  early  in  August 

Sweeting,  Ladies'. 

The  Ladies'  Sweeting  we  consider  the  finest  winter  sweet 
apple,  for  the  dessert,  yet  known  or  cultivated  in  this  country. 

Its  handsome  appearance,  delightful  perfume,  sprightly  fiavour, 
and  the  long  time  which  it  remains  in  perfection,  render  it  uni- 
versallv  admired  wherever  h  is  known,  and  no  garden  should 
be  without  it  It  is  a  native  of  this  neighbonrhMxi,  and  thou- 
sands of  trees  of  this  variety  have  been  sent  firom  this  garden, 
to  various  parts  of  the  Union.  The  wood  is  not  veiy  strong,  but 
it  grows  thriftily,  and  bears  very  abundantly. 

Fruit  large,  roundish-ovate,  narrowing  pretty  rapidly  to  the 
eye.  Skin  very  smooth,  nearly  covered  with  red  in  the  sun,  but 
pale  yellowish-green  in  the  shade,  with  broken  stripes  of  pale 
red.  The  red  b  sprinkled  with  well  marked,  yellowish-gray 
dote,  and  covered,  wnen  first  gathered,  with  a  thin  white  bloom. 
There  is  also  generally  a  fiiint  marbling  of  cloudy  white  over 

mS    APPUB. 


the  red,  on  the  sbady  side  of  the  friiit,  and  rays  of  the  same 
the  ataik.    Caljx  quite  «nall»  set  in  a  narrow,  shallow. 

hoMut  ammng. 

^bited  basin.  Stalk  half  an  inch  lon^^  in  a  shallow  cavity, 
fledhy  ^preenish-white,  exceedingly  tender,  juicy  and  erisp,  wiUi 
a  delicioos,  aprightly,  agreeably  perfumed  ifarour*  Keeps  with- 
out shrivelling,  or  losing  its  flavour,  till  May. 

SwAAB.    Coxe.  Floy.   Thomp. 

This  is  a  truly  noble  American  fruit,  produced  by  the  Dutch 
settlers  on  the  Hudson,  near  Esopus,  and  so  termed,  from  its 
UBttBoal  weight,  this  woid,  in  the  low  Datdi,  neaning  heavy. 
It  fequwss  a  deep,  rich,  sandy  knm,  to  bring  it  to  perfection, 
and,  in  its  native  soils,  we  have  seen  it  twelve  inches  m  eircum- 
ferenoa,  and  of  a  deep  golden  yellow  colour.  It  is  one  of  the 
finest  iavevred  iqpf^es  in  America,  and  deserves  extensive  cnl- 
tivatioii,  in  all  fsvoorahle  peaitioBSi  though  it  does  not  snceeed 
well  in  danp  or  cold  scik. 

Fmii  large,  pegnlariy  formed,  lonndish.  Skin  greenish-yel- 
low when  fi^  gathered,  bat  when  entirely  ripe,  of  a  fine,  dead 
gold  colour,  doSied  with  nnmwoas  distinct  brown  specks,  and 
sometimes  faintly  marbled  with  gray  rasset  on  the  side,  and 
round  the  stalk.    StaQc  slender,  £ree  fourths  of  an  inch  long. 



inaerted  in  a  very  round  cavity.    [Sometimes  this  cavity  is  pa^ 
tially  dosed.]    Calyx  amaU|  greenishy  set  in  a  shaUow  T    ' 

scarceljr  plaited.  Flesh  yellowish,  fine  srained^  tender,  with  an 
ezceediiLny  rich,  aromatic  flayonr,  and  a  spicy  smdL  Gore 
smslL  The  trees  bear  fiur  cropsi  and  the  fruit  is  in  season  from 
December  to  March. 

Yandsbysbb  of  Nbw  Yobx. 

Hewtown  ByitssubuigiL       Os  Ify^ 

We  hare  retained  the  name,  nnder  wfaidh  we  have  lon^ 
known  our  very  ftiToiirite  spple,  aHhongh  we  are  penniaded  it 
does  not  belong  to  it.  It  appears  to  m  clearly  proved  lliat  it 
did  not  originaile  in  Delaware,  but  that  it  had  its  oriffin  in  New- 
town, Long  Island,  and  was  described  by  Coxe,  by  Ae  name  of 
Newtown  Bpttaenbaivfa ;  but  is  has  to  lonsr  borne  the  name  of 
Yandevere,  that  we  Siink  it  not  praoticalMe  to  restore  its  tme 
narne^  and  therefore  propose  to  call  it  Yandevere  of  New  Tork. 

Tree  moderate,  vigorons  and  productive,  in  rich,  light  soil,  of 
most  excellent  frait,  which  is  suited  to  more  tastes  than  any 
other  apple  of  its  season. 

Fjrait  mediom,  oblate,  slightly  conic  Skin  fine  yellow,  washed 

APPIA.  109 

with  lig^t  red,  striped  and  splaabed  with  deeper  rod,  and  richly 
shaded  with  csmune  on  the  sunny  side,  oorered  with  a  lifj^t 

Vtmd$9enqfNim  ToHL 

blo(m^  and  qurinkled  with  pecnliargNTsp^^  BtaUc  shorty  in- 
serted in  a  wide  cavity.  Gshx  snal^  dosed,  set  ia  a  le^ar 
bann  of  moderate  defrtk  Vlesh  yeUow»  cii^S  tender,  with  a 
rich,  qprif^tlyy  nnoas  flavoiur,  seaioely  sab-aoUL  Oetdber  to 

Warmer  Appk, 

110  THB  APPLB. 


Origin,  Penn  Yan,  Yates  Co^  N.  Y.  Tree,  thrifty,  upright ; 
requires  tbinning  to  produce  good  flavoured  fruit;  when  grown 
in  the  shade,  is  wanting  in  flavour. 

Fruit  medium,  or  u)ove,  irregularly  oblate,  angular.  Skin 
white,  mostly  shaded  with  crimson,  obscurely  striped,  and 
sprinkled  with  light  dots.  Stalk  nearly  an  inch  long,  rather 
slender,  inserted  in  a  large,  broad,  irregular  cavity.  Calyx  small 
and  closed,  set  in  a  rather  abrupt  somewhat  corrugated  badn. 
Flesh  yellowish,  very  tender,  juicy,  with  an  excellent  brisk 
vinous  flavour.  A  veiy  delicate  apple.  Ripe  November  to  Fe- 

Westhbld  Sxbk-no-furthbb. 

Gonnecticat  Seek-no-fUrther. 

The  WeHfield  Seek-no/urtUr  is  the  Seek-no-further  of  Con- 
necticut, and  is  an  old  and  highly  esteemed  variety  of  that  dis 
tricL    Jt  has  a  pearmam  flavour. 

Fruit  large,  pretty  regolariy  round.  SkiB  pale,  or  dull  red 
over  a  paJA  eloudod  green  groond*— the  red  sprmUed  with  ob- 
scure niflsety  yellow  dots.  Stalk  very  slender,  threfr-^mirtlia  of  an 
inch  long,  inserted  in  an  even  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  or  with  a 
few  reflexed  segments,  and  set  in  an  even  basin  of  moderate 
depth.  Flesh  white,  fine  grained,  tender,  with  a  rich,  pearmain 
flavour.    A  first  rate  fruit    October  to  February. 

Whitb  Wi¥tbb  Pbabmaiit. 

Origin  unknown,  by  some  thoug^ht  to  be  an  old  eastern  variety, 
highly  esteemed  at  ti^e  west,  for  lul  purposes.  Specimens  sent  us 
by  Henry  Avery,  and  others,  were  of  the  best  quality.  Tree 
spreading,  hardy,  and  thrifty,  a  regular  and  good  bearer. 

Fruit  medium,  or  above,  oblong,  conic,  somewhat  oblique. 
Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  round  cavity.  Calyx  nearly 
closed,  segments  long,  basin  uneven,  surrounded  by  five  pro- 
minences, which  are  continued  in  obscure  angles  along  ita 
sides.  Skin  pale  yellow,  with  a  slight  blush  or  warm  ^oek, 
thickly  sprinkled  with  minute  brown  dots.  Flesh  yellowish, 
tender,  crisp,  juicy,  with  a  very  pleasant  subacid  flavour.  Jar 
nuary  to  ApriL 

Winter  Uarvey  in  many  respeets  is  similar  to  the  above,  and 
may  prove  so. 



William's  Fatoubitb.    Han.  Ken. 
Wffliam'B  Earij.      Wi]li«n'8  Bed. 

A  large  and  handsome  deesert  apple,  worthy  of  a  place  m 
every  giuxlen.  It  originated  at  Roxbury,  near  Boston,  bean 
abundimtly,  and  ripens  from  the  last  of  Jnly  to  the  fint  of 
September.    An  excellent  market  variety. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  oUong,  and  a  little  one-sided.  Stalk 
an  inch  lon^  slender,  slightly  sank.  Calyx  closed,  in  a  narrow 
angolar  basin.  Skin  very  smooth^  of  a  light  red  ground,  but 
nearly  covered  with  a  fine  datk  red.  Fleah  yeUowish-white,  and 
of  a  very  mild  and  agreeable  flavoiir.    Requires  a  strong  rich  soil 


'  An  apple  bearing  the  above  local  name,  was  found  growing  in 
the  garden  of  lire.  Orittendon,  and  is  deserving  of  notice.  The 
appeaniice  of  tlie  tree  and  fruit  is  etrikin^ly  like  that  of  the 
FaM  pippin,  but  is  a  vwy  kte  keeper,  eontmufaig  in  perfection 
until  Jiay. 

Fruit  large,  oUate,  slightly  angular.  Skin  fine  yeHow  with  a 
dinuoA  cheek,  spanely  covered  with  grey  dots.  Stalk  short 
and  mall,  inserted  in  a  narrow  cavity.  Calvx  open,  segments 
l<nig,  basin  open.  Fledi  yellow,  tender,  jmcy,  vinous,  excel* 
lent.    June  to  May. 



WiNBBAP.       COXB. 

WliM  Sop  T    2%on^    Po^le  Appla 
This  is  not  only  a  good  apple  for  the  table,  bat  it  is  alpo  one 
of  the  veiy  finest  ciifer  fruity  and  its  froitfiilnefls  renders  it  a 

SMit  &Toarite  with  orchardiste.  The  tree  grows  rather  inegra- 
Ij,  and  does  not  form  a  handsome  head,  bat  it  bean  eany, 
and  tihe  apples  have  the  ffood  qoali^  of  hanging  late  upon  the 
trees,  without  mjarj,  whue  the  tree  thrires  well  on  sandy,  light 
soils.    Yaloable  at  Uie  west. 

Frait  of  medium  size,  rather  oblong.  Skin  smooth,  of  a  flna 
dark  red,  with  a  few  stroaks,  and  a  little  yellow  ground,  appear- 
ing, on  the  shady  side.  Stalk  nearly  an  inch  long,  slender,  set 
in  ap  irregular  cavity.  Calyx  small,  placed  in  a  regular  basin, 
with 'fine  plaits,  fledi  yellow,  firm,  crisp,  with  a  rich,  high 
fiavour*    Nbyember  to  Ifiay. 

Wdodf$  8wtti» 
Wood's  Swmt. 
Hjde's  Sweet 
of  this  handsouke  fruit  were  sent  us  br  J.  M. 
EetcheHB,  of  Brandon,  Y t,  who  says  it  onginated  witL  David 
Wood  ofSudbury,ofthat  state,  and  is  there  ooniidered  tlM  best 
fall  sweet  apple  in  caltiyation ;  growth  neaily  equal  to  Baldwin, 
as  laige  ana  as  ftir  as  B.  L  Greening,  and  prodactiTe. 

Frait  laige,  irrsgalarly  oMate.  Skin  wmtiBh,  yellow,  waiMi, 
or  oily,  shaded  and  stnped  with  fine  rich  red.  Stalk  rather 
shorty  inserted  in  a  broad  de^  farrowed  cavity.  Calyx  small, 
closed,  set  in  a  rather  deep  open  basin.    Flesh  white,  tender, 

m  AgtLM.  115 

jnicj,  afanoit  melfciiig  with  m  deliglitfiil  nob  ttceharine  ilaroar, 
September,  Noyembor. 

GLASS  n. 

Compriieft  thoie  that  we  genenltjr  of  ^verj  good**  qnalitji 
mmaj  of  wluch  however  are  new  and  imtertedi  aM  may  on  fmv 
ther  trial  rank  aa  '^besti*'  while  otheia  may  not  proYo  worthy  of 

Aaaorr'a  Swbbt. 

From  N,  Hampiihire,  Bather  above  madimnaiafl^ooiuc.  Skin 
yellow,  oo?ered  with  red  stripea  and  Uotcheai  and  many  white 
dots.  Ileah  white,  tender,  jmcy,  and  pleasant  Ripe  December 
to  March. 


Qriffinaied  with  James  Adams,  Union  Co^  Pa^  huge,  romid- 
ish,  oblate^  finntly  mottled,  and  stripe*  with  red  on  a  sreenish 
yellow  gramd*  Stem  nether  (diort  and  thick,  oafity  broad,  acnte. 
Cal^  nwier  large,  segments  closed,  basm  wkle,  moderately  deep 
plmted.  Fleeh  greennn  white,  of  fine  texture,  n^erjnioy,  flavoor 
pleasant.    Jannary  to  ApriL    (Ad.  Inl  Bep.) 


Or^n,  Lancaster  Ck>.,  Pa^  speeimena  leeeiTed  of  Jonathan 
Baldwm,  Downii^town,  Pa.  frnit  rather  below  medinm,  ob- 
late, somewhat  obfiqne.  Skin  yellowish,  striped  and  shaded  with 
red,  and  sprinkled  with  light  brown  dots.  Stem  short  and  smidl, 
inserted  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  in  a  medinm  basin. 
Flesh  tender,  with  a  ipicy,  pleasant,  sab-acid  flavour.  Septem- 
ber, October. 

A  native  of  Cheater  Co.,  Pa^  of  vif^rons  ffrowth,  and  produc- 
tive. FVuit  laige,  oblate,  skin  yellowish,  shaded  and  striped  with 
red.  Stmn  short,  cavity  narrow.  Cal^  in  a  ronnd  moderate 
basin.  Flesh  yellow,  flne^  crisp^  jnicy,  with  arich  vinoos  flavour, 
hi|^y  esteemed  for  cookings  not  in  eating  till  spiii^  and  will 
kMp  tin  mid-suBsmar. 


HsUqiii.    Bookfc^liMD  Bed. 

Much  grown  m  noiiMm  N.  GaN^a,  vahMMe  diiefly  for 
ita  keeping  mopeiiieB.  Fhdt  medium,  oblate,  irregular.  Skin 
deep  rod.  Flesh  whitish,  crisp,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  briak  acid 
flavoor.    January  to  April. 

114  THB  APFUE. 

Anglo- AiiERicAK. 

Raised  by  W.  H.  Read,  Canada  West  Tree  vigorous  and 
prodactave.  Fruit  medium,  roundish,  conic,  slightly  angular. 
Skin  yellowish,  marbled,  striped  and  splashed  with  bright  red. 
Stalk  short,  rather  slender,  inserted  in  a  cavity  of  moderate  depth. 
Calyx  lai^e  and  open  in  a  moderate  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender, 
juicy,  sweet,  sKghtly  aromatic,  excellent.    August^  September. 

Aromatio  Caboliva. 

Origin,  Pomaria,  S.  Garoliiia.  Fmit  large,  obkte,  conic,  ob- 
liqu^  pale  red,  slightly  streaked,  with  a  heavy  bloom.  Flesh  ex- 
ceedingly tender  and  melting,  flavour  highly  aromatic  and 
excellent,  season  last  of  June  and  all  of  July.  An  abundant 
bearers.    (W.  Summer  iu  Hort) 


Oriffin,  unknown.  Tree  npright,  moderate  growei^  a  fpood  and 
annual  bearer,  reoeive.  from  Bobt  Buchanaa  of  Cmoiiuiafti. 
Fruit  naediam,i4>proachii4^  conic,  truncate,  angHlar.  Skkyeyow- 
ish,  striped  and  snaded  with  carmine,  and  eonsidentbly  sfMrinkled 
wi^  Jar^e  light  dots.  Stem  small  and  shorty  inaeitea  in  a  laree 
open  cavitv  surrounded  by  sreenish  russet  Calyx  o^eiii  set  m 
a  round  abrupt  basin,  ^ew  yellow,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  very 
pleasant,  mild,  sub-acid  flavour.    Januaiy  and  February. 


Bed  Ashmore.    Fdl  Winef 

Fruit  large,  oblate,  inclining  to  com'o.  Skin  whitish,  oily, 
shaded  and  washed  with  crimson,  and  sprinkled  with  light  dota 
beneath  the  skin.  Stem  veiy  short,  cavitv  broad  and  very  deep^ 
russeted.  Calyx  partially  closed,  set  m  a  deep  open  basin. 
Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  veiy  pleasant  vinous  flavour, 
somewhat  aromatic    October,  November. 

AuKT  Haknah. 

Origin,  Bisex  Oo^  Mass.  Tree  of  slow  growth,  nruit  medium, 
oblate,  nearty  globular.  Skin  golden  y^owidi,  nmnkled  with 
russet  Stem  wiort,  insMted  in  a  oavity  surrounded  by  russet 
Calyx  closed,  basin  very  shallow.  Flesh  yellow,  fine  grained,  with 
a  rich  peculiar  flavour,  slightly  musky.    December  to  February. 

AuTUicK  PiAucAXir.    Thomp. 

UML  Jflftr,  F.  Mag. 
Winter  Fesrmain,  i^  Ae  ifNidfe  jSSMmi 
Pannain  d'  £t6.    Jfnoqp. 

A  slow  growing  tree,  but  attains  a  large  sise.    Frait  of 

nUI  APFLB.  115 

diom  Bue,  oUong,  nanowing  gmdndlj  towards  the  eye.  Skin 
brawniah  yellow,  mixed  with  green  on  the  shaded  aide,  but  next 
the  son  reddish,  blended  with  yellow,  streaked  with  deeper  red, 
and  sprinkled  with  namerons  small  brown  specks.  Stalk  short, 
obliquely  planted  under  a  fleshy  fip^  Calyx  set  in  a  broad  shal- 
low basin,  which  is  sometimes  scarcely  at  all  sank,  and  obscure- 
ly plaited.  Flesh  pale  yellow,  crisp,  firm,  a  little  dry,  but  rich 
and  high  flavoured  Branches  slender.  This  most  excellent 
old  dessert  fruit  is  the  ^  Wmtcr  Pearmain''  of  most  old  Ameri- 
can orchards,  and  is  a  ffreat  fitrourite  with  many  amatoun, 
October  and  November,  and  keeps  tali  March. 

Aimjiiir  PiFpnr. 

From  Vermont — Origin  unknown.  Tree  vigorous,  a  regu- 
lar bearer.  Fruit  above  medium,  oblongs  cook.  Skin  yellow, 
with  a  slight  bronaed  cheek  sparsely  covered  with  green  dots. 
Stem  rwy  short,  eavity  deep.  Calyx  closed,  in  a  dMp  narrow 
basin.  Flesh  whitish,  juicy,  tend^,  pleawrot,  snbaeid*  Novem- 
ber and  January. 


Sterliag  Beauty. 

Origin  Sterlmg,  Mass^  received  from  O.  Y.  Hflk.  TVee  vi- 
gorons  and  pvodncttre.  Fhrit  above  medium,  gbbular,  some- 
what ebi^ated.  Colour  chiefly  deep  red,  thicUy  dotted  with 
li|^t  grey.  Stalk  medinm,  inserted  m  a  rather  deep  round  ca 
vity.  Oaijrx  closed,  basin  broad  and  shallow.  Ilesh  white, 
crisp,  and  juicy,  witii  a  sweet,  rich,  vinous  flavour.  December 
to  April 


Grown  at  the  West  Fruit  large,  roundish,  conic  Skin  yel- 
low, sprinkled  with  star-shaped  dots.  Stalk  rather  short,  cavi- 
ty broad,  deep,  slightly  russeted.  Calyx  small  and  closed,  basin 
deep,  abrupt,  and  corrugated.  Flesh  yellow,  juicy,  tender,  with 
a  pleasant,  rich,  mild,  subacid  flavour.    September. 

AuTimvAL  Swxn  Swaaa. 

Sweet  Swaar.    Sweet  Qolden  Pippin. 

^  Friiit  laige,  oblate,  sometimes  very  slightly  ribbed.  Skin 
rich  yellow.  Stalk  an  inch  or  more  long,  variable ;  eavity  and 
basin  wide  and  slightly  ribbed.  Flesh  tender,  yellowish,  not 
juicy,  with  a  very  sweet,  spicy,  agreeable  flavour.    Mid.  autumn. 

116  m   APPLB. 

Growth  vigorous,  shoots  diTeising,  tree  spreadiag.    One  of  the 
finest  ftatumn  sweet  apples.    {J.  J.  T.) 



Oriffin  Pomfret,  Conn.    Tree  rigoroos,  prodnetiye. 

Fruit  rather  large,  irregalarlj  conic,  aogolar.  Skin  greenish, 
yellow  striped,  and  shaded  with  red.  Stem  short  and  stont; 
inserted  in  a  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  a  vei^  shallow; 
slightly  farrowed  badn.  Aesh  whitish,  tender,  jnicj,  with  a  plea* 
sant  sub-acid  flavour.    February  to  June. 



A  native  of  western  North  Carolina ;  a  vigorous  grower. 
Fruit  very  large,  oblate,  conic,  angular.  Skin  lemon  yellow, 
mostly  shaded  with  red,  sometimes  obscurely  striped,  and  sprin- 
kled with  light  dots.  Stalk  very  short,  inserted  in  a  large  cavity, 
surrounded  by  a  little  russet.  Calyx  open,  basin  bnMid,  deep, 
and  furrowe<L  Flesh  white,  very  tender,  fine  grained,  quite 
juicy,  with  a  rich,  sub-acid  flavour*    October,  November. 


From  Charles  Eessler,  Berks  Co^  Pa.  Siae  below  medium, 
roundish,  oblong.  Skin  mottled  with  red,  and  striped  with  dark 
crimson,  on  a  greenish-yellow  ground,  with  numerons  my  dots. 
Stem  lonff,  inserted  in  a  wide^  deep  cavity.  Calyx  ckwed,  set  in  a 
moderately  wide,  shallow,  plaited  basin*  Flesh  t^ider,  fine  texture, 
flavour  pleasant,  quality  ^  very  good.**    April.    (Ad.  Int  Rep.) 

Bailbt's  Spick. 

The  original  tree  is  growing  in  the  nursery  of  John  W. 
Bailey,  Pfattsburgh,  N.  Y.  Moderately  vigorous  and  pro- 

Fruit  medium,  roundish,  ovate,  conic  Skin  light  yellow,  some- 
times with  a  faint  blush.  Stem  large,  inserted  in  a  rather  deep 
cavity.  Calyx  closed,  basin  moderate  Flesh  fine  grained,  tender, 
juicy,  spicy,  rich,  sub-acid.  Middle  of  September  to  middle  of 

Bailxy's  Swxbt. 

Edgerly's  Sweet    Bowar^s  i^oeeL 
PMenon's  Sweet 

From  Perry,  Wyoming  Co.,  N.  Y.,  probably  an  old  varie^ 
from  the  East,  growth  vigorous,  productive,  mnch  prised  by 


Fniil  large,  Gonic,i^pproafllkittgoUong.  Skm  ydknriih,  rooftlj 
shaded  and  obecurely  striped  with  reid,  and  thieldy  aprinkled 
tvith  minate  dots.  Stem  short  and  rather  anaU,  inaerted  in  a  nar- 
row cavity.  Calyx  small,  closed,  set  in  a  narrow^  irregular  hann. 
Flesh  tender,  not  very  juicy,  almost  melting,  with  a  honied,  sweet 
flavoar.    Novemher  to  March. 

Bailit^s  Golbkk. 

Origin,  Kennebec  Co.,  Maine.  Tree  productive.  Fruit  large, 
oblong,  flattened  at  base  and  crown.  Skin  yellowish,  sli^Uy 
rofisetod,  witfi  a  warm  cheek.  Stem  short,  smrounded  by  rus- 
set in  a  broad  deep  cavity.  Calyx  arse  and  open,  basin  shal- 
low. Flesh  white,  with  a  pleasant  sub-acid  flavour.  January 
to  March. 


Ori^nated  with  J.  Barbour,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.  Sice  medium 
roundish,  oblate,  inclining  to  conical.  Sldn  mottled,  and  striped 
with  red  of  different  hues  on  a  greyish  ground,  with  nu- 
merous grey  specks.  Stem  rather  short,  in  a  moderately  deep 
rather  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  small,  closed,  set  in  a  shallow 
plaited  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  white,  tender,  juicy,  flavour  plea- 
sant)  quality  very  good.    (Ad.  Int.  Rep.) 

Bakxr^s  Swxkt. 

Winter  Gold«n  Sweet 
Long  Btem  Sweet 
Late  Golden  Sweet 

An  okl  fruit  of  Holland  and  New  London  Counties,  Conn., 
and  much  cultivated  there.  Fhiit  medium,  roundish,  of  a  golden 
yellow  colour,  with  some  patches  of  russet  Stem  long,  inserted 
m  a  broad  shallow  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  in  a  moderate  basin. 
Flesh  yellow,  rather  coarse,  exceedingly  saccharine  and  pleasant. 
November,  December. 


Raased  W  Mr.  BnaAy  near  Baltimore.  Fruit  yery  large, 
roandiBh,  oUate^  alig^tlj  angular.  Skin  pale  yellow,  with  a 
fiuntly  washed  dieok,  thickly  sprinkled  with  brown  dots.  Stem 
short,  in  a  medium  cavity.  C^yx  closed,  basin  shallow.  Flesh 
yellowish,  rather  compaet,  jv>^f  ^^  pleasant,  sub-acid.  Sep- 
tember, October.    May  prove  Gloria  Mundi 


Origin,  Rhode  Island.  Fruit  rather  large,  round,  pale  yellow, 
marbled,  and  nearly  covered  with  red  and  a  few  russet  spots. 

118  THE   APPLE. 

Stem  loagt  flleader,  cavity  nmnow  and  deep.  Calyx  krge^  opciif 
in  a  broad  ahallow  foirowed  baun.  Flesh  whitish,  remarkably 
tender,  juicy^  rioh,  aild,  and  pleasaat.  Last  of  AiigiMt  uid 
September.    (Cole.) 


Origin,  Kensington,  Oonn.  Fruit  medium  to  large,  conic 
Skin  yellow,  striped  and  splashed  with  carmine.  Stem  short 
and  thick,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity  surrounded  br  nisset 
Calyx  partially  closed,  set  in  a  rather  large  basin.  Flesh  yellow, 
juicy,  tender,  with  a  very  pleasant  vinous  aromatic  flavour,  al- 
most sweet    January  to  March. 

Beaxttt  or  Kent.    Thomp.  lind.  Bon. 

A  showy  English  sort  for  ealnaiy  uses.  The  tree  grows  very 
strong  and  upright,  moderately  productive.  fVuit  very  larse, 
roundish,  but  flat  at  the  base,  and  narrowing  distinctly  to  we 
eye,  where  it  is  slightly  ribbed.  Skin  smooth,  creenish-yellow, 
marked  with  large,  broken  stripes  of  purplish  red.  Stalk  shorty 
slender,  deeply  planted  in  a  round,  russeted,  corrugated  cavity. 
Calvx  small,  set  in  a  narrow  basin.  Flesh  juicy,  crisp,  tender, 
with  a  simple  sub-acid  flavour.     October  and  November. 

Beauty  of  the  West.    Ken. 

A  larffe,  showy,  sweet  apple,  at  lair  flavour. 

Fruit  large,  round  and  reffulariy  shaped.  Skin  smooth,  light 
greenish-yellow,  marked  with  small  stnpes  of  red.  Stalk  short, 
set  in  a  round  cavity.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  sweet,  and  pleasant. 
A  fall  fruit,  but  may  be  kept  for  some  time. 

Garden  Af^la. 
pn  &rm  of  Joel  Davis,  Amcsbury,  Mass.    Habits  similar 

to  Baldwin,  very  productive. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  inclining  to  oval.  Skin  yellow,  marbled, 
striped  uid  slashed  with  red.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  broad, 
de€»oavitv.  Calyx  eloeed,  basin  shallow.  Flesh  yeUowish,  tender, 
with  a  mud,  pleasant,  tnlMnid  flavour.    October,  November. 

Belie  at  Boms, 

Tenor  HBla 

A  large,  fine  apple,  having  a  great  reputation  in  the  vidnity 
lyf  Hartford,  Conn^  a  vigorous  grower  and  productive. 
Fruit  very  large,  oblong  or  oblate.    Skin  golden  yellow,  thickly 



apnulded  with  nuJl  dote.  Stem  riiort,  iDsefted  ia  a  broad,  deep 
cavitjf  sttOwuMied  by  tbin  rumeL  Calyx  doted,  bann  wtodKn^ 
aad  luerea.  Fletk  yeUav,  coarse,  mcff  wi^  a  pleaaaali  ratber 
ricb,  sub-acid  flavour.    October  to  Maroh. 

JteiLB-C^^UB,  Brabast.    Tboaofk  Bom 

Tlie  Brabant  BcHle-FIear  is  a  new  variety  from  Holland.  Hie 
habit  of  the  tree  is  meading,  and  it  requires  to  be  grafted  high 
to  make  a  good  head. 

Fruit  huge^  ronudish-oblong,  sKgfatly  ribbed.  Skin  pale  yel- 
low, mnclr  striped  with  red.  Calyx  huge,  set  in  a  pretty  wide, 
irregular  badn.  Fieah  firm,  joi^,  with  a  rich,  pleasant,  sub-acid 
flavour.    October  to  January. 

Bbldsk  Bwmr. 

Grown  ia  Coimectici^  very  pcolific^  Fruit  madiam,  or  below 
conic^  an^ar.  Skin  light  yellow  with  a  warm  cheek.  Stem 
medium,  la  xa  acute,  deep  eavity.  Calyx  closed,  in  a  small 
baain.  Heih  white,  tender,  juicy,  saccliarine,  with  a  pleasant, 
aromalie  flavour.    December  to  March. 

Bkh  DATta. 
J.  S.  Downer,  of  Elkton,  Todd  Co.,  Kentucky,  has  furnished 

180  TBK   APPLB. 

vm  with  the  tbUowing  descriptioii  and  oatliiie^  whidi  he  aeyB  it 
one  of  the  finest  wples  he  ever  met  with,  and  ie  nippoeed  to 
have  originated  in  uut  county.  Tree  of  vigotmM  growtn,  a  eon- 
stant  and  abundant  bearer. 

Fhiit  large,  roondiah,  narrowing  a  little  to  the  eye.  Skin  beau- 
tifully stripeidy  qylaahed  and  marbied  with  bright  red,  on  yellowish 
ground.  Stalk  ahor^  deeply  inserted  in  a  deep^  narrow,  somewhat 
uneven  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  in  an  angular  deep  basin.  Flesh 
white,  sometnnes  slightlv  tinged  witii  red,  tender,  juicy,  with  a 
mild,  sub-acid,  very  pleasant  flavour.  Season  winter  and 


Pound.    Bed  Hazel    Red  Warrior. 

Origin  Virginia  or  North  Carolina.  Tree  vigorous,  upright, 
ven^  productive,  and  a  valuable  market  fruit. 

Fruit  rather  above  medium,  obli<}uely  depressed.  Skin  striped, 
and  splashed  with  red,  on  a  greenish  yellow  ground,  with  large 
dots,  having  a  dark  centre.  Stem  short,  in  a  generally  broad  deep 
cavity.  Calyx  open,  basin  shallow  and  uneven.  Flesh  rather 
coarse,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant,  sub-acid  flavour.  November  to 

Bbvoih.    Man.  Ken. 

This  excellent  early  apple  is  a  native  of  Dedham,  Maas.  The 
fruit  is  of  medium  sixe,  nearly  round.  Skin  deep  red.  Flesh 
yellow,  tender,  and  of  an  agreeable  rich,  sub-acid  flavour. 
Itipens  during  the  whole  mcmu  of  August,  and  is  a  good  and 
regular  bearer. 

Bktst^s  Fahot. 

Origin  unknown,  a  free  grower,  rather  spreading^  good 

Fruit  scarcely  medium,  oblate.  Skin  yellowish,  shaded  with 
dull  red.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  moderate  cavi^.  Calyx  closed, 
bann  shallow  and  uneven.  Flesh  compact,  tender,  pleasant,  mild, 
suV-acid  flavour.    December  to  Marcn. 

BxTTXB  iBAV  Good. 
Juky  Bite. 

Origin  nncerCun.  Tree  thriffy,  bat  rather  dender;  yeir 
productive.  Fruit  medium,  oblate^  Skin  pale  yellow,  with 
a  few  brown  dots.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  broad  cavity. 
Calyx  closed,  basin  lar^e  and  open.  Flesh  yellowish,  very  ten- 
der, juicy,  with  a  mild,  pleasant,  subacid  flavour.  November 
to  January.    (Trans.  A.  P.  S.) 

TBB  APPI.B.  121 

From  YiTjpnia.  Tree  moderately  vigoroiUi  banlj,  ffood  bear* 
er,  great  keeper,  valnable  in  the  soath  in  rich  soils.  Fniitr 
alcove  medinm,  oblong,  irregular,  flattened  at  ends,  red  and 
yellow  striped  or  blotched.  Stem  long,  curved.  Calyx  large, 
basin  open,  deep,  farrowed.  Flesh  yellowish,  firm,  tender,  juicy, 
rery  good.    September  to  January.    (SUiotL) 

BrrAR*8   Favoubitb. 

Origin  Salraa,  N«w  Jersey,  where  it  it  a  dvoovite.  IVee 
vigoioiie  and  yrodoolive.  IMi  Baediun,  oblate^  slightly  conic 
SkiB  yeltew,  atvved  and  apkMhed  with  iwL  FleA  white,  firm, 
crisp,  subacid.    Angust 

Black  Coal. 


IVee  yigorousi  Tery  productiTe.  Fruit  rather  larffo,  round- 
isih.  Skin  deep  red  aunost  black,  with  a  slight  Uoom,  and 
many  white  dots.  Flesh  white,  sliffhtly  tinsed  with  red,  teadsTt 
agreieable^  not  very  juii^.    November  to  Fenruary. . 

Blsdbok  Pippiir. 

Raised  by  John  Bledsoe  of  Carroll  Co^  Kentucky.  Growth 
moderate,  rather  spreading,  productive,  a  proraisinff  winter  apple 
for  ike  sooth.  Fruit  very  laige,  re^plar,  roun<fisb,  flattened  at 
the  base,  tapering  to  the  apex.  Skin  greenish  yellow,  veiy  ob^ 
scorely  stnped.  Stem  short,  cavity  d^p,  slightly  rueseted. 
Calyx  partly  closed,  in  a  somewhat  farrowed  bann.  Fleeb 
white,  nne  textare,  crisp,  jniey,  with  a  mfld  pleasaat  eub-acad 
flavor,  '^  very  good."  December  to  ApriL  We  are  indebted  for 
the  above  description  to  the  Ey.  Hortiooltaral  Soeietf  report. 


Origin,  near  Philadelphia.  Ghx>wth  upright,  moderate^  a 
good  bearer.  Fruit  medium  or  large,  roundish,  flattened,  angular. 
Skin  fine  yeUow,  somelames  with  a  fidnt  blush,  thinly  sprinkled 
with  brown  dote.  Stem  short,  rather  stout,  inserted  in  a  deep 
cavity.  Calyx  partially  closed,  set  in  a  broad,  deep,  corrugated 
basin.  Flesh  yeHowish,  eompact^  rich,  sprightly^  mild  sulnicid. 
November  to  January. 


Origin,  Pawlet,  Vermont,  on  the  fiyrm  of  Mr.  Blakely.  Yi 
gOfoOB,  npright  growth,  regular  bearer. 

122  THE  ArPLK. 

Fruit  large,  regularly  oblate,  slightly  conic  Skin  ycLow, 
Yf\th  a  sunny  chedc,  thinly  sprinkled  with  reddish  dots.  Stem 
small  and  short,  inserted  in  a  broad  cavity  of  moderate  depth. 
Calyx  nearly  closed,  basin  small  and  shallow.  Flesh  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  very  pleasant,  mild,  sub-acid  flaYonr.  January, 


A  seedling  of  Centre  Co.,  Pa.  Large,  oblong,  inclining  to 
conical,  delicately  mottled,  and  striped  with  red  on  a  yellow 
ground.  Stem  snorti  thick,  inserted  Jn  a  deep  acnminate  ms- 
seted  cavity;    basin  deep,  moderately  wide.    Flesh    r^ow, 

(nicy,  sprimUy,  and  refreshing.    Quality  very  good.    February. 
Ad.  Int  Bep.) 

Magnnm  BonQm. 

Raised  by  Squire  Kinney,  Davidson  Co.,  N.  Carolina.  Tree 
hardy  and  vigorous,  an  early  and  abundant  bearer. 

Fruit  large,  oblate,  colour  light  to  dark  red,  basin  and  cavity 
shallow.  Stem  medial  length.  Flesh  yellow,  sub-acid,  rich,  and 
delicious.    (G.  W4  Johnson,  Ma.) 


A  foreign  variety,  succeeds  well  at  the  north,  spt  to  shrivel 
and  doea  not  keep  welL 

Fruit  medium,  roundish,  conic,  ribbed.  Skin  yeUowish,  rich 
orange  russet  on  the  sunny  side.  Stem  rather  long,  ia  a  deep 
uneven  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  segments  iaige,  basin  very  smaU. 
Flesh  white,  sometimes  stained,  tender,  with  a  pleasant  aromatic 
flavour.    November,  December. 

Bowunq's  Swkbt. 

Raised  by  Louis  Bowling,  Spottsylvania  county,  Ya.,  and 
introduced  by  H.  R.  Roby,  Fredencksburg^  Ya.  A  very  vigor- 
ous grower  and  very  prcxiuctive. 

Fruit  medium,  roundish.  Colour  dull  red,  on  a  yellow  ground. 
Flesh  rich,  juicy,  sweet,  and  entirely  free  from  add.  October  to 
January.    (H.  R.  Roby,  Ms.) 


Tree  vigorous,  rather  spreading,  good  bearer.  Fruit  medium, 
roundish,  flattened,  slightly  conic,  angular.    Skin  pale  yellow, 

Tni  APPLE.  129 

t]i^;ed  with  crimson,  sparaelj  cohered  with  brown,  and  grcj 
dots.  Stem  short,  slender,  inserted  in  a  medium  cavj^.  Calvx, 
closed  in  a  somewhat  shalloWy  oormgaled  basin.  Flesh  whitCi 
tender,  joicj,  pleasant^  mild,  sab-acid.    October. 

Brink  AMAK. 

Ori^n,  Lancaster  coantj,  Pa.    Raised  hj  Mr.  Brennaman. 

Fruit  rather  above  medium  size,  yellowish,  nearly  covered  with 
red  stripes.  Stem  shorty  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  closed  in  a 
deep  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  iuicy,  with  a  pleasant,  sub-acid 
flavour ;  excellent  for  cooking.    August — September. 

Bbigos'b  Aubukv. 

Oriffin,  Auburn,  Maine.  Fruit  large,  oblate,  rery  much  de- 
pressed. Skin  light  yellow,  with  a  slight  bludi  on  the  sunny 
aide.  Stem  rather  long,  in  a  very  large  cavity.  Basin  broad 
and  shallow.  Flesh  fine,  white,  with  a  very  pleasant)  sub-acid 
flavour.  Tree  hardy  and  productive.  September,  October. 
(Me.  P.  S.  Report) 

Brittlx  Swsst. 

Ori^n  unknown ;  good  grower,  awl  veiy  produotiya 
Frmt  above  medium,  roundish,  approaching  conic,  sometimes 
elongated,  angular.  Skin  greenish  yellow,  shaded  and  apUished 
with  crimson,  sprinkled  with  grey  dots.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a 
broad,  shallow  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  a  small  cormgated 
basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  crisp,  tender,  juicy,  sweet,  and  excellent 
September,  October. 

Bbooksb'  Pippnr. 

Origin,  fxnn  of  Wm.  Brookes,  Essex  county,  Va.  Tree  vigor- 
ous, upright,  bearing  abundantly  every  year. 

Fruit  mige,  rouMish,  inclining  to  conical,  obscurely  ribbed, 
greenish  yellow,  with  a  faint  blush.  Stem  short,  rather  stout, 
inserted  in  a  deep,  irregular,  russet  cavity.  Basin  small,  shallow, 
waved,  sometimes  furrowed.  Flesh  crisp,  juicy,  of  fine  texture, 
with  a  pleasant  aroma  quality.  November  to  March.  (Ad. 
Int  Rept) 

Bucks  County  Pippik. 

Origin,  &rm  of  M.  Moon,  Morrisville,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa,  Tree 
upright,  moderately  vigorous  and  prodnctiye. 

Fruit  huge,  roundish,  rather  obliquely  depressed.  Skin  greenish 
yellow,  sometimes  with  a  blush.  Stalk  short,  in  a  laige  cavity. 
Calyx  closed,  basin  wide,  deep,  slightly  corrugated,  Flesh  tender 
finn,  juicy,  slightly  sub-acid.     (M.  Moon,  Ms.) 

124  THB   APPLE. 

Buchanah's  Pippin. 
Bucfaantti'B  Seedling. 

Raised  by  Robert  Buchanan,  of  Cincinnati,  0.,  from  whom  we 
received  specimens.    Tree  vigorous  and  very  productive. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  veiy  much  flattened,  slightlv  angular. 
Skin  yellowish,  somewhat  waxen,  deeply  shaded  with  maroon, 
sometimes  very  obscurely  striped  and  thickly  covered  with  liffht 
conspicuous  dots.  Stalk  very  short  and  smali,  surrounded  by  l£in 
scaly  russet^  inserted  in  a  lar^  cavitj^.  Calyx  partially  dosed,  set 
in  a  round  abrupt  basin,  slightlv  nbbed.  Flesh  greenish,  veiy 
solid,  crisp  and  juicy,  with  a  fine,  refreshing,  sub-acid  flavour. 
March,  April. 


Supposed  to  have  originated  with  tha  Cherokee  Indian^ 
Case  do.,  QsL    Tree  vigorous,  erect^  productive. 

Fruit  larffe,  oblate,  inclining  to  conic,  angular.  Skin  greenish 
yellow,  shaded,  striped  and  splashed  with  crimson,  and  thickly 
sprinkled  with  white  and  grey  dots.  Stem  very  short,  inserted  in 
a  broad,  deep  cavity,  surrounded  by  russet.  Calyx  closed,  in  a 
Urge,  deep,  irregular  basin.  Flesh  yellow^  juicy,  tender,  with  a 
brisk,  rieby  mib-ftcid  flavour.    October,  November. 

Buck  Mxadow 

Origin,  Norwich,  Conn.,  productive.  Fruit  above  medium, 
globular,  slightly  conic  SBn  yellow,  marbled  and  streaked 
wi^  red.  Stem  short,  in  a  deep,  abrupt  cavity,  thinly  sur* 
rounded  by  russet  Calyx  small,  closed,  in  an  open  basin. 
Flesh  yellowish,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  rather  rich,  pleasant^ 
vinous  flavour.    November  to  March. 

BumirGTOH'B  Eablt. 

Origin  said  to  be  on  the  Brand^wine,  Pa.  Tree  of  good 
growlh,  bears  moderately. 

Fruit  medium  or  below,  oblate,  angular.  Skin  yellowish  white, 
sometimes  a  faint  blush.  Stalk  short,  cavity  large.  Calyx  closed, 
basin  shallow,  slightly  corrufflited.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  with  a 
sprightly,  sul>-acid  flavour.    Middle  of  August. 


Qreea  khnm,    2f,  0.  Oremmg. 

Extensively  cultivated  on  the  Kne  of  Virginia  and  North  Caro- 
lina, where  it  is  esteemed  for  its  late  keeping  and  productive- 

APPLK.  125 

Fraitmedraiii,  sniali,  roandish  Skin  greenish  yellow,  striped 
and  mottled  with  light  and  dark  red,  and  sprinkled  witn  large 
light  dots.  Stalk  short,  set  in  a  small  cavity,  often  by  a  lip.  Calyx 
cloeod,  basin  deep.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant,  sub-acid 
flavoar.    Janoaiy  to  ApriL 

This  is  said  to  be  distinct  from  Abnm,  Fatker  Abrwii,or  Red 
Abram,  and  also  Father  Abraham  of  Coze.  Farther  trial  ia 
necessary  to  decide. 

•  BiTFF. 

Origin  tuieertain.  Tree  vigoioiMi  erect  IVuit  ray  large, 
irregnhir,  roundish  flattened  and  slightly  angular.  Skin  thick, 
yellow,  striped,  and  shaded  with  r^  very  dark  next  the  sun, 
marked  with  a  few  greenish  russet  sp<^  Stem  three-fourths  of 
an  inch  long,  in  a  medium  cavity.  Calyx  in  a  brg«^  irregular 
basin.  Flesh  white,  and  when  wall  ripened,  tender  aad  exoeilent, 
aometiBies  indiiforient    November  to  Match.  (WUte's  Gard.) 

BvBB  s  vv  nma  Swnr. 

Raised  by  Elisha  Burr,  Hingham,  Mass.,  a  good  grower,  cornea 
eariy  into  bearing,  productive. 

¥Vnit  medium,  oblate.  Skin  yellow,  marbled  and  striped 
with  red.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  closed, 
baain  small  YkA  yellowish,  fine  grained,  tender,  juicy,  with  a 
angary,  aromatic  flavour.    November  to  March. 


Origin,  &rm  of  Christian  Dale,  near  Boalsbnrg,  Centre  Co.,  Pa. 
Rather  above  medium,  oblate,  inclining  to  conical,  greenish 
yellow,  with  many  russet  dots  near  the  crown,  and  occasionally 
a  faint  blush.  Stem  nearly  an  inch  long,  inserted  in  a  deep,  open, 
furrowed  cavity.  Calyx  very  small,  set  m  a  deep,  narrow  plaited 
basin,  fiavonr  pleaaanl    S^tembc^*    (Ad.  Int  Rq^) 


FVom  Pennsylvania. — ^Tree,  vigoroua,  upright,  very  productive. 

Fruit)  above  medium,  roundish,  inclining,  and  cylindric.  Skin 
yellow,  fiiir.  Stem  short,  cavity  deen  and  round  Calyx  small, 
closed,  basin  large  and  open.  Flesn  whitish,  very  sweet  and 
rich,  valuable  for  cooking,  and  esteemed  for  making  apple  but- 
ter.   September  and  October. 

Calxb  Swut. 

A  Pennsylvania  fruit.    Tree  vigorous  and  productive. 
Frint  medium,  roundish,  flattened.    Skin  yellow.    Flesh  ra* 

126  THX   APPUk 

ther  fine,  very  sweet,  excellent  for  cooking.    Lasi  of  AagnM 
and  first  of  September. 


Raised  by  Miss  Ann  Bryson,  Macon  Co.,  N.  Carolina. — Goo«] 
grower,  and  a  standard  winter  firnit  for  the  south. 
'  Froit  medium  or  IvK^  roundish,  inclining  to  oval,  flattened 
at  base,  and  crown.  Sun  yellowish,  mostly  shaded  and  strip- 
ed with  dark  crimson,  and  sprinkled  with  whitish  dots.  Stem 
small  and  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity,  surrounded  by  russet 
Calyx  open,  set  in  a  shallow,  corrugated  basin.  Flesh  yellowish, 
tender,  juicy,  with  a  very  mild,  rich,  saccharine  flarour.  Janu- 
ary to  April. 

Canvon  Psarmaik. 

Tree  vigoroosi  spreading  and  productive;  much  grown  in 
N.  Carolina,  and  some  portions  of  the  West 

Fruit  medium,  roundish,  eonic  Skin  yellow,  striped  and 
marbled  with  red.  Stem  medium,  in  a  small  cavity.  Calyx 
small,  closed,  basin  abrupt  Flesh  yellowish,  firm,  with  a  rich, 
pleasant,  vinous  flavour,  resembling  Pearmain.  December  to 

Camax'b  Swkxt. 
Osmak'b  Wintv  Sweet    Gr^te  Vina. 

Ori^  Macon  Co^,  N.  Carolina. 

Fruit  medium,  roundish,  obliquely  conic  Colour  whitish 
green,  with  a  warm  check.  Stem  rather  long,  inserted  in  a 
deep,  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  open,  in  a  broad,  shallow  basin. 
Flesh  juicy,  firm,  not  very  tender,  with  a  rather  rich  aromatic 
flavour.    November,  to  May  and  June. 

Capbon'b  Plxasant. 

FVuit  medium  or  above,  roundish  oblate.  Skin  greeniih 
yellow  with  a  brownish  tinge.  Stem,  rather  stout,  inserted  in 
an  open  cavity.  Calyx  laige,  in  a  medium  basin.  Flesh  yel- 
low, juicy,  tender,  mild,  sul^id,  and  very  agreeable.  Septem- 
ber to  October. 


Origin  premises  of  A.  G.  Baldwin,  Hanover,  New  Jersey. 
Tree,  vigorous  and  productive. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  angular.  Skin  yellowish,  mostly  shad- 
ed with  maroon,  obscurely  striped,  and  thickly  covered  with 
light  dots.  Stalk  three  quarters  of  an  inch  long,  inserted 
in  a  cavity  surrounded  oy  green  russet  with  rays.    Calyx, 

THE   APPLX.  137 

dosed,  set  in  a  shallow,  uneven  basin.    Flesh,  greenish,  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  mild,  pleasant,  subacid  iavour.    January  to  ApriL 

Oabouka  Rbd  Juns. 
Red  June.     Blush  JanSi 

Origin,  scHiiewhat  uncertain,  supposed  to  be  Carolina.  Tree 
very  yifforous,  upright^  an  earjy  and  abundant  bearer,  much 
esteemed  at  the  south  and  south-west  as  their  best  early  apple, 
ripe  a  few  days  after  Eariy  Harvest,  not  equal  to  it  in  flavour 
but  more  ^ofttable  as  an  orchard  fruit 

Fruit  medium  or  below,  oval,  irregiriar,  inclining  to  conic 
Skin  smooth,  nearly  the  whole  surfiice  shaded  with  deep  ted  and 
almost  of  a  purplish  hue  on  the  sunny  side,  and  covered  with  a 
light  bloom.  Stem  variable  in  length,  inserted  in  a  small  nar- 
row cavity.  Cdyz  closed,  segments  long,  reflexed,  basin  narrow 
plaited.  Flesh  very  white,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  brisk  sub-acid 

Carolina  Striped  June.  Willson's  June.  Tliis  is  claimed  to 
be  distinct  from  the  above,  because  the  fruit  is  striped,*  whilst 
the  other  is  always  shaded.  Hie  growth  of  the  tree,  form,  flavour 
of  the  fruit,  and  time  of  ripening  similar.  Not  having  seen  thia 
we  are  not  able  to  decide. 

Carvahav's  FAyoRm. 

Origin,  Southern  Ohio.  Tree  visoroas,  productive.  Fruit 
large,  roundish,  conic  Skin  yelbwiMi,  striped  and  shaded  with 
red  and  much  sprinkled  with  jBereen  or  russet  dots.  Stalk  of 
medium  length,  cavity  large.  Cedyx  large,  segments  long,  in  a 
cormgaled  Msin.  Fleah  fine  grained,  juicy,  wiui  a  very  pleasant 
k  flavomr.    December  to  March. 


Koyal  Pippin. 

Origin,  fiirm  of  Nath.  Carter,  Leominster,  Mass.  A  vigoroua 
grower  and  productive. 

Fruit  above  medinm,  roundish,  oval.  Skin  yellow,  slightly 
shaded,  striped,  and  marbled  with  red.  Stem  short,  inseited  in 
a  deep  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  a  large  basin.  Flesh  ten- 
der, umost  melting,  with  a  very  mild,  pleasant  flavour.  October 
to  January. 

There  is  also  a  Carter  Apple  of  Yiiginia,  and  another  of  Ala- 
bama, but  we  have  not  seen  them  and  they  may  prove  synony- 


Fruit  medium  siae,  a  delicious  sub-acid  apple^  fully  first-ratCb 

128  THK  APPf^. 

4ark  red  Bplaahcd  with  rufleet  Flesh  white^  brittle,  and  \ery 
joicy.  Botli  the  calyx  aod  stem  are  ttnuak  in  deep  depreaBion& 
No  autumn  apple  is  superior.     10th  of  August    (White's  Gard.) 


Ori^  Ulster  Ck>.,  N.  Y^  valoaUe  for  its  late  keeping. 

Fmit  medium,  oblate.  Skin  bright  yellow,  with  a  tinge  ol 
red  on  the  sonny  side.  Stalk  rather  lo^g  in  a  broad  shallow 
cavity.  Calyx  small,  closed,  basin  broad  and  wrinkled.  Flesh 
yellowish,  rather  firm,  pleasant,  but  not  juicy  or  rieh.  Keeps 
until  July  or  September, 


We  received  this  fine  variety,  which  is  *  great  iaFOurite  in 
Connecticut,  from  the  Rev.  H.  S.  Ramsdell,  of  Thompson,  in  that 

Fruit  large,  roundish,  slightly  flattened,  and  one-eided  or  an- 
gular in  its  form ;  obs<n]rely  nbbed  on  its  sides.  Skin  thickly 
streaked  and  overspread  with  didi  red,  (with  a  few  streaks  of 
brk^ht  red)  on  a  greenish  yellow  ground ;  the  red  sprinkled  with 
light  grey  dots.  Stalk  shorty  <keply  sunk  in  a  wide  cavity* 
Calyx  small  and  closed,  set  in  a  plaited,  wide  basin.  Core  and 
seeds  small.  Flesh  greenish  white,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  mode- 
rately rich,  sub-acid  flavour.  The  tree  is  one  of  moderate  vi- 
goor,  and  is  a  great  bearer.    November  to  February. 


Baised  by  D.  C.  Uichmond,  SandnsI^,  Ohio.  A  thrifty 
grower,  and  exceedingly  productive^  henoe  ite  name.  . 

Fruit  large,  oblate,  slightly  conic.  Sldn  deep  yellow,  sprin- 
kled with  brownish  dots.  Stem  rather  slender,  in  a  very  Luge 
cavity.  Calyx  closed,  in  deep  coiTusated  basin.  Flesh  crisp, 
tender,  juicy,  sweet,  very  good    October  to  June. 

Tree  moderately  vigorous,  productive.    Fruit  large,  roundish, 
conic     Skin  greenish,  with  a  fine  blush.    Stem  long,  cavity 
deep.    Calyx  closed,  basin  narrow.    Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy, 
pleasant,  sub-acid.    September.    Probably  Walworth^ 


Ori^n,  Chester  Co^  Pa.,  specimens  from  Thos.  Harvey. 

Fnut  medium,  oblate.  Stin  whitish  yellow,  sometimes  with 
a  sunny  cheek  and  sprinkled  with  carmine  dots.  Stalk  short, 
inserted  in  a  broad  shallow  cavity.    Calyx  dosed,  set  in  a  broad 

THK   APPLK.  126 

open  baan.    Flesh  crisp,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant  8ub-aci<? 
flaToor.    November,  December, 


Oikin,  on  the  premises  of  John  R.  Brinckle^  sear  WUmiiig* 
ton,  Delaware.  Siae  mediam,  roundish,  inclining  to  oonic2. 
Skin  beantifblly  striped,  and  mottled  with  carmine  on  a  yellow- 
ish grooad.  Stem  half  an  inch  long,  inserted  in  a  deep  r^er 
narrow  eavity.  Calyx  partially  clos^  set  in  a  de^  moderately 
wide  plaited  basin.  Flesh  yellowish  white,  fine  texture,  juicy. 
FlaYoiir  pleasant^  delicate,  ^ghtly,  vinous,  quality  **  very  good.^ 
November.    (Int.  Bep.) 

Chubchill  Gruhixo. 

Ori^  uncertain.    Tree  vi^rons  and  productive. 

Ftfud  large,  oblate,  somewhat  oonic,  ribbed,  anffolar.  Skin 
yellowish  green,  shaded  wkh  dnll  red,  and  thiekTy  sprinkled 
with  green  dots.  8tem  rather  long,  slender,  eavi^  broad. 
Calyx  doaed,  basin  deei^  sonewhat  fonowed.  Flesh  yolk>w, 
tender,  granular,  with  a  brisk,  vinous,  almost  saccharine  flavour. 
Deceml^r  to  February. 

Clabxs  Psarmaik. 

Gloucenter  PsaniMiii.    Golden  Peamiaiii. 

From  N.Carolina,  an  <M  variety.  Tree  of  slow  orowth,  verv 
prodnctiveb  Frait  medium,  roundish,  oonied.  Snn  greenish 
yellow,  shaded  and  marUed  with  red  and  ra«et  dots.  Stalk 
veiT  ahotti  emritj  malL  Calyx  cloaed,  baam  small.  Flesh 
yellow,  mtiker  firm,  engp^  rich,  sob-acid,  excellent,  pearmain 
fiavoor.    Diecmber. 

Cltds  Bkautt. 
iUM^u  Clyde  Beauty. 

Baised  by  Mr.  Mackie,  Clyde,  Wayne  Co.,  N.  Y.  Tree  vigor 
ona,  nprwht,  veiy  productive. 

Fmit  Tai^  roundish,  conic,  angular.  Skin  greenish,  oily, 
iprinkled  ami  mottled  with  dull  red  and  bright  red  in  the  sun. 
Stem  shaft,  slender,  inaerted  in  an  aeote  cavity.  Calvx  dosed, 
sat  in  a  smaU  eorragafted  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juioy, 
with  a  brisk  sub-acid  fiavour.    October  to  Janoary. 

Coin.    Thomp.  Lind.  Ron. 

Scariet  Perftime     Doling  t 

A  variety  from  England  of  second  quality,  but  admired  for  ita 
beanty  of  appearance. 


130  THE   APPLE. 

Fruit  large,  roandish,  conic,  and  slightly  angular.  Skin  nearlj 
covered  wiUi  deep  crimson  on  a  yellowish  ground,  or  sometimes 
entirely  red,  with  a  little  russet  Stalk  long,  woolly,  planted  in 
a  cavity  broad  and  deep.  Calyx  large,  in  a  broad  l>aMn.  Flesh 
white,  rather  firm,  juicy,  with  a  somewhat  rich  and  agreeable 
flavour.    August. 

Cole's  Quieoe. 
Large  to  very  large ;  flattish  conical ;  ribbed ;  bright  yellow, 
seldom  a  btown  cheek.  Flesh,  when  first  ripe,  Sim,  juicy, 
pleasant  acid,  and  first  rate  for  cooking ;  when  mellow,  very 
tender,  of  a  mild,  rich,  high  quince  flavour.  July  to  September. 
A  good  grower,  good  and  constant  bearer.  Raised  by  the  late 
Capt  Heniy  Cole,  Cornish,  Biaine. — {CoU.) 


Fruit  medium,  oblate,  obscurely  angular.  Skm  greenish 
Yellow,  sparsely  covered  with  brown  dots.  Stem  short,  cavil^ 
broad  and  shallow.  Calyx  closed  in  a  corrugated  basin.  Flesh 
crisp,  juicy,  with  a  high,  vinous,  aromatic  fliavour.  January  to 


Beauty  Bed.  Lady  WMhington. 

Origin  unknown ;  supposed  to  be  an  old  Eastern  variety,  as 
yet  unrecognised.  Thrives  well  at  the  West,  and  much  esteemed 
there  by  many.  Growth  vigorous,  upright,  productive.  Fruit 
larffe,  roundish,  oblate,  sides  unequal.  Skin  ffreenish  yellow, 
widi  a  few  stripes  and  splashes  of  bright  red,  uickly  sprinkled 
with  brown  aots.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity, 
slightly  russeted.  Calyx  small,  closed,  basin  deep.  Flesk  tender, 
juicy,  vinous,  with  a  pleasant  but  not  high  flavour,  October 
to  December. 

CooFBB*B  Market. 
Cooper^s  Redling. 

Tree  vigorous,  upright,  with  loi^,  slender  branches.  Pro- 
ductive and  a  late  keeper. 

Fruit  medium,  oblong,  conic  Sldn  yellowish,  shaded  with 
red,  and  striped  with  crimson.  Stem  short,  cavity  deep,  nar- 
row. Calyx  closed,  basin  small.  Flesh  white,  tender,  with  a 
brisk,  sub-acid  flavour.    December  to  May. 

Cornish  Gillitloweb.    Thomp.  Lind.  Ron. 

Oomish  July-flower.    Pomme  Bagelans.    BedGilliflower? 

Hiis  is  considered  one  of  the  highest  flavoured  apples  in  Eag^ 
land ;  it  is  rather  a  shy  bearer. 

THE   APPLE.  131 


Fruit  medium  size,  ovate,  nairowing  much  to  the  eye,  where 
it  is  ribbed.  Skin  dull  green,  or  daric  yellowish  green,  with  a 
sunny  side  of  brownish  red,  intennized  with  a  few  streaks  of 
richer  red.  Calyx  large,  set  in  a  rery  narrow,  furrowed  or 
knobby  basin.  Stalk  three-fourths  of  an  inch  long.  Flesh 
yellowish,  firm,  with  a  rich,  high  flavour,  and  a  slight  perfume. 
November  to  April. 


Gomell's  Favourite. 

From  Pennsylvania.    Tree  vigorous  and  prodnctive. 

FMt  medium,  oblong,  conkm  Skin  waxen  yellow,  shaded 
and  splashed  with  crimson.  Stalk  of  medium  lenzth,  cavitf 
rather  buja^  Calyx  closed,  abrupt  corrugated.  Flesh  white, 
tender,  cnsp^  joicy)  with  a  pleasant  suVacid  flavour.  September. 

Cofl,  OR  Caab.    Ken.  BueL 

A  native  of  Kingston,  N.  Y.,  where  it  is  productive,  and 
highly  esteemed. 

Fruit  large,  one-sided  or  angular,  roundish,  broad  and  flatten- 
ed at  the  sUdk,  narrowing  a  good  deal  to  the  e^e.  Skin 
smooth,  pale  greenish  yellow  in  the  shade,  but  red  in  the  sun, 
with  splashes  and  ^ecks  of  bright  red,  and  a  few  yellow  dots. 
Flesh  white,  tender,  with  a  mild,  agreeable  flavour.  December 
to  March. 

CovBT-FBNDu  Plat.    Thomp. 

Coort-pendu.    Uni.  P.  Mag,  yaiseUe. 
Ooiut-penda  plat  nigeatre.    Ron, 
Oapendu.     0.  Dtih. 
Garnon^s  Apple, 
Goort-pendtt  Extra, 

Bond  Ohm, 



BoQge  Muaqn^, 
OorisadfB  BeM, 
Pomme  do  BorliD, 
Wollafton  Pipin, 
Princ6fl8e  Koble  Zoete, 

A  popular  French  variety. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  regularly  formed,  and  quite  flat.  Skin 
rich,  deep  cfinison  on  Uie  sunny  nde,  with  a  little  pale  greenish 
yellow  in  the  shade.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  yery  deep  cavi- 
ty. Calyx  lar;^  set  in  a  wide  shallow  basin.  Flesh  yellow, 
crisps  with  a  rich,  brisk,  acid  flayonr.  The  tree  bean  young 
and  plenttfully.    November  to  FebroAry. 



182  turn  APPLS. 

CouHT  OF  WicK;    Thomp.  RoncL 

Court  clfWldk  Hppin.    lAnd.  P.  Mag, 

Court  de  Wiok.    Hooker. 

Rirai  Golden  Pippin,' 

fty'a  Pippin, 

Golden  Drop, 

Wood's  Huntingdon, 

Tnmaparent  Pippin, 

Phitip's  Reinetto, 

Knigfatwick  Pippin, 

Week's  Pippin, 


'o/varuma  UngU^  numrim 

A  hiffhly  flsToarod  English  deesert  apple  of  the  Gdden  Pippin 
class,  Tdiich  does  not  sticoeed  well  with  us. 

Fruit  below  the  middle  size,  regularly  formed,  roundish-orate, 
somewhat  flattened.  Skin  greenish  jeUow  in  the  shade,  but  be- 
coming a  warm  oran^  wiSi  a  little  red,  and  dotted  with  small 
russet  Drown  specks  m  the  sun.  Flesh  yellow,  crisp,  and  juicy, 
with  a  high,  poignant  flavour.    October  to  February. 


This  strikindy  beaatiful  apple  was  found  growing  on  a  fiinn 
near  Hudson,  N.  Y.  It  is  only  second  rate,  in  point  of  flavour — 
about  equal  to  Uawthoraden — but  it  Is  an  exceUent  oookinff 
apple,  and  its  beautiful  appearance  and  great  productiveness,  wil^ 
we  think,  render  it  a  popular  variety  for  market. 

Fniit  above  medium  size,  very  regularly  formed,  a  little  flat- 
tened. Skin  very  smooth,  of  a  fine  clear  yellow  in  the  shade, 
with  a  bright  scarlet  cheek.  Flesh  white,  moderately  juicy, 
with  a  mild,  sub-acid  flavour.    November  to  February. 


Origin,  farm  of  Henry  Baroer,  Harrison  county,  Ohio.  Tree 
vigorous  and  productive,  higmy  esteemed  where  known. 

Fruit  &ir,  large,  ronndbh,  slightly  flattened,  inclining  to  conic, 
an^lar.  Skm  fair  fine  yellow,  with  a  sliffht  tinge  of  red,  thinly 
sprinkled  with  laige  green  dots.  Stem  &ort,  in  a  rather  deep 
cavity.  Calyx  closed  in  a  corrugated  basin.  Flesh  yellowish 
white,  crisp,  tender,  juicy,  and  excellent    October  to  January. 


Origin,  Jefferson  county,  Ohio.    Introduced  by  Geoig  Gulp. 

Fruit  medium,  angular,  irregularly  conic.  Skin  waxen  yel- 
low, shaded  with  blush  or  dull  crimson,  thickly  sprinkled  with 
light  dots.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  broad,  deep  cavity,  sur- 
rounded by  thin  russet    Galyx  dosed,  basin  uneven.    Flesh 


ftnn,  crisp^  J^ucy,  with  an  Bgn&tk^  visoiis  il«r<Hir.    December 


From  Camberland  county,  N.  J. 

Fmit  rather  above  mediam,  conic,  angular.  Shin  pale  yd' 
low,  rarely  with  a  blcuh,  sprinkled  witii  brown  dote.  Stem 
abort  and  thick.  Cavity  shallow,  Gahrz  small,  partially  o[>en, 
in  a  small  sKgfatly  comiffated  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  jnicy, 
and  pleasant  Apt  to  shrivel.  Gore  large  and  hollow.  Decem- 
ber to  Febmaiy. 

Cuana  Swsst. 

Origin  unknown.  Beoeived  from  iuBresee,  Habbardio% 
Vermont    lYee  vigorona,  npri^t  prodoctive. 

Fmit  large,  oval,  inclining  to  ovate,  ribbed.  Skin  Dale  yel- 
low, sprinkled,  marbled,  and  i^lashed  with  crimson,  ana  thickly 
covered  with  crimson  dots.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  deep^ 
acute  cavity.  Calyx  closed^  basin  very  shallow,  and  nearly 
filled  with  promineneeap  Flesh  white,  fine  grained,  very  tender, 
with  a  veiy  pleasanti  delicate  flavour,    August  to  Octdi>er. 

DAirvsBa  Wums  Swbbt.    Man,  K^a. 
Epse*s  Sweet 

In  Massacbnsetts,  from  a  town  in  which  this  variety  takes  its 
name,  it  has  been  for  a  long  time  one  of  the  best  market  aj^ples 
— bat  we  ^ink  it  inferior  to  the  Ladies'  Sweeting.  It  is  an 
abundant  bearer,  and  a  very  rapid  tree  in  its  jCTowth. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  roundish-oblong.  Skin  smooth^  dull 
yellow,  with  an  orange  blush.  Stalk  slender,  inclining  to  one 
side.  Calyx  set  in  a  smooth,  narrow  basin.  Flesh  yellow,  firm, 
sweet,  and  rich.  It  bakes  well,  and  is  fit  for  use  the  whole 
winter,  and  often  till  ApriL 


Origin,  PlymouHh,  Wayne  Co.,  Michigan,  on  the  fkrm  of 
Jehiel  Davik    Tne  ngovoos,  upright,  bens  annually. 

Fruit  small,  inelining  to  eyli^ric,  flattened  at  base  and 
crown.  Skin  ydknriah,  shaded,  and  obscurely  striped  with 
crioMoa,  fntsctad  aft  the  aiown,  aad  qxnnkled  with  grey  dots. 
Stem  long,  inserted  in  a  round  deep  cavity.  Calyx  cloaed,  set 
b  a  small  uneven  basin.  Flesh  whitish,  fine-grained,  compact, 
juicy,  cri^i,  q[»rightly,  sub-acid,    April,  May. 

DiDsmore. — ^Londonderry. 
Origin  unknown,  firom  Keenc,  N.  IT.,  and  held  in  estimation 

184  THK   APPIJB. 

there.  Tree  thrifty  and  productive,  a  laAe  keeper.  fVait 
above  medium^  oblong,  or  conic,  anguhur,  akin  yellow  eprink* 
led,  shaded,  and  Bplashed  with  crimson*  Stem  short,  in  a  mo- 
derate cavity.  Calyx  large,  closed,  basin  shallow,  uneven.  Flesh 
Jellowish,  juicy,  tender,  slightly  aromatic,  agreeably  sub-acid, 
anuaxy  to  April. 

Detroit  Black. 

Cdmaon  Pippin.    Giaod  Saohem. 

A  showy,  large,  dark,  blood-red  fruit,  but  rather  coarse,  and 
scarcely  worth  cultivation.  Fruit  verv  large,  roundish,  distinctly 
ribbed,  and  irregular  in  its  outline,  otalk  short  and  stionff,  and 
calyx  set  in  a  well  niarked  basin.  Skin  smooth,  deep,  din|^ 
reel,  over  the  whole  sur&ce.  Flesh  white,  raiher  dry,  and 
out  much  flavour.    September. 

DxTBoiT  Red. 
Betzolt    Black  apple  of  SMUG.    LaigeUacdc. 

This  fruit,  commonly  known  in  Western  New-Tork  and 
Michigan  as  the  Detroit,  is  supposed  to  have  been  brought  to 
the  neighbourhood  of  Detroit  by  early  French  settlers,  and 
thence  disseminated. 

Fruit  of  medium  or  rather  lai^e  size,  roundish,  somewhat 
conical.  Stalk  three-fourths  of  an  mch  long,  planted  in  a  deep 
cavity.  Skin  pretty  thick,  smooth,  and  glossy,  bright  crimson 
at  firat,  but  becoming  dark  blackish  purple  at  maturity,  some- 
what dotted  and  marbled  vrith  specks  of  &wn  colour  on  the 
sunny  side.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  a  shallow  phiited  basin.  Flesh 
white,  ^sometimes  stained  with  red  to  the  core  in  exposed  spe- 
cimens,) crisp,  juicy,  of  agreeable,  sprightly,  sub-acid  flavour. 
October  to  February. 

Devohshirb  Quarrbndxn.    Hiom.  P.  Mag.  Fors. 

Bed  Qoairenden. — lAnd,    Saok  Apple. 

An  English  fruit,  scarcely  of  medium  siie,  ronndiah,  flattened, 
and  slightly  narrowed  at  the  eye.  Skin  rich  deep  crimson, 
with  lighter  crimson,  sprinkled  with  numerous  green  dots. 
Flesh  nearly  white,  crisp,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant  sob-acid  flavour. 
Ripe  during  all  August  and  l^ptember. 


Raised  by  D.  C.  RichQu>nd,  of  Sandusky,  Ohio.  Tree  mo- 
derately vigorous,  productive,  and  particularly  excellent  for 

Fruit,  medium,  roundish^  inclining  to  conic.    Skin  greenish- 

THB   APPLB.  136 

jellowy  with  green  and  red  dots.  Stem  short,  cavity  deep 
Coljx  dosed  in  a  medium  basin.  FLesh  jellowish,  fine-grained, 
juicy,  sweet.    November  to  February. 


Origin,  Habersham  county,  Georgia,  growth  upright  and 

Fruit  medium  roundish,  oval  or  oblate,  compressed  or  angular. 
Skin  greenish  white,  covered  with  grey  dots.  Stem  short,  in* 
serted  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  partially  closed,  set  in  a  rather 
deep,  round,  open  basin,  flesh  white,  juicy,  tender,  with  a 
pleasant  sub-acid  flavour.     November  to  December. 


Wells--Stilp6d  B.  I.  Chreenlng. 
Hogan— English  Bed  Streak. 
BngUsh  Beauty  of  IW 

Hiis  apple,  extensively  planted  in  the  orchards  <mi  the  Hul- 
Bon,  so  much  resembles  the  Rambo  externally,  that  the  two  are 
oftcai  confounded  together,  and  the  outline  of  the  latter  fruit  (see 
Rambo,)  may  be  taken  as  nearly  a  fac-similc  of  thia^  The  Domino 
is,  however,  of  a  livelier  colour,  and  the  flavour  and  season  of 
the  two  fruits  are  very  distinct, — ^the  Rambo  being  rather  a  high 
flavoured  early  winter  or  autumn  apple,  while  the  Domine  is  a 
sprightly,  luicy,  long  keeping,  winter  fruit. 

]miit  of  medium  siise,  flat  Skio  livelv  greenish-yellow  in 
the  shade,  with  stripes  and  splashes  of  bright  red  in  the  sun, 
and  pretty  Urge  russet  specks.  Stalk  lonff  and  slender,  planted 
in  a  wide  cavity  and  inclining  to  one  side.  Calyx  small,  in  a 
broad  basin,  moderately  sunk.  Flesh  white,  exoeeidinffly  tender 
and  juicy,  with  a  sprightly  pleasant,  though  not  hi^  flavour. 
Toung  wood  of  a  smooth,  lively,  lip^ht  brown,  and  the  trees  are 
the  most  rapid  growers  and  prodigious  bearers  that  we  know — 
the  bniiM^ea  Seing  literally  weired  down  l^  the  rope-like 
cluatefB  of  fruit 

The  Donune  does  not  appear  to  be  described  by  any  foreign 
author.  Ooxe  says  that  he  received  it  from  Bngland,  but  the 
apple  he'deseribes  and  figures  does  not  appear  to  be  ours,  and 
we  have  never  met  with  it  in  any  collection  here.  It  is  highly 
probable  that  this  is  a  native  fruit  It  is  excellent  from  De- 
cember till  ApriL 

DowNTOH  PiPPiw.  Thomp.  Lind. 

&Sjt'a^&kn  Pippin,  }</»»•  ^^W*^^*^' 
Downton  Golden  Pipj^     JTen. 

A  rather  early  variety  of  the  English  Golden  Pippin,  raised 
by  Mr.  Knight  of  Downton  Castle. 

136  THE   APPLE. 

Fruit  a  litUe  larger  than  the  Golden  Pippin,  aboat  two  and  a 
qnarter  inches  in  diameter,  ronndish,  flat  at  the  ends.  Sldn 
smooth,  yellow.  Flesh  yellowish,  crisp,  with  a  brisk,  rich,  tart 
flavoar.,   October  and  jJfovember. 

Dowvive^s  Pa&aoov. 

Raised  by  A.  G.  Downing,  near  Canton,  Dlinois.  Growth 
upright,  not  very  strong.    Bears  re^larly  and  well. 

Fruit  above  medium,  oblong,  oval.  Skin  light  yellow,  with  a 
sunny  cheek.  Stem  short  and  small,  inserted  in  a  deep  abrupt 
cavity.  Calyx  partially  closed,  basin  deep.  Flesh  whitish,  juicy, 
tender,  sweet,  nch,  aromatic,  somewhat  luce  early  Sweet  Bougn. 
September  to  December.  Specimens  from  C.  R.  Overman. 

Drap  i>'Or.    Coxe.  Thomp.  Bon. 

\rni  Drap  d'Or.     aMh, 

Barlj  Sammer  pippin,  of  sofM  New-  York  gardens. 

Bay  Apple       )  ac  to 

Bonne  de  Mai  f  Thon^ 

This  is  distinct  from  the  Drap  d'Or  of  lindley,  and  of 
Noisette,  and  most  French  authors,  which  is  quite  a  small  apple ; 
but  it  is  the  Vrai  Drap  (f  Or  of  the  old  Duhamel,  pL  xii.  Fig.  4. 

Fruit  large,  roundish,  sometimes  a  little  oblongs  narrowing 
sKghtly  to  the  eye.  Skin  smooth,  yellow  or  dead  gold  colour, 
with  distinct  small  brown  dots,  or  specks.  Stalk  snort,  mode- 
rately sunk.  Calyx  set  in  a  shallowish  basin,  which  is  rather 
plaited  or  irr^ular.  Flesh  crisp,  juicy,  and  of  a  pleasant, 
sprightly,  mild  flavour,  agreeable  for  the  dessert  or  for  cooking. 
Auffust  to  October.  The  tree  grows  vigorously,  and  bears  wefl, 
and  the  wood  is  smooth  and  dark  brown. 

Dutchess  of  OLDSKBtmoH.    Thomp.  Bon. 

A  handsome  Bussian  Fruit  of  good  quality,  trae  Tifpovona  and 
productive,  valuable  for  market   Succeeds  well  at  the  North. 

Fruit  medium  siae,  regularly  formed,  roundish.  Skin  smooth, 
finely  washed  and  streaked  with  red  on  a  golden  or  yellow 
ground.  Calyx  pretty  large  and  nearly  cloMd,  set  in  a  wide 
even  hollow.  There  is  a  &int  blue  bloom  on  this  fruit.  The 
flesh  is  rich  and  juicy,  with  an  excellent  flavoan  Bipena  early 
in  September. 

Dtx%  or  Pomme  Botale.    Ken 

Smithfield  Spice.  Tompkios. 

MygsM  Bergamot  Ooe's  Since. 

Beard  Barden.  BuIlripeL 

A  popular  New  England  dessert  apple,  very  sprightly,  tender, 
and  excellent    It  is  supposed  to  be  of  French  origin,  and  to 

AFFUB«  ^  181 

have  been  brought  to  Sbode  Uaod  more  than  a  hnndnd  jean 
aga  It  was  re-named  I>7er  by  the  Maia.  Ilort  SocieW,  who 
aoppoaed  it  to  be  a  seedling  of  Mr.  Dyer,  of  R.  L,  but  the  old 
and  fiunilsar  name  of  PamrM  Rafale  ahoold  be  preferred. 

Frait  of  medium  size,  ronndish,  pretty  regularly  formed.  Skin 
amoodiy'pale  greenish  yellow,  with  a  fiunt  blush  and  a  few  dark 
i^>ecka  on  one  side.  Stalk  about  half  an  inch  long,  set  in  a 
MDOoth,  round  cavity,  Oalyz  closed,  basin  plaited,  moderately 
deep.  Core  loond,  hollow,  ileah  white,  yery  tender  and  juicy ; 
flaToor  very  mild  and  agreeable-~«lightly  subnacid.  September, 

DcTCB  MioHOirirB.    lliompb  lind.  P.  Mi^ 

Betoette  Donfo,  (•/  tk»  Chrmams.)       Pateraoster  ApM. 
Pomme  de  Leak.  Settin  Pippin. 

Grosser  Cssnslnr  Beinette.  Copmanthorpe  Cnh, 

lliis  magnificent  and  delicious  apple  from  Holland,  proves 
one  of  the  greatest  acquisitions  that  we  have  received  from 
abroad.  The  tree  makes  very  strong  and  upright  shoots,  and 
bears  fine  crops. 

Fruit  lafge,  often  veiy  kurge,  roundish,  very  regularly  formed. 
8kin  dnH  orange,  half  covered  or  more  with  rich,  dull  red,  dot- 
ted and  mottled  wi^  larffO  yellow  russet  specks.  Calyx  open, 
set  in  a  deep,  round,  regiuur  basin.  Stalk  nearly  an  inch  long, 
alender,  bent,  and  phinted  in  a  narrow,  deep  cavity.  ^  Flesh  at 
first  firm,  but  becoming  tender,  with  a  ridi,  very  aromatic  flavour. 
November  to  February. 


A  southern  Fruit. 

Fruit  jsther  kuge^  oblate.  Skin  light  waxen  yellow,  often 
with  a  crimson  cheek.  Stem  short,  insarted  in  a  deep  cavity. 
Calyx  small,  closed  basin,  deep,  frurowed.  Flesh  white,  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  pleasant  vinous  flavour.  Very  good  at  the  south, 
where  it  is  ripe  October  to  November. 

Earlt  Penkock. 

Shakers'  TeDow.  .         Indian  Queen. 
August  Appla  New-Jeraey  Bed  fittnak 

Warren  Penaook  Haimooy. 

A  very  productive  and  fikvourite  variety,  with  mAny  at  the 

Frdi  large,  conic,  angular  or  ribbed.  Skin  Kght  yellow, 
splashed,  mottled^and  c£aded,  with  lieht  red.  Stem  short, 
cavity  huge.  Calyx  closed,  in  a  small  narrow  plaited  basin. 
Flesh  whitish,  a  little  coarse,  with  a  pleasant  snl^acid  flavour. 
LABt  of  August  and  September. 

188  thk  afflx. 

Earlt  Ghahdlkb. 
Fruit  medium  or  small,  roundisli.  Sldu  mostly  shaded  and 
striped  with  fine  red  on  yellow  ground.  Stem  short,  in  a  regular 
cavity.  Calyx  closed,  in  a  larffe  baain.  Flesh  yellowish,  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  pleasant  sub-add  flAvoar.  Fine  lor  cooking,  too 
acid  for  eating.    August 

£arlt  Loiro  Stsm  f 
Esriy  Spioe. 
Origin  unknown.    Specimens  received  from  Henry  Avery, 
Burlington,  Iowa. 

Fruit  small,  oblong,  conical,  slightly  ribbed.  Skin  greenish 
yellow.  Stem  long,  dender,  in  a  huge  cavity,  slighUv  msseted. 
Calyx  dosed,  basin  shallow,  oorruffated.  Flesh  white,  tender, 
juicy,  slightly  aromatic,  subacid.    August 

Earlt  Strawbbsbt  Apfls. 

American  Red  Juneating? 

Bed  Juneating,  emtmeoiwfy,  ofwtM  AfmrkaMi  gmrdmL 

A  beautiful  variety,  which  is  said  to  have  originated  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  New-York,  and  appears  in  the  markets  there 
from  July  till  September.  It  is  qmte  distinct  from  the  Eariy 
fied  Margaret,  which  has  no  fragrance,  and  a  short  stem 

Fruit  round- 
ish, narrowing 
towards  the  eye. 
Skin  smooth  and 
&ir,  finely  striped 
and  stained  with 
bright  and  dark 
red,  on  a  yellow- 
ish white  ground. 
Stalk  an  inch 
and  a  half  long, 
rather  slender 
and  uneven,  in- 
serted in  a  deep 
cavity.  Calyx 
rather  small,  in  a 
shallow,  narrow 
basin.  Flesh 

white,  slightly 
tinged  with  red 
next  the  skin, 
tender,  idbacid, 
and  very  ipright- 

Iv  and  brisk  in  JSwiy  Slrawtarry. 

davour,  with  an  agreeable  aroma. 

TUS    APPJLB.  Id0 

Early  R<d  Maroarst.    Thomp.  lind. 

H&igaret^  cur  Striped  JuiMttting.    Moitakb, 
Earij  Bed  Jimeiiiiig.  Striped  Jnnmting. 

BedJoneating.  Eve  Apple  of  A0JHUL 

KefgweChft  Apfel,  oc  A«  OtmuMi. 

An  excellent  early  apple,  ripening  about  the  middle  of  Jaly, 
or  directly  after  the  Earlj  Harvest  Hie  tree  while  young  ia 
rather  slender,  with  upright  woolly  shoots.  It  ia  a  modeiata 

Fruit  below 
medium  size, 
tapering  towards 
the  eye.  Skin 
greenish  yellow, 
pretty  well  cover- 
ed by  stripes  of 
dark  red.  Stalk 
short  and  thick. 
Calyx  closed,  and 
placed  in  a  very 
shallow  i^ted 
basin.  Flesh 

white,  snl>acid, 
and  when  freshly 
gathered  from  the 

tree,  of    a  rich  b.^  »^ 

agreeable  flavour.  -^"^  -** 

This  is  distinct  from  the  Margaret  Apple  of  Miller,  the  Red 
Juneatin^  of  some  of  our  gardens,  whicn  resembles  it,  but  is 
round,  with  a  short  slender  stalk,  and  dull  yellow  skin  striped 
with  orange  red  on  one  side,  the  fruit  fragnnt  and  the  leaves 
very  downy. 


He  Hus  Ultra.    Sol.  Garter. 

A  besntiful  fruit  of  southern  origin.  Specimens  received  from 
Wra.  N.  White,  Athens,  and  J.  Van  Beuren,  Glarksville,  Ga. 
Fruit  very  large,  oblate,  angular,  or  furrowed.  Skin  vellowish, 
mostly  shaded  with  deep  crimson,  and  thickly  sprinkled  with 
large,  lightish  dots.  Stalk  very  shorty  inserted  in  a  very  large 
cavity,  surrounded  b^*  russet  Calyx  open,  in  a  broad,  deep, 
corrugated  basin,  which  has  a  downy  lining.  Flesh  ycllowiKb, 
fine  grained,  for  a  large  apple,  very  tender,  very  juicy,  almost 
melting  with  a  very  refreshing  vinous  flavour ;  an  excqliont  fruit 
Okstober,  November.    (See  note,  p.  175.) 



£ucKB*B  WumsR  SWXBT. 

Origin,  Lebanon  County,  Pa.  An  apright  grower,  and  a  good 

Fruit  abore  medium,  oUiqncly  depressed.  Skin  yellow, 
striped  and  mottled  with  crimson.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a 
large  cavity,  slightly  niasoited.  Calyx  nearly  c]osed,jset  in  a  deep, 
slightly  plaited  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  a  little  ooarse,  tender, 
not  very  juicy,  but  very  sweet,  and  excellent  for  apple  butter. 
December  to  January. 


A  moderate  grower  and  a  fair  bearer. 

Fruit  below  medium,  nearly  globular.  Sldn  deep  red,  sprinkled 
with  minute  dots.  Stem  long  and  slender,  in  a  large  cavity, 
surrounded  by  thin  russet  Gilyx  partially  closed,  in  a  broad, 
shallow  basin.  Flesh  tender,  fine  grained,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant, 
mild,  rich  flavour,  resembling  Seek-no-further.  December  to 


Oridn,  Rhode  Island.    Tree  vigorous,  productive. 

Fruit  large,  oblong-ovate,  slightly  ribbed,  smooth.  Yellow, 
sometimes  with  a  blush,  dots  large,  green,  and  red.  Stalk  one 
inch  long,'  slender.  Cavity  deep,  basin  shallow.  Flesh  white; 
fine-grained,  mild,  sub-acid.     (J.  J.  T.) 

luB  Apna.  141 

Origin,  fimn  of  John  £w«lt. 

Size  full  medium.  Form  truncated,  somewhat  aagalar.  Co 
lour  greenish  yellow,  with  a  bright  ved  cheek,  and  aaanj  green- 
ish russet  epf^  especialij  about  the  base.  Stem  very  short, 
rather  stout,  inserted  in  a  narrow,  not  veiy  deep,  cavity.  Calj^x 
closed,  set  in  a  narrow,  moderately  deep,  slightly  plaited  basm. 
flesh  fine  textare,  tender.  Fla?o<ir  ^ri^htly  and  pleasant,  with 
an  exceedingly  fragrant  odour.  Qnahty  very  good.  April 
(W.  D.  Brinckle.) 


Ori^n,  Sharon,  Conn.    A  strong  grower  and  a  good  bearer. 

Fruit  laice,  oblate,  anguUir.  Skia  yellowish,  marbled, 
spfanhe^  and  shaded  with  red.  Stalk  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx 
doeed,  in  a.  rather  deep,  slightly  fiarrowed  basin.  Fl^  ydlow, 
tender,  jnicy,  rieh,  widi  a  very  brisk,  sob-acid  flavour.  Core 
huge  and  open.    December  to  Febroary. 


Origin,  orchard  of  A.  6.  Downing,  Canton,  Illinois.  Growth 
moderate,  upright,  and  very  productive. 

Fruit  below  medium,  oblate.  Skin  yellow,  striped  and  marked 
with  red.  Stens  short  and  small,  surrounded  by  russet,  in  a  deep^ 
broad  cavity.  Calyx  small,  partially  closed,  set  in  a  shallow 
basin.  Fleui  white,  juicy,  melting,  with  a  very  rich,  vinous 
flavour,  ahnost  saccharine.  A  debghtful  apple  for  the  table. 
September  to  November. 

Ben  Apple. 

Origin,  South  Beading,  Mass.  Moderate  grower,  a  good 

Fruit  rather  large,  roundish,  slightly  conic.  Skin  yellow, 
striped  and  shaded  with  fine  red,  and  sprinkled  with  greenish 
dots.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity,  surrounded  bv 
russet.  Calyx  partially  open,  basin  narrow,  rather  deep.  Flesh 
yellowish,  firm,  crisp,  mild,  sub-acid.     November  to  January. 


Origin,  Wintfirea  Maine. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  oonic.  Light  yellow,  striped  with  red, 
and  patched  with  russet.  Stem  long,  cavity  broad  and  shallow. 
Flesh  yellowish,  juicy,  with  a  rich,  vinous  flavour.  September 
to  October.     (Me.  P.  S.  R.) 

142  THS  APPUk 

Farlst*8  Rbd. 

A  native  of  Oldham,  Ey.  Tree  a  moderate  grower,  hardj 
and  prodoctiTe. 

Fniit  cylindric,  inclining  to  oral^  angular.  Skin  jellowish, 
shaded  and  striped  with  deep  crimson,  and  specked  with  light 
dots.  Stalk  veiy  shorty  inserted  in  a  deep,  irr^lar  cavitj,  sur- 
rounded by  thin  russet.  Calyx  open,  in  a  very  shaUow,  uneren 
basin.  Flesh  whitish,  very  firm,  crisp,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant^ 
vinous  favour.    January,  April. 


Winter  Seek-no4brther. 

Tree  thrifty  and  productive. 

Origin  unknown ;  grown  in  Connecticut^  and  nmch  prised 

Fruit  very  laige^  oblate.  Skin  ydlow,  mostiy  shaded  with 
red,  striped  with  darker  red,  and  covered  with  numerous  greyish 
dots.  Stalk  rather  long,  inserted  in  a  broad,  deep^  russeted  cavity. 
Calyx  closed,  in  a  very  broad^  uneven  basin.  Flesh  whitish,  ten- 
der, moderately  juicy,  with  a  pleasant  sub-acid  flavour.  October, 


lUwalder.  Pirn's  Beauty  of  the  West 

FomwaMer.  Pound. 

Tuipehocken.        Mountain  Pippin. 

A  fiftvourite  apple  of  Pennsylvania,  of  which  State  it  is  a 
native,  introduced  by  Mr.  Garber,  of  Columbia.  Tree,  a  strong 
grower  and  very  productive. 

Fruit  very  lai^e,  ^lobular,  inclininj;  to  conic.  Skin  yellowish 
green,  shaded  with  dull  red,  and  sprinkled  with  large  grey  dots. 
Stalk  very  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavi^.  Calyx  small  and 
closed,  set  in  a  slightly  plaited  basin.  Flesh  greenish  white, 
juicy,  crisp,  rather  tender,  pleasanti  sub-acid  flavour.  Novemb^, 

Fall  Harybt.    Man.  Ken. 

A  fine  large  Fall  fruit  from  Essex  Co.,  Mass.,  very  highly  ea- 
teemed  in  that  neighbourhood.  We  do  not  think  it  comparable 
to  the  Fall  pippin,  which  it  a  little  resembles. 

Fruit  large,  a  little  flattened,  obscurely  ribbed  or  irregular 
about  the  stalk,  which  is  rather  slender,  an  inch  long,  set  in  a 
wide,  deep  cavity.  Calyx  dosed,  small,  in  a  rather  shallow  cor- 
rugated basin.  Skin  pale  straw  yellow,  with  a  few  scattered 
dots.  Flesh  white,  juicy,  crisp,  with  a  rich,  good  flavour.  Oc- 
tober and  November. 

nu  APPLB,  143 

Oak^$  apple  very  much  resembles  the  abore,  but  said  to  be  a 
seedling  and  ripens  later.    It  may  prove  distinct 

Faix  Pkarmaiv. 

IVee  thrifty,  moderate  bearer. 

Fmit  fidr  and  handsome,  from  Connecticat ;  medium  round- 
ish,  conic,  slightly  angular.  Skin  yellow,  striped,  i^lashed  and 
shaded  with  cnmson,  and  sprinkled  with  grej  and  green 
dots.  Stalk  medium,  in  a  deep^  slighliy  russeted  cavity. 
Calyx  partially  closed,  basin  rather  deep^  sliffhtly  corrugated. 
flesh  wnite,  tender, juicy,  sub-acid,  rather  rich  flavour.  Septem- 
ber, Octobe^. 

Pall  Obahos. 

'Hcddeo.       H<^gpeD. 
Jonesr  FippiiL 

Or^n,  Holden,  Mass.  A  very  strong  erect  grower,  good 

Fruit  fair,  large,  roundish,  ovate,  angular.  Skin  pale  yellow, 
sometimes  with  a  dull  red  cheek  and  sprinkled  with  brownish 
dots.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  deep,  narrow  cavity,  very 
slightly  surrounded  by  russet  Calyx  large,  partially  closed, 
basin  rather  deep,  narrow.  Fledi  white,  tender,  juicy,  sub-acid. 
Too  acid  lor  %  deaiert^  good  for  cooking.    October,  November. 

Fat*8  Bussxt. 

Origin,  Bennington,  Y t,  on  the  fiiim  of  Mr.  Fay,  moderate 
grower  aiid  very  productive. 

Fruit  rather  below  medium  siae,  conic.  Skin  light  yellow, 
mostly  covered  with  russet^  havisj^^  a  crimson  chee^  obscurely 
striped.  Stalk  short  and  small,  inserted  in  a  moderate,  acute 
cavity.  Calyx  partially  closed,  segments  long,  in  a  shallow 
somewhat  furrowed  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  qprightly, 
pleasantly  sub-acid.    April,  June. 

Fun's  SsanLiirG* 

Origin,  Eeene,  New  Hampshire.  Tree  vigorous  and  produc 
tive,  highly  esteemed  in  its  locality. 

^nit  medium,  oblate,  oblique.  Skin  deep  red  on  the  sunny 
side,  indistHictiy.  striped  with  darker  red  and  yellow,  and 
sprinkled  with  yellow  dots.  Stalk  medium  length,  inn  round, 
deep,  russeted  cavity.  Calyx  lugj^  segments  reflexed,  in  a 
broad  basin,  of  moderate  depth.  Flesh  greenish  white,  tender, 
melting,  with  a  rich  vinous,  saccharine  flavour.  October,  No- 
vember.   (Robert  Wilson's  MS.) 

144  THB  APK.B. 


A  seedling  of  Lebftnon  Co^  Pa.  Tree  a  low  open  head^ 

Fruit  large,  oblate,  filightlj  conic,  aagalar.  Skin  pale  ydlow, 
sometimes  with  a  blush.  Stem  short,  cavity  iNroadi  deep^  nnsefeed. 
Galjx  almost  dosed,  cavity  bvoad  and  shallow*  Flesh  white, 
crisp,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  good,  sob-acid  iavoor^  October, 
December.    Excellent  for  culinary  puiposesr 

Shir]^.        OrotoD. 

Origin,  Groton,  Mass.  Tree  moderately  vigorous,  spreading^ 
productive.  « 

Fruit  above  medium,  oUaAe,  inehnin^  to  conic,  angular.  Skin 
yellowish  green,  striped  and  shaded  with  deep  rich  red.  Stalk 
short)  slender,  in  a  large,  somewhat  furrowed  cavity.  Calyx 
closed,  basin  small,  furrowed.  Flesh  yellow,  tender,  yncjy  with 
a  pleasant^  rich,  vinous  flavour,  very  good.  Augusti  Septem- 

FoBD  Apple. 

Origin,  &rm  of  David  Foid,  Canaan,  Cohimlna  Co.,  N.  T. 

IVuit  large,  roundish,  slightly  conical,  colour  rich  yellow.  Stem 
long,  cavity  shallow,  bnsin  smsll,  plaited.  Flesh  yellowish  white, 
solid,  moderately  tender,  with  a  high,  rich,  rather  acid  flavour* 
October,  January.    (Cult) 

Fort  MrAMi. 

Origin  near  Fort  Miami,  Ohio.  Tree  thrifty,  healthy,  pro- 
ductive, but  not  an  early  bearer. 

Fruit  medium  to  large,  oblong,  flattened  at  both  ends,  some- 
what ribbed.  Colour  brownish  red,  generalh'  a  little  russeted. 
Stalk  medium,  cavity  deep,  open,  uneven.  Calyx  closed,  basin 
abrupt^  furrowed.  Flesh  yellowish  white,  ^crisp,  breaking,  with  an 
exceedingly  high,  sub-acid,  spicy  flavour.  February  to  May. 

Fbxkch  Pippin. 

Tree  hardy  and  vworoua,  with  dark,  reddish  brown  shoot^ 
grown  in  Eeaex  Co.,  iC  J. 

Fruit  rather  large,  roundish,  oblate,  sometimes  oblique. 
Skin  fine  yellow,  witli  a  faint  dull  cheek,  thinly  sprinkled 
with  lai^e  brown  doiR,  and  traces  of  russet  Stalk  short, 
inserted  in  a  medium  cavity,  basin  large,  open.     Flesh  yel* 

THS   APPUL  145 

lowiflh,  tender,  pleamity  rich,  Bub-acid,  verj  good.    October, 

Quite  distinct  from  Newark  or  French  Pippin,  which  haa 
slender  branches.  There  is  also  aaedier  Frencn  Pippin,  grown 
in  Pa.  distinct 

FaAnxLur'a  Golbbv  Pirrur,    Thoinp»  lind,  Man. 

Hub  should  be  an  American  rarietf  ,  named  after  Dr.  Frank- 
fin.  Fhut  of  medium  sixe,  oyal,  very  regnlar  in  shape,  rather 
broadest  at  the  base.  Eye  sank  in  an  eren  hollow.  StaOt 
short,  slender,  deeply  planted,  ffldn  deep  yellow,  freckled  with 
nnmeroos  dark  spots.  Ffeshpale  yellow,  crisp,  tender,  with  a 
fine  rich  aromatic  iUyoar.  The  tree  grows  freely,  and  forms  an 
uprttht  head.    Ocfober. 

We  hare  sol  been  able  to  obtain  tke  ftnit,  and  give  the  <dd 

Lsdie^  Bfaiflh. 

Tree  of  rather  slender  growth,  prodnctiye. 

Fmii  above  medmm,  globvlar,  inclining  to  conic  Skin 
whitish  green,  shaded  and  splashed  with  crimson,  and  sprinkled 
with  grey  dots.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  broad,  deep  cavi<^« 
Calyx  open,  set  in  a  moderate,  oneren  basin.  Flesh  yeOowiJ^ 
tender,  jnicy,  with  a  rich,  pleasant,  sab-acid  flavour.  October 
and  November. 

Garuit80v*8  Eablt. 

Treeof  vij;|ofouagi«wtii,prod«etive.  Fhiit  nMdiiun,  loondish, 
riigfat^  conic,  a  tme  angular.  Skin  yellowish,  thickly  covered 
with  light  specks.  Stalk  short,  inserted  at  an  inclination  in  a 
shallow  cavity.  Calyx  doeed,  in  a  small  abrupt  ftirrowed  basin. 
Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant  sub-acid  fiavour. 
July  and  August 

Gswiaa  Goon. 
Gewis  GuIlL    Indeed  QoodL 

Fruit  medium  globular,  sometimes  oblate,  often  conic.  Skm 
light  yellow,  sli^tly  shaded  with  carmine.  Stalk  short,  in- 
serted in  a  deep,  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  partially  dosed,  basin 
de^  el^ti^  corrugated.  Flesh  juicy,  tender,  crisp^  with  a 
somewhat  mey,  sub^acid  flavour.    December,  February. 

Origin,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  and  is  nneh  esteemed  by  the  fiu'meri 


146  THX   APPJiB. 

Golden  Swjebt. 

A  celebrated  Gonnecticnt  fruit  sent  iu  by  Mr.  Lyman,  of  t1  at 
state.  Fruit  above  the  medium  size,  ronnduh,  scarcely  flattened, 
fiiir,  and  well  formed.  8kin,  when  folly  ripe,  pale  yellow  or 
straw  colour.  Stalk  abont  an  inch  long^  slender  at  its  junction 
with  the  fruit.  Calyx  closed,  and  set  in  a  basin  of  modente 
depth.  Flesh  tender,  sweety  rich,  and  excellent  The  tree  is  a 
pretty  free  grower,  and  bears  large  crops.  A  valuable  sort. 
Ripe  in  August  and  September. 

GoLDEir  Ball.    Ken. 

This  is  a  &vourite  apple  in  the  state  of  Maine,  and  a  vigoxonsi 
hardy  variety.  Fruit  large,  roundish,  narrowing  a  little  to  the 
eye,  about  uiree  inches  deep — and  a  good  deal  ribbed  at  the 
sides  and  towards  the  crown.  Skin  Bmooth,  golden  yellow,  with 
a  few  dots.  Stalk  set  in  a  broad,  shallow  cavity.  Eye  rather 
narrow.  Flesh  crisp,  tender,  with  a  rich,  aromatic  flavour. 
December  to  March.  A  native  of  Connecticut.  Moderate 


Tree  vi^roos,  upright,  and  productive.  Fruit  medium,  glo- 
bular, come.  Skin  golden  russet,  with  a  sonny  cheek.  Stalk 
small  and  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity.    Calyx  nearly  closed, 

Xents  small,  recurved,  basin  deep,  round,  and  opcji.    Flesh 
vrish-white,  tender,   with    a  nch    mild  sub-acid  flavour. 
January,  April. 

There  are  many  Golden  Russets  about  the  country,  and  it  is 
difficult  to  identify  them.     Hiis  is  from  Mass.,  and  believed  to 
•  be  distinct  from  those  grown  in  N.  Y.,  and  west^  yet  may  not 
prove  so  when  fully  tested. 

English  Golden  Pippin.     Ray.  Tohmp.  Lind* 
Golden  Pippin. 

Old  Gk>lden  Pippin,  oc  to  fhomp, 

Balgone  Pippin, 
Milton  Golden  Pippin, 
Buaset  Golden  Pippin, 
Horefordahire  Golden  Pippin, 
London  Golden  Pippin, 
Warter'a  Golden  Pippin, 
Bayfordbury  Golden  rippin, 
Pepin  d'Or.    JTnoop, 
Pomme  d'Or.    Noisetie  of  DtJL 
Kooning's  Rppelin. 
Beinette  d'Angleterre. 

Ae  Golden  Pippin  of  the  English,  is  the  queen  of  all  dessert 

TRS    APPLS*  14t 

apples,  in  the  esiiniation  of  the  English  connoineuni  as  it  nnitea 
^e  qiuilities  of  small  siie,  fine  form,  and  colour,  with  high  flavour 
and  duiabilitjr.  It  is  a  rery  old  varietj,  behig  mentioned  bj 
Evelyn,  in  1660,  but  it  thrives  well  in  many  parts  of  England 
BtilL  The  Golden  Pippin  has  never  become  popular  in  this 
coUBtry,  either  because  the  taste  here,  does  not  ma  in  fitvonr 
of  small  apples,  with  the  high,  sab-acid  flavour  of  the  Golden 

Pippin,  and  other  favourite 

English  sorts,  or  because 

oar     Newtown      nippins, 

Bwaars,  and  Spitaenburghs, 

etc^  are  still  higjher  fl»- 

i  voured,  and  of  a  siae  more 

I  admired  in  this  country. 

The  Golden  Pippin  is  not 

ia  very  strong  grower,  and 

f  is  rather  suited  to  the  gar 

den  than  the  orchard,  with 


IVait  small,  round,  and 
regularly    formed.      Skin 
gold  colour,  dotted  with 
GMdea  Pippin,  g^Jt  russcty  dots,  with  also 

obscure  white  specks  imbedded  under  the  skin.  Stalk  nearly 
an  inch  long,  slender.  Calyx  small,  and  set  in  a  regular,  shallow 
basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  crisp,  radier  acid,  but  with  a  rich, 
brii^  high  flavour.  A  great  b«arer,  but  requires  a  strong,  deep, 
sMidy  kNun.  November  to  Maroh.  Doea  not  suoeeed  well 

There  are  manj  varieties  of  the  English  Golden  Pippin,  dif- 
fering but  little  in  general  appearance  and  siae,  and  very  little 
in  flavour,  from  the  old  sort,  but  of  rather  more  thrifty  growth ; 
the  best  of  these  are  Hughes',  and  Kirke's  new  Cluster  Golden 


Fruit  large,  roundish,  oblate,  inclining  to  conic,  somewhat 
angular.  Sinn  whitish,  marbled,  striped,  splashed,  and  shaded 
wiQi  crimson.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  vety  deep  cavity,  sur- 
rounded by  russet  Calyx  small,  dosed,  sot  in  a  onall  deep, 
abrupt  basin,  surrounded  by  prominences.  Flesh  white,  tender, 
juicy,  pleasant,  sub-acid  flavour.    October. 

146  TUB    APPLE. 

Gbsen  Ssek  ho  Fubvhbr. 

White  Seek-no-ftirther. 
Riuhing  Seek-no-lbrtlier. 
Seek-iKhiiirther.     Ooobo. 

Rather  large,  roundkh,  conical.  Skin  jellowiah  green,  aprmk* 
led  with  green  and  brown  dots.  Stem  short,  in  a  moderate 
cavity.  Calyx  cloaed,  in  a  rather  deep  basin,  flesh  white, 
crisp,  tender,  jnicy,  with  a  pleasant,  mild,  sub-acid  flavour 
October,  January. 

TVee  while  youngrery  slow  in  its  growth,  but  makes  a  compact, 
well  formed  head  in  the  orchard. 

Fruit  apt  to  be  knotty  and  unfoir. 

Origin  in  the  garden  of  the  late  Wm.  Prince,  Flushing,  L.  L 


An  old  fruit  much  grown  in  North  Carolina,  also. west 

Tree  vigorous  and  erect,  productive. 

Fmit  medium,  oUate,  flattened  at  base  and  crown.  Skin 
greenish  yellow,  ofly.  Stalk  very  short,  inserted  in  a  large 
cavity.  Calyx  smal^  closed,  set  in  a  broad,  open  basin.  Fledi 
juicy,  very  tender,  with  a  sweet,  rich,  vinous  flavour.  November, 

Gbbxn's  Choicb. 

Origin  Chester  County,  Pa.    Tree  vifforous  and  productive. 

Fmit  medium,  nrandi^  conical.  Skin  yellow,  striped  with 
red.  Flesh,  tender,  juicy,  very  mild  sub-acid  or  almost  sweet 
Bipe  last  of  August  and  first  of  September. 

Grebv  Mountaik  Pippin. 

From  Georgia,  and  much  ^wn  there  as  a  market  fruit 
Fruit  medium,  oblate,  inchning  to  oblong,  flattened  at  base 
and  crown.  Skin  greenish  yellow.  Stalk  medium,  curved,  in 
a  rather  broad,  deep  cavitf,  surrounded  with  russet  Calyx  open, 
in  a  broad,  shallow  basm.  Flesh  white,  crin>,  jiiicy,  tender, 
with  a  pleasant  vinous  flavour.    November,  Feoruaxy. 

Gbbev  Chbise. 

Wmter  Cheese.    Tomer's  Green. 

Origin  Tennessee,  tree  of  rather  slow  growth,  an  early  and 
abundant  bearer. 

Fmit  medium,  oblate,  obliquely  depressed.  Skin  greenish 
yellow,  covered  with  brown  dots.  Stalx  very  short,  in  a  broad, 
deep  cavity,  surrounded  by  russet     Calyx  partially  closed,  in  a 

THB   APPLl.  14& 

hrond  shallow  nneren  bann.    Fleah  mther  fine,  jnicj,  with  a 
brisk  sub-acid  fiaTcor.    November  to  April 

There  are  le^ieral  olher  ▼arietiet  of  Clieeae,  aneh  aa  Simmer, 
Maryland,  Fall,  Ac^  but  we  h«?e  not  aeea  enovn^  of  them  to 
give  deaoriptionB. 


Qriginalad  on  the  &rm  of  Thoa.  Grimeii  Biooka  Count j, 

J^uit  mediom,  cylindric,  angular.  Skin  golden  yellow, 
covered  witii  minute  brown  dota.  Stalk  rather  short,  inserted 
in  a  deep  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  closed  or  partially  dosed,  set 
in  a  de^  abrupt  baeiw.  Flesh  yellow,  fom^  erisp^  rich,  with  a 
peoniar  aob^acid  flavour.    January  to  Mar^. 

Origin  Beiks  County,  Pa^  a  vigoroos  grower  and  proAise 

Fniit  large,  globular,  inclining  to  oblong.  Skin  yellow,  striped, 
maii>led  and  mottled  with  red.  Stalk  rather  long,  slender,  set 
in  a  deep,  abrupt  cavity.  Calyx  nearly  dosed,  bann  open, 
slightly  corragated.  Fledi  white,  jtticy,  tender,  rich,  sweet  and 
dightly  aromatic    November,  Mareh. 


Originated  with  Mr.  Harris,  Rockinffham  County,  N.  Carolina. 
Tree  vigorous,  erect,  productive,  popuar  in  its  native  locality. 

Fruit  large,  oblate.  Skin  bright  straw-oolour,  occasionally 
with  a  pink  blush.  Stem  very  short  and  stout,  cavity  broad 
and  shallow,  badn  laige  and  deep.  Flesh  eoane,  pleasant,«8ub- 
acid.  Last  of  August  and  continnes  a  long  time,  valuable  for 
culinary  purposes.    (G.  W.  Johnson,  Ms.) 


Fruit  medium,  oblong,  oval,  slightljr  angular.  Skin  mostl  v 
shaded  with  dark  red,  and  sprinkled  with  greyish  dots.  Flesh 
compact,  tender,  not  juicy,  almost  sweet,  pleasant.  September  to 

From  Pennsylvania,  said  to  have  originated  in  Lanca&tef 

Hawthoritdsh.    Thomp.  land.  Ron. 
White  Hawtfaomden.    MML 
A  cdebrated  Scotch  apple,  which  originated  at  Hawthomdei^ 

150  THB   APPLI. 

the  birth-place  of  the  poet  Drammond.  It  resembleB.  some* 
what,  our  Maiden's  Bloah,  but  is  inferior  to  that  fruit  in  flavour. 
Fmit  rather  above  the  medium  siae,  prettj  regularly  formed, 
roundiah,  rather  flattened.  Skin  very  amoothy  pale,  tight  yel- 
low, nearly  white  in  the  shade,  with  a  fine  Slush  where  exposed 
to  the  sun.  Calyx  nearly  closed,  set  in  a  rather  shallow  basiu, 
with  a  few  obscure  plaits.  Stalk  half  an  inch  long,  slender. 
Flesh  white,  juicy,  of  a  simple,  pleasant  flavour.  An  excellent 
bearer,  a  handsome  frnit,  and  good  for  cooking  or  drying.  The 
ends  of  the  bearing  branches  become  pendulous. 


A  seedling  of  Chester  Ck).,  Pa.  Laige,  oblong,  conical,  striped 
and  mottled  with  red  on  a  yellow  ground.  Stm  three-quarters 
of  an  inch  long,  slender,  inserted  in  a  deep,  open  cavity.  Basin 
narrow,  deep,  furrowed.  Flesh  crisp,  texture  fine,  flavour 
pleasant     Quality  **^  very  good.**    Januaiy,  April     (Ad.  Int. 


From  Person  Co.,  N.  Carolina.  An  ereci^  vigorous  grower, 
and  bears  profusely. 

fVoit  nearly  fflobular,  somewhat  oblong,  inclining  to  oblate. 
Skin  whitish  yellow,  very  much  shaded  with  red,  and  thicklv 
sprinkled  with  grevish  dots.  Stalk  medium,  in  a  rather  broad, 
deep  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  basin  small.  Flesh  yellowish, 
compact,  with  a  very  rich,  mild,  sub-acid  flavour.  November, 


A  strong  vigorous  grower,  and  productive,  from  Vermont 
Fiyiit  large,  oblong,  conic,  angular.    Skin  yellow,  with  a  slight 
bronzed  cheek,  and  many  small,  greyish  dots.    Stalk  short,  cavity 
moderate.     Calyx  closed,  basin  small.    Flesh  yellow,  tender, 
not  very  juicy.    Flavour  rich,  pleasant    October,  January. 


Heniy  Sweet 
Ladies*  Sweetof  some. 

Strong,  npri^t  grower,  re^lar  and  good  bearer. 

Fruit  medkim,  oblate,  conic  Skin  whitish  yellow,  shaded 
with  light  red,  splashed  with  crimson,  and  qprinlded  with  a  few 
grey  dots.  Stalk  slender,  medium,  inserted  in  a  deep^  wide 
cavity.  Calyx  small,  closed!,  set  in  a  rather  deep,  abrupt,  round 
basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  very  sweet,  not  very  rich: 
November,  May. 

Xn  AF^lM.  Iftl 


Origin,  &rm  of  Mr.  Herman,  CHiraberland  Ca,  Pa.  IVee 
irigoraufl  and  spreading,  qnite  prolific 

Fnui  medium,  oblong,  conic  Cotoor,  fine  red  stri]  ed  on 
mien  ground.  Flesh  greenish,  tender,  jnicy,  sub-acid,  and  high 
laTOur.    November  to  April    (David  Miller  Jr.,  M^i) 


Orim,  Lanoarter  Co,  Pa. 

MeAom  aiae,  lorm  Tariable,  sometimeB  roandieh,  often  oonicaL 
Red,  in  stripeB  of  different  hnes.  Stem  short,  rather  stout 
Cavity  narrow,  moderately  deep,  slightly  msseted.  Basin  deep, 
narrow.  Flerii  greenish  white,  tender.  Flarour  agreeably 
aromatic    Quality  *^  very  good."     Winter.    (Ad.  Int  Kep.) 


Origin,  Sudbury,  Vermont  Tree  a  good  grower,  veiy  pro- 
ductive Fruit  medium,'  oblate,  approaching  conic  Skin 
greenish,  mottled  and  striped  with  red  StaUk  ahort^  rather 
dender,  inserted  in  a  rather  deep  cavity.  Calyx  sniall  and 
dosed,  basin  small.  Flesh  white,  juicy,  tender,  with  a  pleasant 
vinous  flavour.    September,  October. 


Sununer  Sweet  Sweet  June. 

Orain,  Plymouth,  Mass.  An  old  variety,  highly  prised  at 
the  West    Growth  vigorous,  very  productive 

Fruit  medium,  or  below,  roundish,  regular.  Skin  very  smooth, 
light  yellow,  partially  covered  with  green  dots.  Stem  medium, 
inserted  in  a  deep,  narrow  cavity,  surrounded  by  thin  russet 
Calyx  small,  closed,  basin  shallow,  slightly  furrowed.  Flesh 
yellowish,  very  sweet,  not  very  juicy,  but  pleasant  and  rich. 


Baised  hf  Mr.  Hepler,  of  Beading,  Pa. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  inclining  to  eonic  C<^oiir  lijght  yel- 
low, shaded  with  dnll  red.  Stau:  short  and  small,  cavity  de^ 
aarronnded  by  green  msset  Calyx  partially  closed,  basm  <qpen. 
Fleshwh]te,iiotjai^,  with  a  pleasant  sab-acid  flavour.  Decem- 
ber to  Aptfl. 


OiJgiBi  Columbia  Go«iitgrfN.Y.  Tree  vigorous  and  prodno* 

11^2  TAB   APPUC. 

Fniit  large,  roandish.  Skin  yellowish  green.  Flesh  tender, 
juicy,  sub-acid,  excellent  for  ouluuuy  purposes.  September  to 

Hill's  FAVousinb 

Origin,  Leominster,  Mass.  A  thrifty  grower,  and  Yciy  pro- 

Fruit  about  medium,  roundish,  sligfatfy  conic,  angular.  Skin 
yellow,  mostly  shaded,  and  striped  with  red,  covered  with  thin 
•bloom  and  numerous  whitish  dots.  Stalk  shorty  cavity  medium, 
uneven.  Calyx  closed,  basin  small,  shallow.  Flesh  yellow,  com- 
pacti  tendor,  ittioy,  with  a  pleasant,  slighdy  sob-acid,  aiomatic  fla- 
vour.   Middle  of  September,  and  in  use  fer  a  month. 

Hog  IsLANn  Swskt. 

Sweet  Pippin. 

Origin,  Hog  Island,  a<]^oining  Long  Island.  Tree  vigorous 
and  productive.    Valuable  for  fiunily  use  and  stock  feeding, 

Fniit  of  medium  size,  oblate.  Slan  yellow,  striped  with  red, 
with  a  bright  crimson  cheek.  Stem  rather  short,  slender, 
inserted  in  a  deep  abrupt  cavity.  Calyx  do&od,  set  in  a  broad 
basin  of  moderate  depth.  Flesh  yellow,  iuicy,  crisp,  tender, 
slightly  aromatic,  with  a  veiy  sweet,  rich,  excellent  flavour. 
September,  October. 

Holladt's  Ssbdlikg. 

Raised  by  John  Hollady,  Spottsylvania  counly,  Ya.  A  very 
thrifty,  upright  grower,  a  good  bearer. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate.  Colour  yellow,  with  a  faint  blush,  and 
sprinkled  with  grey  dots.  Flesh  yellowi^,  compact,  tender, 
rich,  aromatic,    November  to  Marcn.    (H.  R.  Roby.) 

HoLLAm>  PiPPiK.    lliomp.  Lind.  Miller. 
Beinnette  d'HoUande.    Koiaette  f 
^:Z^\¥«^  Jersey. 

This  and  the  Fall  Pippin  are  frequently  confoonded  together. 
They  are  indeed  of  the  same  origin,  and  the  leaves,  wood,  and 
strong  growth  of  both  sre  very  closely  similas.  One  iof  ^o 
strongest  points  of  difiference,  however,  hes  in  their  time  of  ripen- 
ing. This  being  with  as  a  late  sommsr,  the  Fall  Prnpia  a  late 
autumn,  and  the  White  Spanish  Reinnette  an  eaitj  winter 

The  Holland  Pippin,  in  the  gardens  here,  begins  to  &11  from 
the  tree,  and  is  fit  lor  pies  about  Ae  ssiddle  of  August,  and  fW>m 
that  time  to  the  first  of  November,  is  one  of  the  very  heat  kitchen 

TBB  APPLl.  159 

applet^  nuJdng  the  finest  tarts  and  pies.    It  is  not  eqnal  to  the 
FaJI  Pippin  for  eating. 

Fmit  veiy  large,  wwndiah,  a  little  moieaqiiaie  in  outline  than 
the  Fall  Pippin,  and  not  so  much  flattened,  thooffh  a  sood  deal 
like  it;  a  little  narrowed  next  the  eye*  StaS  half  an  bch 
long,  thick,  deeply  sunk.  Calyx  small,  dosed,  moderately  sunk 
in  a  slight  plaited  basin.  Skin  greenish  yellow  or  pale  green, 
becoming  pale  yellow  when  full}r  ripe,  washed  on  one  side  with 
a  little  doll  red  or  pale  brown,  with  a  few  scattered,  large,  green- 
iah  dots.    Peserves  a  place  in  every  garden. 

Hollow  Cnowir. 

Fmit  medium,  oUon|^  mclining  to  oval,  flattened  at  crown. 
Skin  yellow,  striped  aikTiqilashed  with  i^sMi^^ 
a  few  gnf  dots.  Stalk  short,  smroviided  with  rwjsit,  in  a  mo- 
derate eavity.  Galyx  dosed,  basin  broad.  Flesh  yellowish, 
juiey,  with  a  sprightly  aromatie  exedlent  flaTOor.  October, 


Origin  unknown.  Periis(»  a  local  name.  Tree  rigorous, 
upright,  an  early  and  constant  bearar.  Much  esteemed  in  Ken« 
tacky,  where  it  ripens  first  of  July,  or  about  the  time  of  early 

Fruit  lar^^oYate-conicaL  Skin  ^ellow,striped  with  red,  mostly 
a  deep  red  m  the  sun.  flesh  white,  tender,  mild,  sub-acid,  with 
a  ricl^  Pearmain  flayour.    (L  S.  Downer,  Ms.) 

HoNBY  Gbuhwo. 
Poppy  Greening. 
Origin    uncertain.    €hrown  at   the  West    Tree  rigorous, 
q>readinflr,  yery  productive. 

Fruit  lam,  oblong  oral,  angular.  Skin  meiush  yellow, 
t^prinkled  with  men  and  grey  dots.  Stalk  ratSer  long,  dender, 
inserted  in  a  deep  carity.  Odyx  dosed,  set  in  a  deep,  broad 
badn.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  bri^,  sweet,  and  dightly  aro- 
matic   December  to  April. 


Origin,  Windsor,  Conn.  Growth  upright,  rigorous,  produc- 

SMt  mediias,  eoBie,  dightly  oblique.  Skin  greenish  yel- 
low, shaded  with  dull  crimson,  striped  with  red,  and  sprinkled 
with  laige  fwset  dota  Stdk  short  inserted  in  a  yery  shallow 
carity.  Gd^  sadl,  partially  doseo,  b  a  small,  abrupt  badn. 
Flesh  mamsh,  tender,  juiey,  with  a  pleasant  sub-acid  flarour« 
Novenmr  to  January. 


154  THB   APPLB. 

H0R8B  Apple. 
SoouiMr  Hnrwi    TeUow 

Origin  BoppoBed  to  be  North  Carolina.  Tree  Tigorciiay  an 
early  and  aoundaot  bearer,  valuable  for  drying  and  colinary 

Fruit  large,  vaiying  in  form  from  oblate  to  oval,  angular. 
Skin  yellow,  sometimes  tinged  with  red,  and  small  patches  of 
mseet  Stalk  short,  cavity  and  basin  shallow.  Flesh  yellow, 
rather  firm  and  coarse,  tender,  pleasant,  sub-acid.  Last  of  July 
and  first  of  August 

Housum'b  Rbd. 
Origin,  Berks  oouniy.  Fa.  Large,  oblong,  compressed  at  the 
sides.  Skin  red  in  stripes,  yellow  at  the  base.  Stem  shorty 
thick.  Cavity  nanow,  not  deep»  slightly  rusaeted,  basin 
moderately  deep,  plaited.  Flesh  Sam^  teztuie  tender,  with  a 
delightful  aroma ;  quality,  ^  very  good,"  at  least  October  and 
February.    (Ad.  Int  Rep.) 


Raised  by  Mr.  Hoover,  of  Edisto,  South  Carolina. 

Fruit  large  and  beautiful,  nearly  globular,  inclining  to  conic 

Color  rich  dark  crimson,  peculiarly  marked  with  round,  white 

spots  of  about  an  eighth  of  an  inch  in  size.    Stem  half  an  inch 

'  lonff,  fieshy.    Calyx  open,  in  a  smooth,  greenish  yellow  basin. 

Fledk  white,  flavour  bnsk  acid.    November  to  February. 

Howb's  Russbt. 

Origin,  Shrewsbury,  Mass.  Very  much  resembles  Rozbury 
Russet,  and  may  be  seedling  of  it 

Fruit  large,  oblate,  often  conic,  angular.  Skin  greenish  yel- 
low, mostly  covered  with  russet,  and  generally  wiUi  a  bronzed 
cheek.  Stalk  short  inserted  in  a  broad  cavity.  Calyx  par- 
tiallv  closed,  basin  abrupt,  uneven.  Flesh  yellowish,  compact; 
brisic,  vinous  flavour.    January  to  May. 

HuBBABnTOir  Pippin. 

Origin  uncertain,  received  of  Robt  Wilson  of  Keene,  New 
Ilaiupsiiiic '  he  savs  it  is  much  cultivated  in  that  nekbourhood, 
highly  priied,  ana  oy  many  preferred  to  Baldwin.  Ivee  thrifty, 
strong  grower,  and  pvbdnctive. 

Fruit  large  or  very  large,  variable  in  form,  fflobukr  inclininff 
to  conic,  angular,  slightly  oblique.  Skin  yeUow,  shaded  and 
striped  with  red.  Stialk  short,  inserted  in  a  moderate  eavi^. 
Calyx  closed,  basin  small,  corrugated.    Flesh  tender,  yeUowiih, 

TUX    APPLE.  155 

cri^  jnicyv  with  a  very  pleaaant  sab  add  fkTOur.    Core  long 
and  open.    Norember  to  MarclL 


Origin,  Berks  Co^  Pa.,  from  Thomas  Hughes,  said  to  be  an 
abundant  boarer,  large,  roundish.  Skin  greenish  TeDow,  with 
a  blush,  and  nunerons  grey  dots.  Stem  variable  in  length,  slen- 
der, inserted  in  a  moderately  deep  open  cavity.  CiJyx  largo, 
open,  set  in  a  wide,  deep,  sometimes  plaited  basin,  ^esh  &e 
texture,  tender,  jnicy.  Flavour  very  agreeable,  saccharine  without 
being  sweet,  with  a  delicate  and  delicious  aroma.  Quality 
*^  Tory  good*  if  not  '^  beat"    March,  April.    (Ad.  Int  Rep.) 


Hurlbut  Strqw. 
Origin,  ham  •f  Oen.  Horibat,  Winehealer,  Conn.  TVee  very 
▼igOTooB,  and  great  bearer.  Fnrit  mediom,  oUate,  slightly  cmuc, 
■Bgnlar.  Skin  yeliow,  shaded  with  red  stripes,  and  splashed 
with  darker  red,  and  thinly  sprinkled  with  light  dots.  Stalk 
shorti  rather  slender,  inserted  in  a  broad  deep  cavity,  surround- 
ed by  msaet  Calyx  closed,  basin  rather  shallow.  Flesh 
white,  crim,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  mild  sprif^tly  sub-add 
flavour.    November,  I/ecember. 

Hunt's  RirsflxT. 

Origin,  Mr.  Hunt's  Faim,  Concord,  Mass.  QtowHk  rather 
alow,  bears  annvaliT  and  abondantly. 

Fruit  snail,  eonic.  Skin  russet,  shaded  with  dull  red,  on  a 
menish  yellow  ground.  Stalk  short,  slender,  cavity  deep  and 
broad.  Calvx  dosed,  segments  lone,  recurved  in  a  round  open 
basin.  Flesa  jnicy,  ine  grained,  rawer  rich,  sprightly,  sub-acid 
flavour.    December  to  April. 


&>edmena  received  from  W.  N.  ^7iite»  Athcmsi  Ga. 

Iniit  laige,  oblate,  angular,  compressed  horiaontally*  Sldn 
yellow,  mottled,  mart>led,  striped  and  shaded  with  crimson. 
Stem  shorti  in  a  rather  large  cavity.  Calyx  lar^  partially 
closed,  in  an  abrupt  furrowed  basin.  Flesh  white,  hne  grained, 
tender,  juicy,  vinous,  rich  and  agreeable.  A  very  delightful 
i^ple.    Core  smalL    Pecember  to  February. 


Raised  in  Cherokee  Co^  N.  Carolina,  b;r  J.  Whittaker. 
Fruit  lam,  globular,  inclining  to  come    Skin  fine  yellow, 
aobvr,speeued  with  dark  brown  russet    Stem  short  and  fleshy. 

156  ram  afpia 

oavitT  nanow,  bMm  veiy  small,  fleah  jeljow,  with  a 
sprightly  sub-acid  flavour.  November  to  Maieh.  (T.  YaD 
Benren,  Ms.) 

Indiana  Favoubitx. 

Supposed  to  bave  oruniiated  on  the  fiu:in  of  Peter  Moniti, 
Fayette  Co.,  Indiana.  Growth  healthy,  spreading,  and  a  good 
bearer.  Fruit  medium  or  large,  flattened  at  the  ends,  sli^Uy 
one-sided.  Skin  yellowish,  sluded  and  streaked  with  red,  and 
covered  witb  russet  specks.  Stem  rather  short  and  alender, 
cavity  deep.  Calyx  irregular,  basin  abrupt.  Flesh  white, 
tender,  juicy,  vinous,  ahnost  sweet,  and  very  pleatanti  *^  very 
good.''    January  to  April    (A.  H.  Ernst) 


Ongio,  premises  of  James  M.  JaclBK>n,  Bneka  Cob,  Pa.  Biae 
medium,  roundish.  Skin  greenish  yellow,  with  many  dark 
green  blotches  and  ff rey  do£^  a  veiy  few  fiunt  stripes,  and  warm 
mottled  brown  cheek.  Stem  variable  fiwm  short  to  long,  insert- 
ed in  a  deep  narrow  cuvity*  Calyx  closed,  set  in  a  modeiately 
wide  and  deep^  sometimes  subtly  plaited  basin.  Flash  greenish, 
fine  texture,  tender,  juicy,  l^avour  delicately  aromatic*  Qnality 
very  good,  perhaps  best.    October  to  May.     (W.  D.  Brinckle.) 

JxvnutaoN  Ooumtt. 

Origin,  JeArscm  Co.,  N.  Y.  Tree  vigoroue^  an  enrly  and  great 
bearer.  Fruit  medium  size,  round,  leffolar.  Stalk  set  in  a  degp 
cavity.  Oalyx  small,  closed,  in  a  mep  smooth  basin.  Skin 
smooth,  ffreeush  yellow,  marbled  with  red  and  russet  on  the 
sunny  sick,  running  into  broken  stripes  toward  die  shaded  side. 
Flesh  crisp,  jniey,  tender,  mild,  sab4icM^  rich  and  exceUent 
October  to  February    (Hort) 


Originated  with  John  M.  Jenkins,  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa. 
Fruit  small,  roundish,  ovate,  red  interspersGd  with  numerous 
large  white  dots  on  yetUiwirii  ground.  Stem  mefe  than  half 
an  inch  long,  slender.  Cavity  deep,  ratiier  wide,  sometimes 
russeted.  Cal3rx  closed;  basin  deep,  open,  iitrrowed.  Flesh 
white,  tender,  fine  texture,  juicy.  Flavour  agreeably  saecba- 
rine,  exceedingly  pleasant  and  aKHnatic  Qnuity  ^very  good** 
if  not  ^  best.''  The  Jenkins  is  one  of  those  delicious  little  apples 
peculiarly  fitted  for  the  table  at  evening  entertainments.  Janu- 
aiy  to  March.     (W.  D.  Brinckle.) 

Jbrset  Sweeting. 
A  very  pqralar  apple  in  the  middle  States,  where  it  is  not 

only  Ligbly  vAloed  for  the  deneft,  bat,  ewin^  to  its  ■•echariiic 
qoftiityy  it  is  $im  planted  hrfdj  iar  tkm  iiittfnmg  of  ftwiae. 

Fruit  medium  size,  roundish-oTsta,  tapering  to  the  eye.  The 
calyx  is  amall,  closed,  very  slightly  sunk,  in  a  small  plaited  basin. 
Stidk  half  an  inch  lonff,  mi  a  rather  narrow  cavity.  Skin  thin, 
greenish  yellow,  washed  and  streaked,  and  often  entirely 
covered  with  stripes  of  pale  and  dull  red.  flesh  white,  fine 
mined,  and  exceedingly  juicy,  tender,  sweet,  and  sprightly. 
Youns  wood  stout,  and  short  jointed.  This  apple  commences 
maturing  about  the  last  of  Augusti  and  continues  lipening  till 


jBWzn^s  Fm  Rbd. 


Origin,  New  Hampshire^  of  moderate  growth,  and  productiye, 
reonires  high  enltore  to  produce  Mr  fruit 

Jnuit  medium,  oblate.  Skin  greenish  white,  striped  and 
shaded  with  crimson.  Stem  short,  insetted  in  a  hntA  deep 
cavity.  Caiyx  firmly  closed,  in  an  eioeedingly  flmaU  basin. 
Flesh  tender,  juicy,  with  a  very  pleasant^  sprightly,  almost  sweet 
fiavoor.    November  to  Feb^ary. 

Jswsn's  Bbbt. 

Origin,  &rm  of  S.  W.  Jeiwetft,  Weybridga,  Y t,  same  habit  as 
Rhode  Island  Qreening. 

Fruit  large,  oblate  or  nearly  globular,  irregular.  Skin 
greenish,  mostly  shaded  with  deep  rea  Stem  short,  iMerted  in  a 
hum  cavity.  Calyt  closed,  set  in  a  very  snudl  basin.  Flesh 
yefiowidi,  jviey,  ahnoet  mehan^,  with  a  very  pleasant^  rieh,  sab- 
acid  fiavonr.    December  to  February. 

Jobsr's  Swbbt. 

Origin,  Lyndsboro,  New  Hampshire,  a  good  grower,  some- 
what straggling,  a  prolific  bearer. 

Fniit  medium,  oolong  or  eonie*  Skin  whitish  yellow,  sprin- 
Uad,  striped,  simL  q^lashed  with  red.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a 
narrow  cavity,  swrwsmded  by  russet  Calyx  closed,  set  in  an 
abinpi  basSn.  Flesh  joicy,  tender,  with  a  sweet  peculiar  flavour. 


Origin,  Bnx^fieldi  GonA.  A  strong,  upright  grower,  and  a 
good  bearer. 

FMt  sflNwe  maHmmf  voundish,  conie.  Slobi  smoolli,  striped 
with  red  on  ayeUow  ground,  dark  red  in  the  sim.  Stem  of  ma- 
diwn  length,  in  a  bsge  cavi^.    Calyx  dosed,  in  an  abrupt  basia 

168  THX   APFUB. 

fleih  remarkdbiy  tendei;  ciiip  and  itticy,  with  *  biidk,  sweel 
flavoiur,  T%ry  soon  beoonkM  metij^  after  ripaaii^.  llididle  €£ 
Augoat  to  middle  of  September. 

JoHV  Cabtuu 

Origin  uncertain,  grown  in  Connecticfit  Tree  Tigoroaa  and 

Fruit  laigCy  ronndieh,  conic,  angular.  Sldn  yellow,  marbled, 
striped  and  Bplashed  with  crimson.  Stem  short,  set  in  a  large 
cavity.  Calvx  closed,  segments  long,  basin  deep,  slightly  oorm- 
gated.  Flesk  white,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  mild,  sub-acid  flavour. 



A  Southern  fruit  of  uncertain  origin. 

Fruit  medium,  roundish,  tapering  somewhat  to  the  eye,  rather 
one-sided.  Calyx  small,  in  a  narrow  basin.  Stem  short,  in  a  mo- 
derate cavity.  Skin  thin, yellowish  white,  striped  and  marked  with 
carmine,  of  a  beautiful  waxen  appearance,  sprinkled  sparingly 
with  whitish  dots.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  and  fine  flavoured, 
indeed  the  'finest  summer  apple  known  North  and  South. 
Middle  of  July  in  Georgia.    (White's  Gard.) 

KuoHir'a  SpnaniBimoH. 

Red  Fearmain.    Bed  Spitxenburg. 

Fruit  rather  large,  oblong  oval,  ^proaching  conic  Skin 
whitish  yellow,  mostly  shaded  and  striped  with  red,  and  thickly 
sprinkled  with  minute  dota^  Stalk  of  medium  length,  inserted 
in  a  deep  open  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  segments  long,  set  in  a 
rather  narrow  abrupt  basin,  slightly  corrugated.  Flesh  yellowish, 
coarse,  crisp,  juicy,  with  a  pLeasant^sub^bcid  flavour.  November 
to  January. 


Gaaa    Gun. 

Origin,  Kent  Co^  Delaware.  Tree  moderately  ngoroaa, 
upright,  a  beautiful  little  apple  of  pleasant  flavour. 

F^it  small,  oblate,  slightly  conic,  leffular.  Skin  whitish  yel- 
low, waxen,  beautifiiUy  shaded  and  lightly  sferiped  with  fine 
crimson.  Flesh  whitiui,  juicy,  crisp,  with  a  pleasant  flavour. 
October,  November. 

EsswicK  CoDLiK.    Horn*  Lind. 

A  noted  English  cooldnff  apple,  which  may  be  gathered  foi 
tarts  as  early  as  the  month  of  June,  and  oontinues  in  use  till 
November.    It  is  a  great  bearor  and  a  vigorous  tree* 

THE   APPLE.  159 

Fruit » little  abore  the  middle  aiie^  ntlier  ooiucaIv  with  afew 
obeeue  libe.  StaS  short  and  deeply  set.  Calyx  rather  hm. 
Sldn  greeniah  yellow,  wathed  with  a  fiunt  Uaeh  on  one  me. 
Flesh  yellowish  white,  joicy,  with  a  pleasant  acid  flavour. 


Ad  old  Yariety  much  grown  in  Jefferson  Co^  ObiO|  and  highly 
prised,  growth  of  tree  life  Rambo. 

Fndt  medimn^  roundish,  oblate,  slightly  obfiqne,  angalar. 
Skin  pale  yellow,  shaded  with  red,  indisHnctly  striped  and 
thicUy  ^rinUed  with  laige  greyish  dotk  Stalk  diort^  inserted 
in  a  krge  cavity.  Calyx  small,  dosed,  in  a  broad,  shallow,  cor^ 
rotated  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  not  very  jnicy,  but  mild  sub 
acid.    November  to  Febraary. 

Another  Bed  Se^-no-inrther,  received  from  Samuel  Miller, 
near  Lebanon,  Pa.,  distinct^  and  a  univaaal  iiMroailte  there. 
December  to  AfmL 


Ori^  Berks  Co.,  Pa. 

Fmit  small  to  mediam,  oblong  oval*  Skin  light  waxen  yel- 
low, thickly  sprinkled  with  light  msset  dots.  Stalk  long,  slen- 
der, in  a  very  small,  reund,  peculiar  cavity.  Calyx  closec^  basin 
shallow  and  uneven.  Flesn  white,  tender,  crisp,  with  a  fine, 
brisk,  delicate  aromatic  flavour.  Yeiy  good.  December 
to  March. 


Origin,  Berks  County,  Pa.,  on  the  premises  of  John  Kelsey. 
Siae  medium,  roundish,  oblate,  sometimes  inclining  to  conical. 
Skin  greenish  yellow,  with  occasionally  a  faint  bluui  and  nume- 
rous grey  dots.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  deep,  moderately  open 
cavity.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  a  very  shallow,  plaited  basin.  Flesh 
tendei^  fine  texture,  greenish  white.     Flavour  mild,  and  exceed- 

fly  pleasant,  bignxxt  aroma.    Quality  very  good,    March. 

\  D.  Brinckle.) 

ExNTUH  FiLL-BAaxsT.    Thomp.  Lind.  Bon. 

Pottflrt  Lsyge  flswiliiig.    Am. 

An  immense  EngUsh  fruit,  properly  named,  and  much  admired 
by  those  who  like  great  siae  and  beauty  of  appearance.  The 
flavour  is  tolerable,  and  it  is  an  excellent  cooking  a)^.  The 
tiee  growa  stioi^y,  and  bean  well. 

Fmit  very  large--4reqnenily  four  and  a  half  inchea  in  dia- 
meter, roundish,  sli^tly  ribbed  or  irregular.     Skin  smooth. 

160  THB   APFUB. 

y^lowish  creen,  in  the  shade,  bat  pale  yellow  in  the  son,  with 
a  brownish  red  blnah  on  the  sunny  side;  slightly  streaked  or 
spotted  with  darker  red.  Flesh  tender,  jniey,  wifli  a  sob-aeid, 
sprightly  iarour.    October  to  January. 


Of  unknown  origin  and  probably  a  local  name,  an  early  and 
ibimdant  bearer,  liu^e  and  very  uniform,  oblong,  conical,  color 
green,  marbled  and  mottled,  wiUi  dull  red  in  the  sun,  with  irre- 
gular greenish  qf>lashes  or  specks.  Cavity  narrow,  acuminate. 
Calyx  hurge,  in  a  narrow  abrupt  basin.  Flesh  not  very  fine,  bat 
juicy,  very  tender,  with  a  veiy  agreeable,  subacid  flavour.  Yexy 
good,    ifearly  equal  to  Giaven^eia,  (T.  McWhorter'si  Ms.) 


Tree  o^  niher  slow  growth,  an  eariy  and  abmidaat  bearer. 

Fruit  below  medium,  oblong,  ovate,  very  irregular,  ribbed. 
Skin  yellowisli  white.  Stalk  short  and  small,  in  a  narrow 
cavity.  Calyx  small  and  closed,  segments  long,  reflexed,  basin 
narrow.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  sub-acid,  ripe  soon  after 
early  harvest,  and  continues  in  use  four  or  five  weeks;  popular 
in  some  sectioiis  of  the  West 

Hiis  beanrtifal  apple,  a  native  of  Lancaster  Oomiiy,  Pa.,  (on 
the  ihrm  of  Mr.  Brennaman),  was  brought  into  aotioe  hy  Dr.  J. 
K  EAleman  of  Downingtown,  Pa,  and  promises  to  be  an  ««cel« 
lent  frnit,  eqteciallyfor  market  pmposes.  Bears  carriage  remark 


My  w«U,  a  nMMi  pioUAe  bearer  and  Tigoreiie  grower;  we  givi 
the  DK.'ftde8Qriptioa.  Sice  medimn,  form  oblate.  Skin  greeuish 
jeUov,  fltreakaa  aad  elained  with  red,  deepened  oa  the  emitty 
nde,  dotted  all  oyer  witb  light  specks  and  occasional  roaset 
spote,  near  the  stalk,  which  ia  short  and  inacrtod  in  a  smooth 
deep  caTity.  Caljx  small  and  closed^  smuents  reflexed,  set  in  a 
wide,  regidar,  and  well  fbtmed  basin.  Ileah  white,  vei^  crv^ 
jnicy,  tender,  and  pleasant  saVacid  flavonr,  and  until  ^nite  i^ 
%cid  predominates.    August  to  October. 


Origin,  Berks  Conn^,  Pa.,  where  it  is  exoeedin|^  pc^nlar. 
TVee,  a  handsome  grower  and  an  abundant  bearer. 

Aiiit  medium,  rMmdish,  conic  Colour  whitish  yellow,  striped 
and  splashed  with  carmine.  Stalk  rather  short,  inserted  in  a 
medium  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  basin  small  and  comunted.  Fleah 
white,  tender,  mild,  sub-acid  flavour.    December,  Harch. 

Kbtchum's  Favouutb. 

Origin,  &rm  of  Mr.  Ketchum  in  Sndbuxy,  Yt  Ttee  vigorous 
and  productive. 

Fruit  medium,  irrsyilariy  oval,  inclining  to  conic.  Skin 
light  waxen  ydlow,  slightly  ahaded  with  rosy  blush,  irregularly 
wpmkM  with  cairaine  dots.  Stalk  of.  medium  length,  inserted 
in  a  narfow  eavity,  surroonded  by  russet  Calyx  dosed,  basin 
deep  and  nsrrow.  Fledi  white,  with  a  veiy  mild,  rich,  and  ex- 
cellent flavour.    September  to  January. 

luarr  Hsalt's  KoimtrcH. 

Fruit  mednun,  Toondali,  oblate,  ffldn  light  waxen  yellow. 
Stalk  diort  and  stout,  cavity  large.  Calyx  dosed,  basin  medium, 
corrugated.  Fleah  raiher  finn,  with  a  pleasant  slightly  aromatio 
flavour.    September. 


Origin,  D.  C.  Richmond,  Saaduaky,  O.  Tree  of  strong  up- 
right erowth,  poduotive. 

Frrat  aeaveety  of  medium  siae,  round,  ovate,  conical.  Skin 
yelkw,  alriped  and  shaded  with  deep  red.  Fleah  tender,  taicy, 
rich,  pleasant  sob-add.  Bipe  September  and  October,  (llich- 


Or^ln  uncertain,  found  on  the  farm  of  Buel  Landon,  Grand 
hiei,yenamBtf  aad  by  him  introduced  to  notice.  Tree  vigorous, 
with  low  spnadbg  bnndkea,  and  bears  moderately  every  year. 

162  TBB  APPLE. 

Frait  mediimiy  roondiah,.  inclining  to  oonie,  8)dti  jeUow^ 
mottled  and  shaded  with  red  or  deep  crimaon,  and  corePed  with 
nameroua  grayieh  dota.    StaUc  ahorti  oavily  laife,  aanroanded 

by  nuaet  Calyx  open,  baain  c(Nmig^tea  and  ahaUov.  Fleah^ 
jellowiah,  flrm,  criap^  juicy,  with  a  rich,  mild,  aab^aoid  iavow, 
aroniAtic.    Very  gcKxL    February  to  May. 

LjUTK'a  Bid  Ssbbax. 

Origin,  orchard  of  Mr.  Lane,  Edgar  County,  niiaoifl.  IVee 
of  moderate  growth. 

Fruit  laige,  round,  conical,  regular.  Colour  yellow,  with  venr 
fine  abort  atripea,  and  apecks  of  bright  red»  beautiMiL  Fkah 
white,  fine,  tender,  pleaaant,  aub-acid,  of  £ur  quality.  October. 

LAine's  SwxxT. 

Ori^n,  Hingham,  Maaa.    Tree  vigorona  and  pvodnctivie. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate^  alightly  oonic  Skin  nna^  yellow,  with 
a  aunny  cheek.  Stem  abort,  cavity  lum  niaaetoiL  Calyx 
cloaed,  baain  amall,  open.  Fleah  ydlowiSi,  not  veiy  tender 
juicy,  aweet,  aromatic    November  to  March. 


Fruit  medium,  conic,  regular.    Skin  deep 

A  aonthem  variety,  aent  na  by  W^N.  White,  AftheB%  Geofffia. 

THS  APPIA  163 

rannkled  wkh  laige  white  dote.  Stalk  of  mediiun  length,  ra- 
ther slender,  set  in  ft  deep,  acate  cavity,  sarroonded  by  raiftet. 
Calyx  yery  small,  closoc^  basin  small,  slif^ily  eonvgaUd. 
Flei^  yellowish,  father  coana^  crisp,  tender,  luioyi  with  a  rich, 
Mochanne,  vinoos  flaTonr.    Octobo^— NoTeaober. 

LAnoK  Stupbd  Wuma  PsAniiAiji. 
Stariped  Bweet  PippiB. 

Origin  nnknown,  supposed  to  be  Eentacky,  grown  at  the 
sooth  and  west    A  Yworons  |^wer,  and  Tery  priMlnetiTe. 

Fmit  large,  lomidish,  inclining  to  oblate,  anffnlar  and  hrre- 
ffnlar.  Skin  yellow,  striped,  sj^uhed  and  shaded  with  erimson* 
Stalk  short  and  smsll,  inserted  in  a  large  cavi^  sorroanded  b^ 
maset  Calyx  small,  dosed,  set  in  a  broad  nneren  basin.  Flesh 
yellow,  juicy,  crisp,  tender,  with  a  very  mild,  rich,  pleasant  flar 
voor,  scarcely  sub-acid.    October  to  January. 

liATa  SvRAwantRT. 

Autumn  Strawberry. 

Tree  yigoroos,  npright    A  regalar  bearer. 

FVnit  medinm,  ronndish,  slightly  conicid,  sometimes  6iatly 
ribbed ;  nearly  whole  surface  with  small  broken  streaks  of  light 
and  dark  red.  Stalk  slender,  aboot  an  inch  long.  Basin  ribl^. 
Fleah  yellowish-white,  slightly  fibrous^  very  temier,  juicy,  with  a 
fine  very  agveeaUe  sub-acid  flavour.    (Thomas.) 



Ori^n,  Lancaster  Co^  Pa. 

Froit  medium,  oblate,  angular.  Skin  ]Mle  red,  striped  with, 
crimson.  Stalk  shorty  slender,  inserted  in  a  narrow  rasseted 
cavity.  Calyx  closed,  basin  wide,  deep,  corrugated.  Flesh 
white,  tender,  crisp^  jnicy,  pleasant    November  to  March. 


Or^n,  Portsmouth, N.  H.  Tree  prodnetiTe;  regular  bearer. 
Fruit  larfOf  loundidi,  flattened,  yeUowish-green  tin^  with 
blnsh^  reddish  msset  specks.  Stem  shorty  stout  Cavity  open, 
deep.  Calyx  particuhurly  closed.  Basin  shallow,  flesh  yel- 
lowish-white ;  fine,  juicy,  crisp,  sweet  January  to  June.  (Hov 

liKLAim  Spick. 
Lahmd  Pippin.    New  T<xk  Spioe. 
Origin,  Sbuiburue,  Mass.  Tree  vigorous,  productive^  sise  large. 

164  TUS  APPLE. 

Tonndkh.  Skin  yellow,  nearly  covered  with  bright  red.  Stena 
short,  in  a  narrow  cavity.  Cidyx  Bmall,  basin  wallow  Flesh 
yellowisli,  rather  tender,  juicy,  with  a  very  rich  aromatic  sub-acid 
flavour,  escellttit  fcr  deaeert  or  kitehen.  September,  October. 


Origin,  Putnam  Co,  Indiana.  A  good  grower,  and  produc- 

Fruit  mediam,  oblate,  conie.  Skin  yetlowish,  striped  with 
crimsoii,  and  pfurtially  covered  with  thin  eiiinainon  mflset,  and 
sprinkled  with  gray  and  brown  dots.  Stalk  shorty  inserted  in  a 
deep  cavity.  -  Calyx  closed  or  nearly  so,  in  a  moderate  basin. 
Flesh  yellow,  eon^Mct,  with  a  rieh  snb^acid  flavour;  not  very 
juicy.    November^  February. 

Leicxstxb  Swxxt. 

jronsr  swooit 

Rather  huge,  flattish,  greenish  yellow  and  dull  red,  tender; 
rich,  excellent  fine  fiur  danert  or  bddng.  Winter,  TVse,  vigo* 
lou^  not  very  productive.    Origin,  Leicester,  Mats,    (Cole.) 

LiMBsn  Twig. 

James  Kiver. 

An  apple  much  cultivated  South  and  West  Size  medium 
or  above,  roundish  oblate  inclining  to  conic.  Skin  greenish 
yellow,  shaded  and  striped  with  dull  crimson,  and  sprinkled 
with  light  dots.  Stalk  of  medium  length,  inserted  in  a  broad, 
deep  cavity,  surrounded  by  thin,  green  nu^set  Calyx  closed, 
set  in  a  small,  uneven  basin.  Fl^  whitish,  not  very  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  brisk,  snb-add  flavour.    January,  April 


Globubir,  sometimes  inclining  to  oblate,  and  sometimes  ob- 
long or  conic.  Skin  greenish,  shaded  and  striped  with  dull 
red.  Stalk  shorty  inswted  in  a  small,  acute  cavity.  Calyx 
dosed,  in  an  opeoy  fbnowed  basin.  Flesh  greenish,  crisp,  ten- 
der^ juiev,  with  a  very  pleasant,  brisk,  vinous  fliavonr.  Novem- 

Long  Stem  of  Massachusetts. 

Origin,  Msssachusetts.  Distinct  from  the  Long  Stem  of 
Pennsylvania.  Fruit  medium,  roundish.  Skin  pale  yellow, 
with  a  dull  brown  cheek,  covered  with  dots.  Stalk  very  long 
and  slender,  cavity  large.    Calyx  lai^  partially  open,  basin 

TRB   APFLE,  166 

broad.    Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  fine,  rieh,  mild,  sob* 
acid,  aromatic  flavour.    September  to  October. 

London  Swxit. 
Hiicte*!  Winter  SwMt 

Trae  iipri|^t|  vigorooa,  a  flood  bearer  ovwy  jear. 

Fmii  raedimn  or  lai)ge,  ornate.  Skim  pale  yellow,  with  rerf 
aligiit  indicatione  of  mnet,  a  little  green  mawt  around  tlie 
stidk,  and  sparselj  covered  with  brown  qpecka.  Staft  ezceediii^y 
short,  in  a  laige  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  an  abrupt,  open, 
slightly  uneven  bifiin.  Flesh  wbitash,  ini^,  tender,  with  a 
very  fine,  delicate,  sweet  flavour,  slightly  aromatic.  Novem- 
ber to  Fetaiary* 

LoNO  Island  Sbbx-no-fubtbxb. 

WertdMstw  fieek>no4brtber.    Ignd^ 

Origin  niAnowii.  An  old  varie^.  Tree  vieorons  and  pro* 
ductive.  Fruit  huge,  oblate,  conical.  Skin  t^ow,  striped  and 
splashed  with  red.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  wiu  a  sprightly  sub- 
acid flaivofir.    Yeiygood.    October  to  Fsbmary. 

Long  Jobn. 

Bed  Pearmain.    loDg  PeannafaL  « 

Grown  in  Ohio.  A  large,  oblong,  oval,  nearly  eylindrie, 
showy  fruit,  that  has  some  reputation  as  a  markst  ^>ple  About 
Cinckinati  Skin  whitish,  shaded  with  red  aad  thieUy  ^nin- 
kled  with  minute  dols.  Stalk  long  and  slMider,  in  an  aente 
cavity.  Calyx  small,  nearly  doee^  in  a  round,  open  basift. 
Flesh  yellow»h,  crisp,  tender,  sprightly  sub-acid.  November  to 

LounoN  Pimir* 

WMte*8  Loudon  Pip|iin. 

Origin,  torn  of  Mr.  White,  Loudon  county,  Ya.,  and  much 
caltiTated  in  that  section. 

Fruit  large,  oblate,  approaching  conic,  angular.  Skin  light 
yellow,  sprinkled  with  a  few  greyish  dots.  Stalk  short,  inserted 
m  a  large  <»vity,  surroundSd  by  russet.  Calyx  large,  open, 
basin  nnooftfi  and  even,  rather  deep.  Flesh  yeHowish,  compacti 
tender,  juicy,  rich,  snb-acid.    December  to  February. 


Fruit  medium,  oblate.  Skin  greenish  yellow,  shaded  with 
red  and  sprinkled  with  brown  specks.  Stalk  very  short,  in  a 
very  large  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  basin  shallow.  Flesh  tender, 
jnicy,  sweet,  and  rich.    November  to  June. 

166  ms  APPLB. 


Onoge.  Qreasy  Pippin. 

Tallow  Apple.         Queen  Anna 

Origin  anknown.    Tree  vi^rous,  spreading,  prodadave. 

Fhiit  laige,  laandish^  ovm,  or  conic  fiwin  bright  waxen 
jeliow.  Steik  of  medium  le^h,  oantjr  dee][i»  uneren,  basin 
deepi  abriwti  and  furrowed.  FleBh  whitash,  with  a  Imk,  rich, 
rather  acia  flaTonr.    September,  October. 

Ltmak'js  Pumpkin  Swxxt.    Ken* 
Pound  Sweet 

A  very  large  sweet  ^ple,  which  we  receiTed  from  Mr.  S 
Lyman,  of  Manchester,  Conn.  It  is,  perhaps,  inferioor  to  the 
Jersey  Sweet  or  the  Summer  Sweet  Paradise  for  the  table,  but 
is  a  Tery  valuable  apple  for  baidi^,  and  deserves  a  place  on  this 
account  in  every  orchard.  The  original  pte^  of  this  sort  is 
growing  in  Mr.  Lyman's  orchard. 

Fruit  very  large,  roundish,  more  or  less  furrowed  or  ribbed, 
especially  near  Uie  stalk.  Skin  smooth,  pale  green,  with  ob- 
scure whitish  streaks  near  the  stalk,  and  numerous  white  dots 
near  the  eye,  sometimes  becoming  a  little  yellow  next  the  sun. 
Stalk  short,  deeply  sunk  in  a  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  rather 
small,  set  in  an  abruptly  sunk,  rather  irregular  basin.  Flesh 
white,  very  sweet,  rich,  and  tender,  but  not  very  juicy.  Sep- 
tember to  December. 

There  is  another  Pumpkin  Sweet  known  in  this  State,  which 
is  obloiig  or  peannmn-shaped,  striped  with  yellow  and  red,  and 
ripens  in  August  and  September ;  a  second  rate  apple. 

Lyman's  Laroc  Sumubr. 

large  Y^low  Summer.    Kok 

A  laige  and  handsome  American  fruit,  introduced  to  notice 
by  Mr.  S.  Lyman,  of  Manchester,  Conn,  llie  bearing  trees  are 
easily  recognized  by  their  long  and  drooping  bran<£es,  which 
are  almost  wholly  without  fruit  spurs,  but  Mar  in  clusters  at 
their  extremities.  They  bear  poorly  until  the  tree  attains  con- 
siderable siae,  when  it  yields  excellent  crops.  Fruit  quite  large, 
roundish,  flattened  at  the  ends.  Skin  smooth,  pale  yellow. 
Flesh  yellow,  tender,  sub-acid,  rieh,  and  high  flavoured,  and  ex* 
cellent  either  for  the  table  or  for  cooking.    Last  of  August 

Lybcom .    Man.  Ken. 

Osgood's  Favouiite.  Matthew  Stripe. 

Origin,  Massachusetts.  Fruit  large,  roundish.  Skin  greenish 
yellow,  with  a  few  broken  stripes  or  splashes  of  red.    Stalk  short, 

vn  App&s.  167 

pkated  ib  %  deep,  roand,  eren  caritj.  Oiljx  luge,  in  m  Immd^ 
plaited  bani.  Flesh  ine  gnbied,  and  ezeeediogl  j  mikL  and 
ai^reeable  in  iUvoiir.    In  use  from  September  to  November. 


Orinnf  Chniford,  Maine. 

Fruit  fall  mediom,  oblate,  angular.  Skin  jellowiah,  sbaded 
and  striped  with  red.  Stalk  short,  cavity  large.  Caljz  cloaed, 
basin  laige  and  regolar.  Flesh  white,  fine  grained,  tender,  ia- 
Toor  snb-acid.    December,  January. 


Uri^fin,  Bolton,  Mass.    Growth  moderate^  prodnctive. 

F^t  medium,  oblate,  conic  Skin  yellow,  beautifiilly  striped 
and  mottled  with  crimson.  Stalk  short,  in  a  broad,  uneven  cavity. 
Calyx  closed,  basin  small.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  with  a 
bride,  aromatic  flavour.    October. 

MADBir'a  Fatoubitb. 

Ksiden^s  Applib 

Origin,  fium  of  J.  G.  Sickles,  Stuyvesant,  N.  ¥•,  from  whom 
specimens  were  leoeived.  Its  delicacy  and  beanty  will  make 
it  desirable  for  the  amatev.  Tree  of  rather  slow  growth,  up- 
right slender  branches,  an  annual  and  good  bearer. 

Fruit  medium,  or  below,  oblong,  sometimes  slightly  conic, 
generally  cylindric,  but  often  very  obscurely  an^^lar.  Skin 
whitish,  or  pale  waxen  yellow,  shaded,  and  sometimes  slightly 
mottled  with  crimson,  and  sparsely  sprinkled  with  minute  dots. 
Stalk  short  and  small,  surrounded  by  thin  russet,  in  a  deep, 
uniform  cavity.  Calyx  firmly  closed,  with  persistent  recurved 
s^mentB,  in  a  basin  slightly  corrugated,  deep,  abrupt,  round,  and 
open.  Flesh  whitish,  tender,  criap,  with  a  pleasant,  very  deli- 
cate, vinous  flavour.    December  to  February. 

MAinaa'a  Blubh.    Coxe.  Thomp. 

A  remarkably  beautiful  apple,  a  native  of  New-Jersey,  and 
first  described  by  One.  It  begins  to  ripen  aboat  the  20th  of 
August,  and  eoatbuas  natil  the  last  of  Oetober.  It  has  all  the 
beauty  of  colour  of  the  pretty  littie  Lady  Apple,  and  is  much 
cultivated  and  admired  both  lor  the  table  and  for  co<^king.  It 
is  also  veiy  highly  esteemed  for  diying. 

Frmt  medhun  aised,  flat,  and  quite  smooth  and  finr.  Skin 
thin,  dear,  lemon  yellow,  with  a  coloured  cheek,  sometimes 
delicately  tinted  like  a  blush,  and  in  others  with  a  brilliant  red. 
Stalk  short,  planted  in  a  rather  wide,  deep  hollow.    Baaiii 


no   APPLE. 

moderatolj   depresMd.    OaIjx   doeed.    Fteah    white,  tendeiv 
tpngliUj,  with  ft  pkaeaaty  snb^oid  flttfoiir.    The  Ihut  is  very 

Maidm*s  BUuh, 

light    Thi8nMt7feffiiieah«ttdBome,npidgiowiiigtPee,with 
a  ine  tfmmimg  hmd^  and  bean  large  eropi. 


Om^inated  with  Major  Samuel  McMahon,  Northnmherhuid 
€V>^  l^nnsylrania.  Size  large,  roundish,  red,  sometimee  blend- 
ed with  yellow  on  the  shaded  side.  Stem  variable  in  length. 
Gayity  rather  wide,  moderately  deep.  Basin  nneven,  shallow. 
Flesh  yellowish,  crisp.  Flavour  pleasant,  agreeably  saccharine. 
Very  good.  (Ad.  Int  Rept) 

MsLA  Carle.    Thomp.  Lind. 

PoniBM  Finale.        Cfaailes  Apple. 
Mela  di  Oario.        Mela  Oaria. 
Pomme  de  GharleSL 

The  Male  Oarle  is  the  meet  celebrated  of  all  applea  m  Italy 
and  the  south  of  Rnrope,  whence  it  oemea.  Here  or  in  New* 
Bngknd,  it  does  not  ahravs  attain  perfection,  bat  south  of  New- 
York  it  beeomea  beautifiu  aad  fine,  as  it- needs  a  warm  aad  diy 
soil.    Has  proved  good  sooth. 

Fruit  of  medium  siae,  ver^  regularly  shaped,  and  a  Kttk  nar- 
rower towards  the  eye.  Skin  smooth,  with  a  delicate,  waxen 
appearance,  pale  lemon  yellow  in  the  shade,  with  a  brilliant 
crimson  cheek  next  the  sun,  the  two  colours  often  joining  in 

THK   APPUL  199 

itMBf  eonferast  Flesh  white,  not  rery  jmjf  bat  tender,  md 
with  a  delicatei  alig^llj  loeeperfluned  UToor.  September  to 

ILorensLD  Bueen. 

Brought  uto  notice  by  Dr.  Joeqph  Maoefield  of  GrotoOf  Mae- 
laGhusetts.  Tree  vigoroos  and  very  prodttctive.  Fruit  miaU, 
oUong^  indining  to  conic.  Skin  cinnamon  nuset  Stem  long, 
inaerted  in  a  deep,  furrowed  cavity.  Calyx  partially  cloeed,  set 
in  an  open  basin.  Fkah  not  veiy  juicy,  rich,  aromatic,  mocha* 
rine,  Tinoua.    Eeepe  tfll  April  or  ^ 



Hone  Block.    ICanomet  Sweet 

Origin,  Pljrmouth,  MmsachuaettB.  Tree  vigorous  and  nro- 
ducttve.  Fruit  medium,  roundish.  Skin  fine  yellow  witn  a 
richly  shaded  cheek.  Stalk  rather  slender,  inserted  in  a  shal- 
low cavity  slightiy  surrounded  by  russet  Calyx  closed,  basin 
shallow,  comi^ated.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  sweet  and  rich.  Au- 
gust^ September. 

Origpn,  Beiks  Co.,  Pennsylvania,  on  the  lands  of  Mr.  Elinger. 
Tree  vigorous,  upright,  productive.  Fruit  medium  size,  round- 
ish, tapering  slightly  to  the  crown,  somewhat  angular.  Skin 
yellowish  wliite  with  a  few  russet  dots,  and  nearly  covered  with 
a  feint  orange  blush.  Stem  half  an  inch  long,  rather  stout,  ca- 
vity narrow,  deep,  acuminate.  Cal3rx  small,  closed,  basin  nar- 
row, rather  deep,  slightiy  russeted.  Flesh  whitish,  tender,  fine 
texture,  delicately  permmed.  Quality  ''very  good'*  if  not 
"^  best"    January  to  March.    (Ad.  Int  Bep.)  . 

Maria  Bush. 

Orvin,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pennsylvania.  A  healthy  grower  and 
good  bearer.  Fruit  large,  roundish,  oblate.  Skin  yellow  shad- 
ed, striped  and  splashMl  wiA  red,  and  tiiinly  sprinkled  with 
msset  dots.  Stem  slender,  cavity  lai^  basin  abrupt  and  open. 
Flesh  white,  very  tender,  juicy,  subacML    October,  November. 

Marston's  Red  WnsTBB. 

We  received  this  beautiful  apple  firom  Nathan  Norton,  of 
Greenland,  N.  H.,  who  says  the  original  tree  is  over  100  years 
old  and  stiH  standing  in  that  town.  Tree  hardy,  of  mode- 
rale  growth.  Great  bearer  and  keeps  as  well  as  Baldwin,  and 
by  many  preferred  to  that  variety,  and  is  a  popular  fruit  in  that 
neigfabonmood.    Fruit  above  medium  siae,  oblong-oval,  inclin- 


170  THE    APPLE. 

iDg  to  ovate.     Stem  f  of  an  inch  ioi^,  rather  slender,  in  a  naiv 
row,  deep,   compressed,    slightly   russeted  cavity — sometimes 

MarsUyrCs  Red  WinUsr, 

with  a  lip.  Calyx  partially  closed,  s^meilts  long,  m  a  ceep 
cormgated  basin.  Colour  whitish  yellow,  shaded  and  sthpea 
with  bright  red  and  crimson,  thickly  sprinkled  with  minirte 
dots.  Flesh  whitish  yellow,  very  juicy,  tender,  sprightly  sub- 
acid flavour.    December  to  March. 

Maverack's  Sweet. 

Raised  by  Dr.  Maverack,  Pendleton  District,  S.  Carolina. 
Fruit  lai^^  roundish  oblate,  angular.  Skin  yellow,  mostly 
shaded  with  crimson,  and  sprinklea  with  light  grey  or  greenish 
dots.  Stalk  shoi-t,  inserted  in  a  large  cavity  surrounded  by 
russet.  Calyx  open,  set  in  a  deep,  irregular  basin.  Flesh  rich, 
pleasant,  vinous,  saccliarine. 

McAfee^s  Nonsuch, 

Originated  at  McAfee^s  old  Fort  in  Eentuck]^.  ^  Good  grow- 
er, very  productive.  Fruit  large,  globular,  inclining  to  oblate. 
Skin  yelmwish  green,  shaded  and  striped  with  crimson  and  co< 
▼ered  with  a  thin  bloom.  Stem  shor^  inserted  in  a  laive  cavi- 
ty.   Calyx  closed,  set  in  a  small  basin.    Flesh  whitish,  solid, 

THX   APPLB.  171 

criais  tender,  juicy,  with  %  rerj  aj^reeable,  sub-acid  flavour. 
December,  Febroarj. 


Origin,  Elizabethtown,  Hamilton,  Go^  Ohio^  farm  of  Major 
McHenry.  Growth  upright  and  free,  moderately  productive. 
C!olour  and  <mality  similar  to  American  Summer  Peannain. 
September  to  December.     (Jackson.) 


From  J.  M.  Ketchum,  Brandon,  Vermont 

Fruit  large,  roundish,  slightly  conic  Skin  crreenish  yellow, 
striped  and  mottled  with  light  red,  and  sprinkled  with  brown 
dots.  Stalk  long,  rather  slender,  set  in  a  pretty  laige  cavity. 
Calyx  closed  in  a  corrupted  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  rather  fine, 
juicy,  rich,  mild,  sub-acid,  aromatic.     October,  November. 


Fruit  large,  regular,  oblong,  narrowing  to  the  eye,  some- 
times siightfy  ribbed.  Skin  yellow,  but  mostly  concealed  with 
a  maibling  of  red  and  sprinkled  with  prominent  yellow  dots. 
Calyx  sm2l  and  closed,  set  in  a  narrow  basin.  Stem  veiy  short, 
thick,  in  a  narrow  deep  cavity.  Flesh  yellowish  white,  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  rich  slightly  sub^id  flavour.  Autumn.  (Whitens 


From  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Sixe  below  medium,  roundish,  conical. 
Skin  greeni^  yellow,  striped  with  red,  with  numerous  white 
spots,  &nd  russet  dots.  Stem  neariy  half  an  inch  long,  insert- 
ed in  a  wide  moderately  deep  cavity.  Calyx  small,  closed,  set 
in  a  narrow,  shallow  basin.  Flesh  tender.  Flavour  sprightly  and 
pleasant    Quality  "  very  good."     October.     (Int  Kep.) 

MxLT  IN  THX  Mouth. 
Origin,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.  Fruit  medium  or  rather  below, 
oblate,  slightly  conic.  Skin  deep  rod  on  a  green  ground,  with  a 
few  small  white  dots.  Stalk  long,  very  slender,  curved,  in  a 
small  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  in  a  rather  abrupt  basin.  Flesh 
white,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  mild,  rather  rich,  pleasant  sub-acid 
flavour,  somewhat  resembling  summer  Pearmain.  September 
to  November. 


Origin,  Canterbury,  Conn.  Tree  of  moderate  growth,  produc- 
tive, hardy  even  in  Maine.     Fruit  medium,  roundish.    Skin 

172  Tin  APPLK. 

bright  crimsoDf  striped  with  very  dark  red,  » little  yellow  in  the 
fthide  with  a  few  large  light  dots.  Stalk  large  and  long,  cavity 
broad,  shallow,  nueeted.  Calyx  rather  krffe  in  a  narrow  baun* 
Flesh  whitish,  stained  with  red,  tender,  rather  juicy,  with  a  fine 
high  flavour,  handsome  and  excellent    September.    (Colo.) 

MiCHABL  Hewrt  Pippin.    Goxe.  Thomp. 

Btfitoa  Sweet? 

A  New  Jersey  froit^  a  native  of  Monmouth  county,  first 
described  by  Coxe,  and  highly  esteemed  in  many  parts  of  the 
Middle  States.  FVuit  of  medium  sise,  roundish,  oblong  or 
ovate,  narrowing  to  the  eye,  smooth,  and,  when  first  picked,  of  a 
dull  green,  resembling  dightly  the  Newtown  Pippin.  Skin, 
when  ripe,  of  a  lively  yellowish  ^preen.  Stalk  short  and  rather 
thick.  Calyx  set  in  a  narrow  basin.  Flesh  yellow,  very  tendei; 
juicy,  with  a  peculiar  sweet  flavour.  The  tree  forms  a  veiy 
upright  head,  with  pretty  strong  shoots.    November  to  Mardu 



Origin,  Herkimer,  N.  Y.  A  moderate  ^wer,  not  very  pro- 
ductive. Fruit  medium  or  below  oval,  inchning  to  conic  Skin 
greenish  yellow.  Stem  lon^,  slender,  in  an  acute  cavity.  Calyx 
closed,  in  a  small  corrugated  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy, 
with  a  brisk,  rich,  very  mild,  sub-acid  flavour,  slightly  aromatic 
December,  February. 

MiFFLiH  King. 

Origin,  farm  of  Mr.  Eofiman,  Mif9in  Co.,  Pa,  Fruit  small, 
colour  of  Rambo,  perhaps  a  trifle  more  red.  Fruit  oblong« 
Flesh  remarkably  tender,  juicy,  and  pleasant^  first  rate  Oc- 
tober to  December.    (Trans.  A.  P.  S,) 


Origin,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Moderately  vigorous,  very  productive. 
Fruit  large,  globular,  inclining  to  oblong.  Sldn  yellowish  green 
shaded  with  red,  and  a  bright  cheek.  Stem  very  short  and 
thick,  in  a  deep  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  nearly  closed;  basin 
small.  Flesh  white,  juicy,  crisp,  tender.  Flavour  mild,  sub-acid, 
very  pleasant,  core  large.    November. 

MiLLSR  Apple. 

Supposed  to  be  a  seedling  and  brought  to  notice  by  James  O 
Miller,  Montgomery,  Orange  Co^  N.  Y.  Tree  vigorous  and  pro* 

ram  appls.  If 3 

Fhiit  father  laif^  oval  or  conic  Skin  jellow,  striped  with 
red.  Stalk  shorty  inserted  in  a  deep  large  cavity.  Calyx  open, 
in  abroad  uneven  basin.  Flesh  yellow,  tender,  juicy,  witti  a 
rather  mild,  rich,  pleasant  flavour.    September,  October. 

MiNismu    Man.  Ken. 

A  New  England  variety,  introduced  to  notice  by  the  late  R. 
Mannine.  It  orinnated  on  the  farm  of  Mr.  Saunders,  Rowley, 
Mass.;  but  was  mst  exhibited  to  Mr.  M.  by  a  minister — ^the 
Rev.  Dr.  Spring,  of  Newbwyport,  whence  its  name.  Mr.  Man- 
ni^  reconunended  it,  but  it  has  not  become  popular. 

Jmiit  large,  oblong,  tapering,  to  the  eye,  around  which  are  a 
&w  furrows — and  resembling  liie  Yellow  Belle-Fleur  in  outline. 
SkjB  striped  and  splashed  near  the  stalk,  with  bright  red  on  a 
greenish  yellow  ground.  Stalk  an  inch  long,  slender,  curved  to 
one  side,  and  pretty  deeply  inserted.  CSilvz  smiJl,  dosed, 
inserted  in  a  very  narrow,  pUuted  or  furrowed  basin.  Flesh  yel- 
lowish white,  very  tender,  with  a  somewhat  acid,  but  very 
agreeable  flavour.    October  to  February. 


Supposed  to  be  a  native  of  North  Carolina.  Tree  upright^ 
vigorous,  and  hardy. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  angular.  Skin  thick,  rough,  greenish 
yellow,  diiaded  with  dull  pale  crimson,  thickly  covered  with 
hu^e  crimson  or  lilac  dots,  and  dull  lilac  bloom.  Stalk  long 
and  slender,  inserted  in  a  \ai«e  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  basin  very 
shallow.  Flesh  yellow  and  exceedingly  sweet  Janua^  to 

Mora's  FAyouRm. 

From  Randolph  Co.,  Indiana.  Tree  very  thrifty,  an  annual 

Frait  large,  roundish,  angular,  slightly  flattened,  yellow  mot- 
tled, striped  and  splashed  with  dark  rod,  grey  russet  dots.  Stem 
short,  cavity  open,  regular.  Calyx  smiUl,  basin  broad,  furrows 
obscure.  Flesh  yellowish  white,  tender,  sub-acid,  very  good. 
December  to  June.    (Elliott) 

Moou's  Obbxvivo. 

Raised  by  R.  Moore,  of  Southington,  Conn.,  very  produc- 

Fhut  medium,  globular,  inclining  to  oblong  or  conic.  Skin 
greenish  yellow,  sometimes  with  a  slight  blusL  Stem  small,  in* 
serted  in  a  moderate  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  basin  very  shallow. 
Flesh  white,  juicy,  tender,  with  a  brisk,  vinous  flavour.  De- 
cember, March. 

174  THS  APFLS. 

M08X8  Wood. 

Ori^n,  Wintlirop,  Maine. 

Fnut'  medittm,  roandish.  Skin  yellow,  striped  witii  redj 
carity  and  basin  shallow.  Flesh  white,  tender,  jnicy,  flavour 
pleasant,  sub-acid.    September,  October.    (Me.  P.  S.  Kept) 


Moose  Apple. 

Ori^n,  Ulster  Co.,  N.  Y.    Tree  rifforous  and  productive. 

Fruiti  in  weighty  light;  in  size,  Targe,  roundish-oblong,  or 
slightly  conical  Skin  pale  greenish  yellow,  with  a  brownish 
Uush  on  one  side,  and  a  few  scattered,  russety  grey  dots.  Stalk 
three-fourths  of  an  inch  long,  rather  slender,  not  deeply  inserted. 
Calyx  closed,  and  set  in  a  narrow  basin,  slightly  plaited  at  the 
bottom.  Flesh  very  white  and  fine  grain^  and  moderately 
juicy,  with  a  sprightly,  delicate,  and  faintly  perfumed  flavour. 

Munson  SWCBT. 

Orange  Sweet        Bay  Apple. 
Heacfaem  Sweet 

Origin  uncertain,  probably  Massachusetts.  Tree  vigorouSi 
spreading,  an  annual  and  abundant  bearer. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate.  Skin  pale  yellow,  sometimes  with  a 
blush,  stem  shorty  cavity  large.  Calyx  closed,  basin  small. 
Flesh  yellowish,  tender,  juicy,  sweet    September  to  February. 

Morrison's  Rbd. 

Origin,  supposed  to  be  a  native  of  Medfield,  Mass.,  on  the  fum 
of  Mr.  Fisher,  vigorous  and  productive. 

Fruit  medium,  conic,  angular.  Skin  light  yellow,  shaded  and 
obscurely  striped  with  deep  red.  Stalk  very  short,  stout,  cavity 
smalL  Calyx  closed,  in  a  very  small  basin.  Flesh  tender,  crisp, 
with  a  very  mild,  pleasant^  peculiar  flavour.  November  to 


MaSden's  Bosom. 

Origin,  Alabama,  introduced  by  Dr.  W.  O.  Baldwin,  of  Mont^ 

In  size  laige,  in  shape  quite  conical,  and  deeply  ribbed,  in 
colour  a  beautiful  pale  waxen  yellow.  Stem  three-fourths 
of  an  inch  long,  in  a  narrow,  deep  cavity.  Calyx  rather 
laige,  basin  deep,  very  much  ribbed.  Flesh  white,  juic}^  and 
plessant    Middle  of  July  to  first  of  August    (J.  Van  Benren, 

TBI   APPLS.  1)6 

Ne  Flub  Ultra. 

SpecimenB  receiyed  from  Wm.  N.  White,  of  Athena,  Ga.,*  a 
beaatifal  fruit. 

Fniit  very  lai*ge,  obUte,  ansular.  Sldn  yellowish,  meetly 
shaded  with  deep  erimson,  and  thickly  sprinkled  with  lai^ 
lightish  dots.  Stalk  very  short,  inserted  in  a  very  large  cavity, 
surrounded  by  russet  Calyx  open,  in  a  broad,  deep,  corrugated 
basin,  which  has  a  downy  lining.  Flesh  white,  ver^  tender,  fine 
grained,  for  a  large  apple,  with  a  very  refreshing,  vinoua  flavour; 
an  excellent  fruit    October,  November. 

This  has  proved  to  be  Equinetely,  page  139. 


Ori^n,  Franklin,  Macon  Co.,  North  Carolina. 

Fruit  large,  obUiJte,  colour  yellow  striped  with  red.  Stem  of 
moderate  length,  inserted  in  a  large,  open  cavity,  basin  smootf. 
and  open.  Flesh  white  and  very  sweet  November  to  Janu- 
azy.    (J.  Van  Beuien's  MS.) 


Ori^n,  Berks  Co.,  Pa. 

Fnut  laige,  roundish,  exterior  of  an  exceedingly  beautiful 
waxen  orange-yellow  colour,  with  a  few  russet  dots,  and  a  deli- 
cately striped  and  richly  mottled  carmine  cheek.  Stem  very 
abort  and  rather  stout,  eavity  narrow,  acuminate,  shallow. 
Calyx  large,  basin  deep,  rather  wide  furrowed.  Flesh  yellowish, 
somewhat  tough,  owing  probably  to  the  fruit  being  much  shri- 
velled, flavour  approaching  that  of  the  Pine-apple  quality,  ^  very 
afood."    December  to  April.     (Ad.  Int  Rep.J 


Wonder  (inoorrectly.)       Sommerour. 

Origin,  Macon  Co.,  North  Carolina,  introduced  by  Silas  Mc- 
Dowell, of  Franklin.  Tree  of  a  rambling  habit,  very  vigorous 
a  constant  and  prolific  bearer. 

Fruit  laige,  roundish,  somewhat  flattened  at  base  and  crown 
Shift  yellowish,  shaded,  striped  and  sphished  with  crimson,  and 
sprinUed  with  tiffhtish  dots.  Stalk  mediom,  inserted  in  a  round, 
nUher  deep  cavity.    Calyx  large,  open,  set  in  a  rather  broad 

*  Some  of  the  new  Southern  winter  apples  are  of  sorpaaBing  quality, 
camed,  doubtlen,  by  the  more  complete  elaboration  of  their  juice  during 
their  wann  and  lengthened  seaBon. 

176  THS   APPLV. 

farrowed  basin.    Flesh  yellow,  tender,  crisp,  juicy,  with  a  fine^ 
rich,  sub-acid  flavour.    November  to  ApriL 

NawABK  Euro.    Coxe.  Thomp. 

A  New-Jersey  fruit,  of  medium  siie,  conical  or  Pearmain- 
diaped,  and  of  handsome  appearance.  Skin  smooth,  red,  with 
a  few  yellow  streaks  and  dots,  on  a  greenish  yellcw  ground. 
Calyx  set  in  a  narrow  basin.  Flesh  tender,  with  a  rather  rich, 
pleasant  flavour.  The  tree  is  spreading,  and  bears  welL  No- 
vember to  February. 

NxwAEK  PiFPiK.    Coxe. 

Frenoh  Pippin,  \^ 
Tellow  Pippin,  J  ^ 

A  haodaome  and  excellent  early  winter  variety,  easily  known 
by  the  crooked,  trreguhir  growth  of  the  tree,  and  the  drooping 
habit  of  the  branches.    Not  profitable. 

Fruit  rather  large,  roundish-oblong,  r^^larly  formed.  Skin 
greenish  yellow,  becoming  a  fine  yellow  when  fully  ripe,  with 
clusters  of  small  black  dots,  and  rarely  a  very  faint  blush. 
Calyx  in  a  regular  and  rather  deep  basin.    Stalk  moderately 

▲FPU*  m 

long,  and  deeplj  iiiMiied.     Eleth  yellow,  tender,  reij  rioh| 
jnic J,  and  hi^  fATonred.    November  to  Febniarj, 


Hoiibem  QoIdBO  Sweet    Golden  Sweet 

Origin  nnknown,  sappoeed  to  be  Yermont  TVee  bealdiy 
end  prodactire,  but  needs  bigh  cnltnre  for  the  perfect  develop- 
ment of  the  whole  crop. 

Fmit  above  medinro,  ronndish,  conic,  angnlar.  Skin  oily 
yellow,  sometimes  with  a  blnsh.  Stem  rather  long,  in  a  mo- 
derate cavity,  ^elyj  small,  and  closed  in  a  narrow,  abrupt, 
oormgated  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  jnicy,  sweet,  rich,  and 
excellent    September,  October. 

Ooorax  OnsximrG. 

Origin,  banks  of  the  Oconee  river,  a  little  below  Athens,  6a. 
Fmit  very  large,  ronndiah,  flattened.  Skin  yellow,  a  little 
brownish  in  the  snn,  russet  about  the  stem,  with  a  few  scat- 
tered rosset  dots.  Calyx  opeu,  in  a  shallow,  slightly-furrowed 
basin.  Stalk  very  short,  in  a  rather  regular,  deep  cavity. 
Flesh  j^ellowish,  nne-^ined,  cris^  abounding  in  a  deliffhtful 
aromatic,  lively,  sub-actd  juice,  quality,  **  best.** — (Ad.  Int  Aept^ 

Ohio  Rxd  Stuak. 

Originated  with  James  Mansfield,  JeffenonCo.^  Ohio.  Growth 
vig<»oas,  npright  Fhiit  medium,  oblate.  Skin  yellow,  sha- 
d^  splaihed,  and  striped  with  red.  Stalk  short,  cavity  large, 
russeted*  Calyx  large,  closed,  basin  shallow,  uneven.  Flesh 
rather  compact,  juicy,  rich,  sub-acid.    January  to  April 

Old  EirousH  Conuir.    Tliomp. 

SngUflh  Oodlin.     Ooae.  XML  Boff. 
Trenton  Berly  f 

A  large  and  fair  cooking  apple,  in  use  from  July  to  No- 
vember. Fruit  generally  above  medium  size,  oblong  or  conical, 
and  a  little  irregular.  Skin  clear  lemon  yellow,  with  a  faint 
blush  next  the  sun.  Stalk  stout  and  short  Flesh  white, 
tender,  and  of  a  rather  pleasant,  sub-acid  flavour.  Much 
esteemed  ibr  cookh^,  ripcoia  gradoally  upon  the  tiee.  The 
trees  an  very  vigorous  and  froitftiL 

Old  Housb. 

From  the  premises  of  John  Caoffman,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.    Size 
medium,  oblate,  inclining  to  ob.-conic.    Skin  yellow,  with  a 
blush.    Stem  short,  in  a  moderately  wide,  not  very  deep  cavity. 
'  8* 

178  TRK  APPLX. 

Caljni:  mediam,  closod,  set  in  a  wide,  deep  basin,  flesh  tender, 
fine  texture,  jnicj,  flavour  agreeable,  aromatie  ;  veiy  good,  if  DOt 
best    December.    (W.  D.  Brinckle.) 


Origin,  Patnam  Co.,  Indiana.  Tree  vigorous.  Fruit  medium, 
or  above,  roundish,  obliquely  flattened,  angular.  Skin  yellowish, 
mostly  shaded  with  red,  much  sprinkled  with  small  raised 
dots,  and  covered  with  a  thin  bloom.  Stalk  short  and  small, 
in  a  large,  russeted  cavity.  Calyx  open,  or  partially  closed,  in  a 
deep,  regdar  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  solid,  crisp,  juicy,  mild, 
sub-acid,  ^very  good."  June  to  March.  This  somewhat 
resembles  the  Newtown  Spitzenbuiyh,  or  N.  Y.  Yandevere,  and 
perhaps  equals  tbat  variety.     Specimens  from  Beuben  Hagan. 

Oban  ox  Apple. 

Of  New  Jersey  origin.  A  vigorous  grower,  and  moderately 

Fruit  above  medium,  roundish,  oblate.  Skin  orange  yellow, 
with  a  few  grey  dots,  and  sometimes  patches  of  russet.  Stalk 
short,  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  closed.  Basin  moderate.  Flesh 
yellow,  juicy,  sub-acid,  pleasant.     September,  October, 


Raised  by  Henry  Omdorf^  Putnam,  Muskingum  Co.,  Ohio. 
Fruit  medium,  roundish,  slightly  angular,    rain  lemon  yeBow, 
rich  red  blush  in  the  sun,  with  a  few  stripes  and  blotches  of  red. 

Stem  slender,  cavity  and  basin  deep.    Calyx  open.    Flesh  toU 
"  licy,  crisp,  tender,  sub-acid,  nearly  best    October,  No- 
vember.'  (Elliott) 

lowish,  juicy,  crisp,  tender,  sub-acid,  nearly  best    October, 

Obne'b  Earlt. 

A  foreign  variety. 

Fruit  rather  laige,  somewhat  angular.  Skin  yellow,  slightly 
russeted.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant  vmous 
flavour.    September,  October. 

Paradisk,  Wikteb  Swxxt. 

The  Winter  Sweet  FBradise^  is  a  very  prodootivB  and  excel- 
lent orchard  fruit,  always  fair,  and  of  fine  appearance.  Wo 
received  it  some  years  aso,  alonff  with  the  Summer  Sweet  Para- 
dise, from  Mr.  Garber,  of  Colombia,  Pa^  and  consider  it*a  native 

Fruit  rather  large,  regularly  formed,  roundish.  Skin  fiur  and 
smooth,  dull  green  when  picked,  with  a  brownish  blush,  becom 

THS   APPLS.  1^9 

bg  ft  little  paler  at  maturitj.  Stalk  short,  set  in  a  roond  cavity. 
G^x  small,  basin  shallow  md  narrow.  Flesh  white,  fine  grained^ 
juicy,  sweet,  sprightly,  and  very  good.    November  to  March. 

Pbagb-Povd  Swbbt. 

lliis  IS  a  most  excellent  antnmn  varie^,  from  a  small  village 
of  this  name,  in  Datchess  county,  N.  i  ^  which  we  received 
from  Mr.  J.  R.  Comstock,  an  extensive  orchardist,  near  Pough- 
keepsie.  It  appean  well  worthy  of  a  more  general  dissemina- 

Fniit  of  mediam  size,  rather  flat,  and  a  Httle  one-sided  or 
angular  in  its  form.  8kin  striped  light  red.  Stalk  long  and 
slender.  Flesh  tender  or  very  mellow,  moderately  joicy,  with 
a  rery  rich,  sweet,  and  agreeable  flavour.  September  to  No- 

PxoPLs'a  Choics. 
]|«U  in  the  Month  </MnML 

A  Pennsylvania  fruit 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  inclining  to  conic  or  ovate.  Skin 
bright  red,  sometimes  obscurely  striped,  thickly  sprinkled  with 
large  whitish  dots  of  peculiar  appearance.  Stem  short  and 
fiesny,  inserted  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  large,  segments  stout, 
in  a  rather  lam  round  basin.  Flesn  yellowish,  firm,  juicy, 
witii  a  brisk,  rich,  sub-acid  flavour.     December  to  March. 

Phillips'  Sweet. 

Origmated  on  the  &rm  of  George  Phillips,  CkwJiocton  Co., 
Ohio.    Tree  thrifty,  upright,  very  productive. 

Fruit  rather  laige,  conic,  obscurely  five  angled.  Sldn  light 
yellow,  shaded  and  sprinkled  with  re<i,  striped  with  crimson,  and 
thickly  sprinkled  with  large  dota.  Stalk  medium,  rather  slender, 
inserted  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  segments  long,  basin 
round,  abrupt  ai^  <^n.  Flesh  yellow  near  the  skin ;  juicy, 
with  a  rich,  oriak,  sweet  flavour.    November  to  March. 


Grown  by  William  Fisher,  Berks  Co.,  Pa. 

Flmit  large,  oblate,  conical.  Skin  greenish-yellow,  with  nu- 
merous blotches  and  grey  dots,  and  a  blush  on  the  exposed  side. 
Stem  short  and  slender,  inserted  in  a  wide  moderately  deep 
cavity.  Calyx  small,  closed,  set  in  a  narrow  superficial  basin. 
Flesh  tender,  finetextare,  juicy, fragrant  Flavourdelicateandfine 
quality,  "very  good  "  or  **  best"    January.    (W.  D.  Brincklc.) 

laO  TUB  ATWtM. 



Fnut  medium,  ronndiah,  oblate.  Skin  yellow,  with  scattered 
shades  of  roaset,  and  small  rasset  speeka.  Stem  dioit,  caviiy 
acuminate.  Calyx  laise,  half  dosed.  Ilesh  yellowish-wkite, 
crisp,  sharp  acid,  valnaUe  for  cooking.  Jamuoy,  ApiiL  (Hot 

Pun  SwBxrnre. 

Originated  wiA  William  Kelieiv  Chmib«rland  Co^  Pa. 

Tree  vigorous,  (q;>reading^  producing  enormous  crops.  Fruit 
small,  greenish,  nearly  covrnd  with  bright  red,  peifoct  in  form. 
Rich  pleasant  sweet  flavour,  and  a  general  ftvourite  where 
known,  but  think  it  too  small  for  general  use.  September,  Oo- 
tober.     (David  Miller  Jr.— MS.) 

PnTSBuaoH  Pippnr. 

Flat  Fip|ifaL  fiNirte  Vinbi, 

Father  Apple.        Willnm  TelL 

Switeer  Apple. 

Chmn  supposed  to  be  Pittsbuigh.  An  irreffular  grower, 
somewnat  dK>op]ng  in  habit,  and  eenerally  a  gooa  bearer. 

Fruit  laiffe,  oblate,  sli^hthr  angiuar.  Skin  pale  yellow,  rarely 
with  a  blua^  qparsely  sj^rmkJed  with  brown  dots.  Stalk  short  and 
small,  in  a  la^  cavity,  sometimes  a  little  msseted.  Calyx 
nearly  closed,  segments  lonsr,  basin  broad  and  corrugated.  Flesh 
whitish,  juicy,  tender,  wi&  a  fine  mild,  sub-acid  flavour.  No- 
vember to  ApriL  A  handsome  Pennsylvania  fruit,  where  it  is 
much  prized.  Specimens  received  fimn  Samuel  Miller,  near 
Lebanon,  Pa. 

PoLLT  Bright. 

Ori^n  supposed  to  be  Yiigjnia. 

Fhnt  elongated,  conic.  Skin  light  yellow  shaded  with  ear- 
mine,  obscurely  striped.  Stalk  of  medium  len^;th,  in  an  acute 
cavity,  msseted.  Calyx  in  a  small,  furrowed  basm.  Flesh  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  pleasant  sub-acid  flavour.    September,  October. 

PoMMs  Gbibs. 

Pomme  de  oofi'.    QfiN.    tfumi^ 
Graj  Apple.    Leather  apple  of  Turio. 

A  small  gray  apple,  from  Canada,  probably  of  Swiss  or  French 
origin,  and  undoubtedly  one  of  the  finest  dessert  apples  for  a 
northern  climate.    It  is  not  a  strong  grower,  but  isa^^oiod  bearer, 

and  has  an  excellent  flavour. 

nn  APFUB.  181 

Frait  below  medimn  nze,  obkte.  Skin  greeniih  gray  or  cin* 
namon  roaset^  with  a  tittle  red  towards  the  miil  Calyx  nxudl,  set 
in  a  round  basin.  Flesh  tender,  rich,  and  high  faTonred.  De 
eemb^  to  Febroary. 


Origin  mioertani.  A  free  grower  aad  very  prodaotife  ;  now 
chiefey  known  in  Conneeticot 


in  1       ^  _ 

set  in  an  open  basin.    Flesh  white,  much  staineci,  rery  conqpacti 

cn^  juicy,  with  a  pleasant^  brisk,  sub-acid  farour.    Norember 



Kniit  above  medium,  oUate,  sometimes  inclining  to  conic 
ffldn  ydlow,  marbled,  and  striped  with  red.  Stalk  very 
shaft,  m  a  deop,  nanow  cavity  surrounded  by  russet  Calyx 
small,  nearly  dosed,  basin  rather  abrupt  Flesh  yellowish, 
not  yerr  tender,  with  a  pleasant,  rather  rich,  sub-acid  flavour, 
December  to  Miurch. 

PftBsa  Ewwo. 

Origin  Kentncky.    From  J.  S.  Downer  of  Elkton. 

Tree  haidv,  vigorous  and  jNNKiuctive.  Fruit  medium,  round- 
iph,  fiatteaea  at  base  and  crown,  angular,  slightly  oblique. 
Skin  yellow,  shaded  and  strijped  with  crimson,  and  thickly  co- 
vered with  dots,  having  a  dark  centre.  Stalk  medium,  inserted 
in  a  very  deep  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  an  uneven 
abrupt  peculiar  basin.  Flesh  yellowi^  firm,  juicy,  crisp,  tender, 
with  a  very  agreeable  sub-acid  flavour,  aromatic.  February  till 

Pniaar'B  Swkbs. 

Roe  Sweet.    IfoissBOS  Sweot 

Origin,  Leominster,  Massachusetts.  Tree  vigorous  and  very 
productive.  Fruit  medium,  globular  inclining  to  conic  Skin 
yellow,  chiefly  covered  with  dull  red  stripes  and  numerous  red 
dots.  Stalk  short,  set  in  a  rather  deep  cavity.  Calyx  cios6<l, 
basin  small.  Flesh  white,  fine,  tender  and  pleasant^  not  very 
)oicy — a  late  keeper.    January  to  May. 


Origin  uncertaiB ;  first  described  by  Coxc  Growth  mode* 
rate;  productive.    Fruit  medium  to  large,  roundish  oblate 

182  THB   APPLE. 

Skin  yellow,  flometimes  with  m  blusli.    Flesh  tender,  jaicy 
with  ft  mild,  sub-acid,  aromatic  flavour*    November. 


Originated  with  Reuben  Ragan,  Piitnam  Co^  Indiana. 
Tree  hardy  and  fruitful.  Fruit  medium  to  large,  ovate,  conic, 
approaching  to  oblong,  angular.  Colour  marwed  and  striped 
with  red  on  a  green  ground.  Stalk  medium  length,  inserted 
in  a  very  deep,  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  small,  cloMd,  set  io  a 
deep,  abrupt  basin.  Flesh  yellowish  white,  juicy,  pleasant,  of 
a  rather  rich,  spicy,  8ub-«cid  flavour.    Octob^  to  November. 

RAiiBoun  FnANO.    Duh.  Thomp. 

Rambour  d'Ete,  or  Summer  Bambov.     Ooxe, 
Fhmk  Rambour.    LintBey. 
Eambour  d'JSte.    PoiUau. 

A  French  frait,  a  little  above  medium  siae,  flat,  ffeneraUy 
evenly  formed,  but  occasionally  a  little  irregular.  Skin  pale^ 
greenish  yellow,  slightly  stained  and  streaked  with  red  on  the 
sunny  side.  Flesh  rather  soft,  of  a  ^rightl;^  sub-acid  flavour, 
a  little  bitter  before  maturity.    Ripens  early  in  September. 


Origin,  Wilmington,  Delaware,  and  introduced  by  Joseph  P. 
Jefferis.  Fruit  large,  roundish,  oblate.  Skin  whitish  yellow, 
sometimes  with  a  crimson  cheek.  Stalk  very  shorty  inserted 
in  a  deep,  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  large,  closed,  basin  broad 
and  deep,  jflesh  fine,  almost  sweet,  tender,  juicy,  somewhat 
spicy  and  refreshing.    August,  September. 

Red  Wiktbb  Pkarmaiit. 

Red  Lady  Finger.    Bunoombef 

Tree  of  moderate  upright  growth ;  a  regular  bearer.  Fruit 
medium  size,  conic,  sometimes  nearly  oblong.  Sldn  yellowish 
white,  mostly  shaded  with  maroon  and  thiddy  sprinkled  with 
large  light  dots.  Stem  ver}-  short,  in  an  acute  compressed  ca- 
vity slightly  russeted.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  a  small  round  open 
basin.  Fl^  whitish,  tender,  juicy,  almost  melting,  with  a  very 
mild,  sub-acid,  or  nearly  sweety  slightly  aromatic  flavour.  Ja- 
nuary to  March 

Rm>  Rbpubuoah. 

Origin,  Lycoming  Co.,  Pennsylvania.  Tree  vigorous,  spread* 
ing.  Fruit  large,  roundish,  oblate.  Skin  yellowish,  striped 
and  shaded  wi&  red,  and  sprinkled  with  large,  whitish  dlota. 
Stem  short,  in  a  large  cavity.    Calyx  closed,  basin  broad. 

TBB   APPLS.  189 

deem  and  furrowed.    Fleth    coaiMi  tender,  joaej^  sobHicid. 
September  to  Deoember. 

Rbd  Raitob. 

Fruit  medium  or  Mow,  oblong,  ngnltt,  alifffatlj  conic  Co* 
lour,  fine  yellow  abededwith  red  and  thicklyeoTered  wiUi 
wbitiak  dots.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  small  eantj.  Calyx 
dosed,  set  in  a  broad,  shallow  basin.  Flesh  firm,  juicy,  lidi, 
with  a  mild  Spitienbuigh  flavour.    Deoembei^  Februaiy. 


Origin  on  the  &rm  of  D.  C.  Richmond,  Sandusky,  Ohio. 
Tfee  upright,  vigorous  and  productive.  Fruit  medium,  round- 
ish, ovaL  Skin  yellowish,  striped  and  shaded  with  light  red, 
and  sprinkled  with  greenish  dots.  Stem  short  and  small,  in- 
serted in  an  acute  cavity  surrounded  by  russet.  Calyx  closed, 
set  in  a  deep,  abrupt  basin.  Flesh  whitish,  very  tender,  juicy, 
sweet  and  excellent    November  to  February. 

RxD  Catbxad. 

Tree  yigoronsand  productive,  extensively  grown  in  the  eastern 
and  southwestern  counties  of  Yiiginia.  Fruit  large,  roundiih, 
conic,  angular.  Skin  yellow,  partially  shaded  with  dull  red  and 
sometimes  deeper  red  in  the  shade,  and  thickly  sprinkled  with 
whitish  dots.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavitr.  Calyx 
partially  open,  set  in  a  large  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  tender, 
luicy,  with  a  veiy  brisk,  pleasant  flavour.    October,  November. 

RxnnBTTX,  Goldxh.    Thomp.  Ron.  Lind. 


Kirk's  Golden  BainetfeB. 

YeUow  GermaB  Bflinette. 

Beinette  d'Aix. 


Snglish  Pippin. 


Gcyurt-pendn  Dor6. 


Wyicer  Pippin. 





ICegginch  Ikvotirite. 

The  Golden  Reinette  is  a  very  popular  dessert  fruit  in  Eng- 
land and  on  the  continent,  combining  beauty  and  high  flavour. 

Fruit  below  medium  size,  very  regularly  formed,  roundish,  a 
little  flattened.  Skin  smooth,  golden  yellow,  washed  and  striped 
with  fine  soft  red  on  the  sunny  side,  mingled  with  scattered, 
russet  dots.  Flesh  yellow,  crisp,  with  a  rich,  sugary,  or  scarcely 
acid  juice.    October  to  Januaiy. 

184  THS  APPLX. 

This  k  different  and  tuperior  to  Ae  ReinetU  Dorei,  or  Jaum 
Hdtive  of  he  French,  which  is  more  yellow^  and  aomewhal 
resembles  it 

KxpuauoAN  Pippiir. 

Origin,  Lycoming  Co.,  Pa.  First  disooT^^  by  GeoigeWebh, 
who  gave  it  the  name.  Tree  of  strong,  bat  crooked  growth, 
only  moderately  prodactive;  Fruit  large,  irregularly  oblate. 
Skin  dull  yellow,  mostly  shaded  with  red,  somewhat  striped  and 
marbled,  and  tiunly  spnnkled  with  laige  grey  dots.  Stalk  long, 
slender,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity,  surrounded  with  thin  russet 
Cal^  small,  closed ;  basm  rather  narrow  and  abrupt  Flesh 
whitish,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant,  mild,  sub-acid  flavour.  It 
is  said  to  be  anrarpassed  for  cooking  and  drymg,  September, 

BiB0TON  PippiK.    Thomp.  Land.  Son. 

Formosa  Pippin. 
BockhiU's  Buaset 

The  Ribston  Pippin,  a  Yorkshire  applet  atends  aa  high  in 
Great  Britain  aa  the  Bank  of  Enffland,  and  to  sa^  that  an  apple 
has  a  Ribston  flavour  is,  there,  Sie  highest  praise  that  can  be 
bestowed.  But  it  is  scarcel;^  so  much  esteemed  here,  and  must 
be  content  to  give  place,  with  us,  to  the  Newtown  Pippin,  the 
Swaar,  the  Spitzenburgh,  or  the  Baldwin.  In  Maine,  and  parts 
of  Canisda,  it  is  very  fine  and  productive. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  roundish.  Skin  greenish  yellow,  mix- 
ed with  a  little  russet  near  the  stalk,  and  clouded  with  dull  red 
on  the  sunny  side.  Stalk  short,  slender,  plashed  in  a  rather 
wide  cavity.  Calyx  small,  closed,  and  set  m  an  angular  basin. 
Flesh  deep  yellow,  firm,  crisp,  with  a  sharp,  rich,  aromatic  fla- 
vour.   The  tree  forms  a  spreading  top.    November  to  ApriL 


Ori^n,  fiurm  of  Ebenezer  Richardson,  Mass.  Fruit  huge, 
roundish,  conic,  mostly  covered  with  red,  bright  in  the  sun,  with 
numerous  large,  light  specks.  Stem  rather  stout,  in  a  laige 
cavity.  Calyx  lai^  open,'  in  a  deep  narrow  basin.  Flew 
greenish  white,  remarkably  tender,  juicy,  with  a  flna^  rich,  almost 
saccharine  flavour.    Last  of  August,  and  September.    (Cde.) 

Rmos  Pippiir. 

Fruit  rather  large,  roundish,  conical,  very  much  ribbed.  Skin 
yellow,  very  slighUy  shaded,  sprinkled  with  m»sct  ami  crimson 

THX   APPLK.  185 

dots.  Sulk  rather  shorti  iiuMrted  general] j  in  a  luge  caiity. 
Caljz  closed,  set  in  an  abnipt  nneyen  basin,  ileah  yellowish, 
Jmcy,  crisa  with  a  mild,  almost  saccharine,  alif^tly  aromatic 
flaTonr.    March,  April 


From  Kmon  8.  Biest,  Lancaster,  Pa.  Site  laige,  ronndish, 
ribbed  at  apex.  Skin  fiur  jellow.  Stem  of  medimn  length,  in 
a  narrow,  moderately  deep  carity,  with  some  stellate  rosset  rays. 
Calyx  small,  closed,  set  m  a  narrow,  contracted,  ribbed  basm. 
Fle&  fine,  fiavonr  pleasant^  very  good.  August  (W.  D. 


Origin,  Mass.  Tree  of  slow  growth,  but  prodiiotif«.  Fndt 
medium  to  large,  oblong,  oval,  sliditjy  conic,  ribbed.  Skin 
yellow,  striped  and  shad^  with  dan:  red,  with  a  slight  bloom. 
Stalk  medinm,  deeply  {Wanted*  C$1jt  snoall,  dos^  set  in  a 
basin  of  moderate  aepth.  Flesh  coarse,  juicy,  tender,  pleasant, 
sub-acid.    August,  September. 


Introduced  to  notice  by  James  McLean  of  Boadstown,  New 
Jersey,  and  originated  in  tiiat  town.  A  strong,  erect  grower, 
and  makes  a  la^  tree ;  a  ^ood  bearer,  and  a  profitable  market 
fruity  laige  and  uniformly  £ur,  excellent  for  cooking  and  dryinsr 
Size  large,  oblate,  oblique.  Stem  very  shorti  stou^  in  a  broac^ 
deep  cavity.  Calyx  small,  and  dosed,  in  a  deep  basin.  Skin 
greenish  yellow,  sparsely  ^rinkled  with  green  dots.  Flesh 
wbite,  tender,  spripitly,  subacid.  Middle  of  April  to  the  mid- 
die  of  September. 

Bout's  Sksduito. 

Rttsed  by  H.  B.  Bobey,  Fredericksbui|g^,  Ya.  Tree  very 
vigorous  and  productive. 

Fruit  large,  round,  tapering  to  the  eye,  colour  lively  red, 
fiEkindy  striped,  on  a  scarcely  perceptible  yellow  ground  uiickly 
covered  wi&  creamy  spots.  Fledb  ydlow,  with  a  very  juicy, 
rich,  high  flavour.    November,  December.    (H.  B.  Bob^ey  ) 

Bobsbson'b  Whiti. 

OrigiB  mid  to  be  Oilpem>er  Co.,  Ya^  where  H  is  popular. 
Tree  upr%fa1^  of  rapid  growth,  and  bean  regular  crops. 

Fruit  medium,  oblong,  flattened  lU;  both  ends,  surface  uneven, 
colour  gf«en,  with  many  dark  dots,  flesh  yellowish,  fine 
grained,  crisp,  juicy,  aromatic,  sub-acid.  October  to  December. 
(II.  R.  Robey.) 

186  TBB  APPLB. 


Origin,  Maioachafietto.    Tree  a  strong  grower  and  productiye. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  obliquely  depressed.  Skin  greenish, 
becoming  waxen  yellow,  with  a  dull  red  cheek.  Stem  £ort  and 
thick,  inserted  in  a  cavity  somewhat  ribbed,  surrounded  by  rus- 
set Calyx  large,  nearly  closed,  set  in  a  broad,  open  basm. 
Flesh  whitish,  ^uicy,  with  a  brisk,  sweety  aromatic  flayour, 
January  to  ApnL 

Rock  Appls. 

Origin,  Peterborough,  New  Hampshire,  recommended  by 
Robert  Wilson,  of  Eeene,  as  an  excellent  fruit  Tree  yigorons, 
with  long,  slander  branches,  very  productive. 

FVuit  lar|^  roundish,  slightly  flattened.  Skin  striped  and 
flashed  with  dark  and  bright  red  on  a  yeUowish  ground, 
^eah  white,  tender,  jui<^,  flavour  sub-add,  and  very  good, 
September,  October. 

Rock  Swmt. 

Origin,  &rm  of  Elihu  Pearson,  Newbury,  Mass.  Tree  hardy, 
vifforoos,  and  a  constant  bearer. 

Fruit  medium  or  below,  roundish,  oblate,  sliffhtly  conic 
Skin  reddish,  shaded,  striped  and  splashed  with  da^er  red,  and 
sprinkled  with  lar^  whitish  dots.  Stalk  short,  set  in  a  broad, 
deep,  russeted  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  basin  shallow,  corrugated* 
Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  sweet  and  pleasant    September. 


Origin,  Franklin  Co.,  North  Carolina.  Tree  of  moderate 
growth,  bears  abundantly. 

Fndt  of  medial  size,  oblate.  Skin  dull  red,  stalk  very  long, 
cavity  wide  and  deep,  basin  shallow.  Flesh  compact,  fine 
grained,  sub-acid,  ridi  and  delicious.  Qptober  to  January.  (G. 
W.  Johnson,  MS.) 

Rolla  of  Illinois  may  be  the  same. 

Rum  Apple. 

Origin,  Pawlet^  Yt,  on  the  &rm  ot  Brownley  Bom.  Tree 
upright,  vigorous,  an  early  and  profuse  bearer. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate.  Skin  yellow,  slightly  shaded  with 
crimson.  Stalk  short,  cavity  moderate.  Calyx  partiaUy  closed, 
basin  broad  and  shallow.  Flesh  whitish,  juicy,  tender,  spri^tly* 
inb-acid.    November  to  March. 

THS  APPLB.  187 

RusssT,  Bhoubh. 

Hie  Bnglish  Baaset  i*  s  yaioable^  Ions  keeping  ▼miietj,  ex* 
tennvely  cultivated,  and  well  known  by  tnis  name  on  the  Hnd- 
Bon,  but  whidi  we  h«ve  not  been  able  to  identify  with  any  Eng^ 
liah  aoii.  It  is  not  fit  for  nae  nntil  Febmaiy,  and  may  be  kept 
taXL  Mjf  which,  together  with  ite  great  prodootiTeneaa  and  good 
flavour,  renders  it  a  very  valuable  mancet  fruit.  It  is  acknow- 
ledged one  of  the  most  profitable  orchard  apples. 

Fruit  of  medium  siie,  ovate,  or  8(»netimes  conical,  and  venr 
regularly  formed.  Skin  pale  greenish  yellow,  about  two-thirds 
covered  with  russet,  which  is  thickest  near  the  stalk.  Calyx 
small,  closed,  and  set  in  an  even,  round  basin,  of  moderate 
depth.  Stalk  rather  small,  projecting  even  with  the  base,  and 
pretty  deeply  inserted,  in  a  narrow,  smooth  cavitv.  Flesh  yel- 
lowish-white, firm,  crisp,  with  a  pleasant^  mild,  slightly  sub-acid 

The  trees  grow  veiy  straight,  and  form  upright  headS|  and 
the  wood  is  smooth  and  of  a  uvely  brown. 


An  old  variety,  good  bearer. 

Fhut  fiur,  medium  size,  roundish,  conic  Skin  green  russet^ 
with  fiunt  red  stripes  and  a  sunny  cheek.  Flesh  luicy,  tender, 
with  a  fine,  rich,  sub-acid,  or  almost  saccharine  flavour.  Do* 
cember  to  Mardu 

Saillt  Autumn. 

Origin,  Plattabuigh,  N.  T.,  on  the  fiurm  of  J.  H.  Sanborn. 
Tree  upright,  vigorous  and  productive. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  conic.  Skin  sreenish  yellow,  tiie 
exposed  side  frequently  deep  red.  StiSk  short,  in  a  me- 
dium cavity.  Calvx  small,  closed,  basin  small,  narrow.  Flesh 
very  tender,  rich,  high  flavour,  with  a  peculiar  aroma.  Septem- 
ber.   (J.  W.  Bailey,  MS.) 

SoABUBT  PxABMAiN.    Thomp.  Lind. 

Bell's  SoBilet  Pettrmsin.    BtmaUa. 
Oxfi)rd  Peaoh  o/mme  EngHtk  gardem, 

A  showy  dessert  apple,  of  English  origin. 

Fruit  medium  sizea,  pearmain  or  conical  sKapecC  Skin  light 
crimson,  or  yellow,  in  the  shade,  rich  crimson  on  the  sunny 
side  Stalk  nearly  an  inch  long,  deeply  set  Fleah  white, 
stained  with  a  tinge  of  pink,  crisp,  jnicy,  and  of  good  flavour. 
In  eiUing  from  the  List  of  August  to  the  tenth  of  October.  A 

188  THE   APPI.X. 


Beerer's  Bod  Stiwax. 

Ftom  Coshocton  Co,  Ohio.  Fruit  mediain,  globokr,  knaon 
ydlow,  striped  with  bright  clear  red.  Stem  ahorti  ileBder 
Calyx  with  long  segments;  hasin  deep,  open«  Flesh  joUowiahi 
juicy,  sub-acid.    October,  Norember.    (Elliott) 


Pride  of  September. 

Ori^n,  Canton  Co.,  Pa.,  from  W.  Q.  Waring.  Tree  hardy 
and  Yifforoua,  a  good  and  regular  bearer.  Fruit  lai^  globular, 
somewhat  depressed,  very  slightly  conic,  angular.  Sldn  yellow, 
slightly  shaded,  and  thinly  sprinkled  with  brown  dots.  Stalk 
short,  inserted  in  a  deep,  abrupt  cavity,  surrounded  by  thin  rus- 
set Citlyx  partially  closed,  set  m  an  open  basin.  Flesh  yellowish, 
tender,  juicy,  with  a  very  agreeable  sub-acid  flavour.    October. 

Shxppabd's  Swxxt. 

Origin,  Windham  Co.,  Conn.  Tree  thrifty,  upright,  and  a 
great  b^irer.  Fruit  medium,  angular,  oblong,  approaching 
conic  Skin  yellow,  striped  with  red.  Stalk  long,  slender,  in- 
serted in  an  acute  cavity.  Calyx  firmly  closed,  set  in  a  small 
basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  sweet,  and  pleasant  October, 


Origin,  Jackson  Co.,  Oeorffia.  Tree  vigorous,  very  produc- 
tive, valuable  for  its  late  keeping. 

Fruit  medium  or  below,  conic,  truncate.  Skin  waxen,  whitish 
yellow,  chiefly  overspread  with  red,  and  thickly  ^rinlded  with 
light  gray  dots.  Stem  long,  slender,  inserted  in  a  deep  acute 
cavity.  Calyx  partially  closed,  set  in  a  shallow  corrugated 
basin.  Flesh  crisp,  juicy,  rich,  saccharine^  slightly  vinous,  and 
pleasant    April,  May. 


A  native  of  Long  Island,  named  by  the  late  Wm.  Prince. 
Fruit  roundish-ovate,  about  medium  size.  Skin  smooth,  pale 
greenish  yellow.  Stalk  slender.  Flesh  white,  very  tender,  juicy, 
and  of  a  delicate  and  very  sprightly  flavour.  The  young  trees 
are  rather  slow  and  crooked  in  growth.    August 

THS   APFLM*  18€ 

Slinosrlavd  Pippin. 

Raised  hj  Mr.  Slingerland  of  Albany  Co^  New  York.  Intio* 
duced  by  Pix>£  James  Hall.  Fnut  medinm  to  lam,  oblate, 
angoiar,  meKning to copio or distincUy conic  SkinTellow,  shad- 
ed with  red  and  sprinkled  with  minute  dots.  StaJk  short  and 
stout,  inserted  m  a  broad  deep  cavity,  sonoonded  with  very  Uiin 
rosset.  Calyx  small,  partially  dosed,  set  in  a  fine  angled  basin 
of  rariable  siie.  Flew  white,  tender,  jmcy,  with  a  very  brisk 
mther  rich,  snb-acid  flaroar.    Decemb^,  February. 



From  Eensinffton,  Conn.,  where  it  was  much  esteemed. 
Medium  size,  oblate,  conic  Skin  yellow,  with  a  sliffht  blush. 
Stalk  short  and  large,  cavity  russeted.  Calyx  closed ;  basin  nne ven, 
shallow.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  brisk,  widi  a  pleasant  aromatic 
flavour.    September,  October. 

Smith's  Croaiu 

Origin,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.  Extensively  grown  in  Pennsylvania 
and  western  states.  Tree  vigorous  and  very  productive  Fruit 
medium,  oblong  oval,  obliqneTv  flattened.  Colour  grreenish  white, 
shaded,  and  striped  with  reo,  sparsely  covered  with  grey  dots. 
Stalk  slender,  of  medium  length,  inserted  in  a  deep,  rather  nar- 
row cavity.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  a  broad  rather  snallow  baun. 
Flesh  whitish,  tender,  juicy,  crisp,  with  pleasant,  mild,  sub-acid 
flavour.    December,  March, 

Sops  of  Wife. 

Worden's  Pie  Apple. 



An  old  European  variety.  Tree  vigorous  and  productive 
Fruit  medinm,  roundish  ovate,  fair.  Skin  yellow  and  red, 
splashed  and  shaded  with  deep  red,  and  sprinkled  with  white 
and  grey  dot&,  and  a  thin  bloom.  Stem  of  meoium  length,  slender, 
inserted  in  a  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  closed ;  basin  rather  shallow, 
uneven.  Flesh  white,  often  stamed,  not  very  juicy,  with  a  mild, 
pleasant,  sub-acid  flavour.    August,  September. 


Fruit  oblate,  much  depressed.  Skin  green.  Stalk  very  short, 
inserted  in  a  large  cavity,  surrounded  by  russet  Calyx  par* 
tially  closed,  segments  irecurved  in  a  ratl^er  large,  deep  cavity 

190  THE   APPLE. 

Flesh  yellowish,  joicy,  with  a  Teiy  rich,  vinooB,  pleasant  aroma 
tic  flavour.    November,  March. 

Spitzsnburoh,  Flusoiko. 

This  variety  has  been  confonndod  by  Coxe^  and  more  reoen^iy 
by  Thompson,  with  the  Bsopns  Spitzenbnrgh,  but  is  really  qnite 
distinct  The  tree  makes  strong,  brown  shoots,  different  nom 
the  slender  yellowish  ones  of  that  sort 

The  fruit  is  roundish-conical,  stalk  set  in  a  narrow  cavity, 
projecting  beyond  the  fruit  81dn  nearly  covered  with  red,  on 
a  greeniw  yellow  OTound,  dotted  with  large  fiiwn  spots,  and 
coated  with  a  sli^t  bloom.  Calyx  small,  in  an  even  basin. 
Flesh  white,  juicy,  crisp,  nearly  sweet,  and  of  pleasant  flavour, 
but  without  the  brisk  richness,  or  yellow  colour  of  the  Esopus 
Spitzenburgh.    October  to  February. 



Origin,  Sutton,  Mass.  Tree  upright,  thrifty,  and  very  pro- 
ductive. Fruit  medium  or  above,  roundish,  somewhat  angnlar, 
conic  Skin  waxen  yellow,  shaded,  mottled  and  obscurely  strip- 
ed with  fine  crimson,  and  thinly  sprinkled  with  whitiw  dots. 
Stem  rather  short,  inserted  in  a  medium  cavity,  slightly  sur- 
rounded by  greenish  russet  Calyx  partially  closed,  set  in  a 
moderate,  uneven  basin.  Flesh  whitish,  crisp,  tender,  juicy,  with 
a  sprightly,  sub-acid  flavour.     November,  February. 

Sweeting,  Hartford. 

Spencer  Sweeting. 
Keney's  Sweet 

Origin,  farm  of  Mr.  Spencer,  near  Hartford,  and  introduced 
by  Dr.  R  W.  Bull.  Tree  moderately  vigorous,  hardy  and  pro- 

Fruit  rather  large,  roundish,  slightly  flattened.  Skin  smooth 
and  fair,  almost  covered  and  striped  with  fine  red  over  a  yellow- 
ish green  ground, — and  sprinkled  with  small  grey  dots.  Stalk 
nearly  three  quarters  of  an  inch  long,  slender,  inserted  in  a 
rather  shallow,  round  cavity.  Calyx  broad,  closed,  with  few 
segments,  set  in  a  slightly  uneven  basin  which  is  but  Jittle  sunk. 
Flesh  veiy  juicy,  tender,  with  a  rich,  agreeable  flavour.  De- 
cember to  May  or  June. 

Sweeting,  Hamsuell's. 

Bamsdell's  Red  Pumpkin  Sweet    Ken,      Rnmsdell's  Sweet 
Bed  Pumpkin  Sweet  English  Sweet 

Ramsdell's  Sweeting  we  have  lately  received  from  Connec 

THB  AFPLB.  101 

tieot^  where  it  is  greatly  esteemed  for  the  very  large  crops  it 
bearsi  as  well  as  n>r  its  remarkably  rich  saccharine  flavour. 
We  believe  it  is  a  natiye  of  Comiecticat ;  and  it  derives  its  name 
from  the  Rev.  £L  S.  Ratnsdell,  of  Thompson,  in  that  state,  who 
has  intfodnced  it  to  paUio  attention.  The  tree  is  very  vigorons, 
^wa  ranarkably  straight  and  npridit^  oomes  eariy  into  bear- 
mgf  and  yields  every  year  enormonsly. 

Fruit  rather  above  medium  size,  oblong,  regolarly  shaped, 
and  tiering  sli^^tiy  towards  the  eye.  Skin  rich,  dark  red, 
dotted  with  fiiwn-ooloixrsd  qiecksi  and  covered  with  a  Uae 
bk)om.  Stalk  quite  short,  deeply  sunk  in  a  rather  narrow  ca- 
vity. Oalyx  set  in  a  pretty  deep  even  basin.  Flesh  yellowish, 
very  tender  and  meUow,  unusually  sweet  and  rich*  In  we%ht 
the  aj^le  is  light  October  to  Febniary.  We  have  not  been 
able  to  distin^iish  this  from  English  Sweet 

Swumro,  Toi.icAir'a. 

The  Tohnan's  Sweeting  is  scarcely  second-rate  as  a  table 
fruit,  but  it  is  one  of  the  most  popular  orchard  sorts,  from  its 
great  productiveness,  its  value  as  food  for  swine  and  cattle,  as 
well  as  for  baking.  Form  nearly  fflobular.  Skin,  when  Ailly 
ripe,  whitish  yellow,  with  a  soft  blush  on  one  side.  Stalk  rather 
long  and  slender,  inclining  to  one  aide,  and  inserted  in  a  rather 
wide,  shallow,  but  regular  cavity.  Calyx  set  in  a  small  basin, 
al^htly  dejpressed.  Flesh  quite  white,  rather  firm,  fine  grained, 
with  a  rich,  sweet  flavour.  November  to  ApriL  A  native  of 
Rhode  Island.    Much  valued  at  the  West 

SwsBTiNO,  Wills'. 

Wells'  Sweeting  is  one  of  the  most  sprightly  and  agreeable 
for  the  dessert,  of  all  the  early  winter  sweet  apples.  The  only 
old  tree  in  our  knowledge^^ows  in  the  orchard  of  Mr.  John 
Wells,  near  Newburgh,  N.  i.  We  have  not  been  able  to  trace 
it  &rther  than  this  neighbourhood,  though  it  may  not  have 
originated  here.  It  makes  stout,  stifi^  upright  shoots,  and  bears 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  roundish,  broadest  in  the  middle,  ana 
lessening  each  way.  Skin  smooth,  pale,  dull  green,  (like  a 
Rhode  Island  Greening  in  colour,  but  paler,)  with  a  dull  red  or 
brownish  cheek.  Stalk  rather  slender  and  short.  Calyx  short, 
set  in  quite  a  shallow  basin.  Flesh  very  white,  and  very  ten- 
der, abounding  with  a  rich,  agreeable,  sprightly  juice.  Novem- 
ber to  January. 

Sweet  Kambo. 
Origin,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  habit  of  the  tree  like  Rambo.    Sped 

192  THK   APPLB. 

mens  received  from  Daniel  B.  Lorsh,  near  Reading,  Pa. ;  a  good 
and  regular  bearer. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  nearly  globular.  Skin  yellow,  moetlj 
shaded  with  red,  and  thickly  covered  with  large  grey  doti,  a 
little  elevated  above  the  snrkce.  Stalk  akoft  and  eleiider,  in- 
serted in  a  deep  cavity,  smroanded  hj  rmeet  Calyx  ckMed,eet 
in  a  deep  open  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  juicy,  almost  melting, 
with  a  rich,  sugary,  slightly  aromatic  flavour,  core  small  and 
close.    October  to  December. 

Sweet  Nonsuch  of  the  West  may  prove  the  same. 

SwM»  Fall  Pippnr. 

Grown  in  Westchester  Oo^  N.  T.  Tree  vigorous,  produo* 

Fruit  large,  oblate.  Skin  greenish  yellow,  slightly  ^rinkled 
with  brown  dots.  Stalk  short,  in  a  large  cavi^.  Calyx 
dosed,  in  a  very  shallow  basin.  Flesh  juicy,  sweet,  and  rich. 
October,  November. 


From  Pennsylvania.  Tree  of  moderate,  upright  growth,  pro- 

Fhiit  medium,  oblate,  slightly  approaching  conic  Colour  red, 
splashed  with  deep  crimson.  Stallc  long  and  slender,  inserted 
in  a  deep  cavity,  surrounded  with  russet  Calyx  hum,  open,  set 
in  a  rather  deep,  open  basin,  ^esh  tender,  juicy,  fumost  melt- 
ing, with  a  very  sweet,  rich,  peculiar  flavour.  November,  De- 


Origin  unknown;  received  spechnens  from  Henry  Avery, 
Burlington,  Iowa. 

Fruit  medium,  somewhat  globular,  obliquely  depressed.  Skin 
greenish,  becoming  yellow  at  maturity,  largely  shaded  with  dull 
red,  and  thicklv  sprinkled  with  ffreenish  or  grey  dots.  Stalk 
short  and  slender,  inserted  in  a  uiaUow  cavity,  surrounded  by 
thin  green  russet  Calyx  laige,  open,  set  in  a  broad  uneven 
basin.  Flesh  yellow,  compact,  juicy,  tender,  with  a  rich  saccha- 
rine flavour.    November  to  March. 

There  is  also  another  Sweet  Ronmnite,  srown  at  the  Westi 
but,  not  having  seen  it,  cannot  say  what  is  &e  distinction, 

SwsBT  Vandxrvxrb. 

Sweet  Bedstreak.      Sweet  Harvey. 

Origin  unknown.  Tree  of  crooked  growth,  a  profuse  bearer^ 
specimens  from  Arthur  Bryant,  Princeton,  Illinois. 

TIUB  AFPLS.  103 

Vnut  ledkini  nxe^  oblongs  sl^Uy  oonic,  iAmoat^y  wmlutf 
BometimM  nearly  ojlindrio.  Skin  greeniah  yolJow,  ahadea  and 
stariped  with  doll  red.  Stalk  shorty  rather  slender,  inaerted  in  a 
large,  irregolar  cavity.  Gal^  putially  cloMd,  set  in  a  broad, 
open  basin.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  almost  melting,  with  an  exceed 
ingly  saoehanae^  arooMtio  iavour.    November,  March. 

Grown  on  llie  premises  of  Mr.  Strandt,  Berks  Co^  Pa.  Sixe 
large,  roundish,  inclining  to  conical.  Skin  deep  crimson,  with 
stripes  of  paler  red,  and  numerous  light  doti.  Stem  short,  in  a 
wide,  deep^  russeted  cavity.  Calyx  small,  closed,  set  in  a  narrow, 
shallow,  rarrowed  basin,  flesh  fine  grnned,  tender,  white.  Fla- 
vour sub-acid  and  pleasant  yery^K>d.  November.  (W.D. 


Origin,  Berks  Go^  on  the  fiinn  of  Francis  Stchly.  Tree  vigo- 

Fruit  laive,  oblate,  conic,  angular.  Skin  yellow,  striped  and 
shaded  with  red,  and  covered  with  large  brown  dots.  Stem 
very  short,  iimited  in  a  deep  cavity.  Cuyx  partially  closed,  set 
in  a  aaall,  nneven  basin.  Flesh  whitish,  jmcy,  tender,  pleasant^ 
mild,  snb-acid.    January  to  April. 

Stilluan's  Early. 

Oriffin,  Clinton,  Oneida  Co,  N.  Y.  Tree  of  moderate  upright 
growth,  productive. 

Fruit  small,  roundish,  conic  Skin  vellow,  sometimes  a  slight 
Unsh,  and  a  few  brown  dotk  Stalk  k>ng,  stout,  cavity  shallow. 
Calyx  closed,  basin  very  shallow,  plaited.  Flesh  yellow,  tender,, 
pleasant,  subacid.    Last  of  July,  and  first  of  August. 

St.  Lawusnok. 

Ori^n  uncertain.    Tree  vigorous,  upright,  productive. 

Frmt  large,  oblate,  tc^ering  towards  the  eye.  Skin  yellowish, 
atriped  ana  splashed  with  carmine.  Stem  of  medium  length, 
inserted  in  a  larffe  cavity.  Calyx  irmly  closed ;  basin  small  and 
deej^  Flesh  white,  lightly  stained,  enq^  joiey,  tandar,  and 
vinooSi    Septembei^  OOober. 

Stbobk's  Birmingham. 


Ori^n,  Penn.    A  vigorous,  upright  grower,  productiva 
Fruit  rather  below  medium,  oblong,  oval,  or  conic    Skin  oily, 
yellow,  sprinkled  with  a  few  grey  dots.    Stalk  slender,  set  in  a 


194  THX   APPLX. 

deep  narrow  cavity  ;  basin  broad,  shallow,  corragated.    Flesh 
yellow,  moderately  juicy,  with  a  sharp  flavour.    September. 

SruBMXR  Pippnr, 

An  English  froit  Below  mediom,  oUate,  approaching  conic 
Skin  yellow,  with  a  bronzed  or  crimson  cheek.  Stalk  of  me- 
dinm  length,  inserted  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  dosed,  s^rments 
long  ;  basin  shallow  and  nneven.  flesh  compact^  with  a  high 
sub-acid  flavour.    January,  May. 

Sugar  Loap  Pipput.    Thomp.  lind.  P.  Mag. 
Hofediing's  Seedttng. 

A  foreign  sort    Tree  of  ffood  growth  and  productive. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  oblong  or  conical,  smooth,  dear  pale 
yellow,  becoming  nearly  white  on  one  side  when  fully  ripe, 
flesh  white,  firm,  very  slightly  acid,  and  moderately  juicy. 
Ripens  the  latter  part  of  July,  and  is  very  showy  on  the  tree. 

Sugar  Swxn. 

From  MaflMbchusettB ;  larve,  conic,  with  many  pronunent  an- 
gles, mdn  yellow,  mostly  diaded  with  red,  and  a  dark  maroon 
cheek.  Flesh  white,  fine  mined,  not  very  tender,  but  with  a 
rich,  honeyed  sweetness.    December  to  February. 

SuMMSR  Haolor. 

Tne  vigorous,  but  dow  in  its  growth  while  young,  thidc 
blunt  dioc^B,  productive. 

Fruit  large,  roundish,  oblate.  Skin  whitish  yellow,  striped 
and  spladi^  with  bright  red,  and  covered  with  a  thin  bloom. 
Stalk  short  and  thick,  mserted  in  a  broad,  onen  cavity.  Cdyz 
closed,  set  in  a  smdl,  round  badn.  Flesh  white,  rather  coarse, 
tender,  juicy,  sub-acid.  An  excellent  culinary  variety.  Au- 

Sumin  QuExir.    Coxe. 

Shaipe's  Isiiy. 

A  potmlar  raidsmnmer  apple  for  the  dessert  and  kitchen.  Tht 
fruit  IS  larj^e  and  broad  at  tne  crown,  ti^)ering  towards  the  eye. 
The  stalk  is  rather  long,  and  is  planted  m  a  pretty  deep  cavity, 
sometimes  partially  doaed.  Calyx  but  little  sunk,  in  a  narrow 
plaited  badn.  Skin  flne  deep  yellow  in  its  ground,  though  well 
striped  and  douded  with  red.  Flesh  aromatic,  yellow,  rich,  and 
of  good  flavour.  This  variety  forms  a  lai^  tree  with  somewhat 
pendant  boughs,  and  the  fruit  is  in  perfection  by  the  tenth  of 




A  PeniwylTania  firuiti  §ent  to  ub  by  J.  B.  Garber,  Eaq^  a 
lealouB  fruit-grower  of  Colmnbiay  in  that  State,  It  is  a  liuge, 
£ur,  8weet  apple,  and  is  oertainly  one  of  the  ftnest  of  its  class 
lor  the  dessert    The  tree  is  an  abundant  bearer. 

Fniit  quite  laige,  round  and  n^ular  in  its  form,  a  little  j9at- 
tened  at  both  ends.  Bkin  rather  thick,  pale  green,  sometimes 
faintly  tinged  with  yellow  in  the  sun,  and  very  distinctly  marked 
with  nnmerous,  hwe,  dark  ffrey  dots.  Stalk  strongs  and  set  in 
an  even,  moderately  deep  hollow.  Flesh  tender,  onspv  very 
juicy,  with  a  sweety  rich^  aromatic  flayour.  Rape  in  August 
and  September. 

nhifTMiMT  Jyppin» 


floor  BoQgh.    TwtBoagli. 

Origin  unknown ;  an  old  fhiit^  much  cultivated  in  Rockland 
and  Westchester  counties,  N.  Y.,  a  valuable  market  fhiit  Tree 
TigoTousy  forming  a  beautiful  head,  a  regalar  and  good  bearer. 

Fruit  medium  to  large,  variable  in  form,  generally  oblong  oval 
or  inclining  to  conic,  angular  and  irregular.    Skin  pale  waxen 

196  THX  APPLB. 

yellow,  ahaded  wHJi  a  delicate  crimson  blnali,  and  sprinkled 
iriih  ^(reen  and  greywh  dots.  Stalk  varies  in  len&rth  and  thick- 
ness,  inserted  in  a  deep  abrapt  cavity.  Calyx  dosed,  set  in  a 
deep,  abrapt,  corragated  basin.  Flesh  white,  tender,  moderately 
juicy,  with  a  pleasant,  refreshinff,  sub-acid  flavour,  valuable  for 
culinary  uses.  Ripens  the  midfie  of  August,  and  contmnes  a 
month  or  more. 

Summer  Bellflowib. 

Origin,  tan  of  J.  R.  CMDstod^  Dnteheas  Co.,  N,  T.  IW 
vigoroos,  upright,  produotive. 

EMt  mediam  or  above,  oval,  inclining  to  conic.  Skin 
smooth,  clear  yellow,  with  rarely  a  fiunt  oran^  blush  on  the 
side  of  the  sun.  Stalk  an  inch  long,  stout  at  its  insertion  in  a 
shallow  cavily.  Calyx  closed,  with  small  reflexed  segments,  set 
in  a  smooth,  but  aughtly  Avoided  bam.    Flesh  white,  fine 

r*ned,  tender,  with  an  excellent  rich,  sub-acid  flavour.    Mid- 
of  August  to  middle  of  September.    (Hort) 

Summer  Bellflower  or  Pennstlvakia, 

Wnk  0.  Waring,  of  Boalsbuig,  Pa.,  informs  us,  is  quite  dis- 
tinct from  the  above,  and  very  much  resembles  Yellow  Bell- 
flower  in  shape  and  colour,  but  has  a  very  wide  and  deep 
carity,  and  closed  calyx.  Flesh  yellowish  white,  firm  and  fine 
texture,  not  very  juicy,  with  a  brisk,  agreeable,  veiy  pleasant 
flavour,  and  decidedly  the  best  of  its  season.  Last  of  August 
and  first  of  September.     ( W.  G.  Waring.) 

Superb  Sweet. 

Raised  by  Jacob  Deane,  Mansfield,  Mass.  Tree  vigorousi  pro- 

Fruit  rather  large,  roundish,  pale  yellow,  much  red  in  the 
sun.  Stalk  long,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity.  Calyx  lar^  open, 
basin  broad.  Flesh  white,  very  tender,  iuicy,  sweet,  nch,  high 
flavoured.    September,  Oc^ber.    (Cole.) 


Origin,  Franklin  Co.,  North  Carolina.  Tree  tolerably  vigor- 
ous and  a  prodigious  bearer. 

Fruit  medium  or  above,  roundish,  oUate,  tegular.  Skin  green, 
rarely  with  a  blush.  Stalk  of  medium  length,  in  a  shallow 
cavity.  Calyx  large  and  open.  Flesh  yellow,  solid,  slightly 
coarse  grained,  rich,  and  particulariy  high  flavoured.  November 
to  March.  Tliis  variety  combines  as  many  valuable  pn)pGrtic8 
as  any  other.     (G.  W.  Johnson  MS.) 

TBI   APPUB.  107 

TiTOF8Kr.    Tfaonip. 

The  Teto&ky  is  a  Buasian  •ummer  apple^  which  piomiset 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  oblate  conic,  sometimes  nearlj  round. 
Skin  smooth,  with  a  yellow  giound  handaomelj  striped  with 
red,  and,  like  most  apples  of  that  country,  cohered  with  a  whitish 
Uoom,  vnder  which  is  a  shining  sUb.  The  flesh  is  white  and 
juicy,  with  a  spfightly  and  agNeaUa  flavow.  August  Sno- 
oeeda  at  the  Notih. 

Tbwksburt  Wimtir  Blusb.    Corns* 

Mr.  Goxe  says,  this  apple  was  brought  firom  Tewksbury,  Hun- 
terdon county,  N.  J.  It  is  a  handsome,  &ir  fruit,  with  more 
flavour  and  juiciness  than  is  usual  in  loufir-keeping  apples. 
Hiey  may  be  kept  till  Aufirast,  without  particular  care,  quite 
plump  and  sound.  The  size  is  small,  rather  flat  The  skin 
smooth,  yellow,  with  a  red  cheek.  Flesh  yellow,  with  more 
jnioe  mi  flaromr  tiiaa  ai^  other  kmg-keepiBg  dainty.  Ilie 
tree  grows  rapidly  and  slraiji^t— -aad  the  fruit  hangs  tiU  late  in 
the  antanm.    January  to  Jdy. 

Origin,  'nnmouth,  Yt  IVee  a  gbod  grower  and  produc- 

Fruit  above  medium,  oblate.  Skin  whitish  yellow,  considera- 
bly shaded  with  eannine,  and  sprinkled  with  a  few  brown  dots. 
Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity.  Calyx  partially  eloeed, 
set  in  a  rather  lar^  basin.  Flesh  whitish,  juicy,  tender, 
pleaaant,  mild,  sab-acid.    Nevember  to  Fel»uary. 


Oridnated  wfth  Jeremiah  Taylor,  Toccoa  FMs^  Habersham 
Co.,  (%OTgia. 

Fruit  rather  large,  conical,  irregular.  Skin  yellow,  striped 
with  red.  Stem  short,  in  an  irregular  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  in 
a  small,  irregular  basin.  Flesh  yellow,  with  a  brisk,  rich,  Spit- 
xenburg^  flavour,  moderately  juicy.  First  of  August  (White's 


Origb,  PennsyivaBia.  Tree  heaHhy  aad  TigoroiiB,  Tsiy  pro* 

FMt  nsednm,  oMaite,  slightly  eonie.  ffldn  pale  ydlow, 
striped  and  spbahad  with  red,  aiid  oomred  with  a  thin  bloom. 

108  THS  APPLX. 

Btalk  rather  loug,  slender,  inserted  in  a  medium  cavity.  Calyx 
closed,  set  in  a  ^in  of  moderate  d^th*  Flesh  white,  tender, 
very  mild,  agreeable»  sub-aeid  flavour.  Bipe  middle  of  August 
to  middle  of  September.  Hocking  of  -the  West  may  prove  to 
be  the  same. 

Tradxr's  Favot. 

Qwnated  in  the  nnrsenes  of  Solomon  Phillin,  Washiagtoa 
Co.,  riiu,  a  vigorous  grower,  a  good  and  regular  bearer,  and 
popular  where  known,  valued  as  a  late  keeper  and  market  fruit 
at  the  Southwest  Specimens  received  from  D.  H.  Wakefield, 
Brownsville,  Fayette  Co.,  Pa. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate,  roundish.  Skin  greenidi,  striped  and 
shaded  with  dull  red.  Stalk  slender,  jdanted  in  a  laree  cavity. 
Calyx  closed,  basin  broad  and  corrugated.  Fleah  tender,  juicy, 
with  a  mild,  sub-acid  flavour*    Januaiy  to  May. 

TaxNTOH  Eaxlt  f 

Fruit  above  medium,  irregolar,  ribbed,  coloor  yeHowish  with 
slight  undnlati<ms  over  the  sur&ce  which  are  green.  &Hdn 
smooth  and  oily,  cavity  wide,  basin  fiirrowed.  fledi  not  very 
fine  grained,  very  light  and  tender,  with  a  pleasant,  sub-acid 
flavour,  "<  very  good.^    August    (T.  McWhorter's  MS.) 

May  prove  to  be  Bnglish  Codlix. 

Tuir'a  Balpwut. 

Fruit  larger  oblate,  somewhat  angular.  Stdx  yeUowish,  much 
shaded  and  sometimes  striped  with  red.  Stalk  in  a  lam 
cavity.  Calyx  closed,  in  a  plaited  basm  of  moderate  depu. 
Flesh  crisp,  rather  juicy,  with  a  flavour  scaroely  sob-acid, 
and  slightly  aromatic    September,  October. 

TwxxTT  OuKOB.    H.  Mag. 

lCiorgBB*S  Eavoarits.  OolaiiMUL 

Twenty  Ounce  Apple.    )  of  Cbyu^  Gajoga  Bed  Stresk. 

Kifi^teenOoDoeApide.  f  OXfi^  r.  Lima. 


A  very  larse  and  showy  apple,  well  known  in  Cayuga  Co^ 
but  an  old  fruit  from  Connecticut  It  is  a  good,  ^rightly 
fruit,  though  not  very  high  flavoured,  but  its  remarbibly  hand- 
some appearance  and  large  sixe  render  it  one  of  the  most  popular 
fruits  m  market  The  tree  is  thrifty  and  makes  a  compact, 
neat  head,  bean  regular  crops,  and  llie  fruit  is  always  fidr  and 

Fruit  venr  Ixrge,  roundish.  Skin  slightly  uneven,  greenish- 
yellow,  boldly  splashed  and  marbled  with  stnpes  of  purplish-red* 

VBM   APPU*  1(M^ 

Sulk  dkorfti  set  in  a  wide  de^  cavitj.  Calyx  smaU,  basin 
modeiafcely  daepw  flesh  ooane-grained,  with  a  spn^htlj^  brisk 
Bob-acid  utvoor*  Oetober  to  Janoary.  Thia  is  qoite  distinct 
trom  the  Twuitt  ouvon  fipput,  a  lai^  smooth,  anll-coloored 
cooking  iqpple, 

TwiTOHnLL*a  Swur. 

Origin,  Dublin,  New  Hampshire ;  a  yigoroos  grower  and 
veiy  proidnctiye.  Specimens  received  frtmi  Robert  Wilson, 
Keene,  N«  H. 

Frnit  mediom,  conic,  ananlar.  Skin  red,  shaded  with  purple 
and  partially  sprmkled  wiSi  small  grey  dots.  Stalk  long  and 
slender,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity.  Gsiyx  small  and  closed,  set 
in  an  abmpl,  pbited  baam.  Flesh  veiy  white,  veined  with  red 
nnder  the  skin  and  sometimes  at  the  eor%  tender,  very  sweet 
and  plossant.    November,  December. 


White  ysnderere.  YandeyereorPft. 

Qvesn  Yaiideven^  little  TaikbTcn  of  LmUsbs. 

The  Yandevere  is  an  old  frait,  a  native  of  Wilmington,  Del., 
and  took  its  name  from  a  &mi^  there,  and  when  growing  on 
highly  cBhrrated  soil  is  mneh  admired  ht  cnhnary  pnrpoees, 
bat  is  sometunes  smbject  to  bitter  rot»  and  is  now  mostrf  super- 
seded by  the  Smoke  house  and  Republican  Pippin,  which  are 
supposed  to  be  seedlings  of  the  old  Yandever,  and  of  much 
better  qoalitf ,  moderate,  horiaontal  growth,  not  very  productive. 
Fruit  of  medium  size,  oblate.  Stem  about  an  inch  long,  inserted 
in  a  deep  cavity*  Calyx  small  and  closed,  set  in  a  round  moderate 
basin.  Colour  waxen  yellow,  striped  with  red  and  covered  with 
numerous  green  dots.  Fledi  yeUowish,  compact,  but  tender, 
with  a  fine  rich,  sub-acid  favour.    October  to  January. 

Red  Yandevere  is  said  to  be  distinct  and  of  better  quality, 
less  subject  to  bitter  rot 

Frait  largSi  roundish,  sli^tly  conic  Skin  yeUowidi,  willi  a 
tinge  of  red  and  slightly  sprinkled  with  brown  and  reddish  dots. 
Stfldk  rather  Sendee,  in  a  urge  cavity.  Calyx  dosed,  in  a  deep 
uneven  baun.  Flesh  white,  tender,  juicy,  sub-acid,  agreeable. 

Yakdbvxhk  Pipfiv. 

Indiana  YandBvera 
Watson's  Ysndeveie. 
Big  Yandevere. 

Qr^in  supposed  to  be  Indiana,  a  rapid  grower,  spreading^  and 
auMM&ate  bearer. 

900  THE   APPLX. 

Fruit  lam,  oblate,  appfoachhig  conic  Skin  yellaw,  iaked 
all  over  wil£  red,  striped  on  the  minny  side,  and  ooTered  with 
rough  brown  dots.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  broad  deep  etmtjf 
often  msseted.  Calyx  partially  closed,  set  in  a  moderate  basin. 
Flesh  greenish,  crisp,  with  a  brisk  sab-acid  flavour.  September 
to  Febroary.  Y  aluaJble  fisr  cookiiig  and  drying,  popoliur  at  the 

Vauoban's  Winter. 

Origin,  Kentacky.  Tree  hardy,  vieorons,  and  piodnotiTe. 
Introdueed  by  J.  S.  Downer  of  Sllcton,  Ky.  Frait.  medinm,  ob- 
late, obliqne,  angolar.  Skin  whitish,  waxen  ydlow,  shaded  with 
crimson  and  MIm,  and  sometimes  obeenrelT  striped,  and  thickly 
coverod  with  eonspicaons  li^t  dots.  StaUc  mall  and  dIuMrt,  in- 
aerted  in  a  deep  nneven  cavity,  flm!ToaDded  by  veiy  thin  green 
msset  Calyx  open  or  partially  closed;  basin  de(qp^  abm^ 
open,  slightly  corrugated.  Flesii  yellowish,  tender,  jnicy,  with 
a  brisk,  very  agreeable  vinous  flavour.    January  to  March. 

YinoiNiA  Gbkxnino. 

Fruit  large,  oblate.  Skin  yellowish,  thinly  covered  with  largo 
blown  dots.  Stalk  large,  rather  k)ng^  in  a  very  laige  cavity. 
Calyx  open ;  basin  larse,  abrupt,  rather  nneven.  Fleui  yellow, 
eoane,  with  a  rather  pleasant  sub-acid  flavour.  Esteemed  at  the 
sooth  aa  a  late  keeper  and  a  good  market  aj^e. 

Walkbr's  Ybllow. 

This  noble  apple  is  a  native  of  Pulaski  Co.,  Geoma,  and  m- 
troduced  by  George  Walker.  Fruit  large,  conic,  ine  golden 
yellow,  with  a  faint  blndi  on  the  sunny  nde.  Stalk  of  OKMlerate 
len^,  in  a  deep  acute  cavity ;  basin  small.  Flesh  white,  jni<7, 
rather  too  acid  for  a  dessert  Mit    November  to  ApriL 

Victuals  and  Drink. 
Big  Sweet    Pompej. 

This  is  a  large  and  ddicions  sweet  apple,  highly  eatesnied  m 
the  neighboorhood  of  Newark,  New  Jersey,  where  it  origkiated, 
about  1760.  It  was  first  introdnced  to  notice  by  Mr.  J.  W. 
Hayes,  of  Newark,  from  whom  we  first  received  tresa  and  spe- 
cimens of  the  fruit    The  fruit  is  very  light 

Fruit  IsT^ej  oblong,  rather  irregnlar,  and  varies  a  jpood  deal 
in  size.  Skm  thin,  but  rough,  dnl  I  yelk>w,  marbled  with  msset, 
with  a  ^nt  russet  blush  on  the  sunny  side.  Stalk  moderately 
long  and  slender,  deeply  inserted  in  an  irregular  cavity.  Calyx 
small,  set  in  a  rather  shallow  basin.  Flesh  y^lowiiih,  tender, 
breaking,  with  a  rich,  sprightly,  sweet  flavoar.    In  perfeeliaa 

ms.APPLX.  201 

from  October  to  January,  bat  will  keep  till  April.    Hie  tree  ii 
a  moderate  bearer. 


Qrk^By  Walpole,  HaM.  Fruit  mediim,  roQndiBh.  Skin  jel* 
low,  lAaded  and  atrined  with  briffht  red.  Stalk  ■horti  cavity 
bu^  Caljz  closed;  baain  shalfow.  Fleek  yellowiah,  tender, 
mcjf  with  a  Bpri^Uy  anb-acid  flavoiu;  Last  of  Anguat  and 
nnt  of  September. 


Origin  fiurm  of  Joaeph  P.  Hayward,  Slariing,  Maaa.  Froit 
above  mediom  siae,  flattiah,  round,  yeHowiah  green,  with  nnme- 
rona  small  grey  dots,  and  a  clear  red  in  the  akin*  Calyx  in  a 
broad  baain.  Stem  alender,  half  an  inch  loog.  fleah  crisp, 
juicy,  and  fine  flavoured,  keeping  till  July.    (N.  £.  Farm.) 

Wazxk  of  Ooxx. 

Origin  aappoaed  to  be  Yii]ppnia.  IVee  thrifty,  joiaaf  wood 
dark.  Fmit  medium,  roundish,  sli^tly  oblate.  Skm  naJe 
yellow,  oily,  ^rinkled  with  a  few  dota.  Stalk  alender,  in  a  oeep 
cavity.  Calyx  doeed;  basin  shallow.  Flflah  whitiah  yellow, 
crisp,  tender,  juicy,  sprightly,  mild,  Bub-aokL  November,  De- 

Wxllfobd's  Ybllow. 

Origin,  Essex  Co.,  Virginia.  Introduced  by  H.  R.  Hobey,  of 
Frederioksbuigfa,  Ya.    A  rapid  grower,  and  a  great  bearer. 

Fhut  rather  small,  roundisn,  flattened.  Skin  pale  yellow,  with 
fiunt  red  streaks  on  one  side.  Flesh  yellow,  fine  grained,  very 
jui<^,  with  a  riA  aromatic  flavour.  Keeps  well  nnlil  Jun% 
retaming  its  flavour.    (H,  R  Robey  MS.) 


Ori^n,  fiinn  of  Major  Weston,  Lincoln,  Maaa. 

Fruit  medium,  roundish,  conical.  Skin  light  vellow,  striped 
and  flashed  with  red.  Flesh  white,  moderately  juicy,  mild, 
pleaaant  flavour.    October. 

WxsTuv  Spt, 

Origin,  farm  of  John  Mansfield,  Jefferson  Co.,  Ohio.  Tree  a 
moderate  grower,  but  very  productive. 

Fruit  rather  laige,  inwilar,  angular,  considerably  depressed. 
Skin  yellow,  often  much  shaded  with  crimson.  Stem  short  and 
stoat,  inserted  in  a  lar^e  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  set  in  an  abrmpt 
basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  tender,  juicy,  pfeaaant,  aub-acid.  Bar- 
celleBt  for  eooiinir.    Oolober  to  June. 


202  THX   APPLE. 

White  Wimtbr. 

Origin,  him  of  Mr.  Cackling  Cumberland  Co^  PennsylvanuL 
Tree  moderately  vigorous ;  very  productive.  Fruit  small,  near* 
ly  globular.  Skin  light  yellow,  with  a  dull  crimson  cheek. 
Stem  medium  in  an  acute  cavity.  Calyx  firmly  closed,  a  little 
funk  in  a  very  small  basin.  Fl^  whitish^  juicy,  almost  buttery, 
with  a  mild,  sub-acid,  but  not  rich  flavour.    January  to  May. 

•White  Jukbatino.    Ray.  Thomp.  land. 

Owen's  Goldea  Beanty,  oc  Thmnp, 
Jnnenting.    Oubc 

This  is  an  old  variety  mentioned  by  Evelyn  in  1600,  and 
described  by  Ray  in  1688,  and  is  a  very  tolerable  little  apple, 
ripening  among  the  veiy 
eariiest,  during  the  last 
of  June  and  Sie  first  of 
July.  It  is  very  distinct 
from  the  Early  Harvest, 
sometimes  called  by  this 
name.  Fruit  small, 
round,  a  little  flattened. 
Calyx  dosed  in  a  wrin-/ 
kled  basin,  moderatelyl 
sunk.  Stalk  rather  long! 
and  slender,  three  fourths  \ 
of  an  inch  in  length, 
slightly  inserted  in  a 
shallow  depression. 

Skin  smooth,  pale  green, 
at  flrst  light  yellow,  with 
sometimes  a  &int  blush  White  Juneating. 

on  the  sunny  side.  Flesh  crisp  and  of  a  pleasant  flavour,  but 
soon  becomes  dry.  Tree  straight,  and  forms  an  upright  head. 
Early  May  of  the  South  may  l^  this. 


Origin,  Pennsylvania.  Tree  vigorous  and  productive.  Fruit 
large,  roundish,  oblate.  Skin  greenish  yellow.  Stem  short,  set 
in  an  acute  cavity.  Calyx  closed.  Basin  shallow  and  furrow- 
ed. Flesh  white,  tender,  acid,  sprightly  but  not  rich.  Septem- 
ber, October. 

White  Spitzbnbero. 

Ori^  Northampton  Co.,  Pa. 

Fnut  medium,  roundish,  oblong.    Skin  yeUow,  intenpened 

TUC   JLFFLS.  208 

with  large  grey  dots,  with  a  blush  on  the  exposed  sides.  Stem 
short,  inserted  in  a  moderately  deep,  open  cavity,  lined  with  ffreen 
maset.  Calyx  small,  closed,  set  in  a  shallow,  narrow  basin. 
Flesh  breaking,  sofSciently  joicy,  flavoor  sub-acid,  with  agreea- 
ble  aroma,  quality  "  very  good.      June.    (W.  D.  Brinddc) 

Whitx  Raicbo. 

Fruit  medium,  oblate^  approadting  como.  Skin  ooly,  yel- 
lowisb-wkite.  Stem  short,  m  a  large  msseted  cavity.  Calyx 
closed,  basin  shallow,  aarronnded  by  promineBoes»  Flesh  yel- 
lowish, fine,  rich,  vinous,  sub-acid.    Novwaber. 

Whits  Pippui. 
Osnada  PiypB, 

This  apple  is  much  cultivated  at  the  west,  but  of  unknown 
origin,  it  is  of  the  Newtown  Pipmn  daasi  distinct  from 
Canada  Beinette*  Tree  thriffy,  upright,  a  regular  and  good 

Fruit  larffe,  Ibrm  variable,  oblong,  oblate  or  conic,  angular, 
oblique.  Skin  greenish-white,  waxen,  sprinkled  with  green  dots, 
and  oecQming  pale  yellow  at  maturity,  sometimes  having  a  dull 
blush.  Stem  short,  inserted  in  a  large  cavity,  surrounded  by 
green  russet  Calyx  small,  nearly  closed,  set  m  an  abrupt  fui^ 
rowed  basin.  Fleui  white,  tender,  cri^  juicy,  with  a  fin%  rich, 
sab-acid  favour.    Jaraiaiy  to  Maich. 

WiLua'a  BuaasT. 

Origin,  iSum  of  Mr.  WiUn,  Sudbury,  Mass.  Tree  hardy, 
vigorous,  and  an  abundant  bearer. 

Fruit  small,  oblate,  conic  Skin  russet,  on  a  yellow  ground, 
and  occasionally  a  sunny  cheek.  Stalk  lonff,  slender,  curved, 
set  in  a  large  cavity.  Calyx  closed,  basin  shaUow.  Flesh  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  rich  pear-like  flavour.    December,  January. 

WiixiAM  Pknh. 

A  native  of  Columbia,  Pa.  Rather  large,  roundish,  oblate, 
dig^tly  conical.  Colour  greyish,  delicately  mottled  and  striped 
with  red,  on  a  greenish-yellow  ground,  with  numerous  white 
specks,  in  the  centre  of  which  is  a  minute  russet  dot  Stem 
snort,  not  very  stout,  in  an  open  rather  deep  msseted  cavity, 
basin  sometimes  wide  and  shallow,  usually  narrow,  rather  deep 
and  furrowed.  Fle^  ffreenish-yellow.  Juicy,  with  a  delicious 
Spitzenbeig  aroma,  quality  "very  good '^ if  not  **  best"  Repre- 
sented as  being  an  abundant  bearer.  February.  (Ad.  Int 

204  THB   APPLB. 

Willow  Twig. 

A  poor  grower  while  very  young,  but  becomes  vigorous  t»iid 
au  early  and  abundant  bearer. 

Fruit  above  medium  size,  roundish,  slightly  conic,  somewhat 
oblate.  Skin  li^ht  yellow,  shaded  and  marbled  with  dull  red 
and  sprinkled  with  numerous  russet  dots.  Stalk  rather  short 
and  slender.  Cavity  narrow,  eomethnes  patlaally  closed,  willi  a 
lip.  Catyx  partiafiy  dosed,  in  a  somewhat  corrugated  abrupt 
basin.  Aesh  not  rerv  tender,  with  a  pleasant  sab-acid  flavour ; 
quality  good ;  vakiable  for  late  keeping ;  p<^alar  at  tk«  west 
and  south. 

Lincoln  Pfppiii.        Hewe  Apple. 

Oridn,  Winthrop,  Maine. 

fVutt  luge,  golden  yellow,  wil^  slight  russet  tinge  of  Fsd  In 
the  sun.  flesh  tender,  erisp,  very  jaioj,  with  a  sprightly  rich 
flavour.    September.    (Cole.) 

WlNN*S  BuasBT. 

Origin,  Swedeu,  Maine.  Tree  of  slow  growth,  hardy  and 

Fruit  large,  cavity  deep,  basin  broad  and  shallow,  colour  dark 
russet,  with  obscure  stripes  of  red  covered  with  whitish  spots. 
Flesh  fine  grained,  sub-acid.    Keeps  till  May.   (Me.  P.  S.  Rept) 

WiNTSR  PippiH  or  Ybbmont. 

Origin  unknown,  much  cultivated  in  Vermont;  a&ir  grower 
and  productive. 

Fruit  large,  to  very  laige,  nearly  globular,  inclining  to  conic, 
obscurely  angular.  Skin  greenish  yellow,  spriidded  with  star- 
like crimson  dots,  check  shaded  with  dull  crimson.  Stem  shorti 
inserted  in  a  deep  compressed  cavity.  Calyx  small,  nearlv 
closed,  segments  long,  in  a  rather  deep  uneven  basin.  Flesh 
white,  tender,  and  agreeable.     November  to  March. 


Origin,  Winthrop,  Maine,  size  large,  roundish,  ovate.  Skin 
yellow,  striped  with  red,  and  deep  red  in  the  sun.  Stem  in  a 
large  cavity,  basin  shallow.  Flesh  white,  juicy,  flavour  spicy 
and  pleasant.     September  to  January.     (Me.  P.  S.  R.) 

Wink  Apple,     Coxe. 
Hay's  Winter. 
The  Wine  Apple  is  a  very  handsome,  and  an  admirable  win* 

**1K  APPLE.  205 

ter  fhuti  a  most  abundant  bearer,  and  a  hardy  tree.  It  is  a  na- 
tive of  Delaware.  Hie  tree  has  small  leaves,  grows  thriftily^ 
and  makes  a  line,  spreading  head.  . 

Fmit  rather  above  medium  siae— in  rich  soils  large ;  form  re- 
gular, nearly  round,  a  little  flattened  at  the  ends.  Skin  smooth^ 
of  a  lively  deep  red,  over  a  yellow  ground,  or,  more  frequently, 
with  a  few  indistinct  stripes  of  ^eDow.  Stalk  iJior^  inserted  in  a 
round,  smooth  cavity,  with  a  hide  luSMi  around  it  Flesh  yel 
lowish-white,  juicy  and  crisp,  with  a  rather  vinous,  rich,  and 
pleasant  flavour.    October  to  March. 

WkiaHT  Applx. 

Ongi]],  Hnbbaidton,  YennoAfci  Tree  vigwoua  and  pro- 

Fruit  medium,  roundish,  oblattti  Skin  finf  lemon  yellow. 
Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  deep  cavity.    Calyx  dosed,  basin 

rather  large  and  coirugated.  Flesh  white,  very  tender,  juicy, 
vinous,  ahuost  sweet,  aromatic  Middle  of  September  to  middle 
of  October. 


Or^in,  Montgoraery  Co.,  Pa.  Tree  of  moderate  growth,  a 
i^nlar  bearer. 

FmJt  laige,  roundish,  striped  with  red,  with  varbos  hues  on 
yellowish  ground.  Stalk  short,  inserted  in  a  small  oavify. 
Calyx  open,  set  in  a  Un^e,  shallow  basin.  Flesh  yellowish,  ten- 
der, wito  a  pleasant,  sub-add  flavour*    November  to  March. 

Tkllow  Msadow. 

A  Southern  fruit. 

Fruit  large,  oblate.  Skin  greenish  ydlow.  Stem  rather 
slender,  in  a  deep,  irregular  cavity.  CJfJyx  large  and  open, 
in  a  shallow  badn.  Flesh  yellow,  compact,  flavour  vinous,  rich 
and  ^xeoUeDk    November. 

YXL1.0W  PxAmif  Aur. 
Golden  Pearmain. 

Origin  uncertain;  probably  a  Southern  fruity  moderate  in 
grow^  and  productiveness. 

Fruit  medium,  obliquely  conic,  inclining  to  oblong.  Skin 
yellowish,  slightly  shaded  with  dull  red.  Stem  short,  inserted 
by  a  lip  in  a  very  narrow  cavity.  Calyx  small  and  closed,  basin 
deep»  round  and  open.  Flesh  yellowish,  tender,  with  a  pleasant, 
rich,  vinous  flavour,  slightly  aromatic.    January  to  March. 

Yopp's  Favoumti. 
Fruit  large,  roundish,  slightly  conic*    Skin  smooth,  oilj 

206  TUJS   APPJLS. 

greenish  yellow^  with  a  blush  in  the  sun,  sprinkled  sparingly 
with  russet  dote»  and  a  little  russet  about  the  stem.  Calyx  open 
in  a  deep  basin.  Stalk  short,  cavity  deep.  Flesh  white,  nne 
grained,  tender,  juicy,  almost  meltings  of  a  most  grateful,  sub- 
acid flavour.    From  Thomas  Co.,  Geoigia.    (Rob^  Nelson.) 

YoBX  Imfsrial. 
Johnson's  Fine  Winter. 

Origin  tibought  to  be  York  Co.,  Pa.  IVee  moderately 
TigorouB,  prodnctiTe. 

Fruit  medium,  truncated,  oval,  angular.  Skin  greenish  yel- 
low, nearly  covered  wiih  bright  red.  Stem  short,  moderately 
stout,  cavity  wide,  rather  deep.  Calyx  amall,  doaed,  set  in  a 
deep,  wide,  pUiited  basin.  Flesh  tender,  crisp,  juicy,  aromatic, 
"veiygood.*    (Ad  Int  Bept) 


A  native  of  Berks  Co.,  Pa.    Tree  larse  and  spreading. 

Fruit  oblate,  very  much  flattened.  Skin  yellow,  striped  and 
shaded  with  crimson,  thinly  dotted  with  brown.  Stalk  shorty 
inserted  in  a  very  lafge  cavity,  slightly  ruiseted.  Calyx  par- 
tially closed,  basin  br^  and  deep.  Flesh  yellowish,  rather 
coarse,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant,  sub-acid  flavour.  Decem- 
ber, January* 


Contains  those  superseded  by  better  saris,  yet  many  of  them 
have  qualities  to  recommend  for  certain  localities  and  for  cer- 
tain purposes. 

Alxxahdxb.    Thomp. 

EmpenNT  Alazswler.    JUnd  Bom.        Busrfsn  Empeior.    AporU^ 

A  very  large,  showy  Russian  variety,  for  cooking,  not  profit- 

Fruit  very  large,  regulariy  formed,  conical  Skin  greenish 
yellow,  fointly  streaked  with  red  on  the  shaded  side,  but  orange^ 
brilliantly  streaked  and  marked  with  bright  red,  in  the  sun. 
Calyx  large,  set  in  a  deep  basin.  Stalk  rather  slender,  three 
fourths  of  an  inch  long,  planted  in  a  deep  cavity.  ¥1e^  yel- 
lowish white,  crisp,  tender  and  juicy,  with  a  rather  pleasant  fla- 
vour.   A  moderate  bearer.    October  to  December. 

Altristov.    Thomp.  Lind.  Ron. 

Lord  Gwydr's  Newtown  PippizL  \^  4^  -ri^.— « 
(Mdaker'8New.     ,  ^acioTlmiij^ 

A  tiiird  rate  apple,  valued  in  England  for  cooking.    Fruit 

THK    APPLE.  207 

Istf^  roundish,  a  little  ribbed,  and  rather  broadest  at  the  base* 
Skin  pale  greenish-yellow.  Flesh  yellowish  white,  criq^  tender, 
with  a  tolerable,  somewhat  acid  flavour.    October  to  January 

Ambkicah  PlFPiir.    Coze.  Thoaip. 


Yalnable  only  for  its  late  keeping  and  for  cider. 

Fmh  of  medinm  sixe  and  reffolar  form,  roondish,  somewhat 
flattened.  Skin  doll  red  in  patches  and  stripes,  on  a  dull  green 
mnnd.  Flesh  white,  finn,  joicy,  with  a  somtwhst  brisk,  acid 
flayonr.    Keeps  till  June.    Trees  with  etockoi  shoots. 


Mediom,  roundish,  yellow,  nearly  coyered  with  stripes  and 
sphshes  of  l%ht  and  dark  red  with  white  dots.  Fledi  yellow, 
tender,  sweet  and  good,  fair  and  handsome.    First  of  September. 


Large,  roondish,  conic,  yellow,  striped  whh  red,  sweet  and 
dry.    August. 

Baldwiit  Swxbt. 

Fruit  rather  laige,  roundish,  yellow,  ytriped  and  shaded  with 
red.  Flesh  yellow,  rather  compact,  sweet  and  good.  Produc- 
tiye.    Octol>er,  January. 

Bab  Applb. 

A  large,  (air  apple,  slightly  tin^  with  red  next  the  sun. 
Flesh  white,  juicy,  sweet  and  agreeable.  An  early  tall  fruit,  and 
keeps  well  through  the  winter.     (Coze.) 

BBnpOBDBHiBX  FouvDLiHG.    Thomp.  lind. 

A  laige  green  English  apj^e,  excellent  for  kitchen  use. 
Fruit  laree,  roundish,  ^wcurely  ribbed.  Skin  deen  green,  paler 
at  matunty.  FleA  yellowish,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant, 
acid  flayonr.    October  to  February. 

Bbllb-Flbur,  Bbd. 

Belfe-Fleur.    JMfaaa       BeOe^Fknir  Rouge  f    Thomp. 

A  Ftench  yariety  scarcely  worth  cultivation. 

Fhiit  large,  regular,  oblong-conical.  Skin  pale  greenish-yel- 
low, but  nearly  covered  with  red,  striped  with  dark  red.  Flesh 
irhite,  tender,  of  tolerable,  mild  flavour,  apt  to  become  mealy. 
November  to  January. 

208  THS   APPLK. 


Oriffin  unknown.  Tree  vieorous,  moderately  productive 
Fruit  large,  roondiah,  conie.  fflon  yellow,  with  Mtchee  of  rua- 
aet,  sometimefl  a  little  bronzed  cheeL  Fteah  yellow,  cri^  aub* 
acid,  pleaaant.    October,  February, 


Of  moderate  apowth,  produetiT^.  Vtmt  mediam,  obliqiiely 
oblate.  SkiA  ydOow,  aprmkled  with  a  Ivw  whitiah  dota.  Stem 
long,  alender,  in  a  broad  deep  cavity.  Calyx  cloaed,  in  a  large, 
corrugated  baain.  Fleah  yellowiah,  tender,  rather  acid,  gS)d 
for  cooking.    September. 

Black  Applb.    Coxb. 
Black  AmericaiL     ITiomp, 

A  native  fruit,  of  a  very  dark  red  colour,  and  of  a  mild,  rather 
agreeable  flavour. 

Fruit  rather  below  medium  size,  round  or  very  alightly  flat- 
tened. Skin  dark  red,  almost  black,  with  a  mealy  whitish 
bloom  on  the  surfiskce.  Fleah  yellowidi  red,  tender,  and  of 
medium  quality.  The  tree  when  fully  grown  haa  a  rather 
droning  head.    Ripe  fin>m  November  ta  ^bmaiy. 

Black  Oxford. 

From  Oxford,  Maine,  valued  aa  a  late  keeper  and  good 
bearer.  Fruit  below  medium,  roundiah,  oblate,  al^tly  conic. 
Skin  yellow,  almost  covered  with  red,  and  very  dark  red  on  the 
exposed  side.  Flesh  whitish,  compact,  not  very  juicy  but  plea- 
sant, mild,  anb-acid.    January  to  May. 

Black  Gilliflowbb. 

Medium  size,  oblong,  conical.  Skin  very  dark,  dull  red. 
Flesh  white,  diy,  mild,  sub-acid.  November  to  February.  Very 
productive,  and  some  call  it  a  profitable  market  fruit.    . 


Blbnhbim  Pippin.    Thomp.  Lind. 

Blenlielm  Orasg*. 
Woodstock  PSppiiL 

Fruit  medium,  roundish.  Skin  yellowish,  becoming  deep 
orange,  stained  on  the  sunny  side  with  dull  and  dark  red  stripes. 
Flesh  yellow,  breaking,  very  sweet,  and  of  tolerable  flavour. 
October  to  December, 


BoRSDORFntB.    nomp.  Knoop. 


BondMt    Xtnd 
.    King  (3eoige  the  Third.    Hon. 

Aeinnetto  BAtardi^ 

Bdler  Winter  Boradorikr, 

Belimette  de  Mioiie^  V  a&  to 

GaaetPippiB,  fhomp. 


LeSnnd  Bobemian  Bondoiffer,^ 

A  BmaD,  cdebnled  Oermm  apple.  IVaft  nmndiBh-ova],  nar- 
rowing at  the  «7e.  Skin  pale  yellow,  jpridi  a  fiiU  lod  cheek, 
qprinBed  with  a  uttle  nuset  Fleah  jeUowidHwhite^  Teir  finn 
and  crisp,  with  a  rich,  briak,  perluned  ilaTOiir.  Noremlber  to 


A  RoflBian  apple  of  medimn  size,  roundiBh,  angolar.  Skin  pale 
gseen,  ftiallj  rtiiyiiii    flesh  while,  Ann,  aab-add.    Angnat 


Fruit  medimn,  oblate.  Skin  whitash,  striped  wiih  red.  Flesh 
compact^  not  very  juicy  nor  high  flayoar.    September,  October. 

From  Mass^a  good  grower,  an  annual  bearer.  Fmit  very  laige^ 
roundish,  yellow,  with  a  slight  blush.  Flesh  yellowish,  tender, 
pleasant,  mild,  sub-add    October,  November. 


Origin,  Yergennes,  Yt  Good  grower  and  regular  bearer. 
Medium,  nearly  globular,  indininff  to  conic ;  skin  greenish  yel- 
low. Flesh  Bolic^  jnicy,  crifs^  wiw  a  pleasant  sulHuid  flavour. 
iwB&Ktj  and  February. 

Cakb  Applb. 

From  Connecticut  Medium,  oblate,  much  depressed.  Skin 
yellowish,  with  a  blush.  Flesh  juiey,  tender,  pleasant.  January 
to  March. 

Caltilub,  Whitk  WiHTiB.    liud. 

GalviUdBlandMd'Hiver.    Tkim».  (X  Ihk.  MMm. 
White  Calville.     (kxu. 

The  White  Winter  OalvOle  is  a  celebrated  old  French  sauce 
and  cooking  apple;  but  like  most  others  of  its  dass,  is  not 
wortliy  of  cultivation  here. 

210  THE  APPLX. 

Fruit  mediuiDf  ronndighf  oonic,  ribbed.  Skin  yellow,  fiiint 
blaah.    Bledb  ooane^  tender,  pleaiant.    November,  Febnuury. 

Calyills,  Bed  WniTBR.   Lmd. 

Galvflle  Bouge  d^Hiver.    Thoa^.  Jfaw^a. 
(Mrffle  Bottge.    0,  Duk 
BedGbMUd.    Omml 

Froit  medinin,  roandiah^  eonic,  ribbed.  Skin  pttle,  and  dark 
redL    Flesh  tender,  mild,  Bub-acid    November  to  February. 

Cambuthkbthut  Pippnr. 

A  Scotch  variety^  medkmi,  roondifth.  Skin  hfffat  yeUow, 
itriped  and  shaded  with  crimson  and  dark  red.  Fksh  yellow- 
ish, juicy,  sab-aoid*    September,  Deeember. 


Sweet  Gum. 

Tte%  yigoroos  and  pvodoctiTe.  FVnit  larger  eonie.  Skin 
greenish  with  a  dull  crimson  cheek,  slightly  ^rinkled  with 
brown  dots.  Flesh  white,  eompaet^  not  very  jnicy,  sweet,  and 
pleasant^  core  laige.    December  to  March. 

Cabmxl  Swxxt. 

An  old  variety  from  Westchester  Oo^  N.  Y.  Fhiit  me- 
diom,  oblate.  Skin  yellowish  ffreen,  with  a  sli^^t  blush.  Flesh 
white,  juicy,  tender,  sweet,  and  rich.    October,  November; 


Medium,  roundish,  conic,  yellow.  Flerh  tender,  juicy,  sweety 
without  much  flavour. 

Cash  Swbbt. 

Medium  size,  oblate,  conic  Skin  whitish,  with  a  hlash. 
Flesh  white,  compact,  sweet,  and  rather  dry.    September. 

Catldts.    Goxe.  Thomp. 

Gr^gsoft  Apple. 

Origin,  Manrland.  Tree  of  slow  growth,  very  productive, 
much  esteemed  in  the  lower  part  of  Delaware.  Below  medium 
size,  oblate,  yellow,  bright  red  cheek,  with  stripes.  Flesh  ten 
der,  rich,  juicy,  and  sweet    October  to  December. 

Oathkad  Swbbt. 
Tree  hardy,  good  bearer.    Firuit  large,  roundish,  conic.    Skin 

THl  APPLX.  211 

greenish  yeUow  alight  Uuih.    Flesh  white,  tenderi  sweety  not 
ricL    October. 

Catsbsas.    Gozew  lind. 

Bound  Ostshesd.    Aosyi 
Osthesd  Greening: 

A  verj  huge  lyple,  cuItiTated  for  drying  in  some  parts  of  the 
eomitiy,  but  of  httle  other  ts1ii0  except  as  a  cooldiig  apple. 

Fnnt  of  the  laigest  siae^  round.  Bkin  quite  smooth,  pale 
green.  Fleah  tender,  with  a  sob-acid  jnioe.  October  and  NO' 

Choumbbobouoh  Busbst. 

Hcwsid  BqsmL    Xingshnry  BosmIl 

An  old  Irait  of  little  valne,  large,  conical,  green  mssot* 
Flesh  coarse,  dry,  sub-acid. "  October,  November. 

Fruit  small,  yellow,  oblate^  sweet    Very  prodootiTe. 

Comnae  Aeomatio.    lliomp.  Lind. 

English  u>ple.  Fruit  of  medium  size,  roundish,  angulan 
Skin  rioh  red,  much  marked  with  russet  yellow  dots,  on  a  pals 
nuaet  ground.  Flesh  yellow,  with  a  rich,  artimatic,  sub-acid 
flavour.    October  to  Deoembor. 

Cram  or  Kram. 
An  old  fruit  nearly  out  of  use  and  not  worth  cultivating. 

Crow  Boo. 

An  old  variety  of  not  very  good  quality,  oblong  oval,  long 
stem,  greenish  yellow,  tender,  sweet,  large  core.  October,  No- 

^There  is  also  another  Crow  "Egg  in  EentucW,  of  conical  foim, 
yellow,  stri{)|ed  with  dnU  red.  stem  short  Fleeh  ydlow,  com- 
pact, sub-acid,  good.    December,  January. 

Doctor.    Coxe.  Thomp. 

Bed  Doctor.    DeWltt 

A  Pennsylvania  apple;  the  tree  is  rather  an  indiffersnt 
grower  and  Dearer. 

212  THB  APPLE. 

Fruit  medium  sized,  regularly  formed  and  fiat.  Skin  smoothi 
jeUow,  striped  and  washed  with  two  or  three  shades  of  red,  with 
a  few  darker  spots,  flesh  tender,  juicy,  and  breaking  in  ita 
texture,  with  a  aligfatiy  aromatic  ftiTOQr.    October  to  January. 

Dodob'b  Eablt  £xd. 

Fmit  medinoi,  loimdkh.  SUn  yeik>w,  striped  sad  mlaahed 
with  deep  sed.  Flesh,  whiter  often  ataiiiod,  not  very  tenoMr,  bat 
with  an  agveeable  ai««iatic  fiayour.    Middle  of  Aogiut 

DuHXLow's  Sbsoluo. 

ITeUingloo.    Domelow't  Oab. 

English,  rather  large,  roundish,  yellow,  with  a  Unah.    Ileah 
yellow,  crisp,  brisk,  acid*    Novemlier  to  Maich. 

Dutch  Codliit.    Thomp.  land.  Bon. 

A  very  laige  kitdien  apple,  yalued  only  for  cooking,  fipom 
Angnst  to  September.  Fruit  of  the  laig«it  aiie,  irr^pilarly 
ronndish,  or  rather  oblong,  strongly  marked  by  ribs  extending 
from  the  base  to  the  eye.  Skin  pale  yellow,  becoming  orange 
yellow  on  the  sunny  siae.  Flesh  white,  sub-acid,  and  moderate- 
ly juicy. 

Early  Marrow. 

A  lar^e  Scotch  apple,  roundish,  conical,  ribbed.  Skin  yel* 
lowisk-mite,  with  a  tinge  of  red  in  the  sun.  Flesh  tender,  and 
bakes  well ;  productive.    September  and  October. 

Ea8tbb  Piprar.    Homp.  land 

Yong't  Long  Keoping. 

davmont  Pippin. 

Ironstone  Pippin. 

French  Grab.    Forsyth^  {npi  of  Chcu.) 

Bemarkable  for  keepiog  sound  and  firm  two  yean.  It  is  an 
English  variety.  Fruit  oTutedium  siae,  akin  de^  green,  with  a 
pale  brown  blush.  Flesh  veiy  firm,  and  though  not  jnicy,  of  a 
good,  sob-acid  flavour. 


From  Conn.  Small  roundish,  ffreenish  yeDow,  brown  cheek. 
Flesh  firm,  juicy,  pleasant,  a  long  keeper.    April,  May. 

THS   APFIiB.  21S 


From  Yennont*  A  bandBome  piodiicliye  fraiti  amall,  don* 
^r«ted  conicy  deep  red,  almost  crimsoiu  Fleih  wbitiih,  sweety 
te«d  rich.    December,  Jannaiy. 

Fall  Jbvnbtiho. 

Tree  Tigotocui,  and  n&j  pfodncliTe.  IMt  Ivge,  oblate. 
bodn  pale  greenkli  yellow,  with  a  blnsh.  Stalk  medimn  leii||^ 
ovnty  hat^  Calyx  eloied ;  basin  Hnall,  open.  Flesh  iriiitish, 
teader,  jmcj,  j^easanti  sab-acid.    NoTember. 

Fbnouillst  Gms.    Thomp.  Poit  Nois. 

Froit  small,  romidish.  Skin  light  russet  on  yellow  gronnd. 
FSesh  firm,  with  a  saccharine  pemmed  llaToar.  December  to 

FurouiLLBT  Bouos.    Thomp.  Poit  Idnd.  O.  Doh. 

BardixL    Court-pendu  Qri& 

Froit  amall,  roundish.  Skin  rough,  greyish,  with  dark  brown- 
ish red.    Fiesh  firm,  sugary.    October,  Jannaiy. 

FurouzLLXT  Jauhb.    Thomp.  Poit  C!oza. 

Embroldorod  Pippin.    IdntL 
Drapd'Or.     OX>mA.  No.  12.  £109. 
Pomme  de  GaFsct^re. 

A  French  finit,  which  has  not  proTed  of  much  ralne  here. 
Fmit  small,  roundish.    Yellow  grey  russet  network.    Flesh 
white,  firm,  aromatic  flavour.    October  to  March. 

Flat  Swbbt. 

An  old  eastern  fruit,  ami  much  valued  where  known. 

Froit  large,  oblate,  slif^Uy  eonic,  angular.  Ydlow,  some- 
times with  sunny  cheek,  and  sl^ht  russet  Flesh  white,  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  fine,  rich,  sacchanne  flavoulK 

Flowbb  of  Kbitt.    Thomp.  Lind.  Bon. 

A  htm  and  hsndsome  Bngliah  apple,  chiefly  yalned  te  baking 
and  kitcnen  use. 

Fmit  quite  large,  roundish,  conic,  angular.  Skin  tawny  yel- 
low, washed  with  dull  red,  with  occasionally  a  few  stripes  of 
brighter  red.  Flesh  greenish  yellow,  abounding  witli  a  lively, 
sul^acid  juice.    October  to  January. 

214  THB   APPLS. 

Gloria  Mundi.    Thomp. 

MonatzooB  Pippin.     Ooxe.  Fky.  Km. 


Glazenwood  Gloria  ICondi. 

New  York  Gloria  MundL 

American  Mammoth. 

te  Appla 

Origin  anknown.  Tree  vigoroiifii  Not  prodaetiye  or  pr^t* 

Fruit  yarr  laige,  ibtuidieh,  oblate,  angular.  Sldn  greenish 
yellow.  Fleah  coane,  tender,  with  a  pleasant  acid  fiaTOor. 
October  to  Jannary. 

Olouckstxr  Whits. 

Oriffin,  Gloncester,  Ya.    Tree  vigorooB  and  reiy  prodoctiTe. 
Fniit  mediunif  roundkh,  oblate.    Skin  fine  yellow.    Flesh 
yellow,  joicy,  rich,  aromatic    October. 

GoLDKN  Habybt.    Thomp.  lind.  Bon. 
Bnndy  Appla    Ibnyfhe. 

An  excellent,  high  flavoured  little  dessert  apple  from  England, 
of  slender  growth. 

Fruit  small,  irregularly  round.  Skin  rather  rough,  dull  russet 
over  a  yellow  ground,  with  a  mssety  red  cheek.  Flesh  yelloW| 
of  fine  texture,  with  a  spicy,  rich,  snoHund  iarour.  The  fruit  is 
apt  to  shriveL    December  to  ApriL 

Golden  Apple. 

Tree  vigorous,  productive,  large,  oblate.  Skin  golden  yellow, 
slightiy  sprinkled  with  brown  dots.  Fleih  yellow,  coane,  juicy, 
tender,  with  a  mild,  rich,  sub  acid  flavour.  October  to  Decem- 

Gbbbn  DoMnrs. 

Medium,  oblate,  greenish  yellow,  washed,  or  obscurely  striped 
with  dull  red.  ^^h^  whitish,  firm,  with  a  pleasant,  peculiar 
flavour.    December,  February. 


Medium,  oUate,  nearly  glc^nlar,  dull  red,  with  Mait  alr^iea. 
Flesh  firm  and  dry ;  said  to  be  fine  for  cider.    Winter. 

Habtsbt  Rsd  Strbak. 

From  Michigan,  a  local  name,  probably  an  old  variety,  small 
or  medium,  oblate,  angular.    Skin  whitiw,  striped  and  splashed 

THS  APPLB.  215 

with  bright  red.  Flesh  white,  coane,  somewhat  stained,  very 
tender,  jcdcy,  acid,  valuable  only  for  cooking.  Last  of  July  and 

HBwm'a  SwBST. 

Large,  oblate,  yellow,  q>la8hed  wiA  red.  Flesh  whitishi 
sweet,  tendw  and  pleasant.    October,  NoT«ii4»er,  prodnctiTe. 

HoABT  MoRNiKG.    Thomp.  Lind.  Bon. 

Daintv  Apple.       Downy. 
Sun  Bawlinga. 

An  Bnglish  frnit  for  culinary  parpoees;  lam,  oUate,  conic 
Skm  ydlow,  sfdaahed  and  striped  with  red,  and  coYered  with  a 
hlooni.    Flesh  firm,  biiak,  sub^acid.    October,  December. 

HoLLAHn  Swnr. 

Fmit  medium,  conic,  green,  with  stripes  of  dull  red.  Flesh 
firm,  sweet,  and  TiJnable  Ibr  long  keeping  and  culinary  uses. 
January  to  May. 



Origin  uncertain,  popular  and  long  cultivated  in  North  Caio 
liniL    Tree  vigorooa  and  very  prodoetiTe. 

Fruit  lame,  rouiidiah.  fflan  green,  with  a  blush.  Flesh  soft» 
sub-acid,  pleasant^  vdiuable  for  drying  and  caKnary  uses*  Sep 
tember,  October. 

Ihdiak  Pbuvos. 

Fhnt  medium,  roundish.  Skin  deep  red,  sprinkled  with 
whitish  dotk  Flesh  yellowish,  rather  firm,  juicy,  with  a  plea* 
sant  aromatic  flavour.    September,  October. 

Inan  Pxaoh  Apfls.    Thomp.  Lind.  P.  Mag. 

Billy  Crofton.    BtnuOis, 

Fruit  of  medium  sise,  round  or  a  little  flattened,  and  obtusely 
angular.  Skin  yellowkh  green,  with  small  dots  in  ihe  shadci 
wuhed  and  streaked  with  brownish  red  in  the  sun.  Flesh  white, 
tender,  juicy,  and  pretty  well  flavoured.    August 

ExKBioK^a  AuTUXir.   Ken. 

Fruit  laige  roundish.  Skin  pale,  yellowish-green,  striped  and 
stained  with  bright  red.  Flesh  white,  a  little  stained  with  red, 
tender,  juicy,  and  of  a  sprightly  acid  flavour.    September. 


ExRBT  Pippin,    lliomp^  Lind.  Bou. 

Bdmonto&'s  Aromalio  Pippin,  00.  Thomp, 

An  Irish  dessert  apple. 

Fruit  middle  mt^  otbI,  a  little  flattened  at  the  eye.  Skin 
le  yellow.  Flesk  yellow,  tendeff  crisp^  with  a  angaiy  flavour. 
ipens  in  September  and  October. 

TTn.fTAM  TTTT^^f,     Man. 

A  native  of  Essex  Co.,  Mass^  raised  by  Daniel  Kilham. 

Fruit  pretty  large,  louDdish,  ribbed,  narrowing  to  the  eye. 
Skin  pale  yellow,  dightly  q[>la8hed  with  red  in  the  shade,  deejp 
red  in  the  sun.  Fleoi  ik  sprightly,  rather  high  flavoar,  but  ia 
apt  to  become  dry  and  mealy.    September. 

Euro  OF  THX  Pippins.    Thomp.  lind.  Ron. 

Hampshire  Yellow. 

An  English  fruit  of  poor  quality,  medium  siae,  roundish,  ob- 
late, pale  yellow,  washed  and  striped  with  red.  Flesh  very 
firm,  sharp,  sub-acid.    October,  November. 

EiBx*8  Lord  Nelson.    Thomp.  Lind.  Son. 

English  fruit,  larve,  roundish.  Skin  ligrht  yellow,  striped 
and  mottled  with  bright  red.  Fleah  firm,  joiey,  but  not  nch. 
Ootobei^  November. 

Lkmon  Pippin.    Thomp.  Forsyth. 

Kirke^B  Lemon  Pippin. 

An  English  variety  of  medium  size,  oval.  Skin  lemon  yellow* 
Flesh  firm,  brisk,  sub-acid.    October. 

LoNOYXLLB^s  Kkrnel.    Thomp.  Lind.  P.  Mag. 

Sam's  Crab. 

English  fruity  rather  below  medium  size,  oval,  rather  flattened. 
Skin  greenish  yellow,  streaked  with  pale  brownish  red,  with  a 
few  streaks  of  bright  red.  Flesh  firm,  yellow,  slightly  perfimicd, 
sub-acid.    August  and  September. 


Origin,  Beverley,  Mass. 

Fruit  medium,  roundish,  conic  Skin  yellow.  Flesh  yellow, 
modiirately  juicy,  sweot  and  pleasant     October  to  February. 

THB  IkPPtB.  21) 


Si^jlkli ;  bage,  loandiali,  angolar.  Skm  whitith,  itriped  and 
^plashed  wMi  red.  Ykdt  ilim,  juicy,  good  for  cooking.  Oo* 
tobor,  Nofomber. 

Maboil.    Thomp.  Lind.  Bon. 

NererfUL       Maneiie's  Pippin. 

An  old  English  deflsert  apple,  of  slender  growth. 
Fmit  small,  roondUi,  oblale,  yellow,  stri]^  wilh  led.    flesh 
jBsUow,  inn,  aiomatie.    October,  Norember. 

Mblyiu.  Swkbt. 

Oriffin,  Concord,  Mass.    Tree  vigorons  and  prodnctive. 

Broit  medinin,  roundish.  Skm  yellowish  green,  striped  with 
pale  red.  Flesh  rich  and  sugary.  Norember  to  Febmaiy. 

MxNAGkBB.    Thomp.  Man. 

We  received  this  fruit  jbom  Mr.  Mannii^  who^  we  believe,  had 
it  from  Germany ;  it  is  only  fit  for  cooking. 

Fmit  very  huge,  regularly  formed,  bat  very  much  flattened. 
SUb  pale  yefibw,  with  sometimes  a  Uttle  red  in  the  son.  Flesh 
toleiBDly  JBiey.    September  to  Jaoaaiy. 

Mbbbitt^8  Swbbt. 

Fmit  mediom,  oblate,  yellow,  sometimea  with  a  blosh.  Flesh 
ocHnpact,  very  sweet,  good  for  cnlinary  nse,  and  stock  feeding. 
LaH  of  Aagoit ;  prochietive. 


From  GonnecticnL  Tree  v^rona  and  vrodnctive,  mediam 
siae^  oblong,  ovaL  Skin  greenish,  marbled  and  striped  with 
red.  Flesh  white,  tender,  mild,  sab-acid,  not  rich.  Novem- 

Hsnigan.        Winter  Pearmain  of  some. 

Origin  nncertain,  mnoh  grown  in  some  sections  at  the  West, 
Tonr  ]^^activo  and  keeps  well. 

Fmit  mediam  or  below,  roandiah,  greeniah,  shaded  and 
atriped  witti  red.  Flesh  rather  firm,  pleannt,  aob^add,  not  rich. 
December,  March. 


218  IBM  APVLX. 

FiaH  laedinaii,  rooBdish,  obhta,  regdaK.  Hdn  Kflht  ned. 
Bpltthed  and  striped  with  dsr^  nd,  and  nuBarooa  M^t  dola. 
^eah  juicy,  not  very  tender,  but  ridi,  pleasant^  Mil^«eHL  Sep* 
tember,  October. 

Bed  Sveet  Fvpin. 

Tree  moderately  ^igotom,  rery  pvodnctn^ 
Fmit  medinm,  obwe,  de^  red.    Flesh  valber  diy,  awsifc. 
keeps  well,  and  valuable  for  stock  feeding.    January  to  ApriL 

MuRPHT.    Man.  Een. 

,  BaieedbyMr.]).  Murph^«ofSaleni,Matt. 

Fruit  nrett^  laige,  roonduh,  obLons*  Skin  pale  red,  streaked 
with  darker  red,  and  marked  with  blotches  of  the  same  colouTit 
Flesh  white,  tender,  with  an  agreeable  flavour.  November  to 

FonroLX  BiAurm.    ITiomp.  Lind. 

BeajcTs  Baker.       Catahead  Beaufin. 

A  laig*  fiigiiah  fnA,  only  fit  iut  aaoking  pmrposesi  Sicai 
duU  red,  on  greenish  grooiid.  Fleaik  fina,  ssdb^d^  peoa 
January  to  May. 

NovpARxiL  Scarlet.    Thomp.  Dnd.  Ron. 

New  Scarlet  KonparefL 

Foreign;  medium  size,  roundi^^  eonieaL  Skia  wbitisht 
striped  and  shaded  with  red.  Flesh  white,  firm,  juicy,  sub-acid. 
November,  December. 

Nonevoiik    Tkomp.  Lin4 
Konsuoh.    Boh,  J^&rgyOk 

An  old  English  sort 

Fmit  of  medium  sise,  r^ralar  form,  flat  Skin  ffreenish  yd- 
low,  striped  and  spotted  with.dHU  brick  red.  Flesh  white,  softi 
with  a  plentiful  sub-acid  juice*    A  great  bear^. 

NoHVARxiL,  Old.    Lang.  Lind.  iRiomp. 

Bntf»  Nonpar^       Non  FaceiUe.     0.  JMt 

The  Odd  Nonpareil  is  a  fikvoorite  apple  in  England,  bm  All 
little  esteemed  in  this  country.    November  to  January. 


Fxwfk  balov  medium  mwty  veoti&k,  s  Htde  cmwUs  and  flat- 
teiked.  Skin  greenisliPjeUev,  tUfilj  aoaled  i^h  piile  nwwt 
Fkah  firm,  cmp,  with  a  rich,  acid»  poignant  flavoor. 

Old  Field. 

Origin,  Connecticuti  a  good  grower,  bean  well,  an  old 

Fruit  mediiiin,  obkile,  oonio.  Skin  yellow,  with  a  slight 
blush.  Flesh  yellowish,  tender,  pleasant^  mild,  sub-acid.  Jana« 
ary  to  ApriL 

Obuv.    lliomp.  Lind. 

Arbroath  FipplxL    F^tyth, 

An  excellent  Scotch  apple,  ripening  early  in  Augoat.  Form 
oblate,  below  medium  size.  Skin  rather  tough,  clear  lemon  yel- 
Jow  when  quite  ripe,  and  sprinkled  with  a  few  greyish,  green 
dots.  Flesh  yellowish,  firm,  crisp,  juicy,  with  a  spicy  aromatic 
flavour.    Tree  vigorous  and  productive. 

Pbamox's  Platb.    Thompw 

A  new  variety  from  England,  and  not  yet  tested  here,  but 
which  has  a  very  high  reputation. 

Fruit  small,  about  two  and  a  half  inches  in  diameter,  regularly 
formed,  flat  Skin  greenish-yellow,  becoming  yellow,  with  a  little 
red  in  the  sun.  Flavour  first  rate  in  all  respecta.  Mr.  Thom- 
son says  this  is  a  good  bearer,  and  a  remarkably  handsome  des- 
sert froitk 

PsABMAiM,  Blus*    Man.  Ken.  Thompw 

Fruit  <^  the  larffest  siaa,  roundish,  regolafly  fomed,  very 
slightly  conical.  Son  covered  with  stripes  and  blotches  of 
dark  purplish-red,  over  a  dull  gmmad — and  appearing  bluish 
from  the  white  bloom.  Flesh  yellowish,  mild,  rather  rich  and 
0ood.  Tlie  tree  grows  strongly,  and*  bears  moderate  crops.? 
October  to  February. 

Pkabmajk,  Adams.    Thomp.  land. 

Norfolk  Pippia 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  coaical,  yellow,  striped  and  shaded  wfdi 
crimson,  and  a  few  grey  dots.  Flesh  yellowish,  crisp,  firm,  rich, 
aromatic    October  to  November. 

PsARMAJN,  Clatgatb.    Ihomp.  Lind. 
English,  not  yet  tested. 

t20  THK  AFPia. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  aad  Petrmain  shape.  Skin  menislr 
fellow,  neerly  oeveied  with  biowiiiih  red.  Fleeh  jmow,  ten- 
der, with  a  wery  rich,  aromatic  ^  lUbston  pippin  fUvoar."  The 
tree  is  very  hardy.    NoTember  to  March* 

Pkknock's  Red  Winter.    Thomp* 

Pennock.    Cbaoe. 
Big  Bomaaite.  Bed  Pennock. 

Luge  Bomanite.       Neidey's  Winter  Ftonlok. 

A  Pennsylvania  fruit,  subject  to  bitter  rot  in  most  sections, 
yet  it  succeeds  in  a  few  places. 

Fniit  quite  large,  oblique,  generally  flat,  but  occasionally 
roundi8h-H>blong.  Skin  fine  deep  red,  with  fiunt,  indistinct 
streaks  of  yellow.  Flesh  yellow,  tender  and  joicy,  with  a  plea> 
sant,  sweet  flavour.  The  tree  is  large,  makes  a  firm,  spreading 
head,  and  is  a  regular  bearer.    November  to  March. 

Psnkivgton's  Skedung.    Thomp.  land. 

An  English  fruit  of  medium  size,  nearly  flat,  a  litUe  angular. 
Skin  mosUy  covered  with  ronffh  yellow  russet,  with  a  little  pale 
brown  in  the  sun.  Flesh  yellowish,  firm,  crisp,  with  a  brisk, 
acid  juice.     November  to<March. 

Pam  Appls  Bvaanr. 

Tree  of  moderate  growth,  fruit  not  &ir  or  very  valuable. 

Fruit  medium,  conic,  angular.  Skin  whitish  yellow,  &intly 
striped.  Stalk  rather  long  and  slender,  cavity  uneven  and 
slightly  russeted.  Calyx  closed,  basin  shallow,  corrugated. 
Flesh  whitish,  jui<rv,  tender,  sub-acid,  slightly  aromatic.  Last 
of  Sept^nber  and  October. 


Probably  of  French  origin,  firoit  apt  to  be  unfeur,  unless  with 
hi^  culture. 

Fruit  large,  roundish-oblong,  with  a  slightly  uneven  surface. 
Skin  pale  yellowish-white,  rarely  with  a  famt  blush,  and  marked 
when  ripe  with  a  few  large  ruady  or  dark  specks.  Flesh  very 
tender,  breaking,  fine  grained,  with  a  mild,  agreeable,  sprightly 
flavour.    In  use  from  I>eeember  to  ApriL 


Origin,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  rather  huge,  oblate.  Skin  whitish 
yellow,  striped  and  splasiied  with  red.  Flesh  juicy,  tender, 
pleasant,  mild,  sub-acid.    March. 



On^D,  Essex  Co^  Mass.    Tree  vifforous,  produciiTe. 
Fniit  laiffOy  roundish  oblong.    Skin  pale  yellow,  with  browa 
dots.    Fiefl£  yellow,  fim,  yocj^  aub^MsidL    Septonber,  October. 

PBOwrLT.    Coie.  Tbomp. 
FriMlley'f  AoNrioMi. 

Oiigin,  Pennaylvania.  Tree  yigoroiUi  upright,  and  prodno- 

Fruit  lam,  nrandiah-oblong.  Skin  smooth,  doll  red,  with 
small  streau  of  yellowiah  green*  Flesh  white,  moderately 
juicy,  with  a  q>icy,  agreeable  flavour.    December  to  Mareh. 

Pboufio  Swut. 

FhMn  Comieetieiit  Good  ^wer,  very  prodoefehr^  tne  kt 
cooking,  ronndiah,  conic  Skm  greouah.  Fkah  wkMdi,  ten* 
der,  with  a  pleasant,  sweet,  spicy  flavour.  November  to  Feb- 

PuMPKiK  RvsaxT. 

Bweet  Boawt    Kmttiek 
Pumpkin  Sweet  )    . 
VHntRoawt,        f^ 

Froit  lame,  roand.  Flesh,  pale  yellowish  green,  slightly 
covered  with  msset.  Stalk  kag ,  aet  m  a  wide  shallow  cavity. 
Eye  narrow,  slightly  sunk.  Flesh  ezceedin^y  rich  and  sweet 
September  to  January.  Treea  large  and  spreading,  inclined  to 
rot    Not  valuable. 

Rid  Ihoxstrie.    Thomp.  Lmd. 

Eaised  by  Mr.  Knight  lliis  is  greatly  admired  as  a  dessert 
apple  in  England,  but  not  here. 

Fniit  sm2l,  oUottg  or  ovate,  with  a  wide  basan  at  the  eye, 
and  a  short  and  slender  stalk.  Skin  bright  yellow,  tmgod  uid 
mottled  with  red  on  the  sonny  aide.  Flesh  very  firm,  juicy  and 
high  flavoured.    Ripena  in  September  and  October. 

The  YxLLow  Ihoxstbix  differs  from  the  above  as  follows : 
fruit  of  smaller  size,  of  a  dear,  bright  gold  colour,  without  red« 
Eye  small  and  shallow.  Flesh  tender  and  delicate,  with  a 
plentiful  juice  when  freshly  gathered  from  the  tree.    October. 

RsD  Ain)  Gkeen  Swxxt. 
Very  large,  oblong,  conic,  ribbed.   Skin  greenish  white  with 

S!22  TBI   APFIA. 

BtripeB  of  red.  Flesh  white,  tender,  sweet ;  a  good  fruit  for 
baking  and  stock-feeding  ;  bcm  BMKlerate  crops  annually.  Mid- 
dle of  August  to  middle  of  September. 

BfeO  fVWNB  BWM. 

Tree  Tigorona,  not  very  productive.  Fruit  very  huge,  round- 
ish, conic  Skin  yiHow,  shaded  and  striped  with  r^  Flesh 
white,  juicy,  sweeti  aromatio;  exoeUanl  for  culinary  use.  Sep- 

Bbusttx  TaiOMPHAins.    M.  GhasL 

A  Oerfnaa  early  winter  apple.  Fruit  larger  oblot^,  regdarly 
formed.  Skin  jMue  yellow,  thickly  dotted  with  white  i^>eck% 
and  rough,  projecting  warts.  Fleeh  yellow,  firm,  juicy,  witii  a 
pleasant  awtnartp  flafow.  Tke  tree  ia  of  thiifly  grawtii,  aad  is 
said  t*  hear  waUL 

Boaa  NovPARXiL.    Thomp.  lind.  Bon. 

An  Irish  fruit,  rather  below  medium  siae,  roundish,  narrowing 
a  littie  to  the  eye.  Skin  covered  with  a  thin  mellow  russet^ 
and  fiuntiy  staineid  with  red  on  the  sunny  aide.  Flesh  greenish 
white,  tender,  with  a  itdi  aromatic  flavor.  A  profuse  bearer. 
Very  sulject  to  rot  before  ripeniag»    Unprofitable.    October. 


Foreign  origin,  large,  oblate,  conic,  angular.  Skb  pale  veUow, 
shaded  with  crimson.  Flesh  yellowish,  rather  firm,  brisK,  sub- 
acid.   November,  December. 

Sam  Touno.    Thomp.  lind.  P«  Ugg. 

OrMn,  Ireland.  FMt  smaH,  aKghtly  flattened,  aad  regulariy 
fcnned.  Bkin  bright  yellow,  a  ^od  desl  eoverad  with  grey 
russet  Flesh  greenish,  quite  joioy  and  tender,  witik  a  rich  and 
excellent  flavanf  .    November  to  January. 

Spiob  Swbbt. 


Tree  vioorous,  productive,  medium,  oblate,  smooth,  pale  yd- 
low.  Flew  rather  firm,  sweet,  highly  aromatic;  apt  to  be 
knotty  and  unfiur.    August^  Septeower. 


'  ftvt  Img^  TMBdkh ;  ahm  gnenkk,  striped  with  diB  fed, 
dotted  with  whitish  wpalk.  fMbi  whit«|  ooaiie,  mh^mM^  a 
kitchen  fruit    October  and  November. 

flhe  iflltoir  amafi,  urtAnig  o^,  slighdy  oome.     Mt&i  jrdlow, 

Stul'8  Swbit. 

OrigiDy  Berlin,  Conn*;  ptf^dnelive,  keepe  well,  bat  not' 
always  fiur. 

Frait  inediiim,||;lobiilar,  angular,  yeltowisk  stjjg^ht  bldsh*  flesh 
wtdte,  c5mp&ct|  luicy,  mA  a  pecoUar  sac^narine  flaToor.  De- 
cember to  Mahsn. 

&tBOAr.    Ploy.  Ken. 
Streat    Thon^. 

An  a]»Ie  formerly  in  high  esteem  among  the  descendants  of 
tlie  Dtftch  skiers  on  the  North  Rivet.    Not  pro^table. 

Fmit  above  the  taiiddle  size,  regularly  formed,  roandish 
oblong,  and  taperftig  a  little  to  the  eye.  Skin  smooth,  yellow- 
ish green.  Flesh  yelk>w,  tery  tender,  #ith  an  excellent^  rich, 
brisk  iflavow.    In  eatii^  from  fikptmber  t#  Deeenbet. 

*     BimPHMb    Ihevp^ 

A  small,  roand,  whitish  yellow  apple,  of  lil^  or  no  vkdne,  but 
idmired  by  some  for  its  singularity — the  flesh  being  stained  with 
■ed.    November  to  Jamisry. 

B€i^mm  ^um*  Ptnm.    1%omp.  lind.  F.  11^. 

A  nice  little  Engliah  dessert  apple,  but  inferior  to  many  of  our 
own.  Fmit  small,  ovate,  flattaned  at  the  eye.  Skin  shining 
bright  yellow,  with  a  little  orange  next  the  sun.  Flesh  yellow, 
firm,  crisps  atid  rick    Angwt 

Sweet  akb  Souk. 

Fruit  large,  oblate,  ribbed,  the  ribs  beiug  green,  and  the  inter- 
vening hollows  light  yellow ;  the  ribs  beanng  the  iavov  of  the 
fyni,  which  is  acid,  the  intervening  hollows  lMin|[afaiioit  flavonr- 
]emn  bui  sweetMi ;  this  poriaoa  aot  having  its  juiee  well  ekibo' 
rabedL    Deeemb^,  February. 

224  IBM  APFIA 

Tablb  GaannHO. 

Origin,  Ckmiiah,  Maine.  PromisM  to  be  Tft-naUe^  as  a  very 
late  kmper.    Medium  aise,  pleaaant  ibsfoai. 

Origin,  New  England* 

Emit  medimn,  ouate,  ffldn  green,  netted  w&l  ranefc,  aone* 
times  with  a  dull  brown  clieek.  flesh  yellowiahi  eixceedin|^y 
sweet  and  rich.  ^  A  regnhur  bnt  not  profose  bearer.  Septem^* 
October.    Beqnires  high  culture. 


Tree  Yigoroos  and  prodactiye. 

Fruit  \«rf^  oblong  conic  Skin  light  yellow.  Fleah  tender, 
juicy,  not  high  flayoured.    November,  December. 

TuRH  OFF  Lank. 

Winter  Strawbeny. 

Origin,  Salem,  New  Jersey.  Medium  or  below  oblaiOi 
yellow,  striped  with  red;  brisk,  sprightly  flavour*  Prised  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  its  origin  as  a  late  keeper. 


From  Connectiout  Fruit  Mr  and  yery  prodnctiye,  large, 
oblate,  slightly  conic.  Skin  green,  with  a  duD  blush  and  many 
li^t  dots.  Flesh  greeaish,  tendet^  j^oey^  snb^acid,  not  rich. 
January,  Febniary. 

Watson's  Dum PLurck 

A  large  English  kitchen  apple,  nearly  round,  yellowish  green, 
fidntly  striped  with  dull  red  Flesh  juiey,  pleaiaiit»  sab-acid. 
October  to  January. 

WsTHXRiLL^s  White  Swkkt. 

From  New  Jersey.    Tree  vigorous,  very  produetrreb 
Fruit  large,  yellow.    Flesh  white,  sweet    September. 

Whitk  Swbbt. 

Ori^m,  Maine.    Tree  vigorous,  very  |»odttctiya 
Fruit  medium,  roundish,  oMate.    Skin  white,  witii  a  slight 
crimson  cheek.    Flesh  white,  compact,  juicy,  very  sweet,  exeel« 
lent  for  culinary  uses  and  stock  feeding.    Septembw,  October. 

TBM  APPLS.*  22< 

Whitb  ABTRAOHiJi.    Tkoup.  LumL  p.  Mag. 


Fynit  iLBlnoMiioi.    Jk  ChndoOt, 

Transparent  do  MosooTie^  Vofikel^&ich  gordmi, 


A  nearly  white,  semi-transparent,  Russian  apple. 

FVnit  of  medium  size,  roundish.  Skin  very  smooth,  nearly 
white,  with  a  few  fiunt  streaks  of  red  on  one  side,  and  covered 
with  a  white  bloom.  Flesh  quite  white,  partially  trknK>arent| 
tender,  and  of  delicate  flaTour,  out  rather  dry.    First  <Kf  August. 


Medium  siie,  oblate,  angular,  colour  light  red,  striped  and 
splashed  with  dark  red.  Flesh  white,  tender,  tweet  and  pleasant 
October.    Great  bearer. 

WiHTiB  QuxsH.    Coze. 

Winter  Qaeening.    Thm^. 

Fruit  medium,  conical.  Skin  fine  deep  crimson  in  the  sun, 
dotted  with  yellow ;  of  a  paler  and  livelier  red,  in  the  shade. 
Flesh  yellowmh,  of  a  mild  and  rather  pleasant,  sub-acid  flavour. 
The  tree  is  an  abundant  bearer.    November  to  February. 

WoBMsuT  PiPFDT.    Thomp.  land.  P.  Mag. 

Xjii^t's  Godlin. 

An  English  fruit,  middle-sized,  roundish,  tapering  a  little  to- 
wards the  eye.  Skin  pale  green,  or  straw  colour,  darker  next 
the  son.  flesh  white,  crisp,  firm,  with  a  sharp,  sub-add  juice. 

0LA8B  lY. 

CoOPXb'b  BuBflETINO.      CoXC. 

This  native  apple  is  especially  suited  to  light  sandy  soils, 
where  some  other  aorti  &iL  It  makes  an  exceedingly  strong 
cider  <tf  delicious  flavour. 

Fruit  small,  oblong  or  ovate,  pale  yellow,  partially  covered 
with  russet.  Stalk  slender,  and  very  long.  Flesh  dry,  rich  and 
sweet  The  fruit  is  fit  for  cider  in  November,  keeps  well 
through  the  winter,  and  is  esteemed  by  many  for  cooking.  Tree 
sm^l,  with  numerous  little  branches. 


226  THB    AfPLB. 

CAMmBLD.    Coxe. 
Newark  Sweeting.        Sweet  Maiden's  Bhiah. 

Another  capital  New  Jersey  cider  applet  rmnkiitff  next  to  th« 
Harrison.  It  forms  a  fine  Urge  tree,  witji  straigaty  apreadiog 
limbs,  and  is  very  productive,  fine  for  baldiig  and  stock  feed- 

Fniit  of  medium  size,  roundish,  lather  flattened*  Skin 
smooth^  vashed  and  striped  with  red,  over  a  greenish-yellow 
ground.  Flesh  white,  rather  dry,  firm,  rich  and  sweet  April, 

GiLPiH.    Coze.  Thomp. 

CarthoQse.        BmaU  KomanitGL 
Romanite  of  the  Wtet 

A  handsome  cider  fruit,  from  Virginia,  which  is  also  a  very 
good  table  fruit  from  February  to  May.  A  veiy  haidy,  vigor- 
ous and  fruitful  tree. 

Fruit  of  medium  siia,  foundnb-ohiong;  Skin  very  smooth 
and  handsome,  richly  streaked  with  deep  red  and  yellow,  StaUc 
short,  deeply  inserted.  Calyx  in  a  round,  rather  deep  basin. 
Flesh  yellow,  firm,  juicy  and  rich,  becoming  tender  and  sprightly 
in  the  spring. 

Harrison.    Coxe. 

New  Jersey  is  the  most  celebrated  cider  making  district  in 
America,  and  this  apple,  which  ori^naled  in  Essex  County,  of 
that  State,  has  long  enjoyed  the  hi^est  reputation  as  a  cider 
fruit  Ten  bushels  of  the  apples  make  a  barrel  of  cider.  The 
tree  grows  thriftily,  and  bears  very  large  crops. 

Fruit  medium  size,  ovate  or  roundish-oblong.  Skin  yellow, 
with  roughish,  distinct  black  specks.  Stem  one  inch,  or  more, 
long.  Flesh  yellow,  rather  dry  and  tough,  but  with  a  rich  fla- 
vour, producing  a  high  colonrad  cider,  of  great  body.  The 
fruit  is  very  free  from  rot,  falls  easily  from  the  tree  about  the 
first  of  November,  and  beep*  weU.  The  best  cider  of  this 
variety,  is  worth  from  six  to  ten  dollars  a  barrel,  in  New  York. 

Hkwe's  Virginia  Crab.    Coxe. 

The  Virginia  Crab  makea  a  very  high  fiavmired  diy  cider, 
which,  by  connoisseurs,  is  thought  unsorpaased  in  flavour  by 
any  other,  and  retains  its  soandnesa  a  long  time.  It  is  a  pr^ 
digious  bearer,  and  the  tree  is  very  hardy,  thoagh  of  BmaU 

Fnrit  quite  small,  about  an  inch  and  a  half  in  diameter,  nearly 
round.    Skin  dull  red,  dotted  with  white  specks,  and  obecnrely 

WB   APPIiS.  S2) 

flfcreftked  wkh  greeDkh-yellow.  Siftik  long  Mid  deader.  Ffesh 
fibrow,  witk  an  aekly  raagiiy  aad  Mtnngesit  flav^vr,  and  whan 
grooad^  rum  etear  and  limpid  from  the  prat,  and  lennentB  very 
skmly.  Tke  Viigiiiia  Grab  is  often  mixed  with  rich  pulpy  ap- 
plSa»  to  which  it  iaiparlaa  good  deal  of  its  flae  qoalily. 

13ie  BoAKs'a  Wmrs  Osab  is  anib^ariel^  oc  the  foegeingi 
ahoat  the  flame  aixe^  wiih  a  yeBew  ikixu  It  makee  a  rich^ 
atrong,  blight  htfiar^  and  keepe  thfong^ool  the  •muner,  in  a 
wett-buiged  caflk,  peilbctly  aweet 

KumAm  Obab.    LiiidL 

lAh  k  a  belebrated  M  English  cider  fruit,  scarcely  known  in 
this  oocintnr.  landley  says,  when  phmted  on  a  dry  soil^  with  a 
calcareoQs  bottom,  it  produces  a  most  exceUent  eider.  The  spe- 
cific jRavity  of  its  JTUce  ii  1081. 

^raiit  small,  ill-shaped,  something  between  an  apple  and  a 
crab,  more  lon^  than  broad,  wide  at  tne  base  and  narrow  at  the 
crown,  which  is  a  little  sank,  and  the  e^e  flat  Skin  pale  yel- 
low, a  little  marbled  in  different  directions  with  a  msset-grey, 
and  havi^^  a  few  red  qMcks  ot  streaks  en  tlM  aaMy  Me,  Eye 
fial^  with  a  lyreadiDg  4»lyx.    Stalk  short'* 

RbbStbsak.    Ooaeb 

A  capital  English  dder  apple,  which  thrives  admirably  in 
this  country,  and  is  veiy  hignly  esteemed,  as  it  makes  a  rich, 
high  flaToored,  strong  liquor.  It  is  a  handsome  grower,  and  a 
great  beareh 

Fhih  of  medium  size,  roundish.  Calyx  small,  set  in  a  rather 
deep  iMsin.  Stalk  rather  slender  and  short  Skin  richly 
streakecl  with  red,  with  a  few  yellow  streaks  and  spots.  Fledi 
yellow,  rich,  firm,  and  diy. 

Sttsb.   Thomp. 

FoTOBtfi^rrs^    LkkL       Si^Nb    Ooxe. 

The  Styre  ia  a  femoua  old  English  cider  firuit,  and  lindley 
remarks  that  Styre  cider  may  be  Iband  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Chepstow,  thir^  or  forty  yean  <^ 

.  Fruit  middle  siae,  roandi  pale  yellow,  with  an  ocange  cheek 
Stalk  short  Flesh  firm,  of  high  flavoar,  and  makea  a  high- 
coloured  liquor.  The  tree  thrives  well  here,  and  forms  a  very 
upright,  broom-like  head.    October  to  Janaaiy. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing,  several  of  the  table  apples 
lihieacty  described  are  esteemed  for  eider,  as  the  Newtown  Pippin, 

228  THS  APPLB. 

Wine  Apfde,  Winesam  ^o,  and  some  of  the  hiffh-flaToared  Eng 
lifih  ▼azietiet  in  the  preceding  pages  are  very  highly  valned  for 
cider  in  Britain— the  Golden  Pippin,  Golden  Ha^ey,  Downton, 
d^c  The  Fox  Whelp  is  a  very  celebrated  ap|^e  of  this  clas^ 
used  to  flavour  and  give  strength  to  nearly  all  the  dioioe  cider 
of  Herefordshire^  wh^  is  not  yet  introdnced  here,  to  onr  know- 
ledge. It  is  middle  siaed,  ovate,  dark  red,  with  a  rich,  heavy 
juice  of  the  sfyecific  gravity  1078.  The  SmsuAir  Bimm 
SwEKT  is  a  variety  of  crab  raised  by  Mr.  Knight,  and  about 
twice  the  size  of  we  Siberian  Crab,  small,  roundish  ovate,  yel 
low;  an  immense  bearer,  and  held  in  very  high  esteem  in  Eng- 
land, for  mixing  with  other  cider  aiqplesi  to  impart  richness. 



SiBXRiAH  Obab.  Arb,  BriU 
Kshabseoafta.    IML       PymsbaoaitB.    Af^  Brit 

The  common  Siberian  Crab  is  a  beantifol  little  ftnit,  which  is 
produced  in  rich  clusters  on  the  branches,  and,  at  a  distance, 
resembles  laige  and  handsome  cherries.  It  is  highly  esteemed 
for  preserving,  and  almost  every  large  garden  in  the  middle 
States  contains  a  tree  of  this  vanety.  It  forms  a  vigorous,  neat 
tree,  of  raUier  small  size,  and  its  blossoms,  which  are  white,  are 
produced  in  beautiful  profusion  in  spring,  and  a  large  crop  of 
miit  regularly  follows. 

Fruit  about  three  fourths  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  very  regu- 
larly formed,  and  rather  flat  Skin  smooth,  of  a  lively  scanet, 
over  a  clear  yellow  ground,  and  when  the  bloom  is  rubbed  ofl^ 
is  highly  polished.  Stalk  nearly  two  inches  long,  and  very 
slender.  Calyx  small,  slightly  sunk.  Fit  for  preserving  in  Sep- 
tember and  October. 

Larob  Rbd  Sibbbiab  Crab. 

Pyras  ProiibHa.    Arh.  BHL 

'Dm  variety  is  about  twice  the  size  of  the  foregoing,  romid- 
ish-ovate,  with  a  large  and  prominent  calyx,  and  a  pale  red  and 
yellow  skin.  It  forms  a  larger  tree,  with  ri^er  coarser  foliage 
than  the  oonunon  varietv,  and  is  esteemed  for  the  same  pur- 
poses.   September  and  October. 

•  TxLLow  Sibbriah  Crab. 

Amber  Crab. 
This  scarcely  differs  from  the  common  Siberian  Crab^  ezoepi 

THK   APPLB.  289 

in  its  fruiti  which  is  rather  Uuger^  and  of  a  fine  amber  or  golden 
yellow.  Both  this  and  the  red  are  beantifiil  ornaments  to  the 
finit  garden  in  sommer  and  autumn,  and  are  equally  esteemed 
for  preserves  and  jellies.    September. 

<^ite  a  number  of  seedlings  have  been  raised  from  the  Sibe- 
rian Crab  in  this  country,  mostly  of  Imer  siae-— some  by  Mr. 
Manning,  of  Salem,  and  several  by  Mr.  Thompson,  of  Catskill, 
scarcely  deserving  of  special  notice  here. 

DouBLB  Flowsrikg  Chinxsb  Crab. 

Fyras  SpectabfliflL    Atff.  Bit 
Malus  SpectabiliB.    K.  Duk. 
Double  flowering  Apple. 

This  very  beantiiul  crab  tree  from  China,  which  produces  a 
small  green  fruity  of  no  value,  is  highly  admired  ibr  its  showy 
blossoms.  These  are  lam,  tipped  with  deep  red  in  the  bud,  hvi 
when  open,  are  of  a  pale  rose  colour,  semi-double,  huge,  and 
produced  in  fine  clusters.  It  is  an  exceedinglv  ornamental, 
small  tree,  growing  ftom  ten  to  twenty  feet  in  height 

DouBLB  Wbitb  Sibbbiab  Cbab. 


Fruit  three  fourths  of  an  inch  high,  and  one  and  a  quarter 
broad,  roundish,  irregular,  swollen  on  one  side.  Stalk  one  third 
of  an  inch  long,  obliquely  inserted  at  the  surface,  eye  large,  even 
with  the  surface,  closed.  Colour  red  carmine  on  the  siu^  side, 
sreen  on  the  shaded  side,  covered  with  a  white  bloom.  Blowers 
Jaige  double  white,  very  (miamental.    (Leroy  in  Hort) 

Currant  Crab. 

Pommfi  CfrxmOle. 

The  finits  of  this  kind  of  apple  are  of  the  size  of  currants,  and 
are  borne  like  them  in  clusters ;  they  are  round,  a  little  compress- 
ed towards  the  ends.  Stem  about  half  an  inch  long.  Coloor  red, 
slightly  striped  with  deep  red ;  it  is  ornamental  in  its  flowers  as 
wdl  as  its  fruits.    (Leioy  in  Hort) 


Baecaia  fntcta  pttrpurea  or  rosea. 

Fruit  about  one  inch  high,  and  one  and  a  half  broad,  oblate. 
Stem  two  thirds  of  an  inch  long,  slender,  inserted  in  a  large 
cavity.  Colour  beautiful  reddish  purple  on  the  sunny  side,  cover- 
ed with  a  bloom,  the  shaded  side  less  brilliant,  and  the  whole 
surfiace  speckled  with  some  grey  dots.  Flesh,  like  all  the  crabsi 
coarse  and  harsh.    (Leroy  in  Hort) 


TBS  APF!.!. 

Stupsd  SiBKRiAir  Crab. 

Fruit  one  and  a  third  of  an  inch  high,  and  one  and  a  ball 
broad,  TOtindish.  Stem  balf  an  inch  lone;,  inserted  in  a  large 
cavity.  Cploor  rose  yellowish,  red  striped  all  over,  carmine  on 
the  sonny  side,  more  yellow  towards  the  stem,  covered  with  a 
fine  white  bloom ;  this  is  an  extremely  ornamental  tree.  (Leroy 
in  Hort) 

Select  List  ofAppUsj  ripening  in  iuceeuion^  to  suit  the  Middle 
and  Southern  partioni  of  the  Eastern  States. 


Earlj  Strawbeny. 

Snnuner  Rose. 



American  Sonmier  Petrmain. 

Garden  BoTnL 



Jersey  Sweet 

Large  Tellow  Bongjh. 


Maiden's  Blnah. 

Autumn  BwMt  Baa|^ 

Fan  Pippin. 




Esopus  SpitEenbuTgfa. 

Yandarefe  </V.  Y. 



Yellow  BeOflower. 


Anerioan  Qeltai  ] 


Peek's  Pleaamt 


Bbode  Island  Greening. 

King  of  Tompkins  Oa. 



Bed  Canada. 
Newtown  Pippin. 
Boston  BuBset. 
Northern  Spy. 
Wine  Sap. 

Selection  of  Apples  for  the  North. 

Bed  Astrachan. 

Bariy  Sweet  Bough. 

Sops  of  Witte  or  Bell's  IMy. 

Gddea  Sweet 

.William's  Favourite. 


Butchefls  of  Oldenbuiigh. 

Keswick  CodUn. 




Tolman  Sweet 


Pomme  Gria 
Canada  Belnette. 
Yellow  Bellflowor. 
St  Lawrence. 
Jewetf  8  fine  Bed. 
Bbode  Island  Greening. 

Wintbrop  Greening. 
Banyers  Winter  Sweet 
Ribstone  Pippin. 
Bozbuiy  r 

Selection  of  Apptes  for  the  Western  States, 
The  following  list  was  made  np  from  the  contribiitioitt  of 



twenty  different  cultiTftton  from  ike  8tateB  of  Oliks  Michigmi 
lilisoia^  IndiuM  and  eMtem  Iow«. 

Eariy  Harvest 

OBTolina  Red  June. 


L«ge  Swoet  Bough. 

Amorioan  Summor  I^rmara 

Sweet  Jane. 

Saminer  Queen. 


Keswidc  Oodfin. 







WeMeld  8eek««o«Brther.  - 

Ortiej  or  WMfee  BeUflMree. 


Vandevere  of  K.  Y,  or  Newtown 

Yellow  BeDflower. 
Wliito  Pinrfn. 
Abodomi  GoMeA  ] 
Herefordshire  Peannain. 
White  Winter  Peannain. 
Wine  Sap. 
Baiwle'a  Janet 
Willow  Twig. 

Toknan  Sweet 
Borne  Beauty. 

Kewtown  Pippin  doea  not  generally  soooeed  at  the  Weal^  yet  in  soma 
J  are  Terj  fine.    Rhode  laland  Greening  and  Baldwin  gene- 

lecaBtiw  they  ^ ^  — ^    ^ ^- ^ 

lallgr  &il  in  many  aeotiona,  while  hi  otheis  they  are  exeeilent 

A  Selection  of  Jjftpies  for  the  South  and  South-we^t. 

Early  Hanreat 

OavriuM  Jmeu 

Bed  Aateflhan. 


American  Summer  Peanuain. 



IW  Pippin. 

Haaden'a  Bhiah. 

Summer  Boee. 



Laige  Early  Bough. 

Fall  Queen  or  Ladiea'  FaYOorite. 

Ooonee  Greemng. 



Mavcnok^a  Sweet 

Batehelor  or  Kity. 








Large  Striped  Peannain. 

Rawle's  Janet 




Camack'a  Sweet 


Amyffdahta  comnwmiay  Dec    RosacecB^  of  botaniatB. 
of  the  French  ;    Mamddbcmn^  German ;    Mandorh,  Italian : 
AbiMndirOf  Spanish. 

Thb  Almond  tree,  which  is  a  natiye  of  the  north  of  Afrkii 

282  THB   ALMOND. 

and  the  mountains  of  Asia,  has  lon^  been  cultivated,  and  ir 
mentioned  in  scripture  as  one  of  the  cnaims  of  the  fertile  land 
of  Canaan.  It  so  strongly  resembles  the  peach  tree  that  it  is 
difficult  to  distinguish  it  by  the  leaves  and  wood  only ;  indeed, 
several  botanists  are  of  opinion,  from  experimeiits  made  in 
raising  the  alinond  from  seed,  that  this  tree  and  the  peach  are 
originally  the  same  species,  and  that  the  rich  and  luscious 
peach  is  the  effect  of  accidental  variation,  produced  by  culture 
on  the  almond.  The  chief  distinction  between  the  two  in  our 
gardens  lies  in  the  fruit,  which,  in  the  almond,  consists  of  little 
more  than  a  stone  covered  with  a  thick,  dry,  woolly  sidn,  while 
the  peach  has  in  addition  a  rich  and  luscious  flesh.  The  bloe- 
soms  of  the  almond  resemble  those  of  the  peach,  but  are  larger ; 
they  are  produced  in  great  profusion,  early  in  the  seaaoo,  baore 
the  leaves,  and  are  very  ornamental. 

Viet.  The  kernel  of  the  sweet  almond  is  highly  esteemed  as 
an  article  of  food,  and  is  largely  used  as  an  ingredient  in 
confectionery,  cookery,  and  perfdmery.  It  is  raised  in  great 
quantities  in  the  south  of  Europe,  etqpecially  in  Portugal,  and  is 
an  important  article  of  commerce.  The  bitter  almond  is  used 
in  cookery  and  confectionery,  and  in  medicine ;  it  furnishes  the 
prussic  acid  of  the  shops,  one  of  the  most  powerful  of  poisons. 
From  both  species  an  oil  is  also  obtained. 

In  France  the  almond  is  preferred  as  a  stock  on  which  to 
bud  and  graft  the  peach,  which  in  a  very  dry  climate  or  chalky 
soil,  it  is  found,  renders  the  latter  more  healthy  and  fruitful  than 
its  own  bottom.  The  sweet  hard-shelled  variety  {Douce  d  cogue 
dure,)  is  preferred  for  stocks  by  French  nurserymen. 

Cultivation,  The  almond  thrives  best  in  a  warm  dry  soil, 
and  its  general  cultivation  in  this  country  is  precisely  like  that 
of  the  (i^ach.  The  sweet  almond  is  the  only  variety  considered 
of  value  here,  and  it  is  usually  propagated  by  budding  it  on 
Plum  stock,  or  on  the  bitter  almond  seedlings.  It  is  rather 
more  hardy  at  the  north  when  budded  on  the  former,  and  as  the 
buds  of  the  sweet  abnond  are  rather  slender  and  small,  the  plum 
stocks  to  be  budded  should  be  thrifty  seedlings  not  more  than 
a  fourth  of  an  inch  in  diameter  at  the  place  where  the  bud  ia 

The  Common  Almond,  the  Hard-Shell  Sweet  Almond,  and 
the  Bitter  Almond,  are  hardy  in  the  latitude  of  New  York,  and 
will  bear  tolerable  crops  without  care.  The  Soft-Shell  Sweet 
Almond,  or  Ladies*  Almond,  will  not  thrive  well  in  the  open 
garden  as  a  standard,  north  of  Philadelphia ;  but  they  succeed 
well  trained  to  a  wall  or  on  espalier  rails  in  a  warm  situation  « 
the  branches  being  slightly  protected  in  winter. 

There  is  no  apparent  reason  why  the  culture  of  the  almond 
should  not  be  pursued  to  a  profitable  extent  in  the  warm  and 
fiivourable  climate  of  some  of  the  southern  states.    Especially 

TBB   ALMOKD.  299 

in  the  valley  of  UieOIuo  aadTeiiiMnee  it  wovldbelikeljtorao 
ceed  admirably. 

Common  Almohd.    Hemp.  Lmd. 

A.  0.  diiloia.    Dee, 

Amandier  A  Petit  Fruity )  ^  j^^ 

■    ■      coBuntiiii     J 

Amanda  aommane. 
CJoounon  Sweet 

Thk  ia  the  common  Sweet  Aknoad  of  Amoe  and  tiia  aaoth 
of  Europe,  and  ia  one  of  the  moat  hardy  and  prodnctiTe  aorta 
here.  ]N  uta  hard,  amooth,  about  aa  inch  and  a  qoarter  long, 
comprened  and  pointed,  of  an  agvaeable  flavour,  bat  inferior  to 
the  Mowing,  flowen  expand  before  the  leavea.  Bipena  laat 
of  September. 

Thb  Long  Hard-Shsll  Almoitd. 

Amandier  A  groa  fruit     0.  Ihih. 
doR    HbU, 

A  variety  with  handaome  large,  pale  rose  coloured  flowersi 
opening  before  the  leavea,  and  large  and  long  fruit  a  third  longer 
than  ouier  varieties.  The  stone  ia  about  as  large  as  the  soft* 
ahell  variety,  but  the  kernel  ia  larger  and  plumper.  This  is  a 
good  hardy  sort,  and  it  ia  very  ornamental  when  in  bloeaom. 
Kipena  about  the  last  of  September. 

Son-SnsLL  Swur  Axmokd,    Lind. 

Ikmx  4  eoqoa  taadra.  )  «%,_„ 

Amandier  4  ooqne  tendiu     0.  J)Jl 

dee  Bamee.    Ni  Duhf  FoO. 

Amandier  dee  Dames^  )  Koimgiu. 
On  Amanda  Prinoeaae.  I  -"*"•**' 
Ladiee' Thin  Shell 

The  Soft^hell  or  Ladiea'  Almond,  ia  the  fineat  of  all  the  al- 
monda.  It  is  the  very  variety  common  in  the  shops  of  the  con- 
fectionera,  with  a  shell  so  thin  aa  to  be  easilv  crushed  between 
the  fingers,  and  the  kernel  of  which  is  so  highly  eeteemed  at  the 
dessert  It  ripens  early  in  the  aeaaon,  aim  ia  alao  highly  ea- 
teemed  in  a  yoimg  or  mah  state,  bemg  served  on  the  1»ble  for 
this  pnrpoae  about  the  middle  of  July  in  Paris.  The  bloasoma 
of  this  variety  expand  at  the  same  time  with  the  leaves,  and  are 
more  deeply  tinW  with  red  than  the  foregoing.  Several 
varieties  are  made  of  this  in  France,  but  they  are  (as  quoted 
above)  all  essentially  the  same. 

Fruit  two  inchea  long,  oval,  eompresaed.    The  nut  ia  more 

284  TBB  MLUOm. 

.  thaa  an  incli  long^  oval,  poioM,  onMded,  widi  a  l^t  col<Narei| 
porous,  yery  tenoer  shelL    The  kernel  sweet  and  nch. 

On  the  plnm  stock,  in  a  fiivonrable  aspecti  this  almond  sac  • 
ceedfl^  with  a  little  oare^  in  the  middle  SUttas. 

SuiMKA  SwssT  Almoih).    Und. 

AmandQ  Sultineu  0.  DiA.  JMl 

Amandier  Soltaneu       fioitaiL    Thomp.* 

A  tfliider  akelM  dhnoild  «€  excellent  analitt,  witb  «maller 
ftnt  and  nanower  kemd  than  the  Soft4SneU  Almond^  but  of 
eqnilly  ezoelleiit  taveur,  and  wbldi  ia  preferred  by  many.  It 
is  thoinghti  by  Peheao,  to  be  acaroehr  different  ftom  t^e  SoA- 
BheM  or  Ladies'  Almond. 

PiBTACHiA  SwxsT  Almoni).    Lind^ 

AaatiAe  PlitedM.    aiMkK&tf. 

Axnaodifir  Piatache. 

A  Tariely  of  almcMid  witili  a  rery  smi^  pointed  fruity  about 
the  siae  and  shape  of  that  of  a  Pistaehia,  enclosiiig  a  kaniel  ci 
a  delicate  sweet  ^vour.  The  shell  not  quite  so  soft  aa-  the 
SofirShell  Almond.  This  is  scarcely  known  yet  in  this  coiuitij, 
but  is  worth  further  trial  at  the  South. 

Peaob  Aucovd. 

ABModier-Peeher.    K  DiA.  If&iB,  iM. 

A  rather  indifferent  Tariety ,  seaviy  8we«t,  biit  often  slightly 
bitter.  It  is  a  true  cross  between  the  peach  and  the  almond, 
and  in  its  leaves,  flowers,  and  stone  strongly  resembles  the 
peach ;  the  fruit  is  also  pulpy  and  of  tolerable  flavour,  like  an  in* 
different  peach.  The  nut  scarcely  ever  ripens  well  as  hi  north 
as  this. 

BiTTSB  Almond,    lliomp.  lind. 

The  Bitter  Alnaond  haa  large  pale  blosBoma»  diffsring  little 
from  the  common  almond,  eac^  m  the  kernel,  which  is  bitten 
There  are  two  varieties,  one  witn  a  ban),  and  the  odier  with  a 
brittle  shell  The  friiH,  whidi  is  produced  abundantly,  ripens  in 
SeptMdi>er.  The  leaves  are  longer  and  of  a  darker  green  than 
ihiot^  of  most  of  the  sweet  fruited  vari<^iea. 

*  We  oaimot  feUow  Mr.  niompBon  in  his  tiomendature  of  Almonds,  aa 
be  (or  his  printer)  mistakes  the  meaning  of  the  French  terms;  Amande 
Sultaae  of  all  the  French  authors  should  be  traiudated  Sultaoai  not  fiuHaii. 


OftKAMENTAL  Yabotixs.  The  JOvfuff  DoMe  Fhw^rin^ 
Alnumdf  {Amygdaltupumila.  Ian.  PrwMU  amensitj  of  some,)  ii 
a  beanti^  weH-known,  low  sbrab,  eztremeW  ornamental  in 
spmg,  being  coyered  with  a  prolusion  of  •maU  pink  bloMoma, 
verv  doable. 

llie  Large  Bouble  flowering  Almond  lA.  a  grand  JUur^  N* 
DttA.)  {A.  commiumB  pUno^  ift  a  beaotifm  French  varietj,  with 
large,  nearij  white  flowen,  two  inches  in  diameter.  It  also 
beara  a  good,  amall,  haidiihell  Almond, 


ArmeMtua  wiQatia^  Deo.    Botacea^  of  >etaiMa 

Abriooia&r^  of  the  French;  ApnhoBmiboiim^  German;  Atber^^oa^  Belian; 

AJbmicofuie^  Spenlab. 

Thx  Apricot  18  one  of  the  moet  beantiAil  of  atone  frnit  traesi 
easily  known  bj  its  glossy  heart-shaped  foliagei  laxge  white 
blosBomsy  and  smooth-skinned^  golden  or  roddy  fruitb  In  the 
firoit  garden  it.  is  a  highly  atdiictive  object  in  early  q>ring,  as 
its  charming  flowers  are  the  first  to  expand.  It  forms  a  fine 
spreading  tree  of  about  twenty  feet  in  hei^ht»  and  is  hardy 
enouffh  to  bear  as  an  open  standard  south  of  Uie  42^  of  latitude 
in  this  country. 

The  native  countries  of  ttiis  tree  are  Armenia,  Arabia,  and 
the  higher  regions  of  centnd  Asia.  It  is  largely  cultivated  in 
China  and  Japan ;  and,  indeed,  according  to  the  accounts  of 
Giosier  the  mountains  west  of  Pekin  are  covered  with  a  natural 
growth  of  apricots.  The  names  by  whidi  it  is  known  in  various 
European  countries  all  seem  to  be  cormptions  of  the  original 
Arabic  term  Berkoehe, 

XJsss.  A  very  handsome  and  delicious  dessert  fruit,  only  in- 
feriour  to  the  peach,  ripening  about  midsummer,  after  cherries, 
and  before  plums,  at  a  season  when  it  is  peculiarly  acceptable. 
For  preserving  in  sugar  or  brandy,  for  jellies  or  pastries,  it  is 
highly  esteemed,  and,  where  it  is  abundant,  an  admirable  liquor 
is  made  from  'die  frmt ;  and  it  is  also  dried  for  winter  use.  In 
some  parts  of  Germany,  the  free  bearing  sorts — ^the  Turkey, 
Orange,  and  Breda — are  largely  eoltivated  Ibr  this  purpose. 

Gm.TivATiON.  This  tree  is  almost  alwajns  budded  on  the 
plum  stock  (on  which  in  July  it  takes  readily,)  as  it  is  found 
more  hardy  and  durable  than  upon  its  own  root — Many  Ame- 
rican nurserymen  bud  the  apricot  on  the  peach,  but  the  trees, 
so  |»x>duced,  are  of  a  very  inferiour  quality — short  lived,  mors 

286  THE   APRIOOT. 

liable  to  diseases,  and  the  frait  of  a  second  rate  flavonr.  Bud- 
ded on  the  plam  they  are  well  adapted  to  strong  soils,  in  which 
they  always  hold  their  frait  better  than  in  light  sandy  soils. 

Apricots  generally  grow  very  thriftily,  and  soon  make  fine 
heads,  and  produce  an  abundance  of  blossoms  and  yonng  fruit; 
but  the  crop  of  the  latter  freqnwtly  Mh  off  when  half  grown, 
from  being  stung  by  the  Plum-weevil  or  curcnlio,  to  which  the 
smooth  t&n  of  this  fhiit  seems  highly  attractive.  To  remedy 
this,  the  same  course  must  be  pursued  as  is  direeted  for  tho 
plum.  Seedling  apricots  are  usually  more  hardy  and  productive 
here,  than  the  finer  grafted  sorts. 

This  is  a  favourite  tree  for  training  on  walls  or  espaliers,  and^ 
in  town  wardens  especially,  we  often  see  it  trained  against  the 
sides  of  brick  houses,  aiMl  yielding  most  abundantly.  As  it 
bears  its  fruit  in  the  same  wav  as  the  peach,  and  requires  the 
same  management,  we  must  rmr  our  readers  to  the  latter  head 
for  direction  as  to  pruning  and  training.  As  the  apricot,  how* 
ever,  expands  its  blossoms  very  early,  it  should  not  be  placed  on 
an  east  wall,  or  in  a  situation  where  it  is  too  much  exposed  to 
the  full  morning  sun. 

Diseases.  When  budded  on  tiie  Plom,  this  tree  is  but  little 
liable  to  diseases,  and  may  be  considered  a  hardy  fruit  tree.  In 
order  to  render  it  fruitful,  and  keep  it  for  a  long  time  in  a  pro- 
ductive state,  we  cannot  too  strongly  urge  the  advantages  of  the 
^horteninff-in  system  of  pruning  recommended  for  the  peach. 

Albxrgier.    Thomp.  N.  Duh.  Nois. 

Albeige.    0.  Duh,  Bon.  Jard. 

This  is  a  variety  very  common  in  the  interiour  of  FrancOi 

where  it  is  constantly  reproduced  with  but  little  variation  from 

the  seed — Alherge  being  the  name  of  the  apricot  in  some  of  the 

E'lnces.    It  is  a  free  grower,  and  bears  well,  but  is  neither  so 
nor  fine  as  many  other  varieties.    The  leaves  are  small, 
>ften  have  little  wing-like  ears  at  the  base.    The  Albeigiera 
are  much  qsed  for  stocks  in  France. 

Fruit  small,  roundish,  deep  yellow.  Flesh  reddish,  firm,  with 
a  brisk,  vinous  flavour.  Stone  compressed ;  kernel  bitter.  Es- 
teemed for  preserving.  There  are  several  varieties  of  this  not 
yet  introduced  into  the  United  States,  the  finest  of  which  are 
the  Albergier  de  Tours^  and  A.  de  Montgamet  Ripe  middle  of 

Breda*    Thomp.  land.  P.  Mag. 

DoHbUande,  1 

Amande  Aveline,  . 

Persique,  Inawffc 

This  is  a  very  excellent  small  Apricot,  said  to  be  originally  from 

TBI  ▲PBIOOT.  231 

Africa,  which  beaiB  well  with  eommon  cultare,  ami  denrvaa  a 
place  in  all  gardens^  as  it  is  not  only  a  high  flavoared  dessert 
sort,  but  it  makes  one  of  the  richest  preserves*  The  Uossom 
buds  are  tinged  with  deep  red  before  they  expand. 

Fruit  rather  small,  alK>at  an  inch  and  a  half  in  diameter, 
roundish,  sometimes  rather  four  sided.  Suture  well  marked. 
Skin  oranee,  becoming  dark  orange  in  the  sun.  Flesh  deep 
orange,  ricn,  high  flavoured  and  rather  juicy — separating  freely 
from  ^e  stone.  The  kernel,  which  is  sweet,  is  eaten  in  France, 
whence  the  name  Amande  Aveline.    First  of  August 

Black.    Thomp.  Fors. 

Amygdalos  dsfl^jcarpa.    Dec        Purple  Apricot    LkuL 
AngoomoiaT     O.Ihih,f  Noir. 

Violet  Du  Pape. 

This  remarkable  little  Apricot  so  strongly  resembles  a  dark 
round  Plum,  that  at  a  little  distance  it  might  easily  be  mistaken 
for  one.  (It  was  indeed  called  Prunus  dasycarpa  by  the  old 
botanists.)  It  is  pretty  good,  and  very  hardy,  and  its  unique 
appearance  renders  it  sou^t  after  by  amateurs.  The  tree  has 
a  rou^h,  somewhat  crooked  trunk,  and  small,  oval  folii^. 

Frmt  about  an  inch  and  a  half  in  diameter,  round.  Skin  pale 
red  in  the  shade,  but  dull  reddish  purple  in  the  sun,  covered 
with  a  slight  down.  Flesh  pale  red  next  the  skin,  yellow  near 
the  stone,  adhering  somewhat  to  the  stone,  juicy,  with  a  plea- 
aant,  slight  astringent  flavour.    Kernel  sweet     August 

Brubsbls.    Thorap.  Lind.  Miller. 

The  Brussels  Apricot  is  not  a  fine  fruit  in  this  country,  but  it 
is  a  good  bearer  m  light  soils.  Fruit  of  medium  size,  rather 
oral,  and  flattened  on  its  side.  Skin  pale  yellow,  dotted  with 
white  in  the  shade,  but  often  marked  with  a  Uttle  russety  brown 
in  the  sun.  Suture  deep  next  the  stalk.  Flesh  yellow,  rather 
firm,  with  a  lively  but  not  rich  flavour.  Kernel  bitter.  Middle 
of  August    The  BruMels  of  some  collections  is  the  Breda. 


Raised  by  Mrs.  Woolman,  Burlington,  New  Jersey.  Tree 
vigorous.  Fruit  medium  to  large,  oblong,  somewhat  compreased 
at  the  siies  with  a  distinct  suture.  S£n  golden  yellow,  with 
numerous  red  spots  and  a  ruddy  tint  on  the  side  exposed  to  the 
sun.  Flesh  yellowi^  sweet  and  fine.  Middle  of  July  to  the 
first  of  August    (W.  D.  Brinckle  in  Pom.) 

Eablt  Ooldbk. 
Dubois'  Esrly  GMiul 
Baised  by  Chas.  Dubois,  Fishkill  Landing,  N.  T.    T^  vigors 


OQS^  wi&  long,  rai&er  slender  branclies.  Fruit  small,  roundish 
aval,  with  the  suture  wett  marked,  and  extends  half-waj  round. 
BloB  smooth,  pale  orange.  Flesh  yellow,  moderately  jnioy  and 
sweet»  with  a  very  qSA  flavour — separates  from  the  stone. 

HsMBiaRKs.    Th<»np.  Lind.  P.  Mag. 

A  large  and  beautiful  English  variety,  of  the  finest  quality. 
It  strongly  resembles  the  Moorpark,  from  which  it  is  known  by 
its  stone  not  being  perforated  like  that  variety.  It  also  ripens 
a  little  earlier. 

Fruit  lar^e,  roundish,  but  considerably  compressed  or  flatten- 
ed on  its  sides.  Skin  orange,  with  a  red  cheek.  Flesh  bright 
orange,  tender,  rather  more  juicy  and  sprightly  than  the  Moor- 
park, with  a  rich  and  luscious  plum-like  flavour.  Stone  rather 
small,  and  kernel  bitter.    End  of  July. 


Ofigm,  City  of  New  York.  Tree  remarkaUy  vigorous.  Froii 
very  laiV^  ovaL  Skin  light  yellow,  marbled  with  rod  next  the 
SOIL  f&h  high  flftvoai»d  and  ezoellent.  Ripena  in  Augusts 
(W.  B.  Prince's.) 

Laros  Bablt.    Hiomp.  Lind.  P.  Mag. 

G-ros  Precooe^ 
DeSt  Jeao, 
De  St  Jean  Rouge, 
Groe  d'Alfixancb^ 

oAia            Fnotse  d'£aperiii, 
^Thomp.  cfHoagrie* 

A  fine,  large,  early  variety  from  France,  of  vigorons  growth, 
and  one  of  the  beat  of  the  ewrly  sorts. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  rather  oblong,  and  commressed.  Suture 
deep^  Skin  slightly  downy,  pale  otan^e  ia  the  wade,  fine  bi^t 
orange  witk  a  few  ruddy  ^ots  in  &e  bub.  Flesh  separating 
readily  from  the  stone,  orange-coloured,  rich  and  juicy.  Eemd 
bitter.    Middle  of  July. 

Moorpark.    Thomp.  Lind. 


Dunaore's  Breda^ 
SudJow's  Moorpark, 
Honf  8  Moorpark^ 

Oldaker's  Mooipark, 
ac  to     Walton  ICoorpiffk,       I     ae.  <9 
Thomp,  Temple's^  ifhmp. 


This  fine  variety  is  the  most  popular  and  widely  disseminated 
in  this  country,  except  the  Red  Masculine.  It  has  its  name 
from  Moorpark,  the  seat  of  Sir  William  Temple,  in  England, 

ZRS  APmiooT.  289 

wbera  k  was  onltiTated  mofe  ihsn  one  handred  and  forty  yean 
ago.  It  k  odIj  a  moderate  bearer  kere,  and  eipecially  requires  the 
«liorteiiiii^iii  aiode  of  pnaming  as  leooaunended  for  the  peach. 

Fruit  kage^  fomdiaht  abont  two  inches  and  a  quarter  in  dia- 
meter each  way^  oa  a  standard  tree ;  rather  laiger  on  one  side 
of  the  SQtiire  than  the  other.  Skin  orange  in  the  shade,  but 
deep  oranffe  or  brownish  red  in  the  son,  marked  with  nimierona 
daKK  iftmm  and  dots.  Flesh  qnite  fiim^  bright  orange,  parting 
free  fiNMB  the  stones  quite  juicy,  with  a  nSk  and  Inscioiis  fla- 
yoiur.  Stone  pecnlisjiy  perfonM  along  the  badk,  where  a  pin 
may  be  podied  throii|^  nearly  frmn  one  end  to  the  other. 
Kernel  bittec    Biipe  evly  in  Aogoat 

MuBOH-MuBOH.    Thomp.  Nda. 

This  delicions  little  Apricot  takes  its  name  from  the  city  of 
Mnach  on  the  frontiers  A  Turkey  in  Asia ;  but  it  is  also  com- 
mon abont  Alexandria,  and  in  northern  Egypt  it  is  said  to  be 
raised  in  each  abundance  that  the  dried  friiit  is  an  article  ai 
commecoe.  Xhe  tree  is  raitherdelicatei  and  reqnires  a  sheltered 

Freit  rather  small,  about  an  inch  and  a  half  in  diameter, 
ToaiuL  Skia  deep  yellow^  with  a  little  orange  red  on  the  sunny 
aide.  Flesh  yellow,  with  a  (raiiyflf^sal  JNm|2^  tender,  melting, 
and  very  sweet    Kernel  sweet 

Obaxqb.    Thomp.  Lind.  MilL 

larilf  Onngsb  Pendan. 

BoyalOnuuNk  Bogpal  Pente. 

Begral  Qeomew 

An  Apricot  of  oi^  tolerable  quality  for  the  dessert,  but  it  ia 
mioh  esteemed  by  many  for  prcaernng;  and  it  makes  delicious 
tarts,  eTen  before  the  fruit  begins  to  acquire  colour. 

Fhiit  of  medium  nze^  roundish,  willi  a  well  marked  snture^ 
deei^  hollowed  near  the  stalk.  Skin  firm,  orange,  sometimea 
tinged  with  a  ruddy  tint  in  the  sun.  Flesh  dark  oran^  mode* 
rately  juicy,  but  often  rather  dry  and  insipid,  (unless  ripened  in 
the  house,)  not  separating  entir^  from  the  fiesL  Stone  amallt 
loudiah.    Kemel  sweet*    Middle  of  Jnfy. 

PsAOB.    ThoH^  Fors.  Lind. 

.Anson^i  Imperial       Royal  Peaoh. 
P«ohe.  AbrlootPMM.    M  JEM.  JM 

BeHaacy.    O.D^   Du  Loxsaiboiirg. 
Ptehe  Grosse.  Wurtemlrarg. 


The  Peach  Apricot,  originally  from  Piedmont,  has  long  been 

240  TBI   APRICOT. 

considered  the  finest  variety ;  and  it  ia  witiii  ua  the  largest  and 
most  excellent  sort  cultivated — ^beiiu^  often  as  laige  as  a  Peach, 
of  medium  sice,  handsome,  and  (^delicious  flavour.  It  very 
strongly  resembles  the  Moorpark,  but  the  two  are  readilj  dis- 
tinguished by  the  eje  when  standing  near  each  other,  and  the 
fruit  of  the  Peach  is  rather  laiger  and  finer,  and  a  few  days  ear- 

Fruit  of  the  largest  size,  abont  two  and  a  half  inches  in  dia- 
meter, ronndishf  rather  flattened,  and  somewhat  compressed  on 
its  sides,  with  a  well  marked  suture.  Skin  yeHow  in  the  shade, 
but  deep  orange,  mottled  with  dark  brown,  on  the  sunny  side. 
Flesh  of  a  fine  yellow  saflron  colour,  juicy,  rich,  and  h^Ak  fla- 
voured. Stone  with  the  same  pervious  passage  as  the  Moor- 
park, and  with  a  bitter  kemeL 

BoMAN.    Tliomp.  lind 

Abrioot  Gommim.  0.  Duh.         Germine. 
GroBse  Gtonnine.  TraDSparent 

This  is  with  us  one  of  the  largest  growing  and  hardiest  Apri- 
cot trees,  and  produces  good  crops  every  vear  in  cold  or  unfi^ 
vourable  situations,  where  none  of  the  other  sorts,  except  the 
Masculine,  succeed.  It  is,  therefore,  though  inferiour  in  flavour, 
a  valuable  sort  for  northern  situations.  The  blossoms  will  bear 
quite  a  severe  frost  without  injury. 

Fruit  middle  sized,  oblong,  with  the  sides  slightly  compressed, 
with  but  little  or  no  suture.  Skin  entirely  pale  yellow ;  or  very 
rarely  dotted  with  a  few  red  spots  on  one  side,  flesh  dull  yel- 
low, soft,  rather  dry.  When  ripened  by  keeping  a  few  days  in 
the  house,  the  flavour  is  tolerably  good.  Stone  oblong,  with  a 
bitter  kernel.    Ripe  the  last  of  July  and  first  of  August 

There  is  a  Blotched  lsavsd  Roman,  {cammuH  d  feuilUt 
panachSSf  of  the  French,)  precisely  like  the  foreffoing  in  all  re- 
spects, except  the  white  or  yellow  stain  in  the  leaf— but  it  is 
quite  distinct  from  the  blotched  leaved  Turkey,  cultivated  here. 

RoTAL.    Thoinp.  Nois.  P.  Mag. 

A  fine  huge  French  variety,  raised  a  few  years  since  at  the 
Royal  Luxembourg  gardens.  It  is  nearly  as  large  as  the  Moor- 
park, but  with  larger  leaves  borne  on  long  footstalks,  and  with- 
out the  pervious  stone  of  that  sort  It  is  quite  as  high  fla- 
voured, and  ripens  a  week  or  tea  days  earlier. 

Fmit  roundish,  large,  oval,  slightly  compressed.  Skin  dull 
yellow,  with  an  orange  cheek,  very  faintly  tinged  with  red,  and 
a  shallow  suture.  Flesh  pale  orange,  finn  and  juicy,  with  a  rich 
vinous  flavour.     Ripe  the  latter  end  of  July. 

TBI   APRICOT.  241 

Red  M AscuLiirx.    Tliomp.  LiikL 

BmAj  UuodlhMb.  Apriooi Praoooe,  {^  n^. 

Brown  ICaflOQUBi^  AMiooi  hitiT  Uwnu^  \  ^' '^^ 

Abriootier.  Ibriootier  liatit  P.  dJl 

Mihe  KiMOMteher. 

A  Mnall  earij  iort|  h$i&y^  very  productive,  of  tolenkble  iU- 
roor,  Imt  not  rich,  growth  uprkrht^  slender. 

Fniit  small  and  nearly  roum^  aoarcelj  an  mch  and  a  half  in 
diameter,  with  a  well  marked  suture  oa  one  ude.  Skin  bright 
yellow,  tinged  with  deep  orange  and  qpoited  with  dark  red  on 
the  sonny  side.  Flesh  yellow,  juicy,  with  a  slightly  musky, 
pleasant  flavour.  Stone  thick,  obtuse  at  the  ends.  Flowers 
smaller  than  in  most  other  sort&  Kernel  bitter.  Ripe  about 
the  12th  of  July. 


Raised  by  Mr.  Commaek,  AthevL  Ga. 

Fruit  laq;e^  rounc&h,  a  little  ebton^^,  sotare  sliglit  Skin 
li^t  QOJifdf  darker  in  the  son,  where  it  is  beautify  dotted 
with  earaune.  Flesh  deep  yellow,  juicy  and  excellent  Kipena 
inst  afttt  the  omage,  hardy  and  productive.    (Wm.  N.  Wnite, 

Shipubt's.    Thonp. 

WflahRim        Shiplqr'B  Lsi]^. 

A  very  flood  eari?  variety,  of  small  or  nsediun  siae^  of  vigor 
ous  but  rattier  slender  growth. 

Fruit  medium,  oval,  orange,  with  a  deep  yellow,  juicy,  and  tole 
rsbly  rich  flesh.  Stone  roundish,  inmervious,  wiUi  a  bitter  ker 
neL    Ripens  here  dK>ut  the  25th  of  July. 

Ori^nated  with  Dr.  M.  A.  Ward,  Athens,  Ga. 

Fruit  small,  round,  eokmr  dark  maroon,  darker  in  the  smu 
Sutoro  s%ht,  a  mere  line.  Flesh  juier  and  pleasant,  except  at 
the  stone,  whero  it  is  astrinmit  AAeres  to  the  stone.  ( W. 
N.  White,  MS.) 

Tunnr.    Thomp.  P.  Mag.  Lind. 

Lsi^ge  Tuikej.        De  Kaacy,  (ofaotM,) 

The  Tn-ksj  Apiiooi  is  a  fine  old  variety,  wUch  is  seldom 
seen  in  our  gardens,  the  sort  generally  sold  under  this  name  b^ 
ing  the  Roman.  It  is  quite  a  late  sort,  ripening  after  the  Moor- 
park,  from  which  it  is  easily  known  by  its  impervious  stone,  and 
sweet  kernel 


242  THE   APVJCOT. 

Frait  of  middle  size,  nearly  roand^  Dot  comprcflsed.  Skin 
fine  deep  yellow  in  the  shade,  mottled  with  brownish  orange  in 
the  snn.  Flesh  pale  yellow,  firm,  quite  juicy,  with  a  flavour  in 
which  there  is  an  excellent  mingling  of  sweet  and  acid.  Kernel 
nearly  as  sweet  aa  that  of  an  aImond«  which,  as  well  as  the 
form  and  colour,  distinguishes  this  sort  from  the  Roman.  Ripe 
the  middle  of  August 

The  Blotched  leaved  Turket,  or  Gold  Blotched,  (Ahricot 
mmculi^)  is  a  sub-variety,  very  well  known  here,  resembling  the 
common  Turkey  in  all  respects,  except  that  it  has  in  the  centre 
of  eac^  leaf  a  large  yellowish  spot  It  is  a  thrifty  tree  and 
bears  delicious  fruit  Ours  is  not  identical  with  the  Turkey,  as 
the  last  edition  of  the  L.  H^.  S.'s  Catalogue  arranges  it,  but  is  a 
globular  fruit,  and  a  true  variation  of  the  Turkey. 

White  Masculuib.    Thomp.  Lind.  Fors. 

White  Apricot  *  Baiij  White  Maaooliiie. 

Abrioot  Blanc.  0. 2M.  3M.        Bimo^  )   «il» 

AbriooOer  Blanc.    If.JhX  Whita  Algieni  ?  f  JWy^ 

Hiia  scarcely  differs  from  the  Red  Masculine  before  describeo, 
except  in  colour.    It  is  four  or  five  days  later. 

Fruit  small  and  roundish.  3kin  nearly  white,  rarely  with  a 
little  reddish  brown  on  one  side.  Flesh  white,  delicate,  a  little 
fibrous,  adheres  a  little  to  tke  stone^  aad  has  a  delicate,  pleasant 
juice.    Kernel  bitter. 

The  Alsace,  St  Ambrosia,  Eaisha,  Tardive  d'Orleans  and 
'Viard  are  new  forei^  varieties  of  reputed  etcelleiice,  but  we 
have  not  seen  the  fruit. 

Curwu9  or  ornamental  varieties.  The  Beiastcon  Apjucot, 
(A.  briffantiaca,  Dec.)  a  very  distinct  ^ecies,  so  much  resem- 
bling a  plum  as  to  be  called  the  Briancon  Plum  by  many 
authors  {Prune  de  Brian^on^  Poit),  is  a  small  irr^rular  tree  or 
shrub,  ten  or  twelve  feet  high^  a  native  of  the  Alps.  It  bears  a 
great  abundance  of  small  round  yellow  plum^ike  fruit  in 
clusters,  which  are  scarcely  eatable ;  but  in  Franoa  and  Pied* 
mont  the  kernels  of  this  variety  make  the  ^  hoile  de  marmotte,'* 
which  is  worth  double  the  price  of  the  olive  oiL 

The  Double  rLOWBRiNo  Apricot  is  a  pretty  oma'Aental  tree, 
yet  rare  with  us. 

Selection  of  ApricoU/or  a  email  garden.  Laige  Early,  Breda« 
Peach,  Moorpark. 

Selection  for  a  cold  w  wjf^^iem  eiiimetie.  Bed  IfaBcaliiie^ 
BomaB,  Breda. 

BBIUBBT.  §4$ 


Aifierir  tpv^^orw.*    L  Ar&erticeii^  of  botaiiiit» 

Jfyme^fimUe,  of  the  fVendi;  BerberUaen^  Qerman;  Berbara,  ItaltB; 

BtrberiBf  Spanish. 

Ths  Berberry  (or  barberry)  is  a  common  pricUy  shmb,  from 
sight  to  ten  feet  higb^  which  ^wa  wild  in  both  hemispheresi 
and  is  particularly  abundant  m  many  parts  of  New  England. 
The  flowers,  the  roots,  and  the  inner  wood  are  of  the  brightest 
yellow  colour,  and  the  small  crimson  irnit  is  borne  in  clnsters. 
It  is  a  popular  but  Macious  notion,  entertained  both  here  and  in 
Ei^and,  that  the  vicinity  of  this  plants  in  any  quantity,  to  grain 
fields,  causes  the  rust 

The  barberry  is  too  acid  to  eat,  but  it  makes  an  agreeable  pre- 
aerre  and  jelly,  and  an  ornamental  pickle  for  garnishing  some 
dishes.  From  the  seedless  sort  is  nmde  in  Rouen  a  celebrated 
sweetmeat,  confiture  (T^ne^nette.  The  inner  bark  is  used  in 
f^vnoe  for  dyeing  nlk  and  cotton  a  bii|rht  yellow. 

CvLTUBB.  The  caltvre  is  of  the  easiest  description.  A  rich 
b'gfat  soil  gives  the  laiypst  fruit  It  is  easily  propagated  by  seed, 
layers,  or  suckers.  When  fine  fruit  of  the  oaroerry  is  desired 
it  should  be  kept  trained  to  a  single  stem — as  the  suckers  which 
it  is  liable  to  produce,  frequently  render  it  barren,  or  make  the 
fruit  small. 

GoMMOK  Kxn. 

This  is  too  well  known  to  need  description.  In  good  soils  it 
grows  twelve  or  fifteen  feet  high,  and  its  numerous  clustem  of 
bright,  oval  berries,  are  very  ornamental  in  antumn.  There  is 
a  Large  Red  variety  of  this,  which  is  only  a  variation  pro- 
duced by  cultivation  in  rich  soil.  There  are  also  varieties  of 
this  in  Europe  with  pale  yellow,  white,  and  puiple  fruit,  which 
are  not  yet  introduced  into  this  country,  and  wnich  scarcely  differ 
in  any  other  respect  than  the  colour.  Finally,  there  is  a  so* 
called  noeet  variety  of  the  common  Berberry  from  Austria 
{B.  V.  dukU\  bat  it  is  scarcely  leas  acid  thaa  the  oonnaon. 

*  Or  B.  Caiiadeiiflis--they  are  scaroelj  diatiiict^oara  has  rather  the 
most  fleshy  berry. 

244  TBI   OHBRRT. 


B.  T.  AspemuL  Seedleai 

Yinetier  sana  noyoaa. 

The  fruit  of  thiB,  whicli  is  only  a  variety  of  onr  common  bar- 
berry, is  without  seeds.  But  it  does  not  appear  to  be  a  perma- 
nent variety,  as  the  plants  frequently  do  produce  berries  with 
seeds ;  and  it  is  stated  in  the  New  Lhihamel  that,  in  order  to 
guard  against  this,  the  sort  most  be  propagated  by  layers  or 
cuttings,  as  the  suckers  always  give  toe  common  sort  It  is 
considered  the  best  for  preserving. 

Black  Swbkt  Maokllan.    London. 

Berberis  dulda.    Z>.  Jhik 
a  lotundifolia. 

A  new  evergreen  sort  from  the  Straits  of  Magellan,  Soath 
America.  It  is  very  rare,  and  haa  not  vet  fruited  in  this  coon- 
try,  but  it  18  likely  to  prove  hardy.  London,  in  the  Saboibaa 
Gardener,  says  it  bean  round  black  berries,  abont  the  siie  of 
those  of  the  black  currant,  which  are  nsed  in  its  native  country 
for  pies  and  tarts,  both  green  and  ripe*  It  has  ripened  frnit  in 
Edinburgh,  in  the  nursery  of  Mr.  Cunningham,  who  describea  it 
as  large  and  excellent 


This  is  a  new  variety  from  Nepal,  India.  We  have  culti- 
vated it  three  or  four  years,  and  find  it  tolerably  hardy,  but, 
though  it  has  produced  flowers,  it  has  yet  given  no  fruit  It  is 
said  to  yield  ^  purple  fruit,  covered  with  fine  bloom,  which  in 
India  are  dried  in  the  sun  like  raisins,  and  used  like  them  at 
the  dessert'* 

The  Mahonias,  or  ffolly  leaved  Berberries^  from  Oregon,  are 
handsome  low  evergreen  ornamental  shrubs,  with  large  deep 
green  priokly  leaves  and  yellow  flowers,  bot  the  fruit  is  of  no 



CViWMt  afdwuifii^m^  C.  ifMJgmn^  Artx  Brit    Rnmoea^  of  botsmsta 

Cn-ifi«r,  of  the  French ;  EArtehenhaum,  German ;  Ciritgo^  Italian;  Cereao^ 


The  cliorry  is  a  fine,  luxuriant  fruit  tree,  >vith  smooth,  light 

m  omsitT.  946 

eoloared  barlE^  and  generally  of  rapid  growth.  Hie  varietiet  of 
the  black  and  heartrshaped  eherries  are  always  yigorona,  and 
form  fine  larse  spreading  heads,  forty  or  fifty  feet  in  height ; 
bat  those  of  Uie  acid  or  red  cherry  are  of  lower,  more  bushy 
and  tardy  growth.  In  the  spring  the  oherry  tree  is  prolosely 
covered  with  dusters  of  snow-raite  blossoms,  and  earlier  in 
•unmier  than  npon  any  other  tree^  these  are  followed  by  abun- 
dant crops  of  juicy,  sweet,  or  acid  fruit  hanging  upon  bng 
stalks,  and  enclosing  a  smooth  stone. 

The  cherry  comes  originally  from  Asia,  and  the  Roman  gene- 
ibI,  Lucnllns,  after  a  Tictorioos  expedition  into  Poiitns,  has  the 
reputation  of  having  brought  it  to  Italy,  from  Otrm$us^  a  town 
in  that  province,  in  the  year  69,  B.  O.  According  to  PUny,  the 
Romans,  100  years  after  this,  had  ei^ht  varieties  m  cultivation, 
and  they  were  soon  afterwards  earned  to  all  parts  of  Europe. 
Hie  seeds  of  the  cultivated  cherry  were  broiuAt  to  tnia 
ooantry  very  eaily  after  its  settlement,  both  from  Snghmd  and 

Uaaa.  As  a  pleasant  and  refreshing  dessert  fruit,  the  cherry 
IB  everywhere  hifj^ly  esteemed.  Tho  early  season  at  whkh  it 
fipens,  its  juiciness,  delicacy  and  richness,  vender  it  ahraya 
acceptable.  While  the  large  and  fleshy  varieties  are  ezeeed- 
ingly  sweet  and  Inseions,  <^en  which  are  more  tender,  and 
more  or  less  acid,  are  very  valuable  for  pies,  tarts,  and  varioua 
kinds  of  cookery.  The  fruit  of  the  Kentnh  or  Early  Richmond 
is  excellent  when  stoned  and  dried,  and  the  Masard,  and  our 
wild  Virginia  cherries,  are  used  to  give  a  flavour  to  brandy. 

The  celebrated  German  Kir$ehwauer  is  made  by  distilling 
the  liquor  of  the  common  black  maziard  or  gean,  (in  which  the 
stones  are  ^und  and  broken,  and  fermented  with  the  pulp,) 
and  the  delicious  RiUafia  cordial  of  QrenoUe,  is  also  made  from 
this  fruit.  Maratdkim^  the  most  celebrated  liooeur  of  Italy,  is 
distilled  from  a  small  gean  or  maisard,  witn  which,  in  for* 
menting,  honey,  and  the  leaves  and  kernels  of  the  fruit  are 

The  gam  of  the  cherry  is  nearly  identical  with  gum  arable, 
and  there  we  some  oiarvelloas  stories  told  of  its  nutritive  pro- 
perties. The  wood  of  the  cherry  is  hard  and  dnrable^  and  is 
therefore  valnaMe  for  many  purposes,  but  the  best  wood  is 
afforded  by  our  ooaunon  wild  or  Virginia  cherry,  which  is  a  very 
good  substitute  for  mahogany,  taking  a  fine  polish. 

Hie  laiger  growing  aorta  of  Mack  cherry  are  the  finest  of  all 
fruit  trees  for  shade,  and  are,  therefore,  ^neraHy  chosen  by 
formen,  who  are  always  desirons  of  combining  the  nsefol  and 
the  ornamental.  IndeiMJ,  the  ^erry,  from  its  symmetrical  form, 
its  rapid  growth^  its  fine  shade,  and  beaatifiil  blossoms,  is  ex- 
ceedin^y  well  suited  for  a  roadside  tree  in  agricultural  districts. 
We  wish  we  could  induce  the  planting  of  avenues  of  this  and 

2441  THB  CBBS&r. 

other  Cjite  growing  fruit  trees  in  our  eoontiy  neighbourhoodi,  m 
18  the  beautiful  oustoni  iu  GermaDy,  affbrdiug  oroament  and  a 
gratefol  shade  and  refreshment  to  the  traveller,  at  the  same 
moment  Mr.  Loudon,  in  his  Arboretum,  gives  the  following 
accoont  of  the  eherry  avenues  in  Gennanj,  which  we  gladly  lay 
before  our  readers. 

<«  On  the  continent,  and  more  especially  in  Germany  and 
Switzerland,  the  cherry  is  much  used  as  a  roadside  tree ;  par- 
ticularly in  the  northern  parts  of  Germany,  where  the  apple 
and  the  pear  will  mot  thrive.  In  some  countries  the  road  pasBes 
for  many  noiles  t<^ther  throq^  an  avenue  of  cherry  trees.  In 
Moravia,  the  road  from  Brann  to  Olmnts  passes  threush  such 
an  avenue,  extending  upwards  of  sixty  mues  in  length ;  and, 
in  the  ai^ran  of  1828,  we  travelled  f<Mr  several  days  through 
almost  one  continuous  avenue  of  eherry  trae%  from  Strasbui^g 
by  a  drcuitoDs  route  to  Munich.  These  avenues,  in  Germany, 
are  planted  by  the  desire  of  the  respeettvo  govenmienta,  not 
only  lor  shading  the  traveller,  but  in  order  ths4;  the  poor  pedes- 
trian may  obtain  refreshmwt  on  his  journey.  All  persons  are 
allowed  to  partake  of  the  cherries,  on  condition  of  not  inkuring 
the  trees ;  bat  the  main  crop  of  the  cherries,  when  npe,  is 
gathered  by  the  rs^>eetive  proprietors  of  the  laad  on  which  it 
grows ;  and  when  these  are  anxious  to  preserve  the  fruit  of  any 
partieular  tree,  it  is,  as  it  were,  tabooed ;  that  is  a  wisp  of 
straw  is  tied  in  a  conspicuous  part  to  one  of  the  bnmches,  as 
vines  by  the  roadsides  in  France,  when  the  grapes  are  ripe,  are 
protected  by  sprinkling  a  plant  here  and  time  with  a  mixture 
of  lime  and  water,  which  marks  the  leaves  with  conspicuous 
white  blotches.  Every  one  who  has  travelled  on  the  Continent 
in  the  fruit  season,  must  have  observed  the  respect  that  is  paid  to 
these  i^>propriating  marks;  and  there  is  something  highly  gra- 
tifying in  this,  and  in  the  humane  feehng  diqpbyed  by  the 
princes  of  the  different  countries,  in  causmg  the  trees  to  be 
planted.  It  would  indeed  be  lamentable  if  land  treatment  did 
not  produce  a  corresponding  return." 

Soil  AirD  SnvAnoir.  A  dry  soil  for  the  cheny  is  the  uni- 
venal  maxim,  and  althouflh  it  is  so  hardy  a  tree  that  it  will 
thrive  in  a  great  variety  of  soils,  ^et  a  good,  sandy,  or  gravelly 
loam  is  its  mvouiite  place.  It  will  incfeed  grow  m  much  thin- 
ner and  diyer  soils  than  most  other  fruit  trott,  but  to  obtain  the 
finest  fruit  a  deep  and  aaellow  soil,  of  good  quality,  is  desiraUe. 
When  it  is  fonoed  to  grow  in  wet  plaon,  or  where  the  toots  are 
constantly  damp^  it  soon  decays,  and  is  very  short-hved.  And 
we  have  seen  this  tree  when  forced  into  too  Inxariant  a  growth 
in  our  over-rich  western  soils,  beoome  so  gro»  in  its  wom  as  to 
bear  tittle  or  no  fruit,  and  split  open  in  its  trunk,  and  soon  per- 
ish. It  is  a  very  hardy  tree,  and  will  bear  a  great  variety  of  ex- 
posures without  injury.      In  deep  warm  valleys,  liaMe  to  spring 

TUB  GiisB»r.  249 

HQitay  it  k,  however,  wcil  to  plmt  h  on  the  ooitlt  Mm  of  hiik,  in 
order  to  relftrd  it  in  tb«  ^ring. 

Propaoation.  The  finer  torts  Me  neariy  alwajt  pn>|>agmted 
bj  bidding  on  aeedlings  of  the  eominon  bkck  mataardt  which 
k  a  verj  common  kind,  producing  a  great  abundaaoe  of  froiti 
and  very  healthy,  free  growing  atoeka.  To  raiae  theae  atocks, 
the  eherriea  ahould  be  gathena  whea  fiiUy  ripe,  aad  allowed  to 
lie  two  or  tiiree  daya  tether,  ao  thai  th^  ma^  be  partiaUy  or 
whoUy  freed  from  the  pilp  by  waahing  theat  in  water.  Ihey 
ahonki  then  be  planted  imiaediately  in  driUa  in  the  teed  plot, 
eaveriag  them  abont  an  inch  deep.  They  will  then  vegetate  in 
thefoUowi^  springs  aad  in  good  aoil  will  be  fit  lor  plantmgoot 
in  the  nimery  rows  in  the  autnmn  or  following  spring  at  a 
dirtaaee  of  ten  or  twelve  inches  apart  in  therow.  Many  per- 
aona  pnterve  thehr  eherry  atonea  in  aaad,  either  in  the  ceilar  or 
in  the  open  air  until  apring,  but  we  have  fomd  thia  a  more  pre- 
eariooa  mode ;  the  cheny  being  one  of  the  moat  delfeate  of 
aeeda  when  it  commences  to  vegetate,  and  its  vitality  is  fre- 
quantly  deatroyed  by  leaving  it  in  the  sand  twenty-lbor  hours 
too  long,  or  after  it  has  eommenoed  spouting. 

After  plantinff  in  the  nursery  rows,  the  Medlii^  are  gene> 
rally  it  for  bodding  in  the  month  of  August  foUowii^  And  in 
order  not  to  have  weak  8to<^  overpowered  by  vigorons  ones 
they  should  always  be  assorted  before  they  are  planted,  plaaing 
those  of  the  same  size  in  rows  together.  Neany  all  the  eher- 
riea are  grown  with  aa  as  slaadarda.  The  English  nnrsaiymen 
usually  bud  their  standard  cherries  as  hiffh  aa  they  wish  them 
tofiuna  heads,  but  we  alwavs  piefer  to  bad  them  on  quite  young 
stacks,  as  near  the  ground  as  poanble,  aa  they  then  shoot  up 
elean,  stiaidit,  anso^  sterna,  showing  no  clumay  jmnt  when 
the  Irad  and  the  stoek  are  united.  In  good  soils,  tlie  buds  will 
frequently  make  shoots,  six  or  eight  fiMt  high,  the  first  season 
after  the  stoek  is  headed  back. 

When  dwarf  traea  are  re<|niredt  the  Morelio  seedlings  are 
used  as  stocks;  or  when  very  dw«rf  trees  are  wished  the  Per> 
famed  Cheny,  (Cenaaa  Mahileb,)  is  enmloyed;  but  as  stan- 
dards are  ahnost  universally  pro^rred,  these  are  seldom  seen 
here.  Dwarfs  m  the  nursery  most  be  headed  back  the  second 
year,  in  order  to  form  lateral  shoote  near  the  ground. 

CuLTiTATiow.  The  cheiry,  as  a  standard  tree,  may  be  said 
to  require  little  or  no  cultivation  in  the  middle  states,  further 
than  9Cipssionall^  ttVplji%  oH  trees  with  a  little  manure  to 
keep  up  their  vigour,  pruniuff  out  a  dead  or  crossing  branch, 
and  washing  the  stem  with  soft  soap  should  it  become  nard  and 
baric  hound.  Pruniofp  the  cheny  very  little  need%  and  as  it  is 
always  likely  to  prodooe  gum  (and  Uiia  deeay),  it  shouki  be 
avoided,  except  when  really  required.  It  should  then  be  done 
in  midsummm'f  as  that  is  the  only  season  when  the  gum  is  not 


more  or  lew  exuded.  Hie  dieny  is  not  a  \wy  Umg-Hred  tree. 
but  in  favourable  soil  the  finest  varietiea  geaerallT  endure  about 
thirty  or  forty  years.  Twenty  feet  *TMurt  for  the  stronjg^  ano 
eighteen  feet  for  the  slow  growing  kinck  is  the  proper  distance 
lur  this  tree. 

Traivui e  n»  Chbrbt  is  Teij  little  piaolued  in  the  Uiated 
States.  The  Heart  and  Bigakresii  ehemes  are  nsoallr  trained 
in  the  horiaontal  manner,  exphuned  in  pti^  40.  When  the 
wall  or  espalier  is  once  fiUed,  at  there  directed,  with  laU»«l 
branches,  it  is  only  necessaiy  to  cot  <^  twice  every  season— in 
the  monUi  of  May  and  July — ail  additional  shoots  to  within  an 
inch  or  so  of  the  branch  from  which  they  grew.  As  the  trees 
l^w  older,  these  finiit  spots  will  adTanoe  in  length,  bat  by  cut- 
ting them  out  whenever  they  esoeed  foor  or  ire  inches,  now 
ones  will  be  produced,  and  the  tree  wiH  ooBtimie  to  keep  ks 
proper  shspe  and  yield  excellent  fruit  The  Movello  dierries, 
being  weaker  growir^  sorts,  are  trained  in  the  fim  manner, 

Gathsuito  thb  FnoiT.  lliis  tender  and  jwssf  froit  is  best 
when  freshly  gathered  fkom  the  tree,  and  it  should  alwi^  be 
picked  with  the  stidkssittached*  For  the  dessert,  the  flafonr  of 
many  sorts  in  our  dimate  is  rendered  more  ddidoas  by  placinff 
the  fruit,  for  an  hour  or  two  {Hrevioas,  in  an  ioe-house  or  refri- 
gerator, and  bringing  them  upon  the  table  cool,  with  dew  drops 
standing  upon  them. 

Vauriss.  Since  the  first  publication  of  this  work  wsa 
written,  the  number  of  varieties  has  greatly  increased,  so  that 
no  distinct  line  can  now  be  drawn  separating  many  of  the  Heart 
cherries  ^tender  and  half  tender)  from  the  firm  fleshed  or  Bigar- 
reau  varieties,  each  class  insrasibly  spproaehing  and  inter- 
mingling with  the  other.  We  have,  therefore^  mads  but  one 
class  of  these,  whose  main  characteristio  is  the  Issge  vigMoas 
growth  of  the  trees.  The  Duke  and  Moretto  cherries,  dso 
wantii^  a  natursl  division,  we  make  to  constitute  another  class, 
and  in  these  two  have  comprised  all  the  cherries,  each  class 
being  subdivided  into  three  sections,  aooording  to  quality  of 

sxonov  L 
Comprises  those  of  best  quality  and  that  r^pen  in  snceessfto. 

BBIJ4B  n'OuAura^ 

A  new  ibroigtt  variety,  ripening  just  after  the  Early  Puiplo 
Guigne.  Tk«e  a  vi^rons  mwer,  sproading  habit,  productive, 
and  a  valuable  addition  to  the  early  kinds. 

Fhut  above  medium  sise,  roundish  heart-shaped.    Colour 



whitiflli  yellow,  haM  coTBred  with  pale  red.  -^Icsh  tender,  /er; 
itticj,  sweety  and  eieeUent    Ripene  early  in  June. 

BioARBBAU.    Hiomp.  Idnd. 


TeUow  SfuoSA,  (efmui  Amerteem  OMti0M.] 

White  BigaiNM,  (1/ "  --      .- 

Amber,  or  Imperial.     Ooxe, 

Torlcey  Binnreau? 

Bigarrean  Koyal, 

Italian  Hearty 

JKgarreaQ  Gro8? 

West's  WliitaHeart,  [acto 

Bigaireau  TardSC  |  Thomp. 

Groote  PrinoMfl, 

HoilaDdiache  Groase, 

Ihriiiaenin  Kinobeb 

CeriaeAmbrte.    KDyh, 

This  noUe  froit  is  nnqnestionably 
one  of  the  largest,  most  beaatifiil  and 
ddicions  of  dberries.  It  was  intro- 
daced  into  this  country  about  the 
year  1800,  by  the  late  William 
Frince,  of  Flushing,  and  has  been 
very  extensiYely  disseminated  under 
the  namea  of  Yellow  Spanish,  GraT- 
fion,  and  Bigarreau.    He  tree   is  BiganrtaMk 

abort  but  thrifty  in  growth,  making 

strong  Ifltanl  shoots,  and  forming  a  large  and  handsome  head 
with  spreading  branches. 

Fhiit  very  large,  and  of  a  beautiful  waxen  appearance,  regu- 
larly formed,  obtuse  heart-shaped,  the  base  a  good  deal  flatten- 
ed. Stalk  stout,  nearly  two  inches  long,  inserted  in  a  wide 
hoRow.  Skin  pale  whitish  yellow  on  the  shaded  side,  bordered 
with  minute  carmine  dots  and  deepening  into  bright  red  finely 
marbled  on  the  sunny  side.  Flesh  pale  yellow,  quite  firm^ 
juicy,  with  a  rich,  sweet  and  delicious  flavour  if  allowed  fully  to 
ripen.    In  perfection  the  hist  of  June. 


BiGARBXAu,  Napoleon. 

Bigarreau  Lauermaim, 
Laaermaim*8  Klrsche, 
Lanemaim'B  Groase  Kiradie^ 
Xananaaim'B  Hen  SJiaofafih 
Holland  BigaRaau? 

The  Napoleon  Bigarreau  is  one  of  the  finest  of  the  fiim 
fleshed  cherries — ^large,  well  flavoured,  handsome,  and  prodno- 
tive.  It  was  introduced  into  this  country  from  Holland  by  the 
late  Andrew  Parmentier  of  Brooklyn. 

Fruit  of  the  Urgest  size,  very  regularly  heart-shaped|  a  little 

ae.  §9 

250  1 

indinin^  to  oblong.  Skin  pale  yellow,  beooming  amber  in  tke 
shade,  nchly  dotted  and  spotted  with  yeiy  deep  fed,  and  with  a 
fine  marbled  dark  crimson  cheek.  Flesh  very  firm  (almost  too 
much  so),  juicy,  with  an  excelient  flavow.  Stalk  very  stout^ 
short,  and  set  in  a  narrow  cavity.  Ripens  a  few  days  after  the 
Bigarreao,  about  the  first  of  July,  and  is  a  good  and  constant 
bearer.    The  fruit  is  not  so  obtuse  as  the  B%;aneaiL 

Holland  Birareau  is  so  much  like  tiiie  am>ve  that  we  think 
it  identical.    Requires  further  trial  to  decide  correctly. 

Black  Tartarxait.     Hiomp.  LindL  P. 


Fraaer's  Black  Tartarian,         )  -^ 
Ronald's  Urge  Blaolc  Heart  p^^ 
Black  GtroaaBaiL    Maoksr. 
Superb  Ciicaaaiao, 
Boaald*B  Large  Black  Heart, 
Booald's  Hetft, 
Fraaer's  Black  Heart, 
Fraaer's  Black, 
Fraser'a  Tartariache^ 
Schwarze  Hans  Kirachsi         ^ 
Black  Buasian,  of  the  MngUth,  M 
noto/Amerioan  gardoks. 

This  snpeib  fruit  has  already  become 
a  genera!  &yonrite  in  ail  our  gardens; 
and  in  size,  flavour,  and  productiveness 
it  has  no  superiour  among  black  cher- 
ries. It  is  a  Russian  and  West  Asian 
variety,  introduced  into  England  about 
1 796,  and  brought  thence  to  this  country 
about  thirty  years  ago.  It  is  remark- 
able for  its  rapid,  vigorous  growth,  laige 
leaves,  and  the  erect  habit  of  its  head. 
The  fruit  ripens  about  the  middle  of 
June,  a  few  days  after  the  Mayduke.  m^:ff  AHamn. 

Fruit  of  the  iaigest  siie,  heart-shaped, 
(sometimes  rather  obtuse,^  irregular  and  uneven  on  the  surface. 
Skin  glossy,  bright  purplish  black.    Flesh  purplish,  thick,  (the 
stone  being  <^uite  smaA,)  half-tender,  and  juicy.     Flesh  very 
rich  and  delicious. 

Cob's  Trasbpabxnt. 

F^it  of  medium  size,  remarkably  round  and  regular  in  fomu 
Skin  thin,  wax-like,  of  a  very  delicate  pale  amber,  nearly  covered 
with  pale  cornelian  red  in  the  sun,  and  marked  with  delicate 
pale  spots  or  blotches,  which  give  it  a  unique  appearance.  Stalk 

THB  CBBBKT.  251 

lot  in  a  deep  depreniion  of  moderate  depth.  Flesh  very  tender, 
iDeltiBg  and  niiey,  with  a  delicate  bat  sweet  and  excellent  flavoar. 
Bipeaa  jwt  befinre  Black  Tartariaa,  ^wth  vigorons  and  hardy, 
with  a  round  and  somewhat  spreading  head.  Originated  wiUi 
Gartis  Ooa  of  IlkkUetown,  Conn.  A  prodnctive  and  valnable 
addition  to  the  amateur's  collection,  bat  rather  too  tender  for 
carriage  to  market. 

DiLioiTa.    Elliott 

Tree  thrifty,  rather  spreadiDg  habit,  prodaotiTe,  and  its  beaati- 
fnl  sppearaaoe  and  dehcate  flavoor  will  make  it  a  fitroarite  for 
fiunily  use.    Raised  by  Pro!  EirUaad,  Cleveland,  Ohio. 

Frnit  rather  above  mediom  ske^  roondish,  slightly  depressed 
Stan  medium  length,  in  a  rather  broad,  deep  eantv.   Colour  fine 
amber  yellow  in  &e  shade,  with  a  rich  briffht  red  on  the  sunny 
side.    Flesh  tender,  juicy,  sweet,  with  a  delicate  rich  flavour.^ 
Ripens  the  U»t  of  Junsu 

Dowiraa's  Lati. 

Dvwner.    Mm. 
]>owDer'B  late  Bad. 

This  valuable  late  cherry  was  raised 
by  Samuel  Downer,  Esq.,  an  ardent  cul- 
tivator, of  Dorchester,  near  Boston.  It 
is  a  very  regular  and  great  bearer,  ripens 
about  a  week  after  ue  cherry  seasoa, 
and  hangs  lor  a  considerable  time  on  the 
tree.  It  ia  a  delicious,  melting  fruit,  and 
deserves  a  place  in  every  gar&i. 

Fxmt  of  medium  sise^  roundish,  heart- 
shaped,  inclining  to  ovaL  Skin  very 
smooth,  of  a  soft  but  Kvsly  rad,  mottled 
with  a  little  amber  in  the  shade.  Stalk 
inserted  with  a  very  slight  depression. 
Fhiit  borne  thickly,  in  dusters.  Flesh 
tender,  melting,  with  a  sweet  and  lua- 
cioos  fiavoar.  Ripens  irom  the  4ih  to 
the  10th  of  July. 

Eably  PuaPLs  OnioKS. 

Bsriy  Purple  Giiotle.       Qersun  Xaydnhs. 

Orjffin  unknown.  An  exeeedin|^y  early  variety,  ripening  the 
last  c?  May  in  fitvourable  seasons.  Tree  hardy,  free  grower, 
^reading;  somewhat  pendant,  and  the  leaves  have  lonoer 
petioles  than  most  other  sorts;  a  good  bearer,  and  indi^nsable 
among  the  eariy  varieties. 

252  TBS  CHKBST. 

Fniit  medium  &ize»  roonduh,  heart-ahaped.  Stem  long,  ]» 
8eriod  in  a  rather  shallow  cavity ;  autore  indistinct^  sldn  amoothi 
dark  red,  becoming  porple  at  matotitj.  Flesh  purple^  tender, 
juicy,  with  a  rich  and  sweet  iavov. 

nsm  proved  hardy  at  the  West^  and  well  adapted  to  their 

Eltov.    lluHnp.  lind.  P.  Mag. 

BioABBBAu,  Coyunna  db  Cbaxb. 

d  nfish-odloiued  SSgarreaa. 

GroB  Bigarreao,  GoTiIeor  de  Chair, )  2Ug^ 
Gros  Bigarreau  BUac.  )  ^ 

fitgarremi  i  Gns  AqH  Bhme. 
Lwge  H6Ht«haped  ^fsiiMiii,  (/ 
Bjgiinwau  d»  UiHimntii 
Coeur  de  PigeoiL 
Belle  de  Boomont? 

The  Elton,  a  seedlin^r  raised  in  1806, 
by  the  late  Ptesident  of  the  London  Hor- 
ticultural Society,  is  certainly  one  of  the 
first  of  cherries  m  all  respects.  Its  large 
size,  earl^  maturity,  beautiful  appear- 
ance, luscious  flavour,  and  prodnctivenesB^ 
render  it  univenally  eataemed.  It  ia  a 
cross-bred  variety  nused  from  the  Bigai^ 
rean  or  Qrafflon  with  the  White  Heart 
for  its  male  parent  The  teees  grew  vary 
vigorously,  and  are  readily  known,  when 
in  foliage^  by  the  nnuanally  dark  red  eo* 
lour  of  the  footstalks  of  the  leaves^ 

Fruit  lar^  rather  pointed,  heart 
shaped.  Skin  thin,  shiniw,  pale  yellow 
on  tiie  shaded  side,  but  with  a  cheek  neit 
the  sun  delicately  mottled  aad  alreakad 
with  bright  red.  Stalk  long  and  slender. 
Flesh  somewhat  firm  at  first,  but  beeom- 
ing  nearly  tender,  juicy,  with  a  very  rich 
and  luscious  flavour,  notaorpassed  by  any 
larffe  cherry  known.  Bipena  about  the 
middle  of  ^ne,  or  directly  after  the  May- 

GovxRiroR  Woon.    Elliott 

Raised  by  Professor  Elrdand,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  and  ia  proba- 
bly one  of  the  beat  of  all  his  seedlii^  It  deaervea  a  puMM  in 
every  good  collection.  Tree  vigwoua,  fonaing  a  roand  regalar 
head,  very  productive. 

Fniit  huge,  roundish,  heart-shaped.  Skin  light  yellow,  shaded 
and  marbled  with  bright  red.    Suture  half  rooad.    Sten  as 

TBB   OaXRBT.  8M 

meh  Mid  a  half  loag,  in  a  broad  cavity.    Fl«h  n6ari3r  tender, 
'ni^,  sveeti  rich  and  delicioiia.    Ripe  about  the  middle  of 


Liige  Red  Prool  r 

The  troe  name  of  thia  mlendid  cherry  ia  not  yet  fidly  kaown« 
Wm.  B.  Prince^  Ea^  of  Fluahisdr  aa^a  itia  the  mme  aa  he  im- 
ported under  the  name  of  Large  Ilea  Prool,  and  from  apecimena 
received  from  him,  they  appear  identical^  and  may  proye  to. 
Tree  yeiy  vigoroua,  wiui  a  rather  leaning  habit  while  young, 
but  forms  a  beanti(bl  head  when  more  adyanced.  Foliage  very 
large  and  lonfL  a  moat  prolific  bearer. 

Fruit  very  large,  oblong  heart-ehaped,  high  shouldered,  aur- 
fiMie  amooth.  Slon  a  beautiful  deep  red,  becoming  nearly  black 
al  maturity.  Fleah  purpliah,  half  tender,  vweeti  nch  and  excel 
lentk    £ipe  about  the  time  of  Black  Tartarian,  or  just  after. 

RooKPOET.    iOliolt. 
Rookport  Bj^aneaiL 

Raised  b;^  Dr.  Eirtland,  Cleveknd,  Ohio.  Tree  vigorona, 
healthy,  upright,  forming  a  beautiftd  pyramidal  head ;  a  good 
bearer  and  worthy  of  a  place  in  every  good  collection. 

Fruit  large,  roundish,  obtuse  heart-shaped.  Ck»lour,  when 
fiiUy  ripe,  a  beautifol  bright  red,  shaded  with  pale  amber. 
Fleah  rather  irm,  juicy,  vweeti  rich,  with  aa  ezoeBeat  flavour. 
B^eoa  earty  in  Jum,  <Mr  just  before  Mayduke. 


anonoir  n. 

Comprises  those  of  ^verr  good"  quality,  some  of  which,  on 
fiirther  trial,  may  prove  *^bt^^  and  acMiie  for  the  third  aection. 

Ammmlojlm  Bmakx. 

Its  origin  is  uncertaku  The  tree  is  quite  tuxorianti  with  wide* 
apreading  branches.    Productive. 

Vmii  {>retty  laige,  heart-shajped,  often  nearly  four-sided,  and 
inegular  in  its  outline — ^bome  m  clusters.  Son,  at  first,  pale^ 
aot  heooming  covered  with  Kgfat  red  or  pink,  mixed  with  very 
little  amber.  Stalk  rather  long  and  slender,  inserted  in  a  smaU 
and  shallow  eaivity.  Flesh  half  tender  and  crackling,  adhering 
to  the  skin,  which  is  rather  tough ;  juice  abundant,  and,  in  dry 

t6i  THK  OHSimr. 

•eMoni,  ftweet  and  ezceUent,  bat  ntiner  wanftiag  ia  sweetaeiB  in 
cool  or  wot  teaaoiM.    Ripens  earij  in  June. 

Amber  Gbait.    Thomp. 

Geaa  Amber. 

It  18  exceedingly  productive,  ripens  late,  and  bangs  till  tbe 
middle  of  July,  fruit  anaall,  oyal  or  obtuse  heart-shape.  Skin 
very  tiiin,  colour  pale  yellow,  partially  over^read  with  a  very 
Ikint  red.  Stalk  long  and  slender,  yery  slightly  inserted.  Flesh 
white,  jnicyi  mehing,  of  a  sweet  and  pleasant  flavour. 

Amxricak  Ambkb. 

Bloodgood's  Amber.        Bloodgood's  Hooi^. 
Bloodgood's  New  Honey. 

Raised  by  the  late  Daniel  Bloodgood,  of  Fhiahing,  Long  I»- 
land.  A  yigorooa  tree,  prodnctivew  Fruit  of  mMium  siae, 
roundish  heart-shaped,  slightly  indented  at  the  apex.  Skin  thin, 
smooth,  light  amber,  delicately  mottled  and  overspread  with 
bright  red.  Stalk  long  and  slender,  inserted  in  a  slight  narrow 
cavity.  Flesh  tender,  abounding  with  a  ^rightly,  though  not 
high  flavoured  juice.    Ripe  about  the  25th  of  June. 


A  very  prodactive  early  variety.  Received  ftom  A.  Y.  Bed* 
ford,  Paris,  Keataoky.  Fruit  medium  to  small,  briffht  red,  ten- 
der, juicy,  very  sweet  and  eicelient,  a  good  amatfwr*afrnil»  giowth 
moderate.    Ripe  with  Early  White  Heart,  or  soon  after. 

Baukavh's  May. 

BigaiTMMi  de  UmL    Km.       WBder^s  BigaiTeau  de  K«L 
BigMTBM de MaL  Ikompf 

Of  forei^  origin.  A  yery  productive,  early  variety,  of  vigor- 
ous growth,  of  good  quality,  but  not  equal  to  E.  P.  Guigne. 

Fruit  rather  small,  oval  heart-shaped,  and  rndier  angular  in 
outline.  Skin  deep  rich  red,  becoming  rather  daik  when  ftiUy 
ripe.  Stalk  an  incn  and  three-fourths  long,  pretty  stout  at  either 
end,  and  set  in  a  very  narrow  and  rather  irregular  cavity.  Flesh 
purplish,  tender,  juiey,  and  when  folly  ripe,  tolerably  sweet  and 
good.    Ripens  here  the  20th  of  May. 

Black  Hawk.    Elliott 

His  variety  not  having  yet  fruited  here,  we  giv«  Mr.EUiotlfa 
description.  The  tree  is  of  healthy,  vigoroos,  spreadii^  hi^nt, 
with  much  of  the  general  character  of  Yellow  Spanish.  As  • 
table  fruit,  its  high  flavour  will  always  commend  it;  while  as  a 


niarketfrQitiiteaiMaadprodttGtivehdbitoftrM  place  it  umog 
the  v^  bei^ 

Fruit  Urge,  lieaxtrshi^  often  obtuae,  tides  compieMed,  sor 
face  nneven,  colour  dark  porpiiah  blaek^  gloa^.  Fleth  dark 
porple,  half  tender,  aimoit  firm,  luicy,  rich,  sweet,  fine  flavour. 
Season,  from  20th  June  to  1st  Jolj. 

BukOK  Maxsabd.    Tliompi  UmL 


Common  Kngliah, 

Black  Honey, 

firiilol  Gbony. 

Census  avxom.    Dee^ 

Wild  Black  Fruited,  i 

8mdl  WiM  Blade,     1 0/  Mkgikk 

Wbixl«7Blaok,         f  gardmt. 

Merisier  4  petit  fruit     a  Jhh. 
llerisier  A  petal  fruit  noir. 

This  18  the  wild  species  of  Europe,  beinff  common  in  the 
forests  of  France  and  some  parts  of  EngLmd ;  and  it  has  now 
become  nataraliaed,  and  grows  spontaneously  throughout  most 
poitionB  of  the  seUled  states.  It  is  the  onginal  species  from 
which  nearly  all  the  fine  Heart  and  other 
sweet  cherries  have  sprung.  It  is  small,  t 
and  of  little  value  for  e^in^^  retaining^ 
unless  very  ripe,  a  certain  bitterness;  but 
it  ripens  and  hangs  on  the  tree  until  the 
middle  or  last  of  Julj,  so  diat  it  then  be- 
comes somewhat  aeoeptaUe. 

Fruit  small,  roundish  or  oval  heart- 
ahuped,  flattened  a  little  on  both  sides. 
StaUc  long  and  veij  slender,  inserted  in  a 
small  d^ression.  Skin  thin,  and  when 
fully  ripe,  jet  black.  Flesh  soft  and  meltr 
ing,  purple,  with  an  abundant,  somewhat 
bitter  juice. 

The  Wbits  Mauaba,  of  Mr.  Mannings 
is  a  seedling  raised  by  that  pomologist, 
which  differs  little  except  in  its  colour. 

Black  Eaglx.    Thomp.  Lmd. 

A  very  eseeUent  Buf^ish  variety, 
raiaed  by  the  daadbter  of  Mr.  Knight,  at 
Bownton  Caalle,  u  1806,  from  the  seed  ma^lotde^ 

of  the  Biganeau  fertilized  by  the  May-  ^^^ 

dnke.    It  r^iens  at  the  beginning  of  July  or  a  Ibw  days  btei 
than  the  Black  Tartarian. 

8i6  TBB  CHSRftT. 

Frait  rather  above  medium  size,  borne  in  pairs  and  threes; 
obtuse'  heart«haped.  Skin  deep  purple,  or  nearly  blaek.  Stalk 
of  medium  length,  and  rather  slender.  Flesh  deep  purple, 
tender,  with  a  rich,  high  flavoured  jniee^  superior  to  the  Black 
Heart    Branched  strong,  with  laige  leaves.    Moderate  bearer. 

Black  Bi«ASHBA.n  ov  Sayot*    Ken. 
New  Large  Blade  Bigarreao.     Ken,       ^pmma  Noir  ds  SavoL 

An  Italian  variety,  of  very  rigorous  growth ;  hardy  and  pro- 
ductive ;  young  wood  auite  dark. 

Fruit  lai^e,  regularly  heart-shajped,  very  slightly  obtuse. 
Skin  smooth  and  even  on  the  surmce,  not  veiy  glossy,  quite 
black  at  maturity.  Stalk  an  inch  and  three-iburths  lon^,  rraier 
stout,  set  in  a  narrow  even  hollow.  Flesh  puiple^  quite  fiim 
and  solid,  with  a  rich  but  not  abundaat  joioe.  Stone  rather 
laitte.    Bipe  middle  of  July. 

Walsh  Cherry  is  similar  to  the  above,  and  may  prove  the 

Blaok  Hsart.    lliomp.  Mill.  LinL 

Early  Black. 

Anaell's  Fine  Blaek. 

Sptniah  Black  Heart 

Buok  Rusaiaii,  (o/Ameriecm  aardm^) 

Black  Garoon,  {erronegwiift  if  tomt) 

Guinier  i  fruit  noir.     0  IMtk 

Goigne  groaae  noir. 

Groeae  Schwane  Herts  Kiraohe^ 

The  Black  Heart,  an  old  variety,  is  belter  knowii  than  almost 
any  other  cherry  in  this  oountry,  and  its  great  froitlhhiess  and 
good  flavour,  together  with  the  hardiness  and  tiie  large  aiae  to 
which  the  tree  grows,  render  it  e^ry  where  esteemed. 

Fruit  above  medium  siae,  heart-shaped,  a  little  irregular.  Skin 
glossy,  dark  purple,  becoming  deep  black  when  MIy  ripe.  Stalk 
an  inch  and  a  half  long,  8len<kr,  set  in  a  moderate  hoUow.  Flesh, 
before  fiilly  ripe,  half  tender,  but  finally  becoming  tender  and 
juicv,  with  a  rich,  sweet  flavour.  Ripens  the  last  of  June,  about 
ten  oays  after  the  Mayduke. 


One  of  M.£8peren'a  seedlings.  Fruited  here  the  past  season. 
l\ee  vigorous,  rather  spreading;  frait  lam,  rMincMsh  heart- 
ahaaied.  Skin  yellowish  white,  mottled  and  shaded  with  pale  red. 
Stalk  long,  rather  slender,  inserted  in  a  large  oairity.  FMh 
rather  firm,  juicy,  and  good  fiavour.  Ripe  middle  of  My* 
Some  have  pronounced  this  the  Holland  BigarreaiH  but  it  kaa 
not  fruited  enough  to  decide  correctly. 

CBBUtr.  Wl 

BtQABMEAV^  Wnira.    Prince's  Pom.  Man. 

White  Ox  H€arfc»(^A«inMUb«fal«.)  QzHMrt.     ChsM. 

White  Bigamea.    Am^l  Heirim  Heertf 

lerge  White  Bigerreen.  Turkiex  Bigeneeu. 

The  Wbite  Bigurwuiy  which  is  more  oomwKin  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  New- York  and  Philadelphi«|  than  any  other  ^ui 
of  the  coontiT.  It  is  inferior  to  the  Bipmeaa  or  Graffion  in 
hardiness,  and  in  the  ciicmnstaace  that  it  is  a  Teiy  poor  bearer 
while  the  tree  is  yonng^  thongh  it  bears  fine  crops  when  it  has 
arriTed  at  from  twelve  to  fifteen  years'  growth.  The  fruit 
strongly  resembles  that  of  the  Biganeaiiy  bat  it  is  not  so  obium 
heart-shaped,  and  is  more  irregular  in  its  outline.  But  the  trees 
may  be  readily  distingmshed  even  when  very  small,  as  the 
Bigarreaa  has  broad  m  Miaffei  while  the  White  Bigarresn  has 
mmrrom  wmwtd  teses.    Grow£  upright 

Fruit  of  the  laigest  midy  heartHBhaped,  with  a  lather  irregular 
outline,  and  a  peetty  distinct  suture  line  on  one  side.  Skin  yel- 
lowish white  at  first,  but  bec<Hning  quite  overspread  with  mar> 
bHw  of  red.  Flesh  firm,  but  scarcely  so  much  so  as  that  of 
the  Biffarreau,  and  when  fully  ripe,  luJf  tender,  and  more  ki»- 
dous  uum  the  latter  cherry.  K  is  very  liable  to  crack  after 
rain.    Middle  and  last  of  June. 

BM^naiAu  Gnoa  0<simsT.    Ilioinp.  Poitean. 

Large  Heert-disped  BigenesiL       Bigarresn  Ghros  Konstreox.  * 
GrosOcBoret    Bon^aird, 

This,  the  true  Large  Heart-dbaped  Bigairean,  is  a  Frenek 
variety  only  rarely  seen  in  the  fruit  gardens  of  this  country. 

Fruit  large,  roundish  heart-shaped,  with  a  sutoie  Hue  h^ 
quently  rai^d,  instead  of  being  depressed.  Skin  at  first  yel- 
lowish red,  marked  with  deeper  red  streaks,  but  becoming,  when 
friUy  np^  ^  dark  shining  red,  almost  black.  Stalk  inserted  in 
a  shallow  hoUow.  Stone  oval  and  rather  ksge.  Flesh  firm, 
purplish,  a-  little  bitter  at  firsti  but  of  a  sweet  flavour  when  fbOy 
matnred.    Bipe  first  week  in  July. 

Bowmfft  Bablt  Hsisr. 

MedMi  8Bs^  oMoae  heart-shaped.  Skin  amber,  mottled,  and 
shaded  with  red.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant^  vinous 
ilamar.  Dislinet  firom  Rariy  White  Heart  Ripens  immediately 

268  no  cuMMUt, 

BiOABBiAu  Tabdiv  dk  Hiu>WHBUf.    Thomp.  Sickler; 

Bigwrreau  marbrfi  de  Hildosheim.    DicL  cTAgri. 
BigaiTMn  Blano  TvW  de  Hfldesheim. 
Hildeiheioier  ganz  Sp&te  K]ioq>el  Einche. 
HOdflsheimer  Sp&te  Hens  Kiradie. 
Spfito  HiklBflheiner  ICaraior  Kiraofaa 
TfiMenhflim  BigairewL    iVmofli 

The  Hildesheim  B^rreau  is  a  Gennan  variety,  which  ripena 
here  in  Aognity  and  aooordii^  to  ThoiqpBOi^  ia  tiie  bttest  sweet 
cherry  known ;  a  quality  that  renders  it  peculiarly  ralnable. 

Fniit  of  mediam  size,  hcartHshaped.  Skin  yellow,  mottled 
and  marbled  with  red.  Flesh  pale  yellow,  inn,  with  a  sweet 
and  agreeable  flaroar.  The  tree  is  hardy,  and  will  donbtless 
prove  a  valuable  variety  in  this  comitry. 

B&JLNT.    Mliot. 

Fmit  larflpG^  rounded,  angular,  heart-shape^  sides  slighdy  com* 
pressed,  colour  reddish  black.  Flesh  dark  poiplish  red,  half 
tendeiiv  juicy,  sweet  and  ricL    Season  early  <»  middle  of  June. 

Origin,  Cleveland,  Ohio.  Tree  vigorous,  with  laige  foliage 
and  spreading,  of  rather  round,  regular  Ibrm. 


New.  Oriflrinated  with  John  R.  Brinckle,  near  Wibningtoni 
Delaware.    A  very  finee,  vigorous  grower. 

Fruit  above  medium  size,  broad  heart-8hi4>ed«  Skin  brilliant 
crimson,  beautifully  motUed.  Fruit,  tender,  very  juicy,  saccha- 
rine, and  with  just  enough  sub-add  flavour  to  impart  ^rightli- 
ness.    ^  Very  good.**    Maturity  last  of  June.    (Ad.  Int  RepL) 

Burr's  Sirdlino. 
Fruit  large,  heart-shaped,  whitish  yeUow  shaded  with  light 
red,  and  sometimes  mottled.    Fledi  neariy  tender,  with  a  sweet| 
rich,  excellent  flavour.     Ripe  the  last  of  June.    Origin,  Per- 
rinton,  Monroe  county,  N.  i. 

BuTnrRR*B  Blaok  Hrakt. 
From  Germany.     Fruit  large,  heartrshaped,  ahnost  black. 
Flesh  purplish,  fins,  ^cy,  not  veiy  ridi.    Promises  welL    Ripe 
middle  of  July.    A  vigorous  grower. 

Carmiiob  Stripx. 

Raised  by  FroC  EirUand.  Tree  vi^rooa,  heahhy.  Rereading. 
Very  productive.  Fruit  above  medium,  heart^hi^Ma;  suture 
half  round,  Mowed  by  a  line  of  oarasine.  Colour  aanberyel- 
low,  shaded  and  mottled  with  Mght,  Hvely  cannine.  ifeak 
tender,  juicy,  sweet,  sprightly  and  agreeable,  fit  small.  Stalk 
varies.    Season,  last  of  June.     (Elliott) 

CBMBMY.  25^ 


FruU  f»boFe  medium,  round,  oblong,  one  side  compreased 
slightly.  Colour  pftle  amber,  mottled  with  clear  light  red,  and 
when  fhlly  exposed  to  the  san  becomes  rich  red.  Fledi  very 
tender,  juicy,  sweet  and  delicate.  Season  last  of  June.  Origiui 
Cleyeland,  Ohio.     (Elliott) 


Kaised  by  Charles  Downii^,  Newbmgh,  N.  Y.  Tree  of 
moderate  ffrowth  and  fofms  a  round  head. 

Frait  of  medium  size,  roundish  heart«haped.  Colour  Krely 
brick  red,  keHiring  to  pink,  a  little  paler  on  the  shaded  side. 
Stalk  of  moderate  length  and  size,  inserted  in  a  rather  flat, 
shallow  depression,  ^esh  amber  coloured,  of  a  lively  rich 
flavour,  a  mingling  of  sugar  and  acid, 'something  between  Down- 
er^s  late  and  a  Dake  cherry,  a  good  bearer,  and  ripens  uniformly 
and  hangs  some  time  on  Uie  tree.    Season  last  of  June. 

Clbyklaitd.      Elliott. 
CleyelaDd  Biganreau. 

Raised  by  ProlesMr  Kirtland,  a  Antty  strong  grower,  pro- 
ductive, and  a  fine  fruit 

Fnrit  large,  round  heart  shape.  Suture  pvettv  broad,  nearly 
half  rovnd.  Colour  bright  dear  red  on  yellowish  ground. 
Flesh  fine,  juicy,  rich,  sweet,  and  fine  flavour,  r^  a  few  days 
before  Black  Tartarian. 


Ori^n,  Conestoga,  Lancaster  County,  Pa. 

Fruit  laige,  obtuse  heart-shaped,  dark  purple.  .Stem  loi^, 
slender,  inserted  in  an  open  cavi^f .  Flesh  purplish,  finn ;  flavour 
sugary  and  ^ery  pleasant    (Ad.  Int  Rept) 

Davenpsfite  Inly.  Hew  M^fdaka 

Orvin,  Dorchester, Mass.  Treeof  moderate  growth, distinot 
ftom  Black  Heart,  an  early  and  good  bearer. 

Fruit  above  medium  size,  roundish  heart-shaped.  Stem  an 
inch  and  a  half  long,  rather  stout  in  a  medium  cavity.  Colour 
daik  purplish  blac£  Flesh  tender,  Juicy  and  pleasant;  ripe 
about  the  time  of  Mayduke  or  just  beiore. 



DowNiNo^B  Red  Crue. 

A  Tcrv  handsome  and  excel- 
lent seedling  cbeny,  raised  by 
Charles  Downing,  Newburght 

Fruit  raiher  large,  regalarly 
obtose  heart^haped,  with  a 
pretty  distinct  sature.  Skin 
thin,  (slightly  pellucid  when  ftil- 
ly  ripe,)  white,  with  a  rich  dark 
crimson  cheek  (somewhat  mot- 
tled,) covering  more  than  half 
the  fruit.  Stalk  an  inch  and  a 
half  long,  set  in  an  even  hollow 
of  moderate  depth.  Flesh  yel- 
lowish, half  tender,  and  of  a 
very  delicately  sweet  and  lus- 
cious flavour.  Leaves  coarsely 
serrated,  with  dark  footstalks. 
Ripens  abont  the  14tb  of  June. 

Da^mkifftBed  CheeL 

DooTOB.    Elliott. 
The  Doctor. 
Tree  a  free  growor,  sotnewhat  mreading^  YWf  pnx^icliTe 
apt  to  be  small  unless  well  enltivated. 

Fruit  of  medium  sise,  roundish  heartrahaped.      Stalk  o. 
medium  length,  in  a  round,  regular  cavity. 
Colour  light  yellow,  mostly  uiaded  with 
bright  red.    Flesh  tender,  juicy  and  plea- 
sant.   Ripens  early  in  June. 

DowHTOw.    Thomp.  Lind. 

A  very  beautiful  and  excellent  Ittge 
variety  raised  by  T.  A.  Enighti  Esq.,  of 
Downton  Castle,  fr^om  the  seed,  it  is  be- 
lieved, of  the  Eltoiu  ModersAely  pro- 

Fruit  huv^  ^ory  blunt  heartrshaped, 
nearly  roundish.  Stalk  one  and  a  half 
to  two  inches  long^slendeiv  Mi  in  Aprtl^ 
deep,  broad  hollow.  Skin  pale  cream 
colour,  semi-transparent,  delicately  stained 
on  one  side  with  red,  and  marbled  with 
red  dots.  Flesh  yellowish,  without  any 
red,  tender,  adhering  slightly  to  the 
stone,  with  a  delicious,  rich  flavour.  Last 
of  June.  JkfwfUtm. 


Earlt  Paoufta    Elliott 

Raided  by  Dr.  Kirtland.  An  excellent  early,  rery  prolific 
raricty,  of  moderate  growth.  Fruit  mediam  sise,  round,  obtose 
heartrfthape.  Light  yellow  ground,  shaded  and  mottled  with 
bright  red.  Sti&  long.  Flesh  half  tender,  juicy,  rich,  sweet, 
and  rery  good.    Ripe  about  a  week  before  MaydiiJce. 

Saiilt  WHm  Hbabt. 

Arden*8  Eaily  White  Heart 
White  Heart    Okm.  Primci9  Am.  Ifm. 
White  Heor^  \ 

Dredge's  Karlj  White  Hear^    I  f||„„^  » 
White  Thttisparenit,  f  '^""'^  ' 

Amber  Heart  J 

iJwwuBii.    usreiDrtisnird  wnne. 

An  old  variety,  although  a  good  early  fruit  It  is  not  equal 
to  Belle  de  Orleans,  Earlj  Prolific,  and  others  of  same  season. 

Fruit  below  medium  size,  rather  oblong  heart-shaped — often 
a  little  one-sided.  Suture  quite  distinct  SMaJk  an  inch  and 
thfee4>itrtfas  lotiff,  rather  slender,  inserted  in  a  wide  shallow 
cavity.  Skin  dull  whitish  yellow,  tinged  and  speckled  with  pale 
red  in  the  son.  Flesh  half  tender,  unless  fiilly  ripe,  when  it  is 
melti]^,  with  a  sweet  and  pleasant  flavour.  Tree  grows  rather 
erects  with  a  distaff-like  nead  when  young.  Fint  of  Jun» 
Manning's  Early  White  similar  to  above. 


Fruit  medium  to  larse,  heart-shi^>ed.  Skin  rich  dark  red 
when  fully  ripe.  Flesh  half4ender,  juicy,  pleasantly  sweet 
Ripe  midi&e  to  laat  of  June.    Tree  vk;oroQB|  upright,  very  pro- 

vu;oroQS|  \ 

>.  (Elliott; 

lific    OrigiiH  Caleb  Atwater,  Ohio.    (Elliott) 

Favouutb.    Elliott 

EDiott^B  Favooifte. 

Tree  vigorous  and  productive.  Fruit  small  to  medium.  Stalk 
lonfi^  rather  slender,  in  a  slight  depression.  Colour  pale  yellow, 
wit£  a  light  red  cheek,  somewhat  marbled.  Flesh  tender,  juicy, 
aweeti  a^  of  a  delicate  flavour.    Ripe  last  of  Ame. 

Flouiros.    Hiomp.  Lind. 

Knevett*8  Late  Bigarrean. 

A  most  ezc^ent  cheny,  originally  brought  firom  Florence,  in 
Italy,  which  considerably  resembles  the  Bigarreau,  but  ripens  a 
little  later,  and  has  the  additional  good  quality  of  hanging  a 
long  time  on  the  tree. 

203  TBB  OnRftT. 

Fniit  lai^ge,  heart-shaped  and  regalariy  formed.  Skin  amber 
jellow,  delicately  marbled  with  red,  with  a  bright  red  clieek,  and 
when  foUy  exposed^  the  whc4e  fruit  becomes  of  a  fine  livelyred. 
Stalk  over  two  inches  long,  slender,  set  in  a  deep  hollow.    Flesh 

Sellowish,  finn,  very  juicy,  and  sweet     In  perfection  from  the 
ist  of  June  till  the  10th  or  15th  of  July. 


Great  Bigureaa  of  MemL     lleatans  de  KezeL 

Bigarreau  Gk>ubalia. 

A  new  foreign  variefy  of  the  largest  siiei  Productive,  and  of 
strong,  rather  crooked  growth. 

Fruit  vety  laive,  obtuse  heart-shaped,  snr&ce  uneven,  dark 
red,  or  quite  blade  at  maturi^.  St^n  long  and  slender,  flesh 
firm  and  juicy,  but  not  high  flsvoored.  R^  last  of  June  and 
beginning  oi  July. 


Raised  by  Profl  Eirtbuid.  Tree  of  healthy,  vigorous  habit; 
forming  a  round,  spreading  head.  Fmit  above  medium,  ragpolar 
round  heait^ape,  light  clear  carmine  red,  mottled  and  s^ped 
on  pale  yellow.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  rich,  sweet,  and  deliciottSL 
Season,  9eth  to  last  of  June.    (Elliott.) 

HovsT.    Hov.  Mag. 

Not  having  fruited  this  chenj,  we  give  Mr.  Hovey's  descrip- 
tion. Tree  vigorous,  upright,  rorming  a  somewhat  pyramidal 
head.    Raised  by  Hovey  &  Co^  Boston,  Mass. 

Fruit  IftiV^  obtuse  heart-shaped,  with  a  shallow  suture  on 
one  side.  Skin  clear,  rich  amber  in  the  shade,  beautifully  naot- 
tied  with  brilliant  red  in  the  sun,  often  nearly  covering  the  fruit. 
^tem  short,  about  an  inch  long,  rather  stout,  neariy  straight,  and 
inserted  in  a  deep  round  cavity.  Flesh  pale  amber,  rather  firm, 
but  brisk,  rich,  and  delicious.  Ripe  from  the  middle  of  July  to 
beginning  of  August 

Htdx's  Latb  Black. 

Raised  by  T.  ^  O.  Hyde,  Newton,  Mass.  Strong  grower  and 
good  bearer. 

Fmit  medium,  obtuse  heart^diaped,  purj^ish  black,  flesh  half 
firm,  juicy.  Nearly  as  good  as  Black  Eagle.  Ripe  first  wec^ 
in  July. 


Fhiitbur^  very  regular,  uniform  heart-shape,  slightly  obtuse, 
and  with  a  deep  indenture  at  i^z.    Surface  uneven,  colour  rich. 

l^owjr,  dark  livw  ookmr,  almost  black.  FMi  lender,  jnicj, 
with&rielifVireeliAFew.  Seaaeii^MartiielMleif  Jiroe.  lUned 
hyFmLEMmd.    (ElKott.) 


Fniit  large,  heart-fthaped,  dark  parplish  black,  flesh  faalf  ten- 
der, nther  ooarse,  and  defieient  m  Bsvoor.  Its  ehief  merit,  a 
market  varie^.  (Bipe  early  io  July.)  StroDf^  ▼igofeua  giower, 
forming  a  laige  tree.    (Elliott) 


Raised  by  Prat  Kirtlaad.  Tree  TigoroiMi  kardy,  spteadinfe 
very  prodnctiye.  Emit  large,  oval  heart^hape,  oompressed ; 
satore  shallow,  half  round,  G4^nr  amber  yellow,  motUed  and 
mnch  oTer^iead  with  rich,  bright,  clear,  glossy  red*  Flesh  finn, 
juicy,  rich,  and  sweet  Season,  8th  to  lOrth  July.  Size  and  beauty, 
and  late  ripenings  will  make  it  valuable  where  known.    (Elliott) 

EutTLAHn'a  Mammoth. 

Frait  of  the  laifpoat  iifle,  obtose  heaiVshaped.  Gokmr,br^ht 
eiear  yellow,  partially  oivenpread  and  maroled  with  rich  red. 
Flesh  afanost  loader,  ]^cw^  sweet,  with  a  very  fine  high  flavoon 
Season,  last  of  Jnne.  lW  vigorona,  moderately  jNrodn^tive. 

Kiirn.Aim'8  Mart.    Elliott 

Raised  by  Prot  Ejrdand.    Tree,  a  strong,  upright  growei 
said  to  be  one  of  Ike  best  of  his  seedlings, 
and  deahnable  mther  for  tiie  dessert  or  mai^  I 
keft  Mrpoaes.     Not  havmg  fridted   soffi- 1 
cienll^  with  ns,  we  give  Mr.  Elliott's  de- 

Anit  large,  ronndish,  heart  shape,  very 
regular.  Colour  liriit,  and  dark  rich  red, 
deq>ly  marbled  and  mottled  on  a  yellow 
groond ;  srown  fblly  in  the  sun,  is  mostly 
a  rich,  dark  ^lossf  red.  Fl^h  light  yellow, 
onite  firm,  nch,  juicy,  sweet,  and  very  high 
flnvonred.  Season,  last  of  June,  and  first 
of  July. 

Eihoht'b  Early  Blaok.    Thomp.  Lind. 
P.  Mag. 

A  most  admirable  early  cherry,  resem- 
bling the  Black  Tartarian,  thongh  mnch 
more  obtose  in  fenn,  but  ripenmg  neariy  a    jcai^f  s  Sariy  Btaok 
week  earlier 

2U  Tap  CHBRRT^ 

Frait  laige,  a  little  irregular  in  outlioe,  obtuae  heut-ehsf  «d. 
8tolk  of  modente  length,  rather  stout,  and  interted  in  a  decji, 
open  cavity.  Skin  dark  purple,  becoming  Uadc  Fleah  purple, 
tender,  juicj,  with  a  rich  and  sweet  juice  of  high  flavour.  iVee 
ipreading.    Moderately  productive. 

Lm  BiuABBBAV.    EUiott. 

FVuit  bige,  obtuse  hearUhaped.  Skin  deep  yellow,  shaded 
on  the  sunny  side  with  bright  red.  Stalk  long,  inserted  in  a 
broad  open  cavity.  Flesh  ahnost  firm,  juicy,  sweety  pleasant 
flavour.  Ripe  last  of  June  Mid  first  of  Julv.  Tree  thrtfty,  mo- 
decafte  growth,  lather  spieadiiig.    IVodnetive. 

Lbatbsu  Stookhto. 

Baised  by  ProfeaBor  Eirtland.  Fruit  mediuno,  heart-shaped, 
reddish  black,  flesh  firm,  sweet  Ifiddle  to  last  of  July. 


Fndt  medium  or  above,  obtuse,  sometimes  regular  heart- 
shaped,  with  a  hollow  indenture  at  apex.  Ooiomr  puiplish 
bladk  when  ripe.  Flesh  nearly  firm,  juicy,  sweet,  aiid  rkk 
flavour.    8eaK>n,  middle  to  last  <tf  June.    Ongiusted  with  Prat 

Eirtland.    (Elliott) 

HAuaoir  Bioarbbau.    Maaniog. 

Fruit  of  medium  siae,  fiur  quality,  roundish.  Skin  yellow, 
shaded  with  red.  Flesh  half  tender,  juicy,  with  a  pleasant  flar 
vour.  Ripe  middle  <»last  of  June.  Tree  healthy;  aiodeimtely 

MAnmrQ^s  Latx  Black. 

Raised  by  ]f  r.  Hanninff,  of  Salem,  M ns.  Fnrit  laige,  round- 
ish, deep  putple  or  neaify  bku^  Flesh  purplisii,  hM  tender, 
very  juicy,  sweet  and  exoellent  Ripe  the  last  of  June.  Tree 

IfAVimro's  MOTTLKD. 
KoUled  BigarresxL    Mm. 

Raised  by  Mr.  Manning.    It  is  a  most  abundant  bearer. 

Fruit  rather  large,  roundiflh  heart-shn)ed,  flattened  on  one 
side,  with  distinct  suture  lines.  Skin  amber  colour,  findy  mot- 
tled and  overspread  with  red,  with  a  semi-tnn^Mirent,  ^ossv 
appearance.  Stalk  slender,  inserted  in  a  shallow  hollow.  Flesh 
when  fiiUy  ripe,  yellow,  tender,  with  a  sweet  and  delicionsjnioor 
Ripens  the  last  of  June. 


Ohio  BsAtrrT.    Elliott 

Tree  a  Tigofous  grower,  with  a  rather  8preadiu|^  head,  and 
has  proved  so  &r  a  prodactiye,  Taluable  kincL  Friiit  luge>  ob- 
tnaa  heartdiaped.  Light  jmimd,  mostly  eovered  with  led. 
Flesh  tender,  brisk,  juicj.    £pe  aboot  the  middle  of  Jane. 

Osceola.    Elliott 

(hwnated  with  Prot  Kirtland.  Moderate  bearer  and  medium 
growth.  Frait  above  mediam,  heartrshaped.  Colour  iSne  dark 
red,  approaching  to  black.  Flesh  juicy,  tender,  sweet  and  ex- 
cellent   Bipe  Utt  of  June. 

PixROK^s  Latx. 

Originated  with  Amos  Fierce,  and  introduced  to  notice  by 
James  Hyde  and  Son,  Newton  Centre,  Mass^  who  say  it  is  a 
fine  late  fruit  We  give  the  description  from  Uie  y.  E,  Farmer. 
Fruit  medium,  obtuse  heart-shaped,  dark  red  and  mottled,  light 
amber  in  the  shade.  Stalk  rather  short  and  slim.  Flesh  soft, 
tender,  very  juicy,  sweet,  rich  and  dehcious ;  stone  small.  Bipe 
the  hMt  of  July. 

Growth  free,  raiher  upright,  with  a  round  head. 


Fruit  large,  obtuse  heart-shaped,  sides  corooressed,  oolouc 
dark  puipliui  red,  approaching  to  black  when  fully  ripe.  Flesh 
half  tender,  juicy,  sweet  and  agreeable.  Season  last  of  June^ 
Originated  with  Pto£  Kirtland.     (Elliott) 


Fruit  medium  size,  uniform,  roundish,  flattened  or  compressed 
on  sides;  snrbce  irrmlar.  Colour  liver-like,  hidily  polished. 
Suture  ludf  found.  Fiesh  rich,  purplish  red,  maroled,  naif  ten* 
der,  jnioy,  sweet,  pleasant  but  not  nigh  flavour.  Season  late, 
8th  to  15th  <^  July. 

For  profitable  market  purposes,  this  is  one  of  the  rttj  best, 
the  fruit  ripening  late,  ana  all  beinff  uniform  and  regular  in  sise. 
Originated  with  Prot  Ktrthmd.    (Elliott) 


Fruit  large,  dark  red,  slightly  mottled.  Flesh  half  tender, 
jni<gr,  sweet    Ifiddle  to  last  of  June.    IVeo  vigorous,  spreading. 


Raised  by  D.  Proudfoot,  Cleveland,  Ohio.    Tree  vigorous. 


2tf6  THK  CBXEBY. 

Fruit  lme»  heart-fihaped,  dark  purplish  red.    Flesh  Ann,  juicy 
sweet    Ripe  15th  to  last  of  Julj.    (Elliott.) 

Rkd  Jacket.    Elliott. 

One  of  Prot  Kirtland's  seedling.  A  free  §Hywiiig,  rmthef 
spreading,  kte,  and  productive  variety. 

Fruit  laige,  regular,  obtuse  heart-shaped.  Colour  amber, 
mostly  covered  with  light  red.  Flesh  half  tender,  juicy,  good 
but  not  rich  flavour.  Stalk  long,  slender,  in  a  moderate  basin 
Ripe  about  the  time  of  Downers  Red. 

RiCHARDBOH.      Gole. 

Raised  by  J.  R.  Richardson,  Boston.  Fruit  large,  heart- 
shaped,  dark  red  inclining  to  black.  Flesh  deep  red,  half 
tender,  juicy,  sweet    Last  of  June. 

RoBBBTB*  Red  Heart. 

Origmated  in  the  garden  of  David  Roberta,  Esq.,  of  Salenii 
Mass.  Tree  hardy,  mo  grower.  Bears  abondantly,  and  hanga 
well  without  rotting. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  roundish  heart^ajpe.  SHam  of  •  pale, 
amber  ground,  but  nearly  overspread  with  pale  red,  mottled 
with  deeper  red.  Suture  quite  distinct  Flesh  juicy,  sweet  and 
well  flavoured.  Stalk  long,  slender,  set  in  a  moderate  dqwes- 
sion.    Ripe  last  of  June. 

Sparhawk's  Honet.   Man.  Ken. 
SparrowhawkV  Honey.     Thonqk 

Raised  by  Edward  Sparhawk,  of  Brighton,  near  Boston.  A 
profose  bearer.    Vigorous  grower. 

Fruit  of  medium  siae,  roundish  heari«haped — rety  rag^^v  in 
form.  Stalk,  of  moderate  length,  rather  slender;  set  in  a  round, 
even  depression.  Skin  thin,  of  a  beautifol  gjpasy  pale  amber- 
red,  becoming  a  lively  red  when  fully  ripe.  Fleah  juicy,  with  a 
very  sweet  flavour.    Ripe  the  last  of  June. 

Sweet  Mohtmobeitot.    Man. 

Allen^s  Sweet  Montmorency. 

Raised  by  J.  F.  Allen,  Salem,  Massachusetts.  Tree  hardy, 
vigorous  growth.  Habit  of  heart  cherries.  Less  subject  to  rot 
than  most  sorts.    Good  .bearer. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  round,  flattened.  Skin  pale  amber  in 
the  shade,  light  red,  slightly  mottled,  in  the  sun.  Stalk  an  inch 
and  three  fourths  long,  rather  slender,  inserted  in  a  small,  shal- 

•TAB  cmnRT.  267 

low,  eren  hoHow.    Flesb  yellowkh,  tender,  sweet  and  (Seellent 
RipeiM  here  middle  July. 


Fruit  nedinm  to  kige^  obUise  heart-dwped.  Skim  reddkh 
poipie.  Fleah  dark  red,  half  tender,  with  a  brisk,  Tinoaa  flaTonr. 
Kipe  towards  the  end  of  Joly.     IVee  noderately  yig^oroiia. 

Tradbsoant's  Black  Hbart.    Thonp. 


Slkhom  of  Maiyland.  j 



BigarreMi  Grot  Koir, 
Gkugne  Noir  Tardive^ 
GrcM  Sohwane  Slooorpel, 
Kinobe  MH  8ftft%eii  lUeh.  ^ 

fl6   to 


It  b  an  Baropean  Tariety,  bat  a  tree  growing  about  forty 
years  since  in  the  garden  of  an  inn  in  Maryland,  attracted  the 
n4ytioe  of  the  late  Wm.  Prince,  who  propagated  it  under  the 
name  of  Elkhom,  by  which  it  was  there  known.  The  bark 
is  of  a  pecvliarly  gtay  cokMir,  and  the  growth  qoile  Tigoroos. 

Fraii  large,  heart-shaped,  with  a  yeiy  irregolar  or  nnevensur- 
hcit.  Skin  deep  black,  g^oesy,  (before  fbUy  ripe,  deep  pnrple, 
mottled  with  Mack).  Stalk  rather  short,  set  in  a  pvel^  deep 
hollow.  Flosh  very  solid  and  firm,  da^  porple,  BM)deniiely 
jai<^.    Ripe  firrt  and  second  week  in  July. 

Transpabbbt  QuioMB.    Forsytk  Prinee.  Pom.  Man. 

Ti«M|Mi(ent  Oesn.    JbrvfA. 

ItisavaloableMid  pretty  variety  for  the  dessert,  hanging  late 
on  the  tree,  and  is  admired  by  all  amateuri. 

Fruit  small,  regular,  oval  heart^aped.  Skin  glossy,  thin,  and 
nearly  transparent,  ^howinff  the  network  texture  of  the  flesh 
beneath,  yellowish-white,  delieately  blotched  with  fine  red ;  dis- 
tinct suture  line  on  both  sides.  Stalk  long  and  slender.  Flesh 
tender  and  melting,  and  when  fully  ripe  very  sweet,  mingled 
with  a  very  slight  portion  of  the  piquant  bitter  of  the  Masard 
cIms  of  chenries.    Fint  of  July. 

Triumph  of  Cumbbrlamd. 

IConstrons  Maj.  ■  Brenneman's  Esriy. 

atreeVs  May.  Cumberland's  Seedling; 

Introduced  to  notice  by  David  Miller  Junior,  of   Oarlislei 


Pennsylvaiiu,  and  said  to  bo  a  seedling  of  Oamberland  Gonnty, 

A  strong,  Tigoroas  grower,  and  good  bearer,  not  snfficiently 
tested.     We  copy  from  tlie  report  of  the  Penn.  Hort  Society. 

Fruit  large,  obtuse  heart-shaped.  Sometimes  roundish,  com* 
pressed,  deep  crimson,  ahnost  purple  when  fully  ripe.  Stem 
rather  long;  slender,  in  a  broad  open  cavity,  apex  slightly  de- 
pressed. ¥leeb  rather  solid,  redf  slightly  adherent  to  the  stone, 
quality  **  best"     Period  of  maturity,  about  the  middle  of  June. 

Cumberland  seedling  from  Ohio  Inay  proye  same  as  above,  but 
tiiink  it  distiiict 


Tree  a  strongs  y^iona  grower,  ptodnctiye,  and  promises  well 
Raised  by  W.  P.  ^wnsend,  Lockport,  N.  Y. 

Fruit  large,  obtuse  heart-shaped,  high  shouldered,  compressed, 
suture  distinct,  apex  depressed.  Stem  u>ng,  somewhat  slender,  set 
in  a  broad,  rather  deep  depression.  Ooloiir  light  amber,  mot- 
tled, and  shaded  with  carmine.  Flesh  almost  tender,  juicy,  rich, 
sprightly,  refreshing  flavour,  pit  small.    Ripe  last  of  June. 

Wkndbll's  Mottlkd  Bioabreau. 

Fruit  Urge,  obtuse  heart-shaped,  dark  red,  nearly  black  at 
maturity,  mottled.  Flesh  dark  red,  firm  and  high  flavoured. 
Ripe  about  the  time  of  Downer^s  Litfte. 

Originated  with  Dr.  H.  Wendell,  Albany,  New  Yoric  Tree 
upright,  thrifty  growth. 


Wefdnhe  FrBhe  SehwwM.    Hen  Kenoke. 

A  promising,  eariy  variety.  Tree  vigorous,  spreading,  mo* 
derately  productive. 

Fruit  large,  roundish,  heartrshaped,  skin  black,  flesh  purplish, 
tender,  sweet  and  excellent  Ripem  early  in  June,  or  just  wfore 


SBorrov    m. 

Contains  those  superseded  by  better  sorts,  a  few  of  which  are 
esteemed  by  some  growers. 

Adam^s   Cbown. 

Fruit  full,  medium  in  size,  round  heart-shape.  Flesh  pale 
red  and  white,  tender  and  pleasant    Ripe  last  of  June. 

TUB   CHKRRT.  269 

Bkllb  Aqathb. 

II11&  new  cherry  figarbd  and  described  not  long  sinco  as  a  fine, 
laige,  late  varietj,  Mr.  Rivers  says  has  proved  a  smalli  hard, 
late  fruit 


Oros  Bigsnesa  Bouge.    Finteam. 
Biganeau  4  Gros  Fruit  Bouga    Bom.  JML 
Bigarreaa  4  Gros  Frait  Bongei    Ihamp,  f 
B^  de  BmdmmI  (^mnm). 

Fniit  kige,  oblong  heart-shape.  Sldn  daric  vsd  in  the  «m. 
IHflih  fimi.    Early  in  July. 

BioABBBAu,  ChnvA.    Prince's  Pool  Man. 

Cbinese  Hewt    Aomfk  f 

FMt  of  medinm  siie,  roundish  heart^haped,  light  ambefi 
mottled  and  shaded  with  bright  red.  Flesh  fins,  wtth  m  sweet| 
peculiar  flsv our.    Ripe  last  of  Jane. 


BigimMni  Holr. 

EroH  middle  aiaed,  heaii^haped.  Sim  red,  Imt  beeoming 
MadL    Fleah  irm  and  rather  diy.    First  of  Jn^. 

BuTTBBB^a  Ybllow.    Thomp. 

Bftttnei's  Waobs-Knorpel  Crsohe. 
Bitttiier's  Qelbe-KDorpel  Ilinebe. 

Raised  by  Bftttner,  of  Halle,  in  Germany,  and  one  of  the  few 
cherries  enUrtfy  tfMm.  Fhiit  of  medium  siae,  nmndish.  Skin 
pale  yellow.  Flesh  firm,  yellowish,  sweet,  and  not  of  mach 
value.    Ripe  first  week  in  July. 

GoBOVB.    Thomp.  Fors. 

Oooromie.    Lind.       HerefiNdshire  Bkuk. 
CorouiL    Lang.  Black  Orleansi 

Lai^  WUd  Blacic 

Ftnit  bdow  middle  size,  roundish  heart-shaped.  Skin  dinflr 
black  when  fully  ripe.  Flesh  when  ripe,  tender,  and  of  liule 
value.    Middle  of  July. 

6AflooieBa*B  Hbabt.    Thomp. 

Bleeding  Heart    Lmd. 
Red  Heart,  (0/  aome,)  )  ^  . 
HerefordahiiiHear^'  f  ^^ 
Guigne  Bouge  Hative. )  ^'^^-P" 

An  old  English  variety.    Fruit  of  medium  size,  long  heart* 


shaped,  ftinall  drop  or  tear,  at  the  end.  Skin  dark  red.  Flcftfa 
reddish,  half  tender,  widi  only  a  tolerable  flavour.  Ripe  the 
last  of  June,    A  bad  bearer. 


Small,  roundish  heart-shaped.    Light  red,  very  sweet    Pro- 
duedvei  huit  of  June. 


Apple  dioi'fjf.    JMEMoaH||L 

Ariiii  medimn,  voandiih,  bladL  Blesh  fim,  not  Ttij  joic} 
nor  rich.  Ripens  last  of  Jane.  Productive.  Origiiii  Masis 

'BomiT.    Thonp. 

Laige  Honej.      Lste  Hcmsf . 

Yellow  Honej.    Merioier  A  fruit  blana    K  Duh. 

A  sMall,  l^te,  veij  sweet  ihiit,  formerly 
Fruit  small,  roundish,  yellow  and  red.  Flash  ten4«v  ^^  tweet. 
Middle  oi  July. 

Htds's  Red  Hcart, 

Mediiisi,  heait-shaped.  Skm  pale,  but  beoomiw  a  )ig^  rod 
at  maturity.  Flesh  t^ider,  sprigl^y.  Ripe  last  of  Juii^  Origin 
Newton,  Massachusetts.    Troe  vigorous,  productive. 


Foreiffn ;  small,  obtuse  heart^^iNdd.  Stalk  lon^  and  slen- 
der, y«Uowish-whke,  tender,  brisk,  vinoos,  ft  little  bitter  before 
fbUy  ripe,  whieh  is  sooa  after  Downei^s  Lnke. 

Laot  Southampton's  Txllow.    Tbomp. 

Lsdj  Southampton's  Duke^ 

-QoUuiDiop^  I    acio 


TeUow  or  Golden,  frAoMp. 

Spanish  YeUow. 

Fhut  of  medium  size,  heart^aped.    Skin  yellow*    Flesh 
flim,  not  very  joky.    Ripens  about  the  middle  m  Svlj. 

Lvimn  GxAV. 

Fruit  medium,  reiiB<fish,  purpHsh  Uaek.    Flesh  tender,  juicy. 

Mahvimo's  Eablt  Black  Hsart. 

Fruit  medium,  similar  to  the  Black  Heart,  rather  earlier  ani 
smaller  in  sixe.    Ripe  about  the  middle  of  June. 

TMK   CUSRET.  271 


.Tardive  de  Mont. 
A  FVench  Tariety,  ripening  in  Angugt,  vigorous  grower. 
FVoit  small,  firm,  rather  dry,  sweet,  bat  of  little  valae. 

Ox  Heart.    Thomp. 

I4on'8  Heart  Yeiy  Large  Heart 

Banock^  Heart        Oohsen  Hen  Kiradie. 

Froit  large,  obtuse  beart-shaped.  Skin  dark  red.  Flesh  red, 
half  tender,  with  a  pleasant  jnicc,  of  second  quality  in  point  of 
ftivonr.    Bipenslast  of  Jnne. 


Bemington  White  Heart    iVwkx; 
BendngtoD  Heart 

Fmit  small,  heart-shaped.  Skin  yellow,  larely  with  a  fidal 
tinge  of  fed  on  one  side.  Flesh  yellowish,  dry,  and  somewhal 
bitter.    Middle  and  last  of  AegiMt 

RivBaa'a  Early  EbiART. 

Raised  by  Mr.  Rivers,  England. 

Median  nse,  heart-shaped.  Ripening  just  after  Belle  de  Qr- 
leansi  very  mach  inferiomr. 

RnrxRs's  Earlt  Amber. 

Raised  by  Mr.  Bivens  England. 

Medium  siie,  heart«haped,  prolific,  a  snb-Tariety  of  old  Early 
White  Heart,  but  not  as  early. 

ToRAoco  Lbaveo.    Thorn.  land. 

Four  to  the  Fdnnd. 
Bigvreaatier  A  FeuiUes  de  TaWux 
Bigarreaatier  k  Grandes  FeuiUas. 
Ouignier  A  FeuiUes  de  Tabaa 

Leaves  very  large.    Fhiit  small    Hard,  of  no  Talae. 

White  Tartablan.    Thomp. 

FiasM's  Wluts  Tartariai^  )  ^  m 
Frwer'B  White  Transparent,  }  .2rJ^ 
Ambto  A  petit  fruit  ^2/wmp. 

Anit  of  medium  siae,  obtase  heart«haped.  Skin  pale  yel- 
low. Stalk  slender.  Hesh  whitish  yeUow,  half  tender  and 
very  sweet 

272  THS  GHSRET. 

GLASS  n. 

SKOnON   I. 

Contains  those  of  best  qnality  and  generally  approved. 

Arch  Duke.    Hiomp.  lind.  Fors. 

Qriotte  do  PortufiL     0.  DA  Ifiris,       lAte  Anh  Doka 
Portugal  Doka  Late  Duke^  (^  smiu) 

Tree  rather  more  vigorous  than  the  Majduke,  with  longer 
diverging  tomches,  which  become  slightly  pendnlovs  in  bearing 

Fruit  lai^  obtuse  heart-shaped.  Suture  distinct  on  one  side. 
Skin  at  first  bright  red,  but  becoming  very  dark  when  mature. 
Stalk  an  inch  and  a  half  long,  slender,  inserted  in  a  rather  deep 
open  cavity.  Flesh  Tght  r^  melting,  juicy,  rich  sub-acid  fla- 
vour.   Ripe  the  first  and  second  week  in  July. 

Bills  MAannQUs.    Man. 

Belle  et  Magniflqtie.  Ken,  Belle  de  Ghstenay. 

Msgnifique  de  SoMux.  BeOt  de  Sosaux. 

Tree  hardy,  moderately  vigorous,  productive,  %  beautifiil  and 
excellent  late  variety.  Useful  for  culinary  purposes,  and  good 
table  fi^it  when  pretty  ripe. 

Fruit  large,  roundish,  inclining  to  heart-shape.  Stalk  long, 
slender,  in  an  open  medium  cavity.  Skin  a  fine  bright  i«d. 
Flesh  juicy,  tender,  with  a  sprightly  sub^acid  flavour,  one  of  the 
best  of  its  class.    Ripe  middle  of  July  till  the  middle  of  August. 

Lats  Duks.    Thomp.  Lind.  P.  Mag. 
Anglaiae  Tardive. 

A  very  Urge  and  fine  Duke  cherry, 
ripening  a  month  later  than  the  Mayduke^ 
and  therefore  a  very  valuable  sort  for  the 
dessert  or  for  cooking.  The  tree  is  of 
vigorous  growth  for  its  class. 

Fruit  larffe,  flattened  or  obtuse  heart- 
shaped,  much  more  depressed  in  its  filffure 
than  the  Mayduke.  Colour,  when  fully 
ripe,  rich  dark  red;  (but  at  first  white, 
mottled  with  bright  red.)  Stalk  rather 
slender,  inserted  in  a  shallow  hollow.  Flesh 
yellowish,  tender,  juicy,  with  a  sprightly 
sub-acid  flavour,  not  quite  so  sweet  and 
rich  as  the  Mayduke.  Ripens  gradually, 
and  hangs  on  the  tree  from  the  middle  of 
July  till  the  10th  of  August.  Xofe  Dicfei 



Matdukb.    Mill.  Themp.  UimL 

Boyale  HAtire, 

Cbarrf  Dak«i  {(ffrntme,) 

Cerise  Gnigiie, 


De  Hollander  • 


Oriotte  OrTome  Noire, 


Griotte  Prtooe^  {o/mfme) 

HoUdbd's  Duke. 

Early  Duke, 

Large  Majduke, 

Morris  Duke^ 
o/vorioitf  Morris's  Early  Doke, 
iVwMA  Benham's  Fine  Ear.  D'ke^ 
gardmB.  Thompson's  Duke^ 

Portugal  Duke, 

Buchanan's  Early  Duke, 





This  iDvalnable  early  eherry  k  one  of  the  most  pop 
in  all  oomitries,  thriTing  ahnost  equally  well  in  cold  or  warm 
climates.  This,  the  Black  Heart,  and  the  Bigarrean,  are  the 
most  eztensiTely  diffused  of  all  the  finer  Tarieties  in  the  United 
States.  And  among  all  the  new  varieties  none  has  been  found 
to  supplant  the  Mayduke.  Before  it  is  fit 
for  taue  use,  it  is  admirably  adapted  for 
eookinff ;  and  when  folly  ripe^  it  is,  perhans, 
the  richestcf  the  sub-acid  cherriea.    In  tke 

Srdens  here,  we  have  noticed  a  peculiar 
bit  of  this  tree  of  producing  veiy  fre- 
quently some  branches  which  npen  much 
later  than  the  others,  thus  protracting  for 
a  long  time  the  period  in  which  its  fruit  is , 
in  use.  The  Mayduke  is  remarkable  for 
its  upright,  or,  as  it  is  called,  foatigiaU 
head,  especially  while  the  tree  is  yoonff,  in 
dktinction  to  other  sorts,  which  produce 
many  lateral  branches. 

Irnit  roundish  or  obtuse  heart-shaped, 
growing  in  clusters.  Skin  at  first  of  a  lively 
red,  but  when  frdly  ripe  of  a  rich  ilorit  red. 
Flesh  reddish,  tender  and  melting,  very 
juicy,  and  at  maturity,  rich  and  exodUent  in  fiaTour.  This  fruit 
is  most  frequently  picked  while  it  is  yet  red,  and  partially  acid, 
and  before  it  attains  its  proper  colour  or  flavour.  It  begins  to 
colour,  about  New  York,  in  favourable  seasons,  the  last  of  May, 
and  ripens  during  the  first  half  of  June. 

Mayduke  is  said  to  be  a  corruption  of  MeioCj  the  province  in 
France,  where  this  variety  (the  type  of  all  the  class  now  called 
Dukes)  is  believed  to  have  origiaii&ed. 


Monstreuse  de  Bavay. 

Belle  de  Bavay. 
Seized  la  livrsb 

IVeneh  origin,  of  Duke  habit    Tree  a  healthy  and  handaome 
grower,  productive,  and  a  very  desirable  variety. 

S74  THE   CBSttRT. 

Fruit  very  large,  roandisb  elongated.  Skin  a  brifflit  lively  red, 
somewhat  marbled  and  mottled.  Satoie  diatioctiy  marked  by 
a  line  without  any  deprewion.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  very  al^ditly 
sub-acid  and  delicious.  Bipe  from  the  middle  to  tKe  last  ofJuly. 

Yail's  August  Dukk. 

A  very  excellent  late  cherry,  of  the  Duke  class.  Originated 
with  Henry  Vail,  Esq.,  Troy,  N.  Y.,  and  bids  fiur  to  rival  m^ny 
of  its  seasoa  Tree  very  productive,  and  of  vigorous  growth. 
Fruit  large,  obtuse  heart^haped,  r^pilar  in  ibrra.  Stalk  medium 
length,  inserted  in  a  rather  deep  but  narrow  cavity.  Skin  rich 
bright  red  on  the  shaded  side,  and  of  a  lively  eoraeliaa  led  in 
the  sun.  Flesh  tender,  sab-acid,  mock  like  the  liayduke  in 
flavov.  Ripe  the  lasl  week  ia  July,  and  the  fini  week  er  two 
in  Auguak 



Goiiq>ri8es  those  of  '^vety  good**  quality,  aoiiie  of  wkidi  may 
prove  "  best" 

Cabnatiov.    Thomp.  Lind. 



Ceriflo  Nouvelle  d'Angleterre^ 

Ceriae  de  Portugal, 

Ghrosse  Oeriae  Rouge  File^ 

Oriottier  Bouge  F&le^ 

Gkiotte  de  y  UlBQiMS. 


A  very  handsome,  light  red,  large  cherry, 
highly  esteemed  here  for  brandying  and 

Fruit  large,  round.  Skin  at  ffrst  yelk>w* 
ish  white,  aiottled  with  red,  but  becoming 
a  livelr  red  slightly  marbled.  Stalk  about 
an  inch  and  a  naif  long,  stout  Flesh  ten- 
der, a  little  more  firm  than  most  of  this 
division,  bat  juicy,  and  when  fiiily  ripe,  of 
a  sprightly  and  good  subacid  flavour.  Tlie 
foliage  is  pretlnr  large,  and  the  wood  sttong, 
but  the  tree  has  a  spreading,  rather  low 
habit  It  is  a  moderate  but  regular  beaier, 
and  the  fruit  hangs  a  long  while  on  the 
branches,  without  decaying.  Ripe  the. 
middle  and  last  of  July. 

Pbincb's  Dukb  is  a  very  large  variety  of  CkumaUan, 

this  cherry,  raised  from  a  seed  of  it,  by  Mr.  Prince,  of  Long 
Uand.    Its  shy  habit  of  bearing  renders  it  of  litde  value. 

THS   GHBKAT.  275 

Chriotiava  md  Mabt* 

IVo  Tarieties  raised  b^  B.  B.  Kirtland,  Oreenbachf  N.  Y^  and 
noted  in  the  Horticoltnnst  as  resembling,  in  tree  and  frniti  the 
Majdoke,  and  are  probably  sab-varieties. 

Cox^s  Latb  Carnation. 
A  promising  late  variety.    Fruit  above  medium  size,  roundish ; 
suture  shallow,  with  a  line.     Colour  amber,  mostly  shaded  and 
mottled  with  bright  red.    Flesh  juicy  and  sprightly  sub-acid. 
Bipe  from  the  muldle  till  the  last  of  July. 

IhrcmBSB  db  Palluau. 
A  new  foreign  sort^  medium  size,  roundish  heart-shaped, 
compreased,  very  dark  purple.    Stem  long  and  slender,  in  a 
large  open  cavity.    Flesh  dark  red,  tender,  juicy,  mild  acid. 
Ripe  the  middle  of  June.    V^;oioaa  growth  tor  ita  daas. 

Flxmish.    Thonp. 

Montmoranoy  (p/LmOeff,) 

Kentirii  (cftome,) 

Osrise  A  Ooorte  Queue.    J\riL 

IC ontBaoreu^  k  Gros  ¥nd%    ) 

GrosGobet^  SO.DmA. 

Oobet  i,  Oourte  Queue.  ) 

A  Courte  Queue  de  Provence. 


Weichsel  mH  gMnkureeo  stiel, )  €fike 

Double  Yolgera.  (  Dutch, 

This  is  a  Tery  odd  looking 
froit,  being  much  flattened,  and 
hsvinff  a  very  short  stalk. 

frait  rather  latge,  very  much 
IfaittMied  both  at  the  top  and 
b«Be^  and  generally  ffrowmff  in 
pairs.  Stalk  stout,  short  Skin 
shining,  of  a  britfht  lively  red. 
Flesh  yoUowish  white,  jui^,  and 
tub-aeid.    Good  lor  preservinir ; 

Int.  i»lM  T«.7  Thiri^>n»^7 
rieh  enough  for  table  use.    Laat  _    . . 

•fJuly.  ''"'•** 

Jbffbbt's  Don.  Thomp, 

Jeft^sBoyaL    ZML 
Jefflrey's  Boyal  Caroon. 

Bq^ale  Ordinaire.    i^Mteoa. 
Fruit  of  medium  sise,  round,  or  ft  little  flattened  at  the 

876  nu  OBJiKftT. 

and  basin.  Skin  of  a  fine  lively  red.  Stalk  moderately  long 
Flesh  yellowish  amber,  seapcely  red.  Jaice  abundant,  and  of 
a  rich  flavour.  The  trees  are  of  a  distinct  habit  of  growth,  be- 
ing very  compact,  and  growing  quite  slowly.  The  buds  are 
very  closely  set,  and  the  miit  is  borne  in  thick  clusters.  Mid* 
die  and  last  of  June. 

E1HTI8H.    Thomp. 

^  Yirginiaa  ICay,      }o/Amaioan 

Early  Richmond.  )     gardmte, 
Kentish,  or  )  r^^ 
Flemish.       \^^*^ 
Common  Red,        ^ 

pTcJW.      U«««wK*. 

Kentish  Red.         J 
Montmoreocjr.    0.  IhiK  1 

Muscst  de  FngQe.  J 

The  true  Kentish  cherry,  an  old  European  sort,  better  known 
here  as  the  Early  Richmond,  ia  one  of  the  most  valuable  of  the 
acid  cherries.  It  b^;ins  to  colour  about  the  29ih  of  May,  and 
may  then  be  used  for  tarts,  while  it  will  hanff  upon  the  tree, 
gradually  growing  larger,  and  losing  its  acidity,  until  the  huit 
of  June,  or  in  dry  seasons,  even  untO  July,  when  it  becomes  of 
a  rich,  sprightly,  and  excellent  acid  flavour.  The  tree  grows 
about  eighteen  feet  high,  with  a  roundish  spreading  head,  is 
exceedingly  productive,  and  is  from  its  early  maturity  a  very 
profitable  market  fmit,  being  largely  planted  for  this  purpose  in 
New  Jersey.  This  kind  is  remarkable  for  the  tenacity  with 
which  the  stone  adheres  to  the  stalk.  Advantage  is  ta^en  of 
this  to  draw  out  the  stones.  Ilie  fruit  is  then  exposed  to  the 
sun,  and  becomes  one  of  the  moat  excellent  of  all  aried  fruits. 

Fruit  when  it  first  reddens  rather  small,  but,  when  folly  ripe, 
of  medium  size,  round,  or  a  little  flattened;  borne  in  pairs. 
Skin  of  a  fine  bnght  red,  growing  somewhat  dark  when  folly 
ripe.  Stalk  an  inch  and  a  quarter  long,  rather  stout,  set  in  a 
pretty  deep  hollow.  Flesh  melting,  juicy,  and,  at  matority,  of 
a  sprightly  rather  rich  add  flavour. 

Laros  Mobsllo. 

Kirtland's  Large  MoreOo. 

Raised  by  Prof.  Kirtland.  Promises  valuable,  but  as  yet  not 
fully  tested.  Fruit  above  medium,  roundish,  dark  red,  jai^ 
rich  acid,  good  flavour;  pit  small.  Season,  early  in  July.  (]S 


MORSLLO.       TlMMDp.   Lllld.  Lftllg. 

IfOan.    Itrng.  English  MoreUa 

Oerise  du  Nord.    Noia,  Large  MoraUa 

Griotto  Oidixuiirdda  Nord  Dutch  MordkK 

September  Weicfaael  Grane.  Aoiiald*s  Large  KoraUa 

The  Morello  is  a  fine  fruit  Its  name  is  said  to  be  derived  from 
&e  dark  purple  colour  of  its  juice,  which  resembles  that  of  the 
Mortu  or  Mulberry.  It  is  highly  valuable  for  all  kinds  of  pro- 
aerves,  and  is  an  agreeable  adcutioD  to  a  dessert 

FHiil  of  ]vietly  laige  siie,  round,  or  iliffhtly  obtuse,  heart- 
shaped.  Sun  dark  rra,  becoming^  nearly  bUM^  when  fbllT  rij>e. 
Flesh  dark  purplish  red,  tender,  juicy,  and  of  a  pleasant  suVacid 
favour,  when  quite  mature.    Ripe  2(Hh  of  July. 

The  Common  Morello  of  this  country,  is  a  smaller  variety  of 
the  foregoing^  and  a  little  darker  in  colour.    Little  esteemed. 

Plumstokx  Morxllo. 

Tree  of  slow  srowth,  makes  a  fine  pyramid.  A  productive, 
hardy,  and  valuable  sort 

Frait  large,  roundish,  inclining  to  heart  shape.  Skin,  deep 
red.  Stalk  an  inch  and  a  half  loDg^  rather  slender  and  stnuffht, 
set  in  a  h<^low  of  moderate  depth.  Flesh  reddish,  tender,  juicy, 
and  when  well  matured,  of  a  sprightiv  and  agreeable  flavour. 
SUme  long  and  pointed.    Ripe  last  of  July,  and  first  of  August 

RoTAL  Duxa.    Thomp. 
Boyale  Anglaise  Tardive. 
Growth  irori{^t»  compact  head,  branches  lees  slender  than 
Haydnke.    Moaerate  bearer. 

Fkidt  Isrge,  roundish,  and  distinctly  oblate  or  flattened.  Skin 
dark  red.  Flesh  reddish,  tender,  juicy  and  rich.  A  good  bearer. 
Ripens  in  the  last  of  June. 


This  is  a  Morello  raised  by  Prof.  Eirtland,  and  as  it  has  not 
fruited  with  us,  we  give  Mr.  Elliott^s  description. 

Fruit  slightly  above  medium  sise,  globular,  flattened  at  junc- 
tion with  stem.  Dark  purplish  red,  when  ripe.  Flesh  tender, 
reddish  purple,  juicy,  ackL  Pit  small.  Stem  long,  slender^  in- 
•ertad  in  an  open  cavity.    Season,  middle  of  July.    (Elliott) 


8SCTION      III. 

contains  those  superseded  by  better  ones. 

t78  THft  OHsaar* 


A  Morello,  from  France.  Frait  roand ;  deep  red.  Flesh  jel* 
lowish,  jiaojf  ackL    Last  of  Jane. 


Mediam  to  lai|pe,  light  red,  aomewhat  traBspafeiity  a«b-«eid. 
QiuUity  good  to  very  good.  Bipe  about  the  aame  Imm  at 
Downef^a  Bed. 


A  new  foreign  sort  Small,  late,  acid,  and  of  little  or  no 

Cluster.    Thomp. 

Ceriae  A  Boaquet    P^Hleau,    Duh. 
Geriner  A  Trodiet^     ^ 
Cheyreuso,  of  ik^usk 

CkmrnnmeiTMchet,  ^^JJ^ 
TnsFertile,  ^^^ 

ariottier  a  Boaqiwt 
Bouquet  AmareUe^ 
Trauben  AmareUe, 
Buach  Weichsel, 
FkndffMbe  W«Miael, 
Bflachel  KIZBcha 

A  very  corioua  iroit,  growing  closely  clnatered  around  %  eom* 
mon  stalk,  small  sixe,  borne  in  clusters  of  from  two  to  six ;  roand, 
of  a  lively  red.  Bipena  the  last  of  Jane.  The  tree  is  small  in 
all  ita  parts. 

Db  8pa. 

Full  medium  size,  quite  acid.  Bipe  soon  after  Mayduke,  and 
forms  a  prolific  bush. 

B^RLT  Mat.    Thomp.  lind. 

May  Oheny.    Lamg.  Ftioooi, 

SmaUMay.  Petite  Oerte  Soage  Flteoik 

Geriaier  Nain  k  Fruit  Bond.  KOnig^cfae  Amareile. 

Prtooe.     0.  DfiJL  FrOhe  Kleine  Bunde. 

ariottier  Nain  Prteooe.  Zweig  IfeiohsoL 

Hatiye.  Ceriae  Indulle. 

An  early  Morello  of  rather  dwarf  habit.  Bipening  about  the 
first  of  June.  Fruit  small,  round,  slightly  flattened.  Lively  rod, 
tender,  juicy,  acid.     Not  of  ranch  value. 

of  (he 
'  (jcriimm. 

ram  OBSBftr.  !}• 

•    GuiMn  NoiB  LoMAim. 

Black  BptnWi. 

Frtiit  medinm  tuse,  round  beart-ahaped,  gloMJv  blackish  red* 
Flesb  reddkh  purple,  tender,  juicy^  rich,  acid.  Kipe  middle  to 
last  of  July. 

Impbbial  Morbllo. 

A  ]>TodQctiye  and  early  bearing  variety,  IMt  medinm  rise, 
roandiih,  dark  porplish  rod.  Fl^  tender,  jnicy,  acid.  Laat  of 

Lavs  KmnaH. 

Common  Sour  Cherry, 

lliii  cherry,  a  variety  of  the  Kentish,  is  better  known  among 
ns  than  any  other  acid  cherry. 

Itk  emphatically  ihePie  Cktny  of  this  country,  being  more 
generally  grown  than  any  other  sort 

Fruit  DMdimn,  round,  flattened.  Skin  deep  lively  red,  when 
fully  ripe.  Flesh  very  tender,  and  aboQn<jyng  with  a  highly  acid 
juice.    Ripens  middle  July. 

Lovxa  FkOLUP.    Elliotts 

A  Morello,  from  France.  Fruit  medium,  roundish,  dark  red. 
Flesh  red,  juicy,  tender,  acid.    Middle  iA  July. 

RuussT^a  Lati  Mobsllo. 

Origin  unknown.  Tree  moderately  vigorous,  with  unusually 
light  coloured  wood  and  leaves.  Ripens  gradually  through  Au- 
gust and  September.  Not  of  much  value  except  to  the  curious 

Fruit  large,  roundish  hearirshaped.  Colour,  rich  lively  red. 
Flesh  juicy,  with  too  much  acid  for  the  table. 


Laros  Double  Flowbubo. 

Doable  French  Obeny. 

Merisier  k  Fleurs  Doubles.    Tkomp.  Duh, 

Pniniis  oerasus  plenow 

CerasoB  Bjlvestna,  Acre  plena    Arb,  BHL 

The  double  blossomed  cherry  bears  no  fruit,  but  whoever  ad« 

1280  THS   OHSRBT. 

mireB  a  beautiful  flowering  tree,  cannot  refuse  a  place  in  hit 
garden  to  this  one,  to  hi^iy  ornamental.  ItB'blo8e*:m8,  which 
appear  at  the  usual  season,  are  produced  in  the  most  showy 
profusion ;  thej  are  about  an  inch  and  a  half  in  diameter,  and 
resemble  clusters  of  the  most  lovely,  full  double,  white  roses. 
The  tree  has  the  habit  and  foliage  of  Uie  Mazsard  Cherries,  and 
soon  forms  a  lai^  and  lofty  hetul. 

DwABT  Double  FLOwntmo. 

Doable  Flowering  Kentish. 
Smtll  Doable  Flowering. 
CerisierAFleiinDoablM.    Thtm^KMk 

This  is  a  double  flowering  variety  of  the  sour  or  Kentish 
cherry,  and  has  the  more  dwarfish  habit  and  smaller  leaves 
and  branches  of  that  tree — scarcelv  forming  more  than  a  laige 
shrub,  on  which  account  it  is  perhaps  more  suitable  for  smul 
sardens.  The  flowers  are  much  like  those  of  the  laise  doable 
flowering,  but  they  are  not  so  r^rular  and  beautiful  in  their 

Chin^sb  Doublb  Fu>WBBIHa. 

Yang  To. 

Genius  semilata.  )  ^^  i^^ 

Serrolated  Leaved  Oieny.  f -*♦«•  ^»«- 

This  is  a  very  rare  variety,  recently  imported  from  China, 
with  the  leaves  cut  on  the  edges  in  that  noanner  known  as  ser- 
rulate by  botanists.  Its  flowers,  which  are  borne  in  &sciclea, 
are  white,  slightly  tinged  with  pink,  and  nearly  as  double  as 
tlioee  of  the  laifpe  double  flowenng.  The  tree  considerably  re- 
sembles the  sour  cherry  tree,  and  appears  rather  dwaiflrth  in  its 

WsBPiBo,  oB  Allsaints.    Thomp. 

Bver  flowering  Cheny,         )  j^  -^ 
0.  vulgaris,  semperplorens.   C         ^^ 
OerisedelaTousBsints.    K  DuK  Xbk. 
Goignier  4  rsmeaux  pendans,  ^ 
Oerise  Tardive,  [  ^  (hi 

Cerisifir  Pleonnt,  |  Jmeh. 

Cerise  de  St  Kartin.  J 

BtUartin's  Amarelle,^ 
ICartin's  Weichsel,        I    o/ fte 
Monats  Amarelle,         [  Jhtiek 
AUerheiUgen  Kirache.  J 

lliis  charming  little  tree,  with  slender,  weeping  branches, 
clothed  with  small,  almost  myrtle-like  foliage,  is  a  very  pleasing 
ornament,  when  introduced  on  a  lawn.    Its  fhiit  is  a  small,  deep 

oumajLMt.  281 

red  MoveUoy  which  k  aeid,  and  in  mmtX  leatoiia,  is  prodaoed 
for  m  cenudtrabk  period  Miooeiiively.  When  gnfted^  as  it 
geneittUj  1%  abont  the  hei|[ht  oi  one's  head,  on  a  simiffht  atom 
of  the  eommon  Maamd,  it  forms  a  beautifiil  parasoMike  top^ 
the  ends  of  the  branches  weeping  half  way  dow  n  to  the  gromd. 

ViBoiinAH  WiLn  GniBET. 

inid  Obgny,  ofihe  XMUd  8kUm. 
Oerasu  Vlni^kMML    ArlKBHLJka, 
OBiasiercbyiigiius.    MtndL 
y iiginiBch  Elracfaa    Oervum, 

Our  native  wild  cheny  is  too  well  known  to  need  ndnate  d*- 
sciiDtioD*  It  forms  a  larae  and  IcHsj  forest  tree,  with  gtossy, 
danc  green  leaves,  and  bears  currant-like  bunches  of  smaQ 
fruit,  which  are  palatable,  sweeti  and  Blightlj  bitter  when  fbUj 
ripe,  at  midsummer.  They  are,  however,  most  esteemed  for 
preparing  cherry  bounce^  a  fovourite  liqueur  in  many  parts  of 
the  country,  made  by  putting  the  fruit  along  with  sngar  in  a 
demijohn  or  cask  of  the  best  old  rum, 

Jhe  blaek  wild  cherry,  (O,  wrotina^  Torrey  and  Gray,)  which 
rijpens  the  first  of  September,  is  the  best  kind*  The  other  spe* 
cies,  {CnVirgmuMo^  which  is  commonly  known  as  tiie  Choke 
Chenry^  bem  reddiek  coloured  fruit,  which  is  more  aatringent^ 
and  ripens  a  month  earlier. 

Selection  of  choice  Cherries  U>  ripen  m  euoeeeeion.  Barly 
Purple  Gniffne,  Belle  d'Orleans,  Maydnke,  BeOe  de  Choisy, 
Sockport,  Bigaireao,  Tartarian,  Elton,  Gov.  Wood,  Coe's  Traas< 
parent,  Great  Bigarreau,  Delicate,  Downer's  Late,  Beine  Hor- 
tense,  Belle  Magnifiqne,  Kentish. 

Hie  hardiest  cherries  are  the  Kentish,  (or  Virginia  May,)  die 
Dnkes,  and  the  Morellos.  These  succeed  well  at  the  forthest 
limits,  both  north  and  south,  in  which  the  eheny  can  be  raised ; 
and  when  all  other  varieties  foil,  thev  may  he  depended  on  for 
rei^ular  crops.  Next  to  these,  in  this  reipeot,  are  the  Blaek 
Heart,  Downer's  Late,  Eariy  Purple  Guigne,  and  Elton. 


JBIAm  mftrum,  Un.     OroemOaeeat,  t^  hotajdsUB, 

OreeetKercomtmrnt  of  the  French;  IHeJhkatimi9beer«,  Qgrmaa;  AJbeteitbeetts 

Datch;  Btbee  rosaa,  Itftlian;  and  Qroeetilaf  Spsoish. 

Ths  name  cunrant  is  laid  to  be  derived  from  the  resemblance 

282  nW  iWMRAKT. 

in  tfie  fruit  to  tbe  little  Oormik  gnpet  or  nuBiBS,  whiefa,  und^r 
thonaaneof  eurranit^an  atM  in  n  dtied  •!•!•  in  Mck  <}i]«ntitiee 
by  grocon;  Ui«  ktttf.  word  beiw  oiify  n  oormpCion  of  CMndi, 
and  the  froit  of  this  Uttle  gripe  being  tenfliarlf  known  aseudi 
long  before  the  eomaon  ciiirwili  were  eakivated. 

The  cumnt  is  n  native  of  Britain^  and  the  north  of  Eatope^ 
and  ia,  thereibre,  an  exeeedingly  hardy  frnit-beanngshrob,  mI- 
dotn  growing  more  than  three  or  four  feat  high.  The  froit  of 
the  original  wild  apeciea  ia  Braalt  and  very  Mnr,  bat  the  laige 
garden  aorta  produced  by  cultivation,  and  for  which  we  are 
chiefly  indebted  to  die  Dutch  gardeners,  are  huge  and  of  a  nx>re 
agreeable,  anb-acid  fiavoar. 

The  Black  Curranti  (JK5m  mprum,)  ia  a  diatinct  i^Mciea,  with 
larger  leavea,  and  ooarser  growth,  and  which,  in  the  whole  plant, 
haa  a  atieng  odoar,  diiagKeable,  at  first,  to  many  perBona. 

Uaaa.  The  cooling  Mid  flavour  of  the  currant  la  relidied  by 
moat  people,  in  moderate  qnantitiea,  and  the  larger  varietiea 
make  alao  a  pretty  appearance  on  the  table.  Before  fliliy  ripe^ 
currants  are  stewed  for  tarts,  like  green  gooeeberriea,  and  are 
frequently  employed  along  with  cherries  or  other  fruits  in  the 
same  way ;  but  the  diief  ^ne  of  this  fruit  is  for  making  c«rraa< 
/f%,  an  indamenaable  accompaniment  to  many  dishes.  Currant 
aArwA,  made  from  the  frnit  in  the  same  manner  as  lemonade,  is 
a  popular  summer  drink  in  many  parts  of  the  countiy,  and  cor- 
responds to  the  well  known  Pans  beverafle,  eau  de  prasseUlet. 
A  aweet  wine  of  very  pleasant  taste,  is  ma^  from  their  exnress- 
ed  juice,  whidi  is  very  popular  among  frumers,  but  whicn  we 
hope  to  see  displaced  by  that  afforded  by  the  Isabella  and  Ca- 
tawba grapes, — ^which  every  one  may  make  witii  less  cost  and 
trouble,  and  which  is  infinitely  more  wholesome,  because  it  re- 
qnnrea  less  additions,  of  any  kind,  to  Hie  pure  juice. 

Hie  fruit  of  the  black  currant  is  liked  by  some  persons  in 
tarts,  but  it  is  chiefrf  used  for  making  a  jam,  or  idly,  much 
▼ahied  aa  a  domestic  remedy  for  sore  liiroats.  The  young 
leaves  dried,  very  ainmgly  reaemble  green  tea  in  flavour,  and 
have  been  naed  aa  a  aidmtute  for  it    - 

The  season  when  currants  are  in  perfection  is  midsummer, 
but  it  may  be  prolonged  until  October  by  covering  the  bushes 
with  mats,  or  snelterii^  them  otherwise  from  die  sun. 

Pbopaoation  AHn  CiTLTUBB.  Nothing  is  eaaier  of  culture 
than  die  currant,  as  it  grows  and  bean  well  in  any  tolerable 
ffarden  soil.  Never  plant  out  a  currant  sucker.  To  propagate 
It,  it  is  only  necessary  to  f^Mit^  in  the  antumn,  or  en^y  in  the 
spring,  slips  or  cuttiiun,  a  foot  long,  in  the  open  garden,  where 
tney  will  root  with  &e  greateat  frunlity.  Tne  enrrant  should 
never  be  allowed  to  prc^ce  sucken,  and,  in  order  to  ensure 
againatthis,  the  anperinioua  eyea  or  bods  should  be  taken  oat  be* 
fore  planting  it^  aa  naa  been  dvected  under  the  head  of  Oattinga. 


Wlien  the  plants  are  placed  wbere  they  are  fiuallv  to  remain, 
tb^  Bhonld  always  be  kepi  in  the  ftmn  of  trees — ^that  is  to  say, 
ivitn  single  stems,  and  heads  branching  out  at  from  one  fool  to 
three  feet  from  the  ground.  Hie  after  treatment  is  of  the  sim- 
plest kind;  tb inning  ont  the  superflnous  wood  every  winter,  is 
all  that  is  required  heia  Those  who  desbe  berries  of  an  extra 
huge  sise  Mk^  or  pinch  ont,  the  ends  of  all  the  strong  growing 
dioots^' about  the  middle  of  Jane,  when  the  froit  is  two-ihirds 
grown,  litis  ibroes  the  plant  to  expend  all  its  rtrength  in  en- 
laiging  and  maturing  the  frnit  And,  we  may  add  to  ibis,  that 
it  is  better  not  to  continue  the  cultivation  of  cnrimnt  trees  after 
they  have  borne  more  than  six  or  eight  years,  as  finer  froit  will 
be  obteined,  with  less  trovbK  from  yomg  pbnti^  whioh  are  so 
ea^  raised. 

There  are,  nominally,  many  sorts  of  corrants,  but  the  follow* 
mg  sorts  comprise  aU  at  present  known,  worthy  of  cultivation. 
The  oommoB  Bed,  and  the  oommeB  White,  are  tolaUy  mide- 
serving  a  place  in  the  oarden,  when  those  very  sapeiior  sorts,  the 
White,  and  Bed  Datd^  can  be  obtained. 


A  new  variety  from  Fnuiee.  White,  very  Imge^  pvodactive 
and  vigorous. 

GBAMPAom.    Thomp.  land. 


OroflBelliar  A  Fruit  Coukur  4e  pbsir. 

A  lar)^  and  handsome  eomsl,  of  a  pale  piidc,or  fesh  ookmr, 
exactiy  mtermediste  in  this  reelect,  between  the  red  and  white 
Dutch*  It  is  quite  an  acid  sort,  but  Is  admired  by  many  iSor  its 


A  new  strong  growing  variety,  with  stout,  ereet,  shortjointed 
shoots;  leaves  laim  tmek,  and  dark  g^een.  Not  any  mora 
productive  than  oUi»  currants,  but  a  valuable  one  for  market 
and  preserving. 

Fruit  of  the  vevy  laigeit  siae.  Bmncheashoit  Benriea deep 
red,  aad  Mkharmoie  and  than  Bed  Dutch. 

Fbbtili  Cubkavt  or  Palluau. 

If ew,  fiouk  IVMsee,  Said  to  be  huge,  exedlenl  and  very  pro- 
duetive.    Not  yet  tested  here. 


Aom  Fhmce.  Bather  late;  hgbt  red;  large,  quite  acid, 
large  bunches,  leaves  large,  vigorous  grower,  very  productive. 

284  THS   OURRAXT. 


Fhiit  large,  whitish  yellow,  quite  sweeti  more  so  than  anj 
other  8ort^  branches  rather  long,  strong  growth,  productive. 

Ehioht's  Swsrt  Rrd. 

This  is  not  a  sweet  currant,  but  is  considerab^  less  acid  than 
other  red  curranta^  not  as  sweet  as  White  I>ut(^  Fnai  nearly 
as  large  as  Red  Dutch ;  rather  lighter  in  colour.    Productive. 

KinoHys  Early  Rrd. 

Hie  merit  of  tbis  variety  is  in  its  ripening  a  few  days  earlim- 
than  other  sorts. 

Kkiobt^s  Larox  Rbd. 

Fmit  very  large  bright  red,  bunches  very  large,  very  produc- 
tive, an  excellent  sort 

Long  Buhchrd  Rxd. 

Groase  Rouge  de  HoUand. 

Fruit  large,  bunches  long,  berries  deep  red,  much  Kke  Red 
Dutch,  with  a  little  lai^r  clusters,  and  rather  larger  fnnt  Yeiy 

La  Vxrsaillaisx.  . 

New  Flren^  Currant^  very  large,  with  long  bunches ;  next 
in  siae  to  cherry  currant^  deep  red,  very  productive. 

La  Hativs. 

A  new  early  red  currant  from  France,  not  yet  fruited  here. 
Said  to  be  excellent 

La  Fxrtilx. 

From  France.    Large,  deep  red ;  very  productive. 

pRiNCR  Albrrt. 

New,  vifforona  grower,  large  foHi^  late  in  ripening,  produc- 
tive and  viduable.    Fruit  very  large,  similar  in  cokmr  to  Victoria.. 

Rro  Dctoh. 

hurgb  Red  Dutch.  Latge  Banohod  Bed. 

New  Red  Dutch.  Koi^gan'a  Bed. 

Oroeaillier  Rouge  A  Gros  Fruit 

An  old,  well-known  sort,  thrifty,  upright  growth,  very  pro 
ductive.  Fruit  large,  deep  red,  ridi  acid  flavour,  with  dui^en 
two  or  three  inches  long. 

thx  cuerakt.  286 

Rbo  Gbapi. 

Fruit  very  laige,  bunches  vciy  long,  beaotifiil  clear  red  colour, 
a  little  more  wM  than  Red  Dutch,  and  not  quite  ao  upi%ht  in 
its  growth.    Very  productive. 

Red  Pbotxnb. 
Similar  to  Bed  Dnteh,  but  atronger  in  growth. 

Sbokt  Buhobbd  Rio. 

Much  like  Red  Dutch,  with  rather  shorter  bunchea.  Fruit 
not  quite  aa  laige. 

SraiFSD  FmunBD. 

Groaae  WeiM  und  Bothgialreifte  JohanneibeerB. 

A  pretty  new  fruit  from  Germany.  Distinctly  striped,  small, 
poor  bearer,  and  of  no  value  except  as  a  curiosity. 


BUno  Transparent 

A  new  French  currant  Fniit  very  laige,  yellowish  white, 
similar  to  White  Dutch.    Very  producdve. 


Utif*B  Victoria.  Raby  Castle. 

Hooahtoii  OMtle.  GoHath. 

A  very  excellent,  rather  late  sort,  with  very  long  bunches  of 
bright  red  fruit ;  and  is  an  acquisition  to  this  cuisa  of  fruits. 
Berries  as  large  as  Red  Dutch,  bunches  rather  longer,  of  a 
brighter  red,  growth  more  sprcadin|^  and  very  productive.  Will 
hang  on  the  bushes  some  two  weeks  longer  than  most  currants. 

Whits  Clihtoh. 
Veiy  similar  to  While  Doleh,  if  not  the  same. 

WnrrB  Avtwbrf. 

Fruit  very  laige,  sweety  bunches  rather  long.  Very  produce 

White  Grapi. 

Bunches  moderately  long.  Berries  very  large,  whitish  yel* 
low,  sweet  and  good.  Very  productive.  1^  randies  more  bori 
zontal  than  White  Dutch. 

SM  nn  €VMUiiT. 

White  Dutcel 

Vev  While  Duich.  Reeve*8  White. 

White  CkTStaL  Mois^an's  White. 

White  LeghoRL 

TliiB  18  pred^lj  nmilar  to  Bed  Dutch  in  habit,  hot  the  frnit 
is  lai^r,  with  ratlicr  shorter  bunches,  of  a  fine  yellowish  white 
colour,  with  a  vefy  tnnsperaat  akin.  It  is  ooosiderabl j  less  acid 
than  the  red  carrants,  and  is  therefore  mnch  prefened  for  the 
table.    It  is  abo  a  few  dajs  earlier.    Yerj  productive. 

//.  Black  CwnranU,  {R.  mgnum.) 
CoMiiMi  Blaobk.    Thomp. 

OwKfl,  (€/  the  lirwdL) 

The  conmoD  Black  English  Currant  is  well  known*  The 
berries  are  quite  black,  less  than  half  an  inch  in  diameter,  and 
borne  in  clusters  of  four  or  five  berries.  It  is  much  inferior  to 
the  following. 

Black  Napuu..   llioinp.  P.  Mag.  lind. 

The  Black  Nicies  is  a  beautiful  fruity  the  finest  and  laigesl 
of  all  black  currants,  its  berries  often  measurinff  nearij  three 
fourths  of  an  inch  in  diameter.  Its  leaves  and  uossoms  appear 
earlier  than  those  of  the  Common  Black,  but  the  fruit  is  later, 
and  the  clusters,  as  well  as  the  berries,  are  larger  and  more  .nu- 

OaNAMKirrAL  Varibtibs.  There  are  several  very  ornamental 
species  of  currant,  among  which  we  may  here  allude  to  the  M10- 
BocRi  Currant,  {Bibes  Awftum)^  brought  by  Lewis  and  Clark 
from  the  Rocky  Mountains,  whicui  is  now  very  conmion  in  our 
gardens,  and  generally  admired  for  its  very  fragrant  yellow 
blossoms.  Its  oval  blue  berries,  which  are  produced  in  great 
abundance,  are  relished  by  sone  persona.  But  there  is  a  .Mtye 
Fruited  Missouri  Currant,  a  variety  of  this,  which  bears  berries 
of  the  size  of  the  Black  Naples,  and  of  more  agreeable  flavour. 

The  Rbd  Flowbrino  Currakt  (R,  Scmgnxneum)^  is  a  veiy 
beautiful  shrub  from  the  western  coast  of  America,  with  foliage 
somewhat  like  that  of  the  Conomon  Black,  but  which  beafs  very 
charming  clusters  of  large  light  crimson  blossoms,  in  April. 

There  are  several  other  varieties  as  R.  sanguineum,  n.  pi.,  R. 
sanguineum  atropurpurea,  and  R.  Gordoni.  They  are  not  quite 
hardy  enough  to  stand  our  winters  without  protection,  but  at  the 
Soutn,  will  make  a  valuable  addition  to  their  shrubber}*. 




mt^omwi,  Ark  Brit    Mieaem,  of  1 
(Meoeeo,  Italum. 

1^  Cnabeny  »  a  inrilw  tnoKng  thnib  crowiaff  wild  in 
Bwsnpjr,  M»dy  ineadowB,  and^moflnr  Soge^  in  toe  norUieni  poi^ 
tioM  or  both  hemiiiibereB,  and  pfodmeea  «  nmnd,  rBd^wnd  fruit. 
Oar  native  ineciefl,  ( O  fiMKroo«»^piM,)  to  ^oohdob  in  the  swamps 
of  New-England,  and  on  the  berdon  of  our  inlaad^lakeay  a§  to 
hnk  qnite  an  article  of  cominerce,  is  nraeh  tlie  largest  and  inest 
species;  the  European  Cranbeny,  (O.  pmiu9iri9^)  hemg  mach 
smaller  in  iti  growth,  and  prodneintt  fruit  inferior  in  siie  and 
qnalitj.    Also  the  Rnssiaa,  (O.  vtrM&,)  a  medium  sised  Tarietj, 

Of  the  O.  macrceafpu9^  there  ate  tiiree  varieties  >— The 
**  Bell-shaped,"  which  is  the  largest  and  most  valued,  of  a  very 
dark,  bright  red  colour.  The  **  Cherry,"  two  kinds,  large  and 
small ;  the  larve  one  the  beet,  of  a  i<ound  form,  a  fine,  dark 
red  berry,  nearly  or  ouite  equal  to  the  Bell-shaped ;  and  the 
Buffle,  Oval,  orE^-siiaped,  two  kinds,  large  and  small,  not  so 
hiffh  coloured  as  u^  Bell  and  Cherry — ^not  so  much  x)rized,  but 
stul  a  fine  variety. 

The  value  of  the  common  cranberry  for  tarts,  preserves  and 
other  culinary  uses,  is  well  known,  and  in  portions  of  the  country 
where  it  does  not  naturally  grow,  or  is  not  abundantly  produced, 
it  is  quite  worth  while  to  attempt  its  culture.  Although,  natu- 
rally, it  grows  mostly  in  mossy,  wet  land,  yet  it  may  be  easily 
cultivated  in  beds  of  peat  soil,  roiule  in  any  rather  moist  situation, 
and  if  a  third  of  old  thoroughly  decayed  manure  is  added  to  the 
peat,  the  berries  will  be  much  larger  and  of  more  agreeable  fla- 
vour than  the  wild  ones.  A  sqoare  of  the  slse  of  twenty  feet, 
planted  in  this  way,  will  yield  three  or  ibnr  bushels  annnally — 
quite  soffieient  f<»'  a  fhmily.  The  plants  are  easily  procnted, 
and  are  generally  taken  np  like  squaiea  of  sod  or  tuH^  and 
planted  two  or  three  ieet  apart,  when  they  qoiekly  cover  the 
whole  beds. 

In  some  parts  of  New-England,  low  and  coarse  meadows^  of 
no  value,  have  been  drained  and  turned  to  very  profitable  account, 
by  planting  them  with  this  fruit.  Hie  average  product  is  from 
eighty  to  one  hundred  bushels  of  cranberries,  worth  at  least  one 
dollar  a  bushel,  and  the  care  tliey  require  after  the  land  is  once 

386  THB   FIG. 

pre|«/ed  and  planted  18  scarcely  any  at  all,  except  in  gathering 
Some  of  the  farms  in  Massachusetts  yield  large  cropSi  partfy 
from  natural  growth,  and  partly  from  cultivated  plantations. 
The  "  New-Enffland  Fanner  "  states  that  Mr.  Hayden,  of  Lin- 
coln, Mass.,  gatiaered  400  bushels  from  his  farm  in  1880.  The 
cranberry  grows  wild  in  the  greatest  abundance,  on  the  sanc^ 
low  necks  near  Barnstable,  and  an  annual  cranberry  festival  is 
made  of  the  gathering  of  the  fruit,  which  is  done  by  the  mass 
of  the  population,  who  turn  out  on  the  day  appointed  by  the  au- 
thorities, and  make  a  general  gathering  with  their  cranberry 
rakes,  a  certain  portion  of  the  crop  belonging,  and  being  deh 
vered,  to  the  town. 

Capt  Hall,  one  of  the  meet  aocoesslhl  cranberry  cnltivaton 
of  that  neighbonrfaood,  thus  tarns  his  sandy  bogs  and  msh- 
oovered  land  to  productive  beds  of  cranbeify,  Atker  dnining 
the  land  well,  and  renM>ving  all  brush,  he  ploughs  the  soil  where 
it  is  possible  to  do  so ;  but  he  usually  finds  it  sufficient  to  cover 
the  sur&oe  with  a  heavy  top-dressing  of  beach  sand,  digsing 
boles  four  feet  apart  into  which  he  plants  sods,  or  square  bundles, 
of  the  cranberry  roots.  These  soon  spread  on  every  side,  over- 
powering the  rushes,  and  f<mning  a  thick  coating  to  the  suriaoe. 
A  labourer  will  gath  w  about  thirty  bnahek  of  the  fruit  in  a  day, 
with  a  cranberry  rake. 

Cranberry  culture  would  be  a  profitable  buaaneai  in  this  neigh- 
bonrhood,  where  this  fruit  is  scarce,  and,  of  late  yeai%  sells  lor 
two  or  three  dollars  a  bodieL 



FuuB   OancOf  L.    Arb.  Brit     VrUcaceoBf  of  botanists ;  iVttt^r,  of  the 
French ;  /U^en5a«9n,  German ;  JPtco^  Italian ;  Siffvera^  Spanish. 

This  celebrated  fruit  tree,  whose  history  is  as  ancient  as  that 
of  the  world,  belongs  properly  to  a  warm  dimate,  though  it  may 
be  raised  in  the  open  air,  in  the  middle  states^  with  proper  care. 

In  its  native  countries,  Asia  and  Africa,  near  the  sea-coast  it 
forms  a  low  tree,  twenty  feet  in  hevht,  with  spreading  branch- 
es, and  lai^,  deeply  lobed,  rough  leaves.  It  is  c(«ipletely 
naturalised  m  the  south  of  Europe,  where  its  cukivatioB  is  one 
of  the  most  important  occupations  of  the  fiidt  grower. 

The  fruit  of  the  Fig  tree  is  remarkable  for  making  its  ap- 
pearance, ffrowing,  and  ripening,  without  being  preced^  by  any 
i^parent  blossom.    The   latter,  however,  is  concealed  in  the 

Tiu  Vio.  289 

inUriar  of  a  fleahy  recejpUole  which  is  called^  and  finally  be- 
conuBB,  the  firuiu  The  flavour  of  the  fig  is  exceedingly  sweet 
and  luacioiia,  so  much  ao  as  not  to  be  aoreeable  to  many  per- 
aone,  when  tasted  for  the  first  time;  bntiTike  moat  fruits  of  thia 
kind,  it  becomea  a  great  favourite  with  all  after  a  short  trial, 
and  is  really  one  of  the  most  agreeable,  wholeaome,  and  nutri* 
tiona  Idnda  of  food.  It  has  always,  indeed,  been  the  fisvourito 
frnit  of  warm  oountries^^and  the  ideal  <^  earthly  happiness  and 
content^  as  fypified  in  the  Bible,  consiste  in  sitting  under  one*s 
own  fig  trae. 

Its  coltivation- was  carried  to  great  perieetion  among  the  an- 
cient Bomans,  who  had  more  tiian  twenty  varieties  in  their 
l^ens.  But  the  Atheniana  seem  to  have  prided  th^nselves 
mqat  on  their  figs,  and  even  made  a  law  forbidding  any  to  be 
exported  from  Attica.  Smuggling,  however,  aeema  to  have 
been  carried  on  in  those  days,  and  a  curious  little  piece  <^  ety- 
mological hiatoiy  is  connected  with  the  fig.  The  infonnen 
against  ^oae  who  broke  this  law  were  called  stiiqphanUU^  from 
two  w<wds  in  the  Greek,  meaning  the  ^  discoverers  of  figs.''  And 
aa  their  power  I4>pears  also  to  have  been  used  for  maiicions 
purposes,  thence  arose  our  word  sycophant.  The  fig  was  first 
intiodueed  from.  Italy  about  1548,  by  Oaidinal  Poole,  and  to 
this  country  about  1790,  by  Wm.  Hamilton,  Esq. 

PaoPAOATioK*  This  tree  is  very  readily  increased  by  cut- 
tings taken  off  in  the  month  of  March,  and  planted  in  light  soil 
in  a  hot  bed,  when  they  will  make  very  strong  plants  the  same 
season.  Or,  the^  may  l>o  planted  in  a  shady  border  in  the  open 
air,  quite  early  m  April,  with  tolerable  success.  In  either  ease 
the  cuttings  should  be  made  eight  or  ten  inches  long,  of  the  last 
yearns  shoots,  with  about  half  an  inch  of  the  old,  or  previous 
yearns  wood  left  at  the  base  of  each. 

Soil.  AVD  cuLTuaa.  The  best  soil  for  the  fig  is  one  mode- 
rately deep,  and  neither  too  moist  nor  dry,  as,  in  the  former 
case,  the  plant  is  but  too  apt  to  run  to  coarse  wood,  and,  in  the 
latter,  to  drop  its  fruit  before  it  is  fully  ripe.  A  mellow,  calca- 
reous loam,  ia  the  best  soil  in  this  cUmate— and  marl,  or  mild 
lime  in  compost,  the  most  suitable  manure. 

As  in  the  middle  states  this  tree  is  not  hardy  enough  to  be  al- 
lowed to  grow  as  a  standard,  it  is  the  policy  of  the  cultivator  to 
keep  it  in  a  low  and  shrub-like  form,  near  the  ground,  that  it 
may  be  easily  covered  in  winter.  The  great  difficulty  of  thia 
D3bode  of  tnuaing,  with  us,  has  been  that  the  coaiae  and  over- 
luxuriant  growth  of  the  branches,  when  kept  down,  is  so  great 
as  to  render  the  tree  unfruitfol,  or  to  rob  the  fruit  of  its  due 
share  of  nouriihment  Hi^pily  the  system  of^ 
recently  found  so  beneficial  with  some  other  trees,  is,  in  this 
climate,  most  perfectly  adapted  to  the  fig.  Short  jointed  wood» 
and  only  moderate  vigour  of  growth,  are  well  known  accom- 



paiiinieiitB  of  fruitfulness  in  thk  tree ;  and  there  is  no 
which  fiim,  well  ripened,  flfaort^j<Wited  wood  is  eo  easflf  obtain- 

off  •!! 

ed  as  bj  an  annual  pninnur  of  the  roots — cattmg  off  all  thai 
project  more  than  half  this  length  of  the  branches.  In  this  way 
the  %  tree  may  be  kept  in  tluit  rich  and  somewhat  strong  soil 
necessaiT  to  enable  it  to  hold  its  fruity  and  ripen  it  of  the  largest 
sixe,  without  that  coarseness  of  growth  which  usually  happens 
in  such  soil,  and  but  too  frequently  renders  the  tree  barren. 
The  mode  of  performinff  root-pruning  we  have  already  described, 
but  we  may  add  here  that  the  operation  should  be  performed  on 
the  fig  early  in  Norember.  When  this  mode  is  adopted  Imt 
little  pruning  will  be  necessary,  beyond  that  of  keeping  the 
plant  m  a  somewhat  low  and  r^^olar  shape,  sh<»tening^in  the 
Dranches  occasionally,  and  takii^  out  old  and  decaying  wood. 

In  winter,  the  branches  of  the  fig  must  be  bent  down  to  the 
ground,  and  £E»tened  with  hooked  pegs,  and  covered  with  three 
or  four  inches  of  soil,  as  in  proteoting  the  fore^n  grape.  This 
covering  should  be  removed  as  soon  as  the  spring  is  well  set- 
tled. Selow  Philadelphia,  a  covering  of  straw^  or  branches  of 
eveigreens,  is  sufficient— and  south  S[  Virginia  the  fig  is  easy 
of  cdltnre  as  a  hardy  standard  tree. 

Two  crofn  are  usually  produced  in  a  year  by  this  tree ;  the 
first  which  ripens  here  in  midsummer,  and  is  borne  on  the  pre- 
vious season's  shoots ;  and  the  seccmd  which  is  yielded  by  Ihe 
young  shoots  of  this  summer,  and  which  rarely  ripens  well  in 
the  middle  states.  It  is,  therefore,  a  hij^hly  advantageous  prac- 
tice to  rub  off  all  the  young  figs  of  this  second  crop  after  mid- 
summer, as  soon  as  they  are  formed.  The  consequence  of  this 
is  to  retain  all  the  organiaable  matter  in  the  tree ;  and  to  form 
new  embryo  figs  where  these  are  rubbed  ofl^  which  then  ripen 
the  next  season  as  the  first  crop. 

RiPKNnra  ths  Fbuit.  In  an  unikvonraUe  soil  or  climate, 
the  ripening  of  the  %  is  undoubtedly  rendered  more  certain 
aud  speedy  by  touching  the  eye  of  the  fruit  with  a  littfe  oil 
This  IB  very  commonly  practised  in  many  districts  of  Prance. 
^  At  Argenteuil,''  says  Loudon,  *^  the  maturity  of  the  latest  figs 
is  hastened  by  putting  a  single  drop  of  oil  into  the  eye  c^  each 
fruit  This  IS  done  by  a  woman  who  has  a  phial  of  oil  suspended 
from  her  waist,  and  a  piece  of  hollow  rye  straw  in  her  hand. 
This  she  dips  into  the  oil,  and  afterwards  into  the  eye  of  the 


We  have  ourselves  frequently  tried  the  experiment  of  touching 
the  end  of  the  fig  with  the  finger  dipped  in  oil,  and  have  always 
found  the  fruits  so  treated  to  ripen  much  more  certainly  and 
speedily,  and  swell  to  a  laigM*  rise  than  those  left  untouched. 

There  are  forty-two  varieties  enumerated  in  the  last  edition 
of  the  London  Horticultural  Society's  Oatalc^pe.  Few  of  these 
have,  however,  been  introduced  into  this  country,  and  a  very 

ns  Fio.  291 

few  iorti  will  comprise  all  that  is  most  desirable  and  excellent 
in  this  froit  The  following  selectiott  indndes  those  most  soit- 
ahle  for  oar  soil  and  climate.    Froit  nearly  all  ripen  in  Augost 

mtowK,  om  punpLS. 

Bruvswick.    Thomp.  Lind.  P.  Mag. 



Brown  Hamburgh, 

Black  Naples, 






One  of  the  largest  and  finest  puiple  iBfls,  well  adapted  for 
hardj  cnltnre.  Fniit  of  the  largest  size,  pynfonn  in  shape,  with 
an  oblique  apex.  Eye  considerably  sunk.  Stalk  short  and  thick, 
of  a  fine  violet  brown  in  the  snn,  dotted  with  small  pale  brown 
specks,  and,  on  the  shaded  side,  pale  greenish  yellow.  Flesh 
reddish  brown,  slightly  pink  near  the  centre,  and  somewhat 
tran^rent  Flavour  rich  and  excelleut.  The  only  fault  of  Uiis 
variety  for  open  air  cnltare  is,  that  it  is  rather  too  strong  in  its 
growth,  not  being  so  easily  protected  in  winter  as  more  awaifish 

Browk  Turkxt.    Thomp. 

Brown  Itafiao.    JbrvyA.         Brawn  Kajples. 
large  Blue,  <if  lAmd,  Mumj.    Lmi, 

ItaiiaD.  Lee's  PeipetaaL 

This  is  nndonbtedly  one  of  the  very  best  for  this  country,  and 
for  <^f»en  air  coltnre,  as  it  is  perhaps  the  very  hardiest,  and  one 
of  the  most  regular  and  abnndant  bearen.  Fruit  large,  oblong 
or  pvrilbrm.  skin  dark  brown,  covered  with  a  thick  blue  bloom. 
Fl^  red,  and  of  very  delicious  flavour. 

Black  Isobia.    Tliomp.  Lind. 
^     Bariy  Foieing.       Blue  liofaia. 

One  of  the  most  frmtM  8ort%  and  pretty  hardy.  Fruit  of 
mediimi  aiae,  roundish,  a  little  flattened  at  the  apex.  Skin  dark 
violet^  becoming  almost  black  when  ftdly  ripe.  Flesh  deep  red« 
and  of  very  sweet|  luscious  flavour. 

292  THB   FIG. 

Brown  Liobia.    Thomp. 

Ohertmit    Zend  MUL  Cfaestnat-ooloured  Ischia. 

A  good  varietyi  with,  however,  a  rather  thin  skin,  rendering 
it  liable  to  crack  or  burst  open  when  fully  ripe.  It  is  hardy,  of 
good  habit,  and  a  very  ezcelleat  bearer. 

Fruit  of  medium  size,  roundish  obovate.  Skin  light  or  chest- 
nut-brown ;  pulp  purple,  very  sweet  and  excellent. 

Black  Gskoa.    land. 

The  fruit  of  this  fig  is  long-obovate,  that  portion  next  the 
stalk  being  very  slender.  Skm  dark  purple,  becoming  nearly 
black,  and  covered  with  a  purple  bloom.  Pulp  bright  red,  fla- 
irour  excellent.    Habit  of  the  tree  moderately  strong. 

Malta.     Lind. 

Small  Brown. 

A  small,  but  very  rich  fig,  which  will  often  hang  on  the  tree 
until  it  begins  to  shrivel,  and  becomes  '*a  fine  sweetmeat'' 
Fruit  much  compressed  at  the  apex,  and  very  much  narrowed 
m  towards  the  stalk.  Skin  light  brown.  Pulp  pale  brown,  and 
of  a  sweet,  rich  flavour.  Ripens  later  than  the  foregoing,  about 
the  last  of  August 

Small  Browit  Ischia.    Lind. 

A  very  hardy  sort,  which,  in  tolerably  warm  places  south  of 
Philadelphia,  will  make  a  small  standard  tree  in  the  open  air, 
bearing  pretty  good  crops,  that  ripen  about  the  first  of  Sep- 
tember. Fruit  small,  pyriform,  with  a  very  short  footstalk. 
Skin  light  brown.  Pulp  pale  purple,  of  high  flavour.  Leaves 
more  entire  than  those  of  the  common  fig. 

YzoLXTTS.    Lind.  Duh. 
A  very  good  sort  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Paris,  where  it 
piodaces  two  crops  annually.    Fruit  small,  roundidi-obovate, 
flattened  at  the  apex.    Skin  dark  violet.    Pulp  nearly  white^  or 
a  little  tinged  with  red  on  the  inside,  and  of  toleasant  flavour. 

YiOLKTTS  ns  BoBDKAuz.    Thomp. 

Bordeaux.    Lind,  DuK 

A  fig  which  is  much  cultivated  in  France,  beins  quite  pro- 
ductive, though  of  inferior  flavour  to  many  of  the  ibreffoing 
sorts.  Fruit  lai^e,  pyriform,  about  three  inches  long,  and  two 
in  diameter.  Skin  deep  violet  when  fully  ripe,  but  at  first  of  a 
brownish  red.    Pulp  reddish  purple,  sweet  and  good. 

THB  ne.  293 

CLASS  n. 


Akokliqux.    Iliomp.  Liud.  Duh. 
Ooneoorrile  Blanche.  IC^tte. 

This  little  Ig  is  a  yeiy  abundant  bearer,  and  a  pretty  hardy 
sort.  Fruit  sBaaU,  obovate.  SIdn  pale  ffreeniah  yellow,  dotted 
with  lighter  coloured  specia.  Pulp  wnite,  but  only  tolerably 
«weet    It  will  usually  bear  two  crops. 

Laroi  Whitb  Gssoa.    Thomp.  Lind.  Fors. 

Fruit  larffe,  roundish-obovate.  Sldn  thin,  pale  yellow.  Pulp 
red,  and  wdl  flavoured. 

MiLB8BiLLX8.    Thomp.  Laid. 

White  ManeiDeB.        Ford*8  Seedling. 
White  Naples.  White  Standard. 

PoQock.  FigueBlandM.    Duh, 

A  TeiT  &vourite  sort  for  forcing  and  raising  under  gla«|  but 
which  does  not  socoeed  so  weU  as  the  Brown  Turkey,  and  the 
Ischias,  for  open  culture.  Fruit  small,  ro!iBdiML-«be¥«te, 
sl^tly  ribbed.  Skin  nearly  white,  with  a. little  yellowish 
green  remaining.    Flesh  white,  rather  dry,  but  sweet  and  rich. 

NBsn.    Thomp.  lind. 

A  fruit  rather  smaller  and  longer  than  the  Marseilles,  and 
which,  from  a  mingling  of  slight  a^  is  one  of  the  most  eiqui« 
site  in  its  flavour.  fVuit  smsll,  roundish-obovate.  Skin  pale 
greenish  yellow.  Pulp  red.  Flavour  at  once  delicate  and 
rich.  This  is  a  very  mvonrite  variety,  according  to  Loudon, 
*<the  richest  fig  known  in  Britain." 

Prxousbata.    Thomp. 

A  sort  lately  introduced  frem  the  Ionian  Isles  into  En^and. 
It  is  tolerably  hardy,  quite  produdave,  and  succeeds  admirably 
under  ghus.  Fruit  of  medium  size,  roundish,  a  good  deal  flat- 
tened. Skin  purplish  brown  in  the  shade,  dark  brown  in  the 
sun.  Pulp  deep  red,  with  a  luscious,  high  flavour.  Seeds  un- 
usually small    Kipens  gradually,  in  succession. 


Whttb  Ischia.    Thonp. 

areenlBchUk    XtadLJbtv. 

A  very  small  fig,  but  one  of  the  hardiest  of  the  light  ooloured 
ones.  Fruit  about  an  inch  in  diameter,  roondish-obovate.  Skin 
pale  yellowish  green,  very  thin,  and,  when  fall^  ripe,  the  darker 
colonreii  pnlp  appears  through  it  Palp  porphsh,  and  high  fla 
voored,    A  moderate  grower  and  good  bearer. 



IHbm  QroBS^OaHa,  Art).  Brit     OroBnOacetB^  ofbotaniflts. 

fiKraMHBer,  of  the  French;  8taeluHmnkmek,QenaBti;  Vva  S^^Sno, 

Italian;  GroBteOa,  QptaiOL 

The  gooseberry  of  our  gardens  is  a  native  of  the  north  of 
Europe,  our  native  species  never  having  been  improved  by  gar- 
den culture.  This  low  prickly  shrub,  which,  in  its  wild  state, 
bears  small  round  or  oval  fruit,  about  half  an  inch  in  diameter, 
and  weighing  one  fourth  of  an  ounce,  has  been  so  greatiy  im- 
proved by  the  system  of  sucoessiye  reproduction  from  the  seed, 
and  high  enhure  by  British  gardeners,  that  it  now  bears  fruit 
neariy,  or  quite  two  inches  in  diameter,  and  weighing  an  ounce 
and  a  half.  Lancashire,  in  England,  is  the  meriduan  of  the 
gooseberry,  and  to  the  Lancashire  weavers,  who  seem  to  have 
taken  it  as  a  hobby,  we  are  indebted  for  neariy  all  the  surpris- 
iuffly  large  sorts  of  modem  date.  Their  annual  shows  exhibit 
this  fruit  in  its  greatest  perfection,  and  a  Goosbbbrry  Book  is 
published  at  Manchester  every  year  giving  a  list  of  all  the  prize 
sortS|  etc  Indeed  the  climate  of  England  seems,  firom  its  moist- 
ness  and  coolness,  more  perfectly  fiUed  than  any  other  to  the 
growth  of  this  fhiit  On  the  continent  it  is  considered  of  little 
account*  and  with  us,  south  of  I^iladelphia,  it  succeeds  but  in- 
differently. In  the  northern,  and  especially  in  the  eastern 
states,  however,  the  gooseberry,  on  strong  soils,  where  the  best 
sorts  are  chosen,  thrives  admirably,  and  produces  very  fine 

UsBB.  Hiib  firuit  is  in  the  first  place  k  very  important  one 
in  its  green  state,  being  in  high  estimation  for  pies,  tarts;  and 
puddings,  coming  into  use  earlier  than  any  other.  The  eariv- 
est  use  made  of  it  appears  to  have  been  as  a  sauce  with 
^teen  goose,  whence  the  name,  goose-berry.  In  its  rtpe  state. 
It  is  a  very  agreeable  table  fruity  and  in  this  country,  allowing 

THS   0008SBXRST.  205 

the  Maton  of  chemea,  it  is  always  most  acceptable.  Unripe 
f;ooseberries  are  bottled  in  water  for  winter  use,  (placing  the 
Dottlea  nearly  filled,  a  few  moments  in  boiling  water,  after- 
wards corkinff  and  sealing  them,  and  barying  uem  in  a  cool 
cellar,  with  their  necks  downward.)  As  a  loznry  for  the  poor, 
Mr.  Loudon  eonsiders  this  the  most  valuable  of  wl  froits,  *^  since 
it  can  be  ffrown  in  less  space,  in  more  un&voiirable  circnm- 
stance^  and  brought  sooner  into  bearing  than  any  other."  In 
the  United  States  the  gooseberry,  in  humble  gwdens,  is  fre- 
quently seen  in  a  very  wretched  state — ^the  fruit  i)oor  aiMi  small, 
and  covered  with  mildew.  This  arises  partly  from  ignorance 
of  a  proper  mode  of  cultivation,  but  chiefly  from  the  sorts  grown 
being  very  inferior  ones,  always  much  liable  to  this  disease. 

Pbopaoatiov.  Gooseberry  pfamts  should  only  be  raised  from 
cuttings.  New  varieties  aap  of  course  raised  from  seed,  but  no 
one  here  will  attempt  to  ao  what,  under  more  favourable  cir- 
cumstances, the  Lancashire  growers  can  do  so  much  better.  In 
preparing  cuttings  select  the  strongest  and  straiffhtest  young 
shoots  ofthe  current  yeijn^  the  end  of  October  (or  very  early 
'  cnt  out  all  the  buds  that  you  intend  to 
>  prevent  future  suckers,)  and  plant  the 
"  on  the  north  side  of  a  fence,  or  in 
some  shaded  bolder.  The  cuttings  should  be  inserted  six  inch- 
es deep,  and  from  three  to  six  or  eight  inches  should  remain 
above  ground.  The  soil  should  be  pressed  very  firmly  about 
the  cutting  and,  in  the  case  of  autumn  planting  it  should  be 
examined  m  the  ^rii^,  to  render  it  firm  again  would  the  cut- 
ting have  been  raised  by  severe  frost.  After  they  have  become 
weU  rooted — generally  in  a  year's  time — they  may  be  trans- 
planted to  the  borders,  where  they  are  finally  to  remain. 

Cultivation.  The  gooseberry  in  our  climate  is  very  impa- 
tient of  drought,  and  we  have  uniformly  found  that  the  beet  soil 
for  it  is  a  deep  strong  loam,  or  at  least  whatever  may  be  the 
soil,  and  it  will  grow  in  a  mat  variety,  it  should  always  be 
deep — if  not  naturally  so,  it  should  be  made  deep  by  trenching 
and  manuring.  It  is  the  most  common  error  to  plant  this  fruit 
shrub  under  the  branches  of  other  trees  for  the  sake  of  their 
shade — as  it  always  renders  the  fruit  inferior  in  size  and  fla- 
vour, and  more  likely  to  become  mouldy.  On  the  contrary,  we 
would  alwajs  advise  planting  in  an  open  border,  as,  if  the 
soil  is  sufBciently  deep,  the  plants  will  not  suffer  from  dryness, 
and  should  it  uiifortnnately  be  of  a  dry  nature,  it  mav  be  ren- 
dered less  iijnrions  by  covering  the  ^und  under  the  plants 
with  straw  or  litter.  In  any  case  a  rich  soil  is  necessary,  and 
as  the  gooseberry  is  fond  of  manure  a  pretty  heavy  top-dressing 
should  be  dug  in  every  year,  around  bearing  plants.  For  a 
later  crop  a  few  bushels  may  be  set  on  the  north  side  of  a  fence 
or  wall. 


For  the  goofteberry,  regular  aad  pretty  liberal  pruning  is  ab* 
solutely  neceflsary.  Of  course  no  suckers  shomd  be  allowed 
to  grow.  In  November  the  winter  pruning  should  be  peifonn- 
ed«  The  leaves  now  being  off  it  is  easy  to  see  what  proportion 
of  the  new  as  well  as  old  wood  may  be  taken  away;  and  we  will 
here  remark  that  it  is  quite  impossible  to  obtain  fine  gooseber- 
ries here,  or  any  where,  without  a  very  thorough  thinning  out 
of  the  branches.  As  a  general  rule,  it  may  safely  be  said  that 
one  half  of  the  head,  including  old  and  young  branches  (more 
especially  the  former,  as  the  best  fruit  is  borne  on  the  young 
wood,)  should  now  be  taken  out,  leaving  a  prc^>er  distribution  of 
shoots  throughout  the  bush,  the  head  being  sufficiently  thinned 
to  admit  freely  the  light  and  air.  An  additional  pruning  is, 
in  England,  performed  in  June,  which  consists  in  stopping 
the  growth  of  long  shoots  by  pinching  out  the  extremities,  imd 
thinning  out  superfluous  branches ;  but  if  the  annual  pruning 
is  properly  performed,  this  will  not  be  found  necessary,  except 
to  obtain  fruit  of  extraordinary  size. 

The  crop  should  always  be  well  lihintied  when  the  berries  are 
about  a  quarter  ^own.  The  gooseberry  is  scarcely  subject  to 
any  disease  or  insect  in  this  country.  The  mildew,  which 
attacks  the  half  ctowu  fruit,  is  the  great  pest  of  those  who  are 
unacquainted  wiw  its  culture.  In  order  to  prevent  this,  it  is  only 
necessary — Ist,  to  root  up  and  destroy  all  inferior  kinds  subject 
to  mildew ;  2nd,  to  procure  from  any  of  the  nurseries  some  of 
the  beet  and  hardiest  Lancashire  varieties ;  drd,  to  keep  them 
well  manured,  and  very  thoroughly  pruned  every  year. 

We  do  not  think  this  fruit  shrub  can  be  said  to  bear  wdl  for 
more  than  a  half  dozen  years  successively.  After  that  the  fruit 
becomes  inferior  and  requires  more  care  in  cultivation.  A  sno- 
cession  of  young  plants  should,  therefore^  be  kept  up  by  striking 
some  cuttings  every  season. 

Varibtieb. — ^The  number  of  these  is  almost  endless,  new 
ones  being  produced  by  the  priae  growers  every  year.  The  last 
edition  of  tiie  London  Horticultural  Society's  CWImie  enume- 
rates 149  sorts  considered  worthy  of  notice,  and  Lindley's  Guide 
to  the  Orchard,  gives  a  list  of  more  than  seven  hundred  prise 
sorts.  It  is  almost  needless  to  say  that  many  of  these  very 
closely  resemble  each  other,  and  that  a  small  number  of  them 
will  comprise  all  the  most  valuable. 

The  sorts  bearing  fruit  of  medium  size  are  senerally  more 
hidily  flavoured  than  the  very  large  ones.  We  have  selected  a 
sufficient  number  of  the  most  valuable  for  all  practical  purposes. 

/.  Bed  Gooseberries. 

Boabdmah'b  British  Crown.  Fruit  y^ry  large,  roundish, 
hairy,  handsome  and  gocd.    Branches  spreading. 


CHAMPAon.  A  fine  old  varietj,  of  very  rieli  flavour  Fniit 
■mall,  roiiDdiflh-oblong,  surface  hairj,  pulp  dear ;  brandies  of 
y€XY  nprigiit  growth. 

Cappbr'b  Top  Sawysr.  Frait  laige,  roandish,  pale  red,  liaiiy; 
raliier  late,  flavoor  very  sood.    Branches  drooping. 

Farrow's  Roariko  Lion.  An  immense  berry,  and  hangs 
late.  Fmiiobloi^y  smooth;  flavour  excellent ;  branehes  droop- 

flABMSKHur's  LAiroA^oRB  Lad.  Fmit  large,  loondish,  dark 
red,  haiiT ;  flavour  very  good ;  brandies  ereet 

Kmmk^b  fVuit  oif  medhim  siae,  oblong,  hairy,  fla- 
vour first  rate ;  brandies  drooping.    Early  and  productive. 

Lsioh's  BnuEiiAv.  Fruit  large,  ro«md»h,  hairy ;  flavour  first 
rate;  branches  erect. 

Mbluko's  Orowv  Bob.  Frait  lai|^  oUong,  hsiry;  flavour 
first  rate ;  branches  spreading. 

Miss  Bold.  Fruit  of  medium  size,  roundish,  surfiuie  downy ; 
flavour  excellent;  branches  spreading. 

Ran  Warrinotok.  Fruit  large,  roundish-oblong,  hairy ;  fla- 
vour first  rate ;  branches  drooping. 

//.  TeUow  Oooseherrm, 

Busansiix's  £>vckwino«  Fruit  large  and  late,  obovate, 
smooth  ;  flavour  good ;  branches  ereet 

Cappbr's  Bvbxbr  Hill.  Fruit  large,  roundish,  smooth ;  fla- 
vour good ;  branches  spreading. 

Gobtob's  Yxpbb.  Fruit  mrge,  obovate,  smooth;  flavour 
good ;  branches  drooping. 

HiLL*s  GoLBBB  GovBB.  Fruit  large,  oblong,  hairy;  flavour 
good ;  branches  drooping. 

Pabt's  Goldbb  Flbbcb.  Fruit  large,  oval,  hairy,  flavour  first 
rate;  branches  spreading. 

Pboprbt'b  Roobwood.  Frait  large  and  early,  roundish, 
hairy ;  flavonr  good ;  branches  erect 

Ybllow  Chahpaovb.  Fruit  small,  roundish,  hairy ;  fiavour 
first  rate ;  branches  erect 

Ybllow  Ball.  Fruit  of  middle  size,  roundish,  smooth ;  fla- 
vour first  rate ;  branches  erect 

///.    Green  Gooseberries, 

CoLUBRs'  Jollt  Abolbr.  Frait  large  and  late,  oblong, 
downy  ;  fiavour  first  rate ;  branches  erect 

Bbrrt's  Grbbmwood.  Fruit  large,  oblong,  smooth  ;  flavour 
good ;  branches  drooping. 

Early  Grbbn  Hairt,  (or  Green  Gascoigne^  Frait  small  and 
early,  round,  hairy ;  flavour  excellent ;  branches  spreading. 


298  THl   eOOSKBKRBT. 

Edwabd^s  Jollt  Tail  Fniit  large,  oboyate,  Biaooth ;  flavom 
fintrate;  branches  drooping. 

Glxnton  Grkxn.  Fmit  of  middle  size,  oblong,  haiiy ;  ibtTonr 
excellent;  btanchee  drooping. 

Grbsv  Wautut.  Fknit  middle  sised,  oborate,  amoeth ;  ila- 
▼onrintrate:  branches  spreading. 

Hbf«tbn  Qsnnr  Pboufio.  Fruit  of  middle  nae,  ronndish, 
hairy ;  flayonr  first  rate ;  branches  erect 

liAflSKT's  Hbabt  of  Oak.  Fmit  huge,  oUong,  smooth ;  ila- 
your  first  rate ;  branches  drooping. 

PABxnisoir'a  Laubu..  Fnut  huge,  oboyafee,  do^my ;  flayonr 
firitrate;  branches  erect 

PnnASTov  Grbsh  Gaob.  Froit  small,  and  hangs  long,  obo 
yate,  smooth ;  flayoar  rich  and  excellent ;  branches  erect 

WAunt Av'a  Gbbbv  Oobah.  Frait  yery  large,  oUoog,  smooth ; 
flayoar  tolerably  good  ;  branches  drooping. 

IV.  WhiU  Oooseberriei. 

Clxwobth's  Whitb  Lion.  Fmit  large  and  hangs  late,  obo- 
rste,  downy,  flayoar  first  rate ;  branches  drooping. 

Cbomptoh  Sbbba  Qubxn.  Frait  large,  obbyate,  downy,  fla- 
voar  first  rate  ;  branches  erect 

OooK^B  Wbitb  Eaglb.  Fmit  large,  oboyate,  smooth;  fla- 
yoar first  rate;  branches  erect. 

Cap1»bb's  Bonr  Labs.  Frait  laige,  oblong,  hairy ;  flayoar 
good ;  branches  spreading. 

Hajplbt's  Ladt  of  thb  Manor.  Frait  laige^  rooadish-ob- 
long,  hairy ;  flayoar  good ;  branches  erect 

Saundbb'b  Chbbhibx  La88.  Frait  large  and  yery  early,  ob- 
long, downy ;  flayoar  excellent ;  branches  erect 

Woodward's  Wbitbsmiih.  Fhiit  large,  roandish-oblong, 
downy ;  flayoar  flrst  rate ;  branches  erect 

Wblunoton'b  Glort.  Frait  large,  rather  oyal ;  yery  dow- 
ny ;  skin  quite  thin ;  flayoar  excellent;  branches  erect 

Whitb  Honbt.  Frait  of  middle  sise,  roundish-obloDg, 
smooth  ;  flayoar  excellent ;  branches  erect 

Tatlob's  Bbiobt  Ybnub.  Froit  of  middle  sise,  hangs  a  long 
time,  oboyate,  hairy ;  flayoar  first  rate ;  biaoehes  erect 

The  following  new  BngHsh  yarieties  are  of  the  largest  size. 

Med,  €frmL 

London.  TInimper. 

Conquering  Hero.  Turnout 

Oompanion.  Weatherocck. 

LU>d'8  Provider.  General 

Dan's  Mistake.  Keepsake. 
Napoleon  le  Grand. 


Whik.  TeOow. 

Vreedom.  hotter. 

Snowdrop.  Brill. 

Qaeen  of  Tnunpi.  Gatherlna. 

Ladr  Leftoerter.  Gwmer. 

TaOj  Ha  Goldfinder. 

Houobtok'b  Sksduxg 

Orighuited  with  Abd  Honritloii,  Ljnn,  Mmm.  A  TisonraM 
Mower,  bnnehw  nther  Aleiukr,  Tery  jrodnctiTe,  geiMrally  free 
from  mildew;  a  desirable  sort.  Fniit  medimn  <Hr  bekyw 
KKmdish,  ineKniBg  to  oral  Skin  smooth,  pale  led.  flesh  ten- 
der, sweety  and  rtry  good. 

Selection  of  sorts  for  a  gamien: 

lUd,  Red  Warrington,  Companion,  Crown  Bob,  London, 
Honffhton's  Seedling. 

yellow.    Leader,  Yellow  Ball,  Catherine,  Gnnner. 

WhiU.  Woodward's  Whitesmith,  Freedom,  Taylor's  Bright 
Venus,  Tally  Ho,  Sheba  Queen. 

Green,  Fitmaston  Green  Ga^e,  Thumper,  Jolly  Angler,  Mas- 
cey*s  Heart  of  Oak,  FarUnson^  Laurel. 



Vmnrim^BrOfL,     TSIaeaa^  of  botsnista 

Viipte,  of  the  Erench;    WekUraubei^  Gennan;  Vigna,  Italian;   Fid;  o 

VmOf  Spaniab. 

Tbk  history  of  the  grape  is  almost  as  old  as  that  of  man. 
Growing  in  its  highest  perfection  in  Syria  and  Persia,  its  Inscioua 
froit  and  the  nnrivalled  beTeraffe  which  its  fermented  jaice  affords, 
recommended  it  to  the  especialcare  of  the  patriarchal  tillers  of  the 
soil,  and  yineyards  were  eztensiTely  planted,  long  before  orchards 
or  collections  of  other  froit  trees  were  at  all  common. 

The  grapes  of  the  old  world  are  all  varieties  of  the  wine  grape, 
(  Vitit  mni/eroj)  which,  thongh  so  long  and  so  oniTersally  culti- 
vated and  natorahaed  in  all  the  middle  and  southern  portions 
of  Europe,  is  not  a  native  of  that  continent,  but  came  originally 
from  Persia.  From  the  latter  country,  as  civilization  advanced 
westward,  this  plant  accompanied  it — first  to  £gypt>  then  to 

300  THB    ORAPS. 

Greece  and  Sicily,  and  gradually  to  Italy,  Spain,  France,  and 
Britain,  to  which  latter  country  the  RomanB  carried  it  about  two 
hundred  years  after  Christ  To  America  the  seeds  and  plants 
of  the  European  varieties  were  brought  by  numerous  emigrants 
and  colonists  within  the  first  fifty  years  alter  its  settlement 

The  wild  grapes  of  our  own  country  are  quite  distinct  species 
from  the  wine  grape  of  Europe — are  usually  stronger  ip  their 
growth,  with  lai^er  and  more  entire  foliage,  and,  in  their  native 
state,  with  a  peculiar  foxy  odour  or  fiavonr,  and  more  or  less 
hardness  of  pulp.  These  traits,  however,  disappear  in  {Mrooess 
of  cultivation,  and  we  have  reason  to  hope  that  we  shall  soon 
obtain,  from  the  wild  type,  new  varieties  of  high  quality,  and  of 
superior  hardiness  and  productiveness  in  this  dimate. 

The  ^rape  vine  is  in  all  cases  a  trailing  or  cUmbing  dedduons 
shrub^  living  to  a  great  age,*  and^  in  its  native  forests,  clamber- 
ing over  the  tops  of  the  tallest  threes.  In  the  deep  ridli  alluvial 
soils  of  westwn  America,  it  is  often  seen  attaining  a  truly  pro- 
digious size,  and  several  have  been  measured  on  uie  banxs  of 
the  Ohio,  the  stems  of  which  were  three  feet  in  circumference, 
and  the  branches  two  hundred  feet  long,  enwreathing  and  fes- 
tooning the  tops  of  huge  poplars  and  sycamores.  In  a  cultivated 
state,  however,  it  is  found  that  fine  flavour,  and  uniform  pro- 
ductiveness, require  the  plants  to  be  kept  pruned  within  a  small 

Uses.  The  grajpe  in  its  finest  varieties,  as  the  Hamburgh 
and  the  Muscat,  is  in  flavour  hardly  surpassed  by  any  other  fruit 
in  delicacy  and  richness,  and  few  or  none  are  more  beautiful  in 
the  dessert  Dried,  it  forms  the  raisin  <^  commerce,  the  most 
excellent  of  all  dried  fruits,  every  where  esteemed.  And  wine, 
the  fermented  juice,  has  always  been  the  first  of  all  exhilarating 
liquors.  Some  idea  of  the  past  consumption  of  this  product 
may  be  formed  from  the  fact  that  more  than  500,000,000  impe- 
rial gallons  have  been  made  in  France,  in  a  single  year ;  and  as 
a  data  to  judge  of  its  value,  we  may  add,  that,  while  a  great 
proportion  of  the  vin  ordmaire^  or  common  wine,  is  sold  at  10 
or  12  cents  a  bottle ;  on  the  other  hand,  particular  old  and  rare 
vintages  of  Madeiras  or  Sherries  will  not  unfrequently  command 
twenty  or  thirty  dollars  a  gallon. 

Soil.  The  universal  experi^ce  in  all  countries  has  established 
the  fiict  that  a  dry  and  warm  soil  is  the  very  best  for  the  vine. 
Where  vineyards  are  cultivated,  a  limestone  soil,  or  one  com* 
posed  of  decaying  calcareous  rocks,  is  by  &r  the  best;  but 
where,  as  in  most  gardens,  the  vine  is  raised  solely  for  its  frnit, 
the  soil  should  be  highly  enriched.  The  foreign  grape  will 
scarcely  thrive  well  here  on  a  heavy  soil,  though  our  native 

*  Pliny  gives  a?  account  of  a  vine  six  hundred  years  old,  and  there  art 
laid  to  be  vines  ii  Burgundy  more  than  four  hundred  yr^ars  old. 

ma  ORAPK.  801 

varieties  grow  and  bear  well  on  any  strong  land,  bat  the  essence 
of  all  that  can  be  said  in  grape  cnltare  respecting  soil  is  that  it 
be  dry  and  light,  deep  and  rich.  Fre^aent  top^lressings  of  well 
rotted  manure  ahoald  be  applied  to  vines  in  open  borders,  and 
this  shonld  every  third  or  fourth  year  be  alternated  with  a 
dressing  of  slaked  Hrae. 

PiioPAOAnoir.  The  gn4>e  vine  makes  roots  very  freely,  and 
IS,  therefore,  easy  of  propagation.  Branches  of  the  previous  or 
current  year's  wood  bent  down  any  time  before  mid-sommer, 
and  covered  with  earth,  as  layen,  root  very  freely,  and  make 
bearing  pUmts  in  a  conple  of  years,  or  resrj  fireqneatly  indeed 
bear  the  next  season. 

Bat  the  finer  varieties  of  the  vine  are  almost  nniversally  pio- 
pagated  by  cuttings,  as  that  is  a  very  simple  mode,  and  an 
abundance  of  the  cuttings  being  afforded  by  the  annual  trimming 
of  tJie  vincto. 

When  cuttings  are  to  be  planted  in  the  open  border,  a  some- 
what moist  and  shaded  place  should  be  chosen  for  this  purpose. 
The  cuttings  should  then  be  made  of  the  young  wood  of  the 
previous  yeai's  growth,  cut  into  lengths  about  a  foot  or  eighteen 
mches  long,  and  having  three  budfih--one  near  the  top,  one  at 
the  bottom,  and  the  third  in  the  middle.  Before  planting  the 
cutting  pare  off  its  lower  end  smoothly,  close  below  the  buds,, 
and  finally,  plant  it  in  mellow  soil,  in  a  slit  made  by  the  spade, 
pressing  the  earth  firmly  about  it  with  the  foot.* 

The  rarer  kinds  of  foreign  grapes  are  usually  grown  by  cut- 
tings of  shorter  lengdi,  consisting  only  of  two  buds ;  and  the 
most  suooessfhl  mode  is  to  plant  each  catting  in  a  small  pot,  and 
plunge  the  pots  in  a  slight  notbed,  or  place  the  cuttings  at  once 
in  the  mould  of  the  bed  itself.^  In  either  case  they  will  make 
strong  plants  in  the  same  season. 

Bnt  the  most  approved  way  of  raising  vine  plants  in  pots  is 
tliat  of  propagation  by  eye9,  which  we  Ikave  fully  explained  in 
the  first  part  of  this  work.  This,  as  it  retains  the  least  portion 
of  the  old  wood,  is  manifestly  the  nearest  approach  to  raising  a 
plant  from  the  seed,  that  most  perfect  of  all  modes  with  respect 
to  the  constitution  of  a  plant.  In  the  case  of  now  or  rare  sorts 
it  offers  us  the  means  of  multiplying  them  with  the  greatest 
possible  rapidity.  As  the  grape  usually  reoeives  its  annual 
pruning  in  autamn  or  winter,  the  cuttings  may  be  reduced  to 
nearly  their  proper  length,  and  kept  in  earth,  in  the  cellar,  until 
the  ensuing  spnng.  The  hardier  sorts  noay  be  buried  in  the 
open  ground. 

Hie  fi»eign  and  the  native  gn^>es  are  very  different  in  their 

♦  In  sandy  or  dry  soils  the  cuttings  may  be  loft  longer,  and  to  ingure 
^preater  suocens,  cover  the  tipper  ^nd  of  the  cutting  with  grafting  wax,  op 
aomething  of  iie  kind,  to  prevent  evaporation. 

302  THK   a&AFC. 

habiU^  in  tbk  climate,  and,  thQiefore,  most  be  treated  differentlj 
The  native  aortBi  as  the  Isabella  Mid  Catawba,  are  cuhivi^ 
with  scarcely  any  ibrUier  care  than  training  up  the  branches  to 
poles  or  a  trellis,  and  are,  on  this  aecoant^  l^my  valuable  to  the 
urmer,  while  tbe  European  varieties  are  of  little  value  in  this 
climate  except  with  espedal  care,  and  are^  iheie&atf  confined  to 
the  garden. 

1.   OuUwre  tf  the  Foreign  Ora^ 

The  climate  of  the  temperate  portion  of  this  country,  so  hr 
vourable  to  all  other  fruits,  is  unfortunately  not  so  for  the  foreign 
gtBipe*  This  results,  perhaps,  from  its  vainabUitff^  the  great  ob- 
stacle  being  the  mildew^  which,  seising  upon  the  yoong  fruit, 
prevents  iti  forther  growth,  causes  it  to  crack,  and  reiMen  it 
worthleas.  Unwilling  to  believe  that  this  was  not  the  &nlt  of 
bad  cultnre,  many  intelligent  cultivators,  and  among  them  men 
of  capital  and  much  practical  skill,  have  attempted  vineyard 
culture,  with  the  foreign  sorts,  in  various  sections  ii  the  country, 
under  the  most  &vourable  circumstances^  and  have  uniformly 
fisiled.  On  the  other  hand,  the  very  finest  gnq>e8  are  produced 
under  glass,  in  great  quantities,  in  our  first-rate  gardens,  espe- 
cially in  the  neighbourhood  of  Boston;  in  ih»  small  yards  or 
gardens  of  our  cities,  owing  to  the  more  uniform  state  of  the 
atmosphere,  the  foreign  grape  thrives  pretty  well ;  and,  finally, 
in  all  gardens  of  the  middle  States,  the  hardier  kinds  may,  under 
certain  modes  of  culture,  be  made  to  bear  good  fruit 

Without  entering  into  anv  inquiries  respecting  the  particular 
way  in  which  the  mildew  (which  is  undoubtedly  a  parasitical 
plant,)  is  caused,  we  will  endeavour  to  state  concisely  some 
practical  truths,  to  which  our  own  observation  and  experience 
nave  led  us,  respecting  the  hardy  culture  of  the  foreign  gn^. 

In  the  first  place,  it  is  well  known,  to  gardeners  here,  that 
young  and  thrifty  vines  generally  bear  one  or  two  fiur  crops  of 
fruit ;  second,  that  as  the  vine  becomes  older  if  it  is  pruned  in 
the  common  mode,  (that  is  to  say  the  tpwring-in  mode  of  short- 
ening the  side  branches,  and  getting  fresh  bearing  shoots  from 
main  branches  every  year,)  it  soon  bears  only  mildewed  and 
imperfect  fruit ;  and,  finally,  that  the  older  and  larger  the  vine, 
the  less  likely  is  it  to  produce  a  good  crop. 

This  being  the  case,  it  is  not  difficult  to  see  that,  as  the  vine, 
like  idl  other  trees,  is  able  to  resist  the  attacks  of  disease  or 
unfavourable  climate  just  in  proportion  as  it  is  kept  in  a  young 
and  highly  vigorous  stete,  it  follows  if  we  allow  a  plant  to  retain 
only  young  and  vigorous  wood,  it  most  necessarily  preserve 
much  of  the  necessary  vigour  of  constitution.  And  tiiis  is  only 
to  be  done,  so  &r  as  regards  training,  by  what  is  called  the  rt* 
neioal  system* 


The  renewal  syitem  of  tniniiig  oonsiatB 
in  anniullj  providing  a  freah  aoi^lj  of 
jonng  Imwdiea  from  which  the  bearing 
ahoota  are  produced,  cutting  oat  all  the 
branchea  that  have  borne  the  previoua 
jear.  Fig.  91  repreaenta  a  bearing  vine 
treated  in  thia  manner,  aa  it  woold  appear 
in  the  q^ring  of  the  year,  after  having  been 
pruned.  In  thia  figure^  a,  r^>reaenta  the 
two  branchea  of  last  year's  growth  trained  ^  ^^ 
nn  hr  bearmg  the  present  year;  by  the  ^' 

maoea  oeeupi^  by  the  laat  year*a  wood,  which,  having  borne, 
naa  been  cut  down  to  witliin  an  inch  of  the  main  arm,  c.  The 
present  year,  therefore,  the  two  branchea,  a,  vrill  throw  out  side 
ahootSi  and  bear  a  good  crop,  while  the  young  branches  will  be 
trained  up  in  the  puu;ea  of  6,  to  bear  the  next  year  when  a  are 
in  like  manner  cut  down. 

This  renewal  training  will  uaually  produce  &ir  fruit,  chiefly, 
as  it  i^pears  to  us,  because  the  aaoent  and  circulation  of  the  sio 
being  mainlv  earned  on  through  young  wood,  is  viffCHrous,  and 
the  plant  is  healthful  and  able  to  resist  Uie  mildew,  while,  on  the 
iontrary,  the  circulation  of  the  sw  is  more  feeble  and  tardy, 
through  the  more  compact  and  rigid  sap  vessels  of  a  vine  fiill  of 
old  wood.* 

The  above  mode  of  training  is  veiy  easily  understood,  but 
we  may  add  here  for  the  benefit  of  the  novice ;  Ist,  that  vines, 
in  order  that  they  may  bear  regularly  and  well,  should  alwavs 
b#>  kept  within  small  bounds;  2d,  tliat  they  should  always  be 
trained  to  a  wall,  building,  or  upright  tr€lli»  ;f  and,  dd,  that  the 
leaves  should  never  be  pulled  oiff  to  promote  the  ripening  of  the 
fruit  The  ends  of  the  oearing  shoots  may  be  «(<9Jdm^,  (pinched 
ofi^)  when  the  fruit  is  nearly  ludf  grown,  and  this  is  uraally  all 
the  summer  pruning^  that  under  our  bright  sun  the  gn^  vino 
properly  treated  ic<]^uires. 

Following  out  this  hint,  that  here,  the  vine  only  bears  well 
when  it  is  young,  or  composed  mainly  of  young  wood,  an  intel- 
ligent cultivator  near  ua  secures  every  year  abundant  cropa  of 
the  Chaaselas,  by  a  system  oi  renewal  by  layer$.  Every  year, 
from  his  bearing  vines,  he  lays  down  two  or  more  long  and  clean 
shoots  of  the  previous  year's  growth.  These  root  f^ely,  are 
allowed  to  make  another  season^  growth,  and  then  are  made  to 
take  tibe  place  of  the  old  plants,  which  are  taken  out;  and  by 
this  continual  system  of  providing  young  plants  by  layers,  he  al- 
ways succeeds  m  obtaining  from  tne  sam^  piece  of  ground  &ir 
and  excellent  grapes. 

*  See  Boare  en  (he  Chrape  ftne. 

t  And  never  on  an  arbour,  except  ibr  the  purposes  of  ahadek 

304  THE   GRAPE. 

Culture  under  glass  without  artificial  heat.  The  great 
Buperiority  of  this  fruit  when  raised  under  glass,  renders  a  vine- 
ry an  indispensable  feature  in  every  extensive  garden.  Even 
without  fire-heat  grapes  may,  under  our  bright  sun,  be  grown 
admirably ;  the  si^den  changes  of  the  weather  being  guarded 
against,  and  the  warmth  and  uniformity  of  the  atmosphere  sur- 
rounding the  vines  being  secured.  In  the  neighbourhood  of 
Boston,  cheap  structures  of  this  kind  are  now  very  common,  and 
on  the  North  River,  even  the  Muscat  of  Alexandria  and  other 
sorts  which  are  usually  thought  to  require  fire-heat,  ripen  regu- 
larly and  well,  with  moderate  attention. 

A  vinery  of  this  kind  may  be  erected  so  as  to  cost  very  little, 
nearly  after  the  following  manner.  Its  length  may  be  thirty 
feet ;  its  width  sixteen  feet ;  height  at  the  front,  two  feet ;  at  the 
back  twelve  feet  This  part  of  the  structure  may  all  be  built 
of  wood,  taking,  for  the  frame,  cedar  or  locust  posts,  setting 
them  three  and  a  half,  feet  in  the  ground,  the  portion  rising 
above  the  ground  being  squared  to  four  or  five  inches.  On 
these  posts,  (which  are  placed  six  feet  apart,)  nail,  on  both 
sides,  matched  and  grooved  planks,  one  and  a  quarter  inches 
thick.  The  space  between  these  planks  not  occupied  by  the 
post,  fill  in  with  dry  tan,  which  should  be  well  rammed  down. 
The  rafters  should  be  fixed,  and  from  three  to  four  feet  apart. 
The  sashes  forming  the  roof,  (which  are  all  the  glass  that  will 
be  necessary,^  must  be  in  two  lengths,  lapping  in  the  middle, 
and  arranged  with  a  double  groove  in  the  rafters,  so  that  the 
top  and  bottom  ones  may  run  free  of  each  other.  The  building 
will,  of  course,  front  tlie  south,  and  the  door  may  be  at  either  encL 

The  border  for  the  grapes  should  be  made  partly  on  the  in- 
side and  partly  on  the  outside  of  the  front  wall,  so  that  the  roots 
of  the  vines  may  extend  through  to  the  open  border.  A  trellis 
of  wire  should  be  fixed  to  the  rafters,  about  sixteen  inches  from 
the  glass,  on  which  the  vines  are  to  be  trained.  Early  in  the 
spring,  the  vines,  which  should  be  two  year  old  roots,  may  be 
planted  in  the  inside  border,  about  a  foot  from  the  front  wall — 
one  vine  below  each  rafter. 

Soil.  The  border  should  be  thoroughly  prepared  and  pulver- 
ized before  planting  the  grapes.  Two  thirds  of  mellow  sandy 
roam  mixed  with  one  third  of  a  compost  formed  of  well  ferment- 
ed manure,  bits  of  broken  charcoal,  and  a  little  lime  rubbish, 
ibrms  an  excellent  soil  for  the  grape  in  this  climate.  If  the 
soil  of  the  garden  is  old,  or  is  not  of  a  proper  quality  for  the 
basis  of  the  border,  it  is  best  to  prepare  some  Tor  this  purpose  by 
rotting  and  reducing  beforehand,  a  quantity  of  loamy  turf  from 
the  road  sides  for  this  purpose.  The  depth  of  the  border  need 
not  exceed  two  feet,  but  if  the  subsoil  is  not  dry  at  all  seasons, 
it  should  be  well  drained,  and  filled  ur  half  a  foot  below  the 
border  with  small  stones  or  brick  bats. 

THX   ORAPS.  806 

PBaiiixe  Decidedly  the  best  mode  of  pnming  for  a  cold 
honae,  or  vioerj  witi&ont  fire-Wt,  is  what  is  called  the  long 
or  renewal  mode,  which  we  have  already  partially  explained. 
Sappoeing  the  house  to  be  planted,  with  good  yoang  plants, 
something  like  the  following  mo<le  of  training  and  pruning  may 
be  adopted.  Th%  first  season  one  shoot  only  is  allowed  to  pro- 
ceed fnm  each  plant,  and  this,  at  the  end  of  the  first  season,  is  . 
cat  down  to  the  second  or  third  eye  or  bad.  The  year  follow- 
ing two  leading  shoots  are  encoaraged,  the  stron^st  of  which  is 
hauled  or  stopped  when  it  has  extended  a  few  joints  beyond  the 
middle  of  the  hoose  or  rafter,  and  the  weaker  about  half  that 
length.  In  Npvember  these  shoots  are  reduced,  the  strong  one 
haying  four  or  ^we  joints  out  ^om  its  extremity,  and  the  weaker 
one  to  the  third  eye  from  its  lower  end  or  place  of  origin.  In 
the  third  season  one  leading  ^oot  is  laid  in  from  each  of  these, 
the  stronger  one  Growing  out  side  shoots  on  which  the  fruit  is 
produced,  which  side  shoots  are  allowed  to  mature  one  bunch  of 
grapes  each,  and  are  topped  at  one  or  two  joints  above  the  fruit 
No  side  shoots  are  allowed  to  proceed  fr^m  the  weaker  shoot^ 
bat  it  is  laid  in,  to  produce  frtiit  the  ensuing  season,  so  that  by 
the  third  season  after  planting,  the  lower  part  of  the  house  or 
rafters  is  furnished  with  a  crop  of  fruit  proceeding  from  wood 
of  the  preceding  year.  At  next  autumn  pruning,  the  longest 
of  these  main  shoots  is  shortened  about  eighteen  inches  from  the 
top  of  the  rafter,  and  the  next  in  strength  to  about  the  middle  of 
the  rafter,  and  all  the  spurs  which  had  borne  fruit  are  removed. 
Each  vine  is  now  furnished  with  two  shoots  of  bearing  wood,  a 
part  of  old  barren  wood  which  has  already  produced  fruit,  and  a 
spar  near  the  bottom  for  producing  a  young  shoot  for  the  follow- 
ing year.  In  the  fourth  sunmier  a  foil  crop  is  produced,  both 
in  the  lower  and  upper  part  of  the  house,  the  longer  or  oldest 
shoot  producing  fruit  on  the  upper  part  of  its  length,  and  the 
shorter  on  its  whole  length ;  from  tnis  last,  a  leading  shoot  is 
laid  in,  and  another  to  succeed  it  is  produced  from  the  spur 
near  the  bottom.  At  the  next  autumn  pruning,  the  oldest  or 
longest  shoot,  which  has  now  reached  the  top  of  the  house,  is 
entirely  cot  out  and  removed,  and  replaced  by  that  which  was 
next  in  soccession  to  it,  and  this  in  its  turn  is  also  cut  out  and 
replaced  by  that  immediately  behind  it,  a  succession  of  a  year 
ly  shoot  being  obtained  from  the  lower  part  of  the  old  stem. 
(Melniosh.)  This  is  decidedly  the  most  successful  mode  for  a 
vinery  without  heat,  producing  abundant  and  fidr  crops  of  fruit 
Hoare,  who  is  one  of  the  most  experienced  and  ingenious  wri- 
ters on  the  grape,  strongly  recommends  it,  and  suggests  that 
^  the  old  wood  of  a  vine,  or  that  which  has  previously  produced 
fruit,  ia  not  only  of  no  forther  use,  but  is  a  positive  mjnry  to 
the  fertility  of  the  plant  The  truth  of  this  remark  depends  on 
tlic  fact  that  every  branch  of  a  vine  which  produces  little  or  no 

806  THS  O&API. 

foliage,  appropriates  for  ;ta  own  aiq^port  a  portion  of  the  juicei 
of  the  plant  that  is  generated  bj  those  branches  that  do  pioduce 

RouTiNS  OF  ouLTusx.  In  a  vinery  without  heat  this  is  com- 
parativelv  simple.  As  soon  as  the  vines  commenoe  swelling 
their  bads  in  tne  spring,  they  should  be  carefully  washed  with 
mild  soap  suds,  to  free  them  from  any  insects,  e/mem  the  wood, 
and  assist  the  buds  to  swell  regularly*  At  least  three  or  four 
times  every  week,  they  should  be  well  syringed  with  water, 
which,  when  the  weather  is  cool,  should  always  be  done  in  the 
morning.  And  eveiy  day  the  vine  border  should  be  duly  sup- 
plied with  water.  liurin^  the  time  when  the  vines  are  in  blos- 
som, and  while  the  fruit  is  settings  all  sprinkling  or  syringing 
over  the  leaves  must  be  suspended,  and  the  house  should  be 
kept  a  little  more  closed  and  wann  than  usual,  and  should  any 
indications  of  mildew  appear  on  any  of  the  branches  it  may  at 
once  be  checked  by  dusting  them  with  flower  of  sulphur.  Air 
must  be  given  liberally  every  day  when  the  tempentore  rises 
in  the  house,  beginning  by  sliding  down  the  top  sashes  a  little  in 
the  morning,  more  at  mid-day,  and  then  gradually  dosing  them 
in  the  same  manner.  To  guard  against  we  sudden  changes  of 
temperature  out  of  doors,  and  at  the  same  time  to  keep  up  as 
moist  and  warm  a  state  of  the  atmosphere  within  the  vinery  as 
is  consistent  with  pretty  free  admission  of  the  air  durii^  sun- 
shine, is  the  great  object  of  culture  in  a  vinery  of  this  kind. 

Thinninff  the  frvxi  ia  a  very  necessary  practice  in  all  vine- 
ries— and  on  it  depends  greatly  the  flavour,  as  well  as  the  fine 
appearance  and  size  of  the  l>erries  and  bunches.  The  first 
thinning  usually  consists  in  taking  off  all  superfluous  blossom 
buds,  leaving  only  one  bunch  in  Sie  large  sorts  or  two  in  the 
small  ones  to  each  bearing  shoot  The  next  thinning  takes 
place  when  the  berries  are  set  and  well  formed,  and  is  per- 
formed with  a  pair  of  scissors,  taking  care  not  to  touch  the  ber- 
ries that  are  left  to  grow.  AU  this  time,  one  third  of  the  berries 
should  be  taken  off  with  the  point  of  the  scissors,  especiidly 
those  in  the  centre  of  the  cluster.  This  allows  the  remainder 
to  swell  to  double  the  size,  and  also  to  form  laiger  bunches  than 
would  otherwise  be  produced.  Where  the  bunches  are  large, 
the  shoulders  should  oe  suspended  from  the  trellis  by  threads,  in 
order  to  take  off  part  of  the  weight  from  the  stem  of  the  vine. 
The  last  thinning,  which  is  done  chiefly  to  regulate  the  form  of 
the  bunch,  is  done  by  many  gardeners,  just  l^ore  the  fruit  be- 
gins to  colour — ^but  it  is  scarcely  needed  if  the  previous  tkiniiiDg 
of  the  berries  has  been  thoroughly  done. 

The  r^podar  autumnal  pruning  is  best  performed  abont  the 
middle  of  November.  The  vinea  should  then  be  taken  down, 
laid  down  on  the  border,  and  covered  for  the  winter  with  a  thick 
layer  of  straw,  or  a  slight  covering  of  earth* 



CuttVBM    UHDJni   GLA88|   WITH   FIBB*HXAT.      Ab    tbo    forei^ 

grape  k  alnott  the  onlj  finiit  of  temperate  cliiiuitei»  which  can* 
not  be  raised  in  perfection  in  the  open  Air  in  this  climate,  we 
shall  give  tome  concise  directions  for  its  culture  in  vineries 
with  artificial  heat,  lliose  who  only  know  this  fruit  as  the 
Chasselas  or  Sweetwater  appears,  when  grown  in  the  open 
air,  have  little  idea  of  the  exceeding  lusciousness,  high  flavour, 
siae  and  besuty  of  such  varieties  as  the  Blade  HamburjOfh  or 
Muscat  of  Alexandria,  when  well  grown  in  a  first  rate  vmery. 
By  the  aid  of  artificial  heat,  which,  in  this  climate,  is,  after  all, 
chiefly  required  in  the  spring  and  autumn,  and  to  eounteract 
an^  sudden  cold  changes  of  atmosphere,  this  most  admirable 
fruit  may  easily  be  produced  for  the  dessert,  from  May  till  De- 
cember. Indeed  by  vineries  constructed  in  divisions,  in  some 
of  which  vines  are  forced  and  in  others  retarded,  some  gentle- 
men near  Boston,  have  grapes  neariy  eveiy  month  in  the  year. 
Oamtruetitm  of  the  vinery.  The  vinery  with  fire-heat  may 
be  built  of  wood,  and  in  the  same  simple  manner  as  just  de 
scribed,  with  the  addition  of  a  flue  aoove  the  snr&ce  of  the 
ground,  running  close  along  the  end,  two  feet  from  the  front 
wall,  and  about  a  loot  from  the  back  wall^  and  returning  into  a 
chimney  in  the  back  wall  over  the  furnace. 

For  the  sake  of  permanence,  however,  a  vinerr  of  this  kind 
is  usually  built  of  brick ;  the  ends  and  front  wall  eight  inches 
thick ;  the  back  wall  a  foot  thick — or  eight  inches  with  occa- 
sional abutments  to  increase  its  streugth.  In  fig.  92  (I)  is  shown 

a  simple  plan  of  a 
vinery  of  this  kind. 
In  thjs  the  surfiAce 
of  the  ground  is 
shown  at  a,  below 
which,  the  founda- 
tion walls  are  sunk 
three  feet  Above 
the  sur&ce  the  front 
wall  b,  rises  two 
feet,  the  back  wall 
c,  twelve  feet,  and 
the  width  of  the 
house  is  fourteen 
feet  On  these  walls 
are  placed  the  raft- 
ers,  from  three  to 
four  feet  distant^ 
with  the  sashes  in 
ti^  9%,  PUm  mud  mdUm  efa  wimm%  mfikfire  kwi.  two  lengths. 

In  the  present  example  the  flues  are  kept  out  of  the  way,  and 
the  space  clear,  by  placing  them  in  a  square  walled  space,  di* 

908  TBS   GRAPE. 

lectly  under  the  walk ;  the  walk  itself  being  formed  bj  an  opei 
grating  or  lattice,  through  which  liie  heat  rises  freely.  The 
arrangement  of  the  flue  will  be  better  understood  by  referring 
to  the  ground  plan  (II.)  In  this  the  furnace  is  indicated  at  </, 
in  the  back  wall;*  from  this  the  flue  rises  gradually  to  e^ 
whence  it  continues  nearly  the  length  of  the  house,  and  return- 
ing enters  the  chimney  at  /.  For  the  convenience  of  shelter, 
firing,  etc.,  it  is  usual  to  have  a  hack  shed^  g^  behind  the  back 
wall.  In  this  shed  may  be  a  bin  for  wood  or  coals,  and  a  sunk 
area  (shown  in  the  dotted  lines  around  (f,  f^  with  steps  to  de- 
scend to  the  furnace  and  ash-pitf  There  are  two  doors,  A,  in 
the  vinery  at  either  end  of  the  walk. 

The  border  should  be  thoroughly  prepared  previously  to 
planting  the  vines,  by  excavating  it  two  feet  deep  and  filling  it 
up  with  suitable  compost  This  is  best  fermed  of  one  half 
loamy  tur^  well  rotted  by  having  been  previously  laid  up  in 
heaps,  (or  fresh  and  pure  loamy  soil  from  an  old  pasture  or 
common ;)  one  third  thoroughly  fermented  horse  or  cow  ma- 
nure,  which  has  laid  in  a  turf-covered  heap  for  three  months ; 
and  one-third  broken  pieces  of  charcoal  and  old  lime  rubbish. 
The  whole  to  be  thoroughly  mixed  together  before  planting  the 

The  vines  themselves  should  always  be  planted  in  a  border 
prepared  inside  of  the  house,  and  in  order  to  give  the  vines  that 
extent  of  soil  which  is  necessary  for  them,  the  best  cultivators 
make  an  additional  border  twelve  or  fourteen  feet  wide  outside, 
in  front  of  the  vinery.  By  building  the  foundation  of  the  front 
wall  on  piers  within  a  couple  of  inches  of  the  surfiice,  and  sup 
porting  the  wall  above  the  surface  on  slabs  of  stone  reaching 
from  pier  to  pier,  the  roots  of  the  vines  easily  penetrate  to  the 
border  on  the  outside. 

Hie  vines  should  be  planted  eaidy  in  the  spring.  Two  year 
old  plants  are  preferable,  and  they  may  be  set  e^hteeu  inches 
from  the  front  wall — one  below  each  rafter,  or,  if  the  latter  are 
over  three  feet  apart,  one  also  In  the  intermediate  space. 

The  pruning  and  trainlDg  of  the  vines  we  hare  already  de- 
scribed.   Hie  renewal  system  of  pruning  we  consider  the  best 

*  His  ftimaoe  should  be  placed  two  feet  below  the  level  of  the  flue  at 
e,  in  order  to  secure  a  draught,  after  wbidi  it  may  be  carried  quite  level 
till  it  enters  the  ohimnej.  An  air  obamber  may  be  formed  round  it,  with 
a  register  to  admit  heated  air  to  the  house  when  neoessary.  A  ftimaoe 
fourteen  inches  square  and  deep,  with  an  ash-pit  below,  in  which  anthra- 
cite coal  la  burned,  will  be  found  a  very  easy  and  perfect  mode  of  heating 
a  house  of  tiiis  width,  and  thirty  feet  long. 

f  The  most  peifeot  vinery  that  we  have  seen  in  this  oountnr  is  one  of 
two  hundred  feet  long  at  the  ooimtry  resideDoe  of  Hotmb  €lray,  Bsqy 
Newtown,  near  Boston.  It  is  built  of  wood,  with  a  curved  span  roo^ 
after  a  plan  of  Ur.  Gray^s  which  seoms  to  us  to  combine  fitness  and  beauty 
in  an  unusual  degree. 

THS   OBAPB.  dD( 

in  all  cases.  Hie  tpwr  sjfitem  it,  howeyer,  practued  by  many 
gardeneiB,  with  m>r6  or  lesa  sncceaa.  Thia»  as  most  of  our 
readers  are  aware,  o:>ii8i8tB  in  allowing  a  single  shoot  to  extend 
firom  each  root  to  the  len^  of  the  racers ;  from  the  sides  of  this 
atom  are  produced  the  bearing  shoots  erery  year ;  and  every 
aatmnn  these  spnrs  are  shortened  back,  leaving  only  one  bnd 
at  the  bottom  of  each,  which  in  its  tnm  becomes  the  bearinff 
shoot,  and  is  again  cnt  back  the  next  season.  The  fruit  is 
abundantly  produced,  and  of  sood  flavour,  but  the  bunches  are 
neither  so  large  nor  fiiir,  nor  Jo  the  vines  continue  so  long  in  a 
productive  and  healthy  state  as  when  the  wood  is  annuafiy  re- 

The  essentia]  points  in  pruning  and  training  the  vine,  what- 
ever mode  be  adopted,  according  to  Loudon, "  are  to  shorten  the 
wood  to  such  an  extent  that  no  more  leaves  shall  be  produced 
than  can  be  fhlly  exposed  to  the  li^ht ;  to  stop  all  shoots  pro- 
duced In  the  summer  that  are  not  likely  to  be  required  in  the 
winter  pruning,  at  two  or  three  joints,  or  at  the  first  large 
healthy  leaf  nom  the  stem  where  they  originate ;  and  to  stop 
all  shoots  bearing  bunches  at  one  joint,  or  at  most  two,  beyond 
the  bunch.  As  shoots  which  are  stopped,  generally  push  a 
second  time  from  the  terminal  bud,  the  secondary  shoots  thus 
produced  should  be  stopped  at  one  joint  And  if  at  that  joint 
they  push  also,  then  a  third  stoppmg  must  take  place  at  one 
joint,  and  so  on  as  long  as  the  last  terminal  bud  continues  to 
break.  Bearing  these  points  in  mind,  nothing  can  be  more 
sim^e  than  the  pruning  and  training  of  the  vine." 

when  early  forcing  of  the  vines  is  commenced,  the  heat 
should  be  i^pplied  very  gently,  for  the  first  few  days,  and  after- 
wards very  gradually  mcreased.  Sixty  degrees  of  Fahrenheit's 
thermometer  may  be  the  maximum,  till  the  buds  are  all  nearly 
expanded.  When  the  leaves  are  expanded  sixty-five  may  be 
the  maximum  and  fifty-five  the  minimum  temperature.  When 
the  vines  are  in  blossom,  seventy-five  or  eighty,  in  mid-day, 
with  the  solar  heat  should  be  allowed,  with  an  abundance  of 
air,  and  somewhat  about  this  should  be  the  average  of  mid-day 
temperature.  But,  as  by  far  the  best  way  of  imparting  infor- 
mation as  to  the  routine  of  vine  culture  under  glass  is  to  pre- 
sent a  precise  account  of  a  successful  practice,  we  give  here 
the  diary  of  O.  Johnson,  Esq.,  of  Lvnn,  Mass^  as  reported  by 
him  in  Hovey^s  Maganne.  Mr,  Johnson  is  a  veiy  successful 
amateur  cultivator,  and  we  prefer  to  give  hip  dUry  rather  than 
that  of  a  professional  gardener,  because  we  consider  it  as  likely 
to  be  more  instructive  to  the  beginner  in  those,  little  points  whicn 
most  professional  men  are  likely  to  take  for  granted  as  being 
commonly  known.  We  may  premise  here  that  the  vines  were 
planted  out  in  the  border  in  May,  1835;  they  were  then  one 
year  old,  in  pots.     In  1836  and  183T,  they  were  headed  down. 



In  183.8  thej  bore  a  few  banches  of  grapes,  and  made  fine  wood 
for  the  following  year,  when  the  date  of  the  diaiy  commenoeB. 



DiAKT  OF  THB  YjMn^\ 












Commenced  fire  heat  in  the  vinerf.  [Hie  ther- 
mometrical  observations  are  taken  at  6  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  at  no<Ni,  and  10  o'clock  at 

Placed  horse  mannre  in  the  house  to  warm  the 
border.    Washed  the  house.    Took  np  the  vines, 

Srhich  had  been  covered  to  protect  them  from 
e  frost,)  and  washed  them  with  warm  soap 
suds ;  nused  as  much  moisture  as  possible.  Wea- 
ther moderate  and  cloudy. 

Weather  quite  moderate  and  thawy.    Sleet. 

Covered  inside  border  with  sand  for  sprinkling. 
Thaw.    Whitewashed  the  vinery. 

Earthen  pans  on  the  fiuea  kept  filled  with  water, 
but  svnnging  suspended  on  account  of  the  moia- 
ture  m  the  atmosphere,  it  having  been  damp  for 
three  days.    Cloudy. 

Washed  vines  with  soap  suda.  Weather  moderate : 
a  slight  snow  last  night 

Pans  kept  full  of  water  for  the  sake  of  steam,  and 
vines  syringed  twice  a  day  in  sunny  weather. 
Weather  changed  suddenly  last  night ;  cold,  and 
temperature  fefi  lO^'  below  minimum  pcnnt 

A  Sweetwater  vine  in  a  pot,  taken  from  the  cellar 
on  the  18th,  and  pruned  at  that  time,  is  now 
bleeding  profusely.  At  this  season  of  llie  year, 
in  order  to  economiie  with  fuel,  the  furnace 
should  be  managed  carefully.  We  found  it  a 
sood  plan  about  10  o'clock  at  night  to  close  the 
aoor  of  the  ash-pit  and  furnace,  and  push  the 
damper  in  the  chimney  as  &r  in  as  possible.  No 
air  is  then  admitted,  except  through  the  crevices 
of  the  iron  worL  The  thermometer  fell  only  4^ 
during  the  night  Watered  vines  with  soap 

Hie  last  seven  days  have  been  very  mild  for  the 
season :  to-day  i^pears  like  an  April  day. 

Weather  became  cold  during  the  niffht 

Weather  cloudy  and  thawy  for  the  last  three  day& 

m  ORAPS. 


urn,  Am 



Dkaet  or  «BB  VnrBET. 



09  64 





75  65 

The  floor  of  the  Tineiy  kept  oonataDtly  dain{s 
md  the  fines  watered  twice  at  night. 

Rainj  and  thaw. 

Mnacat  of  Alexandria  yme  bleeding  at  die  buds. 
Weather  dear  and  rather  cool. 

Ifnaeat  Tine  oontinning  to  bleed  exceMiTely,  and 
finding  all  attempts  to  stop  it  nnsaocessfn],  we 
hastOy  eonchided  to  prime  it  down  beyond  the 
bleeding  body  and  cover  the  wound  with  Madder 
of  triple  thickness  (two  verjr  last :)  this,  it  was 
sopposed,  wonld  stop  it;  bat  in  a  few  moments 
the  sap  re-appeared,  forcing  its  way  tbrooffh  other 
bnds,  and  even  through  the  smooth  bark  m  many 
places.  The  bnds  on  the  Sweetwater  vines  is 
pots  began  to  swell.  Rain  last  night;  dull 
weather  during  the  day :  snow  nearly  gone. 

Mominff  fine ;  afternoon  cloudy.  When  fire  is  at 
a  red  heat,  the  damper  and  fhmace  door  are 
closed  to  keep  up  the  heat 

5  51 



80  71  Brij^ht  morning;  weather  cool. 

68  Quite  warm  and  pleasant  for  the  season. 

64 Weather  changed  last  evening  suddenly;  a  cold 

snow  storm  set  in  to-day.  Afternoon  clear. 
68  Buds  of  some  black  Hambursr  vines  bmlnning  to 
sweH.  Dug  up  the  inside  border,  an^  notwith- 
standing lOi  precautions,  destroyed  a  few  of  the 
grape  roots,  which  were  within  three  inches  of 
die  sur&ce.  From  this  circumstance,  we  have 
determined  not  to  disturb  the  border  outside,  but 
merely  to  loosen  two  inches  below  the  sur&oe : 
we  are  saHdBed  that  the  vines  have  been  injured 
b^  deep  digging  the  borders.  Gold  severe ;  last 
night  temperatare  2^  below  0. 

70  68|llie  cold  very  severe.  The  sadden  changes  render 
it  almost  impossible  to  keep  a  regular  tempera- 
tare  in  the  house,  which  should  not  stand  ^at  this 
stage  of  forcing)  below  60°.  The  house  naving 
originally  been  intended  ibr  a  grapeiy  withoal 
fire  heat,  it  is  not  well  adapted  to  forcing. 

73  68  Weather  cool  and  pleasant 

75  68!Bud8  of  the  v?ne  in  pot  breaking. 



April  JSSfl. 










Buds  of  Hambuigs  breaking.    Bnow  last  night 




eo  Qiute  cold  last  night    Windy. 

02  Kiisk  of  HamburgB  mostly  breaking.  Owing  to 
the  changeable  weather,  there  is  some  fear  that 
til  ere  has  been  too  mach  heat^  as  a  ^few  of  the 
shoots  a{^[>ear  weak.  Plenly  of  air  has  been 
given  daily. 

64  Buds  of  Muscat  of  Alexandria  breaking.  Fruit 
buda  appear  on  the  Hambuiga. 






The  buds  have  broken  r^oarkably  fine:  almost 
oveiy  bud  throoghout  the  hoyee  is  opening. 
Longest  shoot  on  Hamburg  waa  four  inches  at 
lioon.  The  Muscat,  which  broke  first  last  year, 
h  now  the  most  backward.  Quere — ^Is  it  not 
owing  to  excessive  bleeding! 


60  6o; 


2  02 

After  this  period,  the  thermometer  was  observed 

only  at  morning  and  at  night 
Til  a  temperature  ranging  from  &2°  to  80^  during 

the  remainder  of  the  day,  with  an  abundance  of 

air  in  good  weather. 

Tlie  last  six  days  cloudy;  wind 
last  night  for  the  seafton* 

oast;  quite  cold 








Tcpped  the  frait-bearing  shoots  one  joint  above  the 
miit,  and  when  the  lower  shoots  appetr  weak,  top 
the  leading  shoot  ci  the  vhie. 

Disoontinaed  sjrringing  the  Tines. 


A  few  dnsten  of  flowers  began  to  open  on  two  vincSi 




70  78 
73  78 
66  80 

68  76  The  bst  three  days  wind  north-east,  with  much  rain ; 
to-day  sleet  and  rain. 
Grapes  blooming  beaatifhlly :  keep  up  a  high  temper- 
ature with  moisture,  when  the  weather  is  cloudy 
during  the  day. 

77  Floor  q[»rinkled  to  create  a  fine  steam. 

78  A  few  closten  of  flowers  open  on  the  Muscat  of  Alex* 








Temperature  kept  up.  The  thermometer  should  not 
be  allowed,  at  this  stM;e  of  the  growth  of  the  vines, 
to  ML  bdow  75^;  but  owing  to  the  &ulty  con- 
struction of  the  hoiise,  it  has  bosn  almost  impossible 
to  keep  up  a  r^;ular  heat 

The  grwes  on  the  Uack  Hamburg  vines  are  mostly 
set ;  those  at  the  top  of  the  house  as  large  aa  small 
peas,  while  those  below  are  just  out  of  bloom.  Many 
of  the  bunches  show  great  promise,  and  the  vibes  look 
remarkably  vigorous  and  strong,  with  the  exception 
of  one  vine,  next  the  partition  glass,  which  made 
the  ianraat  wood  last  season,  apparently  fully  ripe 
and  litde  pith;  notwithstanding  these  favourable 
promises,  it  showed  little  fruit,  and  the  shoots  are 
small  and  weak. 

Out  out  about  flfty  bunches  in  thinning. 





74  78 
77  63 

70!  70 




8  67 







Commenced  sTringing  again,  tirice  a  day,  in  fine  wea 
ther.  Moisture  is  also  plentiitdly  supplied  bj  keep 
ing  the  pant  well  filled  with  water. 

Much  rain  daring  the  last  week :  have  kept  a  brisk  fire 
in  the  day,  and  admitted  air.  The  vines  look  finely. 
Continue  thinning  and  shouldering  the  bonchesi 
after  cutting  out  aoout  one  half  their  number.  [By 
shouldering  is  understood  tying  up  the  shoulders 
on  the  lar^  clusters  to  the  trelUs,  so  that  they  may 
not  press  upon  the  lower  part  of  the  bunch.] 

Plenty  of  air  admitted* 

Grapes  now  swelling  off  finely. 
Abundance  of  moisture  kept  up. 

A  fine  rain  to-day.  The  month  has  been  rather  cool ; 
several  nights  the  past  week  the  earth  has  frozen 
slightly.  The  grapes  are  now  swelling  finely.  Con- 
tinue to  thin  the  fruit  diuly. 

The  process  of  thinning  the  berries  continued,  taking 
out  some  abnost  every  day,  and  always  the  smallest 

Abundance  of  air  given  in  fine  weather. 

Next  year's  bearing  wood  carefully  laid  in. 





26  70 

29  73 





7  do  70  Bunches  supported  by  tjing  to  the  trellis. 






The  month  of  May  has  been,  as  a  whole,  unfavourable 
for  the  grape.  Much  rainy  and  dull  wei^er :  we 
have  b^n  obliged  to  light  fires  eyery  night,  and 
occasionally  in  the  day.  Tne  grapes  have  been  often 
looked  over  and  thinned,  yet  there  is  no  doubt  the 
scissotB  have  been  used  too  sparingly 

All  lateral  branches  cut  clean  out. 

The  grapes  have  now  completed  their  stoning  processi 
and  a  few  near  the  furnace  swelling  off.  No  mildew, 
or  disease  of  any  kind,  has  yet  been  discovered,  and 
the  vines  generally  have  the  most  healthy  and  vig- 
orous appearance.  The  weather  has  been  dull  and 
•le,  which  has  rendered  fires  necessary. 

A  few  of  the  black  Hamburg  and  Zinfindal^  near  the 
fiuc,  perceived  to  be  changing  colour.  We&thcr  quite 
unfavourable ;  fires  at  night 

Syringing  now  discontinued. 

The  month,  thus  fiir,  has  been  remarkable  for  high 
winds,  which  have  injured  many  plants. 

62  The  grapes  are  now  swelling  finely.      Those  at  th« 





DiABT    OF  TH*    ViNERT. 

western  flue  mostly  coloured ;  also  the  Zinfindal  next 
The  second  vine  from  the  partition,  having  to  sustain 
the  heaviest  crop,  is  rather  backward,  and  we  fear 
some  of  the  berries  may  shrink :  having  lei%  differ* 
ent  Quantities  on  vines  of  the  same  apparent  strength, 
we  shall  be  able  to  ascertain  their  powers  of  matU'- 

After  this  period  the  thermometrical  observations  were 
discontinued ;  as  the  crop  was  now  beginning  to 
colour,  and  the  weather  generally  warm,  abundance 
of  air  is  admitted  in  all  fine  weather. 

Bunches  of  the  Zinfindal  near  the  furnace,  and  at  the 
top  of  the  house,  are  now  ncrfectly  coloured,  and  ap- 
parently ripe.    Ceased  making  fires. 

A  little  air  is  admitted  at  night.     Weather  delight 

July  4. — Gut  six  bunches  of  Zinfindal  mpes ;  the  largest  a 
pound  and  a  half;  weight  of  the  whde  five  pounds  and  a 

6th. — ^Exhibited  Zinfindal  grapes  at  the  Massachusetts  Horti- 
cultural Society. 

IS^A. — ^Exhibited  Black  Hambuigh  grapes  atthe  Massachusetts 
Horticultural  Society's  room. 

1 5  th. — A  few  bunches  of  the  Muscat  of  Alexandria  are  now 
ripe ;  the  flavour  exceedingly  fine. 

20th. — Continued  to  cut  Zinfindal  grapes. 

22d. — The  ripening  of  all  the  grapes  being  now  completed, 
we  have  not  deemed  it  necessary  to  continue  the  diary.  In  the 
vinery  we  shall  cut  about  two  hundred  and  thirty  pounds  of 
grapes  from  nine  vines,  [being  about  twenty-five  pounds  to  each.] 
The  Hambur^hs  average  nearly  one  pound  and  a  quarter  to  the 
bunch  throughout 

In  the  cold  house,  separated  from  the  vinery  by  the  partition, 
a  little  mildew  was  perceived.  By  dusting  sulphur  on  the  in- 
fected bushes,  the  mischief  is  instantly  checked.  Most  of  the 
cultivators  with  whom  we  have  conversed  complain  grievously  of 
mildew  this  season,  and  some  have  lost  part  of  their  crops  by 
inattention  on  its  first  appearance. 

Aug.  lOth. — Again  exhibited  some  of  the  Hamburgh  grapes 
at  the  Massachusetts  Horticultural  Society's  room.  One  fine 
bunch  weighed  two  and  a  half  pounds,  and  a  bcHUtiful  cluster 

TBI   GRAPB.  81) 

of  Moscat  of  Alexandria  one  poand«  Some  of  the  berries  of  the 
fonner  measured  three  inches  in  circnmference,  and  the  latter 
three  and  a  quarter  by  three  and  three  quarter  inches. 

Another  season  we  intend  to  use  a  laiffer  ouantity  of  soap 
suds  on  the  grape  border.  Have  not  paid  sufficient  attention 
to  the  watering  of  the  border,  and  the  inatde^  especially,  must 
have  suffered.  Another  fault  to  be  removed  next  year  is,  to  tie 
up  all  the  projecting  grapilons  as  well  as  the  shoulden,  which 
would  allow  the  grapes  to  swell  without  crowding. 

The  grapes  in  tne  cold  house  are  swelling  finely.  The 
bunches  were  thinned  much  more  severely  than  in  the  vinery, 
but,  notwithstanding  this,  they  are  all  filled  up,  and  many  are 
too  crowded.  The  berries  are  also  laiger  than  the  grapes  in 
the  vinery,  though  none  ci  the  clusters  have  attained  the  same 

Much  has  been  written  upon  the  subject  of  the  thnveUing  or 
shrinking  of  ^rrapes :  none  of  the  clusters  in  the  vinery  were 
affected ;  but  m  the  cold  house,  some  shrivelling  was  perceived 
on  a  few  bunches.  We  are  inclined  to  believe  that  the  moisture 
given  after  the  grapes  begin  to  colour,  and  want  of  sufficient  air, 
are  the  causes. 

To  insure  a  good  crop  of  grapes,  we  are  satisfied  that  they 
must  have — -plenty  af  heat — plenty  of  air — plenty  of  moisture — 
eevere  thinmn^  of  Intnehee — and  severe  thinning  of  berries.  The 
vines,  also,  must  be  pruned  often,  and  kept  free  :  the  wood  never 
crowded.  Great  attention  must  be  paid  to  the  airing  of  the 
house,  which  must  be  done  gradually,  that  there  may  be  at  no 
time  a  sudden  change  in  the  temperature. 

With  such  attention,  and  tho  prerequisite  of  a  rich  border,  on 
a  dry  subsoil,  good  crops  of  fine  ^pes  are  always  to  be  obtain- 
ed. The  vines  require  much  moisture  until  they  have  complet- 
ed their  last  swell,  when  the  moisture  should  be  withdrawn. 

Inskcts  and  diseases.  When  properly  grown  nnder  glass, 
the  grape  is  a  very  vifforous  plant,  liable  to  tew  diseases.  The 
bleeding  which  often  nappens  at  tiie  commencement  of  growth, 
usually  ceases  without  doing  harm,  when  the  foliage  b^ns  to 
expand.  If  excessive,  it  may  be  stopped  by  a  mixture  of  three 
^rts  cheese  paring  and  one  part  lime,  applied  to  tlie  wound. 
The  red-spider  which  sometimes  infests  vineries  kept  at  a  high 
temperature,  is  usually  destroyed  by  coating  over  the  fines  with 
a  wash  of  quick  lime  and  sulphur,  after  which,  the  house  must 
be  kept  clceed  for  half  a  day.  The  smaller  insects  which  occa- 
sionally prey  on  the  young  shoots,  are  easily  kept  down  by 
syringing  the  parts  affected,  with  a  solution  of  whale  oil  soap. 

Yaribtikb.  There  are  in  the  catalogue  a  vast  number  of 
names  of  grapes,  many  of  which  belong  to  the  same  fruit  But 
there  are  reany  only  twenty  or  thirty  varieties  which  are  at  all 



worthy  of  cultivation  in  ^rden&  Indeed,  the  moet  experience  1 
mdfenen  are  satisfied  with  half  a  dozen  of  the  best  sorts  for 
uieir  vineries,  and  the  sorts  universally  admired  are  the  BUck 
Hamburgh,  Black  Prince,  White  Muscadine,  and  Muscat  of 
Alezandna.  We  will  describe  all  the  finest  foreiffn  grapes  thai 
have  been  introduced,  and  for  the  sake  of  simplifying  tneir  ar- 
rangement, shall  divide  them  into  three  classes ;  Ist,  those  with 
dark  red,  purple  or  black  berries ;  2d,  those  with  white  or  yellow 
berries ;  3d,  those  with  light  red,  rose-coloured,  gray,  or  striped 



!•  Blaok  Clubtbb.    Thomp. 

Black  MoriUon. 




Trae  Burgundy. 
SmaU  Black  Cluster. 
Black  Burgundy. 
Early  Black. 


MoriUon  noir. 
Franc  Pineau. 
AuY«nie8  Rouga^ 
Yraa  Auvdmas. 
Raian  de  Bourgne. 

This  excellent  hardy  grape  is  the  true  Burgundy  gra^  so 
highly  valued  for  wine  m  France.  It  is  readify  distinguished 
from  Millei^s  Burgundy,  by  the  absence  of  the  down  on  its 
leaves,  which  peculiarly  distin^shes  that  sort  The  fruit  is 
very  sweet  and  excellent,  and  the  hardiness  of  the  vine  renders 
it  one  of  the  best  varieties  for  the  open  air  in  this  climate. 

Bunches  small,  compact,  (i.e.  berries  closely  sot).  Berries 
middle  sized,  roundish-oval.  Skin  deep  black.  Juice  sweet 
and  good«  Ripens  in  the  open  air  about  the  20th  of  September. 
Thompson  gives  more  than  40  synonymes  to  this  grape. 

2.  Black  Fbobtionan.    Thomp. 

Muscat  Koir. 

Sir  William  Bomlcy's  Black. 

Muscat  Koir  Ordinaire. 

Purple  Frontignaa 

Blade  Fmatignaa 

Purple  Ooostaniia. 

Blaok  Constantia  (cfsome), 

Bourdalea  des  Hautea  Pyrfin^es. 

Muscat  Noir  de  Jura. 

An  excellent  g^rape  for  the  yineiy,  originally  from  the  town 
of  Frontignan,  in  France,  where  it. and  other  similar  sorts  are 
largely  cultivated  for  making  the  Muscadine  or  Frontignan 



Bunches  rather  long.  Berries  of  medium  size,  round,  quite 
black.  Skin  thin,  flavour  musky  and  rich.  Ripens  in  October. 
A  good  bearer. 

The  BLUB  FBONTiGNAN,  (  Violet  Frofitignan  and  BUuk  Conr 
iantiofi,  of  some,)  is  rather  inferior  to  the  above,  having  only  a 
slightly  inusky  flavour ;  the  bunches  are  more  compact,  the 
berries  not  quite  round,  purplish,  with  a  thiek  akin. 

9.  Black  HAMBintoB.    Thomp.  Lind.  Speechly. 

Warner's  Black  Hamburgh. 


Purple  Hamboi^h. 

Frankenthaler  Qros  Nofr. 

Bed  Hambufgh. 


Brown  Hamburgh. 

Blue  TroUinger. 


Dotdi  Hamburgh. 






8aliflbui7  Yiolet 

Fleiach  Traabe. 


Hampton  Ck>urt  Yino. 








•    WeiashoWgor  TroUiiiger.^ 

The  Black  Hamboigfa  has  long  been  considered  the  fint  of 
black  grapes  f>r  the  vinery,  but  it  will  very  rarely  perfect  its 
fruit  out  of  doors.  Its  very  large  size  and  most  luscious  flavour 
render  it  universally  esteemed. 

Bunches  hu^e  (about  nine  inches  deep^,  i  \ 

and  mostly  with  two  shoulders,  making  it  ^^-— ^-^^  /Txi 

broad  at  the  t<^  Berries  vwy  large,  (fiff.  ^^^  ^VZ  H 
93,^  roundish,  slightly  inclining  to  ov^. 
Slon  rather  iJiick,  deep  brownish  purple, 
becoming  nearly  black  at  full  maturity. 
Flavour  very  sugary  and  rich.  A  good  and 
regular  bearer. 

Wilmot's  Nsw  Black  Hamburgh  is  a 
recent  variety  which  is  said  to  bear  larger 
and  handsomer  fruit 

BUuk  BamivirgK 

oa  to 

4.  Black  Prutcb.    Lind.  Thomp. 

Alioani  »r  A.  Pytches'  Black. 

Black  Spanish.  Pooodk's  DamasGna. 

Black  Ya2fintia.  Oambridge  Botanic  Garden. 

Black  PortogaL  Steward's  Black  Prince. 

Boston.  Bla<dc  Lisbon. 

The  Black  Prince  is  very  highly  esteemed.  It  is  hardier 
than  the  Black  Hamburgh,  ripening  very  well  here  in  good 
situations  in  the  open  air,  and  bearing  profusely,  with  the  easiest 
culture,  in  the  vinery. 

Bunches  long  and  not  generally  shouldered,  berries  large, 
rather  thinly  set,  ovaL  Skin  thick,  bhick,  covered  with  a  thick 
blue  bloom.    Flavour  first  rate — sweet  and  excellent. 

320  THB   ORAPS. 

5.  Black  Lombardt.    lind.  Thonip. 

West*8  St  Peters.  Poonah. 

Uonefa.  Raisixi  dee  Cannea 

RiiiBin  de  Gate. 

Bunches  large  and  long,  with  ahoolden.  Berriea  laigOi 
fonndkh-oval.  Skin  thin,  very  black  at  maturity.  Flavour 
very  rich  and  soray.  The  leaves  are  rather  small,  and  turn 
purple  as  the  fruit  ripens.  Thompson  considers  this  synony- 
mous with  the  Poonah  grape  introduced  by  Sir  Joseph  BankB, 
from  Bombay.  It  requires  a  pretty  high  temperature,  and  is 
then  a  great  bearer. 

6.  BuiCK  Morocco.    Thomp. 

Le  CcBur.    LinoL        Ansell's  Large  Oval  Blaok. 
Black  MuscaaeL  BaiBin  d'Espigne. 

A  lam  and  showy  grape,  ripening  late,  but  requiring  a  good 
deal  of  heat  The  blossoms  are  a  litde  imperfect,  ana  require 
to  be  fertilized  with  those  of  the  Black  Mambargh,  or  some 
other  hardy  sort. 

Bunches  laige ;  berries  very  large,  oval ;  skin  thick,  daik  red, 
flavour  tolerably  sweet  and  rich. 

7.  Black  Saivt  Pxtbr'b.    Thomp. 

Saint  Peter'flL    Und,  Aeochht.       Black  Palestina 
Oldaker'a  West's  St  Peter's. 

A  capital  variety,  ripening  quite  late,  and  which  may  be  kept 
on  the  vines  if  it  is  allowed  to  ripen  in  a  cool  house  until  winter. 
This  is  one  of  the  best  sorts  for  a  vinery  without  fire-heat 

Bunches  of  pretty  ^ood  size,  rather  loose.  Berries  rather 
laive,  round.  Skin  thin  and  black.  Flavour  delicate,  sweet, 
and  excellent 

8.  Black  Muscat  of  Alszavdria.    Thomp. 

Bed  Muacat  of  Alexandria.     IML 
Bed  Frontinac  of  Jenisalem. 

Bunches  large,  and  shouldered.  Berries  large,  oval,  skin 
thick,  of  a  reddish  colour,  becoming  black  at  maturitv.  Flesh 
quite  firm,  with  a  rich  musky  fiavour.  Requires  a  vinery  with 

9.  Black  Tripoli.    Thomp. 
Black  Gnqtefipom  Tripoli.    Lind,  S^peedk 
This  grape,  which  we  have  not  yet  seen  in  fruit,  is  said  to  be 

THE   ORAPK.  321 

II  laige  and  verj  excellent  one,  ripening  late,  and  ^rell  worthy 
of  a  place  in  the  vinery.    It  requires  some  fire-heat 

Bnnchea  of  medium  size,  shouldered,  rather  loose.  Berries 
lai]ge,  round,  often  sliffhUj  flattened.  Stones  quite  small.  Skin 
^in,  purplidi  black,  siiKhtly  covered  with  bloom.  Flesh  tender 
and  swee^  with  a  very  iii|^  flavoured,  rich  juice. 

10.  Black  Musoadinx.    land.  Hiomp. 
Blaok  Chasselss.        Chsssslss  Kdr. 

A  pretty  good  black  gnpe^  scarcely  succeeding  well,  how- 
ever,  m  the  open  air,  and  inferior  to  other  sorts  for  the  vinery. 

BoDchea  of  medium  siie,  oompaet.  Berries  roundish-ovsl. 
Skin  thick,  black,  overspread  with  a  blue  bloom.  Juice  sweet| 
and  of  pretty  good  flavour 

11.  Black  Swxktwatxb.    Thomp.  Und. 

Water  ZoetKoii; 

Bunches  small,  compact  Berries  small,  round.  Skin  dun, 
with  a  sweet  and  pleasant  juice.  A  second  rate,  but  radier 
hardy  sort 

12.  Bablt  BLAca  JuLT.    Thomp.  Lind. 

Julj  Qfspe.  De  St  Jean. 

KadeUne.  Scfawarzer  IVQhzeitiger.  *| 

Madeline  Hair.  Borgnider.  \  of  the 

Baiain  prteooe.  I\mUmk  Augbst  Tnnibe.  f  OermtmA, 

MorillonHitiC  O.lhK  Jacobs  straube.  J 

The  eariiest  of  grapes,  and  chiefly  valued  for  the  dessert  on 
that  account  In  the  open  air  it  ripens,  here,  the  last  of  Jaly, 
or  early  in  August  liie  leaves  are  rather  small,  and  light 
green  above  and  beneath. 

Bunches  small  and  compact  Berries  small,  quite  round. 
Skin  thick,  black,  covered  with  a  blue  bloom.  Flavour  mode- 
rately sweet,  but  not  rich  or  perfumed. 

13.  Ebpsrionx.    Thomp.  Lind. 

Tuiner's  Blade.        Hardj  Bhia  Windsor. 
Cumberiand  LodgOi 

Hie  Esperione  is  a  hardy,  luxuriant,  and  prolific  grape,  grow- 
ing as  well  in  the  open  air  as  the  Muscadine,  and  even  better  in 
many  situations.  It  is  yet  very  rare  with  us,  but  merits  more 
general  cultivation. 

Bunches  large,  shouldered,  like  the  Black  Hamburgh  in  size. 
Berries  round,  or  occasionally  fiattened,  and  often  indented  with 
a  groove.    Skin  thick,  dark  purple,  powdered  with  a  thick  blue 

322  THB  ORAPB, 

bloom.      F]eah  adheres  to  the  akin,  of  m  pleasant^  apr^htly  fla 
vour,  not  very  rich. 


This  grape  is  of  Italian  origin,  brooght  to  notice  bj  IL  De 
Bavay,  of  Vilvorde,  who  received  it  of  Major  Esperin,  and  is 
said  to  have  been  discovered  bj  the  French  army  in  Naples. 

Its  growth  is  vifforoos.  Peduncle  very  stout  fiunch  huge, 
compact,  and  shomdered.  Berries  of  uio  largest  size,  nearly 
round,  slightly  oval.  Skin  dark  violet  Fleui  ahoonds  in  a 
sugary  juice,  and  has  a  peculiarly  pleasant  aroma.  It  haa  a 
resembutnce  to  the  Black  Hamburgh,  but  ia  conaideiaUy 
earlier.     (Al  Pom.) 

15.  MiLLiB^a  BuBouNDT*    Lind.  Thomp,  Speechly. 


MBBer.                  1 



Morillon  Taoonnd. 


,    ofWunpem 




Aleatica  da  Pa 

Farineux  noir. 

Bauvignien  noir. 


A  &vourite  variety,  long  known  and  cultivated  in  all  parts 
of  the  world  as  a  hardy  grape  for  wine  and  table  use.  It  npens 
pretty  well  in  the  open  air,  and  is  readily  known  by  the  dense 
covering  of  cottony  down  which  lines  both  sides  of  the  leaves, 
whence  the  name  miUerU  gn^pe. 

Bunches  shorty  thick,  and  compact  Berries  roundish-oval, 
very  closely  set  together.  Skin  thin,  black,  with  a  blue  bloom. 
Flesh  tender,  abounding  with  a  sweet,  high  flavoured  juice. 
Each  berry  contains  two  small  seeds. 

16.   SCHIBAS. 

A  seedlinff  raised  b^  Leclerc,  and,  according  to  IL  Vibert,  it 
IS,  of  all  the  large  bemed  black  grapes,  the  one  which  ripens  the 
earliest,  arriving  at  maturity  nearly  as  early  as  the  Cnasselas, 
and  nearly  a  month  earlier  than  the  Black  Hambuigh.  It  is 
an  important  acquisition  as  a  table  grape.  It  is  a  study,  vigor- 
ous grower.  Leaves  large,  generSly  three-lobed,  very  downy 
beneath  and  slightly  so  on  the  upper  snr&ce. 

Bunch  long,  loose,  and  shouldered.  Berries  irregular  in  siM, 
elongated,  oval  in  form.  Skin  reddish-violet,  thi<^ly  covered 
with  bloom.  Flesh  juicy,  crisp,  with  a  particularly  sweet|  ddi* 
siotts  aromatic  flavour.     (Al  Pom.) 

^E   ORAPS.  88t 



17.  GioTAT.    Thomp.  lind.  Duh. 

Panley-leaYed.  White  Fanlej-leaTed. 

PMriey-leaved  Mnnoadinft        Malmaej  Maaoadme. 
Baiwi  a'Aotrioba. 

Th»  Panley-leared  finoe^  as  its  name  denotes,  is  reuiLrkable 
for  its  very  deeply  divided  leaves,  ^nite  unlike  those  of  any 
other  sort  It  saeceeds  venr  well  with  us  in  the  open  air,  and 
may  therefore  be  considered  a  valuable  sort^  but  it  is  greatly 
superior  in  flavour  when  grown  under  glass. 

Bunches  of  middle  size,  long,  rather  loose.  Berries  round. 
Skin  thin,  white,  with  a  sweet  aiKl  pleasant,  but  not  rich  flavoured 

There  is  a  variety  of  this  grape  with  red  fruit 

16.  Chassblas  Mu8^u£.    Thomp.  Duh. 
Muak  Cbaaselas.        Le  Cour. 

A  very  delicious  grape,  the  highest  flavoured  Chasselas,  hav- 
ing mach  of  the  flavour  of  the  Muscat  of  Alexandria. 

Bunches  of  medium  sixe,  long  and  rather  loose.  Berries 
middle  size,  round.  Skin  thin,  yellowish  white.  Flesh  tender, 
with  aa  abundant  juice,  oi  a  rich  musky  flavour.  Leaves  small- 
er and  deeper  green  than  those  of  the  Sweetwater  or  Musca- 

17.  Chablswobth  Tokat.    Thomp. 

A  new  variety  very  recently  received  from  England,  reputed 
to  be  of  superiour  quality. 

Bunches  long,  compact.  Berries  large,  oval  Skin  thick, 
white.    Flavour  rich  uid  excellent,  with  a  Muscat  perfume. 

18.  Early  Whitb  Malvasia.    Thomp. 

Moma  GhasBelas.  Momair  blana        1 

Btfiy  Ghasselas.  Le  MeUer.  I  </  ^ 

Grove  End  Sweet  Water.  Melter  blanc.  |  H-encA. 

White  Melier.  Blanc  de  BonneulL  J 

A  nice  early  giape,  and  a  good  bearer,  which  is  in  fact  only 
an  eariier  variety  of  the  Chasselas.  It  bears  very  well  in  the 
open  air. 

Bunches  in  size  and  form,  much  like  those  of  the  white  Chas- 

m^  THB   OKABPb 

selas  or  Royal  Muscadine.  Berrieft  roondf  yellowish  white. 
Skin  thin.  Flesh  sweet|  juicy,  and  agreeable  in  flavoor.  Ripent 
in  August  The  leaves  are  pale  sreen  on  the  upper  tidtf  alight 
ly  downy  below,  cut  into  five,  rather  deep  lobes. 


A  pretty  hardy  grape,  raised  in  Pitmaston,  England,  from  the 
Black  Cluster,  ripening  rather  earlier  than  die  Sweetwater,  of 
good  quality,  and  well  deserving  a  place  where  the  foreign  grapes 
are  cultivated  in  the  open  air. 

Bunches  of  medium  size,  compact  and  shouldered.  Berries 
middle  sized,  round.  Skin  thin,  amber  colour,  occasionally 
tinged  with  a  little  russet  when  iully  ripe.  Flesh  tender,  juicv, 
sweet  and  excellent 

20.  RoTAL  MmMADim.    Thomp.  Lind.  Mill. 

Amber  Muscadinei  Chaaselafl  bUna 

Earlv  White  Teneriflb.  Cbaaselafl  de  Fontaineblean. 

Golden  Gfaasselas.  B'Arbois. 

White  Ghasselaa  Baisin  de  Champagne. 

Ghasaelaa  dor^.  Amiens. 

QC  to 

A  truly  excellent  grape  in  all  respects— one  of  the  very  best 
for  hardy  culture  in  this  climate,  or  for  the  vinery.    It  is  eveiy- 
where  highly  esteemed,  and  is  the  Ghaaselas 
par  exceuence  of  the  French. 

Bunches  large,  and  shouldered.  Berries^ 
(fig.  94,)  larger  than  those  of  the  Sweetwater, 
round.  Skin  thin,  at  first  greenish  ;ff^hite, 
but  tuminff  to  an  amber  cmour  when  fully 
ripe.  Fle£  tender,  with  a  rich  and  delicious 
flavour,  ^pens  here  about  the  20th  of  Sep- 
Soyal  J^tacadme,  tember.  Wood  and  foliage  stronger  than 
those  of  the  Sweetwater. 

21.  Scotch  Whits  OLudTSR.    Thomp. 
Bladcsmith'a  WhUe  Qoater. 

This  is  a  new  grape,  not  yet  fairly  tested  in  this  country,  but 
which  is  likely  to  prove  a  valuable  one  for  garden  culture,  as  it 
has  the  reputation  in  England  of  being  very  hardy,  very  early, 
and  a  great  be&rer.  It  was  raised  from  the  seed  by  a  blade- 
smith  of  Edinburgh  in  1812. 

Bunches  of  middle  size,  compact  Berries  medium  sized, 
roundish-oval.  Skin  white,  thin.  Flesh  tender,  juicy,  sweeti 
%nd  excellent 


m  GBAPB.  826 

22.  Stuak.    Thomp.  Lind.  Speech. 

Thia  IB  believed  to  be  the  gnqpe  memtioiied  in  the  •cripfcoiet 
as  found  by  the  Israelites  on  the  tfook  oi  Sschol,  the  bonches 
of  which  were  so  large  as  to  be  borae  on  a  staff  by  two  men. 
It  is  a  very  superb  looking  frait^  and  baa  been  grown  in  thk 
eonntry  to  yery  laige  siae.  In  En^^d  bnnches  ^  it  have  been 
nrodnced  weifpiw  19^  Iba.  It  is  much  inferionr  in  flavour  to 
No.  24,  and  is»  peniaps,  therefore,  scarcely  desirable  m  a  small 

Bunches  enormously  large,  and  regularly  formed,  with  broad 
shoulders.  Berries  large,  ovaL  Skin  ihick^  white  at  first*  but 
becoming  a  tawny  yellow,  or  amber  when  at  foil  maturity.  Flesh 
firm  ana  solid,  moderately  juicy  and  sweet,  though  not  rich. 
Will  hang  till  Christmas  in  a  vinery.  Hie  wood  and  foliage  are 
very  large. 

2d»  Ybbdslho.    Thomp.  land. 

YerdaL       Yeidilhia 
liadfliim  Wine  GffHM. 

A  vigorous  growing  gntpe,  of  good  quality,  from  Madeira, 
which  is  largely  used  m  that  island  for  making  the  best  wines. 

Bunches  ratner  small,  loose.  Berries  small,  rather  unequal 
in  SIM,  and  often  without  seeds.  Skin  thin,  semi-transparent, 
yellowish-green,  a  little  tinged  with  russet  when  very  ripe. 
Juice  a  little  acid  at  first,  but  rich  and  excellent  at  maturity. 

24.  Whitb  Muscat  of  Alexavdria.    Hiomp.  Lind. 

Jfrontniac  of  Alexandria. )  j^^j.  White  Kuacat  of  LnneL 

Jerasakm  Muscai.  )  mwo:  LnneL 

ICalaga,  Muscat  d*  Alexandria. 

White  Muscat  Passe-lonipie  Uvm^pkk    JXOl 

Tottenham  Paik  Muscat  Passe  Musqod. 

Behiho,  (of  Sicay,) 

The  most  delicious  of  all  ffrapes,  but  re- 
quires to  be  grown  under  gUss  in  this  cli- 
mate. In  fovourable  seasons  it  reaches  ma- 
turity well  in  a  vinery  without  fire-heat,  but 
it  can  scarcely  be  sud  to  attain  its  highest 
flavour  except  with  the  aid  of  artificial  heat 

Bunchea  very  large,  often  9  to  12  inches, 
long,  rather  loose  and  irregular.  Berries 
very  large,  an  inch  or  more  long,  oval. 
Skin  thick,  white  or  pale  amber  when 

folly  ripe.    Flesh   quite    firm  and    crisp,  

with  a  peculiarly  musky,  rich,  perfomed     White  Muscat  of  Alai» 
flavour,  very  delicious.    Seeds  small,  and  «i«a^ 

326  THK   GRAPK. 

occasionally  absent  from  the  larger  berries,  lliis  variety  is  b 
▼eiy  strong  grower,  and  is  rai^  in  great  perfection  about 
Boston.     It  will  hang  a  long  time  on  the  vines. 

Mr.  Thompson  considers  the  Malaga  ^pe  (brooffht  to  this 
eomitry  in  jan,^  as  synonyoioQa.  It  is  picked  so  eany  for  im« 
portation  as  to  nave  little  flav/Dor. 

'  The  Ganiton-Hall  Musoat,  an  English  seedling,  closely  re- 
sembles this  grape,  bat  the  fle^  is  firmer,  the  skin  yellower,  and 
it  is  not  quite  so  rich  in  flavour.  It  also  sets  rather  badly,  re- 
quiring to  be  fertiiiied  by  hand  with  the  pollen  of  some  other 

25.  Whitb  Fbomtignak.    lind.  Thomp. 

White  Constantia.  Koschata  IKanoa. 

White  FrontniaoL  Moscsdo  Bianoa 

Nepean'a  Oonstantia.  Moacatel  Oommon. 

Musoat  Blaoa  Muacateller. 

Baisin  de  Frontignaa.  Wiesaer  liuflcatoller. 

Muscat  Bhmc  de  JonL  Weiaae  Muscaten  Ttauba 

The  White  Frontignan  is  a  very  favourite  grape,  as  the  many 
names,  quoted  above,  by  which  it  is  known  in  various  parts  of 
Europe,  sufficiently  prove.  Its  hardy  habit,  uniform  pnxiuctive- 
ness  m  the  vinery,  and  most  luscious  flavour,  make  it  everywhere 

Bunches  of  medium  siae,  or  pretty  long,  and  without  shoul- 
ders. Berries  middle  sised,  round,  rather  thickly  set  Skin 
thin,  dull  white  or  yellow,  covered  with  a  thin  bloom*  Flesh 
tender,  with  a  rich,  periumed,  musky  flavour. 

26.  Whits  Swektwater.     Thomp. 

Barly  White  Musoadinai  DaiGh  Sweelwater 

White  Muscadine^  (qfLind.)  Ohasaelas  Precooe. 

Earlj  Sweetwater.  Chaawlaa  Bojal 

StUlward's  Sweetwater.  Water  Zoete  Blana 

This  grape  is  better  known,  and  more  conmionly  cultivated 
than  anv  other  in  this  country,  although  it  is  inferiour  to  the 
Royal  Muscadine.  It  differs  from  the  latter  in  having  weaker 
wood,  and  open,  loose  bunches  of  a  paler  colour. 

Bunches  middle  sized,  loose  or  open,  usually  with  many 
small  imperfect  berries,  shouldered.  Berries  of  the  middle  sise, 
round.  Skin  thin,  clear  watery  men,  nvely  becoming  amber 
except  very  fully  exposed  to  the  sun.  Flesh  crisp,  watery, 
sweet,  but  not  high  flavoured.  Ripens  in  the  open  air  from  the 
20th  to  the  last  of  August — a  fortnight  earlier  than  the  Royal 

2Y.  White  Tokay.    Thomp. 

Genuine  Tokay.    Lind.  Spe&eK       Gray  Tokay  7 
Tokai  blanc. 

This  is  the  fruit  from  which  the  delicious  Tokay  wine  of 

THX  ORAPX.  329 

Hungary  is  made.    We  have  ripened  it  verj  well  in  the  open 
air.    Its  fbvonr  ib  good  and  its  aroma  peculiarly  agreeable! 

Bunches  of  medium  size,  compacts  Berries  rounded  OTal, 
closely  set  Skin  thin,  of  a  dull  white.  Flesh  very  delicate, 
sweet  and  perfumed.  Leaves  deeply  6-lobed,  and  coTered  with 
a  satiny  down  on  the  lower  surface. 

28.  White  Hamburgh.    Thomp. 

White  Lisbon.       White  PortngsL 
White  Baisin. 

Hiis  is  the  Portugal  grape  of  commerce,  which  is  so  laigely 
exported  to  different  parte  of  the  worid  in  jais.  Il  is  not  a  high 
flaTonred  though  a  very  showy  grape,  and  will  hang  a  long  time 
on  the  Tines  after  maturity.    It  requires  a  vinery. 

Bvnches  very  large  and  loose.  Berries  large  oval.  Skin 
thick,  greenish-white.  Flesh  solid,  sweety  and  sometimes  with 
a  sli^t  Muscat  flavour.  Bunches  of  this  variety  weighing  over 
three  pounde  have  heen  grown  near  Boston* 

29.  Whivs  Nick.    Thomp.  Mintoah. 

A  very  lai^e  and  showy  fruit,  and,  in  a  vinexy  with  fire-heat, 
a  very  excellent  sort  Mcintosh,  an  English  gardener  of  repu- 
tation^  has  grown  bunches  of  this  the  White  Nice  to  the  enor- 
mous weifl^ht  of  eighteen  pounds,  and  considers  it  "^  one  of  the 
noblest  of  grapes.** 

Bunches  very  large,  widi  loose  shoulders.  Berries  roundish, 
medium  sise,  thinly  distributed  over  the  shoulders  and  sides  ot 
the  bunch.  Skin  thin,  rather  tough,  greenish-white,  becoming, 
finally,  a  little  yellowish.  Fle^  crisp,  sweet,  and  of  very  good 
flavour.  Leaves  and  wood  very  strong,  the  latter  remarlutbly 
downy  beneath. 

80.  White  Rissuho.    Thomp. 

Sofaloes  Johanoisberg.         Petit  RieaeUng. 
Rudeahioierberg.  Grosser  Bieemng. 

Beisriing.  Bfissliiig. 

Kleier  RissUng. 

The  most  celebrated  grape  of  the  Rhine,  producing  the  cele- 
brated Hock  wines  It  is  yet  little  known  m  this  country,  but 
from  ite  very  great  hardiness  and  productiveness,  in  the  cold 
districte  of  ite  native  soil,  we  hope  to  find  in  it  a  valuable  acqui- 
sition for  our  gardens — if  not  for  our  vineyards. 

Bunches  of  medium  size,  compact  Berries  rather  small, 
round.  Skin  thin.  Flesh  tender  and  juicy,  with  sweet  and 
sprightly  pleasant  flavour. 

828  THS   OBAPK. 



81.  Albppo.        Thomp.  Lind. 

Switzerland  Grape.  Baisin  d'Alesa. 

Striped  Mtiflcadine.  Chasselas  panache 

-  Yariecpated  Ghaoadaa  MauriUan  paxiach4. 

Baiatn  Siiiase.  lianriUan  noir  panache. 

A  yeiy  singular  grape,  the  berries  being  mostly  striped  with 
white  and  black  in  distinct  lines  ;  or  sometimes  half  the  bnnch 
will  be  black,  and  half  white.  It  bears  very  well,  and  is  de- 
senring  a  place  in  the  vinery  of  the  amateur.  The  f<^iage  is 
also  prettily  striped  in  autumn. 

Bunches  rather  below  medium  sixe.  Berries  medium  site, 
roundish.  Sldn  thin,  striped  with  white  and  dark  red,  w  black 
Flesh  juicy,  and  of  a  rich  and  excellent  flavour. 

82.  Qbizzlt  Fboktionak.        Thomp.  Lind. 

Bed  Frontignaii,  (o/  mum.)  Muscat  Grte. 

GrizBly  Frontignac.  IfoscadoBossa 

Bed  Conatantia.  KOmmel  Trwah^ 

Muscat  Bouge.  Graner  Moacateller. 

This  delicious  grape  requires  to  be  grown  in  a  rineiy,  when  it 
is,  to  our  taste,  scarcely  surpassed. 

Bunches  rather  long,  with  narrow  shoulders.  Berries  round, 
of  medium  siae,  and  growing  closer  upon  the  bunches  than  those 
of  the  White  Prontignan.  Skin  thick,  pale  brown,  blended  with 
red  and  yellow.  Flew  veiy  juicy,  rich,  musky  and  high  flavoured. 

The  Rbd  Frontiokan  Thompson  considers  the  same  as  the 
forgoing,  only  being  more  deeply  coloured  in  some  situations. 
But  Lindley,  with  whom  we  are  inclined  to  agree  in  this  case, 
keeps  it  distinct.  The  latter  describes  the  lUd  Frontignan  aa 
having  bunches  without  shoulders,  berries  perfectly  round,  and 
deep  red,  flavour  excellent.  These  two  sorts  require  more  care- 
ful comparison. 

38.  Kkiqut'b  Vabiboatbd  Chassblab.    Thomp. 
Variegated  Chaaselas.    Lirnd. 

A  hybrid  seedling,  raised  by  Mr.  Knight  from  the  White 
Chasselas,  imoregnated  by  the  Aleppo.  A  curious  and  pretty 
fruit,  but  not  nrst  rate  in  flavour. 

Bunches  rather  long,  unshouldered.  Berries  below  the  mid- 
dle size,  round,  loosely  set    Skin  quite  thin,  white,  shaded  with 

TBS   OBAPS.  829 

bluish  violety  sometimes  becoming  purplish  in  the  son.  Flesh 
tender,  sweety  and  pleasant  Hie  leaTes  die  off  in  antmnn  of 
fine  led,  yellow,  and  green  colours. 

84.  LoM  BABDT.    lliomp.  Lind. 

nsme  CoUxm^  Tokay.  SheuuBh  Bed. 

Wantage.  Bed  Grape  of  Taoiida. 

Hie  Lombardj  is  remarkable  for  the  very  large  iiae  of  the 
bunchesi  which  are  frequently  twelve  to  eighteen  inches  long. 
It  is  a  handsome  fruit,  the  berries  thickly  set^  (ao  much  so  as  to 
need  a  flood  deal  of  thinning,)  and  it  requires  fire-heat  to  bring 
it  to  fuD  perfection. 

Bunches  very  large,  handsomely  formed,  with  large  shoul- 
ders. Berries  large  roundish.  Skin  thick,  pale  red  or  flame 
oolour.    Flesh  firm,  sweety  with  a  sprightly,  very  good  flayour. 

35.  Ru>  Chassblas.    Thomp.  Lind.  Fors. 
Bed  M  mosdine.    MOL       GhasBelas  Bouge.    Ihh. 

This  grape  a  ^^ood  deal  resembles  the  White  Chaflselas,  ex- 
cept thai  the  hemes  are  slightly  coloured  with  red.  Very  rare- 
ly, when  oyer  ripe,  they  become  a  dark  red. 

Bunches  loose,  not  large ',  berries  medium  sise,  round.  Skin 
thin,  at  first  pale  green,  but  when  exposed  to  the  sun  tiiey  be- 
come red.    flesh  tender,  sweet,  and  yery  good.    Not  yery  hardy, 

CulUvaiim  ofth$  Native  Grapes. 

The  better  yarieties  of  the  native  grapes,  are  among  the  most 
valuable  of  fruits  in  the  middle  states.  Hardy,  vigorous,  and 
prodttctiye,  with  a  moderate  amount  of  care  ihey  yield  the 
farmer,  and  the  common  gardener,  to  whom  the  finer  foreign 
sorts  requiring  much  attention  and  considerable  expense  in  cul- 
ture, are  denied,  the  enjoyment  d  an  abundance  of  very  good 
fruit.  In  this  jmrt  of  the  country  no  fruit  is  more  common  than 
the  grape,  and  many  fimiilies  preserve  large  quantities  for  use 
durii^  the  winter  months,  by  packing  them  away,  as  soon  as 
ripe,  m  jars,  boxes,  or  barrels,  between  layers  of  cotton  batting 
— ^in  which  way  they  may  be  kept  plump  and  fresh  till  Feb- 

The  grape  region  has  been  lately  greatly  extended  by  the 
addition  of  new  varieties,  which,  in  consequence  of  ripening 
their  fruit  much  earlier  iJian  the  Isabella  and  Catawba,  are 
suited  to  two  or  three  degrees  of  latitude  fiurther  north  than 
the  limit  of  the  cultivation  of  these  varieties. 

The  garden  culture  of  the  hardy  native  grapes,  althouflh 
not  very  difficulty  cannot  be  accomplished  so  as  to  give  the 

330  THE   OBAPS. 

fruit  in  perfection,  withoat  some  attention  to  their  habits  and 
wants.  The  soil  should  be  dry,  deeply  worked,  and  well  en- 
riched, always  bearing  in  mind  that  it  is  an  essential  poii  t  tc 
secure  a  perfectly  open,  sunny  exposure,  as  it  may  always  be 
assumed  that  with  us  no  atmosphere  can  be  too  warm  or  bright 
for  the  grape ;  for  although  it  will  make  the  most  vigorous 
shoots  in  the  shade  of  trees  or  buildings,  yet  the  crops  will  be 
small,  the  fruit  poor  and  uncertain,  and  the  vines  likely  to  &11  a 
prey  to  mildew. 

Li  the  second  place  the  vines  should  be  kept  within  moderate 
bowuUy  and  tnuned  to  an  upright  trellis.  The  Isabella  and 
Catawba  are  so  nimj[>ant  in  their  growth,  when  young,  that  the 
indulgent  and  gratified  cultivator  is  but  too  apt  to  idlow  them 
to  overbear ;  the  border  should  always  be  given  to  the  exclusive 
occupancy  of  the  vines,  and  the  roots  should  be  allowed  space 
proportional  to  the  branches  they  are  to  carry.  By  observing 
these  directions,  and  not  suffering  the  vines  to  overbear,  they  may 
be  continued  a  long  time  in  full  vigour  and  productiveness. 

The  sjfstem  of  pruning  and  training  these  grapes  generally 
pursued  is  the  upright  m^e,  with  the  spur  mode  of  training. 
The  first  season's  growth  of  a  newly  planted  vine  is  cut  back 
to  two  buds  the  ensuing  fall  or  spring.  These  two  buds  are 
allowed  to  form  two  upright  shoots  the  next  summer,  which  at 
the  end  of  the  season  are  brought  down  to  a  horizontal  position, 
and  fiutened  each  way  to  the  lower  horizontal  rail  of  the  trellis, 
being  shortened  at  the  distance  of  three  or  four  feet  from  the 
root — or  as  far  each  side  as  the  plant  is  wished  to  extend.  The 
next  season,  upright  shoots  are  allowed  to  grow  one  foot  apart, 
and  these,  as  soon  as  they  reach  the  top  of  the  trellis,  are  also 
stopped.  The  next  year  the  trellis  being  filled  with  the  vines, 
a  set  of  lateral  shoots  will  be  produced  from  the  upright  leaders 
with  from  one  to  three  bunches  upon  each,  which  will  be  the 
first  crop.  The  vine  is  now  perfect,  and,  in  the  spur  mode  of 
pruning,  it  is  only  necessary  at  the  close  of  everr  season,  that 
IS,  at  the  autumnal  or  winter  pruning,  to  cut  back  these  lateral 
shoots,  or  fr*uit  spurs,  to  within  an  inch  of  the  upright  shoot 
from  which  they  sprung,  and  a  new  lateral  producing  fruit  will 
annually  supply  its  place,  to  be  again  cut  out  at  the  winter  pmning. 

After  several  years^  bearing,  u  it  is  found  that  the  gnipes  fiul 
in  size  or  flavour,  the  vines  should  be  cut  down  to  the  main 
horizontal  shoots  at  the  bottom  of  the  trellis.  They  will  then 
speedily  make  a  new  set  of  upright  shoots  which  will  produce 
verv  abundantly,  as  at  first 

It  cannot  be  denied  that  the  renewal  system  of  training  (see 
pa^e  305),  is  certain  of  yielding  always  the  largest  and  finest 
frmt,  though  not  so  large  a  crop— *as  half  the  surnce  of  the  vine 
is  every  year  occupied  with  young  wood,  to  take  the  place  of 
that  annually  cut  out 

THX  GBAPX.  3^1 

What  we  hare  alread}  stated,  in  pace  306,  respecting  pron* 
ing  will  apply  equally  well  here.  If  me  vine  is  fuliy  exposed 
to  the  sun  It  will  require  very  Kttle  summer  pruning ;  in  &ct, 
none,  except  stopping  the  younff  shoots  three  joints  &yond  the 
farthest  bunch  of  grapes,  at  midsummer — for  the  leaves  being 
intended  by  nature  to  elaborate  the  sa^  the  more  we  can  retain 
of  them,  (without  robbing  the  fruit  unduly  of  fluids  expended 
in  ^making  new  growth,)  the  laiger  and  higher  flavoured  will  be 
the  fruit;  careful  expmments  having  proved  that  there  is  no 
more  successful  mode  of  impovensbing  the  crop  of  fruit  than 
that  of  pulling  off  the  leaves. 

In  the  axils  of  the  leaves  by  the  side  of  the  buds,  which  are 
to  send  forth  shoots  for  next  season^s  crops — branches  coUed 
laterals  push  forth  which  should  be  pinched  off  at  the  flrst 
leaf— and  at  the  next  leaf  where  they  start  again ;  generally  the 
secoud  stopping  will  be  sufficient 

The  annual  pruning  of  the  hardy  grapes  is  usually  per^ 
formed  during  mild  days  in  February  or  March — at  least  a 
month  before  v^;etation  is  likely  to  commence.  Many  cul- 
tivators prefer  to  prune  their  vines  in  November,  and,  except 
for  cold  latitudes  or  exposures,  this  is  undoubtedly  the  better 

Every  third  year,  at  least,  the  borders  where  the  vines  are 
growing  should  have  a  heavy  top-dressing  of  manure.  The 
vine  soon  exhausts  the  soil  within  its  reach,  and  ceases  bearing 
well  when  that  is  the  case.  We  have  frequently  seen  old  and 
impoverished  vines  entirely  resuscitated  by  di^ng  in  about 
the  roots,  as  far  as  they  extend  a  very  heavy  top-dressing  of 
sli^tly  fermented  stable  manure. 

ViNBTARD  CuLTURB*  While  many  persons  who  have  either 
made  or  witnessed  the  failures  in  raising  the  foreign  gnqpes  in 
vineyards  in  this  country,  believe  it  is  folly  for  us  to  attempt 
to  compete  with  France  and  Germany  in  wine-making,  some  of 
our  western  citizens,  aided  by  skilful  Swiss  and  German  vine- 
dressers— emigrants  to  this  country,  have  placed  the  fact  of 
profitable  vineyard  culture  beyond  a  doubt,  m  the  valley  of  the 
Ohio.  The  vineyards  on  the  Ohio,  now  covering  many  acres, 
produce  regular,  and  very  large  crops,  and  their  wine  of  the 
different  cmiracters  of  Madeira,  Hock,  and  Champagne,  brings 
very  readily  from  15  cents  to  one  dollar  a  gallon  in  Cincinnati. 
The  Swiss,  at  Yevay,  first  commenced  wine-making  in  the 
West,  but  to  die  seal  and  fostering  care  of  N.  Longworth,  Esq. 
of  Cincinnati,  one  of  the  most  energetic  of  western  horticm- 
turists,  that  district  of  country  owes  the  firm  basis  on  which 
the  vine  culture  is  now  placed.  The  native  grapes — chiefly 
the  Catawba — are  entirely  used  there,  and  as  many  parts  of 
the  middle  States  are  quite  as  &vourable  as  the  banks  of  the 
Ohio  for  these  varieties,  the  much  greater  yield  of  these  grapes 

332  THB   6RAPX. 

leads  us  to  believe  that  we  may  even  here  pursae  ^ine-makinfc 

Tlie  vineyard  culture  of  the  native  grape  is  very  simple. 
Strong,  loamy,  or  gravelly  soils  are  preferable — ^limestone  soik 
being  usually  the  oest — and  a  toarm,  apen,  tunny  exposure 
being  indispensable.  The  vines  are  planted  in  rows,  ab^t  six 
feet  apart,  and  trained  to  upright  stakes  or  posts  as  in  Europe. 
Hie  ordinary  culture  is  as  simple  as  that  of  a  field  of  Indian 
corn — one  man  and  horse  with  a  plough,  and  the  horse  culti- 
vator, beinff'able  to  keep  a  pretty  large  sur&ce  in  good  order. 
The  annuid  pruning  is  pcHbrmed  in  winter,  top-messing  the 
vines  when  it  is  necessary  in  the  spring;  and  the  summer 
work,  stopping  side  shoots,  thinning,  tying,  and  gathering, 
being  chieny  £>ne  by  women  and  children.  In  the  fermenta- 
tion of  the  newly  made  wine  lies  the  chief  secret  of  the  vi^ne- 
rany  and,  much  as  has  been  said  of  this  in  books,  we  have  sat- 
isfied ourselves  that  careful  experimental  or,  which  is  better,  a 
resort  to  the  experience  of  others,  is  the  only  way  in  which  to 
secure  success  in  the  quality  of  the  wine  itself 

DisKASES.  The  mudew,  which  is  troublesome  in  some  dis- 
tricts, is  easily  prevented  by  keeping  the  vine  of  small  size, 
and  by  the  renewal  system  of  pruning,  or  never  allowing  the 
vine  to  bear  more  than  two  years  on  spurs  from  the  same  old 

The  beetles  which  sometimes  infest  the  grape  vines  in  sum- 
mer, especially  the  large  brownish  yellow  vine  beetle,  {Pelid- 
Tiota  punctata,)  and  the  grape-vine  fiea-beetlc,  {Hcdtica  chalyhea^ 
are  very  destructive  to  the  foliage  and  buds,  and  the  most  effec- 
tual remedy  is  hand-picking  when  taken  in  time.  But  we 
would  also  very  strongly  recommend  again  the  use  of  open 
mouthed  bottles,  half  filled,  ^and  kept  renewed,)  with  a  mixture 
of  sweetened  water  and  vinegar,  and  hung  here  and  there 
among  the  vines.  Indeed,  we  £ave  seen  husheU  of  beetles,  and 
other  insects,  destroyed  in  a  season,  and  all  injury  prevented, 
simply  by  the  use  of  such  bottles. 

Varibties.  The  most  valuable  native  grapes  are  thoee  two 
old  standard  varieties,  Isabella  and  Catawba,  with  those  more 
recently  introduced,  Diana,  Delaware,  Rebecca,  and  Concord. 
For  warm  exposures  and  particularly  for  the  South  the  Her- 
bemont  is  a  most  excellent  variety.  The  Elsingburgh,  is  a 
very  small  grape,  but  of  delicious  quality,  and  the  Chnton  is 
prized  chieny  for  latitudes  where  the  Isabella  does  not  always 


1.  Native  Qrape$^ 

Alkzandbr^s.    lliomp*  Priiu 

SobqjlkiU  MoscwieU.    ^Am. 


Gi^Gn4)e.  1 

SpriDg  Mill  CoDstantia.  >  of  Veoay^  HL 

OUftoii's  Conatentia.      ) 

Madeira,  cf  York,  /\»f 

Taaker'a  Qrapei 


Tills  gn^  a  natural  Medling,  was  fitst  disooTered  by  Mr. 
Alesxander,  ^^ener  to  Qot.  Penn,  before  the  war  ot  the  revo- 
latioB.  It  IS  not  nnfreqaently  found,  as  a  seedling,  from  the 
wild  Fozgn^  on  the  borders  of  onr  woods.  It  is  quite  sweet 
when  ripe,  and  makes  a  very  fiur  wine,  bat  is  quite  too  pulpy 
and  coarse  for  table  use.  The  bunches  are  more  compact,  and 
the  leaves  much  more  dincny^  than  those  of.  the  Isabella. 

Bunches  rather  compact,  not  shouldered.  Berries  of  medium 
size,  oval  Skin  thick,  quite  black  Flesh  with  a  very  firm 
pulps  but  juicy,  and  quite  sweet  and  musky,  when  folly  ripe, 
which  is  not  till  the  Ust  of  October. 

2.  Bland. 

Bland's  Yirginia.        Bland's  Madeira. 
Bland's  Pale  Red      PoweU. 
Red  Scuppemong,  (of  dome.) 

The  Bland  is  one  of  the  best  of  our  native  grapes,  approach- 
ing, in  flavour  and  appearance,  the  Chasselas  ^pes  of  Europe, 
with  very  little  pulp,  and  only  a  slight  astriDgency.  It  does 
not  ripen  'well  to  the  north  of  this,  except  in  &vourable  situa- 
tions, and  should  always  be  planted  in  a  warm  exposure.  It  is 
a  genuine  native  sort,  (doubtless  a  natural  seedling,^  and  is  said 
to  have  been  found  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Virginia,  by  Col. 
Bland  of  that  state,  who  presented  scions  to  Mr.  Bartram,  the 
botanist,  by  whom  it  was  first  cultivated.  The  Bland  is  not  a 
preat  bearer,  and  has  not  proved  valuable  north.  The  fruit 
keeps  admirably,  in  jars,  for  winter  use. 

Bunches  rather  lon^,  loose,  and  often  with  small,  imperfect 
berries.  Berries  round,  on  lonff  stalks — hanging  rather  thinly. 
Skin  dbin,  at  first,  pale  green,  but  pale  red  when  ripe.  Flesh 
slightly  pulpy,  of  a  pleasant,  sprightly,  delicate  flavour,  and  with 
little  or  no  mosky  scent,  but  a  slight  astringency.  Ripens  pretty 
late.  Foliaffe  lifter  green  than  that  of  the  Catawba,  smoother, 
and  more  delicate.  This  vine  is  quite  difficult  of  propagation 
bv  cuttings. 

834  THE    ORAPE. 


Raised  by  Peter  Raabe  near  Philadelphia,  but  not  yet  tested 
as  to  haidinesa.  Bunch  large,  rather  compact,  sometiinei 
shouldered.  Berries  five-eighths  of  an  inch  in  diameter;  round, 
black.  Flesh  solid,  not  pulpy.  Flavour  rich,  vinous,  and  saccha- 


rine;  quality  "best"     (Ad.  Int  Rep.) 

Canadian  Chief. 


From  Canada,  and  claimed  to  be  a  native,  bat  so  strongly 
marked  with  foreign  characteristics  that  we  think  it  will  not 
prove  to  be  an  acquisition  for  general  cultivation. 

Bunches  very  laive  and  shouldered,  and  the  vine  very  pro* 
ductive,  and  will  probaUy  do  better  in  Canada  than  in  a  wanner 

Canby's  August. 

Origin  uncertain ;.  introduced  by  Charles  Canby,  Wilmington, 
Del.  Bunch  medium  size,  compacrt.  l^rry  round,  black,  thickly 
covered  with  a  light  bloom,  juice  slightly  reddened,  sweet,  vinous, 
not  very  rich.  Skin  somewhat  pungent,  and  not  much  tough- 
ness in  its  pulp  when  fully  ripe,  which  is  a  few  days  before  Isa- 
bella.  York  Madeira  and  Hyde*8  Eliza  resemble  this,  and  may 
prove  the  same. 


An  accidental  seedling  that  sprung  up  in  P.  H.  Casaady'a 
yard,  in  Philadelphia. 

Bunches  medium  size,  tolerably  compact,  and  sometimes 
shouldered.  Berry  below  medium,  round,  greenish  white,  with 
occasionally  a  &int  salmon  tint,  and  thickly  covered  with  white 
bloom.  Flesh  juicy,  with  but  little  pulp,  flavour  pleasant 
Quality  **  very  good.**     (Ad.  Int  Rep.) 

Catawba.    Adlum.  Ken. 

Bed  Mimc7.        Catawba  Tokay. 

This  excellent  native  grape  was  first  introduced  to  notice  by 
Major  Adlum,  of  Geoi^etown,  D.  C,  and  was  found  by  him  in 
Maryland.  It  probably  has  its  name  from  the  Catawba  river, 
but  it  has  been  found  ^wing  at  various  points  from  that  rivei 
to  Pennsylvania.  It  is  one  of  the  hardiest,  most  productive, 
and  excellent  of  our  native  sorts,  either  for  wine  or  table  use, 
and  succeeds  well  in  all  situations  not  too  cold  for  grape  culture. 
In  habit  of  growth,  it  so  closely  resembles  the  Isabella  that  it  is 
difficult  to  distinguish  the  two,  except  in  the  colour  and  shape 

THB   GRAPE.  ^85 

of  the  fruit     TJnless  it  be  very  ripe,  it  is,  perhaps,  a  litUe  more 
musky  in  flavour,  than  the  Isabella. 

Bunches  of  medium  sue,  somewhat 
loose,  shouldered.    Berries,  round,  (or 
sometimes  slightly  oval,)  pretty  large. 
Skin  rather  thick,  pale  red  in  &e  y 
shade,  but  pretty  deep  red  in  the  sun,/ 
covered  with  a  lilac  bloom.    Fleshy 
slightly    pulpy,    juicy,    very   sweet, 
with  an  aromatic,  rich,  musky  flavour. 
Ripe  from  the  Ist  to  the  middle  of  OaiawkL 

October,  and  should  be  allowed  to  hang  till  fiilly  ripe. 


Ghi]d8' Seedling. 

A  veiy  large  fine  grape  grown  in  Utica,  N.  Y.,  by  Mr.  Childk 
It  is  doubtless  of  foreign  orinn,  but  has  succeeded  with  him 
without  ^ass,  although  latterly  grown  under  it  We  presume 
its  foreign  characteristics  will  not  fit  it  for  open  culture. 


Raised  by  Peter  Raabe.  Bunch  medium,  notcompact.  Ber- 
ry medium,  round,  green,  faintly  tinned  with  salmon  when  ex- 
posed  to  the  sun.  flesh  tender,  juicy,  fiavour  rich,  sweet  and 
delicious,  quality  ^'best." — (Ad.  Int.  Rep.) 


OrigiB  uncertain — said  to  have  originated  in  Western  New 
York,  growth  vigorous,  hardy,  and  proKiuctive.  Bunch  medium, 
shouldered,  long  and  narrow,  somewhat  irregular  but  compact 
Berries  round,  rather  below  medium  size,  black,  covered  with  a 
thick  bloom,  juicy,  with  some  acidity  and  toughness  in  its  pulp, 
but  with  a  brisk  vinous  fiavour ;  eatable  eight  or  ten  days  before 
Isabella,  but  continues  austere  till  after  cold  weather,  when  it 
becomes  very  good. 

CSoLUMBiA.    Prince. 

This  grape  is  said  to  have  been  found  by  Mr.  Adlum  on 
his  farm  at  Georgetown,  D.  C,  a  vigorous  grower,  produc- 

Bunch  small,  compact  Berry  small,  black,  with  a  thin  bloom, 
with  very  little  hardness  or  acidity  in  its  pulp,  not  high  flavour- 
ed, but  pleasant  and  vinous,  scarcely  if  at  all  foxy — npe  last  of 

936  THK   ORAPl. 

This  fine  hardy  native  ^pe  was  raised  from  seed  by  R  W, 
Bail,  Concord,  Mass.  It  is  of  very  healthy,  vifforons  habit,  and 
exceedingly  productive.  Banch  raUier  compact/iarge  shouldered. 
Berries  large,  globular,  almost  black,  thickly  covered  with  bloom^ 
Skin  rather  thick,  with  more  of  the  native  pungency  and  aroma 
than  the  Isabella,  which  it  resembles,  but  does  not  quite  equal  in 
quality.  Flesh  moderately  juicy,  rather  buttery,  very  sweet, 
with  considerable  toughness  and  acidity  in  its  pulp.  It  is  more 
hardy  than  the  Isabella  and  ripens  about  ten  days  earlier,  con- 
sequently it  is  a  very  valuable  variety  for  a  large  northern  range 
where  the  Isabella  does  not  ripen. 


Bed  Resling.  \     tncorredfy. 

The  precise  origin  of  this  grape  is  not  known.  We  have  the 
following  account  of  it  from  our  friend,  A.  Thomson  of  Dela- 
ware, Ohio,  to  whose  appreciative  taste  and  liberality  the  country 
is  indebted  tor  the  introduction  of  our  best  hardy  table  grape. 

Among  an  indiscriminate  mixture  brought  to  Delaware  for 
sale  by  a  German,  he  found  this,  whose  excellence  immediately 
attracted  his  attention,  and  on  inquiry  as  to  its  history,  he  found 
it  in  the  possession  of  some  German  emigrants  who  said  they 
brought  it  from  New  Jersey  some  eighteen  years  ago,  having 
obtained  it  from  the  garden  of  a  French  gentleman  named  Paiu 
H.  Provostf  in  Kingswood  township,  Hunterdon  Co.,  N.  J.  It 
was  known  in  that  vicinity  as  the  ''  Italian  wine  grape,"  and  had 
been  received  by  Mr.  Provoet  many  years  before  from  a  brother 
residing  in  Italy. 

By  some  German  wine-growers  in  Cincinnati,  it  has  been 
thought  to  be  Traminer,  and  by  others  the  Red  Resling,  two 
celebrated  wine  grapes  of  Germany,  to  which  its  fruit  bears  a 
strong  resemblance,  but  from  which,  in  wood  and  foliage,  it  is 
as  distinct  as  any  of  our  native  grapes.  Mr.  Thomson  thinks  it 
must  have  been  an  accidental  seedling  that  sprang  up  in  that 
garden,  as  it  is  free  from  blight  and  mildew,  never  prematurely 
losing  its  leaves,  and  seeming  to  luxuriate  in  our  climate,  which 
cannot  be  said  of  any  foreign  variety  with  which  we  are  ac- 
quainted. Bunch  small,  very  compact,  and  generally  shouldered. 
Berries  smallish,  round  when  not  compressed.  Skin  thin,  of 
a  beautiful  light-red  or  flesh  colour,  very  translucent,  passing  to 
wine  colour  by  long  keeping.  It  is  without  hardness  or  acidity 
in  its  pulp,  exceedingly  sweet  but  sprightly,  vinous,  and  aromatic, 
and  is  well  characterised  by  Mr.  Prince  as  our  highest  flavoured 
and  roost  delicious  hardy  grape.  It  is  a  vigorous  grower,  an 
early  and  profuse  bearer,  and  probably  more  hardy  than  Isabella 



or  Catawba.  In  the  garden  of  Mr.  Thomson,  where  all  other 
Innds  were  nearly  destroyed  by  the  unprecedented  cold  of  '56 
find  '56  this  alone  was  uninjured.    It  ripens  nearly,  or  quite 

838  TBS   OEiJ^ 

three  weeks  before  the  Isabella.    Its  bonches  and  berries  are 
very  greatly  increased  in  size  by  high  colture. 


A  seedling  of  the  Catawba  raised  by  Mrs.  Diana  Crehore  of 
Boston,  and  named  by  the  Massachusetts  Horticultural  Society. 
Its  promise  of  excellence  was  first  made  known  to  the  public  by 
Mr.  Hovey  through  his  Magazine  in  1844,  and  in  1849  the 
Horticulturist  announced  it  Vne  best  and  most  beautiful  of  Ame- 
rican grapes,  particularly  valuable  lor  its  earliness.  For  the  South 
it  has  proved  even  better  than  at  the  North.. 

In  its  general  appearance  it  boars  a  strong  resemblance  to  its 
parent,  but  in  its  earliness  of  ripening  and  in  the  quality  of  its 
fruit,  as  well  as  in  general  hardiness  and  certainty  of  maturing  its 
crops,  it  is  greatly  superiour  to  that  fine  variety.  The  berries 
are  of  the  same  globular  shape,  but  not  quite  so  laige.  The 
bunches  regularly  conic  in  form,  large,  very  compact,  and  heavy, 
not  properly  shouldered,  but  often  having  a  small  bunch  ap- 
pended by  a  long  branch  of  the  peduncle. 

The  colour  is  a  fine  reddish  lilac,  thickly  covered  with  bloom, 
and  the  berries  generally  marked  with  three  or  four  indistmct 
star-like  specks.  The  fruit  when  fully  ripe  abounds  in  fine  rich 
juice,  vinous,  and  aromatic,  from  which  all  the  offensive  native 
odor  has  disappeared.  It  hangs  long  on  the  vines,  is  not  injured 
by  severe  froste,  and  keeps  admirably  for  winter  use.  It  is  ex- 
ceedingly productive  and  very  vigorous. 

Elbivobubob.    Ken.  Prin.  Adlmn* 

Smart's  BUngburg.      Elsenboroagfa. 

A  very  nice  little  gm]^  fbr  the  dessert,  perfectly  sweet  and 
melting,  without  pulp,  originally  brought  from  a  village  of  this 
name  in  Salem  Co.,  New  Jersey.  It  is  not  a  great  deal  larger 
than  the  common  Frost  grape,  in  the  sLae  of  uie 
beny.  A  moderate,  but  regular  bearer,  ripens 
well,  and  much  esteemed  by  many  for  the  taUe. 

Bunches  pretty  laige,  loose,  and  shouldered. 
Berries,  small,  round.     Skin  thin,  black,  covered 
with  a  blue  bloom.    Flesh  entirely  without  pulp, 
melting,  sweet,  and  excellent.     The  leaves  are 
XMnglmrgh,    ^^p\j  5-lobed,  pretty  dark  green,  and  the  wood 
lather  slender,  with  lopg  joints. 


Raised  by  Peter  Raabe  near  Philadelphia,  not  proved  as  to 
hardiness.    Bunch  large,  not  very  compact,  occasionally  shoul- 


dered.  Berry  below  inediimi,  from  three  eighthft  to  ohe  half  «i 
inch  in  diameter,  round,  pale  red.  ^  Flesh  very  juicy,  with  little 
or  no  palp.  Flavour  saccharine  and  delicious,  quality  **  beet"  for 
an  out-door  grape.    (Ad  Int.  Bep.) 


RaiMd  by  Bdward  Garngues  Km^seeniig,  Ph&delphia.  A 
▼Igoroaa  gnmer,  h«fdy  and  productive,  ve^  much  resembles 
Isabella  and  no  doubt  a  seedKng  of  it  Bunch  large,  loose, 
shonldered.  Berries  larce,  oval,  dark  purple,  covert  vrith  a 
thi<^  bloom.  Flesh  wifi  little  toughness  in  its  pulp,  juicy, 
sweet,  and  rich — ^ripe  eight  or  ten  days  before  Isabella. 


An  accidental  seedling  introduced  by  Wm.  Graham,  of  Phi- 
ladelphia. Bunch  of  nMdium  size,  shouldered,  not  compact. 
Berry  half  an  inch  in  diameter,  round,  purple,  Sickly  covered 
with  a  blue  bloom,  contains  little  or  no  pulp,  and  aoounds  in 
saccharine  juice  of  agreeable  flavour,  quality  ^beet"  (Ad.  Int 

Habttord  Proufio. 

Raised  by  Mr.  Steel  of  Hartford,  Oonn.  Hardy,  vigorous,  and 
productive.  Bunch  laige,  shouldered,  rather  compact  Berry 
large,  riobular,  with  a  ffood  deal  of  the  native  perfume.  Sldn 
thiclk^  black,  covered  with  a  bloom.  Flesh  sweet,  moderately 
juicy  with  considerable  tou^ness  and  acidity  in  its  pulp ;  ripe 
about  ten  days  before  Isabella. 


Herbemont's  Uadein.    NealQrH»i 

Origin  claimed  for  many  localities,  but  not  yet  fully  ascertain- 
ed. This  is  the  most  rampant  grower  of  all  our  hardy  gn^es, 
and  under  favourable  circumstances  yields  a  fruit  of  surpassing 
excellence  with  which  the  nicest  detector  of  foxiness,  thickness  of 
skin,  toughness  or  acidity  of  pulp,  can  find  no  feult ;  north  of 
Philadelphia  it  needs  a  warm  eiqpoeure  or  favourable  season  for 
the  fall  development  of  all  its  excellences.  In  our  village  xmder 
the  care  of  a  lady,  it  has  not  fiuled  for  many  yeare  to  give  a 
most  abundant  crop  of  perfectly  ripened  fruit,  and  without  pro- 
tection has  not  suffered  at  all  from  winter  killing.  A  very  old 
vine  in  Baltimore,  which  had  never  before  failed  to  produce 
abundantly  since  its  first  bearing,  had,  last  winter  when  the  mer- 
cury fell  to  19**  below  aero,  all  its  young  wood  killed ;  but 
ordinarily  in  that  latitude  and  farther  south,  it  is  an  unfiul- 

840  THB   GRAPX. 

bkg  bearer,  and  particularly  fitted  for  those  southern  latitudes 
that  are  liable  to  injury  from  late  frosts  in  spring  and  early 
frosts  in  autumn,  as  it  flowers  very  late  and  ripens  its  fruit 
early.  Its  leaves  in  autumn  are  the  last  to  yield  to  frosty  re- 
maining perfectly  green  and  vigorous  after  all  others  have 
wither^  or  frJlen,  consequently  it  has  often  an  amount  of 
unripened  wood  which  should  be  cut  off  before  winter* 

Bunch  very  large  and  exceedingly  compaot^  shouldered.  Ber- 
ries below  medium,  rounds  dark  bluci  or  violeti  ooreied  with  a 
thick  light  bloom.  Skin  tiiin,  which  is  filled  with  a  sweet,  rich, 
vinous,  aromatic  juice,  of  so  little  consistence,  that  it  cannot  be 
called  flesh. 

Lenoir^  Long^  Devereaux^  and  Thurmond, — ^Under  the  above 
names,  ffrapes  much  resembling  in  character  the  Herbemont,  are 
grown  m  tne  Southern  states,  and  we  have  hitherto  considered 
Siem  synonymous  of  it ;  but  all  our  southern  friends  claim  that 
Lenoir  is  a  distinct  variety,  and  much  earlier  than  any  of  the 
others,  and  also  at  least  uiat  some  of  the  others  are  distinct 
The  matter  is  now  under  investigation,  and  we  must  wait  the 
result  before  deciding. 

Hudson.  \ 

Originated  in  the  garden  of  Mr.  Calldns,  Hudson,  N.  Y. 
Groww  similar  to  Isal^lla,  and  said  to  be  two  or  three  weeks 
earlier.  Bunch  and  bcny  much  the  same,  but  less  sprightly 
and  not  quite  so  rich. 

Htdb's  Suza. 

Bunch  medium,  compact,  often  with  a  small  shoulder.  Berry 
medium  size,  round,  black,  covered  with  a  thin,  light  bloom. 
Flesh  tolerably  juicy,  somewhat  buttery,  with  a  pleasant  vinoua 
flavour.    Ripe  a  few  days  before  Isabella. 

IsABXLLA.     Prin.  Ken.  Adlum. 

This  very  popular  grape,  a  native  of  South  Carolina,  waa 
brought  to  the  north  and  introduced  to  the  notice  of  cultivators 
about  tlie  year  1818,  by  Mrs.  Isabella  Gibbs,  the  wife  of  George 
Gibbs,  Esq.,  in  honour  of  whom  it  was  named.  Its  great  vigour, 
hardiness,  and  productiveness,  with  the  least  possible  care,  nave 
caused  it  to  be  most  widely  disseminated.  A  vine  growing 
here  has  borne  12  bushels  of  grapes  in  a  single  year.  It  is,  per- 
haps, a  little  more  hardy,  and  ripens  earlier  than  the  Catawba, 
which  renders  it  valuable  at  the  northern  part  of  this  state,  or 
the  colder  portion  of  New-England.  No  farmer's  garden,  how 
ever  small,  should  be  without  this  and  the  Catawba. 

Bunches  of  good  size — ^five  to  seven  inches  long,  rather 

THB   OBAPS.  34  J 

looee^   ahonldered.    Berries,    oval,  pretty  large.    Skin  tliick 

dark  pfupk,  becoming  at  last  nearly 

blacky  ooYered  with  a  bine  bloom. 

Fleflli  tendeiv  ^^  some  pulp,  which 

nearly  diaMlves  when  folly  mature ; 

joicy,  sweet  and  rich,  with  slight 

masky  amMDiu 

Hub  iptfp^  ifl  frequently  picked  aa 
soon  as  It  ia  well  edonred,  and  long 
before  it  is  ripe. 


Raised  by  Samnel  Miller,  Calmdale,  Lebanon  Co.,  Penn.  He 
says,  hardy,  vigorons  grower,  and  having  less  seeds  than  most 
native  grapes.  Ban(£  medimn,  rather  compact,  occasionally 
shonldexed.  Beny  round  inclining  to  oval,  black  with  a  blue 
bloom,  somewhat  the  flavour  of  Isabella,  rather  better  quality, 
and  ripe  eight  or  ten  days  earlier. 


Origin  unknown — a  Northern  variety ;  hardy  and  productive. 
Bunch  small,  rather  compact  Berry,  round,  medium  or  below, 
black,  covered  with  a  thick  bloom,  similar  in  flavour  to  Clinton, 
and  ripens  about  the  same  time. 

Mammoth  Catawba. 

Bunch  large,  not  compact  Berry  large,  round,  of  a  deeper 
red  and  larger  size  than  Catawba,  but  not  equal  to  it  in  flavour. 
—(Ad.  Int  Rep.) 


Origin  unknown.  Sent  to  Mr.  Longworth  from  Marion,  Ohio, 
and  by  him  disseminated.  It  much  resembles  the  Isabella  in 
shape  and  size  of  berry,  and  form  of  bunch,  but  more  uniform 
in  its  ripening  and  more  delicate  in  flavour,  ripening  about  tlie 
same  time.  Growth  healthy,  making  firm  and  short  jointed 
wood,  with  strong  red  tendrils ;  a  good  bearer. 

Bunches  large,  regular,  seldom  shouldered.  Berries  large, 
Tomid,  inclining  to  oval,  dark  purple  with  a  bloom,  juice  abun* 
dant,  pulp  thin,  not  suflScientty  tested  for  wine,  a  promising 
variety.    (A.  H.  Ernst,  Mo.) 

Missoori  Seedling. 
This  grape  we  received  from  Cincinnati,  where  it  is  con- 

342  THB   ORAPB. 

siderably  cultivated,  and  much  eBteeined  in  the  i^ineyarda, 
making  a  wine  much  resembling  Madeira.  It  was  received  there 
from  me  east,  nnder  this  name,  and  we  think,  may  veiy  proba- 
bly be  a  seedling  from  one  of  the  Pinean  or  Bnrgondy  grapes. 
It  is  not  very  prodactivei  and  makes  little  wood.  Hie  latter  is 
greyish,  spotted  with  dsA  brown  specks^  short  jointed,  bods  in 
clusters,  donble  and  triple.    Leaves  deeply  cat,  trOobed. 

Bunches  loose,  and  of  moderate  sise^  Berries  small,  ioond. 
Skin  thin,  almost  blac^  with  very  little  bloom,  flesh  tender, 
with  little  pulp,  sweet,  and  pleasant,  but  inferioar  to  the  Ohio 
for  the  table. 

Nortoh'b  ViBomiA*    Prin.  Ken. 

Norton's  Seedling: 

A  native  seedling,  produced  by  a  cross  between  tbe  Bland 
and  Miller's  Burgundy,  by  Dr.  N.  Norton,  of  Richmond,  Vir- 
ginia. It  is  a  most  productive  crape  in  garden  or  vineyaid, 
bearing  very  laive  crops  (especiaUy  at  the  south,  where  many 
kinds  rot,)  in  m  seasons.  It  has  been  confounded  by  some 
with  Ohio  grape,  from  which  it  is  quite  distinct^  more  pnlpy, 
and  less  agreeable  for  the  desserti  though,  probably,  a  mndi 
better  wine  grape. 

Bunches  long,  sometimes  eight  or  nine  inches,  occasionally 
shouldered,  somewhat  compact  Berries  small,  round.  Skin 
thin,  dark  purple.  Flesh  pulpy,  with  a  brisk,  rather  roiu^h  fla 
vour.  The  foliage  is  light  coloured,  shaped  like  the  Bsinburgh. 
Shoots  strong  aira  hardy. 


Raised  by  the  Shakers  at  New  Lebanon,  Columbia  Co.  N.  Y. 

Bunches  small,  short,  compact  Berry  large,  round,  choco- 
late or  brownish  red.  Skin  thick,  with  a  pungency  and  odour 
common  to  the  wild  fox  grape,  and  is  a  very  utile,  if  any,  im- 
provement on  it  The  lorries  fall  from  the  bunch  as  soon  as 
ripe,  which  is  about  two  weeks  before  Isabella. 


Segw  Box  Grape.       LoDgworth's  Ohia 

This  grape,  which  has  recently  attracted  a  good  deal  of  at- 
tention, haa  a  rather  singular  history.  The  cuttings,  from 
which  all  the  present  stock  has  originated,  were  left  in  a  segar 
box,  at  the  residence  of  N.  Longworth,  Esq.,  Cincinnati,  Ohio, 
during  his  absence  from  home,  oy  some  person  who  was  not 


known,  and  wlio  left  no  acooaat  of  them.    It  is  stSl  coDomonlj 
known  as  the  Segar  Box  in  that  yieinity. 

It  is  now  supposed  to  be  the  same  as  the  Jack  Grape  colti- 
▼ated  near  NateneZy  Mississippi,  and  was  so  called  fix>m  an  old 
Spaniard  of  the  name  of  Jaquesi  who  introduced  the  rine.  It 
is  most  likely  a  foreign  sort,  and,  except  in  a  few  localities,  a 
sandy  soil  and  a  mild  climate,  it  is  not  likely  to  succeed ;  it  will 
not  stand  our  winters  here. 

The  wood  is  strong,  long  jointed,  lighter  red  than  that  of  the 
Norton's  Virginia,  and  smooth,  with  peculiarly  pointed  buds. 
Leaves  large,  trilobed. 

Bunches  large  and  long,  from  six  to 

w\  ten  inidiee,  and  often  fifteen  inches  in 

^JY^^  length,  rather   loose,  tapering,  shoulder- 

^  ^^^^w-— -^     ^     Berries,    small,  round.    Skin  thin, 

^^.j[L  ^        \  purple,  with  a  blue  bloom.    Flesh  tender, 

f    ^^\  J  I  and  melting,  without  any  pulp,  brisk  and 

\^^    V,,.^,/      This  grape  is  a  good  bearer,  requires  to 
01^  be  well  pruned,  and  the  wood  laid-in  thin 

and  long. 

Raised  by  Peter  Baabe,  (thought  to  be  hardy.) 

Bunches  small,  compact,  rarely  shouldered.    Berry  below 

medium  size,  round,  dark  red,  thickly  covered  with  bloom. 

Flesh  very  juicy,  with  scarcely  any  pulp.    Flavour  saccharine, 

with  a  good  deal  of  the  Catawba  furoma.    Quality  ^best."  (Ad. 

Int.  Rep.) 


A  new  variety,    first  disseminated  last  season. 

Bunches  nearly  cylindric,  about  four  inches  long  by  two  and 
a  half  inches  in  diameter,  very  compact,  and  heavy,  often 
shouldered.  Berries  of  full,  medium  size,  oval,  and  generally 
much  compressed,  strongly  adhering  to  the  peduncle.  Colour 
light  green  in  the  shade,  auburn  or  golden  in  the  sun,  and 
covert  with  a  light  bloom,  considerably  translucent.  Flesh 
of  some  consistence,  juicy,  sweet,  and  delicious,  with  a  per* 
ceptible  native  perfbme,  but  very  agreeable.  It  has  no  tough- 
ness or  acidity  m  its  pulp^  and  ripens  eight  or  ten  days  ear- 
lier than  Isabella,  and  keeping  a  long  tune  after  it  is  ga- 

This  superior  hardy  white  grape  is  undoubtedly  a  native — a 
chance  seedling  in  the  garden  of  K'  M.  Peake,  of  Hudson,  N. 
Y^  where  it  has  been  growing  about  nine  years,  and  there 


Tm  eRAPB. 

pioTed  perfecll' 
iihabitf    '   ^ 

and  prodnctiTe.    It  is  not  so  vigorout  in 
and  Oatawbai  bat  liedthy,  and  not  diiq>OBed 


to  mildew,  and  being  exceedingly  beautiitil  as  well  as  cxcellenti 
it  must  be  regarded  as  a  very  great  acquisition. 

THB   GBAPB.  845 

BouppBBVoKG.    Prin.  Adlnm 

Fox  Grape, 

BuU  or  Bnllet,  -  -       ^ 

American  Muscadine,     •'       ^^ 


TilisYiilpkuL    LM. 

lotondifolia.    MidM, 

The  ScQjppeniong  grape  is  a  very  disfanct  Bonthern  specie^ 
fetmd  ffTowiDg  wild,  fi^m  Virginia  to  Florida,  and  climbing  the 
tops  of  the  tallest  trees.  It  is  easily  known  from  every  other 
grape  by  the  small  si2e  of  its  leaves,  which  are  seldom  over 
two  .or  wree  inches  in  diameter,  and  by  their  being^  glossy  and 
smooth  on  both  the  nnder  and  upper  surfaces.  These  leaves 
are  roundish  and  coarsely  serrated,  and  the  young  shoots  are 
slender;  the  old  wood  is  smooth,  and  not  shaggy,  like  tiiat  of 
most  vines.    This  species  is  dioecious. 

We  have  made  several  trials  with  the  Scuppemong  grape,  but 
find  it  quite  too  tender  for  a  northern  climate,  being  kiUed  to  the 
OTound  by  our  winters.  At  the  south  it  is  a  very  hardy,  pro- 
ductive, and  excellent  wine  grape.  The  White  and  Black  Scup- 
pemong  scarcdy  differ,  ezoept  in  the  colour  of  the  fruit  The 
tendrils  of  each  correspond  m  hue  with  the  fruit 

Bunches  smaU,  loose,  seldom  composed  of  more  than  six  ber- 
ries. Berries  round,  large.  Skin  thick,  light  green  in  the 
white,  dark  red  in  the  black  variety,  flesh  quite  pulpy,  except 
when  very  thoroughly  ripe,  juicy  and  sweet,  but  with  a  strong, 
musky  scent  and  Savour. 


Raised  by  Dr.  Spofford,  of  Lansingburgh,  N.  Y. 

This  fine  grape  has  been  but  little  disseminated  in  conse- 
quence of  the  general  supposition  that  it  was  very  much  like, 
if  not  identical  with,  the  Catawba,  from  which  it  is  entirely  dis- 
tinct in  wood,  foliage,  and  every  characteristic  of  the  fruit  It 
is  a  vigorous  grower,  foliage  very  large,  abundant,  and  much 
less  rough  than  Catawba  or  Isabella,  and  the  als9  of  the  leaves 
overlap  each  other  different  from  any  other  with  which  we  are 

Bunches  large  and  shouldered.  Berries  varying  in  form  from 
oval  to  oblate,  very  dark  in  colour  and  profusely  covered  with 
bloom.  Its  fruit,  when  ripe,  is  very  sweet,  buttery,  and  luscious, 
without  foxiness  in  its  aroma,  or  any  toughness  or  acidity  in  its 
pulp.  It  is  perfectly  hardy,  and  with  good  treatment  in  deep, 
rich,  pervious  soil,  it  is  an  earl^  aiul  abundant  bearer ;  with  in- 
different treatment  it  is  a  poor  bearer.  It  ripens  a  little  earlier 
than  Isabella.    Wyman  is  probably  the  same  as  this. 


846  the  mulbbbrt 

Union  Villagb. 
SObaker  Gri^M. 
This  rery  attractive  grape  originated  amooff  the  Shakers  at 
Union  Village,  Ohio,  and  was  introduced  by  Mr.  Lonffworth,  of 
Cincinnati.  It  is  undoubtedly  a  seedling  of  Isabella,  but  is 
much  more  vigorous  in  growth,  and  its  fruit  often  nearly  equals 
the  size  of  Black  Hamburgh.  It  ripens  about  the  time  of  Isa- 
bella, or  a  few  days  before. 

Miner's  Seedling. 

An  old  variety  said  to  be  cultivated  by  the  French  at  Fort 
Yenaogo,  on.  the  Alleghany  river,  some  eighty  years  sinoe.  A 
veiy  vigorous  grower,  and  hardy. 

Bunch  compact,  of  a  fine  lilac  colour,  with  the  toughness  of 
pulp  belonging  to  the  native  varieties,  but  with  a  peculiar  aro- 
matic flavour  which  makes  it  valuable  for  the  kitchen,  and  also 
for  flavouring  wine.  Ripens  two  weeks  earlier  than  Catawba. 
(R.  Buchanan,  MS.) 

Whitis  Catawba. 

A  seedling  from  the  Catawba,  raised  by  Mr.  Mottier,  of  Cin- 
cinnati.    Inferiour  to  its  parent ;  resembles  the  White  Fox. 

Bunches  medium  compact,  sometimes  small,  often  shouldered. 
Berries  large,  round,  creamy  white.  Pulp  hard,  sweetish,  de- 
ficient in  juice,  not  tested  for  wine,  and  but  little  cultivated. 
(R.  Buchanan,  MS.) 

York  Madeira. 

From  York  Co.,  Pa.  Excellent  when  fully  ripe  ;  extremely  prodoc- 
tlve,  hardy ;  canes  rather  slender,  short  jointed,  resembles  Miller's 
Burgnndy  in  sixe  of  berry,  shape,  and  compactness  of  bunch.  Excel- 
lent  when  fully  ripe ;  of  a  peculiar  flavour.     (W.  C.  Waring.) 

SeUetion  of  foreign  grapet  fur  a  cold  vinery.  Black  Hamburgh,  White 
Frontlgnan,  West's  St.  reters,  Chasselas  of  Fontainbleau,  Black  Prince, 
Zinflndal,  and  Griszly  Frontlgnan. 

BdeetMM  qf  naiwe  grapm.  Isabella,  Catawba,  Diana,  Delawan,  Be 
beoca,  To-JB^lon,  and  Concord. 



iforttf,  Toum.     UrUoaem^  of  botanists, 
of  the  French ;  McatCbeerhaum,  German ;  JMbrv,  Italian ;  Mordy 

Thk  Mulberry  is  a  hardy,  deciduous  fruit  tree,  but  little  cul- 
tivated in  this  country,  though  it  is  really  a  very  considerable 
acquisition  to  our  list  of  summer  fruits,  and  every  garden  of 


considorable  siae,  ought  to  contain  one  or  two  trees.  The  fruit 
ripens  in  July,  very  soon  after  the  season  of  cheiries.  It  is 
rarely  picked  from  the  trees,  as  it  &Us  as  soon  as  ripei  and  it  is 
therefore  the  costom  to  keep  the  sarfiuse  below  it  in  short  tar( 
and  the  fruit  is  picked  from  the  clean  grass.  Or,  if  the  sor&ce 
is  dug  gfouttd,  it  may  be  sown  thickly  with  cress  seed,  six  weeks 
previoiuly  to  the  ripening  of  the  fruity  whioh  will  form  a  tem- 
porary caqpet  of  son  Teronire. 

The  Rbd  Mulbbrrt  (Iforus  rubra^  L.^  is  a  native  speciesi 
more  or  less  common  in  our  woods,  witn  lai^  rough,  heart- 
shi^ed  or  lobed  leaves.  The  fruit  is  about  an  inch  long,  and 
very  pleasant  and  palatable — though  much  inferiour  to  the 
Bhusk  Enfflish.  It  beus  transplimting  well,  or  is  easily  raised 
fixxn  see(]^  and  may,  nndoabtedly,  be  greatly  improved  by  re- 
peated reproduction  in  this  way.  As  it  forms  a  large  oinap 
mental  tree  with  a  fine  spreading  head  forty  feet  high,  it  is  well 
deserving  a  place  on  the  lawn,  or  near  the  house,  in  ornamental 

Joknmm^  a  SndUng  from  Ohio»  Fruit  very  large,  oblonff, 
cylindric;  blackish  colour,  sub-acid,  and  of  mild,  agreeable 
flavour.  Growth  of  the  wood  strong  and  irregular.  Leaves 
uncommonly  large. 

The  Black  MutmERBT,  or  English  Mulberry,  {Monu  nigra^ 
L.)  is  a  very  celebrated  old  fruit  tree,  origiually  from  Asia,  more 
or  less  commonly  cultivated  in  all  parts  of  Europe,  but  yet 
quite  rare  in  this  country.  Its  growth  is  slow,  and  it  seldom 
attains  a  height  of  more  than  twelve  or  fifteen  feet,  forming  a 
low,  blanching  tree,  with  lobed  leaves,  but  it  is  very  long  lived, 
and  there  is  a  specimen  in  England,  at  the  seat  of  the  Ihike  of 
Northomberland,  300  years  old.  In  this  country  it  is  scarcely 
hardy  enough  north  of  New  York,  except  in  sheltered  situations, 
An  occasional  eztrrane  cold  winter  kills  them ;  they  are  also 
subject  to  canker  and  die  off. 

The  fruit  is  incomparably  larger  and  finer  than  that  of  the 
Bed  Mulberry,  being  an  inch  and  a  half  long,  and  nearly  an 
inch  across — ^black,  and  of  delicious  flavour. 

There  are  many  varieties  of  the  White  Mulberry,  commonly 
cultivated  for  silk,  but  which  produce  fruit  of  no  value. 

The  best  soil  for  the  Mulberry,  is  a  rich,  deep,  sandy  loam* 
The  tree  requires  little  or  no  pruning,  and  is  of  very  easy  cul- 
ture. It  is  usually  propagated  by  cuttings,  three  feet  long^ 
planted  in  the  spring,  half  their  depth  in  the  ground ;  cuttings 
made  of  pieces  of  the  roots  will  also  send  up  shoots  and  become 

Everheamkg.  Originated  here  from  seed  of  the  Mnlticanlia. 
Tree  very  vigorous  imd  very  productive,  an  estimable  variety, 
and  surpaased  by  none  except  Uie  Black  English,  and  posscflscs 
Uie  same  rich  subacid  flavour.  It  continues  in  bearing  a  Kong  time. 

348  NUTS. 

Fniit  cylindric,  one  and  a  qoarter  of  an  inch  long,  anc  ncarlj 
half  an  inch  in  diameter.  Color  maroon,  or  an  intense  blue 
black  at  full  maturity.  Flesh  juicy,  rich,  sugary,  with  a  qprightly 
▼inoofl  flayour. 



Thb  Eubopbak  Walnut,  {Julians  rtgia^  L. ;  Ncyer  of  the 
French ;  WalnauMoMm^  German ;  NocU^  Italian ;  and  Nogal^ 
Spanish ;)  better  known  here  as  the  Madeira  Nut^iA  a  fine  lof- 
ty growing  tree,  with  a  handsome  spreading  head,  and  bearing 
crops  of  laige  and  excellent  nuts,  enclosed  like  those  of  our  nattve 
black  walnut  in  a  simple  husk.  It  stands  the  winter  very  well 
here,  and  to  the  south  of  this  it  would  undoubtedly  be  a  profit- 
able fruit  to  plant  for  the  market.  The  fruit  in  a  green  state 
is  very  highly  esteemed  for  pickling,  and  the  great  quantities 
of  the  ripe  nuta  annually  imported  and  sold  here,  prove  the  es- 
timation in  which  they  are  held  for  the  table.  There  are  seve- 
ral varieties  reputed  to  be  of  rather  finer  quality,  which,  how- 
ever, have  not  displacod  tlie  original  species,  even  in  the  gar- 
dens of  Europe,  and  have  not  yet  borne  fruit  here. 

This  tree  is  usually  propagated  by  the  seed,  and  transplant- 
ed from  the  nurseries  when  from  three  to  six  ibet  high,  feut  it 
may  also  be  grafted,  with  due  care,  on  the  common  hickory 

The  Hickory  Nut  (Carya  fdba^  or  shell-bark,  the  Black 
Walnut  {Juglans  nigra^  and  the  Butternut^  (/.  dncrea^  are 
native  nut-bearing  trees,  common  in  our  forests,  and  too  well 
known  to  need  description  here.  There  are  occasionally  found 
in  the  woods,  accidental  varieties  of  the  shdl-bark  hickory^  of 
much  larger  size  and  finer  flavour  than  the  common  species, 
which  are  highly  worthy  of  cultivation,  as  we  confess,  to  our 
own  taste,  this  nut  is  much  superiour  to  the  European  walnut. 
There  is  indeed  no  doubt,  that  with  a  little  care  in  reproduction 
by  seed,  the  shell-bark  may  be  trebled  in  size,  and  greatly  im- 
proved in  flavour. 

The  Filbert,  (Noisette^  of  the  French;  Nasshaum^  German; 
Avellano^  Spanish ;  is  an  improved  variety  of  the  common  ha* 
zel-nut  of  the  woods  of  Europe,  {Corylua  avelUmOy  L.)  The 
fruit  is  three  or  four  times  as  large  as  that  of  our  common  ha- 
zel-nut, and  from  its  size  and  excellent  flavour  is  admired  for 
the  dessert    The  old  Spanish  filbert  conmion  in  many  of  our 

RinB.  349 

ffardena^  is  a  worthleu,  nearly  barren  variety,  bat  we  hf.?e 
»>iind  the  better  Sn^ah  sorts  productive  and  excellent  in  this 
climate,  and  at  least  a  few  plants  of  them  should  have  a  place 
in  all  our  gardens.  Thej  are  generallj  raised  from  layers,  made 
in  the  spring,  but  they  may  also  be  grafted  readily  on  the  com* 
mon  hiuel-nnt)  or  the  Spanish  nut  When  planted  out  they 
should  not  be  permitted  to  sacker,  and  should  be  kept  in  the 
form  of  bashes  with  low  heads^  branching  out  about  two  feet 
ircHn  the  ground,  and  they  should  be  annually  pruned  some- 
what like  the  gooseberry,  so  as  to  preserve  a  rather  thin,  open 
head — shortening  back  the  extremities  of  the  young  shoots  one 
hal(  every  spring. 

The  following  are  the  best  filberts  known. 

1.  OosFORD.  (Thomp.  P.  Mae.)  Nut  large,  oblong ;  husk 
hairy ;  shell  remaikably  thin,  and  kernel  of  excellent  flavour. 
A  good  bearer. 

2.  Fruxlxd.  (Thomp.  P.  Mag.)  Easily  known  by  its  hand- 
some, deefdy  cut  husk.  Nut  of  medium  siae,  oval,  c^Mnpressed ; 
husk  hairy ;  shell  thick ;  kernel  sweet  and  good. 

3.  NoBTHiJfFTONSHiiuB  Prolivio.  (Thomp.)  Ripens  eariy. 
Not  of  medium  size,  oblong,  husk  hairy ;  shell  tnick. 

4.  Rbb  Filbmbt.  Easily  known  from  other  sorts, ,  by  the 
crimson  skin  of  the  kernel.  Fruit  of  medium  sise,  ovate. 
Shell  thick.    Kernel  with  a  peculiar,  excellent  flavour. 

6.  Whitk  Filbxbt.  (Thomp.  Lind.)  Resembles  the  last, 
but  with  a  light  yellow  or  white  skin.  The  tree  is  also  quite 
bushy.    Nuts  ovate.    Husk  lonff  and  tubular. 

The  English  generally  call  those  varieties  with  long  husks, 
JUberts^  {fuU-beards^  and  those  with  short  husks,  simply  nuts. 

The  Ohsothut,  (Oattanea  veseoy  W;  Ckatagnier,  of  the 
French ;  CcLttainenbauMj  German ;  OautastnOj  Italian ;)  is  one  of 
our  loftiest  forest  trees,  common  in  most  parts  of  the  United 
States  and  Europe,  and  bearing  excellent  nuts.  The  foreign 
variety  best  known  in  this  country,  is  the  Spanish  Chestnut, 
with  fruit  nearly  as  lai^  as  that  of  the  Horse-Ohestnut,  and 
which  is  excellent  when  boiled  or  roasted.  It  thrives  very  well 
here,  but  is  not  quite  hardy  to  the  north  or  east  of  this.  One 
or  two  English  varieties  have  been  produced,  of  considerable 
excellence,  among  which,  the  Downton  is  considered  the  best 
The  French  cultivate  a  dozen  or  more  varieties  of  greater  or 
less  excellence,  but  though  some  of  Ihem  have  been  introduced, 
we  have  not  yet  fairly  tested  them  in  this  country. 

The  Chinquapin,  or  Dwarf  Chestnut^  common  in  some  parts 
of  the  middle  and  southern  states,  is  a  dwarf  species  of  the 
chestnut,  usually  growing  not  more  than  six  to  ten  feet  high, 
and  bearing  fruit  of  half  the  size  of  the  common  chestnut,  with 
the  same  flavour.  It  is  worth  a  place  in  a  small  fruit  garden, 
as  a  curiosity. 

350  THB   PLUM. 

All  the  chestnuto  «e  vety  eaailj  esltivated  in  any  good,  ligkt 
aoil,  and  may  be  pcopag^ied  by  grafting,  and  by  aowing  (ha 


TSn   PLtTM. 

iVmmtdommttMfL.    Jfawcaa^  of  bcitnihiH. 
lSmim\  of  the  Frendh;  jyiamnmbami,  Cknnaa;  iViyntf^  italte;  O^ 
raeio^  Spaniah. 

TftB  ordinal  parent  of  most  of  the  cnltiTated  phnns  of  our 
j^ardens  is  a  native  of  Asia  aod^e  southern  parts  &t  Bnope,  but 
it  has  beoome  nataraKjsed  in  this  oonntry,  and  in  many  parts  of 
it  is  prodnced  in  the  greatest  abandance.*  lliat  the  soil  and 
climate  (^  the  middle  states  are  admirably  suited  to  this  fniit  is 
sniBciently  proved  by  the  almost  spontaneoos  production  of  sach 
varieties  as  the  Washington,  Jefferson,  Lawrence's  Favourite,  etc. ; 
sorts  which  eqoal  or  surpass  in  beauty  or  flavour  the  most  cde- 
brated  plums  of  France  or  England. 

UsBS.  The  finer  kinds  of  j^ams  are  beautiftil  dessert  fruits^  of 
rich  and  luscious  flavour.    They  are  not^  perhi^  so  entirely 

*  Tliere  tre  iimie  species  of  wSM  plum  indifpanoas  to  tbSs  ooiintiy--of 
tolerable  flavouTi  but  seldom  oultivatod  in  oar  gardeaa.  Xhagr  are  the  fol* 

L  The  CmcKASAW  Pluk.  {Phinus  Chicaaa,  Michaur.)  Fruit  about 
three  fourths  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  round,  and  red  or  yellowish  red,  of  a 
pleasant,  sub-acid  flavour,  ripens  pretty  early.  Skin  thin.  The  branches 
are  thorny,  the  head  ralher  bushy,  with  narrow  lanoeolate,  serrulate  leaTea, 
looking  at  a  little  distance  somewhat  like  those  of  a  peach  tree.  It  usually 
grows  about  12  or  14  feet  high,  but  on  the  Prairies  of  Arkansas  it  is  only 
8  or  4  feet  high,  and  in  this  form  it  is  also  common  in  Texas.  The  I)  wart 
Texas  Plum  described  by  Kenrick  is  only  this  species.  It  is  quite  omttr 

IL  WbiD  Rid  or  Yellow  Putic(P.  anwrioana,  ICarahalL)  Fruit 
roundish,  oval,  skin  thick,  reddish  orazige,  with  a  juicv,  yellow,  sub-add 
pulp.  The  leaves  are  ovate,  ooarsely  serrate,  and  the  old  branches  rough 
and  somewhat  thorny.  Grows  in  hedges,  and  by  the  banks  of  streams^ 
from  Canada  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexioo.  Tree  fh>m  10  to  16  feet  high.  Fruit 
ripens  in  July  and  August 

III.  The  Bbaah  Plux,  or  Sand  Plum.  (P.  mariima,  Wang.)  A  low 
shrub,  with  stout  straggling  branches,  found  mostly  on  the  sandy  sea-coast^ 
from  Massachusetts  to  Virginia,  and  seldom  ripening  well  elsewhere. 
Fruit  roundish,  scarcely  an  inch  in  diameter,  red  or  purple,  covered  with 
a  bloom ;  pleasant,  but  somewhat  astringent     Leaves  oval,  finely  serrata 

TfiX   PLUM.  S51 

wkokflome  as  the  petch  or  tlie  pMr,  m»  from  their  aomewhet 
doying  aad  fleliilent  uitare,  nnleaB  whea  very  perfectly  ripe, 
th^  are  more  likely  to  diaagiee  with  weak  atomachai 

For  the  kitohen  the  plum  is  alao  very  hig^y  eateemed,  being 
priaed  for  tart^  pies,  aweetmeata,  etc  In  the  aosth  ef  France 
an  exeeUent  qunt  is  made  from  thie  fruit  femenled  withhon^. 
In  the  weatem  part  of  thia  ataite  where  they  are  very  ebmdant^ 
they  axe  haired,  atoned,  and  dried  in  the  ann  or  ovena,  in  large 
qoantitiea,  and  axe  then  eioelleni  fer  winter  nae.  For  eatii^, 
the  {^nm  ahouki  be  allowed  to  hang  on  the  tree  till  perfectly 
ripe,  and  the  fruit  will  always  be  finer  in  proportion  aa  the  tree 
haa  a  mere  aonny  ezpoanre.  The  siae  and  quality  of  the  fruit 
ia  always  greatly  improved  by  thinning  the  fruit  when  it  is  half 
ffTown.  £ideed  to  prevent  rotting  and  to  have  thia  fruit  in  ita 
hif^eat  perfeo|ion,  no  two  plnma  ahonld  be  aUowed  to  toudi 
eaih  other  while  growing,  and  those  who  are  wilting  to  take 
thia  paina,  «ie  ampl^  r^aid  by  the  superior  quality  of  the  fruit 

One  of  the  most  unportaat  ferma  of  the  plum  in  commeroe  is 
that  of  jMtMM^  aa  they  are  exported  from  ranee  to  every  part 
of  the  world.  We  quote  the  foUowing  interesting  aceomt  of 
the  best  mode  of  preparing  prunes  from  ^e  A^areium  Bri- 

llie  best  pvwMB  are  made  near  Tours,  of  the  St  Catherine 
{dum  and  the  prune  d'Agen;  and  the  beat  French  plumt  (so- 
called  in  England,)  Are  made  in  Provence,  of  the  Perdrigon 
blanc,  the  Bngnoie,  and  the  prune  d'Ast ;  the  Provence  plums 
beins  most  fle^y,  ami  having  alwm  most  bloom.  Both  kinds 
are,  however,  made  of  these  and  other  kinds  of  pluma,  in  varioua 
paits  of  France.  The  plums  are  gathered  when  just  ripe 
enough  to  fell  from  the  trees  on  their  being  sli§^tly  shaken. 
They  are  then  kid,  separately,  on  frames,  or  sieves,  made  of 
wicker-work  or  laths,  and  exposed  for  several  days  to  the  sun, 
till  they  become  aa  soft  as  ripe  medlars.  When  this  is  the  case, 
they  are  put  into  a  spent  oven,  diiut  quite  close,  and  left  there 
for  twenty-four  hours ;  they  are  then  taken  out,  and  the  oven 
being  shghtly  reheated,  they  are  put  in  again  when  it  is  rather 
wanner  than  it  was  before,  The  next  day  they  are  again  taken 
out,  and  turned  by  slightly  shaking  the  sieves.  The  oven  is 
heated  agaiv,  and  they  are  put  in  a  third  time,  when  the  oven 
is  one-fourth  degree  hotter  than  it  waa  the  seccmd  time.  After 
remaining  twenty-four  hours,  they  are  taken  out,  and  kft  to  get 
quite  eold.  They  are  then  rounded,  an  operation  which  is  per- 
formed by  turning  the  stone  in  tjie  plum  without  breaking  the 
skin,  and  pressing  the  two  ends  together  between  the  thumb 
and  finger.  They  are  then  again  put  upon  the  sievea,  which 
are  pla^  in  an  oven,  frcon  which  the  bread  has  been  just 
drawn.  The  door  of  the  oven  is  closed,  and  the  crevices  are 
stopped  round  it  with  clay  or  dry  grass.    An  hour  afterwards, 


the  plamB  are  taken  oat^  and  the  oven  is  again  sfani  with  a  cop 
of  water  in  it^  for  abont  two  houTB.  When  the  water  is  so  warm 
as  just  to  be  able  to  bear  the  finger  in  it,  the  pranes  are  i^n 
placed  in  the  oven,  and  left  there  for  twenty-foor  hoorsy  inien 
the  operation  is  finished,  and  they  are  pat  loosely  into  small, 
lonff,  and  ratlier  deep  boxes,  for  sale.  The  ccmnnon  sorts  are 
^Kfcheied  by  shaking  the  trees;  but  the  finer  kinds,  fcft  making 
French  plnms,  mnst  be  gathered  in  the  morning,  before  tiie 
rising  of  the  snn,  by  takingholdof  the  stalk,  between  the  tiramb 
and  finser,  without  teaching  the  froit,  and  laid  gently  on  a  bed 
of  vine-toaves  in  a  basket  When  the  baskets  are  filled,  without 
the  plnms  touching  each  other,  they  are  removed  to  the  froit 
room,  where  they  are  left  for  two  or  three  days  exposed  to  the 
snn  and  air;  after  which  the  same  process  is  employed  for  the 
others ;  and  in  this  way  the  delicate  bloom  is  retained  on  the 
fruit,  even  when  qnite  dry. 

Propagation  and  oultuhx.  The  phmi  is  nsnally  propagated 
in  this  country  by  sowing  the  seeds  of  any  common  free  grow- 
ing variety,  (avoiding  the  damsons  which  are  not  readily  work* 
ed,)  and  budding  them  when  two  yean  old,  with  the  finer  sorts. 
The  stones  should  be  planted  as  soon  as  gathered,  in  broad 
drills,  (as  in  planting  peas,)  but  about  an  inch  and  a  half  deep. 
In  good  soil  the  seedings  will  reach  eighteen  inches  or  two  feet 
in  height,  the  next  season,  and  in  the  autumn  or  the  ensuing 
spring,  they  may  be  taken  from  the  seed  beds,  their  ti^  roots 
reduced,  and  all  that  are  of  suitable  sice^  planted  at  once  in  the 
nursery  rows,  the  smaller  ones  being  thickly  bedded  until  after 
another  season's  growth. 

The  stocks  planted  out  in  the  nursery  will,  ordinarily,  be  readv 
for  working  about  the  ensuing  midsummer,  and,  as  the  plum  » 
quite  difficult  to  bud  in  this  dry  climate,  if  the  exact  season  is 
not  chosen,  the  budder  must  watoh  the  condition  of  the  trees, 
and  insert  his  buds  as  early  as  they  are  sufficiently  firm, — say, 
in  thi^  neighbourhood,  abont  the  10th  of  July.  Insert  the  buds, 
if  possible,  on  the  north  side  of  the  stock,  that  being  more  pro- 
tected from  the  sun,  and  tie  the  bandage  rather  more  tightly 
than  for  other  trees. 

The  English  propagate  very  largely  by  layers  three  varietiea 
of  the  common  plum — ^the  Muscle,  the  JSru$9eis  and  the  Pear 
Plum,  which  are  almost  exclusively  employed  for  stocks  with 
them.  But  we  have  not  found  these  stocks  superiour  to  the 
seedlinffs  raised  from  our  common  plums,  (the  Blue  Gage,  Horse- 
plum,  &c^)  to  abundant  in  all  our  gardens.  For  dwufing,  the 
6eedlingsS>f  the  Mirabelle  are  chiefly  employed. 

Open  standard  culture,  is  the  universal  mode  in  America,  as 
the  plum  is  one  of  the  hardiest  of  fruit  trees.  It  requires  little 
or  no  pruning,  beyond  that  of  thinning  out  a  crowded  head,  or 
laking  away  decayed  or  broken  branches^  and  this  should  be 

THX  PLUM*  363 

done  before  mid-aimimer,  to  j^eTeiit  the  flow  of  gum.  Old  trees 
thttt  have  become  barren,  may  be  renorated  by  beading  them 
in  pretty  severely,  covering-the  wounds  with  our  solution  of 
gum  shellac,  and  givin^^  them  a  good  top  dreesii^  at  the  rools. 

SoUs.  The  plum  wm  grow  vigorously  in  almost  every  part 
of  this  country,  but  it  only  bears  its  finest  and  most  abundant 
crops  in  heavy  lo^nsi  or  in  soils  in  which  thereisaoonsidezaUe 
mixture  of  day.  In  sandy  soils,  the  tree  blossoms  and  sets 
plentiful  crops,  but  they  are  rarely  perfected,  Ming  a  prey  to 
the  curcnlio,  an  insect  thatharbouns  m  the  soU,  and  seems  to  find 
it  diificult  to  penetrate  or  live  in  one  of  a  heavv  texture,  while 
a  warm,  light,  sandy  soil,  is  exceedingly  favooraUe  to  its  propsca- 
tion.  It  is  also  undoubtedly  true,  tnat  a  heavy  soil  is  natunuly 
the  most  favourable  one.  The  surprising  &cility  with  which 
superior  new  varieties  are  raised  merely  by  (Hrdinary  reproduo- 
tion  from  seed,  in  certain  parts  of  the  valley  ol  the  Hudson,  as 
at  Hudson,  or  near  Albany,  where  the  soil  is  quite  clayey,  and 
also  the  delicious  flavour  and  ^reat  productiveness  and  health  of 
the  plum  tree  there  almost  without  any  care,  while  in  adjacent 
districts  of  rich  sandy  land  it  is  a  very  uncertain  bearer,  are  vei^ 
conyincing  proo&  of  the  great  importance  of  clayey  soil  for  this 

Where  the  whole  soil  of  a  place  is  light  and  sandy,  we  would 
recommend  the  employment  of  pure  y^ow  loam  or  yellow  clay, 
in  the  place  of  manure,  when  preparing  the  border  or  spaces  for 
planting  the  plum.  Very  heavy  clay,l>umed  slowly  by  mixing 
it  in  large  heaps  with  brush  or  fiiggotei  is  at  once  an  admirable 
manure  and  alterative  for  such  soils.  Swamp  muck  is  also 
one  of  the  best  substances^  and  especially  that  irom  salt  water 

Common  salt  we  have  found  one  of  the  best  fertilizers  for  the 
plum  tree.  It  not  only  greatly  promotes  its  health  and  luxuri- 
ance, but  from  the  dislike  which  most  insects  have  to  this  sub* 
i(lance»  it  drives  away  or  destroys  most  of  those  to  which  the 

Cn  is  liaUe.  The  most  successful  plum  grower  in  our  neigh- 
rhood,  i^[>plies,  with  the  best  resultsi  halt  a  peck  of  coarse  salt 
to  the  sur&ce  of  the  ground  under  each  beanng  tree,  annually, 
about  the  &at  of  AprO. 

Imsbots  and  dissasss.  There  are  but  two  drawbacks  to  the 
cultivation  of  the  plum  in  the  United  States,  but  they  are  in 
some  districts  so  great  as  aknost  to  destroy  the  value  (^  this  tree. 
These  are  the  curculio^  and  the  knots. 

The  curcnlio,  or  plum-weevil,  {RhynchcBnus  J^enuphar^)  is 
the  uncompromising  foe  of  all  smooth  stone  fruitB.  The  culti* 
vator  of  tne  Plum,  the  Nectarine,  and  the  Apricot,  in  numy 
parts  of  the  country,  after  a  flattering  profusion  of  snowy  blos^ 
soms  and  an  abundant  promise  in  the  tliickly  set  young  crops 
of  fruit,  has  the  frequent  mortification  of  seeing  nearly  all,  or 

554  THE   PLUM. 

indeed,  often  the  whole  crop,  M  from  the  trees  when  half  or 
two-thirds  grown 

If  he  examines  these  fidHng  fruits,  he  will  pereeire  on  the 
snrfiMe  of  eadb,  not  fat  from  the  stalk,  a  smitfl  semi-circalar 
scar.  This  star  is  the  crescent-shaped  insignia  of  that  little 
Turk,  the  cnreolio ;  an  insect  so  small,  as  peihaps,  to  have  es- 
caped his  observation  lor  jeans  unless  particularly  drawn  to  it, 
but  which  nevertheless  appropriates  to  himself  the  whole  pro- 
duct of  a  tree,  or  an  orchard  of  a  thousand  trees. 

The  habits  of  this  curcnlio,  or  plum-weevil,  are  not  jret  fully 
and  entirely  ascertained.  But  careful  observation  has  resuhed 
in  establishing  the  following  points  in  its  history. 

The  pram-weevil  is  a  small,  daik  brown 
beetle,  with  spots  of  white,  yellow,  and  black. 
Its  lenffth  is  scarcely  on^itfui  of  an  inch.  On 
its  back  are  two  black  humps,  and  it  is  furnish- 
ed with  a  pretty  long,  curbed  throat  and  snout, 
which,  when  it  is  at  rest,  ip  bent  between  Iho 
forelegs.  It  is  also  provided  with  two  wings 
with  which  it  flies  through  the  air.  How  mr 
this  insect  flies  is  yet  a  disputed  point,  some 
cultivators  affirming  that  it  soMtsely  goes  &r- 
ther  than  a  single  tree,  and  others  bdieving 

S^^S*  **^**  ^*  ^^  ^^^^  *  ^**^*®  neighbourhood.  Our 
own  observation  inclines  us  to  tha  belief  Ihat 
this  insect  emigrates  just  iu  proportion  as  it  finds  in  more  or  less 
abundance  the  tender  fruit  fpr  depositing  its  eggs.  Yeiy  rarely 
do  we  see  more  than  one  puncture  in  a  plum,  and,  if  the  insects 
are  abundant,  the  trees  of  a  single  spot  will  not  afford  a  suffi- 
cient number  for  the  purpose ;  then  there  is  little  doub^  (as  we 
have  seen  them  flying  through  the  air,)  that  the  insect  flies  flu: 
ther  in  search  of  a  larger  supply.  But  usually,  we  think  it 
remains  nearly  in  the  same  neighbourhood,  or  m^rates  but 

About  a  week  or  two  after  the  blossoms  have  fallen  from  the 
trees,  if  we  examine  the  fruit  of  the  plum  in  a  district  where  this 
insect  abounds,  we  shall  find  the  small,  newly  formed  fhiit, 
beginning  to  be  punctured  by  the  proboscis  of  the  plum-weevil. 
The  insect  is  so  small  and  shy,  that  unleas  we  watch  closely  it 
is  very  likely  to  escape  our  notice  But  if  we  strike  or  shake 
the  tree  suddenly,  it  will  M  in  considerable  numbers  on  the 
ground,  drawn  up  as  if  dead,  and  resembling  a  small  raisin,  or, 
perhaps  more  nearly,  a  ripe  hemp  seed.  From  the  first  of  April 
until  August,  this  insect  may  be  found,  though  we  think  its  de- 
predations on  fruit,  and  indeed  its  appearance  in  any  qoanti^, 
is  confined  to  the  months  of  May  and  June  in  this  climate.  In 
places  where  it  is  very  abundant,  it  also  attacks  to  seme  extent 
the  cherry,  the  peach,  and  even  ^e  apple. 

TBI  PLUM.  355 

Bttij  in  Jnlj  the  panctiired  plimn  begin  to  M  npi<Oy  from 
the  tree.  Tlie  egg  deposited  in  each,  at  fint  inyiaiMe,  £aa  be- 
come a  white  mib  or  laira,  which  slowlj  eaU  its  way  towards 
tiie  itoiie  or  mt.  As  soon  as  it  reaches  tiiis  point,  thefroitMs 
to  the  gromid.  Here,  if  left  nndistorbed,  the  grab  soon  finds 
its  way  into  Ike  soil 

There,  according  to  most  ctdtivators  of  frnit,  and  to  our  own 
obsenratiens,  the  grabs  or  larm  remain  till  the  ensuing  spring, 
when  in  their  perfect  ibrm  they  aga